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Ssymank, Paul 

Elementary Polish grammar 



Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages 


olish Grammar 

Julius Groos, Heidelberg 

presented to 

£be Xibrar? 

of tbe 

Xflniversitip of Toronto 


Professor B.jsj. Shore 






PH. D. 


DAVID NUTT (A. G. Berry), 212 Shaftesbury Avenue, W. C. 2. 
DULAU & CO., 34—36 Margaret 8treet, Cavendish Square W 1. 
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BOSTON: G. REUSCHEL, 110 Tremont Street. n 

8CHOENHOF BOOK COMPANY, 128 Tremont Street. J 



The Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method has become my sole property by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are 
reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impressions are forbidden by law. 
Suitable communications always thankfully received. 

Heidelberg. Julius Groos. < 



Encouraged by the success of the Polish Grammar 
of Wladislas Paulus, of which, in 1914, I published a 

cor." edition in the German language, I have fulfilled 
me wishes of the publisher Julius Groos, who requested 
me to write an English edition of the book. The chief 
part of it was finished during the European War, in 1917, 
in a small village near the German front of Verdun, 
but the work could not be printed before the year 1920. 
This Elementary Polish Grammar is intended to 
facilitate the study of the language for beginners, and 
will suffice for those who wish to learn the Polish lan- 
guage for practical purposes and even in general for 
those who desire to read works of Polish literature. 
They who desire to reach higher aims will naturally 
be obliged to continue their studies by the help of a 

ientific grammar, of which there are some very good 
ones, in German, as, eg., that of Soerensen, entitled: 
"Polnische Grammatik in systematischer Darstellung" 
(Leipzig, Veriag von Haberland, 1900). 

By going through this Elementary Grammar, learn- 
ers will soon perceive that Polish can, as well as any 
other dead or living language, be studied and learned 
without the assistance of a teacher. To this end a Key 
of- the Exercises has been issued. 

At the end of this Preface I feel the obligation to 
thank those who have helped me in composing a good and 
correct text, both in English and Polish. I shall always 

member with thankfulness the assistance which presi- 
dent Dr. Legowski and his daughter. .Mrs. Wanda Cy- 
bichowska (at Thorn), Mr. Richard Koerth (at Bromberg), 

iMr. August Otto (at Preussisch-Friedland, formerlv at 

IV Preface. 

Posen) 1 and Mr. William Gr. Priest (in London) afforded 
me, in giving me valuable advice and in reading the 
proofs of the Grammar. But though all of us revised 
them very carefully, a certain number of errata have 
not been perceived in time and must therefore be col- 
lected in a list following the Contents. 

All those who employ this book in order to learn 
the Polish language are begged by me to inform me 
directly, when finding any errata or other mistakes in 
my Grammar, which I desire to make a work absolu- 
tely reliable. 

Goettingen, Theaterstrasse 25. 
December 19th 1920. 

Professor Paul Ssymank, Ph. D. 

(formerly at Posen). 

1 In the English text I employ the German orthography of the 
names of the towns in Poland, which formerly belonged to the 
German Empire or to Austria, as I believe that the Polish names, 
which now are officially used there, are not yet to be found in the 
English and American maps. 


Introduction : Phonetics 

General Observations 1 

The Tonic Accent 1 

Pronunciation of Vowels 2 

Pronunciation of Consonants 3 

Assimilation 5 

Double Letters 6 

The Modern Polish Alphabet and its Phonetic Value . . 7 

Rules of Orthography 7 

Reading Exercise 1,2 7 

1st Lesson. Gender of Polish Substantives 9 

Ond . 11 

3 rd ., Declension of Substantives 13 

4th n Continuation 26 

5th „ 27 

« th •• „ 29 

7th |f Declension of Adjectives with full Termination . 30 

8th H The Abridged Form of Adjectives 33 

9th „ Adverbs 34 

10th n Degrees of Comparison 36 

11th w Prepositions 39 

12th „ Continuation 42 

13th n Cardinal and Ordinal Xumbers 43 

14th M Pronouns 48 

15th M The Other Pronouns 51 

16th n Aspects of the Verbs. The Auxiliary Verb bye to be 54 

17th The Verb mie6 to have -59 

18th The Different Classes of the Polish Verbs ... 61 

19th H The Second Conjugation 65 

20th >? Continuation 69 

$1« n , 71 

22nd M 74 

23rd ,. 76 

24th M Imperfective, Perfective and Iterative Verbs . . 79 

25tt> The Passive Voice 83 

26th M Reflexive Verbs 85 

27tii „ Impersonal Verbs 87 

VI Contents. 

28th Lesson. Conjunctions .88 

29th f ; Short Syntax- m 91 

30th ., The Predicate 93 

31st „ Continuation 95 

32nd >f The Concordance of the Predicate and the Subject 96 

33 r d „ Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 98 

34th >f Continuation . 99 

35th „ „ 101 

36th „ The Cases of the Substantives 103 

37th jf Verbs Governing the Genitive 105 

38th „ The Dative 107 

39th „ Adjectives Governing the Dative 109 

40th v Verbs Governing the Dative 110 

41 st „ Of the Instrumental 113 

42nd . f Verbs Governing the Instrumental 115 

43 rd „ Participle and Infinitive 116 


Translation Exercises . . . 119 

Polish Exercises . " 122 

Easy Talks (Rozmowy) 132 

Polish-English Vocabulary 139 

Anglo-Polish Vocabulary 161 




The words without ( ) give the right passage, the words in ( ) 
the wrong one, which is to be corrected. 

p. 41 sentence 16: na spacer (na przechadzk§). — p. 46 words: 
- mendel (medel). — ■ p. 47 sentence 2: mendel (medel). — p. 50 sen- 
tence 4: na spacer (na przechadzke). — p. 57 words: bojazn (bo- 
jazn). — p. 84 words: ziemniak (ziemiak). — p. 05 sentence 10: 
kloci (kloci). — p. 104 words: gozdzik (goidik). — p. 104 word-: 
. zaitowac (zartowad). — p. 109 Ex. 77 sent. 4: obywatelem (obywa- 
Stelom). — ]). Ill Conv. line first chcial (chcial). — p. 113 line 7: Z 
.choru (z choru). — p. 114 Exerc. 81 sentence 7: za mna (za). — p. 114 
-Rozmowa: zbogaca. sie (bogaca. siej. — p. 115 words: przesiac to 
cease, przestac z kirn to have intercourse with one (the second signi- 
^fication is wanting). — p. 117 words: stanowczy decided (decidedly). 
I — p. 1*2-2 line 20: narzedzia gospodarskie (gospodarski). — p. 123 
.line 11: dlatego {dla tego). — p. 123 J. 18: mendle (niedle). — p. 123 
.line 25: ziemniaki (ziemiaki). — p. 125: l J iesii (Piesn). — p. 144: 
' konik young horse (herdsman). — p. 154: spole^zeiis'wo [spol<'tfen- 
stvo] (spoleczeiistwo). 

2 Introduction. 


Pronunciation of Vowels. 

§ 3. All Polish vowels are open. 

§ 4. There are no diphthongs in the Polish language. 
Each vowel expresses a syllable of its own: nauka 
[na'uka] the doctrine, kraina [kra'ina] the country. 
The only exceptions are to be found in some words 
of foreign origin as aureola [aun'ola] the glory, the halo. 

a) Pure Vowels. 
§ 5. The phonetic value of these vowels. 

a) The proper sound of the open a [a] is that of a 
in fat. but so as to approach the phonetic value of the 
a in father. When written, it is expressed by a: lak 
flak] sealing wax; armata [ar'mata] the cannon. 

p) The proper sound of the open e [e] is approxi- 
mately that of e in met. When written, it is expressed 
by e: cleska ['deslca] the board, the plank; ganek [ganek] 
he entrance-hall, the lobby. 

Note 1. In books of the past century a closed e was expressed 
by e; nowadays there is no longer made any difference between 
it and the open e; but when pronounced, it sounds like the long 
e in there or in the German word ''lltecr", in dialects even like 
i f as for instance chleb I'yjih] bread. 

t) The proper sound of the open i [i] is that of i 
in sick. AVhen written, it is expressed by i: interes 
[in tin s] business. 

In the beginning of words, it sounds like the German 
ji or the English y in yard: He ['Me] how much, how 
many ? 

b) The proper sound of the open o [o] is almost 
that of o in note, but without the half uttered • w, 
following the English vowel. When written, it is ex- 
pressed by o: pole [ ' poh] the field; polom ['polom] to 
the fields. 

e) The proper sound of the open u [u] is that of 00 
in moon. When written, it is expressed by u and 6: 
bunt [hunt] the rebellion; ]><>/>< [polu] to the field; bul 
[bid] the pain. 



General Observations. 

§ 1. In most languages the common orthography 
corresponds but very imperfectly to the pronunciation 
of the different sounds. In order to indicate it quite 
exactly, we add a phonetic transcript to the words 
mentioned in the following Introduction and the Polish- 
English Vocabulary. For this purpose, we introduce 
the extensive alphabet of the "Association phonetique 
intern ation ale" each of which characters expresses but 
one and always the same sound. 


The Tonic Accent. 

§ 2. In our phonetic transcript, the accent ['] before 
a syllable shows us that it has the stress. 

In nearly all Polish words the tonic accent lies 
on the penultimate: tak ['tcikl so, thus, yes, armata 
[ar'mata] the cannon. 

The tonic accent is displaced on the antepenultimate 
syllable only in some foreign words, as gramatyka 
Ifiramatika] the grammar, muzyka ['muz'iha] music, 
AmeryJca [dmefilcaj America, religja [re'ligja] religion, 
and in the first and second persons of the plural of 
the past as hylUmy%['bilis x mi] we were. 

Words of one syllable often lose their tonic accent 
when closely connected with the preceding word: daj 
mi ['daj mi] give me, WielJcanoc [v { d'Jcanots] Easter. 

Elementary Polish Grammar. *■ 

Phonetics. 3 

I) The proper sound of the open y ft] is that of a 
short German ii or i in BtI6. When written, it is 
expressed by y: tylko fttlko] only; ryba f'r'iba] the fish; 
ryby [ 'r'ib'i] the fishes. 

^ole 2. The soft vowels e and i mostly give the preceding 
consonant a soft and liquid resonance, somewhat similar to the 
German } or the French 11 mouille: uidziec ['vidzets ] to see (see 

§§ 14, 19;. 

, b) Nasal Vowels. 

§ 6. The Polish nasal vowels are not so strongly 
pronounced as in French. At the end of a word they 
disappear almost wholly and are spoken nearly as pure 
vowels. When written, they are expressed by a small 
crotchet ( 6 ) under the vowel. 

a corresponds to the French on in pont and, in a 
certain degree, to the English on in long: kat ['Lot] the 
corner; dab f'd3b] the oak. 

e resembles to the French in or ain in pin and pain 
and, in a certain degree, to the English en in length: 
beben f'blben] the drum; reha f'riJca] the hand. 

c) Pure Consonants. 

§ 7. Labials: p, b, f, w, m. 

These five letters have the same sound as their English 
equivalents p, b, f, v, m, observing, however, that b 
and iv are pronounced like p and /", when being at the 
end of the word: chlcb = ['yjirp] bread; Jcuriatotv = 
f'kvatuf] of the flowers. 

§ 8. Gutturals: fc, ch t h, g. 

The two letters k and g are pronounced like their 
English equivalents. 

The letter // resembles the English h in harvest, but 
in some regions of the Polish territory, as in Warsaw, 
it is pronounced like the ch in the-German word Dad): 
herb f'herp and x fr J'J tni ' armours. 

The letter ch resembles the German d) in Dad) : dark 
I'dax] the roof; chatka [\aika] the cottage; chleh l'\Up] 
bread; chtnura [\mura] the cloud. 


§ 9. Dentals: *, d. 

The sound of both these consonants is exactly that 
of EngJish t and d in turn and done: tarn ['tarn] there; 
dach fdaxj the roof. 

§ 10. Lispings: s, z. 

These two sounds are pronounced like the English s 
in safe and the English z in zone: sam ['samj self, 
zamek ['zamzk] the castle. 

§ 11. Lingual: c. 

It is always pronounced as ts in wits: poco [ f potso] 
for what (purpose)? cena f'tsenaj price. 

§ 12. Hissings: sz; z, rz ; cz; dz. 

The sound sz is pronounced as sh in shut ; z and rz 
correspond .to z in azure or to the French j and g in 
journal, genie; cz sounds like ch in charcc^ and ^ like 
dg in lodge or to the Italian gi in giorno: szeroJci 
[fe'rohi] broad ; sztuha [ftuka] art; zaba f'jaba] the 
frog; rzeha ['g£Jca7 the river; czas [tfasj time; dzuma 
['djumaj pestilence, plague. 

§ 13. Palatals: I, n, r, f. 

The sounds Z, n, r do not differ, in the Polish pro- 
nunciation, from I in life, n in note, r in rose or as 
rr in hurry (but never like r in northern or arm) : lipa 
['lipa] the lime-tree; noga ['noga] the foot; rano f'ranoj 
in the morning. 

Before Jc and g the consonant n is mostly pronounced 
as pure n, not as n in England: Anglja ['angliaj Eng- 
land, szManJca ['/MankaJ the glass. 

The consonant f sounds as English 11 in full, dollar 
or w in water; its real phonetic value must be learned 
by conversation: fawa ['tavaj the form, bench; tza 
[tzaj the tear; tono f'fonoj the lap. 

d) Softened Consonants. 

§ 14. If you pronounce a group of letters as [ama 
or imi], you may easily remark that the m of these 
two groups has not the same phonetic value. In fact, 
an [i] is spoken with the [mj. This amalgamation of 
[mj and [i] is called m mouille or softened or soft m. 

Phonetics. 5 

In our phonetic transcript it is expressed by m, followed 
by a little i without a point [J: [mj. 

§ 15. In the Polish language [m, », s, z, /, v, b, 
p, t, d, /;, gj may be softened (mouillation), not only 
before [ij and [j], but also before all vowels and most 
consonants and at the end of a word : [nj corresponds 
nearly exactly to the French gn [yj in sirjnifter; 
[s,, z J sound as a letter between [s, z] and [f, %], 
resembling the Norwegian sj (in writing expressed by 
.s', z or si, zl)\ and r mouille (expressed by rz) cor- 
responds nowadays to [jj. 

§ 16. In the Polish writing this change is expressed 
by the acute ['J: hon [hmj the horse. This accent 
is omitted before an [i] and substituted by I before 
another vowel: Jconi fhon^i] of the horses; Jconia 
['] of the horse; Jconie f'Jcon^J the horses; honiom 
{'Icon j m] to the horses, hose — hose? — - ko&ciq — Imciom 
— L'Oscm? — I'osciach. 

Remark. In U each of the two letters is spoken : 
kosc [liosts] the bone; hosci ['/.jstsi/ of the bone. 

e) General Remarks. 

§ 17. The consonants mouilUs (and I), c [tsj, dz [dz], 
sz f/J, * /j7, rz fjj, cz ft/J % dz fdjj, szcz f/t/J and 
idi [sdg] are called soft consonants, the other con- 
sonants hard ones. 

c [ts] and dz [dz] are partly considered as soft, 
partly as hard consonants. 


§ 18. If a hard consonant is followed by a soft one, 
or a voiced by a voiceless or vice versa, an assimilation 
of them takes place. In most cases the first letter is 
assimilated to the second (I), in some words the second 
to the first (II). This assimilation is partly shown in 
writing (a), partly without any exterior sign (b). 

1. The first consonant is assimilated to the second one: 

a) tchu ['(x u J of the breath from the nominative (lech; 
\ekki fUJckiJ easy instead of leg-ki; gdy ['yd)] when? 
from hiedfi [ "ktd'ij. 

6 Introduction. 

b) zagadka [za'gatlza] the riddle; mtodszy f'mfotfi] 
younger; tvstaivszy [f staff 'i] having risen; krowka 
f'krufka] the small cow; izdehka [iz'depka] the small 
room; prosba ['prozpa] the entreaty, request; przed tobq 
[pfet 'toboj before you. 

II. The second consonant is assimilated to the first one: 
przed [pfd] before; clirzest fxfest] baptism; chrzcic 
[xftsitsj to baptize. 

§ 19. The vowel i and the soft e soften the pre- 
ceding consonant: 

w posle [v 'posje] in the messenger (nom. posei fposefj); 
w Gnieznie [v'gnpzpif] at Gnesen (nom. Gniezno f'gn^z- 
noj Gnesen); spi [spi] he sleeps (from spa6 ['spats J 
to sleep). 

rz before c, f, n (n) changes into r. 1 

c „ i, n (n) ,, „ t. 

dz ' „ t, n (n) „ ,, d. 

s , , t , . ,, s. 

n „ n (n) „ „ n. 

Examples: marzec f'majets] March — w marcu 
f'martsu] in March; osiet f'ostf] the ass — osta f'osta] 
of the ass; ciqc [tspt { sj to hew, cut — tne ftnij I hew. 

Exception: In compositions z is not softened into t: 
zbieg [zbpg] the deserter; rozciqc f'rostsptsj to cut as- 

§ 20. The consonants s and z change into sz and * 
before sz, cz, z and di: pyszczek [piftfek] diminutive 
of pysk fpiskj the muzzle, mouth; motdzek ['mujdjeJcJ 
diminutive of mbzg fmuzgj the brain. 

Exception: z in the prefixes is not changed: zszyc 
[zj'itsj to sew together; rozczarowac [roztfa'rovatsj to 

Double Letters. 

§ 21. Double letters are pronounced, as if there 
were two: cenniJc ['tsmn,ikj the price-current; konm 

1 The only exception is: gorzki ['gofki] bitter — Plur. gorzey 
[ 'gofts'i]. 

Phonetics. 7 

['konno] on horseback; lekki ['lekki} easy; czcze [tftje] 
I honour; dzdzyc [djdjitsj to rain softly. : 

The Modern Polish Alphabet and its Phonetic Value. 

§ 22. 

a [a J 

f w 


s [s] 

q [9] 

f If] 

m [m] 

s* [f] 

b [b] 

fi If J 

mi [m ] 

s tsj 

hi [bj 

g [g] 

n [n] 

t [t] 

c [tsj 


n [nj 

u [u] 

cz [t/J 

eh [x] 


tv [v] ' 

i [tsj 

i [i] 

o [u] 

ivi [vj 

A [dj 


p [p] 

y A/ 

dz [clz] 

k [k] 

Pi [PJ* 

Z [z] 

dz [d 3 ] 

ki [k] 

r [r] 

* [s] 

di [dz] 


** [s] 

z [zj 

e [e] 

Rules of Orthography. 

§ 23. When g and /,- are followed by an e, there is 
an i inserted after them in Polish words: kiedy f'kedtj 
when : ubogie [u bogej poor (neuter). In most words of 
foreign origin this change does not take place: general 
Ygt'ntrat] the general. 

After g, k and I the sound i is, in writing, always 
expressed by i: gimnazjum [gim'nazjum] the gym- 
nasium; after cz, d, dz, di, t, r, rz, sz, t, z every i is 
expressed by y: czysty [tj'ist'i] pure. 

The termination of the instrumental plural is written 
mi, whereas the first person of the plural of the verb 
has my without any change in pronunciation. 

Reading Exercise 1. 

Ale, apteka, armata, atoli kqt, dab, wqs, 

But apothecary's shop cannon but corner oak mustachios, 

cela, sen, Icduo, Etca, srp, s$dzia, reka, lipa, 
cell, dream, hardly, Eva, vulture, judge, hand, lime-tree, 

Una, kij, mysz, ryz, wyka, rok, sole, smok, I6d, 
rope, cane, mouse, rice, vetch, year, juice, dragon, ice. 

miod, sol. 
honey, salt. 

8 Introduction. 

Reading Exercise 2. 

Cafe ciafo czarne. Samo siano szare. Eadna 
The whole body (is) black. Itself the hay (is) grey. The pretty 

sarna zabita. Brzmi clirzqszcz w trzcinie. Strzelec 
roe (is) killed. Hams the beetle in the reed. The hunter 

strzafq sJcrzydta przeszyf. Kto od JBoga poczyna y 
with the arrow the wings shot through. Who -with God begins, 

wszystkiego doJcmyiva. Kto z Bogiem poczyna, z tym 
everything (he) finishes. Who with God begins, with 

Bog Jconczy. Kto pod lam dofM kopie y 

this one God finishes. Who under one (whom) a pit digs, 

sani w nie ivpada. Kiedy idziesz do willca na 
himself into it (he) falls. When you go to the wolf to a 

uczte, wez psa z sobq. 
banquet, take the dog with you. 


First Lesson. 

Gender of Polish Substantives. 

The Polish language has no article. Thus, e. g. the 
word ojciec signifies indifferently the father, a father, 

There are three genders as in English; but this 
distinction applies in Polish also to inanimate objects. 

The gender (rodzaj) of substantives may be known 
either by their signification (ze znaczenia) or by their 
termination (ze zakonczenia). 

Masculine by their signification or natural gende r 
are all appellations of men or all persons who are ima- 
gined to be masculine as the names of God, the 
heathenish gods and spirits; e.g. Bog God, Jehowa Je- 
hovah, Joivisz Jupiter, MerJcury Mercury. The Polish 
words of dances and cards are, too, masculine, as tuz 
ace, niinih or walet knave, ivalc the waltz. 

Masculine by their termination are all substantives 
ending in a hard consonant: dom the house, nos the 
nose, iroz the carriage. 

Feminine by their signification or natural gender 
are the names of goddesses, female persons and those 
conceptions of human reason and imagination which 
are supposed to be female creatures : Juno, Wenus 
Venus, Minenoa Minerva, krulowa the queen. 

Feminine by their termination are all nouns ending 
in a and /': chata the cottage, ivrona the crow, pant 
lady, mistress. 

Neuter by their signification are the appellations of 
young people and little animals, the cardinal numbers, 
the names of vowels or consonants, and all nouns and 
combinations of words which are used as substantives: 
dziecie the child, trebly the foal, pisld^ young bird ; pifd 


1st Lesson. 

five; miekhie e the soft e; piekne mi to "mraz' that 
is a fine "in a moment", indeed! 

Neuter by their termination are all nouns ending in 
o, e, e: dziato the cannon, pole the field, imie the name. 

A. Substantives. j 


mqz the man, husband, pi. me- 
duch the spirit, ghost [zowie 
rzemieslnik the artisan, pi. rze- 

podskarbi the trsasurer 
poprzednik the predecessor 
chlop the peasant, fellow, plur. 
czlowiek man [chlopi 

Masculine are the following names of persons end- 
ing in a: 


zona the wife, pi. zony 
kobieta the woman 
fortuna P'ortune 
bogini the goddess 
pani lady, mistress (Mrs.). 

wojewoda the waywode (duke) 
poeta the poet 
ciesla the carpenter 
zbojca the robber 
jezuita the Jesuit 

dozorca the guard, surveyor 
dzierzawca the tenant 
radca the councillor 
me,zczyzna man. 





courteous, polite 


the father 









ten, ta, to 

this (in the mas- 



culine, femi- 



nine and neu- 



ter form) 










great, large 






so, thus; yes 




no, not 

leniwy * 





diligent, indu- 




gdzie ? 



prudent, wise 


he, she, it is 




they are 



nazywa sie. 

he is called 




and, also 


beautiful, fine 

a 1 

and, but 



czy (interrog.) 

if, whether? 




the bread 




the peasant. 

1 "And" is to be translated by "a", if the following sentence 
expresses an adversative sense. 

Gender of Polish Substantives. 11 

Exercise 1. 

1. Dozorca nie jest uwazny. % Fortuna jesjt slepa 1 . 3. Ciesla 
nie jest pilny. 4. Jezuita jest ma,dry. 5. Kobieta jest cnotliwa. 
6. Ten mezczyzna jest klotliwy. 7. Radca jest ostrozny. 8. Zbojca 
jest okrutny. 9. Chlopi s^ cnotliwi. 10. Rzemieslnicy s^ pilni. 

11. Zony s^ pilne, mgzowie sq, cz^sto leniwi. 12. Chlop jest 
czesto klotliwy. 13. Dozorca jest ostrozny. 14. Ciesla jest 
pracowity. 15. Podskarbi jest uwazny. 16. Poeta jest czgsto 
slawny. 17. Chleb jest dobry. 18. Moj poprzednik jest dobry. 

Translation 2. 

1. The peasant is virtuous and industrious. 2. This woman 
is happy. 3. The treasurer is cautious. .4. This woman is 
blind. 5. This great Polish poet is called Mickiewicz. 6. The 
cautious tenant keeps house (gospodaruje) industriously (Adv. 
pilnie). 7. The waywode of Posen (poznanski) is called Opa- 
lenski. 8. My tenant is good. 9. The carpenter is industrious. 
10. This surveyor is polite. 11. This [loaf of] bread is large. 

12. This man is prudent, (and) this woman is beautiful. 

13. This great French poet is called Racine. 14. This fellow 
is idle. 15. This English poet is celebrated. 16. This diligent 
and industrious woman is called Joseph a. 17. The Greek 
robber is cruel. 18. What (jak) is called the great German 
poet? 19. Where is bread? 20. My wife is not quarrelsome. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Kto jest okrutny? Zbojca jest okrutny. 

Kto jest uwazny? Dozorca jest uwazny. 

Gdzie jest ciesla? Tam jest ciesla. 

Co jest slepe? Fortuna jest slepa. 

Kto jest dobry? Ojciec jest dobry. 

Czy 2 radca jest madry? Tak, jest madry i pilny. 

Czy podskarbi jest uprzejray? Tak, podskarbi jest uprzejmy. 

Second Lesson. 

Gender of Polish Substantives. 

B. According to their termination. 

Masculine nouns, 

hunger bogacz the rich man }>rz\i)aciel the friend 

mroz coldness sharb the treasure (Genitive vrzyja- 

powuz the carriage koscioi the church ciela) 

1 The adjective agrees in gender, number and case with the 
substantive to which it belongs. See Lesson 7. 

2 Czy (if, whether) is a conjunction, which is not to be trans- 
lated in direct questions. 


2nd Lesson. 
Feminine nouns. 

czapka the cap 

glowa the 


gwiazda the star 

cnota virtue 

szkoia the school 

prawda truth 

dusza the soul 

szyja the 


ivoda the water 

sztuka art 



slonce the sun 

prawo the law 

ubostwo poverty 

zdrowie health (Gen. 

miejsce the room, the 

zycie life 


space, 1 

the spot 

ciaio the body. 

wino the win* 


swiatlo tb 

e light 



I have 





you have, thou 




he, she, 

it has 




he, she, 

it eats 


necessary . 


he, she, 

it costs 




he, she, 

it drinks 



how much (ma- 




the hat 






nie smiertelny immortal 


than (after a 










szesc (marek) 

six (marks) 




a hundred 




six hundred 



ciepiy ' 


dla (with Gen.) for. 

Exercise 3. 

1. Powoz jest zamkniety. 2. Zycie jest krotkie, sztuka jest 
dluga. 3. Dusza jest niesmiertelna. 4. Skarb jest wielki. 5. Pije 
wino i je chleb. 6. Prawo jest potrzebne. 7. Mroz jest 
przykry. 8. Powoz kosztuje szescset marek. 9. Giato jest 
smiertelne. 10. Bogacz jest skq,py. 11. Szkoia jest potrzebna. 
12. Znana to prawda. 13. Przyjaciel jest potrzebny rowniez i 
zdrowie. 14. Czapka kosztuje mniej (less) niz kapelusz. 

Translation 4. 

1. The school is shut. 2. The church is crowded (pelen or 
pelny). 3. The cap costs six marks. 4. The disagreeable hunger 
and the strong (wielki) coldness are not known to the rich 
man (dative bogaczowi). 5. The surveyor drinks wine and eats 
bread. 6. A friend is a treasure (skarbem). 7. The soul is 
immortal. 8. The light is necessary. 9. The cap is fine- 
10. Poverty is burdensome. 11. The sun is a star (gwiazdaj. 
12. I have a hat. 13. The rich man often has no (= not a) 

Declension of Substantives. 13 

friend (genitive). 14. Life is a school (szkola). 15. Wine is 
not necessary for health. 16. My friend is virtuous and diligent. 
17. The Hungarian wine is good and costs less (mniej) than 
the Italian or the French wine[s]. 18. The German wine is 
also good. 19. My friend drinks German wine. 20. The light 
is often disagreeable. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Gdzie jest powoz? Powoz jest tarn, 

lie kosztuje czapka? Czapka kosztuje szesc marek. 

Co jest niesmiertelne? Duu-za jest niestuiertelna. 

Czy mroz jest przykry? Tak, mr6z jest przykry. 

do pije bogacz? Bogacz pije wino i wode (ace. 

ot woda). 

Kto ma moje wino? On (he) ma, twoje (thy, your )v;mo. 

lie kosztuje wino? Wino kosztuje szesc marek. 

Third Lesson. 

Declension of Substantives. 

General remarks. 

There are three declensions in the Polish language. 

a) To the first declension there belong: 

1. All masculine nouns, ending in a consonant: 
pan the gentleman, sir; ivrog the enemy; duch 
the spirit, the ghost; sad the court of justice; 
sfon the elephant; dab the oak. 

2. All foreign proper nouns: Cycero, Plato. 

3. Polish diminutives of masc. nouns: ojcanio the 
little father; Stefcio little Stephen. 

b) To the second declension there belong: 

All neuter nouns, ending in o, e, $: dziato the 
cannon; jajho the egg; zwierze the animal. 

<f) To the third declension there belong: 

1. The masculine nouns, ending in a: sqdzia the 
judge ; wojewoda the voievode. 

2. The feminine nouns, ending in a, i or a soft 
consonant: dusea the soul; pani the lady, 
mistress; pietin the song; iiwa/rz the face, coun- 

14 3rd Lesson. 

3. Polish proper nouns, ending in o: Fredro, Ja- 
gietto, Chodzko, Matejko. 

Besides the usual cases, common with other languages, 
there are three cases more in the Polish language: 

1. the nominative (or mifinownik), answering to the 
questions: who? what? 

2. the genitive (or dope/kniacz) , answering -to the 
questions: whose? of whom? of what? 

3. the dative (or celoivnik), answering to the questions : 
to whom? to what? 

4. the accusative (or biernik), answering to the ques- 
tions: whom? what? 

5. the vocative (or w'otacz), is used, when a person 
or thing is spoken to. 

6. the instrumental (or narzednik), answering to the 
questions: by whom? and with what? in the sense 
of: by what? 1 

7. the localis (or miejscownik), answering to the 
questions: where? in whom? in what? 

There are in the modern Polish language two num- 
bers, the singular or liczba projedyncza and the plural 
or liczba mnoga. 

Examples of the first declensioD. 

1. Singular liczba pojedynzca. Plural liczba mnoga. 

N. sad the court of justice sqdy the courts of justice 

G. sqdu of the court of justice sqdow of the courts of justice 

D. sqdowi to the court of justice sqdom to the courts of justice 

A. sad the court of justice sqdy the courts of justice 

V. o sqdzie O court of justice o sqdy O courts of justice 

I. sqdem by the court of justice sqdami by the courts of justice 

L. wsqdzie in the court of justice. w sqdach in the courts of justice. 

2. Singular liczba pojedyncza. Plural liczba mnoga. 
X. Cycero Cicero Cyceronowie the Ciceros 
G. Cycerona of Cicero Cycerondw of the Ciceros 
D. Cyceronowi to Cicero Cyceronom to the Ciceros 
A. Cycerona Cicero Cycerondw the CiceroH 

V. o Cyceronie Cicero 1 o Cyceronowie Ciceros 

I. Cyceronem by Cicero Cyceronami by the Ciceros 

L. w Cyceronie in Cicero. w Cyceronach in the Ciceros. 

1 When the preposition 'with' denotes company or being together,. 
it is not rendered by the instrumental alone; the preposition 2 
must precede it: Cyceronem by Cicero; z Cyceronem with Cicero. 

Declension of Substantives. 



, Singular 

liczba pojedyncza. 


liczba mnoga. 


pan the 

sokoi the falcon, 

panowie the 

sokoiy the fal- 

gentleman hawk 


cons, hawks 


pana , 



sokol 6 w 












o panie 


o panowie 





pan a mi 



w panu. 

a- sokole. 

iv panach. 

w sokoia ch. 


, Singular 

liczba pojedyncza. 


liczba mnoga. 






the horse 

the dog 

the horses the dogs 
























kon mi 

psa mi 


tv koniu. 

w psie. 

w koniach. 

w psach. 

Irregularities of the first declension. 

There are some masculine nouns which have an> 
irregular form of declension. 

Singular liczba pojedynlca. 
S. brat ksiadz 

the brother the priest 

Plural liczba mnoga. 
bracia JcsirZa 

the brothers the priests 

G. brata ksiedza 

D. bvatu ksiedzu 

A. brata ksiedza 

V. o bracie o ksigze 

I bratem ksigdzem 

L. w bracie. ksiedzu. 

In the following substantives the plural differs com- 
pletely from the singular: 







o bracia 


bra cm i 


w brariach. 

iv ks/czach, 

Cziowiek man 
rok the vear 

ludzie men (see Lesson 6) 
lata the years (e. g. trzy lata 

three years) 
szlachta the noblemen (nobility). 
dni the days 
tygodnie the weeks. 

szlachric the nobleman 
dzien the day (genitive dnia) 
tydzien the week (genitive 

Examples of the second declension. 

Singular liczba pojedyncza 

X.A.V. pole dzieio zuierzq 

the field the work the animal 

(r. pola dzieia zwierzfda imienid 

I), polu dzieht zivii'rzrnn imieniu 

I. polem dzuiem ztoierzeciem imienietn 

I., tv polu. <lziele. iv zwierzn-iu. u imieniu. 

imij the Chris- 
tian name 


3rd Lesson. 

Plural liczba mnoga. 

N.A.V. pola 




G. pol 




D. polom 




I. polami 




L. xv polach. 

iv dzieiach. 

w zwierzetach. 



of the 

second declension. 

1. Singular 

liczba pojedyn 


Plural liczba mnoga. 

N.A. ucho 



oczy the eyes, 

the ear 

the eye 

the ears 

the skies 

G. ucha 


uszu, usz 

oczu, ocz 

D. uchu 




V. o ucho 

o oko 

o uszy 

o oczy 

1. uchem 



oczyma, oczam 

L. w uchu. 

w oku. 

w uszach. 

w oczach. 

2. Singular liczba pojedyncza. 
N.A.V. niebo 

the heaven, the sky 
G. nieba 
D. niebu 
I. niebem 
L. w niebie. 

Plural liczba mnoga. 
nieba, niebiosa 

the heavens, the skies 
iv niebiosach. 1 

Examples of the third declension. 

1. Singular liczba pojedyncza. 
JV. para bania 

the steam, the can, jug 

vapour, pair 
G. pary bani 

D. parze* bani 

Jl. pare. banie. 

Plural liczba mnoga. 

pary banie 

the vapours, the cans, jags 

the pairs 

par baoi 

parom baniom 

pary banie 

1 Besides this form you find tv niebiesiech in the elder Polish 
language ; e. g. in the Lord's Prayer. 

2 Before the e of the dative, vocative and localis of" all declen- 
sions some consonants undergo different changes : 

dz or z 











> is changed into 


c or cz 




s (sz) 



The same change takes place before the i of the nominative 
and the vocative of the plural of the first declension, but only 
in personal names: panie O sir; bracie O brother; iv Niemczech 
in Germany; Prusacy the Prussians. 

Declension of Substantives. 


V. paro banio 

I. para baniq 

L. xv parze. xv bani. 

-2. Singular liczba pojedyncza. 

X. pant Jagieiio 

the lady 

G. pant Jagieiiy 

D. pant Jagielle 

A. paniq Jagieiio 

V. o pani o Jagieiio 

1. puniq Jagieiiq 

L. xv pani. w Jagielle. 

3. Singular liczba pojedyiicza. 

par ami 
w parach. 

w ban inch. 

Plural liczba tnnoga. 


the ladies 
o panie 
w paniach. 

o Jagieiiowie 
w Jagieiiach. 

N. twarz 
the face 
G. tivurzy 
D. twarzy 
A. twarz 
V. twarzy 
1. twarzq. 


the weapon 

L. w twarzy. xv broni. 

Plural liczba mnoga. 

twarze bronie the arms 

the faces 

twarzy broni 

tivarzom broniom 

twarze bronie 

txvarze bronie 

twarzanri broniami 

tv twarzach. xv "broniach. 

Irregularities of the third declension. 

Singular liczba pojedyncza. 
X. s$dzia the judge 
G. sgdziego (se.dzi) 1 
I), s^dziemxi (sedzi) 
A. sgdziego (sedzie) 
V. o scdzio 
I. sedziq 
L. w agdzim (sedzi). 

Plural liczba mnoga. 
se.dziowie the judges 
o sedziowie 
xv sedziach. 

I. Remarks on the First Declension. 

a) The genitive of the singular. 

A. The ending of the genitive is u: 

1. In the following words, signifying living crea- 
tures: woi the ox, baivot the buffalo: ivola, bawotu. 

2. In collective nouns, the names of materials and 
abstract notions: hut people, narod the nation, chmiel 
the hop, drob poultry, roznm understanding, stuck 

3. In the names of many rivers and towns: Ren 
the Rhine, Dioiaj the Danube, Dniepr the Dnieper 
J:.;ini Rome. 

1 In the same way are declined: hrabia the count, margrabia 

Elementary PoJish Grammar. 2 

18 3rd Lesson. 

4. In the names of the days of the week: ponie- 
dzialek Monday. 

B. The ending of the genitive is a: 

1. In the names of living creatures (persons and 
animals) :' chlop the peasant, lew the lion (liva). 

2. In the names of the months 1 , instruments, parts 
of the body and clothes: styczen January, plug the 
plough, nos the nose. 

3. In all substantives ending in a softened con- 
sonant: figiel (figla) fun, pierscien the ring (pierscienia) . 

C. There are a few words which have a twofold 
termination in a and u. In some of them these end- 
ings may be used without any difference as in wbz 
the carriage, zegar the watch; but in others they, denote 
a different signification of the word : zbieg the meeting, 
the deserter, zbiega of the deserter, zbiegu of the meeting; 
zamek the castle, the lock, zamka of the lock, zamku 
of the castle. 

b) The dative of the singular. 

Most substantives ending in a hard consonant 
have the termination owi; the nouns of one syllable, 
chiefly when an e is inserted in the nominative as in 
pies the dog (gen. psa, dat. psu), have the termination u 2 , 
and besides them ojciec the father, cjilopiec the boy, 
Jcsiqclz the priest. 

c) The accusative *ot* the singular. 
This is the same as the nominative: 

1. in the declension of nouns denoting inanimate 
obfects, in the singular and the plural ; 

2. in the declension of nouns denoting animals, in 
the plural. 

It is the same as the genitive: 

1 With the exception of luty February, which has lutego in 
the genitive. 

2 In those nouns of the first declension which have a conso- 
nantal termination, the nominative of the singular corresponds to 
the root; but if it ends in a group of consonants, which is difficult 
to be pronounced, an e is inserted in the nominative, which letter 
disappears in the other cases: ogien the fire — root: ogn — geni- 
tive: ognia of the fire. 

Declension of Substantives. 19 

3. in the declension of nouns denoting animals, in 
the singular; 

4. in the declension of nouns denoting persons, in 
the singular and the plural. 

d) The vocative and the localis of the singular. 

The masculine nouns ending in the hard conso- 
nants b, d, f, t, m. n, p, r, s, t, w, M, have a sof- 
tening e in the vocative: chtopie peasant; whereas 
those ending in the hard consonants g, ch, h and 
&, have u in the vocative and the localis: rok the 
year — roJcu year, to roJcu in the year. Excep- 
tions are: Bog God — Bote 1 God, w Bogu in God; 
syn the son — syrni son, w synu in the son. Lud 
people has u only in the vocative, and the words dziad 
the grandfather, the beggar, bar the wood of fir-trees, 
dom the house, pan the gentleman, have the same ter- 
mination only in the localis. 

The nouns of the first declension, ending .in the 
soft consonants b(i), c, d, cz, dz, di, j, ?, p(i), rz, s, 
sz, iv(i), Z, have the termination u in the vocative and 
the localis. 

The nouns of persons and animals ending in iec 
take u in the localis and cze in the vocative: hitpiec 
the merchant — laipcze, w Jcupcu; cMopiec the boy — 
chtopcze, tv chtopcu; star zee the old man — star cze, w 
starcu; Icrawiec the tailor — kratveze, w kraivcu; szewc 
the shoemaker — szeiccze, w szewcu, 

Jezns Chrystus has the Latin form in the vocative: 
Jczu Chryste. 

e) The nominative, the genitive, the instrumental and 
the localis of the plural. 

1. The nominative. 

The nouns denoting Christian names and those 
of families, functionaries, dignitaries, and relationships, 
take the termination owie: Jozrfoivie, Jagicttouie, ofice- 
rowie, senatorowic, ojcouir. 

1 o and a of closed syllables are, in open syllables, mostly 
changed into o and r : Bog — gen. Hoga\ dab the oak — gen. dfbu 
of the oak. 

20 3rd Lesson. 

The rest of the personal nouns have the ending t, 
which changes the preceding hard consonant into a 
soft one: aniot the angel, anieli 1 the angels (or anioto- 
wie), chtopi the peasants. But this rule is subject to 
the following exception: the personal nouns ending 
in c (save those ending in ec\ d, cz, sz and rz have 
the termination e: rodzic the father — rodzice the pa- 
rents; rycerz the knight — rycerze; but Jcupiec the mer- 
chant — kupcy. 

Those nouns denoting animals and inanimate 
objects which end in a hard consonant, have the ter- 
mination y, or, after g and h, i without any change 
of the preceding consonant: sokoi the falcon — sokoiy; 
ptak the bird — ptalci; Jcoticiot the church — ko^cioiy. 

Those nouns denoting animals and inanimate ob- 
jects which end in a soft consonant, have e: kon the 
horse — konie; miecz the sword — miecze; przyjaciel 
the friend — przyjaciele. 2 

All nouns ending in anin lose the termination in 
and take an e, which softens the preceding consonant: 
chrzescijanin the Christian — chrzeScijanie ; whereas the 
nouns in ans have an e without, this change: ordynans 
the orderly — ordynanse. 

A few words of foreign origin have the termina- 
tion a: dkt the document — akta; grunt the ground 
(estate) — grunta. 

2. The genitive. 

The nouns in anin have the termination an : chrzes- 
cijanin the Christian — chrzetcijan. 

Many nouns ending in a soft consonant have 
y (i) or 6w and y(i): rycerz the knight . — rycerzy of 
the knights; uczen the pupil — uczni or uczniow of 
the pupils. 

In the names of countries derived from names of 
nations, the pure root is employed as genitive: Niemcy 
Germany (from Niemiec the German), gen. Niemiec of 

1 a and o are often changed into e, when the following hard 
consonant is softened : koscidi the church — w kosciele. 

2 Gen. plur. przyjacioi; dat. przyjaciolom ; instr. przyjacidlmi ; 
loc. w przyjacioiach. 

Declension of Substantives. 21 

3. The vocative. 

' It is always the same as the nominative. 

4. The instrumental. 

Some nouns ending in a soft consonant shorten 
the termination ami into mi: kon the horse — konmi. 

5. The localis. 

The names of countries derived from names of 
nations, have the termination ech instead of ach: w 
Xiemczech in Germany, w Wtoszech in Italy (from 
Wtochy), tv Wegrzech (or na Wegrzech) in Hungary 
(from W$gry). 

II. Remarks on the Second Declension. 
1. Singular. 

The neuter nouns have three cases of the same 
termination: the nominative, the accusative, and the 

Potudnie noon, midday, has the ending oivi in the 
dative: potudnioui. 

The substantives ending in go, ko, cho and ho take, 
the termination u in the localis: oho the eye — iv oku. 

The ending e of the localis often causes a softening 
change of the preceding consonants and vowels: miasto 
the town — w miescie. There is no vowel-change in 
the following words: jezioro the lake — na jeziorze; 
kolano the knee — na kolanie; pibro the pen, the fea- 
ther — na piorze; siano the hay, siodio the saddle, 
wiadro the bucket, wiosio the oar. 

Czoto the forehead has na czole when it means 
on the forehead, but na czele when it means at the head. 

2. Plural. 

In the word po-le the syllable po is open, whereas 
in the genitive of the plural it is closed; therefore the 
change of the o into the closed 6 takes place in this case. 

When in the genitive the termination of a word 
consists of more consonants, there is an e inserted, in 
order to facilitate the pronunciation: wiosto the oar — 
wiosei of the oars. 

The nouns ending in -sko, which termination gives 
the word a certain rude sense, have 6w in the genitive : 
chiopisko (from chtop) the churl — chtopiskow. 

2 J 2 3rd Lesson. 

A few substantives ending in e, have i in the geni- 
tive : przysfowie the proverb — przysfowi of the proverbs. 

In the nouns which end in e, denoting living 
creatures, the root ends in ed, in the nouns denoting 
inanimate objects, in en. In the plural, the former 
change ed into et (in a closed syllable into at), whereas 
the latter take on instead, of en : zwierzeta, zwierzat, 

The substantives in um are wholly invariable in 
the singular, but in the plural they are declined ac- 
cording to the second declension in all cases except 
the genitive, which takes the ending 6w: kolegjum the 
staff of teachers — kolegjum (gen. sing.); Plural: Icolegja 
— kolegjoiv. 

III. Remarks on the Third Declension. 

Most nouns in a, i, 6, cz, dz, I, n, rz, s, s6, w(i), 
z and z are feminine. Exceptions: some masculine 
substantives as: piacz weeping, gwozdz the nail, nie- 
dzwiedz the bear, motyl the butterfly, Jcon the horse, 
ston the elephant, ogien the fire, dzien the day, Jcamieii 
the stone, oitarz the altar, paw the paw, not the knife, 
wqz the snake. * 

Nouns, ending in another soft consonant, as b(i), 
c, dz, dz, f(i), j, p(i) and sz, are masculine, except the 
feminine substantives Jcolej the road, the railway, moc 
the power, noc the night, mysz the mouse. 

1. The genitive of the singular. 

The termination of this case is expressed by y after 
c, cz, rz, sz and all hard consonants except g and h: 
myszy of the mouse, nocy of the night. In all other 
words the genitive takes the termination i: holei of the 
railway, roll of the field. 

2. The dative and the localis of the singular. 
Both cases end in i: roll to the field, pani to the 
lady; but when there is a hard consonant before the 
inflection a, in e, which softens the preceding consonant: 
ryba — rybie to the fish ; stuga — sludze to the ser- 
vant; noga — nodze to the foot; Polslca — Polsce to 
Poland; mqlca — mace to the flour. 

Declension of Substantives. 23 

3. The accusative and the vocative of the singular. 

The nouns, ending in i, have the inflection e in 
the accusative, except pani — pania the lady, mistress. 

The vocative ends in o and ?', except some femi- 
nine diminutive nouns in a: pycho pride, pani lady, 
gosposiu dear landlady, hostess, Zosiit little Sophia. 

4. The nominative and the genitive of the plural. 

a) Nominative. The nouns ending in a with a 
hard consonant preceding it, have the inflection y; 
whereas the rest, ending in a, and those in i, take e. 

Those, ending in a soft consonant, have partly e 
(e.g. the nouns in ew), partly i (which after c, dz, cz, 
sz. z, and rz is written y): chorqgiew the standard, the 
colours — chorqgiuie; straz the watch, the guard — 
straze; dion the hollow of the hand — dtonie; sol salt 

— sole; pieczen the roast, hieszen the pocket, odziez the 
clothes, os the axis, sien the ground-floor, Ixolcj the 
railway, twarz the face, kradzicz the theft, and some 
other ones. 

The masculine nouns in a are, in the plural, de- 
clined according to the first declension: pocta the poet 

— poeci, poetoiv and so on. 

b) The genitive corresponds to the root of the 
word; but there is an e inserted if the syllable ends 
in a group of some consonants which are difficult to 
be pronounced: taicJca the bench, the form — taiceJ; 
instead of tairlc. 

The nouns ending in nia, mia, la, rza and ja 
and those ending in a soft consonant, have the ter- 
mination i (y) in the genkive plural (ja has ij, yj): 
ktotnia the quarrel — Motni; religja religion — religij\ 
historja history — historyj; mysz the mouse — myszy. 

'A twofold form of the genitive is to be met with 
in the following nouns: grobla the dam, dike — grobli 
or grobel; h'opla the drop — hropli or hropcl; studnia 
the well — studni or studsien. 


jest em 

I am | kocha, lubi he, she, it loves 

you are, thou art 


jestes my 

we are 

kochaja, lubt'q they love (like), 


you are 

are fond of 

they are 

ju'sdi, -«, -o he, she, it wrote 


3rd Lesson. 

waleczny, -a, -e 



the (black) board 

pierwszy, -a, -e 

the first 


the book 


large (a space) 


the chalk 

ptak biotny 

the wading bird 


the marsh 




the weapon 




the clerk, writer 

zaden, zadna, 


iawa, lawka 

the bench, form 



the lake 


each, every 


the chair 


the heart 


the documents 


the veteran, brave 


the professor's 


desk, cathedral 


the mother 

mowa ojczysta 

the mother-tongue 


the sister 


the comfort, 


the land, country 



the falcon, hawk 


the war 


the heron 

nad (with 

above, over, on, 


the sponge 




the professor, 

u (with gen.) 




wediug (with 

according to 


the form, class- 






the pupil, appren- 




na (with loc.) 


Exercise 5. 

1. ■ W kraju, gdzie wiele bagien, zyjq, (live) czaple. 
2. Czapla jest ptakiem blotnym. 1 3. Czaple zyja, nad jeziorftmi. 
4. Czapla jest ptakiem ostroznym. 1 5. Czaple, jest trudno za- 
strzelic (to be shot). 6. Moja siostra ma ksia^zki w swej (her) 
mowie ojczystej. 2 7. Moja pociecha jest, ze (that) ta wojna 
nie jest dluga. 8. Polscy wojewodzi kochajaj krola kraju swego 
(their). 9. Ksialki uczniow sq, w klasie na lawkach. 10. Krol 
polski Jan Sobjeski polowal (chased) cz^sto na czaple. 11. Mowa 
ojczysta jest mowa^ matki, ojca, # siostr i braci. 12. Jan Sobjeski 
byt (was) walecznym i slawnym 1 krolem Polski. 13. Akta 
sedziego (or sedzi) sa. w pokoju pisarza. 14. Czaple i sokoly 
sa^ ptakami. 15. Uszy, oczy i cala twarz tego (of this) pana 
sq, podobne (resemble) do jego (of his) ojca. 16. Moi przyja- 
ciele zyjq, w Niemczech. 

Translation 6. 

1. We are in the class-room. 2. My class-room is large. 
3. In the class-room (there) are benches, a desk, a chair, chalk, 

1 Instrumental of the singular of the adjective. 

2 Localis of the singular of the adjective. 

Declension of Substantives. 


and a sponge. 4. The teacher is on the chair, and the pupils 
are on the benches (forms). 5. The desk and a chair are for 
the teacher. 6. The (black) board and the forms are for the 
pupils. 7. The teacher has a sponge ' and the chalk in the 
professor's desk. 8. The sponge is yellow. 9. The (black) board 
is large. 10. Give me (daj mi) a weapon. 11. Every father 
loves his [the] children. 12. The father and the mother are fond 
of their (= the) children (accusative). 13. The brother loves 
his [the] sister. 14. My brothers are not fond of books 1 . 15. The 
heron is a bird*, which (ktory) lives (zyje) in the marsh. 
16. The books of Cicero are celebrated. 17. The dcgs are 
animals. 18. These gentlemen are brothers of the priest. 
19. The Poles love Jagiello and Jadwiga, the husband of this 
(tego) king. 20. Give me (some) bread, father! 21. The body 
of man is mortal, but his (= the) soul is immortal. 22. The old 
veteran is fond of war (ace). 23. Every man is fond of his 
mother-tongue (ace. and the adjective with ^). 24. The new 
castle of the king is large and beautiful. 25. My father and 
my brother are merchants. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 


Jakie wino lubisz, slodkie (sweet) 

czy wytrawne (dry)? 
Kto spiewa piesii Chopina? 

Czy znasz (do you know) ojca 
twego (your) przyjaciela? 

Czy uniiesz (do you understand) 
juz pierwsza, polska konjuya- 

Czy znasz dziera Adama Mickie- 

PijQ tylko wytrawne. 

Corka moja spiewa piesii Cho- 

Nie znain (I do not know) ojca 
mojego (of my) przyjaciela, lecz 
(but) znam jego (his) wuja. 

Nie, panie, nie umiem. 

Owszem, mam w domu dziela 
tego (of this) poety. 

1 The genitive case must always be employed in all negative 
sentences instead of the accusative: nie nihm I have no time. 

2 The substantive joined with the auxiliary verb to be, as a 
part of the predicate, mostly takes the termination of the instru- 
mental: z'ycie jest dobr^ szkoii\ life is a good school. Adjectives 
without a substantive, when connected with to be, are employed 
in the nominative case: ojeiee je&t dobry the father is good. 


4th Lesson. 

piekarz the baker 
anioi the angel 
duch the ghost, spirit 
zyd the Jew 
stroz the watchman 
Paw el Paul 
Ezym Rome 
nauczyciel the teacher 
zolnierz the soldier. 

Fourth Lesson. 



dobroc the bounty, 

rdza the rose 
wiara the faith 
gaiqz the branch 
mrotvka the ant 
towarzyszka the (fe- 
male) companion. 

piemvszenstwo the 
preference, advan- 
cw^o the body 
dzieio the work 
nazwisko the family 



byl, -a, -o 
zyi, -a, -o 
mial, -a, -o 
wobec (with 
the gen.) 

the nation 
the letter 
noon, midday 
the apostle 
vigorous, strong 
he, she, it was 
he, she, it lived 
he, she, it had 
before, over 





,J twelve 

in, into 



(he) will help 
trust, confide 





he nominated, 

Exercise 7. 
1. Dobroc Boga jest wielka. 2. Wobec Boga wszyscy 1 
rowni. 1 3. Bog jako duch jest niewidzialny. 4. Prawa Boga 
sq, rs^dre 1 i swiete. 1 5. Wiare, w Boga majaj wszystkie 1 narody. 
6. Ufaj Bogu, a Bog ci (you) dopomoze. 7. Jezus Ghrystus byl 
synem Boga. 8. Chrystus naznaczyi dwunastu apostolow. 
9. Nazwiska apostolow sq, znane. 1 10. Wiara apostolow byla 
wielka i silna. 11. Apostol Pawel zyl w Rzymie. 12. Pisal 
wiele listow. 13. Nazwisko apostola Pawla jest znane. 14. Apo- 
stol Pawel mial pierwszeiistwo przed innymi 2 apostolami. 
15. Bracia ksiedza byli w jego domu. 16. Bycerz jest czgsto 
na koniu. 17. Konie rycerzy podobaja, sie; (please) panu s§- 
dziemu. 18. Broniq rycerza na wojnie byl miecz. s 19. W 
miescie sa^ domy kupcow. 20. Kupcze, gdzie jest dom piekarza? 
21. W szkole jest nauczyciel z uczniami. 22. Uczniowie sa po 
(after) poludniu na polu. 

1 That is the nominative plural of the declension of the ad- 
jective. See Le?son 7. 

2 That is the instrumental plural of the adjective. 

Declension of Substantives. 


Translation 8. 
1. Jesus Christ lived in the country of the Jews. 2. He 
is the king of kings. 3. He appointed St. Paul apostle 
(instr.). 4. The wife is the companion of man. 5. All angels 
love God. 6. The name of God is holy. 7. Give me the rose. 
8. The rose is fine. 9. Confide (in) the bounty (dat.) of God. 
10. The branches of the oak are strong. 



Czem (Instr. of co) jest aniol? 
Komu (to whom) dal Bog pierw- 

szeristwo przed czlowiekiem ? * 
Czy duchy sa niewidzialne? 
Czy mrowka jest pracowita? 
Kiedy zyl Pawel swi^ty w 

Rzymie ? 
Czy ojciec jest w doniu? 



Aniol jest duchem. 

Aniolowi dat Bog pierwszeiistwo 

przed czlowiekiem. 
Tak, duchy sa niewidzialne. 
Tak, mrowka jest pracowita. 
On zyl w Rzymie w czasie ce- 

sarza (Emperor) Nerona. 
Nie, panie, moj ojciec jest na 


Fifth Lesson. 




the sound 




the powder 


the wall 


the monarch 


the bell 




the bomb 


the emperor 


the hole 


the parents 


the disease, illness 

kuld armatnia 

the cannon-ball 


the cause, reason 


the flatterer 


the grenade 


the servant 


the power. 

(with the dat, 


gardzi (with 

robi [instr.) 






he accompanies 

he ravages 
they ravaged, 

he despises 
he does, makes 
they do, make 
he bears 













he proved 

I cast, founded 

he led 

they led 

I saw 

agreeable, dear 







28 5th Lesson. 

Exercise 9. 
1. Dzwiek dzwonu uczniom jest mily. 2. Kto gardzi ro- 
dzicami, soba^ (himself) gardzi. 3. Kule robiaj dziury. 4. Wojna 
nieprzyjaciol byla nieszczesliwa. 5. Wojnie nie ufaj. 6. Ten 
zolnierz jest nieszczesliwy. 7. Pochlebca jest obludny. 8. Przy- 
czyny chorob s^, rozmaite. 9. Ten monarcha prowadzil nie- 
szczesliwy wojne. 10. Widzialem sprawiedliwego monarchy. 

11. W Polsce pustoszyli nieprzyjaciele role panow i chlopow. 

12. Aniolowie s^ slugami Boga a strozami czlowieka. 13. Wojna 
jest czesto przyczyna^ chorob. 14. Monarcha jest na czele 1 
zolnierzy. 15. Odwag^. i broniq, zwycieza (defeats) w wojnie 
zolnierz nieprzyjaciol. „ 

Translation 10. 

l.'A bomb is not easy. 2. I already saw a grenade. 
3. The cannon-ball makes holes in the wall. 4. The power 
of the gunpowder is known. 5. I cast a ball. 6. The 
monarchs made (= led) wars. 7. The bomb destroys the 
wall. 8. This country is unhappy. 9. The cause of the 
disease is unknown. 10. Do not trust the flatterers (impera- 
tive without to do)! 11. I saw the king and his (jego) wife 
in the castle. 12. This nation is unhappy. 13. The soldier 
accompanies the monarch. 14. My brother accompanies the 
parents. 15. This great Polish poet is called Julius (Juljusz) 
Slowacki. 16. St. Paul lived at Rome when (gdy) the Em- 
peror Nero (Neron) lived there. 17. The disease of my (mego) 
brother is not contagious. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Gzy dzwiek ojczystej (gen. sing.) Tak, dzwiek ojczystej mowy kaz- 

mowy jest mily? demu (dat. sing.) jest mily. 

Gzy kula armatnia robi dziury w Tak, kule armatnie robia, wielkie 

murze? dziury w murze. 

Jaka byla przyczyna tej (of this) Niewiem, przyczyny wojny sq, 

wojny? rozmaite. 

Jaka byla przyczyna jego cho- Przyczyna jego choroby jest nie- 

robyV wiadoma. 

See the Remarks II 1 page 21. 

Declension of Substantives. 


Sixth Lesson. 


The plural of cztoiviek man and dzieci^ the child: 

N.V. ludzie men dzieci children 

67. ludzi dzieci 

D. ludziom dzieciom 

A. ludzi dzieci 

I. hid z' mi dziecrni 

L. w ludziach. w dzieciach. 



the debtor 




the ancestor 




the gospel 




the ocean, the sea 

Ino Wroclaw 


the smoke 

Wielkie Ksie.- 

the grand-duchy 


the invention 

stwoPoznanskie of Fosen 


the handwriting 


(the) fish 


the building 


science, instruc- 


the use, profit 

tion, the doc- 





little, small 




gay, merry 

odbija sig 

(he, she, it) reflects 




(he, she, it) in- 


clear, serene 

jures, hurts 


full of feeling, 


(he, she, it) shows 



(he, she, it) serves 



znajduje sie. 

(he, she, it) is, 


noxious, hurtful 

there is, there 


excellent, capital 




wiele V(withth 
duzo i gen.) 

much, many 







Exercise 11. 

1. Pismo jest potrzebne. 2. Pozytek nauki jest wielki. 
3. Budowa rials okazuje site. 4. Gzystosc ciala sluzy zdrowiu. 
5. Wielkie Ksiestwo Poznanskie ma teraz nastepuja.ce (fol- 
lowing) miasta: Poznari. Bydgoszcz, Gniezno, Leszno, Koscian, 
Buk, Inowroclaw. 6. W pismie swietem znajdujq, si£ wyboroe 
nauki. 7. Budowa oka jest cudowna. 8. Dym jest oczom 
Bzkodliwy. 9. \V Poznaniu sq, piekne koacioty i nowy zamek; 
w zamku 'sa pokoje. 10. Ziemia i niebiosa $$ dzielem Boga. 
11. Miasto Rzym jest we Wloszecb, w Bzymie jest wide 
koscioldw. 12. Synu, gdzie sa^ czapki braci? 13. Dzieci, ko- 
chajcie (love = imper.) Boga i rodzicow. 14. Przed kosciotem 
bylo duzo ludzi z chor^gwiami. 

30 7th Lesson. 

Translation 12. 

1. Man is often very unhappy. 2. In this (tern) child 
[there] is a good heart. 3. The cleanliness of the body is 
useful. 4. The soul of man reflects itself in his eyes. 5. The 
colour (kolor) ol the hair is different. 6. In the sea there are 
large and small fishes. 7. He who has a celebrated name, is a 
debtor to his (swoich) ancestors [gen. plur.]. 8. My brother 
is at Gnesen, and my father at Bromberg. 9. At Posen there 
is the castle of the king. 10. The use of handwriting is 
great. 11. The invention of gunpowder was useful to men. 
12. I already saw Gnesen and Lissa. 13. The city of Posen 
is large. 14. The father of the child is a merchant. 15. Smoke 
is noxious to the children. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). < 

Questions. Answers. 

Jaki jest pozytek pisma? Pozytek pisma jest wielki. 

Jakie sa, glowniejsze (more im- Glowniejsze miasta s^: Poznari, 

porta nt) miasta w Ksie.stwie Bydgoszcz, Leszno. 


Go oznacza (shows) pogodne czo- Pogodne czolo oznacza wesolego 

lo? i dobrego cztowieka. 

Czy jest warn (to you) znane pismo Znamy (we know) tylko ewan- 

swie.te (the Holy Scripture) ? gelje. 

Seventh Lesson. 

Declension of Adjectives with Full 

In the Polish language the adjectives are always 
to be declined and agree in gender, number and case 
with the noun with which they are coupled. 


ucz'en pilny the diligent pupil 
czaplca czerwona the red cap 
lato pielme the beautiful summer 
lato (jest) piehie 1 summer is beautiful. 

1 jest and sa may be omitted. 

Declension of Adjectives with Full Terminations. 


The terminations of the adjectives are: 
-?/, -a, -e: dohr-y, dohr-a, dobr-e, 

or after g and h: 
-/, -«, -ie: uieUc-i, wiclJc-a, wielJc-ie. 

Declension of the adjectives. 

Singular liczba pojedyitcza. 

X. zly bad ( 

masc.) zla bad (tern.) 

zle bad (neuter) 

(r. zlego 



D. zlemu 



A. zlego \ 

( zly x ) zlq 


V. zly 



I. zlym 



L. w zlym. 

ic zlej. 

w zlem. 

Plural liczba mnoga. 


zli 2 , zle 3 (masc.) 

zle (fern, a 

nd neuter) 








zlych, zle 3 



zli, zle 3 



zly mi. zlemi 



w zlych. 

w zlych. 


uezy si§ 

he learns 


they read 


he knows 


he writes 


also, too 




the bee 




nearly, almost 



ot u arty 





careful, anxious 

ktory'f ktora, what? which (adj 


the table 



still, yet 


the tale, novel 


he sings 


the wolf 


they work 


the lion 


we speak 


the ox 


you spe-ik 




he works 


the camel 


he (she, it) reads 



1 When accompanied by nouns denoting inanimate objects, 
the accusative form of the adjective does not differ from the nomi- 

2 The termination i of the nominative and the vocative (plur.), 
which is to be regarded as a soft vowel, sottens the preceding sounds. 

7 and ztych are used when coupled with personal nouns, 
:t<- when coupled with nouns which denote animals and inanimate 

32 7th Lesson. 

Exercise 13. 

1. Ojciec jest troskliwy, matka jest oszczedna, dziecie jest 
dobre. 2. Wilk jest zarloczny. 3. Pszczola me jest leniwa. 
.4. Prawie kazdy ojciec jest pilny i dobry. 5. Nie kazde zwierze 
domowe jesf leniwe. 6. Prawie kazda matka jest pilna. 
7. Dziecie, pisze i uczy si§. 8. Stol jest czarny. 9. Uczniowie 
maja ksi^zki na lawce i czytajaj. 10. W ksiazce ucznia s^ 
pigkne puwiesci. 11. Dzieci czytajaj w ksia^kach o (of) lwach, 
wielbl^dach, koniach, psach i innych zwierzetacb. 12. Piekne 
pismo nauczycielom i wszystkim ludziom sie. podoba (pleases). 
13. Matka jest z (with) wszystkiemi dziecmi w kosciele. 14. Pa- 
nu nauczycielowi nie s$ znane wszystkie imiona uczniow. 

Translation 14. 

1. The father of the little child is good and industrious, 
he works in town and also in the castle. 2. The large win- 
dows of the beautiful royal castle are open. 3. The bees are 
industrious animals. 4. I saw the industrious bees. 5. The 
economical and careful mother knows the use of cleanliness. 
6. The oxen of the peasant often are black. 7. (Do) not trust 
the bad flatterers (dat.)! 1 8. Trust God and good men. 9. My 
brother does not yet know the bad (przykry) illness (gen.) of 
the careful mother. 10. Nearly every pupil in the class of 
my (mego) brother reads the songs of the Polish poet Adam 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Czy ojciec jest dobry? Tak, moj ojciec jest bardzo do- 


Czy wilki sg, zarloczne? Wszystkie wilki sg, zarloczne. 

O czem mowicie? Mowimy o pszczolach ; ktore nie 

sq, leniwe. 

Gdzie saj dzieci? Dzieci s^ w szkole. 

Czy dzieci sa, pilne? Nie wszystkie sq, pilne. 

1 In the Polish language the negative form of the present, 
the past and the imperative is conjugated without the auxiliary 
verb to do: nie ufaj do not trust; nie ufam I do not trust; nie 
ufaiem I did not trust: czy nie ufahm did I not trust? 

The Abridged Form of Adjectives. 


Eighth Lesson. 

The Abridged Form of Adjectives. 

Some adjectives have, in their masculine form, an 
apocopated or abridged termination, when employed 
predicatively — i.e., alter a verb expressed or understood: 
zdrow instead of zdroivy. Ojciec jest dzis niezdrow my 
father is not well to : day. But you must always say: 
zdrowy cztoiviek nie potrzebuje lekarza a healthy man 
needs no physician. 



he knows 


expert (acquain- 


you know 


ted with) 

byi, -a, -o 

he, she, it was 


the daughter 




the lamb 




the feather, 

wierny, -a, -e 


the pen 

drogi, -a, -ie 



the inkstand 

tani, -ia, -ie 



he likes (loves), 

ostatni, -ia, -ie 


is fond of 

albo — albo 

either — or 


thus, so 







lu, tutaj 





ttesoiy, we sol 

gay, rnerry 






heavy (of a 

syty, syt 




the wild beast 


in, on 


gracious, kind 




z (with instr.) 


Exercise 15. 

1. Bialy stol byl krotki i ciezki; ostatnia lawka byla dluga 
i ciezka. L 2. Male jagnie, nie jest drogie. 3. Brat nie jest tak 
dobry jak mala siostra. 4. Zwierzeta domowe sa, ludziom 
pozyteczne. 5. Pies jest wierny. 6. Brat byl w domu. 7. Corka 
jest podobna do matki, a syn do ojca. 8. Brat nie zawsze 
podobny do brata. 9. Jagnieta sa^ na polu, przy jagnietach 
sa dzieci z psem. 10. Na stole sa ksiazki, piora i kalamarz. 

11. Piekarz ma taniego konia, bogaci ludzie majq. drogie konie. 

12. Uczniu, czy znasz krolow i eesarzy francuskich? 

Translation 16. 
1. The* great God was and is good. 2. He is the good 
and faithful father of men. '.). He knows the good men and 

Elennntarv P. • ii <h Grammar. 3 

34 9th Lesson. 

the bad ones. 4. This man was still young (= little), but (a) he 
was already bad. 5. The little lamb was very good. 6. The black 
dog was very bad. 7. The black dogs are cheap, but these 
(te) white dogs are very dear. 8. The dogs are faithful ani- 
mals. 9. I saw a white lamb. 10. The dog accompanies his 
master. 11. The wolf is a wild beast. 12. Where was the 
elder sister? — She was in the last house. 13. The child 
was very young. 14. My father accompanies his (the) young 
daughter and his (the) young son. 15. My sister is fond of 
the large city. 16. My father is healthy. 17. This man is 
merry. 18. A healthy mind (duch) [is] in a healthy body. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Dzien dobry, panu, jak sie. pan Dzie_kuje_ (I thank), mam si$ 

masz? dobrze. 

Juz dawno pana nie widzialem ? Bardzo rzadko (seldom) wycho- 

dze. (go out). 

Kto towarzyszy rodzicom do Dziecko towarzyszy rodzicom do 

kosciola? kosciola. 

Czymasz pielmaj ksiaike. wdomu? Tu jest piekna kzia_zka. 

Daj mi ja, (it). 
Dziekuje^ panu. 

Ninth Lesson. 


In the Polish language the adverbs are original 
words or derived from substantives or adjectives. 

Adjectives are changed into adverbs by taking the 
termination o or e 1 instead of their original ending (-y, 
-a, -e). Which of the two terminations is to be chosen, 
can only be learnt by practice: pieknie (from piekny), 
drogo (from drogi). 

The adverbs are coupled with verbs, adjectives 
and other adverbs: pieknie gpiewac* to sing beautifully, 
Jzupi6 bardzo drogo to buy very dear. 

The verb by6 is followed by an adjective if it means 
to be, by an adverb if it means the manner of doing 
something: to (jest) pieknie that is done in a beautiful 
way; to jest piekne that is beautiful. 

1 This e softens the preceding sound in the same way as in 
the declension of substantives. 

Ad veil- :;:> 

Adverbs of different classes. 

1. Adverbs of interrogation: czy, czyli, czyz if, 
whether? kiedy when 9 dokqd whither? 

2. Negative adverbs: nit no, nigcty never, nigdzie 
nowhere, przeciicnie on the contrary. 

3. Affirmative adverbs: tah thus, so, yes, zaiste 

4. Adverbs of place: tu here, tarn there, wszedzie 
everywhere, stamtqd from there, tedy hereby. 

5. Adverbs of time: ictedy then, at that time, 
teras now, dsU to-day, wczoraj yesterday, jutro to- 
morrow, zaicsze always, jut already, jeszcze still, yet, 
czesto often, rzadko seldom, rarely. 

6. Adverbs of quantity and quality or manner: 
bardzo very, nader extremely, exceedingly, praivie nearly, 
almost, ledtvie scarcely, hardly, zhyt too much, az up 
to, tylc so much. 


your, thy 



no (adj.) 




the way 

the colt 


glad, gay, friendly 

content, satisfied 


the university 

serene, gay 

at (with). 

Exercise 17. 

1. Ojciec i matka sa dobrzy i dzieciom radzi. 2. Pilne 
dziecie jest czesto takze dobre. 3. Syn pisze dobrze, a mala 
coika czyta zle i nie glosno. 4. Xie kazdy uczen zawsze 
wiele pracuje. 5. Brat wiele i pilnie pracuje. 6. Siostra spiewa 
pieknie i glosno. 7. To irebie. bedzie muje. 8. .NieprzyjacieJ 



be (Imperative) 

tuoj, ttvoja. 

h d z 

1 shall be 



you will be 

nasz, nasza, 


he will be 



we shall be 

ivasz, ivasza. 


you will be 



they will be 

zaden, zadna. 


he sings 



they sing 

too ? 

jedfv, jedna, 





ten, ta, to 



"tea. ouo 


zrebie], -ecia 

warn, sama. 

alone, self 



rod, raaa, rade 

uart, tvarta, 

worth, deserving 





all, every 


u-.szystka, 2cs 



moj, moja, moje 


u (with gen.) 

36 10th Lesson. 

jest swiadomy drogi. 9. Zoinierz sluzy wiernie swemu mo- 
narsze. 10. Pies jest wierny swemu panu. 11. Chlopcy s^ 
weseli i bawijj, si§ (play) wesolo. 12. Wczoraj by tern z rodzi- 
cami u sedziego, przyjaciela mego ojca: bardzo dlugo bawi- 
lismy (we remained) w domu sedziego. 13. Dzis jest pogodnie. 

Translation \%. 

1. Who was roxious? — That bad man. 2. My good 
child, be always industrious, and your mother will always be 
happy. 3. Every little child can (moze) be industrious, but 
not always happy. 4. Our good father was always content 
and happy, for (poniewaz) he was gay and healthy. 5. What 
is beautiful (to) is often dear. 6. My hand will always 
be rather (dosyc) strong. 7. At Posen there is now a new 
Polish university. 8. The teacher was net at home (w domu) 
yesterday, but to-day or (lub) to-morrow, he will be again 
(zn6w) in town. 9. My sister sings little and seldom. 
10. This gentleman will 1 never be a good teacher. 11. Be 
always industrious, my friend, and you will be a useful man. 
12. The mother of our (naszego) father now lives at Warsaw, 
she is rarely at Posen. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. ■ Answers. 

Kto shizy wiernie krolowi? Zomierz sluzy wiernie krolowi. 

Kto pracuje pilnie? Matka rnoja pracuje pilnie. 

Kiedy zolnierzowi potrzebna Brori potrzebna zolnierzowi na 

bron? wojnie. 

Gdzie gpiewaja. tak pi^knie ? W kosciele spiewaja tak pie_knie. 

Tenth Lesson. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

In the Polish language there are three degrees of 
comparison: the positive' or stopien rowny, the compa- 
rative or stopien wyzszy and the superlative or stopien 

1. The comparative of an adjective is formed by 
adding the termination -szy, -sza, ~szc to the root of 
the word: nowy new, nowszy newer. 

1 In Polish a "nie" is to be added to the verb, so that there 
are two negative expressions in this sentence. See Lesson 35. 

Degrees of Comparison. 37 

The following sounds are softened, when preceding 
the termination -szy: 

g is changed into 2* uboyi poor — ubotszy 

t » » » I: staty steadfast — stalszy 

n > » * n: ukochany beloved — ukochanszy 

a » » » g : foaf j/ white — ; bielszy 

» » » e: uczony learned — uczenszy 

a » » » e : madry wise — medrszy. 

When the termination of an adjective is preceded 
by two or more consonants, which are difficult to be 
pronounced, the comparative is formed by adding 
-ejszy instead of -szy: trudny difficult — trudniejszy ; 
tatwy easy — tativiejszy. 

The adjectives ending in -hi, -eki and -oki, omit 
these terminations in the comparative: 

glfioki deep, profound — glebszy daleki wide, far — dalszy 
krotki short — krdtszy prtdki quick — predszy 

szerokl broad — szerszy icyaoki high — wyzszy 

niski low — nisszy. 

2. The superlative of an adjective is formed by 
prefixing naj- to the comparative: noicy new — noivszy 
— najnouszy. 

3. Irregular comparison. 

JJob/y good — lepszy — najle/jszy 

ziy bad — gorszy — najgorszy 

wielki great — wi^kszy — najwiekszy 

maly little, small — mniejszy — najmniejszy 

lekki light — Izejszy — najlzejszy. 

4. The comparison of adverbs. 

The comparative of an adverb is formed by ad- 
ding the termination -ej instead of -szy or, -ejszy, 
which ending has the faculty of softening the prece- 
ding sounds. 

The superlative of an adverb is formed by pre 
fixing naj- to the comparative. 

gtyboko deeply — giebiej — najgiebiej 

daleko far — dale] — najdaltj 

uysoko highly — wyzej — najicy'zej 

nisko low — nizej — najnizej 

lekko lightly — Izej — najlzej 

mivkko softly — mifkciej — najmiekcitj 

wiele (duio) much — ui^vtj — najwi^ceg. 


10th Lesson. 

5. The comparison of two adjectives or adverbs is 
expressed in two different ways: 

a) In the positive, by inserting the words: jdk as, 
tdk — jdk i as (or so) — as, roivnie — jdk as — as: 
moje konie sq tdk piekne jdk i twoje my horses are as 
beautiful as yours. 

b) In the comparative, by using the particles nit, 
niZeli, aniteli than with the nominative (or, in modern 
literature, incorrectly also jaJc) or the prepositions od 
(with the genitive) or nad (with the accusative) : 

lys sUniejszy niz (nizeli, anizeli) moj brat you are stronger 

than my brother 
on wifoszy od mego brata he is taller than my brother 
nic drozszego nad cnotg nothing is dearer than virtue. 



the uncle (the bro- 


the moon 

ther of the father) 


the mayor 


the uncle (the bro- 


the village 

ther of the mo- 

na wsi 

in the country 



is idle 






the grandfather 


the metal 


the aunt 




the president 

im — tern 

the — the 


the grandmother 


too (when coupled 


the republic 

with an adjec- 


the servant 

tive or adverb: 


the citizen 

too heavy) 


the tooth 


the nightingale 


the evil 


big, fat, coarse. 

Exercise 19. 

1. Moj stryj jest zdrowy, tvvoja ciotka jest zdrowsza, na- 
sze dziecko jest najzdrowsze. 2. Stuza^cy jest grubszy niz pan. 
3. Moj noz jest tepy, ale twoj jest t§pszy. 4. Stryj jest szczes- 
liwszy niz dziadek, babka jest starsza, niz ciotka. 5. Bialy zah 
jest najzdrowszy. 6. Moja ksi^zka jest pozyteczniejsza niz 
twoja. 7. Zelazo jest najpczyteczniejszym kruszcem. 8. Obywatel 
jest dobry. 9. Moj stuza^cy jest zly. 10. Koscioly sa wyzsze 
niz domy. 11. Na wsi sa^ ludzie daleko zdrowsi, niz w mia- 
stach. 12. Berlin jest najwiekszem miastem Niemiec, w Berlinie 
mieszka (dwells) prezydent rzeczypospolity niemieckiej. 13. Cho- 
roba jest gorszem ztem, niz ubostwo. 14, Slowik ze wszyst- 
kich ptakow najpiekniej spiewa. 

Preposition*. 39 

Translation 20. 

1. My beautiful book is more useful than yours. 2. The 
star was beautiful, the moon is more beautiful, and the sun 
was most beautiful. 3. The belter and stronger the wine is, 
the more dangerous (niebezpieczny). 4. Life is the shortest, eter- 
nity (wiecznosc) the longest. 5. He who (= who) works too much 
and too heavily (ten) cannot (nie moze) be healthy and merry 
[for a] long [time] ; nor can he who is idle be happy [= who 
is idle, (ten) cannot (takze) be happy]. 6. Larger houses are 
dearer than small [ones]. 7. In the smaller towns the houses 
are cheaper than in the large [ones]. 8. The largest towns 
are not always the most beautiful. 9. The handsomest men 
are not always the healthiest and the best. 10. The life of 
man is longer than the life of animals. 11. The mayor of our 
(naszego) town is my (moim) uncle [brother of my mother]; 
he works more industriously than his (jego) predecessor. 12. Be 
more industrious than your sister, my son! 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Kto jest smutniejszy, pilna siostra Pilna siostra nie jest smutna, 

czy leniwy brat? ona (she) jest wesota. 

Ktore dzikie zwicrze. jest najsil- Lew jest najsilniejszem zwie- 

niejsze? rze.ciem. 

Co jest lepsze, dobre pivvo albo Dobre pi wo jest lepsze niz z\e 

zle wino? wino. 

Gdzie stoi (stands) najgrubsze Ono stoi tarn. 


Ktora wieza jest najwyzszaV W Ulmie (Ulm) jest najwyzsza 

wieza niemiecka. 

Eleventh Lesson. 


1. Prepositions which govern the genitive. 

bez without u at, with 

blisko near od from 

do to, into koio, okoio round, around 

podiiu; I u-zdluz along 

iri<ih'<i after, according to procz, oprdez except, besides 

wetllv z, ze out of, of, trom 

obok by the side of podczai daring 

poprzek across srod, posrdd amidst 

dla for, on account of wzgl$dem with regard to 


11th Lesson. 

tcewnqtrz within zamiast instead of 

znonqirz without, out of mimo in spite of 

wdbec over against, opposite. 

2. Prepositions with the dative. 

Jm towards, to wbrew straight against 

napt'zeciiVf przeciwko against. 

3. Prepositions with the genitive and the dative. 

naprzeciw \ oyer ingt osite> 

na przeciwko ) r 

4. Prepositions with the accusative. 

przez by, through o around 

za for, after, behind po after, till. 

5. Prepositions with the localis. 

przif near, at o of, on 

ir. /re in na in. 

6. Prepositions with the instrumental. 

pod under 
nad over 

z with 
pomiqdzy arnon^. 















the swallow 

the street 

the money 

the stork 

Ihe present 
the pavement 
the dress 
the superior 







urodzil sic 

chcesz ? 






do domu 



uczyc sie, 



I return 

be, she, it returns 

they return 

I got 

he said, told 

he was born 

do you Wish? 

1 go 

I shall go 

he has {.'one out 

be, she, it dwells 

they dwell (live) 


the river 

1 had rather 

to learn 


Exercise 21. 

1. Ide do brata, do domu. 2. Dostalem podarunek od ojcsu 
3. Bez uwagi trudno sie uczyc. 4. Wyszedl z domu bez butow 
(boots), a powraca zbogacony (enriched) do domu. 5. Miiosc 
dzieci ku rodzicom i rodzicow ku dzieciom jest wielka. 6. Uro- 
dzilem si^ w Poznaniu, a ty urodziles sie w Warszawie. 7. Id§ po 

Prepositions. 41 

suknig. 8. Chcesz, a pojde przeciw przewaiajqcej sile. 9. Bez pil- 
nosci nauka trudna. 10. Podczas wiosny jest na wsi przyjemniej, 
niz w miescie. 11. Dom nauczyciela jest naprzeciw kosciola. 
12. Pomi^dzy uczniami jest wigcej pilnych, niz leniwych. 13. W 
zdrowem ciele zwykle (commonly) i duch zdrowy mieszka. 
14. Latem (in summer) sa, na naszycli polach bociany, w zimie 
niema (there are no) bocianow. 15. Morza sa glgbsze, niz rzeki. 
16. P6jd§ na przechadzke. (walk) za miasto. 17. Ojciec pow- 
raca z synem z Poznania. 18. Pomiedzy ludzmi s^ dobrzy i 
zli. 19. Daj mi chleba zamiast pieniedzy. 20. Podczas wojny 
ci ludzie mieszkaja u swych (their) braci i siostr w miescie. 

Translation 22. 
1. The father said to his (swoich) sons: children, 
without application, instruction and virtue you will be nothing 1 . 
2. By working (praca) you may become rich. 3. The swallow 
returns with the warm spring; with the swallows and the 
storks the other birds, too, return. 4. In the midst of the 
town there is the school. 5. Near the school [there] dwells 
our teacher. 6. Over against the school there is the church. 
7. My brother dwells in (przy) Broad Street. 8. This house 
is near the Warta. 9. This book is not for children. 10. My 
sister dwells at my uncle's at Lemberg (Lwow). 11. This boy 
instructs himself (uczy si§) without books. 12. The Danube is 
without the city of Vienna. 13. I saw the monument (pomnik) 
of the king, it is within the town near the church. 14. I am 
more fond of spring than of summer. 15. In autumn my good 
mother will be in Warsaw or in Vienna. 16. Was your aunt 
at Bromberg in winter (Instr. without preposition)? 17. My 
grandfather was born at Paris. 18. To-morrow I shall go 
(pqjdej to tow r n. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Od kogo (whom) dostal brat Brat dostat podarunek od ojca. 

Kiedy pojdziesz do szkoly? Po Nowym Roku pojde. do szkoly. 

Jezeli Bog z nami, kto (who) Nikt nie 1 moze bye preciw nam. 

przeciw nam ? 
Czem rabia; (they cut down) Drzewo ra.bia; siekiera. (the axe). 

Przez co ludzie bogaca; sie. (get Przez handel i przemy£L 

rich) ? 

1 See p. 36 English sentence Nr. 10. 


12th Lesson. 

Twelfth Lesson. 


7. Prepositions with the instrumental and accusative. 

miedzy, pomigdzy among, between 

przed before 

pod under, below, near or of (with 

the names of towns, firms &c. 

[see Translation 24 sentence 10]) 
nad above, over, on (with the 

names of rivers) 
za behind. 

These prepositions govern I he 
accusative when the verb of the 
sentence conveys an idea of mo- 
) tion or direction (whither?), 
whereas they are followed by the 
instrumental if denoting a state 
of rest (where?) 

na in, on 

w, we in, at, into 

8. 'Prepositions with the localis and the accusative. 

These two prepositions govern the accusative 
when the verb of the sentence conveys an idea 
of motion or direction (whither?), whereas 
they are followed by the localis if denoting a 
state of rest (where?) 

o of, on (with the localis) 

o for (with the accusative) [e. g. to ask for] 

po in, on, after (with the localis) 

po for (in the sense of to send for with the accusative). 



Ihe Alps 


the tale, the fable 


the mountain 


the eagle 


the wood, the 


the tar 


obiok, chmura 

the cloud 


harmony, unani- 


the Rhine 

mity, concord 


the Vistula 


the cross 

powinien bye 

is to be 


the Saviour 


he (she, it) stands 




he (she, it) is sit- 


the devil 

ting, sits 

drag a 

the way, the 


he (she, it) draws, 




the suburb 

stara sig 

he (she, it) takes 


the town-hall 

pains, endea- 


the rain 





he met, he got 


the gutter(s) 


is situated 


the godfather 

ogrod , 

the garden 


the village 


the tree 


the dwelling 


to work 


the family 



Exercise 23. 
1. Pomiedzy miastem, a przedmiesciem stoi ratusz., 2. Moj 
przyjack'l mieszka pod Bukiem, a moi rodzice mieszkaj% w 
Buku, :i. Przy bitej (high-) drodze stoi krzyz. 4. Djably sa. 

Cardinal and Ordinal Number.-.. 43 

w piekle. 5. Poznan lezy nad Warl%. 6. Orzel wzbil sie 
(rose) ponad obloki. 7. Ktore miasto lezy nad Wistq,? 8. Na- 
tura wilka ci^gnie do lasu 1 . 9. Ludzie mieszkaja na gorach, 
ale na najwyzszych gorach Alp niema mieszkari ludzkich. 
10. Posrod rodziny powinna bye zgoda. 11. Smola jest czarna. 
12. Moj brat dostat od kumotra podarunek. 13. Wczoraj 
deszcz padat (fell), dzis jest niebo bez chmur. 14. W lesie 
sa wyzsze drzevva niz w ogrodzie. 15. W lasach sa deby, w 
ogrodach zwykle de/bow niema. 16. Zbawiciel umart (died) 
na krzyzu; krzyze s^ na kosciolach. 17. Pies jest pod stolem. 
18. Dzieci wchodz^ (creep) pod stol. 

Translation 24. 

1. During (= in) the day man is to work, in the night [he 
is] to sleep (spac). 2. He sues (stara sie o [ace.]) for an office 
(urzad). 3. Behind the town-hall there is the new church. 
4. This way leads (prowadzi) behind the suburb. 5. The de- 
vil lives [dwells] in Hell, he is invisible as the angels. 6. In 
the wood there is a cross of the Saviour. 7. Harmony [concord] 
amongst men is a beautiful virtue. 8. Cracovia (Krakow) is 
situated on the Vistula, Cologne (Kolonjaj is situated on the 
Rhine. 9. My grandfather dwells in a small village near War- 
saw. 10. The apothecary's shop of "The White Eagle' 1 (apteka 
pod [with instr.]) is behind the church near the town-hall. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Slyszales (did you hear) o Ezopie Tak, znam je (them) wszystkie. 

(Aesop) i o jego (his) bajkachV 

Dokad idziesz? Ide. do domu. 

Za co mam zaplacic (pay)? Za moja^ ciezka^ prace.. 

Czy styszales o smierci doktoraV Slyszalem o tern wielkiem nie- 


Slyszales o aptekce pod czarnym Tak, panie, jest przy ulicy Zie- 

labQdziemV lonej. 

Thirteenth Lesson. 

Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. 

The numbers are divided into three classes: 

1. cardinal numbers liezebniki giowne 

2. ordinal numbers liezebniki porzqdkotve 

3. collective numbers liezebniki zbiorowe. 

1 It corresponds to the English proverb: 'A wild goose never 
laid a tame eg*/. 


13th Lesson. 

Cardinal numbers. 

1 jeden, -dna, -dno one 

2 dwaj, dwa; dwie, dwa two 

3 trzej, trzy three 

4 czterej, cztery four 

5 piec five 

6 szesc six 

7 siedem (siedm) seven 

8 os*em fosm> eight 

9 dziewigc nine 

10 dsiesigc ten 

11 jedenascie eleven 

12 dwanascie twelve 

13 trzynascie 

14 ezternascie 

15 pietnascie 

16 szesnascie 

17 siedemnascie 

18 osiemnascie 

19 dziewietnascie 

20 dwadziescia 

21 dwadziescia jeden 

22 dwadziescia dwa Sec. 

30 trzydziesci 

31 trzydziesci jeden Sec. 
40 czterdziesci 

50 pic,cdziesiqt 
60 szescdziesiqt 
70 siedemdziesiqt 
80 osietndziesiqt 
90 dziewigcdziesiat 

100 sto 

101 sto ;e(fm &c. 
200 dwiescie 

300 trzysta 
400 czterysta 
500 preset 
600 szesdset 
700 8iedemset 
800 osiemset 
900 dziewiqeset 

1000 ty.v^c 

1001 tysiqd jeden &c. 
2000 dwa tysiqee 
3000 ^r^rt/ tysiqee 
4000 cztery tysiqee 
5000 2*7c tysiecy 
10000 dziesicd tysie,ey 
100000 s*o tysi'ga/ 
£00000 dwa Arret; sto tys/$cy 
300000 frzy Aroc' «/o tysiecy 

Ordinal numbers. 

pierwszy, -a, -e the first 

drugij -ga, -gie (wtdry, -a, -*?> 

the second 
trzeci, ~ia f -e the third 
czwarty, -a, -e the fourth 
piqty, -a, -e the fifth 
szAsty the sixth 





irzy nasty >^ 








dwudziesty pierwszy 

dwudziesty drugi &c. 


trzydziesty pierwszy &c. 







setny pierwszy Sec. 

dwdchsetny (divusetny) 





siedem setny 




tysiqezny (also tysiqc) pierwszy Sec. 

dwutysieczny and divutysiqezny 



pi$ ciotysi e.czny 



dwakroc stofysi§czny 

trzykroc stotysi^czny 

Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. 45 

1000000 tniljott miljonowy 

10000000 dziesigc miljonow dziesieciomiljonoiry 

milliard miljard miljardowy. 


Jeden, jedna, jedno is to be inflected like the sin- 
gular and the plural of an adjective (ace. sing. fern. 
jedno). Jedni, jedne (plur.) the one [— the others'. 

The declension of the cardinal numbers. 


dwaj, dwa, dwie, dwa 

trze}, trzy 

czterej, cztery 


dwoch (dwu) 




divom (dwu) 




dwoch, dwa, dwie, dwa 

trzech, trey 

czterech, cztery 


dwoma, dwiema. dwoma 




w dwoch. 

w trzech. 

w czterech. 

Dwaj, trzej and czterej can only be followed by 
masculine personal nouns: dwaj panowie. When joined 
to masculine nouns, denoting animals or inanimate 
things, the second form is to be used: dwa licy. 

When the subject of a sentence consists .of the 
cardinal numbers from 2 to 90 or the indefinite num- 
bers kilka (some), wide (much), and is followed by a 
masculine personal noun, it stands in the accusative 
and the predicate in the singular of the neuter form: 
pieciu zofnicrzy bylo na ulicy five soldiers were in the 

All cardinal numbers from piec to 90 are neuter 
substantives, which are to be followed by the singular 
of the verb. They govern the genitive, unless they 
stand in the dative, instrumental or localis: 

N. pie,c osiow fire ass* A. pifd osiow 

G. pieciu osiow I. pieciu oslami 

D. pieciu osiom L. to pieciu osiarh. 

The numbers pir/, szc$6 up to sto take the termina- 
tion u in all cases, with the exception of the nomina- 
tive and the accusative when they are followed by a 
noun, denoting animals or inanimate beings: dykto- 
watem dziesirciu pisarzom I dictated to ten clerks. 
Widze piec' koni I see five horses. When used without 
a substantive, they take the termination om in the 
dative, and oma in the instrumental: pieciom, pi$cioma. 


13th Lesson. 


e declension 

of the 

collective numl 

















w dwojgu. 

w kilkorgu 

These collective numbers are used in order to de- 
note different genders or kinds of things: 

dwoje ludzi two men (man and woman) 
czworo dzieci four children (boys and girls) 
dziesigcioro przykazan the ten Commandments. 

Numbers, denoting l , /2, 2*/2 &c, are formed in the 
following manner: poitora l 1 /2, pottrzecia 2 1 /2, pot- 
ezwarta 3 L /*» poipieta 4 x /2. 

Multiplicative numbers: 

1. jednaki, -a, -t of the same kind 
dwojaki, -a, -e of two kinds 
trojaki of three kinds 
czworaki of four kinds 

2. dwoisty, -a, -e twofold 
troisty, -a, -e threefold 

3. pojedynczy, -a, -e single 
podwojny, -a, -e double 
potrojny treble. 

Indefinite numbers (liczebnilti nieoznaczone) : kilJca 
some (up to 10), MlkanaScie some (up to 20), Mlkadziesiqt 
some (up to 100); He how much, many? iviele much, 
tyle so much (many). 




luty (G. lutego) 


mar zee 



. April 













list o] jui i 





the French] 






the source, 













na koncu 

liczymy , 

the mouth (of a 

the century 
set of fifteen 
a kilometre 
the door 
the hour 
the dozen 
the threescore 
the bone 
the trunk, body 
is equal to 
at the end, at 

we count 

Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. 



I heard 

he discovered 


trzy czicarte 

l /t a half 

3 l* three quarters 

czy wiesz ? 
skiada sie 
jedna czwaria 

we begin 
do you know? 
(it) consists 
a /4 a fourth, a 



an idler 

more than (be 
fore numbers) 

Exercise 25. 

1. Ren ma dwa zrodla, a kilka ujsc. 2. Sto lat stanowi 
wiek. 3. Tylko raz jestesmy mlodzi. 4. Medel ma pietnascie, 
tuzin dwanascie, a kopa szescdziesial sztuk. 5. Czy wiesz, jak 
daleko sta^d do Poznania? — Slyszalem, ze przeszio siedemset 
kilometrovv. 6. Kadlub czlowieka skiada sie. z pieriudziesieciu 
osmiu kosci. 7. Kolumb odkryl Ameryk^ na koncu pietnastego 
wieku. 8. Pol i jedna czwarta sa trzy czwarte. 9. Pi^c razy 
szesc jest trzydziesci. 10. Dziesi§c i dwanascie jest dwadziescia 
dwa. 11. Trzy i szesc jest dziewigc. 12. Pi§6 i siedem jest 
dwanascie. 13. Osiem mniej trzy jest piee. 14. Moj ojciec 
urodzil si§ (was born) w roku tysiae osmset piecdziesiatym 
drugim. 1 

Translation 26. 

1. In London there are (= is) more than 9000 streets. 
2. The twenty-first of December is the shortest, the twenty- 
fourth oj' June the longest day of the year. 3. Give me 
threescore or (czyli) sixty pieces. 4. In large towns there are 
30000 to hundred thousands of idlers. 5. In December 1910 
there lived (mieszkalo) in the town [of] Posen 156,696 men; 
amongst them (z tych) there were 6.""), 467 Germans and 89,42$ 
Poles. 6. We begin the day at midnight and count twelve 
hours till noon and as many [hours] till midnight. 7. The 
house has two windows on (z) this side and six windows and 
two doors on the other side. 8. I am 22 years old (= I have 
22 years), my father is 45, my brother 6 and my eldest sister 
18 years old. 9. In the year 1870, [there] was the war of 
the Germans with the French ; the French paid (zaplacili) 
5 milliards of francs (frankow). 10. The last German Emperor 
is called William II. (Wilhelm). 

11. G + 6 = 12. 3+8 = 11. 8+10=12. 4 + 5= 9. 

1+ 7= 8. 7+6 = 13. 8+7 = 15. 15 + 30 = 45. 

60+12 = 72. 25+14 = 39. 18 + 17=35. 19 + 21 = 40. 

1 In expressing the hours of the days, dates and years, the 
la*, two numbers only receive the ordinal form and inflections. 


14th Lesson. 


He masz dzieci? 
He kosztuje ta ksiazka? 
Ktora godzina? 
Czy juz pierwsza bila? 
lie macie ksiazek? 

Kiedy umarl Cyrus? 

He mamy teraz lat od narodzenia 
(birth) Chrystusa PanaV 


Mam czworo dzieci. 
Kosztuje trzy mark). 
Jeszcze nie bila. 
Mamy trzysta szescdziesiat tomow 

W roku pie.cset dwudziestym dzie- 

wiatyrn [przed Chrysiusem]. 
Mamy tysia.c dziewie,cset dwa- 

dziescia lat od narodzenia. 


Fourteenth Lesson. 


Personal pronouns are: ja I, ty thou, you, on lie, 
ona she, ono it, my we, wy you, oni, one they. 
They are inflected in the following way: 

K ja I 

G. mnie of me 
D. mnie, mi to me 
A. mnie, mig me 
I. mnq by me 
L. we mnie in me 

N. on he 

G. jego, niego, go of him 

D. jemu, niemUj mu to 

A. jego, niego, go him 
J. nim by him 
L. to nim in him. 


ty (thou) you 
ciebie of you 
tobie, ci to you 
ciebie, ci§ you 
tobq by you 
w tobie in you. 

ona she 

jej, niej of her 

jej, niej to her 

jq, niq her 
niq by her 
w niej in her. 


ono it 

jego, niego, go of it 

jemu, niemu, mu 

to it 
je, nie it 
niem by it 
w niem in it. 

N. my we 
G. nas of us 
J), nam to us 
A. nas us 
JT. nami by us 
L. w nas in us. 

ivy you 
was of you 
warn to you 
was you 
wami by you 
w was in you. 

oni 7 — one they 
tcfe, nich of them 
£m, mm to them 
ich, nich, — je, nie them 
nimij — niemi' by them 
xv nich in them. 


1. The forms mnie, tobie, jego and jemu are em- 
ployed when there is a stress on them: Jcomu dates? 
Tobie (not ci). 

Pronouns. 49 

2. The same forms are employed when preceded 
by prepositions: leu mnie (not mi), przez ciebie (not tie). 

3. When preceded by a preposition, the personal 
pronoun of the third persons takes an initial n: do 
niego, don (instead of do niego) \ dla niej, przez nich, 
za niego (or shortened zah). 

4. The reflective pronoun for all genders and num- 
bers is sie, which, according to circumstances, corres- 
ponds to myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, our- 
selves, etc.: ucze sie I instruct myself, uczysz sie you 
instruct yourself, &c. 

It naturally has no nominative form ; its declension 
is as follows: 

Gen. siebie of himself &c. 

Dat. sobie 

Arc. siebie, sie, 

Inzt. solxi 

Loc. w sobie. 

5. The English you, when employed as the polite 
address of a person (in French vous, in German Sic) is 
to be expressed by the substantives pan Mr., Sir or 
pani Mrs., Madam, My lady and the second 1 or third 
person of the singular of a verb: 

jak sie pan muse? j 

jak sie pan ma? I i -, -, o 

J . 1 y * . Q i how do vou do? 

jak sie pant masz? J 

jak sie pani ma? ' 

kto bid dzis u pana?\ , , 

,. , • ' , . , r . \ who was at your house? 
kto hi/t dzts u pani ? \ J 

widziaiem syna pana (or: iridziatem panskiego syna) 

I saw your son 

czy pan bedziesz (bedzie) pisai? shall you write? 

Imperfect of bye (to be). 
Masc. Fein. Neuter 

byiem bytm/i. byiom I was 
bylei byi'is, byios you were 

hyt byia, />>/}<> lie, she, it was 

bylismy byHy&my we were 

byli&de byly&cU you were 

hyli byty they were. 

1 The second person is used in the familiar language. 
Di MHTitary Polish Grammar. 4 


14th Lesson. 



he, she, it sees 


he, she, it will 


I saw 



I play 


they will help 


he, she, it brings 

trudny, -na, -ne 



I draw 

trudno (adv.) 


pojdziemy na 

we shall 

szybki, -a, -e 



take a walk 

co iaska 

wjiat pleases yoii 

mowi sie. 

people say, 



one says 




he wins 



eiesze, sie 

I rejoice 




I read 


ne flbwer 


you read 


tlie fruit 


he reads 


the sight, seein 


se 27. 

1. Rodzice kochaja, nas. 2. Zajace majq, szybkie nogi, 
lecz ich wzrok jest slaby. 3. Nikt nie przynosi kwiaty i owoce 
do nas do miasta. 4. Pojdziemy na przechadzke. 5. Uprzej- 
mosc jedna przyjaciol. 6. Mowi sie,: jego i ciebie widziaiem, 
ale: widziaiem go, widziaiem cie,. 7. W sobie rozkochany o<$ 
siebie zaczyna (begins), w sobie widzi wszelkie doskonalosci. 
8. Z szalonym trudno mowic. 9. He pan sobie zyczy (do 
you wish) za ogolenie (shaving)? — Go laska. 10. Podaj 
(pass) mi kalamarz i pioro. 11. Tobie o nich nie mowilem 
(I spoke), ale twemu bratu. 12. Pierwszy raz widziaiem j% 
w jego 1 

1 domu. 

Translation 28. 

1. Spring brings us flowers, autumn brings us fruit 
[plur.]. 2. I love you, as (bo) you love me. 3. To-day to 
you — to-morrow to me ! 4. Where do you dwell [= dwell 
you]? 5. Do you dwell [insert przy with loc] Broad Street 
or behind the church? 6. How do you do? — I am well 
[adv.]. 7. I am very glad (cieszyc sie;). 8. God with us! 
9. Everyman for (dla) himself, God for us all! 10. This book 
js not for you [him, us, you, them]! 11. Give him [us, them] 
the flower! 12. The flowers are for you [pan or pani], not 
for us. 13. My brother brings the book to you [pan &c.] y 
not to me. 

1 Jego belongs to domu and is not a pronoun, depending on 
the preposition w. 

The other Pronoun*. 



Bokad pan idzie? 
Co pan czyta? 
Czv pojdziecie, panowie, na bal 

(the ball)? 
Komu jestesmy winni najwieksza 

Byles wczoraj u mnie? 
Kto sobie zle zyczy (wishes)? 
Kto nam dopomoze? 


Ide. do teatru. 

Czytam powiesci Sienkiewicza. 
Nie pojdziemy, gdyz jestesmy 

Rodzicom i nauczycielom. 

Nie bytem. 

Nikt sobie zle nie zyczy. 

Obey nam dopomoga,. 

Fifteenth Lesson. 

The other Pronouns. 







V. mdj my 

moja my 

moje my 







m ego 




mo j emu 


mo j emu 

m emu 




mojego, m<'>j 









mo j em 





w moim 



w mym 

m ej 


N. 1 \ moi 



: me 

(i. UK licit 




I), moim 





, 1 . moich 





I. moimi 



mymi, memi 
w mych. 

L. u 

> moich 

Iii the same manner are modified and declined: 

titoj twoja twa twoje, ttve thy, your 

sicoj swoja sum iswoje. swe his, her, its 

nasz fuuza na8ze our 

tease wasza wasze your. 


1. The pronoun swoj often corresponds to my, 
thy, our. your, their, because it is the possessive pro- 
noun referring to the subject of the Bentence without 
any regard to the gender, person and number of tbej 


ja mom swoj kapelUCZ I have my hat. 

fy mass, ^wojjj lcaicpkt, thou lwi>t (you have) yuiir book. 

my mamy swoje ksiazhi we have our books. 



15th Lesson. 

2. If his, her, their do not refer to the subject 

of the same sentence, they are never to be translated 

by sivoj, but by jego his, jej her, ich their. They 

remain always unchanged whatever may be the gender, 

number and case in which the possessed object is 

employed : 

Uczen oddal nauczycielowi swdj zeszyt. 

The pupil gave his copy-book to the teacher. 

Chory uczen prosii brata, aby oddal nauczycielowi jego zeszyt. 
The sick pupil asked [his] brother that he might give his book 
to the teacher (his = of the pupil). 

3. N. kto? who? (he co? what? nikt nobody nic nothing 

G. kogo? [who) czego? 
D. komu? czemu? 



A. kogo? co? 
I. kim ? czem ? 



L. to kim ? w czem ? 

w nikim 

w niczem 

4. Singular. 


ktory, -a, -e who (rel.), which, what (interrog.) ? 
jaki, -a, -e what (before a substantive)? 
taki, -a, -e such 

ktorzy y ktdre 
jaey, jakie 
tacy, takie 

czyj, -a, -e whose? 
ten, ta, to this 

czyi, czyje 
ci, te 

6w, owa, owo (rarely used) that 
tamten, tamta, tamto that 

owi, owe 
tamci, tamte 

zaden, zadna, zadne no 

zadni, zadne. 

All these pronouns are to be declined according 
to the regular declension of the adjectives. 

The genitive of Ido is never employed as the geni- 
tive of the possessor whose, which is to be translated 
by czyj, czyja, czyje. It must agree in case, number 
and gender with the substantive belonging to it: czyja 
masz Jcsiqtke? whose book have you? 

5. In negative sentences all pronouns and adverbs 
take the negative form: nihogo nigdy nigdzie nie wi- 
dziafem I never saw anybody anywhere. 


coz poczniemy 


? what shall we 


as soon as 
(he) pardons 




they left 
she turned 
the barn 
other people's 

he asks, demands 

The other Pronouns. 



J met 


the apple 


the work 
the shop 


the prince 
the parent, 


the thing 



the stirk, staff 


the hero 


the neighbour 


the meaning 




the wages, reward 

she lost 

one beat (Imperf.) 





the peasant 


sappy ; juicy 

the pear 

the figure, face 




the harrow 




the corn 


the basket. 


Exercise 29. 
1. Moi krewni mnie odsl^pili, skoro fortuna odwrocila 
oblicze ode 1 mnie. 2. Prawdziwy bohater przebacza swoim 
nieprzyjaciolom. 3. Kto swego me ma, cudzego pragnie.- 4. Jaka 
ptaca, taka praca; jaki pan, taki kram; jacy rodzice, takie dzieci, 
lecz nie zawsze to prawda. 5. Kazdy ma swoje zdanie. G. Twoja 
corka straciia swoje rzeczy. 7. Ta gruszka jest soczysta. 8. Za 
twoje myto kijem ci§ obito. 9. Zboze naszych sa,siadow jest 
juz w stodole, a moje jeszcze na polu. 10. Skoro zboz na 
polach niema, pola sa puste i mniej piekne, ale w tym czasie 
s$ piekniejsze ogrody/ peine rumianvch (reddish) jablek i soczy- 
stych gruszek. 11. W jesieni sa. wtoscianie na polu z korimi, 
plugami i bronami. 12. Pomnik ksigcia Jozefa Poniatowskiego, 
ktory utona.1 (was drowned) w Elsterze. znajduje sie w Lipsku 

Translation 30. 

1. Yesterday I met in our village an old peasant, who 
has lived there [for] many (wiele with gen.) years. He 
returned (wracal) from the field and was much fatigued. He 
had (mial) a basket full of pears and apples [gen.] on his 
(= the) back. 2. Whose house and whose field is that? 
3. Do not confide (= confide not) in this bad man [dat. 
without preposition]. 4. From whom have we [got j every- 
thing? — We have [got] everything from God. ."). Our Father, 
which art in Heaven! — Give us our daily bread [gen.] I 
6. Which way [instrum.] does lie go? — He goes the wa] to 
the church. 7. The priest whom I met there is called J6zef 
Krolikowski. s. We were at Prince CEartoryski['s], whose castle 

1 ode mnie [ode 'tun e] instead of od nunc, in order to soften 
the pronunciation. 

54 16th Lesson. 

is very beautiiul. 9. Give (dawaj) this book to nobody of 
(= i n ) the school, it is not for boys. 10. In the barn which 
I saw beside (przy with loc.) the house, there is much corn. 
11. What corn did you see there (widziales)? 12. Whose 
meaning is better, yours or [that] of your brother? 13. Thnddeus 
(Tadeusz) Kosciuszko and Prince Poniatowski were the last 
great heroes of the Poles. 14. A monument of Kosciuszko, 
whom the Polish nation (narod) loves still to-dSy, is (znajduje 
sie) near (przy) the town-hall at Gracovia. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

.Tacy goscie byli na balu? Ksiaie., hrabia i inni panouie. 

Co bylo na podworzu? Wol, kori i pies. 

Jakie towary sprzedaja (they sell) Kupcy sprzedaja towary kolo 

kupcy? nialne (colonial produce). 

"Czyje te ksiaiki? To ksiazki mych przyjaciol. 

W kirn pokladasz (you put) na- W sobie samym. 

dzieje V 

Czyja praca jest najpozytecz- Praca wloscianina. 


Sixteenth Lesson. 

Aspects of the Verb. 

In the conjugation of the Polish verb, there are 
to be distinguished, as in English, two kinds of verb: 
the active and the passive voice. 

A feature peculiar to the Polish language is the 
subdivision of verbs into two or three various aspects. 
These aspects are different forms of one and the same 
verb with regard to the time required for the perfor- 
mance of an action. 

These three aspects are called: imperfective, per- 
fective and iterative. 

The imperfective aspect denotes that the action 
is going on, that it has not altogether ceased, or that 
it is not going to finish: czytac to read, czyta he is 

The perfective aspect shows that the action 
has been quite completed," or that it will definitely 
cease. It is easily to be recognised by the prepositional 
prefix: przeczytai to read through, to peruse. 

Aspects of the Verb. .V> 

The iterative aspect, which is rarely employed, 
often resembles the imperfective aspect as to significa- 
tion : pisyivae to write repeatedly, to be accustomed to 

There are two roots to be distinguished, from 
which all forms of the conjugation may be derived: 
the present-root and the infinitive-root. 

I. The present-root embraces the following tenses 
and moods: 

a) The present tense (indicative) with the termi- 

1st person of the singular: -m, -e plural: -my t -emy (-m) 
2nd » » » » -&sr, -<-sz » -de, -ede 

3rd » » » — > -a. 

b) The present participle of the active voice with 
the termination -qc. 


c) The imperative with the endings (j) s -my and -eie. 

II. The infinitive-root embraces the following 

moods and tenses: 

a) The past tense of the active voice, which takes 
the termination t; its form is properly an ancient past 
participle with an active signification: kochatem I (am 
he that has) loved. The distinction of the three gen- 
ders thus becomes evident. 

b) The past participle, ending in -ny or -ty. 

c) The invariable participle of the pluperfect (of 
the active voice), ending in -szy or -ws&y. 

The auxiliary verb (czasoumtk pomocniczy) bye to be. 

Infinitive. Tryb bezokoliczny. 

bye to be. 

Indicative. Tryb oznajmujqcy. 
Present tense. Czas teraznujszy. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. jeatc»i 1 am jettesmy we are 

! i (thou art i you are jesteicU you are 

3. jest he, she, it is 1 | the\ are. 

1 Jest and sa are often omitted in sentences: to wietki pan 

that is a trroat lord (master). 

56 16th Lesson. 


Past tense. Czas przeszty. 


1. bylem bylam bylom I was — I have been 

2. byles bylas bylos (thou wert) you were — you have been 

3. byl byia bylo he. she, it was — he, she, it has been. 


1. bylismy bylysmy we were — we have been 

2. byliscie byiyscie you were — you have be/n 

3. byli byly they were — they have been. 

Pluperfect. Czas zaprzeszty. 1 


1. bylem byi, bylam byia, bylom bylo I had been 

2. byles byl, bylas byia, bylos bylo &c. 


1. bylismy byli, bylysmy byly 

2. byliscie byli, byiyscie byly. 

Future. Czas przysziy. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. b§dg I shall be be,dziemy we shall be 

2. bedzie^z you will be bcdziecie you will be 

3. be,dzie he, she, it will be bedq they will be. 

Imperative. Tryb rozJcazujqcy. 

bqdz be! or: bqdzze be (pray)! <fcc 
niech bedzie may he be! niechze bedzie 

badzmy let us be ! badzmyz 

bqdzcie be! bqdzciez 

niech bgdq may they be! niechze be,dq. 

Conditional. 2 Tryb warunkowy. 

bylbym bylabym bylobym I should be &c. 

bylbys bylabys bylobys 

bylby bylaby byloby 

bylibysmy bylybysmy 

bylibyscie bylybyscie 

byliby bylyby. 

1 The pluperfect is seldom used, it is substituted by the past 

2 In every sentence the termination bym &c. may be placed 
behind a conjunction or a pronoun, if they precede the verb: gdy- 
bym tarn byl if I was there. 

Aspects of the Verb. 


Conditional of the Past. Trijb warunkowy przeseiy, 1 

byibym byl, bylnbym b;/ia, byfabym byio I should have been &c. 

Participles. Imiesiowy. 

bedac and bedqry, -a, -e being 2 
byiy, -a, -e been 
bywszy having been. 

byty only when preceded by prepositions: nabyty kon a 
bought horse. 

Note, bytcac to be repeatedly. 

bywam I often am, I have intercourse byxvamy 

bywasz bywacie 

bywa b>/ivaja. 

byiraiem, bywalam, bywaiom I often was, I had intercourse 
bywaies, byicaias, byiraios 
bywai, bywaia, byivaio &c. 



they work 



uzbogacic sie 

to get rich 


a Roman Catholic 

z ad a nie 

the task 


an Evangelical, 


the shop 

a Protestant 


a very low price 


the army, the 


the lark 





the cradle 


the fear 


to become poor 


the generation, 


the blackbird 


ani — ani 

neither — nor 


the trouble 








the nobility 




a Phoenician 


that (conjunction) 





ostry, surowy 





the pension, salary ' 

Exercise 31. 

1. Czlowiek bgdacy w biedzie, nie moze bye wesoly. 
-2. W niebezpieczenstwie czlowiek jest czgsto odwazniejszy. 
3. ddyby moi bracia byli pilniejsi w szkole, umieliby (they 
would know) teraz wiecej. 4. Fenicjanie wzbogacili sie (got 
rich) przez handel. 5. Mlodzieniec, ktory nie slucha (listens 
to) rodzicow i nauczycieli, rzadko staie sie (becomes) dobrym 
obywatelem. G. Wielu ubozeje (gets poor) przez to, ze skupuje 

1 This tense is rarely employed. 

* The present participle is also used as an adjective: br.dqcy, -a, -e. 

58 16th Lesson. 

(buy) wiele rzeczy niepotrzebnych, chociaz za bezcen. 7. Azja 
jest kolebka rodu ludzkiego. 8. To zadanie bylo trudne. 
9. Anieli sa niewidzialni. 10. Jutro bedziemy my, dzieci i nasi 
rodzice w kosciele, b^dzcie tarn takze. 11. Kon, nabyty przez 
mego ojca, jest najwiekszy i najpiekniejszy ze wszystkich, 
jakie byly na jarmarku. 12. Znam tego pana, bywatem u 
niego. on ma czworo dzieci, trzech synow i jedna_ corke. 

Translation 32. 

1. Men work, that (aby) they are not poor. 2. If the 
teacher was severer, you would know (wiedzielibyscie) 
more to-day. 3. Solomon said (powiedzial) that the fear of 
Hod is the beginning of wisdom. 4. Without work[ing] and 
industry you will be neither rich nor happy. 5. This rich 
man was not always happy. 6. We were (= [there] was 
of us) at school a hundred pupils and we had four teachers. 

7. We were what [instr.] you are; you will be what we are. 1 

8. The lark is a small bird which sings more beautifully than 
the blackbird. 9. Nearly all Poles are [Roman] Catholics, 
only few are Evangelical [subst.]. In the sixteenth century many 
Poles were Protestants, and among (— with) them celebrated 
families of the Polish nobility [such] as the Gorkas and the 
Radziwills. 10. The soldiers will soon be in the streets of 
our village. 11. The barns were empty when I saw them, 
the corn was still in the field. 12. Be always diligent at 
school, my son! 13. They are to (powinni) be always diligent, 
and they will soon be rich. 14. The tasks often were too 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 
Questions. Answers. 

Ktora godzina? Jest po dziewiatej- 

Jestescie zadowoleniV Owszem, jestesmy zupetnie za- 


U ktorej godzinie bedziecie w Be_dziemy w kosciele o jede- 

koscieleV nastej. 

B$dziesz dzis w Saskim ogro- Nie, be.d^ w Szwajcarskiej do- 

'izie V linie (Swiss valley). 

Co jest przyjemniejsze, lato czy Lato jest przyjemniejsze, bo 

zima? cieple. 

Jakie bylo w zeszlym (passed) W zeszlym roku lato bylo 

rokn latoV dzdzyste (rainy). 

1 An inscription on Hie wall of a churchyard near Posen. 

The Verb miec to have. 


Seventeenth Lesson. 

The Verb miec to have. 

Infinitive. Tryb bezoJcoliczny. 

Miec to have. 

Indicative. Tryb <> : najm ujqey. 
Present. Czas terazniejszy. 

mam I have mamy we have 

masz thou hast, you have made you have 

ma he, she. it has majq they have. 

miai em. 




miai as, 
m iaia, 

tnielismy. miaiysmy 
mieUsde, m iaiyscie 
mieli, miaiy. 

Past. Czas przesziy. 

miaiom I had, I have had 

nriaios (thou hadst), you had, you have had 

miaio he, she. it had, has had &c. 

Pluperfect. Czas zaprzeszty. 

miaiem byi, miaiam byia, miaiom byio 1 had had &c. 
Future. Czas przyszty. miai, -ia, io (or miec I shall have 
b^dzieez miai, -ia. -io thou wilt have, you will Ijare 
bedzie miai, -ia, -io he, she, it will have 
be.dziemy nrieli, miaiy we shall have 
brdziccie mieli, miaiy you will have 
brdti mieli, miaiy they will have. 

Imperative. Tryb rozhazujqcy. 

miej have ! 

niech ma may he have! 
miejmy let us have! 
miejcie may you have! 
niech majq may they have! 

Conditional Present. Tryb warunhowy terazni 

nriaibyyn, mia&abym, miaiobym I should have Sec. 

miaiby8, miaiabys. miaiobys 

mialby, miaiaby, miaiaby 

mieltbyimy } »> iaiybysmy 

>trielibysiit\ miaiybyide 

mid ihy, miaiy by. 


17th Lesson. 

Conditional Past. Tryb warunkowy przeszty. 
miaibym byi, miaiabym byia, miaiobym byio I should have been &c. 

Participles. Imiesiowy. 

majac having. 


having had. 



repose (subst.) 


the citizen 

ubieraly sig 

they dressed 


the knowledge 


the wall 










free from ca 


the harvest 



the fortune 




endurance, per- 





the guest 

oddac wet za 

to repay 


the debt 






wiele (with gen 

) much, many. 

Exercise 33. 

1. My mamy wielki kiopot i biede, a wy'macie dni swo- 
bodne i szczesliwe. 2. Rodzice majq, czesto zmartwienie. 3. Zli. 
ludzie nie mieli, nie majq, i nie bed§ mieli prawdziwych przy- 
jaciol. 4. Mielibysmy wiecej przyjaciot, gdybysmy byli bogatsi. 
5. Miejcie odwage, i wytrwalosc, a b§dziecie szczesliwi. 6. Dla 
tego jest wo-jsko, aby narody mialy spokoj i wolnosc. 7. Wy 
macie zacnego wuja, nieoceniony to (this, that) czlowiek. 
8. Ubieraly sie dlugo. 9. Chciwy dwa razy traci (loses). 
10. Dziecko mialo dwa jablka a matka piec jablek, ile jablek 
mialy razem? 

Translation 34. 

1. Men would have less grief [plur.] if they were not 
avaricious. 2. Many a man would have a larger fortune, if 
he had been more economical. 3. During all your life have 
God before your eyes and in your heart. 4. We should have 
known (wiedzielibysmy) more if we had had severer teach- 
ers. 5. The town has rich citizens. 6. You have no book, 
he has no pen. 7. If the harvest will be good, the peasant 
will have much corn in his (= the) barn. 8. My parents had 
a large house in the town. 9. We had our books in the 
school. 10. These citizens will soon have a large fortune, they 
were always industrious and economical. 11. This woman 
had fresh fruit and fine flowers in her [the] basket. 12. In 

The Different Classes of the Polish Verbs. 61 

the year 1905, Prussia had 3,325,715 Poles, in the year 1910, 
3,500,021. 13. This country had 4,067,884 inhabitants, most 
of them live (zyje) in towns. 14. This town will have 
perhaps 170,000 inhabitants at the next (przyszty) census 
(liczenie ludnosci). It will always have many soldiers, as it is 
and will always be a strong fortress. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Czy bedziecie dzis mieli gosci u Be^da u nas rodzice moi i wnj. 


Czy macie wiele pienie^dzy? Mamy chvadziescia pie^c" marek. 

Czy pan Turowski ma wielkie Slyszalem (I heard), ze ma dlugu 

dhigiV szesc tysiecy marek. 

Jak dlugo byliscie na wsi? Dwa tygodnie. 

lie mieszkaiicow ma WarszawaV Slyszalem, ze ma blisko mearly) 

1,000,000 mieszkaiicow. 

Eighteenth Lesson. 

The Different Classes of the Polish Verbs. 

In the Polish language there are to be distinguished 
firstly root-verbs or such verbs of one syllable, the stem 
of which agrees to the root. There are two groups of 
them, the one ending in a vowel, the other in a con- 

All of them belong to the first conjugation. 

The other verbs, the stem of which differs from 
the root, are called derived verbs. They belong to the 
three other conjugations; the second conjugation em- 
braces all verbs endiug in ac, the third those ending 
in nqd and the fourth all those ending in ec, ic and yd. 

The first conjugation. First group. 

The radical verbs of the first group ending in ac, 

md, ic (yd) and u< : : 

dac to give pid to drink 

stac to stand zyc to live 

Had sig to become lcrtfd to hide 

znac to know myc to wash 

bad sir to fear szyc to sew 

smier to dare, to venture ezud to feel 

irrzec to boil Line to pick 

bid to beat kuc to forge 

psuc to spoil. 


18th Lesson. 

Formation of the 





zna-m I know 

j^know staj-e. sie,, 





zna-sz thou knowst, you staje-sz sig, 

Smie-8Z } 




zna he. she. it knows sfcy'-e sie, 

SWJf ; 





zna-my we know 

staje-my sig, 





*na-cie you know 

staje-cie si%, 





znaj-q they know 

staj-q sig, 







1. zna-iem 

zna-iam zna-iom I knew 

2. zna-fcs 

zna-tas zna-ios you 


3. zna-i 

1. zna-lismy 

^na-^a zna-io he, she, it knew 

zna-iysmy we knew 

% zna-liscie 


you knew 

3. zna-li 

zna-iy the 

:y knew. 

In the same way the other verbs are to be con- 
jugated: statem sie, smia-tem 1 , bi-tem, czu-lem. 

1. znaiem byi, znalam byia, znaiom byio I had known &c. 


1. znac bedg or bedg znai, znala, znaio I shall know 

2. bedziesz znac or bgdziesz znai you will know &c. 

c 2. zna-j know! sta-j sic 2 , smie-j, bi-j, czu-j 
3. niech zna may he know! niech staje sie 2 &c. 

1. znaj-my let us know! staj-my sig 2 , smiej-my, bij-my, czuj-my 

2. znajcie know! — 2 smiej-cie, bij-cie, czuj-cie 

3. niech znaj-q may they know! 

In the same way: wrzej, bij, czuj. 

Present participle. 
znaj-qc knowing, staj-qc sic, smiej-qc, bij-qc, czuj-qc 
znaj-qcy, -a, -e knowing (adjective) &c. 

In the same way: stajqc sie, smiejqc, bijqc, czujqcl 

Past participle (active voice). 
iia-wszy having recognised. 

Past participle (passive voice). 
znany, znana, znane known. 

1 Before a hard consonant the soft e is changed into the hard a. 

1 Instead of these forms the modern language employs expres- 
sions, derived from the verb stanqc sie: stan sie; niech stanie sic; 
gtanmy si$; standi sie. 

The Different Classes of Uie Polish Verbs. 

The participles of the other verbs are: dany given, 
Lity beaten, pity drank, and ciuty felt, &c. 

The present of dad is daje and agrees in conju- 
gation to staje sit\ its future is dam (I shall give), whicL 
is conjugated according to znam. 

The present of stac and bad sie are: 

stojr, stoisz, stoi, stoimy, stoicie, stoj<i 
boj$ sie, boisz sie <^c. 
Imperative: stdj stand! boj sir fear! 
Participle : siojqc standing &c. 

person of 




The conditional. 

conditional is to be derived from the third 
the past tense, by adding the following ter- 

r 1st person bym 
2nd » bys 
3rd > by 





Feminine Neuter 

'.nalabym z>t«iol>ym I should know 

maiabys znutobys (thou wouldst know), you would know 

:nalaby znaiuby he, she, it would know 


we should know 
you would know 
thev would know. 







the battle 

the elector 

to beat 

the Swede 

the struggle, the 

of Oliva 
to get 

the Lusatian, the 

the forge 

Lit win 












the Lithuanian 


the duchy 



the Dane 


the cup 

to attack 


the trades-union 

the tailor 
the bravery, 

Exercise 35. 
1. Komu z was jest /.nana bitwa, w ktorej Wielki Eleklor 
pobil Szweddw? 2. W wake I'olski ze Szwedami stal Wiellri 

64 18th Lesson. 

Elektor Fryderyk Wilhelm po stronie szwedzkiej. 3. W pokoju 
oliwskim dostaia Brandenburgja od Polski cze^sc Pomorza, a 
Prusy staly sie. udzielnem ksigstwem. 4. W panstwie nie- 
mieckiem zyje maly narod slowianski (Slavic) Luzyczan. 5. Nie 
pijcie zimnej wody, gdyj jestescie rozgrzani. 6. Rano my- 
jemy twarz i rece. 7. Ta woda do mycia 1 bardzo zimna, 
daj mi filizankg cieplej wody. 8. Jezeli sie. boicie sami isc 
do domu, damy warn siuzajcego. 9. Wojska staty dlugi czas 
naprzeciw siebie, nasz wodz nie smial zaczepic liczmejszego 
nieprzyjaciela, ale i nieprzyjaciele bali sig m§ztwa naszych 

Translation 36. 

1. What town of the ancient [Comparative] kingdom of Po- 
land [adj.] do you know? — I know Lemberg (Lwow) very well; 
my mother and "my two sisters live (= dwell) there [in (przy)] 
St. Joseph's Street. — Had you not a brother when we were 
together at school? — Yes, I had, but he lives no longer, he 
became (zostac with instr.) a soldier and fell (padl) in a battle 
near Paris in the year 1870. 2. At the divisions (podzialach) 
of Poland Austria got Galicia, Prussia the countries (ziemia) 
on the Warta and Vistula, and Russia the other parts (= the 
rest of the parts). 3. My brother stood before the house 
for a long time, he was afraid of entering (infin. of wejsc). 
4. Do not be afraid, my dear child, nobody will beat (uderzy) 
you. 5. Do not beat these children! 6. To-day I was at my 
tailor's (= at my tailor) ; he sewed my coat which I had given 
him yesterday. 7. We found (znalezlismy) the soldier on the 
bank (brzeg) of the road ; he still lived (zyl), but we were afraid 
(obawiac siej, that he might not live [past tense] for a long 
time. 8. Drink (napic siej this Hungarian wine [genitive], it 
is very good; I was always fond of drinking it, and I believe 
(uwazam) that I shall be always fond of drinking it in 
future. 9. Did you know my father? — I believe that he still 
lived when you were with me at the university (uniwersytet). 
10. May the Emperor live! that was the war-cry (hasto) of 
Napoleon's soldiers. 11. At Leipzig, the Prussians, the Rus- 
sians and the Austrians beat the Emperor Napoleon. 

1 The verbal substantives are derived from the stem of the 
participle of the passive voice by annexing the termination e. 
The preceding consonant is to be softened: myty — wycie washing, 
to wash (as a substantive), dany — danie the gift, the dish. 

The Second Conjugation. 65 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Kto pobil Austrjakow pod Sa- Austrjakow pobili pod Sadowa. 

dowa? Prusacy. 

Gdzie lezy wioska Sadowa? Wioska Sadowa lezy w Czechach 

Znales pana, ktory byl z nami Nie, panie, tego pana nie znaiem. 

w sklepieV 
Co robi (does) kowal w kuzni? Kowal kuje w kuzni zelazo. 
Ktory krawiec uszyl (sewed) twoje Ten krawiec, ktorego poznalismy 

ubranie? wczoraj w towarzystwie prze- 

Dla czego ten chlopiec stoi przed Czeka (he waits) na matke., ktora 

sklepem? jest w sklepie. 

Nineteenth Lesson. 

The Second Conjugation. 

The verbs ending in a6, and consisting in more 
than one syllable, belong to the second conjugation, 
which is divided into three groups. 

Those verbs which keep the a of the termination 
in all tenses belong to the first group. They take an 
-m in the first person of the singular of the present 
tense, whereas all the other verbs of the second, third 
and fourth conjugation have the inflection e \ Icocliam 
I love, Jcochad to love. 

The verbs of the second group, which have the a 
only in the infinitive stem, and lose it in all tenses of 
the present-stem and soften the preceding consonants: 

b is changed into hi, g into z 
k » » » cz, p » pi 

r » 




s » 


t » 




z » 


zd > 




st » 


I. Group. 


1. hoeha-m I love ]eocha-my we love 

2. Jcocha-82 thou lovest, you love hocha-eu you 1 

3. kocha he, she, it loves kocha-j-q they love. 

Elementary PolUb Grammar. 

66 19th Lesson. 

1. kocha-iem, -am, (-om) I loved, kocha-lismy, -iysmy we loved &c. 

1. kocha-iem byi I had loved, kocha-lismy byli we had loved &c. 

1. kocha-c b§de or bade kochai I shall love &c. 

kodia-j love! 

niech kocha may he love ! 
kocha-jmy let us love ! 
kocha-jcie love ! 
niech kochajq may they love! 

Present participle (Active voice). 
kochaj-qc, kocha-j-qcy, -a, -e loving. 

Past participle (Active voice). 
pokocha-wszy having got fond of. 

Past participle (Passive voice). 
kocha-ny, -a, -e loved. 

kocha-c to love. 

II. Group. 


1. pisz-g I write pisz-emy we write 

2. pisz-esz thou writest, you write pisz-ecie you write 

3. pisz-e he writes pisz-a they write. 

1. pisa-iem I wrote &c. 

1. pisa-iem byi I had written &c. 

1. b$d$ pisa-i or pisac bed$ I shall write. 


'« — piszmy let us write! 

c 2. pisz write! piszcie write! &c. 

Present participle (Active voice). 
pisz-qc writing. 

Past participle (Active voice). 
napisa-wszy having written down. 

The Second Conjugation. 


Past participle (Passive voice). 
pisany written. 

pisa-c to write. 

Some Remarks on the Different Tenses. 

The imperfeetive verbs (Lesson 16 th ) having no 
participle past of the active voice, the verbs Jcochad and 
pisad, belonging to that class, cannot be used in that 
participle. But when they are changed into perfective 
verbs by prefixing some preposition, it may be formed: 
pokochac to get fond of — pokochaws&y 
napisad to write down — napisaivszy. 

The perfective verbs have no present, the form of 
their present tense being used in the sense of the future 
(Lesson 18 th ). Therefore: pdkocham means I shall get 
fond of, napiszg I shall write down. The future tense 
with Iqde must not be formed at all. 

The perfective verbs have no present participle of 
the active voice. 


Verbs of the first group. 

dcptac (imp.) 

to tread 


to say, to tell 

udeptad (perf.) 

to stamp 

I ia dac 

to fall, to rain 


to whip 


to scoff (at) 


to be drowned 


to sing. 
! second group. 

(3 rd conjugation) 

Verbs of th( 


the chip, splint 


to hew, to cut 


the countryman, 


to weep 



to spring 

j>ra icdopodobny probable 

kqixiv si£ 

to bathe, to take 


old (of soldiers) 

a bath 


the contempt, 

Hamad (imp.) 

to lie 


ski" mac (perl.) 

to belie 


the weather 


to lie 


the satire 

karac (imp.) 

to reprove, to 


the perversity 



Zoppot (near 

uk'irac (pert.) 

to punish 


wad (imp.) 

to plough 



taorad (perf.) 

to plough up 



hazad (imp.) 

to order 

l>ics it hidmra 

the national song 

pokazad (perf.) 

to -how- 


the lurrow 


to whistle 

wyrazad wig 

to expi« 


68 l^th Lesson. 

Exercise 37. 

1. Polskie przyslowie powiada: Gdzie drzewa rabiq,, tarn 
wiory padaja^. 2. Ojcze, ukarz twego syna, on dzis nauczycielowi 
sklamal, on cz^sto klamie. 3. Dziecko placze, gdy je karza. 
4. Brat nauczyciela uton^l, kajpiae sie. we Wisle. 5. Religja 
chrzescijanska kaze kochac i nieprzyjaciol. 6. Rolnik orze od 
samego rana, prawdopodobnie dzis cale pole zaorze. 7. Hannibal 
bylby pobil Rzymian pod Zamaj, gdyby byt mial wiecej konnicy 
i wysluzonych zclnierzy. 8. Zamiast: ten czlowiek klamie, 
wyrazamy sie z pogarda.: on tze. 9. Krasicki, slawny poeta 
polski 18-go wieku chloszcze i wysmiewa w swych satyrach 
wady i przewrotnosci ludzkie. 10. Depcesz po kwiatach ! 
11. Chlopcy gwizdzaj, spiewajaj i skaczq, po lesie. 

Translation 38. 

1. The Polish Prince Poniatowski was drowned during 
(podczas) the retreat (odwrot) of the French in the waters of 
the Elster (Elstera) near Leipzig. A monument with a Polish 
inscription shows (wskazywac) the place where he died (umarl). 

2. As the weather was fine, we took a bath in the Warta. 

3. In the air there sang the small birds. 4. In spring (na with 
ace.) the countryman ploughed up his fields and sowed corn 
into the furrows. 5. Do not scoff at the old ones [comp.] and 
the feeble [persons] ! 6. My brothers sang national songs which 
they were very fond of (kochac with ace). 7. Sing (zaspiewac) 
also something; show what you can do (umiesz), and then we 
shall tell you (powiemy), what we think (myslimy). 8. This 
celebrated poet himself will sing his songs before a great num- 
ber of hearers (sluchacz) to-morrow in the evening [instr.]. 
9. The teachers punish the pupils who lie. 10. The women 
wept, when people (= they) told them that their brothers were 
drowned. 11. Show me the house where your mother dwells. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Czy ka.pales si§ juz w rnorzu? Kaj)alem sie. tego lata w Sopo- 

tach, a moja siostra jeszcze sie. 

tarn ka.pie. 
Czem rolnik orze? Rolnik orze plugiem. 

Kiedy zwykle dzieci placzq,? Dzieci zwykle placza,, gdy s^ 

Pokaz mi swoj nowy zegarek ! Pokaze. ci go jutro, dzis nie mam 

go przy sobie. 
Dla czego chlopcy depca. po Bo chc^ (they will) go udeptad a 
piasku? potem gra6 w tenisa. 

The Third Conjugation. 


Twentieth Lesson. 


The Third Group of the Second Conjugation. 

The third conjugation. 

The verbs ending in oicac and yicad belong to 
the third group of the second conjugation. Their pre- 
sent-stem, undergoing an abbreviation, ends in u: 
panoivac has panu-j-g I govern; pisywad has pisuj-$ 
I am in the habit of writing. Most of these verbs 
express an iterative sense. 

Present indicative (Active voice). 
1. pracu-j-e I work, pracu-j-emy we work &c. 

pracu-j work ! &c. 

Present participle (Active voice). 
pracu-j-qc working &c. 

The verbs ending in nqc belong to the third con- 
jugation. Though they are not divided into classes, 
there is a difference between them. Those verbs the 
termination of which is preceded by a consonant, take 
ij in the imperative, whereas the others only soften 
the n of the stem: plijnq6 to flow: piyn (imper.) 

pragna6 to desire: pragnij. 



1. iplyn$ I 



we flow) 

c 2. (jihpiiesz 

thou flowest, 


flow) {piyniecie 

you flow) 

3. piynie he 

i , she, it flows 

l>iy>iq they flow. 



[plyn flow!) 

[plyhcie flow 

!) (plur.) 



I flowed A.v. 



to travel 


to honour, to 


| to slander 




to hunt 


to draw 

pr6znou (ir 

to be idle 


to tan 


to repair, to mend 


to cook 


to art 


to work 

pi no 

the beer 


20th I 


kapusta ki- 

the chopped and 



fermented cab- 





the gut, the sau- 

malar z 




the hare 



the (Cracovian) 




the drinking glass 



the little glass 



of this place 



the train 

statek osobowy 


to paint 


the picture 



the boot 



the opportunity 


ch§tny, -e 

willing, ready 





the drawing-room 

the huntsman 
the painter 
the doe 

the fellow-crea- 
the tanner 
the barge, bark 
the steamer 
the passenger- 
the benefactor 
the letter 
the skin 

righteous, honest 

Exercise 39. 

1. Jezeli nie mam sposobnosci kajpac sie w morzu, ka,pi§ 
sie. chetnie w wodzie plynaeej; przy naszej wiosce plynie rzeka, 
majaea czystq, wod§. 2. Po Wisle plynely barki i 'inne statki. 
Statkiem osobowym przyjechal malarz, ktory nasz salonik po- 
maluje na czerwono. 3. Brat moj podrozuje po potudniowych 
Niemczech, co tydzien pisuje listy. 4. Gdy bede podrozowal, 
bede takze czesto do rodzicow pisywal. 5. Ci panowie zawsze 
pracujq,, nigdy nie proznuja., jezeli majq, czas wolny od pracy, 
rysujq,, malujq, lu.b poling. 6. Malarz namalowal piekny obraz, 
teraz rysuje. 7. Nasi blizni wiecej by nas szanowali, gdybysmy 
zawsze zyli i dzialali nczciwie. 8. Garbarz garbuje skory i 
pracuje ciezko. 9. Pracujajcy jest zawsze zdrow i zadow 7 olony. 

Translation 40. 

1. I knew a gentleman who only hunted and was idle. 
2. Pray (modi sie) and work, did my father use to say (ma- 
wial). 3. Bad men, chiefly (mianowicie) old women, slander 
their fellow-creatures. 4. The huntsmen shot two hares and 
cooked dinner. 5. This man slanders his benefactors, he will 
never be content. 6. Every nation honours its heroes. 7. (He) who 
is idle and never works, (ten) will aways be poor. 8. Yesterday 
my shoemaker repaired my boots very rapidly. 9. The Warta 
flows through Posen. 10. Oh, mother, do you cook a beet-root 
soup (barszcz)? 11. What have you for supper, waiter? — 
We have sour-crout with Cracovian sausage and flaki (flaki). 1 

1 Flaki is a national dish in Poland, prepared of tripes. 

The Fourth Conjugation. 


— Give me flaki and a glass of Hungarian wine. Or have you 
Bavarian beer? — No, sir, but the beer of this place is fresh. 

— I do not like to drink the beer of this place (= I drink 
not willingly . . .). Give me Hungarian wine [gen.]. But, 
please, very fast; my train will soon start (odjedzie). 12. After 
dinner we used to read in our books. 13. He will give [pres. 
of podac) us for breakfast Cracovian sausage with sour-crout 
and a glass of beer or a little glass of nalewka 1 . 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 


Czy jeszcze dlugo be_dziesz proz- 

nowal '? 
Czy niysliwi zabili duzo zaje_cy? 
Czy jeszcze poluja? 
Czy kucharka gotuje juz obiad? 
Czy dobrze strzelasz? 

Co pijasz zwykle ? 
Jaka woda jest czysciejsza, sto- 
jaca czy plynaca? 

Zaraz zaczynam (I begin) robote> 

Zabili dwie sarny. 

Nie, juz po polowaniu. 

Juz ugotowala. 

Niewiem, gdyz dawno nie mia- 

lem broni w rejm. 
Pijani czysta wod§ i pnvo. 
To zalezy (depends on) od oko- 

licznosci (circumstance). 

Tweuly-lirst Lesson. 



The Fourth Conjugation. 

The verbs of the fourth conjugation ending in cc, 
id (yd), are divided into three groups. 

Those verbs terminating in cc which take an 
i (y) at the end of the present-stem belong to the first 
group; those terminating in cc which preserve the e 
in the present-stem belong to the second group, whereas 
the third group consists in the verbs ending in id (yd), 

I. Group. 

Present (Active voice). 
Singular. Plural. 

1. cier}>ir I suffer cierpi-my 

1. cierpi-sz cierpi-eie 

3. citrj'i cierpi-q. 

1 Nalewka is a liquor prepared by pouring brandj on tn^h fruit. 

72 21st Lesson. 

1. cierpiaiem 1 I suffered cierpielismy, cierpiaiysmy 1 

cierpiqc suffering, eierp suffer ! cierpiany suffered, tier pied to suffer. 

II. Group. 


1. siwieje, I turn grey siwiejemy 

2. siwiejesz siwiejecie 

3. siwieje siwiejq. 

1. siwialem I turned grey siwielismy, siwiaiysmy. 

siiciejqc turning grey, siwiej turn grey! siwied to turn grey. 

Those verbs of the first group which end in tied, 
dzied, mied and sied, take before £ and q: e instead of 
d, dz instead of dz, mn instead of mn, sz instead of i: 

lecied to fly: lecg I fly, lecq they fly. 

Irregular verbs of these two groups are: chcied to 
wish (I will &c), umied to understand, to know, wie- 
dzied to know. 


1. chc$ I will, I wish utriiem I understand wiem I know 

2. chcesz umiesz wiesz 

3. chce umie wie 

1. chcemy umiemy wiemy 

2. chcecie umiecie wiecie 

3. chcq umiejq. wiedzq. 

1 . chcialem I wished, I would, umialem I understood, wiedzialem 

I knew. 
Partic. : chcqc wishing, umiejqc understanding, wiedzqc knowing. 
Imper. : chciej, umiej, wiedz &c. 

Instead of musied to be obliged (I must), people 
employ more frequently the word powinienem (I must, 
I am to do). 


1. powinienem, powinnam, (powinnom) I must, I am to do 

2. pouinienes, powinnas, (powinnos) you must, you are to do 

3. powinien, powinna, powinno he must, he is to do 

1. powtnnismy, powinnysmy we must &c. 

2. pouinniscie, powinnyscie 

3. powinni, powinny. 

1 e before a hard consonant is changed^ in a. 

The Fourth Conjugation. 




to look 


the hair 


to see 


to answer 


the wall 




the martyr 

bawic sig 

to play 


the torment, pain 


to be silent 


the sense 


the fool 


to be obliged 

mow id 

to speak 


to hang 

mo wienie 

speaking, to speak 


to sound 

(as a substantive) 


the garden 

z alow a 6 

to regret 

cwiezyc sir 

to exercise 



to look sharp, to 


the cupboard, 



the eclipse of the 





the sin 


many a 


the song, sin 



ill, sick 


the chain 




the example 


the cross. 

Exercise 41. 

1. Polskie przyslowie brzmi: Nie pora na roze, gdy plonq, 
lasy. ' 2. Sam nie wie, czego chce. 3. Chcae nie chcae 
(willing or unwilling), musialem sprzedac mego pieknego konia, 
bo miat nogi za slabe na bruk. 4. W starszym wieku wlosy 
siwiejq,. 5. Uczen nie uw T azaJ, w T i^c nie wiedziat, co mial od- 
powiedziec. 6. Dzieci powinny kochac rodzicow. 7. Powinienes 
byi wczesniej nauczyc sie lekcji, chcae sie. bawic z towa- 
rzyszami. 8. Suknie wisza, w r szafie. 9. Ptaki leca/ za morze. 
10. Dziecko musi si§ uczyc. 11. Mq.dry milczy, jesli potrzeba, 
glupcy milczy czesto, kiedy mowic powinni. 12. Nikt nie za- 
lowal, ze milczat, niejeden zalowal, ze mowil. 13. Milcz na- 
tychmiast! 14. Ten czlowiek nie slyszy dobrze, bo on giuchy. 
15. Czapka wisi na scianie. 16. Patrz na mnie. 17. Siedz 
spokojnie, jak siedzi twoj sasiad. 

Translation 42. 

1. The sick man suffers more than the sound one. 2. The 
suffering Christ must be an example for us. 3. The martyrs 
often suffered the most cruel torments. 4. The suffering Christ 
saw an angel in the Garden of Gethsemane (getsemanski). 

5. Jesus Christ was forced to suffer for (za) the sins of nun. 

6. While (= when) Jesus Christ was suffering on the cioss, 
men saw an eclipse of the sun. 7. St. Paul wished to suffer 

1 There is no time for the roses, when the woods are burning. 


22rtd Lesson. 

torments as his master Jesus Christ [had done]. 8. You must stay 
at home. 9. The soldiers were obliged to exercise themselves. 
10. Look on (na) me, look into the book, look straight on 
(= before yourselves). 11. The watch is (= hangs) at a gold 
chain. 12. Who does not exercise himself in speaking cannot 
(nie moze) speak well and rapidly. 13. This town is situated 
(= lies) neither on the Warta nor on the Vistula. 



Czy slyszysz spiew slowika? 
Czy widziales ojca tej pani? 

Czy wydziales zacmienie slohca? 
Czy umiesz juz czytac po grecku? 

Dla czego nie odpowiedziales mi 

wczesniej na list? 
Znasz przyslowie: co ma wisiec, 

nie utonie? 



Tak, slysze. go zdala (from far). 
Tak, widzialem go kilka razy i 

rozmawialem (I spoke) z nim. 
Widzialem juz nieraz. 
Nie umiem jeszcze, bo jeszcze 

nie mielismy lekcji greckiego. 
Nie wiedzialem, gdzie sie. znaj- 

dujesz (you were). 
Znam i wiem, co znaczy (means). 

Twenty-second Lesson. 


The Third Group of the Fourth Conjugation. 

The verbs of this group end in id and, after cz, 
rz, sz and £, in yc. In those which have an dz, zdz, 
6, cz6, §, &6 and i before the termination ic, these con- 
sonants are changed before e and a, into dz, zdz, c, 
czcz, sz, szcz and z. For instance, radzic has: rudze, 
radzq, radzqc &C. 

The termination of the past participle of the pas- 
sive voice is ony: chwalony praised. 




jezdzic to drive, to 

jezdzg, jezdzisz, 



go on horseback 


mowic to speak 

mdwie., mowisz, 



chiralic to praise 

chwale., chwalisz 



radzic to counsel 

radzg, radzisz 



chodzid to ko about 

chodzg, chodzisz 



pedzid to drive 

p$dz$, padzisz 



' (rapidly) l 

1 e.g., a machine. 

The Fourth Conjugation. 

• ) 



Impera; . 

shi-yc to serve sinze, siuzysz 


liczyc to count liczfr liczysz 


Ucz (liczony) 

cwiczyc to exer- duricze, cwiczysz fwiczytem duricz (c'ici- 



wierzyc to bel 

ieve tcierze, wierzysz wierzyi erz. 



the world 


the bicycle 


a monet (like a 


the service 



to recommend 


the capital 

zanim, nim 


wielhi mistrz 

the grand master , 

czyn ic 

to do 

gakon lcrzy- 

the Teutonic Or- , 


to possess 

zackiykrzyzacy der 

potrzeboH<n : 

to need, recpi in- 




to commit 



skladrtc sir 

to consist in 


the conscience 


to like, to love 


the coach 


to judge 


the crime 


to dissipate, wa>te 


the bicyclist 




the elephant 

■ cudzy 


Exercise 43. 
1. Cyklisty jezdza na roweraeh, dawniej, gdy rowerow 
nie miano 1 , wszyscy jezdzili konno (on horseback) albo powozem. 
2. Mowiono mi, ze pan potrzebujesz porzadnego sluzacego, 
siniem panu polecic moje uslugi. 3. Slusznie (justly) mowia 
o nas: cudze chwalicie, swego nie znacie, sami nie wiecie, co 
posiadacie. 4. Kto popelnil wielka zbrodnie, nie bedzie mial 
nigdy spokojnego suinienia. 5. Sadzcie ludzi nie podlug tego, 
co mowia,, lecz podlug tego, co czynia. G. Zyj podlug przyka- 
zania bozego i cliwal Boga. 7. Z wiekszem wojskiem Hannibal 
moglby byJ (could have) sie dluzej trzymac (to keep maintain) 
we Wloszech. 8. Slonie zyjaj dlugo. 9. Radze ci i radziiem 
liczyc sie z groszem. 

Translation 44. 
1. I served at your fatherfs), and you serve in our house. 
2. Work, and you will alway r s be sound and content. 3. I: 
you are fond of life (lubic with ace), do not waste your time, 
for life consists in time. i. The apostles served their rai 
Jesus Christ. 5. They believed that he was the son of God. 

1 Miano (abbreviated from jest miano) is the neuter of the 
participle past of the passive voice. Such fbrmfl are often ased 
id of expressions with 'one, people*: chwalono people praised, 
one j raised — chwalili. 


23rd Lesson. 

6. St. Paul said (= spoke) : Jesus Christ lives, and therefore 
we shall also live. 7. The Blessed Virgin (Matka Boska) was 
the patroness (patronka) of Marienburg. 8. Marienburg was 
the capital of the Teutonic Order, when Jagiello was living 
(past). 9. King Jagielto beat the Teutonic Order on- the 15th 
of July [of the year] 1410 at Grunwald or (czyli) Tannenberg. 
10. We do not believe (= judge) that our peasants will have 
much corn in this year. 11. All men praise the fruit, which 
is very fine in this year (gen. without prep.). 12. Do you 
speak Polish (po polsku), sir? — Do you speak German, French, 
English or Russian? 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Co pijasz zwyl^le? 

Po co zyje czlowiek na swiecie? 

Ktore zwierzeta zyja^ dlugo? 
Czego zaclacie? 

Co radzisz mi zrobic? 

Kto puka (knocks) do drzwi? 
Kto z was umie plywac (to 
swim) ? 


Pijam czyst% swieza. wode., bar- 

dzo rzadko wino. 
Czlowiek zyje, aby pracowal i 

byl ludziom pozyteczny. 
Sjtonie zyja. bardzo dlugo. 
Zadamy, aby uczniowie byli pilni 

i poshiszni (obedient). 
Radze, ci bye troche, cierpliwym 

Jakis gosc. 
Plywamy wszyscy dobrze. 

Twenty-third Lesson. 


The Root -verbs of the First Conjugation. 

The root-verbs of the second gfroup have different 
consonants at the end of their stem (see lesson 18 th). 
They end in d, t, s, when their infinitive is closed by §6 

y> » » m, n 

2> » 7> Z 

kloHC to lay 

Jcrasc to steal 

niekt to bear 

przeniesc (perf.) to put in 

another place 
wiesc to lead 
j/rzasc to spin 
znalezc to find 
06 to go 



pojsc (perf.) to go to a place 

jechad to drive (in a carriage) 

plesc to braid 

jest to eat 

piec to bake 

wlec to drag 

rzec to say, to tell 

dec to flow 

mdc to be able 

The Root-verbs of the First Conjugation. 


strzyc to shear, to 


klqc to curse 

ciqc to hew, to cut 

gruzc to bite 

dqc to blow, to sound 

wiezc to drive (in 


jqc t<> seize, to catch 






kiadg. kiadziesz 




kradne, kradniesz 




niose, niesiesz 




wiode, wiedziesz 


ivied z 

iviodqc, -dziesz 




znajde., -dziesz (fut.) 




ide,, idziesz 

szediem 1 



szedies you 

went &c. 





pdjde. (fut.) I shall 




go there 

jade, jedziesz 




plote,, pleciesz 




jem, jesz, jedzq 




pieke<picczesz, piekq 



piekq c 

u-loke, wleczesz 




rzeke, rzeczesz (fut.) 




ciekg, cieczesz 




mogt, mozesz 


(without imper.) 


utrzyge, -zesz 




tng, tniesz 




dme, dmiesz 




{im$, imiesz (fut.) 




king, klniesz 




gryz$, gryziesz 




wioze, icieziesz 




The composed verbs of jqd, wsiqd to take, ujn<\ 
pojad to seize, to take, have the following perfective 
forms in future: icezme, ujm$, pojme, wezmiesz, pojmiesz\ 
Imperative: wez, pojmij. Pojsc has in future pojde. 





to dictate 

the earth, country 
the butcher 
the command- 

the ghost-story 

historja o 
placek the cake 2 

jatki(gen.jatek) the butcher's stall 
buika the roll (white 


1 Fern, szlam, neuter uHom &c. 

2 The Polish word keka (pi. keksy) must he translated into 
English by biscuit. 


23rd Lesson. 


the milliner 


the coffee 


the hostess 


the theatre 

uczyc sir 

they rob 

the post-office 

to learn 


the ham 
the pancake 
Latin [ny) 

zjesc (perf.) 

to eat up 
the chocolate 

dokqd ? 

the pfennig (pen- 
whither ? (where ?) 


the (female) spin- 


to eat, eating (as 
a substantive). 

Exercise 45. 

1. Wez w reke, pioro i pisz, co ci podyktuje. 2. Przadki 
we wsi przedq, cale wieczory i opowiadaja sobie historje o 
strachach. 3. Gdy szedlem do klasy, znalaztem lacinska. ksiazke, 
a moja siostra znalazla scyzoryk. 4. Doka^d idziesz? — Id§ do 
kosciola, a potem pojde do szkoly. 5. Poszedt do miasta, do 
teatru. 6. Zolnierze jedli czarny chleb, dzieci jadly szynke i 
kielbase z buika,, gospodynie jadty pajczki i placek i pily kawe,. 
7. Dzis zjem obiad o dwunastej [godzinie]. 8. Ojciec powiedzial: 
Dzieci, kto chce chleb jesc, musi bye pilny i pracowity. 
9. Nic me ma piekniejszego, nic szlachetniejszego jak zawsze 
uczyc sig, poniewaz przez to czlowiek staje sie. coraz doskonal- 
szy, i do Boga podobniejszy. 10. Ida,c do rzeznika, znalaztam 
piec fenigow. 

Translation 46. 

1. We do not live (therefore) in the world that we [may] eat 
and drink (aby with cond.), but we eat and drink that we [may] 
live. 2. On (w with ace.) Saturday this peasant will lead (przy- 
prowadzic) oxen and horses to town, he will sell them there. 

3. We shall go to church on Sunday. Shall you go with us? 

4. We eat cakes and drink coffee or chocolate. 5. The baker 
bakes bread, cakes, pancakes and rolls. 6. Did you find the 
Latin books? 7. The butchers from the country (wies) brought 
(przywiezc) their meat to town and sold it there in the but- 
cher's stall. 8. The robbers steal and rob. 9. The poor man 
would not steal if he had something to eat. 10. My brother 
took (zaniesc) the letter to the post-office. 11. My sister bore 
the hat to the milliner('s). 12. We have Ten Commandments, 
which God gave men (dat.). 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Gilzie kladziesz papier? Klade, go zwykle na stol. 

Kto oie kradnieV Czlowiek uezcivvy nie kradzie. 

Imperfective, Perfective and Iterative Verbs. 79 

Kiedy pojdziesz do kosciola? Pojde. o godzinie dwunastej. 

Gdzie twoj brat? Brat jest na wsi. 

Czy niechcesz jesd i pic? Owszem, dice mi sie. pic i jesc. 

Czy mozna bye szcze_sliwy bez Nie, bo bez pracy zycie jest 

p»racy? nudne (tedious). 

Tweuty-fourili Lesson. 

Imperfective, Perfective and IterativeVerbs. 

Most of the simple verbs are imperfective (see 
Lessons 16th and 19th) and express an action which 
is not going to finish or which still is lasting, while 
another action begins : pisafem list, gdy ojeiee wszedi do 
pokoja I was writing a letter when my father entered 
the room. 

A verb, preceded by a preposition expresses a 
completed action and is called perfective. It often 
changes its signification according to the preposition: 
tv przeciagu picciu minut przcpisalem na czysto in five 
minutes I had done writing a fair copy. 

There are some simple verbs which have a perfec- 
tive sense: 

Imperfective Perfective 

brae to take n-ziqc to take 

siadac to sit down siqsc to sit down 

dawac to give dad to give 

chwytad to catch, to seize chwycic to catch, to seize 

padad to fall past to tail 

puszczad to let loose puscid to let loose 

ruszad to. stir, to move ruszyd to stir, to move 

mnwic to speak, to say, to tell rzec to speak, to say, to tell 

wraead to return wrdcid to return 

stauac sir to become, to get stac sie to become, to get 

krzyczed to cry krzyhnqd to cry out, to scream. 

A great many verbs ending in nqd are also per- 

The iterative verbs often resemble the imperfective 
verbs so that it is often questionable to which group they 
belong. In general the iterative verb ia formed by 
strengthening the radical vowel or by adding the ter- 
mination atoad, ywad and otm,': mowid to speak, mauriad 
to speak repeatedly; pisad to write, pisywad to have the 
habit of writing; je$d to eat, jadad to be used to eat &c. 


i'4th Lesson. 

spac to sleep 
tnrzed to die 
ruled to grind 

Some irregular verbs. 

drzed to tear 
klud to sting. 

They are conjugated in the following way: 


1. spig 
t. spisz 

1. mrg 

2. mrzesz 

1. wezme (fut.) 

2. wezmiesz 

1. miele, 

2. mielesz 

1. drg 

2. drzesz 

1. fcoZg, fc£w/e 

2. koleszj klujesz 





kol and Hw/ 



marl em 




m ell em 






Some verbs ending in w#c have a double form. There 
is an abbreviated infinitive in the verbs: biedz (biec) to 
run; Jcrasc to steal, pas'c to fall. Double forms are to be 
found in the verbs: grzqzd and grzeznqd to sink (down); 
ledz (lee), legnqc to sink down; rosd, rosnqc to grow and 
rzee, rzeknqd to say, to speak. To the shortened infi- 
nitive the past tense always corresponds: biegtem, 
padiem &c, whereas the present is conjugated: biegne, 
padne (fut.), rosne, Jcradne (imper. biegnij &c). 



the inn 




the money 


yet, still 

dzien pow- 

the week-day 


to set a task 



the chorus 


the dress 


the cousin 


the rest 


the meadow 


the butterfly 


the newspaper 




the opera 


the sum 




at once 



the bed 


to fall 


the Spartan 

wyspac siq 

to sleep enough 


free, slow 


to assume the 


the exercise 



the comedy 


to sleep 




to thank 


rapid, swift 




of to-day 


the daily news 

na pamiyd 

by heart 



Imperfectire, Perfective and Iterative Verbs. 81 

Exercise 47. 

Is Dzis w dzien powszedni biore stare ubranie, jutro w 
niedziele wezme nowe. 2. Go tydzieri brales ode mnie po (ever) 
dziesiec marek, ostatniej niedzieli wziaj:es reszte. 3. Chlopcy 
chwytali motyle na iaee, ale zadnego nie schwycili. 4. Nie dam 
ci catej sumy odrazu, lecz bede ci dawai co miesi^c po 
100 marek. 5. Uczen movvil : uczylem sie na pamiec i pisaiem 
dwie godziny; na to rzekt nauczyciel: a jednak nie nauczyles 
sie i nie napisales, co zadalem. Gzy warn dotad zadavvalem 
za duzo? — Uczniowie odpowiedzieli chorem: Nie, panie nauczy- 
cielu. 6. ktorej godzinie jadasz obiad? Zwykle o pierwszej, 
dzis zjem o drugiej u mego kuzyna. 7. Bedq,c w Paryzu, 
bywalismy co dzien w teatrze, ale ani (not) razu nie bylismy 
w Wielkiej Operze. Go dzien czytywaiismy gazety, ale nie 
czytalismy zadnej gazety prowincjonalnej. 8. W bitwie pod 
Termopilami polegli wszyscy Spartanie. 0. Moja siostra rosla 
dawniej bardzo wolno, teraz rosnie szybciej niz ja. 10. Dla 
czego jestes spiaey? — Nie wyspalem si§ dzisiejszej nocy, bo 
spulem tylko szesc godzin, a zwykle sypiam osm godzin. 

Translation 48. 

1. How did you sleep last (dzisiejszy) night, sir? — Thank 
you, very well. I had a fine bed in a large room at the garden- 
side (side of the garden). Everything in the house was quiet, 
and I slept enough. That was very necessary to me, for my 
journey from Warsaw to Paris had been very long and tire- 
some. 2. 1 wrote (perf.) only this article for this newspaper; 
but my friend often writes [iter.] for it and other newspapers. 
3. In the newspaper of to-day I read that my cousin sang in 
this opera. 4. I often heard Count Radziwill speaking in Ber- 
lin. 5. Beside a provincial newspaper I am accustomed to 
read [iter.] a Berlin newspaper every day. Formerly I also 
read the Dziennik Berlinski, and perhaps I shall scon read it 
again (znow). G. My father always gave [iter.] me some 
money when I went to the theatre. 7. Last night (= yester- 
day in the evening [instr.]) this lord and this lady slept in the 
castle of Bogalin (rogaliriski), a country-seat of Count Raczyriski 
near Posen, to-day they will sleep in Ihe Roman Hotel at Posen, 
and to-morrow they will perhaps sleep in the Saxon Hotel at 

Hlementary Polish Grammar. '• 

82 24th Lesson, 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. . 

Czy widziales jezioro Boderiskie Nie, bo nigdy nie byleni \v Szwaj- 

(Ihe Lake of Constance)? carji. 

Czy dlugo pisai ten uczeri swoje Udawal, ze pisze, lecz nie nie 

cwiczenie? napisal. 

Czy be.dziesz bywal na balach w Watpie (I doubt), gdyz mam za- 

tym karnawale (carnival)? miar ozenic sie. (to marry). 

Co grali wczoraj w tealrze? Grali komedje. Blizinskiego „Stary 

Czy cz^sto bywasz w teatrze? Bardzo rzadko by warn w teatrze r 

gdyz trudno dostac bilety. 
Jaka' kraju przeplywa Warta przeplywa Wielkie Ksie.s- 

Warta? two Poznanskie. 

Czy mlynarz miele zboze (com)? Nie miele, bo juz zmell (has 

done grinding). 
Czy jadasz zupe, na obiad? Jadam, ale dzis nie jadlem. 

Reading exercise. 

Trzebniccy rycerze. 

(The Trebnitzian Knights.) 

Za dawnych czasow przyszli raz pod Trzebnice 1 Tatarzy a 
z ogromnem wojskiem, domagaj^c si§ 3 , aby Polacy przeszli 4 
na ich wiar§. Polacy, choc ich byla tylko bardzo mala garstka 5 r 
nie chcieli na to przystac 6 , ale bili sie. tak doskonale 7 , ze 
chociaz 8 zaledwie 9 jeden z nich byl na dziesieciu Tatarow, 
pobili 10 ich wszystkicb. Ale z Polakow jeden jedyny dowod- 
ca 11 zostal przy zyciu. Swieta Jadwiga 12 , patronka 13 Sla^ska 14 , 
uprosila 13 tedy 16 u Matki Boskiej 17 , ze zranionemu 18 dowod- 
cy wrocila zdrowie, a wszystkim za wiare swietq, poleglym 
smierc na sen zamienila 19 . 

Leza, oni wszyscy w ogromnej jaskini pod Trzebnickim 
kosciolem; spiq, twardo, ale zyja. Sam jeden dowodca nie 
spi: siedza^c na kamieniu, odmawia 20 rozaniec 21 . — 

Dawniejszemi czasy 22 jaskinia ta nie byla bardzo gteboko 

pod ziemiaj, a pewna dziewczyna natrafila 23 raz na wejscie 24 .. 

Weszla, a obaczywszy owych rycerzy, zl^kla si§ 25 ; lecz 

dowodca kazal jej niczego sie. nie bae, ostrzegl 26 tylko, zeby 

wychodzac, nie poruszyla 27 dzwonu u wejscia wisz^cego 28 ,- 

1. Trzebnica Trebnitz near Breslau. 2. the Tartars. 3. to de- 
mand. 4. to turn. 5. a handful (small body). 6. to consent. 7. ex- 
cellently. 8. though. 9. scarcely. 10. to beat. 11. leader. 12. Hed- 
wig. 13. patroness. 14. Silesia. 15. to prevail upon. 16. then. 
17. godly, of Cod. 18. wounded. 19. to change. 20. to say. 21. ro- 
sary. 2:2. the apocopated form of czasami. 23. to come to. 24. en- 
trance {wejM to enter). 25. to be frightened. 26. to warn. 27. to 

touch. 28. to hang. 

The Passive Voice. 83 

Plocha* 8 dziewczyna umyslnie 30 go poruszyln, a na dzwiek 
clzwonu wszyscy wojacy 81 obudzili sie 32 ze sim i standi pod 
bronia,. — 

Dowodca rozgniewany 33 zamkn^l sie/ 4 z wojskiem glg- 
biej w ziemie i odta^l 35 nikt jaskini tej znalezc nie moze. — 

Ale kiedy bedzie wojna o wiare, dowodca 6w sam w 
dzwon uderzy 36 a spia^cy rycerze wstana,, beda; walczyc 37 i 
zwycie^. — 

il ( .). fickle. 30. on purpose. 31. warrior. 32. they awoke. 
33. angry. 34. to shut in oneself. 35. from that time. 36. to heat. 
37. to fil'ht. 

Twenly-fiidi Lesson. 

The passive Voice. 

The passive form of the .past participle is often 
combined with the verbs by6 (jestem, byfem, bywam &c.) 
or zostac, in order to form the passive voice: jestem 
many I am known, bywam nagradsany I am rewarded, 
eostai obrany forolem he was elected king. 

This form of the passive voice is rather seldom 
1. It is usual to convert it into an active form or 
a form of the reflexive verb (with sie): kochajq mnie 
instead of jestem kochany, dzieli sie instead ofbywa dzie- 
lone it was divided; siowa dzielq sir. na pierwiastkowe i 
toochodne the verbs are divided into radical and de- 
rived verbs. 

Instead of the past tense of the passive voice there 
is often used the ancient neuter form of the passive 
past participle (without jest): zrobiono (jest) it has been 
worked (= people worked). 

The conjugation of the passive voice of znad 

>n | jesleimy \ 

'. 1 am known • znane. 

) sq ) 



bytem i In/I ism y i 

hies ' C """' A ""• "'' biliicie ' Znan% > 

byi ' 1 ' was known b,li I : """ 1 - 


25th Lesson. 


b$de znany, -a, -e I 

shall be known 




bqdz znany be known! &c. 






to print 


the pea 

perka, ziemiak 

the potato 

staiy lad 

the continent 


to put aside 


the difficulty 


the food, meal 


to sell 


the pronunciation 


the merchandise 


to measure 




to mix, to mingle 



wymawiajq, si$ 

they are pro- 





the ingredient 


to harvest 


to weigh 



t\e servant, farm- 


the hundred- 




the yard [riage) 


the greatness 


to bring (in a car- 


the beauty 

obrac, obierac to elect ; to choose 


the surface. 

Exercise 49. 

1. Wszystkie towary sprzedano. 2. Dzis przywieziono z 
pola dziesiec wozow grochu, jutro przywioza. owies i jeczmien. 
3. Juz usunieto wsz^lkie trudnosci. 4. Do potraw bierze sie 
przyprawa. 5. Groch miesza sie z kapusta.. 6. Towary mierza. 
sie na lokcie, albo sie, waza. na centnary i kilogramy, albo sie. 
sprzedaja, podlug wielkosci i pieknosci. 7. Ksia-zki pisza, sie, 
potem sig drukuja. a nakoniec sie czytaja,. 8. Pilny jest sza- 
nowany. 9. W Polsce krolow obierano, Stanislaw Poniatowski 
zostal obrany krolem w roku tysiac siedemset szescdziesiajym 
cz warty m (1764). 

Translation 50. 

1. Rye, barley, wiieat and oats were brought (zvviezc) by 
the servants into the barn. 2. The potatoes are harvested in 
autumn. 3. Fruit will be sold in town, when being good and 
fresh (frit.). 4. Peas are sold already in summer. 5. The 
merchandise is brought to the continent. 6. The army of 
the Teutonic Order was beaten by King Jagiello at Grunwald. 

7. Your pronunciation of the Polish words will be praised. 

8. My pronunciation of the English and French words has 
always been praised. 9. The surface of Earth is divided into 
water and continent. 10. All words of the Polish language 
are written as they are pronounced. 

Reflexive Verbs. 



Gdzie ma Wnrta swoje zrodlo? 

Czem utrzymuje sie, zdrowie? 

Czem sie. eialo najlepiej uod- 

pornia (to harden)? 
Przez kogo byly wybijane pierw- 

sze monety? 
Przez kogo zostali pobici dawni 

Sasowie (the .Saxons)? 
Przez kogo zostal obrany krolem 

polskim Stanislaw Poniatowski ? 


Pod Kromolowern (Kromolowo) 

w Krolestwie Polskiem. 
Zdrowie utrzymuje sie umiarko- 

waniem (temperance). 
Najlepiej sie. uodpornia fizycznti 

(corporeal) praca. 
Przez LidyjczykoW (the Lydians). 

Przez Karola Wielkiego. 

Zostal obrany 

przez szlachte. 

Twenlv-sixili Lesson. 

Reflexive Verbs. 

Those verbs the action of which refers to the sub- 
ject of the sentence are called reflexive verbs. In the 
Polish language they are combined, in all persons, with 
sie which follows the verb immediately (in English 
myself &c. — according to the subject): 

bronie, sie I defend myself hronimy sie we defend ourselves 

hronisz sie; thou defendst thyself bronicie si$ you defend yourselves 

broni sie. he defends himself 

wczg sie I instruct myself (= I 

uozysz sie thou instructst thyself 

(thou learnst) 

ehwalid sir to praise oneself 
to rejoice 
kovoc sir to convince one- 
dziwic sie to wonder [self 

smiiic sir. to laugh 

nazywac si$ to be called (or 

obracad sir. to turn 
postac the figure, shape 

mrzymiot quality 

leopyto the hoof 

rog the horn 

ztih the tooth 

powdd the reason, the 

pobyt the stay, abode 

'■in nik tip- adversi 
/>(></< daring 

hroniq sie. they defend themselves 
uczymy sie, we instruct ourselves 

uczycie sie you instruct yourselves. 

rdznid sir 
robid postepff 
podobac sie, 



t a nice 





nt, iiski 
uodpornia d 
star ad > 

ill-bread, naughty 
to differ 
to advance 
to please 
to stay, to sojourn 
the (maid-)pupil 
the sabre 
the lance, the 

the dance 

the Christian 
the occupation 
the utility 
the speaker 
to harden 

to take |>:iii)v 

86 26th Lesson. 

Exercise 51. 

1. Kto sie, sam ehwali, nie bywa chwalony przez innych. 
2. Kori broni sie kopytami, wot rogami a pies zebami. 3. Nie 
smiej sie bez powodu, podczas lekcji smiac sie jest niegrzecznie. 
4. Gieszymy sie bardzo, ze ci si§ twoje zajecie podoba i ze ty 
si§ wszystkim podobasz. 5. Ptaki rozniq, sie pomiedzy soba wiel- 
koscia,, postaciq, i innym przymiotami. 6. Starajeie sie o zdro- 
wie i pieknosc waszej duszy i waszego ciala. 7. Nie ciesz sie 
z upadku swego przeciwnika. 8. Wiele dzikicb narodow ma- 
luje si§ farbami. 9. Obracamy sie w tancu. 10/ Ziemia obraca 
sie. okolo slonca. 

Translation 52. 

1. I can imagine (wyobrazic) how my parents look, though 
I do not see them now. 2. My pupils [fern. J take pains to 
advance in science. 3. We take pains to live virtuously and 
praise God. 4. We wonder that your aunt was in the theatre 
last night (== yesterday evening [instr.]). 5. Mickiewicz, Slo- 
wacki and Krasidski are called the three greatest Polish poets. 

6. These Polish dances, chiefly the Gracoviak, please us much. 

7. Jesus Christ (= Lord Jesus) did not defend himself when 
the soldiers beat him. 8. St. Peter and St. Paul stayed at 
Rome at the time (= za with gen. plur.) of the Emperor Nero 
(Neron). 9. You know that Henryk Sienkiewicz described 
(opisac) St. Peter's stay at Rome in his novel: 'Quo Vadis?' 
(Where do you go?). 10. The Christians did not defend them- 
selves against (pr'aed) the torments; they rejoiced to become 
martyrs (= that they became martyrs). 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Czy uczennica jest pilna? Uczennica uczy sie_ pilnie i robi 

dobre postepy. 
Gzem .polepsza sie_ (one improves) 1', pilnoscia. i uzytecznosci^. 

byt (existence) czlowieka? 
Gdzie przebywaja, zajaee? W lasach i na polach. 

Gzem si'e, bronia, zolnierze? Pataszami i lancami. 

Jak sie. nazyvval najslavvniej-zy Najstawniejszy . movvca atoriski 
mowca aleriski? nazywai sie. Demostenes. 

Impersonal Verbs. 87 

Twenty-sevenlh Lesson. 

Impersonal Verbs. 

Some verbs are only used in the third person of 
the singular, partly with sie, partly without it. 

1. Without sie: 

przystoi it is proper, correct (= I ought); przystato 

it was proper; przystaioby it would be proper 
grzmi it thunders; grzmiato, sagrzmiaio it thundered: 

grzmiafoby it would thunder; zagrzmi, bedzie 

grzmiato it will thunder 
<hiiejc it dawns; dniato it dawned 
marznie it freezes; marzto it froze; zamarznie, bedzie 

marzto (marenqd) it will freeze. 

2. With sie: 

powodzi mi sie, powodzito mi sie, poiviodto mi sie 

I succeed, &c. 
chce mi sir, I like, chciato mi sie I liked 
godzi sie it is allowed; godzito sie it was allowed 
sni mi sie (with dat.) 1 dream; hiito mi sie I dreamt 
udaje mi sie I succeed; udalo mi sie I succeeded 
zdaje sie it seems; zdaivato sie it seemed 
zdarza sie it happens; zdarzaio sie it happened 
tyczy sie it concerns; tyezi/to sie it concerned. 

o. The three obsolete infinitives siychac', widad and 
czar, combined with jest or without it, are used in the 
sense of: one hears, one sees, it smells. 















<// :rsz;/< : 

to SI 1 1 

Hie reign, 






Exercise 53. 
1. Mtodziericom przystoi skromnosc. 2. Grzmiato przeszlej 
iiocy. grzmi i Myska sie, jeszcze. '■*>. Mojemu bratu Snilo sie 
wczoraj <> Iwach. L. Nie tyczylo si$ mego brata, ale tyczylo sir 

i przyjaciela. 5. Nie godzi sie grzeszyc. <>. Im chciato 
tariczyc i skakac, a nie pracowac. 7. Mojej siostrze §nilo sifj 

88 28th Lesson. 

o pieknych sukniach. 8. Wszystkim sie zdawalo, ze Wojski 
(a family name) wciajZ (perpetually) gra jeszcze, a to echo 
(echo) gralo. 9. Zdarzylo mi sie wczoraj, ze widzialem aeroplan 
(aeroplane) i balon sterowy (steerable balloon) w powietrzu. 
10. To sie, w Berlinie i w Paryzu teraz cz^sto zdarza. 

Translation 54. 

1. It is proper for children to behave themselves (zacho- 
wac sie/) quietly when their parents are speaking. 2. It would 
finally be correct for you to keep your word. 3. The govern- 
ment succeeded in conquering its enemies. 4. I dreamt last night 
(yesterday evening) that our house was burnt down. 5. Do 
you like to go to the theatre to-day or to-morrow? 6. People 
were not permitted (= it was not permitted) to see (obejrzec) 
the castle [gen.] of the king. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Czy grzmiato wczoraj ? Zdaje sie., ze nie. 

Czy panowanie tego krola bylo ile (as far as) mi sie. zdaje: tak. 

Czy cze.sto sni ci sie. o tem, co Sni mi sie. cze_sto nawet o nie- 

czytales? bywalych (not existing) rze- 

Jak warn sie^ w drodze powo- Dobrze, tylko deszcz cz^sto padah 

dzilo ? 
Czy strzelcowi sie. povviodlo za- Nie, nie povviodlo mu sie.. 

hie ezika? 

Tweoty-eiglitli Lesson. 


The conjunctions are words without any declension 
which combine the sentences together. They are di- 
vided into different groups: 

a) Combining conjunctions: 

i, a and tez, takze also, too 

nie tylko — ale not only tudziez likewise. 
— but also 

b) Explaining conjunctions: 

jaJco to, to jest, i to that is czesciq — czesciq partly — 

yli or partly 

mianowicie namely juz to — juz to, to — to 

swiaszcza chiefly sometimes — sometimes. 


c) Excluding conjunctions: 

albo — albo either — or a, ale, lec£, za4 but, however 

czy — czy whether — or uriec, przeto therefore. 

d) Adversative conjunctions: 

jednaJc nevertheless ani — dm. neither — noiv 

e) Temporal conjunctions: 

oraz at the same time, at dalej further 
once znoieu, znow again 

potem thereon. 

f) Concessive conjunctions : 

aczJcoJwiek, chociaz, jakkohviek although, though. 

g) Conditional conjunctions: 

jetili, jezeli, gdyhy if, when chociazby even if it should 
chyba ze it would he that be that. 

h) Causal conjunctions: 

bo, boivicm, albowiem for gdy*, poniewaz because. 
ze, iz that as 1 . 

i) Temporal conjunctions: 

hiedy (corresponding to gdy, jak as, when 

ictedy then in the super- jak tylko, skoro as soon as 
ordinate sentence) when leduic ze scarcely when, 
k) Interrogative conjunctions: 
wszak, ivszakze is it not (isn't it)? indeed. 
1) Comparative conjunctions: 

teem — tern, im — tern niz, anizeli than 
the — the jak — tak as — as. 



the beaver, 


nora - 

the hole 


by families 


the diver 


by pairs 







unfit, awkward 


tbe glory 

pi if irak 

the swimmer 

: //// 



by huiiilr< 

1 Poniewai is to be used as the fir>t word of a now sentence, 
whereas the other conjunctions musl !»>' placed at the beginning 
the concluding sentence; botciem is to follow a word or a group of 
words: Poniewai znu&ony, nit wyjd$ t domu as 1 am tired, 

I do not. yo out. Znuzony jettem, hm' mogietn bowiem spa6 I am 
tired, for I could not sleep. 


28th I 



Die saw 


the (little) skin 


the desire, 



personal e 



the property 




to repose oneself 


situated on 



to seek 


zblizac siq 

to approach 


to esteem, to 
lue, respect 



the stock, 

dzien zimoivy 

a winter- day 


the bark 


to allure 


the bud 

polow ryb 

fishing, fisher 



the catch 

rozpraszac sie 

to be dispersed 




the collar 

pora roku 

Ihe season 


the fur 


the gait. 

Exercise 55. 

1. Bobry zyja rodzinami w Ameryce Polnocnej. 2. Prze- 
bywaja, glownie nad rzekami i jeziorami. 3. Kazdy z nich 
jest wybornym budowniczym, zrecznym plywakiem i nurkiem. 
4. Chod jego jest niezgrabny. 5. Stami zyja, nad jeziorami 
Kanady, w cichych lasach i daleko od mieszkari ludzkich. 
6. W Rosji rowniez znajduja sie. bobry; zyja tylko parami w 
norach nadbrzeznycb, szczegolnie na Wolyniu. 7. Ostrych 
zebow uzywaja zamiast pily i noza. 8. Skorka bobra jest 
bardzo clroga, bogaci panowie uzywaja tych skorek na kotnierze 
n futer. 

Translation 56. 

1. As soon as autumn approaches, beavers gather pro- 
visions. Every family has its personal property, and every 
[property] is respected. In winter [instr. without any prep.] 
however, beavers repose themselves from (po) [their] work. 
A serene winter-day allures them into the open air (na dwor), 
they seek fresh bark and buds and divert themselves in catching 
fish. In (= with) spring they disperse themselves again into 
(po) the woods, only the young ones and their mothers stay 
at home. — 2. People hear the thunder of cannon, it smells 
of powder [instr.]. 

Czy widziales bobra? 
Czy czytales cos o Bolesrawie 

■Gdzie sie. kapiesz latem V 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 


Widziaiem, ale wypchanego. 
Owszem czytatem, gdyz slawa 

jego jest wielka. 
Kapie. sie, najchetniej w jeziorze, 

ale czesto i w stawie. 

Short Syntax. 9] 

<j»dzie lubisz sp^dzac" lato? Na wsl \v domu mepro wuja. 

He sztuk zwierzyny zabiles w tej Okolo 100 sztuk rozmaitej zwie- 
porze roku? rzyny. 

Tweuly-uiulli Lesson. 

Short Syntax. 

A sentence is an idea expressed by words: Jcsiqzka 
jest uiytcczna the book is useful. 

In every sentence there are two parts to be distin- 

a) The subject or that person or thing which is 
spoken of. 

b) The predicate or what is said of that person 
or thing. 

Single words as Icon, uzytcczny are no sentence; 
they form a sentence only by their referring to each 

This combination of the subject and the predicate 
is effected by the auxiliary verb b\j6 (to be): ojeiee jest 
dobry the father is good, or by the verb of the predi- 
cate itself: ojeice pisze the father writes. 

The subject and the predicate are the chief original 
parts of a sentence, whereas all other parts of it refer 
to them: mqj hochany ojeiee przytoioet mi z Wa/rseawy 
zajmujqcq JcsiqZJce my beloved father brought me an 
interesting book from Warsaw. 

A sentence, expressing a complete idea without 
the help of another sentence is called principal sen- 
tence (zdanie gtowne). 

A sentence which only serves as the supplement 
of another one, is called subordinate proposition (zdanie 
poboczue): nie tnoge dzti przyjM, poniewat jestem ehqry 
I cannot come to-day, because I am ill. 

The subject is generally a substantive (raeczownik) : 

n gra the pupil plays; or sometimes an adjective 

(przymiotnik) : shqpy utyskuje zawsze the avaricious (man) 

always complains; or another word (an infinitive &c.), 

1 as a substantive: lepiej siucJtac, obeying 

is better than suffering. 

!> L 2 

39th Lesson. 

The subject answering to the questions: who?' 
what? Ido? co? is always used in the nominative. 

The noun of the predicate, when consisting of a 
substantive, stands in the nominative or, generally,, the 
instrumental: jestem nauczycielem I am a teacher; when 
consisting of an adjective, it stands in the nominative. 
Adjectives may also stand in the instrumental, when 
used as a substantive or when combined with a sub- 
stantive 1 : okazat sie surotvym he proved himself to be 
a severe (master). 



the astronomer 


to be missing 


acerb, acid 



z marly 







to err 


the state 


the temple 







jednej mysli 

of one mind 


the locksmith 







Exercise 57. 

1. Kopernik byl slawnym astronomem. 2. Wino wytrawne 
jest zdrowsze niz slodkie. 3. Gzlowiek smiertelny ma dusze; 
niesmiertelnaj. 4. Bog jest wszechmocny. 5. Delficka swiatynia 
byla slawna. 6. JVIoj zmarly brat byl dobrym cztowiekiem. 
7. Ten slusarz jest pilnym rzemieslnikiem. 8. Sasiedzkie pari- 
stwa powinny zyc w zgodzie. 9. Krol Stefan Batory nie umial 
po polsku. 10. Poznaj siebie samego-byto wyryte na swiatyni 
delfickiej. 11. Gluchy cze^sto bla/Izi. 12. Blaxlzie moze kazdy 
czlowiek, ale w bledzie trwa tyiko uparty, a czasem i pycha 
(pride) nie pozwala przyznac sie (to avow) do ble^du. 

Translation 58. 

1. The ancient Greeks were brave. 2. Russia and Ger- 
many were neighbouring countries. 3. This child resembles (jest 
podobne do with the gen.) my sister. 4. Earth is globular.. 
5. Mickiewicz is the greatest poet of Poland. 6. Good health 
is a treasure. 7. Locksmiths are useful artisans. 8. He learns- 
| the] Polish [language] with difficulty (trudnosc). 9. We are of 
one mind. 1U. My brother is a peasant, my cousins are teachers. 

1 See Lesson 30 th. 

The Predicate. 




£zy tamci rzemieslnicy sa do- 

brzy ? 
£<lzie sie. urodzil Kopernik? 
Czy znasz sie na muzyce? 

-Czy ten kowal jest pilny? 
Jakie wino jest zdrowsze, stod- 

kie czy wytrawner" 
Kto by! twoim pierwszym nau- 




Nie ze wszystkiem, duzo im jesz- 

cze brakuje. 
Kopernik urodzit sie w Toruniu. 
Uczq sie. jej dopiero na stare 

Nigdy nie byl i nie bedzie. 
Wytrawne wino jest zawsze 

Moim pierwszym nauczycielem 

byl nauczvciel elementarnv. 

Thirtieth Lesson. 

The Predicate. 

The most natural case oi' the predicate in all 
languages is the nominative. Those verbs, however, 
which express the idea of being or becoming govern 
the instrumental in the Polish language: moj ojciee jest 
oficerem, a siostra nauczycicllcq my father is an officer, 
-and my sister a teacher. 

The instrumental, therefore, stands after the fol- 
lowing verbs: sta6 sie, zostac to become; pokazad, .oka 
sie to show oneself; urodstid sie to be born; umrsed to 
die; zdawae, icydaiuac sie to seem; nazywad sie to be 

There is but one exception: proper nouns stand 
in the nominative after nazyivac sie. 

The verbs by6, stad si{\ zostac govern the instru- 
mental of the adjective, when used in the infinitive: 
byd dobrym (but: jestem dofrry). 

A substantive, when used as the noun of a pre- 
dicate, stands in the nominative when forming a scien- 
tific definition: Icon jest zwierzt ssqce the horse i> a 
mammiferous animal. 




the councillor 
the beggar 
the cripple 
the member 

ivierszohletu the verse-maker 


till St ni;/ 


the consul 
the dwarf 
the favour, grace 
the lieutenant 
the captain 


30th Lesson. 


oglosic sie 

the chance, 

to proclaim 
a short time, ago 
honest, good 

odivazyc nie 

endless, infinite 
to dare 

Exercise 59. 

1. Moj brat zostal niedawno ksiedzem. 2. Slowo stalo sie; 
cialem. 3. Wyjechal bogaczem, powrocil zebrakiem. 4. Ten 
kiol nazywal sie Wladystaw Lokietek. 5. Ten pan nie jest 
poeU}, lecz rriizernym wierszokletq,. 6. Moj stryj byl radca,, a 
przedtem byl nauczycielem. 7. (Ma nazywajq, krolem ptakow. 
8. Bonaparte oglosil sie, konsulem. 9. Nie chc§ bye zlym 
czlowiekiem, wol§ bye ubogim, a poczciwym. 10. Ten czlowiek 
bedzie pozytecznym czlonkiem ludzkiego spoleczeristwa. Wol§ 
bye biednym niz kalekq,. 11. Boleslaw Chrobry byl stawnym 
krolem polskim. 12. Posa^gi Boleslawa Chrobrego i ojca jego 

Mieczyslawa znajduja; si§ w tumie poznariskim. 


Translation 60. 

1. The art of writing is not easy and nevertheless very 
old. 2. The favour of the great [ones] is inconstant as the 
autumnal weather. 3. The love of God is endless. 4. This 
fncautious man became the victim (ofiara) of an accident. 
5. This lieutenant became a captain. 6. Nobody becomes rich 
and happy without work and industry. 7. Not every man who 
says: Lord! will be blessed. 8. The cruel Nero(n) was 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 


Kto jest zawsze wesoly i za- 

Ktory z tych panow jest twoim 

Kto sie. odwazylby nazwac dos- 


Gdzies byl dnia wczorajszego ? 
Jakie mamy zmysly (senses) V 

Pilny i pracowity czlowiek jest 

po wie_kszej cze.sci wesoly i 

Pan stojajcy obok mnie jest mo- 

im nauczycielem. 
Zarozumialy (self-conceited) czlo- 

wiek nazywa sie. zwykle dos- 

Wyjechalem na wies i bavvilem 

sie, wesolo. 
Mamy wzrok, sluch, smak, po- 

wonienie, dotykanie. 

The Predicate. <)o 

Thirty-first Lesson. 


The predicate of a sentence, being a verb, must 
correspond to the subject as to the person and the 
number and, in the past tense, also as to the gender. 

a) The personal pronouns are not in use, being 
expressed by the termination of the verb; with the only 
exception, when a contrast is to be shown: pisz$ I write; 
ja pracujp, a ty spisz I work, and you sleep. 

b) When two different pronouns form the subject, 
the pronoun of the first person is to be preferred to 
that of the second one, and the pronoun of the second 
person to that of the third one: ja i ty jestesmy poczciuri 
I and you are honest. 


macocha the stepmother ksiesfico the prince and Jiis 

zo.stac to remain wife 

dzitrwczQ the maid, girl i zaprotic to invite 

ir !/;/>'(( c to win nielitosciwy merciless 

Icidcic to quarrel przykiadad sip to apply to 

nnjmowac to hire do czego 

poiegnanie the leave, fare- rbzrzutny prodigal 

well urznhiih the functionary 

obek the servant, farm- potcazad to esteem 

labourer dziewka Hie maid-servanl 

iiroczi/*te sit rielo the holiday niezadowolony discontented 

wujostioo uncle and aunt przecitcny opposed. 

Exercise 61. 
1. Ojciec idzie do kosciota, a siostry byly juz w kosciele.. 
L 2. BraJ pisze, a siostry pisaly. 3. Kosciol swiety jest matka, 
a me macocha. 4. Ja szedlem na spacer, a ona szla do 
ogrodu. 5. Ja id§ do szkcly, a ty idziesz do ki ><-iola. 6. My 
bylismy dzis weseli, a \\y byliscie smutni i niezadowoleni 

7. Ja i on jestesmy rozrzutni; ty i siostra byliscie oszczedni 

8. Maz i zona byli temu przeciwni. 9. Maz i ion a sq smutni, 
rjawniej byli nadto weseli i bawili sie jak najlepiej (in the best 
way). 10. To dziewcze, kloci sie cz^sto. 11. Tamten parobek 
jest nielitosciwy. 12.. Ojciec i matka wyjecbali bez poiegnania. 

13. Na poiegnanie wyzszego urzednika zostali zaproszeni liczni 
mieszkaAcj miasta i okolicy. I ». Wszyscy chatnie przybyli, bo 
ten urze/lnik by! ogdinie powaiany. 

'M 32nd Lesson. 

Translation 62. 

1. I go to school, and you go to church. 2. (It was) 
you [that] won this time, not I, nor my brother. 3. We sewed, 
and you sang. 4. You took a walk; I remained at home and 
was obliged to work. 5. You wrote, and they read. 6. The 
man-servant and the maid-servant would be merry and content 
jf they had bread and money. 7. My father and my mother 
would have written to us, if they knew, that we are in distress. 
8. The teacher and the female-teacher instructed the good and 
industrious children. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

*Czy dzieci pojda, do szkoly? Nie, nie po.jda^ bo dzis jest uro- 

czyste swiejto. 
Czy brat i siostra byli pilni? Oboje byli pilni i przykladali sie. 

chetnie do nauk. 
<€zy wujostwo odwiedzili was? Nie, jutro b§d^ u nas, gdyz za- 

powiedzieli (to announce) wi- 

zyte, (visit). 
«Czy ksie_stwo byli na balu? Byli i bawili sie. doskonale. 

Thirty-second Lesson. 

The Concordance of the Predicate 

and the Subject 

as to the Number and Gender. 

When a sentence has more than one subject, there 
•is a difference between the denominations of persons 
.and those of animals and inanimate objects. Persons 
of masculine or feminine gender, as well as collective 
nouns, when combined together, take the masculine 
form of the verb or the adjective : ojciec i maika od- 
jechali my father and my mother went away ; Jcsieshvo 
byli na balu the prince and the princess were at ball. 

When a sentence has some subjects denominating 
animals and inanimate objects, the verb or the adjective 
of the predicate take the form of the neuter gender 
,(plur.) unless the predicate corresponds to the nearest 

The adjective may follow or precede the substan 
tive: ivy sold dom and dom ivy sold. 

The Concordance of the Predicate and the Subject. 


Two words forming a fixed notion, cannot alter 
their position: Zielone Siciqtki Whitsuntide, Wielkie 
Ksiestwo Poznanskie grand-duchy of Posen. 

As to the position of the different parts of a sen- 
tence, there are no fixed rules in the Polish language. 

In the past and the second future the verb always 
corresponds to the subject as to the gender: brat pisaf 
the brother wrote; siostra grata the sister played. 



stajn ia 


zatvalic sie 



zepsu c 




rye zed 



wished for 
the stable (for 

the stable (for 

the vault, store 
to fall down 
the rivulet 
to be spoiled 
the cupboard 
to watch 
to roar 
the mule 






scinac, sciqc 






spoznic sie 

the pine-tree 

(pinus silvestris) 
the pine-tree 

(picea vulgaris) 
the fir-tree 

(abies picea) 

the cradle 

to cut off 
the camel 
to catch 
to be late. 

Exercise 63. 

1 . Owce, krowy, konie sa, dla ludzi bardzo pozyteczne ; 
nauka, zdrowie i rozum pozadane. 2. Sklepienie kosciola za- 
walilo si§. 3. W moim ogrodzie scieto jodle, Swierk i kilka 
sosen. 4. Do nauki koniecznie potrzebna jest ksia^ka, pioro 
i papier. 5. Uczniovvie uczyli sie w szkole, a potem poszli do 
domu. G. Nie wszyscy uczoiowie pracowali, niektdrzy proz- 
nowali, niektorzy sie bawili. 7. Wielblady i mu!y bywaja, 
uzywane do ci^zkiej pracy. 8. Zrebig jest w stajni, ciele w 
oborze. 9. Koiyska jest dla dziecka niezbedna. 10. Chlopcy 
chwytali w strumyku ryby i raki, ryb nie ztowili, ale kilka 
rakow przyniesli do domu, a matka je ugotowaia. 

Translation 64. 

1. The beautiful Wanda will play and dance. 2. We 
should be able to dance instantly it we had music. 3, The 
child would be more quiet, if it was healthier. I. Cov 
sheep give much milk. 5. The sola, the cupboard, tl 
Elementary Poliib Grammar. 


33rd Lesson. 

are movable. 6. The fork, the knife and the spoon are indis- 
pensable (to us). 7. These oxen are already old and will be 
sold. 8. The merchant departed for Moscow yesterday ; his 
wife went with him. 9. The Prussian soldiers beat the army 
of the Austrians at Sadowa (1866). 10. The fir-trees, the 
pines and the wood-pines are coniferous trees (drzewa iglaste). 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 


Siostry, czy bylyscie dzis w 

szkole ? 
Czy bejdziemy grali? 

Czy wszyscy uczniowe pracowali? 

Jak dluso zostanie ojciec w Mos- 

Czy bejdziecie dzis na koncercie? 

Ilu mieszkaricow ma Wielk'e 
Ksi^stwo Poznanskie? 

Bylysmy, alesmy sie_ spoznily. 

Moglibysmy zaraz zagrac, lecz 
niema instrumentow. 

Nie, niektorzy proznowali, a nie- 
ktorzy sie^ bawili. 

Zostanie przez cale swie.ta Wiel- 
kiejnocy (Easter). 

Be_dzieruy, jezeli nam dasz pie- 

Wielkie Ksiestwo Poznanskie ma 
przeszlo dwa miljony mie- 

Thirty-third Lesson. 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. 

All verbs are divided into transitive verbs, whicb 
govern the accusative, and intransitive ones, which can- 
not be followed by an accusative, forming the object: 
Jcochaj rodzicoiv love (your) parents! ludzie chodzq men 

Words. * 


the metre 




the court 


to ripen 


to creep 




the dictionary 


the crane (the bird) 


to cackle 


to sit down 


to chatter 

odleciec, odla- 

to go, to fly away 


to go, walk 

t lH vac 


fast, rapidly 


the shrub 

jezdzic konno 

to go on horse- 


the magpie 




czu oronozny 



the ice. 

Exercise 65. 

1. Kury i kaczki chodzq- po podworzu, ludzie chodzq po 
cie, ryby plywajq, w wodzie, a robaki pelzajq, po ziemi. 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. 99 

2. Slowiki spiewaja w krzakach i na wysokich drzewacb. 3. Dnia 
12 go kwietnia roku 1903-go spadly w Niemczech i \v Wielkiem 
Ksiestwie Poznanskiem wielkie sniegi, a kclo Kalisza poc ; agi 
utkneiy (to stick fast) w sniegu, ktory byl wysoki na trzy 
metry. 4. Siowniki Jeza na stole. 5. Bylem niedawno w War- 
szawie, ale niedlugo tam zabawilem. (i. Powinienes uwazac, co 
nauczyciele mowia. 7. Kara gdacze, ges gega. 8. W lipcu 
dojrzewaja zboza, jak zyto, pszenica i jeczmhri. 9. Bydlo, konie 
i owee naleza do zwierzat czworonoznycb, gesi i kury do ptakow. 

Translation 66. 

1. In winter [instr. without prep. J everything has become 
stiff; everywhere [there is] snow and ice; the ice is very hard. 
2. In spring nightingales sing in the woods. 3. Man walks 
on two feet, the quadrupedal animals on four, and birds on 
two. 4. The funny monkey sits on the bear. 5. Animals 
live either on earth or in water or in the air. 6. Not eveiy 
bird can fly (latac), but every fish can swim. 7. One swallow 
dues not bring (zwiastuje) [us] spring. 8. The soldiers go on 
horseback, the peasants drive in carnages. ( .). Fruit are ripening 
in summer and in autumn. 10. When it gets colder with us. 
cranes go into warmer countries. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Jak sie zowia zmysly? Wzrok, sluch, czucie, smak i 


Ktore ptaki zostaja u nas na AYroble, wrony i sroki. 

zime/r 1 

Ktore natomiast (on the contrary) Slowiki, dzikie kaczki, ^esi, bo- 

opnszczajq nas na jesieii i ciany i zorawie. 
wracajq na wiosn$¥ 

Gdzies byl dnia wczorajszego? Wyjechalem na wits do mego 

przyjaciela na polowaoie. 

'idzie jest slownikV Lezy na -tole. 

Przez kogo slownik polsko-nie- Przez Lukaszewskiego i Mds- 

miecki zostal ulozonyV bacha. 

Thirty-fourth Lesson. 


Transitive verbB, connected with the negative word 
do not govern the accusative, but the genitive. 
in a negative sentence the conjunction and is al« 
• '1 by ani: mog$ powiedeied pi 


34th Lesson. 

moge poiviedziec praivdy; snam brata i siostrg; .nie znam 
bruta ani siostrij. 

The negative word nie always precedes the verb. 

The pronoun nie, when connected with me, is never 
changed into the genitive: nie nie dat he gave nothing. 














to create 
the creator 
to bid farewell 
to release 
1he Saviour 

to trust, to con- 
to subdue 
to destroy 
to discover 
to dig out 

dorobic si$ 

jaki ? 


irystaiviac na 





the poison 

to compose 

to acquire, to get 

the circum- 

what? (e.g. what 
man ?) 

the jewels 

to expose (to) 

the claw 

equally (adv.) 

the opera 


Exercise 67. 

1. Pisuje^ co dwa tygodnie list do rodzicow. Zwykle mam 
w niedziele czas, aby list napisac, ale wczoraj nie napisalem 
ani potowy Jistu, bo nie mialem czasu go dokonczyc. 2. Nie ma 
ani prawej ani lewej reki. 3. Nie widzialem dzikich zwierzat. 

4. Nie kupilem greckiej ksiaiki, lecz kupilem cztery angielskie. 

5. Szewc nie zrobil butow, ani trzewikow. 6. Nie wszystkie 
zwierzeta maja ostre pazury i zeby. 7. Pan Bog stworzyl 
pierwszych ludzi na swiecie: Adama i Ewe,. 8. Chrystus zbawil 
rodzaj ludzki i dlatego nazywamy go Zbawicielem. 9. Sokrates 
wypil truciznej, a potem nauczal (to teach) jeszcze sw r oich ucz- 
niow, nakoniec pozegnal wszystkich. 10. Nie ufaj pochlebcom, 
ale ufaj staremu doswiadczonemu przyjacielowi. 11. Stworca 
jest wszechmocny. 12. W polskim teatrze grano dzis slawna^ 
opere narodowa. Stanisiawa Moniuskiego, pod titulem (title) 
Halka. Widzialem ja juz w teatrze warszawskim. 

Translation 68. 

1. This author composed no useful book. 2. My brother 
wrote no long letter. 3. The maid-servant did not finish her 
work. 4. The severe teachers punish the idle and disobedient 
children. 5. He got no jewels, but he always was a brave 
man. 6. Not (-very pupil loves his teacher and his benefactors. 
7. Here I knew no functionary, but I knew some merchants 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. 101 

and artisans. 8. Buy this house! — I should buy it if I had 
money. 9. The peasant dug out much, money in his field. 
10. The teacher believed the good and industrious pupils, but 
he did not believe the lazy ones. 11. A bicyclist who goes 
(pedzic) too fast exposes himself and other men to great perils. 
12. After the battle of Ractawice in which the Russians beat 
Thaddeus Kosciuszko, the Polish nation had no hope of van- 
quishing their enemies. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 
Questions. Answers. 

GJzie widziales zajaca, orla i Widzialem je w polu. 

kuropatwe ? 
Kiedy odkryt Kolumb Ameryke? Kolumb odkryl Ameryke. w 

pietnastym wieku. 
Kogo kochasz bardziej, ojca czy Kocham zarowno niatke. jak i 

matke V ojca. 

Jakim sposobem dorobil sie tarn- Dorobil sie. majatku praca^, osz- 

tem rzernieslnik majatku V czednoscia i ogl^dnoscia. 

Kto zgubil wczoraj pieniadzeV Mowia, ze Dasz sasiad z^ubil 

okolo cztery rubli. 
Czy ten szewc robi dobre butyV Nie zawsze, czasem daje slaba 

'Czy ufa kto (anybody) falszy- Takiemu nikt nie ufa. 
wemu przyjacielowi? 

Thirty-fifth Lesson. 


In the Polish language, all verbs may be connected, 
not only with nie, but also with a second and even 
with a third or fourth negation, without changing the 
negative sense' of the sentence: nie nigdy i nigdeie nie 
widziai he never saw anything anywhere. 

The verb byd to be, when connected with nie, may 
be used in the impersonal form in the past tense. In 
the present tense it is often substituted by mied: niema 
tu ntkogo there is nobody here, nie byfo tu nikogo, nikt 
tu nie byt there was nobody here. 

The pronoun no is often to be translated by i 
niema ksiazki he has no book. 



farmark the fair nagroda, the reward 

ohir, to promise z<n>ltit<( 

<<h\y orderly, regulai oetry, surowy severe 

102 35th Lesson. 

itqdac to demand 

przemj/si the trade 

niemozUwij impossible 

sierota the orphan 

zbyt, zanadto too, too much 
pojutrze the day after to- 

ivychodzic to go out. 

Exercise 69. 

1. Ten czlowiek robi wiele, ale nigdy nic^nie zrobi, nigdy 
nic nie skoriczy. 2. Leniwy czlowiek nic nie pisze, nic nie 
czyta i dlatego nic nie umie. 3. Nigdy nic nie mial i nigdy 
nic nie dal. 4. Kto nigdy nie wychodzi, nigdzie nie bywa, ten 
tez nic nie wie. 5, Nie moze dac ubogiemu, kto nic niema. 
6. Ten kupiec nic na jarmarku nie sprzedal. 7. Oni ani glowa, 
ani rekoma nie pracuja.. 8. Nie ufajmy zbyt ludziom. 9. 2adamy 
obiecanej zaplaty. 10. Zaden kraj niema wi^kszych miast i 
wiecej fabryk niz Anglja, ale i w Niemczech kwitnie przemysl 

Translation 70. 

1. He brought nothing, had nothing, saw nothing, (and) 
said nothing. 2. A father demands from his children nothing [thai 
is] impossible [Gen.]. 3. In this year there is a severe winter, 
but there is no snow. 4. In spring [instr. without prep.] there 
are beautiful days, but the nights are generally cold. 5. We 
saw nothing anywhere. 6. There was in the town a good 
and regular school, but there were no industrious and orderly 
pupils. 7. To-morrow there will still be schooling (nauka), 
but the day after to-morrow there will be no lessons. 8. We 
have no brothers or sisters. 9. Children who have neither a 
father nor a mother are called orphans. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Czy zohrierze byli w kosciele? Nie bylo zolnierzy dzis nawet 

w miescie. 
Czy jest dzis nauka? Niema. 

Czy be.dzie jutro pogoda? Podlug mego zdania, nie bejdzie 

jutro pogody. 
Czy byla siostra w kosciele? Nie, siostry nie bylo w koscieR 

Czy bed 3 jeszcze lepsze czasy po Prawdopodobnie lepszych czasow 

wojnie europejskiej? nie be_dzie. 

Czy ludzie wierza_ jego slowom? Nie, nie wierz^ nikomu. 

Reading' Exercise. 
Chleb kamienny 1 w Oliwie. 
Jest klaszior nad morzem o mile, 2 od Gdariska, zakonu 
fv>.terskiego 3 , we wsi Oliwie. W tym to kosciele mkjdzy 
1. stony. 2. the mile. ?>. Cistercian. 

The Cases of the Substantive. 103 

wielu ozdobami 4 znajdowal si§ na stronie prawej za szklem 5 
chleb w kamien zamieniony 6 . A to z tej przyczyny: 

Roku Panskiego 7 1217-go, gdy okolo Gdanska wielki glod 
ludzi trapil 8 , pobozny opat 9 oliwski kazal ustawicznie 10 piec 
chleb i zglodnialym 11 ludziom rozdawac 12 . Zdarzylo sig 13 , ze 
jeden z ubogiclw 14 wziai bochen 15 chleba i wyszedlszy z kla- 
sztoru, wrocil sie i sklamawszy 16 , ze dopiero 17 pierwszy raz 
przyszedt, otrzymat 18 drugi. 

Az gdy powraca 19 do Gdanska, zachodzi 20 mu drogq, 
powazna 21 bardzo matrona 22 , piastujaea 23 na r^ku sliczne 2 * 
dzieci^tko 25 , ktdra go prosi. aby jej na posilek 26 uzyczvl 27 
chleba. Rzecze 6\v ubogi: „Ja sam nie mam chleba!" Na to 
matrona: ,A toe 28 masz za pazucha 29 bochenek 1 " 30 . Odpowiada 
ubogi: „ to kamien, nie chleb 4 *; a to mowiac palcem go dotykal. 

Wiec ona rzekla: „Niechze be/lzie kamien!" I natych- 
miast znikneta 31 . Post^piwszy 32 o sto krokow 33 6\v klamca 34 
i nielitosciwy ezlowiek wyja_l 6w chleb, a obaczy, ze kamien, 
a w nim znak palca jego. Zaczem 35 struchlaly 36 1 skruszony 37 , 
a oswiecony od Boga, co to za matrona byla, wrocil si§ do 
klasztoru oliwskiego, klamstwo 38 swoje wyznal 39 i rzecz calq, 
opowiedzial, na ktorq, to pamiatke chleb ten przez dlugie lata 

4. costly object. 5. szklo the glass. 6. to change. 7. of our 
Loid (anno Domini). 8. to torment. 9. the abbot. 10. perpetually. 
11. starving. 12. to distribute. 13. to happen. 14. poor. 15. the 
loaf. 16. to lie. 17. but. 18. to get. 1 ( .). to return. 20. to encounter. 
81. venerable. 22. the matron 23. to bear. 24. pretty. 25. 1 i 1 tie 
child. 26. food, refreshment. 27. to give. 28. yet. 2'.». bosom, bosom- 
pocket. 30. a loaf of bread. 31. to disappear. 32. to go on. 33. the 
step. 34. Ihe liar. 35. after which. 36. to be terrified. 37. repentant. 
38. the lie. 39. to avow. 

Thirty-sixth Lesson. 

The Cases of the Substantive. 

The Genitive. 

The genitive is, in the Polish language, very often 
used in different ways. 

It answers to the question ceyj? whose? Kapdusjs 
mego brata the hat of my brother. The genitive is used: 

1. As the genitive of quality (in Latin: genitivus 
qualitatis), in order to express a certain quality <in 


36th Lesson. 

English of): czlowieJc wielkiego wzrostu a man of huge 

2. As genitive of dividing (genitivus partitivus), in 
order to express the whole, from which a part is taken: 
kopa jaj a threescore of eggs; puih wojska a regiment 
of soldiers. This genitive is mostly preceded by words 
as: czesc the part, troche a little quantity. Przynies 
troche wody bring a little quantity of water (= some 

This genitive generally follows the verbs which 
express the action of using, communicating, giving and 
desiring, when referring to a part, not to the whole: 
chleba naszego powszedniego daj nam dzisiaj give us our 
daily bread. 


wsypac, wlac 

to pour in 


the linen 


the pepper 


the washing-basin 


the cinnamon 


the school-fellow 


the clove 


the mutton 


to wish, to desire 


the chicken 


the honour 


the inkstand 


the rice 


to pass, to give 


the carp 


Ihe veal 


the lemon 

napic si$ 

to quench 


the arrack 

pierze ? 

the feathers 


the lead 


the widow 


the pike 


to cut 


to cut 

Wad aw 


najesc si$, 

to eat one's fill (of) 

Stanisiaw (di- 


najadac si$ 

minutive Stas) 


the heef 


to joke. 

Exercise 71. 

1. Dobry czlowiek zyczy kazdemu zdrowia i szczescia. 
2. Bogaci pragna, honorow. 3. Ku'charka nakupila dzisiaj miesa: 
wolowiny, cieleciny, baraniny, kielbas i kurcza,t. 4. Przynies 
wody na miednicy, wlej atramentu do kalamarza. 5. Pan dal 
wszystkie pienia/lze sluzajcemu, ktory kupil szczupaka, dwa 
kaipie i funt ryzu. 6. Ten pan kupil soli i dwie kopy jaj. 
7. Kaz przyniesc wody, cukru, araku, cytryn i wina. 8. Ro- 
dzice daja; dzieciom zwykle dobre wychowanie. 9. Ten mlody 
czlowiek dostal od stryja pieniedzy, nowq, czapke i pozyteczna^ 
ksiaike. 10. Pieprz, cynamon, gozdziki pochodzaj z obcych 
krajow. 11. £artujae spytal sie wuj Stasia: „Co jest ciezsze, 
Sta.siu, font pieprza, czy funt olowiu?" 

Verbs Governing the Genitive. 105 

Translation 72. 

1. The ' son of the poor widow will get money, [also] 
paper, pens, and [also] a pretty new book from his benefactor. 
2. Man needs [the other] man. 3. I do not want you nor 
your help. 4. I should want a Polish dictionary. 5. Pass me 
the whole [loaf of] bread, I will cut the bread for you. C. My 
sister ate her fill of pears, apples and plums, therefore she 
is not willing to eat bread [gen.]. 7. He quenched [his thirst 
by] beer and wine [gen.]. 8. Our friend sent us corn and 
potatoes as (w) a present [loc.]. 9. I wished him good health 
and a long life. 10. In every moment (co chwile) he wishes 
other things (cos innego). 11. The school-fellow of Wenceslaus 
is of a taller build (wzrost), but he is younger. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. , Answers. 

Kto dal wino? Ten sam, ktory dal nam wczo- 

raj piwo. 
Czy najedliscie si<> gruszek? Najedhsmy sie nie tylko gruszck, 

ale i sliwek. 
Dlaczego nie daliscie dziecku Nie chce jesc i chce co chwile 

jesc" V cos innego. 

Czy rzeznik mial dzis kielbase. Owszern miah lecz nikt nie chciai 
na sprzeda/V kupic kielbasy, tylko wszyscy 

kupowali szynke. 
Kto kupil tego wielkiego szczu- Sluzacv, ktory kupil wszystkie 
paka? ryby. 

Thirty-seventh Lesson. 

Verbs Governing the Genitive. 

All verbs the root-syllable of which is preceded by 
the prepositions od and do, govern the genitive. 

The genitive is to be used in adverbial expressions, 
answering to the question kiedy? when? — przesetego 
rohu last year. 

When the space of time in which an action is 
done or was done is to be expressed, the preposition w 
with the localis must be used: w jednym dniu in one (lav. 

Those nouns, denominating holidays and week-da 
are combined in adverbial expressions with w or na 
(with the accusative): w niedzielf on Sunday, na Nowy 
Hoik on New Yen r's Day. 


37th Lesson. 


dotrzymac slo- 

doczekac sie 
d oh 11 wad 


dowiedziec si$ 

no win a 

dosiadac konia 
plecy (plur.) 

to keep one's 

to finish 

to live to see 


to storm 

to inspect, to 

the conflagration 

to congratulate 

to know, to ex- 
perience, to 
learn (= to be 

the news [back 

to mount on horse- 

the back 

dorabiac sie, 


domyiilac sie. 

wy mag etc 
.rzecz nie- 










to ?et a fortune 

fair, equitable 
to presume 
to demand 
to renounce 
to reach 
the siege 

to raise, to revolt 
to catch 

to begin [finish 
to set ready, to 
to change. 

Exercise 73. 

1. Rzemieslnik dotrzymai slowa i dokoriczyl swojej ro- 
boty. 2. Doczekalismy si§ nareszcie pogody pieknej i cieplej. 
3. Nieprzyjaciel dobywal miasta, ale odst^pit od oblezenia 
fortecy. 4. Urzednicy i nauczyciele rzadko dorabiaja; sie, majqtku. 
5. Moj przyjaciel nalapal ryb. 6. Przeszlego roku byta tega 
zima. 7. Przyszlego roku pojedziemy do Krakowa i Poznania. 
8. Przeszlej nocy by! pozar. 9. W niedziele, nie przystoi pra- 
cowac. 10. Na swiely Szczepan i na swie,ty Jan kazdy sobie 
pan, bo wtedy sluzba (the servants) zmienia pana i jest kilka 
dni bez pana. 11. W zimie dni sq, najkrotsze a noce najdlu2sze, 
w lecie przeciwnie. 12. Kto od Boga poczyna, wszystkiego do- 
konywa. 13. Mlodemu przystoi dosiadac konia. 14. Madry 
latwo si§ wszystkiego domysla, sta^d przyslowie polskie: madrej 
glowie dose dwie stowie. 1 

Translation 74. 

1. People (== one) may demand only fair things (rzecz 
sluszna); for unfairness revolts men. 2. I learned this news from 
my brother. 3. One must control lazy workmen. 4. She could 
not await the wedding of her sister. 5. Last month we always 
had fine weather. 6. In this school-year I had no chance 
(szczfscie). 7. Rome was not built (zbudowac) in one day. 

8. On every Wednesday [there] comes the post from Cracovia. 

9. On New Year's Day, all men congratulate one another (so- 

dwie 8iome is the form of the ancient dualis. 

The Datire. 


bie). 10. From Lemberg one can reach Oacovia in four hours. 
11. On New Year's Day, he wished my parents everything [that 
is] good [gen.]. 12. The wedding will not take place (= be) 
on the eleventh, but on the twelfth of this month. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

• Questions. 

W ktorym roku zostala odkryta 
Ameryka i przez kogo? 

W ktorym dniu zaczynamy 

W ktorym miesia_cu hywa naj- 

Kto swi^ci sobote/:* 
W ktorym miesiacu zaczates sie. 

uczyc po polskuV 
Ktorego dnia przyjdziesz do 

Ktorego dnia przyjada. (arrive) 

nasi rodzice? 


Ameryka zostala odkryta \v roku 
tysiac czterysta dziewie/-dzie- 
sia_tym drugim (1492) przez 

Dnia 1 go wrzesnia. 

W lipcu bywa najcieplej. 

Sobote. swieca zydzi. 
W maju. 

Prawdopodobnie w srode.. 

Nasi rodzice przyjada_ w sohotc 

Thirty-eifjlitli Lesson. 

The Dative. 

The dative answers to the questions Jcomu? czemu? 

The dative of the reflexive pronoun sobie, which 
often corresponds to the Latin dativus ethicus, cannot 
always be translated: niech sobie main, co chce may he 
speak what he likes; jest to sobie proetdk that is a 
simple man. 

In the same way the dative of other pronouns is 
used in the Polish language: mass ci, mass tobie there 
you have it. 


obyc sic (bez to do without 



ft 1.1 h lie 


the cheek 
the toy 
the praise 

the raven 
the honour 
the merit 
the little bird 
the esteem 
to bow to 
to pa.-s (give) 

irittu .przijicitar to crreet 


L1n< : 




////(■' winnym 


to ki-- 

!o Si 

to cut out 

to li. 

the superior 

the chance, the 

to owe 
the strawben v. 

108 38th Lesson. 

Exercise 75. 

1. Uczen odpowiada pytajacemu go nauczycielowi. 2. Brat 
kupil swemu pilnemu bratu ksiaike;. 3. Rodzice dali grzecz- 
nym dzieciom zabawki. 4. Siostra darowala swemu ukochanemu 
bratu bialego ptaszka. 5. Glupiemu nie trzeba odpowiadac. 
6. Niech bedzie Panu Bogu czesc i chwala. 7. Dalem mu 
ksiazk^, aby jq, zaniosl ksiedzu, a on jq, oddal swemu bratu, 
ten zas ojcu. 8: Nie ufaj pieknej twarzy, ale cnocie i zasludze. 
9. Kruk krukowi oka nie wykole. 10. ObywateJe oddali czesc 
zasiudze i towarzyszyii licznie zmarlemu wspolobywatelowi 
(fellow-citizen) do grobu. 11. Polak, spotykajac znajomego, 
mowi: witam pana. Ale mowi sie takze: witac sie z kim. 

Translation 76. 

1. People (= we) owe esteem to all superiors. 2. People 
owe thankfulness to benefactors and the parents. 3. Let them 
say (= may they speak) what they like; we shall do what is 
necessary. 4. The children kiss their parent's hands (= the 
hands to the parents). 5. One shakes hands with the guest 
(= gives the hand to the guest) and greets him. 6. The ser- 
vant bowed to [his gracelul] master and gave him [dat.] the 
letter. 7. The teacher gives his diligent pupil [dat.] a reward. 
8. The peasant brought milk and eggs to my mother. 9. We 
could not do without his help (pomoc). 10. When the Poles 
greet their relations or bid them [dat.] farewell, they kiss one 
another (sie). 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Ktoremu kupcowi oddales pie- Mieszkajgcemu naprzeciwko nas. 

niaxlze ? 
Co kuprtes sobieV Kupilem sobie futro i buty. 

Czys przywital gosciV Przywitalein ich, podajac kazde- 

mu rek§, lecz nie calowalem 

sie. z mini. 
Kto przyniosl: te zabawki V Brat kupii je i przyniost. 

Kiedy oddasz pienia/JzeV Odd am je przy najblizszej spo- 

Co za wino przyniesliscie nam? Przynieslismy warn rehskie wino. 
Czem pani moge. sluzycV I'oziomkanii, jesli mozna prosic. 

Adjectives Governing the Dative. 


Tbirty-uiutli Lesson. 

Adjectives Governing "the Dative. 

The following Polish adjectives govern the dative 1 : 

mily dear 

podlegiy inferior 

podobny similar 

2)omocny serviceable 

potrzebmj necessary 

powolny docile 

pusluszny obedient 

pozadany wished-for 

■pozyteczny useful 

przychylny attached 

przyjazny friendly 

przykry burdensome, disagreeable 

przyjemny agreeable 

rdwny equal 

rad fond, bye rad to be fond of 

atraszny terrible 

ushizny complaisant, kind 

irdzieczny thankful 

urinien indebted 

ichisciivy peculiar 

wierny faithful 

irrodzony innate 

zyczliwy benevolent 

wspolny in common, mutual. 



the authority, the 

pozqdac ' 

to desire, to covet 



the sleep 


the exhortation 




the Serb 




the Turk 

iv ad a 

the fault 


Lord High Ste- 


the plant 





the gender, gene- 
ration, family 


the quality. 

Exercise 77. 
1. Tamten wielki wodz byl mily Bogu i ludziom, wierny 
swemu monarsze, straszny nieprzyjaciolom kraju. i2. Serbowie 
bvli dlugi czas podlegli Turkom. 3. Uczen powolny i posluszny 
radom i napomnieniom zwierzehnosci szkolnej, zyczliwy dla 
swych wspoiuczni jest mily i pozadany kazdemu dobrze mysla- 
ceinu. 4. Mlodzieniec, przykry dla starszych i nieprzychylny 
dla swych rodzicow, moze sie stac szkodliwym obywatelom. 
5. Sen podobny jest smierci. 6. Niektore wady i przymioty 
wspolne sa, calemu rodzajowi ludzkiemu. 7. Pan podstoli rad 
by! kazdemu w swoim domu. S. Mrozy wiosenne sa, dla roslin 
szkodliwe. '.*. Pies jest wierny swemu panu. 

Translation 78. 

1. An enlightened man helps and serves (= is useful and 
serviceable to) not only himself, but also other pe< pie. 2. The 
intelligent man obeys (= is obedient to) the laws and the 
magistrates, is faithful to God and his faith, is burdensome to 

1 Instead of the dative you often find dla or do. 


40th Lesson. 

nobody, and benevolent and kind to everybody. 3. He paid 
money to him whom he is indebted to. 4. He was faithful 
to his king* till his death. 5. Man resembles (— is similar to) 
man. 6. The sisters of my father resemble (= are similar to) 
their brothers. 7. Before (wobec) the law all men are equal 
to one another. 8. My uncle and my aunt always are fond of 
[their] guests. 



Co jest koniecznie potrzebne kaz- 
demu czlowiekowi? 

Ktore zwierze. jest podobne czlo- 

Czy dobry chrzescijanin szkodzi 
blizniemu rozmyslnie? 

Ktore zwierze. jest najwierniejsze? 

Czy sen podobny do smierci? 



Przedewszystkiem cnota i nauka 

saj kazdernu potrzebne. 

Nie, przeciwnie, nawet kazdemu 

Najwierniejszem zw r ierze_ciem jest 

Tak, sen podobny do smierci. 

Fortieth Lesson. 

Verbs Governing the Dative. 

The following verbs 

dac to give 
donosic to announce 
dogodzic to comply with 
doknczyc to press hard 
dopomagac to help 
podlegac to obey 
poruczad to confide, to entrust 
uiriaczac to diminish 
pvwierzyd to entrust to 

govern the dative: 

dziwic si$ to wonder at 
obiecytvac to promise 
zazdroscic to envy 
pochlebiac to flatter 
tcierzyc to believe 
ivyroivnac to equal, to resemble 
to zaufac to trust 
zyczyc to wish 
folgowac to be indulgent. 



the journeyman 

! przyslucliiwac 

to listen 


the almightiness 

! sie 


the razor 


to be favourable 


the troop, band 


to bless 


the campaign 

(with dat.) 


the destiny, fate 


the blessing 


the awl 



the weakness 


to be able 


the conversation 


to hasten 

podpid, pod- 

to drink a glass 


to threaten 

chmielid sobie 

too much 


the secret sie. 

to be afraid 


the mariner. 


to shave 

Verbs Governing the Dati\ 111 

Exercise 79. 
1. Liczne hufce towarzyszyly wodzowi do konca wyprawy. 
■2. Wszechmocnosci Boskiej zadna sztuka wyrownac nie zdola. 
3. Nie wszystkim los sprzyja; jednym szydla gi la, drugim i 
brzytwy nie chca. 4. Czeladnik podchmielil sobie i nie fol- 
gowal choremu uczniowi, dokuczal mu, nie pozwolil przy- 
sluchiwac sie rozmowom. 5. Kolumb nie lekal sie, niebez- 
pieczeiistw, ktore mu grozily. 6. Nie powierzaj nikomu tajem- 
nicy. 7. Nie ufaj swiatu temu. ani rozumowi swemu. 8. Wszyst- 
kim dogodzic trudno. 9. Jezelis komu co obiecal, dotrzymaj 
slowa, bo skoro raz slowa nie dotrzymasz, nikt ci wierzyc nie 
bedzie. 10. Ostatnie slowa ksiecia Jozefa Poniatowskiego byly: 
-Bog mi powierzyl lionor Polakow, Bogu go ocjdam." 

Translation 80. 
1. You must (trzeba) believe tbe teacher and obey the 
superiors. 2. Answer every man who asks you (= every asking 
[man]), but do not order other people. 3. One [we] shall give 
alms to the beggar. 4. The dying mother blessed her children 
and confided them to the kindness of the almighty God. 5. It 
you give [anything] to the poor and the sick, you obey the godly 
commandments. 6. Promise me that you will help your brother. 
7. Cain envied Abel (dat.) [on account] of the godly blessing 
and slew him. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Skad to pochodzi. ze wasz ku- Brat dokuczal inu i nie chcial 

zyn jest tak smutnyV mu dopomagac w pracy. 

Gzyscie obiecali ksiazke. mojeniu Obiecalismy i damy mu ja na 

synowi? przyszly tydzieii. 

Dokad tak spieszycie? Spieszymy do domu, aby poma- 

gac dzieciom w rtaukach. 

wiatr sprzyja! zeglarzom? Tak, sprzyja] im bardzo. 

Czy dogodziligcie rodzicom? Owszera, zawsze im dogadzamy. 

Dokad udal sie. oieprzyjaciel? Udal siq do Krakow a. 

Reading exercise. 

Kos2i61 wiejski. 
Daleko slychac wiejski dzwon koscieh 
Zadzwonil 1 — zewszad ' J lud spieszy przez pola. 
ByJo to swieto 3 — l>yl to dzieri niedzielny; 
Dzia* plug spoczywa 4 , z g rola. 

I. to ring. c 2. from all pi the holiday. i. to rej 

112 40th Lesson. 

Dziewice 5 ottarz przystroily 7 w kwiaty, 
Zabrzmiala 8 mlodziez do spiewu 9 gotowa 10 ; 
Wyszedl 11 ksiadz ze mszq,, pochylony 12 laty — 
Tlumi 13 sie, coraz 14 piesn ludu nikna^ca 15 , 
Ucichta . . . Ksiedza tylko slychac stowa, 
Gichy szmer 16 brzozy, co o szyby tra^ca — 
Niekiedy dzwonek jekliwy 17 uderzy 7 
Niekiedy starzec ksigdzu odpowiada 18 — 
Swiergoca/ 9 wroble — i pod szczytem wiezy 
Pierzchnie 20 jaskolka i w gzymsy zapada 21 . 

Juljusz Slowacki. 

Kosciot parafijalny 22 stoi we srodku 23 wioski 24 , ocieniaja 
go stuletnie 26 ' lipy i brzozy. Dawniej otaczai go cmentarz, ale 
od wielu lat nie chowaja, umarlych 26 przy kosciele, lecz na 
nowym, duzym cmentarzu poza 27 wioskaj. 

W poblizu 28 kosciola znajduje sie, plebanja 29 i mieszkanie 
ksigzy wikarych 30 , opodal 31 szkola i mieszkanie organisty 32 . 

Nad kosciolem wznosi sie, 33 wieza, a w niej dzwony ko- 
scielne. Przy kazdej uroczystosci 34 rozlega 35 sie ich gtos po- 
nad 36 pola i sioia 37 jako zwiastun 38 wesela i radosci, ale 
nieraz tez smutku 39 i zalu, bo kosciot to ognisko 40 , okolo 
ktorego obraca 41 si§ cale zycie parafjalne. 

Nowonarodzone 4 * dziecig niosq, chrzestni 43 do kosciola, 
aby je ksiadz ochrzcil 44 i przez chrzest 45 przyjal w poczet 46 
wiernych chrystusowych 47 . DorastajajCy 48 chlopcy i dziew- 
czeja chodzq, do kosciola na nauke, aby sie utwierdzic 49 w 
zasadach wiary, poznac prawdy religji swej, zawarte 50 w ka- 
techizmie 61 i przygotowac si§ 62 do sakramentu 53 ottarza. 

A gdy wyrosna/ 4 na dziewice i mtodziencow, stanaj przed 
oltarzem, aby sobie slubowac 65 mitosc dozgonna/ 6 , a ksiadz, 

5. the maid. 6. the altar. 7. to adorn, to trim. 8. to sound. 
9. singing. 10. ready. 11. to come. 12. bowed {laty instead of 
latami). 13. to smother. 14. from time to time. 15. disappear. 
16. the whizzing. 17. mourning. 18. to answer. .19. to twitter. 
20. to fly away. 21. to disappear. 22. the parish-church. 23. in the 
midst. 24. the village. 25. a hundred years old. 26. the dead. 
27. behind. 28. near. 29. the parsonage (house). 30. the vicar. 
31. not far from. 32. the organist. 33. to arise. 34. the ceremony. 
35. to sound. 36. above. 37. the village. 38. the announcer. 39. the 
grief. 40. focus. 41. to move. 42. new-born. 43. the ' godfather. 
44. to baptize. 45. the baptism. 46. the rank. 47! of Christ. 48. to 
grow up. 49. to strengthen. 50. contained. 51. catechism. 52. to 
prepare oneself. 53. the sacrament. 54. to grow up. 55. to avow. 
56. for' life. 

Of the Instrumental. 113 

poswieciwszy 57 slubne obrq,czki 68 i zwi^zawszy 69 stufy 60 ich 
rece, udziela im sakramentu malzenstwa i btogoslawi na droge 

Ale oto zalobny orszak zapelnia 61 wnetrze 62 koscioia. Na 
katafalku 63 ustawiaja/* trumn§, a w uiej spoczywa 66 cialo 
zastuzonego 66 meza z parafji. Ksi^za odprawiaj^ 67 msze swiete 
i spiewaja^ zalobne requiem. Z choru rozlega 68 sie spiew, ksiadz 
pokropi 69 zwloki 70 woda, swie^cona., a przyjaciele zaniosa. je 
na wieczny 71 odpoczynek. 

Krzyz z wiezy koscielnej patrzy wieki cate na wioski i 
zagrody 72 dokota 73 niego, gdzie pokolenia 74 za pokoleniami 
pracuja. na swej roli i modla, sie, u stop 76 jego, a blask jego 
nieustannie 76 wskazuje 77 im droge do nieba. 

57. to consecrate. 58. wedding-ring. 59. to bind together. 
60. the stole. 61. to fill. 62. the interior. 63. the bier. fi4. to 
place. 65. to repose. 66. meritorious. 67. to read. 68. to resound. 
69. to sprinkle. 70. the corpse. 71. eternal. 7 -J. the farm. 73 around. 
74. the generation. 75. the foot. 76. incessantly. 77. to show. 

Forty-first Lesson. 

Of the Instrumental. 

The instrumental (without the preposition 'with") 
answers to the question: with what? czem? by what 
instrument? in what manner? in what way? 

The instrumental is used in adverbial expressions: 

a) When they denominate the manner or the place: 
ptj/nqr morzem to be on sea, ivynjwkami (na icyryivki) 
out of turn, manoivcami on wrong ways. 

b) In temporal expressions of a general character: 
dniem i nocq by day and night; czascm sometimes > 
tymcsasem mean while. 


A) p" 

the Alps 


the drsordi r 

SOi tai;/ 

1 : 



to chew 

rotstae «g 

to separate 

to digest 


to breathe 

karti cu 

corporal puni 



to tfet rich 

lo rise aloft 

hit ten /»■:;/- 

the measure 


!!:• i ll» 


the flight 

):i- I 

Polish Grammar. 



41st Lesson. 


to perish 


to effect 


the wrong 


the fork 


the conversation 




the wickedness 


unlike, impossible 


the intercourse 

czico reiki 



the prose 


the verse. 

Exercise 81. 

1. Smialym lotem wzbija sie orzel w obloki. 2. Prozaj 
niepodobna, a przynajmniej trudno pisac o niczem, wierszem 
to bardzo latwo przychodzi. 3. Pracujemy re,kaj i glowa^, mo- 
wimy ustami, oddychamy plucami, zujemy zgbami, trawimy 
zoladkiem. 4. Handlem slynie Anglia, pieknoscia; natury 
Szwajcarja, skatami i lasami Szwecja i Laponja. 5. Mozna 
czworakim sposobem podrozowac: isc pieszo, jechac wozem, 
okretem plyna^c, jechac kolejq,. 6. Kara cielesna' jest czasem 
krzywda. 7. Na Alpach w Splugen pisal Mickiewicz takie 
slowa do Maryli 1 : „Nigdy, \vi§c nigdy z tobq, rozstac sie nie 
moge,, Morzem plyniesz i la^dern idziesz zq, mi a, w droge." 

Translation 82. 

1. By conversation and intercourse people (= one) soon 
can learn a language. 2. By love and goodness you (= one) 
effect more than by wrath and wickedness. 3. With what 
measure you measure [to] others, with that you will be measured 
(= it will be measured [to] you). ' 4. By idleness and disorder 
[there] perish towns and nations. 5. This town got rich by 
commerce and industry. 6. Nobody will get rich by wrong. 
7. He works day and night. 8. We eat with the knife and 
the fork. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Ktora. rqkq, lepiej pisac? 
Kt6z tarn jedzie w jednego ko- 

Czem bogacg, sie, miastaV 

Czem palimy w piecuV 


Prawaj lepiej pisac niz lewaj. 
Szlachcic Dobrzyriski jedzie w 

jednego konia. 
Handlem i przemyslem bogacq, 

sie. miasla. 
Drzewem, we^lem, koksem (cokes) 

a w niektorych wioskach i 


1 Maryla is the diminutive form of Marja, whom the poet 
loved exceedingly, though he had no hope of winning her. 

Verbs Governing tbe Instrumental. 


Forty-secoud Lesson. 

Verbs Governing the Instrumental. 

The verbs stad sie, zostad to become, nazywad to 
call, to name, nazywad sie to be called, byd to be (see 
Lesson 29 th and 30 th ) govern tbe instrumental. 

Tbe verbs zrohic Icogo czim to make one something 
(e.g. king), obrac to elect, tzqdzid to govern, paehnqd 
czem to smell of, trudnid sie to occupy oneself (with), 
deszyd sie to rejoice at, &c, are also followed by the 

Tbe preposition with is only to be translated by 
# when expressing a being together of persons or a 
circumstance which accompanies the action: .: rodzicami 
with the parents, ze izami with tears (in one's eves). 



the sword 


to smear 


the side 

trttd [zic 

'the pain- 


to shut 


to deceive 


the acquaintance 


the watchword 


the fellow-creature 

plud krunq 

to Spit hlood 

zaioiyd sir 

10 wager 


the birch-tar 


the substantive 


the unguent, the 


Ihe case 

colour (ot horses) 


to administer 

za (panic a 


przestcpoira< : 

to transgress 




to smell 


to despise 


the wise man 



the lover 


to travel 


Ihe around 


to cease 

siciadczye sit] 

to assure 


the subject. 

Exercise 83. 
1. Zaloz sie. ze mnaj 2. Orezem zdobywali krzyiacy ziemie. 
Btarycfa Prusakow. 3. Dzieci poszly z rodzicami na spacer 
a potem uczyly sie z nauczycielem. 4. Z kirn kto przestaje, 
takim sie, staje. 5. Mitosc ojczyzny byla hasto in naszych 
ojcow. 6. Slowa rza/lza, roznymi przypadkami rzeczownik6w, 
7. Krol wlada poddanymi, urzfdsik zawiaduje kfajem. 8, Kto 
bliznim gardzi, ten przest^puje przykazanie boskie. 9. Ten 
ezlowiek traci dziegciem. 10. Uczeni Grecy az do czas6w Pyta- 
gorasa nazywali sie, medrcami, pierwszy Pytagoras obral sobie 
Bkromoiejszy tytut i oazwal sie_ miloanikiem m%dro#ci czyli 
filozofem (philosopher). 11. Skromnofid jest ixslina, ktoia tylko 


116 43rd Lesson. 

Da szlachetnym ro£nie gruncie, mowiq, Niemcy. 12. Niektorym 
grzecznosc z trudnosciq, przychodzi (is to learn). 13. Znajomosci 
za granica, cz^sto zawodz^. 14. Ghory pluje krwiaj. 15. Swiad- 
czylsie. slowem honoru. 16. Ghoremu bok nasmarowano masciaj. 

Translation 84. 
1. The animals live on grass, herbs, roots, leaves, corn 
and flesh. 2. The youngest brother learnt [it together] with 
his (= the) sister. 3. He has intercourse with virtuous men. 
4. When eleven years old (= with eleven years) I went to the 
grammar-school (gimnazjum), when twenty-three years old 
(= with 23 years) to the university. 5. With much (wielki) 
pains I finished the work. 6. People elected him director (dy- 
rektor). 7. The kings govern nations. 8. The rich men must 
not despise their fellow-creatures. 9. We travelled with our 
brother Stephan to our aunt('s) to Wieliczka near Gracovia. 
10. At Warsaw we made the acquaintance of (= with) some 
rich gentlemen. 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Kto byl z wami w kosciele? Rodzice byli z nami w kosciele. 

Jezeli Bog z nami, kto prze- Nikt nie moze bye przeciw nam. 

ciwko nam ? 

Kto zrobil szlachcicem tego wa- Krol zrobil go szlachcicem. 

lecznego zolnierzaV 

Czem be_dzie syn pana? B§dzie ciesla. albo stolarzem. ** 

Jak ta osoba jest wzgl^dem Jest ona wzgle.dem mnie jak 

ciebie? matka. 

Forty-third Lesson. 

Participles and infinitive. 

The past participle of the passive voice is always 
to be altered w zdobytem mie^cie in the taken town. 

The past participle of the active voice, which can 
only be derived from perfective verbs, can never be 
altered: niewiasta usiadlszy opowiadaia the woman, hav- 
ing sat down, said. 

The present participle of the active voice is partly 
variable, partly invariable. 

It must be invariable when being used instead of 
a subordinate sentence or in the sense of a verb: qoscie 

Participles and Infinitive. 


milczqc jedli the guests ate silently (= being silent); 
toie&niacy, irracajqc z miasta, opisyivali sive ivrazenia 
the peasants, returning from town, communicated their 

When being the attribute of a substantive, this 
participle corresponds to it as to gender, number and 
case: slonce jasno siviccqce the brightly shining sun, 
obudzitem spiqcego I awakened the sleeping man; lezeli 
kriciq opryskani i dogorywajucy they lay, bathed with 
blood and expiring. 

The verbs czuc to feel, styszed to hear and ividzied 
to see are in the Polish language followed by the va- 
riable present participle: widze go idqcego I see him going. 

The English without, followed by the gerund, is 
also to be expressed by a present participle: nie ivda- 
jqc sir z nim without engaging oneself with him. 

Instead of the English gerund, preceded by a pre- 
position, a verbal substantive is to be used in the Po- 
lish language: przy oglqdaniu at seeing, do.widzenia (in 
French: au revoir) until we may meet again. 


z em fit a 
ties' nina 


smucic si$ 
przeprauic 8t$ 

przekonac sig 

bbtcarowad ri$ 
Wypisywad na 


the quarrel 

the power 

the battlefield 

the revenge 

the straits 

the pains, hard- 

to avoid 


to offend 

to greet 

to mourn 

to pass over, to 

the Persian 

to persuade one- 

to fortify oneself 

to write on a pa- 

to refuse 


m iec w zapasie 



try n a jqc 
moral nose 
odznaczur sig 




■me sir 

zobaczyd si$ 

N/i/jtir sir 
iri/niij, < 


the support 

to have in store 

to confirm 

the young cow 

to let (a room) 

the secretary 

to .entertain 



to distinguish 

to exhort 
to pass 
to meet 
to bid farewell 
to see each other 

to get drunk 
the sale. 

118 43rd Lesson. 

Exercise 85. 

1. CiagnajC do miasta, uderzyli na nieprzyjaciol. 2. Aleksan- 
der Wielki, przebywszy ciesnine. Hellespontu, zwyciez\l Persow. 
3. Kosciuszko nigdy nie odmawial potrzebuj^cym swego wspar- 
cia. 4. P.szczoly, wlasny ul napelniwszy, o innym nie myslaj. 
5. Cezar, dyktujajC rozne listy sekretarzom, rozmawial jeszcze 
z obecnymi przyjaciolmi. 6. Pewien poeta, stojac na jednej 
nodze. po kilka wierszy na karcie wypisywal. 7. Czlowiek, 
chc^cy bye Wzorem dla innych, powinien sie sam moral- 
nosciaj odznaczac, inaczej przez nikogo nie bedzie chwalony. 
8. PrzechodzajC koto chaty wiejskiej, slyszalem dziecie; placz^ce 
i matke upominajajcaj je. 9. Obrazony szuka zemsty. 10. Zeg- 
najac sie z kirn, z ktorym mamy sie; wkrotce spqtkac, wdamy: 
do widzenia. 11. Najprostszemu czlowiekowi trudno sie bez 
czytania i pisania obyc (to get on). 12. Widzimy rodzicow 
idajajcych z bracmi moimi i siostrami na ulicy Szkolnej. 

Translation 86. 

1. Having passed the river, he was safe. 2. Having for- 
tified himself, he esteemed himself safe. 3. People need many 
hours, in order to go round (obejsc) the Japanese town [of] 
Jeddo. 4. The Islanders (Islandczyk) never pass [add obok with 
gen.] the Geysir without looking (zajrzec do) into the source. 
5. If you wish to preserve your teeth [sound], eat no hot food 
and drink no cold drinks. 6. One must have seven lies in 
store, in order to confirm one. 7. The elephant can drink ten 
quarts of arrack (arak) without getting drunk. 8. Once people 
saw this young woman fetching rolls (bulka) and milk in the 
morning. 9. Having seen (obejrzec) the battlefield, he was 
sad that so much blood had flown (poplyna^c). 10. There is 
no just judge who punishes a man without having heard him 
(wysluchac). 11. This shop is to be let (= to [do] letting). 
12. This house is to be sold (= for [na] sale). 

Conversation (Rozmowa). 

Questions. Answers. 

Nie moglze sie. po polsku na- Z powodu niechejci (aversion) do 
uczy.d, mieszkaja.c kilka lat w je z yka nie nauczyl sie. nawet 

Polsce? kilku wyrazow. 

Coscie robili, wrociwszy ze spa- Skoriczylismy swoje lekcje. 



Gdzie zgubil ksiaike,? Idae do szkoly, zgubil ksia.zke.. 

Co zrobrty dzieci, nie dostawszy Skarzyly sie. (to complain) zaraz 
nie na sniadanie? ojcu. 

Appendix. li'.i 


Translation Exercises. 

The WiDter-Corn 1 . 

When summer is finishing [itself] and harvest is begin- 
ning, (to) the peasant ploughs the hare 2 fields with the plough 
and spreads many grains 3 into the long furrows. Alter a 
short time [there] grow small grass-leaves 4 out of the ground 
(ziemia) and the whole field resembles (= is similar to) a green 
meadow. In winter snow covers the tender 5 little plants and 
shelters them from freezirc 6 . 

When spring is beginning and snow is melting away (taj 
the small blades 7 of rye and wheat continue growing, and at 
(u) their point 8 [there] soon appear (= show themselves) ears, 
which get yellow in the heat of summer. As soon as the 
corn is ripe (dojrzeje), there come the reapers 9 and cut it 
with the scythe 10 . Young workwomen 11 bind 12 the blades 
into sheaves and put them together into large shocks 13 . When 
the blades are dry 1 *, they are thrashed 15 by a thrashing 
machine 16 [still] in the field; only the poor peasant tin ashes 
his corn with flails 17 at home on the floor 18 . The grains, 
won 19 [by it], are gathered into large sacks and brought into 
the barns 80 or sent to the miller['s] 91 into the mill 22 . There 
[from it] fine white meal is ground 23 , from which the baker 
bakes bread and cake for men. 

1. ozimina. 2. gory. 3. ziarno. 4. \'\<U-k trawy. 5. watlr. 
0. zmarzniqcie. 7. zilzblo. S. cznhek. J), kosnik, zeniec. 10. k 
11. robotnira. 12. wiazar. 13. mendel, kopa. 14. snehy. 1">. n 
Lt>. mldckarnia parowa. 17. cep. 18. boisko, klepisko. 19. uymlo 
20. spichrz, gumno. 21. mlynarz. 22. nilyn. --':!. mlec* (3rd pers. 
pres. mele). 

At My Uncle's Farm 1 . 
Near the capital my ancle (= my mother's brother) has 
a large farm. [After] having gone (ujechad) by the railway 

1. n wiejska. 

120 N Appendix. 

as far as (= to) the third station 2 of the main-line 3 leading 
to the south, you wander for about a quarter of an hour 4 on 
the high-road, planted 5 with cherry-trees. Then you make 
a bend 6 to the right and come [passing] through a small 
oak-wood, into a large village. From the village-street there 
leads an avenue 7 planted with horse-chestnut-trees 8 to the large 
door, which shuts 9 the court-yard 10 from outside (na zewnalrz). 

[On] entering 11 the court-yard, you (= one) behold, on 
the left, the simple, but n^bly 12 looking mansion 13 in which 
my uncle dwells with his family. By the side of this house 
there are (= stand) different farm-offices 14 , sheds 15 for wood 15 
and coal 15 and servants' rooms 16 . Opposite the entrance-door ir 
there stands (— rises) the house of one story 18 of the farmer. 
Somewhat farther to the right, there are (= stand) the different 
stables and coach-houses 19 the superior stories of which (= over 
which the superior stories) contain (= have) the barns (poddasze) 
for corn and hay. Beside these buildings there is a second 
door, leading into the fields. Near it there are tw r o smalt 
houses, where (there) live the workmen, coming every year from 
the old (compar. of dawny) kingdom of Poland 20 or from Galicia. 

In the midst of the court-yard, there is the large dung- 
heep 21 , on which a flock of poultry (gromada kur) are playing. 
Behind it, in a waterpool, there are swimming ducks and geese. 
Near the house of the farmer you see a large garden where 
plenty 22 of apple-trees, pear-trees, plum-trees and cherry-trees 
are growing [sing.]. Beside the orchard there is a large 
kitchen-garden 23 and a flower-garden 24 , and before the mansion 
a fine park with shady old oaks and lime-trees and a small 
pond 25 with beautiful swans 26 on it. 

2. stacja. 3. linja glowna. 4. ok'olo kwadransu. 5. obsadzic. 
6. zwracacsie. 7. aleja. 8. kaszlan. 9. zarnykac, 10. podworze. 11. wcho- 
dzic na. 12. nobliwy. 13. dw6r. li. zabudowania gospodarskie. 15. drwal- 
nia i sklad na wegle. 16. czeladni*. 17. brama wchodowa. 18. jedno- 
pie trowy. 19. wozownia. 20. Krolestwo Polskie. 21. kupa nawozu. 
22. rnnottwo. 23. ogrod warzywny. 24. kwietnik. 25. slaw. 26. iab^dz. 

John Sobjeski. 

At the foot 1 of the Carpathians 2 , where the Bug has its 
source, in the old castle 3 of Olesko, John Sobjeski was born 
in the year 1629 during an uncommonly violent 4 thunderstorm. 

Theophila, the granddaughter 5 of the famous hetman 
£olkiewski, was his mother. His father James (Jakob) Sobjeski 

1. u podnoza. 2. Karpaty. 3. zamek, giod. 4. silny. 5. wnuczka. 

Appendix. {■}[ 

left the education 6 of his two sons Mark (Marek) and John 
to a skilful 7 man, Stanislaw Orchowski. "You may chiefly 
effect 8 that the two brothers love (= loved) each other, that the 
younger esteems(-ed) the elder, that the elder is [was] fond of 
the younger," he wrote in a letter. Then James Sobjeski said 
to the teacher: "I do not wish that my sons grow up [in] 
too delicate 9 (adj.) [a manner], their stomachs are to be ac- 
customed to stout 10 food [plur.], as they will have it in war 
[plur.] — if God will (da)! My sons are to hear the holy mass 
every day! It they should not obey warnings 11 and exhor- 
tations 12 , which [gen.] I expect 13 , Mr. Orchowski is to tell 
me immediately; I shall know what [then is] to [be] do[ne] 
— I have a cane, under which youth grows well !" 

The two brothers learned to fence 14 , to dance 15 , to go 
on horseback 16 , to play music and to speak seven languages. 
In the year 1644 they went to Paris. At their departure, their 
father gave them the following exhortation: "My children," 
said he, "accomplish 17 yourselves in everything, except in 
dancing (= in the dances), for you will be taught it by the 
Tartars (= for you will learn them from the Tartars)". At 
that time, it was a custom 18 in Poland to call the frequent 
struggles with the Tartars "Tartar-dances". The first appearance 19 
of John was in the battle of Beresteczko, in which he was 
heavily wounded; his brother Mark was taken prisoner 20 in 
the battle of Batow by the Tartars and murdered according to 
the order of the khan 21 . His mother, who in spite of her 
Spartian mind 22 was fully grieved 23 , went to Italy for ever. 

In the year 1663 John Sobjeski married 24 Mary Casimira 
(Marja Kazimira) d'Arquion, the widow of John Zamojski, 
wajwode of Sandomir (sandomirski). The battle of Podhajce 
against the Turks, which lasted sixteen days (= the sixteen- 
day 25 battle) founded 26 the glory of Sobjeski, and the glorious 87 
victory of Ghocim, which was paid by the lives of 40,000 Turks 
(= which cost 88 the lives to 40,000 Turks) was the chief 
reason 29 of Sobjeski's being elected (= election) 30 king [instr.]. 

('). wychowanie. 7. doswiadczony. 8. zwazad. 9. rozpieszcznny 
10. prosty. 11. przestroga. 12. naponmienie. 13. spodziewad sitj 
14. potykanie sie. bronia,. 15. tariezenie. 16. jrzdzid koimo. 17. \\ ydosko 
nalic sie.. IS. w zwyczaju. l'.«. wyst$p. 80. pojmany. 21. chan 
L li. usposobienie. 23. przygn^biony. 24. ozenid >!«■• 26. Bzeanasto 
dniowy. 26. ustalid. 27. swietny. 28. pozbawu-. 29. 06wny powod 
30. elecja, wybor. 

122 Appendix. 

Polish Exercises 1 . 

Podw6rze wloscianina. 

Zamozny wloscianin czyli gospodarz ma obszerne, zwykle 
czworoboczne podworze. Po jednej stronie znajduje sie^ dom 
mieszkalny, otoczony ogrodem warzywnym i sadem. Naprzeciw 
domu jest stodola i wozovvnia, po lewej stronie stajnia z 
spichlerzem, po prawej obora, chlewy i kurniki. 

W stajni znajduje sie konie, a w osobnej przegrodzie 
zrebiela. Na spichrzu leza; rozne zboza, siew koniczyny i 
otreby na pasz§. W oborze stoja, uwi^zane rzgdami krowy, 
woly i eielgta. Pastuch naklada im" siana, koniczyny lub 
sieczki, ktora, przynosi z sieczkarni. T§ samq, paszg dostajq, i 
konie, ale do sieczki dodaje sie. otrgbow lub owsa. Ten obrok 
wsypuje si§ do ziobu, ktory jest zwykle z cementu i ma dwa 
przedzialy, w jednym znajduje si§ napoj, w drugim sucby obrok. 

W chlewach sa, swinie i to maciory z prosi§tami i tucz- 
niki. W kurniku pelno wszelkiego drobiu jak kur, g§si, kaczek, 
czasem takze indykow i perliczek. 

Stodola jest zimq, napelniona zbozem, latem prozna. Do 
wozowni wsuwaja, si§ powozy i wozy gospodarskie, jezeli nie 
sq, uzywane, aby nie mokly na deszczu lub nie rozsychaly sie^ 
na sloncu. Tarn tez znajduja si§ rozne rarz^dzia gospodarski, 
jak plugi, brony, siewniki, grabie konne. 


Przepioreczka sie, odzywa, 
Rozpocze/li ludzie zniwa: 
Brze/'zaj sierpy, brz^czaj kosy, 
Cigzkie ziarnem lecq, ktosy. 

A ode wsi slychac spiewki: 
Spieszq, chlopcy, spieszq, dziewki, 
Niosa; grabie, w pule da^, 
Za zencami snopy zwi^zq. 

Go powiafca, cigzkie snopy, 

To skladaja, je na kopy, 

Dobra ziemia, laska Boza, 

B^dzie chlebek z tego zboza. Marja Konopnicka. 

1 All unknown words are to be found in the Polish-English 
vocabulary at the end of the book. 

Appendix. 123 

Ze wszystkich zboz najwczesniej u nas dojrzewa zyto, po 
Diem jeczmieri, pszenica, groch, a na koricu owies. Skoro z 
dojrzalego zboza rozlegal sie glos przepiorki : pojdzcie za^c, poj- 
dzcie zac, matki i ojcowie nasi brali sierpy i udawali si§: 
Do tycb pol malowanych zbozem rozmaitem, 
Wyzlacanych pszenica, posrebrzanych zytem. 
I rozpoczynaly si§ zuiwa. 

Ale te czasy, gdy zboza sierpem zejo, dawno mindly, bo 
takie sprzaianie zadlugo trwalo, a w zniwa o pospiech chodzi, 
dopoki slorice dogrzewa i pogoda trwa, aby zboze zwiezc sucho 
do stodoL Dla tego wieksze obszary ci^to kosami, ale dzis i 
kosy zastapiono zniwiarkami, wiazalkami i kosiarkami. Zniwiarki 
sa, to maszyny do ci^cia zboz wyzszych, a jezeli one zarazem 
wiazaj, nazywaja sie. wia^zalkami; do niiszych zboz, koniczyny 
i traw uzywajq, si§ kosiarki. Ale zboze od deszczow i 
wiatrow sie pokladlo, trzeba je ciac kosami i klasc na pokosy. 

Za kosnikami ida, dziewczyny, vvi^zq, zboze w snopy i 
ustawiajaj w kopy lub mendle, gdy wyschnie, zwozi sie; je do 
stoddl, albo w sterty ezyli stogi. 

Do mlocenia uzywajq dzis tylko mniejsi wlasciciele cepow, 
wigksi mtocani konnycb lub parowych. 

Po zbozu pozostaje na polu tylko sciernisko, ale i to po- 
krywa sie wkrotce zielenia, jezeli w zbozu zasiana byla koniczyna. 

Po zbozacb przychodzi kolej ua rosliny okopowe jak • 
ziemiaki, march ew, brukiew i buraki. 

Trzy sciezki. 

Trzy sciezki ida z chaty 

Na dolg i uiedolQ. 
Ta jedna idzie przed si§, 

Gdzie orza; panskie pole, 
Ta druga idzie w lewo, 

Gdzie biala karczma stoi, 
A trzecia na ten cmentarz, 

(idzie 1< za wszyscy swoi. 
Od znojnej pracy potu 

Na jedoej >t<>i rosa; 
Na drugiej — /. ojca, matki, 

Smieje sie, dziatwa bosa; 
Na trzeciej konik polny 

W poranki stqzyze parne, 

124 Appendix. 

I brzoza biala placze, 

I krzyze stojq, czarne . . . 
Po drozkach 1 onych 2 chodzaj 

W siermi^gach ludzie bladzi .... # 
A ktoz im wskaze taka,, 

Go w ducha swiat prowadzi? . . . 

Marja Konopnicka. 
Ggsi, iz Rzym uwolnily, 

Wielbione byly. 
A ze sie. to i w nocy i krzyczeniem dzialo, 

Ujete chwalaj 
Szly na rade i stanelo, 
Aby zaczao nowe dzielo: 
W krzyczeniu sig nie szczedzic, 
Lisy z lasu wypedzic. 
Wiec wspaniale, a zwawe 
Poszly w nocy i wrzaw§ 
W lesie zrobily, 
Lisy zbudzily: 
A te, gdy z jamy wypadly, 
Zgryzly ge,si i zjadly. Ignacy Krasicki. 

Spiew ulan6w. 
Jak wspaniala nasza postac, 
Jak sie, blyszczy w sloncu stal, 
Kon rwie ziemi§, niechce dostac, 
Pojdziesz koniu, pojdziesz w dal. 

Taki los wypadt nam, 

Dzisiaj tu, a jutro tarn. 
Nie ptacz dziewcz^, nie ptacz wiele, 
Tylko jedne, lezke 3 zrori, 
Pqjdtfcie, drodzy przyjaciele, 
Niech usciskam 4 waszaj dton! 

Taki los wypadl nam, 

Dzisiaj lu, a jutro tarn. 
Czyi nie mamy zyc wesolo, 
Wszak nie wiemy, gdzie nasz grob; 
Jedna kulka swisnie w czolo, 
I o ziemie runie trup. 

1 Diminutive of droga. — 2 In the popular language = tych. 
3 Diminutive of iza. — 4 = usciskamy. 

Appendix. U5 

Taki los wypadi nam, 
Dzisiaj tu, a jutro tarn. 

Piesn legjon6w polskich. 
Jeszcze Polska nie zgin^la, 
Poki my zyjemy, 
Go nam obca przemoc wzieia, 
Szablq, odbierzemy. 
Marsz, marsz, Da^browski 1 , 
Z ziemi wloskiej do Polski, 
Za twoim przewodem 
Zlq,czym si$ z narodem. 

Przejdziem Wisle, przejdziem Wart§, 

Bgdziem Polakami ; 

Dal nam przyklad Bonaparte, 

Jak zwyciezac mamy. 

Marsz, marsz, Da^browski, 

Z ziemi wloskiej do Polski, 

Za twoim przewodem 

Zlaczym si§ z narodem. 

Jak Gzarniecki 2 do Poznania 

Po szwedzkim zaborze 

Dla Ojczyzny ratowania 

Wrocim sie. przez morze. , 

Marsz, marsz DaJjrowski, 

Z ziemi wloskiej do Polsk', 

Za twoim przewodem 

Zlaczym sie. z narodem. 

Mowil ojciec do swej Basi, 

Caly zaplakany: 

Sluchaj, Basiu, pono nasi 

Bij^, w tarabany. 

Marsz, marsz, Dabrowski, 

Z ziemi wloskiej do Polski, 

Zs ' lem 

Zlaozyin si§ z narodem. Jdzef Wybicki. 

1 Da_browski was a Pol -h general, who, at the lime <>t' Napo- 
leon I*t, organized in Italy the Polish legion, which foined t lie 
French army. {Zlqczym, &c. instead i t' ziqczymy, A 

2 Czarniecki was a celebrated Polish chief (hetmanj who lired 

at the time of the Polsko-Swedish war- of the seventeenth century 
and became known in all Europe by his brilliant victory over Dlfl 
enemies on the I)anish islands. 

126 Appendix. 

Wloska kraina. 

WJoska kraina przed wszystkiemi slynie, 
Bl^kitne niebo we wtoskiej krainie; 

W niej ojczystej lubej stronie, 

Blade niebo, ciemne btonie 

Takq, wonia, tchnie, 

Ze te piekne wloskie kraje, 

Gytrynowe wonne gaje 

Nie zczaruja; mnie. 
Z dalekiej strony do wtoskiej krainy 
Przychodze swieie tza, skropic ruiny, 

Lecz mej ziemi kazdy ka^tek 

Tyle swietych ma pamiaiek, 

Z jej zamierzchtych dni, 

Ze na wielkim swiata grobie 

Chciatbym plakac, ale w sobie 

Nie znajduj^ tzy. 
Gicho z wiatrami piesn jakowas plynie . 
Gzarowne, mowia;, piesni w tej krainie: 

Moze z dawnych lat zblaAana 

Rzewna nuta Krakowiana 

Slyszee sig tu da. 

I w mem oku Izy juz rosna, . . . 

Rybak zaczal piesn mitosnaj, 

Cofneta sie tza. 
Auzonskie roze! Auzoiiskie dziewice, 
Wdzigk wasz zachwyca, a palaj zrenice ; 

Lecz kto raz juz na tym swiecie 

Liljowe marzyl kwiecie, 

W mtoiocianym snie, 

Ten podziwiac, uczcic moze 

Obcaj pigknosc, obcq, rozg, 

Ale kochac — nie! 
Ty wigc zachodni wietrzyku pieszczony, 
Go stodko wiejesz w me ojczyste strony, 

Roznies drz^ce po dolinach, 

Po mogitach, po ruinach 

Echo zalow tych: 

Moze czule powitane 

Przyniesie mi Izy w zarniane. 

Od wspotbraci mych. 

Appendix. 127 

Gr6b Potockiej 1 . 
W kraju wiosny, pomie Izy rozkosznymi sady, 
UwiedJas, mloda rozo! Bo przeszlosci chwile, 

Ulatuj^c od ciebie jak zlote motyle, 
Rzucily w glebi serca pamiaAek owady. 

Tarn na polnoc, ku Polsce, swieca gwiazd gromady, 
Dla czegoz na tej drodze blyszczy sig ich tyle? 
Czy wzrok twoj ogma .pelen, nim zgasna^l w mogile, 
Tarn, wiecznie leca^c, jasne powypalal slady? 

Polko! i ja dni skoricz§ w samotnej zniobie; 
Tu niech mi garstke. ziemi dhri przyjazna rzuci ! 
Podrozni cz^sto przy twym rozmawiaja grobie, 

I mnie wtenczas dzwi^k mowy rodzinnej ocuci, 
I wieszcz samotna piosnke, dumajac o tobie, 
Ljrzy bliskq, mogile i dla mnie zauuci." 

Adam Mickiewicz. 


A gdy skonal w czarnej chacie 

Jasienko mity, 
Poszta matka prosic dzwonow, 

By mu dzwonily. 
Moj synaczek, moj rodzony 

\V trumience lezy, 

1 Not far from the palace of the khans, in the Crimea, there 
is a mound, formed after the oriental fashion with a round cupola. 
The inhabitants of those regions tell the traveller that this monument 
was erected by Kerim-Girai for a slave-girl, whom he loved exceed- 
ingly, and who is said to have been a Pole, a member ot the 
family of Potocki. 

2 Translation. The Grave of the Potocka. In the land of 
spring, amongst delightful gardens, you faded away, () young rose, 
for the moments of the Past, soaring away like golden butterflies, 
threw the insects of Remembrance into the bottom of your heart. 
There, towards the north, towards Poland there glitter Large num- 
bers of stars! . . . Why do so many of them glitter on that road? 
Did your fiery eye, before being extinguished in the grave, hurrying 
there tor ever, burn those light traces in the^kiesV Polish girl, 
I, too, shall finish my days in lonely sadness; here a friendly hand 
may throw some earth on me! Wanderers often entertain one 
another, standing close to your grave; and I. too, shall be awakened 
by the sound of my mother-tongue, and when a p>>et will dream a 
lonely song ot you, he will look at the grave near at hand and 
sing a sweet song for me. too. 

128 Appendix. 

zagrajciez wy mu, dzwony, 

Z tej bialej wiezy! 
Niechaj idzie glos bija^cy 

jasne storice, 

Przez te pola, przez te lasy, 

Z wiatrem szumiajce. 
Ale dzwony twarde serca, 

Zimnaj piers miaty. 
Bedziem jemu dzwonic, inatko, 

Za talar bialy. — 

1 wrocila narzekajq-c 

Do pustej chaty, 
Przetrza^snela wszystkie k^ty 

1 zgrzebne szaty. 

I nic wi^eej nie znalazla, 

Prdcz onej swity, 
Ktorq, syna trup zczernialy 

Lezat nakryty. 
Nieszczesliwas moja dola, 

Jasienku mily, 
Chybaz tobie Izy te moje 

B§da; dzwonily. 
Ghyba moje narzekanie 

Bic b^dz'e z rosq,, 
Kiedy ciebie na mogilki 

Z chaty wynios^,? 
I wyniesli za prog czarny 

Trumieuk^ lichq,, 
A za synem poszla matka 

Sciezyna; cichaj. 
I nie graly jemu dzwony 

Z wysokiej wiezy, 
Jeno szumial las zielony 

I wietrzyk swiezy. 
Jeno dzwonki te liljowe, 

Go w borze rosnaj, 
Zeby dzwonic chlopskim trumnom 

W droge; zalosnaj. Marja Konopnicka. 

Appendix. 129 

Modlitwa Panska. (The Lord's Prayer.) 
Ojcze nasz, ktorys jest w niebiesiech, swi^c sie; imie 
Twoje, przyjdz krolestwo Twoje, badz wola Twoja, jako w 
niebie, tak i ria ziemi. Ghleba naszego powszedniego daj nam 
dzisiaj i odpusc nam nasze winy, jako i my odpuszczamy 
naszym winowajcom. I nie wodz nas na pokuszenie, ale nas 
zbaw ode zlego. Amen. 

(Albowiem Twoje jest krolestwo i moc i chwala na wieki 
wiekow. Amen.) 

Pozdrowienie anielskie. (Ave Mary.) 
Zdrowas Marjo, laskis pelna, Pan z Toba! Blcgoslawionas 
Ty miedzy niewiastami i blogosiawion 1 owoc zvwota Twojego, 
Jezus. Swieta Marjo, Matko Boza, modi si§ za nami grzesz- 
nymi, teraz i w godzing smierci naszej. Amen. 

Sklad apostolski. (Apostolic Credo.) 
\ Wierze, w Boga Ojca wszechmogacego, stworzyciela nieba 

i ziemi i w Jezusa Chrystusa, Syna jego jedynego, pana nasze- 
go, ktory sie. poczal z Ducba swigtego, narodzii si§ z Marji 
Panny, umgczon 1 pod Pontskim Pilatem. ukrzyzowan 1 , umart i 
pogrzebion, zst^pil do piekiel, trzeciego dnia zmartwychwstat, 
wst^pit na niebiosa, siedzi na prawicy Boga Ojca wszechmo- 
ga^cego, stamtad przyjdzie sadzic zywych i umarlycli. Wierze, w 
Ducha swigtego, swiety kosciol powszecliny, swietycb obco- 
wanie, grzecbow odpuszczenie, ciala zmartwychwstanie i zywot 
wieczny. Amen. 

Dziesiecioro przykazan bozych. (The Ten Commandments.) 
Jam jest Pan Bog tvvoj. ktorym cie wywiodJ /. ziemi 

egipskiej z domu niewoli. 

1. Nie bedziesz miat bogow cudzycb przedc inna. 

_. Xie bedziesz brat imienia Pana Boga twego nadarenmo. 

3. Pamielaj, abys dzien swiety swiQcft. 

4. Czcij ojca twego i matke. twoja. 

5. Nie zabijaj. 
<*>. Nie cudzoloz. 

7. Nie kradnij. 

8. Nie mow przeciw bli£niemu twemu falszywego ftwia- 

1 biogostmcioni/. iimgizofty, iikf:ii~-ou<t<ni, pogrzebiony. 

Elementary Puli.h «.rarmnar. * 

130 Appendix. 

9. Nie pozadaj zony blizniego twego. 

10. Ani domu, am wolu, ani slugi, ani sluzebnicy, ani 
zadnej rzeczy, ktora jego jest. 

Bgdziesz milowal Pana Boga twego ze wszystkiego serca 
twego i z calej duszy twojej, a blizniego twego, jak siebie 


Otwarcie interesu. (Opening of a business.) 

Lwow, data stempla pocztowego. 
Niniejszem mam zaszczyt doniesc W. P. jak najuprzejmiej, 
iz w koncu grudnia r. b. otwieram przy ulicy Sobjeskiego pod 
nr. 12 magazyn pierwszorzgdnej garderoby m§skiej na miarg. 

Majac w tym zawodzie dlugoletnie doswiadczenie i grun- 
towfia. praktykg, postanowilem sluzyc Szanownym Odbiorcom 
towarem pierwszorzednej jakosci w potq-czeniu z modnym kro- 
jem i wzorowem wykonaniem, tusz§ sobie przeto ze sprostam 
najwybredniejszym wymaganiom swoich klijentow. 

Zanosz^c unizona, prosbe o laskawe poparcie mego przed- 
siebiorstwa, pozostaj^ 

z powazaniem 

A. Zigtkiewicz. 1 

Lemberg, date of the post-office-stamp. 
1 In the following I have the honour of communicating to 
you most politely that, at the end of December of the present (r. b. 
= roku biez^cego) year, I shall open in Sobjeski Street Nr. 12 a 
shop of first-class wardrobe after measure for gentlemen. 

Having an experience of many years and a well-grounded 
practice in that profession, I made up my mind to serve my ho- 
noured customers with merchandise of first class quality, of modern 
cut and of unobjectionable performance, I flatter myself with being 
able to fulfill the most exquisite wishes of my customers. 

Addressing to you the humble begging of assisting my enter- 
prise, I remain 

Yours most respectfully 

A. Zie_tkiewicz. 

Prosba o kredyt. (Suit for credit.) 

Poznaii, dnia 20-go sierpnia r. 1920. 
Szanowny (or Wielmozny) Panie! 
W ostatnim czasie otrzymalem powazne zlecenia, wcho- 
dzace w zakres mego interesu, jak np. dostaw§ mater jaiow 

Appendix. 131 

budowlanych dla buduj^cej sie cukrowni \v Gnieznie i dvvoch 
kamienic w Bydgoszczy. Potrzeba mi na wykonanie tych zleceri 
gotowki w wysokosci marek 200000, z ktorej sam posiadam 
tylko polowe. Poniewaz jednak w mojem przedsiebiorstwie i 
posiadlosci umiescitem kapital znacznie wiekszy-, daja^cy zupelne 
zabezpieczenie, zapytuje, sie, Szanownego Pana, czyby mi nie 
zechcial otworzyc w banku Swoim stalego kredytu az do 100000 
marek i na jakich warunkach. 

W oczekiwaniu laskawej odpowiedzi zalaezam wyrazy 
szacunku i pozostaje 

z powazaniem 

St. Wroblewski. 2 

2 Posen, August 20th 1920. 
(Dear) Sir, 

In the last time I got important commissions belonging to 
the extent of my business as e. g. the delivery of building-materials 
for the building of a sugar-house at Gnesen and of two houses at 
Bromber^. 1 want for delivering these commissions up to 200000 
marks, of which sum I possess only the half. But as in my enter- 
prise and in my possession I invested a considerably larger capital, 
which grants a full security, I ask you if you would not lodge me 
with your bank fixed credit up to 100000 marks and on what 

Waiting for your kind answer, I add the expression of my 
esteem and remain 

Yours most respectfully 

St. Wroblewski. 

Rewers. (Reciprocal bond.) 
Poswiadczam niniejszem, ze otrzymalem od p. Kasprzaka 
gotowkq, pozyczke, w wysokosci marek 5G0 (piecsetszescdziesiat 
marek). Od sumy tej obowiazuje, sie. placid 5 proeent od sta 
i zwrdcic takowaj za trzymiesieeznem wypowiedzeniem ze strony 

Gdansk, dnia 14-go listopada 19H». 

J. Stachowiak.' 

3 I acknowledge in the following that I received from Mr. Kn< 
przak a loaned sum of 560 (five hundred and sixty) marks in readj 
money in cash. I engage myself to pay 5 per cent of this sum and 
to repay the same sum after a recalling of three months from the 
side of the creditor. 

Danzig, November 14th 1919. 

J, Stachowiak. 



Zaproszenie. (Invitation.) 

Kwidzyii, 3-go czerwca 19 It. 
Kochany Panie Doktorze! 
Badz Pan iaskaw odwiedzic nas pojutrze wieczorem. Na 
dzien ten zapowiedzial swe przybycie pan prof. Rutowski, ktory 
radby Pana poznac. 

Zala^czajac uprzejme uklony dla Szanownej malzonki i dla 

Pana samego, pisze, sie, zyczliwy 

Stanislaw. 4 

* , Marienwerder, June 3^ 1919. 

Dear Doctor, 
Be so kind as to come to see us in the evening after to-morrow. 
For that day professor Rutowski who would like to make your 
acquaintance, announced his visit. 

Adding polite compliments for your esteemed wife and for 
yourself, Yours most affectionately 


Easy Talks (Rozmowy). 
L \ 

A walk* 

Jakq, pore, roku przeklada pan Which season do you prefer 

nad inne? 
Lato, bo ono jest najprzyjem- 

niejszq, porq. roku. 
Na wiosne. bywa zazwyczaj 

jeszcze bardzo zimno. 
Zupelnie nie lubie. zimy. 
Nie tylko pan sam. 
Zima, wszystko zamiera, a dni 

sa, bardzo nudne. 

Prawda, lecz mozna isc do 

Latem, gdy dni sa, przyjemne, 

mozna chodzic do ogrodu. 

Dodac nalezy, ze w tej porze 
roku bardzo wesolo na wsi. 

to the others? 

Summer is the most agreeable 

In spring it is still very cold, 
usually. - 

I do not like winter at all. 

You are not alone in that. 

In winter everything dies away, 
and the days are very te- 

To be sure, but you may go 
to the play. 

In summer, when the days 
are pleasant, you may go 
into the garden. 

You must still add that in this 
season there is much merry- 
making in the country. 



Pan ma racje-, latem s% 
wszejdzie przyjemne spacery. 

Wszgdzie znalezc mozna przy- 
jemne towarzystwo. 

Czy widzial pan podczas spa- 
ceru mnostwo robotnikow, 
udaja^cych si§ na robots do 

Owszem widzialem, sa to ro- 
botnicy zniwani ktdrzy przy- 
nosza duzo pienigdzy do swej 

You are (quite) right, in sum- 
mer you find pleasant walks 

You may find agreeable com- 
pany everywhere. 

Did you see, when walking, 
that large number of work- 
men who went to work in 

Certainly, I saw them; they 
are harvest-men. They 
bring much money back into 
their native country. 


Jaka dzis pogoda? 


Mamy zatem niepogode? 

Tak, panie, pada deszcz i wieje 

silny wiatr. 
Czy zeszlej nocy padalo? 
Nie wiem. 
Gdzie moj parasol? Musze 

Niech pan zaczeka, az prze- 

stanie padac. 
Sadzg, ze niepredko przesta- 

nie padac. 
A mnie sie zdaje, ze juz prze- 

stalo padac. 
Tern lepiej. 
Radz^ panu obuc buty. 


Poniewaz na ulicy btoto. 

Jednakowoz zaczyna sie wy- 

Tak. widze, nawet tecze,. 



What weather have we to-day? 
It is not fine weather. 
Then we have bad weather? 
Yes, sir, it is raining, and a 

strong storm is blowing. 
Did it rain last night? 
I do not know. 
Where is my umbrella ? I must 

go out. 
Wait, sir, till the rain is over. 

I believe it will not soon, cease 

But I believe it has already 
ceased raining. 

So much the better. 

I advise you to put on your 

Why, then? 

It is very dirty in the stri 

The weather is alreadj clear- 
ing up. 

Yes, sir. 1 even see a rain- 



To oznaka pieknej pogody. 

Slorice zachodzi. 


Czy dzis zimno ? 

Tak, nawet bardzo zimno. 

Tej nocy b§dzie bardzo marzto. 

Niechgtnie wychodze, gdy 

Mgta opada na ziemie pod po- 

staciq, rosy. 
Dzis b^dziemy mieli pi^knq, 


That is a sign of beautiful 

The sun is setting. 
It is night. 
Is it cold to-day? 
It is very cold indeed. 
To-night it will freeze very hard. 
I do not like to go out when 

it is freezing. 
The fog falls on earth as dew. 

To-day we 

shall have fine 

About music. 

Go pan sadzi o tej symfonji? What do you think of this 


How do you find this music? 

I find it very beautiful. 

Do you hear those hautboys, 
flutes and bassoons? 

They distinguish themselves ve- 
ry much among the stringed 

The upper gallery is already 

And in the boxes there are 
also many ladies. 

I never saw a hall so crowded 
in every part. 

Indeed, there are to-day un- 
commonly many spectators. 

The symphonical concerts are 
well filled when a solo-singer 
makes his appearance. 

Jak sig panu podoba tamuzyka? 
Znajduje; jq. bardzo pieknaj. 
Czy pan styszy tamte oboje, 

flety i fagoty? 
Owszem, wyrozniajq, sie bardzo 

z pomiedzy smyczkowych in- 

Galerja juz zapetniona. 

W lozach rowniez siedzi duzo 

Nigdy nie widzialem tak napel- 

nionej w kazdej cz^sci sali. 
Rzeczywiscie, dzis nadzwy- 

czaj duzo widzow. 
A tak, bo koncerty symfoniczne 

z wystejpujajcym solistaj maja 


On a voyage. 

Czy pan Rosjanin? Are you a Russian? 

Nie, panie, jestem Niemcem. No, sir, I am a German. 
Czy pan wraca do Bremen? Do you return to Bremen? 



Tak, panie. ■ Yes, sir. 

Czy pan ma wielu pasaze- Have you many passengers? 

Jest ich z dwunastu. • 
Gzy pariski okret obszerny? 
Owszem, kajuty sa bardzo wy- 

He pan zada za mqj prze- 

jazd ? 
Czy z calem utrzymaniem? 
Tak, panie. 
W takim razie zaplaci mi pan 

sto marek. 
To co inni placa, zaptace 

panu takze. 

There are about twelve. 

Have you a spacious ship? 

The cabins are very comfor- 

How much do you ask for my 

With full board? 

Yes, sir. 

In this case you pay me one 
hundred marks. 

What the other persons pay 
you, I shall pay you too. 

About health. 

Dzieii dobry panu, jak sie, pan Good day. sir, how do 

miewa ? 
•lestem zdrow. Bogu dzieki! 

Nie widziaiem pana dawno u 

Rzadko wychodze. 
Kiedy mie pan raczy od- 

W przyszla niedziel^. 
Rano czy popoludniu? 

Po obiedzie. 

Bedg zatem oczekiwal pana. 

(Badz pan zdrow !) Zegnam 

Dlaczego nie przyprowadzil 

pan swego brata? 
To bylo niemozliwe, panie! 
Dlaczego ? 

Poniewaz jest chory. 
Go pan mowi? Ghory? 
Tak, panie ! 
A co mu jest V 

I feel (quite) well, thank 

Heaven (God)! 
I have not" seen you for a long 

time at my house! 
I seldom go out. 
When shall you like to come 

to see me? 
On Sunday next. 
In the morning or in [he 

afternoon ? 
After dinner. 

Then I shall wait lor you. 
Good-bye. sir ! 

Why did you not bring your 

brother with you? 
It was impossible, sir! 
Why, then? 
Because he is ill. 
What do you tell me? He is ill? 
Yes, sir! 
And what ails him ? 



Ma febrg. 

Gzy dawno? 

Od wczoraj. 

Prosze go pozdrowic odemnie ! 

Prosze;, niech mu pan powie, 

ze boleje, nad jego chorobaj. 
Dziekujg, uczynie, to. 
Jakze ze zdrowiem panskiej 

matki ? 
Gzuje sie, bardzo zdrowq,. 
Cieszy mie to. 
Gzuj§ sig obowiq,zanym do 

wdziecznosci za pansk^ 

Do widzenia ! (Badz pan zdrow !) 

Zegnam Pana! 

He is in a fever. 

Since when ? 

Since yesterday. 

Be so kind as to present him 

with my compliments. 
Tell him that I am sorry to 

hear of his illness. 
I thank you, I shall do so. 
And how is your mother? 

She feels very well. 
I am glad to hear it. 
I am very much obliged to 
you for your kindness. 

Good-bye ! Farewell ! 

On relationship. 

Prosz§, objasnij mi pan rozmai- Explain the different degrees 

te stopnie powinowactwa ! 
W tej chwili panu sluzg! 
Dziadkiem nazywam ojca mego 

ojca albo mej matki. 
Babka jest matkq, mego ojca 

lub mej matki. 
Tesc jest ojcem mojej zony. 

Tesciowa jest matk^ mojej 

of relationship to me, please ! 
I .will do so instantly. 
Grandfather I call my father's 

or my mother's father. 
Grandmother is my father's or 

my mother's mother. 
My father-in-law is my wife's 

My mother-in-law is my wife's 

Stryj jest bratem mego ojca, My uncle is my father's bro- 

wuj zas bratem mojej matki. 

Bratanek jest synem mego 
brata, siostrzeniec zas synem 
mojej siostry. 

Siostrzenica jest jej corkq,. 

Szwagier jest me/.em mojej 

Bratowa jest zona^ mego bra- 

ther (stryj) or my mother's 
brother (wuj). 

My nephew is my brother's 
son (bratanek) or my sister's 
son (siostrzeniec). 

My niece is her daughter. 

My brother-in-law is the hus- 
band of my sister. 

My sister-in-law is the wife of 
my brother. 



On travelling. 

He mil mamy stad do naj- How many miles is it from 
blizszej wioski? here to the next village? 

Osiem ! 

Czy droga dobra? 
Nie osobliwa, trzeba przejez- 
dzac przez lasy i rzeki. 

Czy droga bezpieczna? 
Owszem, niema zadnego nie- 

bezpieczehstwa, ani we dnie, 

ani w nocy. 
Czy mozemy w tern miasteczku 

Tak jest, panowie znajd% 

tain dobre pokoje i dobra 

Zsiadziemy zatem. 
Niech pan kaze nasze konie 

zaprowadzic do stajni! 
Zobaczmy teraz. czem nas pan 

moze ugoscic na kolacje. 
Wszysttiem czem panowie 

racza rozkazac. 
Prosze^, niech pan nam zatem 

da polskiej kielbasy z ka- 

Wigcej nic? 
No, prosze jeszcze po szklanke 

dobrego piwa ! 
Zadowoleni panowie z kola- 

Zupelnie, lecz i pana zadowol- 

niu musiniy. 
lie ptacimy? 
Rachunek niewielki. \\'\ 

pietnascie marek. 
Niech pan nas kazc jntro 

wczesnie obudzic. 

It is eight miles. 

Is the way good? 

Not especially, you must pass 

through forests and across 

Is the way dangerous? 
There is no danger at all — 

neither by day nor by night. 

May we pass the night in this 

little town? 
Yes. gentlemen, you will find 

there beautiful rooms and 

good beds. 
Then we will alight. 
Order our horses to be led 

into the stable, please! 
Let us see now what you can 

give us for supper! 
All that you will order! 

Please then, give us some Po- 
lish sausage with chopped 
and fermented cabbage! 

Don't you like anything else? 

Give us a glass of good beer, 
plea-- ! 

Are you satisfied with your 

Certainly, but we must satisfy 
you too! 

What did our supper cos! us? 

Tlie bill is not exorbitant It 
amounts to fifteen marl 

< >rder us lo I e early awakened 
to-morrow, pleas 



Dobrze, dobranoc panom, 

przyjemnego snu ! 
Dzien dobry panom. Jak pano- 

wie spali tej nocy? 
Bardzo mocno, poniewaz byli- 

smy zme^czeni. 
Kiedy panowie racz^ zjesc snia- 

Zyczylibysmy sobie natych- 

Panska herbata wyborna. 
Kiedy panowie odjadq,? 
Zaraz po sniadaniu. — Dzis 

wieczorem musimy bye w 

Gniezno niedaleko, z Ktecka 

bgdzie jeszcze dobra godzina. 

Do widzenia w przyszlym roku ! 
Szczgsliwej drogi ! 

Well, good night, gentlemen, 

may you sleep well! 
Good morning, gentlemen! How 

did you sleep this night? 
We slept soundly, as we were 

At what o'clock do you wish 

to breakfast? 
We wish to do so immediately. 

Your tea is excellent. 

When shall you depart ? 

Immediately after breakfast. — 
We must arrive at Gnesen 
(Gniezno) this evening. 

Gnesen is not far; from Klecko 
you will have a drive of 
somewhat more than an 

Good-bye till next year! 

A happy journey! 

Proverbs. PrzysiotHa, 

1. Czlowiek strzela, a Pan Bog kule. nosi. — Man pro- 
poses, and God disposes. 2. Go si§ odwlecze, to nie uciecze. 

— Forbearance is no acquittance. 3. Jablko od jabloni daleko 
nie odleci. — He is a chip of the old block. 4. Cicha woda 
brzegi rwie. — Still waters run deep. 5. Bez pracy niema 
kolaczy. — No pains, no gains. 6. Kiedy trwoga, to do Boga. 

— He that would learn to pray, let him go to sea. 7. Natura 
ciajmie wilka do lasu. — A wild goose never laid a tame egg. 

8. Kazdy poczatek trudny. — Beginnings are always difficult. 

9. Kto rano wstaje, temu Pan Bog daje. — The early bird 
catches the worm. 10. Prozniactwo wszelkiego zlego poczatek. 

Idleness is the root of all evil. If. Nie wszystko zloto, co 
sie, swieci. — All is not gold that glitters. 12. Madry Polak 
po szkodzie. — Adversity makes a man wise, though not rich. 
13. Spiewac darmo boli gardto. — No longer pipe, no longer 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 


a ['a] ah (interjection); and, but 
aby I'ab'iJ that (conj.) 
aczkolwiek [atf'koli\ekJ although 
adwokat [ad'vokat] lawyer 
akt I'akt] document 
albo ['albjj or: albo — albo 

either — or 
ale [' ale] but 
Alpy I'alp'i] Alps 
Alzacja [al'zatsja] Alsatia 
Alzatczyk fal'zatfikj Alsatian 

nngielski [an'gjsUki] English 
<ini — ani ['ant J neither — nor 
anioi f'anpij angel 
apostoi [a'pjfttoij apostle 
aptekafajj'teka] apothecary's shop 
aptekarz [ap'tekag] apothecary 
arak f'arakj arrack 
armata [ar'mata] cannon 
Austrja /'austrjaj Austria [(subst.) 
Austrjak faustrjak] Austrian 
astronom [as'tronom] astronomer 
atciiski [a tin ski] Athenian (adj.) 
atrament [a'tramentj ink 
Auzonski [an ': >v ski] Ausonian. 

Italian (adj.) 
ax [a;] to, till 
Azja I'azja] Asia. 


baba ['babaj, babka f'bapka) 

bad sie [bats i sf] to fear 
bagno ['bagno] marsh 
bajka f'bajkaj tale, fable 
bal I'balJ ball (festivity) 
bania [buna] the can, jug 
baranina / bura'nina] mutton 
bardzo f'bardzo] very 

barka f'barkaj barge, bark 
barszcz[barftf] soup of beet-roots 
Basia ['basa] diminutive of 

bawarski [ba'varski] Bavarian 

bawic sie [bav l its i s t e] to play 
bez ['bezj without (prep.) 
bezcen ['bestsin] a very low price 
bezczyn nose [be z'tfinnostpj 

bialy f'bai'i] white 
bit- ['b x itsj to strike, to beat 
biec [b t etsj to run 
bieda I'bida] trouble, need 
bitica ['bltva] battle 
blady ['blad'i] pale 
biqdzic ['bl.jdzjt { sj to err 
biekitny [bh'k'ifui] blue 
bfisko ['blisko] near (prep.) 
blizni ['bliz { ni] the fellow-crea- 
biogoslatc/'c [bhg.j*l(n\its] to bless. 
biof/osia/riri/stiro [biogo&d ' r 6*1 - 

stoo] blessing (subst.) 
blonie ['bionil meadow 
biotny ['bi.rfn'i] see ptak 
biyskac ['biikatsj to lighten 
biyszczec [bl'iftfetpj to glitter 
bo ['bo] for, as 
bobr [ bubr] beaver, castoi 
bocian ['hots an] stork 
Bog ['bug J God, god 
bogaez ['bogat/J rich roan 
bogaty [bo'gafi] rich 
bogini [bo'ginf] goddess 
bohater [bo hater] hero 
bojaM I'b.ija: n/ fear (subst) 
bok ['boh] side 
bid / bill/ pain, ache 
lialcslair /h./hslarj Bole 

bomba ['bomba] bomb 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 

bor I 'bur J forest 

boski ['boski], bozy ['bojij of 

God, godly 
brae ['brat x sj to take 
brakoivae [bra'kovat^,] to be 

Bt andenburgja [brandsn burgja] 

brat ['brat] brother 
broda ['brodaj beard 
bron i'bronj Weapon 
brona ['bronaj harrow 
brudny ['brudnij dirty 
bruk I'bruk] pavement 
brukiew ['bruk^vj turnip 
bruzda f'bruzdaj furrow 
brze,czec [b^£tfst l sj to sound 
brzeg ['b$eg] edge, bank 
brzmiec l'bgm x et x sj to sound 
brzoza ['bgoza] birch-tree 
brzytwa ['bgitva] razor 
budowa [bu'dova] building 
budzic ['bud^ft^J to awaken 
buk ['buk] beech 
Buk ['buk] Buk (name of a town) 
bukowy las [bu'kov'i las] beech- 
buika ['bulka] roll (white bread) 
buraka [bu'raka] beet-root 
burmistrz ['burmistf] mayor 
but ['but] boot 
buzia ['buz a] kiss (subst.) 
bye ['b'itpj, bywae ['bivat x sj 

to be (to have intercourse) 
Bydgoszcz ['b'idgojtf] Bromberg 

bydio ['b'idlo] cattle. 


catowac [tsa'hvat x sj to kiss 
caiy ['tsal'i] whole 
cement ['tsement] cement 
centnar [ ' tsintnar] hundred- 
cep ['isipj flail 
cesarz I'tsisag] emperor 
chata [\ata] cottage 
chciwy Ixisu'i] avaricious 
chtdny I'xitm] willing, ready 
chleb I'yjtb] bread (dim. chlebka) 
clilew f'xkvj (pig-)sty 
rhiop [\lopl peasant, man, fellow 
rhiopiec ['\ijpulsj boy 

chiopski ['ylopskj,] of a peasant 
chlostac ['xiostat^J to whip 
chmura ['xpiura/ cloud 
chociaz ['x^, s , a sh c hoc ['xot^J 

though,, although 
chod ['xudj gait 
chodzic ['xodf&fipj to go about 

{chodzi o it is the question) 
chor ['xur[ chorus 
choroba [xoroba] disease, illness 
chory ['xori] ill, sick 
chowac I 'X2 va t,sJ to bury 
chrobry ['xrobri] brave 
chrzescijanin [xf£ s ^, s /j an \* n ] 

Christian (subst.) 
chwala ['xvala] praise (subst.) 
chwalic ['xvalitpj to praise 
chwytac['xvitatpjic) catch, to seize 
chyba ['x'iba] yet, however 
ciqc ['tpptpj to hew, to cut 

(subst. circle) 
cialo [ , t l s i aio] body 
ciastko [ f t t sfl,stka] cake 
cichy ['t^^iyij noiseless, gentle 

(adv. cicho) 
dec [t t s t £tsj to flow 
dele [ , t l s i el£j calf 
cielecina [t [ s^let [ s i ina] veal 
ciemny ['tsfimn'i] dark 
ciepiy ['t y s s epVi] warm 
cierpiec ['tfiprpifitpj to suffer 
cierpliwosc [ts i £r'plivos i t t s l J pa- 
cierpliwy [t^'pliv'i] patient 
ciesla [ , t ] s i es l la] carpenter 
ciesnina [t^^e's^n^na] straits 
cieszyc sie ['t l s l £['it i s l sp] to re- 
joice [weight) 
ciczki [ , t l s l £fki] heavy (of a 
ciotka ['t x sptka] aunt 
cmentarz [tsnwntag] cemetery 
cnota ['tsnjta] virtue 
cnotliwy [tsnjt'liv'i] virtuous 
co ['tso] what? — (with subst.) 

codzienny [tso'dzpnm] daily 
cofnqe sie, ['tsofnot^s s t e] to give 
corka [tsurka] daughter [way 
cudowny [tsudovn'i] wonderful 
cudzy ['tsudzij other people's 

(e. g. property), strange 
cukierki [tsukprkp] confect, 

Polish-English Vocabulary. 


iwiczyc [tsvitf'itpj to exercise 

{civiczenie subst.) 
cyklista [ts'l'klista] bicyclist 
cynamon [tsi'namon] cinnamon 
cytryna [tsttr'ina] lemon 
rytrynowy [tsTtr'injv'i'J of lemon 
czapka I'tfapka] cap 
czapla [tfaplaj heron 
czarny ['tfarrii] black 
czarowny [tfar'ovnx] enchanting 
czas ft/as] time 
czcic l'tfts s it x sj to honour 
Czech I'tfexJ Bohemian (subst.) 
Czech y ['tfetf] Bohemia 
czekac f'tjikatsj to wait 
czekolada [tfekoladaj chocolate 
czerwiec ['tfervists] June 
czerivony [tfer'vontj red 
czes'c l'tfs x stsj honour 
•zeic ['tftsdsj part (subst.) 
ezesto I'tfistj] often [tain 

czestowac [tfestjvat^J to enter- 
tzionek ['tfhnek] member 
cztowiek ['tfijr^kj (pi. hidzie) 

czoio f'tjoioj forehead 
cztery /' (fieri] four 
tzud [ , tftd l 8 l I to feel {czucie subst.) 
czuiy ['tful't'l full of feeling. 

cztcartt'l: ['tfrartikj Thursday 
czworaki [tfvo'raki] fourfold 
cztcorobgczny [tfvjr.ibotfn'i] of 

four sides 
usworono&ny [tfvoro'nognt] qua- 
czy f'tf'ij if, whether? 
czyj, -a, -e ['tf'ijj whose V 
ezyli ['t fili J or 
czynir rtfxnitjsj to do 
czysto&t ['tj%8t98 t t t sj cleanliness 
czy sty f't/'isfij clean 
czytac ['tfltatfij to read. 


dab f'dlbj oak 

Dqbrotta Ido'brota] Dombrowa 

doc I'dal^J, dawac [ , davat l 8,] 

to give 
d<u- ['dot is J to blow, sound 
I'ddi i w <iai at .1 distance 

daleki [da'leki] far [remit 

darowac [da rjvatsj to give, to 
dawny [ da/onx) former 
dqzyc ['dogitsj to strive 
debina [di b x ina] wood of oaks 
deptac ['deptatsj to tread 
deska f'deska] plank 
deszcz ['deftf] rain 
djabei ['djabeij devil 
dla f'dla] for. on account of (prep.) 
dion I'dl.mJ palm of the hand 
dlug ['dxhigj debt 
dlugi ['diug t i] long (adv. dhugo) 
diuznik ['dlugnik] debtor 
do ['do] to, into (prep.) 
dobroc[dobrot i s,J bounty, kindness 
dobroczynca [dobrd'tfinUa] bene- 
dobry f'dobrij good 
dobywac [do'bxvatfij to storm 
doczekacfdo'tfekatsj to live to see 
dodac [ dodatpj to add 
dogladac [do'glodatjsj to in- 
spect, to control 
dogodzid [do f godz t it i sJ to comply 

dogrzeioac [do'ggevat t 8 t ] to warm 
dojechac [do'jeyjitsj to reach 
dojrzeivac [doj'sevatflj to ripen 

{dojrzaiy ripe [adj.]) 
dokqd ['dokodj whither (where)'? 
doleonczyc [ do'konffxtp J 'to finish 
dokonywoc [do'koni'vatpj to get 

ready, to finish 
r/o/rt f'djfaj happiii' 
dolina f do' Una J valley 
dom ['dom] house 
domoicy [do'movi] domestic 
domyslac sic [d. inns Jut s 

to presume 
donosic [do'nos t it8j to announce 
dopiero (do'p,ero] only, no sooner 

dopdlar'fdo'puki) as long as 
dopomagacfd //><>' magats, I to help 
dorastac [do'rastatfij to grow 

dorobic fdi'r.tbits / to earn 
rfos*<5 f'djsj s /. <A>.v//r enough 
dosiadat konia [dospdai s, 'few "/ 

to mount on horseback 
doskonaioid [dosko'natoij,* / per- 


Polish- English Vocabulary. 

dostac ['dostat t sJ to get 
doskonaiy [dosko naii'J perfect * 
doswiadczony [do ' spatjorii] tried 
dosyc ['dos'it x sJ enough (= dose) 
dotrzymac sloiva [do'tfimat K s t 

'siova] to hold one's word 
dolknqc, dotykac ['dotknot t s v 

do'tikat { sJ to touch 
dotykanie [doWkan^e] touch 

dowiedziec sic. [do'v i edz t et l s { s t £] 

to know, to experience, to learn 

(= to be told) 
dozorca [do'zortsa] surveyor 

droga ['droga] way, road 
drogi ['drogfl dear 
drukowac [drukovat^J to print 
drzec ['dgetpj to tear 
drzec ['drfet { sj to tremble 
drzeivo ['djevo] tree, wood 
drzwi ['dgvi] door 
duch ['dux] spirit, ghost 
Dunczyk ['dunpj'ik] Dane 
dusza ['duja] soul 
duzo (adv.) ['dujo] much 
duzy ['dugi] large (a space) 
dwor ['dvur] court 
dworzec ['dvojets] station 
dym ['dim] smoke 
dziad[dz i ad] i dziadek ['dzpdek] 

dziaiac [dz<xlat x sj to act 
dziaio ['dz^alo] cannon 
dziatwa [ f dz K atva] children 
dzieio ['dz^io] work 
dziecie, ['dz^tpp] child (plur. 

dziegiec ['dzpg'etfij birch-tar 
dzielcowac [dzp'kovatsj to thank 
dzien ['dzfinj (pi. dni) day. — 

dzien powszedni week-day 
dziennik ['dzpnnik] daily news- 
dzierzawca [dz x er' gaftsa] tenant 
dziewczc, [azfiVtfg] maid, girl 
dziewczyna [dz t iv'tf'ina] maid, 

dziewica [dzp'vitsa] virgin 
dziewka ['dzpfka] girl, maid 
dziki ['dZfiki] wild 
dzis f'dzjsj, dzisiaj [ , dz i is l aj] 


dzisiejszy [dz y is x ejfi] of to-day 
dziura ['dz t uraj hole 
dziwicsie['dz K ivit x s x s x e] to wonder 
dzwick ['dzppk] sound 
dzivon ['dzvon] bell 
dzwonic [ r dzvon x it x sJ to ring the 
bell, to sound. 


echo ]'exo] echo 

elektor [s'lsktor] elector 

elementarily [ elemen' tarm] ele- 

ewangelik [evan'gelik] Evangelic, 

ewangelja [evan'gdja] gospel. 


fdbryka [fa'br'ika] manufactory 
faiszywy [fal'fiv'i] false 
Fenicjanin [fenftsi an x in] Phoe- 
fenig ['fenigj pfennig (penny) 
fijolek [f x i'plek] violet 
filizanka [f\ili$anka] cup 
folgowac [folgovat'sj to be in- 
forteca [for'tetsa] fortress 
fortuna [for'tuna] fortune 
Fortuna [for'tuna] Fortuna 
francuski [fraritsiiski] French 
Francuz ['frantsuz] Frenchman 
Francja [' frantsja] France 
funt ['funt] pound 
futro ['futro] fur. 

gqbka ['gopkaf sponge 
gaj ['gaj J grove 
gaiqz ['galozj branch 
Galicja [galitsja] Galicia 
garbarz ['garbag] tanner 
garbbwac [gar'bovatpj to tarn 
gardzic ['gardzit x s] to despise 
gazeta [ga'zeta] newspaper 
gdakac [ r gdakat x sJ to cackle 
Gdansk ['gdan x sk] Danzig (town) 
gdy ['gd'i] if, when 
gdzie ['gdz y e] where 
gegac [ g£gat l s x ] to chatter 
ggs ['gesj goose 
ginqc l'gin5t t $J to perish 
gitboki [gU'bdk^i] deep 

Polish-English Vocabulary. 


giod [glud] hunger 

giodny ['ghdn'ij hungry 

gios I'giosJ voice 

gio.hiy [' ' glosrii] loud 

giowa ['glova] head 

gluchy ['glu\i] deaf 

giupiec ['yiup^ets] fool 

Gniezno f'gn^znoj Gnesen(town) 

godzina [go'dzina] hour 

golic ['golitsj to shave 

gora ['gura] mountain 

gorqcy [go'rotsi] hot 

gosS fgos^sj guest 

gospodarski [gjspo'darslc x i] of the 
landlord, of the peasant 

gospodarz [gos' pjdaz] landlord, 

gospodyni [g.jspo'd'ini] hostess 

yotowac fgo'tovat^J to cook 

gozdzik ['gozdzjkj clove 

grabia ['grab<n] rake; — konna 
[konna] horse-rake 

grac [gratsj to play 

granat ['granat] grenade 

granica ['granitsa] frontier; za 
granicq abroad 

grecki ['gretski] Greek (adj.) 

grab ['grub] grave, tomb 

groch l'gro\] pea 

grozic ['groz x ts x ] to threaten 

grozny ['groz x ti'i] dreadful, ter- 

gruby f'grubij big, fat, coarse 

grudzieh ['grudz { enj December 

gruszka ['grujka] pear 

gryzc [ grisfsj to bite 

grzech ['gsn] sin 

grzecznosc ['g^etjnos^sj poli- 

grzeszyc ['g^efitsj to sin 

guiazda /'gvazdaj star 

guizdac ['g.vjzdatsj to whistle 

gtcozdz I'gvuzdzJ nail. 


Iwnd el ['hand 1 1] trade, commerce 
haslo ['hash] watchword 
herbata [her'bata] tea 
historja [hi'storja] history ; 
historja o strachach ghost-story 
fwnor ['honor J honour 
hufUc ['huf^tsj band, troop. 


* fij and 

He ['He J how much (manyiV 

im — tern the — the 

imie, ['im x [] Christian name 

Inowracluxc [ino'vratslaf] Ino- 

wraclaw (Hohensalza) 
inny ['innij another 
interes fin' teres] business 
isc ['ist { sj to go 
iz [ijj that (conj.). 


ja ['ja] 1 

jabiko ['jabikoj apple 
jablon ['jablon J apple-tree 
jqc ['jots J to seize, to catch 
jagnie ['jagn t e] lamb 
jaje I'jajeJ egg 
jak ['jak] as 

jaki f'jakji] what? (before a sub- 
jakosc ['jakostsj quality 
jakowy [ja'kjvi] whatever 
jaioicica [jai/ritsa] young cow 
Japonja [ja pon x a] Japan 
jar mark [jarmark] fair 
jaskinia /ja'skni a] the hollow 
jaskolka [ja'skulka] swallow 
jasny ['jasn'ij bright, glorious 
jatki ['jatkij the butcher's stall 
jechac ['je\at x sj to go in a car- 
jgczmien ['jetfm x enj barley 
jeden [jiden] one 
jednakowoz [jidna'kovoj], jtdnak 

yet, still 
jeno ['jeno] only 
jesc f'jes f t,sj to eat 
jesieh ['js8 t en t j autumn 
jesienny [)e's t en>n] autumnal 
jeszcze ['jeftfej still, yet 
jtzdzic ['jezdiz/s-J to drive, to 

go on horseback 
jezeli Ije'sili] if, when 
jezioro [J6 f z x oro] lake 
jczuita Ijezu'Ua) Jesuit 
irzyk I'jizik] tongue, language 
jodla ['j. ><lhij Mr-tree 
Jozcfa fpsefaj Josepha 
intra [ jutro] to-morrow 

iuz ['jug J already. 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 


kaczka ['katfkaj duck 
kadiub f'kadiubj trunk, body 
kaleka [ka'leka] cripple 
kaiamarz [ka'iamag] inkstand 
kamien ['kam^nj stone 
kqpac ['kopatpj to bathe, to 

take a bath 
kapelusz [ka'psluf] hat 
kqpiel ['kop^el] bath 
kapitan [ka'pitan] captain 
kapusta [ka'pustaj cabbage; ka- 
pusta kiszona [ki'fona] chop- 
ped and fermented cabbage 
kara ['kara] punishment; — 
cielesna corporeal punishment 
karac ['karatpj to reprove, pu- 
karczma ['kartfma] inn 
karp ['karpj carp 
kqt [ f kot] (dim. kqtek) corner 
katedra [kdtedra] cathedral ; pro- 
fessor's c^esk 
katolik [kaftolik] (Roman) Ca- 
katva ['kava] coffee 
kazac ['kazat x sj to order 
kazdy ['kagd'i] every 
kiedy ['k x edi] when 
kieibasa [k^ei'basaj (Cracovian) 

kieliszek [k/lifek] the little glass 
kij I 'k y ij] stick, staff 
Kijow [ 'k x ijuf] Kief (town) 
kilka ['kilka] some 
kilometr [ki'hmetr] kilometre 
kiszka f'ktfka] gut, sausage 
klqc ['klot^J to curse 
klasa ['klasa] form, class 
klasztor f'klaftorj convent 
klejnoty [klej'not'ij jewels 
kinmac ['klamatpj to lie 
kiasc ['klas^sj to lay 
kioc see kinc fkiutsj to sting 
kiocic sie f'klut.sit.s, s,e] to 

klopot f'khpot] grief 
kios I'klos] ear (of corn) 
kidtliwy [klut'livi] quarrelsome 
Hue l'Hut,sJ to sting 
kobieta [ko'b x eta] woman 
kochac [ f ko\atsJ to lore 

kolebka [ko'Upka] cradle 

kolej [kolej] turn [przychodzi 
kolej na it is the turn of . . .) 

kolej zelazna ['kolej ge'lazna] 

kolnierz [kol'n^j] collar 

koio ['koioj round, around 

kolyska [ko'liska] cradle 

komedja [ko'medja] comedy 

kon I'konJ horse 

koniczna [konfifna] (see siew) 

koniec ['kon x eis] end {na kohcu 
at length) 

konieczny [ko'nietfni] necessary 

konik ['kon t ikJ herdsman [of 

konjugacja [kon x ugatsja] conju- 

konnica [konnitsa] cavalry 

konny ['konij provided with a 

konsul ['kjnsulj consul 

kopa ['kdpa] threescore 

kopyto [kopxto] hoof 

kora I'kora] bark (of a tree) 

kos ['kosj blackbird 

kosa f'kosa] scythe 

kosc [kosf x sJ bone 

Koscian ['kos^spnj Kosten 

koscielny [kDs l 't l s i eln'iJ of the 

kosciol ['kosjtp^ul] (the Roman 
Catholic) church 

kosiarka [ko'sprka] harvest- 

kosnik ['kosiipk] harvest-man 

kosz ['ko/J basket 

kowal I ' koval] smith 

kraina [krd'ina] country 

kraj f'kraj] country, land 

Krakow ['krakufj Cracovia 

Krakowiana [krako'vpnaj Cra- 
covian lady 

kram [kram] shop 

kraic (kras^sj to steal 

krawiec ['krai\ets] tailor 

kreda [kreda] chalk 

krew I'krevJ blood 

krewny ['krivrii] parent, kinsman 

krdl ['krul] king 

krdlewski [kru'lefski] royal 

Polish-English Vocabularv 


kroloua [kru'lovaj queen 
krotki ['krutki] short (wkrdtce 

krowa f'krjva] cow 
kruk ['kruk] raven 
kruszec ['krufets] metal 
kryc ['kritfij to hide 
krzak f'kfakj shrub 
k?-zesio ['kfesioj chair 
krzyczec, krzyknqc ['kf'itjetp^, 

'kfiknatsj to cry (subst. krzy- 

krzyk [ 'kfikj cry 
krzywda ['kf'irdaj wrong (subst.) 
krzyz ['kfig] cross (subst.) 
krzyzak ['kfijakj knight of the 

Teutonic Order 
ksiqdz ['k x spdz] priest 
ksiqz^ ['k x sp£e\ prince 
ksiqika ['k t s x ofka] book 
ksiestuo ['ks^stvo] duchy; prince 

and princess 
ksiczyc ['k^/g'itsj moon 
kto I'kto] who? 
ktury f'kturi] 1) interrog. pron. 

what? which? (adj.), 2) rel. 

pron. who, which 
ku i'ku] towards, to (prep.) 
kuc ['kut { sj to forge 
kucharka [kuyarka] female-cook 
kucharz ['ku\ag] cook (subst.) 
kuchnia ['kuxna] kitchen 
kula [kula] ball; kula armatnia 

cannon-ball (dim. kulka) 
lctdisty [ku'lisil] globular 
kumotr f'kumotr] godfather 
kupt'c ['kupitpj to buy 
Lupiec f'kupstsj merchant 
kurcze f'knrtffj chicken 
kurnik ['kur t ntk] fowl-house 
huropattaa [kuro'patvo] partridge 
kuzyn f'kiizin] cousin 

nia I'kuzrip.] forge (subst.) 
kwiat ['k t v t at] flower 
kwiecie ['kvptpfi] blossom 
iecien [kv^t^enj April 
kivitvdc ['kvitnatsj to bloom. 


Jqd ['I5d] t staly Iqd ['sfait 'I.'kI] 

'<inca ['lantsa] lance, spear 
Laponja [la'ponja/ Laponia 

Kleme»tary PolUh Grammar. 

las [ 'las J wood, forest 

lata ['lata] s. lato 

latac ['latat x sj see leciec 

lato f lato J summer; lata years 

(pi. of rok) 
leciec [' let. s i et t s i J to fly (of a bird) 
lecz f'letfj but 
legjon I'hgj.m] legion 
lekac sie [ l£kat l s i s t ej to be afraid 
lekarz I'lekaz] physician 
lekcja f'lektsja] lesson 
lekki I'lekki] easy 
leniiviec [le'nfofits] idler 
leniwy ]le'n l ivi] idle 
leszcz I'leftf] bream (fish) 
Leszno ['JefnoJ Lissa (town) 
lew ['lev J lion 
lewy fieri] left (e. g. hand) 
lezec [leget^sj to be situated, 

to lie 
lichy l'li\i] miserable 
liczyc ['lit] 'it t s J to count 
liczny ['fitfn'ij numerous 
liljoivy [lil'jjvi] ot lilies 
lin ['lin] tench (fish) 
lipa ['lipa] lime-tree 
lipiec ['lip fits J July 
lis ['Us] fox 
list ['list] letter 
listopad [li'stopad] November 
listowy [li'stjvij postman ; episto- 
lary (adj.) 
Litwa ['litva] Lithuania 
Litwin ['litvin] Lilhuanian 
I6d ]'ludj ice 
los [Ids] fate, destiny 
lot ['lot] flight (of a bird) 
lub flub] or 

lubic ['lubitsj to love, to like 
luby ['lubi] beloved 
lud ['hid] people 
ludny ['ludn'i] populou- 
ludzie [ludzp] men (pi. of cstfa- 

lutfi [lut'i] February 
Lifhr ['huf] Lemberg. 

hii'idz ['labsd t zj swan 

fari/iski lla'tsuiski] Latin (adj.) 
laka ['{JkaJ meadow 
{aiiriiszrk [hmtsu/ek] chain 
lapa ['lapa] paw, claw 



Polish-English Vocabulary. 

laska f'iaskaj favour, grace , 
iaskawy /la'skavi], iaskaw 

[laskaf] gracious, kind 
lativy ['intvij easy 
tawa f'tava), iawka f'lafkaj 

bench, form 
Igac ['{qatpj to lie 
lodz ['lud^zj boat 
~L6dz ['ludzj Lodz (town) 
lokiec ['hkfit t sj yard 
lokietek llokptek] dwarf 
lono ['hnoj lap 
Idzko i'lujko] bed 
Xiiizyczanin [iuj'i'tfaninj Lu- 

satian, Wend 
Iza ['Iza] tear (subst.). 


macocha [ma'tsoya/ stepmother 
mqdry ['modr'i/ prudent, wise 
mqdrosc ['modros^sj wisdom 
maj I'maj] May 
majqtek [ma'jotek] fortune (pos- 
mqka ['moka] flour 
malar z ['malag/ painter 
Malborg [' malbork] Marienburg 
malina I ma' I ma] rasp-berry 
malowac [ma'lovat^J to paint 
maipa / 'malpa] ape 
maty ['mail/ little, small [riage 
malzenstwo [mal'jen^tvo] mar- 
marchew /'mary^v/ carrot 
marnouac [marnovatsj to dis- 
sipate, waste 
marsz f'marf] onwards 
martuy /'marv'i -tfi] stiff 
mar zee ['ma jets] March 
marznqc /'majnotsj to freeze 
marzyc ['magtt^J to dream 
masc fmasfoj unguent; colour 

(of horses) 
maszyna [ma'finaj machine 
masio ['mash/ butter 
maika ['maika] mother 
mqz f'mog/ man, husband 
mendel f'mendel/ set of fifteen 
me.czennik / ' mttfenn x ik] martyr 
meka ['mika/ lorment, pain 
rngski f'miskij for man, of men 
mqdwo I'mSstvo] bravery, valour 
me.zczyzna [mff'tfizna] man 

miara ['m i ara] f miarka ['mprkaf 

miasto ['mfisto] town 
miec [mptsj to have [basin 
miednica [m t ed'nitsaj washing- 
mie,dzy [mi'edzi] among, between 
mterzyc [m l eg'it l sj to measure 
w/£;sce/' / m 1 £/s£ss7spot,space,rooi2i 
miesiqc [' mpspts] month ['mpso] meat 
mieszac fm' ef at t s J to mix, mingle 
mieszczanin [m s ef'tfan { in] citizen 
mieszkanie [mpf'kan^] dwelling 
mieszkalny [mpf'kalny] dwel- 
ling (adj.) 
milczec ['miltfetsj to be silent 
milosc ['mibst^sj love 
miiosny [mi'losn'i] of love 
mily ['mili] agreeable, dear 
mimo ['mimo] in spite of (prep.) 
minqc ['minors J to go away 
minuta [m^'nuta] minute 
mizerny [mi'zerni] miserable 
mlec f'mhts] to grind (subst. 

mleko ['mleko] milk 
miockarnia/ mlots karnp,] thrash- 
miodociany [mlodo'tparii] young 
mlody I'mlodi] young 
mlodzieniec [mlo'dzpnpts] youth, 

young man 
miodziez ['rnhdz^gj youth (age) 
mlynarz ['mtinagj miller 
moc ['mots] power 
mdc ['muts] to be able 
modlic sie, ['modlit i s i sp] to pray 
modniarka fmid'nprka] milliner 
mogiia {mo'giia] (dim. mogilka) 

tomb, grave 
moj ['mui], moja, moje my 
moknqc f'moknot^J to get wet 
monarcha [mo ' nar\a] monarch 
moral nose/ mo'ra!nos,t l s l /morality 
morze ['mogs] ocean, sea 
most [most] bridge 
motyl ['mot'il] butterfly 
mowa I'mova] language, speech 
(tongue) ; mowa ojczysta mother- 
moivca f'muftftaj speaker 
mdwic [ r muv x itsJ to speak 
moze ['moje] perhaps 

Polish-English \ocabuIary. 


mrouka ['mrufkaj ant 

mroz ['mruzj coldness 

mrzec I'mjetsJ to die 

msza ['mfuj mass (divine-service) 

mui I mid] mule 

mur I'murJ wall 

musiec ['musptpj to be obliged 

my I'm'tJ we 

myc ['fnU x sJ to wash # 

mysl I'misJ/ thought (subst.) 

mysliwy fmts/liotj huntsman 

mysz I'mi/J mouse 

myto I'mito] wages, reward. 


na I'na] to, in, into 
nabyty [na'biti] bought 
naczelnik [na'tfelnik] chief 
nad ['nadj over, above; on (prep.) 
nadbrzezny [nad'bgegnS] situated 

on the shore 
nagi ['nayi] naked 
nay rod a [na'yroda] reward 
najmowac [naj'movatfij to hire 
nakladac / na kladut t sj to present 
nakryc ['nakr'itsj to cover 
nafapad [na'iapat^sj to catch 
nami§tnoscl na'mttnos l t t s l /passion 
napeinic / na'piluit^j to till 
napid I nap its J to quench 
napomnienie [napj'mn^n^J ex- 
napdj f'napuj) beverage 
naprzedw [na'pfetpjf] against, 

over against, opposite 
nareszcie /na'res i t i s i ej finally 
nardd ['narudj nation 
narodotry / naro'd ' jvi] national 
narzfdzie [naggdz^J instrument 
ttarzekac'na' itktit,sj to complain 
nasz / " nnf I our 

natychtixiast [na'tixwast] at once 
uauczyciel fnau't/it^filj teacher 
nxuku [na'ukaj science, in- 
struction, doctrine 
nazwisko [naz'viskjj family name 
nazywa [na'zlvat t $ l sej to 

be called 
'" /'",*'/ — ** neither — nor 
rite t'nits] nothing 
nit ('n t ej no, not 
ti iebezpifczen si uo{ n t t bi $p t t 'tjt n- 
voj danger 

niebo i r n i ebo] sky, heaven 
niedawno [ne'davn.i] a short 

time ago 
niedola [nf'dola] unhappiness 
niedziela [n/clz^laj Sunday 
niedziehiy [n/dzdnl] ot Sunday 
niegrzeczny [^egjetjni] naughty 
niejeden [n t e'jedenj many a 
niekiedy [n x s'h t ed%] now and then 
nielitosciwy [nelitjs'ts in J mer- 
ciless, unmerciful 
Niemcy ['npmtsi) the Germans; 

Xiemiec I'n^m^ts] the German 
niemiecki ['n^'w ttak i] German 

niemozliwy [npn.)^'lir'i] impos- 
nieoceniony [npotsen^on'i] inesti- 
niepodobny [n^po'djbn'i] unlike. 

nieposhiszny [nppo'^lujin] dis- 
niepotrzebny [nepotfebn'i] un- 
nieprzychylny [nepf'i'\Hni] dis- 
nieprzyjaciel [ n x epf%'jat i 8 i el] 

nieraz ['n % eraz] sometimes 
nierzqd ['njBgodJ disorder 
nieSC I'npstsJ to bear 
niea&usz'ny / n t s'slufn\] unfair 
niesmiertelny [n t es l m i er't€lnljimr 

niestoly [ns'stati/ inconstant 
nieskonczony /ne'*k.>ntf.>n'i/ end- 
nii'szrzcsrie fn t e ftffsf&e] mis- 
nieszczrsliiry [nir'jtffsjinj un- 
niewiodomy [n t ev t adomiJ un- 
niewidzialny \> alnij in- 

vi- . 
niezbgdny [n^z'bgdni] indis- 

Hroeny fnji > ntrognX] impro- 
vident, incautious 
niezgrabny [nfz'grabvX} unlit, 



Polish-English Vocabulary 

// iezadoivolony[n x ezadovo lon'ij dis- 
contented, unsatisfied 

/ 1 iez wyci^zony [n , eztvit , s x s jon i] 
not vanquished 

nigdy ['nigd'i] never 

nikt ['nikt] nobody 

niniejszy^/n^.jf tjthis.iollow'mg 

him ['n x tmj before 

nishi ['n t isk x i] low (adj.) 

niz [nil] than (after a com- 

no f'noj from jeno only 

noc f'nots] night 

noga ['noga] leg 

nora ['nor a] hole (subst.) 

nos ['nos] nose 

noivina [no'vina] news (subst.) 

iiowy ['noiv'i] new 

noz f'nug] knife 

nudy ['nudlj tedious 

nurek ['nursk] diver 

mita ['nutaj note (music). 


o ['oj around, of, on (prep.) 
oba ['aba J both 
obaczyc [d'batf'itpj' to see 
obcowac [ob'tsovat l s l J to have in- 
tercourse (obcowanie subst.) 
obey I'obts'i] foreign 
obecny [o'betsn'i] present 
obejsc sie, ['obeJ£,t,8 l s y s] to do 

vbiad [ f ob x ad] dinner 
obiecac [o'b x stsat x sJ to promise 

oblgzenie [obis' £sn x s] the siege 
oblicze [ob'litfe] figure, face 
oblok ['obhkj cloud 
oHudny fob iudni] hypocritical 
obmawiac [ob'mav x at x sJ to slander 
obora [o' bora J stable for cattle 
obok ['obok] by the side of (prep.) 
obrac ['obratsj, obierac [ob x e- 

rat t sj to elect, choose 
ebracac sie, [obratsat x .s x s x s] to 

obrazac [o'bragat t sJ to offend 
obraz ['obrazj picture 
cbrok ['obrok] food 
obszar ['opfarj space, field 
obszerny [op'fsrn'i] spacious,large 

oburzac [o'bu$at x s x ] to raise, to 

obyc sie (bez czego) ['ob'it x s x s x s] 

to do without 
obywatel [obi'vatsl] citizen 
ocieniac [o't i s t en l at ) sJ to shade 
oczerniac [o'tfern x at x sJ to slander 
od f'ot] from 
• odbierac [od'b x erat x s x ] to take away 
oddychac [od'd'i\at x sJ to breathe 
odkryc ['otkr'it x sJ to discover 
odmawiac [od'mav x at x s x ] to refuse 
odpoczynek [ot'potfinek] repose 
odpowiedziec [otpo'v x sdz x et i s x ] to 

odstqpic [odstop x it x s x ] to renounce 
odtqd ['ottadj from there 
odwaga [od'vaga] courage 
odwazac sie, [od'vajat x s x s x s] to dare 
odwazny [od'wagrii] courageous 
odwrocic [od'vrut x s x it x s x ] to return 
odznaczac si% [od'znatfat i s x s x s] 

to distinguish oneself 
odzyivac sie [od'zivat x s x s x s] to 

ogien ['og x enJ fire 
ogtydnosc [o'glsdno x st x s x ] circum- 
spection [claim 
ogiosic sie, [o'gios i it t s l s x s] to pro- 
ogdlnie [oguln'e] commonly 
ogrod f'ogrud] garden 
ojeiee [ , ojt l s i ets] father 
ojczyzna [oftjizna] home, native 

ojczysty [oj'tfisti] of the home 
oko ['oko] (pi. oczy) eye 
okolica [o'kolitsa] environs 
okolicznosc % [oko'litfnos x t x s x ] cir- 
okolo[o'kolo) 'round, around (prep.) 
okrqgly [o'krogli] round 
okrutny [o'krutni] cruel 
oldw ['oluf] lead (metal) 
oltarz ['oltag] altar 
on ['on] he 

opanoivac [opa novates J to subdue 
opera [o'pera] opera [late 

opoiviedziec [opo'v l edz x et x s x ] to re- 
oprocz [ f oprut[] except, besides 
opuscic [o'pus x t x s x its x ] to leave 
orac ]'orat x s x ] to plough 
ore,z ['ors^J sword 

Polish-English Vocabulary. 


orzel [ogtl] eagle 
osioi ['jsptj ass 
osm [dsm] eight 
osoba f./sobaj person 
osobnylo'sobn'i] personal, separate 
ostatni [o'statni] last 
ostrozny [o'strogn'i] cautious 
ostry I'ostr'i] severe 
oswiecony[os i vetson ^enlightened # 
oszczedny [of'tfidnt] economical 
oiaczac [j'tatfatsj to surround 
oto fata) look 

otoczony [oto'tjjnj] surrounded 
otreb ['otreb] bran 
oiwarty [o'trart'i] open 
otworzyc [o'tvojit^J, otwierac 

[ot'v { erat *J to open (otwarcie 

oic I 'ufj, owa, otco that 
owca I'ojtsa] sheep 
owezarz ['oftfag] shepherd 
owies l'oi\(s] oats 
ouoc ['jrjtsj fruit 
oirszem I 'off em] certainly. 


k f'jyJtfek] pancake; bud 

padac f'padat t sj to fall, to rain 

palee ['palets] finger 

polic [ palitsj to burn 

palasz ['palaf] sabre 

pamiatka [ pa'mptka] remem- 

pamiec /'pam^t^ J remembrance; 
nn — by heart 

pan ('pan] gentleman, mister 

pani['pan x i] lady, mistress (Mrs.) 

pa una f'panna] Ml 

panowac (pano'vat^sj to reiaii 

panowanie fpano'van t sJ reign, 

pa it ski /'pan ski] of the gentle- 
man; your 

panSstwo f'panfltvo] -tate, empire: 
Mr. and Mrs. 

pa my [*pamtj sultry 

parowy [parovfl driven by steam 

papier /'paptr/ paper 

para [' para J steam, vapour 

para ['para) pair 

parasol [pa'rasol] umbrella 

parasolka fpara'solka] parasol 

parobek [pa'robek] servant 
Paryz ['partg] Paris 
Paryzanin [par% gan x in] Parisian 

pasterz [-pasteg], pastuch ['pas- 
tux] herd's man 
pasza ['pafa] food 
patrzec I'patjetsJ to look 
Pawti I'pavel] Paul 
pazdziern ik [paz[dz i w ik/ Oc- 
pazur ['pazur] claw. [pidly) 

pedzic /'pCdzils] to drive (ra- 
pelny [' ' pebuj full 
peizac ['pebsatsj to creep 
pensja ['pensja] pension, salary 
perka I'psrkp] potato 
perliezka [per'litfka] guinea-fowl 
Pers ['psrsj the Persian 
pewny fpevnt] surf, certain 
piasek [' pasek] sand 
pic ['pftfiJ) pijac to drink 
piec f'pjetsj to bake 
piec I'pfts] stove 
piec / 'pet s / five 
pieczev ['p^etfen] roasted meat 
piekarz f'pfikag] baker 
piehny ['ji;'k)ii] beautiful, fine 
piekio [p\ikbl hell (Hell) 
pieknosc [' pi'knjxt a J beauty 
pieniadze [p x s'npdzej money 
pieprz ['p t epf] pepper 
piers ['p t ersj breast 
pierscien / ' pers t s t n ,/ring(subst.) 
pierwszy I'perffi] first 
pierwszemtwo [p x * r ff 6n * tr 7 

preference, advanta 
pies I'p^es] dog 
pieszczony [pfi'ftfanf] spoiled 
piesn ['pfis.nj song; pieH In- 

dowa national song 
pi fa I' pibij saw (subst.) 
pUnosc l'p x tlnos t t x sJ industry 
pilnowac [p % il'nycatsj to watch 
pilny I'pfinij diligent, indu- 
pidro f'p uroj leather, pen 
I'iotr ['pptr] Peter 
pisac /'/', tsat,s / lo write 

ra / y tefl :/ clerk, writer, 
pismo l' pisi, i. , I band-writing 
pi'tro /'/■ /*•;/ beer 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 

piivnica [piv'nitsa] ale-house 
placek ['platsekj cake 
pleban f'pleban] vicar (subst.) 
pled ['plet t s t J to weed 
plecy ['pletsi] back (subst.) 
plesd ['pUs x t x sJ to braid 
placid ['plat x s l it x s x J to pay 
oictkad ['plakatsj to weep 
plot no ['plutno] linen 
plug ['plug] plough 
plynqd['plinot x s i / to flow, to swim 
plywak f'plivak] swimmer 
po i'po] after, till (prep.) 
pobic l'pob s it f sJ to beat 
pobojowisko [pobopv isko] battle- 
pobyt ['pob'it] stay, abode 
pochlebca [po\leptsa] flatterer 
pochlebiad [po\leb x at i s { J to flatter 
pociqg ['pot x s x dg] train 
pociecha [po't x s x e\a] comfort, con- 
pocieszny fpo't x sefni] funny 
poczciwy [po'tft x s x iv'i] honest 
poczta ['potftaj post-office 
poczynad [po'tfinat x s x ] to begin 
pod . I 'pod] under, below, near, at 

podud l'podat x s x ], podawad [po- 

'davat x s x ] to pass, to give 
podarunek [po darunek] present 

podczas ['pottfas] during (prep.) 
poddany [pod' danl J suhject(subst) 
podle ['podlsj by the side of 

podlegac [ pod'Ugat x sJ to obey 
podlegly [po'dhgli] submissive 
podlug ['podlug] after, according 

to (prep.) 
podiy Cpodll] miserable 
yodnieM ['podn x es x t x sJ to rise 
polobac sir [po'dobat x s x s x e] to 

podobny [po'dobnt], podobien 

[po'dob x enJ similar 
podporucznik [potpo ' rutfnik] 

podrozowad [podni s.>cat t sj to 

podskarbi [pot'xkarbi] treasurer 
podstoli [jjot'stoli] Lord High Ste- 

podworze [po'dm$e] court 
podyktowad [pod\k'toi>at x s x J to 

podzial [ f podz x al] division 
podzimad[po'dz x iv > at x s x Jto admire 
poeta [po'eta] poet 
poganin [po'gan x in[ heathen 
pogarda [po'garda] contemption, 

scorn (subst.) 
pogoda [po'goda] weather 
pogodny [po'godn'i] serene, clear 
pojechad [po'.p3\at x s x ] to travel 
pojsd ['pnjsfcsj to go to a place 
pokazac [po'kazatsj to show 
pbki ['puk x i[ as long as 
pokiadad sie [pokiadat x s x s x e] to 

be pressed down 
pokoj ['pokuj] room ; peace 
pokora [po'kora] humility 
pokrywad sie [po'kr'ivat x s l s t e] 

to be covered 
Polak I'polak] the Pole 
pole ['pole] field 
polecid [po'let x s x t x sJ to recommend 
polec f'polets] to fall 
poi [pull half 
policzek [po'litfek] cheek 
polnoc f'palnotsj midnight 
polny ['point] of the field 
polowanie [polo van x e] chase 
polow ryb [po'luf rib] fishing 
polowad [po'lovat x sJ to hunt 
Polska ['polskaj Poland 
polski ['poUHJ Polish 
polowa [po'lova] half 
pohtdnie [poludn x e J noon, m idday 
poludniowy [polud'npv'i] southern 
pomalowad [ pom a lov at x s J to paint 
pomiedzy [po'm x edz'i] among 

pomocny [po'motsrii] serviceable 
Pomorze [po'mo^e] Pomerania 
pono ['ponoj it is said to 
popelnid [po'peln t it x sJ to commit 
popraivid sie [po'pravit x s x s x e] 

to become better 
poprzednik [po'pfedn x ik] pre- 
poprzek ['popfelf] across 
pora ['pora] season 
poranek [po'ramk] morning 
poruczad [po'rutjat x s x ] to confide, 

to entrust 

Polish-English Vocabulary. 


jiorzadny [po'gjdnij orderly 
posag ['posag] dowry 
posag ['posog] statue 
posiadac [posadat t sJ to possess 
posluszny [posiufni] obedient 
pospiech [ , pjs l p i e%] hurry (subst.) 
posrebrzany [posrs'bgarii] silvery 
posrdd f'posjudj amidst (prep.) 
jjostac ['postatsj figure, sbape 
postrpowac I posts' povats ,/, po- 

st(ipic [po'st&pitpj to advance 
poswiecic [posy^lsjtp] to sanc- 
pot ['pot] sweat [tify 

potega [p.ittga] power 
potraiva [po'travn] meal, food 
potrzebny [po'tfsbnx] necessary 
potrzeboicac [potfebovat^sj to 

potcazac [po'va^at x sJ to esteem 
pouriadac [ pj' c l adat t s l J to say, tell 
pawiat ['["'fit] district 
pouriqzad fp./v/JzatsJ to tie 
pounerzcknia [pj'v/fxna] surface 
powierzyd fpo'tP t e^U x sJ to entrust 
powiesc f'pji\(*/sj tale, novel 
powitac I ' p./ritatsj to welcome 
poicdd ['povutj cause, reason 
powonienie fpovo / n i €n l eJ scent 
powdz f'pjvuz] coach, carriage 
pow8zedni [poffedrii] daily 
poz'qdad Ipo' godtttfij to desire, 

to covet 
pozqdany [pogo'dan'i] wished for 
pozar /'pogarj conflagration 
inad I po' gzgnat^sj to bid 

pozegnanie [po$eo r nan l e] leave, 

farewell (subst.) 
poziomka / po'zomka] strawberry 
poznac ['poznatfij to recognize 
Poznan ] 'poznan t J Posen (town) 
pozostad l p./zj.stutsj to remain 
pozwolenie [pozvo'len.e] permis- 
poiytek fpo'jittk] u<e, profit 

yteczny [pogi'tetfn'i] useful 
prctC I 1'iat^J to wash 
praca f'pratsa] work (subst. > 
pracQitat [pro'tsovatpj to work 

(verb) , ious 

pracouity [pratso'v t it%] indu- 
prauda ['pratda] truth 

prawdopodobny [prardopo 'dobnyj 

prairie f'prav t e] nearly, almost 
prawo ['praco/ law 
prauy f'pravij right (e.g. hand) 
predko I'pretko] quickly [man 
prezydujqcy [prez'idu'jjtsi /chair- 
proboszcz I'prjboftfJ priest 
proch I'proxJ powder 
procz i'prutfj except, besides 
profesor [profesor] professor, 

prog I'prug] threshold 
prosic ['prosit^J to beg 
prosty I 'prosit) direct, simple 
prowadzic [pro'vadzitsj to lead 
proivincjonahiy [provintsjo'naln ij 

proza f'prozaj prose 
prozniak [' prvgnak] idler 
frozny ['prugni] idle, lazy 
prdinowac [prug novates J to be 

pruski [' pruski] Prussian (adj.) 
Prusy [prus'ij Prussia 
przqdka I'pfotka] (female) spin- 
przqsc ['pfast-sj to spin 
przebywac [pfe'bivatsj to stay, 

to sojourn 
przechudzka [pfe\adzka] walk 
przechodzic [pje'xodzitsj to pass 
przeciwko fpfe'tsifkoj against 
przeciwnik [pfe'tsunik] adver- 
przeciicny [pft ;'tsivni] opposed 
przed I'pfedJ before 
przedmiescie [pfcd'm^s^sf] sub- 
przidzial [pfe'dzai] part 
przeglqd wojsh / ' pfeglod vcjsk] 

parade, show 
przegroda [pfe'groda] partition, 

Konac sir fpfe'konuts^ scj 
to convince oneself [(subst.) 
etozony / 'pf?l> y"' ; 'i'J superior 
przemor ['pfemotsj superior pow- 
er, superiority 
przejsd I pfsJ8t\*J '" I' 
przemyslf'pJemUtJ industry, trade 
nii sr I i>ii n ; > > 8 / to put in 
another place 


Polish- English Vocabulary. 

przepioreczka [pfep y u'retfka] 

przeprawic sie^ [pfe'prav j it i s l s^J 

to pass over, to cross 
przesada [pfe'sada] exaggeration 
przestac f'pj estates J to stop 
przestgpowac [pfeste'povatpj to 

przeszly ['pfefi'ij passed 
przeszlo ['p/efioj more than 
przetrzqsnqc [pfe'tfosnotpj to 

search, to examine 
przewod ['pfevud] leading, com- 
mand (subst.) [versity 
przewrotnosc [pfe'vrotnos { t x sJ per- 
przez ['pjez] by, through 
przodek ['pfodekj ancestor 
przy ['pfi] near, at 
przybywac ['pf'ib'ivatpj to stay, 

to sojourn 
przychodzic [ pfi^jdzftpj to come 
przychylny [pfi)tjln t i] well dis- 
posed [reason 
przyczyna [pfi'tf'ina] cause, 
przyjqc ['pf'ijot i sJ to accept 
przyjaciel [pjVjat x s^£l] friend 
przyjncidlka [pf'ija't^s^ulka] (fe- 
male) friend 
przyjazny [pfijazni] friendly 
przyjemny [pfijemni] agreeable 
przykazanie [pfika'zan t ej com- 
przykiad ['pfikiadj example 
przykiadac si$ [pfi'kladat i s i s\e] 

to apply to 
przykry fpfikri] burdensome, 

przymiot ['pf'impt] quality 
przyniesc ['pfinpsltpj to bring 
przynosic [pf'i'nositpj to bring 
przypadek [pf'i'padek] chance, 
accident, case [dient 

przyprawa [pfi'prava] ingre- 
przyslowie [pfi 'siov t eJ proverb 
przystuchiwac sie [pj'istu , \ivat l s i 

8 t €] to listen 
przywiezc ['pf'ivfisfasj to go by 

(in a carriage) 
przywitac (pfi'vitatpj to greet 
psuc I'psut^J to spoil 
pszczota fpftfla] bee 
pszenica [pfe'nftsa] wheat 
ptak ['ptnkj bin I 

ptak blotny [ptak 'biotnij wa- 
ding bird; — przelotny [pfe- 
'lotnij bird of passage 
ptaszek f'ptafek] little bird 
puszczac, puscic ['pujtjat { s x , pu- 

sfasjtpj to let loose 
pusty [pust'i] empty, deserted 
pytac ['p'itatpj to ask 
pytanie [pi'tanp] question. 


rqbac ['r abates J to hew, to cut 
rad frad] glad, friendly, fond of 
rada frada] advice, remedy 
radca ['radtsaj councillor 
radosc ['rados^sj pleasure 
radzic ['radg l it t s i J to counsel 
raj ['raj J paradise 
rak ['rah J crawfish 
ramig ['ram,e] shoulder 
rana ['rana] wound (subst.) 
rano ['rano] morning 
ratowac [ra'tovat t sJ to save. \o- 

free (subst. ratowanie) 
ratusz ['ratufj town-hall 
raz, odrazu ['raz, od'razu] at 

once; razem together 
reka freka] hand 
rqkawiczka [reka'i\itfkaj glove 
rsligja [relig,a] religion 
Ren ['ren] Rhine 
renski ['ren t ski] Rhenish 
reparowac [repa'rovat x sJ to re- 
pair, to mend 
respektowac [respek'tovat i s i J to 

esteem, to respect 
reszta ['reftaj the rest 
robak ['robakj worm 
robic ['rob y it x s J 'to make, to work:. 

— postepy to advance 
robota [ro'botaj work (subst.) 
robotnik [ro'botnjk] workman 
rod ['mid] generation, family 
rodzaj ['rodzajj gender, - gene- 
ration, family 
rodzenstwo [rodze'n t stv:)] brother 

and* sister 
rodzice [ro'dzjtse] parents 
rodzina [ro'dzjna] family 
rodzony [rod'zmfi] borne (part.)' 
rog [rug] horn 

Rosjanin [ro'sjanin] Russian' 

Polish-English Vocabulary 


rok I'rok] year (pi. — lata) 
rola ['rola, field [man 

rolnik I'rolnik] peasant, country - 
ro*o f'rosa] dew 
rose ['ros x t t sJ to grow 
rosnqc ['rosnot r sJ to grow 
rozstac si$ [ / rosstat t s i s/J to 

rosyjski [ro's'ijski] Russian (adj.) 
roiver [rover] bicycle 
rdumy f'rwmij (adv. r&umie) 

equal, likewise 
roza ['ruga] rose 
rozen ['rogen] spit, broach 
rozgrzany [roz'gytrii] heated 
rozkochany [rjsko\ani] ena- 
roziqczuc [r.)s'iJtf'itsJto separate 
rozlegac sie [roz'hgat i s i sjt] to 

be heard 
roslina [ros'lina] plant [rosliny 

okopowe crops to be hoed) 
rozmaity [rozmait'i] different 
rozmairiac [roz niacatsj to en- 
rozmowa [roz'mova] conversation 
rozmyslnie [roz'misln >] on pur- 
roz tic stg ['ru^nits l sic J to differ 

iesc I'rozn^tsJ to disperse 
rozny [rugrii] different 
rozpoczqc, rozpoczynac [rjs'pO' 

tfotpj to begin 
rozpraszac tie, [ros'prafats s x e] 

to be dispersed 
rozrzutny [rozxutni] prodigal 
ro-strzelac [ros'stfelat x sJ to shoot 
ichac [ros'si^atsj to get dry 
am ['rjzum] intellect 
rozumny /'rj'znmmj intelligent 
ruchomy [ru'xjm'i/ movable 

' [ru'inal ruin 
Ji'umuYtczyk [ru'miui/f'ik] Rou- 
manian (subst.] 
runnv {'runjts / to fall 
rtifzyc ['rai 'it sj to stir, to move 
rti'ic I'rvats ] to tear, to rush 
ryha [' rVm] fi-h 
rylxtk [' r'ihak] fisherman 
ryeerz / 'rMsegJ knight 

['ritfrts J to roar 
rynna ['rinna] gutters 
rysowad [r'i's >rat s] to draw 

ryz ['t'i^J rice 

rzqd fgod] reign, government 
rzadki [' ydk x l] rare 
rzadkosc ['jatko8 t t x sJ rarity 
rzec ['sets J to say, to, tell 
rzecz [' £Etj] thing, cause 
rzeczownik [u'tfovntk] substan- 
tive public 
rzeczpospolita [getfpospolita] re- 
rzeka [' gzka] river 
rzemiesln ik[ ' se'm^sj.nik] artisan 
rzeicny ['scvn'ij melancholy 
rzeznik ['^ez x n t ik] butcher 
Rzym [' gim] Rome 
Rzymianin [gi'm x an x in] Roman 

rzymski ['^imsk^i] Roman (adj.). 


sad ['sad] orchard 

sad ('sod] judgment, court ot 

sqdzic f'sddz^ilsj to judge 

salon ['salon] drawing room 

sam I'sam] alone, self 

samodzielny [samo'dzeln'i] inde- 

sarna ('samaj doe 

sqsiad ['sosfld] neighbour 

sqsiedzki/ .s J' x£tsl\iJne\ghbouv\n% 

s<ttyra [ta'ttral satire 

s'ciana f'stsana] wall [field 

sciemisko [tser' ' nisko] stubble- 

sciezka {'ststjkdj isciezyna) path 

scinacf , s l t x s x inat l 8 i J,sci<ic to cut off 

scyzoryk [stsVzorlk] scissors 

scdzia ['8edz i a] judge 

sen ['sen/ sleep (subst.) 

set /'serf cheese 

Serb I'serb] Serb 

scree ['sertsej heart 

seJeretarz [se'kretag] secretary 
eczny [ser'detfnXj hearty 

siudac /'sadat^J to sit down 

sidtio I 's d)i.) J li;iy 

sicczkurttia/ s {ff'kfirii nji\\i>\>\n'i\ 

siedziet / '>■/»/: et,s / to sit down 

siedem ['s/dnn/ -even 

riedziba he'd z ibaln sidence. 

siermiega [8 t £r tn t ega] coal 

sic n>t (i [s I'r.ita ] orphan 

sierp [ , 8 l erpJ sickle 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 

sierpien ['sfirppij August 
slew ['sfiv] koniczny [ko t n x itjn x i] 

seed of clover 
sie umik [' s x evnik] sowmg-m&chmQ 
siia ['s { iia] power 
silny ['sjlrii] vigorous, strong 
siostra ['s x ostra] sister 
skakac f'skakat l sj to spring 
skqpy f'sko x p'i] avaricious 
skarb /'skarb J treasure 
•sfcar^rt/'sfcarp'rt/complaint (subst.) 
sklep ['sklepj shop 
sklepienie [skis' p fin { e] vault, store 
skiadac ['skladat x sj sie. to con- 
sist in 
sklamac [' skiamat x sj to belie 
skiontc si$ ['skion x it x s x s t ej to 

bow to 
skonac ['skonat^sj to die, to give 

up one's ghost 
skora ['skura] skin, leather 
skorka (little) skin 
skoro [' skoro] as soon as 
skowronek [sko'vronek] lark 
skromnosc [ f skromnost x s x J mo- 
skromny f'skromn'i] modest 
skropic ['skropit x sJ to sprinkle 
Slqsk ['slosk] Silesia 

Slqzak [ 's x lozak] Silesian (subst.) 
slepy ['s x lep'i] blind 
slaby ['siabyj weak 
siawa f'siavaj glory 
siauny f'siavntj celebrated 
sliwka f'sjifka] plum 
siodki f'siotkj] sweet 
sioma f'siomaj straw' 
sloii f'sionj elephant 
sionce ['sionfse] sun 
Siowak ['slovak] Slovak 
slowianin [sto'vanin] Slav 

siowianski [slo o x an x ski] slavish 
slowik ['slovak I nightingale 
siownik \' slomtk] dictionary 
siowo f'shvoj word 
siuchac f'siuxatfij to hear 
siuga ( ' ' slug a] ', sluzqcy [slu'gotst] 

siuch f'sluxj faculty of hearing 
slusarz I'slusag] locksmith 
sluszny f'sinfni] fair, equitable 
siuzqcy [siujats'i] servant 

siuzyc ['shij'itsj to serve 
slychac [sli\at x .sj to hear 
siynqc [ 'slinot,s x J to be celebrated, 

fro distinguish oneself 
siyszec ['slifet x sj to hear 
smak I'smak] taste 
smiac sie. ['sw x at x s x s ( ej to laugh 
smialy f'sn^atij bold 
smiec ['srnietfij to dare, to 

smierc f's x m x ert x sj death 
Smiertelny fs x m x er'telni] mortal 
smola ['smola] tar 
smucic sie [ / smut x s x its i s { e~J to 

smutny ['smutn'ij sad 
snieg f's x n x eg] snow 
snop f'snopj sheaf 
sobota [so'bota] Saturday 
soczysty [so'tj'isti] sappy, juicy 
sokol I'sokul] falcon, hawk 
sdl I'sul] salt 
Sopoty [so'pott] Zoppot (near 

sosna I'sosna] pine-tree 
spac ['spates J to sleep 
spacer ['spatser] walk [(subst.) 
Spartanin [spartanin] Spartian 

spedzac [spedzat x .sj to pass 
spichlerz I s x pixle^], spichrz 

f s \P[iX.f] ware-house 
spieszyc ['sp x £fit x sj to hurry, to 

Spiew f's x p x ev] song (dim. spiewka) 
Spiewac ['s x p x evat x sj to sing 
spodnie ['spodn l eJ trousers 
spokoj ['spokuj] repose, peace 
spokojny [spo'kojm] quiet 
spoleczenstwo [spule'tjen x stvo] so- 
sposobnosc [spo'sobnos x t x s x ] oppor- 
tunity, chance 
spotkac l'spotkat x sJ, spotykac 

[spo't'ikat x s x ] to meet 
spoznic f'spu£nit x s x ] to be late 
sprawiedliwy [spravfid'livi] just 
sprzqtuc ['spj5tat x sj to put in 

order (subst. sprzqtanie) 
sprzedac l'spfedats x j to sell 

(subst. sprzedaz) 
sprzyjac ['spf'ijatfij to be fa- 
srebro I'srebro] silver 

Polish-English Vocabulary. 


Srod ['srudj amidst (prep.) 
sroda I'sr.tiht] Wednesday 
sroka ['sroka] magpie 
stac, stawac f'stats^ 'stavatsj 

to stand; stac sir, to become 
stajnia ['stajna] stable for horses 
stfil I'stal] steel 
staly [' stall] firm 
staly lad ['stal'i lodj continent 
stanqc ['stanotsj to resolve 
Stanisiaw [sta'nisiav] Stanislas 
slanowczy ['sta'noftf'i] decided 
starac sie [starats i si] to take 

start/ I'stari] old 
star zee ['sta^ets] old man 
statek [statek J steamer; statek 

osobowy passenger- steamer 
sterta / ' sterta] stack, heap 
stodoia [stj'dola] barn 
stog I 'stug] stick 
st 61 f'stvlj table 
stolarz ['stolajj joiner 
stolica j'stolitsa] capital (subst.) 

straszny ['strafni] terrible 
strona I'strona] side 
stroz [' strug] watchman 
strwnyk ['strum'ikj rivulet 
stryj f'strij] uncle (brother of 

the father) 
strzelac fstfehtt t sj to shoot 
strzelec f'st/eletsj hunter 
*tr?yc I'stfitsJ to shear, cut 
tticdrca ( stvurtsa] creator 
stuorzyc ['stvogitsj to create 
styczeii ['st'itfe;.J January 
surhy f'sux<J dry (adj.) 
suknia f'siihnaj dress (subst.) 
tuma f'suma] sum 
sumienie [sum t en t e] conscience 
suroivy [su'r.m] severe 
siriadomy [s x i\a'd.)m'i] expert, 

acquainted (with) 
Swiat ['s t v % at] world 
SuHatio /'--rath/ light (subst.) 
s'wiqtynia IsrVtinnJ temple 
s/rierk /'srerkj pine-tree 

Sirirty I 's r (ti J holy 
sirirto uroczyste /'<r;t> iir.i- 
t) iste] holiday 

I'si\ejiJ fresh 
'"" ■ [ 8 { I to whistle 

sunt I's^it] dawn of day 
sivobodny [svobodni] free of care, 

syn [' sin] son (dim. synaczek) 
sypiac I sip ats J to sleep 
syty ['siti/, syt ['sit] satisfied 
szabla ['labia] sabre 
szafa f'fafaj cupboard, wardrobe 
szalony [fa'hn'ij furious 
szanouac [fa'novats] to honour, 

to esteem 
szary f'far'i] grey 
szata [fata] dress, vestment 
szczedzic f'ftfedz^sj to spare 
Szczepan ['JtfopanJ Stephen 
szczery [ "ft/erij sincere 
szcz^slitcy [ftfis { 'lwi] happy 
szczupak f'ftfiipak] pike (fish) 
szczyt f'ftf'itj top 
szeuc I [efts] shoemaker 
szkalowac [fka'hvat [ s i J to slander 
szklanka{ 'fklanka /drinking glass 
szkodliwy [fkjd'liv'i] noxious, 

szkola ['[kola] school 
szlachetny [fla'\etn'i] noble 
szlachta ['Jta\taJ nobility 
sztuka f ftuka] art, piece 
szukac l'fukat x sj to seek 
szumiec ['fum t etsj to roar 
szivaczka f'fvatfka] seamstre.-s 
Szwajcarja [fvajtsarja] Switzer- 
Szwecja ['fvetsja] Sweden 
Szwed [' fved] Swede 
szwecki [' fvetski] Swedish 
szybki f'fipki] rapid, swift 
szyc [fitysj to sew 
szydlo I'J'idh] awl 
szyja I'f'ija] neck 
szynka [ fink a] ham. 


tablca [ta'blitsa] the (black) board 
tajemnica [tajsnn'n x Usa] secret 

tak I 'tak] so, thus, yes 
ttiki I' tak if such 
tdkzi f'tak/e] also, too 
talar ('talar] thaler (German 
tarn ['tam J there (dollar) 

tanrzyr f'tantf'itsj to dance 
tani I'tar^i] cheap 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 

taniec ['tanpts] dance (subst.) 
taraban [ta'raban] drum 
targ ['targ] trade, market 
tchnqc ['t\not i sJ to breathe 
teatr ['teatrj theatre 
t$gi ['UgJ] severe 
ten ['ten] ta, to this 
tents [tenis] tennis 
tepy ftepi] blunt 
teraz ['teraz] now 
test ['tes^sj father-in-law 
tez ['tef] also 

ttumacz f'tiumatf] interpreter, 
translater [lation 

tiumaczenie [tluma'tfenp] trans- 
Toruh j'torunj Thorn (town) 
towar ['tovar] merchandise 
towarzystwo [tova gistvo] union, 
club ; towarzystwo przemysiowe 
towarzysz [to'vagij] companion 
towarzyszka [tova' z'ifka] the (fe- 
male) companion 
towarzyszyc [tova'j'if'it^J to ac- 
irqcac [ f trotsat { sJ to beat 
trawa ['travaj grass 
trawic ['trav x it K sJ to digest 
troskliwy [trosklivi] careful, 

trud ['trud] pains 
trudnosc ['trudnosjsj difficulty 
trudny ['trudn'ij difficult, heavy 
trumna ['trumna] coffin (dim. 

trup ['imp] body [berry 

truskawka [tru skafka] straw- 
trtvac [' treat i s J to last 
trzeba ['tfeba] it is necessary 
Trzebnica [tfeb'nitsa] Trebnitz 

trzewik ['tfevik] shoe 
tu [ f tu], tutaj I'tutaj] here 
Turek ['turekj Turk 
tutejszy [tu'tejf'i] of this place 

tuzin ['tuz { in] dozen 
twardy ['tvardi] firm, steady 
twarz I 'tvaj] face 
twoj ['tvujj your 
ty ['til you [week 

tydzien ['tfdzpnj (pi. tygodnie) 
tyle ['tile] so many 

tysiqc f't'ispts] thousand 
tytut ['t'ituij title. 

u ['u] at, with (prep.) 
ubierac [ub'eratpj to dress 
ubdslwo [u'bustvo] poverty 
ubozec [ubojet^sj to become poor 
ubranie [u'bran t e] dress (subst.} - 
ucho l'u\o] (pi. uszy) ear 
uciqzliwy [utsiaslmi] trouble- 
ucichnqc [u't^^xnot^sj to become 

ucieszny [u / t l s l efm] gay 
uciskac [u't s s i iskat t sj to oppress 
uczcic ['utfit^sj to honour 
uczciivy [u'tftppvi] honest, righ- 
uczen ['utfenj pupil, apprentice 
uczennica [utfen'nftsa] (maid) 

uczony [u'tfoni] learned 
uczyc ['utf'itfij to instruct, to 

uczyc sie ['utf'it t s l s t e] to learn 
udac sie, l'udat { s t sfij, udawac 

sie, [u'davat l s t s t £j to render 
udeptac [u'deptat t sj to stamp 
uderzyc [u'dejitpj to beat 
udzielic [u'dz x elit x s] to afford 
udzielny [udzplrii] independent 
ufac ['ufat t sj to trust, to confide 
ugotowac [ugo'towat^sj to cook 
ujqc ['^J^, S J to take, to seize 
ujscie['ujs s t y s£] mouth (of a river) 
ukarac [u'karatpj to punish 
'uklonicsie [u'khn i it i s { s t e]to salute 
ukroic [u'kroitp], ukrajac to cut 
ul ['ul] bee-hive 
uian ['uian] uhlan 
ulica [u'litsa] street 
uiomnosc fu'hmnos^sj weakness 
unikac [unikat { sj to avoid 
uniwersytet [unt versitet] uni- 
versity [harden 
uodporniac [uot'pornptpj to- 
upal ['upai] heat (subst.) 
uparty / u' parti/ capricious 
upominac (upj' m^nat^J to exhort 
uprawiony [upra'vpn'i] cultivated 
uprzejmosc [u'pfejmosts, J kind- 

Polish- English Vocabulary. 


uprzejmy [up'fejm'i] courteous, 

■urzrdnik [u'jidnik] functionary 
usluga [usluga] service 
ushdny [u'slupii] kind, com- 
iistawiac [u'stavat^J to put up 
usunqC [usunotsj to put aside 
uszanowanie [ufanj van e/ esteem 

utonqc [u'tonotsj to be drowned 
uwaga [u'vaga] attention 
yjrazac [u'vajatsj to look 

sharp, to watch 
uiva.zny [ii'va^ni] attentive 
uwiqzany [ur.'/zani] fastened 
uuiaczac [u'viatfat t sj to dimi- 
involute [u c.)lnit x s] to free 
uzda ['uzdaj bridle 
21 z gte<z nose [113I' tetfnosf: futility 
uzytoae [ii sivatsj to use. 


w [vj t we fee] in 

Waclaw ['vatdav] Wenceslas 

icada f'vadaj fault 

tcakacje [va'katsje] pi. holidays 

waleczny [va'Utfrii] brave 

ivai ['vat] wall 

udlka [' ' calka] struggle, fight 

Warsgawa [var Java] Warsaw 
■r,,)-.<-airski [car fafsk { i] of 

wart f'vartj worth, deserving 
Warta f'vartaj Warta (river) 
ivnrunek [va'runek] condition 
ivarzywny [va'j'ivni] in: ogrdd 

warzywny kitchen-garden 
yd ['vajit^J to weigh 
wbrew [[vbrev] straight against 
u-rzesny f'vtfesn'ij early 

rn J I'ftfwrajj yesterday 
wdotva I vdjraj widow 
wdzieczny ['vdzStfni] thankful 
u<izirk ['r<hfk] thanks 
irnlka I'r.tka] fishing-hook 
wedle fvedlej, wedhig ['vedlug] 

after, according to (prep.) 
■I I'vtgpl] coal 

/ri'gershi] Hungarian 


tcrgrzyn [cigiin] Hungarian 

wesele [ve'sele] wedding 
icesoty [ve'soti], wesol ['vesul] 

gay, merry 
iveicnqtvzf revnJtf] within (prep.) 
wiac ['vatpj to blow (pres. tvieje) 
wiadomosc [vfldomost^sj know- 
iviara ['vara] faith 
wiarus f'c^arusj veteran, brave 

wiatr [ ' vatr] wind (subst.) 
iriqzaika [vp'zalka] binding- 
icidelec [vi'delets] fork 
widziec ['vjidzptpj to see 
wie^c ['vfits] therefore 
wieczor ['v^etfur] evening 
Wieden ['v t £denj Vienna (capi- 
tal of Austria) 
tciedziec [ r v i edz x et x sJ to know 
wiejs'ki ['cijskij of the village 
wiek [ r v$k] century 
wielbic ['i\elbitsj to praise 
wielbiqd [' 'i\dbl5d] camel 
wiele ['i\eIeJ much (many) 
wielki ['v t elk { i] great 
ivielki mistrz [fn^stf] grand 

Wielkie Ksi^stwo Poznanskie 
['v^lk^e 'ksfistvo poz'nan i sk { E] 
grand-duchy of Posen 
1 1 lelkopolska [v^lkj'polska] 

Great Poland 
uielkos'c ['t\elkos { t t sJ greatness 
wielmozny [i\el'm.) ~rii] graceful 
wierny ['v^rn'i] faithful 
icier sz ['i\erf] verse 
uierszokleta [v t erfo'khta] verse- 
wierzba ['i',ejba] willow 
wierzyc ['vj&stofij *° believe 
uies ['v£ t sj village; na wsi — 

in the country 
wiesc ['vests J to lead 
iciesniak ['<; s^i/tk] peasant 
icietrzyk [''\tffik] little wind 
wieza ['vfiga] tower 
wieze ['i\€S,tsJ to drive in a 

icikary [cj'kari] vicar 
w&k ['vilk] wolf 


Polish- English Vocabulary. 

wina ['v x ina] guilt 

winien ['v x in x en], wintiy ['vjnrii] 

wino [' vino] wine 
winszouac [v x in'fovat x sJ to con- 
wiosenny [vp'senn'i] of spring, 

wiuska ['vpskaj village 
wiosna f'v x osnaJ spring (season) 
Wista [ f v t i.siaJ Vistula 
widr f'v,urj chip, splint 
wisiec ['v,is x et x s x ] to hang 
witac l'v x itat x s x f to greet 
wlec ['vleU] to drag 
wlasciciel [vlas x ts x it x s x el] owner 
wiasciwy [vias x 't x s x ivij peculiar 
wlasnosc f'vl«snos i t x « x ] property 
Wiochy ['viox'il Italy; we Wio- 

szech in Italy 
uiox I'vhs] hair 
wloscianin [vhs x t x s x an x in] peasant 
wloski ['vhskij Italian (adj.) 
wobec [' vobtts] over against, be- 
fore (prep.) 
woda f'vodaj water 
wodz f'vudz] chief, leader (subst.) 
wodzic ['vod x zit x sJ to lead 
wojewoda [coje'vodaj voievode 

wojna f'vojnaj war 
tcojsko f'vojskoj a rmy (the soldiers) 
wolnosc ['volno* x t x sJ freedom 
wolny ['volriij free, slow 
wdl f'vulj ox 
tvoiowina [roto'v x ina] beef 
Wolyn I'volinJ Wolhynia 
won I' von J smell (subst.) 
wonny fvonriij fragrant 
w6z ['vuz] waggon 
wozownia fvo' zovnal coach-house 
wrobel ['vrubtll sparrow 
wrocic ['vrutx t its i /, wracac f'vra- 

tsat«J to return 
wrodzony [vro'dz.mi] innate 
wr6g ['vrugj enemy 
wrona l'v>on<i] crow (bird) 
wrzcsieh f'v^en^nj September 
wskaznc [f.skazot { sJ to show 
tcskdrad ['fnkurat^sj to effect 
tcspanialy (f*pa'n t al?/ splendid 
tvyparcie [jspu)'ts x e] support 

wspolbrat ['fspuibratf fellow 

wspolny ['fspulrii] mutual, in- 
wspoiuczen [fspu'iutfenj school- 
ivspomnienie [fspo'mn t en x s] re- 
wsuwac ['fsuvat x sj to move 
wsypac [ fsipatpj to pour 
u-szak f'ffakj however 
wszechmocnosc [tfe\motsnos x t x sJ 

wszechmocny [ffex'motsni] al- 
ivszystek f'ffutek] all, every 
wuj f'tujj uncle (brother of the 

wujostwof vu joslvo] uncle and aunt 
wyborny [v'ibomi] excellent, ca- 
wychodzic x s x J to go out 
wychowac [vi'ypvatpj to educate 
wychoivanie [rixo'van x el education 
wycieczka [v'i't x s x etjka] excursion 
ivyyrac f'vigrat l s x / to win, gain 
wykinc ['riklutsj to cut. out 
wymagac [vl'mugiitsj to demand 
wymowa [v'i'niovu] pronum iation 
ivynajqc [vi'najot x s x ] to let (a 

wynalazek [vina'lazek] invention 
wyniesc ['v'inpsfij to bring from 

a place, to telch 
wypadac [vt padatsj, wypasc 

l'v'ipasts x ] to fall from 
wypchany fm f p%av'i] stuffed 
wypelnic [vi ' piinil \sj to fill up 
tvypgdzic fvi'psdzitsj to expel 
wypoCzywac [vipo't/'ivat x s x J to 

rep-'se oneself 
wyprawa [v'i'prawa] campaign 
wyrazac sie. [vrrajats x ] to ex- 
wyrowna-c [v'i'rurnatsj to equal, 

to resemble 
wyryty [v'ir'iti] engraved 
wyschngc ['vitfX n dt t S i } to dry up 
wysluzony [vislu' jon'ij old (of 

wysminvac [ri"sm x evat l 8 x ] to 

scoff (at) 
wysoki [v'i'vokij hgh 

Polish-English Vocabulary 


wyspac [' v'ispat t sJlo sleep enough 
wytrawny [v'i travrii] acerb, acid 
icytrwalosc [vitr'vaijst^sj endu- 
rance, pers' veranee 
wywabic fv'i'vabitsj to allure 
ni/zincany [vizla'tsarii] gilded 
uzf/ledem I'vzgledemJ with re- 

^;>rd to (prep.) 
nz<lluz ['vzdluz] along (prep.) 
wzbogacic [vzbo'gatsjt^J to get 

wziqc ['vz t otsJ to take 
tvzor f'vzur] example 
iczrokf vzrok /sightseeing (subst.). 


z L z ]j ze i Z€ l ou t °f; °f» from 

(prep, with gen.); with (prep. 

with instr.) 
za [za] too (adv.); during (prep. 

with gen.); tor, after, behind 

(prep, with gen. Or instr.) 
zqb ['zobj tooth 
zabawa [za'bara] play 
zabawka [za'bafkaj toy 
zabic ['zabitsj to kill 
znbor ['zoburj land taken by 
zaihodni fza'xadnij western 
zachwycad [za'xc-itsai t sj to touch 
zarny ['zatsnlj worthy 
zaczqc ['zatfjtsj to begin 

epha [za'tj'epka] quarrel 

zarzepic [za'tjepjtsj to attack 
zacmienie sloiica [zat smenp 

sfjtsa] eclipse of the sun 
zadac ['zadatfiy J to set a task 
zadanie [za'dane] task 
zadoicolony [zadovo'loni] content, 

zagrac ['zagra&pj to play 
zajqc ['zajdtsj hare 
zajecie [za'jits^J occupation 
zakon krzyzacki ['zakon kj'i- 

'jatskij the Teutonic Order 
zakon nil: [za' k./nnjhr/ monk 
zaiozyt sir l:a't>uts si] to 

zamth f'zamfk/ castle, lock (of 

a door) 
zamianA [za'mpna] exchange 

{'zamiastj instead of 


zamierzchiy [za'm t £gxii] ancient 
zamkni$ty [zam'knit'ij shut (part.) 
zamozny fza'mognij rather rich 
zanim f'zanun] before (con.j.i 
zaorac [za'oratsj to plough up 
zapas ['zapas] stock, provision 
zapeune [za'pevns] to be sure 
'zaplakany [zapla' karii] 'full of tears 
znpiata [zapiptaj payment 
zaprosic [zapros its/ to invite 
zarazliwy [zaraz'liv'i] contagious 
zasada [za'sada] principle 
zashiga [zas'luya] merit 
zascianek [zas x 't t sanik] hamlet 
zasinc ['zasatxj to sow 
zastqpic [za stop its J to sub- 
zaufac [za' n fats J trust 
zaxvalic 8t$ [za'valits s/J to fall 

zairiadowac [zava'dovatsj to 

zawierac [za'r eratsj to shut 
zawsze ['zaffej always 
zatcodzic [zavodzitsj to deceive 
zazdroscic [ zaz'<h\>s t tsitsj to 

zbauric f'zbaritsj to release 
zbawiciel [zba'vjtsel] Saviour 
zbiqkany [zbiokani] gone astray 
zblizac ['zbllgatpj to approach 
zbogacid si% [zbj'gat i 8 l it l 8 i s^J 

to get rich 
zbdjea f'zbujtsa] robber 
zboze I'zboze] coin 
zbrodnia [zbrodn <<j crime 
zbudzic [' zhiflr it s J to awaken 
zburzyc ( zbu ~'if s / to destroy 
zbyt I zl/itj too, too much 

zarowad [stfaravatpj to en- 

temiaiy [stfi r'n atij not black 
zdanie f*zdan t sj meankig, opi- 
nion •. 
zdotod ['zdcHatfiJ to be able 
zdolny f'z'/jhi'/'J clever 
zdrdw I'zdrufJ ', zdrowy ['zdrov i) 

zdrowie f'zdrov t eJ health 
zegar / 'zegar] clock 
zemsta reemstaj revenge (sn 
zepsne I'zt-jfsuts J to be spoiled 


Polish-English Vocabulary. 

zewnqtrzf zErnotf] without (prep.) 
zewszqd ['zsvfod] from all sides 
zginqc ['zginot x sJ to perish 
zgoda ['zgoda] harmony, unani- 
mity, concord 
zgnjzc ['zgr'is^sj to crack 
zgrzebny ['zggebn'i] made of tow 
zgubic ['zgubitpj to lose 
ziamo ['zprno] grain 
zielenic sie ['z^'lenjitppf] to be 
covered with verdure (subst. 
zielony [z/lon'i] green 
Zielone Swiqtki [zplone 's x vptk { i] 

ziemia f'z^m^aj earth, country 
ziemniak ['z K em x npk] potato 
zima ['zpna] winter 
zimny ['zirnrii] cold 
zjesc ['zjes x t t sj to eat enough 
zlo f'zhj evil (subst.) 
ziqczyc sie; ['zlotf'it s sJ to join 
zlosliwosc [zhs'livos^sj wicked- 
zloto ['zhto] gold 
zioty ['zlott] of gold 
zlowic ['ztovit y sJ to gild 
zly ['zli] ill, evil, bad (adj.) 
zmarly ['zmarll] dead 
zmartwienie [zmar'tv l .&n l ej dis- 
zmgczony [zme'tfoni] fatigued 
zmienic ['zm t en i it t s i J to change 
zmysl ['zm'istj sense 
znac ['znat^J to know 
znajdowac si% [znaj'dovat x s x s^e] 

to be founcl 
znajomosc [zna'jomos^sj ac- 
znalezc ['znalesfipj to find 
znany ['znarii] known 
znojny ['znojrii] hard, trying 
zobaczyc s?'g [zo'batfitp^ s t e] to 

see each other again 
zofitac ['zostatfij to remain, be- 
drebir / f z t reb t eJ colt 
zr$czny ['zrstfrii] clever 
zrenica Izre'nitsajyuyil of the eye 
zrobicf'zrob i its l /to work, to make 
zrddlo ['zrudto] fountain, source 
zupelny [zu'iJeini] complete 
zwac ['zvat x sj to call 

, zwiastun [zv'astun] announcer, 
zwiqzac ['zt\ozat t sJ to bind 
zwierz / 'zvpj] wild beast 
zwierzchnosc f'zv^xnos^sj au- 
thority, magistrates 
zwierze, f'zv^jej animal 
vwiezc ['zv { es x t t sj see iviezc 
zwodzic f'zvodz^sj see zawodzic 
zwycie,shi [zv'i't l s t eski] victorious 
zwycie,stivo [zvttppstvo] victory 
zivycigzyc [zv'i'tpfigitpj to con- 
quer, to vanquish 
zwykiy ['zv'ikl'i] general (adj., 
zwykle adv.). 


zaba ['$aba] frog 

zqc ['jo^sj to cut, to harvest 

zalowac [$ahvat x sj to regret 

zqdac ['^odat i sJ to demand 

zaden ['zpden] no (adj.) 

zqdza ['godza] desire, lust (subst.) 

zal ['gal] regret 

zalosny [ga'iosrii] sad; droga 
zaiosna funeral march 

iarloczny [gar'htfnl] voracious 

zartowac [ gar'tovatpj to joke 

ze f'ge] that 

zebrak ['gsbrak] beggar 

zeglarz ['$£gla$] mariner 

zegnac sie, fjegnat i s i s t ej to bid 

zelazo [ge'lazo] iron 

zeniec ['genets] reaper 

zldb ['jlubj crib 

znqc [snot y s] to cut, to mow 

zniwiarka [gnivprka] harvesting 

zniwiarz ['znpvpg] «• harvest- 
# zniwo [ 'jnfoo] harvest 

zolqdek [go'lodek] stomach 

zoinierz I'golnpg] soldier 

zdlty ['gulti] yellow 

zona ['gonaj wife 

zonaty [go'nati] having a wife, 

zdraw ['jurat) J crane (bird) 

zuc ['jutpj to chew 

zwawy ['gvavi] quick, nimble 

zyc ['jits J to live 

zycie ['s'it l s i ej life 

Anglo-Polish Vocabulary. 


zyczliwy [titf'livl] benevolent 
zyczyc [' zitj "it t s J 'to wish, to desire 
^'jd ['$&] Jew 

zyto ['jito] rye 
zywic f'si'itsj to 
feed, to support. 

nourish, to 

Auglo-Polish Vocabulary. 


able, to be moc 

abode pobyt 

accident przypadek 

according to podlug, wediug, 

(on) account (of) dla 
acerb wytrawny 
acid wytrawny 
across poprzek 
act (to) dziaiac 
advance (to) robic 2>ostepy 
advantage pierwszenstwo 
adversary przeciwnik 
after podlug, wediug, wedle, za, 

against naprzecitc, przectwko, 

agreeable tnity 
all wszyscy, wszystkie 
almighty toszechmocny 
almost prawie 
Alps Alpy 
already juz 
also takze 
V&lways zatvsze 
amidst srod, posrdd 
among (po)mifdzy 
and /', a 
angel antoi 
animal zwierzc 
answer (to) odpouriedziec 
ant mroula 
anxious tro.skliwy 
apostle apostol 
apple jablko 
apple-tree jabfon 
apply (to) przykiadad */> 
apprentice uczen 
approach (to) zblizac sie 
April kwiecien 
acquainted (with) Swiadomy 
army o 
around koio, okuio ; o 

Momentary Polish (irammar. 

art sztuka 

artisan rzemieslnik 

as jak 

Asia Azja 

astronomer astronom 

at u, iv 

Athenian (den ski (adj.) 

attack (to) zaczepic 

attention uwaga 

attentive uwazny 

August sierpiev (month) 

aunt ciotka 

Austrian Austrjak (subst.) 

autumn jesien 

autumnal jesienny 

avaricious skqpy. chciwy 

awkward niezgrabny. 


bad zly 
bake (to) piec 
baker piekarz 
bark (of a tree) kora 
barge, bark barka 
barley je,czn\ie>i 
barn stodola 
bathe (to) kqpac 
battle bitwa 

Bavarian bawarski (adj.) 
bear (beast) niedztoiedz 
bear (to) niesc 
beat (to) pobic 
beautiful pi$kny 
beaver bobr 

become (to) star sir, stawad «*{ 
bed \6zko 
bee pszczoia 
beer pitco 

before przrd (prep.) ; zanhn, Mm 
gar Zebrak 
behind za 



Anglo-Poflish Vocabulary. 

belie (to) skiamac 

believe (to) ivierzyc 

bell dzwon 

below pod 

bench iawa, lawka 

benefactor dobroczynca 

besides procz, oprocz 

between miedzy, pomiqdzy 

bicycle rower 

bicyclist cyklista 

big (fat) gruby 

black czarny 

blackbird kos 

blade (of an ear) zdzbio, Use 

blessed zbawiony 

blind slepy 

blow (to) dqc 

blunt t$py 

board (black) tablica 

body ciaio, kadiub 

bomb bomba 

bone kosc 

book ksiqzka 

boot but 

bounty dobroc 

braid (to) plesc 

Brandenburg Brandenhurgja 

branch galqz 

brave ivaleczny 

bravery mgstwo 

broad szeroki 

Bromberg Bydgoszcz 

brother brat (pi. bracia) 

bud pqczek 

building budowa 

burdensome przykry 

burn (to) (s)palic 

butcher rzeznik 

butterfly motyl 

by przez. 


cabbage kapusta 

cake placek 

called (to be) nazywac si§ 

can (jug) bania 

cane kij 

cannon-ball kula armatnia 

cap czapka 

capital (chief-town) stolica (subst.) 

capricious uparty 

captain kapitan 

careful troskliwy 

careless sivobodny 

carpenter ciesla 

carriage powoz 

castor bobr 

catch (to) jqc; chivy tac, chwycic 

cathedral katedra 

Catholic katolik 

cause (reason) przyczyna, powdd 

cautious ostrozny 

celebrated siawny 

centnar hundred-weight 

century wiek 

chain lancuszek 

chair krzesio 

chalk kreda 

chance przypadek 

cheap tani 

cherry wisnia; cherry-tree drzewo 

chief naczelnik 
child dziecko, dziecie. 
children dzieci 
chip wior 
chocolate czekolada 
choose (to) ubrac, obierac 
chorus chor 

Christian chrzescijanin (subst.) 
church koscioi 
citizen obywatel, mieszczanin 
class klasa 
clean czysty 
cleanliness czystosc 
clear pogodny (weather) 
clerk pisarz 
clever zdolny, zre,czny 
cloud oblok, chmura 
coach powoz 
coarse gruby 
coffee kawa 
coldness mroz 
collar koinierz 
gpolt zrebie, 
comedy komedja 
comfort pociecha 
commandment przykazanie 
commit (to) popeinic 
companion (female companion) 

concord zgoda 
conquer (to) zwycie.zyc 
conscience sumienie 
conscious swiadomy 
consist in (to) skladac si$ 

Anglo-Polish Vocabulary. 


consolation pociecha 

consul konsul 

contagious zarazliwy 

contempt pogarda 

content zadowolony 

continent stahj lad 

convince (to) przekonac 

cook (to) gotowac 

corn zbo'ze 

count (to) liczyc 

councillor radca 

counsel (to) radzic 

country hraj; in the country 

na test 
countryman rolnik 
courage odivaga 
courageous odicazny 
court dicor; court of justice sad 
courteous uprzejmy 
cousin kuzyn 
crime zbrodnia 
cripple kaleka 
cross krzyz 
cruel okrutny 

cry (to) krzyczec, krzyknac 
cup filizanka 
cupboard szafa 
cut (to) rqbac. 


daily powszedni 

dance taniec (subst.j 

Dane Dunczyk 

dare (to) smiec, odwazyc sir 

daughter cSrha 

day dzien 

dead zmarly 

deaf ghiclty 

dear miiy, drogi 

debt dlug 

debtor dhtznik 

December grudzien 

deep gtyboki 

deserving u-arf 

desire zadza (subst.) 

desk (professor's) katedra 

devil djabei 

dictate (to) podyktowac ' 

differ (to) rdznic sir 

different rozmaity 

difficult trudny (adv. trudno) 

difficulty trwlnosc 

diligent pilny 

disagreeable przykry 

discontented niezadowolony 

disease choroba 

displeasure zmart wienie 

dissipate (to) marnowac 

diver nurek 

do (to) czynic 

doctrine nauka 

document akt (pi. akta) 

doe sarna 

dog pies 

domestic domowy 

door drzwi 

dozen tuzin 

drag (to) wlec 

draw (to) rysowac 

drawing-room salonik 

dreadful grozny 

dress suknia, ubranie 

drink pic 

drive (to) (— rapidly) pedzic ; 

jechac (in a carriage) 
drowned (to be) utonac 
during podczas (prep.) 
duchy ksigstwo 
dwarf iokietek 
dwelling mieszkanie. 


each kazdy 

eagle orzei 

ear ucho (pi. uszy) ; kios (of corn) 

early wczesny 

earth ziemia 

easy lekki 

eat (to) jesc 

eclipse (of the sun) zacmienic 


economical oszczgdny 
education wychoicanie 
either — or albo -** albo 
elect (to) obrac, obiercc 
elector elektor 
elementary element<irny 
emperor cesa>-; 
empty pusty 
enamoured rozkochany 
endurance wytrux&oSC 
endless nieskonczotiy 
English angiehkl 
engraved tvyry/y 
enough dosyc 
equal rowny 



Anglo-Polish Vocabulary. 

err (to) biqdzic 

esteem (to) respektowac; powazac 

Evangelic ewangelik 

every kazdy, tvszystek, co (with 

evil zio (subst.) 
example wzor 
exercise (to) cwiczyc (verb) 
excellent wyborny 
except procz, oprocz 
expert swtadomy 
express wyrazac sie 
eye oko (pi. oczy). 


Fortune fortuna; majqtek ( = 

(a) fourth (subst.) cz warty cz%sc 
free wolny 
freedom wolnosc 
French francuski 
Frenchman Francuz 
fresh swiezy 
friend przyjaciel 
from od; z 
fruit owoc 
full peiny 

functionary urzqdnik 
fur futro 
furious szalony 

fable bajka 

furrow bruzda. 

face oblicze 

fall (to) padac, pasc; polec 


family rodzina 

gait chod 

faith wiara 

Galicia Galicja 

faithful wierny 

gather (to) zbierac 

falcon sokoi 

garden ogrod 

far daleki 

gay wesoly ; rad pogodny (weather) 

farewell pozegnanie 

general zwykly (adj.) 

farmer dzierzawca 

generation rod 

farm-labourer parobek 

gentleman pan 

father ojciec 

German niemiecki (adj.) 

fatigued zmgczony 

get dostac 

favour iaska 

ghost duch 

fear bojazn (subst.); bad sie (verb) 

girl dzieivcze 

feather pioro 

give (to) dac, dawac 

February luty 

glad rad 

feel czuc 

glass (drinking — ) szklanka; little 

fellow chlop 

glass kieliszek 

fellow-creature blizni 

globular kulisty 

field pole 

glory slawa 

fight walka (subst.) 

Gnesen Gniezno 

figure postac (= shape) 

go (to) isc; to go about chodzic; 

find (to) znalezc 

to go on horseback jezdzic; 

fine pitfcny 

to go to a place pdjsc 

fish ryba 

goddess bogini 

fishing, fishery poloiv ryb 

godfather kumotr 

flatterer porfilebca 

good dobry 

flow (to) dec 

gospel ewanyelja 

flower kwiat 

government rzqd, panowanie 

food potraiva (subst.) 

grace iaska 

fool glupiec 

gracious iaskawy (iaskaw), iviel- 

for (prep.) dla 


forest las 

grandfather dziadek 

forge kuznia (subst.) 

grandmother babka 

form (= class) Masa; (= bench) 

great wielki 

lawa, iawka 

greatness ivielkosc 

former downy (adj.) 

Greek grecki (adj.) 

Anglo-Polish Vocabulary. 


grenade (ammunition) grqnat 
K r rief klopot 
guest gosc 
gut kiszka. 


hair wios 

half poi 

ham szynka 

handwriting pismo 

hang (to) uisiec 

happy szczcslnvy 

harden (to) uodpomiac 

harrow brona 

harvest zniwo 

hawk sokoi 

head glow a 

health zdroirh 

healthy zdrowy, zdrow 

heart serce 

heated rozgrzany 

heaven niebo (pi. nieba, niebiosa) 

heavy ciezki (of a weight) 

hell piekio 

here tu, tutaj 

hero bohater 

heron czapla 

hew (to) rqh(«- ,• ctcjc 

high wysoki; high-road szosa 

hire (to) najmowac 

hold (to) dotrzymac 

hole dziura, nora 

holiday uroczyste stvirto 

holy suiriy 

honest poczcitcy } uczciwy 

honour (to) szanowac 

hoof kopyto 

horn r<Jj? 

horse Ao// 

hostess gospodyni 

hour godzina 

how jY/A-, how much (many)V tfc 

Hungarian irryierski (adj.) 

hunger yfoV 

hungry giodny 

hunt poloivac 

huntsman mysliwy 

hurtful szkodliwy 

husband mqt 

hypocritical obiudny. 


I ja 

idle Unite y; to be idle proznouac 

idler leniwiec, prozniak 

if #cfy 

illness choroba 

immortal niesmiertehiy 

improvident nieostrozny 

in, into m>, wa 

inconstant niestaly 

independent udzielny 

industry pilnosc 

industrious pilny, pracowity 

inestimable nieoceniony 

ingredient przypraua 

inkstand kaiamarz 

inn karczma 

instead (of) zamiast 

instruction nauka 

invention ivynalazek 

invisible niewidzialny 

invite (to) zaprosic 

iron zelazo 

Italian wioski (adj.). 


January styczen 
Jew zyd 

Jesuit jezuita 
John Jan 
Joseph Jozef 
journey podroi 
judge (to) sqdzic 
jug bania 
juicy soczysty 
July lipiec 
June czenciec 
just (adj.) spr<(trie<U'uvy 
justice sprauiedliwosv; court ot 
justice sad. 


kilometre kilometr 
kind laskawy (iaskaw) 
kindness dobr<><\ uprzfjmosi 
kinsman lcrewny 
know (to) z)iuc 
knowledge wiadomoSi 
known znany. 


lady pioii 
lake ,/' .('»■<> 


Anglo-Polish Vocabulary. 

lamb jagnig 

lance lanca 

land kraj 

large duzy (of a space) 

lark skowronek 

last ostatni 

Latin iacinski (adj.) 

laugh (to) smiac sie 

law prawo 

lay (to) A£a& 

lead (to) iviesc 

learn (to) uczyc sie 

leave (subst.) pozegnanie 

let (to) — loose puszczac, puscic 

letter &s£ 

lie (to) klamac, igac 

lieutenant podporucznik 

life 2#c/£ 

lighten (to) biyskac 

like (to) Zw&ic 

likewise rownie (adv.) 

lion tew 

Lissa Leszno (town) 

Lithuanian Litivin 

little mfl^ 

live (to) eye 

locksmith slusarz 

long dlugi 

look (to) patrzec 

loud giosny 

love miiosc (subst.); ft&lc (verb) 

Lusatian huzyczanin. 


maid dziewcze. 

man mezczyzna, cziowiek (pi. 

ludzie) (husband =) w«2 
many ^#tete; how many ite 
many a niejeden 
March marzec 
Marienburg Malborg 
master mistrz; grand-master 

wielki mistrz 
marsh bagno 
martyr mgczennik 
May maj 
mayor burmistrz 
meadow iqka 
meal potrawa 
meaning zdanie 
measure (to) mierzye 
member czlonek 
merchandise towar 

merciless nielitosciwy 

merry wesoly, rad 

metal kruszec 

midday poludnie 

midnight polnoc 

milliner modniarka 

mingle (to) mieszac 

miserable mizerny 

misfortune nieszczescie 

missing (to be — ) brakowac 

mistress (Mrs.) pani 

mix (to) mieszac 

modesty skrommosc 

monarch monarcha 

money pieniqdze 

monkey malpa 

moon ksigzyc 

morrow (to-) jutro 

mortal smiertelny 

mother matka 

mountain gdra 

mouth usta; (of a river) ujscie 

move (to) ruszac, ruszyc 

much wiele, duzo; how much? He 

my mdjj moja, moje. 


name (family name) nazwisko; 
Christian name imie 

nation narod 

naughty niegrzeczny 

near blisko; przy 

nearly prawie 

necessary potrzebny 

neck szyja 

need (to) potrzebowac 

neighbour sqsiad 

neighbouring sqsiedzki 

neither — nor ani — am 

never nigdy 

newspaper gazeta; daily news- 
paper dziennik 

nightingale siowik 

nobility szlachta 

nobleman szlachcic (pi. szlachta) 

no nie; zaden (pron.) 

nobody nikt 

noon poludnie 

not nie 

nothing nie 

November listopad 

noxious szkodliwy 

numerous liczny. 


Anglo-Polish Vocabulary 



oak dab; oak-wood drbina 
oats oivies 

obliged (to be — ) musiec 
occupation zajrcie 
ocean morze 
October pazdziemik 
of o 

often czgsto 

old star y; wysluzony (of soldier.-; 
open oticarty 
opera opera 

opportunity okazja, sposobnosc 
'opposed przeciwny 
or albo, lub 
orchard sad 
order (to) Jcazac (verb) 
Order zakon; Teutonic Order 

zakon krzyzacki (krzyzacki 

from krzyzak) 
orderly porzqdny 
over nad; over against wobec ; 

naprzeciw, naprzeciwko 
other inny 
our nasz 
ox tool. 


pains (take — ) (to) starac sir 

paint (to) pomahwac 

pair para 

painter malarz 

pancake pqczek 

parent (kinsman) krewny 

parents rodzice (father and mother) 

Paris Paryz 

Paul Paw el 

pavement bruk 

pea groch 

peace pokoj 

pear gruszka 

pear-tree gruszkowe drzewo 

peasant chlop, wloscianin, rolnik 

pen pidro 

pension peyisja 

perfection doskonnlosc 

perhaps moze 

perseverance wytrwalosc 

personal osobny 

perversity przewrotnosc 

Peter Piotr 

Phoenician Feni<jnni,i 

picture ohraz 

play (to) bauic s*g 
please (to) podobac sic 
plough (to) orac; plough up zaorac 
plum sliwka; plum-tree Wwa, 

sliwowe drzewo 
poet poeta 
Polish polski 
polite uprzejmy 
Pomerania Pomorze 
poor biedny; to become poor 

Posen Poznan 
post-office poczta 
possess (to) posiadac 
potato perka, ziemviak 
poverty ubostwo 
powder proch 
power sila 
praise (to) chwalic 
predecessor poprzednik 
present podarunek 
preference pierwszenstiro 
priest ksiqdz 
prince ksiqzQ 
print (to) drukowac 
probable pratcdopodobny 
proclaim (to) oglosic sir 
prodigal rozrzutny 
professor profesor 
profit pozytek 
profound gieboki 
pronunciation wymowa 
property wiasnosc 
Protestant ewangelik 
provincial prowincjonalny 
provision zapas 
prudent mqdry 
Prussia Prusy 
punish (to) karac, ukarac 
pupil uczen; (maid-pupil) uczen- 

put aside usunqc. 


({uality przymiot 
quarrel kiocic 
quarrelsome kidtliwy 
quarter czwarta 
quiet spokojny. 


rain deszcz (subst.), padad (verb] 
rapid szybki 


Anglo-Polish Vocabulary. 

rare rzadki 

ready chetny 

reason (cause) poivod, przyczyna 

recommend (to) polecic 

red czerwony 

regard (with — to) wzgledem 

regret (to) zaiowac 
reign rzqd, panowanie (subst.) 
rejoice (to) cieszyc sic. 
remain (to) zostac 
repair (to) reparowac 
repay (to) oddac wet za wet 
repose spokoj (subst.), ivypoczywac 
reprove (to) karac [(verb) 

rest reszta 

return (to) wracac, ivrocic 
reward my to (subst.) 
Rhenish renski 
Rhine Ben 
rich bogaty; to get rich wzho- 

gacic sig 
rich man bogacz 
righteous uczciwy 
river rzeka 
road droga 
robber zbojca 
roll (white bread) bulka 
Rome Bzym 
rose roza 
round okrqgiy (adj.) ; koio, okoio 

royal krolewski 
Russian rosyjski (adj.), Bosjanin 

rye zyto. 

sabre palasz 
salary pensja 
sappy soczysty 
satire satyra 

satisfied syty (syt); zadowolony 
sausage kiszka, kiclbasa; Graco- 
vian sausage kielbasa krakowska 
Saviour Zbawiciel 
saw pila (subst.) 
say (to) powiadac ; rzec 
school szkola 
science nauka 
scoff (at) wysmieimc (verb) 
scorn pogarda (subst.) 
sea morze 

season pora roku 

seek (to) szukac 

see (to) widziec 

sell (to) sprzedac 

sense zmysi 

September wrzesien 

serene pogodny 

servant siuga, shizqcy 

serve (to) sluzyc 

service usiuga 

severe ostry, surowy 

sew (to) szyc 

shady cienisty 

shape postac 

sheaf kios 

shear (to) strzyc 

shelter (to) chronic 

shop kram, sklep 

short krdiki 

show (to) .pokazac 

shut zamkniety (partic.) 

sick chory 

side strona ; by the side of obok 

sight wzrok 

silent (to be) milczec 

similar podobny (podobien) 

sin grzech (subst.), ^;*2r^^/c(verb) 

sing (to) spiewac 

sister siostra 

sit (to — down) siadac, siqs'c 

situated on the shore nadbrzezny 

skin skora 

slander (to) obmawiac, oczerniac 

sleep (to) spac 

slow wolny 

small maiy . 

smoke dym (subst.) 

so tak 

sojourn (to) przebywac 

society spdieczenstwo 

sofa kanapa 

soft mie[kki 

soldier zotnierz 

song spicw, piesu; national song 

piesn narodoiva 
soon wkrotce; as soon as skoro 
soul dusza 

sound dzwielc (subst.), brzmiec 
source zrodlo [(verb) 

southern poludniowy 
space miejsce 
Spartan Spartanin 
speak (to) mdwic 

Anglo-Po] sh Vocabulary. 

speaker mowca 
ftpear lanca 
spin (to) przqsc 
spinner (female — ) przqdha 
spirit finch 
spite (in — 01) mimo 
splint trior 
sponge gqbka 
spot miejsce 
^fcring wiosna (season); skakac 

stall hij 

stamp (to) udeptac 
stand (to) stac 
star gwiazda 
slate pavstico 

stay (abode)pofy/£ ;przebywac[verb) 
steal (to) Tcrasc 
steam para 
steamer stateTc 
stepmother macocha 
stick hij 
ill jednah 
ill (= yet) jeszcze 

ck zapas 

rk bocian 
nge cudzy 

eet ?t^/ca 
ggle w?a/fca 

ong gtfny 

burb przedwiescie 

ch *a£/ 

m sterna 

mmer Zato 
hn sloi'tce 
surface powierzclinia 
surveyor dozor<a 
swallow jasMlha (bird) 
swimmer piywak 
Swede Sziv.ed 
vedish szwecki (szwedzki). 



table s<y/ 
•tailor hraw'h 

ftke (to) 6/*«r. >f 
Hie powiesc ; bajha 

tan i tm yarboicac 

tanner garba 

tar swola 
-la?k zadanie 
SHacher naiiczi/ciel, jj/'c; 
'ill (t 01 pou-iudiu- : rzec 

temple striq ty»j fa 

tenant dziertawca 

tender cz?t/?/ 

tennis (lawn-tennis) toifc 

than mi 

thank (to) dzichowac 

that ow (adj.); ie (conj.) 

the — the tm — £m 

theatre teatr 

there <am 

they owe, one 

Ihing r^recs 

this ten, ta, to 

though chociaz 

threescore hopa 

thunderstorm burza > 

thus tah 

tiresome uciqzliwy 

tongue (mother — ) mowa ojczysta 

to (prep.) do; hu 

to-day dzis, dzisiaj; of to-day 

too (= also) takze; za (e. g. za 

drogo too dear) 
tooth zqb 
torment meha 
town miasto 
town-hall ratusz 
trades-union towarzystwo prze- 

train pociqg 
travel podrdzowac 
tread (to) deptac 
treasure sharb 
treasurer 2 } odskarbi 
tree drzewo 
trouble bieda (subst.) 
troublesome uciqzliwy 
truth praivda 
turn (to) obracac s*g. 


unanimity zgoda 

under pod 

unhappy nieszczrsliiry 

university uniwersyUt 

uncle stryjt{the father's brother); 

uuj (the mother's brother) 
unknown nieiciadomy 
unnecessary niepotrzebny 
use (subst.) pozyieh 
useful po&yteczny 
utility uzyti 



Ansrlo-Polish Y< tabula rv 


valour mcstivo 
value (to) respektowac 
vanquish (to) zivyci^zyc 
vapour para 
venture (to) sniiec 
verse- maker ifrierszolcleta 
very bardzo 
veteran wiarus 
Vienna Wiedm (Austria) 
vigorous silny 
village ivies, wioslca 
virtue cnota 
virtuous cnotlvwy 
Vistula Wisla 
voievode wojewoda 
Volhynia Woiyn 
voracious zarloczny. 


wages myto 

walk przechadzka, spacer 

wall mur, ival, sciana 

war ivojna 

wardrobe szafa 

warm cieply 

waste (to) marnowac 

watch (to) uwazac 

watchman stroz 

water ivoda 

way droya 

we my 

weapon brofi 

weather poyoda 

wedding ivesele 

week tydzieu (pi. tygodnie) 

week-day dzien powszedni 

weep (to) plakac 

weigh (to) wazyc 

what co (neuter) ; jaki (adj. 

wheat pszenica 

where ydzie 

which Tctdry? (adj.) 

whip (to) chhstac 

whistle (to) yivizdac (verb) 

white bialy 

whither dokqd 

who? Jcto? ktory (relat. pron 

whole caly 

whose? czyj, -a, -e? 

wife zona 

wild dziki 

willing chttny 

win (to) tvyyrac 

wine wino 

winter zima 

wisdom mqdrosc 

wise mqdry 

with z 

within iveivnqtrz 

without bez; zewaqtrz 

wolf wilk 

woman kobieta 

wonder (to) dziivic sie. 

wonderful cudowny- 

wood (= forest) las 

world siviat 

work praca, dzieio (subst.); % 

coivac (verb) 
worth wart 
worthy zacny 
wrath gniew 
writer pisarz. 

Y. ' 

yard lokiec 
year role (pi. lata) 
yellow zolty 
yes talc 

yet jeszcze ; jednak 
you ty (sing.); wy (plur.) 
young mlody 

your two} (sing.); wasz (plur. 
youth mtodziez {age);-mlodzii 


Zoppot (near Danzig) Sopot y. 


id by C. F. Winter, Darrnsladt. 



■— — — ^ ^ — 


LaP . G r S symank , Paul 

S77^5el Elementary Polish grammar