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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by 

J. T. Champlin, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Maine. 




The unrivalled reputation of KiJhner as a grammarian in both 
the Greek and Latin languages, renders it unnecessary that any 
apology should be made for presenting to the American public the 
following translation of his Elementary Latin Grammar. His mer- 
its, before Known to a few of our riper scholars, have lately been 
made familiar to all through the excellent translation of his Greek 
School Grammar by Messrs. Edwards and Taylor. It is understood 
also, that the same gentlemen have in preparation his Elementary 
Greek Grammar. 

It seemed but proper, therefore, that a beginning should be made 
towards bringing before the public some of the results of his gram- 
matical labors (equally profound and ingenious) in the Latin lan- 
guage. And no one, it is to be presumed, who duly considers the 
state of Latin learning among us, will deem it improper that a begin- 
ning has been made with an elementary treatise. The publication, 
within a few years past, of a translation of Krebs' Guide for Writ- 
ing Latin and a new and enlarged edition of Beck's Latin Syntax, 
has done much towards supplying American students with the gram- 
matical helps for studying the language critically. But with the ex- 
ception of the Ciceronian by Dr. Sears, which, admirably adapted 
as it is to its purpose, is not designed to supply the place of a gram- 
mar, nothing of importance has been pubhshed during this period to 
supply the deficiencies for elementary instruction. 

There is needed then, more especially, an elementary work on 
Latin Grammar, which shall give a right start to our scholars and 
put them in possession of the essential principles of the language in 
the shortest and most effectual way. Such a grammar, it is believ- 
ed, the present will be found to be. No one can take a class over 
it, without being impressed with its admirable order, precision and 
adaptedness to the purposes of elementary instruction. The pupil 


will here find the most happy arrangement of parts., each preparing 
the way for the following, the simplest and most philosophical state- 
ment of principles, and every expedient resorted to, which genius 
and skill could invent, to aid the understanding and the memory. 
While it does not profess to embrace every minute principle of the 
language, it preseijf s a selection of principles so judiciously made, so 
comprehensively stated and so extended withal, that it is believed, 
that it will be found to contain quite as many principles, applicable 
in reading the strictly classical writers of Latin, as many much more 
extended grammars ; certainly enough to meet the demands of ordi- 
nary students in the usual course of preparation for college. 

The plan of the work, as given by the author, is briefly as follows. 
Every grammatical form or principle of syntax, as soon as learned, 
is to be rendered practical and fixed in the mind, by translations 
first from the Latin into the English, and then from the English into 
the Latin. To prepare the pupil for these exercises in transla- 
tion, such forms of the verb as are requisite for constructing the sim- 
plest sentences are given at the outset, and a few simple rules of syn- 
tax as they are required, while on almost every page, lists of Latin 
words with their definitions are given to be committed to memory, 
most of which, also, are collected and arranged in alphabetical Vo- 
cabularies at the end of the book. As many of the examples for 
translation as possible, were selected unaltered from the classics, oth- 
ers were slightly altered to suit the cases for which they were em- 
ployed, and the remainder composed by the author, yet always so as 
to embody classical ideas and turns of thought. The examples in 
English may be translated into Latin, either viva voce or by writing, 
at the discretion of the teacher. 

The translation here presented is from the second edition of the 
original work, published in 1844. Previously to receiving this edi- 
tion, the translator had completed, within a few pages, the entire trans- 
lation of the first ; but on comparing the two editions, the alterations 
were found to be so great as to make the last almost a new work. 
He abandoned, therefore, his first translation, and commenced with 
the second edition de novo. Although this has delayed the publica- 
tion of the work a few months, no one, it is presumed, will regret it, 
when he reflects, that he is thereby put in possession of a vastly bet- 
ter book, and probably of a somewhat better translation. During 
the interval between the publication of the first and second editions, 


the author had prepared a larger Latin Grammar and been daily em- 
ployed in teaching his elementary work, all which prepared him for 
making very important changes in a second edition. By this pro- 
cess, the book has been brought to the high state of perfection in 
which it here appears. Besides its general office as a grammar, it 
is designed to contain all that the pupil will need during the first 
year or more of his study of the language, serving as grammar, read- 
ing-book and lexicon. The adaptedness of such a book to the wants 
of beginners, the experienced teacher will not fail to perceive. 

It should be stated, however, that while the translation has 
been made from the second edition throughout, the translator has ta- 
ken the hberty to introduce a few remarks and paragraphs (in one 
or two instances with slight modifications) from the first edition, 
which had been omitted in the second, apparently, because they were 
considered more appropriate to the author's larger grammar to which 
this was to serve exclusively as an introduction. The different po- 
sition which the book will occupy in this country rendered it proper 
that these should be retained in the translation, even though, in one 
or two instances, they may appear a Jittle inconsistent with the gen- 
eral plan of the work. For the same reason, the translator has ad- 
ded three short Appendices, chiefly from KUhner's larger Latin 
Grammar, of which that on Prosody, as it will be perceived, is de- 
signed only for the scanning of Hexameter verse. 

With regard to the mode of using the book, the intelligent teach- 
er will be the best judge. The author, however, suggests that, after 
completing the Etymology, the pupil should commence the more 
simple of the Latin reading lessons in connection with the study of 
the Syntax. And it may be added, that in some cases it will prob- 
ably be found best, to take the pupil over the first and perhaps the 
second Course, omitting the English exercises at first, and then re- 
turn and take them up in connection with a thorough review of the 
whole. Perhaps also, a judicious teacher, following out the general 
plan of the author, of diminishing difficulties by division and distri- 
bution, will think best, with very young pupils in particular, to 
omit some other things the first time over and take them up at sub- 
sequent reviews. But whatever course is pursued in teaching the 
book, a complete mastery of all that it contains should be aimed at 
from the beginning, and should be actually attained before it is 



In conclusion, the translator would express his obligations to the 
Kev. Dr. Sears, of the Newton Theological Institution, who very 
kindly listened to the reading of the greater part of the manuscript 
and suggested such corrections as his superior knowledge of German 
enabled him to do, and to Mr. James H. Hanson, Principal of the 
Waterville Academy, who has given very important assistance in 
correcting the sheets as they passed through the press. 

Waterville College, ) 
Feb. 1845. i 




Or THE Sounds ard Letters of the Language. 

Division of the Letters § 1 

Pronunciation of the Letters 2 


Of Syllables. 

Of the Measure or Quantity of Syllables 3 

Of Accent 4 

Of the Division of Syllables 5 


Parts of Speech. — Inflection ... 6 

Partial treatment of the Verb 7-^11 

First Conjugation 8 

Second Conjugation 9 

Third Conjugation 10 

Fourth Conjugation 11 

Of the Substantive and Adjective. 

Classification of Substantives 12 

Gender of the Substantive 13 

Number, Case and Declension 14 

Gender and Declension of the Adjective 15 

First Declension 16 

Second Declension 17 

Third Declension 18—21 


Paradigms of Adjectives of the Third Declension . . • . § 22 

Fourth Declension 

Fifth Declension 

Comparison of Adjectives and Participles 25 


Of the Adverb. 

Classification and Formation of Adverbs 26 

Comparison of Adverbs 

Of the Pronoun. 

Personal Pronouns 

Demonstrative Pronouns "^ 

Relative and Interrogative Pronouns ^" 

Indefinite Pronouns 


Correlative Pronouns 

Of the Numerals ^^ 

Table of the Prepositions ........ 34 


Greek Nouns of the First Declension 35 

Of the Gender of the Second Declension 36 

Remarks on Particular Case-endings of the Third Declension . . 37 

Of the Gender of the Third Declension 38—40 

Masculine 38 

Feminine . . . . . . • 39 

Neuter 40 

Of the Gender of the Fourth Declension 41 



Of the Verb. 

Classes of Verbs 

Tenses of the Verb 

Modes of the Verb 

Infinitive, Participle, Supine, Gerund and Gerundive 


Persons and Numbers of the Verb §46 

Conjugation ........... 47 

Formation of the Tenses 48 

Conjugation of the x\uxiliary verb 5J/7M 49 

Active of the Four Regular Conjugations ..... 50 

Passive ............ 51 

Inflection of Verbs in io after the Third Conjugation ... 52 

Deponents of the Four Conjugations . ^ 53 

Periphrastic Conjugation 54 

Catalogue of verbs which vary in the formation of their tenses from 

the paradigms given in §§ 50 and 51 55 — 69 

First Conjugation ........ 55 — 57 

Second Conjugation 58 — 60 

Third Conjugation 61 — 68 

Fourth Conjugation 69 

Particular Irregular Verbs 70 — 76 

1) Possum 70 

2) Edo 71 

3) Fero 72 

4) Volo, nolo, male ......... 73 

5) Eo 74 

6) Queo, nequeo - . . 75 

7) Fio 76 

Defective Verbs 77 

Impersonal Verbs 78 


Preposition. — Conjunction. — Interjection .... 79 


The Formation of Words 



Sentence. Subject. Predicate 

Limitation of the Subject and Predicate 


Double Nominative 

Classes of Verbs 

Tenses of the Verb 

Modes of the Verb 

Of the Cases 








Construction of names of Towns § 92 

Remarks on the use of the Prepositions , . . . . . 93 

Of the use of the Pronouns 94 

Of the use of the Numerals 95 

Infinitive 9b 

Supine 97 

Gerund 98 

Gerundive 99 

Participle • • • • • .100 


A, Coordinate Sentences 101 

B. Subordinate Sentences 102 

Of the usp of the Modes in Subordinate Sentences . . . 103 

Succession of the Tenses in Subjunctive Subordinate Sentences 104 

I. Substantive Sentences 105 — 108 

A. Accusative with the Infinitive 105 

B. Ut, ne, ut ne, ut non, with the Subjunctive . . . 106 

C. Quo, quominus, quin, with the Subjunctive . . . 107 

D. Quod, thatj with the Indicative ..... 108 
II. Adjective Sentences . .109 

III. Adverbial Sentences 110 — 114 

a. Adverbial Sentences of Time 110 

b. Causal Adverbial Sentences Ill 

c. Conditional Adverbial Sentences 112 

d. Concessive Adverbial Sentences 113 

e. Adverbial Sentences of Comparison . . . .114 

Of Interrogative Sentences 115 

Of the Form of Oblique Discourse . . . . . . 116 

First Appendix. 
Of Prosody : 

Of Syllables 117 

Hexameter Verse 118 

Scansion 119 

Second Appendix. 

Of Abbreviations 120 

Third Appendix. 

Of the Roman Calendar 121 

Collection of Latin Reading Lessons. 




Of the Sounds and Letters of the Language. 

§ 1. Division of the Letters, 

1. The Latin Language has as signs of its sounds, 
twenty-five letters, viz. six vowels and nineteen consonants. 

nopq rs t uvxyz 

Remark 1. The capital letters are used only : a) at the beginning 
of a sentence, after a period, an interrogation or exclamation point and 
after a colon (:), where the words of another are quoted ; — ^b) in proper 
names, as : Romulus. — The letter k is used in but very few words. 

2. The vowels are either short or long'. The short vowels 
are distinguished by *.y, the long ones by -, as : a, a, perpla- 
ces. The sign u signifies, that the vowel over which it 
stands can be used either as short or long, as : a. 

3. The Latin Language has the following diphthongs : 
ae. oe. au. etc. ei, e. g. aequitas, equity^ foedus, league^ 
aurum, gold^ Eurus, the east ivind, hei, alas. 

Rem. 2. When ae and oe are to be pronounced separately, this is in- 
dicated by two points (puncta diaeresis, points of separation) placed over 
the second vowel (e), as : aer, the air, poeta, a poet. The diphthong eu 
is found in only a few Latin, but in many Greek words, as: Eurotas ; 
in general, therefore, eu should be separated in pronunciation, as: 
deus (pronounced, deiis) God. In like manner, also, must ei be almost 
invariably pronounced separately, as: dei (pronounced, dei) of God, for 
ei as a diphthong occurs in but a very few words, as : hei, alas. 


4. The consonants, according to the greater or less influ- 
ence of the organs of speech in their pronunciation, are 
divided into : 

a) Liquids : 1, m, n, r ; 

b) Spirants :* h, s, v, j ; 

c) Mutes : b, c, d, f, g, k, p, q, t, x, z. 

§ 2. Pronunciation of the Letters. 

C before e, t, y, ae^ oe, eu, is pronounced like s, but- in 
other cases like k, as : ceisus (selsus) cicer, cymba, caecus, 
ceu, coelum; but, caro (karo), collum, custos, clamor; 

Ch is pronounced like k ; 

Gu before a vowel in the same syllable likeg-ii?, as : lingua ; 

Ph like our/, as : pharetra ; 

Rh as a simple r, as : K-hea ; 

Sch like sk^ as : schola (skola) ; 

Qu is pronounced like to, as : aqua ; 

Sa before a vowel in the same syllable like siv^ as : suasor ; 

Ti before a vowel is pronounced like shi^ as: actio 
(acshio). But if the i is long^ the hissing sound disappears, 
as : totius. Besides, ti (with the i short) is pronounced 
without the hissing sound : a) if there is immediately be- 
fore the t another ^, an 5, or an x^ as : Attius, ostium, mix- 
tio ; b) in Greek words as : Miltiades, tiara. 


Of Syllables. 
§ 3. Of the Measure or Quantity of Syllables, 

1 . A syllable is short by nature^ when its vowel is short 
and this short vowel is followed either by another vowel or 
a single consonant, as : deiis, God^ ^3,{er, father. 

2. A syllable is long by nature^ when its vowel is long, 
as : mater, a mother, murus, a loall. Particularly, all sylla- 
bles are long in which there is a diphthong, as: plausus, 

* SpirantSy i. e. fetters formed principally by the breath. — Tr. 


applause^ and in which two vowels are contracted into one, 
as: lacus, o/* a lake^ (contracted from lacuis, the original 
form of the genitive of lacus, a lake). 

3. A syllable, which ends with a long vowel, is short by 
position^ i. e. by the position of the vowel, when the follow- 
ing syllable begins with a vowel, as: de in deamliilo, J 
take a tualk^pro in proavu, a great- grand-father^ prae in 
praeacutus, very sharp. 

4. A syllable with a short vowel is long by position^ 
when this short vowel is followed by two or more conso- 
nants, or by j, or x, or z, as : per in perdo ; alicujus ; but 
in the compounds oi jugiim^ the vowel before y remains 
short, as : bijugus. JT with a consonant, forms no position, 
as : stomachus, the stomach. 

Remark. The position before a mute tvith a liquid (§ 1, 4), for the 
most part, does not make the short vowel long, as : cerebrum, the brain, 
arbitror, / thivk, locuples, rich. But in two cases the position of a 
mute with a liquid makes the preceding short vowel long: a) in com- 
pounds, as : abrumpo, from db ; h) when one of the three liquids : I, m, 
n, follows one of the three mutes: b, d, g, as: hiblus, agmen, a march 
(from dgo\ magnus, great. 

§ 4. O/* Accent.^ 

1. Monosyllables with a vowel short by nature, are pro- 
nounced with the acute accent ('), monosyllables with a 
vowel long by nature, with the circumflex accent (a), as: et, 
vir (viri), ut, dux (ducis) ; mos (moris), jus (juris), lex (legis), 

2. Dissyllables have the accent upon the penult, and in- 
deed : 

a) The acute accent, when the penult is short by nature, 
as: virum (i), ducem (u), homo (o), arte; or when the ulti- 
mate is long, whether the penult is long or short, as : Musae 
(u) mores (o) bonae (6) ; 

b) The circumflex accent, when the penult is long by 
nature and the ultimate short, as : mater (a), Musa. 

3. Words of three or more syllables have the accent : 

* This paragraph may be passed over, provided the teacher will see that 
the right pronunciation of the words is given in reading. 



a) Upon the antepenult, and indeed, the acute accent, 
when the penult is short, whether the last syllable is short or 
long, as : homine, homines, hominibus, mediocris, tenebrae ; 

b) Upon the penult, and indeed, the acute accent, when 
both the penult and ultimate are long, as: acuto (u), amares 
(a) ; or when the penult is long only by position, in which 
case the ultimate may be either long or short, as : amantur, 
amantes ; — ^but the circumflex accent, if the penult is lojig by 
nature and the ultimate short, as : acutiis, amare * 

Remark. The short monosyllabic enclitics (i. e. particles which 
always stand annexed to other words, and therefore lose their accent) : 
que^ ve, lie, ce, met, etc. draw the accent of the word to which they are 
attached from the antepenult to the ultimate, as : sc^lera sceleraqne, 
homines homin/sque, hominibus hominibiisque. But if the accent is 
upon the penult, the drawing back of the accent to tlie last syllable, 
takes place only when this is already long, or by its union with the 
enclitic becomes long by position ; but if the last syllable is short and 
remains so, the accent does not change syllables, as : scel6stus sceles- 
tiisque, sceltsta scel^staque, pleiique pleraeque pleraque, litraque ut- 

^ 5. Of the Division of Syllables.^ 

1. General Rule. Syllables end with a vowel, and be- 
gin with a consonant. When, therefore, a consonant stands 
between two vowels, it belongs to the following- syllable, 
as : pa-ter, a-ma-mus. 

2. Subordinate Rule. When two or three consonants, 
with which a Latin word can begin, stand between the 
vowels of two syllables, they are to be joined to the second 
syllable. The most common combinations of consonants 
are : a mute with a liquid, and s with a mute or with a 
mute and a liquid, as: ma-gnus, great, ^-^i, fields, pe-stis, 
plague, a-stra, the stars. In all other cases, the consonants 

* That is to say, in general, if the penult is long it has the accent, but if 
not, the antepenult. — Tr. 

t These rules for the division of syllables are drawn from the ancient 
grammarians and are generally observed in Europe. In this country, it is 
more common (and perhaps better, especially for beginners) to follow the 
analogies of our own language in dividing a Latin word into syllables. For 
a fuller account of the principles of division here adop,ted, see Appendix to 
Beck's Latin Syntax. — Tr. 


between two vowels are divided, as : an-nus, a year^ am- 

nis, a river, mon-tes, mountains. 

Remark. A compound word must be divided according to its com- 
ponent parts, as : ab-avus, a great-great-grandfather. If a letter is in- 
serted, it is attached to the first word, as : prod-esse, to profit. 


§ 6. Parts of Speech. — Inflection, 

1. The Substantive designates an object (a person or 
thing), as: ma7i, ivoman, house. 

2. The Verb expresses an action (something which an 
object does), as: to bloom, to dance, to sleep, to love, to 
praise, e. g. the rose blooms; the boy dances; the child 
sleeps ; God loves men ; the teacher praises the scholars. 

3. The Adjective expresses a property or quality, as: 
small, great, beautiful, e. g. a small boy ; a beautiful rose ; a 
great house. 

4. The Adverb expresses the tvay and manner in which 
an action takes place, as ; beautifully, sweetly, e. g. the rose 
blooms beautifully ; the child sleeps sioeetly. 

Rem. 1. There are adverbs also, which express the place where, and 
the time when the action takes place, as : here, there, yesterday, to-day. 

5. The Pronoun points to an object, as : /, thou, he, this 

6. The Numeral expresses number or multitude, as : one, 
two, three, many, few. 

7. The Preposition is a word which stands before a noun, 
and expresses the relations oi place, of time and other rela- 
tions which an object sustains to an action, as : the boy 
stands before the house; the child laughs /or joy. 

8. The Conjunction is a word which serves to connect 
words and sentences, as : and, but, because. 

Rem. 2. Besides, there are other words which are barely signs of 
emotion, and are called Literjections. 

9. By inflection we understand the variation or modifica- 



[H 7, 8. 

tion of a word in order to express a particular relation, as : 
thou lovest, he loves, the child's clothes, the man's hat 
The inflection of the substantive, adjective, pronoun an4 
numeral, is called declension, that of verbs, conjugation. 
The remaining parts of speech do not admit of inflection. 

§ 7. Partial Treatment of the Verb, 
All the verbs of the Latin Language are divided into 
four classes or conjugations, which are distinguished by the 
termination of the infinitive as follows: 

First Conjugation : — are as : amdre, to love, 
Second " — ere " monere, to admonish, 

Tliird " — ere " regere, to govern, 

Fourth " — ^ire " audire, to hear. 

§ 8. First Conjugation : amare, to love. 






amo, Hove 
amd.f, thou lovest 
amdt, he, she, it loves 
amdmus, we love 
amdtis, you love 
amant, they love. 

amor, 1 am loved 
amdris, thou art loved 
amdtur, he, she, it is loved 
amdmur, we are loved 
amdmlni, you are loved 
amantur, they are loved. 


amd, love thou 
amdte, love ye. 

L Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

aro 1. I plough. 
delecto I. 1 ddight. 
educo 1, / bring up. 
iaudo 1. I praise. 

Laudo. Vituperas. 

vexo 1. I annoy. 
vigilo 1. I watch. 
vitiipero 1. / censure. 
vulnero 1. / wound. 

Pugnatis. A rant. Lauda. 

orno I. I adorn. 
pugno 1. I fight. 
salto 1. I dance. 
tento 1. I try. 

Saltat. Vigilamus. 
Pugnate. Tentat saltare. Delector. Vulneraris. Vexatur. Lauda- 
mur. Vituperamlni. Ornantur. Laudaris. Educamlni. Vitupera- 
mur. Educor. Edilcantur. Delectamur. Ornaris. Saltatis. Vul- 
nerantur. Laudamini. Viglla. Saltate. 

I watch. Thou fightest. He ploughs. We praise. You censure. 




They dance. Fight thou. Praise ye. They try to fight. I am 
praised. Thou art censured. He is adorned. We are delighted. 
You are wounded. They are annoyed. They are praised. Thou 
art brought up. They are censured. We are brought up. You praise. 
We are adorned. He is wounded. They praise. 

§ 9. Second Conjugation : 

monere, to admonish. 







moneo, £ admonish 
mones, ihou admonishest 
monet, he, site, it admonishes 
monemus, we admonish 
monetis, you admonish 
monent, they admonish. 

mone, admonish thou 
monete, admonish ye. 

moncor, / am admonished 
moneris, thou art admonished 
monetur, he, she it is admonished 
monemur, we are admonished 
monemini, you are admonished 
mouentur, they are admonished. 

II. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

D#beo 2. I must, ought, gaudeo 2. I rejoice. rid^o 2. I laugh. 

doceo 2. I teach, instruct, maneo 2. / remain. taceo 2. I am silent. 

exerceo 2. / exercise. mordeo 2. / hite. terreo 2. IfrigJden, 

fleo 2. / weep. raoveo 2. / move. et, and. 

floreo 2. / bloom. pareo 2. / obey. si, if. 

Doceo. Taces. Ridet. Gaudemus. Exercetis. Flent Tace. 
Manete. Tacere debes. Terreor. Exerceris. Movetur. Docemur. 
Mordemini. Docentur. Doces. Tacemus. Doceris. Parere debent. 
Florent. Exercemur. Manetis. Educaris et doceris. Moventur. 
Tacent. Parete. Si paretis, laudamlni. Si tacemus, laudamur. Sal- 
tamus et gaudemus. Tentate docere. Mordentur et vulnerantur. 

I rejoice. Thou exercisest. He weeps. We teach. You are silent. 
They laugh. Remain thou. Be ye silent. You must remain. I am 
bitten. Thou art frightened. He is instructed. You teach. I am 
silent. We are moved. We must be silent. I exercise my self (= am 
exercised). Rejoice ye. You are brought up and instructed. I am 
instructed. I laugh. Obey thou. If thou obeyest thou art praised. 
You dance and rejoice. We try to teach. We are bitten and wound- 
ed. If you weep you are censured. 





§ 10. Third Conjugation : regere, to govern. 







rego, I govern 
regis, thou gove 
regit, he, she, it 
regimus, we gov 
regttis, you govi 
regunt, th^y gov 

rege, govern tho 
regite, govern yi 





I am governed 
, thou art governed 
, he, she, it is governed 
r, we are governed 
ni, you are governed 
itr, they are governed. - 




cano { 
cedo { 
edo 3 

TIT. Words to 

i. I drink, 
i. I sing. 
J. I give way. 
io 3. / defend. 
3. / esteem, love. 
I eat. 

he learned and 

fallo 3. I deceit 
laedo3. /Awrf 
lego 3. / read. 
ludo 3. I play. 
pingo 3. I pail 



for translation. 

pungo 3. I prick, sting. 
scribo 3. / write. 
vinco 3. / conquer^ van- 
bene adv. well. 
male, adv. HI, hadly. 

Scribo. Legis. Laedit. Cantmus. Editis. Bibunt. Pinge. Scri- 
bite. Scribfire debes. Fallor. Vinceris. Defenditur. Diligimur. 
Pungimini. Laeduntur. Ede et bibe. Lude. Leglte. Canere ten- 
tat Pingis. Defendimur. Diligeris. Vincimini. Si vincitis, lauda- 
mini. Bene scribunt. Laederis. Edunt. Si cedis, vinceris. Si male 
ficribis, vituperaris. Si bene pingltis, laudamini. 

I sing. Thou eatest. He drinks. We vi^rite. You read. They 
defend. Write thou. Paint ye. You must read. I am esteemed. 
Thou art stung. He is hurt. We are deceived. We are vanquished. 
You defend. They esteem. Eat ye and drink. He is conquered. 
Play ye. They try to read. You paint. They are defended. You 
are esteemed. If thou singest well, thou art praised. He writes well. 
You are hurt If you write well you are praised. If you give way 
jou are conquered. If you write badly you are censured. 




§ 11. Fourth Conjugation : audire, to hear. 







audio, / hear 
audf5, thou htarest 
audit, he, she, it hears 
audtmiw, we hear 
B-uditis you hear 
audiunt, they hear. 

audi, hear thou 
audite hear ye. 

audior, / am heard 
audlris, thou art heard 
audltur, he, she, it is heard 
aud imwr, we are heard 
audimlm, you are Jieard 
audiuntur, they are heard. 

Besides, the following forms of the irregular verb sum 
should be noted : 

est, he, she, it is, 
erat, he, she, it was. 

sunt, they are, 
erant, they were. 

esse, to be, 

rV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Custodio 4. Igtmrd. 
<lormio 4. / sleep. 
erudio 4. I instruct. 
ferio 4. / beat, strike. 
lulcio 4. I support. 

Erudio. Garris. 
Salite. Tento 

ganio 4. I chatter. salio 4. Heap. 

nutrio 4. / nourish. venio 4. / come. 

punio 4. I punish. vestio 4. / dothe, 

reperlo 4. IJind. vincio 4. / bind, chain. 

valde adv. greatly. 

Dormit. Ferimus. Punitis. Saliunt. Veni. 
reperire. Vincior. Custodiris. Feritur. Vestimur. 

Nutrimlni. Fulciuntur. Audi. Dormite. Bene erudimur. Si bene 
erudis, laudaris ; si male erudis, vituperaris. Si vinceris, yinciris. 
Vestiuntur. Si male scribimus, punimur. Bene custodimlni. Dor- 
rrfimus. Salitis. Bene erudiuntur. Audite. Vincimus. Vincimus. 
Valde ferimur. Valde vituperamini et punimini. 

I strike. Thou punishest. He leaps. We instruct. You chatter. 
They sleep. Leap thou. Come ye. They try to instruct. I clothe 
myself (= am clothed). Thou art nourished. He supports himself 
(=is supported). We are bound. You are guarded. They are 
beaten. Hear ye. You are well instructed. He leaps. He is well 
instructed. If you are vanquished, you are bound. We are well 
guarded. He clothes himself (= is clothed). They are badly in- 

1 praise, I teach, I give way, I guard. Thou praisest, thou teachest, 



thou givest way, thou guardest. He praises, he teaches, he gives 
way, he guards. We censure, we exercise, we read, we sleep. 
You censure, you exercise, you read, you sleep. They censure, 
they exercise, they read, they sleep. Adorn thou, obey thou, write 
thou, punish thou. Adorn ye, obey ye, write ye, punish ye. We 
must adorn, we must obey, we must write, we must punish. I 
am annoyed, I am bitten, I am pricked, I am bound. Thou art an- 
noyed, thou art bitten, thou art pricked, thou art bound. He is an- 
noyed, he is bitten, he is pricked, he is bound. We are well brought 
up, we are greatly frightened, we are greatly esteemed, we are well 
instructed. You are well brought up, you are greatly frightened, you 
are greatly esteemed, you are well instructed. They are well brought 
up, they are greatly frightened, they are greatly esteemed, they are 
well instructed. 


Of the Substantive and Adjective. 
§ 12. Classification of Substantives. 

1. The substantive (§ 6, 1.) is called concrete^ when it 
designates 2i person or thing which has an actual and inde- 
pendent existence, as: nianj lion, flower , army; it is called 
abstract, on the contrary, when it signifies an action or qual- 
ity conceived of as independent of a subject, as : virtue, 

2, The Concretes are : 

a) Appelative nouns, when they indicate a whole spe- 
cies, or an individual of a class, as : man, ivornan, floiver, 
lion ; 

b) Proper nouns, when they designate only single per- 
sons as things which do not belong to a class, as: Marius, 
Rome ; 

c) Material nouns, when they indicate the simple ma- 
terial, as : milk, dust, water, gold; 

d) Collective nouns, when they designate a number of 
single persons or things as one whole, as : ar?ny, cavalry, 
fleet, herd. 


§ 13. Gender of the Substantive, 

The Gender of Substantives, which is three-fold, as in 
English, is determined partly by their meaning' and partly 
by their endings. The rules of gender founded upon the 
endings will be treated of under the particular declensions. 
With reference to the meaning the following general rules 
obtain : 

1. Of the masculine gender, are the names and designa* 
tions of males, nations, winds, months, most rivers and 

2. Of the feminine gender, are the names and designa- 
tions of females, of most countries, islands, towns and 
trees, shrubs and small plants. 

Of the neuter gender, are the names of the letters of the 
alphabet, the infinitive, all indeclinable words (excepting, 
however, the names of persons from foreign languages) 
and every word used as the mere symbol of a sound, as : 
man is a monosyllable. 

4. Of the common gender, are the names of persons 
which have but one form for the masculine and feminine, 
as : dux, a male or female leader. 

1. Nations, men, rivers, winds 
These atid months are masculines. 

2. Women, isles, lands, trees and town' 
These as feminine are found. 

3. Whatever cannot be declined 
This is of the neuter kind. 

4. Common is whatever can 
Include a woman and a man. 

§ 14. Number, Case and Declension. 

1. The substantive and adjective have, like the verb, two 
numbers, the Sing., which denotes a unitij, and the Plur., 
which denotes 3. plurality, and six cases in each number, 

1. Nominative, answering the question tuho? or what? 

2. Genitive, answering the question, lohose ? 

22 FIRST DECLENSION. [H 15, 16. 

3. Dative, answering the question, to or for lohom ? or 
lohat ? 

4. Accusative, answering the question, ichom ? or lohat ? 

5. Vocative, the case of direct address ; 

6. Ablative, answering the questions, whence? ivhere- 
with ? whereby ? luhen ? at lohat time, etc. 

Remark. The Norn, and Voc. are called casus recti; the other 
cases, casus ohllqui. Substantives and adjectives of the netder gender 
have the Nom. Ace. and Voc. alike. 

2. The Latin language hasj^t;e declensions. 

§ 15. Gender and Declension of the Adjective. 

1. The adjective, in Latin, agrees with its substantive in 
gender, number and case, as: filia bona, the good daughter, 
filial est bona, the daughter is good, ^Wus honus, the good 
son, filius est honus, the son is good, heWum malwm, the evil 
tear, helium est malum, the loar is evil, 

2. Hence, the adjective, like the substantive, has a three- 
fold gender. Still, not all adjectives have separate forms 
for the three genders, but many have only two distinct end- 
ings, viz. one for the Masc. and Fem. and the other for the 
Neut., some, indeed, have only one form for all genders. 

3. The declension of the adjective corresponds with the 
first three declensions of nouns. 

§ 16. First Declension. 
Nouns of the first declension ending in a are all femi- 
nine. The feminine of adjectives of the second declension 
is declined like nouns in a, see § 17. 

Rem. 1. Exceptions to this rule occur only out of regard to the gen- 
eral rules of gender (§ 13.), thus, e. g. agricola, a husbandman, is Masc. ; 
so also are most names of rivers of this declension, as : Matrona, the 
Mame, Trebia, Sequana, the Seine. But the names of mountains, as : 
Aetna, Ossa, remain Feminine. 

$ 16. 




n (] in gs. 































mensa, the table 

mensae, the tables 


mensae, of the table 

mensdrum, of the tables 


mensae, to the table 

mensl5, to the tables 


mensdm, the table 

mensds, the tables 


menstf, table 

mensae, tables 


mensd, by the table. 

mensis, by the tables. 

Rem. 2. As the Latin language has neither tlie definite article the 
nor the indefinite article a or an, mensa may signify either in a general 
sense table, or a table, or the table. 

Rem. 3. Some nouns are used only in the plural, as : nuptiae, a 
wedding, nuptiarum, of a wedding. 

Rem. 4. The dative and ablative plural have the ending dhus (for is) 
in : dea, a goddess, filia, a daughter, when they are to be distinguished 
from corresponding masculine forms, e. g. filiis et filiabus, to sons and 
daughters, diis et deabus, to gods and goddesses. 

Rem. 5. Concerning Greek nouns of the first Dec. see § 35. 

V. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Agricola, husbandman. 
aqua, wcder. 
ciconia, a stork. 

querela, complaint, 

plaintive cry. 
rana, a frog. 

copia, abundance, wiMZh'-' terra, the earth. 

herba, an herb. 
planta, a plant. 
procella, a storm. 

Rule of Syntax. 

is green, has two parts : 

coaxo 1. I croak. 
devoro 1. / devour. 
turbo 1. I disturb. 
noceo 2. / injure. 

Every sentence, e. g. the plant blooms, the meadow 

gigno 3. / beget, pro- 
pulchre, adv. beautiful- 

quam, hoiv ! " 
a, ab (with the abl.) by 
{a stands only before 




a) The subject, i. e. the person or thing of wliich something is as- 
serted (the plant ; the meadow) ; 

b) The predicate, i. e. that which is asserted of the subject {blooms ; 
is green). 

The subject is commonly a substantive and stands in the nomina- 
tive ; the predicate is commonly a verb (e. g. blooms), or an adjective 
in connection with the verb to be (e. g. is green). 

Rana coaxat. Agricola delectatur querela ranae. Cicoma nocet 
ranae. Cicoma devorat ranam. O rana, coaxa! Aqua turbatur a 
rana. Plantae florent. Terra vestitur copia plantarum. Procellae 
nocent plantis. Terra gignit plantas. O plantae, quam pulchre orna- 
tis terram ! Terra vestitur plantis. 

The plant blooms. The herb of the })lant blooms. The storm 
injures the plant. I love the plant. O plant how beautifully thou 
bloomest. I am delighted with (abl.) the plant. The frogs croak. 
The plaintive cry of the frogs delights the husbandmen. The storks 
injure the frogs. The storks devour the frogs. O frogs, croak ye. 
The water is disturbed by the frogs. 

§ 17. Second Declension, 

Words of the second declension (substantives and ad- 
jectives) end in the Nom. in us, er, ir, and um, of which 
those in ns, er, and ir are of the masculine and those in um 
of the neuter gender. For the exceptions see § 36. 


n dings. 



us (er, ir) , um 


















e (er, ir) ; um 












N. hortw5, the garden puer, the boy ager^ the field 

hom^of the garden pueri, of the hoy agri, of the field 

horto^/.o the garden puero, to the boy agro, to the field 

hoxium^the garden puemm, the boy a-grum, the field 

hortc, garden puer, boy ager, O field 

horio, by the garden puero, by the boy agro, by the field 

vir, the man 
virf, of the man 
viro, to the rnan 
virwra, t/ie man 
vir, man 
viro, by the man. 


hortt, the gardens pueri, the boys agrt, the fields virf, the men 
bortorum, of the pueroriim, of the agrorwm, of the x'ngriim, of the 

gardens boys fields men 

horiiSy to the gar- pu§ri5, to the boys agTis, to the fields viTis, to the men 

horios, the gardens pu&Tds, the boys SLgros, the fields virds^ the men 
hortt, gardens pueri, boys agri, O fields virt, O men 

horUs, by the gar- ipneris^by the boys. agri5, by the fields viris^by the men 


beWum, the war 
belli, of the war 
bello, to the war 
bellwm, the war 
bellwyn, O war 
hello, by the war. 

bonw5, good 







bona, good 







bella, the wars bont 

bello/w7W, of the bonoriim 


be 11 15, to the wars bom^ 

bella, the wars bono* 

bella, O wars boni 

be]lt5, by the wars, bom* 



boniim, good 




























libgr? liberae libgrS 

liberorttm liberdrwrn liberoriim 
liberie liberis liberie 
libero* libera* libera 
liberi liberae libera 

liberi* liberi* libgri*. 


beautiful beautiful beautiful 

pulcher pulchra pulchrwm 

pulchri pulchrac pulchri 

pulchro pulchrae pulchro 

pulchritm pulchrawi pulchriim 

pulcher pulchra pulchrixm 

pulchro pulchra pulchro 


pulchri pulchrac pulchrd 

pulchroriiwt pulchrdrtiz/i pulchroriim 

pulchri* pulchri* pulchri* 

pulchro* pulchra* pulchri 

pulchri pulchiac pulchrd 

pulchri* pulchri* pulchri*. 


In like manner decline : 

Vir bonus, a good man, femina bona, a good woman, exemplum bon- 
um, a good example, hortus pulcher, a beautiful garden, rosa pulchra, a 
beautiful rose, ovum pulchruin, a beautiful egg, ager fecundus, the pro- 
ductive fkld, vir liber, a free man, scriba bonus, a good scribe. 

Rem. 1. Most words in er reject the e in all the oblique cases except 
in the vocative singular, as : ager, G. agr-i ; only the following retain 
the c ; puer, G. pueri, socer, father-in-law, gener, son-in-law, vesper, 
evening, liberi, children, and the adjectives: asper, aspera, asperum, 
rough, lacer, torn, liber, /rec, miser, miserable, prosper, fortunate, tener, 
tender, QX\di the compounds of/er and g-er, as: frugifer,/rmY bearings 
corniger, homed. Dexter, right, has both forms : dexter, dextra, dex- 
trum, G. dextri, dextrae; also, though less frequently: dexter, dextera, 
dext6rum, G. dexteri.-^ 

Rem. 2. The Voc. Sing, offlius, (a son) is fli and that of meus (my) 
is mi, as : O mi fli, (but, O mea flia, O meum offidum). This Voc. in t 
also, is found in proper names in \us, aius and eius, hence : I (for 1e), 
al (for aie), el (for eie), as : Tulllus Tulli, Virgillus VirglU. Mercurius 
MercUrl, Antonius Antonl, Gains Gal, Pompeius Pompei. 

Rem. 3. The word deus (God) is deus also in the Voc; in the plu- 
ral it is thus declined : N. dii, G. deorum, D. diis. Ace. deos, V. rfii, 
Abl. diis. 

Rem. 4. The Gen. plural of some nouns has the ending um (for 
orum), e. g. nummum (from nummus), of money, talentum (from talen- 
tUm), of talents. 

Rem. 5. Some Greek words, but rarely except in poetry, have the 
ending os (Ace. on) for the masculine and feminine, and on for the 
newfer gender, as : Ilios, llion. Greek words in eus (one syllable) are 
thus declined: N. Orpheus (two syllables), G. Orphei, D. Orpheo, Ace. 
Orpheum, Voc. Orpheu (two syllables), Abl. Orpheo. 

VI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

"Equua, i, m. horse. molestus, a, um,<row6Zc- committo 3. I commit 

frumentum, i, n. grain. some. to. 

granum, i, n. corn. varius, a, um, various, curro 3. I run. 

juba, ae,f. mane. vireo 2. Ifourish. hinnio 4. I neigh. 

musca, ae,f.fy. colo 3. / attend to, cvl- celeriter, adv. swiftly. 

fecundus, a, um, pro- tivate, honor, revere. in (with the abl.), in, 
ductive. upon. 

Rule or Syntax. A noun in the Gen., Dat, or Ace, which is con- 
nected with the predicate and limits it, is called the object ; e. g. in the 
sentence : the man guides the horse, " man" is the subject and " horse" the 
object which limits " guides." When the noun is in the Ace. it is called 
the suffering object (receiving the direct action). 

Eqiius hinnit. Juba equi est pulchra. Muscae sunt molestae equo. 


Vir regit equum. Eque, celeriter curre. Equo pulchro delector. 
Agi'i sunt fecundi. Herbae agroriim sunt variae. Agricola committit 
agris grana frumenti. Agricola colit agros. Agri, quam pulchi'e vire- 
tis ! In agris multae herbae florent. 

* The field is productive. The herbs of the field are various. The 
husbandman commits the corns of grain to the field. The husband- 
man cultivates the field. O field, how beautifully thou flourishest! 
Various herbs bloom in the field. The horses neigh. The mane of 
the horse is beautiful. Flies are troublesome to horses. Men govern 
horses. O horses, run swiftly. We are delighted with (abl.) beauti- 
ful horses. 


Vn. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation, 

Deus, see Rem. 3. mundus, i, m. world. magnus, a, urn, great. 

dea, see §16. Rem. 4. praesidium, i, n. pro- propitius, a, um, pro- 
fill us, see Rem. 2. tedion, aid. pitious, favorable. 

filia, see § 16. Rem. 4. templum, i, n. temple. meus, a, um, see Rem. 
levir, i, m. hrother-in- benevolentia, ae, /. be- 2. 

law. nevolence. miser, era,erum,tDretchf 

socer, i, m. father-in- carus, a, um, dear. ed. 

laia. improbus, a, um, toick- praebeo 2. / afford. 

gener, i, m. son-in-law. ed. exstruo 3. / build. 

Dii mundum regunt. Deos propitios collte. Praebe, o deus bone, 
miseris praesidium. Dii improbos puniunt. Diis et deabus templa 
exstruuntur. Benevolentia deorum est magna. Filius leviri bene legit. 
Socero est hortus pulcher. Boni viri bonis viris cari sunt. Filia gen- 
eri pulchre pin git 

The gods are propitious to men. Good men are dear to the gods. 

* With regard to the arrangement of the words in forming a Latin sen- 
tence, the teacher must be the principal guide. The rigid laws of arrange- 
ment in the English language, allowed of but little being done in the way of 
imitating the Latin arrangement in the English exercises. Something, 
however, has been attempted in this way, which, together with a desire to 
preserve a strictly literal and grammatical expression of the thoughts, will 
account for the apparently awkward construction of many of the sentences. 
— It may be suggested, also, that a close study of the position of the words 
in the Latin exercises, will very often guide the student in translating the 
English exercises. As to particular rules on this subject, it would not be 
proper, perhaps, to state more than the following, applicable where no em- 
phasis rests upon any word in the sentence. In this case, 1) The predicate 
follows the subject, as in English, 2) the adjective, or noun in the Genitive, 
comes after its noun, \\) the verb follows the case or cases which it governs, 
4) the adverb pricedes the word which it limits. But when these words 
are emphatic, the order in each case is reversed. For fuller directions on 
this subject, see Krebs' Guide for writing Latin, §§ 468 — 514. — Tr. 




The wicked are punished by (ab) the gods. The world is governed 
by (ab) the gods. Afford, O good gods, protection to the wretched. 
The gods honor the temples. The gods love the good. O God, pun- 
bh tlje wicked. Write, my sons. Sons-in-law are dear to fathers-in- 
law. God is propitious to good sons and good daughters. Write, my 
son, paint, my daughter. 

§ 18. Third Declension. 
1. The third Declension has the following case-endings : 





es JVeut. a (ia) 




um (ium) 






era, JVtut. like Nom. 


es a (ia) 


like the Nom. 


es a (ia) 





Rem. 1. In the Nom. the pure stem is often changed. It may al- 
ways be found, however, by removing from the Gen. is, the ending of 
that case, as: rex, king, G. reg-is the stem therefore is reg. Also t, rf, 
fi and nt, are rejected from the stem in the Nom. before s, as : laus, 
praise, G. laud-is, stem : laud ; Salamis, G. Salamin-is, Atlas, G. Atlant- 
is. The r, of the stem, often passes over into s, as : mos, custom, G. 
mor-is. Most masculines and feminines whose stem ends in n, have 
rejected this letter in the Nom. as : leo, a lion, G. leon-is. Greek proper 
names whose stem ends in ont reject the t in the nominative, as : Xen- 
ophon, Xenophont-is. 

Rem. 2. J^euters, as a general thing, present the pure stem in the 
Nom., as: exemplar, a pattern, G. exemplar-is. Still, variations from 
this are introduced into many words out of regard to the laws of eu- 
phony in the Latin language, as : carmen, a poem (for carmin), G. carmin- 
is, ebur, ivory (for ehor), G. ebor-is, corpus, the body (instead of corpor\ 
G. corp6r-is, caput, the head (for capit), G. capit-is. When the stem 
of a Greek word ends in ai, the t is rejected in the Nom., as: poema 
(for po€mat), a poem, G. poemat-is ; so also in the neuters : cor, cord-is, 
(he heart, lac, lact-is, milk. 

Rem. 3. Concerning the endings c and i, a and ia, um and ium, see 

2. Concerning the gender^ the following general rules ob- 
tain : 

1) Of the masculine gender are the nouns in o, or, 05, 
cr, and imparisyllahles^ m es. 

Rem. 4. Parisyllahles are words with the same number of syllables 
in the Gen. as in the Nom., as : nubes, a cloud, G. nubis ; imparisyUa- 

^ 19—20.] 



bles, on the contrary, are words which have more syllables in the Gen. 
tlian in the Noin., as : miles, soldier^ G. militis. 

2) Of the feminine gender are nouns in, as^ is, aus, us 
(Gen. utis or udis), x, s with a consonant before it and pari- 
syllables in es. ^ 

3) Of the neuter gender are nouns in a, e, c, /, ew, ar, wr, 
ut and us (Gen. oris, eris, uris). 

Rem. 4. For the exceptions to these rules see §§ 38 — 40. 


19. I. The Nominative presents tht pure 


colour (m.) 

goose (m.) 

father (m.) 

animal (n.) 

spur (n.) 

































an sere 






























an sere* 



cal carta 







§ 20. II. The Nominative presents the stem changed accord' 
ing to the laics of euphony. 

name (wf.) 

lion (m.) 

body (n.) 

sea (n.) 

S. Nom. and Voc. 

























P. N. Ace. and V. 









mar? um 

Dat. and Abl. 








§21. III. 

The Nominative adds s to the stem. 

root if.) city (/.) 

praise (/.) 

cloud (/.) 

S. Nom. and Voc. 

radix urbs 




radicis urhis 




radici urbi 




radicem urbcm 




radicc urbe 



P. N. Ace. and V. 

radices urbej? 




radicwm urbZum 



Dat. and Abl. 

radicibus urhlbm 



Rem. 1. Nouns in ter and ber, as: pater, /afAer, mater, mother, frater, 
brother, as well as adjectives in ber and cer, as: celeber, celebrated, acer, 
sharp, reject the e in the oblique cases ; see pater above. 

Rem. 2. Greek proper names whose stem ends in on or on, in good 
prose, form their Nom. almost always in a, as: Agamemno, G. 6n-is; 
Plato. Solo, Bito, G. on-is ; those, on the contrary, whose stem ends in 
ont form their Nom., in the best writers, in on, as : Xenophon, G. 

VIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Dolor, oris, m. ^ain, suf- populus, i, m. people. vester, tra, trum, your, 

fering. tormentum, i, n. torture, praedico 1. / extol, 

orator, oris, m. orator, acerbus, a,um,j5wn^enf. tolero \. I endure. 

imimus, i, w. soitZ, mint?, disertus, a,um, eZo^weni. succumbo 3. / sink 

courage. [quence. ignavus, a, um, indo- under. 

eloquentla, ae, f. elo- lent, cowardly. graviter, adv. heavily, 

facundla, ae, f. Jluency praeclarus, a, um, noble. violently. 

of speech. tuus, a, um, thy. 

numSrus, i, m. number, noster, tra, trum, our. 


Orator est disertus. Eloquentia oratoris movet animos nostros. Ora- 
tori paret populus. Oratorem praedicamus ob facundlam. O orator, 
quam praeclara est tua eloquentia ! Ab oratore populus regltur. Do- 
lores sunt acerbi. Numerus dolorum est magnus. Doloribus succum- 
bltis. Vir patienter tolerat dolores. O dolores, quam graviter pungltis ! 
Doloribus vincuntur ignavi viri. 

The pain is pungent. Bear ye the tortures of the pain. Thou sink- 
est under the suffering. The man endures the pain patiently. O pain, 
how violently thou stingest. A cowardly man is vanquished by (abl.) 
pain. Orators are eloquent. The eloquence of the orator movies our 
minds. The people obey the orators. Orators are extolled on ac- 
count of their fluency of speech. O orators, how noble is your elo- 
quence ! The world is governed by (ab) the orators. 

patienter, patiently. 
ob, on account of 




§ 22. Paradigms of Adjectives of the Third Declension, 
Preliminary Remark. The following paradigms present the forms 
of the three classes of adjectives of the third Dec. with one, two and 
three endings. Adjectives of one ending terminate in Z, r, s, a:, and par- 
ticiples (Present Participles only) in ns, G. ntis, as: amans, loving, G. 
amantis. For the irregular adjectives of the second Dec. : unus, ullus, 
etc., duo and ambo, see § 33. 

Singular. | 

N. and V. 





(m.) (f.) Cn.) 
acer acris acre 
acris acris acris 
acri acri aeri 
acrem acrem acre 
acri acri acri 

(m. & f.) (n.) 
suavis suave 
suavis suavis 
suavi suavi 
suavem suave 
suavi suavi 

(m.&f.) (n.) 
major majus, 
majoris majoris 
majuri majori 
majorera majus 
majore majore 

Plural 1 

D. &Abl. 

acres acres acria 
acrium acrium acrium 
acribus acribus acribus 

suaves suavia 
suavium suavium 

majores majora 
majorum majorum 
majoribus majoribus. 

Nom. & Voc. 
Dat. & Abl. 

audax (m.f. n.) bold 
audaeem (m./.), audax (w.) 


audaces (m.f) audaeia (n.) 
audaciuni audacium 
audacibus audacibus 
audaces audaeia. 

In like manner decline : 

odor acer, sharp odor., 

odoris acris 

campus viridis, green 

campi viridis [field, 

vir major, greater man, 

viri majoris 

miles audax, bold sol- 

militis audacis [dicr, 

aqua acris, sharp water, 
aquae acris 

silva viridis, green 
silvae viridis [wood, 
femina major, greater 
feminae majoris[70om£n 
leaena audax, bold lion- 
leaenae audacis [ess. 

acetum acre, sharp vin- 
aceti acris [^g^'>'t 

pratum viride, green 
prati viridis [meadow^ 
corpus majus, greater 
corporis majoris [body, 
animal audax, bold an- 
animalis audacis [imal. 

Remark. For the Abl. Sing, in i and c, the Nom. Plur. in ia and a, 
and the Gen. Plur. in ium and um, see § 36. 

IX. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 
Alacer, cris, ere, lively, litterae, arum,/, litera- virtus, utis,/. virtue. 

spirited. ture. vox, ocis,/ voice. 

fortis, e, brave. ' discipulus, i, m. scholar, consto 1. 1 consist in, of 

gravis, e, severe, serious, fundamentum, i, n. habeo 2. / have. 
mortalis, e, mortal. foundation. incumbo 3. (with in and 

immortalis, e,immortal. avis, is,/, bird. the ace.) / apply my- 

omnis, e, each, the whole, homo, inis, m. man. self to. 

plur. all. hostis, is, m. enemy. non, not. 

industria,ae,/. inrfiwfrj/. mos, oris, m. custom. ne fwith the Imper.) 
pittas, atis,/.j9ie<i/. not. 




Miles forti animo pugnare debet. Suavi avium voce delcctamur. 
Discipiili laus constat bonis moribus et acri industrla. Pittas est funda- 
mentum omnium virtutum. Viri fortes non vincuntur doloribus gravi- 
bus. Ne cedrte hostibus audacibus. Puer alacri animp in litteras ia- 
cumb^re debet Homines corpora mortalia habent, animos immortales 

§ 23. Fourth Declension. 
Nouns of the fourth Dec. have in the Nom. the two end- 
ings : us and w, of these the first is of the masculine and the 
last of \\\v fgmimnr gender. For the exceptions, see § 41. 

Case-En dings. 



us; MvJt. 


Plur. Nom. 





us; us or 





ui or u ; 






















Plural. 1 


fructM5 {vi.), fruit. 

cornw (n.), horn. 





cornus or u 


corn uum 


fructui or u 



corn ibus 
















Rem. 1. The following words in the Dat. and Abl. Plur. have the end- 
ing ubus for Ibus : acus (f ), a needle, arcus (m.), a bow, artus (m.), a 
joint, limb, partus (m.), a birth, lacus (m.), a lake, pond, quercus, (f), fJie 
oak, specus (m.), a den, grotto, tribus (f ), a tribe, company, pecu (n.), cat- 
tle, (as a species), and veru (n.), a spit. Ficus (f ), us, ajigtree, forms 
the Dat. and Abl. Plur. according to the second Dec. : ficis. 

Rem. 2. The word domus (f ) a house, is declined as follows : 

Sing. N. V. 


Plur.N. V. 





domimm and domorum 








domes rarely domiw 





The form domi is used only in the meaning at home, at the house ; 
thus : domi meae, domi tuae, domi alienae, ai my, thy, another's house. 


X. Words to be learned and Exercises for translatioru 

Luctus, us, m. grief. amarus, a, um, hitter, indulgeo 2. /g^vc my«cZ/* 

lusus, us, m. sport. gratus, a, um, agreeable^ up to. 

sensus, us, m. sense^ grateful. frango 3. / hreak, break 

feeling. praedltus, a, um, (with doum. 

besiia, ae./. ammaZ. Ah\.) endowed with. succumbo 3. / w'nfe «n- 

vis (only Ace. vim and quantus, a, um, how der. 

Abl. vi) power ^ force, great. libenter, adv. with de- 
might, puerilis, e, childish. light. 

voluptas, atis, /. pleas- sapiens, tis, tme ; subst. suay Iter, adv. pleasantly, 

ure. a wise man. vehementer, adv. vio- 

genus, eris, n. gender, evito 1. I avoid. lently. 

kind, i>aro ^ . I provide. 

Lusus pueris gratus est. Genera lusus sunt varia. Pueri libenter in- 
dulgent lusui. Vir gravis evitat lusum puerilem. O lusus, quam sua- 
viter animos puerorum delectas ! Pueri delectantur lusu. Sensus sunt 
acres. Vis sensuum est magna. Vir fortis non succumbit sensibus 
doloris. Bestiae habent sensus acres. O sensus, quantas voluptates 
hominibus paratis ! Animalia sunt praedita sensibus. 

The feeling of pain is bitter. The power of grief is great. The 
brave man does not sink under grief. The wise man endures grief 
patiently. O grief, how violently thou tormentest the minds of men ! 
The wise man is not broken down by (abl.) grief The sports of chil- 
dren are agreeable. There are various kinds of sport. The boys give 
themselves up to sports with delight The serious man avoids child- 
ish sports. O sports, how pleasantly you delight the minds of boys ! 
In (abl.) sports the boys are delighted. 

XI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Fremitus, us, m. noise, tuus, a, um, thy. resono 1. / resound. 

genu, us or u, n. knee, noster, tra, trum, our. vacillo 1. / waver. 

tonitru, us or u, n. thun- vester, tra, trum, your, permoveo 2. / move. 

der. validus, a, um, strong, antecedo 3. I precede. 

vigor, oris, m. power. horribllis, e, frightful, extimesco 3. 1 fear. 

fulmen, inis, n. light- terribilis, e, terrible. flecto 3. / bend. 

ning. supplex, icis, suppliant ; procu mbo 3. 1 fall down. 

robur, oris, n. strength. subst. the suppliant, in (with Ace. and Abl.) 
multus, a, um, much, indico 1. / indicate. in, upon. 


Tonitru terribile animos hominum permovet. Fremitus tonitrus 
(tonitru) est horribllis. Fulmen antec6dit tonitru. Multi homines ex- 
timescunt tonitru. O tonitru, quam horribllis est fremitus tuus. Do- 


mus res6nat tonitru. Genua virorum sunt valida. Vigor genuum indi- 
cat robur corporis. Magna vis est genlbus. Supplices procumbuut in 
genua. O genua, ne vacillate ! In genibus est magna vis. 

The knee of man is strong. Power of the knee indicates strength 
of body. The knee has great power (== to the knee there is great 
power). The supphant bends the knee. O knee, waver not ! In the 
knee is great power. The thunder is terrible. The noise of the 
thunder is frightful. Lightnings precede the thunders. Fear thou 
not the thunder. O thunder, how terrible is thy noise. The house re- 
sounds with (abl.) frightful thunderings (== thunders). 

Xn. JVords to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Pin us, us,/ jnne. perniciosus, a, urn, cfe- sedeo '2. 1 sit. 

puella, ae,/. girl. strudive. cingo 3. / gird, sur- 

Bagitta, ae./. arrow. timidus, a, um, timid. round. 

frater, tris, m. brother, insignis, e, reinarkable. contremisco 3. /<rewi6Ze, 
Boror, oris,/ sister. aedifico 1. / build. quake. 

imber, bris, ?m. rain. habito 1. I dwell. pingo 3. / paint; acu 
piscis, is, m.Jish. adjaceo 2. (with Dat.) / pingo, I embroider. 

rex, regis, m. king. lie by. saepe, adv. often. 

venator, dris, m. hunter, contorqueo 2. / hurl, sub (with Abl.), under* 
continuus, a, um, con- shoot. 

Aestate sub quercubus et in specubus libenter sedemus. Hortus re- 
gis ornatur multis pinlbus, ficis et lacubus. Puellae acubus pingunt. 
Oratores timldi saepe omnibus artubus contremiscunt. Venatores ar- 
cubus sagittas contorquent Dornus altitudo est insignis. Domui nos- 
trae adjacet lacus. Frater aedificat domum. Magnus numerus est 
domuum (domorum) in urbe. Domibus perniciosi sunt imbres con- 
tinui. Domos regis chigunt multae pinus. 

Oaks and pines surround our house. The king dwells in a beauti- 
ful house. We dwell in beautiful houses. The height of the house 
is remarkable. In the lake are fishes. The king has many and beau- 
tiful houses. I tremble in all [my] limbs. A great lake lies by our 
houses. My sisters embroider. Many houses are built in the city 
My brothers sit in the garden under oaks, and my sisters in grottos. 
Many arrows are shot by bows. 

§ 24. Fifth Declension. 

All nouns of the fifth declension end in the Nom. in es 
and are of the feminine gender. 




Exceptions: MascuHtie are, dies, a day, and meridies, mid-day; yet 
dies in the Sing, is feminine when it signifies a definite day, a dayjbced 
upon or appointed, as : dies dicta, dies constituta, a day appointed, also, 
when it signifies length of time, as : dies perexigua, a very short space ; 
still, in both these meanings it is sometimes used as masculine. 

Case-Endings and Paradigms. 

affair, thing. 


S. N. es 

PI. es 

S. res, PI. res 

dies, PI. 




rei rerum 





ret rebiis 



A. em 


rem res 



V. es 


res res 



A. e 


re rebus 



Rem. 1. The c in ei, the ending of the Gen. and Dat. is short when 
a consonant stands before it, as : rei, fidei ; but long when a vowel 
stands before it, as: diei, faciei. 

Rem. 2. Only res and dies form all the cases of the Sing, and Plur. ; 
all the other nouns of the fifth declension are destitute of the Gen., Dat. 
and Abl. Plur., these cases being supplied by the corresponding cases 
of synonymous nouns of the other declensions. 

Xin. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Spes, 6i,y*. hope. ad versus, a, um, ad- dulcis, e, sweet. 

Sierumna, aef. hardship, verse; res adversae, felicior, m. and^!, feli- 

trouble. adversity, cius, n., oris, more 

vita, ae,/. life. certus, a, um, certain. fortunate. 

solatium, i, n. consola- incertus, a, um, uncer- afflicto 1. / overwhelm. 

tion. tain. recreo 1. I refresh. 

conditio, onis, f. con- dubius, a, um, doubtful, amitto 3. / lose. 

dition, state. humanus, a,um,/i7iman. oppouo S. I oppose. 

tempus, oris, n. time. vanus, a, um, vain. facile, adv. easily. 

Spes incerta et dubia est. Vis spei est magna in animis hominum. 
Homines facile indulgent spei vanae. Spem feliciorum temporum non 
debemus amittere in aerumnis vitae. O spes, dulci solatio animos mis- 
erorum hominum recreas ! Spe vana saepe fallimur. Res humanae 
sunt incertae et dubiae. Conditio rerum humanurum est dubia. Re- 
bus adversis opponite virtutem. Ne extimescite res adversas. O res 
humanae, quam saepe animos hominum fallitis ! Animus sapientis 
non afflictatur rebus adveris. 


XIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Fides, 6i, / Jidelity. rarus, a, u m, rare. servo 1 . / preserve. 

amicitia, ae, /. friend- serenus, a, um, bright, debeo 2. / owe. 

ship. tutus, a, um, safe. conquiesco 3. Ifndsat- 

exemplum,i, n.exam/)Ze. verus, a, um, true. isfadion. 

salus, utis,/. safety, wel- tristis, e, lowery, sad. succedo 3. I follow. 

fare. avolo 1. Ify away, van- cito, adv. swiftly. 

ver, eris, n. spring. ish. cupide, adv. eagerly. 

adventus, us, m. arrival, convoco 1. 1 call togeth- etiam, conj. also. 
portus, us, m. haven. er. modo — modo, now — 

incorruptus, a, um, un- exspecto 1. / expect, now. 

corrupted. await. 

The fidelity of friends refreshes our minds in the hardships of life. 
Examples of true fidelity of friendship are rare. To the fidelity of 
our friends we owe our safety. The true friend preserves [his] fidelity 
also in adversity. O fidelity, thou providest for unfortunate men a 
safe haven ! In the fidelity of friends we find satisfaction. The days 
are now bright, now lowery. The arrival of the bright days of spring 
are to all men agreeable. Lowery days follow bright days. We 
eagerly await the bright days of spring. O ye beautiful days of spring, 
how swiftly you fly away! In (abl.) the bright days of spring we are 
delighted. Mid-day is bright. On (abl.) a certain day, the soldiers 
of the city are called together. 

§ 25. Comparison of Adjectives and Participles, 

1. There are three degrees of quality : 

1) The positive^ as : the man is learned (vir est doctus); 

2) The comparative^ as : the father is more learned than 
the son (pater est doct-ior qumm fflius) ; 

3) The superlative^ as : Cicero was the most learned of 
all the Romans (Cicero erat doct-issimus omnium Roman- 

2. The superlative, in Latin, is also used to express in 
general, a very high degree of a quality, as : pater tuus est 
doct-issimus^ thy father is very learned. 

8. For indicating the comparative and superlative, the 
Latin language has the following forms : 

a) For the comparative : tor, Masc. and Fern., his, neuter] 

b) For the superlative : isstmusy isstm,a, issimum. 




4. These endings are joined directly to the stem, which 
may be found, in all cases, by removing, in words of the 
second Declension, the Nominative-ending us, and in those 

of the third, the Genitive-ending is, as 

Laet-us, joiifvl 
doct-us, learned 
pudic-us, bashful^ modest 
imbecill-us, feeble 
lev-is, light 
fertll-is, fertile 
dives (G. divit-is), rich 
prudens (G. prudent-is), 

amaiis (G. amant-is), 

felix (G. felic-is), happy 

Comp. laet-ior, ius 

— doct-ior 

— pudic-ior 

— imbecill-tor 

— lev-ior 

— fertil-ior 

— divit-ior 

— prudent-ior 

Sup. \^eX-issimus, a, um 

— dioci-issimus 

— YiudXc-issimus 

— imbecill-miwiiw 

— \ew-issimus 

— {erxW-issimus 

— AWxi-isaimus 

— prudent-i*5imi« 

— amant-ior — amant-wMmiw 

— felic-ior — felic-mmw* 

5. Adjectives in er have the ending rimus, a, um in the 
superlative, as : 

miser (G. miser-i), a, um [unhappy) celer (G. cel6r-is), is, e, [sim/l) 
miser-ior, ius celer-ior, ius 

miser-nmw5, a, um ; celer-nmiw, a, um ; 

pulcher (G. pulchr-i), a, um {heauii- pauper (G. pauper-is), {poor) 

ful) pauper-ior, ius 

pulchr-ior, ius pauper-rimws, a, um. 

pulcher-rimiw, a, um. 

So also : vetus, G. veter-is, old (Comp. veterior, ius, is rarely used) 
Sup. veter-rimus ; and nuper-us, a, um, recenty (Comp. wanting) Sup. 

6. The six following adjectives in ilis form the superla- 
tive by adding limus to the stem, viz : facTlis, easy, difficTlis, 
difficult, similis, like, dissimilis, unlike, gracilis, slim, slender^ 
and humilis, loiu, as: 

facil-is, e C. facil-ior, ius S. facil-Zmii5, a, um. 

7. Compound adjectives in dicus ficus and volus, form 
the comparative by adding entior, ius, and the superlative 
by adding entissimus, a, um to the root, as : 

maledlcus, slanderous C. maledic-eniior S. msX^AiQ-entissimus 
magnificus, magnifcent magnific-en^ior magmfic-entissimus 

benevolus, benevolent benevol-enfior hcne}fo\-entissimus 




But those in dicus (i long) are compared regularly, as : 
pudicus, bashful^ modesty pudic-ior, pudic-issimus. 

8. Besides, the following adjectives of irregular compari- 
son are to be observed : 

bonus, good 


. mel^oVf iuSj better 

S. optimus, a, Mm, best 

malus, had 



magnus, great 



parvus, small 



multus, much 

plus (neutr.) more 

plurimus, most 

plures (m. and f. ),plura plurimi^ most 

(n. ) more 

nequam, wuhed 


, nequ-ior, 

S. nequissimus 

senex, old 



juvenis, young 



exterus, outward 


extremus, outermost 

inferus, helow 

infer-ior^ ^ 

infimus and imus^ lowest 

superus, above 


supremus, and summvs 

posterus, hind 


postrtmuSj Undermost 

9. Finally, there are several adjectives of which the posi- 
tive is wanting, e. g. : 

(citra, on this side) citer-ior, ius citimus, nearest 

(intra, within) inter-ior, ius intlmus, inmost 

(ultra, beyond) ulter-ior, ius ultimus, last 

(prope, near) prop-ior, ius proximus, next 

Rem. 1. Instead of the comparison by terminations, the Latin lan- 
guage often expresses the comparative by the positive with magis 
(more), and the superlative by the positive with maxime (most). This 
periphrastic form is necessary in those adjectives which want the ter- 
minational comparative and superlative. 

Rem. 2. Some adjectives have a superlative but not a comparative 
form, as: novus, new, novissimus; invictus, invincible, invictissimus. 
On the contrary, others have a comparative but not a superlative form, 
as : diuturnus, lasting, diuturnior, maxime diuturnus ; procHvis, sloping^ 
inclined, proclivior, maxime proclivis ; especially, nearly all in "dis, llis, 
dlis, bilis, as : agllis, nimble, agilior, maxime agilis. 

Rem. 3. To the adjectives which have not the terminational com- 
parison, belong: a) those which have a vowel before the ending us, as; 
idoneus, fit, magis idoneus, maxime idoneus ; plus, pious, affectionate ; 
perspicuus, clear; egregius, excellent; necessanus, necessary ; — b) nearly 
all in, Icus, \mus, Inus, Ivus, orus, undus, andus, bundus, as : lubricus, 
slippery ; legitimus, lawful, matutinus, early, fugitivus, fugitive, canorus, 
harmonious, venerandus, worthy of veneration, moribundus, dying ; — c) 
several of no particular class, as : almus, nourishing, canus, hoary, cicur, 
tam^f claudus, lam£, compos, powerfvlj impos, impotent of curvus, bent^ 


ferus, hiUd, gnarus, acquainted with, mediocris, mediocre, inemor, mind- 
fid of, mirus, wonderful, par, equal, proedltus, endowed with, rudis, rude, 
etc. ; — finally, some, which, on account of their signification, admit of 
no degrees; e. g. those which denote a material; those compounded 
•with per, prae (except praeclarus) and suh, as : permagnus, very great, 
praedives, very rich, subdifficilis, somewhat difficult ; those having the 
diminutive form, as : parvulus, tiny, vetulus, oldish. 

XV. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Beneficentia, ae,/. he- lux, lucis,/. light. munificus, a, um, mu- 

neficence. ratio, on is,/, reason. nificent 

luna, ae, f the nwon. simulatio, onis,/. ^re- secundus, a, um,/avor- 

natura, ae,/ nature. tence. able; res secundae, 

sa\)\entm,ae,f. wisdom, sol, solis, m. swn. prosperity. 

odium, i, n. hatred. sonltus, us, m. sound. amabllis, e, amiable. 

amor, oris, m. love. accommodatus, a, um, velox, ocis, surijl. 

hirundo, inis, / swal- suited to. nihil, indecl., nothing, 

low. garrulus, a, um, chatter- quam, conj., than. 

liberalitas, atis,/ liber- ing, loquacious, 

Nihil est naturae hominis accommodatius, quam beneficentia. Nihil 
est amabilius, quam virtus. Lux est velocior, quam sonitus. Nihil est 
melius, quam sapientia. Multi magis garruli sunt, quam hirundines. 
Pauperes saepe sunt munificentiores, quam divites. In adversis rebus 
saepe sunt homines prudentiores, quam in secundis. Divitissimorum 
vita saepe est miserrima. Simulatio amoris pejor est, quam odium. 
Nihil est melius, quam ratio. Sol major est, quam terra ; luna minor 
est, quam terra. 

XVI. Words to be learned and Exercises far translation. 

Patria, ae, /. native adulatio, 6nis,y!/af<e- beneficus, a, um, 6ene/*- 
country. ry. icent. 

poeta, ae, m. a poet. similitudo, inis,/. simi- Graecus, a, um, Greek. 

simia, ae,/. an ape. larity. suus, a, um, his, her^ 

Syracusae, arum, / valetudo, inis, / health. its. 

Syracuse. affinitas, atis,/ relation- niger, gra, grum, black, 

corvus, i, m. a crow. ship. celeber, bris, bre, fre- 

malum, i, n. evil. virgo, inis, / a young quented. 

murus, i, m. a wall. woman. bre vis, e, short. 

Homerus, i, m. Homer, crus, uris, n. shin, leg. simplex, icis, simple. 

Lacedaemonius, i, m. beatus, a, um, peaceful, valeo 2. I am strong, 
a Lacedemonian happy. avail. 

labor, oris, m. labor. contemno 3. / despise. 

Omnium beatissimus est sapiens. Homerus omnium Graecorum 


poetarum est veterrimus. Adulatio est pessimum malum. Urbs Syra- 
cusae maxima et pulcherrima erat omnium Graecarum urbium. Pes- 
simi homines sunt maledicentissimi. In amicitia plus valet similitude 
morum, quam affinitas. 

Nothing is better than virtue. God is the greatest, best and wisest 
-of all. The customs of the Lacedemonians were very simple. The 
horse is very swift. Crows are very black. The haven is very much 
frequented. The father is very benevolent and very beneficent. The 
king is building a very magnificent palace (=house). Young women 
should (= must) be veiy modest. The ape is very much like man. 
The leg of the stork is very slender. Nothing is sweeter than friend- 
ship. The Lacedemonians were very brave. Light is very swift. 
Nothing is worse than the pretence of love. The sun is very great 
The life of man is veiy short. The richest are often the most wretch- 
ed. The poorest are often the happiest. The labor is very easy. The 
customs of men are very unlike. The king is very munificent. The 
worst men are often very happy. The best men are often despised 
by (ab) the worst. The health of my friend is very feeble. The 
garden of thy father is very beautiful. The labor is very hard. The 
walls of the city are very low. Most men love their native countiy. 


Of the Adverb. 
§ 26. Classification and Formation of Adverbs. 

1. The common endings of adverbs (§ 6, 4.) are e and er 
{iter) ; those derived from adjectives of the second declen- 
sion, axe formed by annexing e to the root of the adjective, 
as: clarns, clar-e, liber (G. liber-i), liber-e, pulcher (G. pul- 
chr-i), pulchr-e. Only bene (well) from bonus, and male 
(badly), from malus have a short e. 

2. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declen- 
sion are formed, by adding er to the stem of those in ans 
and ens, and iter to the stem of all others, as : 

clar-us, a, um, dear^ renoumed clar-c 

liber, a, um, (G. Iib6r-i),/ree lib^r-e 




pulcher, chra, chrum (G. pulchr-i) pulchr-e 
prudens (G. prudent-is), knowing prudent-cr 

amans (G. amant-is), loving amant-er 

fortis (G. fort-is), brave fort-iter 

Audax (G. audac-is), bold, has audac-fer (for audac-lter). 

3. Besides adverbs of the above-named endings, there 
are a number which have the termination of neuter adjec- 
tives in either the accusative or ablative case, as : multum, 
micch, plurimum, most, solum and tantum, ow/?/, facile, easily^ 
difficile (and difficulter), 26;tYA difficulti/, lecens, recently ,•'—> 
tuto, safely, raro, rarely, continuo, immediately, cTehro, fre- 
quently, f also, falsely, subito, suddenly, perpeiuo, continually, 

4. There are still other adverbial terminations, as : coel- 
itus, from heaven, penitus, deeply, entirely; sensim, by de- 
grees, passm, everyivhere ; caterva^im, by troops, grega^m, 
by flocks, etc. 

§ 27. Comparison of Adverbs, 

Adverbs derived from adjectives use for the comparative, 
the neuter singular of the comparative of the adjectives 
from which they are derived, and in the superlative change 
us of the superlative of their adjectives into e, as : 

laet-e, joijfvlly Comp. \aet-ius Sup 

. laet-mime, most joyfully 

doct-e, learnedly 



lev-iter, lightly 



felic-Iter, happily 



magnific-e, magnificently 



simil-iter, alike 



ben-e, well 

mel-ius better 

optime, best 

mal-e, badly 







Of the Pronoun (Comp. § 6, 5). 
§ 28. I. Personal Pronouns. 

a. Substanti 

ve Personal Pronouns. 




tu, thou 



mei, of me 

tui, of thee 

sui, of himself her- 


mlhi, to me 

tibi, to thee 

self etc. 


me, me 

te, thee 

sibi, to himself etc. 


me, by me 

te, by thee 

se, himself etc. 
se, by himself etc. 


DOS, we 

vos, you 



nostri, of \jls 

vestri, of you 

sui, of themselves 

nostrum, of armng 

vestrum, of among 




nobis, to us 

vobis to you 

sibi, to themselves 


nos, u^ 

vos, you 

se, themselves 


nobis, by us. 

vobis, by you. 

se, by themselves. 

Rem. 1. The Voc. of all the pronouns, if used, is like the Nom. 
The preposition cum (with), which governs the Abl., is joined to me, te, 
etc., thus : mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum, unth me, wiih 
thee, wiih one's self with us, with you. 

Rem. 2. In order to give more emphasis to the personal pronouns, 
the syllable met is added to all the forms given in the above table, with 
the exception of tu and the Gen. Plur. of ego and tu, as : egomet, te- 
met, siblmet, nosmet, vosmet ;^to tu is added te : tute, thou thyself 
— se is doubled to render it more emphatic : sese. For the difference 
of meaning between nostri, vestri and nostrum, vestrum, see § 94. 

b. Adjective Personal Pronouns or Possessive 
Adjective-personal pronouns are formed from the Gen. 
of Substantive-personal pronouns. They are called pos- 
sessive, because they represent an object(B|as the possession 
of an individual of the first, second or third person. 

From wiei comes mens, mea, meum, my. (For the Voc. mi see § 

iV. Rem. 1.) 

— tui — tuus, tua, tuum, thy. 

— sui — suus, sua, suum, his, her, its. 

— nostri — noster, nostra, nostrum, our. 

— vestri — vester, vestra, vestrum, your. 


Remark 3. For giving greater force and emphasis, the ending pte 
is joined to the Abl. Sing, of suits, as : suopte manu, udth his (own, very) 
hand, suopte gladio (with his sword). For the same reason also, met 
(see Rem. 2) is joined to the oblique cases of suus, as : suismet capitibus. 

XVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Magister, tri, m. teacher, aequalis, e. eqv^il. laboro 1. / labor. 

praeceptum, i, n. pre- SRlutAils, e. salutary. narro 1. I relate. 

cept, principle. [er. canto 1. / sing. voco 1. / call. 

praeceptor,6ris, m.imcA- clamo 1. I cry. doleo 2. I grieve. 

tractatio, onis, f. hand- impero 1. (with Dat.) / disco 3. / learn. 

ling, pursuit. ^ command, govern. ludo 3. I play. 

Veritas, atis,/ truth. imperium, i, n. com- attente, adv. attentively, 
gratus, a, urn, agreeable. mxind, dominion. inter, praep. (with Ace), 

iratus, a, um, offended, between, among. 


Rule of Syntax. The personal pronouns in the Nom., 6g*o, tu, etc., 
are used only when there is some emphasis to be placed upon them, 
hence especially in antitheses. The same is true of the possessive 
pronouns, meus, tuus, etc., e. g. meus frater diligens est, <mw5 piger ; but: 
frater me amat (not : frater meus me amat). 

Ego canto, tu clamas, amicus vocat. Nos narramus, vos saltatis, 
fratres laborant. Ego fleo, tu rides, frater dolet. Nos, praeceptores, 
docemus, vos, discipuli, discitis. Ego ludo, tu discis, soror acu pingit 
Nos scribimus, vos legltis, fratres pingunt. Ego salio, tu feris, puer 
dormit Nos, magistri, vos, o discipuli, erudimus ; vos, boni discipuli, 
attente auditis praecepta nostra. Virtutes inter se aequales sunt. Im- 
perare sibi maximum imperium est. Iratus non est apud se. Tracta- 
tio litterarum nobis salutaris est. Veritas semper mihi grata est. 

XVIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Modus, i, m. measure, proximus, a, um, next, obrepo 3. (with dat.) 1 
manner. par, aris, equal. creap up, steal upon. 

vitium, i, n. a fault. dimico 1. I fight. acrlter, adv. spiHtedly. 

civis, is, m. citizen. discordo 1. I am at va- per, praep. (with ace), 

parentes, ium, m. pa- riance with. through. 

rents. porto 1. / bear, carry. propter, praep. (with 

caput, itis, n. head. faveo 2. I favor. ace), on account of. 

cantus, us/fn^ong-. splendeo 2. / shine. - de,praep. (with abl), of, 

redltus, iis, m. return. expeto 3. / strive to ob- concerning, over, at. 

Vitia nobis virtutum nomine obrepunt. Nos favemus vobis, vos fa- 
vetis nobis. Tu me amas, ego te amo. Mihi mea vita, tibi, tua cara 
est Virtus splendet per se semper. Cantus nos delectat. Parentes 


a nobis diliguntur. O mi fili, semper mihi pare ! Frater me et te 
amat. Egomet mihi sum proximus. Tute tibi impera. Virtus prop- 
ter sese colitur. Suapte natura virtus expetitur. Gives de suismet 
capitibus dimicant. Sapiens omnia sua secum portat Nos vobiscum 
de patris reditu gaudemus. Tu tecum pugnas. Oratio tua tecum pug- 
nat. Deus tecum est. Saepe animus secum discordat Hostes nobis- 
cum acrlter pugnant. 

I relate, thou dancest, the brother labors. We sing, you write, the 
friends call. I, the teacher, teach ; thou, the scholar, learnest. We 
weep, you laugh, the brothers grieve. I write, thou readest, the broth- 
er paints. We play, you learn, the sisters embroider. I, the teacher, 
instruct thee, O scholar ; thou, O good scholar, hearest attentively my 
precepts. The enemies fight spiritedly with you. Angry [men] are 
not in tJieir right mind (= by themselves). God is with us. You re- 
joice with us at the return of [our] father. 

I carry all my [secrets] with myself. O my son and my daughter, 
always obey me ! You love us, we love you. Our life is dear to us, 
yours to you. Bad men are always at variance with themselves. The 
pursuit of literature is salutary to me. Truth is always agreeable to 
us. Our parents love thee and me in (abl.) like (= equal) manner. 
Men love themselves. Virtue is beautiful in (per) itself I favor thee, 
thou favorest me. Our native country is dear to us. 

XIX. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Cura, ae, /. care, con- industrius, a, um, in- immemor, oris, un- 

cern. dustrious, diligent. mindful of. 

ira, ae,/. anger. mirus, a, um, wonder- potens, ntis, powerful, 

desiderium, i. n. long- ful, extraordinary. master of. 

ing, desire. perfidus, a, um, /aifft.- impotens, ntis, nofjsot^;- 

conservatrix, icis, f. less. erful, not master of. 

preserver. absens, ntis, absent. teneo 2. / hold, possess. 

judex, icis, m. judge. insiplens, ntis, unwise, ango 3. 1 trouble. 

benignus, a, um, kind, memor,^ oris, mindful 

Omnis natura est conservatrix sui (presei*ver of herself). Mirum 
desiderium urbis, meorum et tui me tenet (longing after the city, etc.). 
Pater vehementer tua sui memoria delectatur (by thy remembrance of 
him). Ira est impotens sui. Sapiens semper potens sui est. Vestri 
cura me angit (concern for you). Omnes homines sunt benigni judi- 
cessui. Vehementer grata mihi est memoria nostri tua (thy remem- 
brance of us). Amicus mei et tui est memor. Pater absens magno 




desiderio tenetur mei, et tui, mi frater, et vestri, o sorores. Amici sunt 
nostri memores. Multi vestrum mihi placent. Plurimi nostrum te 
valde diligunt. 

The absent father has a great concern /or us (= of us). The unwise 
[man] is not master of himself. The faithless friend is unmindful of 
me. Your remembrance of me is very agreeable. Care about thee 
(= of thee) troubles me. The most of you, my scholars, are diligent. 
The most of us love [our] native country. 

§ 29. II. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Singular. | 


IS, ea, id, Ae, she, it ; the same 

i-dem, ea-dem, i-dem, the very 


ejus, of him, her, it; of the 

ejus-dem, ofth£ very same 


ei, to him, her, it ; to the same 

ei-dem, to the very same 


eum, eam, id, him, her, it ; the 

eun-dem, ean-dem, idem, the 


very same 


eo, ea, eo, ly him, her, it ; by 

eo-dem, ea-dem, eo-dem, by the 

the same. 

very same. 

Plural. 1 


ii, eae, ea, they ; the same 

ii-dem, eae-dem, ea-dem, the 
very same 


eorum, earum, eorum, of them ; 

eorun-dem, earun-dem, eorun- 

of the same 

dem, o/ the very same 


iis (seldom eis), to them; to 

iis-dem (eis-dem), to tJie very 

the sarne 



eos, eas, ea, them ; the same 

eos-dem, eas-dem, ea-dem, the 
very same 


iis (seldom mj, by them ; by 

iis-dem (eis-dem), by the very 

the same. 


Remark. 1. The pronoun is, ea, id may be translated as follows : 
1) the same (the one just mentioned); 2) Gen. e. g. filius ejus, his or her 
son. Dat., to him, to her, to it. Ace. him, her, it ; Plur. Nom. they, Gen. 
e. g. filius eorum or earum, their son, Dat. to them, Ace. them ; — 3) in 
connection with a noun : this, e. g. eum regem, this king; ; — 4) he, shCf 
it (who). In the oblique cases, it is distinguished from sui and suus in 
meaning, by not referring back, as they do, to the subject of the 






istg, ista, istad, this, that 

ill6, ilia, illud, thM 


istius, of this, of that 

illi us, of that 


istI, to this, to that 

illi, to that 


istum, islam, istud, this, that 

ilium, illam, illud, that 


isto, ista, isto, by this, by that. 

illo, ilia, illo, by that. 

Plural (after the II. Dec.) 

N. isti, ae, a; G. istorum, arum, orum ; D. and Abl. istis; A. istos, as, a ; 

N. illi, ae, a ; G. illorum, arum, orum ; D. and Abl. illis ; A. illos, as, a. 


Nom.|hIc, haec, hoc, this 

ipse, ipsa, ipsum, self 


hujus, of this 



huic, to this 



hunc, banc, hoc, this 

ipsum, ipsam, ipsum 


hoc, hac, hoc, by this. 

ipso, ipsa, ipso. 


N. hi,hae,Aacc; G. horum,harum, horum; D. and Abl. his; A. hos, has, Aace; 

N. ipsi, ipsae, ipsa ; G. ipsorum, arum, orum; D. and Abl. ipsis; A. ipsos,as,a. 

Remark 2. The enclitic ce is joined to hie, haec, hoc in order to in- 
crease its demonstrative power : hicce, haecce, hocce, this here ; the 
following forms occur most frequently : hujusce, hosce, hisce. From 
these forms connected with the interrogative particle ne we have : hic- 
cine, haeccine, hoccine, this ? but in general only after a foregoing c. 
Also from the connection of this ce with iste and ille we have the fol- 
lowing forms : Sing. N. istic, istaec, istuc ; illic, illaec, illuc ; Ace. is- 
tunc, istanc, istuc ; illunc, illanc, illuc ; Abl. istoc, istac, istoc ; illoc, iliac, 
illoc ; PL N. and Ace. Neut istaec, illaec. 

The student may decline : 
idem equus, the very same horse, eadem rana, the very same frog, idem 

vitium, the very same fault, G. ejusdem equi, ejusdem ranae, ejusdem 

vitii ; 
iste vir, this man, ista femina, this woman, istud nomen, this name, istius 

viri, istius feminae, istius nomlnis ; 
hie puer, this boy, haec puella, this girl, hoc praeceptum, this precept, 

hujus pueri, hujus puellae, hujus praecepti ; 

ille sensus, that feeling, ilia res, that thing, illud cornu, titat horn^ 

illius sensus, illius rei, illius cornus (u). 

Rem. 3. Hie, haec, hoc, refers to an object in the presence of the one speak- 
ing, which pertains to the one speaking or which he calls attention to ; iste, 
ista, istud refers to an object in the presence of the one addressed or which 
pertains to the one addressed ; ille, ilia, illud refers to an object which lies 
remote from the speaker and forms a contrast with hie, haec, hoc. 



XX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Diligentia, ae, f. dili- dux, uc\s,m. leader, gen- mendax, acis, lying, 

gence, exactness. eral. liar. 

ignavia, ae,/. indolence. Xenophon, ontis, m. hebeto 1. / hlunt, en- 

litterae, arum,/. a^e</er. Xenophon. feeble. 

memoria, ae,/. memory, carmen, mis, n. poem, firmo 1. / make firm^ 

scliola, ae,/. a school, addictus, a, um^ devoted strengthen. 

sententia, ae,/ opinion, to. vito ] . / avoid. 

view. fidus, a, um, faithful. placeo 2. I please. 

scriptor, oris, m. writer, saevus, a, um, fierce, displiceo 2. / displease, 

auctoritas, atis, / au- cruel. faveo 2. I am favorable 

thority. elegans, ntis, elegant. to. 

tarditas, atis, /. sloto- iners, ertis, awkward, credo 3. / believe, trust. 

ness, indolence. inactive. 

Xenophon est elegantissimus scriptor ; ejus libros libenter lego. 
Amicum fidum babeo ; ei addictissimus sum. Fratris carmen valde 
mihi placet ; lege id. Ignavia corpus hebetat, labor firmat ; illam vita, 
hunc expgte. Hae litterae graviter me movent. Haec carmlna suavis- 
sima sunt. Isti homini mendaci ne crede. Huic duci milites libenter 
parent. Illi viro omnes favent. Praeclarum est istud tuum praceptum. 
Haec sententia mihi placet, ilia displicet. Hoc bellum est saevissi- 
mum. Hie puer industrlus est, ille iners. Memoria teneo praeclarum 
illud praeceptum. Iste tuus amicus est vir oj>timus. Ista vestra auc- 
toritas est maxima. Hujus discipuli diligentia m kudo, illius tarditatem 
vitup&ro ; illi schola est gratissima, huic molestissima. 

XXI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Fortuna, ae,//oriwne. clarus, a, um, clear, re- tracto 1. I pursue. 

Alexander, dri, m. Alex- nowned. obsideo 2. / besiege. 

ander. Delphicus, a um, Del- studeo 2. I strive. 

Pompeius, i, m. Pom- phic. fido 3. I trust. 

pey. inimicus, a, um,^05<t7e; d'lffido. I distrust. 

factum, i, n. deed. subst. enemy. nosco 3. I am acquaint- 

meritum, i, n. desert. seditiosus, a, um, sedi- ed urlth, know. 

oraculum, i, n. oracle. tious. agnosco 3. [understand. 

Caesar, aris, m. Caesar, admirabilis, e, wonder- resisto 3. Iresist. 

imperator, oris, m. gen- ful. sentio 4. / feel, think, 

eral. laudabllis, e,praisewor- judge. [.fr. 

virtus, litis,/ bravery. thy. pro, praep. (with abl.) 

opus, eris, n. work. expugno 1. 1 capture. quia, conj. because. 

Multi homines de iisdem rebus eodem die non eadem sentiunt. In- 
sipiens eidem sententiae modo fidit, modo difFidit. Ipsi imperatori se- 
ditiosi milites resistunt. Animus ipse se movet. Virtus est per se ipsa 


laudabilis. Saepe nihil est homini inimicius, quam sibi ipse. Omne 
animal se ipsum diligit. Carior nobis esse debet patria, quam nosmet 
ipsi. Praeclarum est illud praeceptum oraculi Delphici : Nosce te ip- 
sum. Mendax saepe sibi ipsi difFidit 

Xenophon is a very elegant writer, I read him with very great de- 
light (libentissime). The brother and his friend are very dear to me. 
The teacher praises and censures the scholars according to {pro with 
abl.) their desert. We perceive God from his works. We honor [our] 
parents, because their deserts to [de with abl.) us are very great. The 
enemies besiege the city and strive to capture it. 

This book I read with delight. This poem pleases me, that dis- 
pleases. I praise the industry of this scholar. The deeds of that great 
Alexander are extolled by (ab) all writers. Caesar and Pompey were 
very renowned generals ; to that, fortune was more favorable than to 
this ; the bravery of this and that [one] was wonderful. 

The king himself is leader of the army. Thou dost not always 
judge the very same concerning the very same thing. The father and 
the son pursue the very same literary studies (= literature). The 
virtues are of (per) themselves praiseworthy. Man loves himself. 
[Thy] native country ought to be dearer to thee than thou thyself 
Understand yourselves. Liars often distrust themselves. 

§ 30. III. Relative Pronouns. 

IV. Interrogative Pronouns. 









qui, quae, quod, who, which 
cujus, whose, of whom, of which 
cui, to whom, to which 
quern, quam, quod, whom, which 
quo, qua, quo, by whom, by which 


' qui, quae, quae, who, which 
quorum, quarum, quorum, 

whose, of whom, ofivhich 
qiiibus, to whom, to which 
quos, quas, quae, ivhom, which 
quibus, by whom, by which. 

quis{m. &/),.quid, who ? whaf^ 
cujus, whose ? of whom ? of what ? 
cui, to whom'^ to whaf? 
quern, quam, quid, ivhom ? what? 
quo, qua, quo, by whom, by what ? 

qui, quae, quae, who ? what ? 
quorum, quarum, quorum 

whose? of whom? of what? 
quibus, to whom ? to what ? 
quos, quas, quae, ivhom? what? 
quibus, by whom? by what? 

Rem. 1. The preposition cum is joined to the Abl., as: quocum, for 
which quicum is often used. 

Rem. 2. In quisquis [quaequae rare), 92ac9iac?( whoever, whatever) both 
pronouns are declined, as: quoquo, quibusquibiis, e. g. quoquo modo 


res se habet, in whatever way the thing has itself; quicquid id est, what^ 
ever it is ; On the contrary, in quicunque^ quaecunque, quodcunque (which- 
soever, whatsoever) cunque is barely annexed to the different cases of 
^M?, quae^ quod, as : G. cujuscunque, etc. : 

Rem. 3. Quis, quid, are used substantively, as : quis scribit ? quid 
scribitiH' ? So also in the Ace, as : quid agis ? The remaining forms 
do not differ from qui, quae, quod used interrogatively ; but qui, quae, 
quod in this case, is always an adjective, e. g. quern vides ? whom do you 
see ? quem houiinem vides ? what man do you see ? For the purpose of 
strengthening the interrogation, nam is annexed to the above mention- 
ed interrogative pronouns, as: quisnam clamat ? who cries out thenf 
quidnam agis? what do you do then'^ quinam homo clamat.^ quaenam. 
mulier venit.^^ quodnam genus est.^ and so through all the cases. 

XXII. fVords to be learned and Exercises for translation. 
Civitas, atis,/. state. probus, a, um, upright, honoro 1. 1 honor. 
lex, egis,/. law. sanctus, a, um, sacred, gero 3. I carry on. 

mors, rtis, /. death. ' mitis, e, mild. succurro 3. / assist. 

immaturus, a, um, wn- euro 1. (with ace.) I ex'dudlo 4. I listen to. 

timely. care for, look out for. ardenter, adv. ardently y 

Justus, a, um, just. devasto 1. I lay waste. eagerly. 

maleficus, a, um, evil ; guberno 1. / govern, 

subst. evil-doer. rule. 

Rex, qui civitatem gubernat, civium salutem curare debet. Regi, cu-^ 
jus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent. Regem, 
cui leges sunt sanctae, cives colunt Felix est rex, quem omnes cives 
amant. O rex, qui civitatem nostram gubernas, honora bonos cives, 
terre maleficos, succurre miseris, exaudi probos ! Acerba et immatura 
est mors eorum, qui immortale opus parant. Non semper est illud 
bonum, quod ardenter expetimus. Beati sunt ii, quorum vita virtutia 
praeceptis regitur. Hostis, quocum bellum geritur, terram nostram de-^ 

The kings who govern the states, ought to look out for (ace.) the 
welfare of the citizens. The kings, whose government is mild and 
just, all citizens obey with delight The kings, to whom the laws are 
sacred, are obeyed by all the citizens. The kings are fortunate, who 
are loved by all the citizens. O kings, who govern our states, honor 
the good citizens, frighten the evil, assist the wretched, listen to the 
upright ! The enemies, with whom you carry on war, lay waste our 

XXIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Luscinia, ae, /. night- ij^eccki\im,\,n. sin, fault, honestus, a, um, w»/m- 
ingale. opinio, onis, /. opinion. ous. 



falsus, a, um, false. cogito 1. I think of. indulgeo 2. 1 am indul- 
ingiatus, a, um, disa- excrucio I . / torment. gent to. 

greeable, ungrateful, repugno 1. I am repug- ago 3. / drive^ do, treat, 
utilis, e, useful. nant to. dico 3. / say, tell. 

ambulo 1. I go to walk, habeo 2. 7 have; me quaero 3. I seek. 

take a walk. habeo, / have myself, cur, why. 

Quis me vocat ? Quid agis, mi amice ? Quis scribit has litteras ? 
Quid cogltas ? Quid ago? cur me excrucio? Quae amieitia est inter 
ingratos ? Quod carmen legis ? Quis homo venit ? Quis poeta dul- 
cior est, quam Homerus ? Cujus vox suavior est, quam vox lusciniae ? 
Quibus peccatis facillime indulgemus ? 

Quicquid est honestum, idem est utile. Quicquid vides, currit cum 
tempore. Quoquo modo res sese habet, ego sententiam meam defen- 
do. Quaecunque opinio veritati repugnat, falsa est. 

What sayest thou ? Who is that man ? Who is that woman ? 
With whom does thy friend go to walk ? Whom seekest thou ? What 
book readest thou ? To whom dost thou write this letter ? In what- 
ever manner the thing has itselfj we praise thy view. 

§ 31. V. Indefinite Pronouns. 

1) quis, qua, quid, any one^ any thing (substantively), 
Ace. quem, quam, quid. Nom. Pi. qui, quae, qua; the re- 
maining cases are the same as those of the relative qui^ 
quae, quod;—<im, quae, quod, any one, any thing-, (adjective- 
ly), is declined like the relative qui, quae, quod; 

2) aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, some one, something, (substan- 
tively). Ace. aliquem, aliquam, aliquid, Nom. PI. aliqui, 
ae, a; — aliqui, aliqua (aliquae very seldom), aliquod, (used 
adjectively). PL aliqui, ae,, a; 

3) quispiam, quaepiam^ quidpiam, any one, some one, 
any thing, some thing (i. e. any one, etc., indifferently from 
a larger number), used substantively ;—qm^^mm, quaepiam, 
quodpiam, (used adjectively), G. cujuspiam, etc.; 

4) quisquam, quicquam, (scarcely, hardly,) one, any one, 
any thing, used substantively; quisquam, (quaequam. rare), 
quodquam, used a^yec^iz;e/y, G. cujusquam, etc.; this pro- 
noun is used principally in negative sentences ; 

5) ecquis, ecqua, ecquod, lohether any one ? any thiiig? 


used substantively ; ecqui, ecquae, ecquod, used adjectively, 
G. eccujus, etc. ; 

6) quidam, quaedam, quiddam, ct certain one^a certain 
things used substantively ; quidam, quaedam, quodam, used 
adjectively^ G. cujusdam, etc.; 

7) quisque, quaeque, quidque, (as subst.)^ and quodque, 
(as adj.) each one^ each., G. cuj usque, etc. ; unusquisque, 
unaquaeque, unumquidque (as subst.), and unumquodque, 
(as adj.), each one (to a man), G. uniuscujusque, etc.; qui- 
vis, quaevis, quidvis (as subst.), and quodvis (as adj.), any 
one, any thing you choose, without exception, G. cujusvis, 
etc. ; quilibet, quaelTbet, quidlibet (as subst.), and quodlibet 
(as adj.), any one, any thing you please, indifferently, G. cu- 
juslibet, etc. ; 

8) alius, alter, ullus, wullus, neuter, see in <5> 33, Rem. 5. 

XXIV. Words to be kamed and Exercises for translation. 

Graecia, ae,y! Greece. d\gmta.s,a.t\s, f. dignity, impendeo 2. I threaten. 

pecunia, ae,y! monei/. mens, t\s, f. understand- inhaereo 2. I inJiere. 

locus, i, m. a place, sit- ing, intellect. adlmo 3. / take away. 

tuition. jus, uris, n. wfuit is just, tribuo 3. I give. 

augurium, i, n. presage, justitia, slg, f. justice. idcirco, adv. on this ac- 
saecdlum, i, n. hundred futurus, a, um, future. count. 

years, an age. insitus, a, um, inborn, quasi, adv. as if. 

terror, oris, m. terror. 

Si mortem timemus, semper aliqui terror nobis impendet. Si cui- 
piam pecuniam fortuna adimit, idcirco miser non est Graecia parvum 
quendam locum Europae tenet Inhaeret in mentibus nostris quasi 
quoddam augurium futurorum saeculorum. In unoquoque virorum bo- 
norum habitat deus. Justitia jus unicuique tribiiit pro dignitate cujus- 
que. Cuique nostrum amor vitae est insitus, 

§ 32. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under correlative pronouns are embraced all those pro- 
nouns which express a reciprocal relation (correlation) to 
each other and exhibit this relation by corresponding forms. 
Thus e. g. 






fndef. Relative. 

qualis, of what 

talis, of such 


qualiscunque, of 


a kind^such 

/cmrf, as 

tchatever kind 

quantus, how 

tantus, so 


quantus, as 






however great 


quot,* hoto 

tot,* 50 many 


qnot,* as 

quotunque*, or 

many ? 

so many 



quotquot,* how- 
ever many. 

XXV. Jfords to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Bonum, i, n. the good, respubllca, reipubllcae, princeps, ipis, m. first, 

Aristides, is. m. Jtisti- the state. prince. [fault. 

des. permultus, a, um, very pecco 1. I sin, commit a 

.grex, egis, nu a herd. much, many. soleo 2. lam accustomed. 

imitator, oris, m. imita- fragilis, e, perishable. exsisto 3. / exist, am. 

tor. quod, conj. because, thai. 

Quot sunt homines, tot sunt sententiae. Non tantum malum est hoc, 
-quod peccant principes, quantum illud, quod permulti imitatores prin- 
cipum exsistunt. Quot genera orationum sunt, totldem oratorum ge- 
nera reperiuntur. Quales sunt duces, tales sunt milltes. Qualis est 
rex, talis est grex. Quales in republica sunt principes, tales solent 
■esse cives. Ne contemne homines miseros, qualescunque sunt Cor- 
poris et fortunae bona, quantacunque sunt, incerta ac fragilia sunt. 
Quotquot homines sunt, omnes vitam amant. Quotcunque sunt scrip- 
^res, omnes Aristidis justitiam praedicant 


Of the Numeral. 

§ 33. Classification and Tabular View of the Numerals, 

Numerals (§ 6, 6) according to their meaning, may be 
divided into the following classes : 

a) Cardinals, which answer the question, hoio many? 
quot ? as : one, two, etc. 

* All these words are indeclinable and are used only in the plural, as : 
^uot homines sunt ? tothominumnumerus j aliquot hominibus ; tot homines, 
<luot video, so many men as I see; homines, quotcunque or quotquot video, 
<omnes boni sunt. 


Rem. 1. The first three cardinal numbers are declined (Remarks 
5 and 6, pp. 56, 57) ; but from 4 to 100 they are indeclinable, while 
from 200 to 900 they are declined like the phiral of adjectives of three 
endings in i, ae, a. For mUle see Rem. 4. p. 56. 

b) Ordinals^ which answer the question, ivhich in order ? 
lohich in a series? quotus? as: firsts second^ etc. 
They are all declined like adjectives of three endings 
in W5, a, um, 

c) Distributives, which answer the question, hoio many 
at a time ? how many a-piece ? quoteni ? as : one by 
one, two by two, etc. 

d) Numeral adverbs, which answer the question, how 
many times ? quoties ? as, once, tivice, etc. 

Rem. 2. The numeral adverbs derived from the ordinals ; viz. : pri- 
mum (rarely primo), secundo (for which iterum is generally used ; se- 
cundum'is very rare), tertium, quartum, etc., answer the question, what 
place in order ? as : in the first place, second place, etc. 

e) Multiplicatives, which answer the question, hoiv many 
fold? quotuplex. They end mplex and are declined 
after the third Dec. as: duplex (for all genders), ^i<;o 
fold, double, G. duplicis. 

f ) Proportionals, which answer the question, how many 
times as great ? quotuplus ? They end in plus, pla, 
plum, as : duplus, a, um, tivice as g^reat, (as something 
else taken as a unit of measure). 

All these classes of numerals, except the last two, which 
are merely numeral adjectives and but little used in com- 
parison with the others, are exhibited in parallel columns 
in the following table. 






1 Cardinal (how many ?) 

1 Ordinal (what one in order ?) 


unus, a, um, one 

primus, a, um, first 


duo, ae, o, two 

secundus, second 


ties, ia, three 

tertius, third 



quartus, /oMr</i 





sex, six 

sextus, sixth 


septem, seven 

Septimus, seventh 


octo, eight 

octavus, eighth 


novem, nine 

nonus, ninth 


decem, ten 

decimus, tenth 


undecim, eleven 

undecimus, eleventh 


duodgcim, twelve 

duodecimus, twelfth 


tredecim, thirteen 

tertius (a, um) decimus (a, um) 


qadit\uoTdecim, fourteen 

quartus decimus, fourteenth 


qu\ndec\m^ fifteen 

quintus decimus, fifteenth 


sedecim, sixteen 

sextus decimus, sixteenth 


septendecim, seventeen 

Septimus decimus, seventeenth 


duodeviginti, eighteen 

duode vicesimus, eighteenth 


undeviginti, nineteen 

undevicesimus, nineteenth 


viginti, twenty 

vicesimus, twentieth 


unus (a, um) et viginti or v. un. 

tmus (a, um) et vicesimus (a, um) 


duo (ae, o) et viginti or v. d. 

alter (a, um)et vicesimus (a, um)^ 


















sex age Sim us 

















centum et unus (a, um) or c. un. 

c. (a,um) et primus (a,um)or 


centum et duo (ae, o) or c. d. 

c. (a, um) et alter (a, um) or c.alt. 


ducenti, ae, a 



























duo milia ; 3000 tria milia, etc. 

bis millesimus ; 3000 ter m. etc. 


centum milia 

centies millesimus 


decies centum milia 

decies centies millesimus 

2,000 000. 

vicies centum milia. 

vicies centies millesimus. 

1 Or vicesimus (a, um) et alter (a, um). 






Distribu. (how many at a time ?) 

.Adverbial (how many times ?) 

singtili, ae, a,*^ one at a time 

semel, once 


bini, ae, a, two at a time 

bis, twice 


terni, three at a time 

ter, thrice 


quaterni, /owr at a time 

quaier^ four times 


quini,^»c ai a time 

quinquies^re times 


seni, six at a time 

sexies, six times 


septeni, seven at a time 

septies, seven times 


ocion],' eight at a time 

octles, eight times 


noveni, nine at a time 

novies, nine times 


deni, ten at a time 

decies, ten times 


undeni, eleven at a time 

undecies, eleven times 


duodeni, twelve at a tim,e 

duodecies, tice/ve times 


terni deni, thirteen at a time 

terdecies or tredecies 


quaterni den\, fourteen at a time 



quini deni,^/i!eere at a time 



seni deni, sixteen at a time 



septeni, deni, seventeen at a time 



duodeviceni, eighteen at a time 



undeviceni, nineteen at a time 

unde vicies 


viceni, twenty at a time 

vicies, twenty times 


viceni (ae, a) singuli (ae, a) 

vicies semel or semel et vicies 


viceni (ae, a) bini (ae, a) 

vicies bis 



































centeni (ae, a) singuli (ae,a) 

centies semel 


centeni (ae^ a) bini (ae, a) 

centies bis 


























singula milia 


M. or do. 

bina milia; 3000 terna m,, etc. 

bis millies; 3000 ter m., etc. 


centena milia 

centies millies 


decies centena milia 

decies centies millies 


vicies centena milia 

vicies centies millies. 

^) Singulus, a, um is not used in the Singular. 

if$ NUMERALS. [$ 33. 


1. The compound numbers into which 8 and 9 enter as one of the 
components, are expressed in a subtractive form, as : 38, duodequadra- 
ginta, duodequadragesimus, 39 undequadraginta, undequadragesimus, 
48 duodequinquaginta, duodequinquagesimus, 59 undesexaginta, unde- 
sexagesimus, etc. 

2. In the other compound numbers from 13 to 17, the smaller number 
is placed first without tt, as : Sedecim ; but from 20 to 100, either the 
smaller number is placed first with et following it, or the larger without 
et, as : 

23 tres et viginti or viginti tres 

tertius et vicesimus or vicesimus tertius. 

3. In compounding smaller numbers with hundreds and thousands, 
the smaller number follows either with or without et, as : 

103 centum et tres or centum tres, 

centesimus et tertius or centesimus tertius. 

If, however, such a number contains a unit and a ten, the unit is 
placed last without tt, as : 

486 quadringenti et octoginta sex or quadringenti octoginta sex, 

quadringentesimus et octogesimus 

sextus or quadringentesimus octo- 

gesimus sextus. 

4. Mille, a thousand (i. e. one thousand) is indeclinable, as : dux cum 
mUle militibus ; but the Plur. milia (always of more than one thousand), 
is a neuter noun of the third Dec. and is followed by a noun in the 
'Gen. case, as: tria milia hominum, cum tribus milibus militum. 

5. The nine following numeral adjectives in us, a, um, and er, a, urn 
form their Gen. Sing, in all three genders in tus* and their Dat Sing. 
in i: 

unus, ullus, nuUuSj 
solus, totus, alius, 
uter, alter, neuter, 
and the compounds of Uter, as : uterque, alteriiter ; 

E. g. solus, a, um, G. soltus, D. soli. — Alius has aliud in the neuter 
and in the Gen. alius (for aliius), in Dat. aUl. In the compounds: 
Titerque, utervis, utercunque, uterlibet, uter is declined and que, cunque, 
etc. are joined to the different cases, as : utriusqne, utrlvis, utrumcun- 
que M^ralibet. In alteriUer (one of the two), commonly only uter is de- 
clined and alter is placed before it without change ; but sometimes 
both alter and uter are declined, thus : 

commonly: alteriiter, alterutra, alterutrum, G. alteriitrius, 
occasionally : alter uter, altera utra, altfirum utrum, G. alterius utrius. 

* So also alterius, not (as is inferred from the poets) alterius. 

§ 33.] NUMERALS. 57 

Alius, alia, aliud, an- totus, a, urn, the whole, uterllbet, utralibet, 

other uUus, a, um, any one. utrumllbet, whoever, 

alter, era, ♦^rum, <Ae one iinus, a, um, one. 'W^tcAever (you please 

or the other of two. uter, tra, trum, which of of the two. 

neuter, tra, trum, neith- the two ? uterque, utraque, 

er of (he two. utercunque, utracun- utrumque,eacfe o/*f)ic 

nullus, a, um, no one; que, utrumcunque, two^ both, 

no. whoever, whichever, of 

solus, a, um, alone. the two. 

6. The numerals: duo, two, ambo, both and tres, three, are declined 
as follows : 

Nora, and V. 


D. and Abl. 


duo, two duae, duo 
duorum, duarum, duorum 
duobus, dudbus, duobus 
duo and duos, duas, duo 

tres, three N. tria 


tres, tria 

So : ambo, ae, o, both. Like tria is declined the 

PI. of mille : milieu 

XXVI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Hora, ae,yi 7u)ur. mensis, is, m. month. . pono 3. 1 place, arrange, 

summa, ae,y*. sum. hebdomas, adis,y*. week, sepono 3. I lay aside, 

annus, i, m. year. nux, ucis,y*. nut. jam, adv. already, now, 

calculus, i, m. a pebble, in promtu esse, to be in memoriter, adv. from 

Camlus, i, m. Charles. readiness. memory. 

codicilli, orum, m. writ- exspecto 1. / wait, paulisper, adv. a little, 

ing tablet. await. recte, adv. correctly. 

thalerus, i, m. dollar. respondeo 2. / answer, deinde, adv, then, there' 

cerasum, i, n. cherry. responsio, onis, f an- upon. 

malum, i, n. apple. swer. denique, adv.fnaUy, 

pirum, i, n. pear. ad do 3. I add to. porro, adv. besides, 

prunum, i, n. plum. attendo 3. I give aiten- turn, adv. then, 
exemplum, i, n. exam- tion. 


Pater. Attende, mi fili ! Scribe in codicillos tuos hoc exemplum : 
Si habes decem mala, tria pruna, unum pirum, sex cerasa ; et his ad- 
duntur duo mala, quattuor pruna, septem pira, 6cto cerasa; deinde 
quinque mala, novem pruna, sedecim pira, undecim cerasa ; turn duo- 
decim mala, quindecim pruna, tredecim pira,quattuord€cim cerasa; 
porro viginti mala, undeviginti pruna, duodeviginti pira, septendecim 
cerasa ; denique quattuor et viginti mala, unum et viginti pruna, duo 
et viginti pira, tria et viginti cerasa: quot sunt mala.^ quot pruna? 
quot pira ? quot cerasa ? Carolus. Exspecta paulisper, mi pater ! Jam 
responsio est in promtu. Sunt tria et spetuaginta mala ; unum et sep- 
tuaginta pruna; septem et septuaginta pira; novem et septuaginta 

68 NUMERALS. [$ 33- 

cerasa. P. Recte, mi Carole! Jam sepone codcillos et memoriter 
mihi responde : Quot menses habet unus annus ? C. Duodecim. 
P. Quot hebdomades habet unus mensis ? C. Quattuor. P. Quot 
dies habet unus annus ? C. Trecentos sexaginta quinque. P. Quot 
boras habet unus dies? C. Quattuor et viginti. P. Quot dies habent 
tres anni ? C Mille nonaginta quinque. P. Quot boras habet unus 
annus ? C. Octo milia septingentas sexaginta. P. Si tres nuces quater 
ponis, quanta summa exsistit ? C. Duodecim. P. Si quinque calcu- 
los ter millies sexcenties quinquagies septies ponis? C. Duodeviginti 
milia ducenti octoginta quinque. P. Si septingenta quadraginta tria 
milia trecentos quinquaginta duo thaleros bis ponis ? C. Decies cen- 
tum milia quadringenta octoginta sex milia septingenti quattuor. 

Father. Give attention, my son ! write upon your writing-tablet the 
following (= this) example: If thou hast 20 apples, 6 plums, 2 pears, 
12 cherries, and to these are added 4 apples, 8 plums, 14 pears, 16 
cherries ; then 10 apples, 18 plums, 32 pears, 22 cherries ; then 24 
apples, 30 plums, 26 pears, 28 cherries; besides, 40 apples, 38 plums, 
36 pears, 34 cherries ; finally, 48 apples, 42 plums, 44 pears, 46 cher- 
ries: how many apples are [there] ? how many plums? how many 
pears ? how many cherries ? — Charles. Wait a little, my father ! al- 
ready is the answer in readiness. There are 146 apples, 142 plums, 
154 pears, 158 cherries. — Father. Correctly, my Charles ! 

XXVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Incola, ae, m. inlmhi- jor(natu)o7</cr, minor annum ago, / am in 

tant. (natu) younger. the year. 

victoria, ae,/. victory, fides, ei, /. Jidelity ; fi- irrumpo 3. / make an 

pretium, i, n. value. dem habeo, / have irruption. 

assentator, oris, m.Jlat- confidence in. nunc, adv. now. 

terer. cognltus, a, um, known, vix, adv. scarcely. 

moderator, oris, m. gov- inf idus, a, um, wn/at7^- de (with abl.) of, con- 

emor. ful. cerning. 

%(\UQS,\\\s,m. horseman, natus, a, um, horn; ex (with a&Z.)/rom. 

pedes, itis, m. footman, post Christum na- post (with ace.) after. 

pars, tis,/. part, side. tum, after the hirth of et — et, both — and. 

societas, atis,/. alliance. Christ. [what ? neque, and not ; neque 

exercitus, us, m. army, quotus, a, um, what one. — neque, neither — nor. 

natus, us, m. hirth ; ma- ago 3. / drive, pass ; 

Quota bora est? Decima. Annus, quo nunc vivimus, est millesl- 
mus octingentesimus quadragesimus tertius post Christum natum. 
Pater meus agit annum quartum et sexagesimum (or sexagesimura 

$ 34.] PREPOSITIONS. 69 

quartun) ; mater octavum et quinquagesimum (or quinquagesimum oc- 
tavum) ; frater major natu tertium et tricesimum (or tricesimum ter- 
tium) ; frater minor natu alterum et tricesimum (or tricesimum alter- 
um) ; soror major duodetricesimum ; soror minor vicesimum. In urbe 
sunt mille milites. Duo milia hostium urbem obsident. 

The enemy makes an irruption into our country (= land), with 
10,000 soldiers. A thousand soldiers defend the city. 28,000 footmen 
and 13,000 horsemen defend the country. 

My father is in [his] seventy-ffth year (= is passing his seventy-fifth 
year) ; my mother in her sixty-second ; my older brother in his forty- 
first ; my younger brother in his thirty-ninth ; my older sister in her 
thirty-fourth and my younger sister in her twenty-sixth. What hour 
is it? the eleventh hour. How old art thou? (= what year art thou 
passing?), fifty-eight years old (= I am passing the fifty-eighth year). 

Aliud alii placet (one thing pleases one and another another), aliud 
alii displicet. Milites utriusque exercitus sunt fortissimi. Utrumque 
est vitium : et omnibus credere, et nulli. Perf idus homo vix ulli fidem 
habet. Unius fidi hominis amicitia habet plus pretii (has more value), 
quam multorum infidorum societas. Soli sapienti vera vis virtutis est 
cognita. Incolae totius urbis de victoria exercitus laeti erant. Nullius 
hominis vita ex {in) omni parte beata est. Habeo duo amicos ; ambo 
valde diligo. Amicus meus habet duo filios et duas filias. 

We trust to neither of the two, neither to the wicked [man] nor the 
flatterer. The life of no man is more peaceful than the life of the wise 
[man]. God is the governor of the whole world. The father goes to 
walk with [his] two sons and [his] two daughters. Two faithful 
friends are as it were (quasi) one soul in two bodies. Two thousand 
soldiers (gen.) defend the city. 


§ 34. Table of the Prepositions. 

1. Prepositions governing the Accusative. 

Ad, to, unto, according propter, near by, on ac- ante, before. 

to, for, at. count of. post, behind, after. 

apud, ai, &3/. penes, i^7A (in the pow- secundum, q/2er, oZowg*, 
juxta, next to, by. er of some one). according to. 

prope, near by. ob, before, on account of. versus, towards. 

60 PREPOSITIONS. [^ 34. 

adversus and adver- cis, citra, on this side. extra, beyond, without. 

sum, against. trans, over, on that side, infra, beneath, below. 

contra, contrary to, on ultra, beyond, on that supra, over, above, 

the contrary, against. side. per, through. 

erga, towards, [around, inter, between, among, praeier, hard by, besides. 

circa, circum, about.- intra, urithin. 

Rem. 1. Versus generally stands in connection with the prepositions 
ad or in ; the Ace. is placed between ad {in) and versus, as: in Italiam 
versus, ad Oceanum versus, toioards Italy, towards the Ocean. But with 
names of cities ad and in are omitted, as: Roman versus, towards 

2. Prepositions governing the Ablative. 

A, ab, abs, /rom, by. iprae,hefore,by reason of. sine, unthout. 

de, doum from, away ^ro, before, for. clam, unthout the know- 

from, of, concerning, coram, before, in the ledge of. 

over. presence of, tenus, up to. 

e, ex, out of, from. cum, urith. 

Rem. 2. A and e never stand before a vowel or h ; abs is rarely used, 
most frequently before t — Tertus is placed after the ^bl. For the 
forms mecum, tecum, quocum, etc., see § 28. Rem. 1. and § 30. Rem. 1, 

3. Prepositions governing the Abl. (in answer to the 

question where^) and the Ace. (in answer to the 

question, whither'?) 

In, c. abl. in, at, by, upon ; c. ace. super, over, concerning (generally 
into, upon, against, towards. with ace. in answer to both ques- 

sub, under. tions). 

subter, beneath, (generally with ace. 
in answer to both questions). 

XXVIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Ripa, ae,/. &anfe. libertas, atis,/.yrcef/om. effundo 3. I pour out, 

via, ae,/ way. altus, a, um, high, deep. discharge. 

castra, orum, n. camp, video 2. / see. fugio 3. I flee. 

agger, eris, m. mound, duco 3. / lead. pello 3. / drive, repel. 

pes, edis, m.foot. munio 4. I fortify. 

Promiscuous examples from all the Declensions. 
Frogs live in the water and upon (in) the land. The soldiers fight 
spiritedly against (in) the enemy. The enemies make an irruption into 
our borders. In the fields, bloom various herbs. In (abl.) summer we 
sit with delight under oaks. The enemies flee within (= among) the 
walls. Parents are loved by (ab) good sons and daughters. Orators 


we extol on account of {^h) fiuency of speech. The earth moves (= i» 
moved) around the sun. Repel cares from [your] minds. Suppliants- 
fall down upon the knees. Eloquence adorns those with (penes)- 
whom it is. Live thou according to nature. The soldiers fight be- 
fore (pro) the camp. The river is discharged over the banks. Virtue 
has all [things] beneath (subter) itself. Who is peaceful without vir- 
tue ? Above the city is a very high oak. Below our garden a very 
magnificent house is built. 

The army marches (iter facit) towards Rome. The general leads 
the soldiers against the city. Near by the walls of the city, the enemies 
fortify the camp. The enemies build a high mound around the city. 
Our soldiers fight with the enemies very spiritedly. The citizens fight 
spiritedly for the freedom of their native country. The enemies flee 
over the river. On account of virtue men are esteemed. The ene- 
mies within the walls of the city fortify a camp. The love of parents 
towards [their] children is very great. Many men act contrary to (con- 
tra) the precepts of virtue. On this side of the city a camp is fortified 
by (ab)the enemies. -Frogs live within and without the water. All the 
citizens were joyful concerning (de) the victory of our soldiers. The 
way, which leads from the city up to our garden, is very beautiful. 
Avoid the man, who by reason of (prae) anger is not in his right mind 
(= with himself). Before (ante) our house are many pines, behind the 
same, is a very beautiful garden. Often we do not see that which is 
before (ante) our feet. Between the city and our garden are very 
beautiful fields. The enemies flee through the city. Who is peace- 
ful besides the wise [man] ? 


§ 35. Greek Nouns of the First Declension. 

Several nouns adopted from the Greek, have in the Nom. 
the ending, e Fern., as and es IMasc. The declension of 
these differs from the Latin first Dec, only in the Sing. ; in 
the Plur. they are the same. 






Sing. N. crambe", cabbage 

G. crambe*, of cabbage 
D. crarabae, to cabbage 
A. crambe'n, cabbage 
V. crambo, cabbage 
A. crambe", by cabbage. 

Aeneds, Mneas Anahmes^ATichises 
Aeneae Anchisae 
Aeneae Anchisae 
x\eneam Anchisen 
Aened Anchise 
Aened. Anchise". 

XXIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Aloe, es,/. the aloe. 
Circe, es,/. Circe, 
astutia, ae,/. cunning. 
coqua, ae, f. (female) 

culina, ae,/. kitchen. 
gloria„ ae, /. renown. 
historia, ae,/. history. 
Stella, ae,/ star. 
nauta, ae, m. sailor. 

cometes, ae, m. comet, erraticns, a, um, wan- 

planetes, ae, m. planet. dering. 

Boreas, Epaminondas, tener, era, em rn, fenrfer. 

Gorgias, Pythagoras, celebro 1. I celebrate. 

Orestes, Pylades, ae, abstineo 2. (with abl.) 

m. are proper names / abstain from. 

and remain as in strideo 2. / whistle. 

Latin. antepono 3. I prefer. 

crinitus, a,um, wiih long coquo 3. / cook. 

hair. pie,a6?i;. tenderly, piously. 

Aloe est amara. Aloes herba est amara. Crambae est tenera herba. 
Cramben coqua in culina coquit O Circe, quanta erat astutia tua ! 
Crambe tenera delectamur. Boreas vexat nautas. Boreae procellae 
nautis perniciosae sunt. Boream fugiunt nautae. O Borea, quam ve- 
hementer strides ! A Borea vexantur nautae. Planetes est Stella er- 
ratica- Cometes est Stella crinita. Oresten et Pyladen ob amicitiam 
proedicamus. O Epaminonda, quanta est tua gloria ! Anchises pie 
amatur ab Aena. Pythagorae sapientia praedicatur. O Anchises, 
quam pie amaris ab Aenea ! Epaminondam et Pelopidam omnes 
scriptores celebrant. 

Cabbage is tender. The herb of cabbage is tender. The aloe is 
a bitter herb. We prefer the tender cabbage to the bitter aloe. 
O Circe, how by (abl.) thy cunning thou deceivest the minds of men ! 
We abstain from the bitter aloe. Gorgias had {erat with dat.) great 
eloquence. The cunning of Circe was great, .^neas loves Anchises 
tenderly. Pythagoras we extol on account of [his] wisdom. O Ores- 
tes and Pylades, how great was your friendship ! Concerning (de) 
Orestes and Pylades, concerning Epaminondas and Pelopidas history 


§ 36. Of the Gender of the Second Declension. 

Us, er and ir are masculine^ 
But wn is of the neuter kind. 


Isles, lands, towns and trees in us, 
These aveftminine in use. 
Also alvuSj cohfs, hunms, 
Vannus, ptriodus and carhdsuSy 
Dipthongus too and dialectus. 

The neuter has but three in usz 
Virus, vulgus, ptldgus. 

Alvus, i, /. belly. periodiis, 'i,f. period. virus, i, n. juice, poison. 

colus, i,f. distaff. carbasus, i,/. linen. vulgus, i, n. the com- 

humus, i, /. ground, dipthongus, i. /. diph- mon people. 

earth. , thong. pelagus, i, n. (a poetic 

vannus, i./. corn-fan. dialectus, i,f. dialect. word) sea. 

Remark. The following are jnasculine contrary to the general rule 
(§ 13.) for countries, towns and trees: Pontus, Hellespontus, Isthmus, 
Bosporus ; also plurals in i, as : Delphi, Delphorum ; also names of 
trees in er, as : oleaster, tri, wild olive tree. Besides, all names of coun- 
tries, cities and mountains in um (on), G, i, and plurals in a, G. orum 
are neuter, as: Latium, Saguntum, Pelion, Leuctra (drum.) 

XXX. Wards to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Lingua, ae, /. iong-uc, pirus, i, jomr-^ree. ignavus, a, um,incfoZe7rf, 

language. ^ruwu^, \, plum-tree. lazy, cowardly. 

silva, ae,/. a wood. ulmus, i, an elm. ligneus, a, una, wooden, 

cibus, i, m./oorf. avidus, a, um, (with of wood. 

Aegyptus, i. Egypt. g^n.), greedy. longus, a, um, long. 

Del us, i, I>eZo5 (island). frugifer,era,6rum/rui<- maturus, a, um, ripe, 

Rhodus, i, Rhodes (an ful. early. 

island). compositus, a, um, com- procerus, a, um, slim. 

populiis, i, apoplar. posed. rotundus, a, um, round. 

cerasus, i, cherry-tree. fecundus, a, um, pro- stultus, a, um, foolish. 

fagus, i, beech-tree. ductive. compesco 3. / check, 

malus, i, apple-tree. humldus, a, um, moist. curb. 

Vulgus est stultum. Diphthongus est longa. Periodus bene com- 
posita est. Populi sunt procerae. Ignavi populi facile vincuntur. In 
silvis sunt ulmi et fagi altae. Vanni sunt lign^ae. In horto nostro 


magnus est numerus frugiferarum cerasorum, malorum, pirorum et 

In our garden are many cherry-trees, many apple-trees, many plum- 
trees and many pear-trees. The foolish people (vulgus) are easily de- 
ceived. Diphthongs are long. The periods are well composed. The 
poplar is slim. A cowardly people (populus) is easily conquered. In 
our garden are many slim poplars. The corn-fan is of wood. 

Matura cerasa, mala, pira, pruna sunt dulcia. Virus est perniciosum. 
Humus humida varias plantas gignit. Alvus est ciborum avida. De- 
lus est clara. Coli sunt rotundae. Dialecti sunt variae. Carbasus 
<est tenSra. 

Avoid the pernicious poison. One language has many dialects. 
The linen is beautiful. Egypt is productive. These apples, cherries, 
plums and pears are beautiful. See those high elms and slim poplars. 
Rhodes was renowned. The distaff is round. The earth (humus) is 
productive. Check the greedy appetite {= belly). 

§ 37. Remarks on the several Case-endings of the Third 

1. Gen, Sing. Proper names in es often have in the Gen. 
the termination i instead of is, as : Ulixi, also, Pericli, Aris- 
toteli, Neocli, Carneadi, etc. Some Greek nouns in o (but 
only of the feminine gender) as : Argo, Sappho, echo, lo, 
have us in the genitive as : echiis from echo, Argus from 
Argo (the remaining cases are like the Nom. or are formed 
with Latin endings, as Dido, -onis, -oni, -onem, -one.) 

* Greek nouns, sometimes, but generally only in poetry, retain their pecu- 
liar terminations in Latin, viz.. Gen. os for is ; Ace. a for em^ or in (yn)^ en 
for im, idem, em ; Voc. i, y (from Nom, is, ys) for is, ys ; Abl. i for ide (rare). 
Plur. Nom. Neut. c (from Nom. Sing, ds) ; Gen. on for um (rare and only 
poetic) ; Dat. si, sin for dilms, tihus, ibus (rare and only poetic) ; Ace. a^for 
€s. Thus: Gen. Sing. PaUdd-os {from Pallas), Panos (from Pan), Thety-os 
(from Thetys) ; Ace. Platona (from Plato), Lyr.orida, (from Lycoris), basin 
(basis), Parin (Paris), Thetyn ; Voc. Lycori, Coty ; Abl. Daphni for ide. 
Plur. Nom. Neut. mele, epe (from melos, epos) ; Gen. Chalybon (Chalybs) ; 
Dat. Drydsi (Dryas, ad\s), metamorphosesi ; Ace. Senonas (Senones), Cyclopas 
(Cyclops.) The Gen. eos, for is from Nom. is as : baseos for basis is not 
classical, and from Nom. -eus only poetic, as : Peleus, Peleos (in prose, Pe- 
leus, Pelei). Good prose rejects the Greek genitive-form in os ; the Ace. 
in a, in, yn, en is very rare in good prose, as : Pana, aethera, Zeuxin, po&sin^ 
Sophoden. The Ace. Plur. in as is found in prose writers of the golden 
period of the Latin language, only in barbarous names, as : Senonas, Mlo- 
brdgas. Caes. — Kuhner's Larger Latin Grammar. 


2. Acc, Sing, The Ace. has in the following nouns in is 
G. t5, the ending im (for em). First, invariably in : 

amussis,/. a rwZe. ravis, f. Jioarseness. tussis, f. a cough. 

huriSf f. a plough-tail, sinapis, /. mwsfarrf. vis,f. force, power, abun- 

cannabis,/. Aernp. sids,/. thirst. dance, multitude. 

Second, commonly in : 

febris,/. a fever. puppis,/. <^e sfcrn q/*a securis,/ an axe, 

pelvis,/, a basin, ship. turrisj/. a tower, 

restis,/. a ro/7e. 

Also in the following names of rivers : Albis, the Elbe, 
Athesis, the Adig-e, Araris, the Saone, Liris, the Liris, Ta- 
mesis, the Thames, Tiberis, the Tiber, Tigris, the Tiger, Vi- 
surgis, the Weser (all Masc. according to § 13) ; and finally, 
in Greek nouns in is Gen. is, as : basis, /. (a pedestal), 
basim, and in several words in is G. idis, as : Paris, Parim, 

3. Voc. Sing. The vocative of Greek nouns in s with a 
vowel before it, commonly drops the 5, as : O Pericle but 
also Pericles, O Socrate also Socrates, O Perseu also Per- 
seus, O Pan also Paris. The same is true of those in as 
G. antis, as : Atla ; others in as, but with a different form of 
the Gen., have the vocative like the nominative. 

4. Abl. Sing. The ablative has the ending e in most 
nouns ; but in a few it has the ending i, and indeed inva- 
riably : 

a) In neuters in e, al, G. dlis, ar, G. ans, as marz, anima- 
K, caloari. But those in ar, G* aris have e, as : nectar (nec- 
tar), nectar e. 

Exceptions : sal (salt), far, and the names of towns in e, as : Praneste, 
Caere, have c in the ablative. 

b) In nouns in is which always have im in the Ace. as : 
vis, vim, vi. 

5. The following nouns in is G. is have i oftener than ^, 
or i and e together : 

civis, m. a citizen. ignis, pelvis,/, a basin. 

clavis,/. a key. navis,/. a ship. puppis,/. the stem, 

febris,/. a fever. neptis, / a grand- securis,/ an axe. 

fustis, m. a dub, daughter, turris,/. a tower, 

6* " 


Rem. 1. Also the names of rivers enumerated in No. 2. have in gen- 
eral i. 

6. In the Nom. Ace. and Voc. Plur. neuters in e, al, G. 
^liSy ar G. aris have ia instead of a, as : maria, animalia^ 

7. In the Gen. Plur. the following have ium instead of um: 

a) Neuters in e, aZ, G. dlis, ar, G. am, as : marium, anima- 
lium, calcarium. Lar, lar (lar-is), a household-god, the fire- 
place, has Larum and Larium ; 

b) Parisyllahles in es and is, as : navium (navis), nu- 
bium, and in er : imber, rain, linter, a boat, uter, leather hag, 
venter, the belly ; but, canis, a dog, panis, bread, proles, an 
offspring, strues, a heap, vates, a prophet, juvenis, a youth^ 
and commonly, apis, a bee, volucris, a bird, have um; 

c) Monosyllables in s and x with a consonant preceding 
them, as : mons, montium, arx, arcium ; (but, [ops] opes, 
poiver, has opum and lynx, /. lyncum) ; and the following : 

[faux] fauces, the throat, faucium, glis, a dormouse, glirium^ 
lis, strife, litium, mus, a mouse, murium, nox, night, noctium. 
Strix, a horned oiol, strigium; on the contrary, dux, (a lead- 
er) has ducum, vox, the voice has vocum, nux, a nut has wt^ 
cum, and so of others with a vowel before the x; 

d) Words of more than one syllable in s, or x, with an 
r or w preceding them, as : cohors, a cohort, cohortium, 
aliens, a client, clientium, quincunx, quincuncium ; common- 
ly dX^o, parentium (p^irens), of parents, sapientium (sapiens), 
of loise men, adolescentium (adolescens), of the youth; final- 
ly, always, compedium (from compes, generally in the plural 
compedes), of fetters ; on the contrary, pes, pedum; 

e) For the most part gentile nouns (national denomina- 
tions) in as, dtis, is, itis, as : Arpinas, Arpinatium, Samnis, 
Samnitium. So also nostras, optimas pendtes, as : nostra- 
tium, finally, ci vitas, a state, civitatium. 

8. In the Dat. and Abl Plur. Greek neuters in ma have 
mat4s more commonly than mat-ibus, e. g. po'ematis, instead 
of po'ematibus. 


9, Concerning the case-endings of adjectives^ the follow- 
ing rules may be given : 

a) The AbL Sing, of all adjectives, even when used as 
nouns, has the ending ^■, as : am, facili^ pari (from par), 
fellci, memori (see § 22.) ; natdli from natdlis (viz. dies), 
birth-day, Aprili from Aprllis (viz. mensis), April, Decembri 
from December, 

Exceptions. The Abl. has e in the following cases: 1) Juvenis, a 
young man^ aedilis, edUcy and the adjectives in is used as proper names, 
as : Martialis, Martiale ; 

2) The following adjectives of one ending : 

caelebs, ibis, unmarried, dives, itis, rich, \guest. princeps, ipis, chief, 

cicur, uris, tame. hospes, itis, foreign^ a pauper, eris, poor. 

compos, Otis, powerful, pubes, eris, grou;n up. sospes, itis, safe, secure, 

possessed of. im pubes, eris, beardless, superstes, itis, surviv- 

impos, Otis, impotent, particeps, ipis, partak- ing. 
deses, idis, idk. ing of. 

3) Comparatives, as : major, majus (greater) majore ; 

4) Compounds of corpus, color and pes, as : bicorpor (having two 
bodies), bicorpore, discolor (variegated), discolore, bipes (two-footed), bi- 
pede ; 

5) Adjectives of one ending used as nouns, as : sapiens, a vnse man, 
infans, a child, Pertinax, Clemens, Felix, Abl. — c ; 

6) Participles in ns have as participles c, but as adjectives, generally 
i, as : ftorente rosa, the rose blooming, in florenti rosa, in a blooming rose, 

b) The Norn. Ace. and Voc, Plur, Neut., have in adjec- 
tives and participles, the ending ia, and the Gen. Plur, the 
ending ium, as : acria, facilia, felicia, acrium, facilium, feli- 
eium (§ 22.), hebetia, ium (from hebes). 

Remark. In the strictly classical period, all adjectives which have the 
Gen. Plur. in ium, had the Ace Plur. Masc. and Fem. in is, as : omnia 

Exceptions. Vetus, old, has Vetera, veterum and all comparatives, as: 
majora, majorum (but plu^, plura has plurium) ; complures, very many, 
several, has complwra and ia (Gen. always, complurium). Besides, the 
following have um in Gen. : celer, sivift, consors, partaking of, degener, 
degenerate, dives, rich, inops, helpless, memor, immemor, supplex, sup- 
pliant, uber, rich, vigil, watching. To these may be adde<l comjjounds 
in ceps and/ea:, as : anceps, twofold, double, uncertain, G. PL ancipUum, 
artifex, skilful, artist, artificum; finally, all which have only e in the 
Abl., as : pauper, pauperum. 


XXXI. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 
The words introduced on the three preceding pages, are omitted. 

Fama, ae, /. rfpori^ re- fundamentum, i, n. exascio 1. 1 hew (rough- 

noun. foundation. ly.) 

Btatua, ae,/ statue. lignum, i, n. ivood. levo 1. 1 lighten. 

carpentarius. i, m. a cos, otis,/ whet-stone, mitlgo 1. / soften^ miti- 

wheel-wright. quies, etis, f quiet. gate. 

funambulus, i,. m. rope- durus, a, um, hard. navigo ]. Inavigate. 

dancer. argenteus, a, um, q/" 5i7- op\iugno 1. I assaidt. 

laurus, i,f. laurel. ver, silver. [iron, acuo 3. Isharpen. 

faber, bri, m. artisan. ferreus, a, um, of iron, expello 3. I expel. 
faber ligiiarius, carpen- dono 1. I present. incedo 3. I walk upon. 

ter. edolo 1. / hew properly, peto 3. I seek. 

folium, i, n. leaf. fashion. sero 3. I sow. 

Echus vox saepe homines faliit. ^rgus navis fama est magna. Vis 
vim expellit. Sitim tolerare difficile est. Faber lignarius ad amussim 
lignum exasciat Hi pueri ad ravim clamant. Carpentarius hurim e 
dura ulmo edolat. Agricola burim regit. Agricola c a n n a b i m serit 
Folia lauri tusssim levant. Ftbrim quiete mitigamus. Pater matri pel- 
vim argenteam donat Funambuli per restim incedunt. Per Alhim, 
Tamesim, Fisurgim, Tigrim multae naves navigant. Milites oppugnant 
altam turrim. Seciirim ferream cote acuimus. Fundamentum statu- 
arum vocamus basim. Apes petunt sindpim. 

The poems of Sappho w^jie very delightful. The wanderings 
(error, oris) of lo wei'c related by (ab) many poets. By (abl.) the echo 
we are often deceived. Against (contra) hoarseness, cough and fever, 
thou must apply (adhlbeo 2.) fitting (aptus, a, um) remedies (remedium, 
i, n.) The soldiers defend spiritedly the high tower. The statue 
has a solid pedestal. The wood (plur.) is hewed by (ab) the carpen- 
ter according to (ad) rule. The carpenter handles (tracto 1.) the sharp 
axe with a skilful hand. Soldiers must endure hunger (fames, is) and 
thirst patiently. 

XXXII. Words to be learned a?ul Exercises for translation. 

Porta, ae,/. gate. onus, eris, n. load. incito 1. I urge on. 

tragoedia, ae,/ ^og-erfy. nectar, aris, n. nectar, \-dh6ro 1. {with ab.) I suf- 

humenis, i, m. shx)ulder. (drink for the gods). fer (fi-om something), 

gubernator, oris, m. pi- acQtus, a, um, sharp. prospecto 1. / look 

iot. dignus,a,um, (with a6Z.) forth. 

vigil, liis, m. watchman, worthy, deserving of. abigo 3. / drive away. 

sal, alis, m. salt. frigidus, a, um, cold. claudo 3. / dose. 

admiratio.oiiis,/ arfmt- sumnms, a, um, highest, occludo 3. J lock. 

ration. mordax, acis, biting^, conspergo 3. / sprinkle. 


O Socrdte, quam salutaris erat generi humane tua sapientia ! O 
Sophocle, tragoediae tuae summa admiratione dignae sunt. O AUttf 
quantum onus humeris tuis portas! CaZcdn* incitamus equos. Nee- 
tare delectantur dii. Sale consperglmus cibos. Hostes vi in urbem 
irrumpunt. Clavi porta clauditur. Febri laborat rater. Fusti abigl- 
mus canes mordaces. Igni coquimus cibos. A bono dvi patria ama- 
tur. Ex alta turri vigiles prospectant. In puppi sedet gubemator. 
Acuta secitri faber lignarius lignum exasciat. 

Force expels force by (abl.) force. The customs of men are oftener 
improved by admonition and example than by force. When (quum) 
thou art suffering (= sufferest) from (abl.) a fever, abstain from cold 
v»^ater. O Themistocles, O Pericles, O Socrates, your deserts relative to 
(de) the city of the Athenians w^ere very great. The pilot, who sits 
upon the stern, governs the ship. With (abl.) a sharp axe we split 
(diffindo 3.) the wood (plur.). In a civil war (bellum civile) citizen 
fights against citizen. With (abl.) an iron key we lock the gate. The 
enemies lay waste the country with (abl.) fire and sword. 

XXXIII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation, 

Satira, ae,/. satire. aetas, atis,/. age. procure 1. I furnish, 

Indus, i, m. sport. liiems, emis,/. winter, perago 3. / carry 

Romanus, i, m. a Bo- longinquus, a, um, dis- through, perform. 

man. tant. perstringo 3. I grazes 

ingenium, i, n. genius, publicus, a, um, public. satirize. 

intellect. docilis, e, teachable. veho 3. / carry, bring, 

merx, cis,/. wares. aestimo 1. / value, es- sperno 3. I spurn. 

mercator, oris, m. tra- teem. sed, conj. bid. 

der, merchant. 

Avus cum nepti ambulat. Mercator navi merces in longinquas terras 
vehit. Discipuli in schola non genere, sed bonis moribus, doclli in- 
genio, et acri industria aestimautur. Hostes celeri pede fugiunt. 

XXXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Autumnus, i,m. auiwmn. nepos, 6tis,m. grancfeon. juventus, utis,/. i/oit/^. 

coelum, i, n. the sky. parentes, ium, m. par- juvenilis, e, youthjfvl. 
initium, i, n. beginning. ents. senilis, e, advanced, 

gaudium, i, mensis, is, m. a month. aetas senilis, old age, 

monumentum, i, n. munus, 6ris, n. service^ exhilaro 1. / exhilarate, 

monument. office, present. delight. 

negotium, \,n, business, gelidus, a, um, cold. saevio 4. I rage. 

oblectamentum, i, n. de- insipiens, ntis, ununse. 



Mense Maitio initium est veris, mense Jnnio aestatis, mense Sep- 
tembri autumni, mense Decembri hiemis. Boni regis natdli omnis civi- 
tas laeta est Mense Jlprili coelum modo serenum est, modo triste, 
Mense JVbvembri gelldae procellae saeviunt. Juvenili aetate alacriore 
animo difRcilia negotia peraglraus, quam senili. A Juvendle, satirarum 
scriptore, Romanorum vitia perstringuntur. Ab aedile ludi publici pro- 
curantur. A juvene saepe virorum praecepta spernuntur. 

XXXV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Culpa, ae,/ guilt. acceptus, a, um, re- expers, tis (c. gen.), 
immodestia, ae, f. im- ceived. [humblest. destitute of, unihout. 

modesty. inflmiis, a, um, lowest^ pertlnax, acis, obstinate, 

beueficium, i, n. kind- clemens, lis, mild. dispar, aris, unequal, 

ness, favor. consors, tis (c. gen.), different. 

consilium, i, n. counsel. sharing in. domo 1. / tame. 

etudium, i, n. effort, exsors, tis (c. gen.), tracto 1. 1 treat. 

study, zeal. destitute of, without. atque, and; 2) as. 

A sapiente bona praecepta discimus. Quicquid agis, sapienti consilio 
age. A Felice felld fortuna bellum gerltur. A Clemente dementi animo 
infimi homines tractantur. A Pertindce pertindd studio urbs defendi- 

The grand-father is delighted by (ab) the little ^rand-son and the 
neat grand-daughter. Old age ought to be, honored by the young 
man. A good boy, on (abl.) his birth day, is delighted by (abl.) pre- 
sents from (ab) liis parents. When the state is ruled by (ab) a wise 
king, it is happy. By (ab) a wise man virtue is loved. 

Virtus amatur ab homine rationis participe, contemnltur ab homine 
rationis experti. A viro virtutis compote deus pie colltur. Praecepior a 
discipulo beneficii accepti memori colltur. Abstine amico beneficiorum 
acceptorum immemori. Gaudemus amico omnis culpae exsorti et 
laborum nostrorum consorti. Virtus pari studio a princlpe et divlte, at- 
que ab humlli et paupere colltur. Discipuli dispdri studio litteras 
tractant. Magiii viri digni sunt gloria vitae suae superstite. De sospite 
amico gaudemus. Hospes ab hospite colltur. Et in impubere, et in 
pubere aetate displicet immodestia. 

XXXVI. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

'Penna,Sie,f. feather. emolumentum, i. n. wse, rM%-e (of mountain), 

campus, i, m. plain. advantage. saxum, i, n. rock. 

detrimentum, i, n. in- horreum, i, n. granary, vinum, i, n. loine. 

jury, disadvantage. jugum, i, n. yoke, top, venator, oris, m. hunter. 


amnis, is, m. stream, locuples, etis (c. abl.), redundo 1. I redound, 

river. wealthy, rich. volito 1. IJly around. 

rupes, \s, f. rock. petulans, ntis, licen- abhorreo 2. (ab) / Aave 

agmen, inis, n. band, tious. an aversion to. 

Jlock. praeceps, cipitis, in- provideo 2. I foresee. 

examen, inis, n. swarm. dined, steep. alo 3. / nourish, support 

rete, is, n. net, toil. praecox, ocis, prima- (keep). 

discolor, oris, party- ture. tendo 3. / stretch, ex- 
colored, variegated. occupo 1 . I take posses- tend. 

hebes, 6tis, obtuse, dull. sion of. 

Venator retla tendit. Hebetia ingenia a litterarum studio abhorrent. 
Saxa sunt praecipitla. Onera sunt gravia. Horrea frumentis locupletia 
sunt. Pira praececia non sunt dulda. Cervus et equus sunt celena 
animalia. Disparia sunt hominum studia. Haec vina sunt Vetera. 
Majora emolumenta, quam detrimenta, a bestiis ad homines redundant 
Cui plura beneficia debemus, quam diis ? Compliira [compluria] sunt 
genera avium. 

Good scholars keep the precepts of [their] teachers with (abl.) 
thoughtful (memor) minds. By (ab) rational (rationis particeps) men, 
irrational (rationis expers) animals are tamed. The virtues of great 
men are adorned by (abl.) a renown surviving their life. The way 
leads over (per) steep rocks (saxum). The ancient (vetus) monu- 
ments of the Greeks and Romans are worthy of admiration. In the 
blooming age of youth very many (complures) delights are afforded us. 
The life of good and wise men has more and greater joys than the 
life of the wicked and unwise. 

Plurimarum avium pennae sunt discolores. Rupium juga hostis 
occupat. Venatores magnum canum numfirum alunt. Multorum 
juvenum animi sunt petulantes. Vatum animi futura provident. Nubes 
magnam imbrium vim effundunt. Lintrlum magnus in amne numerus 
est. Multa apum examlna per campos volitant. Multa agmina volU- 
crum in silvis sunt. 

XXXVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Gallia, ae,/. Gaul. pax, acis,/ ^cace. • ignorant of, unac- 

tenebrae, arum,/. rfarA:- regio, onis,/. region. quainted with. 

ness. via, ae,/. way. consultus, a, um (c. 

ars, artis,/ art. viator, oris, m. traveller. gen ),acquainted unth. 

frugea, um, f fruit. conscius, a, um (c. cupldus,a, um (c. gen.), 

gens, gentis,/. people. gen.), conscious of. desirous. 

improbltas, atis,/. mcA;- inscius,a, um (c. gen.), gnarus, a, um, (c. 



gen.), (Kquaivied ^^^-^ versed in, skil- fertilis, e (c. gen.), pro- 

tvith. ful. dudive. 

ignarus, a, um, (c. plenus, a, um (c. gen.), rudis, e (c. gen.), rude, 

gen.), unacquainted full. ignorant of. 

ivith. studiosus, a, um (c. remeo 1. I return. 

infirmus, a, um, weak. gen.), zealous; stu- que (always attached to 

pauci, ae, a, a few. dious sum (c. gen.), a word), and. 

peritus, a, um, (c. I pursue earnestly. 

Ingrati nobis sunt homines, qui litium sunt cuptdi. Divites majorum 
opum avldi sunt. Haec regiofaucium plena est. Bonus discipulus lit- 
terarum artlumque est studiosus. Gallia frugum hominumque fertilis 
est. Sapientlum et bonorum hominum animi nullius improbitatis sunt 
conscii. Samnitium gens belli perita erat. JVostratlum pauci littera- 
rum ignari sunt. Civitatlum fundamenta infirma sunt, si cives belli 
pacisque artium rudes sunt. Arpinatlum cives erant Marius et Cicero ; 
Marius belli artium, Cicero pacis artium gnarus erat. Optimatium in 
civitate auctoritas magna est, si juris atque eloquentlae consulti sunt 
JVocMum tenebrae viatoribus viae insciis perniciosae sunt. 

There are many (complures) kinds of (gen.) dogs. In (abl.) the 
month [of] November great flocks of birds of passage (valucris adven- 
titia) return from our regions to warmer. Upon (in) the Thames, the 
Weser and the Elbe there are a great number of great ships and small 
boats. The people of the Samnites were very brave. Boys of a lively 
genius and happy memory, apply themselves zealously to (in) the 
study of literature and the arts. The fame of Marius and Cicero, 
citizens of Jhrpinum (Arpinas) was diflTerent. 

XXXVIII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Capra, ae,/ goof. aedes, ium,/. AoMse. Romanus, a, um, Jf2o- 

custodia, ae, /. guard- celeritas, atis, / swift- man. 

ianship. ness. ingens, ntis, very great, 

misericordia, ae,/. jw7y. consuetude, inis, /. immense. 

nundlnae, arum, /. practice, intercourse. prudens, ntis, ivise, in- 

market,fair. cacumen, inis, n. top. telligent ; c. gen. vers- 

libfiri, orum, m. children culmen, inis, n. top. ed in. 

(in relation to their fof titudo^Jnis, /. &rirt;e- frequenio' 1. //re^wenf. 

parents). ry. [ents. nidifico 1. / make a 

consilium, i,n.wze«5wre. parentes, ium, w. ^ar- nest. 

fatum, i, n. fate, for- idon^us, a, \im, fitted. tego 3. / cover. 

tune. obscurus, a, um, oh- minus, adv. less. 
Achilles, is, m, Achilles. scure. 


Caprae montium cacumina petunt Multi corvi nidifYcant in altarum 
ardum culminlbus. Vocum miilta genera sunt. Glirium magnus est 
niimerus. Ingens murium, numerus in horreis est. Strigium vox in- 
grata est. Roinanarum cohortium fortitudo ab omnibus scriptoribus 
praedicatur. Parentlum in liberos amor est magnus. ' Compedium fer , 
rearum onus grave est. Pedum eeleritate Achilles insignis erat. Pe- 
natium custodiae aedes committuntur. 

Homlnmn iur'is prudentium consiliis civitas regitur. Alacfium disci^- 
pulorum ingenla ad litterarum stndia sunt idonea. Celehrium urbium 
nundinae a multis hominibus frequentantur. Celerum equorum crura 
sunt tenera. Amicorum laboris nostri consortum consuetudine delecta- 
mur. Homlnum omnis amicorum consuetudinis exsortum* fortuna mis- 
era est. Degenerum filiorum patres misericordia nostra digni sunt 
SuppUcum preces exaiidi. Urbs plena est locupletum homlnum. Hom- 
inum artificwn opera laudamus. Praedpitum montium juga nubibus 
teguntur. Andpitum fatorum via est obsciira. 

The captives are pressed by (abl.) the load of hard fetters. On (ad) 
the banks of the Rhine (Rhenus, i) are a great number of ancient (vetus- 
tue) castles (arx). The works of the ancient (vetus) artists are 
worthy of admiration. Human life is full of (gen.) uncertain (anceps) 
fortunes. The way leads over (per) the ridge of steep rocks. The 
friendship of men sharing in (consors) all our toils is a very great 
good. Great presents from (gen.) the rich, often delight our minds less 
than small presents from (gen.) the poor. 

XXXIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Bivitiae, arum,/, ric/ie*. levltas, atis,/, levity. immoderatus, a, um, in- 

Centaurus, i, m.. centaur, pavo, onis, m. peacock. temperate. 

do\\\\m,\.,n. gift, present, sors, rtis, f. lot. optabllis, e, rfe^VaWc. 

oraculum, i, n. oracle, Delphicus, a, um, Del- vigeo 2. / am strong, 

announcement. phic. active, vigorous. 

certamen, inis, n. con- moderatus, a, um, tern- ut, as, even as, — ita, 5aj. 

test, fight. perate. thus, 

Cicurum elephantorum ars magna est. Bicorporum Centaurorum 
multa a poetis narrantur certamlna. Discolorum pavonum pennae pul- 
chrae sunt. Homlnum virtutis compotum vita laudabllis est. Puero- 
rum impuberum levitas a praeceptore coercetur. Ut hominum rationia 
participum vita moderata est, ita hominum rationis expertium immodera- 
ta est. Hominum glorlae suae superstUum sors non est optabilis. Pu- 
herum et corpora et anlmi vigent. Prudentioriim hominum consilio pa- 

* Or exsortium is doubtful. 

74 MASCULINE. [^ 38. 

rere debemus. Plunum hominum animi divitias magis, quam virtutem 
expetunt. Compluflum discipulorum ingenia a litterarum studio ab- 
horrent. PoBmdtis delectamur. Oracula Delphica similia sunt ob- 
scuris aenigmdtis. 

Who is not delighted by (abl.) the poems of Horace? The num- 
ber of men surviving their fame is very great. Obey, O boys, the pre- 
cepts of wise and virtuous (= possessed of virtue, compos) men ! 
Many of the tame elephants walk upon (per) a rope. As we pronounce 
(praedico) happy the life of those sharing in friendship, so we de- 
plore the life of those destitute of friendship. The announcements of 
the ancient prophets were often ambiguous (anceps) and like enigmas. 

Determination of Gender according to the 
^, , * • endings. . . » 

§ 38. Masculine. 

Of the masculine gender are the nouns in : o, or, os^ er, 
and imparisyllahles (§ 18. Rem. 4.) in es. 

Examples. 1) O: le-o generosus, the magnanimous lion; 2) Or: 
dol-or acerbus, a severe pain ; 3) Os : A-os pulcher, a beautiful Jlower ; 
4) Er : agg-er altus, a kigh mound; 5) Es m imparisyllahles : pai*i-c5 
altuSy a high wall. 

1)0: 1)0; 

Feminine are echo, cdrOf Cardo, inis, m. a hinge. 

Also nouns in : do, go, U ; caro, carnis,/.^c5^. 

But mascidine : cardo, harpdgo, echo, echus,/. reverberation, echo. 
Margo too, and ordo, ligo, harpago, onis, m. a grappling hook. 

Together with concretes in lo. ligo, onis, m. a hoe; mattock. 

margo, Inis, m. a margin, edge. 
ordo, inis, m. order, series, rank. 

Rem. 1. The feminines in io are either abstract or collective nouns, 
as: actio, an action, legio, onis, a legion, natio, onis, a nation ; still some 
have acquired a concrete meaning, as : regio, aregion, (originally, a direct- 
ing or direction). The concretes in io are all masculine, as : scipio, a staff, ' 

papilio, a bidterfly, pugio, a dagger. 


2) Or: 2) Or: 

OP the feminine gender is, Ador, orisn. spelt. 

Barely, arbor, arboris ; aequor, oris, n. a level surface, (es- 

The n/cvier has but four in or ; pecially of the sea). 

Marmjor, aequor^ ador, cor. arbor, oris,/ a tree. 

cor, cordis, n. the heart. 

marmor, oris, n. marble. 




3) Os: 

Of the feminine are in o5, 
Only these two : cos and dos. 

t)s, a bone^ and 6s, the face, 
These are of the neuter class. 

4) Er: 

The neuter has many in, er, 
Ver, cadaver, iter, tuber, 
Cicer, piper, siser, uber, 
Zingiber, papdver, suber, 
Acer, siler, verber, spintker. 
But only feminine is linter. 

5) Es imparisyllable : 
Impansyllables in es. 
Give but one as neuter : aes ; 
But as feminine we have merces, 
Quies, requies and compes, 
Also, seges, teges, merges. 

3) Os: 
Cos, 6tis,y*. a flint-stone, whetstone. 
dos, 6tis,y. dowry, portion. 
OS, ossis, n. a bone, {pi. ossa, lum). 
OS, oris, n. the countenance, brow, 


4) Er: 
Acer, firis, n. a maple-tree. 
cadaver, eris, n. a corpse. 
cicer, eris, n. a chick-pea. 
iter, itineris, n. a way, journey, 

linter, tris,/. a boat, skiff. 
papa ver, €ris, n. a poppy. 
piper, eris, n. pepper. 
siler, eris, n. the willow. [res, m). 
siser, eris, n. a carrot (but pi. 5wc- 
spinther, eris, n. a bracelet. 
suber, eris, n. the,cork-tree. 
tuber, eris, n. tumor, hump. 
uber, eris, n. a dug, udder. 
ver, eris, n. the spring. 
verber, (commonly plur. verbera,) 

n. stripes, blows. 
zingiber, eris, n. ginger. 

5) Imparisyllables in es. 
Aes, aeris, n. brass. merges, itis,/. a sheaf, seges, etis,/. a crop. 
comi)es, edis, f fetters, quies, etis,/. quiet. teges, etis,/. a?nat 

merces, edis, /. recom- requies, etis (ace. requi- 
pense. cm),/, rest, relaxation. 

Remark 2. Contrary to the general rule (§ 13.), some names of cities 
in remain masculine, as : Croto ; also, those in as, G. antis, as : Taras, 
antis, Tarentum ; those in es, G. etis, as : Tunes, etis, Tunis, and those 
in 165, G. wnfis, as : SeHnus, untis. 

XL. *Wbrds to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Assyria, ae,/ Assyria, amoenus, a, um, pleas- existimo ]. I judge, re- 
ant, gard as. 
eburneus, a, um, of judico 1. I judge, re- 

senator, oris, m. senator. 
scipio, onis, m. a staff. 
legio, 6nis,y! a legion. 
imago, inis, image. 
insigne, is, n. badge. 
caput, itis, n. head. 

chief city. 
aeternus, a, um, eternal. 

ivory, ivory. 

regius, a, um, royal. 

resonus, a, um, rever- 

superbus, a, um, proud, 

gard as. 

nomino 1. I call. 
habeo2. I have, regard 

maneo 2. / remain. 

76r MASCULINE. [$38. 

(Comp. § § 84, 89. 5.) 

Pavo vocatur superbus. Echo resona ab Horatio vocis imago voca- 
tur. Hirundinem vocamus garrulain. Legionuni Romanarum gloria 
manet aeterna. Babylon, caput Assyriae, iiominatur superba. Mala 
•consuetudo saepe homiiiibus exsistit perniciosa. Scipto eburneus in- 
signe regium habetur. Regiones montium plenas judicamus amoenas. 
Seiiatorum ordo existimatur sanctus. 

The peacock we call proud. Horace calls the reverberating echo 
the image of the voice. Swallows are called loquacious. Babylon, the 
chief city of Assyria, writers call proud. The citizens regard the or- 
der of senators as sacred. The ivoi*y staff we regard as a royal badge. 
Avoid, O boys, a bad practice ! The bravery of the Roman legions is 
extolled by (ab) writers. This region is very pleasant. 

XL I. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Pugna uavalis, naval natio, on is,/, nation. firmus, a, um,/rw* 

hattlt. ^ origo, inis,/. origin. modestus, a, um, mod- 

vacca, ae, f. coiv. ]ia\n\io, onis, m. butter- est. 

fluvius, i, m. river. Jiy. [thage. opulentus, a, um, pou)- 

vitiilus, i, m. calf. Carthago, inis, / Carr, erfid, rich. 

vitulinus, a, um, o/ caZ/. Croto, onis, m. Croton. pallldus, a, um, pale^ 

agger, eris, m. a ram- amplus,a, um, spaa'oiw, livid. 

part. extended, liberal. sapidus, a, um, sapid, 

honos, oris, m. honor, conspicuus, a, um, con- ruber, bra, brum, rerf. 

post of honor. spicuous. "• hostiWs, e, hostile. 

proceres, um, m. chief extremus, a^um,duter- effundo, I pour forth. 

men. most, last. 

Croto erat clams. Carthago opulenta erat. Caro vitulina tenera est. 
Multarum nationum ac gentium origo obscura est. A deo omnia ori- 
ginem suam ducunt. Fluvius super extremum marginem effunditur, 
Portae cardines sunt firmi. Harpagone ferreo in pugna navali hostiles 
naves petuntur. Discolores papiliones sunt pulchri. 

Milo (Milo, onis) was a citizen of the renowned Croton. Writers 
call Carthage powerful. The origin of the Roman natioulis obscure. 
Upon (in) the remotest margin ♦of the river tMere are many trees. The 
hinges of the door are iron. The variegated butterfly is beautiful. 
The grappling hooks are of iron. 

Multae procerae arbores in silva sunt. Proceres honorum dignitate 
conspicui sunt. Sorores fratribus caraesunt. Marmor estsplendidum. 
Corda rubra sunt. Camporum aequor amplum est. Ador maturum 
est. Mores hominum varii sunt. Dura cote acuimus securim ferream. 
Filia a parentibus ampla dote donatur. Durum est os. Juv6nis os 


modestum esse debet Ver nobis gratum est Multae lintres in fluvio 
sunt. Mater liberis cara est Garruli sunt anseres. Hostes circa ur- 
bem aggerem altum exstriiunt Cadavera sunt pallida. Zingiber est 
sapldum. Vacca vitulo turgida ubera praebet 

High trees surround the house of my father. The udder of the cow 
is swollen. The corpse is pale. A high rampart is built by (ab) the ene- 
mies around the city. The heart is red. The bones are hard. The 
countenances of men are various. The goose is cackling (= loqua- 
cious). The good customs of men are praised, the bad are censured. 
With delight we take a walk in (abl.) the spring over (per) the extended 
surface of the pleasant plains. Splendid marble adorns the palace 
(= house) of the king. Whetstones are hard. The parents present 
the daughter a liberal dowry. The pleasant spring exhilarates our 
minds. On (in) the pond in (gen.) our garden, are many and beauti- 
ful boats. 

XLII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Camelus, i, m. camel. domesticus, a, um, do- pilosus, a, um, covered 

condimentum, i, n. mestic, private. ivith hair^ hairy. 

seasoning. fessus, a, um, ivearied. pretiosus, a um, pre- 

membrum, i, n. member, hoiiestus, a, um, hon- dous, costly. 

paries, etis, m. wall, (of orable. crudelis, e, crud. 

house). nocturnus, a, um, noc- excolo 3. / cultivate. 

celebrltas, at\s, f. con- turnal. infligo 3. (with dat) / 

course, multitude. inflict upon. 

Sorores meae^spinthera aurea habent Iter est longura. Siser est 
dulce. Silera sunt utilia. Camelus habet tubera pilosa. Subera sunt 
dura. Piper est acre. Papavera rubra sunt pulchra. Cicera parva 
sunt Acera sunt dura. Crudelis homo equo dura verbera fusti in- 
fligit Orator non intra domestlcos parietes excolitur, sed in luce vitae 
et hominum celebritate. Aera varia sunt Campi segete laeta ornan- 
tur. Compedes durae sunt Laborum requies grata est Quiete noc- 
turna hominum fessa membra recreantur. Merces laborum honesta 

The sharp pepper and sapid ginger are regarded as the seasonings 
of food (plur.) The walls of this house are high. The brass is splen- 
did. The carrot is sweet The cork tree is hard. Chickpeas are 
round. The ass endures hard blows patiently. Maple trees are hard. 
My sister has a golden bracelet Long is the way through precepts, 
short and effectual through examples. The red poppy fe beautiful. 
The willow is useful. Recompense for (gen.) labor (pi.) we regar^ as 
7* • %•»•■■ ^ 

78 FEMININE. P 39. 

honorable. Nocturnal rest refreshes the wearied limbs of men. Iron 
fetters press tender feet. Sleep is an agreeable (gratus, a, um) relaxation 
from (gen.) cares. The hump of the camel is hairy. Joyful crops adorn 
the plains of the extended country. The willow is useful. 

§ 39. Feminine, 

Of the fejninine gender are nouns in : as, is, aus, us, G. 

Mis or udis, x, those in s with a consonant before it and pari' 

syllables (§ 18. Rem. 4.) in es. 

Examples. 1) As: aest-a* calida, a warm summer; 2) Is: a\-is 
pulchra, a beautiful bird ; 3) Aus , 1-aits magna, great praise ; 4) f/s, 
G. litis, udis: juvent-M5(utis) \aeia, joijful youth, inc-us (udis) ferrea, iron 
anvil, pal-iiw, (udis) alta, deep pool, pec-its (udis), single head of cattle, but 
perns, pecoris (cattle) ; 5) X : \u-x clara, clear light ; 6) .S with a con- 
sonant before it : hie-wi5 aspera, rough winter ; 7) Es in parisyllables : 
nub-es nigra, black cloud. 

l)^s: l)^s: 

Three are masculine in as: Adamas, antis, m. a diamond. 

As, adamas and elephas, as, assis, m. an as (a coin). 

And one is neuter namely, vas. elephas, antis, m. (commonly ele- 

phantus, i, m.) elephant. 

vas, asis, n. a vessel, vase. 

^)Is: 2) Is: 

Masculine are these in is : Amnis, is, m. a river. 

Panis, piscis, crinis, finis, axis, is, m. an axletree. 

Ignis, lapis, pulvis, cinis, caUis, is, m. a f oof-path, path. •' 

Orbis, amnis and candlis, canalis, is, m. canal, water-course. 

Sanguis, unguis, glis, annalis, cassis, generally plur. casses, ium, 

Fascis, axis, funis, ensis, m. hunter's net. [cabbage. 

Fustis, vectis, vermis, Tnensis, caulis, is, m. a stalk, cabbage-stalk, 

Postis,follis, cucUmis, cinis, eris, m. ashes. •*' 

Cassis, collis, collis, coll is, is, m. a hill. 

rSerUis, caulis, pollis. crinis, is, m. hair. 

cuciimis, eris, m. a cu- glis, iris, m. a dormouse, pulvis, eris, m. dust. 

cumber. ignis, is, m.^re. sanguis, inis, m. 6/oorf. 

ensis, is, m. a sword. lapis, idis, m. a stone. sentis, is, m. a bramble, 
fascis, is, m. a bundle, mensis, is, m. a month. generally plur. sen- 
finis, is, m. the end ; orbis, is, m. a circle. tes, a thorn bush. 
plur. borders, territo- panis, is, m. bread. unguis, is, m. a naU, 
ry. piscis, is, m. afi^h. claw. 
foUis, is, m. bellows. pollis, inis, m. fine flour vectis, is, m. a lever, 
funis, is, m. a rope, cable. (Nom. wanting). bolt. 
fustisj is, m. a club. postis, is, m. a post. vermis, is, m. worm. 




Scrobis, is, a pit and torquis, a neck-cludn are mostly Masc. but some- 
times Feminine. 

Masculine there are in ar, 
Fornix^ onyx and cdlix^ 
Varix, calyx, coccyx, oryx, 
Tradux, hombyx, also sorix ; 
Add to these most in ex, 
Grex, apex, codex, and murex, 
Gaudex, frutex, pollex, pulex, 
Sorex, vei-vex ; and then in ax 
All Greek nouns, except climax. 

Apex, icis, m. a tufl, summit, 
bombyx, ycis, m. the sUk-worm. 
calix, icis, m. a cup. 
calyx, ycis, m. a hud, sJiell. 
caudex, icis, m. trunk of a tree. 
climax, acis,/. a ladder, climax. 
coccyx, ygis, m. a cuckoo. 
codex, icis, m. a book. 
fornix, icis, m. arch, vault. 

frutex, icis, m. a shrub, onyx, ychis, m. the onyx. 

plur. a thicket. oryx,yg\s,m. the gazelle. 

grex, egis, m. a Jlock, pollex, icis, m. thumb. 

crowd. pulex, icis, m. ajlea. 

murex, icis, m. a pur- sorex, icis, m. Jield- 

ple fish, purple. mouse. 

JRemark. Styx, Stygis, a river in the lower world, contrary to the 
general rule (§ 13.) is of the /emmi'ne gender. 

sorix or sourix, icis, m. 
a kind of owl. 

tradux, ucis, m. a vine- 

varix, icis, m. a varix. 

vervex, ecis, m. a wether. 

4) Es parisyllable : 
Masculine parisyllahles in es, 
Are only two: pdlumbes and ve- 

5) 5^ with a consonant before it. 
Masculine are in' ons and ens, 
Fons, mons, pons, dens, confiiiens, 
Bidens, tridens, occidens, ^ • » 
Rudens, torrens, oriens ; 
Two in ops and ybs. 
Hydrops an<J chdlybs. 

mons, tis, m. a moun- 

occidens, (sc. sol), tis, 
m. sun-set, the west 
western countries. 

oriens (sc. sol), tis, m 

sun-iise, the east, east- 
em countries. 

])ons, tis, m. a bridge. 

rudens, (sc. funis), tis 
m. a rope, cable. 

4) Es parisyllable : 
palumbes, is, m. wood-pigeon. 
vepres, is, m. a bramble. 

5) 5* with a consonant before it. 
bidens, tis, m. a hoe, mattock. 
chalybs, ybis, m. steel. 
confluens, tis, m. a confluence. 
dens, tis, m. a tooth. 
fons, tis, m. a fountain. 
hydrops, opis, tmb^iBsy. 

torl^^lpcil amnis), a 
torrent, impetuous 

tridens, tis, m. a trident. 

XLIII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Nummus, i, m. money. Tiberis, is, m. Tiber. Venus, firis,/. Venus. 
aurum, i, n. gold. anas, atis,/ a duck. angustus, a, um, nar- 

Albis, is, m. Elbe. cassis, idis,/. helmet. row, contracted. 

80 FEMININE. P 39. 

flavus, a, um, yellow j occultus, a, um, con- gesto 1. / carry, hear, 

flaxen. cealed. cresco 3. 1 grow. 

latus, a, um, broad. sordidus, a, um, foul. volvo 3. I roll ; volvor, 

limpidus, a, um, cZear. sacer, cra,crum, sacrec?. I am rolled, roll. 

Anas timida est. Veritas auro digna est. Albis latus habet ripas 
fecundas. Tiberis est flavus. Aprilis sacer est Veneri. As Romanus 
parvus est nummus. Adamas durissimus est. Vas est aureum. Im- 
perator auream cassidem gestat. Multae aves pulchre canunt. Vena- 
tor in alto coUe occultos casses tendit In patris hoito multi cucum6- 
res crescunt. Amnis est limpidus. Amnis altus multos alit pisces. 
Callis est angiistus. Multi parvi vermes in sordido pulvere volvuntur. 
Validi sunt portarum postes. Vectis est ferreus. 

The Elbe is broad. The worm is small. These paths are very 
narrow. Many fish are in that clear river. That gate has strong 
posts. The ducks are timid. The general wears (= bears) a golden 
neck-chain. This river is broad and deep. The cucumbers in the 
garden of my father, are ripe. Diamonds are very hard. The rivers 
are clear. These cucumbers are ripe. These hills are very high. 
Upon that high hill the nets concealed by the hunter are spread. 
The helmet of the general is* q/* goZrf (= golden). These vases are 
very beautiful. In this wood are many birds. These bolts are of iron 
(= iron). Old age is strong, youth weak. Anvils are o/" iron (= iron). 
These pools are very deep. 

XLIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Bibliotheca, ae,/. lihra- Apollo, ini^^. ApoUo. triticeig, a, um, of 

ry^ Juno, 6nis,f. Juno. wheat, wheaten. 

chorda, &eif. chord, ov'is, is, f. sheep. r4y^ universus, a, um, the 

columba, ae,/. dove. densus, a, um, dense. whole. 

ecclesin, ae, f. church, excelsus, a, um, lofty, asper, era, erum, rough. 

India, ae,/. Ii^fM^L ferus, a, um, wUd. coWustrol.. I illuminate. 

rosa, ae,/. ^<^^^H frondosus, a, um, leafy, dilacero 1. / tear in 

musicus, i, m^KKcian. igneus, a, um, fiery. pieces. 

Vesuvius, i, m. T^u- lapideus, a, um, of excito I. I excite, raise, 

vius. ' stone. converto 3.' / turn 

sarmentum, i, n. twig, opimus, a, um, fat. around. [forth, 

branch. rapidus, a, um, rapid, evomo 3. / emit, belch 

solum, i, 71. the ground, tortus, a, um, twisted. tango 3. / touch. 

Leo teneram ovem ungue acuto dilacerat. Sanguis ruber est. Miles 
ensem ferreum gestat. Torquis est aureus. Sentes asperi sunt. 
Scrobis est altus. Panis triticeus est dulcis. Universus terrarum 
orbis sole coUustratur. Mensis Junius a Junone nomen habet. Oc- 


cultus est caiialis. Lapldes sunt duri. Ignis magnus in monte alto 
excitatur. Follis est plenus venti. Fustis est durus. Funis tortus 
est. Hostes in fines nostros irrumpunt. Mors omnium malorum cer- 
tus finis ^st. E silvis multi sarmentorura fasces portantur. Poetae 
Apollini flavos crines tribuunt. Vesuvius igneos cineres evomit. Cau- 
les teneri sunt. Terra circum axem suum summa celeritate converti- 

The teeth of the lion are sharp. ,The tender sheep are torn in 
pieces by (ab) the lions. Man has red. blood. Axle-trees are round. 
The sword is sharp. This cabbage is tender. From Vesuvius, fiery 
ashes are belched forth. Avoid ye the rough thorn-bushes. The end 
of life is uncertain. The soldiers defend our borders against (contra), 
the enemies. Flaxen hair (plur.) is given to Apollo by (ab) the poets. 
This bread is good, that bad. The ropes are twisted. The sun illu- 
minates the whole circle of the world. The clubs are hard. The 
month [of] June is very pleasant. The bellows are full of wind (gen.). 
The enemies raised a great fire in the city. The canals are concealed. 
High stones surround that way. Bundles [of twigs] bound with laurd 
(laureatus, a, um), with the Romans, were a badge of a victorious 
(victor, oris) general, y 

Nox est nigra. Leges sunt justae. In excelso montis apice est 
turris alta. Pulices molesti vexant columbam. Magnus avium grex 
petit frutices frondosos. Verveces opimi sunt. Timldos sorlces petunt 
avidi sorlces. In India sunt multi bombyces. Traduces teneros solo 
inserimus. Murex est pretiosus. Varices sanguinis pleni sunt. Musi- 
cus docto poUice tangit chordas. Oryges sunt velocissimi. Onyx est 
pulcherrimus. Alti sunt ecclesiae fornices. In bibliotheca regis mag- 
nus optimorum codlcum numerus est. Rosae calyx pulcher est. Calix 
est plenus vini. 

The cups are full of wine (gen.) The nights are dark (= black). 
Just laws are salutary to the state. My father has many books. On 
(in) the plains are many flocks of (gen.) sheep. The shrubs are leafy. 
In the church are high arches. Onyxes are very beautiful. Silk- 
worms are very useful. The varix is full of blood (gen.). Vine- 
branches are tender. Purple-fishes are very costly. Field-mice are 
very timid. Husband-men have many wethers. The depressed (pres- 
sus, a, um) thumb was a sign of favor (favor, oris) to the Romans. 
The trunks of trees are full of branches (= branchy, ramosus, a, um). 
The gazelle is very swift. The wealthy husbandmen nourish many 
flocks of (gen.) sheep. 

82 NEUTER. [^ 40. 

Nubes sunt higrae. Palumbes sunt timidi. Vepres sunt densi. 
Hiems est aspera. Limpidus fons in alto monte est. Super rapidum 
torrentem pons lipideus ducit. Omnes ferae bestiae duros et acutos 
dentes habent. Durus est chalybs. Multi nautae ab exiremo oriente 
ad extremum occidentem navigant. Ru dentes torti sunt. Neptunus 
magnum tridentem gestat. 

The cloud is black. The wood-pigeon is timid. The cable is 
twisted. Dense brambles surround the clear fountain. This bridge 
is of stone. Many wares are carried (vehere) by (ab) the traders, from 
the remotest east to (ad) the remotest west and from the remotest west 
to the remotest east. The teeth of wild beasts are hard and sharp. 
Torrents are rapid. The rough winter is disagreeable. Clear foun- 
tains are upon that high mountain. Steel is very hard. 

§ 40. Neuter, 

Of the neuter gender are nouns in : a, e, c, /, en^ ar, ur, 

ut, us, G. eris, oris, uris. 

Examples: \) A: poem-rt pulchrum, a beautiful poem ; 2) E: mar- 
e magnum, a great sea; 3) C: only la-c (lact-is), and ale-c (ecis), end in 
this letter, as : lac tepldum, warm milk, alec sapidum, salt Jish-brine ; 
4) L: fe-Z amarum, bitter gall; 5) En nom-en clarum, a renowned 
nam£ ; 6) Ar : calc-ar acutum, a sharp spur ; 7) Ur : rob-wr (oris) mag- 
num, greaf sfreng^^ ; 8) Ul: caput humanum, a human head; 9) Us: 
gen-iis (6ris) clarum, a renowned race. 

Exceptions : 

From the neuter are rejected, Furfur, uris, m. bran. 

By the masculine accepted, lepiis, oris, m. a hare. 

Two in I : sol and sal, lien, enis, m. (ancient form for 

With four in en : splen), the spleen. 

Ren, splen, pecten, lien. mus, uris, m. mouse. 

Masculine too are three in ur : pecten, inis, m. comb. 

Furfur, turtur and vvltur ; ren, commonly plur. renes, kidney. 

Add to these two words in us : sal, is, m. salt, wit. 

Lepus, leporis and mus. sol, is, m. sun. 

But feminine there is in us, splen, enis, m. spleen. 

Barely the single word telliis. tellus, uris,/. the earth. 

turtur, uris, m. turtle-dove. 

vultur, uris, m. a vulture. 

Remark. Contraiy to the general rule (§ 13.) the names of cities in 
e remain neuter, as : Praeueste, and besides, Anxur, Tibur ; also, robur, 
oris, live-oak. 


XLV. Words to be learned and Eizercises for translation. 

Liber, bri, m. 600^. fulgur, uris, n. light- pavidus, a, um, shy, 

lector, oris, m. reader. ning. rutllus, a, um^Jiery red. 

l0por, oris, m. pleasant- Atticus, a, um, Mic. mollis, e, sojl. 

ry,jest. dentaXus, a, um, toothed, perrodo 3. / gnaw 

Hannibal, alis, m. Han- festivus, a, um, delicate. through. 

nibal. jocosus, a,u m,facetious. 

Calcaria sunt acuta. Sol igneus est. Sal est sapid us. Sales Plauti, 
poetae comici Romanorum sunt, valde jocosi. Splen tener est. Renea 
humidi sunt. Pecten est dentatus. Fulgur est rutilum. Hannibalis 
nomen est clarum. Furfur triticeus est moUissimus. Vultures saevi 
unguibus dilacerant turtures pavidos. Juvenum corpora sunt valida. 
Timidos lepores venator quaerit in silvis, festivos lepores lector in libris. 
Mures parvi saepe validos muros perrodunt. 

The sapid salt serves (= is) for many dishes (== foods) for season- 
ing. Attic wit (plur.) is extolled by writers. Vultures are destructive 
to turtle-doves. Mice are very small. Turtle-doves and wood-pigeons 
are very shy. Hares are veiy swift. The warm sun illuminates the 
whole circle of the earth. Combs are toothed. 

§ 41. Of the gender of the Fourth Declension. 

Us of the fourth is masculine , 

And u is of the neuter kind ; 

But feminine there are in us : 

Tribus, acus^ porticus^ 

Domus, idus and mamis. 

Tribus, us,/, fri&e, com- domus, us,/ house, May, July and Oct., 

pany. palace. but 13th of the oth- 

acus, us,/ needle. idus, uum,/ the Ides er months), 

porttcus, us,/ por/ico. (15th day of March, manns, us, f. hand. 

XL VI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Anus, us, old man. Juppiter, Jovis, m. Ju- urbanus, a, um, of the 

nurus, us, daughttr-in- piter (ahl. Jove). city. 

law. marmoreus, a, um, of certo I . I contend. 

socrus, us, motJier-in- marble, marble. aut, or ; aut — aut, eith- 

law. rusllcus, a, um, of the er — or. 

Magnificam regis domum amplae et marmoreae ornant porticus. 
Tribus sunt aut urbanae, aut rusticae. In silva sunt multae vetustae 


et altae quercus. Anus sunt garriilae. Socribus carae sunt nurus 
bonae. Puella acutam acum perita manu regit Cum rusticis tribu- 
bus certant urbanae. 

The magnificent palace of the king is adorned with (abl.) spacious 
and marble porticos. The royal palaces are surrounded by (abl.) high 
pines. The portico of the royal palace is very magnificent. Dogs 
guard our houses. The king is building (= builds) a very magnificent 
palace. The Ides are sacred to Jupiter. 

Promiscuous examples from all the Declensions. 

XL VII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Aquila, ae,/ ert^/e. jecur, jecoris or jeci- Vis, /.'power, force, qunn- 

insidiae, arum,/.snarcs, noris, n. liver. tity, (forms only ace. 

ambush. nix,nivis,y! snow (abl. c). vim and abl. vi ; pi. 

petulantia, ae, /. lictn- pectus, oris, n. breast. vires, powers, virium, 

tionsness, wayward- Mars, tis, m. Mors. etc.). 

ness. [cury. sedes, is,/, a seat. clausus, a, um, shut up. 

Mercurius, i, m. Mer- s6nex, senis, old, old contentus, a, um, (c. 

rusticus, i. m. farmer, man, {abl. sene ; pi. abl.), contented. 

rustic. senes, senum, etc.). promtus, a, um, ready. 

pratum, i. n. meadow, supellex, ectllis, /. virldis, e, green. 

bilis, is, /. bile. household furniture, compleo 2. If II. 

bos, bovis, c. ox, cow ; utensils [abl. -e. gen. tumeo 2. 1 swell. 

pi. boves, boum, bo- pi. -ium). pasco 3. I pasture. 

bus or bubus. 

Sapiens parva supellectile est contentus. Divites magnam habent 
copiam supellectilium. Juvenilis aetas viget corporis viribus. In sene 
valde displicet petulantia. Hieme terra nivlbus completur. A Jove 
coelum, terrae et maria reguntur. Jecinora saepe tument bile amara. 
Rustici multos boum greges alunt. Agricolae bobus agros arant. 
Multi homines aliud clausum in pectore habent, aliud promtum in 
lingua. Primus hebdomadis dies appellatur dies Lunae, alter dies 
Martis, tertius dies Mercurii, quartus dies Jovis, quintus dies Veneris, 
Septimus dies Solis. 

The powers of the lion are great. To Jupiter the eagle is sacred. 
There are various kinds of house-furniture (pL). Keep, O boys, in (abl.) 
memory, the precepts of wise old men. Modest manners (= customs) 
please in the boy, the young man and the old man. In the months 
November and December the clouds discharge a great quantity (vis) of 
(gen.) rain (plur.) and snow. In the liver is the seat of anger. Lions 

^ 42.] CLASSES OF VERBS. 85 

prepare snares for cows. Upon (in) the green meadows are pastured 
a great herd of (gen.) cows. 

XLVIII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Praeniium, i, n. reword, voluntas, atis,/. will. lavo 1. I wash. 

principium, i, w. feeg-tn- casus, us, m. Jail, ca- immmeo 2. [threaten. 

ning. lamity, chance. eligo 3. I choose. 

vincuhim, i, n. bond, consensus, us, m. agree- quoudie, adv. daily. 

chain. ment. autem, conj. but. 

hebd6mas,adis,/ tiJceA:. arduus, a, um, c?t/^jiZf. an (in questions), or. 

vitiositas, atis,/. vice. appello 1. I calL 

Certus amicus in re incerta cernitur. Manus manum lavat. Honos 
praemium virtutis est. Mors pro[)ter incertos casus quotidie nobis 
immlnet. Omnium rerum a deo immortali principia ducuntur. Nul- 
him est certius amicitiae vinciilum, quam consensus et societas consi'- 
liorum et voluiitatum Duae sunt vitae viae : virtutis et vitiositatis ; 
alterutram eligere debes, o puer ! 

Firm (= certain) friends are seen in an uncertain thing. There 
are two ways of life, of virtue and of vice ; the way of the one (alter) 
is troublesome and difficult, but leads to a peaceful life ; the way of 
the other (alter) is easy and agreeable, but leads to a wretched life ; 
which way (utra via = which of the two ways) dost thou choose, [that] 
of virtue, or [that] of vice ? 



Of the Verb. 

§ 42. Classes of verbs, (§ 6, 2.). 

a) Active verbs, or the form expressing activity, as : laudo, 
floreo ; those active verbs which take an object in the accu- 
sative, are called transitive, as : laudo puerum ; all other 
active verbs are called intransitive, as : floreo, dormio, pareo 
(alicui), gaudeo (de aliqua re). 

b) Passive verbs, or the form expressing passivity or the 
receiving of an action. 


86 TENSES. MODES. INFINITIVE, ETC. [H 43, 44, 45. 

c) Deponent verbs are such as have the passive form but 
the active signification. 

§43. Tenses of the Verb, 

I. 1) Present, am-o, I love, 

2) Perfect, am-a-vi, /Aai;e /ovec?; 
II. 3) Imperfect, ani-a-bam, //oy^c?, ?«;a5 /ovmo*, 
4) Pluperfect, am-a-veram, I had loved; 
III. 5) Future (simple), am-a-bo, I shall love, 

6) Future Perfect, am-a-vero, I shall have loved. 

Remark. The Pres., the Perf. and the two Futures are called princi- 
pal tenses, the others historical or narrative tenses. — The Perf. in Latin, 
is used in a two-fold way ; a) hke the English Perf as : deus mundum 
creavit, (God has created the earth) ; b) like the English Imperf in nar- 
rating, as : Romulus Roman condidit, (Romulus built Rome). In the 
first case it is called the Perf present, and is considered as belonging 
to the principal tenses, in the last the Perf historical, and belongs to the 
historical tenses. 

§44. Modes of the Verb. 

I. The Indicative, which expresses a fact, phenomenon, 
reality, as : the rose blooms, bloomed, ivill bloom ; 

II. The Subjunctive, which expresses what is imagined, 
supposed, conceived of, as : he may come, he might come not- 
loithstanding ; 

III. The Imperative, which is used in direct expressions 
of the ivill, as : hear thou, teach thou. 

§ 45. Infinitive, Participle, Supine, Gerund and Gerundive. 
Besides the Modes, the verb has the following forms : 

a) The Infinitive, which is of an intermediate nature be- 
tween the verb and the noun, as : cupio te adspice- 
re, I desire to see thee (comp. cupio adspectum tui, / 
desire a sight of thee) ; 

b) The Participle, which presents the idea of the verb in 
the form of an adjective, as : puer scribens (the boy 
writing), filia amata (the daughter beloved) ; 

c) The Supine in um and u, which presents the idea of 


the verb in the form of a noun in either the Ace. 
or Abl. case, as: canes venatum duco, / take the dogs 
to hunt (to hunting,) or, res est jucunda auditu^ the 
thing' is pleasant to hear (in the hearing) ; 

d) The Gerund, which also presents the idea of the verb 
under the form of a noun, and indeed, in all the 
cases, as : Nom. scribendum est, ive (one) must ivrite^ 
Gen. ars scribendi, the art of ivriting, or to ivrite^ Dat.. 
scribendo aptus est^fit for ivriting, or to write^ Ace. 
with a preposition, inter scribendum^ while loritingy 
Abl. scribendo exerceor, / am exercised by (in, etc.) 
writing ; 

e) The Gerundive (or Part. Fut. Pass.), which presents 
the idea of the verb in an adjective form, precisely as 
the Gerund presents it in a substantive form, as : 
epistola scribenda est, the letter is to be loritten, and 
so through all the cases. 

Remark. The Indicative, Subjunctive and Imperative are called the 
finite or definite verb, because they always refer to a definite subject; 
the Inf. Part. Su}3. Ger. and Gerundive, on the contrary, are called the 
indefinite verb, because these forms, on account of their meaning, do 
not admit of such a reference. 

§ 46. Persons and Numbers of the Verb. 

The verb has, like the noun, two numbers, Sing, and 
Plur., and three persons both in the Sing, and in the Plur., 
as : /, thou, he (she, it) and lue, you, they, which are express- 
ed by the endings, as: ^cnh-imus, ive write. 

Remark. Those verbs which are used only in the third person Sing, 
are called Impersonal verbs, as : pluit, it rains, tonat, it thunders. 

§47. Conjugation. 

Conjugation is the inflection of a verb according to its 
Persons, Numbers, Modes, Tenses and Voice. The Latin 
language has/owr Conjugations, which are distinguished ac- 
cording to the ending of the Inf. as follows : 


I. Conj.: — are, as: am-are, to love, Characteristic: a 

II. " — ere, " mon-ere, to adjjionish, " e 

III. " — ere, " reg-ere, to g-overn, " e 

IV. " — ^ire, " aud-ire, to hear. " i. 

Rem. 1. In parsing a verbal form, the beginner should accustom 
himself to observe the following order : a) the person, b) the number, c) 
the mode, d) the tense, e) the voice, f) from whot verb, g) the meaning. F.. g. 
What kind of a verbal form is amdtis^ Aniatis is Sec. Pers. Plur. of 
the Indie. Pres. Act. from the verb : amo, amavi, amatum, amare, to love. 

Rem. 2. Every verbal form consists of two parts, the stem, which 
is the ground-form of the verb, remaining unchanged through all its 
modifications, and the inflection-ending which varies to express the 
number, person, etc. The last letter of the stem is called the charac- 
teristic to which the inflection-endings are joined sometimes with and 
sometimes without change. In the paradigms of the verbs, the char- 
acteristic and inflection-endings are printed in italics. 

§ 48. Formation of the Tenses. 

In every verb there are four forms to be observed, from 
which, by adding different endings, all the remaining forms 
are derived, viz. : 

1) Ind. Pres. Ad. 

2) Ind. Perfect 


3) Supine. 

4) Infinitive Act. 

I. amo 




II. moneo 



m on ere 

III. rego 




IV. audio 




A. From the Indicative Present Active : amo ; moneo ; rego, capio (I 
take) ; audio, as the stem, are derived : 

a) Indicative Present Passive : amor; moneor; regor, capior; audior; 

b) Subjunctive Present Active and from this SubJ. Pres. Pass. : amem ; 
moneam ; regam, capiam ; audiam ; — amcr; monear; regcrr, ca- 
piar; audiar; 

c) Fut. Active and Passive: regam [es, et, etc.), capiam; audiam; — 
regar (eris, etc.), capiar ; audiar; — amabo ; ; — amaior; 
Xfionebor ; 

d) Indicative Imperfect Active and Passive : amkbam ; monebam ; reg^- 
6am, capieftam ; aud\ebam; — amabar; mone6ar; regeJar, capieftar ; 
audif fear ; 

e) Participle Present Active : a mans ; moncTW ; regerw, capierw ; au- 
diens ; 


f) Gerundive and Gerund : amarw^iw, amandum ; mouendv^ ; regen- 
dv^, c&piendus ; aud'iendus, 

B. Injiniiive Active : amare ; monere ; regfire, capere ; audire, as stem, 

are derived: 

a) Imperative Active : ama ; mone ; rege, cape ; audi ; and Imperat, 
Passive, which agrees in form with the Infin. Act : amare ; mone- 
re ; regere, capere ; audire ; 

h) Infinitive Present Pass, of I, II. and IV. Conj. : amari, moneri, 
audiri; the III. Conj. adds to the stem the ending i; regi, capi; 

c) Subjunct. Imperf. Act. and Passive : amarewi ; monerem ; regerem, 
caperem; audirewi; — amarer; monerer; regcrer; caperer; audircr. 

C. From the Perfect Active: amavi ; monui ; rexi, cepi; audivi, as a 

stem, are derived : 

a) Subjunctive Perfect Active : amaverim ; monuerim ; rexmm, ce- 

perim ; aud interim; 
h) Indicative Pluperfect Active: amaveram; monueram; rexeram, ce- 

peram; audiveram ; 

c) Future Perfect : amavero ; monuero ; rexero, cepero ; audivero ; 

d) Infin. Perf. Ad. : amavisse ; monuisse ; rexisse, cepisse ; audivmc ; 
t) Subjunctive Pluperfect Active : amavissem ; monuissem ; rerisscm, 

cepmem ; audivissem. 

D. From the Supine : amatum ; monitum ; rectum, captum ; auditum, 

as a stem, are derived : 

a) Partic. Perf. Pass. : amatus ; monitus ; rectus, captus ; audi^iw ; 

b) Part. Fat. Act. : amaturus ; moniturus ; recturvs ; audi^Mriw. 





§ 49. Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb, sum, fui, 
esse, to be. 

This verb is extensively employed in forming the tenses 
of the verb in Latin, both by furnishing various endings to 
the stem of the verb, and by being joined to the participle of 
the verb. Thus e. g. amsiY-istis, you have loved, is com- 
posed of the stem amav and estis (you are), amav-eraw, of 
amav and eram, so : by aj^amatus sumy I have loved, etc. 




su-m, / am 

si-ra, / may be 

es, thou art 

sl-s, thou mayest be 

es-t, ke, she, it is 

Sit, he, she, it may be 

su-inus, we are 

sl-mus, we may be 

es-tis, you are 

sl-tis, you may be 

su-nt, they are 

si-nt, they may be. 


gr-a-m, r7cas 

es-sg-ra, I might be 

gr-a-s, thou wast 

es-se-s, thou mightest be ^ 

er-a-t, Ae, she, it loas 

es-se-t, he, she, it might be 

er-a-mus, we were 

es-se-nius, we might be 

er-a-tis, you were 

es-se-tis, you might be 

er-a-nt, they were 

es-se-nt, they might be. 


fu-i, / have been 

fu-eri-m, / may have been 

fu-isli, thou hast been 

fu-eri-s, thou mayest have been 

fu-Tt, he, she, it has been 

fii-eri-t, he, she, it may have been] 

fii-iinus, we have been 

fii-6rT-mus, ?oe may have been 

fu-istis, you have been 

1 fu-6ri-tis, you may have been 

fu-erunt (ere), they have been 

fu-eri-nt, they may have been. 


fu-era-m, / had been 

fu-isse-m, [might have been 

fu-era-s, thou hadst been 

fu-isse-s, thou mightest have been 

fu-era t, he, she, it had been 

fu-isse-t, he, she, it might have been 

fu-era-mus, we had been 

fu-isse-mus, we might have been 

fu-6ra-tTs, you had been 

fu-isse-lTs, you might have been 

fQ-era-nt, they had been 

fu-isse-nt, they might have been. 


Future Indicative.* 
6r-b, / shall be gr-I-miis, we shall be 

6r-i-s, thou wilt be 6r-i-tTs, you will be 

er-i-t, he, she, it will be 6r-u-nt, they will be. 

Future Perfect Indicative.* 
fu-ero, / shall have been fu-eri-mus, we shall have been 

fu-eri-s, thou wilt have been fu-eri-tis, you will have been 

fu-6ri-t, he, she, it will have been fu-eri-nt, they tcilL have been. 

2. gs, be thou 2. es te, he ye 

2. es-to, thou shouldest be 2. es-tote, you should be 

3. es-to, he should be 3. su-nto, they should be. 

Present esse, to be 
Perfect fuisse, to have been 
Future futurus, a, um esse, to will he, (that something) will be. The 
first of these forms is not used in English. 

Present only: absent, absent, from ttiswrre ; ^x^esens, -present, ^rompraes 

sum = praesto sum. 
Future futurus, a, um, one who (what) toill, is about to be, a\30,future. 

* The Subj. of the Fut ia wanting. See Rem. 1 to the following table of paradigms. 

Rem. 1. In the compound pro-sum (I benefit), in all the forms where 
a vowel follows pro, d is introduced between them, as : pro-d-esse, 
pro-d-es, pro-d-est, pro-d-eram, pro-d-ero, pro-d-essem. 

Rem. 2. Besides the above-mentioned forms, two others occur, viz. : 
forem (fores, foret, etc.), I would 6e, and the corresponding Infin. ybre in- 
stead offuturum esse. 

XL IX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Absum, abfdi, abesse, prosum, profiii, prod- foris, adv. without. 

I am absent, removed esse, / am useful, heri, adv. yesterday. 
from, heneft, (see Rem. 1). longe, adv. far. 

adsum, affui, adesse, concilio 1. / unite. peregre, adv. abroad. 

I am present. fera, ae,/. wild beast. quamdiu, adv. and conj. 

intersum, fui, esse, (c. ])ngna, (ie,f fght, battle. how long; so [as) 

dat.) to be in, present arma, orum, n. arms. long as. 

at (something). oratio, oiiis, /. speech, ubi, adv. where. 

praesum, fui, esse, lam discourse. dum, conj. while. 

before, preside over, mag'istrams, us,^- msi, conj. unless. 

attend to. istrate, magistrcLcy. quutri, conj. when, as, 

Deus omnibus locis adest. Parvi pretii sunt foris arma, nisi est con- 
silium domi. Contemnuutiir ii, qui nee sibi, nee altSri prosunt Ut 


magistratibus leges, ita populo praesunt magistratus. Ratio et oratio 
conciliant inter se homines, neque ulla re longlus absiimus a natiira 
ferarum. Ego laetus sum, tu tristris es. Si sorte vestra contenti estis, 
beati estis. 

Dum ego, tu et amicus in schola erdmuSy sorores nostrae in horto 
erant. Quum tu et Carolus heri domi nostrae erdlis^ ego peregre eram. 
Quamdiu tu et frater tuus domi nostrae erdtis, tu laetus eras, sed frater 
tuus tristis erat. Quamdiu tu et pater aberdtis, ego et frater tristes 

Cur heri in schola non fuisti ? Quia cum patre peregre fui. Quam- 
diu tu et pater tuus domo abfuistis ? Sex menses abfuimus. Cur mil- 
ites nostri pugnae non interfuerunt ? Quia longius abfuerunt. Ubi 
heri fueras, quum domi tuae eram ? 

I am useful to thee, and thou to me. Wherefore are you sad ? We 
are joyful. If thou art contented with thy lot, thou art happy. While 
I was in the school, my sister was iii the garden. As yesterday thou 
wast at home, I was abroad. Why were (perf ) you not in the school 
yesterday ? because we were (perf.) abroad. How long hast thou been 
absent from (abl.) home? Ten months (ace.) have 1 been absent 
Where had you been yesterday, as we were in your house ? While 
we and you were in the school, our sisters were in the garden. While 
you and Charles were in Our house yesterday, we were abroad. 

L. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Desum, defui, deesse, aetas, atis, /. age^ gen- antea, adv. before. 

I am wanting. eraiion. postea, adv. afterwards, 

obsum, fui, esse, / am nemo (Inis), no-body^ nuper, adv. lately. 

against^ injure. no one. repente, adv. suddenly. 

occupo 1. / take pos- aegrotus, a, um, sick. propterea, adv. for this 

session of seize. avarus, a, um, avari- reason. 

periculum, i, n. danger. cious. [ble. quo- — eo (with compa- 

praedium, i, n./arwi. invictus, a, um, tnmTici- tive), the — so much 
adolescens, tis, m. atrox, ocis, terriblCf the. 

young man, yoxdh. bloody. 

Quamdiu felix eris, multi tibi erunt amici. Tota civltas in summa 
laetitia fuerat, quum repente ingens terror omnium animos occupat. 
Pugna fuit atiocissima, propterea quod utriusqne exercitus milites for- 
tissimi fufirauL Ante belli initium in urbe fueramus. Demosthenis 
aetate multi oratores magni et clari fuerunt, et antea fuerant, nee 
post6a defuerunt Ante tres annos apud amicum fui, in cujus praedio 
iHiper per duo menses fueratis. Haec res non profuit nobis, sed ob- 


fuit. Quo minus honoris apud Romanos erat poetis, eo minora studia 
fuerunt. Si quis virtutis compos erit, semper beatus erit. Quamdiu 
sorte mea contentus ero, felix ero. Qualis in alios fueris, tales hi in te 
erunt. Si in hac vita semper virtutis studios! fuerimus, etiam post 
mortem beati erimus. 

So long as you shall be fortunate, you will not want friends. The 
upright always benefit the upright. My enemies (immicus) have not 
injured me, but benefited If men will be virtuous, they will be happy. 
So long as we shall be contented with our lot, we shall be happy. If 
men always shall haye been virtuous, the reward of virtue will not 
fail them. 

Rule of Syntax. In questions, to which the asker expects an an- 
swer by yes or no, the interrogative particle ne is attached to the word 
upon which the emphasis of the question is placed, as: Fuistine heri in 
schola ? wast thou in school yesterday ? 

Erasne in schola, quum heri domi tuae eram ? Eram. Miserne 
sapiens erit, quum pauper erit? Non erit. Laetusne, an tristis es? 
Unusne, an plures sunt mundi ? Cur heri in schola non fuisti ? Ae- 
grotusne fuisti? Non, sed quia cum patre peregre eram. Fuerasne 
nuper in horto nostro ? Deeritue tibi hominum laus, si semper pro- 
bus fueris ? 

Were you in school, as* we were at your house yesterday ? Yes 
(= we were). Will the wise be unhappy, if they shall be poor ? No 
(= they will not be). No one of (gen.) us is the very same in old-age, 
wl\ich he was (perf ) [as] a young man. Pelopidas was in (perf ) all 
dangers. Aristides was in (perf) the battle of Salamis (pugna Salami- 
ma). Poets not merely delight, but also benefit us. 

Yesterday I was (perf) at thy house, but thou wast abroad. The 
avaricious in the abundance of all things, will be very poor. Thou, 
thy father and thy mother have benefited us much (multum). We, 
you and your sister were very joyful yesterday, as we were at your 
house. Were you yesterday abroad, as I was at your house ? Yes 
(= we were). While my brother was in the garden, I was in the 
school. Were our soldiers in the battle? No (:= they were not in 
it). We were (perf) not at home yesterday, but abroad. 

Our soul after death will be immortal. So long as we shall be con- 
tented with our fortune, we shall be happy. Where had you been 

* For the reason of using as in this and many other places in these exer- 
cises, where when would seem to be required, see Synt. § 110, 1, 1.— Tr. 


yesterday, as T was at your house ? We had been abroad. So long 
as thou hadst been fortunate, thou hadst had (= there were to thee) 
many friends. The more modest thou shalt be, so much the more 
agreeable thou wilt be to men. If I shall benefit others, they [also] 
will benefit me. 

As (qualis) I shall have been to (in with ace.) others, so (talis) they 
will be to me. If we shall have benefited others, they [also] will bene- 
fit us. If thou, in this life, shalt have zealously pursued virtue, thou 
shalt also, after death, be happy. 

LI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Cogito 1, I think, reflect nescius, a, urn, igno- attentus, a, um, atten- 

upon. rant ; non sum ne- live. 

dubito 1. I doubt. scius, / know per- praeteritus, a, um,pa»^ 

pondero I. I weigh,con- ftdly well. eras, adv. to-morrow. 

sider. parsiniouia, ae, /. fru- parutn, adv, too little. 

provideo 2. I foresee; gality. \n'\\\s, adv. previously. 

c. dat. look out for. mens, tis, /. state of plane, adv. wholly. 

intelll»f0 3. / under- mind. ne — quidem, not in- 

stand. vectigal, alis, n. tax, in- deed, not even. 

repeto 3. / run over. come. turn, then. 

Bcio 4. / know. victor, oris, m. conquer- non solum — sed etiam, 
nescio 4. / do not know. or. not merely, hut also. 

Rule of Syntax. In questions which depend upon a foregoing 
sentence [indirect questions), the subjunctive* is always used, as: Narra 
mihi, uh'xfueris, relate to me, where thou hast been. — In indirect questions 
the enclitic ne is translated by whether, as: Dubito, laetusne sis, I doubt, 
whether thou art joyful. 

Non sum nescius, qua mente tu et prius in nos fueris, et nunc sis, et 
semper futiir us sis. Non eram nescius, qua mente tu et prius in nos 
fuisses, et turn esses, et semper futurus esses. Qualis sit animus, ipse 
animus nescit. Deus non est nescius, qua mente quisque sit. CogUa, 
quantum nobis exempla bona prosint. Prae gaudio, ubi sim, nescio. 
Non intelVigunt homines, quam magnum vectigal sit parsimonia. Non, 
quantum quisque prosit, sed quanti pretii quisque sit, pondera. Quo 
quisque an'imo futurus sit, nescio. Incertus eram, profuturusne tibi essem. 
Saepe ne utile quidem est scire, quid futurum sit. Pecunia, honores, 
valetudo quamdlu affutura sint, incertum est. Incertus eram, et ubi 
esselis, et ubi fuissetis. JVdrro tibi, et ubi her i fuerimus, et ubi eras 
futuri simus. Dubitamus, fuerinine milites nostri in piigna laude digni. 

* As the subjunctive form is not so extensively used in English as in 
Latin, the Subj. must often be translated into English by the forms of the 
Indie, as will be seen in the following examples. — Tr. 


Diibium erat^ civesne nostri, an hostes in ilia pugna victores faisaent, 
Dubium eraty profuissetne Alcibiades patriae suae, an ob/uisset. 

What to-day is and yesterday was (perf ), we know ; but what will 
be to-tnorrow, we know not. How long we shall be in this life, is un- 
certain. I knew perfectly well, both of what state of mind towards us 
you then were, and had been previously, and always would be (= were 
about to be). I rejoice, when I think, how much you have benefited 
the state, both now and before, and still will benefit [it]. It was un- 
ceitain, where the enemies were and had been, and where they would 

Adestote omnes animis, qui adestis corporibus ! Attenti este, dis- 
cipuli ! Homines mortis memores sunto. Contenti estote sorte vestra ! 
Parum provident multi tempori futuro, sed plane in diem vivunt Vir 
prudens non solum praesentia curat, sed etiam praeterita mente repetit 
et futura ex praeteritis provldet. 

Scholars, not merely with (abl.) the body (plur.), but also with the 
mind (plur.), should be in the school. Man should be mindful of 

In school, you should be attentive, O scholars ! Thou shouldest be 
contented with (abl.) thy lot! Men should always be mindful of the 
precepts of virtue. 




Preliminary Remark. 

§50. AC 

Of the four re^lar 

The following paradigms need not all be 

1. A mo, dwi, amd<«m, amdre. 
Characteristic : a long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

amo, I love 
amd-s, thou lovest 

amd-f, he, she, it 

amd-7nM5, we love 

amd-it5, you love 

ama-n<, they love 

ame-m, I may love 
ame-5, thou mayest 

am^-f, he, she, it 

may love 
ame-ww5, we may 

amc-tw, you may 

ame-nf, they may 


II. Imperfect. 

amd-idTO, I loved, 
was loving 

amd bdSy thou lov- 
edst, wast loving 

amd-//df, he, she, it 

loved, was loving 

amd-6dwm5, we lov- 
ed, were loving^ you lov- 
ed, were loving 

amd-^anf, they lov- 
ed, were loving 


amd-rcm, f 

amd-rc5, thou 

mightest love 
amd-7-e<, he, she, 

might love 
amd-rcTnit^, we 

might love 
dimd-retls^ you 

might love 
amd-renf, they 

might love. 

III. Future {Indicative). * 
amd-fco, I shall love 
amd-ii5, thou wilt love 
amd-65^f, he, she, it will love 
amd-iir/m5, we shall love 
dLind-hltis^ you will love 
amd-6M7it, they will love. 

IV. Perfect. 

amd-ut, I have lov- 

a,md-{vi)stl, thou 
hast loved 

amd-w<, he, she, it 
has loved 

amd-t>lmw5, we 
have loved 

amd-(»i)sft5, you 
have loved 

they have loved 

amd-(r^)r?m, I may 

have loved 
amd-(we)ri5, thou 

mayest have 1. 

i' may have 1. 
amd-(re)r?mw5, we 

may have loved 
amd-(»c)r?f?5, you 

may have loved 
amd-(?5g)7m<, they 

may have loved. 

II. Mon^o, monwi, xnonUum^ monere. 
Characteristic : e long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

monco, I admonish 
moncsjtiiou admon- 

moncf, he, she, it 

monemws, we 

monc^i^, you 

moncnf, they 





moncdwi, I may ad, 

moncd5, thou may- 
est admonish 

moncdf, he, she, it 
may admonish 

monedmws, we may 

monedtis^ you may 

monewnf, they may 

II. Imperfect. 

monc6flm, I admon- 
ished, was ad. 
mone^as, thou ad- 
monishedst, was a. 
raone6«f, he, she, it 
admonished, was a. 
xtionehdmtLS^ we ad- 
monished,were a. 
xnonebdtis^ you ad- 
monished, were a. 
xwonebanty they ad- 
monished.were a. 

monercrw, I might 

mo«erc5, thou 

mightest ad. 
monercf, he, she, it 

might admonish 
monercmw5, we 

might admonish 
monerc<^s, you 

might admonish 
monercni, they 

might admonish. 

III. Future (Indicative). ^ 
monefco, I shall amonish 
monebis^ thou wilt admonish 
vaonebit^ he, she, it will admonish 
monebXmus, we shall admonish 
monebltis., you will admonish 
monebunt., they will admonish. 

IV. Perfect. 

monui, I have ad- 

rxionuisli^ thou hast 

montiif, he, she, it 
has admonished 

monMi7nM5,we have 

vdonuistis^ you 
have admonished 

vcyoxiuerunt (ere), 
they have ad. 


mouMerm, I 

have admonished 
monueris^ thou 

mayest have ad. 
monucrif, he, she, 

it may have ad. 
monMcrim«5, we 

may have ad. 
monuerUis^ you 

may have ad. 
monMC7m<, they 

may have ad. 





learned at once but in the order of the exercises which follow. 

ill. Rego, rexi, rectum, regere. 
Characteristic : e short. 

IV. Audio, audi??i, audifwrn, audire. 
Characteristic : i long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

I. Present. 

regOj I govern 
regis, thou govern- 

reg^^, he, she, it 

regimus, we govern 

regitis, you govern 

regunt, they govern 

regam,! maygovern 
rega5, thou mayest 

regdt, he, she, it 

may govern 
regdmus, we may 

regdtis, you may 

regant, they may 


II. Imperfect. 

legebam, I govern- 
ed, was gov. 

regebas, thou gov- 
ernedst, wast g. 

regebaty he, she, it 
governed, was g. 

regebdmus, we gov- 
erned, were gov. 

vegebdtis, you gov- 
erned, were gov. 

regebant, they gov- 
erned, were gov. 

regerem, I might 

regeres^ihou might- 

est govern 
regeret, he, she, it 

might govern 
regeremus, we 

migiit govern 
regeretis, you 

might govern 
regerentj they 

might govern. 

III. Future (Indicative).^ 
regam, I shall govern 
regc5, thou wilt govern 
regef, he, she, it will govern 
regemus, we shall govern 
regetis, you will govern 
regent, they will govern. 

IV. Perfect. 

text, 1 have govern 

xexisti, thou hast 

rexity he, she, it 

has governed 
rexhnus, we have 

lexistis, you have 

Texerunt (ere), they 

have governed 

rexen'm, 1 may 

have governed 
rexeris, thou may 

est have govern 
rexerit, he, she, it 

may have gov. 
rexertmus, we may 

have governed 
xexeritis, you may 

have governed 
vexerint, they may 

have governed. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

aud?o, I hear 
aud?5, thou hearest 

audW, he, she, it 

a-udimuSj we hear 

Siuditis, you hear 

emdtunt, they hear 

aud^am, I may hear 

aud?a5, thou may- 
est hear 

a.adidt, he, she, it 
may hear 

audtaww5, we may 

SLudMtis, you may 

SLudiant, they may 

II. Imperfect, 
diudiebam, I heard 

was hearing hear 

audie6a5,thou heard Audires, 

est, wast hearing miffhe 
viudiebat, he, she, it 

heard, was h. 
dindiebdmus., we 

heard, were h. 
a.ndiebdtis, you 

heard, were h. 
diudiebant, they 

heard, were h. 

audircm, 1 might 

, thou 

audircf, he, she, it 

might hear 
SLudlremus, we 

might hear 
audiretis, you 

might hear 
audirent, they 

might hear. 

III. Future (Indicative).^ 
aud?am, I shall hear 
audie^, thou wilt hear 
audiei, he, she, it will hear 
aud«C7ftM5, we shall hear 
a.adietis, you will hear 
audien^, they will hear. 

IV. Perfect. 

audiri, .(aud?i) 1 

have heard 
Siudi(vi)sti, thou 

hast heard 
audivit, he, she, it 

has heard 
a.adivimus, we 

have heard 
a.udi(vi)stis, you 

have heard 
audi (v) erunt (ere), 

they have heard 

a,udi(v)erim, I may 

have heard 
3.\3di(v)eris, thou 

mayest have h. 
a,udi{v)erit, he, she, 

it may have h. 
a.udi(v)erimus, we 

may have heard 
diVidi(v)eritis, you 

may have heard 
a.udi(v)erintj they 

may have heard. 




I. Amo, dLinavi, amatum^ amare. 
Characteristic : a long. 

II. Moneo, monui, monitum, monere. 
Characteristic : e long. 





V. Pluperfect. 

V. Pluperfect. 

ama-(t?e)rdm, I had 

loved thou 

hadst loved 

it had loved 
dimd-{ve) ramus, we 

had loved{ve)rdtiSj you 

had loved 
simd-(ve)rant, they 

had loved, I 

might have loved{vi)sses, thou 

mightest have 1. 
it might have 1., we 

might have loved{vi)ssetis, you 

might have loved 
amd-{vi)ssent, they 

might have loved. 

monwgram, I had 

monwcm*, thou 

hadst admonished 
monuerat, he, she, 

it had admonish. 
tnonuerdmus, we 

had admonished 
monuerdtis, you 

had admonished 
monuerant, they 

had admonished 

monuissem^ I might 

have admonished 
monuisseSy thou 

mightest have ad. 
monulsset, he, she, 

it might have ad. 
monuissemus, we 

might have ad. 
monuissetis, you 

might have ad. 
monuisscnt, they 

might have ad. 

VI. Future Perfect.^ 
monuero, I shall have admonished 
monueris, thou wilt have admonished 
mouuerit, he, she, it will have admon. 
monuenmws, we shall have admonished 
monueritis, you will have admonished 
monuerint, they will have admonished. 

mone, admonish thou 
monefo, thou shouldest admonish 
moneto, he, she, it should admonish 
moncfc, admonish ye 
monetote, you should admonish 
monento, they should admonish. 


1) moh^^Mm, in order to admonish 

2) momtu, to admonish, be admon. 

Pres. monere, to admonish 
Peif. monuisse, to have admonished 
Fut. moniturvs, a, um, esse, to will 
admonish, (that one) will ad. 

Pres. monens, admonishing 
Fut. moniturus, a, urn, intending, 
wishing, about to admonish. 

N. monendum est, one (we) must ad. 
G. monendi, of admonishing, or to ad. 
D. moncnrfo, to admonishing, or to ad. 
A. monendum (e. g. ad), admonishing 
A. mone7tdo, by admonishing. 

') The Subjunctive Future is expressed periphrastically : amaturus, moniturus* 
rectutus, auditurus (a, um) sim, sis, etc., I will love, thou wilt love, etc., or ama- 
turus, etc., essem, / wjomW ^oce. ') Also the Future Perfect has no Subjunctive. 

VI. Future Perfect.^ 
amd-(c^)rd, I shall have loved, thou wilt have loved, he, she, it will have loved{vg)rimus, we shall have loved{ve)rUis, you will have loved 
dimd-lvi)rint, they will have loved. 

amd, love thou 
amd-io, thou shouldest love 
VLind-to, he, she, it should love 
amd-fe, love ye, you should love they should love. 


1), in order to love 

2) amd-iw, to love, be loved. 

amd-re, to love 
amd-(vi)sse, to have loved 
Simd-turus, a, um, esse, to will 
love,* (that one) will love. 

ama-ns, loving 

dimd-turus, a, um, intending, 
wishing, about to love. 

dima-ndum est, one (we) must 1., of loving, or to love 
axna-ndo, to loving, or to love 
ama-ndum (e. g. arf), loving 
dima-ndo, by loving. 











lil. Rego, rexi, rectum, regere. 
Characteristic : e short. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
V. Pluperfect. 

rexeram, I had 

rexeras, thou hadst 

Texerat, he, she, it 

had governed 
rexerdrnus, we had 

rexerdtis, you had 


rexissem, I might 

have governed 
rexisses, thou 

mightest have g. 
rexisset, he, she, it 

might have gov. 
rexissemus , we 

might have gov. 
vexissetis, you 

might have gov. 

rexerant, they had rexissent, they 
governed j might have gov. 

VI. Future Perfect.^ 
rexero, I shall have governed 
rexeris, thou wilt have governed 
rexerit, he, she, it will have governed 
lexerijnus, we shall have governed 
rexerttus, you will have governed 
rexerint, they will have governed. 

rege, govern thou 
regito, thou shouldest govern 
regito, he, she, it should govern 
regite, govern ye 
regitote, you should govern 
reguntOj they should govern. 


1) rectum, in order to govern 

2) rec^M, to govern, be governed. 

Pres. regere, to govern 
Perf. rexisse, to have governed 
Fut. recturus, a, um esse, to will 
govern,* (that one) will gov. 

Pres, regens, governing 
Fut. rccturus, a, um, intending, 
wishing, about to govern. 

IV. Audio, audiri, audtfwm, audtre. 
Characteristic : i long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
V. Pluperfect. 

audi(r)gram, I had 

dindi{v)eras, thou 

hadst heard 
audi(c)era«, he,she, 

it had heard 
audi (?5)erdmu5, we 

had heard 
a.\x(ii{v)erdtisy you 

had heard 
audi(»)cr«ni, they 

had heard 

di\xdi{vi)ssem, I 

might have h. 
diVidi{vi)sses, thou 

mightest have h. 

it might have h. 
dMAi(vi)sse,mus, we 

might have h. 
dMdii{vi)ssetis, you 

might have h, 
dMdi{vi)ssent, they 

might have h. 

N. regendum est, one (we) must gov. 
G. regendi, of governing, or to govern 
D. regendo, to governing, or to govern 
A. regendum (e. g. ad), governing 
A. regendo, by governing. 

^) These four imperatives without e are to be noted : die, duc,fac,fer, from: di 
CO, duco, facio, fero. ■*) The English language has no Infin. Future (to wil 
love) but uses in its stead the Inf. Present. 

VI. Future Perfect.^ 
audi(r) cro, I shall have heard 
?i[xdi{v)eris, thou wilt have heard 
a.vidilv)erit, he, she, it will have heard 
aindilv)erimus, we shall have heard 
a.udi,{v)critis, you will have heard 
di\idi{v)erint, they will have heard. 

audt, hear thou 
andito, thou shouldst hear 
diudito, he, she, it should hear 
audi^e, hear ye 
diuditote, you should hear 
Sixidiunto, they should hear. 


1) diuditum, in order to hear 

2) audt^M, to hear, be heard. 

Pres. audtre, to hear 
Perf. aiudi{vi)sse, to have heard 
Fut. diuditurus, a, um esse, to will 
hear,* (that one) will hear. 

Pres. audicn*, hearing 
Fut. Siuditurus, a, um, intending, 
wishing, about to hear. 

N. SLadiendum est, one (we) must hear 
G. audicndi, of hearing, or to hear 
D. a.\idiendo, to hearing, or to hear 
A. ?iudiendum (e. g. ad), hearing. 
A. R\xdiendo, by hearing. 




§ 51. PAS 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

amor, 1 am loved 

amari5, thou art 

ama^wr, he, she, it 

is loved 
amamiir, we are 

amammt, you are 

aman^wr, they are 


amer, 1 may be 

amcr?5(c), thou 

mayest be loved 
amcfiir, he, she, it 

may be loved 
amc7ri'ur, w^e may 

be loved 
amem?nl, you may 

be loved 
amcwiwr, they may 

be loved. 


ama/yar, 1 was 

a.mdbdris (e), thou 

wast loved 
a.mabdtur, he, she, 

it was loved 
dLvadbdmur^ we 

were loved 
a.mdbdminl, you 

were loved 
a.mdbantur, they 

were loved 


amarer, I might be 

dimdreris(e) thou 

mightest be 1. 
a.mdretur, he, she, 

it might be loved 
amdremwr, we 

might be loved 
amarcminl, you 

might be loved 
amdrentur., ihey 

might be loved. 

III. Future. 
amaftor, I shall be loved 
dimdberls (e), thou wilt be loved 
a.mdbUur, he, she, it will be loved 
a.mdblmur, we shall be loved 
ama/nm?7ti, you will be loved 
dimdbuntur, they will be loved. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

monear, 1 may be 

monSdris{e), ihou 

mayest be ad, 
monea^wr, he, she, 

it may be ad. 
moneamwr, we may 

be admonished 
monSdmini^ you 

may be admon. 
monSayitur, they 

may be admon. 

II. Imperfect. 

monger, 1 am ad- 

moneris, thou art 

monefwr, he, she, 
it is admonished 

monemwr, we are 

moncmmi, you are 

monentur^ they are 

mone^ar, I was ad- 

mone:bdris(e), thou 
wast admonished 

monebdtur^ he, she, 
it was admon. 

mone^amwr, we 
were admonished 

monebdmini, you 
were admonished 

monebantur, they 
were admonished 

monerer, 1 might 

be admonished 
moncreri5(e), thou 

mightest be ad. 
moneretur, he, she, 

it might be ad. 
moneremMr, we 

might be ad. 
moneremmi, you 

might be ad. 
monerentur, they 

might be ad. 

III. Future, 
monebor, I shall be admonished 
moneieris(e), thou wilt be admonished 
monebltur^ he, she, it will be admon. 
monebimur, we shall be admonished 
monebimini^ you will be admonished 
monebuntur^ they will be admonished 

IV. Perfect. 
a) Indicative. 








sum, 1 have been loved 
es, thou hast been loved 
est, he, she, it has been loved 
sumus, we have been loved 
estis, you have been loved 
sunt, they have been loved. 




b) Subjunctive. 

sim, I may have been loved 
sis, thou mayest have been 1. 
sU,he, she, it may have been 1, 
simiis, we may have been 1. 
sUis, you may have been 1. 
sint, they may have been 1. 




sum, I have been admonished 
es, thou hast been admonished 
est, he, she, it has been ad. 
sumus, we have been admon 
estis, you have been admon. 
sunt, they have been admon. 

sim, I may have been admon 
sis, thou mayest have been ad 
si7,he,she, it may have been a 
simus, we may have been ad. 
sitis, you may have been ad. 
sint, they may have been ad. 





regor, I am govern- 

regem, thou art 

regitur^ he, she, it 
is governed 

regimur, we are 

xegiraini^ you are 

reguntury they are 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

regar, I may be 

regdris(e)^ thou 

rnayest be gov. 
regdtur, he, she, it 

may be governed 
regdmur^ we may 

be governed 
regdmini, you may 

be governed 
regantur, they may 

be governed. 

II. Imperfect. 

regebar, I was gov- 

xege,bdris{e), thou 
wast governed 

xegebdtur^ he, she, 
it was governed 

regebdmur^we were 

regebdmlni^ you 
were governed 

regebantur^ they 
were governed 

III. Future, 
regdr, I shall be governed 
regerls{e), thou wilt be governed 
regetur, he, she, ii will be governed 
regemur^ we shall be governed 
rege/n?n.i, you will be governed 
regentur, they will be governed. 

regerer, I might be 

vegereris(e)^ thou 

mightest be gov. 
vegeretur, he, she, 

it might be gov. 
vegeremvr, we 

might be gov. 
xegerernini^ you 

might be gov. 
regSrentur, they 

might be gov. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 
1. Present. 

audeor, 1 am heard 

audtW^, thou art 

audt^wr, he, she, it 

is heard 
aud? mwr, we are 

a.ndi7nini, you are 

a,udiuntur, they are 


aud^ar, I may be 

3.udidris(e) thou 

mayest be heard 
audiaiwr, he, she, 

it may be heard 
audittT/mr, we may 

be heard 
a.adidmini, you 

may be heard 
audianiwr, they 

may be heard. 

II. Imperfect. 

diudiehar, 1 was 

s.udiebdris(e), thou 

wast heard 
a.ndiebdtiir, he, she, 

it was heard 
di\idiebdmur^ we 

were heard 
a.udiebd7ninij you 

were heard 
Siudiebantur, they 

were heard 

audircr, I might be 

audi;rer?!5(e), thou 

mightest be heard 
audtre/wr, he, she, 

it might be heard 
audircTOMr, we 

might be heard 
SLudiremini, you 

might be heard 
diudirentur, they 

might be heard. 

III. Future. 
aud^ar, I shall be heard 
audien5(c), thou wilt be heard 
a.udietur, he, she, it will be heard 
a.\jdiemur, we shall be heard 
audjemmi, you will be heard 
audicnfwr, they will be heard. 

IV. Perfect. 
a) Indicative. 









sum, I have been governed 
es, thou hast been governed 
est^ he, she, it has been govern'd 
sumus, we have been govern'd 
estis, you have been governed 
sunt, they have been governed 






b) Subjunctive. 

sim, 1 may have been govern'd 
sis, thou mayest have been g. 
sit, he, she, it may have been g. 
simns, we may have been g. 
sitis, you may have been g. 
sint, tliey may have been g. 







sum, I have been heard 
es, thou hast been heard 
est, he, she, it has been heard 
sumus, we have been heard 
estis, you have been heard 
sunt, they have been heard. 

sim, 1 may have been heard 
sis, thou mayest have been h. 
sit, he, she, it may have been h. 
simus, we may have been h. 
sitis, you may have been h. 
sint, they may have been h. 




V. Pluperfect. 
a) Indicative. 











eram^ I had been loved 
Iras^ thou hadst been loved 
irat^ he, she, it had been loved 
erdmuSy we had been loved 
erdtis, you had been loved 
Srant, they had been loved. 





b) Subjunctive. 

essem, I might have been loved 
esses, thou mightesthave been 

esset, he, she, it, might have 

been loved 
essemus, we might have been 

essetis, you might have been 1. 
essent, they might have been 1. 




eram, I had been admonished 
eras, thou hadst been ad, 
erat, he, she, it had been ad. 
eramus, we had been ad. 
eratis, you had been ad. 
erantj they had been ad. 

essem, 1 might have been ad. 
esses, thou mightest have been 

esset, he, she, it might have 

been admonished 
essemus, we might have been 

essetis,y ovi might have been ad. 
essent,\hey might have been ad. 

VI. Future Perfect, {Indicative). 

ero, I shall have been loved 

eris, thou wilt have been 

ertt, he, she, it will have been 

amati, erimus, we shall have been 

erlils, you will have been 

erunt, they will have been 


amare, be thou loved 
ama^or, thou shouldest be loved 
a.mdtdr, he, she, it should be loved 
amawitrat, be ye loved 
amamtftor, you should be loved 
dimantdr, they should be loved. 

Pres. amdrl, to be loved 
Perf. a.mdtus, a, um esse, to have been 

Fut. dimdtum irl,^ to will be loved, 

(that one) will be loved. 

Perf. a.mdtus, a, um, loved 
Fut. umandus, a, um, what should be 

monitus, ero, I shall have been admon- 

eris, thou wilt have been ad- 

erit, he, she, it will have been 
moniti, erimus, we shall have been ad- 

eritis, you will have been ad- 

erunt, they will have been ad- 

monerg, be thou admonished 
monetor, thou shouldst be admonished 
monetor, he, she, it should be adra'd 
monemini, be ye admonished 
moneminor, you should be admonished 
monentor, they should be admonished. 

Pres. monen, to be admonished 
Perf monUus, a, um esse, to have been 

Fut, monUum iri,^ to will be admonish- 
ed, (that one) will be admonished. 

Perf. monitus, a, um, admonished 
Fut. monendus, a, um, what should be 

*) amatum, monitum, rectum, auditum are Supines and hence cannot be de- 




V. Pluperfect. 1 

a) Indicative. | 


eram, I had been governed 


eram, I had been heard 


eras, thou hadst been governed 


eras, thou hadst been heard 


erat, he, she, it had been g. 


erat, he, she, it had been heard 


eramus, we had been governed 


eramus, we had been heard 


eratis, you had been governed 


eratis, you had been heard 


erant, they had been governed 


erant, they had been heard. 

b) Subjunctive. | 


essem, I might have been g. 


essem, 1 might have been heard 


esses, thou mighlest have been 


esses, thou mightest have been 


esstt, he, she, it might have 
been governed 


esset, he, she, it might have 
been heard 


essemus, we might have been 


essemus, we might have been 


essetis, you might have been g. 


essetis, you might have been h. 


C55e7ii, they might have beeng. 


essent, they might have been h. 

VI. Future Perfect^ {Indicative). \ 


ero, 1 shall have been gov- 


ero, I shall have been heard 


eris, thou wilt have been gov- 


eris, thou wilt have been heard 


erit, he, she, it will have been 


erit, he, she, it will have been 


erimus, we shall have been 


erimus, we shall have been 


eritis, you will have been gov- 


eritis, you will have been 


erunt, they will have been 


ermit, they will have been 

Imperative, i 


reg^re, be thou governed 

audtre, be thou heard 

regifor, thou shouldst be governed 

auditor, thou shouldst be heard 

regttor, he, she, it should be governed 

auditor, he, she, it should be heard 

reglvdni, be ye governed 

a-udimini, be ye heard 

regl minor, you should be governed 

SLuduainor, you should be heard 

reguntor, they should be governed. 

a.ndiuntor, they should be heard. 



Pres. regi, to be governed 

Pres. audtri, to be heard 

Perf. rectus, a, um esse, to have been 

Perf dLudUus, a, um esse, to have been 



Fut rectum iri,^ to will be governed. 

Fut. unditum iri,^ to will be heard. 

(that one) will be governed. 

(that one) will be heard. 



Perf. rectus, a, um, governed 

Perf. VLudltus, a, um heard 

Fut. regendus, a, um, what should 

Fut. a.xidiendus, a, um, what should 

be go 


be he 


clined. That the English language has no Inf. Fut. has already been stated. 




§ 52. Inflection of verbs in To of the Third Conjugation. 

ACTIVE, Infill, capere, to take. PASSIVE, Infiii. capi. | 



cap-?s, cop-ii 
cap-imus, capitis 






cap-eris, cap-Uur 
cap-lmur, cap-imlni 





1— t 






cap-i-am, -i-es, etc. 

cap-i-ar, -i-eris, etc. 


cap-e, cap-ito, cap-Ue, cap-Uote, 

cap-ere, cap-itor, cap-imini, 
cap-iminor, cap-i-untor. 

Pres, cap-i-ens, Fut. cap-turus 

Perf. cap-tus, Fut. cap- 


Supine: cop-fwm, cap-<M. | 

LII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

ram navo (c. dat.) / interitus, us, m. destruc- 

Decerto 1. / contend. 

elaboro 1. {in c. abl.) 
/ labor (zealously). 

flo 1. / blow, wave. 

iritro 1. (o. ace.) / go 
into, enter. 

liber, era, erum,/ree. 

libero 1. / deliver. 

navo 1. / pursue some- 
thing ardently; ope- 

occupy myself with. 
numero I. I number. 
opera, ae,y! toil, labor. 
somnus, i, m. sleep. 
ventus, i, m. loind. 
timor, oris, m.fear. 
cupiditas, atis,/. desire, 


aptus, a, um,JUted. 

placldus, a, urn, gentle. 

vehemens, tis, violent. 

potissimum, adv. es- 

quomodo, in what man- 
ner, how. 

A) Active of the first Conjugation. 
Quum milites urbem intra bant, omnes cives timoris pleni erant. 
Quum in silva ambulabamus, vehemens ventus per altas quercus 
flabat. Quamdiu tu in horto ambulabas, ego domi litteris operam 
navabam. Dum nos placidus somnus recreabat, vos vigilabatis. 
Quomodo is libero imperabit, qui non suis cupiditatibus imperat? 
Ad quas res aptissimi erimus, in iis potissimum elaborabimus. Quam- 
diu eris felix, multos amicos numerabis. Bonos semper laudabo, 


improbos semper vituperabo. Si acriter armis decertabitis, o milites, 
patriam ab interim liberabitis. Si virtutem amabis, omnes boni te 

LIU. Words to be learned and Zeroises for translation. 

Comparro 1. / prepare, philosophia, ae, f. phi- jucundus, a, um, pleas^ 

acquire. losophy. ant, agreeable. 

conjugo 1. / join to- career, eris, m. prison, adhuc, adv. stUl. [ally, 

gether, unite. narratio, ouis,/. narra- perpetuo, adv. continu- 

devoco 1. / call down. tive. tanquam, as if, as. 

migro 1. / migrate. rus, ruris, n. country ; num, (an interrogative 

emlgro 1. I Tmve out. ruri, in the country, word used when a 

e\6\o 1. I fy out from, rure, from the country, negative answer is 

escape. ace. rus, into the expected), is it pos- 

mterrogo 1. I ask. country. sible thaf^ 

observo 1. / observe. 

Ea est jucundissima amicitia, quam similitude morum conjugavit. 
Vivunt ii, qui ex corporum vinculis, tanquam carcere, evolaverunt. 
Socrates primus philosophiam devocavit e coelo. Quia semper virtu- 
tis praecepta observastis, magnam vobis Jaudem comparastis. Cur per 
totem noctem vigilasti ? Praeceptores meos semper amavi. Acriter 
contra hostes pugnavimus. Quum milites urbem intraverant, ingens 
terror omnium civium animos occupabat. Narratio, quam mihi nuper 
narraveras, vehementer me delectaverat. Quum exercitus hostilis 
urbem oppugnaverat, nos jam emigraveramus. Si animum virtutibus 
ornaveris, semper beatus eris. Ut alios homines tractaverimus, ita hi 
nos tractabunt. Si quis te interrogaverit, qualis sit animus, num dubia 
erit responsio ? Si perpetuo in hac vita virtutum servaveritis, etiam 
in altera vita beati eritis. Quum hostes agros devastaverint, urbem 
ipsam oppugnabunt Quum ego rus migravero, tu adhuc in urbe 

LIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

"Recito 1. 1 read to, supplicium, i, n. capi- scelus, eris, n. offence, 
revoco 1. I recall. tal punishment, 2) crime. 

caussa, ae, /. cause ; (any severe) punish- quaestus, us, m. gain, 

abl. cau55d withg-en., m^nt. diligenter, adv. dUigent- 

on account of. Atheniensis, is, m. ly, carefully. 

sophista, ae, m. sophist. an Athenian. fortiter, adv. bravely, 

Francogallus, i, m. approbatio, onis, / ap- studiose, adv. zealously. 

Frenchman. \man. probation. \tation. 

Germanus, i, m. a Ger- ostentatio, onis,/. osten- 

How many has the fear of the divine punishment reclaimed (= re- 
called) from crimes ! The Germans have fought bravely against the 

106 ACTIVE VOICE. [^ 50. 

French (== Frenchmen). So long as we frequented school, we pur- 
sued literature dihgently. The Athenians called those sophists, who 
for the sake of ostentation or gain pursued philosophy. To-morrow we 
will celebrate the birth-day of our father. So long as you shall be 
fortunate, you will number many friends. The more any one (quis) 
shall love virtue, so much the more peaceful he will be. The more 
zealously thou shalt occupy thyself with literature, so much the more 
agreeable wilt thou be to thy teachers. When [their] native country 
shall be in danger, the citizens will fight spiritedly against the ene- 

As thou shalt have treated others, so will they treat thee. We have 
always loved our teachers. Because thou hast always kept the precepts 
of virtue, thou hast acquired for thyself great praise. As the hostile ar- 
my were entering the city, all the citizens were full of (gen.) fear. You 
have fought spiritedly against the enemies. When we shall have migra- 
ted into the country, you will still be in the city. When the hostile army 
shall have laid waste the fields, it will assault the city itself If you shall 
have adorned [your] souls with virtues, you will always be happy. 

As the enemies had assaulted the city, a great part of the citizens 
had already moved out. While thou wast watching, me gentle sleep 
refreshed. While we were taking a walk in the garden, you occupied 
yourselves with literature. The whole day I have eagerly expected 
my friend. When the enemies shall have assaulted the city, the con- 
dition of the citizens will be very wretched. If I shall have carefully 
observed the precepts of virtue, the approbation of the good will never 
be wanting to me. Scarcely hadst thou read to me the letter of the 
friend, as he entered (perf } my house (ace). If thou shalt pursue lit- 
erature diligently, I shall praise thee. 

LV. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Opto 1. / wish. mihi est, / am anx- utilitas, atis, /. advan- 

persano 1. / cure per- ious. tage. 

ftctly. fabula, ae,/./a6/e. statio, oniSy f. post. 

postulo 1. / demand. opera, ae,/. pains ; op- animal, alis, n. living 

redamo 1. / love in re- eram do, I take pains, being. 

turn. occupy myself with. rectus, a, um, right ; 

rogo \. I entreat, ask. condiscipulus, i, m./eZ- conscientia recta, a 

supero 1. / surpass, low-student. good conscience. 

overcome. me(\icus,\,m. physician, persaepe, adv. very of- 

evfenit, 4. it happens. cognitio, onis, /. know- ten. 

conscientia, ae, /. con- ledge. ut (with Subj.), that, in 

sdousntss, conscience, honestas, atis, /. up- order tfiat. See Syni. 

cura, ae,/. care ; curae rightness. § 106. 


Persaepe evfinit, ut utilitas cum honestate certet. Vide, ne peccea 
contra virtutis praecepta. Omnes parentes optant, ut filii litteris dili- 
genter operam navent. Ita vivere debemus, ut in omni re rectam con- 
scientiam servemus. Omnibus viribus elaborate, ut litteras diligenter 
tractetis. Medicus omnem curam adhibet, ut aegrotum persanet. Ni- 
hil magis mihi curae est, quam ut animum virtutibus ornem. Amo tc, 
ut me redames. Cura, ut condiscipulos bonis moribus et diligentia 
superes. Dux imperavit, ut milites stationes suas servarent. Quam- 
diu scholam frequentabamus, nihil magis nobis curae erat, quam ut 
animos bonarum rerum cognitione ornaremus. Heri ambulabam, ut 
tristem animum exhilararera. Exercitus noster acerrime pugnabat, ut 
urbem ab interitu servaret. 

Every living being looks to this (id agit), that it may preserve itself. 
You ought to take pains, that you acquire for yourselves the praise of 
the good. You love us, in order that we may love you in return. I 
labored (peif ) with all [my] powers, in order that my teachers might 
praise me. The laws of this state demand, that the citizens should 
obey them (sibi). I entreat thee, that thou wouldst relate to me the 
fable. I pursue literature very zealously, in order that I may delight 
my parents. We ought always so to live, that we may observe the pre- 
cepts of virtue. 

We fought very spiritedly, in order that we might save our native 
country from destruction. You were more anxious for nothing, than 
that you might adorn [your] souls with virtues. The general com- 
manded (perf), that the army might enter the city (ace). So long as I 
frequented the school, I labored with all [my] powers, that I might 
adorn [my] mind with (abl.) the knowledge of literature. 

LVI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Accelero \.Iliasttn. perturbo 1. / throw in- scholastica, scholastic 

advento 1. / approach^ to confusion. instruction. 

arrive. specto 1. / behold, con- multitudo, inis,/. mul- 

castigo 1. / reprove, template. titude. [tacking. 

punish. vasto 1. 1 lay waste. oppugnatio, onis, /. at- 

colloco 1. (in aliqua re) mitto3. 1 send, dispatch, ortus, us, m. rising. 

I place, bestoiv (upon uva, ae,/. grape. risus, us, m. laugh. 

something). argumentum, i, n. con- praepropere, adv. pre- 

congrego 1. / assemble. tents (of a book). dpitately. [lously. 

delibero 1. / deliberate, auxilium, i, n. aid. religiose, adv. sa^upu- 

explico 1. I explain. institutio, onis, f. in- ubi, where; when, so 

gusto 1. / taste, relish. struction ; institutio (as) soon as. 

Rule of Syntax. The conjunction quin, with the meaning that, takes 

108 ACTIVE VOICE. [^ 50. 

the subjunctive after : non dubito, / do not douht^ nemo dubitat, nohody 
douhts, dubium non est, it is not doubtful^ and quis dubitat ? who doubts ? 
See Syntax § 107, 3. 

Non est dubium, quin cives, ubi patria in periciilo futura sit, fortiter 
pugnaturi sint. Quis dubitat, quin e scholastica institutione pulcherri- 
mus ad pueros redundaturus sit fructus ? Dubium non est, quin bono- 
rum animi post mortem in sedem beatorum migraturi sint Non dubi- 
to, quin milites nostri hostes superaverint. Non dubitabam, quin vos 
patriam a servitute liberaturi essetis. Cui dubium erat, quin exercitus 
noster omnes labores et aerumnas facile toleraturus esset ? Quis dubi- 
tat, quin Hannibal contra Romanos fortissime pugnaverit ? Non dubi- 
tabrtis, quin ego vos semper amaverim. Quis dubitat, quin bonos sem- 
per laudaverimus, malos semper vituperaverimus ? Non est dubium, 
quin in omni vitae conditione fidem servaiitis. Non dubito, quin lit- 
tfiris maximam operam navaris. Nemo dubitabat, quin hostes urbem 
expugnavissent. Nemini civium dubium erat, quin pro patriae libertate 
acerrime pugnavissetis. Nemo dubitabat, quin omnem operam in eo 
collocavissemus, ut hostes superaremus. Quum hostes urbem oppug- 
nabant, non erat dubium, quin ingens terror omnium civium animos 
occupavisset. Nemo dubitabat, quin tu risum ilium excitasses. Ne- 
mini eorum qui aderant, dubium erat, quin recte de illius libri argu- 
mento judicavissem. 

It is doubtful to no one of those w^ho are present, that concerning 
(de) the character of that man, thou hast judged correctly. Nobody 
doubts, that the enemies have taken the city. It is not doubtful, that 
from scholastic instruction the fairest advantages (= fruits) redound to 
the young. Who doubts, that we shall deliver the land from servitude ? 
Nobody doubted, that all citizens, so soon as their native country should 
be in danger, would fight bravely. Who doubts, that you have raised 
a laugh ? Nobody doubts, that our army will endure all the toils and 
hardships of war patiently. It is not doubtful, that the attacking of 
the city, has thrown all the citizens into confusion. No one of (gen.) 
us doubted, that our soldiers had overcome the enemies. No one of 
the Romans doubted, that Hannibal had fought very bravely against 
them (se). Who doubts, that we have bestowed all pains upon this 
(in eo), that we might overcome the enemy ? Who doubts, that I have 
always loved thee ? Nobody doubted, that we had always praised 
the good, [but] had always censured the bad. Who doubts, that I 
have kept my word (= fidelity)? Nobody doubted, that thou hadst 
occupied thyself earnestly with literature. To no one was it doubtful, 
that you had always kept the precepts of virtue. 

§50.] ACTIVE VOICE. 100 

Diligenter cura, mi amice, valetudinem tuam ! Ne praepropere de 
rebus judicate,o piieri ! Ne dublta de animorum immortalitate ! Per- 
petuo servato, mi fili, conscientiam rectam ! Discipulus amato prae- 
ceptores. Laudatote probos homines, castigatote improbos! Omnes 
homines amanto deum. 

Look out carefully, friends, for your health ! Judge not precipitate- 
ly concerning men and things, O boy! Doubt ye not concerning 
the immortality of the soul (plur.)! Scholars should love their teach- 
ers. Thou shouldest praise the upright, [but] reprove the wicked. 
You should always, my sons, preserve a good conscience. 

(Comp. Synt. § 97.) 

Parentes mei in urbem migraverunt habiiatum. Legati in urbem 
nostram acceleraverunt auxilium postulatum Hannibalem invictum 
cives sui ex Italia revocaverunt patriam ab hostibus liberatum. Hos- 
tes pacem postulatum legatos ad nos mittunt. Exercitus hostilis ad- 
ventavit agros nostros vastatum. Ingens hominum multitude in urbem 
congregatur ludos publicos spectatum. 

Uva immatura est peracerba gustatu. Multa sunt dura toleratu. 
Quaestio de animi natura difficillima est explicatu. Sitis non facilis 
est toleratu. Pira dulcia sunt gustatu. 

The soldiers hastened (perf), in order to relieve the city from 
the siege of the enemies. The ambassadors assembled themselves 
(== were assembled), in order to deliberate concerning the peace. The 
hostile army approached, in order to assault the city. To-morrow my 
parents will go (= migrate) into (ace.) the country in order to dwell 
[there] through the summer. 

A ripe grape is sweet to taste. The rising of the sun is beautiful to 
behold. This thing is easy to explain. 

LVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Duro 1. / endure, con- avaritia, ae,/. avarice. ornatus, us, m. oma- 

tinue. momentum, i, n. cir- ment. 

exprobro 1. / reproach cumstance, particular, alienus, a, um, foreign, 

[one) for. officium, i,n. duty, ser- exiguus, a, um, little. 

investigo 1. / trace out, vice. odiosus, a, um, odious, 

investigate. calamitas, atis, f. loss, teter, tra, trum, foul. 

mico 1. I glitter. misfortune. coelestis, e, heavenly. 

obtempero 1. I obey. actio, onis,/. action. praesertim, adv. espe- 

sxido \. I sweat. jpoftio, ouis, f. drinking, dally. 

supplico 1. I implore. drink. 

Luscinia cantans animos nostros delectat. Coelum plenum est stel- 


larum niicantium. Nullum vitium tetrius est, quam avaritia, praeser- 
tim in principibus rem publicam gubemantibus. Cogitantes coelestia, 
haec nostra ut exigua et minima contemnimus. Odiosum est genus 
hominum ofRcia exprobrantium. Ex (after) labore sudanti frigldae 
aquae potio perniciosissima est. Vir bonus viro bono non supplicanti 
succurrit. Rei veritatem investigaturi omnia ejus momenta ponderare 
debemus. Sapiens bona sibi comparare studet perpetilo duratura. 
Ciconiae, in alienas terras migraturae, in unum locum congregantur. 
Ingens hominum multitudo in urbem congregatur ludos publlcos spec- 

How great is the wisdom of God who governs (= governing) the 
whole world! The larks sing as they Jly (= flying). Man does not 
love God, when he does not observe (= not observing) the precepts of 
virtue. The power of virtue is very great, since it adorns (= adorning) 
the souls of men with the fairest ornaments. How great are the bene- 
fits of the sun, since it illuminates (= illuminating) the whole earth ! 
The citizens fought spiritedly with the enemies, who were assaulting 
{= assaulting) the city. The hostile army came up in order to assault 
(== intending to assault) the city. The invincible Hannibal, his fellow- 
citizens (= citizens) recalled from Italy, that he might deliver (= about 
to deliver) his native country from the enemies. 

Rule of Syntax. The Gerund takes the same case as its verb. 
In the Nom. with est and the Dat. of the agent, it should be translated 
by : / [thou, he) must, ought, should, we (you, they) must, ought, should, 
etc. ; but without the Dat. of the agent by : one [ive) must, ought, 
should (comp. Synt. § 98.). 

De animorum immortalitate nobis non est dubitandum. Obtempe- 
randum est virtutis praeceptis. Propter belli calamitates multis civibus 
e patria in alienas terras migrandum est. Si beati esse studemus, dili- 
genter nobis est elaborandum, ut in omni actione virtutis praecepta 
observemus. Quis dubltat, quin nobis pro patriae libertate pugnan- 
dum sit. 

LVIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Avoco 1. I call away. fortem), I show my- occasio, onis, f. occa- 

d\iu(]icoli. I distinguish. self [hraye). sion. 

nato 1. I swim. teneo 2. / hold, under- planities, ei,/. plain. 

praebeo, 2. / afford; stand. [lectics. idoneus, a^ un\, suited. 

praebeo me (e. g. dialectica, ae, /. dia- prudenter, adv. unsely. 

Rule of Syntax. The oblique cases of the Gerund form the cases 
of the Infinitive ; the Ace, however, can be used only in connection 
with a preposition. Comp. Synt. § 98. 

§ 51.] PASSIVE VOICE. Ill 

Nom. JVatdre est utile, stvimming is useful. 

Gen. JVatandi sum peritus, / am skilful in stvimming, or to sivim ; natan- 
di ars utllis est, the art of swimming or to swim is usefid. Ars 
civitatern guhernandi, the art of governing a state is difficult. 

Dat. JVatando homo aptus est, man is fitted to swimming, or to swim. 

Ace. JVatdre disco, / learn swimming or to swim, but : ad naiandum ho- 
mo aptus est, man is fitted for swimming or to swim. 

Abl. JVatando corporis vires exerceiitiu*, by sivimming the powers of the 
body are exercised. 

Navigare utilissimum est, sed ars navigandi est difRcillima. Boni 
discipuli cupidi sunt Htteras diHgenter tractandi. Principes civitatis 
periti esse debent civitatem gubernandi. Dialectica est ars vera ac 
falsa dijudicandi. Haec planities apta est pqgnando. Ego fratrera 
tuum natare doceo, gaudeoque, quod tam aptum se praebet ad natan- 
dum. Pauci homines idonei sunt ad aliis imperandum. Virtus hom- 
ines avocat a peccando. Acriter pugnando milites urbem ab interitu 

To govern a state, is very difficult; [only] a few understand the 
art of governing a state wisely. Avoid thou every occasion of sin- 
ning. Thy brother is very skilful in (gen.) riding. The human intel- 
lect is nourished by (abl.) thinking. 

LIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

CrucAO \. I torment. person and abl. of effusus, a, um, unre- 

cruciatus, us, m. torture. thing), / deprive of. strained. 

emendo 1. I improve. poena, ae, f. punish- piger, gra, grum, indo- 

nuntio 1. / announce. ment. lent, slothful. 

obscuro 1. / obscure. morbus, i, m. disease. benevole, adv. kindly, 

probo 1. / approve ; incendium i, n. con/la- benevolently. 

probor (c. dat.) I gration. hodie, adv. to-day. 

please. ohVivio, onia, f. oblivion, misere, adv. loretchedly, 

spolio 1. (with ace. of decus, oris, n. honor. in a loretched way. 

B.) Passive or the First Conjugation. 

Quum urbs ab hostibus oppugnabatur, omnium civium animi ingen- 
ti teiTore occupabantur. Dum ego cantando delectabar, tu saltando 
delectabare (delectabaris). Quum pugna atrocissima erat, sol nubibus 
obscurabatur. Quamdlu virtus decore et dignitate sua non spoliabitur, 
tamdlu homines virtutis compotes etiam in summis cruciatibus beati 
erunt. Malefici post mortem justis poenis castigabuntur. Ut alios 
tractaverltis, ita ab iis tractabimini. Si litteris diligenter operam nava- 
verimus, a parentibus nostris pulchris muneribus donablmur. Quo re- 


ligiosius virtutis praecepta servabo, eo magis dec probabor. Quum 
urbs ab hostibus expugnata erat, omnes cives acerbissimo dolore cru- 
ciabantur. Si liberi vestri bene a vobis educati erunt, magna ad vos 
laus redundabit. 

As yesterday thou wast with me, I was tormented by (abl.) violent 
pains, but to-day I am dehvered from them. If thou lovest (= shalt 
love) men, thou wilt be loved by them. The remembrance of renown- 
ed men is obscured by (abl.) no oblivion. The wise will even then be 
happy, when they shall be tormented by the severest (acerbus) pains. 
While we delighted ourselves (= were delighted) in (abl.) song (Ge- 
rund), you delighted yourselves in the dance (Gerund). The more 
scrupulously you shall observe the precepts of virtue, so much the 
more will you please God. As the victory of our army was announc- 
ed, unrestrained joy prevailed (agitarij through the whole city. As 
the city had been taken possession of by the enemy, at (abl.) the very 
same time three conflagrations were raised. Rejoice, boys, lo-morrow 
Christmas (= the birth day of Christ) will be celebrated, and by your 
good parents you will be presented with (abl.) beautiful presents. If 
thou shalt please (fut. perf ) all good men, thou wilt also please God. 
The more kindly I shall have treated others, so much the more kindly 
shall I also be treated by them. As thou enteredst the house (ace.) 
thou wast delighted by (abl.) the arrival of thy father. 

LX. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Conformo 1. I form. metus, us, m. apprehen- ignavia, ae,/ cowardice, 

obsto 1. / oppose, am a sion,Jear. otium, i, n. ease. 

hindrance. officio 3. / hinder, stand infirmitas, atis,/. weak- 

praeparo J. /prepare. in the way. [tiniie. ness. 

reporto 1. I hear off. pergo 3. / go on, con- timidltas, atis,/. timidi- 

sollicito 1. I disturb. impedio 4. I prevent. ty. 

soUicitus, a, um, dis- impedimentum, i, n. divlnus, a, um, divine. 

turhed, apprehensive. hindrance ; impedi- immanis, e, cruel. 

expleo 2. I fulfil. mento est, it is a terrestris, e, earthly. 

prohlbeo 2. I prevent. hindrance. temere, adv. inconsid- 

metuo 3. / apprehend, constantia, ae, f.firm- erately, vnthout rea- 

fear. ness. son. 

Rule of Syntax. The conjunction g'Momiwtts with the Subj. stands 
after the verbs and phrases which signify a hindrance, and is to be 
translated into English by that.* (Comp. Synt. § 107, 2.). 

* Or more elegantly, often, by the prepositions, of, from, to, with a corres- 
ponding modification of the words which stand in connection with it.— Tr. 

$51.] PASSIVE VOICE. 113 

Levitas animi miiltis pueris impedimento est, quominus eorum 
mores emendentur et ingenia litterarum studio conformentur. Mili- 
tum ignavia obstabat, quominus hostilis exercitus superaretur. Unius 
ducis constantia obstabat, quominus cives ab immanibus militibus mi- 
sere vexarentur. Terrestrium rerum cura saepe prohibet, quominus 
res divinae a nobis curentur. Infirmitas vocis et timiditas animi saepe 
oratori officiunt, quominus laude dignus judicetur. Senectus non im- 
pedit, quominus litterarum studia studiose a nobis tractentur. Timidi- 
tas saepe impedit, quominus animus noster contra pericula, quae nobis 
imminent, praeparetur. 

Weakness of voice stood in the way of your being accounted (= hin- 
dered you, that you should be accounted) a great orator. The firm- 
ness of the general alone prevents the citizens from being annoyed by 
the cruel soldiers. Already has levity been an hindrance to many 
boys, that their manners should be improved and their minds be formed 
by the study of literature. The cowardice of the soldiers hindered, 
that the hostile army should be overcome. 

Rule of Syntax. After the words and phrases which express j/^ar 
or apprehension, ne with the Subj. is to be translated by that, and ut with 
the Subj. by that not. (Comp. Synt. § 106, 3.). 

Piger discipiilus semper metuit, ne a praeceptoribus castigetur. Me- 
tuo, ne a te vituperer. Timeo, ut victoria ab exercitu nostro de hos- 
tibus reportetur. Si tam fortiter contra hostem dimicare pergimus, 
non est periculum, ne ab iis superemur. Si officia vestra semper reli- 
giose expletis ; ne metuite, ut omnibus probemini. In metu eramus, 
ut morbo liberaremini. Vehemens cura animos nostros sollicitabat, ne 
ab hostibus vexaremur. Sollicitus eram, ne in otio turbarer. 

I was in apprehension that I should be censured by thee. I appre- 
hended, that I should be disturbed in my ease. The soldiers were in 
apprehension that victory over the enemy would not be borne off. A 
violent apprehension (= care) disturbs our minds, that we may be an- 
noyed by the' enemies. Why did they apprehend, that they should 
not be delivered from sickness ? If thou hast always fulfilled thy 
duties, do not fear that thou may est not please (probor) all. If our 
army continues to fight so bravely against the enemies, there is no 
( = not) fear, that it may be overcome by them. Indolent scholars always 
fear, that they shall be punished by [their] teachers. We were in ap- 
prehension, that we should be accounted ungrateful by you. Not with- 
out reason so oppressive an apprehension seized you, that you would 
be annoyed by the enemies. 



LXI. Words to be learned and JEkercises for translation. 

Contamino 1. Icon- ignominia, ae, /. ^tm)- aequus, a, iim, equal; 

taminate. miny. aequus animus, 

exoro 1. I prevail upon flagitium, i, n. foul equanimity. 

hy entreaty. deed. sceleratus, a, um, 

migro 1. c. ace. I trans- proditor, oris, m. traitor. wicked. 

gress. splendor, oris, m. splen- sancte, adv. sacredly, 

multo 1. 1 punish. dor. sanctitas, atis,/. sacre^t- 

noto 1. I mark, brand, civitas, atis, f. citizen- ness. 

occo 1. / harrow. ship, right of citizen- sin, conj. but if 

reparo 1. / repair. ship. 

Si industrius es, laudator ; sin piger, vitupei*ator ! Si leges civitatis 
migraveritis, multaminor ! Ager justo tempore arator et- occator ! Pro- 
diiores patriae civitate spoliantor ! Vos, o scelerati cives, ignominia 
notaminor ! Leges divinae ab hominibus sancte observantor ! Si quid 
peccaveris, aequo animo vituperare ! Exoramini, o mei parentes ! 
O mi puer, delectare litterarurn studio ! Precibus nostris exorare, o 
judex ! Ne flagitiis contaminaminor ! 

Be prevailed upon by entreaty, my father ! O my boys, delight 
yourselves (= be delighted) in (abl.) the study of literature. If you 
have committed a fault (fut. perf ) allow yourselves to be {= be ye) cen- 
sured with equanimity ! Thou shouldest not be contaminated with 
foul deeds. If you are diligent, you will be praised ; but if you are 
indolent, you will be censured. Virtue should always be sacredly 
observed. The fields, at the right time, should be ploughed and 
harrowed. If thou transgressest (fut. perf) the laws of the state, thou 
shouldst be punished. Thou, O wicked citizen, shouldst be branded 
with ignominy ! 

LXII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adaequo 1 . / ZeveZ. spero 1 . 1 hope. humamtas, atis,/. hu- 

appropinquo 1. / ap- violo 1. I violate. manity. 

proach. succenseo 2. 1 am offen- pernicies, ei, f destruc- 

exstirpo 1. / extirpate. ded. lion. 

extermino 1. / expel. accido 3. I happen. eximius, a, um, distin- 

fundo 1. I found. dimitto 3. I dismiss. guished, excellent. 

labefacto 1. / shake. efforesco 3. I flourish, jam pridem, adv. long 

muto 1. / change^ ex- ruo 3. / rush. since. 

cJiange. pueritia, ae,/. boyhood, interdlu, adv. by day. 

regno 1. I rule, reign. solum, i. n, the ground. 

Melior est certa pax, quam sperata victoria. Terra mutata non 

§ 51.] PASSIVE VOICE. 115 

mutat mores. Multa in hac vita accidunt non exspectata. Omnes 
dolores patienter tolerati minus acerbi sunt. Dux dimittit milites ob 
eximiam virtutem laudatos. Multi juvenes, in prima pueritia a paren- 
tibus male educati, in perniciem ruunt. (J 

The friendship formed (= united) between good and wise [men] is 
disturbed by (abl.) nothing (= no thing). Dangers, which were not ex- 
pected (=^ not expected) by us, discompose our minds more (magis) 
than dangers which were long since expected. JVhen thou art censur- 
ed (= having been censured) on account of a fault, be not offended at 
the censurer ( = the one censuring). After the walls had been leveled 
(=: the walls having been leveled) to the ground by the enemies, they 
are repaired by the citizens. By day we do not see the stars, because 
they are obscured (= they having been obscured) by the splendor of the 

(Concerning the Ablative absolute Comp. Synt. 100, 4, b). 

Regnante Xerxe^), Graeci de Persis splendidissimam victoriam re- 
portaverunt. Inter bonos viros et deum amicitia est, conciliante natu- 
ral). Appropinquante hieme-'), multae aves mitiores regiones petunt. 

Recuperata pace*), artes efflorescunt. Regibus exterminatis^), Ro- 
mani liberam rempublicam fuudaverunt. Terra mutata^), mores homi- 
num non mutantur. Legibus divinis sancte observatis"), vita nostra 
beata erit. 

While Numa Pompilius reigned, the Romans were very prosperous. 
While the larks sing, we go to walk over (per) the plains. While Au- 
gustus reigned, the splendor of the empire was the greatest. When 
a just king administers the state, the laws also are just. When the 
swallows migrate into milder regions, winter approaches. 

After the plains were laid waste, the enemies assaulted (perf ) the 
city. When the sacredness of the laws is violated, the foundation of 
the state is shaken. When the city had been taken, an immense con- 
flagration was raised. 


LXIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Coerceo, ui, itum 2. / deleo, evi, etum 2. / pareo, ui 2. I obey, am 
restrain. destroy. obedient, follow. 

^) While Xerxes reigned, or : under the reign of Xerxes. ^) Since na- 
ture forms (it). ^) When the winter approaches, or : on the approach of 
winter. *) After peace is restored, or : on the restoration of peace. *) After 
the kings had been expelled, or : after the expulsion of the kings. ^) When 
the country has been exchanged, or : after an exchange of countries. ') 
When the divine laws are sacredly observed. 


pat6o, ui 2. / stand 

valeo, ui, itum 2. / am 
strong, well. 

absumo, sumpsi, sump- 
tum 3. to consume. 

cingo, nxi, nctum 3. 
to surround. 

detego xi, ctum 3. to 

excello, ui 3. to he dis- 

instruo, uxi, uctum 3. 
to furnish, to arrange. 

scribo, psi, ptum 3. to 

esurio 4. / hunger. 

sitio 4. / thirst. 

corona, ae,/. garland. 

membrana, ae,/. mem- 

oculus, i, m. eye. 

incendium, i, n. confla- 

conjuratio, onis,/. con- 

aditus, us, m. approach. 

acies, ei,/. 1) edge; 2) 

tenuis, e, thin. 

quoad, conj. so long as, 

fere, adv. almost. 

probe adv. excellently^ 

C) Parallel exercises for all the Conjugations. 
a) Indicative Present, Imperfect and Future Active of all the Conjugations. 

Laudo, exerceo, duco, erudio. Laudas, exerces, ducis, erudis, 
Laudat, exercet, ducit, emdit. Laudabam, exercebam, ducebam, 
erudiebam. Laudabas, exercebas, ducebas, erudiebas. Laudebat, 
exercebat, ducebat, erudiebat. Laudabo, exercebo, ducam, erudiam. 
Laudabis, exercebis, duces, erudies. Laudabit, exercebit, ducet, 
erudlet. Gaudebam, quod tu et pater tuus valebatis. Dum ego pin- 
gebam, tu scribebas, et frater legebat. Milites nostri castra muniebant. 
Hostes aciem instruebant. 

Praeceptor gaudebat, quod vos ejus praeceptis parebatis. Dum nos 
legebamus, vos scribebatis et sorores acu pingebant. Quum hostes 
urbem nostram obsidione cingebant, cives earn custodiebant. Tibi 
placebas, aliis displicebas. Dum tu dormiebas, ego te custodiebam. 
Omnes boni legibus divinis semper parebunt. Quoad vives, bene 
vives. Dum tu dormies, ego te custodiam. Virtutis honorem nulla 
oblivio delebit. Si virtutem coletis, aditus in coelum vobis patebit 

We praise, we exercise, we lead, we instruct. You praise, you 
exercise, you lead, you instruct. They praise, they exercise, they lead, 
they instruct. We praised, we exercised, we led, we instructed. You 
praised, you exercised, you led, you instructed. They praised, they 
exercised, they led, they instructed. We will praise, we will exercise, 
we will lead, we will instruct. You will praise, you will exercise, you 
will lead, you will instruct. They will praise, they will exercise, they 
will lead, they will instruct. We rejoiced, that (quod) thou wast well. 
While we wrote, you read, and the brothers painted. 

While the enemies were arranging the line-of-battle, our soldiers 
fortified the camp. The teachers rejoiced, that (quod) the scholars 

§ 50.] ACTIVE VOICE. 117 

obeyed their (eorum) precepts. While I was singing, thou wast learn- 
ing, and the sister embroidering. While the enemy surrounded our 
city with a blockade, we guarded it. You pleased yourselves, others 
you displeased. While you slept, we guarded you. So long as you 
shall live, you will live well. While you shall sleep, we will guard 

b) Indicative Perfect Active of all the Conjugations. 

Laudavi, exercui, duxi, erudivif^ Lauda(vi)sti, exercuisti, duxisti, 
erudi(vi)sti. Laudavit, exercuit, * duxit, erudivit. Graecia omnibus 
artibus floruit. Hostes aciem instruxerunt. Milltes per totum diem 
sitierunt et esurierunt Laudo vos, quod mentes vestras in litterarum 
studio probe exercuistis. Multas litteras hodie scripslmus. Natura 
oculos tenuissimis membranis vestivit. Duces cupiditates milltum 
coercuerunt. Bellum atrocissimum gessimus. Cur domQs vestrae 
parietes coronis ornavistis et vestivistis? Cur taciiistis? Bellum 
urbis nostrae opes absumpsit. Cicero conjurationem Catilinae detexit 
Incendium totam fere urbem absumpsit. 

We have praised, we have exercised, we have led, we have instruct- 
ed. You have praised, you have exercised, you have led, you have 
instructed. They have praised, they have exercised, they have led, 
they have instructed. The general has arranged the line of battle before 
(ante) the city. The Greeks were (perf) distinguished by (abl.) 
the glory of [their] arts and literature. I praise thee, that (quod) thou 
hast exercised thy mind properly in the study of literature.- I had 
written the letter. The general has restrained the passions of the 
soldiers. We have carried on a very bloody war. Wherefore hast 
thou adorned and hung (== clothed) the walls of thy house with gar- 
lands ? Why hast thou been silent ? The wars have consumed our 

LXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Convolo 1. Iflytogeth- excolo, olui, ultum 3. temeritas, atis,/ incon- 

er^ hasten together. to cultivate. siderateness, rashness. 

specto 1. / hehold, have metuo, ui 3. to fear. diu, adv. long time. 

in view. negligo, exi, ectum 3. vix, adv. scarcely. 

caveo, cavi, cautum 2. to neglect. priusquam {or prius, 

to be on one^s guard, expedio 4. / disentan- quam) conj. sooner 

contemno,mpsi,mptum gle, get ready. . . . than. 

3. to despise. finio 4. / end, conclude, simulatque, conj. so 

educo, xi, ctum 3. to obedio 4. / obey. [as) soon as. 

lead out. 


c) Indicative Pluperfect Active of all the Qonjugations. 

Lauda(ve)ram, exercueram, dux^ram, erudi(v)eram. Lauda(v6)ras, 
exercueras, duxeras, erudi(v)eras. Lauda(ve)rat, exercuerat, duxerat 
erudi(v)erat. Haec civltas diu floruerat, quia semper legibus paruerat. 
Vix Caesar aciem instruxerat, quum hostes in unum locum convola- 
verunt. Praeceptoribus vestris placueratis, quia semper eorum prae- 
ceptis obedieratis. Tu nobis valde nocueras, quia temeritatem tuam 
non coercueras. Incendium totlJfi fere urbem absumpserat. Vix 
milites nostri castra muniverant, quum Caesar aciem instruxit. 

We had praised, we had exercised, we had led, we had instructed. 
You had praised, you had exercised, you had led, you had instructed. 
They had praised, they had exercised, they had led, they had instruct-' 
ed. Why hadst thou been silent ? Scarcely had the enemies arrang- 
ed the line of b/ittle, as Caesar led out (perf) the soldiers from the 
camp. The war had consumed the resources of our state. Thou 
hadst pleased thy teacher, because thou hadst always obeyed his pre- 
cepts. You had injured that [man] greatly, because you had not res- 
trained your rashness. 

d) Indicative Future Perfect Active of all the Conjugations. 
Lauda(ve)ro,^ exercuero, duxero, erudi(v)ero. Lauda(ve)ris, exercue- 
ris, duxeris, erudi(v)eris. Lauda(ve)rit, exercuerit, duxerit, erudi(v)erit 
Nisi virtutis praeceptis parueritis, adltus in coelum vobis non patebit. 
Divites eritis, si divitias contempseritis. Non prius dormiemus, quam 
negotia nostra finierimus. Si cupiditates vestras coercuerltis, beati 
eritis. Simulatque litteras scripserlmus, ambulablmus. Quum milites 
castra muniverint, ad pugnam se expedient. 

We shall have praised, we shall have exercised, we shall have led, 
"we shall have instructed. You will have praised, you will have exer- 
cised, you will have led, you will have instructed. They will have 
praised, they will have exercised, they will have led, they will have 
instructed. If thou shalt have obeyed (parere) the precepts of virtue, 
thou wilt be loved by all. Thou wilt be rich, if thou shalt 'have 
despised riches. Not sooner shall I sleep, than I shall have concluded 
my business (plur.). If thou shalt have restrained thy passions, thou 
wilt be peaceful. So soon as I shall have written the letter, I will go 
to walk. So soon as the soldiers shall have got ready for battle, the 
general will lead them out of the camp. 

^50.] ACTIVE VOICE. 119 

e) Subjunctive Present and Imperfect Active of all the Conjugations. 

Curo, ut pueri mores emendem, corpus exerc6am, animum excolam, 
mentem erudiam. Curo, ut piWi'i. rh3re[S emenrffes, corpus exerceas, 
animum excolas, mentem ^ei*ufl^as.*''^uro, ut praeceptor pueri mores 
emendet, corpus exerceat, animum excolat, mentem erudiat. Cura- 
bam, ut pueri mores emendarem, corpus exercerem, animum excole- 
rem, mentem erudirem. Curabam, ut pueri mores emendares, corpus 
exerceres, animum excoleres, mentem erudires. Curabam, ut praecep- 
tor pueri mores emendaret, corpus exerceret, animum excoleret, men- 
tem erudiret. Non dubitamus, quin nobis fidem habeatis. Moneo 
vos, ne parentium praecepta negligatis. Cavete, pueri, ne garriatis ! 
Lacedaemoniorum leges id spectant, ut laboribus erudiant juventutem. 
Metuebam, ne vobis displicerem. Timebam, ne inimicus mihi noceret. 
Metuebam, ne taceres. Cur metuis, ne taceam ? Hostes timent, ne 
dux milites e castris educat. 

We look out [for this], that we may improve the manners of the 
boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, instruct [their] in- 
tellects. We look out [for this], that you may improve the manners of 
the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, instruct [their] 
intellects. We look out [for this], that the teachers may improve the 
manners of the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, 
instruct [their] intellects. We looked out [for this], that we might im- 
prove the manners of the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] 
minds, instruct [their] intellects. We looked out [for this], that you 
might improve the manners of the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cul- 
tivate [their] minds, instruct [their] intellects. We looked out [for this], 
that the teachers might improve the manners of the boys, exercise 
[their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, instruct [their] intellects. 

I doubt not, that thou hast confidence in me. I admonish thee, that 
thou shouldest not (ne) neglect the precepts of thy parents. Be on 
your guard, boy, how (= that, ne) thou chatterest. The laws of the 
Lacedemonians had this in view, that they might instruct youth in la- 
bors. We feared, that (ne) we might displease you. We feared, that 
(ne) the enemies might injure us. We feared, that (ne) you might be 
silent. Why did you fear, that (ne) we might be silent ? The ene- 
mies feared, that (ne) the general might lead out the soldiers from the 
camp. I fear, that (ne) I may displease you. Why dost thou fear, that 
(ne) thou mayest displease us ? 


LXV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Constat 1. it is known, lenio 4. / relieve, soothe, aeger, gra, grum, sick 

puto 1. 1 believe, think, mollio ^.. / render pit- (of the mind), 

adspicio, spexi, spec-* ■> *ant^.(ibaie. > ^ gnaviter, adv. zealoiisly. 

turn 3. to look at. nuntius, ij wi. nSim.- unde, adv. whence. 

comburo, ussi, ustum consolatio, 6nis,y. con- 

3. to burn up. solution. 

corrigo, exi, ectum 3. longinquitas, atis, /. 

to correct, improve. length, distance. 

f ) Subjunctive Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Active of all the Con- 

Nemo dubitat, quin ego puerum semper bene educa(ve)rim, benevole 
monuerim, diligenter correxerim, gnaviter custodi(v)erim. Nemo du- 
bitat, quin puerum semper bene educa(ve)ris, benevole monueris, dili- 
genter correxeris, gnaviter custodi(v)eris. Nemo dubitat, quin pater 
puerum semper bene educa(ve)rit, benevole monuerit, diligenter cor- 
rexerit, gnaviter custodi(v)erit. Nemo dubitabat, quin puerum semper 
bene educa(vi)ssem, benevole monuissem, dilligenter correxissem, 
gnaviter custodi(vi)ssem. Nemo dubitabat, quin puerum semper bene 
educa(vi)sses, benevole monuisses, diligenter correxisses, gnaviter cu- 
stodi(vi)sses. Nemo dubitabat, quin pater puerum semper bene edu- 
ca(vi)sset, benevole monuisset, diligenter correxisset, gnaviter custodi- 

Nescio, cur tacueritis. Metmmus, ne hostes urbem combusserint. 
Narrate mihi, qua consolatione aegrum amici animum leniveritis. Non 
dubito, quin dux temeritatem militum coercuerit. Nescio, cur puerum 
puniveritis. Narrate nobis, quid parentes scripserint. Nescimus, 
unde amici hunc nuntium audiverint. Non dubito, quin pueri prae- 
cepta mea memoria custodierint. Hostes timent, ne dux milites e 
castris eduxerit. Nesciebam, cur tacuissetis. Metuebamus, ne hostes 
urbem obsidione cinxissent. Non dubitabam, quin praecepta mea 
memoria custodivissetis. Non dubito, quin puerum bene educaturus 
sis. Non dubito, quin dux temeritatem militum coercitiirus sit. Ne- 
mo dubitat, quin hostes urbem obsidione cincturi sint. Non dubita- 
bam, quin longinquitas temporis dolorem tuum mollitura esset. Non 
dubitabam, quin praecepta mea memoria servaturus esses. 

Nobody doubts, that v^^e have always brought up the boys well, have 
kindly admonished them, have carefully corrected them, have zealous- 
ly guarded them. Nobody doubts, that you have always brought up 
the boys well, have kindly admonished them, have carefully corrected 

^50.] ACTIVE VOICE. 121 

them, have zealously guarded them. Nobody doubts, that the teachers 
have always brought up the boys w^ell, have kindly admonished them, 
have carefully corrected them, have zealously guarded them. Nobody 
doubted, that v^^e had always brought up the boys well, had kindly ad- 
monished them, had carefully corrected them, had zealously guarded 
them. Nobody doubted, that you had always brought up the boys 
well, had kindly admonished them, had carefully corrected them, had 
zealously guarded them. Nobody doubted, that the parents had al- 
ways brought up the boys well, had kindly admonished them, had care- 
fully corrected them, had zealously guarded them. 

We know not, why thou hast been silent. I feared, that (ne) the 
enemy had burned the city. Relate to me, by (abl.) what consolation 
thou hast relieved the sick mind of thy friend. I doubted not, that the 
general had restrained the rashness of the soldiers. We know not, 
why thou hast punished the boy. Relate to me what the father has 
written. I know not, whence the enemies have heard the news. I 
doubt not, that the boy has kept my precepts in (abl.) remembrance; 
The enemies feared, that the general had led out the soldiers from the 
camp. We knew not, why thou hadst been silent. We feared, that 
the enemies had surrounded the city with (abl.) a blockade. I doubted 
not, that thou wouldst bring up the boy well. I doubted not, that the 
general would restrain the rashness of the soldiers. We doubted not, 
that the enemies would surround the city with a blockade. I doubt 
not, that length of time will abate thy suffering. 

g) Imperative and Supine Active of all the Conjugations, 

Lauda, exerce, scribe, obedi. Laudato, exerceto, scribito, obedito. 
Praeceptor puerorum mores emendato, corpora exerceto, animos exco- 
Iito, mentes erudito ! Tacete, pueri ! Disce, puer ! Ne garrite, pueri ! 
Liberi parentibus obediunto. Coelestia semper spectato, liumana con- 
temnlto ! Cupiditates coercitote ! Puer, ne contemnito praecepta ma- 
gistrorum tuorum ! Die, quid pater scripserit. Educ nos, O dux, con- 
tra hostes ! Venio te rogatum, ut mecum ambules. Uva matura dul- 
cis est gustatu. Cupiditates difficlles sunt coercitu. Haec regie pul- 
chra est adspectu. Vox lusciniae est suavis auditu. 

Praise ye, exercise, write, obey. You should praise, exercise, write, 
obey. Teachers should improve the manners of the boys, should ex- 
ercise [their] bodies, should cultivate [their] minds, should instruct 
[their] intellects. Be silent, boy ! Learn, O boys ! Do not chatter, 
boy! The boy should obey the precepts of [his] teachers. You 


should always regard heavenly, [but] despise human [things]. Thou 
shouldst restrain the passions. Say, what thou hast written. Lead, O 
general, the soldiers against the enemies. We come, in order (Supine) 
to ask you, that you would go to walk with us. An unripe grape is pun- 
gent to taste. The rashness of the soldiers was difficult to restrain. 
These regions are beautiful to look at The city is difficult to guard. 

h) Participle, Gerund and Infinitive Active of all the Conjugations. 
Exercitus pugnans urbem intravii. Animus, se non videns, alia 
cernit. Miles, se fortiter contra hostes defendens, laudatur. Hostes, 
urbem oppugnaturi, castra muniverunt. Sapiens bona semper placitu- 
ra laudat Hostes veniunt, urbem obsidione cincturi. Venio auditu- 
rus, quid pater scripserit. Ars navigandi utilissima est. Sensus vi- 
dendi acerrimus est. Sapientia est ars vivendi. Obediendum est 
praeceptis virtutis. Hostes urbem nostram expugnare student. Cupi- 
ditates coercere debemus. Liberi parentes suos colore debent. Mi- 
lites urbem custodire debent. 

The soldiers fighting entered the city. Souls, not seeing themselves, 
see other [things]. The soldiers, who defend (= defending) themselves 
bravely against the enemies, are jjraised. Boys, who chatter (= chat- 
tering) in school, are troublesome. The enemies come wishing to as- 
sault the city. Strive, O boys, to obtain goods, ever about to please. 
The enemies came wishing to assault the city. We come wishing to 
hear what the friend has written thee. The art of writing is very 
difficult. By thinking and learning, the intellect (mens) is nourished. 
The opportunity to hear {:= of hearing) is rarer than the opportunity 
to see (= of seeing). 

(Concerning the Ace. with the Infin., comp. Synt. § 105.) 
Scimus, deum mundum gubemare (we know that God governs the 
world). Credo, meum consilium tibi placere (I believe that my plan 
pleases thee). Credo, fratrem pingere. Audimus, hostes ante urbem 
castra munire. Audivi, milites nostrosacerrime pugnasse. Quis nes- 
cit, Socratem semper virtutis praeceptis paruisse ? Constat, Ciceronem 
conjurationem Catilinae detexisse. Credo, te dormisse. Spero, vos 
consilium meum probaturos esse. Credimus, ducem temeritatem mil- 
itum coerciturum esse. Puto, patrem eras scripturum esse. Omnes 
cives sperant, milites urbem custodituros esse. 

I believe, that thou approvest my plan. I know, that you obey me. 
I believe, that the father writes. I believe, that the boy sleeps. The 

$ 51.] PASSIVE VOICE. 128 

brother relates to me, that thou hast approved my plan. We hear, 
that the general has restrained the rashness of the soldiers. We be- 
lieve, that the father has written. We have heard, that the enemies 
have fortified a camp before the city. I believe, that the soldiers will 
fight spiritedly. I hope, that the plan will please thee. All Romans 
hoped, that Cicero would detect the conspiracy of Catiline. I hope, 
that I shall soon hear this news. 

LXVI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Despero ]. I despair. jungo, nxi, nctum 3. naturalis, e, natural. 

augeo, xi, ctum 2. to tojoin^ connect. extemplo, adv. imme- 

increase, enrich. vivo, xi, ctum 3. to live. diately. 

deterreo 2. / frighten propositum, i, n. pur- strenue, adv. vigorous'- 

from. [fU. pose. ly. 

oppleo, evi, etum 2. to difficultas, atis, / diffi- postquam, conj. ajler 
conspicio, exi, ectum 3. culty. thai. 

to discover. subitus, a, um, sudden. 

i) Indicative Present, Imperfect and Future Passive of all the Conjugations. 
Laudor, exerceor, ducor, erudior. Laudaris, exerceris, duceris, eru- 
diris. Laudatur, exercetur, ducitur, eruditur. Laudabar, exercebar, 
ducebar, erudiebar. Laudabare, exercebare, ducebare, erudiebare. 
Laudabatur, exercebatur, ducebatur, erudiebatur. Laudabor, exerce- 
bor, ducar, erudiar. Laudabere, exercebere, ducere, erudiere. Lau- 
dabitur, exercebitur, ducetur, erudietur. 

We are praised, we are exercised, we are led, we are instructed. 
You are praised, you are exercised, you are led, you are instructed. 
They are praised, they are exercised, they are led, they are instructed. 
We were praised, we were exercised, we were led, we were instruct- 
ed. You were praised, you were exercised, you were led, you were 
instructed. They were praised, they were exercised, they were led, 
they were instructed. We shall be praised, we shall be exercised, we 
shall be led, we shall be instructed. You will be praised, you will be 
exercised, you will be led, you will be instructed. They will be prais- 
ed, they will be exercised, they will be led, they will be instructed. 

Quum in litteris exercemur, animi nostri multarum rerum utilium 
cognitione augentur. Quum subito periciiio terremur, non debemus 
extemplo de salute nostra desperare. Quoad litteris honos suus erit, 
Graeci et Latini scriptores in scholis legentur. Si semper bene 
vixeris, ab omnibus diligere. Virtutis honos nulla oblivione delebitur. 
Quum urbs ab hostibus oppugnabatur, a civibus acriter defendebatur. 


When you are exercised in literature, your souls are enriched by 
(abl.) the kno.wledge of many useful things. When thou art frighten- 
ed by (abl.) a sudden fear, thou shouldest not immediately despair of 
thy safety. The Greek and Latin writers are read in the schools. If 
you shall always have lived well, you will be esteemed by all. The 
city which was assaulted by the enemies, was defended spiritedly by 
the citizens. 

k) Subjunctive Present and Imperfect Passive of all the Conjugations, 
Pater curat, ut ego bene educer strenue exercear, probe excolar, dil- 
igenter erudlar. Curo, ut bene educere, strenue exerceare, probe exco- 
lare, diligenter erudiare. Curo, ut puer bene educetur, strenue exer- 
ceatur, probe excolatur, diligenter erudiatur. Pater curabat, ut ego 
bene educarer, strenue exercerer, probe excolerer, diligenter erudirer. 
Curabam, ut bene educarere, strenue exercerere, probe excolerere, dil- 
igenter erudirere. Curabam, ut filius tuus bene educaretur, strenue 
exerceretur, probe excoleretur, diligenter erudiretur. 

Our father looks out [for this], that we may be well brought up, 
vigorously exercised, properly cultivated, carefully instructed. Your 
father looks out [for this], that you may be well brought up, vigorously 
exercised, properly cultivated, carefully instructed. Parents look out 
[for this], that the manners of [their] children (liberi) may be improved, 
[their] bodies vigorously exercised, [their] minds properly cultivated, 
[their] understandings carefully instructed. Our father looked out [for 
this], that we might be well brought up, vigorously exercised, proper- 
ly cultivated, carefully instructed. Your father looked out [for this], 
that you might be well brought up, vigorously exercised, properly cul- 
tivated, carefully instructed. The parents looked out [for this], that 
the manners of [their] children might be improved, [their] bodies 
exercised, [their] minds cultivated, [their] understandings instructed. 

Quis nescit, quam praeclaris fructibus animi nostri in litterarum 
studiis augeantur? Timemus, ne exercitus noster ab hostibus vinca- 
tur. Omnes cives metuebant, ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cingere- 
tur. Lacedaemoniorum leges id spectabant, ut laboribus erudiretur 
juventus. Curae mihi est, ut a te diligar. Cives metuunt, ne castra ab 
hostibus ante urbem muniantur. 

I doubt not, that the soul may be enriched with (abl.) excellent fruit 
in the study of literature. We feared, that our army might be con- 
quered by the enemies. All citizens fear, that the city may be sur- 
rounded by the enemies with (abl.) a blockade. We look out [for 

$51.] PASSIVE VOICE. 125 

this], that the youth may be instructed in (abl.) labors. We are anx- 
ious, that we may be esteemed by you. The citizens apprehended, 
that a camp might be fortified by the enemies before the city. 

1) Indicative and Subjunctive Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect 
Passive of aU the Conjugations. 

MiHtes ob fortitudinem a duce laudati sunt. Pueri in litterarum 
studiis gnaviter exerciti sunt. Conjuratio Catilinae a Cicerone detecta 
est. Oculi tenuissimis membranis a natura vestiti sunt. Cupiditates 
militum a duce fortissimo coercitae sunt. Tria bella atrocissima gesta 
sunt inter Romanos et Carthaginienses. Quum rex urbem intrabat, 
omnium civiura domus coronis et floribus vestltae et ornatae erant. 
Maximo incendio tota fere urbs absumpta erat. Vix acies a Caesere 
instructa erat, quum hostes in unum locum convolaverunt. Non eris 
dives, nisi divitiae a te contemptae erunt. 

Non prius dormiemus, quam negotia vestra finita erunt. Beati non 
eritis, nisi cupiditates vestrae a vobis coercitae erunt. Simulac castra 
munita, erunt, milites se ad pugnam expedient. Labor voluptasque 
naturaii quadam societate inter se juncta sunt. Multae urbes ab 
hostibus combustae sunt. Vix hostes conspecti erant, quum milites a 
duce e castris in aciem educti sunt. Metuebamus, ne urbs ab hostibus 
obsidione cincta esset. Die mihi, quid tibi a sorore scriptum sit. Die 
nobis, qua consolatione aeger amici animus lenitus sit. Die, cur puer 
punitus sit. Metuo, ne milites subito periculo territi sint. 

I have been tormented by (abl.) the most pungent pains. The en- 
mies have been frightened by (abl.) sudden fear. The upright man 
lia^-been loved and esteemed by all. The sick mind of the friend has 
been soothed by (abl.) our consolation. I doubt not, that the passions 
of the soldiers have been restrained by the bravest general. The sol- 
diers have been led out of the camp by the general. I know not, why 
the boys have been (subj.) punisLed by you. We apprehended, that, 
(ne) the soldiers had been frightened by (abl.) tlie sudden danger. 

I know not what may have been written you by the sister. We 
fear, that (ne) the city may be encompassed by (abl.) a blockade. The 
enemies were discovered (perf ) before (ante) the gates of the city. 
After my business (plur.) shall be concluded I will go to walk. So 
soon as the enemies shall be seen, we will get ready for battle. I 
doubt not, that riches have been despised by thee. We feared, that, 
by the conflagration, many houses had been consumed. We fear, that 
many cities have been burned up by the enemies. 

11* v4. • * 


m) Imperative, Infinitive and Participle Passive of all the Conjugations. 

O puer, bene educare, strenue exercere, probe excolere, diligenter 
erudire ! O puer, bene educator, strenue exercetor, probe excolitor, 
diligenter eruditor ! Puer bene educator, strenue exercetor, probe ex- 
colitor, diligenter eruditor. Si quid peccaveris, aequo animo castigare. 
Ne rerum difficultatibus a proposito deterremini ! Deus pie colitor ! 
Ne vincimini cupiditatibus. Leges divinae ne contemnuntor. Impro- 
bi puniuntor. Temeritas ratione coercetor. O puer, strenue exercere 
in litterarum studiis ! Bonus discipulus studet laudari. Boni disci- 
puli student exerceri in litterarum studiis. Sapientes semper ratione 
regi student. 

Bonus discipulus litterarum cognitione erudiri studet. Puer, bene 
educatus, omnibus placet. Hostes territi in castris manent. Urbs, 
obsidione cincta, multis malis vexatur. Homo eruditus non solum sibi, 
sed etiam aliis prodest. Pueri bene educandi, strenue exercendi, probe 
excolendi, diligenter erudiendi sunt. 

Scimus, mundum a deo gubernari. Audimus, castra ab hostibus 
ante urbem muniri. Constat, conjurationem Catilinae a Cicerone de- 
tectam esse. Speramus, vos rerum difficultatibus a proposito deterri- 
tum non iri. 

O boys, be ye well brought up, vigorously exercised, properly culti- 
vated, carefully instructed ! O boys, you should be well brought up, 
vigorously exercised, properly cultivated, carefully instructed ! Boys 
should be well brought up, vigorously exercised, properly cultivated, 
carefully instructed. If you shall have committed a fault in anything 
(quid), be reproved with equanimity. Be thou not frightened from 
thy purpose by (abl.) the difficulty of the thing. Be ye guided by (abl.) 
reason. Be thou not overcome by the passions. The divine law 
should not be despised. The impious [man] should be punished. 
The passions should be restrained by (abl.) reason. 

O boys, exercise yourselves {= he ye exercised) vigorously in the 
study of literature ! Good scholars seek to be praised. The good 
scholar seeks to exercise himself {= to be exercised) in the study of 
literature. The wise [man] seeks, always to be governed by (abl.) rea- 
son. Good scholars seek to be instructed in (abl.) the knowledge of 
literature. Well-brought-up boys please all. The frightened enemy 
remains in the camp. Cities encompassed by (abl.) a blockade are 
annoyed by (abl.) many evils. Instructed men benefit not merely 
themselves, but others also. The boy is to be brought up well, to be 
vigorously exercised, to be properly cultivated, to be carefully in- 

5 50 52.] SECOND CONJUGATION. 127 

We hear, that a camp is fortified by the enemies before the city. 
We hope, that the conspiracy will d| detected. We believe that we 
have not been frightened from our purpose. 

LXVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Careo2.(c.abl.)/t^anf. caplo, cepi, captum 3. machinatio, onis, /. 
cohaereo, haesi, hae- to take. machination, artijke. 

sum 2. to hold to- duco, xi, ctum 3. to diuturnus, a, um, long 

gether. lead ; 2) to believe, to continued. 

jaceo, ui 2. to lie, be in account (as some- nefarius, a, um, execra- 

a low state. thing). ble. 

permaneo, mansi, man- caussa, ae, / a reason, stabilis, e, stable, firm. 

sum 2. to last. cause ; ea caussa, ob nimium, adv. too much, 

torpeo, ui 2. to be torpid, eam caussam,ybr this eo, adv. on this account. 

inactive. reason. nam, conj.for. 

DJ Exercises to the Second Conjugation in particular. 

a) Active of the Second Conjugation. 

(Concerning the conjunction quod (that), see Synt. § 108.) 

Multa sunt admirabiha, sed nihil magis, quam quod ita stabilis est 
mundus atque tarn praeclare cohaeret ad permanendum. Non ea res 
me deterruit a proposlto, quod civium nefariorum contra me machina- 
tiones timebam. Gaudeo, quod tu et pater tuus valetis. Non vitupero 
te, quod tuum tibi consilium maxime placet ; nam plurimi nihil rectum, 
nisi quod placuit sibi, ducunt. Vehementer dolebdmus, quod litterae ob 
diuturnum bellum jacebant. Laudo te, quod mentem tuam in littera- 
rum studio tam probe exercuisti. 

Omnes cives gaudent, quod duces militum cupiditates coercuerunt. 
Magna laude digni estis, quod malef icos deterruistis, quomlnus nefaria 
consilia contra rempublicam caperent. Ob eam caussam aliis displicebas, 
quad tibi ipsi placebas. Ingens in urbe laetitia erat, quod milites fortis- 
simos se praebuerant. Haec civitas ed caussa diu floruerat, quod sem- 
per legibus paruerat. Eo me deterrueratis a proposito meo, quod 
ignavia torpebatis. Tu nobis ea re nocueras, quod temerltatem tuam 
non coercueras. Gaudebant parentes, quod ego tibi placueram. 

I rejoice, that thou hast always followed the precepts of thy teach- 
ers. I rejoiced, that thou and thy father were well. On this account 
(eo) he has displeased us, because he pleased himself too much. This 
thing has frightened me from my purpose, that thou hast wanted all 
courage. I rejoice, that you have maintained (tenere) well your 
opinion. We praise you, that you had always obeyed the precepts of 

128 SECOND CONJUGATION. [§ 60 52. 

your parents. We grieve, that thou hast displeased thy teacher. The 
father rejoices, that [his] sons ha^always shown themselves diligent 
scholars in school. I have grieved, that my counsel has displeased 
thee. The teacher praised me, that I had obeyed his precepts. We 
grieve, that we have not obeyed the precepts of our parents. 

L XVIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Placo 1. I appease. persuadeo, si, sum 2. nervus, i, m. nerve^ 

veto, ui, itum 1. to (c. dat.), to persuade^ sinue. 

forbid. convince. impius, a, um, impious. 

audeo, ausus sum, pigritia, ae, /. slothful- nullus, a, um, no one ; 

audere, to dare. ness. nullus non, every one. 

emineo, ui 2. to be end- prudentia, ae, f pru- praesens, ntis, present. 

nent. dence, unsdom. nunquam, adv, never. 

jubeo, jussi, jussum 2. satis, adv. enough. 

to bid, command. 

Legi divinae et humanae omnes parfebunt, qui secundum naturam 
vivere studSbunt. Si virtutis praeceptis semper parebis, in coelum 
tibi aditus patebit. Si ignavia torpebitis, praeclaris rebus nunquam 
eminebltis. Si virtute carebimus, bonis non placeblmus. Si cupidita- 
tes vestras coercueritis, in virtutis via nunquam vacillabitis. Quo quia 
magis mentem litterarum studio exercuerit, eo magis iis delectabltur. 
Quo plura beneficia parentibus nostris debuerimus, eo gratiores ani- 
mos in eos habere debebimus. Si milites nostri fortes se in pugna 
praebuerint, victoria non erit dubia. 

The more we shall have exercised our minds in the study of litera- 
ture, so much the more shall we be delighted by (abl.) the same. If 
you shall not have obeyed the precepts of virtue, you will not please 
good men. If thou shalt have shown thyself an upright man, thou 
wilt please all the good. If I shall have afforded refuge and consola- 
tion to my enemies, they will restrain their anger against me. 

Vide, ne ob pigritiam a praeceptoribus castigere ! Parete, pueri ! 
Illud tenete, nervos atque artus esse sapientiae, non temere credere ! 
Impius ne audeto placare donis iram deorum ! Pueri mentes litteris 
exercento! Ut ocul us, sic animus, se non videns, alia cernit. Metus 
est opinio magni mali inipendentis, et aegritudo est opinio magni mali 
praesentis. NuUi non ad nocendum satis virium est. Acerrimus ex 
omnibus nostris sensibus est sensus videndi. Prudentia ex providen- 
do est appellata. Lex est recta ratio in jubendo et vetando. Liberi 
parentibus parere debent. Persuadeto tibi, tuum consilium mihi 
vehementer et placuisse, et semper placiturum esse ! 

§ 50 52.] SECOND CONJUGATION. 129 

Be silent, boys ! See [to it], that, on account of [your] slothf^jlness, 
you are not censured by your teachers. Thou shouldest obey thy 
parents and teachers. The boy should exercise [his] mind in litera- 
ture. The impious should not dare to appease the anger of God by 
presents. The citizens feared the threatening danger. Youth is a 
thing, destined (= about) ever to please, never to displease. 

LXIX. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Concito 1. I raise. torqueo, rsi, rtum 2. exercitatio, onis, f, 

ejulo 1. / complain. to twist, torment, tor- exercise, practice. 

reputo 1. / consider. ture. seditio, 6nis,y*. sedition. 

commoneo 2. / remind, video, vidi, visum 2. impetus, us, m. attack. 

commoveo, ovi, otum to see; videor, I am ohltus, us, m. departure, 

2. to move. seen, seem. death. 

edoceo, cui, ctum 2. concordia, ae,^/tarmo- pristlnus, a, um, ybrmer. 

to instruct, inform. ny. diligens, tis, diligent. 

misceo, miscui, mistum discordia, ae,y! discord, continuo, adv.forthivith, 

orinixt[im,tomix,dis- fuga, a.e,f. fight. sedulo, adv. bibsily. 

turb. moeror, oris, m. grief, mirif ice, adv. wonder- 

perterreo 2. to frighten, crudelitas, atis,/. crttcZ- , fully, 

put in fear, ty. quoque, con/, afoo. 

b) Passive of the Second Conjugation. 
(Concerning the temporal conjunction quum (when, as), see Synt. § 110. 1.) 

Quum docemur, tacert dehemus. Quum optdmus, ne respublica mis- 
ceatur, civium concordiam omnibus modis servare dehemus. Quum in 
schola diligens eris, dubitahisne, quin bonus discipulus a praeceptori- 
bus habeare ? Quum nobiscum reputamus, quantis et quam praeclaris 
fructibus animi nostri in litterarum studiis augeantur, mirifice delecta- 
mur. Quum magnorum virorum laudes legimus, optamus, ut eadem 
gloria nos quoque digni habeamur. Quum militum crudelitas ducis 
consilio co&rcebdtur, tota civitas laeta erat. Litterae, quum ob bellum 
diujacuerunt, nunc, recuperata pace, eo acriore studio exercentur.. 

Quum hostes urbem oppugnaverant, omnes cives maximo timore 
opplebantur. Quum acerbissimae calamitatis nuntio terrebar, omne 
meum perfugium ac solatium in te collocatum esse existimdbam. Quum 
tristissimo de amici carissimi obitu nuntio graviter, commovebdre animo, 
etiam nos moerore opplebdmur. Quum de culpa nostra a parentibus 
commonebdmur, acerbus dolor animos nostros occupdbat. Quum artes 
atque litterae in civitate nostra forebunt, ejus splendor augebUur. Quum 
milites nostri de hostium adventu edocebuntur, pugnandi ardore^c^d- 
bunt. Ne turn quidem ejvidbo, quum acerbissimis doloribus torquebor. 

130 SECOND CONJUGATION. [§ 50 52. 

Quum hostium impetu perterrehiminiy urbi nostrae magnum periculuni 

Quum milites seditionem condtassent, ducis consilio et virtute coemh* 
sunt. Quum hostes terrlti essent et jam in fugam se dareni^ dux eos 
monuit, ut pristinae virtu tis memores essent. Quum exercitus de hos- 
tium adventu edoceretur^ continue summo pugnandi ardore JlagrdvU. 
Ne tum quidem ejuldvi, quum acerbissimis doloribus torquerer. 

When thou art taught, thou oughtest to be silent. The wise [man] 
is happy, even when he is tortured. When good scholars are exer- 
cised in literature, they are delighted. When I see by how great 
pains thou art tortured, I am deeply {= violently) moved (commoveo). 
When you consider by (== with) yourselves, how many (quot) and how 
great (quantus) toils and cares have been bestowed by your parents 
for yoi^ good (= welfare); you ought to be moved by (abl.) gratitude. 
When thou shall see how actively I am exercised in the Latin language, 
thou wilt rejoice. As we were pressed by the severest (acerbus) mis- ^ 
fortune, we placed (coUoco) our whole hope in {in with abl.) our friends. 
As the enemy seemed to approach the city, each one (unusquisque) 
of the citizens was filled with fear. As you were informed of the ar- 
rival of the enemies, you were not frightened. As I read the life of 
Agricola, I was violently moved within (animus). As thou wast tor- 
tured with severe pains, I was filled with pity. 

As the cruelty of the soldiers was restrained (subj.) by the wisdom 
and firmness of the general, [there] was (perf) great joy in the city. 
As the city was assaulted (subj.) by the enemies, all the citizens were 
put in fear (perf) As the camp of the enemies was moved (subj.), we 
exulted (perf). As we were frightened from (subj.) our purpose by 
the difficulty of the thing, thou hast recalled us to the same. As I 
was moved (subj.) within (animus) by the sad news of the death of my 
friend,* thy pity was very agreeable to me. As thou se'emedst (subj.) 
to desert us, I was grieved (perf) very much. 

When the army ^all be infc«-med of the arrival of the enemies, it 
will burn with a desire to fight (gen. of Ger.). Wise rpen will be 
happy, even if tortured by the bitterest pains. When we shall be put in 
fear by tfie attack &f^. eneniies, great danger will threaten 
If thou shalt be yifeious(= partaking of virtue), thou wilt not even 
then complain, wheti thou shalt be tortured by the severest pains. 

Ne rerum difficultatibus a proposito deterrere ! Milites, ne hostium 
impetu perterremlni! ® puer, strenue exercetor in litterarum studiis! 
Milites, ne inani timore oppleminor! Leges civitatis ne discordia 

$ 50 52.] THIRD CONJUGATION. 131 

civium miscentor ! Territis hostibus, nostri milites victoriam reporta- 

Be ye not frightened from [your] purpose by the difficulty of the 
thing. Soldiers, you should not be put in fear by the attack of the 
enemies ! The evil passions should be restrained by the reason. It 
is known, that all the powers of the body and of the soul are strength- 
ened (= increased) by exercise. 

LXX. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Versol. /fwm; versor, surgo, surrexi, surrec- perversitas, atis,/. j9cr- 

/ turn myself^ find tum 3. to arise. verseness. 

myself^ live. sugo, xi, ctum 3. to pravitas, atis, /. per- 

confligo, xi, ctum 3. suck, suck out. verseness, wickedness. 

I fight. pomum, i, n. eatable paene, adv. nearly, <il- 

decerpo, psi, ptum 3. fruit; plur. /rmV. most. 

to pluck off. pavor, oris, m. fright, protlnus, adv. forthurith. 

pergo, perrexi, perrec- trepidation. statim, adv. immediate' 

tum 3. to go, con- lac, ctis, n. milk. ly. 

tinue. nutrix, ids, f. nurse. ut, conj. just as, as. 

E) Exercises to the Third Conjugation in particular. 

a) Active of the Third Conjugation. 

(Concerning the temporal conjunctions postquam, ut, ubi, simulac, see Synt. 

§ 110, a.) 

Hostes, uhi primum nostros equltes conspexerunt, (eos) celeriter per- 
turhaverunt. Ut surreximus, proilnus ad te perrexlmus. Simulatque lu- 
cem adspeximus, in omni continuo pravitate et in summa opinionum 
perversitate versamur, ut paene cum lacte nutricis errorem suxisse 
videamur. Postquam Caesar aciem instruxit, omnes hostes in unum 
locum convolaverunt. Ut nostri cum hostibus confiixerunt, magnus eos 
occupdvit pavor. SimUlac litteras scripsi, cum fratre amhuldvi. Post- 
quam amicum in hortum duxero, dicam tibi, quid pater mihi scripserit. 
Uhi poma decerpsenmus, edemus. Ut surrexistis, statim ad negotia vestra 
accedere debetis. 

LXXI. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Exploro 1. /search 0M<, elicio, ui, itum 3. <o recipio, cepi, ceptum 

examine. draw out, elicit. 3. to receive, se reci- 

propulso 1. I repel. coquo, xi, ctum 3. to pere, to hetake one^s 

allicio, exi, ectum 3. to cook. self back. 

draw to, allure ; but, ningo, xi 3. to snow. restinguo, nxi, nctum 

132 THIRD CONJUGATION. [^ 50 — 52. 

er^^ ■■' ■ 

3. to extinguish, put coenf, ae,/. a meaL pluviosus, a, um, rmny. 

out. sollicitudo, mis,/ 5oZia- heaXe, adv. peacefully. 

relinquo, liqui, lictiim tude. antequam, conj. before 

3. to leave behind, de- tempestas, atis,/. w>eaf A- that, ere, before, 

sert. er, storm. 

(Concerning the particles of time : priusquam and antequam, see Synt. 8 

110, 3.) 

a) Priusquam animum tuum sollicitudlne angas et crudes, explo- 
rare debes, quid sit, quod te angat et cruciet. 

b) Priusquam bellum atrocissimum gessimus, artes et litterae in 
civitate nostra floruerunt. Antequam bellum urbis nostrae opes ab- 
sumpsit, potentissima fuit Antequam ninxit, tempestas fuit valde 

c) Non beate vivetis, antequam omninm cupiditatum ardorem res- 
tinxentis. Non dives eris, jsnWg-uam divitias contempseris. Non prius 
edetisj quam coqua coenam coxerit. Non prius te illi relinquent, quam 
te ad misericordiam allexerint. Exercitus noster non prius domum se 
recipiet, quam hostes ad pugnam elicuerit. 

d) Hostes propidsati sunt, antequam urbem obsidione cingerent. 
Milites nostri urbem liberaverunt, priusquam eam hostes combussissent. 
Dies obrepsit hostibus, priusquam aggerem exstruxissent. 

LXXII. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Contraho, xi, ctum 3. figura, ae, /. figure, donee, conj. so [as] long 

to draw together. form. as, until, until that, 

demo, mpsi, mptum, 3. eonjuratus, i, m. a con- even until. 

to take away. spirator. dum, conj. while, so {as) 

describo, psi, ptum 3. gladius, i, m. sword. long as, until, until 

to describe, point out. mathematicus, i, m. that. 

stringo, inxi, ictum 3. mathematician. quoad, conj. so {as) long 

to touch upon, to geometrlcus, a, um, as, until, until that, 

draw (a sword). geometrical. even until that. 

cop'm, ae,f. abundance ; nobllis, e, known, re- tsundiu, adv. so long as. 

plur. troops. nowned. 

(Concerning the particles of time : dum, quod, donee, see Synt. § 110. 4, 5.) 
Dum ego scribebam,, tu legebas, et frater ludebat. Dum nos canebd- 
mus, vos discebatis, et sorores pingebant. Quoad vives, omnibus tuis 
gratus vives. Homines, dum docent, discunt. Archimedes, nobilissi- 
mus mathematicus, dum in pulvere figQras georaetricas descrlbit atten- 
tius, Syracusae a Romanis expugnatae sunt. Dum consul litteras 
legit, conjurati gladios strinxerant. Dum dux aciem instrUit, hostis 
totam urbem cinxerat. Cicero omni quiete abstinuit, donee Catilinae 

$ 50 52.] THIRD CONJUGATION. 133 

conjurationem detexisset. Exspectamus, dtim nobis dicdtis, quid paren- 
tes scripserint. Milites cupide expectabant, dum dux se e castris con- 
tra hostes educeret. Tamdiu interrogasii, quoad omnem meam senten- 
tiam elicuisti. Tamdiu manebo, dum omnem sollicitudinem tibi demp- 

While I was singing, thou wast learning, and the sister was paint- 
ing. While we were writing, you were reading, and the brothers 
were playing. So long as Cicero lived, he occupied himself with 
[navo operam c. dat.) literature. So long as I live, I shall be mind- 
ful of this kindness. While the general arranged the army in order of 
battle, the enemies had drawn together all [their] forces. Wait, until 
we tell you, what the father has written. The general waited, until 
the enemies had placed the army in order of battle. I waited, until 
thou saidst to me what the father had written. 

As soon as I had arisen (perf ), I went (perf ) immediately to you. 
After Caesar had led out (perf.) the soldiers, the enemies arranged 
[their] army in order of battle. As soon as we shall have written, we 
will take a walk with you. As soon as thou art arisen, thou oughtest 
to go (accedere) forthwith to thy business. Before the enemies had 
drawn together (perf ) their troops, Caesar had captured (perf) the city. 
Thou wilt not live peacefully, before thou shalt have extinguished the 
ardor of all passions. You will not be rich, before you shall have de- 
spised riches. My friend will not leave thee, before he shall have 
moved (= allured, cdlicere) thee to sympathy. Our soldiers will not 
betake themselves home, before that they have allured the enemies to 
battle. Before we trouble and torpient our mind with solicitude, we 
ought to,inquife what [it] may be, which vexes and troubles us. Tho 
enemies were repelled (perf), before they had arranged the army in 
order of battle. Night overtook (perf) us, before we had extinguished 
the conflagration. 

L XXIII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Separo 1. / separate, fabricator, oris, m. arcanus, a, um, secret ; 

divide. framer. arcanum, i. n. a 

benefacio, feci, factum sermo, onis, m. conver- secret. 

3. to do well. sation, speech. ceteri, ae, a, the rest 

circumspicio, spexi, afFabilitas, atis, /. qffa- perfectus, a, um, per- 

spectum 3. to look bility. fed. 

around, regard. comltas, atis,/. courte- ante, adv. before, rather. 

maledico 3. (c. dat.) ousness. quantop^re, adv. how 

I reproach. facultas, atia,f.foLCulty ; much. 

praedico 3. 1 foretell. plur. means. simpliciter, adv. simply. 

vesper, €ri, m. evening. 


134 THIRD CONJUGATION. [^ 50 52. 

Ignis urbem absumpsit. Mihi crede, nunquam vir perfectus fortimae 
maledixit. Nimium ne crede colori ! Fac, lit ante circumspicias, qui- 
buscum edas et bibas, quam quid edas et bibas! Die, quid patri scrip- 
seris ! O stulte, ne praedic futura ! Ne credlte mendaribus ! Pueri, 
strenue litteras discitote ! Puer in schola attendito ! Principes civita- 
tis concordiae consulunto ! Difficile dictu est, quantopere conciliet ani- 
mos hominurn comltas afFabilltasque sermonis. Mendaci homini, ne 
verum quidem dicenti, credere solemus. Venio tibi dicturus, quid 
amicus mihi scripserit. Deus, fabricator mundi, nulla re magis homi- 
nem separavit a ceteris animalibus, quam dicendi facnltate. Ex dis- 
cendo maxima ad nos redundat voluptas. Optiraus est orator, qui di- 
cendo animos nostros et docet, et delectat, et permovet. Mores puero- 
rum se inter ludendum simplicius detegunt. Hominis mens discendo 
et cogitando alitur. Tamdiu discendum est, quamdiu vivas. Pulchrum 
est e virtute (conformably to virtue) vivere. Scisne, patrem scrpisisse ?^ 
Quis scit, se ad vesperum esse victurum ? Speramus, nos vobis arca- 
na elicituros esse. 

Eat and drink thou, moderately. Trust ye not too much to color. 
Do thou well to try friends. Tell me, what the father has written 
thee. Boy, thou shouldst zealously learn literature. The boys should 
be attentive in school. It is incredible to say (Sup. in u), how bravely 
our soldiers have fought with the enemies. Lying men we are not 
even accustomed to believe, when they tell the truth (part.). We mrgp, in 
order to tell (= wishing to tell) thee, what our brothers have written 
(subj.) us. By diligently learning (gerund), scholars acquire for them- 
selves the approbation of [their] parents and teachers. 

■ y . . 

LXXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translatwn. 

Urgeo, ursi, ursum 2. 3. to break ; mola wanting ; c. dat. to 

to press, oppress. frangere, to grind. neglect. 

conjungo, nxi, nctum frigo, xi, ctum 3. to mola, ae, /. mi'W. [lance. 

3. to join {together). roast, parch. vigilantia, ae, /. vigi- 

expingo, pinxi, pictum, insculpo, psi, ptum 3. gladiator, oris, m. fen- 

3. to paint out, draw. to engrave. cer, gladiator. 

fingo, finxi, fictum 3. ungo, xi, ctum 3. to novus, a, um, new. 

to form, feign. anoint. profecto, adv. surely. 

frango, fregi, fractum desum, fui, esse, to he quoniam, conj. because. 

b) Passive of the Third Conjugation. 

conjunctions: quod, quia, quoniam, (h 

Quia semper e virtutis praeceptis vixisti, ab omnibus diligeris. Ci- 

(Concerning the conjunctions: quod, quia, qiwniam, (heca.use), see Synt 


^ 50 52.*! THIRD CONJUGATION. 135 

ves summa inopia urgebantur, quia omnes eorum facultates bello ab- 
sumptae erant. Quoniam de hac re satis dictum est, jam accedamus 
ad novam. Cicero pater patriae appellatus est, quod ejus consilio et 
vigilantia conjuratio Catilinae detecta est. Omnes oi^^es- angebantur, 
quia metuebant, ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cingeretur. 

Multae fabulae a poetis fictae sunt. Gladiatores uncti decertabant 
Apud Homerum omnia ita descripta sunt, ut quasi expicta videantur. 
Omnibus in animo quasi insculptum est, esse deum. Omnia suntpro- 
fecto laudanda, quae conjuncta cum virtute sunt, et, quae cum vitiis (so. 
conjuncta sunt), vituperanda. Quoad urbs obsidione cingebatur, mag- 
no metu angebamur. Milites cupide exspectant, dum a duce e castris 
contra hostes educantur. Cave, ne fallarj^ ! Timebamus, ne exercitus 
noster vinceretur. Nihil magis mihi curae est, quam ut a te diligar. 
Si ceditis, metuo, fte"*vincamini. Non dubito, quin fortiter a militibus 
defendamur. Quum milites nosiri conspicerentur, hostes ingens pa- 
yor occnpavit. Quoad honeste vives, omnibus diligere. Exercitus 
noster, quoad bonus dux ei praeerit, non vincetur. Ab omnibus con- 
temnemini, si officiis vestris deerltis. Quamdiu tu aberis, ego de te an- 
gar et cruciabor. Si tam fortiter pugnare pergemus, non vincemur. 
Postquam hostes conspecti erunt, nostri milites e castris educentur. 
Postquam hordeum frictum erit, molis fragetur. Ubi poma decerpta 
erunt, a nobis edentur. 

Take care (= be on thy guard), that thou art not troubled without 
reason. I fear tliat(ne)I shall be deceived. We are more anxious for 
nothing than that we shall be esteemed by you. If we give way, I fear 
that we shall be conquered. It often happens (accidit), that the good 
are injlired by the bad. I was troubled, because I feared that I should 
be deceived. We feared that the city would be burnt up by the enemies. 
All desired (opto), that the conspirators might be discovered. We wait- 
ed anxiously, until we were led against the enemies. The enemies did 
not doubt, that we should be conquered. Why didst thou fear, that thou 
shouldst be injured by us ? So long as the city was surrounded by a 
blockade, you were oppressed with great want. So long as the ene- 
mies were seen, our [soldiers] remained in the camp. So long as the 
war was carried on, literature was in a low state. So long as the ene- 
mies besieged the city, we were troubled with great fear. As, lately, 
thou wast sick, thou wast very much troubled. If you shall continue 
to fight so bravely, you will not be conquered by the enemies. So 
long as you shall be absent, we shall be troubled concerning (de) you. 
Thou wilt be despised by all, if thou shalt neglect {desum) thy duties. 
Our soldiers will not be conquered, so long as a good general shall 

136 THIRD CONJUGATION. [§ 50 52. 

preside over them. Homer will always be read in the schools. As 
soon as the letter shall be written, we will take a walk with you. 
When the army shall be led out from the camp, it will fight with the 

LXXV. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Administro 1. / man- detraho, xi, ctum .3. lucrum, i, n. gain, ad- 
age, to draw away, remove. vantage. 

perpetro 1. I perform, distraho, xi, ctum 3. existimatio, onis,/. c«- 

perpetrate. to draw asunder, timation, opinion. 

praesto, iti, itum or waste. obsessio, 6ms, f. siege. 

atum 1. (c. dat.) to tingo, xi, ctum 3. to faclnus, oris, n. deed, 

be superior to. color, form. foul deed. 

adduco 3. to lead to, elegantia, ae, /. ele- appetitus, us, m. desire, 

move. gance. " longing. 

como, compsi, comp- fortuna, ae, /. /orfwne ; diversus, a, um, diverse, 

tum 3. to comb, adorn. plur. gifts of fortune. different. 

consumo, mpsi, mptum ]uxuria, ae,f. luxury. finitlmus, a, um, neig-^- 

3. to consume. miseria, ae, f. misery, boring. 

conveho, xi, ctum 3. want. nitidus, a, um, splendid, 

to bear together, bring providentia, ae,f.fore- innumerabilis, e, rnnw- 

together. sight, providence. merable. 

destruo, xi, ctum 3. curriculum, i, n. circuit, tantopere, adv. so much, 
to destroy. course. 

Regere ratione! Ne angltor, amice! O cives, ne lucri cupiditate, 
sed virtutis studio regimlnor ! Animi appetitus ratione reguntor ! Ju- 
v^nis, litterarum morumque elegantia tinctus, omnibus placebit. Com- 
busta urbe, omnes cives maxima miseria vexantur. Romani multis 
rebus praeclare gestis summam sibi comparaverunt gloriam. Cofttemp- 
ta virtute, vita beata nulla est. Multi homines, omnibus fortunis per 
luxuriam consumptis et distractis, reliquam vitam miserrime agunt. 

Dempta omni sollicitudine, laetitiae indulgeamus ! Isocrates in di- 
Terso genere dicendi nitidus fuit et comptus. Aciem instructam dux 
contra hostes eduxit. Frumento ex finitlmis regionibus in urbem con- 
vecto, cives urbis obsessionem acquis animis exspectaverunt Caesar, 
contractis copiis in unum locum, hostium impetum exspectavit. Stric- 
to gladio, dux milites contra hostes eduxit. Urbs, obsidione cincta, 
multis malis urgetur. Gloria detracta, quid est, quod in hoc tam ex- 
igiio vitae curriculo tantis nos in laboribus exerceamus ? 

Si bona existimatio divitiis praestat, et pecunia tantopere expetitur ; 
quauto gloria magis est expeteuda ! Justitia propter sese colenda est. 
Certum est, universum mundum divina providentia regi et administrari. 
Quis ignorat, innumerabiles urbes a Romanis destruclas esse } Om- 

[^ 50 52. FOURTH CONJUGATION. 137 

nes sciunt, viros bonos nimquam spe mercedis adductum iri, ut facimis 
aliquod perpetrent. 

Be thou not conquered by the passions. Be ye governed by reason. 
Thou shouldst not be governed by the desire of gain, but by the pur- 
suit of virtue. You should not be troubled, friends. The divine law 
should not be despised. Parents should be honored by children. I 
hope that all solicitude will soon be taken away from thee. The ora- 
tions of Isocrates were splendid and adorned. The soldiers believed, 
that the troops of the enemies would be drawn together. The soldiers 
having been led out of the camp, fought (perf ) bravely with the ene- 
mies. In Homer, we see all things not described, but, as it were, 
painted out. Who does not know, that all the virtues are connected 
loith each other (inter se). I hope, that you will be led to my views. 

LXXVI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Degusto, 1. / taste. gestio 4. / demean my- m£nt ; plur. demen- 

contingo, tlgi, tactum self, am transported. tary principles. 

3. to touch ; contin- sepelio, ivi, ultum 4. aequltas, atis, /. equity. 

git, it falls to my lot. I inter, hury. jucunditas, atis, /. de- 

licet 2. it is permitted. servio 4. / serve. lightfulness, agreea- 

minuo, ui, utum 3. / di- iracundia, ae,/. irasd- hleness. 

minish, Tnake less. hility, anger. accuratus, a, um, accu- 

fastidio, 4. (c. ace.) / numerus, i, m. number ; rate. 

feel disgust, spurn. 2) harmony, rhythm, grammaticus, a, um, 

elementum, i, n. eZe- grammatical. 

F) Exercises to the Fourth Conjugation in Particular. 

Sic vive cum hominibus, tanquam deus videat ; et videt. Cave, ne 
tanquam parva fastidias grammatica elementa! Philosophiae servire 
debemus, ut nobis contingat vera libertas. Nullus dolor est, quem non 
longinquitas temporis minuat ac molllat. Nihil magis mihi curae est, 
quam ut obediam praeceptis magistrorum meorum. 

Quum milites nostri castra muniebant, hostes aciem instruebant. 
Dum urbem nostram custodiebamus, hostis eam oppugnare non aude- 
bat. Celeritas equltum nostrorum impediebat, quominus hostis se ad 
pugnam expediret. Quum milites ducem sepelirent, ingens luctus om- 
nium animos occupavit. Litterae tuae mihi tam gratae fuerunt, ut lae- 
titia plane gestirem. Semper operam navavimus, ut orationem nostram 
verborum numerorumque jucunditate condiremus. 

Nihil vos impedivimus, quominus negotia vestra finiretis. Nescivi, 
cur tantopere laetitia gestires. Scisne, cur hunc puerum puniv^rim? 
Nescio, unde hunc nuntium audiveritis. Dicam tibi, cur domum nos- 

138 FOURTH CONJUGATION. [§ 50 52. 

tram coronis ornaverinius et vestiverimus. Die, cur ferierltis hunc 

Placebas praeceptoribus tuis, quia semper eorum praeceptis obe- 
di^ras. Vix milites nostri castra munierant, quum hostis conspectus 
est. Jam laetitia gestieramus, quum repente tristissimus nuntius ani- 
mos nostros summo moerore opplevit Quum milites totum diem siti- 
vissent et esurivissent, ne nocte quidem quieti indulgere iis licuit. 
Quum hostis se ad pugnam expedivisset, milites nostri laetitia gestie- 

Non prius dormiam, quam negotia mea finivero. Quum exercitus 
castra muniverit, se ad pugnam expedlet. Si grammatica elementa 
fastidies, nunquam accuratam linguae Latinae cognitionem tibi compa- 
rabis. Si quid novi audiverimus, curabimus, ut brevi sciatis. Non 
dubitabam, quin, si semel philosophiam degustavisses, toto animo ei 
serviturus esses. Ne garri, puer! Audite, pueri: si praeceptoribus 
vestris obedieritis, a parentibus vestriiS praemiis ornabimini ! Puer obe- 
dito praeceptoribus ! Homo ne servito cupiditatibus ! Milites urbem 
custodiunto ! 

Puer, in scholis garriens, molestus est. Bonus discipiilus semper 
praeceptis magistrorum obedire studet. Quis nescit, Ciceronem toto 
animo philosophiae servisse ? Spero, vos grammatica elementa non 
esse fastidituros. Prohibenda est ira in puniendo. Optandum est, ut 
ii, qui praesunt rei publicae, legum similes sint, quae ad puniendum 
non iracundia, sed aequitate ducuntur. Legendi semper occasio est, 
audiendi non semper. 

Terra vestita est floribus, herbis, arboribus, frugibus. Urbs a militi- 
bus custoditor. Speramus, urbem a militibus custoditum iri. 

To good parents, nothing is a source of greater care [est with dat), 
than that they may instruct their children in (abl.) literature. Be on 
your guard, boy, that thou dost not chatter ! I punished the boy, be- 
cause he chattered. As the enemies were discovered, our soldiers 
were transported with (abl.) joy. So long as I was in school, I was 
anxious (= it was for a care to me), that I might obey the precepts of 
my teachers. Many with their whole soul, have given themselves up 
to (= served) philosophy. Often already has length of time abated 
the severest sufferings. We have kept in memory the precepts of our 

Tell me, whence thoigjgaaj^ heard this news. I doubt not, that the 
teachers have punished/lfejj^s with (abl.) justice. The soldiers had 
hungered and thirsted the whole day. Scarcely had our soldiers got 
ready for battle, when the enemies were discovered (perf .). As the 

§ 50 52.] FOURTH CONJUGATION. 139 

king entered into the city, all the citizens had adorned (^ clothed) the 
houses with flowers and garlands. The soldiers did not doubt, that the 
enemies had already fortified [their] camp. I knew not whence thou 
hadst heard this news. ^ 

The good will always obey the principles of virtue. Length of time 
will abate thy suflTering. The precepts of our teachers are always 
kept in (abl.) remembrance. When you shall have heard this news, 
you will be transported with joy. If we shall always have obeyed the 
principles of virtue, the approach to heaven will stand open to us. 

Serve wisdom, not the passions. Do not chatter, boys. Thou 
shouldst not rage against [in c. ace.) the enemies, O soldier. You 
should obey [your] teachers and parents. The scholar should keep 
the principles of his teacher in remembrance. Men should not serve 
their passions. The boys, who chatter (part.) in school, are troublesome 
to the teacher. Soldiers ought (oportet) to guard the city. I hope that 
length of time will abate thy suffering. Hast thou heard, that the 
enemies have fortified the camp ? We come in order to (sup. in um) 
guard the city. A thoughtless boy is difficult to instruct (sup. in u). 
We must (gerund) serve virtue. 




§ 53. DEPO 

Of the four 

1. Hortor, hoxXatus sum, hortdri. 
Characteristic : a long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 
hortor, I exhort horte-r, I may ex- 
hoxid-ris^ thou ex- horte-ri5(e), thou 

hortest. mayest exhort 

hortd-iwr, he, she, horte-fwr, he, she, 

it exhorts it may exhort 

hortd-mwr, we ex- hortc-wmr, we may 


hortd-?»?wf , you ex- 

horta-ntwr, they ex- 

horte-rn?ni, you 

may exhort 
horte-Kiitr, they 

may exhort. 

II. Imperfect. 
hortd-^dr, I exhort- hortd-rer, I might 

II. Vereor, vexltus sum, vereri. 
Characteristic : e long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

vereor, I rever- 

verc-ri5, thou rev- 

vere-fwr, he, she, 
it reverences 

yere-mur^ we rev- 

vere-mini, you rev- 

\ere-nlur^ they rev- 

vere-dr, I may rev- 

verg-dHs(c) thou 
mayest rev. 

vere-diar, he, she, 
it may reverence 

veve-dmur, we may 

vere-dw^ni.) you 
may- reverence 

vere-antur, they 
may rev-erence. 

II. Imperfect. 

ed, was exhorting exhort 
hoTtd-bdris{e), thou horid-rer1.s(e), thou 

exh., wast exh. mightest exhort 
hortd-^dZwr,he, she, hortd-reiwr, he,she, 

it exh., was exh. it might exhort 
hortd-^dmur, w ' hortd-rcr/mr, we 

exh., were exh. might exhort 
hortd-^/drnint, you hortd-remiwi, you 

exh., were exh. might exhort 
hortd-bantur, they horidrentur, they 

exh., were exh. might exhort. 
III. Future [Indicative). ^ 
hortd-bor, I shall exhort 
hortd-bSris{e), thou wilt exhort 
horid-bitur^ he, she, it will exhort 
hortd-bimur., we shall exhort 
hoi id- biminii^ you will exhort 
hortd-buntur, they will exhort. 


a) Indicative 

vere-iflr, I reveren- 
ced, was rev. 
yere-bdris(e), thou 
reverenc'dst,wast r 
vere-bdtur, he, she, 

it rev. was rev. 
vere-bdmur^we rev. 

were rev. 
vere-bdmini^ you 

rev. were rev. 

\ere-bantur., they 

rev. were rev. 

III. Future (Indicative).^ 
yere-bor, I shall reverence 
yere-beris{e), thou wilt reverence 
yere-bitvr^ he, she, it will reverence 
yere-bimur, we shall reverence 
yere-himlni, you will reverence 
vere-buntur., they will reverence. 

vere-rcr, I might 

yeTe-reris{e) thou 

mightest rev. 
vere-retur, he, she, 

it might rev. 
vere-rcmwr, we 

might reverence 
yeie-rem1,ni, you 

might reverence 
yere-rentur, they 

might reverence. 










sum, I have exhorted veri-tus 

es, thou hast exhorted a, 

est, he, she, it has exhorted um 

sumus, we have exhorted veri-ti, 

cstls, you have exhorted ae, 

sunt, they have exhorted a 
b) Subjunctive. 

sIm, I may have exhorted 
sis, thou mayest have ex. 
sV, he, she, it may have ex. 
simus, we may have exhorted 
sltls, you may have exhorted 
sint, they may have exhorted. 







sum, I have reverenced 
es, thou hast reverenced 
est, he, she, it has reverenced 
sumus, we have reverenced 
estis, you have reverenced 
sunt, they have reverenced 

sim, I may have reverenced 
sis, thou mayest have rev. 
sit, he, she, it may have rev 
simus, we may have rev. 
sitis, you may have rev. 
sint, they may have rev. 






Fungor, funcfu5 sum, fungi. 
Characteristic : c short. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

I. Present. 

fung-or, I manage 

fung-er?5, thou 

inng-ltur^ he, she, 

it manages 
fung-^mwr, we 

fung-imtni, you 

fung-Mwf r/r, they 


fung-ar,I may man- 

fung-ari5(c), thou 
mayest manage 

fung-afwr, he, she, 
it may manage 

fung-am^r, we 
may manage 

fung-dwim, you 
may manage 

fung-aniwr, they 
may manage. 

11. Imperfect. 

fung-ebar, I man- 
aged, was m. 

managedst,was m. 

itm., was m, 
fung-ebdmur^ we 

managed, were m. 
fvLng-ebdvUni, you 

managed, were m. 
fung-ebantur, they 

managed, were m. 

111. Future (^Indicative. y 
fung-ar, I shall manage 
fung-m5(c), thou wilt manage 
fung-etur, he, she, it will manage 
fung-cmur, we shall manage 
fung-e^mm, you will manage 
fung-cTifMr, they will manage. 

fung-erer, I might 

fung-erer is(e), thou 

mightest manage 
f ung-ereiMr,he, she, 

it, might manage 
fung-eremr/r, we 

might manage 
fung-^rer/i?/ii, you 

might manage 
fung-ercreiwr, they 

might manage. 

IV. Partior, pdniitus sum, parttri. 
Characteristic : t long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
1. Present. 

part?-or, 1 divide 

parti-ri5, thou di- 

parti-^«r, he, she, 
it divides 

partt-rnur, we di- 

partl-mTni, you di- 

]^a.r ti-untur, they 

parti-or, 1 may di- 

parti-dm(e), thou 
mayest divide 

parti-d^M7-, he, she, 
it may divide 

parti-d77mr, we 
may divide 

psLxii-dmlniy you 
may divide 

parti-aniur, they 
may divide. 

II. Imperfect. 


part?-c6a?',ldivided, parti-rer, 1 

was dividing divide 

parti-e^ttri5(e),thou partt-rem(c), thou 

dividedst, was d. mightest divide 
part?-e^dZur-,he,she, parti-reZwr, he, she, 

it divided, was d. it might divide 
psLTii-ebdmur, we parti-rewwr, we 

divided, were d. might divide 
psiTii-ebdmlni, you parti-rernJm, you 

divided, were d. might divide 
pdiTti-ebantur, they parti-rentur, they 

divided, were d, might divide. 
III. Future (Indicative.)^ 
part?-dr, 1 shall divide 
parti-eri5(c), thou wilt divide 
parti-c^wr, he, she, it will divide 
parti-C7«Mr, we shall divide 
parti-cmim", you will divide 
parti-cnfur, they will divide. 
IV. Perfect. 
a) Indicative. 














5M771, I have managed 
65, thou hast managed 
est^ he, she, it has managed 
sumus, we have managed 
estis^ you have managed 
sunt, they have managed. 

b) Subjunctive. 
sim, 1 may have managed 
sis, thou mayest have m. 
sit, he, she, it may have m. 
simus, we may have m. 
sitis, you may have managed 
sint, they may have managed. 











sum, I have divided 
es, thou hast divided 
est, he, she, it has divided 
sumus, we have divided 
estis, you have divided 
sunt, they have divided. 

sim, 1 may have divided 
sis, thou mayest have divided 
sit, he, she, it may have d. 
simus, we may have divided 
sitis, you may have divided 
sint, they may have divided. 












V. Pluperfect. 

a) Indicative. 
erdm^ I had exhorted veri-tus, 

irds., thou hadst exhorted a, 

^rdt., he, she, it had exhorted um 

Srdmus, we had exhorted veri-ti, 

erdtis^ you had exhorted ae, 

erant, they had exhorted a 

b) Subjunctive. 

essem, J might have exhorted veri-tus, 

esses, thou mightesthave ex. a, 

e5se/,he,she,it might have ex. um 

essemus, we might have ex. veri-ti, 

essetis, you might have ex. ae, 

essent, they might have ex. a 


eram, I had reverenced 
eras, thou hadst reverenced 
erat, he, she, it had rev. 
eramus, we had reverenced 
eratis, you had reverenced 
erant, they had reverenced. 

essem, 1 might have rev. 
esses, thou mightest have rev. 
es5c<,he,she,it might have re V. 
essemus, we might have rev, 
essetis, you might have rev, 
essent, they might have rev 

to will 

horta-tus, Sro, I shall have exhorted 
a, erts, thou wilt have exhorted 
um erit, he, she, it will have ex. 
horta-ti, erimus, we shall have ex. 
ae, eritls, you w ill have exhorted 
a irunt, they will have ex. 

hortd-re, exhort thou 
hoxid-t6r, thou shouldest exhort 
horid-tor, he, she, it should exhort 
hortd-m?nl, exhort ye 
hoxtd-minor, you should exhort 
hortd-nfor, they should exhort. 

Pres. hortd-rl, to exhort 
Perf. hoxid-tus, d, ww, esse, to 

Fut. hortd-turus, d, um 

exhort^, (that one) will exhort, 
Pres. horia-ns, exhorting 
Perf. hortd-«w5, d, um, having exhorted 
Fut. 1) Act. hovXd-lurus, d, um, intend- 
ing, wishing, about to exhort 
Fut. 2) Pass, horiandus, d, um, what 
should be exhorted. 
N. horta-7irfi/.m est, one (we) must ex. 
G. horia-ndi, of exhorting, to exhort 
D. horia-ndo, to exhorting, to exhort 
A. horla-ndam (e. g. a</),exhorang, 

to exhort 
A. horta-nrfo, by exhorting. 

Ace. hoxid-tum, in order to exhort 
Abl. hortd-iw, to exhort, be exhorted. 

Future Perfect {Indicativey 



ero, I shall have reverenced 
eris, thou wilt have rev. 
erit, he, she, it will have rev 
erimus, we shall have rev. 
eritis, you will have rev. 
erunt, they will have rev. 
vere-re, reverence thou 
vere-^or, thou shouldest reverence 
\ere-tor, he, she, it should reverence 
vere-mlni, reverence ye 
vere-mlnor, you should reverence 
veve-ntor, they should reverence. 

Pres. vere-ri, to reverence 
Perf. ver-Uus, a, um, esse, to have rev- 

Fut. veH-turus, a, um, esse, to will 
reverence'^, (that onej will rev. 
Pres. were-ns, reverencing ' 
Perf. yerl-tus, a, um, having reverenced 
Fut. 1) Act. weri-turus, a, um, intend- 
ing, wishing, about to reverence 
Fut. 2) Pass, vere ndus, a, um, what 
should be reverenced. 

Gerund. ! 

N. vere-ndum est, one (we) must rev. 
G. yexe-ndi, of reverencing, to rev. 
D. vere-ndo, to reverencing, to rev. 
A. vere-ndum (e. g. ad), reverencing, 

to reverence 
A. vexe-ndo, by reverencing. 

Ace. vexi-tum, in order to reverence 
Abl. reverence, be reverenced. 

I) The Subjunctive of both the futures is wanting. See Remark 1) and 2) to $ 50.— 2) Set 
















eram^ I had managed 
eras^ thou hadst managed 
erat^ he, she, it had managed 
eramus^ we had managed 
eratis, you had managed 
erantj they had managed 

V. Pluperfect. 
a) Indicative. 





b) Subjunctive. 

essem, 1 might have managed 
esses, thou mightest have m. 
esset, he,she, it might have m 
essemus, we might have m. 
esscds, you might have m. 
essentj they might have m. 






eram, I had divided 
eras, thou hadst divided 
erat, he, she, it had divided 
eramus, we had divided 
eratis, you had divided 
erant, they had divided. 

esserrij 1 might have divided 
esses^ thou mightest have d. 
esset, he,she, it might have d. 
esseinus, we might have d. 
essetis, you might have d. 
essent, they might have d. 

VI. Future Perfect (Indicative). 


func-tus, !cro, I shall have managed 
a, eris, thou wilt have managed 
um erit, he, she, it will have man. 
func-ti, erimuSj we shall have man. 
ae, eritis, you will have man. 
a erunt, they will have man. 
fung-^rc, manage thou 
fung-itor, thou shouldest manage 
fung-i^or, he, she, it should manage 
i'ung-imini, manage ye 
fung-trnmor, you should manage 
i'ung-untor, they should manage. 

Pres. fung-z, to manage 
Perf. func-<M5, a, um, esse, to have 

Fut. {yxnc-turus, a, um, esse, to will 
manage^, (that one) will man. 
Pres. fung-ens, managing 
Perf. func-fw5, a, um, having managed 
Fut. 1) Jict. func-tiirus, a, um,, intend- 
ing, wishing, about to manage 
Fut. 2) Pass, fnng-endus, a, um, what 
should be managed. 
N. fang-endum est, one (we) must m- 
G. fung-cfidi, of managing, to manage 
D. fung-ewrfo, to managing, to manage 
A. fying-endum (e. g. ad), managing, 

to manage 
A. fung-ewdo, by managing. 

Ace. func-^wm, in order to manage 
Ml. func-«M, to manage, be managed. 

cmark 4) to $ 50. 

partl-tus, ero, 1 shall have divided 
a, eris, thou wilt have divided 
um crit, he, she, it will have d 
partl-ti, erimus, we shall have divided 
ae, eritis, you will have divided 
a erunt, they will have divided 

parti-re, divide thou 
parii-tur, thou shouldest divide 
pa.rti-tor, he, she, it should divide 
pa,rti-mlni, divide ye 
parti-mwior, you should divide 
psitti-untor, they should divide. 

Pres. partl-ri, to divide 
Perf. partt-tus, a, um, esse, to have 

Fut. pa.rti-t1irus, a, um, esse, to will 
divide^, (that one) will divide. 
Pres. pdiTii-ens, dividing 
Peif. partl-iM5, a, um, having divided 
Fut. 1) Act. pa.rii-turus, a, um, intend 

ing, wishing, about to divide 
Fut. 2) Pass, pairii-endus, a, um, what 
should be divided. 
N. pa.Yii-endum est, one (we) must d 
G. pa.rVi-endi, of dividing, to divide 
D. part?-e«rfo, to dividing, to divide 
A. pavtl-cndum, (e. g. ad.), dividing 

to divide 
A. parti-cnrfo, by dividing. 

Ace. partl-iMw, in order to divide 
Abl. parti-fM, to divide, be divided. 


LXXVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Admiror ] . / admire. conor 1. / attempt, ven- somnium, i, n. dream, 

aspernor 1. I spurn. ture. pulcliritudo, inis, /. 

comltor 1. 1 accompany, interpreter 1. / iriter- beauty. 

contemplor 1. /confem.- pret. demum, adv. Jirstf at 

plate, consider. consigno 1. 1 point out. length. 


Quis non admiretur splendorem pulchritudinemque virtutis ? Dux 
milites hortatus est, ut hostium aciem pertubare conarentur. Jam hos- 
tes urbem oppugnare conati erant, quum repente a civibus propulsati 
sunt. Turn demum beatus eris, quum aspernatus eris voluptatem. Con- 
templamlnor praeclara virtutis exempla, quae in historia consignata 
sunt! Venio te comitatum in hortum. Somnia difficilia sunt inter- 

We admire the splendor and the beauty of virtue. The general ex- 
horted the soldiers, that they should attempt to throw the line of 
battle of the enemies into confusion. I have accompanied the brother 
into the garden. The enemies have ventured to assault the city. Thou 
shouldst contemplate the noble examples of virtue, which are pointed 
out in history. The citizens apprehended, that the enemies might as- 
sault the city. I doubt not, that thou hast interpreted the dream right- 
ly. Tell me, why thou hast not accompanied the father into the gar- 

LXXVI]I. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Fateor, fassus sum, fa- aggredior,gressus, gre- labor, lapsus sum, labi 

teri 2. to acknowledge, di 3. to attack. 3. to glide, fall. 

admit. expergiscor, perrectus loquor, locutus sum, 

tueor 2. I keep, protect. sum 3. to awaken. loqui 3. to speak. 

intueor 2. / look upon, fruor, fructus or frui- morior, mortuus sum, 

contemplate. tus sum, frui 3. (c. mori 3. to die (part, 

misereor, misertus or abl.) to enjoy (part. fut. moriturus). 

ritus sum, misereri fnX.. fruiturus). sequor, secutus sum, 

2. [c. gen) to pity. fungor, functus sum, sequi 3. (c. ace.) to 
polliceor 2. 1 promise. fungi 3. (c- abl.) to follow. 

abator, usus sum, uti administer. inops, opis, destitute. 

3. (c. abl.) to abuse. irascor, iratus sum 3. audacter, adv. boldly, 
adipiscor, adeptus sum to be angry. confidently. 

3. to obtain. 


Artes se ipsae tuentur. Semper miserorum hominum miserebimur, 
Veremini, o pueri, senectutem ! Fatetor, o puer, verum ! Miseremi- 
nor inopum ! Discipuli verentor praeceptores. Non dubito, quin tuura 
praesidium mihi polliciturus sis. Cum magna voluptate intuemur prae* 
clara virtutis exempla, quae in historia consignata sunt. 

Quis nescit, quam miilti eloquentia abutantur ? Per rnultos annoa 
pace fruiti sumus. Omnes cives metuunt, ne hostes urbem aggredian- 
tur. Simulatque experrecti sumus, ad negotia nostra accedimus. Ci- 
ves, libertatem adepti, sumraa laetitia fruentur. Succurre lapsia^ 
Tani audacter cum amico loquere, quam tecum. Ne irasciminor iis, 
quos amare debetis ! Si virtutis viam semper sequemur, aditus in coe- 
lum aliquando nobis patebit. Munere tuo bene fungere. Metuo, ne 
amicus moriatur. 

The arts themselves will always protect themselves. I doubt not, 
that thou wilt always pity the poor. Reverence, O boy, old age ! The 
rich should pity the destitute. You should acknowledge the truth 
(==what is true,) O boys! A good scholar will always reverence his 
teacher. I doubt not, that thou hast promised thy protection to the 
destitute friend. Contemplate ye the noble examples of virtue, which 
are pointed out in history. Many have abused eloquence. We desire 
(opto), that we may enjoy peace. All the citizens apprehended, that 
the enemies might attack the city. You are fallen. You should speak 
with a friend as confidently, as with yourselves. Thou shouldst not be 
angry with those, whom thou oughtest to love. I doubt not, that thou 
wilt always follow the way of virtue. All know, how well thou hast 
always managed thy office. 

LXXIX. Words to be learned and Eoixrcises for translation. 

Dilabor, lapsus sum, ficisci 3. to depart, mentior 4. / Zie. 

labi 3. to go to ruin. proceed, march. metior, mensus sum, 

obliviscor, litus sum, li- assentior, sensus sum metiri 4. to measure. 

visci 3. (c. gen. and 4. to assent to. decet 2. (c. ace. pers.) 

ace.) to forget. blandior 4. I fatter. it is ft. 

obsequor, secutus sum, experior, pertus sum modestia, ae,/. modesty.. 

sequi 3. to comply 4. to try. umbra, ae,/. shade. 

with, obey. largior 4. / give freely, commendatio, onis, /. 
proficiscor, fectus sum, bestow. commendation. 

Quum aegrotus es, obsequi debes praeceptis medici. Stulti aliorum 
vitia cernunt, obliviscuntur suorum. Prima pueri commendatio profi- 
ciscitur a modestia. Concordia res parvae erescunt, discordia maximae 
dilabuntur. Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur. 



Ne blandire malis hominibus ! Puer, lie mentitor ! Natura honiini- 
bus multa bona largita est. Magnos homines virtute metimur, non for- 
tuna. Voluptasblanditursensibusnostris. Postquam orator orationem 
finivit, omnes ejus sententiae assensi sunt. Omnia prius experiri verbis, 
quam armis, sapientem decet. 

I doubt not, that thou wilt obey me. We shall never forget thee. 
Tell me, why thy father has proceeded to (in) Italy. We feared, 
that by (abl.) discord the resources (opes) of the citizens might go to 
ruin. Boys, you should not lie ! Who does not know, how often the 
discourse of men deceives (== lies)! Measure men according to (abl.) 
virtue, not according to fortune. Always follow the way of virtue. 

a) Deponents of the First Conjugation. 

LXXX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adulor I. (c. dat. or opitulor 1 . / Zenrf mW. libido, inis,y'.wnre5irain- 

acc.) IJlatter. recorder 1. (generally ed desire, caprice. 

arbitror \. I think. with ace.) I remem- eventus, us, m. event 

auspicor 1. / commence. her. libens, tis, delighted. 

auxilior 1. / ai</. innocentia, ae,y! inTio- aliquando, adv. some- 
dominor 1. 1 reign. cence. time. 

mod6ror I.e. dat. Imod- angor, oris, m. vexation, aliter, adv. otherwise, 

eraie; c. ace. govern. rite, adv. properly. 

Boni viri non voluptate, sed officio consilia moderantur. Homo im- 
probus aliquando cum dolore flagi^ sua recordabltur. Socrates totius 
mundi se incolam et civem arbitrabatur. Disce libens : quid dulcius est, 
quam discere multa? Discentem comitantur opes, comitantur hono- 
res. Ubi libido dominatur, innocentiae leve praesidium est. Eventus 
fallit, quum aliter accidit, atque homines arbitrati sunt. Atticus poten- 
ti Antonio non est adulatus. Nihil rite sine dei immortahs ope, con- 
silio, honore auspicab^re. 

LXXXI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Aemulor 1. (c. ace.)/ cunctor 1. /rfeZa?/. veneror 1. /revere. 

emulate. imltor 1. (c. ace.) I im- venor 1. I hunt. 

auguror 1. 1 divine, fore- itate. occulto 1. / conceal. 

tell. jocor 1. I jest. rivulus, i, m. stream. 

aversor I. I turn from, laetor 1. (c. abl.) Ire- majores, urn, ancestors. 

shun. joice. mediocris, e, moderate. 

consector 1. 1 pursue, precor 1. / entreat. quotidie, adv. daily. 


Venerare deum, venerare parentes. Virtutes majorum aemulamini, 
vJtia eorum aversamini ! In silvis venator venatur lepores ; in scholia, 
pueri, venainini lepores ! Ubi res bona Iractanda est, ne cunctator ! 
Discipuli bonos condiscipulos imitantor, malos aversantor. Quotidie, 
puer, precator a deo immortali, ut servet tibi tuos parentes ! Tardi in- 
genii est, rivulos conseclari, fontes rerum non videre. Nulla re tam 
laetari soleo, quain meorum officiorum conscientia. In ira moderari 
animo et orationi, non mediocris ingenii est. Nescisne, Socratem in 
carcere paucis diebus ante mortem jocatum esse ? Quis speret, se au- 
guraturum esse ea, quae menti humanae a deo sunt occultata. 

L XX XII Words to he learned and Exercises for transition. 

Adhortor 1. /encottrag-e, insidior 1. I lie in wait immodestus, a, uni,im- 

exhort. for. modest, 

cohortoxl. I encourage, suspicor 1. / suspect, ingenuus, a, um, noft/e- 
exhortor 1. / encour- conjecture, born, dignified. 

age, exhort. vagor \. I wander. profusus, a, um, unre- 

consolor 1. / console. praecludo 3. / dose. strained. 

consplcor J. I discover, temperantia, &e,f. tern- nemo non, every one. 

sex. [late, perance, moderation, excors, cordis, senseless. 

gratulor 1. / congi'atu- aper, pri, m. wild boar, admodum, adv. very. 
indignor 1. (with ace. legatus, i. m. ambassa- aperte,ac?v. openly. 

or de with abl.) lam dor. nequicquam, adv. in 

dissatisfied with some- facetus, a, um, delicate, vain, to no effect. 

thing. witty. 

Aperte adulantem nemo non vidit, nisi qui admodum est excors. 
Menti nihil est tam inimicum, quam voluptas ; nee enim, libidine domi- 
nante, temperantiae locus est. Caesar, cohortatus milites, ut acrlter 
contra hostes dimicarent, urbem oppugnavit. Aliorum miseriam con- 
solaturi exempla laudare debemus viprum fortlum, qui in acerbissimis 
fortunae tormentis non sunt indignati sortem suam. Genus jocandi non 
profusum, nee immodestum, sed ingenuum et facetum esse debet. A 
venatore insidiandum est apris. Multi legati congregati sunt in urbem 
ad gratulandum nobis de recuperata libertate. Quern neque gloria, ne- 
que pericula excitant, nequicquam hortere : timor animi aures praeclu- 
dit. Narra, ubi per tam longum tempus vagatus sis. Non dubitabam, 
quin hujus hominis consuetudmem aversatus esses. Non dubito, quin, 
istum adolescentem conspicatus, continuo de ejus ingenio praeclarum 
quiddam suspicaturus sis. 

We rejoice at.(abl.) the joy of friends in like nmnner (aequae) as (ac) 
at our own (= ourg), and grieve in like manner at [their] grief 
(=s vexations). Be convinced that thou art dear to me, but that thou 


wilt be much (miilto) dearer, if thou wilt rejoice in good principles. 
^-vThe example of the leader encouraged (perf.) the soldiers, that they 
might imitate him. I doubt not, that thou wilt ever assist the good, 
[but] wilt shun the bad. I doubted not, that he would sometime remem- 
ber his foul deeds (ace.) with pain. Flatter thou not a powerful [man] ! 
Be convinced that you will commence nothing properly without the 
aid, counsel [and] honor of God. I exhort thee, that thou shouldst im- 
itate good men, [but] shun the bad. Relate to me, why thou hast been 
dissatisfied with thy fortune. I doubted not that the enemies had 
lain in wait for thee. 

When thou pursuest history, O boy, thou shouldst contemplate both 
the examples of virtue and of vice, and emulate those, [but] shun these. 
In a good thing, thou shouldst not delay. The rich should lend aid to 
the destitute. The soldiers hasten, in order to lend aid (sup.) to us 
against the enemies. When evil desires reign (abl. abs.), there is no 
(= not) place for (dat.) virtue. 

b) Deponents of the Second Conjugation. 
LXXXIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Confiteor, fessus sum reor, ratus sum, reri, venia, ae,/ pardon. 

2. to confess. 2. to think. exemplar, aris, n. pat- 

profiteor, fessus sum 2. dublto 1. c. inf I hesi- tern, model. 

to acknowledge freely, tale, entertain scru- c«mctus, a, um, all 

promise. pies. (combined), whole. 

medeor (without perf.) impetro 1. I obtain. inanis, e, empty, vain. 

c. dat. to cure, rem- imploro 1. I implore. cito, adv. quickly ; ci- 

edy. informo 1. / instruct. tins, more quickly^ 

mereor, Itus sum 2. to nego 1. I deny. more easily. 

deserve; dealiquare, trado, didi, ditum 3. to liberaliter, adv. freely. 

to deserve of som^e- deliver vp, give up to. nondum, adv. not yet. 

thing. malitia, ae, f. wicked- penitus, adv.thoroughly^ 
ness. wholly. 

Vix peccatum tuum fassus eras, quum pater tui misertus est. Jam 
te errasse confessus eras, quum denuo negasti. Nondum vestrum auxi- 
lum imploraveramus, quum jam id nobis professi estis. Vix inopiam 
nostram fassi eramus, quurn liberalissime vestrum praesidinm nobis 
polliciti estis. 

Magna est vis philosophiae, quum medetur animis, inanes sollicitudi- 
nes detrahit, cupiditatibus liberal. Artes magnum nobis praebent prae- 
sidinm, quum se ipsae per se tuentur «ingulae. Praeclare de patria 
merentuf ^jraeceptores, quum juventutem bonarum litterarum studiis 


Rule of Syntax. When the conjunction quum expresses a sup- 
posed ground and may be translated by the causal since (seeing that,) 
or although, it is connected with the subjunctive. (Comp. Synt. 110, 1.) 

Quum philosophia animis mededtur, totos nos penitusque ei tradSre 
debemus. Omnes miserebantur vestri, quum non propter mahtiam, sed 
propter fortunam in miseriis essetis. Quum mihtes periciila verereniur^ 
non audebant cum Iiostibus confligere. Quum is, qui verum amicum 
intuetur, tanquam exemplar aliquod intuedtur sui ; talem amicum aeque 
ac nosmet ipsos amare debemus. Avarus, quum in omnium rerum 
affluentia sit, fatebiturne, se esse satiatum ? Quum, virtutem satis in 
se praesidii habere ad vitam beatam, /a/edre; etiam confiteb^re, sapien- 
tem in cruciatibus beatum esse. Id si confessus eris, non dttblto, quin 
professurus sis, sapientem in omni vitae conditione beatum esse. 

When we freely acknowledge our guilt, we more easily obtain par- 
don. Since you have acknowledged, that virtue may have in itself 
sufficient of (gen.) protection for a happy life, you will also confess, 
that the wise [man] may be happy under (in) tortures ; and when 
you shall have confessed this, I doubt not, that you will freely acknow- 
ledge, that the wise [man] is happy in every condition of life. Scarce- 
ly had I acknowledged my fault to thee, as I obtained (perf ) pardon 
from thee. Thou hast acquired for thyself great praise, inasmuch as 
(quum) thou hast pitied the destitute citizens. 

Miserere nostri! Medemlnor, O cives, inopiae nostrae! Suum 
quisque tuetor munus. Nemo, cunctam intuens terram, de divina pro- 
videntia dubitabit. Cives, hostes urbem oppugnaturos esse, rati, eos 
acriter propulsare studuerunt. Venio meum praesidium tibi pollicitu- 
rus. Omnibus modis a vobis inopiae civium medendum est. Adol- 
escentis officium est, majores natu vereri. Quis nescit, te praeclare de 
republica meritum esse ? Spero, te mei miserturum esse. 

Reverence, O boy, old age ! Pity ye me ! Thou shouldst cure the 
want of others. The scholar should reverence his teacher. Shall we, 
when we contemplate (= contemplating) the whole earth, doubt as to 
(de) the foresight of God ? Thinking (part. perf.), that thou hast prom- 
ised me thy protection, I have not hesitated to undertake (accedere) the 
business. Believe me, who will freely acknowledge (part, fut.) what is 
true ! Thou must remedy (Ger.)the want of thy friend. I hope, that 
thou wilt promise to me thy protection. It is beautiful, to remedy the 
want of others. Who does not know, that Cicero deserved nobly of 
the Roman state ^ 



c) Deponents of the third Conjugation. 
LXXXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Complector, plexus adnitor 3. 1 endeavor, reddo, didi, ditum 3. to 
«um, plecti 3. to em- exert myself. restore ; 2) to make, 

hrace. paciscor, pactus sum, gratia, ae f. thank. 

congredior, gressus pacisci 3. to make an angulus, i. m. corner. 
sum, gredi 3. to en- agreement. philosophus, i, m. phi- 
gage, reverter, pf. reverti, losopher. 

nascor, natus sum, nas- part, reversus, inf. pestis, is, /. pest, de- 
ci 3. to be born, to reverti 3. to return. siriiction. 

spring from, (part, ulciscor, ultus sum, ul- semen, mis, n. seed. 

fut. nasciturus). cisci 3. (c. ace.) to visum, i, n. appearance. 

innascor 3. to be in- avenge one^s self on detestabilis, e, detesta- 
born, implanted. one. ble. 

nitor, uixus or nisus cuumlo \. 1 heap, load, superior, us, superior; 

«um, urti 3. (c. abl.), persevero 1. I continue. conqueror. 

io rest upon ; 2) ad discedo, cessi, cessum quotiescunque, conj. 
aliquid, to strive after 3. to go away, depart. however often, 

Salus hominum non veritate solum, sed eliam fama nititur. Gives, 
cum hostibus pacti, pace fruiti sunt. Deum et divinum animum cogi- 
tatione complectimur. Lacte, carne multisque aliis rebus vescimur. 
Ne ulciscimini inimicos vestros ! Romani Numidis poUiciti sunt, si 
perseverarent bello urgere Carthaginienses, se adnisuros esse, ut bene 
cumulatam gratiam redderent. Nemo parum diu vixit, qui virtutis per- 
fectae perfecto functus est munere. Simulatque experrecti sumus, visa 
in somnio contemnlmus. Aristoteles, Theophrastus, Zeno, innumera- 
biles alii philosophi nunquam domum reverterunt. Nulla tam detes- 
tabilis est pestis, quae non homini ab homine nascatur. Non sum uni 
angulo natus : patria mea totus hie est mundus. Sunt ingeniis nostris 
semina innata virtutum. Hannibal, quotiescunque cum Romanis con- 
gressus est in Italia, semper discessit superior. 

LXXXV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Defetiscor, fessus sum, patior, passus sum, pati stultitia, ae,y!/o%. 

fetisci 3. to be weary, 3. to suffer. dominus, i, m. lord, 

tired out. excedo, cessi, cessum master. \ter, 

elabor, lapsus sum, la- 3. (c. abl) to retire. proelium, i, n. encoun- 

bi 3. to glide away. tendo, tetendi, tentum diuturnitas, at\s,f.long 

enitor, nisus or nixus 3. to stretch out ; ad continuance. 

sum, niti 3. to exert aliquid, to strive after vicinitas, atis, /. neigh- 
one's self. something. borhood. 


ne£a:s{indecl.),n. wrong, quo, adv. whither. gentium, wherever in 

proprius, a, um (c.gen.), ubicunque, adv. wher- the world, 
one's oivn, peculiar. ever; ubicunque. 

Optimi cujusque animus maxime ad immortalem gloriam nititur. 
Hostes, diuturnitate pugnae defessi, proelio excedebant. Qui virtutem 
adeptus erit, ubicunque erit gentium, a nobis diligetur. Avida est pe- 
riculi virtus, et, quo tendat, non quid passura sit, cogitat. Augustus 
domlnum se appellari non est passus. Animalia alia sunt rationis ex- 
pertia, alia ratione utentia. Animo elapso, corpus nihil valet. Valet 
apud nos clarorum hominum memoria, etiam mortuorum. Reg- 
ia res est, succurrere lapsis. Proprium est stultiliae, aliorum vitia 
cernere,. oblivisci suorum. Ut plurimis prosimus, eniti debemus. 
Irasci iis nefas est, quos amare debemus. Amicitiae, consuetu dines, 
vicinitates quid habeant voluptatis, carendo magis intelligimus, quam 
fruendo. Juveni parandum, seni utendum est. Suo cuique judicio 
utendum est. 

L XX XVI. Words to be learned and JElxercises for translation. 

Ingredior, gressus sum, accuso 1. / complain of, usitatus, a, um, usual, 

gredi 3. (c. ace.) I go accuse. common, 

into, enter, enter upon, deflagro 1. / hum up diu, adv. long time ; 

perfungor, functus (intrans.). diutius, longer. 
sum, fungi 3. (e. abl.) vices plur. {gen. not intemperanter, adv. in- 
to pass through. used,) f. vidsitudes. temperately, without 

persequor, cutus sum, perexiguus, a, um, very moderation. 

sequi 3. to pursue. small. plerumque, adv. gen- 

All wish, that they may reach (adipisci) old age, but when they have 
reached {== having reached), they complain of it. The soldiers tired 
out by the long march, gave themselves up to rest. Boys, you should 
follow the example of the good. We have enjoyed a long-continued 
peace. Common things escape easily from the memory, remarkable 
and new things remain longer. Many abuse without moderation 
leisure and literature. Those appear to me to have lived happily, to 
whom it has been permitted to enjoy the praise of wisdom. We favor 
those, who have entered upon the very same dangers which we have 
passed through. All strive after joy, but many do not know, whence 
they may obtain permanent (stabilis, e) and great joy. Alexander pur- 
sued (perf.) the enemies eagerly. Fortune is not merely blind itselfj 
but it generally makes those blind also, whom it embraces. Man is 
not born for himself alone, but for his country and for his [friends], 
so that (ut) a very small part is left to himself. The condition of 


mortals has such (is) vicisitudes, that adversity (res adversae) springs 
from prosperity (res secundae), and prosperity from adversity. He 
lives the best, who obeys the law^s not on account of fear, but follow^s 
them, because he thinks that this may be most salutary. In (abl.) the 
very same night in vs^hich Alexander w^as born, the temple of the 
Ephesian (Ephesius, a. um) Diana burned up. 

d) Deponents of the fourth Conjugation. 

LXXXVII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Potior 4. (c. abl.) I pos- tempt), which fol- calor, oris, m. kta^t. 

sess myself of. lows throughout the frons, tis, /. forehead. 

opperior, pertus sum, fourth Conj. praeparatio, onis, /. 

periri 4. to mvait. coorior 4. / arise, break preparation. 

ordior or exordior, or- out, break forth. vultus, us, m. expres- 

sus sum, ordiri 4. exorior 4. / appear, sion, countenance. 

to begin. spring from, arise. privatus, a, um, priva/c. 

orior, ortus sum, oriri demolior 4. / demolish, ferox, 6c\s, ferce. 

4. to spring from, rise eblandior 4. / obtain by necesse est (c. sub- 

from ; part. fut. ori- flattery. junctive or c. ace. et 

turus (not orturus); praeloquor, locutus inf.), it is necessary. 

the Ind. Pres. fol- sum, loqui 3. <o j^rem- eo, adv. thither, so far. 

lows the third Conj. ; ise. grate, adv. gratefully. 

oreris, oritur, ori- animadverto, ti, sum tamen, conj. yet. 

mur; so its com- S. to observe, perceive, vero (after the first 

pounds except ado- praeda, ae,/. booty. word of its clause) 

rior (I attack, at- tergum, i, n. back. conj. but. 

Frons, ociili, vultus persaepe mentiuntur, oratio vero saepissime. 
Quicquid oritur, qualecunque est, caussam habeat a nitura necesse 
est. Sol universis eandem lucem eundemque calorem largitur. Quam 
multi indigni luce sunt ! et tamen dies oritur. Unde tandem tam re- 
pente nobis exoreris^ Mihtes, si feroci impetu in hostem cooHmur, 
victoria in manibus nostris est! Dmn urbem oppugnare adorimur, 
hoBtes a tergo nos aggressi sunt. Suo quisque metu periciila metitur. 
Sapiens et praeterita grate recordatur, et praesentibus ita potitur, ut 
animadvertat, quanta sint ea quamque jucunda. 

Cave, ne honores eblandiare ! Oratores, priusquam exordiantur, 
quaedam praeloquuntur. In omnibus negotiis, priusquam ordiamur, 
adhibenda nobis est praeparatio diligens. Omnes cives domos suas 
floribus et coronis ornaverant et vestiverant, quia regem opperiebantur. 
Dum exercitus hostilis urbis domos privatas publicasque demoliebatur, 
cives maximo moerore opplebantur. Quum hostes praedam inter se 
partiebantur, nos vehementissimo impetu eos adoriebamur. Dux mill- 


tes coliortatus est, ut omnia experirentur, qiiibus urbem obsidioiie lib- 
erarent. Quiiin saeva tempestas cooriretur, ingens pavor omnes nau- 
tas occupavit. 

LXXXVIII. Words to be learned and Ejcercises for translation. 

Etnentior 4. / state coriservo 1. / preserve, prodigiosiis, a, um, 

falsely. commoditas, atis, f wonderful. 

emetior, mensus sum, convenience. ridiculus, a, um, ridicu- 

metiri 4. / measure ubertas, atis,/. boimti- lous. 

off, travel through. fulness. tantus, a, um, so great. 

molior 4. to move, ex- adspectus, us, wi. consulto, adv. designed- 

cite, attempt. sight. ly. 

advolo 1. I Jly up, has- usus, us, m. use, want, fortuito, adv. by chance. 

ten up. 

Ridiculi sunt, qui, quod ipsi experti non sunt, id decent ceteros. 
Omne animal se ipsum diltgit ac, simulatque ortum est, id agit, ut se 
conservet. Ad hominum commoditates et usus tantanr rerum uberta- 
tem natura largita est, ut ea, quae gignuntur, dQiiata consulto nobis, 
non fortuito nata videantur. Herod6tus, multasAerras em^nsus, multas 
quidem res prodigiosas narravit, sed eas non ipse ementitus est, sed 
alii, ex quibus audivit. Jam per tres menses opperti eramus amicum, 
quum nobis ejus mors nuntiata est. Repente Romanis Sulla exortus et 
atrocisslmum bellum civile exorsus est. '' 

Sapiens nunquam malis hominibus blandietur, nunquam aliquid 

falsi ementietur, nunquam fortunam experietur, nunquam aliis calami- 

tatem molietur. Si celerlter hostem adoriemur, non est dubium, quin 

brevi tempore urbe potituri simus. Simulatque sol ortus erit, pro- 

ficificemur. Ne blandire malis hominibus. Ne opperimini fortunam ! 

Hostes advolaverunt urbe potiturn. Nume«i|s aequalis facilis est par- 

titu. Sole oriente, profecti sumus. Coorta saeva tempestate, omnes 

nautas ingens pavor occupavit. Solem oritiirum cum maxima volup- 

tate spectamus. 

. *• ->■'- 

The sun does not always rise and set in the verj^ s^^jg pla^JK, 
Scarcely had the enemy been discovered, as we ijqse (^Jerf J* and at-^. 
tacked (perf ) them spiritedly. ,^en measure the yelir by (abl.) the re-% 
turn of the sun. 

Nothing prevented you, that you ■ should begin your business. 
Three days long (== through three days) have we awaited the ai-rival of 
the friend. Every living being, as soog^s it is born (= sprung), loves 
(diligo) both itself and all its parts. "Manj having travelled through 
many countries, have stated falsely ma^^ wonderful * things. History 


relates, that Sulla arose (perf.) suddenly against (dat.) the Romans and 
began (perf.) the civil war. Tell me, why thou hast not assented to 
my opinion. Hast thou heard that the enemies have tried all [means], 
in order to possess themselves of {= ad with gerund) the city ? 
LxA^tA-^We will not begin a new business, before that the previous [business] 
shall have been completed. When the camp shall be fortified, the 
soldiers will attack the enemy. If thou shalt lie, nobody will trust 
thee, even i/*(etiamsi) thou speakest (subj.) the truth. Our soldiers did 
not doubt, that, if they attacked (subj.) the enemy quickly, they might 
in (abl.) a short time possess themselves of the city. Await thou not 
fortune ! Flatter ye not bad men ! As the sun rose (abl. abs.), the 
soldiers marched against the enemies. The sun, on the point of rising 
(= about to rise), presents a splendid sight. I hope, that thou wilt 
never lie. All believed, that a storm would arise. 

§ 54. Periphrastic Conjagation. 

By joining the verb esse with the participles and with the 
gerund, a new conjugation is formed, called the periphras- 
tic conjugation; under this the following forms are to be 

1) AmatHruSj a, um sum, / luish, intend^ am about to 
(ivill) love. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

amaturus sum, I am about to {will) SimaturussimJ may he about to {tvill) 
amaturus es, [love, amaturus sis, [love. 

amaturus est, amaturus sit, 

hortaturi samu8,we are about to{will) hortaturi simus, we may be about to 
hortaturi estis, [exhort, hortaturi sitis, [{iviU) exhort. 

hortaturi sunt. hortaturi sint. 

moniturus eram, / would admanish. moniturus essem, / would admonish. 

veritarusfm,! would have reverenced, veriturus fuerim, T would have rev. 

recturas fueram, / ivould have gov. recturus fuissem, / would have gov. 

functurus ero J shall be about to manage, wanting. 




auditurus fuero, I shall 

Future Perfect, 
have been 


partiturus fueris. [aboiU to hear. 


amaturus esse, to he about to {will) love 
amaturus fuisse, to' have been about to love 
amaturus fore, to tvill love, (that one) will be ready to love. 

2) Amandus, a, um sum, / must be loved, one must love 
me : 







amandus sum, I must be loved, 
one must love me 

amandus es, thou must beloved, 
one must love thee 

amandus est, he must be loved, 
one must love him 

hortandi sumus, we must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort us 

hortandi estis, you must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort you 

hortandi sunt, they must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort them. 
Imperf. monendus eram, / was to be 
admonished, one was to ad- 
monish me 

verendus fui, / should have 
been reverenced, one should 
have reverenced me 

regendus fueram, I ought to 
have been governed, one ought 
to have governed me 

persequendus ero, / shall be 
to be pursued, one unll be un- 
der obligation to pursue me 

audiendus fuero, / shall have 
been to he heard, one will have 
been under obligation to hear 

metlendus fueris, thou unit have 
been to be measured, one will 
have been under obligation to 
measure thee. 


amandus sim, / must be loved, 
one must love me 

amandus sis, thou must be loved, 
one must love thee 

amandus sit, he must be loved, 
one must love him 

hortandi simus, we must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort us. 

hortandi sitis, you must he ex- 
horted, one must exhort you 

liortandi sint, they must he ex- 
horted, one must exhort them. 

monendus essem, / might be to 
he admonished, one might be 
to admonish me 

verendus fuerim, / may have 
been to he admonished, one 
may have been to admonish me 

regendus fuissem, I might have 

been to be admonished, one 

might have been to admonish me. 




amandus esse, to he under obligation to he loved. 
amandus fuisse, to have been under obligation to be loved. 
amandus fore, to will he under obligation to he loved, (that one)etc. 




J) Amandum est one must love, mihi amandum est, / must 
w, Comp. Synt. § 98. 



■^r.. Indicative. 

ium est, one must love 
amandum est, / must love 
tibi hortandmn est thou must 

illi timendum est, he must fear 
nobis fatendum est, we must 

vobisjegendmn est, you must 

illis loquendum est, they must 

puero audiendum est, the hoy 

vw^iS^lendum est, the man 

must tiy^ 
amjw^ijjffitf rat, one was to love 

mihi amandmn erat, / was to 

amandum fuit, one should have 

amandum fuerat, one ought to 

have loved 
amandum erit, one shall be to 

amandum fuerit, one shall have 

been to love. 

amandum sit, one should love 
mihi amandum sit, I should love 
tibi hortandum sit, tJmu shouldst 

illi timendum sit, he should fear 
nobis fatendum sit, we should 

vobis legendmii sit, you should 

illis loquendum sit, they should 

puero audiendum sit, the boy 

should hear 
viris experiendum sit, men 

should try. 
amandum esset, one might be 

to love 
mihi amandmn esset, / might 

be to love 
amandum fuerit, / mny have 

been to love 
amandum fuisset, / might have 

been to love. 



Patria amanda est, ' one's native country should be loved, one should 

love his native country ;' 
patria nobis amanda est, ' we should love our native country ;' 
hie liber tibi legendus est, ' thou shouldst read this book ;' 
milites dud adhortandi fuerunt, ' the general should have incited tho 


Examples for the Gen., Dat., Jlcc. and Abl. of the Gerundive. Comp. 
Synt. k 99. 

Ars navis gubemandae, ' the art of governing a ship ;'" 
peritus sum equorum regendorum, ' I am skilful m governing horses ;' 
asiritus idoneus est magnis oneribus portandis, ' the ass is fitted to bear- 
ing great loads,' or, ' to bear great loads.' 
corporis exerdtationes plurimum valent ad valetudinem firmandam, * exer- 
cise of the body avails much for confirming the health.' 



littens tradandis animus excoUtuTj ' by the pursuit of letters the 

Catalogue of the verbs, ichich in the formation o^heir tenses. 
paradigms given in § 50 "rf 51. 


§ 55. T. The Perfect ivith R^tplicatiom^f^ 
^ Remark. The reduplication in do, consists in repe ating thei first 
fconsonant of the stem with e, but in sto, in ^^P^^t>"§|ii|j||^H|K'^ ^^^' 
^Bpnants of the stem with e, and then the s is dropj^P'f^WFF'XIiB stem, 
Hrence : steti for ste-sti. Comp. sp(indeo, spopondi (§ ^, 7). " 
r 3. Do J dedi, datum, dare, to give. The n of the stem- 
syllable is short throughout, as : dabam, dabo, darem ; ex- 
cept das and da. .^MHjpk. 

So its compounds of which the first part is a word of two syllableSt 
as : circumdo, circumdedi, circumdatum, cireumdare, to surround. Its 
compounds with monosyllables, on the contrary, have : -do, -didi, 
-ditum, -dere, and follow the third Conj., as :' addOj^ addidi, gddltum, 
addere, <o arfc?. ,.>.? 

2. Sto, steti, stdtum, stare, to stand ; (c. abrtS^e gained 
at the expense of, cost). 

Its compounds with monosyllahic prepositions have sUti in the Per£, 
as : adsto (I stand by), adstiti, but those compounded with dissyllabic 
prepositions retain the steti, as: circumsto (I stand around), circum- 
steti. The Sup. of only a few of the compounds is used and is std- 
tum ; only praesto (to stand before, bestow), has both praestitum and 
praestdtum. The Part. Fut. on the contrary, is always stdtiirus, as : 
praestaturus, constaturus, obstaturus, etc. 

L XX XIX. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation." \" 

Circumdo, dedi, datum, atum 1. to stand be- vestis, is, f. garment. 
dare (c. dat. et ace, fore, be distinguish- conservatio, 6ms,f.pre- 
or c. ace. et abl.), to ed ; c. dat. to sur- servation. 
swrrownc? (something pass, to make good, invitus, a, um, untvU- 
with something), to pay ; se praestare (e. ling, 
place (something g. fortem) to show insperans, tis, not hop- 
around something). one's self [brave). ing, contrary to ex- 

consto, iti, atum 1. (c. forum, i, n. market. pectation. 

abl.) to consist of, to stipendium, i, n. wages, uber, eris, c. rich, val- 

be gained at the ex- interfector, oris, m. mwr- uable. 

pense of, cost. derer. certo, adv. certainly. 

persto, iti, atum 1. to propugnator, oris, m. extrinsecus, adv. wOh 

persist. champion. ouii. 

praesto, iti, itum and classis, is, f. fleet. 



nobis dedit animum, quoi nihil est praestantius. Multo san- 
'^ictoria stetit. Mater omnium bonarum artium sapientia 
est : qHS**hiA a deo immortali uberius, nihil praestabilius hominum 
vitae datum |^B Deus ^pus, ut quandam vestem, animo circumd^- 
T et vestivifiHFtrinsecus. Quorum patres, aut majores aliqua gloria 
praestiteruiit,' n student plerumque eodem in genere laud is excellere. 
i'arcntes cm issimos hai^re debemus, quod ab iis nobis vita tradlta est. 
N(fn dedit heneficium, qui invitus profuit. Quinam magis sunt tui 
quam {jjjtkfffiki^ tu salutem insperantibus reddidisti ? Gives acerri 



mos pflKignatore^libertatis se praestiterunt. Ingens hominum mul 
tudo (^j^BMHttKoro circumstetit. Quid est tam inhumanum, qua 
eloquenlHHPmtura ad salutem hominum et ad conservationem da 
tam, ad bonorum pestem perniciemque convertere ? Quum stipen- 
dium ejyM|flH|ta|pore non esset praestitum, seditio inter milites orta 
est^^^^^^^^^kaihi fidem praestaturum esse. Credo, nihil nobis 
obstptnr»OT^Si^^^B|rnus victoriam adipiscamur. Non dubitabamus, 
quill (imltorum v^^Ri fortium morte victoria constatura esset. Nes- 
cio, ]ii rstaturusn^^PRi sententia tua. 

The Tft^pppi^^ave (perf.) to Miltiades a fleet of (gen.) 70 ships. 
No pest has cost the human race (= race of men) more (pluris) than 
anger. Darius promised, that he vs^ould give 1000 talents to the mur- 
derer of Alexander. What of (gen.) time is given to each one for liv- 
ing, with (abl.) this he should be contented. Who does not know, that 
Socrates surpassed (perf) all the philosophers of antiquity in (abl.) wis- 
dom ? I fear, that the victory will cost us much blood. The body, 
as a garment, has been placed by God around (dat.) the soul. You 
should hold [your] parents very dear, because they have given (trado) 
life to you. Who is more thine, than [he], to whom, contrary to ex- 
pectation, thou hast restored life (i^'feaf^^)?' History relates, that 
Hannibal, so long as he may have been in Italy, surpassed (perf subj.) 
all the Roman generals. Since the general for (ex) a long time had 
not paid the soldiers [their] wages, a sedition arose (perf) among them 
against him. I doubt not that thou wilt make good thy word (= fidel- 
ity). Believest thou, that thy brother will persist in his opinion ? 

§56. 11. Perfect: — ui ; Supine: — itum, 

1. CrepOj crepuij crept tu m, crepdre^ to creak. 

2. Cubo, cubuij cubit um, cubdrCy to recline. 

• — — — j 

* than which (aoul). ' than which (wisdom). 


3. Domo, domui, domttum, domdre, to tame, curb, 

4. Mico, micu t. Sup. wanting, micdre, to glitter ; 

So : emico, emlcui, eniicdtum, emicdrey to gush forth ; but, di- 
mico, IJight, has dimicavi, atum, are. 

5. Plico, pUcdvi and pltcui, pticdtum and plicitum, 
plicdre, to fold. This verb is used only in compo- 
sition, as : ext^|*^avi and ui, atum and itum, are, to 
explain. Cl^^K^e^ers the regular form : — avi, atum. 

6. Sono, sonui, somtum, sondre, to sound, (but Part. Fut. 

• 7. Tono^ tonui, (Sup. wanting); ^o/^are, to thunder. 
8. Veto, vetui vetttum, vetdre, to forbid. 

XC. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Increpare, to reproach. ply oner's self (to verecundia, ae^f. re- 

percrepare, to resound. something). sped. ^ 

accuhare, to recline by ; complicare, to fold to- notlo, onis,/. notion. 

to sit at table. gether ; compHcatus, s^aturigo, inis, f 

excubare, to keep watch. complicated^ obscure. spring. 

perdornare, curb, sub- replicare, to roll back, gemitus, us, m. groan. 

due. recall. nutus, us, m. nod, com- 

applicare, to lean upon ; cremo 1. / burn up. mand. 

se appHc, to ap- aduro, ussi, ustum 3. ploratus, us, m. cry. 

proach, to attc^h oriels to set on fire, to* burn passim, adv. far and 

self (to one), to ap- up. [3. to unfold. wide. 
evolvo, volvi, volutum 

Quis venit ? Fores crepuerunt. Dux nnhtes vehementer increpiiit. 
Tota urbs vocibus civium de victoria ex hostibus reportata exsultantium 
percrepiiit. Age, cubitum discedamus ! Romani multas gentes ac 
nationes armis perdomuerunt. Docemur auctoritate nutuque legum, 
domitas habere hbidines, coercere omnes cupiditates. Ex hoc fonte 
ingentes scaturiglnes aquae emicuerunt. Indorum sapientes, quum ad 
flammam se applicaverunt, sine gemitu aduruntur. Cicero Rhodii ad 
Molonem philosophum se applicdvit. Sapiens studet animi sui compli- 
cdtam notionem evolvere. Quum metnoriam temporum replicaveris, et 
virtutum et vitiorum multa exempla reperies. Quum urbs expugnata 
esset, omnia passim mulierum pnerorumque ploratibus sonuerunt. 
Terremur, quum serena tempestate tonuit. Nitimur in vetifum. Au- 

» at Rhodes. See Synt. § 92. 

160 IRREGULAR VERBS. [$ 57. 

gustus carmina Virgilii cremari contra testamenti ejus verecundiam 

I have forbidden thee to go to walk, but 'precisely because (ob id ipsum, 
quod) I have forbidden [it], thou hast striven against (in) what has been 
forbidden (= the forbidden). The question concerning (de) the im- 
mortality of the soul (plur.), is nobly explained by Cicero in the first book 
■of the Tusculau Disputations. Cicero appHed (perf.) himself with 
[his] whole soul to the study of eloquence. ^Hm^ hundred soldiers kept 
watch before the camp. Who does not H^^-lhat many nations and 
peoples were subdued by the Romans. If thou shalt have curbed thy 
passions (libido) and restrained (teneo) thy desires, thou wilt live hap- 
pily. Already we were sitting (pluperf ) at the table, when suddenly s^ 
flame gushed forth (perf. of emico) from the roof Scarcely had we 
retired (discedere) to sleep (= in order to recline, sup.), when the whole 
city resounded (perf of persono) with discordant cries. Thy brother 
related to me, that it thundered (perf) yesterday in (abl.) clear weather. 
As th^oors had creaked (subj.), I doubted not (perf) that thou wast 

§ 57. IH. Perfect : — ui ; Bupine : — turn. 

1. Frico^ fricui, fricdtum (raxely frictum), f near e^ to 

2. Ne6"o, dviy atum, are, to kill ; but eneco^ enecui, e ne- 
at um, enecdre^ to kill by inches, to ve^ to death, to 
entirely exhaust. 

3. >Seco, secui, sectum^ secdre, to cut (but Part. Fut 

IV. Perfect: — i; Sujnne : — turn. 

1. Juvo, juvij jiitum, juvdre (c. ace), to aid, assist. 

2. Ldvo, Idvi^ Idvdtum and lautum^ IdvdrCj to wash. 

XCI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adjuvare (c. ace), to refrlcare, to rub again, oleum, i, n. oil. 

r aid, assist, support. renew. principium, i, n. begin- 

desecstre, to cut off. aWlgo 1. I bind. ning ; principio, in 

resecare, to cut off, re- coeno 1 . / sup. the beginning. 

move. attingo, tigi, tactum 3. garrulitas, atis, /. lo- 
perfricare, to rub thor- to touch. [fetch. quacity. 

oughly. peto, ivi, itum 3. to seek, purus, a, urn, jpure. 


solatus,a,um,Mn&oMnrf. est; summa aqua, vivus, a, um, living, 
summus, a, um, high- surface of the water. fresh. 

frustra, adv. in vain. 

Vereor, ne refricuerim meis litteris desiderium ac dolorem tuum. 
Dubium non est, quin tuis sceleribus reipublicae praeterita fata refri- 
caturus sis. Tantalus summam aquam attingens, enectus siti fingitur 
a poetis. Nescisne, quantopfire garrulus iste homo me garriendo en- 
ecuerit ? Caius Marius quum secaretur, principio vetuit se alligari, 
nee quisquam ante Marium solutus diciiur esse sectus. Agricolae fru- 
menta desecta in horrea congerunt. Nisi libidines resecueris, frustra 
studebis beate viv6re. Quis nescit, quantopere Cicero patriam suam 
juv^rit ? Non solum fortuna, sed etiam tua industria te in negotio tuo 
adjuvit. Si quid fortuna milites nostros adjuverit, non dubitamus, quin 
splendidam de hostibus reportaturi simus victoriam. Exercitus maxi- 
mis itineribus profectus est, cives obsidione cinctos adjutum. Ne prius 
coena, quam manus laveris. Corpus lavaturus aquam puram e vivo 
flumine pete. 

Boys, rise right early (bene mane), wash yourselves, and, when you 
have washed (fut. perf.), proceed immediately to your business. This 
(iste) man has vexed me to death by his loquacity. After the soldiers 
had marched (perf.) the whole day, they were (perf) entirely exhausted 
by hunger and thirst. It is known, that the gladiators of the Romans 
and Greeks, rubbed (perf) their bodies thoroughly with oil. If we 
shall be assisted (fut. perf) by fort^une, we shall bear off a splendid 
victory over (de) the enemy. It is known, that Cicero assisted (perf) 
his native country very much (permultum). By (abl.) the war carried 
on between Caesar and Pompy, the recollection of the horrid (foedus, 
a, um) war of Marius and Sulla was (perf) renewed. The farmers 
have already cut the grain. Unless the passions and desires are re- 
moved, we strive in vain to live happily. 


§ 58. I. Perfect : — Hi ; Supine : — turn. 

Preliminary Remark. Many verbs of the second Conj. have no 
Sup., viz. those from which adjectives in use, chiefly in idus, are form- 
ed, as : horreo, ui, to shudder, horridus, hideous, paveo, pavi, to dread, 
pavidus, timid. 

1. Arceo, arciii, (Sup. wanting), arcere, to keep from. 

^he i*art. artus, (strait), is used as an adjective. The com- 
pounds, in which a of the stem passes into c, follow mjoneo, as : 
coerceo, ui, itum, ere, to keep together. 


2. DoceOj docuij doc turn, docere (with two ace), to 

3. Misceo, miscui, mix turn and mi stum, miscere, 
to mix. 

4. TeneOj tenuis tentum, Unere, to hold. 

5. Torreo, torrui, to stum^ tornre^ to dry, Ijake. 

II. Perfect : — ui ; Rapine : — wm, only : 
Censeo, censui, censum^ censere^ to rate, judge. 

So its compounds, but with the associate form of the Sup. in 

Uum, as : receiiseo, recensui, recensum and recensitum, to exam- 

amine ; except succensere, (to be displeased), jaerccTwere (to examine 

accurately, go through), which have no Sup. 

Remark. Taedet (it disgusts), has together with taeduit, also taesum 

€st, but this is not used in the classical language ; the compound per- 

iaedet, has in the Perf only pertaesum est, e. g. pertaesum est (me) levi- 

tatis, whence by later writers pertaesus, a, um (c. gen. or ace), disgusted. 

III. Perfect: — evi; Supimim: — etum. 

1. Deleo, evi, etum, ere, to destroy. 

2. Flere, to weep. 

3. Nere, to spin. 

4. The compounds of the obsolete plere (to fill), as : com- 
plere. Here belongs the compound of the obsolete 
oleo (I grow) : 

5. Aboleo, abolevi, abolitum, ahoUre, to abolish ; 
still this verb does not occur till after the Augustan 

Finally we have in this class : 

6. Cieo, clvi, citum, ciere, to stir, raise. 

So also the compounds, as : concieo, ivi, itum, iere, or regu- 
lar, according to the fourth Conj. : concio, ivi, itum, ire, to excite, 
excieo, ivi, itum, iere or excio, ivi, itum, ire, to arouse, percieo, 
ivi, Itum, iere or percio, ivi, itum, ire, to stir up, raise ; but, accio, 
accivi, accitum, accire, to send for, desire to come, is of the fourth 
Conj. alone. 

IV. Perfect: — i; Supine: — turn. 

Preliminary Remark. The short vowel of the stem is lengthened 
in the Perf. 

1. Caveo, cdvi, cautum, cdvere, to be on one's guard 



(ab aliquo, against some one) ; to give security, pro- 

2. Faveo,fdvi, (fautum T3xe)favere (c. dat.), to be 
favorable, to favor. 

3. Foveo, fo V % fotu w, fov're, to warm, nurse, cherish. 

4. Moveo movi mo turn, movere, to move. 

5. Voveo, V ovi, v 5 turn, vovere, to vow, offer. 

Also the following without a Supine : 

6. Ferveo, fervi and ferbui^ fervere, to boil. 

7. Paveo, pdvi, pavere, to dread (commonly expaveS' 

8. Connlveo, (-nlvi and -nixi^ neither of them used in 
good prose), conmvere, to close (the eijes)^ wink. 

XCII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Admiscere, fo intermix, deprehendo, di, sum 3. gravitas, atis, /.grav%, 

mingle. [occupy. to seize, take. dignity. 

distinere, to hold apart, excludo, si, sum 3. to testis, is, c. witness. 

sustlnere, to hear. exclude, hatch. ascensus, us, m. ascent, 

removere, to remove. gallina, ae, /. a hen. anxie, adv. anxiously. 

dedico 1. I consecrate, vigiliae, arum, f. ivatch- horno, adv. this year. 

implico 1. / involve. es, night watches. publice, adv. publicly^ 

respiro 1. / breathe. pullus, i, m. the young on the part of the 

Bedo 1. I quiet. (of animals), c^ic^en. state, at the expense 

amplexor 1. I embrace, clades, is,/, defeat. of the state. 

Ciceronem Minerva omnes artes edocuit. Gravitas modestiae mista 
maxime admirabllis est. Tot tantisque negotiis distentus sum, ut mi- 
hi non liceat libere respirare. Nescisne, quot labores, quot pericula, 
quot miserias milites in itinere sustinuerint? Si virtus te a malis cu- 
piditatibus arcuerit, vita tua beata erit. Cicero, per legatos cuncta 
edoctus, praetoribus imperat, ut in ponte Allobroges deprehendant. 
Quo minus animi se admiscuerint atque implicaverint hominum vitiis 
atque erroribus, eo facilior illis ascensus in coelum erit. Simplex ani- 
mi natura est, nee habet in se quicquam admixtum. Vescimur uvis 
sole tostis. Horno multas uvas torruimus. Cato, Carthaglnem delen- 
dam esse, censuit. Quinto quoque anno tota Sicilia censa est. 

Duae urbes potentissimae, Carthago et Numantia, a Scipione sunt 
deletae. Graecorum Romanorumque gloriam nulla unquam oblivio 
delevit, nee unquam delebit. Deus bonis omnibus mundum implevit, 
mali nihil admiscuit. Dum Jujsest dux, milites seditionem civerunt 

164 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 59. 

Nuntiata clades majorem, quam res erat, terrorem in urbe excivit. 
Catilina neque vigiliis, neque quietibus sedabatur : ita conscientia men- 
tem excitam vastabat. 

Cautum est legibus, ut mortui post tertium diem sepelirentur. Non 
dubito, quin semper ab hominum impurorum consuetudine caveris. 
Non ignore, te mihi meisque semper favisse. Pulli a matribus exclusi 
fotique anxie custodiuntur. Dubitabisne, quin summum semper in te 
foverim amorem ? Me sic amplexati estis, sic in manibus habuistis, 
sic fovistis, ut nunquam illius diei obliviscerer. Brutus et Cassius, 
interfectores Caesaris, ingens bellum moverunt. Ingratus est, qui, re- 
motis testibus, agit gratias. Multi Romanorum imperatores pro salute 
patriae sua capita voverunt. Eodem anno tria templa sunt publico 
vota et dedicata. 

Cicero was instructed (perf!) by Minerva in (ace.) all literature. 
Tell me, who has taught thee (ace.) grammar. If thou shalt have join- 
ed (= mixed) dignity with modesty, thou wilt please all. If thou hadst 
abstained from the intercourse of bad men, thou wouldst now be con- 
tented with thy lot. If virtue had restrained thee from bad passions, 
thou wouldst now be happy. By the war all [things] have been con- 
founded (= mixed). Knowest thou not, that we have dried many 
grapes this year? Under the reign of Augustus (abl. abs.) the Roman 
empire was rated (perf). 

All the senators judged (perf), that they should (Gerund) lend aid to 
the citizens of the city destroyed by the enemies. It is known, that 
Scipio destroyed (perf) two very powerful cities, Carthage and Numan- 
tia. Tell me, why thou hast wept. The death of the good king has 
been lamented (= wept) by all the citizens. When I shall have spun 
two hours, I will take a walk. The world is filled (complere) by God 
with all good [things], nothing of evil is intermixed. When thou hast 
filled thy body with food and drink, thou wilt not use thy mind well. 
Hast thou heard that the soldiers have raised a conspiracy against the 
general ? It is not [possible] to quiet a mind stirred up by an evil 

When I shall have sent for (accio) you, you will not delay to come. 
My brother, sent for by a letter, will come to-morrow. Philip, king of 
the Macedonians (Macedo, onis), sent for (perf) Aristotle [as] teacher 
for his son Alexander. The laws have established, that (ut) the dead 
should be buried after the third day. I know, that thou hast always 
been on thy guard against the intercourse of bad men. It was es- 
tablished (perf)»by the will of the king, that grain should be distribu- 


ted to the destitute citizens on his birth-day. I rejoice, that (quod) 
thou hast always favored me and my studies. I know that thou hast 
always cherished great love for {in c. ace) me. The hen anxiously 
guards the chickens which she has hatched and nursed. An im- 
mense war w^as raised (perf. of moveo) by Brutus and Cassius, the 
murderers of Caesar. I doubt not, that thou hast been greatly moved 
(commovere) by the news. History relates, that many generals of the 
Romans, offered (perf.) their heads for the welfare of their country. 
Livy relates, that in the same year three temples were vowed and 
dedicated at tlie expense of the state. 

§ 59. V. Perfect — i; Supine — sum. 

(Comp. Prelim. Rem. to § 58. IV.) 

1. Prandeo, prandi, pransum, prandh'e^ to breakfast. 

2. 8edeo, sediy s e s sum, sedere, to sit. 

So the compounds with dissyllabic prepositions, as : circum- 
sedeo, edi, essum, ere, to sit around, to beset ; but those with mono- 
syllabic propositions change the e of the stem-syllable into ?, as : 
assideo assedi, assessum, assidere, to sit by. 

3. Strideoj stridi, (Sup. wanting), ^^nt/ere, to whiz. 

4. VtdeOy vidi, visum, videre, to see. 

Also the following, of which the Perf. takes the Re- 

5. Mordeo, momordi, mo r sum, mordere, to bite, af- 


6. Pendeo, pependi, (Sup. uncertain), pendere, to hang. 

7. Spondeo, spopondi, sponsum, spondere, to prom- 

ise, to become responsible for. 

8. Tondeo, totondi, ton sum, tondere, to shear, cut. 

The reduplication in these verbs, consists in a repetition of the 
first consonant of the stem with the first vowel of the stem. 
Concerning spopondi, see § 55. Rem. — The compounds of these 
verbs follow the simples, but are without the reduplication, as : 
admordeo, admordi, admorsum, to bite into; praependeo, pendi, 
to hang before, respondeo, respondi, responsum, to answer; de- 
tondeo, detondi, detonsum, to shave off. 

VI. Perfect: — si; Supine: — turn, 
1. Aug-eo, auxi, auctum, augere, to increase. 

166 IRREGULAR VERBS. [$ 59. 

2. Indulg-eoy indulsi, (indulttim rare), indidgere^ to 

be indulgent, to give one's self up to. 

3. Lug-eo^ luxi (without Sup.) lUg-ere, to mourn, lament. 

4. Torqueo, torsi, tor turn, torquere, to twist, torture. 

XCIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Extorquere, to wrest lacrima, ae,/ tmr. occasus, us, m. setting. 

from. sica, ae,f dagger. rabies, ei,/. madness. 

pervidere, to contem- sicarius, i, m. assassin, rabiosus, a, um, mad. 

plate, examine. collum, i, n. neck. exterus, a, um, external, 

residere, to remain be- tonsor, oris, m. barber. foreign. 

hind. tonstricula, ae ,/. a fe- aricillaris, e, of a maid, 
locupleto 1. / enrich. male barber. servile. 

barba, ae,/. beard. probltas, atis,f upright- acute, adv. sharply, 
epistola, ae,y. letter. ness. acutely. 

Postquam prandero, ambulabo. Audistine, nos eras in horto pran- 
suros esse ? Quoad uUa spes in animo meo resedit, pro patriae liber- 
tate dimicavi. Jam tres menses obsederunt hostes nostram urbem. 
Non ego sum ille ferreus, qui (= ut ego) non movear horum omnium 
lacrimis, a quibus me circumsessum videtis. Multi putant, se bene- 
fices in suos amicos visum iri, si locupletent eos quacunque ratione. 
Ne prius de re aliqua judica, quam eam diligenter pervideris. Episto- 
lae tuae valde me momordenmt. Si quis a cane rabioso morsus est, 
rabies eum occupat. Quoad tu locutus es, puer ab ore tuo pependit. 
Spopondistine pro amico ? Spopoudi. Multa a Laelio et in senatu et 
in foro vel provisa prudenter, vel acute responsa sunt Cicero narra- 
vit, Dionysium, ne tonsori collum committeret, tondere filias suas 
docuisse : ita sordido ancillarique officio regias virgines ut tonstriculas 
totondisse barbam et capilium patris. Tanta vis probitatis est, ut eam 
vel in iis, quos nunquam vidimus, vel, quod majus est, in hoste etiam 

Callisthenem Alexander non tantum necavit, sed eiiam torsit. Ro- 
manae reipublicae magnitudo atque amplitudo bellis cum exteris gen- 
tibus ac nationibus gestis mirum in modum aucta est. Sicario sica de 
manibus est extorta. Quo magis indulseris dolori, eo intolerabilior 
erit. Occasum atque interitum reipublicae Romanae optimi quique 
maxime luxerunt. 

Come to me to day, in order to breakfast (sup.). When we shall 
have breakfasted, we will take a walk. Our ciiy has already been 
beset three months by the enemies. The enemies have beset the 
whole city. Hast thou already seen the friend ? no, but I hope that I 


shall see him to-morrow. I grieve, that my letter has afflicted thee. 
I fear that the dog will bite me. So long as thou hast been absent, 
we have felt anxiety for thee (pendere animis de te). My friend has not 
yet indeed become responsible for me, but I hope that he will become 
responsible for me. I have heard with great pleasure, that your friend 
has answered your letter quickly. The captives have cut (= sheared) 
neither the beard nor the hair for (ex) three months. 

History relates, that Callisthenes was (perf.) not only killed by Alex- 
ander, but before also was tortured. The soldiers wrested (perf.) a 
dagger from the hands of the assassin. Catiline emboldened (= in- 
creased) [his] fierce mind and [his] consciousness of foul deeds by 
wicked arts. By the discourse of the generals, the courage of the 
soldiers was increased (perf). I rejoice, that thou hast not been in- 
dulgent towards (dat.) the faults of thy son. Thou knowest, how very 
much we have lamented the death of our friend. 

§ 60. VII. Perfect : — si ; Supine : — sum. 

1. Miilceo, mulsi, mulsum, mitlcere, to sttoke. 

2. Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, mulgere, to milk. 

3. Tergeo. ter si, tersum, tergere, to wipe. 

4. Ardeo, arsi, arsum, ardere, to burn, take fire. 

5. Rideo, r'lsi, r'xsuw,, r'ldere, to laugh. 

6. Suddeo, sua si, sua sum, suddere, to advise. 

7. Mdneo, man si, man sum, mdnere, to remain. 

8. Jubeo, jussi, jussu m, jubere, to bid, command, order. 

9. Haereo, haesi, haesum, haerere, to hang, stick. 

The following also without a Supine : 

10. Algeo, alsi, algere, to suffer from cold, freeze. 

11. Fulgeo, fulsi, fulgere, to glitter, lighten. 

12. Turgeo, tursi, turgere, io ^weW. 

13. TJrgeo, ursi, wr^ere, to press, oppress. 

14. Frigeo, (frixi x^cre) fngere, to freeze. 

15. Liiceo, luxi, lucere, to shine. 

VIII. Perfect with ^^^^i^e ioxm (Neuter Passives) ; with- 
out a Supine. 

1. Audeo, ausus sum, audere, to dare. 

2. Gaudeo, g avis us sum, gaudere, to rejoice. 

3. Soleo, solltus sum, sdlere, to be accustomed (to do 



XCIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Abstergere, to wipe off, remanere, to remain be- scintilla, ae, /. a spark. 

dispel, remove. hind, remain. exsilium, i, n. hanish- 

detergere, to wipe off. oblecto 1 . / delight. ment. 

afFulgere, to shine upon, convivor 1. / eat in caducus, a, um, destin- 

deridere 2. to deride. commx>n. ed to fall, Jailing. 

dissuadere, to dissuade, lateo, ui 2. I remain canfectio, onis,^! mak- 

elucere, to shine forth. concealed. ing, composition. 

permulcere, to stroke, perpetior, pessus sum, 

charm, soothe. peti 3. to endure. 

Dux mitibus verbis excitos militum animos permulsit. Legendo 
Virgilii carmina animus meus miriflce oblectatus et permulsus est. 
Ita jucunda mihi hujus libri confectio fuit, ut omnes absterserit senec- 
tutis molestias. Non prius ad te veniam, quam luctum omnem abster- 
eero. Detersane jam est tabula ? Quadraginta milia librorum Alex- 
andriaei arserunt. Non dubito, quin brevi tota Germania bello arsura 
sit. Quis est, cui semper arriserit fortuna ? Nescio, cur a te derisus 
sim. Sic mihi persuasi, sic sentio, non esse animos nostros mortales. 
Quis credat, cives pacem dissuasuros esse ? Quis conf idit, semper 
sibi illud stabile et firmum permansurum esse, quod fragile et caducum 
sit ? Romanorum gloria usque ad nostram memoriam remansit. Ly- 
curgus convivari omnes cives publlce jussit. Non qui jussus aliqjjid 
facit, miser est, sed qui invitus facit. Persuasum mihi est, memoriam 
hujus atrocissimi belli non modo in hoc populo, sed etiam in omnium 
gentium sermonibus semper haesuram esse. 

Milltes in itineribus multos labores perpessi sunt, sudaverunt et al- 
serunt. Superatis hostibus, nova spes salutis civitati afFulsit. Pater 
litteris me ursit, ut primo quoque tempore litteras ad se darem. Quo- 
modo in viro latebit scintilla ingenii, quae jam in puero eluxit! Tu 
me tantis beneficiis auxisti, quanta nunquam ausus sum optare. De 
amici tui comitate valde gavisus sum. Athenis^ optimo cuique acci- 
dfire solltum est, ut in exsilium pelleretur. ^\. 

The poems of Virgil have delighted and charmed my mitid wonder- 
fully. The orator hoped, that he should soothe the excited minds of 
the citizens by mild words. Hast thou wiped off the table ? it has 
already been wiped off. I give (ago) thee very great thanks, that thou 
hast removed from me all pain by thy consolation. Under tlie reign 
{imperare, abl. abs.) of Napoleon (Napoleo, onis) nearly all Europe 
burned (perf ) with war. I hope, that all citizens, will burn with a 
desire, to fight (gen. of gerund) for the safety of [their] country. Who 

» at Alexandria. See Synt. § 92. 2 ^t Athens. See Synt. § 92. 


knows, whether fortune will always smile upon him (sibine). I know 
not, why you have derided me. I have not dissuaded the peace, and 
have been convinced, that neither will you dissuade it. We hope, that 
our souls will remain after death. Tell me, why thou hast persisted in 
thy opinion. The general ordered the soldiers to attack the city. The 
soldiers, having been commanded (part. perf. i^ass. of jvieo) to assault 
the city, forthwith executed the command (= what had been com- 
manded). I fear, that this pain will ever stick in my mind. The re- 
membrance of (gen.) this bloody war, has rernamed (= stuck) in the 
minds of all. 

The hunters have sweated and frozen. After it has lightened, it 
thunders. The soldiers have pressed the enemies veiy much. From 
the countenance of the man, shone (perf) dignity ana modera- 
tion. I have rejoiced, that (quod) thou hast dared to speak thy opin- 
ion freely. The Carthaginians were accustomed (perf) formerly to 
use elephants in war. 


^ 61. I. Perfect : — si ; Supine : — sum ; 

a) The stem ends in d or t: 

1. Claudo, clausi, clausum, daudere, to close. 

In the compounds au passes into w, as : includo, usi, usum, 
ud^re, to include. 

2. Divido, (^ivlsi, di visum, dividere, to divide. 

3. Laedo, laesi, laesum, laedere, to hurt. 

In the compounds ae passes into i, as : iUido, isi, isum, idere, 
to strike against. 

4. Litdo, lusi, lit sum, Ivdere, to play. 

5. Flaudo, p la usi, plausum, plaudere, to clap. 

So also applaudo (I applaud) ; in the remaining compounds 
au passes into o, as : explodo, osi, osum, odere, to clap off^ drive off. 

6. Rddo, rdsi, rdsum, rddere, to shave, shear. 

7. Rodo, rosi, r osum, rodere, to gnaw, slander. 

8. Triido, trusi, trusum, trudere, to thrust. 

9. Vddo, vddere, to go ; without Perf and Sup. 

But the compounds have both, as : evado, e v a s i, e v a- 
s u m, evadere, to come out, escape. 

To these succeed the following : 
10. Cedo, cessi, cessum, ce<5?c/g, to give way. 
•• 11. Mitto, mi si, mis sum, mittere, to send. 


170 IRREGULAR VERBS. [^ 61. 

12. Qudtio, (Perf. wanting,) quassum, ^^a^e/*^, to shake. 

The compounds change qua into cu and form the Perf., as : 
decutio, decussi, decussum, decutere, to shake down, 

b) The stem ends in g^ c, or ct : 

13. Mergo, mersi, mer sum, wer^e/e, to phinge. 

14. SpargOy spar si, spar sum, spargere,\o scatter (sow). 

In the compounds a of the stem passes into c, as : consper- 
go, ersi, ersum, ergere, to besprinkle. 

15. Tergo, tersi, t ersum, tergere, to wipe, (kindred form 
oUerg^e HO. VII 3). 

16. F'lgo, fi X i, fi xum, f'lgere, to fix. 

17. Flecto, flexi, flexu m, fiecttre, to bend. 

18. Necto, nexui, nexu m, neater e^ to unite, plait. 

19. Pecto, pexiy pexum, pectere, to comb. 

20. Plecto, (plexi,) pie xum, plectere, to iplait 

c) Finally, the two following belong here. 

21. Fremo, pr e s si, pres sum, premere, to press. 

In the compounds e of the stem before m passes into i, as : 
comprimo, essi, essum, imere, to press together. 

22. Fluo (for Jluvo), fl u xi, fluxu m, fluere, to flow. 

XC V. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Committere, to commit. elidere,.<o ffctsft, break, spectator, oris, m. spec- 

concedere, to concede^ imprlmere, to impress. tator. 

allow. copulare, to join. cachinnatio, onis,^. an 

connectere, to join to- I'ocare {in c. abl.), to unrestrained laugh. 

gether, connect. place, set. histrio, on is, m. actor. 

corradere, to scrape fe- Hbra, ae,/. a pound. perpetuitas, atis,/. sta- 

gether. modms^ i, m. a bushel. bility, perpetuity. 

deludere, to deceive. regnum, i, n. reign, imprudens, tis, una- 
eludere to mock. kingdom. tvares. 

discludere, to separate, praecordia, orum, n. viritim, adv. man by 
diaphragm. man. 

Temphim Jani bis post Numae regnum clausum est. Si ridere con- 
cessum sit, vituperatur tamen cachinnatio. Si concesseris, esse deum ; 
confitendum tibi est, ejus consiho mundum administrari. In omnium 
animis dei notionem impressit ipsa natura. Magna vis est conscien- 
tiae, et magna in utramque partem, ut neque timeant [ii], qui nihil com- 
miserint, et poenam semper ante oculos versari putent [ii], qui pec- 
carint. Virtutes ita copulatae connexaeque sunt, ut omnes omnium 
particlpes sint. Caesar populo praeter frumenti denos medics ac toj 


tidem olei libras trecenos quoque nummos virritim divisit Qui difFi- 
dit perpetuitati bonorum suorum, timeat necesse est, ne aliquando, 
amissis illis, sit miser. Plato duas partes amnmi, iram et cupiditatem, 
locis disclusit : iram in pectore, cupiditatem subter praecordia locavit, 
Omnis Gallia in tres partes divisa est. Si quis irnprudens te laeserit, 
ne ei irascere. Si vitae molli et efFeminatae te dederis, brevi tempore 
omnes nervi virtutis elisi erunt. Cur me elusistis ! Nescisne, a perf ido 
amico me delusum esse 7 Histrionibus, qui heri praeclare partes suas 
sustinuerunt, omnes spectatores applauserunt. Epicuri de vita beata 
sententia ab omnibus acutioribus philosophis explosa est Sunt multi, 
qui in pecunia corrasa vitae felicitatem »collocatam esse putent 

XC VI. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Concludere, to include, emergere, to emerge^ exagitare, to disquiet 

confluere, to Jlow to- rise up^ work one's exanimare to kill, 

gether^ assemble. self out. exsibilare, to hiss off. 

diffluere, tofowasun- detrudfire, to thrust fugare, to put to fight. 

der, run into. down. hasta, ae,/. spear. 

defigere, to fix, render extrudere, to thrust nebula, ae,f. a mist. 

firm^ to turn upon from. [dispel, clypeus, i, m. a shield. 

something. discutere, to drive away, stimulus, i, m. goad. 

transfigere, to transfix, dispergere, to disperse, caligo, in is,/, darkness. 

deflectere, to deviate. dispicio, spexi, spec- salvus, a, um, safe. 

demergere, to plunge tum 3. to open the mobilis, e, changeable. 

under, sink, suppress. eyes. quondam, adv formerly. 

Te in tantum luctum et laborem detrusum esse, graviter doleo. Cur 
aedibus istum extrusisti ? Spero, amicum aegrotum e morbo evasurum 
esse. Si animus e corpore evaserit, tum demum vivet et vigebit. Sole 
orto, caligo discussa est. Omnia pericula, quae urbi irapendebant, 
ducis fortitudo et consilium discussit Marius senile corpus paludibus 
demersum occultavit. Animus coelestis ex altissimo domicilio depres- 
sus et in terram quasi demersus est. Leges, per longum tempus hos- 
tium vi demersae, tandem emerserunt. Deus immortalis sparsit ani- 
mos in corpora humana. Omnia, quae nunc artibus conclusa sunt, 
quondam dispersa et dissipata fuerunt. Epaminondas quum superas- 
set Lacedaemonios apud Mantineam, atque ipse gravi vulnere exani- 
mari se videret, ut primum dispexit, interrogavit, salvusne esset clypeus. 
Quum salvum esse a flentibus suis audisset, rogavit, essentne fugati 
hostes. Quum id quoque audivisset, evelli jussit eam, qua erat .traiis- 
fixus, hastam. Alia omnia incerta sunt, caduca, mobilia: virtus est 
una altissimis defixa radicibus. Cicero omnes suas curas cogitationes- 

172 IRREGULAR VERBS. [^ 61. 


que in reipublicae salute^ defixit. Qui serael a veritate deflexit, ei ne 
Terum quidem dicenti fides haberi solet. Non credo, te unquam de 
virtutis via deflexurum esse. Die, cui banc coronatn nexueris. Ingens 
hominuin multitudo in urbem confluxit, ludos publicos spectatum. ,^ 

The Romans closed (perf.) the temple of Janus twice after the reign 
of Numa. If it is conceded to me by thee, that there is a God, 
ihou must confess that the world is managed by his counsel. What thou 
hast promised, thou must hold to [tenere, gerundive). The idea(= no- 
tion) of God, is impressed upon (abl.) the souls of all men by nature 
lierself. Men, by whom crimes have been committed, are disquieted 
by the goads of conscience. God has connected all parts of the world 
together (inter se). Hast ♦hoji heard, that grain has been distributed 
to (dat.) the poor by the king? • A virtuous (= partaking of virtue) 
man will be happy, even when he shall have lost all the gifts of for- 
tune. Plato believes, that anger and passion are separated from 
the reason and understandin;^ The general has divided all the troops 
into four parts. It is not doubtful, that a soft and efifeminate^life will, 
in a short time, enfeeble all the powers (= nei-ves^t of virtue. Know- 
est thou not, that the faithless friend has deceived me ?^~]tjasi'{i= -yes^^^ 
terday) evening, the actors were (perf) applauded by all. Hast thou ^ 
heard, that lately all the actors have been hissed and clapped off? 
Many think, that, if they have scraped together (subj.) much gold, they 
may be happy. The heads of the captives were sheared (perf) by the 
fioldiers. What misery has brought thee (= thrust thee down) into so 
great grief? That (iste) man hast justly been thrust from the house. 

I hope, that we shall escape the danger. When once (quando) a 
(aliquod) dream has turned out (evadere) true, many men believe, that 
this has not happened by chance. The sun has driven away the mists. 
All dangers which threatened the state, are dispelled by the wisdom 
and bravery of the general. I hope, that thou wilt soon emerge from 
the misfortune into which fortune has plunged thee. Immortal souls 
have been placed (= sown) by God, in mortal bodies. Our soldiers 
attacked (perf) the enemies dispersed and put them to flight. All the 
cares and thoughts of Cicero were turned upon the welfare of the re- 
public. I know, that thou wilt never deviate from the path of virtue 
through wickedness. For (dat.) whom is this crown plaited? I be- 
lieve there is a great multitude of men assembled in the city, in order 
to behold (sup.) the public games. It is known, that the Romans ^ 
later (posterior) times, ran into (diffluere) luxury. 


§ 62. II. Perfect : — ui ; Supine : — tum^ — \tiim^ — sum, 

1. Colo, colui, cultum, colere, to attend to, cultivate, 

2. Consulo, consului, cdnsultum, consulere, to deliber- 
ate ; c. ace, to consult some one ; c. dat, to consult for 
some one. 

3. Occvlo, occiilui, oc cultum, occvlere, to conceal. 

4. Rdpio, rapui, raptum, rapere, to snatch, plunder, carry off 

Compounds: — ripio, — ripui, — reptum, — ripere, as: arrlpio, / 
seize, appropriate to myself. 
6. Sero, s erui, s ertum, serere, to join together. 
6. Texo, texui, textum, texere, to weave. 

7. Ah, ahii, altum, dlere, to nourish. 

8. Cumbo, cuhui, cuhltum, cumber e, to lie. 

The simple verb is not used, but its compounds, as: discum- 
bfire, to lie down. 

9. Depso, depsui, depstum, depsere^ to knead. 

10. Fremo, fremui, fr emitum, fremere, to murmur, 

1 1. Gem/), g emui, g emitum, gemere, to groan, deplore. 

1 2. Gigno, genui, genltum, gignere, to beget, produce. 

13. Molo, molui, m, oil turn, molere, to grind. 

14. Pinso, pinsui, pinsltum (and pinsum, pistum), pin- 
sere, to bray, pound. 

15. Pono, posui, posltum, ponere {in c. abl. ), to place, lay. 

Pono arises from posino, and posui from posivi. 

16. V^TTW, vomui, vomltum, vomer e, to vomit. 

17. Frendo, frendui, fresum or fr essu m, frendere, to 

1 8. Meto, messui, messu m^ metere, to mow, reap. 

Remark. The following want the Sup. : sterto, stertui, stertere, to 
snore, strepo, ui, ere, to rustle, sound, resound ; tremo, ui, ere, to trem- 
ble ; the compounds of pesco, as : compesco, compeseui, compescere, 
to restrain ; volo, ui, velle, to unsh ; and the compounds of cdlo except 
percellere : excello, antecello, praecello / excel, Pf cellui ; excelsus and 
praecelsus (lofty, distinguished) are used adjectively. 

174 IRREGULAR VEEBS. [§ 62. 

XCVIL Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Ampere, to seize upon, depugnare, to fight (for sepulcrum, i, n. grave^ 

dirlpere, to plunder. life or death). burial. 

conserere, to join to- jurare, to swed^. tegumentum, i, n. cover, 

gether, to be hand to suo, sui, sufiim 3. to covering, 

hand. sew. commutatio, onis, f, 

demetere, to cut down, progredior, gressus change. 

demittere, to let down, sum, gredi 3. to step migratio, onis,/. m^ra- 

letfail. Jorth. tion. 

disserere, to discuss, caerimonia, ae,yi sane- recordatio, onis, f. re- 
speak, tity, religious cere- collection. 

ingignere, to implant. many. mutus, a, um, dumb. 

praeponere, to place be- praetorium, i, n. gener- supremus, a, um, last, 

fore. aPs tent. mature, adv. speedily. 

In omnibus negotiis, priusquam aggrediare, consulto opus estl; 
ubi autem consulueris, mature rem ipsam aggredere. Socrates supre- 
mo vitae die multa de immortalitate animorum disseruit. Manibus 
consertis, milites nostri fortitudlne excelluerunt Animus moderatur 
et movet id corpus, cui praepositus est. Zeno in una virtute beatam 
vitam posuit. Natura ingeniiit homini cupiditatem verum inveniendL 
Omnibus animalibus a natura ingemta est conservandi sui custodia. 
Alexander, victor tot regum atque populorum, irae succubuit. Spero, 
te semper maximo studio in litteras incubiturum esse. Caerimonias 
sepulcrorum homines, maximis ingeniis praediti, non tanta cura coluis- 
sent, nisi haerferet in eorum mentibus, mortem non interltum esse om- 
nia delentem, sed quandam quasi migrationem commutationemque 
vitae, quae in claris viris et feminis dux in coelum soleret esse. Si 
ingenium tuum artibus litterisque excultum erit, et tibi et aliis utilis 
eris. Dux, ne milites animum demitterent, vulnera sibi inflicta occu- 
luit Ne crede, uilum peccatum deo occukum manere. Tegumenta 
corpdrum vel texta, vel suta sunt. Quis pulchram illam vestem texiiit ? 
Oratio tua totos nos ad se rapiiit. Quaerit Socrates, unde animum ar- 
ripuerimus, si nullus fuerit in mundo. Expugnata urbs ab hostibiis 
direpta est. Scipio pugnavit cum Hannibale, prope nato in praeforio 
patris, fortissimi ducis, alto atque educato inter arma. Cui non locus 
ille mutus, ubi altus aut doctus est, cum grata recordatione in mente 
versetur? Agricolae frumentum non solum jam demessuerunt, sed 
etiam demessum in horrea congesserunt Ipse Hector toto pectore tre- 
mCiit, quum Ajax multa cum hilaritate progrederetur depugnaturus cum 

there is need of one's deliberating. 


Tne Romans sent (perf.) ambassadors, in order io consult (part fut 
act.) the oracle. I know, that thou hast cared for me and mine. The 
soldiers were (perf.) hand to hand with the enemies. The soldiers 
swore, that they would not desert [their] general. God has placed 
the soul before the body. Nature has produced gold, silver, brass, iron, 
in short (denique) all metals for the use of men. The desire tojind 
(gen. of the gerund) the truth (= what is true), is implanted in the 
human race by nature. I rejoice, that thou hast applied thyself with 
so great zeal to literature. I doubt not, that the wise [man] w ill never 
sink under the pains of the body. If thou shalt have cultivated thy 
genius by arts and literature, thou wilt be useful both to thyself and to 
[thy] native land. I hope, that thou wilt always honor thy parents. 
Why hast thou concealed thy faults from me ? didst thou think, that 
thou wouldst always conceal them from me ? The enemies, ajler they 
had taken the city, (abl. abs.), killed (perf) the citizens and plundered 
their goods. The wise [man] will be happy, even when all the gifts 
of fortune may be snatched from him. Gratefully we remember the 
place (ace.) where we were nourished and brought up. 

§ 63. III. Perfect : — vi ; Supine : — turn. 

The stem of the Pres. is strengthened by n or r ; 

1. Li-n-o, I e V i, lltum, /iwe?-g, to besmear. 

2. Si-n-o, sivi, situm, sinere, to let, permit. 

3. Se-r-Oy sevi, sdtum, screre, io sow. 

In the compounds, a of the Sup. passes into i, as : consCro, 
consevi, consltum, conserere, to seed down, plant. 

The following have suffered a transposition of letters in the 
Perf and Sap. : 

4. Cer-n-o, crevi, cretu m, cernere, to sift, discern. 

The Perf and Sup. occur only in the compounds. 

5. Sper-n-o, sprevi, spr etu?n, spernere, to spurn. 

6. Ster-n-o, strdvi, stratum, sternere, to spread. 

Finally there belong here the following in sco : 

7. Cre-sc-o, crev i, cr etum, crescere, to grow. 

So : accrescere, to grow to, increase, excrescere, to grow up, 
decrescere, to decrease, recrescere, to grow again, concrescere, to 
grow together ; the remaining compounds want the Sup. 

8. No-sC'O, novi, no turn, noscere, to be acquainted with. 

176 IRREGULAR VERBS. [^ 63. 

So : internosc^re, to distinguish, ignoscere, to pardon, pernos- 
cere, to become thorovgMy acquainted with, praenoscere, to become 
acquainted with before ; but, cognoscere, to become acquainted with, 
agnoscere, to perceive, praecognoscere, to become acquainted with 
previously, recognoscere, to become acquainted with again, to re- 
view, form the Sup. in ilum, as : cogmtum. 

^. Pa-sc-o, pdvi, pa stum, pascere, to pasture, feed- 

10. Quie-sc-o, guievi, quietum^ quiescere, to rest. 

11. Sci-sc-o, sclvi, scitum, 5mce/e, to decide. 

12. Sue-sc-o, suevi, sue turn, 5we5cere, to be accustomed. 

XCVIII. Wbi'ds to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Decemere, to deter- under, place under, to obtrectatio, onis, /. de- 
mine, to discern. subject. traction, grudge. 

seceriiere, to sever, sep- importare, to import. venustas, aUs,f loveli- 

arate. concionari, to har- ness. 

inserere, to sow in, im- rangue the people. corpor«us, a, um, cor- 

plant. invidia, ae, f envy, poreal. 

oblinere, to besmear, hatred. communis, e, common, 

daub. vinea, ae,/. the vine. known by all. 

prosternere, to pros- butyrutn, i, n. butter. ibi, adv. there. 

trate. comitia, orum, n. as- opportune, adv. oppor- 

consternere, to strow. sembly of the people. tundy. 

substernere, to spread messis, is,/, crop. sublto, adv. suddenly. 

Insita est nobis corporis nostri carltas. Ibi messis non est, ubi 
satum non est. Omne, quod erat concretum atque corporeum, deus 
substravit animo. Vita tua malevolorum obtrectationes et invidias 
prostravisti. Probus, imperator, Aureum montem apud Moesiam su- 
periorem vineis consevit, Proelio commisso, omnia longe lateque telia, 
armis, cadaveribus constrata erant. Sceleratum hominem conscientia 
spretae virtulis exagitat. Die, cur consilium meum spreveris. Audi, 
puer! Mater te rogat, tiur panem butyro oblitum oblUus sis edere. 
Displicet, qui se externis moribus oblevit. Rem dubiam decrevit saepe 
vox opportune emissa. Venustas et pulchritudo corporis secreta non 
est a valetudlne. Cato concionatus est, se comitia haberi non siturum 
(esse). Galli vinum ad se omnino importari non siverunt. Cur desisti 
(desivisti) istum librum leg6re ? Thebanorum potentia, quoad iis 
Epaminondas et Pelopldas praefuerunt, mirum in modum crevit. Ami- 
citia nostra cum aetate accrevit. Non dubitamus, quin flumen, quod 
sublto accrevit, etiam sublto decreturum sit 


XCIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adsciscere, to adopt. deponere, to lay aside, luxuries, ei,/. extrava- 

assuescere, (c. dat.) to sacra, orum, n. sacred gance. 

accustom one's self, to rites. alienigena, ae, foreign, 

he accustomed (to auctor, oris, m. author, from another country, 

something). adviser; me auctore, assiduus, a, urn, iinre- 

consuescere, to accus- on my advice. mitting, constant. 

torn one^s self, to be reWgxo, on'is, f religion, dilucidus, a, um, dear. 

accustomed. scrupulousness. quotidianus, a, um, 

approbare^fo approve, superstitio, oiiis,/ su- daily, 

levare [c. ahl.) to relieve, perstition. fiitlVis, e, frivolous. 

free. suavitas, atis,/. amia- paululum, adv. a little, 

privare (c. abl.), to de- hleness, amiable dispo- 

prive. sition. 

Multi homines, labori assiduo et quotidiano assueti, quum tempesta- 
tis caussa prodire prohibentur, ludis delectantur. Demosthenes sum- 
ma voce versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare consuevit. Numam 
Pompilium, regem alienigenam, patribus auctoribus, sibi ipse populus 
adscivit. Cereris sacra populus Romanus a Graecis adscita maxima 
religione coluit. Ubi animus paululum e negotiis requieverit, ad te 
advolabo, in cujus amore et suavitate spero me conquieturum omnes- 
que curas doloresque depositurum esse. Si amici mei mores perno- 
veris, spero, te ejus innocentiam agniturum eique ignoturum esse. Si 
luxuriem orationis tuae depaveris, magni oratoris laudem tiiebere. 
Bestiae, fame dominante, plerumque ad eum locum, ubi pastae aliquan- 
do sunt, revertuntur. Cave, ne incognita pro cognitis habeas iisque 
temere assentiare. Quid est tarn futile, quam quicquam approbare 
noncognitum? Populus Romanus eo magnitudinis (= ad earn 
magnitudinera) crevit, ut viribus suis conficeretur. Quid est tarn 
jucundum cognitu atque auditu, quam sapientibus sententiis gravibus- 
que verbis ornata oratio ? Quo brevior, eo dilucidior et cognitu facilior 
narratio est. Cato, quoad vixit, virtutum laude crevit. Omnium re- 
rum natura cognita, levamur superstitione. ^ 

Nature has implanted in us a love for (gen.) our body. Where thou 
hast not sown, there is not a crop. Believe not, that thou wilt put an 
end to (== prostrate) the detraction (plur.) and envy (plur.) of the wicked. 
We feared, that the soldiers had prostrated all [things]. If thou hast 
(fut. perf ) spurned virtue, thou wilt not be happy. Tell me, why ray 
advice has been spurned by thee. Boy, hast thou eaten the bread 
spread with butter by thy mother? I thought (= believed) that 
mother had not spread it It has been determined by the general, to 

178 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 64. 

attack the enemy. Before thou shalt have separated thyself from the 
wicked, thou wilt seek in vain the intercourse of the good. It is cer- 
tain, that tlie rivers which have decreased in winter, will increase in 
the spring. I am accustomed (perf. act. of consuesco), to read some- 
thing from (gen.) Homer daily. Numa P|rnpilius was adopted (perf) 
by the Roman people [as] king. It is known, that the Roman people 
adopted (perf.) the sacred rites of Ceres from the Greeks. Cicero, de- 
. prived of public offices, found satisfaction in the study of literature. 
When thou shalt have become intimately acquainted with my brother, 
I doubt not, that thou wilt perceive his preeminence. The sheep 
have eaten down the herbs of the field. The shepherd drives (agere) 
the sheep to pasture (= in order to pasture, sup.), 

§ 64. IV. Perf. : — ivi ; Supine : — itum (like the fourth 


1. Cupio, c up Ivi, c up Itum, cupere, to desire, wish. 

2. Peto, petlvi, p etituvi, petere, to seek, strive after 

something, .to attack something; cd) aliquo, to request of 
some one. 

3. Quaero, quaeslvi, quae sltuni, quaerere, to seek. 

In the compounds, ae passes into i, as: exquiro, isivi, isitum, 
irere, to examine, trace out. 

4. Rudo, rudivi and rudi, rUdltum, rudere, to roar. 

5. Tiiro, tr'ivi (for terwi ) , trltuni (for teritum) , terere, to 


The following also in esso : 

6. Arcesso, arcesslvi, ar c e ssitum, arcessere, to bring. 

7. Capesso, Ivi, itum, ere, to seize. 

8. Facesso, ivi, itum, ere, to make {nego\\\\ra.facessere, tp 

make trouble, tp vex) ; to take one's self off 

9. Incesso, ivi, (Sup. wanting,) ere, to attack. 
10. Lacesso, ivi, Itum, ere, to provoke. 

Saepe homines res, quas vehemter cupiverunt, adepti fastidiunt. 
Audistine, ut leones rudiverint.? Bellum ita suscipiatur, ut nihil alilid, 
nisi pax quaesita videatur. Quum omnem antiquitatem memoria re- 
petiveris, tria vix amicorum paria invenies, qui alter pro altero vitam 
deponere parati erant. Ne judlca de re prius, quam eam accurate 
exquisiveris ! Erechthei filiae cupide mortem expetiverunt pro vita 
civium. Omnis Romanorum philosophla repetita est a Graecis. So- 


crates totam vitam aique aetatem contrivit in emendandis aliorum mo- 
ribus. Praecepta virtutis, quamvis contrita sint et communia, tamen a 
paucis observantur. Constat, bello Punlco secundo Hannibalem Italiae 
opes attrivisse. Importunus iste homo multa mihi facessivic negotia. 
Non dubito, quin nova lege civibus negotium facessitum sit. Nisi 
milites propere ex urbe facessivissent fugamque capessivissent, cives 
eos armis incessivissent. Vix hostes milites nostros ad pugnam laces- 
siverunt, quum arma capessiverunt eosque incessiverunt. Leglmus, Ro- 
mauos saepe consules suos ab aratro arcessivisse. Multa sacra, ab ex- 
teris nationibus adscita atque arcessita, Romani religiosissime coluerunt. 

Scarcely had the lion roared, when all the other (ceterae omnes) 
beasts took (perf.) flight. The soldiers, provoked by the enemies, 
w^ished (perf.) to fight, and asked (perf.) of tiie general, that he would 
lead them (se) forth from the camp against the enemies. We have 
sought peace, not war. Do not judge concerning a thing, before it 
shall have been sufficiently examined by thee. History relates, that 
death was sought by the daughters of Erectheus for the life of 
the citizens. W!g^read, that the consuls were brought from the 
plough by the RomaHS. It is known that the Romans have brought 
many sacred rites from foreign nations. As so6n as the enemies 
attacked (perf ) our soldiers, they seized their arms and fought. I 
have taken myself'so hastily from the city, because troublesome 
men vexed (perf ) me daily. I fear, that thou hast provoked the 
friend by thy licentious jests. It is known, that the power (opes) of 
Italy was (perf) formerly wasted by Hannibal. 

§ 65. V. Perfect : — i ; Siipvne : — turn. 

a) TheVtein ends in h or p : / 

1. Capio, dpi, capt%m, copere, to take, seize, receive. 

Compounds : — cipio,^^ — cepi, — ceptum, — cipere, as : perci- 
pio, 1 perceive, incipio, I begin. 

2. Rumpo, riipi, ritptu tyi, rumpere, to break. 

Scdho, scdhi, scdbere, to stitch, and lambo, Iambi, lambere^ 
to lick, want the Supine. *^ 

b) The stem ends in c, g or qii ; 

3. Ago, egi, actum, age7-e, to lead, drive, do, act, make; 

of time : to spend. 

So: circumagere, to drive round, peragere, to cari-y through, 
satag^re, to have enough to do ; the other compounds on the con- 
trary, have : — ^igo, egi, actum, igere, as : ablgo, / drive away, exigo, 

180 lEREGTTLAR VERBS. [^ 65. 

/ expel, (of time) I pass, subigo, I subjugate ; cogere, to compel (from 
codgere), has coegi, coadum. 

4. Fdcio, feci, factum, facer e, to make, do. 

Concerning the Pass. : fio, factus sum, fieri, and its compounds 
see § 76. The compounds with prepositions have in the Imper. 
—flee, as: perfice; the rest retain /ac; from calfacere, however, 
we have calfdce. 

5. Ico, lei, ictum, icere, to strike ; of a league : to con- 


6. Jacio, j eci, j actu m, jdcere, to throw. 

Compounds: — -jicio, — jeci, — jectum, — jicere, as: rejicio, / 
throio hack, reject, subjicio, / throw under, subject. 

7. J^ego, legi, lectum, legere, to collect, read. 

So, allego, / elect to, perlego, / read through, praelego, / read 
before, relego, I read again, snblego, I gather from below ; the fol- 
lowing, on the contrar}', have in the Pres., — ligo, as : colligo, / 
collect, (coUegi, coUectum, colligere), deligo and eligo, / choose, re- 
colligo, / collect again, seligo, / select ; but : diligo, Hove, intelligo, / 
understand, negligo, / neglect, have in the Pei*f exi, as : diligo, 
dilexi, dilectum, diligere. 

8. Frango, fregi, fr actum, f r anger e, to break. 

The compounds : — fringo, — ^fregi, — fractum, — fringere, as : 
perfringo, perfregi, perfractum, perfringere, to break through. 

9. Lmquo, 1 1 qui, lictum, linquere, to \ 

10. Vinco, v'lci, victum, t;mce7e, to conquer, overcome. 

Fugio, fugi, fUgere, to flee, has no Supine. 

c) The stem ends in m : 

11. F^mo, emi, em turn, emere, io buy. 

Compounds: — Imo, Imere, as: eximo, exemi, exemtum, exI- 
mere, to except ; but in coemo, / buy in quantiiies, the e remains, 

d) The stem ends in u or r .• 

12. AcOo, dciii, dcutum, dcOere, to sharpen. 

The comjwunds want the Supine. 

13. ArgOo, argui, argutum, ar^uere, to accuse. 

14. Fxuo, ex Hi, exutum, exuere, to put off. 

15. Indm, etc. I put on, clothe. 

16. Imbuo, etc. I dip in ; c. abl. I imbue with. 

17. Lao, lui, lit turn, /were, to wash. 

18. Minuo, etc. I diminish. 


19. Nuo, etc. I nod, in compounds, as : adniio, I nod to. 

20. Riio, rui, rutum, ruere, to rush (but Part. Fut. ruiturus), 

21. Spuo, spui, sputum, .spitere, to spit. 

22. Statuo, etc. I place firmly. 

The compounds change the a of the stem into i, as : destituo, 
/ desert. 

23. Suo, etc. I sew. 

24. TribOo, etc. I gfve. 

25. Solvo, s olvi, soliitum, solvere, to loose; 

26. Volvo, volvi, voliLtum, volver e, io xoW. 

Metuere (ui), to fear, pliiere (plui), to rain, sternuere (ui), to 
sneeze, want the Supine. 

C. Words to be learned and Exercises for translati&n. 

Afficere, to affect ; af- transigere, to spend foedus, eris, n. league. 

fectus, affected. (time). potestas, atis,y. ^ot^^cr. 

delinquere, to do some- excerpere, to make ex- furiosus, a, urn, mad, 

thing wrong, to be tracts from. insane. 

delinquent. benefactum, i,n./avor. modo, adv. only, jvst» 

disjicere, to throw a- dominatio, onis,/. si/jai/. 

sunder, scatter. 

Eodem modo erga amicos affecti simus, quo erga nosmet ipsos. 
Priusquam incipias consult© et, ubi consulueris, mature f a c- 
to opus est.* Acti labores jucundi sunt. Sola virtus in sua po- 
testate est ; omnia praeter eam subjecta sum fortunae dominationi. 
Unus dies, bene et ex praeceptis philosophiae actus, peccanti immor- 
talitati anteponendus est. Conscientia bene actae vitae multorumque 
benefactorum recordatio jucundissima est. Appetitus rationi sunt sub- 
ject! lege naturae. Victus est Xerxes magis consilio Themistoclis, 
quam armis Graeciae. Quid hominem octoginta anni juvant, per in- 
ertiam exacti ? Quos viceris, amicos tibi esse cave (ne) credas. Pro- 
fecto beati erimus, quum, corporibus relictis, cupiditatum erimus ex- 
pertes. Quid est tam furiosum, quam verborum vel optimorum atque 
ornatissimorum sonitus inanis, nulla subjecta sententia ? Pecuniam 
si cuipiam fortuna ademit, tamen, dum existimatio est integra, facilo 
consolatur honestas egestatem. Milites, captis armis, impetum fece- 
runt in hostes ; hi autem propere fugam ceperunt. Hostes, foed^re, 
quod modo ic6rant, rupto, sublto in castra nostra irruperunt. Si quid 
philosophus in ratio ne vitae deliquerit, eo turpior est, quod artein vitae 

* There is need that you should consult, and act. 

182 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 65. 

profitetur. Plinius nullum librum legit, quern non excerperet. Gives, 
ab hostibus subacti, omni libertatisrecuperandae spe adempta, mis^ram 
transegerunt vitam. Milites yiostium aciem perfregerunt et disjecerunt 
Foedera icta ab hostibus fracta sunt. 

CI. Wards to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Destituere, to desert, gloriari, to glory. pallium, i, n. cloak, 

leave behind. 'mdu\gent'm,ae,f.indid- discrimen, inis, n. c?w- 

instituere, to instruct. gence. tinction. 

effiigere c. ace. to escape, tunica, ae,y. under gar- prosperitas, atis,/.j9ro5- 

exacu6re, to sharpen. ment. perity. \posite. 

involvere, to involve, annulus, i, m. ring. contrarius, a, um, op- 
envelope, soccus, i, m. sock, shoe, liberalis, e, liberal. 

redarguere, to disprove, obsequium, i, n. obe- ingenue, adv. nobly, re- 

respuere, to reject. dience. spectably. 

Quis, honesta in familia institutus et educatus ingenue, non ipsa 
turpitudine, etiamsi eum laesnra non sit, ofFendltur.? Carthago diruta 
est, quum stetisset annos sexcentos sexaginta septem. Pacis nomine 
bellum involutum reformido. Philosophi involutam multarum rerum 
naturam evolverunt. Num tibi unquam placebit, quod omnium mentes 
aspernatae sunt et respuerunt? Milites in ipso discrimine periculi 
cives inermes destituerunt. Quum animus, cognitis perceptisque virtu- 
tibus, a corporis obsequio indulgentiaque discesserit, voluptatemque op- 
presserit, omnemque mortis dolorisque timorem effugerit, cultumque 
dei et puram religionem susceperit, et exacuerit ingenii aciem ad bona 
deligenda et rejiciendacontraria: turn vita nobis erit beatissima. Num 
credis, improborum prosperitates redarguisse dei bonitatem ? Dejanj- 
ra Herciili sanguine Centauri tinctam tunlcam induit. Hippias sophis- 
ta gloriatus est, se non solum omnes artes, quibus liberales doctrinae 
atque ingenuae continerentur, scire, sed annulum, quem haberet, pal- 
lium, quo vestitus, soccos, quibus indutus esset, se sua manu confecisse. 

CII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Deflcere, to fail. dissolvere, <o reZcrx. extenuare, to extenuate^ 

praef icere, to set over, persolvere, to pay. lessen, 

deminuere, to diminish, evuere, to dig up. severitas, iitis,/. sever- 

diluere, to dilute, wea- obruere, to cover up. ity. 

ken. designare, to designate. 

Homines metalla terra obruta eruerunt. Milites in expugnatae ur- 
bis cives ita saevierunt, ut omnem humanitatem exuisse viderentur. 
Divina lex non scripta est, sed nata : qua non instituti, sed imbuti su- 


mus. Nemo est tam immanis, cujus mentem non imbuerit deorutn 
opinio. Pueri aiiimum tenerum virtutis praeceptis imbiiinius. Cog- 
itatio, omnes res humanas fragiles et caducas esse, omnes meas moles- 
tias exteniiavit et diluit. Quae observata sunt in usu ac tractatione 
dicendi, haec ab hominibus doctis verbis designata et partibus distribu- 
ta sunt. Divitiae, quae ad exteris nationibus Romam confluxerunt, 
morum disciplinam severitatemque dissolverunt. Stipendiis, quae dux 
militibus promiserat, non persolutis, seditio concitata est. 

The passions ought to be subjected to the reason. If thou shall 
have spent thy hfe according to (ex) the precepts of virtue, the en- 
trance to heaven will stand open to thee. It is hard to retain (tenere) 
friendship, when thou shalt have fallen from virtue. God has set the 
soul over the body. Some doubt, whether the world may be made by 
chance (ne whether^ attached to casu) or (an) by the divine reason. It was 
uncertain, whether the Romans had (subj.) conquered, or had been con- 
quered. Then (tum) first (demum) will the soul enjoy a happy life, when 
it shall have deserted the body. The enemies have broken (rumpere) 
the concluded league. When anything has been done wrong by a philo- 
sopher, it is so much the more base, because he teaches (= professes) 
the art of life. If any one (quis) has taken (fut. perf.) from us liberty, 
the light of life will be taken from us. Caesar, after the line-of-battle 
of the enemy was broken and scattered (abl. abs.), led his soldiers back 
into the camp. Thou wilt not enjoy a peaceful life, before that thou 
shalt have subjected the passions to the reason. The defenceless cit- 
izens were (perf.) deserted by the soldiers, in the very (ipse) crisis of 
danger. It is known, that the Romans destroyed (perf) Carthage. 

The soldiers fled because they feared (perf of metuo), that they 
should be conquered by the enemies. The metals, which nature has 
hid in (abl.) the earth, are dug up by man. Who is not imbued with 
the belief in (gen.) God ? Parents, who have imbued the minds of 
their children with the principles of virtue and have instructed them in 
literature, deserve well, not only of (de) their children, but also of the 
state. We have weakened the wine by (abl.) water. I hope that this 
reflection will weaken all thy troubles. Already the powers of our 
soldiers were diminished, when the enemies made (perf) an attack. 
By the riches, which flowed together (perf) to (ace.) Rome after 
the destruction (abl.) of Corinth, the ancient discipline and severity 
were relaxed (perf). 

Since the general had not paid [their] wages to the soldiers for (per) 
two months, a sedition was excited (perf ) in the camp. Hast thou 
heard, that the city has concluded a league with the enemies, but that 

184 IRREGULAR VERBS. [$ 66. 

they have broken (frangere) it? After the troops were collected 
(abl. abs.), the general determined (perf.) to attack the camp of the 
enemies. I believe, that I have sufficiently disproved thy reasons. 

§ 66. VI. Perfect : — i ; Supine : — sum. 

a) The stem ends m d or t: 

1. Cando in compounds, as: accendo, accendi, ace en- 
sum, accendere, to kindle, inflame. 

2. Ciido, cudi, cusum, ciidere, to forge. 

3. Edo, e d i, esum, edere, to eat. 

4. Fendo in compounds as : defendo, d efe ndi, d efe n- 
sum, defendere, to defend. 

5. Fodio, fo d i, fo ssum, foderCy to dig. 

6. Fundo, fu di, fusu m. f under e, to pour. 

7. Mandoy mandi, man sum, mandere, to chew. 

8. Fando, pa ndi, pa ssum, pander e, to spread. 

9. Prehendo, pr ehendi, prehensum, prehendere, to 

10. Scando, scandi, scan sum, scandere, to mount. 

In the compounds : — scendo, — scendi, — scensum, — scendere, 
as : adscendere, to ascend, scale, descendere, to descend. 

11. Sido, sldi, (Sup. wanting,) sldere, to sit. 

In the compounds : — sido, — sedi, — sessum, — sidere, as : con- 
sidere, to sit down. 

12. Str'ido, str'idi, (Sup. wanting,) strldere, to hiss. 

13. Verto, verti, versum, vertere, to turn. 

Finally, there belongs here the neuter passive : 

14. Fido, f'lsus sum, fidere, to trust. 

So : conf idere, to confide in, diffidere, to distrust, despair. 

b) The stem ends inlorr: 

15. Velio, vein, vulsum, vellere, to pluck. 

16. Psalh, psalli, (Sup. wanting, )j05a//e?"e, to play the lyre, 

17. Verro, verri, (Sup. wanting,) verrere, to sweep. 

Remark. It is to be noticed, that the stem-vowel of these verbs, 
when short in the other parts, is long in the perf. The two follow- 
ing verbs form an apparent exception : 

Findo, JMif fissum, iindSre, to split, (so also its compounds), 


Scindo, scidi, scissum, scindere, to ad (so also its compounds). 
But both these verbs originally took the reduplication. The same is 
true of the compound : percello, perciUi, perculsum, percellere, to strike 
violently (from the obsolete cellere, to impel). See § 62, II. Rem. 

CIII. Words to he learned and Exercises for transkition. 

Comprehendere, to em- exedere, to consume, liquefacere, to make 

brace. corrode. liquid. 

confbdere, to stab. incendere, to enkindle, proficere, to benefit. 

effbdere, to dig out. inflame. pervehi,<o bear through, 

diffundere, to diffuse, procudere, to forge ; (of convey. 

disperse. money) to coin. colonia, ae,y! colony. 

efFundere, to pour forth ; lacerare, to Utcerate,tear. velum, i, n. sail. 

2) throw q^(the rider), digerere, to dispose, di- furor, oris, m. madness, 
offundere, to flow a- gest. vetustas, atis,/. age. 

gainst, diffuse, spread inscribere (c. dat.) to conspectus, us, m. sig*^. 

over. inscribe, write upon, antiqultus, adv. anderU- 

ly, formerly. 

Constat, Tyriorum colonias paene toto orbe terrarum diffusas fuisse. 
In morte portum nobis paratum [esse] et perfugium putemus. Quo 
utinam velis passis pervehi liceat ! Hannibal patriam defensum ex 
Italia revocatus est. Nihil proficiunt praecepta, quamdiu menti error 
offusus est. Beate vivendi cupiditate incensi omnes sumus. Ingens 
nummorum numerus hoc anno procusus est. Aegritudo animum 
meum laceravit, exedit planeque confecit. Epigrammatis, monumento 
inscripti, litterae vetustate exesae erant. Milites urbem, ab hostibus 
oppugnatam, acerrime defenderunt. Antiquitus magna auri argentique 
vis in Hispania est efFossa. Milites, furore capti, ducem confoderunt. 
Equus repente corruit consulemque lapsum super caput efiudit. Cibos 
mansos ac prope liquefactos demittimus, quo (= ut eo) facilius digeran- 
tur. Quo magis virtutis vim animo et cogitatione comprehenderimus, 
eo magis eam admirablmur. Proditores urbis deprehensi in conspectu 
omnium civium necati sunt. Nonne vides omnium ora atque oculos 
in te conversos ? Multi facultatem dicendi ad hominum perniciera 

CIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Convellere,<o tear away, rescindere, to tear, to motus, us, m. motion. 

convulse. break doum. motus terrae, earth- 

desidere, to sink down, transgredi, to pass over. quake. [ersoever. 

diffindere, to split. mora, &e,f. delay. quocunque, adv. whith- 

discindSre, to tear in nodus, i, m. a knot. scilicet, adv. namdyt 

pieces. scrupuhis, i. m. anxiety. doubtless. 


Qiuocunque te vel oculis, vel animo converteris, divinae bonitatis 
plena esse omnia, intelliges. Alexander, rex Macedonum, Gordli no- 
dum ense diffidit, scilicet diffisus, eum a se solutum iri. Quum Han- 
nibal Alpes transgredei-etur, multa ingentis magnitudinis saxa diffissa 
sunt. Quis tibi vestern discidit? Quid? discissane est? Pompeii 
terrae motu desederunt. Quis nescit, apud Romanes eloquentiam ad 
summum honorem adscendisse ? Caesar, militum virtuti coufisus, 
sine mora hostilem exercitum adortus est. Litterae tuae omnem 
scrupialum mihi ex animo evellerunt. Est boni regis oflEicium, quum 
rempubllcam labefactatem eonvulsamque videt, opitulari patriae. 

The goodness of God is diffused through (abl.) the whole world. 
The sails are spread. Superstition has spread (offundere) darkness 
over (dat.) the souls of men. The king has coined a great quantity of- 
money this year. My mind is torn and consumed by grief (aegritu- 
do). When we shall have eaten, we will take a walk. The city, 
which was assaulted by the enemy, was (perf ) very bravely defended 
by the citizens. Anciently, the Spanish (Hispanus, i) dug up much 
gold and silver (= much of gold and silver). By thy bravery, thou 
hast turned all eyes and minds upon (in) thee. Never has a wise [man] 
trusted to the stability of the gifts of fortune, but rather, has always 
distrusted them. It is known, that the knot of Gordius was not loosed 
by Alexander, but severed by the sword. The general was stabbed by 
the soldiers, because he ventured to quiet their sedition. 

How often has the faculty of speaking (gen. of ger.) been turned to (ad) 
the destruction of men ! The enemies have broken down the bridges. 
Mountains and cities have been sunk down by earthquakes. We had 
already descended from the mountain, as we heard (perf), that you 
were ascending (subj.) it. All anxiety has been removed (evellere) 
from my mind by thy letter. Who does not know, that the long war 
has shaken the state violently ? Caesar by a few words inflamed the 
soldiers for the battle. 

§ 67. VIII. Perfect with the Reduplication. 

Preliminary Remark. The Reduplication consists here, in those 
verbs of which the first vowel of the stem is i, o, or m, in the repeti- 
tion of the first consonant of the stem with this vowel, but with the 
remaining verbs, in the repetition of the first stem-consonant with c 

1. CddOy cecidi, cd5wm, cd^^ere, to fall, to happen. 

Compounds : — cido, — cidi, — casura, — cidere ; so : occido, / 


go to ruin, incido, I fall upon and recldo, I fall back ; the others 
want the Supine, as: concido, idi, idere, tofaU togeihtr. 

2. Caedo, cec'idi, caesMWi, caec?eYe, to fell, kill. 

Compounds : — cido, — cidi, — cisum, — cidftre, as : occido, /JfciK. 

3. Cdno, cecini, cantum, canere, to sing. 

Compounds : — cino, — cinui, — cinere, as : conclno, ui, ere. 

4. Curro, cucurri, cursum, currtrCy to run. 

Most of its compounds are both with and without the redupli- 

5. Disco, didlciy (Sup. wanting,) discere, to learn. 

So also its compounds, as : perdisco, perdidici, perdiscere, to 
learn thoroughly. 

6. Fcdh^ fefelli, falsum,fallere, to deceive. 

Fallit me, U escapes me. — The Part, falsus is commonly used 
as an adjective, /a?5e. Compound: refello, refelli, (Sup. want- 
ing), refellere, to refute. 

7. Pango, peplgi, pactum, pangere, to fasten, to bargain, 

agree to on condition. 

Compounds : — pingo, — pegi, — ^pactum, pingere, as : compin- 
go, to fasten together. 

8. Parco, peperci, parsum, parcere (c. dat), to spare. 

9. Pdfio, pep eri, partum, par ere, to bear (ova parere, to 

lay eggs), to acquire. Particip. Fut.^an^Mrw5 (for^ar^u- 

10. Pelh, pepuli, pulsum, pellere, to drive, repel. 

Compounds : — pello, — puH, — pulsum, — ^pellere, as : expello, 
expuh, expulsum, expellere, to drive away. 

11. Pendo, pep end i, pensum,pendere,io^\xspend.,wei^,Xo 

pay, compensate. 

The compounds have no reduplication, as : appendo, appendi, 
appensum, appendere, to hang to, append. 

12. Posco, poppsci, (Sup. wanting,) joo5ce re, to demand. 

So also its compounds, as: exposco, expoposci, exposcere, to 
demand of request of 

13. Pungo, pupugi, punctum,pungere, to prick, hax^LSS. 

Compounds: — pungo, — punxi, — punctum, — ^pungere, as: in- 
terpungo, to distinguish. 

188 IRREGULAR VERBS. [} 67. 

14. Tango, tetigi, tactum, tangere, to touch. 

Compounds: — tingo, — tigi, — tactum, tingere, as: attingo, at- 
tigi, attactum, attingere, to touch, reach. 

15. Tendo, tetendi, tentum smd temum, tender e, to stretch, 

spread, extend (tendere insidias, to lay snares). 

The compounds are without the reduplication and generally 
with the Sup. : — tentum, as : contendo, contendi, contentum, 
contendere, to draw together, exert one's self, strive. 

16. Tundo, tutudiy tuns'um, tmidere, to beat, stun. 

Compounds : — tundo, — tudi — tusum — tundere, as : contundo, 
contudi, contusum, contundere, to break in pieces, crush. 

Rem. 1. The two following verbs have the reduplication in the Pres. 
and retain it in the other tenses : 

brbo, bibi, bibltum, bibere, to drink (so also its compounds), 
sisto, stiti, statum sistere, to place, stop (so its compounds). 

Rem. 2. The compounds of dare with monosyllabic words (comp ^ 
55, II, 1.) also belong to this class, as : addo, addidi, additum, addere, 
to add, 

C V. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Concinere, to sing to- evertere, to ovtrthrow, proverbium, i, n. pro- 

gether, sound to- demolish. verb. 

gether. inspicere, to look upon, fides, is,/ siring; fidi- 

excidere, to cut off, des- view. bus, canere, to play 

troy. recedere, to go back, with a stringed in- 

obtingere, to fall to retire. strument. 

one^s lot. restituere, to restore. frigus, oris, n. cold. 

confirmare, to render emollire, to soften. innoxius, a, um, inno- 

pemianent. epulae, arum, /. a cent. 

devolare, tofy away. meal, feast. noctu, adv. by night. 

populari, to lay waste. praesto, adv. present. 

Et discas oportet, et, quod didicisti, agendo confirmes. Male parta 
male dilabuntur. Ut hirundines aestivo tempore praesto sunt, frigore 
pulsae recedunt ; ita falsi amici sereno vitae tempore praesto sunt ; 
simulatque hiemem fortunae viderint, devolant omnes. Quid casurum 
sit, incertum est. Quod cuique obtlgit, id quisque teneat. Clitum 
amicum senem et innoxium a se occisum esse, Alexander dolebat. 
Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes, emollit mores, nee sinit esse feros 
(eos). Non tarn utilitas, parta per amicum, quam amici amor ipse 
delectat. Hannibalem non fefellit, ferocius, quam consultius rem hos- 
tes gesturos esse. Ex quo (sc. tempore) pecunia in honoi-e fuit, verus 
reruni honor occidit Silva vetus ceddit, ferro quam nemo cecidit. 


Epaminondas fidibns praeclare ceciiiisse dicitur. Cato scribit, pris- 
cos Romanos in epulis cecinisse ad tibiam clarorum virorum laudes 
atque virtutes. Datur cohortibus signum cornuaque ac tubae con-' 
cinuerunt. In pugna, ad Trasimenum anno CCXVII ante Christum' 
natum commissa, quindecirn milia Romanorum in acie caesa sunt; 
decern milia, sparsa fuga per omnem Etruriam, diversis itineribus 
urbem petierunt. 

Constat, Numantiam a Scipione excisam et eversam esse. Si id, 
quod dixi, falsiim erat ; cur me non refellisti ? Hostes pacem nobis- 
cum pepigerunt, ut milites a nobis captos restitueremus. Cleomenes, 
Lacedaemonius, quum triginta dierum essent cum hoste pactae indu- 
tiae, noctu populabatur agros, quod dierum essent pactae, non noctium 
indutiae. Dux, quum urbem cepisset, aedificiis omnibus, publicis et 
privatis, sacris et profanis, sic pepercit, quasi ad ea defendenda, non 
expugnanda cum exercitu, urbem intrasset. Urbe expugnata, milites, 
furore capti, juraverunt se non aetate confectis, non mulieribus, non 
infantibus parsuros esse. Ovorum inter se similitudo est in proverbio ; 
tamen Deli* fuerunt complures, qui, permultas gallinas alentes, quum 
ovum inspexerant, quae id gallina peperisset, dicere solebant. Mihi 
crede, te tua virtute maximam laudem tibi pariturum 

C VI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Compungere, to prick, conclamare, to cry out doliarium, i, n. cellar. 

mark. together. festivitas, atis,/. agree- 

condere, to found, pre- stimulare, to goad. ahleness. 

serve. sustentare, to preserve, loquacltas, atis, /. lo- 
distinguere, to distin- sustain. [forth. quacity. 

guish. erumpere, to break potus, us, m. drink. 

percurrere, to run nota, ae, /. sign, mark, spurius, a^ um, spuri- 

through. adversarius, i, m. ad- ous. 
perdere, to destroy, ruin. versary. 

Catilina multas insidias Ciceronis vitae tetendit, sed hie omnes illius 
machinationes contudit. Admiramur praeclaros illos viros, qui sem- 
per summis laboribus et periculis ad summam laudem gloriamque 
contenderunt. Garrulus homo loquaciiate sua aures meas plane tu- 
tudit. Die, a quo haec grana tunsa sint. Metellus in Numidiam pro- 
ficiscitur magna spe civium ; avaritia enim magistratuum ante id tem- 
pus in Numidia Romanorum opes contusae hostiumque (opes) auctae 
erant. Verres, simulac tetigit provinciam, maximae avaritiae totum 
se tradidit. Totum librum legendo percucurri. Duae in Capitolio 

* at Delos. See Synt. § 92. 

190 IRREGULAR VERBS. [$ 67. 

aedes multaque alia aedificia uno anno de coelo tacta snnt Agesilaus, 
quotiescunque congressus est cum hostibus, multo majores adversario- 
rum copias pepulit. Tu temeritatis tuae maximas poenas pependisti. 
Conclamabant omnes Carthaginienses, satissuppliciorumase pro te- 
meritate unius hominis, Hannibalis, pensum esse. Milites, nrbem in- 
gress!, non cibum, aut potum poposcerunt, non armorum onus depo- 
Buerunt. Tu ex animo scrupuluni evellisti, qui me dies noctesque sti- 
mulavitac pupugit. Philosophia, si pau[)ertas moniordit, si ignominia 
pupugit, si quid tenebrarum ofFudit exsilium, singularum rerum pro- 
prias consolationes adhibet. Festivitatem habet narratio, distincta per- 
sonis et interpuncta sermonibus. Aristarchus, grammaticus, eos 
Homeri versus, qui spurii ei videbantur, notis quibusdam compunxit. 
Omnes cives, belli calamitatibus confecti, paceni expoposcerunt. Ro- 
mani in doliariis cond^ta habebantvina, pipere et melle condUa. Grae- 
ciae civitates, dum imperare singulae cupiunt, iniperium omnes perdi- 
derunt. Perdltis rebus omnibus, ipsa virtus se sustentat. 

The Gauls (Gallus, i,) have learned from the Greeks, to surround 
[their] cities with walls. If any one has acquired (fut. perf ) riches in 
a bad way (male), he will also lose them in a bad way. The thing 
has turned out otherwise than (atque) I had expected. Alexander, 
seized (capere) by anger, killed (perf.) [his] friend Clitus, an old man. 
Thy friendship has always afforded me the greatest pleasure. The 
faithless friend has deceived me. After my sister had sung (perf) 
alone (solus), we all sang together (perf). It is known, that Scipio 
demolished (perf) Numantia. The old oak, which stood before (ante) 
our house, was (perf) felled yesterday. Since Cleomenes had agreed 
upon a truce of thirty days with the enemy, he laid waste the fields by 
night, because he had agreed upon a truce of days, not of nights. 
We have heard, that peace has been agreed upon (= bargained) with 
the enemy. The ship having struck against a rock, made (perf of 
facere) shipwreck. 

The citizens of the city hoped, that Caesar, who had already spared 
other captured cities, would also spare theirs. It is not to be doubted, 
that our army, which under the conduct of a bad genercd (duce malo im- 
peratore) has acquired for itself great praise by its bravery, under the 
conduct of a good general, will acquire for itself still (etiam) greater 
praise. A victory gained by treachery, redounds (= is) to (dat.) the 
conqueror not for praise but for disgrace. The rashness of Catiline 
was crushed by the prudence of Cicero. The dart will be discharged 
(emittere) so much the more violently, the more (magis) the bow has 
been drawn together (contendere) and drawn up (adducere). As 


Caesar entered (ingredi, subj.) the captured city, the inhabitants extend- 
ed (perf!) [their] hands to (ad) him, and entreated [orare, perf.) him, 
that he would spare them. Why dost thou weep boy ? because I have 
been struck. Who has struck thee ? 

The firmness of the general and the bravery of the soldiers, have 
weakened the attack of the forth-breaking enemies. Scarcely had I 
reached the house, when it was (perf.) struck (= touched) by lightning 
(de coelo). Our soldiers repulsed the enemies at (abl.) the first attack. 
The whole book has been run through by me [in] reading (abl. of ge- 
rund). The traitor has paid just punishment for his offence. As soon 
as the horns sounded (perf. of canere\ all the soldiers ran (perf.) to- 
gether. Virtue sustains itself, even if (etiamsi) it may have lost all. 

§ 68. VIII. Inchoative Verbs. 
All inchoative verbs (in sco), i. e. verbs which express a he- 
coming or beginning of the idea contained in the primitive, fol- 
low the third Conj. and coincide in the Perf. and Sup. with 
their primitives, as : 

inveterasco (from inveterare), inveteravi, inveteratum, invete- 

rascere, to grow old; 
exardesco (from ardere), exarsi, exarsum, exardescere, to be- 
come inflamed, to be kindled ; 
indolesco (from doUre), indolui, indolitum, indolescere, to feel 

pain ; 
revivisco (from vivere), revixi, revictiim, reviviscere, to come 

to life again, revive ; 
concupisco (from cupere), conciipivi, concupitum, concupis- 

cere, to desire (earnestly) ; 
obdormisco (from dormlre), obdormivi, obdormitum, obdor- 
miscere, to fall asleep. 

Remark. The inchoative verbs from the absolete oleo, ui, olere, to 
grow., (§ 58, HI, 4.) vary in their formation in the following way : 

adolesco, adolevi, adultum, adolescere, to grow up. 

exolesco, exolevi, exoletum, exolescere, to become old, 

inolesco, inolevi, (Sup. wanting), inolescere, to grow into. 
Also, obsolesco, obsolevi, obsoletum, obsolescere, to grow old, obsolete^ 
varies from its primitive, solere. Very many inchoative verbs want the 
Sup., as : incalesco, incalui, incalescere, to become warm (from caleo, ui, 
itum, ere, to be warm). Some want both Perf and Sup., as : ni.gesco, 
/increase (from, augeo, xi, ctum, ere). Here especially, belong the 
inchoatives which are derived from substantives and adjectives, as : 

192 IRREGULAR VERBS. [§ 68. 

repuerascere, to become a boy again ; only a small number of these 
form the Perf. which is in ui, as : maturesco, maturui, maturescere, 
to become mature. 

C VII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Coalesce, lui, lltum 3. illucesco, luxi 3. to be- adv^rtere, to turn (hith- 

to grow together, coa- come light, daivn. er). 

lesce. recrudesce, dui 3. to auditor, oris, m. hearer. 

consanesco, nui 3. to be- break out afresh. viscus, eris, n. bowels. 

come well. rescisco, ivi or ii, itum adulterinus, a, um,adtU- 
consenesco, nui 3. to 3. to ascertain. teraied, counterjeit. 

grow old. condemnare, to can- contra, adv. on the con- 
convalesco, lui 3. to be- demn ; capitis, to trary, other side. 

come better, recover. death. quando, adv. when. 

defervesco, vi 3. to burn permanare, to Jiow 

out, subside. through, Jlow along. 

Crede, omnem diem tibi illuxisse supremum. Socratis responso 
sic judices exarserunt, ut capitis hominem innocentissimum condem- 
narent. Ratio, quum adolevit atque perfecta est, norainatur rite sa- 
pientia. Quaeritur, si sapiens adulterinos nummos acceperit impru- 
dens pro bonis, quum id rescierit, soluturusne sit eos pro bonis. Incre- 
dibile memoratu est, quam facile Romnai ei Aborigines coaluerint. 
Quum est concupita pecunia, nee adhibita continuo ratio, quae sanet 
earn cupiditatem : permanat in venas et inhaeret in visceribus illud ma- 
lum. Endymio, nescio quando, in Latmo, Carlae monte, obdormlvit, nec- 
dum est experrectus. Oratori abstinendum est verbis, quae propter ve- 
tustatem obsoleverunt. Convaluistine tandem ex morbo, quo tamdiu la- 
borasti ? Ulius oratoris ardor animi, qui prius omnium auditorum ani- 
mos ad se advertebat rapiebatque, jam plane defervit. Vulnus meum, 
quod jam consanuisse videbatur, nunc recruduit. 

Scarcely had the day dawned, when I commenced ( perf. of ag- 
gredi) my journey. A bloody war broke out (= was kindled) between 
(inter) the Romans and Carthaginians. Catiline addressed (perf.) his 
associates with these words: Our (= to us) age is vigorous (vigere), 
the soul is strong (valere) ; on the other side, all is grown old by years 
and riches. As soon as Caesar ascertained (perf), that the enemies 
were approaching, he led out (perf) the soldiers from the camp. In 
a short time, the minds of all had coalesced into (abl.) so great (tan- 
tus) friendship, that every distinction of rank (ordo et locus) was for- 
gotten. I have perceived with great pleasure from thy letter, that thou 
hast recovered from thy long continued sickness. The sedition of the 


soldiers, which had been quieted by the wisdom (consilium) of the 
general, broke out afresh (perf) during his absence (eo absente.) 

§ 69. Fourth Conjugation. 
L Perfect : — ivi and — Hi ; Supine : — turn. 

1. Sepelioy sep el'ivi, s epultum, "sepellre, to bury. 

2. Sdlio, sdlui, sal turn, sdlire, to leap. 

The compounds have : — silio, — silui, — sultum, — silire, as : 
assilio, assilui, assultum, assilire, to leap upon. 

II. Perfect : — i ; Supine : — turn. 

1. Competio, comperi, compertum, comptrlre, to as- 


2. Reperio, reperi, r epertum, reperire, to find, dis- 


But : aperio, rut, rtum, rire, to open, uncover, operio, rm*, rtum, 
rire, to cover. 

3. Ve7iio, V eni, ventum, venire, to come. 

III. Perfect : — si ; Supine : — turn. 

1. Amicio, {a mix i and amicui, both rare), amictum, ami- 

clre, to clothe. 

2. Farcio, fa rsi, fartum, farclre, to stuiF. 

The compounds have : — fercio, — fersi, — fertum, fercire, as : 
refercire, to stuff full, JUl up. 

3. Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, fulcire, to support. 

4. Haurio, hausi, haustum, haurlre, to draw. 

5. Sancio, sanxi, sancltum (rare sanctum ; but sanctus, 

a, um, as adjective, sacred), sancire, to sanction. 

6. Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, sarcire, to patch, repair, re- 


7. Sepio, sep si, septum, sepire, to hedge around. 

8. Vindo, vinxi, vine turn, vinclre, to bind, confine. 

IV. Perfect: — si; Supine: — sum. 

Sentio, sen si, sen sum, sentire, to feel, think, suppose. 

C VIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translaMon. 

Consentire, to agree dissentire, to disagree, desilire, to leap down, 
with. dissent. transilire,'to leap over. 


194 IRREGULAR VERBS. [$ 69. 

exhaurire, to exhaust. dumfetum, i, n. thicket, coetus, us, m. assembly. 
indagare, to search out. ludibrium, i, n. sport. affluenter, adv. plenti- 
d\spe]]ere,to drive asun- parricidium, i, n. par- fully. 

der, disperse. ricide. immortaliter, adv. im- 

cateiia, ae,/. chain. ciiratio, 6nis,y! cure. mortally. 

munificentia, ae,/. mw- explorator, oris, m. a rursus, arfu. again. 

nijkence. spy. \nor. undique, adv. from all 

documentum,], n.proo/I rector, oris, m. gover- sides. 

Regis sepulcro haec verba inscripta sunt : Probe vixit, improbos vin- 
xity hostes vicit. Hostes victi et catenis vincti in servitutem abducti 
sunt. Imperium justis Icgibus fultum esse debet. Rex, pace compos- 
ita, rempublicam labefactatam sua virtute fuJsit. Virtus difficilis inven- 
tu est : rectorem ducemque desiderat. Artes innuinerabiles repertae 
sunt, docente natura. Vita, si undique referta bonis est, beata dicitur. 
Homines urbes moenibus sepserunt. Occultae inimicitiae magis timen- 
dae sunt, quam apertae. Quis est tarn miser, ut non dei munificentiam 
senserit 7 Dii, induti specie humana, fabulas poetis suppeditaverunt, 
hominum autem vitam superstitione omni referserunt. Continuis bel- 
lis reipublicae opes exhaustae sunt. Quo quis affluentius voluptates 
undique hauserit, eo graviusardenti usque sitiet. Spero, te mecumcon- 
sensurum esse. Cicero Archimedis sepulcrum, septum undique et ves- 
titum vepribus et dumetis, indagavit. Fama est, ludibrio fratris Re- 
mum novos urbis muros transiluisse. Lycurgus nihil lege ulla in alios 
sanxit, cujus non ipse primus in se documenta daret. Hipplas gloria- 
tus est, pallium, quo amictus esset, se manu sua confecisse. Spera- 
mus, pacem omnia belli damna brevi sarturam esse. Una victoria 
omnia prius accepta detrimenta sarsit. Caesar, ubi per exploratores 
comperit, hostes adventare, protinus milites e castris eduxit. Nebula, 
liora quarta sole dispulsa, aperHit diem. Plato Athenis* in Academia 
sepultus est. Eodem loco nostra memoria sepultus est Carolus Odo- 
fredus Mlillerus, professor Gottingensis, vir praestantissimus et de an- 
tiquitatis disciplina immortaliter meritus. 

The state shaken by the war, has been supported by the virtue of 
the king. Trajan alone of (gen.) all the citizens is buried with- 
in (intra) the city [of] Rome. Men have invented innumerable arts, 
nature teaching them (abl. abs.). Cicero's writings upon (de) philoso- 
phy, are filled up with the most excellent principles of virtue. The 
just king has supported his government by just laws. O king, thou 
art to be pronounced (= extolled) happy, who hast always lived up- 
rightly, hast bound the wicked, hast conquered the enemies. The 
cities are surrounded (= hedged around) with walls. Many philoso- 

* at Athens. See Synt. § 92. 




pliers say, that tlie soul of man has been drawn from (ab) the divine 
nature. The horsemen leaped down (perf.) from (ex) their horses and 
fought (perf) on foot (= footmen). I know not, what thou hast thought 
(sentire) concerning my plan ; but I hope, that thou wilt not dissent 
from it. What has been sanctioned by the laws, must be observed by 
men. Solon (Solo, onis) ordained (= sanctioned perf.) nothing con- 
cerning parricide, because it had not been committed before his tirm 
(=r him). Peace, in a short [time], has repaired all the losses of the 
war. All the former (superior) losses are repaired by one victory. 
Whence hast thou ascertained, that my brother will come to-day ? 
Just as physicians, when they have discovered the cause of the sickness 
(abl. abs.) believing that they have discovered the cure, so shall we, 
when the cause of sorrow is discovered, find the ability of curing (gen. 
of gerund) [it]. As the old man entered (subj.) the assembly, all un- 
covered (perf) [their] heads; but as he left (subj.) it, all covered (perf) 
[their] heads again. God has enclosed (== hedged in) and covered the 
eyes with (abl.) very delicate membranes. 


§ 70. 1) Pos-sam^ pot-Hi, posse, to be able (can). 

Preliminary Remark. Possum is composed of pot-is, e (able), and 
the verb sunu 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 



pos-*um, I am 

pos-sim, I may 

pot-m, I have 

pot-uerim, I may 

able (can) 

be able 

been able 

have been able 






















Pluperfect. | 

pot-eram, I was pos-scm, I might 

pot-Meram, 1 had 

pot-uissem, I 

able (could) be able 

been able 

m'ht have been a. 

pot-eras, etc. pos-se*, etc. 

pot-ueras, et<5. 

p6t-uiss€S, etc. 


Future Perfect. 

pot-ero, I shall be able 

p6t'Uero, I shall have been able 

pot-erw, etc. 

pot-ueris, etc. 



Pres. pos-5e, to be able 

p6t-en5 (only as adjective), able. 

Peif. pot-wme, to have been able 

The remaining Part are wanting. 

Fut. wanting. 




CIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Celare (aliquem ali- constitiiere, io establish, effector, oris, m. crea- 
quid), io conceal constitute. tor. [situation, 

(something from desistere, to desist, cease, situs, us, m. condition, 

some one). [ate. inducere, to lead to, adeo, adv. so, so very. 

enumerare, to enumer- induce. injuste, adv. unjustly. 

meditari (c. ace), to mitescere (without \mnium,adv.Jirst. 

think [of something). Perf or Sup.) <o be- proinde quasi,jw5< a* i/*. 

pejerare, to swear false- come mild, tame. 


Pergite, pueri, atque in id studium, in quo estis, incumbite, ut et vo- 
bis honori, et amicis utihtati, et reipublicae emohmiento esse possitis ! 
Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit. Hoc quotidfe meditare, 
ut possis aequo animo vitara relinquere. Quidam idciico, deum esse, 
Bon putant, quia non apparet, nee cernitur : proinde quasi nostram 
ipsam mentem videre possimus. Universum mundum quum cermmus, 
possumusne dubitare, quin ei praesit aliquis effector et moderator ? 
Nihil tarn difficile est, quin (= ut non) quaerendo investigari possit. 
Sic cogitandum est, tanquam aliquis in pectus intimum inspicere pos- 
sit ; et potest Satis nobis persuasum esse debet, etiamsi deum hom- 
inesque celare possimus, nihil tamen injuste esse faciendum. Potes- 
tisne dubitare, quin deus universum mundum gubernet ? Non possu- 
mus. Cur nobiscum ambulare non potes ? 

Alcibiades Athenas Lacedaemoniis servire non poterat pati. Marcel- 
lus pedites primum, deinde equites, quanto maximo possent, impetu 
in hostem erumpere jussit. Agesilaus non destitit, quibuscunque rebus 
j>osset, patriam juvare. Caesar, quam potuit maximis itineribus, exer- 
citum contra hostes duxit. Casus est, quum sic aliquid evenit, ut vel 
non evenire, vel aliter evenire potuerit. Omnes mundi partes ita con- 
stitutae sunt, ut neque ad usum meliores potuerint esse, neque ad spe- 
ciem pulchriores. Ante occupatur animus ab iracundia, quam provi- 
dere satis potuit, ne occuparetur. Vix Caesar milites e castris educere 
potuerat, quum hostes impfitum fecerunt. Quid enumerem artium 
multitudinem, sine quibus vita omnis nulla esse potuisset ? Quern, ut 
mentiatur, inducere possumus ; [eum,] ut pejeret, exorare facile poter- 
imus. Dolorem, si non potero frangere, occultabo. Facile intelligitur, 
nee figuram situmque membrorum nosirorum, nee ingenii mentisque 
vim effici potuisse fortuna. Hoc primum sentio, nisi in bonis, amici- 
tiam esse non posse. 

If you earnestly apply (fut) yourselves to the study of literature, you 
will be able to be useful, as well to yourselves as to [your] friends and 


the state. Socrates thought daily of this, that he might be able to die 
with equanimity. Canst thou tell me, why thy brother is not able to 
come to me to-day ? No. When you contemplate the whole world, you 
are not able to doubt, that it is ruled by a divine mind (mens). The 
wise can be happy, even when they are tortured. If we cultivate (co- 
lere) virtue, we can always be happy. 

Why cannot thy brothers come to me to-day ? 1 do not know, why 
they cannot. But why could they not come yesterday ? They could 
not come yesterday on account (per) of much business (plur.). What 
could have been (= has been able to be) given to the human race, 
fairer and more noble than reason ? The enemies had not as yet been 
able to draw their troops together, as Caesar made (perf ) an attack 
upon (in) them. Who believes, that the world can have been (= may 
have been a We to be) made by chance ? 

§ 71. 2) Edo^ edi, essum, edere and esse, to eat. 

The whole irregularity of this verb, arises from its having forms like 
those beginning with es of the verb sum, which are used at the same 
time with the regular form ; but the form es from edo is long, from sum 

Pres. Ind. 

fmperf. Subj. 

6do, Sdis and es, edit and est, ediinus, editis and cslis, edunt. 

ederem and essem, ederes and esses, ederet and esset, 
ederemus and essemus. ederetis and essetis. edereni and essent 


Sing. 2. ede and es Plur. 2. edite and este. 3. edunto. 
2. and 3. ediio a.nd esto . ediioie a-nd estate. 

Remark. So also its compounds, as : comedo, / eat, consume, comedis 
and comes, etc. The forms not given in the above table are regular. 

ex. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Symbola, ae, /. a con- argentum vivum, n. familiaris, e, belonging 

tribution of money quicksilver, to the family ; res fa- 

orfood; de symbo- spatium, i, n. space. miliaris, estefe. 

lis edere, to eat at curculio, onis, m. com- perrumpere, to break 

common expense. worm. through. 

adolescentulus, i, m. moles, is,/, mxiss. vae, interj. alas! 
young man, yovih. 

Esse oportet, ut vivamus ; non viv6re, ut edamus. Modice bibite et 
este. Heri aliquot adolescentuli convenerunt, ut de symbolis essent. 
Haec herba acerba esu est. Aegritudo lacerat, exest animimi planeque 




confitciL Curculiones frumentum exesse incipiunt Argentum vivum 
exest ac perrumpit vasa. Majores nostri cavere non potuerunt, ne ve- 
tustas monumenta exesset. Quae unquam moles tarn firma fiiit, quam 
non exessent undae ? Vae vobis, qui oranem rem familiarem luxuria 
comestis ! Saturnus ex se natos comesse fingltur solitus, quia consu- 
mit aetas temporum spatia. 

Eat thou and drink moderately. Ye should eat moderately. Age 
consumes all monuments. Where dost thou eat to-day ? I came, that 
(ut) I might eat with thee. I know not, where you ate yesterday. My 
brother had called us in order to eat (sup.). An unripe grape is bitter 
to eat (sup. in w). I feared that the sorrow (aegritudo) would con- 
sume thy mind. Alas to thee, who consumest thy whole estate ! 

§ 72. 3) Fero^ tuli, latum^ferre^ to bear, bring. 

Present Active. 
Ind. ferOjferSfJert, 

ferim u s, fertis, fer u nt. 

Present Passive. 
Ind. ^ror, ferrisj fertur, 

ferimur, ferlmini, feruntur. 

Infinitive, ferre, to bear. 

Infinitive, ferri, to be borne. 


S. ^.ferJeHo PI. 2.ferte,fert6te 
S.ferto. 3. ferunto. 

S. 2.ferre,fertor PI. 2. ferimrni,-nor 
S.fertor. 3. feruntor. 

Imperf. Subj. Active, 
ferrem, ferres, ferret, 
ferremus, ferretis, ferrent. 

Imperf. Subj. Passive, 
ferrer, ferreris (e), ferretur, 
ferremur, fen-emini, ferrentur. 

Rem. 1. The remaining forms are derived regularly from fero, tuli, 
latum : Subj. Pres. feram, as, ferar, aris (e) ; Ind. Imperf. ferebam, fere- 
bar; Fut. feram, es, ferar, eris (e) ; Subj. Perf. tulerim ; Plupf tuleram, 
tulissem ; Inf. Perf. tulisse ; Inf. Fut. laturus, a, um esse ; Part. Ad. 
ferens, ntis, laturus, a, um ; Pass, latus, a, um, ferendus, a, um ; Ger, 

Rem. 2. In the same manner the compounds, as : offero, obtuli, 
oblatum, ofFerre, to offer. From the stem of the Perf. tuli is derived : 
tollo, sus-tuli, sub-latum, tollere, to raise, take away, carry off. 

The Perf and Sup. are from sufiero (i. e. sursum fero, / carry aloft), 
from which, suffer© (L e. sub. and fero), sustuli, sufferre, to bear, endure^ 
is to be carefully dietinguished. 

CXI. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Affero, attuli, allatum 3. to bear away, take tum 3. to bring to- 

3. to bring to, bring. away. gether, compare. 

aufero, abstuli, ablatum confero, contuli, coUa- defero, detuli, delatum 


3. to bring down, praefero, tuli, latum 3. gigas, antis, m. giant. 

offer. to prefer. aeternttas, atis, /. eter- 

efFero, extuli, elatum refero, tuli, latum 3. nity. 

3. to bear forth, bury. to bring back, refer. funditus, adv. from the 

infero, intuli, illatum, decedere, to go forth, foundation, wholly. 

to bring against ; bel- die. qui (for quo), how, by 

lum infero alicui, / doctor, oris, m. teacher. whom, by what, etc. 

make war upon one. 

Ferte misero atque inopi auxilium. Confer nostram longissimam 
aetatem cum aeternitate, et brevissima videbitur. Quid quaeque nox, 
aut dies ferat, incertum est. Incumbe in earn curam et cogitationem, 
quae tibi summam dignitatem et gloriam afFerat Ferre laborem con- 
suetudo docet. Pecuniam praeferre amicitiae sordidum est. Ut quis- 
que maxime ad suum commodum refert, quaecunque agit ; ita minime 
est vir bonus. Bonum civem reipublicae dignitatem suis omnibus 
commodis praeferre oportet. Hoc doctoris intelligentis est, videre, 
quo ferat natura sua quemque. Is denique honos mihi videtur, qui 
non propter spem futuri beneficii, sed propter magna merita claris 
viris defertur et datur. .. 

Aristides in tanta paupertate decessit, ut, qui efFerretur, vix reliqu^- 
rit. Poetae ferunt, gigantes bellum diis intulisse. Socrates eundem 
vultum domum referebat, quern domo extulerat. Quod auri, quod 
argenti, quod ornamentorum in urbibus Siciliae fuit, id Verres abstulit. 
Multi etiam naturae vitium meditatione atque exercitatione sustulerunt. 
Pietate ad versus deum sublata, fides etiam et societas humani generis 
tollitur. Qui, deum esse, negant, nonne omnem religionem funditus 
sustulerunt ? Caritate benevolentiaque sublata, omnis est e vita sub- 
lata jucunditas. 

Bring thou aid to the wretched and the destitute! If we compare 
our longest age with eternity, it will be necessary that we acknowledge 
(subj.) that it is very short. What can bring to us a fairer joy, than 
virtue. The noble (probus) youth bore (fero) and did all, he sweated 
and shivered {perf. in each case). Julius Caesar took away (perf ) from 
king Ptolemy, almost six thousand talents (gen.). What bringest thou, 
my boy ? I bring a present which my father presents to thee. Dost 
thou not know, that Epicurus has referred all [things] to (ad) plea- 
sure ? Pleasure is i)referred by many to virtue. All (plur.) that we 
do, must be referred to virtue. The giants are said (feror) to have 
made war upon the gods. Cicero relates, that immense treasures 
were taken by Verres from the cities of Italy. A fault of nature has 
often been removed (= taken away) by exercise. The enemies were 




SO cowardly, that they did not even bear an attack of our soldiers. I 
did not doubt, that you would (imperf.) bear the injustice offered 
(affero) you with equanimity. Through cruelty we are borne [on] to 
the foulest crimes. We feared, that war would be preferred by you 
to peace. Thou wilt be borne [away] by avarice to base gain. Soli- 
tude takes away the enjoyment of all pleasures. Thou shouldst not 
be borne [away] by avarice to base gain. When the news was 
brought (subj.) that the enemy approached, Caesar led out (perf ) his 
soldiers from the camp. The wretched [man] asked us, that we 
would bring aid to him (sibi). 

§ 73. 4) Voloj volui^ velle, to will, wish. 

no/o (from ne volo), nolui nolle ^ to be unwilling ; 
mala (from magis volo), mdlui^ malle^ to choose 
(would) rather. 


Subjunctive. 1 


nolo malo 


nolim mdlim 



non vis mavis 


noils malls 



non vult mavult 


nollt xnallt 



nolwmiw maliimus 


nollmus malimus 



non vultis mavultis velUis 

nolUis malltis 


nolunt malunt. velint 

nolint rmdint. 



nolebam malebam \vellem 

nollem mallem 


volebas,etc. nolebas,etc.malebas,etc.'veWc5, etc 

. nolles, etc. malles^ etc. 

volam, es. 

etc. nolam, es, etc. 

malam, es, etc. 

Imperative (of volo and malo wanting). 1 

S. 2. nol i, nol i 1 ; 3. nol i t o ; PI. 2. nol i t e, nol i to t e ; a nolunto. | 



volens, ntis ; nolens, ntis ; 

of malo it is wanting. 

Remark. The forms derived from the Perf are regular: volui, nolui, 
malui ; voluerim, noluerim, maluerim ; Inf. voluisse, noluisse, inaluisse ; 
Plupf. volueram, nolueram, malueram ; voluissem, noluissem, maluis- 
sem ; Fut. Perf. voluero, noluero, maluero. The remaining forms are 
wanting. / / q i a/- , 

<*fi' CXII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Defatigare, to weary, nobilitare, to make 
maM weary ; pass, to knoum, renowned, 
become weary. 

publicare, to make pub- 


sectari (c. ace), to fol- make Unding. serius, a, um, serious. 

low after ^ pursue. necessitas, atis, /. ne- ejusniodi, of this sortf 

adstringere, /o bind, to cessity. of this nature. 

Qui virtutein suarn publicari vult, non virtuti laborat, sed gloriae. 
Nonne poetae post mortem uobilitari volunt? Ego non eadem volo 
senex, quae volui, adolescens. Si vis amari, ama. Bono mentis fru- 
euduin est, si beati esse volumus. Docilis est, qui attente vult audire. 
Omnia benefacta in luce se collocari volunt. Si acres ac diligentes 
esse vultis, magna saepe intelligetis ex parvis. Quem docilem velis 
facere, simul attentunr facias o})ortet. Sic cum inferiore vivamus, 
quemadmodum nobiscum superiorem velimus vivere. Praeclare So- 
crates banc viam ad gloriam proximam dicebat esse, si quis id ageret, 
ut, qualis haberi vellet, talis esset. Si quis veram gloriam adipisci 
volet, virtutis officiis fungi debebit. 

Nolilmus in conservandis bonis viris defatigari. Homines nolunt, 
eundem pluribus rebus excellere. Si quid per jocum dixi, nolito in 
serium convertere. Libero sum judicio, nulla ejusmodi adstrictus ne- 
cessitate, ut mihi, velim nolim, sit certa tuenda sententia. Socrates 
noluit ex carcere educi, quum facile posset. Ego me Phidiam esse 
mallem, quam vel optimum fabrum lignarium. Utrum corporis, an 
ingenii vires tibi augeri mavis? Multi sibi malunt melius esse, quam 
alteri. Virtute in alia alius mavult excellere. Quibus id persuasum 
est, ut nihil malint se esse, quam bonos viros ; iis reliqua facilis est 
doctrina. Amicitiae est ea vis, ut, simulatque sibi aliquid, quam alteri, 
malueritrtrHUa-&it. Vae vobis, qui divitias, quam virtutem sectari ma- 
vultis! Malumus cum virtute paucis contenti esse, quam sine virtute 
multa habere. Aristldes, Atheniensis, bonus esse malebat, quam 

If w^e wish to bear (fero) our virtue before (prae) ourselves, we do 
not labor for virtue but for glory. Men [when] old, do not wish the 
very same which they wished (perf ) [when] ypung. If you wish to 
be loved by others, you must also love others. If thou wishest to be 
happy, thou must cultivate virtue. Why does not thy brother wish 
to take a walk with us ? Thou askest why he does not wish ; he does 
wish indeed, but he cannot on account of (per) business. If you wish 
to undertake a great undertaking (negotium), you must make (adhib- 
ere) diligent preparation. Wilt thou come to us to-day, or (an) wilt 
thou not? we wish (Sub. pres.) to know. May you (= you will svhj. 
pres. of volo) also [when] absent, love us as you are accustomed to love. 
If it is not allowed to live as we wish, we live as we can. We know 
not, why you did not wish to come to us yesterday. 




Be thou unwilling to become weary in the preservation (gerund) of 
good men. We are unwilling, that the very same [man] should ex- 
cel in several things. They, who are bound by a certain (certus) sen- 
timent, must defend it, [whether] they will [or] not Wouldst thou 
live in the country, rather than in the city ? Many would (= choose 
to) acquire riches, rather than virtue. Timoleon chose (perf.) to be 
esteemed, rather than to be feared (metuo). The wise choose to 
stand upon (abl.) their own judgment, rather than [upon that] of an- 
other. Who would not rather be virtuous (=: partaking of virtue, 
compos), than rich? Would you rather live in the city, than in the 
country ? we would rather live in the country. 

§ 74. 5) Eoy ivi, itum, ire, lo go. 







F. Perf 

eo, is, It, i-mus, itis, eunt 
i-bam, i-bas, i-bat, etc. 
l-6o, i-bis, i-bit, etc. i-bunt 
i-vi, i-visti, i-vit, etc. 
i-veram, i-veras, i-verat, etc. 
i-v6ro, i-veris, i-verit, etc. 

earn, eas, eat, edmus, edtis, eant 
i-rem, i-res, i-ret, etc. 
I-turus, a, uni sim, etc. 
i-verim, i-veris, i-verit, etc. 
i-vissem, i-visses, I-visset, etc. 

S. 2. i, i-to, 3. i-to 
P. 2. i-te, i-tote, 

3. eunto. 


Pres. I-ens, 
Gen. euntis. 

eundo etc. 

Rem. I. In the same manner the compounds are declined, as : exeo, 
/ go out, go foHh, abeo, / go away, redeo, / return. So also : ven-eo, 
ven-ii, (see Rem. 2.), ven-Itum, ven-ire, <o be 5oW(Imper. Part, and Ger. 
wanting). Ambire, to go around something, surround, forms an excep- 
tion, it being entirely regular according to the fourth Conj., as: Pres. 
ambio, ambiam, Impf -ambieftam, ambirem. Part, anibiens, G. amhientis, 
Perf ambm. Sup. amhltum, Part, amhitus (but the substantive is : am- 
bitus, us, a going around), Ger. amhiendum. 

Rem. 2. The compounds generally drop the v in the ending of the 
Perf and the parts derived from it and vi if an s follows it, as : abii, 
abisti, abiit, abierim, abisse, abissem, etc., venii, venieram, veniero. 

Rem. 3. In the simple verb of this class, only the third Pers. Sing, is 
used of the passive forms, as: itur, one goes, ibatur, one went, Itum est, 
one has gone ; the Infin. Fut. Pass, of all verbs is formed by the Infin. 
in joined to their Supines, as : amatum iri. But the compounds with a 
transitive meaning, form a complete Pass, like other transitive verbs, as : 
praeterire, to pass by before, pass over, praetereor, / am passed by^ prae- 


teriris, — ^itur, — ^imnr, — imlni, — euntur; praeteribar, etc.; amlnor {am- 
biuntur, ambiebar) also in the Pass, is regular according to the fourth 

CXIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adire, to corm to. emori, 3. to die. aliquando, adv. some- 
c'lrcumire, to go aroundy casa, ae,/. a hut. time. 

surround. angustiae, arum, y.nar- foede, adv. basely, in a 

interire, to decay. row pass. base way. 

obire, to die. silentium, i, n. silence, intempestive, adv. un- 

perire, to go to ruin, excessus, us, m. depar- timely. 

perish. tare. obviam, adv. against, to 

transire, to pass over, praealtus, a, um, very meet. 

thj'ough, away. high, very deep. sero, adv. late, too late. 

Qui ad nos intempestive adeunt, molesti saepe sunt. Pleraque, ante 
ociilos posita, transimus. Abeunt hirundines hibernis mensibus. Cor- 
pus mortale allquo temi)6re interire necesse est. Pereunt aliquando 
innocentes; quis neget.^ nocentes tamen saepius pereunt. Omnes 
homines summa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio transeant. Quis du- 
bitet, quin ex casa vir magnus exire possit? Potius sero, quam nun- 
quam, obviam eundum est audaciae temeritatique. Omnes cives mili- 
tibus, qui e bello domum redibant, laeti obviam ibant. Si ita natura 
paratum esset, ut ea dormientes agei-ent, quae somniarent, alligandi 
omnes essent, qui cubitum irent. Illud erat insitum priscis, esse in 
morte sensum, neque excessu vitae sic deleri hominem, ut funditus 
interiret. Augustias Themistocles quaerebat, ne multitudine hostium 
circumiretur. Romulus ad deos transisse credltus est. Augustus obiit 
septuagesimo et sexto aetatis anno. Mihi nunquam persuaded potuit, 
animos, dum in corporibus essent mortalibus, vivere ; quum exissent 
ex iis, emori. Quicquid translit temporis, perlit. Quum rure rediero, 
statim te adibo. Pompeius multique alii clari viri foede perierunt. I, 
quo te fata vocant. Abiit ad deos Hercules : nunquam abisset, nisi, 
quum inter homines esset, cam sibi viam munivisset. Muros turresque 
urbis praealtum mare ambiebat. 

Be on thy guard, that thou dost not go to one untimely. Very 
much which is set before our eyes, is passed over by us. Our body 
will decay at some time; but that our soul will decay, we cannot be- 
lieve. Go spiritedly against self-confidence and rashness. Who does 
not know, how often great men come (= go) forth from huts! As 
the soldiers were returning (subj.) home from the war, all the citizens 
went (perf ) to meet them. In the spring the swallows return to us, 




in the autumn they go away. As Caesar was coming out (subj.) of 
the woods, he was (perf.) surrounded by the enemies. When the 
soul shall have left the body, it will be happy. We shall go out to 
meet our parents, who are returning from the country to the city. 
Hast thou not heard, that Pompey has perished in a base way ? The 
orators pass over all (plur.) that appears base to speak (sup. in u). 
The men, who pass (part, of transire) their lives in silence, die (obire) 
without fame. 

§ 75. 6) QueOj quivi^ quitiim, qmre, to be able (can) ; and ne- 
qneo, nequivi, neqiiitum, neqvlre, not to be able (cannot). 

Both these verbs are inflected throughout like eo, ivi, itum, ire, to go. 
Many of their forms, however, occur but rarely and, indeed, in good 
prose, not at all. These forms are omitted in the following table. 


















queatis • 



















F. Perf. 









nequeuntis, etc. 

Supine : 


quitu (of nequeo it is ^ 


The remaining forms 

are w 

antinsj, or 

occur but rarely. 




§ 76. 7) Flo, f actus sum, fieri, to become, to happen. 
Preliminary Remark. This verb forms the Pass, of fado, (See 











fl-o, fl-s, fi-t, fl-unt 

fi-ebam, fi-ebas, etc. 

fl-am, fi-es, fi-et, 
fi-emus, fi-etis, fi-ent 

factus, a, um sura 

factus, a, um eram 

factus, a, um ero 

fl-am, f i-as, f i-at, 
fl-amus, fl-atis, flant 

fi-erem, fi-eres, etc. 

Pres. wanting. 

Perf factus, a, um 

Fut. faciendus (a, um) 
be done. 
futurus (a, um), 70 
All the remaining for 
cur but rarely. 

Pres. fieri ; 
Pf factus, a, um esse ; 
Fut. factum iri, or fu- 
tftrura esse, or fore. 

what should or must 

hat will come to pass. 
ms are wanting or oc- 

Remark. The compounds ofjacio, which are formed from verbs, re- 
tain /acio in the Act. and Jio in the Pass., as: calefScio, calefeci, cale- 
factum, calefacere, to make warm (calere), calefio, calefactus sum, cal- 
fieri, to become warm ; but the compounds with prepositions have in the 
Act. — ficio, — feci, — fectum, — ficere, and in the Pass. — ficior, — fectus 
sum, — fici, as : perficio, perfeci, perfectum, perficere, to accomplish, per- 
ficior, perfectus sum, perfici. Only a few compounds with prepositions 
form the Pass, with Jio and these only in particular forms, as: confit 
(for conjicitur], it is accomplished, confieri ; defit, it is wanting, de/iet. 

CXIV. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Exulcerare, fo imtefe, e\6(\u\, to pronoxmce. crebro, adv. frequently, 

make worse. adversus, a, um, oppo- fataliter, adv. conforma- 

generare, to make. site. bly to fate. [times. 

retinere, to hold back, cogitato, adv. with pre- interdum, adv. some- 
prevent, meditation. polite, adv. elegantly. 

Intueri solem adversum neqmmus. Decori vis ea est, ut ab honesto 
non queat separari. Risus interdum ita repente erumpit, ut eum cu- 
pientes tenere nequeamus. Die, utriim queas, an nequeas mecum ire. 
Quum hostes exercitum nostrum fundere nequirent, in castra munita 
sese receperunt. Quum dux precibus retinere militem nequiret, vim 
adhibendam censuit. Saepe imperiti medici ea, quaesanare nequeunt, 
exulcerant. Quum Demosthenes " rho" dicere nequiret, exercitatione 
fecit, ut planissime diceret 

Ex inimico cogita posse fieri amicum. Nemo fit casu bonus. Si 


fato omnia fiunt ; nihil nos adnionere potest, ut cautiores fiamus. Ne- 
mo ignavia immortalis factus est. Permultum interest, utrurn pertur- 
batione aliqua animi, quae plerumque brevis est, an consulto et cogita- 
to fiat injuria. Homo, quod crebro videt, non miratur, etiamsi, cur 
fiat, nesciat. Non ita generati a natura sumus, ut ad ludum ei jocum 
facti esse videamur, sed ad severitatem potius et ad quaedam studia 
graviora atque majora. Prudentior fis, accedente senectute. Nego 
esse fortunam, et omnia, quae fiunt, quaeque futura sunt, ex omni ae- 
ternitate definita dico esse fataliter. Qua de caussa dicebas, omnia, 
quae fierent futurave essent, fato contineri ? Fieri potest, ut recte 
quis sentiat, et id, quod sentit, polite eloqui nequeat. 

Men cannot look upon the opposite sun. The virtues are so (ita) 
connected and joined together (inter se), that they cannot be separated 
from each other. Ofl;en we cannot prevent a laugh, although (quam- 
vis with Subj.) we would. Say, whether you can go with us, or can- 
not There are many diseases which cannot (subj.) be cured. De- 
mosthenes could not (perf ) at first pronounce " rho," but by exercise 
he effected (= made), that he pronounced [it] very plainly. 

If thou wishest to be learned, learn early. From an enemy, [onej 
often becomes suddenly a friend. Men do not become good by chance. 
If all [things] happen (subj.) by chance, all (omnis) foresight is 
useless. Dost thou believe, that a man may ever become immortal by 
cowardice ? Men become wiser by age. Some philosophers were 
uncertain, whether all (omniane) might happen by chance ; I am con- 
vinced, that nothing happens by chance. 

§ 77. Defective Verbs, i. e. verbs of which only a few forms 

are used. 
1) Aio, I say, affirm, say yes, assent. 
Trts. Ind. aio, ais, ait and aiunt. Subj. aias, aiat and aiant. 
hnpf. Ind. aiebam, has, bat ; bamus, batis, bant. (Subj. wholly wanting.) 
Part, aiens, aientis (as adjective, affirming, affirmative). 

2) Inquam, I say. 
Pres. inquam, inquis, inquit; inqulmus, inquiunt. [Subj. inquiam]. 
Impf. inquiebat or inquibat, inquiebant (Subj. wanting). 
Put. inquies and inquiet. Perf. inquisti and inquit. 

Memini, meminisse (c. gen. and ace), to remember. 

Odi, odisse, to hate. 

Coepi, coepisse, to have begun. 

Novi, n&visse (nosse), to be acquainted with, know. 






All four Perfects and the forms derived from them are entirely reg- 

Perf. Ind. 

memlni, / re- 

odi, / hate 

coepi, I have 

novi, I know 





novgrim (no- 

Plpf. Ind. 

memineram, / 

odgram, I hated 

coeperam, / 

noveram (no- 


hud begun 

ram), / knew 





novissem (nos- 

Fut. Ind. 

memingro, / 

odero, 1 will 

coepero, I shall 

novero (noro), 7 

shall remem- 


have begun 

shall know 



memento, re- 
member thou 

mementute, re- 
member ye 




Inf. Perf. 




novisse (nosse) 



osurus esse 

coepturus esse 




osus, exosus, 
perusus, one 
who hates, or 
has hated very 

coepturus, one 

xcho will begin 

coeptus, begun. 


Remark. Kovi is nothing else than the Perf. of nosco (I am ac- 
quainted with). Instead o^ coepi, coeperam, etc., coeptus sum, coeptua 
eram, etc., must be used, when the accompanying Inf is in the Pass., 
as: urbs aedificari coepta est, the city has begun to be built. The same 
is the case with desino. 

commemorare, to men- 
tion, call to mind. 
evanesco, nui 3. to dis- 

CXV. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Abominari, to execrate, comoedia, ae,/. comedy, credulus, a, um. credu- 
institutum, i, n. an insti- 
probrura, i. n, reproach, 
appear. haruspex, icis, m. sooth- 

hebesco (without Perf. sayer. 

and Sup.). I am in- bellus, a, um, beatdifvl. 
operative. consentaneus, a, um 

proferre 3. to produce. suitable. 

sapio, ui 3. to be wise. 

Rule of Syntax. When the words of some one are quoted pre- 
cisely as he spoke them, inquam is used, and is introduced among the 
words quoted ; but if only the sense of what one has said is quoted, 
aio is used. 

Contraria ea sunt, quorum alterum ait quid, alt^rum negat Cato 
mirari se aiebat, quod non rideret haruspex, haruspicem quum vidisset. 


invidus, a, um, envious. 
dum, conj. (with the 

Subj.) provided that. 
sive (seu), or ; sive 

(seu) — sive (seu), 

whether — or, either 


Ut quimus, aiunt, quando, ut voliiinus, non licet. Sus, ut aiunt, docet 
Minervam. Tu ais, ego nego. Negat Epicurus, quenquam, qui hon- 
este non vivat, jucunde posse vivere. Quasi ego id curem, quid ille 
aiat, aut neget ; illud quaero, quid ei, qui in voluptate summum bonum 
putat, consentaneum sit dicere. Sive tu hoc ais, sive negas ; ego tue- 
bor sententiam meam. Negantia contraria sunt aientibus. Ain' (for 
aisne) tu ? quum res occultissimas aperueris in lucemque protuleris : 
negabis, esse rem ullam, quae cognosci possit ? Aisne ? Aio. Ne- 
gasne ? Nego. Agricola serit arbores, quae alieri saeculo prosint, ut 
ait ilJe in Menandri comoedia. Non credlmus, inqultis, vera esse, quae 
dicimus. Tu vero, inquisti, mihi molestus niinquam eris. Amicus 
mens, inquies, nonne est homo beHus? Praeclare Plato: Beatum, in- 
quit, cui etiam in senectute contigerit, ut sajjientiam verasque opin- 
iones assequi possit. 

I deny that, which thou assertest. If I say yes, he [also] says yes ; 
if I say, no (deny), he also says no. It is said, that thou wilt leave the 
city. I know not, whether thou affirniist the thing, or deniest [it]. 
Affirmative (== affirming) opinions (sententia), are contrary to negative 
(= denying) [opinions]. They said, that thy father set out for (ad) 
Rome. It is delightful and becoming, says Horace, to die for one's 
country. Thou hast erred, thou wilt say perhaps. Never, says he, is 
a friend troublesome to me. 

Meminerimus, etiam ad versus infimos justitiam esse servandam. 
Animus memlnit praeteritorum, praesentia cernit, futura provldet. Be- 
neficia meminisse debet is, in quern colJata sunt, non commemorare, 
qui contulit. Illud semper memento: Qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse 
nequit, nequicquam sapit. Quod tu mihi dixisti, pulchre meminero. 
Qui patriae beneficia meminerint, semper pro ejus salute arma capes- 
sere parati erunt. Memento mori. 

Omnes oderunt eum, qui immemor est beneficii. Libertatis inimi- 
cos, effTci non potest, quin (= ut non) odgrim. Invidi virtutem et bo- 
num alienum oderunt. Virtus necesse est res sibi contrarias aspernetur 
atque oderit. Probos amamus, improbos odimus. Non dubito, quin 
mali me oderint. Vox dira et abominanda : Oderint, dum metuant. 
Cicero, penitus oderat Clodium. Judicem neque studere cuiquam de- 
cet, neque odisse, neque irasci. Non ita amare debemus, ut si aliquan- 
do osuri simus. Romani regum nomen perosi sunt. 

Dimidium facti, qui bene coepit, habet, Oracula evanuerunt, post- 
quam homines minus creduli esse coeperunt. Postquam divitiae ho- 
nori esse coeperunt, et eas gloria, imperium, potentia sequebalur : he- 


bescere virtus, paupertas probro esse coepit. Turpe est, rem bene 
coeptam male finire. Undique in murum lapldes conjici coepti sunt 
Urbs obsideri coepta est, 

Deum colit, qui novit. Nihil milii stultius videtur, quam existimare 
eum studiosum tui, quern non noris. Qui se ipse norit, aliquid sen- 
tiet se habere divinura, tantoque munere dei semper dignum aliquid et 
faciet et sentiet. Quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat. 

You should forget favors conferred, [but] remember those received. 
We shall remember thee, even when thou art absent. If we remem- 
ber the favors conferred upon us (in nos) by our parents, we shall nev- 
er be ungrateful towards (adversus) them. When we remember youth 
happily passed (agere), we are delighted. As often as (quotiescunque) 
I remembered the good principles of my teachers, a desire after (gen.) 
those excellent men seized (occupare) me. 

We hate the men, who are unmindful of favors received. Who is 
there, who does not (quin) hate (subj.) the enemies of freedom ? We 
did not know, why he hated us. Men love the upright, [and] hate the 
wicked. I doubt not, that the wicked hate me. The (is) friend is not 
agreeable (gratus) to us, who loves us as one about to hate us. It is 
known, that the Romans hated (perf ) the name of kings very much. 
Him, who is unfortunate, all hate. 

Thou hast begun the thing well, but ended badly. Scarcely had 
the soldiers begun to fortify the camp, when the enemies were (perf.) 
discovered. Already had the enemies begun to assault the city, as 
suddenly our soldiers came (perf) for (dat.) aid to the citizens. After 
the banishment of the kings, (abl. abs.), two consuls began to be chosen 

I know not, whether (ne attached to the verb) thou art acquainted 
with my friend, but if thou shall become acquainted with him, thou 
wilt love him. Judge not concerning a man, before you know him. 
Do you know the way ? we do not know it. When any one wishes 
to preside over the republic, he should (oportet with Suhj.) be acquaint- 
ed with its laws and institutions. Art thou personally (= from ap- 
pearance, de facie) acquainted with my friend? (= I am not acquaint- 
ed with him), but I desire (opto) to know (= that I may know) him. 

§ 78. Impersonal Verbs (46. Rem.) 

1) Verbs which indicate certain appearances of Nature. 

fulgurat, it lightens, [it fulminat, it lightens, gelat, it freezes. 

thunders, grandinat, it hails, 



illucescit, uxit, it he- ningit, xit, it snows. vesperascit, ravit, it he- 
comes light, day. ptiit, it rains. comes evening. 

Rem. I. These verbs may be inflected through all the modes and 
tenses, as : 

tonat tonet tonuit tonu^rit tonare 

tonabat tonaret tSnnerat tonuisset tonuisse. 

The other Impersonal Verbs here introduced of the first Conjugation, 
have avit. 

2) decet, uit (c. ace.) licet, it is allowed. pertaesum est, it dis- 

it is becoming. miseret, uit it excites gusts. 

dedec^et, uit (c. ace.) it (one's) pity. piget, uit, it irks. 

is not becoming. miseretur, rltum est, it poenitet, uit, it repents. 

Ubet or lubet, uit, it excites pity. [fid. pudet, uit, it shames, 

pleases. oportet, uit, it is need- taedet, uit, it disgusts. 

3) There are also many personal verbs used as impersonal 
in a particular meaning, as : 

accedit, essit {ut or contingit, igit, it falls juvat, juvit, it delights. 

quod), it is added to one's lot. liquet, quit, it is clear. 

{that). convenit, ehit, it is Jit. patet, uit, it is obvious. 

accfdit, it happens. evenit, enit, it Imppens. placet, uit, it pleases. 

apparet, uit ; it is evi- expedit, it is useful. praestat, itit, it is het- 

dent. fallit, fefellit(me), i7 65- ter. [cape^ {me). 

attinet, uit, it pertains capes {me). praeterit, iit (me), it es- 

to. fugit, fugii, (me), it es- refert,retulit, i<co?icerrw 

conducit, xit, it is ser- capes (me), it is un- restat, it remains. 

viceable. known. sufFicit, ecit, it is suffir 

constat, stltit, it is interest, fuit, it con- dent. 

known. cerns. superest, it remains. 

Rem. 2. These impersonals, also, can be inflected in all the modes 
and tenses. 

4) Finally there belong here the third Pers. Sing. Pass, of 
all verbs, especially of intransitive verbs, through all the modes 
and tenses, as : 

Aratur, they plough, aretur, they may plough ; arabatur, they ploughed, 
araretur, they might plough; aratum est, they have ploughed, aratum sit, 
they may have ploughed; aratum erat, they had ploughed, aratum esset, 
they might have ploughed, aratum erit, they will have ploughed ; Inf in 
dependent discourse : arari, (that) they plough, aratum esse, (that) they 
have ploughed, aratum iri, (that) they will plough. — Ridetur, they laugh; 
ludebatur, they played; dormietur, they will sleep ; itur, they go ; ventum 
est, they have com^. 

$^9, 80.] prep6sition, etc. — formation of words. 211 


§ 79. Preposition. — Conjunction. — Interjection. 

1. In addition to the parts of speech which have already- 
been treated of, there remain the conjunction and interjection. 
Of these, the conjunction, as it is employed in connecting sen- 
tences, will be more properly treated of in the Syntax, and 
the interjection needs no special treatment beyond a mere defi- 
nition ; for which see ^ 6. Rem. 2. 

2. The preposition, in addition to the table of prepositions 
given in ^ 34, and the remarks upon its use in the Syntax (^ 93.), 
requires some additional illustration ' here. Most prepositions 
are used also as adverbs, as: ante, post, prope, juxta, infra, su- 
pra, citra, ultra, intra, extra, contra, circa (circum). Nearly all 
prepositions are used in compositixyn, as : m^errogo, c/ecedo, com- 
pono i^com, con, co = cum in composition), etc. Inseparable 
prepositions are those which occur only in composition, viz : 
anil> (ann, an) around, as : amb-ire, am-plector, an-fractus ; — dis 
(di), asunder, from each other, as : dis-cedo, di-spergo ; — re (back, 
again), as : re-vertor, re-cludo ; — se (aside, apart), as: se-p6no; 
— sits (su), up, upon, as : sus-cipio, su-spicio ; finally, the nega- 
tive ne, as : ne-scire. 


§ 80. Formation of Words. 
I. Verbs. 

1. Frequentatives, i. e. verbs which express a repetition of the 
action, are formed from other verbs by adding Uare to the stem 
of the Pres., as : ago, I drive, ag-lto, / drive hither and thither ^ 
clam-o, I cry, clam-ito, I cry continually. 

2. Intensives, i. e. verbs which ex[)ress a permanence or con' 
tinuance in an action, are formed from the Sup. of other verbs, 
as : verto, verti, versum, vertere, to turn, verso, to tarn hither 
and thither ; they follow the first Conjugation. 


3. Desideratives, i. e. verbs which express a desire or striving 
after the thing indicated by their primitives, have the ending 
urio, as : esu-rio, I desire to eat (from edo, edi, essum), coenat- 
urio, Ilong far supper (from coeno, avi, atum); they follow the 
fourth Conjugation. 

4. Inchoatives, i. e. verbs which express a becoming or begin- 
ning of that which their primitives express, have the endings 
asco, esco, isco, as ; exhorr-esco, I shudder (from horreo), con- 
cup-isco, I desire (from cupio), repuer-asco, I become a boy again 
(from puer) ; they follow the third Conjugation. 

5. Diminutives, i. e. verbs which express a diminution of 
the idea expressed by their primitives, have the ending, illo, 
as : (canto) cantillo, 1 chant. 

n. Substantives. 

1. Nouns in tor (fem. tdx), are formed from the supines of 
verbs and designate j^er^ow^ in active relations (actors), as: vic- 
tor, victrix, a conqueror (from vinco, vici, victum). 

2. Those ill io, are formed from the supines of verbs, and 
like English substantives in ing, express the action of the verbs 
from which they are formed as taking place, as : laesio, an in- 
juring (from laedo, laesi, laesum), emendatio, an emeruiing (from 
emendo, avi, atum). j 

3. Those in o, miis, are derived either from verbs or nouns, 
and designate persons with an idea of contempt, as : caplto 
(from caput), blockhead. 

4. Those in its (gen. us), are derived from supines, and sig- 
nify mostly a completed action, an effect, as : morsus, a bite 
(from mordeo, momordi, morsum). 

5. Those in ulus, \da, vlum ; bias, dla, olum ; elhis, eUa, eUum; 
iUus, ilia, ilium, indicate an object as small (diminutives), as : 
hortulus, a little garden, vocula, a slight voice (from vox) ; filio- 
lus, a little son, filiola, a little daughter, assellus, an ass colt. 

Remark. The gender of diminutives follows the gender of their 

6. Those in etum, signify a place abounding in thai expressed 
by their primitives, as : quercetum, oun oak-grove, dumetum, a 
thorn-thicket (from dumus, a thorn bush). 


7. Those ill la (itla), G. lae; — tds, G. tdtis ; tus, G. tutis ; tudoj 
G. tudimis; — edo and ido, G. inis, express an abstract quality, as : 
audacia (from aadax,) boldness, sapientia (from sapiens), wis- 
dom; laetitia (from laetas),joy, avaritia (from avdrus), avarice; 
— bonitas (from bonus), good?iess, celeritas (from celer), swift- 
ness ; — servitus (from servics), servitude; — fortitudo (from fortis), 
bravery, magnitiido (from magnus), greatness; — dulcedo (fiom 
dulcis), sweetness, cnpido (from cupldus), desire. 

8. Gentile Nouns, i. e. names o^ peoples and countries. Names 
of countries are mostly formed from the names of peoples, with 
the ending ia, as: (Macedo, 6n-is) Macedonia; (Thrax, ac-is) 
Thracia, etc. On the contrary, names of peoples having the 
adjective-endings : lus, dnus^ inus, enus, ensis (iensis), ds{G. dtis), 
icus, idcus, alcus, aire formed either from names of countries or 
cities, as: (Cyprus) Cyprius; (Roma) Romdnus; ( Venusia) 
Venusmiis ; (Pergamus) Pergamenus ; (Athenae) Athenicasis ; 
(Arpinum) Arpiiias; (Colchis) Colchicus; (Aegyptus) Aegyp- 
tide us ; (Thebae) Thebdicus. 

9. Patrmiymics, i. e. personal appellations derived from one's 
descent. These have the endings : ides, G. idae, Fem. is (from 
primitives in its and or) ; ides, F. eis (from primitives in eiis) ; 
ddes or iddes, F. as (ias) (from primitives in as or es of the first 
Dec. or in ius),dis: (Priamus) Priamides ; (Agenor) Agenori- 
des; (Tantalus) F Tantdlis ; — (Peleus) Pelides; (Theseus) F. 
Theseis; — (Aeneas) J.ewed<5fe5; (Thestius) Thestiddes; F. Thes- 

III. Adjectives. 

1. Those in e'us, a, um, are adjectives o{ material, as: ferreus, 
iron, ligneus, wooden, marmoreus, of marble. 

2. Those in inus, a, um, and ntus, a, um, are principally de- 
rived from the names of plants and minerals, as : faglnus, heech- 
en, of beech, querneus, of oak, crystallinus, of crystal; aburneus, 
of ivory. 

3. Those in nv^, a, um, emus, a, um, and inus, a, um, relate 
to designations of time and place, as: vernus, behmging to 
spring; externus, external ; hodiernus, of to-day, Sieieinus, eter- 
nal; diutinus, of long duration. 

4. Those in inus, a, um, relate, mostly, to the different kinds 


of animals, as : leporinus (lepus, leporis, the hare), of the hare^ 
caro anserina, goose-meat. 

6. Those in Uis and bilis, express a capability or fitness, as : 
utilis, 'useful, docllis, teachable; amabllis, amiable. 

6. Those in hundus, express the idea of a present participle 
but with more intensity, as : popiilabundus, ravaging (stronger 
i}[\aLXi populans), mirabiindiis,yi^// ofwcmder; those in cwidus ex- 
press Q, permanent quality or Iwbit, as : facundus, fluent, iracim- 
dus, passionate, verecundus, respectful. 

7. Those in osus, tus, olentus or ulentus, Idu^ express fulness, 
abundance or excess, as : arenosus, sandy (abounding in sand), 
auritus, long-eared, auratus, gilt (furnished with gold), onestus, 
loaded down, vetustus, ancient, violentus, impetuaus, turbulen- 
iViS, full of commotion, herbidus, covered with grass. 



§ 81. Sentence, — Subject. — Predicate. 

1. A thought expressed in words, is called a sentence^ as : 
the rose blooms^ rosa floret ; the rose is beautiful, rosa pul- 
chra est. 

2. The necessary parts of a sentence are : 

a) The subject, i. e. that of which something is as- 
serted, as : the rose, rosa ; 

b) The predicate, i. e. that which is asserted of the 
subject, as: blooms, floret; is beautiful, pulchra est. 

3. The subject is a substantive, as : rose, rosa, or some 
other word or clause used substantively, e. g. a pronoun, an 
adjective, an Infin., as : /, thou, he, this, the ivise. The sub- 
ject stands in the nominative. 

4. The predicate is a verb, or an adjective or substantive 
in connection with the verb esse, which in this case is call- 
ed the copula (bond). 

TXossi foret. — Rosa pulchra est. — Rosa^o* est. 

Remark. In the Latin language each form of the Jlnite verb may 
form a sentence ; for it signifies at the same time, a person of whom 
something is said, and that which is said of him, as : amo, / love. 

§ 82. Limitation of the Subject and Predicate. 

1. The predicate may be limited in the following ways: 

a) By a case of the substantive which is then called 
the object, as : virtutem amo ; 

b) By the preposition with a substantive, as : pro patria 

c) By the infinitive, as : scribere cupio ; 

d) By an adverb, as : bene scribis. 

216 AGREEMENT. [$ 83. 

2. The subject, or object may be limited in the following 
ways : 

a) By an adjective [attributive adjective), as : rosa 
pulchra ; 

b) By the genitive of a substantive (attributive gen.), 
as : hortus regis ; 

c) By a substantive which stands in the same case 

as the word which it limits, as : Alexander, rex 

Macedonum, Magnus appellatur. A substantive of 

this kind is said to be in apposition. 

Remark. The attributive adjective agrees with the noun which it 
limits in gender, number and case. This is so even in the adjectives : 
prinms, ultimus, extremus, postremus, intimiis, summus, medius, inJimuSy 
imus and reliquus, although they designate only particular parts of ob- 
jects and are rendered into English by partitive phrases [Jirst part, last 
part, etc. of a thing). 

§ 83. Agreement. 

1. The verb agrees with its subject in person and number; 
the adjective in gender, number and case (nominative). 

Ego scribo ; tu scribis ; ille scribit. Rosa floret. Rosae florent. 
Amicus fidus est. Virtus pulchra est. Corpus caducum est. Puer 
magnus. Puella parva. Corpus caducum. Indus omnium flumi- 
num maximus est. 

Rem. 1. Sometimes, however, the predicate does not agree with 
the grammatical form of the subject, but with a noun implied in it 
(Constructio ad intellectum), which is particularly the case in collective 
nouns, as : pars bestiis ohjedi sunt. — Magna multitudo convenerant. 

2. The substantive, as predicate, agrees with the subject 
only in case ; it agrees with it in gender, number and case, 
only w*hen it signifies a person, and hence, either has sepa- 
rate forms for the masculine and feminine, or is of the com- 
mon gender. The same is the case with the substantive 
in apposition. 

Rosa flos est. Athenae fuerunt urbs. Romulus fuit rex. Tomyris 
fuit regina. Tomyris, reglna Scytharum, Cyrum, regem Persarum, 
devicit. Bactra, regionis caput, sita sunt sub monte Parapamiso. 

Rem. 2. When the neuters of adjectives, pronouns and numerals are 
used as nouns, and signify a number of single things, they do not, as is 

§ 83.] AGREEMENT. 21'? 

generally the case in English, stand in the singular, but in the plural. 
Omnia humana sunt fragilia (everything human). FiUura incerta sunt 
(the future). Haec sunt vera, iUa falsa (this — that). Multa, pauca, etc. 

3. When there are two or more subjects in one sentence, 
the verb stands in the plural. If the subjects have the same 
gender, the adjective as predicate, takes the same gender 
and stands in the plural ; but if they have different genders^ 
in designations of persons, the adjective agrees with the 
masculine subject in preference to the feminine, but in names 
of things the adjective generally stands in the neuter plural, 

PompeiuSf Scipio, Afranius foede perierunt Caesar et Pompeitts for- 
tissimi fuerunt. Terra et luna sunt glohosae. Pater et mater mihi cari 
sunt. Inter se contraria sunt benefidum et injuria. 

Rem. 3. When, however, the subjects are connected by aut—aut, et 
— et (as well — as also), nee — nee, or when it is designed lo make one 
subject more prominent than the others, the predicate agrees with the 
nearest subject, which, in the last case, is always the subject to be ren- 
dered prominent. 

4. When subjects o^ different persons are connected, the 
first person predominates over the second and third persons, 
and the second over the third, and the predicate stands in 
the plural. 

Ego et tu scribimus. Ego et frater scribimus. Ego, tu et frater 
Bcribimus. Tu et frater scribitis. Ego et fratres scribimus. Tu et 
fratres scribitis. Nos et fratres scribimus. Vos et fratres scribitis. 

CXVI. Exercises for translation. ($§ 81 — 83.) 
I. Our body is mortal, our soul immortal. The forehead, the eyes, 
the expressions often lie. God is the creator and governor of the 
whole world. History is a good instructress. The Scythians were 
a very warlike people. Alexander, king of the Macedonians, carried 
on (perf ) a war with Darius, king of the Persians. The divine is eter- 
nal, the human frail. We often hold the unknown for (pro) known 
and assent to it inconsiderately. O boy, hear much [but] speak little! 
Gold, silver, brass, iron, in short (denlque) all metals are produced 
(gign^re) for the use of men. The father, the mother and the sister 
of my friend, have all died within a year. Thy son and thy daughter 
are very dear to me. Lahor and pleasure, by a (quidam) natural alli- 
ance, are united togetlier (inter se). Arrogance, hatred and envy are 


foreign to the mind of the wise. I and my brother returned (perf.) 
yesterday from the journey. I and my brother learn, thou and thy 
brother play. We and my parents rejoice at (de) your return. 

II. Life is short, art is long. The lark and the nightingale sing de- 
lightfully. Experience is the best instructress. The Carthaginians 
were a treacherous people. Wisdom is tlie governess of all things. 
Writers extol Solon, the law-giver of the Athenians, on account of 
his wisdom. Everything earthly is fleeting. The past we cannot 
change. The future is uncertain. Corinth and Charthage were (perf) 
destroyed by the Romans. Dominion (plur.), posts of honor, riches, 
power (opes) are fortuitous. The walls and gates of the taken city 
were destroyed (perf) by the soldiers. The king and queen are very 
dear to all the citizens. The father and mother have set out on a 
journey. Thy brother and sister are very good. I rejoice, that (quod), 
thou and thy brother are well. We and our parents shall set out on a 
journey to-morrow. Thou and thy sister remain in the city. 

§ 84. Double Nominative, 
As there are two nominatives with the copula esse, the 
nominative of the subject and the nominative of the predi- 
cate, so also the following verbs take two nominatives : 

a) The verbs of becoyning : fio^ evado, existo, nascor; 

b) The verb maneo (I remain), and videor (I seem, ap- 
pear) ; 

c) The verbs which mean : / am called, as : appellor, 
vocor, dicor, etc. ; 

d) The verbs which signify, I am made, chosen, appointed 
something, as : creor, eligor, etc. ; 

e) The verbs which mean : I am considered, accounted 
something, I am recognized, found as something, and 
the like, as : putor, existimor, judicor, habeor, cognos- 
cor, inventor, etc. 

Brutus Romanorum libertatis vindex exstitit. JVemo dodus nascitur. 
Gloria Romanorum aetema manet. Cicero consul creatus est. Cicero 
pater patriae appellatus est. Virtus summum bonum judicanda est. 

CXVII. Exercises for translation. ($84.) 

L No one has become immortal by cowardice. Cicero, in the 
Catilinian (Catilinarius) war, appeared (existere) [as] the defender of 

^ 85, 86.] CLASSES OF VERBS. TENSES. i3l# 

the state. The rich often become (evadere) beggars. No one is 
born rich. After Romulus, Numa Pompilius was elected (perf.) 
king by the Romans. Piety is justly considered the foundation of 
all the virtues. The renown of Roman bravery will remain forever 
(= eternal). Philosophy is called by Cicero, the guide {== leader) of 
life, the investigator (fem ) of virtue and the banisher (fem.) of vice, the 
inventress of laws, the instructress of customs and of discipline. Un- 
expected evils appear greater than [those] expected. Demosthenes is 
justly considered the most distinguished orator of the Greeks. Cicero 
and Anthony were elected consuls. 

II. Quintus Fabius was chosen (perf.) general by the Romans. 
Men beconie wiser by age. The orations of Demosthenes and Cicero 
are considered models of eloquence. A bad poet never becomes 
(evadere) a good [one]. Lycurgus came forward (perf. of exisiere) as 
the law-giver of the Lacedemonians. Virtue is justly considered the 
highest good. Aristides was called the just by the Athenians. The 
renown of some will remain eternal. Cyrus was elected the first king 
of the Persians The sun appears to us smaller than it is. Thou 
wast born good, but hast become bad. 

§ 85. Classes of Verbs. 

1. There are two kinds of verbs, active and passive. 
In an active verb, the subject appears as active^ as: ro- 
sa floret; — puer epistolarn scribit. Those active verbs 
which take an accusative are called transitive^ as: puer 
epistolarn scribit ; but the rest are called intransitive, as : ro- 
^di floret; — sapiens meminit mortis: — pater \.ih\ favet; — ami- 
cus g-audet adventu amici; — eo in urbem. 

2. In \he passive the subject appears as suffering' (receiv- 
ing the action), as : bonus discipulus laudatur a preceptori- 
bus, malus vituperatur. 

3. Deponent verbs are those which have a passive form 
but an active signification, as: dux hortatur milites; — 



§86. Tenses of the Verb, 

1. The tenses are divided into two classes : 

a) Principal Tenses: the Pres. Perf. and Future: 

220 MODES OF THE VERB. { 87.] 

scribo, Iivrite, scripsi, I have loritlen^ scribo, 1 shall 
ivrite, scripsero, I shall have icritten; 
b) Historical Tenses: Imperf. Piuperf. and the nar- 
rative Perf. : scnbeb3.m, I ivrote, ivas ivriting-^ scrip- 
seram, I had turitten, scripsi, I lurote. 

Rem. The narrative Perf. is called the Perf. historical and is trans- 
lated into English by the Imperf ; the pro{)er Perf is called the PerC 
present, and is translated into English by the Perf The Latin histori- 
cal Perf ^ways expresses the action as past, and so also does the 
Latin Imperf but yet always as standing in relation to another past ac- 
tion to which it corresponds in time, as : scribebam, qimm veniebas (vene- 
ras). Hence the Perf is used in relating principal events, the ImperC 
in relating accompanying circumstances. Caesar urbem intravit ; omnes 
cives laetabantur victoriamque de hostibus reportatam ei gratulabantur, 

CXVIIL Exercises/or translation. (^ 86.) 
L God has made the whole world. Romulus built Rome. Hannibal 
vanquished the Romans in (abl.) the second Punic war. The enemies 
assaulted the city, which lay upon a hill. The city was captured by 
the enemies, but the citizens had already deserted it. So long as thou 
shall be fortunate, thou wilt number many friends. In a short [time] 
I shall have finished this business. If we shall have fulfilled our duties, 
we shall be hap])y (beatus). Even as we shall have treated others, 
will they treat us. 

II. The book, which you sent me, I have read through carefully. 
Carthage and Corinth were destroyed by the Romans. The Romans 
carried on many wars with the Germans, who were a very brave peo- 
ple. An immense number of men had come together into [in with 
ace.) the city. The remembrance of renowned men will be obscured 
by no oblivion. After a few days I shall have returned. As thou 
shall have sown (sementem facere), [so] thou wilt reap(metere). The 
more we shall have exercised our minds by the study of literature, so 
much the more we shall delight in it. If thou shall have adorned the 
Boul with virtues, thou will be happy. 

§ 87. Modes of the Verb. 

1. The Indicative is the mode which expresses /ac^5, re- 

'Rosa.Jloret. Pater epistolam scripsit. Ambulaho. 
2. The Subjunctive is the mode which is employed in 
expressing what is imagined or barely conceived of. 


a) The Subjunctive of the principal tenses^ especially 
of the Pres., is used in principal sentences to express 
a supposition or presumption, a doubting question, an 
encouragement, exhortation, a wish. We may often 
translate this Subjunctive into English, by the Subj. 
Imperf. or by the auxiliaries, ought, might, could^ 
should, loould with the Infin. 

Nemo sanus de virtutis pretio duhittt Quis de animorum immorta- 
litate duhittt ? Eamiis ! (let us go ! or : we would go !) Utlnam ami- 
cus convcdescat ! 

b) The Subjunctive of the historical tenses is used in 
principal sentences to express a supposition the opposite 
of tohat really is, or is not, as : errares, thou loouldst 
err ; errasses, thou ivouldst have erred; si hoc diceres, 
errares, if thou shouldst say this, thou icoiildst err^ 
sic hoc dixisses, errasses, if thou hadst said this, 
thou ivouldst have erred; so : non erra/res, non erraS' 
ses] hence crederes, putares, cerneres, videres (one 
might believe, might see) ; besides, the Subj. of these 
tenses is used to express a ivish of which one knows 
that it loill not be realized (imperfect), or has not been 
realized (pluperfect), as : utinam amicus convalesce- 
ret ! utinam amicus convaluisset I finally, the Subj. 
Imperf. is used in a doubting question in reference to 
past time, as : quid facerem ? (what should I have 

3. The Imperative is used to express commands, as : scri- 
be. The two forms of the second person of the imperative 
are thus distinguished : the shorter forms (ama, amate) have 
a milder, the longer forms (amato, amatote) a stronger mean- 
ing ; hence these last should be translated by should or must 
and are used especially in directions and injunctions. 

Ferte misero atque iuopi auxilium. Cotito virtutem. Leges obser- 
varUor. Discipulus amato praeceptores. 

Remark. The negative with the Imper. and also with the Subj. of 
encouraging and exhorting, is expressed by ne (not by non), as : we scribe ; 

222 s GENITIVE. [^88, 

ne eamus. However, instead of ne with the Imper. nolij nolite with the 
lufinitive are often used, as: noli scribere, do not im-ite; nolite garrire, 

GXIX. Exercises for translation. (^87.) 

I. The view of Epicurus concerning the highest good, I could not 
approve. Why should we doubt concerning (de) the immortality of 
the soul (pi ur.)? We should love our native country! We would 
bear with equanimity, all which happens to us ! The principles of 
virtue we would not neglect! The beginning (principium plur.) of all 
things should be taken (ducere) from the immortal gods! What has 
fallen to the lot (obtingere) of each one, this each one should hold fast 

(tenere). O that all would strive after virtue ! Without thy aid, I 
had been the most unhappy man. O that thou hadst been silent ! 
What should I have answered ? Flatter ye not bad men. Thou 
shouldst obej [thy] parents and teachers. Scholars should respect 
(vereri) their teachers. O boys, you should be present at school not 
only with (abl.) your bodies, but also with your minds. 

II. The betraying of his country no one should praise. Nobody 
should believe a lying man. Who should not admire the beauty of 
the world ! We would not without reason expose (offerre) ourselves 
to dangers. We should rejoice at the prosperity of others ! We 
should be affected in the very same way towards friends as (quo) 
towards ourselves. O that all men would honor virtue ! Mayest thou 
always live happily (beate) ! The sedition of the soldiers, a word of 
the general would have quieted. O that thou hadst been present soon- 
er! I should not now be so unhappy. Whither should we have fled ! 
Do not .chatter, boys ! We should always contemplate the heavenly 
and despise the human. Evil desires should always be restrained by 
the reason. We should contemplate the illustrious (illustris, e) ex- 
amples of virtue whrck ?ire pointed out i||. history. 

OF THE C^^i:S. Jr., 

§ 88. A. The Genitive. 

The o-em^tW stands in answer to the quesiionn tohose ? 
of ivhom ? of lohat ? and indeed, with the following words 
and expressions : ^y. 

1. With misereor^ I pity^ and the impersonals me pudetj 

$ 88.] GENITIVE. 223 

piget, poemtetj taedet and miser et^ I am ashamed of^ disgust- 
ed at^ repent of^ loathe^ pity (something). 

Infelicium hominum misereor. Me miseret tui. Nunquam primi consir 
Hi deum poenltd. Me vUae taedet. 

2. With egere and indigere^ to need^ ivant, (which also 
sometimes take the a^/a^we), and the adjectives: cupidus^ 
aviduSy studiosus. 

Aegrotus medicinae eget. Virtus plurimae exercitationis indiget, Vir 
sapiens veritatis est studiosus. 

3. With the verbs : memini^ reminiscor, ohliviscor ; — admO' 
neoy commoneo^ commonefacio aliquem ; — with the adjectives : 
memor, immemor ; conscius, nesciu^, inscius ; gnarus, ignd- 
rus ; prudens, imprudens; perltusy imperltus ; consuttuSy 

Pueri, meminerint verecundiae. Boni homines pradenti temporis cum 

voluptate reminiscuntur. Verus amicus amid nunquam ohlivisdiur, 

Veteris te amicitiae commonefado. Cono prudens rei mUitaris fuit. Be- 
ne/idorum memores estote. 

Remark 1. Memini, reminiscor, ohliviscor are often, and recordor al- 
most always connected with the accusative. 

4. With many participles in ans and ens, when they have 
the meaning of adjectives, and with many verbal adjectives 
in ax. 

Homo gloriae appetens saepe a virtutis via deflectit. Quis famulus 
amantior domini est, quam canis ? Ciceronis aetas virtutum ferax fuit 
Vir probus tenax est propositorum bonorum. 

5. With verbs of accusing, criminating, condemning, con- 
victing and acquitting, the charge or crime is put in the gen- 
itive (occasionally in Abl.). 

Rem. 2. The punishment when capital (caput) or when it is a Jiive is 
sometimes in the Gen. and sometimes in the Abl. Other punishments 
are generally put in the Ace. after ad. 

Miltiades proditionis est accusatus. Cicero Verrem avaritiae coarguit. 
Themistocles absens proditionis est damnatus. Judex absolvit reum cri- 
minis. Athenienses Socratem capitis condemnarunt. Roscius parriddii 
accusatus est. 

6. With the adjectives : particeps, expers, consors, exsors^ 

JK^' GENITIVE. [$ 88. 

proprius ; similis^ dissimilis^ superstes (which are also found 
with the dative) ; polens^ impolens^ compos ; plenusj fertilis^ 
inops (which are aJso found with the ablative). 

Bestiae rationis et orationis sunt expertes. Homo raiionis est pariiceps, 
Omnes virtvtis compotes beati sunt. Ira impotens sui est. Viri propria 
maxima fortitude est. Terra variorum herbarum plena est 

7. The genitive with esse signifies : a) the object (person 
or thing) in which something is inherent, or to which some- 
thing belongs (possessive genitive) ; b) the object to which 
something is peculiar, in which case, that which is peculiar 
to the object is commonly expressed by the infinitive ; this 
last genitive may be translated by : It is the part, manner, 
custom, characteristic, duty, sign, mark of some one ; it is in- 
cumbent on one, and the like. 

Hie liber yrflrfriff md est (belongs to my brother). Petulantia est ado- 
lescentium (is inherent in). Imbedlli animi est superstitio (belongs to). 
Virorum fortium est, toleranter dolorern pati. 

Rem. 3. Instead of: mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri est, we must use 
here, meum, tuum, sunm, nostrum, vestrum est, as : nostrum est, parentes 

8. The genitive or ablative of a substantive joined with 
an adjective stands with esse, in order to express the nature 
or quality of the subject (genitive or ablative of quality) ; 
this Gen. or Abl. may also, without esse, be joined to a noun 
as an attributive. 

The Gen. denotes essential, the Abl. accidental qualities, hence, the 
the designations of m£asure by number, time and space are always ex- 
pressed by the genitive (never by the ablative), these being essential 
qualities of an object. 

Vir bonus summat pietatis (or summa, pietate) erga deum est. Xerxis 
classis mille et ducentarum navium longarum fuit. Tarquinius fratrem 
habuit Aruntem, mitis ingenii (or miti ingenio) hominem. Aristoteles, 
\ir summo ingenio (or summi ingenu,) prudentiam cum eloquentia junxit 

9. The Genitive stands as an expression of the value, 
with verbs of valuing and esteeming, of buying and selling, 
as : puto, duco, aestimo. — pendo, facio, habeo, — emo, vendo, 
veneo. Of this kind are the genitives: magm,pluris, pluri- 

$88.] GENITIVE. 22^4 

mi, — parvi, Jloccij minimi^ — tanti, quanti^ niliili (much, more, 
very much, little, etc.) (Genitive of price). 

Si prata et areas quasdam mngni aestimamus, quanti est aestimanda 
virtus ! Divitias minuris aestimare debemus, quarri virtutem. Divitine 
a sapienti viro viinimi putantur. Quanti emisti hunc librum ? Discipuli 
praeceptores />/Mrimi (or maximi) facere debeiit. 

10. With the impers6nal verb interest (it concerns), the 
person whom something concerns, stands in the genitive. 
Instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns: mei, tui, 
sui, nostri, veslri : 7ned, tud, sua, nostra, vesird, are always 
used, and in this case refert can be used instead of interest 
in the same sense. 

Hoio much or hoiv little one is interested in a thing is 
expressed : a) by adverbs, as : magnopere, multum, magis^ 
maxime, nihil, paritm, minime ; — b) by the adverbial neu- 
ters : multum, plus, plurimum, minus, minimum, tantum, 
etc. — c) by the genitives : magni, pluris, parvi, tantiy 

The thing which interests or concerns one, is not ex- 
pressed by a substantive, but ; a) by an infitdtive ; b) by 
the accusative luith an infinitive ; c) by a subsidiary sen- 
tence with ut (that), ne (that not) and the Subjunctive; 
d) by an indirect question (in the Subj.). — The general 
expressions ; this, that, what one is interested in, are ex- 
pressed by the accusatives : id, illud, quod, quid. 

Interest omnium, rede facere. Quid nostra refert [interest,) vidum esse 
Anionium'^ Praeceptoris midtum interest, discipulos sunirno studio in lit- 
teras incumbere. Magni mea interest [refert), ut te videam. Omnium 
m/igni interest feliciter vivere. 

1 1. Finally, the genitive stands with a substantive as a 
nearer definition of it, as : hortus regis (= hortus regius). 
Comp. § 82, 2, b.) 

Rem. 4. Hence the genitive with the substantives: caussd, gratia, 
ergo which we render by on account of for the sake of and with instar, 
like. Instead of the genitives : mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri : med ivd, 
sua, nostra, vestrd, are used with caussd and gratia, as : med, tud^ sudf 
nustrd, vestrd caussd or gratid (on my account, thy account, etc.). 

880 GENITIVE. [$ 88. 

12. This attributive genitive signifies : 

a) the author or cause, as : conjuratio Catilinae ; de- 
sideriurn patriae (longing after (excited by) one's 
country) ; 

b) the possessor, as: hortus regis; 

c) the ivhole, from which a part is taken (partitive 
genitive), as : partes corporis. 

The partitive Gen. stands also with other words besides 
nouns, when they signify apart of a lohole, viz : with com- 
paratives and superlatives, pronouns and numerals, and the 
neuters: multum, plus, plurium; nihil, minus, minimum; 
tantum, quantum, and the like used substantively, with ad- 
verbs of quantity, as : satis parum, and with adverbs of place 
in certain connections. 

Duorum fratrum major natu. Cicero omnium Romanorum praestan- 
tissimus fuit orator. Romanorum unus, Multum pecuniae. Satis elo- 
quentiae. Ubi terrarum ? where in all the worlds JS/usquam terrarum, 
nowhere in the world. 

Rem. 5. The genitive in these cases must often be rendered into 
English by the prepositions: ofjor, after, about, concerning, before, with, 
as : memoria praeteriti temporis (of), desiderium patriae (for), consuetu- 
do amicorum (with). 

CXX. Exercises for translation. (^88.) 
L a. We pity those who repent (= whom it repents) of their faults. 
A scholar, who loathes labor, will not make progress in literature. 
Who would not be ashamed of ignorance ? Many are dissatisfied with 
their fortune. I pity thee my boy ! We should pity those, who, by 
fortune not by wickedness, find themselves (esse) in adversity (miser- 
iae, arum). The truth needs not approbation. The rich are often 
greedy after greater riches. A good scholar occupies himself zealously 
(studiosus sum) with literature. The ancient Germans were very 
eager for war. The people (gens) of the Gauls were very greedy for 

I. b. Who repent of their sins, may hope [for] pardon (venia). No 
one will repent of a good deed (actio). The indolent [man] will some 
time repent his indolence. Just as God pities thee, so thou shouldst 
pity others. Pity thou the destitute. Bad men are often wearied (tae- 
det) of life. Thou wilt some time be ashamed of thy bad life. The 

^ 88.] GENITIVE. 227 

powers of the body and the soul need exercise. Caesar and Pompey 
were very eager for fame. The wise [man] earnestly seeks (studiosua 
sum) a quiet life. We hate the men who are greedy of gold. Cati- 
line was eager for a revolution (res novae). 

II. a. Vespasian was unmindful of injuries (ofFensa, ae). Those 
men live happily who are conscious of no wickedness. The mind re- 
members the past, perceives (cernere) the present [and] foresees the 
future. The Romans were very skilful in war. Deserters (perfuga, 
ae) very familiar (= acquainted) with the country, had spied out (ex- 
plorare) the march of the enemies. The spirit of man is ignorant of 
(nescius) [its] future fortune (fatum). Cinna forgot (perf ) the favors 
which he had received of Augustus. Remind not the wretched of his 
wretchedness (plur.). The soldiers, mindful of [their] former bravery, 
fought (perf) spiritedly. We should forget favors conferred (conferre), 
[but] remember [those] received. The people of the Samnites were 
very skilful in war. The Scythians were unskilful in literature and 
the arts. The Romans always longed (appetens sum) after fame and 
were eager for praise. We hate the man despising divine and human 
laws. Camels endure (patiens sum) hunger and thirst. 

II. b. The mind conscious of crimes cannot be quiet A good man 
easily forgets an injury, [but] always remembers a favor. We hate 
those men. who are unmindful of favors received. The ancient Ger- 
mans were rude in the arts and literature. Already the youth should 
be mindful of age. Dionysius, the older, tyrant of Syracuse, was brave 
and acquainted with war. The wise [man] is always mindful of 
human frailty. Caesar and Pompey were two generals very skilful in 
warfare. Foolish men forget their faults, but see (cernere) the faults 
of others. Pursue those things diligently in which thou art skilful, 
but abstain from those in which thou art unskilful. The general re- 
minded (perf) the soldiers of [their] former bravery. It is not neces- 
sary to remind an upright man of a favor. Cicero was versed (consul- 
tus) in justice and eloquence. The fate (fatum) of many peoi)les re- 
minds us of human infirmity (infirmitas). The ancient Germans did 
not love (amans sum) arts and literature, but endured (patiens sum) 
thu-st, cold, heat and labors. Man, by (abl.) nature, seeks (appetens 
sum) after propriety of conduct. We esteem a man loving virtue. 

III. a. Many men accuse (insimulare) themselves of a sin, if they 
have spoken anything cheeiful (= bright) in grief Catiline was con- 
victed (perf) by Cicero of a conspiracy against [his] native country. 
Alcibiades, while absent (absens), was condemned to death. Brutus, 

228 GENITIVE. [^ 88. 

the vindicator (vindex) of Roman freedom, condemned even (etiam) his 
sons to death. Phocion was accused of treason, because he had con- 
sulted (consulere) badly for (dat.) his country. The judge Coelius ab- 
solved him from injury, who had expressly (nominatim) injured (lae- 
dere) the poet Lucilius on the stage (scena). The human soul is par- 
taking of reason. Alexander, not master of [his] anger, killed (perf ) 
his friend Clitus. Germany is very fruitful of grain. It is incumbent 
upon an orator, to speak fitly, clearly (distincte) and ornately. Wretch- 
ed is he, who is destitute of friends. Fish are destitute of a voice. 
Greece, at the time of the Trojan war, was very productive of brave 
men. Human life is full of cares and troubles. 

III. b. Pausanias, king of the Lacedemonians, was accused of trea- 
son. The Athenians charged (insimulare) Socrates with impiety (im- 
pietas adversus deos) and condemned him to death. Cicero charged 
(coarguere) Verres with the greatest avarice. Roscius was accused of 
parricide. Miltiades was accused of treachery and condemned to 
death, but afterwards was absolved from capital punishment (caput). 
Man alone of (ex) so many kinds of living beings is partaking of rea- 
son. The drunken [man] is not master of his understanding (mens). 
Alexander, king of the Macedonians, was not master of his anger. 
Beasts are destitute of reason and speech. Bravery is peculiar to man 
in the highest degree (maxime). The earth is full of various herbs, 
flowers and trees. The period of Augustus was productive of good 
poets, [but] destitute of good orators. Sicily is very productive of 

IV. a. Inconsiderateness is inherent in youth, providence in old age. 
To the Romans, in (abk) the time of Augustus, belonged almost the 
whole of the then known circle of the earth. What belongs to me, 
belongs also to my friends. Great bravery was inherent in the Ro- 
man soldiers. It is the duty of the wise to teach the ignorant. It is 
a sign of inconstancy, now to trust and now to distrust the very same 

' men. It is our duty to defend our country. It is the duty of the 
scholar, to apply himself with all his powers, to. the study of the lib- 
eral arts and letters. It is not always a quality of the very same man, 
to think correctly and to express his thoughts elegantly in (abl.) dis- 
course. A man of elevated soul despises riches. Caesar was not of 
large stature, but of a brave mind and a fierce spirit. The fleet of 
the enemies consisted of 253 ships. Cato possessed (= was of) a re- 
markable (singularis) wisdom in all things. 

IV. b. In boys and youths waywardness is inherent, in men and old 

i 88.] GENITIVE. 28# 

men seriousness. All Syria belonged to the Macedonians. It is the 
duty of the intelligent, to guide the unintelligent by counsel. In th9 
people of the Samnites, a great knowledge of war was inherent. It 
is the duty of parents to bring up [their] children well. It is incum- 
bent on you, O boys, to obey the precepts of your teachers ! Evei^ 
man may (by esse) err, but no one, except (nisi) the unwise, is wont (by 
esse) to persist in error. It is incumbent on the chiefs (princeps) in 
(gen.) the state, to look out for the welfare of the humble and poor. 
It is the duty of the wealthy, to relieve the want of the destitute. It 
is incumbent on young men, to honor old age. It is not the part of 
the wise [man], now to trust and now to distrust the very same view. 
It is your duty, O boys, to esteem your parents and teachers. It is in- 
cumbent on the principal men of the state (optimates), to listen to the 
prayers of suppliants with benevolent hearts. Agesilaus was of hum- 
ble stature and small body. Boys of a quick genius and happy mem- 
ory are adapted to (ad) the study of literature. The fleet of Xerxes 
consisted of 1200 ships. The ancient Germans possessed (= were o^ 
etc.) an immense size of body, incredible bravery and familiaritjr 
(^ exercise) with war. 

V. a. In every (omnis) service, we should value the will of the giver 
the highest. Alexander valued Hephaestion very high. For hour 
much has thy father sold [his] gRrden? for just so much (tantumdem)^ 
as (quantum) he gave for (= bought) it. We despise the men who 
esteem virtue [but] little. Pericles valued Anaxagoras, his teacher, 
very much. For how much did you buy this book ? Parents are 
much interested, that [their] children be brought up well. I am much 
interested, that you apply yourselves with all zeal to the study of lit- 
erature. All good men are much interested, to be loved by others. 
We are much interested in this, what good men judge concerning us. 
V. b. We should value that (is) victory much, which is gained 
(parere) not by arms but by words. We value those (is) men much, 
who love virtue. The wise [man] esteems riches very little. Many 
esteem their own little, [but] desire another's. The traders sell [their] 
wares not so dearly (tantundem), as (quantum) they have bought them. 
How much has thy father bought the horse [for] ? All citizens are 
much interested, that peace be restored. We are much interested, 
that we be instructed by good teachers. I am much interested, that 
thou mayest soon return from (ex) the journey. The state is much in- 
terested, that literature flourish (= bloom). h\\ good citizens should 
be much interested, carefully to observe the laws. 

230 ACCUSATIVE. P 89. 

VI. a. Homer is the oldest (vetus) of all the Greek poets. Socra- 
tes was the wisest of all the Greeks. No one of the Romans surpass- 
ed Cicero in (abl.) eloquence. Tarquinius Superbus was the last of 
the Roman kings. Virtue has in itself sufficient assistance for a peace- 
ful life. The less honor there is to literature, so much the less studies 
there are. We draw much pleasure from literature. What kind 
(quid) of business are you pursuing? The scholar should be diligent 
in school, not so much (tam) on account of his teachers, as on his own 
account. We do much on account of friends, which we should not 
do on our own account. The Greeks built before Troy, a house like 
a mountain. Many Romans had houses like mountains. Misfortune 
is an occasion for virtue. We should strive to obtain intercourse with 
(gen.) good men. Not the fear of punishment, but the love of virtue 
should keep us from wrong. The memory of renowned men will be 
obscured by no oblivion. The passion for honor is a hard mistress. 

VI. b. The city Syracuse was the greatest and fairest of all the 
Greek cities. Anciently the Spaniards dug up much gold and silver. 
Who lives in prosperity, has sufficient joy. From the reading of a 
good book, we draw very much (plurimum) pleasure. Hannibal was the 
most renowned general of the Carthaginians. Crassus had sufficient 
money, but too little (parum) prudence. More disadvantage lies (est) 
in the wrong itself, than advantage in the (is) things acquired by the 
wrong. Those were called sophists by the Athenians, who pursued 
philosophy on account of gain or os^tentation. The Egyptians built 
pyramids like mountains. Plato in\^ estimation ^Cicero (= was to 
Cicero) equal to (instar) all philosophers. He is beneficent who acts 
(facere) kindly (benigne), not on his own, but on our account. True 
virtue desires (desiderare) no recompense for labors and dangers. In- 
tercourse with true friends is agreeable. The remembrance of time 
happily spent (exigere) is agreeable. Hannibal burned (ardere) with 
(abl.) great hatred against the Romans. 

§ 89. B. Accusative. 

1. The accusative stands in answer to the question, 
whom ? or ivhat ? It signifies a passive object^ as : rex civi- 
tatem regit, or that which is produced by an action (effect), 
as: scribo epistolam. Hence it stands with all transitive 

2. The following verbs take the accusative, although they 
might seem from their meaning to require a different case. 

^ 89.] ACCUSATIVE. 23'1 

and some of them are in fact accasionally constructed with 
prepositions in English : juvo and adjuvo ; deficio and fug'io; 
aequo and aequiparo ; decet and dedecet ; sequor, sector, ae- 
mulor and imttor. 

Atticus adolescenUm Marium juvit opibus suis. Fortes fortuna adjuvat. 
Tempus nm deficit. Mnlusfugit bonum (flees before the good == flees 
the good.) So also: defugio, effugio, suhterfugio. Pedi'tes equitem cur- 
su aegwafeani (kept up with). So also adaequo, Yerecund'ia deoet pue- 
rum. Gloria mrtutem taiiquam umbra sequitur. So also: consequoVj 
subsequor. Equites regem sectabardur. So also consector. Quis. Sidlam 
imitetur'^ Virtutes niajorum aemulemur! 

Rem. 1. Many strictly intransitive verbs, also, govern the Ace. in Latin, 
when compounded with prepositions which govern the Ace. ; or un- 
compounded when used transitively, or when the noun is from the 
same stem as the verb, as : vivere vitam. 

3. The accusative stands in answer to the questions : 
hoia long ? hoiu far ? Jioio luide (broad) ? hoiu high ? hoio 
deep ? hoio thick ? how many (much) ? hoio great ? etc. ; as 
to ivhat 1 (Greek, Ace). 

Quaedam bestiolae unum diem vivunt. Cato annos quinque et octoginta 
natus (old) excessit e vita. Zama quinque dierum iter ab Carthagine 
abest Turris pedes ducentos alta est. Vite caput tegitur. 

4. The accusative stands in an exclamation either with or 
without an interjection. 

Me miserum ! Ofallacem hominum spem ! 

5. A double accusative stands in the following cases : 

a) With verbs which signify to call (name) ; to make, 
choose^ appoint one something ; to account, consider as 
something; to show one^s self as something ; to give, 
take, have as something. 

Julius Caesar dictatorem se fecit. Homines caecos reddit cupiditas et 
avaritia. Romulus urbem ex nomine suo Romam vocavit. Ciceronem 
universus populus consulem declaravit. Sapientem beatum habemus. An- 
tistius se praestitit acerrimum propugnatorem communis libertatis. Athe- 
nienses Miltiadem sibi imperatorem sumpserunt. Epaminondas praecep- 
torem habuit Lysim. Romani Ciceronem patrem patriae appdlaverunt. 

Rem. 2. The passive of these verbs has a double nominative (§ 84), 
as : pavo superbus dicitur. 

232 ACCUSATIVE. [$ 89. 

b) With the verbs : celo^ doceo, interrogo ; — oro^rogo^fla- 
gito ; finally, posco, postulo. 

Ciceronem Minerva omnes artes edocuit. Ne quid turpe amicum roga ! 
Ego te sententiam tuam rogo, JVullam rem te celo. 

Rem. 3. But peto (properly : / strive after), I request, entreat, is con- 
structed with ab, and quaero (properly : I seek), I ask, with ab or ex, as : 
peto a te librum, quaero a (ex) te sententiam. 

Rem. 4. With most of the above verbs, in the passive construction, 
the personal object becomes the nominative and the accusative of the thing 
remains. Cicero a Minerva omnes artes edoctus est. Cato rogatus est sen- 
tentiam. Still with verbs of demanding, the accusative of the thing be- 
comes the nominative, and the accusative of the person remains and is 
governed by a preposition, as : pecunia a me poscitur, flagitatur. 

CXXI. Eoi^rcises for translation. (^89.) 

I. a. It is the duty of intelligent men to assist others with counsel. 
It is honorable (honestus) to emulate the good, [but] base to imitate the 
bad. No people of antiquity equalled (aequiparare) the Romans in 
(abl.) bravery. It becomes us to follow the example of good men. 
Time often fails the orator sooner (citius) than words (= the discourse). 
Fortune assists the bold. The soul escapes the view of the eyes. 
The women and children were accustomed to follow the army of the 
Germans. The temple of the Ephesian Diana was 400 feet long and 
200 broad. No one of the Grecian orators equalled Demosthenes in 
power of discourse. Want and contempt follow indolence. Mithri- 
dates reigned 60 years, lived 72, [and] carried on (perf ) war 40 years 
with the Romans. Alcibiades died (perf) about 40 years old (natus). 
Much becomes a boy, which does not become a man. Saguntum, the 
most powerful city of Spain, which Hannibal destroyed, was removed 
something like 1000 paces from the sea. 

I. b. We assist him with delight who has assisted us. No one of 
the Thebans could equal Alcibiades in bodily powers. The enemies, 
whom the Romans followed swiftly, could not escape their hands. 
We should imitate those who love virtue. What becomes boys, often 
does not become men. It is our duty to assist the wretched. Flee 
the bad and emulate the good. The soldiers made (= drew) a 
trench 600 feet long, 8 feet broad, 10" feet deep. Death no one can 
escape. Not courage, but strength (plur.) failed our soldiers. Troy 
was besieged (perf) 10 years .by the Greeks. A long time the Lace- 
demonians held (perf) the supremacy of Greece. Theophrastus died 

§ 89.] ACCUSATIVE. 233 

(perf.) 84 years old (natus). In hatred against the Romans, no one 
equalled Hannibal. 

II. a. Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, by his will, made the Roman 
people his heir. The Romans called the supreme (summus) council 
(= counsel) senate. The people chose Ancus Martins king. Duty 
demands, that {ut with Subj.) we behave (praestare) ourselves religious- 
ly and uprightly not only in great but also in small matters. We 
should acknowledge virtue as the greatest good to men. Children 
should conceal nothing from [their] parents. Jugurtha, by ambassa- 
dors, entreated Metellus for peace. The ambassadors of Darius re- 
quested (petere) help of the Carthaginians against Greece. Give me 
the book, which I long since (jam pridem) requested (perf) of thee. I 
ask of thee thy opinion. Grain was demanded by the citizens. Rea- 
son makes man lord of the earth. Recompense for labor we con- 
sider honorable. The Parian marble the Greeks considered precious. 
[They] are ridiculous, who teach others what they have not them- 
selves learned (=ascertained). Eumenes concealed from all, the jour- 
ney, which he ivns designing to make {Subj. periphrast.). The greatest 
affairs were concealed from me by thee. Cicero, informed (= instruct- 
ed) by the ambassadors of all [things], commanded (imperare) the 
pretors, that they should take (deprehendere) the Allobroges by am- 
buscade. The ambassadors demanded back of the enemies, all which 
had been taken from the citizens during (per) the truce. Socrates de- 
manded of those, who enjoyed his instruction (ejus consuetudine ute- 
bantur), no money for his instruction. Caesar demanded of the Edui, 
the grain which they had promised (polliceri). Cicero was asked his 
opinion in the senate. 

II. b. Friendship makes prosperity more splendid, and adversity 
lighter (levis). The resounding echo, Horace calls the image of the 
voice. Prosperity is not merely itself blind, but also generally makes 
(efficere) [those] blind, whom it has embraced. The soldiers demand- 
ed all the arms of the citizens of the captured city. All arms were de- 
manded of the citizens. I ask thy opinion of this object. The am- 
bassadors of the Gauls requested peace of Caesar. The Romans elect- 
ed Camillus dictator. Eloquence effects, thnt{ut with Subj.) we maybe 
able to teach others what we know. The Tarentines demanded of 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, aid against the Romans. The future has 
rightly been concealed from men, by the divine Providence. I have 
given thy brother the book which he had requested of me. The 
Athenians requested (petere) a general of the Lacedemonians. He is a 

834 DATIVE. P 90. 

true friend, who conceals nothing from us. Many youths were taught 
wisdom by Socrates. My friend, asked by me [as to] his opinion, con- 
cealed nothing from me. We esteem those (is) men much, who con- 
sider virtue the highest good. Cicero showed himself the most spirit- 
ed defender (propugnator) of the common freedom. Catiline instructed 
(edocere) the youth, whom he had led away (illicere), in all bad deeds. 
The Tarentiues, involved in (abl.) a war with the Romans, requested 
aid of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. 

§ 90. C. Dative. 

1. The dative stands in answer to the questions: to 
whom ? to lohat 1 for luhom 1 for luhat 1 for whose advan- 
tage 1 for ivhose disadvantage ? for what end 1 It general- 
ly stands with verbs and adjectives where, in English, the 
prepositions to ox for are used to govern the case, or where 
the relation involved is similar to that expressed by these 
prepositions, as : do^ placeo^ prosum^ noceo etc., uitlis, inutilis, 
aptus, idoneus, gratus, similis^ par^ aequdlis, communis, etc. 

Rem. 1. Hence all transitive verbs may take together with the Ace, 
the Dat. of the person (or thing) who shares in the action (Dat. of the 
remote olyect). 

Do tibi donum. Epistolam tibi scribo. Non scholar, sed vitae dis- 
cimus. Litterarum studium hominibus utillissimum est. Canis lupo 
similis est. Ratio omnibus hominibus communis est. 

Rem. 2. Similis and dissimilis are often also connected with the gen- 

2. The following verbs take the dative in Latin, while in 
English they take the accusative: nubo^parco, benedicOy—' 
maledico, supplico, — ohtrecto, studeo, — arrldeo, invideo per- 
suadeo, — medeor 3,nd patrocinor. 

Y eims nupsit Vulcano. Parce mihi. Ne infantibus qmdem parceba- 
tur (not even chiklren were spared). Benedidmus (praise) bonis^ male- 
dicimus (censure) malis. Donum tuum valde mihi arrisit. Probus in- 
vldet n£mlni. Mihi invidetur (I am envied). Omnibus amicis pro te 
libentissime supplicabo (entreat). Mali bonis obtredare (disparage) solent. 
Nunquam tibi persuadebo. Mihi persuadetur (I am persuaded). Pueri 
litteris studere debent (study). Omnes homines libertati student (strive 
after). Philosophia m^detur animis. Bonus bono pairocinatur (protects). 

$90.] DATIVE. 235 

Rem. 3. Also, many verbs by composition with prepositions, espe- 
cially with the following : ab, ad, ante, cum [con], de, ex, in, inter, ob, post, 
prae, pro, sub and super, acquire a meaning which makes them take the 

3. The dative stands with est and sunt to express the per- 
son or thing who has or possesses something. The thing 
possessed stands in the nominative as subject. 

Suus cuique mos est. Semper in civitate [ii], quibus opes nullae 
sunt, bonis invident. Multi mihi sunt libri. 

Rem. 4. In nomen mihi est (I have the name, am called), the name 
stands either in the dative or nominative, as : nomen mihi est Carole 

4. The dative of the end (in answer to the question : 
for ivhat end ?), to which besides, a dative of the person 
is commonly added, stands : 

a) With sum^ which, in this case, is to be rendered con- 
duce to^ serve for ; 

b) With do^ accipioy relinquo, deligo^ mitto, venio, habeo, 
etc ; also with do, duco, tribuo, verto in the meaning : 
to impute to. 

Bonum non potest esse cuiquam malo. Virtutes hominibus decori 
gloriaeque sunt. Virtus sola neque datur dono, neque acdpitur. Pau- 
sanias venit Atticis auxUio. Vitio mihi dant, quod mortem hominis 
necessarii graviter fero. 

CXXII. Exercises for translation. ($ 90.) 

I. a. Nobody errs for himself alone, but spreads (spargere) folly (de- 
mentia) [also] among (in) those next [to him]. Pleasure flatters our 
senses. A good man labors for virtue, not for fame. Sleep is very 
much like death. Socrates, conscious of no wickedness to himself, 
did not supplicate the judges. Julia, daughter of Augustus Caesar, 
first married Marcellus, then Marcus Agrippa, finally (postremum) Ti- 
berius. Time cures grief best. The more fortune smiles upon one 
(quis), so many the more friends he has. It is base, to disparage (ob- 
trectare) the fame of a great man. The Germans /rowi childhood (ab 
parvulis) earnestly pursued labor and hardness (duritia). No i)hysi- 
cian can cure all diseases. The sister of Atticus married (perf ) Cicero. 
Death spares no mortal. Bad men reproach the good. Neither of 
the two should we praise (benedicere), neither the impious nor the 

236 DATIVE. [?90. 

flatterer. The orator convinced the citizens of the advantage of his 
counsel. The wise [man] envies no one. 

I. b. We live not merely for ourselves, but also for our country and 
other men. The dog is like the wolf A good citizen obeys the laws 
with delight. Whoever reviles others, reviles himself [also]. It is 
easy to convince a good man of the value of virtue. It is base to dis- 
parage others (aker). It is ^ mark of an ill-disposed man, never to 
praise a good man. They have many friends, upon whom fortune 
smiles. Philosophy cures sick (aeger, gra, grum) souls. We are attach- 
ed (studere) to those, who preserve (conservare) [their] fidelity. The 
upright [man] envies nobody, [but] is envied by many. Save time, O 
boys! Scarcely any one (ullus) of mortals, does fortune always 
smile upon. It is better (praestat), by the capital punishment of one 
wicked man, to restrain the wickedness of many, than on account 
of (propter) many wicked [men] to spare one. To the priestesses 
(sacerdos, otis) of Vesta, it was not permitted to marry a man. 

II, a. Cicero possessed a remarkable eloquence. Man has many 
faculties of body and soul. In Sicily there is a volcanic mountain, 
called Aetna. Riches conduce to the destruction of (= are for de- 
struction to, etc.) many men. Bad customs conduce to the destruction 
of a state. Just laws serve for safety to a state. Attains, a king of 
Asia, gave his kingdom to the Romans for a present. Caesar left be- 
hind 500 soldiers for protection to the camp. Bravery is imputed to 
the Romans for praise. Caesar came to the city, besieged by the 
enemies, for aid. Poverty should be imputed to no man for a reproach. 
From whom hast thou received this book as a present? The father 
has given me the book for a present. ^-Xerxes, king of the Persians, 
gave to Themistocles Myus (Myus, untis), a city of Asia, for a pres- 
ent. Industry is imputed for praise to the scholar. 

II. b. Where caprice reigns (dominari), innocence has [but] little 
(levis) protection (praesidium). Man has a mortal body, [but] an im- 
mortal soul. My friend is called Charles. The struggle (= effort) 
after truth serves all men for ornament. God is not accustomed to 
aid(auxilio esse) those who thrust (immittere) themselves inconsiderate- 
ly into danger. A victoiy won (parere) by treachery, does not con- 
duce to the praise of the conqueror, but to [his] reproach. It is our 
duty to come for aid to the wretched. Caesar chose a fit place for the 
camp. Two thousand footmen and a thousand horsemen were left 
behind for protection to the city. The desire after dominion is im- 
puted to Caesar for a fault. Modesty is imputed to a boy for praise, 

$ 91.] ABLATIVE. 237 

immodesty for censure. Contempt of money is imputed to men for 
praise. Caesar sent 3000 soldiers as aid to tlie besieged city. 

§ 91. D. Ablative. 

The ablative expresses : 

1. The place in which something takes place (where?), 
as : terra marique, hoc loco, also in connection with totus 
mid omnis, as: totis campis^ tola urLe, and so in many other 
similar expressions ; but otherwise in generally stands with 
ablatives of this kind. 

2. The time in or ivithin ivhich something happens (when ? 
and at or ivithin ivhat time ?) 

Qua node natus Alexander est, eddem Dianae Ephesiae templum de- 
flagravit. Agamemno cum universa GTraecia vix decern annis unam 
cepit urbem. Epaminondas die uno Graeciam liberavit. 

3. The ground or cause (wherebij? on tvhat account? 
whence ?) ; hence it stands with : gaudeo^ laetor, glorior, — - 
labor o, valeo, floreo, — excello^praesto, supero, — -f^do, confldo, 
nitor ; — laetus^fretus, contentus, natus ^ ortus, genitusj etc. 

In culpa sunt, qui officia deserunt moUitid animi (from). Guberna- 
toris ars utilitate, non arte laudatur (on account of). Concordia res par- 
vae crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur. Delicto dolere, corrections 
gaudere oportet. Salus hominum non veritate solum, sed etiam fama 
nitiiur. Nemo potest aut corporis Jirmitatty aut fortunae stabilitate con- 
Jidere. [Fido and confido are quite as often, and difftdo almost always 
joined with the Dat) Conienti estote sorte vestra. 

4. The means and instrument, also the material (where- 
with? wherefrom? whence?). 

Octdis videmus, auribus audimus. Britanni lads et came vivunt 

Rem. 1. When a person is employed as a means or instrument, the ac- 
cusative is generally used with per, as : per tuum patrem miseria libera- 
tus sum. With passive or intransitive verbs, the agent or doer is ex- 
pressed by the ablative with the preposition o, as : mundus a deo crea- 
tus est. The accompanying person is expressed by the ablative with cum, 
as: cumfraire ambulavi. 

5. Hence the ablative of the instrument or material stands 
more particularly : 

238 ABLATIVE. [§ 91. 

a) With verbs o^ fwrnishin^, formings instructing^ be- 
ing accustomed. 

Natura oculos tenuissimis memhrdnis vestivit et sepsit. So also with 
affido, I affect (fill). Litterae tuae summo gaudio me aff^cerunt Pater 
filium litteris erudivit (or instituit, imbuit, instruxit). Milites continuo 
labore assueti [assuefadi] erant. 

b) With expressions of fulness^ plenty and loant^ as : 
abundo, affluo, and scateo, — compleo, satio, and ca- 
reo, — egeo and indigeo ; refertus, inops, praeditus. 

Germania abundat Jluminibus. Quid afFerre consilii potest [is], qui 
ipse eget consUio ? Miserum est carere consuetudine amicorum. Insula 
Delos referta erat divitiis. 

Rem. 2. Egere and indigere are oftener found with the genitive. See 

c) With the impersonal opus est (there is need of), the 
thing stands in the ablative, the person in the dative. 

' But when opus est is used personally, the thing 
stands as subject in the nominative. 

Multis non duce tantum opus est, sed adjutore et coadore. Dux nobis 
opus est. Duces nobis opus sunt. 

Rem. 3. When the thing which is needed is a verb, it is generally the 
infinitive or the ace. with the infinitive. Nihil opus est, rem pluribus ver- 
bis commemorare. Si quid erit, quod te scire opus sit, scribam. 

d) With, utor, fncor, fungor, potior and vescor. 

Multi henefijcio dei })erverse utuntur. Augustus Alexandria brevi poti- 
tus est. Vescimur bestiis. Cicero consulatu bene functus est. 

Rem. 4. Potiri rerum means, to appropriate to one's self {obtain) supreme 

6. The ablative expresses that according to ivhich some- 
thing is measured ox judged of {according to ivhat ?) 

Magnos homines virtute metimur, nonfortund. Quod rectum est, nee 
magnitudine aestimdtur, nee numero, nee tempore. 

7. Hence with the comparative, the object with which 
another is compared is put in the ablative instead of quam 
with the Nom. or Ace. 

Pater ^M? doctior est, than the son, or pater doctior est, quam filius 
Patrem^io modestiorem cognovi. 

§ 91.] ABLATIVE. 239 

8. Especially is the ablative used to express a respect or 
nearer definition (vjherein 1 in %uhat respect 1). 

Epaminondae nemo Thebanus par fuit eloquentid. Multi sunt corpo- 
re validi, mente infirmi. Magnus, major, maximus natu. JVatione Me- 
duB fuit. 

9. The ablative expresses the measure, and indeed : 

a) In answer to the question : bp hoiv much (many) ? 
particularly with comparatives and superlatives. 

Sol multis partihus major atque amplior est, quam terra. Here belong 
the ablatives : multo, by much, much, parvo, paullo, by little, little, quo 
and quanta, the, eo and tanto, so much the. 

b) In answer to the question: hoio long before or 
after 1 before the prepositions ante and post, 

Numa Pompilius annis permultis ante fuit, quam Pythagoras. Lae- 
lius sermonem de amicitia habuit pauds diebus post mortem Africani. 

Rem. 5. But in the question : how long before or after the present time ? 
the accusative is used with either ante, abhinc or post, as : ante tres an- 
nos te vidi. Post paucos dies te videbo. Tres abhinc dies amicum vidi. 

c) With expressions of buying and selling, costing, 
hiring, exchanging, the price, and with dignus and 
indignus, the thing of ivhich something \^ worthy or 
unioorthy, worth or not ivorth stands in the ablative. 

Hunc librum parvo prctio emi. Multorum sanguine et vulneribus ea 
Poenis stetit victoria. Excellentium hominum virtus imitatione, non 
invidia digna est. Veritas auro digna est. 

Rem. 6. Here belong also the ablatives : magna (for much, dear), 
parvo (for little, cheap), plurimo, minima, tanto, quanta and the Kke, with 
verbs of buying and selling. Instead of the Abl. the Gen. is also used, 
as : magni, parvi, etc. ($ 88, 9). 

10. The ablative signifies the toay and manner in which 
something takes place. 

Vir sapiens aequx) animx) injuriam fert. 

11. Finally, the ablative stands with expressions of remov- 
ing and separating, oi freeing and depriving. ' 

Caesar castra loco mavit. Hospitem arcere tedo nefas est. Cognitio 
naturae nos levat suptrstitione, liberal mortis mttu. Robustus animus et 
excelsus omni est liber aura et angore. 

240 ABLATIVE. [$ 91. 

CXXIII Exercises for translation. ($ 91.) 
I. a. Xerxes brought (perf ) war upon Greece by land and by sea 
(mare). The enemies were discovered upon all the plains. In the 
second Punic war Hannibal wasted (perf! ) the power (opes) of Italy. 
Socrates, on the last (supremus) day of his life, spoke (disserere, perf.) 
much concerning the immortality of the soul(plur.). Xerxes was con- 
quered (perf) more by the wisdom of Themistocles than by the arms 
of Greece. The minds of men are often tormented by distressing 
(acerbus, a, um) cares. We ought to grieve at faults, to rejoice at 
[their] correction (correctio). It is the part of a bad man to glory in 
his faults. Greece formerly flourished (== bloomed) in power (opes), 
dominion [and] gloiy. Crassus suffered from an immoderate desire 
for riches. Caesar, by his arrival, humbled (frangere, perf.) the Gauls 
trusting to (fretus) their bravery. The wise [man] does not trust to the 
stability of fortune. Upon the goods of the soul alone (solus, a, um) 
can we depend (niti). Nature is satisfied with little attention. 

I. b. The Romans by sea (mare) and by land have carried on many 
wars. The colonies of the Syrians were spread (difFundere) over al- 
most the whole circle of the world. The Romans awaited in a suita- 
ble place the attack of the enemies. In the spring the swallows re- 
turn to us, in the autumn they go away. In the months October and 
November the fruits are collected from (ex) the trees. Not from fear 
but from choice the upright man avoids (= flees) wicked deeds. 
Navigation is praised on account of the advantage. Who would glory 
in his ignorance ? Parents rejoice at the welfare of [their] children 
and grieve at their adversity. At nothing are we accustomed to re- 
joice so much (tam) as at the consciousness of our duties. The Roman 
state suffered from two vices, avarice and luxury. Aristides was dis- 
tinguished (floreo) by the fame of [his] justice. Happy is he who 
trusts to virtue, unhappy [he] who rests upon riches or any other 
goods of fortune. The enemies, trusting to (fretus) the number of 
their ti'oops, desired to fight. If we are contented with our lot, we 
shall be happy (beatus). 

II. a. The sun illuminates the whole earth with its light. The ox 
defends himself with the horns, the horse with the feet, the boar with 
the teeth. Cicero, by his eloquence, had acquired for himself immor- 
tal fame. Cicero was expelled from Rome by Clodius. Parents, who 
have imbued the minds of their children with the principles of virtue, 
and instructed them in literature, deserve well (= deserve) not only 
of their children but also of the state. The earth, in the spring, is 

§ 91.] ABLATIVE. 241 

clothed with herbs and flowers. Crassus, king of Syria, abounded in 
gold and silver. Spain anciently abounded in lead, iron, silver [and] 
gold. God has filled the world with all good [things]. The sea is 
full of [scatere) fishes. It is a misfortune (miserurn), to be deprived of 
(carere) the intercourse of friends. We all need (egere) the aid of 
' others. The earth abounds in all things which men need (egere). 
Man is endowed with reason and speech. There is need of a wise 
general to even the bravest army. There is need of repose after 
labors, to the body and the soul. There was need of ready aid to the 
captured city. The Carthaginians were accustomed (perf.) formerly 
to use elephants in war. Pronounce (= extol) him happy who en- 
joys good health. Use the powers which God has given thee. Who- 
ever (= who) wishes to obtain true renown, must perform the duties 
of virtue. The Numidians generally /e</ upon (vesci) milk and venison. 
Cimon, the son of Miltiades, had (uti) a very hard beginning of youtli 
(adolescentia, ae). Alexander, king of the Macedonians, possessed 
himself of the whole Persian kingdom. 

II. b. We see with the eyes, hear with the ears, smell with the nose 
(nares, ium), taste with the palate, feel with the nerves. Very high 
mountains are covered with perpetual (perennis) snow and ice. We 
often attain more by goodness than by force. The Roman state was 
delivered from destruction by Cicero. God has enclosed (sepire) and 
covered (vestire) the eyes with very delicate membranes. We ought 
to aid those most, who need (indigere) our aid most. They are all 
rich who are endowed with virtue. The fortunate abound with friends, 
the unfortunate are destitute (carere) of friends. The sun fills all 
[things] with its light. The Roman consul, Aemilius, enriched (di- 
tare) his soldiers with great booty. Our mind is filled (afficere) with 
joy when we have done something good. Greece abounded in great 
poets. The body has need of food and drink (potio). When we act 
rightly, we have need of neither dissimulation (simulatio) nor de- 
ception (fallacia). Any one you please of the sailors can govern 
the ship in (abl.) a quiet sea, [but] when (ubi) a violent (saevus) 
storm has arisen, then they have need of a pilot The Helots 
(Helota, ae) with the Lacedemonians, performed the oflSce of slaves. 
That (is) ship performs (confic6re) the course best, which has (uti) 
the most skilful pilot. Many men abuse reason. Discharge scrupu- 
lously the oflfice committed to thee. The covetous [man] does not en- 
joy the riches which he has. The Greeks anciently ate acorns. Alex- 
ander possessed himself of the kingdom of Darius. 

III. a. Scholars in school, are judged of and estimated not accord- 


242 ABLATIVE. [§ 91. 

ing to rank (= genus), but good manners, a teachable spirit and ac- 
tive (acer) industry. The wise man measures men not according to 
fortune but according to character. There is nothing more amiable 
than virtue. Ireland is smaller by a half than Britain. Carthage was 
founded eighty-two years before Rome. Cimon, five years after he had 
been expelled, was recalled to [his] native country. In the sixty-sec- 
ond year after the founding of the city Rome (post urbem conditam), the 
third war against the Carthaginians was undertaken. The friend, 
whose an'ival I had expected three days before, has come to day, and 
will depart again after ten days. Chrysogonus bought (perf ) a Corin- 
thian vase for an immense price. For how much has thy father sold 
his horse? he has sold it for so much (tantum), as (quantum) he 
bought it for. The war has cost (stare) us much blood. An un- 
grateful mind is unworthy of favors. Virtue and wisdom are worthy 
of man. Receive those into friendship whom thou shalt consider 
worthy of thy love. The wise man endures the hardships of life with 
equanimity. Cicero, deprived of public offices, found satisfaction in 
the study of philosophy. The winds purify the air from noxious vapors. 
Timoleon, with incredible success (fortuna), expelled Dionysius from 
all Sicily. 

ni. b. Not according to greatness of stature, but from a brave and 
fierce mind we judge of a soldier. According to character, not accord- 
ing to property (facultates) we should estimate men. Nothing is 
more excellent than truth. No (nemo) Theban was equal to Epami- 
nondas in eloquence. Pompy was only two years (biennium) older 
than Cicero. Carthage was founded eighty-two years after Rome and 
destroyed in the 700dth year afterwards. Agricola died in the fifty- 
sixth year of his age, the tenth day hefore the Calends of September (ante 
Kalendas Septembres). My brother, who departed six days ago, will 
return after two years. The trader sells the wares for a greater price 
than he has bought them for from others. Thou canst buy neither 
virtue nor wisdom for gold. They are unworthy of favors who are un- 
mindful of them. The victory over the Romans cost Pyrrhus, king of 
Epirus, much. The deeds of Caesar are worthy of eternal renown. 
They deserve praise who honor virtue. Folly is unworthy of man. 
Pausanias, king of the Lacedemonians, lived, after the custom of the 
Persians, more luxuriously than was proper (par). Jugurtha expelled 
(perf) Ad herbal, an ally and friend of the Roman people, from his 
kingdom and all [his] possessions (fortunae). Themistocles, a general 
of the Athenians, delivered Greece from servitude. 


§ 92. Construction of the Names of Cities, 

1. The names of cities (toivns, villages and small islands) 
of the first and second Dec. Sing-, stand, in answer to the 
question where ? in the genitive; but the names of cities of 
the third Dec. and of the Plur. of the first and second Dec, 
in the ablative, without in. In answer to the question, 
ivhither ? they all stand in the accusative, and in answer to 
the question, lohence ? in the ablative, in each case without 
a preposition. 

Ut Romae consules, sic Carthagine quotannis bini reges creabantur. 
Talis Romae Fabricius, qiialis Aristides Aihenis fuit Pompeius hie- 
mare Dyn-hachii et Apolloniae constituerat. Delphis Apollinis oraculum 
fuit. Cono plurimum Cypri vixit, Iphicrates in Thracia, Timotheus 
Lesbi. Curiiis primus Romam elephantos quattuor duxit. Pompeius 
Lucerid proficiscitur Canusium atque inde Brundisium. Lycurgus Cre- 
tam profectus est ibique perpetuum exsilium egit Aeschines cessit 
Mhenis et se Rhodum contullt. Consul Roma Athenas profectus est, 

Rem. Domus and rus have the same construction as the names of 
cities: domi (at home), domi meae, tuue, suae, nostrae, vestrae, alienae, 
(at my house, etc.), domum (to the house), domo (from the house, 
home); — run (not rare), in the country, rws (into, to, the country), 
rure (from the country). Besides, humi (on the ground), domi militi- 
aeque or domi bellique (at home and abroad, in peace and in war). 

2. The words in apposition with the names of cities, as : 
urbs, oppidum, caput (chief city), in answer to the question, 
where ? stand in the ablative generally without in ; in an- 
swer to the question, ivhither ? in the accusative without in ; 
in answer to the question, ivhence ? in the ablative without 

Archias poeta Antiochlae natus est, celebri quondam urhe et copiosa. 
Cicero profectus est Athenas, urbem celeberrimmn. Demaratus Corintho, 
urbe amplissima, Tarquinios fugit 

CXXIV. Exercises for translation. ($ 92.) 
I. As long as Cicero was at Athens, he earnestly pursued philoso- 
phy. At Ephesus, a city of Asia, was a very renowned (celeber) tem- 
ple of Diana. At Sparta was the most honorable (honestus) abode of 


old age. The arts and literature flourished (= bloomed) at Athens. 
Demaratus fled from Corinth, a city of Greece, to Tarquinii, a city 
of Etruria. Timoiheus, compelled by the hatred of the ungrateful 
state, betook (perf) himself to Chalcis. Marius was born'and brought 
up (perf.) at Arpinum, a city of Latium. At Alexandria, a city of 
Egypt, was a renowned (eximius) library. Brutus proceeded to Ar- 
dea to the camp. Hannibal proceeded from Carthage to Spain. Dio- 
oysius, the tyrant, sent for (arcessere, perf) Plato from Athens. Au- 
gustus died at Nola, a city of lower Italy (Italia inferior). I have 
idved three years at Rome, one year at Corinth, two years at Athens, 
:two at Philippi, three at Sparta. My father will return home to- 
morrow from the country, and, after three days, will go again from 
home into the country and will pass the whole summer in the countiy. 
When I am in my house, I do not trouble myself (curare) about (ace.) 
tvhat is without (alienus, plur.). When a friend is in the house of a 
friend, he is (versari) as it were, in his own house, not in anothers. 
The Egyptians embalmed (condire) the dead and laid them away (con- 
dere) at home. The Athenians were very renowned in peace (domus) 
and in war (militia). Many men would rather (malo) live in the 
country than in the city. By good counsels, the welfare of the state 
will be secured (constituere) at home and abroad. I shall remain at 
home, [but] my brother will go into the country. 

n. In Sparta, the boys were scourged (caedere) with thongs (lorum) 
at the altar of Diana. Cicero, in Rhodes, attached himself (se applica- 
re) to Molon. Artemisia, the wife of a king of Caria, built at Halicar- 
nassus a famous (nobilis) sepulchre. In the times of Pericles, many 
renowned men lived at Athens. Hannibal was born at Carthage. 
Themistocles, presented with great presents by Artaxerxes, returned 
(perf) to Asia and established (constituere) his abode at Magnesia. 
The corpse of Alexander was removed (transferre, perf.) from Baby- 
lon, the chief city of Assyria, to Alexandria, a city of Egypt. Dionysius, 
the tyrant, fled (perf) from Syracuse, the most powerful city of Sicily, 
to Corinth, a very renowned (celeber) city of Greece. Cato took away 
(perf) his life at Utica, a city of Africa. Hannibal was recalled from 
Italy to Carthage. Scipio often hurried away (evolare) from the city 
into the country, [and] then returned to business from the country into 
the city. Alexander died (perf.) at Babylon, the chief city of Assyria. 
The soldiers returned (perf.) home joyful at the victoiy. The soul in 
the body is, as it were, in a foreign house. In the time of Pyrrhus, 
the first elephants came to Rome. Nowhere dots one live (vivltur) so 
conveniently (commode) as at home. Archimedes was killed (perf.) 


at Syracuse, a city of Sicily, by a Roman soldier. Marius died at his 
house an old man. Laelius hastened forth (evolare) into the country 
from the city, as if (tanquam) from ehains. The superiority (virtus) 
of Caesar had been acknowledged at home and abroad. Socrates 
brought back to the house the very same expression which he had 
carried forth from it. Cicero often lived in the country. The poet 
Ovid lived a long time (aliquamdiu) at Tomi, a city of Moesia, in exile. 

§ 93. Remarks on the use of the Prepositions, 

1. Ab and de (from, by, of) differ thus : a) of place, ah 
means, aivay from a place, de, doivn from, or away from, — 
b) ah is used with an active object, and hence stands with 
the agent or doer after passive verbs, de on the contrary, is 
used with Si passive object. 

Milites ab urhe profecti sunt. Lucretius de muro se dejecit. Deforo 
cives discesserunt (away from the forum). Multae fabulae de Hercule a 
pottis fictae sunt (many fables have been invented concerning Hercu- 
les by the poets). Multa de te a fraJtre tuo audivi (I have heard much 
of thee from thy brother). 

2. Circimi is used only of place (not of time), as : terra 
se circum axem convertit 

3. The verbs : pono, loco, colloco, constittk), defigo and 
some others take m with the ablative where the accusative 
seems to be required, since they express motion. — Super 
and suhter are very rarely used with the ablative. 

CXXV. Exercises for translation. (^ 93.) 

I. The Gauls were conquered (perf ) by Caesar. Caesar has related 

much of the Gauls. Cornelius Nepos wrote (perf) a book concerning 

the life and customs of Cato. The life and customs of Cato were 

written by Cornelius Nepos. The citizens, besieged by the enemies, 

placed all hope in the wisdom and firmness of the general. From 

whom hast thou heard this news concerning the arrival of my father ? 

from thy brother. We would place the highest good in virtue ! The 

wise man fixes (defigere) his thoughts not upon pleasure, but upon virtue. 

n. Cicero wrote (perf) three books concerning duties. Three books 

concerning duties were written by Cicero. Excellent precepts have 

been left (tradere) us by Plutarch concerning the instruction of children 



(puer). Plato placed the reason in the head, anger in the breast 
Cicero, in the first book of the Tusculan Disputations, speaks (disputa- 
re) of the immortality of the soul. Much has been related to us by 
our teacher of the bravery of the Romans. Cicero fixed (defigere) all 
his cares and thoughts upon the welfare of his country. Let us place 
a peaceful life in virtue ! 

§ 94. Of the use of the Pronouns. 

1. The personal pronouns in the Norn. : eg-o, tu^ nos^ vos 
are expressed with the verb, only when a particular stress 
rest upon them, hence, especially in contrasts. The pos- 
sessive pronouns also : meus, tmis, etc. are used only in this 
case, or for the sake of perspicuity. 

Ego fieo, tu rides. Mens frater diligens est, tuus piger. But : Fra- 
ter me amat (not: frater meus me amat). 

2. The genitives nostri and vestri, like met, tui, sui are 
objective (not possessive), but nostrum and vestrum are used 

Memoria nostri (of us). Memor sum vtstri. Memini vesiri. Quis 
nostrum haec dixit ? Nemo vestrum, sua officia explevit. Besides, we 
should distinguish : pars nostri, vestri (a part of us, you, = of our, your 
being), e. g. animus est pars nostrij from : pars nostrum, vestrum, a part 
or some of us. 

3. The pronouns : sui, sibi, se ; suus, a, um, are used when 
an object (person or thing), is opposed to itself. 

Omnia animalia se diligunt. Haec oratio sibi repugnat. JUexander, 
quum interemisset Clitum, familiarem suum, vix a se man us abstinuit. 
Hannibalem sui cives e civitate ejecerunt. Dux cum militibus suis 
fiigit. Oravi amicum, ut sibi consuleret. 

4. When these reflexive pronouns stand as the subject of 
an Infin., or with a Part., or in dependent clauses and refer 
to the subject of the leading clause, they may generally be 
translated into English by, he, she, it, to him, to her, to it, 
him, her, it, they, them, to them. 

Animus sentit, se sua vi moveri (the soul is conscious, that it is moved 
by its own power). Caesar exercitu per se comparato rempublicam 


liberavit (with an army collected by him). Caesar milites adhortatus 
est, ut se sequerentur (that they should follow him). 

5. The oblique cases of 15, ea, id, on the contrary, are 
used, when an object is not opposed to itself, but to another 
object ; ejus, eorimi, and earum in this case, are translated 
into English by his, her, their. 

Pater ei ignovit [him, e. g. his son, or her^ e. g. his daughter ; but : 
pater sihi ignovit, himself). Pater semper ejus memor erit [his, e. g. 
friends). Pater eum valde diligit. Mater eam valde amat. Dux et 
milites ejus fugerunt (and his soldiers ; but : dux cum militibus suis 
fugit). Caesar fortissimus fuit : ejus facta admiramur [his deeds). Hos- 
tes multas urbes exciderunt, earwwique incolas in servitutem abduxe- 
runt (and their inhabitants). 

6. The pronoun ipse, a, um often stands with the person- 
al pronouns, either in the same case with the subject, when 
the subject is contrasted ivith other subjects, or in the same 
as the object, when the object is contrasted ivith other objects. 

Ego me ipse vitupero (/ and not another). Ego me ipsum vitupero 
[myself and not another). Saepe ii homines, qui sibi ipsis maxime pla- 
cent, aliis maxime displicent. De m£ ipse loquor. De me ipso loquor. 

7. The genitives: ipsius, ipsorum and ipsarum, which 
often stand in connection with the possessive pronouns, axe 
to be translated into English by, otvn. 

Meus ipsius pater (my own father). Mea ipsius mater (my ot^n moth- 
er). Meum ipsius consilium (my oum counsel). Tuus ipsius frater. 
Dux sua ipsius culpa victus est. JVoster ipsorum pater. Vestra ipso- 
rum mater. Duces sua ipsorum culpa victi sunt. Sorores mea »ud 
ipsarum voluntate domi manent. 

8. Besides what was said of the difference in usage be- 
tween the interrogatives quis ? quid ? and qui ? quae 1 
quod ? in Rem. 3. § 30 ; it should be here stated, that, when 
quis has a noun with it, the noun is to be regarded as in 
apposition with it ; that quis inquires barely after the name of 
the person or thing (what), qui after its nature (what sort of), 
as: quis philosophus ? (what philosopher?), ^m philoso- 
phus ? (what sort of a philosopher ?), 


Rem. 1. For the distinction between the double forms of the inde- 
finite pronouns quisy qua, quid, qui, quae quod, etc. See k 31. 

9. The indefinite pronoun quis (qui), qua (quae), quid 
(quod), some one^ one, is less emphatic than aliquis, etc., and 
stands most commonly after si, nisi, ne, num, quum, qui^ 
quae, quod, quo or quanto (the, with the comparative). 

iSi quis de immortalitate aniraorum dubitat, insanus est. Vide, we 
quem laedas. iN'um quis dubitat hac de re ? Qito {quanto) quis sapien- 
tior est, eo (tanto) modestior est. 

1 0. When quisque is connected with the pronouns sui, 
sibi, se, suus, it stands immediately after them. 

Trahit sua quemque voluptas. Minime sibi quisqae notus est. 

11. When quisque stands after superlatives, it may be 
translated by precisely the, the very, and when it stands after 
ordinal numbers by each, every. 

Sapientissimus quisque virtutem maxime amat (precisely the wisest). 
(Quarto quoque anno (every fourth year). 

12. Uterque (each of two, both) in connection with a 
noun takes the same gender, number and case as the noun ; 
but when uterque is connected with a pronoun, this pro- 
noun stands in the genitive. In both cases the predicate is 
in the singular. 

Uterque dux clarus fuit (both leaders were renowned). Uterque 
eorum clarus fuit (both these were renowned). Uterque nostrum, ves- 
trum (we both, you both). Quorum uterque (both of whom). 

Rem. 2. The plural of uterque is used when two parties are spoken 
of, to both or at least, one of which, several belong, or when it stands in 
connection with nouns used only in the plural, as : utrique duces (the 
generals, of which there are several on both sides). Utrique, Caesar et 
hostes. Utrdque castra (both camps). 

13. liter, alter, neuter are used when the discourse is of 
only tivo; quis, alius, nullus, on the contrary, when the dis- 
cpurse is of several. 

,,• Uter fratrum ad te venit (which of the two brothers) ? Uter vestrum 
'■hoc dixit (which of you two) ? Duo sunt fratres : alter (the one) litteris 
operam dat ; alter (the other) miles est. JVeuter nostrum (neither of 


US two). When a comparison occurs with uter^ alter, neuter, the com- 
parative is used where we sometimes use the superlative, as: uter 
fortior est ? which of the two is the bravest ? 

14. The phrases, alius aliud, alius aliter^ etc., are trans- 
lated : tke one this, the other that; the one in this iv ay, the 
other in that. 

Alii aliud probant. JUii allter vivuht. 

Rem. 3. The indefinite pronouns, one, they, we are expressed in 
Latin : 

a) By the third Pers. Plur. Act. as: dicunt, ferunt, tradunt ; 

b) By the third Pers. Sing. Pass., as : narratur ; bene, vivttur ; 

c) By the personal Pass., as : amor, one loves me, amaris, one loves 
thee, sapientes beati existimantur, we account the wise happy ; 

d) By the first Pers. Plur. Act. (in this case the speaker must be in- 
cluded under the one), as: viro sapienti libenter paremws ; 

e) By the second Pers. Sing. Act., particularly of the Subj., as : cre- 
dos (one may believe). 

CXXVI. Exercises/or translation. ($ 94.) 

I. a. Parents love their children. Manlius punished (multare) the 
bravery of his son with death. The remembrance of you will always 
be agreeable to us. To each of us the love of life is inborn. The 
soul is the governor of us. The hand is a part of us. A part of us, 
to-morrow, will betake ourselves into the country. Pity thou me, 
wretched. Few of us have fulfilled their duties. A good king cares 
less for himself than for the welfare of the citizens. The wise man 
zealously corrects the faults inborn in him. So long as Hannibal was 
in Italy, nobody resisted him in battle (acies). After the general had 
fallen (perf ) in battle, the soldiers fled. My friend and his son have 
set out for Rome. The Allobroges entreated (orare) Umbrenus, that 
(ut with Svhj.) he would pity them. Cicero had eflfected by Fulvia, 
that [ut with Subj.) Curius might disclose (aperire) to him the plans of 
Catiline. The Germans occupied themselves (studere) with agriculture, 
and the greatest part of their food (victus, us) consisted of [consistere 
with abl.) milk, cheese and flesh. I have often reflected (cogitare) 
with myself concerning the immortality of the soul (plur.). We see 
(cernere) faults (delictum) in others more than in ourselves. The 
soul itself moves itself. Our soldiers have conquered the enemies, not 
by the wisdom (consilium) of their general, but by their own bravery. 
We ought to care (inservire, c. dat) not only for our own advantage, 
but also for [that] of others. 


I. b. Children love their parents. It is the duty of the king to look 
out for the welfare of his subjects. Lysander, king of the Lacede- 
monians, left behind (perf ) a great report of himself With delight 
we pity thee. Each of us will always recollect thee and thine. I 
shall always preserve a recollection of you. The best part of us is 
immortal. A part of us had remained at home. Many of us have de- 
served [well] of (de) our country. The general and his soldiers have 
distinguished themselves in battle by bravery. Men use beasts for 
their advantage. [His] friends exhorted Darius, that [ut with Suhj.) 
he should subject Greece to himself The king Eurystheus command- 
ed (imperare) Hercules, that (ut with Suhj.) he should bring (afFerre) 
to him the arms of the queen of the Amazons. Cleopatra admitted 
(admittere) a viper (aspis, idis) to herself and was killed (extinguere, 
perf.) by its poison. After the encounter at Issus, the mother of Da- 
rius, his wife and his daughter, were taken captives. We ourselves 
ought to govern (imperare) ourselves. Virtue itself protects itself 
Many are wise for themselves indeed, but not for others. The (is) 
general cannot restrain (continere) [his] army, who does not restrain 
himself (se ipsum). The companions of Ulysses perished (perf) by 
their own folly. Many evils happen to us by our own fault (culpa). 

II. a. Each one is the architect (faber) Of his fortune. Assign to 
each his ovm. With the greatest difficulty (= most difficulty) does 
each one judge correctly of himself Each one ought to protect his 
own. Precisely the best [man] undertakes most easily dangers and 
labors for his country. Money has always been despised by the very 
best [men]. Every fifth yeai', all Sicily was rated (perf) Demosthe- 
nes and Cicero were the most renowned orators of antiquity ; to 
which dost thou give the preeminence (palma) ? Virgil, Ovid and 
Horace were very distinguished poets of Rome ; which dost thou con- 
sider the best ? Each is a fault, both to believe each and [to believe] 
neither. I believe neither, neither thee nor thy brother. Both, Ho- 
mer and Virgil, were distinguished poets; the one of them was a 
Greek and the other a Roman. Both, the Romans and the enemies, 
fought bravely. One excels in this, another in that. One occupies 
himself with this, another with that. 

IL b. Each virtue deserves (deberi) its particular (proprius) praise. 
Each has (by esse) his way. Each is accustomed to measure dangers 
according to his fear. Fortune will form each one by his character. 
The veiy best, we ought always to place before (proponere) others 
for imitation. The olive (olea) does not bear every year, but general- 

$ 95.] OP THE NUMERALS. 251 

ly every two (alter) years. Who of you has heai*d this news ? Who 
is the greatest orator of antiquity ? Scipio and Hannibal were very 
renowned generals, the one was the general of the Romans, the other 
of the Carthaginians ; which dost thou prefer ? The very most learn- 
ed men are the most modest. Both, Caesar and Pompey were great 
men ; which dost thou consider the gi-eatest ? Both the Romans and 
the Germans were very brave ; which considerest thou the bravest ? 
Neither of us all is free from faults. Neither, neither the wicked 
[man] nor the flatterer, ought we to praise. Dangers threaten one 
from here (= hence), another /rom there (= thence). This pleases 
one, that another. 

III. a. Justly one censures those who act rightly from (prae) fear. 
All is uncertain, when one departs (discedere) from right. One 
laughs. They praise me. One has praised me. The earth is sur- 
rounded (circumfundi) by that sea which we (= one) call ocean. 
We prepare the mind for (ad) all. He who fears what one can avoid, 
can in no manner live with a quiet mind. In prosperity, let us flee 
pride and arrogance. Without virtue we cannot be happy. What is 
sweeter, than to have [a friend] with whom one may dare to speak 
as with himself? It is becoming, to do religiously what one does. 

III. b. They called those philosophers sophists, who pursued philo- 
sophy for gain or ostentation. They run. Honorable conduct (= the 
honorable) excites (movere) the approbation of those with whom one 
lives. They will censure me. We deride fools. The perversities 
(pravitas) of the soul, one properly (= correctly) calls faults. Hi^ 
means oj living (victus) and care of the body, we refer to health and 
strength, not to property. How short is the longest life of man, 
when one compares (subj.) it to eternity! What one has promised, 
he must make good. By entreaties, one often effects (perficere) more 
than by force. It is becoming, not to censure that which one does not 
understand (intelligere, Subj.). 

§ 9o. O/" the Numerals. 

1. Concerning mille and milia, see § 33. Rem. 4. 

2. The distributives, which answer the question, hoio 

many each 1 or how many at a time ? are used when one 

wishes to express, that a number is divided equally among' 

several objects, or a certain number of times. 

Pater filiis senos libros dat (six books a piece, i. e. the father gives 
each of his sous six books ; hence, if we suppose three sons, the father 

252 OF THE NUMERALS. [$ 95. 

divides eighteen books into three equal parts). Sex fossae, quinos pe- 
des altae, ducebantur (each six feet deep). 

3. Besides, the distributives are used for the cardinal 
numbers with nouns which have only the plural, as : bina 
castra, tivo camps. For singulis ae, a, in this case, uni, ae, a 
is used, as : una castra, one camp, iinae nuptiae, one tued- 
ding, unae litterae, one letter, trina castra, three camps (but : 
terna castra, three camps a-piece). 

CXXVII Exercises for translation. (§95.) 

L A thousand soldiers have defended the city spiritedly against 
3000 enemies which assaulted it. All (oninis) Gaul which is em- 
braced (continere) by the Pyrenees mountains, the Alps and the Se- 
venns (mons Gehenna) is 3,200,000 paces. The leader of our army 
has pursued the enemy with 1000 soldiers. As at Rome two consuls, 
so at Carthage two kings, were annually elected. The Roman legions 
consisted (esse) at certain times of 5000 footmen and 300 horsemen. 
The army of the enemies had pitched 2 camps, ours 3. The father 
wrote a letter to each of his 4 sons. Veiy often by a truce, have the 
already enfeebled powers of an army been restored (reparare). Two 
acres of land a-piece were divided (perf ) to the people. The mother 
gave to each child 1 apple, 6 pears, 7 plums, 8 cherries. The enemies 
pitched (perf) 3 camps, each of which 3 trenches surrounded. 

IL The army of the enemies consisted (esse) of 28,000 footmen 
and 13,500 horsemen. According to (ex) the opinion of Posidonius, 
there are 20,000,000 stadia from the earth to the moon [andj 5,000,000 
stadia thence to the sun. The citizens with 1000 soldiers have de- 
fended the city against the enemy. The mother gave (perf) to each 
boy 2 apples, 3 pears, 4 plums and 12 cherries. Caesar divided (perf.) 
among (dat.) the people, man for man, 10 bushels of grain and just 
so many pounds of oil and 300 sesterces (nummus). The enemies 
drew (perf) around the camp 3 trenches, 11 feet deep and 6 feet 
broad. Two walls surround the city, 18 feet high and 8 feet broad. 
The towers upon the walls of Babylon, were about 10 feet higher than 
the walls. In each camp of the enemies, there were 7000 footmen and 
4000 horsemen. Cicero received (perf) in one day, 3 letters from (ex) 
each of three different places. How many scholars are in a class in 
(gen.) your school? about 30. The fingers of men have 3 joints, tlie 
thumb 2. A father divided (perf) equally among (dat.) his 4 sons 

^ 96, 97.] INFINITIVE. SUPINE. 253 

4444 dollars, how many dollars did each receive (perf.) ? 1111. My 
brother has 3 writing-tablets. Yesterday I received (perf.) 2 letters. 
The city has 6 towers, each of which is 268 feet high. After a long 
time, at length (tandem) a letter came, and this whole letter consisted 
(esse) of these 22 letters : Si vales, bene est ; ego valeo. 

§ 96. Infinitive. 
The Infinitive is used : 

a) As subject, as : dulce et decorum est pro patria mori; 

b) As object ; this is especially the case with verbs sig- 
nifying to ivill) to be able, ought, should, as: volo (cupio, 
studeo, possum, debeo) discere. 

Rem. 1. In animated description, the Latins often used the Infin. 
Pres. for the finite verb (historical infinitive)^ as: multum ipse jpwgnore, 
saepe hostemyenVe. 

Rem. 2. For the Ace. with the Infin., see § 105. 

§97. Supine. 

1. The Supine in um stands with verbs of going, com- 
ing, sending, calling, in order to express the end of these 
verbs. It takes the same case as its verb. 

In urbem migravi hahitatum. Ingens hominum multitudo in urbem 
convenit ludos publicos spedatum. 

2. The Supine in u stands : a) with many adjectives as 
a nearer definition of them, as : dulcis, jucundus, molestus, 
dignus, indignus, facilis, difficilis ; b) with fas est (it is law- 
ful), nefas est (it is not lawful) and opus est. 

Pira dulcia sunt gustatu. Fas est dictu. Nefas est didu. Ddiber'- 
atu opus est. 

CXXVIII. Exercises far translation. (^ 96, 97.) 

I. To a cultivated and learned man, to think is to live. They, whose 
fathers or ancestors have distinguished (praestare) themselves by 
some renown, seek to excel in the veiy same kind of praise. Practice 
teaches to bear (ferre) labor. Without virtue nobody can be happy. 
The army hastens, in order to deliver the city from the siege. The 
Romans sent (perf.) ambassadors to Delphi, in order to consult the 
oracle. What is so pleasant (jucundus) to perceive and to hear, as a 

254 GERUND. [^98. 

discourse adorned with wise thoughts and weighty (gravis) words ? 
An unripe grape is bitter to taste. The fish is easy to catch in disturb- 
ed water. 

11. To prefer money lo friendship is base. Poets wish both to de- 
light and to profit. The soul cannot decay. It is easier to see errors 
than to correct [them]. All that comes to pass by our fault (culpa), 
we ought to bear patiently. A great multitude of men assembled 
(perf ) in [in with ace.) the city, in order to see (spectare) the public 
games. The shorter a narrative is, the plainer (dilucidus) and easier 
it is to understand (cognoscfire). The orators pass over all which is 
base to speak. 

§ 98. Gerund. 

1. The gerund in the Nom. in connection with est, as : 
scribendum est, is translated into English : it is to be (writ- 
ten) or: one must, one should (write). The person which 
must or should do something is put in the dative. Hence 
we may translate it into English by : /, thou, he, she, it must, 
should (write), 2oe must, should (write), etc. 

2. The gerund, like the infinitive, takes the same case as 
its verb. But instead of the gerund with an object in the 
accusative, the gerundive is used. See § 99. 1. 

Obtemperandum est virtutis praeceptis. Suo cuique judicio utendum 
est (each one must use his own judgment). 

3. The remaining cases of the gerund supply the cases 
of the Infin. Still the Ace. of the gerund is used only in 
connection with a preposition. The use of the cases of the 
gerund is the same as the use of the cases of substantives. 

Nom. JVatare est utile (swimming is useful). 

Gen. jVaiandi ara utilis est (the art of swimming is useful). JVatandi 
sum peritus (1 am skilled in swimming). 

Dat. JVatando homo aptus est (man is fitted for swimming). 

Ace. JVatare disco (I learn to swim, or swimming) ; but : ad natandum 
homo aptus est (is fitted for swimming, or: to swim). 
Inter natandum [whWe swimming); ob natandum (on ac- 
count of swimming). 

Abl. JVatando cori)oris vires exercentur (by swimming). In natando 
(in swimming), a natando (by swimming), ex natando, de 

§ 99.] GERUNDIVE. %55 

Remark. The Gerund being of the nature of a noun, is governed 
in its different cases in the same manner as a noun. 

4. The gerund in the oblique cases also, like the Infin., 
takes the same case as its verb. Still, instead of the ge- 
rund in the Dat. and Ace. with an object in the accusative, 
the gerundive is used. See § 99. 1. 

Ara pueros bene educandi difficilis est. Pauci idoni sunt ad cdiis im- 

CXXIX. Exercises for translation. (^ 98.) 

I. Man should always think that life is short. The laws of Lycur- 
gus formed (erudire) the youth by labors, by hunting, running, hun- 
gering, thirsting, freezing, sweating. The effort to relieve the misery 
of others, is very agreeable to good men. Avoid thou all enticements 
to (gen.) sinning (peccare). Not for (dat.) the school, but for life we 
should learn. A good scholar is desirous of learning nmch. During 
(inter) the deliberation (consultare) one ought not to contend (decertare) 
with arms. One must not spare an enemy. Boys and youths should 
use exercise of body and mind. Who has not learned to obey, is not 
fit (idoneus) to command. Caesar and Pompey were inclined (propen- 
sus ad) to spare the enemies. By nothing do men approach (accedere) 
nearer to God, than by giving safety to men. By teaching we learn. 

II. It is sufficiently known, that good men must contend with the 
bad. Socrates was accustomed, by inquiry (percontari) and question- 
ing (= asking) to elicit the sentiments (opinio) of those with whom he 
discoursed (disserere). One must come for aid, not merely to the 
body, but much (multo) more to the understanding and the mind. 
We should forget injuries. Who does not know, that the hope of im- 
punity is a very great enticement to (gen.) sin (peccare). All the citi- 
zens burned (exardescere, per/.) with desire to fight for the safety of 
their country. One must use the occasion. Learn, O boys, early the 
art of using time wisely ! Few men are fitted [idoneus with dat) to 
speak. Man is born to act. The Persians were very skilful in (gen.) 
riding. The character (mos, plur.) is discovered (= uncovered) in 
(inter) playing freely. From delaying (cunctari) Fabius was called the 
delayer. One must abstain from ignoble pleasures. 

§ 99. Gerundive, 
1. When the gerund would take an object in the accusative^ 

256 GERUNDIVE. [^ 99. 

the gerundive is commonly used instead of the gerund in the 
Gen. and Abl. and always instead of the gerund in the 
Nom., Dat. and Ace. The agent or doer^ as with the ge- 
rand, stands in the dative. 

2. The change of the construction of the gerund into 
that of the gerundive takes place in the following manner : 

a) The noun standing in the Ace. with the gerund, is 
put in the same case in tvhich the gerund stands ; 

b) The gerund is changed into the gerundive. 

c) But the gerundive is put in the same case, number and 
gender as the noun. 

E. g. If in the phrase : ars pueros educandi one would use the ge- 
rundive instead of the gerund, he must : a) put the Ace. pueros in the 
case of the gerund educandi, hence in the Gen. : puerorum (ars puer- 
orum) ; b) he must then change the gerund educandi into the gerundive 
educandus, a, um ; c) finally, must put this gerundive in the same gen- 
der, number and case as puerorum, hence educandorum. 

Nom. Nobis bene educandum est pue- Pueri nobis bene educandi sunt. 

ros, must be changed into : 
Gen. Ars dvitatem gubernandi est dif- 

ficillima ; for which common- 

Dat. Asinus idoneus est oneraportan- 

do, must be changed into : 
Ace. Puer aptus est ad Htteras trac- 

tandum,must be changed into : 
.Mbl. Litteras tractando ingenium acui- 

tur, for which commonly : 

Remark. But the gerund in the Gen., Dat. and Abl. is not changed 
into the Gerundive when the object in the Ace. is the neuter of an ad- 
jective or pronoun, as : studium vera cognoscendi (not verorum cognoscen- 
dorum), cupidus sum hoc audiendi (not huju^ audiendi). 

3. The gerundive stands also with verbs signifying to 
take, to give, care, attend to, give up, cause and the like, in 
order to express an intention or end. 

Urbs a duce mihtibus diripienda data est (for plundering). Urbem 
dux militibus diripiendam dedit. Perfugam Fabricius reducendum cura- 
vit (caused to be led back). 

Ars civitatis gubemandae est dif- 

Asinus idoneus gbX oneribus por- 

Puer aptus est ad litteras trac- 

Idtteris tradandis ingenium acui- 


$ 99.] GERUNDIVE. 267 

CXXX. Exercises for translation. (§99.) 

I. When wrath moves thee very much (maxime), thou must curb 
thy tongue very carefully. The art of governhig (gubernare) a state 
well and wisely, is very difficult. Many are more desirous of increas- 
ing [their] riches than of exercising [their] virtue. One must account 
wisdom the art of living well and peacefully. The camel is fitted 
(aptus, a, um, with dat.) for bearing great loads. Water is very useful 
for preserving our health. Gymnastic exercises avail very much (plu- 
rimum) for (ad) confirming the health. The Phenicians were very 
skilful in the art of governing ships. No possession is to be esteemed 
higher than virtue. The soldiers tried (experiri) all [things] in order to 
(ad) capture the city. The first book of Cicero's Tusculan Disputations 
treats (est) of the contempt of death ; the second of the enduring of 
pain ; the third of the relieving of sorrow. Socrates passed (perf.) 
[his] whole life in improving the morals of others. To be drawn 
(abduci) from active duties (res gerere) by the eflfort to investigate truth, 
is inconsistent with duty (contra officium). The life of the wise man 
consists in the exercise of virtue. Good parents bestow [collocare in 
with abl.) all care upon the proper (= good) bringing up of their chil- 
dren. Some (nonnulli) sports are not unprofitable for (dat.) sharpening 
(acuere) the wits (ingenium) of boys. The contempt of death avails 
veiy much in delivering the soul from fear. Nature has given (tradere) 
to woman, the attending to (procurare) and managing (administrare) the 
domestic affairs (res). Caesar gave up (concedere) the taken city to 
the soldiers, for plundering (diripere). Good parents take care (curare) 
to instruct then' children well. 

II. He (is) is to be accounted (existimare) free, who serves no vice 
(turpitudo). The desire (cura) to preserve itself, is inborn by nature 
in every living being. In joking (jocari), we must preserve (adhibere) 
temperance. The faculty of curbing the tongue is very useful. Many, 
on account of a desire for fame, are desirous to carry on war. We 
should pronounce nobody happy before death. Virtue has the greatest 
power of freeing minds from the passions. Soldiers should know 
how (= be acquainted with) to endure hunger and thirst. Innumera- 
ble things have been created by God in order (dat.) to delight men. 
Many plants are useful for (dat.) healing wounds. How many things 
are necessary for the preservation of life ! Thou must try all [things] 
in order to obtain the praise of the good. The winds are very useful 
for (ad) dispersing the injurious dust. By the pursuit (tractare) of 
literature, we should become (evadere) not merely more learned, but 


258 PARTICIPLE. [^ lOa 

better also. The book of Plutarch concerning the bringing up of 
children (puer) contains many useful precepts. In the performance 
(persequi) of all duties, one must bestow an effort (contentio) of the 
soul. Be unwilling to receive an office to the management (adminis- 
trare) of which thou art not competent (= hast not grown). In the se- 
lection (eligere) of friends, we should bestow the greatest foresight. 
Conon caused (curare) the walls of Athens, destroyed by Lysander, 
to be repaired (reficere). We give the boys good books to read. 
Mithridates took means (curare) to kill all Roman citizens in (abl.) the 
whole of Asia in one day. 

§ 100. Participle. 

1. The participle, like the Infin., governs the same case as 
its verb, as : epistolam scribens, hostibus parcerts, and like an 
adjective, agrees in gender, number and case with its noun, 
as : puer laudatus^ puella laudata. 

2. The participle is used as follows : 

a) Wholly as an adjective^ as : rosa florens pulchra est 
(the blooming rose). Rosa est florens (the rose is 
blooming) ; 

b) Instead of the relative toho^ lohich with some form of 
the finite verb, as : cives acriter cum hostibus dimica- 
bant urbem oppugnantibus (who were assaulting the 

c) Instead of the conjunctions, lohile, as, after, lohen, if, 
because, since, although with the finite verb, as : cog- 
itantes coelestia, haec nostra ut exigua et minima con- 
temnimus (when we think upon heavenly things). 
Hostes, amnem transgressi, castra muniverunt (after 
they had passed over the river). 

3. The Part. Fut. Act. is often used in order to express a 
design or purpose, and in this case is to be rendered by that, 
in order that with the finite verb, or by in order to with the 

Ingens horainum multitudo in urbem convenit ludos publicos speda- 

4. There are two kinds of participial construction in 

$ 100.] PARTICIPLE. 259 

Latin : the one is called the conjunctive participial construe- 
tion^ the other the ablative absolute. Since we generally 
translate the participle into English by a subordinate clause, 
the difference between these two constructions may be ex- 
plained as follows : 

a) The conjunctive participial construction is used, when 
the subordinate clause has no subject of its own, but 
has for its subject either the subject or object of the 
principal clause. In this case, the participle agrees in 
gender, number and case with this subject or object. 

Sol oriens pellit noctem (when the sun rises, it (i. e. the sun) chases 
away the night). Jlristldes, patria pulsus, Lacedaemonem fugit (as Aris- 
tides had been expelled from his country, he (Aristides) fled to Lace- 
demon). Hostes, victoriam adepti, in castra se receperunt (after the 
enemy had obtained the victory, they (the enemy) returned to the 
camp). Caesar hostes fugatos persecutiis est, after the enemy had been 
put to flight, Caesar pursued them (the enemy). 

b) The ablative absolute is used, when the subordinate 
clause has its own subject, which is neither the subject 
nor the object of the principal clause. In this case 
the subject of the subordinate clause stands in the 
ablative and the participle is added in the same case. 

Sole oriente, nox fugit (when the sun rises, the night flees). Recupera' 
td pace, artes efflorescunt (as soon as peace is regained, the arts 

Rem. Very often both the conjunctive participle and the ablative 
absolute may be translated by a substantive with or without a pre- 
position, as : the rising of the sun dispels the night ; after obtaining 
the victory, the enemy returned to the camp ; with the setting of the 
sun night flees. 

Rem. 2. Substantives and adjectives also, are often used in the same 
way as participles, as : bellum Gallicum, Caesare imperatore, gestum 
est (under the conduct of Caesar). JVaturd duce, errare nullo pacto 
potest (under the guidance of nature). Natus est Augustus, Cicerone 
et Antonio consulibus (in the consulship of Cicero and Anthony). 

CXXXI Exercises for translation. ($100.) 

I. a. What is so inhuman, as to convert (convertere) eloquence, 
which is given by nature for the safety and preservation of men, to the 

260 PARTICIPLE. [§ 100. 

destruction of the good ? Change of country does not always change 
the morals. The enemies pitched a camp in a place which was sur- 
rounded by marshes (palus) and woods. When we wish to begin 
(exordior) a work, we must (gerundive) bestow a careful preparation. 
Tarquinius Superbus was deprived of [his] dominion, as he was besieg- 
ing Ardea. Since the Romans feared the snares of the Germans, they 
returned over the Rhine. After Dionysius the tyrant had been expell- 
ed from Syracuse, he instructed (docere) boys at Corinth. A laugh 
sometimes breaks forth so violently, that we cannot, even when we 
desire, restrain (tenere) [it]. Hephaestion, of all the friends of Alexan- 
der, was the most dear, because he had been brought up in like man- 
ner with himself. When the storks wish to migrate (abire) they as- 
semble at [in with ace.) one place. In the third Punic war, Scipio 
passed over to Africa in order to destroy Chathage. 

I. b. What do eighty years, which are spent (exig^re) in (per) in- 
activity (inertia), profit (juvare) a man ? Two friends are like one soul 
which dwells in two bodies. When Alexander had possessed himself 
of Egypt, he built Alexandria. Hipparchus, a son of Pisistratus, fell 
in the battle of Marathon (Marathonius, a, um), while he was bearing 
arms against his country. Sulla was sent to Asia, in order to carry 
on war with the king Mithridates. After the enemies had possessed 
themselves of the city, they plundered it. By day (interdiu) we do not 
see the stars, because they are obscured by the light of the sun. We 
have confidence in upright men, even if they are not sworn. The ene- 
mies dispersed (dilabi, per/.) into the city, in order to protect them- 
selves, by (abl.) the walls (moenia). We cannot live happily (beate), 
if we fear death. 

n. a. When we strive against nature, the labor is vain. Men have 
invented innumerable arts, while nature taught [them]. What solici- 
tude would torment the wicked, if the fear of capital punishment were 
taken away ? Since God guides human affairs, we should be destitute 
of all fear. When humanity is extirpated from the soul, the man 
ceases to be man. When Cato had read through (passive) the Phedo 
of Plato, he took his life. Under the reign of Augustus, the Roman 
empire was rated (perf ). After the troops were drawn together, the 
general determined (perf) to attack the camp of the enemies. After 
taking away piety and religion, disturbance of life and a great confu- 
sion follow. At the instigation (by audor) of the magians, Xerxes was 
to have burned (inflamare) the temples of Greece. The wise man re- 
mains rich even after the loss (amittere) of all the goods of fortune. 
We hope, that our army, which has distinguished itself under the con- 


duct (regere) of a bad general, will acquire for itself still (etiam) great- 
er glory under the conduct of a good general. 

IL b. When pleasure (voluptas) reigns (dominari), all great virtues 
are in a low condition. The wise man will not be unhappy, after the 
loss of all his goods. After the rising of the sun, the mists were 
scattered (discuti, per/.). After a knowledge (cognoscere) of the nature 
of all things, we are freed (levare) from (abl.) superstition. Caesar, 
after the line-of-battle of the enemies was broken through and scatter- 
ed, led back his soldiers into the camp. The sedition of the soldiers, 
which had been quieted by the wisdom (consilium) of the general, 
broke out again (recrudescere, per/.) in his absence. After the expul- 
sion of the kings, Junius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus were made 
consuls. Under the reign of Augustus, Christ was born ; under the 
reign of Tiberius, he died. The Greeks took possession of Thermo- 
pylae as the Persians approached. Caesar, although he had conquered 
(passive) the Gauls, did not dismiss the army. The Greeks, under 
the conduct of Cimon, fought against the Persians at Marathon. Be- 
cause the night came on (ingruere), Caesar led back his soldiers into 
the camp. 

§ 101. A. Coordinate Sentences. 

1. Coordinate sentences are those which have a common 
reference to each other, but otherwise are independent of 
each other, as : Demosthenes was a great orator, Cicero also 
was a great orator. 

2. The relation of coordinate sentences is : 

1) Copulative, which is expressed : a) by : et, atque, 
ac (never before a vowel or h), que, and; b) by: 
etiam, quoque, also; c) neque or nee (and not, 
also not); d) et — et, both — and, as loell — as also; 
e) non modo (solum, tantum) — sed etiam, not only 
{merely) — hut also; f) quum — tum, so ivell — as 
especially; g) modo — modo, or nunc — nunc, or 
tum — tum, now — now, then — then; h) neque (nee) 
— ne(\ViQ (nQc), neither — nor; 

2) Adversative, which is expressed by : sed, but, hut 


rather; autem, at, vero, verum, hut; tamen, yet; 
attamen, veruntamen, but yet ; 

3) Disjunctive^ which is expressed by : a) aut, vel, ve, 
sive (seu), or ; b) aut — aut, vel — vel, either — or ; 
sive — sive, whether — or, either — or; 

4) Causal^ which is expressed by nam and enim (for) ; 

5) Deductive^ which is expressed by: igitur, itaque, 
ergo, hence^ therefore ; ideo, on this account^ and 
the like. 

Rem. 1. ^ue and ve always stand attached to the word to which they 
belong, as : pater matergwe, pater msXerve ; autem, vero, enim, quoque^ 
igitur do not stand at the beginning of the sentence, but after the first 

Rem. 2. Sive — sive are used with the indicative, as : sive id verum est, 
sive falsum (whether it be true or false). Aut — aut and vel — vel differ 
from each other in this, that in aut — aut the one clause really and ne- 
ce55an7?/ excludes the other, so that one can be conceived of as hold- 
ing good only when the idea of the other is excluded ; but in vel — vel 
the exclusion is only allowable or optional. 

§ 102. B. Subordinate Sentences. 

1. Subordinate sentences are those which complete or de- 
fine other sentences and hence are dependent. 

2. The sentence to which another belongs as a dependent 
part, is called the principal sentence, the dependent sentences 
or clause, on the contrary, is called the sudordinate sentence. 
E. g. in the compound sentence : " when the spring comes, 
the trees bloom," the last clause : " the trees bloom," is the 
principal sentence, and the first " when the spring comes," 
the subordinate sentence. 

3. Subordinate sentences are: 

a) Substantive sentences, i. e. such as are but the ex- 
panded idea of some case of a 'substantive, as : I re- 
joice, that thou art in health (=1 rejoice at thy 
health) ; 

b) Adjective sentences, i. e. such as are but the ex- 
panded idea of an adjective (or participle), as: the 


rose, lohich blooms^ is beautiful (= the blooming' 
rose) ; 
c) Adverbial sentences^ i. e. such as are only an expan- 
sion of an adverb or an expression of the nature of 
an adverb^ as: after the enemij loas conquered, 
our soldiers returned (= after the conquering' of 
the enemy). 

§ 103. Of the use of the Modes in Subordinate Sentences, 

1. In the subordinate sentences which are introduced by 
the indefinite relative pronouns : quisquis, quicunque, qualis- 
cimque^ quotcunque, ubicunqite, quocuqnue, quotiescunque, 
utcunque, quotquot^ etc. the indicative is used in Latin, while 
we, in English, generally use the pronoun ivhoever, etc. with 
the subjunctive. 

Sapiens, ubicunque est, beatus est (wherever he may be). Quoquo 
modo res sese hahet, in sententia mea permanebo (however the thing 
may be). Quicquid est, ego te non deseram (whatever it may be). 

2. The use of the Subj. in subordinate sentences will be 
more fully explained in treating of particular subordinate 
sentences. For the present the following may suffice : 

a) Ut, that, in order that, ne, in order that not, that 
not, quin (after the phrases : it is not doubtful, I do 
not doubt), that, always take the Subj. ; 

b) In questions depending upon another sentence (in- 
direct questions) the. Subj. is always used, as : die 
mihi, cur rideas (tell me, why you laugh). Nes- 
cio, ubi fueris (I do not know, where you have 

§ 104. Succession of the Tenses in Subjunctive Subordinate 


The following rules may be given for the succession of 
the tenses in subjunctive subordinate sentences : 

a) Upon a principal tense: Pres. Perfect-present and 


Fut., there follows again a principal Tense : Pres. Perfect, 
present and the Future Periphrastic Present, according as 
the discourse in the subordinate sentence is of a like timed, 
completed ox future action; 

b) Upon an historical tense: Imperf. Perfect-historical 
and Plupf., there follows again an historical tense : Imperf. 
Plupf. and Future Periphrastic Imperf., according as the 
discourse in the subordinate sentence is of a like timed, 
completed or future action. 

Sdebam, quid ageres. 
Sciebam, quid egisses. 
Sdebam, quid adurus esses. 
Cognovi (I learned), quid ageres. 
Cognovi, quid egisses. 
Cognovi, quid adurus esses. 
Cognoveram, quid ageres. 
Cognoveram, quid egisses. 
CognQ^eram, quid adurus esses. 

Sdo, quid agas. 

Sdo, quid egeris. 

Sdo, quid adurus sis. 

Cognovi (I have learned), quid agas. 

Cognovi, quid egeris. 

Cognovi, quid audurus sis. 

Audiam, quid agas. 

Jludiam, quid egeris. 

Jludiam, quid adurus sis, 

Opto, ut ad me venias. Optabam, ut ad me venires. Te rogo, ne 
mihi succenseas. Te rogabam, ne mihi succenseres. Non dubito, quin 
rem tuam bene geras. Non dubitavi (I have not doubted), quin rem 
tuam bene geras. Non dubiiabo, quin rem tuam bene gesturus sis. 
Non dubitabam [dubitavi,! doubted, dubitaveram), quin rem tuam bene 
gereres (gessisses, gesturus Besses). 

CXXXII. Exercises for translation. {§ 103, lp|.) 

I. In whatever M^ay the thing has itself, it is not permitted to thee 
to desert (deserere) the post cornrnitted to thee. Whoever that wretch- 
ed [man] may be, we would l^d aid to him ! The goods of the body 
and of fortune, however great they may be, are uncertain and frail. 
Wherever thou mayest be, thou shouldst live uprightly. Who is so 
powerful, that he can dispense with (carere) the aid of others. Telt me, 
what thou doest now, did yesterday, and wilt do to-morrow. The 
friend related to me, whjere he had been, where he was, and where he 
would be. Who doubts, that Hannibal fought very bravely against 
the Romans? Nobody doubted, that Hannibal fought very bravely 
against the Romans. I do not doubt, that our soldiers will bear off 
the victory over the enemy. Nobody doubted, that we should bear off 
the victory over the enemy. 

II. Whatever the opinion of the philosophers may be concerning 


the highest good, virtue has in itself sufficient protection for a peace- 
ful life. Whatever we may do, we should do it deliberately. I do not 
doubt, that you have benefited your country. However great thy 
wisdom may be, thou shouldst still always be modest. Whithersoever 
thou mayest turn thy eyes, thou seest the traces of the divine wisdom. 
What man is so wise, that he can never be deceived ? I do not doubt 
that thou art now contented with thy lot. I did not doubt, that thou 
wast contented with thy lot. Tell me where thou hast journied and 
whither thou art about to [journey]. It is not doubtful, that, when (ubi) 
[their] country may be in danger, the citizens will fight bravely. It 
was not doubtful, that, when [their] country was in danger, the citi- 
zens would fight bravely. 


Preliminary Remark. In the English language, substantive sentences 
are introduced by the conjunctions: that, that not, in order that, in order 
that not. In Latin they are expressed by : a) the accusative with the 
Infin. ; b) by substantive sentences with ut, ne, quo, quommus, quiny 

§ 105. A. Accusative ivith Infinitive. 

1. When a sentence, as : rosa floret, is the object of one 
of the verbs mentioned below (No. 2.), in Latin, the subject 
(rosa) is changed into the Ace. (rosam) and the finite verb 
into the Infin., as: video rosam florere (I see, that the rose 
blooms). When the predicate is expressed by an adjective 
or substantive with the verb sum^ fio^ etc. (§§ 84.), the adjec- 
tive or substantive is also put in the Ace, as: aqua/rtg'^<ia 
est; sentio aquam frigidam esse (I perceive, that the water 
is cold). Audimus, Cyrum regem Persarum fuisse (we 
hear, that Cyrus was king of the Persians). This construc- 
tion is called the Ace. with the Infinitive. 

Rem. 1. In English, this construction is generally expressed by that 
with a Jinite verb and a noun, adjective or participle in the nominative. 

2. The AcG, with the Infin. is used in the following cases : 
a) After verbs of believing', thinking, feeling and per- 
ceiving; of saying and relating; 



b) After verbs of loilling, desiring', letting, bidding and 
forbidding- ; volo, nolo, mala, ctfpio, stndeo ; sino 
and patior ; jubeo and veto ; 

c) After the expressions : apparet, (it is evident), con- 
stat, (it is known), and the like ; opus est, (it is 
necessary), licet, justum est, aequum est, mos est, and 
the like. 

Sentlmus calere ignem^ nivem esse albam, dulce mtl. Historia narrate 
Romam a Romulo contMtam esse. Folo te ex iiinere mox redire. Virtus 
non patitur nos luxuria indulgere. Caesar milites castra munire jussit. 
Caesar milites ponteni rescindere vetuit. Constat inter omnes, Romanos 
fuisst fortissimos. 

Rem. 2. When no agent is expressed after juhere, vetare, sinere and 
pati in the Infin., the Infin. Pass, is used in Latin. Caesar castra 
mmiiri jussit. Caesar pontem resdndi vetuit. Caesar urbem diripi pas- 
sus est. 

Rem. 3. With licet (it is permitted) there is commonly found the 
Dat. (of the person) with the Infin., instead of the Ace. with the Infin. 
as: quieto esse tibi licet. 

Rem. 4. Oportet and necesse est are connected either with the Ace. 
tvith the Infin. or with the Subjunctive without ut, as : oportet nos virtuti 
stvdere, or, virtuti studeamm oportet. Necesse est sapientem semper bea- 
tum esse, or : sapiens semper beatus sit necesse est. 

'3. The Nom. with the Infin. stands with the passives : 
dicor, trador, feror (they say that I, or / am said) ; putor, 
credor, existimor (they believe that I), videor (it seems that 
\),jubeor, vetor (they bid me, forbid me). 

(Ego) bonus esse dicor (they say, that I am good, or : I am said, etc.) 
(Tu) bonus esse diceris (they say, that thou art good, or : thou art 

said, etc.) 
Romulus fortissimus fuisse dicitur (traditur, fertur) . 
(JVos) boni esse putamur (they beUeve, that we are good), 
(Vos) boni esse putamini (credimini, existimamini, judicamini) . ^ 
Romani fortissimi fuisse dicuntur (traduntur, putantur). 
Romulus ad deos transisse creditus est. 
(Ego) rem intelhgere videor (I seem to understand the thing, or: it 

seems that I understand). (Tu) laetus esse videris. Ilk laetus 

esse videtur. (JVos) laeti esse videmur. (Vos) laeti esse videmini. 

lUi laeti esse videntur. (Ego) laetus esse videbar, etc. 


(Ego) jubeor scribere (they bid me write). (Tii) vetaris scribere 
(they forbid thee to write). Milites pontem facere jussi sunt (they 
commanded the soldiers to build a bridge). 

CXXXIII Exercises/or translation. (§ 105.) 

I. I know that my body is mortal, [but] that my soul is immortal. 
Aristotle shows, that the poet Orpheus never existed. It is known, that 
the Romans destroyed Carthage. Some philosophers believed, that 
the world came into existence (nasci) by chance. Titus was unwilling, 
that any one (quisquam) should go away from him sad. We hope, 
that thou wilt soon return from (ex) the journey. Who can deny, that 
God governs the whole world ? It is known, that Hannibal fought 
very bravely against the Romans. History relates, that, in the Persian 
wars (bella Persica), innumerable troops of the Persians were routed 
by the Greeks. Darius promised, that he would give 1000 talents to 
the murderer of Alexander. It is not permitted to many men, to be 
idle. The Germans suffered no (non) wine to be imported (importare, 
see Rem. 2.) to them. We should be willing (velle) to live with an 
inferior (inferior), as we wish a superior (superior) to live with us. 
There is no one, who should not wish, that his children should be 
happy. Demosthenes did not permit, that the Athenians should make 
peace with Philip, king of Macedon. It is related (tradi) that Aristides, 
was the most just of all the Athenians. They relate that the Milesian 
Thales first (primus) predicted an eclipse of the sun (defectio solis). 
Who reigns well, must (necesse est) sometime (aliquando) have obey- 
ed. We should (oportet) serve philosophy, in order that true freedom 
may fall to our lot. A good citizen should (oportet) prefer the digni- 
ty of the state to all his own advantages. Caesar bade (perf.) his 
soldiers to assault the city. Caesar caused (jubere) the city to be as- 
saulted. The general forbade his soldiers, to plunder the taken city. 
The general forbade, to plunder the taken city. They say, that Ceres 
first (prima) taught the use of grain to men. Alexander allowed the 
grave of Cyrus to be opened. It seems, as though the sun were small- 
er than the earth. It is said, that the war is finished. 

II. W^ho does not know, that the wise man is peaceful in every (om- 
nis) condition of life ? Who can deny, that he has ever done wrong ? 
It is known of all, that Athens was the inventress of most arts and 
literature. It is better (satius) that we benefit even the bad on ac- 
count of the good, than that we be wanting (deesse) to the good on 
account of the bad. The wise man frankly (ingenue) acknowledges, 

UT, NE, UT NE, UT NON. [§ 106. 

that he does not know much. Thales said, that water is the beginning 
of all things. We know, that the course of life is short, [but] that [the 
course] of fame will be eternal. It is known, that the conspiracy of 
Catiline was detected by Cicero, Who does not know, that the health 
is strengthened by the exercise of the body ? The laws do not permit, 
that an injury should bo done to the citizens. I would rather, that the 
•enemies should hate me, than that I them. Hadrian wished, that the 
Euphrates (Euphrates, is) might be the border of his kingdom. I 
hope, that by length of time, thy sorrow will be abated. Alcibiades 
could not endure (pati), that Athens should serve the Lacedemonians. 
Men are not willing, that the very same [man] should be distinguished 
in very many things. It was not permitted to the Romans, to depart 
uninjured from the country of the enemy. It is related (tradi), that 
Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were brought Up by 
Faustulus, a royal shepherd. They relate (ferri), that the giants made 
war upon the gods. It is believed, that letters were invented by the 
Phenicians. It is necessary (necesse est), that the world be ruled by 
God. It is needful (oportet), both that thou shouldst learn, and that 
thou shouldst establish (confirmare) what thou hast learned by deed 
(agere, gerund). Whom you (second pers. subj.) would make learned, 
you must (oportet) at the same time make attentive. It is necessary 
(oportet), that virtue should despise (aspernari) and hate what is op- 
posed (= opposite) to ii. Marcellus first bade (perf ) the footmen, 
then the horsemen to break forth against the enemies. Reason forbids 
us, to obey (obtemperare) the passions. The general caused (jubere) 
three camps to be fortified. Caesar forbade the soldiers, to desert the 
camp. It appears, as if thou hast not understood the thing. It ap- 
pears, that you have read this book carefully. It is said, that the enemy 
have broken into our camp. 

§ 106. B. 67, ne, ut ne^ lit non with the Subjunctive. 

1. Ut, that (ne, ul ne, that not, neve (neu), and thai not, 
nor), in the first place, is used to express the end or object 
{ut final), and stands after expressions oi making m\d effect- 
ing- ; caring and striving; asking, demanding, exhorting, 
persuading, advising, exciting, urging, commanding (impe- 
ro), ordering; of wishing, alloivivg or permitting (concedo, 
permitto); finally, after every sentence, in order to express 
an end or object (ut = in order that, ne = in order that not). 

§ 106.] UT, NE, UT NE, TJT NON. 269 

Sol effidt, ut omn'm Jloreant. Ante senectutem curavi, ut bene vive- 
rem; in senectute, ut bene moriar. Oro te, vt mihi succurras. Te 
rogo, ne defatigere, neu diffidas. Caesar milites hortatus est, ut acritef 
dimicarent. Dux imperavit, ut milites stationes suas servarent. Edimus, 
ut vivamus ; non vivimus, ut edamus. 

Rem. The verbs : tolo, nolo, mala, cupio are more frequently used 
with the Ace. with the Infin., than with ut and the Subj. Comp. §§ 105, 
2. b}. Impero is used with the Ace. with the Infin. only when the 
Infin. is in the passive, as : dux imperavit urbem difipi. Concerning 
jubeo and veto see § 105, 2. b.) and Rem. 2. 

2. In the second place, ut (that), ut non, that not., is used 
in order to express a, result (ut consecutive)^ and stands es- 
pecially after: est^fit., acctdit, everiit, conting-it ; reliquum estj 
restat and the like ; after ita^ sic, adeo, tam, tantus, talis, etc. ; 
finally, after any sentence, in order to express a result {ut 
= so that). 

Persaepe evenit, ut utilitas cum honestate certet, Restat, ut de litter- 
arum utilitate Zo9?<ar. Ita vivere debemus, ut m omni re recti conscien- 
tiam servemus. 

8. After expressions of fear and solicitude, ne is to be 
translated by that and ut and ne non by that not. 

Omnes cives metuebant, ne urbs ab hostibus expugnaretur. Ti?neo, 
ut hos labores sustineas. Vtreor, ne non perfidani, quod suscepi. 

C XXXIV. Exercises for translation. ($ 106.) 

I. Cicero, informed (edocere) of all [things] by the ambassadors, 
commanded the pretors, that they should seize the Allobroges at the 
bridge. The laws of the Lacedemonians looked (spectare) to this (id), 
that the youth should be formed by labors. Virtue alone eflfects, that 
we may please God and man. It often happens, that advantage contends 
with uprightness. The teacher exhorted the scholars, that they should 
not devote themselves to indolence. Reason demands, that we should 
restrain the desnes. The citizens of the captured city entreated 
Caesar, that he would spare their children. Love virtue, in order that 
thou mayest live happily (beate). Themistocles sought a narrow pass, 
in order that he might not be surrounded by the multitude of the ene- 
mies. At Athens it was accustomed to happen to the very best, that 
he was banished (in exilium pelli). The wise man is excited (movere) 
to act rightly by virtue itself, not by advantage. The power of upright- 

270 ^ QUO, QUOMINUS AND QUIM. [^ 107. 

ness is so great, that we esteem it, whether (vel) in those whom we 
have never seen, or (vel) even in an enemy. Aristides died in so 
great poverty, that he scarcely left behind wherewith (qui) he might 
be buried (efFerre). It is possible, that one (quis) may think (sentire) 
correctly, and [yet] that which he thinks may not be expressed (eloqui) 
elegantly (polite). I fear (vereor), that I may have renewed (refrlcare) 
thy pain by my letter. A great (ingens) fear had seized the Roman 
senate, that a tribune of the people would be chosen from the plebeians 
(plebs). We feared, that our measures had displeased you. The ene- 
mies apprehended, that their allies could not bear the attack of the 

IL Before old age, we should look out, that we live well, in old age, 
that we die well. If all [things] happen (fieri) by fate, nothing can 
admonish us, that we should be more cautious. Nature incites us, to 
strive to obtain the agreeable, to flee the disagreeable. The sun effects, 
that all trees, plants and herbs bloom and reach maturity. It comes to 
pass by (abl.) nature, that children are loved by [their] parents. Pa- 
rents look out, that [their] children are not surrounded by bad men. 
Themistocles advised, that the Athenians should desert the walls and 
defend themselves with ships. The soldiers demanded, that the citi- 
zens should deliver up their arms. Many praise others, in order that 
they may be praised [in turn] by them. The Gauls, after they had 
received the gold of the Romans (abl. abs.), returned, in order to 
besiege the capitol. Caesar commanded the soldiers, not to go out 
from the camp. He is happy (beatus), to whom it happens, to obtain 
(ass^qui) wisdom. The composing of the book concerning old age, 
was so delightful to Cicero, that it took from (abstergere) him all the 
burdens (onus) of age. In a short time, the minds coalesced into 
(abl.) so great friendship, that every distinction of rank (ordo et locus) 
was forgotten. So great is the multitude of stars, that they cannot be 
counted. It happened, that the very same night in which Alexander 
the great was born, the temple of the Ephesian Diana was burned 
(conflagrare). There was very great fear at Rome, that the Gauls 
would return the second time (iterum) to Rome. The Romans fear- 
ed, that the victory would cost them much blood. AD the citizens 
ieared, that the peace would not be of longer continuance. 

§ 107. C. Quo, quo7nmus and quin with the Subjunctive. 
1. Quo is used for ut eo, and indeed : a) in the meaning, 
in order that thereby ; b) in the meaning, that [in order that, 
so that) so much the, when a comparative follows. 

§ 107.] QUO, QUOMINUS AND QUIN. 271, 

Haec lex data est, quo malefici deterrerentur. Caesar milites cohor- 
tatiis est, quo animo foriiore essent. 

2. Quommus stands after expressions of hindering', pre- 
venting', resisting, refusing- and is to be translated into En- 
glish by that. 

Aetas non impedit, quominus litteras trademus. Quid sapienti potest 
ohstare, quominus beatus sit ? Non repugnabo, quominus hunc librura 

3. Quin is used : 

a) In the meaning that not, instead of ut non after a 
negative principal clause. 

Facere non possum, quin quotidie ad te mittam litteras (I cannot for- 
bear to write to you daily). Fieri non potuit, quin urbs ab hostibus 
caperetur. JVihil abest, quin sim miserrimus. JVun mulium abfuit, quin 
hostes vinccreniur. Homines barbari sibi non iemperabant, quin in 
Italiam contenderent. 

b) In the meaning that, after non dubito, nemo dubitat, 
quis dnbitat? dubium non est 

JVon dubito, quin verum dixeris. Quis dubitat, quin in virtute divi- 
tiae shU positae ? Dubium non erat, quin victoriam de hostibus reporta- 
turi essemus. 

Rem. Besides, quin is used after a principal negative clause instead 
of qui non, quae non, quod non, as : nemo est, quin optet, ut liberi sui 
virtutem ament. 

CXXXV. Exercises for translation, {k 107.) 
I. Good scholars bestow all toil and care, that they may make the 
better progress in literature. Pride did not stand in the way to our 
ancestors, to imitate foreign institutions. Indolence prevents, that 
scholars should make progress in literature. Not even faults of nature 
could deter Demosthenes from studying eloquence. By the swiftness 
of our horsemen it was prevented, that the enemies should attack our 
troops. Caesar could not forbear, to reprove the seditious soldiers. 
It is not possible, that we should not consider (judicare) him foolish, 
who is (subj.) not master of himself Nothing is so sacred, that rash- 
ness may not violate it. It cannot be doubted, that already before 
Homer, poets Hved (esse). Who can doubt, that the whole world is 
ruled by God ? It is not doubtful, that all which is considered evil, 


seems severer (gravior, us) [when] unforeseen. There is nobody 
who may not wish, that his children may love virtue. Nothing is 
found in nature, which is not very wisely constituted by God. 

II. Good parents do not cease (intermittunt) to exhort [their] 
children to virtue, in order that they may grow better daily (in dies). 
All the soldiers believed, that nothing would stand in the way of 
their gaining (adipisci) the victory. Superstition prevents attaining 
(= reaching) much true knowledge of things. No hindrance deterred 
Alexander from penetrating (penetrare) to the Ocean. Nothing keeps 
a wise man from pursuing (studere) virtue. Avarice prevents men 
from enjoying the good [things] which they possess. Who [ever] 
contemplates (fut.) the heavens, the earth and the order of the whole 
world, will not doubt, that there is a God. We do not doubt, that our 
souls are immortal. The soldiers did not doubt, that they should bear 
off a victory over the enemies. It is not possible, that they who are 
contented with their lot do not live happy. We cannot forbear des- 
pising those who prefer money to virtue. Nothing was so sacred to 
the enemies who had captured the city, that they might not violate it. 
There was then no one in the city, who did not desire peace. There 
is almost nothing so difficult, that man, by the exertion of his powers, 
cannot do it. 

§ 108. D. Quod (that) with the Indicative. 

1. Quod (that) introduces a substantive sentence, which 
gives the explanation or ground of the predicate or some 
other word of the principal clause. The subjunctive stands 
with quod^ only when the sentence is expressed as the sen- 
timent of another. The cases in which quod is used are 
the following: 

a) After certain expressions, as : bene^ male, prudenter 
facio ; bene, male evenit, accidit and the like ; 

b) In order to introduce the explanation of a substan- 
tive or pronoun in the principal sentence ; 

c) After verbs signifying a7i affection of the mind, as J 
laetor, gaudeo, doleo, indig-nor, aegre fero, moleste 

fero, queror, miror, glorior ; also after verbs oi prais- 
ing, censuring, accusing, thanking. 
Bent feuds, quod me adjuvas. Magnum beneficium est naturae, quod 


necesse est mori. Gaudeo, quod vcdes. Laudo te, quod rem tuam bene 
gessisti. Laudat Africanum Panaetius, quodfueiit abstinens. 

Remark. Verbs signifying an affection of the mind are more fre- 
quently connected with an Ace. with the Infin., as: te vcdere, gaudeo, 

CXXXVL Exercises for translation. (^ 108.) 

I. Thou hast done me a jrreat favor, that thou hast sent me {ad me) 
this book. The generals of the king of Persia sent ambassadors to 
Athens, in order (sup.) to complain (queri), that Chabrias was carrying 
on war against the king of Egypt. The Lacedemonians sent ambas- 
sadors to Athens, who should accuse Alcibiades, that he had made a 
league with the king of the Persians, for subjecting (opprimere) Greece. 
I rejoice, that thou and thy brother are well. We wonder, that Greece, 
which excelled in fame, glory, learning (doctrina), the greatest number 
of arts, in dominion and warlike (bellicus) praise (laus), occupied (tene- 
re) so small a place in Europe. Nobody will censure thee, that thou 
hast aided thy friend. 

n. It is very agreeable to me, that thou hast already returned from 
(ex) the journey. Thou doest well, that thou wishest to live in the 
country for the strengthening (gerundive) of thy health. We rejoice, 
that thou and thy brother are returned safe. It is a great kindness to 
boys, that they are instructed in literature in school. We grieve very 
much, that you are not able to come. Unjustly was Socrates accused 
by the Athenians, that he corrupted (corrumpere) the youth. Caesar 
praised the soldiers, that they had fought so spiritedly against the ene- 
mies. All citizens rejoiced, that the city was delivered from the siege. 
That Caesar was killed by Brutus, we complain (= censure). How 
great is the goodness of nature, that she produces so many, so various 
and so agreeable [things] ! 

§ 109. II. Adjective Sentences. 

1. The relative qui, quae, quod agrees in gender and num- 
her with the word to which it refers ; the case of the rela- 
tive, on the contrary, depends upon the construction of the 
clause to which it belongs. 

Beati sunt ii komines^ quorum vita virtutis praeceptis regitur. Deus 
est, qui omnem hunc mundum regit. 

2. The person of the verb in adjective sentences, is deter- 


mined by the person of the substantive or pronoun, to which 
the relative refers. 

Ego, qui scribo ; tu, qui scribis ; pater, qui scribit ; nos, qui scribimus ; 
vos, qui scribitis ; fratres, qui scribunt. 

3. The subjunctive stands in adjective sentences in the 
following cases : 

a) When the adjective sentence expresses an aim or 
result, and qui seems to stand for tit eg'O, ut tu, ut 
is ; especially after dignus, indignus, aptus, idoneus ;, 
after is (such), talis, ejusmodi, tarn-, tantus; 

b) With the indefinite expressions: est, sunt, qui; re- 
periuntur, inveniuntur, qui; nemo est, nullus est, 
qui ; nemo est, nullus est, qui ; nihil est, quod ; 

c) With the expressions, est, quod; non est, quod: 
nihil est (quid est?), quod; habeo, non habeo, nihil 
habeo, quod, there is reason (no reason), I have 
reason (no reason), that (with the finite verb) or to 
(with the Infin.), etc. 

d) When the adjective sentence gives a reason, where 
qui can be translated by since I, since you, since 

Hostes ad Caesarem legates miserunt, qui pacem ab eo peterent (who 
were to ask). Vir probus dignus est, cui fidem habeamus (deserves, 
that we give him our confidence). Sunt, qui censeant, una animum et 
corpus occidere. JYuUum est animal praeter hominem, quod habeat no- 
titiam aliquam dei. Non is tram, qui ahorum miseriam ad me non 
pertinere censerem. O fortunate adolescens, ^mi tuae virtutis Homerum 
praeconem inveneris ! 

CXXXVII. Exercises for translation. {§ 109.) 
L Thou art worthy (dignus es) on account of thy uprightness, that 
ice should have confidence in thee (= to whom). Who does not love 
his parents, is unworthy, that he should be loved by any one (ullus). 
God has given us reason, in order that by it we may govern the ap- 
petites (appetitus, us) of the soul. There is no duty so sacred, that 
avarice is not accustomed to infringe (comminuere) and violate it. 
There are men, who think (censere), that the soul is mortal. There is 


nothing so difficult, that it cannot be traced out (investigare) by search- 
ing (==seeking). Who does not honor virtue, is not fit, that we should 
receive him into our friendship. The Romans sent ambassadors to 
Antiochus, who might remind him of the Roman alliance. Many 
have been found, who were ready to devote (profundere) not only 
money but life even to their country. What is sweeter, than to have 
[a friend] with whom thou canst share every thing (= all) as with thy- 
self? There is no living being, except man, which has any knowl- 
edge (notitia) of God. There is no reason, that one should envy those, 
whom the people (populus) call great and good. Innocence is such a 
state of the soul, as injures nobody. You have always been such, that 
you considered life without the pursuits of literature disagreeable (in- 
suavis). You are worthy, that we should obey your will in all things. 
O fortunate (fortunatus) youth, since you are eminent among all by so 
many noble deeds ! 

II. Who obeys modestly, seems worthy sometime (aliquando) to 
command. Every upright man is undeserving (non dignus est), that 
the ungrateful citizens should deride him. Fabricius was such, that 
he could not be corrupted by the money of Pyrrhus. The husband- 
men cultivate the earth, in order that it may bear fi-uit. Caesar sent 
horsemen, who might pursue the fleeing enemy. History is of thai 
nature (idoneus), that by it the mind of the boy may be cultivated. 
There are and have been philosophers, who think (censere), that God 
has no concern (procuratio) at all (omnino) about human affairs. Thou 
art worthy, that we should have confidence in thee in all things. 
There is no grief of the soul, which may not be abated by length of 
time. There were philosophers, who said, that property is the high- 
est good. Nero was not worthy, to reign over the Romans. What 
(quis) so great advantange was there in prosperity, when thou hadst 
not a friend who would rejoice at it in like manner (aeque) as (ac) thy- 
self? There was nothing so sacred, that it was not violated by the 
insolence of the enemy. You are not such (ii), that we should obey 
you. There is nothing by which a boy can please others more, than 
by modesty. I pronounce myself happy, that I have [a friend], who 
rejoices at my prosperity even as (aeque atque) I myself. There is no 
reason, that we should fear death. 


§ 110. a. Adverbial Sentences of Time, 
1 . Adverbial sentences of time are introduced by the con- 
junctions : guum,postquam,ui,ubi, simulatque, ex quo (since), 
priusquam and antequam^ dum, quoad^ donee. These con- 
junctions generally take the Indie, but sometimes the Subj. 

1) Quum is used either of titne or cause. The temporal 
quum (when, while, as) is used with the indicative of all the 
tenses, yet almost invariably with the subjunctive of the 
imperfect ^n^ pluperfect^ when 3. perfect stands in the prin- 
pal clause. The causal quwn (since), is always cottflected 
with the subjunctive. 

a) Quum coelum contemplamur^ dei magwtudinem ad- 
miramur (ivhen). Ager, quum multos annos quievit, 
uberiores fructus efFerre solet {ivhen, after). Sapiens 
non ejulabit, qmim doloribus torquebitur (lohen). 
Quum ad me litteras dederis, ad le proficiscar (ivhen), 

b) Quum milites de hostium adventu edocerentur, con- 
tinuo summo pugnandi wcdorejlagraverunt (as). Al- 
exander, quum interemisset Clitum, familiarem suum, 
vix a se manus abstinuit (as). 

c) Quum philosophia animis medeatur, totos nos peni- 
tusque ei trad ere debemus (since). Quum milites pe- 
ricula vererentur, non audebant cum hostibus confli- 
gere (since). 

2) Postquam (after that), ut (jusj as = as soon as), ubi 
(as), simulatque (simulac never before a vowel or A), as soon 
as, are connected with the indicative, and indeed, most fre- 
quently with the perfect which we commonly translate into 
English by the Plupf. 

Postquam Caesar aciem inst/uxit, omnes hostes in unum locum con- 
volaverunt. Ut dies illvxit, profectus sum. Hostes, ubi nostros equi- 
tes conspexerunt, fugerunt. Simulatque aliquid audiero, ad te scribam. 

3) Priusquam and anttquam (before that, ere, before), are 
connected ; 


a) With the Subj. Pres., more rarely with the Indie. 
Pres. ; 

b) With the Indicative Perfect ; 

c) With the Indicative Fut Perf. ; 

d) With the Subj. Imperf. and Pluperf. 

a) Tempestas minatur, antequam surgat. 

b) Antequam bellum urbis nostrae opes absumpsit, potentissima ftiit. 

c) Non dives eris, priusquam divitias contempseris. 

d) Hostes propulvsati sunt, antequam urbem obsidione cingermf. Dies 
obrepsit hostibus, priusquam aggerem exstruxissent. 

4) Dum in the meaning ivhile, at the same time^ as long" 
as, and quoad in the meaning as long' as are connected with 
the indicative. 

Dum haec geruntur, hostiurn copiae conveniunt. Lacedaemoniorum 
gens fortis fuit, dum Lycurgi leges vigehant. Cato, quoad vixit, virtu- 
tum laude crevit. 

Remark. Dum in the meaning at the same t{m£ that is commonly 
used with the Indie. Pres., whatever tense stands in the principal sen- 
tence, as : dum dux aciem instruit, hostis totam urbem cinxerat. 

5) Dum, quoad and donee in the meaning till, until, till 
that are generally connected with the subjunctive of the 
Pres., Imperf. and Pluperf., or with the indicative of the 
Perf. and Fut. Perf. 

Milites exspectant, dum dux se e castris contra hostes educat. Mili- 
tes exspectabant, dum dux se e castris contra hostes educeret. Cicero 
omni quiete abstinuit, donee Catilinae conjurationem detexisset. Milites 
tamdiu restiterunt, quoad hostes fugam cupessiverunt. Tamdiu manebo, 
dum omnem rem cognovero. 

C XXXVIII. Exercises for translation. (HlO.) 

I. a. When we contemplate the lives of abandoned men (maleficus) 
we are deterred from vices. When a wise man is derided (fiit.) by 
the foolish people, he will not be indignant As Caesar entered (in- 
gredi) the captured city, the inhabitants extended [their] hands to (ad) 
him, and intreated (orare) him, that he would spare them. Health we 
are then at length (turn demum) accustomed to estimate high (multum), 
when we have recovered from a severe sickness. As Tullus Hostilius 
had reigned 32 years, he was struck (icere, perf.) by lightning. As 


(ubi) Caesar had ascertained (perf.) by spies, that the enemies ap- 
proached, he led (perf.) forth his soldiers out of the camp. As 
(quum) the enemies could not rout the army of the Romans, they 
betook (perf) themselves back to the fortified camp. As soon as the 
enemies were discovered (perf.), the soldiers seized (capess6re, perf.) 
their arms. Why should vfe fear death, since our souls W\\\ not de- 
cay at the same time w^ith our bodies ? After Caesar had seen (perf.) 
that the troops of the enemies approached, he hastened (maturare, 
perf.) to conduct (transducere) his army over (ace.) the river. 

I. b. We shall be happy, when we shall be free from passion (plur.). 
He, who does not prevent (defendere) injustice nor repel (propulsare) 
it when he can, acts (facere) unjustly. A virtuous man will be happy 
(beatus), even when he shall have lost all the gifts of fortune. Since 
the weather is clear, we will take a walk. As Caesar came out of the 
wood, he was surrounded (perf) by the enemies. As Alexander had 
taken Thebes, he spared (perf) the family of the poet Pindar. As 
soon as Verres had reached (perf) the province, he gave (tradere) 
himself wholly (totus) to avarice. After the general had fallen, the 
soldiers fled (perf). As (ubi) the Romans heard, that the enemies 
approached, they went (perf) spiritedly against them. 

II. a. The enemies did not cease (desistere) to flee, before they 
came (perf) to the Rhine. When Epaminondas went to a [social] 
circle, in which a conversation was (subj.) held (habere) either con- 
cerning the state or concerning philosophy, he never went away from 
there before the conversation had been brought to an end. Before 
thou reapest, thou must (oportet) sow. Mithridates thrust through 
(transfigere) Datamas with a sword, and before any one (quisquam) 
could come to his aassistance (succurrere), killed [him]. As long as 
(quoad) the city was guarded by the citizens, the enemies did not dare 
(perf) to assault it. I shall wait until thou returnest. Epaminondas 
held back the iron in [his] body, until (quoad) it was announced (re- 
nuntiare, perf.) that the Boeotians had conquered. The Romans 
waited, until the enemies had approached the camp. The soldiers re- 
mained in the camp, until the day dawned (illucescere). 

II. b. The storm threatens before it arises ; buildings creak before 
they fall (corruere). In all business (plur.), before thou enterest upon 
[it], thou shouldst make (adhibere) careful preparation. The Gauls 
came into (transcendere) Italy 200 years before they took (imperf.) 
Rome. Ere Ariovistus had arranged the line of battle, Caesar at- 
tacked (perf.) the Germans. The Romans pursued the enemies until 
it was evening (advesperascere). Wait thou, till I come. As long as 

^H 11, 112.] ABVERBIAL SENTENCES. 279 

Hannibal lived, he burned (flagrare) with anger against the Romans. 
As long as (quoad) Epaminondas and Pelopidas presided (perf!) over the 
Thebans, their power increased (perf.) in a wonderful (unicus) manner. 
I remained at home yesterday, till my brother had returned. Until the 
citadel was suirandered {dedere per/.), slaughters took place {caedes At) 
every where (passim) through (abl.) the whole city. We should (ge- 
rundive) remove (subtrahere) from the enraged, those whom they are 
offended at, till [their] anger burns out (defervesc6re). 

^ § 111. b. Causal Adverbial Sentences. 
Adverbial sentences expressing the cause ox ground., diXe 
introduced by the conjunctions : quod., quia., quoniam. 
These conjunctions are properly used with the indicative ; 
the subjunctive is used with them, only when the cause is 
given as the sentiment or from the view of another. (Con- 
cerning the causal quum see § 110, 1). 

Cicero pater patriae appellatus est, quod ejus consilio et vigilantia 
Catilinae conjuratio deteda est. Quia natura mutari non potest, idcirco 
verae amicitiae sempiternae sunt. Quoniam jam nox est, in vestra tec- 
ta discedite. 

§ 112. c. Conditional Adverbial Sentences. 

1. Conditional adverbial sentences are introduced by : si 
(if), nisi and si non (if not, unless). 

2. The indicative is used in sentences of this kind, when 
the condition is expressed as real and certain. In this case 
the Indie, is generally used in the principal sentence also. 

Si hoc dicis, erras. Si hoc dicebas, errabas. 

3. The subjunctive is used, when the condition is spoken 
of as something barely imagined; and in the principal sen- 
tence, in this case, the subjunctive is used also. 

a) The Subj. Pres. and Perf. is used, when the condition 
is represented as a mere supposition ; 

b) The Subj. Imperf. and Pluperf., when the condition 
is represented as a supposition the contrary of ivhat 
actually is or is not. 


Si hoc dicas, erres (if thou shouldst say this, thou wouldst err.) Si 
hoc diceres^ errares (if thou saidst this, thou erredst ; but I know thou 
didst not say it ; hence thou didst not err). Si hoc dixissts, errasses (if 
thou hadst said this, thou wouldst have erred ; but I know thou hast 
not said it; hence thou hast not erred). 

Remark. JVisi makes a supposition negatively but leaves the thing 
supposed affirmative : " if it be not su])posed, that something is ;" but 
si non makes a supposition affirmatively while the thing supposed i^ 
negative : " if it be supposed, that something is nof." Non potes ju- 
cunde vivere, nisi cum virtute vivis. Homo beatus est, si cupidatibus 
non succumbit. 

4. Dum, dummodo, modo in the meaning provided that, if 
only; dum ne, dummodo ne, modo ne (provided that not, if 
only not) always take the subjunctive. 

Multi omnia recta et honesta negllgunt, dummodo potentiam conse- 

§113. d. Concessive Adverbial Sentences. 
Concessive sentences are introduced by : 

a) etsij tametsi (even if, although), quamquam (although), 
commonly with the indicative ; 

b) etiamsi (even if, although), more frequently with the 
subjunctive than with the Indie. ; 

c) quamvis (although, however), and licet (although) are 
always connected with the subjunctive of one of the 
principal tenses. 

Viri boni recte agunt, etsi nullum consecuturum emolumentum vi- 
dent. Etiamsi secundissimis rebus vtdre, tamen beatus non eris, si vir- 
tute cares. Sapiens dolorem patienter tolerat, quamvis acerbus sit. 

CXXXIX. Exercises/or translation. (§§ 111, 112, 113.) 
I. Themistocles said, that he walked (ambulare) by night, because 
he could not sleep (somnum capere). If we shall always follow the 
way of virtue, the entrance to heaven will sometime stand open to us. 
If our friend had obeyed (obsequi) the prescriptions (praeceptum) of 
the physician, he surely would not have died. If we shall not have 
removed (resecare) the passions, we shall strive in vain to be happy. 
Men desirous of fame endure all hardships, if they may only obtain 
what they wish (subj.). Although (etsi) the place was unfavorable, 


nevertheless Caesar determined to attack the enemy. However thou 
mayest have suffered under misfortune (incommodum, plur.)j thou 
shouldst not be offended at fortune. Even if the body is bound, yet 
no chains are placed (injicere) upon the soul. Who is not offended 
(offendere) by a foul deed itself, even if it does not hurt him ? 

n. The lavt^s we obey, not from (propter) fear, but we follow them, 
because we judge, that this is most salutary. As Xenocrates was ask- 
ed, why he was almost always silent (silere), he answered : Because it 
has often (aliquando) repented me to have spoken (dicere), but never to 
have been silent (tacere). If you hate those whom you should love, 
you act wickedly. If we discharge our office religiously, we shall en- 
joy the good opinion (bona existimatio) of men. If we do not follow 
virtue, we cannot live peacefully (beate). If all [things] happened by 
fate, all (omnis) foresight would be useless. Fire becomes extinct, if 
it is not nourished. We are ready to endure toils and burdens, if we 
may oply obtain (adipisci) tlie victory. Folly thinks (credere), that 
it has never obtained (consequi) enough, although (etsi) it has ob- 
tained (adipisci) what it desires (concupiscere). Nobody, however 
wealthy he may be, can be without the aid of others. We should cul- 
tivate virtue (honestas), even if no advantage may follow it. The 
good [man] does not avenge himself on his enemies, even if he has 
obtained (nancisci) an opportunity. It is a terrible (dims) and abom- 
inable (abominandus) saying (= word): They may hate, if only they 

§ 114. e. Adverbial Sentences of Comparison. 
1. The comparing of the subject of the principal sen- 
tence in respect to manner, or greatness and degree is ex- 
pressed : 

a) By : ut (uti, sicut, quemadmodum) with the indicative 
— ita (sic), as, even as — so; tarn (tantopere, tantum) 
— qua77i (quantopere, quantum), so great — as ; nan tarn 
— quam, not so much — as. 

Rem. 1. In a barely iwic^'nari/ comparison, the subordinate sentence 
is introduced by: quasi, tanquam and the like, with the subjunctive. 
The succession of the tenses in this case is according to the principles 
already stated (^ 104.). 

b) By the comparative with quam (than). 
Mdior tuiiorque est certa pax, quam sperata victoria. 



Rem. 2. Instead of quam with the Nom. or Ace, the ablative without 
quam may be used with the comparative of the first member. See 
101, 7. The Enghsh eren, still with tlie comparative, is expressed by 
etiam, as: etiam major or major etiam. 

2. When two qualities or actions of one object are com- 
pared with each other, both adjectives or adverbs are put in 
the comparative and the last is connected to the other by 

Pestilentia minador quam pemidosior, cogitationes hominum a cer- 
taminibus publicis avertit (a more threatening than destructive pesti- 
lence). Belhim a civibus nostris fortius, quam fdicius gestum est (with 
more bravery than success). 

Rem. 3. The comparative is very often used without the second 
member of the comparison, and may then be translated by too, too 
much, very, somewhat with the positive, as : senectus est loquacior (some- 
what loquacious ; properly : more loquacious i. e. more loquacious than 
is proper). 

Rem. 4. When the comparison is limited definitely to two objects, 
in Latin, the comparative and not the superlative is used, as : uter ves- 
trum est major natu ? (which of you two is the older ?) 

3. Quo — eo, or quanto — tanto (the — so much the) in con- 
nection with two comparatives, express a uniform proportion 
between two qualities or actions. 

Quo plura habent homines, to ampliora expetere solent. 

4. When the discourse is of an indefinite subject, instead 
of the last mentioned mode of expressions we commonly 
find : ut quisque — ita with two superlatives. 

Ut quisque est sapientissimus ita est modestissimus (the wiser a man 
is, the more modest he is). 

CXL. Exercises for translaZion. {h 114.) 

I. Many men, forgetting (perf. part.) the precepts of virtue, com- 
plain of their lot, as if it had not been permitted (perf.) them to en- 
ter (ingredi) the way of virtue. Many men live, as though they had 
been born to pleasures. One should so think, as if (tanquam) some 
one (aliquis) could look into his inmost breast. A more threat- 
ening than destructive disease turned the minds of men from public 
duties (munus,eris). Alexander pursued the enemies more cautiously 
(prudenter) than eagerly. When pleasure is too great and too long. 


it extinguishes all (oninis) the light of the soul. Old men are too lo- 
quacious. The au* (aer) is so much the thicker, the nearer it is to the 
eai-th (plur.). The better any thing is, so much the rarer it is. We 
are all influenced (trahere) by the struggle (= effort) after praise; 
and the better one is, so much the more is he governed by fame. The 
more prudent one is, the more cautious he is. The more one refers 
whatever (quaecunque) he does (agere) to (ad) his own advantage, 
so much the less is he a good man. 

n. Most men strive eagerly to obtain riches and power, [and] neg- 
lect virtue, as if true prosperity rested not upon virtue, but upon rich- 
es. Always act thus (sic), as though thou wast seen and heard by 
others. The words of the orator were more acute than true. It did 
not escape Hannibal (fallo, ptrf.), that the enemies would dispatch 
(gerere) affairs, loith more spirit (ferociter) than deliberation (consulto). 
The wise man abstains from too violent emotions of the soul. This 
book is somewhat difficult to understand. The greater and more di- 
vine the excellence in minds, so much the greater care they need (in- 
digere). The more eminent (== higher) men are, so much the more 
condescending they should be to the more humble. The better one is, 
so much the more he serves his descendants. The better one is, so 
much the more his mind strives to obtain immortal fame. The better 
one is, with so much the rmre difficulty (difficile) he considers others 

§ 115. Of Interrogative Sentences. 

1. Questions are either independent (direct), as : Wast 
thou at school yesterday ? or dependent upon another sen- 
tence going before (indirect questions), as: I do not know, 
ivhether thou toast at school yesterday, 

2. In the direct question the indicative is used, when it is 
asked positively, the subjunctive when it is asked doubtingly. 
In the indirect question the subjunctive is always used. 

Quid a^is") Quid agamus ? (what can we do.?). Die, quid agas. 

3. Both direct and indirect questions are introduced : 

a. By interrogative and relative pronouns, as: quis, 
uter, qualis, quantus, ubi, unde, qux), quando, quomo' 
do, cur, etc. 
Qwis hunc librum legit ? liter vestrum major natu est ? Cur ad 


me non venisti ? Die, quis hunc librum legerit. Nescio, vier vestrum 
major natu sit. Narra, cur ad me nou veneris. 

b. By the interrogative words ne, nonne, num, utrum. 

a) iVe, which is always attached to the accented 
word, leaves it undecided whether the interroga- 
tor expects an affirmative or negative answer ; 

b) Nonne (not ?) always implies that the interroga- 
tor expects an affirmative answer ; 

c) Num (is it possible that?) always implies that 
the interrogator expects a negative answer ; 

d) Utrum is used only in double questions. 

Rem. 1. JVe and utrum, in direct questions, can be translated into 
English by no particular word. In indirect questions, ne^ vtrum, num, 
may be translated by whether, and nonnz by whether not. 

Fuistine lieri in schola? Tiic, futrisne heri in schola ? JStonne sapi- 
ens beatus est? Quaeris ex me, nonne putem sapientem beatum esse? 
J^um vitabeata in divitiis posita est ? Duhito, num vita beata in divitiis 
posita sit. 

4. In disjunctive questions, in which one member ex- 
cludes the other, the first member is introduced by utrum or 
the enclitic we, and the second by an (or), both in direct and 
indirect questions. 

Utrum unus, an plures sunt mundi? Quaeritur, utrum unus, an 
plures sint mundi. Mortalisne, an immortalis est animus humanus ? 
Quaeritur, mortalisne, an immortalis sit animus humanus. 

Rem. 2. Or Twt is expressed in Latin, by annon in dired, by necne 
in indirect questions. 

5. The answer yes or no is expressed : 

a) Yes : by a repetition of the word upon which the 
stress of the question lies ; and no in the same way, 
but with non placed before it ; 

b) Yes : by, ita, ita est, sane, vero and the like ; no : 
by, non, non ita, minime and the like ; Yes (no) 
rather, by, immo with the addition of a word ex- 
pressing the opposite of what is implied in the 


Fuistine heri in schola ? Fui. Fuistine heri domi ? Vero. Estne 
frater domi ? JVon est. Venitne pater tuus? Minime. Egebat ami- 
cus tuus ? Immo locuples erat. 

CXLI Exercises far translation. (§ 115.) 

I. What each night and each day may bring [with itself], is uncer- 
tain. On account of fear, I know not who I am. Who has said this ? 
I know not, who has said this. When (quum) we behold (cernere) the 
whole earth, we cannot doubt, that a governor presides over it. Is the 
sun greater, or smaller, than the earth ? Is it possible that thou be- 
lievest, that our souls decay after death ? I doubt, whether the news 
is true. Ere thou beginnest a thing, deliberate, whether it be good or 
bad. Has not God filled the earth with all good things ? Was the 
world made (efficere) by chance, or by a divine power ? Is thy brother 
at home ? Yes. Is it possible that the three-headed Cerberus in the 
lower regions frightens thee ? Wast thou yesterday at my house, or 
not.^ Tell me, whether thou hast been at my house or not? I know 
not, whether I can come to thee to-morrow. Wilt thou go to walk to- 
day, or not ? Tell me, whether thou wilt go to walk to-day, or not ? 
Who knows, whether fortune will always smile upon him. There 
were philosophers, who doubted, whether the world was made by 
chance, or by the divine reason. Hast thou read the book, which I 
lately sent thee ? No. It is a question, whether wisdom makes men 
happy, or not. Will thy father return to-morrow from (ex) [his] 
journey ? Yes. Is the wise man alone to be accounted happy ? Yes. 
Wast thou at home yesterday ? no rather I was far from home. 

II. What will be to-morrow, we know not. Is lead, or gold the 
heavier ? Did (perf.) Philip, or his son accomplish (efficere) the great- 
est deeds ? Is not virtue to be preferred to the greatest riches ? Is it 
possible that thou doubtest concerning the immortality of the soul ? 
Who wrote (perf.) this letter ? Tell me, who wrote this letter. Is it 
possible that thou believest, that I do not know where thou wast yes- 
terday ? We would first see, whether the world is governed by the 
providencQ of God ; then, whether he [also] cares (consulere) for hu- 
man affairs. Among the generals of the Athenians there was a great 
strife, whether they should defend themselves by (abl.) the walls, or 
should go against the enemies. Hast thou read Cicero's book concern- 
ing friendship ? Yes. It is a question, whether wisdom alone makes 
us happy (beatus), or not. Hast thou read this book, or not ? I do 
not know, whether I shall approve thy view or reject it Dost thou 
approve my view, or not ? I do not know, whether I shall approve 


thy view, or not. It was uncertain, whether the Romans had con- 
quered, or been conquered. Anciently many doubted, whether, the 
earth was round. Wast thou in school yesterday ? Yes. Canst thou 
tell me, what the soul is.'' No. Hast thou received joyful news con- 
cerning the health of thy brother ? No rather, very sad [news]. 

§ 116. Of the Form of direct and Indirect Discourse. 

1. Oratio recta {direct discoarse), is that kind of discourse, 
in which the words of a person are repeated precisely as 
they were pronounced by him, as : The messenger an- 
nounced : peace is concluded. 

2. Oratio obliqua {indirect discourse), is that kind of dis- 
course, in which the words of a person are made dependent 
upon some verb of perceiving' or communicating^ as : The 
messenger announced : that peace vms concluded. 

Remark. Of the two verbs : inquam and aio, the first is used in 
direct and the second in indirect discourse. Inquam is never placed 
before the words quoted, but is introduced among them. 

3. Principal sentences in indirect discourse, are express- 

a) By the Ace. with Infin., when they express a sim- 
ple statement, as : nuntius allatus est, pacem esse 
compositam {direct discourse : pax est composita) ; 

b) By the subjunctive, when they express a command 
or ivish, as: dux dixit, omnia esse perdita; milites 
suae saluti consulerent (direct discourse : omnia 
sunt perdita; consulate, milites, vestrae saluti). 

4. Subordinate sentences in indirect discourse are express- 
ed by the subjunctive. 

Caesar dixit, se, postquam hostes fusi essent, castra muniturum esse. 
Apud Hypanim fluvium Aristoteles ait bestiolas quasdam nasci, quae 
unum diem vivant. 

CXLII. Exercises for translation. ($ 11 G.) 
We should be sufficiently convinced, that, [even] if we could con- 
ceal [it] from God and men, still nothing should be done unjustly (in- 
jusie). I can never be persuaded, that the soul (plur.), while it is in 

§*117.] PROSODY. 287 

the mortal body, lives, [but] when it has departed from it, dies. The 
Lacedemonians wrote to Pausanias, that, if he did not return home, 
they would condemn him to death. Tanaquil said. The king still lives ; 
let the Romans be quiet and obey Servius TuHius. 

II. Nobly Socrates said, that the nearest way to renown is, when 
one exerts himself [id agere) that he may be such as (qualis) he wishes 
to be considered. When ambassadors had come from king Mithrida- 
tes requesting peace, Sulla answered, that he would not give it unless 
(nisi) he, after deserting the fields which he had taken, should return 
into his own kingdom (regnum). The ambassadors announced to the 
senate. That the Aeduans had pitched their tent in their territory and 
were laying waste the country ; that the Romans should come and 
bring aid to them. 



§ 117. Quantity of Syllables. 

Preliminary Remark. The general rules of quantity have already 
been given ($ 3.) and should be reviewed before proceeding to the fol- 
lowing special rules. 

1. The derived word generally follows the quantity of its 
primitive^ as : amor, amabilis, amicus, amator, redamo. 

Rem. 1. In declension are excepted; Idr, par, sal, Gen. laris, paris, 
salis ; — In the verb it is a general principal, that, the forms of the dif- 
ferent tenses, have the same quantity as the tense-forms from which 
they are derived, i. e. either as the Pres. Perf Sup. or Infin. accord- 
ing as they are derived from the one or the other; e g. (divido), divl- 
dam ; (divisi), diviseram ; (divisum), divisurus ; (dividere), dividerem. 

Rem. 2. Concerning the quantity of the Perf and Slip, the following 
should be observed: 

1) All dissyllabic perfects and supines lengthen the short syllable of 
the stem, as : video, vidi visum ; moveo, movi m^tum, etc. (but, Mi, ^m, 
SMI according to § 3, 3). 

Ten dissyllabic supines have the stem-syllable short: datum, statum, 
ratum, satum, itum, qultum, cituni, litum, situm, rutum, from : do, sisto, 

PROSODY. [$ 117. 

reor, sero, eo, queo, cieo, lino, sino, riio. The compounds of sto have 
together with stdtum, sUtum also ; two compounds of nosco, notum also : 
cognosce and agnosco, have in the supine : cognitum, agnitum. 

2) Reduplicated perfects, besides the short syllable of reduplication, 
have also the stem-syllable following its short, as : cado, ceddi, disco, 
didici, etc. (but momordi, cuciirri from: mordeo, curro are long accord- 
ing to § 3, 4). 

To reduplicated perfects belong also : dedi, steti, stlti ; tuli is con- 
tracted from tetiili; bibi comes, apparently, from an obsolete stem 
bo ; fina\]y,fidi and sddi have rejected their syllable of reduplication. 

Rem. 3. In derivation and composition also, there are some departures 
from the general rule (rule 1), as : sopor and sopire, due (in dux ducis) 
and diico, reg (in rex, regis) and rego, etc. 

2. For the quantity of the penult we have the following 
alphabetical list. (The quantity of the penult in declension 
and conjugation is best learned from the paradigms). 

-dcus, -iicus, -uca, as : meracus, caducus, lactuca ; Exc. : -acus in : 

Aegyptiacus, Corinthiacus and others of the kind^ 
-ddes, and -Ides in Patronymics, as : Priamides, Atlantiades ; but Ides 

in Patronymics from primitives in eus and cles, as : Pelides, Atrides, 

Heraclides, and in Belides, Lycurgides, Amphiarides, Coronides ; 
-ago, -ego, -igo, -ugo in nouns, as : vorago, vertigo, lanugo (but the 

Greek harpdgo has a short) ; 
-dis, -eis, -Uis, -otis, -ois, -me, -one in Patronymics, as : Ptolemais, Chry- 

seis, Memphitis, Icariotis, Minois, Nerine, Acrisione ; Exc. : Danais, 

Thebais, Phocais, Nereis ; 
-alis, -elis, -ela, -ulis, -ura, as : canalis, conjugalis, fidelis, querela, edu- 

lis, pictura ; 
-amen, as : examen, flamen ; 
-dnv^, -ana, -enus, -ena, -inus, -Ina, -onus, -ona, -imus, -una, as : monta- 

nus, membrana, egenus, habena, peregrinus, caninus, Gabinus, sagi- 

na, piscina (except pagina), patronus, annona, tribunus, lacuna ; 

but inus is short in adjectives which express time or material, as : 

crastinus, diutinus, cedrinus, elephantinus, except in : vespertinus, 

matutinus, repentinus ; 
-drus, -dris, -orus, -osus, as ; avarus, singularis, canorus, pilosus ; Exc. : 

barbarus, opiparus, hilaris ; 
-dtim, -itim, -utim, as : privatim, viritim, tributim (in affatim, stdtim the 

a belongs to the stem); 
-dvus, -Ivus, -Iva, as : octavus, aestivus, saliva ; 
-edo, -ido, -iido in substantives, as : albedo, cupido, consuetude ; 
-ego, see ago; 
-eis, see ais ; 
-elis, -ela, see alis ; 
-emus, as : extremus ; 

^ 117.] QUANTITY. 289 

-e'm and -Ini in distributive adjectives, as : bini, viceni ; 

-enus, -entty see anus ; 

-ero, -ICO {icor), -igOj -ino {inor, cinor), -ilo, -vlo [ulor\ -i/o, verbal endings, 
as: vitupero, claudico, rustieor, levigo, fulmino, destino, criminor, 
patrocinor, mutilo, pullulo, gratiilor, ventito ; but the i is long when 
it belongs to the stem and is long there, as : cornicor (from comix^ 
lds\ festino, sagino, opinor, propino, inclino, from : festinus, sagina, 
opinio, TTivco, nXtvco ; — besides, i in the ending ito is long when the 
stem has an i immediately before it, as : dormito (for dormi -ito) ; 

-etuSy as : fletus ; 

-erusy as: inferi, posteri; but erus in: austerus, sincerus, severus, pro- 
cerus ; 

-etum, -eta, as : dumetum, moneta ; 

-ICO, see ero ; 

-icus, -lea, as : modicus, famellcus, so also adverbs in icus, as : modi- 
cus ; Exc. : amicus, pudicus, apricus, anticus, posticus mendicus, 
umbilicus ; formica, lectica, lorica, urtica vesica ; 

-ides, see ades ; 

-ido, see edo; 

-idus, as : cupidus ; 

-Igo, see ago ; 

-igo, see ero; 

-His, -ilus (a, urn), -olus (a, um), -vl\is (a, um), as: humilis, parilis, simi- 
lis, utilis, and all in His which come from verhs, as: facllis, fertilis, 
sterilis ; rutilus, filiolus, filiola, catulus, canicula, baculum ; adjectives 
derived from personal appellations have the i long, as : servilis, pue- 
rilis ; also, exilis, subtilis, and the names of the months, as : Aprilis ; 

-ilo, see ero ; 

-imen, as : specimen, regimen ; Exc. : those derived from verbs of the 
fourth Conj. have Imen, as : lenimen, farcimen ; 

-imus in : bimus, trimus, quadrimus, of two, three, four years, and in : 
opimus, matrimus, patrimus, primus, imus (lowest) ; but -Imus in 
superlative-endings, as : probissimus, and in finitimus and intimus ; 

-ine, see ais ; 

-Ini, see eni; 

•^no [inor], see ero ; 

-Inus, ina, see anus ; 

-Uim, see atim ; 

■^is, see ais ; 

-ito, see ero ; 

-itor and itus retain the quantity of the supine from which they are 
derived, as : monitor (from monitum) auditor (from audUum), exTtua 
(from exiturn) ; 

-itus, -iter, adverbial endings, as : divinitus, acriter ; 

-Ivus, -iva, see avus ; 

-ois, see ais ; 

-one, see ais; 

-onus, -ona, see anus ; 

25 ^ 

290 PROSODY. P 117. 

-orus, -osus, see arus; 
-otisy see ais; 
-ucus, -ilea, see acus ; 
-udo, see edo ; 
-iigo, see ago ; 
-ulis, see alls ; 
-iUo {ulor\ see ero ; 

-umen in tegumen (for tegimen), but -umen in : acumen, cacumen, flu- 
men (contracted from^uvtmen); 
-iinus, -una, see anus : 
-lira, see alis ; 
-utim, see atim ; 

3. For the quantity of Jinal syllables ending in a vowel, 

we have the following general rule : a, e, y, are short; i, o, 

u are long. To this rule there are the following exceptions : 

a is long: 1) the Abl. of the first Dec, as: mensa; 2) in the Voc. of 
Greek proper names in as, as : Aenea (from Aeneas, ae), Palla (from 
Pallas, antis) ; the Voc. of those in es has partly a and partly a, as : 
Anchisa, Atrida ; 3) in the Imper. of the fii'st Conj., as : ama, except 
pvid in the meaning namely, to wit ; — 4) in adverbs, prepositions and 
conjunctions of two or more syllables, as : circa, juxta, intra, infra, 
supra, antea, postea, praeterea, frustra ; Exc. : ita, quia and the in- 
terjection eid ; 5) in the indeclinable numerals, as : triginta ; 

c is long: 1) in the Abl. of the fifth Dec. as: re, specie, die (hence 
also, hodie, postridie, pridie, quare ; also fame) ; — ^2) in all Greek 
words of the first Dec, as : crambe, epitome, and those used in the 
plural only, as : Tempe, mele, cete ; — ^) in the Imper. of the second 
Conj., as : doce ; but e is double-timed in : cave, habe, tace, mane, 
vale, jube, vide (hence virfesis for: vide, si vis) ; — 4) in adverbs de- 
rived from adjectives of the second Dec, pulchre, longe, acerbe, val- 
de (from vcdidus) ; so also : fere, ferme and the interjection ohe ; 
but fc is short in : bene, male, temere, as well as in all adverbs de- 
rived from adjectives of the third Dec, as : facile, impune ; 

t is short: 1) in : mihi, tibi, sibi (in the arsis sometimes long), and cut 
when it is two syllables; but it is commonly one syllable and is long, 
so also its compounds : cuidam, cuilibet ; — 2) in the Voc. of Greek 
words, as : Alexi, and in the Dat. of Greek imparisyllabic words, as : 
Paridi (from Paris, idis);— 3) in : nisi and quasi (although si is long), 
sicubl, necubi ; but ubi and ibi are double-timed, in : ubinam, ubivis, 
ubicunque i is generally short, while in : ubique, ibique it is always 
long, generally also in ibidem ; — 4) in : utique, utinam the i is short, 
although they come from uti ; 

is short : 1) in the adverbs : cito, immo, illico, cedo (give here, say), mo- 
ds with its compounds, as : dummodo, postmodo, quomodo (but sepa- 
rated, quo modo) ; — ^2) in : ego, duo, octo ; but commonly ambo ; — 3) in 
verbal endings and in the Nom. and Vocative-endings of Latin words 

H17.] QUANTITY. 291 

of the third Dec. the poets of the golden age generally made o long, 
as : amo, araavero, amato, scribo, scribito, scripsero ; origo, consuetu- 
de ; in Greek words o is always long, as : echo, Argo ; 

u is always long and y always short according to the rule, except in 
the contracted Dat, as : Coty for Cotyi. 
4. For the quantity of final syllables in words of two or 

more syllables ending in a consonant^ we have the following 

general rules : 

I. c final makes the preceding vowel lo7ig^ as : alec, illuc ; 
Exc. : donee: 

II. 05, e^, OS are long ; w, us^ ys are short ; to this gener- 
al rule, there are the following exceptions : 

a) as is short : 1) in the Nom. of Greek words of the third Dec. 
which have adis in the Gen., as : lampas, adis, Pallas, adis ; so 
anas, atis ; — ^2) in the Ace. Plur. of Greek words of the third 
Dec. as : heroas, Arcadas from heros, Areas ; 

b) es is short : 1) in the Nom. and Voc. Sing, of imparisyllabic 
words of the third Dec. whose genitive has the penult short, as: 
miles, itis, seges, etis, praeses, idis, hebes, 6tis ; Exc. : Ceres, 
abies, aries, paries and the compounds of pes, as : tripes, except 
praepes, etis ; — 2) in the Voc. Sing, of Greek words in C5, where 
in Greek the termination is fc, as: Demosthenes (but Demosthe- 
nes in the Nom. = ijg) ; — 3) in the Nom. and Voc. Plur. of 
Greek words, as : Arcades, Troades ; but in Latin words, or such 
as were naturalized in the language, es is long, as : patres, matres ; 
— 4) in the compounds of es (thou art), as : ades, abes, potes ; 
— 5) in the preposition penes ; 

c) OS is short: 1) in : compos, impos (otis), exos (from os, ossis) ; — 2) 
in Greek words, when os corresponds to og in Greek, as : Delos, 
chads, melds; Pallados, Gen. of Pallas (but: heros = ijgag, Minos 
= Mlv(og, Nicocleos = NixoxXswg ; 

d) is is long: 1) in the Dat and Abl. Plur., as: mensis, pueris, no- 
bis, vobis ; hence also, in the adverbs : gratis, foris ; — 2) in the 
Ace. of the third Dec. (for es), as : omnis ; — 3) in the Nom. Sing, 
of proper names of the third Dec. which have the penult of the 
Gen. long, as : Samnis, itis, Salamis, inis, Simois, entis ; — 4) in 
the second person Sing. Pres. of those verbs which have itis in 
the second person Plur., as : audls, possis (as well as : sis from 
sum), velis, nolis, malis ; also in : mavis, quivis, quamvis, utervis, 
since vis (from volo) is long ; in the second person Sing, of the 
Fut. Perf is of itself is short, but by the necessity of the verse is 
often made long, as : dixeris , so also is the i in the plural-end- 
ings imus, itis of the Fut Perf. often made long by the poets 
for the same reason, as: scripserimus, scripseritis ; riii,-i 

e) us is long: 1) in the Nom. Sing, of words of the aecwid Dec. 

298 QUANTITY. [§ 118. 

which have u long in the penult of the Gen., as: virtus, 
utis, palus, udis, tellus, uris, (but: corpus, oris, vetus, eris, 
etc.); — 2) in the Gen. Sing, and in the Nom. Ace. Voc. Phir. of 
the fourth Dec, as : fructus (contracted from fruduis and frudu- 
es) ; — 3) in Greek words, wlien us corresponds to ovg in Greek, 
as : tripus, odis [rfjinovg), Panthus ; in the Gen. : Sapphus from 
Sappho {2an(povg), C\ma from Celio. etc. ; but in: Oedipus,!, 
polypus, i, the Greek ovg becomes W5, in Latin ; 
f ) t/5 is long: 1) in words which have an associate form in yn, as: 
Phorcys and Phorcyn ; — 2) when ys stands by contraction for 
yes and yas, as : Erinnys. 

III. /, w, w, /*, </, t final, make the vowel of the final 
syllable short, as : animal, tectum, circum-ago, carmen, car- 
eer, amor, apud, viden (for videsne), nostin (for nostine), 
Thetin, Pylon, Ilion, illud, caput, amat, monet, regit, audit. 
To this general rule there are the following exceptions, in 
which the vowel before these consonants is long : 

a) I: in Hebrew proper names in el, as : Daniel; 

b) n: 1) in the Greek Ace. of words in as, es, e, as: Aenean, An- 
chisen, Calliopen, epitomen ; — 2) in the Nom. of mascuhne and 
feminine nouns which come from the Greek, as : titan, hymen, 
Salamin, Pandion (except Lacedaemon and some others), and in 
the Latin lien; 

c) r: in the compounds of par, as: dispar, and in Greek impari- 
syllables in er, as : aer, aether, crater, Iber. 

6. Monosyllabic words are long, as: sal, sol, mos, spes, 
par, hoc, etc. 

Exceptions : 1) the substantives : mel, fel, 6s (ossis), a hone, (but : 
OS, oris, the face), cor (rarely cor); — ^2) the pronouns: quis, quid, quod; 
fo, id ; qu6t, tot ; hie, this, is generally, and hie, here, always long ; — 3) 
the adverbs : bis, tfir, sat ; — 4) the verbal forms in t : fit, sit, scit, dat, 
d6t, Stat, stet, it ; the imperatives Jer,Jac and es thou art (but es, thou 
ecttest) ; — 5) the particles : ab, ad, an, at, cis, et, in, nee, 6b, per, pol, 
s6d, sub, lit, v6l, and the suffixes (enclitics) : que, v€, ce, n6 (but : ne, 
that not, in order tlmt not), tetute), pte (suopte). 

§ 118. Hexameter Verse. 

1. A verse is a series of poetic feet forming, in general, 
a line of poetry. The particular feet or members of which 
it is composed are called metres. 


2. When the last foot of a verse is complete, the verse is 
called acatalectic ; but when incomplete, catalectic. 

3. Every foot or metre consists of an arsis and a thesis. 
The arsis is that part of the foot (in hexameter verse, the 
first syllable of the foot), oh which the stress or elevation of 
the voice is placed in pronouncing it. The rest of the 
foot (whether one syllable or more) is called thesis, and is to 
be pronounced in a falling tone of voice. The stress of 
voice laid on the arsis is called the ictus (beat) and may be 
regarded as the poetic accent ; hence it is often marked as 
such by the sign (/). A succession of feet pronounced 
with due regard to arsis and thesis constitutes rhythm. 

4. Hence it will be apparent, that a line of poetry, in a 
given kind of measure, consists of a fixed number of feet 
and a variable number of words, which, of course, must 
occasion a disagreement between the terminations of the 
feet and words. Besides, as rhythm was the leading ele- 
ment in ancient poetry, it was not, except for a given pur- 
pose, attempted to produce a coincidence between the feet 
and words, that it might be apparent that the rhythm was 
independent of the words as such. This division of the 
feet by the terminations of the words is called caesura^ as : 

Infandiim | regina | jubes | renovare | dolorem. 
In feet of three syllables, as : - - ^ , the word may end either 
after the arsis (- | "") or in the middle of the thesis (- *- 1 "). 
In the first case it is called the masculine, in the second the 
feminine caesura. The coincidence of the termination of a 
word with the termination of a foot is called diaeresis, as : 
Perseqvkr | <^t raris habitata, mapalia, tectis. 

In certain kinds of verse, certain caesuras and diaereses are 
necessary, and are to be especially observed in reading the 
verse ; these are called principal caesuras and diaereses, 

5. Hexameter verse is measured by six feet which may 
be either spondees or dactyles, except the last foot, which is 
a dissyllabic catalectus (No. 2). A spondee consists of 





two long syllables, designated thus 
long and two short, designated thus : 

; a dactyle of one 
Hence we have : 

Sed fugit 

unt ocu 

a fugit 
lis Supe 

ri mor 



Rem. 1. The fifth foot is generally a dactyle, rarely a spondee, and 
only when the poet wishes to give the line a character of slowness, se- 
riousness and solemnity ; such a verse is called a spondaic verse, a dac- 
tyle usually precedes the spondee and the verse generally closes with 
a word of three or four syllables, as : 

Cara deum suboles, magnum Jovis | incre j mentum. 

Rem. 2. Dadyles often express a rapid and brisk, as spondees do a 
slow and heavy motion, as : 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungulo campum 
Illi inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt. 

Rem. 3. The principal caesura in Hexameter verse, generally oc- 
curs after the arsis of the third foot and sometimes in the thesis of the 
same foot ; but occasionally also, after the arsis in the fourth foot, in 
which case another caesura generally precedes, after the arsis of the 
second foot. Sometimes, also, several caesuras of this kind are found 
in the same verse ; in which case the sense must determine which is 
to be observed as the principal one. Besides the principal caesura, 
there may be other subordinate caesuras, e. g. 

Sed I fugit interea, || fugit irrepabile tempus. 
Dum vires | annique | sinunt, || tolerate labores. 
Oderunt | peccare | boni, || virtutis | amore. 
Nudus I ara, | sere | nudus; || hiems | ignava | colono. 
Infandum j regina | jubes || renovare j dolorem. 

Rem. 4. The commonest and most graceful close of an hexameter 
verse is made by a word of two or three syllables. 

§ 119. Scansion. 
Scansion is the division of a verse into the feet or mem- 
bers of which it is made up. In doing this, however, the 
proper terminations of the words must not be wholly over- 
looked, but should be observed by making a slight pause 
at each of the caesuras and a marked pause at the princi- 
pal; caesura, as far as this can be done without obscuring 
the proper division into feet. In scanning, the following 
things are to be observed : 

HI 9.] SCANSION. 295 

a) A vowel at the end of a word before another vowel 
or an h in the following word is absorbed (elision), as: 

Nulla n(e) hab^s viti(a)? imm(o) ali(a), haiid fortasse minora. 

Rem. 1. Elision rarely takes place at the end of a line, as : 

O'mnia M^rcurio similis vocemque colorem^we 
E't crin^s flavos et membra decora juventae. 

In this case, the last syllable is to be joined to the first of the follow- 
ing line. Such a line is called versus hypermeter. 

Rem. 2. When elision is neglected in the beginning or middle of a 
verse, there arises what is called the hiatus (gaping, difficulty of pro- 
nunciation). This the poets endeavor if possible to avoid ; yet it is 
allowable before monosyllables, before one of the stronger punctuation 
marks, and in a long vowel followed by a short one ; also in the arsis, 
the hiatus occasions less difficulty of pronunciation, as : 

O' et d6 Latia, O et de gente Sabina. 
E't succus pecori et lac subducitur agris. 
Posthabita coluisse Samo : hie illius arma. 
Nubibus esse sol6t aut purpurea^ Aurorae. 

Rem. 3. Occasionally a long vowel in the thesis before another vow- 
el is shortj as : 

I'nsulac I'onio in magno. 

b) An m at the end of a word with a vowel before it and 
before a vowel in the following word long by nature or po- 
sition, is, together with the vowel before it, omitted in read- 
ing (ecthlipsis), as: 

Quod latet, ignot (um) ^st; ignoti nulla cupido. 
Rem. 4. In monosyllabic words which stand in the arsis, principally 
before a strong punctuation mark or in the caesura, the ectlilipsis is 
sometimes omitted. Before a short syllable the ecthlipsis is difficult. 

c) When the last syllable of a word ends with a conso- 
nant and the following word in the same line begins with 
a consonant, that final syllable is uniformly long; as: 

Nemo adeo ferus 6st, ut nan mit^scere possit. 

d) The ictus oden makes a short syllable long; still this 

is generally the case only : a) when the short syllable ends 

in a consonant, especially r, s or t; — b) when the caesura 

follows it ; — c) when upon a vowel in the close of a word, 

a word follows beginning with two consonants; e. g. 

O innia vincit Amor, et nos redamus Amori. 
T ■. canit agricola, | magna quum v^nerii lirbe. 
Nil opus 6st mort^ pro m6, sed amore fid^que. 


e) Two vowels in two successive syllables are often con- 
tracted into one (Synaeresis or Si/nizesis), as: Phaethon, 
Thesei, deerunt, vehemens (two syllables), particularly, huic, 
cui, ii, iidem; so also, dein, dehinc, deinceps, deinde, 
proinde, prout ; so also those vowels which are pronounced 
with more difficulty in one sound, as : quoad, postea, alveo 

f ) A short u or i is often rejected before / and m, as : pe- 
riclum for periculum, teg-men for tegimen*ox tegumen. 

g) The letters i and u^ having been originally both con- 
sonants and vowels, when they follow another consonant 
and are followed by a vowel, make the preceding vowel 
long by position^ as : fluviorum (= fluvjorum) ; genwa 
(= genva), etc. 

h) From the necessity of the verse, a long syllable is 
sometimes used as short (Systole), and, on the contrary, a 
short syllable as long (Diastole). The systole is very com- 
mon in the third person Plur. Indie. Perf. Act., and in alte^ 
rius and in names, as : Aeneades ; — the diastole is used es- 
pecially in the Subj. Perf. Act. and Fut. Perf. Act, (audi- 
vertlis), also in names, in which three short syllables follow 
one another, of which the first is then made long by the 
ictus, as : 

O'bstupui, stderunti\\JiQ comae, vox faiicibua haesit. 


§ 120. Of Abbreviations, 

1) Personal Names: A. Aulus. App. Appius. C. or 
G. Cains or Gains. Cn. or Gn. Cnaens (G'tiaeus). D. 
Decimus. K. Kaeso. L. Lucius. M. Marcus. M'. Manius. 
N. Namerius. P. Publius. Q. Quintus. Ser. Servius, 
Sex. or S. Sextus. Sp. Spurius. T. Titus. Ti. Tiberius, 

2) Appellatives: P. Pater. F. Filius. Fr. Prater, etc. 

3) Designations of honor and office : Aed. Aedilis. Cos. 
CJos, Coss. Consules, Cos. d. Consul designatus. D. 


Divus. Imp. Imperator. O. M. Oplimus maximus. P. C. 
Patres conscripti. P. R. Populiis Romanus. Pr. Praetor. 
Praef. Praefectus. P. M. Pontifex Maximus. P. S. Plehis- 
citum. S. P. Q. R. Senatas populusque Romanus. S. C. 
Senatus consultum. Tr. PI. Tribunus plebis. 

4) Designations of money and weight : HS. or H-S. 
Sestertius (Sestertium). L. Libra. L. 1j. Dupondius. 

5) Designations of time : A. D. Ante diem. A. U. C. 
Ab urbe condita. C. or K. Calendae (Kalendae). Id. Idus. 
Non. Nonae. 

6) Abbreviations in letters : S. Salutem. S. D. Salutem 
dicit. S. P. D. Salutem pluriinam. dicit. S. V. B. E. E. V. 
Si vales, bene est ; ego valeo. 

§ 121. Of the Roman Calendar. 
1 Kalendae means thej^r^^ day of each month; Nonae 
the seventh day of March, May, July and October, but the 
fifth of the remaining eight months; Idus was the fifteenth 
of the four months named above, and the thirteenth of the 
other eight. 

2. Since the names of the months are properly adjectives, 
they generally agree with Kalendae, Nonae and Idus in 
gender, number and case, and are rarely governed by them 
in the Gen. as: Calendis Juniis, on the first day of June; 
Nonis Octobribus, on the seventh of October ; Idibus Sep- 
tembribus, on the thirteenth of September, 

3. The days lying between the three fixed days just men- 
tioned, were reckoned backwards from each of these fixed 
days, as, the 1st, 2d, 8d etc., day before the Kalends, Nones, 
or Ides as the case might be, and dies and ante w^ere gen- 
erally omitted. The day from which one began to reck- 
on was always included in the number mentioned, as : 
Claudius excessit III. Idus Octobres, i. e. tertio die ante 
Idus Octobres, onthe thirteenth of October. Hence, in order 
to get the true day before one of the divisions, we must 
subtract one from the number mentioned. 



P 121. 

4. In determining what day of the previous month any 
day before the Calends of a given month is, we must know 
how many days the month has (see table) and reckon back 
from the Calends of the month mentioned (i. e. the month 
following), as : tertio Calendas Apriles, on the SOth of 
March; tertio Calendas Maias, on the 29th of April; tertio 
Calendas Martias, on the 21th (2Sth) of February ; since 
March has 31, April 30 and February 28 (in leap year 29) 

The days 

March, May, 
July, and October 

January, August, 

April, June, Sep- 

February (has 28, 

of our 

and December 


and in Leap Years 


(have 31 days). 

(have also 31 days.) 

ber (have 30 days). 

29 days). 








IV )ante 
III 5 Nonas. 

IV )ante 

IV >ante 
III 5 Nonas 


V ante 

III 5 Nonas. 


IV )>Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas 

Pridie Nonas. 







Pridie Nonas. 






































Pridie Idus. 


ie Idus. 

Pridie Idus. 








Pridie Idus. 

XIX 1 



XVI 1 









XV Vi 1 











































> 1 












> 3 







- X 







































111 J 







Prid. Kalendas 












Prid. Kal 



Prid. Ka 


Prid. Kalendas 

of the fol. 

of the fol. 

of the fol. 






1. Lupus et capra. 

Lupus, capram conspicatus, quae in rupe pascebatur, quum ad earn 
accedere non posset, earn, ut de rupe descenderet, hortabatur, apud se 
mollia prata ac varias herbas esse praedicans. Ei vero capra respon- 
dit: Mi amice, non me ad pascua vocas, sed ipse cibi indiges! 

2. Lupus et opUiones. 

Opilionea aliquot, caesa atque assata ove, convivium agebant. Quod 
quum lupus, qui praedandi caussa forte stabula circumibat, videret, ad 
opiliones conversus : Quos clamores, inquit, et quantos tumultus voa 
contra me excitaretis, si ego facerem, quod vos facitis ? Tum unus ex 
iis : Hoc interest, inquit : nos, quae nostra sunt, comedimus ; tu vero 
aliena furaris. 

'■ "3; Vulpes et uva. 

Vulpes, extrema fame coacta, uvam appetebat ex alta vite dependen- 
tem. Quam quum, summis viribus saliens, attingere non posset, tan- 
dem discedens : Nondum matura est, inquit ; nolo acerbam sumere. 
Sic saepe homines, quae facere non possunt, verbis elevant. 

2. Opilio, onis, m.^/tepAcrrf. z.%9ol. to roast, convivium, i, n./easf; conv. 
agere, to have a feast, stabulum, i, n. stable, tumultus, us, m. ado. furor 
1. steal. 

8. Vitis, is,/, vine, dependeo, di, 2. to hang down from, elevo 1. to raise 
up ; 2) to disparage. 

300 FABLES. 

4. Rusttcm et canisjlddis. 
Rusiicus in agros exiit ad opus suum. Filiolum, qui in cunis jace- 
bat, reliquit custodiendum cani fideli atque valido. Arrepsit anguis 
immanis, qui puemlum exstincturus erat. Sed custos fidelis corripit 
eum dentibus acutis, et, dum necare studet, cunas simul evertit super 
exstinctum anguem. Mox ex arvo rediit agricola ; ut videt cunas ever- 
sas cruentumque canis rictum, ira accenditur. Temere igitur custo- 
dem filioli interficit ligone, quem manibus tenebat. Sed ubi cunas 
restituit, supra anguem occisum reperit puerum vivum et incolumem. 
Sera turn poenitentia fuit facinoris temere patrati. 

5, Leo, asinus et vulpes. 
Vulpes, asinus et leo venatum iverant. Ampla praeda facta, leo asi- 
num illam partiri jubet. Qui quum singulis singulas partes poneret 
aequales, leo eum correptum dilaniavit et vulpi negotium partiendi tri- 
buit. Ilia astutior leoni maximam partem apposuit, sibi vix minimam 
reservans particulam. Turn leo subridens ejus prudentiam laudare, et, 
unde hoc didicerit, interrogare coepit. Et vulpes: Hujus me, inquit, 
calamitas docuit, quid minores potentioribus debeant. 

6. Asinus pelle leonlna indutus. 

Asinus fugitivus reperit forte in silva pellem leoninam, eaque indu- 
tus territare coepit homines et bestias. Venit is, qui asinum perdide- 
rat, eumque quaerit. Asinus, quum herura vidisset, horrendum in 
modum rugire coepit, ut ilium quoque falleret. At herus, comprehen- 
sis auriculis, quae exstabant : Etiamsi alios, inquit, fallas, me tamen 
non falles. Ita probe verberat domumque abigit. 

7. Rustlcus etfdii. 

Inter filios rustici cujusdam grave dissidium ortum erat. Diu frustra 
operam impenderat pater, hortans, ut pacem atque concordiam cole- 
rent Tandem filiis : Virgulas, inquit, mihi afferte quinquaginta et con- 

4. Arrepo, psi, ptum 3. to creep up. corrTpio, ripui, reptum 3. to seize. 
cruentus, a, um, bloody, rictus, us, m. mouth, poenitentia, ae,/. repen- 

6. Pellis, is,/, sicin; p. leonlna, lion's skin, fugitivus, a, um, run-away. 
territo 1. to frighten, auricula, ae,/. ear-lap. rugio 4. to roar, exsto, stiti 
i. project. 

7. Dissidium, i, n. disagreement, virgula, ae, /, stick, fasciciilus, i, »n. 
bundle. coUigo 1. to collect, concors, rdis, uniled. 

FABLES. 301 

sidite. Turn omnes virguias in unum fasciGiilum colligavit, eumque 
constrictum singulis filiis obtulit, hortans, ut frangerent. Illi autem 
quanquam vim omnem adhibebant, frustra laborarunt, nee quicquam 
profecerunt. Turn pater nodum discldit singulasque illis virguias- 
dedit, quas sine ullo labore confregerunt. Quo facto, rusticus filios ita 
allocutus est : Haec res vobis exemplo sit. Tuti eritis ab inimicorum 
injuriis, quamdiu vos amabitis et Concordes eritis; at, sitnulac facta erit 
dissensio atque discordia, inimici securi in vos irrumpent. 

8. Luscinia et cuculus, 

Luscinia verno quodam die dulcissime canere coepit. Pueri aliquot 
baud procul aberant in valle ludentes. Hi quum lusui essent intenti, 
lusciniae cantu nihil movebantur. Non multo post cuculus coepit cu- 
culare. Continuo pueri, lusu neglecto, ei acclamabant vocemque cu- 
culi identidem imitabantur. Audisne, luscinia, inquit cuculus, quanta 
me isti plausu excipiant et quantopere cantu meo delectentur ? Lus- 
cinia, quae noUet cum eo altercari, nihil impediebat, quominus ille 
suani vocem miraretur. Interea pastor fistula canens cum puella lento 
gradu praeteriit 

Cuculus iterum vociferatur, novas laudes captans. At puella pasto- 
rem allocuta: Male sit, inquit, huic cuculo, qui cantui tuo odiusam 
vocem intermiscet. Quo audito, quum cuculus in pudorem conjectus 
conticuisset, luscinia tam suaviter canere coepit, ut se ipsam superare 
velle videretur. Pastor, fistula deposita : Considamus hie, inquit, sub 
arbore et lusciniam audiamus. Turn pastor et puella cantum lusciniae 
certatim laudare coeperunt, et diu taciti intentis auribus sedent. Ad 
postremum adeo capta est puella sonorum dulcedine, ut etiam laerimae 
erumperent. Tum luscinia ad cuculum conversa: Videsne, inquit, 
quantum ab imperitorum opinionibus prudentiorum judicia distent? 
Una sane ex istis lacrimis, quamvis muta sit, locupletior tamen est 
artis meae testis, quam inconditus iste puerorum clamor, quem tanto- 
pere jaetabas. Monet fabula, magnorum artiflcum opera non vulgi 
opinione, sed prudentium existimatione esse censenda. 

8. Cuculus, i, m. cuckoo, vallis, is, /. valley, cuculo 1. to coo. acclamo 
1. to cry out to, altercor 1. to quarrel, fistula, ae, /. pipe, lentus, a, urn, 
sloio. gradus, us, m. step, vociferor 1. to screech, intermisceo, miscui 
mixtum or mistum 2. to intermingle, certatim, adv. emulously. disto I 
without Perf. and Sup. to differ. 


9. Auceps et vipera. 

Auceps ibat venatum et mox vidit in altissima arbore palumbem ; 
approperat eum capturus, sed inter eundum premit forte pedQ altero 
viperam in herba latentem, quae ilium mordet. Me mlserum, inquit, 
dum alteri instdior, ipse dispereo. 

10. Mendax. 
Puer in prato oves pascebat atque per jocum clamitabat, ut sibi auxi- 
lium ferretur, quasi lupus gregem esset adortus. Agricolae undlque 
succurrebant, neque lupum inveniebant. Ita ter quaterque se elusos 
a puero viderunt. Deinde, quum ipse lupus aggrederetur, et puer 
revera imploraret auxilium ; nemo gregi subvenit, et oves lupi praeda 
sunt facta. Mendaci homini non credimus, etiam vera quum dicit. 

11. Formica et coluniba. 

Formica sitiens descenderat ad fontem ; sed undae eam abripuerunt, 
nee multum ab^rat, quin misera periret. Quum vero columba sortem 
ejus videret, misericordia tacta ramulum in aquam injecit. Hunc as- 
secuta (Bst formica in eoque natans eflfugit mortem. Paullo post vena- 
tor, arcu instructus, illuc venit, columbamque telo suo transfixurus fuit. 
Periculum sentit formica, et, ut piae columbae opem ferret, accurrit 
atque venatoris talum momordit. Dolore impeditus ille telum non 
recte misit, et columba incolumis avolavit. Juva et juvabere ; raro be- 
neficium perit. 

12. Vulpes et corvits. 

Corvus, quum frustum carnis rapuisset, in arbore quadam consedit. 
Quo conspecto, vulpes, carnem cupiens, accurrit eumque callidis verbis 
adoritur. O corve, inquit, quam pulchra es avis, quam speciosa ! Te 
decuit esse avium regem. Sane omnes aves regiis virtutibus antece- 
deres, si vocem haberes. His corvus laudibus inflatus, ne mutus ha- 
beretur, clamorem edidit, sed simul, aperto rostro, carnem amisit; 
quum vulpes statim rapuit, atque irridens dixit'. Heus, corve ! Nihil 
tibi deest praeter mentem. 

9. Auceps, tipis, m. fowler. vip§ra, ae,/. viper, appropgro 1. to approach. 
dispereo, ii, 4. to perish. 

10. Clamito 1. to cry out often, revera, adv. in earnest. 

11. Formica, ae,/. ant. ramtilus, i, m. branch, talus, i, m. ankle^ 



1. Excitsatio. 

Geta. Quid caussae est, quod tani diu nos noii iiiviseris? Quid im- 
pedimento fuit, quominus jam diu feceris nobis tui videndi copiam ? 
Syrus. Volui quidem saepe te convenire, sed non licuit mihi per mea 
negotia; non licuit per valetudinem ; laboravi enim aliquamdiu febri; 
non licuit denique per tempestatem, quae saepe fuit pluviosa. G. 
Equidem accipio tuam excusationem, sed hac lege, ne saepius utare. 
Excusatio tua justior est, quam vellem, siquidemvaletudo fuit in caus- 
sa. Ha|c lege mihi purgatus eris, si, quod cessatum est, me saepe in- 
visendo compenses. (S. Tu nihil moraris istius modi officia nimium 
vulgaria. Amicitia nostra firmior est, quam ut sit officiis istis vulgari- 
bus alenda. Satis crebro invisit, qui constanter amat. G. Male sit is- 
tis curis, quae te nobis adimunt. Quid imprecer istis negotiis, quae 
talem amicum nobis invident ? Pessime sit isti febri, quae nos tarn 
gravi desiderio torsit tui. Male pereat ista febris, le quidem incolumi. 

2. Colloquium jocosum. 

Andreas. Salve, mi Mauriti. Mauritius. Gratias ago, mi Andrea. 
Quid affers ? A. Me ipsum. M. Sic rem baud magni pretii hue altulis- 
ti. A. At magno constiti patri meo. M. Credo pluris, quam quisquam 
te aestimet. A. Sed Rudolphus estne domi ? M. Nescio. Pulsa fores 
ejus et videbis. A. Heus, Rudolphe ! domine es ? jR. Non sum. A. 
Impudens ! Non ego audio te loquentem ? R. Immo tu es impudens. 
Nuper ancillae vestrae credidi, te non esse domi, quum tamen esses, 
et tu non credis mihi ipsi? A. Aequum dicis; par pari retulisti. R. 
Equidem ut non omnibus dormio, ita non omnibus sum domi. Nunc 
vero adsum. A. Sed tu mihi videris cochleae vitam agere. R. Quid 
ita ? A. Quia perpetuo domi latitas, nee unquam prorepis. R. Foris ni- 
hil est negotii. A. At serenum coelum nunc invitat ad deambulandum. 
R. Ita est. Si igitur deambulare libet, te comitabor ; nam per totum 
hunc mensem pedem porta non extuli. Vocabo Mauritium, ut una 
nobiscum eat. A. Placet. Sic enim jucundior erit ambulatio. 

1. Cesso 1. to omit, compenso 1. to make up. impr^cor 1. to imprecate. 

2. Aestimo 1. to estimate. p\i\so I. to beat. la.iiio I. to keep one's self con- 


3. Colloquium ejusdem generis. 

Syrus. Opto tibi multani felicitatem. Geta. Et ego tibi duplicatum 
opto, quicquid optas mihi. S. Quid agis rei ? G. Confabulor. S, 
Quid ? confabularis solus ? G. Ut vides. aS. Fortasse tecum. Proin- 
ile tibi videndum est, ut cum homine probo confabulere. G. Immo 
cum lepidissimo congerrone confabulor ; lego enim librum joci plenum. 
^Sl Tu perpetuo litteris studes. G. Non est ulla studiorum satietas. 
S. Verum ; sed est tamen modus quidam. Non omittenda quidem 
sunt studia, sed tamen intermittenda nonnunquam. Nihil suave, quod 
perpetuum. Voluptates commendat rarior usus. Tu litteris studes 
noctes ac dies. G. Age, tuo more facis. Rides me, ut soles. Non 
me fallit tuus jocus. Ipsi codices pulvere sitnque obducti loquuntur, 
quam sim immodicus in studio. jS. Emoriar, ni loquor ex animo. 

4. Ladies. 

Cardlus. Veni, mi Ludovice! Ludovlcus. Quo tandem? C. In hor- 
tum ; satis jam legimus et scripsimus ; ludamus quoque. L. Ego pen- 
sum meum ante absolvam. C. Nondum absolvisti? L. Nondum 
omnia. Tune jam omnia didicisti et scripsisti, quae praeceptor nos 
discere et scribere jussit? C. Non omnia. L. Ergo nondum licet lu- 
dere. C. Cur non liceat ? Reliqua discam et scribam post ludum. L. 
Sed praestat, primum discere, deinde ludere. C. Quam morosum so- 
dalem habeo ! L. Non sum morosus, sed facere volo, quae jussa sunt. 
C. Ergo una ediscamus. Ego tibi recitabo, tu mihi. Deinde, quum 
omnia didicerimus, statim ad ludum properabimus. L. Placet; nam 
peracti labores jucundi sunt. 

5. De surgendo. 

Frider'icus. Heus, heus, Carole ! expergiscere ! Tempus est surgere. 
Audisne? C. Non audio. F. Ubi ergo babes aures? C. In lecto. 
F. Hoc video. Sed quid facis adhuc in lecto ? C Quid faciam ? 
Dormio. F. Dormis? et loqueris tamen mecum? C. Saltem volo 
dormire. F. Nunc autem non est tempus dormiendi, sed surgendi. 
C. Quota est hora ? F. Septima. C. Quando tu surrexisti e lecto ? 
F. Jam ante duas boras. C. Num sorores meae jam surrexerunt.? 
F. lam pridem. C. Sed fi-ater mens certe adhuc jacet in lecto. F. 
Erras. Quum expergefacerem eum, statim reliquit nidum suum. C 
Mox igitur surgam. 

3. Uuplico 1. to double, confabulor 1. to chat, conge rro, onis, m. com- 
rade^ play-fellow, satietas, atis,/. satiety, intermitto 3. to intermit. 


6. Amhulatio. 

Fridericus. Age, mi frater, ambulemus ; tempestas serena est. Au- 
gustus. Placet ; sed ubi ambulabimus ? Num in pratis ? F. Minime ; 
prata enim pluvia inundavit, et viae lutulentae sunt. Placetne adscen- 
dere in montem, quern e fenestra prospicimus ? A. Placet ; jam pri- 
dem enim in monte non fuimus. F. Hiems nos prohibuit; hieme 
enim mons glacie et nive tectus erat. Quid stas autem ? A. Duae 
viae ducunt ad montem : altera recta, altera flexuosa. Utram elige- 
mus ? F. Flexuosam censeo ; est enim umbrosior, et sol fervet. Des- 
cendentes altera ibimus et ambulationem variabimus. Vesperi enim 
sol minus fervet A. Eamus igitur! 

7. Naufragium. 

Mauritius, Redisti nobis obesior ac procerior. Cyprianus. At equi- 
dem niallem prudentior, aut doctior. M. Imberbis abieras, redisti bar- 
batiilus. At quid sibi vult hie pallor ? qmd frons corrugata ? C. Ut 
est fortuna, sic est corporis habitus. M. Num adversa ? C Nunquam 
mihi quidem alias secunda ; sed nunquam, quam nunc, reflavit odio- 
sius. M. Dolet mihi tua calamitas. Sed quid hoc mali est? C, Uni- 
versae pecuniae naufragium feci. M. In mari ? C, Non, sed in littore, 
nondum navem ingressus. M. Ubinam? C. In littore Britannico. 
M. Bene habet, quod ipse nobis vivus enatasti. Praestat pecuniae jac- 
turam facere, quam vitae. Levius est pecuniae damnum, quam famae. 
C Vita famaque incolumi, periit pecunia. M. Vita sarciri nullo pacto 
potest, fama aegre potest, peciniia facile alicunde sarcietur. Qui ma- 
lum hoc accidit ? C. Nescio, nisi quod sic erat in fatis meis. Sic 
visum est superis. M. Vides igitur, doctrinam ac virtutem tutissimas 
esse divitias, quae nee eripi possunt, nee onerant circumferentem. 
C Pulchre tu quidem philosopharis ; sed interim ego ringor, 

8. Jussum her'ile. 
Rahinus. Prefer ocreas ; nam equitandum est. Syrus. En adsunt, 

6. Pluvia, 3.6,/. rain, inundo 1. to overfloio. lutulentus, a, urn, muddy. 
fenestra, ae,/. window, flexuosus, a, nm.^ winding, umbrosus, a, um, shady. 
ferveo, vi 2. to burn (intrans). vario 1. to vary. 

7. Obesus, a, um,/««. imberbis, e, beardless, barbatulus, a, um, slightly 
bearded, pallor, oris, m.^^a/cnes*-. corrugatus, a, um, tcrin^/erf. reflo 1. <o 
bloio against, odiose, ado. odiously. Britannicus, a, um, British. ehSto, 1. 
to sxoim out. circumfero, tuli, latum 3. to carry around, philosophor 1. to 
philosophize, ringor 3. to show the teeth; 2) to be fretful. 

8. Albeo 2. to be clean, rigeo 2. to be stiff, siccitas, atis,/. dryness, uvi- 




R. Probe quidem abs te curatae ; totae albent situ. Opinor nee de- 
tersas, nee unctas hoc anno, adeo rigent prae siccitate. Deterge uvi- 
dulo panno : mox unge ad ignem diligenter, ac macera, donee moUian- 
tur. iS. Curabitiir. R. Ubi calcaria ? S. Adsunt. R. Verum ; sed 
obducta riibigine. Ubi frenum et ephippia? *S. Sunt in promptu. 
R. Vide, ne quid desit, aut ne quid ruptuni, aut mox rumpendum, ne 
quid nobis sit in mora, quum erimus in cursu. Propere hoc lorum 
sarciendum cura. Reversus inspice soleas equorum, num qui clavi de- 
sint, aut vacillent. Quam macri sunt equi, quamque strigosi ! Quoties 
absterges, aut pectis illos in anno ? 6". Immo quotidie. R. Nimirum 
res ipsa loquitur. Jejunia colunt, opinor, nonnumquam totum triduum. 
S. Minime. R Negas tu quidem, sed aliud dicturi sint equi, si loqui 
liceat : quanquam satis loquuntur ipsa macie. <S. Curo sedulo. R. 
Cur igitur tu habitior equis ? iS. Quia non pascor foeno. jR. Hoc 
igitur restat. Adorna mantlcam celeriter. S. Fiet. 

9. Monita paedagogi. 

Patdagogus. Tu mihi videris non in aula natus, sed in caula : adeo 
moribus es agrestibus. Puerum ingenuum decent ingenui mores. 
(Quoties alloquitur te quispiam, cui debes honorem, compone te in rec- 
tum corporis statum, aperi caput. Vultus sit nee tristis, nee torvus, 
nee impudeus, nee protervus, nee instabilis, sed hilari modestia tem- 
peratus: oculi verecundi, semper intenti in eum, quocum loqueris: 
juneti pedes, quietae manus. Nee vacilles alternis tibiis, nee manus 
agant gestus, nee mordeto labrum, nee scabito caput, nee fodito aures. 
Vestis item ad decorum componatur, ut totus cultus, vultus, gestus et 
habitus corporis ingenuam modestiam et verecundam indolem prae se 
ferat. Puer. Quid, si mediter ? Pae. Fac. Pu. Siccine satis ? Pae. 
Nondum. Pu. Quid, si sic ? Pae. Propemodum. Pu. Quid, si sic ? 
Pae. Hem satis est; hoc tene, ne sis inepte loquax, aut praeceps. 
Neve vagetur animus interim, sed sis attentus, quid alter dicat. Si 

dulus, a, um, slightly moist, pannus, i, m. rag. macero 1. to soak, rublgo, 
inis, /. rust, ephippium, i, n. horse-doth, (corresponding to our saddles), 
clavus, i. m. nail, macer, era, crum, lean, strigusus, a, um, lank, nimirum, 
adv. doubtless, jejunium, i,^ ^ej. colere, to keep fast, triduum, i, w. 
the space of three days. meic\es, e\^f. leanness, hahitas, a, um, fleshy, foe- 
num, i, n. hay. mantica, ae,/. portmanteaa. 

9. Monitum, i. n. admonition, instruction, paedagogus, i. m. private tutor. 
caula, ae, /. sheep-cote, agrestis, e, rustic, rude, torvus, a, um, stern, pro- 
tervus, a, um, shameless, inslabilis, e, unstable, verecundus, a, um, re- 
spectful. alternus, a, um, alternate, gestus, us, gesture; gestus agere, to 
make gestures, labrum, i. n. lip. scabo, 3. to scratch, fodio, odi, ossum, 3. 


quid erit respondendum, id facito paucis ac prudenter, interdum prae- 
fatus honorem, nonnunquam etiam addito cognomine, honoris gratia : 
atque identidem modice flectas alterum genu, praesertim ubi respon- 
sum absolveris. Neve abeas, nisi praefatus veniam, aut ab ipso dimis- 
sus. Nunc age, specimen aliquod hujus rei nobis praebe ! 

Quantum temporis abfuisti a maternis aedibus ? Pw. Jam sex fer- 
me menses. Pm. Addendum erat: domine. Pu. Jam sex ferme 
menses, domine. Pae. Non tangeris desiderio matris ? Pu. Non- 
nunquam sane. Pae. Cupis eam revisere? Pu. Cupio, domine, si 
id pace liceat tua. Pae. Nunc^f iectendum erat genu. Bene habet. 
Sic ])ergito ! Quum loqueris, cave, ne praecipites sermonem, aut haesi- 
tes lingua, aut palato murmures, sed distincte, clare, articulatim con- 
suescito proferre verba tua. Si quem praeteribis natu grandem, ma- 
gistratum, sacerdotem, doctorem, aut alioqui virum gravem, memento 
aperire caput. In convivio sic te praebebis liilarem, ut semper me- 
mineris, quid deceat aetatem tuam : postremus omnium adraoveto man- 
um patinae. Si quid datur lautius, recusato modeste : si instabitur, 
accipe, et age gratias : mox, decerpta particula, quod reliquum est, illi 
reddito, aut alicui proximo accubanti. Si quis praebibet, hilariter illi 
bene precator, sed ipse bibito modice. Si non sitis, tamen admoveto 
calicem labris. Arride loquentibus : ipse ne quid loquare, nisi rogatus. 
Ne cui obtrectato, ne cui temet anteponito, ne tua jactato, ne aliena 
despicito. Esto comis, etiam erga tenuis fortunae sodales. Ita fiet, 
ut sine invidia laudem invenias, et amicos pares. Si videris, convivium 
extrahi, precatus veniam, ac, salutatis convivis, subducito te a mensa. 
Vide, ut horum memineris. Pu. Dabitur opera, mi praeceptor ! Num- 
quid aliud vis ^ Pae. Adito nunc libros tuos. Pu. Fiet. 

10. Venatio. 
PauUus. Trahit sua quemque voluptas ; mihi placet venatio. Thorn' 

to dig ; f . aures, to p^ick the ears, indoles, is,/, natural disposition, nature. 
propemodum, adv. almost, hem, inter] . hem! ah! inepte, adv. foolishly. 
praefor 1. to premise ; praefatus honorem, -premising : with your leave be it said ; 
praefari veniam, to first ask permission, cognomen, inis, n. title, specimen, 
inis, n. specimen. 

maternus, a, um, mother's, reviso, visi, Isum 3. to revisit, praecipito 
hasten, haesito 1. to hesitate, palatum, i, n. throat, murmtiro 1. to mutter. 
distincte, adv. distinctly, articulatim, adv. articulately, alioqui, adv. other- 
wise, patina, ae,/. dish, lautus a, um, dainty, recuso 1. to refuse, prae- 
bibo, i, 3. to drink to. extraho, traxi, tractum 3. to protract, subduco, xi, 
ctura 3. to withdraw. 

10. Venabulum, i, n. hunting-spear, cuniculus, i, r/i. rabbit, laqueus, i, 


as. Placet etiam mihi ; sed ubi canes, ubi venabula, ubi casses ? P. 
Valeant apri, ursi, cervi et vulpes ! no3 insidiabimur cuniculis. Vin- 
centius. At ego laqueos injiciam locustis. Lavrentius. Ego ranas 
captabo. Bariholus. Ego papiliones venabor. L. Difficile est sec- 
tari volantia. B. Difficile, sed pulchrum ; nisi pulchrius esse ducis 
sectari lumbricos aut cochleas, quia carent alis. L. Equidem malo 
insidiari piscibus ; est mihi hamus elegans. B. Sed unde parabis es- 
cam ? L. Lumbricorum ubi vis magna est copia. B. Est, si tibi ve- 
lint prorepere e terra. L. At ego mox efficiam, ut multa milia prosi- 
liant. B. Quo pacto? incantamentis ? L. Videbis artem. Imple 
banc situlam aqua. Hos juglandium summos cortices virentes con- 
fractos immittito. Hac aqua perfunde solum. Nunc observa paullis- 
per. Vides emergentes? B. Rem prodigiosam video. Sic olim, 
opinor, exsiliebant armati ex satis serpentis dentibus. Sed plerique 
pisces delicatioris et elegantioris sunt palati, quam ut esca tarn vulgari 
capiantur. L. Novi quoddam insecti genus, quo talibus insidiari so- 
le©. B. Tu vide, possisne imponere piscibus; ego ranis facessam 
negotium. L. Quomodo ? reti ? B. Non ; sed arcu. L. Novum 
piscandi genus. B. At non injucundum. Videbis et fatebere. V. 
Quid, si certemus nucibus ? P. Nuces pueris relinquamus ; nos 
grandiores sumus. V. Et tamen nihil aliud adhuc, quam pueri sum- 
us. P. Sed quibus decorum est ludere nucibus, iisdem non indeco- 
rum est equitare arundine longa. V, Tu igitur praescribito lusus 
genus ; sequar, quocunque vocav^ris. P. Et ego futurus sum omnium 
horarum homo. 

11. Reditus patris. 

Petrus. Quid ita laetus es, mi Sigismunde ? Sigismundus. Quia 
pater domum rediit. P. Ubinam fuit ? iS. Lipsiae. P. Cur eo fuerat 
profectus ? S. Nescisne, mercatum ibi esse habitum, eumque frequen- 
tari a mercatoribus negotiandi caussa ? P. Utrum pedes, an eques 
rediit, an in rheda? & Equo vectus est. P. Quando advenit ? iS. 

m. noose. locusta, ae, /. locust, lumbricus, i, m. earth-worm, ala, ae,/. 
vnng. hamus, i, m. fishing-hook, esca, ae,/. bait, prosilio, lui 4. to leap 
forth, incantamentura, i, n. magic influence, situla, ae, /. ■pail, juglans, 
ndis,/. walnut, immitto, misi, missum 3. to put in. perfundo, fudi, fusum 
3. to wet. exsilio, lui 4. to spring forth, serpens, lis, serpent, delicatus, a, 
\xm^ delicate, impono, posui, positum 3. to impose upon ; c. AdX. to deceive. 
piscor 1. to fish, indecorus, a, um, unbecoming, arundo, inis,/. reed, praes- 
cribo, psi, ptum 3. to prescribe. 

11. Lipsia, ae,/. Leipsic. mercatus, us, m. a fair, rheda, ae,/. wagon. 


Ante horam. P. Quia tibi tarn cito nuntiavit ? 5^. Famulus, qui eum 
jam e longinquo venientem viderat. P. Jamne salutasti ? ,S. Saluta- 
vi, quum vix ex equo descendisset. P. Quid amplius illi fecisti ? S. 
Calcaria detraxi et ocreas. P. Bene fecisti ; sed miror, te propter ad- 
ventum ejus non domi mansisse. iS. Id nee pater permisisset, nee ego 
ipse vellem, quum nunc tempus adsit in scholam eundi. P. Id qui- 
dem laude dignum est ; sed quomodo valet pater tuus ? jS. Optima 
dei beneficio. P. Ego gaudeo tecum, quod salvus rediit. 5^. Sed 
alias pluribus colloquemur. Nunc in scholam eamus ! 

12. Colloquium scholasticum. 
Cornelius. Scite tu quidem scribis ; sed cliarta tua perflait Charta 
subhumlda est ac transmittit atramentum. Andreas. Quaeso, ut ap- 
pares mihi pen nam banc. C. Deest mihi scalprum librarium. A. En 
tibi. C. Hui, quam obtusum ! A. Accipe cotem. C. Utrum soles 
scribere cuspide duriore, an molliore ? A. Accommoda ad manum 
tuam. C. Ego molliore soleo. A. Quaeso, ut mihi describas ordine, 
figuras elementorum. C. Graecas, an Latinas ? A. Latinas primum 
conabor imitari. C. Suppedlta chartam. A. Accipe. C. Sed meum 
atramentum dilutius est saepius infusa aqua. A. At meum atramen- 
tarium prorsus exaruit. Rogabo alicunde. C. Praestat habere domi, 
quam rogare mutuum. A. Quid est discipulus sine calamo et atra- 
mento ? C. Quod miles sine clipeo et gladio. A. Utinam mihi sint 
digiti tam celeres ! Equidem non possum dictantis vocem scribendo 
assequi. C. Prima cura sit, ut bene scribas ; proxima, ut celeriter. 
Sat cito, si sat bene. A. Belle ; sed istam cantionem cane praeceptori, 
quum dictat : Sat cito, si sat bene. 

12. Scite, adv. skilfully, charta, ae, /. paper, perfluo, uxi, uxum 3. io 
flow through, subhumidus, a, um, somewhat moist, transmitto, isi, issum 
3. to let through, atramentum, i, w. in/i;. quaeso, / as A;. appSro I. to pre- 
pare ; app. pennam, to mend a pen. scalprum librarium, i, n. pen-knife, hui, 
interj. Oh! obtusus, a, um, dull. — cusp'is^idis^ f point. a.ccomm6do I. to 
fit. infundo, fudi, fusura 3. to pour in. atramentarium, i, n. inkstand. 
exaresco, arui 3. to become dry. mutuus, a, um, reciprocal; mutuum rogare, 
to borrow, calamus, i, rn. stalk, quill, dicto 1. to dictate, belle, adv. finely. 
cantio, onis,/. song. 



1. E Lacedaemoniis unus, quum Perses hostis in colloquio dixisset 
glorians : Soletn prae jaculorum multitudine et sagittarum non videbi- 
tis: In umbra igitur, inquit^ pugnabimus. — C. Tusc. 1, 42, 101. 

2. Lacaena quum filium in proelium misisset et interfectum audis- 
set: Idcirco, inquit, genueram, id esset, qui pro patria mortem non dubita- 
ret occumbere. — Ibid. 102. 

3. Cyrenaeum Theodorum, philosfophum non ignobilem, nonne mi- 
ramur ? cui quum Lysimachus, rex Thraciae et Macedoniae, crucem 
minaretur : Mis quaeso, inquit, ista horribilia minitare purpuratis tuis ! 
Theodori quidem nihil interest, humine, an sublime putescat. — Ibid. 43, 102. 

4. Diogenes, Cynlcus, projici se post mortem jussit inhumatum. 
Tum amici: Volucribusne et feris? Minime vero, inquit; sed badUum 
propter me, qw) abigam, ponitote. Qui poteris ? illi (quaesiverunt) ; non 
enim senties. Quid igitur mihi ferarum laniatus oberit nihil sentienti ? 
—Ibid, 43, 104. 

5. Praeclare Anaxagoras, quum Lampsaci moreretur, quaerentibus 
amicis, velletne Clazomenas in patriam, si quid accidisset, auferri : JVi- 
hil necesse est, inquit ; undique enim ad inferos tantundem viae est. — Ibid, 

6. Anaxagoram ferunt, nuntiata morte filii, dixisse : Sdebam, me ge- 
nuisse mortalem. — Ibid. 3. 14, 30. 

7. Noctu ambulabat in publico Themistocles, quod somnum capere 
non posset: quaerentibusque respondebat, Miltiddis tropaeis se e somno 
suscitari' — Ibid. 4. 19, 44. 

8. Socrates, quum esset ex eo quaesitum, Arcfaelaum, Perdiccae 
filium, qui tum fortunatissimus haberetur, nonne beatum putaret : Hand 
scio, inquit ; nunquam enim cum eo collocutus sum. Ain' tu ? aliter id 
scire non potes ? Mdlo modo. Tu igitur ne de Persarum quidem 
rege magno potes dicere, beatusne sit ? An ego possim, quum ignorem, 
quam sit doctus, quam vir bonus ? Quid ? tu in eo sitam vitam beatam 

1. Perses, ae, m. a Persian; adj. Persian, jactilum, i, n. javelin. 

3. Cyrenaeus, i, m. Cyrenean,from Cyrene, chief city of Lybia. crux, ucJs, 
/. cross, purpuratus, \, m. a courtier, sublime, adv. in the air. putesco, 

tui 3. to rot. 

4. Cynicus, i, m. the Cynic, projicio, jeci, jectum 3. to cast forth, inhu- 
matus, a, urn, unburied. bacillum, i, n. staff, laniatus, us, m. the tearing. 

5. LampsScus, i,/. Lampsacus, city of Mysia. Clazomenae, arum,/. Cla- 
zomenae, city of Ionia, si quid accidisset, if any thing should happen to him, 
i. e, if perchance he should die. tantundem viae, jm5/ as long a way. 


putas ? Ita prorsus eocistimo : bonos, heatos ; improhos, miseros. Miser 
ergo Archelaus ? Certe, si injustus. — C. Tusc. 5. 12, 34. 35. 

9. Lacedaemonii, Philippo minitante per litteras, se omnia, quae co- 
narentur, prohibiturum, quaesiverimt, num se esset etiam mori prohihitu- 
rus.—lbid. 14, 42. 

10. Xenocrates, quum legati ab Alexandro quinquaginta ei talenta 
attulissent, quae erat pecunia temporibus illis, Athenis praesertim, max- 
ima, abduxit legatos ad coenam in Academiam ; iis apposuit tantum, 
quod satis esset, nuUo apparatu. Quum postridie rogarent eum, cui 
numerari (sc. pecuniam) juberet : Quid ? vos hesternd, inquit, coenvM 
non intelleristis, me pecunia non egere ? Quos quum tristiores vidisset, 
triginta minas accepit, ne aspernari regis liberalitatem videretur. — Ibid. 

11. Lacedaemone quum tyrannus coenavisset Dionysius, negavit, se 
jure illo nigro, quod coenae caput erat, delectatum. Tum is, qui ilia 
coxerat: Mlnime mirum; condimenta enim defuerunt. Quae tandem? 
inquit ille. Labor in venatu, sudor, cursus ad Eurotam, fames, sitis; 
his enim rebus Lacedaemoniorum epulae condiuntur. — Ibid. 34, 98. 

12. Quum Athenis, ludis, quidam in theatrum grandis natu venisset, 
in magno consessu locus ei a suis civibus nusquam est datus. Quum 
autem ad Lacedaemonios accessisset, qui, legati quum essent, certo in 
loco consederant, consurrexerunt omnes et senem ilium sessum re- 
ceperunt. Quibus quum a cuncto consessu plausus esset multiplex 
datus, dixit ex iis quidam: Athenienses sdunt, quae recta sunt ; sedfacere 
nolunt.^C. Sen. 18, 63. 

13. Bias, qui numeratur in septem sapientibus, quum ejus patriam 
Prienen cepisset hostis, ceterique ita fugerent, ut multa de suis rebus 
secum asportarent, quum esset admonitus a quodam, ut idem ipse 
faceret : Ego vero, inquit, yoao ; nam omnia mecumporto mea. — C. Parad. 
1. 2, 8. 

14. Quum tyrannus Hiero quaesivisset de Simonide, quid Deus esset, 
[hie] deliberandi sibi unum diem postulavit. Quum idem ex eo pos- 

10. Appono, posui, posTtum 3. to place before, apparatus, us, m, fitting out. 
hesternus, a, um, of yesterday, coeniila, ae, /, a spare meal, mina, ae,/. 
mina (worth about 17^ dollars). 

11. Jus, uris, n. broth, soup, venatus, us, m. hunting. Eurotas, ae, m. 
Eurotas, river in Sparta. 

12. Ludis, games, theatrum, i, n. theatre, consessus, us. m. assembly. 
consurgo, surrexi, surrectum 3. to arise, senem sessum receperunt, received 
the old man, in order to scat him, i. e. took him to their seat, multiplex, Icis, 


tridie quaereret, biduum petivit. Quum saepius duplicaret numerum 
dierum, admii'ansque Hiero requireret, cur ita faceret : Quia, quardo, 
inquit, diutius considero, tanto mihi res videtur ohscurior. — C. A^. D. 1. c. 

15. Quum Hannibal, Carthagine expulsus, Ephesum ad Antiochum 
venisset exsul, proque eo, quod ejus nomen erat magna apud omnes 
gloria, invitatus esset ab hospitibus suis, ut Phormionem philosophum 
audiret ; quumque is se non nolle dixisset : locutus esse dicitur homo 
copiosus aliquot horas de imperatoris officio et de omni re militari. 
Tum, quum ceteri, qui ilium audierant, vehementer essent delectati, 
quaerebant ab Hannibale, quidnam ipse de illo philosopho judicaret. 
Hie Poenus non optime Graece, sed tamen libere respondisse fertur, 
mvltos se deliros senes saepe vidisse ; sed qui magis, quam Phormio, deli- 
raret, vidisse neminem. Neque mehercule injuria ! Quid enim aut ar- 
rogantius, aut loquacius fieri potuit, quam Hannibali, qui tot annos de 
imperio cum populo Romano, omnium gentium victore, certasset, 
Graecum hominem, qui nunquam hostem, nunquam castra vidisset, 
nunquam denique minimam partem ullius publici muneris attigisset, 
praecepta de re militari dare ? — C. De Or. 2, 18, 75. 

16. Quum, Tarento amisso, arcem tamen Livius Salinator retinuisset, 
multaque ex ea proelia praeclara fecisset, quum aliquot post annos 
Maximus id oppidum recepisset, rogaretque eum Salinator, ut mera- 
inisset, opera sua se Tarentum recepisse : Quidni, inquit, meminerim ? 
nunquam enim recepissem, nisi tu perdidisses. — C. De. Or. 2. 67, 273. 

17. Nasica quum ad poetam Ennium venisset, eique ab ostio quae- 
renti Ennium ancilla dixisset domi non esse ; Nasica sensit illam domi- 
ni jussii, dixisse, et ilium intus esse. Paucis post diebus quum ad 
Nasicam venisset Ennius, et eum a janua quaereret, exclamat Nasica, 
se domi non esse. Tum Ennius : Quid ? ego non cognosco vocem, 
inquit, tuam ? Hie Nasica : Homo [inquit] es impudens. Ego quum te 
qtiaererem, ancillae time credidi, te domi non esse ; tu mihi non credis ipsi ? 
—lb. 68, 276. 

18. Orator quidam malus quum in epil6go misericordiam se movisse 
putaret, postquam assedit, rogavit Catulum, videreturne misericordiam 
movisse : Ac magnam quidem, inquit ; neminem enim puto esse tam du- 
rum, cui non oratio tua miseranda visa sit. — C. De Or. 2. 69, 278. 

15. Exsul, ulis, m. exile, proque eo, quod, and on account of this, that non. 
nolle, to will with pleasure, res militaris, warfare, hie, here. Poenus, 
i, m. Carthaginian. Graece, adv. in Greek, delirus, a, um, silly, deliro 1. 
to be silly, mehercule, adv. by Hercules, indeed, arrogans, lis, arrogant. 



1. Xerxes. Leonidas. Themistocles. (Cf. Justin. 2, 10. 11.) 
Xerxes belliim a patre coeptum adversus Graeciam per quinquen- 
nium instruxit. Septingenta niilia de regno armaverat et trecenta milia 
de auxiliis, ut non immerito proditum sit, flumina ab exercitu ejus sic- 
cata, Graeciamque omnem vix capere exercitum ejus potuisse. Naves 
quoque milia ducentas numero habuisse dicitur. 

Ut introitus Xerxis in Graeciam terribilis fuit, ita turpis ac foedus 
discessus. Nam quum Leonidas, rex Lacedaemoniorum, cum quat- 
tuor milibus militum angustias Thermopylarum occupasset, Xerxes 
contemptu paucitatis eos pugnam capessere jubet, quorum cognati 
Marathonia pugna interfecti fuerant : qui, dum ulcisci suos cupiunt, 
principium cladis fuere : succedente deinde inutili turba, major caedes 
editur. Triduum ibi cum dolore et indignatione Persarum dimicatum : 
quarto die, quum nuntiatum esset Leonidae, a viginti milibus hostium 
summum cacumen teneri, tunc hortatur socios, recedant, et se ad 
meliora patriae tempora reservent : sibi cum Lacedaemoniis fortunam 
experiendam : plura se patriae, quam vitae, debere : ceteros ad praesi- 
dia Graeciae servandos. Audito regis imperio, discessere ceteri, soli 
Lacedaemonii remanserunt. Initio hujus belli sciscitantibus Delphis 
oracula responsum fuerat, aut regi Lacedaemoniorum, aut urbi caden- 
dum esse. 

Et idcirco rex Leonidas, quum in bellum proficisceretur, ita suos 
firmaverat, ut ire se parato ad moriendam animo scirent. Angustias 
propterea occupaverat, ut cum paucis aut majore gloria vinceret, aut 
minore damno reipublicae caderet. Dimissis igitur sociis, hortatur 
Lacedaemonios, meminerint, quocunque modo proeliaturi sint, caden- 
dum esse : caverent, ne fortius mansisse, quam dimicasse viderentur ; 
nee exspectandum, donee ab hoste circumvenirentur, sed, dum nox 
occasionem daret, securis et laetis superveniendum; nusquam victores 
honestius, quam in castris hostium perituros. Nihil erat difficile per- 
suadere paratis mori : statim arma capiunt, et sexcenti viri castra quin- 
gentorum milium irrumpunt; statimque regis praetorium petunt, aut 

1. Quinquennium, i, n. the space of four years, armo 1. to arm. immeri- 
to, adv. not ^cithout justice, numero, aW., in number. Thermopylae, arum, 
/. Thermopylae, a narrow pass in Thessaly. contemtus, us, m. contempt. 
paucitas, atis,/. feloness, cognatus, i, m. relative. Marathonius, a, um, of 
Marathon. tr\^n. space of three days, indignatio, onis,/. indignation. 
sciscKtor 1. to inquire, proelior 1. to fight. circumvSnio, veni, ventum 4. to 



cum illo, aut, si ipsi oppress! essent, in ipsius potissimum sede moritu- 
ri. Tiimultus totis castris oritur. Lacedaemonii posteaquam regem 
non inveniunt, per omnia castra victores vagantur, caedunt sternuntque 
omnia, ut qui sciant se pugnare non spe victoriae, sed in mortis poe- 
nam. Proelium a principio noctis in majorem partem diei tractum. 
Ad postremum non victi, sed vincendo fatigati, inter ingentes strato- 
rum hostium catervas occiderunt. 

Xerxes, duobus vulneribus terrestri proelio acceptis, experiri maris 
fortunam statu it. Ante navalis proelii congressionem miserat Xerxes 
quattuor milia armatorum Delphos ad templum A[)ollinis diripiendum : 
prorsus, quasi non cum Graecis tantum, sed etiam cum diis immortali- 
bus bellum gereret : quae manus tota imbribus et fulminibus deleta 
est, ut intelligeret, quam nuUae essent hominum adversqs deos vires. 
Post haec Thespias, et Plataeas, et Athenas vacuas hominibus incendit : 
et quoniam ferro in homines non poterat, in aedificia igne grassatur. 
Namque Athenienses post pugnam Marathoniam, })raemonente Them- 
istocle, victoriam illam de Persis reportatam, non finem, sed caussam 
majoris belli fore, ducentas naves fabricati erant. Adventante igitur 
Xerxe, consulentibus Delphis oraculum responsum fuerat: Salutem 
muris ligneis tuerentur. 

Themistocles, navium praesidium demonstratum ratus, persuadet 
omnibus, patriam municipes esse, non moenia ; civitatemque non in 
aedificiis, sed in civibus positam. Itaque melius salutem navibus, 
quam urbi commissuros. Hujus sententiae etiam Deum auctorem esse. 
Probato consilio, conjuges liberosque cum pretiosissimis rebus abditis 
insulis, relicta urbe, demandant ; ipsi naves armati conscendunt. Ex- 
emplum Atheniensium etiam aliae urbes imitatae sunt. Itaque quum 
conjuncta omnis sociorum classis, et intenta in bellum navale esset, 
angustiasque Salaminii freti, ne circumveniri a multitudine posset, 
occupasset ; dissensio inter civitatium principes oritur. Qui quum, 
deserto bello, ad sua tuenda dilabi vellent, timens Themistocles, ne 
discessu sociorum vires minuerentur, per servum fidelem Xerxi nuntiat, 
uno in loco eum contractam Graeciam capere facilime posse. Quodsi 
civitates, quae jam abire vellent, dissiparentur, majore labore ei sin- 
gulas consectandas. Hoc dolo impellit regem, ut signum pugnae daret. 

go around^ surround, supervenire, to surprise, sterno, stravi, stratum 3. 
to prostrate, ut qui, as those., who. fatlgo 1. to weary, caterva, ae,/. troop. 
statuo, ui, utum 3. to determine, quam nullae essent hominum vires, how 
insignificant the power of man might be. congressio, onis, /. engagement. 
Thespiae and Plataeae, arum,/. ciYies m Boeofta. vacuus, a, um (c. abl.), 
empty. gra.ssor I. to loalk ; in aliquid gr. to rage against, praemoneo, tii, 


Graeci quoque, adventu hostium occupati, proelium collatis viribus 

Interea rex, velut spectator pugnae, cum parte navium in littore 
remanet ; Artemisia autem, regiiia Halicarnassi, quae in auxilium Xerxi 
vfenerat, inter primos duces bellum acerrime ciebat : quippe ut in viro 
muliebrem timorem, ita in muliere virilem audaciam cerneres. Quum 
anceps proelium esset, lones ex praecepto Themistoclis pugnae se 
paullatim subtrahere coeperunt : quorum defectio animos ceterorum 
fregiL Itaque circumspicientes fugam pelluntur Persae et mox, proelio 
victi, in fugam vertuntur. In qua trepidatione multae captae sunt na- 
ves, multae mersae ; plures tamen, non minus saevitiam regis, quam 
hostem, timentes, domiim dilabuntur. 

2. Piso orator et servus. 
Marcus Piso, orator Romanus, servis praeceperat, ut tantum ad inter- 
rogata responderent, neve quicquam praeterea dicerent. Evenit, ut 
Clodium ad coeham invitari juberet. Hora coenae instabat ; aderant 
ceteri convivae omnes, solus Clodius exspectabatur. Piso sei vum, qui 
solebat convivas vocare, aliquoties emisit, ut videret, veniretne. Quum 
tandem jam desperaretur ejus adventus, Piso servo : Die, inquit, num 
forte non invitasti Clodium ? Invitavi, respondit ille. Cur ergo non 
venit? Quia venturum se negavit. Tum Piso: Cur id non statim 
dixisti ? Respondit Servus : Quia non sum a te interrogatus. 

3. Canis fdelis. 
Pyrrhus rex in itinere incldit in canem, qui interfecti hominis cor- 
pus custodiebat. Quum audisset, eum jam tres dies cibi expertem 
assidere, nee a cadavere discedere, mortuum jussit humari, canem ve- 
ro deduci et curari diligenter. Paucis post diebus militum iustratio 
habetur. Transeunt singuli, sedente rege. Aderat canis. Is quum 

itura 2. pre-admonish. fabricor 1. tu make, mumceps, ipis, m. citizen of a 
free city ; 2) citizen, conjux, ugis,/. icife. abdo, didi, ditum 3. to conceal. 
demando J. to commit. Salaminium fretum, i, n. bay of Salamis. Halicar- 
nassus, i.f. city in Caria. muliebris, e, of a woman, cerneres, one might 
see. lones, um, m. lonians. paullatim, adv. gradually, subtraho, traxi, 
tractum 3. to withdraw, defectio, onis,/. desertion, trepidatio, onis,/. trepi- 
dation^ haste, mergo, mersi, mersum 3. to sink, saevitia, ae,/. cruelty. 

2. Praecipio, cepi, ceptum 3. to direct, praeterea, adv. besides, aliquo- 
ties, adv. several times, num forte non invitasti ? can it be possible that thou 
hast not invited. 

3. Assideo, sedi 2. to sit by. humo I. to bury, deduco, xi, ctum 3. to 
lead away. Iustratio, onis,/. rerieic. tacitus, a, um, fi^en^. percussor, oris, 


antea quietus et tacitus fuisset, simulac vidit, domini sui percussores 
transire, procurrit furens eosque allatravit, saepius se ad Pyrrhum con- 
vertens, ita quidem, ut non modo rex, sed omnes, qui aderant, suspi- 
cionem de iis conciperent. Ergo comprehensi et examinati, levibus 
quibusdam signis aliunde accedentibus, fassi caedem poenas dederunt. 

4. Archimedis mors. 
Captis Syracusis, quas Archimedes machinationibus suis mirificis diu 
defenderat, Marcellus, imperator Romaiius, gravissime edixit, ne quis 
Archimedi vim faceret. At is, dum animo et oculis in terra defixis, 
formas in pulvere describit, militi Romano, qui praedandi caussa in 
domum irruperat strictoque gladio, quisnara esset, interrogabat, propter 
nimium ardorem studii nihil respondet, nisi hoc : JVoli tubare drculos 
7M0S ! A milite igitur, ignaro, quis esset, intei-ficitur. 

5. Amicus itifidelis. 
Duo amici una iter faciunt atque, solitudinem peragrantes, ursum 
ingentem vident advenientem. Alter celeriter in arborem adscendit ; 
alter recordatus, illam bestiam Cadavera non attingere, nisi fame efFera- 
tam, humise pl'osternitanimamque continet, simulans seesse mortuum. 
Accedit ursus, contrectat jacentem, os suum ad hominis os et aures 
admovet et cadaver esse ratus discedit. Tunc ambo metu liberati in- 
ceptum iter persequuntur. Inter eundum autem interrogat is, qui in 
arborem adscenderat, alterum, quidnam ursus ei in aurem insusurrasset. 
Mijlta, inquit ille, quae non recordor ; sed imprimis hoc praeceptum 
dedit, ne quem pro amico haberem, cujus fidem ad verso tempore non 
«ssem expertus. 

6. Demosthenes. 
Demosthenes caussam orans quum judices parum attentos videret: 
Paullisper, inquit, aures mihi praebete : rem vobis novam et jucundam 
narrabo. Quum aures arrexissent : Juvenis, inquit, quispiam asinum 
conduxerat, quo Athenis Megaram profecturus uteretur. In itinere 
quum sol flagraret, neque esset umbraculum, deposuit clitellas et sub 

m. murderer, procurro, cucurri, cursum 3. to rush forth, furo 3. to rage. 
allatro 1. to bark at. suspicio, onis,/. suspicion. 

4. EdTco, xi, ctum 3. to give out command, vim facere, to inflict violence. 
forma, vie,f. figure. 

5. Infidelis, e, unfaithful, ursus, i, m. bear, effero 1. to render fierce. 
anima, ae,/. breath, contrecto 1. to handle, insusurro, io whisper. 

6. Arrigo, rexi, rectum 3. to prick up. conduco, xi, ctum 3. to take with ', 


asino consedit, cujus umbra tegeretur. Id vero agaso vetabat, claraaiis, 
asinum locatum esse, non umbram asini. Alter quum contra conten- 
deret, tandem in jus ambulant. Haec locutus Demosthenes, ubi hom- 
ines diligenter auscultantes vidit, abiit. Turn revocatus a judicibus 
rogatusque, ut reliquam fabulam enarraret : Quid ? inquit. De asini 
umbra licet audire ? caussam hominis de vita periclitantis non audietis ? 

7. Cyri mors. 
Postquam Asiam Cyrus subegit, Scythis bellum infert, quibus eo 
tempe Tomyris regina praeerat. Rex aliquantum in Scythia progres- 
sus, quasi refugiens, castra deseruit atque in iis vini affatim et quae 
epulis erant necessaria reliquit. Tum regina filium adolescentem 
tertia parte copiarum ad hostes insequendos misit ; is vero, rei militaris 
ignarus, omisit hostes et milites in castris Cyri vino se onerare patitur. 
Cyrus autem noctu redit omnesque Scythas cum ipso reginae filio in 
casti'is interficit. Sed Tomyris, poenam meditata, hostes, recenti vic- 
toria exsultantes, pari fraude decipit. Quippe simulato timore refu- 
giens Cyrum ad angustias pertraxit ibique in insidiis regem cum innu- 
merabilibus Persarum copiis occidit. Tum caput Cyri amputatum in 
utrem, sanguine humano repletum, conjecit, crudelitatem his verbis 
exprobrans: Satia te sanguine, quem sitisti, et quo nunquam satiari 
potuisti ! 

8. Androdi leo. (Cf. Gell. N. A. 5, 14, 5—30.) 
Romae in circo maximo venationis amplissimae pugna populo daba- 
tur. Multae ibi sa«vientes ferae erant ; sed praeter alia omnia leonum 
immanitas admirationi fuit, praeterque ceteros omnes eminebat unus. 
Is leo corporis impetu et ingenti magnitudine terribilique fremltu, toris 
comisque cervicum fluctuantibus, animos oculosque omnium in sese 
converterat. Introductus erat inter complures ceteros ad pugnam bes- 
tiarum servus viri consularis. Ei servo Androclus nomen fuit. Hunc 

2) to hire, umbraculum, n. shade, clitellae, arum, /. pack-saddle, agaso, 
onis, m. hostler, loco 1. to hire, enarro 1, to relate through, periclitor 1. 
to be in danger of. 

7. Aliquantum, ^0 some extent, refugio, fugi 3. to flee back, affatim, a^Zu. 
abundantly; affl vini, abundance of wine, insequor, secutus sum 3. <o pur- 
sue. recens, tis, recent. decTpio, cepi, ceplum 3. to deceive, pertraho, axi, 
actum 3. to draw, ampiito 1, to cut off. uter, utris, m. leather bag. 

8. Circus maximus, i, m. the Circus Maximus., a great race-course, im- 
manitas, atis, /. Aw^ewe^^. torus, i, m. protuberance ; 2) muscle, coma, ae, 
/. hair; 2) mane, cervix, icis,/. neck, fluctuor 1. to wave, introdaco, xi, 



ille leo ubi vidit procul, repente, quasi admirans, stetit ; ac deinde sen- 
sim atque placide tanquam exploratiirus ad hominem accedit ; turn 
caudam more adulantium canum clementer et blande movet hominis- 
que fere corpori adjungit cruraque ejus et manus prope jam exanimati 
metu lingua leniter demulcet Homo Androclus inter ilia tam atrocis 
ferae blandimenta amissum animum receperat ; pauUatim oculos ad 
contuendum leonem refert. Turn, quasi mutua recognitione facta, lae- 
tos et gratulabundos videres hominem et leonem. Ea re prorsus admi- 
rabili maximi a populo clamores excitantur, arcessiturque a Caesare 
Androclus, quaeriturque ex eo, cur ille atrocissimus leonum uni peper- 

Hie Androclus rem mirificam narrat atque admirandam. Quum pro- 
vinciam, inquit, Africam proconsulari imperio meus dominus obtineret, 
ego ibi iniquis ejus et quotidianis verberibus ad fugam sum coactus; 
et, ut mihi a domino terrae illius praeside tutiores latebrae essent, in 
camporum et arenarum solitudines concessi: ac, si defuisset cibus, 
consilium fuit mortem aliquo pacto quaerere. Tum, sole flagrante, 
specum quendam nactus remotum latebrosumque, in eum me recondo. 
Neqiie multo post ad eundem specum venit hie leo, debili uno et 
cruento pede, gemitus edens et murmura, dolorem cruciatumque vul- 
neris indicantia. Ac primum quideni conspectu advenientis leonis 
animus meus summo terrore impletur; sed postquam leo, introgressus 
in latibulum illud suum, vidit me procul delitescentem, mitis et man- 
suetus accessit : ac sublatum pedem ostendere et porrigere, quasi opis 
petendae gratia, visus est. Ibi, ego stirpem ingentem vestigio pedis 
ejus haerentem revelli conceptamque saniem vulnere intimo express! 
accuratiusque sine magna jam formidine siccavi pemtus atque detersi 
cruorem. Ille tunc mea opera et medicina levatus, pede in manibus 
meis posito, recubuit et quievit. Atque ex eo die triennium totum ego 
et leo in eodem specu eodemque victu viximus. Nam, quas venaba- 
tHr feras, membra opimiora ad specum mihi suggerebat: quae ego, 

'Ctum 3. to introduce, vir consularis, m. a man of consular rank, sensim, 
adv. by degrees, cauda, ae,/. tail, adjungo, xi, ctum 3. to join to. demul- 
ceo, mulsi, mulsum 2. to soothe ; 2) to lick, blandimentum, i, n. caressing. 
inutuiis, a, um, mutual, recognitio, onis, /. recognition, gratulabundus, a, 
um, congratulating. Hie, here, proconsulare imperium, n. proconsular pow- 
er, latebrae, arum,/, lurking places, arena, ae,/. sand, latebrosus, a, um, 
full of lurking places, recondo, idi, itum 3. to conceal, introgredior, gres- 
sus sum 3. to enter, latibulum, i, n. den. delitesco, tui 3. to conceal one's 
self, mansuetus, a, um, tame, ostendo, di, sum 3. to shoio. porrigo, rexi, 
rectum 3. to extend, vestigium, i, n. sole, revello, elli, ulsum 3. to tear out. 
sanies, ei,/. bloody matter . formido, in\s, f. fear, sugggro, gessi, gestura 3. 


ignis copiam non habens, sole meridiano torrens edebam. Sed ubi 
me vitae illius ferinae jam pertaesum est, leone in venatum profecto, 
rellqui specum : et, viam fere tridui permensus, a militibus visus com- 
prehensusque sum et ad dominum ex Africa Romam deductus. Is me 
statim rei capitalis damnandum dandumque ad bestias curavit. Intel- 
ligo autem hunc quoque leonem, me tunc separate, captum gratiam 
mihi nunc etiam beneficii et medicinae referre. Itaque, cunctis peten- 
tibus, dimissus est Androclus et poena solutus, leoque et suffragiis 
populi donatus. 

9. Somnium mirum. 

Quum duo quidam Arcades familiares iter una facerent et Megaram 
venissent, alter ad cauponem devertit ; ad hospitem alter. Qui ut 
coenati quieverunt, concubia nocte visus est in somnis ei, qui erat in 
hospitio, ille alter orare, ut subveniret, quod sibi a caupone interltus 
pararetur : is primus perterritus somnio surrexit; dein, quum se col- 
legisset idque visum pro nihilo habendum esse duxisset, recubuit ; turn 
ei dormienti idem ille visus est rogare, ut, quoniam sibi vivo non sub- 
venisset, mortem suam ne inultam esse pateretur ; se interfectum in 
plaustrum a caupone esse conjectum, et supra stercus injectum: pe- 
tere, ut mane ad portam adesset, priusquam pl&ustrum ex oppido ex- 
iret. Hoc vero somnio is commotus mane bubulco praesto ad portam 
fuit ; quaesivit ex eo, quid esset in plaustro : ille perterritus fugit ; mor- 
tuus erutus est : caupo, re patefacta, poenas dedit. — C. Div. 1. 27, 57. 

10. Cleobis et Bito. Tropftonlus et Aga/medes. 

Argiae sacerdotis, Cleobis et Bito, filii, praedicantur. Nota fabula 
est. Quum enim illam ad sollenne et statum sacrificium curru vehi 
jus esset satis longe ab oppido ad fanum, morarenturque jumenta ; 
tunc juvenes ii, quos modo nominavi, veste posita, corpora oleo perun- 
xerunt: ad jugum accesserunt. Ita sacerdos advecta in fanum, quum 
currus esset ductus a filiis, precata a dea dicitur, ut illis praemium 
daret pro pietate, quod maxifnum homini dari posset a deo. Post, 

to bring, sol meridianus, m, midday sun. ferinus, a, um, wild, me per- 
taesum est alicujus rei, / had become very tired of, (from pertaedet). perme- 
tior, mensus sum 4. to pass over, rei capitalis damnare, to condemn for a 
capital offence. sufFraglum, i, re. potsherd ; 2) vote, voice. 

9. Caupo, onis, ?«. inn-keeper, devertor, ti, 3. to put up. concubia nocte, 
dead of night, hospitium, i, n. hospitality, supra, adv. upon that, bubulcus, 
i, m. teamster. 

10. Arglus, a, um, Argive. solennis,e, customary, solemn, status, a, um, 


epulatos cum matre adolescentes somno se dedisse, mane inven- 
tos esse mortuos. — Simili precatione Trophonius et Agamedes usi di- 
cuntur: qui, quum Apollini Delphis templum exaedificavissent, ve- 
nerantes deum, petierunt mercedem non parvam quidem operis et la- 
boris sui, nihil certi, sed quod esset optimum homini. Quibus Apollo 
se id daturum ostendisse dicitur post ejus diei diem tertium : qui ut 
illuxit, mortui sunt reperti. — C. Tusc. 1. 47, 113, 114. 

11. Dolus Pythii. 

C. Canius, eques Romanus, quum se Syracusas otiandi (ut ipse di- 
cere solebat), non negotiandi caussa, contulisset, dictitabat, se hortulos 
aliquos velle em ere, quo invitare amicos, et ubi se oblectare sine inter- 
pellatoribus posset. Quod quum percrebuisset, Pythius ei quidam, 
qui argentariam faceret Syracusis, dixit venales quidem se hortos non 
habere, sed licere uti Canjo, si vellet, ut suis : et simul ad coenam 
hominem in hortos invitavit in posterum diem. Quum ille promisis- 
set, tum Pythius, qui esset ut argentarius apud omnes ordines gi*atio- 
sus, piscatores ad se convocavii et ab iis petivit, ut ante suos hortulos 
postridie piscarentur : dixitque, quid eos facere vellet. Ad coenam 
tempore venit Canius : opipare a Pythio apparatum convivium : cym- 
barum ante occulos multitudo : pro se quisque quod ceperat, afFerebat : 
ante pedes Pythii pisces abjiciebantur. Tum Canius : Quaeso, inquit, 
quid est hoc, Pythi? tantumne piscium, tantumne cymbarum? Et 
ille : Quid mirum ? inquit. Hoc loco est, Syracusis quicquid est pis- 
cium : hie aquatio : hac villa isti carere non possunt. Incensus Canius 
cupiditate contendit a Pythio, ut venderet. Gravate ille primo. Quid 
multa ? impetrat. Emit homo cupidus et locuples tanti, quanti Pythius 
voluit, et emit instructos : negotium conficit Invitat Canius postridie 
familiares suos ; venit ipse mature : scalmum nullum videt. Quaerit 
ex proximo vicino, num feriae quaedam piscatorum essent, quod eos 
nuUos videret ? Nullae, quod sciam, inquit ille, sed hie piscari nuUi 

stated, sacrificium, i, 71. 5/icr«/ice. ']vxmer\\.wrc\^\.n. beast of burden, peiun- 
go, xi, ctura 3. to anoint, precatio, onis, /. prayer. exaedifico 1. to build. 
11. C=Caius. oi\or I. to be unoccupied, hortulus, i, m. a little garden ; 
2) small country house, interpellator, oris, m. disturber, percrebesco, cre- 
bui, to become known, argentaria, ae,/. banking ; argentariam facere, to fol- 
low banking. vendXis., for sale, qui esset, since he was. gratiosus, a, um, be- 
loved, opipare, adv. splendidly. appSro 1. to prepare, pro se quisque, each 
for himself. abjTcio, eci, ectum 3. to cast down, tantumne piscium ^ so many 
fish? aquatio, onis, /. watering -place, villa, ae, country-seat, scalmus, i, 
m.thowl; 2) boat. qviodsc\dimyas far as I know. sioma.cha.Ti, to be indignant. 
The Infin. here stands for stomachatur. formula, ae,/. legal form. 


soleut. Itaque lieri mirabar, quid accidisset. Stomachari Canius. 
Sed quid faceret ? nondum enim Aquillius protulerat de dolo malo 
formulas.— C. Off. 3. 14, 58—60. 

12. Ardtus. 

Aratus Sicyonius jure laudatur, qui, quum ejus civitas quinquaginta 
aiinos a tyrannis tenerelur, profectus Argis Sicyonem, clandestino in- 
troitu urbe est potitus, quumque tyrannum Nicoclem improviso oppres- 
sisset, sexcentos exsQles, qui fuerant ejus civitatis locupletissimi, res- 
tituit, remqiie publicam adveutu suo liberavit. Sed quum magnam 
animadverteret in bonis et possessionibus difficultatem, quod et eos, 
quos ipse restituerat, quorum bona alii possederant, egere iniquissimum 
arbitrabatur, et quinquaginta annorum possessiones moveri non nimis 
aequum putabat, propterea quod tarn longo spatio multa hereditatibus, 
multa emptionibus, multa dotibus tenebantur sine injuria : judicavit, 
neque illis admi, nee iis non satisfieri, quorum ilia fuerant, oportere. 
Quum igitur statuisset, opus esse ad earn rem constituendam pecunia, 
Alexandrlam se proficisci velle dixit, remque integram ad reditum 
suum jussit esse : isque celeriter ad Ptolemaeum, suum hospitem, ve- 
nit, qui tum regnabat alter post Alexandriam conditam. Cui quum ex- 
posuisset, patriam se liberare velle, caussamque docuisset ; a rege op- 
ulento vir summus facile impetravit, ut grandi pecunia adjuvaretur. 
Quam quum Sicyonem attulisset, adhibuit sibi in consilium quindecim 
principes, cum quibus caussas cognovit et eorum, qui aliena tenebant, 
et eorum, qui sua amiserant : perfecitque aestimandis possessionibus, 
ut persuaderet aliis, ut pecuniam accipere mallent, possessionibus ce- 
derent; aliis, ut commodius putarent, numerari sibi, quod tanti esset, 
quam suum recuperare. Ita perfectum est, ut omnes, concordia con- 
stituta, sine querela discederent. O virum magnum dignumque, qui 
in nostra republica natus esset ! — C. Off. 2. 23, 81, 82. 

12. Sicyonius, Sicyonian, (from Sicyon, a city of Achaia). Argi, orum, 
m. Jlrgos^ chief city of Arorolis. clandestinus, a, um, secret, improviso, adv. 
unexpectedly, possideo, sedi, sessum 2. to possess, hereditas, atis,/. inheri- 
tance, satisfacio, feci, factum 3. to make satisfaction. expono,posui,positum 
3. to explain. 


The numbers 1 , 2, 3, 4 written after the verbs, denote the conjugation 
which they follow : the numerals, which are introduced in § 33, and the pre- 
positions which are introduced in § 34, are omitted. The adjectives of three 
endings in us., o, mw, instead of their endings have the figure 3 after them. 

A. absumo, sumpsl, sump- accuse 1. to complain of, 

Abduco, xi, ctum 3. turn 3. to consume. accuse. 

to lead away, draw abundo, 1. c. abl. to acer, eris, n. maple-tree. 

away. have an abundance of, acer, cris, ere, sharp, 

abSo, li, itum A. to go a6oMnc?m( something). zealous, fierce. 

away, depart. abutor, usus, sum 3. c. acerbus 3. bitter, pun- 

abhorreo, ui 2. ah. c. abl. to use up; 2) gent. 

abl. to shun, to have abuse. Achilles, is, m. Achilles. 

a strong aversion (to ac, conj. (never before acies, ei, /. edge ; 'z) 

something). a vow^el or h), and ; as. line-of-battle. 

abigo, egi, actum 3. to Academia, /. Academy, acriter, adv. spiritedly. 

drive away. accedo, cessi, cessum actio, onis,/. action. 

abominor 1. <o ea:ecra<e. S. to approach. aciio, m,utumS. to shar- 

abrlpio, ripui, reptum accelero 1. to hasten. pen. 

3. to take away, carry accendo, di, sum, 3. to acus, us, f. needle. 

off. enkindle, inflame. acute, adv. sharply, ac- 

absens, tis, absent. acceptus 3. received. utely. 

absolve, vi, utum 3. to accidit 3. it happens. acutus 3. sharp, pointed, 

complete, 2) to dis- accipio, cepi, ceptum 3. acute. 

charge. to take, receive. adaequo 1. to level to. 

abstergeo, si, sum, 2. <o accommodatus 3. c. dat. adamas, antis, m. dia- 

wipe off, take away, filed to, suited to. mond. 

remove. accresco, evi, etum 3. addictus 3. devoted to. 

abstinens, tis, temperate. to increase, to aug- addo, dldi, ditum 3. to 
abstineo, tinui, tentum ment. join to, add. 

2. to keep off; 2) c. accubo, bui, bitum 1, to adduco, xi, ctum 3. to 

abl. to abstain, (from recline by, to sit {at bring to, induce. 

something). table). adeo, adv. so much, so 

absum, fui, esse, to be accurate, adv. accurate- very. 

absent, to be removed; ly,Jully. adeo, ii, itum 4. to come 

nihil abest, (non accuratus 3. exact. to, approach. 

multum) abest, quin, accurro, cucurri, cur- adhibeo 2. to apply, he- 
it wants nothing [not sum 3. to run up, to stow, give. 

much), that. hasten up. adhuc, adv. as yet, stiU. 


adjac^o, iii 2. c. dat. to adsum, fui, esse c. dat. aequus 3. just, equal ; 

lie upon, hy, near (a to he present at (some- aequus animus, equa- 

thing). thing), to he present. nimity. 

adimo, emi, emtum 3. adulatio, 6nis,/.^a<<en/. aerumna, ae,/ Wcfe^ip. 

to take, take away. adulor 1. c. dat. to fiat- aes, aeris, n. hrass. 

adipiscor, adeptus sum ter. Aeschlnes, is, m. MscM- 

3. to obtain. adulterinus 3. false, nes. 

aditus, us, m. approach. counterfeit. aestas, atis, /. summer. 

adjutor, oris, m. assis- aduro, ussi, ustum 3. aestlrao 1. to value, es- 

tant. to set on fire, hum. teem. 

adjuvo, uvi, utum 1. c. advenio, veni, ventum aestivus 3. pertaining to 

ace. to aid, assist, sup- 4. to come to, arrive. summer ; aestivum 

port. [hie. advento 1. to approach. tempus, summer sea- 

admirabilis, e, admira- ad\entus,us, m. arrival. son. 

admiratio, onis,/. admi- adversarius, i, m. oppo- aetas, atis, f age, period. 

ration. nent. aeternitas, atis, /. eter- 

admiror 1. to admire. adversus, 3. placed nity. 

admisceo, iscui, istum against, contrary, op- aeteinus 3. eternal. 

or ixtum 2. to inter- posite ; res adversae, afFabilitas, atis, /. afi^a- 

mingle. adversity. hility. 

admodum, adv. very. adverto, ti, sum 3. to afFero, attuli, allatum 3. 

admoneo 2. to admjon- turn to. to hear to, hring. 

ish. advolo 1. to hasten to. afflcio, eci, ectum 3. to 

admoveo, movi, motum aedes, is, /. temple ; pi. affect ; Part. afFectus 

2. c. dat. to hring up house. 3. affected. 

to. aedificium, i, n. edifice, affinltas, atis,/. relation- 

adnitor, nixus or nisus aedifico build. ship. 

sum 3. to endeavor. aedilis, is, m. Edile. afflicto 1. to afiiict. 

adolescens,tis,m.t/0Mng- aeger, gra, grum, sick, affluenter, adv. abun- 

man, youth, young. aegritudo, inis, /. sick- dantly. 

adolescentulus, i, wi. ness, sorrow. affluentia, ae, /. abun- 

young man, youth. aegre, adv. reluctantly, dance. 

adolesco, adolevi, adul- with difficulty ; aegre afffiio, uxi, uxum 3. to 

turn 3. to grow up. fero, to he dissatisfied, fiow to ; overflow, have 

ador, oris, n. wheat. aegrotus, 3. sick. an abundance. 

adorior, ortus sum 4. aemulor 1. c. ace. to affulgeo, si 2. to shine. 

to attack, undertake. emulate. Afranius, i. m. Afra- 

adorno 1. to put in or- Aeneas, ae, m. Mneas. nius. 

der, adorn. aenigma,atis,n. emg?na. Africanus, i, to. Africa- 

adscendo, di, sum 3. aequalis, e, equal. nus. 

to ascend. aeque — atque (ac), in Agamemno, onis, m. 

adscisco, ivi, itum 3. like manner — as. Agamemnon. 

to adopt, receive. aequiparo 1. to equal. ager, gri, m. field, land. 

adspicio, exi, ectum 3. aquitas, atis,/ equity. Agesilaus, i, m. Agesi- 

to look upon, discover, aequo 1. to equal. laus. 
adstringo, inxi, ictum 3. aequor, oris, n. surface, agger, eris, to. rampart. 

to draw up tight ; 2\ espec. : surface of aggredior, gressus sum 

hind, to make binding. the sea. 3. rem, to approach, 


begin something ; 2) alius — alius, one, an- amplus 3. bruad liber- 
attack, other. al, magnificent. 
agmen, inis, n. band, allicio, exi, ectum 3. amussis, is,/, a rtde (of 

Jlock. to allure. mechanics), 

agnosco, novi, nitum 3. alligo 1. to fasten, tie an, (in questions) or. 

recognize. up. anas, atis, /. a duck. 

ago, egi, actum 3. to Allobroges, um, m. Al- anceps, cipitis, twofold, 

drive, make, do, pass ; lobroges. double, doubtful. 

agere annum, to be in alloquor, cutus sum 3. Anchises, ae, m. An- 

the year ; age, come to address. chises. 

on. alo, alui, (alltum) 3. to apcilla, ae,/. a maid. 

agricola, ae, m. husband- nourish. ancillaris, e, pertaining 

man, farmer. aloe, es,/ th^aloe. to a maid, sei-vile. 

Ajax, acis, m. Ajax. Alpes, ium,/ Alps. ango, xi, 3. to trouble. 
aio, I say, say yes, assert, alter, era, erum, the one angor, oris, m. vexation. 

affirm. or other of tivo. angulus, i, m. an angle, 

alacer, ens, ere, spirited, alteruter, utra, utrum, angustiae, arum,/. ?iar- 

lively. one of the two. row pass. 

Albis, is, m. the Elbe. altitudo, inis, /. height, angustus 3. narrow. 
albus 3. white. depth. animadverto, ti, sum 3. 

Alcibiades, is, m. Aid- altus 3. high, deep. to observe, perceive. 

biades. alvus, i,/. belly. animal, alis, n. animal. 

Alexander, dri, m. Alex- amabllis, e, amiable. animus, i, m. soul, spirit, 

ander. amarus 3. bitter. mind, heart, courage. 

Alexandria, ae, Alexan- amblo, ivi, itum 4. to annulus, i, m. a ring. 

dria. go around (some- annus, i, m. a year. 

algeo, si 2. to feel cold, thing), surround. anser, eris, m. a goose. 

freeze. ambo, ae, o, both. ante, adv. before. 

alias, adv. at another ambulatio, onis, / a antea, adv. before. 

time. walk. antecedo, cessi, cessum 

alicunde, adv.from some ambulo 1. to go to walk, 3. c. dat. or ace. to go 

place or other. to stroll. before, be superior to 

alienigena, ae, m. stran- amicitia, ae, / friend- (some one). 

ger from another coun- ship. antepono, posui, posl- 

try. amicus, i, m. friend. turn 3. to prefer. 

alienus 3. foreign, an- amitto, misi, missum 3. antequam, conj. before 

other^s. to lose. that, ere, before. 

aliquamdiu, adv. a long amnis, is, m. river. Antiochia, ae,/ Antioch. 

time. amo 1. to love. antiqultas, atis, / an- 

aliquando, adv. some amoenus 3. pleasant (of tiquity. 

time. countries), agreeable, antiqultus, adv. ancient- 

aliquis, a, id or aliqui, a, amor, oris, m. love. ly, formerly. 

od, some one. amplexor 1. to embrace, AnUstius, i,m. Antistius. 

aliquot [indecl.), some. cherish. Antonius, i, m. Antony. 

aliter, adv. otherwise. amplitude, inis, / au- anus, us, / old ivoman. 
aliunde, adv. from an- thority, dignity. anxie, adv. anxiously. 

other source, place. ampllus, adv. more, fur- aper, pri, m. boar, wild 
alius, a, ud, another ; ther. boar. 


aperio, rui, rtum 4. to arcus, us, m. a bow. assidiius 3. unremitting^ 

openj (caput) to un- ardenter, adv. glowing- persevering. 

cover ; apertus 3. ly, ardently. assuefacio, fbci, factum 

open. ardeo, si, sum 2. to 3. c. dat. to accustom 

aperte, adv. openly. burn, glow. to. 

apex, icis, m. summit. ardor, oris, m. keat, de- assuesco, evi, etum 3. 
apis, is,f. a bee. sire. c. dat. or abl. to dc- 

Apollo, inis, m. Apollo, area, ae, f. open space. custom one's self to, 
ApoUonia, ae, /. Apol- argenteus 3. of silver. be accustomed to 

Ionia. [evident, argentum, i, n. silver ; (something), 

appareo 2. to appear^ be arg. vivum, quicksil- Assyria, ae,/. Assyria. 
appello 1. to call. ver. astutia, ae,/ cunning, 

appeto, ivi, itum 3. to Argo, us,/ theArgo. at, conj. but, yet. 

strive to obtain. argumentum, i, n. con- Athenae,arum J". Athens. 

appetens, ntis, c. gen. tents. Atheniensis, e, Atkerii- 

eager for something. Aristides, is, m. Aristi- ian ; subst. an Athe- 
appetitus, us, m. desire. des. nian. 

applaudo, si, sum 3. c. Aristoteies, is, m. Aris- Atlas, antis, m. Atlas. 

dat to applaud. totle. atque, conj. and, as. 

applico 1. to rest upon ; arma, orum, n. arms. atrox, 6cis,/erce, violent., 

se applicare, to ap- aro 1. to plough. frightful, bloody. 

proach, join one^s self Arpinas, atis, m. inhab- attendo, di, tum 3. to 

to (some one)j apply itant of Arpinum. attend to, give (dkti- 

one^s self to (some- arrideo, si, sum 2. c. tion. 

thing). dat. to smile upon. attente, adv. attentively. 

aj)pdno, posui, positum ars, tis,/ art. attentus 3. attentive. 

3. to place by, before, artifex, icis, skilful ; attero, trivi, tritum 3. 
approbo 1. to approve. subst. artist. to impair, exhaust. 

appropinquo 1. to ap- artus, us, m. joint, limb. Atticus 3. Attic, inhab- 

proach. Aruns, ntis, m. Aruns. itant of Attica. 

Aprilis, is, m. April. arvum, i, n. a ploughed Atticus, i, m. Atticus. 
aptus 3. c. dat. or ad c. feld. attingo, igi, actum 3. 

ace, ft, ftted. arx, cis,/ citadel. to touch. 

aqua, ae,/ water. as, assis, m. an as (a auctor, oris, m. author, 

aratrum, i, n. a plough. Roman copper coin.) adviser ; me auctore, 
arbitror 1. to think, to ascendo, di, sum 3. to upon my advice. 

account (one some- ascend, mount. auctoritas, atis, / au- 

thing). ascensus, us, m. ascent. thority. 

arbor, oris,/ a tree. asinus, i, m. an ass. audacla, ae, / self con- 
arcanum, i. n. a secret, asper, era, erum, rough, fdence. [bold. 
Areas, adis, m. an Ar- aspernor 1. to spurn. audax, acis, confident, 

cadian. asporto ] . to carry away, aud^o, ausus sum 2. to 

arceo, ui 2. to keep off. assentior, sensus sum dare, venture. 
arcesso, ivi, itum 3. to 4. c. dat. to assent to. audio 4. to hear. 

send for, bring. assequor, secutus sum auditor, oris, m. hearer. 

Archias, ae, m. Archias. 3. to attain. auffero, abstuH, ablatum 

Archimedes, is, m. Ar- assido, edi, essum 3. 3. to take away, bear 

chimedes. to sit doum. away. 


augeo, xi, ctiim 2. to beate, adv. peacefully, buris, is, /. a plough- 
increase, enrich. beatus 3. peaceful, hap- tail. 

augurium, i, n. augury, py. buty rum, i, n. butter, 

divination. bellum, i, n. war. 

auguror ] . to divine, pre- bellus 3. hecmtiful, neat. C. 

did. bene, adv. well, rightly. Cachinnatlo, onis, f. 

Augustus, i, m. Augus- benedico 3. c. dat. to loud, unrestrained 
tus. praise. laugh. 

Siuisi, ae, f. court. beneficentia, ae, / 6e- cacumen, inis, n. to;?. 

aureus 3. golden. ne/icence. cadaver, eris, n. carcass, 

Aureus, i, m. Aureus beneficium, i, n. kind- corpse. 

(mountain). ness, favour. cado, cecidi, casum 3. 

auris, is,/, the ear. beneficus 3. beneficent. to fall, happen. 

aurum, i, n. gold. benevole, adv. kindly, caducus 3. ready to fall, 

ausculto 1. to listen. benevolentia, ae, f be- falling. 

ausplcor 1. to commence. nevolence. caecus 3. blind. 

aut, conj. or; aut — ^aut, benignus 2. kind. caedes, is,/, slaughter, 

either — or. bestia, ae,/. beast. caedo, cecidi, caesum 

autem, conj. but (takes bestiola, ae, /. a little 3. to fell, to kill. 
the second place in animal. caerimonia, ae, / cere- 

its sentence). bibliotheca, ae, /. li- mony. 

autumnus, i, m. axdumn. brary. Caesar, aris, m. Caesar ; 

auxilium, i, n. aid; pi. bibo, bibi, bibitum 3. 2) an emperor. 

auxiliary troops. to drink. [bodied. Caius Marius, Caius 

avaritia, ae,/. avarice, bicorpor, oris, double- Marius. 

avarus 3. c. gen. ava- bidiium, i, n. the space calamitas, atis,/.caZam- 
ricious, covetous, gree- of two days. . ity, loss, misfortune, 

dy. bilis, is, f the gall. calcar, aris, n. a spur. 

aversor 1. to shun. blande, adv. gently. calculus, i, m. pebble. 

averto, ti, sum 3. to blandior, itus sum 4. to caleo 2. to be warm, 
turn away, to avert. fatter. caligo, inis, f darkness. 

avidus 3. c. gen. desir- bombyx, ycis, m. the calix, icis, m. a cup. 
ous, greedy. silk worm. callidus 3. cunning. 

avis, is,/, a bird. bonitas, atis, / good- Callisthenes, is, m. Cal- 

avoco 1. to call off. ness. listhenes. 

avolo 1. tojly away. bonus 3. g-oorf ; bonum, calor, oris, m. heat. 

avus, j, m. a grandfa- i, n. the good, good, calyx, ycis, m. the bud. 
ther. Boreas, ae, m. Boreas, camelus, i, m. camel. 

axis, is, m. an axle. north udnd. campus, i, m. a plain. 

bos, ovis, c. ox, cow. canalis, is, m. a caned. 
B. brevis, e, short ; brevi, canis, is, c. a dog. 

Babylon, onis,/ Baby- (sc. tempore), in a cannabis, is,/ hemp. 
Ion. short time, soon. cano, cecini, cantum 3. 

Bactra, orum,n. Badra. Britannus, i, m. a Bri- to sing. 

barba, ae,/ beard. ton. canto 1. to sing. 

barbarus 3. barbarian. Brundusiixni/i. n.Brun- cantus, us, m. song. 

basis, is, / foundation, dusium. Canusium, i, n. Canu- 

Brutus, i, m. Brutus. sium. 


capesso, ivi, itum 3. to to he on one's guard, circumdo, d6di, datura, 

seize ; proelium, to ab aliquo, before some dare, to place around, 

commence battle. one ; 2) establish, pro- surround, (c. dat. of 

capillus, i, m. the hair. vide. [to give way. pers. and ace. of 
capio, cepi, captum 3. cede, cessi, cessum 3. thing,orc.acc.ofpers. 

to take, seize, capture, celeber, bris, bre, fre- and abl. of thing), 
capra, ae,/, she-goat. quented. , circumeo (circueo), li, 

capto 1. to catch, strive celebrltas, atis, /. great itum 4. to go around. 

to catch. number, great multi- circumsedeo, sedi, ses- 

caput, itis, n.head, chap- tude. sum 2. to sit around, 

ter, chief city. celebro 1. to celebrate. besiege. 

carbasus, i,f.Jlax. celer, eris, ere, swift. circumspicio, spexi, 

career, eris, m. a pmon. celeritas, SiXis, f. celerity, spectum 3. (c. ace.) 
cardo, inis, m. hinge. swiftness. to look around (after 

careo 2. c. abl. to want, eelerlter adv. sudftly. something). 

Caria, ae,/. Caria. celo 1. e. dupl. aec. to eircumsto, 6ti 1. to 

caritas, atis, /. love. conceal. stand around. 

carmen, inis,/ poem. censeo, sui, sum 2. to cito, adv. quickly, 
csoco, ca.Yms,f.fesh. vatv£, account, think, eivilis, e, cim/ ; bellum 

Carolus, i, m. Charles. Centaurus, i, m. a Cen- civile, civil war. 
carpentarius i, m. wheel- taur. civis, is, c. citizen, suh- 

unight. cerasum, i, n. cherry. ject. 

Carthago, inis, /. Car- cerasus, i,/ cherry-tree, civitas, atis, /. dtizen- 

thage. Ceres, eris,/. Ceres. ship, state; 2) right 

Carthaginiensis, is, m. eerno, crevi, cretum 3. of citizenship. 

a Carthaginian. to see, judge. [test, elades, is,/, defeat. 

earus 3. beloved, dear. eertamen, inis, n. con- clamo '[.to cry out. 
casa, ae,/. a hut. certe, adv. surely. clamor, oris, m. a cry. 

cassis, idis,/. helmet. certo, 1. to contend. clare, adv. clearly, cm- 
cassis, is (commonly certo, adv. surely. dently. [ed. 

pi. casses, ium), ?». certus 3. sure, certain, clarus 3. clear, renown- 

hunter^s net. definite, positive. classis, is, f feet. 

Cassius, i, m. Cassius. eervus, i, m. stag. claudo, si, sum 3. to 

eastigo 1. to reprove. ceteri, ae, a, the rest. close. 

castra, orum, n. camp, chalybs, y bis, m. steel, clausus 3. closed. 
casus, us, m. fall, mis- chorda, ae,/. string. rlavis, is,/, key. 

fortune, chance. Christus, i. m. Christ, elemens, tis, mild. 

catena, ae,/ chain. cibus, i, elementer, adv, mildly. 

Catilina, ae, m. Catiline, cicer, eris, n. chick-pea. Cleomenes, is, m. Cleo- 
caulis, is, m. cabbage. Cicero, onis, m. Cicero. menes. 
Cato, onis, m. Cato. ciconia, ae,/. stork. Clitus, i, m. Clitus. 
caussa, ae, /. ground, cicur, uris, tame. Clodius, i. m. Clodius. 

cause, civil process ; cieo, ivi, itum 2. to raise, clypeus, i, m. shield. 

(with a gen. preced- cingo, xi, ctum 3. to coactor, oris, m. collec- 

ing) on account of. gii'd, surround. tor. 

cautus 3. cautious, care- cinis, eris, m. ashes. coalesco, lui, litum 3. 

ful. cireulus, i, m. circle, cir- to grow together, to 

caveo, cavi, cautum 3. cuit. coalesce. 


coaxo 1. to croak. to attend to, cultivate, comperio, peri, pertum 

cochlea, ae,/. a snail. revere, honor. 1. to ascertain, 

codex, Ic'is, m. book. co\oma, ae,f. colony. compea, ed\s,f. a fetter. 
codicilli, orura, m. writ- color, oris, m. color. complector, exus sum 

ing-tahlet. columba, ae,/. dove. 3. to embrace. 

coelestis, e, heavenly. colus, \,f. distaff. compleo, evi, etum 2. 

coelum, i, n. heaven. comburo, ussi, ustum toJiU. 
coena, ae,/. a meal. 3. to hum up, hum. complico, avi, atum 1. 

coeno 1. to partake of comedo, edi, esum 3. to fold together ; corn- 
food ; coenatus 3. to eat, consume. plicatus 3. involved. 

having eaten. cometes, ae, m. comet, compliires, a or ia, gen. 

coepi, pisse, to have be- comicus 3. comic ; poe- ium, very many. 

gun. tsi comicus, comic poet, compono, sui, sltum 3. 

coerceo 2. to restrain, comis, e, courteous. to put together, dis- 

cogitatio, onis,/ re/kc- comitas, atis, / kind- pose; pacem, to es- 

tion. ness. tahlish peace ; se 

cogitato, adv. ivith re- comitia, orum, n. as- comp. in aliquid, to 

Jlection. sembly of the people. set one's self right. 

cogito 1. to think, con- comltor 1. to accompa- compos, otis, c. gen. 

»irfcr. ny. powerful, possessed of. 

cognitio, onis, / know- commemoro 1. to men- compositus 3. composed. 

ledge. tion. comprehend©, di, sum 

cognitus 3. known. commendatio, onis, /. 3. to seize. 

cognosco, novi, mtum commendation. compungo, xi, ctum 3. 

3. to become acquaint- commendo 1. to recom- to prick. 

ed until, perceive, un- mend. concedo, essi, essum 3. 

derstand. committo, misi, mis- to allow, confess, 2) to 

cogo, coegi, coactum 3. sum 3. to commit to ; surrender one's self. 

to compel. 2) to commit. concilio 1. to concUiaie, 

cohaereo, si, sum 2. to commoditas, atis,/. con- unite. 

hold together. venience. concino, inui, entum 3. 

cohors, tis./. co^r^. commodum, i, n. ad- to sing together, sound 
cohortor 1. to encourage, vantage, use. together. 

incite. commodus S.convenient. concionor 1. to ha- 

colligo, egi, ectum 3. commonefacio, feci, rangue the people. 

to collect. factum 3. to remind, concipio, cepi, ceptum 

collis, is, m. a hSll. coramoneo 2. to remind, 3. to conceive, receive ; 

colloco 1. in c. abl. to admonish. suspicionem, conceive 

place in, bestow upon commoveo 2. to move. a suspicion. 

something. communis, e, common, concito 1. to excite, raise. 

colloquium, i, n. con- known by all. conclamo 1. to call out. 

ference. commutatio, onis, /. concludo, si, sum 3. to 

colloquor, locutus sum change. include. 

S. to converse. como, compsi, comp- concordia, ae. /. harmo- 

collum, i, n. neck. tum 3. to comb, adorn. my. 

collustro 1. to illumi- comoedia, ae,/. comedy, concresco, crevi, cre- 

nate. comparo 1. to prepare, tum 3. to grow to- 

colo, colui, cultum 3. acquire. gether. 


concupisco, pivi, pitum congrego 1. to assemble. conservatio,6nis,/.p'C- 

3. to desire. conjicio jeci, jectum 3. servation. 

condemno 1. to con- to throw ; in piido- conservator, oris, m ; 

demn ; capiiis,to death. rem coniic'i, to be dis- conservatrix, icis, /. 

condimentum, i. n. seers- graced. preserver, 

oning. conjugo, ]. to unite. conservo 1. to preserve. 

condio 4. to season. conjungo, nxi, nctumS. considero 1. to consider. 

condiscipulus, i, m.fel- to join. consido, edi, essum 3. 

low-student. conjuratio, 6nis,y! con- to sit down. 

conditio, onis,/. condi- spiracy. consigno 1. to note^ 

lion. conjuratus 3. conspired^ point out. 

condo, idi, itum 3. to a conspirator. consilium, i, n. counsel^ 

preserve, conceal, connecto, exui, exum 3. deliberation, purpose, 

found. to connect. plan, wisdom. 

confectio, onis, /. mak- Cono, onis, m. Conon. consolatlo, onis, /. con- 
ing, composing. conor 1. to undertake, soling, consolation. 

confero, contuli, colla- venture, try. consolor 1. to console. 

turn 3. to bring to- conquiesco, evi, etum 3. consors, tis c. gen. par- 

gether, join, compare, in c. abl. to find taking of. 

2) to confer (e. g. fa- consolation in some- conspectus, us, m. sight. 

vors) ; se conferre, thing, conspergo, rsi, rsum 3. 

to betake one's self. consanesco, nui 3. to to besprinkle, strew. 

conficio, feci, fectum become well. conspicio, exi, ectum 3. 

3. to perform, con- couscendo, di, sum, 3. to discover, 

dude ; 2) to impair, to mount up, to as- conspicor 1. to discover, 

consume. cend. see. [cimus. 

confido, Isus sum 3, c. conscientia, ae, / con- conspicuus 3. conspi- 

dat. or abl. to trust to, sdousness, conscience, constanter, adv. with 

confide in. consclus 3. c. gen. con- constancy, constantly. 

confirmo 1. to confirm. scious of constantia, ae, /. stead- 

confiteor, fessus sum consector 1. to pursue. fastness. acknowledge, con- consenesco, nui 3. to consterno, stravi, stra- 
ps, grow old. tum 3. to strew. 

confligo, xi, ctum 3. to consensus, us, m. agree- constituo, ui, utum 3. 

fight. ment. to establish, determine, 

confluo, xi, xum 3. to consentaneus 3. suited constitute, 

fiow together. to. consto, iti, atum 1. c. 

confodio, odi, ossum 3. consentio, nsi, nsum 4. abl. or ex c. abl. to 

to stab. to agree with. consist of; to cost ; 

conformo 1. to form. consequor, secutus sum constat, it is known. 

confringo, fregi, frac- 3. to follow, to attain, constringo, inxi, ictum 

tum 3. to break in consero, rui, rtum 3. 3. to draw togetlier, 

pieces. to join together ; ma- bind together. 

congero, essi, estum 3. num cum aliquo, to consuesco, evi, etum 3. 

to collect together. be hand to hand with to accustom one's self, 

congredior,gressus sum some one. be accustomed. 

3. to meet (with one), consero, sevi, situm 3. consuetQdo, inis,/. hab- 

fight. to set with plants. ity intercourse. 


consul, ulis, m. consul, contremisco, tremui 3. corrado, si, sum 3. to 

consulatus, us, m. con- to tremble. scrape together. 

sulship. contueor, tuitus sum 2. correctio, onis, /. cor- 

consulo, liii, hum 3. to to consider. rection. 

deliberate; c. ace. to contundo, udi, usum 3. corrigo, rexi, rectum 3. 

consult some one ; c. to crush, bring to to correct, improve. 

dat. to consult for naught. [cover, corriio, ui 3. to rush to- 

some one. convalesce, lui 3. to re- gether. 

consulto, adv. designed- conveho, exi, ectum 3. cortex, icis, m. rind, 

lif. to bring together, car- bark. 

consultus 3. c. gen. ac- ry together. corvus, i, m. a crow. 

quainted ivith. convello, velli, vulsum cos, cotis, /. whetaione, 

consumo, mpsi, mptum 3. to rend, convulse. grindstone. 

3. to consume. convenio, veni, ventum crambe, es,/. cabbage. 

contamlno 1. to contam- 4. to comje together ; eras, adv. tomorrow. 

inate. c. ace. to visit crebro, adv. frequently. 

contemno, mpsi, mp- converto, rti, rsum 3. credo, dldi, ditum 3. 

tum 3. to despise. to turn around, turn to believe, to trust. 

comtemplor 1. to con- to, turn. credulus 3. credulous. 

sider. eonviva, ae, m. guest. cremo 1. to burn. 

contendo, di, tum 3. to convivium, i, n. enter- creo 1. to create, choose. 

stretch, stretch one's tainment. crepo, ui, itum 1. to 

self, strive after some- convivor 1. to eat with. creak. 

thing ; in locum, to convoco 1. to call togeth- cresco, crevi, cretum 3. 

march ; to contend ; er. to increase, grow, 

ab aliquo, to demand, convolo 1. tojly, hasten Creta, ae,/. Crete. 

contentus 3. c. abl. con- together. crimen, inis, n. crime 

tented. coorior, ortus sum 4. crinis, is, m. hair. 

contero, trivi, tritum 3. to arise, burst forth, crinitus 3. hairy. 

to break in pieces; copla, ae,/. abundance, Croto, onis, m. Croton, 

contritus 3. threshed. multitude ; opportu- cruciatus, us, m. torture, 

conticesco, ticui 3. to nity ; pi. troops. crucio 1. to torment, tor- 

bt silent. copiosus 3. abundant ; ture. 

contineo, inui, entum 2) rich in expression, crudelis, e, cruel. 

2. to hold together ; fluent. cru dell tas, atis,/ cmeZ- 
animam, to stop the copulo 1. to join. ty. 

breath; abstain. coqua, ae,/ a cook. cruentus 3. bloody, 

contingo, tigi, tactum eoquo, xi, etum 3. to cruor, oris, m. blood. 

3. to fall to on£s lot. cook. crus, uris, n. shin, leg. 
continiio, adv.forthwith. cor, cordis, n. heart. cubo, iii, itum 1. to re- 
continiius 3. continuous. Corinthius 3. Corin- dine. 
contorqueo, rsi, rtum 2. thian. cuciimis, eris, m. cu- 

to hurl, shoot. Corinthus, i,/ Corin^^. cumber. 

contra, adv. on the con- corneus 3. of horn. culina, ae,/. kitchen. 

trary. cornu, us, n. ^«m. culmen, Inis, ti. i<?p. 

contraho, axi, actum 3. corona, ae,/. garland, culpa, ae, f guilt, fault, 

to draw together. corpor6us 3. corporeal, cultus, us, m. attention 

contrarius 3. opposite, corpus, oris, n, body, to, clothing, worship. 


cumulo 1. to heap up, decerno, crevi, cretum dejicio, jeci, jectum 3. 

load, 3. to determine, dis- to cast down. 

cunae, arum, /a crcMfie. cem. delecto 1. to delight; 

cunctor 1. to delay. decerpo, psi, ptum 3. pass. c. abl. to he de- 
cunctus 3. the whole ; to pluck off, break off, lighted, to rejoice. 

pi. all, all together. take from. deleo, evi, etiim 2. to 

cupiditas, atis,/. desire, decerto 1. to contend. destroy, annihilate. 

cupidus 3. c. gen. de- decet 2. c. ace. it is delibero I. to deliberate, 

sirous. proper. consider. 

cuplo, pivi, pitum 3. to declare 1. to declare. delictum, i, n. offence. 

desire, imsh. decorus 3. becoming ; dellgo, egi, ectum 3. to 

cur, adv. why ? decorum, propriety. select. 

cura, ae,/, care; curae decresco, crevi, cretum Delphi, orum, m. Del- 

mihi est, 1 am anx- 3. to decrease. phi. 

ious. decus, oris, n. honor. Delphicus 3. Delphic 

curculio, onis, m. the dedecet 2. c. ace. it is delinquo, iqui, ictum 3. 

corn-worm. not proper. to do wrong. 

Curius, i, m. Curius. dedico 1. to.dedicaie. delude, si, sum 3. to 
euro 1. to care ; c. ace. to dedo, idi, itum, 3. to de- deceive. 

be concerned, to look liver up. Delus (os), i. / Delos 

out for something; c. defatigo 1. to weary, to (an island). 

gerundive, to cause. make weary ; pass, to Demaratus, i, m. De- 
curriculum, i, n. race become weary. maratus. 

course, course. defende, di, sum 3. to demerge, si, sum 3. to 

curre, cucurri, cursum defend. plunge under, sink. 

3. to run. defere, detuli, delatum, demete, ssui, ssum 3. 

currus, us, m. chariot. deferre 3. to offer. to cut down. 

cursus, us, m. a course, defervesce, bui, 3. to demitte, misi, missum 
custedia, ae,f. watch cease boiling, cease 3. to send down, let 

custedie 4. to guard, raging. fall. 

watch, keep. defetiscer, fessus sum deme, mpsi, mptum 3. 

custes, odis, m. keeper, 3. to become weary, be to take away. 

cymba, ae,/. boat. wearied. [to fail, demolier, itus sum 4. 

Cyrus, i, m. Cyrus. deficle, feci, fectum 3. to demolish 

Cyprus, i,/. Cyprus. defige xi, xum 3. in c. demenstre 1. to point 
abl. to fix firmly, fix out. 
D. upon something. Demosthenes, is, m, 

Damne 1. to condemn, definie 4. to define. Demosthenes. 

damnum, i, n. injury, deflagre 1. to bum up. demum, adv. first, at 
dea, ae,/ goddess. deflectd, xi, xum 3. to length. 

deambulo 1. to go to turn from, deviate. denique, adv. at last, 

walk. [must, defugio, ugi, ugitura 3. finally. 

deb6e 2. to owe, ought, c. ace. to escape. dens, tis, m. tooth. 

debilis, e, weak. degener, ris, degenerate, densus 3. thick. 

decede, cessi, cessum deguste 1. to taste. dentatus 3. toothed, 

3. to go away, die, deinde, thereupon, then, denue, adv. anew. 
December, bris, m. De- Deianira, ae, f, Deja- depasce, pavi, pastum 

cember. nira, 3. to feed down. 


depono, posui, posjtum detraho, axi, actum 3. diligo, lexi, ler.tum 3. to 

3. to lay down, lay to draw from, remove. esteem, love. 

aside. detrimentum, i, n. in- dilucidus 3. dear. 

deprehendo, di, sum 3. jury. diluo, ui, utum 3. forfi- 

to seize, catch. detrudo, si, sum 3. to lute, weaken. 

deprimo, pressi, pres- thrust down. dimico 1. tojight. 

sum 3. to depress. deus, i, m. God. dimidium, i, n. half. 

depugno 1. to fight (for devasto 1. to lay waste, dimitto 3. to dismiss. 

life or death). devinco 3. to conquer. Dionysius, i, m. Diony- 

derideo, isi, isum 2. to devoco 1. to call down. sius. 

deride. devolo 1. to fiy forth, diphthongus, i, / diph- 

descendo, di, sum 3. hasten away. thong. 

to descend. devoro 1. to devour. diriplo, ipui, eptum 3. 

describo, psi, ptum 3. dialectica, ae,/. Zog-tc. to plunder. 

to describe, note. dialectus, i, /. dialect. diriio, iii, uium 3. to de- 

deseco, cui, ctum 1. Diana, ae,/ Diana. stroy. 

to cut off. dico, xi, ctum 3. to say, dirus 3. horrible. 

desero, rui, rtum 3. to caU. discedo, cessi, cessum 

desert. dictator, oris, m. dicta- 3. to go away, depart. 

desiderium, i, n. long- tor. discessus, us, m. de- 

ing, earnest desire. dictlto 1 . to say often. parture. 

desidero 1. to long for, dies, ei, m. day. discindo, cidi, cissum 

feel the want ofsoms- difRcIlis, e, difficult. 3. to tear in pieces, 

something. difficultas, atis, /. diffi- rend. 

desido, edi 3. to fall cidty. disciplina, ae, f disd- 

down. difFido, isus sum 3. to pline. 

designo 1. to designate. distrust. discipulus, i, m. disciple. 

desino, sii, situm 3. to diffindo, fidi, fissum 3. discludo, si, sum 3. to 

cease. to split. separate. 

desisto, stiti, stitum 3. difFundo, fudi, fusum 3. disco, didici 3. to learn. 

to desist, cease. to diffuse, disperse. discolor, oris, party-col- 

despero 1. to despair of. digero, essi, estum 3. to ored, variegated. 

despicio, spexi, spec- separate, digest. discordia, ae,/ discord. 

tum 3. to despise. digitus, i, m. finger. discordo 1. cum aliquo, 

destituo, ui, utum 3. to dignltas, atis,/. dignity. to disagree with some 

desert, leave behind. dignus 3. c. abl. worthy, one. 

destruo, uxi, uctum 3. deserving. discrimen, inis, n. dis- 

to destroy. dijudico 1. to distin- tinction, danger. 

desum, fui, esse, to be guish. discutlo, ussi, ussum 3. 

wanting ; c. dat. rei, dilabor, lapsus sum 3. to disperse, to dispel. 

to neglect. to glide away, disap- disertus 3. eloquent. 

detego, xi, ctum 3. to pear. [pieces, disjicio, jeci, jectum 3. 

detect. . dilacero 1. to tear in to scatter. 

detergeo, rsi, rsum 2. dilanio 1. to lacerate. dispar, aris, unequal, 

to wipe off. dilrgens, tis, diligent. diverse. 

deterreo 2. to frighten diligenter adv.diligently. dispello, puli, pulsum 

from, deter. diligentia, ae, / dili- 3. to drive asunder, 

detestabilis,e,(i!efe5toWe. gence, exactness. to dispel. 


dispergo,rsi,rsum 3. fo documentum,i,n. ^roq/*. Dyrrhachium, i, n, 

disperse, scatter. doleo 2. to grieve, feel Dyrrhachium. 

displcio, exi, ectum 3. pain. 

to open the eyes. doliarium, i, n. cellar. E. 

displiceo 2. to displease, dolor, oris, m. pain, Eblandior itus sum 4. 

dissenslo, onis, /. dis- grief. to gain hy flattery. 

sension. dolus, i, m.fravd. eburneus 3. of ivory, 

dissero, rui, rtum 3. to domesticus 3. domestic. ivory. 

discuss, discourse. domicilium, i, n. resi- ecclesia, ae, f. church. 

dissimilis, e, dissimilar. dence. echo, us,f. echo. 

dissipo 1. to scatter. dominatlo, onis, /. do- edisco, didlci 3. to com- 

dissolvo, vi, utum 3. to minion. mit to memory. 

dissolve. [dissuade, dorninor 1. to reign. edo, di, sum 3. to eat. 

dissuadeo, si, sum 2. to dominus, i, m. lord, mas- edo, idi, itum 3. to put 

distineo, inui, entum 2. ter. forth, proclaim, per' 

to hold from each oth- domo, ui, Itum 1. to form. 

er, occupy, detain. subdue. edoceo, cui, ctum 2. to 
distinguo, nxi, nctum 3. domus, us, f house, pal- instruct, inform. 

to distinguish. ace.; do mi, at horm ; edolo 1. to hew properly , 

distraho, axi, actum 3. domo, /rom home. to square. 

to draw asunder, dis- donee, cunj. until, until educo 1. to bring up. 

solve, waste. that, even until. educo, xi, ctum 3. to 

distribiio, ui, utum 3. dono 1. to give, present. lead forth. 

c. dat. to distribute. donum, i, n. present. effector, oris, m. maker, 

diu, adv. a long timje ; dormio 4. to sleep. efFeminatus 3. efftmi- 

diutius, Zong'cr. dos, dotis, f. dowry, por- nite. 

diuturnitas, atis,/. Zong" tion. effero, extuli, elatum 3. 

continuance. dublto 1. to dr^ubt. to carry forth, bury. 

diuturnus 3. long-con- dubius 3. doubiful. efFicio, feci, fectum 3. 

tinned. duco, xi, ctum 3. to to effect, make. 

diversus 3. different. lead, draw, lead away ; effloresco, rui 3. to 

dives, itis, rich. 2) to consider, regard flourish. [dig up, 

divido, isi, isum 3. to as something. effodio, odi, ossum 3. to 

divide. dulcedo, inis /. siveet- efFiiglo, fugi, fugltum 

divinus 3. divine. ness, pleasantness. 3. c. ace. to flee away, 

divitiae, arum,/, riches, dulcis, e, sweet, lovely. efTundo, udi, usum 3. 

do, dedi, datum, dare, dum, conj. while, so long to pour forth, throw 

to give, attribute ; lit- as ; with subj. until, off. 

teras dare, to write a untU that, so {as) long efFusus 3. unrestrained, 

letter. as ; provided that. egeo, ui 2. to want, he 

doc^o, cui, ctum 2. to dumetum, i, n. a thicket. in want. 

teach, inform. dummodo, conj. with egestas, atis, /. want, 

docilis, e, teachable. subj. provided that. ego, pron. I. 

doctor, oris, m. teacher, duplico 1. to double. ejicio, eci, ectum 3. to 

doctrina, ae,/. doctrine, duro 1. to last, endure. cast forth. 

instruction, science. durus 3. hard. ejulo 1. to complain, 

ductus 3. learned, versed dux, cis, c. leader, gen- ejusmodi, of this kind, 

lit eroL of like kind. 


elabor, lapsus sum 3. emolumentum, i, n. ad- eruo, iii, utum 3. to dig 

to glide away. vantage. up. bestow pains emorior, ortuus sum 3. esurio 4. to be hungry. 

upon ; in c. abl. to to die. [chase, et, conj. and ; et — et, 

occupy one's self with emptio, onis, / pur- both — and, so [as) 

something. en, adv. behold ! well — as also. 

elegans, tis, elegant. Endymlo, onis, m. En- etiam, conj. also. 
elegantla, ae,/. elegance. dymion. etiamsi, conj. even if. 

elementum, i, n. ele- eneco, cui, ctum 1. to Etruria, ae, /. Etruria. 

ment, beginnings de- kill by inches, vex to etsi, conj. even if, al- 

mentary principle, let- death. though. 

ter (of the alphabet). enim,/or (^ 101. R. 1). Europa, ae,/. Europe. 
elephantus, i, m. ele- enitor, isus or ixus sunt evado, asi, asum 3. to 

phant. 3. to exert one's self, go out, become. 

elicio, ui, itum 3. to strive. evanesco, niii 3. to dis- 

draw out, elicit. ensis, is, m. sword. appear. 

elido, isi, isum 3. to enumero 1. to enumer- evello, velli, vulsum 3. 

dash, break, weaken. ate. to pluck out. 

eligo, egi, ectum 3. to eo, adv. thither, so far. evenit 4. it happens. 

select out, elect, choose, eo, ivi, itum, ire, to go. eventus, us, m. event, re- 
eloquentia, ae, f do- Epaminondas, ae, m. suit. 

quence. Epaminondas. everto, ti, sum 3. to 

eloquor, cutus sum 3. Epheslus 3. Ephesian. overturn, prostrate, de- 

to pronounce. Ephesus, i, /. Ephesus. stray. 

eluceo, xi 2. to shine Epicurus, i, m. Epicu- evito 1 . to avoid. 

forth. rus. [gram, evolo 1. to fly forth. 

eludo, usi, usum 3. to epigramma, atis,n. epi- evolvo, Ivi, latum 3. to 

dude, deride. epilogus, i, m. epilogue. unfold, bring out. 

emendo 1. to improve, epistola, ae,/. letter. evomo, iii, Itum 3. to 
ementior, itus sum 4. to epulae, arum,/ a meal, belch forth, send forth. 

state falsely. feast. exaciio, ui, utum 3. to 

emergo, rsi, rsum 3. to eques, itis, wi. horseman ; sharpen. 

emerge, to work one's cavalry, knight. exagito 1. to harass. 

self out. equidem, adv. indeed. ex&men, ims, n. swarm. 

emetior, emensus sum equito 1. to ride. exammo 1. to examine. 

4. to measure off; equus, i, m. horse, steed, exanlmo 1. to deprive of 

travd through. Erechtheus, ei, m. Erec- life, to kill. 

emico, ui, atum 1. to theus. exardesco, arsi, arsum 

gush forth. ergo, conj. therefore. 3. to take fire. [ion. 

emigro 1. to move out. erlplo, ipui, eptum 3. to exascio 1. to hew, fash- 
emineo, ui 2. to be emi- snatch Jrom. exaudio 4. to listen to. 

nent. erraticus 3. wandering, excedo, cessi, cessum 

emitto, misi, missum 3. erro 1. to wander, err. 3. c. abl. or ex c. abl. 

to send forth, thrust error, 6ris,wi. error; pi. to go forth, depart. 

out. wanderings. excello, iii 3. to excel. 

emo, emi, emptum 3. eriidio 4. to instrud. excelsus 3. elevated. 

to purclvase. erumpo, rupi, ruptum excerpo, psi, ptum 3. 

emoUio 4. to soften. 3. to break forth. to take out, extrad. 


excessus, us, m. depar- exoro 1. to erUreat ear- exsul, ulis, c. an exUe, 

ture. nestly, obtain hy en- exsulto 1. to leap up, 

excido, idi, isum 3. to treaty. exult. 

destroy. expedio 4. to disengage ; extemplo adv. immedi- 

excieo, ivi, itum 2. or se exp. to get ready. ately. 

excio, ivi, itum 4. to expello, pull, pulsum 3. extenuo 1. to lessen. 

excite, arouse. to expel. extermmo 1. to exter- 

exclpio, cepi, ceptum expergefacio, feci, fac- minate. 

3. to receive. turn 3. to arouse extern us 3. external. 

excito 1. to excite, raise. (from sleep). exterus 3. foreign. 

exclamo 1. to cry out. expergiscor, perrectus extimesco, mui 3. c. 
excludo, usi, usum 3. sum 3. to wake up. ace. to be afraid of 

to shut out, hatch. experior, pertus sum 4. something. 
excolo, olui, ultum 3. to ascertain, to try. extorqueo, rsi, rtum 2. 

to cultivate. expers, rtis, c. gen. des- to wrest from, extort. 

excors, rdis, senseless. titute of. extremus 3. outerrmst, 

excrucio ] . to torment, expeto, ivi, itum 3. to last. 
excusatio, onis, / ex- strive to obtain. extrinsecus, adv. from 

cuse. expingo, nxi, ctum 3. without. 

exedo, edi, esum 3. to to paint out. extrudo, si, sum 3. to 

consume, corrode. expleo, evi, etum 2. to thrust from, out. 

exemplar, aris, n. mod- jUl up, fulfil. exulcero 1. to make sore, 

el, pattern. explico 1. to explain. render worse. 

exemplum, i, n. exam- explode, si, sum 3. to exuo, ui, utum 3. to 

pie, instance. clap off, drive off. draw off, take off. 

exeo, ii, itum, ire, to go explorator, oris, m. spy. 

out, go forth. exploro 1. to search out, F. 

exerceo 2. to exercise. explore. . Faber, bri, m. artisan 

exercitatio, onis,/ cxer- exposco, poposci 3. to (of each art); faber 

me, practice. demand, request. lignarius, carpenter. 

exercltus, us, m. army, exprimo, pressi, pres- fabricator, oris, m. mak- 
exhaurlo, si, stum 4. sum 3. to express. er,framer. 

to exhaust. exprobro 1. to reproach. Fabricius, i, m. Fabri- 

exhilaro 1. to exhilarate, expugno 1. to take. cius. 

exigo, egi, actum 3. to exquiro, isivi, isitum 3. fabiXla, ae, f. Jable. 

pass (time). to examine. facesso, ssivi, ssitum 3. 

exiguus 3. little, paltry, exsilium, i, n. banish- to make ; negotium, 
eximius 3. distinguish- ment. [become, be. to make trouble, vex ; 

ed, excellent. exsisto, stiti 3. to arise, 2) to take one's self 

existimatio, onis, /. es- exsors, rtis, c. gen. des- off 

timation, opinion, titute of. facetus 3. delicate, witty. 

judgment. exspecto 1. to expect, facile, adv. easily. 

existimo esteem, con- await, wait. facilis, e, easy. 

sider one something. exstinguo, nxi, nctum facinus, oris, n. deed, 
exordior, orsus sum 4. 3. to extinguish, ob- foul deed. 

to begin. literate, kill. facio, feci, factum 3. to 

exorlor, ortus sum 4. to extruo, uxi, uctum 3. make, to esteem. 

appear, arise. to erect, construct. factum, i, n. deed. 


facultas, 2it\3ff. faculty, ferrum i, n. iron, sword, flagro 1. to bum, 

power. fertilis,e, c. gen. fertile, flam ma, ae,fjlame. 

facundia, ae, f. fluency ferus 3. wild; ferae, flavus 3. yellow, fair. 

of speech arum,/, wild beasts, fleo, evi, etum 2. to 

fagus, i./. beech tree. fessus 3. wearied, fa- weep. 
fallax, acis, deceptive. tigued. flo 1. to blow, wave. 

fallo, fefelli, falsum 3. festivitas, atis, /. pieas- flocci faeere, to consid- 

to deceive. antness. er of no account. 

falsus 3. /oZse. festivus 3. fne, sprightly. ($88.9.) 

fama, ae, /. fame, re- ficus, i and us, /. fg- floreo, ui 2. to bloom. 

nown, rumor. tree. flos, floris, m. a flower. 

fames, is,/, hunger. fidelis, e, faithful. flumen, inis, n. river. 

femilia, ae,f. family. fideliter, adv. faithfidly. fluvius i, m. river. 
familiaris, e, belonging fides, ei, / fidelity ; fi- foede, adv. basely, in a 

to a family ; res fa- dem habere c. dat. base manner. 

jmlsins, property ; fa- to trust, have confi- foedus 3. base, foul. 

miliaris, subst. friend. dence in some one. foedus, eris, n. league. 
famulus, i, m. servant, fides, is,/, string; fidi- folium, i, n. leaf. 
fanum, i, n. temple. bus canere, to play follis, is, m. bellows. 

fascis, is, m. bundle. on a stringed instru- fens, ntis, m. fountain. 

fastidio 4. c. ace. to ment. foris, is,/, in plur. fold- 

loathe, spurn. fido, fisus sum 3. to ing doors. 

fatallter, adv. according trust. foris, adv. ivithout. 

to fate. fidus 3. faithful, true, fornix, icis, m. vault, 

fateor, fassum sum 2. figura, ae, / flgure, arch. 

to acknowledge, allow, form. fortasse, adv. perchance. 

fatum, i, n.fate. filla, ae,/. daughter. forte,^ adv. by chance, 

f&MX, cia, f throat. fi\i6\u8, i, m. little son. perhaps. 

feveo, avi, autum 2. c. fillus, i, m. son. fortis, e, strong, bold. 

dat to be favorable fingo, finxi, fictum 3. to forttter, adv. bravely. 

to, favor some one. form, feign. fortitiido, ims,f bravery. 

febris, is, f. fever. finlo 4. to finish. fortuito, adv. fortui- 

fecundus 3. fruitful. finis, is, m. end. tously. 

felicitas, atis, / happi- finitimus 3. neighbour- fortuna, ae, f fate, for- 

ness. ing. tune. 

felix, icis, happy. fio, factus sum, fieri to fortunatus 3. fortunate. 

ferax, acis. c. gen. pro- be made, become, hap- foinim, i, n. market, mar- 

ductiveof. pen; fieri non po- ket place. 

fere, adv. almost. test, quin, it is not fossa, ae,/ ditch. 

feriae, arum, / holi- possible, but that. foveo, ovi, otum 2. to 

days. [strike, firmltas, atis, f firmness. warm, cherish, attend 

ferio, ire, to thrust, firmlter, adv. firmly. to. 

ferme, adv. almost. firmo 1. to render firm, fragilis, e, frail. 

fero, tuli, latum, ferre, strengthen, to har- frango, egi, actum 3. to 

to bear, bring, relate. den. break, break in pieces; 

ferociter, adv. fiercely. firmus 3. firm. molis frangere, to 

ferox, 6c'i8, fierce. flagitlum, i, n.foul deed. grind. 

ferrous 3. of iron. flagito 1. to demand. frater, tris, m. brother. 


fraus, di8,f. fraud. furor, oris, m. rage. Gordius, i, m. Gordins. 

fi-emitus, us, m. noise, fustis, is, m. a cudgel. Gottingensis, e, of Got- 

frenum, i, n. [plur. fre- futilis, e. useless. tingen. 

ni anc?frena)6iV, rein, futurus 3. /M^urc. Graecia, ae,/. Greece. 

frequento \. to frequent Graecus, i. m. a Greek. 

fretus 3. c. abl. relying G. Graecus 3. Greek. 

upon something. Gallia, ae,/. Gaul. grammatfcus 3. gram- 

frigidus 3. cold. Gallus, i, m. a Gaul. matical ; grammati- 

frigus, oris, n. coZc?. gallina, ae, /. a hen, cuSyi^m. grammarian 

frondosus 3. leafy. fowl. grandis, e, great ; natu 

frons, ntis, f. forehead, garrio 4. to chatter. grandis, aged. 

fructus, us, m. advan- garrulus 3. loquacious, granum, i. m. a grain. 

iage. gaudeo, gavisus sum, grate, adv. gratefully. 

fruges, um, /. fruit (of gaudere c. abl. or de gratia, ae, /. favour. 

field and trees.) * c. abl. to rejoice. thank ; gratias agere, 

frugifer, era, erum, gaudium, i, n. joy. to thank, give thanks . 

fruitful. gelldus 3. ice-cold, cold. gratiam referre, to rc- 

frumentum, i, n. grain, gemitus, us, m. groan. turn a favour ; gra- 
fruor, fructus or fruitus gener, eri, m. son-in- tia (with a foregoing 

sum 3. c. abl. to en- laiv. gen.), on account of 

joy. genero 1. to produce. gratulor 1. to congrat- 

frustra, adv. in vain. gens, ntla, f a people. ulate. 

frutex, icis, m. shrub ; genu, us, n. knee. gratus 3. agreeable ; 2) 

ip]. bushes, shrubbery, genus, eris,n. race, kind. grateful. [ly. 

fuga, ae, f flight. geometricus S. geomet- grasaXe, adv. unwilling- 

fugio, gi, gitum 3. c. rical. gravis, e, heavy, difficult ; 

ace. to fee. Germania, ae, /. Ger- serious. 

fugo 1. to put to fight. many. gra vitas, ati8,f. serious- 

fulcio, Isi, Itum 4. to gero, gessi, gestum 3. ness, dignity. 

support. to carry, carry on. graviter, adv. heavily, 

fulgur, \ms,n. a fash of gestio 4. to make ges- violently, forcibly; 

lightning. tures, be transported. graviter ferre, to be 

fulmen, inis, n. light- gesto 1. to bear. displeased. 

ning. gigas, antis, m. giant, grex, gis, m. herd,fock. 
funambulus, i, m. rope- gigno, genui, genitum gubernator, oris, m. pi- 
dancer. 3. to beget, bring Jorth, lot. 
fundamentum, i, n. to bear. guberno 1. to govern, 

foundation. glacies, e\,f. ice. rule. 

fundltus, adv. from the gladiator, oris, m. fen- gusto 1. to taste, rdish. 

foundation, wholly. cer, gladiator. 

fundo 1. to found. gladius, i, m. sword. H. 

fundo, fudi, fusum 3. glis, iris, m. a dormouse. Habeo 2. to have, hold; 

(of an army), to rout, globosus 3. globular. consider ; sese ha- 

fungor, nctus sum 3. c. gloria, ae,/. glory. bere, to be ; bene ha- 

abl. to discharge. glorior 1. to glory. bet, it is well. 

funis, is, m. a rope. gnarus 3. c. gen. ac- habito 1. to dwell. 

furfur, uris, n. bran. quainted unth. habitus, us, m. hjabit, 

furiosus 3. raving. gnaviter, adv. zealously. bearing, condition. 


haereo, haesi, haesum Hispania, ae,/. Spain, identidem, adv. repeat- 

2. to adhere, to stick, historia, ae,/. history. edly. 
Hannibal, alis, m. Han- histrio, onis, m. actor, idon^us S. Jit, JUted. 

nibal. hodie, adv. to-day. igitur, conj. ihereforCj 

harpago, onis, m. hook, Homerus, i, m. Homer. hence. 

grappling-iron. homo, inis, m. man. ignarus 3. c. gen. unac- 

haruspx, icis, m. sooth- honest-dS,2itis,f.integrity. quainted with. 

sayer. honeste, adv. decently, ignavla, ae,/. indolence, 

hasta, ae, / spear. honorably, virtuously. cowardice. 

baud, adv. not. honestus 3. honest, up- ignavus 3. indolent, in- 

hauiio, bausi, haustum right, honorable, vir- active, sluggish, cow- 

4. to draiv. ^ tuous. ardly. 

hebdomas, adis, /. a honoro 1. to honor. igneus S.Jiery. 

week. honos, oris, m. honor, ignis, is, to. /re. 

bebes, etis, blunt, dull, post of honor, mmk of igitobibs, e, unknown. 

obtuse. 4 honor. ignominla, ae, / dis- 

hebesco 3. to become bora, ae,/ hour. grace. 

dull, torpid. Horatius, i, m. Horace, ignoro 1. not to know; 

hebeto 1. to stupify, hordeurn, i, n. barley. non ignorare, to know 

weaken. borno, adv. of this year, perfectly well. 

Hector, oris, m. Hector, borrendus 3. dreadful, ignosco, novi, notum 3. 
herba, ae, f. herb. horreum, i, n. granary. to pardon. 

Hercules, is, m. Hercu- borribllis, e, horrible. ille, a, ud, that. 

les. hortor 1. to exhort. iliuc, adv. thither. 

heri, adv. yesterday. bortus, i, m. garden. illucesco, luxi 3. to be- 
herilis, e, of, pertaining bospes, itis, m. a guest. come light, dawn. 

to a master. bostilis, e, hostile. imago, inis, / image. 

Herodotus, i, m. Hero- bostis, is, m. enemy. imbecillus 3. weak. 

dotus. hue, adv. hither. imber, bris, m. shower, 

herus, i, m. master. humanitas, atis, / hu- rain. 

heus, adv. ho there ! manity. . imbuo, ui, utum 3. to 

hibernus 3. belonging bumanus 3. human. immerse ; c. abl. to 

to winter. humerus, i, m. shoulder, fit with, imbue. 

hie, haecj hoc, this ; hie, humidus, moist. imitatio, onis, / imvla- 

adv. here ; upon this humilis e, low. tion. 

occasion. humus, i, / ground, imitator, oris. m. imita- 

hiemo 1. to pass the earth. tor. 

winter. imltor 1. c. ace. to im- 

hiems, emis, / unnter. I. itate. 

hilaris, e, cheerful. Ibi, adv. at that, place, immanis, e, vast, cruel. 

bilarltas, atis, /. hilari- there. immaturus 3. unripe, 

ty. ico, ici, ictum 3. to immature, untimely. 

bilariter, adv. cheerfully, strike ; (of a league), immemor, oris, c. gen. 

joyfully. to conclude. [count. unmindful. 

binnio 4. to neigh. idcirco, adv. on that ac- immineo 2. to threaten, 

llipinas, ae,m. Hippias. idem, eadem, idem, immo, adv. yes rather, 
birundo, Inis, / swal- pron. the very same, nay rather, on the con- 
low, same. trary. 


immoderalus 3. intern- ing ; c. gen. unac- indulgentia, ae, /. in- 

perate. quainted with. dulgence. 

immodestus S.immodest. impubes, eris, youthful, indulgeo, Isi, Itum 2. c. 
immodicus 3. excessive. immature. dat. to give one's self 

immortalis, e, immoHal. impudens, ntis, impu- to, be indulgent. 
immortalitas, atis, /. dent, shameless. induo, iii, utum 3. to 

immortality. inipurus 3. impure. put on, clothe. 

immortaliter, adv. in- inanis, e, empty, vain. Indus, i, m. an Indian ; 

finitely. incedo, cessi, cessum 2) the Indus (a river), 

impedimentum, i, n. 3. to walk upon. industrla, ae, f. indus- 

hindrance. incendium, i, n. con/la- try. 

impedio 4. to hinder. gration. industrius 3. active, in- 

impello, puli, pul^m 3. incendo, di, sum 3. to dustnous. 

to impel. enkindle, inflame. indutiae,arum,y!a irwce. 

impendeo 2. to impend, incertus 3. uncertain. iuermis, e, unarmed, de- 
impendo, pendi, pen- jncesso, ivi, itum 3. to fenceless. 

sum 3. to bestow. attack. iners, rtis, unskilled, in- 

imperator, oris, m. gen- incido, idi 3. to fall up- active. 

eral, emperor. on. inertia, ae,/. inactivity. 

imperitus 3. inexperien- incipio, cepi, ceptum 3. infans, ntis, c. a child, 

ced. to begin. minor. 

imperium, i. n. com- inclto 1. to spur on, in- infero, intuli, illatum, 

mand, reign. cite. inferre, to bring ; bel- 

impero I. c.dat. to reign, incognitus 3. unknoion. lum inferre alicui, to 

reign over, command, incola, ae, m. inhabitant. make ivar upon one.. 
impetro 1. to obtain. incolumis, e, unhurt. interns 3. being below, 
impetus, us, m. attack ; inconditus 3. unarrang- low, inferior ; inferi, 

2) vast extent. ed. [ble. the dead in the lower 

impius 3. impious. incredibilis, e, incredi- world. 

impleo, evi, etum 2. to increpo, ui, itum 1. c. infidus 3. unfaithful. 

fill. ace. to berate, re- infimus 3. the lowest, 

jmplico, avi, atum 1. to proach. meanest. 

involve. incumbo, cubui, cubi- infirmitas, atis, /. infir- 

imploro 1. to implore. turn 3. in aliquid, to mity. 

importo 1. to import. lay one^s self upon, at- infirmus 3. weak. 

importunus 3. trouble- tend to something. infligo, xi, etum 3. c. 

some. indago ] . to trace out. dat. to strike upon, in- 

impotens, ntis, c. gen. inde, adv. thence. fiict. 

not master of. India, ae,/ India. inflo 1. to inflate. 

imprimis, adv.especially. indico 1. to indicate. informo 1. to instruct. 
imprimo, pressi, pres- indigeo, ui 2. c. gen. et ingenlum, i, n. genius, 

sum 3. to press into, abl. to be in want. spirit. 

impress. indignor 1. to be indig- ingens, ntis, immense, 

improbitas, atis,/. wick- nant. very greM. 

edness. indignus 3. c. abl. un- ingenue, adv. nobly, re- 

improbus 3. wicked. worthy. spectably. 

imprudens, ntis, not induco, xi, etum 3. to ingeniius 3. free-bom, 

foreseeing, not know- bring in, induce. noble. 


jngjgno, geniii, geni- insectum, i, n. insect. intereo, li, itum, ire, to 

turn 3. to implant. insero, sevi, situm 3. c. decay, cometo naught. 

ingratus 3. ungrateful ; dat. to sow in, in- intei-fector, oris, m. mur- 

2) disagreeable. P'^ft- derer. 

ingredlor, gressus sum irisidlae, arum, /. am- interflcio, eci, ectum 3. 

3. c. ace. to go into, buscade, snares. to kill. 

enter upon. insidior 1 . to lie in wait, interim, adv. in the mean 

iubaereo, haesi, hac- insignis, e, distinguish- time. 

sum 2. in c. abl. to ed; suhst. insigpe, is, interlmo, emi, emptum 

inhere. n. badge. 3. to kill. 

inhumanus3. inhuman, iiisipiens, ntis, unwise, interitus, us, m. destruc- 
injmicitia, ae, /. hostil- in situs 3. implanted, in- tion. 

iiy. born. interpreter 1. to inter- 

iuimicus 3. hostile ; ini- insperans, tis, not ex- pret, explain. 

micus, i, m. enemy. peeling, contrary to interpungo, nxi, nctum 

iniqiius 3. unjust. . expectation. to distinguish. 

initium, i, n, beginning, inspicio, exi, ectum 3. interrogo 1. to ask. 

HijiCio, jeci, jecium 3. to look into, inspect, intersum, ftii, esse c. 

to throw into ; la- instituo, iii, utum 3. to dat. to he in, to be 

queos, to lay snares. instruct. presented at; interest, 

jnjucundus 3. unpleas- iustitutlo, onis, /. in- there is a difference ; 

ani, disagreeable. struction ; inst. scho- c. gen. it concerns 

injuria, ae,/ injustice, lastica, sclwlastic in- one (^ 88, 10). 

injury. struction. intimus 3. inmost. 

injuste, adv. unjustly. insto, stiti 1. to threat- intolerabllis, e, intolera- 
jnnascor, natus sum 3. en, press upon, com- ble. 

to be implanted. pel (some one). intro 1. c. ace. to go 

innocens, ntis, innocent, instruo, xi, ctum 3. to into, to enter, 

mnocentia, ae, f. inno- furnish; aclem in- introltus, us, m. en- 

cence. struere, to arrange trance, 

innoxius S. harmless. thelineof battle ; he\- intueor, tuitus sum 2. 

innumerabilis, e, innu- lum instr. to prepare • to look upon, consider. 

merable. for war. intus, adv. within, in 

inopla, ae, /. helpless- insula, ae,/. island. the house. 

ness, need, want, in- integer, gra, grum, inultus 3. unrevenged, 

digence. sound. inutilis, e, useless. 

inops, 6])is,helpless,poor, intelllgo, exi, ectum 2. invenio, veni, ventum 

destitute, needy. to understand. 4. to find, find out. 

inquam, / say. intempestive, adv. un- investlgo 1. to trace out^ 

insanus 3. insane. timely. investigate. 

rascius 3. c. gen. not intentus 3. stretched ; invictus 3. invincible. 

knowing,not acquaint- c. dat. or in c. ace. invideo, vidi, visum 2. 

ed with. attentive, fixed upon e. dat. to entry. 

inscribo, psi, ptiim 3. something. invidia, ae,/ envy^ ha- 

c. dat. to write in or interdum, adv. some- tred. 

upon something, in- times. invidus 3. envious. 

scribe. [to engrave, interea, adv. in the mean inviso, isi, isum 3. to 
jnsculpo, psi, ptum 3. time. ' visit 


invito 1. to invite, juba, ae,/. m. mane. lac, ctis, n. milk. 

invitus 3. unwilling. jubeo, jussi, jussum 2. Lacaena, ae, /. Lace- 
involve, vi, utum 3. to to bid, order. demonian woman. 

involve ; involutus 3. jucunde, adv. pleasant- Lacedaemon, onis, /, 

difficult to understand. ly, agreeably. Lacedemx)n, Sparta. 

Iphicrates, is, m. ipAi- jucunditas, atis,/.j»Zea5- Lacedaemomus, i, m. 

crates. antness, agreeableness. a Lacedemonian. 

ipse, a, um, pron. self, jucundus 3. pleasant, lacero 1. to lacerate, tear 
ira, ae,f. anger. agreeable. in pieces. 

iracundia, ae, f. anger, judex, icis, m. judge. lacesso, ivi, itum 3. to 

irascibility. judicium, i, n. judg- provoke. 

irascor, iratus sum 3. ment. lacrlma, ae,/. tear. 

c. dat. to be enraged, judico 1. to judge ; c. lacus, us, m. lake, pond. 
iratus 3. enraged, an- dupl. ace. ^o con5ic?er laedo, si, sum 3. fo ^wr^ 

gry. on something. Laellus, m. Laelius. 

irrideo, si, sum 2. <o jugum, i, n. yoke, top, laetitla, ae, f. joy. 

mock, deride. ri^g-e (of a mountain), laetor 1. c. abl. to re- 

iiTumpo, rupi, ruptum Julius (i) Caesar (aris) joice. 

3. to burst in. m. Julius Caesar. laetus 3. joyful, delight- 

is, ea, id, pron. he, she, jungo, nxi, nctum 3. to ed. 

it ; that one ; the same, join, unite. lapideus 3. of stone. 

Isocrates, is, m. Isocra- Junius, i, m. June. lapis, idis, m. a stone. 

tes. Juno, 6ms, f. Juno. larglor, itus sum 4. to 

iste, a, ud, pron. that. Jupplter, Jovis, m. Ju- bestow largely. 
ita, adv. so, thus. piter. late, adv. widely. 

Italia, ae,/. Italy. juro 1. to swear. lateo, ui 2. to be con- 

itaque, conj. therefore, jus, juris, n. right. cealed. 

item, adv. likeivise. jussum, i, n. command. Latinus 3. Latin. 

iter, itineris, n. course, jussus, us, m. command. Latmus, i, m. Latmus 

way, journey, march, justitia, ae,f. justice. (mountain in Caria). 

'iterum, adv. again, the Justus 3. just. lat us 3. fcroac?. 

second time. Juvenilis, is, m. Juve- laudabilis, e, praise- 

nal. loorthy. 

J. juvenilis, e, youthful. laudo 1. to praise. 

Jaceo 2. to lie low. juvenis, is, m. a youth, laurus, i or us, / the 

jacto 1. to throw hither young man. laurel. 

and thither, extol. juventus, utis, /. youth, laus, dis,/. praise. 
jactura, ae,/ loss ; jac- juvo, juvi, jutum 1. c. lavo, lavi, lavatum 1. 

turam facere, to suf- ace. to assist. to wash. 

fer loss. lectus, i, m. bed. 

jam, adv. now, already. L. legatus, i, m. amhassa- 

jam pridem, long since. Labefacto 1. to cause to dor. 
]aiiua, ae, J. gate. totter, shake. lector, oris m. reacfer. 

jecur, jecinoris, n. Ae. labor, lapsus sum 3. legio, onis,/ Zegion. 

liver. to Jail. lego, gi, ctum 3. <o read 

jocor, 1. to jest. labor, oris, m. labor, toil, lenio 4. to soothe. 

jocosus 3. sportive. laboro 1. to labor ; c. leniter, adv. mildly, 

^ocus, i, m. a jest. ah\. to suffer from. leo, onis, m. Zion. 



lepidus 3. elegant, neat, littus, oris, n. sea-shore, magis, adv. more. 

lepor, Oris, m. agreea- loco 1. to place, set. magister, tri, m. teacher, 

bleness, jest. locuples, etis, wealthy, magistratus, us, m. ma- 

lepus, oris, m. a hare. rich. gistracy, authority ; 

Lesbus, i,f. Leshos. locupleto 1. to enrich. magistrate. 

levir, Iri, m. hrother-in- locus, i, m. place, situa- magniflcus 3. magni- 

law. tion, room ; pi. loca. Jicent. 

levis, e, light. loiige, adv. far, widely, magnitude, inis,/. mag- 

levitas, atis,/ levity. longinquitas, atis, /. nitude. 

levo 1. to lighten, re- length, extent. magnopere, adv. great- 

lieve; c. abl, to free longinquus 3. remote, ly. 

^ from. [tion. distant ; e longinquo, magnus S.great ; comp. 

le^-gis, /. law, condi- from afar. major, us, greater, 

libens, n\\s, willing. longus 3. long. older. 

libenter, adv. willingly, loquacitas, atis,/. loqua- majores, um, m. ances- 

with delight. city. tors. 

liber, bri, m. book. loquax, acis, loquaciotts. male, adv. badly. 

liber, era, erurn,/ree. loquor, locutiis 3. to maledico 3 c. dat. to 

liberalis, e,free. speak. reproach. 

liberalitas, atis,/ liber- Luceria, ae, / Luceria. ma\edicus S. slanderotis. 

aliiy. Lucretius, i, m. Lucre- maleflcus 3. doing evil, 

liberalrter, adv. liberally. tins. evil, wicked ; subst. 

libere, adv. freely. lucrum, i, n. gain, ad- evil-doer. 

Iib6ri,6rum, m. children vaniage. malevolus 3. ill dispos- 

(in relation to their luctus, Qs, m. grief. ed, malicious. 

parents). ludibrlu m i, n.spor^ malitla, ae, /. malice, 

libero 1. to liberate. ludo, si, sum 3. to play. wickedness. 

libertas, atis,/ liberty. Indus, i, m. play. malo, malui, malle, to 

liliet, uit 2. it pleases. lugeo, xi 2. to grieve, la- wish rather, prefer. 

libido, inis, / desire, mtnt. mh\\im, \, n. apple. 

passion, lust. luna, ae,/ moon. malum, i, n. evil, mis- 

liha-a, ae,/ a pound. lupus, i, m. wolf. fortune. 

licet, uit 2. it is allowed, luscinia, ae, / nightin- mains, i,/ apple-tree. 

ligneus 3. wooden, of gale. mains 3. evil, bad. 

wood. lusus, us, m. sport. mando, di, sum 3. to 

Wgnum, \, n. ivuod. \ux,\nc\s,f. light. chew. 

Iimpidus3. limpid, clear, luxuria, ae,/ luxury. mane, adv. in the mom- 

lingna, ae, / tongue, Lycnrgns, i, m. Lycur- ing. 

language. gus. maneo, nsi, nsum 2. 

linter, tris,/ boat, skiff. Lysis, is, m. Lysis. to remain', c. ace. to 

liquetacio, feci, factum await. 

3. to m^lt. M. Mantinea, ae, / Man- 

lis, litis, / civil process, Macedo, onis, m. a tinea. 

strife. Macedonian. manus, us,/ hand; 2) 
llttera, ae, / letter (of Macedonia, ae, / Ma- a company. 

alpliabet); litterae, cedonia. Marcell us, i, m. JkfarccZ- 

arum,/ letter, litera- machinatio, onis,/ ma- Zm5. 

ture. chine ; device, artifice, mare, is, n. sea. 


margo, inis, m. margin, mentior 4. to lie. misere, adv. wretchedly, 

Marius, i, m. Marius. mercator, oris, m. tra- misereor, misertus or 
marmor, oris, n. marble. der. miseritus sum 2. c. 

marmoreusS. o/*»MirWe, merces, edis,/. recom- gen. to pity. 

marhle. pense. miseret me alicujusrei, 

Marilus, \, m. Mars. mereor, merltus sura2. it excites my pity for 
mater, tris,/. mother. to deserve; de aliqua something. 

mathematicus, i, m. re mereri, to deserve miseria, ae, /. misery, 

mnthemntidan. of something. want. 

mature, adv. speedily, in meritum, i. n. desert. misericordia, ae,/.jnft/. 

season. merx, rc'is, f. wares. mkescoS. to render soft, 

maturus 3. ripe. messis, is,/, crop. tame. 

medeor 2. c. dat. to cure. Metellus, i. m. Metellm. mitigo 1. to soften, 
medicina, ae, /. medi- metior, meiisus sum 4. mitigate. 

cine, remedy. to measure. mitis, e, soft, mild. 

medicus,i,m. physician, metuo, ui 3. fo/ear. mitto, misi, missum 3. 
mediocris, e, middling, metus, us, m. apprehen- to send. 
meditatio, onis,/. medi- sion,fear. mobllis^ e, movable. 

tation. meus, 3. mine. moderator, oris, m. gov- 

meditor 1. to reflect mico, ui 1. to glitter. ernor. 

upon, study into. migratio, onis,/. migra- moderaius 3. temperate. 

Medus, i, m. a Mede. tion. moderor 1. c. ace. to 

Megara, ae, /. Megara. migro 1. to migrate ; c. govern, rule. 
mel, mellis, n. honey. ace. to transgress. modestia, ae, f modesty, 

membrana, ae,/ mem- miles, itis, m. warrior, modestus 3. modest. 

brane. soldier. modlce, adv. temper- 

membrum, i, n. limb. Miltiades, is, m. Miltia- ately. 
memini, isse, c. gen. or des. modius, i, m. bushel, 

ace. to remember. minax, acis, threatening, modo, adv. only, now ; 

memor, oris, c. gen. Minerva, aG,f Minerva. conj. c. Subj. if only, 

mindful of. minime, adv. least, not modo — modo, now — 

memoria, ae, /. memon/, at all. now. 

remembrance, time ; minXior 1. to threaten, modus, i, m. manner, 

memoria tenere, to minor 1. to threaten. way. 

hold in remembrance, minuo, ui, utum 3. to moenia, lum, n. walls 
memoriter, adv. from lessen, diminish. (as defence). 

memory, by heart. mmus, adv. less. moeror, oris, m. grief, 

memoro 1. to mention, mirificus 3. wonderful. sorrow. 

relate. miror 1. to wonder ; 2) Moesia, ae, J. Moesia, 

Menander, dri, m. Me- to admire. moles, is,/ mass. 

nander. mirus 3. wonderful, ex- moleste, adv. grievovS' 

mendax, acis, lying ; traordinary. ly ; mol. fero, take it 

subst. liar. . misceo, scui, stum or ill. 

mena,tis, f sense, mind, xt\im2. to mix, to dis- molestia., ae, f. annoy- 
under standing, spirit, turb. ance. 

state of mind. miser, era, erum, lorcfc^- molesius 3. trouble- 

mensa, ae, / table. ed. some. 

mensis, is, m. month. miserandus 3. pitiable, molior, itus sum 4. to 


prepare, get ready. munio 4. to fortify. lum navale, naval- 

mollio 4. to soften, make munus, eris, n. service ; war. 

soft, alleviate. 2) present. navigo 1. to navigate. 

mollis, e, soft. murex, icis, m. a pur- navis, is,/ ship ; navis 

inoWitia, ae, f softness. pie fish, purple. \oiiga, war-ship. 

Molo, onis, m. Molon. murmur, uris, n. mur- ne, adv. not (with Im- 

momentum, i, n. cir- mur. perat., and Subj. of 

cuvistance. murus, i, m. wall (as a exhorting), 

moneo 2 to admonish, structure). ne, conj. that not ; that 

mons, ntis, m. moun- mus, muris, m. mouse. [^ 106, 1 and 3.) 

tain. musca, Sie,f. a fiy. ne, interrogative particle, 

monumentum, i, n. musicus, \,m. musician. (^ 115. 3. b. a.) 

monun.ent. muto 1. to change, ex- ne — quidem not even, 

mora, ae,/. delay. change. not also, (has the 

morbus, i, m. disease. mutus 3. dumb. word on which the 

mordax, acis, biting. emphasis rests be- 

mordeo, momordi, mor- N. tween its parts). 

sum 2. to bite,toback- Nam, namque, conj. for nebula, ae,/. mist. 

bite. nanciscor, nactus sum nee (neque), and not, 

morior, mortuus sum, 3. to obtain. also not ; nee (ne- 

mon, to die. narratio, onis,/ narra- que) — nee (neque), 

moror 1. to delay, re- tion, narrative. neither — nor. 

main; c. ace. to narro 1. to relcite. necdum, and not yet. 

make nothing of. nascor, natus sum 3. to necessarlus 3. neces- 

morosus 3. morose. be born, to spring. sary ; related ; homo 

mors, tis,/ death. natalis, is, m. birth-day. necessarius, friend. 

mortalis, e, mortal. natio, onis, / nation, necesse est, it is neces- 

mos, oris, m. custom, tribe. sary {§ 105. R. 4.) 

manner ; plur. charac- nato 1. to swim. necessitas, atis,/ neces- 

ter. natura, ae,/ nature. sity. 

motus, us, m. move- naturalis, e, natural. neco 1. to kill. 

ment ; motus terrae, natus, us, m. birth ; ma- nectar, aris, n. nectar. 

earthquake. jor natu, older; minor necto, xui, xum 3. to 

moveo, vi, turn 2. to natu, younger. join together, weave. 

move. natus 3. bom ; post nefaiius 3. infamous. 

mox, adv. thereupon, Christum natum, af nefas, (indecl.) n. wrong. 

(i/lerwards. ter the birth of Christ ; negligo, lexi, lectum 3. 

muller, eris, / woman, old (when the year to neglect. 

wife. has been specified, nego 1. to deny, say no. 

MiJIlerus, i, m. Midler. which in this case negotlor 1. to pursue 

multitudo, Inis, / mul- stands in the ace.) business, trade. 

titude. naufragium, i, n. ship- negoiium, i, n. busi- 

muho 1. to fine, punish. wreck; naufr. facere, n£ss. 

multus 3. much, many. to suffer shipwreck. nemo (in is) c. nobody, 

mundus, i, m. world. nauta, ae, m. sailor. no one, (gen. andabl. 

munificentia, ae,/ mw- \\a\a\\B,e,naval,pertain- not used). 

nificenre. ing to a ship ; pugna neptis, is, / grand- 

munificus 3. munificent. navalis, sea-fight; bel- daughter. 


Neptunus, i. m. JVep- do) — sed etiam, no< ble that any one f any 

tune. only — hut also. thing ? 

nequeo, ivi, itum, ire, nondum, adv. not yet. nunc, adv. now. 

not to be able. nonne ? not ? not in- nundlnae, arum, f, 

nequicquam, adv. in deed"^ whether not. market. 

vain, to no effect. nonnunquam,arfv.some- nunquam, adv. never. 

nervus,\,m.nerve, sinew. times. nuntlo 1. to announce. 

nescio 4. not to know, nosco, novi, notum 3. nuntius, i, m. message, 
nescius 3. not knowing ; to become acquainted news ; messenger. 

non sum nescius, / ivith. nuper, lately. 

know full well. noster, tra, trum, our. nurus, us, f. daughter- 

m [nisi), conj. if not, nostras, atis, m. of our in-law. 

unless. country, fellow-conn- nusquam, ac?v. no-tu^cre. 

nidifico 1. to build a tryman. nutrio 4. to nourish. 

nest. nota, ae,/. mark, sign, nutrix, icis,/. nurse. 

nidus, i, m. nest. notio, onis,/. notion. nutus, us, m. nod, com- 

niger, gra, grum, black, notitia, ae, /. knowl- mand. 
nihil (indecl.) n. nothing. edge. nux, nucis,/ a nvt. 

nihilum, i, n. nothing, nolo 1. to mark, brand. 
nimls, adv. too much, notus S. known. O. 

nimlum, adv. too much, November, bris, m. Obdormisco, mivi, mi- 

too very. JVovember. tum 3. to fall asleep. 

ningo, xi, 3. to snoiv. novi, isse, to know. obduco, xi, ctum 3. to 

nisi, conj. if not ; ex- novus 3. new. overspread, cover, 

cept. nox, noctis,y! night. obedio 4. to obey. 

nitrdus 3. shining, nubes, is, /. doud. obeo, li, itum, ire, to 

splendid. nubo, psi, ptum 3. c. die. 

nitor, nisus or nixus dat. to marry (of the obitus, us, m. departure, 

sum 3. c. abl. to rely woman). death. 

upon something ; ad nullus 3. no one, no ; oblecto 1. to delight. 

aliquid, to strive after nullus non, every one. oblino, evi, itum 3. to 

something ; in aliquid num,interrogative word besmear, contaminate. 

to strive against some- [§ 1 15, 3, b, c,]. oblivio, onis, /. ohliv- 

thing. Numa, ae, m. JVuma. ion. 

nix, nivis,/ sn/}w. Numantia, ae, /. JVu- obliviscor, oblitus sum 

nobilis, e, known, re- mantia. 3. c. gen. or ace. to 

nowned. numero 1. to number, forget. 

nohWito 1. to make knoivn, reckon. obrepo, repsi, reptum 

renowned. numerus, i, m. numher,' 3. c. dat. to creep 

noceo 2. to injure. multitude, rhythm. upon, steal upon, sur- 

noctu, adv. by night. Numida, ae, m. a JVu- prise some one. 
nocturnus 3. nocturnal. midian. obruo, ui, utum 3. to 

nodus, i, m. knot. Numidia, ae, /. JVu- cover over, overwhelm. 

nomen, Inis, n. name. midia. obscuro 1. to obscure. 

nomino 1. to name. nummus, i, m. money, a obscurus 3. obscure. 

non, adv. not (stands sesterce. obsequium, i, n. sub- 

before its verb) ; non numquis, numqua, mission, obedience. 

solum (tantum, mo- numquid, is U possi- obsequor, secutus sum 


3. c. dat. to obey, occupo 1. to take pas- opinor 1. to think. 

comply with. session of, fall upon, opitulor 1. to lend aid. 

observo 1. to observe. to surprise. oportet 2. it is necessary, 

obsessio, onis,/. block- October, bris, m. Oc- (§ 105. R. 4.) 

ade, siege. tober. opperior, pertus sum 4. 

obsideo, sessi, sessura oculus, i, m. eye. to await. 

2. to besiege. odi, isse, to hate. oppidum, i, n. town. 

obsidio, onis,/ siege. odiosus S. hateful, hated, oppleo, evi, etum 2. to 
obsolesco, levi 3. to odium, i, n. fUl up,fll. 

pass away, become an- Odofredus, i, m. Ott- op])6no S. to oppose. 

tiquated. fned. opportune, adv. oppor- 

obsto, stiti, statum 1. c. ofFendo, di, sum 3. to tunely. 

to stand against, in offend. opprlmo, pressi, pres- 

ide way of, to be a ofFero, obtiili, oblatum, sum 3. to oppress. 

hindrance, hinder. 3. to offer. oppugno 1. to attack. 

obsum, fui, esse c. dat. officio, feci, fectura 3. ops (not used), gen. 

to be against, injure. to hinder, prevent. op\s,f. aid. 

obtempero 1. to obey. officium, i, n. duty, ser- optabilis, e, desirable. 
obtineo, 2. to maintain. vice. optimas, atis, m. chief 

obtingo, igi 3. to fall to offundo, fudi, fusum 3. man. 

one's lot. c. dat. to fow against; opto 1. to wish. 

obtrectatio, onis, f. de- pass, to spread one's opulentus 3. powerful, 

traction. self upon, surround rich. 

obtrecto 1. c. d. to dis- something ; c. ace. to opus, eris, n. icork. 

parage. cover. opus est, it is necessary, 

obviam, adv. against, to oleum, i, n. oil. [k 91. 5, c] 

meet. oYim, adv. formerly. oraciil um, i, n. oracZe. 

occasio, onis, f. oppor- omitto, misi, missum3. oratio, onis,/. speech. 

tunity. to let go, pass over, orator, oris, m. orator. 

occasus, us, m. setting, postpone. orbis, is, m. circle. 

downfall. omnino, adv. wholly, al- ordior, orsus sum 4. to 

Occidens, ntis, m. set- together. begin. 

ting sun, western re- omnis, e, each, whole ; ordo, inis, m. order, suc- 

gions, west. plur. all. cession, rank. 

occido, cidi, casum 3. onero 1. to load, burden. Orestes, ae, m. Orestes. 

to fall. onus, eris, n. load. Oriens, ntis, m. sun- 

occido, cidi, cisum 3. to onyx, ychis, m. onyx. rising, east, eastern 

kill. opera, ae,/ service ren- regions. 

occo 1. to harrow. dered, labour ; ope- origo, inis,/ origin. 

occulo, uliii, ultum 3. ram dare, navare c. orior, ortus sum 4. to 

to conceal. dat. to occupy one's rise, spring from. 

occulio 1. to conceal. sdfwith. ornamentum, i, n. oma- 

occultus 3. concealed. opes, um, / power, ment, jewel. 
occumbo, cubiii, cubi- property, goods, trea- ornol. to adorn. 

tum 3. to fall, die. sures. oro 1. to speak; caus- 

Gcr6a, a.e,f.greave (cor- opimus 3. /of, rich. sam orare, to plead; 

responding to our opinio, onis,/ opinion, 2) to entreat. 
boot). belief. oryx, ygisy m. gazette. 


OS, 6ris, n. /ace. paries, etis, /. if^aZZ (of pauper ^ris, jooor. 

OS, ossis, n. bone ; pi. a house). paupertas, atis, f. pov- 

ossa, bones. pario, peperi, partum 3. erty. 

ostium, 1, n. door. to bear, produce ; ova Pausanias, ae, Paw- 

otium, i, n. leisure. parere, to lay eggs. sanias. 

ovis, is,/, sh^ep. paro 1. to prepare. pavidus ^.fearful. 

ovum, i, n. egg. parricldium, i, n. parri- pavo, onis, m. peacock, 

dde, wicked deed. pavor, oris, m. fear, 

P. pars, rtis, /. part, side, fright. 

Paciscor, pactussum 3. plur. the characters in pax, pacis,/. peace ; 2) 

to make a bargain. a play. permission. 

pactum, i, n. bargain ; parsimonia, ae, /. fru- peccatum, i, n. sin, 

nullo pacto, in no gality. fault. 

way. particeps, clpis, par- pecco 1. to sin, do 

paene, adv. nearly, al- tidpating in. wrong. 

most. particula, ae, /. a par- pecten, inis, m. comb. 

pallrdus 3. pale, limd. tide. pecto, xi, xum 3. to 

pallium, i, n. cloak. partior 4. to divide. comb. 

palumbes, is, m. wood- parum, adv. too little. pectus, oris, n. breast. 

pigeon. parvus, 3. small. pecuDia, ae,/ money. 

palus, udis. /. marsh, pasco, pavi, pastum 3. pedes, itis, in. footman, 

pool. to pasture (of herds- foot-soldier. 

pando, andi, assum, 3. men), <o/eerf; pascor, \)Q]GTo\.to swear falsdy. 

to open. pastus sum, pasci, to pello, pepuli, pulsum 3. 

pango, peplgi, pactum be fed, pastured, (of to drive. 

3. to fix in, to fasten, herds). Pelopidas, ae, m. Pdo- 

bargain, agree to on pascuum, i, n. pasture. pidas. 

condition. passim, far and wide, pelvis, is,/ basin, bowl. 

panis, is, m. bread. pastor, oris, m. herds- penates, lum, m. pena- 

papaver, eris, n. pop- man. tts, household gods. 

py. patefacio, feci, factum pendeo, pependi [sup, 

papWio, 6ms, ly,. abutter- 3. to makeknown. wanting) 2. to hang. 

fly. pateo, ui 2. to stand pendo, pependi, pen- 

par, aris, eqmd ; par open. sum 3. to pay for, 

sum c. dat. 1 am a pater, ti'is, m. father. value. 

match for some one. patienter, adv. patiently, penitus, adv. wholly. 
par, aris, w. a pair. patior, passus sum 3. penna, ae,/./fa<^r. 

Parapamisus, i. m. to suffer, allow. pensum, i, n. thread. 

Parapamisus. patria, ae, / native peracerbus 3. very bit- 

paratus 3. prepared, rea- country. ter, severe. 

dy. patrocinor 1. c. dat. to perago, egi, actum 3. to 

parco, peperci, parsum proted. accomplish. 

3. c. dat. to spare, pauci, ae, a. few. peragro 1. to pass 

forbear. paullisper, adv. a little through. 

parens, ntis, c. father or while. percipio, cepi, ceptum 

mother ; plur. pa- paullulum, adv. a little. 3. to perceive. 

rents. pauUus 3. little ; paulo percrepo, ul, itum 1. to 

par^o 2. to obey. post, a little after. resound. 


percurro, cucurri or perpetIor,pessussum3. perversTtas, atis, /! jper- 

curri, cursum 3. to to endure. versify. 

run through. perpetro ]. to perform, pervideo, idi, isum 2. 

perdo, didi, ditum 3. perpetuitas, atis,/. per- to consider, examine. 

to ruin, destroy, lose. petuity, duration. pes, pedis, m.foot. 
perdomo, ui, itum 1, to perpetuo, adv. contin- peslilentla, ae,/. pesti- 

tame, suhdut. ually. lence. 

peregre, adv. abroad. perpetuus 3. continued, pestis, is,/, pest, destruc- 
pereo, ii, Itum, ire, to constant. tion. 

go to ruin, perish. perrodo, si, sum 3. to peto, ivi, itum 3. c. ace. 
perfectus S. perfect. eat through. to strive to obtain, 

perficio, feci, fectum3. perrumpo, rupi, rup- strive after, attack, 

to finish, effect. turn 3. to break fetch. 

perftdus 3 faithless. through. petulans, tis, wanton. 

perfringo, fregi, fractum Persa, ae, m. a Per- petulantia, ae,/. wan- 

3. to break through. sian. tonness,licentiousness. 

perfuga, ae, m. deserter, persaepe, adv. very of- Phidias, ae, m. Phidias. 
perfugium, i, n. refuge. ten. philosophla, ae,/ phi- 

pergo, perrexi, perrec- ^ers&no l.tocurewholly, losophy. 

turn 3. to go, proceed, persequor, secutus sum philosophus, i, m. phi- 
periculum, i, n. danger. 3. to follow up, pur- lusopher. 
periodus, i,/ ^criorf. sue. pie, adv. tenderly, pious- 

peritus 3. c. gen. ex- perse vero AoZdf owf. ly. 

perienced, skilled in. persolvo, vi, utum 3. pietas, atis, / pidy, 
permaneo, mansi, man- to pay. filial love. 

sum 2. to continue, ])ers6na, ae, f person, ip'iger, gra, grum, sloth- 
hold out. persto, iti, atum 1. to ful, dull. 
permano 1. to fiow persist. pigritia, ae, / inactivity. 

through. perstringo, inxi, ictum pilosus 3. hairy, covered 

permitto, isi, issum 3. 3. to draw through, with hair. 

to permit. censure. pi'^go, inxi, ictum 3. 

permoveo, movi, mo- persuadeo, si, sum 2. c. to paiut ; acu pin- 

tum 2. to move, stir dat. to persuade, con- gere, to embroider. 

up. vince. pin us, us,/ pine, 

permulcfio, Isi, Isum 2. perterreo 2. to frighten, piper, eris, n. pepper. 

to stroke, please, put in fear. \imim, \, n, pear. 

charm, soothe. pertinax, acis, obstin- ip'irus, i, f pear-tree. 

ipennuhusS. very many. ate. piscator, oris, m.fisher- 

pernicies, ei,/ destruc- pertlneo, 2. to extend; man. 

tion. ad aliquem, to per- piscis, is, 

perniciosus 3. perni- tain to some one. piscor i. to fish. 

cious, destructive. perturbatio, onis,/ dis- pius 3. pious, grateful. 
pernosco, novi, notum turbance. placeo 2. to please. 

3. to become thorough- perturbo 1. to disturb, placide, adv. gently. 

ly acquainted with. pervehor, vectus sum 3. placidus 3. gentle. 
perosus 3. hating great- to be conveyed off. placo 1. to appease. 

ly. perverse, adv. perverse- plane, adv. wholly; 

ly. plainly. 



planetes, ae, m. planet. 

planitles, ei,y! a plain. 

planta, ae, /. plant. 

Plato, onis, m. Plato. 

plaustrum, i, n. draught- 

plausus, us, m. applause. 

Plautus, i, m. Plautus. 

plenus 3. c. gen. full. 

plerique, aeque, aque, 
very many, most. 

plerumque, adv. com- 

Plinius, i, m. Pliny. 

ploratus, us, m. com- 
plaint, [many. 

plures, a, G.ium. 7nore, 

plurlmus 3. most. 

plus, uris, n. more. 

pluviosus 8. rainy. 

poema, atis, n. poem. 

l>oeusi,fie, /.punishment ; 
poenas dare, to be 
punished ; 2) revenge. 

poemtetme alicujusrei, 
it repents me of some- 

Poenus, i, m. a Cartha- 

poeta, ae, m. poet. 

polite, adv. elegantly. 

pel lex, icis, m. thumb. 

polliceor, citus sum 2. 
to promise. 

Pompeii, drum, m. Pom- 
peii (a city). 

Pompeius, i, m. Pom- 

Ponipilius, i, m. Pom- 

pomum, i, n. i^\m'. eata- 
ble fruit. 

pondero 1. to ponder. 

pono, sui, situm 3. to 
lay, place ; ponere in 
aliqua re, to set, place 
upon something. 

pons, lis, m. bridge. 

populor 1. to lay waste. 

popillus, i, m. people. 

populus, \,f. poplar. 

porro, adv. moreover. 

porta, ae,y! gate. 

j)ortrcus, lis,/, portico. 

porto ]. to bear. 

portus, us, m. haven. 

posco, poposci 3. to de- 

possesslo, onis, f pos- 
session, possessing. 

possum, potui, posse, to 
be able {can). 

postea, adv. afterwards. 

posteaquam, conj. after 

postero die, on thefol- 
loioing day ; in po- 
sterum diem, till the 
following day. 

postis, is, 

postquam, conj. after 

postremus 3. last ; ad 
postremum, lastly. 

postulo 1. to demand. 

potens, lis, c. gen. pow- 
erful, master of. 

potentia, ae,/ power. 

potestas, atis, /. power. 

potio, onis, / drinking, 

potior, titus sum 4. c. 
abl. to possess one's 
self of. 

potissimum, adv. es- 
pecially, principally. 

potius, adv. much more, 

potus, us, m. drink. 

praealtus 3. very deep. 

praebeo 2. to afford, 
lend; se praebere, to 
prove, show one's self. 

praeceps, cipitis, inclin- 
ing, rugged, steep ; 


praeceptor, 6ns, m. 

praeceptum,i,n. precept, 

praeclare, adv. nobly.. 

praeclarus 3. noble. 

praechido 3. to shut: 

praeco, onis, m. enca- 

praecordia, onim, «. 

praecox, cdcis, preco- 

praeda, ae,/. booty. 

[)raedico 1. to extol. 

praedico 3. to predict. 

praedltus 3. c. abl. en- 
dowed with. 

praedium, i, 

praedor 1. to make booty. 

praefero, tuli, latum, 
ferre 3. to prefer. 

prael6quor,locutus sum 
3. to speak before. 

praemium, i, n. reward. 

praeparatio, 6u\s, f pre- 

praeparo 1 . to prepare. 

praepono, osiii, ositum 
3. to prefer. [tily. 

praepropere, adv. has- 

praesens, tis, present. 

praesertim, adv. espec- 
ially, [dent. 

praeses. Id is, m, presi- 

])raesidium, i, n. aid^ 
protection, support. 

praestabllis, e, excelletU. 

praestans, tis, excellent. 

praesto, iti, atum 1. <• 
be distinguished; ali- 
ciii, to surpass ; to be 
better; to bestow; to 
pay ; se praestare, to 
show one's self. 

praesto, adv. present, at 


praesiim, fui, esse, to probari alicui, to prohlbeo, bui, bitum 2. 

be placed before, pre- please some one. to prevent, keep off. 

side over. probrum, i, n. disgrace, proinde, adv. therefore ; 
praetereo, ii, itum, ire, probus 3. vpright, ex- proinde quasi, just as 

to pass by before. cellent. if. 

praeterltus 3. past. Probus, i, m. Probus. promitto, misi, missum 

praetor, oris, w. ^rae^or. procella, ae,/. s/orm. 3. to promise. 
praetoriiim, i, n. gener- proceres, um, m. the no- promptu, in promptu 

aVs tent. bles. esse, to be ready. 

prandeo, di, sum 2. to procerus 3. slim, tall. promptus3. ready. 

breakfast. procudo, di, sum 3. (of pronuntio 1. to pro- 

pratum, i, n. meadow. money) to coin. nounce. 

pra vitas, atis,/. deprav- procul, adv. far off, from prope, adv. near: 2) 

iiy. a distance. nearly, almost. 
preces, um,/. entreaties procumbo, cubili, cubi- propere, adv. hastily. 

precor 1. to entreat; turn S. to fall doivn. propitius 3. propitious, 

bene pr. alicui, to procuro 1. to take care of. favorable. 

ivish well to one. prodeo, li, Itum, ire, to propositu m, i, 7i. pur- 

premo, pressi, pressum go forth, depart. pose, design. 

3. to press. prodigiosus 3. wonder- proprius 3. otvn, pecu- 

pretiosus 3. precious. fid. liar. 

pretium, i, n. price, proditio, 6ms,f. treach- propterea, adv. on this 

value. ery. account. 

pridem, adv. long ago ; prodltor, oris, m. traitor, propugnator, oris, m. 

jam pridem, long prodo, didi, ditum, 3. to champion, defender. 

since. deliver up, betray. propulso 1. to drive 

Priene, es, /. Priene (a proellum, i, n. en^oun- back. 

city of Ionia). ter. prorepo 3. to creep forth. 

primo, adv. in the first profanus 3. profane. prorsus adv. entirely. 

place. profecto, adv. indeed, prospecto 1. to look 

primum, adv. in the first truly. forth. 

place. profero, tuli, latum, fer- prosperitas, a.t\8,f.pros- 

princeps, ipis, m. first ; re, 3. to bring for- perity. 

the first. ward. [fessor. prospicio, spexi, spec- 

principium, i, n. be- professor, oris, m. pro- tum 3. to see before 

ginning ; principio, proficio, feci, fectum 3, one's self. 

in the beginning. to profit, accomplish, prosterno, stravi, stra- 

priscus 3. old. i)roficiscor, fectus sijm, tum 3. to prostrate. 

pristfnus 3. former. 3. to set out (on a prosum, fui, desse c. 

prius, adv. sooner. journey), march, de- dat. to be useful, ben- 

priusquam, conj. before part. eftt. 

that, ere, before. profiteor, fessus sum 2. prothma, adv. immediate- 

privatus 3. private. to acknowledge freely, ly. 

I)robe, adv. excellently, promise, offer freely. proverbium, i, n. prov- 

suitably, uprightly. profusus 3. unrestrained. erb. 

prohltas, SLtis,f. upright- progredior, gressussum providentia, ae, f.fore- 

ness. 3. to step forth, ad- sight, providence. 

probo 1. to approve ; vance. provideo, vidi, visum 2. 


to foresee ; c. tiat. to ctum 3. to sting, to que, conj. and (always 

provide for something; harass. attached to its word). 

2) to be on one's Punic us 3. P//mc. quemadmodum, adv. in 

guard, look out. punio 4. to punish, cor- what manner, as. 

provincia, ae, / pro- red. qued ivi, itum, ire, to 

vince. puppis, is,y*. the stern of be able {can). 

proxime, adv. next. a ship. quercus, us,/, oak. 

proxlrnus 3. next. purgo 1. to purify, justi- querela, ae,/ complaint, 

prudens, tis, wise, pru- fy. plaintive cry. 

dent, skilful. purus 3. pure. queror, questus sum 3. 

prudenter, adv. wisely, puto I. to think, believe, to complain. 

prudently. consider. qui, quae, quod, who. 

prudentia, ae,/. ivisdom, Pylades, ae, m. Pylades. qui, how, whence, whereby. 

prudence. Pythagoras, ae, m. Py- quia, conj. because. 

prunum, i, n. a plum. thagoras. quicunque, quaecun- 

prunus, i,/ /)^Mm<ree. que, quodcunque, 

pubes, eris, grown up. Q. whosoever. 

publice, adv. publicly, Quaere, sivi, situm 3. quidam,quaedarn, quid- 

on behalf of the State, to seek, nh or ex ali- dam and quoddam. 

at tlie cost of the State. quo, to ask of one. [§ 31. 6)]. 

publico 1. to make pub- quaeso, I pray, beseech, quidem, indeed (is 

lie. quaestio, oriis, / ques- placedafler its word), 

publicus 3. public ; in tion. quidni, why not. 

publico, in a public qualis, e, of what sort, quies, etis,/ quid. 

street. character ; as. quiesco, evi, etura 3. 

pudor, oris, m. shame. qualiscunque, of what- to rest. 

puella, ae,/ mmd. ever sort, character. quietus 3. quiet. 

puer, eri, wi. 6o^ ; pueri, quam, adv. how, as; quin, [$ 107, 3. b)]. 

children. conj. (with the com- quinam ? who then'^ 

puerilis, e, childish. parative) than. quippe, adv. indeed,^ 

pueritia, ae, / child- quamdiu, how long, so namely. 

hood. long as. quis ? quid ? who ? what ? 

puerulus, i, m. little boy. quamvis, conj. with the quis, qua, quid anrf qui, 

pugnai, ae, f. fight, bat- subj. how much soever, quae, quod [31,1)] 

tie. although. any one. 

pugno 1. to fight. quando, adv. when. quisnam, quaenam, 

pulcher, chra, chrum, quanquam, conj. with quidnam, ivho, what 

beautiful, fair. indie, though, at- then% 

pulchre, adv. beautiful- though. quispiam, quaepiam, 

ly. quanto, (with comp.) qiiidpiam and quod- 

pulchritudo,inis/1 6caM- the. piam [§ 31, 3)]. 

ty. quantoiiere, fu)w greatly, quisquam, quicquam 

pulex, icis, m. afiea. quantus 3. how great ; and quodquam, 

pullus, i, m. th£ young quantum, how much. (scarcely) any one, 

(of animals), c^/cA:en. quantuscunque, how [§31,4)]. 

pulvis, eris, m. sand, great soever. quisque, quaeque, quid- 

dusi. quasi, as it were, as if, que and quodque [§ 

pungo, pupiigi, pun- as though. 31,7)]. 


quisqiiis, quicquid,ifj/io- recipio, cepi, ceptum refrico, cui, catum 1. to 

ever. {§ 30. R. 2). 3. to take hack., re- rub again, renew. 

quo,adv, whither; quo- ceivt ; se recipere, regina, ae,y! queen. 

eo, (in cornp.) the — to betake one's self regio, onis,/. region. 

so much the. back. reglus 3. royal. 

quoad, so long as, until, recito 1. to read to. regno 1. to reign. 

until that, even until, recordatio, onis, /. re- regnum, i, n. reign, 
tjuocunque, adv. whith- collection. kingdom. 

ersoever. rccordor 1. c. ace. to rego, xi, ctum 3. to 

quod, conj. that, because. remember, call to mind. govern, guide, rule, 
■quodsi, if now, but if . recreo 1. to renew, re- rejiclo, jeci, jecturn 3. 
<juominus,Maf (^07,2). fresh. to throw away, reject. 

quoniodo, adv. how. recrudesce, dui 3. to religlo, onis,/. religion, 
quondam, adv. once, break open afresh. conscientiousness. 

formerly. recte, adv. rightly, cor- religiose, adv. scrupu- 

quoniani, conj. because. rectly. lously. 

quoque, adv. also. rector, oris, m. governor, relinquo, liqui,licturn3. 

quot.^ how many 7 rectus S. straight, direct, to leave behind, desert. 

quotannis, adv. yearly. right ; recta consci- reliquus 3. remaining. 
quotcunque, however entia, a good con- remaneo, nsi, nsum 2. 

many. science. to remain behind, re- 

quotidianus 3. daily. recumbo, cubui, cubl- main, 
quotidle, adv. daily. turn 3, to lie cfoti^n reminiscor (without the 

quotles, adv. how often. again. P^Kf-) '^' ^' S®"* ^ 

quotlescunque, adv. recupero 1. to recover. ace. to remember. 

however ojten. redamo 1. to love in re- reinoveo, ovi, otum 2. 

quotqi\ot,however many. turn. to remove. 

quotus 3. tvhat one in redarguo, ui, utum 3. Remus, i. m. Remus. 

order. to refute. ren, (commonly plur. 

qiuim, conj. wlien ; as, reddo, idi, itum 3. to renes, um, m.) kid- 
since, give back again, give, neys. 

make. [turn, reor, ratus sum, reri, ^. 

R. redeo, u, itum 4. tore- to be persuaded, think. 

Raines, ci,f madness, raditus, us, m. rettirn. repente, adv. suddenly. 
rabiosus 3. mad. reduco, xi, ctum 3. to reperio, peri, pertum 4. 

radix, icis, /. rooi. lead back. to find, find out. 

rana, iie,f.frog. redundo 1. to redound, repeto, ivi, itum 3. to 

rapid us 3. tearing away, refello, elli 3. to refute. call back, retrace. 

rapid. refercio, rsi, rtum 3. to repleo, evi, etum 2. to 

rapio, pui, ptum 3. to stuff, fill up. fill up. 

snatch, carry off. refero, tuli, latum, ferre replico 1. to repeat. 

raro, adv. rarely. 3. to bring back, re- reporto ]. to bear off. 

rarus 3. seldom. turn again ; requite ; repugno 1. to contend 

ratio, onis, /. reason ; refer to. against. 

manner. refert 3. c. gen. it con- reputo 1. to iveigh, con- 

ravis, \s,f. hoarseness. cerns. (§ 88. 10). sider. 

recedo, cessi, cessum reformido 1. c. ace. <o requles, etis, (ace. requi- 

3. to go bade, retire. fear something. em),/, rest, relaxation. 


requiesco, evi, etum 3. Rhodus, i./. Rhodes. saevio 4. to rage. 

(ex) c. abl. to repose, rideo, risi, risutn 2. to saevus S.Jlerce. 

requiro, quisivi, quisi- laugh ; c. ace. to sagitta, ae,/. arrow. 

turn 3. to search after, laugh at, deride. sal, salis, m. salt ; loit. 

inquire for. ridiculus 3. ridiculous, salio, lui, hum 4^. to leap, 

res, rei,/. affair, thing, ripa, ae,/. 6anA;. saltern, adv. at least. 

rescindo, idi, issum 3. risus, us, m. laugh. salto 1. to dance. 

to tear off, break off. rite, adv. in a proper salus, ut\s, f. prosperity, 

rescisco, ivi or li, itum manner. welfare, safety. 

3. to ascertain. rivulus, i, m. stream. salularis, e, salutary. 

reseco, ciii, ctum 2. to robur, oris, n. strength, saluto 1. to salute. 

cut off. robustus 3. strong. salve, hail ! (Imper. of 

reservo 1. to reserve. rogo 1. to entreat, ask. salveo 2. to he well). 

resldeo, edi, essum 2. Rotrianus 3. Roman ; salvus 3. safe, well. 

to remain behind. Rornanus, i, m. a Samnis, itis, m. a Sam- 

resisto, stiti, stitum 3. Roman. nite. 

to resist. Romulus, i, m. Romu- sanclo, nxi, ncitum 4. 

resono 1 , to resound. lus. to sanction. 

resonus 3. resounding, rosa, ae, /. rose. sancte, adv. sacredly, 

echoing. Rosclus, i, m. Roscius. conscientiously. 

respiro 1. to breathe. rostrum, i, n. beak. sanctus 3. sacred. 

respondeo, di, sum 2. rotundus 3. round. sane, adv. truly. 

to answer, reply. ruber, bra, brum, red. sarrguis, inis, m. blood. 

responsio, onis, /. an- rudens, tis, m. rope, sano 1. to heal, cure. 

swer. stay. sapid us 3. palatable. 

respf)nsum, i, n. an- rudis, e, c. gen. crude, sapiens, tis, wise ; subst 

swer. unacquainted with, wise num. 

respublica, G. rei pub- rudo, ivi (i), itum 3. to sapientia, ae,y. ivisdom. 

licae,/. State. roar. sapTo, ui 3. to be wise. 

respuo, ui, utum 3. to rumpo, rupi, ruptum 3. sarcio, rsi, rtum 4. to 

reject. to break, tear. make good again, re- 

restingiio, nxi, nctum, ruo, riii, rutum 3. to pair. [bi'anch. 

3. to smother, to ex- rush. sarmentum, i, n. shoot, 

tinguish. rupes, \s,f rock, diff. sat, adv. sufficiently. 

restis, is,/, rope. rus, ruris, n. country. satlo 1. to satiate. 

restituo, iii, utum 3. to rustlcus3,rwsh*c,- subst. sattra, ae,/. satire. 

restore. countryman, boor. satis, adv. sufficiently. 

resto, stiti 1. to be left ; ruXx\u^ ^. fkry red. Saturnus, i, 7n. Saturn. 

2) resist. saxum, i, n. rock. 

rete, is, n. net, toil. S. scateo, ere, c. abl. to he 

retineo, inui, entum 2. Sacer, era, crum, sa- full of something. 

to hold back, retain. cred; sacra, orum, n. seaturigo, inis/. spring. 

reus, i, m. defendant. sacred rites. seeleratus 3. wicked. 

reverter, Perf! : reverti sacerdos, otis, c. priest, seelus, eris, n. crime, 

3. to return. priestess. transgression. 

revoco I. to recall. saeculum, i, n. a hun- schola, ae,/ school, 

rex, g'ls, m. king. dred years. scholasticus3. q/" or ^er- 

Rhenus, i, m. Rhine. saepe, adv. often. taining to a school. 


scilicet, adv. truli/^ to sententia, ae, /. senti- similitudo, inis, /. like- 

wit. merit, opinion. ness. 

scintilla, ae,f. spark. sentio, nsi, nsum 4. to simplex, icis, simple, 

ecio 4. to know. feel, think, judge. s\nm\, adv. at the sam£ 

scipio, onis, m. staff. sentis, is, m. (common- time. 

Scipio, onis, m. Scipio. ly plur. semes), thorn- simulac, conj, (never 

scribo, psi, ptum 3. to hush. before a vowel or h) 

write. separo 1. to separate, as soon as. 

scriptor, oris, m. writer. disjoin. simulatio, onis, f. pre- 

scrobis, is, m. hole, ditch, sepelio, pelivi, piiltum tence. 

iscrupulus, i, m. scruple. 4. to inter, bury. simulatque = simulac. 

Scytha, ae, m. a Say- seplo, sepsi, septum 4. simulo 1. to liken one^s 

thian. to hedge in, inclose. self to ; to feign. 

secerno, crevi, cretum sepono, posui, posltum sin, conj. but if. 

3. to sunder, separate. 3. to lay aside. sinapis, is,y! mustard. 

seco, cui, ctum 1. to September, bris,m.*S'e/>- singuli, ae, a, sing-^e. 

cut. tember. sino, sivi, situm 3. to 

sector 1. c. ace. to pur- sepulcrum, i, n. grave, permit, allow. 

sue, strive after. burial. siquidem, conj. if in-' 

secundus 3. favorable, sequor, secutus sum 3. deed. 

fortunate ; res secun- c. ace. tojollow. siser, eris, n. carrot. 

dae, prospeiity. serenus 3. clear, bright, sitio 4. to thirst ; c. ace. 

securis, is, /. axe, hatch- serius 3. grave. to thirst after some- 

et. sermo, onis, m. conver- thing. 

securus 3. secure, sctfe. sation, discourse. sitis, is,/, thirst. 

!4ed, conj. but. sero, sevi, satum 3. to situs, us, m. situation ; 

fledeo, sedi, sessum 2. sow, plant. 2)mould,fUth. 

to sit. serus 3. /oo iaie. situs, 3. placed; situm 

sedes, is,/ seat. servlo 4. to serve. esse, tobe placed, bu- 

seditlo, onis,/ sedition, servitus, utis, / servi- ried. 

sedo 1. to quiet. tude. sive — sive, conj. wheth- 

sedulo, adv. busily. servo 1. fo preserve. er — or, either — or, 

seges, etis,/ crop. servus, i, m. slave. soccus, i, m. sock, shoe. 

semen, Inis, n. seed. seu, conj. see sive. socer, eri, m. father-in- 
seniper, adv. alivays. se Veritas, atis,/ sever- law. 

sempiternus 3. ever-dur- ity. societas, atis, / union, 

ing, eternal. si, conj. if, if also. league, alliance, as- 

eenator, oris, m. seimtor. sic, adv. so, thus. sociaiion. 

senatus, us, m. senate, sica, ae,/ dagger. socius, i, m. ally. 

senectus, utis, / age, sicanus, i, m. assassin. Socrates, is, m. Socra- 

old age. siccine, adv. is it so ? tes. 
senex, senis, oW;subst. sicco 1. to dry. socrus, us,/ mother-in- 
old man. Sicilla, ae,/ Sicily. law. [ion. 
senilis, e, belonging to signum, i, n. sign. sodalis, is, m. compan- 

old age; aetas seni- silentinm, i, n. silence, sol, solis, m. sun. 

lis,/ old age. siler, -eris, n. willow. solatium, i, n. solace. 
sensus, us, m. sense, sWva, an, f. a wood. solea, ae, / sole; so- 
feeling, simllis, €, like. 16a equi, horseshoe. 



soleo, solitus sum 2. 
1o he wont 

solitudo, inis,/. solitude. 

sellers, tis, dextrous, 

solliclto 1. to disquiet. 

soUicitudo, Inis, /. soli- 
citude, anxiety. 

sollicitiis 3. anxious. 

solum, i, n. ground. 

solus 3. alone. 

solutus 3. unbound. 

solvo, vi, utum 3. to 

somnio 1. to dream. 

somnium, i, n. dream. 

somniis, i, m. sleep. 

sonltus, us, m. sound. 

sono, ui, itum 1. to 

sonus, i, m. tone. 

sophista, ae, m. sophist. 

Sophocles, is, m. Sopho- 

sordid us 3. mean. 

sorex, icis, m. a Jkld- 

sorix, icis, 771. an owl. 

soror, oris,/ sister. 

sors, tis,/. lot. 

sospes, Itis, safe, sound. 

spargo, rsi, rsum 3. to 
strow, scatter, spread. 

spatium, i, n. space, 
length of time. 

species, eA,f.form. 

speciosus 3. striking, 
beautiful. [tator. 

spectator, oris, m. spec- 

specto 1. c. ace. to look 
at, belvold, have some- 
thing in view. 

spec us, us, m. cave. 

sperno, sprevi, spretum 
3. to spurn, 

spero 1. to hope. 

spes, ei,/ hope. \lei. 

spiuther, eris, n. brace- 

spiritus, us, m. breath. 

splen, enis, m. the spleen. 

splendeo, ui 2. to shine. 

splendid us 3. splendid. 

splendor, oris, ?n. mag- 
nificence, splendor. 

spolio 1. to deprive, rob. 

spondeo, spopondi, 
sponsum 2. to be re- 
sponsible for. 

spurius 3. spurious. 

stabilis, e, stable, firm. 

stabilitas, atis,/. stabil- 

statim, adv. immediately. 

statio, onis, station. 

statiia, ae,y! statue. 

status, us, m. posture. 

Stella, ae,/. star. 

stercus, oris, n. dung. 

stimulo 1. to goad. 

stipendium, i, n. pay. 

stirps, pis, / stem, ori- 

sto, steti, statum 1. to 
stand, be gained by, 

strenue, adv. vigorously. 

strideo di, 2. to whistle. 

stringo, inxi, ictum 3. 

strix, igis,/ horned owl. 

studeo, ui 2. to strive, 
exert one's self, en- 
deavor ; c. dat. to oc- 
cupy one's self zea- 
lously toith, favour 
some one. 

studiose, adv. zealously, 

studiosus 3. c. gen. de- 
voted to ; stud, esse 
c. gen. to occupy one's 
self zealously with, 
to apply one's self to 

studlum i, n. effort, zeal, 

stuliitia, ae,f folly. 

stultus S. foolish, silly. 

suavis, e, lovely, agreea- 

suavitas, atis, / sweet- 
ness, loveliness of 

suaviter, adv. sweetly j 

suber, eris, n. cork tree. 

subigo, egi, actum 3. to 
work; subjugate. 

subitus 3. suddenly. 

subjicio, jeci, jectum 3. 
to subject. 

subrideo, risi, risum 2. 
to smile. 

subsequor, secutus sum 

3. to follow. 
substerno, stravi, stra- 
tum 3. to spread un- 

subterfugio, ugi, ugi- 

tura 3. to escape. 
subvenio, veni, ventum 

4. to come to help. 
succedo, essi, essum 3. 

to succeed. 

succenseo, ui, 2. to be 

succumbo, cubui, cubi- 
tum 3., to sink under. 

succurro, cursi, cursura 
3. c. dat. to aid, as- 

sudo 1. to sweat. 

sudor, oris, m. sweat. 

sugo, xi, ctum, 3. to 

em, p7'on. of him, [her^ 
it) self. 

Sulla, ae, m. SvlUt. 

sum, fui, esse, to he, he 
peculiar, belong, per- 
tain to ; c. gen. or 
dat. to possess ; cum 
dupl. dat. to tend tOy 
serve for somethings 
some one. 


summa, ae,/. sum. Syracusae, arum./. Sy- tego, xi, ctum 3. to 

Bummus 3. greatest, racuse. cover. [ering, 

highest. Syius, i, m. a Syrian, tegumentum, i, n. cov- 

surnma aqua, surface of teluni, i, n. arrow, dart, 

the water. T. temere, adv. rashly^ 

sumo, mpsi, mptum 3. Tabula, ae, /. board, without reason. 

to take. [sew. table. temeritas, atis, /. rash- 

suo, sui, sutum 3. to taceo, 2. to be silent. ness, hastiness. 

supellex, ectrlis, f.fur- tacitus 3. silent. temperantia, ae, / tem- 

niture, utensils. taedet me alicujus rei, peranrx. 

su^erhus S. proud, mag- it excites disgust in tempero 1. to modercUe ; 

nifcent. me at something. non temp, mihi quin, 

superior, us, higher ; talentum, i, n. talent 1 cannot refrain from. 

subst. conquerer. (sum of money). tempestas, atis,/. time; 

supero 1. to overcome, talis, e, of such sort, 2) weather, storm. 

surpass. character ; such. templum, i, n. temple. 

superstes, itis, c. dat. tam, so; tam — quam, tempus, oris, n. tim£; 

surviving. so — as. tempore, at the right 

Buperstitio, onis, /. su- tamdiu, adv. so long. time. 

perstition. tamen, conj. yet, stiU. tenax, acis, c. gen. per- 

Buperus 3. above ; su- Tamesis, is, m. Thames. severing, tenacious. 

peri, the gods. tandem, adv. finally, tendo, tetendi, tensum 

suppedito 1. to furnish. then. and tentum 3. to ex- 

supplex, icis, suppliant, tango, tetigi, tactum 3. tend, distend ; ad ali- 
suppliclum, i, n. pun- to touch ; tangi de quid, to strive qfier 

ishm^nt. coelo, to be struck by something. 

suppilco 1. c. dat. to lightning. tenebrae, arum,/. cfarA:- 

entreat. tanquam, just as, as, as ness. 

supra, adv. above. if, as though, as it teneo, nui, ntum 2. to 

gupremus 3. last. were. hold, holdfast, occupy, 

surgo, surrexi, surrec- Tantalus i, m. Tanta- restrain. 

tum 3. to arise. lus. tener, era, erum, tender. 

sus, suis,/ sow, swine, tanto, (in comp.) so tento 1. to try. 
suscipio, cepi, ceptum much the. tenuis, e, slender, smaU, 

3. to undertake, re- tantop^re, adv. so great- slight. 

ceive. ly. tergum, i, n. back. 

Buscito 1. to arouse. tantum, only. terra, ae,/ earth, land. 

BUspTcor 1. to suspect, tantus 3. so great. terreo 2. to frighten. 

imagine. tardltas, atis, / slow- terrestris, e, earthly; 

sustento 1. to support. ness. proelium terrestre, 

sustineo, inui, entum 2. tardus 3. slow. landfight. 

to sustain ; sust. par- Tareutum, i, n. Taren- terribtlis, e, terrible. 

tes, to act a part. turn (a city). terror, oris, m. terror. 

suus 3. his {her, its), his Tarquinlus, i, m. Tar- testamentum, i, n. tes- 

own. quinius. lament, tvill. 

symbolis, de symbolis Tarquinii, orum, m. testis, is, c. witness. 

edere, to eat at com- Tarquinii (a city). teter, tra, trum, fotd^ 

mon expense. tectum, i, n. house, roof hideous. 


texo, xui, xtum 3. to totus 3. the whole. tundo, tutudi, tunsum 

weave, braid. tractatlo, onis, /. hand- 3. to heat, stun. 

Thebanus, i, j/i. a The- ling, pursuit. tunica, ae, /. under- 

ban. tracto 1. to handle, pur- garment. 

Themistocles, is, m. su£, perjorm. turba, ae,/. crowd. 

Themistocles. trado, didi, ditum 3. to turbo 1. to cause confur 

Theophrastus, i, m. deliver over, give, sur- sion, disturb. 

Theophrastus. render, relate. turgidus 3. swollen. 

Thracia, ae,/. Thrace, tradux, ucis, m. a vine turpis, e, disgraceful^ 
Tiberis, is, m. Tiber. branch, vine-layer. base. 

tibia, ae, / shin-hone, tragoedfa, ae,/ tragedy, turpitude, Tnis,/. base- 
pipe, Jlute. traho, traxi, tractum 3. ness. 

Tigris, is,/ Tigris. to draw. turris, is,/ tower. 

tiiiieo, ui 2. to fear. transeo, li, Itum, ire, to turtur, iiris, m. turtle 

timiditas, atis,/ /mM^i- pass by, pass over. dove. 

ty. transfigo, xi, xum 3. to tussis, is,/ cough. 

titnidus 3. timid. transfix, stab. tutus 3. safe. 

tittior, oris, m.fear. transgredior, gressus tuus 3. thy, thine. 

Timotheus, i, m. Timo- sum 3. to pass over, tyrannus i, m. tyrant. 

theus. transigo, egi, actum 3. Tyrlus, i, m. Tyrian. 

tingo, nxi, nctum 3. to to bring about, tran- 

color. sact. U. 

toleranter, adv. pati- transllio, silui, sultum Uber, uberis, abound- 

ently. 4. to leap over. ing in, rich. 

tolero 1. to endure. Trasimenus, i, m. Tra- uber, eris, n. udder. 

tollo, sustuli, sublatum, simenus (a lake). ubertas, atis,/ richness^ 

3. to raise up, bear trenio, ui 3. to tremble. copiousness. 

away. tribuo, ui, utum 3. to uh'i, adv. where ; 2) con/, 

tondeo, totondi, tonsum distribute, give, im- as soon as, when. 

2. to shear. putt. [pc^ny. ubicunque, wherever ; 

tonitru, u, n. thunder. tribus, us,/ tribe, com- ubicunque gentium 
tono, ui 1. to thunde?'. tridens, tis, m. trident. where in all the world, 

tonsor, oris, tn. barber. triennTum, i, n. the space ubinam, adv. where then. 

tonstricula, ae, / afe- of three years. Ubius, i, n. a Ubian. 

mole barber. tristis, e, sad, lowering, ubivis, adv. where you 

tormentum, i, n. torture, triticeus 3. of wheat. will. 

torpeo, ui, 2. to be tor- tropaeum, i, n. trophy, ulciscor, ultus sum 3. c. 

pid, inactive. tu, pron. thou. ace. to take revenge 

torqueo, torsi, tortum tuber, eris, n. hump. upon some one. 

2. to torment, torture, tueor, tultus sura 2. to ullus 3. any one. 

torquis, is, m. neck- behold, keep, protect, ulmus, i,/ elm. 

chain. defend. umbra, ae,/ shade. 

torrens, tis, m. torrent, turn, adv. thereupon, una, adv. at the same 
torreo, torriii, tostum 2. then ; at that time. time, together. 

to dry, roast. tumfio, ui, 2. to swell, unda, ae,/ wave. 

tortus 3. twisted. tumultus, us, m, tumult, unde, adv. whence. 

tot, so many. tunc, adv. at that time, undique, adv. from all 

totidem, just so many. then, there. sides. 


ungo, (unguo), nxi, valetudo, inis, /. health, verbero 1. to heat. 

nctum 3. to anoint. valldus 3. strong. verbum, i, n. word. 

unguis, \s, m. nail, claw, vaiinus, i,/. corn-fan. verecimdia, ae, /. res- 
universus 3. whok. varius 3. various. pect. 

unqiiam, adv. ever. varix, icis, m. swollen vereor, veritus sum 2. 

unus 3. one ; only, alone. vein. to reverence, have res- 

unusquisque, uuaquae- vas, vasis, w. (plur. vasa, pect for, to fear. 

que, unumquidque drum, n.) vessel, vase. Veritas, atis,/. truth. 

end- unumquodque, vasto ]. to lay waste. vermis, is, m. worm. 

each one {^S\, 7). wates, \s, prophet. vernus 3. vernal; ver- 

urbanus 3. belonging to vectigal, alis, n. toll, nus dies, a spring 

ike city, city-like. tax, income. day. 

urbs, bis,/, city. vectis, is, m. lever, holt, vero, conj. hut; 2) adv. 

urgeo, rsi, 2. to press, vehemens, tis, vehement. (as an answer) yes. 

oppress. vehementer, adv. vehe- Verres, is, m. Verres. 

ursus, i, m. a hear. inently, violently, versor 1. inc. abl. to be 

usus, us, m. use. greatly. occupied in a thing. 

ut, adv. as, even as. veho, vexi, vectum 3. versus, us, m. a verse. 

ut, conj. that, in order to carry, bring, equo verto, rti, rsum 3. to 

that, thai not, {§ }06); \eh\, to ride, he borne turn; v. in fugam, 

as[HlO, 1. 2)]; ut off. to put to fight. 

primurn, as soon as. vel, conj. or ; even ; vel verus 3. true. 
uter, tra, trum, which of — vel, either — or. vervex, ecis, m. a weth" 

the two. velox, ocis, swift. er. 

uterque, utraque, u- vellum, i, n. sail. vescor (without perf!) 

trumque, each (of the velut, adv. even as, as. 3. c. abl. to eat. 

two), both. vena, ae,/. vein. vesper, eri and ens, m. 

utilis, e, useful. venatio, 6ms, f. a hunt. evening ; vesperi, at 

utilltas, atis, /. use, ad- venatus, iis, m. a hunt. evening. 

vantage. venator, oris, m. hunter, vester, Ira, trum, your. 

utinam, conj. with suhj. vendo, didi, ditum 3. vestio 4. to clothe, attire. 
Othat. [to use. to sell. vestis, is,/, a garments, 

utor, usus sum 3. c. abl. veneo, li, ire, to he for cloth. 
utrum, interrogative sale. Vesuvius, i, m. Vesu- 

word [115, 3. b, d)]. veneror 1. to revere. vius. 

uva, ae,/ grape. venlo, veni, ventum 4. veto, ui, itum 1. to for- 

to come. bid. 

V. venor 1. to hunt. vems, eris, old. 

Vacca, ae,/ cow. ventus, i, m. wind. vetustas, atis,/ age. 

vacillo 1. to rock, waver. Venus, eris,/ Venus, vetustus 3. old. 
vae, alas! veuustas, atis,/ grace- vexo 1. to vex, annoy. 

vagor 1. to wander. fulness. via, ae,/ way. 

valde, adv. very much. vepres, is, m. thorn- viator, oris, m. traveller. 
valeo 2. to he well; be hush, bramble. vicinus, i, m. neighbor. 

sound, strong, able ; ver, veris, n. spring. victor, oris, victorious ; 

valeat, valeant, adieu verber, eris, n. (com- subst. conqueror. 

to something; 2) to monly plur. vtrbera,) \\ctor\a, ae,f. victoi-y. 

avail. blows. victus, us, 



vid§o, vidi, visum 2. 

to see ; pass, seem, 

vigeo, ui 2. to be vigor- 
vigil, Ills, ?n. watchman. 
vigilantla, ae, f. tvatch- 

vigilla, ae, /. watch, 

vigilu 1. to watch. 
vigor, oris, m. power. 
vincTo, nxi, nctum 4. to 

bind, restrain. 
vinco, vici, victum 3. 

to conquer, vanquish, 

vineulutn, i, n. bond, 

vinea, a vine. 
vinum, i. n. wine. 
violo 1. to violate. 
vir, viri, m. man. 
vireo, ui 2. to flourish. 
Virgilius, i, m. Virgil. 
virgo, rnis,y. virgin. 
viridis, e, green. 
viritim, man hj man. 
virtus, utis, /. virtue, 


virus, i, n. poison. 

vis, [gen. and dat. want- 
ing ; plur. vireSjium), 
f. power, force, mul- 

viscus, eris, n. (com- 
monly \A\ir.) inwards. 

visum, i, n. appearance. 

Visurgis, is, m. the We- 

vita, ae,/. life. 

vitiositas, atis, /. vice, 

vitiosus 3. defective. 

vitium, i, n. fault, vice. 

vilo 1. to avoid. 

vitulinus 3. of calf. 

vitulus, i, m. calf. 

vitupero 1. to censure. 

vivo, vixi, victum 3. to 

vivus 3. living. 

vix, adv scarcely. 

voco 1. to call, invite. 

volito 1. to fly, flutter. 

volo 1. to fly. 

volo, volui, velle, to 
wish (would). 

voliicris, is,/ bird. 

voluntas, atis,/. urill. 

voluptas, atis, /. pleas- 
ure, sensuality. 

volvo, vi, utum 3. to 

voveo, vovi, votum 2. to 

vox, vocis,/ voice. 

Vulcanus, i, m. Vulcan, 

vulgaris, e, common, 

vulgus, i. n. people, the 
common people. 

vulnero 1. to ivound. 

vulnus, eris, n. wound. 

vulpes, is,/ fox. 

vultLir, uris, m. vulture. 

vultus, us, m. expres- 
sion, feature, counte- 

Xenophon, ontis, m. 

Xerxes, is, m. Xerxes. 

Zama, ae,/ Zama, 
Zeno, onis, m. Zeno. 
zingiber, eris, n. ginger. 



Abate, mollire. 

Ability, facultas, atis,/ 

Able (to be), posse, qui- 
re, valere ; not able. 

Abode, domicllium, i, n. 

Abound, abundare. 

Abounding in, locuples, 

About, circiter. 

Above, superus. 

Abroad, peregre. 

Absent, absens, tis. 

Absent (to be), abesse. 

Absolve, absolvere. 

Abstain, abstinere. 

Abundance, abundantia, 
ae, / copia, ae,/; to 

have abundare 

c, abl. 

Accompany, comitari. 

Accomplished, eruditus 3. 

Accounted (to be), exis- 

timari, haberi. 
Accustomed (to be), so- 

lere, consuescere. 
Acknowledge, confiteri, 

fateri; f^^^Vi 

Acorn, glans, dis,/ 
Acquainted with, peritus 

3. consultus 3. gna- 

rus 3. c. gen. 
Acquainted unth (to be), 


novisse [§ 77, 3)] ; Agree to (on condition), Ancus Martius, Ancus 

thoroughly, per- pangere. Martins, i. m. 

noscere. Agreeable, grains 3. ju- And, et, ac, atque, que. 

Acquire, parare, compa- cundus 3. suavis, e. ^^d not, neqne (nee). 

rare (sibi). Agricola, Agricola, ae, Anger, ira, ae,/. iracun- 

Acre, jugerum, i, n. m. dia, ae,/. 

Act, agere. Agriculture, agricultura, Angry, iratus 3. 

Actor, histrlo, onis, m. ae,/. Announce, annuntiare. 

Acute, aeutus 3. subti- .^rrf, auxilium,i,n.prae- Annoy, vexare. 

lis, e. sidinm, i, n. Announcement, oracu- 

Adapted, accommoda- Aid, adjuvare c. ace. lum, i, n. 

tus 3. c. dat. or ad c. . succurere c. dat. ; to Another (of several), a- 

acc. lend aid, opitulari. llus, a, ud. 

Add, addere. AlotS ! vae I Another, alienus 3. 

Address, alloqni. Alcibiades, Alcibiades, Answer, respondere. 

./3//^er6aZ, Adherbal, alis, is, m. Antiochus, Antiochus^ 

m. Alexander, Alexander, i, m. 

w^c?mim&Ze,admirabilis,e. dri, m. Antiquity ( = ancient- 
Admiration, admiratio, .^/exanrfria, Alexandria, ness), vetustas, aiis,/. 

onis,/ ae,/ *6!n7;iZ, incus, ud is, / 

Admire, admirari. All, ornnes, ia. Anxious (am), curae, 

Admonish, monere, ad- Alliance, societas, atis, niihi est. 

monere. / foedus, eris, w. Anxiotishf, anxie. 

Admonition, adinonitio, Allohroges, Allobroges, Any, ullus 3. 

onis,/ um, m. Ape, siniia, ae,/ 

Adopt, adsciscere. Allow, jubere. Apollo, Apollo, inis, m. 

^tforn, ornare,adornare. Ally, socius, i, m. Appear, apparere, vi- 

comare. Almost, fere, ferme, pe- deri. 

Advantage, lucrum, i, ne, prope. Appease, placare. 

n. commodum, i, n. Aloe, a]oe, es, f. Applaud, ayplaud^re, c. 

emolumentum, i, n. Alone, solus 3. unus 3. dat. 

fructus, us, m. Alps, Alpes, ium,/ Apple, malum, i, n. 

Adversity, res adversae. Already, jam. Apple-tree, nialus, i,/ 

Advise, suadere. Also, etiam, quoque. Apply one's self to some- 

Mduan, jiEduus, i, m. Although, quamvis. thing, incurabere in 

Mmilius, iEmilius, i, m. Always, semper. or ad aliquid. 

^neas, iEneas, ae, m. w3mazon,Amazon,6nis/. Apprehend, vereri, me- 
Affair, res, rei,/ Ambassador, \egktus^\,m. tuere. 

.^^dct/, affectus 3. Ambuscade, insidiae, a- Appreliension, metU9,us, 

Affirm, aio. rum,/ wi. . 

Afford, praebere. Amiable, arr>abilrs, e. Approach, appropin- 

Africa, Africa,/ Ample, amplus 3. quare, adventare. 

Jlfler that, iwstquam, c. Anaxagoras, Anaxago- Appi'oach, aditus, us,m. 

ind. perf. ras, ae, m. Approbation, approba- 

Against (prep.), adver- Ancestors, majores, um. tio, onis,/ 

sus. Ancient, antlquus 3. ve- Approve, approbare, 

Age, aetas, atis,/ [m. tus, eris, priscus 3. i)robare. 

Agesilaus, Agesilaus, i, Anciently, antiqultus. Arch, fornix, icis, m. 


Archimedes, Archime- aliquo), interrogare, Await, opperiii. 

des, is, m. rogare (aliquem). Axe, securis, is,f. 

Ardea, Ardea, ae,/. Ass, asinns, i,m. Axle, axis, is, m: 

Ardor, ardor, oris, m. Assassin, sicarlus, i, m. 
Ariovistus, Ariovistus,i, Assaidt, oppugnare. B. 

m. Assemble, convocare, ^«6?/Zon, Babylon, onis, 

Arise, surgere, cooriri, congregare, conflu- f. [3. 

exorlri. ere. B abylonia?i Jiahy\oni[ia 

Aristides, Aristides, is, Assembly, coetus, us, m. Bad, mains 3. 

m. Assent to, assentiri. Badge, insigne, is, n. 

Aristotle, Aristoteles, is. Assiduously, assidfle. Bake, torrere. 

m. Assign, tribuere. Band, agmeii, inis, n. 

.^rms, arma, orum, w. ./355isf,juvare, adjuvare manus, uSjjT. 
Army, exercitus, us, m. c. ace. succurreri, Banisher, expultrix, 
Arpinum, Arpinum, i, auxiliaric.dat. icis,y. [ae,/! 

n. Assyria, Assyria, ae,f. 5anA- (of a river), ripa. 

Arpinum (of), subst. Ar- Athenian (a. and s.) Bargain (to make), pa- 

pinas, atis, m. Atheniensis, is, m. cisci. 

Artist, artifex, icis, m. Attach on£s self to some Bargain, pangere. 

^/. one, se applicare ad Base, foedus 3. turpis, 

Arrange (line of battle), aliquem. e, sordidus, a, urn. 

aciem instruere. Attack, impetus, us, m. Basely, foede. 

Arrival, adventus, us. Attack, aggredi, adorlri. Battle, pugna, ae J. 

m. Attacking, oppiignatio, proelium, i, n. 
Arrogance, arrogantia, onis, f. Be, esse ; in somt- 

ae, /. Attain, assequi. thing, versari in ali- 

Airow, sagitta, ae,/. Attains, Attains, i, m. qua re ; present, 

AH, ars, tis, f. Attempt, conari, moliri, adesse, intere;^se ; 
Artaxerxes, Ariaxerxes, suscTpere. wanting, desse, 

is, m. Attend to, attendere. deficere. 

Artificer, artifex, icis, m. Attention to, cultus, us, Bear, portare, gestare, 

and/I m. ferre; o^,repor- 

As, ut, quuin, velut. Attentive, attentus 3. tare. 

quomodo, quemad- Attentively, attente. Beard, barba, ae,/*. 

modum, ac (atque). Atticus, Atticus, i, m. Beast, bestia, ae,/*. 
As if, quasi, ac si, tan- Attic, Atticus 3. Beat, ferire. 

quam. Augustus, Augustus, i, jBeaiffijf«/,pulcher,chra, 

As often as, quoties. m. clirum. 

As soon as, ubi, atque. Autumn, autumnus, i, Beauty, pulchritudo, 

[§ no, 2)] m.^ lms,f. 

As well — as (also), et — Avail, valere. Beautifully, pulchre. 

et. Avarice, avaritia, ae,/*. Because, quia, quod, 

Ascend, ascendere. Avaricious, avarus 3, c. quoniam. 

Ascertain, experiri, res- gen. Become, fieri, evadere ; 

ciscere, comperire. Avenge (one's self on it becomes, de- 

Ashes, cinis, eris, m. one), ulcisci. cet ; it does not 

Asia, Asia, ae,/*. Avert, avertere. become, dedecet. {k 

Ask, quaerere [ex, ab, Avoid, vitare, evitare. 89, 2). 




Becoming, decorus 3. 

Before, ante, prius, an- 
tea, antequam, prkis- 
quam ; that, an- 
tequam, priusqiiam. 

Beget, gignere. 

Begin, inclpere, ordiri, 

Begun (to have), cepis- 

Beginning, initium, 
principium, i, n. 

Beggar, mendicus, i, m. 

Behold, adsplcere, tueri, 

Belief, opinio, 6nis,y. 

Believe, credere, putare. 

Bellows, follis, is, m. 

Belly, alvus, \,f. 

Belong to some one, es- 
se alicujus (§ 88, 7). 

Bend, flectere. 

Benefit, utilitas, atis, f. 

Benefit, prodesse. 

Beset, circumsedere. 

Besides, porro. 

Besiege, obsidere, cir- 

Besmear, oblinere. 

Bestow, largiri, adhibe- 

re, praestare ; 

upon, collocare in c. 

Betake one's self, se con- 

ferre ; back, se 


Betraying, proditio, 

Bid, jubere. 

Bind, vincire. 

Binding (to make), ad- 

Bird, axis, is,f. 

Birds of passage, volu- 
cres adventitiae. 

Birthday, natalis, is, m. 

Bite, mordere. 

Bithynia, Bithyniajae^/". 

Bitter, amarus, 3. acer- 

bus 3. 
Black, niger, gra, grum. 
Blind, coecus 3. 
Blockade, obsideo, onis, 


Blood, sanguis, inis, m. 

Bloody, atrox, ocis. 

Bloom, jflorere. 

Blooming, florens, tis. 

Blows, verbera, n. 

Boar, aper, pri,m ; 

ivild, aper, pri, m. 

Boat, linter, tris,/. 

Body, corpus, oris, n. 

Bodily powers, corporis 

Boeotian (s.), Boeotus, i, 

Bold, audax, acis. 

Boldness, audacia, ae,f. 

Bolt, vectis, is, m. 

Bone, OS, ossis, n. 

Book, liber, bri, m., co- 
dex, icis, m. 

Booty, praeda, ae,f. 

Border, finis, is, m. 

Born (to be), nasci. 

Born, natus 3. 

Both — and, et — et. 

Boiv, arcus, us, m. 

Boy, puer, eri, m. 

Bracelet, spinther, eris, 

Bramble, sentis, is, m. 
vepres, is, m. 

Brand, notare. 

Brass, aes, aeris, n. 

Brave, fortis, e. 

Bravely, fortiter. 

Bravery, fortitudo, inis, 
J. virtus, utis,/. 

Bread, pan is, is, m. 

Break down (= over- 
come), frangere. 

Break down, rescindere ; 

forth, erumpe- 

re, cooriri ; in, 

irrump6re ; 

break out afresh, den- 


through, perrumpere. 

Breakfast, prandere. 

Breast, pectus, oris, n. 

Bridge, pons, tis, m. 

Bright (= clear), sere- 
nus 3. 

Bring, ferre, arcessere ; 

about, efficere ; 

forward, affer- 

re ; up, edu- 


Bring war upon some 
one, bellum inferre, 

Britain, Britania, ae,/. 

Broad, latus 3. 

Brother, frater, tris, m. 

Brutus, Brutus, i, m. 

Build, aedificare. 

Building, aedeficium, 
i, n. 

Bundle, fascis, is, m. 

Burn, ardere, flagrare ; 

up, deflagrare, 


Bushel, modius, i, m. 

Busily, sedulo. 

Business, negotium, i, n. 

Business, it is the busi- 
ness of some one, est, 

Busy, sedulus 3. 

But, autem, sed, at (^ 
101. R.). 

But if, sin. 

Butter, butyrum, i, n. 

Butterfiy, papilio, onis, 

Cabbage, crambe, es,/. 

caulis, is, m. 
Caesar, Caesar, aris, m. 
Call, appellare, vocare, 

nominare, dicere : 


to mind, recoY- thing), curare with Choice, voluntas, atis,/. 

dari c. ace. and gen. ; gerundive. Choose, ellgere, creare ; 

together, con- Cautious, cautus 3. rather, raalle. 

vocare. Cease, deslnere, desis- Christ, Christus, i, m. 

Called (to be), vocari, tere. Church, ecclesia, ae, /. 

nominari, appellari. Celebrate, celebrare. Chrysogonus, Chryso- 

[^ 84. c)]. Censure, vituperatio, gonus, i, m. 

Callisthenes, Callisthe- onis,/ Cicero, Cicero, onis, ?w. 

nes, is, m. Censure, vituperare. Cimon, Cimo, onis, m. 

Camel, camelus, i, m. Cerberus, Cerberus,i, rn. Cinna, Cinna, ae, m. 

Camillus, Caniillus,i, m. Ceres, Ceres, eris,/. Circe, Circe, es,/. 

Camp, castra, pi. Certain, certus 3. Circle, orbis, is, m. 

Can, posse, quire. Chabrias, Chabrias, ae, Circle of the earth, orbis 

Cannot, nequire. m. terrarum. 

Canal, canalis, is, m. Chain, vinculum, i, n. Circuit, circuitus, us,m. 

Capital punishment, su^- Chain, vincire. Citadel, arx, cis,/. 

plicium, i, n. Chalcis, Chalcis, idis,/. Citizen, civis, is, c. 

CopiYo/, Capitolium, i,n. Chance, casus, us, m ; Citizenship, cixitas, atis, 
Caprice, libido, inis,jr. by chance, fortuito. /. 

arbitrium, i, n. Change, vicis, is,/. City, ui'bs, bis,/. 

Caph'vc (to take),capere. Change, mutare. Civil, civilis, e. 

Capture, expugnare. Character, mores, urn, Cm7ii?ar, bell nm civile. 

Care, cura, ae,/. m. Class, classis, is,/. 

Care, take care, curare, Charge one with some- Claw, unguis, is, wi. 

cavere. thing, insimulare ali- Clear, liinpidus, 3. 

Careful, diligens, tis. quern alicujus rei. Clear (not cloudy), se- 

Carefully, diligenter. Charles, Carol us, i, m. renus, 3. 

Carefulness, diligentia. Chatter, garrire. Cleomenes, Cleomenes, 

ae,/ CAecA:, compesci. is, m. 

Caria, Caria, ae,/ Cheer, exhilarare, del- Cleopatra, Cleopatra, 

Carpenter, faber ligna- ectare. ae,/ 

rius. CAee?/M^/?/, hilariter, se- Cliff, rupes, is,/. 

Carrot, siser, eris, n. rene. Clitus, Clitus, i, m. 

Carry, portare, ferre ; Cheese, caseus, i, m. Clodius, Clodius, i, m. 

on, gerere ; — Cherish, fovere. Close, claudere. 

over, trajicere ; Cherry, cerasum, i, n. Clothe, vestire. 

forth, e&erre. Cherry-tree, cersisus,i,f. Cloud, nuhes, is, f. 

Carthage, Carthago, Chicken, pullus, i, m. Club, fustis, is, m. 

inis,/ Chick-pea, cicer, eris, Coalesce, coalescere. 

Carthaginian, Cartha- n. Coelius, Coelius, i, m. 

giniensis, is, m. Chief-city, caput, itis, n. Coin, procudere. 

Cassius, Cassius, i, m. Childish, puerilis, e. Colchis, Colchis, idis,/. 

Catch, capere, depren- Children (in reference Cold, frigidus, 3. 

dere. to their parents), li- Cold (s.), frigus oris, n. 

Catiline, Catilina, ae, m. beti, orum, m. ; Collect, colligere. 

Cato, Cato, onis, m, (without such ref- Colony, colonia, ae, /. 

Cause, causa, ae,/ erence), pueri. Color, color, oris, m. 

Cause (to do some- m. Comb, pecten, inis, m. 



ComCj venire ; desire to 

come, acclre ; 

out, evadere, fugere, 

effugere ; to, ad- 

venire ; together, 

convenire ; — — to 

pass, fieri, incidere. 
Command, imperare c. 

Commence, aggredi, aus- 

Commit, committere ; 

to, committere. 

Common, communis, e. 
Companion, socius, i. m. 
Compare, comparare, 

Compel, cogere. 
Complain, queri; 

of, acciisare. 
Complain (= weep), 

Comply with, ohsequi. 
Composed, compositus, 

Composition, confectio, 

Conceal, occultare, oc- 

culare, celare c. 

dupLacc. [§91.5.6)]. 
Concealed, occultus 3. 
Concede, concede re. 
Concern, cura, ae,/! 
Conclude (of a league), 

Condemn, damnare, 

condemnare ; to 

death, capitis. 
Condescending, submis- 

sus 3. 
Condition, conditio, 

onis, /. 
Conduce to something, 

for some one, esse c. 

dupl. dat. [§ 90. 4. 

Confer, conferre. 
Confess, confiteri. 

Confidence (to have), fi- 
dem habere. 

Confidently, audacter. 

Confirm, confirmare. 

Confiagration, incendi- 
ura, i. n. 

Confused, dissonus 3. 

Confusion, confusio, 

Confusion (to throw in- 
to), pertubare. 

Connect, connectere. 

Conqueror, victor, oris, 

Conscience, conscientia, 
ae, f, ; a good con- 
science, conscientia 

Conscious, consclus 3. 

Consciousness, consci- 
entia, ae,y. 

Consider, intueri, pervj- 
dere, reputare. 

Consider as, existimare, 
habere, judTcare, ar- 
bltrari, ducere c. 
dupl. ace. [§ 89. 5. 

Consolation, solatium, 
i, n. consolatio, onis, 


Consort, uxor, oris,/! 
Conspiracy, conjuratio, 

6nis,y! [i, wi. 

Conspirator, conjuratus. 
Constitute, constituere. 
Consul, consul, lilis, m. 
Consult, consultare. 
Consume, absumere, ex- 

edere, comedere. 
Contempt, contemptio, 

Contend, certare, de- 

Contented, contentus 3. 
Continue, pergere. 
Continuous, continuus 


Contracted, angustus 3. 

Contrary (on the), con- 

Conversation, sermo, 
onis, m. 

Convict, convincere. 

Convince, persuadere c. 

Corinth, Corinthus, i,/. 

Corinthian, Corinthius 

Cork-tree, suber, eris, n. 

Corn (a), granum, i, n. 

Cornelius JVepos, Cor- 
nelius (i)Nepos (otis), 

Corn-fan, vannus, i, /. 

Corpse, cadaver, eris, n. 

Correct, corrigere. 

Correctly, recte. 

Corrode, exedere. 

Corrupt, corrumpere. 

Cost, stare, constare. 

Costly, pretiosus 3. 

Cover, tegere ; up^ 


Covetous, avarus 3. 

Cough, tussis, is, f. 

Counsel, conslUum, i, n. 

Countenance, 6s, oris, n. 
vultus, us, m. 

Country, terra, ae./. re- 
gio, onis, /. rus, ru- 
ris, n. ager, gri, m. 

Countryman, rustlcus, 
i, TO. 

Courage, animus, i, m. 

Courageously, aequo 

Course, cursus, us, m. 

Cow, vacca, ae,/ bos, 

Cowardice,\gn-dyia, ae,/. 

Cowardly, ignavus 3. 

Crassus, Crassus, i, m. 

Creaky crepare. 

Create, creare. 

Creator, creator, oris, m. 



Crime, scelus, eris, n. 
Croak, coaxare. 
Croesus, Croesus, i. in. 
Crop, messis, is, f. se- 

ges, etis,/. 
Croton, Croto, on is, m. 
Crow, corvus, i, m. 
Cruel, saevus 3. imma- 

nis, e. 
Cruelty, crudelitas, atis, 

Crush, contimdere. 
Cry, clamare. 
Cry (plaintive), querela, 

Cucumber, cucun\is, 

eris, m. 
Cultivate, colere, exco- 

Cultivation, culture, 

cultus, us, m. 
Cunning, astutia, ae, f. 
Cup, calix, icis, m. 
Curb, continere, com- 

pescere, perdomare. 
Cure, curatio, onis,/. 
Cure, sanare c. ace; 

mederi c. dat. 
Curius, Curius, i, m. 
Custom, mos, oris, m. 
Customary, usitatus 3. 
Cut off, resecare, dese- 

Cyrus, Cyrus, i, m. 


Dagger, sica, ae,/. 
Daily, quotidie. 
Dance, saltare. 
Danger, periculum, \,n. 
Dare, audere. 
Darius, Darius, i, m. 
Darkness, caligo, inis,/ 
Dart, telum, i, n. 
Datamas, Datamas, an- 

tis, m. 
Daughter, filia, ae,/. 
Dawn, illucescere. 

Day, dies, ei, m. ; by day, 

Dead body, cadaver, 

eris, n. 
Dear, carus 3. ; to hold 

dear, carum habere. 
Death, mors, lis, /. 
Decay, interire, occi- 

Deceive, fallere, delu- 

December, December, 

bris, m. 
Deaxase, decrescere. 
Dedicate, dedicare. 
Deed, factum, i, n. 
Deep, altus 3. 
Defend, defendere. 
Delay, cunctari. 
Deliberate, deliberare, 

Deliberately, consulto. 
Delicate, tenuis, e. 
Delight, oblectamen- 

tum, i, n. 
Delight, delectare, ob- 

lectare, permulcere. 
Delight (with), libenter. 
Delightful, jucundus 3. 

suavis, e. 
Delightfully, suavlter. 
Deliver from something, 

liberare aliqua re, le- 

vare c. abl ; up, 

Delphi, Delphi, orum, 

Demand, postulare, pos- 

cere, deposcere ; 

back, reposcere, 

Demaratus, Demaratus, 

i, m. 
Demolish, evertere. 
Demosthenes, Demos- 
thenes, is, m. 
Dense, densus 3. 
Deny, negare. 
Deplore, deplorare. 

Deprive, privare, spo- 

liare c. abl. 
Deride, deridere, irri- 

Descend, descendere. 
Descendant, proles, is,/. 
Desert, deserere, relin- 

Desert, meritum, i, n. 
Deserve, mereri, dig- 

num esse ; of 

something, mereri de 

aliqua re. 
Designedly, consulto. 
Desire, cupido, inis,/, 

cupiditas, atis,/, ap- 

petitns, us, m., ardor, 

oris, m. ; unre- 
strained, libido, inis,/ 
Desire, concupiscere, 

cupere. [pldus 3. 
Desirous, avidus 3. cu- 
Despair, desperare. 
Despise, contemnere. 
Destitute, inops, opis; 

of, expers, rtis, 

exsors, rtis, c. gen. 
Destroy, delere, destru- 

ere, dimere, evertere, 

Destruction, exitlum, i, 

n. pernicies, ei,/ 
Destructive, perniciosus 

Deled, detegere. 
Deter, deterrere, abste- 

Determine, constituere, 

Detraction, obtrectatio, 

Deviate, deflectere. 
Devote one^s self, se de- 

Devour, devorare. 
Dialect, dialectus, i,/ 
Diamond, adamas, an- 

tis, m. 


Dtan«, Diana, ae,/. Dismiss, dimhtere. haurire ; forthf 

Dictator, dictator, oris, Disparage, obtrectare ellcere ; together, 

m. c. dat. contrahere. 

Die, mori, obire. Dispel, discutere, ab- Dream, somnlum, i, n. 

Dionysius, Dionysius i, stergere. Dress, vestire. 

m. Disperse, dispergere. Drink, potus, us, m. 

Different, diversus 3. Displease, displlcere. Drink, bibere. 
Difficult, difficllis, e, Disprove, redarguere. Drive hack, propulsare. 

gravis, e. arduus 3. Disputation, disputatio, Drive off, explodere. 
Difficulty, difficultas, onis,^! Drunken, ebrius 3. 

atis,/. Disquiet, exagitare. Duck, anas, atis,/. 

Difficulty, ivith difficulty, Dissatisjied (to be) with Duty, oiSicrum, i, n. mu- 

difficiliter. something, indignari nus eris, n. ; it is th£ 

Diffuse, diffundere. c. ace. ; / am dissat- duty of some one, ali- 

Dig, defodere ; out isjied ivith something, cujus est. 

or up, efFodere, eru- poenitet me alicujus Dwell, habltare. 

6re. rei. 

Dignity, dignitas, atis, Dissent, dissentire. E. 

/ amplitudo, inis, /., Dissolve, dissolvere. Each, omnis, e, quisque. 

gra vitas, atis,/. Dissuade, dissiiadere. Each of two, uterque, 

Diligence, diligentla. Distaff, colus, i,/. utraqiie, utrumque. 

ae,/. Distinction, discrimen, Eager, avidus 3. 

Diligent, diligens, tis, inis, n. Eagerly, avide, cupide. 

industrius 3. Distinguish, dijudlcare, Eagle, aquila, ae,/. 

Diligently, diligenter. distingufire. Ear, auris, is,/. 

Diminish, deminuere, Distribute, distribiiere, Early, maturus 3 ; too 

comniinuere, minu- dispertire, dividere early, praematurus 3. 

ere. c. dat. Early (adv.), mature. 

Diphthong, diphthon- Distrust^ diftidere. Earth, terra, ae,/. tel- 

gus, i./ Disturb, turbare, solli- lus,uris,/ humus, i/. 

Disadvantage, incom- citare. Earthly, terrestris, e. 

modum, i, n. dam- Disturbance, perturba- Earthquake,ten'a.e mo- 

num, i, n. tio, onis,/. tus. 

Disagreeable, injucun- Divine, divinus 3. Easily, facile. 

dus 3. ingratus 3. in- Do, agere, faceye. Easy, facllis, e. 

suavis, e. J^og, canis, is, c. East, orlens, ntis, m. 

Discharge, fungi. Ddlar, thalerus, i, m. Eat, edere, vesci; 

Discipline, disciplina, Domestic, domesticus3. down, depascere. 

ae, /. Dominion, dominatio, iJc/jo, echo, us,/ 

Discord, discordia, ae, onis, / imperium. Edifice, aedificlum, i, n. 

/ i, n. Effect, efFicere, creare. 

Discover, prosplcere. Door, fores, pi./. Effectual, efFicax, acis. 

Discourse, loqui. Doubt, dubltare. Effeminate, effemina- 

Discourse, oratio, onis, Doubtful, dublus 3. an- tus 3. 

/ ceps, cipltis. Effort, studlum, i, n. 

Disease, morbus, i, m. Dowry, dos, dotis,/ Either — or, aut — aut. 
Dishonorable, inhones- Draught, potus, us, »n. vel — vel. 

tus 3. Draw, trahere, ducere, Elbe, Albis, is, m. 



Eled^ eligere, deligere. 
Elegant J eligans, tis. 
Elegantly, eleganter. 
Elephant, elephantus, 

i, m. 
Elicit, elicere. 
Elm, ulmus, i,/. 
Eloquence, eloquentla, 

Eloquent, disertus 3. 
Embrace, amplecti, 

Embr aider, Q.CU pingere. 
Eminent (to be), eml- 

Emit, evomere. 
Emotion, perturbatio 

Emperor, imperator, 6- 

vis, m. 
Emulate, aemiilari. 
Encompass, cingere. 
Encounter, proeljum, i, 

Encourage, hortari, ad- 

hortari, cohortari. 
End, finis, is, m. 
End, finire. 
Endeavor, studere. 
Endowed, praedltus 3. 
Endure, ferre, tolerare, 

sustlnere, perferre ; 

(= last), du- 

Enemy, hostis, is, m. 

inimicus, i, m,. 
Enfeeble, hebltare, di- 

liiere, elidere. 
Enigma, aenigma, atis, 

Enjoy, frui, perfrui c. 

Enjoyment, fructus, us, 

Enough, sat, satis. 
Enraged, irritatus 3. 
Enrich, augere. 
Enter, intrare. 

Enter upon, ingredi. 
Enticement, illecebra, 

Entreat, rogare, preca- 

ri, petere (ab aliquo). 
Entreaty (to obtain 

by), exorare. 
Envy, invidia, ae,/. 
Epaminondas, Epami- 

nondas, ae, m. 
Ephesian, Ephesius, 3. 
Ephesus, Ephesus, i,/. 
Epicurus, Epicurus, i, 

Epirus, Epirus, i,/. 
Equal, aequalis, e, par, 

Equally, aeque. 
Equanimity,a.equus an- 
Ere, antequam, prius- 

Erectheus, Erectheus, 

ei, m. 
Erect, aedificare, stm- 

Err, errare. 
Error, error, oris, m. 
Escape, effugere c. ace. 
Establish, cavere. 
Estate, res familiaris. 
Esteem,a.Qs\iu\kve (mag- 

ni etc.), diligere. 
Estimate, aestimare, 

Eternal, aeternus 3. 

sempiturnus 3. 
Eternity, aeternltas, a- 

Etruria, Etrurla, ae,/. 
Eumenes, Eumenes, is, 

Eurystheus, Erystheus, 

ei, m. 
Europe, Europa, ae, /. 
Evening, vesper, eri, 

and eris, m. 
Even if, etiam si. 

Ever, unquam. 
Every, omnis, e, (^ 94. 


Evidently, plane. 
Evil, malus 3. 
Evil (s.), malum. 
Evil-doer, maleficus, i, 

Examine, exquirere. 
Example, exemplum, i, 

Excel, excellere. 
Excellence, praestantia, 

Excellent, praestabilis, 

e, eximlus 3. prae- 

stans, tis. 
Excite, excitare, excie- 

re and excire. 
Exercise, exercitatio, o- 

Exercise, exercere. 
Exert one^s self, con- 
tendere, intendere. 
Exertion, contentio, 6- 

nis,/. labor, oris, m. 
Exhaust, exhaurire ; 

entirely, eneca- 

Exhilarate, exhilarare. 
Exhort, hortari, adhor- 

Exist, esse. 
Expect, expectare. 
Expel, exterminare, ab- 

Experience, experien- 

tia, ae,/. 
Explain, expllcare, in- 

Explore, explorare. 
Expression, vultus, us, 

Extend, tendere. 
Extirpate, exstirpare. 
Extinct (to become), 

Extinguish, extinguere, 


Extolj praedicare. Fear exceedingly, exti- Flax, carbasus, \,f. 

Extracts (to make mesc6re. Flaxen, flavus 3. 

from), excerpere. Fear (to put in), per- Flee, fugere c. ace. 
ExuU,\aet\imexu\, terere. Fled, classis, is,/. 

Eye, oculus, i, m. Feel, sentire. Fleeting, fluxus 3. 

Feeling, sensus, us, m. Flesh, caro, carnis,/. 
F. Fell, caedere. Flight, fuga, ae,/. 

Fabius, Fablus, i, m. Fencer, gladiator, oris. Flight (to put to), fu- 
Fable, fabula, ae,/. m. gave. 

Fabncins,F'dhncius, \,m. Fetter, compes, idis, /. Flock, grex, gis, m. ag- 
Faculty, facultas, atis,/. Fever, febris, is,/. men, inis, n. 

Fail, def icere. Few, pauci, ae, a, pi. Flourish, virere. 

Fair, pulcher, chra, Fidelity, fides, ei,/ Flow together, conflu- 

ehrum. Field, ager, gri, m. 6re. 

Faithful, fidus 3. Field-mouse, sorex, icis, Flower, flos, floris, m. 

Faithless, perf idus 3. m. Fluency of speech, fa- 

Fall, labi ; (in war). Fierce, saevus 3. cundia, ae,/. 

occidere ; down, Fiery, ignfius 3. Fly, musca, ae,/. 

procumbere ; Fight, pugna, ae,/. Fly, volare. 

to one^s lot, contin- Fight, pugnare, dimi- Follow, sequi, conse- 

gere, obtingere ali- care, confligere, con- qui c. ace. 

cui. gredi. Folly, stultitia, ae./ 

False, falsus 3. Fill, implere, complere. Food, cibus, i, m. 

Far, longe. refercire ; up, Fool, stultus, i, m. 

Fate, fatium, i, n. for- explere, opplere. Foolish, stultus 3. in- 

tuna, ae, / Finally, denlque. sipiens, ntis. 

Father, pater, tris, m. Find, invenire, reperire. Foot, pes, pedis, m. 
Father-in-law, socer, Find satisfaction in. Footman, soldier, ^edes, 

eri, m. acquiegcere c. abl. or itis, m. 

Fault, vitlum, i, n. pec- in c. abl. conquies- Forbear (can not), fa- 

catum, i, n. cere c. abl. cere non possequin. 

Fault (to commit), pec- Finger, digitus, i, m. Forbid, vetare. 

care. Finish, finire. Force, vis, vim,/ 

Faustulus, Faustulus, i, Fire, ignis, is, m. Forehead, frons, ntis,/ 

m. Firm (to make), confir- For how much ? (with 

Favor, beneficium, i, n. mare. verbs of buying and 

benefactum, i, n. Firmness, constantla, selling), quanti. 
Favor (to do), gratiam ae,/ Foreign, alienigena, ae, 

facere. First, at first, primum. m. alienus 3. 

Favor, favere. Fish, piscis, is, m. Foresee, providere. 

Favorable (to be), fave- Fit, aptus 3. idoneus 3. Foresight, providentia, 

re. Fitted, aptus 3. ido- ae,/ 

Fear, metus, us, m. ti- neus 3. Forget, oblivisci c. gen. 

raor, oris, m. pavor. Fitly, apte. or ace. [g^re. 

oris, 7/z. i^/omf, flamma, ae,/ jPorm, conformare, fin- 

Fear, timere, vereri. Flatter, adulari, blan- Former, pristinus 3 ; in 

metuere, reformida- diri. [oris, m. former times, anti- 

re. Flatterer, assentator, quitus. 


Formerly, quondam. G. Gordius, Gordius, i, m. 

Forthwith, continuo. Gain, lucrum, i, n. Gorgias, Gorgias, ae, 
Fortify, munire. quaestus, us, m. m. 

Fortuitous, fortuitus 3. Garden, hortus, i, m. Govern, gubernare, mo- 

Fortunate, hesitusS. fe- Garland, corona, ae,/. derari. 

lix, icis, prosper, era. Garment, vestis, is,/. Governess, moderatrix, 

erum. Gate, porta, ae,/ icis,/. 

Fortunately, feliciter. Gaul, Gallus, i, m. Government, imperium, 

Foi^tune, i'ortuna, ae,/. Gazelle, oryx, yg'is, m. \, n. 

Fortune (gifts of), for- General, imperator. Governor, moderator, 

tunae. oris, m., dux, cis, c. oris, m. rector, oris, 

Foul, foedus 3. teter, Generally, plerumque. m. 

tra, trum; (= Genius, genius, ii, m. Gram, frumentum, i,n. 

filthy), sordidus 3. ingenium, i, n. Grammar, grammatica, 

Foul deed, flagitium, i. Gentle, placidus 3. ae,/. 

n. German, Germanus, i. Grand-son, nepos, otis, 
Found, condere. m. m. 

JPozmc?a^2ow,fundamen- Germany, Germania, Grand-daughter, nep- 

tum, i, n. \m. ae,/. tis, is,/. 

Founder, conditor, oris. Get one^s self ready. Grand-father, avus, i, 
Fountain, fons, ntis, m. expedire. m. 

Frail, fragllis, e. Giant, gigas, antis, m. Grape, uva, ae,/. 

Frailty, fragilitas,atis,/ Ginger, zingiber, eris,n. Grappling-iron, harpa- 

in^'eerfom, liber tas,atis./. Give, dare, tribiiere; go, onis, »«. 

Freely, libere. attention, at- Gravity, gra vitas, atis,/. 

Freeze, frigere, algere. tendere ; one^s Great, magnus 3 ; 

Frenchman, Francogal- self up to, indulgere very, ingens, ntis. 

lus, i, m. c. dat. ; way. Greatly, valde, vehe- 

Frequent, frequentare. cedere. menter, admodum. 

Frequented, celeber, Glide away, dilabi, ela- Greatness, magnitude, 

bris, bre. bi. inis,/ 

Friend, amicus, i, m. Glory, glorlari. Greece, Graecia, ae,/I 

Friendship, amicitia, ae. Go, ire, pergere ; Greedy, avidus 3. 

/ around, circumire ; Greedily, avlde. 
Frighten, terrere, per- 6acA;, recedere ; Gree^ (s.), Graecus, i,m, 

terrere. forth, exire ; Greek, Graecus 3. 

Frightful, horibllis, e. out, excedere ; Green, virldis, e. 

atrox, ocis. to, accedere ; Green (to be), virere. 

Frog, rana, ae,/ away, abire. Grief, moeror, oris, m. 

Fruit, fructus, us, m. Goad, stimulus, i, m. luctus, us, m. 

Fruitful, ferax, acis c. God, deus, i, m. Grieve, dolere. 

gen. Gold, aurum, i, n. Grotto, specus, us, m. 

Fulfil, explere. Golden, aureus 3. Ground, solum, i, n. 

Full, plenus 3. Good, bonus 3. Grow, crescere ; 

Full (to be), scatere. Good (s.), bonum, i, n. old, consenescere. 

Fulvia,Yu\\'m,SLQ,f. Goodness, honitas, atis. Guard, custodire ; he 
Furniture, suppellex, /. ' on one's guard, ca- 

ectilis,/. Goose, anser, eris, m. vere. 


Guide, regere. He, she, it, is, ea, id. Homer, Homerus, i, m. 

Guilt, culpa, ae,J'. Head, caput, Itis, n. Honor, honos, oris, m. 
GymnastiCjgymnicus 3. Health, valitudo, inis, jT. decus, oris, n. 

Hear, an dire. Honor, honorare, co- 

ll. Heart, cor, cordis, n., lere. 

Hadrian, Hadrianus, i, animus, i, m. Honorable, honestus 3. 

m. Heat, calor, oris, m. honoriftciis 3. 

Hair, crinis, is, m. ca- Heaven, coelum, i, n. Hope, spes, ei,/. 

pillus, i, m. Heavenly, coelestis, e. Hope, sperare. 

Hah-y, pilosiis 3. Heavy, gravis, e. Horace, Horatius, i, m. 

Half, dimidium, i, n. Hedge around, sepire. Horn, cornu, us, n. 
Halicarnassus,lia\\car- Height, altitudo, inis,jr. Horse, equus, i, m. 

nassus, i,f. Heir, haeres, edis, c. Horseman, eques, itis, 

Hand, manus, us,/*. Helmet,. ca^^\s, idis,/". m. 
Hand in hand, manum Helplessness, inopia, ae. Hostile, hostilis, e. 

conserfire cum ali- f. Hour, hora, ae,f. 

quo. Hen, gallina, ae, /. House, domus, us, /. 

Hannibal, Hannibal, Hence, hinc. aedes, is,y. 

alis, m. Hephaeston, Hephaes- How, qui. 

Happen, acddere, even- tlo, onis, m. How long, quamdiu. 

ire, cadere ; it hap- Herb, herba, ae, f. How many ? quot ? 

J9ens, accidit, contin- Hercules, Hercules, is. How much? quantum? 

git. m. Hoiv often ? quoiles ? 

Happily, feliciter. Jferrf, grex, gis, m. However much, quam- 

Happy, felix, ic\9,hea.- Hesitate, duhltavec. inf. vis. 

tus 3. Hew, exasciare. Human, humanus 3. 

Hard, durus 3. High, altus 3. ; very Humanity, humanitas. 

Hardship, aerumna, ae, A/g-^, praealtus 3. aX\s,f. 

f Highest, summus 3. Humble, humllis, e. 

Hare, lepus, oris, m. Hill, collis, is, m. Hump, tuber, eris, n. 

Harrow, occare. Himself, of himself, sui. Hunger, fames, is,jr. 

Hasten, accellerare ; etc. Hunger, esurire. 

up, advolare. Hindrance, impedi- Hunt, venari. 

Hastily, propere, prae- mentum, i, n. Hunter, venator, oris, m. 

propere. Hindrance (to be), ob- Hunter'' s-net, cassis, is 

Hatch, excludere. stare, impedimento (commonly j?/wr.), m. 

Hate, odisse, [k 77. 3). esse. Hurt, laedere. 

Hated greatly, perosus Hipparchus, Hippar- Husbandman, agricola, 

3. chus, i, m. ae, m., rusticus, i, wi. 

Hating greatly, pero- His, her, its, suus, ejus. Hut, casa, ae,f 

sus 3. (§ 94. 3—5). 

Hatred, odium, i, n. Hiss off, exsibilare. I. 

Have, habere, esse (§ History, historta, ae,f I, ego. 

90. 3), in, te- Hoarseness, ravis, is,y. Ice, glacies, ei,jf. 

nere ; in use. Hold, tenere, obtmere ; Ides, Idus, ium,jf. 

uti c. abl. ; one^s back, retlnere. Idle, otiosus 3. 

self, sese habere. Home (at), domi. (§ 92. If, si. 
Haven, ponus, us, m. R.). Ifnot,nm. 


If alsOf etsi, tametsi, Increase, augere, ac- Intelligent, prudens, tis. 

etiamsi. crescere. Intercourse, consuetu- 

i^no6/e, illiberalis, e, in- Incredihle,\ncredihl\l8,e. do, inis,/". 

honestus 3. Incumbent on some one Interest, one is interest- 

Ignominy, ignomima, (to be), esse aliciijus. ed in, interest, refert. 

a.e,f. • •• • Indeed, quidem (stands (§88.10). ^, 

Ignorance, ignorantia, after the word to Ijitermix, admiscere. , 

ae,y. which it refers). Invent, invenire, re- 

Ignorant, ignarus 3. Indicate, indicare. perire. 

Ignorant (to be), igno- Indignant (to be), in- Inventress, inventrix, 

rare, nesrire. dignari. icis,y. 

//Z (adv.), male. Indolence, ignavla, ^e. Investigator, mdrngiiXYW. 

Ill disposed, malevolus f. pigritia, ae,/". in- icis,/! 

3. ertia, ae, f. segni- Invincible, invictus 3. 

Illuminate, collustrare. ties, ei,y. Invite, invitare. 

Image, imago, Inis,/*. Indolent, piger, gra, lo, lo, us,/. 
Imitate, imitari c. ace. grum, tardus 3. ig- Irascible, iracundus 3. 

(§ 89. 2). [y. navus 3. Irascibility, iracundia, 

Imitation,\\mt2itlo,bms, Indulgent to [to hG),\n- ae,/. 
Immature, imm^tnru^^. dulgerec.dat. [/. /reZawc?, Hi berma, ae,/. 
Immediately, extemplo. Industry, industri'a, ae, Iron, ferrum, i, n. 

statim, protinus. Inflame, accendere, in- Iron, of iron, ferreus 3. 

Immense, ingens, ntis. cendere. Irruption (to make), ir- 

Immodesty, immodestia, Inform, edocere. rumpere. 

ae,/. Inhabitant, incola, ae,m. Is it possible that ? num 

/wmorZ«Z, imraortalis, e. Injure, nocere, obesse. [§ 115. 3. b. (c)]. 
Immortality, immortal- Injurious, noxlus 3. Isocrates, Isocrates, is, 

itas, atis,/. perniciosus 3. dam- m. 

Impious, impius 3. nosus 3. Issus, Issus, i,/. 

Implant, igignere. ^wjwn/, injuria, ae, /. It is the part of some 

Import, importare. ofFensio, onis,/. one, est alicujus. 

Impress, inipremere. Inmost, intimus 3. Italy, Italia, ae,/. 

Improve, emendare. Innocence, innocentia, Ivory, of ivory, ebur- 
Impunify, impunitas, ae,/. n€u»;;3. 

atis,/. Insolence, temeritas, , : v^^ 

Impute, dare, ducere, atis,/. ' .J. 

vertere c. dupl. dat. Innumerable, innumer- Jest, lepor, oris, m. 
In like manner — as, ae- abllis, e. Join together, conjun- 

que — atque(ac). Inquiry, quaestio, onis, gere. """"'■•'-v.^^ 

Inborn, insitus 3. /. disputatio,6nis,/. Joint, aiticulus, i, m."'^ 

Incite, incitare. Instruct, erudire, infor- Journey, iter, itineris, n. 

Include, contTnere. mare, edocere. Journey, proficisci. 

/wcoMf", vectigal, alis,n. Instruction, institutio, J<w/, laetitia, ae,/. 
Inconsideratencss, te- onis,/. Joyfidorjoyous,\aetus3. 

meritas, atis,/. • Instructress, magistra, /ttrfg^, judex, icis, »i. 
Inconsiderately, temere. ae,/*. Judge, judicare, existi- 

Inconstancy, inconstan- Intellect, mens, tis, f. mare, sentire. 

tia, ae,/. ingenium. Judgment,'}udiCium,\,n. 



Jnguriha, Jugurtha, ae, 

Julia, Julia, ae,f. 
Julius Caesar, Julius, i, 

Caesar, aris, m. 
June, Junius, i, m. 
Junius, Junius, i, m. 

navare alicui rei, o- Length (of time), lon- 
peram collicare in ginquttas, atis, f. 
aliqua re. Less (adv.), minus. 

Labor, laborare, elabo- Letter (epistle), epistola, 
rare. ae,y. litterae, arum,/". 

Lacedemon, Lacedae- Letter ^6f ' the alpha- 
mon, 6nis,y. bet), littera, ae,/. 

Jupiter, Juppiter, Jovis, Lacedemonian, Lace- Level, adaequare. 

m. daemonius, i, m. Liar, rnendax, acis. 

Just, Justus 3. Lake, lacus, us, m. Liberal, ingeniius 3. 

Just as, ut, sicut Lament, lugere. Licentious, petulans,tis. 

Just so many, totldem. Land, by land and by Licentiousness, petulan- 
Just so much, adv. (with sea, terra marlque. tia, ae, jf. 

verbs of valuing, es- Language, lingua, ae. Lie, situm esse ; 

teeming, buying, sell- f. oratio, 6nis,y. by, adjacere. 

ing), tantidem. Lark, alauda, ae,/. Lie (to state a false- 

Last, extremus .3. 
Lasting, diuturnus 3. 
Later, posterior. 
Latin, Latinus 3. 
Latium, Latium, i, n. 


Keep, servare. 
Keep from, arcere. 
Key, clavis, is,/. 
Kill, occidere, exani- 
mare, necare : 

hood), menth-i. 
Lije, vita, ae,/. 
lAght, lux, lucis,y. 
Lightning, fulgur, uris, 

n. fulmen, Inis, n. 

Laudable, laudablhs, e. Like, similis, e. 
Laugh, ridere. Limb, membrum, i, n. 

Laugh, risus, us, m. artus, us, m. 

Law, lex, gis,f. Line (of battle), acies, 

Lawgiver, legislator, 6- ei,/. ; to arrange in a 
ris, m. line, aciem instruere. 

outright, enecare. 
Kind, genus, eris, n. 
Kind, benignus 3. 
Kindly, benevole. 
Kindness, beneficium, i. Lay before, proponere ; Liofi, leo, onis, m. 

n. bene factum, i, n. 
King, rex, regis, m. 
Kingdom, regnum, i, n. 
Knee, genu, us, n. 
Knot, nodus, i, m. 

open, apenre, Listen to, exaudire. 
waste, devasta- Literature,Viterae,a.rum, 

Know, scire 


fectly well, non ig- 
nare, non esse nes- 

re, popular i. 
Lead, plumbum, i, n. 
Lead, ducere ; 

back, rediicere ; 

out, educeie. 


Little, exiguus 3; very 
little, perexigiius 3. 

Little (adv.), paullulum. 

Little (to esteem), par- 
vi aestlmare. 

Live, vivere, ver^ari. 

Leader, dux, cis, m. 
cius ; not to know, ig- Leafy, frondosus 3. 

n6rare,j3k(eseire. League, foedus, eris, n. Lively, alacer, cris, ere. 

tedge, peritia, ae. Leap, salire ?=: down iwer, jecur, jecinoriSjW. 

f cognitio, onis,/. desilire ; over. Living being, animans, 

Known, cognltus 3 ; — transilire. antis. 

— U is known, con-- Learn, discere. Liivy, Livius, i, m. ^^ 

Stat. Learned, doctus 3. Load, onus, eris, j^ 

Leave behind, destitue- Loathe, I loathe some- 

L. re, relinquere. ^hing, me taedet ali- 

Labof, labor, oris, m. Leg, crus, unH^n. cujus rei. 

Labor (to bestow on Legion, legio, onis,/. Lofty, excelsus 3. \m. 

something), operam Leisure, o\\um, \, n. Z(0?7cre;', cunctator, oris, 


Long, longus 3 ; of Magnesia, Magnesia,ae, Maturity, Maturitas, 

long continuance, d\u- f. atis,/. 

turnus 3. Magnificent, magnifi- Means, opes, um, /. 

Longing, desiderium, i, cus 3., snperbiis3. facultates, um,/ 

n. ^^ Make, facere, reddere ; Measure, consilium, i,n. 
Look ouTjorsmiel'liSi^^^ good, praesta- Measure, metiri. 

curare c. ace. curam re ; — — ivar upon. Meet (adv.), obvlam. 

habere, c. gen. pros- inferre helium all- Membrane, membrana, 

picSre, provide re, cui. ae,/. 

consulere, c. dat. Malice, malitia, ae,/. Memory, memoria, ae,/. 
Look upon intueri ; Malicious, malevolus 3. Metal, metallum, i, n. 

into, inspicere. Man, homo, inis, m. Metellus, Metellus, i, m. 

iroo5e, solvere. vir, viri, m. Mid-day, xneriAXeB, t,i,m. 

Loquacious, loquax, Man hy man, viritim. Migrate, migrare. 

acis, garrulus 3. Manage, administrare. Mild,m\i\s, e; to 

Loquacity, garrulitas. Mane, juba, ae,/ become, mitescere. 

atis,/. Manlius, Manlius, i, m. Milesian, Milesius, i, m. 

Lose, perdere, emittere. Manner, modus, i, m. ; Milk, lac, ctis, n. 

Loss, damnum, i, n. (with a moral Milo, Milo, onis, m. 

Lot, sors, tis,/ reference), majoris, Miltiades, Miltiades, is. 

Love, amor, oris, m. m. m. 

caritas, atis,/ Many, multi, ornm'. Mind, animus, i, m.; 
Love, amare, diligere ; very many, complu- (state of ), mens, 

in return, reda- res, a and ia, plures, tis,/ 

mare. a, gen. ium. Mindful, memor, oris. 

Low, humilis, e., infer- Maple-tree, acer, eris, n, Minerva, Minerva, ae,/ 

Us 3. Marble, marmor, oris, n. Misfortune, calamltas, 

Low state (to be in), ja- Marathon, Maratho, atis,/ malum, i, n. 

cere. onis, m. Mist, nebula, ae,/ 

Lower regions, inferi, Marble, of marble, mar- Mistress, domina, ae,/ 

orum, m. moreus 3. Misuse, abuti c. abl. 

Lowery, tristis, e. Marcellus, Marcellus, i, Mithridates, Mithrida- 

Ludlius, Lucilius, i, m. m. tes, is, m. 

Luxuriously, luxuriose. March, iter, itineris. Mix, miscere. 
Luxury, luxuria, ae,/ Mxrc/t, proficisci.iter fa- Moderately, modice. 
Lycurgus, Lycur^us, i, cere. Moderation, moderatio, 

m. * Marcus Agrippa, Mar- onis,/ without 

Lydia, Lydia, ae,/ cus, i, Agrippa, ae, m. moderation,'mtemper- 

Lying, mendax, acis. Margin, margo, inis, m. anter. 

Lysander, Lysander, Marsh, pal us, udis,/ Modest, modestus 3., 

dri, m. Marry (of the woman), pudlcus 3. 

nubere c. dat. Modestly, modeste. 

M. Massagete, Massagetes, Modesty, modesiia,ae,f. 

Macedonia, Macedonia, ae, m. Molon, Molo, onis, mr^ 

ae,/ Master, not of, im- Money, pecunia, ae,/ 

Macedonian, Macedo, pos, otis, impotens. Month, mensis, is, m. 

onis, 7rt. ntis. [/ Monument, monumen- 

Magian, magus, i, m. Matter (glairs), res, r6i, turn, i, n. 



Moon, luna, ae,/. JVeck-chain, torquis, is, JVot even, ne-quidem. 

More, plures, a, gen. m. JVot only — hut also, non 

lum. JVeed, indigere c. abl. ; modo (tantum) — sed 

Mortal, mortalis, e. there is need of, opus etiam. 

Most, plurimus 3. est. JVot yet, nondum. 

Must (adv.), plurlme. JVeedy, inops, opis. ^i^ r i (iy ii ' ii ij_^ i;lM iiliilt - 
Mother, mater, tris,/. JVeglect, negligere. JVotion, notio, onis,/. 

Move, movere, commo- JVeigh, hinnire. J^ourish, nutrire, alere. 

vere ; out, emi- JVeighhor, proximus, i, JVovember, November, 

grare. m. bris, m. 

Mound, ager, gri, m. JVeither (of two), neu- JVow, nunc, jam. 
Mountain, mons, ntis, ter, tra, trum. JVow — now, modo — 

m. JVeither — nor, nee (ne- modo. 

Mov^e, mus, muris, m. que) — nee (neque). JVoxious, noxius, a, 
Mow, metere. JVero, Nero, onis, m. urn. 

Much, multus 3 ; for JVerve, nervus, i, m. JVuma PompUius, Nu- 

much, (with verbs of JVever, nunquam. ma (ae) Pomilius (i), 

buying and selling), JVevertheless, taraen. m. 

magni (§ 88, 9). JVews, nuntius, i, m. JVumantia, Numantia, 

Much (with verbs of A^ex<, proximus 3. ae,/. 

valueing and es- JVicomedes, Nicomedes, JVumber, numerare. 

teeming), magni. is, m. JVurse, fovere. 

Multitude, multitude, J\ight, nox, noctis, /.; 

inis,/. copia, ae,y. by night, noctu. O. 

JWitnt^cen^jmunif reus 3. JVigUingcde, luscinia, O, O that! utinam c. 
Murderer, interfector, ae,/. Subj. 

oris, m. JVo (a.) nullus 3. nemo Obey, obedire, obsequi, 

Must, debere. (inis) c. obtemperare parere. 

JVo, see § 115, 5 ; no. Object, res, ei,/. 
N. nay, rather, (in opp.). Oblivion, oblivto, onis, 

JVame, nominare. immo (§ 1 15, 5). /. 

JVapoleon, Napoleo, JVoble, praeclarus 3. Obscure, obscurus 3. 

onis, m. JVoble (= noble born) Observe, observare. 

JVarrative, narratio,6nis, ingenuus 3. Obtain, adipisci. 

/ JVobly, praeclare. Occasion, occasio, onis, 

JVarrow pass, angustiae, JVobody, nemo (gen. /. 

arum,/. and abl. not used). Occupy one's self zeal- 

JVaiion, ivdtio, 6ms, f JVoctumal, nocturnus S. ously unth something, 
JVatnral, naturalis, e. JVoise, fremitus us, m. studiosus esse alicu- 

A^a^ire, natura, ae,/. jVb/a, Nola, ae,/ jus rei, studere ali- 

JVavigate, navigare, JVo one, nullus 3. ne- cui rei, operam na- 
JVavigation, navigatio, mo (Inis) c. vare alicui rei. 

onis,/. JVot, non; (with Imper. Ocean, oceanus, i, m. 

J^ear, prope. and Subj. of encour- Offended (to be), suc- 

Jvearly, prope, paene. aging), ne. censere, irasci c. dat 

J^eat, lepldus 3. JVot merely — but also, Offer, deferre. 

JVecessary (it is), opor- non solum — sed eti- Office, munus, eris, n. 

tet, opus est res or re. am. Offspring, proles, is,/. 


Oftener^ saepius ; very Ought, debere. Peac{to make), pacem^ 

often, saepisslme. Our, ours, noster, tra, coipOnere. 
Oil, oleum, i, n. trum. Peac^l, beatus 3. 

Old man, senex, senis, Outliving, susperstes, Peacejdly, beate. 

m. itis, c. dat. Peacok, pavo, onis, m. 

Old age, senectus, iitis. Overcome, superare. Pear, jTrum, i. n. 

f. Ovid, Ovidius, i, m. Pear-tie, pyrus, i,/. 

Older, major, major na- Owe, debere. Peculia, proprlus 3. 

tu. Oum, proprlus 3. ip- Peculiaity, it is a pecu- 

On account of, causa sius, ipsorum, ipsa- liarit[ of some one, 

(§ 88, R. 3). rum, (§ 94. 7). alicujis est. 

One, unus 3. Ox, bos, ovis, c. Pedestcd^hasis, is,/. 

One of the two, alteru- Pelopida, Pelopidas, 

ter, utra, utrum. P. ae, m. 

One, the one — the other. Pain, dolor, oris, m. People, jopulus, i, m. 

alter — alter. Paint, pingere ; gens, Uis, /. ; com- 

Onyx, onyx, ychis, m. out, expingere. mon p©ple, vulgus, 

Open, aperire ; to stand Palace, domus, us,/. i, n. 

open, patere. Palate, palatum, i, n. Pepper, piier, eris, n. 

Opinion, opinio, onis, /. Pale, pallidus 3. Perceive, ajnoscere. 

sententia, ae,/ exis- Pardon, venia, ae,/ Perform, fingi, perpe- 

timatio, onis,/ Parents, parentes, ium, trare. 

Opposite, ad versus 3. c. Perhaps, fotasse. 

contrarius 3. Parian, Partus 3. Pericles, Pe*icles, is, m. 

Oppress, urgere. Parricide, (a.), parrici- Period, perlidus, i,/ 

Or, aut ; (in a double da, ae, c. Perish, pere;e. 

question), an ; or not. Parricide, parricidium, PermiV, sineie. 

nee ne, annon. i, n. Permitted (it is), licet. 

Oracle, oraciilum, i, n. Part, pars, rtis,/ Pernicious, perniciosus 

Orator, orator, oris, m. Partaking of, particeps, 3. 
Order, ordo, inis, m. ; cipis. Persevere, permanere, 

of battle, acies. Partner, soclus, i, m. perstare. 

ei,/ Pass over, trausire, Persia, Persia, ae,/ 

Orrfer, jube re. praeterere. Persian [s), Persa, ae. 

Order, in order that, ut; Pass (time), agere, ex- m. 

in order that not, ne. igere, Persian, Perslcus 3. 

Orestes, Orestes, ae, m. Passion, cupiditas, Persian war, bellum 
Ori^'n, origo, inis,/ atis,/ appetitus, us, Persicum. 

Ornament, ornatus, us, m. libido, inis,/ Pest, peat'is, \s,f 

m. Past, praeteritus 3. Phaedo, Phaedo, onis, 

Ornately, ornate. Pasture, pasci. m. 

Orpheus, Orpheus, ei, P«</t, callis, is, c. P/iiZ?)?, Philippus, i, w. 

m. Patiently, patienter. Philippi, Philippi, 

Ostentation, ostentatio, Pausanias, Pausanlas, orum, ?«. , 

onis,/ ae, m. Philosopher, '^philosd- 

Other, the other of two, Paij^ |>end6re, praes- phus, i, m. 

alter, era, erum. tare. Philosophise, philosfi- 

Olherwise, aliter. Peace, pax, pacis,/ pliari. 


PhUosophy,i>h{\oshhia, Poet, poeta, ae, m. Precept, preceptum, i,n. 

ae,/ I Point out, consigiiare, Precious, pretiosua S. 

Pkocion, Pliociojonis, describere. Precipitately, praepro- 

Poison, venenum, i, n. pere. 
Phoenician, Phjbnix, virus, i, n. Predict, praedicere. 

icis, m. I [m. Pompey, Pompeius, i,m. Preeminence, virtus, 

Physician, medcus, i, Pond, lacus, us, m. uiis,yi 

Piety, pietas, all,/. Pool, palus, udis,/ Prefer, praeferre, an- 
Pilot, gubernatr, oris, Poor,;?awj9er, er is, in ops, teponere. 

m. I opis. Prepare, parare. 

PiWar, Pindaas, \, m. Po/j/ar, popul us, i,/. Present, praesens, lis; 

Pine, [)inus, i,|. P^WIJj papaver, eris, n. to be, adesse. 

Pisisfratus, Piistratus, Portico, porticus, us,/. Present, donum, i, n. 

i, m. I Posidonius, Posidonlus, munus, eris, n. 

Pitch (of a c?iip), po- i, m. [esse c. gen. Present with, donare. 

nere. Po55es5, tenere, habere ; Preserve, servare ; (= 

P%, miseric^rdia,ae,/. Possess one's self of, po- i)rotect), conservare. 
Pity (it excitis my), me tiri c. abl. Preside over, ])raestare, 

miseret (a|icujus). Possessed of, compos, praeesse c. dat. 
Pity, mlser^i c. gen. ; otis c. gen. [onis,/ Press, premere. 
to have ^ity, mise- Possession, possesslo. Pretence, simulatio, 
reri. Possible (it is), fieri po- onis, /. 

Place, locua i, m. test ; it is not possi- Pretor, praetor, oris, m. 

Place, ponire, — in c. ble but that, fieri non Prevail upon by entrea- 

abl. I potest quin. ty, exorare. 

Place somening around Post, pot?tis, is, m. Prevent, itnpedire, pro- 

somethink or sur- Post (of honor), honos, hibere ; obstare c. 
round 8(}mthing ivith oris, w. dat. 

something, cii'cumda- Pound, libra, ae,/. Previously, prius. 

re ahquid alicui, or Pour forth, effundere. Prick, pungere. 
aliquem aliqua re. Poverty, inopla, ae, /. Pride, superbia, ae,/ 
PZam, campus, i, m. paupertas, atis, / Principle, preceptum, 

P/an, consiliurp, i, n. Poifjer, vis, (nom. and i, n. doctrina, ae,/ 
Plant, planta, »e,/ dat. plur. vires, ium). Proceed, proficisci. 

Plato, Plato, ojiis, m. vigor, oris, m. poten- Produce, gignere. 

Play, ludere. tia, ae,/ opes, um,/ Productive, fecundus 3. 

P/efl5an/, amoenus 3. Poiyer/w/, poten s c. gen. frugifer, era, erum. 
Please, placere, probare opulentus 3. fertilis, e. [ficere. 

alicui. [m^ Practice, exercitatio. Progress (to make), pro- 

PZe«5wre, voluptas, atis, onis, / ( = habit). Promise, piomittere, 
Plough, arare. • consuetudo, inis,/ polliceri profiteri. 

P/mcA:, eve Here. Praise, laus, dis,/ Pronowwce,pronuntiare, 

Plumtree, prunus, i,/ Praise, laudare, collau- eloqui ; — one hap- 
Plunder, dirlpere. dare ; bene dicere c. py, fortunatum prae- 

Pluiarch, Plutarchus, i, dat. dicare aliquem. 

m. Prayers, preces,um,f. Proper, it is proper for 

Poem, carmen, inis, n. Precede some one, prae- me, decet c. ace. it is 

poema, atis, n. cedere alicui. not proper, dedecet. 


Properly, rite, probe. Pythagoras, Pythago- Recently, nuper. 

Prophet, vates, is, m. ras, ae, m. Recollect, recordari. 

Propitious, propitius 3. Recompense, merces, 

Proportionately, aequa- Q. edis,/. 

biliter. Quantity, numerus, i. Recover, convalescere. 

Propose, proponere. m. vis (gen. and dat. Red, ruber, bra, brum. 

Propriety (of conduct), wanting, plur. vires. Redound, redundare. 

honestas, atis,/ lum),/. Refer, referre. 

Prosperity, res secun- Queen, regina, ae,/. Reflect upon, cogitare. 

dae, fortuna, ae,/. Question, quaestio, 6- Reflection, cogitatio, 6- 

Prosperous, prosper, era, nis,/. jois,/. 

erum. Quickly, cito. Refresh, recreare. 

Prostrate, prosternere. Quiet [s.), quies, etis,/. JRe/w^e, receptus, us, 7». 

Protect, custodire. Quiet (a.), quietus 3. Region, reglo, onis,/. 

Protection, tutela, ae,/ tranquillus 3. Reject, rejicere, respue- 

praesidiurn, i, n. Quiet, sedare. re. 

Proud, superbus 3. Quietly, quiete, tran- Reign, regnum, i, n. 

Provided that, modo, quille. Reign, regnare, domi- 

dummodo. [ae,/ nare, imperare. 

Providence, providentla, R. Rejoice, delectare, gau- 

Provident, cautus 3. Race, genus, 6ris, n. dere. 

Province, provincia, ae. Rage, saevire. Relate, narrare, memo- 

/ Rain, imber, bris, m. rare. 

Provoke, lacessere. [/. Raise, perciere, or per- Relieve, levare. 

Prudence, prudentia ae, cire. Religion, religlo, onis,/. 

Prudent, prudens, tis. Rank, ordo, inis, m. Religiously, religiose. 

Ptolemy, Ptolemaeus, i. Rapid, rapidus 3. Remain, manere, re- 

m. Rare, rarus 3. [tis,/ manere. 

Pungent, acerbus 3. Rashness, temeritas, a- Remarkable, insignis, e. 

Punic, Punicus 3. Rather, potlus. Remedy, remedium, i, n. 

Punish, punire, multa- Reach, pervenire. Remedy, mederi. 

re. Read, legere ; Remember, remi nisei, 

Punishment, poena, ae, through, perlegere ; memini, recordari c. 

/ supplicium, i, n. to, recitare. gen. or ace. 

I*urplefsh, niurex, ic'is, Reading, lectio, onis,/ Remembrance, memor^af 

m. \n. Ready, p'romptus 3., ae,/ 

Purpose, propositum, i, paratus 3. [us, m. Remind, commonere, 

Pursue, persequi, con- Readiness, promptus, commonefacere. 

sectari ; some- Reap, metere. Remove, resecare. 

thing earnestly, studi- Reason, ratio, onis,/ Removed (to be), abesse. 

osum esse alicujus Reason, there is no reas- Remus, Remus, i, m. 

rei ; literature, on that, non est quod, Renew, refricare. 

literas tractare. nihil est quod ; with- Renown, fama, ae, /, 

Pursuit, tractatio, onis, out reason, temere. gloria, ae,/ 

/ studium, i, n. Recall, revocare. Renowned, clarus 3., no- 

Pylades, Pylades, ae, m. Receive, accipere, susci- bllis, e. 

Pyrenean, Pyrenaeus 3. pere. Repair, sarcire. [re. 

Pyrrhus, Pyrrhus, i, m. Received, exceptus 3. Repd, pellere, repelld- 


Repent, poenitere ; I Ripe, maturus 3. Sailor, nauta, ae, m. 

repent of something, Rise, oriri. Salt, sal, salis, m. 

poenitet me alicujus Rising, ortus 3. Salutary, salutaris, e. 

rei. River, fluvius, i, m. am- saluber or bris, bre. 

Report, fama, ae,/. nis, is, m. flumen, Same, is, ea, id ; very 

Repose, requies, etis,f. inis, n. same, idem, eadem. 

Reproach, probrum, i. Roar, rudere. idem ; at the same 

n. opprobrium, i, n. Rock, rupes, is,/., sax- time, simul, una. 

turpitudo, inis,/. um, i, n. Samnite (s.), Samnis, 

Reproach, maledicere. Rome, Roma, ae,/. itis, m. 

Reprove, castigare. Roman (s.), Romanus, Sanction, sancire. 

Reputable, honestus 3. i, m. Sapid, sapidus 3. 

Request, petere, rogare J2omaw (a.), Romanus 3. Sappho, Sappho, us,/ 

(ab aliquo). Romulus, Romuhjs, i,wi. Satirize, perstringere. 

Resist, resistere. Roof, tectum, i, n. Save, parcere c. dat. 

Resound, resouare. Rope, restis, is,/ Save from something. 

Resounding, resonus. jRowg-/i, asper, era, erum. servare ex or ab al- 
Resource, opes, um. Round, rotund us 3. iqua re. 

Responsible, to become Rout, fundere. Say, dicere, inquam (§ 

responsible, spondere. Royal, regius 3. 77. Rule). 

Rest, quies, etis,/ Rub off, detergere. Scarcely, vix. 

Rest upon something. Rub thoroughly, perfri- Scatter, disjicere. 

niti c. abl. care. Scholar, discipulus, i, m. 

Restore, reparare, re- Rude ( = unskilful). Scholastic instruction, 

cuperare, rudis e, c. gen. institiitio scholastica. 

Restrain, coercere. Ruin, to go to, dilabi. School, schola, ae,/ 

Retain, retinere. Rule (a carpenter's), Scipi,o, Scipio, onis, m. 

Retire, recedere, disce- amussis, is,/ Scrape together, conra- 

dere. Rule, regere, guberna- dere. 
Return, reditus, us, m. re. [dat. Scruple, scrupulus, i, m. 
jRe/urn, redire, reverte- Rule over, imperare c. Scrupulously, sancte, re- 
re, remeare. Run, currere ; in- ligiose. [m. 

Reverence, \ereri. to, diffliiere ; Scythian {s.),Scytha,Sie, 

Revile, maledicere, c. through, percurrere. Sea, mare, is, n. 

dat. Rush in, irruere. Season, in season, ma- 

Reivard, praemlum, i,n. z*'*^ ^^^'^* 

Rhine, Rhenus, i, m. / J§M Seasoning, condimen- 

Rhodes, Rhodus, i,/ Sacred ntes, sacra,6rum, tum, i, n. 
Rich, dives, itis, locu- n. Seat, sedes, is,/ [m. 

pies, etis. Sacredly, sancte. Sedition, seditio, onis. 

Riches, divitiae, arum,/ Sacredness, sanctitas. Seditious, seditiosus 3. 
Ride, equltare. . atis,/ »See, videre, conspicari, 

Ridge (of mountains). Sad, tristia, e. [itis. carnere. 

jugum, i, n. Safe, tutus 3. sospes. Seek, quaerere. 

Ridiculous, ridiculus 3. Safety, salus, litis,/ >S'eize, deprehendere. 
Right, jus, juris, n. Saguntum, Saguntum, comprehendere, ca- 

Right (a.), rectus 3. i, n. pere, occupare, ca- 

Rightly, recte. Sail, velum, i, n. pessere. 



Self, ipse (§ 94. 6). 
Self confidence, audacia, 

Sell, vendere. 
Senate, senatus, us, m. 
Send, mittere ; for, 

Sense, sensus, us, m. 

mens, tis,/. 
Sensible, prudens, tis. 
Sentiment, sententia, ae, 


Separate, separare, dis- 
ci ude re, secerriere. 

Sepulchre, sepulcrum, i, 

Serious, gravis, e. 

Serve, servire. 

Service, officium, i, n. 

Servitude, servitus, Otis, 

Set out on a journey, 

Several, plures, a, com- 

plures, a and ia. 
Severe, gravis, e. [f 
Severity, severitas, atis. 
Shake, convellere, labe- 

Sliame, lam ashamed of 

something, me pudet 

alicujus rei (§ 88. 1). 
Share with some one, 

communlcare cum 

Sharing in, particeps, 

ipis, cousors, tis. 
Shear, tondere, radere. 
Shepherd, pastor, oris, 

Shin, crus, uris, n. 
Shine forth, elucere. 
(S/ti/?, navis, is,/! [i,n. 
Shipwreck, naufraglum. 
Short, brevis, e ; in 

short time, brevi 

(sc. tempore). 
Short time, paulisper. 

Should, debere. 
Shout, clamor, oris, m. 
Show one's self se prae- 

bere, se praestare. 
Shun something, aver- 

Shut, claudere. 
Sick, aeger, gra, grum. 
Side (on the other), con- 

Siege, obisdio, onis, f 
obsessio, 6nis,jr. 

Sight, conspectus, us,m. 

Sign, signum, i, n. ; it 
is the sign of some 
one, est alicujus. 

Silence, silentia, ae,y. 

Silent (to be), tacere. 

Silkworm, bombyx,ycis, 

Silver, argentum, i, n. 

Simple, simplex, Icis. 

Sin, peccatum, i, n. 

Sin, peccare. 

Since, quum. 

Sing, cantare, canere. 

Sink, demergere ; 

doivn, desidere ; 

under, succumbere. 

Sister, soror, dns,f 

Sit, sedere ; at 

table, accubare. 

Situation, locus, i, m. 

Size, magnitudo, inis,/. 

Skilful, peritus 3., pru- 
dens, tis c. gen. 

Sky, coelum, i, n. 

Slave, servus, i, m.. 

Slay, occidere, interfi- 

Sleep, somnus, i, m. 

Sleep, dormire. 

Slender, gracilis, e. 

Slim, procerus 3. 

Small, parvus, 3. 

Small, olfacere. 

Smile upon, arridere. 

Smith, faber, bri, m. 

Snares, insidrae,arum,/. 
Snow, nix, nivis,y*. i 

So, ita ; so — so as, tarn- I 

quam ; great, 

tantus 3 ; l^^ng, 

tamdiu ; 

as, dum, quamdiu, 
quoad [§ 110, 4)]; 

many, tot, in- 

decl. ; soon as, 

ubi, simulac (atque) 
[§ 110, 2)]. 

Socrates, Socrates, is,m. 

Soldier, miles, itis, m. 

Solicitude, soUicitudo, 

Solid, solid us 3. 

Solon, Solo, onis, m. 

Some, nonnulli. 

Some one, allquis, a, id. 

Sometime, aliquando. 

Sometimes, interdum. 

Son, fillus. i, m. 

Son-in-law, gener, eri, 
m. [pore). 

Soon, mox, brevi (tem- 

Sooner, prior. 

Soothe^ lenire. 

Sophist, sophista, ae, m. 

Sorrow, aegritudo, Inis, 


Soul, animus, i, m. 
Sound, integer, gra, 

Sow, serere. 
Spain, Hispanla, ae,y. 
Spaniard, Hispanus, i, 

Spare, parcere c. dat. 
Sparta, Sparta, ae,f. 
Speak, dicere, loqui. 
Spectator, spectator, 

oris, m. 
Speech, sermo, onis, m. 

oratio, onis,y. 
Spirit, animus, i. m. 

mens, tis,/. ingen- 

ium, i, n. 



Spiritedly, acriter. 
Splendid, splendidus 3., 

nitidus 3. \m. 

Splendor, splendor, oris, 
Split, diffindere. 
Sport, ludus, i, m. 
Spread, pandere; — (= 

cover), oblinere. 
Spring, oriri, casci, ex- 

Spurn, spern6re, asper- 

nere, fastidire. 
Spy, explorator, oris, m. 
Stab, confodere. 
Stability, stabilitas, atis, 

f. perpetuitas, atis,y; 
Stadium, stadium, i, n. 
Staff, scipio, onis, m. 
Stand, stare. 
Star, Stella, ae,y. 
State, respublica, rei- 

publicae, f. ci vitas, 

atis,y. ; at the cost 

of the State, publice. 
Station, statlo, onis, f. 
Statue, statua, ae,y. 
Stay {= large rope), 

rudens, tis, m. 
Steel, chalybs, ybis, m. 
Steep, praeceps, cipitis, 

arduus 3. 
Step, passu s, Qs, m. 
Stern, puppis, is,y*. 
Stick, haerere. 
Still, adhuc, porro. 
Stone, lapis, idis, m. 
Stone, of stone, lapi- 

deus 3. 
Stork, ciconia, ae,y. 
Storm, procella, ae, f. 

tempestas, atis,y! 
Strengthen, firmare. 
Stretch, tendere. 
Strife, lis, litis,/. 
Strike, ferire. 
Strive, studere c. dat., 

petere c. ace, niti ad 

aliquid„tendere, con- 

tendere ; — against, 

reluctari ; — against 

something, niti, in ali- 

quid ; to obtain, 

petere, expetere, sec- 

Strong, valid us 3. 
Study, studium, i, n. 
Subdue, domare, perdo- 

Subject, civis, is, c. 
Subjugate, subigere. 
Succeed, succedere. 
Such, talis, e ; is, ea, id. 
Sudden, subitus 3. 
Suddenly, subito. 
Suffer, pati, perpfiti ; 

from, laborare 

c. abl. 
Sufficiently, satis. 
Suitable, idoneus, a,um. 
Sulla, Sullae, ae, m. 
Summer, aestas, atis, f 
Sun, sol, sol is, m. 

Suppliant, supplex,icis. 
Supplicate, supplicare. 
Supply, suppeditare. 
Support, fulcire. 
Supremacy, principatus, 

us, m. summum im- 

Surely, certe, sane. 
Surface, aequor, oris, n. 
Surpass, praestare, c. 

Surprise, obrepere c.dat. 
Surrender, tradere. 
Surround, circumdare, 

cingere, ambire ; of- 

fundi alicui rei. 
Surviving, superstes, 

itis c. dat. 
Sustain, sustentare. [/ 
Swalloiv, hirundo, inis. 
Swear, jurare. 
Sweat, sudare. 

Sweet, dulcis, e. 
Swift, celer, eris, ere, 

velox, ocis. 
Swiftly, celeiiter, cito. 
Swiftness, celeritas,ati8, 


Swollen, turgidus 3. 

Sword, gladius, i, m. en- 
sis, is, m. ferrum, j,n. 

Syracuse, Syracusae, 

Syria, Syria, ae,/! 


Tabu, tabula, ae,/. 
Table (to sit at), accu- 

Take, capere, adimere ; 

away, toll^re, 

auferre, demere, ad- 
imere ; Jire, ex- 

ardescere; — from^ 

eripere ; one^s 

self off, facessere ; 

possession of, 

occupare ; tip. 

tollere ; 


one's self suscipere. 

Talent (sum of money), 
talentum, i, n. 

Tame, cicur, uris. 

Tame, domare. 

Tanaquil, Tanaquil, 

Tarentum, Tarentum, 
i, m. [m. 

Tarquin, Tarquinius, i, 

Tarquinius Superbus, 
Tarquinius Supe^- 
bus, m. 

Tarquinius, Collatinus, 
Tarquinius, Collati- 
nus, m. [tare. 

Taste, gustare, degus- 

Teach, docere c. dupl. 
ace. [^ 89, 5. b)]. 

Teachable, docilis 3. 

Teacher, praeceptor, 



6ris, m. magister, tri, Thornbush, sentes, ium, 

Tear in pieces^ lac^rare, 

Tell, dicere. 

Temple, templum, i, n, 
aedes, is,/". 

Tender, tener, era, 

Tenderly, pie. 

Terrible, terribilis, e. 

Territory, finis, is, m. 

Thales, Thales, is, m. 

Thames, Tamesis, is, 

Than, quam. 

Thanks (to give), gra- 
tias agere. 

That, ille, a, ud ; is, ea, 
id ; iste, a, ud. 

T^t, that not, see § 

The — so much the (with 
the comparative), quo 
— eo, quanto — tanto. 

Theban Thebanus, i, m. 

Thebes, Thebae,arum,y. 

Themistocles, Themisto- 
cles, is, m. 

Then, turn, deinde. 

Thence, illinc, inde. 

Theophrastus, Theo- 
pii^-uPhrastus, i, m. 
^- There, ibi. 

There are, sunt ; — is, 

J%ermopylae, Thermo- 
pylae, arum,y. 

"^^k, crassLis 3, 

7liicktt, frutex, icis, m. 

Thing, res, rei,^*. 

Think, putare, arbltra- 
ri, exist! ma re, cogi- 

tare; of, med- 


Thirst, sitis, is,/. 

Thirst, si tire. 

This, hie, haec, hoc. 

Thou, tu. 

Thoughtless, levis, e. 
Threaten, minari; — (= 

impend), impendere, 

Threatening, minax, a- 

Three-headed, triceps, 

Thrust doum, detrude- 

re ; out, extru- 

Thumb, pollex, icis, m. 
Thunder, tonitru, u, n. 
Thunder, tonare. 
Thus, ita. [um. 

Thy or thine, tuus, a, 
Tiberius, Tiberius, i, m. 
Time, tempus, oris, n. 
Time, long time, diu. 
Timid, timldus 3. 
Timoleon, Timoleon, 

ntis, m. 
Timotheus, Timotheus, 

i, m. 
Tire out, defatigare, de- 

Titus, Titus, i, m. 
Together, una. 
Toil, labor, oris, m. 

opera, a,/. 
Tomi, Tomi, orum, m. 
Tomorrow, eras. 
Tongue, lingua, ae, /. 
Too much, nimium. 
Tooth, dens, tis, m. 
Torment, cruclare, vex- 

are, torquere. 
Torrent, torrens, tis, m. 
Torture, cruciatus, us, 

m. tormentum, i, n. 
Torture, cruciare, tor- 
Tourh, tangere attin- 

gere, conting6re. 
Tower, turris, is, /*. 

Trace, vestigium, i, n. 

Track, vestigium, i, n. 

Trader, mercator, oris, 
m. [m. 

Traitor, proditor, oris, 

Trajan, Trajanus, i, m. 

Transgress, migrare, c. 
ace. [gestire. 

Transported (to be), 

Travel through, emetiri. 

Treachery, proditio, 6- 
nis,/. [J, 

Treason, proditio, onis, 

Treat, tractare. 

Tree, arbor, oris,/ 

Tremble, contremiscere. 

Trench, fossa, ae,/. 

Tribune of the people, 

Trojan, Trojanus 3. 

TVoop, agmen, inis, n. 

Troops, copiae, arum,/ 

Trouble, molestia, ae,/ 
aerumna, ae,/. 

Trouble, angere ; 

one's self about some- 
thing, curare altquid, 
operam dare. 

Troublesome, molestus 
3., impoi tunus 3. 

Troy, Troja, ae,/. 

Truce, indutiae, arum, 


True, verus 3. 

Trunk (of a tree), cau- 

dex, icis, m. 
Trust in, fidere c. abl. 
Trust one, credere, fi- 
dere, fidem habere, 

Truth, Veritas, atis,/I 
Try, tentare, conari, 

Tullus Hostilius, Tul- 

lus Hostilius, m. 
Turn out, evadere ; — 

out well, continggre ; 

— towards. cDuver- 



tere ; — upon some- 
things defigere in c. 

Twisted, tortus 3. 

7)jrant, Tyrannus i, m. 
p- Tyrian (s.), Tyrlus, i, m. 


Udder, uber, eris, n. 
Ulysses, TJlixes, is, m. 
Umhrenus, Umbrenus, 

i, m. 
Unacquainted ivith, ig- 

narus 3. imprudens, 

Unarmed, inermis, e. 
Uncertain, incertus 3., 

anceps, cipitis. 
Uncover, detegere. 
Understand, intelligere, 

Understanding, mens, 

Undertake, snscip^re, 

Unfavorable, iniqilus 3. 
C7rj/bre5cen,i mpro visus3. 
Unfortunate, calamito- 

sus 3., miser 3. 
Ungrateful, ingratus 3. 
Uninjured, integer, gra, 

Unintelligent, impru- 
dens, tis. 
Unite, conjungere, con- 
cilia re. 
Unjustly, injuste. 
Unknown, incognitus. 
Unless, nisi. 
Unlike, dissimllis, e. 
Unmindful of, imme- 

mor c. gen. 
Unprnfitahle, inutllis, e. 
Unrestrained, effusus 3. 
Unripe, immaturus 3. 
Unskilful, imperitus 3. 
Until, donee, quoad, 


Untimely (adv.), intem- 

Unwise, insipiens, tis. 
Unworthy, indignus 3. 

c. abl. 
Upright, probus 3. hon- 

estus 3. 
Uprightly, probe. 
Uprightness, probitas, 

Use, usus, us, m. 
Use, uti c. abl. 
Useful, utTlis, e. 
Useless, inutllis, e. 
Utica, Utlca, ae,/. 


Vain, irrltus 3. 

Vain, in vain, nequic- 

Valuable, carus 3. 
Value, preiium, i, n. 
Value, aestlmare, cen- 

sere magnietc. 
Vanish, a vol are. 
Vanquish, vincere, de- 

Vapor, vapor, oris, m. 
Variance (to be at), dis- 

Variegated, discolor, 

Various, varius 3. 
Vein (swollen), varix, 

icis, m. 
Venison, caro ferina, 

earn is ferinae. 
Veires, Verres, is, m. 
Versed in, peritus 3., 

consultus 3. 
Very, admodum, valde. 
Very often, persaepe. 
Vespasian, Vespasia- 

nus, i, m. 
Vessel, vas, vasis, n. 
Vesta, vesta, ae,/. 
Vesuvius, Vesuvius, i, m. 
Vex, angere, negotium 

facessere ; vex 

to death, ei\eciive. 
Vexation, angor, 6ris,w. 
Vice (= viciousness), 

vitiositas, atis,/. 
Vice, vitium, i, ?«. 
Vicissitude,v\c\s, vicis,/. 
Victory, victoria, ae,/. 
Vieiv, conspectus, us,m. 
Vieiv {== sentiment), 

sententia, ae,/. 
Vigorously, strenue. 
Vint-hranch, tradux, u- 

cis, m. 
Violate, violare. 
Violant, violentus 3., 

vehcmens, tis, atrox, 

Violently, graviter. 
Virgil, Virgilius, i, m. 
Virgin, virgo, inis,/. 
Virtue, virtus, utis,/. 
Virtuous, honestus 3. 
Voice, vox, vocis,/. 
Volcanic, ignivomus 3. 
Vow, yovere. 
Vulture, vultur, uris, m. 


Wages, stipendium, f^n. 

Wait, expectare. *' 

Walk (to take), ambd- 
lare ; — go to walk, 

Walk upon, inceder©. 

Wall (of a house), ''pa- 
ries, etis,/! — (S6 a 
protection ), moenia, 
ium, n. — (a* 
structure), munus, 
eris, w. 

Waneler, errare. 

Wandering, error, oris, 

Want, egestas, atis, /., 
inopia, ae,/. 

Wemi, carere c. abl. 

War, bellum, \,n. 




Warfare, res militaris. 
Wares, merx, rcis,/. 
Warlike, bellicosus 3. 
Warm, callldus 3. 
Wash, lavare. 
Waste, atterere, corifi- 

Watch, vigllare; keep 

watch, excubare. 
Water, aqua, ae,/. 
Waver, vacillare. 
Way, vfa, ae,/. iter, iti- 

iieris, n. 
Way {= manner), mo- 
dus, j, m. 
Way (to stand in), ob- 

stare, ofFicere c. dat. 
Weak, infirmus 3., ini- 

potens, tis. 
Weaken, diluere. 
^i'eakness, infirmitas, a- 

Wealthy, locuples, etis. 
Wearied, fessus, 3. 
fVeary (to be), defetisci, 

^''eather, tempestas,atis, 


Weqf>, flere. 
Welfare, salus, utis,/*. 
Well {to be), valere. 
Weser, Visurgis, is, m. 
West, occidens, ntis. 
Wether, vervex, ecis, m. 
What (in number or 

order) ? quotus ? 3. 
When, quum. 
Whence, unde. 

m^, ubi. 

Wr, ewith, qui. 
Whether (in indirect 

questions), num, 

ne, utrum. 
Whetstone, cos, cotis,/. 
Which of the two, uter, 

tra, trum. 
♦ While, dum. 
Whither, quo. 

Who, qui, quae, quod. 
Who ? inter, quis, quae, 

quid ? 
Whoever you please, 

Whole, universus 3., 

omnis, e. 
Wholly, omnino. 
Why, cur. 
Wicked, implus 3., sce- 

leratus 3., im{)r6bus 

3., maleflcus3. 
Wickedly, improbe. 
Wickedness, pravilas, 

Wide, amplus 3. 
Widely, late. 
Wife, uxor, ons,f. 
Wild, ferus 3. 
Will, testamentura, i, n. 

voluntas, atis,/. 
Will, velle ; not to will, 

Willow, siler, eris, n. 
Wind, ventus, i, m. 
Wine, vinum, i, n. 
Winter, hiems, eims,f. 
Wisdom, consilium, i, n. 
Wise, sapiens, tis, pru- 

dens, tis. 
Wisely, sapienter, pru- 

Wise man, sapiens, tis, 

Wish, optare, velle, cu- 

Wit, sal, salis, m. 
Without (to be), carere. 
Wolf, lupus, i, m. 
Woman, muller, eris, /. 

femlna ae,y. 
Wonder, mirari. 
Wood, lignum, i, n. 
Wood (a.), silva, ae, f. 
Wooden, of wood, lig- 

neus 3. 

is, m. 

Word, verbum, i, n. 
Work, opus, eris, n. 
World, niundus, i, m. 
Worm, vermis, is, m. 
Worthy, dignus 3. c. 

Wrest from, extorquere. 
Wretched, miser, ei*a, 

Wretchedness, miseria, 

ae,/. aerumna, ae,/. 
Write, scribere. 
Writer, scriptor, oris, m» 
Writing, scriptum, i, n. 
Writing-tablet, codicil- 

li, orum, m. 
Wrong, injuria, ae,/. 
Wrong[Ao), delinquere. 

Xenocrates, Xenocra- 

tes, is, m. 
Xenophon, Xenophon, 

ontis, m. 
Xerxes, Xerxes, is, m. 

Year, annus, i, m. this 

year, (adv.), homo. 
Yes, see ^ 115. 5. 
Yes, (to say), aio, [§ 77. 

Yesterday, heri, hodie. 

Yet, at, tamen. 

Young man, juvenis, is, 

m. [inis,/ 

Young woman, virgo, 
Younger, natu minor. 
Your, vester, tra, trum. 
Youth, ju ventus, utis,/ 

adolescentla, ae,/. 
Youth (a), adolescens, 

tis, m. adolescentu- 

lus, i, w. juvenis, is,m. 


Zeal, studium, i, n. 
Zealously, naviter. 


Page 13, line 7, read proavus for proavu. p. 17, 1. 18, debeo for dobSo. 
23, 34, consonants for vowels. 25, 24, bona for bona. 29, 25, name (m.) for 
name (n.). 32, 9, neuter for feminine. 33, 39, antecedet for antecedet. 34, 
20, venator, oris for venator, oris. 35, 38, adversis for adveris. 39, 1, wild 
for mild. 42, 33, object for objective. 43, 36, cantus, us, m. for cantus. us 
n. 47, 25, vitupero for vitupero. 51, 5, quoddam for quodam. 60, 10, Ro- 
mam for Roman. 61. 1, (ob) for (ab). 62, 26, Aenea for Aena. 63, 25, n"** 
for were. 69,5, frater for fater. 71, 7, premature for primature. 83,29, 
portTcus for porllcus. 83, 31, old woman for old man. 90, 8, amatus for 
amamatus. 105, 5, compSro for coraparo. 109, 37, potio for portio. 132, 1,^ 
coena for coeno. 146, 24, flagitia for flagita. 152, 9, heat for heart. 157, 10, 
spondeo for spandeo. 210, 2, pliiit for puit. 253, 23, molest.iis for mola-fus^ 
255, 7, idonei for idoni. 263, ^^sentence for sentences. 291, 'bottom, third 
for second. 303, 10, Hac for Haec. 307, 10,flectendum for lectendum. 307, 
note, pick for prick. 310, 8, philosophum for philospophum. 320, 14, Ci^nio 
or Canto. 





tEb •■"•/ . 



MAR 5 W49 

^ ?.i'' 





Dci; iO 338 

DEC 12 1988 

,1]TQ DISC SFP 12*88 

LD 21-100m-7,'39(402s) 

ys 00426