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tdUu^T ih^. 17. ^7^ 

3 2044 102 781 101 

' r 



John D. Fitz-Gerald, Ph. D. 






CopyritU by Undtncaai & Vnitrmtd. N. V. 

La Alhambka con la Siebba Nevada 






ov TToXX* aXXa ttoXv 




Copyright. 191 7, 

PREFj\GE ■ ■' ; \ 

• . ' ■ 

This Spanish prose book has been prepared with 
these aims*/ 

To give the student a command of practical Spanish. 
Therefore only the most current locutions and vocabu- 
lary are introduced. These are used repeatedly while 
as the book progresses additional material is gradually 
and steadily worked in. 

To provide an elementary acquaintance with the life 
and customs of Spain and of Spanish America, as well as 
with the fundamental facts of the history, literature, and 
art of the Peninsula and of the republics of South 
America. The last fourteen chapters are devoted ex- 
clusively to countries of the New World. - 

The method followed in the preparation of the 
book is based upon the belief that it is preferable to 
write a considerable amount of fairly easy Spanish 
than to attempt to write a small amount of difficult 

It is hoped that instructors using the book will insist 
first upon a careful study of the model Spanish text at 
the beginning of each chapter. This may be treated in 
class in the many ways that any reading lesson in Spanish 
may be treated. The Repasos de Gramdtica should be 
worked out preferably after a study of the Spanish 
text. The locutions should be committed to memory. 
The oral work may be done by the class while the stu- 

• • 


dents' Spanish version of the English paragraphs is 
being written on the board. 

The list of proverbs should be consulted for transla- 
tions of the proverbs. In the Appendix will be found 
tables of the verb endings of all regular verbs, the ir- 
regular forms of irregular verbs and of type-verbs of 
the kind known as radical-changing and orthographical- 
changing; also certain special cases of verb irregularities. 
Each verb or type that is irregular bears a paragraph 
number and to these numbers are referred in the vo- 
cabulary and in the Repasos de Gramdtica all irregular 
forms. The student thus has at hand a ready refer- 
ence section to aid him in mastering that great difficulty 
in Spanish, the verb. 

The vocabulary is somewhat of an innovation. Into 
this one vocabulary are combined the Spanish-English 
and the Euglish-Spanish vocabularies which are 
usually kept separate in foreign language prose books. 
It is beheved that this combined vocabulary — which 
is arranged according to rules followed in Spanish 
dictionaries — will not only save the student's, time 
by making it unnecessary for him to be always on the 
look-out for that one of the vocabularies he desires, 
but will also teach him the etymological relations that 
exist in many cases between Spanish and English 
words. For the idea of a combined vocabulary the 
author is indebted to Professor Charles Philip Wagner 
of the University of Michigan. 

The author desires also to express 'here his thanks to 
Seiior Modesto Sole y Andreu for reading the manu- 


script and for making several very helpful suggestions, 
also to Sefior Rafael Soto of the University of Illinois 
for help at several points. To Professor John D. Fitz- 
Gerald of the University of Illinois he tenders not only 
the thanks of an author to a learned and painstaking 
editor but also the gratitude and affection of a former 
student to an inspiring master. 

Lawrence A. Wilkins. 

New York City, June, 1917. 


In using this book do not attempt to translate the 
English sections of the lessons without a previous care- 
ful study of the Spanish text and a faithful review of 
the grammatical ppints mentioned in the Repasos de 
Gramdtica, The latter and the Spanish text should be 
worked out together as is indicated by the fact that the 
illustrations of grammar are taken from the Spanish 
with which the lesson opens. Likewise the locutions 
should be memorized before you attempt the English- 
Spanish exercise. Let the Spanish text always serve 
you as the model for your translation from English into 
Spanish. Consult the vocabulary in the back of the 
book only as a last resort or to look up a word that you 
may find underlined in the English text. This under- 
lining indicates that the word has not previously oc- 
cured in the Spanish text of the lesson in which it is 
found nor in any previous lesson of the book. 

Numbers following verbs in the Repasos de Gramdtica 
and in the vocabulary of the book refer to the num- 
bered sections of the verb appendix preceding the vo- 
cabulary in which are found all the commoner irregular 
verbs, all the irregular forms of which are given. 
References to the grammar text used by the class may 
be supplied by filling in with pencil in the dashes left 
in the Repasos the number of the section or page which 
treats of the point in question. 

Proverbial expressions should be sought, not in the 
vocabulary, but in the list of proverbs preceding the 
verb appendix. 



To THE Student 


La Conversaci6n de Pedro y Miguel 
Pedro Visita a Miguel; una Proposicion 
Pedro acepta la Proposicion . 
Preparativos para el viaje . 
En la Agencia de Turistas . 

La Despedida 

La TravesIa 

Se Llega a Gibraltar . , . 

En Algeciras 

Trozo Tomado del Diario de Miguel . 

Una Carta 

La Llegada a Madrid 

Una Comida 

PoR las Calles de ISIadrid, Villa y Corte 

De Tdendas 

El Palacio Real; Porci6n Sacada de los Apuntes 
de Pedro 


Los PiNTORES DE Espana; Apuntes de Miguel 

En una Casa de Comercio Madrilena . 

En Segovia y La Granja 

El Escorial; una Carta de Miguel 

Por Le6n y Castilla la Vieja 


La Guerra de la Independencia . 


• • 



















£l Gobierno Moderno de Espana . 

Oricios ........ 

Dos Grandezas de Espana .... 

El Renacimiento de Espana .... 

La Salida para Sud America .... 

En Bahia 

La Segunda Ciudad de Sud America; una Carta de 
Miguel ....... 


En Rio de Janeiro 

Sao Paulo; Extracto Tomadd de los Apuntes de 
Pedro ....... 

En el Uruguay 

BuEWS Aires 

Las Nactonalidades de la Argentina 


Chile; Apuntes Tomadas del Cuaderno dz Pedro 
PoR Chile ....... 

El PERtj . 

La Instalacion de la Sucursal; una Carta de 

Miguel . ... 


Ap£ndice ........ 

Verbos ....... 

Tablas de las terminaciones de las tres conjugaciones 
regiilares ....... 

Verbos irregulares 

Verbos miscel&neos 

Verbos que tienen participles pasivos irregulares 


















Frontispiece: La Alhambra, con la Sierra 

Nevada iv 

Mapa de Espana, con Indicaciones del Viaje de 

Pedro y Miguel 4 

Ronda: El Tajo Formado por el GuAdalevIn 47 

Granada: Tumba de los Reyes Catolicos en. la 

Catedral 54 

Sevilla: Un Patio 56 

Cordoba: Interior de la Vieja Mezquita .61 

Madrid: La Fuente de Cibeles, el Banco de 

Espana y la Calle de AlcalA .... 74 
Madrid: El Teatro EspaiS^ol . . .90 


Segovia y la. Catedral 112 

Segovia: El Acueducto 114 

La Granja: La Fama, Fuente de los Jardines . 116 
Burgos: Monumentos que Conmemoran el Solar 

DEL Cm .128 

Burgos y la Catedral 130 

San Sebastian: La Concha . . . . .134 
Barcelona: Monumento a Colon . . .138 

Valencia: La Calle de la Paz . . . .164 
Mapa de Sud America, con Indicaciones del Viaje 

DE Miguel y Pedro . . Between pages 175 and 176 
Bahia, Brasil: El Barrio Marinero y la Ciudad 

Alta . . . , . . . . '. . 182 
Rio de Jai^iro, Mirado desde el Pan de AztJCAR 190 
Rio de Janeiro: Una Vista Nocturna . . . 194 




Rio DE Janeiro: La Cascatinha de Tijuca 
Montevideo: La Plaza de la Republica 

Catedral ^ . . . . , 
Montevideo: El Teatro Soiis 
Buenos Aires: Los Elevadores 
Buenos Aires: El Palacio del Congreso 
Buenos Aires: La Avenida de Mayo 
El Ferrocarril Transandino 
Santiago: El Cerro de Santa Lucia . 
Lima: La Plaza de Armas y la Catedral 


Llamas en un Pueblo Minero del Per6 













Miguel es un joven de unos veinte anos de 
edad. Es norteamericano, hijo del seiior Roberto 
Davis y de la seiiora Teresa Blanco de Davis, 
peruana, con quien se caso don Roberto cuando 
estuvo en Lima de yiajante de una casa comercials 
norteamericana. Miguel nacio en Lima y cuando 
muy niiio hablaba espaiiol, pero al trasladarse 
sus padres a los Estados Unidos, Miguel, que 
tenia entonces solo seis aiios, ingreso en una 
escuela elemental donde no se hablaba mas que lo 
el ingles. Asi se le olvido casi todo el espafiol. 
Por eso, al entrar en la escuela superior de la 
ciudad, empezo el estudio del castellano, conforme 
al deseo de sus padres, y al cabo de dos aiios ya 
podia hablar bastante bien el idioma de su madre. 15 
Su acento era muy bueno. Al graduarse de la 
escuela superior, no se matriculo en la universidad 
sino que entro en el comercio de su padre. Es 
un joven muy competente, trabajador y honrado. 


Su padre tiene en el mucha confianza y muchos 
asuntos importantes de comercio pasan por sus 

En este momento Miguel va caminando por la 

scalle principal de la ciudad. Es un dia frio de 

primavera. Al doblar una esquina tropieza con 

Pedro Carter, antiguo amigo suyo, quien le 

saluda en espanol. 

Repaso de gram&tica* 

Regular conjugations in the indicative, simple and compound 

tenses Tener 17, ser 16. Tener in expressing age (tenfa 

seis afios) . Al with the infinitive (al trasladarse)— i — . 

El with names of languages (el castellano) Predicate 

noun without article (es norteamericano) Plural of 

nouns and adjectives (joven, elemental) Use of sino 

que (sino que entr6 en el comercio) 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

casarse con doblar la esquina 

estar de viajante ingresar en 1 1 

86 le olvid6 el espafiol entrar en / 

conf orme a tropezar con 
caminar por la calle 


Trabajo oral. Traduzcanse al espafiol las ora- 
lociones que siguen. 

I. I was born in the United States and have entered 
this school to study languages. 2. I speak well only 
English but my parents speak Spanish with a very 

^Expressions here and elsewhere bracketed together are usually 


good accent. 3. On beginning the study of Spanish 
my father was very young. 4. At the end of three 
years, I, too, shall speak it fairly well. 5. I shall not 
go into business but shall enter the high school. 

Traducci6n. I was walking along the street ones 
day last spring when I came across an old friend of 
mine. When very young we entered together an. 

elementary school of our city and at the end of several 
years he graduated from the high school and entered 
the university. I did not study in the university but 10 
entered a commercial house where they have always 
had confidence in me and where important matters 
pass through my hands. 

On seeing this friend, I greeted him in Spanish. We 
had begun the study of that language in the high school. 15 
He had not forgotten the Spanish language but spoke 
it with a good accent. He was always industrious and 
able. We turned the corner and, in keeping with his 
desire, we walked along the main street talking of the 
friends who had removed to other cities. Two of them 20 
were in Lima as traveling salesmen and had married 
Peruvian ladies. An inhabitant of Peru is a Peruvian. 

2 • 



jHola, amigo! cque tal? — iHombre! jque 
sorpresa! iVd. por aqui! ^De donde sale Vd. ? 
Hace tanto tiempo que no le veo. ' ^Y donde ha 
estado Vd., Pedro? — Contestar a eso seria mucho 
contar; pero para abreviar, acabo de Uegar hoys 
mismp a esta poblacion despues de haberme 
ausentado durante dos aiios. — i Y que hacia Vd. 
durante esa epoca ? — Pues, mi padre me mand5 
a estudiar en la universidad donde me quede por 
un ano dedicandome sobre todo al estudio del 10 
hermoso idioma castellano, al cual siempre he 
tenido mucha aficion, como ya sabe Vd., Miguel. 
— Eso si lo recuerdo muy bien por haber empezado 
nosotros a estudiar espanol en la misma clase de 
la escuela superior. Lo hablabamos siempre, Vd. 15 
y yo, cuando nos encontrabamos juntos. Vd. 
fue siempre el mas aventajado de la clase mientras 
que yo no me aproveche tanto como Vd. a pesar 
de tener yo sangre espaiiola. Pero mi padre, . 
que habia vivido muchos anos en el Peru, se em- 20 
pefio en que yo lo estudiase, diciendo que era la 
lengua extranjera mas util para el norteamericano. 
En casa lo hablo con el y con mi mama. Pero 


se conoce que Vd. lo habla mejor que nunca. 
^Ha practicado Vd. mucho recientemente ? — Ya 
lo creo. Al dejar la universidad viaje por un ano 
como representante de la casa de mi tio por el 

ssudoeste de nuestro gran pais donde se habla 
mucho el espanol. Me aproveche de todas las 
ocasiones para hablarlo. — Bueno. Asi se ade- 
lanta. Se aprende a hablar hablando. 

Pero Vd. dispense, Pedro. Tengo que largarrae 

loahora. Desearia que Vd. viniese a visitarme esta 
noche o manana por la noche. Tengo un asunto 
de importancia que consultar con Vd. Hemos 
mudado de casa y residimos ahora en la calle 
Clark, numero 191 al oeste, donde tiene Vd. su 

15 casa. — Muchas gracias. Vd. me vera por alii 
maiiana por la noche a las ocho sin faltar. — 
Esta bien. Pues, hasta la vista. — Que Vd. siga 
bien, Miguel. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Haber 7, decir 5. Verbs in -zar, -car, -gar (empezar, 
dedicar, largar) 34, 30, 32. Imperfect and preterite distin- 
guished in usage Verbs taking a before a following infini- 
tive (empezar a estudiar; se aprende a hablar) The 

infinitive after prepositions (despues de haberme ausen- 

tado) The gerundio to express English present participle 

with hyy whiUy etc (se aprende a hablar hablando) 

Por + infinitive to express on account of + present parti- 
ciple (por haber empezado nosotros) Negative adverbs 

after comparative (mejor que ntmca) , Time of day (a las 

ocho) . 


Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

hace tanto tiempo que no le ya lo creo 

veo tener que largarse 

acabar de llegar mafiana por la noche 

hoy mismQ mudar de casa 

dedicarse a tener afici6n a 

a pesar de tener yo sangre aprovecharse 

espailola se conoce 

empefiarse en sangre espaflola 

en casa consultar algo con alguien 

mejor que nunca donde Yd. tiene su casa 


Trabajo oral. Substituyanse las palabras ingle- 
sas por espanolas. 

I. A pesar de having Vd. sangre espanola^ Vd. no 

progress en esta lengua. 2. j For what lengua tiene 
Vd. aficion? 3. It is not las diez todavia. 4. j Have 5 
you just llegar? 5. Hablamos mejor que ever. 6. Vd. 
no tiene to say it ahora. 7. They have learned 
hablar bien el espaiiol. 8. Resido aqui donde I shall 
be glad to have you call. 

Traducci6n. Hello! How goes it? You have been 10 
away, haven't you? — Yes; to make a long story short, 
I devoted myself to my studies for two years and then 
on leaving this town, I traveled through the southwest 
of the United States where I profited by the many 
opportunities which are found there to speak Spanish. 15 

You know that I have a great liking for that beautiful 
language. — Yes, my father has just asked me if you 
still speak it. He remembers that I used to tell him 
that you were the most remarkable student in our 


class in the high school. I have told him that you 
speak it better than ever in spite of not having lived 
in a Spanish country. Well, I shall progress as well 
as you by practicing it more. But I must go now. — 

. 5 Tomorrow I shall consult you about a matter of im- 
portance. Where do you live now? — My parents 
removed last year and we live now at 75 West Clark 
Street, where we shall be glad to have you call. It 
is a long time since my father has seen you. — Thanks, 

10 1 shall not be able to stay long. I shall have to be at 
home at nine o'clock. 




Buenas noches. — Muy buenas, don Pedro — 
(contesta la criada). — ^Esta en casa don Miguel? 
— Si, seiior; pase Vd. Le esta esperando en el 
gabinete. {En esto sale Miguel al vestibulo a 
recibir a Pedro,) — Buenas noches, Pedro. Pase s 
Vd. al gabinete. Alli estan mis padres. Mama, 
papa, aqui os traigo a Pedro a quien conocereis. — 
Si que le conozco. Tanto gusto en volver a 
saludarle, Pedro. — Para servir a Vd., seiior 
Davis. Saludo a Vd., seiiora. — Estoy muy con- 10 
tenta de tenerle con nosotros. Sientese aqui 
cerca de la chimenea. Hace frio en la calle, 
i'verdad? — Si, seiiora, y no estoy acostumbrado 
por haber venido directamente de un clima 
caluroso, el sur de la California. (Todos se sientan 15 
y el senor Davis entabla una conversacion con 
Pedro.) Me alegro mucho, Pedro, de oirle hablar 
espariol tan correctamente. Es la lengua de 
nuestra casa. La empleamos para no olvidarla, 
ya que no nos es posible servirnos de ella de otra 20 
.manera. Aun tenemos criados de origen espariol 
o sudamericano. 


Pero lo que quiero decide especialmente es que 
intento establecer en Lima una sucursal de mi 
casa de negocios para vender sin intermediario en 
ese mercado la maquinaria que fabricamos aqui 
S mi hijo y yo. Voy a poner a mi hijo como jefe de 
dicha sucursal. Pero antes deseo que el recorra 
mucho mundo espaiiol para que se entere a fondo 
de la vida, costumbres y tratos comerciales de 
Espaiia y de los paises hispanoamericanos. Ya 

loconoce bastante bien el negocio que hacemos aqui 
desde las primeras operaciones de la fabricacion 
hasta los metodos que empleamos para vender 
nuestras maquinas. Pero se muy bien que le 
falta adaptar al uso espaiiol y hispanoamericano 

15SUS conocimientos actuales. Por eso voy a 
enviarle a viajar por Espaiia durante unos meses 
y despues pasara un aiio en las varias republicas 
de la America del Sur, antes de establecerse en 
Lima. £se es el plan que he ideado. Pero el 

2onecesita un compaiiero que pueda acompaiiarle 
y sacar del viaje igual provecho que el. A tal 
compaiiero le ofrezco una colocacion como ayu- 
dante de Miguel en la oficina en Lima de Davis e 
Hijo. Hemos pensado en Vd. por saber lo mucho 

25 que aprecia Vd. todo lo que sea espaiiol. Le 
costeare la mitad de los gastos del viaje y despues, 
si le conviene, le dare mil pesos anuales de sueldq 
al principio y un aumento anual que estoy seguro 



le convendra. ^'Desea Vd. aceptar mi pro- 



Repaso de gram&tica. 

Traer 19, estar 6, veair 21. Verbs with inceptive endings 
(conocer, establecer, ofrecer) 38. Reflexive verbs (alegrarse 

enterarse)-' Formation of the present subjunctive . 

Its use in dependent clauses (deseo que recorra, para que se 

entere, un compafiero que pueda) . Hacer in weather ex-- 

pressions (hace frio) • Verbs of motion followed by a 

before dependent infinitive (sale a recibir) Future of 

probability or conjecture (a quien conocereis) What in 

sense of that which expressed by lo que (lo que quiero) . 

Volver a + infinitive to express repetition of the act of the 
infinitive (volver a'saludarle) . 

Locuciones' para aprender de 

si que le conozco 

entablar una conversaci6n 

alegrarse de olr 

ya que 

servirse de 

recorrer mucho mundo 

enterarse de 

a f ondo 

f altar algo a uno 



idear un plan 

pensar en 

lo mucho que Vd. aprecia 


servirse de 

tener gusto en 

alegrarse de 

estar contento de 

Trabajo oral. Para traducir al espaiiol. 

I. Good evening. Come in. 2. Good evening. 
Is Peter at home? 3. Yes, indeed he is. 4. De- 
lighted to greet you. 5. At your service. Is it not 5 
cold today? 6. We have heard her speak Spanish. 
7. Where were you yesterday? 8. You must know me. 


Traducci6n. John Pla, a friend of mine, and I 
called upon Mrs. Davis yesterday at eight o'clock in the 
evening. She and her son were at home. " Be seated," 
she said to us. "We are very glad to greet you again. 
S Are you not accustomed to the cold?" "No ma'am^" 
said John. "It is very cold today and I have just 
come from California where it is warm even during the 

winter." "Here is my son Michael whom you prob- 
ably know." "Delighted to know you." "At your 

iQ service." 

We all sat down and the lady of the house opened 
up a conversation with us, using the Spanish language 
very correctly for she was of Spanish origin. The son 
said that his father had established a branch of his 

IS business in a Spanish-American republic after having 

traveled over a good deal of the world. He had become 

acquainted with the ways of doing business of South 

America and knew all the manufacturing steps of the 


20 "What I wish," said his mother, "is that my son 
should know well the life and customs of Spain as well 

as of Spanish-American countries." Because of knowing 

how much Pla and I had always esteemed everything 

Spanish or Spanish-American, they had thought of us 

25 and wished to offer us positions in the South American 

branch of the business house of Davis and Son. But 

before settling down in Lima, John and I would have 

to become thoroughly acquainted with the business 
of the company. Afterwards we would accompany 

30 Peter in a trip through Spain and South America. 


Michael's father has thought out this plan and we shall 
derive great benefit from it. He will bear the expenses 
of the trip and will give us an annual increase in salary. 
The proposition suits and «ve shall accept it. 



I Si yo la acepto! — Seiior Davis, Vd. es muy 
amable para conmigo. Vd. me ofrece lo inmejor- 
able, lo que deseo con todo el corazon desde hace 
muchos anos. Por supuesto que lo acepto gusto- 

5 sisimo y de mil amores. — Pero, hombre, pienselo 
bien. No corre prisa. Manana o pasado maiiana 
podra Vd. darme su respuesta. — Se la doy a Vd. 
ahora mismo. No es preciso aguardar ni un 
momento siquiera. Yo soy asi para todas mis 

10 cosas. No tengo inconveniente alguno en aceptar. 
Tengo ganas vivisimas de.asociarme a una casa 
comercial que haga negocios con Sud America 
y de vivir alii en el sur. Ademas anhelo visitar 
la ahtigua Espafia, la madre patria, hacia la cual 

15 se dirigen todos cuantos usan la sonora lengua de 
Cervantes. En mis suenos me he visto pase- 
andome por esas calles de Madrid, penetrando en 
sus cafes y tiendas, observando mil y tantos deta- 
lles de la vida madrilena; hesonado con estar en 

loaquellas ciudades tan pintorescas de Andalucia, 
fijandome en las costumbres medio moriscas y 
medio espanolas, y saboreando con los cinco 
sentidos la poesia y hermosura de la vida soiio- 



lienta de aquellas tierras; me he visto caminando 
por las carreferas tortuosas de La Mancha en 
medio de un sol abrasador; me he imaginado 
abismado en la vida activa y moderna de Barce- 
lona; me he conmovido de admiracion ante I0S5 
ejemplos maravillosos del arte de Espaiia, sus 
pinturas, su arquitectura, su literatura, su teatro. 

Pero dejando a un lado por ahora lo poetico 
que haya sobre una visita a Espaiia soy del parecer 
que me ayudara a stmpatizar con los de habla 10 
espanola del Nuevo Mundo el trato con los 
naturales de la madre patria, manantial purisimo 
de todo lo espanol. Creo poder aprovecharme 
mejor de las oportunidades del mundo mercantil, 
conociendo bien el caracter y genio espanoles en 15 
el terruiio original, la Peninsula Iberica. 

— iQue elocuencia! jMuy bien dicho! Me 
deleita de una manera indecible el entusiasmo de 
Vd., Pedro, por las cosas de Espafia. Me place 
sobremanera que consienta en acompanar a 20 
Miguel y en dedicarse al comercio hispano- 
americano. — Y a mi tambien. Pedro me en- 
loquece con sus ideas de Espaiia — dice Miguel. 
— Lo que acaba de decir me recuerda el entusias- 
mo que experiments al hacer mi primer viaje por 25 
Espaiia — aiiade la seiiora Davis. — Venga a 
verme maiiana en mi oficina y haremos los arreglos 
necesarios. — Con mucho gusto. Buenas noches, 


senor Davis. — Hasta mafiana, Pedro. — ^A los pies 
de Vd., senora. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Hacer 8, ver 22, dar 4. Hacer with time expressions (desde 

hace muchos afios) Radical changing verbs of first and 

second classes (recordar, pensar, conmover, consentir) 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27. Personal pronouns, forms, position in sentence (la 
acepto, se la doy a Vd. ; para conmigo ; a mi tambi§n ; venga 

a venne) Imperative . Subjunctive as imperative 

(venga a verme, pi6nselo) Lo with adjectives (lo inme* 

jorable) . Dependent verb in .the infinitive when the sub- 
ject of both verbs is identical (creo poder) . Personal a 

(acompafiar a Miguel) 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

amable para con no corre prisa 

de mil amores ahora mismo 

yo soy asf para tener inconveniente, 

pasearse per tener ganas de 

soiiar con fijarse en 

hacer un viaje consentir en 

ser del parecer 


Trabajo oral. Para traducir al espanol. 

I. He gives it to me. 2. I give it to you. 3. That's 

the way with me about everything. 4. Give it to us. 5. 

5 1 have given them to you. 6. We consent to it. 7. 

She longs to speak to us. 8. I have dreamed of Spain. 

Traducci6n. Of course we accept your proposition 

with great pleasure. We have been anxious many 

years to take a trip through Spain, the mother country. 

10 For many years we have longed to stroll along the 


Streets of the picturesque cities of Andalusia and to 
enter their shops. I often dream of the winding high- 
ways of La Mancha over which Don Quixote used to 
travel and I am moved with admiration on reading the 
.literature of Spain. I also imagine myself observing s 
the thousand and one details of life in Madrid shops 
and cafes. John tells me that he recalls the burning 
sun and the dreamy life of the Spanish city in which he 
resided when very young. 

All who have been in Spain have noticed the halfio 
Spanish, half Moorish customs of those lands and have 
enjoyed the poetry and beauty of their art and archi- 
tecture. But Spain has cities in which life is modern 
and active, as in Barcelona. The poetical, the pictur- 
esque and the modern are seen together in Spain, the 15 
source of all that is Spanish. The natives of the New 
World who speak Spanish turn towards Spain in mat- 
ters of art, the stage and customs. 

Day after tomorrow we shall come to see Mr. Davis. 

It pleases us beyond words to know that you are so 20 
kind to us. We shall try to profit by this opportunity 

to get acquainted with the Spanish spirit on its home 
soil and to enter the South American business world. 

"And I, too," says Mrs. Davis, "am delighted im- 
mensely with your enthusiasm. John's eloquence 25 
drives me to distraction. My husband and Michael 

will be glad to see you at their office and make the nec- 
essary arrangements." 

"Very well," we reply. "Good night, madam. 
Accept our respects." 30 


La tarjeta del seiior Pedro Carter — dice el 
dependiente. Bueno. Hagale entrar. Buenos 
dias, Pedro. — Tengalos Vd. muy buenos, senor 
Davis. — Miguel, aqui esta Pedro. Dale asiento. 
5 — Hola, Pedro. dQue hay de nuevo? — Nada, 
absolutamente nada. No hay cosa alguna que 
me interese ahora fuera de nuestro proyectado 
viaje. iY que hacemos primero? — Lo primero 
es ver los anuncios de las compafiias de vapores 

loque hay en los periodicos para averiguar cuando 
salen de Nueva York los buques que hacen escala 
en los puertos de Espafia o en Gibraltar. Aqui 
hay dos columnas de esos anuncios en la decima 
hoja del Post de hoy. jA ver! De la Compania 

15 Trasatlantica Espaiiola hay el Montevideo que 
saldra el 7 de mayo proximo para Cadiz y Barce- 
lona; de la Compania Lloyd Nortealemana hay 
el vapor Princesa Irene que zarpara el 29 de abril; 
de la Compania Cunard esta anunciada la partida 

20 del Carpathia para el 25 de abril; de la linea 
White Star hay el Canopic que partira de Boston 
el 1° de mayo. Todos estos barcos, excepto el 
Montevideo, tocan en Gibraltar. — iY a cuantos 





estamos hoy? Hoy es el dia 20 de abril y el vapor 
que sale primero es el Carpathia. i'Que le parece, 
Miguel? i'Nos queda tiempo suficiente para 
tomar pasaje en ese buque? — Por supuesto. A 
mi me sobran tres dias puesto que puedo pre-s 
pararme en dos dias para salir. — Y yo tambien. 
Entonces estamos de acuerdo para tomar el 
Carpathia el 25 del actual, ^no? — Convenido y 
manos a la obra. Tu apruebas lo proyectado, 
i no es cierto, padre ? — Si que lo apruebo, hijo, 10 
aunque parece que Vds. tienen prisa para embar- 
carse. Pero han metido las manos hasta los codos 
en esto y a los de tanto celo no se les puede rehusar 
nada. Ahora conviene conseguir los billetes en la 
agencia de la Compaiiia Cunard, situada en la 15 
calle Washington. — Pues bien, vamonos en se- 
guida a tomarlos. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

ir 9. salir 15. Subjunctive, simple and compound tenses, of 

regular verbs; of irregular verbs studied up to this point . 

Optative subjunctive (tengalos buenos) Hortatory sub- 
junctive (v&monos) Causative verbs followed by the 

infinitive (or subjunctive) (h&gale entrar) . Verbs ending 

in guir (conseguir) 33; in guar (averiguar) 36. Agreement 

of subject and verb . Negative pronouns and adverbs 

(nada, no hay cosa alguna) Dates (ia, cu&ntos 

estamos?; hoy es el dla 20 de abril) Months of the 

year . Prepositional forms of personal pronouns; uses (a 

mi me sobran). 


Locuciones. para aprender de memoria. 

t^ngalos Vd. muy buenos nos queda tiempo 

^qu6 hay de nuevo? me sobran tfes dias 

lo primero estar de acuerdo 

hacer escala en tener prisa 

a ver meter las manos hasta los 

^a cu&ntos estamos? codos 

IqvL^ le parece? 

. B 

Trabajo oral. Traduzcanse al espanol las slguien- 
tes oraciones. 

I. Come in. There is no hurry. 2. I shall give 
you a seat. 3. Have her come in. 4. Let us go see 
5 her. 5. We shall have them (masc) for you. 6. Our 
boat puts in at Cadiz. 7. How many days have we 
left? 8. You were there, were you not? 9. Good 
evening, John. Good evening to you, sir. 10. It is 
necessary for us to go. 

10 Versi6n. John and Peter will go to your office 
tomorrow and the clerk will show them in. They 
and you are agreed to get tickets for the Montevideo 
of the Spanish Line, are you not? This boat will sail 
from New York the nth of November and will stop 

15 at Cadiz but not at Gibraltar. They have found this 
out by looking at the advertisements of the steamship 
companies which announce the departure of all trans- 
atlantic vessels from North American ports. Yester- 
day there were four columns of these advertisements in 

20 the Sun. There are no large ships that stop at 


Let's see. Today is the 23 rd of October and you 
have time fenough left to get passage on the Espana, 
if you wish, which will leave Boston the ist of Novem- 
ber. I should be able to get ready in a few hours for 

the trip planned. What do you think about it? I 5 
am of the opinion that if you leave on the Carpathia of 
the Cunard Line, which sails the 28th of October, you 
will have a couple of days to spare, though this boat 
may not touch at Cadiz. It seems that you are in a 
hurry to get aboard and the Carpathia leaves first. 10 

The first thing to do is to get the tickets at the 
Cunard Line agency if it suits you to sail on the Car- 
pathia.— Yes, indeed it suits us. — Well then, it is 
necessary for your father to approve the plan, isn't it i 
— Yes, but he can't refuse us anything now. We have 15 
gone far in this and we must leave soon. — All right. 
Let's go see him. 



Buenos dias, caballero. Vd. parece espaiiol. — 
Si, senor, lo soy. Soy salmantino. Hace doce 
alios que soy empleado de esta agencia en varias 
partes del mundo. ^Y que deseaban Vds.? — 

5 iPuede Vd. hacer que se nos reserve pasaje en el 
Carpathia que saldra de Nueva York el 25 del 
corriente? — Si, senor; ciertamente. Eso es muy 
facil. Telegrafiare hoy pidiendo que les reserven 
pasaje y no cabe duda de que lo habra para Vds. 

10 iY cuanto se pide por el billete? Nos meteremos 
' los dos en el mismo camarote. — En ese caso se 
pide no pesos cada uno por un buen camarote 
exterior. — Bueno. i Se come bien en el Car- 
pathia? — Si, senor. Las comidas son insuper- 

isables. — i Cuanto tiempo durara la travesia? — 
Unos diez u once dias a lo mas, estando bueno el 
tiempo. — Entonces haga todo lo posible para 
conseguirnos uii camarote comodo. Tambien 
deseamos dos billetes de tren para Nueva York. 

2oPartiremos de aqui el 24 por el expreso de la 
mafiana. Ademas necesitamos dos billetes kilo- 
metricos para uso en los ferrocarriles de Espaiia. 
Que cada uno sea de cinco mil kilometros y de 



primera clase. Aqui estan nuestrbs retratos que 
se pegan a los billetes para identificarnos. — 
Bueno. Pero debo advertirles que no vale el tal 
billete en el ramal de Algeciras a Bobadilla. — 
Perfectamente, i A cuanto asciende todo esto ? — s 
Por los billetes de buque 220 pesos. Por los de 
ferrocarril a seis pesos y seis centavos cada uno, 
doce pesos con doce centavos. Por los de kilo- 
metros a 76 pesos y 70 centavos cada uno, 153 
pesos 40 centavos. Total 385 pesos 52 centavos. 10 
— Esta bien. Deme Vd. una nota de eso y mi 
padre, el seiior Roberto Davis, le enviara hoy un 
cheque por dicha cantidad. — Bueno. Los bi- 
lletes los puede Vd. obtener pasado maiiana. — 
Yo mismo pasare por aqui a tomarlos. Hastais 
otra vez, caballero. — A la disposicion de Vds. 

Ahora, Pedro, nos debemos proveer de algunas 
cosillas para el viaje. — Si, pero seran muy pocas 
las que necesitamos comprar. A mi parecer, 
Pedro, sera mas conveniente viajar con poco2o 
equipaje, comprando de vez en cuando lo neces- 
ario. — Vd. tiene razon. Un pequeiio haul y 
una maleta para cada uno de nosotrqs bastaran. 
Caben en ellos todas nuestras cosas y podemos 
arreglar los baules mai\ana. Ahora vamos alis 
banco a comprar una carta de credito para usar 
en Espafia. — Eso es lo mas esencial. Por dinero 
baila el perroy y por party si se lo dan — dice el 


proverbio. — Dineros son calidad. Con plata nada 
falta — segun dicen. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

caber 2, valer 20. Sequence of tenses (telegrafiar6 que 

reserven) . Radical-changing verbs of third class (pedir, 

conseguir) 29. Pedir and preguntar distinguished Re- 
flexive verbs used impersonally (se come) ; as substitute for the 

passive (se nos reserven, se pide) Present participle 

phrase used as equivalent of if clause (estando bueno el 

tiempo) Redundant object pronouns (los billetes los 

puede Vd. comprar) Lo as predicate nominative repeat- 
ing a previous idea or statement (lo soy) Numerals; 
cardinals i to 500 . 

Locuciones para apreader de memoria. 

el cinco del corriente ascender a 

no cabe duda pasar por 

a la disposici6n de de vez en cuando 

a mi parecer tener razdn 
arreglar los baiiles 


Para traducir oralmente al castellano. 

I. Are you Spanish? Yes, I am. 2. He has re- 
served passage for us. 3. We have been here for 

5 twelve years. 4. I have not seen him for twelve 
years. 5. He asked us to do it. 6. I tell you ito go. 
7. I called there to get the tickets. 8. How much do 
the tickets come to? 9. My father was right. 10. 
The food was good on the boat. 11. There is no 

10 room for you here. 
Para poner en buen espafLol. Michael and John 
went to buy the tickets they needed for their trip. 


They asked to have passage reserved for them on a 
transatlantic steamer which sails the loth inst. The 
clerk of the agency telegraphed to New York and 
obtained for them three outside cabins at one hundred 
dollars each. There was no doubt, he said, that they 5 
would be comfortable. Moreover, they bought rail- 
way tickets to the great city and first class kilometer 
tickets to use on the Spanish railways. These tickets 
are good on all branches of the railways of that country. 
A good deal of money was asked for all these tickets 10 
and Michael, giving him his card, told the clerk to 
bring them to the office of Davis & Son where he would 
receive a check for the sum to which they amounted. 
This the clerk did after afiixing to the kilometer tickets 
the pictures of the young men so as to identify them. 15 

John said that in his opinion there would be room in 
a valise for all the little things he would need, but 
Michael insisted on their having each a trunk also. 
"It is well to travel light," he said; "but a valise will 
not suffice for my things. I shall provide myself with 20 
what is necessary. We ought to have what is most 
essential for a comfortable journey.'* 

John said that Michael was right and consented to 
buy a small trunk for which there might be room in 
his cabin. The trunk he packed at once but the valise 25 
he left at one side until the day of departure. Michael's 
father gave them a letter of credit for use in Spain, 
saying to them, "Money makes the mare go." "Yes," 
said John; "money talks." 



El 24 de abrily a las ocho y media de la manana, 
don Roberto hizo subir al asiento trasero de su 
automovil a Pedro y Miguel para conducirlos a la 
estacion del ferrocarril. La senora Davis los 

5 acompano a los tres colocandose en el delantero al 
lado de su marido, quien guiaba el automovil. 
Pasaron rapidamente por las calles y llegaron a la 
estacion con unos veinte minutos de anticipacion 
para la salida del tren. Ya habian facturado sus 

lobaules. Todos estaban parados en la sala de 
espera cuando don Roberto exclamo de repente: — 
Se me antoja acompaiiar a estos muchachos hasta 
Nueva York. Tengo negocios que hacer alli y si 
voy hoy puedo hacer a la vez lo que debo y lo que 

isquiero. — Pero tu no has traido maleta ni nada, — 
exclama su mujer. — No importa. Lo mismo da. 
Puedo pasarme sin esas cosas o comprarmelas alli. 
Y tanto se empeno el bueno de don Roberto en su 
proposito que al fin ella consintio en ello. Ella 

2osabia guiar el automovil, pudiendo asi regresar a 
casa. En esto se oyo la estrepitosa llegada del tren. 
La senora beso muchas veces a su hijo dicien- 
dole: — Que Dios te proteja. Estrecho la mano a 



Pedro y dio un beso a su marido. Se despidio de 
ellos a la entrada del anden desde donde los vio su- 
bir a uno de los coches del tren y perderse de vista. 

El expreso andaba a toda velocidad y no se paro 
mas de dos veces en todo el recorrido de seis horas. s 
Despues de hacerse llevar en taximetro a su hotel 
en la gran villa, los tres tomaron comida y salieron 
a ver la ciudad. Visitaron un cinematografo donde 
a todos les gustaron mucho las peliculas. Se 
acostaron a medianoche, durmieron profunda- lo 
mente y despues del desayuno todos fueron en 
tranvia al muelle donde les estaba esperando el 
Carpathia. Subieron a bordo y el camarero les con- 
dujo al camarote reservado para los dos jovenes, el 
cual les agrado mucho. Entonces visitaron todo 15 
el buque y se sentaron a charlar un rato. 

Entretanto se aumentaba la confusion y la ida 
y venida de la gente. Pronto sono un silbido pro- 
longado indicando que todas los visitantes debian 
desembarcarse. Don Roberto abrazo a su hijo y 20 
le dijo muy seriamente: — Ten presente todos 
mis consejos y escribenos a menudo. A Pedro le 
dio un apreton de manos y se marcho apresurada- 
mente por el tablazon de embarque. 

Repaso de gramitica. 

Conducir 18, saber 14, querer 13, andar i. Saber in differ- 
ent meanings (saber guiar) ; distinguished from conocer 

. Verbs of perception followed by the infinitive (verlos 



subir) ■ Progressive forms with estar (estaba esperaado) 
— , — . Use of gustar (les gustaron las pellculas) Rela- 
tive pronouns (el cual les agrad6) . To express than 

after mis (mis de dos voces) Anticipatory and re- 
dundant object pronouns (los acompafl6 a Ids tres, a todos les 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

con veinte minutes de ^nticipaci6n para la salida del tren 

de repente 

estar parade 

se me antoja 

a la vez 

no importa 

lo mismo da 

pasarse sin algo 

el bueno de don Roberto 

a menudo 


tomar comida 

tener presente 

dar un apret6n de manos a 

estrechar la mano a uno 
consentir en algo 
en esto 

a toda velocidad 
hacerse llevar 


Deberes verbales. Substituyanse las palabras 
inglesas por espanolas. i. Al arriving alii, me con- 
ducted al hotel. 2. Despues de hearing el silbido, 
subimos al coche. 3. El quiere que yo take dinner 

5 now. 4. £1 quiso que yo take dinner entonces. 5. I 
like este automovil. 6. Ella me ve coming. 7. We 
liked aquellos baules. 8. Ellos estaban standing still 
en la sala. 9. Le vi kiss a su madre. 10. No queremos 
leave you. 

10 Traduccidn. We took it into our heads to get into 
the rear seat. Mr. and Mrs. Davis sat in front, since 
John and I did not know how to drive the car, and 


conducted us at full speed to the station. Michael 
had hioiself taken there in a taxicab in which he also 
brougWt our three valises. We arrived fifteen minutes 
before the departure of the train, had our trunks 
checked and stood chatting on the platform when the 5 
tram pulled in. Thereupon we took leave of those 
good friends and turned towards the train. First 
Mrs. Davis shook hands with us and said to Michael, 
"Bear in mind all that I have told you." To his 
mother Michael gave several kisses and she embraced 10 
him exclaiming, "May God protect you. Write me 
often." We had wished Mr. Davis to accompany us 
but he had business to attend to and could not leave 
the city. 

After getting seats together in the car, we began to 15 
chat of what we would do on reaching New York. 
"Wouldn't you like to go to the theater.?" John said to 
me. "With pleasure," I exclaimed. "But it is all the 
same to me. What does Michael want to do.?" "I 
don't care much, but let's go to a moving-picture 20 

We all consented to this. Thereupon I placed 
myself in another seat and being very tired, slept 

soundly during the three hour run in spite of the 
noisy train. When the train stopped in the station in 25 
New York, we hastily left the coach, took our handbags 
and got into a trolley car which carried us to the dock 
where the boat was. On going aboard, the steward 
showed us to our cabins which were very comfortable 
and pleased us greatly. To the steward Michael said, 30 


"Have our trunks placed in our cabins without fail." 
"Yes, sir; of course," he replied. 

Since it was now six o'clock in the evening we went 

to take dinner at a hotel and then visited a theater, 

5 returning later to the ship which would sail the next 

day at eight in the morning. It was midnight when we 

went up the gangplank and we retired at once. 



Miguel y Pedro safen del gran salon y suben al 
puente donde se colocan junto al brazal, Hjando 
la vista en el muelle que ya esta abandonando el 
navio. Entre la muchedumbre que grita y agita 
las manos divisan por fin a don Roberto meneando 5 
el paiiuelo en ademan de decides adios. Le res- 
ponden energicamente, perdiendole al cabo de 
vista. Se vuelven entonces a contemplar los 
"rascacielos" de la metropoli, los cuales se des- 
tacan en lontananza. Al fin desaparece la ciudad 10 
y ya estan en alta mar. 

Transcurren tranquilamente los dias y los j6- 
venes se divierten muchisimo/ Juegan al tejo, 
dan largos paseos por el puente antes del desayuno 
y despues del almuerz6 y la comida, leen las no- 15 
velas espanolas que hay en la biblioteca, hablan 
mucho con los pocos espanoles y sudamericanos 
que viajan en el vapor, toman parte en los con- 
ciertos y programas dramaticos que se representan 
todas las noches familiarizandose con todas las 20 
personas de a bordo, las cuales son todas jnuy 
simpaticas. Las singladuras del buque son de 
400 a 500 millas geograficas inglesas. 



El tiempo sigue bueno hasta Uegar cerca de las 
islas Azores que se divisan al estribor. Entonces 
se pone recio el viento, el mar se agita, y el tiempo 
se pone lluvioso. Cae un diluvio, una verdadera 

5 inundacion. Y al mismo tiempo se ve que casi 
todos bajan con precipitacion a sus camarotes y 
alli se quedan muchos durante los dos dias de 
tiempo borrascoso. No se presenta casi nadie en 
el comedor y el medico del buque se encuentra 

10 ocupadisimo. No se marean nuestros dos amigos 
aunque hay cierto panameiio, conocido suyo, que 
esta para morirse. No obstante este conserva su 
buen humor y les cita a Pedro y Miguel la sen- 
tencia popular : — 

15 Si aprender quieres a orar 

Fete a la orilla del mar. 

Al acercarse el fiavio a la costa de Espana, de 
la noche a la maiiana para de Hover, disminuye el 
balanceo del barco, se aclara y empieza a hacer un 
2ocalor muy sofocante. 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Caer 3, ofr 10, disminuir 44. Reflexive of certain intransi- 
tive verbs (morirse; se vuelven) Demonstrative ad- 
jectives and pronouns (6ste conserva su buen humor) . 

Possessive adjectives and pronouns (conocido suyo) . 

Use of no with nada, nunca, etc. (no se presenta nada) . 

Weather expressions (el tiempo sigue bueno ; se pone lluvioso ; 
se aclara, etc.) , Numerals; cardinals 500 to 1,000,000* 



Hay que aprender de memoria, las siguientes locu- 
clones, con sus equivalentes, los cuales no se en* 
cuentran en el texto. 


fijar la vista en 

perder de vista 

estar en alta mar 

dar paseos 

familiarizarse con 




estar para 

de la noche a la mallana 

parar de 


mirar, observar 

no ver m&s 

estar lejos de la tierra 

pasearse, ir a p&seo 

conocer bien 

hacerse, volverse 


ponerse mareado 

estar a punto de 

durante la noche 

cesar de 


Ejercicio verbal. Para expresar aiirmativamente 
en imperativo y en frases completas usando el singular 
en la forma cortes: — 

I. divertirse 2. marearse 3. perder de vista 4. caer 
Lo mismo, en el negativo de imperativo: — 5 

I. seguirme 2. decirselo 3. acercarse a 4. leerla 

Traducci6n. Although the weather may continue 
fine tomorrow, I shall not go up on deck. No, I have 
not become seasick. I wish to stay in my cabin to 
read those Spanish novels that you have just brought 10 
me. I should like you and Michael to have a good 
time playing shuffle-board and getting well acquainted 
with those South Americans. They seem very nice 
and it is evident that they have seen much of the 
world. It is fitting that we should be kind to them. 15 


They, too, are Americans and are from some of the 
principal cities of the New World. One of the gentle- 
men opened up a conversation with me a couple of 
hours ago when I was seated near them on deck. We 
5 greeted each other like acquaintances and chatted a 
long while. 

Yesterday when the boat left the pier, I could not 
make out among the crowd anyone I knew but I saw 

a lady waving her handkerchief by way of saying 

lo good-bye to the Panamanian who was near the rail 
and I heard him answer by shouting loudly, **Good- 

John says it will be hot tomorrow and that later we 
shall have several days of stormy weather. If the sea 

IS gets rough, the doctor will be very busy and no one 
will appear in the dining saloon. Don't get seasick, 
Michael, and keep your good humor. If it rains hard 
and the rocking of the boat increases, I shall quote 
to you that popular saying, "If you wish to learn to 

20 pray, go to the seashore and stay." But would it 
not be better to say, "Go out on the open sea".? 

Having lost sight of the skyscrapers, we shall often 
amuse ourselves by gazing at the sea and the ships 
that stand out in the distance and then disappear. 

25 The days will pass quietly and later we shall approach 
the coast of Spain. Although the wind became strong 
this afternoon, the day's run will be rather good. 



A medida que se aproximaba el vapor al estrecho 
de Gibraltar, se veian c^n mas frecuencia buques 
de todas clases; de carga, de pasajeros, de pesca, 
de guerra, remolcadores y lanchas. Por ambos 
lados se distinguia la tierra; las montanas des 
Africa a la derecha y las vertientes de la costa de 
Espafia a la izquierda. Se quedaban ensimisma- 
dos Miguel y Pedro ante la primera vista de tierra 
espaiiola cuando oyeron gritar bromeando a una 
senorita: — i Mire la roca, el penon de Gibraltar! lo 
Pero no veo pintado alii el anuncio de esa compaiiia 
de seguros de vida que publican las revistas. — 
Sefiorita, — repuso un caballero — antes de darse 
por desilusionada hay que ver el otro lado del 
penon, ino le parece? — Si, no hay duda de ello. i'5 
Asi lo veremos al salir el buque para Napoles. 

Mientras tanto, el vapor fondeo lentamente a 
eso de las dos de la tarde en medio de la bahia de 
Algeciras al oeste de Gibraltar y las lanchas de la 
compaiiia se lanzaron al encuentro del gran navioio 
para Uevar a la orilla a los que querian desembar- 
carse. Solo unos diez viajeros iban a dejar el vapor 
para no volver; sin embargo, casi todos los de a 



bordo se aprovecharon de la ocasion para poner 
pie en tierra firme y pasearse por las calles de esta 
poblacion donde hay fortaleza inglesa. 
Al Uegar al desembarcadero los pasajeros su- 

5 bieron en tropel por las empinadas calles y se 
metieron en las tiendas por aqui y por alia, no 
pudiendo resistir a los porfiados vendedores de 
prendas de recuerdo, encajes, mantillas, tabacos, 
etc. Se veian por todas partes soldados ingleses 

10 con sus chaquetas rojas, moros de Argel cqn sus 
vestidos blancos y gorros rojos, turcos y espaiioles 
de todas categorias. Era en verdad un lugar cos- 
mopolita. Se oia hablar espanol, ingles, Frances, 
italiano y arabe. Pero en cuanto a la forteleza no 

15 se les permitio visitarla a menos que fuesen ingleses 
los turistas. 

En un par de horas la mayoria de los turistas 
tuvieron que regresar al vapor. * Se despidieron 
muy amistosamente de Pedro y Miguel, con quie- 

2Dnes cambiaron tarjetas, prometiendose todos 
volver a verse en el porvenir. 

Los dos jovenes se dirigieron a un pequeno 
muelle donde tomaron un vaporcito p^ra atravesar 
la bahia y entrar en Espaiia. A la puesta del sol 

25 se desembarcaron en Algeciras, y se les hicieron las 
preguntas consagradas al pasar la frontera de un 
pais. — jTiene Vd. algo que declarar? — No 
senor; no llevo sino efectos de mi uso personal. 


jQuiere Vd. ver por si mismo? Los aduaneros 
marcaron con tiza las maletas y cofres de Miguel 
y Pedro, los cuales fueron en seguida a pie a un 
hotel cerca de la estacion de ferrocarriles. 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Reciprocal verbs (prometi^ndose todos) ■ Use of 

prepositions after verbs before a following infinitive (se 
lanzaron . • . para llevar; iban a dejar; aprovecharse de; 

resistir a) La mayoria de with a plural verb (la mayorfa 

tuvieron que regresar) . Que after expressions of quan- 
tity before the infinitive (^tiene Vd. algo que declarar?) — ,—, 

Indefinite pronouns and adjectives (ambos, unos, etc.) . 

Use of sino (no He vc sine efectos, etc.) Use of definite 

article instead of demonstrative before de and que (los de a 
bordo) Distinction between por and para (por si mismo) 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. Equivalentes 

de las mismas. 

Locuci6n Equivalente 

aprozimarse a acercarse a 

quedarse estar 

^no le parece? ino cree Vd. asf? 

reponer contestar, replicar, responder 

darse por tenerse por, considerarse 


no hay duda no cabe duda 

aprovecharse de valerse de 

hay que ver es necesario ver 

fondear echar anclas, anclar, surtir 

meterse en penetrar en, entrar en 

a menos que a no ser que 

hacer una pregunta preguntar, interrogar 

volver a verse verse otra vez, de nuevo 



Trabajo oral. Ponganse las preposiciones que 
convengan en las frases que siguen. Despues, tra- 
duzcanse al ingles las oraciones formadas asi. 

I. Sone mi hermano. 2. Va a acercarse 

5 la costa. 3. £1 se dio desilusionado. 4. No 

pensaremos ' Vd. 5. Volvio darmelo. 6. Oi 

gritar los hombres. 7. Tropece el. 8. Ella 

va a casarse el. 9. Fijese Vd lo que hacemos. 

Versi6n. Many of the travelers will have disem- 
10 barked before sunset. They want to leave the ship 

which has anchored in the bay and take a stroll through 
the streets of Gibraltar. From the deck of the ship 
they can make out on the right the great rock of 
Gibraltar and on the left in the distance the Spanish 

15 city of Algeciras. On all sides are seen boats of many 
kinds, warships, fishing boats, passenger vessels and 
tugs. The Americans on board recall the advertise- 
ment of a certain insurance company which the maga- 
zines publish, which says, "As strong as Gibraltar!" 

20 But of course there is no such advertisement painted 
on the rock. 

About fifty passengers get into the company's 
launches and have themselves taken to the docks 
where they go ashore. Some of them have been seasick 

25 for several days and are now in a hurry to put foot 
on terra firma. Although many streets of the city 
are very steep, the tourists hastily go up them in a 
throng. The sellers of souvenirs rush to meet them 


oiFering laces, mantillas and many other things. 
The most of them are persistent and speak several 

languages, especially English, Spanish and French. 
The tourists cannot resist them. 

The white garments of the Moors, and the red 5 
jackets of the English soldiers are seen here and there 
and the city, in truth, is picturesque and cosmopoli- 
tan. Arabic is often heard spoken in the streets. At 
sunset all the travelers must return to the ship or cross 
the bay and enter Spain. They are not allowed to 10 
remain unless they first get permission to do so in the 

office of the police. 

At about half-past five our three friends will take 
leave of those with whom they got acquainted on the 
boat and will go aboard the small steamer which will 15 
take them to Algeciras. They know that the usual 
questions will be put to them on crossing the Spani^sh 
frontier. When the customs officers ask, "Have you 
anything dutiable?" they will answer, "We have only 
articles for our personal use.'* 



Buenas tardes, caballeros. i En que puedo ser- 
virles? — Muy buenas. Deseamos habitaci5n 
para esta noche, comida y un desayuno temprano, 
teniendo que salir manana en el tren de las seis y 
5 media para el norte. — Eso se arregla facilmente. 
iPrefieren Vds. un cuarto que de a la calle o al 
patio? i'Hay mucho ruido en la calle? — De fijo 
que no. Es mas quedito el patio que la calle. 

— Bueno. Haganos ver uno que de al patio y 
10 que tenga dos camas. — Esta bien, senor. Pablo, 

sube las maletas de los caballeros al numero 23, 
primer piso. Dispensen Vds. Ha'gan el favor de 
inscribir en el libro de entradas sus nombres con la 
profesion y lugar natal de cada uno de Vds. Asi 
IS lo requiere la ley. — De buena gana, seiior ho- 
telero. iY cuH sera la cuenta por hospedarnos? 

— Para cada uno, cuatro pesetas por la comida, 
cinco por la habitacion y dos por el desayuno; 
total 22 pesetas. — Ahora, a subir . . . Pero 

20 Miguel, ique cuarto mas grande y comodo! Aqui 
estaremos a nuestras anchas. Nos quedamos con 
el cuarto, mozo . . . 

iQue comida tan abundante tuvimos! Habia de 



todo. Ahora demos una vuelta por las calles. 
Mire las luces de Gibraltar y la luna que se riela 
en las aguas de la bahia. — Si, i que bonito! Pero 
me viene a la memoria el adagio: Quien madruga 
Dios le ayuda. Nos cohviene acostarnos con lass 
gallinas por ser menester levantarnos tan tem- 

{Saliendo en el tren.) Ya que nos hemos des- 
ayunado, vamos a tomar los billetes y facturar los 
baules. Pero primero paguemos al hotelero el 10 
hospedaje. La cuenta, haga el favor. — Si, 
senor. Importa 22 pesetas como ya les dije. 

— Le doy un billete de banco de cincuenta pesetas. 

— Y alia van veinte y ocho pesetas de vuelta. 

— Hasta otra vez, senor hotelero. — Que se 15 
vayan con Dios, caballeros. Les deseo feliz viaje. 

— Gracias. Mozo, i ha Uevado Vd. nuestro equi-* 
paje a la estacion ? — Si, seiior. — Gracias. 
Tome esta moneda de propina {ddndole media 
peseta cincuenta centimos). -20 

Deme Vd. dos billetes de primera clase para 
Ronda. — J Los desea Vd, de ida v vuelta? 

— No, seiior; sencillos. l Cuanto valen ? — Trein- 

ta pesetas por ambos Tenga Vd. la bondad 

de pesar estos dos baules. — Si, seiior. No son 25 
muy pesados. Aquel pesa veinte y ocho kilogra- 
mos y este veinte y cinco. Ya que se le permite a 
cada viajero Uevar gratis treinta kilogramos de 



equipaje, Vds. no tienen que pagar exceso. Aqui 
estan los talones mediante los cuales podran 
obtenerlos a su llegada. 

Pedro y Miguel muestran al empleado en la 

spuerta del anden sus billetes para que los revise; 
luego se apresuran a subir en un carruaje que Ueva 
puesto el cartel, "Fumadores". Entran por el 
pasillo angosto y escogen un departamento libre, 
poniendo en la red sus maletas. En este momento 

loun empleado canta: — jSeiiores viajeros al tren! 
El jefe de la estacion toca la campana en el andjen, 
el maquinista hace silbar la locomotora, el jefe del 
tren da la ultima senal con su bocina y en menos 
que canta un gallo esta andando el tren a toda 

15 prisa. 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Requerir 27. Haber used impersonally (habia de todo) 7 
(Jor forms). Infinitive used in commands (a subir) . 

Exclamations (I que cuarto mfis grandel) . The former y 

the latter expressed by forms of the demonstrative pronouns 

(aquel pesa) Money system of Spain (pesetas, c^ntlmos, 


Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

estar tmo a sus anchas tenga la bondad de \ 

quedarse con haga el favor de J 

dar una vuelta ya que 

echo pesetas de vueka venirle a uno a la memoria 

de ida y vuelta nos conviene 

llevar puesto 



Para ezpresar verbalmente en castellano. 

I. He has gone to bed. 2. We have to get up 
early. 3. Please check our trunks. 4. They were 
taking a walk. 5. It is fitting for us to say so. 6. We 
shall always be at our ease here. 7. There came to 
my mind what you said. 8. That car had a signs 
on it. 

Traducci6n esCrita. Good morning, proprietor. — 
Good morning, sir. How can I serve you ? — Have 
you a room which looks out upon the street ? — Surely 
I have. The boy will show you a quiet room on the 10 
first floor up. . . That one looks upon a court and 
this one looks upon the street. There are two beds 
in this room and both are large and comfortable. — 
But show us the other one, please. — Here it is. Does 
it suit you? — What do you think about it, John? 15 
Shall we take this one.? — Yes, I think so. But it 
doesn't matter to me. — All right. Bring up our bags. 
— Excuse me, gentlemen, but first it is necessary for 
you to put your names in the register. The law 
requires you to give your place of birth and occupa-20 
tion. — Very well, since it is necessary to do so, take 
us to the proprietor. We shall also wish to dine 

What will be the bill for putting us up ? We shall 
have to leave at seven o'clock in the morning and shall 25 
wish an early breakfast. For each one, four pesetas 
for room, three pesetas for dinner and for breakfast 


seventy-five centimos. Total, fifteen pesetas and 
fifty centimos. — Agreed. — I hope you may be at 
your ease in the room you have. — Thanks. 

What a good dinner I There is in truth something 
5 of everything. We niust give the waiter a good tip. 
After eating we shall take a walk about the city and 
shall go to bed with the chickens since we shall have 
to get up at about five o'clock. God helps the early 
riser, say the Spaniards, and this saying has often 
lo come to my mind today. . . How ^pretty the lights 
of Gibraltar are! See the moon glimmering in the 
water. Now to go to bed. 

It is five o'clock, gentlemen. — Thanks, boy, we are 
already up. John, after we breakfast, you pay the 

15 hotel keeper and I will have our baggage taken to 
the station and we will get the tickets. 

I wish two second class tickets for Ronda. — Round 

trip? — No sir, one way. How much are they? — Eleven 

pesetas and 5 centimos each or 22 pesetas and 10 
20 centimos for the two.-r- Here is a bank note for fifty 

pesetas. — And there you have 27 pesetas and 90 

centimos in change. 

How much do our trunks weigh .? — Thirty kilograms 

each, sir, and therefore you will not have to pay for 
25 overweight, each traveler being permitted to carry 

free that amount of baggage. — In the United States 

we are allowed to carry about 67 kilograms. Please 

give me the checks. 
On showing our tickets to the employee at the gate, 
30 he examined them and told us to hurry and get into 


the train. Then he cried, "All aboard," the station 
master rang the bell, the engineer made the engine 
whistle, the train master gave the final signal on his 
trumpet and at last we set out. 



El tren constaba de siete carruajes para viajeros, 
dos de primera clase, dos de segunda y tres de 
tercera, marchando sobre una via mucho mas 
ancha que la usada en los Estados Unidos, y 

5 alcanz5 un promedio de 40 kilometros la hora. 
Un kilometro equivale a cinco octavas partes de 
una milla inglesa. 

Estabamos muy comodos en nuestro departa- 
mento con sus dos hileras de asientos opuestas una 

10 a otra. Hay cinco departamentos en cada coche. 
Nos quedamos solos hasta que vino a sentarse con 
nosotros una pareja de guardias civiles que viajan 
en los trenes espanoles. Eran muy simpaticos y 
nos hablaron mucho. El tren, aunque era correo, 

IS se detuvo en todas las estaciones por pequenas 
que fuesen. A poco rato de partir de Algeciras 
empezo a ir cuesta arriba, pasando por entre tri- 
gales, naranjales, olivares, almendrales, alcorno- 
cales y sembrados regados por medio de la noria 

20 antigua, hasta entrar en una region montanosa 
donde se veian grandes barrancos y cascadas, 
utilizadas en instalaciones hidroelectricas. Des- 
pues de ascender por siete tuneles y muchos puen- 



CapyiiU fty Undtntaai Sr UmltncBad, «. Y. 

Ronda; Ei. Tajo Fobuado f 


tes hasta una meseta de 2500 pies de altura, Uega- 
mos a Ronda, dejamos las maletas en la oiicina de 
consignaciones y alquilamos un coche para ir a 

. ver la ciudad. 

5 Ronda tiene unos 20,000 vecinos y esta colocada 
en medio de la serrania del mismo nombre, la cual 
esta dividida por el rio Guadalevin formando asi 
un gran tajo. El tajo este es de unos 500 pies de 
profundidad y muy estrecho; por el fondo de la 

locuenca se abalanza un torrente de agua. Desde el 
Puente Nuevo o el Paseo de la Merced hay una 
vista del barranco que da miedo a la vez que 
encanta. Pedro exclamo: — Ya me considero pa- 
gado del largo viaje por mar. Antiguamente la 

15 serrania. de Ronda fue, y lo es todavia ahora, cen- 
tro de los contrabandistas. Ro^a fue rendida a 
los Reyes Catolicos el 20 de mayo de 1485, siendo 
en aquel entonces una poblacion mora. 

Volvimos a la estacion, facturamos los baules 

20 de nuevo, sacamos las maletas y nos pusimos otra 
vez en camino para Granada en el tren de las dos 
de la tarde. Al Uegar a Bobadilla, una estacion 
de empalme, tuvimos que cambiar de trenes, 
subiendo al de Granada. A la caida de la tarde 

25 atravesamos la fertil vega de Granada, llegando a 
la ciudad al primer brillo de los focos electricos. 
Nos hospedamos en una casa de huespedes dentro 
de las mismas murallas de la Alhambra. 


AI dormirme apenas si pude tener por cierto el 
que me encontrase al fin en el sitio predilecto de 
los antiguos moros, duenos de Andalucia durante 
mas de siete siglos. Se me metio en la cabeza 
repasar en la mente mucho de lo que habia leidos 
en los escritos de mi compatriota, Washington 
Irving, quien, muchos afios ha, paso aqui encan- 
tado un par de anos dedicadp a escribir sus Tales 
of the Alhamhra. Y antes que me rindio el sueiio 
01 el canto dulce y triste del ruisenor y me repeti 10 
el dicho aprendido en mis clases de espaiiol: 

Hizo Dios a la Alhamhra y a Granadaj 
Por si le cansa un dia su morada. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Subjunctive after por -4- adjective -|- que (por pequefios que 

fuesen) Intransitive reflexive verbs (dormirse) . 

Use of definite article before a noun clause (el que me en- 
contrase) Irregular past participles (volver) 45. A + 

time expression + de + infinitive (a poco rato de partir) 

Demonstrative adjectives following the noun (el tajo este) 
■ Expressions of dimension (de 2500 pies de altura) 

Meanings of, mismo (las xnismas murallas) . 

Metric system . 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. Hay que 

fijarse en las expresiones sinonimas de ellas. 

Locuci6n £zpresi6n sin6nima 

constar de consistir en 

detenerse en pararse en 

abalanzarse precipitarse 


vecino& habitantes 

en aquel entonces en aquella 6poca 

cambiarse de trenes transferirse a otro tren 

hospedarse en albergarse en 

met^rsele en la cabeza a uno antoj&rsele a uno 

repasar en la mente recordar 

ir cuesta arriba subir la cuesta 

dar miedo asustar 

dicho refrftn, proverbio, adagio, 

sentencia popular 

ponerse en camino salir, marcharse, irse 


Trabajo oral. Usa/ido el futuro de indicativOy 
pongase en una oracion original cada una de- las ex- 
presiones sinonimas arriba citadas que contenga un 
5 Versi6n. The three young men are very comfort- 
able in their compartment, two of them sitting in one 
of the rows of seats and one in the opposite row. 

It is evident that there is easily room for them as eight 
individuals can travel in one compartment^ The 

lo train consists of only five cars and attains a speed of 
about 25 miles an hour. But the track is very wide 
and steep and the locomotive has to pull the cars 
uphill the greater part of the distance, and it is neces- 
sary to stop at every station, however small' it 

IS may be. 

An hour after leaving the city, the train passes 
among olive orchards, cork-tree groves and many 
wheat fields which are irrigated by the ancient water 
wheels of the Moors. Hydro-electric plants are seen 


in the great ravines and gorges and falls of water 
rush down hill . 

Soon the travelers will find themselves on a table- 
land some 2500 feet high. First it will be necessary 
for the train to pass through tunnels and over bridges 5 
but at last they will reach Ronda, leave their bags in 
the checking-room and go out and hire a cab. They 
will remain in the small city of Ronda only a few 

hours but they will be able to see enough to repay 
them for the trip. 10 

The mountain ridge on which Ronda is located has 
been for many years the headquarters of the smugglers. 
The civil guards are always busy here. In ancient 
times the town was a chosen spot of the Moors and 
was not surrendered to Ferdinand and Isabella until 15 
the year 1485. The Americans stop on the New 
Bridge to look at the gorge which is about 500 feet 
deep. This delights them at the same time that it 
frightens an English lady who is standing near them. 

The young men have taken it into their heads t02o 
return to the station and set out on the next train for 
Granada. After changing cars at Bobadilla, a junc- 
tion, they find themselves on the way to Granada, 
where they arrive at sunset, having traversed the 
great Granada plain in the late afternoon. At the 25 
first glow of the electric street lamps they will reach 
the boarding house where they intend to stay. 
This is situated within the very walls of the Alhambra. 

They take out Washington Irving's book "The 
Tales of the Alhambra" and amuse themselves reading 30 


it. They will hardly be able to go to sleep because of 
talking about the ancient Moorish possessors of the 
Alhambra and of Andalusia. Hearing the nightingale 
sing so sweetly, they recall, before sleep overtakes 
5 them, the Spanish saying they have often heard re- 
peated: "The Alhambra and Granada God made to 
please His eye, lest some day He should weary of 
His heavenly home on high." 



2 de junio de 191-. 
Queridisimos padres mios: 

Venimos pasando unos dias inolvidables en el 
mediodia de Espana. Primero voy a contaross 
algo de Granada. Permitidme repetir mucho de 
lo que ya sabeis, pero se impKme mas hondamente 
en mi memoria si os lo escribo. 

La Alhambra se principio a construir en 1232. 
Esta situada en un cerro que domina la ciudad y 10 
la vega. Era el palacio de los monarcas moros. 
Por su exterior parece una fortaleza al contrario 
del interior que consiste en un serie de salones, 
patios y habitaciones de varios tamanos, todas con 
azulejos dando reflejos metalicos y con guarnecido 15 
pintado de azul, verde, oro y rojo. Tienen mucho 
merito la sala de los Abencerrajes, la de las Dos 
Hermanas, el Salon de Embaj adores, el Tocador 
de la Reina y el Mirador de Lindaraja. Es muy 
afamado el patio de los Arrayanes como lo es tam- 20 
bien el de los Leones. 

Al otro lado de un barranco inmenso, en el Cerro 
del Sol, esta colocado el Generalife, antigua casa 



CopyritU h Undirmtd Ir Undtmeod, N. ¥. 

Gkanada: Tumba de los Reves Cai^licos en la Catedbal 


de campo (residencia de verano) de los reyes 
arabes. Es una verdadera joya de estilo moro- 
granadino, con fuentes y acequias en medio de 
cipreseSy magnolias y ilores olorosas. 

De lo mas alto del Generalife se ve el Camino de 5 
Sacro Monte en el barrio denominado el Albaicin. 
Este camino pasa por un valle apartadd al pie del 
monte San Miguel. Aqui viven los gitanos en 
cuevas excavadas en la ladera del monte. Dicen 
la buenaventura a los granadinos y a los turistas, 10 
bailan a su manera las danzas espaiiolas, com- 
pran, venden y truecan caballos, siendo el gitano 
el chalan sobresaliente de las cinco partes del 

En la ciudad lo que mas llama la atencion es la 15 
majestuosa catedral calificada como el mejor edi- 
ficio del Renacimiento de toda Espana. En ella 
estan sepultados los Reyes Catolicos, Fernando V 
e Isabel I, los primeros moharcas de la Espana 
unida o, mejor dicho, de todas las Espaiias, y pro- 20 
tegedores de Cristobal Colon. De todas partes 
de la ciudad se divisan a lo lejos las empinadas 
crestas de la Sierra Nevada y otras Cordilleras 
coronadas todas de blanca nieve. 

Hace ocho dias que estamos en Sevilla, ciudad 25 
principal del mediodia y la cuarta de Espana por 
su poblacion, centro de los toreros, de los bailes 
andaluces y renombrado por la sal (o ingenio) de 


pyrillu h Undemmd ir Uxdirweiid. K. V. 

Sevilla; Un Patio 


sus mujeres. La sal, andaluza vale mas que her- 
mosura al parecer de los naturales. • 

Lo predominante en la rica Ilanura en donde se 
encuentra Sevilla es La Giralda, una torre cuadra- 
da de estilo mudejar de unos 3CX) pies de alto, 5 
antiguamente un alminar de la mezqiiita de los 
moros quienes la construyeron en 1196. Hoy dia 
es el campanario de la catedral. Por encima esta 
una estatua de broilce figurando la Fe, la cual gira 
como veleta al menor soplo de viento aunque pesa 10 
mas de una tonelada. Esta figura se llama el 
giraldillo. La catedral gotica es por su grandeza 
una de las mas celebradas de la cristiandad. Fue 
construida en los anos 1402-1506. Lo que mas 
interes tiene para nosotros los americanos es el 15 
sepulcro de Colon que se ve en este templo. 
Apoyado en hombros de cuatro figuras heroicas, en 
simbolo de Aragon, Castilla, Leon y Navarra, se 
percibe el feretro inmenso en que yacen los restos 
mortales del que es inmortal. En otra parte dezo 
la iglesia esta enterrado en el suelo Fernando, el 
ilustrado hijo de Cristobal, y se lee alli la inscrip- 
cion en lengua antigua: — A Castilla y a Leon 
mundo nuebo die Colon. 

La Biblioteca Colombina fundada por Fernando 25 
Colon, la hermosa fabrica de tabacos, el antiguo 
ayuntamiento, el Alcazar, palacio de los reyes 
moros, la amplia Plaza de Toros, las murallas 


romanas, la casa de Murillo, los muelles en la 
libera del no Guadalquivir a donde Uegan buques 
de menor calado de todos los puertos del mundo, 
la Torre del Oro y la Casa de Pilatos se pueden 
5 citar entre las curiosidades mas notables de Sevilla 
y de ellos os dire mucho en mis proximas cartas. 

La vida sevillana se concentra en la estrecha 
Calle de las Sierpes, la dilatada Plaza de San Fer- 
nando y la Plaza de la Constitucion. 
10 Os escribiria mas largamente si tuviese tiempo. 
Tan entusiasmado esta Pedro que no habria escrito 
hoy a su tio si yo no se lo hubiera instado. 
Sin mas por hoy me despido de vosotros 

Muy cariiiosamente, 


Repaso de gramitica. 

The progressive tenses formed by the use of estar, venir, ir, 

andar (venimos pasando) . Familiar and polite forms of 

pronouns and verbs distinguished (contaros, sab§is, etc.) , 

Verbs used with the infinitive or subjunctive (per- 

mitidme repetir) Conditional sentences contrary to 

fact in present time (os escribiria ... si tuviese) ; in 

past time (no habria escrito ... si no se lo hubiera instado) 

. Use of definite article when a noun is in apposition with 

a pronoun (nosotros los americanos) . 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

decir la buenaventura hoy dia 

llamar la atenci6n por encima 

calificar como figurar algo 



Trabajo oral. a. Distmganse enterar y enterrar; 
hombro, hombre, y hambre. b. Completense las 
oraciones que siguen, usando los verbos y otras pala- 
bras que convengan: 

I. Si Vd. estuviese aqui, yo . 2. £l hubieras 

visitado la Alhambra, si 3. Al en Sevilla, 

vi la Giralda. 4. Nos iremos sin a los gitanos. 

5. He oido que el Generalife es una joya. 

6. Compre Vd. un billete para que yo 7. El 

guarnecido no es azul verde. 8. No lo habriaio 

sabido nunca, si Vd . 

Para verter en buen castellano. 

Dear son: Your mother and I have just received 
your letter written in southern Spain, and I shall 
answer it at once so that you may find a letter awaiting 15 
you when you reach Madrid. Your mother would 
write to you if she were not so tired but she asks me to 
tell you that she will write the next letter. If we had 
not received this letter, I should have written you 
nevertheless, knowing that you would be anxious to 20 

be informed of how things are going here. 

All that you write about the Alhambra and the 
Generalife interests us beyond words. Your mother 
and I still recall with great pleasure our stay in Granada 
of several years ago. At that time we knew very well 25 
the Ibanez's who lived in the Generalife and their 
daughter Ana often conducted us to the highest tower 
from which could be seen the Albaicin where the 


gypsies live in their caves, the Alhambra situated on 
the other side of the ravine, and far in the distance 
the snow-crowned crests of the Sierra Nevada. It 
was an unforgettable sight, and has been deeply 
5 impressed upon my memory. 

Often the king of the gypsies took us to see the gypsy 
women dance and to have them tell our fortunes. 
Their horse-dealers were then the most excellent of 
the four quarters of the globe, 
lo We used to spend many hours strolling through the 
halls and rooms of the Alhambra, looking at' the tilings 
of various colors and sizes. You remember that I 
always liked so much the Court of the Myrtles that 
we have a photograph of it in the sitting-room. 

15 The Moorish-Granadine style of architecture we 
liked better than that called mudejar, which is seen 

in Seville in the Giralda. We often went up this tower 
which is the belfry of the Gothic Cathedral. From 
the top we looked out over the rich plain that sur- 

20 rounds Seville and could see the Guadalquivir river, 

the bull-ring, Triana, the Tower of Gold and the 

Alcazar. On top the statue which represents Faith used 

to turn like a weather vane at the least breath of wind. 

We used to remain absorbed before the greatness 

25 of the Seville cathedral, called Santa Maria de la 
Sede. This temple seemed too immense for the 
imagination. The four heroic figures representing the 
ancient kingdoms of Spain bore on their shoulders the 
bier in which lay the mortal remains of him who is 

30 immortal. 

Copirritlil by Undiinmid (r Vnicrwood, N. V. 

C6rdoba; Intebiok de lA Vieja MEZQvnA 


The Seville women are probably still renowned for 

their wit. We used to see them in the ample Plaza 

de San Fernando and in the narrow Sierpes Street, 

chatting with the bull fighters and attracting the 

5 attention of all. 

But excuse me. I have become so enthusiastic 
thinking of Spain that I imagined myself there once 
more. We hope you are having a good time. Write 
us again, 
lo Affectionately, 

Your Father. 



Pedro y Miguel se encuentran en un tren 
expreso que se acerca a Madrid. Han venido de 
Cordoba, cuya ciudad visitaron de paso despues 
de dejar a Se villa. Pernoctaron alii y fueron a 
ver la catedral que fue mezquita arabe. Vieron 5 
con asombro las 860 columnas de porfido, jaspe, 
marmol bianco y marmol brecha en medio de las 
cuales principiaron los cristianos a construir en 
1523 la catedral, destruyendo en esto mucho de la 
hermosura original. Se acordaron los jovenes de 10 
que Carlos V, emperador de Alemania y rey de 
Espana, al ver lo que habian hecho sus subditos, 
exclamo: — Vosotros habeis edificado lo que se 
hubiera podido construir en cualquier parte, pero 
habeis derribado lo que fue unico en su genero en 15 
el mundo. 

Asi que se detiene el tren bajo el cobertizo de la 
hermosa Estacion del Mediodia, bajan los cansados 
americanos, saliendo a buscar un coche de punto. 
— Cochero, ^'esta Vd. libre? — Si, senor; suban2o 
Vds. ^ A donde desean Vds. ir? — Conduzcanos 
a la calle del Barquillo, numero tal. — Es una 
casa de huespedes, i verdad ? — Si, la del seiior 



Ricardo Azabache. Mire, Pedro, la tarifa mar- 
cado en el cartelito "Por horas, 2.50 pesetas la 

hora. Por la carrera, " Ya estamos. 

^Cuanto es? — Una peseta y 50 centimos. 

5 — Tome Vd. esta pieza de dos pesetas, guardan^ 

dose de propina lo sobrante. — Muchas gracias. 

— Sean Vds. bienvenidos, caballeros, aqui estan 

Vds. en su casa. Recibi su carta y segun lo que 

me pidieron, les he reservado dos alcobas y un 

10 gabinete que creo seran de su gusto. — i En que 
piso? — En el primero, derecha. Subamos a 

verlos i No les con vienen ? — Ya lo creo. 

Con tal que pongan en el gabinete un sillon mece- 
dor. — Por supuesto eso se hara. Las camas las 

IS hallaran Vds. provistas de buenos colchones y 
muelles. Aunque dan a la calle las dos ventanas, 
no hay transito de vehiculos que pueda estorbar- 
les. Sacando la cabeza por la ventana, se puede 
ver hasta la calle de Alcala. — Bueno, don Ri- 

2oCardo. Y por esto, ^cuanto hay que pagar? 

— Siete pesetas diarias, cada uno, o 40 pesetas por 
semana, pagando por quincenas adelantadas. 

— i Todo comprendido ? — Si, senor; compren- 
diendo alcoba con gabinete, desayuno, dos comidas 

25 con vino al dia, servicio y alumbrado. — Bueno; 
cosa hecha. iEsta servida la comida? Vd, sabe 
que hambre y esperar hacen rahiar. — Si, seiior. 
Bajen Vds. a matar el hambre cuando gusten. 


— Seiior Carter, Senor Davis, permitanme que les 
presente a Vds. al senor Cespedes y a su seiiora y 
a la seiiorita Valverde. — Tanto gusto en cono- 
cerles a Vds. — Servidor de Vds. — Caballeros. 
— A las ordenes de Vds. — Sientense Vds. aqui. 5 

Repaso de g^amfitka. 

Verbs in -iar (principiar; enviar) 39. The passive voice, 

formation' and uses (ser bienvenido) Prepositions in 

distributive time expressions (per semana, al d!a, etc.) . 

Designation of floors and apartments in Spain (el primero, 

derecha) Cualquiera, forms and uses . Ordinals, 

first to twentieth 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

de paso sacar la cabeza 

ya estamos cosa hecha 

sea Vd. bienvenido a las drdenes de Vd. 

para servir a Vd. 


Deberes orales. a. Dese una sinopsis de la expre- 
sion acordarse de algo en los tiempos simples y com- 
{^uestos de indicativo y de subjuntivo, empleando la 
primera persona del singular, b. Expliquese el uso 
del modo subjuntivo en los siguientes casos del texto: 10 
conddzcanos, sean bienvenidos, subamos, pongan, 
pueda, gusten, presente, sientese. 

Traducci6n. If they had been on an express they 
would have reached Madrid yesterday. But they 
stopped at Cordova to spend the night there, getting up 15 
early this morning and going to visit the ancient cathe- 


dral which many centuries ago was a Moorish mosque. 
When the Christians built the cathedral in the midst 
of the marble columns of various kinds, many of them 
were destroyed. The king of that time, Charles V, 
5 was right in telling his Christian subjects that they 
had torn down there what could never be rebuilt 

"Here we are at last," exclaimed Peter as soon as the 
train had stopped in the train-shed of the South 

lo Station. "Let's get out at once and seek a public 
cabman. I see one there in the plaza." The cabman 
was disengaged and told the travelers to get into the 
cab and he would take them to the boarding-house in 
Alcala Street. On passing through the streets they 

15 enjoyed themselves looking at the people and the 
buildings. Stopping in front of the number they desired, 

the cabman turned towards them. They asked him 
how much it was and he replied that according to the 
tariff on the card in the carriage it would be three 

20 pesetas for the trip. They gave him one duro or five 

pesetas and he was about to give them two pesetas 

in change when they told him: "Keep a half peseta 

as a tip". This he did, thanked them and left. 

The proprietor came out to meet them and showed 

25 them into the sitting-room. "Welcome, gentlemen," 
he said. "Make yourselves at home. I have reserved 
rooms for you which leave nothing to be desired. They 
are on the third floor, right. Let's see if you like 
them. Here they are. A sitting-room and a bed-room 

30 for each one of you. What do you think of them?" 


"As for me, I like them, provided the traffic does not 
disturb us/' "But put your head out of the window 
and you will see that there are no vehicles passing." 
"All right. But please put a rocking chair in this room. 
Are the springs and mattresses comfortable?" "You 5 
can see for yourself, — unsurpassable." "And how 
much do we pay for all this.?" "Eight and a half 
pesetas a day each or 55 pesetas a week, payment 
made every two weeks in advance." "Does that 
include everything?" "Yes, sir; care of your room 10 
and light, light breakfast, lunch and dinner." 
"Agreedw" "Lunch is served, gentlemen. I know that 
to wait when you are hungry drives you frantic." 

When they went down to satisfy their hunger, the 
three were introduced to the other guests. "Pleased 15 
to meet you," said one lady. "At your service," 
replied Michael. 



iHay lista de platos? — No, seiior; no la 
hay, — dice la criada; — pero se lo traere todo a 
ver si les gusta. — Bueno; traiganoslo sin tar- 
danza, haga el favor. Tenemos mucha hambre. 

5 — iQuiere Vd. probar la sopa de fideos? — Gra- 

cias. Es muy buena. — Para entremeses hay 

aceitunas y anchoas. — dQue dase de pescado 

tenemos? — Este se llama mero, el del refran: 

— De la mar el meroy y de la tierra el carnero. 

lo — i'Desea Vd. huevos? — jEn que estilo? — Son 
revueltos o en tortilla. — Gracias. Los omito 
hoy. — iQue sabrosa es esta carne de vaca poco 
asada! — Si; me trae el agua a la boca solo el 
verla. Es como la prefiero, magra a la grasa. 

15 — Haga el favor de acercarme el salero. — ^No 
quiere Vd. repetir de las zanahorias? — Gracias. 
Soy muy partidario de las legumbres. Las patatas 
son buenas a no dejar mas que pedir. — Ya se ve 
que la cocinera sabe a fondo su oficio. Esta ensa- 

2olada de escarola esta aderezada ehteramente a mi 
gusto. La salsa es exquisita. — Pero Vd. no 
toma mucho vino. — Si que tomo. El vino 
tinto espanol lo considero como vino de mesa el 



mas apetecible de todos los existentes. No po- 
demos conseguirlo coil facilidad en nuestro pais 
pero aqui voy a gozar de el en toda comida, 
bebiendolo bautizado un poco. — J Y aun en el 
desayuno? — No; me contentare con chocolate y 5 
panecillos a la espaiiola. — iNo toma Vd. queso 
manchego? — Por supuesto. He oido hablar 
tantas veces del queso manchego. Es delicioso. 
— i Quiere Vd. frutas ? — i Cuales hay ? — Hay 
higos, peras, uvas, sandias y melones. — i Algo 10 
mas de queso? — Gracias. He cerrado la Have 
de mi apetito. He comido por cuatro. iYd. se 
va, seiiorita? — Si; con permiso de Vds. jBuen 
provecho! — Gracias. Igualmente. 

— iMe^ permite Vd., senora, fumar un purois 
mientras tome el cafe? — Puede Vd. fumar 
cuanto guste. Estoy acostumbrada. El humo del 
tabaco no me molesta. — Pedro, tenga Vd. la bon- 
dad de darme lumbre. — Se lo dare de buen grado. 
En cambio, voy a pedirle un cigarillo de papel. 20 
-^— Tome Vd. — Gracias. Senor Cespedesi 

d puede Vd. decirme cuales son los mejores perio- 
dicos de la noche? — Pues, caballero; segiin y 
conforme. A mi me gusta mas La Correspondencia 
de Espand; los vendedores lo Uaman "Z^ Corre*\2s 
Pero a mi mujer le gusta El Heraldo, Vd. sabe que 
sobre gustos no hay nada escrito. Yo que Vd. leeria 
El Imparcial y El Liberal por la manana y La Co- 


rrespondencia y El Heraldo por la noche. — ?De 
que partidos son estos diarios? — Son liberates 
El Imparcialy El Liberal y El Heraldo; conserva- 
dores ABC^ El Mundo y La Epoca; independientes 

5 La Corre y El Diario Universal. — En cuanto a 
las revistas ilustradas semanales, son las mejores 
Blanco y Negro y el Nuevo Mundo. Aqui tiene Vd. 
el primerp. — iQue hermosos dibujos! Parece 
muy interesante. Si no tuviese tanto sueiio, lo 

loleena ahora. Vamonos, Pedro, a acostarnos. Ya 
se hace tarde. Hasta maiiana. — Que descansen 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Querer and gustar distinguished (^quiere Vd. frutas?) . 

The indirect object pronoun se (se lo traer^) * Use of 

the present tense where English requires the future (los omito 

hoy) r- Si used for emphasis (si que tomo) . Todo 

as object duplicated by lo (se lo traer^ todo) . 

Locuciones sacadas del ' texto con sus expresiones 

Locucidn Ezpresi6n equivalente 

tener hambre desear comer 

bueno a no dejar m&s que inmejorable 


ya se ve se conoce 

gozar de disfrutar de 

cerrar la llave del apetito no comer m&s 

de buen grado de buena gana, de buena 


segiin y conforme eso depende 


yo que Vd. si yo fuera Vd. 

Ibuen provechol I que aprovechel 

repetir de aceptar mfis de 

saber a fondo saber absolutamente bien 


Ejercicios verbales. a. Tomense del texto veinte 
palabras espanolas que tengan la misma etimologia 
que ciertas palabras inglesas; por ejemplo: — lista, 
list; refrfin, refrain, etc. b. Dese una sinopsis del 
verbo traer en los tiempos simples y compuestos de s 
indicative y de subjuntivo, empleando la primera 
persona del singular. 

Versi6n. Please hand me the bill of fare. Thanks. 

— What ought we to take, waiter? — That depends. 
Tastes differ. — Well then, bring us everything. First 10 
we shall try the vermicelli soup, then some fish. — ^What 
kind do you wish? — I like sea-bass best. Then bring . 
some mutton, that of the proverb, "From the sea give 
me the sea-bass; from the pastures, I prefer mutton.** 

— You will take beef, will you not ? — Yes; rare beef. 1 15 
prefer fat to lean. I am very fond of roast beef pro- 
vided it is prepared by a cook that knows her business 
thoroughly. What vegetables have we ? — Potatoes 
and carrots. Are you going to take an omelet ? — No. 

I shall ask for scrambled eggs, doing without the salad. 20 
I do not like that dressing on endive salad. Please 
pass the olives. They are very tasty. We can't get 
olives of this kind in the United States, can we .? — No, 
nor Spanish table wine, either. It is delicious when it 
is drunk diluted. 25 


I was very hungry as I took only one roll and cofFee 
for breakfast. I have already eaten enough for four. 
— May it do you good. Don't you wish some cheese 
from La Mancha and some grapes? — Thanks, just 
5 to look at those grapes and cantaloupes makes my 
mouth water. But I have satisfied my hunger. 

Let's go smoke in the sitting-room. Ask the ladies 
to allow us to smoke. — They have already consented 
to that, saying that they were used to it and that 

lo tobacco smoke does not annoy them. Please give me 
a cigarette and a light. — Here you are. What news- 
paper do you read in the evening? — La Correspon- 
denciuy an independent daily. — I like the Heraldo in 
the evening and the Imparcial in the morning. — It 

15 is evident that you are a Liberal. — Yes, J have inclined 
to the Liberals since I have been here. My best friend 
is a Conservative. What weekly magazine do you 
like best.? — That depends. The Blanco y Negro is 
well illustrated and the Nuevo Mundo is interesting. 

20 — You do not read them often, do you ? — Indeed I 
read them. As for today's Nuevo Mundoy I have just 
read it. Where are you going ? — To bed. — Pleasant 
dreams. — Thanks, same to ypu. 




Al dia siguiente se levantaron de madrugada 
los dos jovenes y despues de tomar el desayuno 
ligero de los espafioles, se lanzaron a la calle. Solo . 
acababan de abrirse los mas de los establecimien- 
tos. Siguiendo por la calle de Alcala llegarbn as 
la Puerta del Sol. Es esta gran plaza de forma 
irregular el centro de las actividades y vida de los 
6cx),ooo madrileiios. Aqui se puedep ver los de ; 
todos los rangos y de todas las comarcas de Espa- ^ 
iia. Es en ciertos respectos parecida a una plaza lo 
de cualquiera otra ciudad cosmopolita de Europa 
pero en mayor grado que en ninguna otra capital 
Madrid simboliza el pais del cual es la cabeza 
administrativa. De esa plaza arrancan todos los 
tranvias; por ella circulan a centenares los pasean- 15 
tes; en ella estan colocados algunos de los mejores 
cafesy hoteles, librerias, joyerias, estancos y 
salones de limpiabotas; al sur de ella esta el 
Ministerio de la Gobernacion. 

"Aqui se cambia dinero" — leyo Miguel en un2o 
letrero y se acordo de que todavia le quedaban 
varios billetes americanos. — ^A como esta el 
cambio? — pregunto al cambista. — Esta a 5 



CcpfTitkl by Undinavd & Undcrwoed, N. ¥. 


pesetas y SS centimos por el dolar, — replico este. 
Miguel tenia 22 dolares y 20 centavos. Haciendo 
un calculo rapido, el gerente de la casa de cambio 
le entrego 123 pesetas con 21 centimos. Pidio 
Miguel 3 pesetas en calderilla porque son muys 
necesarios las perras chicas y gordas para pagar el 
sitio en el tranvia, franquear cartas, y comprar 
periodicos. Al salir de la tienda, se les aproximo 
una vieja chillando: — Por Dios, caballeros, una 
limosnita; — y le dieron a la pobre mendiga una 10 
perra grande de liniosna. — Que Dios se lo 
pague, — gimio ella. Pero cuando un sujeto an- 
drajoso les alargo la mano, le dijo Pedro: — Per- 
done, hermano; no tengo nada. Por insistir el 
tanto le dijo Miguel Rnalmente al pedigueno:i5 
— Que Dios le ampare — a lo cual se alejo no 
queriendo poner en duda el amparo de Dios. Son 
muy soberbios estos limosneros o pordioseros y 
conviene no agraviarles. Igualmente, hay que 
recordar el refran : — Contra el vicio de pedir hay la 20 
virtud de no dar. 

Por ser ya tarde, se habia aumentado la anima- 
cion de la Puerta del Sol. Se veian transeuntes, 
coches, automoviles, pacientes bueyes gigantescos 
tirando de galeras inmensas cargadas de carbon de25 
coque; mulas enjaezadas en fila, la mas pequeiia 
en vanguardia, arrastrando todas una tartana; 
burros cargados de botijos para vender; y un 


maremagnum de tranvias cruzandose en todas las 
direcciones. Se entregaron regocijados los ameri- 
canos a la observaci5n de esta mezcla pintoresca 
de lo moderno y lo antiguo. Me sorprende, — 
5 dijo Miguel — que vengan tan pocos turistas a 
visitar a Espaiia. Parece que no saben en nuestro 
pais lo divertido que es aqui. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Preposition retained before que introducing a clause (se 

, acord6 de que) . Adjectives ending in a of common gender 

(cosmopolita) ■ Comparison of adjectives, regular and 

irregular (mayor) — . Position of comparatives (los mejores 
caf6s) . Verbs usually having no preposition in Spanish 

but requiring one in English (pagar el sitio) ; compare use of 

pedir, buscar, etc . Order of words in a present participle 

phrase (arrastrando todas una tarta&a) . Use of lo to ex- 
press how before an adjective or past participle in an indirect 
exclamation in a dependent clause (Id divertido que es) , 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

de madrugada a lo cual 

arrancar de tirar de 

^a c6mo est& el cambio? lo divertido que es 
alargar la mano 


Trabajo oral. a. Dese una sinopsis de la expresion 

seguirme en los tiempos simples y compuestos de 

loindicativo y subjuntivo, usando la primera persoita 

del singular, b. Para contestarenespanol. i. J A que 

bora se levanto Vd. hoy? 2. iK quien se puede ver en 


Madrid? 3. J Para que sirve la calderilla? 4. d'Que 

nombre o titulo se da a Madrid? c. De Vd. dos 

palabras sinonimas de mendigo. 6. l Que se dice a un 

mendigo para que se aleje? 7. iQue animales se ven 

en las calles de Madrid ? 5 

Para traducir al espafiol. Look at the oxen, Michael. 
How large they are. They pull those large wagons 
as if they were very light but they are loaded with 
coke and are very heavy. One must stand on a comer 
of the Puerta del Sol and watch this confusion in order 10 
to know well the street life of the city. If I had time, 
I should stay here all day. The animation of the 
Puerta del Sol is, of course, not so great as that of many 
squares in Chicago, Boston or New York, but it is 
more picturesque. How irregular this square is. 1 15 
always thought it was square. The life of its hotels 
and stores represents Madrid and Madrid typifies all 
Spain, for Spaniards from all the regions of the country 
make their way to the "city and court". 

The trolley cars are like ours, being smaller, however. 20 
I noticed one the other day and saw on it the name of 
the American company that had built it. I am 
surprised that the mules that pull the tartanas are 

hitched tandem, with a small donkey in the lead. How 
patient these donkeys are! I did not know how small 25 
.they were. And there goes a gigantic automobile. 
Thus we have a mixture of the modem and the old- 

Here comes a ragged beggar asking for alms. "Ex- 
cuse me, brother, I have nothing for you. May God 30 


protect you I" Now he goes away since he does not 
wish to put God's protection in doubt. I never insult 
these poor, proud men, and when I take it into my 
head to give one an alms he always says, "May God 
5 repay you!" That reminds me that I must go to a 
money-changer's and exchange these American bills 
for Spanish silver and copper so that I can pay for 
the books that I am going to buy at the book store. 
There is the sign, "Money changed here". Let's 

lo go in. What is the rate of exchange today for American 
money.? — Five pesetas and 53 centimos on the dollar. 
— All right. Here are seven dollars and a half. I 
have a dollar left. That I shall keep as a souvenir. 
After making a rapid calculation the money-changer 

15 hands over to me 41 pesetas and 48 centimos, con- 
sisting of one twenty-five-peseta bill, three silver coins 
of one duro each, a silver peseta and a silver half 
peseta or two reales. Not having a three-centimo 
piece, he can not give me the exact amount. Thus I 

20 have two centimos extra. I immediately ask him to 

give me ten perras grandes for the peseta and ten 

perras chicas for the half peseta. This he does willingly. 

Then we visit a shoe shining parlor and afterwards a 

tobacco shop where I buy some stamps to stamp my 

25 letters and Michael asks for cigarettes. It has now 
become late. We shall return to our boarding-house 
and after dinner we shall retire early since we shall 
have to get up early tomorrow. 



Necesito Pedro cgmprar un sombrero, siendole 
pesado el de fieltro que llevaba. Entraron en una 
sombrereria y les saco un dependiente varios som- 
breros pefo ninguno le gusto a Pedro hasta que 
vio uno de alas anchas y copa alta. Se lo probos 
y al mirarse en el espejo exclamo: — Este me 
sienta bien. eCuanto importa? — Vale 14 pese- 
tas. — Eso es mucho. Debe Vd. rebajar algo. 
jCual es su ultimo precio? No me gusta regatear. 
— Pues, se lo dejo a Vd. en 12 pesetas, el mismoio 
precio que a mi me cuesta. — Bueno. Me quedo 
con el. Voy a llevarlo puesto. Sirvase envolver 
el viejo y enviarmelo. — De buena gana. Ponga 
Vd. aqui su direccion. 

Atravesaron la plaza para comprar en una casa 15 
de antigiiedades un abanico para la madre de 
Miguel. Al hacer esto, poco falto para que fuese 
atropellado Pedro por un lando suntuoso en que 
se paseaban unos adinerados. — jCuidado! — 
gritaron todos los circunstantes, y Pedro se llevo 20 
ua^susto mayusculo. 

Lograron encontrar un abanico sevillano muy 
precioso y antiguo el que consiguieron muybarato. 



Estuvo con ellos muy amable la seiiora del tendero 
la cual les ensefio como maneja una espanola el 
abanico, pero por mucho que tratasen de imitarla 
no pudieron. Hicieron empaquetar bien el aba- 
5 nico en una cajita para poder enviarlo por cbrreo. 
Advirtio Miguel: — Si supi^sen los anticuarios 
americanos de los objetos de arte arrinconados en 
lugares desviados de Espana, vendrian en el 
proximo buque a buscarlos. 

10 Deseando comprar sellos para franquear el 
paquete, entraron en un estanco donde lo hicieron 
pesar por el estanquero quien les dijo que faltaba 
pegar 80 centimos de sellos para el franqueo y 25 
centimos para certificarlo. 

15 Tomaron los dos el almuerzo en el Hotel de 
Francia para evitar la necesidad de volver a casa 
y para probar la comida a la francesa a la sombra 
de los toldos del pasaje de Matheu muy cerca de la 
Puerta del Sol. Tomado el aln^uerzo, salieron y 

20 en la primera bocacalle pregunto Pedro a un 
guardia de orden publico, despues de haber llevado 
la mano al sombrero: — iPor donde se va a la 
Universidad Central? — Crucen Vds. la Puerta 
del Sol, tomando despues la calle de Preciados. 

25 Al llegar a la Plaza de Santo Domingo vuelvan a 
la derecha siguiendo por la calle de San Bernardo 
hasta llegar a la Universidad. — i No hay tranvia 
que nos lleve alia? — Si, senor; lo hay. Suban 


al que lleva puesto el rotulo "Quevedo". Faltan 
solo diez minutos a lo mas para recorrer la dis- 
tancia. — eEs menester cambiar de carruajes? 
— De ninguna manera. No hay combinaciones 
en los tranvias de Madrid. — J Hay libreria pors 
aqui cerca, donde se pueda comprar una guia de 
la ciudad? — Si, sefior; alii derecho, la Libreria 
de San Martin. — Dispense Vd. la molestia con- 
tinua, pero ivamos bien para Uegar al Palacio 
Real? — No es nada. Sigan el camino que yaio 
Uevan, recorriendo todo el largo de la Calle Mayor. 
Al final de ella, doblen Yds. la esquina a la derecha 
y lo veran en la calle de Bailen. 

Dieron las gracias al guardia por su bondad en 
orientarlos y emprendieron el camino, Uegando al 15 
fin al Palacio sin extraviarse. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Adjectives used as nouns {el viejo) . Order of ad- 

jectives and noun (un abanico sevillano muy precioso y antiguo) 

. Definite article instead of the possessive (como maneja 

una espaiiola el abanico) . Past participle phrases used 

as equivalent of a clause (tornado el almuerzo) . A with 

verbs of deprivation (comprar algo a uno) . 

I/Ocuciones para aprender de memoria. 

sentar bien a uno llevarse un susto mayiiscuJo 

llevar. puesto por mucho que tratasen 

poco falt6 para que fuese lograr encontrar 

atropellado extraviarse; lo contrario es 




Deberes orales. a. Dese una sinopsis del verbo 
hacer en los tiempos simples y compuestos de indicativo 
y de subjuntivo, empleando la tercera persona del 
singular, b. Expresense en correcto espanol las frases 

5 que siguen. i. Don't send it (masc) to me. Send it 
to him. 2. This hat will become you. 3. Bring me 
out a big hat, please. 4. I almost fell down. 5. We 
shall succeed in finding our way. 6. Let's try a 
dinner in French style. 7. Turn the comer here. 

10 8. We have thanked the policeman. 9. Are 'there 
transfers on the Madrid cars? There are not. 10. 
Don't get lost. 

Traduccion escrita. How does one go to the Plaza 
Mayor? — I asked a policeman yesterday. — Please put 

15 me on the right way. — Gladly, sir. Follow the way 
you are now pursuing until you reach the first cross- 
street, there turn the comer to the left and within a 
few minutes you will find yourself in the Plaza itself. 
— Is there a trolley car that will take me there ? — 

20 No, there isn't unless you walk first to the Puerta del 
Sol and there get on a car bearing the placard "Sol — 
Argiielles". — How many minutes are needed to reach 
the Plaza Mayor, going afoot? — Only fifteen at the 

25 I thanked him for his kindness and went on my 
way. After having gone part of the distance I got lost 
and had to ask a bystander which was the way to the 
Plaza. — Cross the Puerta del Sol continuing straight 



ahead on the Calle Mayor until you come to Philip III 
Street. Then turn to the left on that corner and you 
will see the Plaza. — Thanks. — Don't mention it. 

Not wishing to return home, I took lunch in a 
French cafe near the Puerta del Sol and enjoyed this 5 
meal greatly, seated in the shade of the awnings of a 
passage-way. Having satisfied my hunger, I made 
my way to an antique shop where I found a valuable 
old fan. I had long been seeking an object of art of 
this kind and I succeeded in buying it very cheap. 10 
I had it packed in a small box and was going to the 
nearest tobacco shop to have it weighed so as to send 
it to my sister by mail. While thinking of how kind 
the shopkeeper's wife had been to me, I was crossing 
the street slowly when I was almost run over by a 15 
street car. I got a terrible scare when I heard the 
people shout, "Watch out!" 

I hope my sister will appreciate the fan when she 
receives it as it nearly cost me my life. But she will 
never be able to handle it like a Spanish girl, however 20 
much she tries to do so. The tobacconist said that 
I had to affix 70 centimos in stamps as postage and 
25 centimos for registration. 

Afterwards I entered a hat store and asked for a 
felt hat with high crown and broad brim. On the 25 
clerk's bringing out several hats, I tried them all on 
but they were too heavy. Finally I came across a 
lighter one which became me and I took it 
after bargaining a good deal. The clerk said it was 
worth 20 pesetas but when I asked him what was his 30 


lowest price he consented to come down somewhat 
and let me have it at 15 pesetas. After giving him my 
address, I told him to wrap up the old one and send 
it to me and I would wear the new one. 




En lo mas alto de una cuesta a orillas del rio 
Manzanares esta situado el palacio de los reyes 
de Espana. En tiempo de los moros se encon- 
traba aqui un alcazar que fue tornado mas tarde 
por los cristianos durante la Reconquista, sirviendo 5 
como real sitio para los monarcas castellanos. 
Aqui Felipe II mando construir un palacio im- 
ponente, el cual fue destruido el aiio 1734 por 
un incendio. Felipe V, que era rey en aquella 
epoca, hizo que cierto Juvara trazase los pianos 10 
de un nuevo palacio. Luego, se murio Juvara, 
y otro italiano, Giovanni Sacchetti, llevo a cabo 
en los afios de 1738 a 1764 la construccion 

Segun el parecer de muchos bien entendidos en 15 
cosas por el estilo, este es el mas imponente y 
grandioso de los palacios reales del mundo. Es 
un cuadrado cuyos lados miden 500 pies de largo. 
Tiene seis pisos. Es todo granito con quiciales, 
pilastras y adornos de piedra de Colmenar. Por 20 
dentro hay un patio principal, tambien cuadrado, 
con lados de 145 pies de longitud. Hasta el aiio 



de 1808 ya habia costado unos 75 millones de 
pesetas y todavia no esta acabado. 

La entrada principal esta en la fachada del sur 
que da a la Plaza de Armas. Encima de esta 

5 entrada se hallan las habitaciones de gala, com- 
prendiendo el Salon del Trono, Uamado tambien 
el Salon de Embaj adores, la Camara de Recep- 
ciones, la Camara de Gasparini y otras. 

Si estan SS. MM., no se admite al publico a 

10 visitar estas salas ni tampoco otras. Pero estando 
fuera los reyes, es decir, cuando estan ausentes, se 
puede conseguir permiso para ver toda la parte 
publica del edificio. Aun en ese caso tuvimos que 
obtener la recomendacion del Embaj ador de los 

15 EE. UU. antes de poder alcanzar nuestros deseos 
de contemplar los lugares en donde se domicilia 
el poder real. Pero al presentarla en la Inten- 
dencia General se nos atendio debidamente, dan- 
donos de guias dos criados muy inteligentes quienes 

20 nos lo explicaron todo a maravilla. 

El Salon del Trono es como debe ser, grande, 
rico, resplandeciente, soberbio. El de Gasparini 
es una verdadera joya. Nos dijo el guardia que 
est aba alii de servicio que se pasaron 32 aiios en 

25 la fabricacion de las colgaduras de las paredes, 
todas bordadas a mano. El comedor de gala 
parece que es mas grande que ninguna otra sala. 
De mucho merito son los jarrones antiguos que se 


ven en todos los lados de la sala y las aranas son 
de un arte irreprochable. 

Cada peldano de la escalera principal consiste 
en una sola laja de marmol bianco. Al pie de ella 
paro Napoleon, al tomar posesion del palacio en 5 
el ano 1808 para su hermano Jose, puso la mano 
sob re uno de los leones de marmol bianco y dijo: 
— Al fin la, tengo, esta Espana tan deseada. — Y 
volviendose a su hermano exclamo: Aqui estas 
mejor alojado que yo. — Pero no. fue de muchaio 
duracion la estancia de "Pepe Botellas", como le 
motejaron los madrilefios. 

Se ha transmitido la tradicion poco verosimil 
que al arquitecto que construyo este edificio le 
cortaroa los brazos y le sacaron los ojos a finis 
de que no pudiera edificar otro palacio igual a 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Poco used as a negative modifier of an adjective (poco 

verosimil) . Prepare to give synopsis of construir 44. 


Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

Uevar a cabo permiso para 

bien entendido en estar de servicio 

por el estilo bordado a mano 

por dentro conseguir 

si est&n SS. MM. obtener 

es decir alcanzar 


Trabajo oral. a. Saquense del texto todos los 
verbos que cambian la vocal del radical. Dense de 
dichos verbos las siguientes formas; el gerundio, el 
presente de indicativo, el presente de subjuntivo, el 
5 preterito de indicativo. b. Formense frases originales 
en que se usen todas las locuciones arriba citadas. 

Traducci6n. The three young men obtained per- 
mission yesterday to visit the Royal Palace of Madrid. 
Their Majesties are now away and the public is ad- 

lomitted in that case to visit the gala rooms of the 
palace. First, however, they had to secure a letter of 
recommendation from the United States Ambassador. 
When they presented this in the superintendent's 
office they were properly looked after and two attend- 

15 ants accompanied them, explaining everything to 
them in a fine way. 

So beautiful is this palace that, in the opinion of 
many, there is no other in the world equal to it. Those 
who are well versed in things of this kind say that 

20 Philip V had this palace built by the Italian architects 
Juvara and Sachetti who made the present structure 
habitable in 1764, although it may be said that even 
yet it is not finished. It stands on the top of a hill 
on the bank of the Manzanares river on the site of 

25 the ancient Moorish alcazar which the Christians took 
during the Reconquest and which the Castilian mon- 
archs used as their royal seat. Later Philip II had a 
new palace built there but fire destroyed that one in 


1734. Thus it is evident that this is the third royal 
palace which has been erected there. 

Each side of this huge, square building measures 
5CXD feet in length. Inside there is a great square court- 
yard and to the south is the famous Plaza de Armas. 5 
The structure is almost entirely of granite with door- 
jambs and columns of Colmenar stone. 

The gala rooms are superb. There should be men- 
tioned the throne room, the state dining room and the 
Gasparini chamber. They are all resplendent and 10 
rich. Of course the royal family does not reside in 

these rooms. Visitor^ are never admitted to the 
apartments of the king and queen. The ancient 
vases of great size, the chandeliers, the hangings and 
the adornments are* of great artistic merit. 15 

Tradition says that Napoleon remarked when he 
took possession of this palace in 1808: "At last I 
possess this land of Spain I have so much desired." 
Then he turned to his brohter Joseph, later nicknamed 
"Joe Bottles" by the Madrilenians, and said; "You 20 
are better lodged here than I." But Joseph did not 
stay long and Napoleon. did not often go up this main 
stairway which has a single slab of marble for each 
step. Tradition also says, although the story is not 
at all probable, that the architect who built this 25 
palace had his arms cut off and his eyes removed so 
that no other structure could be built by him. 


Madrid: El Teaixo EsPAftoL 



Pregunta Miguel una tarde: — dQue hacemos 
esta noche para recrearnos, don Ricardo? — Pues, 
alia veremos. Por lo que a mi me toca, me quedo 
en casa para agasajar a unos contertulianos mios. 
— Por lo visto, Vd. tiene tertulia esta noche. — Si; 5 
los tertulianos somos siete u ocho y nos reunimos 
de vez en cuando por las noches para hablar de 
varias cosas. Nos divertimos charlando, aunque 
muchos extranjeros llaman a los espanoles callados 
o poco locuaces. Pero una vez reunida la tertulia 10 
y soltada la lengua, cada uno se echa a hablar a 
tontas y a locas. Oir, ver y callar es un proverbio 
util, pero entre amigos lo es tambien el otro que 
dice : A palahras locas y orejas sordas. 

^Van Vds. al teatro? — No; fuimos anoche alis 
Apolo a ver la segunda de las cuatro comedias que 
se representaban alii. Estaba atestado y habia 
muy pocas localidades disponibles para la segunda 
tanda; asi es que tuvimos que meternos en el 
paraiso. — Si; estos teatros que dan funciones 20 
por horas son siempre muy concurridos mientras 
que la asistencia al Teatro Espanol o al Lirico, es 
poca muchas veces cuando ponen obras de Lope 



de Vega, Calderon o Zorrilla. Y ahora el "cine" 
es un factor innegable en los asuntos teatrales. 
A mi no me atraen los "cines". Vale muchisimo 
la voz humana en la interpretacion de un papel. 

s^Digo algo? — Si, mucho, don Ricardo. Vd. da 
en el bianco con su acostumbrado acierto. Ma- 
riana habra corrida, ^verdad? — Si, y sera una 
muy buena. Van a luchar Gaona, Joselito y 
Bombita. Da gloria ver torear a esos diestros. 

10 Hay que verlos. — ^Donde esta Pedro? Hele 

por aqui. Mire, ino vamos a los toros maiiana? 

— Por supuesto. Salgamos a comprar los billetes 

en la oficina de la empresa, calle de la Victoria. 

Toman dos asientos, sombra, tendidos, y al dia 

issiguiente se dirigen a la Plaza de Toros. Prin- 
cipia la fiesta a las cuatro y medio en punto y 
Uegan los americanos a las tres para ver entrar a 
la gente. Visitan primero las caballerizas, la 
capilla donde rezan los toreros y el redondel. Al 

2osentarse ven que hay un lleno y oyen sonar el 
clarin en serial de haber comenzado la corrida. 
Salen a caballo los alguaciles y saludan al presi- 
dente; despues desfila la procesion de las tres 
cuadrillas, estando en primera fila los tres mata- 

25 dores seguidos de sus respectivos banderilkros y 
picadores. Es un magnifico espectaculo de colores 
vivos. Toman sus puestos los de una de las cua- 
drillas, suena el clarin y se agolpa con furia a^ 


redoridel un toro bravo. Primero ocurre la suerte 
de varas en que el toro embiste y mata a los pobres 
caballos que montan los picadores. Esto — dice 
un viejo aficionado — es lo feo. Y no quiero 
mirarlo. s 

Sigue la suerte de banderillas en que ponen los 
banderilleros en la nuca del toro tres pares de 
banderillas o palos cortos armados con puas. Eso 
requiere suma agilidad y destreza. Finalmente 
sale el matador a dar la ultima mano, es decir, aio 
matar el toro con la espada que Ueva. Esto lo hace 
despues de mucho maniobrar, clavando el estoque 
en el morrillo entre las espaldillas del bicho cuando 
esta este en la posicion debida. Caeel toro con 
el corazon atravesado por la espada. El diestrois 
recibe muchas palmas y da la vuelta al redondel, 
devolviendo a los concurrentes entusiasmados los 
sombreros, bastones y otras prendas que le arrojan 
sus admiradores. 

Esto se repite hasta que cada uno de los tres 20 
toreros haya matado dos toros. A mi me dis- ' 
gusta, — dice Miguel — y me siento enfermo. 
Vamonos. — Es verdad que este deporte no se 
permitiria en los Estados Unidos, — advierte 
Pedro, — pero a cada nacion hay que concederle 25 
el privilegio de divertirse a su gusto. Otra gente, 
otra vida. Pot donde fueresy ha% como vieres. 
Este recreo me entristece y me fasciha. iQue des- 


treza! iQue agilidad y atrevimiento! Tengo que 
volver a ver eso. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

U used for o (siete u ocho) Prepare to give synop- 

sis of dar 4. 

Locucioaes para aprender de memoria. 

all& veremos dar gloria 

per lo que a mi me toca hay un Ueno 

per lo visto dar la iiltima mano 

hablar a tontas y a locas dar la vuelta a 

^digo algo? agolparse a 
dar en el bianco 


Deberes orales. a. Pongase el verbo subrayado en 

la forma conveniente de subjuntivo. Expliquese el 

5US0 del subjuntivo en cada frase. i. Me quede hasta 

que morir dos toros. 2. A fin de que Vd. lo oir, sone el 

clarin. 3. Yo ire con Vd. con tal que comprar Vd. los 

billetes. 4. Entre en el redondel sin que los otros me 
ver. 5. Me dice que me in 6. No vamos a los toros 

10 a menos que torear Gaona. 7. Enseneme Vd. un 

sombrero que me sentar bien. b. Escribase una 

sinopsis del verbo dar en todos los tiempos de los 
modos indicativo y subjuntivo, empleando la tercera 
persona del plural. 
15 Para ezpresar en buen espanol. Our circle of friends 
met last night at don Ricardo's. We had a good time 
chatting about many things. The members are usually 


very silent and seem always to recall the proverb, 
"Hear, see, be silent." Don Ricardo entertained his 
fellow members and when all had arrived, their tongues 
were loosened and soon they were talking without 
rhyme or reason. Then don Ricardo cited the proverb, s 
"To foolish words give a deaf ear," thus hitting the 
mark with his accustomed skill. 

Later in the evening we all went to a moving-picture 
theatre to see the last section. The films were very 
good and the attendance large. In Spain, as in other lo 
parts of the world, the moving picture is an undeniable 
factor in theatrical matters, although those theaters 
which give performances by the hour of comedies in 
which the human voice is heard are usually well at- 
tended and it is often difficult to secure seats in them. 15 
When a theater is full, one cannot even get into the 
top gallery. It seems that many people like to hear 
as well as see the interpretation of a r6le. Therefore 
they prefer the theater to the moving-picture house. 

There was a bull-fight yesterday and don Ricardo 20 
said we should see it as the best fighters in Spain were 
going to fight. We got our seats at the office of the 
management and made our way to the bull-ring, 
reaching there an hour before the entertainment began. 
We visited the arena, the chapel and the stables and 25 
were taking our seats in the tendidos when the con- 
stables came out and saluted the president. The 
procession of the teams was a fine sight, all the fighters 
wearing gay-colored dress. 

There are three events in the killing of each bull: 30 


that of the pikes, that of the darts and that of the 
rapier. In the first the bull rushes into the ring and 
attacks the poor horses which the picadors ride. In 
the second the dart-throwers plant with great agility 
5 and skill three pairs of darts in the bull's neck. In the 
third the matador drives the rapier between the 
shoulder-blades of the animal who falls with his heart 
transfixed by the sword. Yesterday Joselito finished 
off his two bulls with so much skill that he had to make 

lo the circuit of the arena and return to the enthusiastic 

admirers the cigars and hats which they threw to him. 

As we left the bull-ring, I felt ill and told John that 

the sport displeased me greatly and that we would not 

permit it in our country. "No", he replied. "But 

15 perhaps there are things in American life that would 
displease the Spaniards as much as their bull-fights 
displease us. We must grant them the privilege of 
amusing themselves to their own taste. But as for 
me, I am going to see other bull-fights. They fascinate 

20 me as well as sadden me. The death of the horses 
is the most unpleasant part of it. 




Anteayer fui con Pedro a visitar la gran pina- 
coteca 6 galeria de pinturas de Madrid, denomi- 
nada el Musqp* del Prado. Pasamos por el her- 
moso Salon del Prado entre los muchos grupos de 
nifieras y nifios, ojeamos un rato el obelisco dels 
Dos de Mayo conmemorando a los heroes que 
atacaron en balde a los invasores Franceses en 
1808, vimos con interes en la calle de Felipe IV el 
edificio ocupado por la Real Academia Espanola 
y subimos por la graderia del famoso museo. , 10 

Nos dirigimos sin demora al salon de Velazquez, 
el maestro sobresaliente de la pintura espanola y 
llamado uno de los pintores mas afamados de todas 
las epocas y de todas las naciones. Hay reunidas 
aqui Unas 60 de las obras maestras de este sevillano 15 
Diego de Silva y Velazquez (murio en 1660), tal 
vez la mejor coleccion del mundo de los cuadros 
de un solo artista. Nos sumergimos en la con- 
templacion de Las Hilanderas, Don Baltasar, La 
Rendicion de Breda, El Duque de Olivares, Los 20 
Borrachos y Las Meninas (este ultimo apellidado 
el cuadro mas maravilloso del mundo) y otros mu- 




chos. No era de maravillarse — nos dijimos — 
que el pintor italiano, Luca Giordano, Ueno de 
arrobamiento, exclamase al rey Carlos II : — 
Senor, esto' es la teologia de la pintura. Me 
acorde tambien de haber leido que la actrizs 
italiana, Eleanora Duse, cuando estaba en Madrid 
solia pasar horas tras horas abismada ante Las 
Meninas y que una vez aturdio a uno de los em- 
pleados, arrojandose sobre el y gritahdo: — jEso 
es un teatro real! lo 

La fuerza caracteristica de los espanoles parece 
que es el individualismo, y domina en Velazquez 
esta calidad, junto con el naturalismo, lo mismo 
que en Cervantes. 

Entre otros grandes pintores de Espana de pri- 15 
mera categoria sobresalen Murillo (f. 1682), tam- 
bien sevillano versatil y reputado por sus cuadros 
figurando a la Virgen y por los de nifios mendi- 
cantes; Zurbaran (f. 1661), extremeno religioso y 
realista poderoso; Ribera (f. 1656), valenciano2o 
realista y dramatico quien representa con suma 
destreza lo esencial de lo espanol; Theotocopuli 
Uamado El Greco (f. 1625), un toledano de origen 
griego, bastante limit ado por sus amaneramientos; 
Goya (f. 1828), vivo, energico, pintor moderno25 
de la vida diaria y escenas tipicas de Espaiia. 
De casi todos estos vimos obras mas o menos 
numerosas en el Prado aunque se hallan espar- 


cidas por todas las partes del mundo las de 
Murillo y otros. 

Hoy dia los mas renombrados pintores son, el 
vascongado Ignacio Zuloaga (nacio 1870) y el 
5 valenciano Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida (nacio 1863). 
Del primero dice un critico italiano: — "Mientras 
titubean los artistas que nada tienen que decirnos, 
Ignacio Zuloaga avanza, confiando en sus propias 
fuerzas, por el camino que se trazo. Ha sabido 

loprescindir del tiempo en que vive para realizar 
en su arte algo absoluto: la verdad del propio 
mundo interior." Pero a mi me gustan mas las 
obras de Sorolla, profeta de la luz y de colores 
vivos ya sea cogiendo a maravilta los reflejos de 

IS los rayos del sol sobre la arena o sea entre las hojas 
de los naranjos imprisionandolos para siempre en 
sus lienzos. Sus retratos son de una naturalidad 
y expresion inimitables. Sorolla posee la imagi- 
nacion fogosa y alegre, y es digno representante 

20 de la nueva Espaiia. 

Ayer, en contestacion a una carta que enviamos 
a Sorolla, presentandonos a el, recibimos una 
invitacion para visitarle. En su magnifico pa- 
lacio en la calle de Martinez Campos nos recibio 

25 como a amigos antiguos. Vimos sus dos estudios y 

nos deleitamos mirando sus pasmosos cuadros col- 

gados a todos lados, mientras nos pedia infornles 

de America y de The Hispanic Society, la cual 




dio a conocer a SoroUa, entre los norteamericanos, 
por medio de una exposicion de lienzos en el 
Museo Hispanico de Nueva York. Le hablamos 
de la poderosa atraccion que tuvleron sus cuadros 
en dicho museo y en el Metropolitano de la misma 5 

Asi hemos pasado dos dias valiendonos de las 
oportunidades artisticas que hay en Madrid. 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Spanish family names (Sorolla y Bastida) — 
of ir 9, avanzar 34, atacar 30. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

denominar ] pedir inf ormes 

llamar dar a conocer 

apellidar valerse de 

decir abismado 

no es de maravillarse sumergido 

prescindir de ensimismado 


Trabajo oral. Palabras espanolas conteniendo el 
mismo radical. Expliquese en espanol el significado 10 
de cada una de las palabras que siguen. 






















rein ante 











Traducci6n. You do not know how entertaining 
it is to visit the great Prado Museum unless you have 
spent several hours in that picture gallery. To reach 
there one goes through the Sal5n del Prado where 
5 usually may be seen many children with their nurses. 
There is no doubt that the buildings and monuments 
in this part of Madrid are very beautiful. One should 
mention the shaft which commemorates the Second 
of May, 1808, and the heroes who fell while attacking 

10 the invading soldiers of Napoleon; the building which 

the Royal Spanish Academy occupies; and the long 

building of the Prado Museum where are housed the 

best paintings of Spain. 

One mounts the steps, enters a vestibule, pays a 

15 small sum to the employee on duty and soon finds 
himself in a long hall with masterpieces on every 
hand. Usually tourists make their way at once to 
the Velazquez hall where may be studied the works 
of this leading master of Spanish painting. There are 

20 those versed in artistic matters who call the picture 
"The Maids of the Court" the most marvellous paint- 
ing in the world. One may see the portrait of Velazquez 
himself in this picture. "The Drunkards", "The 
Spinners", "The Surrender of Breda" and many others 


delight and amaze the visitor. No wonder the two 
Italian artists, Giordano the painter and Duse the 
actress, although they lived in different centuries, 
cried aloud, full of rapture, on seeing these paintings. 
"This is a royal theatre," exclaimed the-latter and the 5 
former cried, "This is the theology of painting." 

The works of great Spanish painters are scattered 
throughout the world. The most famous of the old 
masters are Velazquez, the naturalist; Murillo, versatile 
and religious; El Grec^o, very religious and rather 10 
limited by his mannerisms; Ribera, a skilful realist; 
Goya, more modem and lively, and Zurbaran, a power- 
ful realist. 

We Americans can study in our own land the works 
of the two greatest modern painters, Sorolla and 15 
Zuloaga, the former a Valencian and the latter a 
Basque. The paintings of these two artists may be 
seen especially in the Metropolitan Museum and the 
Hispanic Museum of New York City. Mr. Sorolla is 
much interested in all that refers to the United States, 20 
having been in that country when The Hispanic 
Society made him known to North Americans by means 
of an exposition of his pictures in 1909. He gladly 
receives like old friends in his fine residence in Madrid 
those Americans who have letters of introduction to 25 
him. He has two large- studios in which are hung 
some of his wonderful canvases. His portraits of 
Galdos and of the King and Queen of Spain, which may 
be seen in the Hispanic Museum, are of an inimitable 
naturalness of expression. ^ Some have called him the 30 


prophet of light and bright colors because he catches 
and imprisons in his canvases the reflections of the 
sunbeams upon the sand. or among the leaves of the 
orange trees. He is of fiery imagination, a skilled and 

5 worthy representative of the art of modem Spain. 
Zuloaga transmits the traditions of the ancient Spanish 
painters and never wavers in what he has to tell us. 
He trusts in his own strength and knows how to get 
out of the time in which he lives and to represent the 

lo truth of the very inner world. 

These masters advance on the way that they have 
marked out for themselves and their works have a 
powerful attraction for those who like paintings. 



Don Ricardo, quisieramos visitar alguna em- 
presa mercantil de Madrid para enterarnos de la 
manera en que se hacen los negocios aqui. jTen- 
dria Vd. la amabilidad de darnos una carta de 
presentacion para un comerciante que conozcaPs 
— Tendre gran placer en darsela. Tengo un 
cunado que esta de gerente y socio comanditario 
en una casa que Ueva la razon social de Artigas e 
Hijos. Esta se dedica al por mayor y vende ar- 
ticulos coloniales. La clientela es muy numerosa lo 
y la casa abastece a muchos de los detallistas de 
Madrid y otras poblaciones, siendo nombrada 
tambien proveedora de la familia real. Esta mi 
cunado muy abismado en su negocio, creyendo, 
segun el refran, que quien tiene tienda que atienda; 15 
y si noy que la venda. — Pero debe de estar ocu- 
padisimo. — Y i que ? — Que no queremos mo- 
lestarle a el. — Nada. Se complace sobremanera 
en mostrar a los interesados su establecimiento. 
Empezo de muchacho sin un cuarto hace muchos 20 
alios y esta para retirarse. Voy a preparar la carta. 

Celebro la ocasion de conocer a Vds., caballeros. 
Yo he oido hablaf* de Vds. a don Ricardo. Me 



pongo por complete a la disposicion de Vds. 
— Gracias. Ya se ve que Vd. tiene un personal 
muy numeroso. — Si; hay unos cuatro tene- 
dores de libros, cinco mecanografos, tres corres- 
5 ponsales que dominan todas las lenguas modernas, 
un cajero, unos catorce dependientes y seis via- 
j antes o comisionistas. En los almacenes hay 
veinte y pico de obreros y mozos y tantos son los 
pedidos que se nos hacen que todavia nos faltan a 

loveces dependientes para servirlos con prontitud. 
En este momento no son muy activos los negocios 
por causa de una huelga que ha estallado entre los 
carreteros, la que imposibilita el transporte de 
mercancias desde el ferrocarril a nuestro almacen. 

15 Pero creo que volveran maiiana los huelguistas a 
su trabajo. Estan en via de arreglarse las con- 
diciones de trabajo que piden. Como ya han 
reparado Vds., llevamos un surtido grandisimo de 
ultramarinos. — i En que consiste? — En frutas de 

20 una iniinidad de generos de ultramar, de Africa, 

Asia y America del Sur, nueces, tes, cafes, especias, 

mantequilla danesa,conservas alimenticias, quesos, 

arenque ahumado, carne y pescado en latas, etc. 

— i Cuales son las condiciones bajo las cuales 

25 expiden Vds. sus efectos ? — Por lo comun, desde 
ocho hasta sesenta dias fecha. Cuando vence una 
factura giramos contra los compradores por la 
suma debida. Acompaiiamos con los envios la 


factura y si son para el extranjero remitimos a la 
vez conocimiento de embarque. Para su reem- 
bolso los que nos venden mercaderias libran di- 
rectamente sobre nosotros. Preferimos pagar al 
contado cuando sea posible. — i Como llevan 5 
Vds. sus libros de contabilidad? — Siempre por 
partida doble. La ley exige que conservemos por 
cierto tiempo estos libros y que a cada hoja de ellos 
se pegue un sello. Lo mismo pasa con los recibos 
los cuales, para que tengan valor, deben llevario 
ademas de la firma del acreedor un timbre. Los 
pagares y los cheques van igualmente escritos en 
pa pel timbrado, y para poner un telegrama es pre- 
ciso pagar una tasa por medio de un sello. Se 
pone en claro que hay mucho mas expedienteo aqui 15 
en los negocios que en los Estados Unidos. — Asi 
lo parece. <iHay muchas fundiciones o fabricas 
de tejidos en Madrid? — Muy pocas. Esas las 
encontraran Vds. en Bilbao y mas particularmente 
en Barcelona que es el centro del comercio de2o 

Al salir los jovenes del almacen son las doce en 
punto y Pedro pregunta: — d'Que hora sera ac- 
tualmente en Nueva York? — Son ahora las 
siete y cuatro minutos de la maiiana segun lo que 25 
lei anoche en un almanaque de bolsillo, — replica 
Miguel. — Y yo no veo la hora de comer — dijo 
Pedro bromeando. 


Repaso de gramitica. 

Use of the imperfect subjunctive instead of the conditional 

(quisi^ramos) Use of different tenses of debar, deber de 

(debe de estar) . Pleonastic que (que no queremos 

molestarle) Synopsis of veneer 35, estar 6, tener 17. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

enterarse de servir un pedido 

y dqu6? estar en via de 

complacerse en llbrar sobre 

sin un cuarto poner un telegrama 

estar para las doce en punto 

dominar una lengua no ver la hora de 

veinte y pico al per mayor. 


Deberes verbales. Para cada una de las palabras 
que siguen, dese una o dos palabras inglesas que 
tengan la misma etimologia: negocio, amabilidad, 
socio, dedicar, vender, poblacion, familia, refran, 
5 atender, deber, molestar, mostrar, establecimiento, 
conocer, corresponsales, dependientes, cajero, pedido, 
prontitud, transportar, infinidad, expedir, ley, sello, 
recibo, acreedor, valor, tasa, fabrica. 
Traducci6n. We had often heard cited the skying, 

10 "Let him who owns a shop either give it his attention 
or sell it", and we wished to find out about the way 
Spaniards give attention to their business. Therefore 
we asked Mr. Ramirez, an acquaintance of ours, to 
give us a letter of introduction to some manager of a 

15 mercantile enterprise whom he might know. He said 
he would take great pleasure in giving it to us. On 
receiving the letter he was kind enough to prepare for 


us, we noted that it was directed to a certain Mr. 
Artigas y Marin, a silent partner of the firm of Conde 
Brothers. This house had been selling overseas prod- 
ucts for many years at wholesale and had been ap- 
pointed purveyor to the royal household. 5 

A strike having broken out among the employees 
of the street-car line, we had to hire a cab and have 
ourselves taken to the warehouse where Mr. Artigas 
was awaiting our arrival. There were so many strikers 
in Alcala Street that they blocked the traffic. Truck 10 
drivers and coachmen had to return to the Puerta 
del Sol and leave that plaza by means of other streets. 
Although we arrived late, Mr. Artigas said that he was 
glad to meet us and that he placed himself entirely 
at our service. "But you must be very busy," we 15 
remarked. "And what of that ?" he replied. "We do 
not wish to trouble you." "Not at all. I shaH be 
delighted beyond measure to show you our establish- 

It was evident that they carried a very large stock of 20 
overseas goods such as canned beef, fish and fruit, also 
teas, coffees, spices j cheeses, nuts, butter, and so forth. 
The office staff was large, for there were thirty-odd 
clerks, typists, bookkeepers, cashiers, correspondents 
and traveling salesmen. At that time business was 25 
very brisk and they needed workmen who could help 
in filling promptly the many ordiers which were given 
to the clerks. 

They carried on their accounting system by double 
entry and had to pay a tax by affixing a stamp to every 30 


page of theit account books, to receipts, checks and 
notes as well as to all telegrams that they might send. 
This the law required. We did not like so much red- 
tape. They sent a bill of lading with each shipment, 
5 drew directly upon purchasers who did not pay cash and 
on sending goods abroad they sold them under the 
conditions of 60 days from date. When a bill of goods 
fell due, they drew upon the customer at sight for the 

amount due, if he had not paid it. Many of the 
10 clerks were masters of several modem languages. 

We took leave of Mr. Artigas at six o'clock sharp 
in the afternoon and I asked Peter what time it probab- 
ly was then in New York. He consulted a pocket 
almanac and said that it was four minutes after one 
t5 in the afternoon in New York. But he said he didn't 
care what time it was since he. was anxious to have 



Despues de haber visto las mayores curiosidades 
de Madrid, la Armeria Real, el Museo de Arte 
Moderno, el Senado, el Palacio del Congreso, el 
Ayuntamiento, el Parque de Buen Retire, la 
Biblioteca nacional, la iglesia de San Francisco el 5 
Grande y el Hipodromo, recurrieron los america- 
nos a las ciudades cercanas, haciendo excursiones 
a Segovia, La Granja, El Escorial, El Pardo, 
Alcala de Henares, Toledo y Aranjuez. De 
Madrid a Segovia hay 63 millas y se empleanio 
tres horas en el viaje. Palpitando y dando 
buiidos, la locomotora tiro del tren cuesta arriba 
hasta llegar a Segovia a una altura de 3250 pies. 

Es muy vistosa la situacion de Segovia en una 
de esas mesetas asoleadas de Castilla la Vieja. Se 15 
la tuvo como plaza fuerte durante la Edad Media; 
pero esta durmiendo ahora en su eminencia eri 
medio del silencio y del sol que la inunda. Poca 
es la animacion de sus calles, y contados son los 
paseantes. Aunque cuenta unas 15,000 almas, 20 
hay pocas industrias; solo la guarnicion de sol- 
dados impide que parezca una ciudad muerta. 
No obstante de eso, le cae a uno en gracia por 




causa de su misma sonolencia y monumentos an- 
tiguos. El acueducto, nombrado popularmente 
el Puente, fue construido hace unos 1800 aiios por 
los romanos. Pasa por el centre del mercado y 
aun provee de agua a los habitantes. Sus 119 5 
arcos son de granito y las piedras carecen de 
mortero u hormigon para allegarlas. Quizas sea 
el Alcazar, situado en una roca escarpada, el 
mejor ejemplo existente de un antiguo Castillo 
espanol. Aqui residieron en otro tiempo los 10 
Reyes Catolicos. Alfonso el Sabio (f. 1284) tenia 
aqui su corte y hace seis siglos que elevo a su era 
de gloria la vida segoviana. La catedral, de pie- 
dra amarilla clara, la ultima obra de Juan Gil, se 
considera el mejor ejemplo del estilo gotico de-is 
cadente. Su 5rgano es famoso por lo dulce de sus 
tonos. Por todas partes de la poblacion derramo 
Alfonso iglesias de estilo romanico. Los campesi- 
nos de los alrededores se visten todavia a lo an- 
tiguo y al visitar la ciudad le prestan a ella una 20 
not a alegre y pintoresca. 

Subiendo a un omnibus, Pedro y Miguel par- 
tieron para San Ildefonso que se halla a 11 kil5- 
metros al sudeste en la Sierra de Guadarrama. 
Habia mucho polvo en el camino, el calor era casi 25 
insoportable y el faeton rebosaba de gente la cual 
se pasmaba al oir hablar a los dos extranjeros de 
los Estados Unidos. En San Ildefonso se encuen- 


C«tyritJu ty UtOtrmiit Gr Vndirwood, N. Y. 

Segovia: El ActrEDUcro 


tra La Granja, el real sitio predilecto del rey don 
Alfonso XIII y de la reina Victoria. El palacio, 
obra de los arquitectos del palacio de Madrid, fue 
ediiicado por Felipe V, el primer rey borbon, en el 
ario 1724. Para sorprender y complacer al rey, 5 
la reina Isabel Farnese mando trazar, durante 
una larga ausencia de aquel, los jardines que co- 
lindan el palacio y en ellos se dispusieron unas 
veinte fuentes que superan en hermosura y di- 
versidad a cuantas exisjen en el mundo. Del 10 
surtidor de la' fuente llamada La Fama surge el 
agua hasta una-altura de 115 pies. La cascada 
nueva es hermosisima. Corre la voz, — dijo 
Pedro ^ — que al serle regalados a Felipe estos jar- 
dines por la reina, else encogio de hombros y dijo: 15 
— "Esto-me costo tres millones y me ha distraido 
por tres miniitos." — Y me extrana que la reina 
no premiara el agradecimiento de su amable 
consorte con* tres buenas bofetadas. Asi lo hu- 
biera Hecho yo, de haber estado en su lugar. 20 

Miefttras iban a ver en La Colegiata las tumbas 
de estos monarcas, dieron por casualidad con S*u 
Alteza, la muy popular Infanta Isabel, tia del rey 
actual, quien les saludo muy atentamente. 

Aqui en La Granja en el afio 1832 Fernando VII, 25 
creyendose al punto de morir,derog6 la Pragmatica 
de 1830, la cual habia anulado la Ley Salica de 
171 3, reconociendo asi como sucesor suyo a don 


CapyrigU iy Umknaad fir Undenecoi, N. ¥. 

La Gbanja: La Faua, Fuente d 


Carlos, su hermano, Pero cuando se restablecio 
de salud, cambio de parecer y reintegro la Pragma- 
tica, declarando que habia de sucederle su hija, 
la que fue mas tarde Isabel II. De ahi provinieron 
las guerras civiles carlistas que turbaron el reino s 
por varies aiios. Ira de hermanosy ira de diablos. 
Do quieren reyeSy alia van leyes. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Use of subjunctive after quiz&s, tal yez (quiz&s sea el lugar) 

Weather expressions (habfa polvo) . Synopsis of 

caer 3, provenir 21. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

dar bufidos encogerse de hombros 

caerle a uno en gracia dar con algo alguJen 

carecer de restablecerse de salud 

rebosar de cambiar de parecer 
correr la voz 


Trabajo oral. Completense las siguientes oraciones 
de manera que tengan sentido comun. i. Las mayores 

curiosidades de Madrid son , , , etc. 2. 10 

Quizas mucho polvo en el camino. 3. La reina 

mando algunos jardines. 4. Me extrana que me . 5. I que carece Vd. ? 6. Dimos 

nuestro amigo. 7. £l impide que yo . 8. 

No se Vd. de hombros. 9. Espero que ella se 15 

de salud. lo. Me en gracia estas fuentes. 


Versi6n. Tell me, John, what was the Salic Law? 
— According to what I have read, this law prevented 
women from occupying the throne of a country. 
Philip V first declared it in Spain in 171 3. By the 

5 Pragmatic Sanction of 1830 Ferdinand VII annulled 
this law in Spain, but believing himself about 
to die, he abolished the Pragmatic Sanction in 183*2, 
thus restoring the Salic Law. Having recovered, he 
again changed his mind, for he wished his daughter 

10 Isabella to succeed him instead of his brother Charles. 
When Ferdinand died in 1833, Isabella was proclaimed 
queen and her uncle Charles tried to obtain the throne 
by means of his army. Hence arose the Carlist war 
which disturbed the kingdom especially from 1833 to 

15 1840 and even many years later. All this recalls the 
saying, "Laws are made as kings will." — Ferdinand 
was living in La Granja then, was he not? 

— Yes, and Philip V lived here too. It was to 
please Philip that his wife, Isabella Farnese, presented 

20 him these beautiful gardens which you see, together 
with these fountains. — That is true. And the report 
goes that when Philip returned from a long absence 
the queen presented them to him, and that, shrugging 
his shoulders, the king said: "This has cost me three 

25 millions and has amused me three minutes." — His 
gratitude was touching. I would have given him three 
good slaps, if I had been the queen. — It is probable 
that she did give them to him. But look at those 
fountains! Of all that exist in the world there are none 

30 that surpass them in beauty and variety. The water 


from La Fama rises to a great height. They say that 
it may be seen in Segovia, which is found seven miles 
to the northwest. 

— I do not wonder that this royal seat pleases the 
present king and queen. They say that it is their S 
favorite palace. — I like very much that waterfall after 
having traversed those seven miles in a carryall that 
was overflowing with peasants and soldiers. How hot 
and dusty it was! And how astonished they all were 
on hearing us talk English. Evidently they had never lo 
before come upon foreigners from the United States. 
The peasants were all dressed in the old-fashioned 
way and imparted a picturesque note to our group. 
When they entered the Colegiata, the Infanta Isa- 
bella saw them and greeted them very cordially. — is 
Yes. Her Highness is very popular because she is so 

— Let's return to Segovia. — All right. Here comes 
the carryall and there is easily room for us and we 
shall be quite comfortable. Get in. — Do you like 20 
Segovia .? — Indeed I do. I shall always remember the 
Roman aqueduct, the Alcazar, the cathedral and the 
Romanesque churches. The aqueduct was built of 
granite stones without mortar or cement to bind 
them. I wonder that it still provides the inhabitants 25 
with water. The Alcazar on its steep rock seems to 
me ^o be a huge ship on the open sea. The old cathe- 
dral, the last one built by Juan Gil, is a good example 
of the late Gothic style. Its light yellow stone is 
beautiful. — Yes. Alphonso the Wise raised Segovianao 


life to its period of glory some 600 years ago and the 
city was considered a great stronghold when Their 
Catholic Majesties resided there a couple of centuries 
later, but now, although she has some I5,cxx> inhabi- 
5 tants, few passersby are seen in the streets. The city 
sleeps on her height in the midst of the silence and the 
sun that flood it. 



Madrid, I*' de 7bre de 191-. 
Querida mama: 

No te apures por mi. Estoy muy en caja y 
paso muy buenos ratos aqui. Nos atienden muy 
cuidadosamente en la casa de huespedes de don 5 
Ricardo. No nos hace falta absolutamente nada. 

Excusado es decir que estabamos por unos dias 
en Toledo, la ciudad-centinela de Espaiia. Asi 
se le titula a la poblacion la mas antigua de toda 
Europa y parece que lo es. Un sinnumero deio 
seres humanos de muchas razas distintas ban 
pasadb aqui sus breves dias. Todo hifele y siente 
a lo antigu6 y la ciudad entera, lo mismo que 
Segovia, parece que esta muriendose alia en lo 
mas alto de un*pen6n. Hay tantos monumentosis 
arquitectonicos que cansa enumerarlos. Solo 
quiero citar la fabrica de armas que hasta hoy 
dia produce las espadas y obras de cuchilleria que 
dieron fama a Toledo en tiempos remotos. 

Pero no puedo pasar por encima de El Escorial, 20 
a donde fui solo, porque a Pedro no le dio la gana 
de acompaiiarme. Esta colocado El Escorial en 
las faldas de las montanas del Guadarrama, a unos 



50 kil5metros al noroeste de Madrid. La gran 
mole de este edificio, erigido por Felipe II en honor 
de San Lorenzo, tiene la forma de unas parillas, por 
haber sido estas el instrumento en que quemaron 
5 a dicho santo. Acudiendo este a la ayuda de 
Felipe en la batalla de San Quintin (segun la tradi- 
cion), el rey quiso mostrar asi su agradecimiento 
al santo y edificar a la vez lo que habia de.ser, 
segun dijo, "un templo, un claustro y una tumba". 

10 Y como tumba me parecio muy imponente esta 
construccion. El Panteon de los Reyes es verda- 
deramente augusto, solemne, y soberbio, el domi- 
cilio de la muerte. Esta debajo del altar mayor 
y asi todas las misas se rezan sobre este gran 

IS sepulcro. Solo los reyes o sus madres se entierran 
aqui. Hay cuatro filas de nichos para los reyes, 
a la izquierda del pequeno altar, y otras cuatro a 
la derecha para las reinas. Los sarcofagos son de 
marmol negro con los nombres en letras de oro. 

20 Al verlos colocados uno sobre otro en filas regu- 
lares, receptaculos todos de los restos de los que 
fueron monarcas poderosos, sent! intensamente la 
nulidad, vanidad, e insignificancia de la vida Hu- 
mana. Con el animo humillado subi los escalones 

25 que habia bajado entrando en el Panteon. Du- 
rante toda mi vida me acordare de aquellas tuni- 
bas puestas alii en medio de un silencio profundo 
y de una obscuridad nocturna. Me pregunte 


cuales seiian los sentimientos del rey actual al mi- 
rar estos sepulcros y el suyo, preparado para 
recibirle en compaiiia de los reyes muertos. 
A rey muertOy rey puesto. 

Despues del Panteon lo mas interesante para mi 5 
fueron las habitaciones de Felipe en las cuales 
vivia sin ostentacion, dedicado fielmente a su tra- 
bajo de gobernar el mundo cristiano y a sus ora- 
ciones casi continuas. La silla que usaba, la ban- 
queta en que, padeciendo de la gota, apoyaba laio 
pierna doliente, la mesa en que escribia, el dimi- 
nuto cuarto en que murio, los tinteros, los libros, 
todo, era interesantisimo. En el alto coro se veia 
en un rincon la silla que Felipe ocupaba cuando 
entro un soldado a enterarle del resultado feliz de 15 
la batalla de Lepanto en 1571. Se dice que no se 
turbo y que quedo sentado hasta acabada la misa. 

En la biblioteca hay muchos libros preciosos y 
manuscritos de un valor incalculable. For ejem- 
plo, hay un ejemplar de un manuscrito del siglo2o 
VII, el mas antiguo de la coleccion; el Coran de 
Mahoma capturado en la referida batalla de Le- 
panto; tambien pergaminos ilustrados a mano por 
los monjes y de una preciosidad indecible. 

Da mis recuerdos a cuantos amigos pregunten 25 
por mi y recibe un abrazo carinoso de 

Tu hijo que te quiere mucho, 



Repaso de gramitica. 

Use and meaning of haber de (habla de ser) Head- 
ings and salutations of letters S3mopsis of ser i6, 

oler 26a, suponer 12. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

apurarse per ezcusado es decir 

estar en caja pasar per encima de 

pasar un rate le da la gana a uno 

hacer f alta rezar una misa 


Para hacer oralmente. a. Distingase entre enterar 
y enterrar. b. Dese una expresi5n sinonima de cada 
una de las que siguen. 

estar en caja mostrar 

me hace falta un libro edificar 

solo sepulcro 

hoy dia enterar 

le da la gana a cuantos amigos 

estar colocado pregunten 

Expresese en espafiol el trozo que sigue. Philip II 
5 lived in small apartments in the midst of the great 
mass of that structure called El EscoriaL Here he 
thought out his plans for governing the world. He 
suffered from the gout and had to sit with his leg 
supported by a stool. It is most interesting to see the 
10 table, inkstand, chair, and books which he used and 
which are still well preserved. From the tiny bed- 
room in which he died September 13, 1598, Philip 


could see the altar of the church, or the Capilla Mayor. 
He was always very religious and at the same time 
very severe. He was well versed in many things and 
he himself aided the architect in drawing the plans of 
El Escorial. One may still see on the side of a moun- $ 
tain situated two miles to the west of the building a 
place called La Silla del Rey. From there Philip 
watched the construction of this temple, cloister, 
library and tomb which was finished in 1584. 

This is one of the largest structures in the world and 10 
was erected, they say, in honor of St. Lawrence, who 
was burned on a gridiron. Thus it has the shape of 
that instrument. Because of there having been mines 
here previously in these foothills of the Guadarrama, 
there was much slag on the spot. Hence the name 15 


Beneath the high altar of the church is the Kings' 
Pantheon. Here are buried only kings and mothers 
of kings. Every mass in the chapel is said over their 
remains. My friend Michael who visited this pantheon 20 
said that on seeing these sarcophagi of black marble 
placed in niches on all sides, he felt intensely the insig- 
nificance of human life. He did not wonder that the 
present king did not often feel like visiting this room 
and seeing his own tomb, the only one that remains 25 
vacant. On leaving that imposing abode of death 
and silence, he wanted to cry: "No sooner does one 
king die, than another takes his place." Needless 
to say he did not do so. Instead of that, he went to 
see the superb library in which there are books and 30 


manuscripts of inexpressible worth. He was greatly 
pleased with the parchments of the I2th century which 
monks had illustrated by hand. 
One who travels in Spain must not omit Toledo, 
5 which is called the most ancient city of all Europe. 
Situated on the top of a cliff, it seems to be dying there 
just like many old towns in Old Castile. But this 
sentinel-city will continue to live no doubt for many 
centuries more and a great number of human beings 

lowill pass here their brief days in the midst of many 

architectural monuments such as the cathedral, the 

Alcazar, the famous bridges and the winding streets. 

• The very houses smell ancient. The cutlery and the 

swords of Toledo which are still made there in the 

IS weapon factory, give fame to the city just as in the 
centuries gone by. 

We are worried about Michael. He is not very well. 
We tell all his friends who ask about him that what he 
needs is to spend a while at the seashore. So we shall 

20 leave soon for San Sebastian. 



A los pocos meses de estar en Madrid, se deci- 
dieron los jovenes a partir para el norte. Sintieron 
tener que hacerlo por haber ido aumentando su 
amor a la villa y corte y decian lo mismo que los 
madrilenos : — De Madrid al cielo y en el cielo un 5 
ventanillo para ver a Madrid. Los muchos amigos 
y conocidos que ahora tenian les agasajaron con 
una tertulia de despedida en su honor. Concu- 
rrio mucho mundo elegante. 

— Estoy a punto de llamarme andana en lo deio 
dejar Madrid — dijo Miguel a una de las huespe- 
das. — i Bravo! -7- replico. — Quedese aqui- en- 
tonces. Ahora domina Vd. nuestra lengua como 
un verdadero madrileno. — Gracias. Es favor 
que Vd. me hace. — No; es justicia. 15 

Pero no hay bien ni mal que cien anos dure y a la 
mafiana siguiente salieron de la Estacion del Norte 
en el expreso, bajandose al fin del dia en la de Sala- 
manca. Es esta ciudad un museo arquitectonico, 
pero lo que les intereso particularmente fue la 20 
Universidad. Habia alii cierto catedratico de 
literatura y arte a quien conocio Pedro en Nueva 
York y al hacerle saber de su llegada, vino el a 





saludarles muy amigablemente y tuvo mucho 
gusto en acompanarles explicandoselo todo. 

La Uiiiversidad fue fundada ppr Alfonso IX de 
Leon (f. 1230). El Papa Alejandro IV decreto 
en 1254 que fuese tenida en un igual con las uni-s 
versidades de Paris, Oxford y Bolona. Los Reyes 
Catolicos la hicieron reconstruir en 1480 y ahora 
es tal vez el ejemplar mas notable que existe en el 
mundo de estilo plateresco combinado con el del 
Renacimiento. El profesorado de esta universi-io 
dad transmitio a la Europa occidental los conoci- 
mientos de los arabes', muy instruidos en aquel 
entonces. Interesantisimo fue para los jovenes 
la sala antigua en donde conferenciaba Fray Luis 
de Leon, profesor de teologia, y donde, 'despues 15 
de salir de cuatiro afios de encarcelamiento por 
orden de los oficiales de la Inquisicion, reanudo el 
hilo de su discurso, diciendo : — Como deciamos 

ayer En una de las salas daba Cojon sus 

conferencias sobre sus descubrimientos del Nuevo 20 
Mundo. Hoy no hay mas de 1000 estudiantes en 
lugar de los 7,ocx) que habia en otro tiempo. 

La vieja catedral terminada en 1200, es de estilo 
romanico y la catedral nueva es una mezcla gr«in- 
diosa de lo gotico y lo plateresco. La inmensa2s 
Plaza Mayor descuella a cualquier otra de Europa 
por sus edificios suntuosos y de merito sin rival. 

En Valladolid fueron a ver la casa en que murio 


CopyrifU by Undemaod !r Umlirweod. N. y. 

Burgos y la Catedral 

POR le(3n y castilla la vieja 131 

Colon el 21 de mayo de 1506. Los restos del gran 
descubridor quedaron sepultados en el convento 
de la Cartuja de Sevilla hasta 1540 en cuyo aiio 
fueron trasladados a Hayti y de alii en 1796 a la 
catedral de la Habana. Terminada la guerra 5 
entre Espaiia y los Estados Unidos, fua:on 
traidos de nuevo a Sevilla a fines de 1898. Visi- , 
taron tambien la casa de Cervantes en la calle 
del mismo nombre, anteriormente nombrada la 
de Miguel Iscar. Se interesaron. tambien en las 10 
muchas tenerias y molinos de Valladolid; produ- 
ciendo estos la mejor harina de Espana y aquellas 
los mejores curtidos. Aqui se casaron los 
Reyes Catolicos en 1469. En tiempo de los reyes 
Carlos V y Felipe II fue Valladolid la capital del 15 
imperio espanol hasta serlo Madrid en 1560. 

En Burgos vieron los viajeros la hermosa cate- 
dral gotica francesa, el asombroso Arco de Santa 
Maria y subieron al cerro del Castillo ahora de- 
rribado, donde fue puesta la primera fortaleza en 20 
884, la cual dio principio a la ciudad. Aqui nacio 
en 1040 el valiente heroe nacional de Espana, 
llamado el Cid Campeador, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, 
casandose aqui con Jimena en 1074. Aqui se 
casaron tambien el rey Eduardo I de Inglaterra y 25 
Eleanora de Castilla, en 1254; tambien vivieron 
aqui varios reyes fuertes de Castilla la Vieja. 

A mediados de septiembre entraron Pedro y 


Miguel en San Sebastian, la mejor playa de Es- 
pafia y el lugar veraniego favorito de la gente 
pudiente de Madrid. Aqui esta la residencia 
oficial de la corte durante el verano y tanto aqui 

scomo en Santander veranea la familia real. No 
se Jiartaron nunca los americanos de tomar los 
baiios y tenderse despues en la arena, de ir a gan- 
dulear en la Concha, paseo muy concurrido por el 
mundo elegante, y de ver pasar en carruaje al rey 

lo acompanado de su sequito. Una vez vieron a 
don Alfonso banandose con los infantes y holgan- 
dose en la arena. Pero los jovenes tambien se 
trataban a cuerpo de rey. 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Use of lo de, eso de, esto de, aquello de (lo de dejar Madrid) 
Synopsis of sentir 27, olr lo. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

a los pocos meses de estar 4'eanudar el hilo de un 
decidirse a discurso 

llamarse andana dar una conf erencia 

es favor que me hace dar principio a 

tener en un igual con hartarse de 


Trabajo oral. Pongase en imperative afirmativo 

i5cada una de las expresiones verbales que siguen, 

empleando para esto el singular de la forma cortes. 

I. explicarmelo 2. llamarse andana en eso 3. hacerle 

POR le(3n y castilla la vieja 133 

saber de mi Uegada 4. bajarseenlaestacion 5. tenerlo 
en un igual 6. decirnoslo 7. interesarse en ello 
8. casarse con el 9. tenderse en la arena 10. ir a 
gandulear alli 


San Sebastian, August i, 191—. 5 
Dear father: We are living like kings here. We 
amuse ourselves taking sea baths in the mornings and 

loafing about in the Concha in the afternoons. We 
often see don Alphonso pass, accompanied by his suite. 
Thi^ is the favorite summer resort of the , people of 10 
consequence of Spain. The stylish set leave Madrid 
the middle of June and come to pass the summer here. 

We regretted having to leave Madrid because 
our liking had increased for the city and court. I 
almost backed out when our Madrid friends begged 15 
me to stay. Together with them I like to say, "From 
Madrid to heaven and in heaven a peep-hole to look 
back on Madrid." But everything must come to an 
end and one morning after beings in Madrid a few 
months, our friends and acquaintances accompanied 20 
us to the Northern Station to see us off. 

Although we were leaving for the Cantab ri an coast, 

we decided to stop on the way in Salamanca, Valladolid 
and Burgos. I telegraphed to Mr. Contreras, pro- 
fessor of literature of the University of Salamanca, 25 
informing him that we would arrive there at nightfall. 
You remember that I met him in New York a couple 
of years ago. He came to the station to greet us and 


POR le6n y castilla la vieja 13 s 

said that the next day he would explain to us the 
architectural monuments of the city. 

There are many of them. What particularly inter- 
ested us was the old university. It is doubtless the 
best example in the world of the Plateresque style s 
combined with that of the Renascence. Professor 
Contreras showed us in this building the room in which 
Fray Luis of Le6n used to lecture. This was most 
interesting and we recalled how he said on taking up 
again the thread of his discourse, "As we were saying 10 
yesterday" . . . And the poor man had just 
come from four years of imprisonment. I do not 
wonder that the faculty of this university was very 
famous. Their Catholic Majesties were interested in 
this university and a few years after its foundationals 
the Pope Alexander IV decided to decree that Sala- 
manca should be considered the equal of Bologna, 
Paris and Oxford. There are very few students now 
although formerly 7,000 attended the courses of this 
university. 20 

We thanked Professor Contreras for his kindness 
and left for Valladolid. Here we visited the house 
where Columbus died. We had already seen in Sala- 
manca the room in which he first lectured upon his 
discoveries. His remains were transferred from this 25 
house to Seville, then to Hayti, then to Havana and 
finally in 1898 they were carried to Seville again. We 
also saw the house in which Cervantes lived and 
worked. The tanneries of Valladolid are famous for 
their leathers and the mills for their flour. Ferdinand II 30 


of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile were married in this 
city in 1469 and Philip II was bom here in 1527. It 
was for a long time the capital of the empire. 

Burgos is a very ancient city and was once the capital 

5 of Old Castile. It is famous for being the home of the 

Cid, the national hero of Spain. The high hill, where 

formerly was the Castillo, dominates the city and the 

fertile plain. In this place the Cid married Ximena 

and King Edward I of England Eleanor of Castile. 

10 It is said that in Burgos is spoken the best Castilian. 

But I must finish now. I shall write you again 

from Barcelona. Don't forget to write me there. 

Your affectionate son, 



Ahora dejemonos de la Edad Media — dijo 
Miguel al entrar en Bilbao — y pongamonos en 
medio del siglo XX. Es preciso que despertemos. 
jMucho ojo! — Bueno. Ya lo tengo a todo lo 
que pasa. Pero i que hermoso museo de lo antiguo s 
es esta bendita Espana! La tendre para siempre 
en grata memoria. — Si; pero ahora son los re- 
cursos del pais, lo que nos atrae. Mire el humo 
que despiden las fundicion^s de Bilbao. Aqui se 
encuentran algunas de las mejores fabricas deio 
acero del reino. En la margen izquierda del 
Nervion que pasa por la ciudad y en las comarcas 
vecinas hay buenas minas de hierro. Solo en la 
provincia de Oviedo cerca de aquT, hay mas de 
iioo millas cuadradas de dep5sitos de carbon deis 
piedra. — Por eso a Bilbao se le puede llamar el 
Pittsburgh de Espana, eno? — Precisamente. 
Ademas, tiene puerto y muelles a donde llegan 
buques de hasta 40CX) toneladas. Estamos entre 
los vascongados, gente de tipo muy distinto de los 20 
castellanos y los andaluces. Tienen su propia 
lengua, el vascuence, que no se parece en nada 
al castellano y conservan tod a via sus fueros o 




Bakcelona: Monumento a Col6n 


leyes concediendoles privilegios otorgados por 
reyes de epoca remota. — Si, y se dice que es tan 
dificil este idioma que trataba el diablo por siete 
afios de aprenderlo y habiendo dominado entonces 
solo una palabra se dio por vencido y no volvio a 5 
acosar a los vascongados. — iQue raza mas afor- 
tunada! jOjala que yo fuera uno de ellos! Pero 
ruego me diga mas de los minerales de Espana. 
Es Vd. una enciclopedia minera. — Si, lo soy por 
haber tornado apuntes sobre estas minas. No 10 
hay otro pais alguno de Europa que tenga tanta 
diversidad de minerales en grandes cantidades. 
En la prodiiccion de cobre minado en Rio Tinto, 
provincia de Huelva, de plomo excavado en las 
provincias de Murcia y Jaen y de azogue extraido 15 
en Almaden de la provincia de Ciudad Real, des- 
cuella Espana a cualquier otra nacion europea. 
Se explotan tambien buenas minas de plata, oro, 
cobalto, azufre, manganeso, antimonio, etc. Y 
hasta ahora apenas si se ha valido de estos re- 20 
cursos. A mas de sus minas, esta region canta- 
brica es, a pesar de sus costas rocallosas y abrup- 
tas, muy productora de pescado y lo es tambien la 
costa de Levante. En el ario de 1910 habia en Es- 
pana 67,000 individuos que se ganaban la vida con 25 
la pesca. El bonito, la sardina, el bacalao, y la 
merluza son los pescados mas comunes. 

Dedicaron los americanos un par de dias en 


visitar lias fundiciones y fabricas de Bilbao y en- 
tonces se pusieron en camino para Barcelona. 
Pasaron por paisajes muy variados; algunos se 
asemejaron a los de la Suiza; otros se parecieron 

5 a llanuras sin termino alguno. Mucho del reco- 
rrido fue pasando a orillas del rio Ebro. 

Si apellidaron a Bilbao moderno, supieron que 
Barcelona lo es en grado supremo. Hace tres 
siglos que la califico Cervantes como "una ciudad 

logrande, rica, y bien establecida". Hoy por hoy 
cuenta un millon de habitantes, la mayor ciudad de 
la Peninsula, y solo le falta poco para ser la mayor 
en las costas del mar Mediterraneo. Como 
poblacion maritima no hay ninguno de los 119 

IS puertos de Espana que le Ueve ventaja. Por sus 
muelles pasa una cuarta parte del comercio extran- 
jero de Espana, y en ellos gasta el gobierno grandes 
sumas anuales en nuevas construcciones y re- 
formas. Domina el puerto y la misma ciudad el 

2oelevado monumento a Colon, colocado en la 
.Plaza de la Paz a orillas de las aguas del puerto 
y lindante con el hermoso Paseo de Colon. 

Los americanos habituados a todas las comodi- 
dades modernas las habian echado de menos en 

25 muchos de los pueblos que visitaron anterior- 
mente, pero ahora tenian ocasi5n de volver a dis- 
frutar de todo lo mas comodo en su casa de hues- 


Era Barcelona la capital del antiguo Principado 
de Cataluiia, territorio que comprende hoy las 
provincias de Gerona, Lerida, Barcelona y Tarra- 
gona. Siempre ha sido el centro de las ideas mas 
avanzadas e independientes de Espafia, debido $ 
al progreso de los catalanes que lo habitan. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Omission of que after verbs of supplication (ruego me diga) 

Meaning of saber in the preterite tense (supieron que 

Barcelona) . The optative expression ojaU followed by 

the subjunctive (ojal6 que yo fuera) . Omission of s and 

d in certain forms of reflexive verbs (dejemonos) Use of 

cardinal numerals instead of ordinals (el siglo XX) ■ 

S3mopsis of rogar 24, 32, valerse de algo 20, despertarse 23. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

dejarse de apenas si 

mucho ojo • a m6s de 

parecerse a ) hoy por hoy 

asemejarse a J llevar ventaja a 

darse por vencido echar de menos 
descollar a 


Para expresar en buen espafiol. Bilbao, situated 
near the Cantabrian coast, may be called the Pitts- 
burgh of modern Spain. To visit it after living a while 
in certain Andalusian and Castilian tdwns is to leave 10 
behind the Middle Ages and to place oneself suddenly 
in the twentieth century. Or it is to exchange a 
museum of antiquities for steel factories that send forth 


smoke on every hand. To the docks of Bilbao, which 
are situated on the shore of the river Nervion, come 
boats from the four quarters of the world. In the 
neighboring regions are found many square miles of 
5 coal beds. The inhabitants of this region are Basques 
who speak an ancient tongue called Basque, which in 
no way resembles Spanish and is so difficult that the 
devil could not learn it, though tradition says that he 
tried to learn it but finally gave up after studying 
lo seven long years. 

When I visited the Basque provinces a few years 
ago, the inhabitants told me that the devil no longer 
bothered them, that their laws were given them by 
kings of long ago and that they still keep them. They 

IS are fortunate people. The landscapes of that region 
resemble those of Switzerland. 

The mineral resources of Spain are immense and up 
to the present the Spaniards have hardly made use of 

• them. They have developed them sufficiently to know 

20 that there is no other land in Europe that has such a 
diversity of minerals. A Basque friend of mine lacks 
little of being a mining encyclopedia because of having 
read so much about Spanish mines and having taken 
notes about them. Would that I knew as much as 

25 he! I begged him to tell me where the different kinds 
of mines were being developed. I learned that Spain 
surpasses other European nations in the production of 
copper, which is mined in the province of Huelva, of 
mercury, which is taken out in Almaden, Ciudad Real, 

30 and of lead obtained in Murcia and Jaen. Manganese, 


cobalt, sulphur, silver, gold, etc., are found in many 

On the rocky Cantab ri an coast and on the Levant 
coast there are many who earn their living fishing for 
the cod, the sardine, and the tunny fish. Spain has $ 
always been a great producer of fish. 

Barcelona is the most modern city of the Peninsula 
and has been so for many years. The Catalonians who 
inhabit it have always been famous for their advanced 
ideas and their progress and they enjoy all the modem lo 
conveniences in their homes. The Spanish government 
nowadays spends a great deal of money each year upon 
the alterations of the docks and harbor. Barcelona 
surpasses the other Ii8 ports of Spain and is one of 
the largest maritime provinces on the shores of the 15 

Besides having the conveniences that I had missed 
in other Spanish towns, Barcelona recalled to me both 
Columbus and Cervantes. The monument to Colum- 
bus commemorates the greatest sailor that ever left 20 

a Spanish port and the city itself Cervantes described 
in the seventeenth century as "large, rich and well 



En Barcelona Miguel y Pedro llegaron a conocer 
intimamente a un anciano muy distinguido, don 
Jose Abreu y Llovet, catedratico jubilado de 
hiscoria en la Universidad de alii. Con el trataron 

svarios puntos historicos y mercantiles, por ser 
don Jose muy entendido en tales asuntos. Di- 
rigiendose a el Pedro le dijo un dia: — Quedaria 
reconocidisimo, don Jose, si quisiera Vd. decirme 
algo de la influencia que desempenaron los 

lo Franceses en la Peninsula. — De buen grado — 
replico el profesor. — Pregunte lo que se le ocurra 
y me esforzare en satisfacerle a Vd. Quien lengua 
ha a Roma va, 

Pues, actualmente los Franceses se interesan 

ismucho en el desarrollo industrial y comercial de 
Espana pero no tanto como los ingleses o los 
belgas quienes han invertido un capital muy 
cuantioso en empresas espaiiolas. Nosotros los 
catalanes tenemos mas parentesco con los Franceses 

20 que lo tienen los castcllanos. Pero no somos ni 
Franceses ni castellanos, como lo demuestra 
nuestro idioma que no es de los unos ni de los 
otros, aunque es una lengua romana. Somos 



mas asentados y juiciosos que aquellos a la vez 
que nos tenemos por mas vigorosos e inventivos 
que estos. Nos jactamos de ser el brazo y los 
sesos del pais mientras que a los andaluces se les 
puede Uamar el corazon de Espana. Pero dis- $ 
pense, voy seguidamente al grano. A los Fran- 
ceses, muy amigos nuestros, los llamamos en 
broma "gabachos" y todavia no nos hemos 
olvidado por entero de la Guerra de la Inde- 
pendencia. lo 

Napoleon habia determinado apoderarse de 
Espana y en 1808 supo entretener con falsas 
promesas y halagos a Carlos IV, pasando sus 
ejercitos ocultamente por la frontera. Los reyes 
estaban para huir a America^ ayudandoles en esto 15 
el ministro favorito Godoy. El pueblo se amotino, 
impidio la fuga, hizo destltuir a Godoy y forzo a 
Carlos a abdicar, el 19 de marzo de 1808, la corona 
en favor de su hijo, Fernando VII. Napoleon 
consiguio que los reyes, padre e hijo, fuesen a 20 
entenderse con el en Bayona, Francia. Al saber 
el 2 de mayo que los otros dos infantes tendrian 
que ir alia tambien, se alboroto la multitud y el 
general Murat a la cabeza del ejercito frances en 
Madrid, hizo disparar contra los madrileiios. 25 
Dos heroicos oficiales, Daoiz y Velarde, llevaron 
a cabo, con unos cuantos soldados y paisanos, la 
defensa del Parque de Artilleria contra fuerzas 


cien veces mayores. Fue un dia sangriento pero 
glorioso para los madrilenos quienes armados de 
palos, navajas y escopetas lucharon cuerpo a 
cuerpo con los veteranos Franceses probados en 
5 cien combates. 

EI 6 de mayo renunciaba Fernando VII la 
corona en favor de su padre y este cedio sus 
derechos a Napoleon. Pero el pueblo en general 
se aprestaba a resistir al invasor de la patria. 

10 El 20 de Julio entro en Madrid Jose Bonaparte, 
nombrado. rey de Espaiia por su hermano 
Napoleon. En la batalla de Bailen que se dio 
el 19 de Julio, el ejercito espanol, bajo el mando 
del general Castaiios, derroto a las fuerzas fran- 

i5cesas mandadas por el general Dupont quien 
tuvo que entregar su espada vencedora en num- 
erosos conflictos. Jose Bonaparte se retiro en- 
tonces a Burgos al enterarse deesta derrota,estable- 
ciendo su cuartel general en Miranda. Siguieron 

20 las heroicas defensas de Zaragoza y Gerona cuyas 
ciudades se vieron finalmente precisadas a capi- 
tular despues de haber luchado con el mayor 
denuedo y de haberse cubierto de gloria inmar- 
cesible. Despues de varias victorias de las 

25 armas espanolas e inglesas, dirigidas estas por el 
duque de Wellington, termino la guerra con el 
tratado de Valenzey, celebrado en el aiio de 1814. 
Realizando Napoleon lo inutil que era retener 



a Fernando VII y seguir con la campana contra 
Espafia, puso en libertad al monarca espaiiol. 

Asi se ve que en Espana empezo la caida del 
gran dictador Frances. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Impersonal reflexive verbs (se les puede llamar) . 

Use of e for y (padre e hi jo) S)mopsis of conocer 38, 

poder II, querer 13. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

llegar a conocer ir al grano 

ocurrirse algo a uno luchar cuerpo a cuerpo 

esforzarse en aprestarse a 

tenerse por darse una batalla 

entenderse con verse precisado 

jactarse de poner en libertad 


Para hacer oralmente. Substituyase el infinitive 5 
subrayado de cada frase que sigue por la forma con- 
veniente de subjuntivo. Despues traduzcanse al ingles 
las oraciones asi formadas. i. Fue preciso que el 
irse. 2. Haga Vd. que el niiio esforzarse en contestar. 
3. Digales Vd. que no jactarse de eso. 4. Le pedimos 10 
a Vd. que ir al grano. 5. Voy a conseguir que ellos 
darmelo. 6. Me rogaron yo poner en libertad al 

Versidn. Make use of your tongue and you'll find 
out, is a useful proverb. Believing that it was true, 15 
it occurred to me to ask a distinguished old gentleman 
to tell me something about the War of Independence, 


as it is called in Spain. He was a Catalonian and a 
retired professor of European history and he told me 
to ask him what I wished and he would try hard to 
satisfy me. I was most grateful to him for having 
5 consented to discuss historical matters with me. 
He continued by explaining to me the influence that 
the French had exercised in Spain during the past 
century. For many years they, the Belgians, and the 
English have been investing abundant capital in 

10 Spanish railways, factories, and mines, but the Span- 
iards have not yet entirely forgotten the year 1808 when 
Napoleon tried to take possession of Spain. Neither 
have they forgotten Gibraltar which the English took 
in 1704. 

15 When the invader Napoleon sent his armies across 
the boundary Charles IV and Maria Cristina, helped 
by Godoy the favorite, were about to flee to America, 
but the people stopped the flight and Charles abdicated 
the crown in favor of his son Ferdinand. Attracted 

20 by the promises and the cajolery of Napoleon, father 
and son went to Bayonne to have an understanding 
with Napoleon. The people of Madrid began to riot 
when they learned this and General Murat had the 
French army fire upon the peasants and soldiers who 

25 resisted the French. Although they were armed only 
with knives, clubs and shotguns, the Madrilenians 
fought hand to hand during the whole day against the 
much larger forces of the French veterans. 

Ferdinand had abdicated the crown in favor of his 

30 father Charles who renounced his rights to it; therefore 


Napoleon proclaimed his brother Joseph King of 
Spain and the latter went to reside in the Royal Palace 
of Madrid. General Castanos later routed the army of 
General Dupont at the battle of Bailen, and Joseph, 
or **Joe Bottles", established his headquarters at s 
Miranda, withdrawing from Madrid. After having 
covered themselves with imperishable glory, the cities 
of Zaragoza and Gerona were compelled to surrender 
to the French. Afterwards followed several victories 
of the Spanish and of the English who, under the com- lo 
mand of the Duke of Wellington, were aiding the 
Spanish. The treaty that ended the war was effected 
in 1814. Napoleon liberated Ferdinand VII who 
returned to Spain and to his throne. The great 
French dictator realized how useless it was to continue 15 
with his campaign against Spain and withdrew his 
forces from that land. It is interesting to remember 
that his fall began in Spain. 

The professor said that the Catalonians were more 
closely related to the French than the Castilians were, 20 
since they had always lived in a province close to the 
French frontier. He boasted of the Catalonian tongue 
which, he said, was neither French nor Spanish but a 
language different from them both. He said that 
the Catalonians were more calm and sensible than the 25 
"gabachos" and more inventive than the Castilians or 
the Andalusians. He said to me, "We consider our- 
selves the brains and the arm of Spain and, if you wish, 
you may call Andalusia, with its poetry and pictur- 
esque life, the heart of Spain." 30 



Encontramos que en el centro del pais — dijo 
Miguel un dia a don Jose — el pueblo con raras 
excepciones se entusiasma a la primera alusion 
al rey don Alfonso XIII. Hacian lenguas de el 

5por todas partes. jCaramba! jEso no es 
ser popular que digamos! Vd., como vecino de 
la poblacion que mas fama tiene de republicana 
y revolucionaria, ^'cree Vd. que va a ser republica 
este pais? — eCuando? — Pongamos dentro de 20 

10 alios. — ^No, seiior; dado caso que viva por tanto 
tiempo don Alfonso. — jComo es eso? — Que si 
hubiese republica el primer presidente elegido por 
votacion popular seria el rey actual. — jLo cree 
Vd. ? — Sin ningun genero de duda. — ^En que se 

15 funda Vd. para poder creerlo asi.^* — En el temple de 
los espaiioles; en latradicion, de la cual somos muy 
amantes y en el caracter mismo del rey actual. 
Tenemos nuestros males en numero grande pero 
el adoptar un gobierno republicano, siendo rey 

20 Alfonso, solo seria salir del lodo y caer en el arroyo. 
Muchas gracias: aunque soy republicano, Catalan y 
por eso quejumbroso arraigado, me contentare con 
la monarquia. Algun dia . . . pero equien sabe? 



-^^'Por que hay tanta confianza en el rey? — Se 
puede citar muchas razones. Ahi van algunas. 
Primero, nacio en un periodo critico de nuestra 
historia, cuando nos hizo falta un soberano en 
quien pudieramos concentrar nuestras esperanzas; 5 
segundo, encarna en su persona el espafiolismo jun- 
to con las ideas mas modernas: tercero, es aplicado 
y sagaz y anhela intensamente el bien de la patria, 
dedicandose muchas horas al dia a los grandes 
problemas que le confrontan. — Es borbon, eno? 10 

— Si; desde el principio de la Edad Moderna ha 
habido dos c^sas reales en Espaiia, la de los 
Hapsburgos y la de los Borbones. Carlos I de 
Espana y V de Alemania, el nieto de los Reyes 
Catolicos, era el primer rey austriaco. El entrois 
de rey en Valladolid en 1517. Los cinco reyes de 
la casa de Austria fueron Carlos V el emperador 
y Felipe II en el siglo XVI; Felipe III, Felipe IV 
y Carlos II en el siglo XVII. Carlos II no tenia 
sucesion y lego la corona a Felipe de Borbon, 20 
duque de Anjou, nieto de Luis XIV de Francia. 
Asi es que la casa de Borbon principio a reinar en 
Espana en el afio 1700 y esta dinastia continua 
sin otra interrupcion que la de 1868 a 1875. Los 
reyes borbones eran Felipe V, Fernando VI, 25 
Carlos III y Carlos IV en el siglo XVIII; Fernando 
VII, Isabel II, interregno durante el cual fue el 
breve reinado del italiano Amadeo de Saboya y 


la republica, Alfonso XII y Alfonso XIII en el 
siglo XIX. 

Habiendo sido malisimo el reinado de Isabel II 
de 1843 a 1868, fue ella destronada por la revolu- 
S cion de septiembre de este ano. Al general Serrano 
se le puso a la cabeza del gobierno provisional 
hasta que las Cortes eligieron al trono a D. 
Amadeo de Saboya quien entro en Madrid el 
dia 2 de enero de 1871 y abdico la corona el 11 de 

lofebrero de 1873. En el acto se proclamo la 
republica que duro hasta diciembre de 1874, 
ocupando la presidencia cuatro estadistas, a 
saber: Figueras, Pi y Margall, Salmeron, y 
Castelar. En dicho mes el general Martinez 

X5 Campos, al frente de sus tropas, proclamo rey de 
Espafia a D. Alfonso XII, el Pacificador, en quien 
habia abdicado la corona Isabel II su madre 
el 25 de junio de 1869. Entro en Madrid el 14 
de enero de 1875. Bajo D. Alfonso XII habia 

flotolerancia y renovacion, se mejoro el estado de la 
hacienda, se desarrollo la instruccion publica y 
se aumento la riqueza del pais. Murio este 
soberano el 25 de noviembre de 1885 quedando 
como reina regente Da. Maria Cristina de Haps- 

flsburgo quien se hizo amar dando a luz el 17 
de mayo de 1886 un hijo varon proclamado rey 
Alfonso XIII el dia que nacio. Este es el que 
rige hoy los destinos de la nacion. 


— Gracias^ don Jose, por su buena conferencia. 
Aunque soy ciudadano orgulloso de la mayor y 
mejor republica del mundo, aqui* me tiene Vd. 
dispuesto a lanzar el grito monarquico de: — 
I Viva el rey!* 5 


Repaso de gramfitica. 

Use of article with infinitives used as nouns (el adoptar un 

gobiemo) . Exclamatory expressions in Spanish 

(Icaramba!) Synopsis of saber 14, continuar 40, enviar 

39, elegir 37. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

hacer lenguas de uno ser amante de 

eso no es ser popular que hacer falta algo a uno 

digamos en el acto 

poner tantos afios a saber 

fundarse en hacerse amar 

dado caso que viva dar a luz 
tener fama de 


Deberes orales. Para contestar en espanol. i. 
I Por que es popular el rey don Alfonso XIII ? 2. i De 
que casa es el rey actual? 3. ^'Eji cuales afios existio 
la republica espanola? 4. jQuienes eran los cuatro 
presidentes de la republica? 5. Nombre Vd. los reyesio 
borbones de los siglos XVIII y XIX. 6. Cite Vd. 
los reyes hapsburgos del siglo XVI; del siglo XVII. 
7. iPor que se le llamo a D. Alfonso XII el Pacifi- 
cador? 8. iDe que naci5n procedio Amadeo de 
Saboya ? 15 


Traduccidn. Who was the father of the present king 
of Spain? — Alphonso XII, who was called the 
Pacificator. — And who ruled the destinies of the 
nation before him ? — His mother was Isabella II, 
5 daughter of Ferdinand VII. But between the years 
1868, when Isabella was dethroned, and 1875, when 
Alphonso entered Madrid as king, the government 
changed often. First there was a provisional govern- 
ment until the Cortes chose Amadeus of Savoy king. 

10 He reigned two years, giving up the crown the nth of 
February, 1873. The republic, which was at once 
proclaimed, lasted less than two years, Castelar being 
the last of four statesmen who occupied the presidency. 
^ In December 1874, General Martinez Campos at the 

15 head of his troops proclaimed Alphonso XII king of 
Spain. His mother had given up the crown in his 
favor soon after fleeing to Paris. — What did Alphonso 
XII do for the welfare of his country ? — During 
the ten years of his reign the country settled down, the 

20 condition of the treasury was improved and the 
country's wealth increased. The Carlists, who had 
been very active during the interregnum, no longer 
troubled the government. He even made himself 
beloved by the Catalonians who have always been 

25 reputed as republicans and revolutionists. 

— And is Spain going to be a republic within a few 
years? — Not so long as Alphonso XIII lives. — 
How is that? Is there such confidence in him? — 
Great Scott, man, he is so popular that he is praised 

30 on every hand. Alphonso would at once be elected 


president by popular vote if there were a republic in 
Spain. — That is not being popular, is it? On what do 
you base your opinion? — On the character of the 
king, on the temperament of the Spaniards and on 
tradition, of which we Spaniards are very fond. We s 
already have a constitutional monarchy. We do not 
need a republic. To establish a republican form of 
government would be out of the frying-pan into the 
fire. — Although you are a chronic fault-finder and a 
Catalonian, you become enthusiastic at the first men- lo 
tion of your Bourbon king. — Yes, although a Repub- 
lican, here I am, ready to utter the cry, "Long live the 
king!" It is true that he is a Bourbon and that his 
mother, Maria Cristina, is a Hapsburg but in the 
person of don Alphonso is incarnated true devotion 15 
to Spain. He is industrious, energetic and discerning. 
He enjoys excellent health and is fond of sports, though 
he gladly devotes several hours a day to the problems 
that confront a king. 

— He was bom after his father's death, was he not ? 20 
— Yes, Maria Cristina, the father's second wife, gave 
birth to a male child the 17th of May, 1886, at a critical 
period in the history of Spain. Upon him we have 
centered all our hopes. I could cite many reasons why 
we are proud citizens of a monarchy, but I content 25 
myself by asking you to read the history of our land 
in the volumes written by Mr. Martin Hume. 



No hay mejor sitio en el mundo hispano para 
estudiar los oBcios que aqui en esta bendita Bar- 
celona — dijo don Jose. — Hay muchos barrios y 
arrabales entregados exclusivamente a las iii- 

sdustrias manufactureras. Por ejemplo, en Sans 
hay fabricas de algodon, chocolate, harina, 
maquinas y productos quimicos mientras que en 
San Andres de Palomar y San Martin de Pro- 
vensals hay fundiciones, tintorerias, fabricas de 

lo lana, seda y porcelana. Sobre todo hay muchas 
fabricas de tejidos de algodon por todas partes. 
— Si — dijo Pedro — por el humo que echan las 
chimeneas nos creeriamos en un centro manu- 
facturero de Nueva Inglaterra. Quisieramos ver 

15 de cerca algo de este hormigueo industrial. 
^Puede Vd. o su sobrino servirnos de guia.^ — ^Yo 
no; no me siento bastante fuerte para poder 
acompanarles. Pero el si. Pablo ira con Vds. 
gustosisimo, eno es cierto, Pablo? — De mil 

2oamores, tio mio. 

Era Pablo muy listo e inteligente y como guia 
no hubiera podido ganarle nadie. Mientras cami- 
naban a paso lento por la Rambla los americanos 



aprendian mucho en su trato con Pablo acerca de 
las artes mecanicas, logrando a la vez datos 
suficientes para poder discutir los diferentes 
oficios. Por ejemplo: que a los empleados de 
las fabricas se les llama obreros u operarios, los 5 
cuales cobran por jornales o a destajo; que, son 
hilanderos e hilanderas los que hilan en las 
fabricas de tejidos; que el jefe se llama el patron; 
que un tintorero tine los pafios en una tintoreria; 
un sastre hace trajes en una sastreria; un armeroio 
fabrica armas blancas y de fuego; el cuchillero 
hace cuchillos, navajas y tijeras; el herrero labra 
el hierro en un yunque por medio de martillos, 
tenazas y una forja; el herrador pega herraduras a 
las patas de los caballos y asnos; el curtidor curteis 
o zurra los cueros en una teneria; el sombrerero 
hace o vende sombreros; el panadero hace los 
panes que se cuecen en el horno y se venden en la 
panaderia; el zapatero hace del cuero zapatos, 
zapatillas y botas; el albaiiil se sirve de ladrillos2o 
o piedra y argamasa para construir casas y otros 
edificios; el molinero muele en su molino los 
cereales como el trigo, el centeno, la cebada; el 
carpintero construye de madera casas, etc.; el 
relojero tiene relojeria y fabrica y compone2s 
relojes de varias clases; el joyero fabrica prendas 
de oro y plata y las adorna con multitud de 
piedras preciosas. 


Para aprender un oficio — advirtio Pablo — hay 
que ponerse de aprendiz y trabajar con ahinco y 
sin sueldo por varios aiios. Yo no me pinto 
para estas cosas; me traen arrastrado. Prefiero 

5 una profesion y estoy estudiando para abogado. 
Tal vez me diga alguien algun dia: — ZapaterOy a 
tus zapatosy queriendo decir que no me conviene 
una profesion tan encumbrada. — ^Nos hemos 
iijado — dijo Miguel — en que en Espana hay unos 

looficios, si se puede denominarlos asi, muy raros. 
Por ejemplo, hay el de sereno quien canta las 
horas de la noche. Tambien hay en algunos 
hoteles un despertador el cual despierta a los 
individuos que tienen que levantarse temprano. 

15 Eso constituye en verdad una division de labor 
muy detallada. 

Le agradecieron mucho a Pablo su amabilidad 
en guiarles por las fabricas y talleres pues sus 
servicios les resultaron de suma utilidad. 

Repaso de graxn&tica. 

Use of sf and no in elliptical sentences (yo no ; 41 si) 

S3mopsis of ver 22, teftir 29, 42, cocer 26, 35. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

yer de cerca con ahinco 

ir gustosisimo pintarse para 

de mil amores traer arrastrado a uno 

ganar a uno como guia querer decir 

a destajo estudiar para 

ponerse de aprendiz resultar 



Trabajo oral. Completese el siguiente cuadro. 

Articulo Oficio Taller otienda Verbo 

reloj relojero relojeria cornponer, 












Traduccidn. Paul, I should like to discuss with you 
the different trades. — All right. Most willingly. Or 
I would gladly serve you as guide, if you would like 
to visit the industrial districts of the city or of the 
suburbs. — Thank you. Tomorrow I should like to 5 
see at close range the manufacturing centers of this 
region. — ^^ There are some districts given up entirely 
to foundries and dye-works. Flour, chocolate and 
chemical products are made in certain suburbs of 
Barcelona. In all this industrial hurly-burly the 10 
textile mills predominate. 

— Let's take a walk along the Rambla and as we go 
along slowly you can tell me what I ought to know 


about the mechanic arts as they are seen in Spain. — 
Well then, let us begin by speaking of the employees 
in different industries. Barcelona surpasses all the 
other cities of the Spanish world for its opportunities 
Sto study them. It would be well for you to ask me 
questions and I shall try hard to answer them. — All 
right. How are the workmen or the operators in the 
factories paid ? — By the piece or by day-wages, 
according to the work they do. — How are the employ- 

lo ees of a textile mill called ? — Spinners, male and female. 
— What does a mason do .? — He constructs buildings, 
using stone or bricks and mortar. The carpenter uses 
wood to build them. — What is sold in a bakery? — 
The loaves and rolls that the baker makes and bakes 

IS in the oven. A person who is very good a Spaniard 
calls "better than bread". The miller grinds cereals 
in his mill and sells the flour to the baker. 

— Who makes fire-arms i — The armorer, who also 
makes steel arms, that is, swords and daggers; the 

20 cutler makes knives, razors, and shears. — Who makes 
and repairs timepieces? — The watchmaker does this 
in his shop. He may also sell gold and silver, jewels 
and precious stones and he is then called a jeweler. — 
What do they call the factory where cloth is dyed? — 

25 A dye-works, and the employees are dyers. The 
tailor uses the cloth to make suits. — Where is leather 
tanned ? — In a tannery which produces tanned hides 
with which the shoemaker makes in his shop boots, 
shoes, and slippers. We also need a hat-maker to 

30 provide us with hats and caps of various kinds. — 


What do they call those who work iron in forges? — 
They are blacksmiths or horseshoers. The blacksmith 
fashions many kinds of iron articles. The horseshoer 
attaches horseshoes to the feet of donkeys, mules, 
oxen, and horses. 5 

Thanks for these data. There is no one who could 
excel you as a guide through the factory district. 
Are you going to be an artisan? — Not I, but my 
brother is. These trades bore me. I am not apt in 
these things. I am studying earnestly to be a doctor. lo 
I hope you will not tell me, "Shoemaker, to your 
shoes." — What does that mean ? — It means that one 
should not seek a lofty profession or position which 
does not suit him. — Here comes the night-watchman. 
What a queer trade his is I I have also noticed that in 15 
some hotels there is an awakener who awakens those 
who have to get up early. Good night. Thanks for 
your kindness. Come tomorrow. I know that your 
services will prove to be useful. 



Nos halagaria mucho, don Jose, oirle hablar 
del Cid. Vimos en Burgos su solar, su cofre 
fuerte y sus restos mortales. No sabemos si se 
debe creer todo lo que se dice de el en leyendas, 

spoesias y tradiciones. — Pues, existia realmente, 
no cabe duda, y lo creible referente a el parece que 
es de este modo: Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, fuerte 
vasallo del rey Alfonso VI de Castilla, fue muy 
celebrado poj: sus hazanas guerreras que le 

10 valieron el nombre de El Cid Campeador. Cid 
es una palabra derivada del arabe Sidi o Said 
que significa en ^espaiiol, caudillo o jefe. Cuando 
los espaiioles nombraron rey a Alfonso VI en el 
aiio 1073, le exigieron que jurase no haber tenido 

15 parte en la muerte de su hermano don Sancho. 
No habia sino el Cid que tuviese valor para pedir 
tal juramento al rey, quien no le perdono nunca 
tamana osadia, desterrandole de Castilla y despo- 
seyendole de sus bienes. 

20 El Cid fue entonces en auxilio del rey Alcadir de 
Valencia contra varios alcaides rebeldes, obligan- 
doles a pagar a su seiior el tributo que acostum- 
braban. Vencio a Berenguer de Barcelona y le 



hizo aliado, recibiendo tribute de el, del rey de 
Valencia, de los musulmanes de Tortosa, Jatiba 
y Denia y de los seiiores de otras muchas regiones. 
Cuando volvio a Castilla en 1092 olvidando sus 
agravios, para ayudar a Alfonso contra los 
almoravides, nueva tribu de arabes que apretaban 
a lbs castellanos, encontro que todavia le aborrecio 
ese ingrato monarca. En esto regreso el poderoso 
vas.allo a su tierra de Valencia donde en 1094 
de^roto a unos insurrectos que habian quitado la 10 
corona y vidaarTfii^ valenciano. Esto lo repitio 
cuando en 1096 un riumeroso ejercito de almora- 
vides pretendia apoderarse de Valencia. Muerto 
el Cid en 1099, su esposa Dona Jimena conserve a .. 
Valencia durante tres anos y todavia hoy se honra 15 
esta ciudad con el nombre de Valencia del Cid. 
De desagradecidos estd el infierno lleno, — i Bravo! 
r^-rexclamaron los jovenes — ahora cuentenos algo 
de ese otro heroe, el Manco de Lepanto. 

— Cuando los turcos tomaron a Constantinopla 20 
y se ensenorearon del Mediterraneo con sus 
escuadras, formaron una liga para hacerles la 
guerra Venecia, Genova, el papa Pio V y Felipe 
II. Don Juan de Austria, hermano natural de 
Felipe, mando la escuadra de la liga, que se hizo 25 
a la mar el 16 de septiembre de 1571 y trabo 
batalla con los turcos el 7 de octubre, en el Golfo 
de Lepanto. La victoria, mucho tiempo indecisa, 


lood 6- Uodtrmnd. N. Y. 

Valencia; La Cau£ de la Paz 


se incline al fin en favor de los cristianos, pere- 
ciendo 20,cxx) turcos y quedando presos i2,ocx). 
Enfermo de calentura en la galera Marquesa 
yacia un joven espaiiol alistado en la compania 
de Diego de Urbina. Al escuchar el ruido del 5 
combate, abandono la cama; sin armarse apenas, 
tom5 su espada y tambaleandose salto a cubierta. 
En vano sus camaradas intentaron disuadirle; 
se empeno en pelear y peleaba bizarramente, 
siendo herido en el pecho y teniendo mutiladaio 
para siempre la mano izquierda, "para la mayor 
gloria de la derecha" como solia el decir. Recibida 
su licencia en 1575, embarcose para Espaiia pero 
fue apresado por un corsario y quedo cautivo en 
los banos de Argel hasta que, despues de muchos 15 
sufrimientos y de arriesgar la vida cien veces por 
salvar a sus compafieros de cautiverio, fue res- 

El Manco de Lepanto se llamo Miguel de 
Cervantes Saavedra, el regocijo de las musas, el 20 
inmortal autor de don Quijote de la Mancha. 
Durara su nombre mientras haya una persona que 
sepa leer en el hermoso idioma de Castilla. Para el 
escribio Leopoldo Cano, poeta ilustre, tambien sol- 
dado: 25 

Si por la gloria de Espaiia 

qu^ en el Quijote se encierra 

Europa nos arm a guerra, 


decid con desden prof undo: 

el mejor libro del mundo 

lo escribio un manco en mi tierra. 

Repaso de gram&tica. 

Synopsis of haber 7, obligar 32, cieer 43. 

Irocuciones para aprender de memoria 

tener parte en hacer la guerra a 

tener valor para hacerse a la mar 

pedir juramento a ensefiorearse de 

desposeer de trabar batalla con 

ir en auzilio de enfermo de 

quitar algo a alguien embarcarse para 

Trabajo oral. a. Traduzcanse al castellano las 
sfrases que siguen. i. Have you heard about the Cid? 
2. It is said that his deeds won for him the name 
"The Valiant". 3. I had no part in that. 4. I shall 
go to aid my brother. 5. I compelled the man to 
leave. 6. Cervantes was wounded in the left hand. 
10 7. I stumbled about on entering the room. 8. * Is there 
anyone here who can read Arabic ? 9. As long as you 
have fever, do not leave your bed. 10. I have insisted 
on seeing you. 11. He has taken it away from me. 
b. Aprendase de memoria los versos de Leopoldo Cano. 


15 Versi6n. Many of the authors of Spain were also 
soldiers celebrated for their war-like deeds. It is said 
that Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was prouder of 


the name "the one-handed man of Lepanto" than of 
that of "author of Don Quijote of La Mancha." It 
was in the battle with the Turks the 7th of October, 
1571 that Cervantes had his left hand mutilated 
"for the greater glory of the right", as is wont to be said. $ 

He had been ill with fever on one of the galleys of 
the fleet of the allies, who were waging war on the 
Turks. When he heard the noise of the fight, he left 
his bed and seizing his sword jumped on deck where he 
fought bravely. In this battle many thousands of 10 
Turks perished and many were captured, the Chris- 
tians losing about 8000 men. It was the last great battle 
between great fleets of galleys. The Turks were thus 
dispossessed of much of the territory of which they 
had had control. Philip II, Venice and Genoa, to- 15 
gether with Pope Pius V, formed this league which 
routed their common enemy. 

After having received his discharge, Cervantes set 
sail for Spain but was captured by a Moorish pirate 
who took him to Algiers. Here he remained in a 20 
Moorish bano or prison until at last he was ransomed 

by his family in 1580. Many times he risked his life 
to save his comrades from their captivity. As long as 
Spanish is read and spoken the name of Cervantes will 
last. He and the immortal Shakespeare died April 23, 25 
1616. Cervantes was buried in the church in Canta- 
rranas Street, Madrid. 

Another great man of Spain was the Cid, Rodrigo 
Diaz de Vivar, who was born near Burgos in 1030. 
He was not an author but he was one of the greatest 30 


soldiers Spain has ever had, although we know that 
much of what has been told of him in legends and 
poems can not be true. At any rate, we know that he 
was a vassal of Alphonso VI of Castile, whom he aided 

5 against the Moors. These tribes had had control of 
the larger part of Spain for many years and Alphonso 
pressed them hard and took possession of much of 
their territory. This ungrateful monarch could never 
forgive the Cid for having made him swear that he had 

lohad no part in the death of Sancho, tl)e brother of 
Alphonso. He exiled the Cid and dispossessed him 
of his property. 

The Cid put himself at the head of his small army 
and went to aid other leaders, some of whom were 

15 Spaniards and others Moors. He conquered various 
kings and chieftains and received tribute from them 
after making them his allies. He took Valencia in 
1094 when certain rebels deprived his friend, the King 
Alcadir, of life and throne. Later he routed the Almora- 

2ovides who tried to gain possession of that city. He 
died in 1099 on learning that this tribe had finally 
defeated his army at Cuenca, but his widow, Ximena, 
for a few years after his death held the city for Alphon- 
so, who never ceased to hate the name of the Cid. 

2$ Hell is full of ingrates, says the proverb. 

The Cid and his wife, Ximena, were buried in the 
Convent of San Pedro of Cardena near Burgos, but his 
remains have been transferred to the town hall of 
Burgos where they may now be seen together with his 

30 strong-box in which he kept his gold. 



Miguel pregunto a don Jose una vez: — jPor 
que desconocen los espaiioles a' mis paisanos? 
J No le parece que se debe a la guerra que hubo 
entre ambos paises? — No; absolutamente no. 
No existe en Espaiia rencor alguno contra los s 
Estados Unidos. No; los dos pueblos se hallan 
alejados por pura indiferencia del uno al otro. 
Y esta indiferencia^ se debe a dos cosas muy 
sencillas pero importantes: la distancia y la 
lengua. La raza espaiiola siempre ha mostradoio 
poca aptitud en aprender el ingles, idioma que 
nos resulta dificil por sus muchas irregularidades 
de pronunciacion y de gramatica, asi como por 
lo poco que se asemeja al castellano. Se estudia 
aqui el Frances mucho mas que el ingles. — ^ Pero 15 
no cree Vd. que, siendo inglesa la reina de Espana, 
se deberian establecer mas cursos en ingles en los 
institutos, colegios y universidades? — iQue tiene 
que ver la procedencia de la reina con el estudio 
del ingles en el reino? Poco o nada. Con los 20 
Franceses tenemos ciertas aproximaciones de raza, 
vecindad y comercio; por eso, es logico estudiar 
Frances en Espana. Y Vds. los norteamericanos 



se interesan en Espaiia tan poco, y ese poco pro- 
cede principalmente del interes que tienen Vds. 
en los paises hispanoamericanos donde esperan 
"capturar el comercio". 
5 • — Dispense Vd. que le interrumpa, don Jose, 
pues me parecfe que se equivoca Vd. hasta cierto 
punto. En nuestras escuelas el estudio del 
castellano ha tornado recientemente un gran 
incremento. Si es verdad que nuestros comer- 

lociantes se interesan en el espaiiol solo por ser la 
lengua de 60 millbnes de habitantes del Nuevo 
Mundo, no obstante hay que tener en cuenta el 
que corra parejas ahora con los otros idiomas 
modernos en los programas academicos y que en 

ismuchas universidades se acepte ahora a la par 
con el Frances y el aleman como materia de estudio 
requerida a los matriculantes. Tambien los 
alumnos yanquis estan interesados en conocer 
la gloriosa historia de Espana en tiempos en que 

20 su poderio fue predominante en el mundo, la 
Espana de los Reyes Catolicos, de Carlos V y de 
Felipe II, Espaiia vencedora, descubridora y 
colonizadora. Tambien America admira y venera 
de Espaiia los grandes literatos del "siglo de oro", 

25 Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Calderon, y Ercilla. 
Principiamos tambien a apreciar debidamente la 
literatura moderna espanola como lo indican las 
recientes palabras de nuestra gran escritor y 


critico, William Dean Howells: — La literatura 
novelesca espaiiola supera facilmente a la de 
cualquier otro pueblo contemporaneo.^ En Nueva 
York hay el magnifico Museo Hispanico el cual 
da a conocer a nuestra nacion lo que es Espana 5 
y las republicas espanolas en arte, historia y 

— Gracias, amigo, por habermelo explicado con 
tanta claridad. ^Y que nos dice Vd. sobre la 
carencia dQ turistas yanquis en la Peninsula? — 10 
Creo que es debido al aislamiento en que se 
encuentra y a la ignorancia de lo que tiene que 
ofrecer Espana al turista juntamente con el 
descuido de Vds. en hacer la debida propaganda 
para atraer a los extranjeros. Francia, Alemania, 15 
Suiza e Italia, todos se esfuerzan para ganar los 
duros americanos. 

— Si; tenemos mucho que aprender en estos 
asuntos y la letra con sangre entra. Pero toda la 
nacion, aunque pareciendo dormida, se estremece2o 
y despierta a una vida nueva. El espafiolismo 
florece como nunca y la perdida de nuestras co- 
lonias de ultramar fue un verdadero beneficio 
dandonos causa y ocasion para reconcentrar 
nuestros empenos en la rehabilitacion y explota-25 
cion de recursos interiores. Por ejemplo: el 

^ W. D. Howells, Harper's Monthly Magazine, vol. cxxxi, 
P- 957. 


gobierno ha contribuido unos 50 millones de duros 
para restituir los sistemas de riego construidos 
hace siglos por los romanos y los arabes, y tan 
necesarios para la agricultura de Espana. La 

sproduccion del arroz valenciano y del trigo se 
esta mejorando y ensanchando cada dia. El 
vino se exporta en cantidades crecientes y bajo 
marcas espanolas. La exportacion del aceite de 
oliva sigue aumentando lo mismo que la de las 

loaceitunas. La cana de azucar de Eurppa solo se 
produce en Espana y se cultiva en cantidades 
siempre crecientes. Hay mas de cincuenta 
fabricas de remolacha en la vega granadina. 
Si Europa fuese a pique en el mar, solo Espana 

ispodria spbrenadar, siendo productora de seis 
libras de corcho para cada habitante. Se e^portan 
a la Argentina y al Uruguay mucha sal y patatas, 
tambien caballos, toros y mulas. Se mejoran 
por el gobierno y por capital privado los puertos, 

2ocanales, plantas de telegrafia inalambrica, asti- 
Ueros e instalaciones electricas. Las Islas Canarias 
exportan millares de racimos de bananas y muchas 
hortalizas. Aunque es Espana quince veces 
menor en territorio que los Estados Unidos, su 

25 poblacion equivale aproximadamente a una quinta 
parte de la que puebla la nacion americana. 

— ^Una autora americana lo resumio bien 
diciendo: **E1 mas joven y liberal monarca de 


Europa parece que infunde vitalidad de un 
extreme al otro de su reino y la Fortuna, que 
destina el levantamiento y la caida de las naciones, 
seiiala ahora la senda hacia la cumbre."^ 

Repaso de gramfitica. 

Synopsis of reir 29a, desconocer 38. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

tener que ver con correr parejas con 

tomar incremento dar a conocer 

tener en cuenta estremecerse 


Deberes verbales. F5rmense en espanol diez 5 
preguntas basadas sobre el texto antecede'nte. Despues, 
contestese a esas preguntas. 

Traduccion escrita. Is there ill-will in Spain against 
us Yankees? — No; the Spaniards are strangers to us 
because we are separated from them by distance and 10 
language. — Then the indifference of one people to the 
other is not due to the war of 1898? — Absolutely not. 
— I have noticed the lack of North American tourists 
in Spain. — Yes, there exists a great ignorance in the 
United States of what Spain has to offer to the tourist, 15 
who usually does not know how interesting and pictur- 
esque Spain is. He travels in Italy, Switzerland, 
France, England and Germany but does not think of 
Spain, which nation does not try hard to attract 

^ ^^Espana pacific a y prosper a* por Harriet Chalmers Adams. 
La Revista del Mundo, N. Y., Octubre de 191 5. 


foreigners. — That's so. The geographical isolation 
of the 'Iberian Peninsula and the negligence of the 
Spaniards in carrying on a propaganda to attract 
tourists make that nation appear asleep. 
5 — Is English studied much in Spain ? — No; Spaniards 
have never shown much aptitude in learning English. 
It is a language which proves to be hard for them 
because of its irregularities of grammar and of pro- 
nunciation. French is studied there more than English 

lo because of relations of race, commerce and proximity. 
Spaniards learn it more easily than English because of 
its resemblance to Spanish. English is spoken in very 
few places in the Peninsula. 

•■ — Queen Victoria is an Englishwoman, the cousin of 

15 the King of England. — Yes, but that has little to do 
with thiB study of English in the kingdom. — The 
students in our schools have always been interested 
in the history of Spain in the period when she was a 
discovering, conquering, and colonizing nation. ^We 

20 owe much to Spain of the 15th, i6th and 17th cen- 
turies. — We are also beginning to appreciate properly 
how much modern Spanish fiction surpasses that of 
many other nations. Our great literary man and 
critic, William Dean Howells, made known to North 

25 America the names and the works of Galdos and Valdes 
and today praises a great deal the novels of Blasco 


— Excuse me for interrupting you, but one must take 

into account also the great increase that the study of 

30 Spanish has recently taken on in North American 


schools. It is true that tradition says that one should 
study French and German, but if we wish to "capture 
the South American trade", we must learn the language 
of the merchants of South America, which is either 
Spanish or Portuguese. Moreover, Spanish is now on 5 
a par with French and German in most of the courses 
of study of our high schools and universities. Most 
of the latter now accept it on a par with other modern 
languages as a subject of study required of entering 
students. — We are also learning much about the 10 
80 million inhabitants of the Hispano-American republics 
although it is true that learning is not an easy matter. 
— They say that the renascence of Spain is wonder- 
ful. — Yes, the nation is awakening to a new life. The 
loss of her last overseas colonies made her concentrate 15 
her efforts upon the development of her internal 
resources. Public and private capital is being con- 
tributed to restore and improve the harbors, irrigation 
systems, beet-sugar factories, electric plants, canals and 
wireless stations. The exportation under Spanish 20 
brands of olive oil and wines continues to increase. 
The production of rice, sugar-cane, wheat, garden 
produce, and potatoes is daily increasing. Spain is the 
greatest producer of cork in the world and could, it 
seems, keep afloat if the Peninsula sank into the sea. 25 
Her donkeys, mules, horses, and bulls ar^ exported in 
increasing numbers to Argentina. Devotion to Spain 
seems to flourish as never before. Peaceful and 
prosperous, the land of don Alphonso seems to be 
journeying now on the upward path. 30 



De Barcelona fueron los jovenes a visitar 
Valencia, la tercera ciudad del reino por su 
importancia coniercial y la de mas aspecto oriental 
que hay en Espafia con su cielo tan azul y 
sdespejado, su clima benigno y su vegetacion 
tropica. Segun dice la cancion antigua, se lamen- 
taron asi los moradores arabes, al ver acercarse 
al Cid para darles batalla: 

Cuanto mas la vee hermosa 
lo Mas le crece su pesar . . . 

O Valencia, O Valencia, 
Dios te quiera remediar. 

La rodean extensos y fertiles huertos poblados de 
naranjos que le valen el titulo de "Jardin de 
spana . 

A mediados de diciembre dijo Miguel a Pedro: 
Vamos a veranear ahora. — dQue me dice Vd. 
de su veranear? Pero, Jen donde? Ya ha 
pasado el verano y estamos en pleno invierno. 
20 i Que cosas tiene Vd.! Vd. esta burlandose de 
mi, i'no? — Que no. Que nos precisa ahora partir 
para la America del Sur donde reina actualmente 



el verano. — ^Ah; jesas tenemos! Eso es ya otro 
cantar. Pero, Miguel, dice el refran: — Planta 
muchas veces traspuesta^ ni crece ni medra. Me 
gusta con delirio esta vida barcelonesa. Aunque 
es invierno, no hace frio y casi siempre hay sol. $ 
jY que vida tan agradable es la que se pasa 
holgandose en las aceras y en los cafes de la 
Rambla o en el Paseo de Colon! iQue ratos 
mas divertidos son los pasados en el Gran Teatro 
del Liceo o en las Novedades. Si me quedaseio 
aqui durante algunos meses mas, podria aprender 
a hablar Catalan y gozar de las representaciones 
del Teatro Catala. — En todo eso estamos com- 
pletamente de acuerdo pero estoy en que conviene 
cumplir con nuestro plan original, saliendo a 15 
visitar aquellas tierras tan desconocidas por 
nosotros como lo fue Espana. Y nos cabe re- 
cordar que es en esas republicas sudamericanas 
que vamos a establecernos y no en la vieja Espana. 
— iCree Vd. que nos divertiremos y nos apro-20 
vecharemos alii tanto como aqui? 

— A muertos y a idos no hay amigos — repitio 
Pedro al bueno de don Jose a quien le peso 
mucho la proyectada partida de los americanos. 
— Pero para Vds. los hay, — replico el an- 25 
ciano tristemente; — no pierdo nunca de mi 
memoria a los que tanto aprecio. Y les pido a 
Vds. que me envien a menudo sus noticias y me 


pongan entre el numero de sus buenos amigos. 
— Se lo prometemos, don Jose. 

Por fin se despidieron en un vapor de la Com- 
paiiia Trasatlantica que salio del Muelle Nuevo, 

5 paso por las aguas del Mediterraneo y el estrecho 
de Gibraltar, entrando en alta mar. A medida 
que avanzaron desde los 36 grados de latitud 
septentrional de Gibraltar hacia el sudoeste iba 
poniendose bochornoso el tiempo hasta llegar el 

iccalor a una altura casi inaguantable al cruzar el 
ecuador. Todos los ventiladores electricos fun- 
cionaban de dia y de noche y los pasajeros se 
vestian de bianco, se quedaban quietos a la sombra 
y hacian todo lo posible para buscar el bienestar. 

isCuando cruzaron el ecuador, se efectuo una 
ceremonia curiosa, la del "bautizo de la linea" 
en la cual los que cruzan la linea por vez primera 
se someten a ser bautizados por el que representa 
al dios Neptuno, quien* en traje ridiculo y acom- 

2opanado de su sequito extravagante, bautizaa 
estos neofitos en un tanque de la cubierta. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

I que cosas tiene Yd.! enviar uno sus noticias a 
lesas tenemos! otro 

eso es otro cantar efectuarse 

estar de acuerdo someterse a 

estar en que {-\- clause) nos cabe recordar 

cumplir con el bueno de don Jos6 

pesar a uno 



Trabajo oral. Pongase la forma conveniente del 
verbo pasearse en los espacios en bianco de las siguien- 

tes expresiones. i. despues de ^' 2. para que 

el , 3. sin 4. si me Vd., se tam- 

bien. 5*. al — . 6. el me da gusto. 7. habi- s 

endose . 8. para . 9. el esta , 

Tra(lucci6n. A rolling stone gathers no moss, but 
it behooved Peter and Michael to remember that it was 
necessary for them to leave for lands unknown where 
they were going to settle. They Were exceedingly 10 
delighted with Barcelona life and with that of Valencia, 
the city of the Cid. The latter city is surrounded by 
tropical vegetation and ferjtile orchards set with 
orange trees. These orchards and the mild climate 
have won for the region the name of "the garden of 15 
Spain". When the Moorish residents saw the Cid 
approaching, they gave him battle and cried: "Oh, 
Valencia, may God be wilUng to help you I" Although 
it was mid-winter it seemed to the travelers that 
summer reigned there. The sky was clear and blue, 20 
it was not cold and the sun shone always. 

Before beginning their proposed journey to South 
America, the middle of December the Americans went 
to visit good don Jose. He thought that the young 
men were making sport of him when they told him that 25 
soon they were going to leave to pass the summer in 
other lands. "How you do carry on!" he exclaimed. 
But on learning that they had to establish in Peru a 


branch of the business house of Michael's father, he 
said, "So that's it I That is indeed another story. 
But what do you tell me about passing the summer 
somewhere? We are now having winter. Ah, yes, 
5 1 remember. When winter reigns here, they are 
enjoying summer there." 

What entertaining times they spent idling on the 
Rambla and enjoying the performances in the Lyceum 
Theatre! They were of the opinion that the Cata- 

xolan language was highly interesting. They said that 
if they had remained longer in Barcelona they would 
have been able to speak it. Don Jose agreed with 

But at last the two Americans had to fulfill their 

IS duty and they had themselves taken to the New Pier 
in the magnificent harbor of Barcelona where they 
went on board a steamer of the Transatlantic Company. 
Don Jose accompanied them to the boat. "Don't 
forget us, don Jose," said the two Americans. "The 

20 dead and the absent are friendless, says the proverb. 
Let us hear from you often." "I never forget my 
friends," replied don Jose; "please count me in the 
numberof your good friends." "Most gladly. That we 
promise you willingly.'* 

25 Having passed through the Strait of Gibraltar and 
entered upon the open sea, the heat kept on increasing 
in proportion as they advanced towards the southwest. 
The weather became sultry and almost unendurable. 
The passengers had to dress in white and it was neces- 

30 sary for them to remain in the shade, seeking comfort 


there. Day and night the electric fans were working. 
They traversed some 36 degrees of latitude before 
reaching the equator which they crossed at mid-day. 
Those of the passengers who were crossing the line 
for the first time had to be christened by the retinue of 5 
the God Neptune who appeared on deck. The names 
which these neophites received were quite ridiculous. 





El primer puerto en que hace escala el buque 
es el de Bahia que esta a unos 13 grados al sur 
del ecuador a orillas de la bien abrigadaensenada 
de Todos OS Santos de la costa oriental del Brasil. 
Despues de su travesia tan larga, en que mass 
padecieron de nostalgia de Espana que de mareo, 
Pedro y Miguel se alegran de volver a pisar tierra 
firme. Fondeado el vapor, se desembarcan los 
jovenes, aprovechandose de la ocasion para 
estirar las piernas y familiarizarse un poco con 10 
su primera ciudad hispanoamericana durante la 
breve estancia alii del buque. 

Para salir del barrio marinero y subir a la 
ciudad alta, los pasajeros se valen de algunos de 
los ascensores; ptros hacen uso de los tranviasis 
movidos por cables. La subida desde la ciudad 
baja es muy empinada pero una vez en lo alto se 
goza de la vista muy hermosa de la bahia punteada 
de barcos de todos los tamanos entre los cuales se 
destacan varios trasatlanticos. Ninguno de los 20 
dos puede hablar portugues, el idioma del Brasil, 
pero se encuentran con que se entiende el espanol 
muy comunmente en las tiendas y cafes, aunque 



exista cierto desagrado contra el uso del castellano 
a causa de la antigua rivalidad entre el Brasil y 
la Argentina. 

Se sorprenden mucho de ver tantos negros por 

Stodars partes, pero un cuerdo tendero brasileiio 
informa a Pedro en espanol muy castizo que 
algunos Uaman a Bahia "la ciudad ^le los negros" 
por consistir en ellos una gran parte de los 250,000 
habitantes. — En todo el Brasil, — continua, — hay 

10 mas de 20 millones de personas y solo hay 6 
millones que son blancos puros. — Es la nueva 
Africa, al parecer. — No, seiior; porque conviene 
tener presente que hay casi un millon y medio de 
indios y los restantes son de sangre mixta. Por 

15 eso aqui no se ponen reparos en los matrimonios 
de los de distintas razas. En cuanto a los negros, 
fueron importados por vez primera en el Brasil 
en 1563 por los hacendados que necesitaron 
"brazos'' u obreros en su cafetales y fincas. 

2oMedraron aqui y se les dio la libertad en 1888 sin 
efusion de sangre alguna. — eQue exportan Vds. 
de Bahia? — Principalmente cacao, azucar, tabaco, 
naranjas y palo del Brasil, la madera colorante. 
Se conocia esta madera en Europa, tres siglos 

25 antes ^ del descubrimiento de America, siendo 
importada del Asia, y al traer Amerigo Vespucci 
al rey de Portugal una cantidad de ella, se empezo 
a nombrar la nueva tierra que la produjo el Brasil. 

EN BAfflA l8s 

Al volver a abordar su buque se ponen los nor- 
teamericanos a discurrir sobre sus experiencias y 
sobre los datos que antes tenian apuntados 
referentes al Brasil. — Es mas grande el Brasil — 
dijo Pedro — que los Estados Unidos si se exceptua 5 
Alaska. Tiene 2Ckdo millas de longitud y 2CX)0 
millas de latitud. Un solo estado, o mejor dicho 
el territorio de Amazonas, es casi tres veces mas 
grande que Tejas. Si se reuniesen en Aniazonas 
todos los 1600 millones de seres humanos del 10 
mundo, cada uno tendria por suyo un cuadrado 
de tierra cuyos lados medirian 115 pies de longitud. 
No solo es grande el pais, sino que tambien florecen 
alii algunas industrias vastisimas y variadisimas 
como la produccion de cafe, de "hule" o caucho, 15 
y de ganado. La clase gobernante es de raza 
portuguesa o lusitana. 

— Dejelo, Pedro — grita Miguel al fin — por el 
amor de Dios. Son chocantes tantos informes 
a un tiempo. Me rompen los cascos. Dejelo 20 
hasta otra vez. 

Repaso de gramatica. 

Difference between tener and haber with the past participle 
(que antes tenfan apuntados) . 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

hacer escala en romper los cascos 

padecer de constar de 

poner reparos en 



Trabajo oral. Para expresar negativamente en 
imperative, usando el singular de la forma cortes. 
I. romperme los cascos 2. hacer escala en Bahia 
3. poner reparos en 4. desembarcarse en el puerto 

55. tenerlo presente 6. reunirse aqui 7. dejarlo 
hasta otra vez 8. familiarizarse con ellos 9. sorpren- 
der a Pedro 10. continuar el viaje 

Versidn. As soon as the steamer anchored in the 
bay of Todos os Santos, I disembarked and got ac- 

10 quainted a bit with the city. This was the first Hispano- 
American city at which our boat had stopped. During 
the trip across I had suffered from seasickness and I 
longed to tread terra firma and stretch my legs by 
taking a walk through the streets. Our stay there was 

IS to last an entire day. I took advantage of it at once. 

The ascent from the water front or the lower town 

being very steep, I used the elevator which carries 

people to the upper town. Other travelers used the 

cable cars to ascend. Having once reached the top, 

20 one saw the beautiful bay dotted with many boats. 
The transatlantic steamers of course stood out among 
the other boats of all sizes. The houses of this city of 
many thousands of inhabitants were of many colors, 
similar to those I had seen in towns of southern Spain. 

25 A shrewd old Castilian shopkeeper, speaking to me 
in the purest Spanish, said that although I could not 
speak Portuguese, I would find that Spanish was quite 
generally understood in the cafes and shops. He also 


told me that Bahia was called by some "the city of 
the negroes" because of so many of that race being 
found there. The rich landowners needing "hands'* 
on their coflFee plantations, first imported the negroes 
into Brazil from Africa in 1563. They were given their 5 
liberty in 1888. They are found now in large numbers 
in the states to the north of Bahia. "But," said the 
shopkeeper, "we must bear in mind that in Brazil 
there are many Indians, negroes and those of mixed 
blood. It behooves us not to give heed to the race of 10 
an individual." The governing class is of Portuguese 

I was surprised to find that there existed in Bahia 
and in other Brazilian cities a certain dislike for the 
Spanish language, although many of the inhabitants 15 
spoke it well. Perhaps this was on account of the 
ancient rivalry between the Brazilians and the Argen- 

CoflFee, cattle, sugar cane, rubber, oranges, and Brazil 
wood thrive in Brazil. This dye-wood was imported 20 
into Europe from Asia even in the 12th century and 
was known as hrasile or bresill wood. Therefore when 
this wood was found by Amerigo Vespucci in this part 
of South America, this name was given to the new land. 

Before reaching South America, I had many data 25 
noted down and they proved to be very useful. For 
example, I knew that Brazil was larger than the 
United States excepting Alaska and that the single 
territory of Amazonas was nearly three times as large as 
Texas. There would be room for all the human beings 30 


in the world in the state of Amazonas and each 
would have some 13,000 square feet of area. Brazil 
measures about 2000 miles in length and 2000 miles in 
width. But in order that I may not rack your brains 
S by giving too much information at once, I shall leave 
the rest until later. 




Rio de Janeiro 
2 de febrero de 191- 
Mi muy querido padre: 

Hace mas de un mes que te escribi pero no 
queria volver a hacerlo antes de llegar a esta. 5 
Espero que tu y mama sigais bien de salud. 
Pedro y yo estamos sin novedad. 

Nos parece mentira que vosotros tengais ahora 
invierno con sus heladas y nevadas mientras que 
aqui rige el verano. Hoy Uueve a cantaros, loio 
cual ocurre muy frecuentemente en los meses de 
enero y febrero cayendo 12 pulgadas de agua en 
enero y mas de 40 en todo el aiio. Aqui la nieve 
es cosa desconocida. No es facil darse cuenta de 
que Rio dista 4775 millas de Nueva York poris 
via de vapor y que Nueva York esta a mas de 
2000 millas al oeste de Rio. Cuando es mediodia 
en Nueva York, aqui son las dos y siete de la tarde. 

Ya sabes tu que viste a Rio hace veinte arios 
cuan hermosa es la ciudad dotada por la naturaleza 20 
con sitio y contornos tan excepcionales. Vista 
del mar, parece mas hermosa que Napoles o 





Const antinopla; las islitas de la bahia superan a 
las del Mar Egeo. ' Al entrar en la bahia se ve a 
la izquierda la roca llamada Pao de Assucar (Pan 
de Azucar) levantandose precipitosamente del 
agua de la bahia hasta mas de 1200 pies de 5 
altura. Las escarpadas montanas que circundan 
el puerto tienen la belleza de las rias orilladas de 
altas rocas de la costa noruega, realzada la 
belleza por la vistosa vegetacion tropica. Y el 
mismo puerto por sus calidades practicas es unoio 
de los mejores del mundo. Los vapores de mayor 
calado vienen de las cinco partes del mundo y 
fondean aqui facilmente. 

En nuestro buque 01 discutir a porfia a tres 
viajeros los meritos respectivos de los puertos deis 
San Francisco de California, Sidney y Rio. 
Resulto que dos de ellos, un ingles y un danes, 
convinieron en que Rio se gana la palma. Pero 
me dicen que en nada se parece la ciudad de hoy por 
hoy a la de 20 afios atras y creo que tu la recono- 20 
cerias ahora a duras penas. Los muchos caserios 
apartados que se vislumbraban por los valles 
entre los varios montes al lado del agua no co- 
municaban aspecto urbano al Rio de entonces. 
Para mejorar y modernizar la villa se necesitaron 25 
60 millones de dolares, una contribucion estu- 
penda. Se duda que jamas se hayan efectuado 
reformas tan grandes en una ciudad. 



Primero se construyo un muelle de dos millas de 
largo, conformandose este a la curva de herradura 
de la orilla. Detras del muelle hicieron un paseo 
o avenida muy ancha Uamada Beira Mar, la cual 

sse extiende casi cuatro millas. Hay un canal de 
la ciudad denominado el Mangue. £ste lo 
enderezaron de una manera admirable, embe- 
lleciendo la margen con una calzada lindada de 
focos electricos. Por el centro de la poblacion 

locondujeron una calle esplendida, la que titularon 
Avenida Rio Branco, hoy un gran centro de 
comercio. Se mejoraron las calles pavimentan- 
dolas de asfalto; se engrandeci5 el alcantarillado 
y el sistema de abastecimiento de agua. La 

IS electricidad, desarroUada en plantas hidroelec- 
tricas, da vida al alumbrado y a la gran red de 
tranvias. Donde hay gana hay mana y por causa 
de tantas mejoras es Rio una ciudad modernizada 
a pedir de boca, colocada al lado de un puerto 

2oaparatoso, una verdadera joya en una soberbia 
montadura natural. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

segttir bien de salud conformarse a 

estar sin novedad a pedir de boca 

parece mentira ganarse la palma 

llover a c6ntaros a duras penas 

darse cuenta de vislumbrar 
a porf ia 


Deberes orales. Substitiiyanse las expresiones 
subrayadas por otras sinonimas. i. No queria volver 
a hacerlo. 2. Hoy llueve a cantaros. 3. No es facil 
darse cuenta de eso. 4. Ya sabes cuan hermosa es la 
ciudad. 5. Las islitas superan a las del Mar Egeo. 5 
6. Las montaiias circundan el puerto. 7. Fondean 
aqui facilmente. 8. Convinieron en que Rio se gana la 
palma. 9. La ciudad de hoy por hoy. 10. La que 
titularon Avenida Rio Branco. 

Traducci6n. Well, Michael, at last we are in Rio de lo 
Janeiro, the second city in size of South America. It 
seems strange that summer prevails here in the middle 
of February.-^— Yes; snow, frost and snowfalls are 
unknown here at any time,' But it often rains hard 
here in this season. They say that yesterday there 15 
fell about two inches of water. 

— How exceptional are the site and the environs of 
this city! Rio has been endowed by nature with great 
beauty. Its showy harbor, its bright tropical vegeta- 
tion, the steep mountains that surround it and the 20 
isles that are found in the bay heighten the beauty 
of the city itself. When I saw it for the first time 
from the boat yesterday, it seemed to me that Rio 
surpassed Naples or Constantinople for its picturesque 
quaUtiesw — My father was here twenty years ago. He 25 
used to tell me that the fiords of the Norwegian coast 
were not so beautiful nor so wonderful as the harbor 
of Rio. — Before our boat anchored yesterday, I heard 
you and the Dane discussing heatedly the respective 




merits of the harbors of this city, Sidney, and San 
Francisco. How did the discussion turn out ? — It 
turned out that we all agreed that Rio carried off the 
palm. I should like my father to see the capital of 
Brazil now. — Why.? Does it not resemble the city 5 
of twenty years ago ? 

— Of course it resembles it, and he would recognize 
it easily. But it has been improved and modern- 
ized as much as one could ask. Huge appropriations 
were needed to carry out the plans. I doubt whether 10 
any other city has brought about such great altera- 
tions in its streets, drives and avenues. They straight- 
ened some streets and paved them all with asphalt. 
Many millions of dollars were used to give a city-like 
appearance to the separate settlements which could 15 
be seen in the valleys among the several hills. 

A dock was constructed two miles long which con- 
formed to the horseshoe curve of the shore. The drive 
which was made behind it was called Beira Mar and 
it extended several miles. The sewerage system, the 20 
water supply system, the street car system and the 
electric lighting were enlarged and improved. The 
bank of the Mangue Canal was beautified by a highway 
well paved and bordered with electric lights. Great 
hydro-electric plants now develop the electric power 25 
which the city needs. Rio Branco Avenue was laid out 
through the center of the city. This street is today 
the most important one in the commercial district. 

— Thus it is seen that where there is a will there is a 
way, and Rio has proved to be a real jewel in a superb 30 


natural setting. How far are we now from New York ? 
— About 4800 miles by boat. — New York is to the 
north, is it not.? — Yes, and more than 2000 miles to 
the west. — It is hard to realize that. What time must 
5 it be now in New York, it being now three seven in the 
afternoon in this city .?— It is now one o'clock in New 
York. — Have your parents written to you since your 
having arrived here.? — Yes, and I have already 
answered their letter. — Do they keep well ? — Yes, 
10 thanks. They are in their usual health. 



Al Uegar sin amigo ni conocido brasileno a 
quien recurrir, nos dirigimos a la Y. M. C. A. o 
Asociacion Cristiana para Jovenes donde nos 
recibieron con mucha cordialidad y atencion. 
Por casualidad tropezamos alii con Juan Tucker, 5 
antiguo amigo de escuela con quien estudiamos 
espaiiol Pedro y yo. Es buen chico, como quien 
dice, y se ofrecio para todo lo que desearkmos. 
Primero le tratabamos en ingles pero al pro- 
ponerle nosotros hablar castellano, consinti5 en 10 
ello de buena voluntad. Hacia casi cuatro anos 
que no lo hablaba ya y experimento al principio 
alguna molestia por venirle a menudo a la lengua 
la palabra portuguesa en lugar de la espaiiola. 
Esto fue a causa de la gran semejanza que existe, 15 
como tu sabes, entre el portugues y el espanol. 
Pero no tenia vergiienza de hablar, lo cual dificulta 
a muchas personas la adquisicion de un idioma 
extranjero. Tucker nos explico lo util que le 
fue su conocimiento del espanol al principiar a 20 
estudiar el portugues. Habiendo adquerido ya 
un idioma romance el aprender otro fue tarea harto 



Todos los tres fuimos en tranvia el otro dia a 
lo mas alto del Corcovado, un peiion de forma de 
hombre jorobado. £s la roca mas saliente de la 
regi5n que descuella a las demas. Desde alli 

sgozamos sobremanera de una vista insuperable. 
Al otro dia nos decidimos a subir tambien al 
Pao de Assucar (Pan de Azucar). Para trepar 
por ella nos servimos de una especie de tranvia 
aereo en que pareciamos nadar por la atmosfera. 

10 El viaje era sumamente conmovedor, tanto que 
se desmayo un caballero en medio de la carrera. 
Volvio en si al llegar el carro a la cumbre, solo 
para perder otra vez el sentido al empezar la 
vuelta. Me dijo una anciana: — Parece que el 

15 pobre tiene cascos de calabaza. 

La Rua do Ouvidor (Calle del Auditor) merece 
fama como centro de tiendas. No se admiten 
vehiculos a esta calle, la cual esta atestada de 
gente durante todo el dia. En los estableci- 

20 mientos se venden al menudeo sus articulos que 
consisten en una infinidad de cosas preciosas 
traidas de todas las partes del mundo y que valen 
cada una un sentido. Uno se pone a mirar los 
escaparates, y cede a la atraccion hipnotica de 

25tantas cosas bonitas y sin decir tus ni mus entra 
y gasta lo que tiene. En esta calle siempre hay 
que echar manos a la bolsa. 

Como me lo instaste, vine en conocimiento, 

continuaciOn 199 

hace poco, del estado del mercado de aqui, en lo 
que se refiere a la maquinaria. Actualmente hay 
una demanda bastante activa de maquinas 
norteamericanas pero hasta ahora son los ale- 
manes quienes tienen ventaja sobre todos suss 
competidores en ese ramal. Esto es debido en 
gran parte a la actividad de los agentes alemanes 
que han sabido constituir un mercado para sus 
manufacturas. Estudian muy cuidadosamente 
los gustos y las necesidades de los brasilenos, 10 
logrando comprender mejor que nadie lo conve- 
niente en cada caso. Nosotros tendremos que hacer 
otro tanto si intentamos poder apoderarnos de una 
porcion de este comercio. Habra que estudiar a 
fondo las leyes de impuestos que rigen. Pero te 15 
escribire mas extensamente sobre este asunto. 

Anhelo verte lo mismo que a mama pero ten- 
dremos que esperar hasta mas tarde. 

Da un fuerte abrazo a mama y tu recibe otro 
de tu hijo que te quiere muchisimo, 20 


Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

recurrir a uno merecer fama 

como quien dice vender al menudeo 

ofrecerse para valer un sentido 

tener vergtienza de sin decir tus ni mus 

trepar por echar manos a la bolsa 

volver en si yenir en conocimiento de 
tener cascos de calabaza 



Trabajo oral. Para traducir al espanol. i. Let's 
look at the show window. 2. We know how useful a 
knowledge of Spanish is. 3. Don't be bashful about 
speaking. 4. I haven't spoken Spanish for two years. 
55.1 hadn't spoken Spanish for two years. 6. Tell him not 
to spend all he has. 7. If I acquired Portuguese, I would 
speak it with you. 8. Let's consent to it. 9. Don't use 
the aerial tramway. 10. Climb up the rock on foot. 

Versifin escrita. By chance the two young men 

10 came upon an old schoolmate at the Young Men's 
Christian Association. They had no Brazilian ac- 
quaintance to whom to resort. Hence, they had 
experienced some trouble on seeking a hotel in which 
to lodge. But this friend Tucker volunteered to take 

IS them to his boarding-house and they gladly consented 
to accompany him. It was several years since they had 
seen Tucker who told them that he had learned to 
speak Portuguese easily after having studied Spanish 
previously. They had been addressing each other in 

20 English until then but soon the two travelers proposed 
to Tucker that all should speak Spanish. Tucker was 
not bashful about speaking it although often the 
Portuguese word came to his tongue instead of the 
Spanish one. The great resemblance between these 

25 two Romance languages frequently makes difficult 
the acquisition of one of them if one has already learned 
the other. To recall his knowledge of Spanish was, 
however, for Tucker a rather easy task. 


They all went one day to visit the shopping center 
which was crowded with people. They were strolling 
along the Rua do Ouvidor, looking at the show windows 
when they stopped before one shop where were sold 
at retail valuable things from all parts of the world, 5 
some of them being worth a fortune. Without saying 
aye, yes or no, they all yielded to the hypnotic attrac- 
tion and entered the establishment. They did not, 
however, often have to loosen their purse strings. 
Tucker understood better than anyone what was 10 
proper and succeeded in getting the others out of the 
store before they could buy anything. 

One day the three youths went to the top of the 
Sugar Loaf from where they enjoyed an unexcelled view 
of the city and bay. They used the aerial tramway 15 
to ascend this rock, paying somewhat more than a 
dollar for the trip. The summit is 1383 feet high and 
overtops all other cliffs of the environs of the city. 
While they were swimming through the air John cried, 
"Watch out! Peter is about to faint. Let him sit 20 
down." And indeed Peter lost consciousness before 
the car reached the top. An old Spanish lady ex- 
claimed: "Poor man I He must be easily upset, as 
they say. This kind of vehicle does not suit him. 
But he will soon regain consciousness." And that was 25 
what happened when the car stopped at the summit. 
"I am sorry I fainted," said Peter on opening his 
eyes. "Don't worry about that," the others told him. 
"Come and enjoy the view. Soon we shall have to 
begin the return trip." 30 


Michaers father had urged him to find out about the 
demand for North American machinery in the market of 
Brazil. He learned that the Germans had the advan- 
tage over their competitors in this line, having known 
5 how to create a market for their machines. They had 
studied the tariff laws in force and the needs of the 
Brazilians. Michael wrote his father that the Yankees 
would have to do the same thing in order to get hold 
of South American commerce and that it would be 
lo necessary to send active agents to do business there. 



Amigo mio — dice Pedro a Miguel — estoy can- 
sado esta maiiana a mas no poder. — ^Y ^'por que? 
— pregunta Miguel, sonriendose ; — digamelo. — 
J Para que decirselo cuando ya lo sabe Vd.? Si 
es que Vd. y Tucker se empeiiaron ayer en tratars 
de recorrer toda la ciudad en un solo dia. Aqui 
y alia me llevaron Vds. a la rastra, primero por 
todo el Jardin Botanico, despues a la Biblioteca 
Nacional y mas tarde al Palacio Monroe. Y 
anoche aceptaron Vds. ese convite a comer con lo 
los Gonzalez en el barrio de Cattete y yo tenia 
que acompanarles. iUf! . Aqui me tiene Vd. 
muerto de cansancio. Me quedo plantado en 
esta butaca todo hoy. — iQue lastima que este 
tan postrado! Pero ino valio la pena tantais 
actividad.f^ Asi uno conoce la ciudad y su vida. 
— Quizas tenga Vd. razon. Pero quien mas 
corre menos vuela. Mire, i quien esta en la 
puerta.^ — Es Tucker muy endomingado que viene 
a entretenernos con sus cuentos de Rio. Paseao 
Vd. — Bom diuy amigos. Gracias, no puedo sen- 
tarme. Vengo a secuestrarles, a llevarles a 
Petropolis y a Tijuca, y en honor de la ocasion me 



he prendido de veinte y cinco alfileres. — ^j So- 
corro! iDios me ayude! — grita Pedro; — por 
piedad, dejenme Vds. descansar hoy. — ^Nada. 
No hay remedio. jEn marcha! — PueSy lo que 
5 no se puede remediar hay que aguantar, Adios, mi 
deseado dia de descanso. jPor donde vamos? 
Por la Avenida Rio Branco hasta el muelle donde 
tomamos un vaporcito. A una hora de navegar, 
nos desembarcamos, subiendo luego por ferro- 

locarril hasta llegar a unos 3000 pies de altura* Al 
volver, vamos en automovil a Tijuca. 

Asi lo hicieron los tres y tuvieron su recoxn- 
pensa, como lo confeso Pedro mismo, en las 
hermosisimas vistas que presenciaron desde alii. 

IS Con razon goza Petropolis de fama de popular. 
Aqui reside tambien el cuerpo diplomatico. En 
Tijuca vieron con asombro la Cascatinhuy una 
magnifica caida de agua, la Cascada Grande, la 
Mesa del Emperador, las Grutas de Agassiz y 

20 la de Pablo y Virginia. 

Lo que les impresiono a los norteamericanos fue 
la falta de largos ferrocarriles en el Brasil. Aunque 
es tan grande el pais, tiene solo unas 12,000 millas 
de vias ferreas mal encadenadas. Ha impedido 

25 el desarrollo ferroviario el ser dificultosa de 
atravesar la cordillera paralela a la costa sudeste, 
donde estan las ciudades principales. Ademas, 
estas ciudades distan mucho unas de otras. De 


ellas arrancan unas lineas cortas que no se enlazan 
con las salidas de otros centros de poblacion. 
Pertenecen al Estado la mayoria de los caminos de 
hierro, siendo algunos arrendados a varias com- 
panias que los operan. Estan en proyecto otros 5 
muchos con ayuda de capital extranjero, ingles 
en su mayor parte. 

La navegacion de la costa concentrada en Rio 
la tienen que mantener buques brasilenos segun 
las condiciones de la constitucion del pais, y las 10 
muchas vias fluviales estan recorridas por barcos 
subvencionados por el gobierno. Una yez unido 
el sistema de rios con una gran red de ferroca- 
rriles se desenvolvera el Brasil a las mil mara- 
villas. IS 

Por estar empleados Pedro y Miguel en un 
comercio basado en la mineria, pasaron varios 
dias en la region minera del estado de Minas 
Geraes (Minas Generales), penetrando en tren 
y lomo de mula hasta tierra muy adentro. Aqui2o 
se explotan depositos de oro, diamantes, hierro 
y manganeso, plata y cobre. Se calcula que la 
cantidad de quijo ferruginoso de Minas Geraes 
equivale a lo restante aun en las minas de la 
comarca del Lago Superior en los Estados Unidos. 25 
Pero hasta ahora falta un buen sistema de trans- 
portacion, lo mismo que carbon para poder 
fundir y trabajar el hierro crudo. 


Cipyrigkl by Unman Tranllaiki and Broum & Dawson, N. Y. 

Rio DE Janeiro: la Cascatinha de Tijuca 


Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

a m&8 no poder valer la pena 

llevar a la rastra prenderse de 25 alfileres 

quedar plantado a una hora de navegai 

gozar de fama de tierra adentro 

la navegaci6n la tienen que a las mil maravillas 
mantener buques brasilefios 


Para hacer oralmente. Pongase en la debida forma 
del subjuntivo el verbo subrayado en cada una de las 
frases que siguen. i. Me gusta el que aceptar ellos el 
convite. 2. Lo creo sin que Vd. empenarse en repetirlo. 
3. Digale que no sonreirse. 4. Pedi que el nos entre- 5 
tenen 5. Quiso que yo conocer a fondo la ciudad. 
6. Quizas no creer el el cuento. 7. Si valer la pena, lo 
iria a ver. 8. Nos mando que venir endomingados. 


Rio de, Janeiro, March i, 191-. 
Dear father: Tucker kidnapped us yesterday and 10 
dragged us all through the Botanical Garden and 
several suburbs of the city. Today I am dead tired. 
We dressed up in our best in honor of the occasion. 
I wanted to stick in an arm chair all day but the others 
would not let me rest. There was no help for it and 1 15 
said to myself, "Well, what can't be cured must be 
endured." Hither and thither we went at full speed. 
They insisted that I should accompany them every- 
where, only smiling when I cited to them the saying, 
**The more haste the less speed.'' 20 


Taking a small steamer we sailed for an hour, then 
disembarked and got into a train which took us to 
Petropolis, a city of some 20,000 souls, situated 27 
miles to the north of Rio. Here we beheld many beau- 
5 tiful views and saw the homes of many of the diplo- 
matic corps. 

On returning to town we went to dine with a family 
in the ward of Botafogo where many of the moneyed 
people reside. I did not enjoy myself because of being 

10 so tired. And tomorrow we shall go to Tijuca to see 
the Great Falls and the Agassiz grottoes and we shall 
visit the Monroe Palace which indeed is worth while 

The railway lines of Brazil seem short and poorly 

15 linked up. Railway development has been hindered 
by the fact that the mountain chain parallel to the 
coast is difficult to cross and by the fact that the cities 
are far from each other. Several private companies 
rent and operate the railways, the majority of which 

20 belong to the State. Many lines which start from some 
towns do not connect with those that leave other 
centers of population. The constitution requires that 
coast navigation be maintained by Brazilian ships. 
The boats that traverse the rivers are subsidized by 

25 the government. 

The mines of Brazil are developed fairly well, but 
coal and good transportation are lacking. One state, 
called General Mines, has deposits of silver, gold, 
diamonds, copper, manganese, and iron. The iron ore 

30 of the region equals what is left in the mines near Lake 


Superior ii\ the United States. Some day these mines 
will be wonderfully developed. We shall go far inland 
in this region on mule back. 

I long to see you. Write me soon. Tell mother to 
write also. My love to you and her. 5 

Your loving son,' 





Por fin partimos de Rio de Janeiro, saliendo en 

un tren expreso del Estrado de Ferro Central do 

Brazil (Camino de Hierro Central del Brasil) para 

Sao Paulo, o San Pablo, para decirlo en castellano, 

5 la segunda ciudad del Brasil por su poblacion 

numerosa y comercio extranjero. Es la capital 

del estado del mismo nombre y tiene un vecindario 

de 403,000 personas mientras que Rio cuenta lin 

millon redondo. Solo hay seis ciudades en el pais 

10 con una poblacion de mas de 100,000 habitantes. 

Sao Paulo esta situado a unas 300 millas al 

sudoeste de Rio y a 35 millas al noroeste de 

Santos, su puerto. Es el centro de una red 

ferro viaria de mas de 3,500 millas de rieles. El 

isTropico de Capricornio pasa muy cerca de este 


Nuestro tren era de lujo y su comodo equipo 
nos proporciono un viaje muy ameno. Dudo que 
haya un tren norteamericano que tenga tantas 
20 comodidades como las del tren referido. 

Estamos en la tierra del cafe. En el piensan y 
sueiian todos los de este estado. Todo se expresa 




en terminos de este grano. Siendo buena la 
cosecha de los cafetales ofazendasy como se Uaman 
en portugues, y bueno el mercado, florecen los 
cafeteros dandose una vida en grande. Fracasando 
la cosecha, se necesitan paciencia y cautela. Al 5 
puerto de Santos llegan buques de todas las 
partes del mundo civilizado para cargarse de 
cafe brasileiio. 

Los cafetales de Sao Paulo estan dispuestos en 
terreno elevado que varia de 1000 a 3000 pies 10 
de altura. Se extienden de manera que cubren 
miles de millas cuadradas de terruiio. Tan vastas 
son algunas de las plantaciones de cafe que se 
emplean en ellas ferrocarriles particulares para 
recoger el producto. El suelo preferible para el 15 
cultivo del grano tiene color rojizo debido a las 
trizas de hierro depositadas en el. Es menester 
todo un ejercito de jornaleros para cosechar, 
lavar, secar y ensacar el cafe. Viven estos en 
pequeiias aldeas en los cafetales y son por I020 
general negros, aunque ahora trabajan en ellos 
muchos colonos italianos. Se encuentran . de 
vez en cuando jornaleros japoneses y chinos. 

Pero el cafeto no es la unica planta que sirve 
para aderezar una bebida de uso bastante comun. 25 
En los estados de Santa Cathanna y Rio Grande 
do Sul, donde viven muchos hacendados alemanes 
y especialmente en todo el Paraguay se recoge la 


hierba mate, especie de acebo silvestre. De ella 
se hace una infusion, que se prepara echando 
las hojas ^^en una cascara de calabaza con agua 
caliente y azucar, para sorber despues el liquido 

scon una bombilla de plata. En el Brasil suele 
tomarse en taza, como el te, y en toda la America 
Meridional se considera como bebida estomacal, 
excitante y nutritiva." Se exporta del Brasil 
mucho mate para la Argentina, donde se bebe 

losiete veces mas mate que cafe. La gente del 
Uruguay, del Paraguay y de Chile lo prefiere al 
te y al cafe, y ya se empieza a usar en Francia. 

Fui hoy con Miguel a Santos a ver cargar alii los 
buques de flete destinados a Europa. Tragaron 

15SUS inmensas bodegas montones de cafe, carne 
de vaca, palo de rosa y tapioca. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

por lo general darse una vida en grande 


Deberes orales. Pdngase en castellano cada una de 
las frases siguientes. 

partir; decirlo en castellano; vivir en el pais; 
pasar cerca de alii; pensar en el; expresarse 
en otros terminos; darse una vida en grande; 
cargarse de el; cubrir el suelo; secar el cafe; 
recoger el acebo; empezar a usarlo; ver los 
buques; tragar el cafe. 


Let us 



Traducci6n escrita. Well, Michael, here is the coffee 
country which we were longing to see. How large these 
coffee plantations arel I do not know whether there 
are many North American wheatfields as large as that 
coffee plantation yonder. — They say that all the coffee 5 
growers of the State of Sao Paulo dream and think only 
of coffee. Usually they lead a prosperous life if the 
crop is good. If the crop should fail, patience and 
caution would be needed. 

— I have heard say that the best soil for the cultiva- 10 
tion of coffee is of reddish color and is found in land 
at an altitude which varies from 1000 to 30CX) feet. 
This color is due to particles of iron deposited in the 
soil. The coffee plant flourishes especially on the 
plateaus near the southeastern coast of the country. 15 
Here the climate as well as the soil provides the best 
conditions for this plant. — Who are the laborers 
who harvest the coffee? — ^A whole army of negroes 
gathers, washes, dries, and sacks the berry. Many 
Italians also work here and occasionally a few Chinese 20 
are found employed in this way. 

— But look! We are approaching a large city. 
Yes, that is the municipality of Sao Paulo, the capital 
of the state of the same name, the second city of 
Brazil in population and commerce and one of the six 25 
cities which have a population of more than 100,000 
souls. The railway system of which Sao Paulo is the 
center comprises more than 3500 miles of track. — I 
am not anxious to leave this comfortable train of the 
Central Railway of Brazil. It is a long while since 1 30 


have taken such a comfortable and pleasant trip by 
train. But here we are. Let's get out and see if we 
can get lost in this city of 400,000 people. 
— What shall we do tomorrow? — I think that it 
5 behooves us to spend a few days in Santos, the port of 
Sao Paulo. It is situated 35 miles southeast from here 
and there are many trains a day which will take us 
there. — What is to be seen in Santos ? — A fine harbor^ 
excellent docks, great coffee warehouses and a large 

10 number of ships whose great holds swallow up piles of 
freight destined for many cities of the world. — Of 
what does the freight consist? — Of beef, tapioca, 
rosewood and especially coflFee. — Is coflFee the only 
common drink of this region ? — Indeed not. Paraguay 

IS tea is drunk in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, and 
especially in Paraguay. — What is this drink i — It is 
a kind of wild holly. Its leaves are put in a gourd 
called mate or cuya together with hot water and sugar. 
The liquid is sipped up with a bombilla which has 

20 the shape of a spoon. — Thanks. I prefer coffee to 
Paraguay tea, although the latter is beginning to be 
used in Europe and although it is called good for the 
digestion and is nutritious. 



Una mafiana de sol se acerco al muelle^ del 
puerto de Montevideo el vapor del Lloyd Brazileiro 
que saliendo de Santos trajo a bordo a nuestros 
dos amigos. De pie en la cubierta miraron estos 
la primera ciudad espanola que iban a visitar en s 
el Nuevo Mundo. Calificaron de esplendido el 
puerto ancho de seis millas y provisto de darsenas 
y muelles espaciosos, algunos aun en via de 
construccion. Al oeste se alza el cerro o monte de 
donde se deriva el nombre de la ciudad. Lesio 
dijo el piloto que aqui tenia el Rio de la Plata 50 
millas de anchura. 

Este mismo piloto les dio la direccion de un 
hotel, el Oriental, a donde iban a parar. Ahora — 
dijo Miguel — podremos hacernos entender en 15 
cualquier parte porque desde aqui en adelante 
estaremos entre gente de habla espanola. Algun 
dia voy a conquistar el portugues pero ahora no. 
— i*Ya ha notado Vd. como se diferencia el habla 
de aqui del castellano de Espafia? — Si; pero es2o 
poca cosa. Hablaban asi hasta cierto punto los 
andaluces; por consiguiente estamos acostum- 
brados a ello. A mi no me disgusta. No sere 



^ i 
1 ^ 



yo quien dicte a los sud americanos su manera de 
hablar, espaiiol. — ;Ni yo tampoco. Pero sigamos 
con la zeta; aunque no la usan aqui la entienden 
pcrfectamente y se le respeta a quien la use. — 
Por lo que a mi toca, voy a tratar de adoptar el 5 
uso sudamericano con respecto de la pronunciacion 
de la z y de la c que precede a las vocales i o ^, 
aunque no importan mucho estas distinciones a 
causa de la manera muy variada en que hablan los 
varios habitantes de la America Espaiiola. 10 

Un viajante espanol les cercioro a los jovenes de 
muchas cosas de su pais. Entre otros datos les 
dio estosh Que el Uruguay, aunque es una de las 
republicas mas pequeiias del continente, tiene 
mas millas de rieles en pr'oporcion a su tamafio que 15 
ningun otro pais de Sud America y es casi dos 
veces mas grande que el Estado de Nueva York; 
que no hay barrera de ihdntaiias entre la costa y 
el interior como en el Brasil; que las extensas 
llanuras del pais surhinistran abundante past0 2o 
para la cria de ganado y por eso es una tierra 
casi exclusivamente ganadera. Aunque el suelo 
es muy fei^az los campesinos no se dedican mucho 
hasta ahora al cultivo 'de cereales, cultivandose 
solo una sexagesima.^ parte del terreno. No 25 
existen muchas poblaciones grandes pero son 
numerosas las aldehuela^s^esparcidas por los llanos, 
siendo ellas las mas veces tnuy nuevas, modernas 



y adelantadas. El "gaucho" o "llanero" pre- 
domina entre los uruguayos. Resulta de esta 
industria vacuna, lanar y caballar que exporta el 
Uruguay estupendas cantidades de lana, carne 
congelada, cecina y tasajo, y cueros de bueyes y 5 
de caballos. Hay muchas plantas refrigeradoras 
en que se enfria la carne. 

Es muy funesta la historia anterior del Uruguay, 
por ser el pais el tope, o una especie de Belgica, 
por decirlo asi, entre la Argentina y el Brasil, recla- 10 
mandolo estos dos paises grandes. Finalmente por 
mediacion de Inglaterra en 1828 se creo la repu- 
blica independiente del Uruguay, llamada tambien 
la Banda Oriental. Siguieron guerras civiles sin 
limite ni termino y no se calmaron las revueltasis 
hasta tiempos muy recientes. 

Impulsados por estos relatos Miguel y Pedro 
iban por tren a Fray Bentos en el departamento 
de Soriano al lado del rio Uruguay, a ver el gran 
establecimiento industrial de la compania Liebig2o 
fundada en i86i y llamada la Cocina del Mundo. 
Aqui se matan 4000 reses diarias que se consumen 
en la confejccion de extracto de came de vaca y 
en otros productos nutritivos. 

De vuelta a Montevideo visitaron los hermosos 25 
edificios publicos y parques y vieron que toda la 
ciudad era notable por su limpieza y condiciones 
sanitarias. En el magnifico Teatro Solis pasaron 


muchos ratos agradables y se maravillaron de la 
hermosura de las mujeres montevideanas que se 
veian por las calles y en funciones publicas. 
— ^No hay que tardar aqui. Nos Uaman otras 

5 tierras, — observe Pedro. — ^Vamonos. . Y otra vez 
en camino los dos, a las seis de la tarde se metieron 
a bordo de uno de los comodos vaporcitos de la 
linea Mihanovich, el cual surcaba las cien millas 
de agua amarillenta del Rio de la Plata con 

lorumbo a Buenos Aires. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

de pie ni yo tampoco 

en via de construcci6n por decirlo asi 

desde aquf en adelante maravillarse de 

es poca cosa con rtunbo a 


Trabajo oral. Contestese a las preguntas que siguen, 
empleando en la contestacion un pronombre en lugar 
de cada nombre empleado en la pregunta. i. jDio 
el piloto la direccion a los jovenes ? 2. I Iban a visitar 

15 la ciudad? 3. J Gusto a Pedro la pronunciacion 
andaluza.? 4. jVa Vd. a conquistar el portugues.? 
5. J Precede jamas la a a la z? 6. jCercioraron los 
jovenes al piloto de muchas cosas? 7. J Hay muchas 
plantas refrigeradoras en el Uruguay.? 

20 Versi6n. We noticed that the speech of Uruguay 
differed somewhat from that of Castile. The Uruguay- 
ans spoke, up to a certain extent, like the Andalusians; 


consequently we had no difficulty in understanding 
them .perfectly nor in making ourselves understood 
either. I continued using the zeta and was respected 
on account of that, but Peter and John adopted the 
South American and Andalusian pronunciation of the 5 
2 and c before the vowels e or i, that is, like an j. We 
were glad to be again among people of Spanish tongue 
and were not the ones who would dictate to the Uru- 
guayans their manner of speaking Spanish. If we had 
remained longer in Brazil, we should have mastered 10 
Portuguese, just as we should have learned Catalan 
in Barcelona. 

We arrived in Montevideo a week ago. Standing on 
the deck of the ship that brought us to this port we 
beheld the first Spanish city that we were going to 15 
visit in South America. In the distance could be seen 
the mountain whence the city derives its name. As 
for us, the harbor delighted us greatly. We character- 
ized it as splendid with its basins and docks. Some 
14 millions of dollars have already been spent on them 20 
and more are in process of construction. 

The city has many beautiful public buildings and its 
parks are unsurpassable. When we went to the Solis 
Theater we always spent a very pleasant time, enjoying 
thoroughly the fine performances and wondering at 25 
the beauty of the women of Montevideo. 

Uruguay was for many years the buffer, so to speak, 
between its neighbors, Argentina and Brazil, and both 
these countries claimed the Banda Oriental, as it was 
called. The independent republic created in 182830 


owes its existence to the mediation of England. Al- 
though Uruguay is small, being only twice as large as 
New York State, it has many miles of railway and its 
extensive and fertile plains provide forage for the 
5 raising of cattle, horses and wool-bearing animals. 
Many small villages are scattered here and there in 
the plains and the cowboys predominate among the 
inhabitants. Wool, frozen beef, jerked beef and dried 
beef are exported. Only one sixtieth of the land is cul- 

lotivated at present. 

In Fray Bentos, department of Soriano, is situated 
the World's Kitchen, an establishment of the Liebig 
Company. Many beeves are used up daily to make 
beef extract and other products. Moved by the reports 

15 we had heard, we went to visit this industrial plant and 
saw that everything was noteworthy for its cleanliness 
and sanitary conditions. 

Back in Montevideo again we decided that we should 
not delay there since other lands were calling us and it 

20 was necessary for us to leave at once. We got aboard 
a steamer of the Mihanovich line which set sail in the 
evening, setting its course for Buenos Aires where we 
were to arrive the next morning. We plowed swiftly 
through the 100 miles of yellowish water. 



Parandose los dos jovenes cerca del brazal del 
puente Bjaron la vista en la villa que se divisaba 
a lo lejos en una ribera baja, y que iba creciendo 
rapidamente. Al principio habia silencio a bordo 
pero cuando empezo a tocar la banda se emociono $ 
la muchedumbre de inmigrlntes en la proa de 
manera que echaron en alto sus sombreros y 
gritaron con acentos tan variados como las 
lenguas que hablaban: — [Buenos Aires! j Buenos 
Aires! Esto me recuerda — dijo Miguel a Pedro — lo 
aquel pasaje de " Los Argonautas " de Blasco Ibanez, 
que pinta a Buenos Aires como "una mujer de 
porte majestuoso, blanca y azul como las virgenes 
de Murillo, con el purpureo gorro simbolo de 
libertad sobre la suelta cabellera; una matronais 
que sonreia, abriendo los brazos fuertes, dejando 
caer de sus labios palabras amorosas: — Venid a 
mi los que teneis hambre de pan y sed de tran- 
quilidad; venid a mi los que llegasteis tarde a un 
mundo viejo y repleto. Mi hogar es grande y2o 
no lo construyo el egoismo: mi casa esta abierta 
a todas las razas de la tierra, a todos los hombres 
de buena voluntad." 



^ In 



— ^A mi manera de ver — advirtio Pedro — parece 
muy chato y aplastado el sitio de la ciudad de 
Santa Maria de Buenos Aires, como la llamo don 
Pedro de Mendoza al fundarla en 1535. — Si; y 
i que distinta de la situacion de Rio ! Pero a 5 
pesar de que le falten cercanias pintorescas, tengo 
vivisimas ganaS de veria como cualquier inmi- 
grante- para quien sea la Tierra Prometida. jLa 
primera ciudad por su tamaiio de todo el mundo 
espaiiol, la tercera del hemisferio occidental, el Paris 10 
americano, el Chicago argentino! Algun dia le 
tendra que ceder paso tal vez misma laNueva York. 
Con mas de millon y medio de almas com- 
prende una quinta parte de los habitantes de la 
republica. 15 

— iVa a venir a nuestro encuentro el senor Fe, 
representante de la compama de su padre? 
— ^Asi lo creo. Le escribi pidiendo que viniese, 
en caso que pudiera. Si no me engano, es el del 
traje gris al pie de la escala. Vamos a ver ... 20 
Tanto gusto, senor Fe. Creia que era Vd. y no 
me equivoque en ello. Le presento a Vd. a mi 
amigo, el senor CaKer. — Caballero. — Servidor de 
Vd. — iQue tal el viaje? — Regular. Sin novedad. 
Aqui nos tiene Vd, como dos aventureros o con- 25 
quistadores, afanandose por conocer a fondo todo 
lo argentino. — Bueno. Principiaremos por en- 
contrar hospedaje para Vds. en un buen hotelito 



que conozco no lejos de la Plaza 25 de Mayo. 
Subamos a este taximetro. 

Asi empezo para los dos amigos una epoca 
notable de indagaci5n, de diversion, de visitas 
y de trato social y comercial, en todo lo cual s 
hacia de cicerone el bueno del seiior Fe, hombre 
muy chapado y simpatico. La vida al aire libre 
a la parisiense, los soberbios edificios, las alamedas 
muy magnificas, las manzanas regulares de calles, 
el ferrocarril subterraneo, las tiendas moderni-io 
simas, los parques extensos, les agradaron de una 
manera imponderable. 

Vieron en la Plaza 25 de Mayo la famosa 
catedral fundada en 1752 que tiene parecido con la 
Madeleine de Paris, la Casa Rosada (del gobiernois 
federal), la Bolsa y otros muchos edificios. Pre- 
valece entre las casas particulares el estilo espaiiol 
antiguo con patio andaluz, pero las elegantes cons- 
trucciones nuevas son de estilo renacimiento 
frances. 2d 

Las industrias de la ciudad son chocantes por 
lo grandes que son — dijo Pedro. — Por ejemplo, el 
Mercado Central de Frutos que se dice es el 
centro mas grande del mundo entero en la 
vent a al por mayor de productos de la tierra; los 25 
inmensos mataderos y frigoriferos, los muelles 
atestados de buques ocupados en cargar o descar- 
gar sus cargamentos, los elevadores para meter los 


cereales en las bodegas de los barcos. Todo eso 
es de veras otro Chicago, pero un Chicago refinado 
y embellecido por muchas trazas artisticas. 
— Si, pero a los portenos les cae en gracia titular 

sa su ciudad el "Paris de America" aunque haya 
los de Rio que les disputan el titulo. De todos 
modos, por su amor a la musica parece Buenos 
Aires' un Paris y un Milan combinados. Fun- 
cronan en este momento tres compaiiias de opera^ 

lopredominatido las piezas italianas y francesas. — 
iY canta por casualidad esta noche Maria Ba- 
rrientos ? — Si, en el Teatro Colon segun anuncian 
los carteles. El elenco artistico, que comprende 
tambien a Titta Ruffo, es superior. — Bueno; 

isvamonos, si es dable conseguir localidades. — ^Y 
para maiiana por la noche procuraremos asistir 
al Odeon donde esta la compaiiia de Maria 
Guerrero y Fernando Diaz de Mendoza que 
interpreta el drama clasico espaiiol. — eQue otros 

2oteatros hay? — En primer lugar hay la Opera, 
famosa por su hermosura y grandeza. Hay 
tambien el Coliseo para la opera c5mica italiana; 
el Nuevo, compaiiia argentina de comedias y 
zarzuelas; igualmente el Nacional; el Marconi, 

25 compaiiia tradicionalista argentina; el Mayo, 
zarzuela espaiiola, y otros muchos. Ademas hay 
un sinnumero de circos, variedades y cinemato- 


Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

divisarse afanarse por 

emocionarse tener parecido con 

tener hambre, sed caerle en gracia a uno 

a mi manera de ver disputar algo a uno 

ceder paso a de todos modos 

yenir al encuentro de tino si es dable 

Deberes orales. Pongase en la forma debida el 
infinitivo subrayado de cada frase. i. Temi que los 
inmigrantes tener hambre. 2. £l desea que nosotros 
no emocionarse. 3. Crece Buenos Aires sin que 
nosotros lo realizan 4. Debe ir a Buenos Aires cual- 5 
quier inmigrante que tener ganas de ver la Tierra 
Prometida. 5. Me alegre de que Vd. venir al encuentro 
de los americanos. 6. No afanarse Vd. por conocerle. 
8. No creo que eso le caer en gracia. 9. Nos dijo que 
nosotros no ceder el paso a nadie. 10. Puede que 10 
divisarse la ciudad a lo lejos. 


Versi6n. The Valencian author, Vicente Blasco 
Ibanez, pictures Buenos Aires as one of Murillo's 
virgins of majestic proportions and with loosened 
hair, smiling and telling those who are hungry for^S 
bread and thirsty for peace to come to her abode. 

My emotions were stirred on reading **The Argo- 
nauts" but when I stood near the rail as our boat 
approached Buenos Aires I was even more moved on 
seeing the crowd of immigrants throw up their hats 20 
and cry in varied accents, "Buenos Aires I Buenos 



Hoy — dijo Pedro — fui a una parte mezquina 
de la villa a ver como viven los obreros en sus 
ciudadelas y al volver oi gritar a un chiquillo: — 
Mira al gringo. i'No se usa ese termino solo en 
sMejico refiriendose a los yanquis? — ^No, senor — 
contest© el seiior Fe — tambien se usa mucho aqui 
para apodar a cualquier extranjero. Hablar en 
gringo significa hablar en lengua desconocida, 
siendo gringo^ segun dicen, una perversion de 

10 griego. Por eso, el que habla asi se llama gringo. 
A nosotros los nacidos en Espaiia nos tildan los 
argentinos de gallegosy gachupinesy sarracenoSy 
godos o pelucones. Pero en verdad somos argen- 
tinos tan buenos como el que mas. Y a Vds. los 

IS yanquis se les respeta cada vez mas aunque los 
hay aqui que les terpen. — ^Por que? — Por creer 
que ambicionan Vds. apoderarse algun dia del 
continente del sur. Pero los mas ilustrados saben 
que es absurda tal creencia como lo prueba la 

2opaciencia de los Estados Unidos para con Mejico, 
la liberacion de Cuba y la doctrina Monroe. Al 
"Tio Sam" se le tiene por vecino fuerte y pro- 
tector bien que es verdad que no le conocen bien 



aqui. £s siempre la ignorancia causa de sospechas 
y malquerencia. Lo que falta es que se estrechen 
las relaciones entre el sur y la gran republica del • 
norte. La constitucion" de la Republica Ndftea- \^, 
mericana es la madre y base de las constituciones 5 
politicas de la America Latina. 

— Oimos hablar italiano por todas partes. — Si; 
son los italianos los que emigran en mayor numero 
a esta repubjica y se habla italiano muy comun- 
mente en algunos barrios de la ciudad. Hay 10 
diarios italianos como los hay ingleses, Franceses y 
judios. — Por eso el compuesto de la poblacion 
bonaerense se asemeja mucho al de Nueva York, 
e verdad? — Si; solo que aqoi es el espanol la lengua 
regente en lugar del ingles. Buenos Aires es 15 
esencialmente latino de indole a la vez que Nueva 
York es anglosajona. Las dos ciudades son 
grandes crisoles en que se funden muchos ele- 
mentos de vida europea. — ^Pero no ha influido 
mucho el italiano en la lengua diaria de la ciudad ? 20 
— Indudablemente. Hay algunos individuos que 
hablan una mezcla italiano-espaiiola que asusta. 
Son bastante parecidos y al mismo tiempo muy 
distintos los dos idiomas. No conviene de ningun 
modo confundirlos. — Si, pero lo que se aprendeis 
en la cuna siempre duruy y la semejanza que 
existe entre las dos lenguas sirve de estorbo a 
menudo mas bien que de ayuda. 



— ^jCuales son los periodicos mas conocidos de 
Buenos Aires ? — La Prensa y La Nacion son dos 
de los mejores del mundo entero. La Prensa 
es mas que un diario, es una institucion que tiene 
una raagnifica casa de administracion con habi- 5 
taciones reservadas para el entretenimiento de las 
personas ilustres que visitan la republica, salas de 
lectura, un servicio gratis de distribucion de cartas, 
despacho de i«formaciones, etc.— J En donde 
residen los pudientes de la ciudad? — En los 10 
arrabales de Belgrano de Flores, en la Avenida Al- 
vear y en los contornos del Parque Palermo llamado 
tambien el del Tres de Febrero. Ocupa la villa 
un rectangulo de 72 millas de extension y la prin- 
cipal arteria es la Avenida de Mayo que fueis 
acabada en 1906 y en que se gastaron mas de 6 
millones de pesos oro. Ahora hace unos 40 
alios que se principio a mejorar el alcantarillado 
y el sistema de aguas de Buenos Aires, resultando 
que al costo de 30 millones de pesos goza la 20 
ciudad de perfectas condiciones sanitarias. En 
casi todos estos mejoramientos se con to con 
capitales ingleses. En las plazas del Retiro (o 
de San Martin), Once de Septiembre, y Consti- 
tucion tienen sus estaciones los grandes ferro-2s 
carriles argentinos. 

— ^eSe divierten mucho al aire libre los porteiios? 
— ^Ya lo creo. Su Jockey^Club es famoso y las 


carreras sin igual. Son muy dados al football, 
polo, pelota, paseos en canoa en el Delta y a otros 
deportes por el estilo. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

como el que mfts servir de 

tener a uno por contar con 

asemejarse a ya lo creo 

influir en ser dado a 


Trabajooral. Para contestar en castellano. i. J Que 

5 significa gringo ? 2. i Como apodan los argentinos a los 
nacidos en Espana? 3. jPor que temen algunos al 
Tio Sam ? 4. i Por que son los Estados Unidos esen- 
cialmente de indole anglosajona ? 5. J Que se dice aqui 
de La Prensa ? 6. I Con que conto Buenos Aires para 

lomejorar sus condiciones sanitarias? 7. ^'A que 
juegos son dados los bonaerenses? 

Versi6n. We were walking through the poor part 
of the city yesterday when we heard some small 
children cry, "Look at the gringos I No, they are 

15 Goths or big-wigs." This was not said with ill-will 
but in jest. The Yankees and those of other lands are 
nicknamed "gringos'* not only in Mexico but also in 
Argentina, while the Spaniards are branded as Goths 
or Saracens. Mr. Fe explained to us that gringo was a 

20 perversion of griego and that he who speaks an unknown 
tongue speaks gringo and therefore is called gringo. 

North Americans are respected more and more in 
Argentina although there are some Argentinians who fear 


that Uncle Sam wishes to seize the southern continent. 
The better informed know that he is a strong, pro- 
tecting neighbor and say that the Monroe Doctrine 
proves how absurd is such a belief or suspicion. An 
Argentinian as good as the best of them said that in 5 
his opinion ignorance was the cause of ill-will in such 
cases and that what was needed was that the relations 
between the northern republic and Latin America 
should be made closer. 

We had a very good time last Sunday at the famous 10 
Jockey Club of Buenos Aires. The races were excellent. 
We have noticed that the people of Buenos Aires are 
very fond of polo, football, canoeing on the Delta and 
many other open air sports. 

Two of the newspapers of the city are well known 15 
everywhere. They are La Prensa and La Nacion. 
The former is more than a daily; it is an institution 
and its headquarters is provided with beautiful rooms 
(reserved for the entertainment of famous people), 
information bureau, reading rooms, etc. There are 20 
also English, French, Italian and Jewish dailies, 
although the prevailing language is, of course, Spanish. 
Italian is heard spoken ever)nvhere, the Italians being 
those who have emigrated in greatest numbers to 
Argentina. Nothing but Italian is spoken in certain 25 
districts of the city. I have heard some individuals 
speak a frightful mixture of Spanish and Italian. Thus 
it is seen that Italian influences greatly the speech of 
that city. On account of the very similarity that 
exists between Spanish and ItaUan, one should not 30 


confuse the two languages. A knowledge of Portu- 
guese or Italian often serves as a hindrance rather than 
a help to him who is learning to speak Spanish. What 
one learns in childhood always stays with one, says 
Sthe proverb. 

What especially called my attention in Buenos 
Aires was how much the composition of the popula- 
tion resembles that of New York, the two cities being 
great melting pots for fusing elements of European 
10 life. 

When they began to improve this city some forty 
years ago, they relied upon English capital. Now the 
inhabitants enjoy an unsurpassed water system and 
sewerage system and possess several beautiful railway 
IS stations. The well-to-do reside in Belgrano, Palermo, 
and Alvear Avenue. Six million dollars gold were 
spent in laying out the principal artery, the Avenida 
de Mayo. 



— jCuanto tiempo llevamos aqui, Miguel? — 
pregunta Pedro. — Miguel responde : — Cosa de dos 
meses. Hay que pensar en largarnos. — Si; lo 
de siempre: Mas alia. Creo que congeniamos 
bien con los argentinos. — Si, pero nos cabe conocer 5 
a los chilenos, a los peruanos y . . . — J A donde 
van a parar estas correrias? — ^A Lima, como ya 
sabe Vd., donde nos dedicaremos de lleno a hacer 
valer nuestra experiencia de varias partes. — 
Desearia yo que estuvieramos alii ahora porqueio 
quiero abandonar la vida errante y asentarme, 
haciendo otra vez una vida comercial. — ^*A quien 
me recuerda Vd? Seguramente no es a aquel 
Pedro entusiasta de hace un aiio que queria 
verlo todo. — Si, el es, pero tantas veces va el 15 
cdntaro a la fuente que al* final se quiebra, Pero 
veo que se trama algo. iA donde vamos, al 
Polo Sur? — No, hacia el norte. 

Tomando vapor en el muelle, salen rio arriba 
por el canal del rio. Les explica el senor Fe que 20 
aqui el Plata tiene 30 y pico de millas de ancho, 
que no es un rio en verdad sino un estuario en 
donde desembocan el Parana, con su afluente el 



Paraguay, y el Uruguay. Trae el Parana 50 
por ciento mas agua al oceano que el Misisipi 
y al mismo tiempo tanta tierra de aluvion que 
impiden mucho la navegaci5n. Se practican sin 

5 cesar operaciones de dragado para tener abiertos 
los canales navegables. Para efectuar el comercio 
fluvial se emplean boyas iluminadas, practices 
muy expertos, y barcos de menor calado. 

Dice el seiior Fe: — Podriamos ir a Rosario^ 

lonuestro destino, por ferrocarril pero deseaba que 
Vds. viesen el trafico inmenso del Parana. Miren 
estos navies. Van con rumbo a Europa o Norte 
America, cargados todos de trigo, maiz, carne 
congelada, cueros de ganado y alfalfa, productos 

15 originarios del Gran Chaco y las provincias de 
Santa Fe y Cordoba. Es la Argentina un pais 
esencialmente^j^ricola aunque pasan por Rosario 
muchos productos de las minas de La Rioja y 
Catamarca del noroeste de la republica donde se 

2oexplotan minas de cobre, hierro, oro y plata. 

Rosario, que dista 200 millas de Buenos Aires, 
puede Uamarse con sus 220,000 vecinos la segunda 
ciudad del pais, siendo centre ferrocarrilero y 
teniendo calles anchas y edificios muy medernos. 

25 La rodean en el campo muchas colonias prosperas 
alemanas, italianas y suizas. De alii salen los 
tres hombres por ferrocarril a visitar a Tucuman 
a Unas 600 millas al noroeste, cuna de la libertad 


argentina. Aqui se declare el 9 de julio de 1816 
en congreso de diputados la independencia de 
"las provincias unidas del Rio de la Plata". 
Visitaron alii con mucho interes la Casa de la 
Independencia, pequena construccion conservada 5 
con cuidado por los argentinos lo mismo que se 
hace con el Independence Hall de Filadelfia. 
Situado entre ricos naranjales y limonares en una 
region bien regada, Tucuman es muy pintoresco 
y muy "crioUo". Llegara un dia a ser una 10 
gran ciudad en el camino, de Bolivia por via de 

Tiene la Argentina menos de una mitad de la 
extension de los Estados Unidos y mas de una 
mitad de la poblacion de Nueva Inglaterra, 15 
contando con mas millas de vias ferreas que 
ningun otro pais sudamericano, es decir, unas 
20,ocx) millas con muchas mas en proyecto. 
Facil es construir caminos de hierro a traves del 
"campo" o pampas. Hay un trecho de via 20 
donde no hay curva al'guna en 200 millas de 

Al parar durante algunos dias en una "estancia" 
cerca de Rafino, se despidi5 el seiior Fe camino de 
Buenos Aires. Les agrado mucho a Pedro y a2s 
Miguel la vida de las inacabables pampas con sus 
gauchoSy grandes rebaiios de ganado, molinos de 
viento, poblaciones de vizcachas, iiandus o 


avestruces sudamericanos y sus muchas aves 
silvestres. Una vez les trajo un gaucho un 
guanaco que habia sorprendido y matado. 
Tomando un tren en el Ferrocarril Gran Oeste 

sviajaban con la mayor comodidad en la via de 
SK pies de ancho y con el equipo mas moderno. 
Faltan solo 38 horas para cruzar las 888 millas 
que separan a Buenos Aires de Valparaiso en Chile, 
pero en Mendoza, a 635 millas al oeste de Buenos 

10 Aires, se apearon los jovenes con motivo de 
visitar la comarca. Vieron con asombro miles 
de acres de vinedos, cultivados por expertos vinad- 
ores Franceses e italianos, donde se producen uvas 
de una calidad superior, base de un excelente vino 

15 que se consume casi enteramente dentro de la 

Locuciones'para aprender de memoria. 

llevar tanto tiempo en un de lleno 

lugar hacer valer 

cosa de ^a qui6n me recuerda Vd.? 

lo de siempre tramar algo 

congeniar con camino de 
caberle a uno 


Trabajo oral. Traduzcanse al espanol las oraciones 
que siguen. i. How long have you been here? 2. 
Whom does he make me think of? 3. What is being 


hatched up now? 4. He had to leave at once. 5. We 
shall put our experiences to account. 6. They were 
leading a busy life. 7. I want you to see the river 
traffic. 8. They did not get along well with her. 
9. Tucuman has come to be an important city. 5 

Traduccidn escrita. Although the Plata is called a 
river it is not one but is really only an estuary which 
at Buenos Aires ts thirty-odd miles wide. Into it empty 
the Parana, with its tributary the Paraguay, and the 
Uruguay. We saw dredging operations carried on 10 
ceaselessly so as to be able to effect river commerce in 
the navigable channels. Only light draught boats can 
be used here but these boats can also cross the ocean, 
setting their course for North America or Europe and 
carrying in their holds frozen beef, com, beef hides, 15 
wheat and some mining products. 

In order that we might see this vast river traffic we 
took boat and went up-stream to Rosario. We should 
have made the trip of 200 miles by train had not 
Mr. Fe wanted us to see the river and the boats on it. 20 
The Parana carries to the sea 50 per cent more water 
than the Mississippi. 

Rosario, a railway center of some 220,000 population, 
is surrounded by many Italian, Swiss and German 
colonies. Its streets are wide and up-to-date. At the 25 
docks of this city are loaded the many boats we saw. 
The Gran Chaco and the provinces of Cordoba and 
Santa Fe and likewise the copper, iron, silver and gold 
mines of La Rioja and Catamarca send their agricultur- 
al and mining products to Rosario. 30 


From Rosario we went to Tucuman, the cradle of 
liberty, where we desired to see the Independence 
House in which, July 9, 18 19, was declared the inde- 
pendence of the provinces of the River Plata. This 
5 small building is now preserved inside of another 
larger one. Tucuman is 600 miles to the northwest of 
Rosario and is situated among irrigated orange and 
lemon groves. We called it very characteristically 
South American. 

10 There is a stretch of railway across the "camp" or 
pampas of Central Argentina in which there is no 
curve in a run of 200 miles. It has been easy to build 
across the interminable plains the 20,000 miles of 
railway that this land possesses. Having less than 

15 half the area of the United States and more than half 
the population of New England, it is evident that there 
is room in this republic for many more colonists. 

We stayed a few days on an "estancia" in the central 
part of the country, enjoying greatly the life there. 

20 The great herds of cattle, the many wild birds and 
the windmills reminded us of the western plains of 
our own country. But there were animals there which 
we had never seen before; the nanduy the guanaco, and 
the vizcacha. The cowboys amused themselves bring- 

25 ing to us some of these animals. 

We had been there a week when we remembered that 
we had to leave soon although we got along well with 
the Argentinians. We had also to get acquainted with 
the Chileans, the Peruvians, and other nations. Peter 

30 was no longer the enthusiastic traveler of a year 


before. He said he wished now to settle down and 
devote himself fully to a commercial life and that some- 
thing was always being hatched up to make him 
abandon the place he was in. "The same old story," 
he said. "Keep going. But bear in mind that *so often 5 
does the pitcher go to the well that at last it is brbken'." 
After taking a train for Chile, we got off at Mendoza 
to visit the thousands of acres of vineyards of that 
region. The managers were always French or Italian 
wine growers and a superior grade of wine was produced 10 
here, all of which was consumed in the nation. 


• I 


'- *■! 


Subimos a un tren del Ferrocarril Transandino 
que consistia en angostos vagones a causa de la 
norma angosta de la via y principiamos a . ir 
cuesta arriba a poco de partir de Mendoza. 

5 Ponen 250 millas de Mendoza a Valparaiso pero 
para atravesar esta distancia hay que ascender a 
una altura de casi 13,000 pies, unos 10,000 pies 
encima de la region mendocina. Por supuesto 
no fue rapida la marcha del convoy. Al llegar a 

10 la frontera chilenoargentina, nos apeamos y 
fuimos a ver la renombrada estatua del Cristo de 
los Andes, usada como hito y erigida aqui por las 
dos naciones el 13 de marzo de 1904, en serial de 
haberse arreglado para siempre la cuestion de 

islimites entre ellas por medio de la mediacion del 
rey Eduardo VII de Inglaterra, quien dio su fallo 
en 1902 despues de unos sesenta aiios de querella 
entre los dos paises. Se leen inscritas en la estatua 
estas palabras: Se desplomaran primero estas 

2omontaiias antes que Argentines y Chilenos rom- 
pan la paz jurada a los pies del Cristo Redentor. 
Volviendo al tren pasamos por un tunel de dos 



millas de largo, excavado a una altura de 10,460 
pies. Saliendo en medio de los Andes, vimos 
alzarse en el cielo ese volcan gigantesco, el Acon- 
cagua, el pico mas elevado del Nuevo Mundo, 
que tiene unos 23,000 pies de elevacion. Daba 5 
gloria y miedo a la vez el contemplarlo. Del 
lado de Chile abarcabamos con la vista un labe- 
rinto multicolor de Cordilleras nevadas extendien- 
dose majestuosamente en hileras hacia el norte 
y hacia el sur. Bajo el tren con rapidez por uno 10 
de los muchos valles transversales y al llegar a 
Llai-Llai, cambiamos de tren para ir a Santiago, 
la cual ciudad nos propusimos visitar primero. 

En el centro de Chile se crian muchas uvas, 
pastos y ganado. Las vinas, al igual que las del 15 
Rin, se encuentran en las laderas de los montes. 

Santiago, capital y ciudad mayor, esta tan cerca 
de la Cordillera que esta la sombrea por la mafiana. 
En comparacion con el caotico Buenos Aires, San- 
tiago parece con sus 400,000 almas muy quedita y 20 
tVanquila. Esta a la cabeza del valle longitudinal 
que se extiende una.s 500 millas por en medio de 
la faja estrecha de tierra que se llama Chile. Las 
calles son anchas y rectas con edificios publicos 
notables: entre otros se puede citar el Palacio del 25 
Congreso y la catedral. Por todas partes se 
hallan monumentos y estatuas de marmol que 
hermosean las alamedas y parques. El monte 


I 3 


Santa Lucia que se eleva en el centre de Santiago 
es monte, jardin y paseo. Vamos alia todas las 
tardes a rodar por entre los platanos, resales, 
floreros, esculturas, cocoteros y cascadas de agua. 
Asistimos a las representaciones del teatro 5 
"Alcazar de la Montana" y comemos en una de 
las fondas con galerias de vidrio. A la puesta 
del sol solemos subir al pico mas alto donde hay 
un mirador desde el cual se domina la ciudad con 
sus contornos llamativos : la gran Cordillera 10 
nevada al este y al oeste la larga linea de montes 
que lindan con el mar, detras de los cuales se 
hunde el sol en las aguas del Paciiico. 

Aunque se ven muchos ingleses y algunos 
alemanes en Chile, rige aqui una solidaridad de 15 
raza que no se encuentra en igual grado en otros 
muchos paises hispanoamericanos. A la Argentina 
vienen emigrantes de todos los rincones del 
universo: se puede oir hablar alli todos los idiomas. 
Pero en Chile es cosa rara oir hablar otra lengua 20 
que el castellano. El elemento criollo tuvo por 
base los vascongados inmigrantes, gente laboriosa 
y leal como pocas, que tras afios y aiios de pelea 
con los quechuas, aimaras y sobretodo con los 
araucanos produjo en una raza robusta, modesta, 25 
muy amante de la ley y de la justicia. Hay pocos 
mestizos de indio y espaiiol tal como los hay en otras 
partes de la America Meridional. El rotd y el 



huaso son elementos preciosos de la sociedad 
chilena. "El roto — dice un escritor* — es de pura 
sangre espanola> conserva las costumbres y el 
vestuario del pueblo peninsular. El traje y el 
arreo del huaso es casi identic© al del ganadero 5 
asturiano. La mujer del pueblo, en Chile, usa 
el manton, la poUera vistosji, las flores en el 
cabello, la guitarra, la copla arrebatada y senti- 
mental de las mujeres sevillanas." 

Hay que poner a los rotos entre los mejoresio 
soldados del mundo. Sus condiciones naturales 
y su amor a la patria hacen que se les llame a los 
chilenos los Romanos de la America. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

dar un fallo a la vez 

ver alzarse proponerse 

dar gloria hundirse en 

dar miedo tal cual hay 

• • 


Trabajo oral. Substituyase el infinitivo de cada una 
de las siguientes frases por la forma debida del verbo. 1. 15 
Me alegre de que la marcha no ser rapida. 2. Enseneme 
yd. un florero que hermosear el parque. 3. Puede 
que los quechuas hablar espanol. 4. Se hundio el sol 
en el mar sin que yo verlo. 5. Citeme Vd. un pais 
donde haber mas extranjeros que en Chile. 6. Los 20 

*B. Vicuna Subercaseaux, Un Pais Nuevo, Paris, 1903, 
p. 103. 


contornos Uamativos de la ciudad hacen que todos 
subir -al monte para verlos. 7. Permita Vd. que nos- 
otros citar la catedral y el Palacio del Congreso. 

Traduccidn escrita. 

Santiago de Chile, November 11, 191 — . 

5 My dear friend: At Mendoza I changed from the 
broad gauge to the harrow gauge track of the Trans- 
andean Railway and soon after leaving Mendoza the 
train began to go up-grade and had to reach a height of 
13,000 feet above the sea. One of the boundary marks 

10 that may be seen on this Chilean-Argentinian frontier 
is the famous statue of the Christ of the Andes. For 
many years there had been a quarrel between the 
republics about their common boundary line and the 
question was not settled until 1902 when King 

15 Edward VII of England gave his decision regarding it. 
This statue was erected to express the intention of 
Argentina and Chile never to make war on each other 
regarding this question or any other. 

After going through the long tunnel of the Uspallata 

20 pass we found ourselves in the midst of huge peaks 
towering into the sky. It was inspiring to behold the 
gigantic Aconcagua, the loftiest mountain of the 
hemisphere. Northward and southward I took in 
with nxy eyes many rows of snowy mountain chains 

25 stretching out in a many-colored labyrinth. Then the 
train began to descend through a cross valley and at 
Llai-Llai I had to change cars, intending to go and visit 
Santiago first. 


Santiago seems to me very quiet in comparison with 
chaotic Buenos Aires. It is a rare thing here to hear 
any language spoken other than Spanish, while in the 
Argentinian capital nearly all the languages of the 
universe may be heard. It is said that the solidarity 5 
of race which prevails in Chile can not be found in 
equal degree in many other Spanish-American lands, 
although many Germans and English have sfettled 
in Chile. The Indians in the narrow strip of land 
now called Chile were the Kechuans, Aimaras and 10 
the Araucanians. With them (and especially with 
the Araucanians) the Spanish colonists had to iight 
years and years. But there are few half-breeds in 

There are those who describe the rotos and the huasos is 
as the most valuable element of Chilean society. They 
are of Spanish blood, Asturian or Basque, but 
were born in the republic, still keeping the dress and 
the trappings of Spain. The women still use the 
guitar, the flowers in the hair and the shawl of Sevillian 20 
women. It is fitting to call these people, because of 
their love of country and of justice, the Romans of the 
New World. 

I go to Santa Lucia hill every evening to stroll among 
th^ rose bushes, statues and fountains, at sunset going 25 
up to the lookout from which one overlooks the whole 
city. To the east I behold the snowy range which in 
the morning shades the city, and to the west I see 
the sun sinking behind the rows of mountains border- 
ing the coast. The longitudinal valley in which 30 


Santiago is situated is one of the most wonderful in 
the world. 

Write me soon. I long to hear from you. Your 





— (jSabe Vd., Pedro — pregunto Miguel — que 
fueron los chilenos los que primero levantaron el 
estandarte de la libertad en Sud America? — Si; 
fue el ano 1780, y en 1783 en el Ecuador broto la 
famosa revolucion de los **comuneros". Pero 5 
fracasaron por entonces estos intentos los cuales no, 
se renovaron hasta 1810 cuando prendio en todo 
el continente el fuego de la independencia, siendo 
Bolivar el jefe del norte y San Martin el del sur. 
Ocho paises reunieron sus fuerzas en contra de los 10 
espanoles, que se vieron derrotados finalmente en 
la batalla de Ayacucho en 1824. Los chilenos ya 
habian conseguido su libertad derrotando a los 
espafioles en la batalla de Maipo el dia 5 de 
abril de 1818. — He leido que los primeros horn- 15 
bres del pais eran entonces el general O'Higgins 
y don Diego Portales. — Si; y este era un hombre 
muy energico y capaz y se le puede llamar el 
verdadero fundador de la republica. — Hay 
quienes Uaman a los chilenos los ^^Yanquis del 20 
Sur". — Si, y creo que se lo merecen. Los 
primeros vapores del sur salieron de Valparaiso 
en 1844; el primer ferrocarril sudamericano se 



construyo de Caldera a Copiapo en 1851. No 
existen, parece, delineaciones marcadas entre las 
diferentes clases de la nacion. Los de alta 
categoria hacen vida comun con los que se elevan 
sdesde abajo por el ^jercicio del talento y la 
laboriosidad. Esto es muy yanqui, a mi parecer. 
— Me dijo hoy un anciano que los chilenos fun- 
daron la ciudad de San Francisco de California 
en 1848. Me sorprendio el saberlo. ^Y ha 

lonotado Vd. el atletismo de los chilenos? — Si; 
hay carreras, juegos de foot-ball, polo, criquet y 
lawn-tennis: casi todos los deportes anglosajones. 
El clima templado parece que invita a las activi- 
dades fuertes lo mismo que en nuestro pais. 

15 En Lota, pueblo costanero al sur de Santiago, 
encontraron los norteamericanos por primera vez 
en sus viajes por Sud America minas carboniferas 
que se explotan segun los metodos mas cientificos. 
En esto es Chile muy afortunado aunque todavia 

20 se tiene que importar carbon gales y australiano 
para hacer marchar su maquinaria. Parecen 
inagotables los depositos de bulla que se extienden 
por debajo de la bahia. La empresa minera tiene 
establecidos alii para sus obreros buenos hos- 

25 pitales y escuelas. Aqui estan el famoso Parque 
y Palacio Cousiiio, a cuya familia pertenecen los 
depositos de bulla. 
Chile cuenta con 15 puertos mayores y 38 


menores o caletas, de los cuales el de Valparaiso es 
el mas importante. Es tambien la ciudad mas 
grande de la' costa entera del Pacifico, a excepcion 
de San Francisco de California. Aqui Miguel y 
Pedro pasaron mucho tiempo visitando los asti- 5 
lleros y diques de carena, las fabricas de locomoto- 
ras, de maquinaria y de vagones, y la escuela naval. 
Se pusieron en contacto con los fabricantes mas 
poderosos de la ciudad esperando asi llegar a 
establecer relaciones comerciales mas tarde. 10 
Aunque se Han gastado 50 millones de pesos en 
el mejoramiento del puerto, todavia faltan facili- 
dades suficientes al comercio de aqui. 

— ^Ahora para acabar con Chile — dijo Pedro 
— nos falta ver la region salitrera del norte, la 15 
que ha hecho millonarios a tantos ingleses y 
chilenos. Dicen que se diferencia slimamente la 
costa del norte de la del sur, donde hay innumerables 
islas y bahias. Embarcandose en uno de los 
grandes vapores chilenos, partieron para los 20 
tristes desiertos de Atacama y Tarapaca. Al 
tercer dia en medio de un gran calor anclo el 
barco en el surgidero de Caldera. El capitan 
les conto algo de los dias de antano en que las 
minas de cobre de Copiapo y Coquimbo surtian el 25 
70 por ciento de ese mineral usado en todo el 
mundo. En Chuquicamata — les dijo — hay una 
montana de cobre que algun dia se reducira en 


fundiciones establecidas en la costa, abasteciendo 
por medio del canal de Panama a todas las nece- 
sidades de los paises del norte. 

En Antofagasta se desembarcaron los dos 

s jovenes y subieron a un tren del ferrocarril chileno- 
boliviano que remontaba la escarpada ladera 
cortada a pico sobre el mar, Uegando a una de 
las "oficinas'* donde se preparaba el caliche o 
nitrato de sosa. En los yacimientos del mineral, 

zo a ras de la superficie del desierto interminable, se 
rompe el suelo por medio de dinamita, se trans- 
portan los fragmentos en pequenos carros a la 
oficina, donde se machaca por medio de grandes 
maquinas molientes. Lo resultante se hierve 

15 con agua hasta que se asimile el nitrato. Entonces 
se deja evaporar el agua y queda la sal blanca y 
deslumbrante que se ensaca y se envia por tren 
a los navios, los cuales lo Uevan a los cuatro 
puntos cardinales. 

20 Iquique, con unos 45,000 habitantes, es el centro 
salitrero mas grande y aqui existe mucha sociedad 
anglochilena que goza de todas las comodidkdes 
de la vida, aunque circuida por desiertos abrasa- 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

el fuego prendi6 en los dias de antafio 

hacer vida comdn con cortado a pico 

contar con a ras de 



Deberes verbales. Para traducir al castellano. 
I. Chile must possess about fifty ports. 2. The 
Anglo-Chileans of Iquique had always enjoyed all the 
comforts of life. 3. What made the machinery go? 
4. Forty-four hours are needed to make the journey 5 
from Antofagasta to La Paz. 5. I like the name 
Chuquicamata. 6. This copper mountain will supply 
60 per cent of the needs of the world. 7. Nitrate of 
soda makes fields more fertile. 8. The resultant was 
boiled with water. 10 

Versi6n. It is known that the first attempts of the 
South Americans to obtain their liberty failed. It was 
not until 1 8 10 that the fire of independence took hold 
in all the Spanish viceroyships. Bolivar raised the 
standard of liberty in the northern colonies and Sams 
Martin in the southern. The latter was an Argentinian 
and he and the Chilean, Bernardo O'Higgins, gathered 
their forces in Mendoza in the spring of 1817 and, 
crossing the Andes, routed the Spaniards in the battle 
of Chacabuco, February 12, 18 17. 20 

O'Higgins being named director-general of Chile, San 
Martin renewed the struggle further north against the 
Spaniards who were defeated near the river Maipo, 
April 3, 1818. Bolivar finally won liberty for all South 
America by defeating the forces of La Serna in the 25 
battle of Ayacucho, Peru, in 1824. General O'Higgins 
and Diego Portales may be called the founders of the 


— Today I heard an old man call the Chileans the 
Yankees of the south. Do they deserve this title? 
— Yes, indeed, in my opinion. It was in Chile that 
the first South American railway was built in 1851 

5 and it was from a Chilean port that the first South 
American steamships sailed. Moreover, those of high 
rank live as do those who by their industry and ability 
have raised themselves from a lower rank. They are 
fond of outdoor sports just like us, and all this makes 
10 them very Yankee, don't you think i 

— I should say so. And I have noticed that they 
work their coal mines according to the latest methods. 
You remember that the mining company in Lota has 
the best machinery for extracting coal from the beds 

15 that extend under the waters of the bay. These mines 
belong to the Cousino family which has good hospitals 
and schools established there for the workmen. 

— Yes, and don't forget those dry docks, shipyacds 
and locomotive factories we saw in Valparaiso, the 

20 largest city on the Pacific coast excepting San Francisco. 
And the latter city, they say, was founded by Chileans. 
When we came in contact with the manufacturers of 
the city they said that they hoped to establish com- 
mercial relations with us and I hope they will do ^o, 

25 — This nitrate region of the north coast diflFers 
greatly from the south coast, doesn't it? — Yes, here 
you have the unending Atacama and Tarapaca deserts 
where the beds of mineral are found. Countless bays, 
islands, woods and mountains are seen along the 

30 south coast. I was greatly surprised yesterday to see 


the many smelters in operation in Antofagasta. Yes, 
they smelt the ore that comes from the mines in the 

— But look at those great grinding machines! The 
caliche is found near the surface, is broken up with 5 
dynamite, brought here to the oficina and placed in 
these machines which crush it. Then it is boiled in . 
water which assimilates the nitrate. Afterwards the 
water is allowed to' evaporate until only the white 
salt remains.' This is sacked up and put on shipboard. 10 
The oficinas are surrounded by blazing deserts. 



Deslizabase perezosamente por la costa chilena 
y peruana el barco que Uevaba a Miguel y Pedro, 
recorriendo la distancia de unas 800 millas de 
Iquique al Callao y de paso haciendo breve 

sescala en los varies puertos y caletas situados 
cerca de la boca de algun no que da vida a las 
poblaciones de alii con sus aguas de riego. — Estoy 
muy ansioso — dijo Pedro — de ver el Peru donde 
se planto primero en el oeste de Sud America la civ- 

loilizacion europea. Desde que lei por vez primera 
cuando niiio los escritos de Prescott, he abrigado 
ideas muy risueiias de la " tierra de los Incas". iQue 
sociedad tan avanzada la de los Incas! — jY que 
crueldad — agrego Miguel — la de Pizarro, el cual 

isdestruyo en corto tiempo la civilizacion de cien 
siglos! — ^Todo fue por amor al oro, lo unico que 
buscaban los conquistadores de esa epoca. Asi 
empezaron mal los espanoles en el Peru, y en el 
Peru acabaron mal trescientos anos mas tarde, 

2operdiendo en la batalla de Ayacucho la ultima 
colonia del continente. 

Surto el vapor en el muelle ferreo flotante del 
Callao, tomaron los jovenes el tren para Lima, 


EL PERtJ 263 

la capital, llamada tambien "la perla del Pa- 
cifico", situada a diez millas del Callao y con la cual 
ciudad esta ligada por ferrocarril, tranvia y ca- 
rretera. Se albergaron en el hotel Roma y al dia 
siguiente se hicieron conocer al seiior Monteverde, 5 
agente alii de la fabrica del padre de Miguel. Este 
caballero puso en conocimiento de los dos jovenes 
algunos datos esenciales sobre el Peru y Lima. 

— El pais — dijo — se compone de tres regiones 
distintas, a saber: la Costa, la Sierra y la Mon-io 
tana. La primera se halla entre la cordillera y el 
mar; es arenosa y en ella llueve poco o nada. La 
segunda se extiende entre la cordillera y los 
Andes. Aqui el clima es benigno; la abundancia 
de las aguas, notable; la calidad del suelo, excelente. 15 
Lo templado del clima hace que la salubridad sea 
imponderable y cuantos han vivido en la Sierra 
se hacen lenguas de su situacion y condiciones. 
La tercera zona o la Montana, la mas oriental y 
la mas extensa, arranca de la vertiente de los 20 
Andes y termina cortada por las fronteras bra- 
silena y boliviana. En esta vegetan arboles 
gigantescos que forman selvas sin fin, cortadas 
aqui y alia por corrientes que van a llevar sus 
aguas al Atlantico. En la costa hay grandes 25 
depositos de salitre y sal comun, y al norte petroleo. 
Los pozos de petroleo los explotan companias 
inglesas, norteamericanas e italianas. Se envia 








EL PERt) 265 

mucho de ese mineral a California para ser 
refinado alii. 

Es el Peru un venero de riquezas maravillosas 
de caucho, guano, catia de azucar, lana de alpaca 
y algodon. Hay fabricas de calzado, tabaco, $ 
sombreros de paja y objetos de alfareria. Las 
minas de las montaiias siempre han sido fabulosas 
y producen cobre, plomo, plata, oro, hierro, 
estano, niquel, mercurio y bulla en abundancia. 
La mejor region minera es la de Cerro de Pasco 10 
queesta servida por el Ferrocarril de Oroya (o el 
Central del Peru). El primer trecho de este 
camino lo construyo el ingeniero yanqui Henry 
Meiggs de 1870 a 1877. Despues de su muerte 
en 1877 se prolongo la linea hasta Oroya, costandois 
22 millones de pesos las 138 millas de via 
desde el Callao a Oroya. Es el ferrocarril mas 
elevado y mas maravilloso del mundo con su 
famoso tunel de Galera colocado a 15,665 pies 
sobre el nivel del mar. Se prolongo mas tardeao 
hasta Cerro de Pasco y ahora se esta construyendo 
un ramal de esta linea hasta el rio UcayaH, 
afluente del Amazonas. Al terminarse, se pondra 
en comunicacion la cuenca del Amazonas con el 
Pacifico. Otra via va desde el puerto de Mollendo 25 
a Puno en el Lago Titicaca. 

Los puertos del Peru son ventajosos para el 
comercio por sus m6dicos derechos en los articulos 


CetyrifU by Nttmun Tratellallts and Brmm ir Dawmn, N. Y. 

Dos JdvENES Incas del FexI^ . 

EL PERtJ 267 

de maquinaria y las herramientas para la agricul- 
tura y para la explotacion de minas estando todos 
estos exentos de derechos a su entrada en el pais. 
— Gracias, seiior. Es Vd. muy amable en 
participarnos tantos detalles. Lo de la maqui- 5 
naria nos es de sumo interes. Nos conviene 
ahora alquilar algun buen local en el centro de la 
ciudad en donde podamos establecer la sucursal 
de la compania de Davis e Hijo. No vamos a 
reparar en gastos para mqntarlo lujosamente. 10 
Vamonos a arreglar eso. 

Locuciones para aprenderse. 

albergarse en participar algo a uno 

hacerse conocer componerse de 

poner en conocimiento de reparar en 


Trabajo oral. Ponga Vd. deseo que delante de cada 
una de las frases que siguen, cambiando debidamente 
Ids verbos subrayados. Despues, haga Vd. lo mismo 
anteponiendo desearia que. 15 

ellos albergarse alii. 

el participarnoslo 

deseo que 
desearia que 

conistruirse un ramal del ferrocarril 
Vd. no reparar en gastos 
Vds.- establecer una sucursal en Lima 
ellos enviar el petroleo a California 
Vd. poner en conocimiento de el algunos 



Traducci6n. I have been anxious for years to see 
Peru, of which Prescott, the North American historian, 
wrote much and where European civilization was first 
set up on the West coast of South America. I still 
5 cherish very flattering ideas of the advanced Inca so- 
ciety as well as very opposite ideas of Pizarro who, 
out of love for gold, destroyed that civilization of a 
hundred centuries. The only thing the Spaniards 
sought being gold, they thus began badly in Peru what 

10 they finished badly there three centuries later. But one 

must not forget, nevertheless, how much America owes 

to the Spaniards, none of whom showed so great cruelty 

to the Indians as did these first conquerors. 

While we have been gliding by the Chilean and 

IS Peruvian coast, I have made out many roadsteads and 
harbors at some of which we have stopped. Near the 
mouth of the river that empties into such a harbor one 
sees a small town to which the irrigation water of that 
river gives life. 

2o Now we are approaching the floating iron dock of 
El Callao and the boat being anchored, I am going to 
disembark and take the train for Lima which is only 
a few miles distant. I am going to put up at the Hotel 
Maury and make myself known to Mr. Monteverde. 

2$ Here he is now! Delighted to see you, sir. — At your 

service. I have been expecting you for several days. Let's 

go up to your room. I have a good one reserved for you. 

Then I wish you to dine with me. — Thanks very much. 

— Now then, tell me about this country. I must 

30 learn about it at once, rent premises and establish the 

EL PERtJ 269 

branch of our company. My father told me not to 
heed expenses in equipping it. — Well, sir, there is a 
good market here for machinery and agricultural and 
mining implements, all of which enter the country 
exempt of duties. — Inform me, please, of the different 5 
regions of Peru. — There are, one may say, three, 
namely: the Costa, the Sierra and the Montana. We 
are now in the first mentiohed,which is sandy and in which 
it seldom rains. The Sierra, which is found between 
the coast range and the Andes, enjoys a temperate 10 
climate whose healthfulness all praise who have lived 
there. The Montana, starting from the east slope of 
the Andes, extends to the Brazilian and Bolivian 
frontiers. It consists of endless forests through which 
pass streams carrying their waters to the Atlantic. 15 

Peru has always been famous for its mines which are 
found in the Andes. They have produced fabulous 
amounts of gold, iron, copper, lead, tin and nickel. 
The mining region of Cerro de Pasco was first worked 
by the Indians and. for the conquerors it was the source 20 
of marvelous riches which they sent to Spain. The 
Oroya Railway serves this region. This is the loftiest 
railway in the world. When a branch of this line is 
completed to Ucayali, the basin of the Amazon will be 
put in communication with the Pacific coast. 25 

Pottery, tobacco, straw hats and vast quantities of 
rubber, sugar cane and alpaca wool are produced, as 
well as nitrate of soda and petroleum. 

— You have been very kind in informing me of all 
this. It is of the greatest interest. 30 




Lima, diciembre 20, 191-^. 
Mi querido padre: 

Segun me instruiste arrende un local central 
que hice equipar de manera que en la planta 

sbaja estan colocadas muestras de las varias 
maquinas y herramientas que fabricamos y arriba 
en el piso principal tenemos instaladas nuestras 
oficinas montadas segun lo mas moderno. Creo 
haber reunido un personal inteligente y capaz, y 

lobien entendido en nuestro comercio especial. 
Pedro va a ser el jefe de los comisionistas y mi 
ayudante principal. Ya se ha mostrado muy 
cuerdo y perserverante y ha logrado gran exito 
en la venta de maquinaria para montar ingenios 

15 azucareros. Trabaja con mucho ahinco y dice 
que porfia mata la caza, Se califica a si mismo 
como contentisimo de volver a ejercer su oficio 
de vendedor viajante y no hay ninguno de los 
listos competidores alemanes que le haya podido 

2oaventajar en la venta de maquinaria. Casi todps 
los pedidos que te he remitido los consiguio Pedro. 
Los peruanos y otros le encuentran muy sim- 



patico. El senor Monteverde sigue de comision- 
ista y sale muy airoso en sus empresas. Los 
demas del cuerpo de vendedores son regulares. 

Los negocios estan todavia muy estancados a 
causa del terrible conflicto europeo y solo nosotros s 
los yanquis nos vemos en posicion de importar 
generos. Si no escasean dernasiado los buques 
de flete podremos sacar gran provecho' de esta 
oportunidad para ensanchar el mercado para 
utensilios americanos. Sin embargo, los plazos 10 
de pago los tendremos que conceder muy largos. 
Haz el favor, padre, de hacer empaquetar todas 
las maquinas segun las instrucciones dadas en mi 
ultima carta. 

He enviado recientemente la siguiente carta 15 
circular a los gerentes de varios ingenios, minas y 
oficinas salitreras. 

Muy sefiores nuestros: 

Tenemos el honor de participarles que con esta 
fecha hemos establecido en Lima una sucursal de 20 
nuestro comercio del cual era representante unico 
el senor Monteverde quien continua sirviendonos 
de comisionista viajante. 

Por ser bien conocida en esta republica nuestra 
maquinaria, nos permitimos dirigirnos con con- 25 
iianza a todos nuestros parroquianos antiguos 
asi como a los sefiores a quienes hasta ahora no 
hemos tenido el honor de tratar comercialmente. 




SupHcamos que visiten nuestro local, si les es dable, 
para inspeccionar las maquinas y herramientas 
que manufacturamos. Esto lo hacemos en la 
seguridad de que encontraran Vds. aqui lo mas 
moderno y eficaz que haya para las instalaciones 5 
de ingenios, oficinas y otras industrias mercantlles 
y agricolas. Nuestros precios son muy venta- 
josos si se comparan con los de otras casas. 
Condiciones muy liberales. 

El fundador de esta casa, don Roberto Davis, 10 
residente en Lima hace afios, ha enviado como 
director de esta sucursal a su hijo don. Miguel 
Davis y Blanco, quien conoce bien el negocio y 
anhela saludarles personalmente. 

Aprovechamos la presente ocasion para ofrecer- 15 
nos de Vds. muy attos. y S. S. 

Davis e Hijo 
por Miguel Davis y Blanco, Gerente. 

Locuciones para aprender de memoria. 

lograr gran ^xito 1 seguir de comisionista 

salir airoso en j esmerarse en 

aventajarle a uno ensanchar el mercado 

mano de obra ser dable 


Trabajo oral. Para decirse en castellano: i. April 6, 
1917. 2. July 4, 1776. 3. January i, 1863. 4. Dear 20 
Sir. 5. Dear Sirs. 6. Yours truly. 7. We 'have sent 


you many orders. 8. February 2, 1848. 9. They were 
renting the premises. 10. Have the books packed 
according to instructions. 


Lima, December 27, 191 — . 
Messrs. Antiquera and Castro, City. 

5 Dear Sirs: In reply to your esteemed letter of the 
2 1 St inst., we wish to inform you that we should be glad 
to have you visit our establishment and inspect the 

10 tools and machines that we make. We have had our 
premises fitted out according to the most up-to-date 
manner. We have got together a staff capable and 
well versed in machinery. Mr. Monteverde, whom 
you must know, continues to be one of our representa- 

i5tives and Mr. Peter Carter is our head traveling 
salesman. This gentleman and the rest of the selling 
staff have proved to be very agreeable to their Peruvian 
customers. They have worked with great ardor and 
none of their competitors can excel them. 

20 Therefore, if you desire us to sell for you the small 
machine that you make, we place at your disposal this 
shrewd body of commission salesmen who will come out 
successful in whatever enterprise we entrust to them. 
They always do their best and usually obtain success 

25 in selling our machines. They believe that "it is 
dogged that does it" and describe themselves as glad 
to follow their occupation of salesmen. 

Doubtless you know that, being a North American 
house, we have been able to continue importing goods 


although business is still dull, owing to the European 
conflict. We shall not be able to extend a great deal 
the market for our goods, however, if freight boats 
become scarce. We are having all our machines packed 
according to the South American usage. We are pre- 5. 
pared to set up sugar-mills, nitrate plants, and mercan- 
tile factories. 

It is possible that we may establish a factory in 
Pradera, Colombia. It is said that beds of coal and 
iron are found together there and that there is plenty 10 
of labor there. 

We should be glad to greet personally the principal 
of your firm. We can say with confidence that our 
prices are advantageous; and we shall grant long terms 
of payment to our customers. 15 

We have written you so at length in the assurance 
that you are interested in seeing this branch of our 
house established here, since, as you say, you knew 
personally the founder of this house, Mr. Robert 
Davis, when he lived here years ago. 20 

We take this opportunity to subscribe ourselves. 

Yours very truly, 

Davis and Son. 
By Michael Davis y Blanco, Manager. 


(Los numeros se refieren a los de las lecciones que 
contienen los proverbios.) 
Per dinero baila el perro, y per pan, si se lo dan. (VI) 

Money is better than bread. 
Dineros son calidad. (VI) 

Money makes the mare go. 
Con plata nada falta. (VI) 

Money talks. 
Si aprender quieres a orar 
Vete a la oriUa del mar. (VIII) 

If you wish to learn to pray, 

Go to the seashore and stay. 
Quien madruga Dios le ajruda. ( X) 

God helps the early riser. 
En menos que canta un gallo. (X) 

In a jifFy. 
Hizo Dios a la Alhambra y a Granada 
For si le cansa un dia su morada. (XI) 

The Alhambra and Granada God made to please 
His eye, 

Lest some day He should weary of His heavenly 
home on high. 
La sal andaluza vale mis que hermosura. (XII) 

Better is Andalusian wit than beauty. 
Hambre y esperar hacen rabiar. (XIII) 

To wait when you are hungry drives you frantic. 



De la mar el mero, 7 de la tierra el camero. ( XIV) 
From the sea give me the sea-bass; from the 
pastures I prefer mutton. 

Contra el vicio de pedir hay la virtud de no dar. • ( XV) 

The bad habit of begging may be counterbalanced 
by the good habit of not giving. 

Ofr, ver y callar. (XVIII) 
Hear, see, be silent. 

A palabras locas, orejas sordas. (XVIII) 
To foolish words give a deaf ear. 

Por donde fueres, haz como vieres. (XVIII) 

When in Rome do as the Romans do. 
Quien tiene tienda que atienda ; y si no, que la venda. 
Let him who owns a shop either give it his attention 
or sell it. 

Ifa de hermanos, ira de diablos. (XXI) 

The worst hatred is that between brothers. 

Do quieren reyes, aM van leyes. ( X XI) 
Laws are made as kings require. 
Religions are chosen as kings will. 

A rey muerto, rey puesto. ( X XII) 

No sooner does one king die than another takes 

his place. 
The king is Head ! Long live the king. 
De Madrid al cielo y en el cielo un ventanillo para ver 
a Madrid. (XXIII) 

From Madrid to heaven and in heaven a peep-hole 
to look back on Madrid. 


No hay bien ni mal que cien alios dure. ( X XIII) 

All things come to an end. 
Quien lengua ha a Roma va. ( X XV) 

Make use of your tongue and you'll find out. 
Salir del lodo y caer en el arroyo. ( X XVI) 

Out of the frying-pan into the fire. 
Zapatero a tus zapatos. ( X XVII) 

Shoemaker, to your shoes. 

Shoemaker, stick to your last. 
De desagradecidos est& el infiemo lleno. (XXVIII) 

Hell is full of ingrates. 
La letra con sangre entra. ( X XI X) 

Learning is not an easy matter. 
Planta muchas veces traspuesta, ni crece ni media. 

A rolling stone gathers no moss. 
A muertos y a idos no hay amigos. (XXX) 

The dead and the absent are friendless. 
Donde hay gana hay mafia. ( X X XII) 

Where there's a will there's a way. 
Quien m&s corre menos vuela. (XX XIV) 

The more haste the less speed. 
Lo que no se puede remedial hay que aguantar. 

What can't be cured must be endured. 
Lo que se aprende en la cuna siempre dura. 

What one learns in childhood always stays with one. 
Tantas veces va el c£ntaro a la fuente que al final 
sequiebra. (XXXIX) 


So often does the pitcher go to the well, that at 
last it is broken. 
Porfia mata la caza. ( XLIII) 
It's dogged that does it. 



Tablas de las terminaciones de las tres conjugaciones 


Infinitivo — ^ar Gerundio — ando Participio pasivo — ^ado 

Tiempos simples Tiempos compuestos 

Presente Perfecto 

0| as, a, amos, fiis, an. he, etc. -^participio pasivo 

Imperfecto Pluscuamperfecto 

aba, abas, aba, &bamos, habfa, etc. + p.p. 
abai&, aban 

Preterito Pret^rito perfecto 

g, aste, 6, amps, asteis, hube, etc. + p.p. 


Infinitivo+^j &s, &, emos, habr£, etc.+p.p. 
£is, in 


Infinitivo+isii fas, la, habria, etc.+p.p. 
fames, fais, Ian. 





61 es, e, emos, eis, en. 


ase, ases, ase, isemos, 
aseisi asen. 


ara, aras, ara, firamos, 
arais, aran. 


are, ares> are, firemoSt 
areis, aren. 

hayai etc.+p, p, 

Pluscuamperfecto, I* 
hubiesC) ftc.+p. p. 

Pluscuamperfecto, 2* 
hubiera, etc.+p. p. 

FuTURO perfecto 
hubiere, etc.+p. p. 

a ad 


Infinitivo — er Gerundio — ^iendo "Participio pasivo — ^ido 


Tiempos simples 
O9 esy e, emos, eis, en. 

Tiempos compuestos 
he, etc.+p. p. 


la, las, la, famos, fais, fan. habia, etc.+p. p. 

f, iste, i6, imos, isteis, 


Y asi sucesivamente 
como para la primera 


Infinitivo+ef fis, fi, emos, Infinitivo+isij ias, {a, 

eis, fin. 

famos, fais, fan. 



a, as, a, amos, fiis, an. 


iese, ieses, iese, i^semos, ieseis, iesen. P^^^ 



iera, ieras, iera, ieramos, ierais, ieran. conjugacidn. 


iere, ieres, iere, i^remos, iereis, ieren. 

e ed 


Infinitivo — ^ir Gerundio — ^iendo Participio pasivo — ido 


Tiempos simples 

Tiempos con 


0, es, e, imos, is, en. 

Todas las otras termi- 


naciones de los modos 


indicativo y suhjuntivo 


son idinticas con las de 


la segunda conjugacidn. 


e id 




(Aqui se dan solo las formas irregulares de estos 
verbos. Las que faltan son, por lo tan to, regulares.) 

Presente de Indicativo 
caigo (i* per, sing,), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
caiga, caigas, caiga, caiga- 
mos, caig&is, caigan. 

cay6 (3* per, stng,), cayeron 
(3» per, plu,), 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

cayese, etc,; cayera, etc,; 
cayere, etc, 

, 4. dar 
Presente de Indicativo 
doy (i* per, sing.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
d^ (i* y 3* P^^' sing.), 

di, diste, di6, dimos, dis- 
teis, dieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

diese, etc,; diera, etc.; die:e, 

5. decir 


Participio Pasivo 

1. andar 

andttve, anduviste, anduvo, 
anduvimos, anduvisteis, 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

anduviese, etc,; anduviera, 
etc,; anduviere, etc, 

2. caber 

Presente de Indicativo 
quepo (i* per, sing,), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
quepa, quepas, quepa, que- 
pamos, quep&is, quepan. 

Futuro y Condi cional 
cabr6, etc; cabria, etc, 

cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupi- 
mos, cupisteis, cupieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

cupiese, etc.; cupiera, etc.; 
cupiere, etc, 

3. caer 


Participio Pasivo 



Presente de Indicativo 
digo, dices, dice; dicen 

(3* P^'T* plu,). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
diga, digas, diga, digamos, 
digftis, digan. 

FuTURO Y Condi cioNAL 
dir6, etc,; diria, etc. 

dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, 
dijisteis, dijeron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

dijera, etc.; 

dijese, etc,; 
dijere, etc. 

di (sing,). 

6. estar 

Presente de Indicativo 
estoy, est&s, est&; est&n 

(3* per, plu,). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
est§, est6s, est6; estSn 

(3* per. plu.), 

estuve, estuviste, estuvo, 
estuvimos, estuvisteis, 

7. haber 

Presente de Indicativo 
he, has, ha (hay), hemos; 
han (3* per. plu.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
haya, hayas, haya, haya- 
mos, hay&is, hayan. 

hube, hubiste, hubo, hubi- 
mos, hubisteis, hubieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 
Subjuntivo • 

hubiese, etc,; hubiera, etc.; 
hubiere, etc, 

Futuro y Condi cional 
habr4, etc.; habria, etc. 

he (sing,). 

8. hacer 

Participio Pasivo 

Presente de Indicativo 
hago (i* per, sing.), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
haga, hagas, haga, haga- 
mos, hag&is, hagan. 

Futuro y Condi cional 
hare, etc,; harfa, etc, 

hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, 
hicisteis, hicieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

hiciese, etc,; hiciera, etc,; 
hiciere, etc. 

haz' (sing.). 



9. IT 


Presente de Indicativo 
voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, 
vay&is, vayan. 

ftif, fuiste, fu6, ftiimos, 
fuisteis, fueron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

fuese, etc,; fuera, etc,; fuere, 

ve; vamos (i* per, plu,), 

10. ofr 


Participio Pasivo 

Presente de Indicativo 
oigo, oyes, oye; oyen 

{'i^per, plu.), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 

oiga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, 
oigfiis, oigan. 


oy6 (5* per, sing.); oyer on 

(3* P^r- P^U')' 

Imperfecto y Futuro de . 

oyese, etc.; oyera, etc.; 
oyere, etc, 

oye (sing.), 

11. poder 


Presente de Indicativo 
puedo, puedesy puede; 
pueden (3* per, plu.), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
pueda, puedas, pueda; 
puedan (3* per, plu,). 

Futuro y Condi cional 
podr6, etc; podrla, etc. 

pude, pudiste, pudo^ pudi- 
mos, pudisteis, pudieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

pudiese, etc.; pudiera, etc.; 
pudiere, etc, 

12. poner 

Participio Pasivo 

Presente de Indicativo 
pongo (i* per, sing.), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
ponga, pongas, ponga, pon- 
gamos, pong&is, pongan. 



FuTURO Y Condi cioNAL 
pondr6, etc,; pondrfa, etc. 


puse, pusiste, puso, pusi- 
mos, pusisteis, pusieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

pusiese, etc,; piisiera, etc.; 
pusiere, etc. 

pon {sing.). 

13. querer 

Presente de Indicativo 
quiero, quieres, quiere; 
quieren (3* per. plu.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
quiera, quieras, quiera; 
quieran (3* per. plu.). 

Futuro y Condi cional 
querr6, etc.; querria, etc. 

quise, quisiste, quiso, quisi- 
mos, quisisteis, quisieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

quisiese, etc.; quisiera,* etc.; 
quisiere, etc. 

14. saber 

Presents de Indicativo 
se (i* per, sing.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, 
sepftis, sepan. 

Futuro y Condi cional 
sabr6, etc.; sabrfa, etc. 

supe, supiste, Bupo, supi- 
mos, supisteis, supieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

supiese, etc.; supiera, etc.; 
supiere, etc, 

15. salir 

Presente de Indicativo 
salgo (i* per. sing.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
. saiga, saigas, scdga, salga- 
mos, salg&is, salgan. 

Futuro y Condicional 
saldr^, etc.; saldria, etc, 

sal {sing.). 

16. ser 

Presente de Indicativo 
soy, eres, es, somos, sois, 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
sea, seas, sea, seamos, 
se&is, sean. 

fuf, fuiste, fu6, fuimos, 
fuisteis, fueron. 



Imperfecto y Futuro de 

fuese, etc.; fuera, etc.; fuere, 

s6 (sing.). 

i*j. tener 

Presente de Indicativo 
tengo, tienes, tiene; tienen 

(3» per. plu.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
tenga, tengas, tenga, ten- 
gamos, teng&is, tengan. 

Futuro y Condi cional 
tendr^, etc.; tendria, etc. 

tttve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, 
tuvisteis, tuvieron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

tuyiese, etc.; tuviera, etc.; 
tuviere, etc. 

ten (sing.). 

18. traducir 

Presente de Indicativo 
traduzco (i* per. sing.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
traduzca, traduzcas, tra- 
duzca, traduzcamos, tra- 
duzc&is, traduzcan. 

traduje, tradujiste, tradujo, 
tradujimos, tradujisteis, 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 


tradujese, etc.; tradujera, 

etc.; tradujere, etc. 
(Todo verbo que tenga la 
terminaci6n -ducir se con- 
juga del mismo modo que 

19. traer 


Parti cipio Pasi vo 

Presents de Indicativo 
traigo (i* per. sing.). 

Presents de Subjuntivo 
traiga, traigas, traiga^ trai- 
gamos, traig&is, traigan. 

traje, trajiste, trajo, traji- 
mos, trajisteis, trajeron. 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

trajese, etc.; trajera, etc.; 
trajere, etc. 

20. valer 

Presente de Indicativo 
valgo (i* per. sing.). 



Presente de Subjuntivo 
valga, valgas, valga, valga- 
mos, valg&is, valgan. 

FuTURO Y Condi ciONAL 
valdr#, etc; valdria, etc. 

val {sing,). 

21. venir 


Presente de Indicativo 

vengo, vienes, viene; vienen 

Presente de Subjuntivo 

venga, vengas, venga, ven- 

gamos, veng&is, vengan. 

vendrg, etc.; vendria, etc, 

vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, 

vinisteis, vinieron. 
Imperfecto y Futuro de 


viniese, etc; viniera, etc; 

viniere, etc. 

ven {sing.). 

22. ver 

Parti ciPio Pasivo 

Presente de Indicativo 
veo (i» per. sing,). 

Presents de Subjuntivo 
vea, veas, vea, veamos, 
ve&is, vean. 

22a. proveer 


Parti CIPIO Pasivo 
provisto, provefdo 

provey6 (3* per, sing.); 
proveyeron (3* per. plu.). 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

proveyese, etc.; proveyera, 
etc; proveyere, etc 



23. pensar 

Presente de Indicativo 

pienso, piensas, piensa; 

piensan (3* per, plu,). 
Presente de Subjuntivo 

piense, pienses, piense; 

piensen (3* per, plu.). 

piensa {sing.). 

24. contar 

Presente de Indicativo 
cuento, cuentas, cuenta; 
cuentan (3* per. plu.). 




cuente, cuentes, cuente; 
cuenten (3* per, plu,), 

cuenta {sing,), 

24a. jugar 

Presente de Indicativo 
juego, juegas, juega; 
juegan (3* per, plu,). 

Presents de Subjuntivo 
juegue, juegues, juegue, 
juguemos, juguSis, 

( Fiase la seccidn 32). 

juega {sing,), 

25. perder 

Presente de Indicativo 
pierdo, pierdes, pierde; 
pierden (3* per, plu,), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
pierda, pierdas, pierda; 
pier dan (3* per, plu,), 

pierde {sing,). 

25a. adquirir 


Presente de Indicativo 
adquiero, adquieres, 
adquiere; adquieren 
(3* P^r, plu,). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
adquiera, adquieras, ad- 
quiera; adquieran (3^ per, 

adquiere {sing,), 

26. mover 

Presente de Indicativo 
muevo, mueves, mueve; 
mueven (3* per, plu.). 

Presents de Subjuntivo 
mueva, muevas, mueva; 
muevan (3* per, plu,), 

mueve {sing.), 

26a. oler 

Presente de Indicativo 
huelo, hueles, huele; 
huelen (3* per. plu.), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
huela, huelas, huela; 
huelan (3" per, plu,), 

huele {sing,), 

27. sentir 


Presente de Indicativo 
siento, sientes, siente; 
sienten (3* per, plu,). 



Presente de Subjuntivo 
sienta, sientas, sienta, sin- 
tamos, sint&is, sientan. 

sinti6 (3* ^^f. sing.); sintie- 
ron (3** per, plu.). 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

sintiese, etc.; sintiera, etc.; 
sintiere, etc, 

28. dormir 


Presents de Indicativo 
duermo, duermes, duerme; 
duermen (3* per. plu.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
duerma, duermas, duerma, 
durmamos, durm&is, duer- 

durmi6 (3* per, sing.); 
durmieron (3* per. plu.). 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

durmiese, etc.; durmiera, 

etc.; durmiere, etc. 

29. servir 


Present^ de Indicativo 
sirvo, sirves, sirve; sitven 

(3» per. plu.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
sirva, sirvas, sirva, sirva- 
mos, sirv&is, sirvan. 


sirvi6 (3* per, sing,); sir- 
vieron (3* per, plu.), 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

sirviese, etc,; sirviera, etc,; 
sirviere, etc, 

29a. reir 


Participio Pasivo 

Presente de Indicativo 
rio, rfes, rie; rien (3* per, 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
rfa, rias, ria, riamos, ri&is, 

ri6 (3* per, sing,); rieron 
(3* per, plu,). 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 
* riese, etc.; riera, etc.; riere, 






30. sacar 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
saque, saques, saque, 
saquemos, saqu6is, saquen. 

saqu6 (i* per, sing.). 

31. delinquir 

Presente de Indicativo 
delinco (i* ptr, sing,). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
delinca, delincas, delinca, 
delincamos, delincAis, de- 

32. pagar 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
pague, pagues, pague, 
paguemos, pagu6i8, paguen. 

pagu§ {i» per. sing,). 

33. distinguir 


Presente de Indicativo 
distingo (i* per. sing.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
distmga, distingas, dis- 
tinga, distingamos, dis- 
tingfiis, distingan. 

34. rezar 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
rece, reces, rece, recemos, 
rec^is, recen. 

rec6 (i* per. sing.). 

35. veneer 

Presents de Indicativo 
venzo (i* per. sing.). 

Presents de Subjuntivo 
venza, venzas, venza, ven- 
zamos, venzfiis, venzan. 

36. averiguar 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
averigiie, averigiies, averi- 
giie, averigiiemoSy averi- 
gii^is, averiguen. 

averigti^ (i» per. sing.). 

37. coger 

Presente de Indicativo 
cojo (i* per. sing.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
coja, cojas, coja, cojamos, 
coj&is, cojan. 




38. conocer 

Presente de Indicativo 
conozco (i* per, sing.), 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
conozca, conozcas, conozca, 
conozcamos, conozc&is, 

39. enviar 

Presente de Indicativo 
envio, envias, envfa ; 
envian (3* per. plu.). 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
envie, envies, en'i^e ; envien 

(3* per, plu,), 

envia (sing,). 

40. continuar 

Presente de Indicativo 
continiio, contintias, con- 
tinda; contrndan (3^ per, 

Presente de Subjuntivo 
continiie, continiies, con- 
tinue; continiien (3*^ per. 

contindo (sing,). 

41. buUii 


biill6 (3» per. sing,); bu- 
ll eron (3* per, plu,). 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

bullese, etc,; bullera, etc.; 
bullere, etc, 

42. plafiir 



plafid (3* per. sing,); 

plaiLeron (3* per, plu,). 
Imperfecto y Futuro de 


plafiese, etc,; plafiera, etc.; 

plafiere, etc, 

43. leer 



ley6 (3* per, sing,); leyeron 

(3* per, plu,), 
Imperfecto y Futuro de 


leyese, etc.; leyera, etc.; 

leyere, etc. 

44. huir 

Presente de Indicativo 
huyo, huyes, huye; huyen 
(3* per. plu.). 



Presente de Subjuntivo 
huya, huyas, huya, huya- 
mos, huy&is, huyan. 

liuy6 (3* per, sing,) ; huyeron 
(3» per, plu,). 

Imperfecto y Futuro de 

huyese, etc,; huyera, etc,; 
huyere, etc, 

liuye {sing,). 

verb6s que tienen participios 
pasivos mregulares 















Participio pasivo 



electo {0 elegido) 




preso {p prendido)^ 






Los verbos compuestos de los aqui citados tambien tienen 
participios pasivos irregulares. 


In this vocabulary both English and Spanish words occurring in 
this book are listed together and both are alphabeted according to 
the method used in Spanish dictionaries. For instance, initial or 
medial ch follows c, II follows / and n follows n. Thus all is found after 
dzarj carta after canvas^ dicho after dictator, etc. All English words 
beginning with ch will, of course, be found in the ch*s and not in the 
c*s; for instance, chicoy chief, etc. 

The number given after a Spanish verb is that of the paragraph 
or paragraphs of the Apendice in which is found that verb or a type 
verb to which it is similar. In the case of radical-changing verbs, 
the vowel change or changes of the accented syllable are given in 
parentheses; thus, dormir (ue, u). In addition, a paragraph number 
is given as with other verbs having irregularities. 

All adjectives are given in the masculine singular form and the 
feminine ending is not indicated unless it is formed in manner not 
mentioned in the following two rules: (1) Adjectives ending in o in the 
masculine singular change o to a to form the feminine. (2) Adjec- 
tives ending in the masculine singular in any other vowel than o or 
in a consonant remain unchanged in the feminine. 

Cognate words, such as nouns ending in cion in Spanish and tion 
in English, which are identical in meaning (in this book), are given 
but once, and that in the Spanish form. In some cases, however, 
other considerations not worth mentioning here have made it seem 
desirable to list cognate words under both their English and Spanish 

In a great many cases will be found given in parentheses the 
preposition that is generally to be used with a given verb or adjec- 

In every case meanings and uses given are those found in this book 
only. For further information about a word or expression the stu- 
dent is referred to Appleton's New Spanish Dictionary by Cuyas. 





a., adjective. 

adv., adverb. 

art., article. 

aug., augmentative. 

cond., conditional. 

conj., conjunction. 

def., definite. 

dftn., demonstrative. 

dimin., diminutive. 

dir., direct. 

f., east, eastern. 

esp., especially. 

fut., future. 

imper., imperative. 

imperf., imperfect. 

ina., mdirect. 

indef., indefinite. 

indie., indicative. 

inf., infinitive 
interj., interjection. 
interr.\ interrogative. 
intr., intransitive. 
m., masculine. 
n., north, northern. 
neut., neuter. 
obj., object. 
p., participle. 
pfrs., person. 
pL, plural. 
Port., Portuguese. 
poss., possessive. 
p. p.,*p2ist participle. 
prep., preposition. 
pres., present. 
pret., preterite. 
pron., pronoun. 

refi., reflexive. 

rrl., relative. 

J-., substantive, noun; 

also south, southern. 
S, A., South America, 

South American. 
sing., singular. 
subj., subjunctive. 
tr., transitive. 
v., verb. 

tv., yfts%, western. 
— , word repeated. 
+, followed by. 
=», is equal to. 
1st., first. 
2nd., second. 
Srd., third. 

a, prep,, to, at, by, on, from, ^ 
for; sign of the personal 
accusative', — + time ex- 
pression = after + time 

tiy an, indef, art., un(o), una. 

aba jo, adv., below. 

abalanzarse, 34, to rush. 

abandon, v, tr., abandonar, 

abandonar, v, tr,, to leave. 

abanico, m., fan. 

abaratar, v. tr,, to cheapen, 

abarcar, 30, v, tr,, to take in, 

abastecer, 38, v, intr,, to sup- 

abastecimiento, m,, supply. 

A B C, a Conservative morn- 
ing daily of Madrid. 

abdicar, 30, v, tr, and intr,, 
abdicate, give up. 

Abencerrajes, m. pL, Aben- 
cerrages, a family or faction 
prominent in the Moorish 
kingdom of Granada in the 
15 th century. They are said 
to have been treacherously 
massacred in the Alhambra. 

ability, aptitud, /. 

abismado, pp, and a,, ab- 



able, a., capaz, competente; 
be — , poder. 

aboard, adv., a bordo; go — . 
subir a bordo, embarcarse 
(30) en; abordar; all — ! 
Isenores viajeros al treni 

abode, domicilio, m., hogar, 

abogado, m., lawyer. 

abolisb, v, tr,y derogar 32, 

abordar, v, tr., to go aboard. 

aborigenes, tn. pL, aborigines, 
earliest native inhabitants 
of a land. 

aborrecer, 38, r. tr., to hate. 

about, prep.y (concerning) de, 
acerca de, referente a, 
tocante a; {round about) 
alrededor de; (with verbs of 
motion) por; (approximate- 
ly) unos, cosa de, aproxi- 
madamente; at — , (time 
of day) a eso de; be — to, 
estar para, estar a punto 

above, prep,, sobre, encima de. 

abrasador, a,, burning hot, 

abrazar, 34, v. tr,, to embrace. 

abrazo, m,, embrace; un 
fuerte — a, my best love 

Abreu y Llovet, Jos6, a 

fictitious name, 
abreviar, v, tr, and intr., to 

abbreviate, make a long 

story short, 
abrigar, 32, v. tr,, to shelter, 

abril, m,, April, 
abrir, 45, v, tr., to open, 
abroad, adv,, al extranjero. 
abrumar, v, tr,^ to overcome, 

abrupto, a,, abrupt, steep, 
absence, ausencia, /. 
absent, a,, ausente, ido. 
absolutamente, adv., abso- 
absolute, a,, absolute, 
absorbed, pp, and a,, abis- 

mado, ensimismado, sumer- 

absurdo, a,, absurd, 
abundancia, f., abundance, 

abundant, a,, cuantioso, 

abundante, a,, abundant, 
abundar, v, intr., to abound, 
acabar, v. tr. and intr., to 

finish, end; — de (+ inf.), 

to have just (+ pp,). 
acad^mico, a., academical, 
academy, academia, /. 



accent, acento, m. 

accept, r. tr,y aceptar; — our 
respects, a los pies de Vd. 
(to a lady), 

accompany, v. tr., accom- 
panar, ir (9) con. 

according to, prep,^ .segun, 
conforme a. 

account, cuenta, /.; — books, 
libros de contabilidad; on 
— of, prep., a causa de, por. 

accustomed, pp» and a., acos- 
tumbrado; become — to, 
acostumbrarse a. 

acebo, m., holly. 

aceite, w., oil; — de oliva, 
olive oil. 

aceituna, /., olive. 

acento, m., accent. 

aceptar, v, tr., to accept. 

acequia, /., ditch, small canal. 

acera, /., side-walk. 

acerca de, pup., about, con- 

acercar, 30, to place near, 
hand to; — se (a), v, refl., 
to approach. 

acero, m., steel. 

acierto, m., skill. 

aclararse, v. refl.y to clear up. 

acompanar, r. tr.y to accom- 
pany; to enclose (corre- 

Aconcagua, the highest peak 

of the Andes, 23,097 ft. 

high, near the Uspallata 

pass between Chile and 

acordar (ue), 24, v, intr., to 

agree; — se de, v, refl,, to 

acosar, v, tr,, to bother. 

acostarse (ue), 24, v, refl,, to 

go to bed, retire, 
acostumbrado (a)» pp* and 

a,, accustomed to, used to. 
acostumbrar, v, inir,, to be 

accustomed, wont, 
acquaintance, conocido, m. 
acquainted, become or get — 

with, conocer 38, familiar- 

izarse (34) con. , 
acquire, v, tr,, adquirir 25a. 
acquisition, adquisici6n, /. 
acre, m,, acre, 
acreedor, m,, creditor, 
across, adv,, a t raves; prep,^ 

a traves de. 
act as, V, intr,, hacer (8) de. 
active, a,, activo. 
actividad, /., activity, 
activo, a,, brisk, active, 
acto, m,, act; en el — , at 

actress, actriz. /. 



actriz,/., actress. 

actual, a., present; del — , of 
the present month. 

actualmente, adv., at present. 

acudlr (a), r. intr,^ to hasten 

acueducto, m., aqueduct. 

acuerdO) m., agreement, har- 

adagio, m,, proverb, adage. 

adaptar, v. tr.j to adapt. 

address, direccion, /.; to — , 
tra'tar, dirigirse (37) a; to be 
addressed to, ir dirigido a. 

adelantarse, v, refl., to pro- 
gress, advance. 

adelante, adv., forward; desd^ 
aqui en — , henceforth. 

ademfin, m., gesture; en — de, 
by way of, as a signal of. 

adem&s, adv.y moreover, be- 
sides; — de, prep., besides.' 

adentro, adv., within, inside. 

aderezar, 34, to prepare. 

adinerado, a,, m o n i e d, 

adi6s, m., good-bye. 

administraci6n, /., adminis- 
tration; casa de — , head- 

administrativo, a., adminis- 

admirable, a., admirable. 

adiniraci6n, /., admiration, 

admirador, m., admirer. 

admirar, v. tr,, to admire. 

admiration, /. admiracion, 

admire, v. tr., admirar. 

admitir, v. tr., to admit, per- 

adopt, V. tr,, adoptar. 

adomar, v, tr., to adorn. 

adomo, tn., adornment. 

adquirir (ie), 25a to acquire. 

adquisici6n, /., acquisition. 

aduanero, m., customs officer. 

advance, v. intr., avanzar 34; 
in — , adelantado. 

advantage, ventaja, /.; take 
— of, aprovecharse de; 
valerse (20) de; have — 
over, aventajar a, tener 
(17) ventaja sobre. 

advantageous, a., ventajoso. 

adventurer, aventurero, m. 

advertir (ie, i), 27, to warn; 
inform, remark. 

advertisement, anuncio, m. 

advise, v. tr., aconsejar (+ 
in/, or subj.). 

fiereo, a., aerial. 

afamado, pp. and a., famed, 

afanarse (por). v. refl., to be 
eager (to). 



afectisimo, a., very affection- 

affair, asunto, m. 

affectionate, a., carinoso. 

affectionately, adv., carinosa- 

affix, 9. tr., pegar 32. 

afici6n, /., liking. 

aficionado, m.y amateur; a., 
fond of. 

afirmativo, a, and s,, affirma- 

afluente, m., tributary. 

afoot, adv,y a pie. 

afortunado, a., fortunate. 

afraid, be — , tener (17) 

^ miedo, temer. 

Africa, /., Africa. 

after, prep., despues de, (be- 
hind) tras; conj, despues 
a una hora de partir; — 
being a few months, a 
pocos meses de estar. 

afternoon, tarde, /.; in the — , 
por la tarde; (with the hour) 
de la tarde; good — , buenas 

afterwards, adv., despues, 
luego, mas tarde. 

again, adv., otra vez, de 
nuevo; frequently expressed 
by volver a (+ inf.). 

against, > prep., contra. 

agasajar, v. tr., to enter- 

Agassiz, Jean Louis Ro- 
dolphe (1807-1873), a 
Swiss geologist and natural- 
ist of great renown; pro- 
fessor at Harvard 1847- 
1852; trip to Brazil in 1865. 
After him are named the 
grottoes found in the forest 
of Tijuca near Rio de 

age, edad, /.; 'Middle Ages, 
Edad Media, /.; Golden 
Age, Siglo de Oro, m. 

agencia, /., agency. 

agency, agencia, /. 

agent, agente, m.; encargado, 

agente, m., agent. 

agigantado, pp. and a., gigan- 
tic, huge; a pasos — s, 
rapidly, by leaps and 

agilidad, /., agility. 

agitar, v. tr., to wave; — se, 
V. refl., to become rough. 

ago, hacer + time expression', 
time expression + ha; 

agolparse (a) v. refl., to rush. 

agradable, a., agreeable, fine. 

agradar, v, tr., to please. 



agradecer, 38, to b^ grateful 
for, to thank for; — algo a 
lino, to be grateful to one 
for something. 

agradecimiento, m,, gratitude. 

agraviar, v. tr., to insult. 

agravio, m., insult, harm re- 

agree, v. intr,j convenir 21 
(en); — with, estar de 
acuerdo con. 

agreeable, a, agradable, 
risueno; {person) simpatico. 

agreed, pp,y convenido, cosa 
hecha; be — , estar de 

agregar, 32, v, tr, and intr. 
to add. 

agricola, a,, agricultural. 

agricultura, /., agriculture. 

agricultural, a., agricola. 

agua, /., water. 

aguantar, r. tr,, to endure. 

aguardar, v. tr, and intr., to 
wait, await. 

agujerear, v, tr,, to fierce. 

ahi, adv,y there; de — , 
thence, hence; per — , there. 

ahinco, m,, ardor, earnest- 
ness; con — , earnestly. 

ahora, adv,, now; — mismo, 
right now; per — , for the 

ahumado, pp, and a,, smoked. 

aid, ayuda, /., auxilio, m.; 
V, tr,, ayudar, auxiliar. 

aimar&s, m, pL, Indians of 
a tribe found in what is 
now Peru and Bolivia. 
About a half million of 
them still exist. Their lan- 
guage is similar to that 
of the Kechuans. Though 
conquered by the Span- 
iards they refused to speak 
any but their own lan- 

air, atmosfera /., aire, m,; 
open : — , a, and adv., al 
aire libre. 

aire, m,, air; al — libre, out- 
doors, in the open. 

airoso, a,, successful. 

aislamiento, m,, isolation. 

ala, /., wing, brim (of hat). 

alameda, /., walk, promen- 
ade, mall. 

alargar, 32, to exteiid. 

Albaicfn, m,, the oldest sec- 
tion of Granada in the 
northern part of the city. 

albafiil, m,, mason. 

albergarse (en), 32, to lodge 
at, put up at. 

alborotarse, v. reji,, to get 



Alcadir, name of a Moorish 
king of Valencia in the 
eleventh century. 

alcaide, m,, governor. 

Alcal&, name of one of the 
principal streets of Madrid; 
— de Henares; a town 17 
miles n. e. of Madrid of 
about io,cxx) pdpulation; 
seat of a great university 
from 1 5 10 to 1836. Birth- 
place of Cervantes. 

alcantarillado, m., sewerage 

alcanzar, 34, to attain, reach, 
obtain, succeed, secure. 

Alc&zar, m,, alcazar, a royal 
castle or fortress. 

alcoba, /., bed-room. 

alcomocal, m., cork-tree 

aldea, /., village. 

aldehuela, /., dimin. of aldea. 

alegrarse (de), v. reft., to be 
glad (of). 

alegre, a., joyful, merry. 

Alejandro, m., Alexander. 

alejar, v. tr., to separate; — se 
(de) V. refl,, to withdraw, go 

alemfin-a, a. and /., German. 

Alemania, /., Germany. 

Alexander, Alejandro, m. 

alfalfa,/, alfalfa, 
alfarerfa, /., pottery, 
alfiler, in., pin. 
Alfonso, Alphonso. 

— VI (1065-1109), a great 
leader in the Reconquest of 
Spain from the Moors. 
Reunited Castile, Leon and 
Galica under his control. 

— X (el Sabio) (1252- 
1284), a writer and scientist 
but a weak ruler. 

— IX de Leon (i 188-1230), 
first cousin of Alphonso 
VIII of Castile. 

— XII (el Pacificadbr) 
(1857-1885), son of Isabella 
II and Francisco de Assisi. 
Called to throne in 1875. 

— XIII (1886-). son of 
Alfonso XII. Assumed 
control of the government 
when sixteen. May 31, 
1906, he married Princess 
Ena of Battenberg, niece 
of Edward VII of England. 

algazara, /., shouting. 

Algeciras, a Spanish town on 
the bay of Algeciras, oppo- 
site Gibraltar. 

Algiers, Argel, m. 

&lgo, pron, and adv., some- 
thing, somewhat. 



algoddn, m.y cotton. 

alguacil, m., constable. 

alguien, indef. pron,, some- 

algiinoy (algiin), alguna, indff, 
a, and pron., some, some 
one; any {after negative). 

Alhambra, /., the ancient 
palace of the Moorish kings 
of Granada; built 1248- 
1554, covers an area of 35 
acres and is today the best 
preserved and most beauti- 
ful monument of old Moor- 
ish architecture. 

aliado, m., ally, 

alimenticio, a.y pertaining to 
food, nourishing. 

alistar, v. tr,, enlist. 

aliviar, v. tr.y to alleviate, les- 

alma, /., soul. 

almac6n, m., ware-house; de- 
partment store (S. A.). 

Almad^n, a town in the prov- 
ince of Ciudad Real, Spain, 
celebrated for its mercury 

alamanaque, m,, almanac. 

almendral, m., almond-tree 

alminar, m., minaret; turret. 

almirante^ m., m., admiral. 

Almor&vides, m. pL, a Berber 
tribe from n. Africa who 
embraced Mohammedan- 
ism and in 1086 crossed 
into Spain under the leader- 
ship of Yusef I to aid the 
Moors against the Chris - 

almost, adv,y casi. 

alms, limosna, /. 

almuerzo, tn., lunch. 

alojar, v, tr., to lodge. 

alone, a., solo. 

along, adv,, por, a lo largo de; 
go — , caminar por. 

aloud, adv.y en voz alta. 

alpaca, /., alpaca, an animal 
of S. A. much prized for its 

Alphonso, Alfonso, m, 

alquilar, v. tr,y to rent. 

already, adv., ya. 

alrededores, m. pL, environs. 

also, adv.y tambien. 

altar, w., altar; — mayor, 
high altar. 

alteration, reforma, /. 

Alteza, /., Highness (a title), 

although, conj.y aunque, bien 

altiplanicie, /., highland, 

altitude, altura, /., elevaci5n./. 



alto, a.y high, upper; lo m&s 

— the top; en lo — , at the 

altura, /., height, elevation. 

aludir (a), v, intr., to allude 
(to), mention. 

alumbrado, m., light, lighting 

alumno, m., student. 

alusi6n, /., mention. 

aluyi6n, m., alluvion, sedi- 

Alvear (Avenida), a street of 
Buenos Aires, noted for its 
elegant residences. 

always, adv.y siempre. 

alzar, 34, v. tr.y to raise, lift; 
— se, V. refl.y to tower, rise. 

all, a, and pron., todo; — 
who, todos cuantos; ■ — 
right, bueno, esta bien; it 
is — the same to me, lo 
mismo me da, no me im- 
porta, me es igual; not at 
— , nada, de ningun modo; 

— of which, todo el cual. 
all&, adv.y there, thither (with 

verb of motion) ; — van, there 
you have; — veremos, we 
shall see about that; m&s — , 
farther on; keep going; aqui 
{or acft) y — , hither and 

allegar, 3a, r. /r., to bind, 

alU, adv.y there {with verb of 

allow, V, tr,y permitir, admitir, 
dejar; be — -ed, permitfr- 
sele a uno. 

amabilidad, /., kindness. 

amable, adj,y kind, friendly; 
— para con, kind to. 

Amadeo, Prince of Savoy, the 
second son of Victor Em- 
manuel II of Italy, elected 
king of Spain, Nov., 1870. 
Treated unfairly by the 
Spanish, he resigned in 
Feb. 1873. 

amaneramiento, m., manner- 

amante de, a., fond of. 

amor, v, /r., to love. 

amarillento, a., yellowish. 

amarillo, a,y yellow. 

amaze, v. tr.y aturdir, asom- 

Amazonas, m.. Amazon, the 
chief river of S. A.; also the 
name of a vast state in 
western Brazil. 

ambassador, embajador, m. 

ambicionar, v. tr. and intr.y to 
be ambitious to, aspire to. 

ambiente, m., atmosphere. 



ambos, — as, pron. and a,, 

ameno, a,, pleasant, delight- 

America, /., America; Norte 
— , — del Norte, — Septen- 
trional, North America; 
Sud — , — del Sur, — 
Meridional, South Ameri- 
ca; — Central, Centre — y 
Central America. 

American, a. and s,, ameri- 
Cano; North — , norte- 
americano; South — , sud- 
americano, suramericano. 

americano, a, and s,, Ameri- 
can; espaiiol, Spanish- 

amigo-a, m. and /.. friend; 
— de escuela, schoolmate. 

amigablemente, adv.^ in a 
friendly way. 

amistosamente, adv,y amica- 
bly, in a friendly manner. 

among, prep,, entre, por entre, 
en medio de. 

amor, w., love; — a, love for; 
de mil — es, most gladly. 

amoroso, a., loving. 

amotinarse, v, refl.y to riot. 

amount, cantidad, /., suma, 
/.; — to, V. intr., ascender 
(23) a. 

amparar, v, tr,y to protect. 

amparo, m., protection. 

ample, a., amplio. 

amplio, a., ample, wide, 

amuse oneself, v, ufl,, diver- 
tirse 27, holgarse, 24, 32. 

amusement, diversion, /. 

amusing, a., divertido. 

anaranjado, a,, orange col- 

ancestor, antepasado, m. 

anciano, a. ands., old, ancient; 
m., old gentleman; /., old 

ancient, a., antiguo, anciano; 
in — times, antiguamente. 

anclar,* v, tr, and intr., to 

ancho, a.,wide; w., width; de — ^ 
in width; a sus anchas, at 
one's ease, comfortable. 

anchoa, /., anchovy. 

anchor, v. intr., fondear, echar 
anclas, anclar, surtir. 

anchura, /., width. 

and, conj., y; e (before i or hi). 

Andalucia, /., Andalusia, 
ancient kingdom of south- 
em Spain. 

andaluz-a, a. and s., Andalu- 

andar, i, to go, travel, walk. 



andSn, m., platform. 

Andes, m, pL, Andes. 

andrajoso, a., ragged, shab- 

Anglochileno, a, and s., Anglo- 

Anglosaj6n-a, a, and s.y 

angosto, a., narrow. 

anhelar, v, tr,, to long, to long 

animacidn, /., animation, 

animal, m., animal. 

ftnimo, m., soul, mind. 

anijiado, pp. and a.y child- 

anijiarse, v. refl,, to grow 

Anjou, the old countship of 
western Frande correspond- 
ing to the greater part of 
the present department of 

announce, v, tr., anunciar. 

annoy, v, tr., molestar, es- 

annual, a.y anual. 

annul, v, tr., derogar 32, 

anoche, adv.f last night. 

another, a, and pron., otro. 

ansioso, a., anxious. 

answer, v. tr», contestar, re- 
plicar 30, responder, re- 
poner 12; /., contests ci6n, 
/., respuesta, /. 

antafio, adv.^ long ago. 

ante, prep,^ before, in the 
presence of. 

anteayer, adv., day before 

antecedente, a., preceding. 

antepasado, m., ancestor. 

anteponer, 12, v. tr., to pre- 

anterior, a., former, early. 

anteriormente, adv., formerly, 

antes, adv., before, previously, 
first; — de, prep., before 
{in time expression); — 
(de) que, conj., before; 
cuanto — , as soon as possible. 

anticipaci6n, /., anticipation; 
de — para, in advance of, 

anticuario, m., antiquarian, 
antique dealer. 

antiguamente, adv., in ancient 
times, formerly. 

antigtiedad,/., antique, antiq- 

antiguo, a., old, ancient, old- 
fashioned; a lo — , in old- 
fashioned way. 



Antillas, /., Antilles. 

antimonio, tn., antimony. 

antique, antigiiedad, /.; — 
shop, casa de antigiiedades. 

antiqtiity, antigiiedad, /. 

Antofagasta, a city and prov- 
ince of northern Chile, the 
former having about I7,cxx) 
population. Shipping cen- 
ter and starting point of 
railway to La Paz, Bolivia, 
730 miles. 

antoj&rsele a uno, v. refl,, to 
take it into one's head, to 

anual, a., annual. 

anular, v. tr.y to annul. 

/inunciar, v, tr,y to advertise, 

anuncio, m., advertisement. 

anxious, a., to be — , tener 
(17) ganas; afanarse (por); 
estar (6) ansioso; no ver 
(22) la hora de. 

any, a. and pron,, most often 
omitted in translation if 
unemphatic; cualquier(a), 
algun(o); {after negation) y 
ningun(o), {before noun)y 
algun(o) (after noun). 

anyone, pron.y alguien, cual- 
quier(a); (after a negation 
or comparative) nadie. 

anything, pron.y algo, alguna 

cosa; (after negative) nada, 

ninguna cosa, cosa alguna; 

— else, otra cosa. 
anyway, adv.y de todos modos. 
anywhere, adv.y en or por 

cualquier parte; (after nega" 

tive)y por ninguna parte, 
afiadir, v, tr.y to add. 
alio, m.y year, 
aparatoso, a.y showy, striking, 
apartado, a.y remote, separate, 
apartment, habitacion, /. 
apearse, v. refi.y to dismount, 

get out. 
apellidar, v. tr.y to call, name, 
apenas (si), adv.y hardly 

apetecible, a.y desirable. , 
apetito, m.y appetite, 
aplastar, v. tr.y to flatten out, 

aplicado, a.y industrious, 
apodar, v. tr.y to nickname, 
apoderarse (de), v. refi.y to 

seize, take possession of, 

get hold. of. 
Apolo, Teatro de — , a theater 

of Madrid on Alcala Street. 
apoyar, v. tr.y to bear, support, 
appear, aparecer 38, parecer 

38; presentarse. 
appearance, aspecto, m. 



appetite, apetito, m. 

appoint, V, tr,, nombrar. 

appreciate, v, tr,, apreciar. 

approach, acercarse (30) a; 
aproximarse a. 

appropriation, contribucion, /. 

approve, 0. tr,, aprobar 24. 

apreciar, v. tr, to esteem, 

apremiante, a., pressing, 

aprender, v. tr., to learn; 
~ de memoria, to learn by 

aprendiz, m., apprentice. 

apresar, v, tr,, to capture. 

aprestarse (a), v, reft., to pre- 
pare (to). 

apresuradamente, adv., hasti- 
ly, quickly. 

apresurarse (a), v. refi., to 
hasten, hurry. 

apretar (ie), 23, press hard, 
clasp, harass; — la mano a 
lino, to shake hands with 
some one. 

apretdn, m,, pressure; — de 
manos, hand-clasp; dar un 
— de manos a uno, to 
shake hands with some one. 

April, abril, m. 

aprisa, adv., quickly. 

aprobar (ue), 24, to approve. 

aprovechar, v, tr,, to make use 
of, take; — se,p. refl., to pro- 
gress favorably, prosper, 
succeed; — se de, to profit 
by; I que aprovechel may 
it do you good! 

aprozimaci6n, /., relation. 

aproximadamente, a d v., 

about, approximately. 

aproximarse (a), v, refl,, to 

apt, a,, be — in, pintarse 

aptitud, /., aptitude, ability. 

apuntaci6n, /., note. 

apuntar, v, tr,, to note down, 
jot down. 

apunte, m., note. 

apurarse (por), v, refl,, to 
worry (about). 

aqueduct, acueducto, m, 

aquel, (aquella, aquellos, 
aquellas), dem, a,, that, 
those; aqu^l, etc., dem, 
pron,, that, those, the 

a qui, adv,, here; por — , 
around here, here; por — y 
por allfi, here and there; 
por — cerca, near here. 

Arab, arabe, m, 

&rabe, a, and s., Arabic, 
Arab; Arabic language. 



Arag6n, a former kingdom of 
northern Spain. Now 
divided into the provinces 
of Huesca, Teruel and 

Aranjuez, a town laid out in 
Dutch style on the left 
bank of the Tagus, some 
30 miles south of Madrid; 
contains a beautiful royal 
estate and palace. 

arafta, /., chandelier. 

araucano, m., Araucanian, an 
ancient Indian tribe of 
Chile, still vigorous and 
largely independent. 

firbol., m., tree. 

arco, m,, arch; Arco de Santa 
Maria ; an arch at the west 
end of the £spol6n prome- 
nade, Burgos. Built in 
i536'-52; adorned by statues 
of the Cid, Charles V., Lain- 
calvo and other celebrities. 

architect, arquitecto, m. 

architectural, <z., arquitec- 

architecture, arquitectura, /. 

ardor, ahinco, m, 

area, area, /., extension, /. 

arena, /., sand. 

arena (of bull-ring) ^ redon- 
del, tn. 

arenoso, a., sandy. 

arenque, m., herring. 

argamasa, /., mortar. 

Argel, m., Algiers. 

Argentina, /., la Republica — , 
(strictly and officially) Ar- 

Argentinian, argentino, a, 
and s.- 

argentino, a. and s,, Argentin- 

argonaut, argonauta, m. 

argonauta, m., argonaut, 

Arguelles, A., a Spanish 
statesman who died 1844; 
also a ward in n. e. Madrid. 

Arica, a seaport of n. Chile, 
from which runs a railway 
to Puno, 300 miles. 

arise, v. intr., provenir 21. 

arm, brazo, m,; (weapon) 
arma, /.; fire — , arma de 
fuego; steel — , arma 
blanca; v, ir,, armar. 

arma, /., weapon, arm; — r 
blanca, steel arm; — de 
fuego, fire arm. 

armada, /., fleet, navy. 

armar, v. tr,, to arm; — 
guerra a, to wage war 

armeria, /., armory. 



Armerfa Real, a building in 
the s. w. comer of the 
Plaza de Armas of the 
Royal Palace, Madrid, con- 
taining a world-renowned 
collection of arms and 

armero, m., armorer. 

armorer, armero, m, 

army, ejercito, m. 

aroused, pp, and a., conmo- 
vido, emocionado; to be- 
come — f conmoverse 26, 

arquitectura, /., architecture. 

arquitecto, m., architect. 

arquitect6iiico, a., architec- 

arrabal, m., suburb. 

arrancar, 30, v, intr.y to start 

arrangement, arreglo, m, 

arraigado, pp, and a., rooted, 

arrastrar, v. tr., to drag, pull. 

arrayfin, m., myrtle. 

arrebatado, pp, and a.y im- 

arrebatamiento, m., rapture. 

arreglar, v, tr,, to arrange, 
pack, settle. 

arreglo, m., arrangement, 

arrendar (ie), 23, v, tr.^ to let, 
lease, rent. 

arreo, m., trappings. 

arriba, adv,, up, above; rfo — , 

arriesgar, 32, v, tr,y to risk. 

arrinconar, v, tr,, to pile up in 
a comer. 

arrival, llegada, /• 

arrive, llegar 32. 

arrobamiento, tn,, rapture. 

arrojar, v, tr,y to throw. 

arroyo, m., gutter. 

arroz, m,, rice. 

arte, m, and f.^ art. 

arteria, /., artery, channel. 

article, efecto, m., artfculo, m. 

articulo,' m.y article; — s colo- 
niales, overseas products. 

artilleria, /., artillery. 

artisan, artesano, m. 

artist, artista, m, andf, 

artistico, a,, artistic. 

as, adv.f como, de, tal cual; 
— for, en cuanto a, tocante 
a, por lo que toca a; — if, 
como si, cual si; — . . . 
— , tan . . . como; — 
many — , tantos . . . 
como; — much — , tanto 
como; just — y como. 

asado, pp. and a.y roasted; 
poco — , rare, underdone. 



asar, v. tr., to roast. 

ascend, v. tr. and intr., subir a, 
trepar por, ascender 25. 

ascender (a) (ie), 25, v, intr.y 
to ascend, amount to, 
come to. 

ascensor, m., elevator. 

ascent, subida. /. 

asemejarse (a), v, refl.y to re- 

asentado, pp, and a,, calm. 

asentarse (ie), 23, v. refl.y to 
settle down. 

asfalto, m., asphalt. 

ashore, adv.^ go — , desembar- 
carse 30. 

asi, adv., thus, so; — que, as 
soon as; y — sucesivamente, 
and so forth. 

Asia, /., Asia. 

asiento, m., seat; ticket. 

asimilar, v. tr.y assimilate. 

asistencia, /., attendance. 

asistente, m. and /., one 

asistir (a), f. iWr., to attend. 

ask, {to question) preguntar, 
hacer (8) una pregunta a, 
interrogar 32; — about,' 
preguntar por; — a ques- 
tion, hacer una pregunta; 
— for, pedir.27; — some- 
thing of someone, pedir 

algo a alguien; as much as 
one could — , a pedir de 


asleep, pp, and a,, dormido. 

asno, m.y donkey, ass. 

asociaci6n, /., association. 

asociarse (a), v. refi.y to join. 

asoleado, pp, and a., sunny, 

asombro, m., amazement. 

asombroso, a,, astonishing, 

aspecto, m.y appearance. 

asphalt, asfalto, m. 

assimilate, v. tr.y asimilar. 

association, asociacion, /* 

assume, v. tr., asumir. 

assurance, seguridad, /. 

astillero, m., shipyard, dock- 

astonished, pp. and a., pas- 
mado, asombrado; be — , 

asturiano, a. and s., Asturian. 

asumir, v. tr., to assume. 

asunto, m., matter, affair. 

asustar, v. tr., to frighten. 

at, prep., a, en casa de; (no 
motion) en. 

Atacama, a province of n. 
Chile, in which are found 
great deposits of nitrate of. 



atacar, 30, v, tr,, to attack. 

atencidn, /., attention. 

atender (a) (ie), 25, v. intr.y 
to pay attention to, look 

atentamente, adv.y solicitous- 
ly, politely, cordially. 

atento, a., attentive, polite; 
— servidor, yours truly. 

atestado, pp, and a., crowded. 

Atl&ntico, a. and /., Atlan- 

atletisxno, m., athletic qual- 

atm6sfera, /., atmosphere, 

atmosphere, atmosfera, /., 
ambiente, m. 

atracci6n, /., attraction. 

atraer, 19, v. /r., to attract, 

atr&s, adv. J back, past, ago. 

atravesar (ie) 23, v. tr., to 
cross, transfix. 

atreverse (a), v, refl,, to dare. 

atrevimiento, m., daring, 

atropellar, v, tr.y to trample 
upon, knock down, run 

attach, V. tr,, pegar 32. 

attempt, in ten to, m., esfuerzo, 

attend, r. /r., {be present at)^ 
asistir a, concurrir a; — to, 
V. tr.y atender 25; business 
to — to, negocios que 
hacer; well — -ed, muy 

attendance, asistencia, /., con- 
currencia, /. 

attendant, criado, m, 

attention, atencion, /. 

atto., abbrev.y see atento. 

attract, v, tr.y llamar, atraer 
19; entretener 17. 

attraction, atraccion, /. 

aturdir, v. tr.y to amaze, as- 

augusto, a.y august, solemn. 

aumentar(se), v. intr, and 
refl.y to increase. 

aumento, m., increase. 

aun, aiin, adv.y still, yet, even. 

aunque, conj.y although, even 

ausencia, /., absence. 

ausente, a., absent. 

ausentarse, v. refl.y to be 
away, absent. 

australiano, a. and /., Aus- 

Austria, /., Austria. 

austriaco, a. and s., Austrian. 

author, autor-a, m. and /.; 
escritor, m. 



autom6vil, m., automobile. 

autor-a, m, and f., author. 

auziliar, r. /r., to help, aid. 

auzilio, m., help, aid. 

ayanzar, 34, v. tfitr,, to ad- 
vance, progress. 

ave, /., bird. 

avenida, /., avenue; Avenida 
de Mayo, the chief avenue 
of Buenos Aires. 

aventajado, pp, and a.y re- 
markable, bright. 

aventajar (a), v, tr,y to excel, 

aventurero, m., adventurer. 

avenue, avenida, /., calzada, 
/., paseo, m. 

averiguar, 36, v. tr., to ascer- 
tain, find out. 

avestruz, m., ostrich. 

await, V, tr,, aguardar, espe- 

awaken, 9. /r., despertar 23. 

awakener, despertador, m, 

away, adv., lejos; be — , 
ausentarse, estar fuera; (be 
distant) distar; be two 
miles — , distar dos millas. 

awning, toldo, m. 

Ayacucho, m., a city (and a 
department) of s. Peru. 
Scene of the ultimate de- 
feat of the Spanish forces 

by the republican troops 
under General Sucre, Dec. 
9, 1824. 

ayer, adv., yesterday. 

ayuda, /., aid, help. 

ayudante, m., aide, assist- 

ajrudar, v. tr,, to help, aid. 

ajTuntamiento, m., city hall, 
town hall. 

azogue, m., mercury. 

Azores, m, pL, Azores (the 

azdcar, m., sugar. 

azucarero, a,, pertaining to 

azufre, m., sulphur. 

azul, a., blue. 

azulejo, m., tile (glazed). 


bacalao, m., codfish. 

back, (of animal) lomo, m.; 

fl., (rear) trasero; — in, 

de vuelta en. 
back out, V, intr., llamarse 

bad, a., malo; — ly, adv., 

bag, (traveling) maleta, /., 

saco de mano, m, 
baggage, equipaje, m. 
bahia, J., bay. 



Bahia, also called Sao Sal- 
vador, a city and port of e. 
Brazil; population about 

bailar, v. intr., to dance. 

baile, m., dance. 

BailSn, a town of 7500 in- 
habitants in the province of 
Ja6n, Spain. Here 17,000 
French surrendered to the 
Spaniards, July 22, 1808. 
Also the name of a street 
in the w. part of Madrid, 
running past the Royal 

bajar(se), v, intr. and refl.y 
to go down, descend, get 

bajo, prep,y under; a,, low. 

bake, v, tr,, cocer 35. 

baker, panadero, m. 

bakery, panaderia, /. 

balanceo, m., rocking. 

balc6n, m., balcony, balcony 

balde, en — , adv.. in vain. 

Baltasar Carlos, the Spanish 
crown prince, son of Philip 
III, often painted by Velaz- 

ball, bola, /. 

bambd, m., bamboo. . 

banana, /., banana. 

banco, m., bank. 

banda, /., band. 

Banda Oriental, name former- 
ly given tD Uruguay, as the 
strip or band of land on the 
e. side of the River Plata 
and w. of the Brazil bound- 

banderilla, /., dart (in bull- 

banderiUero, m., banderillero, 
dart thrower. 

bank, banco, m.; (of jtream), 
orilla, /., ribera, /.; on the 
— of, a orillas de; — note, 
billete de banco, m. 

banqueta, /., stool. 

bafiarse, v, refl,, to bathe. 

bafio, m., bath; also a Moor- 
ish prison. 

barato, a., cheap. 

Barcelona, province and city 
of Catalonia, Spain. The 
city has about one million 

barcelonis, -esa, a., of or per- 
taining to Barcelona; Bar- 
celona (as a.). 

barco, m,, boat, bark. 

bargain, v. intr., regatear. 

barranco, m., ravine. 

barren, a., yermo. 



barrera, /., barrier. 
Barrientos, Maria, the famous 

Spanish coloratura soprano; 

bom in Barcelona; sings in 

Spain, Buenos Aires and 

New York, 
barrio, m., district, ward, — 

marinero, water front, 
basar, v, tr,^ to base, 
base, /., basis, base, 
base, V. tr., — one's opinion 

on, fundarse en; j*., base, 

bashful, a., be — about, tener 
(17) verguenza de. 

basin, {of river) y cuenca, /., 
(of harbor) darsena, /. 

Basque, a. and s., vascongado, 
vasco; (/an^ttag^)vascuence, 

bastante, a. and adv,, enough, 
rather, quite, sufficiently. 

bastar, v. intr,y to suffice, be 

bast6n, m., cane, stick. 

batalla, /., battle. 

bath, bano, m.; — room, 
cuarto de bano. 

battle, batalla, /. 

baiil, m.y trunk. 

bautizar, 34, v, tr., to bap- 
tize, christen; to dilute (0/ 

bautizo, m.y baptism. 

bay, bahia,./., ensenada, /. 

Bayona, Bayonne, a city of 
s. w. France. 

be, V. intr.y ser 16, estar 6, 
encontrarse 24, hallarse, 
quedarse; — from a coun- 
try, ser de un pais; — to, 
haber (7) de; are you not, 
J no es verdad?; there is, 
etc., hay, etc.; is it?, (m- 
plying ironically that it 
is)y que digamos; is it 
not?, ^*no es verdad?, 
i verdad .^ ^' no ?; because 
of its being, por ser or 

bear, v. tr.y llevar, apoyar, 
(endure), aguantar; — the 
expenses of, costear; — in 
mind, tener (17) presente, 
tener en cuenta. 

beast, bestia, /.; — of burden, 
bestia de carga. 

beautiful, a., hermoso, bello. 

beautify, v. tr.y embellecer 38, 

beauty, hermosura, /., belleza, 


bebida, /., drink. 

because, conj.y porque; — ^ of, 

prep.y por, a causa de, por 

causa de. 



become, ponerse 12, volverse 
26, hacerse 8; {of clothes y 
etc) sentar (23) bien, caer 
3, quedar; — acquainted 
with, conocer 38; — rich, 
enriquecerse 38; — scarce, 

bed, catna, /., lecho, m,\ — 
room, alcoba; {of minerals) 
yacimiento, w., deposito, m. 

beef, came de vaca, /., {head 
of) res, /.,* dried — , cecina, 
/., jerked — , tasajo, m, 

beet, remoiacha, /.; — sugar, 
azucar (m.) de remolacha. 

before, adv,y {time) antes; 
prep., {time) antes de; 
{place) delante de; conj,, 
antes (de) que; fifteen min- 
utes — , con quince min- 
utes de anticipacion; an 
hour — , con una hora de 

beg, V. tr.y pedir 29; rogar 24, 
32, suplicar 30. 

beggar, mendigo, m., limos- 
nero, m., pordiosero, m, 

begin, v. tr. and intr.y empezar 
23, 34, comenzar 23, 34, 
principiar, ponerse (12) a. 

behind, adv.y atras. 

behold, V. tr.y presenciar, con- 

behoove, r. intr.y convenir 21, 
caber 2. 

being, j., ser, m. 

Beira Mar {Port.), the chief 
drive and promenade along 
the shore of the bay, Rio de 

belfry, campanario, m. 

belga, a. and s., Belgian. 

Belgian, a. and s., hdgR. 

B61gica, /., Belgium. 

Belgrano de Flores, a fashion- 
able section of Buenos 

belief, creencia, /. 

believe, v. tr., creer 43. 

belong, V. intr., pertenecer 


beloved, pp. and a., to make 

oneself — , hacerse (8) 

below, adv., abajo; prep., 

debajo de. 
bell, campana, /. 
belleza, /., beauty, 
bendito, pp. and a., blessed, 
beneath, prep., debajo de, 

beneBcio, m., benefit; a — 

nuestro, for our benefit, 
benefit, provecho, m., biene- 

ficio, m. 
benigno, a.y mild. 



Berenguer, the name of the 
ruUng cx)unts of Barcelona 
from 1018 to 1 162. 

berry, (0/ coffee) grano, w. 

besar, r. /r., to kiss. 

besides, adv.-, ademas; pr^p., 
a mas de, ademas de. 

beso, m.y kiss. 

best, el mejor; as the — of 
them, como el que mas. 

bestia, /., animal, beast; — 
de cargo, beast of bur- 

better, mejor, mas; — than 
ever, mejor que nunca; I 
had — , debo, debia, etc.; 
be — , valer (20) mas. 

between, "prepay entre. 

beyond, prep.y mas alia de; 
— words, de una manera 
indecible; — measure, 

biblioteca, /., library. 

bicho, m., animal. 

bien, adv,, well, very; — de 
salud, in good health; — 
que, although; m,, good, 
welfare; m, pi. property., 

bienestar, m., comfort, well- 

bienvenido, pp. and a., wel- 

bier, feretro, m. 

Bilbao, capital of the province 
of Biscay, n. coast of Spain; 
population about 8o,ocx); 
eight miles from Bay of 
Biscay on the river Nervion. 

bill, cuenta, /., (0/ goods) fac- 
tura, /.; — of fare, lista de 
platos, /.; — of lading, 
conocimiento de embarque; 
bank — , billete (de banco); 
five-dollar — , billete de a 
cinco pesos. 

billete, w., ticket; — de 
banco, bank bill. 

bind, V. tr.y allegar 32. 

bird, 2Lye,f., pajaro, m. 

bit, un poco, m. 

bizarramente, adv., bravely. 

blacksmith, herrero, m.; — 
shop, herreria, /. 

bianco, a., white. 

Blanco y Negro, one of the 
leading illustrated weekHes 
of Madrid, published by 
the same company that 
controls the daily ABC. 

Blasco Ib&iiez, Vicente, born 
in Valencia, Jan., 1867; a 
novelist of remarkable viril- 
ity and independence, a 
politician and a republican 
whose life is "the most 
interesting of his i\pvels", 



as he says. His best works 
picture the life of the 
common people of Va- 
lencia : "La Barraca", 
"Canas y Barro", "Flor de 
Mayo", "Sangre y Arena", 

blazing, a,, abrasador-a. 

block, {of city) manzana, /.; 
V, tr,f imposibilitar. 

blood, sangre, /. 

blue, a., azul. 

board, {ship) bordo, m.; go on 
— , subir a bordo, abordar; 
those on — , los de a bordo. 

boarding-house, casa de 
huespedes, /. 

boast, V. intr,y jactarse (de). 

boat, buque, m., navio, m., 
vapor, m.y barco, w., fish- 
ing — , buque de pesca; 
passenger — , buque de 

Bobadilla, a small town of 
Andalusia which is a rail- 
way junction. 

boca, /., mouth. 

bocacalle,/., end or opening of 
a street, comer, cross- 

bocina, /., trumpet. 

bochomoso, a., sultry. 

bodega,/., hold (of a ship). 

bofetada, /., slap. 

Bogot&, Santa Fe de, the 
capital of Colombia, found- 
ed in 1538; population 
about 120,000. 

bogotano, a. and j., of or per- 
taining to Bogota. 

boil, v.y intr., hervir 27. 

bola, /., ball. 

Bolfyar, Sim6n, (1783-1830), 
bom in Caracas, Venezuela; 
the great hero of South 
American independence. 

Boliyia, /., Bolivia. 

boliviano, a, and j., Bolivian. 

Bolofia, Bologna, a city of n. 
Italy. Its university was 
founded in the 12th cen- 

bolsa, /., purse, stock ex- 

bolsillo, m., pocket. 

bom {Port.)y a., good; — dia, 
good day. 

bomba, /., pump. 

bombilla, /., dimin. of bomba ; 
bombilla, the instrument 
used in drinking hierba 

Bombita, nickname of Ricardo 
Torres (1879-), a famous 
bullfighter who retired 
October, 191 3. 



bonaerense, a, and s.y of or 
pertaining to Buenos Aires. 

Bonaparte, Jos€, (1768-1844), 
Joseph, the older brother 
of Napoleon, named by the 
latter to be king of Spain. 
In power from 1808 to 18 13. 
— , Napol6on, (i 769-1 821) 
the French Dictator and 

bondad, /., goodness, kind- 

bonito, a,y pretty; w., tunny 

book, libro, m,; keeper, 

tenedor de libros, m.; — 
store, librerfa, /. 

boot, bota, /. 

borb6n-a, a. and s,, Bourbon, 

• the French family from 
which many European 
kings have sprung. The 
barony of the Bourbons 
corresponds approximately 
to the modem department 
of Allier. Philip, Duke of 
Anjou, grandson of Louis 
XIV, became king of 
Spain as Philip V in 1700. 

bordar, v. tr.y to embroider. 

border, v, tr.y lindar (de, con). 

bordo, m., a — , on board ship; 
de a — , on board. 

bore, V. tr.y traer (19) arra- 

bom, be — y v. intr.y nacer 


borracho, m., drunkard. 

borrascoso, a.y stormy. 

bota, /., boot. 

Botafogo, a fashionable sub- 
urb of Rio de Janeiro, on 
the shore of the bay. 

bot&nico, a.y botanical. 

both, a. and pron.y ambos-as, 
los or las dos; el uno y el 
otro de; — . . . and, tan- 
to .. . como. 

bother, v. tr.y acosar, moles tar, 
estorbar; j., molestia, /., 
estorbo, m. 

botijo, m.y water jug. 

bottle, botella, /. 

boundary, frontera, /., limite, 
m.y — mark, hito, m.; — 
line, limite, m. 

Bourbon, a. ahd s.y borbon-a. 

box, caja,/., small — , cajita,/. 

boxing, boxeo, m. 

boy, muchacho, m.y mozo, m. 

boya, /., buoy. 

brains, sesos, m. pi. 

branch, {of business) sucursal, 
/.,• (of railway) y ramal, m. 

brand, marca, /., v. tr.y tildar. 

Brasil, £1, Brazil. 



brasile, a.y name applied 
formerly to the dye-wobd 
found in Asia and Brazil. 

brasilefio, a, and s., Brazilian. 

brave, a.y valiente, bizarro; 
— ly, adv.y bizarramente. 

bravo, a., wild, fierce; I — 1, 
inter j,, fine! 

brazal, m., rail, handrail. 

Brazil, El Brasil; — wood, 
palo del Brasil, m. 

Brazilian, a. and /., brasileno. 

brazo, m., arm; workman, 

break, v. tr,, quebrar, romper 
45 » — out, estallar, brotar. 

breakfast or light breakfast, 
desayuno, m.; v, intr,, de- 

breath, {of wind) soplo, m, 

Bred&, a town of North Bra- 
bant, Holland. In 1625 it 
surrendered after a siege of 
ten months to the Spaniards 
under Spinola. 

bresill, a.y see brasile. 

breve, a., brief, short. 

brick, ladrillo, m. 

bridge, puente, m, 

brief, a,, breve. 

bright, a.y vivo, vistoso. 

brillo, m.y glow. 

brim, ala(s), /. 

bring, v. tr,, traer 19, Uevar; 

— about, efectuar 40, rea- 
lizar 34; — back, r. /r., de- 
volver 26, traer de vuelta; 

— out, r. tr.y sacar 30; — 
up, V, tr.f subir. 

brisk, a., activo. 

broad, a,, ancho. 

broma, /., jest, joke. 

bromear, v., in/r., .to jest. 

bronce, m., bronze. 

brotar, v., intr., break out. 

brother, hermano, m. 

buenaventura, /., fortune, 
good luck. 

bueno, a., good; all right; — a 
no dejar mfis que pedir, as 
good as could be asked for; 
buenas noches, good even- 

Buenos Aires, Santa Maria 
de, capital of Argentina; 
population over 1,500,000. 

buey, m.y ox. 

buffer, tope, m, 

bufido, m., snort. 

build, V, tr.f edificar 30, cons- 
truir 44, erigir 37. 

building, edificio, m., cons- 
truccion, /. 

bull, toro, m.; fight, cor- 
rida de toros;/. fighter, 

torero, m., chief fighter, 



matador, m., diestro, m.; 
ring, plaza de toros, /. 

buque, m., ship, boat; — de 
carga or flete, freight boat; 
— de guerra, warship, — 
de pasajeros, passenger ves- 
sel; — de pesca, fishing 

Burgos, the capital and an- 
cient city of the province of 
Burgos, n. Spain; popula- 
tion about 30,000. 

burden, carga, /. 

burlarse (de), v. refi., to make 
sport of, mock. 

bum, V, tr,y quemar. 

burning, a., abrasador-a. 

burro, m., donkey, ass. 

bury, V, tr,y enterrar 23, sepul- 

buscar, 30, v. tr.y to seek, look 

business, comercio, m., nego- 
cio(s), m., oficio, m.; — 
house, casa comercial or 
de comercio or de negocios, 
/.; — world, mundo comer- 
cial or mercantil, m. 

bustle, bullicio, m,, hormi- 
gueo, m. 

busy, a., ocupado; very — , 
ocupadisimo; be — at, 
ocuparse en. 

but, conj.y pero, mas; (adversa- 
tive) sino, {before a clause) 
sino que. 

butaca, /., arm chair. 

butter, man tequ ilia, /. 

buy, V. tr.y comprar. 

by, prep.y (agent) por; (loca- 
tion) cerca de, junto a. 

bystander, circunstante, m. 

cab, coche, m.y carruaje, m., 
simon, m, 

caballar, a,y pertaining to 
horses or horse raising; 

caballeriza, /., stable. 

caballero, m.y gentleman, sir. 

caballo, m.y horse; a — , on 
horseback; — de fuerza, 
horse power. 

cabellera, /., long hair, head 
of hair. 

cabello, m.y hair. 

caber, 2, v. intr.y to be con- 
tained, be room for; no 
cabe duda, there is no 
doubt; nos cabe, it be- 
hooves or befits us. 

cabeza, /., head. 

cabin, camarote, m. 

cable, m.y cable; tranvfa movi- 
do por cables, cable car. 



cabman, cochero, m.; public 
— , cochero de punto. 

cabo, 7W., end; al — , at last; 
al — de, at the end of. 

cacao, m,y cocoa. 

cada, a., each; — uno or cual, 
pron.y each, every. 

Cfidiz, a city on the s. w. 
coast of Spain; population 
about 70,000. 

caer(se), 3, v, intr, and reji.y 
to fall; caerle en gracia a 
uno, to please one. 

caf6, m., colFee, cafe, restaur- 

cafetal, m., coffee plantation. 

cafetero, m., coffee planter or 

cafeto, w., coffee plant. 

calda, /., fall; falls; close; a la 
— de la tarde, in the late 

caja, /., box. 

cajero, m., cashier. 

cajita, /., dimin, of caja. 

cajolery, halago(s), m. 

calabaza, /., squash, pump- 

calado, w., draught {of boats) ; 
menor — , light draught. ^ 

calcular, v. tr», to calculate. 

calculation, calculo, m. 

c&lculo, m., calculation. 

Caldera, a port city of Ata- 
cama, a n. province of Chile; 
population about 3000. 

calderilla, /., copper coins. 

Calder6n de la Barca, Pedro 
(1600-1681), a great Span- 
ish poet and dramatist, 
best known for his plays, 
"El Magico Prodigioso", 
"La Vida es Suefio", "El 
Alcalde de Zalamea". 

calentar (ie), 23, v, tr,, to heat. 

calentura, /., fever. 

caleta,/., small bay, inlet, cove. 

caliche, m., nitrate or salt- 
peter {in the rough state). 

calidad, /., quality, grade. 

c&lido, a,y hot, warm. 

caliente, a., hot. 

calificar, 30, v, tr., to rate, 
qualify, describe. 

California,- La, California. 

calm, a.y asentado, tranquilo. 

calmar, v. tr,y to calm. 

calor, m.j heat. 

caluroso, <z., warm. 

calzada, /., highway, drive, 

calzado, m., footwear. 

call, p. tr.y llamar; — one's 
attention, llamarle a uno la 
atencion; — upon, pasar 
por, visitar. 



callado, pp, and a.y silent, 

Callao, £1, the chief port of 

Peru; population about 

callar(8e), v, intr. and refl.y to 
keep silence, remain silent. 

calle, /., street. 

cama, /., bed. 

c&mara, /., chamber. 

camarada, m,y comrade. 

camarero, m., steward, waiter, 
'camarote, m., cabin, state- 

cambiar, v. tr. and intr,, to 
change, exchange; — de 
carruajes or de tren(es), 
to change cars; — de pare- 
cer, to change one's jmind. 

cambio, w., change; en — , in 
exchange, on the other 

cambista, m., money-changer. 

camellOy m., camel. 

caminar, v, intr., to walk, 
travel, go along. 

camino, m., way, road; — de, 
road to, in the direction of; 
— de hierro, railway; en — 
para, on the way to. 

camp, (in Argentina) campo, 

campaign, campana, /. 

campana, /., bell. 

campanario, m., belfry. 

campafla, /., campaign. 

campeador, a., valiant, of 
great valor. 

campo, m., field, country; the 
"camp", in Argentina. 

campesino, m., peasant, 

can {to he able), v. intr., poder 

canal, m., canal, channel. 

Canarias, Islas, /. pi., Canary 
Islands, a Spanish archi- 
pelago and province 60 
miles w. of the African 
coast; population about 

cancidn, /., song. 

cane, cana, /. 

canned, pp., en lata. 

Cano y Masas, Leopoldo 
(1844- ), a Spanish poet 
and army officer. 

canoa, /., canoe; paseos en — , 

canoe, canoa, /.; — ing, 
paseos en canoa. 

cansado, pp. and a., tired; 
— a mfis no poder, dead 

cansancio, m., weariness. 

cansar, v. tr., to tire. 



Cantabrian, a., cantabrico. 

cant&brico, a, Cantabrian, 
pertaining to the n. coast 
of Spain, bordering which 
are the Cantabrian moun- 

cantaloupe, melon, m. 

cantar, v. tr,, to sing, cry out, 
crow; eso es ya otro — , 
that is another story. 

cftntaro, m., pitcher. 

cantidad, /., amount, sum, 

canto, m., song, singing. 

canvas, lienzo, m. 

cafia /., cane; — de aziicar, 
sugar cane. 

caoba, /., mahogany. 

ca6tico, a.y chaotic. 

cap, gorro, w. 

capaz, a.y capable. 

capilla, /., chapel. 

capital, /., capital {of a coun- 
try); m.y capital (of money). 

capitular, v, intr., to capitu- 
late, surrender. 

captivity, cautiverio, m. 

Capricomio, m., Capricorn. 

capturar, v. tr.y to capture. 

capture, r. /r., capturar, apre- 

car, coche, m.y carruaje, m.; 
trolley — , tranvia, w. 

car&cter, m., character, na- 

caracteristico, a., character- 

tcarambal inter j.yGrezt Scott I 

carb6n, m., coal; — de coque, 
coke; — depiedra, hard coal. 

carbonifero, a., coal-bearing. 

card, tarjeta, /., cartelito, m. 

cardinal, a., cardinal. 

care, cuidado, m., servicio, m.; 
I don't — , lo mismo me da, 
me es igual, no me importa. 

carecer de, 38, v. intr.y to lack. 

careful, a., be — , tener (17) 

carena,/., repairing (of ships). 

carencia, /., lack. 

carga, /., load, cargo. 

cargamento, m., cargo, load. 

cargar (de), 32, to burden, 
load (with). 

cargo, cargamento, m, 

carii&osamente, adv.y affec- 

carifioso, a.y loving, affec- 

carlista, a. and s.y Carlist. 

Carlos V (I in Spain) y (reigned 
1516-1556), the son of Philip 
I, the first Hapsburg king of 
Spain, and of Juana the 
Mad, daughter of Ferdi- 



nand and Isabella. Elected 
emperor in 15 19. — II 
(reigned 1665- 1700), son of 
Philip IV; — m (reigned 
1759-1788), brother of 
Ferdinand VI; — IV 
(reigned 1 788-1 808), son of 
Carlos III; abdicated in 
favor of his son, Ferdinand 

came, /., meat; — de vaca, 

camero, m., sheep, mutton. 

carpintero, m.y carpenter. 

carrera, /., course, trip, race; 
por la — , by the trip. 

carretera, /., highway. 

carretero, w., truck driver. 

carriage, carruaje, m, 

carry, w., car. 

carrot, zanahoria, /. 

carruaje, m., carriage, coach. 

carry, v. tr., llevar, traer 19; 

— on, practicar 30, efec- 
tuar4o; — on an accounting 
system, llevar la conta- 
bilidad; — off the palm, 
llevarse la palma; — out, 
llevar a cabo; realizar 34; 

— up, subir; how you do — 
on!, I que cosas tiene Vd.! 

carryall, faeton, m., omnibus, 

carta, /., letter; — de cambio, 
letter of exchange. 

Cartagena, the oldest city and 
chief seaport of Colombia, 
on the Caribbean coast; 
population about 25,000. 

cartel, m., sign, placard, 

cartelito, m., dimin. of cartel. 

Cartuja, /., Carthusian order 
of monks; convent of that 

casa, /., house, firm; — de 
antigiiedades, antique 
shop; — de huespedes, 
boarding-house; a — , home 
{with verbs of motion); en 
— , at home; Vd. estfi en 
su — , make yourself at 

Casa de Pilatos, the House of 
Pilate; a house in Seville, 
built in 1 6th century. The 
owner, the Marquis of 
Tarifa, had made a trip to 
Jerusalem and the common 
people believed this house 
to be an imitation of Pilate's 

Casa Rosada, the government 
house in Buenos Aires, 
facing the Plaza 25 de 



casar, p. tr,, to marry off; 
— se con, V, r</?., to marry. 

cascada, /., cascade, fails, 

Cascada Grande, a waterfalls 
in the forest of Tijuca near 
Rio de Janeiro. 

cftscara, /., shell, rind. 

Cascatinha (Port.), /., Little 
Cascade, a fall of loo feet 
in the forest of Tijuca near 
Rio de Janeiro. (Pro- 
nounced cascatina), 

casco, m., cranium, skull. 

case, caso, m. 

caseiio, m., settlement. 

cashier, cajero, m. 

casi, adv,, almost. 

caso, w., case; dado — que or 
en — que, conj., in case 
that, provided that. 

cast (of singers or players), 
elenco, m. 

Castaiios, Francisco Xavier 
(1756-1852), the Spanish 
general, created Duke of 
Bailen for his victory at Bai- 
len, July 19, 1808, over the 
French troops of Dupont. 

Castelar y RipoU, Emilio 
(1832-1899), a Spanish 
politician, journalist and 
orator; president of the 

Spanish republic from 
Sept., 1873, to Jan., 1874. 

castellano, a. and s., Castilian, 
Spanish, Spaniard. 

Castile, Castilla, /.; New — , 
Castilla la Nueva; Old — , 
Castilla la Vieja. 

Castilian, a. and /., caste- 

Castilla, /., Castile, an an- 
cient kingdom of n. central 
Spain. The name sur- 
vives for that region. — la 
Nueva, the s. section of 
Castile, including the prov- 
ince of Ciudad Real. — la 
Vieja, the n. part of Castile, 
first freed from the Moors. 

Castillo, m., castle. 

castizo, a., pure. 

casualidad, /., chance, coin- 

Catal& (in Spanish, catal&n), 
name of a theater of Barce- 

catalftn-ana, a. ands., Catalan. 

Catalufia, /., Catalonia, a 
district and ancient prin- 
cipality of n. e. Spain. 

Catamarca, a city and prov- 
ince of n. w. Argentina, the 
former having about 10,000 



catch, V, tr,, coger 37, atra- 

catedral, /., cathedral, 
catedrfitico, m., professor, 
categorla, /., rank, category, 
cathedral, catedral, /. 
cat61ico, a,f catholic. 
Cattete, a fine suburb of the 

s. part of Rio de Janeiro, 

on the shore of the bay. 
cattle, ganado. m. 
caucho, m,, rubber, 
caudillo, m., chieftain, leader, 
causa, /., cause; a — jde or 

per — de, prep,, on account 

of, because of. 
cause, causa, /. 
cautela, /., caution, 
caution, cautela, /. 
cautiverio, m., captivity, 
cautiyo, m., captive, 
cave, cueva, /. 
cayendo, from caer 3. 
caza, /., game; chase. 
cease, v. intr,, cesar. 
ceaselessly, adv., sin cesar. 
cebada, /., barley, 
cecina, /., dried beef, 
cedar, cedro, m. 
ceder, v, tr, and intr,, to give 

up, surrender, yield; — 

paso a, to give way to. 
cedro, m., cedar. 

celebrado, pp, and a., cele- 
brated, famous. 

celebrar, v, tr., to celebrate, 
be glad of, to effect. 

celebrated, pp. and a., cele- 
brado, renombrado, afama- 

celo, m., zeal, enthusiasm. 

cement, hormigon, m. 

centavo, m., cent. 

c^tenar, m., a hundred; a 
— es, by hundreds. 

centeno, m., rye. 

center, v. tr., concentrar; s, 
centro, m, 

centime, m., centimo, one- 
hundredth part of a peseta; 
one-fifth of a cent. 

centinela, m., sentinel. 

central, a.y central. 

centro, m., center, head- 
quarters; — de tiendas, 
shopping center. 

century, siglo, m. 

cerca, adv., nearby; de — , 
adv., at close range; — de, 
prep., near. 

cercanias, /. pi., environs, 

cercano, a., neighboring, near. 

cerciorar, v. tr., to inform. 

cereal, m., cereal, grain. 

ceremonia, /., ceremony. 



cerrar (ie), 23, v. tr.y to close, 
lock; (0/ a key) to turn. 

cerro, m., hill. 

Cerro de Pasco, a great min- 
ing center and city of cen- 
tral Peru; population about 

certain, a., cierto; a — , cierto; 
— ^ly, adv.y ciertamente; 

certificar, 30, v, tr., to register. 

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel 
de ( 1 547-1616), the great- 
est figure in Spanish letters, 
author of "Don Quijote^de 
La Mancha", "Las Novelas 
Ejemplares", etc. 

cesar (de), v, intr., to cease, 

Cibeles, /., Cybele, a goddess 
of Asia Minor, known to the 
Romans as the "Great 
Mother of the Gods". A 
statue of her is found in a 
fountain in the Plaza de 
Castelar, Madrid. 

cicerone {Italian), m.y guide. 

Cid (Campeador), Rodrigo 
Diaz de Vivar (1026?- 
1099), the national hero of 
Spain, an adventurer and 
the greatest warrior of the 
period of the struggle be- 

tween Christian and Moor; 
more favorably known in 
legend and song than in 
authentic history. 

ciego, a, and j., blind. 

cielo, m., sky, heaven. 

cientifico, a., scientific. 

cien, cientOy hundred. 

ciertamente, adv,y certainly, 

cierto, ^z., certain, true, a cer- 
tain; ino es — ?, isn't it so? 

cigar, cigarro, m., puro, m. 

cigariUo, m., cigarette. 

cinco, five. 

cincuenta, fifty. 

cinemat6grafo, (abhreviaud 
cine), m.y moving-picture 

cipres, m,, cypress tree. 

circle (of friends), tertulia, /. 

circo, m., circus. 

circuir, 44, v, tr,y to surround. 

circuit, vuelta, /.; make the 
— of, dar la vuelta a. 

circular, v. /r., to circulate; a, 

circundar, v, tr,y to surround. 

circunstantes, m, and /. pL, 

circus, circo, m, 

citar, p. tr.y to quote, cite, men- 



cite, V. tr.y citar, mencionar. 

citizen, ciudadano, m, 

city, ciudad, /., villa, /., 
municipio, m,; a., urbano; 
— -like, urbano. 

ciudad, /., city; centinela, 

/., sentinel-city. 

Ciudad Real, a province of s. 
central Spain, noted for its 
mercury mines. 

ciudadano, m., citizen. 

ciudadela, /., fortress; tene- 
ment house {in Cuba). 

civil, a., civil. 

civilizaci6n, /., civilization. 

civilizar, 34, v. tr., to civilize. 

civilized, pp. anda.y civilizado. 

claim, V. tr., reclamar. 

claridad, /., clearness. 

clarin, m.y bugle, clarion. 

claro, a., clear, light-colored. 

clase, /., class, kind. 

clfisico, a., classic. 

class, clase, /.; room, sala 

de clase, /. 

classic, d., clasico. 

claustro, m., cloister. 

clavar, v. tr., fasten, drive. 

cleanliness, limpieza, /. 

clear, a., (of the sky) despejado. 

clerk, dependiente, m. 

clientela, /., following, clien- 
tele. * 

clifF, penon, w., roca, /. 

clima, /., climate. 

climb (up), V. tr.y trepar por, 
subir a. 

clock, reloj, m. 

cloister, claustro, m. 

close, a,, cercano; at — range, 
de cerca; prep.^ cerca de. 

cloth, pano, m. 

clothe (in),f>. tr.y vestir (29) de. 

cloud, nube, /. 

club, palo, m.; {society) club, m. 

coachman, cochero , m. 

coal, carbon, m.; soft — , 
bulla, /. 

coarse, a., grosero. 

coast, costa, /.; a., costanero. 

coat of arms, escudo de armas, 

cobalt, cobalto, m. 

cobalto, m., cobalt. 

cobertizo, m., train-shed. 

cobijar, v. tr., to shelter, pro- 

cobrar, v. tr., to collect, re- 
ceive what is due. 

cobre, w., copper. 

cocer (ue), 26, 35, to cook, 

cocina, /., kitchen. 

cocinera, /., cook. 

cocoa, cacao, m. 

cocotero, m., cocoanut tree. 



ooche, m.f coach, car, car- 
riage; — de punto, public 

cochero, m., cabman. 

cod, bacalao, m, 

coffee, cafe, m.; — grower, 
cafetero, w.; — plant, 
cafe to,, w.; — plantation, 
cafetal, m. 

cofre, m., trunk, coffer, chest; 
— fuerte, strotig-box. 

coger, 37, to catch, take. 

coin, moneda, /. 

coincidence, casualidad, /. 

cojo, a. and j*., lame, crippled; 

coke, carbon de coque, w. 

colch6n, m., mattress. 

cold, a. and /., frio; it is — 
(speaking of the weather) 
hace frio; to be — {speaking 
of things) i ser or estar frio; 
to bD — {speaking of per- 
sons)^ tener frio. 

colecci6n, /., collection. 

Colegiata, La, collegiate 
church; name given to those 
catholic churches in which 
there is a chapter of Can- 
ons affiliated with some 
cathedral chapter. Spe- 
cifically, the Collegiate 
Church at La Granja. 

colegio, m., academy. 

colgadura, /., hangings, tapes- 

colgar (ue), 24, 32, v. tr,, to 

colindar, v, tr.y to adjoin. 

Coliseo, Coliseum, a theater of 
Buenos Aires. 

Colmenar, name of a town and 
some mountains in the 
province of Malaga, s. 

colocaci6n, /., position. 

colocar, 30, v. tr., to place, 

Colombia, /., Colombia. 

colombiano, a. and s,, of or 
pertaining to Colombia. 

colombino, a,y pertaining to 

Col6n, the town at the n. end 
of the Panama Canal. — y 
Crist6bal, Christopher Co- 
lumbus (i45i?-i5o6); — y 
Fernando (i 488-1 539), the 
learned second son of 
Christopher, founder of the 
rich Biblioteca Colombina 
of Seville. 

colonel, coronel, m, 

colonia, /., colony. 

colonial, a.y colonial. 

colonist, colono, m, * 



colonizador-a, a., colonizing. 

colono, m,y colonist, farmer. 

colony, colonia, /. 

color, m., color; — de rosa, 

color, V. tr,y colorar. 

colorante, a., coloring, dyeing. 

colorar, r. /r., to color, tinge. 

Columbus, Colon. 

coluinna, /., column. 

comanditario, a., relating to 
silent partnership. 

comarca, /., region, district. 

combate, m., fight, combat. 

combmaci6n, /., {on cars), 
transfer; combination. 

combinar, v. tr., to combine. 

combine, v. tr., combinar. 

combustible, m., fuel. 

come, V. intr., venir 21, llegar 
32; — I, (inter j. of urging) 
IvamosI, — across or upon, 
tropezar (34, 23) con, dar 
(4) con; — and, venir a + 
inf,; — down, bajar, {in 
price) rebajar; — in, pasar; 
— into, entrar en; — in 
contact with, ponerse (12) 
en contacto con; — off, 
verificarse 30; — on, 
{approach) acercarse; — out, 
salir 15; — out into, salir 
en; — out successful, salir 

airoso; — out to meet, 
salir al encuentro de; — to 
{amount), ascender (25) a; 

— to {a place), llegar a; — 
to one's mind, venirle a 
uno a la memoria; — to be, 
llegar a ser; — to under- 
stand, llegar a entender; 

— up, subir. 
comedia, /., play, comedy, 
comedor, m., dining-room; 

— de gala, state dining- 

comedy, comedia, /. 

comenzar (ie), 23, 34, 9. tr,, 
to begin. 

comer, v. tr., to eat; — por 

' cuatro, to eat enough for 
four; se come bien, the 
food is good. 

comercial, a., commercial; 
— mente, adv. commer- 

comerciante, m., merchant. 

comercio, m., business, com- 
merce, trade. 

comfort, comodidad, /., 
bienestar, m. 

comfortable, a., comodo, a 
sus anchas. 

c6mico, a., comic. 

comida, /., meal, dinner. 

comisi6n, /., committee. 



comisionista, m., traveling 
salesman, commission 

command, mando, m.; v. tr,, 

commemorate, v. tr.y con- 

commerce, comercio, m, 

commercial, a., comercial, 

commission, comision, /., — 
salesman, comisionista, m., 
via j ante, m. 

committee, comisi5n, /. 

common, a., comun. 

communication, comunica- 
cion, /. 

como, adv.y as, how, some- 
thing like. 

lc6mo?f adv.y how?; ia. — 
estft el cambio?, what is 
the rate of exchange? 

comodidad, f.y convenience, 

c6modo, a.y comfortable. 

company, compania, /. 

compaiiero, m., companion. 

compaiiia, /., company; — de 
seguros, insurance com- 

comparaci6n, /., comparison; 
en — de, in comparison 

comparar, f. tr,, to compare. 

comparison, comparacion, /./ 
in — with, en comparacion 

compartment, departamen- 
to, m. 

compatriota, m., fellow- 

compel, V. tr.y precisar, obligar 
32; to be compelled, verse 

competente, a,y able, com- 

competidor, m., competitor. 

complacer, 38, v, tr.y to please; 
— se (en), to take pleasure 

completamente, adv.y com- 

completar, v. tr.y to complete. 

complete, v. tr.y acabar, termi- 
nar, completar, concluir 44. 

completo, a.y complete; por — ^ 

componer, 12, v. tr.y to repair, 

composition, compuesto, m. 

comprador, m., purchaser. 

comprar, v. tr.y to buy. 

comprender, v. tr.y to under- 
stand, include, comprise; 
todo comprendido, every- 
thing included. 



comprise, v, tr., comprender. 

compuesto, pp, of componer 
12, to compound; m, com- 
position, make-up. 

comrade, camarada, m. 

comiin, a., common; por lo — y 
generally, usually. 

comunero, w., communist; 
specifically, a supporter of 
Spanish liberty against the 
encroachments of Charles V. 

comunicar, 30, v, tr,, to com- 
municate, lend. 

com(mmente, adv., generally, 

con, prep,, with. 

concebir(i), 29, v. tr,, to couch, 

conceder, v. tr., to grant. 

concentrar(se), v. tr, and 
refl., to center, concentrate. 

concentrate, v, tr., recon- 

concert, concierto, m, 

concierto, m., concert. 

concurrente, m. and /., one 
who is present. 

concurrir, (a) v. intr,, to 

concha, /., shell. 

Concha, /., name of a famous 
promenade and beach in San 
Sebastian, Spain. 

condemn, v, tr,, condenar, 
culpar, censurar. 

condicidn, /., condition, terniy 

condition, condicion, /.» esta* 
do, m, 

conducir, 18, v, tr,, to conduct, 
take; (0/ streets, etc.) to lay 

conduct, V. tr., conducir 18. 

conduje, from conducir 18. 

conduzca, /rom conducir i8. 

confecci6n, /., preparation^ 

confer encia, /., lecture, 

conferenciar, v, intr,, to lec- 

confesar (ie), 23, v, tr,, to con- 

confianza, /., confidence, trust. 

confiar (en), 39, 0. intr,, to 
trust (in), — a, to entrust 

confidence, confianza, /. 

confine, v, tr,, limitar. 

conflicto, m,, conflict. 

conform, v, intr,, conformarse 

conformarse (a), v. refi., to 
conform to, with; har- 
monize with. 

conforme a, prep,, in keeping 
with. . 



confront, v. tr,y confrontar. 

confrontar, v, tr,y to confront. 

confundir, v, tr., to confuse. 

confuse, r. tr,y confundir. 

confusi6n, /., confusion. 

confusion, maremagnum, m.y 
mezcla, /. 

congelado, pp, and a., frozen. 

congenial, a,, simpatico. 

congeniar bien con, v. intr., to 
get along well with. 

congreso, m., congress. 

conmemorar, v, tr,f to com- 

conmigo, with me. 

conmovedor-a, a., affecting, 
touching, exciting, disturb- 

conmover (ue), 26, v. tr., to 
move {with emotion), 

conmovido, pp, and a., 

connect, v, tr., and intr., en- 
lazar 34. 

conocer, 38, v, tr., to know, 
meet, get acquainted with; 
se conoce, it is evident. 

conocido, m., acquaintance. 

conocimiento, m., knowledge; 
— de embarque, bill of 

conozca, from conocer 38. 

conozco, from conocer 38. 

conquer, v, tr., veneer 35, 

conquering, a., vencedor-a. 
conqueror, conquistador, m, 
conquistador, m., conqueror, 
conquistar, v, tr,, to master, 

consagrado, pp. and a., usual, 

consciousness, sentido, m. 
conseguir (i), 29, 33, v. tr., to 

obtain, get, secure, win, 

succeed in. 
consejo, m., advice, 
consent, v. intr., consentir 

(en) 27. 
consentir (en) (ie, i), 27, v. 

intr., to consent to, allow, 
consequently, adv., por eso, 

por consiguiente. 
conserva,/., preserves, pickles, 
conservador-a, a., conserva- 
conservar, t*. tr., to keep, 

hold, preserve, 
conservative, a., conservador 

consider, v. tr., considerar; 

— (as), tener (17) por; — 

oneself as, darse (4) por, 

tenerse por, considerarse 

como; — the equal of, tener 

en un igual con. 



considerar, v, tr., to consider. 

considering, dado. 

consist of, V. ifUr.y coristar de, 
consistir en. 

consistir en, v. intr., to con- 
sist of. 

consorte, m. and f.y consort. 

constable, alguacil, m. 

constantemente, adv,, con- 

Constantinopla, /., Constanti- 

constat de, v, intr.y to consist 
of. • 

constituoi6n, /., constitution. 

constitucional, a.^ constitu- 

constituir, 44, v, tr., to create, 
set up. 

constituyo, from constituir 44. 

construcci6n, /., construction, 
building, structure. 

construct, v, tr,, construir 44, 
edificar 30, erigir 37. 

construction, construcci5n, /. 

construir, 44, v. tr,, to con- 

construyo, from construir 44. 

consult, V. tr.f consultar; — 

. someone about something, 

consultar algo con alguien. 

consultar, v. tr,, to consult; 
— algo con alguien, to con- 

sult someone about some- 

consultation, consulta,/. 

consume, v. tr., consumir. 

consumir, v, tr,, to use up, 

contabilidad, /., accountancy, 
accounting system. 

contacto, m,, contact. 

contado, pp., al — , in cash. 

contar (ue), 24, v, tr. and intr. 
to tell, relate, count, com- 
prise; — con, to rely upon, 
have available, possess. 

contemplaci6n, /., contempla* 

contemplar, v, tr., to con- 
template, behold. 

contemporftneo, a,, contempo- 

contener, 17, to contain. 

contenga, from contener 17. 

content, a,, contento; v, tr.^ 

contentarse, v, refl,, to con- 
tent oneself. 

contentfsimo, a., very glad. 

contento, a,, glad, content. 

contertuliano, m., fellow-mem- 
ber (of a circle of friends), 

contestaci6n, /., reply. 

contestar, v, tr,, to answer, 



continente, m., continent. 

continuar, 40, v. tr., to con- 

continue, v. tr., seguir 29, 33, 
continuar 40. 

continue, a.y continuous. 

contomos, m. pL, environs, 

contra, prep.y against; en — 
de, prep.y against. 

contrabandista, tn., smuggler. 

contrario, a., opposite, con- 
trary; al — , adv.y on the 

contribuci5n, /., appropria- 
tion, contribution. 

contribuir, 44, to contribute. 

control, have — of, 0. /r., 
ensenorearse de. 

convendr&, from convenir 21. 

convenga, from convenir 21. 

convenido, pp., agreed. 

convenience, comodidad, /. 

conveniente, a., fitting, prop- 
er, suitable. 

convenir, 21, 0. intr., to agree, 
behoove, be suitable; — en, 
to agree to. 

convento, w., convent. 

conversaci6n,/., conversation. 

conviene, /row convenir 21. 

convite, w., invitation. 

convoy, w., train, convoy. 

cook, cocinero-a, m. and /. 

cool, fl., fresco; be — , (of 
weather) hacer (8) fresco. 

copa, /., crown {of hat). 

copia, /., copy. 

Copiap6, the capital of Ata- 
cama province, n. Chile; 
population about io,ocx). 
Between this city and 
Caldera on the coast was 
built the first railway in 
S. A. in 1 85 1 by William 
Wheelwright, a native of 

copla, /., couplet, rh3niie. 

copper, cobre, w.; {coin) 
calderilla, /. 

coque, m., coke. 

Coquimbo, a city and prov- 
ince of n. Chile. City has 
a fine port and population 
of about io,ocx). 

coral, m.y coral. 

Corfin, w., Koran, the Mo- 
hammedan scriptures. 

coraz6n, m., heart. 

corcovado, a, and s., hunch- 
backed; hunchback. 

Corcovado, a peak 2300 feet 
high, w. of Rio de Janeirg; 
may be reached by trolley 
car and rack railway. 

corcho, m., cork. 



cordialidad,/., cordiality. 

cordially, adv,, atentamente. 

Cordillera, /., range, moun- 
tain chain. 

C6rdoba, capital of a province 
of the same name in s. Spain ; 
population about 50,cxx>. 
Also a city and province 
of n. central Argentina; 
population of former about 

cork, corcho, in., — -tree, 
alcomoque, m., — -tree 
grove, alcomocal, m. 

com, maiz, m. 

comer, esquina, /. 

Cornwall, the most s. w. 
county of England, noted 
for ages for its tin. 

coro, m., choir. 

corona, /., crown. 

coronar, v. tr., to crown. 

coronel, m., colonel. 

corps, cuerpo, m, 

correctamente, adv., correctly. 

correctly, adv., correctamente. 

correcto, a., correct. 

correo, m., mail. 

correr, v. intr., to run; — 
parejas con, he on a par 
with; no corre prisa, there 
is no hurry; corre la voz, 
the report goes. 

correrla, /., short journey, 
trip, excursion. 

correspond, v. intr., corre- 
sponder (a). 

Correspondencia de Espafla, 
La, a Madrid daily, chief 
organ of the Conservative- 
Monarchist group; gives 
the best foreign news of 
any Madrid paper. 

correspondent, corresponsal, 

corresponder (a), v. intr., to 

correspondiente, a., corre- 
. sponding. 

corresponsal, m., correspon- 

corrida, /., bull-fight. 

corriente, a., current; del — , 
of the present month; /., 

corsario, m., pirate, corsair. 

cortar, r. tr., to cut, cut off, 
interrupt; cortado a pique, 
cut perpendicular, from 
peak to base. 

corte, /., court (royal); also 
applied to Madrid, the 
capital city. 

Cortes, /. pi., the national 
senate and chamber of 
deputies of Spain. 



cort^s, a.f polite. 

corto, a., short. 

cosa, /., thing; — de, about, 
approximately; — hecha, 
agreed, the matter is 
settled; es poca — , that is 
a small matter; gran — , 
much {of importance); 
Iqu6 cosas tiene Vd.I, how 
you do carry on! 

cosecha, /., crOp. 

cosechar, v. tr,, to gather, 

cosilla, dimin. of cosa. 

cosmopolita, a., cosmopolitan. 

cost, V. intr.y costar 24; s. 
costa, /. 

costa, /., coast; cost, expense. 

costanero, a,, coastal, on the 

costar (ue), 24, v. intr.y to cost. 

costear, v. tr,, to bear the ex- 
penses of. 

costoso, a.f costly, expensive. 

costumbre, /., custom, habit. 

cotton, algodon, w., — fac- 
tory, fabrica de tejidos, /. 

count, p. tr., con tar 24; — me 
in the number of your 
friends, pongame entre el 
numero de sus amigos. 

countless, a., un sinnumero 
de; innumerable. 

country, pais, 7n., tierra, /.; 
(opposed to city) campo, m. 

couple, par, tn. 

courageously, adv., con de- 

course, {of study) curso, w., 
asignatura, /.; {direction) 
rumbo, m.; of — , por 
supuesto (que). 

court, corte, /.; {courtyard) 
patio, m. 

cousin, primo-a, m. andf. 

Cousiiio, Luis (183 5-1 873), 
a Chilean philanthropist 
.and industrial leader. Tra- 
versed all Europe in 
search of ideas for beauti- 
fying his native city, Santi- 
ago. Constructed the park 
there which bears his name. 
The same family possesses 
coal mines in Lota. 

cover, V. tr., cubrir, 45. 

cow, vaca, /.; — boy, {esp. in 
Chile) vaquero, m.; {esp. in 
Uruguay) llanero, w.; {esp. 
in Argentina) gaucho, m. 

cradle, cuna, /. 

crear, v. tr., to create. 

create, v. tr., constituir 44, 

crecer, 38, v. intr., to grow, 



creciente, a., increasing, 
credit, credito, m. 
creencia, /., belief, 
creer, 43, v. tr,, to believe; ya 

lo creo, I should say so. 
crefble, a., credible, 
cresta, /., crest, summit, 
crla, /., raising, 
criado-a, m. and /., servant, 

criar, V. tr.y to raise, produce. 
crioUo, a.y indigenous, native; 

characteristically South 

cripple, cojo, m. 
criquet, m., cricket, 
crisol, tn., melting-pot. 
cristiandad, /., Christianity, 
cristiano, a, and j., Christian. 
Cristo, m.y Christ. 
Crist6bal, w., Christopher, 
criticp, m., critic; a., critical, 
crop, cosecha, /. 
cross, V, tr., atravesar 23, 

cruzar 34, recorrer; — 

street, bocacalle, /.; — 

TaUey, valle transversal, m. 
crowd, muchedumbre, /., 

gentio, m. 
crowded, pp, and a.y atest- 

crown, corona, /.; {of hat) 

copa, /.; V. tr.y coronar. 

cnido, a.y crude, raw. 
cruel, a.y cruel, 
crueldad, /., cruelty, 
cruelty, crueldad, /. 
crush, V. tr.y machacar 30. 
cruzar, 34, v. tr.y to cross; 

— se, r. refl.y to cross each 

cry, V. tr, and intr.y {aloud) 

gritar; {colloquial) cantar; 

{proclaim) pregonar; /., 

grito, m. 
cuademo, m., notebook, 
cuadrado, a. and s.y square, 
cuadrilla, /., team, staff {of 

cuadro, m., picture, 
cual, adv.y like, 
cual, el — , la — , etc.y rel. 

pron.y which, that, who; 

a cuales m6s altas, vying 

with each other in height. 
£cu&l?, etc.y interr. pron.y 

which?, what? 
cualquier(a), rel. and indef. 

pron. and a.y any, any 

whatsoever, some ... or 

I cu&n I adv. , how ! See I cu6nto ? 
cuando, conj.y when, 
^cu&ndo?, adv.y when? 
cuantioso, a.y abundant, con- 



cuanto, a,- and pron,, all that, 
as much as; todo — , all 
that; (todos) — s, all who; 
en — a, as for; — mis 
. . . (tanto) m&s, the more 
. . . the more. 

^cu&nto?, a. and pron,, how 
much.?; pL, how many?; a 
cu&ntos estamos?, what is 
the date? 

cuartel, m., barracks; — ge- 
neral, headquarters. 

cuarto, a., fourth; m, room; 
small coin; sin un — , with- 
out a cent. 

cubano, a. and s., Cuban. 

cubierta, /., deck. 

cubrir, 45, v, tr,y to cover. 

cubierto, pp, of cubrir. 

cuchillerfa, /., cutlery. 

cuchillero, m., cutler. 

cuenca, /., basin, valley. 

Cuenca, a town 125 miles e. of 

cuenta, /., bill, account. 

cuento, m., tale, story. 

cuerdo, a., shrewd. 

cuero, m., hide, leather. 

cuerpo, m., body, corps, staff; 
— a — , hand to hand. 

cuesta, /., hill, slope; — 
arriba, adv.^ uphill, up- 

cuesti6n, /., question (undei 

cueva, /., cave. 

cuidado, m., care; I — !, watch 

ctudadosamente, adv,y care- 

ctdminar, v. intr,, to cul- 
minate, finish. 

cultivar, v. tr,, to cultivate. 

cultiyo, m.f cultivation. 

cumbre, /., summit. 

cumplir (con), 9. intr.y tofulfiliy 
execute, carry out. 

cuna, /., cradle. 

cufiado, m.y brother-in-law. 

cup, taza, /. 

cure, V, tr,y remediar. 

curiosidad, /., curiosity, sight, 
object of interest. 

curioso, a.f strange, curious. 

curse, m., course of study. 

curtido, m., leather. 

curtidor, m., tanner. 

curtir, v. tr., to tan. 

curva, /., curve. 

Cttstomer, parroquiano, m., 
cliente, m, 

customs, (duties) derechos, 
w.; (habits) costumbres, /.; 
— officers, aduaneros; a., 
de aduana. 

cut (off), V, tr.y cortar. 



cuUer, cuchillero, m. 
cutlery, cuchilleria, /. 
cttya, /., squash, gourd, 
cuyo, reL a,y whose, which, 
^cdyo?, a.j whose? 


Chacabuco, m., a transversal 
ridge of mountains in cen- 
tral Chile. 

Chaco, el Gran, a great plain 
of Argentina. 

chair, silla, /.; sillon, m.; rock- 
ing , sillon mecedor, m.; 

arm — ^ butaca, /. 

chalfin, m.y horse-dealer. 

chamber, camara, /. 

chance, casualidad, /. 

chandelier, arana, /. 

change, cambio, m.; in — , de 
vuelta; p. tr, and intr.y 
cambiar, transferirse (27) a; 
— boats, cambiar de 
buques; — cars, cambiar de 

channel, canal, m. 

chaotic, a., caotico. 

chap, chico, m. 

chapado, a., brainy, level- 

chapel, capilla, /. 

chaqueta, /., jacket. 

character, caracter, m. 

characteristic, a,y caracteris- 

tico; — ^ly South American, 

a.y crioUo. 
charge, v, tr,, encargar 32; s. 

cargo, w.; in — of, encar- 

gado de. 
charlar, v. tn/r., to chat, 

Charles, Carlos, 
chat, V, intr.y charlar. 
chato, a,y level, flat. ' 
check, cheque, m., talon, m.; 

V. tr.y facturar. 
checking-room, oficina de 

consignaciones, /. 
cheese, queso, m, 
chemical, a.y quimico. 
cheque, m., check, cheque, 
cherish, v. tr.y abrigar, 32. 
chicken, polio, m., gallina, /. 
chico, m.y boy, lad, chap, 
chief, a.y principal; s.y jefe, m.; 

— ^ly, adv.y mayormente. 
chieftain, caudillo, m., jefe, m, 
child, nifio, m.y chico, m.; 

small — , chiquillo, m. 
childhood, ninez, /. 
Chile, m.y Chile, 
chilenoargentino, a. and s.y 

chilenoboliviano, a. and s.y 

chillar, v. intr.y to screech. 



Chimborazo, m., an extinct 
volcano, the highest peak in 
Ecuador; 20,5CX) feet high. 

chimenea, /., fireplace, chim* 
ney, smoke-stack. 

chino, a, and /., Chinese. 

chiquillo, dimin. of chico. 

chocante, a.y overwhelming, 

chocolate, nt., chocolate. 

cholos, m. pi., in Chile and 
Peru, the lower class of 
people, of mixed Spanish 
and Indian blood. 

choose, elegir 29, 45. 

chorro, m., stream. 

Chuquicamata, a mountain of 
copper ore in n. Chile, about 
100 miles inland. It is 
being developed by North 
American capital. 

Christ, Cristo, m. 

christen, c>. tr., bautizar 34. 

Christian, a. and s., cristiano. 

chronic, a., arraigado. 

church, iglesia, /. 

dable, a.y possible, 
dado, pp.f considering, 
dagger, daga, /. 
daily, j., diario, m.; adv., 

dance, v. intr,, bailar; s., baile, 
m., danza, /. 

Dane, s., danes--esa. 

dan^s-esa, a» and s,, Danish, 

danza, /., dance. 

Daoiz, Luis, a captain of 
artillery who, with Captain 
Pedro Velarde, led the popu- 
lar rising of Madrid citizens 
who, with the aid of five 
cannon, resisted Murat's 
soldiers. May 2, 1808. 

dar, 4, V. tr.y to give; — a, to 
look out upon; — a conocer, 
to make known; — a luz, 
to give birth to; — con, to 
come upon; — en el bianco, 
to hit the mark; — gloria, 
to be inspiring; — la gana, 
to feel like; — la iiltinia 
mano a, to finish off; — la 
vuelta a, to make the cir- 
cuit of; — las gracias, to 
thank; — miedo a, to 
inspire fear in, frighten; — 
principio a, to begin, give 
rise to; — un paseo or una 
vuelta, to take a stroll, 
walk; — se, to take place; 

— se cuenta de, to realize; 

— se por, to consider one- 
self as; — se por vencido. 



to give (it) up; — se una 
vida en grande, to lead a 
prosperous life. 

dare, p. intr., atreverse (a). 

darkness, obscuridad, /. 

d&rsena, /., basin, inner har- 

dart, b a n d e r i 1 1 a, /.; — 
-thrower, bander illero, m. 

data, datos, m. pi. 

date, fecha,/.; sixty days from 
— , a sesenta dias fecha. 

datos, m., pLy data, informa- 

daughter; hija, /. 

day, dia, m,; — after tomor- 
row, pasado mafiana; — 
-wage, jomal, m.; a — , al 
dia; all — , todo el dia; 
every — , todos los dias; 
good — , buenos dias; by — , 
de dia. 

de, prep.y of, from, by, with, 
as, in, on; than (after a 
comparative); — lo que, 
than {before a clause), 

dead, pp.y a. and s., muerto. 

deaf, a., sordo. 

deal, a good — (of), mucho, 

dear, a., querido; — sir, muy 
sefior mio (nuestro) ; — sirs, 
muy senores mios (nuestros) . 

death, muerte, /. 

debajo de, prep., under, be- 
neath; por — de, prep., 

deber, v. tr., to owe, ought; 
debe de estar (ser), it must 
be (to express probability); 
m., exercise, task. 

debidamente, adv., duly, prop- 
erly, justly. 

debido, pp. and a., correct, 
fitting, due. 

decadente, a., late {in history 
of art), decadent. 

December, diciembre, m. 

decide, v. tr. and intr., de- 
cidirse a. 

decidirse (a), v. refl., to decide. 

decision, fallo, m. 

d#cimo, a. and s., tenth. 

deck, puente, m., cubierta, /.; 
on — , a cubierta. 

decir, 5, to say, tell; — la 
buenaventura a uno, to 
tell one's fortune; es — , 
that is; por — lo asi, so to 
speak; sin — tus ni mus, 
without saying aye, yes or 
no; como quien dice, as 
they say; que digamos, is 
it? {implying the opposite 
of a preceding negative state^ 



declarar, v. tr., to declare; 
a 1 g o que — , anything 

declare, v. tr.y declarar, anun- 

decree, v, tr,, decretar. 

decretar, v. tr., to decree. 

dedicar, 30, v, tr., to devote; 
— se a, V. refl,, to devote 
oneself to. 

deed, hazana, /. 

deep, a.y prof undo; {in depth) 
de profundidad; — ^ly, adv., 
profundamente, h o n d a- 

defeat, v, tr,, derrotar. 

defensa, /., defence. 

degree, grado, m.; in a greater 
— , en mayor grado. 

dejar, v, tr., to leave, allow, 
drop; — se de, to leave 
behind; — selo a uno en Z2 
pesetas, to let one have it 
for 12 pesetas; no — nada 
que desear, to leave noth- 
ing to be desired. 

delantero, a., front. 

delay, v, intr., tardar. 

deleitar, v, tr,, to delight. 

delicioso, a., delicious. 

delight, V. tr., deleitar, agra- 
dar, encantar, halagar 32; 
delighted to, tan to gusto en; 

be delighted with, deleitar 
algo a uno: complacerse 
(38) en. 

delightful, a., ameno. 

delineaci6n, /., delineation. 

delirio, m., rapture, fervor; 
con — , exceedingly. 

Delta, el, a famous rowing and 
sailing resort, just w. of 
Buenos Aires, formed by the 
Rivers Lujan, Capitan, and 
de las Conchas, as they 
enter the Plata River. 

deluge, diluvio, m. 

demand (for),demanda (de),/. 

demanda, /., demand. 

demora, /., delay. 

demostrar (ue), 24, to show. 

Denia, a town of 12,000 in- 
habitants in the province of 
Alicante, on the eastern 
coast of Spain. 

denominar, v. tr., to name, 

densamente, adv., densely. 

dense, a., denso. 

dentro, adv., inside; por — , 
adv., inside; — de, prep,^ 

denuedo, m., boldness, bra- 

departamento, m., compart- 
ment, department. 



department, departamento, 
w.; — store, almacen, m. 
departure, partida, /., salida, 


depend, v, intr,, depender 
(de); that depends, segun 
y conforme, eso depende. 

depender (de), to depend 
upon; eso depende, that 

dependiente, m., clerk. 

deporte, m., sport. 

deposit, deposito, m.; v. tr., 

depositar, v, tr., to deposit. 

dep6sito, m., deposit, bed {of 

deprive of, v. intr., quitar. 

derecho, a. and adv., right, 
straight, straight ahead; a 
la derecha, on the right; m., 
right, duty, tax. 

derivar, v, tr,, to derive. 

derive, v. tr., sacar 30, derivar. 

derogar, 32, v. tr., to aboUsh. 

derramar, v. tr,, to scatter, 
pour out. 

derribar, v. tr., to tear down. 

derrota, /., defeat. 

derrotar, v. tr., to defeat, 

desagradecido, a, and s., un- 
grateful; ingrate. 

desagrado, m., dislike, dis- 

desandar, i, v. tr,, to go back 
over the same road; — lo 
andado, to i^etrace one's 

desaparecer, 38, v. intr., to 

desarrollar, v. tr., to develop. 

desarrollo, m., development. 

desayunarse, v, refl.^ to take 

desayimo, m., breakfast. 

descansar, v. intr., to rest; 
que descanse Vd. bien, 
pleasant dreams, may you 
sleep well. 

descargar, 32, to unload. 

descend, v. intr., bajar. 

des<^ollar (ue), (a), v, intr,, to 
surpass, outstrip, overtop. 

desconocer, 38, v, tr., to be a 
stranger to, not to know. 

desconocido, pp. and a,, un- 
known, strange. 

describe, v. tr., describir 45, 
calificar 30; — oneself as, 
calificarse como. 

descubierto, pp. of descubrir. 

descubridor-a, a. and s., 
discovering, discoverer. 

descubrimiento, m., dis- 



descubrir, 45, to discover, 
descuido, m., negligence, 
desde, prep., from, since; — 

hace, for, since {in time); 

— que, donf.y since {in 

desd6n, m., disdain, 
desear, v. tr., to desire, wish, 
desembarcadero, m., landing 

place, dock, 
desembarcarse, 30, v. refl.y to 

go ashore, disembark, 
desembocar, 30, v. intr,y to 

desempeiiar, r. tr,, to exercise, 

perform, discharge, 
desenvolver (ue), 26, 45, to 

deseo, m,, desire, 
deseoso, a., desirous, 
desert, desierto, m, 
deserve, v. tr., merecerse 38. 
desfiladero, m., pass, 
desfilar, v. intr., to pass by. 
desierto, m., desert, 
desilusionado, pp. and a., 

disappointed, disillusioned, 
desinteresado, pp. and a., 

desire, v. tr., desear, querer 13, 

tener (17) ganas de. 
deslizarse, 34, r. refl., to glide, 
deslumbrante, a., dazzling. 

desmayarse, v. refl., to faint. 

despacho, m., office; — de 
informaciones, information 

despedida, /., departure, 
parting, leave-taking. 

despedir, 29, v. tr., to -send 
out, send off, see off; — se, 
V. refl., to leave, — se de, 
to take leave of. 

despejado, a., clear, cloudless. 

despertador, m., awakener. . 

despertar (ie), 23, v, tr., to 

desplomarse, v. refl., to fall in 

desposeer, v. tr., to dis- 

despu6s, adv., afterwards; — 
de, prep., after; — que, 
conj., after. 

destacarse, 30, to stand out, 
be in relief. 

destajo, m., piece work; a — y 
by the piece. 

desterrar (ie), 23, v. tr,, to 

destinar, r. tr., to destine, de- 

destined, pp. and a., destina- 

destine, m., destiny, destina- 



destiny, destino, m. 

ddstituir, 44, v. tr., to dismiss 
from office. 

destreza, /., skill. 

destronar, v. tr., to dethrone. 

destroy, v. tr,, destruir 44, 

destruir, 44, v. tr., to destroy. 

destruyendo, from destruir 44. 

desviado, pp, and a., remote, 
out of the way. 

detail, detalle, m. 

detallado, pp. and a., de- 

detalle, m., detail. 

detallista, m., retailer. 

determinar, v. tr., to deter- 

dethrone, v. tr., destronan 

detrfts de, prep., behind. 

detuve, from detener 17. 

develop, v. tr., desarrollar, 
desenvolver 26, 45, ex- 

development, desarrollo, m., 
explotacion, /., desenvolvi- 
miento, m. 

devil, diablo, m. 

devolver (ue), 26, 45, v. tr., to 
return, give back, bring 

devote, v. tr., dedicar 30; — 
oneself to, dedicarse a. 

devotion to Spain, espanolis- 
mo, m. 

d£, etc., from dar 4. 

dfa, m., day; al — , daily, a 
day; al — siguiente, the 
next day; de — , by day; 
ocho — s, a week. 

diablo, m., devil. 

diamante, m., diamond. 

diariamente, adv., daily. 

diario, a., daily; m., diary, 

Diario Universal, £1, an in- 
dependent daily of Madrid 
with leanings to the Liberal 
Democratic group. 

Diaz, Rodrigo, see Cid. 

Diaz de Mendoza, Fernando, 
one of the leading actors of 
present-day Spain, He is 
the Marquis of Fontanar, 
Count of Balazote, Count 
of Lalaing, Grandee of 
Spain. Since 1910 the 
Princesa Theater of Madrid 
has been under his control. 
He often visits S. A. with 
his wife, Maria Guerrero, 
the actress, and their com- 

dibujo, w., drawing, illustra- 

dice, from decir 5. 



diciembre, m., December. 

diciendo, from decir 5. 

dictador, m., dictator. 

dictar, v. tr,, to dictate. 

dictator, dictador, m. 

dicho, pp.y of decir 5; afore- 
said; major — , better said, 
rather; m., saying, proverb. 

di6, old form of 6x6^ from dar 4. 

die, V, intr.y morir(se) 28, 45. 

Diego de Urbina, the captain 
of a Spanish galley, battle 
of Lepanto. 

diestro, a,, skilful; m., bull- 

diez, ten. 

diferenciarse (de) v. rffl,, to 
diiFer (from). 

diferente, a.y different. 

differ, v, intr., diferenciarse 

different, a.,diferente, distinto. 

difficult, a,y dificil. 

difficulty, dificultad, /., in- 
conveniente, w.; with much 
— , a duras penas. 

diHcil, a., difficult, hard. 

dificultar, v. tr,, to make 
difficult, hinder. 

dificultoso (de), a,, difficult 

diga, from decir 5. 

digestion, digestion, /. 

digno, a.f worthy. 

digo, from decir 5; ^digo 
algo?, am I right?, am I 
saying anything (to the 
point) ? 

dije, from decir 5. 

dilatado, a., wide. 

dilatarse, v. reft,, to .stretch 
out, extend. 

diluted, pp. and a., bautizado. 

diluvio, m., deluge, torrent. 

diminuto, a,, tiny, small. 

dinamita, /., d)mamite. 

dinastia, /., dynasty, royal 

dine, v, intr,, comer, tomar 

dinero, m., money. 

dining-room, dining-saloon, 
comedor, m. 

dinner, comida, /. 

Dios, m.y God. 

diplom&tico, a., diplomatic. 

diputado, nt., deputy, repre- 
sentative, congressman. 

dique, w., dike, jetty, dock; 
— de carena, m., dry dock. 

dir6, from decir 5. 

direcci6n, /., direction, ad- 

direct, v. tr,, dirigir 37; a„ 

directamente, adv., directly. 



^ection, direccion, /. 

directly, adv., directamente. 

director, m., director. 

director-general, m., director- 

dirigirse (a, hacia), 37, v. 
refl.y to turn towards, ad- 
dress, make one's way 

disappear, v. intr,, desaparecer 


discern, v. tr.y divisar. 

discerning, a.y sagaz. 

discourse, discurso, m. 

discovering, a., descubridor 

discovery, descubrimiento, m. 

discurrir, v. tr,, to discuss. 

discurso, m., discourse, 

discuss, V. tr.y tratar, discutir, 

discussion, discusion, /., de- 
bate, m. 

discutir, v. tr.y to discuss. 

discharge, licencia, /. 

disembark, v. intr.y desem- 
barcarse 30. 

disengaged, pp. and a.y libre. 

disfrutar (de), t>. intr.y to enjoy. 

disgustar, v. tr.y to displease. 

dish, pi a to, m. 

disillusion, v. tr.y desilusionar. 

dislike (for), desagrado (con- 
tra), m. 

disminuir, 44, v. tr, and intr,y 
to slacken, diminish. 

disparar (contra), v. tr.y to fire 

dispensar, v. tr.y to excuse. 

displease, v. tr.y disgustar. 

disponer, 12, to put, arrange; 
— se a, to get ready to. 

disponible, a.y available. 

disposal, disposicion, /. 

disposici6n, /., disposition, 
disposal; a la —^ de Vd., 
at your service. 

dispossess, v. tr.y desposeer 

dispuesto, pp. and a.y ready, 

disposed, arranged. 

disputar (a), v. tr.y to dispute 

distance, distancia, /.; in the 
— , en lontananza, a lo lejos. . 

distancia, /., distance. 

distant, a.y lejano; be — , v. 
intr.y distar. 

distar, v. intr.y to be distant. 

distinci6n, /., distinction. 

distinguido, pp. and a.y dis- 

distinguir, 33, v. tr.y to dis- 
tinguish, perceive, make 



distinguish, v. tr,y distinguir 
33, divisar. 

distinto, a,, different, dis- 

distraer, 19, to distract, 

distrajo, from distraer 19. 

distribuci6n, /., distribution. 

district, region, /.; (0/ city) 
barrio, m. 

disturb, v. tr,, estorbar, moles- 
tar, turbar. 

disuadir, v, tr., to dissuade. 

diversidad, /., diversity, vari- 

diversi6n,/., diversion, amuse- 

divertido, pp. and a., amusing, 
entertaining, funny. 

divertirse (ie, i), 27, v, refi.y 
to amuse oneself, enjoy 
oneself, have a good time. 

dividir, v. tr,y to separate, 

divisar, v. tr.y to perceive, 
make out, discern. 

divisidn, /., division. 

do (Port.), = del, of the. 

do, adv.y old form for donde. 

do, omitted if auxiliary y other- 
wise, hacer 8; — business, 
hacer negocios; — one's 
best, esmerarse (en); — 

without, pasarse sin, omitir; 

may it — you good, i buen 

provechol, I que aprovechel 
doblar, v. tr.y to turn, fold; — 

la esquina, to turn the 

doble, a.y double, 
doce, twelve, 
docena, /., dozen, 
dock, muelle, m., desembar- 

cadero, m.; dry — , dique 

de carena, m. 
doctor, medico, m. • 
doctrina, /., doctrine. 
d61ar, m., dollar, 
doliente, a.y aching, 
dollar, dolar, m., peso, m, 
domiciliarse, v. refl.y to dwell, 
domicilio, m., abode, 
dominar, v. tr.y to dominate, 

be master of, look out over, 

dominate, v. tr.y dominar. 
Don, m.y untranslatable, used 

only with the 'baptismal 

^d6nde?, adv.y where ?<; ^por 

— se va?, how does one 

go?, which is the way? 
donkey, burro, m. 
Don Quijote, Don Quixote, 

the hero of Cervante's 

great work of that name. 



door, puerta, /.; — -jamb, 
quicial, m, 

dormido, pp. and a., asleep. 

dormir (ue, u), 28, to sleep; 
— se, V. refl.y to fall asleep. 

dos, two; Dos de Mayo, 
May 2nd (1808), date of 
the heroic resistance of the 
people of Madrid to the 
Napoleonic troops under 
Murat, a day still much 
celebrated , in Madrid. 

doscientos-as, two hundred. 

dot, V. tr,y pun tear. 

dotar, t>. tr.y to endow. 

double, a., doble. 

doubt, duda, /.; no — , sin 
duda; there is no — , no 
cabe duda, no hay duda; 
V, tr.y dudar. 

doubtless, adv.y sin duda, 

down, adv.y abajo; — hill, 
adv.y cuesta abajo; — 
stream, adv., rio abajo. 

doy, from dar 4. 

drag, V. tr.y llevar a la 

dragado, m., dredging. 

dragar, 32, v. tr., to dredge. 

drama, m.y drama, play. 

drama, drama, m.y comedia, /. 

dram&tico, a., dramatic. 

draught, (of boats) calado, 
m.; light — , de menor 

draw, V. tr.y trazar 34, dibujar; 

— upon, librar sobre, girar 

drawing, sorteo, m. 

dream (of), v. tr. and intr.^ 
sonar (con, en) 24. 

dreamy, a.y sonoliento. 

dredge, v. tr.y dragar 32; 
dredging operations, opera- 
ciones de dragado, /. pi. 

dredging, dragado, m. 

dress, vestido, m.; (charac' 
teristic) vestuario, m.; v. tr.y 
vestir 29, v. intr.y vestirse; 

— in white, vestirse de 
bianco; — up in one's best, 
prenderse de veinticinco 
alHleres, endomingarse 32. 

dressing, salsa, /. 
drink, v. tr.y beber; s. bebida,/. 
drive, paseo, m.y calzada, /.; 
V. tr.y guiar 39, conducir 18; 

— into, V. tr.y clavar en; — 
one frantic, v. tr.y hacer (8) 
rabiar; — to distraction, v, 
tr.y enloquecer 38. 

driver, cochero, m.; truck — ^ 

carretero, m. 
drunkard, borracho, m, 
dry, V. tr.y secar 30. 



duda,/., doubt; sin — , doubt- 

due, a.y debido. 

duefio, tn., possessor, owner. 

duke, duque, m. 

dulce, a,, sweet, (of water) 

dull, a. 9 (of business) estan- 
cado, inactivo. 

Dupont de L'Etang, Pierre 
Antoine (i 765-1 840), a 
French general of much ex- 
perience and fame; met 
defeat at the battle of 
Bailen by the Spanish gen- 
eral Castanos for which he 
was court-martialled and 
imprisoned by Napoleon. 

duque, m., duke. 

duraci6n, /., duration. 

durante, prep., during. 

durar, v, intr., to last. 

during, prep., durante. 

durmiendo, from dormir 28. 

dure, m., duro, a coin of 
Spain, worth about one 

Duse, Eleanora (1859-), an 
Italian actress of wonderful 
individuahty and natural- 

dutiable, anything — , algo 
que declarar. 

duty, deber m.; (tax) derecho, 

w., impuesto, m,; on — , de 

dye, tinte, m.; — -wood, 

madera colorante, /.; v. tr., 

tenir 29, 42. 
dyer, tintorero, m. 
dynamite, dinamita, /. 


e, conj., used instead of y 
before a word beginning 
with i or hi. 

each,a.,cada; pron., cada uno, 
cada cual; — other, uno a 
otro (with reciprocal verbs), 

eager, a., be — to, v, intr., 
afanarse por. 

ear, oreja, /., oido, m. 

early, adv., temprano; — in 
the day, de madrugada; — 
riser, quien madruga. 

earn, v. tr., ganar(se). 

earnestly, adv., con ahinco. 

earthquake, terremoto, m. 

ease, be at one's — , estar (6) 
a sus anchas. 

easily, adv., facilmente. 

east, este, m, 

eastern, a., oriental, del este. 

easy, a., facil. 

eat, V. tr., comer; — enough 
for four, comer por cuatro. 



Ebro, the only one of the five 
great rivers of Spain that 
empties into the Mediter- 
ranean; it flows s. e. through 
the n. e. part of the country. 

Ecuador, El, Ecuador. 

ecuador, m.y equator. 

ecnatoriano, a. ands., pertain- 
ing to Ecuador, Ecuadorian. 

echar, r. tr., to throw, cast 
out, put; — a pique, to 
sink; — en alto, to throw 
up {in the air); — de 
menos, to miss; — manos 
a la bolsa, to loosen one's 
purse strings; — se a, to 
start, abandon oneself to. 

edad, /., age, epoch; Edad 
Media, Middle Ages. 

edificar, 30, v. tr., to build, 

edificio, m., building. 

Eduardo, Edward; — I (1239- 
1307), King of England, 
married Eleanor of Castile, 
Oct. 1254; — VII (1844- 
191 o) king of England, son 
of Queen Victoria. 

efecto, w., effect; article {of 
commerce); />/., goods. 

efectuar, 40, v. tr., to carry on, 
accomplish; — se, to take 

effect, V, tr.y celebrar, efectuar 

effort, esfuerzo, m, 

eficaz, a., efficacious, effective. 

efusidn,/., effusion; shedding. 

Egeo, a., Egean, Aegean. 

egg, huevo, m, 

egofsmo, m., selfishness. 

eight, ocho. 

eighteenth century, el siglo 
XVIII (diez y ocho). 

either, conj.y 0; nor . . . — , 
ni . . . tampoco. 

ejemplar, m., copy, example. 

ejemplo, m., example; per — , 
for example. 

ejercer, 38, to exercise, to fol- 
low {a trade, etc,), 

ejercicio, m., exercise. 

ej6rcito, m., army. 

el (la, Ids, las), defy art., the; 
that {before de and que). 

€1, pers, pron.y he, it; him 
{after a prep.). 

Eleanora, Eleanor; — de 
Castilla, the half-sister of 
Alfonso X of Castile; she 
married Edward I of Eng- 
land, Oct. 1254. 

elect, V. tr., elegit 29, 37. 

electricidad, /., electricity. 

electrico, a., electric. 

elegante, a., elegant, stylish. 



elegir (i), 29, 37, to choose, 

element, elemento, m. 

elemental, a., elementary. 

elemento, m.y element, factor. 

elenco, w., cast (of singers or 

elevacidn, /., elevation. 

elevado, a., high. 

elevador, w., elevator. 

elevar, v. tr., to raise, lift; 
— se, V. refl.y to rise. 

elevator, ascensor, w., eleva- 
dor, m. 

eleven, once. 

elocuencia, /., eloquence. 

eloquence, elocuencia, /. 

ella, pers. pron.y she, it; her 
(after a prep.). 

ello, pers. pron. neut., it, that. 

embajador, m., ambassador. 

embarcarse, 30, v. refl., to go 
aboard; — para, to set sail 

embargo, sin — , neverthe- 

embarque, m., embarcation. 

embellecer, 38, to beautify. 

embestir (i), 29, v. tr., to at- 
tack, strike. 

embrace, v. tr.y abrazar 34. 

emerald, esmeralda, /. 

emigrante, m., emigrant. 

emigrar, v. intr., to* emigrate. 

emigrate, v. intr., emigrar. 

eminencia, /., height, emi- 

emocionarse, v. refl., to get 
excited, to have one's emo- 
tions stirred. 

emotion, emocion, /.; to have 
one's — s stirred, emocio- 

empalme, m., junction. 

empaquetar, v. tr., to pack. 

empeiLarse en, v. refl., to in- 
sist upon. 

empefio, m., effort, insistence. 

emperador, m., emperor. 

emperor, emperador, m. 

empezar (ie), 23, 34, (a) v. tr., 
to begin. 

empinado, a., steep. 

empire, imperio, m. 

empleado, m., employee. 

emplear, v, tr., to use, em- 

employ, v. tr., emplear. 

employee, empleado, m. 

emprender, v. tr., to under- 
take; — el camino, to set 

empresa, f., management; 
enterprise, undertaking. 

empty, v. intr., (of rivers) 
desembocar 30. 



en, prep., in, on, to, at, into, 
encadenar, v, tr., to link 

encaje, m., lace, 
encantador-a, a., charming, 
encantar, v, tr,, to charm, 

encanto, m., enchantment; 

por — , by magic, 
encarcelamiento, m., impris- 
encargado, m., agent, 
encargar, 32, v. tr., to charge, 

order; — se de, to take 

charge of; encargado de, in 

charge of. 
encargo, m,, order {for goods), 
encamar, v. tr., to incarnate, 

encerrar (ie), 23, to enclose; 

— se en, to be contained in. 
enciclopedia, /., encyclope- 
encima, or per encima, adv., 

above; — de, prep., above, 
encoger, 37, v. tr., to contract; 

— se de hombros, to shrug 

one's shoulders, 
encontrar (ue), 24, to find; 

— se, to find oneself, to be; 

— se con, to find, meet, 
encuentro, m., meeting; a 

nuestro — , to meet us. 

encumbrado, a., lofty. 

encyclopedia, enciclopedia, /. 

end, cabo, m., final, m., fin, 
m.', at the — of, {in time) al 
cabo de, {in space) al final 
de; V. tr., terminar, acabar, 
concluir, 44. 

enderezar, 34, to straighten. 

endive, escarola, /. 

endless, a., inacabable, inter- 

endomingado, pp. and a., 
dressed up; dressed in one's 
"Sunday - go - to -meeting" 

endow, v. tr., dotar. 

endure, v. tr., aguantar, sopor- 

enemy, enemigo, m. 

energetic, a., energico. 

en^rgicamente, adv., with 
energy, forcibly. 

en6rgico, a., energetic. 

enero, m., January. 

enfermo, a., sick, ill. 

engaiiar, v. tr., to deceive; 
fool; — se, to be mistaken. 

engine, locomotora, /. 

engineer, ingeniero, m.', {en- 
gine driver) maquinista, w. 

England, Inglaterra, /. 

English, a. and n., ingles, -esa. 

engrandecer, 38, to enlarge. 



enjaezar, v. tr.y 34, to harness, 
hitch; — en fila, to hitch 

enjoy, v. tr.^ gozar (34) de, 
disfrutar de, {taste) sabo- 
rear; — oneself, divertirse 
27, distraerse 19. 

enlarge, v. tr,, engrandecer 


enlazar 34, v, intr,, to connect; 
— se con, V. ufl,, to con- 
nect with. 

enloquecer, 38, to drive to 
distraction, madden. 

enorgullecerse, 38, (de), v. 
refl.y to feel proud (of)» 

enorme, a., enormous. 

enormous, a., estupendo, 

enough, a. and pron.y bas- 
tante, suficiente. 

enrich, r. tr,, enriquecer 38. 

enriquecer, r. tr., to enrich; 
— se, to become rich. 

ensacar, 30, v. tr., to sack. 

ensalada, /., salad. 

ensanchar, v. tr., to extend, 
widen, develop. 

ensenada,/., bay. 

enseflar, v. tr., to teach, show. 

ensefiorearse (de), v. reji., to 
have control of, hold do- 
minion over. 

ensimismado, pp. and a., 

absorbed, abstracted, 
entablar, v. tr., to initiate, 

open up. 
entender (ie), 25, to under- 
stand; — se con, to have an 

understanding with, 
entendido en, pp, and a., 

versed in. 
enter, v, intr., entrar (en), 

penetrar (en); (matriculate) 

matricularse (en); meterse 

enteramente, adv., entirely, 
enterar, v. tr., to inform; — se 

de, to find out about, 
entero, a., whole, entire; 

por — , entirely, 
enterprise, empresa, /. 
enterrar, (ie), 33, v. tr., to bury, 
entertain, v. tr., agasajar. 
entertaining, a., divertido. 
entertainment, fiesta, /., en- 

tretenimiento, m. 
enthusiastic, a, entusiasmado, 

entusiastico; become — , 

entire, a., entero, todo. 
entirely, adv., enteramente, 

completamente, por com- 

pleto, por entero. 
entonces, adv., then; en or por 

aquel — , at that time. 



entrada, /., entrance, admis- 

entrar (en), t». tntr,, to enter. 

entre or por entre, prep., be- 
tween, among. 

entregar, 32, v, tr,, to deliver, 
give up; — se a, give oneself 
up to. 

entrem^s, m., side-dish. 

entretanto, adv., meanwhile. 

entretener, 17, v. tr., to enter- 
tain, attract. 

entretenimiehto, m., enter- 

entristecer, 38, v. tr.y to sadden. 

entrust, v, tr., confiar (a) 39. 

entry, partida, /. 

entusiasmado, pp, and a., 

entusiasmarse, v.refl.y to be- 
come enthusiastic. 

entusiasmo, m., enthusiasm. 

entusiasta, m., enthusiast. 

entusi&stico, a.y enthusiastic. 

enumerar, 9. /r., to enumerate. 

enviar, 39, v. tr.y to send. 

envfo, m.y shipment. 

enyirons, contomos, m. pL, 
alrededores, m. pl.y cer- 
canias, /. pi. 

envolver (ue), 26, v. tr.y to 
wrap up. 

6poca, /., period, epoch. 

£poca, La, a Madrid daily, the 
organ of the Maura branch 
of the Conservative party. 

equal, a., igual; v. tr.y equivaler 

equator, ecuador, m, 

equip, r. tr.y montar. 

equipaje, m., baggage. 

equipar, v. tr.y to equip, Ht out. 

equipo, m., equipment. 

equivalente, a, and s. m.y 

equivaler, 20, v. tr., to equal. 

equivocarse, 30, v. refl.y to be 

era, /., era, period. 

era, from ser 16. 

Ercilla y Ziifiiga, Alonso de 

(i533-i59S)» a Spanish 
soldier and poet. Prin- 
cipal work, "La Araucana", 
a poem based on the wars 
he had fought in against the 
Araucanian Indians of S. A. 

erect, v. tr.y edificar 30, con— 
struir 44, erigir 37. 

erigir, 37, to erect, build. 

errante, a.y wandering. 

es, from ser 16. 

escala, /., ladder, steps; stop 
{of a boat). 

escalera, /., stairway. 

escal6n, m., step. 



escape, v. tntr., escaparse (de). 

escaparate, in., show window. 

escarola, /., endive. 

escarpado, a., steep, craggy. 

escasearse, v. refl., to become 

escaso, a., scarce. 

escena, /., scene. 

escoger, 37, v. tr,, to choose. 

escopeta, /., shotgun. 

Escorial, El, the name of the 
town and building 31 miles 
n. w. of Madrid; a library, 
church, palace, monastery 
and pantheon; in area, one 
of the largest buildings of 
the world. Constructed by 
Philip II. 

escrito, pp, of escribir ; por — , 
in writing; m., writing, 
literary work. 

escritor, w., writer. 

escuadra, /., fleet, squadron. 

escuchar, v. tr., to hear, Hsten. 

escuela, /., school. 

escultura, /., (piece of) sculp- 

ese (esa, esos, esas), dem. a., 
that those. 

%se (6sa, #sos, 6sas), d^m. 
pron.y that, those, the 
former; iesas tenemos!, so 
that's it! 

esencial, a., essential, im- 
esencialmente, adv., essential- 


esforzarse 24, 34, (en), v. refl., 
to try hard to. 

esmeralda, /., emerald. 

esmerarse, (en) v. refl., to 
take pains (at), to do one's 

eso, dem. pron. neut., that; 
por — , therefore, conse- 
quently; a — de, at about 
{time of day only). 

espacio, m., space; — en 
bianco, blank space. 

espacioso, a., spacious. 

espada, /., sword, rapier. 

espaldillas, /. pL, shoulder- 

Espafia, /., Spain; las Es- 
paiias, term applied to 
Spain because the united 
kingdom was made of vari- 
ous kingdoms and principal- 
ities, such as Leon, Castile, 
Navarre and Arag5n. 

espafiol-a, a. and s., Spanish, 
Spaniard; a la espafiola, in 
Spanish fashion. 

espafiolismo, m., devotion to 

esparcir, 35, v. tr., to scatter. 



especia, /., spice, medicinal 

especial, a., special. 

especially, adv.y sobretodo, 

especialmente, adv,y espe- 

especie, /., species, kind. 

espectficulo, m,, sight, spec- 

espectador, m., spectator. 

espejismo, m., mirage. 

espejo, w., mirror. 

espera, /., espectation; en — 
de, awaiting. i 

esperanza, /., hope. 

esperar, v. tr., to hope; expect; 
await, wait for. 

esplindido, a,, splendid, fine. 

esposa, /., wife. 

esquina, /., comer. 

essential, a., esencial; what is 
most — , lo mas esencial. 

establecer, $8, v. tr., to es- 
tablish; — se, to settle. 

establecimiento, m., establish- 

establish, v. tr., establecer 38. 

establishment, estableci- 
miento, m. 

estaci6n, /., station, season; 
— de ferrocarriles, railway 

estadista, m., statesman. 

estado, m., state, condition. 

Estados Unidos, m, pl.y 
United States. 

estallar, v. intr., to break 

estancia, /., stay; (in S. A.) 

estancado, pp, and a., in- 
active, dull. 

estanco, ?n., tobacco shop 
(run by the government), 

estandarte, m., standard. 

estanquero, fn., tobacconist. 

estailo, m., tin. 

estar, 16, v, intr., to be, be at 
home; — a punto de, to be 
about to, on the point of; 

— a sus anchas, to be at 
one's ease, comfortable; — 
de acuerdo, to be agreed; 

— de vuelta, to be back, to 
have returned; — en caja, 
to be well; — en proyecto, to 
be planned; — en que, to be 
of the opinion that; — en . 
via de, to be about to; — 
para, to be about to, on the 
point of; — sin novedad, 
to be in usual health; est& 
bien, very well; ya estamos, 
here we are. 

estatua, /., statue. 



este (esta, estos, estas), dftn. 
a,y this these. 

6ste (68ta, 6stos, 6stas), d^m. 
pron,y this, these, the 
latter; 6sta, this city. 

esteem, v, tr.f apreciar; es- 
teemed letter, apreciable, /. 

estilo, tn.y style; por el — , of 
that kind. 

estirar, v. tr,, to stretch. 

esto, dftn, pron, neut.y this; 
en — , hereupon. 

estomacal, a., good for the 

estoque, m., rapier, sword. 

estorbar, v, tr,, to disturb. 

estorbo, m., bother, hin- 

estrado de ferro (Port.), = 

estrechar, v, tr., to tighten, 
make close, — la mano a 
uno, to shake hands with 

estrecho, m., narrows, strait. 

estremecerse, 38, v, refl.y to 
quiver, tremble. 

estrepitoso, a., noisy. 

estribor, m., starboard, right 
side of a boat. 

estuario, m.y estuary. 

estuary, estuario, m. 

estudiante, m. and J., student. 

estudiar, v, tr.y to study; — 
para, to study to be. 

estudio, m., study, studio. 

estupendo, a., stupendous, 

estuve, from estar 6. 

etcetera, adv.y and so forth, 
et cetera. 

etimologia, /., etymology, the 
origin and derivation of 
^vords as shown by their 

Europa, /., Europe. 

europeo, a. and j., Euro- 

evaporar, p. intr. and tr.y to 

even, adv.y aun, hasta; — yet, 
aun todavia; not — , ni, ni 
. . . siquiera. 

evening, noche, /., tarde, /.; 
all — , toda la noche; every 
— , todas las noches; good 
— , buenas (noches); in the 
— , por la noche; (indicat- 
ing the hour) de la noche. 

event, suerte, /. 

ever, adv.y jamas. 

every, a.y todo, cada. 

everybody, pron.y todo el 

everything, pron.y todo; — 
Spanish, todo lo espanol. 



todo lo que sea espanol; 

— must come to an end, no 

hay bien ni mal que cien 

anos dure, 
everywhere, adv., por or a 

todas partes, 
evident, it is — , se conoce, ya 

se ve. 
evidently, adv., ya se ve, se 

evitar, v. tr., avoid, prevent, 
exact, a., exacto; — ^ly, pre- 

exacto, a., exact, 
exaggerate, v. tr., ponderar. 
examine, v. tr., revisar, regis- 
example, ejeixiplo, m.; ejem- 

plar m.; for — , por ejem- 

excavar, v. tr., to excavate, 

dig up. 
exceder, (a or de) v. intr., to 

exceed, v. tr., exceder a, 

pasar de. 
exceedingly, adv., sobre- 

manera; con delirio, de una 

manera imponderable, 
excel, V. tr., ganar a, superar a, 

descoUar (24) a, aventajar 

a, llevar ventaja a; v. intr., 


excelente, a., excellent, 
excellent, a., excelente; most 

— , sobresaliente. 
excepci6n, /., exception; a — 

de, excepting, 
excepcional, a., exceptional, 

excepting or except, prep., 

excepto, a excepcion de, si 

se exceptua. 
excepto, prep., except, except- 
exceptuar, 40,, to except; 

si se excepttia, excepting, 
exceso, m., excess; pagar — , 

to pay for over-weight {of 

baggage, etc.). 
excitante, a., stimulating, 
exclamar, v. tr., to exclaim, 
exclusivamente, adv., exclu- 
exctu:si6n, /., excursion, 
excusado, — es decir, (it is) 

needless to say. 
excuse, v. tr., dispensar. 
exchange, v. tr., cambiar. 
executive, a. and s., ejecutivo. 
exento, a., exempt, free from, 
exercise, ejercicio, m., deber, 

m.; V. tr., desempefiar, 

ejercer 35. 
exigir, 37, to demand, require, 




exile, V. tr., desterrar 23. 

exist, V, intr.f existir. 

existence, existencia, /. 

existente, a., existing. 

existir, v. tntr,, to exist. 

6xito, m., success. 

expect, V. tr.y esperar, aguar- 
dar, atenerse (17) a. 

expedienteo, m., red tape. 

expedir (i), 29, v. tr.y to des- 
patch, ship. 

expense, costa, /. ; at the — of, 
a costa de; — s, gastos m. pi. 

expensive, a., costoso. 

experience, experiencia, /.; 
V. tr.y experimentar. 

experiencia, /., experience. 

experimentar, v. tr.y to expe- 

experto, a.y expert. 

explain, v. tr.y explicar 30. 

explicar, 30, v. tr.y to explain. 

explotaci6n, /., development, 

explotar, v. tr.y to work, ex- 
ploit, develop. 

exportaci6n, /., exportation. 

exportar, v. tr.y to export. 

exportation, exportacion, /. 

exposici6n, /., exhibition, ex- 

expresar, v. tr.y to express. 

expresidn, /., expression. 

expreso, a. and s.m.y express, 
express, expreso, m.; v. tr.y 

expression, expresion, J. 
exquisite, a.y exquisite, 
extend, v. intr.y extenderse 25; 

V. tr.y — the market, en- 

sanchar el mercado. 
extenderse (ie), 25, v. refl.y to 

extend, stretch, reach, 
extensamente, adv.y exten- 
sively, at length. 
extensi6n, /.; area, extension, 
extenso, a., extensive, 
extent, to a certain — , hasta 

cierto punto. 
exterior, a.y outside, exterior, 
extra, to have 7—, r. tr.y so- 

brarle a uno, v. tntr, 
extract, extra cto, m.; v. tr,, 

extraer, 19. 
extracto, m., extract, 
extraer, 19, v. tr., to take out, 

extranjero, a. and s.y foreign, 

foreigner; al — , abroad, 
extrailar, v. tr.y to make or 

cause to wonder; me ez- 

traiia, I wonder, 
extraordinario, a., extraor- 
extravagante, a.y ridiculous, 




eztraviarse, 39, v. refl.y to get 

eztremefio, m., native of 

eztremo, m., end, extreme. 

ezuberante, a., rich, exuber- 

eye, ojo, m.\ — s, vista, /. 

f ., ahhr emotion j or f alleci6, died. 

ffibrica, /., factory, mill; — de 

- tejidos, textile mill. 

fabricaci6n, /., manufacture, 

fabricante, m., manufacturer. 

fabricar, 30, v. tr.y to manu- 

fabtdoso, a., fabulous, won- 

£&cil, a.j easy. 

facilidad, /., facility. 

facilitate, r. /r., facilitar. 

f&cilmente, adv.y easily. 

fact, hecho, w.; often ex- 
pressed by a clause contain- 
ing el que-}-jtt^y. 

factor, m., factor. 

factor, elemento, m., factor, m. 

factory, fabrica, /. 

facttu-a, /., bill. 

facturar, v. tr., to check 

faculty, profesorado, m, 

fachada, /., fagade. 

faet6n, m., carry-all. 

fail, V. intr.y faltar, dejar de; 
(to be a failure) fracasar; 
without — , sin faltar, sin 

faint, V. intr.y desmayarse. 

fairly, adv,y bastante, harto. 

faith, fe, /. 

faja, /., strip. 

falda, /., skirt, foothill. 

false, a,y false. 

falta, /., lack, scarcity; sin — y 
without fail. 

faltiu', V. intr.y to fail, be lack- 
ing; — le a uno, to be neces- 
sary to or for one. 

fall, p. intr.y caer 3; — asleep, 
dormirse 28; — down, 
caerse; — due, veneer 35; 
s.y caida,/. 

fallecer, 38, v. intr.y to die. 

fallo, m.y decision. 

falls, caida, /. 

fama, /., fame, reputation. 

famUia, /., family. 

familiarizarse 34, (con), v.refi.y 
to get acquainted (with). 

family, familia,/. 

famoso, a.y famous. 

famous, a.y famoso, afamado, 
ilustre, renombrado. 



fan, abanico, m, 

fancy, v. tr., antojarsele a uno, 

far, a,, lejano; adv,, lejos; — 
away, lejos; — in the dis- 
tance, muy a lo lejos; how — 
is it from here?, ^cuanto 
dista de aqui?; how — are 
we?, isL cuanta or que 
distancia estamos?; be — 
from, distar (mucho) de. 

Famese, Isabel, of Parma, 
the second wife of Philip V, 
mother of Charles III. 

fascinar, v. tr,, to fascinate. 

fascinate, v. tr,, encantar, 

fast, adv., aprisa, de prisa, 

fat, a., graso, gordo. 

father, padre, m. 

fault, falta, /.; — finder or 
— finding, s. and a,, que- 

favor, rn., favor; es — que Vd. 
me hace, you flatter me. 

favorite, a,, predilecto, pre- 
ferido, favorito; j-., favori- 
to, m, 

favorito, a. and s., favorite. 

fazenda (Port:) = hacienda, 
coffee plantation (of Brazil). 

te,f., faith. 

fear, v. tr., temer, tener (17) 
/ miedo de; s., temor, m., 
miedo, in. 

febrero, m., February. 

f ecundidad, /., fertility. 

fecha, /., date; con esta — , 
under date of today; 
sesenta dfas — , sixty days 
from date. 

feel, V. tr., sentir 27; — ill; 
sentirse malo or enfermo; 
— like, darle (4) a uno la 
gana; — proud of, enorgu- 
llecerse (38) de; — sorry, 

Felipe, Philip; — II (reigned 
1556-1598), took the 
throne on the abdication 
of his father, Charles V; — 
III (reigned 1 598-1621), 
son of Philip II; — IV 
(reigned 1 621 -1665), son 
of Philip III; — V (reigned 
I7cx>-i746), as grandson of 
Maria Teresa (daughter of 
Philip IV), and Louis XIV 
of France, he became the 
first Bourbon king of 
Spain, by right of the will 
of Charles II. 

feliz, a., happy, fortunate. 

felt, fieltro, m. 

feo, a., ugly, unpleasant. 



feraz, a., fertile. 

Ferdinand, Fernando. 

f^retro, w., bier. 

Fernando, Ferdinand; — II 
of Aragon; married Isabella 
I of Castile in 1479, thus 
uniting the crowns of Cas- 
tile, Leon and Aragon; 
— VI (reigned 1 746-1 759), 
son of Philip V; — VII 
(reigned 1808- 183 3), son of 
Charles IV; repealed the 
Salic law established in 
Spain by Philip V. 

f^rreo, a., of iron, iron. 

ferrocarril, w., railway. 

Ferrocarril Gran Oeste, the 
Great Western Railway, 
constructed in the early 
eighties between Villa Mer- 
cedes and Mendoza, Argen- 
tina, and planned as a part 
of the transcontinental line. 
It is now leased to the 
Ferrocarril Buenos Aires y 

ferrocarrUero, a., pertaining 
to railways. 

ferroviario, a., pertaining to 

f^rtil, a., fertile. 

fertile, a., feraz, fertil. 

fertility, fecund id ad, /. 

fever, calentura, /. 

few, pron. and a., pocos; a — , 
unos pocos, unos cuantos. 

fiction, literatura novelesca, /. 

fideos, m, pi, vermicelli. 

field, campo, m. 

fielmente, adv,y faijthfuUy. 

fieltro, m., felt. 

fiery, a., fogoso. 

fiesta, /., entertainment, festi- 

fifteen, quince; — th cen- 
tury, el siglo XV (quince). 

fifty, cincuenta. 

fight, combate, m,; v. intr.y 
pelear(se) (con), luchar 
(con); V. tr., {with a bull) 
torear, lidiar. 

fighter, (0/ bulls) torero, m, 

Figueras y Moragas, £s- 
tanislao (i 819-1882), first 
president of the Spanish 
republic; held office from 
Feb. 12 to June 8, 1873. 

figura, /., figure. 

figurar, v, /r., to represent. 

fijar, V, tr,y to establish, fix; 

— la vista en, to gaze at; 

— se en, to notice. 

fijo, de — que no, adv.y surely 

not, certainly not. 
fila, /., file, row; en — , 




Filadelfia, Philadelphia. 

film, pelicula, /. 

fill an order, servir (29) un 

fin, m., end, purpose; al, en, or 
por fin, at last, finally; a — 
de que, conj,, in order that, 
so that; a fines de, at the 
end of (the month). 

final, tn.y end; al — , at last. 

final, a., ultimo; — ^ly, adv., 
finalmente, por fin. 

finalmente, adv., at last. 

finca, /., country estate, farm. 

find, V. tr., hallar, encontrar 
24, encontrarse con; — 
one's way, orientarse; — 
out, averiguar 36, enterarse 
de, venir (21) en conoci- 
miento de. 

fine, a., magnifico, elegante, 
bueno; — !, lexcelentel 

finish, V. tr., acabar, terminar; 

— off, dar (4) la ultima 
mano a. 

fiord, ria orillada de altas 

rocas, /. 
fire, incendio, m., fuego, m.; 

— -arm, arma de fuego; 

— upon, V. tr., disparar 

firm, casa, /.; — name, razon 
social, /. 

firma, /. signature. 

firmaf, v. tr., to sign. 

first, a. and adv., primer (o) 
(abbreviated) 1 ; adv., por 
vez primera; — floor, piso 
principal, primer piso; at 
— , al principio. 

fish, pescado, m.; v. tr, and 
intr., pescar 30. 

fit out or up, V. tr., montar, 

fitting, be — , v. intr., convenir 
21, ser (16) conveniente. 

five, cinco. 

flat, a., aplastado, chato. 

flattering, a., risuefio. 

flee, V. intr., huir 44. 

fleet, escuadra, /., flota, /., 
armada, /. 

flete, m., freight. 

flight, fuga,/.; first — up, en el 
primer piso. 

floating, a., flotante. 

flood, V. tr., inundar. 

floor, piso, m.; first — (up), 
primer piso, m., piso prin- 
cipal, m.; ground — , piso 
bajo, m. 

flor, /., flower. 

florecer, 38, v. intr., to flour- 
ish, prosper. 

florero, m., flower bed. 

floresta, /., forest. 



Florida, /., Florida. 

flota, /., fleet. 

flotante, a.y floating. 

flour, harina,/. 

flourish, V, itUr,, florecer 38, 

flower, flor, /. 

fluvial, a.f water, pertaining 
to rivers; via — , water- 

foco, m., street light. 

fogoso, a.y fiery. 

follow, V, tr.y seguir 29, 33; 
— an occupation, ejercer 
(35) un oficio; — a street, 
seguir por una calle; — the 
direction or road, llevar 
(or seguir) el camino. 

fond, be — of, ser (16) parti- 
dario de, ser aficionado a, 
ser dado a, ser amante de; 
tener (17) aficion a. 

fonda, /., restaurant. 

fondear, v. intr., to anchor. 

fondo, w. bottom; a — , thor- 

food, alimento, m.; — prod- 
uct, producto alimenticio, 
m.; the — is good, se come 

fool, tonto, m., bobo, m.; 
V. tr.y enganar. 

foolish, a.y tonto. 

foot, pie, m.; (of animals) 

pat a, /.; ball, foot-ball, 

m.; on — , a pie. 

foothills, f aid as, /. pi. 

for, prfp.y (destination) para, 
a; (time expressions) dur- 
ante, por; (in exchange for) 
por; (continued time') hacer 
+ time "h que; conj., pues, 
puesto que, ya que. 

forage, pasto, m. 

forastero, ^., foreigner. 

force, fuerza, /.; be in — , 
regir 29, 37, estar (6) 

forcibly, adv.y energicamente. 

foreign, a.y extranjero, ex- 

foreigner, extranjero, m., 
forastero, m. 

forest, selva, /., floresta, /., 
bosque, m.; a.y forestal. 

forestal, a.y sylvan, pertain- 
ing to forests. 

forge, forja, /.; v. tr.y fraguar. 

forget, V. tr.y olvidar, olvidarse 
de, olvidarsele a uno. 

forgive, v. tr.y perdonar. 

forja, /., forge. 

form, forma, /.; v, tr.y for- 

forma, /., form, shape. 

formar, v. tr.y to form. 



former, a., anterior; the — , 
pron.j aquel, etc.; — ^ly, 
anteriormente, en tiempos 

fortaleza//*' fortress. 

fortnight, quincena, /. 

fortuna, /., fortune. 

forty, cuarenta 

fortunate, afortunado. 

forzar, (ue), 24, 34, to force, 

found, V. tr.y fundar; be — , 
encontrarse 24, hallarse. 

founder, fundador, m. 

foundling asylum, inclvisa, /. 

fotmdry, fundicion, /. 

fountain, fuente, /. 

four, cuatro. 

fracasar, v. intr.y to fail. 

fragmento, m., fragment. 

fraguar, v. tr.y to forge. 

France, Francia, /. 

francos, — esa, a.y French; a la 
francesa, in French fashion. 

Francia, /., France. 

Francisco, Francis. 

franquear, v. tr.y to pay post- 
age on, to stamp. 

franqueo, m., postage. 

frase, /., phrase, sentence. 

fray, w., friar. 

Fray Bentos, a city of Uruguay 
on the Uruguay river, 200 

miles by rail n. w. from 
Montevideo; population 
about 15,000. 

frecuencia, /., frequency; con 
— y frequently. 

frecuente, a.y frequent. 

frecuentemente, adv.y fre- 

free, a.y libre; {without pay- 
ment) gratis. 

freight, flete, w., carga, /.; 

— boat, buque de flete or 

f rente, /., forehead; m. front; 

— a, en — de, opposite, 
frequent, a.y frecuente; — ly, 

frecuentemente, con fre- 
fresco, a.y cool, fresh; hacer 

— , to be cool (of- the 

fresh, a.y fresco; {not salt) 

friend, amigo-a, m. and f. 
friendly, a.y amable. 
frighten, v. tr.y asustar, es- 

pantar, aterrar, dar (4) 

miedo a. 
frightful, a.y que asusta. 
frigorifero, m., refrigerating 

frfo, a. and s.y cold, 
from, prep.y de, desde. 



front, a,f delantero; in — 
(seat), en el delantero; in 

— of, en frente de, delante 
de; water — y barrio mari- 
nero, m. 

frontera, /., frontier, bound- 

frontier, frontera, /., limites 
nacionales, m. pi. 

frost, helada(s), /. 

frozen, pp, and a., congelado. 

fruit, fruta, /. 

fruta, /., fruit. 

fruto, m., product, fruit; — s, 

fu6, from ir 9, or ser 16. 

fuel, combustible, m. 

fuente, /., fountain. 

fuera, from ir 9, or ser 16. 

fuera, adv.y outside, away; 

— de, prep,, except, out- 
side of, out of. 

fuere, from ir 9, or ser 16. 

fuero, m., local statute law, 
privilege granted to a prov- 

fuerte, a., strong, enduring, 

fuerza, /., force. 

fuese, from ir 9, or ser 16; 
por pequeflas que — n, 
however small they may 

fuga, /., flight. 

fuf, from ir 9, or ser 16. 

fulfill, V. tr,, cumplir con. 

full, a.y lleno, atestado; there 
is a — house, hay un lleno. 

fully, adv,y de lleno. 

fumador, m., smoker. 

fumar, v, tr., to smoke. 

funcidn, /., function, per- 
formance (theatrical). 

funcionar, v, intr.y to operate, 
work; (0/ drama or opera) 
to play. 

fundaci6n, /., founding. 

fundador, m., founder. 

fundar, v, /r., to found; — se, 
to base one's opinion. 

fundici6n, /., foundry, smel- 

fundir, v, tr.y to smelt, fuse. 

funesto, a,y gloomy, ill-fated. 

funny, a., divertido, gracioso. 

furia,/., fury. 

further, adv., — on, mas alia; 
— north, mas al norte. 

fuse, V, tr.y fundir. 

future, a. and s.y future. 

gabacho, m., a term used in 

derision of the French. . 
gabinete, m., sitting-room. 
Gabriel, m., Gabriel. 



gachupin, m.^ nickname given 
to Spaniards in S . A. 

gala, /., gala; habitaciones de 
— , state apartments, gala 

galera, /., galley; van, wagon. 

Galera, name of a tunnel on 
the Oroya Railway of Peru; 
the highest tunnel in the 
world, 15,665 feet high and 
3855 feet long. 

galerfa,/., gallery. 

gal^s, -esa, a, ands,, Welsh. 

Galician, a. and s., gallego. 

gallego, a. and s., of or per- 
taining to Galicia, a region 
of n.w. Spain; in the New 
World, often applied as a 
nickname to Spaniards. 

gallery, galeria, /.; picture — , 
galeria de pinturas, /., pina- 
coteca, /., top — (pf a 
theater) y paraiso, m, 

galley, galera, /. 

gallina, /., hen. 

gallo, m.y rooster; en menos 
que canta un — , in a 


gana, /., desire; de buena — , 

willingly, gladly, 
g^adero, m., cattleman; a., 

ganado, m., cattle. 

ganar, 9. /r., to gain, care, 
win; — a, to excel; — se la 
vida, to earn one's living; 
— se la palma, to carry off 
the palm. 

gandulear, v. intr,, to loaf. 

gangplank, tablazon de em- 
barque, m.y escala, /. 

Gaona, Rodolfo, a Mexican 
bull-fighter who is very 
popular in Spain. 

garden, jardin, m. ; — produce, 
hortaliza, /., frutos, m. pL 

garment, vestido, m. 

gas, gas, m, 

Gasparini, an Italian artist 
who decorated one of the 
rooms of the Madrid palace 
with silk brocade. It re- 
quired 32 years to complete 
the work. 

gastar, v, tr., to spend, waste, 

gastos, m. pl.y expenses. 

gate, puerta, /. 

gather, v. ir., recoger 37, 
reunir, (of crops) cosechar. 

gauche, m.y cowboy. This 
term is used especially in 

gauge, norma, /. 

gay-colored, a., de colores 



gaze at, v, tr,, fijar la vista en; 

mirar, observar. 
gemir (i), 29, to moan, whine, 
general, a, and s., general; por 

lo — y generally. 
Generalife, m., an ancient 

building of Granada, the 

summer residence of the 

Moorish kings. 
General Mines, Minas Geraes 

(Port), f. pL; in Spanish, 

Minas Generates, 
generally, adv., por lo general, 

g6nero, m., kind; pL, goods, 
genio, m., temperament, 

Geneva, Genoa, 
gente,/., people; — pudiente, 

people of consequence or 

gentfo, w., throng, crowd, 

gentleman, caballero, m., 

senor, m, 
geogrfifico, a,, geographical, 
geography, geografia, /. 
gerente, m,, manager. 
German, a, and s,, aleman, 

Germany, Alemania, /. 
Gerona, /., the most north- 
eastern province of Spain. 

gerundio, m., gerund, present 

get, V. tr,y conseguir 29, 33, 
obtener 17; (of tickets) 
tomar; — aboard, embar- 
carse 30, meterse a bordo; 

— along well with, conge- 
niar bien con; — acquainted 
with, conocer 38, familiari- 
zarse con; — a scare, llevar 
un susto; — into or on, 
subir a, meterse en; — lost, 
extraviarse 39, perderse 25; 

— out, V, tr., llevar fuera; 
V. intr., bajar, salir 15; — 
out of, V. tnir., prescindir de; 

— permission to, conseguir 
permiso para; — passage, 
tomar pasaje, — ready, 
V, intr.y prepararse; — rough 
(pfthesea), agitarse, picarse 
30; — seasick, marearse, 
ponerse (12) mareado; — to 
be, llegar (32) a ser; — up, 
levant arse; — up early, 
madrugar 32. 

Gibraltar, m., Gibraltar. 

gigantesco, a., gigantic, huge. 

Gil de Ontaii6n, Juan, a 
Spanish architect of the 
1 6th century. His son 
Rodrigo was more famous 
than he. 



Giordano, Luca (163 2- 1705), 
a very facile Italian painter 
who, at the invitation of 
Charles II of Spain, spent 
13 years working in Madrid. 

Giralda, La, the tower of 
Moorish origin, the finest 
specimen of its kind in the 
world, which stands at the 
n. e. corner of the "Seville 
cachedral. , The upper part 
of the belfry and the vane 
were added in 1568 by 
Fernando Ruiz in Renais- 
sance style. 

giraldillo, m., vane. 

girar, v, intr., to turn, whirl; 
— contra, to draw upon. 

girl, muchacha, /., nina, /. 

gitano, a. and s,, gypsy. 

give, V. tr.y dar 4; — an order 
(Jor goods) y hacer (8) un 
pedido; — attention to, 
atender (25) a: ^ battle to, 
dar batalla a; — birth to, 
dar a luz; — up, v. intr.y 
darse por vencido; v. tr.y 
abdicar 30, renunciar, en- 
tregar 32. 

glad, a., con ten to; be — , 
alegrarse (de), estar (6) 
con ten to; where we shall 
be — to have you call. 

donde Vd. tiene su casa; 
— ^ly, adv.y de buena gana, 
de buen grado, de buena 
voluntad; most — ^ly, de rail 

glass, vidrio, m, 

glide, V. intr.y deslizarse 34. 

glimmer, v. intr.y rielarse. 

globe, globo, m., mundo, m. 

globo, m.y globe. 

gloria, /., glory. 

glorioso, a.y glorious. 

glove, guante, m, 

glow, brillo, m. 

go, V. intr.y ir 9, largarse 32 
{colloquial) y raarcharse, {to 
be in motion) andar i, mar- 
char; — aboard, subir a 
bordo (de), embarcarse (30) 
en; — afoot, ir a ^ie; — 
ashore, desembarcarse 30; 

— down stairs, bajar la 
escalera; — far in some- 
thing, meter las manos 
hasta los codos en algo; 

— for a walk, ir a pasearse; 

— in, into, entrar (en); — 
on one's way, seguir (29, 33) 
su camino; — out, {of a 
light) apagarse 32; — out 
on, salir (15) a; — driving, 
ir a paseo en coche; — to 
bed, acostarse 24; — to 



sleep, dormirse 28; — to the 
aid of, ir en auxilio de; 
— through, pasar por; — 
up, subir a or por, ascender 
25, trepar por; — up on 
deck, subir al puente or a la 
cubierta; how does one, 
— ? ipor donde se va? 

gobemaci6n, /., government. 

gobemante, a.y governing. 

gobemar (ie) 24, v. tr., to 

gobiemo, m., government. 

God, Dios, m. 

godo, m., Goth; also applied as 
nickname to Spaniards in 
S. A. 

Godoy, Manuel de (1767- 
185 1 ), Duke of Alcudia and 
Prince of Peace; prime 
minister and royal favorite 
of Charles IV and of his 
wife, Maria Luisa of Parma, 
whose lover he was. 

gold, oro, m, 

golf, m., golf. 

golfo, m.y gulf. 

gone by, pp. and a., pasado. 

good, buen(o); — for the 
digestion, estomacal; — 
day, buenos dias; — 
night, buenas noches or 
buenas (tardes); be — 

(valid), valer 20; /. bien, m: 
— s, generos, m, pi., efectos, 
m. pi.; mercancias, /. pl.\ 
mercaderias, /. pi. 

good-by, adios, m. 

gordo, a. and s., fat; el pre- 
mio — , or el — (in speak- 
ing of lottery prizes), first 

gorge, tajo, m. 

gorro, m., cap. 

gota,/., drop; gout. 

Goth, godo, tn. 

Gothic, a., gotico; late — , 
gotico decadente. 

g6tico, a., Gothic. 

gout, gota, /. 

govern, v. tr., gobemar 24. 

governing, a., gobemante. 

government, gobietno, m. 

governor, gobemador, m. 

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco 
(1748- 1 828), a versatile 
and facile Spanish painter 
who used the pencil, brush 
or graver with equal power. 
His etchings are widely 
known. His tapestry de- 
signs are numerous and 
varied. He excelled in 

gozar (de), v. intr., 34, to 



gracia, /., grace, pleasing ap- 
pearance; — s, /. pi. 9 thanks. 

grade, calidad, /. 

graderia, /., flight of stairs or 

^grado, m., degree; pleasure; 
de buen — , willingly, gladly. 

graduarse, v. refl., to graduate, 
to be graduated. 

gram&tica, /., grammar. 

Granada, the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in s. Spain; former capital 
of the Moorish kingdom of 
Granada; population about 

granadino, a. and /., Grana- 
dine, of Granada. 

grande or gran, a., great, large, 

grandeza, /., size, greatness, 
hugeness, glory, great char- 
acter, great man. 

grandiose, a., splendid, won- 

grandisimo, a.y very large. 

granite, m., granite. 

Granja, La, The Grange, a 
favorite summer palace of 
the king and queen of 
Spain; in the province of 
Segovia, on w. slope of the 
Guadarramas; construction 
begun by Philip V, in 1719. 

grano, m., grain; berry (of 

grant, p. tr., conceder. 

grape, uva, /. 

graso, a., fat. 

grateftil, a., agradecido. 

gratis, a., gratis, free of 

gratitude, agradecimiento, m. 

grate, a., pleasant, welcome. 

great, a., gran(de); — er, 
mayor, mas grande; — est, 
sumo, el mayor, el mas 
grande; the — er part, la 
mayor parte, la mayoria; 
— ly, adv.y mucho, sobre- 
manera. Great Scott!, 
inter j., Icaramba! 

greatness, grandeza, /. 

green, a., verde. 

greet, v. tr., saludar. 

gridiron, parillas, /. pi. 

griege, a. and /., Greek. 

grind, v. tr.j moler 26, ma- 
chacar 30. 

grinding, a.y moliente. 

gringe, m., term applied in 
several Spanish-American 
countries to foreigners, es- 
pecially to North Ameri- 
cans. According to the 
Academy dictionary, a cor- 
ruption of griego. 



gris, a,, gray. 

gritar, v. tr. and intr,y to shout, 
cry out. 

grito, m,, cry, shout. 

grosero, a.y coarse, rude, 

grotto, gruta, /. 

grotmd, suelo, m., terreno, m. 

grupo, m., group. 

gruta, /., grotto, cave. 

Guadalevin, m., a small river 
flowing through Ronda, s. 

Guadalquivir, m., a river of 
s. w. Spain. It is 360 
miles long, flowing s. w. 
into the Atlantic. Navig- 
able to Seville, 54 miles, 
by vessels up to 1500 

Guadarrama, Sierra de, the 
chain of mountains which, 
with the Sierra de Gredos, 
divides Old from New 
Castile; about 50 miles 
n. w. of Madrid. 

guanaco, m.y guanaco, a 
species of* alpaca or llama. 

guano, m,, guano, seabirds' 
dung used as fertilizer. 

guard, (the corps) guardia, /.; 
(thf member of the corps) 
guardia, m.; civil — , guardia 

civil {with the same distinc- 
tion in genders). 

guardarse, v. refl.y to keep, 
put away. 

guardia, {the corps) /.; {the 
member of the corps) m., 
guard; — de orden pdblico, 

guamecido, m., stucco-work. 

guamici6ii, /., garrison. 

guerra, /., war. 

guerrero, m,, warrior; a,, war- 

Guerrero, Maria (1868-), 
the leading Spanish actress 
of today. Studied under 
Coquelin, Paris. Married 
in 1896 Fernando Diaz de 

guest, huesped, m. 

guia, /., guide book; m., 

guiar, V. tr., to drive, guide. 

guide, {person) guia, m., 
cicerone, {Italian word) m.; 
{book) guia, /. 

guitar, guitarra, /. 

guitarra,/., guitar. 

gustar, V, intr., to please. 
( Used mostly in the jrrf. 
per. sing, and pL); me 
gustan los libros, I like the 



gusto, fn., pleasure, taste; 
tanto — , delighted; a su — , 
to one's taste; sobre — s 
no hay nada escrito, tastes 

gypsy, a. and s., gitano. 


haber, 7, to have (as auxil- 
iary); — de, to be to; hay, 
there is, there are; habia, 
there was, there were; 
habia de todo, there was 
something of everything; 
muchos afios ha, many 
years ago. 

habitable, a., habitable. 

habitaci6n, /., room. 

habitante, m. and f.y inhabit- 

habitar, v. tr., to inhabit. 

habituar, v. tr.y to accustom. 

habla, /., speech. 

hablar, v. tr.y to speak. 

habr^, from haber 7. 

hacendado, m., land-owner. 

hacer, 8, v. tr., to make, do; — 
calor, to be hot {weather); 
— de, to act as; — el 
favor, (to) please; — 
entrar, to show in; — 
escala en, to put in at, 
stop (0/ boats) 'y — le falta 

algo a uno, to need some- 
thing; — la guerra a, to 
make war on; — (se) 
lenguas de, to praise; — 
rabiar, to drive frantic; — 
saber, to inform, make 
known; — una pregunta, 
to ask a question; — una 
propaganda, to carry on a 
propaganda; — una vida, 
to lead a life; — un pedido 
(de), to give an order (for); 

— un viaje, to take a trip; 

— valer, to put to account; 

— ver, to show; — se, to 
become; — se a la mar, to 
set out to sea; — se cono- 
cer, to make oneself known; 
— se entender, to make 
oneself understood; — se 
Uevar, to have oneself 
taken; hace frio, it is cold; 
hace tanto tiempo, a long 
while ago; hace poco, a short 
time ago. 

hacia, prep.y toward, 
hacienda, /., treasury, 
haga, from hacer 8. 
hago, from hacer 8. 
hair, cabello, m,; long — , 

or head of — , cabellera, /. 
halagar, 32, v. tr,, to delight, 
halago, m.y cajolery. 



half, fl., medio; j., mitad, /.; 
— breed, mestizo, w.; — 
past, (of the hour) y media. 

hall, salon, m. 

hallar, v. tr,y to find; — se, 
V, refl,; to be found, to be. 

hambre, /., hunger. 

hand, mano, /.; {workman) 
brazo, m.; — to — , cuerpo 
a cuerpo; by — , a mano, 
on every — , por todas 
partes; on the other — , en 
cambio; r. tf,y entregar 32, 
acercar 30. 

handbag, maleta, /. 

handkerchief, panuelo, m. 

handle, v. tr,, mane jar. 

hang (up), V. tr., colgar 32. 

hangings, colgaduras, /. pL 

happen, v. intr.y pasar, ocu- 
rrir, suceder, acx)ntecer 38. 

hapsburgo, a, and /,. Haps- 
burg, the Austrian royal 
family. From Philip I to 
Charles II, the Spanish 
kings were Hapsburgs. 

harbor, puerto, m. 

hard, a., dificil; {to the touch) 
duro; work — , trabajar de 

hardly, adv., apenas (si); casi 
no, dificilmente. 

har6, from hacer 8. 

harina, /., flour. 

hartar, v. tr., satiate, tire, 

harto, adv.y rather, sufficiently. 

harvest, v, tr,, cosechar. 

hasta, prep,, to, up to, even, 
as far as, until; I — otra 
vczl, so long!; — que, conj., 

hastily, adv,, apresurada- 
mente, de prisa. 

hat, sombrero, m,; store, 

sombrereria, /.; maker, 

sombrerero, m, 

hatch up, V, tr,, tramar. 

hate, V. tr,, aborrecer 38. 

have, V. tr,, {possession) tener 
17; {of meals) tomar; {cau- 
sation) hacer (8) (+ inf, or 
subj.); {auxiliary) haber 7; 

— a good time, divertirse 
27, pasar un buen rato; 

— a liking for, tener (17) 
aficidn a; — an understand- 
ing with, entenderse (25) 
con; — extra, tobrarle a 
uno; — left, quedarle a 
uno; — oneself taken, 
hacerse Ilevar; — part in, 
tener parte en; — to, tener 
que (+ inf.); — to do with, 
tener que ver con; — to 
spare, sobrarle a uno. 



hay, from haber 7, there is, 
there are; — que, one must. 

haya, from haber 7. 

Hayti, Haiti, m. 

haz, from hacer 8. 

hazafia, /., deed. 

he, has, ha, etc*, from haber 7. 

he, inUrj.f behold; hele por 
aquf, here he is. 

he, pers. pron.y el; {before of or 
that) el; — who, el que, 

head, cabeza, /.; — travel- 
ing salesman, jefe de los 

headquarters, centro, m.; casa 
de administracion, /.; (of 
army) cuartel general. 

health, salud, /.; — ^^ first, la 
salud ante todo; be in good 
— , estar (6) en caja, estar 
biende salud; be in usual — , 
estar sin novedad. 

healthfulness, salubridad, /. 

healthy, a.y sano. 

hear, v. /r., oir 10, escuchar; 

— about, oir hablar de; — 
from, recibir las noticias de; 

— say or said, oir decir; 

— speak or spoken, oir 
hablar; let — from, enviar 
(39) uno sus noticias a otro. 

heart, corazon, m. 

heat, calor, m. 

heatedly, adv., a porfia. 

heaven, cielo, m. 

heavy, a., pesado. 

hecho, pp. 0/ hacer 8 ; m., fact. 

heed, v. tr., reparar en, hacer 
caso de; give — to, poner 
(12) reparos en. 

height, altura, /., elevaci5n, 
/., eminencia, /. 

heighten, v. tr., realzar, 34. 

helada,/., frost. 

help, V. tr., ayudar, auxiliary 
remediar; j„ ayuda, /., 
auxilio, m., remedio, m.; 
there is no — for it, no hay 

hell, infiemo, m. 

hello, inter j., hola. 

henrisferio, m., hemisphere. 

hence, adv., de ahi; conj., de 
ahi que. 

her, poss. a., su, de ella (often 
expressed by the def. art,)\ 
pers. pron. indir, obj., le; 
dir. obj., la; (after a prep.), 

Heraldo, £1, a Madrid daily 
which supports Radical- 
Monarchist politics; owned 
by the Sociedad Editorial de 

herd, rebano, m. 



here, adv., aqui; — and there, 
por aqui y por alia; — is, 
are, idem,) he aqui, aqui 
esta(n); — we are, ya esta- 
mos; — you are, tome Vd. 

herir, (ie, i), 27, v, tr., to 
wound, strike. 

hermano-a, m. andf,, brother, 

hermosear, v, tr,, to beautify. 

hermosisimo, a., very beauti- 

hermoso, a., beautiful. 

hermosura, /., beauty. 

h^roe, m,f hero. 

heroically, adv., heroicamente. 

heroico, a., heroic. 

herofna, /., heroine. 

herrador, m., horseshoer. 

herradura, /., horseshoe. 

herramienta, /., tool, imple- 

herrero, m., blacksmith. 

hervir (i), 29, v. tr. and intr., 
to boil. 

hice, from hacer 8. 

hide, cuero m.; beef — , cuero 
de ganado, m.; tanned — , 
curtido, m. 

hidroelectrico, a., hydro-elec- 

hierba, /., grass; — mate, 
Paraguayan tea. 

hierro, m., iron. 

high, a., alto, elevado; {in 
height) de altura; to be so 
many feet — , tener (17) 
tantos pies de altura; — 
school, escuela superior, /. 
— ly, adv., en sumo grado, 

highland, meseta, /., alti- 
planicie, /. paramo, m. 

Highness, Alteza, /. 

highway, carretera, /., cal- 
zada, /. 

higo, m., fig. 

hijo, m., son, child. 

hilandero-a, in. and}., spinner. 

hilar, v. tr., to spin. 

hilera, /., row. 

hilo, m., thread. 

hill, monte, m., cerro, m. 

him, per 5. pron., dir, obj. and 
indir. obj. le; {after a 
prep.), el. 

himself, pers. pron, reft., se; 
intensive, mismo, propio. 

hinder, v. tr., impedir 29, 
dificultar, estorbar, moles- 

hindrance, estorbo, m., moles- 
tia, /. 

hipn6tico, a., hypnotic. 

hip6dromo, m., race-track. ' 

hire, v. tr., alquilar. 



his, poss. a., s\Xi de el; often 

expressed by the def, art, 
Hispanic, a., hispano, hispa- 

hispano,ei., Spanish, Hispanic; 

— americano, a, and j., 

Spanish- American, 
historia, /., history, 
historian, historiador, m, 
hist6rico, a,y historical, 
history, historia, /. 
hit, V. tr.y golpear; — the 

mark, dar (4) en el bianco, 
hitch, V, tr,, enjaezar 34. 
hither, adv., (aqui, aca (with 

verb of motion);-^ and 

thither, aqui (or aca) y alia, 
hito, m.f boundary mark, 
hizo, from hacer 8. 
hogar, m., home, fire-side, 

hoja, /., leaf, sheet, page, 
hola, inter j., hello, 
hold, V. tr.y conservar, tener 

17; — in pleasant memory, 

tener en grata memoria; 

get — of, apoderarse de; 

/., bodega, /. 
holgar, (ue), 24, 32, v, intr.y 

to be useless; — se, to idle, 

amuse oneself; huelga decir, 

needless to say. 
holly, acebo, m. 

hombre, m., man; (in exclo' 

mations) man alive! 
hombro, m., shoulder, 
home, hogar, m., casa, /., 

domicilio, »t., residencia, /., 

vivienda,/.; — soil, terruno 

original; adv,y a casa. 
homesickness (for), nostalgia 

hondo, a., deep, 
honor, m,y honor, 
honrado, pp, and a., honest, 

honrar, v. tr,, to honor, 
hope, esperanza, /.; r. intr,y 

hora, /., hour; por — s, by the 

horizonte, m., horizon. 
hormig6n, m., cement, 
hormigueo, m., hurly-burly, 
homo, m,y oven, 
horse, caballo, m,\ — power, 

caballo de fuerza, w.; — 

dealer, chalan m. 
horseshoe, herradura, /.; — 

curve, curva de herradura,/. 
horseshoer, herrador, m. 
hortaliza, /., garden produce, 
hospedaje, m., lodging, 
hospedar, v. tr,y to lodge, give 

lodgings, put up; — se en, 

to put up at, to lodge at. 



hospital, m., hospital. 

hot, a.y caliente, calido, {of 
weather) caluroso; it is — 
{weather), hace calor. 

hotel, m,y hotel. 

hotel, hotel, m., posada, /., 
small — , hotelito, m.; — 
keeper, hotelero, m, 

hotel ero, m., proprietor {of a 
hotel) y hotel keeper. 

hotelito, dimin, of hotel. 

hour, hora, /.; — after — , 
hora tras hora; an — after, 
a una hora de; an — before, 
con una hora de anticipa- 
cion; by the — y por horas. 

house, casa; /.; country — , 
casa de campo, /.; little — , 
casita,./.; r. tr.y domiciliar, 
alojar, almacenar {of 

household, familia, /. 

how?, adv., icomo?; — goes 
it?, ique tal?; — long?, 
I cuanto tiempo hace (hacia) 
que?; much ?,i cuanto? — 
Ibeautifull, Ique {or 
Icuan) hermosol; {indirect 
exclamations) lo+a. or 

Howells, William Dean 
(183 7-), the foremost Am- 
erican novelist, editor and 

critic of today. He has for 
. many years been deeply 

interested in things Spanish, 
however, adv., sin embargo, 

empero; — much, por 

mucho que + subj.; — 

small it may be, por peque- 

no-a que sea. 
hoy, adv., today; — dfa, 

nowadays; the present 

time; — mismo, this very 

day; — por — , nowadays; 

todo — , this whole day. 
huaso {or guaso), m., rustic 

hubiera, from haber 7. 
hubiese, from haber 7. 
hubo, from haber 7. 
huele, from oler 26a. 
huelga, /., strike, 
huelguista, m., striker. 
Huelva, a maritime province 

of s.w. Spain, noted for its 

copper times, 
huerto, m., orchard. 
hu6sped-a, m. and f., guest, 
huevo, m., egg. 
huge, a., inmenso, enorme, 

huir, 44, V. intr., to flee, 
hule, m., rubber; (S. A. term), 
huUa, /., soft coal, 
humane, a., human. 



Hume, Martin Andrew Sharp 
(1847-1910), an English 
army officer and author. 
He was educated in Spain; 
wrote many books on 
Spanish and English his- 
tory; editor of the Spanish 
State papers; wrote "Mod- 
ern Spain", "Spain, 1479- 
1788", "Philip II of 
Spain", etc. 

humillar, v, tr,, to humble, 

humo, m., smoke. 

humor, m. humor. 

hunchback, a. and j., cor- 
covado, jorobado. 

hundirse, v, refl.y to sink. 

hundred, one — , ciento, or 
cien {before its noun); two 
— , doscientos-as. 

hunger, hambre, /. 

hungry, a., hambriehto, con 
hambre; be — (for), tener 
(17) hambre (de). 

hurly-burly, hormigueo, m. 

hurry, prisa, /.; there is no — , 
no corre prisa; v. intr., 
apresurarse (para); be in a 
— , tener prisa, estar de 
prisa, darse prisa. 

husband, esposo, m., marido, 

hydro-electric, a.y hidro- 

hypnotic, a., hipnodco. 

I, pers, pron.y yo. 

iba, from ir 9. 

Iberian, a. and j., iberico. 

ib^rico, a, and s., Iberian. 

ida, /., going, departure; — y 

venida, going and coming, 

bustle; de — y vuelta, 

round trip, 
idea,/., idea. 

idear, v. tr., to plan, think out. 
identico,' a.y identical, 
identificar, 30, v. tr., to 

idioma, m., language, 
idle, V. intr.y holgarse 32. 
ido, pp, and s., one departed, 

if, conj,y si. 
iglesia, /., church, 
ignorancia, /., ignorance, 
igual, a,y equal, like, same: 

sin — , unequalled, 
igualmente, adv,y equally, 

likewise, the same, 
iluminar, v, tr., to illuminate, 
ilustrado, a.y illustrated, 

learned, informed, 
ilustrar, v, tr,, to illustrate. 



ilustre, a., illustrious, cele- 

ill, a.f enfermo; — -will, 
rencor, w., malquerencia, /. 

illustrate, v, tr.y ilustrar. 

imaginacidn, /., imagination. 

iinaginar(se), v. tr, and refl,y 
to imagine. 

imagine, v. tr,, imaginar(se), 

imitar, v, tr,, to imitate. 

immediately, adv., en seguida, 
seguidamente, inmediata- 

immense, a., inmenso, enor- 
me; — ^ly, sobremanera. 

immigrant, inmigrante, m. 

immortal, a., inmortal. 

Imparcial, £1, a Madrid daily 
owned by the Sociedad 
Editorial de Espana; sup- 
ports the Liberal-Mon- 
archist program; circulates 
widely among the working 
classes of the provinces. 

impart, v. tr., prestar. 

impedir (i), 29, v. tr., to pre- 
vent, stop, hinder. 

imperative, a. and s., im- 

imperio, m., empire. 

imperishable, a., inmarcesible. 

implement, herramienta, /. | 

imponderable, a., inexpres- 

imponente, a., imposing. 

imponer, 12, v. tr,, to impose, 

import, V. tr,, importar. 

importancia, /., importance. 

importante, a., important. 

importar, v, tr. and intr,, to 
import, be important, 
amount to; no importa, it 
doesn't matter, never mind. 

impose, v, tr., imponer 12. 

imposibilitar, v. tr., to block, 
make impossible. 

imposing, a., imponente. 

impossible, a., imposible, no 

impresionar, v. tr., to impress. 

impress, v. tr,, imprimir, im- 

imprimir, 45, v, tr,, to print, 

imprisionar, v, tr,, to im- 

imprison, v, tr., imprisionar. 

imprisonment, encarcela- 
miento, m. 

improper, inconveniente. 

improve, v. tr., mejorar, re- 

impuesto, m., duty, tariff, 



impulsar, v. tr., to move, im- 

impuse, from imponer 12. 

in, prep,y en, por, de (afur 
a superlative); (within) den- 
tro de; — population, por 
su poblacion. 

inacabable, a., interminable. 

inactiyidad, /., stagnation. 

inagotable, a., inexhaustible. 

inaguantable, a,, unendurable. 

inal&mbiico, a., wireless. 

incalculable, a,, inestimable, 

incarnate, v, tr.y encarnar. 

Incas, m. pL, "the people of 
the sun", who developed 
a high civilization in the 
Cuzco valley and else- 
where in Peru. Their em- 
pire was at its height in the 
13 th and 14th centuries. 

incendio, m.y fire. 

inclinar, v. tr.y to incline, turn. 

inclined to, a., partidario de. 

include, v, tr.y comprender. 

inclusa, /., foundling asylum. 

inconveniente, a., improper, 
not fitting, unsuitable; m., 
difficulty, obstacle. 

increase, aumento, m.; v. 
intr.y aumentarse, tomar 

increasing, a., creciente. 

increlble, a,y incredible, un- 

incremento, m., increase. 

inch, pulgada, /. 

indagaci6n, /., investigation. 

indecible, a., inexpressible; 
de una manera — y beyond 

indeciso, a.y indecisive. 

indeed, adv.y ya, si que -h 
clause; — not, ya no; yes 
indeed, ya lo creo. 

independencia, /., indepen- 

independiente, a.y independ- 

Indian, h. and s., indio. 

indicaci6n, /. indication. 

indicar, 30, v. tr.y to indicate, 
point out. 

indicate, v. tr.y indicar 30, 
marcar 30. 

indication, indicacion, /. 

indicative, a. and /., indicative. 

indiferencia, /., indifference. 

indio, a. and j., Indian. 

indispensable, a., indis- 
pensable, necessary. 

individualismo, m., individr 

individuo, m., individual. 

indole, /.. nature* charactsr. 



indudablemente, adv,y with- 
out doubt, doubtless (ly). 

industria, /., industry. 

industrial, a., industrial. 

industrious, a,, trabajador-a, 

industry, industria, /.; (of 
persons) laboriosidad, /. 

inexpressible, a., indecible, 

infante-a, m. and /., royal 
prince or princess of Spain. 

infiemo, m., hell. 

infinidad, /., infinity, large 

infinitivo, m., infinitive. 

influence, influencia, /.; v, tr,, 
influir (44) en. 

Influencia, /., influence. 

influir en, 44, v, intr., to 

inform, v. tr,y enterar, poner 
(12) en conocimiento de; 
hacer (8) saber, participar, 

informar, v. tr., to inform. 

information, datos, m. pL; 
— bureau, despacho de in- 

informe, m., news, informa- 
tion; pedir — s, to ask for 
news or information. 

informed,^/), and a., ilustrado. 

infundir, v, tr., to inspire. 

infusi6n, /., infusion, steep- 
ing. . 

ingeniero, m., engineer. 

ingenio, w., wit, cleverness; 
(in S, J,) sugar mill, sugar- 
refining plant. 

Inglaterra, /., England. 

ingl6s, esa, a. and s., English, 

ingrate, a, and j., ingrato, 

ingrato, a. and j*., ungrateful, 

ingresar (en;, v. intr.y to enter, 

inhabit, v. tr., habitar. 

inhabitant, habitante, m. 

inhospitalariOy a», inhos- 

iniciativa, /., initiative. 

inimitable, a,, inimitable. 

inkstand, tintero, m, 

inland, adv,, tierra adentro; 
far — , muy tierra adentro. 

inmarcesible, a., imperish- 

inmejorable, a,, unsurpass- 

inmenso, a., huge, immense. 

inmigrante, m., immigrant. 

inmortal, a., immortal. 

innegable, a., undeniable. 



inner, a,, interior. 

innumerable, a., countless, in- 

inolvidable, a., unforgetable. 

Inquisici6n, /., Inquisition, 
the term applied to the 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
dealing with detection and 
punishment of heretics or 
those oflFending the Catho- 
lic orthodoxy. A special 
national Inquisition was 
founded in Spain in 1480 by 
Ferdinand and Isabella and 
without the help of the 

Iquique, a port of n. Chile, 
2CXX) miles from Panama; 
population about 45,cxx^; 
capital of the province of 
Tarapaca. It is the great- 
est nitrate port in the world. 

inscribir, 45, v, tr. to inscribe; 
— el nombre, put one's 

inscripci6n, /., inscription. 

inscrito, pp. of inscribir, 45. 

inside, adv,f adentro; — of, 
prep.y dentro de. 

insignificancia, /., insignifi- 

insignificance, insignificancia, 
/., nulidad, /. 

insist on, V. intr,^ empenarse 
en (-|- tn/. or subj.); in- 

insistir, v, tnir.y to insist. 

insoportable, a,, unendurable. 

inspeccionar, v. tr., to inspect. 

inspiring, be — , dar (4) 

instalaci6n, /., plant, equip- 
ment, establishment, fitting 

instalar, v. tr., to install, set 

instant or inst., adv., del 
actual, del corriente. 

instar, v. tr., to urge. 

instead of, prep., en lugar de, 
en vez de. 

instituci6n, /., institution. 

instituto, m., institute, semi- 

instrucci6n, /., instruction, 

instruction, instruccion, /. 

instrufdo, pp. and a., learned. 

instruir, 44, v. tr., to instruct. 

instrumento, m., instrument. 

insult, V. tr., agraviar. 

insuperable, a., unsurpass- 
able, unexcelled. 

insurance, seguro, m.; — 
company, compaiiia de 
seguros, /. 



insurrecto, m., rebel. 

inteligente, a., intelligent. 

intend, v. intr., pensar 23, 
tener (17) la intencion de; 
intentar, proponerse 12. 

intendencia, /., management; 
— general, superintend- 
ent's office. 

intensamente, adv.y deeply, 

intentar, v, tr., to intend, 

intention, intencion, /. 

intento, m., attempt. 

interesante, a., interesting. 

interesantfsimo, a,, most in- 

interesar, v. tr,, to interest. 

interest, interes, m.; v. tr., 

interesting, a., interesante; 
most — , interesantisimo. 

interior, a, and s,, internal, 
inner; interior. 

intermediario, m., middle- 
man, jobber. 

interminable, a., inacabable, 

interminable, a,, unending, 

internal, a., interior. 

interpret, v, tr,^ interpre- 

interpretaci6n, /., interpretai- 

interpretar^ v. ir,, to inter- 

interpretation, interpretacion, 

interregno, m., interregnum. 

intemmipir, v, tr.y to inter- 

intemipci6n, /., interruption. 

interrupt, v, tr,f interrumpir. 

intervenci6n, /., intervention. 

Intimamente, adv., intimately. 

intimate, a., intimo. 

introduce, v. tr.y presentar. 

introduction, presentacion, /.; 
letter of — to, carta pre- 
sent ando uno a otro, carta 
de presentacion, /. 

inundaci6n, /., flood. 

intmdar, v. /r., to flood. 

iniitil, a., useless. 

invading, a., invasor-a. 

invador, invasor, m. 

invasor, a, and s,, invader; 

inventivo, a., inventive. 

invertir (ie, i), 27, v. tr., to 

inviemo, w., winter; pleno — , 

inyitaci6n, /., invitation. 

invitar, v, tr,, to invite. 



invite (to), v, if,y invitar (a); 
{to a meal) convidar. 

ir, 9, V. intr.y to go; — a paseo, 
to go walking; — a pie, to 
go afoot; — a pique, to sink; 
— al grano, to come to the 
'point; — en auxilio de, to go 
to the help of; ahivan, there 
are ; — se, v, refi,y to go away. - 

ira, /., rage, ire. 

Irene, /., Irene. 

Irish, Irishman, a, and s., 
irlandes, -esa. 

iron, hierro, w.; «., ferreo. 

irregular, a,, irregular. 

irregularidad, /., irregularity. 

irreprochable, a., irreproach- 

irrigate, v. tr.y regar, 23, 32. 

irrigation, riego, m. 

Isabel, /., Isabella; — I 
(reigned 1474-1504), mar- 
ried Ferdidnand II of Ara- 
gon in 1479; — II, (reigned 
i833-i868),daughter of Fer- 
dinand VII, made queen be- 
cause her father repealed the 
Salic Law. Her uncle, Don. 
Carlos, opposed her in vain 
with his army. She was de- 
posed in 1868 and went to 
live in Paris where she died 
in 1904. 

Infanta — (1851- ), aunt 
of Alphonso XIII and 
widow of Prince Gaetano 
of Bourbon-Sicily, Count 
of Girgenti. She is noted for 
her good nature and kind- 
ness of heart. 

Iscar, Miguel, former name 
of a street of Valladolid 
where Cervantes once re- 
sided; now bears that au- 
thor's name. 

isla, f,y island. 

island, isla, /. 

isle, islita, /. 

islita, /., dimin. of isla. 

isolation, aislamiento, m. 

it, pers. pron.; obj.y lo, le, la; 
{as subject and after a 
prep.)y el, ella, ello. 

Italia, /., Italy. 

italiano, a. and j., Italian. 

itself, mismo; in ---, por si 

ivory, marfil, m.; vegetable 
— y marfil vegetal, m, 

izquierdo, a., left; a la 
izquierda, on the left. 

jacket, chaqueta, /. 
jactarse (de), v. refl.y 




Ja6n, m,f a province of s. e. 

Spain, noted for its lead 

January, eneio, m. 
japon^s, -esa, a. ands.y Japan- 
jardin, m., garden. 
jarr6n, m., vase, urn. 
jaspe, m., jasper. 
JAtiba, a town of I2,cx» in the 

s. part of the province of 

Valencia, Spain, 
jefe, m., chief, manager, head, 

jest, broma, /.; in — , bro- 

meando, en broma. 
jewel, joy a, /., alhaja, /. 
jeweler, joyero, w., relojero, 

jewelry, joy as, /.; store, 

joyeria, /., relojeria, /. 

Jewish, a., judio. 

Jimena, /., Ximena, wife of 
the Cid. 

Jockey-Club, an exclusive 
club of Buenos Aires which 
possesses one of the finest 
race-courses in the world. 
It has a sumptuous city 
headquarters in Florida 

Joe, Pepe. 

John, Juan. 

joke, chiste, m. 

jomal, m., day-wage. 

jomaleroy m., laborer {hy the 

jorobado, a. and /., hunch- 

Jos6, m., Joseph. 

Joselito, nickname of Jose 
G5mez, the present idol of 
the bull-fighting enthusi- 
asts of Spain. 

jot down, V. tr,, apuntar. 

journey, viaje, m.; v. intr.^ 
viajar, caminar. 

joven, a. ands., young; youth. 

joy, jubilo, w.; algeria, /. 

joya, /., jewel. 

joyeria, /., jewelry-store. 

joyero, m., jeweler. 

Juan, w., John; — de Austrii, 
the natural brother of 
Philip II, commander of the 
combined fleet of the Chris- 
tians at the battle of Le- 
panto Oct. 7, 1571. 

jubilado, pp, and ^., retired, 

jdbilo, m,y joy, jubilation. 

judfo, a. and s,, Jewish, Jew. 

juego, m., game. 

jugar (ue), 24a, 32, to play; 
— al tejo, to play shuflfte- 




juicioso, a,y sensible. 

Jujuy, a city and province of 
n. Argentina; population of 
former about io,cx)0. 

Julio, w., July. 

jump, V, intr.y saltar. 

junction, empalme, m,y esta- 
cion de empalme, /. 

June, junio, m. 

juntamente, adv,y together, 

juntar, v, tr,, to put together, 

junto, a., adjoined, close at 
hand; — s, together; — a, 
prep.y near; — con, prep.y 
together with. 

juramento, w., oath; pedir — 
a uno, to demand an oath 
of someone, to put some- 
one under oath. 

jurar, p. tr., to swear. 

just, adv.y solo, precisamente; 
— as or like, lo mismo que; 
to have — +/>/>•> acabar 
de +tnf. 

justice, justicia, /. 

justicia, /., justice. 

Juvara, Filippo (1685-1735), 
a Sicilian architect, design- 
er of the Royal Palaces of 
Madrid and of La Granja. 

juzgado, m., tribunal, court. 


Kechuan, a, and j-., quechua. 

keep, V, tr, and intr., conservar, 
guardarse; — afloat, sobre- 
nadar; — on {imper,), mas 
alia; — on-f- pres, part,, 
seguir (29, 33) or ir (9) 
+ pres, part,; — on rising, 
irse elevando; — one's eyes 
open, tener (17) mucho ojo; 
— oneself in good health or 
keep well, seguir bien de 
salud; — silence, guard ar 
silencio; — straight ahead, 
seguir derecho. 

keeping, in — with, prep,, 
conforme a. 

kidnap, v. tr., secuestrar. 

kilogramo, m., kilogram, 2H 

kilometer, /., kilometro; a,, 

kilom^trico, a., kilometer. 

kil6metro, m., kilometer. 

killing, matanza, /. 

kind, clase, /., genero, m., 
especie, /., of this (that) — , 
por el estilo; a., amable 
(para con) ; be — enough to, 
tener (17) la amabilidad de 
{or la bondad) de (-f- inf.). 

kindness, bondad, /., amabili- 
dad, /. 



king, rey, m,; — and queen, 

los reyes. 
kingdom, reino, m. 
kiss, beso, m.; v, tr.y besar. 
kitchen, cocina, /. 
knife, navaja, /., cuchillo, m. 
knock (at a dobr)^ v, intr., 

know, p. tr,y (a fact) saber 14; 

(persons or things) conocer 

38; — how to, saber (+tnf.). 
knowledge, conocimiento, m,. 
known, well — , a., bien 


la, def, art.y the; that {before 
de or que); pers, pron,y it, 
her, you. 

laberinto, m., labyrinth. 

labor,/., labor. 

laborer, jomalero, m. 

laboriosidad, /., industry. 

laborioso, a., laborious, hard- 

labrar, v. tr.y to work. 

labyrinth, laberinto, m, 

lace, encaje, m, 

lack, carencia, /., falta, /.; 
V. tr,y carecer (38) de, 
faltarle a uno. 

lacking, be — , v, intr., faltar, 
hacer (8) falta. 

ladera, /., slope, side. 

lado, m., side; del — de, 

ladrillo, m., brick. 

lady, senora, /., senorita, /. 

lago, m.f lake. 

laja,/., slab. 

lake, lago, m. 

lamentarse, v, refi.y to lament, 

lamp, lampara, /.; street — y 
foco, m. 

lana, /., wool. 

lanar, a., sheep-raising, wool- 
bearing, pertaining to wool 
or sheep. 

lancha, /., launch. 

land, tierra, /., terreno, w., 
terruno, w.; — owner, 
hacendado, m. 

Iand6, m.y landau, open carri- 

landscape, paisaje, m, 

language, lengua, /., idioma, 
w., lenguaje, m. 

lanzar, 34, ». /r., to utter; — se 
(a), to rush; — se al encuen- 
tro de, to rush to meet. 

La Paz (de Ayacucho), the cap- 
ital of BoHvia (since 1898) 
and of the province of the 
same name; founded 1548; 
population about 70,000. 



largamente, adv,, at length. 

largarse, 32, v, fefl,^ to go, 

large, a., grande, mucho; — ^r, 
mayor, mas grande. 

largo, a,y long; de — , in 
length; a lo — de, alongside 
of, along; m., length. 

las, def. art. /. ^/., the; they, 
those {before de or que) ; pers. 
pron.y them, you. 

La Sema, the last Spanish 
viceroy of Peru, defeated by 
General Sucre at Ayacucho 
in the War of Independence. 

last, a., {in time) pasado, {in 
order) ultimo; -- night, 
anoche; at — , al, en, or por 
fin, al final; v. intr.y durar, 
permanecer 38. 

l&stima, /., pity; Iqu6 — I, 
what a pity, too bad, what 
a shame I 

lata,/., tin can; en — , canned. 

late, adv., tarde, con retraso, 
atrasado, {up-to-date) mo- 
demo; — ^r, mas tarde, luego, 
despues; see you — ^r, hasta 
mas tarde, hasta luego. 

Latin, a.y latino; American, 

a. and s., latinoamericano. 

latino, a., Latin; — americano, 
a. and j., Latin-American. 

latitud, /., latitude, width, 
latter, the — , dem. pron.y este, 

etc.'y dem. a., este, etc. 
laugh, V. intr.y reir(se) 29a; 

— at, reirse de, burlarse de. 
launch, lancha, /. 

law, ley,/.; {local) fuero, m. 
Lawrence, Lorenzo, m, 
lawyer, abogado, m. 
lay out, V. tr., {a street) condu- 

cir 18, construir 44. 
le, pers. pron.y him, to him, to 

her, you, to you. 
lead, plomo, m. 
lead, vanguardia, /.; v. tr.y 

conducir 18, Uevar; — a 

life, hacer (8) una vida; 

— a prosperous life, darse 
(4) una vida en grande. 

leader, caudillo, m., jefe, m. 

leading, a.y sobresaliente. 

leaf, hoja, /. 

league, liga, /. 

leal, a.y loyal. 

lean, a.y magro. 

leaps, by — and bounds, a 

pasos agigantados. 
learn, v. tr.y aprender; saber 

de, enterarse de, informarse 

de, venir (21) en conoci- 

miento de. 
least, a.y el menor; at — y per 

lo menos. 



leather^ curtido, m., cuero, m. 

leave, v, tr,, dejar, abandonar; 
{a place) salir (15) de, par- 
tir de, largarse (32), de; 
(a person) despedirse (29) 
de; (of boats) zarpar de; 

— aside, prescinder de; 

— nothing to be desired, 
no dejar nada que desear; 

— behind, dejarse de; what 
is left, lo restante. 

lectura, /., reading. 

lecture, cx)nferencia, /.; v. tr,, 

leer, 43, v. tr,, to read, 
left, a,, izquierdo; on the — , 

a la izquierda. 
leg, piema,/. 

legar, 32, v, tr., to bequeath, 
legend, leyenda, /. 
legumbre, /., vegetable, 
lejano, a,, distant, 
lejos, adv.y distant; — de, far 

from; a lo — , in the distance, 
lemon, limon, m,; — grove, 

limonar, m. 
length, longitud, /.; in — , de 

largo; at — , extensamente, 

(at last) al fin, finalmente. 
lengua,/., language, tongue, 
lenguaje, m., language, 
lentamente, adv,y slowly. 
lento, a.y slow. 

leHa, /.,'wood. 

Ie6n, m., lion. 

Le6n, m., the ancient kingdom 
of n. w. Spain, now divided 
into the provinces of Sala- 
manca, Zamora and Leon. 

Lepanto, the battle of — , 
occurred Oct. 7, 1571, near 
the n. coast of the Gulf of 
Corinth, resulting in a vic- 
tory of the Christians over 
the Turks. 

L€rida, a province and city of 
n. w. Spain. 

les, pers, pron., them, to them, 
you, to you. 

less, adv,, menos. 

lesson, leccion, /. 

let, V, tr,y dejar, permitir, 
consentir 27; — one have 
it at so much, dejarselo a 
uno en tanto; — us, ex^ 
pressed by the isU pers, pL 
pres, subj\ of the verb in 
question; — us go, vamo- 
nos; — us see, (vamos) a 

letra, /., letter (0/ the alphabet), 

letrero, m., sign. 

letter, carta, /.; (of alphabet) 
letra, /.; — of credit, carta 
de credito; — of introduc- 
tion, carta de presentacion. 



le^antamiento, m,, rise. 

levantar, v, tr,, to raise; — se, 
V, refl.y to rise. 

Levante, m., Levant, the 
eastern region of Spain. 

level, nivel, w.; sea — , nivel 
del mar, w. 

ley, /., law. 

leyenda, /., legend. 

ley 6y from leer 43. 

Iiberaci6n, /*., liberation. 

liberal, a.y liberal; used also as 
the name of a political party. 

Liberal, El, the chief daily of 
the Liberal - Monarchist 
party; published in Madrid 
with local editions in Bil- 
bao, Murcia, Barcelona, 
and Seville; the most wide- 
ly read newspaper of Spain; 
owned by the Sociedad 
Editorial de Espana. 

liberate, v. tr,, poner (12) en 

libertad, /., liberty. 

liberty, libertad, /. 

libra, /., pound. 

librar (sobre) v. tr., to draw 

library, biblioteca, /. 

libre, a., free, unoccupied, 

libreria, /., book store. 

libro, m.y book; — de con- 
tabilidad, account book; — 
de entradas, register (0/ a 

licencia, /., permission; dis- 

liceo, tn., lyceum. 

lie, V. intr.y acostarse 24, 
{usually of the dead) yacer; 
J"., mentira,/. 

lienzo, m., canvas. 

life, vida, /. 

lift, r. intr^y levantarse, (0/ 
clouds) disiparse. 

liga, /., league. 

ligar, 32, V. tr.y to join, bind. 

ligero, a,, light (in weight), 

light, luz, /., alumbrado, m., 
lumbre, /., (of street) foco, 
m.; a., (in weight) ligero, 
{in color) claro. 

lighting, alumbrado, m, 

like, adv. or prep,, como, cual, 
asi como; a., semejante a, 
parecido a; v. tr., gustarle a 
uno; I — the books, me 
gustan los libros; would 
you — ?, ^quisiera Vd.?, 
ile gustaria a Vd.? 

likewise, adv., igualmente, lo 

liking (for), aficion a,/.; amor 
a, m. 



Lima, the capital of Peru, 

founded in 1535 by Pizarro; 

population about 150,000; 

ten miles from £1 Callao, 

its port, 
limit, V. tr., limitar; s,j limite, 

m., termmo, m, 
limitar, v. tr,, to confine, limit, 
limite, m., limit, boundary; 

sin — , unlimited, 
limonar, m., lemon grove, 
limosna, /., alms. 
limosnero, m., beggar, 
limosnita, /., dimin. of 

limpiabotas, m., boot-black, 
limpieza,/., cleanliness, neat- 
lindante (con), a., bordering, 
lindar (con), v, intr,, to border. 
Lindaraja, /., the popular 

name for the Mirador de 

Daraxa, a small vestibule of 

the Alhambra. 
line, linea, /., renglon, m,; 

(of business) ramal, m,; 

railway — , linea or via 
ferroviaria, /., camino de 
hierro, w., ferrocarril, m.; 

Spanish — , Compania 
Trasatlantica Espanola. 
linea, /., line; equator (popu- 

link (up), V, tr.y encadenar. 

liquido, m., liquid. 

Lirico, m., Lyric, name of 
the opera house on the 
Rambla del Centro, Barce- 
lona. Seats 3600. Italian 
opera chiefly is given here. 

lista, /., list; — de plates, bill 
of fare. 

listo, a,y shrewd, active; ready. 

literary, a., literario; — man, 
literato, m, 

literate, m., literary man. 

literatura, /., literature; — 
novelesca, fiction. 

little, a,y pequeno; often ex- 
pressed by the dimin. of the 
noun; adv.y poco; j-., poco, 

live, V. intr,, vivir, residir; 
— as do, hacer (8) vida 
comun con; — like a king, 
tratarse a cuerpo de rey; 
long — I, I viva (n) I 

lively, a,f vivo. 

living, vida, /. 

lo, pers, pron.y him, it; that 
(before de or que); how 
(before a, or adv. r*i in- 
direct exclamations) ; so (with 
ser); def. art., — de, the 
matter of; — de siempre, 
the same old story. 



load (with), v. tr.y cargar (32) 

loaf, pan, m,; v. intr,y — 
about, gandubear. 

local, m.j premises. 

localidad, /., seat, place (tn 

locate, V, tr.y colocar 30, 
situar. , 

loco, a.y mad, crazy. 

locomotora, /., locomotive, 

locuaz, a.y talkative, loqua- 

locuci6n, /., locution, phrase, 

lodge, V. tr.y hospedar; r. 
intr.y parar; v. refl.y alo- 
jarse, albergarse 32, hospe- 

lodging, hospedaje, m. 

lodo, m.y mud. 

lofty, a.y encumbrado, eleva- 

16gico, a.y logical. 

lograr, v. tr.y to obtain, get, 
succeed in, be successful. 

lomo, m.y back (0/ an ani- 
mal) ;a — de mula, on mule- 

long, a.y largo, (pj time) mucho 
(tiempo), (in length) de 
largo; — er, (of time) mas 

tiempo; no — er, ya no; 

adv.y so — I, Ihasta luegol; 

of — ago, de muchos anos 

ha, de tiempos remotos, de 

antano; as {or so) — as, 

mientras (que); — live!, 

I viva (n) I; be — in, tardar 

en; v. intr.y anhelar. 
longitud, /., longitude, length, 
longitudinal, a.y longitudinal, 
lontonanza,/., distance; en — , 

in the distance, afar, 
look at, V. tr.y mirar, ver 22; 

look out upoUy dar (4) a; 

look intOy mirar en. 
lookout, mirador, m, 
loosen, V. tr.y soltar 45; — 

one's pursestrings, echar 

manos a la bolsa. 
loosened, pp. and a.y suel- 

Lorenzo, m., Lawrence. ' 
los, def. art. m. pl.y the; those, 

they {before de or que); 

pers. pron.y them, you. 
lose, V. tr.y perder 25; — 

oneself, extra viarse 39, per- 

derse; — sight of, perder de 

loss, perdida, /. 
Lota, twin port of Coronel, 

250 miles s. of Valparaiso; 

the site of coal beds ex- 



tending under the sea and 
of Cousino Park and 
chateau, the pride of Chile. 

loteria,/., lottery. 

loudly, adv,, a voces llenas. 

love (of), amor (a), w.; my — 
to, da un abrazo a. 

loving, a,y carinoso, afec- 

low or lower, a.y bajo. 

lowest, a,y (of price) ultimo. 

luck, suerte, /. 

luchar, v. intr., to fight, battle. 

luego, adv,y then, soon, after- 

lugar, m.y place, town, spot; 
— natal, place of birth; 
en — de, instead of. 

Luis, m., Louis; Ponce de 
Le6n, Fray — (1527-1591), 
an Augustinian monk, pro- 
fessor of theology at the 
University of Salamanca, 
imprisoned by the officers of 
the Inquisition for having 
translated into Spanish the 
Song of Solomon. He was 
acquitted of the charge of 
interpreting the scriptures 
according to Hebrew belief. 

lujo, m., luxury. 

lujosamente, adv., luxuriously. 

lumbre, /., fire, light. 

luna, /., moon, 
lunch, almuerzo, nt. 
lusitano, a. and s.y Portu- 
guese, Lusitanian. 
luz, /., light, 
lyceum, liceo, m, 


Llai-Llai, junction, on the 
Chilean Railway, of the Val- 
paraiso-Santiago line and 
the line to Los Andes where 
* connection is made with 
the Transandean Railway. 

llama, /., llama, the S. A. 
beast of burden. 

Uamar, v, tr., and intr,, to call, 
knock {at a door); — la 
atenci6n, to attract atten- 
tion; — se, to be called (of 
names); — se andana, to 
back out. 

Uamativo, a., attractive. 

llano, m.y plain. 

llanura, /., plain. 

Have, /., key. 

llegada, /., arrival. 

Uegar, 32, v. intr.y to arrive; 
— a, to get to, reach. 

lleno, a., full; de — , absolute- 
ly, completely; hay un — , 
there is a full house. 



llevar, p. tr.y to carry, bear, 
wear; — a cabo, to carry 
out, execute; — a la rastra, 
to drag; — el camino, to 
pursue the way; — los 
libros, to keep the account 
books; — ventaja a, to sur- 
pass, get the better of; — 
tanto tiempo en un lugar, 
to spend a certain time in 
a place; — se un susto 
(mayiisculo), to get a (ter- 
rible) scare. 

llover (ue), 26, v, intr.y to rain; 
— a cftntaros, to rain hard, 

Lloyd Brazileiro {Port.), 2i 
Brazilian steamship line. 


machacar, 30, to crush, 
machine, maquina, /. 
machinery, maquinaria, /. 
madam, ma'am, senora, /., 

senorita, /. 
Madeleine, the famous church 

of Paris, 
madera, /., wood, 
madre, /., mother. 
Madrid, the capital of Spain; 

population 6cx),ooo. 
Madrilenian, a. and /., madri- 


madrilefio, a. and /., of 
Madrid, Madrilenian. 

madnigada, /., dawn; de — , 
early {in the morning). 

madrugar, 32, to be an early 
riser, rise early. 

maestro, m., master. 

magazine, revista, /. 

Magdalena, the most import- 
ant river of Colombia and 
the chief means of trans- 
portation in that country. 
It flows n. about 1600 miles 
into the Caribbean. 

magic, as if by — , como per 

magnifico, a., magnificent, 

magnolia,/., magnolia. 

magro, a., lean. 

mahogany, caoba, /. 

Mahoma, m., Mohammed, 
the founder of the Moham- 
medan religion; died 632. 

maid, criada, /.; {of the court) 
menina, /. 

mail, correo, m. 

main, a., principal, {of 
streets) mayor. 

maintain, v. tr., mantener 17, 
sostener 17. 

Maipo or Maipu, a river near 
Santiago de Chile, scene of 



the defeat of the Royalists 
in 1818 by the forces of the 

mafz, m., com, maize. 

majestic, a., majestuoso; — 
-ally, adv,y majestuosa- 

majestuosamente, adv.y ma- 

majestuoso, a.y majestic. 

majesty, majestad, /.; Their 
Majesties^ Sus Majestades 
(SS. MM.); Their Cfltholic 
Majesties, Los Reyes Cato- 

majority, mayoria, /. 

make, hacer 8, fabricar 30; 

— a long story short, para 
abreviar; — closer, estre- 
char; — difGlcult, dificultar; 

— known, dar (4) a cono- 
cer; — one's mouth water, 
traerle (19) a uno el agua a 
la boca; — one's way to, 
dirigirse (37) a; — oneself 
known, hacerse conocer; 

— oneself understood, ha- 
cerse entender, — out, 
divisar, distinguir 33; — 
sport of, burlarse de, reirse 
(29a) de; — the circuit of, 
dar la vuelta a; — one think 
of, recordar 24; — use of, | 

servirse (29) de, valerse (20) 
de; — war on, hacer la 
guerra a; — yourself at 
home (imper.)y Vd. esta en 
su casa. 

mal, m., evil, trouble; adv,y 
badly, poorly. 

male, m., varon. 

malec6n, m., embankment, 

maleta, /., valise, bag, hand- 

malfsimo, a.y very bad. 

malogrado, a., unfortunate. 

malquerencia, /., ill-will, dis- 

mamfi, /., mother. 

man, hombre, w., young — , 
joven, m.y old — , viejo, w., 
anciano, m, 

management, empresa, /. 

manager, gerente, m. 

manantial, m., spring, source. 

manco, a, and j., one- 

Mancha, La, a region of s. 
central Spain. 

Manchegan, a. and s., man- 

mandar, v. tr., to send, com- 
mand, order. 

mando, m., command. 

manejar, v. tr^, to handle. 



manera, /., way, manner; de 
ninguna — , by no means; 
de otra — , other wise; de 
una — , in a way; a mi 

— de ver from my point 
of view; de — que, conj,y 
so that. 

manganeso, m., manganese. 

Mangue, m., the name of the 
canal and avenue in Rio de 
Janeiro. The avenue is 
1320 yards long, the canal 
is in the center, double rows 
of palms and double road- 
ways are found on each side. 
The canal is continued i8cx) 
yards beyond the avenue 
and drains a marshy part 
of the city. 

mauiobrar, v. tr. and intr., to 

manner, manera, /., modo, 


mannerism, amaneramiento, 

mano,/., hand; a — , by hand; 

— s a la obra, now to work; 

— de obra, help, "hands", 
labor (collective). 

manso, a., quiet, gentle, 
mantener, 17, to maintain, 

mantequilla, /., butter. 

mantilla, /., mantilla, the 
Spanish head shawl. 

mant6n, m., shawl. 

manufactura, /., manufacture. 

manufacturar, v. /r., to manu- 

manufacture, v. tr.y fabricar 
30, manufacturar. 

manufacturer, fabricante, m., 
manufacturero, m. 

manufactturero, a.y manufac- 
turing; J", m., manufacturer. 

manufacturing, fabricacion,/.; 
a,, manufacturero. 

manuscrito, m., manuscript. 

many, muchos-as; so — y tan- 
tos-as; how — ?, ^cuantos- 

many-colored, a., multicolor. 

manzana, /., apple; block {of 

Manzanares, el, m., the small 
river skirting the westefn 
slopes of the plateau on 
which Madrid is located. 

mafia, /., skill. 

mafiana, /., morning; adv., 
tomorrow; — de sol, sunny 
morning; pasado — , day 
after tomorrow. 

mftqtiina, /., machine. 

maquinaria, /., machinery. 

maquinista, tn., engineer. 



mar, m, and/., sea; en alta — , 

on the open sea, on the high 

maravilla, /., wonder; a — , 

marvellously, in a fine way; 

a las mil — s, wonderfully, 
maravillarse, (de) v, refl,, to 

wonder (at); ^o es de — 

que, no wonder that, 
maravilloso, iz., wonderful, 
marble, marmol, m. 
marca, /., brand, 
marcar, 30, v, /r., to mark, 

Marconi, the name of a 

theater of Buenos Aires, 
marcha, /"., speed. 
marchar(se), v, intr. and 

refl»y to go, walk, travel, 

set out; — se, to leave, 
mareado, pp, and a.y seasick. 
marearse, v. refl.y to become 

maremagnum, {Latin), m.y 

mareo, m., seasickness, 
marfil, m., ivory, 
margen, /., bank, margin. 
Marfa Cristina (of Naples), 

the fourth wife of Charles IV 

of Spain. 
Maria Cristina de Hapsburgo, 

the Austrian archduchess 

who became, Nov., 1879, 
the second wife of Alphon- 
so XII and, on May 17, 
1886, the mother of Alphon- 
so XIII, six months after 
the death of her husband. 
Queen Regent till 1902; is 
still living. ? 

marido, m.y husband. 

maritime, a.y maritime. 

mark, v. tr., marcar 30; 
— out, trazar 34. 

market or market place, mer- 
cado, m. 

mftrmol, m., marble; — 
brecha, breccia. 

marquesa,/., marchioness. 

marry, v. tr.y casarse con. 

martillo, m.y hammer. 

Martinez Campos, Arsenic 
(1831-1900), a Spanish 
marshal, knight and sena- 
tor; he proclaimed Alphon- 
so XII king on Dec. 29, 
1874; he pacified Cuba 
in 1878 but failed to do 
so in 1895. A street of 
n. e. Madrid bears his 

marvellous, a.y pasmoso, ma- 
ravilloso, asombroso. 

Mary, Maria, /. 

marzo, m., March. 



m&s, adv,f more; el — , most; 
— de, more than {before 
numbers); a — de, besides; 
a lo — f at the most; a — no 
poder, utterly, exceedingly; 
como el que — , (as good) 
as the best of them. 

mason, albanil, m. 

mass, {in church) misa, /.; 
say — y v., rezar (34) la 

master, maestro, m.; be — 
of, V, tr.f conquistar, domi- 

masterpiece, obra maestra, /. 

matadero, m., slaughter house. 

matador, m., matador, chief 

matar, v, tr.y to kill; — el 
hambre, to satisfy one's 

mate, m., wild holly; gourd 

materia, /., matter, subject. 

Matheu, m., name of an alley 
in Madrid. 

matriculante, m., an entering 

matricularse, &. refl,f to ma- 

matriculate, c. intr., matricu- 

matrimonio, m., marriage. 

matriz, a., first, principal, 

matrona, /., matron, 
matter, asunto, m., cosa, /., 

materia, /.; v. intr., im- 

mattress, colchon, m. 
m&zima, /., maxim. 
May, mayo, m, 
may, v. intr,, poder 11; often 

the sign of the subj.; (se) 

puede (que). 
mayo, w., May. 
mayor, a., larger, greater. 

main; el — , largest, great- 
est; al por — , wholesale, 
mayoria, /., majority, 
mayormente, adv.y mostly, 

mayusculo, j., capital letter; 

a., big, capital; tm susto 

— , a terrible scare, 
me, pers, pron., me, to or for 

me, pers. pron., me; {after a 

prep.) mi. 
meal, comida, /.; at time, 

a la hora de comer, 
mean, v. intr., querer (13) decir. 
means, medio, m.; by no — , 

de ningun modo, de nin- 

guna manera; by — of, 

por medio de, mediante. 



measure, v, intr, and tr.y 
medir 29; beyond — , sobre- 

mecftnico, a., mechanic. 

mecan6grafo, m., typist. 

mediaci6ii, /., mediation. 

mediados, a — de, prep,, the 
middle of (the month). 

medianoche, /., midnight. 

mediante, prep., by means 

mediar, v. tntr., to intervene, 
lie between, to be (of dis- 
tance between places), 

medico, m.y physician, doctor. 

medida,/., measure; a — que, 
conj,, as, while, in propor- 
tion as. 

medio, w., way, means; por — 
de, by means of. 

medio, a., half; y media, half 
past (of the hour of day); 
m,y middle; en — , in the 
middle; en — de, in the 
midst of. 

mediodfa, /., noon, south. 

medir (i), 29, v, tr., to meas- 

Mediterr&neo, s. and a,, 

meet, r. intr.y reunirse; v. tr.y 
(to know) conocer 38; en- 
contrar 24, encontrarse 

con, tropezar (23, 34) con; 
till we — again, hasta la 

meeting, reunion, /. 

Meiggs, Henry (1811-1877), 
bom in Catskill, N. Y. 
Being unsuccessful in busi- 
ness in Boston and New 
York, he went to Cali- 
fornia in 1849 and to S. A. 
in 1857 where he accumu- 
lated a fortune and built 
the Oroya Railway, called 
the eighth wonder of the 

mejor, a., better; el — , best. 

mejora, /., improvement. 

mejoramiento, m., improve- 

mejorar, v. tr,, to improve. 

mel6n, m., musk-melon, can- 

melting pot, crisol, m, 

member (of a circle of 
friends), tertuliano, m.; 
fellow — , contertuliano, m. 

memoria, /., memory. 

mencionar, v. tr.y to mention. 

mendicante, a. and s., beggar; 

mendigo-a, m. andf.y beggar. 

mendocino, a., of or pertain- 
ing to Mendoza. 



Mendoza, a city and province 
of w. Argentina; former has 
30,000 population. The 
province is a great wine- 
growing district. 

Mendoza, Pedro de (1487- 
1537)9 ^ Basque nobleman 
who obtained a grant from 
Charles V of the region 
comprising a large part of 
what is now Argentina. 
He founded Buenos Aires 
Feb. 2, 1535. 

menear, v. tr,, to wave, shake. 

menester, m., necessity; ser 
— , to be necessary. 

menina, /., maid {of the royal 

menor, a., less; el — least. 

menos, adv., less, least; prep. 
except; a — que, conj., 

mente, /., mind. 

mention, alusion, /.; v. tr., 
mencionar, citar; don't — 
it, de nada, no es nada, no 
hay de que. 

mentira, /., lie; parece — , it 
seems strange. 

menudeo, m., repetition, re- 
tail; al — , at retail. 

menudo, a., small; a — , adv., 

mercaderfa, /., merchandise. 

mercado, m., market, market 

mercancia, f., ware, mer- 

mercantil, a., mercanrile, com- 

merced, /., mercy, grace. 

mercuric, m., mercury. 

mercury, azogue, m., mer- 
curio, m, 

merchant, comerciante, m., 
mercante, m., negociante, m. 

merecer, 38, to deserve, merit, 
attain; — se algo, to de- 
serve something. 

meridional, a., south, south- 

mdrito, m., merit, worth. 

merluza, /., hake. 

mero, m., sea-bass. 

mes, m,, month. 

mesa, /., table. 

Mesa del Emperador, a large, 
flat rock in the forest of 
Tijuca near Rio de Janeiro. 

meseta, /., plateau, table- 

Messrs., Sres. (senores), m. pi. 

mestizo, m., half-breed 
{Indian and white), 

met&lico, a., metalic. 

metaliirgico, a., metallurgical. 



, meter, v. tr,, to put, place; 
— las manos hasta los 
codos en algo, to go far in 
something, commit one- 
self to; — se en, to get into, 
enter; met^rsele en la cabeza 
a uno, to take it into one's 

mStodo, m., method. 

metrdpoli, /., metropolis. 

metropolitano, a., metropoli- 
tan; Museo — , Metropoli- 
tan Museum (of Art, New 
York City). 

Mexico, Mejico, m. 

mezcla,/., mixture, confusion. 

mezquino, a., poor, miserable. 

mezquita, /., mosque. 

mi, poss, a, J my. 

mf, pers. pron., {after prep,) 

middle (of the month), a 
mediados de. 

midnight, medianoche, /. 

midst, in the — of, en medio 

mid-summer, pleno verano, 

mid- winter, pleno inviemo, m. 

miedo, m., fear. 

mientras (que), conj., while; 
mientras tanto, adv., mean- 

might, usually the sign of the 
imperf. suhj., sometimes of 
the cond, of poder. 

Miguel, m.y Michael. 

nul, thousand. 

milagroso, a., wonderful, mir- 

Milfin, Milan, a city of 
Italy, famous as a music 

mild, a., benigno. 

mile, milla,^ f,, — after — , 
milla tras milla; to be so 
many — s between A 
and B, median tantas millas 
entre A y B. 

mill, molino m. ' 

milla, /., mile. 

miliar, m., thousand. 

miller, molinero, m, 

xiiill6n, m., million. 

millonario, m., millionaire. 

mina, f,, mine. 

minar, v, tr,, to mine. 

Minas Geraes (Port,), Gen- 
eral Mines, the chief mining 
State of Brazil; area about 
220,000 square miles. 

mind, mente, f.; (opinion) 
parecer, m.; never — 
(imper,), lo mismo da, no 

mine, mina,/.; v, tr., minar. 



mine, poss, pron., el mio, la 
mia, etc; a friend of — , un 
amigo mio. 

mineral, a, and s, m., mineral. 

minero, a,y mining. 

ministerio, m., ministry; — 
de la Gobemaci6n, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Home 

ministro, m., minister. 

mint, Casa de la Moneda, /. 

minuto, m., minute. 

mlo, poss. a.y my; el — , la 
mfa, etc,y poss. pron., mine. 

miraculous, a., milagroso. 

mirador, m., lookout. 

Miranda (de Ebro), a town of 
4500 inhabitants in the 
province of Burgos, Spain. 

mirar, v. tr.y to look at, behold. 

misa, /., mass. 

mismo, a. and pron.,, same, 
very, self; yo — , tii — , etc.y 
myself, thyself, etc.; lo — 
que, as well as, just as; 
lo — da, it's all the same, 
never mind. 

Misisipf, m.y Mississippi. 

miss, V. tr.y echar de menos. 

Miss, senorita, /. 

mitad, /., half. 

mizto, a., mixed. 

mixture, mezcla, /. 

moda, /., style {of apparel, 

modem, a.y modemo. 

modemisimo, a., very modem, 
very up-to-date. 

modemizar, 34, v. tr.y to 

modemo, a., modem,, up-to- 
date; seg^ lo m&s — , in 
the most up*to-date fashion. 

modesto, a., modest. 

m6dico, a., moderate. 

modo, m., way, manner, mood, 
de este — , in this way; de 
ningiin -— , by no means; de 
todos — s, at any rate; de 
— que, conj., so that. 

mole, /., mass. 

moler (ue), 26, v. tr.y to grind. 

molestar, v. tr.y to . trouble, 

molestia, /., bother, annoy- 
ance, trouble. 

moliente, a., grinding. 

molinero, m., miller. 

molino, m., mill; — de viento, 

Mollendo, a seaport of s. Fern, 
department of Arequipa; 
population of about 6000; 
17CX) miles from Panama. 
It is a port of entry for 



momento, m., moment. 

monarca, m., monarch. 

monarchist, monarquista, m, 

monarchy, monarquia, /. 

monarqufa, /., monarchy. 

mon&rquico, a., monarchical. 

moneda, /., coin; Casa de la 
Moneda, /., Mint. 

money, dinero m.; plata (col- 
loquial), f. 

monied, pp. and a., adinerado. 

monje, m., monk. 

monk, monje, m. 

Monroe, Jatnes Jji 748-1 831), 
fifth president of the U. S., 
who, in his message to Con- 
gress, Dec. 1823, said: "We 
should consider any attempt 
on their part (European 
powers) to extend their 
system to any portion of 
this hemisphere as danger- 
ous to our p6ace and 
safety." His enlargement 
of thi;i statement is called 
the Monroe Doctrine. 

The Monroe Palace, 
built in six months for the 
Pan American Congress of 
1906, stands in Rio de 
Janeiro at the junction of 
the Avenues Rio Branco 
and Beira Mar. It is a 

reproduction of the Brazil 

building at the St. Louis 

montadura, /., setting, 
montafla, /., mountain, 
montailoso, a., mountainous, 
montar, v. tr., to mount, ride, 

equip, fit out, set up. 
monte, m., hill, mountain, 
montevideano, a. and s., per- 
taining to Montevideo, 

Montevideo, the capital of 

Uruguay; it has the best 

harbor on the River Plata; 

population about 400,000; 

5750 miles from New York. 

Also the name of a boat of 

the Spanish Line, 
month, mes, m. 
mont6n, m., pile, heap, 
monumento, m., monument, 
moon, luna, t. 
Moor, moro, m.; — ish, «., 

moro, morisco; — ish-Gran- 

adine, a., morogranadino. 
morada, f., dwelling, house, 
morador, m., resident, dweller, 
more, a. and pron.y mas; — 

and — , cada vez mas. 
moreover, adv.y ademas. 
morir(se) (ue, u), 28, v. intr, 

and refl.y to die. 



morisco, a,, Moorish. 

morning, mafiana, /.; in the 
— , por la manana, {indi- 
cating the hour) de la mana- 
na; good — , buenos dias. 

moro, a. and j., Moor; Moor- 

morogranadino, a,, Moorish- 

morrillo, m., nape of the neck 
{of animals). 

mortal, a., mortal. 

mortar, mortero, w., arga- 
masa, /. 

mortero, m., mortar. 

mosque, mezquita, /. 

most, el mas, la mas, etc.\ 
at the — , a lo mas; (the) 

— of, los or las mas (de). 
mostly, adv.^ mayormente. 
mostrar (ue), 24, v, tr,, to 

show,* indicate, 
motejar, v. tr.^ to nickname, 
mother, madre, f., mama, /. 
motivo, m., purpose, reason; 

con — de, for the purpose 

mount, V. tr,, subir (a); {set 

up) montar. 
mountain, montana,/., monte, 

m.; — ridge, serrania, /.; 

— chain, cordillera, /. 
mouth, boca, / 

move, mover 26, impul- 
sar; {with emotion) con- 
mover 26. 

mover (ue), 26, to move. 

moving-pictures, peliculas, 
/. pL; moving-picture the- 
ater, house or show, cine- 
matografo, or " cine", m. 

mozo, m.y boy, porter. 

Mr., senor, m., caballero, m. 

Mrs., senora, /. 

much, a, and pron,, mucho; 
muy {with pp. or a.); how 
— ?, ^cu^to?thow — are 
they?, ^cuanto valen?; so 
— , tan to; too — , demasiado; 
very — , muchisimo. 

muchacho, m., boy. 

muchedumbre, /., crowd. 

muchfsimo, a. and pron., very 

mucho, a. and pron.y much; 
— s, many; por — que, 
however much. 

mud, lodo, m. 

mudar, v. tr. and intr.y to 
change; — de casa, to 
change one's residence, 

mud^jar, a., mudejar, per- 
taining to the Mohamme- 
dans who became subjects 
of a Christian king in Spain. 



In architecture the term is 
applied to subjects treated 
after the Arabic taste and 

muelle, m,y dock, pier, wharf; 

muerte, /., death. 

muerto, pp and a., dead; 
— de cansancio, dead tired; 
s. m., a dead person. 

muestra, /., sample, model. 

mujer, /., woman, wife. 

mula, /., mule. 

mule, mula, /.; on — back, a 
lomo de mula. 

multicolor, a., many-colored. 

multitud, /., crowd, multi- 

mundial, a., world-wide. 

mtmdo, m,, world; — elegan- 
te, stylish set;- todo el — , 

Mundo, £1, a Conservative 
daily of Madrid. 

municipality, municipio, m. 

municipio, m., dty, munici- 

muralla,/., (outer) wall. 

Murat, Joachim (1767-1815), 
aide-de-camp to Napoleon, 
general, and later King of 
Naples, when Joseph Bona- 
parte was transferred to be 
King of Spain. 

Murcia, a maritime province 
of s. e. Spain, noted for its 
lead mines. 

muriendo, from morir 28. 

Murillo, Bartolom6 Esteban 
(1617-1682)', the Spanish 
painter of religious sub- 
jects, especially of the Vir- 
gin. Best known other 
works: " Moses Striking 
the Rock", " Miracle of the 
Loaves and Fishes", "The 
Return of the Prodigal", 
" The Beggar Boys", etc. 

musa,/., muse. 

museo, m., museum. 

Museo del Prado or Museo 
Nacional de Pintura y 
Escultura, the chief art 
museum of Spain; building 
was begun 1785. Its col- 
lection of old paintings is 
one of the oldest and best 
of Europe. 

Museo Hispinico, the build- 
ing of the Hispanic Socie- 
ty of America, on Broadway 
between iSSth and 156th 
Streets, New York City. 
This society was founded 
in 1904 and the building 
opened in 1907. It is the 
chief center in the U. S. for 



information concerning the 
literature, the art and the 
life of Spain, Portugal and 
Hispanic America. 

miisica, /., music. 

must, V, intr. and defective, 
tener (17) que +tn/'.; deber 
(de); also expressed by the 
future if denoting proba- 
bility at present^ one — , 
hay que+tw/.; I — have 
been, debo haber sido, debi 

musulmfin, m., Mussulman. 

mutilar, v, tr., to mutilate. 

mutton, camero, m. 

muy, adv., very; — amigo, 
very good friend; — niflo, 
very young. 

my, poss. a.y mi(s); (after the 
noun) mio, mia, etc. 

myrtle, arrayan, m. 

myself, pers, pron, refl., me; 
intensive, yo mismo, -a; a mi 
mismo, -a. 


nacer, 38, to be bom. 

nacidn, f., nation. 

Naci6n, La, an important 

morning daily of Buenos 

nacional, a,, national. 

nacionalidad, /., nationality. 

nada, pron., nothing, anything, 
(after a negative); adv,, not 
at all; de — , no es — , 
don't mention it. 

nadar, v. intr,, to swim. 

nadie, pron., m. andf., no one, 
anyone (after a negative or 

name, nombre, m, 

namely, adv., a saber. 

N&poles, Naples. 

naranja, /., orange. 

naranjal, m., orange grove. 

naranjo, m., orange tree. 

narrow, a., angosto, estrecho. 

natal, a., native. 

nation, nacion, /. 

national, a., nacional. 

native, natural, m.; a., natal. 

natural, a., natural; m., na- 

naturaleza, /., nature. 

naturalidad, /., naturalness. 

naturalismo, m., naturalism. 

naturalist, naturalista, m. and 


naturalmente, adv., naturally, 

of course, 
naturalness, naturalidad, /. 
nature, naturaleza, /. 
navaja, /., knife, clasp-knife, 
naval, a., naval. 



Navarra, /., the old kingdom, 
now a province, of n. Spain. 

navegable, a., navigable. 

navegaci^n, /., navigation. 

navegar, 32, to sail, navi- 

navlo, m., ship. 

navy, armada, /. 

near, adv.y cerca; prep., cerca 
de, junto a; a., cercano, 
proximo; — ly, casi; {with 
verb) faltar poco para que 

necesario, a., necessary; 
lo — , what is necessary. 

necesidad, /., necessity, need. 

necesitar, v, tr., to need. 

necessary, a., necesario, pre- 

. ciso; be — ', ser menester, 
ser preciso, ser necesario; 
what is — , lo necesario. 

neck, nuca, /.; {of an animal) 
morrillo, m, 

need, v, tr,, necesitar, faltar 
algo a uno, hacer (8) falta 
algo a uno; be needed, 
faltar; j*. necesidad, /., 
falta, /. 

needless to say, excusado es 
decir, huelga decir; it is — , 

negarse (ie), 23, 32, (a) 
V, reft., to refuse. 

negativamente, adv., nega- 
tively, in the negative. 

negative, a., negative. 

negligence, descuido, m. 

negociaci6n, /., negotiation. 

negocio, m,, business; — s, 

negro, a., black; m., negro. 

neigkbor, vecino-a, wi. andf. 

neighboring, a., vecino. 

neither, conj., ni, tampoco; 

— . . . nor, ni . . . ni. 
ne6fito, m., neophite. 
Neptune, w., Neptune, the 

god of the sea. 

Nervi6n, the river flowing 
through Bilbao which has 
been canalized so that 
ocean steamships of 4000 
tons may anchor at its 

neutral, a,, neutral. 

nevada, /., snowfall, snow. 

nevado, pp, and a., snowy, 

never, adv., nunca, jamas; as 

— before, como nunca. 
nevertheless, adv., sin em- 

new, a., nuevo. ' 

newspaper, periodico m.; 

dally — , diario, m. 
New York, Nueva York, /. 



• • 

next, a.y proximo, siguiente, 
que sigue; the — day, al 
dia siguiente. 

ni, conj,, nor, niether, not 
even; ni . . . ni, neither 
... nor; ni . . . siqtuera, 
not even. 

nice, a., (of persons) simpa- 

nickel, niquel, m. 

nickname, v. tr„ motejar, 

nicho, m., niche, recess in a 

nieto, m., grandson. 

nieve, /., snow. 

night, noche, /.; good — , 
buenas noches; last — , 
anoche; pass the — , per- 
noctar; — -watchman, 
sereno, m.; at or by, adv.y de 

nightfall, caida de la tarde, /.; 
anochecer, m. 

nightingale, ruisenor, m. 

nine, nueve. 

ninguno (before its noun 
ningiin), ninguna, indef a. 
and pron.f no, none, no one, 
any (after a negative or com- 
parative), neither. 

nifiera, /., nurse maid. 

nii&eria, /., childish action. 

nifiez, /., childhood, 
niflo-a, m. and f., child, 
nfquel, m., nickel, 
nitrate, nitrato, m., salitre, 

m., caliche, m.; a., sali- 

trero; — plant, oficina 

nitrato, m., nitrate, saltpeter, 
nivel, m., level, 
no, adv., no, not; dno?, is 

that not so? 
no, adv., no; a., ninguno 

(ningun) ; — longer, ya no. 
nobody, indef. pron,, nadie, 

noctumo, a., nocturnal, of 

the night, 
noche, /., night; de — a 

mafiana, over night; de — , 

by night; during the night; 

esta — , tonight; por la — , 

in the evening; todas las 

— s, every night, 
noise, ruido, m. 
noisy, a., estrepitoso. 
nombrar, v. tr,, to name, 

nombre, m., name, 
none, indef. pron., ninguno -a. 
noon, mediodta, m.; at — y a 

nor, conj., ni; — . . . either, 

ni . . . tampoco. 



noria, /., water-wheel. 

norma, /., gauge, standard. 

noroeste, tn,, northwest. 

norte, m,, north. 

nortealemfin -ana, a.. North 

norteamericano, a» and s.^ 
North American. 

north, norte, m.; — west, 
noroeste; to the — of, al 
norte de. 

northern, a., del norte, se|> 

northward, adv,, hacia el 

noruego, a. ands,, Norwegian. 

nos, p^rs. pron.y us, to us, 

nosotros, pers. pron., we; us 
(after a prep.), 

nostalgia (de), /., homesick- 
ness (for). 

not, adv.y no; — at all prob- 
able, poco verosimil; — he, 
el no. 

nota, /., note. 

notable, a,, noteworthy, no- 

notar, v. tr., to notice, note. 

note, nota, /., (memorandum) 
apunte, m.; (promissory) 
pagare, m.; bank — , billete 
(de banco); v. tr., notar. 

fijarse en, reparar en; — 

down, apuntar. 
noteworthy, a,, notable, 
nothing, indefi pron., nada; 

— but, solo, solamente. 
noticia, /., a piece of news, 

notice; — s, /. pL, news; 

enviar, uno sus noticias a 

otro, to let another hear 

from one; sus noticias de 

Vd., news of you. 
notice, V. tr., fijarse (en); 

reparar (en), notar. 
novedad, /., novelty; sin — , 

as usual, 
novela, /., novel, 
novelesco, a., pertaining to 

the novel; literatura nove- 

lesca, fiction. 
November, noviembre, w. 
now, adv.y ahora; — that, ya 

que, ahora que; — then, 

pues bien, ahora bien; not 

— , ahora no; right — y 

ahora mismo. 
nowadays, adv., hoy dia, hoy 

en el dia, hoy por hoy. 
nuca, /., nape, neck, shoulder, 
nuebo, a., old form o/nuevo. 
nuestro, poss. a., our; el — , 

la nuestra, etc., poss. pron., 

Nueva York, /., New York. 



nuevo, a.y new; ^qu6 hay de 
— ?, what's the news?; de 
— y adv.f again. 

Nuevo Mundo, one of the 
leading illustrated weeklies 
of Madrid. 

nuez, /., nut. 

nulidad, /., nothingness, in- 

number, numero, m,; great 
— , sinnumero, m., in- 
finidad, /. 

niiinero, m., number. 

numeroso, a., numerous. 

nunca, adv.^ never, ever (after 
a comparative)^ como — y 
as never before. 

nurse-maid, niiiera, /. 

nut, nuez, /. 

nutritivo, a., nutritious. 


fiandii, m., nandu, the Ameri- 
can ostrich. 


o, conj.y or. 

obelisco, m., obelisk, shaft. 

obelisk, obelisco, m, 

object, objeto, m.; — of art, 

objeto de arte, m. 
objeto, w., object; — de arte, 

art object. 

obligar, 32, v, /r., to oblige, 

obra, /., work; — maestra, 

obrero, m., workman. 

obscuridad, /., darkness. 

observaci6n, /., observation. 

obseryar, v> tr,, to observe, 

obstante, pres. p, of obstar, to 
object; no — , adv.y never- 
theless; no — de, in spite of. 

obtain, v. tr.y obtener 17, 
lograr, conseguir 29, 33, 
alcanzar 34. 

obtener, 17, to obtain, secure. 

obtuve, from obtener 17. 

ocasi6n, /., occasion, opportu- 

occasionally, adv,y de vez en 

occidental, a., western. 

occupation, oficio, m., pro- 
fesion, /. 

occupy, V. tr.y ocupar; oc- 
cupied in reading, ocupado 
en leer. 

occur, V, intr.y ocurrir, pasar. 

ocean, oceano, m, 

o'clock, la or las + numeral 
of the hour, 

octavo, eighth. 

octubre, m., October. 



ocultamente, adv.y secretly, 
ocupadisimo, a., very busy, 
ocupadp, pp, and a., busy, 
ocuparse en, v. ufl. to be 

busy at. 
ocurrir, v, intr.y to occur, 
echo, eight. 

odd, thirty- — ,tremta y pico de. 
Ode6ii, m,, a theater of 

Buenos Aires, 
oeste, m.y west, 
of, prep.y de, en. 
offer, V. tr,, ofrecer 38. 
office, oficina, /.; — build- 

uig, edificio destinado a 

oficial, a,y official; s, m., 

oficina, /., office (in ChiU 

and Peru) nitrate reducing 

plant; — de consignaciones, 

checking room, 
oficio, m,i occupation, trade, 

ofrecer, 38, to ofFer; — se para, 

to volunteer for. 
ofrezco, from ofrecer 38. 
often, adv.y a menudo, muchas 

O'Higgins, Bernardo (1778- 

1842), first dictator of 

Chile, 1817 to 1823; a 
^ strong, energetic character 

who did much for the 
emancipation of Chile but 
became over-fond of power. 

oil, aceite, m. 

ofr, 10, V. tr.y to hear. 

ojal, m.y button-hole. 

iojal&I, would that!, O may I 

ojear, v, tr.y to gaze at, to 

ojeroso, a.y having circles 
about the eyes. 

ojo, m.y eye; Imucho — 1, 
keep an eye open!, be 

old, a.y {former) antiguo; 
{aged) viejo, anciano; — 
fashioned, antiguo; — 
gentleman, anciano, m.; in 
an — fashioned way, a 
lo antiguo; to be so many 
years — y tener (17) tantos 

oler (ue), 26a, (a), v. intr. to 
smell (of). 

oliva, /., olive. 

olivar, m., olive orchard. 

Olivares, Gaspar de GuznUln, 
Count of Olivares and 
Duke of San Lucar (1587- 
1645), a favorite of Philip 
IV of Spain. 

olive, aceituna, /., oliva, /.; 
— orchard, olivar, m. 



Oloroso, a.y fragrant. 

olvidar, v. tr. y to forget; — se 
de, or olvidArsele a uno, to 

omelet, tortilla, /. 

omit, V. tr.y pasar por encima 
de; omitir. 

omitir, v. tr., to do without, 

6mnibus, w., carr/-all omni- 

on, prep.f en, sobre, a, de; — 
the dollar, por el dolar; — 
+ pres. part, is expressed 
^ al + inf, 

once, eleven. 

Once de Septiembre, m., an 
important square of 
Buenos Aires. 

once, adv.y una vez; at — , 
en seguida, en el acto, 
seguidamente, inmediata- 
mente; — more, otra vez, 
de nuevo. 

one, un(o); as pron,, one is 
often omitted in translation; 
if subjecty ■ it is often ex- 
pressed by a reji. verb; the 
— who, el que, quien; it is 
not — , no lo es. 

one-handed, a., manco. 

only, adv.y solo, solamente; 
fl., solo, unico; the — 

thing, lo unico; not — 

. . . but also, no solo . . . 

sino tambien. 
open, V. tr.y abrir 45; — up a 

conversation, entablar una 

6pera, /., opera, 
opera house, teatro de la 

6pera, m. 
operaci6n, /., operation, 
operar, v. tr,, operate, 
operario, m., operator, 
operate, v, tr,, operar; 0. 

intr.y funcionar, obrar. 
operation, operacion, /.; in 

- — , funcionando. 
operator, operario, m, 
opinar, v. intr., to think, hold 

an opinion, 
opinion, parecer, m,, opinion, 

/.,* be of the — that, ser del 

parecer que, estar en que; 

in my (his) — , a mi (su) 

parecer; in the — of, al 

parecer de. 
oportunidad, /., opportunity, 
opportunity, ocasion, /., opor- 
tunidad (para), /. 
opposite, a., opuesto, con- 

optimista, a., optimistic, 
opuesto, a. and pp.y opposite. 
oraci6n, /., sentence, prayer. 



oral, a., oral, 
oralmente, adv,, orally, 
orange, naranja, /.; — grove, 

naranjal, m,; — tree, 

naranjo, m,; — color (ed), 

orar, v. intr., to pray. 
orchard, huerto, m. 
orden, /. and m., order; a las 

6rdenes de Vd., at your 

order, v, tr,, pedir 29, encar- 

gar 32, ordenar; j., {for 

goods) pedido, m., en cargo, 

m., orden, /.; in — to, para; 

in — that, para que 

(+ subj.). 
ore, quijo, m., mineral, m, 
oreja, /., ear. 
6rgano, m., organ, 
orgulloso, a., proud, 
oriental, a., oriental, eastern, 
orientar, v. tr,, to put on the 

right way. 
origen, m., origin, 
original, a., original, home, 
originar, v, tr., to originate, 
originario (de), a., originating 

orilla, /., shore; a — s de, on 

the bank or edge of. 
orillar, V. tr., to border, 
oro, m.y gold. 

Oroyo, a city of Peru, junc- 
tion on the main line of the 
Oroya Railway, 138 miles 
from Callao. From here 
runs a branch line to Cerro 
de Pasco, 88 miles. 

OS, pers. pron., you. 

OS, {Port.) J def. art: m, pL, 
= los in Spanish. 

osadfa, /., daring. 

ostentaci6n, /., display, os- 

other, a. and pron., otco. 

otorgar, 32, to grant, concede. 

otro, a. and pron., other, 

ought, V. intr., deber. 

our, a., nuestro; pron., el 
nuestro, la nuestra, etc. 

out of, prep., fuera de; {be^ 
cause of) por. 

outdoor (s), a. and adv., al 
aire libre. 

outlet, salida, /. 

outside, a., exterior; — of, 
fuera de. 

ouvidor {Port.), = auditor in 
Spanish, judge. 

oven, homo, m. 

over, prep., {across) por; 
{above) sobre, encima de. 

overcome, v. tr., abrumar. 

overflow, v. intr., rebosar. 



overlook, v. tr,, dominar. 

overseas, a., ultramarino, de 
ultramar; — products or 
goods, ultramarmos, m., 
articulos coloniales, m, 

overtake, v. tr., rendir 29, 
alcanzar 34. 

overtop, V. tr., descollar 24. 

overwhelm, v, tr.y abrumar. 

Oviedo, capital of the mari- 
time province of the same 
name in n. w. Spain; popu- 
lation about 25,000. 

owe, V. tr.y debar. 

own, a,, propio; v, tr.^ tener 
17, poseer 43. 

owner, dueiio, m. 

ox, buey, m. 

Oxford University, England; 
founded in the latter part 
of the 1 2th century. 

oyer on, from ofr 10. 

oy6, from oil 10. 

Pablo, m., Paul; — y Virginia, 
the masterpiece of the 
French writer Jacques 
Henri Bemardin de Saint- 
Pierre (1737-1814); a senti- 
mental story glorifying 
youthful love and a return 
to nature. A grotto of 

that name is found in the 

forest of Tijuca near Rio de 

paciencia, /., patience, 
paciente, a., patient. 
Pacific, a. and s, m., Pacifico. 
pacificador, m., pacificator, 
pacifico, a,y peaceful, pacific, 
pack, V. tr,, {of trunks) arreg- 

lar; empaquetar. 
padecer, 38, to suffer, 
padre, m., father, priest; pL^ 

pagar, 32, to pay (for), repay; 

— al contado, to pay cash; 

— por quincenas adelanta- 
das, to pay two weeks in 

pagar6, m., promissory note. 

page, pagina,/., hoja,/. 

page, m., payment. 

paint, V, tr.y pintar. 

painter, pintor, m. 

painting, pintura, /. 

pair, par> m.y{persons) pareja,/. 

pais, m.y country.. 

paisaje, m., landscape. 

paisano, m., peasant, fellow- 

paja, /., straw; — toquilla, the 
grass or reed of which 
Panama hats are made. 

palabra, /., word. 



palacio, m., palace. 

Palermo, m., a park of Buenos 
Aifes, officially called Tres 
de Febrero. 

palma, /., palm (tree or of the 
hand), hand-clap. 

palo, m.f pole, stick, club, 
wood; — del Brasil, Brazil 
wood; — de rosa, rose- 

palpitar, v, intr,y to throb. 

pampa, /., pampa, plain (S.A.). 

pan, m., bread, loaf; — de 
aziicar, sugar loaf. 

panaderia^/., bakery. 

panadero, m., baker. 

Panama, £1 Panama; — hat, 
sombrero de Jipi-japa, som- 
brero toquilla. 

panamefio, a, and j., Pana- 

panecillo, m., roll. 

pante6n, m., pantheon, mau- 

pafio, m., cloth. 

pafiuelo, m., handkerchief. 

Pao de Assucar {Port), Sugar 
Loaf, a rock 1383 feet high 
in the s. part of the bay of 
Rio de Janeiro, the top of 
which is reached by an aerial 
tramway in cars holding 16 
passengers and suspended 

on cables. The first stop is 
on Mt. Urea (four minutes), 
hence to Sugar Loaf (six 
minutes more). 

papa, m., pope. 

papft, m., father. 

papel, m., paper; rdle. 

paquete, m., package. 

par, m., pair; un — de, a 
couple of; adv., a la — de, 
equally, on a par with. 

par, on a — with, a la par de; 
be on a — with, correr 
parejas con. 

para, pup., for, in order to, 
about; — con, prep.y 
towards, with, to; I — que?, 
why?; — que, in order that. 

parade, pp. and a., standing 

Paraguay, £1, Paraguay; also 
the river of the same name. 

paraiso, fn., paradise; top 
gallery of a theater. 

paraje, m., place, spot. 

paralelo, a., parallel. 

p&ramo, m., paramo, an ele- 
vated highland usually a 

Paranfi, El, the great river of 
n. e. Argentina. 

parar(se) (en), t>. intr. and refl., 
to stop (at), stand; to lodge. 



parchment, pergamino, m. 

Pardo, El, a small town lo 
miles n. of Madrid where 
there is a royal lodge built 
by Charles V. in 1543. 

parecer, 38, v. intr,, to appear; 
^qu§ le parece?, what do 
you think of it?; ^no le 
parece?, don't you think 
so?; — se a, to resemble; 
J. m., a mi — , in my 
opinion; al — , apparently; 
al — de, in the opinion 

parecido, m., resemblance; a., 

pared,/., wall. 

pareja, /., pair, couple. 

p^arentesco, m., relationship. 

parents, padres, m. pL 

parezca, from parecer 38. 

parillas, /. pL, gridiron. 

Paris, Paris; the University 
of Paris was founded about 
1 160. 

parisiense, a., Parisian; a 
la — , in Parisian fashion. 

park, parque, m. 

parliament, parlamento, m. 

parque, m., park. 

parroquiano, m.y customer. 

part, parte, /.; the greater — , 
la mayoria, /. 

parte, /., part, direction; en 
— f partially* en alguna — , 
somewhere; per todas' — s, 
everywhere, on every hand; 
las cinco — s del mundo, 
the four quarters of the 
globe; a — que, conj., while. 

participar, r. tr,, to inform. 

particle, tnza, /. 

particular, a., private. 

particularmente, adv., par- 

partida, f,y departure; entry, 
record; — doble, double 

partidario (de), a., fond (of), 
inclined to. 

partido, tn., party. 

partir, v. intr,, to leave. 

partner, socio, m.; silent — , 
socio comanditario. 

pasaje, m., passage, passage- 

pasajero, m,, passenger. 

pasar, v. intr., to pass, step in, 
happen, occur; — per, to 
call; — por encima de, to 
omit; — se sin, to get along 
without, do without; v, tr,y 
to send across; — un buen 
rato, to have a good time. 

paseante, m., pedestrian, pas- 



pasearse, v. refl,, to stroll, 
walk, drive. 

paseo, m., walk, drive, prom- 
enade, boulevard; dar un 
— , to take a walk. 

Paseo de la Merced, a park 
and a point of vantage in 
the w. part of Ronda, Spain, 
600 feet above the stream 

pasillo, in,y aisle, passage- 

pasmarse, v, rffi,y to be aston- 
ished, to wonder. 

pasmoso, a., wonderful, mar- 

paso, m.y step, passage; de — , 
in passing, on the way, 
incidentally; a — lento, 
slowly; a — s agigantados, 
rapidly, by leaps and 

pass, V. intr,y pasar, (of time) 
transcurrir; — through, 
pasar por; v, tr,, acercar 30; 
J-., desfiladero, m, 

passage, pasaje, w., ^^way, 

pasaje, m.; take — , tomar 

passenger, pasajero, m. 

passerby, transeunte, m., pa- 
seante, m. 

past, pasado, a, and s. m. 

paste, m., forage, pasturage, 
pata, /., foot (0/ animals). 
patata, /., potato, 
path, senda, /. 
patience, paciencia, /. 
patient, paciente, a, and 

s. w. 
patio, m.y courtyard, 
patria, /., native land; madre 

— , /,, native land. 
patr6n, m.y foreman, manages, 

pave, V. tr., pavimentar, 
pavimentar, v. tr., to pave, 
pay (for), pagar 32; — cash, 

pagar al contado; be paid, 

payment made, pagando; — 

— a week in advance, 

pagando por semanas ade- 

lantadas, por los ocho dias 

paz,/., peace, 

peace, tranquilidad, /., paz, /. 
peaceful, a., pacifico, tran- 

peak, picb, m. 
pearl, perla, /. 
peasant, campesino, m.y paisa- 

no, m. 
pecho, m.y breast, 
pedido, m.y order (for goods), 
pedigiieiio, a.y persistent. 



pedir (i) 29, to ask for, seek, 
beg, order; — algo a uno, to 
ask someone for something; 
a — de boca, as much as 
one could ask; — infonnes, 
to ask for news or informa- 
tion; — juramento a uno, 
to demand an oath of some- 
one, to put someone under 

Bedro, m., Peter. 

peep-hole, ventanillo, m, 

pegar, 32, v. tr,, to affix, attach, 

peldafio, m., step {of stairs), 

pelea, /., fight, struggle. 

pelear(se), ^. intr. and refl., 
to fight. 

pelfcula,/., film. 

pelota,/., ball; a game similar 
to hand-ball. 

peluc6n, m., big wig; applied 
as a nickname to Spaniards 
xn o. A, 

pena, /., sorrow, difficulty; a 
duras — s, with great diffi- 

penetrar (en), v, intr., to en- 

peninsula, /., peninsula; ap- 
plied specifically, when capi- 
talized, to the Iberian Pen- 

peninsular, a,, peninsular, per- 
taining to the Iberian Pen- 

pensar (ie), 23, to think, con- 
sider; — en, to think of. 

pefi6n, m., cliff, rock. 

people, sing, or pL, gente, /.; 
personas, /. pL; (nation) 
pueblo, m.; — of conse- 
quence, gente pudiente. 

Pepe, m.f nickname for Jos6; 
Joe. — Botellas, "Joe Bot- 
tles", a name given by the 
Spaniards to Joseph Bona- 
parte when he was King of 

pequeiio, a., small. 

pera,/., pear. 

per cent, por ciento. 

percibir, v. tr,, to perceive. 

perder, (ie), 25, to lose; — de 
vista, to lose sight of. 

p6rdida,/., loss. 

perdonar, v, tr,, to pardon, 
forgive, excuse, spare. 

perecer, 38, v, intr,, to perish. 

perezosamente, adv., idly, 

perfeccionar, v. ir., to per- 

perfectamente, adv,, very well, 

perf ecto, a,, perfect. 



performance, funcion, /., re- 
presentacion, /. 

pergamino, m., parchment, 

perhaps, adv,^ tal vez, quiza(s) 

period, era, /., epoca, /., 
periodo, m, 

peri6dico, m., newspaper. 

perfodo, m., period. 

perish, v, intr,, perecer 38. 

perla,/., pearl. 

penniso, m., permission. 

permission, permiso, tn,; get 
— to, conseguir (29, 33) 
permiso para. 

permit, v. tr,, permitir, admitir. 

permitir, v. tr,y to permit, 

pemoctar, v, tntr., to pass the 

pero, conj.y but. 

perra, /., female dog; a collo- 
quial term for a Spanish 
copper coin; — chica, five 
centimos, one cent; — 
gorda or grande, ten centi- 
mos, two cents. 

perro, m., dog. 

perseverance, porfia, /. 

perseverante, a,y persevering. 

persist, v, intr., empenarse 

persistent, a., porfiado. 

persona,/., person. 

personal, m., staff; a., per- 

personalmente, adv,, person- 

pertenecer, 38, to belong, per- 

Peril, El, Peru. 

peruano, a. and j., Peruvian. 

perversidn, /., perversion. 

pesado, a., heavy. 

pesar, v. tr, and intr,, to weigh, 
to grieve; /. ?n., sorrow, 
grief; a — de, in spite of. 

pesca, /., fishing. 

pescado, m., fish. 

peseta, /., the standard coin 
of Spain, worth about 20 

peso, m., dollar. 

Peter, Pedro, m. 

petrdleo, m., petroleum. 

Petropolis, a city of about 
35,000 inhabitants 27 miles 
n. of Rio de Janeiro and the 
summer seat of the diplo- 
matic corps. 

Philadelphia, Filadelfia. 

Philip, Felipe, w. 

photograph, fotografia, /. 

picador, m., picador, a mount- 
ed bull-fighter. 



picarse, v. refl., to become 

pick up, V. tr.y recoger 37. 

pico, m,j peak; small amount; 
veinte y — de, twenty-odd. 

picture, cuadro, m., grabado, 
tn., (portrait) retrato, w., 
{painting) cuadro, w., pin- 
tura, /.; — gallery, pinaco- 
teca, /., galeria de pinturas; 
V, tr,, pin tar. 

picturesque, a,, pintoresco. 

pie, w., foot; de — , standing; 
a — , on foot; a los pies de 
Vd., accept my respects 
(to a lady). 

piece, (coin) pieza, /.; by the 
— , a destajo. 

piedad, /., pity. 

piedra, /., stone. 

pier, muelle, m. 

piema,/., leg. 

pieza, /., coin; room; compo- 

pike, vara, /. 

pilastra, /., square column, 

piloto, m.y pilot. 

pinacoteca, /., picture gallery. 

pintar, v. tr.y to paint, to 
picture; — se para, to be 
apt in. 

pintor, m.y painter. 

pintoresco, a., picturesque. 

pintura, /^, painting. 

pifia, /., pineapple. 

Pio V, Pius V (Michele Ghis- 
lieri), pope fropi 1 566-1 572, 
a leading spirit of the In- 

pirate, corsario, m. 

pisar, V, tr., to tread (upon). 

piso, m., floor, story, flight; 
primer — or — principal, 
first flight up, second floor; 
— bajo, ground floor. 

pitcher, cantaro, m. 

Pius, Pio, m. 

Pi y Margall, Francisco, 
(1823-1901), a prominent 
republican and one of the 
presidents of Spain during 
the short-lived repubhc. 

placard, rotulo, m., cartel, m. 

place, V. tr.f poner 12, colocar 
30; J., lugar, m,, sitio, m., 
colocacion, /.; — of birth, 
lugar natal, m. 

placer, 9. tr., to please; m., 
pleasure. . 

plain, vega, /., llanura, /., 
llano, m.; planicie, /.; (in 
Argentina) pampa, /. 

plan, m.y plan. 

plan, plan, m., proyecto, m.; 
V. tr.f proyectar, idear. 



planicie, /., plain. 

piano, m.y design, plan, map. 

plant, instalacion, /., planta, 
/.; V. tr., plantar. 

planta,/., plants station, floor; 
— baja, first floor. 

plantaci6n, /., plantation. 

plantar, v. tr., to plant. 

plaster, yeso, m. 

plata, /., silver, money. 

plataforma, /., platform. 

plAtano, m.y banana tree. 

Plata River, Rio de la Plata, 

plateau, meseta, /., altiplani- 
cie, /., paramo, m. 

plateresco, a., plateresque, a 
style of architecture char- 
acterized by elegance and 
delicacy of execution, sug- 
gesting the work of "pla- 
teros" or silversmiths. 

plateresque, a.y plateresco. 

platform, anden, m., plata- 
forma, /. 

platino, m., platinum. 

platinum, platino, m. 

plato, m.y dish. 

play, V. tr. and intr.y jugar 
24a (a); {of an opera or 
drama) funcionar; s.y come- 
dia, /. 

play a,/., beach. 

plaza, /., public square, plaza; 
— de toros, bull-ring; — 
f u e r t e, stronghold; — 
mayor, main square; Plaza 
de Armas, a square in the s. 
wing of the Royal Palace, 
Madrid; — de la Con- 
stituci6n, name given to 
the Plaza Mayor in many 
Spanish cities; — de San 
Fernando, the chief square 
of Seville; — 25 de Mayo, 
the chief square of Buenos 
Aires, so named in honor of 
May 25, 1 8 10, when a great 
armed assembly met in that 
city and superseded the 
power of the royal viceroy, 
the birthday of Argentinian 

plazo, m.y term, period. 

pleasant, a.y risueno, agra- 
dable, ameno, grato; — 
dreams!, I que descanse(n) 

please, v. tr.y gustar, agradar, 
complacer 38, caerle (3) a 
uno en gracia; {entreaty) 
haga(n) el favor (de), 
tenga(n) la bondad (de), 
sirva(n)se; pleased to meet 
you, tanto gusto en cono- 
cerle {or la) a Vd. 



pleasure, gusto, m., placer, m,, 
with — , con gusto, con 
placer, gustosamente; with 
great — , gustosisimo, con 
mucho gusto, de mil 
amores; take — in, com- 
placerse (38) en. 

plenty, abundancia, /.; — of 
labor, buena mano de obra. 

pliego, m.y envelope; bajo — 
suelto, under separate 

plomo, m.y lead. 

plow (through) v. tr., surcar 


poblaci6n, /., town, popula- 

poblar (ue), 24, v, tr,, to 
populate, fill, cover. 

pobre, a.y poor. 

pocket, bolsillo, m. 

poco, a,y adv. and pron,y little, 
small (in amount); pL, few; 
— a — , gradually; a — de, 
soon after; hace — y a short 
time ago; a los — s meses 
de estar, after being for a 
few months; — falt6 para 
que fuese atropellado, he 
was almost run over. 

poder, II, to be able; a mUs 
no — y utterly, exceedingly; 
no — menos de, not to be 

able to help or avoid; w., 

poderfo, m., power. 

poderoso, a., powerful, force- 

podT%y from poder 11. 

podria, from poder 11. 

poem, poema, m,, poesia, /. 

poesfa,/., poetry, poem. 

poeta, m., poet. 

poetical, a., poetico; the — , 
lo poetico. 

portico, a.y poetical. 

poetry, poesia, /. 

point, punto, »k; — of view, 
pun to de vista; from my — 
of view, a mi manera de ver. 

police, policia, /. 

policeman, guardia de orden 
publico, m.y guardia mu- 
nicipal, m. 

politely, adv., cortesmente. 

politico, a.y political. 

polo, m.y pole; polo. 

polvo, m.y dust, powder; hay 
— , it is dusty. 

poUera, /., hooped petticoat. 

ponderar, v. tr., exaggerate, 

poner, 12, v. tr.y to put, place, 
estimate; — en claro, to 
make clear; — en cono- 
cimiento de, to inform; — 



en libertad, to liberate; 

— reparos en, to give heed 
to; — un telegrama, to 
send a telegram; — se, to 
become, to set (of the sun) ; 
— se en camino, to set out; 
pongamos, let us say, sup- 

ponga, /fom poner 11. 

poor, fl., pobre; (miserable) 

mezquino; — ^ly, mal. 
pope, papa, m, 
popular, a.y popular, 
popularmente, adv,y popularly, 
population, populacion, /., 

vecindario, m., habitantes, 

tn, pi. 
poptdate, r. /r., poblar 24. 
per, prep.y by, for, through, 

along, in, for the sake of, 

because of, in exchange for; 

— entre, amid. 

porcelana, /., porcelain. 

porci6n, /., portion, part. 

pordiosero, m., beggar, mendi- 

porfia, /., persistence, "stick- 
to-it-iveness"; a — , heated- 
ly, obstinately. 

porfiado, a., persistent. 

p6rfido, w., porphyry. 

ipor qu6? interr., why? 

port, puerto, m. 

Portales, Diego (1793-1837), 
the leader of the Con- 
servative party in Chile 
which brought order out of 
chaos after the resignation 
of O'Higgins. He was the 
chief minister in the presi- 
dency of General Prieto. 

porte, m., bearing, mien. 

porteiio, a, and s,, of or per- 
taining to Buenos Aires, the 
chief port of Argentina. 

portrait, retrato, m. 

Portugal, m.f Portugal. 

portugu6s, -esa, a. and j., Por- 

Portuguese, a.y portugues, 
-esa, lusitano. 

ponrenir, m., future. 

poseer, 43, v, tr,, to possess. 

posesi6n,/., possession. 

posible, a., possible; todo lo 
— , everything possible. 

posici6n, /., position. 

position, puesto, m., posicion, 
/., colocacion, /. 

possess, tener 17, poseer 43, 
contar (24) con. 

possession, /., posesion, /., 
take or gain — of, apode- 
rarse de. 

possessor, dueno, m. 

possible, a., posible, dable. 



postage, franqueo, m. 

poster, cartel, m. 

postrado, a., exhausted, pros- 

potato, patata, /. 

pottery, alfareria, /. 

power, energia, /.; {govern- 
ment) poderio, m, 

powerful, a,y poderoso, pu- 

pozo, w., well. 

practicar, 30, v. tr.y to practise, 
carry on. 

pr&ctico, m.y harbor or river 
pilot; a., practical. 

practise, v. tr., practicar 30. 

Pradera, a small town near 
Bogota, Colombia, and the 
center of Colombian iron 
mines and iron manufac- 
tures. . 

prado, m., meadow. 

pragm&tica, /., pragmatic 

praise, v, tr,y hacer(se) len- 
guas de, alabar. 

pray, v. tntr.y orar, rezar 34. 

preceder (a), v. intr.y to pre- 

Preciados, an important 
street of Madrid, running 
n. w. from the Puerta del 

precio, m., price. 

preciosidad, /., value, worth. 

precioso, a,, fine, valuable, 

precious, a., precioso. 

precipitaci6n, /., haste. 

precipitarse, v, refl., to rush. 

precipitosamente, adv,, sheer- 
ly, precipitously. 

precisamente, adv,y precisely, 

precisar, v. intr,, to be neces- 
sary; V, tr.y to compel. 

preciso, a., necessary. 

predilecto, a., favorite, chosen. 

predominante, a.y predomi- 

predominar, v. intr., to pre- 

predominate, v, intr., pre- 
dominar, sobresalir 15. 

preferible, a., preferable. 

preferir (ie, i), 27, v. tr,^ to 

pregonar, v. tr,, to proclaim, 

pregunta, /., question; hacer 
(8) una — a, to ask a ques- 
tion of. 

preguntar, v, tr,, to ask; — 
de, to ask about {a thing); 
— por, to inquire about {the 
welfare of a person). 



premiar, v, tr.y to reward. 

premio, m,y prize. 

premises, local, m, sing. 

prenda, /., token, piece of 
jewelry, garment; — de 
recuerdo, /., souvenir. 

prender, 45, v, tr., to seize, 
fasten; {of fire) to take 
hold, burst forth; — se de 
veinte 7 cinco alflleres, to 
dress up in one's best. 

Prensa, La, The Press, a 
morning daily of Buenos 

preparar, v, tr., to prepare. 

preparativo, m., preparation. 

prepare, v, tr., preparar 

preposici6n, /., preposition. 

prescindir (de), v. intr,, to be 
superior to, leave aside; get 
out of. 

Prescott, William Hickling 
(1796-1859), the American 
historian, best known for 
his "Conquest of Mexico", 
"Conquest of Peru", "The 
Reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabella", "Philip 11", etc. 

presenciar, v. tr,y to witness, 

present, a,, actual, de ahora; 
at — y al prcsente; up to the 

— , hasta ahora; be — at, 

V. intr.y asistir a, concurrir a. 
present, r. tr,, ofrecer 38, {a 

gift) regalar; {introduce) 

presentaci6n, /., introduction, 
presentar, 9. tr,, to present, 

introduce, offer; . — se, 

presente, a. and s. m,, present, 
preserve, v, tr., conservar. 
presidencia, /., presidency, 
presidente, m., president, 
preso, pp. and a., captured; 

/. m., prisoner, 
press hard, v. tr., apretar. 
pressing, a., apremiante. 
prestar, v. tr., to lend, impart, 
pretend, v. tr., fingir 37. 
pretender, v. tr., to attempt, 
preterite, m., preterite, past 

definite, past absolute 

pretty, a., bonito, lindo. 
prevail, v. intr., regir 29, 37, 

predominar, prevalecer 38. 
prevailing, a., regente. 
prevalecer, 38, v. intr., to 

prevail. • 
prevent, v. tr., imped ir 29; — 

from, impedir que + suhj. 
previously, adv., previamente, 





price, precio, m, 

primavera, /., spring. 

primer(o), (abbreviated 
a.y first, early; lo — 
first thing; adv., first. 

prince, principe, m, 

princesa, /., princess. 

principado, m., principality. 

principal, a., main, principal; 
J., jefe, w. 

principality, principado, m, 

principalmente, adv., chiefly, 

principiar (a), v. tr., to begin. 

principio, m., beginning; al 
— , at first. 

prlsa, /., haste, speed; a toda 
— , at full speed; de — , 
fast, rapidly. 

prison, prision, /., carcel, /., 
bano (among the Moors), m, 

privado, a., private. 

private, a., particular, priva- 

privation, privacion, /. 

privilegio, m., privilege. 

prize, premio, m.; first — , 
premio gordo. 

proa, /., prow. 

probable, a., probable, vero- 

probably, adv., probable- 
men te; often expressed by 

the future tense for present 

probability and the con- 

. ditional for past probability. 

probar (ue), 24, v. tr., to try, 
taste, prove; — se, v. refl. 
to try on. 

problem, problema, m,; how 
great a problem it is, lo 
grande que es el problema. 

problema, m., problem. 

procedencia, /., origin, source. 

proceder, v. intr., to spring 

procesi6n, /., procession. 

process, in — of, en via de. 

proclamar, v. tr., to proclaim. 

procturar, v. tr., to try. 

producci6n, /., production. 

produce, s., frutos, m.; v. tr,, 
producir 18. 

producer, productor-a, m, 
and f. 

producir, 18, v. tr., to produce. 

production, produccion, /. 

productive, productor -a, m, 
and m. 

producto, m., product. 

productor-a, a., productive. 

produje, from producir 18. 

produjo, from producir 18. 

profesi6n, /., profession, oc- 

profesor, m., professor. 



profesorado, m., faculty. 

professor, profesor, w., cate- 
dratico, m, 

profeta, m., prophet. 

profit by, V. intr., aprovecharse 
de, valerse (20) de. 

profundamente, adv,, soundly, 

profundidad, /., depth. 

prof undo, a., deep, profound. 

programa, m., program, cur- 

progreso, fn., progress. 

progress, progreso, m.; v. 
intr., aprovechar(se), ade- 

project, V. tr.y {to plan) pro- 

prolongado, a,, long. 

prolongar, 32, v. tr.y to prolong. 

promedio, m., average. 

promenade, paseo, m. 

promesa,/., promise. 

promoter, v. tr., promise. 

promise, promesa, /.; v. tr., 

promptly, adv., con prontitud. 

pronombre, m,, pronoun. 

prontitud,/., promptness; con 
— , promptly. 

pronto, adv., soon, quickly. 

pronunciaci6n, /., pronuncia- 

propaganda, propaganda, /.; 

carry on a — , hacer (8) una 

proper, a., conveniente; what 

is — , lo conveniente; — ^ly, 

adv., debidamente. 
property, bienes, m. pi. 
prophet, profeta, m. 
propina,/., tip; de — , as a tip. 
propio, a., self, very. 
proponer, 12, v. tr., to propose; 

— se, V. refl. to intend. 
proporci6n, /., proportion, 
proporcionar, v. tr., to afford, 

supply, provide, 
proportion, proporcion, /., in 

— as, a medida que. 
propose, V. tr., proponer 12. 
proposed, pp. and a., pro- 

proposici6n, /., proposition. 
prop6sito, m., plan, inten- 
proprietor, propietario, m.; 

{of a hotel) hotelero, m. 
prdspero, a., prosperous, 
protect, V. tr., proteger 37, 

amparar; — against, res- 

guardar de. 
protecting, a., protector-a. 
protection, amparo, m.\ pro- 

teccion, /. 
protector-a, a., protecting. 



protegedor, m., patron, pro- 

proteger, 37, v, tr,y to protect. 

proud, a,y soberbio, ufano, 
orgulloso; feel — of, en- 
orgullecerse (38) de. 

prove, 0. tr,j probar 24; — to 
be, resultar. 

provecho, m., benefit; Ibuen 
— !, may it do you good! 

proveedor^ w., purveyor. - 

proveer (de), 43, v, tr.y to 

provenir, 21, &. intr., to arise. 

proverb, proverbio, w., re- 
fran, m., adagio, m., dicho, 

proverbio, w., proverb. 

provide, v. tr.y proveer (de); 
proporcionar, suministrar. 

provided, conj,, con tal qiie, 
dado caso que (both + 
subj.); a., — with, provisto 

provincia, /., province. 

provisional, a., provisional. 

provisto, pp. of proveer. 

proximity, vecindad, /. 

prdximo, a,, next; — pasado, 
ultimo, . the preceding 

proyectar, v. tr.y to plan, pro- 

proyecto, m., project, plan. 

p(i|i, /., metal point. 

public, publico, a. and s. m.. 

publicar, 30, v. tr.y to pub* 

piiblico, a. and s. m.y public. 

publish, V. tr.y publicar 30. 

pude, from poder 11. 

pudiendo, /rom poder 11. 

pudiente, a.y well-to-do, 
powerful, rich. 

pudiera or pudiese, from 
poder II. 

pueblo, m.y town, people. 

pueda, from poder 11. 

puedOf from poder 11. 

puente, m., deck, bridge. 

puerta, /., door, gate. 

Puerta del Sol, the most 
important of the public 
squares of Madrid, deriv- 
ing its name from the for- 
mer eastern gate of the city 
which was removed in 1570. 

Puerto, m.y port, harbor. 

pues, adv.y well, then; — 
bien, well then, so then. 

puesta, /., — del sol, sunset. 

puesto, m.y post, position. 

puesto, pp. of poner 13; 
(of clothing) on. 

puesto que, conj.y since 



pttjante, a., powerful, strong. 

piilgada, /., inch. 

pull, V. tr.y tirar (de), arrastrar; 

— in, V, ifUr,, {of trains) 
llegar 32. 

ptintear, v, tr., to dot. 

ptintOy m., point, period; en 
— , sharp, on the dot; 
hasta cierto — , to a certain 
extent, after a fashion. 

purchaser, coniprador, m. 

pure, a.y puro; {of a language) 

purfsimo, a., very pure. 

puro, a., pure; m., cigar. 

purp^eo, a,y purple. 

purveyor, proveedor, m, 

puse, from poner la. 

put, V, tr,, poner 12, colocar 
30; — a question to, hacer 
(8) una pregunta a; — 
foot on, poner pie en; — in, 
meter en; — in at, hacer 
escala en; — on, ponerse; 

— on the right way, orien- 
tar; — one's name, in- 
scribir el nombre; — out 
one's head, sacar (30) 
la cabeza; — to account, 
hacer valer; — together, 
juntar; — up at, hospedarse 
en, albergarse (32) en, 
parar en. 

qualify, v, tr, and intr.y califi- 
car 30. 

quality, calidad, /. 

quantity, cantidad, /. 

quarrel, querella, /. 

quarters, the fotu: — of the 
globe, las cinco partes del 

que, rel. pron,, who, which, 
that; el — , la — , etc, rel, 
pron., he who, the one that, 

• which; lo — , rel, pron,, that 
which, what; conj,, that, 
for, because, so that, than; 
introductory to the subj, in 
hortatory expressions, 

£qu#?, which, what?; I — 
tal?, how goes it?, how is 
or are?; y £que?, and what 
of that? 

iqu§!, howl; Iqu6 (+fl. or s,) 
I what a! 

quebrar, 23, v, tr,, to break. 

quechua, m,, Kechuan, mem- 
ber of a tribe of Indians in 
w. S. A. 

quedar(se), v, intr. and refi,, 
to remain, to be; quedar 
algo a alguien, to have 
something left; — plantado, 
to stick {intr.)', — se con, to 
take, keep. 



quedito, a.y quiet. 

queen, reina, /. 

queer, a., raro. 

quejumbroso, a. and s, m., 
fault-finding; fault-finder. 

quemar, v, tr., to bum. 

querella, /., quarrel. 

querer, 13, v. tr,, to ^sh, be 
willing; — decir, to mean. 

querido, pp, and a., dear. 

queso, m,f cheese. 

question, pregunta, /.; (sub-; 
ject for discussion) cuesti6n, 
/.; ask a — of, hacer una 
pregunta a. 

Quevedo y Villegas, Francisco 
G6mez de (i 580-1645), a 
shrewd and satirical poet of 
the courts of Philip III. and 
Philip IV. 

qtucial, m., door-jamb. 

quickly, adv,^ aprisa. 

quien, rel, pron., who, he who, 
the one who, whoever. 

^qui^n?, interr, pron., who? 

quiet, a., quedito, quieto, 
tranquilo; — ^ly, tranquila- 

quieto, a., quiet. 

qui jo, m.y ore. 

Quijote, Don, Don Quixote, 
the hero of Cervantes* mas- 
terpiece of the same name. 

quimico, a., chemical, 
quina, /., Peruvian bark, 
quincena, /., fortnight, two 

quinto, fifth, 
quise, from querer 13. 
quisiera, I should like; from 

querer 13. 
quitar, v, tr,, to take away or 

off, to deprive of. 
quite, adv,, bastante, muy. 
quizA(s), adv., perhaps, 
quote, V. tr., citar, repetir 29. 

rabiar, v. intr., to rage; hacer 
— , to drive frantic. 

race, raza, /., {of the running 
of horses) c2LTTeTz,f. 

racimo, in., cluster, bunch. 

rack one's brains, v. tr,, 
romperle los cascos a uno. 

radical, in., root, radical. 

ragged, a., andrajoso. 

rail, {of a boat) brazal, m.; 
{of a railway) riel, m.\ 
by — , por via de ferrocarril. 

railway, ferrocarril, m., linea 
ferrea, /., camino de hierro, 
m,, via ferrea,/.; estrado de 
ferro {Port.); — system, 
red ferroviaria, /.; — sta- 
tion, estacion de ferroca- 




rriles; — center, centre 

rain, lluvia,/. ; v. itUr,, Hover 26; 

— hard, Hover a cantaros. 
raincoat, impermeable, m, 
raise, v, tr.y elevar, levantar. 
raising, cria, /. 
ramal, m., branch of railway; 

line 'of business. 
Rambla, /., one of the chief 

streets of Barcelona, about 

a mile long, bearing different 

names in different sections. 
range, at close — , de cerca; 

(0/ mountains) cordillera, /. 
range, m., rank, class. 
rank, categoria, /., rango, m. 
ransom, 9. tr,, rescatar. 
rapid, a., rapido; — ^ly, rapida- 

r&pidamente, adv.y rapidly, 
rapidez, /., rapidity, 
r&pido, a.j rapid, 
rapier, estoque, m., espada, f, 
rapture, arrebatamiento, m. 
rare, a., raro, (of meat) poco 

riaro, a., rare, queer, 
ras, m., level; a — de, level 

tascacielos, m., skyscraper, 
rastra,/., trail, act of dragging 


rate, what is the — of ex- 
change?, l2L como esta el 
cambio?; at any — , de 
todos modos. 

rather, adv.y bastante, harto. 

rate, m., while, time; a poco 
— de, soon after. 

ravine, barranco, m. 

ray, rayo, m, 

rayo, m., ray, beam. 

raza,/., race. 

raz6n, /., reason; — social, 
firm name; con —, rightly. 

razor, navaja (de afeitar), /. 

reach, v, tr,, llegar (32) a. 

read, v, tr»y leer 43. 

reading, j., lectura, /. 

ready, a., dispuesto, listo. 

real, a., verdadero; j-., (coin) 
real, m. 

real, a,, royal; s, m., real, a 
coin worth about five cents; 
no longer coined. 

Real Academia Espaftola (de 
la Lengua), founded in 
1 714, having as its object 
the standardization of the 
Spanish language. Its first 
dictionary appeared in six 
volumes (i 726-1 739). It 
publishes at intervals the 
dictionary and a gram- 



realista, a. and s. m., realist, 

realizar, 34, v. tr.y to realize, 
realize, v, tr., realizar 34, 

llevar a cabo; v, refl.y darse 

(4) cuenta de. 
really, adv,, en verdad, real- 

mente, verdaderamente. 
realmente, adv.y really, 
realzar, 34, v. tr., to heighten, 
reanudar, v. tr,, to take up 

again, to continue, 
rear, a., trasero. 
reason, razon, /. 
rebajar, v. tr. and intr., to 

come down, to lower. 
rebafio, m., flock, herd, 
rebel, insurrecto, m., rebelde, 

rebelde, a. and s., rebel. / 
rebellious to, a,, refractario a. 
rebosar (de), v. intr., to over- 
flow (with). 
rebuild, v. tr., reedificar 30, 

reconstruir 44. 
recall, v. tr., recordar 25. 
receipt, recibo, m. 
receive, v. tr., recibir. 
recently, adv., recientemente. 
recepci6n, /., reception, 
receptficulo, m., receptacle. 
recibir, v. tr., to receive, 
recibo, m., receipt. 

reciente, a., recent. 

recientemente, adv., recently. 

recio, a., strong, vigorous. 

reclamar, v. tr., to claim. 

recoger, 37, v. tr., to gather, 
pick up. 

recogtiize, v. tr., reconocer 38. 

recomendaci6n, / , recommen- 

recompensa, /., recompense, 

reconcentrar, v. tr., to concen- 

reconocer, 38, v. tr., to recog- 

reconocidisimo, a., very grate- 
ful, much obliged. 

reconquest, reconquista, /. 

Reconquista, /., Reconquest, 
the period in Spanish his- 
tory from 71 1 to 1492 which 
saw the invasion of Spain 
by the Moors, their pre- 
i dominance in nearly all the 
Peninsula and their final 
expulsion therefrom. 

reconstruir, 44, v. ir., to re- 

recordar, 24, v. tr., to remind, 
recall, remember; to make 
think of; ^a qui6& me re- 
cuerda Vd. ?, whom do you 
make me think of? 



recorrer, v. tr., to traverse; 
— mucho mtindo, to travel 
over a great deal of or to 
see much of the world. 

recorrido, m., run, distance 

recover, v. intr., restablecerse 


recrearse, v. refl., to amuse 

recreo, m., diversion, sport. 

rect&ngulo, m,, rectangle. 

recto, a,, straight. 

recuerdo, m., souvenir, re- 
membrance, memory, re- 
gard, respect. 

recurrir a, v. intr., to resort to, 
betake Oneself to. 

recurso, w., resource. 

red, /., net, rack, network, 
system; — ferroviaria, rail- 
way system. 

red, fl., rojo; tape, expe- 

dienteo, m. 

reddish, a,, rojizo. 

redentor, m., redeemer. 

redondel, m., arena. 

reducir, 18, v, tr,, to reduce. 

reembolso, m., reimburse- 
ment, payment. 

refer, v. tr,, referir 27. 

referente a, prep., regard- 

referir, 27, v. tr., to relate, tell, 
refer, mention; — se a, to 
refer to; lo referido, what 
has been related. 

refinar, v. tr., to refine. 

reflection, reflejo, m. 

reflejo, m., reflection. 

reforma,/., alteration, im- 

refractario, a., rebellious, re- 
fractory, opposed to. 

refrfin, m., proverb, maxim. 

refrigerador-a, a., refriger- 

refrigeratixig plant, frigorifero, 
m., planta refrigeradora, /. 

refuse, v, tr,, rehusar, negarse 

(23> 32) a. 
regain consciousness, volver 

(26) en si. 
regalar, v, tr,, to present, 
regar (ie), 23, 32, to irrigate, 
regarding, prep,, referente a, 

tocante a, respccto a, por lo 

que se reflere a. 
regatear, v. intr., to bargain, 

regente, a. and s., ruling, pre- 

vaiHng; regent. 
regi6n, /., region, 
region, comarca, /., region, /. 
regir, 29, 37, v. tr. and intr,, to 

rule, prevail, be in force. 



register, v, tr,y {of mail) cer- 
tificar30; j., (of a hotel) libro 
de entradas, m, 

registrar, v. it, to examine. 

registration, certificacion, /. 

regocijado, a., glad, joyful. 

regocijo, m., delight, joy. 

regresar, v, intr.y to return. 

regret, v, tr.y sentir 27. 

regular, a., regular, fair, not 
unusual, ordinary. 

rehabilitaci6n, /., rehabilita- 

rehusar, v, tr., to refuse. 

reign, reinado, m.; v, intr,, 
reinar, prevalecer 38. 

reigning, a,, reinante. 

reina, /., queen. 

reinado, m., reign, rule. 

reinante, a., reigning, pre- 

reinar, v, intr,, to reign. 

reino, m., kingdom. 

reintegrar, v. /r., to restore. 

reir(se) (i), 29a, v, intr. and 
rtfl.y to laugh. 

reja, /., window-grating. 

relacidn, /., relation. 

related, be more closely — to, 
tener (17) mas parentesco 

relation, aproximacion, /.; re- 
lacion, /. 

relative, pariente, m. andf, 
relato, m., report, account, 
religioso, a,, religious, 
reloj, m., time-piece, watch, 
relojerfa, /., jewelry store, 
relojero, m., watchmaker, 

rely upon, v, tr,, contar (24) 

remain, v. intr., quedar(se). 
remains, restos, 
remark, v, tr., advertir 27, 

observar, decir 5. 
remarkable, a., aventajado 

{of ability as a student). 
remediar, v. tr., to help, free 

from danger, cure, remedy, 
remedio, m., remedy; no hay 

— , there's no help for it. 
remember, v. tr., recordar 24, 

acordarse (24) de. 
remind, v. tr., recordar 24. 
remitir, v. tr., to remit, send, 
remolacha, /., beet, 
remolcador, m., tug-boat, 
remontar, v. tr., to ascend, 
remoto, a.-, remote, 
remove, v. intr., trasladarse a, 

mudar de casa; v. tr., sacar 

30, quitar. 
renacimiento, m., renascence, 

awakening; {as a proper 

noun) the Renaissance or 



Renascence, the period of 
transition from the middle 
ages to the modem age, 
marked chiefly by a revival 
of learning and self-eman- 
cipation. Society, art, 
literature and science un- 
denvent vast changes for 
the better. 

renaissance or renascence, 
renacimiento, w. 

rencor, m., ill-will. 

rendici6n, /., surrender. 

rendir (i), 29, v, tr., to over- 
take; — se, to surrender. 

renew, v. tr., renovar 24. 

renombrado, a. and pp,y re- 
nowned, famed. 

renounce, v. tr., renunciar. 

renovacifin,/., reform, change. 

renovar. (ue), 24, to renew. 

renowned, a, afamado, cele- 
brado, renombrado. 

rent, v, tr., arrendar 23, al- 

renunciar, v, tr,, to renounce, 
give up. 

repair, v. tr., componer 12. 

reparar (en) v. intr., to notice, 
note, heed. 

reparo, m., notice, remark. 

repasar, v. tr., to review, recall. 

repaso, m., review. 

repay (for), v. tr., pagar (30) 

repeat, v. tr., repetir 29. 

repente, de — , suddenly. 

repetir (i), 29, v. tr., to repeat. 

replete, a., filled. 

repiicar, 30, v. intr., to answer. 

reply, v. intr., contestar, re- 
piicar 30, responder, repo- 
ner 12; in — to, en contes- 
tacion a. 

reponer, 12, v. in/r., to answer. 

report, voz, /., relato, w.; the 
— goes, corre la voz; be 
reported to be, tener (17) 
fama de ser. 

represent, v. ^r., figurar, sim- 
bolizar 34, representar. 

representaci6n, f., perform- 

representante, m., represen- 

representar, v. tr., to repre- 
sent, to give (0/ perform-- 

representative, representante, 

repfiblica, /., republic; — 
hermana, sister republic. 

republicano, a. and s., repub- 

repuse, from reponer 12. 

reputado (por),<z., famous (for). 



reputation, reputacion, /., 

fama, /., have the — of, 

tener (17) fama de, estar 

reputado como. 
reputed, be — as, tener (17) 

fama de, estar reputado 
. como. 
requerir (ie, i), 27, v. tr,, to 

require, v. tr., requerir (27). 
res, /., head of cattle, beef, 
rescatar, v, tr,, to ransom, 
resemblance, semejanza, /., 

parecido, ^t. 
resemble, v. tr., parecerse (38) 

a; asemejarse a. 
reservar, v, tr., to reserve, 
resguardarse (de), v. refl., to 
' protect oneself (against). 
reside, v. intr., residir, domi- 

residence, casa, /., residencia, 

/.; fine — , palacio, m. 
residencia, /., residence, 
resident, morador-a, m. artdf. 
residente (de), a., resident 

residir, v. intr., to reside, 

resistir (a), v. intr. and tr., to 

resort (to), v. intr., recurrir (a). 
resource, recurso, m. 

respect, v. tr., respetar; j., 
respecto, m.; in certain — s, 
en ciertos respectos. 

respectivo, a., respective. 

respecto, m., respect, relation; 
con — de, regarding. 

respetar, v. tr., to respect 

resplandeciente, a., brilliant, 

resplendent, a., resplande- 
ciente, a. 

responder, r. inir., to answer. 

respuesta, /., answer. 

rest, resto, m.y lo rest ante; 
{the others) los demis; v, 
intr., descansar. 

restablecerse, 38, v. refl., to 

restante, a., remaining; lo — , 
what is left. 

restituir, 44, v. tr., to restore. 

resto, m., remainder, rest; 
los — s, the remains. 

restore, v. tr., reintegrar, re- 
stituir 44. 

resultado, m., result. 

resultante, a., resultant; lo — , 
the resultant. 

resultar, v. intr., to prove to 
be, turn out, result; no 
result6 gran cosa de, not 
much carne from. 

resimiir, v. tr., to summarize. 



retail, at — , a m^iudeo. 

retener, 17, 0. /r., to retain. 

retinue, sequito, m, 

retirar(se), v, intr. and refl,, 
to retire, withdraw. 

retire, {to rest) acostarse 24; 

retired, pp. and a., jubilado. 

retire, m., retreat, retirement. 

Retire, Plaza del {abo called 
San Martin), an important 
square of Buenos Aires. 

Retire, (Buen), the chief park 
of Madrid, in e. part of the 
city; contains 353 acres. 

retrace one's steps, desandar 
(i) lo andado. 

retrato, m., portrait, photo- 

return, v. intr,, volver 26, 45, 
regresar; v. tr.y devolver 
26, 45. 

reuni6n, /., meeting. 

reunir, v, /r., to collect, get 
together; — se, to meet. 

revisar, v, tr., to examine. 

revista, /., magazine. 

revoluci6n, /., revolution. 

revolucionario, a. and s., revo- 
lutionary; revolutionist. 

revuelta,/., revolt, revolution. 

revuelto, pp, of revolver 26, 
45; stirred up. 

rey, m., king; los reyes, the 
king and queen; Los Reyes 
Cat61icos, The Catholic 
Sovereigns, name given to 
Ferdinand II and Isabella I. 

rezar, 34, v. tr, and intr,, to 
pray; — la misa, to say 

rhyme, rima, /.; without — or 
reason, a tontas y a locas. 

ria, /., estuary, mouth of 
river; — orillada de altas 
rocas, fiord. 

ribera,/., shore. 

Ribera, Giuseppe (1588- 
1656), a Spanish painter 
nicknamed in Italian Lo 
Spagnoletto when he 
studied in Rome; he had 
a forceful pictorial style. 
Among his best works are: 
"Adoration of the Shep- 
herds", and "Descent from 
the Cross". There are 25 of 
his works in the Louvre 
gallery in Paris. 

Ricardo, m,, Richard. 

rice, arroz, m, 

rico, a., rich. 

rich, a.f rico, (0/ soil) fertil, 
exuberante; riches, s., 
riquezas, /. 

ride, V. tr., {a horse) montar. 



ridiculous, a.y extravagante. 

riego, m., irrigation. 

riel, m., rail. 

rielarse, v, refl.y to glimmer. 

right, a., be — y tener (17) 
razon; all — , bueno, esta 
bien; on the — ^ a la derecha 
{indicating apartment in a 
house) y derecha; j., derecho, 

rightly, adv,, con i-azon. 

Rin, m., Rhine. 

rinc6n, m., comer. 

r"i8» (0/ hull-ring) redondel, 
m.; V, tr,y tocar 30. 

rio, m,y river; — arriba, up- 

Rio Branco {Port,), a fine 
avenue of Rio de Janeiro, 
formerly called Avenida 
Central; bears its present 
name in honor of Brazil's 
late minister of foreign 

Rio de Janeiro {Port.), the 
capital of Brazil, situated 
on the w. side of the bay of 
the same name. It lies in 
a federal district of 538 
square miles; population 
about one million. 

Rio de la Plata, m., the River 
Plata, the great estuary 

formed by the confluence 
of the Parana and Uruguay 

Rio Grande do Sul {Port.), 
the most s. province of 
Brazil; area about 90,000 
square miles. 

Rioja, La, a city and province 
of n. w. Argentina. 

riot, V. intr., amotinarse. 

Rfo Tinto, a copper mining 
town and region in the 
province of Huelva, s. w. 
Spain; population . about 

riqueza, /., wealth. 

rise, V. intr., levantarse, surgir 
45; {of the sun) salir 15. 

riser, el que se levanta; 
early — , quien or el que 

risk, V. tr., arriesgar 32. 

risuefio, a., pleasant, agree- 
able, flattering. 

rival, m., rival; sin — , un- 

rivalidad, /., rivalry. 

river, no, m,; as a,, fluvial; 
— traffic, trftfico fluvial. 

road, camino, m., carretera, 
/.; be on the right — , ir (9) 

roadstead, caleta, /. 



roast, asado, m.; v. tr,, asar. 

Roberto, m., Robert. 

robusto, a.y robust. 

roca, /., rock, clifF. 

rocalloso, a., rocky. 

rock, roca, /., penon, m. 

rocking, balanceo, m. 

rocky, a., rocalloso. 

rodar (ue), 24, v. intr., to 

rodear, v. tr,, to surround. 

Rodrigo, m., Roderick. 

rogar (ue), 24, 32, to beg. 

rojizo, a,f reddisb. 

rojo, a,, red. 

r61e, papel, m. 

roll, {of bread) panecillo, m. 

Roma, /., Rome. 

Roman, a., romano. 

romance, a,, Romance, de- 
rived from the language of 

Romanesque, a., romanico. 

romftnico, a,, Romanesque. 

romano, a., Roman. 

romper, 45, v, tr,y to break; 
— ^le los cascos a uno, to 
rack one's brains. 

Ronda, /., a town of about 
19,000 inhabitants in Anda- 
lusia; one of the oldest and 
most interesting of Spain. 

roof, tejado, m. 

room, habitacion, /., cuarto^ 
m., sala, /., salon, m.: he 
— for, caber 2. 

rosa, /., rose. 

rosal, m,f rosebush. 

Rosario, the second city and 
port of Argentina, about 
200 miles by rail n. w. of 
Buenos* Aires; population 
about 220,000. 

rose, rosa,/.; — bush, rosal, m. 

rosewood, palo de rosa, m. 

roto, m., lower-class Chilean. 

r6tulo, m,, sign. 

rough, a., agitado, picado; 
get — f (of sea) agitarse, 
picarse 30. 

round-trip, a., de ida y vuelta. 

rout, derrota, /.; v, tr,y de- 

row, hilera, /. 

royal, a., real. 

rua (PorL), /., street. 

rubber, caucho, m., hule, m. 

Ruffo, Titta, an Italian bari- 
tone of great reputation 
who sings in Italy, Spain, 
S. A. and N. A. 

Rufino, a town and railway 
junction 250 miles w. of 
Buenos Aires on the Buenos 
Aires & Pacific Railway. 

ruido, m., noise, sound. 



ruisefior, m.y nightingale. 

rule, V. tr.y gobemar 23, regir 
29> 37; f- intr.y reinar. 

rumbo, w., course, direction; 
con — a, setting one's 
course for; towards. 

run, (o/« train) recorrido, w., 
{of a boat) singladura, /.; 
V. intr.y correr, {be in mo- 
tion) marchar; — over, v. 
tr.y atropellar. 

rush, V. intr.y lanzarse 34, 
abalanzarse 34, precipitarse 
agolparse; — to meet, 
lanzarse al encuentro de. 

saber, 14, to know, know how 
to; {in pret.)y found out, 
learned; a — , namely. 

sabio, a.y wise. 

saborear, v. tr.y to enjoy {the 
taste of). 

Saboya, /., Savoyl 

sabroso, a.y tasty. 

sacar, 30, to take out, derive, 
bring out; — la cabeza, to 
put out one's head. 

Sacchetti, Giovanni, an Ital- 
ian architect of the i8th 
century who constructed 
the royal palaces of Madrid 
and La Granja. 

sack (up), V. tr.y ensacar 30. 

sacro, a.y sacred, holy. 

Sacro Monte, m., a hill in e. 

sadden, v. tr.y entristecer 38. 

sagaz, a.y discerning. 

Said, the Arabic suffix mean- 
ing "Lord". 

sail, V. tr.y navegar 32; r. in/r., 
zarpar, partir, salir 15. 

sailor, marinero, m. 

saint, san(to), m.y santa, /. 

sal, /., salt, wit. 

sala, /., room; — de espera, 

salad, ensalada, /. 

Salamanca, the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in w. Spain; population 
about 25,000. Its univer- 
sity was founded about 
1230 by Alfonso IX of 

salary, sueldo, m, 

saldre, /ro>7x salir 15. 

salero, m.y salt-cellar; witti- 
ness, grace. 

salesman, vendedor, m.; 
traveling — , viajante, m.^ 
comisionista, m, 

saiga, from salir 15. 

Salic, salico. 

s&lico, a.y Salic. 



salida, /., departure, outlet, 
exit, rising (of the sun), 

.saliente, a,^ prominent, con- 

salir, 15, v. tntr.y to leave, go 
out, set forth, come out; — 
airoso, to come out suc- 

salitre, m., nitrate of soda, 
saltpeter, commonly called 

salitrero, a,, nitrate-bearing. 

Salmer6n y Alfonso, Nicol&s 
(1838-1908), a Spanish 
statesman and president, 
for two months, of the 
Spanish republic. 

sal6n, m., salon, saloon, hall; 
— de limpiabotas, shoe- 
shining parlor. 

Sal6n del Prado, the wide 
promenade running n. and 
s. between Alcala and San 
Jeronimo streets, Madrid. 
It is continued northward 
as the Paseo de Recoletos. 

salsa, /., dressing, sauce. 

salt, sal, /. 

saltar, v. intr., to jump. 

salubridad, /., healthfulness. 

salud, /., health. 

saludar, v. tr., to greet. 

salvar, v. tr., to save. 

same, a., mismo; the — thing, 
lo mismo; the — as, el 
mismo que; — to you, 
igualmente; it is all the — 
to me, lo mismo me da, me 
es igual. 

San Andres de Palomar, a 
manufacturing suburb to 
the n. of Barcelona. 

San Bernardo, a street of 
n. w. Madrid, on which is 
situated the Universidad 

sand, arena, /. 

sandia, /., watermelon. 

sandy, a., arenoso. 

San Francisco el Grande, a 
church in s. w. Madrid, 
partially modelled on the 
Pantheon of Rome; built 
1 761 -1 784. 

sangre, /., blood. 

sangriento, a., bloody, san- 

San ndefonso, see La Granja. 

sanitario, a,, sanitary. 

San Martin de Provensals, a 
manufacturing section of 
the n. part of Barcelona. 

San MarUn, Jos6 dc (1778- 
1850), the S. A. stateseman 
and soldier; bom in Uru- 
guay, educated for a milli- 



tary czireer in Spain, fought 
in the battle of Bailen. 
Volunteered in 1814 to aid 
S. A. independence which 
he, more than any other one 
man, secured for Argentina, 
Chile and Peru. Also the 
name of an important 
square of Buenos Aires. 

San Miguel, a high hill in the 
n. e. part of Granada. 

San Pedro de Cardeila, a con- 
vent about 8 miles s. e. of 
Burgos where the Cid and 
Ximena were buried. 

San Quintin, Saint Quentin, 
a town of the department of 
the Aisne, France; in a 
battle here on Aug. 10, 1557 
the forces of Philip II 
routed the French army. 

Sans, a manufacturing section 
of s. Barcelona. 

Santa Catharina {Port,), 3. 
province of s. Brazil; area 
28,000 square miles. 

Santa Fe, a city and prov- 
ince of n. Argentina; popu- 
lation of former about 

Santa Lucia, a hill and park in 
the center of Santiago de 

Santa Maria de la Sede, 
the cathedral of Seville, 
the largest church in the. 
world except St. Peter's of 

Santander, the capital of a 
maritime province of the 
same name in n. Spain; 
population about 48,000; 
seat of a royal palace, 

Santiago de Chile, the capital 
of Chile, about 115 miles n. 
e. of Valparaiso. Population 

san(to), santa, m. andf., saint. 

Santo Donungo, Plaza de, a 
square n.w. of the Puerta 
del Sol, Madrid. 

Santos, a city and port of 
Brazil, 227 miles s. of Rio 
de Janeiro; population 
about 41,000. Chief coflFee 
shipping port of the world. 

Sio Paulo {Port.)y a city and 
state of s. Brazil; the popu- 
lation of the former is about 
300,000. In Spanish, San 

Saracen, a. and j., sarraceno. 

sarcdfago, m., sarcophagus, 

sardina, /., sardine. 



sarraceno, /. and s,, Saracen; 

applied as a nickname to 

Spaniards in S. A. 
sastre, m., tailor, 
sastreria, /., tailor shop, 
satisfacer, (forms similar to 

hacer 8), v. tr., to satisfy, 
satisfecho, pp. of satisfacer 

and a., satisfied* content, 
satisfied, pp. and a.y satis- 

satisfy, v. tr., satisfacer 8; 

— one's hunger, matar el 

save, V. tr., salvar. 
Savoy,- Saboya,/. 
say, V. tr., decir 5; — to one's 

self, decir para si; as they 

— , como quien dice; I 

should — sol, lya lo creol; 

^thout saying aye, yes or 

no, sin decir tus ni mus. 
saying, sentencia, /., refran, 

m., adagio, m. 
scarcely, adv., apenas (si). 
scare, susto, m. 
scattered, pp. and a., espar- 

scene, escena, /. 
school, escuela, /., colegio, m. 
schoolmate, amigo de escuela, 

scrambled, a., revuelto. 

se, prrs. pron. refl., oneself, 
himself, herself, itself, 
themselves, yourself, your- 

se, pers. pron., substitute for 
le or les before another ^rd. 
pers. obj. pron. 

s€ifrom saber 14. 

sea, from ser 16; ya — ... 
o — , either . . . or. 

sea, mar, m. and /.; on the 
open — , en alta mar; — 
bass, mero, m. 

seabath, bano de mar, m. 

seacoast, costa maritima, /. 

seashore, orilla del mar, /. 

seasick, a., mareado; become 
or get — , marearse, ponerse, 
(12) mareado. 

seasickness, mareo, m. 

season, estacion, /. 

seat, asiento, m., sitio, m.; 
{in public places) localidad, 
/.; — oneself, v. refl., sen- 
tarse 23. 

seated, pp. and a., sentado. 

secar, 30, v. tr., to dry. 

secci6n, /., section. 

second, a., segundo; — class, 
a., de segunda clase; (of the 
date of the month) el dos de. 

secret, secret©, m. 

section, seccion, /. 



secuestrar, v. tr., to kidnap, 
secure, v. tr., conseguir 29, 
33, obtener 17, alcanzar 

sedff., thirst. 

seda^/.y silk. 

see, V, tr.f ver 22; — ! or — 
here! (imper.), I mire (n) 
Vd(s).1; — much of the 
world, recorrer mucho mun- 
do; — off, despedir 29; 
let's — , vamos a ver, a 

seek, V, tr,, buscar 30. 

seem, v, intr.y parecer 38. 

Segovia, /., the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in n. central Spain; popula- 
tion about 15,000. 

segovianb, a, and j*., Sego- 

seguida, /., succession; en — , 
at once, immediately. 

seguidamente, adv., immedi- 
ately, directly. 

seguir (i), 29, 33, v. tr., to fol- 
low, continue; — el camino, 
to go on one's way; — de, 
to continue as. 

segiin, prep., as, according to; 
— y conforme, that de- 

segundo, a., second. 

seguramente, adv., surely. 

seguridad, /., assurance. 

seguro, a., sure, safe; s. m., 
insurance; compafiia de 
— s, /., insurance company; 

— servidor, (abbreviated 
S. S.)i yours truly. 

seis, six. 

seize, v. tr., coger 37, tomar, 

apoderarse de. 
seldom, adv., raras veces; 

pocas veces. 
selva, /., wood, forest, 
sell, V. tr., vender, 
seller, vendedor, m. 
sello, m., stamp, 
semana, /., week; por — , 

weekly, a week, 
semanal, a., weekly, 
sembrado, m., sown field {of 

semejanza, /., resemblance, 

senado, m., senate, 
sencillo, a., simple; {of tickets) 

one way. 
send, V. tr., enviar 39, mandar; 

{of a telegram) poner 12; 

— across, pasar; — forth, 
despedir 29; — with, acom- 

senda, /., path, 
sensible, a., juicioso. 



sentar (ie), 33, v. tr,, to seat; 
to become, to fit; — -se, 
V, refi,i to sit down. 

sentencia, /., sentence, say- 

sentido, m.y sense, conscious- 

sentimiento, m., sentiment, 

sentinel, centinela, m.; — 
T^city, ciudad-centinela, /. 

sentir, (ie, i), v. tr., to feel, 
regret; — a lo antiguo, to 
smack of bygone ages; 
— se, V, refl.f to feel. 

seiial,/., signal; en — de, as a 
sign of. 

seAalar, r. tr,, to point out. 

seftor, m., gentleman, sir, 
mister, lord. 

sefiora, /., lady, madam. 

seiiorita, /., miss, young 

sepa, /rom saber 14. 

separar, v. tr,, to separate. 

separate, v. tr., alejar, separar; 
a.y apartado, alejado. 

septentrional, a., north, nor- 

se(p)tiembre, (ybre., one ab- 
hfeviation)y w., September. 

sepulcro, m., tomb. 

sepultar, v. tr., to bury. 

sequito, m., suite, retinue. 

ser, 16, V. intr,, to be; — dado 
a, to be fond of; — del 
parecer, to be of the opin- 
ion; — menester, to be 
necessary; soy asi para, 
that's the way with me 
about, I am that way about; 
s. in., being. 

serene, m., night-watchman. 

seriamente, adv., gravely, se- 

serie,/., series. 

serrania,/., mountain ridge. 

Serrano y Dominguez, Fran- 
cisco (1810-1885), the 
Spanish statesman and sol- 
dier; one of the chief sup- 
porters of the Queen 
Regent, Maria Cristina, 
and Queen Isabella II in 
the war upon the Carl- 

serve, v, tr,, servir 29; — as, 
servir de. 

service, servicio, m,; at yotir 
— , para servir a Vd(s)., a 
la disposicion de Vd(s)., a 
las ordenes de Vd(s). 

servicio, m., service; de — , 
on duty. 

servidor, m., servant; — de 
Vd(s)., at your service. 

45 o 


servir, 29, r. tr.y to serve; — 
de, to serve as; — para, to 
be useful for; — un pedido, 
to fill an order; para \ — a 
Vd(s)., at your service; 
— se, please; — se de, to 
make use of. 

sesenta, sixty* 

sesos, m. pL, brains. 

setenta, seventy. 

set, V. tr., poner 12, colocar 30, 
(of the sun) ponerse; — out, 
salir 14, partir, irse 9, 
ponerse en camino; — sail, 
hacerse (8) a la mar, zarpar; 
— sail for, embarcarse (30) 
para; — up, montar, plan- 
tar, establecer 38; setting 
the course for, con rumbo a. 

setting, montadura, /. 

settle, V. tr.y arreglar; — 
(down), V. intr., estable- 
cerse 38, asentarse 23. 

settlement (of houses), case- 
rio, m. 

seven, siete. 

seventeen, diez y siete; the 
— th century, el siglo XVII 
(diez y siete). 

seventy, setenta. 

several, a. and pron., varios. 

severe, a., severo, austero, 

Sevilla, Seville, the capital of 
the province of the same 
name and the leading city 
of Andalusia, 54 miles from 
the Atlantic coast on the 
Guadalquivir. Ocean-going 
ships anchor at its docks; 
population about 150,000. 

sevillano, a, and s,, Sevillian. 

sewerage system, alcanta- 
rillado, m. 

sexagesima, sixtieth. 

shade, sombra, /.; v.- tr., 

shadow, sombra, /. 

shaft, obelisco, m, 

shake hands, apretarle la 
mano a uno, darle un apre- 
ton de manos a uno, estre- 
charle la mano a uno. 

shall, usually the sign of the 
future tense; if indicative 
of obligation, deber. 

shape, forma,/. 

sharp, a.y {of the hour) en 

shawl, manton, m. 

she, pers, pron,, ella; {before 
of or who) la. 

shears, tijeras, /. pL 

shelter, v. tr., cobijar, abri- 
gar 32, take — , albergarse 




shine, v. intr., brillar; the 

son — s, hay sol. 
ship, buque, m., barco, m., 

vapor, m.y navio, w. 
shipboard, on — , a bordo de 

un buque or navio. 
shipment, envio, m. 
shipyard, astillero, m. 
shoe, zapato, m ; shining 

parlor, salon de limpia- 

botas, m.; v, tr., {of horses) 

herrar 23; — maker, zapa- 

tero, in. 
shoeshop, zapateria, /. 
shop, tienda, /., — keeper, 

tendero, m.; work- — , 

taller, m. 
shopping, adv., de tiendas.. 
shore, orilla, /., ribera, /., 

costa, /.; on the — of, a 

orillas de. 
short, a.y corto. 
shotgun, escopeta, /. 
should, usually the sign of the 

pres. or imperf. subj.j or of 

the cond.'y if indicative of 

obligation, deber. 
shoulder, hombro, w.; — 

-blade, espaldilla, /. 
shout, V. tr. and intr., gritar. 
shouting, algazara, /. 
show, V. tr., ensenar, mostrar 

24, manifestar 23, demos- 

trar 24, hacer (S) ver;- «u, 
hacer entrar; — one to, 
conducir (18) a; — win- 
dow, escaparate m. 

showy, a., aparatoso. 

shrewd, a., cuerdo, listo. 

shriek, V. tr, and intr., gritar, 

shrug one's shotdders, enco- 
gerse (37) de hombros. 

shuffle-board, tejo, m. 

si, conj., if; why. 

si, adv., yes; — que, indeed, 

si, pers. pron., refl., used after 
a prep., himself, herself, 
itself, themselves, yourself, 
yourselves; por — mismo, 
for yourself, etc. 

side, lado, m., (of a moun- 
tain) ladera, /.; by the — 
of, al lado de; on all — s, 
por todas partes. 

side-walk, acera, /. 

Sidi, see Said. 

Sidney, a city of Austra- 

siempre, adv., always; pera — , 

Sierpes, 'Calle de las, a very 
narrow but important street 
of Seville. 

sierra, /., mountain, range. 



Sierra Nevada, a range of 
mountains in the s. part of 
Spain, some 15 miles from 

siete, seven. 

siga> from seguir 29, 33. 

sight, vista, /.,curiosidad, /., 
espectaculo, w.; at — , a la 

siglo, m., century; — de ore. 
Golden Age. 

sign, cartel, m., letrero, m. 

signal, serial, /. 

significado, m., meaning. 

sigue, from seguir, 29, 33. 

siguiendo, from seguir 29, 33. 

siguiente, a., following, next. 

silbar, v. intr.y to whistle. 

silbido, m.y whistle. 

silencio, m., silence. 

silent, a,y callado; be — , 
V. intr., callar(se). 

silver, plata, /. 

silvestre, a., wild. 

silla, /., chair. 

sill6n, aug. of silla, arm chair; 
— mecedor, rocking-chair. 

simbolizar, 34, to typify, rep- 
resent, symbolize. 

simbolo, m.y symbol, sign; 
en — de, representing. 

similar, a., parecido, seme- 

similarity, semejanza, /. 
simp&tico, a.y congenial, nice, 

simpatizar, 34, to sympathize, 
sin, prep,, without; — qti6| 

conj.j without, 
since, prep,, desde, {after time 

expressions) que; conj.y 

{causal) ya que, puesto que, 

pues; {temporal) desde que. 
singer, cantor, m., cantante, m. 
singladura, /., day's run {of 

single, a.y solo, 
singular, a., singular, 
sink, V, intr.y ir (9) a pique, 

hundirse; v. tr., echar a 

sinniimero, m., great number; 

un — de, countless, 
sino, conj.y but {adversative); 

only {after a negative); — 

que, but {with an adversa^ 

tive clause), 
sin6nimo, a., synonymous, 
sinopsis, /., synopsis, 
sip (up), V, tr.y sorber. 
siquiera, adv,, no; ni . . . — y 

not even, 
sir, caballero, m., senor, m,; 

dear — , muy senor mip 

(nuestro); dear — s, muy 

senores mios (nuestros). 



sistema, m., system, 
sister, hermana, /. 
sit (down), V. intr., sentarse 23. 
site, sitio, m., lugar, m. 
sitio, ?»., place, seat, spot, site, 
sitting-room, gabinete, m. 
situaci6n, /., location, site, 

situado, pp. and a., located, 

situar, v. tr,, to locate, situate, 
situated, pp, and a., situado. 
six, seis. 
sixteen, diez y seis; — ^th 

century, el siglo XVI (diez 

y seis). 
sixtieth, sexagesimo; one ^— , 

la sexagesima parte, 
sixty, sesenta. 
size, tamano, m.; in — , por 

su tamano. 
skilful, tf., diestro, habil. 
skill, acierto, m., destreza, /., 

habilidad, /. 
skilled, d., peri to, diestro. 
sky, cielo, m. 

skyscraper, rascacielos, m. 
slab, laja, /. 
slag, escoria, /. 
slap, bofetada, /. 
slaughter-house, matadero, 

sleep, 9. intr,y dormir 28. 

slipper, zapatilla, /. 

slope, vertiente, /. 

slowly, adv,y a paso lento, 
despacio, lentamente. 

small, a., pequeno, diminuto. 

smell, V, intr., oler 26a. 

smelt, V. tr., fundir. 

smelter, fundicion, /. 

smile, V. tntr,y sonretrse 29a. 

smoke, humo, m.; v, tr,, 

smuggler, contrabandista, m. 

snow, nieve, /. 

snowfall, nevada, /. 

snowy, snow - crowned, a., 

so, adv.y asi; (degree) tan; 
{with tr. verb or ser) lo; 
— as to, para; — much, 
tan to; and — forth, y asi 
sucesivamente, etcetera; — 
that, conj., de manera que, 
para que, a fin de que. 

soberano, m., sovereign, ruler. 

soberbio, a., grand, superb. 

sobrante, lo — , what is left 

sobrar, v. intr., to have to 
spare, have extra. 

sobre, prep., on, upon, about, 

sobremanera, adv., immense- 
ly, beyond measure. 



sobrenadar, v. intr., to keep 

sobresaliente, a., excellent, 

most excellent, superior, 

sobresalir, 15, to excel, sur- 
sobretodo, adv., especially, 
sobrino, m., nephew, 
sociedad, /., society. 
socio, m.y partner; — co- 

manditario, silent partner. 
Socorro, tn., help, succor, 
soda, /., sosa, /. 
sofocante, a., stifling, 
soil, suelo, m., terruno, m.; 

home — , terruno original, 
sol, m., sun, sunlight; hay 

— , the sun shines, it is 

solar, m., ancestral home or 

soldado, m.y soldier, 
soldier, soldado, m, 
solemnidad, /., solemnity, 
solemne, a.y solemn, 
soler (ue), 26, to be wont or 

solicitously, adv.y atenta- 

solidaridad, /., solidarity. 
Solis, Juan de (1470-15 16), a 

Spanish explorer who in 

15 1 5 explored the River 

Plata region, 
solo, a., alone, sole, single. 
s61o, adv., only, just; no — 

. . . sino (tambi6n), not 

only . . . but also, 
soltar, V, tr,y to loosen, 
sombra, /., shade, shadow; 

a la — y in the shadow, 
sombrear, v. tr,, to shade, 

sombrerero, m., hat-maker, 
sombrereria,/., hat store, 
sombrero, m., hat. 
some, a. and pron.y alguno 

(algun); algunos, un poco 

de; unos {before indef, nu- 

merical expressions), 
someter, v. tr,y to submit, 
something, indef. pron,, algo, 

alguna cosa; there is — of 

everything, hay de todo. 
sometimes, adv., algunas 

somewhat, adv., algo, un 

somewhere, adv., en alguna 

son, from ser 16. 
son, hijo, m, 
sonar (ue) 24, r. intr., to 

sound, strike {of the hour). 
sonoro, a., sonorous, musical. 



80iireir(se) (i), 29a, v. tntr, 
and refl.y to smile. 

softar (ue), 24, (con, en) v, 
intr,y to dream (oQ. 

sofiolencia, /., drowsiness, 
sleepy appearance. 

solloliento, a,y sleepy, drowsy. 

soon, adv,t pronto, dentro de 
poco, a poco rato; — after, 
poco despues de, a poco de; 
as — as, tan pronto como, 
luego que, asi que. 

sopa, /., soup. 

soplo, m.y gust, breath. 

Sorata, a peak of the Cordi- 
llera Real near La Paz, 
Bolivia; elevation, 21,490 

sorber, v. tr., to sip (up). 

sordo, a,f deaf. 

Soriano, a department of w. 

Sorolla y Bastida, Joaquin 
(1863- ), the acknowl- 
edged head of the modem 
Spanish school of painting. 

sorprender, v. tr., to sur- 

sorpresa, /., surprise. 

sort, especie, /., clase, /. 

sorteo, m., drawing {of the 

sosa, /., soda. 

sospecha, /., suspicion. 

soul, alma, /. 

sound, ruido, m., sonido, m, 

soundly, adv,, profundamente. 

soup, sopa, /. 

source, manantial, m., venero, 

south, s., sur, m., sud, m.; 

a., meridional, sur, sud; 

— Station, Estacion del 

Mediodia, /. 
South America, America del 

Sur, /., Sud America, /. 
South American, a, and j., 

southeastern, a., sudeste. 
southern, a., del sur, del 

southward, adv,y hacia el sur. 
southwest, sudoeste, m. 
souvenir, prenda de recuerdo, 

/., recuerdo, w. 
soy, from ser 16. 
space, espacio, tn. 
Spain, Espana, /. 
Spaniard, espanol, m. 
Spanish, a.y espanol-a, cas- 

tellano; — -speaking, de 

habla espanola. 
Spanish-American, a, and s., 

speak, V. intr., hablar; so to 

— , por decirlo asi. 



spectator, espectador, m., 

concurrente, m, and /., 

asistente, m. and f, 
speech, habla, /. 
speed, velocidad, /., marcha, 

/., prisa, /.; at full — , a 

toda prisa, a toda veloci- 
spend, V. tr., (of time) pasar; 

(of money) gas tar; — the 

night, pernoctar. 
spice, especia, /. 
spin, f. tr., hilar, 
spinner, hilandero-a, m. andf. 
spinning-mill, hilanderia, /., 

fabrica de tejidos, /. 
spirit, genio, m. 
spite, in — of, prep., a pesar 

de, a despecho de. 
spoon, cuchara, /. 
sport, deporte, m. 
spot, sitio, m., iugar, m., 

paraje, m. 
spring, spring-time, prima- 

vera, /.; {metal) muelle, m. 
square, plaza, /.; main — , 

Plaza Mayor; a., cuadrado. 
S. S., abbreviation for se- 

guro(s) servidor(es), yours 

SS. MM., Sus Majestades, 

Their Majesties, 
stable, caballeriza, /. 

staff, personal, m., cuerpo, 
m.; {of bull-fighters) cuad- 
rilla, /.; selling — y cuerpo 
de vendedores, m, 

stage, teatro, m. 

stagnation, inactividad, /. 

stairway, escalera, /. 

stamp, sello, m., timbre, m.; 
V, tr., {of letters) franquear. 

stand, V. tntr., {of buildings) 
levantarse; — out, desta- 
carse 30; — (still), estar 
parado, pararse; ponerse 12. 

standard, estandarte, m. 

standing, a., de pie^ parado. 

start from, v. intr., arrancar 
(30) de. 

state, estado, m.; a., de gala; 

statesman, estadista, m. 

station, estacion, /. 

statue, estatua, /. 

stay, estancia, /.; v. intr., 
quedarse, est arse; {at a 
hotel) hospedarse, alber- 
garse 34, parar(se). 

steadily, adv., cada vez mas. 

steam-heated, a., calentado 
por (medio de) vapor. 

steel, acero, m. 

steep, a., empinado, escar- 

step, paso, m., operacion, /., 
{of stairs) peldano, m., 



escalon, m.; pi., graderia, /.; 

manufacturing — s, opera- 

clones de fabricacion, /. pi. 
steward, camarero, m. 
stick, V. intr.y quedar plantado. 
still, adv.y todavia, aun. 
stock, (of goods) surtido, m, 
stone, piedra, /. 
stool, banqueta, /. 
stop, V. intr.y parar(se), 

detenerse 17, cesar (de); 

— at, {of boats), hacer (8) 

escala en; v. tr., impedir 29. 
store, tienda, /.; book — , 

libreria, /. 
story, piso, m. 
stormy, a., borrascoso. 
story, cuento, m., the same 

old — , lo de siempre; that 

is indeed another — , eso 

es ya otro cantar. 
straight ahead, adv., derecho. 
straighten, v. tr., enderezar 34. 
strait, estrecho, m. 
strange, a., extrano; it seems 

— , parece mentira. 
stranger, extranjero, m.; be 

a — to, desconocer 38. 
straw, paja, /. 

stream, corriente,/., chorro, m. 
street, calle, /.; car, tran- 

via, m.; car line, linea 

de tranvias. 

strength, fuerza(s), /. 
stretch, v. tr., estirar; — out, 

V. intr., extenderse 25, diia- 

tarse; s., trecho, m. 
strike, v. intr., (of clocks) sonar 

24, dar 4; s., huelga, /. 
striker, huelguista, m. 
strip, faja, /. 
stroll, V. intr., pasearse, rodar 

24; — along, pasearse por. 
strong, a., fuerte, recio; — 

-box, cofre fuerte. 
stronghold, plaza fuerte, /. 
structure, cxinstruccion, /. 
struggle, lucha, /.; t^. intr.y 

student, estudiante, m. andf., 

alumno, m.; entering — , 

studio, estudio, m. 
study, estudio, m,; v. tr., 

estudiar; — to be, estudiar 

stumble about, v. intr., tam- 

stupid, a., torpe. 
style, estilo, m., moda, /.; 

in French — , a la francesa. 
stylish, a., elegante; — set, 

mundo elegante, 
su, poss. a., his, her, its, their, 

siibdito, m., subject. 



subida, /., ascent. 

subir, *(a, en), v, intr,, to go 
up, get into, come up, 
ascend; v. tr,, to bring up. 

subject, subdito, m.; — of 
study, materia de estudio. 

subjuntivo, w., subjunctive. 

subrayar, v, tr,, to underline. 

subscribe, v. tr.y subscribir 

subsidize, v, tr,, subvencionar. 

substituir, 44, v. tr,, to re- 

.substituya, from substituir 44. 

subterrftneo, a., underground; 
ferrocarril — , subway. 

suburb, arrabal, m,, suburbio, 

suburbio, m., suburb. 

subvencionar, v, tr., to sub- 

subway, ferrocarril subterra- 
neo, m. 

succeed (in), v. intr., tener 
(17) exito en + inf., lograr 
+ inf., alcanzar (34) 
+ inf.; (in office) suceder a. 

success, (buen) exito, m. 

successful, a., airoso. 

suceder (a), v. intr., to follow 
in succession, to succeed. 

sucesi6n, /., succession, ofF- 

sucesivamente, adv., suc- 
cessively; y asi — , and so 

sucesor, m., successor. 

sucursal, /., branch (of a 

such, a., tal; — a, un tal. 

sud, m., south. 

sudamericano, a, and s,y 
South American. 

suddenly, adv,, subitamente. 

sudeste, m,, southeast; a., 

sudoeste, m,, southwest; a,, 

sueldo, m,, salary, wages. 

suelo, m,, floor, soil, ground. 

suiolto, pp, of soltar and a,; 

suefio, m., dream, sleep. 

suerte, /., lot, luck, event. 

suffer, V, intr,, padecer 38, 

sufSice, V. intr., has tar. 

sufficiently, adv., bastante, lo 
suficiente, harto. 

suficiente, a,, sulficient> 

sufrimiento, m,, suffering. 

sugar, azucar, m,; — cane, 
cana de azucar; — loaf, 
pan de azucar, pao de 
assucar (Port,), — -mill, 



ingenio (azucarero), m.; — 
-plant, ingenio, m. 

sugerir (ie, i), 27, to suggest. 

suit, traje, m,; v. tr., convenir 

suite, sequito, m. 

Suiza, La, Switzerland. 

suizo, a, and s., Swiss. 

sujeto, m., fellow. 

sulphur, • azufre, tn. 

sultry, a,, bochornoso. 

sum, cantidad, /., suma, /. 

suma, /., sum. 

sumamente, adv.y highly, 

sumergirse, 37, (en) v. intr. 
and refl., to become ab- 

sumergido, pp. and a., ab- 

suministrar, v, tr., to supply, 

summer, verano, tn.; — Re- 
sort, lugar veraniego, m.; 
pass the — , veranear. 

summit, cumbre, /., lo mas 
alto, n. 

sumo, a., greatest, highest. 

sun, sol, m.; in the — , al sol. 

sunbeam, rayo del sol, m. 

Sunday, domingo, m. 

sunlight, luz del sol, /. 

sunlit, pp. and a., asoleado. 

sunrise, salida del sol, /. 
sunset, puesta del sol, /. 
suntuoso, a.y rich, sumptuous, 
superar (a), v. intr., to sur- 
superb, a.y soberbio. 
superficie, /., surface, 
superior, a.y high, superior, 

very good, upper, better, 
supiese, from saber 14. 
suplicar, 30, v. tr.y to request, 

supo, from saber 14. 
suponer, la, v. tr.y to suppose, 
supply, abastecimiento, m.; 

V. tr.y suministrar, abastecer 

38, proporcionar, surtir. 
support, V. tr.y apoyar. 
suppose, V. tr.y suponer 12. 
supremo, a.y supreme, highest, 
supuesto, per — (que), of 

sur, m.y south, 
surcar, 30, v. tr.y to plow, 
sure, a.y seguro. 
surely, adv.y ciertamente, 

seguramente, si que -H- 

surface, superficie, /. 
surgidero, m.y roadstead, 

surgir, 37, v. intr.y to spurt, 

issue, shoot forth. 



surpass, v, tr., superar a, 

descoUar (24) a> ganar a, 

Uevar ventaja a> aventa- 

jar a. 
surprise, sorpresa, /.; v, tr,, 

sorprender, extranar; I. am 

surprised, me extrana, me 

surrender, rendicion, /.; v, tr,, 

rendir 29; v, intr.y rendirse 

surround, v, tr., rodear, cir- 

cundar, circuir 44. 
surtido, m,, stock, supply, 
surtidor, m., spout, jet. 
surtk, 45, V, tr, and intr., to 

supply;, to anchor, 
surto, pp. of surtir, anchored, 
suspicion, sospecha, /. 
sustento, m., sustenance, 

suyo, poss. a., his, her, its, 

their, your; el — , la suya, 

etc., poss, pron., his, hers, 

its, theirs, yours, 
swallow (up), V, tr.y tragar 32. 
swear, v. tr., jurar. 
sweet, a., dulce; — ^ly, adv., 

swiftly, adv., rapidamente, 

swim, V. intr., nadar. 
Swiss, a. and s., suizo. 

Switzerland, La Suiza. 

sword, espada, /., estoque, m. 

sympathize, v. intr., simpa- 
tizar 34. 

system, sistema, m.; account- 
ittg — y contabilidad, /., 
street car — , red de tran- 
vias; sewerage — , alcan- 
tarillado, m. 

tabacal, m., tobacco planta- 

tabaco, m., tobacco; — s, 

tabiaz6n, m., plank; — de 
embarque, gangplank. 

table, me^a, /.; — -4and, 
meseta, /., altiplanicie, /.; 
wine, vino de mesa, m. 

tailor, sastre, m, 

tajo, m., gorge. • 

take, V. tr., tomar, quedarse 
con; {motion to or from) Ue- 
var, conducir 18; aprove- 
char; — advantage of, 
aprovecharse de, valerse 
(20) de; — a stroll or walk, 
dar (4) un paseo, pasearse; 

— a turn, dar una vuelta; 

— a trip, hacer (8) un viaje; 

— away (from), qui tar (a), 
Uevar (a); — boat, tomar 



vapor, embarcarse (30); — 
care of ; cuidar; — dinner, 
tomar la comida, comer; 

— for a ride, llevar a paseo; 

— four days, faltar or 
tardar cuatro dias; — hold 
{pj jxre)y prender 45; — in, 
abarcar 30; — into account, 
tener (17) en cuenta; — on 
an increase, tomar incre- 
men to; — it into one's 
head, metersele en la cabeza 
a uno, antojarsele a uno; 

— leave of, despedirse (29) 
de; — out, sacar 30, extraer 
I9> — place, verificarse 30, 
tener lugar; — pleasure in, 
complacerse -(38) en; — 
shelter, albergarse 32; — 
up again, reanudar; have 
oneself taken, hacerse lle- 
var; how long does it — 
for you to reach?, ^cuanto 
tiempo tarda Vd. en llegar a ? 

tal, inief, a. and pron,, such, 
such a; so and so; — 
cual, this or that; — vez, 
adv.y perhaj)s; — cual, as; 
con — que, conj,, provided. 

talento, m., talent. 

talk, V, intr.y hablar; — with- 
out rhjrme or reason, hablar 
a tontas y a locas. 

tal6n, m., check, stub. 

taller, m., work-shop. 

tamafto, m., size; a,y so great, 

tamarindo, m., tamarind. 

tambalearse, v, refi.y to stum- 
ble about. 

tambi6n, adv,y also. 

tampoco, adv.y neither, nor; 
either {after a negative), 

tan, adv. so, as. 

tan, V. tr,, curtir, zurrar, 

tanda, /., section {part of a 
performance for which a 
separate ticket is bought). 

tandem, adv., en fila. 

tanner, curtidor, m. 

tannery, teneria, /. 

tanque, m.y tank. 

tanto, indef. a. and pron.y so 
much, as much; — s, so 
many; algiin — , somewhat; 
otro — , likewise; por lo — , 
therefore; mil y — s, thou- 
sand and one; tanto . . . 
como, both . . . and. 

tapioca,/., tapioca. 

Tarapac&, a province (also a 
city) of n*. Chile, consisting 
mostly of arid desert where 
are found deposited vast 
beds of nitrate of soda. 

tardanza, /., delay. 



tardar (en), v, intr., to delay 
(in), be long (at). 

tarde,'/., afternoon; buenas 
( — s), good afternoon, good 
evening; adv., late. 

tarea, /., task. 

tarifa, /., tariff. 

tariff, tarifa, /., impuesto, m, 

tarjeta, /., card. 

Tarragona, the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in n. e. Spain. It has a fine 
seaport. Population about 

tartana, /., tartana, a two- 
wheeled cart with a curving 

tasa, /., tax, rate. 

tasajo, m., jerked beef. 

task, tarea, /. 

taste, gusto, m.; to one's 
taste, a su gusto; — s differ, 
sobre gustos no hay nada 

tasty, a.y sabroso. 

tax, impuesto, m., tasa, /., 
derecho, m. 

taximetro, m., taxicab. 

taza, /., cup. 

te, m.y tea. 

te, pers, pron,, thee, you. 

tea, te, m.; Paraguay — , 
hierba mate, /. 

teach,,, ensenar. 

teacher, profesor-a, m. and/.; 
maestro-a, m, and f. 

team, {of hull-fighters) cua- 
drilla, /. 

tear down, v. tr,, derribar. 

teatral, a., theatrical. 

teatro, m., theater; the stage. 

Teatro Col6n, the chief opera 
house of Buenos Aires and 
one of the finest in the 

Teatro Espafiol, the home of 
high-class drama in Madrid; 
situated on the C^Ue del 
Principe, Madrid. 

Tejas, Texas. 

tejido, m., textile, cloth. 

tejo, m., quoit used in shuffle- 

telegrafia, /., telegraphy. 

telegrafiar, v. tr.y to telegraph. 

telegrama, m., telegram. 

telegraph, v. tr., telegrafiar. 

tell, V, tr,y decir 5; contar 24, 
referir 27; — one's fortune, 
decirle a uno la buenaven- 

temer, v. tr., to fear. 

temor (a), m., fear (of). 

temperament, temple, m. 

temperate, a., templado. 

temperatura, /., temperature. 



templado, a,y mild, temperate. 

temple, m., temperament. 

templo^ m,y temple. 

temprano, adv,y early. 

ten, from tener 17. 

tenazas, /. pl.y pincers. 

tender, v, tr.y to stretch out. 

tendero, m., shop-keeper. 

tendido, m., front seat in an 

tenedor de libros, nt., book- 

tener, 17, to have, possess, 
maintain; — afici6n a, to 
have a liking for; — cascos 
de calabaza, to be easily 
upset; — en cuenta, to take 
into account; — en un igual 
con, to consider as the equal 
of; — fama de, to be repu- 
ted as; — ganas (de), to be 
anxious, want; — hambre, 
to be hungry; — la ama- 
bilidad de, to be kind 
enough to; — la bondad de, 
(to) please, to have the 
kindness; — mucho ojo, 
to keep one's eyes open, be 
alert; — pcurentesco con, to 
be related to; — parte, to 
take part; — placer en, 
to take pleasure in; — per 
or como, to regard or con- 

sider as ; — preeente, to bear 
in mind; — prisa (para), to 
be in hurry; — que + in/., 
to have to -\-inf, ; — que ver 
(con), to have to do (with); 
— sed, to be thirsty; — 
sueilo, to be sleepy; — 
valor, to be brave; — ver- 
giienza de, to be ashamed 
to, to be bashful about; 
donde Yd. tiene su casa, 
where I shall be glad to 
have you call. 

teneria, /., tannery. 

tenga, from tener, 17. 

tennis, tennis, m. 

tenth, decimo, m. 

tefiir (i) 29, 42, v. tr,, to dye. 

teologfa,/., theology. 

tercero, a,, third. 

Teresa, /., Theresa. 

term, termino, m.; (of pay- 
ment) plazo de pago, m. 

terminaf, v. tr,, and intr, to 
end, finish. 

tSrmino, w., term, limit, 
bound; terminus. 

terminus, termino. 

terra firma {Latin) y tierra 
firme, /. 

terremoto, m., earthquake. 

terreno, m., land, tract, 



terrible, a,, terrible; a — 
scare, un susto mayusculo. 

territorio, m., territory. 

terrufio, m., soil, ground, land, 
— original, home soil. 

tertulia, /., circle of friends; a 
meeting of a circle of 
friends; party. 

tertuliano, m., member of a 
circle of friends. 

tesoro, m.y treasure. 

textile, tejido, m.; — mill, 
fabrica de tejidos. 

texto, m.y text. 

than, conj.y que, {before num- 
bers) de. 

thank, v. tr.y dar (4) las gracias 
a, agradecer (38) algo a 
uno; — heaven I, i gracias a 

thanks, gracias, /. pL; — very 
much, mil gracias. 

that, dem. a., ese, esa, etc.; 
aquel, aquella, efc; dem, 
pron.y ese, esa, etc., aquel, 
aquella, etc.; neut. forms, 
eso, aquello; that one, ese, 
aquel, {before de or que) 
el, la; — is, es decir; so 
that's it!, lesas tenemosl; 
rel.pron., que. 

the, def, art,, el, la, los, las; 
{of boats) el. 

theater, teatro, m.; moving- 
picture — , cinematografo 

or cme , w. 

theatrical, a,, teatral. 

their, poss. a., su; de ellos or 

them, pers, pron., ios, les, las; 
{after a prep.) ellos, ellas; 
— selves, reft,, sc; {after a 
prep,) si (mismos). 

then, adv., entonces, luego, 
despues; well — , pues bien. 

theology, teologia, /. 

Theotocopuli Dominico, £1 
Greco, (died 161 4), a pain- 
ter bom in Crete; went to 
Spain in 1577; painted 'The 
Burial of the Count of 
Orgaz", " The Disrobing of 
Christ", etc, 

there, adv,, alii, {with verb of 
motion) alia; — is, — are, 
hay, {when demonstrative) 
alii esta(n); — was, habia, 
hubo; — will be, h^bra. 

therefore, adv., por eso, por 
consiguiente, por lo tanto. 

Theresa, Teresa, /. 

thereupon, adv,, en esto. 

these, dem, a., estos, estas; 
dem, pron,, estos, estas. 

they, pers. pron., ellos, ellas; 
{before of or that) Ios, las. 



Thibet, Tibet, m. 
thick, a., gnieso, fuerte. 
thing, cosa, /.; little — , 

cosilla, /. 
think, pensar 23, creer 43; 

parecerle (38) a uno; — of, 

pensar en; — out, idear; 

what do you — about it? 

or what do you — of, ique 

le parece(n) ?, don't you — 

(so)?, ino le parece?, ^no 

cree Vd. asi? 
third, a., tercer(o). 
thirsty, to be — (for), tener 

(17) sed (de). 
thirty, treinta; — -odd, 

treinta y pico de. 
this, dem. a., este, esta; dem. 

pron.y este, esta, esto; — 

one, este, esta. 
thither, adv,, alia, 
thoroughly, adv.^ a fondo. 
those, dem. a,, esos, aquellos; 

dem. pron.y esos, aquellos. 
though, ron/., aunque, bien que. 
Iliousand, mil; miliar, m.\ 

— and one, mil y tantos. 
thread, hilo, m, 
three, tres. 

thrive, v. intr.y medrar. 
throne, trono, m. 
throng, tropel, m.; in a — , en 


through, prep.y por. 
throughout, prep.y por (todo). 
throw, V. tr.y arrojar, echar; 

— up, echar en alto, 
thus, adv.y asi. 

Tibet, Thibet, a country of 
central Asia, the highest in 
the world. 

ticket, billete, m. 

tie, (of a railway) travesia, /. 

tiempo, m., time, epoch; 
weather; tense; en — de, in 
the time of; en otro — y for- 
merly; con el — y in the 
course of time; de algtin — 
a esta parte, for some time 

tienda, /., shop, store. 

tiene, /rom tener 17. 

tierra, /., land, country; — de 
a 1 u V i 6 n, sediment; — 
firme, terra flrma, land; 

— muy adentro, far inland, 
tijeras, /. />/., scissors, shears. 
Tijuca, a mountain 3400 feet 

high and a forest n. of Rio 
de Janeiro; may be reached 
by trolley car. 

tildar, v. tr.y to brand, stigma- 

tilings, azulejos, m. pi. 

till, prep.y hasta. 

timbrado, pp. anda.y stamped. 



timbre^ tn., stamp. 

time, tiempo, m,, rato, m., 
vez, /. ; at the same — (that) 
al mismo tiempo (que), a la 
vez (que); at that — , por 
aquel entonces; of that — , 
de aquel entonces; some 
— , alguna vez; it is a long 
— since, hace mucho tiempo 
que; three — s a month, tres 
veces por mes; three — s 
as large as, tres veces mas 
grande que; what — is it?, 
I que hora es ?; at any — , en 
todos los tiempos; at — s, 
a veces;, for some — past, 
de algun tiempo a esta 
parte; from — to — , de 
vez en cuando; it is — that, 
ya es hora que {+subj.); 
have a good — , divertirse 
27, pasar un buen rato; 
spend a — , pasar un rato. 

timepiece, reloj, m, 

tin, estano, m. 

tintero, m., inkstand. 

tintorerfa, /., dye-works. 

tintorero, tn., dyer. 

tiny, a., diminuto. 

tfo, m., uncle. 

tip, propina, /.; as a — , de 

tfpico, a.y typical. 

tipo, m., type. 

tirar, r. tr,, to throw, shoot; 
'■ — de, to pull. 

tired (out), ^., cansado; dead 
— , muerto de cansancio, 
cansado a mas no poder. 

title, titulo, m, 

titubear, v. intr,, to waver, 

titular, V, tr,, to name, call. 

titulo, m., title. 

tiza, /., chalk. 

to, prep., a; para (before an 
inf. to show purpose and 
before a s. to show destina- 

tobacco, tabaco, m.; — farm, 
tabacal, m.; — shop, 
estanco, m. 

tobacconist, estanquero, m. 

tocador, m., boudoir. 

tocar, 30, V. tr. and intr., to 
touch, ring, play (of a mu- 
sical instrument); — ^le a 
uno, to fall to (the lot of) 
one; — a, to concern; — en, 
to stop at; por lo que a mi 
me toca, as for me, as far 
as I am concerned. 

todavia, adv., yet, still; — 
hoy, still today. 

today, adv.f hoy; of — , de 
hoy dia. 



todo, indef. a. and pron.y all, 
every, everything. 

Todos OS Santos (PorL)^ the 
bay upon which is situated 
Bahia, Brazil. 

together, a., junto; — with, 
prep., junto con. 

toldo, m., awning. 

toledano, a. and /., of or per- 
taining to Toledo. 

Toledo, the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in central Spain; a city of 
immemorial antiquity; pop- 
ulation about 23, OCX). 

tolerencia, /., toleration. 

tomar, v, tr., to take; — 
comida, to dine, to take 
dinner; — incremento, to 
take on an increase; — 
parte en, to take part in; 
— pasaje, to engage pas- 
sage; tome Vd., here you are. 

tomb, tumba, /., sarcofago, 
w., sepulcro, w. 

tomo, m., volume. 

tomorrow, adv., manana. 

tonelada, /., ton. 

tongue, lengua, /.; habla, /. 

tono, m., tone. 

tonto, a., foolish; a tontas y a 
locas, without rhyme or 

too, adv., (also) tambien> 
(degree) demasiado. 

tool, herramienta, /. 

top, lo mas alto, n., cumbre, 
/.; on — , por encima. 

tope, m., buffer. 

toquilla, /, bonnet, head- 
dress; grass used in making 
Panama hats. 

torear, v. tr., to fight (bulls). 

torero, m., bull-fighter. 

toro, m., bull; los — , bull- 

torre, /., tower. 

Torre del Oro, m., a duode- 
cagonal tower on the bank 
of the Guadalquivir, Se- 
ville, built 1220; the prin- 
cipal survival of the towers 
that surrounded the Alca- 
zar of Seville. Bears its 
name because of the gold- 
en color of its interior til- 

torrente, m., torrent. 

tortilla, /., omelet. 

Tortosa, a city of the province 
of Tarragona, n.e. Spain, on 
the Ebro river, 22 miles 
from the mouth; popula- 
tion about 25,000. 

tortuoso, a., winding. 

total, m., total, sum. 



touch, V. tr.y tocar 30; — at, 

(of boats) hacer (8) escala 

en, tocar en. 
touching, a.y conmovedor-a. 
tourist, turista, m. and f. 
toward, prep,, hacia. 
tower, torre, /.; Tower of 

Gold, Torre del Oro; v. 

intr., alzarse 34. 
town, poblaci5n, /., pueblo, 

w., ciudad, /.; — hall, 

ayuntamiento, m. 
trabajador-a, a., industrious; 

s. m., workman, 
trabajar, v. intr. and tr., to 

trabajo, m,, work, difficulty, 

trabar, v. tr., to join; — 

batalla con, to fight, 
track, via, /., rieles, m. pi. 
trade, oficio, m.; (commerce) 

comercio, m.; v. tr., trocar 

24, 30, cambiar. 
tradici6n, /., tradition, 
tradicionalista, a., traditional; 

traduccidn, /., translation, 
traducir, 18, v. tr., to trans- 
traduzca, from traducir 18. 
traer, 19, v. tr., to bring, carry; 

— arrastrado, to bore; — le 

a uno el agua a la boca, 
to make one's mouth water. 

tr&fico, m., traffic. 

traffic, transito de vehiculos, 
«:, trafico, m. 

tragar, 32, v. tr., to swallow. 

traiga, from traer 19. 

traigo, from traer 19. 

train, tren, m.; by — , per 
tren, por ferjocarril. 

traje, m., suit, garb. 

traje, /rom traer 19. 

tramar, v. tr., to plot, "hatch 

tramway, tranvfa, m. 

tranquilamente, adv., quietly, 

tranquilidad, /., quiet, peace. 

tranquilo, a., calm, tranquil. 

Transandean, a., transandino. 

transandino, a., Transandean. 

transatlantic, a., tra(n)sat- 
lantico; — steamer, trasat- 
lantico, m. 

transcurrir, v. intr., to pass by. 

transeunte, m. and f., passer- 
by, pedestrian. 

transfer, combinacion, /.; v. 
intr., trasladarse; v. tr., 
trasladar, remover 26. 

transferirse 27, (a), v. rejl., to 
change (to). 

transfix, v. tr., atravesar 23. 



tr&asito, m., transit. 

transmit, v. tr., transmitir. 

transmitir, v. tr., to trans- 
mit, hand down. 

transportaci6n, /., transporta- 

transportar, v. tr., to trans- 

transportation, transporte, m., 
transportacion, /. 

transporte, m., transporta- 

transversal, a., transversal, 

tranvfa, m., street car, trolley 
car, tramway. 

trappings, arreo, m. 

tras, pr^p., after. 

trasatl&ntico, a., transatlan- 
tic; s. m., transatlantic 

trasero, a., rear, back. 

trasladar, v. tr., to transfer; 
— se a, to remove to. 

traspuesto, pp. and a., trans- 
planted, transposed. 

tratado, m., treaty. 

tratar, v. tr., to treat, discuss, 
address, have dealings with; 
— de, to try; — se de, to 
be a question of; — se a 
cuerpo de rey, to live like a 

trato, m., usage, intercourse; 
— s comerciales, ways of 
doing business. 

travel, v. intr., via jar; — in, 
via jar en; — about, re- 
correr; — light, via jar con 
poco equipaje; — through, 
viajar por. 

traveler, viajero, m., pasa- 
jero, m.; commercial — , 
via j ante, m. 

traverse, r. tr., atravesar 23, 
recorrer, cruzar 34. 

travesfa, /., trip across. 

traviesa,/., tie {of railway). 

traza, /., aspect, appearance. 

trazar, 34, v. tr., to trace, 
draw, mark out, lay out. 

tread, v. tr., pisar. 

treasure, tesoro, m. 

treasury, hacienda, /. 

treaty, tratado, m. 

trecho, m., stretch, space, 

tremendo, a., tremendous, ter- 

tren, m., train; — de lujo, 
especially well equipped 
train; lal — !, all aboard 1 

trepar (por), v. intr., to climb 
up, ascend. 

tres, three. 

trescientos-as, three hundred. 



Triana, a suburb of Seville, 

across the Guadalquivir 

river. Inhabited mostly 

by gypsies and lower classes; 

a pottery center, 
tribu, /., tribe, 
tributary, afluente, w., tribu- 

tario, m. 
tributo, m,, tribute, 
trigal, m,, wheatfield. 
trigo, w., wheat, 
trip, viaje, m,; — across, tra- 

vesia, /.; return — , vuelta; 

/., round — , de ida y vuelta. 
triste, a.y sad. 
tristemente, adv., sadly. 
triza, /., particle, 
trocar (ue), 24, 30, v. tr.y to 

trade, exchange, 
trolley car, tranvia, m. 
trono, w., throne, 
troop, tropa, /. 
tropa, /., troop, 
tropel, w., crowd; en — , in a 

throng, in confusion, 
tropezar (ie), 23, 34, v, intr,, 

to stumble; — con, to come 

tropical, a., tropico. 
tr6pico, a. and s. m., tropic; 

trouble, molestia, /., estorbo, 

w,, inconveniente, w., tra- 

bajo, w.; v. tr.y molestar, 
estorbar, incomodar, acosar. 

trozo, m., selection, passage. 

truck, carro, m., camion, m.; 
— driver, carretero, w. 

true, a., verdadero; it is — y 
es verdad. 

truly, adv., verdaderamentc; 
yours (very) truly, atento 
y seguro servidor (Atto. y 
S. S.). 

trumpet, bocina, /. 

trunk, haul, m., cofre, m, 

trust, V. tr.y confiar 39. 

truth, verdad, /.; in — , en 

try, V. intr., tratar de, probar 
24, intentar; — hard, es- 
forzarse (24, 34) en. 

Tucumfin, a city and prov- 
ince of n. Argentina, popu- 
lation of former about 

tug, remolcador, m. 
tumba, /., tomb, 
tiinel, m., tunnel, 
tunny (fish), bonito, m. 
tupido, a., thick, luxuriant, 
turbar, v. tr., to disturb, 
turco, m.y Turk, 
ttu-ista, m. and f., tourist, 
turn (about), v. intr., vol verse 
26, girar; — out, resultar; 



— towards, dirigirse (37) 
hacia; v. tr:, — the cor- 
ner, doblar la esquina; s,, 
vuelta, /. 

tutela, /., tutelage, protection, 
tuve, from tener 17. 
tuviera or tuviese, from tener 

twelfth, a., duodecimo; in the 

— century, en el siglo XII 

twelve, doce. 

twentieth, a., vigesimo; — 

century, siglo XX (veinte). 
twenty, veinte. 
twice, dos veces; — as large 

as, dos veces mas grande 

two, dos; the — , ambos-as. 
typify, V. tr,, simbolizar 34. 
typist, mecanografo, m, 


u, conj.y or. Used for o before 

words beginning with uor hu. 
Ucayali, ?n., a tributary of the 

Amazon, flowing n. e. in e. 

lufl, interj.y whewl; denotes 

weariness or annoyance. 
iiltimo, a,, last, final, lowest. 
Ultramar, m., country or place 

beyond the sea. 

ultramarinos, m, pL, (fine) 
overseas products, espe- 
cially from Asia or the 

un, una, def.y art,, a, an; 
unos or unos cuantos, some, 
a few, several. 

unbelievable, a,, increible. 

uncle, tio, m, 

undeniable, a,, innegable. 

under, prep., bajo; (position) 
debajo de. 

understand, v. tr., en tender 
25, comprender. 

undertake, v. tr., empren- 

unending, a., inacabable, in- 

unendurable, a., inaguan- 

unexcelled, a., insuperable. 

unforgettable, a., inolvidable. 

ungrateful, a., desagradecido, 

unhealthful, a., de poca salu- 
bridad, malsano. 

unico, a., unique, sole, only. 

uni6n, /., union. 

unir, V. tr., to join, unite. 

United States, Estados Uni- 
dos, m. pi. 

universal, a., universal. 

universidad, /., university. 



Universidad Central, /., on 
San Bernardo Street, 
Madrid. The University 
at Alcala de Henares was 
removed to this place in 
1836 and received the 
present title. 

universo, m., universe. 

unknown, a.^ desconocido. 

unless, conj,y a menos que, a 
no ser que. 

unload, v, tr,y descargir 32. 

unpleasant, a,y feo, desa- 

unsurpassable, a., insupe- 

until, pup,, hasta; conj., hasta 

up, adv., arriba ; — hill or grade, 
cuesta arriba; — till now, 
hasta ahora; be — , estar 

upon, prep., sobre, en. 

upper, a., superior. 

upset, be easily — , tener (17) 
cascos de calabaza. 

upstairs, adv., arriba. 

upstream, adv., rio arriba. 

up-to-date, a., modemo; in 
the most — manner, a lo 
mas modemo. 

upward, adv., hacia arriba; 
hacia la cumbre. 

urbano, a., city-like, urban, 
city {as a.). 

urge, v. tr.y instar. 

Uruguay, £1, Uruguay; also 
a river separating that 
country from Argentina. 

uruguayo, a. and s., Uru- 

us, pers. pron., dir. and indir. 
obj., nos; {after a prep.) 

usage, uso, m. 

usar, v. tr., to use. 

use, s., uso, m.; v. tr., usar, 

used to, a., acostumbrado a; 
also often the sign of the 
imperfect tense. 

useful, a., util. 

useless, a., inutil. 

uso, m., use, usage. 

Uspallata, the best known 
pass over the Andes, 12,870 
feet high. Through it 
passes the Transandean 

usted, pers. pron., m. and /., 
you; abbreviated Vd., Ud., 

v., U. 

usual, a., consagrado. 
usually, adv., generalmente, 

usualmente, por lo general, 




utensilios, m., utensil, tool, 

titil, a.y useful. 

utilidiEid, /., utility, useful- 
ness; de — , useful. 

utiliziu:, 34, v, tr.y to utilize, 

utter, V. tr,y lanzar 34. 

wa, /., grape. 

va, from ir 9. 

vaca,/., cow. 

vacante, a., vacant. 

vacuno, a., bovine. 

vag6n, m.y coach, carriage. 

Valencia, the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in e. Spain; population 
about 2i5,ocx): Oriental in 
appearance, has an excel- 
lent harbor and is the cen- 
ter of the orange growing 
region of Spain. 

valenciano, a, and s,^ Valen- 

Valenzey, Valengay, a town 
of the department of Indre, 
France, where the Spanish 
royal family was held cap- 
tive by Napoleon from 1808 
to 1814. Here a treaty was 
signed in Dec, 181 3, in 

which, on certain condi- 
tions, Napoleon recognized 
Ferdinand VII as king of 

valer, 20, v. intr., to be worth, 
be valid or good; — le a uno^ 
to win for one; — la pena, to 
be worth while; — un senti- 
do, to be worth a great deal, . 
a fortune; — se de, to make 
use of. 

valiant, a,, campeador, va** 

valiente, a., brave, valiant. 

valise, maleta, /. 

valor, m.y value; bravery. 

Valparaiso, Chile, the chief 
city of w. coast of S. A.; 
population I50,cxx>; 3200 
miles from Panama. 

valuable, a., precioso. 

Valladolid, the capital of the 
province of the same name 
in n. e. Spain; population 
about 70,ocx). Capital of 
the Spanish empire till 
Philip II made Madrid the 
capital in 1560. 

valle, m., valby. 

▼imonos, from irse 9; let's go. 

van, galera, /. 

vanguardia, /., vanguard, 



vanidad, /., vanity, 
vano, a,, vain, 
vapor, fn., steamship, 
vaporcito, nt., dimin. of vapor, 
vara, /., pike, pole, 
variadisimo, a,, greatly varied, 
variado, a., varied, different, 
variar, 39, v. tr,, to vary, 
varied, a., variado. 
variedades, /. pL, variety 

show, vaudeville, 
variety, diversidad, /. 
varios, a,y various; pron. and 

a.y several. 
var6n, tn, male, 
vasallo, m., vassal, 
vascongado, a. and j., Basque, 
vascuence, a., Basque, 
vase, jarron, m, 
vassal, vasallo, m. 
vast, a,y vasto, inmenso, 

vastisimo, a.y very large, 
vasto, a,, vast, huge, 
vaya, from ir 9; que se — Vd. 

con Dios {to one leaving), 

Vd. see usted. 

vecino, w., neighbor, in- 
habitant; a., neighboring, 

vecindad, /., proximity, 
vecindario, m., population. 

vee, old form of ve from ver 

vega /., plain. 

Vega Carpio, Lope Felix de 
(1562-163 5), the greatest 
figure among Spanish dram- 
atists. He wrote more than 
15CX) plays and hundreds of 
autos sacramentales and 
entremeses.' Most of his 
plays belong to the two 
classes called "drama of 
cape and sword" (de capa 
y espada). 

vegetable, legumbre, /. 

vegetaci6n, /., vegetation. 

vegetal, a., vegetable. 

vegetar, v, intr,, to vegetate, 

vehiculo, m., vehicle. 

veinte, twenty. 

Velarde, Pedro, see Daoiz. 

Vel&zquez, Diego de Silva y 
( 1 599-1660), the head of 
the Spanish school of paint- 
ing and one of the greatest 
artists of all time. 

veleta, /., weather-vane. 

velocidad, /., speed, velocity; 
a toda — , at full speed. 

vencedor-a, «., victorious. 

veneer, 35, r. tr,, to conquer; 
{of bills) to fall due. 



vendedor, m., seller. 

vender, v. tr., to sell. 

Venecia, /., Venice. 

venerar, v, tr,, to reverence. 

venero, m., source, spring. 

venga, from venir, 21. 

Venice, Venecia, /. 

venir, 21, to come; — en 
conocimiento de, to find out 
about; — le a la memoria a 
uno, to come to one's mind; 
— +pres. part., to be + 
pres. part. 

venta, /., sale. 

ventaja, /., advantage. 

venta joso, a., advantageous. 

ventana, /., window. 

ventanillo, m., peep-hole. 

ventilador, wl, fan, ventila- 

veo, from ver 22. 

ver, 22, V. tr., to see; a — , let's 
see; ya se ve, it is evident; 
all& veremos, we shall see 
about that; no — la hora 
de, to be anxious to; — se 
precisado a, to be com- 
pelled to. 

veranear, v. intr., to pass the 

veraniego, a.y pertaining to 
the summer; lugar — , sum- 
mer resort. 

verano, w., summer. 

veras, de — , adv., really, in 

verbal, a., oral; containing a 

verbalmente, adv., orally, 
verbo, w., verb, 
verdad, /., truth; I — ?, ino 

es — ?, isn't it so?, etc.; 

en — , truly, really, 
verdaderamente, adv., truly, 

verdadero, a., true, real, 

verde, a., green, 
verificarse, 30, v. refl., to take 

place, come off. 
vergtienza, /., shame, bash* 

veritable, a., verdadero. 
vermicelli, fideos, m. pi. 
verosimil, a., likely, probable, 

vers&tU, a., versatile, 
versed (in), a.,entendido (en). 
versidn, /., translation, 
verso, m., verse, line of poet- 
ry- . 
verter (ie, i), 27, v. tr., to 

vertiente, /., slope, 
very, adv., muy; a., propio, 




Vespucci, Amerigo (1451- 
15 12), an Italian adventurer 
who claimed to have made 
four voyages to the New 
World and to have discov- 
ered the mainland of N. A. 
in 1497 before John Cabot. 
On his name Amerigo was 
based the word America, 
according to the theory of 
some scholars. 

vessel, buque, m., barco, m., 
navio, m., vapor, m,; pas- 
senger — , buque de pasa- 

▼estfbulo, m.y vestibule, hall. 

vestido, m., garment, dress. 

vestir(se) (i), 29, v. intr, and 
refl.y to dfess, clothe. 

vestuario, m., dress, apparel. 

vete, from irse 9. 

veterano, a. and s., veteran. 

vez, /., time; a la — , at the 
same time; a la — que, 
conj., while; a veces, adv., 
at times, sometimes; cada 
— mfts, steadily, con- 
stantly; de — en cuando, 
from time to time, oc- 
casionally; muchas veces, 
often; otra — , again; tal 
— , perhaps. 

vi, from ver 22. 

via, /., way, track, road, road- 
bed; — f^rrea, railway; 
en — de, in process of; per 
— de, via, by way of. 

viajante, m., traveling sales- 
man; a., traveling. 

viajar, v. intr.y to travel. 

▼iaje, m.y trip, voyage; — per 
mar, sea voyage; ifeliz — !, 
pleasant journey I 

viajero, w., traveler. 

viceroy, virrey, m. 

viceroy ship, virreinato,m. 

vicio, w., vice. 

victoria, /., victory. 

Victoria, Queen of Spain 
(1887-), consort of Alphon- 
so XIII to whom she was 
married May 31, 1906. She 
is the first cousin of King 
George V of England and 
was the Princess Eugenia 
£na of Battenberg. 

Vicufla Subercaseaux, Benja- 
min (1876-), a Chilean 
writer; wrote ." La ciudad 
de las ciudades'', 1905; 
" Gobemantes y literatos", 
1907; " Un pais nuevo", 

vida, /., life, living. 

vidrio, m., glass. 

viejo, a.y old. 



viento, m,, wind; — s alisios, 

viere, from ver 22. 
view, vista, /., panorama, w. 
vigente, a,y in force, valid, 
vigoroso, a.y vigorous, forceful, 
villa, /., city; — y corte, a 

term used only of Madrid, 

the capital city, 
village, aldea, /.; small — , 

aldehuela, /. 
vine, from venir 21. 
vineyard, vinedo, w., vina, /. 
viniese, from vjenir 21/ 
vino, w., wine; — bautizado, 

diluted wine;. — de mesa, 

table wine; — tinto, red 

vifla, /., vineyard, 
viliador) w., wine-grower, 
viiiedo, m., vineyard, 
virgen, /., virgin, 
virtud, /., virtue, 
visit, V. tr.f visitar; j., visita, /. 
visita, /., visit, 
visitante, m., andf., visitor, 
visitar, v. tr., visit, 
visitor, visitante, w. and f. 
vislumbrar, v. tr., to perceive, 

catch sight of. 
vista, /., sight, view, gaze; 

a la — , at sight; hasta la 

— , till we meet again. 

visto, pp. of ver 22 ; por lo — ^ 

vistoso, a.y showy, conspicu- 

vitalidad, /., vitality. 

Vivar, a small village about 
six miles n. of Burgos; the 
birthplace of the Cid. 

vivir, V. intr,y to live; Iviva(n)!, 
long live!, hail to! 

vivfsimo, a. , very keen or lively. 

vivo, a.y bright, gay, lively. 

vizcacha, /., viscacha or Peru- 
vian hare. It lives in towns 
on the Argentine plains in a 
manner similar to the prairie 
dog of North America. 

vocal, /., vowel. 

voice, voz, /. 

volar (ue), 24, v. intr., to fly, 
to hurry. 

volc6n, m., volcano. 

volume, tomo, m. 

voluntad,/., will; de buena — f 
gladly, willingly. 

volunteer, r. intr.f ofrecerse 
(38) para. 

volver (ue), 26, v. intr,, to re- 
turn, turn; — a + inf., to 
do again the act of the inf.; 
— en si, to regain con- 
sciousness; — se, to turn 
around; to become. 



yotaci6n| /., vote, voting. 

vote, votacion, /.; v, intr.y 

vote, votacion, /.; v. intr., 

vowel, vocal, /. 

voy, from ir 9. 

voyage, viaje, m. 

voz, /., voice; corre la — , the 
report goes; en — alta, 
aloud; a voces Uenas, 

vuelta, /., turn, return, revo- 
lution, return trip; de — , 
in change; de — a, back in. 

vuelto, pp, of volver, 26, 45. 

vying with each other in 
height, a cuales mas altos- 


wage war on, hacer (8) or 
armar la guerra a. 

wagon, galera, /. 

waiter, camerero, w., mozo, m. 

walk, V. intr.y caminar, ir (9) 
a pie; — about, pasearse, 
dar vueltas; take a — , 
dar (4) un paseo, dar una 
vuelta, pasearse; J-., paseo, w. 

wall, (outer) muralla, /., (in- 
ner) pared,/. 

want, V. tr., querer 13, desear, 
tener (17) ganas de. 

war, guerra, /.; — ship, buque 
de guerra, m, 

ward, barrio, m. 

warehouse, almacen, m. 

warm, a., caluroso; it is — j 
hace calor; become — er 
(of the weather)^ hacer (8) 
mas calor. 

wash, V, tr,y lavar. 

waste, V. tr., gastar. 

watch, V. tr., observar, mirar, 
(lurk in hiding) acechar; 
— out I, Icuidado!; j., reloj 
(de bolsillo), m. 

watchmaker, relojero, m, 

water, agua, /.; — ^fall, cas- 
cada, /., — front, barrio 
marinero, m.; — wheel, 
noria, /. 

wave, V. tr., agitar, menear; 
s., ola, /. 

waver, v, intr., titubear. 

way, manera, /., modo, w., 
camino, w.; — of living, 
manera de vivir; — s of 
doing business, tratos co- 
merciales; by — of, en 
ademan de; in a -^, de una 
manera; in a ta^& — , a 
mara villas; in such a — , 
de tai manera; on the — to, 
en camino para; camino 
de; one way, (of tickets) 



sencillo; that's the way 
with me about soy asi para. 

we, pers. pron., nosotros-as. 

wealth, riqueza, /. 

wealthy, a., adinerado, rico. 

weapon, arma, /. 

wear, v. tr.y llevar (puesto). 

weary, a., cansado. 

weather, tiempo, m,; — vane, 
veleta, /., giraldilio, m, 

week, semana, /., ocho dias, 
w. pi.; a — , por semana; 
two — s, quince dias, m. pi. 
quincena, /.; two — s in 
advance, por quincenas ade- 

weekly, a., semanal. 

weigh, V. tr.y pesar. 

welcome!, I sea(n) bienveni- 

welfare, bien, m, 

well, adv., bien; (as expletive) 
pues; — then, pues bien; 
as — as, tanto . . . como, 
asi . . . como; be — , (suit- 
able) convenir 21, ser (16) 
bueno, (in health) estar (6) 
bien de salud, estar en caja; 
to-do, a., pudiente. 

well-being, bienestar, m. 

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 
first Duke of (1769- 185 2), 
great English general who 

won victory for the English 
in the Peninsular war and 
later with Blucher defeated 
Napoleon at Waterloo. 

were you not, Ino es verdad? 

west, oeste, m.; (street num* 
bers) al oeste. 

western^ a.y del oeste, occi- 

wet, a., mojado. 

what, rel. pron., (that zohich) 
lo que; interr. pron., ique?, 
icual?; and — of that?, y 
i que ? 

whatl, icomo!, I que I; what a 
large room!, I que cuarto 
mas (or tan) grande! 

whatever, indef. pron.y or a.^ 

wheat, trigo, tn.; — field, 
trigal, in. 

wheel, rueda, /. 

when, rel., adv. and conj., 
cuando; — very young, 
cuando muy nino; interr, 
adv., ^cuando? 

whence, rel. adv., de donde. 

whenever, conj., cuando 
quiera que. 

where, rel. adv., donde; interr., 
i donde?; (place in which) 
I en donde?; (place towards 
which) ia donde? 



whether, conj,^ si; {after 

dudar) que. 
which, reL pron., que, el que, 

etCf el cual, etc.; reL a., 

while, s,y rato, m.; conj., 

mientras (que), a parte que, 

a la vez que. • 
whistle, silbido, m.; r. intr., 

white, a., bianco, 
who, reL pron., que, quien, el 

que, etc», el cual, etc.; 

interr,, £ quien? 
whole, a., entero, completo, 

wholesale, at — , al por 

whom, reL pron,, a quien, que, 

al que, etc,, al cual, etc,; 

interr,, ia quien? 
whose, reL pron,, de quien, 

cuyo; interr,, ide quien?, 

why?, interr. ipor que? 
wide, a., ancho; {in width) de 

width, latitud, /.; in — , de 

ancho, de anchura. 
wife, senora, /., mujer, /. 
wig, peluca, /., big — , pelu- 

c6n, m. 
wild, a., silvestre. 

will, gana, /./ — you? 

{before or after a requert), 

I me hace Vd. el favor? 
willing, be — , querer 13. 
willingly, adv. de buen grado, 

de buena voluntad, de buena 

gana, gustosamente; most 

— , de mil amores. 
win, V, ir., conseguir 29, 33, 

ganar; — for one, valerle 

(20) a uno. 
wind, viento, m,; trade s, 

vientos alisios. 
winding, a., tortuoso. 
windmill, molino de viento, m, 
window, ventana, /.; show — , 

escaparate, m. 
wine, vino, m.; — grower, 

vinador, m. 
winter, inviemo, m, 
wireless, a., inalambrico, sin 

wise, a., sabio. 
wish, V. tr., querer 13, desear 

as you — , como Vd. quiera 
wit, sal, /., ingenio, m. 
with, prep., con, de. 
withdraw, v. intr., retirarse. 
within, prep,, dentro de. 
without, prep., sin. 
witness, v. tr.^ presenciar. 
witty, a., ingenioso, salado. 
woman, mujer, /. 



wonder, no — , no es de 

maravillarse (de que with 
clause) . 

wonderful, a.y maravilloso, 
milagrosOy asombroso; — ^ly, 
adv,y a (las mil) maravillas. 

wont, be — , soler 26. 

wood, madera, /., palo m.; 
— ^8, bosque, w. 

wool, lana, /.; bearing, a., 


word, palabra, /., voz, /. 

work, trabajo, m., obra, /.; 
V, intr,, trabajar, funcionar; 
V. tr,, labrar, explotar. 

workman, obrero, m., traba- 
jador, m. 

world, mundo, m.; New — , 

Nuevo Mundo; wide, 

a., mundial. 

worry (about), v, intr.y apu- 
rarse (por); tener (17) 
cuidado de; don't — about 
that, pierda Vd. cuidado de 
eso, no se apure Vd. por eso. 

worth, valor, m., preciosidad, 
/., merito, m.; be — , v.intr., 
valer 20; be — a fortune, 
valer un sentido; be — 
while, valer la pena, mere- 
cer 38; make — while, 
hacer que valga(n) la pena. 

worthy, a.y digno. 

would, usually the sign of the 
cond.; if indicative of past 
willingness use imperf. of 
querer; — that!, lojalal 

wound, p. tr.y herir 27. 

wrap up, V, tr.y envolver 26. 

write, V, tr., escribir 45. 

writing, in — , por escrito. 


Ximena, Jimena, /. 


y, conj,, and. 

ya, adv,y already, indeed, now; 
: — que, conj.y since (causal), 
now that; — sea, conj.y 
either; — se ve, it is evi- 

yacer, v. intr.y to lie. 

yacimiento, m., bed, deposit 
(of mineral). 

Yankee, a. and s.y yanqui. 

yanqui, a. and s.y Yankee; per- 
taining to or of the United 
States; not restricted to 
New England. 

year, aiio, m.; all — y todo el 
afio; last — , el afio pasado; 
— s ago, hace anos; — s and 
— s, anos tras anos. 

yellow, a., amarillo. 

yellowish, a.y amarillento. 



yermo, a.y barren, waste, 
yes, adv.f si; — indeed + 

clause, SI que-^- clause. 
yeso, m.y plaster, 
yesterday, adv., ayer. 
yield, v. tr., ceder. 
yo, pets* pron.f I; — que Vd., 

if I were you. 
yonder, adv., alia; that — , 

detn, a. or pron,, aquel or 

you, pers. pron,, (subject) 

US ted (abbreviated Vd.), 

ustedes (Vds.); (dir. obj.) le 

or lo; la; (indir. obj.) le; 

(familiar forms) tu, voso- 

tros; (dir. and indir. obj.) 

te; (prep, forms) same as 

subject forms except ti. 
young, a.y joven; very — , 
• muynino; — man, joven, w. 
your, poss. a., (before the noun'. 

polite) su; (familiar) tu; 

(after the noun*, polite) suyo; 

(familiar) tuyo. 
yours, poss. pron., de Vd.(s); 

el suyo, la suya, etc.; — 
' truly, atento(s) y seguro(s) 

servidor(es), abbreviated to 

Atto(s). y S. S. 
yourself, pers. pron. refl., se; 

intensive, mismo; for — , 

por si mismo. 

youth, joven, m. andf, 
yunque, m., anvil. 

zanahoria, /., carrot. 

zapatero, m., shoemaker. 

zapatilla, /., slipper. 

zapato, m.y shoe. 

Zaragoza, /., Saragossa, the 
capital of the province of 
the same name in n. e. 
Spain; population about 

zarpar, v. intr., weigh anchor. 

zarzuela, /., musical comedy. 

zeta, the name of the let- 
ter z. 

zona, /., zone. 

Zorrilla y Moral, Jose (1817- 
1893), a Spanish dramatist 
and poet, best known for 
his "Don Juan Tenorio". 

Zuloaga, Ignacio (1870- ), the 
Spanish painter whose work 
is based on the national 
tradition of Velazquez, 
Zurbaran and El Greco. 

Zurbarfin, Francisco (1598- 
1662), a Spanish painter 
who has been called "the 
Spanish Caravaggio" ow- 
ing to his realistic style. 

zturar, v. tr., to tan leather.