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THE OXFORD SPANISH SERIES 

EDITED BY 

JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, F.B.A. 

CERVANTES PROFESSOR OF SPANISH IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 



AN 

ELEMENTARY 

SPANISH GRAMMAR 



BY 



B. SANIN CANO 




L^S'^i 



^* 



itTm. 



O X f O R D 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1918 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



PREFACE 

The author of this grammar has endeavoured to follow 
the recommendations made by the Joint Committee on 
Grammatical Terminology so far as those recommenda- 
tions are applicable to the structure of the Spanish 
language. The scheme put forward by the Joint Com- 
mittee does not specially envisage the terminology of 
Spanish grammar. The Spanish conjugation has impor- 
tant peculiarities which, perhaps, call for the adoption oi 
a special nomenclature for certain tenses of the subjunctive 
mood (and even of the indicative). Yet, as the anarchy in 
Spanish is, in this respect, even greater than in English 
or French, the author has deemed it advisable to adopt 
the recommendations of the Joint Committee for the sake 
of uniformity and simplicity. Though not beyond criticism, 
they tend on the w^hole to diminish the confusion wrought 
in the minds of all students by the lack of a uniform 
terminology. 

In spite of the fact that the use of the term Direct Object 
is not recommended by the Joint Committee, the author 
has found himself compelled to employ it in order to avoid 
misunderstanding : this misunderstanding might arise 
from the fact that the term Indirect Object is included 
among the recommendations, and is used in the present 
work. The term Future in the Past has been adopted for 
uniformity's sake. It is well, however, to state at this 
point that the term does not cover every shade of meaning 
which this tense may convey in Spanish : it has at any 

42i)74b 



iv PREFACE 

rate the advantage of resembling the term used ,to 
designate this tense in Spanish America ; that designation 
is supported by the authority of Andres Belio, whose 
methods and principles have been followed by the author 
whenever it was possible, due regard being had to the 
new aspects of the language and to the results of recent 
investigation. Care has been taken to conform to recog- 
nized usage, even when that usage appears to be at 
variance with traditional rules. 

In the matter of accentuation, the latest rules issued by 
the Spanish Academy have been consistently followed, 
even in cases where the Dictionar^^ of that learned body 
is not in accord with those rules. 

The author desires to express his indebtedness to the 
general editor. Professor Fitzmaurice- Kelly has given 
invaluable help by making many useful suggestions and in 
reading the proofs. 

B. SANIN CANO. 

London, October 1918. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

I. Pronunciation: 

The Alphabet ....... i 

Vowels I 

Consonants 2 

Accentuation .6 

Division of Syllables 9 

II. The Article . . . . . . . . 10 

III. Nouns . .13 

IV. Nouns {continued) : 

Number . . . . . . . .18 

V. The Adjective .22 

Position of the Adjective 23 

Hablar, to speak. First Conjugation ... 25 

VI. The Adjective (continued) . . . . . 27 
Hablar, to speak. First Conjugation . . 29 
Feminine Endings of Nouns . . . .31 

VII. Pronouns : 

Personal Pronouns . . . . , -32 

Possessive Adjectives 35 

Possessive Pronouns ••.... 35 
Hablar, to speak. First Conjugation . . 37 

VIII. Auxiliary Verbs . . . . . . .40 

^Conjugation of Haber, to have . . . .40 

>s The Verb Ser, /o ^^ . . . ... 42 

IX. Regular Verbs: 

-\ Conjugation of Hablar, to speak ... 45 

\ Aprender, to learn. Second Conjugation . 46 

Numerals .' 48 

Recibir, to receive. Third Conjugation . . 51 

The Tenses of the Indicative Mood ... 52 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

X. The Adjective : 

Degrees of Comparison . . . . .58 

Demonstrative Adjectives .... 59 

Reflexive Pronouns 60 

The Superlative 63 

j^^^^onjugation of Estar, to be, to stay, to remain 64 

Neuter Gender 69 

XI. Relative Pronouns 71 

,J^^Conjugation of Tener, to have, to hold . . 73 

XII. Relative Pronouns (continued) .... 77 

Conjugation of Decir, to say, to tell (irregular) 79 

\^ Spanish Forms of Address .... 80 

XIII. The Tenses of the Subjunctive Mood . . 85 

Conjugation of Querer, to want, to wish, to 

love, to be fond of (irregular) ... 91 

XIV. Impersonal Verbs 96 

Conjugation of Saber, to know (irregular) . 98 

XV. Examples of the Spanish Use of the Sub- 
junctive Mood in its Various Forms com- 
pared with the Indicative .... 104 

XVI. Ordinal Numbers and Indeterminate Pronouns i 14 
Indeterminate Pronouns and Adjectives , .118 

XVII. Augmentatives and Diminutives — Prefixes and 

Suffixes—Letter-writing .... 127 

Prefixes - 131 

Suffixes ....*.... 133 

Letter-writing . 136 

XVIII. Adverbs J . 141 

XIX. Prepositions 154 

Conjugation of Ir, to go , . . . . 162 

XX. Prepositions {continued) 167 

Conjugation of Venir, to come . . • 174 

XXI. Conjunctions 179 

Conjugation of Poner, to put, to lay (irregular) 184 



CONTENTS vii 

PAGE 

XXII. Syntax of the Noun, Verb, and Adjective . 189 

Conjugation of Caer, /o /a// (irregular) . 197 

XXI II. Verbals (Derivados verbales) .... 202 

Conjugation of Caber, to be contained in 

(irregular) 210 

XXIV. Present Participle and Gerund . . . 215 

XXV. The Past Participle and Passive Voice . 225 
Conjugation of Traer, to bring to, to carry to 

(irregular) 236 

XXVI. The Place of the Object Pronouns in the 

Sentence— The Article— Interjections . 241 

The Use of the Definite Article . . . 242 

Interjections 249 

V^Conjugation of Hacer, to make (irregular) . 251 
^ Conjugation of Andar, to go, to walk 

(irregular) . . . . . . . 251 

Conjugation of Oir, /o /j^ar .... 252 

Conjugation of Ver, /o s^6? .... 252 

Conjugation of Dar, to give .... 253 

XXVII. Word Order 257 

Conjugation of Poder, to be able (irregular) . 266 

XXVIII. Appendix: The Verb . . , . . 273 

XXIX. List of the Principal Irregular, Anoma- 
lous, and Defective Verbs .... 289 

SPANISH VOCABULARY .297 

ENGLISH VOCABULARY . . . . . .322 







I 

PRONUNCIATION 

THE ALPHABET 

1. — There are thirty different signs in the Spanish 
alphabet : a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, 1, 11, m, n, n, o, 
p, q, r, rr, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.^ Their names in 
Spanish are : a, be, ce, che, de, e, efe, ge, hache, i, jota, 
ka, ele, elle, erne, ene, efie, o, pe, cu, ere, erre, ese, te, 
u, ve, ve doble (or doble u), equis, ye (or i griega), zeta. 

Vowels. 

2. — The Spanish alphabet has only live vowel sounds, 
corresponding to the letters a, e, i, o, u. The letter y at 
the end of a word, or when it makes a word by itself, 
represents the vowel sound of Spanish i. There is only 
one sound for every Spanish vowel. The accent or stress, 
and sometimes the number of consonants following, may 
make the sound longer, but Spanish prosody does not 
take these variations into account, and the five signs may 
be regarded as corresponding to five different and in- 
variable sounds. They are pronounced as follows : a like 
a in far ; e like e in debtor; i like t in litany ; o like in 
border ; u like u in bull. 

^ The Spanish Academy assigns only twenty-eight letters to the alpha- 
bet : w and rrare excluded {Gramdtica Castellana, Madrid, 1913, p. 7). Yet 
the same authority (p. 324), when classifying the consonants according 
to the old system, places the y, r, and rr under the heading of palatals. 
And further on (p. 376) the Academy says : ^ ch and 11, letters which are 
single in their pronunciation and double in their representative signs, 
must never be divided. . . . The rr is in the same case.' 



2 PRONUNCIATION 

i3.— The vowel sounds in Spanish are either strong 
(llenas), a, e, o, or weak (debiles), i, u. This classification 
should be kept in mind in order to determine whether two 
or three contiguous vowels form a diphthong or triphthong 
or not. 

a. Two strong vowels do not form a diphthong : canoa 
has three syllables ; leo and trae have two. A strong and 
a weak vowel form a diphthong only when the stress does 
not fall on the weak vowel : bien has one syllable ; 
Europa has three. A combination of a strong with a weak 
sound, bearing the stress on the weak vowel, forms two 
syllables : baul has two syllables, oido three. Two weak 
vowels can form a diphthong, but in some cases they 
make two different syllables ; ruin has one syllable ; fuf 
sounds like a diphthong ; but ruido has three syllables, 
according to its Latin derivation (rugitus) and to the 
general usage of Spanish poets. 

b. Three vowels (two of them necessarily weak) form 
a triphthong if the intermediate one is strong and the 
stress falls on it. Ansiais has two syllables ; buey has 
one. 

Consonants, 

4. — There is a substantial difference between Spanish 
and English in the pronunciation of the vowels and con- 
sonants. In Spanish the vowels are pronounced very 
distinctly and without shades, except the stress of the 
accented syllable. In English the variety of shades in the 
pronunciation of vowels is so great that a foreigner is apt 
to think they are pronounced rather indistinctly. The 
consonants are in Spanish softer as a rule, and are not 
sounded very distinctly, while in English they are sounded 
clearly and with a certain stress. 

5. — The following consonants have more or less the 
same value in the two languages, save that they are 
sounded less emphatically in Spanish : 



PRONUNCIATION 



barco, bronce. 
carta, cruento, 
cura, 

ancho. 
dedo, sed.^ 
frio, fuego. 
Kabila, 
ley, lobo, sal. 
amor, mas. 
antes, nada, no. 
copo, paso, por. 



b softer than in English 

c strong before a, o, u or before an- 
other consonant, like the c in cat 
and crop 

ch like English ch in charm 

d softer than in English 

f 

k 
1 

m 
n 

p softer than in English 

6. — In Spanish the following consonants have not the 
same sounds as in English : 

c before e or i \ cerca, cielo. 

z before all I like English th in hazte, lazo, zo- 

vowels or f thin ly^a, 

consonants y 

a. In Mexico, and in Central and South America, c before 
e and i, and z before all vowels or consonants, are pro- 
nounced like s. 

7. — h is mute in Spanish hacha, hilo. 

g before e or i. This is a peculiar gente, gitano. 
Spanish sound, very strongly gut- 
tural, resembling the Scotch ch in 
loch 

j before all vowels is pronounced like crujir, jamas, 
the foregoing g joven. 



g before a, o, u and before a con- augur, ganso, 
sonant sounds like English g in gloria, grano, 
garter lago. 

^ In some parts of Spain and Spanish America there is a tendency to 
drop the final d and say uste instead of listed. The termination -ado of 
the past participle is pronounced sometimes as -ao, e.g. alabao instead of 
alabado. The practice should not be encouraged. The Spaniards of 
Madrid say improperly Madriz, ustez, instead of Madrid, usted. 

B 2 



PRONUNCIATION 



gue, gui sound like English gu in amiguito, guerra. 

guild 
In giie, giii the three sounds g, u, and aguero, yeguita. 

e (or i) are pronounced distinctly 

a. In order to keep before e and i the hard sound 
of c or g in forms derived from words having either 
of these sounds in the last syllable before a or o, qu 
is substituted for c, and gu for g : sacar, to draw, 
saque, I drew; saco, bag, saquito, a small bag; 
llegar, to arrive, llegue, I arrived ; algo, something, 
alguito, a little. This rule must be borne in mind in 
the conjugation of verbs ending in car or gar and 
in the formation of derivatives. 



8. — 11. This is a peculiar Spanish 
sound similar to the English // in 
brilliant or to the Italian gli in 
scoglio 

fi sounds like the English combination 
of n and e in news 

que, qui. In Spanish this combina- 
tion is sounded like ke, ki in 
English 

r at the beginning of a word or after a 
consonant in the middle of a word 
has a strongly trilled sound, which 
does not exist in English pronun- 
ciation 

r between two vowels, between a vowel 
and a consonant, or at the end of 
a word has a softer sound, as in 
the English word round 

rr occurs only between two vowels 
and sounds like the initial r 

s has always the sound of the initial 
English 5 in soft. In Old Spanish 



brillante. 



cana, canon, se- 

nuelo. 
queso, aqui. 



cobre, drama, 
enredo, is- 
raelita, rata. 



cara, carta, ir. 



carro, correr, 
tierra. 
asi, 030, rosa. 



PRONUNCIATION 



(before the seventeenth century) 
the s had probably two sounds as 
in French and Italian, but now 
only one is used 

t is pronounced almost like the English 
/ in tellf but is not so markedly 
explosive as in English 

V There was a difference in the pro- 
nunciation of b and v in Spanish 
before the sixteenth century, but 
since then usage has been uncer- 
tain. At present the two letters 
are pronounced alike both in 
Spain and Spanish America. To 
pronounce the Spanish v like the 
French or Italian v is an affecta- 
tion 

w is sounded like th% English w in 
Spanish words of English origin 
and like the German w in the 
Gothic names retained in Spa- 
nish. The Gothic names may 
also be spelt with a v 

X is a double sound as in English : 
between two vowels it is the equi- 
valent of ks ; before a consonant 
it can be represented as gs 

y as a consonant between two vowels 
or at the beginning of a word 
sounds like the English y in you, 
but is more emphatically pro- 
nounced 



antes, bota, tie, 
toma. 

hervir, uva, vaca, 
vino. 



Wamba or Vam- 
ba. 



examen (eksa- 
men), texto. 



Mayo, ya, yeso. 



9. — Double consonants occur rarely in Spanish. The 
rr is not, properly speaking, a double consonant : it has 
the value of a single sound. The only consonants now 



6 PRONUNCIATION 

doubled are c and n. Double c occurs only before e or i, 
the first sign being sounded k and the second th (as th in 
thin): acci6n (akthion); acceder. Double n must be 
pronounced so as to make the two letters sound distinctl}^ 
and separately : innocuo (in — n). The double s is used 
only in two Spanish words: oessudoeste or uessudueste. 
In these cases the two s's of the double sign are pro- 
nounced distinctly and separately. 

10. — There are some differences between the pronunciation 
Spanish in Spain and in Spanish America : they are not of 
great importance and any foreigner able to understand Spanish 
as it is spoken in Spain will also understand the Spanish of 
America. We have already mentioned the pronunciation of ce, 
ci, and z in America. The 11 sounds like the consonant y in 
some Spanish provinces and in some parts of Spanish America, 
and in some parts of the same continent Hover, instead of being 
pronounced gliover, giving to 11 the sound of the Italian gli 
before a vowel, sounds more Hke chover. This, of course, is 
incorrect, and people who know the language never pronounce 
the 11 like oh. 

The dropping of the d at the end of words is also an in- 
correct practice which is followed in some parts of Spain and 
of Spanish America. The correct pronunciation, though, is not 
regarded as an affectation. 

Accentuation. 

11. — In order to avoid difficulties as to the pronunciation 
of words with regard to the syllable bearing the stress, 
Spanish writers have adopted of late a system of accen- 
tuation now generally followed in all Spanish-speaking 
countries. 

Words having the stress on the syllable before the last 
and ending in a vowel or in n or s, and words ending in 
a consonant (except n or s) and having the stresis on the 
last syllable, do not require the graphic accent : caballo, 
casa, crimen, crisis, elefante. Muni, tribu, abril, Haba- 
cue, ciudad, feroz, reloj, zigzag. 



PRONUNCIATION 7 

12. — Words not included in the above rule bear the 
graphic accent, e.g. alii, anis, drbol, canape, capitdn, 
cardcter, dejesemele, digotelo, Idmpara, murcielago, 
Paisandu, patatus. 

a. Monosyllables (except certain verbal forms) do not 
require the graphic accent : pie, bien, Dios. 

13. — Words having the stress on the last syllable and 
ending in two vowels followed or not by a consonant must 
have the graphic accent when the stress falls on a weak 
vowel : Bails, laud, oir, pais, raiz, Raul. 

14. — Words having the stress on the syllable before the 
last and ending in two vowels, followed or not by n or s, 
must have the accent marked on the weak vowel when 
this vowel bears the stress : duo, Elias, frio, insiniian, 
mercancia, pedian, podias. 

15. — Words containing a stressed weak vowel followed 
by a diphthong and the letter s have the accent indicated 
on the stressed weak vowel : these words are generally 
verbal forms : serials, subiriais. When the stress falls 
on the strong vowel, in words of this form, they have also 
the graphic accent, according to the general rule : auxi- 
liais, cambiais, insinueis. 

16. — When there is a diphthong in the syllable which, 
according to the rules, should have the accent marked, 
this mark is put on the strong vowel or on the second 
weak vowel, if both are weak : alzapie, benjui, cienaga, 
despues, dueleme, Fabidn, fraguo, oracidn. 

17. — The monosyllabic verbal forms containing a diph- 
thong have the graphic accent : fio (he trusted), fie (I 
trusted), lie (I tied), fue (he was), dio (he gave), vi6 (he 
saw), fui (I was). It is to be noted that the first three 
words if not marked with the accent might be pronounced 
differently and so give rise to confusion : fio (I trust), fie 
(let him trust), lie (let him tie). 

18. — Words of identical form are sometimes distin- 
guished from one another by the use of the graphic 
accent: 



8 PRONUNCIATION 

de, pref>osition (of) de, he give (subjunctive) 

el, article (the) el, pronoun (he) 

mas, but m4s, more 

mi, my mi, me 

se, pronoun se, I know, be thou 

si, if si, yes, himself etc. 

tu, thy tu, thou. 

a. Some writers distinguish te (tea) and te (thee). But 
the Academy in its Dictionary does not accentuate either 
word graphically. 

b, — Aun is accentuated (aun) when it comes after the 
verb to which it refers. Aun no llega; no ha llegado 
a6n. 

c» Que, quien, cual, cuyo, cuando, donde, como, 
cuanto, have the graphic accent in interrogative or ex- 
clamatory sentences : i Que hora es? (What time is it ?) ; 
; Cudn fdcilmente lo dice ! (How easily he says it !) 

d. Solo has the accent marked when it is used like an 
adverb instead of solamente. 

e, Este, ese, aquel, esta, esa, aquella, and their plurals 
have their graphic accent when the noun to which they 
refer is omitted in the sentence. 

Exercise in Pronunciation and Accentuation. 

Acabado. Alcantara. Baratija. Baraunda. Buey. 
Cabarrus. Cascara. Ceceo. Cisco. Debilidad. Decenio. 
Desahucio. Descepar. Desmejorado. Diaz. Documenta- 
cion. Estio. Extatico. Extremadura. Felicisimamente. 
Feliz. Fie. Fie. Fi'o. Frenillo. Garra. Gesticulaciones. 
Giganteo. Horroroso. Huerfano. Hui'da. Incineracion. 
Inmenso. Innecesario. Irun. Jergon. Jinete. Joroba. 
Kilogramo. Kilometro. Kirie. Lancha. Lapislazuli. Laud. 
Laudes. Lejania. Lio. Lio. Llaneza. Llover. Machacar. 
Mahometano. Malla. Mercaderia. Montevideo. Mudejar. 
Noguera. Norzagaray. Oscilacion. Osculo. Ostracismo. 
Pie. Pie. Pie. Polio. Poyo. Quer^taro. Quezaltenango. 
Ramirez. Regara. Regara. Regimen. Rei. Rey. 



PRONUNCIATION 9 

Rodado, Seais. Seduciais. Seduciriais. Sosegan'as. 
Sustentaculo. Tiepolo. Traicion. Traido. Tiiy. Vedia. 
Vejamen. Venancio. Vidrioso. Vivienda. Wamba. 
• Yegua. Yeguita. Zarabanda. Zarzuela. Zizana. 

Division of Syllables. 

19. — The following are the rules concerning the division 
of words into syllables : 

a. A single consonant between two vowels goes with the 
second vowel. LI and rr, which represent single con- 
sonantal sounds, follow this rule, and eh (although com- 
posed of two different sounds, d and sh) is also considered 
as a single consonant for the purpose of this rule : 

a-Ui, ca-ra-co-les, ca-rri-co-che, co-rre-de-ra, me-sa, 
va-ca, za-bu-Uir. 

b. The first of two consonants placed between two 
vowels goes, as a rule, with the preceding syllable, the 
second with the following syllable : 

ar-bol, cos-ta, in-cien-so. 
But the combinations br, or, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr, and bl, el, 
fl, gl, pi, go with the following syllable : 
ca-bra, lu-cro, e-gre-gio, a-troz. 
do-ble, de-cla-ro, ri-fle, se-giar, co-pla. 

c. Three consonants comprising the above-mentioned 
combinations are divided so that the first consonant goes 
with the preceding syllable and the other two with the 
following syllable : 

an-clar, con-tra, ex-plo-sion, in-fras-cri-to, siem-bro. 
If the second of the three consonants is an s, the first 
two consonants go with the preceding syllable : 
cons-pi-ra-cion, cons-ti-tu-ye, ins-tan-te, obs-ta-cu-lo. 

d. Four consonants between two vowels are divided so 
that the first two go with the preceding syllable : 

ads-cri-bir, cons-truc-cion, ins-tru-men-to. 



lo PRONUNCIATION 

e. Prefixes like ab, des, sub, are exceptions to the 
preceding rules : 

ab-e-rran-te, des-a-ten-der, sub-lu-nar. 
Nosotros, vosotros are divided thus : nos-o-tros, vos- 
o-tros. 

f. Diphthongs and triphthongs are inseparable : 

an-cia-no, a-ve-ri-giieis, di-gdis. 

The first or the last vowel of a word, even it it forms a 
syllable by itself, should not be separated from the rest of the 
word when it comes at the end of the line. 

Divide the following words into syllables : adviento, 
antracita, arrellanarse, caramelo, carrera, carricoche, con- 
llevar, connotado, conspicuo, construyo, contribuyente, 
desorientado, desunion, excelente, laudable, murcielago, 
nosotras, sublunar, subrepticio, transferir. 

II 

THE ARTICLE 

20. — The English definite article the is rendered in 
Spanish by the words el, la, los, las. El is masculine 
singular, la feminine singular, los masculine plural, and 
las feminine plural. 

el padre, the father. 
la madre, the mother. 
los hermanos, the brothers. 
las hermanas, the sisters. 
21. — The English indefinite article a, an is rendered in 
Spanish by the words un (masc. singular), una (femin. 
singular), which have a plural form unos (masc), unas 
(fem.), equivalent to the indeterminate adjective some, 
un hombre, a man ; unos hombres, men, some men. 
una mujer, a woman; unas mujeres, women, some 
women. 



THE ARTICLE ii 

22. — Thedefinite feminine article la cannot be used before 
a feminine name beginning with a stressed a or ha ; in this 
case el takes the place of la. 

El dguila (fern.), the eagle. 
El agua (fem.); the water. 
El hacha (fem.), the axe. 

But this change does not occur before an adjective : la 
alta montana, the high mountain. 

23. — The article el when preceded by the preposition 
a loses its first letter and forms a single word with the 
preposition : al viento, to the wind. The same change 
occurs when preceded by de : del cuarto vecino, from the 
next room. 



24. — Possession is expressed in Spanish by means of 
the preposition de : la hermana de Pablo, Paul's sister ; 
or by means of the possessive adjectives as will be explained 
further on. 

25. — Negation in Spanish is expressed by the adverb 
no, which is always placed before the verb. There is no 
need of an auxiliary verb in negative or interrogative 
sentences. 

Juan no es rico.- John is not rich. 

Ella no sabe. She does not know. 

26. — Interrogative sentences are formed by placing the 
verb before the subject. 

I Es Juan rice ? Is John rich ? 

^Sabe ella? Does she know? 

Note that the interrogation is put at the beginning of the 
sentence in an inverted form Q). 



12 



THE ARTICLE 



Vocabulary. 

[m, means masculine noun; /., feminine noun; adj\, 
adjective; adv,, adverb; prep., preposition; conj., con- 
junction.] 



2iy prepay to. 

abrir, to open ; abre, he 

opens. 
\ahora, adv,y now. 
Alberto, w., Albert. 
amigo, m,y friend ; amiga, 

/., female friend, 
bien, adv.y well, 
casa,/., house. 
cuando, adv.^ when. 
• I cudndo ?, when ? 
de, prep.y of, from, 
en, prep,y in, at. 
ensenar, to teach ; ensena, 

he teaches. 
es, is. 

espanol, adj,y Spanish. 
facil, adv,y easy. 
fin, m,y end. 



hablar, to speak; habla, 

he speaks, 
ingles, adj,y English. 
Juan, John. 
Iecci6n,/., lesson. 
Lucia, Lucy, 
llega, he arrives, 
maestro, w., teacher. 
no, adv.y not, no. 
por, prep.y for, through, by. 
puerta,/., door. 
,salir, to go out, to leave; 

sale, he goes out. 
Senor, w., Sir. 
Senora,/., Madam. 
SI, adv.y yes. 
tambien, adv.y also, too. 
y, conj.y and. 



Exercise, 

El maestro es espanol. El maestro habla ingles. Lucia 
no habla ingles. El maestro ensena espanol a Lucia y a 
Juan, Juan es hermano de Lucia. El maestro ensena en 
la casa de Juan, El amigo de Juan, Alberto, ensena ingles, 
Alberto habla espanol tambien, Juan abre la puerta. El 
maestro de Lucia y Juan llega. Ensena la leccidn. El 
maestro ensena bien. La amiga de Lucia no habla es- 
panol ; no habla ingles: es italiana, ^ Habla bien ingles 
el maestro? Si, senor: el maestro habla bien ingles. 
I Es facil hablar espanol ? Si, seiior. i Es facil hablar bien 
espanol ? No, senora. Alberto abre la puerta ahora. El 
maestro sale al fin de la leccion. 



THE ARTICLE i 13 

Conversation. 

— I Ensefia bien el maestro de Lucia? — Enseiia bien 
el espafiol ; no ensefia bien el ingles. — i Cuando sale el 
maestro de casa de Juan y Lucia? — Al fin de la leccion. 
— I Habla espafiol la amiga de Lucia ? — No, la amiga de 
Lucia es italiana. — ^ Es facil la leccion de espafiol ? — 
Si, sefior, es facil ahora. 

To TRANSLATE. 

A lesson. When he comes. To speak. Spanish is easy. 
John speaks English and Lucy speaks English too. Lucy 
does not speak Italian. Italian is not easy. Albert speaks 
English and Spanish. A fi:"iend. A female friend. John's 
house. The door of Lucy's house. He speaks well. 
When the teacher arrives, John opens the door. When 
the teacher goes out, Lucy's female friend arrives. 



Ill 
NOUNS 

27. — Nouns are of two genders in Spanish. These 
genders are the masculine and the feminine. 

As in English, names of male beings are masculine 
and names of female beings are feminine. y 

28. — Names of trees are masculine as a rule : el euca- 
liptus ; el nogal, the walnut-tree ; el naranjo, the orange- 
tree ; el abedul, the birch-tree ; el manzano, the apple-tree ; 
el cerezo, the cherry-tree. There are a few exceptions : 
la encina, the oak ; la higuera, the fig-tree ; la palmera, 
the palm-tree ; la acacia, the acacia. Vid, parra, both of 
which mean grape-vine, are feminine. 

29. — ^The names of the months and the names of ihd^ 
days of the week are also masculine : Enero es lluvioso, 



4 NOUNS 

January is a rainy month ; salgo todos los lunes, I go out 
every Monday. 

30. — The names of rivers, mountains, and seas are mas- 
culine : el Sena, the Seine ; el Tamesis, the Thames ; el 
Orinoco, el Plata, el Amazonas; el Mediterrdneo, the 
Mediterranean (sea) ; el Bdltico, the Baltic ; el Mar Negro, 
the Black Sea. When not followed by a geographical 
adjective the word mar can indifferently be used in the 
masculine dr feminine gender. El Himalaya, the Hima- 
layas, el Chimborazo, el Vesubio are masculine ; but la 
Silla, a hill near Caracas, and las Alpujarras in Spain, are 
feminine. 

31. — Names of fruits are feminine : la manzana, the 
apple ; la ciruela, the plum ; la almendra, the almond ; 
la pera, the pear; la mora, the blackberry. The excep-. 
tions are numerous : el coco, the coco-nut ; el limon, the 
lemon ; el higo, the fig ; el aguacate, the alligator-pear ; 
el melocot6n, the peach ; mango, mamey, nispero, mara- 
non, zapote, etc. 

32. — Names of countries ending in a are feminine : 
China, Francia, France; la vieja Inglaterra, old England; 
and .names of towns and villages of the same termination : 
Sevilla es encantadora, Seville is charming: la sono- 
lienta Bogotd, sleepy Bogota.^ 

33. — Nouns ending in o are for the most part masculine : 
el lago, the lake; el cuerpo, the body; el cantaro, the 
pitcher. 

34. — Nouns ending in a are for the most part feminine : 
la casa, the house ; la cabeza, the head ; la cdntara, the 
pitcher. 

^ a. Mano, hand, is feminine ; dia, day, is masculine. A 
few nouns of Greek derivation ending in ma or ta are 

^ ^ The names of the letters of the alphabet are all feminine : la a, la b, 
la i, tina hache, la qu, la omega, la beta, la bmicron. Delta, 

triangular alluvial tract at the mouth of a river, is masculine : el delta 
del Orinoco. 



NOUNS 15 

masculine : emblema, emblem ; planeta, planet ; sistema, 
system ; but asma, asthma ; diadema, diadem ; estrata- 
gema, stratagem, are feminine. 

35. — Nouns ending in d are for the most part feminine : . 
ciudad, city, town ; merced, favour, mercy ; virtud, virtue ; 
but ardid, trick ; cesped, turf, sod ; sud, south, and a very 
few others, are masculine. 

36. — Nouns ending in e are mostly mascuHne : the ex-/ 
ceptions (which are numerous) are learned by practice.! 
Alambre, wire ; diente, tooth ; lacre, sealing-wax, are 
masculine ; calle, street ; fuente, fountain, feminine ; arte,/ 
art, is masculine in the singular and feminine in the plural. 

37. — Nouns ending in 1 are nearly all masculine; the jl 
exceptions are few : cal, lime ; cdrcel, prison-house, jail ; 
sal, salt, are feminine. 

38. — Nouns ending in j^ are commonly masculine ; but 
the exceptions are numerous. The termination ion im- 
plies, as a rule, the feminine gender, but a few nouns 
in ion are masculine. Almacen, store ; pan, bread; volu- 
men, volume, are masculine. Sarten, frying-pan, is 
feminine ; so also is condicion, condition ; but aluvion, 
alluvion ; embrion, embryo ; turbion, squall, heavy . 
shower; escorpion, scorpion; sarampion, measles, are 
masculine. 

39. — Nouns ending in jc^ are masculine : calor, heat ; 
cardcter, character ; dolor, pain, sorrow ; zafir, sapphire. 
The exceptions in nouns commonly used are few: flor, 
flower; labor, work, task; segur, sickle, are feminine. 
Mar (sea) can be used indifferently as masculine or 
feminine when it is not qualified by a geographical ad- 
jective, in which case, as we have already said, it is always 
masculine. 

Un mar tempestuoso or una A stormy sea. 

mar tempestuosa. 

Se dio a la mar. He sailed. 

La mar estaba muy agitada. The sea was rough. 



i6 



NOUNS 




El mar Adridtico. The Adriatic. 

El mar Amarillo. The Yellow Sea. 

El Archipielago (Mar Egeo). The Aegean Sea. 

.V 40. — Nouns ending in u are masculine : espiritu, spirit, 
ghost. But tribu, tribe, is feminine. 

41. — Nouns ending in z are for the most part feminine ; 
but there are many masculine nouns with this termination : 
cicatriz, scar; coz, kick; cruz, cross; luz, light; nariz, 
nose, are feminine. Arroz, rice ; barniz, varnish ; tamiz, 

/-sieve, and some other less common words, are masculine. 

Vocabulary. 



vagua,/., water. 

alto, adj,, high, tall. 
, beber, to drink. 

bueno, adj., good. 

cafe, m,f coffee. 

carne,/, meat. 

care, adj\f dear. 

cocina,/., kitchen. 
.comprar, to buy; compra, 
he buys. 

comprender, to understand. 
■ con, prep,, with. 
> criado, m,, servant. 

dar, to give. 
/ decir, to say ; dice, he says. 

hermana,/., sister. 

hoy, adv,, to-day. 



Inglaterra,/, England. 
lUeva, he carries, he takes. 

madre,/, mother. 
,muy, adv,, very. 

nine, nu, child, boy. 

padre, m,, father. 

pan, m,, bread. 
, M.ra, prep.f for, to, in order 
-^to. 

^£^sear, to take a walk. 
/pueSeThe can. 

I que ?, what ? 

siempre, adv,, always. 
, tiene, he has ; tienen, they 

have. 
^ tomar, to take, to drink. 

vino, m,, wine. 



Exercise. 

El maestro sale a pasear con Juan y Lucia para ensenar 
bien la leccion del di'a. La madre y el criado salen a 
comprar pan, cafe, y carne, cuando Juan y la hermana 
salen con el maestro. El caf6 en Inglaterra es caro. El 
cafe en Inglaterra no es siempre bueno. El pan es muy 
bueno y la carne tambien. Alberto llega a la casa a comer 
con Juan y Lucia. El padre habla con Alberto. Alberto 






NOUNS 17 

es alto. La madre llega con el criado. El criado lleva 
.a la cocina el pan, el cafe y la carne. El maestro, Juan 
y Lucia llegan de pasear. Juan quiere tomar agua. El 
maestro no puede tomar agua ; puede y quiere tomar vino. 
Juan comprende hoy la leccion muy bien. Pasear es muy 
bueno para comprender la leccion. Lucia dice la leccion. 

Conversation. 

^ Sale a pasear el maestro ? ^Salen Juany Lucfa? ^Qu6 
sale a comprar la madre ? i Cuando sale la madre a com- 
prar cafe ? i Sale el criado ? i Para que sale el maestro 
a pasear con Juan y Lucia? ,:, Es caro el cafe en Inglaterra? 
I Es bueno ? ^ Es siempre bueno el cafe en Inglaterra ? 
I Para qud llega Alberto ? i Habla Alberto en la casa con 
el criado ? i Que lleva el criado a la cocina ? i Que quiere 
tomar Juan? ^Toma vino Juan? <f,Toma vino Lucfa? 
I Puede tomar agua el maestro ? ^ Que toma el maestro ? 
I Es bueno pasear para comprender la leccion ? 

To TRANSLATE. 

H e goes out for a walk. H e understands English, Spanish, 
and French. He speaks Italian very well: he does not 
speak when he cannot understand. John goes out to buy 
coffee and bread. There is a friend at the door. There 
is a friend of the servant in the kitchen. When is the 
servant going out ? Does the servant go out to-day ? The 
boy can drink coffee. The servant is very tall. To-day is 
a lesson-day. The teacher is now in the house. Coffee 
is not always good in England. Meat is not very dear. 
Wine is not good for the child. The servant speaks and 
goes out. ' The coffee is not good to-day ', says the mother. 
What does the father say ? 



/ 



i8 NOUNS 

IV 
NOUNS {continued) 

Number. 

42. — The plural of nouns ending in an unstressed vowel 
is formed by adding s tcfth^-singular.:^ /" ^ 

amigo, m,, friend w^^-^l^amigos, fnwpftls 

calle,/., street ^ ^ calles, ^tre^s 

letra, /., letter letras, letters 

metropoli,/., capital metropolis, capitals 

tribu,/, tribe tribus, tribes. 

43.r-^The plural of nouns ending in a consonant or 
a stressed vowel is formed by adding es to the singular. 
In such cases final z changes to c, to preserv^e the same 
sound. 

aleli, ;;/., gilliflower alelies, gilliflowers 

arbol, m., tree drboles, trees 

as, m,y ace ases, aces 

bajd, m.f pasha bajaes, pashas 

ciudad,/., town ciudades, towns 

hoz,/, sickle hoces, sickles 

mar, m. or/, sea mares, seas 

margen,/., margin mdrgenes, margins 

reloj, w., watch, clock relojes, watches, clocks 

una e, an e dos ees, two e's. 

44. — Exceptions : 

a. Although in nouns ending in the unstressed diph- 
thongs ay, ey, oy, uy the y is a vowel and sounds like 
a vowel in the singular, in the formation of the plural this 
y is considered to be a consonant and is pronounced like 
a consonant. 

convoy, fn,^ convoy convoyes, convoys 

^^Yff'i law leyes, laws. 

b. mamd, papd, sofd add only an s : mamds, papds, 
sofds (sofas). 



NOUNS 19 

c» Words ending in stressed e add only s: ^ 

cafe, m.y coffee-house cafes, coffee-houses 

canape, m.j lounge, settee canapes, settees 
pie, foot pies, feet. 

The names of the letters of the alphabet ending in e 
follow the general rule concerning the words ending in 
stressed vowels : una ce, dos cees (a Cy two c's). 

d. Words not stressed on the last syllable and ending 
in 5 in the singular admit of no change to form the 
plural: 

el lunes, Monday los lunes, Mondays i*^ 

el miercoles, Wednesday los mi^rcoles, Wednesdays 

la crisis,/, the crisis las crisis, the crises. 

Family names ending in unaccented es, ez, or is admit 
of no change. 

El Senor Martinez, Mr. Los Senores Martinez, the 

M artinez M artinez 

ElSenorLlopis, Mr. Llopis Los Senores Llopis, the 

Llopis. 

e. The plural of frac (dress-coat) is fraques. 

/ The addition of s or es to form the plural does not alter the 
position of the stress in the word. 

drbol, m.^ tree Arboles, trees 

canon, ;//., cannon canones, cannons 

murcielago, in.^ bat murcielagos, bats. 

There are, however, two exceptions : cardcter, character, 
makes caracteres ; regimen, regime, rule, makes reginienes. 
One may say either crdteres or crateres, plural of crdter. 

g. For the formation of the plural of adjectives the same rules 
appl}j/as in the case of nouns. 

Vocabulary. 

^o , m,y overcoat, fur, ! acaba de llegar, he has just 
sheher. I arrived. 

\ abuelo, ;//., grandfather. agradable, adj,y agreeable, 

vacabar, to finish, to end. pleasant. 

c 2 



20 



NOUNS 



, aire, m.j air. 

aprender, to learn. 
T baiil, m,j trunk, 
calle,/, street. 
• capaz, a<if/', able. 
claro, adj.y clear. 
continuar, to go on, to con- 
tinue. 
conveniente, adj.j conve- 
nient. 
rdebe, he must ; deben, they 

must. 
-descansar, to rest. 
desear, to wish ; desea, he 

wishes. 
dia, ni.f day. 
' discipulo, m., pupil. 
Espafia,/., Spain. 
estd, he is, she is, it is. 
s extranjero, adj,y foreign. 
extranjero, ;//., foreigner. 
^gol^iiuiriijg,/., swallow. 
grande, adj.j large, big, 
great. 



hombre, ;;/., man. 
invierno, m., winter. 
. ir, to go ; va, he goes ; van, 

they go. 
natural, adj., natural ; na- 
turalmente,a^z;., of cou rse, 
naturally. 
noticia,/., news. 
partida,/., party. 
pensar, to think, to intend ; 
piensa, he thinks, he in- 
tends. 
pero, coftj.f but. 
poder, can ; puede, he can 
porque, conj., because. 
#pr6ximo, adj., next. 
que, conj,^ that. 
I qui6n ?, who ? 
' rico, adj., rich. 
r seguir, to go on, to follow. 
.semana,/, week. 
' todavia, adv., yet. 
,viajar, to travel; viaje, m., 
trip, journey. 



Exercise. 

El abuelo llega hoy con una buena noticia. Dice que 
piensa ir a Espana el invierno proximo. Juan y Lucia 
deben ir con el. El maestro de espanol debe ir tambien, 
porque los ninos deben continuar sus lecciones. El padre 
no piensa ir; pero Alberto, el amigo de los ninos, desea 
mucho viajar por Espana y el abuelo dice que quiere llevar 
a Alberto con los ninos. Alberto desea ir naturalmente ; 
pero no sabe todavia. Viajar es facil, pero es caro, y 
Alberto no es rico. La amiga de Lucia no va a Espana, 
acaba de llegar de Italia y quiere descansar. Dice que es 
muy agradable viajar por Italia. Para el viaje debe el 
abuelo comprar abrigos. Los ninos deben comprarbaules. 
Juan es capaz de ir a comprar los baiiles y los abrigos. 



NOUNS 21 

El abuelo sale para Espana con las golondrinas, deseaaire 
mas claro. El padre llega de la calle y dice que los di'as 
son buenos para viajar ; esta con el un extranjero, hombre 
muy rico, grande amigo de Espana y de los nifios. Dice 
que el va tambien a viajar con ellos. El maestro, los 
discipulos, los amigos de los ninos, el abuelo : | que buena 
partida de viaje ! Para aprender un idioma extranjero 
viajar es muy conveniente. Los discipulos deben viajar 
con el maestro. 

Conversation. 

I Quien llega con una buena noticia ? i Con que llega 
el abuelo ? i Que dice el ? ^ Van los ninos con el ? 
I Cuando ? i Va el maestro ? i Desea Alberto ir ? ,1 Es , 
facil viajar? ^iVa a Espana la amiga de Lucia? ^ Que 
dice la amiga de Lucia de su viaje a Italia? ^Que debe 
comprar el abuelo para el viaje ? i Que deben comprar"^ 
los ninos ? i Quien va a comprar los abrigos y baules ? 
I Quien llega de la calle con un extranjero ? l Quien es el 
extranjero? ,:, Es viajar conveniente para aprender un 
idioma extranjero ? 

To TRANSLATE. 

The grandfather and the foreigner are going {van) to 
Spain. The children wish to go and John says the teacher 
must go also. The Spanish lessons must go on. Spain is 
not a very rich country. Winter is coming. Lucy mu^t 
buy furs. A foreigner. A foreign teacher. To travel is 
very pleasant for -children. A journey to Spain is very 
expensive (caro), A rich man can travel. It is easyjbr 
a rich man to travel. John's father arrives to-day^^^^^ 



V 



22 



THE ADJECTIVE 



V 
THE ADJECTIVE 

45. — The Spanish adjective agrees in gender and number 
with the noun or nouns to which it refers. 

I. MascuHne adjectives ending in the singular in any 
\/ vowel except o admit of no change in the formation of the 
- feminine. 



un animal indigena, a 

native animal. 
un hombre triste, a sad 

man. 
el asunto es baladi, the 

subject is worthless. 



la tribu indigena, the native 

tribe. 
la mala suerte, bad luck. 



una conversaci6n baladi, 

a trifling talk. 

2. Adjectives ending in a consonant are also invariable, 
as far as gender is concerned : 



un cielo azul, a blue sky. 

hombre ruin, low, mean 

man. 
el hecho mds singular, the 

most singular fact. 
un dicho cortes, a courteous 

saying. 
el dia feliz, the happy day. 



la montaiia azul, the blue 

mountain. 
mujer ruin, low woman. 

la conducta es singular, 

^ the conduct is singular. 

una frase cortes, a court- 
eous phrase. 

una feliz ocasion, a happy 
occasion. 



3. Adjectives ending in o in the masculine change the o 
into a for the feminine. 

nino bueno, good boy. nifia buena, good girl. 

Exceptions : (a) Adjectives ending in dn, 6n, or add an a 
to form the feminine : burl6n (masc), burlona (fem.), 
waggish; haragdn (masc), haragana (fem.), idle; element© 
perturb&.dor, disturbing element ; doctrina perturbadora, 
subversive doctrine. 



THE ADJECTIVE 23 

The following adjectives in -or are invariable as regards 
gender : mayor (larger), menor (smaller, younger), mejor 
(better), peor (worse), superior, inferior, exterior, in- 
terior, anterior, and some others less frequently used. 

(b) Diminutives in ete and augmentatives in ote change 

to eta, ota for the feminine : feote (masc), too ugly ; feota ^ 
(fem.); regordete (masc), chubby, plump; regordeta(fem.). 

(c) Adjectives expressing nationality have two forms, one 
for the masculine and one for the feminine, when ending 
in o or in a consonant : andaluz (masc.) Andalusian, 
andaluza (fem.); danes (masc.) Danish, danesa (fem.); 
espanol (masc.) Spanish, espanola (fem.) ; htingaro (masc.) 
Hungarian, hiingara (fem.). 

Position of the Adjective^ *• 

46. — The adjective is generally placed in Spanish after 
the noun it qualifies : un hombre honrado, an honest man, 
una mujer hermosa, modesta y desinteresada, a hand- 
some, unpretentious, and disinterested woman. Adjectives 
the meaning of which is inseparable from the meaning of 
the noun which they qualify are, as a rule, placed before the 
noun : blanca nieve, white snow ; verdes praderas, green , 
prairies : 

Oh padre ! oh claro sol ! O father ! O bright sun ! 

47. — Possessive, demonstrative, and numeral adjectives 
generally precede the noun : este nino, this child ; 
nuestra casa, our house ; tres libros, three books ; 
primera y segunda lecciones, first and second lessons. 

48. — In some cases the position of the adjective affects 
its meaning, 

Grande hombre. Great man (in a moral sense) 

Un hombre grande. A tall, big man. 

Un pobre hombre. A simpleton, a good fellow. 

Un hombre pobre. A poor man. 

49.— There are no invariable rules in Spanish determining 
the position of the adjective : it generally follows the noun, but 



24 



THE ADJECTIVE 



usage is the best and only guide. In poetr}^ or in oratorical 
passages the ordinary rules are not followed. 



Xl 



Ni aislada roca, ni escarpado 

del didfaiiohoHzonte 
el indeciso termino corta- 
ban. 

Nunez de Arce. 



No isolated rock, no steep hill 
limited the dim line of the 
transparent horizon. 



Vocabulary. 



V 



\) 



acompanar, to accompany, 

to go with. 
acpstumbrar, to use, to 

accustomT 
acostumbrarse, to get used 

to. 
adelantado, adj,^ advanced, 
adelante, adv,^ forward ; 
^ en adelante, hereafter. 
ademds, adv,y besides. 
admirable, adj,^ admirable, 

wonderful, 
alegre, adj.^ joyful, glad, 
alegria,/., joy. 
alii, adv,^ there. 
almacen, m.^ shop, store, 

warehouse. 
andaluz, m,, adj,^ Anda- 

lusian. 
aprender, to learn. 
asi, adv.^ thus, so. 
atenci6n, /, attention, care. 
cliente, m.y client, customer. 
^como? adv,y how? 
componer, to make, to form, 

to compose. 
decidir, to decide; han 

decidido, they have de- 
cided. 
dejar, to leave, 
dependiente, ;;/., clerk, 

seller, 
durante, /)r^/>., during. 



X entonces, adv,^ then ; para 
-^ entonces, by then. 
Jtentretenido, adj,^ amusing, 

entertaining. 
ese, esa, adj,y that. 
esta.r, to be. 
estudio, m.y study, 
evitar, to avoid, 
excursion, /., excursion, 

trip. 
expresarse, to express one- 
self. 
falta,/., lack. 
hacer, to make. 
J hay, there is, there are. 
Yir a compras] to go shop- 
ir a tiendas ) ping. 
manana, adv,, to-morrow. 
mirar, to look at ; con solo 

mirar, simply by looking 

at. 
molestia,/., trouble. 
mucho, mucha, adj,^ much ; 

muchos, many. 
novedades,/.,//., novelties, 

new things. 
objeto, m.y object, aim. 
poco, poca, adj.^ little; 

pocos, few. 
poner, to put. 
prdctica,/, practice. 
practicar, to practise. 
prima vera,/., spring. 



THE ADJECTIVE 



25 



principal, adj.^ principal. 

pronunciacion, /., pronun- 
ciation. 

servicial, adj,^ obliging, ser- 
viceable. 

si, conj.y if; si es posible, 
if possible. 



tienda,/, shop. 
todo, toda, adj,^ every, all. 
tomar parte, to take part. 
varies, adj,y several, vari- 
ous. 
viajero, ;w., traveller. 



Ser, to he. 
Indicative, 



Present, 
soy, I am 
eres, thou art 
es, he, she, it is 
somos, we are 
sois, you are 
son, they are 
usted es, you are (sing.) 
ustedes son, you arejpiur.) 



Future, 
sere, I shall be 
seras, thou wilt be 
serd, he, she, it will be 
seremos, we shall be 
sereis, you will be 
seran, they will be 
usted sera, you will be 
ustedes serdn, you will be. 



Regular Verbs. First Conjugation, 

Hablar, to speak. 

Indicative, 



Future, 
hablare, I shall speak 
hablards, thou wilt speak 
hablard, he or she will 

speak 
hablaremos, we shallspeak 
hablareis, you will speak 
hablaran, they will speak 
usted hablara, you will 

speak. 

Note. Subject pronouns are not generally used with 
the Spanish verb. 

Exercise. 

Han decidido dejar el viaje para la primavera proxima. 
De esa manera puede Alberto acompanar a sus amigos y 
asi toda la familia toma parte en la excursi6n que va a estar 



Present, 
hablo, I speak 
hablas, thou speakest 
habla, he or she speaks 

hablamos, we speak 
hablais, you speak 
hablan, they speak 
ustedr habla> yotr speak. 



26 THE ADJECTIVE 

muy entretenida. Ademas, para entonces ya Lucia y Juan 
estaran muy adelantados en el estudio del espanol y 
evitaran asi muchas molestias a los viajeros. En adelante 
hablaran siempre en espanol para acostumbrarse a la pro- 
nunciacion. Saben ya componer frases (phrases); pero 
tienen dificultad (difficulty) en expresarse por falta de 
practica. Mariana iran a un almacen espanol a hacer 
compras, para hablar, si es posible, con el dependiente que 
es un andaluz. Hay alli tambien varios americanos del 
Sud que hablan espanol y acostumbran acompanar a los 
clientes a ver el almacen : son alegres y serviciales. Van 
siempre adelante y sefialan las novedades del di'a. Los 
ninos compraran pocas cosas, pero practicaran el espanol 
durante una hora o dos : ese es el principal objeto. En el 
almacen hay cosas admirables y puede el cliente aprender 
mucho con solo mirar y poner atencion. 

Conversation. 

I Quienes han decidido dejar el viaje para la primavera 
proxima ? i Quien puede asi acompanar a sus amigos ? 
(i^Como va a estar la excursion? ^Va toda la familia? 
I Quienes estaran para entonces muy adelantados en el 
estudio del espanol ? i Como evitaran molestias a los via- 
jeros? lEn que idioma hablaran en adelante Juan y 
Lucia ? I Para que ? i Saben ya componer frases ? 
I Tienen dificultad en expresarse ? i Deben practicar 
mucho ? I Cuando iran al almacdn ? i Con quien pueden 
hablar espanol alli ? ^ Es espanol el dependiente ? i Hay 
sudamericanos en el almacen? ^Quidnes sefialan las 
novedades ? i Compraran los ninos muchas cosas ? i Que 
objeto principal tienen en ir al almacen ? i Que hay en el 
almacen ? i Que puede aprender alli el cliente ? 

To TRANSLATE, 

Los dias felices de la familia. Maria tiene abrigos 
blancos y azules para el viaje a Espafia; Los grandes 



THE ADJECTIVE 27 

baiiles de Alberto no estan en la casa; el dejo en el 
almacen los baules con las pieles y con todas las cosas para 
el viaje. El padre de Alberto es un grande hombre. El 
dependiente del almacen es hombre muy grande. Los 
viajeros practican el espafiol : saben muchas palabras ; no 
pueden formar frases. Deben tomar parte en la conver- 
sacion. Varios amigos de los viajeros saben tambien 
espanol; pero no lo practican ; hablan frances siempre. 



VI 

THE ADJECTIVE {continued) 

50. — When placed immediately before the noun the 
following adjectives drop their final o in the singular: 

alguno, some, any primero, first 

bueno, good postrero, last 

male, bad tercero, third 

ninguno, no, none uno, one. 

51. — The apocopation in this case is obligatory for all 
the above-mentioned words, except tercero, which in the 
expression dentro de tercero dia (within three days or 
before, the third day) may drop or keep the last o (e. g. 
dentro del tercer dia). 

Mai tiempo hace hoy. The weather is bad to-day. 

Ese era su buen deseo. That was his good wish. 

Algun dia lo vera ella. She will see him some day. 

Ningun animal ha entrado. No animal has come in. 

Un amigo de mi padre. A friend of my father. 

El primer dia del ano. The first day of the year. 

El tercer capitulo. The third chapter. 

El postrer contratiempo. The last mishap. 

52. — Grande loses its last syllable in the singular before 
nouns beginning with any consonant, except h : 

gran senor great lord " 

gran dama great lady 

gran terremoto great earthquake. 



28 



THE ADJECTIVE 



In other cases the complete form is preferred : 

grande economia de tiempo great saving of time 
grande escrutinio great scrutiny. 

53. — Ciento loses its last syllable before a noun or 
before an adjective followed by a noun : 

cien caballos a hundred horses 

cien aventuradas em- a hundred venturesome 
presas enterprises. 

a. Before the other numerals, except mil, millon, 
billon, etc., which in this case may be considered as nouns, 
the apocopation does not occur. When used as a substan- 
tive, the integral form is employed. 



ciento un pesos 

ciento veinte y seis metros 

cien mil libras 
cien millones de toneladas 
^Cuantas vacas tiene? — 
Ciento. 

b, Doscientos, trescientos, cuatrocientos, etc., have 
a feminine termination : doscientas mujeres, novecientas 
cargas. 

Vocabulary. 



a hundred and one pesos 
a hundred and twenty-six 

metres 
a hundred thousand pounds 
a hundred million tons 
How many cows have you ? 

— A hundred. 



a menudo, adv.j often. 

ayer, adv.j yesterday. 

casi, adv.f almost. 

cisne, m.y swan. 

como, adv,, like, as ; i c6mo ? 
how? 

conocimiento, m,, know- 
ledge. 

contar, to tell, to relate, to 
count. 

cuento, m,y story, tale. 

danes, w., Dane; adj,, 
Danish. 

Don, m,f Sir, Mr. 

donde, adv,f where. 



durante, prep,, during. 

el, pron,^ he (it). 

extenso, adj\f extensive. 

fuera, adv.f out. 

habitante, m,, inhabitant. 

hsLsta., prep,, till, until. 

historia,/, history. 

idioma, m., language. 

lectura,/, reading. 

leer, to read. 

libro, m., book. 

llamarse, to be called ; 
Uamar, to call; ^como 
se llama usted? what 
is your name? este nino 



THE ADJECTIVE 



29 



se llama Luis, this child's 

name is Lewis. 
memoria, /., memory ; de 

memoria, by heart, 
mismo, adj\^pron., same, self. 
nacer, to be born; naci6, 

he was born. 
obra,/., work. 
otro, adj\, other, another; 

el otro dia, the other day. 
pais, m.y country. 
pasar, to pass; pasar la 

noche, to spend the night. 



pato, m,f duck. 

placer, m.^ pleasure. 

reciente, adj\j recent. 

recitar, to recite. 

sane, adj\j sound, healthy. 

segiin, prepay according to. 

Seiior, m,y Mr., Sir. 

supo, he knew. 

triste, adj\j sad. 

venir, to come; viene, he 

comes. 
vida,/., life. 
vivir, to live ; vive, he lives. 



Past definite, 
Fui, I was 
fuiste, thou wast 
fue, he was 
fuimos, we were 
fuisteis, you were 
fueron, they were 
usted fue (you were) 
ustedes fueron (you 
(plur,) 



Ser, to be. 

Indicative, 

Imperfect, 
era, I was, I used to be 
eras, thou wast, thou usedst 

to be 
era, he was, he used to be 
eramos, we were, we used 
to be 
{sing,) erais, you were, you used 
were) to be 

eran, they were, they used 

to be 
usted era, ustedes eran, 
you were, you used to be. 



Regular Verbs. First Conjugation, 
Hablar, to speak. 



Past definite, 
hable, I spoke 
hablaste, thou spokest 
hablo, he spoke 
hablamos, we spoke 
hablasteis, you spoke 



Indicative, 

Imperfect, 
hablaba, I spoke, I was 
speaking, I used to speak 
hablabas, thou spokest, etc. 
hablaba, he spoke, etc. 
hablabamos, we spoke, etc. 



30 THE ADJECTIVE 

Indieative Past definite. Indicative Imperfect, 

hablaron, they spoke hablabais, you spoke, etc. 

usted hablo, ustedes ha- hablaban, they spoke^ etc. 
blaron, you spoke. usted hablaba, ustedes ha- 

blaban, you spoke, you 
were speaking. 

Exercise. 

El maestro de espanol se llama Don Manuel Quijano : 
nacio en Espaiia, pero vive fuera de su pais hace tiempo : 
viaja mucho. Fue maestro de idiomas en America. 
Conoce casi toda Europa : habla de sus viajes con placer. 
El pais que a menudo viene a su memoria es Dinamarca 
(Denmark), donde tuvo muchos y muy buenos amigos, 
segiin el dice. Sabe de memoria algunos cuentos de 
Andersen. El otro dia durante la leccion recito el cuento 
del pobre pato que paso una vida muy triste hasta el dia en 
que supo que era un cisne. Dijo el maestro que ese 
cuento era Ik historia de la vida del mismo Andersen. 
El Sefior Quijano puede leer en danes las obras de 
Andersen y dice que es lectura muy agradable y sana. En 
espanol hay tambien libros que sera muy agradable leer 
con un extenso conocimiento del idioma ; pero hablaremos 
de lecturas en las proximas lecciones. Ahora llega Don 
Manuel y el nos contara una entretenida historia como 
la de ayer. Buenos di'as, Don Manuel. — Buenos dias, 
amigos ; buenos dias, Lucia : usted es la alegria de la 
casa. jJ^Sabe usted la leccion? ^Contara usted hoy la 
historia del triste pato en espanol ? Lucia dice : conozco la 
historia ; no se todas las palabras espafiolas del cuento. 

Conversation. 

I Como se llama el maestro ? i Donde nacid ? i Vive 
en su pais ? i Por donde viaja ? i Que pai'ses conoce ? 
I Qu6 pais de Europa viene a menudo a su memoria ? 
I Donde queda Dinamarca ? i Como se llama el habitante 



THE ADJECTIVE 31 

de Dinamarca? ^Quien recito el cuento de Andersen? 
,1, Como se llama el cuento ? i Quien paso una vida muy 
triste ? I Hasta cuando paso eLpato una vida muy triste ? 
I Es el pato grande como el cisne ? i Puede el Seiior 
Quijano leer un buen libro en danes ? lEs agradable la 
lectura de los cuentos de Andersen ? i Sabe usted leer 
danes? ^ Hay buenos libros en espanol ? ^ Cuando 
hablaremos de lecturas ? i Qui^n llega ahora ? 

To TRANSLATE. 

There are good books to read, agreeable books, sound 
books at Don Manuel's house. There is a very amusing 
Spanish book called Don Quixote, Don Manuel often reads 
it. He knows some pages by heart. He will speak of 
Don Quixote, There are also amusing stories in recent 
Spanish books. Do you speak Spanish ? My friend will 
speak Spanish. He practises with his teacher every day. 
He has Spanish books. He can read Spanish, he cannot 
speak very well. Lucy is the name of my friend : she 
speaks English and Spanish. She teaches English to 
Lewis and Mary. She has other lessons. 

Feminine Endings of Nouns 

64. — Sometimes there are in Spanish two different 
words to express the masculine or the feminine of nouns 
meaning living beings : el hombre, la mujer (man, woman), 
el yerno, la nuera (son-in-law, daughter-in-law) ; el padre, 
la madre (father, mother) ; caballo, yegua (horse, mare). 

a. Usually masculine nouns ending in o or e form the 
feminine in a, suppressing the masculine ending : el her- 
mano, la hermana (the brother, the sister) ; el sirviente, 
la sirvienta (the male servant, the female servant); el 
prime, la prima (the male cousin, the female cousin) ; el 
monje, la monja (the monk, the nun) ; regente, regenta 
(regent, a man ; regent, a woman) ; but alcalde (mayor) 
makes alcaldesa (mayoress); principe (prince) makes 



32 THE ADJECTIVE 

princesa (princess) ; sacerdote (priest) makes sacerdotisa 
(priestess). Interprete (interpreter) and nouns expressing 
nationality and ending in e are invariable : ateniense, m. 
and f. (Athenian) ; caribe, m. and f. (Caribbean) ; complu- 
tense, m. and f. (from Alcala de Henares). 

b» Nouns ending in d, 1, n, r, s, add a to form the 
feminine : huesped, huespeda (the host, the hostess ; the 
guest, the lady guest); el general, la generala (the 
general, the general's wife); el capitdn, la capitana 
(the captain, the captain's wife) ; doctor, doctora 
(doctor, doctoress); senior, senora (sir, lady); dios, 
diosa (god, goddess); ingles, inglesa (Englishman, 
Englishwoman). Baron (baron, baronet) makes baronesa 
(baroness) ; conde (count) makes condesa (countess) ; 
poeta (poet) makes poetisa (poetess) ; actor (actor) makes 
actriz (actress) ; emperador (emperor) makes emperatriz 
(empress) ; cantor (singer) makes cantora and cantatriz. 

VII 
PRONOUNS 

Personal Pronouns. 

55. — The personal pronouns in Spanish, are : 

yo, I nosotros, nosotras, we 

tu, thou vosotros, vosotras, you 

el, he ; ella, she ellos, ellas, they 

usted (sing.), you ustedes (pi.), you. 

56. — The pronoun of the second person singular is tu, 
a form which is only used when addressing persons with 
whom one is on terms of familiarity, as between father and 
son, between brothers, and between very intimate friends. 
Vosotros, vosotras is the second person plural and is 
used like the singular in familiar address. Orators 
addressing their audience or public writers addressing 
their readers generally use this form of the second person 
plural. 



PRONOUNS 33 

67. — Usted is used in Spanish instead o( tii in formal 
address: digame usted, tell me; iddnde estk usted?, 
where are you ? It has a plural form, ustedes, to be used 
when addressing more than one person. It should be noted 
that usted, ustedes, although used as pronouns of the 
second person, require the third person of the verb : 
usted es, you are (sing.); ustedes saben, you (pi.) know. 

a. These forms, in writing, are generally abbreviated 
into Vd., Vds. 

58.~As has already been said, personal pronouns in the 
subject form need not be used with the verb, unless they are 
required to avoid ambiguity or to emphasize the subject of the 
sentence. 

Usted me dijo que esperara, You told me to wait, but I was 
pero yo no era de esa notof that opinion. 
opinion. 

As the verb era is the form both of the first and the third 
persons singular of the imperfect, the pronoun must be used 
in this case for the sake of preciseness. 

59. — The object forms of the personal pronouns are as 
follows ; 

Direct form . Indirect form, 

yo me me 

tii ^ te te 

el lo (or le) le 

ella la le (or la) 

nosotros (m.), nosotras (f.) nos nos 

vosotros (m.), vosotras (f) os os 

ellos los les 

ellas las les 

usted lo (m.), la (f ), le, a Vd. 

a Vd. 
ustedes los (m.). las ({,), les, a Vds. 

a Vds. 

a. The distinction here indicated betv.-een the direct and 
indirect forms of the third person singular (masculine) is not 
always observed by good writers. In Spain at present custom 
seems to incline towards the use of le for the direct form when 
referring to persons. 

2129 I> 



34 PRONOUNS 

b. When preceded by a preposition the direct or in- 
direct forms of the first and second persons singular are 
mi, ti : a mi me buscan, no a ti, they are looking for me, 
not for you. These forms we shall call prepositional or 
accentuated forms. The other pronouns keep after a pre- 
position the nominative form. Hablaban de nosotros, 
they were talking about us. 

c. The forms mi, ti after the preposition con form a 
single word with it and add the syllable go : 

Ven conmigo. Come along with me. 
No puede vivir contigo. He cannot live with you. (See 
§85,^) 

60. — The direct and indirect forms are generally placed 
before the verb : le (or lo) conozco, I know him ; me dicen, 
they tell me ; te llam6 ella, she called you. They may, 
at the beginning of a sentence, be placed after the verb (with 
which they then form a single word) : cont6me todo lo 
que sabia, he related to me all he knew ; pareciome al 
principio muy dificil, it seemed to me very difficult at the 
beginning. With the infinitive and the present participle 
these forms now always follow the verb : vino a verme, 
he came to see me ; perdio su tiempo buscandola, he lost 
his time looking for her. Two or three forms may follow 
the verb : traigamelo, bring it to me. 

a. The direct object of the second person plural added 
to the imperative plural causes this to lose the last d of 
the verbal form. Amaos (not amad-os) los unos a los 
otros, love each other. Yet we say idos (not ios), go 
(you). The first person plural of the present subjunctive 
also loses the last letter when nos is added to it : vdmonos, 
let us go (not vamosnos) ; but not with the other forms of 
the pronoun : dejemoslos, let us leave them ; avise- 
mosles, let us advise them. 

61. — The pronouns of the third person (el, ella) can be 
translated in English he^ she, and also /*/ when el or ella 



PRONOUNS 35 

refers to an inanimate object which happens to be mascu- 
line or feminine. Thus : Juan viene manana ; (el) desea 
conocerte (John is coming to-morrow ; he wants to know 
you) ; Luisa estk enferma ; (ella) no puede salir (Louise 
is ill ; she cannot go out). ^Cudndo llegard el correo ? 
— No se, acaso (el) no Hague hoy. (When will the post 
arrive? — I do not know, perhaps it will not be in to-day.) 
La casa es vieja, aunque de lejos (ella) parece nueva 
(the house is old, although from a distance it looks new). 

a. Nos as a nominative is employed by high dignitaries of the 
Church, in decrees, letters, pastorals, instead of Yo : Nos, Juan 
Manuel Rodriguez, por la gracia de Dies, ordenamos y man- 
damos. The verb must be put in the first person plural. 

b. Vos may be employed as a subject when one is addressing 
God, the Saints, or persons in high authority. Vos, Senor, 
conoceis nuestras flaquezas. The plural is required in such 
forms of address, whether the vocative refers to several persons 
or to a single one. 

Possessive Adjectives. 

62. — mi (pi. mis) my 
tu (pi. tus) thy 

su (pi. sus) his, her, your, its 
nuestro (f. nuestra; pi. nuestros, nuestras) our 
vuestro (f. vuestra ; pi. vuestros, vuestras) your 
su (pi. sus), their, your. 

63. — The second person plural of the personal pronouns 
(vosotros, vosotras) and of the possessive adjectives (vuestro, 
vuestra, vuestros, vuestras) is seldom employed in the col- 
loquial Spanish of America. 

Possessive Pronouns. 
64. — The possessive pronouns are : 



mio 


mine 


tuyo 


thine 


suyo 


his, hers, yours, theirs 


nuestro 


ours 


vuestro 


yours. 




D 2 



36 



PRONOUNS 



65. — These pronouns are often used with the article, but 
they may also be used without it. 



Ese es tu libro y este es 

el mio. 
La casa no es suya sine 

mia. 
Tuyas serdn la responsa- 

bilidad y la gloria. 



Tliat is your book and this 

is mine. 
The house is not his but 

mine. 
The responsibility and the 

glory will be yours. 



a. To avoid ambiguity suyo in the sense of your or yours 
is replaced by the form de usted, de ustedes, el de usted, 
el de ustedes. 



La palabra de usted de- 
cidi6 el punto. 



Your w^ord decided the case. 



Vocabulary. 



anoche, adv., last night. 

ciudad,/., city, town. 

conservar, to keep, to pre- 
serve. 

deseo, nL, wish. 

djjo, he or she said. 

educar, to educate, to train. 

ejercicio, ;/?., exercise,theme. 

es decir, that is to say. 

estudiar, to study. 

fdcilmente, adv., easily. 

flaco, adj., frail; meagre, 
lean, weak. 

frase,/., phrase. 

guerra,/., war. 

hecho, m., fact; hecho, 
part., made. 

importante, adj., important. 

interes, m., interest. 

largo, adj., long. 

mejor, adj., adv., better; lo 
mejor, the best. 

menos, adv., less. 

inucho, adj., adv., much. 



niiiez,/, childhood. 

noche,/, night. 

nombre, m», name, noun 
(gram.). 

olvidar, to forget; olvi- 
dando, forgetting. 

palabra,/, word. 

pensar, to think ; pens6, 
I thought. 

principiar, to begin. 

promesa,/, promise. 

prometer, to promise ; pro- 
metimos, we promised. 

recordar, to recall, to re- 
member. 

repasar, to go over. 

sabia (from saber), I knew. 

si, conj., if, whether. 

sin,prep., without ; sin duda, 
without doubt, doubtless, 
no doubt; sin embargo, 
however. 

suceso, m., event, inci- 
dent. 



PRONOUNS 



37 



talento, m., talent. 

tarde, /., afternoon; even- 
ing; buenas tardes, good 
afternoon , 



ultimo, adj., last. 

viejo, ;;/., old man ; viejo, 

adj., old. 
ya, adv., already. 



Verbs. 



Ser, io be 
{auxiliary irregular). 
Indicative, Future in the past, 
serfa, I should be 
serias, thou wouldst be 

seria, he would be 
seriamos, we should be 

^ serials, you would be 
serian, they would be 

usted seria, you would be. 



Habiar, to speak 

[regular, first conjugation). 

Indicative. Future in the past. 

hablaria, I should speak 

hablarias, thou wouldst 

speak 
hablaria, he would speak 
habiar iamos, we should 

speak 
hablariais,you would speak 
hablarian, they would 

speak 
usted hablaria, you would 

speak. 



PoDER (irregular), to be able, etc. 



Indicative. Present, 
puedo, I can 
puedes, thou canst 
puede, he can 
podemos, we can 
podeis, you can 
pueden, they can 
usted puede, you can. 



Indicative. Past. 

pude, I could 
pudiste, thou couldst 
pudo, he could 
pudimos, we could 
pudisteis, you could 
pudieron, they could 
usted pudo, you could. 



Exercise. 

* Ayer prometimos al Senor Quijano una buena leccidn 
para ho}^ iLd. sabes bien, Lucia? — No muy bien, y 
I tu, Juan ? — Anoche pense que la sabia, pero esta manana 
la repase y no sabi'a ya dos o tres palabras y frases impor- 
tantes. — Yo, dijo Lucia, olvido facilmente las frases ; pero 
conservoen la memoria las palabras. El maestro dice que 



38 PRONOUNS 

es men OS malo lo contrario (contrary), es decir, olvidar las 
palabras y conservar las frases en la memoria, y que lo 
mejor de todo es, sin duda, poder recordar las unas y las 
otras. Los viejos olvidan las palabras, pero no los hechos. 
Mi abuela recordaba hasta en sus liltimos di'as los sucesos 
de la guerra de Crimea ; pero olvidaba siempre los nombres 
de los nuevos amigos que llegaban a casa con nuestro 
padre. Hablaba mucho ; acababa una historia y principiaba 
la siguiente, casi siempre en el mismo orden/ Juan dijo a 
Lucia : ' Tu ya puedes formar frases largas en espanol ; yo 
no puedo ; tu memoria es buena, mi memoria es mala.' — 
'Aqui esta Don Manuel ya. Don Manuel, hablabamos 
Juan y yo de usted, de la memoria y de la promesa de 
ayer. — Buenas tardes, dice el maestro, y ^i^como esta la 
leccion hoy?— La de Lucia buena, dice Juan ; mi leccion no 
esta buena, mi memoria es flaca. ^ Estudiaba usted mucho 
en su ninez, Don Manuel ? — Si, mucho. — i Era buena la 
memoria de usted? — No era buena; pero, como ustedes 
saben, el hombre puede educar la memoria. Yo la educaba 
con ejercicios nuevos todos los di'as. Usted sabe la 
leccion, Lucia, i que hace para aprender ? — Estudio de di'a 
y de noche con mucho interes. Juan me dice que mi 
memoria es muy buena; yo pienso que mi deseo de 
aprender es mejor que mi memoria y que su talento.' 

Conversation. 

^ Quien prometio al Senor Quijano una buena leccion? 
I Para cuando ? i Quien sabe la leccion ? i Sabe Juan 
la leccion ? i Sabia Juan anoche la leccion ? i Cuando la 
repasd ? i Que oWida Lucia facilmente ? i Que es menos 
malo : olvidar las frases o las palabras ? i Que es lo 
mejor? ,i. Que olvidan los viejos? I Que conservan los 
viejos en la memoria? i Habla mucho la abuela? ,:, De 
que habla? ^j^ Quien puede ya formar frases largas en 
espanol ? i Era buena la memoria de Don Manuel, cuando 
era nifio ? ^ Se puede educar la memoria ? i Que hace 



PRONOUNS 39 

Lucia para aprender la leccidn ? ^f, Es la memoria de Lucfa 
mejor que la de Juan ? i Que piensa Lucia de su deseo de 
aprender ? 

Translate. 

This man is a good friend of our teacher. He comes 
from Madrid. His name is Peter Gonzalez. He can 
speak English well. He studied it in Spain in his child- 
hood. His education was very good : he can also speak 
Italian and French. He could speak those languages 
when he was still (todavia) a child. He thinks (that) he can 
stay in London (Londres) a. week. We shall take a walk 
with him every day. This morning we walked with him 
in the Park (Parque), To-morrow it will be better to go 
and (a) see the town. He must not go out without us. He 
does not know the town ; and in a week he cannot see 
much of it. These streets are very long. There are 
man}' streets. We shall forget our lessons this week, if 
we walk everyday in London with Sefior Gonzalez. — No: 
he speaks good Spanish also, and we can talk to him in 
this language. — I was forgetting it. 

Translate. 

Yo no se. Tii hablas mejor que yo. 6l y ella pueden 
aprender el ejercicio. Vosotros no podeis aprenderlo. 
Juan me ensena la leccion. El maestro nos ensefia el 
ingles. El desea abrirle la puerta a usted. El padre debe 
educar a su hijo. Juan tiene un hijo : debe educarle. 
Maria tiene dos hijas : debe enseiiarles bien su (her) 
idioma. No olvido la leccion cuando la estudio bien. 
(f^Hablasespanol? — No lo hablo todavia. — ^Quien tiene los 
libros ? — Maria los tiene en su casa. — (i,Que dijo el maestro 
a los nifios ? — El maestro les dijo : estudien la lecci6n. A 
nosotros nos dijo : si la olvidan, repasenla. 



40 AUXILIARY VERBS 

VIII 

AUXILIARY VERBS 

66. —The verbs ser (to be) and haber (to have) serve to 
form the passive voice and the compound tenses in Spanish. 
They are both irregular verbs. 

a. Conjugation of Haber, to have. 

Indicative. 

Present, Imperfect, 

he, I have - habia, 1 had 
has, thou hast habias, thou hadst 

ha, he has habia, he had 

hemes, we have habiamos, we had 

hab6is, 3^ou have habiais, you had 

han, they have. habian, they had. 

Past. Future, 

hube, I had habre, I shall have 

hubiste, thou hadst habrds, thou wilt have 

hubo, he had habrd, he will have 

hubimos, we had habremos, we shall have 

hubisteis, you had habreis, you will have 

hubieron, they had. habrdn, they will have. 

Future in the past. 

habria, I should have 
habrias, thou wouldst have 
habria, he w^ould have 
habriamos, we should have 
habriais, you would have 
habrian, they would have. 

Subjunctive. 

Present (and future). Past (2nd form). 

haya, I may have hubiera, that I had, or if 

1 had, etc. 
hayas, thou mayst have hubieras 



AUXILIARY VERBS , 41 

haya, he may have hubiera 

hayamos, we may have hubieramos 

hayais, you may have hubierais 

hayan, they may have. hubieran. 

Past (ist/orm). Future, 

hubiese, that I had (if I hubiere, if I should have, 

had) etc. 

hubieses, that thou hadst hubieres 

hubiese, that he had hubiere 

hubiesemos, that we had hubieremos 

hubieseis, that you had hubiereis 

hubiesen, that they had. hubieren. 

Imperative. 

habe (tii), have (thou), Jiafe^ (vosotros), have 

^ (you). 

Past participle. Present participle. 

habido, had. habiendo, having. 

b. The use of the verb haber is Hmited in Spanish to 
the formation of compound tenses (he hablado, I have 
spoken), cuando hube entrado (as 1 had entered); to a 
number of idioms : haber menester (to need, to want), 
haber^dejto have to), ha tiempo (it is long since) ; and to 
the impersonal clauses meaning existence and equivalent 
to the English expressions : there is, there are, there was, . 
etc. In the formation of these clauses, the plural is not 
used in Spanish : hay agua en el jarro, there is water in 
the jug ; hay manzanas sobre la mesa, there are apples 
on the table. 

c. He in he aqui, he ^li (behold) has wrongly been described 
by grammarians as th^mperative oi haber. 

d. The English verb to have, in the sense of holding or 
owning, is in Spanish tener, which, however, is used as an 
auxiliary in a limited numbej of cases (see § 76). 



42 



AUXILIARY VERBS 



The Verb Ser, to be. 



Indicative. 

Present, 
soy, I am 
eres, thou art 
es, he is 
somos, we are 
sois, you are 
son, they are 
usted es,ustedes son, you 
are. 

Past, 
fui, I was 
fuiste, thou wast 
fue, he was 
fuimos, we were 
fuisteis, you were 
fueron, they were 
usted fue, ustedes fue- 
ron, you were 

Imperfect, 

era, I was, etc. 

eras 

era 

eramos 

erais 

eran 

usted era, ustedes eran. 

Future. 

sere, I shall be 
serds, thou wilt be 
serd, he will be 
seremos, we shall be 
sereis, you will be 
serdn, they will be 
usted serd, ustedes se- 
rkn, you will be. 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 

sea, I may be 
seas, thou mayst be 
sea, he may be 
seamos, we may be 
sedis, you may be 
sean, they may be 
usted sea, ustedes sean, 
you may be. 

Past (istform), 
fuese, I were 
fueses, thou wert 
fuese, he were 
fuesemos, we were 
fueseis, you were 
fuesen, they were 
usted fuese, ustedes fue- 
sen, you were. 

Past {2nd form), 
fuera, I were, etc. 
fueras 
fuera 
fueramos 
fuerais 
fueran 

usted fuera, ustedes fue- 
ran 

Future. 
fuere, if I were, etc. 
fueljps 
fuere 
fueremos 
fuereis 
fueren 

usted fuere, ustedes fue- 
ren. 



AUXILIARY VERBS 



43 



Indicative. 

Future in the past. 

seria, I should be, etc. 
serias 
seria 
seriamos 
serials 
serian 

usted seria, ustedes se- 
rian. 



Imperative. 

se (tii), be (thou) ; sed, be 
(you). 

Past participle. 
side, been. 

Present participle. 
siendo, being. 



Vocabulary. 



almorzar, to lunch. 

atento, adj.^ attentive. 

automovil, m.y automobile, 
motor car. 

bizcocho, m.y biscuit. 

bollo, m.y cake. 

buscar, to look for. 

campo, m.y the country. 

Castillo, m.y castle. 

cerca, adv.y near ; cerca de, 
near. 

contar, to relate. 

contento,ae^'., content, satis- 
fied; contento de, satis- 
fied with. 

cosa,/., thing. 

I cudnto ?, adv., how much ? 
how long? 

cuatro (numeral), four. 

dar, to give ; daba, he gave. 

decir, to say ; dijo, he said. 

dulces, m, />/., sweetmeats. 

durar, to last. 

duro, adj.y hard. 

emparedado, w., sandwich. 

estar,tobe, to stay; estaba, 
he was ; estoy, I am ; 
estuvieron, they were. 



excelente, adj., excellent. 

fiambre, m.y cold meat. 

frutas,/. pLy fruit. 

genio, m.y character, dis- 
position. 

huevo, m.y egg ; huevos 
duros, hard-boiled eggs. 

idea,/., idea. 

ire, I shall go. 

necesario, adj.y necessary. 

ocupado, part.y adj.y occu- 
pied, busy. 

paseo, m.y walk ; paseo en 
coche, drive, 

persona,/., person. 

polio, m.y chicken ; polio 
asado, roast chicken. 

que, pron.y that, which. 

quedar, to remain, to stay, 
to be left ; to subsist. 

rio, m.y river. 

sardina,/, sardine. 

tal vez, perhaps. 

te, m,, tea. 

uno, una (numeral), one ; a 
la una, at one o'clock. 

vecindad,/, vicinity, neigh- 
bourhood. 



44 AUXILIARY VERBS 

Exercise. 
Los ninos estuvieron ayer casi todo el di'a en el campo 
con el maestro. El padre les dijo por la mafiana a Juan 
y Lucia: 'El maestro me dice que esta contento devosotros : 
yo tambi^n estoy contento de el y de vosotros. El Seiior 
Quijano os llevara al campo en nuestro automovil. Sed 
buenos y atentos con el ; es una persona excelente. Hay 
pocos hombres como el. Yo no puedo ir hoy con voso- 
tros : estoy muy ocupado en estos dias. Tal vez en la 
semana prdxima ire yo al campo tambien : entonces me 
acompanareis vosotros.* Cuando el padre acabo de hablar 
llamaron a la puerta. Era Don Manuel Quijano que venia 
a ensefiar la leccion. Quedo muy contento cuando los 
ninos le contaron que el padre les daba el automovil para 
ir a pasear. Don Manuel es hombre de muy buen genio : 
con los ninos es alegre como si fuera un nifio. La idea de 
ir al campo con sus discipulos lo lleno de alegn'a. Como 
el paseo duraria todo el dia, Juan y Lucia buscaron el 
fiambre que era necesario llevar. Almorzarian a la una, 
cerca del ri'o, y tomarian te a las cuatro en la vecindad del 
Castillo. Llevaron pan, huevos duros, carne fri'a, empare- 
dadosdejamon, sardinas, bollos, bizcochos, un polio asado, 
vino, frutas y dukes. Habia otras cosas para llevar; pero 
no eran necesarias. 

Conversation. 
I Donde estuvieron los ninos ayer con el maestro ? 
I Cuando estuvieron los ninos en el campo ? i Con quien 
estuvieron los ninos ayer en el campo ? i Estaba el padre 
contento de sus hijos (children) ? i Quien llevaria a los 
ninos en automovil ? i Que dijo del maestro el padre de los 
ninos ? i Hay muchos hombres como el maestro ? i Puede 
el padre ir con los ninos? i Cuando ira el padre a pasear 
con los ninos? <:, Cuando llamaron a la puerta? ^ Quien 
era ? i Quienes le contaron a Don Manuel que el padre 
les daba su automovil para pasear ? i Para que daba el 



AUXILIARY VERBS 45 

padre su automovil ? lA quien daba el padre el auto- 
m(5vil ? lEs Don Manuel hombre de buen genio ? ^ Es 
alegre ? i Cuanto duraria el paseo ? i Que era necesario 
llevar? ^^ Donde almorzarian ? ^ Donde tomarian el te? 
^ Que cosas llevaron para el almuerzo y para el te? 
I Habi'a otras cosas ? ^ Las llevaron ? 

Translate. 
We take tea at four o'clock. We lunch at one o'clock. 
At what time do they lunch in Spain ? At noon or at 
one o'clock. We were in town at one o'clock. He was 
not with us. You (singular) are an excellent man. My 
children are satisfied with their teacher. I wish to take 
a walk with my friends. We shall have eggs, cold meat, 
and fruit for luncheon. There is a boiled egg for you. There 
is ham for the teacher's friend. Cold ham is a good thing 
for luncheon. Can you pass me the wine? Where is it ? 
I cannot see it. There it is near the biscuits. 

IX 

REGULAR VERBS 

Conjugation of Hablar, /o speak, 

61, Subjunctive. 

Present. Past (2nd form). 

hable, I may speak, let me hablara, I might speak 

speak hablaras, thou mightest 

hables, thou mayest speak speak 

hable, he may speak, let hablara, he might speak 

him. speak habldramos,we might speak 

hablemos,w^e may speak, let hablarais, you might speak 

us speak hablaran, they might speak. 

hableis, you may speak, etc. 
hablen, they may speak, etc. 

Past (ist/orm). Future. 

hablase, I might speak liablare, if I should speak 

hablases, thou mightest hablares, if ihou wouldst 

speak speak 



46 



REGULAR VERBS 



hablase, he might speak 
hablasemos,we might speak 
hablaseiSy you might speak 
hablasen, they might speak. 



hablare, if he would speak 
habldremos, if we should 

speak 
hablareis, if you would 

speak 
hablaren, if they would 

speak. 



Imperative. 

habla, speak (thou) 
hablad, speak (you) 

Past participle, 
hablado, spoken. 

Present participle. 
hablando, speaking. 

Note. — The correspondence between the Spanish and 
English tenses of the verb is not exact. The translation 
suggested here for the subjunctive tenses is only applicable 
to a limited number of cases, as will be seen in the chapters 
dealing with the Spanish subjunctive. 

Aprender, to learn, 2.nd Conjugation, 
68. Indicative. 



Present, 

aprendo, I learn 
aprendes, thou learnest 
aprende, he learns 
aprendemoSy we learn 
aprendeis, you learn 
aprenden, they learn. 

Past. 

aprendiy I learnt, etc. 

aprendiste 

aprendi6 

aprendimos 

aprendisteis 

aprendieron. 



Imperfect, 

aprendia, I learnt, etc. 

aprendias 

aprendia 

aprendiamos 

aprendiais 

aprendian. 

Future. 
aprendere, I shall learn, etc. 
aprenderds 
aprenderd 
aprenderemos 
aprendereis 
aprender^iL 



REGULAR VERBS 



/. 



Future tnlEe past, 
aprenderia,! should learn, etc. 
aprenderias 
aprenUeria 
aprenderiamos 
aprenderiais 
aprenderian. 



^ 47 



Subjunctive. 



Present. 

aprenda, I may learn, etc. 

aprendas 

aprenda 

aprendamos 

aprenddis 

aprendan. 

Past (istform), 
aprendiese, if I should 

learn, etc. 
aprendieses 
aprendiese 
aprendi^semos 
aprendieseis 
aprendiesen. 



Past (^nd form), 

aprendiera, if I should 

learn, etc. 
aprendieras 
aprendiera 
aprendieramos 
aprendierais 
aprendieran. 

Future, 
aprendiere, that I might 

learn, etc. 
aprendieres 
aprendiere 
aprendieremos 
aprendiereis 
aprendieren. 



Imperative. 

aprende, learn (thou). 
aprended, learn (you). 

Past participle. Present participle. 

aprendido. aprendiendo. 



Vocabulary. 



adelantar,to make progress, 

to advance. 
afecto, m,j affection. 
agradar,^ to please ; me 

agrada, it pleases me, 

I Hke it. 



a menudo, adv,y often, fre- 
quently. 

America del Sur,/, South 
America. 

capital,/., capital (city). 

carta,/, letter. 



48 



REGULAR VERBS 



comerciante, ;;/., merchant. 

comunicacion, f., commu- 
nication. 

comunicar, to communicate. 

conocer, to know, to be 
acquainted with. 

correctamente, adv,^ cor- 
rectly. 

creer, to believe. 

Ae^^Qy prep.j since, from. 

dificultad,/., difficulty. 

entretanto, adv.y meanwhile. 

enviar, to send. 

escribir, to write. 

escrito,escrita,fl'^/., written. 

esperar, to wait. 

establecer, to establish. 

fechado, fechada, adj.^ 
dated. 

interesantejrt^/., interesting. 

Londres, London. 

mes, ni.y month. 

mill6n, m., million. 

modesto, adj., modest. 



nunca, adv., never. 
pasado, pasada, adj., past, 

last. 
placer, ;;/., pleasure. 
^oVyprep,, by; per medio, 

by means. 
progreso, ;;/., progress. 
querido, querida, a^', dear. 
recibir, to receive. 
Repiiblica Argentina, /., 

Argentine Republic. 
seguramente, adv.^ surely, 
sincere, sincera, adj,, sin- 
cere. 
tener, to have, to hold ; 

tuvo, he had. 
litil, adj,j useful. 
varies, variae, adj. pl.y 

several, various, 
veiiidero, venidera, adj.^ 

coming. 
verdad, /., truth ; en ver- 

dad, in truth, indeed. 
visitar, to visit. 



69. 

une 

des 

tres 

cuatre 

cinco 

seis 

siete 

oche 

nueve 

diez 

once 

doce 

trece 

caterce 

quince 



I 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
lo 
II 

12 
13 

H 
J5 



Numerals. 
diez y seis 
diez y siete 
diez y eche 
diez y nueve 
veinte 
veinte y une 
veinte y dos 
veinte y tres 
treinta 
cuarenta 
cincuenta 
sesenta 
setenta 
ochenta 
neventa 



16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21^ 
22 

23 
30 
40 

50 
60 

70 
80 
90 



ciento 100 

ciente une 101 

doscientos 200 

trescientos 300 



mil 

dos mil 

mil ocho- 
cientos 
noventa 

mil cuatro- 
cientos 
noventa 
y dos 



1000 
2000 



1890 



1492 



cien mil 100,000 



1 instead of veinte y uno . . . veinte y nueve, veintiuno 
veintinueve are frequently used in speech and writing. 



REGULAR VERBS 49 



Exercise. 



Los ninos recibieron hoy una carta de un amigo que 
vive en Buenos Aires, capital de la Republica Argentina. 
Este amigo se llama Antonio. Sus padres son espanoles, 
comerciantes ricos, establecidos en la America del Sur, 
desde el ano 1890. Antonio nunca ha viajado, es todavfa 
un nino ; pero sus padres desean enviarlo a Europa el ano 
venidero. Conoce a Juan y a Lucia, porque Don Manuel, 
que es amigo de los padres de Antonio, puso a sus discipulos 
en comunicacidn con el para que practicaran el espafiol. 
Hablar es cosa excelente para aprender un idioma, pero 
escribir cartas es tambien litil ejercicio. ^ No aprenderan 
ustedes el espafiol correctamente/ dijo el maestro a Juan 
y Lucia, 'si no escriben a menudo.' La carta de Antonio 
dice : ' Queridos amiguitos (little friends) : Recibi su carta 
fechada el 24 fveinte y cuatro) del mes pasado en Londres. 
Me agrada saber que hacen ustedes progresos en el estu- 
dio del espaiiol. Es una lengua fAcU, hermosa, muy util : 
setenta millones de personas hablan espanol en America 
y en Espana. Su carta esta bien escrita. La noticia que 
me dan de su viaje a Espana es muy interesante. Mis 
padres me dicen que el ano venidero me enviaran a 
Europa. Muy seguramente visitare la gran ciudad de 
Londres, donde espero tener el placer de ver a ustedes. 
Entretanto crean en el sincero afecto de su amigo que 
desea verlos.* Los nifios pudieron leer y entender la 
carta sin dificultad. En verdad estan ya adelantados 
en el estudio del espanol ; pero ellos no lo creen asf, 
porque son muy modestos. 

Conversation. 

I Qui^nes recibieron una carta hoy ? ^ De qui^n la 
recibieron? iDe d6nde la recibieron? Cuando la reci- 
bieron? ^Como se llama el amigo de los ninos? i Donde 
vive ? I Quienes son sus padres ? ^^ De qu^ pais son los 

2129 £ 



50 REGULAR VERBS 

padres de Antonio ? i Que es Buenos Aires ? i D6nde 
queda (is) la Republica Argentina ? i Cuando se estable- 
cleron los padres de Antonio en la America del Sur? 
I Qu6 desean ellos hacer con el nifio ? i Por que conocen 
Juan y Lucia a Antonio? <:, Quien los puso en comuni- 
cacion ? i Para que los puso en comunicacion ? lEs 
conveniente hablar un idioma para aprenderlo ? ,? Es con- 
veniente o necesario? <i,Que dijo el maestro a Juan y 
Lucia ? I Puede usted repetir la carta de Antonio ? 
I Cuando estaba fechada la carta de los ninos a Antonio ? 
I Que dice Antonio de la carta de sus amigos ? i Que cree 
Antonio de la lengua espanola ? i Donde hablan esa 
lengua ? i Cuando espera venir Antonio a Europa ? 
I Pudieron Juan y Lucia leer y entender la carta de su 
amigo de Buenos Aires ? i Estan el y ella adelantados en 
el espafiol ? i Creen ellos estar adelantados ? i Por que 
no lo creen ? 

Translate. 

The study of Spanish is useful. Seventy millions of 
people speak this language. Many nations communicate 
their ideas by means of it. Nineteen different countries 
and several dependencies (colonias) in Europe, America, 
and Australasia use this language. The Spaniards took 
it to America in the year 1492. It is a useful, clear, 
beautiful, and very interesting language. If a man can 
(sabe) speak or write Spanish he can communicate in this 
language with many millions of people who cannot speak 
any other language. You can travel in South America 
Irom Mexico [Mejico) to the Argentine Republic and 
speak Spanish always : the people will understand you. 
The study of Spanish is also necessary to learn the 
character of the people who speak it. 



REGULAR VERBS 



51 



Recibir, to receive. 


Third Conjugation. 


70. Indicative. 


Subjunctive, 


Present, 


Present. 


recibo 


reciba 


recibes 


recibas 


recibe 


reciba 


recibimos 


recibamos 


recibis 


recibais 


reciben. 


reciban. 


Past. 


Past (istform). 


recibi 


recibiese 


recibiste 


recibieses 


recibi6 


recibiese 


recibimos 


recibiesemos 


recibisteis 


recibieseis 


recibieron. 


recibiesen. 


Imperfect. 


Past [2nd form). 


recibia 


recibiera 


recibias 


recibieras 


recibia 


recibiera 


recibiamos 


recibieramos 


recibiais 


recibierais 


recibian. 


recibieran. 


Future. 


Future. 


recibire 


recibiere 


recibiras 


recibieres 


recibird 


recibiere 


recibiremos 


recibieremos 


recibireis 


recibiereis 


recibirdn. 


recibieren. 


Future in the past. 


Imperative. 


recibiria 


Present. 


recibirias 


recibe 


recibiria 


recibid. 


recibiriamos 


Past participle. 


recibiriais 


recibido. 


recibirian. 


Present participle. 




recibiendo. 



£ 2 



52 REGULAR VERBS 

a. There are in Spanish three different conjugations. 
The verbs ending in ar, in the infinitive, are of the first 
conjugation ; those ending in er belong to the second ; and 
ir is the ending of the third. In the regular verbs the 
stem (that is to say, what is left when ar, er, or ir is taken 
from the infinitive) remains unaltered in all moods and 
tenses. So habl-ar, to speak, is a regular verb of the first 
conjugation ; aprend-er, to learn, is a regular verb of the 

* second ; and recib-ir, to receive, belongs to the third. In 
the conjugation of these three verbs the stem — habl-, 
aprend-, recib-, serves, unaltered, to form all the tenses of 
the verbs : habl-o, habl-e, habl-ase ; aprend-ia, aprend- 
ere, aprend-iere; recib-iria, recib-id, recib-iendo. All 

. the regular verbs, according to their ending, are conjugated 
on the models habl-ar, aprend-er, recib-ir, the conjuga- 
tions of which have been already given. 

b. The compound tenses are formed in Spanish by 
means of the auxiliary haber and the past participle of the 
respective verb : 

He hablado. I have spoken. 

Cuando el hubo hablado, termin6 la sesi6n. 

When he finished speaking, the sitting ended. 

Ella habia aprendido la lecci6n cuando volvi de com- 
pras. 

She had learned her lesson when I returned from 
shopping. 

Yo no habria recibido su carta, sin demorar mipartida. 

I should not have received her letter, had I not delayed 
my departure. 

Habre acabado el trabajo, cuando usted regrese. 

1 shall have finished the work when you return. 

The Tenses of the Indicative Mood. 
71. — The Spanish present tense of the indicative mood is 
used generally with the same meaning as in English : 
Conozco los pormenores del negocio. 
I know the particulars of the business. 



REGULAR VERBS 53 

Vivo por lo regular en el campo, durante el invierno. 

I live customarily in the country during the winter. 
Deseo a usted buen viaje. 
I wish you a good voyage. 

a. The verbal forms known in English as progressive or 
continuous present are also used in Spanish. The verb estar 
takes the place of the English to be, 
Estd lloviendo, it is raining. 

They are not so widely used in Spanish as in EngHsh : 
llueve means ' it rains' or *it is raining'. 

72. — The perfect, formed with the verb to have and 
the past participle, refers to an action that has already 
happened, but of which we wish to imply that some 
traces are still noticeable, as though the action had just 
ceased. 

He visto a mi amigo. I have seen my friend. 

This shade of meaning marks the difference between the 
perfect and the past. 

Mi padre murio el ano pasado. My father died last year. 

a. When a date or a. special time is expressed in the 
sentence the perfect should not be used. It would not 
be correct to say in Spanish : mi padre ha muerto el 
ano pasado. 

73. — The imperfect is used to represent an action that 
coincides either in part of its duration or all of it with 
another past action. 

Hablaban recio, cuando entre. They were talking aloud 

as I went in. 

a. In some cases the imperfect is used to make the expression 
more vivid or to lend a certain touch of actuality. 

iConocio usted a Castelar ? Fue el mejor orador de su tiempo. 
iConocio usted a Castelar ? Era el mejor orador de su tiempo. 
Did you know Castelar ? He was the best orator of his time. 

The two Spanish expressions have the same meaning, but 
the second suggests that the person mentioned is still present 
in the mind's eye of the speaker. 



54 • REGULAR VERBS 

74. — ^There is scarcely any difference between the 
Spanish and the English use of the future tense of the 
indicative. 

Ver^ mafiana a Pedro en el teatro. 

I shall see Peter to-morrow at the theatre. 

76. — The future in the past (hablaria, aprenderia, 
recibiria) is generally used in conditional sentences, as we 
shall see in connexion with the subjunctive dependent 
statements. It is also used to express probability or con- 
j ecture : 

Seria mejor esperar, it would be better to wait. 

As a tense of the indicative mood it refers to an action 
that happens after a past fact : 

Dijo que vendria hoy, he said he would come to-day. 

Nos asegur6 que manana estaria acabada la obra. 

He assured us that the work would be finished to- 
morrow. 

76. — The verb tener (to have, to hold) is also used in a few cases 
to form compound tenses. The tenses so formed have usually 
the same meaning as those resulting from the combination of 
haber with the past participle of other verbs ; but occasionally 
there is a difference that can be more easily perceived than 
defined. 

He dicho que salgan. I have said that they may go out. 
Les tango dicho que salgan. I have told them to go out. 
He terminado la tarea. I have finished the task. 
Tengo terminada la obra. I have the work finished. 

a. The employment of the verb tener in the formation of 
compound tenses is limited to verbs used transitively : it would 
be wrong to say tengo dormido for he dormido, I have slept. 

b. The participle used with tener is not invariable as in the 
case of the compound tenses formed with haber : 

Est6 usted seguro de que para cuando vengan tendr6 

aderezada la cena. 
Be sure that I will have the supper ready when they arrive. 
Tuve preparadas las camas desde las diez. 
I had the beds ready since ten o'clock. 



REGULAR VERBS 



^ 



Vocabulary. 



ademds, adv.y besides. 

antes, adv,y before. 

bajar, to come down, to go 
down. 

campo, m.y the country. 

casar, to marry. 

comer, to eat, to dine. 

crecer, to grow, to grow up. 

cuarto, m., room. 

dejar, to leave. 

descansar, to rest. 

edad,/., age. 

encontrar, to find, to find 
out. 

escuela,/, school ; escuela 
de primeras letras, pri- 
mary school. 

fatigado, fatigada, adj., 
tired, fatigued. 

fortuna,/, fortune. 

gracioso, a^'., graceful. 

gramdtica,/, grammar. 

guapo, guapa, adj., good- 
looking, pretty. 

gustar de, to like, to be 
fond of. 

hacer, to do; hacer pro- 
vecho, to do good. 

hora, /, hour ; i que hora 
es ?, what o'clock is it ? 

India (la),/, India. 

instante, w., instant. 

junto, adj, adv.^ together, 
near by. 

Idstima, /, pity, compas- 
sion ; es lastima, it is 
a pity. 

manana, /., morning ; ma- 
nana, adv., to-morrow. 



marido, m., husband. 

medio, adj., half; media 
hora, half an hour. 

minuto, m., minute. 

motivo, m.y motive. 

muebles, m. pL, furniture ; 
un mueble, a piece of 
furniture. 

parecer, to seem ; parece 
bien, it seems right. 

pariente, parienta, m, and 
f., relative. 

pensar, to think; piensa, 
he thinks, she thinks or 
you think. 

permanecer, to stay. 

preparar, to prepare. 

provecho, m., profit, good, 
advantage ; le hace pro- 
vecho, it does him good. 

senorita, /., young lady. 
Miss. 

s£, pron., himself, herself, 
itself, themselves ; para 
si, for himself, for herself. 

solamente, solo, adv., only. 

tarde,/., afternoon ; tarde, 
adv., late. 

tiempo, m., time, weather; ' ,^ 
buen tiempo, good wea- 
ther. 

tocador, ;;/., dressing-table ; 
objetos de tocador, dres- 
sing-table requisites. 

traer, to bring; trajo, he 
brought. 

ver, to see ; veia, he or she 
saw [imperfect). 

vQZ,f., time, occasion. 



56 REGULAR VERBS 

Exercise. 

Una amiga de los niiios, llamada Magdalena, que vive 
siempre en el campo, vino esta manana a visitarlos. Trajo 
varias cosas, porque piensa permanecer una semana. El 
viaje de su casa a Londres duro cuatro horas y unos 
minutos. Llego un poco fatigada. Lucia la llevo al cuarto 
que habia preparado para ella y alii la dejo reposar unos 
instantes. Magdalena llego a las cinco de la tarde. Tuvo 
tiempo para descansar dos horas antes de bajar a comer. 
En su cuarto encontro todos los muebles y objetos de 
tocador necesarios : pudo no haber traido ella muchas de 
las cosas que trajo. 

Lucia esta muy contenta con k visita de su amiga. No 
la veia desde los tiempos en que estudiaban juntas en la 
escuela de primeras letras. Magdalena ha crecido mucho : 
es una seiiorita muy guapa y muy graciosa : tiene diez y 
siete afios solamente, pero parece tener veinte. La vida 
del campo le hace provecho. 

Lucia piensa llevar a su amiga a conocer en Londres los 
lugares mas importantes. Manana iran a tiendas. Seria 
una lastima para Magdalena regresar al campo sin conocer 
las tiendas de Londres. Ademas tiene que comprar 
vestidos para si y para su madre y hermanas. Tal vez 
era este, despues de visitar a su amiga, el motivo principal 
de su viaje. 

La familia de Magdalena no gusta de venir a la ciudad. 
En tres aiios solo han estado en Londres una vez, por 
visitar a una parienta que se habia casado y dejaba a 
Inglaterra para ir a vivir con su marido a la India. 

Conversation. 

I Quien vino a ver a los niiios ? i Donde vive Magda- 
lena siempre ? i Cuando llego ella ? i Que trajo Magda- 
lena ? I Cuanto tiempo piensa permanecer en Londres ? 
I Cuantas horas dura el viaje de la casa de Magdalena a 



REGULAR VERBS 57 

Londres ? i Como llego ella ? i Quien la llevo a su 
cuarto ? (i, Donde la dejo Lucia? ^A que hora llego? 
I Tuvo tiempo para descansar antes de comer ? i Que 
encontro en su cuarto ? 

I Desde cuando no vei'a Lucia a Magdalena? i Donde 
estuvieron juntas ? i Cuantos aiios tiene Magdalena ? <;, Es 
muy crecida para su edad ? ^j, Es guapa ? i Es buena la 
vida del campo para ella ? i Quien llevara a Magdalena 
a conocer Londres ? i Regresara Magdalena sin conocer 
las tiendas de Londres ? i Que piensa comprar ? ^ Para 
qui^n comprara vestidos ? i Cual fue el principal motivo 
de su visita a Londres ? lY despues ? 

^ Gusta la familia de Magdalena de venir a la ciudad ? 
^Cuantas veces han estado en Londres en tres anos? 
^A quien venian a visitar? ^Adonde iba su parienta? 
I Con quien iba ? 

Translate. 

My friend is coming [viene) to London to see me. He 
can stay only a month : it is a pity. 1 expect to see him 
next week. It seems (that) he is not very well. He 
wishes to take a rest. It would be good to travel. The 
weather is good. 

The children go to school : they stay at school six 
hours, from ten to four, five days of the week. It does 
them good. They like to go to school. They will learn 
useful thmgs. They are studying grammar. 

They can read and write their language. When I was 
at school I liked grammar very much. Now I am 
studying other things. 

The children will be at school all the year. They learn 
many things at home, besides. 

What time is it? When are you coming? It would 
be well to wait. In an hour the teacher will be here. 
We shall go with him to the country. He likes the 
country. Magdalena goes with us. Another young lady 



58 REGULAR VERBS 

will be with her. — What is her name ? — We do not know : 
we never saw her before. She was not at the school when 
we were studying. 

X 

THE ADJECTIVE 

Degrees of Comparison. 

77. — Most adjectives form the comparative in Spanish 
with the adverb mas (more) placed before the positive 
form. 

rico, rich ; mds rice, richer. 

dure, hard ; mas dure, harder. 

a, A few adjectives change their form in the comparative 
degree. 

bueno, good ; mejor, better. 
male, bad ; peor, worse. 

Saber es mejor que ate- To know is better than to 

sorar riquezas. hoard riches. 

No puede decirse que el It cannot be said that cold 

frio sea siempre peor is always worse than 

que el calor. heat. 

h. The regular forms mds bueno, mds male are also 
used, but less often. 

c. The comparatives of grande, great, and pequeno, 
little, are mayor, greater, and menor, smaller. They 
serve specially to denote abstract differences : 

Quien navega corre un He who travels by sea runs 

gran peligro, pero quien a great risk, but he who 

vuela corre un peligro flies runs greater risk. 
mayor. 

La falta es pequena, el The offence is slight, the 

castigo menor. punishment slighter. 

Mi hermano es mayor que My brother is two years 
yo dos anos. older than I am. 



THE ADJECTIVE 59 

Luis es menor que los Luis is younger than the 
otros tres estudiantes. other three students. 

In other cases the ordinary form of comparison is pre- 
ferred. 

El huesped pidio una cu- The guest asked for a larger 
chara mds grande. spoon. 

d. It should be noted that the word than of the English 
comparative is rendered in Spanish by que. 

El sabe mds que yo y me- He knows more than I and 
nos que su hermano. less than his brother. 

e. Inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, ulterior are 
not always used as comparatives in Spanish. They follow 
the rules of the ordinary adjectives and do not require the 
conjunction que but the preposition a after them, when 
a comparison is meant. 

Es superior a la calumnia. He is above slander. 
Es inferior al desden. He is beneath contempt. 

/. Comparison of equaHty is expressed in Spanish by 
tan . . . como, tanto . . . come. 

Es tan bueno como lo pa- He is as good as he seems 
rece. to be. 

Demonstrative Adjectives. 

78. — There are in Spanish three demonstrative adjectives 
corresponding to the three persons of the personal pro- 
nouns. Este is the thing or person near the speaker, ese 
is the thing or person near the person addressed, aquel is 
the thing or person remote from both. 
Le doy este libro para que I am giving you this book to 

lo conserve. keep. 

Acerqueme esa silla. Pass me that chair. 

^Alcanza usted a ver Can you see those trees 

aquellos arboles? yonder? 

79. — The following are the forms of the demonstrative 
adjectives: 

Este, this (masc.) ese, that (masc.) 

Esta, this (fem.) esa, that (fem.) 

Estos, these (masc. pi.) esos, those (masc. pi.) 

Estas, these (fem. pi.). esas, those (fem. pi.). 



6o THE ADJECTIVE 

Aquel, that (masc.) 
Aquella, that (fern.) 
Aquellos, those (masc. pi.) 
Aquellas, those (fern. pi.). 

80. — When used substantively, that is, when the sub- 
stantive to which they refer is not expressed or when they 
follow the substantive, the demonstratives are accentuated. 

No quiero este sino ese. I do not want this, but that 

one. 
No es este el que yo co- This is not the one I know, 

nozco sino aquel. but that. 

El perro ese. That particular dog. 

81. — Este and aquel are used in the sense of the latter 
and the former: 

El agua y el aire lo sal- Water and air saved him : 

varon; aquella^ le ofrecio the former gave him food, 

sustento, este* guio su the latter guided his boat 

barco a un lugar seguro. to a safe spot. 

a, Aquel means also remote times when not used in 
connexion with este, 

Aquellos fueron dias de Those were days of great 
gran terror. terror. 

82. — There is a neuter form esto, eso, aquello used with 
reference to ideas previously expressed. 

Esto es lo que refiere la This is what the newspaper 

gaceta. says. 

Aquello no parecia con- That did not seem to be in 

forme con los hechos. accord with the facts. 

Eso y lo que usted dice That and what you say are 

estdn en contradicci6n. in conflict. 

Reflexive Pronouns. 

83. — The forms of the personal pronouns for the first 
and second persons do not change in the reflexive con- 
struction. 

Me contento con patatas. I content myself with 

potatoes. 



THE ADJECTIVE 6i 

Tii te abanicas. You fan yourself. 

Nos alabamos. We praise ourselves. 

Vuelve en ti. Control yourself. 

84. — In the third person the form se takes the place of 
the direct and indirect object in reflexive constructions. 
After a preposition si is used instead of se. 

]fcl se conoce. He knows himself. 

Ella se da al estudio. She gives herself upto study. 

Ellos se establecieron en Theysettled in Madrid; they 

Madrid. came to reside in Madrid. 

Ellas se admiran a si mis- They admire themselves, 

mas. 

Lo dijo para si. He said it to himself. 

a. It is to be noted that the reflexive constructions in 
Spanish do not always correspond to a reflexive form in 
English. 

85.— Se is also used in Spanish to denote the reciprocal 
action of the verb, in the third person plural, both for the 
direct and indirect object : 

Se odian. They hate each other. 

Seprodiganalabanzasmu- They lavish praise on each 
tuas. other. 

a. The reciprocal forms of the third person, singular and 
plural, after a preposition are rendered by si. 

Fastidia, habla siempre de He bores, he is always 
si. ^ talking about himself. 

Volvieron en si, despues de They recovered their senses 
un gran susto. after a great fright. 

Tienen querellas entre si. They have quarrels amongst 

themselves. 

b. Si preceded by the preposition con makes a single 
word with it and adds go (see § 59, c), 

Ella traia consigo un perro She was bringing a lap-dog 
faldero. with her. 

c. The form si cannot be used after the preposition sin, 
because this preposition can scarcely take a reflexive or 
reciprocal sense. 



62 THE ADJECTIVE 

d. The Academy in its Spanish Grammar lays it down 
that in some cases the sense excludes the use of si in re- 
flexive sentences and gives the following examples : 

Mendoza llev6 a la exposicidn Mendoza took to the exhibition 
su retrato hecho por el. his portrait painted by him- 

self 

Mis amigos de Villaviciosa My Villaviciosa friends sent 
me enviaron flores, cul- me some flowers that they 

tivadas per ellos. had cultivated themselves. 

There is nothing reflexive in these examples. Flores cul- 
tivadas por ellos is not a reflexive sentence : in the reflexive 
sentence the subject and the object are one and the same. 

86. — In Spanish there are certain constructions with se 
which are reflexive only in form. (See § 310.) 

Se sabe. It is known. 

Se dijo entonces. It was then said. 

Se conocian las intencio- The intentions of the enemy 
nes del enemigo.^ were known (one knew 

the intentions . . .). 

87. — In some cases se is simply the form le or les 
altered for the purpose of avoiding the alliteration resulting 
from the concurrence of the direct and indirect forms of 
the pronoun of the third person singular or plural, and has 
no reflexive meaning : 
Se lo di (= Le lo di). I gave it him. 

Digaselo. Tell him so. 

Pusoselo en la mano (= He put it in his hand. 

Puso le lo en la mano). 
Se lo avise a ellos. I made them aware of it.^ 

^ Se is here the equivalent of the Frencii on {on sait, on dit), which is 
a contraction of the word homnte (man). Ii> Spanish we also use the 
indeterminate pronoun uno in phrases of this kind : 

Uno sabe a qu6 atenerse cuando One knows what one can depend 

habla con gentes dignas de upon when one is speaking to 

confianza. trustworthy people. 

Una necesita el apoyo del hom- One needs the support of man (see 

bre (a woman speaking) § i6i, a). 

2 Note that in the use of these forms se is always put first. Se te 
espera a las diez, you are expected at ten ; se nos notifico la de- 
manda, we were served with the writ. Te goes before me, and le or 
lo is the last. 



THE ADJECTIVE 63 

88. — The reflexive Spanish form is often translated in 
English by means of an ordinary transitive verb and the 
corresponding possessive pronoun : 

Se corta las unas. He cuts his nails. 

Se leerizaron los cabellos. His hair stood on end. 



The Superlative. 

89. — The superlative is formed in Spanish either by 
means of the adverb muy placed before the adjective or by 
adding the termination isimo, isima. 

Muy bueno, very good. 
Bellisimo, very handsome. 

90. — The last vowel of the adjective, when it ends in 
a vowel, is dropped to add the termination isimo or isima. 
Triste, sad ; tristisimo, very sad. Adjectives of three or 
more syllables, having the stress on the antepenultimate and 
endingin eo, ico, fero, vomo, do not admit of this inflection. 
Adjectives ending in co change c to qu to preserve the hard 
sound of c : rice, riquisimo ; and those ending in go 
change the g to gu to preserve the sound : amargo, bitter ; 
amarguisimo. 

91. — Adjectives having the diphthongs ie or ue in the 
stressed syllable change these letters into e or o when the 
termination is added. Ardiente, ardentisimo; bueno, 
bonisimo. But the change does not take place when the 
original Latin word has the ie or ue. Paciente (patiens\ 
pacientisimo ; frecuente {/requens\ frecuentisimo. Yet 
fiero {{rom ferus) makes fierisimo. 

92. — The following superlatives are irregular in their 
formation : benevolo, benevolent — benevolentisimo, very, 
most benevolent; fiel, faithful — fidelisimo, very faithful; 
sagrado, sacred — sacratisimo, most sacred. Adjectives 
ending in io double the vowel i in the superlatives : pic 
(pious), piisimo (most pious). Some adjectives have two 
forms for the superlative : pobre (poor), pobrisimo and 



64 



THE ADJECTIVE 



paup^rrimo ; f^rtil (fertile), fertillsimo and uberrimo ; 
bueno (good), bonisimo and 6ptimo; malo (bad), malisimo 
and p6simo; grande (great), grandisimo and mdximo; 
pequeno (small, little), pequenisimo and minimo. Note 
that the second form is the Latin superlative. 

93. — There is no exact correspondence as regards the 
use of the superlative in English and Spanish. Juan es 
alto, Luis es altlsimo y Carlos es el mas alto de los 
tres ; John is tall, Louis is very tall, and Charles is the 
tallest of the three. The first superlative (altfsimo) cannot 
be rendered in English by tallest, and the second, which is 
rendered in English by the tallest, is expressed in Spanish 
by the article and the comparative form followed by de. 
El mejor vino del mundo, the best wine in the world. 
Note in this case the use of the preposition de instead of 
the English itt, 

94. — Conjugation of Estar, to be, to stay , to remain. 



Indicative. 
Present, 

estoy, I am 

estds, thou art 

estd, he is 

estamos, we are 

estdis, you are 

estdn, they are. 
Past. 

estuve, I was 

estuviste, thou wast 

estuvo, he was 

estuvimos, we were 

estuvisteis, you were 

estuvieron, they were. 
Imperfect, 

estaba, I was 

estabas, thou wast, 
etc. [regular). 



Subjunctive. 
Present. 
est6, I be, etc. 
est6s 
este 

estemos 
est^is 
esten. 

Past (ist form), 
estuviese, I were 
estiivieses, thou wert 
estuviese, he were 
estuviesemos, we were 
estuvieseis, you were 
estuviesen, they were. 

Past (2nd form), 
estuviera, I were 
estuvieras, thou wert 
estuviera, he were 
estuvi^ramos, we were 
estuvierais, you were 
estuvieran, they were. 



Indicative. 
Future. 

estare, I shall be, etc. 
(regular). 

Future in the past. 

estaria, I should be, etc. 
(regu/ar). 



THE ADJECTIVE 

Subjunctive. 



^5 



Future. 
estuviere, if I were, etc. 
estuvieres 
estuviere 
estuvieremos 
estuviereis 
e^tuvieren. 



Imperative. 

estd, be (thou) 
estad, be (you'. 

Past participle, 
estado, been. 

Present participle. 
estando, being. 
a. Estar and ser, though corresponding in most cases 
to the English verb to he^ are not interchangeable in 
Spanish : in fact the correct use of these two verbs is 
a crucial test of the student's mastery of the language. 
The rule most easy of application is that ser implies 
permanency and estar implies position as well as tem- 
p(5fary'ortransitory states of being. 

La tierra es redonda. The earth is round. 

La verdad fue siempre ene- Truth was always the eremy 



miga del error 
La piata estd cara en estos 

dias. 
Estuve ayer en el campo. 



of error. 
Silver is dear nowadays. 



I was in the country yes- 
terday. 

This rule is not always applicable, and the best plan is to 
follow good usage. 

Vocabulary. 



acarrear, to bring upon, to 

bring to, to carry. 
adoptar, to adopt. 
arriesgar, to risk. 

2129 



auraento, m., increase, 
autor, m.^ author, writer, 
beneficio, w., benefit, fa- 
vour. 



66 



THE ADJECTIVE 



bien, m,y good ; adv,^ well. 

castellano, adj.^ Castilian. 

caudal, ;;/., wealth, plenty. 

circulaci6n,/., circulation. ^ 

colegio, m.y college. 

companero, ;w., companion. 

contribuir, to contribute ; 
contribuye, he contri- 
butes. 

correr, to run ; correr a, 
to hasten to. 

desconocido, adj\y un- 
known. 

dinero, m,y money. 

docena,/., dozen. 

en vez de, instead of. 

escoger, to choose, to se- 
lect. 

establecer, to establish ; 
se establece, he settles 
down. 

extraer, to draw, to extract. 

festive, adj\y festive, humo- 
rous. 

f ranees, adj,^ French. 

ganar, to win, to earn. 

hacer, to make ; hizo, he 
made. 

heroe, m.^ hero. 

hijo, m.y son. 

inmenso, adj.y immense. 

invertir, to invest, to invert. 

justo, adj.y just. 

ligar, to attach, to bind. 

lograr, to get, to attain. 

mejora,/., improvement. 

mitad,/., half. 

mode, fn,y mode, manner; 
de modo que, so that. 

natal, adj\y native, natal. 

natural, adj\y native, na- 
tural. 

ni, conj\y nor, neither. 



nieto, m.y grandson. 

pdgina,/, page. 

penetrance, adj.y keen, pene- 
trating, shrewd. 

perder, to lose ; pierde, he 
loses. 

poblacion,/., population. 

pocos, pocas, adj. ply few. 

poder, can ; podia, he 
could. 

poner, to put; pongo, I 
put ; pone, he puts ; 
puso, he put. 

popular, adj.y popular. 

per lo menos, at least. 

premie, m.y reward. 

privado, adj,y private. 

producir, to produce. 

proporcionar, to provide. 

pues, conj.y because, as, 
then. 

recuperar, to recover, to 
get back. 

sacar, to draw, to draw 
out. 

sentido, m.y sense, mean- 
ing. 

siglo, m.y century. 

sociedad,/., society. 

sorpresa,/., surprise. 

suelo, m.y soil, land, ground. 

tomar, to take; tomar 
carino, to become at- 
tached. 

venir, to come ; vino, he 
came. 

ventaja,/., advantage, bene- 
fit, gain. 

volver, to return, to come 
back. 

vuelta, /., return; a la 
vuelta de, within, in the 
course of. 



THE ADJECTIVE 67 



Exercise. 

Juan y Lucia tuvieron hoy una agradable sorpresa. El 
maestro les hizo leer una pagina de un escritor espaiiol 
para ver si la entendian. Este escritor es Mariano Jose 
de Larra, uno de los mas populares entre los autores 
espaiioles de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Nacio en 
Madrid el 24 de Marzo de 1809. Cuando tenia ocho afios 
paso a Francia con su padre e hizo en las escuelas de 
aquel pais sus primeros estudios, de mode que, de (as) 
nino, sabi'a mejor la lengua francesa que la espanola; 
pero al volver a Espana, en 181 7, a un colegio de Madrid, 
recupero inmediatamente el uso de su lengua natal, en 
que vino a ser modelo. Esta es la pagina del festivo 
escritor castellano : ^ Un extranjero que corre a un pais 
que le es desconocido, para arriesgar en el sus caudales, 
pone en circulacion un capital nuevo, contribuye al bien 
de la sociedad, a quien hace un inmenso beneficio con su 
talento y su dinero. Si pierde es un heroe ; si gana, es 
muy justo que logre el premio de su trabajo (work), pues 
nos proporciona ventajas que no podiamos acarrearnos 
solos. Este extranjero que se establece en este pais 
no viene a sacar de el el dinero ; a la vuelta de media 
docena de anos, no es extranjero ya, ni puede ser extran- 
jero ; sus intereses y su familia le (or lo) ligan al nuevo 
pais que ha adoptado ; toma carino al suelo donde ha 
hecho su fortuna, al pueblo donde ha escogido una com- 
pafiera ; sus hijos son espafioles y sus nietos seran tambien 
espanoles ; en vez de extraer el dinero ha venido a dejar 
un capital que trai'a, invirtiendolo y haciendolo producir ; 
ha dejado otro capital de talento, que vale por lo menos 
tanto como el dinero; ha dado de comer a los pocos o 
muchos naturales que ha ocupado (employed) necesaria- 
mente ; ha hecho una mejora y ha contribuido al aumento 
de la poblacion con su nueva familia.' El maestro cambio 

F 2 



68 THE ADJECTIVE 

algunas palabras y frases para hacer mas facil el sentido 
y los nifios entendieron muy bien. 

Conversation. 

I Qaien habia preparado una sorpresa para los nifios ? 
^Que sorpresa fue esta ? iQm6n fue Mariano Jose de 
Larra ? i Donde y cuando nacio ? i Que edad tenia cuando 
fue a vivir a Francia ? i Con quien fue a Francia ? i Donde 
hizo sus primeros estudios? i Que lengua aprendio cuando 
era nino? i En que ano volvio a Espana? <i, Sabia todavia 
el espanol ? i Como contribuye un extranjero al bien del 
pais a donde va a establecerse ? c, Es justo que gane dinero 
en el pais ? i Saca el dinero del pais donde se establece ? 
I Continua siempre siendo extranjero ? i Quienes le ligan 
al pais de adopcion ? i For que se toma carino al pais 
adoptado ? i Son extranjeros sus hijos y sus nietos ? 
I Que otro capital invierte que no es dinero ? i Cuanto 
vale ese capital ? ^ A quien da de comer ? i Quienes 
aumentan la poSlacion del pais ? i Entendieron los nifios 
la pagina de Larra? ^ Q^^ ^"^i^o el maestro con algunas 
palabras y frases ? ^^ Para que hizo el cambio ? 

Translate. 

A book written by Mariano Jose de Larra. I can under- 
stand many pages of this book, but I cannot understand 
it all. Larra was a shrewd writer ; he was also humorous. 
There are many Spanish authors. Cervantes is the best. 
His best book is Don Quixote, This book is gay and also 
very sad. 

Spain is a large country in Europe, France is larger, 
Russia is the largest. France is very rich, but England 
is the richest. South America is a very large continent. 
It is not very well known in Europe. It is said that South 
America is a very rich continent. It is known that South 
America will be very rich. 



THE ADJECTIVE 69 

There is a desire to know where his house is. He settled 
down in Madrid. He knows himself. She decided {se 
decidid) to leave to-morrow. He was told the truth. He 
is not known. She will be called to-day. 

Translate. 
Esta casa es nueva, aquella es novi'sima. Un autor 
jovialisimo y poco conocido. Su libro se entiende facil- 
mente. El espafiol es una lengua facil ; mas facil que 
el frances o el italiano. La mailana ha sido clara ; el di'a 
sera clarisimo. Se (I know) que Enrique llegara mafiana. 
Dice que permanecera en Londres un mes o cinco semanas. 
Piensa en ese tiempo conocer las cosas mas importantes 
de la ciudad. Desea volver a Madrid. Visitara a Pan's. 
Sus amigos de Francia desean verlo. Enrique ha vivido 
en Pan's muchos anos. Tiene muchos amigos en esa 
ciudad. Dice que vivin'a en Pan's con agrado. 

XI 

NEUTER GENDER— RELATIVE 
PRONOUNS 

95. — If we take into consideration simply the agreement 
of noun and adjective there are two genders in Spanish : 
masculine and feminine. But certain pronouns and adjec- 
tives when used to refer to ideas, predicates, or statements 
previously expressed have a neuter gender. 

Se esto porque Juan me lo I know this, because John 
dijo. told it me. 

Esto and lo belong to the neuter gender. If instead of 
the word esto, which means, in this case, something of 
a general character to which reference has been made, we 
use a noun of the feminine or masculine gender, both esto 
and lo should give place to the corresponding masculine 
or feminine forms. 



70 NEUTER GENDER 

^Sabeslanoticia? — Lase, Have you heard the news? 

porque Juan me la dijo — Yes^ I know it because 

y es esta : el Ministro John told me it, and it is 

ha muerto. this : the Minister is dead. 

96. — Adjectives used substantively to express abstract 
qualities are preceded by the neuter form of the article : 

Lo bueno. What is good. 

Lo litil antes que lo agra- Usefulness before pleasure. 

dable. 

Lo futuro depende de lo The future depends on the 

presente. present. 

Lo mio y lo tuyo. What is mine and what is 

yours. 

97.— EUo is the neuter form of the pronoun of the third 
person. 

EUo puede ser cierto, pero It may be true, but I do not 
yo no lo creo. believe it. 

a. The forms for the direct and indirect object of the 
third person neuter are lo and le respectively. 

Ha llegado la reina, pero The queen has arrived, but 
lo ocultan. the fact is concealed. 

Lo replaces the statement * ha llegado la reina '. 

In ha llegado la reina, pero la ocultan, the meaning is : 

the queen has arrived, but they are concealing her. 

Las gacetas lo afirman, yo The newspapers state it, I 
no le doy credito. (Le, give no credence to it. 
indirect object.) 

98. — The neuter forms of the demonstrative pronouns 
are : esto, eso, aquello. They are used with reference to 
place and relation in accordance with the same rules as 
the masculine and feminine forms. 

Esto y lo que dice el diario This and what the news- 
precipito mi viaje.^ paper says hastened my 

departure. 

^ Note tliat after two or more subjects of the neuter gender the verb 
is in the singular. 



NEUTER GENDER 71 

Eso no estd bien. That is not right. 

La lucha fue recia para lo- The struggle to get that was 
grar aquello. hard. 

99. — The infinitive form of the verb, which is often used 
in Spanish as a noun, can be referred to in another sen- 
tence only by means of a neuter form of the pronoun. 

Desea estudiar, pero se He wants to stud}^, but he 
desentiende de ello fa- is prone to neglect doing 
cilmente. so. 

a. It is to be noted that when the infinitive is used with 
the definite article the form required is that of the mas«u- 
line gender, but even in this case it must afterwards be 
referred to by means of the neuter form of the pronoun : 

El madrugar es sano ; es To rise early is wholesome ; 
precisoacostumbrarsea it is necessary to get used 
ello. to it. 

a. A predicative noun, whether masculine or feminine, is 
always referred to in the neuter gender: 

(■Es usted la reina ? — Si lo Are you the queen? — Yes, 

soy. I am. 

t, Es usted mi vecino ? — Eso Are you my neighbour?— 

es. Precisely. 

100.— Note the idiomatic use of the neuter gender in the 
following expressions, both colloquial and literary : 
Lo melancolica que estaba la The sadness that pervaded the 

tarde. afternoon. 

Lo caras que estaban las The dearness that prevailed 

frutas. in fruit. 

; Y eso que era muy pobre ! And very poor at that. 

A eso de las diez. Towards ten o'clock. 

Ello es que su carrera esta The fact is that his career is 

cortada. cut short. 



Relative Pronouns. 

101. — The relative pronouns in Spanish are que (invari- 
able), that ; quien, quienes, who ; el cual, la cual, los 
cuales, las cuales, which ; cuyo, cuya, cuyos, cuyas, 

whose. 



72 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

102. — Que may be used with reference both to persons 
and things : 

El comerciante que vive The merchantwhoHves near 

cerca de tu casa. your house. 

El viento que pasa. The passing wind. 

a. Que may also be used in referring to clauses and 
predicative nouns or adjectives, whether preceding or 
following : 

Fue llamada la isla San The island was called Saint 
Juan de Ulua, en que John of Ulua, in which 

anduvo la devocion mez- devotion and flattery were 
clada con la lisonja. mixed together. 

El suelo de Holanda, de The soil of Holland, un- 
esteril e ingrato que era, grateful and barren as it 
se ha convertido en un was, has been turned into 
jardin continuado. one continuous garden. 

b. In its invariable form que may be either subject or 
object according to the nouns which it represents : 

Este es el nino que llego This is the boy who arrived 

ayer {subj\). yesterday. 

El libro que divierte e in- The book that entertains 

struye eselmejor(67//>/'.). and gives information is 

the best. 

Las casas que vendio el The houses the bank sold. 

banco (obj.). 

Los sucesos de que hago The events I recall to mind. 

memoria [obj.), 

c. Note that que, as a relative, cannot be omitted in 
Spanish as in English. 

d. Que may be used in connexion with the article, and 
then it is the equivalent of who, he who, those who, that 
which, etc. With the neuter article it means ' what '. 

El que te adula te agravia. He who flatters you, insults 

you. 

Cuando llego la niiia com- When the girl arrived we 
prendimos que ella era saw that she was the one 
la que el venia a buscar. he was looking for. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



73 



El premio pertenecera a 
los que Ueguen primero. 

^TienQ usted el libro que 
busco ? — No, sino el que 
dejo aqui D. Pedro. 

Lo que dicen es cierto. 



The prize will belong to 
those who arrive first. 

Have you the book I am 
looking for? — No; but 
that which Don Pedro left 
here. 

What they say is true. 



103.— Conjugation of Tener, to liavc^ to hold. 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive 


Present, 


Present. 


tengo 


tenga 


tienes 


tengas 


tiene 


tenga 


tenemos 


tengamos 


teneis 


tengais 


tienen. 


tengan. 


Past. 


Past {ist form). 


tuve 


tuviese 


tuviste 


tuvieses 


tuvo 


tuviese 


tuvimos 


tuviesemos 


tuvisteis 


tuvieseis 


tuvieron. 


tuviesen. 


Imperfect. 


Past (2nd form). 


tenia, etc. (regular). 


tuviera 


Future. 


tuvieras 


tendre 


tuviera 


tendras 


tuvieramos 


tendra 


tuvierais 


tendremos 


tuvieran. 


tendreis 


Future. 


tendran. 


tuviere 


Future in the past. 


tuvieres 


tendria 


tuviere 


tendrias 


tuvieremos 


tendria 


tuviereis 


tendriamos 


tuvieren. 


tendriais 


Imperative. 


tendrian. 


ten 




tened. 



74 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



Past participle, 
tenido. 

Present participle, 
teniendo. 



Vocabulary. 



acerca de, about. 

agricultura, /.^ agriculture. 

algodon, tn.^ cotton. 

algunos, algunas, adj, pL^ 
some. 

alld, adv.j there. 

aprecio, ni,y esteem, appre- 
ciation. 

azucar, ;;/., sugar. 

cabeza, /, head; a la ca- 
beza, at the head. 

calumniado, adj,y slan- 
dered. 

calzado,;w.,boots, shoes, etc. 

carrera, /, career. 

casa comercial,/., commer- 
cial house. 

caucho, fn,y india-rubber. 

cesar, to cease ; sin cesar, 
incessantly. 

civilizacion, /., civilization. 

comercio, m.^ commerce, 
trade. 

come, adv,y as, like. 

correspondencia, /., corre- 
spondence ; Uevar co- 
rrespondencia, to carry 
on correspondence. 

costumbre,/, custom, usage. 

cuantioso, adj,y copious. 

cuero, ni.y hide, leather. 

deber, to owe, to be owing. 

dedicar, to dedicate, to give 
up to. 

departamento, ;//., depart- 
ment. 



Diego, ;;/., James. 

diferente, adj., different. 

diligencia,/., industry, acti- 
vity, diligence. 

exito, ;;/., success. 

exportar, to export. 

exterior, adj., foreign. 

factor, m,y factor, agent. 

ferreteria, /., hardware. 

fortuna,/, fortune, riches. 

generos, m, pl.y goods. 

gentes,/. />/., people. 

honradez,/, honesty. 

importar, to import. 

lana,/, wool. 

largo, adj.y long. 

llevar, to carry. 

mal, adv,y badly. 

mercaderia, /, merchan- 
dise, goods. 

mostrador, ;;/., counter. 

mundo, m.y world. 

negar, to deny. 

oficio, ;//., trade, occupation. 

posicion,/., position. 

pronto, adj. and adv,y 
prompt, soon. 

puesto, adj.y past participle 
^poner, to put. 

reputacion,/., reputation. 

seguir, to follow, to pursue. 

seguro, adj,y sure. 

sino, conj.y but. 

suave, adj,y mild, soft. 

tiempo, ;;/., time, weather. 

utensilio, m,y tool, utensil. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 75 

Exercise. 

El padre de Juan piensa dedicar su hijo a la carrera 
del comercio. En ella ha hecho Don Diego (asi se llama 
el padre) su fortuna que es cuantiosa y con ella ha logrado 
ganar la consideracion de las gentes y el aprecio de sus 
cpmpafieros de oficio. Algunas personas dicen mal del 
comercio; no se puede negar que algunos comerciantes 
hacen mal uso de su posicion ; pero el calumniado mostra- 
dor ha sido y es un factor de civilizacion. El comerciante 
ha puesto en comunicacion los varies pai'ses y ha contri- 
buido de este modo a hacer las costumbres mas suaves. 

Juan desea tambien seguir la carrera del comercio. 
Esta estudiando espanol, porque este idioma es hoy im- 
portanti'simo para los que la siguen. A menudo recibe 
Don Diego cartas en espanol, que no puede entender por- 
que el no ha aprendido esta lengua, y las pasa a un de- 
pendiente sudamericano que lleva la correspondencia con 
los clientes de Espaiia y de Hispano America. Este 
dependiente, que ha vivido en Inglaterra muy largo tiempo, 
conoce bien las necesidades del comercio exterior y las 
costumbres comerciales de Europa, de modo que sus 
servicios son valiosisimos para Don Diego. Como los 
negocios crecen sin cesar, es seguro que muy pronto Juan 
estara a la cabeza de un departamento espanol en la casa 
comercial de su padre. En vez de un dependiente espanol 
o sudamericano tendra media docena. Esta casa exporta 
a la America del Sud generos de algodon y de lana, ferre- 
teria, utensilios de agricultural calzado y otras merca- 
derias. Importa de alia cafe, cueros, caucho y aziicar. 
La casa de Don Diego tiene una excelente reputacion no 
solo en Europa sino en todo el mundo, Esto lo debe a su 
honradez y diligencia y al exito. 

Conversation. 
(i^Como se llama el padre de Juan? ^A que carrera 
piensa dedicar a su hijo ? i Como hizo Don Diego su 



76 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

fortuna ? ^j^ Es grande su fortuna ? i Que ha logrado 
ganar con su fortuna ? i Quien dice mal del comercio ? 
I Hay comerciantes que hacen mal uso de su posicion ? 
I Como ha contribuido el comercio a hacer mas suaves las 
costumbres ? 

(i,Que carrera desea seguir Juan? ^ Por que estudia 
espanol ? i Que hace Don Diego con las cartas en espanol 
que recibe a menudo ? i Quien lleva la correspondencia 
con los clientes espafioles e hispanoamericanos ? i Donde 
ha vivido el dependiente largo tiempo ? i Por que son 
muy valiosos sus servicios para Don Diego ? i Por que 
estara Juan pronto a la cabeza de un departamento 
espanol en la casa comercial de su padre ? i Cuantos 
dependientes espafioles o sudamericanos tendra entonces? 
I Que generos exporta la casa a la America del Sur ? 
I Que importa de alia ? ^ A que debe la casa de Don 
Diego su excelente reputacion ? 

Translate. 

They say he will come to-morrow. We know that he 
will come very soon, but we are not sure that he will be 
here to-morrow. He will stay with us a week or two ; but 
he will return to the country next month ; his family is 
there. His family does not come to the city in winter. 
They used to come in summer. I do not understand that : 
I think the country is better in summer than in winter. 
We have received a book from our sister. We read it for 
a few hours in the morning. It is a most interesting book 
about the customs of the animals in South America. We 
have not in England many of the animals that we see in 
this book ; the stories about them are extraordinary 
[extraordinarias). 

We expect to go to see our friends as soon as they leave 
the school. We have not seen them this year. They live 
in Manchester. Manchester is a large city. Our friends 
like it very much. We have never been there. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 77 

Translate. 

Vanios a leer en el libro de Lucia. Es lo mejor que 
podemos hacer hoy. No se puede salir. El dia no esta 
claro. Tal vez manana sera mejor. i Que vamos a leer? 
Leamos acerca de las costumbres del mono (monkey). 
Esto es muy entretenido. En aquellos paises la vida es 
diferente de la vida de Europa; por eso los animales de 
America son tambien diferentes de los animales de Europa. 

I Que sabe usted de la nina que vive en la casa numero 
15 ? — Se que su padre es comerciante. — i Sabe usted la 
edad de la nina ? — Si, la se ; pero no debo decir eso 
a usted. La casa en que vive es grande, clara (light, 
bright), mu}^ buena para los ninos de su edad ; me gusta 
mucho. 

XII 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

104. — The relative quien (pi. quienes) is used to refer 
to nouns representing persons, or things personified, and 
is the equivalent of el que, la que, los que, las que. 

Las que vienen son mis \ 

amigas. ! They who are coming are 

Quienes vienen son mis j my friends. 

amigas. f 

a. But it must be noted that quien cannot always take 
the place of the relative que, preceded by the various forms 
of the article, even if these forms make reference to persons : 
we can say el hombre que vino, but not el hombre quien 
vino. To be properly used in subordinate clauses it must 
include its antecedent : 

Asegura, quien tiene ra- Somebody who has grounds 
zones para saberlo, que for knowing it affirms 
Juan ha muerto. that John has died. 



78 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

Quien me busca me ha- He who looks for me will 

llara. find me. 

Entraron a las diez las The ladies, who proceeded 

damas, quienes, sin es- to the drawing-room with- 

perar la llegada de los out waiting for the arrival 

hombres, pasaron al of the gentlemen, came in 

salon. at ten o'clock. 

In the last example quienes must necessarily be used, 
because the relative que would imply that not all the ladies 
arrived at ten, but only some of them, and these few alone 
proceeded to the drawing-room. When the subject of 
the subordinate clause does not limit the meaning of the 
subject of the main clause quien must be used; otherwise 
que is the proper word. 

Las mujeres que llegaron The women who arrived late 
tarde no encontraron did not find a seat. 
puesto. 

Not all the women, but those who came in late. 
b. After a preposition quien is generally used, but que 
is not excluded with de : 

El soldado de quien (or de The soldier of whom we 

que) hablabamos ayer. were speaking yesterday. 

No se a quien acudir. I do not know to whom I 

should apply. 

El abogado a quien co- The lawyer I know and 

nozco y con quien usted whom you have consulted 

ha consultado el punto. on the matter. 

105. — El cual, la cual, lo cual, los cuales, las cuales 
are translated by who or which. This relative can be used 
in reference to persons or things, instead of who or that or 
which, specially after a preposition. 

Hay en la costa un pehgro There is, on the coast, a 
mayor, el cual debe evi- greater danger which must 
tarse con un rodeo. ^ be avoided by means of a 

circuit. 

i Que might also be used in this case ; but el CUal has the advantage 
of preciseness. Que might mean either the coast or the danger ; el Cual 
can only mean the danger. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 79 

Estos son los principios, These are the principles ac- 

segiin los cuales debe cording to which the con- 

decidirse la controver- troversy must be decided. 

sia (que, as a relative, 

can never be used after 

segiin). 

Ya estan aqui los duenos Here are the owners of the 

de la biblioteca, con los library, with whom you 

cuales debe usted tratar. must deal. 

106. — Cuyo is a relative and at the same time a posses- 
sive adjective : it is the equivalent of whose, and may be used 
with reference to persons, animals, or inanimate objects. 

No conozco al hombre de I do not know the man of 

cuyos hijos me hablaba whose sons you were 

usted ayer. speaking to me yesterday. 

Los libros cuya p^rdida The books the loss of which 

iamentamos. we deplore. 

a. Some good classical authors and certain bad writers of 
our own time use cuyo instead of el cual, depriving it of its 
secondary meaning of possession. This practice is fortunately 
diminishing. 

107.— Que, cual, quien, cuyo when used to frame 
interrogative sentences, whether direct or indirect, are 
accentuated. 

I Que hora es ? What time is it ? 

I De quien tiene usted la From whom did you get the 

noticia ? news ? 

I Cuyo es este libro ? Whose book is this ? 

No se cual de mis amigos I do not know which of my 

ha estado a verme. friends has been to see me. 

108.— Conjugation of Decir , to say, to tell (irregular). 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. Present, 

digo diga 

dices digas 

dice diga 

decimos digamos 

decis digdis 

dicen. digan. 



8o 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



Past, 






Past [istform). 


dije 






dijese 


dijiste 






dijeses 


dijo 






dijese 


dijimos 






dijesemos 


dijisteis 






dijeseis 


dijeron. 






dijesen. 


Imperfect, 






Past [2nd form]. 


decia, etc. 


(regu/nr). 




dijera 


Future. 






dijeras 


dire 






dijera 


diras 






dijeramos 


dird 






dijerais 


diremos 






dijeran. 


direis 






Future, 


diran. 






dijere 


Future in the 


past. 




dije res 


diria 


t 




dijere ^ 


dirias 






dijeremos 


diria 






dijereis 


diriamos 






dijeren. 


diriais 








dirian. 












Imperative. 






# 








decid 


Past participle. 




Present participle. 


dicho. 




diciendo. 



Spanish Forms of Address. 

109. — The word Senor in Spanish v/hen followed by 
a family name is translated by Mr.^ and Seiiora by Mrs. 



2,Sabe usted, Seiior Mar- 
tinez, donde estd mi 
amigo ? 



Do you know, Mr. Marti- 
nez, where my friend is? 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 8i 

a. When the person concerned is not addressed directly, 
Senor must be preceded by the article. 

El Senor Martinez hablara Mr. Martinez will speak to- 
esta noche en el salon de night in the lecture-room. 

conferencias. 

110. — Before a Christian name the word Don is used. 
Don does not take the article. 

DonGuillermo es profesor Mr. William is a professor 
de idiomas. of languages. 

a. In the feminine the word Dona is employed. 

Dona Maria Gonzalez es Mrs. Mary Gonzalez is the 
la mujer de nuestro wife of our friend. 
amigo. 

HI. — In Spain and in some Spanish American countries 
Don and Dona (abbreviated into D., D*.) are considered to 
be a more respectful title than Senor, Seiiora (abbreviated 
Sr., Sra.) 

a. The two titles are often used together : El Sr. D. Juan 
de Robles ; la Sra. D'^. Ana de Nmiez. 

Vocabulary. 



actual, adj., actual, present. 
America Meridional, f., 

South America. 
aun, adv.y even. 
bajo, prep.f under. 
bastar, to suffice, 
central, adj.y central. 
clima, m.y climate. 
comiin, adj,y common. 



dominie, m,j domain. 

entre, prep. y between. 

extreme, m,, furthest end. 

ganar,togain,towin; ganar 
en, to increase. 

imprenta,/., press. 

laze, m,f bond, tie. 

no obstante, con/., notwith- 
standing. 



conquistador, m., con- Norte, ;;/., North. 

queror. obligarse, to oblige oneself, 

curse, m», course. to engage oneself. 

deber, to owe; debide a, \ obtener, to obtain, to secure. 

owing to. \ orden,/ or ;;/., order. 

descubrir, to discover. | origen, ;;/., origin, source. 

difusion,/, diffusion. j pequeiio, adj., small, little. 

2129 G 



82 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



permiso, m., leave. 

pertenecer, to belong, 

por completo, wholly. 

portugues, m. and adj,^ Por- 
tuguese. 

poseer, to possess, to own. 

propagar, to propagate. 

pureza,/., purity. 

recorrer, to go over, to 
travel. 

region,/, region. 

relative, adj.^ relative. 

rey, m., king. 

solicitar, to ask for. 



solo, sola, adj\f only, alone. 

Sur, w., South. 

tampoco, adv,y not either, 

neither, nor. 
territorio, w., territory, 
tierra,/., land, earth, 
uniforme, adj.f uniform. 
uso, m.y usage. 
valer, to be worth ; no vale 

la pena, it is not worth 

while. 
vecino, w., neighbour ; adj., 

neighbouring. 
ya, adv., already, now. 



Exercise. 

Desde Mejico hasta el extremo Sur de la America Meri- 
dional se habla una sola lengua en lo que antes estuvo bajo 
el dominio del rey de Espana. Esta lengua es la lengua 
espafiola que se conserva con relativa pureza en aquellas 
regiones. Hay pequefias diferencias de un pais a otro, 
pero el extranjero que aprende bien el espanol puede 
hacerse entender desde Mejico hasta la Argentina sin difi- 
cultad y puede a un mismo tiempo comprender a los habi- 
tantes de todas aquellas repiiblicas. 

Cuando los conquistadores solicitaban y obtenian permiso 
para ir a descubrir tierras se obligaban a ponerlas bajo la 
Corona (Crown) de Castilla y a propagar en ellas el idioma 
castellano. Daban esta orden los re3^es porque en la misma 
Espana el idioma no era uniforme. De esta manera los 
espanoles americanos lograron tener en su lengua un uso 
comun, cosa que al tiempo de la conquista no existia en 
Espaiia, y aun hoy no se ha logrado por completo. Los 
actuales habitantes de la America Espanola tienen sobre 
los de otras partes del mundo la inmensa ventaja de poseer 
un solo idioma, el cual, debido a la facilidad de las comuni- 
caciones, que aumentan siempre, y a la difusion de la 
imprenta, gana cada di'a en uniformidad, np obstante las 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 83 

diferencias de clima y de costumbres entre los pueblos 
donde se habla. En Europa, en el curso de pocas horas, 
puede el viajero recorrer territorios en los cuales se hablan 
lenguas diversas, de vario origen y aun sin lazo aparente 
entre si. Los habitantes de los pequenos pai'ses como 
Dinamarca deben aprender varios idiomas para poder 
comunicarse con sus vecinos. En la America Meridional 
el idioma castellano y el portugues, miiy semejante al 
castellano, bastan para comunicarse con una poblacion 
de muchos millones. En la America del Norte y en la 
America Central se habla ingles en los Estados Unidos 
y el Canada, y espanol en los otros paises. 

Conversation. 

^ Donde se habla la lengua espaiiola en America? ^A 
quien pertenecieron antes esos territorios ? i Quien llev6 
a America la lengua espafiola? ^Como se conserva alii 
esta lengua? i Hay diferencias de un pais a otro ? i Son 
grandes esas diferencias? i Hay diiicultad en hacerse en- 
tender en la America Espanola hablando espanol ? i Puede 
usted decir el nombre de las Republicas donde se habla es- 
panol en America ? i Cual es la^ola republica de la America 
Meridional donde no se habla espanol? ^Q^^ idioma 
se habla en el Brasil (Brazil) ? i Quienes descubrieron la 
America en el siglo XV ? i Quienes conquistaron la 
America Espanola? ^Quienes conquistaron el Brasil? 
I A que se obligaban los conquistadores cuando obtenian 
permiso para ir a descubrir tierras ? l Por que daban los 
reyes esta orden ? i Cual fue el resultado de ella ? i Era 
uniforme la lengua en Espana al tiempo de la conquista ? 
I Que ventaja tienen los habitantes de la America Espanola 
sobre los de otras partes del mundo ? ^ De que manera gana 
en uniformidad cada dia el espanol de America? <i, Que 
idiomas bastan en Sud America para comunicarse con las 
gentes ? <i, Y en la America del Norte ? <i, Es lo mismo 
en Europa? 

G 2 



84 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

Translate. 

What is this ? What house is this ? This is our friend's 
house. Who lives in it ? Two foreigners who have come 
(vem'do) to visit the country. Will they remain here long 
{largo tiempo) ? They say they will stay here until the end 
(el fin) of the year. They will spend the winter in town. 

Can you tell me the name of the woman we saw yester- 
day in the street when we were going to pay a visit to 
Peter ? — Yesterday I did not know who she was ; to-day 
I do know; Mrs. Ramirez told me. She is a Spanish 
woman of whom it is said that she is writing a book about 
this country: her name is Mrs. Arenal. She is a very 
good writer (escritora)^ whose books are well known in 
Spain and even in France and England. There are not 
many authoresses (escritoras) in Spain. 

What did Mr. Lopez tell you about his pupils ? — He said 
Charles is good, Edward is indifferent (regular), but Mary, 
whose exercises are always excellent, is the best. — What 
languages is she learning? — French and Spanish: she 
can now read and speak French without difficulty, but 
she cannot understand French people when they talk 
to each other. She knows Spanish better. 

Translate. 

Quien sabe espaiiol puede comunicarse con setenta 
millones de hombres que hablan esta lengua. Quien tiene 
a sus padres tiene todo lo mejor que se puede poseer en 
el mundo. La mujer (woman) de quien hablabamos ayer 
es hermana de D. Carlos, i De quien son estos libros ? 
or ^Cuyos son estos libros? — Son del amigo de Juan, la 
persona con quien visito usted ayer la biblioteca. Hoy 
deben llegar Pedro, Juan y Guillermo, quienes, segun creo, 
permaneceran en la ciudad unas semanas, durante las 
cuales haran algunos negocios y visitaran los lugares mas 
importantes. No conozco al autor cuyas obras he comprado 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 85 

hoy y de las cuales se dice que todos los espanoles deben 
leerlas. 

I Es usted la madre de estos niiios ? — Sf lo soy. — 
I Cual es el mayor de ellos ? — El mayor es Carlos ; 
la menor, Maria. — i Estan ya en la escuela ? — No, tienen 
maestro en casa. Su (their) padre no quiere ponerlos en 
la escuela. El maestro, que es una persona excelente, 
viene cuatro di'as en la semana, enseiia durante dos horas, 
y sale a paseo con los nifios. Con tan buen maestro, el 
padre dice que no es necesario poner los ninos en la 
escuela. Aquf aprenden lo que deben aprender y solo 
eso. 

THE TENSES OF^THE SUBJUNCTIVE 
MOOD 

112. — The most extensive use of the subjunctive forms 
is found in the subordinate sentences depending on a verb 
expressing doubt, uncertainty, or some other frame of 
mind. '"^ 

Dudo que Ueguen a tiempo. I doubt whether they will 

"^""^ arrive in time. 

Espero que usted recupere I hope you will soon recover 

^^pronto la salud. (your health). 

Temo que usted no guarde I fear you will not keep the 

el secreto. secret. 

Deseamos que todos esten We hope they are all satis- 

satisfechos. fied. 

Extrana que usted recurra He is surprised that you 

a ellos. have resorted to them. 

No creen que sea dema- They do not think it is too 

siado tarde para empe- late to begin. 

zar. 

In all these examples the verb of the main clause is 
in the indicative mood, present tense, and hence the verb 
in the subordinate clause is also in the present tease. 



86 TENSES OF THE 

Esten satisfechos, recurra, sea are forms of the 
present tense of the subjunctive, and they refer to some- 
thing happening simultaneously with the expression of 
the wish, surprise, or uncertainty ; but lleguen, recupere 
and guarde refer to the future, that is, to something that 
will happen after the expression of doubt, hope, or fear. 
In Spanish, the present tense of the subjunctive mood 
is also used to express future actions or states of being. 

If we change the tense of the verb in the main clause, 
the tense of the subordinate clause must be changed cor- 
respondingly. 

Yo dudaba que Uegaran I was in doubt whether 

(or llegasen) a tiempo. they would arrive in time. 

Temi que usted no guar- I was afraid you would not 

dara el secrete. keep the secret (or I was 

afraid of your not keeping 
the secret). 
Extraiiaria que usted lo I should be surprised at your 

hiciera (or hiciese). doing it. 

Esperaremos que vengan. We shall wait for their 

arrival. 

In the last example, vengan is used in a future sense, 
because the verb of the main clause is in the future. 

113. — There are two forms of the subjunctive mood to 
denote the past tense in subordinate clauses such as we are 
analysing : these two forms are hablase and hablara, and 
they correspond to the past and to the imperfect of the 
indicative. 

If we say in the indicative : 

Adverti que hablaban en I noticed that they were 
el cuarto vecino, talking in the next room, 

we must say, when changing the meaning of the verb in the 
main clause from certainty to denial or doubt : 

No dije que hablaran (or I did not say that they were 
hablasen) en el cuarto talking in the next room. 
vecino. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 87 

Dudaba que hablasen en I was in doubt whether they 
el cuarto vecino. were talking in the next 

room. 

In sentences of this kind, where the verb in the sub- 
ordinate clause is dependent on another verb expressing 
doubt, uncertainty, wish, surprise, etc., or a negation, the 
two forms of the past tense of the subjunctive mood may 
be indiscriminately used. 

114. — The Spanish subjunctive is often employed to 
express condition, hypothesis, or supposition. For this 
purpose tKe^lornrused for the future is generally the one 
ending in -re. 

Le escribire manana si If I should have time I shall 

tuviere tiempo. write to you to-morrow. 

Si resolvieres leer el libro Should you make up your 
que te recomiendo, avi- mind to read the book that 

same para enviartelo. I am recommending you, 

please let me know and I 
w411 send it to you. 

115. — When the condition is expressed by means of some 
word other than si, the form of the present subjunctive 
may be used, instead of the future, to express a coming 
action or state of being. 

Como sea (or fuere) posible If it is possible to delay my 

demorar mi viaje, le departure I shall accom- 

acompafiare al teatro pany you to the theatre 

esta noche. to-night. 

Note that with si the form sea is excluded. The 
indicative might be used : si tengo tiempo le escribire 
manana; but then we have a genuine indicative con- 
struction, and the fine shade of doubt and desire implied 
by tuviere would disappear. 

a. For the past in the subjunctive of supposition the 
forms to be used are hubiese or hubiera combined with 
the past participle. 



88 TENSES OF THE 

Como hubiera (or hubiese) Had it been possible to de- 

sido posible demorar mi lay my departure I should 

partida le habria acorn- have accompanied you to 

panadoalteatro anoche. the theatre last night. 

116. — ^After verbs such as decir, creer, afirmar, pen^ar, 

without negation the conditional sentence preceded by si 
calls for the indicative forms both in the if-clause and the 
then-clause : 

El creia que, si los enemi- He thought that, should the 

gos se presentaban per enemy appear on the right 

el flanco derecho, seria flank, it would be easy to 

facil rechazarlos. repulse him. 

117. — If the supposition comes after a verb expressing 
doubt, fear, hope, or negation the indicative is used in the 
if-clause, but the subjunctive form in -ra or -se must be used 
in the then-clause : 

Dudaba que, si los enemi- He doubted of the possi- 

gos se presentaban per bility "of defeating the 

el flanco derecho, fuera- enemy should he appear 

posible vencerlos. on the right flank. 

118. — The subjunctive is also used to take the place of 
the imperative forms of the first and third persons. As 
orders can be given directly only in the second person, 
the imperative mood has no first or third person. But as 
sometimes the sense implies that we address the command 
to ourselves or in the third person, these persons of the 
imperative are supplied by what may be called the optative 
forms of the subjunctive. 

I Muramos ! Let us die I 

Diga el lo que quiera, la Let him say what he likes : 

verdad es que esta loco. the truth is that he is 

crazy. 

Pasen los hombres a la Let the men go to the right 

derecha y las mujeres and the women to the left. 

a la izquierda. 

119. — Spanish has this peculiarity: that the second 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 89 

person of the verb, when it is desired to express courtesy, 
consideration, or lack of famiharity with the person ad- 
dressed, is replaced by the third. In this case also the 
optative forms take the place of the imperative. We say 
in the direct use of the imperative : 

Ven aca que te necesito. Come here, for I want you. 
Tomad lo que os envian. Take what they send you. 

But if the sense of command be implied with reference 
to usted or ustedes, we say : 

Venga usted aca que le (or Come here, for I want you. 

lo) necesito. 
Tomen ustedes lo que les Take what they send you. 

envian. 

120. — The imperative forms cannot be used negatively : 
therefore the optative is used also instead of the imperative 
in negative sentences of command. 

No saigas. Do not go out. 

No digdis eso. T)o not say that (plur,), 

121. — The sentences in which the conditional sense im- 
plies negation at the same time are not subject to the 
same rules as apply to the ordinary forms of the con- 
ditional sentences. In these sentences the forms in -se, 
-ra, and -ria have not a past but a present meaning, and 
their application, according to the best accepted usage, is 
as follows: in the first part of the condition (or if- 
clause) the sense requires the forms in -se or -ra; in 
the second part (or then-clause) the form in -ria is accepted 
by current usage, but the form in -ra is not excluded. 

Si usted lo creyera (or If you believed it you would 

creyese) procederia de act differently. 
otro modo. 

Como nosotros tuviera- Had we what we need, we 

mos (or tuviesemos) lo should not be looking for 

necesario, no pediria- employment. 
mos empleo. 



90 TENSES OF THE 

Note that in both sentences a negative sense is conveyed : 
if you believed it implies disbelief. The two languages 
coincide in this peculiarity and also in the use of the past, 
although the sense is manifestly present. If we say : 
Como nosotros tuvieramos lo necesario, resolvimos 
no pedir empleo (having what we needed, we decided not 
to ask for employment), the sense is affirmative, and 
the tense is manifestly past. In this case good usage 
requires the past, resolvimos and not resolveriamos, 
in the second part of the sentence. 

122. — The compound forms hubiese hablado, hubiera 
hablado, habria hablado, follow the same rules as the 
simple forms. 

Si hubiera (or hubiese) Had I known the news, 

sabido la noticia, me I should have remained 

habria quedado en casa. at home. 

Como no hubiera compra- Had I not already bought 

do ya sombrero, habria a hat, I should have taken 

tomado el que me ofrecio* the one you offered me. 
usted. 

a. In Spanish as in English the conjunction si (if) may be 
omitted in these sentences. 

Hubiera 61 sabido lo que habia Had he known what had hap- 
sucedido y no demorara su pened he would not have 
partida. delayed his departure. 

123. — When no condition is implied in phrases introduced 
by the conjunction como, the past subjunctive may be 
translated by means of the present participle in English. 

Como no supieramos que Not knowing that he was 
venia no lo esperamos. coming, we did not wait 

* for him. 

The English construction may also be used in Spanish : 
No sabiendo que venia, no lo esperamos. 

124. — Although some grammarians believe that they have 
reduced to strict rules the use of the subjunctive forms of the 
Spanish verb, it must be borne in mind that the best authors of 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 



91 



the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries do not generally con- 
form their practice to precise rules, ^as might be expected*, 
because * we find that in language the correspondence between 
fact-statements and thought-statements on the one hand, and 
fact-forms and thought-forms on the other, is not always perfectly' 
logical ' (Henry Sweet, A New English Grammar, p. 109). 

125. — Conjugation of Querer, to want, to wishy to love^ 
to be fond q/" (irregular). 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


Present. 


Present. 


quiero 


quiera 


quieres 


quieras 


quiere 


quiera 


queremos 


queramos 


quereis 


querais 


quieren. 


quieran. 


Past. 


Past (ist and 2nd forms). 


quise 


q^isiese or quisiera 


quisiste 


quisieses or quisieras 


quiso 


quisiese or quisiera 


quisimos 


quisiesemos or quisieramos 


quisisteis 


quisieseis or quisierais 


quisieron. 


quisiesen or quisieran. 


Imperfect, 


Future. 


queria, etc. [regular) 


quisiere 


Future. 


quisieres 


querre 


quisiere 


querrds 


quisieremos 


querrd 


quisiereis 


querremos 


quisieren. 


querreis 


Imperative. 


querran. 




Future in the past. 
querria 


quiere (tii) 


quered (vosotros). 


querrias 


Past Participle. 


querria 


querido. 


querriamos 


' • 


querriais 


Present Participle. ■J^^'"*"''' 
queriendo. "'" '''" " 


querrian. 



92 



TENSES OF THE 



Vocabulary. 



acaso, adv,f perhaps. 

adelanto, »/., progress; ad- 
vance. 

admirar, to admire; ad- 
miracion, /., admiration. 

antiguo, adj.^ old, ancient. 

aplaudir, to applaud. 

aprovechar, to profit by, 
to take advantage of. 

arte, m,, art. 

auditorio, m,, audience. 

aunque, conj,, although. 

calcular, to calculate. 

calurosamente, adv,, en- 
thusiastically, warmly. 

camino, m., road. 

ciencia,/., science. 

conferencia,/'., lecture; con- 
ferenciante, m., lecturer. 

cuenta, /., account; dar 
cuenta de, to relate. 

cuidado, m,, care. 

cultivar, to cultivate. 

curioso, adj.f curious. 

despues de, adv,, after. 

dictar, to deliver (a speech), 
to dictate. 

documento, ;;/., document. 

dudar, to doubt. 

edificar, to build, to edify. 

egipoio,;;/.anda^'., Egyptian. 

entusiasmo,w., enthusiasm. 

escritura,/, writing. 

exclamar, to exclaim. 

grade, m.f degree. 

hora avanzada de la 
noche, late at night. 

humanidad, /, humanity, 
human kind. 



ignorar, to be ignorant of. 

indio, m.f Indian. 

instructive, adj\f enlighten- 
ing, instructive. 

inventar, to invent. 

ir, to go ; fuimes, we went; 
fueren, they went. 

labrar, to work ; labrar la 
tierra, to till. 

largamente, adv.^ at length. 

levantar, to raise, to lift. 

luna,^, moon. 

lleno, adj., full. 

mansion,/., mansion. 

medir, to measure. 

mejicano, m,, Mexican. 

mevimiente, m.^ motion. 

musica,/, music. 

pintura, /, painting, pic- 
ture. 

peesia,/., poetry. 

poseer, to possess ; pese- 
yeran, they might pos- 
sess. 

preferir, to prefer. 

primitive, adj,, primitive. 

publicar, to publish. 

pueble, ;;/., people. 

siempre, adv., yet, at all 
events. 

serprendente, adj\, sur- 
prising. 

subyugar, to subdue. 

suntuese, adj., sumptuous. 

tejer, to weave. 

tecar, to fall to one's share, 
to touch. 

tradicion,/., tradition. 

tropa,/., troop. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 93 

iQvl6 edad tiene usted ? How old are you ? 
^Cu^ntos anos tiene su hijo de usted? How old is 
your son ? 

Exercise. 

Fuimos anoche a la conferencia que dicto en el Ateneo 
D. Federico (Frederick) sobre las costumbres de los meji- 
canos, antes de la conquista de America. Es sorprendente 
el grado de adelanto a que habia llegado ese pueblo. Los 
mejicanos sabi'an tejer, labraban la tierra, edificaban suntuo- 
sas mansiones ; conoci'an el arte de hacer caminos, tenlan 
un genero (kind) de escritura como los antiguos egipcios y 
cultivaban la miisica, la pintura y la poesia. Sabian medir 
el tiempo y calculaban los movimientos de la luna. Dijo D. 
Federico que si los espanoles hubieran tenido mas cuidado 
en conservar las tradiciones de aquel pueblo, lacienciahabria 
podido aprovecharlas en beneficio de la humanidad. Es 
posible que aquellos indios poseyeran secretos que el 
hombre moderno acaso ignore. El conferenciante dudaba 
que al tiempo de la conquista los indios mejicanos subyu- 
gados por los espanoles fuesen {or fueran) los mismos que 
habian levantado las piramides (pyramids) que hoy son la 
admiracion del mundo. Hablo largamente del Popol-Vuh^ 
uno de los documentos mas curiosos de la historia primi- 
tiva de America, y dijo que, aunque este libro hubiera sido 
escrito por los naturales, como se afirma (as it is stated), 
despues de la conquista, siempre tiene gran merito por las 
tradiciones de que da cuenta, las cuales no ban podido ser 
inventadas por los autores del libro. Don Federico, lleno 
de entusiasmo, llego a decir que el habria preferido vivir 
en tiempo de Cortes, el conquistador de Mejico, si le 
hubiese tocado hacer parte de las tropas que fueron a 
Nueva Espana. ' No se hubieran perdido entonces, ex- 
clamo, muchos de los ricos tesoros historicos, de cuya 
existencia solo sabemos hoy por la tradicion.' La con- 
ferencia fue muy instructiva, y aplaudida calurosamente por 



94 TENSES OF THE 

el auditorio. \ Quien pudiera guardarla toda en la memoria ! 
Como la publiquen, la compraremos sin diida. 

Conversation. 

I Quien dicto la conferencia en el Ateneo anoche ? ^ De 
que hablo D. Federico? i Estaba civilizado Mejico antes 
de la llegada de los espanoles ? i Que cosas sabi'an hacer 
los mejicanos? ^ Conocian la escritura? ^Tenian cami- 
nos ? I Podian medir el tiempo ? i Tuvieron cuidado los 
espanoles de conservar todas las tradiciones de los indios ? 
Si las hubieran conservado, i quien se aprovecharia hoy de 
ellas ? <i. En beneficio de quien ? ^ Es posible que los indios 
hubieran poseido secretos que hoy se ignoran ? i For quien 
fueron subyugados los mejicanos? i Los indios subyuga- 
dos por los espanoles era el mismo pueblo que habia 
edificado los monumentos que se conservan hoy ? i Que 
es el Popol-Vuh? ^ Quien escribio este libro? ^Cual 
es su merito ? i Podri'a creerse que los autores in- 
ventaran esas tradiciones? ^ Quien conquisto a Mejico? 
I Que nombre dieron los espaiioles a Mejico ? ^ En 
que tiempo hubiera querido vivir D. Federico? ^ Que 
cosas habria el salvado si hubiera estado con las tropas de 
Cortes? ^Como sabemos hoy de los tesoros historicos 
perdidos en Mejico ? i Fue buena la conferencia ? i Quien 
aplaudio ? i Como fueron los aplausos ? i Querria usted 
saberla de memoria? Si la publican, ^la comprara 
usted ? 

Translate. 

No puedo hacerlo porque no tengo tiempo ; si pudiera, 
lo haria. Me dijo que esperara hasta manana, que como el 
pudiese {or pudiera) hablar con D. Carlos, no dejaria de 
comunicarle mis ideas. Estoy esperando : si Don Carlos 
no quisiere comprar la casa, la tomare yo mismo. 

Los que llegaren tarde no hallaran cuarto : hay muchos 
huespedes (guests) ya en la casa. Como mi amigo no 
tuviere donde quedarse, lo llevare a casa. Creo que no 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 95 

haya modo de salir manana para Paris : hay muchos viajeros 
que han estado esperando turno (turn). 

I Donde estaria Carlos anoche ? — No creo que haya 
estado en su casa. Mi hermano lo vio en la calle a una 
hora avanzada de la noche. — i Sale siempre de noche ? — 
No siempre, pero muy a menudo. 

Los que quieran ir a la conferencia esta noche, deben 
hablarle a D. Federico. Yo iria, si pudiese ; pero me 
espera un amigo a quien debo acompafiar al teatro 
(theatre). Acaso pueda ir a la proxima conferencia : es 
el sabado a las cuatro. 

Traiga usted los libros; el profesor ha llegado ya. No 
esperemos mas. Carlos y Alberto no llegar^n a (in) tiempo. 
Me dijeron que comenzaramos la leccion, si a las dos no 
habi'an llegado. 

Translate. 

If he had spoken in (a) time, we should have known 
also in time what was to be done. I believed he knew 
that his father was here. Let us say what we know of 
the lesson. The lecturer said he would have preferred to 
live in the times of Hernan Cortes. It is easier to say 
this than to believe it. Give me the book. 

Do you know the lesson ? — I knew it la'st night, but I 
may have forgotten it. I do not think you have forgotten 
it. — Nor do I ; but there are many difficult phrases in the 
exercise, and I should not wonder if I had forgotten some. — 
Would you like to say one or two of the m*ost difficult 
phrases ? I can tell you if they are not correctly formed 
(formadas), 

I want to buy a book, and I want to read it and give 
it to you. — What book is that? — The Popol-Vuh, — 
Curious title {titulo) ! Is it m Spanish ? Were it not in 
Spanish or in English, we could not read it. 

Let us not want to know more than the teacher ; he says 
the exercise is not good : we must believe it. If it were 
good, he would be the first (primero) to say so. 



96 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 



XIV 
IMPERSONAL VERBS 



126. — The impersonal verbs, in Spanish as in English, 
are only used in the third person singular of each tense ; 
but while in English they are always introduced by the 
neuter pronoun of the third person, in Spanish no subject 
is expressed. 



Nieva. 

Estaba granizando cuando 

llegue. 
Ha llovido mucho este 

verano. 
Lloverd pronto, ya estd 

tronando. 



It snows. 

It was hailing when I ar- 
rived. 

It has rained a great deal 
this summer. 

It will rain soon : it is 
thundering already. 

127. — There are a few verbs that are only occasionally 
used as impersonal. 



It is convenient to point out 
at once the difference be- 
tween the two points of 
view. 

It is enough for the present 
to write the letter. 

It is important to find out 
what is the object of his 
coming here. 

128. — The verb ser combined with adjectives like 
necesario, conveniente, importante, is used also in 
sentences that appear to be impersonal, though the sub- 
ject can be supplied. 



Conviene senalar de una 
vez la diferencia entre 
los dos puntos de vista. 

Basta escribir la carta por 

ahora. 
Importa descubrir el obje- 

to de su venida. 



Es necesario averiguar la 

verdad. 
Es preciso que usted lo 

guie. 



It is necessary to discover 

the truth. 
It is necessary that you 

should show him the way. 



In such phrases as these the subjunctive must be used 
with the subject of the subordinate clause : 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 



97 



Es necesario que yo saiga. 



Es urgente que sepan la 
noticia. 



Era precise 
regresara 
mente. 



que usted 
inmediata- 



It is necessary for me to go 
out. (It is necessary that 
I should go out.) 

It is urgent for them to know 
the news. (It is urgent 
that they should know 
the news.) 

It was necessary for you to 
come back immediately. 



129. — Hacer is used impersonally to express the state 
of the weather. 

Hace frio. It is cold. 

Hard mucho calor este It will be very hot this 
verano. summer. 

a, Hacer also expresses lapse of time : 

Hace diez aiios no le veo. I have not seen him these 

ten years. 

130. — The verb haber is likewise used in an impersonal 
form in the sense oi to exist^ like the verb to he in English 
in such expressions as there is, there zvas, there were (see 



Hay una reunion todas las 

semanas en casa de los 

Sudrez. 
Habia por lo menos mil 

compradores presentes. 
Puede haber irrupciones 

aereas el mes entrante. 
Habrd misa solemne el 

jueves. 



There is a reception every 
week at the Suarez's. 

There were at least a thou- 
sand buyers present. 

There may be air raids next 
month. 

There will be a high mass 
next Thursday. 

a. Note that the inflexions of the verb are always in the 
singular, even when in English the plural form is required. 
In vSpanish the noun is in the accusative case, while in 
English the noun is the nominative of the sentence. 

b. In the expression ha tiempo, it is long since . . . , 
haber is also impersonal in appearance. 



98 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 



131. — The verb haber followed by the conjunction que 
is likewise used in an impersonal form to express necessity 
or obligation. 

Hay que tener presentes His wishes must be borne in 

sus deseos. mind. 

Hubo que abandonar las The positions had to be 

posiciones. abandoned. 

132.— Tener que has the same meaning, but it can be used in 
all tenses and persons. 

Tengo que salir. I have to go out. 

Tendremos que aguardar We will have to wait until 
hasta el lunes. Monday. 

133. — Conjugation of Saber, to know (irregular). 



Indicative. 
Present, 

se 

sabes 

sabe 

sabemos 

sabeis 

saben. 
Past, 

supe 

supiste 

supo 

supimos 

supisteis 

supieron. 
Imperfect, 

sabia, etc. [regular). 
Future, 

sabre 

sabras 

sabra . 

sabremos 

sabreis 

sabran. 
Future in the past. 

sabria 

sabrias 



Subjunctive. 
Present, 

sepa 

sepas \ 

sepa 

sepamos 

sepdis 

sepan. 
Past [istform). 

supiese 

supieses 

supiese 

supiesemos 

supieseis 

supiesen. 

Past {2nd form), 
supiera 
supieras 
supiera 
supieramos 
supierais 
supieran . 

Future. 
supiere 
supieres 
supiere 
supieremos 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 



99 



sabria 
sabriamos 
sabriais 
sabrian. 


supiereis 
supieren. 




Imperative. 




sabe 
sabed. 


Past participle, 
sabido. 


Present participle 
sabiendo. 




Vocabulary. 



aconsejar, to advise. 

avisar, to advise, to warn, 
to notify. 

ayuda,/, help. 

barrio, m.^ quarter, ward. 

caballo, m.y horse. 

carga, /, burden, load, car- 
go- 
cargo, nhy charge; tener a 

su cargo, to keep. 
contar con, to count on, to 

rely, to depend on. 
desalquilado, adj\j vacant. 
directamente, adv,y straight. 
dolor, m,y pain; doloroso, 

adj.y painful. 
elegir, to choose, to elect, 
embarcar, to ship ; embar- 

carse, to go on board. 
empezar, to begin, to start. 
emprender, to undertake, to 

start. 
encima, adj.^ above, over ; 

quitarse de encima, to 

get rid of 
enfermo, adj., ill, sick; en- 

fermedad,/., illness, dis- 
ease. 
esposo, m.f husband ; es- 

posa,/, wife. 
estacion, station, season. 



frio, m, and adj,j cold. 

gasto, m.y expense. 

gestion,/, conduct, manage- 
ment; hacer gestiones, 
to take steps. 

la Habana,/, Havana. 

hallar, to find ; hallar una 
salida, to find an out- 
let or solution. 

horror, m.j horror, awe; 
tomar horror a, to abhor. 

huerfano, ;;/., fatherless, 
orphan. 

imposible, adj.^ impossible. 

lejos, adv., far ; lejano, adj., 
distant. 

Hover, to rain ; llueve, it 
rains. 

marcharse, to walk out, to 
leave. 

medio, adj., half; son las 
dos y media, it is half 
past two. 

miseria,/, poverty, misery. 

morir, to die; murio, he 
died. 

muerte,/, death. 

Norte, m.y North. 

Pacifico, adj,y Pacific. 

parte,/., part ; por parte de, 
on the part of; through. 



PI 2 



lOO 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 



pronto, adj.y adv., prompt, 
quick ; promptly ; por lo 
pronto, for the moment. 

pueblo, m.f village, people. 

punto, ;;/., point, question, 
matter. 

quit arse, to move away. 

realizar, to realize, to sell. 

sueldo, m., salary. 



teatro, nt., theatre. 
traste,?;;.,fret; daraltraste 

con, to spoil, to destroy. 
tronar, to thunder ; truena, 

it thunders. 
viuda,/., widow ; viudo, w., 

widower. 
voz, /, voice ; dar voces. 



to cry. 

En casa de Juan, at John's. En casa de mi amigo, 
at my friend's. Hace calor. It is hot. 

domingo 

lunes 

martes 

miercoles 

jueves 

viernes 

sdbado. 

Enero 

Febrero 

Marzo 

El primero de Agosto. The first of August. 

El dos de Enero. The second of January. 

El treinta de Mayo. The thirtieth of May. 

El veintiocho de Febrero. The twenty-eighth of Feb- 
ruary. 
El quince de Abril. The fifteenth of April. 



Sunday 


Abril 


April 


Monday 


Mayo 


May 


Tuesday 


Junio 


June 


Wednesday 


Julio 


July 


Thursday 


Agosto 


August 


Friday 


Septiembre 


September 


Saturday. 


Octubre 


October 


January 


Noviembre 


November 


February 


Diciembre 


December. 


March 







Exercise. 

Despues de la muerte de D. Martin su esposa y su hija, 
que ya estaba hecha una mujer, se hallaron solas en 
Matanzas, casi en la miseria, pues la enfermedad habia 
dado al traste con lo poquisimo que quedaba. Realizaron los 
muebles y se fueron a la Habana, donde tenian algunos 
parientes, y estos, por quitarse la carga de encima, les aconse- 
jaron marcharse a Espaiia y les dieron para el viaje y para 
los primeros gastos que tuvieran hasta llegar a Madrid, que 
era el punto que Justa habia elegido. Con su hermano 
Ricardo no habia que contar, pues ella le habia tenido casi 



IMPERSONAL VERfiS joi 

siempre a su cargo en Barcelona; Pepe, el menor, que estaba 
en un pueblo no lejos de la Habana, era bueno, pero tenia 
un sueldo miserable y mucha familia, y, ademas, Justa habi'a 
tornado horror a la Isla y lo que queri'a era ir a Espana, 
que, por estar mas lejos, le pareci'a mejor. En Madrid 
estaba su hermano Luis, y con su ayuda podrian hallar 
alguna salida y por lo pronto hacer gestiones para ob- 
tener la pension, a que, por parte de su padre, creian 
tener derecho como huerfana y viuda. Asi, pues, se em- 
barcaron madre e hija y emprendieron su ultimo viaje 
a Espana; llegados aSantander, tomaro n el tren (train) para 
Madrid, y desde la estacion del Norte fueron directamente 
a casa de Luis, que vivia en el extremo del barrio del 
Pacifico, creyendo darle una sorpresa, pues no le habian 
avisado su llegada. Pero la sorpresa, y dolorosa, fue la 
de las viajeras que hallaron el piso desalquilado, y, por 
un vecino de la casa, supieron que Luis, con su mujer, 
habi'a salido para Filipinas pocos dias antes, y que acaso 
en aquel momento se estaria embarcando para Barcelona. 

Angel Ganivet. 

Conversation. 

^Como quedaron, la esposa de D. Martin y su hija, 
despues de la muerte de D. Martin ? i Como habian per- 
dido lo poco que tenian ? i Donde murio el padre ? 
(i^Adonde se marcharon la madre y la hija? ^Que tu- 
vieron que vender para el viaje ? i Donde quedan la 
Habana y Matanzas ? ^ Es Cuba un pais continejital ? 
I Donde tenian parientes las sefioras ? i Que les aconse- 
jaron estos parientes ? i Que les dieron para el viaje y 
para los priraeros gastos que tuvieran hasta llegar 
a Madrid ? i Que es Madrid ? i Quien habi'a elegido 
a Madrid para ir a vivir aili ? i Quien era Justa? i Por 
que no podi'an contar con Ricardo ? i Quien lo habia 
tenido a su cargo en Barcelona ? i Donde estaba Pepe, 



i^H/j v: '^IMPl^RSONAL VERBS 

el hermano menor ? i Que se dice de Pepe ? i Por que 
queri'a Justa venir a Espafia ? i Donde vivi'a su hermano 
Luis ? i En que podria ayudarles ? i Por que creian 
Justa y su madre tener derecho a pension ? lA que 
ciudad de Espafia llegaron primero ? De Santander i a 
donde fueron ? ^A que estacion llegaron en Madrid? 
I En que barrio vivi'a Luis ? iLe habi'an avisado su 
llegada ? i Por que no le avisaron ? i Quien recibio la 
sorpresa? ^Adonde se habi'a marchado Luis? (f. Que 
estaria haciendo Luis, tal vez, en ese momento ? 

Translate. 

It thunders. It was thundering last night when he 
arrived. It rained yesterday from morning till night. He 
feared it might rain before two o'clock. 

It is necessary for him to know the day of my departure. 
It is very important to decide this question. If it is not 
decided to-day I shall have to inform my father. There is 
an important question to (que) decide about our salary. 
There were several measures to take before the end of the 
month. 

I have to go out. They had to remain at their friend's 
because it was raining. It may be. It may not be. If 
he does not arrive to-day I shall have to write to him that 
the rooms in the hotel have been taken by another 
traveller. We had to remain in a village three hours 
before we could resume (contmuar) our voyage. It was 
a sad place, but our friend, D. Luis, who lives there, took 
us (nos llevd) to his house, and we remained there in very 
good company until five o'clock, when we went back to the 
station. 

The horse was not known in America before the 
Spanish conquest, and without it the conquest and 
colonization [colonizacidn) of the continent would have 
been much more difficult than it was. It might, perhaps, 



IMPERSONAL VERBS 163 

have been impossible. The natives feared these animals 
that they had never seen before. 

It is very, cold to-day. It will be warmer next month. 



Translate. 

I Que hora es ? Son las diez. i A que hora llego 
usted ? Eran las nueve y media. Eran las nueve y diez 
minutos cuando sail de casa. Es ya muy tarde para (to) 
ir al teatro : son las nueve y cuarto. La conferencia de 
m^fiana empezara a las dos ; debemos estar alii a las dos 
menos cuarto (a quarter to two). Hace fri'o en Rusia 
en el mes de Febrero. Cuando estuvimos en Sud America 
hacia mucho calor. 

^ Que dia del mes es hoy? Hoy es primero (first) de 
Agosto. i Que dia de la semana ? Miercoles. i Cuantos 
dias tiene la semana ? Siete. i Cuantos dias tiene Junio ? 
Junio trae treinta dfas. iQue meses traen treinta y un 
dias? Enero; Marzo, Mayo, Julio, Agosto, Octubre 
y Diciembre. Su carta esta fechada el cinco de Octubre. 
Creo que para (by) el diez de Noviembre ya mi hermano 
habra recibido los libros necesarios para ir a la escuela. 

Hace mucho tiempo no veo a Juan. Hace tres anos 
y medio llego a esta ciudad un viajero sudamericano de 
quien recibi las primeras lecciones de espanol. Veni'a de 
Bolivia, hablaba muy bien su lengua y era hombre de ex- 
tensos y variados conocimientos. Se llamaba D. Valeriano 
Arce Rodriguez, tenia cuarenta y cinco anos y pareci'a ser 
mucho mas joven. 



104 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD COMPARED 

XV 

EXAMPLES OF THE SPANISH USE OF 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ITS 
VARIOUS FORMS COMPARED WITH 
THE INDICATIVE 



134. — Affirmative statement : 

Present, 

Me dice que le ha acon- 
tecido una desgracia 
(Indicative). 
Past 

Me dijo que le habia 
acontecido una des- 
gracia (Ind.). 
Future, 

Digo que para entonces 
le habra acontecido 
una desgracia (Ind.). 

Doubt, negation; fear, &c. : 

Present, 

No me dice que le haya 
acontecido una des- 
gracia (Subjunctive). 
Past, 
Nome dijo que le hubiera 
(or hubiese) aconte- 
cido una desgracia 
(Subj.). 



He tells me he has met 
with a misfortune. 



He told me that he had 
met with a misfortune. 



I say that he will by then 
have met with a mis- 
fortune. 



He does not tell me that 
he has met with a mis- 
fortune. 

He did not tell me that 
he had met with a mis- 
fortune.^ 



1 Subordinate clauses governed by a verb implying negation or by 
a negative sentence require the subjunctive, as we have said (§ 113) ; 
but when the negation makes reference to the existence of an absolute 
fact, to a necessity or obligation, the indicative may be used : 

Esta senora no debe saber que This lady must not know that the 

el muertoessuhijo (necessity). dead person is her son. 

Esta senora no sabia que el This lady did not know that the 

muerto fuera su hijo (doubt). dead person was her son. 



WITH THE INDICATIVE 



105 



Future. 

Temia que para enton- He feared that he might 

ces le hubiera (or have met by then with 

hubiese) acontecido a misfortune. 

una desgracia (Subj.). 

135. — While a positive statement requires the indicative 
to be used for both the present and past in the principal 
and subordinate clauses, in complex sentences express- 
ing negation, doubt, hope, or similar states of mind, the 
indicative is used in the main and the subjunctive in the 
subordinate clauses. 

136. — Conditional Sentences. 



Present (or Future) with si : 
Si paga sus deudas, con- 
servard su buen nom- 
bre (Indicative). 



Should he pay his debts, 
he will keep his good 
name. 



With other words indicating condition 



Como pague sus deudas, 
conservara su buen 
nombre (Subjunctive in 
the first clause). 
Past. 
Si pago sus deudas, con- 
servo su buen nombre 
(Indicative). 
Future. 
Si pagare sus deudas, 
conservard su buen 
nombre (Subjunctive in 
the first clause, not in 
the second). 



Provided he pays his 
debts, he will keep his 
good name. 



If he paid his debts, he 
kept his good name. 



If he should pay his debts, 
he will keep his good 
name. 



Ignora que su madre ha caido 
enferma (positive fact). 

Ignora que su madre haya caido 
enferma (doubt, uncertainty). 

No se lo que me digo (positively). 

No s6 que le diga (doubtfully). 



He does not know that his mother 

has been taken ill. 
He does not know whether his 

mother has been taken ill. 
I do not know what I am saying, 
r^^do not know what I should tell 

you. 



io6 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD COMPARED 
137. — Condition implying negation : 



Present. 
Si pagara (or pagase) 
sus deudas, conserva- 
ria su buen nombre 
(implying that he will 
not pay). 

Past 

Si pagara (better, si hu- 
biera pagado) en 
aquella ocasion sus 
deudas, conservara 
(or hubiera conser- 
vado or habria con- 
servado) su buen nom- 
bre. 



138.— Optative (independent clauses). 



If he paid his debts, he 
would keep his good 
name. 



Had he then paid his 
debts, he would have 
kept his good name. 



Present or Future. 
Pasemos ahora a tratar 

de Ids adverbios. 
Traiga usted las obras 

de Shakespeare. 
No pretendamos alterar 

el orden de la natura- 

leza. 



Let us now go on to deal 

with the adverbs. 
Bring the works of 

Shakespeare. 
Let us not pretend to 

change the order of 

nature. 



139. — The following sentences may offer some difficulty 
to the English student. 



It was to find Don Jeronimo 
that Don Quijote first 
entered an inn. 



La primera vez que Don 
Quijote entrara en una 
venta fue para encon- 
trar en ella a Don Jero- 
nimo. 

In this sentence from a Spanish newspaper the use of 
entrara instead of entro is not justified. This practice, it 
is true, has been followed by good writers, but it should 
not be encouraged. The sense is affirmative ; there is no 
suggestion of doubt, wish or hope, and, therefore, good 
usage calls for the indicative forms. 



WITH THE INDICATIVE 107 

140.— Solo huboenSevilla There was in Seville only 

un caballero que no one gentleman who did 

rindiera homenaje a not pay homage to Cer- 

Cervantes. vantes. 

The verb haber, when it implies existence, requires the 
indicative forms in the clauses depending on it ; but in the 
sentence given above the word solo implies a negation, 
and the sense is : No hubo sino un caballero que no 
rindiera homenaje, that is : There was but one gentleman 
who di^ not pay homage. Hence the use of the subjunctive 
is correct in this case. 

141.— No era mas que la It was only the shadow of 

sombra de una sensa- a sensation : as though he 

cion : como si mirara were looking at somebody 

(or mirase) beber a otro who was drinking and saw 

y le viera tragar algo. him swallow something. 

The if-clause here implies negation ; the subjunctive 
forms in -se or -ra are quite correct. 

142.— Querian que se lo They wanted me to put it to 
dijera (or dijese) mas them more clearly. 
claro. 

Querer is one of the verbs which always govern the 
subjunctive ; in the subordinate clauses depending on it 
the forms in -se or -ra must be used for the past, as in the 
sentence under consideration. 

143.— Sea como fuere, sea lo que fuere, are idiomatic 
phrases meaning ' however it may be *. Other verbs and 
relatives can be used similarly : 

Sea quien fuere. Whoever he might be. 

Suceda lo que sucediere. Happen what may. 

Venga lo que viniere. Whatever may happen. 

Digalo quien lo dijere. Whoever may say so. 

144. — The interjection ojala is an Arabic phrase adopted 
by the Spaniards with its original meaning of Allah grant 
that ... or Would to heaven^ and it, therefore, involves the 
use of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses. 



io8 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD COMPARED 

Ojald no se sepa esto. May heaven grant that it 

does not leak out. 
Ojala lo hubiera sabido. I wish I had known it. 

145.— ^A quien podia ecu- Who could have thought 

rrirsele que los techos se that roofs might go up in 

fueran por lo alto como the air like lifts ? 
ascensores? 

The main clause is an implied negation, the subor- 
dinate clause, therefore, must be formed with a subjunctive. 

146. — Aunque intentara Though he tried to sleep, it 
dormir, fuele imposible. was impossible for him. 

Aunque intento dormir would also be permissible : but 
the past subjunctive gives to the sentence a shade of un- 
fulfilled wish which the directness of the indicative does 
not suggest. Yet this practice of using the subjunctive 
instead of the indicative in cases similar to this is not 
always justified. For instance, in the following sentence 
of the same author terminara is not the best form to 
adopt. 

Pocos momentos habian A few moments had elapsed 
pasado desde que ter- since the dinner had fin- 
minara la comida. ished. 

In fact the whole construction cannot be considered as 
good idiomatic Spanish. The most natural way of ex- 
pressing the same thought would be : Pocos momentos 
habian transcurrido desde el fin de la comida. 

147. — -Quiza estuviese (or Perhaps he was still in 
estuviera) todavia en Mexico in i6o8. 
Mejico en i6o8. 

Quizd estaba todavia en Mejico en i6o8 is likewise 
allowable ; but the subjunctive stresses the uncertainty of 
the fact. 

Aprieta la mano y reel- Shake hands and receive 
beme por esposo si qui- me as your husband if you 

sieres. like. 



WITH THE INDICATIVE 



109 



Ouieres instead of quisieres would have the same 
meaning in this sentence, but the subjunctive is more 
polite, and implies uncertainty. 



148. — No es de extranar 
que su intercesion mo- 
lestara a las gentes. 

149. — No habia marco que 
encerrara todo esto. 

150. — Con estas razones 
perdio el pobre caba- 
Hero el juicio, y desvela- 
base por entenderlas y 
desentranarles el sen- 
tido que no se lo sacara, 
ni las entendiera el mis- 
mo Aristoteles si resu- 
citara para solo ello. 
No estaba muy bien con 
las heridas que Don Be- 
lianis dabay recibia,por- 
que se imaginaba que, 
por grandes maestros 
que le hubiesen curado, 
no dejaria de tener el 
rostro y todo el cuerpo 
lleno de cicatrices y se- 
nales. Pero, con todo, 
alababa en su autor 
aquel acabar su libro 
con la promesa de aque- 
11a inacabable aventura 
y muchas veces le vino 
deseo de tomar la pluma 
y darle fin al pie de la 
letra, como alii se pro- 
mete ; y sin duda alguna 
lo hiciera y aun saliera 
con ello, si otros ma- 
yores y continuos pen- 
samientos no se lo estor- 
baran. 

(Cervantes.) 



It is not to be wondered at 
that his intercession an- 
noyed the people. 

There was no frame to en- 
close all this. 

Over conceits of this sort 
the poor gentleman lost 
his wits, and used to lie 
awake striving to under- 
stand them and worm the 
meaning out of them ; 
which Aristotle himself 
could not have made out 
or extracted had he come 
to life again for that special 
purpose. He was not at 
all easy about the wounds 
which .Don Belianis gave 
and took, because it 
seemed to him that, great 
as were the surgeons who 
had cured him, he must 
have had his face and 
body covered all over 
with seams and scars. 
He commended, however, 
the author's way of end- 
ing his book with the pro- 
mise of that interminable 
adventure, and many a 
time was he tempted to 
take up his pen and finish 
it properly as is there pro- 
posed, which no doubt he 
would have done, and 
made a successful piece 
of work of it too, had not 
greater and more absorb- 
ing thoughts prevented 
him. (Ormsby's trans.) 



no SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD COMPARED 



Vocabulary. 



acercarse, to approach, to 
draw near. 

actitud,/, attitude. 

ademan, m.^ gesture, atti- 
tude. 

dgil, adj.f nimble. 

alcance, m.^ reach; po- 
nerse al alcance, to get 
within reach. 

alimentar, alimentarse, to 
feed, to feed on. 

apoderarse, to possess one- 
self of a thing, to get hold 
of. 

aproximarse, to approach, 
to come near. 

atacar, to attack. 

atisbar, to watch, to spy, to 
pry. 

burlar, to hoax. 

cada, adj\, each, each one. 

carne,/., flesh, meat ; carne 
humana, human flesh. 

cazar, to hunt. 

centre, ;;/., centre. 

cerdo, m., pig, swine. 

corto, adj.y short. 

crecimiento, m.j growth. 

cubierto, adj.j covered. 

cuerpo, m,y body. 

dano, m.f detriment, da- 
mage ; en su dano, to 
his detriment. 

defender, to defend. 

demasiado, adj,^ too much ; 
adv,f too. 

designacion, /., name, de- 
signation. 

devastacion,/, devastation. 

devorar, to devour. 

diferencia,/, difference. 



divertirse,to amuse oneself. 
enemigo, w., enemy. 
entonces, adv.j conj.j then. 
erroneo, adj,y wrong, er- 
roneous. 
extender, to extend, to 

stretch ; extiende, he 

extends. 
falda,/, slope. 
fastidiar, to annoy, 
fuerte, adj.j strong, 
fuerza,/, strength. 
ganado, m.j cattle. 
garra,/, paw. 
gate, m.f cat. 
gracia, /, gracefulness, 

grace. 
habitar, to inhabit. 
hermoso, adj.y handsome. 
huir, to flee, to run away ; 

huye, he flees. 
imitar, to imitate, to ape. 
jaguar, m., jaguar. 
ligero, adj.y swift. 
macizo, adj.y massive, solid. 
mancha,/, spot, stain. 
miembro, ;;/., limb, member. 
mono, ;;/., monkey. 
montaiia,/, mountain. 
montes, adj.y wild. 
mula,/., mule. 
musculoso, adj.y brawny, 

muscular. 
notable, adj.y remarkable, 

notable. 
obscure, adj.y dark. 
observar, to observe. 
orilla,/., bank (of a river). 
paciencia,/., patience. 
pie!,/, skin. 
plenitud,/., fullness. 



WITH THE INDICATIVE 



III 



popularmente, adv,y popu- 
larly. 

rapido, adj,^ quick, rapid, 
swift. 

ray ado, adj.^ striped. 

rebaiio, ;;/., herd. 

redondo, adj.y round. 

robusto, adj.y robust. 

selvoso, adj., woody. 

^\n,prep.y without; sin em- 
bargo, however. 

soler, to accustom, to be 
wont. 



sugerir, to suggest. 
tamano, m., size, 
temible, adj., fearful. 
tigre, rn.y tiger. 
toro, m.y bull. 
tortuga,/, turtle. 
tratar, to try, to treat. 
tropico, m.y tropic, 
vaca,/, cow. 

valerosamente, adv.y brave- 
ly, courageously. 
valle, m.y valley. 
venado, m.y deer. 



Exercise. 
El jaguar. 

De los gatds que habitan el nuevo mundo el mas grande 
y mas hermoso es el jaguar, popularmente conocido en 
aquellas regiones con el nombre de tigre, aunque la 
designacion es erronea porque hay notables diferencias 
entre el jaguar y el tigre del antiguo mundo. El jaguar, 
en la plenitud de su crecimiento, es poco menor, en tamano, 
que el tigre, pero en vez de tener, como este, la piel rayada, 
esta cubierto de manchas redondas obscuras con un punto 
negro en el centro de cada una de ellas. 

Todo su cuerpo, robusto y musculoso, sugiere la idea 
de fuerza. Sus miembros cortos y macizos no tienen la 
gracia de los otros animales de su familia, pero es agil 
como ellos, y rapido en sus movimientos. 

Vive en los valles del tropico o en las faldas de las 
montaiias selvosas, desde Panama hasta el Sud del Brasil. 
Se alimenta de venados, de monos, y en las orillas de los 
grandes rios atisba a las tortugas y se apodera de ellas 
para devorarlas. No podria cazar monos, si estos animales 
no se le acercaran por curiosidad a mirarlo. Los monos 
se divierten en observar las actitudes del jaguar, tratan 
de imitarlo y a veces se le aproximan con intencion de 
fastidiarlo y burlarse de el. El jaguar espera con paciencia 



112 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD COMPARED 

que se pongan a su alcance y, cuando extiende la garra, 
comprende el mono, demasiado tarde y en su dano, que 
hay un animal mas fuerte que el y mas ligero en sus 
ademanes de cazador. 

En los rebafios suele hacer el jaguar grandes devasta- 
ciones. El toro, sin embargo, no huye de el y defiende 
a las vacas, poniendose delante de ellas cuando el enemigo 
se acerca. 

El jaguar no ataca al hombre, pero se defiende valero- 
samente si es perseguido. Sin embargo, cuando llega 
a devorar un hombre por defenderse, le toma gusto a la 
carne humana y la busca despues cuando tiene hambre. 
Es entonces un enemigo temible. 

Caza tambien cerdos monteses y tiene predileccion por 
la carne de caballo y de mula. 

Conversation. 

I Cual es el mas grande y mas hermoso de los gatos del 
nuevo mundo? ^Con que otro nombre es conocido el 
jaguar ? ,i^ Se le puede llamar tigre ? i Cual es el tamano 
del jaguar en la plenitud de su crecimiento ? i Tiene el 
jaguar la piel rayada? <i, Que tiene en vez de rayas? 
I Como son las manchas ? i Puede usted decirme como 
es el cuerpo del jaguar? ^ Que sugiere? Diga usted 
como son los miembros de este animal. ^Tienen las 
formas del jaguar la gracia de los otros animales de su 
familia ? i Que otros animales de esta familia conoce 
usted ? 

I Donde habita el jaguar ? ^ De que se alimenta ? i Que 
animal busca en las orillas de los grandes rios ? i Podri'a 
el jaguar cazar monos, si ellos no lo buscaran ? i Como 
se divierten los monos con el jaguar? ji^ Para que se le 
acercan? ^Que hace entonces el jaguar? i Es el mono 
mas ligero que el jaguar ? 

^ Donde suele el jaguar hacer devastaciones ? ^ Huye 
el toro del jaguar ? i Como defiende las vacas ? 



WITH THE INDICATIVE 113 

I Ataca el jaguar al hombre ? i Sabe defenderse de el ? 
I Cuando busca el jaguaf la carne humana ? ^^ Es temible 
entonces ? 

lQw6 otros animales son perseguidos por el jaguar? 
Diga usted otra vez lo que hemos leido acerca del jaguar. 

Translate. 

Quisiera yo tener tiempo para viajar. Iri'a a Espafia, a la 
America Meridional, a Cuba y a Mejico. Muchas cosas 
utiles puede el viajero aprender en esos paises, si observa 
con atencion y sabe aprovechar lo que observa. Si yo 
hubiera sabido hace dos ailos lo que se hoy acerca del 
Nuevo Mundo, no habria permanecido en Europa todo 
este tiempo. Ahora, sin embargo, tendre que estar aqui 
muchos anos, porque estoy aprendiendo un oficio y cuando 
lo sepa ya sera demasiado tarde para viajar. 

Estuve anoche en casa de D. Santiago Izquierd®, 
comerciante uruguayo, que vive en Londres hace diez 
anos. Don Santiago no me dijo que pensara ir pronto 
a la America del Sur ; pero sus amigos creen que, si el 
pudiera, partiria inmediatamente. Su familia vive en 
el Uruguay. Si su mujer y sus hijas vivieran siempre 
en Europa, el no pensaria en volver a su patria, porque 
ya no le gusta viajar. Tiene sesenta y nueve anos y 
aunque es sano y robusto prefiere su casa al buque de 
vapor (steamer) y al vagon del ferrocarril (railway carriage). 

Es necesario que esperen ustedes hasta manana para 
escribir la carta. El vapor llega esta noche y traera 
correspondencia de Malaga. La semana pasada no fue 
preciso esperar, porque no hubo vapor y era indiferente 
escribir el miercoles o el sabado. 

Translate. 

Could you tell me what time it is? — It is two o'clock. 
It was half past one when I left the railway station. — I must 
be at home at ten minutes to four ; could you tell me at 

2129 I 



114 SUBJUNCTIVE AND INDICATIVE 

what time I should be at the station ? — You must be at the 
station at a quarter past three : after that there is a train 
at thirty-five minutes past three. — That would be too late. 

Is this your first journey to Spain ? — Yes. I always 
wished to go there, but only now have I found time to do so. 
I could have gone two years ago, but then my father was 
going to Paris and I had to go with him. It would have 
been better to go then, because I could have stayed two or 
three months, in the autumn and the winter. Now I can 
only be there for seven weeks. It is a very short time to 
see all the things that I want to see in Spain. However, 
as I know more of the Spanish language than I knew in 
those days I hope to be able to study the country and 
understand the people better. 

Have you seen your friend Mr. Kennedy since his 
arrival {llegadd)! — No; I wish {pjald) I had seen him. 
He has two books for me, that I want to read to my father 
during our stay in the country. Where is Mr. Kenned}^ 
now ? — I think he is in London, in the same house where 
he used to live before. . . . Write to him. — I think that 
is the best thinsr to do. 



XVI 

ORDINAL NUMBERS AND INDETER- 
MINATE PRONOUNS 

151. — The ordinal numbers are in Spanish : 

Primero first 

Segundo second 

Tercero third 

Cuarto fourth 

Quinto fifth 

Sexto sixth 

Septimo seventh 

Octavo eighth 

Noveno (or nono) ninth 



ORDINAL NUMBERS 



"5 



Decimo 


tenth 


Undecimo (or onceno) 


eleventh 


Duodecimo 


twelfth 


Decimotercio (or decimo 




tercero) 


thirteenth 


Decimocuarto 


fourteenth 


Decimoquinto 


fifteenth 


(and so on) up to 




Vigesimo 


twentieth 


Vigesimo primer o (or 




vigesimo primo) 


twenty-first 


(and so on) up to 




Trigesimo 


thirtieth 


Cuadragesimo 


fortieth 


Quincuagesimo 


fiftieth 


Sexagesimo 


sixtieth 


Septuagesimo 


seventieth 


Octogesimo 


eightieth 


Nonagesimo 


ninetieth 


Centesimo 


hundredth 


Ducentesimo 


two hundredth 


Trecentesimo 


three hundredth 


Cuadringentesimo 


four hundredth 


Quingentesimo 


five hundredth 


Sexcentesimo 


six hundredth 


Septingentesimo 


seven hundredth 


Octogentesimo 


eight hundredth 


Nonagentesimo 


nine hundredth 


Milesimo 


thousandth 


Dosmilesimo 


two thousandth 


Millonesimo 


millionth. 



Note. — In ordinals made of two words like decimo- 
tercio common usage requires the alteration of both 
elements of the word to form the feminine ; so we say : 
capitulo decimoquinto, leccion decimatercera. But in 
the last edition of the Dictionary of the Spanish Academy 
we read Decimocuarta edicion. 

162. — In Spanish the cardinal numbers are used to 
express the day of the month, with the exception of the 
first: 



ii6 ORDINAL NUMBERS 

Estamos a i^. (primero) de We are at the ist of May. 

Mayo. 

El golpe de estado de 2 The coup d'etat of the 2nd 

(dos) de Diciembre. December. 

Le esperaremos hasta el We shall wait for you until 

21 (veintiuno) del mes the 21st of next month. 

entrante. 

153. — With the names of kings or popes the ordinals 
are used up to 9th : 

Felipe segundo. Philip II. 

Carlos tercero. Charles III. 

Carlos quinto. Charles V. 

Pio nono. Pius IX. 

a. Either the cardinal or the ordinal number may be 
used in the case of tenth : 

Leon diez or decimo. Leo X. 

Carlos diez or decimo. Charles X. 

h. From tenth upwards the cardinal numbers alone are 
accepted by good usage, although as regards the names 
of Popes some writers use the ordinals after ten also : 

Luis diez y seis. Louis XVI. 

Carlos doce. Charles XII. 

Juan veinte y dos. John XXII. 

154. — In quoting laws, chapters, pages, paragraphs the 
cardinal numbers are used from two upwards : 

El Congreso aprobo ayer Yesterday Congress passed 

la ley dos. Law no. 2. 

Hemos llegado al capitulo We have reached Chap- 

siete. ter VII. 

a. But the ordinal numbers are also recognized by good 
usage up to twelfth : 

El capitulo cuarto termina Chapter IV ends on page 55. 
en la pdgina cincuenta 
y cinco. 

155. — With centuries the ordinal numbers are used 
up to the tenth or twelfth : 



AND INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS 117 



En el siglo cuarto (IV) de 

la era cristiana. 
Vivio en el siglo decimo 

(X). 
El siglo once o undecimo. 



In the fourth century of the 
Christian era. 

He lived in the tenth cen- 
tury. 

The eleventh century. 



a. After twelfth the cardinal numbers are used : 



El siglo diez y ocho. 
El siglo veinte. 



The eighteenth century. 
The twentieth century. 



156. — Ambos, ambas means the one and the other 



conjointly : 

Iban ambos a caballo. 

£,Conoce usted al Alcalde 
o al Secretario ? — Los 
conozco a ambos. 



They were both riding on 

horseback. 
Do you know the Mayor or 

the Secretary? — I know 

them both. 

a. When the two objects to which reference is made are 
not taken conjointly ambos cannot be used : 



Is this parcel for John, for 
me, or for both? — For 
neither. 



Who is the elder, you or 
your brother? — I am the 
elder of the two. 



^Es este paquete para 

Juan, para mi o para 

ambos? — Para ninguno 

de los dos. 
^Quien es mayor, usted 

o su hermano ? — Yo soy 

el mayor de los dos (not 

de ambos).^ 

b, ' Both ' is translated tanto . . . como or asi . . . como in 
expressions like ' both the mother and the son were thrown 
into the flames': tanto la niadre como la hija fueron 
arrojadas a las llamas. 

Se expresa muy bien asi He expresses himself very 
ingles como en well both in English and 



en 



italiano. 



Italian. 



^ Yet we find in good writers : 

Ni una ni otra de ambas posiciones None of these two standpoints 
nos satisface (M. de Unamuno). is satisfactory to us. 

So that, despite the grammarians, it is perhaps pedantry to condemn 
this form of expression. 



iia 



ORDINAL NUMBERS 



La victoria fue una sor- 
presa lo mismo para 
nosotros que para el 
enemigo. 

157. — The fraetioiial numbers 
ordinals from fourth to twelfth : 



The victory was a surprise 
both for us and for the 
enemy. 



are the same as the 



medio or mitad 


half 


tercio or tercera parte 


third 


cuarto 


fourth 


quinto 


fifth 


octavo (or ochavo) 


eighth 


duodecimo 


twelfth. 


a. From twelfth upwards fractional numbers are formed 


y' the adding of -avo to the cardinal, 


up to 999th : 


dozavo (or duodecimo) 


twelfth 


catorzavo 


fourteenth 


veinteavo 


twentieth 


treintavo 


thirtieth 


centavo (or centesimo) 


hundredth 


novecientos sesenta y dosavo 


962nd 


milesimo 


thousandth 


millonesimo 


millionth. 



Indeterminate Pronouns and Adjectives. 
158. — The indeterminate adjectives alguno, alguna, 
algunos, algunas (some); ninguno, ninguna, ningunos, 
ningunas (none, not any), lose the last letter in the 
masculine singular when placed before a noun. 

Debemos encontrar algun We must find some way to 

modo de resolver el solve the problem. 

problema. 
Algunos viajeros pre- 

firieron quedarse en el 

puerto. 
Ningun ciudadano puede 

rehusar el cumplimiento 

de su deber. 
Ningunos libros tan 

buenos como los del 

editor Lopez. 



Some travellers chose 
remain in port. 

No citizen can refuse 
fulfil his duty. 



to 



to 



No books so good as those 
of Lopez, the publisher. 



AND INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS 119 



I Conoce usted los amigos 
de la Sra. Mendez? — 
He visto a alguno. 

I Tiene usted parientes en 
esta ciudad ? - No tengo 
ningunos. 

^Estan en la escuela todos 
sus hermanos?— No to- 
dos, pero algunos. 



Do you know Mrs. Mendez's 
friends ? — I have seen 
one of them. 

Have you any relatives in 
this town ? — I have none. 

Are all your brothers at 
school? —Not all, but 
some. 



159. — Alguien (pronoun) takes the placeof algun hombre, 
alguna persona, and cannot be used with reference to ani- 
mals or inanimate beings. 



Somebody has come. 
He was talking to me of 
somebody I did not know. 



Alguien ha llegado. 
Me hablaba de alguien a 
quien yo no conocia. 

160. — Nadie, also a pronoun, is the equivalent of nin* 
guna persona, nobody. 

I know nobody in Vallado- 

lid. 
Nobody pretends to have 

won the prize. 

a. As nadie means ninguno de, it cannot be used in 
a partitive sense. It would be wrong to say : nadie de 
sus hermanos quiso socorrerlo (none of his brothers 
wanted to help him). 

In this case ninguno takes the plaee of nadie: 



No conozco a nadie en 

Valladolid. 
Nadie se cree con derecho 

al premio. 



Ninguno de los generales 
acudio a la cita. 



None of the generals an- 
swered the summons. 



161.— Uno u otro or cualquiera de los dos means either ^ and 
ninguno de los dos is translated by neither. 

Either the one or the other is 

wrong or both are wrong. 
Which of the two shall I con- 



Uno u otro estdn equivocados 

o ambos. 
^A quien debo consultar de 

los dos? — A cualquiera de 

alios. 
Espere a Juan y a Pedro 

hasta las tres y ninguno 

de los dos vino. 



suit ? — Either. 

I waited for John and Peter 
until three o'clock and nei- 
ther came. 



I20 ORDINAL NUMBERS 

a. Uno, una are indeterminate pronouns of the third person, 
which are used sometimes instead of se. Uno no sabe que 
decir, No se sabe que decir (one does not know what to say) : 
see § 86, note. 

162. — Nada means nothing, and refers often to general 
ideas or concepts : 

Nada es mejor que una Nothing is better than a 

buena conciencia. good conscience. 

Lainterrogue,peronodijo I questioned her, but she 

nada. said nothing. 

163.— It is to be noted that in Spanish ninguno, nada, and 
nadie may be used with no to emphasize the negation. 

No conozco a nadie aqui. I do not know anybody here. 

Three or more negative expressions may be used in the same 
phrase to emphasize its meaning ; 

No dijo nada de nadie (three He did not say anything about 

negations). anj^body. 

No le he debido nunca nada I have never owed anything to 

a nadie (four negations). anybody. 

164. Cualquiera (whichever) may be used as adjective or 
pronoun ; quienquiera is always a pronoun. 

Aqui me encontrard usted You will find me here at 

a cualquiera hora que whatever time you may 

venga. come. 

Cualquiera diria que es Anybody would say that you 

usted extranjero. were a foreigner. 

Quienquiera que sea, es Whoever he may be, it is 

precise recibirlo. necessary to receive him. 

a, Cualquiera and quienquiera take the plural forms 
cualesquiera and quienesquiera. 

Cualesquiera diversiones Any amusements to which 

a que la juventud se youth is given should be 

entregue deben estar watched over by parents. 
vigiladas per los padres. 



AND INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS 121 

b. Cualquiera may lose the last letter when used as an 
adjective and placed before the noun : 

Me dijo que viniera cual- He told me to come any day 
quier dia de la semana next week. 

proxima. 

165. — Todo, toda, todos, todas (all, every), is an indeter- 
minate adjective which very often requires the article after 
it : Todo el dia, toda la noche, all day, all night ; todas las 
flores del jardin estan dedicadas a la celebracion de su 
natalicio, all the flowers of the garden are destined for the 
celebration of her birthday ; la casa toda, the entire 
house. 

a. It may be used pronominally or substantively : 

Todos estamos expuestos We are all prone to err. 

a errar. 
Habla de todo con asom- He talks about everything 

brosa frescura. with astonishing assur- 

ance. 
Todo me es igual. It is all the same to me. 

b. Note the construction with the personal pronoun : 

Todos nosotros estdbamos We were all sure of victory. 
seguros de la victoria. 

c. Todo used as a pronoun in a general sense is neuter : 

Todo est^ bien : hemos con- Everything is right : we have 
venido en ello (not el). agreed to it. 

d. With nouns taken in a general sense todo is used without 
the article : Toda autoridad procede del pueblo, all authority 
derives from the people. 

166. — Mas, menos and demas are invariable adjectives. 

Mas casas hay en la aldea There are more houses in 

que drboles. the village than trees. 

Una pena menos. One sorrow less. 

167. — Propio with the possessive adjectives means own : 

Mi propia casa esta en My own house is at Madrid. 

Madrid. 
Lo vio con sus propios He saw it with his own eyes. 

ojos. 



122 ORDINAL NUMBERS 

168. — Cada is an invariable adjective meaning each or 

every : 

Ponga cada libro en su Put each book in its place. 

puesto. 

Cada operario a su oficio. Every workman to his trade. 

Cada dia trae su afdn. Each day brings its care. 

Gana un peso en cada diez He makes a dollar on every 

libros que vende. ten books he sells. 

a. Cada cannot, as in English, be used pronominally in 
Spanish. The words uno or cual must be added to it 
when the noun to which it refers is not expressed. 

Compre cien toneladas de I bought one hundred tons 

heno a diez y echo pesos of hay at eighteen dollars 

cada una. each. 

Cada cual ocupo su puesto Every one took his place in 

en la clase. the class. 

169. — Sendos (sendas) means each one in the sense of 
distribution : 

Venian en sendas hacaneas. Each one came riding her 

nag. 

Y mirando (Sancho) a los del And (Sancho) looking pitifully 
jardin tiernamente y con round about the garden ^yith 
Idgrimas les dijo que le tears in his eyes, desired 
ayudasen en aquel trance that they would in that dole- 
con sendos paternoster y ful [emergency] join with 
sendas avemarias (Cer- him each in a Pater-noster 
VANTEs).' and an Ave Maria (Shelton). 

^ It is to be noted that most of the English translations of Don Quixote 
since Shelton's times have rendered this passage wrongly : Motteux says 
' a few Paternosters and Ave-martas^ ; Duffield states that Sancho ' prayed 
that they would each help him in that peril with two Paternosters and two 
Aventarias\ and more recently Ormsby goes further in saying that 
Sancho ' bade them help him . . . with plenty of Paternosters and Ave 
Marias '. Watts says ' a couple '. 

Sendos (from the Latin singuli) is not of frequent colloquial use, and 
seems even to be disappearing from the literary language. Some people, 
and a few writers amongst them, have given the word the unwarrantable 
meaning of large, strong, out of proportion. 



AND INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS 123 



Vocabulary. 



admitir, to admit, to accept. 

albillo, ;;/., wine of white 
grape. 

amistad,/., friendship. 

antes bien, on the contrary. 

apetito, ;;/.; appetite. 

asiento, nt., seat; hombre 
de mucho asiento, solid, 
well-balanced man. 

bastante, adv., quite, very, 
enough; bastante mas jo- 
ven, a good deal younger. 

bonito, adj,f pretty, good- 
looking. 

camisa,/, shirt. 

cena,/., supper, dinner. 

cesar, to cease, to stop. 

clase,/, kind, class. 

cocinera,/., woman-cook. 

coloquio, m,y talk, conversa- 
tion. 

compatible, adj., suitable, 
compatible. 

corbata,/, neck-tie. 

cordial, adj.y hearty, cordial. 

chuleta,/., chop. 

decencia,/., decency. 

decente, adj\y decent. 

deleitar, to please, to de- 
light. 

dentadura, /., set of teeth, 
the teeth. 

deparar, to ofter, to aftbrd. 

despojar, to deprive of, to 
despoil ; despojarse de su 
traje, to undress, to strip. 

diente, ;//., tooth. 

donaire, m,, graceful car- 
riage, wit, elegance. 

emplear, to employ, to use. 

entrar, to enter, to come or 
go in. 



escaso, adj\, scarce, short. 

exponer, to lay down, to 
explain. 

fin, m.f end ; al fin, at 
last. 

formalidad, /., seriousness, 
gravity, formality. 

frisar, to approach, to bor- 
der. 

frito, adj.f fried. 

gallego, ;;/. and adj., Gali- 
cian. 

habla,/, language, talk. 

huesped, ;;/., guest, host. 

inesperado, adj., unexpec- 
ted. 

instruir, to teach, to inform. 

joven, adj., young. 

lavar, to wash. 

lavoteo, m.y hurried wash. 

limpio, adj., clean. 

locuacidad,/., talkativeness, 
loquacity. 

mah6n, ;;/., nankeen. 

manchego, adj., belonging 
to la Mancha. 

migas, />/., marrow (dish); 
crumbs. 

misterioso,^^*., mysterious. 

molestarse, to bother, to 
worry. 

narrar, to narrate, to relate. 

nombrar, to name. 

ocuparse en, to busy one- 
self with. 

ojo, m., eye. 

patriota, ?;/. and/., patriot. 

patrona, /, hostess, land- 
lady. 

peculio, m., money, pri- 
vate purse, pecuniary re- 
sources. 



124 



ORDINAL NUMBERS 



pez, m.f fish. 

pintoresco, adj.y pictures- 
que. 

poco, adj.y little; a poco, 
shortly afterwards. 

preceder, to precede. 

presentar, to present, to 
introduce. 

presuroso, adj.^ hasty, 
speedy. 

prolijidad,/, prolixity. 

recomendar, to recommend. 

regordete, regordeta, adj.y 
plump, chubby. 

relaci6n,/, friendship ; con 
relacion a, regarding. 

risueno, adj.^ smiling. 

ropa, /., clothes; ropita, 
modest wardrobe. 

rubicundo, adj\y ruddy, rosy 
with health. 

sazon, /., opportunity, sea- 
son; a la sazon, for the 
time being, at present. 

servir, to serve; servir 
la cena, to lay the sup- 
per. 

singular, adj,, singular, 
single. 

solo, adv,y only; tan solo, 
only. 



soltar, to let loose, to loose, 
to loosen. 

sosegado, adj,y quiet. 

suerte,/. luck, chance. 

sujeto, m.y person; adj\y 
tied, liable. 

terriblemente, adv., fright- 
fully, terribly. 

timido, adj.y timid, shy, coy. 

toalla,/, towel. 

torcer, to twist ; torcer los 
ojos, to squint. 

trabar, to bind, to tie ; tra- 
bar relaciones, to become 
friends. 

traje, m., dress; trajecito, 
unassuming, plain dress. 

unico, adj.y only. 

uva, /, grape; uvas de 
albillo, white wine grapes. 

vena,/, vein. 

Ventura,/, chance, luck. 

vestimenta,/., act of dress- 
ing, dress. 

vestir, vestirse, to dress. 

vise, m., lustre ; persona 
de viso, man of con- 
sequence. 

vivaracho, adj.y lively. 

vivienda, /., house, resi- 
dence, home. 



Exercise. 

Salio Mendizabal presuroso, Ilamando a su esposa e 
hija, y a poco se presentaron estas con el agua y toallas 
limpias. Era la patrona regordeta y vivaracha, bastante 
mas joven que su marido; mala dentadura, el habla 
gallega, manos de cocinera. La nifia, timida y rubi- 
cunda, habria sido muy bonita si no torciera terrible- 
mente los ojos. Precedialas el risueno padre que, al 
presentar a la familia, volvio a soltar la vena de su 



AND INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS 125 

verbosidad (loquacity). El Sr. D. Fernando traeria, segi'in 
el, buen apetito. Pronto se le serviria la cena. Casa mas 
sosegada no se encontraba en todo Madrid, y como no 
admitian sine huespedes recomendados, nunca tenian mas 
que cinco o seis, y a la sazon, por ser verano, tan solo 
dos, sin contar al Sr. D. Fernando, los cuales eran 
personas de mucho asiento y formalidad. A la hora de 
la cena los conoceria el nuevo huesped y trabaria con 
uno y otro sujeto relaciones muy cordiales. . . . Dejaronle 
al fin para que se lavase y, despojado de su trajecito 
de mahon, se ocupo el huesped en sacar del baul la 
unica ropita decente que trai'a, y camisa y corbata, para 
vestirse con toda la decencia compatible con su escaso 
peculio. Durante las operaciones de lavoteo y vesti- 
menta no cesaba de pensar en la ventura inespera- 
da y misteriosa con que entraba en Madrid. . . . 
Cenando migas excelentes con uvas de albillo, peces del 
Jarama fritos y chuletas a la papillotej hizo conocimiento 
con los dos huespedes que la suerte le deparaba por com- 
paneros de vivienda. ... El uno frisaba en los cincuenta 
anos, y en las primeras frases del coloquio se declare 
manchego y patriota. Su locuacidad no molestaba ; antes 
bien, instruia deleitando, porque narraba los sucesos y 
exponia las opiniones con singular donaire y una proli- 
jidad pintoresca. Debia de tener muchas y muy buenas 
amistades con personas en aquel tiempo de gran viso, 
porque al nombrarlas empleaba casi siempre formas fami- 
Hares. ... El segundo huesped era D. Pedro Hillo, natural 
de Toro. 

Conversation. 
I Quien salio presuroso llamando a su esposa y a su 
^ij^? (LQui^^ ^^^ Mendizabal? ^ Quienes trajeron el 
agua y las toallas? <: Puede usted decirme como era la 
patrona? i Era menor o mayor que su marido ? i Como 
tenia las manos ? i Cual era su modo de hablar ? ^ Que 
me dice usted de la nifia? i Era bonita? c Por que no 



126 ORDINAL NUMBERS 

era bonita? ^ Quien entro adelante ? <: Quien fiie pre- 
sentado por Mendizabal a la familia ? i Que pensaba 
Mendizabal del apetito de D. Fernando ? i Cuando le 
servirian la cena al huesped ? <^ Era sosegada la casa? 
I Admitian en ella toda clase de huespedes ? i Cuantos 
tenian a la sazon ? i Por que ten fan tan pocos ? i Cuantos 
eran, contando a D. Fernando ? i Eran los huespedes 
personas cualesquiera ? <:A que hora los conoceria el 
nuevo huesped? ^i, Para que lo dejaron? ^ Que vestido 
(vestimenta) tenia puesto ? i Era rico ? i Tenia muchos 
vestidos ? iDe donde saco su ropa ? ^ En que pensaba 
esa tarde cuando se vestia? lQu6 fue la cena? ^A 
qui^nes conocio en la cena? iQue edad tenia uno de 
los huespedes ? iDe donde era ? i Conocia personas de 
viso ? I Quien era el otro ? ^ De donde era natural ? 

Translate. 

Estuve en America en 1906. Viaje por Mejico, Guate- 
mala, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, el Ecuador y el Peru. 
Deseaba llegar a Colombia en Agosto, pero ya estaba 
Septiembre muy adelantado, cuando vimos la costa. El 
primero de Octubre sali de Bogota para, ir a Quito. 
Emplee en el viaje veinte y dos dias, pasando por Panama. 
Iban conmigo varias personas que conocian el pais y me 
ayudaron con sus buenos consejos (advice). Es Quito 
una ciudad de setenta mil habitantes, aunque algunos 
autores dicen que tiene ochenta mil. Esta sobre la li'nea 
equinoccial (Equator) a una altura (height) de nueve mil 
trescientos noventa y cinco pies (feet). Es ciudad muy 
antigua. Era una ciudad ya muy antigua cuando los 
espaiioles la ocuparon en mil quinientos treinta y cuatro. 
El Ecuador hizo parte durante algun tiempo, despues de 
la independencia (independence), de la Repiiblica de 
Colombia. 



AND INDETERMINATE PRONOUNS 127 

Translate. 

Charles XII of Sweden is one of the most chivalrous 
(cabal lerescas) and attractive figures in the history of Europe 
during the first years of the eighteenth century. His life was 
short and full of action and thought. He was only thirty- 
six at the end of it. 

Philip II of Spain built, twenty-eight miles from Madrid, 
a palace {palacio\ which is known under [con) the name 
of Escorial. They began (empezaron) to build it in 1573- 
It was finished twenty-one years later. 

Nobody now knows who were the first inhabitants of 
America. Nothing is known of the communications that 
may have existed [existtdo) between that Continent and 
the Old World. But there are some reasons [razones) 
for believing that communications existed. Whatever 
these reasons may be^ we must say that there are no 
conclusive [corKluyentes) proofs to decide the point. 

Who has been here to see you to-day? — I do not know 
that anybody has been to see me. The landlady would 
have told me if anybody had called, and if anybody did 
call he ought to have left his name, whoever he was. 

XVII 

AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES- 
PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES— 
LETTER-WRITING 

170.-^In order to increase or diminish the meaning or 
force of nouns, adjectives, and sometimes also of adverbs, 
certain terminations are added to these words, according 
to rules that are not always followed by usage in a 
uniform manner. The words altered in this way are 
called augmentatives when an increase in the meaning is 
suggested, and diminutives in the contrary case. 



128 AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES 

a. The most frequently used endings for the formation 
of augmentatives are -on, -azo, -ote : 

arbol, arbolon, arbolote (large tree). 
hombre, hombr6n (tall man). 
perro, perrazo (big dog). 
alto, altote (very high). 

b. When the word to which the endings are to be added 
ends in an unaccented vowel, this letter is dropped. It is 
to be observed that the accent of the word changes to the 
first vowel of the ending, -on and -ote have, in some few 
words, a diminutive value : 

rata, rat ; raton, mouse. 

ala, wing;^al6n, wing stripped of its feathers. 

isla, island ; islote, islet. 

torre, tower ; torreon, turret. 

c. In some cases these endings suggest the idea of 
clumsiness or grotesqueness, and are used in a con- 
temptuous sense : 

soltero, single, unmarried man ; solteron, old, in- 
corrigible bachelor. 
libro, book ; librote, big, ill-planned book. 

d. Two endings may sometimes be used conjointly to 
emphasize the meaning of the augmentative : 

hombre, hombron, hombronazo (big, loutish man). 
picaro, picaron, picaronazo (great rogue). 

171. — The diminutive endings are of much more frequent 
occurrence than the augmentatives. The rules for the 
use of the diminutive endings are less arbitrary than 
those for the use of the augmentatives. 

a. -ececito, -ececico, -ececillo, -ecezuelo, may be used, 
according to the Academy, with monosyllables ending in 
e. The rule has been coined for the word pie, foot, which 
admits of the following forms : piececico, piececito, piece- 
cillo. There are not many monosyllabic nouns or adjec- 
tives ending in e in Spanish, and of these fe (faith) does not 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES 129 

admit of any diminutive termination, and, as for te (tea), 
usage in very familiar language would only accept tecito. 

b, -ecito, -ecico, -ecillo, -ezuelo are used — 

(i) with monosyllables ending in a consonant or y : 
flor, flower ; florecita, little flower. 
nuez, nut ; nuececita, small nut. 
red, net ; redecilla, small net, mesh. 
rey, king ; reyezuelo, petty king. 
sal, salt ; salecita, a little salt. 

(2) with nouns or adjectives of two syllables having the 
diphthongs ei, ie, or ue in the first syllable : 

cuerpo, body ; cuerpecito, small body. 

diente, tooth ; dientecillo, little tooth. 

hueso, bone ; huesecillo, small bone. 

peine, comb ; peinecito, peinecillo (also peineta), 

small comb. 
reina, queen ; reinecita (also reinita), little queen. 

(3) with dissyllables ending in -io, -ia : 

friecito, somewhat cold ; riecito, little river, 
and (4) with dissyllables ending in unaccented -ia or -e : 
bestia, beast ; bestezuela, bestiecilla, little beast. 
calle, street ; callecita, small street. 
hombre, hombrecito, hombrecillo, little man. 

Yet in Spanish America diminutives such as Dieguito, 
huesito, cuerpito are often heard. 

c, -cico, -01110, -cito, -zuelo are added to words of more 
then one syllable ending in r or n : 

almacen, store ; almacencito, small store. 
oracion, prayer ; oracioncita, little prayer. 
joven, young man ; jovencito, little young man. 
altar, altar ; altarcillo, altarcito, little altar. 
labor, work ; laborcita, small piece of work. 
bribon, rogue ; bribonzuelo, little rogue. 
Yet we say Senorito, from the dissyllable Senor. 



130 AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES 

d. The endings -ico, •ito(less frequently -eto), -illo, -uelo 
are applied to all words not comprised in the preceding 
rules. 

perrito, little dog ; patico, little duck ; arbolillo, little 
tree ; pozuelo, little well ; ojalito, small buttonhole. 

e. When the diminutive ending begins w^ith a vowel and 
the word to which it is added ends with a vowel, the last 
letter of the original is dropped : pie, pi-ececito ; casa, 
cas-ita; libro, libr-ito; pozo, poz-uelo, poc-ito, poc-illo.^ 

/. The stress of the words, altered to form the diminu- 
tives with all the endings specified in the preceding para- 
graphs, changes to the penultimate syllable of the ending. 

Casa, casita; cdmara, camarilla; oracion, oracion- 
cita ; pie, piececillo ; escaparate, escaparatito ; arbol, 
arbolillo. 

g. Diminutives formed with the termination -in have the 
stress on the last syllable : corbata, neck-tie, corbatin ; 
camara, room, camarin ; flauta, flute, flautin. 

h. Words ending in z alter this letter to c before an 
ending the first letter of which is e or i : pez, fish, pececillo ; 
nariz, nose, naricilla. Words ending in -ca, -co alter each 
of these to que or qui in the diminutive: boca, mouth, 
boquilla; loco, madman, loquito; barca, boat, barqueta. 
Words ending in -ga, -go alter this termination to gue, 
gui : Diego, James, Dieguito ; carga, load, carguita. 
The object of these alterations, which, by the way, occur 
in all kinds of inflexions, is simply to preserve the sound 
of the letter in the original word. 

172.— With the termination -on for the augmentatives, and -in 
for the diminutives, the gender of the nouns changes sometimes : 

pared,/, wall. paredon, m., large wall, 

mujer,/, woman. mujeron, m., big, clumsy woman. 

corbata,/., neck-tie. corbatin, m., small tie. 

^ The Z changes to C before i to keep the soft sound : see below [h). 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES 131 

a. It is still more singular that masculine nouns ending in -a, 
which should form the diminutive in -ito or -ico, preserve at the 
end the a of the original, without changing the gender: 
poeta, poet. poetilla, poetaster. 

poema, poem. poemita, short, little poem. 

This peculiarity occurs even with proper nouns of the mascu- 
line gender ending in -as, which keep the a and the s in the 
diminutive. A sonnet by Quevedo begins : 

• Si un Eneillas (from Eneas) viera, si un Pimpollo.' 

• Hola, poetilla, i le falta a usted una silaba para completar 
alguno de esos que llama versos ? ' Cuervo, Apunfaciones. 

173.— Adjectives may, in familiar style, be used in the 
diminutive form : feito, rather plain ; blanquito, whitish. On 
a more limited scale this is also the case with adverbs : 
tardecito, a little late ; tempranito, rather early ; apenitas 
(coll.), barely, only just ; and present participles : andandito, 
just going on ; corriendito, in a bit of a hurry. 

174. — Augmentatives and diminutives are of frequent occur- 
rence in familiar conversation and in everyday language, but 
are seldom used in serious literature. Sometimes a shade of 
endearment is coupled with the meaning of the diminutives, 
and in some cases they are used only to express affection, as 
when a son speaks of his mother as mamacita. Senorita is the 
unmarried lady, and senorito, in Spain, is, for the servants, either 
the unmarried man, whatever his age, or the young husband. 

Prefixes and Suffixes. 
175.— A great number of prefixes and suffixes are common to 
English and Spanish, and it often happens that words formed 
with the addition of these elements preserve similar appearances 
in both languages. This superficial Hkeness is apt to be decep- 
tive, and the student should be cautioned against assuming that 
similarity of form implies similarity of meaning. 

Prefixes. 
176.— Among the prefixes preserved in both languages in 
words of Latin or Greek origin or of recent formation the 
following are of frequent occurrence : 
ab-, abs- : abrupto, abrupt ; abstinente, abstinent. 
ad-: adornar, to adorn ; adherir, to adhere. 
ante- : antecedente, antecedent ; antediluviano, antediluvian. 

K 2 



132 PREFIXES 

anti-^. Anticristo, Antichrist; antidote, antidote ; antipodas, 
antipodes. 

bi- : bicicleta, bicycle ; bilateral, bilateral ; bilingiie, bilingual. 

circun- : circunferencia, circumference ; circunstancia, circum- 
stance ; circunspecto, circumspect. 

com-, con-: conducta, conduct; combinar, to combine ; con- 
tener, to contain ; convencer, to convince ; comenzar, to 
commence. 

contra- : contraste, contrast ; contrabando, contraband ; con- 
troversia, controversy. 

de- : devote, devout ; degradar, to degrade ; derivacion, deriva- 
tion ; dependiente, dependent. 

des-, dis- : desden, disdain ; descontar, to discount ; desmembrar, 
to dismember; discrete, discreet; distante, distant; des- 
gracia, in the sense of loss of favour, disgrace. 

em-, en- : emblema, emblem ; embridn, embryo ; energia, energy ; 
entusiasmo, enthusiasm. 

ex-: excelente, excellent; extirpar, to extirpate; expatriar, to 
expatriate; extender, to extend. 

extra- : extraordinarie, extraordinary ; extravagante, extra- 
vagant. 

im-, in- (negative) : imposible, impossible ; impure, impure ; 
inepto, inept ; insipide, insipid ; intacto, intact ; indepen- 
diente, independent. 

inter- : interprete, interpreter ; internacienal, international. 

intre- : intreducir, to introduce. 

per- : perfume, perfume ; perfidia, perfidy ; perfecte, perfect. 

pes-, pest : pespener, to postpone ; postumo, posthumous. 

pre- : precepto, precept ; preferir, to prefer ; presente, present. 

preter- : preternatural, preternatural ; preterite, preterite. 

pre- : profano, profane ; prodigio, prodigy ; producir, to pro- 
duce ; proceder, to proceed. 

re- : resistir, to resist ; redimir, to redeem. 

sub- : subterrdneo, subterranean ; suburbie, suburb ; sugestion, 
suggestion ; suberdinado, subordinate. 

trans- : transiterio, transitory ; transfermar, to transform ; 
transatldntice, transatlantic. 

ultra-: ultramarine, ultramarine ; ultramontane, ultramontane. 



SUFFIXES 133 



Suffixes. 



177.— Many of the Latin suffixes adopted by the Spanish 
language for the formation of derivatives are also employed in 
English, and a considerable number of words so formed are 
similar in the two languages. But, as already stated, the 
meaning of the words occasionally follows different Hnes. 

178.— The following suffixes supply frequent cases of both 
similarity of form and correspondence of meaning : * 

•ble : amable, amiable (kind) ; tolerable, tolerable ; posible, 
possible ; legible, legible (readable) ; durable, durable 
(lasting) ; sensible in Spanish means ' sensitive '. The 
English word ^sensible' corresponds to sensato in Spanish. 

•ico : publico, public; tonico, tonic; cinico, cynic ; fan^tico, 
fanatic. The suffix -ica used in Spanish to designate the 
various branches of learning is in EngHsh -ic: Ibgica, 
logic ; aritmetica, arithmetic ; but some of these nouns 
are preferably used in the singular in Spanish, whereas in 
English they generally require the plural : fisica, physics ; 
optica, optics ; matem^tica or matemdticas, mathematics. 

•ian, -iano : guardidn, guardian ; cristiano, Christian. 

•ano : profano, profane ; pagano, pagan ; humano, human, 
humane ; italiano, Italian. 

-ante, -ante : habitante, inhabitant ; arrogante, arrogant ; 
agente, agent ; estudiante, student ; inocente, innocent ; 
decente, decent. 

•ar (adjectives) : popular, popular ; singular, singular ; peculiar, 
peculiar. 

-al; animal, animal ; capital, capital ; legal, legal ; moral, moral ; 
leal, loyal. 

•ario : ordinario, ordinary ; primario, primary ; necesario, 
necessary. 

•ficar (-fy-verbs) : fortificar, to fortify; edificar, to edify. 

-cto : acto, act ; perfecto, perfect ; intacto, intact. 

•in, -ino : eland estino, clandestine ; argentino, Argentine ; 
latino (people), latin (language), Latin ; cristalino, crys- 
talline ; divino, divine. 

■ina : fibrina, fibrine ; gelatina, gelatine ; glicerina, glycerine. 

•es (national nouns) : frances, French ; ingles, English ; portu- 
gues, Portuguese; japones, Japanese ; siames, Siamese. 



134 . SUFFIXES 

-oso : furioso, furious ; belicoso, bellicose ; gracioso, gracious, 
graceful ; jocoso, jocose ; luminoso, luminous ; ominoso, 
ominous. Some English adjectives of Latin origin ending 
in -ous are formed differently from the Spanish, in which 
they keep the same root : bdrbaro, barbarous (barbarian) ; 
credulo, credulous ; obvio, obvious. 

•orio : contradictorio, contradictory ; ilusorio, illusory ; satis- 
factorio, satisfactor3\ 

•icia : avaricia, avarice ; justicia, justice. 

•cia : falacia, fallacy ; inercia, inertia. 

•ancia, -encia : constancia, constancy ; clemencia, clemency ; 
ciencia, science. 

•ion, -cion, -sion : aluvion, alluvion ; accion, action ; tension, 
tension. 

•on : razon, reason ; sazon, season. 

•tor : rector, rector ; director, director ; actor, actor. 

-or : honor, honour ; clamor, clamour ; esplendor, splendour. 

•ura : figura, figure ; estructura, structure. 

•ivo : activo, active ; positivo, positive ; nativo, native. 

•icio : novicio, novice ; artificio, artifice (device). 

•ada, -ata : arcada, arcade ; cabalgata, cavalcade ; balaustrada, 
balustrade ; serenata, serenade. 

•aje : lenguaje, language ; coraje, courage ; paje, page. 

•mento, •miento : argumento, argument ; instrtimento, instru- 
ment ; sentimiento, sentiment. 

•ismo : despotismo, despotism ; egoismo, egoism, egotism. 

•ista: egoista, egotist, egoist; florista, florist. 

•idad, •edad-, -dad or •tad : civilidad, civility ; variedad, variety ; 
libertad, liberty. 

•bundo : vagabundo, vagabond ; moribundo, moribund. 

itud : actitud, attitude ; gratitud, gratitude. 

Note.— Suffixes like •umbra (pesadumbre, weight, sorrow), 
•izo (hechizo, charm ; postizo, artificial), and others which are 
not used in words of similar formation in the two languages, 
are not included in this list. 



LETTER-WRITING 



135 



Vocabulary. 



acompafiar, to enclose, to 
send along with. 

acuerdo, ;;/., agreement ; 
de acuerdo con, in ac- 
cordance with. 

articulo, ;;/., article, mer- 
chandise. 

cargo, ;;/., charge ; a cargo 
de, against. 

causar, to cause, to be the 
cause of. 

compania,/., company. 

condicion,/., condition. 

conocimiento, knowledge ; 
conocimiento de em- 
barque, bill of lading. 

consideracion, /, consi- 
deration; de considera- 
cion, considerable. 

contestar, to answer, to 
reply to. 

convenir, to agree, to agree 
to. 

corriente, adj.^ current, in- 
stant. 

cubrir, to cover, to pay. 

curso, ni.y course. 

decir, to say ; es decir, that 
is to say. 

demora,/., delay. 

derecho, m,^ right, claim. 

despacho, m.y despatch, 
expedition. 

dignar, to deign, to please. 

estimado, adj,^ esteemed, 
dear (as : dear Sir). 

factura,/], invoice. 

fruto, ;//., fruit, product, 
commodity. 

giro, m., bill of exchange, 
draft. 



gva.cia.^yf.pl.y thanks. 

grato, adj., grateful, wel- 
come, agreeable. 

huelga,/, strike. 

informacion, /., informa- 
tion. 

mercado, ;;/., market. 

mercancia,/., merchandise, 
commodity. 

motivo, tn.y motive ; con 
motive de, owing to, be- 
cause of, by reason of. 

nota, /, note, notice ; tomar 
nota, to note. 

pedir, to ask for, to order ; 
pedido, w., order. 

perjuicios, tn. pL, damages. 

permitir, to allow ; per- 
mitirse, to beg. 

peseta (pta.), /, Spanish 
coin, nominally the equi- 
valent of a franc. 

preciso, adj.^ precise. 

recibo, ;;/., receipt. 

reclamacion,/, claim. 

remesa,/, remittance. 

responsable, adj.^ respon- 
sible. 

sobre, prep.^ on, about, 
above. 

sumo, adj.y the utmost ; a lo 
sumo, at most. 

tal, deni. adj.y such, such a. 

tardar, to delay, to be 
late. 

transporte, /;/., transport, 
transportation ; compa- 
nias de transporte, trans- 
port companies. 

venta,/, sale. , 



136 LETTER-WRITING 

V19,—Letier-zvriting. The forms of address in common 
use in Spanish are : 

Estimado Senor, Dear Sir. 
Estimado Senor Cueto, Dear Mr. Cueto. 
Muy estimado Senor, My dear Sir. 
Muy Sefior mio, Dear Sir. 
Muy Senor nuestro, Dear Sir. 
. Estimados Senores, Dear Sirs, Gentlemen. 
Muy Senores mios (or nuestros), Dear Sirs. 
Muy Senora mia (or Estimada Seiiora), Dear 

Madam. 
Mi querido Senor y amigo, Dear Mr. So and So. 
Muy Seiior mio y amigo, Dear Mr. So and So. 
Mi querido amigo, Dear Friend, My dear Friend. 
Mi querido Carlos, Dear Charles, or My dear Charles. 
Mi querido Doctor, My dear Doctor. 

a. The letter to which one is referring is spoken 
of as su apreciable, su estimada, su favorecida, your 
esteemed, your favour, the word 'carta' being understood. 

The following are some of the phrases used at the 
beginning of letters : 

Me refiero a su carta de In reference to your letter 

. . .y . . . of.. . I .. . 

Tengo el honor de avisar I beg to acknowledge the re- 

a Vd. recibo de su apre- ceipt of your esteemed . . . 

ciable ... 

He sido favorecido con I have been favoured by 

el recibo de su atenta yours of . . . 

comunicacion de . . . 

Me apresuro a contestar I hasten to reply to your 

su apreciable del 20 de favour of the 20th inst. . . . 

los corrientes . . . 

La suya de 10 del pasado Yours of the loth ultimo is 

est^ en mi poder ... to hand ... 

Tengo a la vi&ta la ultima I have before me your last 

de Vds. fechada el 10 de letter dated August the 

Agosto . . . loth . . . 



LETTER-WRITING 137 

180. — It is the custom in Spain (though not in Spanish 
America) to put at the end of the letter immediately before 
the signature the initials q.b. s. m. (who kisses your hand) 
in addressing a man, or q. b. s. p. (who kisses your feet) 
when addressing a lady. These initials stand for que 
besa su mano, que besa sus pies. 

181. — The expressions Yours faithfully, Yours truly. 
Your obedient servant, etc., are rendered in Spanish by 
Su atento servidor, Su seguro servidor, Su muy atento 
y seguro servidor, which are generally abbreviated into 
S. A. S., S. S. S., or S.A.S.S. as follows : — 

Soy de Vd. . 

A. S. S. ^ ^"^ 



q. b. s. m., 
Gabriel Hernandez. 



Yours faithfully, 
Gabriel Hernandez. 



Quedo de Vd. muy t 

ASS remam 

■q. b. s. m. Yours faithfully, 

Luis Rocha. Luis Rocha. 

En espe'ra de sus gratas Expecting to receive your 

ordenes, tengo el honor kind orders, I have the 

de ofrecerme honour to be 

S. A. S. S. Yours faithfully... 

No teniendo otro asunto a With nothing else for the 

que referirme por ahora present, 

quedo de Vd. I remain 

A. S. S. Yours faithfully... 

Saludamos a Yd. muy We are yours, etc. 
atentamente. 

Exercise. 

1139, Long Acre. 
Londres, W.C. 2, 26 de Marzo de 1918. 
Senores Merino e Indaburu, 
Malaga (Espafia). 
^ Estimados Seiiores : 

Con su apreciable de 20 de los corrientes tuvimos el 
agrado de recibir la factura y el conocimiento de embarque 



138 LETTER-WRITING 

relatives a nuestro pedido de Febrero 3. Damos a Vds. 
las gracias.por el despacho de las frutas, pero nos permi- 
timos observar que la deniora en la expedicion de esta 
mercanci'a puede causarnos perjuicios de consideracion. 
Nosotros contabamos con que en esta, como en otras 
ocasioneS; podriamos recibir en el curso de tres, a lo sumo 
de cuatro semanas, los frutos pedidos, y nuestros clientes 
en esta ciudad estaban seguros de poder realizar el articulo 
en el mercado, si llegaba, como lo esperaban, a fines de 
Febrero. Es posible que en caso contrario, es decir, si 
no logran vender esta fruta, quieran hacernos a nosotros 
responsables de la demora. Si asi fuere, sobre lo cual, 
por otra parte, no tenemos hasta ahora informacion pre- 
cisa, Vds. convendran con nosotros en que nos queda el 
derecho de hacerles la debida reclamacion. 

Tomamos nota de que la demora ha procedido princi- 
palmente de las dificultades en que se ban encontrado las 
compafiias de transporte con motivo de las huelgas ; peroj 
en tal caso, Vds., que conocen las condiciones en que 
se hace la venta de la fruta, ban debido avisarnos por 
telegrafo en mejor oportunidad. 

Acompafia a la presente un giro a su favor por 
ptas. 1035.^^, que cubre el saldo a cargo nuestro, de 
acuerdo con su factura. Dignense avisarnos recibo. 

En espera de sus gratas comunicaciones quedamos 
de Vds. 

A. S. S. 
q. b. s. m. 

G. Navarro e hijos. 
Conversation. 

I Como se empieza una carta en espafiol ? i Que fecha 
tiene la carta de G. Navarro e hijos a Merino e Indaburu? 
I De que mes y dia era la carta de Merino e Indaburu 
a la cual contestaban G. Navarro e hijos el 26 de Marzo ? 
I Que recibieron Navarro e hijos con la carta de Merino 
e Indaburu? <:Que pedido despachaban estos senores? 



LETTER-WRITING 139 

I Habi'a sido despachado en tienipo el pedido ? ^r. En cuanto 
tiempo pensaban Navarro e hijos que podrian recibir las 
frutas ? ^ De que estaban seguros los clientes ? Si los 
clientes no lograren vender la mercancia i a quien haran 
responsable de los perjuicios? ^j^Tenian ellos informacion 
precisa sobre si los clientes harian reclamacion ? i De 
que procedio la demora en el despacho de las mercanci'as ? 
i Que companias fueron afectadas por las huelgas ? 
I Quienes debieron avisar por telegrafo que habi'a huelga ? 
I Hubo remesa de dinero con la carta de Navarro e hijos? 
I Que cosa es un giro ? i Cuanto valia el giro enviado 
por Navarro e hijos? ^.Q^^ pagaban con eso ? Diga 
usted que es una factura. i Que es un saldo ? De Vd. 
algunos ejemplos de las frases usuales de cortesia con que 
se terminan ordinariamente las cartas en espaiiol. i Que 
quieren decir las iniciales ^ q. b. s. p/ y ^ q. b. s. m.' que se 
colocan antes de la firma? ^Se usan estas iniciales en 
America como en Espaiia ? 

Translate. 

La carta de mi padre llego por el correo (post) de ayer. 
Recibi con ella doscientos veinte y cuatro pesos argentinos 
para mis gastos de los tres meses siguientes. Mi padre 
me dice que los negocios no van bien por ahora^ Las 
cosechas han sido escasas y, naturalmente, los negocios 
de comision en que el se ocupa no han estado muy activos. 
Espera, sin embargo, que habra una mejora considerable 
en el afio venidero. 

Un amigo me escribe de Lima con fecha veinte y cinco 
de Marzo que piensa venir aLondres en Junio con su familia. 
Desea informacion sobre el precio (cost)de las subsistencias 
(life) en esta ciudad. Le han dicho que las subsistencias son 
aqui muy caras y quiere estar seguro de que los gastos no 
son superiores (are not above) a su hacienda (his means). 
Es hombre muy rico, pero no quisiera, segun me dice, 
gastar mas de lo necesario para vivir decentemente. 



I40 LETTER-WRITING 

La Sta. Maria Rodriguez^ de Valparaiso, hija de D. 
Valeriano, ha sido nombrada profesora de espanol en 
el colegio donde recibio su diploma. Sus discipulos y 
discipulas la estiman mucho y estan muy contentos de 
recibir lecciones de ella ; pero quisieran que en vez de 
tres les diera cinco lecciones por semana. Ella dice, sin 
embargo, que el discipulo puede aprender mucho con su 
solo esfuerzo (effort) y que tres lecciones semanales son 
suficientes (enough) para los discipulos que tienen interes 
en aprender el idioma. Durante la noche los discipulos 
pueden ir a las conferencias que dicta (delivers) la Sefiorita 
Rodriguez en espanol, en el Circulo Filologico. 

Translate. 

The post will arrive to-day. For three weeks we have 
had no letters from our family. There have been delays in 
the delivery {distribucidn) of letters ; perhaps the service of 
steamers to and from South America has been very irregular. 
We are all waiting for the arrival of the mail. We have 
friends and relatives in South America and we do not like 
to be without news from them for three weeks. There is 
a mail from South America every fortnight, but as there 
are two mails from New York to England every week, and 
the communications between New York and the northern 
part of South America are more frequent than between 
England and South America, we sometimes receive via 
New York letters from Colombia and Venezuela every 
week. The coasts of these two South American countries 
are the nearest both to New York and London on the 
whole of the South American Continent. 

It is necessary to make constant use of our memory to 
learn a language. The things that we know well in a 
language are those that we know by heart. The rules 
{reglas) are very important, but they do not help {ayudan) 
so well, when we want to speak or to write, as the words, 
the phrases and the idioms (modismos) that we can repeat 



LETTER-WRITING 141 

without hesitation (vacilacion), because we know their 
meaning and their form : to learn a language, then, is to 
learn by heart as many words, phrases, and idioms as our 
memory can retain [contener). 



XVIII 

ADVERBS 

182. — It is not possible in an elementary grammar to 
give a full list of Spanish adverbs. They are numerous. 
Some are obsolescent ; the following are in common use : 

183. — Adverbs of place : 

*• 

abajo, below. debajo, underneath, below. 

adelante, ahead, forward, delante, before. 

ahi, there. detras, behind. 

all^, there, over there. donde, where. 

alld, lejos, yonder. enfrente, opposite. 

alii, there. fuera, out, outside. 

aqui, here. junto, near. 

arriba, above. lejos, far. 

cerca, near. 

a, Donde combined with the preposition a forms a single 
word and is used with verbs meaning motion. 

Iba adonde el honor me I was going where honour 
mandaba. bade me go. 

b. Aqui, ahi, alii (or alia) are demonstrative adverbs, 
the meaning of which corresponds exactly with the idea of 
location conveyed by the demonstrative adjectives este, 
ese, a quel, aqui means en este lugar ; ahi, en ese lugar, 
and alii or alia are put for en aquel lugar : Te escribi de 
aqui la semana pasada a Valencia, para decirte que 
Antonio, viniendo de ahi, tuvo un accidente, de resultas 
del cual lo Uevaron a Jdtiva. De alii te habra dado 
noticias de su salud. 



142 ADVERBS 

c. Donde is a relative adverb often used in combination 
with aqui, ahi, alii : 

Alii fiorecen las artes Arts flourish there where 

donde el buen gusto de the good taste of the 

los ciudadanos las re- citizens rewards them. 
compensa. 

d. Asi and como, tal and cual, combine in the same way. 

Tal es el hijo cual ha The son is just what his 

sido su padre. father was. 

Asi toca el piano como She plays the piano as well 

guisa el cocido. as she seasons the stew. 

e. The relative adverbs sometimes include their ante- 
cedents, like the relative pronouns. Donde las dan las 
toman (Alii las dan donde las toman); they get what 
they deserve (Spanish proverb). ' 

/. The relative adverbs donde, cuando, como when 
used in clauses of interrogation are accentuated: ^ Donde 
vives ? (where do you live ?) ; i Como lo sabe usted ? 
(how do you know it ?) ; me pregunt6 cuando cerraba el 
parlamento sus sesiones (he asked me when Parliament 
would be prorogued). 

184. — Adverbs of time. 

ahora, now. luego, soon after. 

anteayer, before yesterday, mafiana, to-morrow, 

antes, before. mientras, meanwhile. 

asi que, as soon as, when. nunca, never, 

aun (aun), yet, still. pronto, soon. 

ayer, yesterday. siempre, always. 

despues, after, afterwards. tarde, late. 

hoy, to-day. temprano, early. 

jamds, never. todavia, still, yet. 

185. — Adverbs of manner : 

apenas, scarcely, hardly, conforme, according to. 

asi, so. cual, as, like. 

bien, well. despacio, slowly. 

cabalmente, just. excepto, except. 

como, as, like. mal, badly. 



ADVERBS 143 

mas bien, rather. salvo, except, 

mientras, while. tal, such as. 

quedo, softly^ gentl}'. 

186. — A number of adjectives take, in their singular 
masculine form, the place of the adverb : alto, aloud, in 
a loud voice (; alto ! in exclamatory clauses means halt!) ; 
recio, strongly, vigorously; claro, clearly; duro, in a 
hard way, violently. 

a. Adverbs of manner are usually formed by adding to the 
feminine singular form of adjectives the termination -mente : 
caro, dear, caramente, dearly ; rudo, rough, rudamente, 
roughly ; suave, soft, suavemente, softly. When two or 
more adverbs in -mente follow one another and qualify the 
same word, all but the last one drop the ending -mente : 

Hablo clara, precisa, ele- He spoke clearly, precisely, 
gantemente. elegantly. 

b. The suppression of the ending also takes place if 
a conjunction intervenes : 

Se expresa clara, aunque He expresses himself clear- 
afectadamente. ly, but with affectation. 

Obro sincera y leal pero He acted sincerely and 
nodesapasionadamente. loyally, but not dispassio- 

nately. 

c. Adjectives in the superlative form are also convertible 
into adverbs by the addition of -mente. 

Trato a sus hijos cruelisi- He treated his sons most 
mamente. cruelly. 

187. — Como is a relative adverb of degree, often com- 
bined with asi, in the same manner as relative pronouns 
alternate in a sentence. 

Asi lo hallamos como lo We found it as we had left 

habiamos dejado. it. 

Asi es como usted lo dice. It is as you put it. 

Como me lo contaron te I tell it to you as it was told 

le cuento (Asi como me to me. 

lo contaron). 



144 



ADVERBS 



188. — Note the following constructions : 



Badly as society is organ- 
ized, yet no well-directed 
effort is lost. 



At 



sell 



Mai organizada como esta 

la sociedad, todavia no 

se pierde esfuerzo al- 

guno bien dirigido. 
I A como venden el metro 

de tela ? 
Encontro Don Quijote con 

dos como clerigos o estu- 

diantes. 
Esta como serio conmigo. 

189. — Adverbs of degree : 

algo, somewhat. 
apenas, scarcely, hardly. 
bastante, enough, quite, 

pretty. 
casi, almost. 
cuanto, so much. 
demasiado, too, too much. 

a. Mucho and muy are one and the same word : the 
first is used before or after verbs, after the adjectives 
which it qualifies, and before comparatives. 

Mucho siento no haber 



how^ much do they 

a metre of cloth ? 
Don Quixote met two people 

who looked like priests or 

students. 
He is rather stern to me. 



mas, more. 

mucho, much. 

muy, much, very much. 

nada, not at all. 

poco, little. 

tanto, as much. 



venido antes. 
Su bondad es mucho mas 

visible que su sabiduria. 
El nino duerme mucho 

durante el dia. 
Es bonita y mucho. 



I much regret not having 

come before. 
His kindness is much more 

evident than his wisdom. 
The boy sleeps a good deal 

during the day. 
She is exceedingly pretty. 



b. Muy occurs before the adjectives, adverbs, and 
adverbial phrases which it qualifies. 

Muy acostumbrado estoy 
ya a la idea de la sepa- 
racion. 



I am now quite accustomed 
to the idea of separation. 



Muy en breve saldrd el 

libro. 
Se arrepintio de haber 

hablado muy a la ligera. 



The book will come out 

very shortly. 
He regretted having talked 

very frivolously. 



ADVERBS 



145 



c, Mucho is sometimes a neuter noun like nada, poco, 
demasiado, and bastante. 



^Que traes? — Mucho bue- 

no. 
Por lo poco se saca lo 

mucho. 
Confiesa que tiene mucho, 

pero no demasiado, ni 

siquiera lo bastante. 



What have you brought? 

— Many good things. 
We may judge of the many 

by the few. 
He owns he has a great 

deal, but not too much, 

not even enough. 



Mucho means in these sentences many things, poco few 
things, and bastante enough things : that they are neuter 
nouns is indicated by the article lo. 

190. — Tanto and cuanto drop the last syllable before 
an adjective or another adverb, except mds and its com- 
paratives. 



La ciudad estd ya tan 
cerca que se ve la 
iglesia. 

Tan deseado como escaso. 

Tanto le dije cuanto sabia. 

i Estd enferma su herma- 
na ! j Lo siento tanto ! 

jCuan constante ha sido 
en su trabajo ! 

Tanto mejor si se calla. 



The town is so near now 

that the church can be 

seen. 
As longed for as [it is] 

scarce. 
I told him as much as I 

knew. 
So your sister is ill ! I am 



so sorry 



How steady he has been at 

his work ! 
So much the better if he 

keeps silent. 

a, Tanto and cuanto are used correlatively, the former 
being sometimes involved in the latter. 

Tanto ha sufrido cuanto He has suffered as much as 

puede soportar un hom- a man can bear. 

. bre. 



or, 

Ha sufrido cuanto un 
hombre puede soportar 
(tanto cuanto). 



He has suffered all a man 
can bear. 



146 ADVERBS 

b. With comparatives tanto . . . cuanto are rendered in 
English by ^the more ' or 'the less' : 

Tanto mds lo deploro, The more I think of it, the 

cuanto mas pienso en more I regret it. 

ello. 

Tanto menos lo esperd- The nearer it drew to us, 

bamos cuanto mas se the less we expected it. 

acercaba. 

The order of the two clauses can be altered: Cuanto 
mds pienso en ello, tanto mds lo deploro. 

c. In the following sentence, which is often quoted, the 
adjective tanto is opposed to the adverb cuanto : 

No tanta astucia cuanto de- Not so much cunning as an 
masiada hipocresia. excess of hypocrisy. 

d. Tanto .... cuanto used correlatively can also be rendered 
in English by * both ' : 

Me decidi a comprar la casa, I decided to buy the house 

tanto porqne era un buen both to please my wife and 

negocio cuanto (or como) to do a good stroke of busi- 

por complacer a mi mujer. ness. 

191.— Tal and cual enter into similar constructions both as 
adjectives and adverbs : 

Tal la dejo cual (or como) la He left it such as you see it 
ves ahora. now. 

a. ^ All the more so, because ' is translated Tanto mds 
cuanto. 

Tanto mds cuanto yo no lo All the more so, because I do 
conozco. not know him. 

192.— Casi, as an adverb, should only be used to modify 
adjectives, verbs, or adverbs ; at times it appears as though it 
modified a noun : era casi noche, night had almost come 
on ; casi un kilogramo de trigo, almost a kilogramme of wheat. 
But it must be noted here that noche has an adverbial meaning 
and uno is a numeral adjective. Yet such expressions as la casi 
totalidad de los habitantes, almost the whole of the population, 
though they are often used in the daily press, should not be 
imitated. 



ADVERBS 



193. — Idioms : 



Hace mds al caso. It is more to the point. 

Per mds fuerte que s.ea. Strong as he may be. 

194. — Adverbs of doubt : 

acaso, perhaps. 

quiza, quizas (^quien sabe?), perhaps. 

tal vez, perhaps. 

196. — Adverbs of affirmation : 

cierto, certainly, truly. 

si, yes. 

verdaderamente, indeed, truly. 

196. — Adverbs of negation : 

No, not. nunca, never. 

absolutamente no, No, not tampoco, neither. 

at all ; by no means. nada, not at all, nothing, 
ni, nor. 

a. As already remarked, several negations may be used 
in Spanish to emphasize the sense of the sentence (see 
§ 163). 

No nos dijo nunca nada He never told us anything 
de esc. of the kind. 

b. It is a peculiarity of Spanish that certain phrases of an 
affirmative meaning, which are often employed to emphasize 
a negation, may be used independently in a negative 
sense : 

En mi vida lo he visto I never saw him. 

c. It may be noted that often in Spanish, as in English, 
two negations are equivalent to an affirmation : 

No es inesperado. It is not unexpected. 

Se retire no sin haber He left, not without having 

comunicado el triste communicated the sad 

mensaje. message. 

d. The reason why words like nada, nadie, and other Spanish 
words implying negation in modern actual usage, may be 

L 2 



148 ADVERBS 

preceded by a negative adverb without altering the sense of the 
sentence, is because nada and nadie were not originally negative 
words. Nada is * cosa nacida ' and nadie * hombre nacido '. 

e. It must be noted that this use of the double negations in 
Spanish is conditioned by the rule of putting the no before the 
other words impl^nng a negative sense. We may say : No he 
visto a nadie, I have seen nobody ; but the genius of the 
language refuses to accept constructions like : ninguno de ellos 
no me lo dijo, instead of ninguno de ellos me lo dijo (or no me 
lo dijo ninguno de ellos), none of them told me of it. 

197. — Adverbs modifying an adjective precede it 
always : muy bueiio, supremamente util (most useful), 
demasiado poca agua (too little water), bien dicho, mala- 
mente expresado (poorly expressed). 

a. Adverb equivalents modifying an adjective may be 
placed after it. Pobre en extreme (extremely poor) ; 
rico en demasia (too rich, rich to excess). 

b. Adverbs or adverb equivalents modifying a verb 
generally follow it, but they may also precede the verb : 

Sabia bien la lecci6n, pero He knew the lesson well, 

la expuso mediocre- but he explained it in- 

mente, differently. 

Estardn debidamente pre- They will be duly prepared 

parados para el proximo next January. 

Enero. 

Bien sabia yo que usted I well knew you would be 

vendria tarde. late. 

c. No always precedes the adjective, the verb, the 
adverb or adverb equivalents it modifies : 

No quiere decirlo porque He does not want to say so 

no estd seguro. because he is not sure. 

No tan bueno como el, pero Not so well as he, but not 

no por eso desechable. to be rejected for all that. 

Despiertenme las aves con Let the birds awake me 

su cantar sabroso, no with their delightful un- 

aprendido. taught song. 



ADVERBS 



149 



Vocabulary, 



abatir, to put down, to 
lower. 

abundante, adj,y abundant. 

adusto, adj., gloomy, stern. 

alminar, m.^ minaret. 

almoraduj, m,, sweet mar- 
joram. 

aXzsLV, to raise, to lift. 

ameno, adj., pleasant. 

arboleda, /., avenue, grove, 
small wood. 

aroma, m., aroma. 

azahar, m., orange blossom. 

bazar, m., bazaar. 

bosque, m., wood. 

brusco, adj., rough, rude ; 
bruscamente, adv., ab- 
ruptly, brusquely. 

campo, m., field, country. 

cercar, to surround, to be- 
siege. 

cinamomo, m,, cinnamon. 

civilizado, adj., civilized. 

comarca,/., region, country, 
land. 

cosecha,/., crop, harvest. 

cuerno, m., horn. 

damasco, m., damask. 

dentro, adv., within, inside ; 
per dentro, inside. 

discurrir, to go about, to 
discourse. 

elevar, to raise, to lift, to 
heave. 

en, prep,, in ; en medio, 
amidst, amid. 

enhiesto, adj., erect, up- 
right. 

esplendido, adj., splendid. 

feliz, adj., happy. 



fertil, adj., fertile. 

fuente, /., fountain, source, 

spring. 
grandeza, /, greatness. 
imaginaci6n, /., imagina 

tion. 
impresionado, adj. , im 

pressed. 
infinito, adj., numberless 

endless. 
innumerable, adj., innumer 

able. 
jardin, m.^ garden. 
lejos, adv., far; a lo lejos 

in the distance. 
locomotora, /./ locomotive 

engine. 
luna,/, moon ; media luna 

crescent. 
mdquina, /, machine ; ma- 

quina de riego, irriga- 
tion pump. 
medio, m., middle; en 

medio, amidst. 
melancolico, adj., sad, 

melancholy. 
mezquita,/., mosque. 
monton, m., heap. 
monumental, adj., monu- 
mental. 
morador, m., dweller, 
muralla,/, wall, rampart, 
murmurador,^^/*., rippling; 

m., gossip. 
muro, m., wall. 
Occidente, m., West. 
otro, adj., other; en otro 

tiempo, formerly. 
pajaro, m., bird. 
pdlido, adj., pale. 



I50 



ADVERBS 



pardo, adj,^ brown, grey. 
parlero, adj.y talkative \ pa- 

jaro parlero, chirping 

bird. 
pender, to hang from, to be 

hanging. 
planicie,/, plain. 
poblar, to populate. 
poderoso, adj,^ mighty. 
polvo, m.y dust. 
proteger, to protect. 
provincia,/., province. 
provisto, adj,, furnished, 

provided. 
publico, adj.y public. 
puerta,/, gate, door. 
recuerdo, ;;/., recollection, 

memory. 
reinar, to rule, to reign, to 

prevail. 
resplandeciente, adj., re- 
splendent, glittering. 



riego, w., irrigation. 

ruido, m.y noise. 

sentirse, to feel ; me senti, 
I felt. 

silencio, ni.^ silence. 

solazarse, to enjoy oneself 

solido, adj,j solid. 

sombrio, adj.^ sombre, 
dark. 

sonriente, adj.^ smiHng. 

suceder, to follow. 

tapiz, ;;/., tapestry, hang- 
ings. 

tierno, adj,^ tender. 

torno, w., brake, lathe ; en 
torno, around. 

transeunte, m., passer-by. 

trigo, w/., wheat. 

tristeza,/., sadness. 

verde, adj,^ green. 

vivo, adj,y alive, lively ; vi- 
vamente, adv.^ intensely. 



Exercise. 

Cordoba. 

La locomotora corria por los campos de la provincia de 
Cordoba. Cubiertos de tiernos trigos se extendi'an en 
planicie de un verde palido, cortados bruscamente por el 
muro sombrio y adusto de la sierra. Cuando nos acer- 
camos a la ciudad, me senti impresionado vivamente por 
la grandeza de sus recuerdos. Aquel monton de casas que 
se alzaba pardo y melancolico entre el no y la montaiia 
habia sido la gran ciudad del Occidente, la capital del 
mundo civilizado. Al ruido, a la alegria que en otro 
tiempo reinaran en ella, habi'an sucedido afios y afios, 
siglos y siglos de silencio y tristeza. Veiala con la imagi- 
nacion hermosa y feliz en medio de una comarca f<frtil, 
sonriente, abundante en toda clase de cosechas, cercada de 
murallas resplandecientes, provista de puertas monumen- 



ADVERBS 



151 



tales, de infinitas calles, donde las maquinas de riego 
abatian el polvo. Innumerables transeiintes discurrian 
por ellas, entrando y saliendo de sus esplendidos bazares 
a cuyas puertas pendian ricos damascos y tapices. En 
todas partes se alzaban suntuosos palacios mas bellos y 
suntuosos por dentro que por fuera : en todas partes 
bosques y jardines piiblicos, donde sus felices moradores 
se solazaban con el aroma del azahar, del cinamomo y 
almoraduj. En torno de ella los amenos verjeles se 
extendian a lo lejos, poblados de arboledas sombrias, de 
fuentes murmuradoras, de pajaros parleros. Enhiesta 
sobre el alminar de la mezquita, la media luna elevaba sus 
cuernos poderosos protegiendo a la ciudad. 

A. Palacio Valdes. 
Conversation. 
I Que es Cordoba ? i Cual es la capital de esa provincia 
espanola ? i Que es una planicie ? i Que se cultiva en la 
provincia de Cordoba ? i Que recuerdos impresionaron 
al viajero, cuando se acercaba a la ciudad ? i Que fue en 
un tiempo la ciudad de Cordoba ? En vez del ruido y la 
alegria de otros tiempos i que ha habido en ella durante 
siglos ysiglos? ^i^ Como la imaginaba el viajero? ^ En 
que era abundante la comarca ? <^ De que estaba cercada ? 
I Como abatian el polvo de las calles ? i Quienes en- 
traban a los bazares y sali'an de ellos ? ^.Q^^ habi'a 
colgado (hanging) en las puertas de los bazares ? i Eran 
felices los habitantes ? ^f^ Donde se solazaban? i Que 
aromas habi'a en los jardines ? Diga Vd. como eran los 
campos en torno de la ciudad. i Donde se vei'a la media 
luna ? I Que protegia la ciudad ? i Como se llaman en 
espanol los extremos de la media luna ? 

Translate. 
Inmediatamente despues de la llegada del hijo mayor, 
que vivi'a en America; los negocios*de la casa (firm) empe- 
zaron (began) a mejorar. Don Gabriel, asi se llamaba el 



152 ADVERBS 

hijo mayor, trajo de sus viajes extenso conocimiento de los 
negocios y una vasta (wide) experiencia que han sido 
grandemente utiles para la casa. Toda casa de comercio 
deberia enviar uno de sus socios (partners) a visitar los 
paises con los cuales esta en relaciones comerciales. El 
exito es muy frecuentemente el resultado de los conoci- 
mientos obtenidos en viajes como estos. 

Las gentes (people) del pueblo donde vive mi amigo lo 
quieren mucho. Ha vivido alli veinte afios y ha sido muy 
litil a la poblacion. Fundo (founded) una escuela donde 
reciben ensenanza casi gratuita (free) mas de ciento veinte 
ninos de las clases pobres. Fundo tambien un hospital 
para nifios y se dice que cuanto mayor es el niimero 
(number) de nifios que van a la escuela tanto menor es el 
de los que entran al hospital. Ahora esta edificando un 
pequeno teatro (theatre) porque dice que lo agradable es 
tan necesario como lo util. El se cree feliz porque vive 
util y agradablemente ocupado. 

^Has visitado la Iglesia de San Agustin (Saint Augus- 
tine's Church) ? — Cabalmente vengo de alia. Es un 
bello edificio solidamente construido. No es pesado 
(heavy), sin embargo. Ha sido construido recientemente 
y con el tiempo sera muy visitado. 

Translate. 
There is a mountain, eight leagues [leguas) from Chololla, 
called Popocatepetl, which means 'smoke mountain*, be- 
cause smoke [humo] and fire {fuego) emanate from it 
often and in great quantities. Cortes sent over there ten 
Spaniards with many natives to serve as {de) guides and 
carry provisions for them. The way up hill [de subtdd) 
was steep [dspero) and full of obstacles [embarazoso). 
They went up until they began to hear the noise; but 
they did not dare {atreverse) to go to the top and see, 
because the earth shook {temblaba) and there was so 
much ash (cemza) that the road was obstructed, and 



ADVERBS 153 

so they wanted to return. But two of them, who must 
have been either the bravest {mas valientes) or most 
inquisitive {curiosos), determined to see the end and 
mystery of such a wonderful and frightful fire, so as to 
be able to report (dar razdn, informar) to the man 
who sent them, not wishing to appear as faint-hearted 
[medrosos) or cowards [ruines), and so, against the will of 
the others and in spite of {a pesar de) the guides who 
wished to inspire them with awe (aterrortzar), saying that 
no human foot had ever trodden or human eyes ever seen 
it, they went up, through the ashes, and reached the top 
{la cima) under a thick cloud {nube) of smoke. (Lopez de 
Gomara, Conquista de Mejico.) 

Rice {arroz) forms the chief {principal) subsistence of 
the people in India {la India), China {la China), Japan {el 
Japdn), and other eastern {orientales) countries. Indeed 
it supports {sirve de sustento a) more persons than any 
other article of food. In Asia it is chiefly cultivated in 
India, China, and Ceylon {Ceildn)) in Europe, in Lombardy 
{Lombardia) and Spain ; in Africa, in Egypt ; in South 
America, in Brazil and all over the tropical and damp 
{humedas) regions, and in North America in the Carolinas 
and Louisiana. Its cultivation {cultivo) requires an im- 
mense quantity of moisture {humedad). It grows best 
in fields which can be inundated. 

General Bau, a German officer in the {al) service of 
Russia who had contributed much to the elevation of the 
great Catherine {Catalina), had orders to march {marchar) 
to Holstein with a body of troops {tropas, soldados) of 
which he had the command {mando). He was a soldier 
of fortune {soldado aventureroy No one knew his 
family or his native place. But he prided himself on {se 
enorgullecia) his very humble origin. He introduced one 
day a poor miller {molinero) and his wife {esposa) to his 
officers and told them that the poor honest miller was his 
brother, whose condition he tried to improve in the future. 



154 



PREPOSITIONS 



XIX 

PREPOSITIONS 



198. — The Spanish prepositions are : 

hasta, until, to, up to. 
para, b}-, for, to, in order to. 
per, for, through, by. 
segiin, according to. 
sin, without. 
sobre, on, upon, about, con- 



tras, atras, detras, after, 
behind, backwards. 



A, to, at, in, on, by. 
ante, before. 
bajo, under, below. 
con, with, by. 
contra, against. 
de, of, from, by, with, 
desde, from, since. 
en, in, into, on, at. 
entre, among, between. 
hacia, towards. 

199. — The correct use of the prepositions is the surest 
test of knowledge of a language. There are no precise or 
general rules in Spanish for the use of the prepositions, and 
their correspondence with English prepositions is difficult 
to establish, as the foregoing list shows. Assiduous 
practice following the best usage is the only way to master 
this section of Spanish grammar. The difficulty is increased 
by the fact that good writers often differ as to w^hat is the 
best usage. 

200. — Preposition a : 
Voy a la escuela. 
Estoy escribiendole a mi 

madre. 
A decir verdad yo no lo vi. 



Lo dejo a su arbitrio. 
Es a saber. 

A las diez de la manana. 
El coche esta a la puerta. 
Crecen a la sombra de 

otros arboles. 
I A come se vende el metro 

de cinta? 
A la intemperie. 



I am going to school. 

I am writing to my mother. 

To tell the truth I did not 

see him. 
I leave it to you (to decide). 
To wit. 

At ten in the morning. 
The coach is at the door. 
They grow under the 

shadow of other trees. 
What is the price of a metre 

of ribbon ? 
In the open air, out of doors. 



PREPOSITIONS 155 

Se defendio a cuchilladas. He warded off the attacks 

with his sword. 

Pintar a la aguada. To paint in water-colours. 

Al salir de casa lo vi. I saw him as I was leaving 

home. 
201. — The preposition a is always used with indirect 

objects not expressed by pronouns. 

Juan dio sus hijos todos a John gave all his sons to his 

la patria. country. 

Negaron a Luis la licencia Louis was refused the leave 

que habia pedido. he had asked for. 

Puso varies reparos a la He made several objections 

conferencia. to the lecture. 

a. The indirect object expressed by a pronoun does not 
require the preposition unless when accompanied by mi, 
ti, si, el, ella, or their plurals. 

A mi me lo dicen no a ti. They say that to me, not to 

you. 

Envian un libro a el y un They are sending a book to 

vestido a ella. him and a dress to her. 

Nos senalo el camino a He pointed the way to us. 

nosotros. 

Vd. le dio a el un terrible You gave him a terrible 

golpe. blow. 

b. In the first, third, and fourth sentences there are two 
elements to denote the indirect object: a mi, me; nos, 
a nosotros; and le, a el. Although one of the two 
elements is superfluous the construction is often used both 
in colloquial and literary language to emphasize the 
meaning of the phrase, to avoid ambiguity, or even for the 
sake of elegance. 

202. — A is obligatory before nouns which represent 
determinate or known persons and are the direct object 
of the verb (the preposition means in this case, as the 
grammarians say, personalidad and determinacion). Proper 
names of persons therefore always require it. 
Quiero imitar a Amadis. I want to imitate Amadis. 

No conozco a Gonzalez. I do not know Gonzalez. 



156 PREPOSITIONS 

203. — Proper names of inanimate things, such as locali- 
ties or countries, require the preposition when not pre- 
ceded by the article : 

VisitoaBerlinenelverano He visited Berlin in the 

de 1912. summer of 1912. 

Pizarro conquisto el Peru. Pizarro conquered Peru. 

Atraveso el Magdalena a He swam across the Magda- 

nado. lena River. 

204. — Alguien, nadie, quien as direct objects require the 
preposition a : 

Busca a alguien. He is looking for somebody. 

I A quien llamas ? Whom are you calling ? 

No encontre a nadie. I found nobody. 

205. — Common nouns referring to persons (like hombre, 
reina, nino) and preceded by the definite article also 
require the preposition when they allude to specific persons 
or people already mentioned. 

Y Uamando a los galeotes, And calling the galley 

. . . les dijo . . . slaves, he told them . . . 

Defend! al alcalde. I defended the Mayor. 

a. When taken in a general sense these common nouns 
are not preceded by the preposition : 

Busco socios para este I am looking for partners in 
negocio. this business. 

206. — The names of personified things must have the 
preposition with the direct object : 

Quise tanto a una canasta I became so fond of a sifting- 

de colar atestada de basket full of linen that I 

ropa blanca que la embraced it.^ 
abrace conmigo. 

Las aves saludan al dia. The birds hail the day. 

207. — We have said that in the impersonal use of haber 
in Spanish the nouns that form part of the sentence are 

^ Ormsby's elaborate translation of this passage of Cervantes' runs as 
follows : ' / loved a washerwoman'' s basket of clean linen so well, and held 
it so close in my embrace . . . .' 



PREPOSITIONS 157 

always in the accusative, while in English they are the 
nominatives of the verb. These nouns never require a 
preposition in Spanish. 

Hay moros en la costa. There are Moors on the 

coast. 
Hubo quien lo asegurara. There was somebody who 

affirmed it. 
Habia el Obispo y la con- There were the Bishop and 
gregacion de per medio. the congregation in the 

- way. 

208. — The preposition a used with the direct object 
often serves the purpose of qualifying the sense of the 
noun to which it refers. 

Busco un medico means that one is looking for a doctor 
of some sort, any doctor ; busco a un medico means that 
one is looking for an individual doctor who has been 
mentioned or is about to be described. For instance : 
busco a un medico que estuvo aqui ayer, I am looking 
for a doctor who was here yesterday. 

209.— The use of the preposition a in Spanish with the 
direct object is a peculiarity of the language. Neither in 
French nor in Italian is it so employed. In Portuguese the 
preposition a in the accusative is of rare occurrence and in 
Roumanian another preposition is used for this purpose.^ The 
practice is noticeable in Spanish from the beginnings of the 
language and does not show any marked tendency to disappear. 
The looseness and variety of Spanish syntax partially explain 
the use of this particle instead of the Latin accusative. It 
became necessary in order to distinguish between the subject 
and the direct object, as their place in the sentence was not 
always a sure indication.^ 

1 Am vazut pe frate tau (I have seen your brother). 

2 Compare the following sentences : 

Me recibio como enemigo. He received me as if he were my 

enemy. 
Me recibio como a enemigo. He received me as if I were his 

enemy. 

No doubt the necessity of establishing a difference like this gave rise 
to the use of the preposition with the direct object. 



c 



158 PREPOSITIONS 

In the colloquial language of Madrid and in the daily 
papers the preposition is dropped before the names of places : 

Recorri Madrid en coche. I drove about Madrid. 

Conozco Paris. I know Paris. 

This practice, though followed by a few modern writers, 
should not be imitated ; it is against the genius of the language, 
and adds nothing to its qualities of clearness and elegance. 

210. — There are a number of nouns and adjectives 
similarly used with the preposition a as though they were 
v^bs. \^ , /\ 

-Horror al vacioA, Abhorrence of a vacuum. 

Amor a la verdad. Love of truth. 

Era guiado en todas sus He was guided in all his 

acciones por el temor a doings by the fear of 

la muerte. death. 

211.— Sentences of the same meaning sometimes require the 
preposition, and at other times are used without it. Compare 
the following : 

Honrards padre y madre; honra a tu padre y a tu madre ; 
no tiene esposa, tiene a su hijo, que lo venera y lo enaltece 
(he has no wife, he has his son who reveres and exalts him). 

212. — When a sentence contains a verb which takes the 
preposition a with an indirect object, the direct object is not 
preceded by a ; but in such cases it is preferable to adopt 
the passive form of the verb, specially when both objects 
are proper names : 

Presente Pedro a Juan I introduced Peter to John. 
(Pedro fue presentado a 
Juan por mi). 

213. — Sometimes the preposition is dropped before the 
direct object when the latter is modified by an adverbial 
phrase beginning with a. Compare : 

Conozco a sus amigos. I know your friends. 

Conozco mis amigos a ob- I can tell even in the dark 
scuras. who is my friend. 

214. The preposition a and other prepositions are often 



PREPOSITIONS 



159 



used in a pleonastic way with 
the meaning of the sentence : 

Es a usted a quien deseo 

hablar. 
Eso es a lo que me refiero. . 

De su salud es de lo que se 

trata. 
Con ese dinero era con el 

que tenia pensado com- 

prarme un vestido. 

215. — Note the following idi 

Sordo a todos los ruegos. 
Montar a caballo. 
A mujeriegas. 

A ojos vistas. 

A dos leguas de la costa. 

A todo vapor. 
A hurtadillas. 
A la francesa. 
A eso de las diez. 

A lo largo. 
A la larga. 
De largo a largo. 

A la funeral a. 

216. — Preposition de, 

De is used in Spanish for the genitive case. 

Hoy recibe la mujer de mi My brother's wife is at home 

hermano. to-day. 

Havenidoavisitar elsolar He has come to visit his 

de sus abuelos. ancestors' home. 

^ The neuter form of the article can also be used in expressions of 
this kind : 

Volar quieres con alas a lo polio, 

Estando en cuatro pies a lo pollino < Go-ngora). 

Habla a lo llano, a lo liso. 



the verb ser to emphasize 



It is to you (especially) I 

want to speak. 
That is the (very) thing I am 

referring to. 
Your health is the (main) 

point we are dealing with. 
That (and no other) was the 

money with which I meant 

to buy a dress. 

oms : 

Deaf to all prayers. 

To ride on horseback. 

To ride like a v/oman (side- 
saddle). 

Visibly^ manifestly. 

At two leagues from the 
coast. 

At full steam. 

Stealthily. 

In the French fashion.^ 

At about ten o'clock, towards 
ten o'clock. 

Along, lengthwise. 

At length. 

From one end to the other, 
lengthwise. 

With reversed arms. 



i6o PREPOSITIONS 

217. — This preposition is also used in Spanish to 
translate English epithet nouns : la puerta de la casa, 
the house-door ; la plaza de mercado, the market-square ; 
el reloj de sol, the sun-dial. It denotes likewise origin, 
extraction, like ' from ' in English : viene del Jap6n, he 
comes from Japan ; el caucho (goma elastica) se extrae de 
plantas muy diversas, india-rubber is extracted from very 
different plants. Hablo de memoria, I am speaking from 
memory. 

a. It is used to denote the material out of which things 
are made or built : reloj de oro, gold watch ; gorra 
de plumas, feather bonnet ; armazon de acero, steel 
framework. 

218. — De used after the verb deber means probability, 
likelihood, or presumption. Compare the following ex- 
pressions : 

Hoy deben ser las elec- The elections must be held 

clones. to-day. 

Hoy deben de ser las elec- Very likely the elections 

clones. will take place to-day. 

a. It should be noted, however, that in common usage 
and even amongst good writers deber used without a 
preposition may mean probability or conjecture, but in 
no case should the preposition be used where there is 
absolute certainty or necessity. 

219. — Note the following idioms : 

Esta con el infeliz de su He is with that wretched 

hermano. brother of his. 

Habla asi de puro igno- He talks so out of sheer 

rante. ignorance. 

I Pobre de mi ! Woe is me ! 

De mi se decir que no lo As for me, I do not take it. 
acepto. 

220. — De sometimes takes the place of the comparative 
que (than) when one of the terms is not expressed but 
implied : 



PREPOSITIONS 



i6i 



Fide mas de lo que se le 

debe.^ 
Le dije mas de cuatro 

cosas. 

Fue mas noble y generoso 
de lo que ustedes su- 
ponen. 



He is asking more than is 
due to him. 

I told him a few things 
(i. e. home-truths, in an 
admonitory sense). 

He was nobler and more 
generous than you sup- 
pose. 



221. — With the superlative the preposition de is some- 
times used in Spanish when the English construction 
requires ' in ' or * on '. 



La montana mas alta del 
mundo. 

Buenos Aires es la ciudad 
mas populosa del conti- 
nente Sud americano. 



The highest mountain in the 
world. 

Buenos Aires is the most 
populous city on the South 
American Continent. 



Vocabulary. 



abrumador, adj.y oppress- 
ing, overwhelming. 

abundar, to abound, to be 
abundant in. 

ante, prep.^ before, in the 
presence of. 

anunciar, to announce, to 
forebode. 

apreciar, to appreciate. 

arteria, /., artery, large 
street. 

bulto, w., form, bulk. 

cabello, fn.y hair. 

cansarse, to get tired. 

cara,/., face. 

casino, m., casino. 

ceder, to give way, to abate, 
to cede. 

cerveceria, /], ale-house, 
brewery. 



comandante, m,y command 

der. 
comodo, adj.^ comfortable, 

easy, 
concierto, m.y concert, 
concurrido, adj.^ attended, 

crowded, 
desfilar, to pass by in single 

file. 
efecto,m., effect ; en efecto, 

in fact. 
elegante, adj,y elegant. 
encender, to light, to kin- 
dle. 
epoca, /., epoch; en esta 

epoca, in these days. 
erizar, to bristle ; se le 

erizaban los pelos, his 

hair stood on end. 
eso, pron., that ; y eso que 



1 Lo que pide es mds que lo 
se le debe. 



What he is asking for is more than 
what is due to him. 



1 62 



PREPOSITIONS 



los tenia mojados, wet 

as they were. 
estio, m., summer. 
farol, m.f lantern. 
fila,/. row. 
guarnecer, to provide, to 

furnish ; el banco de 

piedra con respaldo de 

hierro que lo guarnece, 

the stone bench furnished 

with an iron back, 
hierro, m., iron. 
largo, adj., long ; a lo largo, 

all along. 
libre, adj., free. 
mojar, to wet, to drench. 
muchedumbre, /, crowd, 

great number of. 
muelle, m., pier, mole, jetty; 

spring. 
naranja,/, orange ; naran- 

jo, m., orange-tree. 
palmera,/., palm-tree. 
pared, /, wall ; paredon, 

thick wall. 
perspectiva, /, prospect, 

perspective, expectation. 
piedra,/, stone. 
plaza,/, square. 



por, prep., for, by; por la 
noche, at night ; por 
cuenta de, on behalf of 

primaveral, adj., belonging 
to spring time. 

prolongarse, to prolong, to 
extend. 

recluir, to seclude, to shut 
up. 

respaldo, m., back of a 
chair. 

sentarse, to sit down. 

separar, to separate. 

silla,/, chair. 

sirviente, m., servant ; sir- 
vienta,/, maid. 

sudor, m., perspiration, 
sweat. 

telegrafo, m., telegraph ; 
por telegrafo, by wire. 

temperatura, /., tempera- 
ture. 

temprano, adv., early. 

toldo, m., tent. 

tomar, to take ; tomar el 
fresco, to go for an air- 
ing. 

transitar, to pass by, to go 
about. 



222. — Conjugation of Ir, to go. 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


resent. 


Present, 


voy 


vaya 


vas 


vayas 


va 


vaya 


vamos 


vayamos or vamos 


vais 


vaydis or vais 


van. 


vayan. 


ast. 


Past {istform). 


fui 


fuese 


fuiste 


fueses 



PREPOSITIONS 



163 



Indicative 




Subjunctive 


fue 




fuese 


fuimos 




fuesemos 


fuisteis 




fueseis 


fueron. 




fuesen. 

Past [2nd form). 
fuera 
fueras 
fuera 
fueramos 
fuerais 
fueran. 


Future, 

ire, etc. (regular). 
Imperfect, 

iba, etc. [regular). 




Future. 
fuere 
fueres 
fuere 
fueremos 


Future in the past. 




fuereis 


iria, etc. [regular). 




fueren. 




Imperative. 




ve (go 


thou) 




id (go you). 


Past participle 
ido. 




Present participle. 
yendo. 




Exercise. 



Sevilla. 

En efecto, el calor por la noche cedi'a bastante ; pero 
yo, acostumbrado a la temperatura primaveral de mi pais 
durante el estio, lo sentia ya abrumador ; se me erizaban 
los pelos (my hair stood on end), y eso que los tenia bien 
mojados por el sudor, ante la perspectiva de las noches 
que me anunciaban. 

En la calle de las Sierpes, arteria principal de Sevilla 
y centro del comercio elegante, se habia colocado un toldo 
que la cubria toda, y gracias a el podia transitarse como- 

M 2 



i64 PREPOSITIONS 

damente por tlla. Los casinos y cervecerias, en que 
abunda, e§taban abiertos todos, y los transeuntes comuni- 
caban con los de adentro libremente. Por la noche, la 
gente que habi'a estado recluida durante el di'a en sus 
casas, sali'a a tomar el fresco. Despues de comer me 
gustaba permanecer una hora en la Britdnica^ viendo 
desfilar la gente en compafiia de Villa. Cuando nos 
cansabamos alli, los dias en que no ibamos a casa de 
Anguita, o hasta que llegaba la hora de ir, soliamos dar 
algunas vueltas por la plaza Nueva^ que, por serlo, es la 
unica grande y regular que hay en la ciudad. En los 
jardines del centro, que adornan naranjos y palmeras, se 
colocaban filas de sillas y alli pasaban algunas horas de 
la noche muchedumbre de familias. 

— En esta epoca, me decia el comandante, se ven aqui 
caras que no volvera Vd. a ver en todo el afio . . . 

Otras veces nos ibamos hacia la orilla del no, donde, 
las noches de luna, no encienden los faroles. A lo largo 
del paredon que separa el paseo del muelle, habi'a muchos 
bultos de mujeres sentadas en el banco de piedra con res- 
paldo de hierro que lo guarnece.— A. Palacio Valdes. 

Conversation. 

I Que es Sevilla ? i Esta al Norte o al Sur de Espana ? 
I Es de Sevilla el escritor que describe la ciudad ? i Viene 
del Norte o del Sur? ^ Como sabe usted que viene del 
Norte ? I Como es la temperatura del verano en el pais 
de donde viene el viajero ? (f. A que horas empieza a ceder 
el calor en Sevilla durante el verano ? i Que le pareci'a 
esta temperatura al viajero del Norte ? i Que le hacia 
erizar el cabello ? i Como tenia el cabello ? i Que clase 
de noches le anunciaba ? i Como se llama la arteria 
principal de Sevilla ? i Cual es, en Sevilla, el centro del 
comercio elegante ? .i Con que cubren esta calle en el 
verano ? i Podia transitarse por ella comodamente ? 
I Donde se reclui'a la gente durante el di'a ? i Que hacia 



PREPOSITIONS 165 

por la noche ? i Por que podi'an comunicarse los tran- 
seuntes con la gente que estaba dentro de los casinos, cafes 
y cervecerias ? ^ En que cerveceria gustaba permanecer 
el viajero ? i Que veia desde alli y en compania de quien ? 
I A donde iban cuando se cansaban de estar en la Britdnical 
I Cual es la linica plaza grande y regular que hay en 
Sevilla ? i Como estan adornados los jardines del centro 
de la plaza ? i Donde pasaban horas de la noche muchas 
familias ? i Donde crecen los naranjos y las palmeras ? 
<i, Hay naranjos en Inglaterra ? iSe ven en el verano en 
Sevilla las mismas caras que en el resto del afio ? i Quidn 
hizo esta observacion ? ^ A donde iba el viajero otras 
veces? ^ En que noches no encienden alli los faroles? 
I Que es un paredon ? i Donde se sentaban las gentes (the 
people) que iban al paseo del muelle ? i De que son los 
bancos ? 

Translate. 

A eso de las diez de la noche llegaron los huespedes 
al hotel. Eran seis : el padre, la madre, un joven como 
de 16 alios, una nifia de 9, y dos servientas. Habian 
pedido cuartos por telegrafo ; de otra manera (otherwise) 
no habrian encontrado acomodo (lodgings). El hotel es 
pequeno y durante el verano es muy concurrido. La 
estacion dura tres meses y en algunos afios se prolonga 
hasta mediados (middle) del otono. 

Como los huespedes no habian comido, fue necesario 
prepararles una cena (supper) abundante. Se sentaron 
a la mesa el padre, la madre y el joven. La nina se quedo 
en el cuarto atendida por las sirvientas. 

Despues de la cena, el Sr. D. Manuel Higuera (asi se 
llamaba el nuevo huesped), D^. Candelaria, su esposa, 
y el joven Ricardo pasaron al salon de conciertos (con- 
cert-room) donde habia musica y canto. El salon estaba 
casi lleno : parece que los huespedes gustan mucho de 
la musica, y algunos de ellos, como la Srita. Emilia 



i66 PREPOSITIONS 

Villegas, de Valladolid, suelen tomar parte en los con- 
ciertos. La Srita. Villegas canta con firmeza y buena 
expresion y no sin sentimiento : la acompafia su hermano 
don Andres que es un pianista de nombre en su ciudad 
natal. 

A las doce de la noche, acabado el concierto, D. Manuel 
y su esposa se retiraron. Estaban fatigados del largo 
viaje y deseaban levantarse temprano, porque hay en la 
ciudad muchas cosas dignas de conocer (worth knowing). 

Translate. 

San Martin, 217. 
Buenos Aires, June 27th, 1917. 
Messrs. Lockwood, Sheen & Co., 

45, rua Coronel Moreira Cesar, 
Rio de Janeiro. 

Dear Sirs : 

Our^ Mr. Charles Phillips, who is travelling in South 
America on behalf of the firm, will hand you this letter. 
We beg to introduce him to you, and should be much 
obliged to you, should you extend [hacer extensivas) to him 
the attention and courtesy that you have always shown 
(manifestado) to our representatives when in your city. 

Mr. Phillips is more than a representative of ours ; he is 
a partner of our firm and we are much pleased to express 
our confidence in the good results that his visit to Brazil 
will have on the enlargement of our business in your city. 
As he will have to visit the interior of the Republic and 
you have no doubt connexions (relactones) with some of 
the firms he is going to see, we should appreciate 

* The pronoun 'our' in this case is often translated by ^ nuestro ' : 
* nuestro D. Mauricio, nuestro D.Carlos.' More idiomatic would be: 
^nuestro socio D. Mauricio, nuestro representante, nuestro agente, 
nuestro socio viajero D. Carlos.* ^ Your city' (lower down) is translated 
in cases like this by 6sa : * a nuestros represe ntantes en ^a 



PREPOSITIONS 167 

(apreciar) as a great favour a letter of introduction from 
you to some of your acquaintances in the towns he intends 
to visit. 

Thanking you in advance, we are 

Yours faithfully, 

Jest Blanco y Cia. 



I 



XX 

PREPOSITIONS {continued) 



223. — The preposition con. Con is often used to indi- 
cate instrumentality, the means or the way to do a thing. 

Lo hizo con sus propias He did it with his own 

manos. hands. 

Trabajamos con ahinco en We worked with eagerness 

esa obra. at that task. 

Le hirio con la espada. He wounded him with the 

sword. 

Se hizo presente con He made his presence' felt 

malos modos. in disagreeable ways. 

224. — Con also denotes association, addition, or simul- 
taneousness : 

Saldre a dar un paseo con I shall go out for a walk 

ella y con Dionisio. with her and Denis. 

Toma cafe con leche. He takes coffee with milk. 

Llego con la aurora. He arrived at dawn. 

225, — Sometimes con loses its prepositional character 
and becomes a conjunction, especially when followed by an 
infinitive or todo : 

Nunca nos cansamos de We never get tired of books 

los libros que tratan de dealing with this subject, 

esto, con ser muchos numerous though they 

(aunque son muchos). are. 

Es muy rico ; con todo, He is very rich; yet I do 

yo no lo envidio. not envy him. 



1 68 



PREPOSITIONS 



226. —Preposition contra. 

Contra un mar de penas« 
Estaba apoyado contra el 

muro. 
Contra viento y marea. 



Contra means ' against ' : 

Against a sea of troubles. 
He was leaning against the 

wall. 
Against wind and tide. 
(Against heavy odds.) 

a. Contra is much used in composition : Contraataque, 
counter-attack ; contrasena, counter-sign ; contramarcha, 
counter-march ; contrapeso, counterpoise ; contraorden, 
countermand. 

227. — Preposition desde. 

Desde means/r6)w when applied to space, and since when 
applied to time : 

Desde Madrid hasta la 

costa. 
Desde que lo vi la ultima 

vez. 



From Madrid to the coast. 

Since the last time I saw 
him. 



228. — Preposition en. 

* En ' denotes : 

Time : 
Estuvo aqui en el verano. 

Place : 
Lo veremos en Sevilla. 

Manner : 
Lo dijo en serio. 

a. Constructed with the present participle, en means 
that the action of the verb immediately precedes another 
action : 



He was here in the summer. 



We shall see him at Seville. 



He said so in earnest. 



En llegando a casa le avi- 
sare por telefono. 



Immediately after my arrival 
at home I shall let you 
know over the telephone. 
229. Preposition hasta. Hasta means 
tillf until, to, up tOy with reference both to time and space. 

Hasta el cabo del mundo. To the world's end. 

Hasta mailana. Till to-morrow. 

No lo sabremos hasta el We shall not hear of it 
lunes. until Monday. 



PREPOSITIONS 169 

230. — Preposition para. 

Para means end^ destinatioUy motion. 

Trabaja para comer. He works for his food. 

Se prepara para los exa- He is preparing for the 

menes. examinations. 

El tren parte a las ocho The train leaves at eight for 

para Sevilla. Seville. 

Metal excelente para sol- Excellent metal for solder. 

dadura. 

No lo hace mal para su He does not do it badly for 

edad. his age. 

Gaste mucho tiempo para It took me a long time to 

conocer sus intenciones. know (to find out) his in- 
tentions. 

Bueno para comer. Good to eat. 

a. Note the following idioms : 

Para eso, era mejor no For all that, it would have 
haber venido. - been better not to come. 

Para mi santiguada ! My word ! 

Para eso que el no lo Even so, he did not know it. 
sabia ! 

h. Many compound words are formed with para : para- 
rrayos, lightning conductor; parasol, sunshade; para- 
guas, umbrella ; parapoco, good for nothing, timid person. 

231. — Preposition por. 

This preposition takes in Spanish the place of by in 
passive constructions. El mundo fue creado por Dios, 
the world was created by God. Fueron destinados al 
ejercito por su padre, they were intended for the army 
by their father. 

a. It denotes also length of time, place, manner of doing 
things, cause or motive. 

Me ausento por un ano. I am going to be away for 

a year. 
Pasa por Toledo el tren The train passes Toledo at 

a las siete y cuarto. a quarter past seven. 

Lo hace por fastidiarme. He does it to annoy me. 



I70 PREPOSITIONS 

Calla por astucia, no por He is silent out of cunning, 

ignorancia. not from ignorance. 

Anda por su hacienda. He is now at his farm. 

232. — Note the following idioms in which this preposi- 
tion is used. 

Por lo que dice veo que I see he is wrong, from what 

yerra. he says. 

Todavia esta por saberse We have yet to learn who 

quien fue el ladron. the thief was. 

Por grande que sea su No matter how great his 

saber es mds extensa su learning, his ignorance is 

ignorancia. greater. 

Por ahora prefiero que- For the time being I prefer 

darme aqui. to remain here. 

Por de contado el no ven- As a matter of course he 

dra. will not come. 

Por lo pronto mandemos In the meanwhile let us 

el telegrama. send the telegram. 

Por lo que a mi hace. As far as I am concerned 

(as regards myself). 

Por si me conoce, demore Delay the introduction, lest 

la presentacion. he knows me. 

Le avise por si acaso no I informed him, in case he 

lo sabia. did not know it. 

233. — In the formation of Spanish compound words this 
preposition takes its Latin form, pro\ proponer, to pro- 
pose ; pronombre, pronoun ; promocion, promotion. 

234.— Preposition segun. 
It means according to: 

Decidio segun su leal saber He decided according to his 
y entender. true knowledge and opi- 

nion. 

a. It is the only preposition that can be used in Spanish 
by itself or at the end of a sentence, though colloquially 
only. 

Todo eso es segun. All that is according to 

(depends on) circum- 
stances. 



PREPOSITIONS 171 

^Vendrds manana? — Se- Will you come to-morrow? 
gun. —It depends. 

236. — Idioms : 

Segiin se ve. On the face of it. 

Segun y conforme . , . Just as (that is as it maybe). 

236. — The prepositional object forms (mf, ti) should not be 
used with segiin. Segiin mi, segiin ti, are grammatically 
correct, but the^^ are not used either in colloquial or literary 
style. They are replaced by expressions like : segiin mi 
opinion, segtin tu parecer, segiin yo lo creo, segiin tii lo 
imaginas. Segiin yo, segiin tii, which is sometimes heard, is 
ungrammatical and inadmissible.* Something similar takes 
place with entre (between, amidst). The prepositional forms 
of the pronouns may be used with entre in a reflexive sense : 
Entre mi decia, I said to myself; but not when it means reci- 
procity: entre ti y mi (between you and me), which is now 
and then found in ancient writers, is now out of use.'^ 

237. — Segiin que means as, in the measure in which, 

Segiin que nos elevamos As we rise above the surface 

sobre la superficie de la of the earth the air becomes 

tierra se adelgaza mas y more and more rarified. 
mas el aire. 

238. — Preposition sobre : 

Sobre means on, above, upon, and sometimes besides. 

Hay ires libros sobre la There are three books on 

mesa. the table. 

Pone su opinion sobre He ranks his opinion above 

todas las demds. all others. 

* Segiin yo taken by itself is an ungrammatical expression, but not 
when yo.is the subject of a following verb: segiin yo lo creo, SU 
hermano estd para Uegar, according to my belief your brother is 
coming. With the third person, and the plurals of the first and second, 
the subject form can be used : segtin el no habrd elecciones este 
ano, according to him there will be no elections this year. 

2 With the integral forms of the 3rd person, and of the ist and 2nd 
plural, the construction is admissible : Entre ellos y SU padre, between 
them and their father ; entre nosotros y Don Diego, between us and 
Don Diego. Instead of entre it y mi we must sa^'^ : ent7'e nosotros dos, 
between us two. 



172 



PREPOSITIONS 



No tenia pruebas sobre las 

cualcs pudiera formar 

opinion. 
Zamora esta sobre el 

Duero.^ 
Da dinero sobre prendas. 
Los ejercitos iban sobre 

Roma. 
Sobre lo rustico tiene algo 

de taimado. 

Tomo sobre si los deberes 
de su empleo. 



He had no evidence to go 
upon. 

Zamora is on the Douro. 

He lends money on security. 
The armies were moving on 

Rome. 
Besides being provincial, 

there is something sly 

about him. 
He took upon himself the 

duties of his position. 



a. Many words are formed with sobre placed before 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs.* Sobrescrito, address on 
an envelope ; sobrehueso, splint ; sobrehumano, super- 
human ; sobreseer, to stay (in a legal action) ; sobreponer, 
to superpose. In a certain number of compounds it pre- 
serves its Latin form (super, supra) : supernumerario, 
superfino, suprasensible. 

239. — Preposition tras. 

The etymological meaning of this preposition is a/ier or 
behind^ but it sometimes is used in the sense of besides. It 
is very often followed by de. 



Estd tras de la puerta. 
Tras de la cruz el diablo. 
Echar la soga tras el cal- 
dero. 



It is behind the door. 
The devil behind the cross. 
To let the rope go after the 

kettle (to let the accessory 

go after the essential is 

lost). 
He is guilty and yet he is the 

one who cries most. 



Tras de ser culpado es el 
que mds levanta el grito. 

240. — In Spanish the preposition governs the verb in 
the infinitive form, not in the present participle : 

Cansado de esperar. Tired of waiting. 

Comenzo por decir ... He began by saying . . . 

^ Yet we say : Francfort del Main, del 6der, not Francfort sobre el 
Main, sobre el Oder, Frankfort-on-the-Main, on-the-Oder. 



PREPOSITIONS 173 

Adelanto en el cuarto, no He advanced into the room 

sin haber echado el ce- not witliout havinr locked 

rrojo. the door. 

Se le alaba por haber sido He is praised for having 

el primero en llegar a las been the first to reach the 

Irincheras. trenches. 

241. — The preposition should not as a rule be separated 
in Spanish from the object modified by it, and when two 
prepositions govern the same object the best usage requires 
the repetition of the object or the employment of the corre- 
sponding pronoun : del publico y para el publico, of the 
public and for the public ; con razon o sin ella, with or 
without reason. 

a. The English practice of separating the preposition 
from its object when two prepositions govern the same noun 
is not permissible in Spanish, although good writers have 
tried to introduce it, e. g. : Providencias exigidas por, y 
acomodadas al estado actual de la nacion, measures 
required by and falHng in with the actual conditions of the 
country. The best way to put this in Spanish would be : 
Providencias exigidas por el estado actual de la nacion 
y acomodadas a el. 

242. — Two prepositions are frequently found combined 
in Spanish : 

Lo hara por de contado. He will do it of course. 

Vestido para entre casa. Dress for indoors. 

Lo sacode entre el monton. He took it from the heap. 

Tras de la iglesia. Behind the church. 

Desdeporlamananahasta From morning till night. 
por la noche. 

243.— Mediante, durante, excepto, incluso (or inclu- 
sive), embargante, exclusive, and other words originally 
used as adjectives, have now a prepositional character : 

Espero hacerlo mediante I hope to do it, provided 
su valiosa ayuda. you give me your valuable 

help. 



J 74 



PREPOSITIONS 



Mediante Dios (or Dios 

mediante) llegaremos 

manana. 
Durante los dias que es- 

tuvo aqui no dio senales 

de locura. 
Todos excepto Juan pueden 

dartestimonio del hecho. 
Todas las cartas incluso la ' 

de mi padre se leyeron 

en la audiencia. 
No obstante la tenacidad 

del empeno fracaso su 

empresa. 



With God*s help we shall 
arrive to-morrow. 

During the days he was here 
he gave no sign of being 
mad. 

All except John can bear 
witness to the fact. 

All the letters including my 
father's were read in court 
(at the hearings). 

Notwithstanding the tena- 
city of the effort, his 
undertaking failed. 



244. 



Conjugation of Venir, to come. 



Indicative. 
Present, 

vengo 

vienes 

viene 

venimos 

venis 

vienen. 
Past. 

vine 

viniste 

vino 

vinimos 

vinisteis 

vinieron. 
Imperfect, 

venia 

venias, etc. (regular). 



Future, 
vendre 
vendrds 
vendra 



Subjunctive. 
Present, 
venga 
vengas 
venga 
vengamos 
vengdis 
vengan 

Past (istform), 

viniese 

vinieses 

viniese 

viniesemos 

vinieseis 

viniesen. 
Past (2nd form), 

viniera 

vinieras 

viniera 

vinieramos 

vinierais 

vinieran 
Future. 

viniere 

vinieres 

viniere 



PREPOSITIONS 



175 



Indicative. 
vendremos 
vendreis 
vendrdn. 

Future in the pasL 
vendria 
vendrias 
vendria 
vendriamos 
vendriais 
vendrian. 



Subjunctive. 
vinieremos 
viniereis 
vinieren. 

Imperative. 

ven 

venid. 
Past participle. 

venido. 
Present participle. 

viniendo. 



Vocabulary. 



abierto de par en par, wide 

open. 
acordarse, to remember, to 

recall. 
ancho, adj.^ wide, broad, 
aparecer, to appear. 
arana,/, spider. 
canto, m.y song. 
caramba ! interj.y gracious ! 

goodness ! 
ciego, adj.^ blind, 
coger, to take, seize ; coger 

de la mano, to take by 

the hand. 
corral, m., courtyard, poul- 
try yard. 
cucaracha,y., cockroach, 
detenerse, to stop. 
discurrir, to walk about, to . 

stroll. 
embaldosar, to pave, 
encontrar, to find ; i come 

seencuentrausted? how 

are you ? 
espiritu, m^y spirit, mind, 
fiesta,/., feast, festival, 
hecha : estara hecha un 



corral, it must be like a 

courtyard. 
hormiguero, m.^ ant-heap; 

hormiguero de gente, 

swarm, crowd. 
ir, to go; ^como le va? 

how are you ? 
loseta,/., small paving-tile. 
parar, to stop, to stay; 

I estd usted parando en 

su casa ? are you staying 

at your own house ? 
poema, m., song, poem, 
preguntar, to ask, to put a 

question. 
puesto que, conj.y since, as. 
reconocer, to recognize, to 

acknowledge, to realize. 
rumoroso, adj.y noisy. 
serene, adj.^ serene. 
sillon, m., easy-chair. 
tal, adj.y adv.y such; ^que 

tal? how? 
tampoco, adv.y neither, not 

. . . either. 
umbral, m.y threshold. 
zaguan, m.y vestibule. 



176 PREPOSITIONS 

Hace tiempo que ... It is long since . . . 

Tenga la bondad de de- Please tell me. 

cirme. 

Con mucho gusto. With great pleasure. 

Perdon, perdone usted. - I am sorry, forgive me. 

Dispense. Pardon me, excuse me. 

De hoy en ocho dias. A week from to-day. 

De manana en ocho dias. A week to-morrow. 

^Como habiamos de sos- How could we conjecture? 

pechar ? (expect ?) 

Exercise. 

Don Joaquin se detiene un momento en el umbral ; le 
acompafia un criado. 

— I Como esta usted, D. Joaquin ? le dice D^ Juana. 

— lQu6 tal le va a usted, D. Joaquin? le dice 
D. Antonio. — Sabiamos que habia llegado usted esta 
manana ; pero j como habiamos de sospechar que viniese 
usted por aqui esta tarde ! 

— lY ustedes ? ^ Y ustedes ? i Como se encuentran ? 
; Caramba ! La verdad es que hace tiempo que no nos 
veiamos. Y ahora, tampoco nos vemos . . . Digo, yo soy 
el que no puedo ver a ustedes. 

Doiia Juana ha acercado un sillon. 

— Sientese usted aqui, D. Joaquin. 

Don Antonio coge de la mano a Don Joaquin y lo lleva 
hasta el sillon. D. Joaquin se sienta con cuidado, lenta- 
mente. La puerta esta abierta de par en par ; aparece el 
ancho zaguan limpio, embaldosado con losetas blancas y 
negras ; por la calle discurre un hormiguero rumoroso de 
gente. 

— I Esta usted parando en su casa, D. Joaquin ? pregunta 
D*^. Juana. 

— Estoy en casa de mi hermana, dice Don Joaquin. Mi 
casa estara hecha un corral ; todos los muebles estaran 
llenos de cucarachas, de arafias y de polvo. Hace veinte 
afios que no se abre . . . desde que yo me fui, Virginia me 



PREPOSITIONS 177 

escribe en las cartas que la linipia dos o tres veces al ano ; 
pero yo no lo creo . . . Ademas, no quiero entrar en ella ; 
yo no puedo ver nada y me daria tristeza el tocar, para 
reconocerlos, aquellos muebles que vieron mi juventud . . . 

— De modo, dice D. Antonio, que usted se ha acordado 
este ano del pueblo y ha querido venir a ver la fiesta. 

— Si, contesta D. Joaquin, si, he querido venir este ano. 
Me he dicho : ' Puesto que ya quizas no pueda tener otra 
ocasion, aprovecharemos esta, que tal vez sera la ultima'. 
Y he venido a ver, es decir, a sentir el pueblo, a saludar 
a los buenos amigos, como ustedes. , AzoRfN. 

Conversation. 

I Quien se ha detenido un momento ? i Donde se ha 
detenido ? i Quien acompana a D. Joaquin ? i Quien habld 
primero a D. Joaquin? <:, Quien lo saludo (greeted) en 
seguida ? i Que sabian en casa de~ D. Antonio con respecto 
a D. Joaquin ? i Sospechaban que llegaria esa tarde ? 
I Como saludo D. Joaquin ? i Por que dice D. Joaquin : 
* Hace tiempo que no nos veiamos y ahora tampoco nos 
vemos, digo, soy yo el que no puede ver a ustedes ' ? 
I Quien le acerca un sillon ? i Que le dice al acercar el 
sillon ? I Quien lo toma de la mano ? i Adonde lo lleva ? 
I Como se sienta D. Joaquin ? i Que se ve desde la 
puerta ? i Corno esta la puerta ? i Puede usted describir 
el zaguan ? i Que hay en la calle ? i Esta parando en su 
casa D. Joaquin ? i Quien quiso saber esto ? i Donde 
esta viviendo D. Joaquin ? i Que cree el de su propia 
casa? I De que sospecha que estaran llenos los muebles ? 
(i^Cuanto tiempo hace que la casa no se abre? ^i, Quien se 
ocupa en limpiar la casa ? i Cuantas veces al ano la 
limpia? i Lo cree asi D. Joaquin ? i Por que no quiere 
D. Joaquin entrar en la casa? i De que le daria tristeza? 
I A qut§ viene D. Joaquin al pueblo ? ^i, Piensavolver otras 
veces ? I Ha venido a ver o a sendr el pueblo ? i Por que 
dice 'r sentir'? ' 

2129 N 



178 PREPOSITIONS 

Translate. 

The history of Spanish literature chronicles what 
great Spaniards and Spanish Americans have felt and 
thought and written in good prose and beautiful poetry in 
their native tongue. The story is a long one, and its 
beginnings are rather uncertain. It opens in Spain with 
the Play of the Magian Kings (Auto de los Reyes Magos), 
probably composed in the twelfth century, and it is still 
unfinished in all lands where Spanish is the current lan- 
guage. Into this narrative must be condensed the record, 
extending over nearly eight hundred years, of the imagina- 
tive life of a great people. Spanish literature has had 
epochs of singular splendour and periods of weakness and 
decay. It flourished with unsurpassed vigour and exube- 
rance from the second half of the sixteenth century to the 
middle of the seventeenth. It can scarcely be maintained 
that the present time should be reckoned amongst the most 
intense and auspicious moments of its activity. Every 
Spaniard or Spanish American has good reason to be 
proud of the work done by his forefathers in prose and 
verse. Every one who can write a good book or a good 
song may say to himself: ^ I belong to a noble company 
which has been teaching and delighting the world for more 
than seven centuries.' And that is a fact in which those 
who write and those who read Spanish literature ought to 
take no ignoble pride. This literature is written in Spanish, 
a tongue evolved by the old inhabitants of the central 
Spanish provinces out of the perishing Latin which the 
Roman conquerors imposed upon them. It was first called 
romance. Subsequently it took the name of Castilian from 
the Spanish province of Castile whose kings kept the other 
provinces together during long wars fought for the national 
independence. When this tongue spread over all the 
Spanish dominions it began to be called Spanish. 



PREPOSITIONS 179 

Translate. 

Vendre con mi familia esta noche a saludar al Presidente 
de la Repiiblica, a quien conozco desde mucho antes de 
que lo eligieran. Me presentare ante el como un viejo 
amigo que lucho (fought) contra sus enemigos con el mishio 
empeno (determination) que el. Mis hijas y mi mujer 
lo conocen tambien y lo estiman como yo. El ha sido 
siempre atento y fiel para con sus amigos. Los que no 
esperamps de el favores personales sino solamente lealtad 
(loyalty) a sus principios podemos insistir (insist) en que 
nos reciba. Estoy seguro de que me recibira y estara muy 
contento de verme. No tengo dudas sobre la sinceridad 
de sus sentimientos. Segiin me dicen sus amigos no ha 
cambiado de ideas ni de sentimientos. Volvera a la vida 
privada (private) sin perder uno solo de sus numerosos 
amigos, y podra mirar hacia atras con espiritu sereno 
(serene mind). 

XXI 

CONJUNCTIONS 

245. — The original and most current conjunctions in 
Spanish are the following : 

y, and ni, nor que, that 

o, or mas, but pues, since, then 

pero, but sino, but, except si, if. 

246. — Before words beginning with i or hi, y changes 
to e: padre e hijo, father and son; Lucia e Isabel; but 
the change does not occur when the initial i or hi is fol- 
lowed by another vowel : cobre y hierro, copper and iron ; 
se lanza y hiende los aires, he starts up and cleaves 
the air ; receto belladona y hiosciamina, he prescribed 
belladonna and hyoscyamine. The Spanish Academy lays 

N 2 



i8o CONJUNCTIONS 

it down that in questions beginning with y followed by 
a word the initial of which is i or hi the change should not 
take place, so that in compliance with this rule we should 
say ^ Y Ines? (And Agnes ?) ^ Y Ignacio ? (And Ignatius ?). 

247.— O before a word beginning with o or ho becomes 
u : azul claro u obscuro, light or dark blue ; dispone 
u ordena que se pague el impuesto, he arranges for or 
orders the tax to be paid. 

a. Either . . , or , . , is rendered in Spanish by o . . . 

. . . : O yo no he visto gente virtuosa en mi vida o la 
de aquel lugar lo es, either I have not seen virtuous people 
in my life or the inhabitants of that village are virtuous. • 

248. — Ni means nor and is used in combination with no : 
no lo vi ni lo oi, I did not see or hear him. 
Ni . . . ni . . . is the equivalent of neither , . . nor . . . 

Ni vuestros pies lo podrdn Neither can your feet bear 
sufrir ni nosotros con- it, nor can we allow it. 

sentir. 

a. Ni can be used in combination with other words ot 
a negative meaning : 

Pas6 tres dias sin comer He neither ate nor drank for 

ni beber. three days. ^ 

Nunca lo confes6, ni en el He never admitted it, not 

cadalso. even on the scaffold. 

Trabaja sin orden ni me- He works without order or 

todo. method. 

1 Quien lo creyera ni pu- Who would or could believe 

diera creerlo ? it ? 

b. Ni may be used by itself in the sense of y no : Me re- 
cibio al fin, ni habria podido evitarlo ; he received me 
at last, nor could he help it. 

249. — Pero, sino, and mas mean but, Sino is used 
when the first clause is negative and the sense of the 
second excludes that of the former : 

Lo sabia, pero lo he olvi- I knew it, but I have for- 
dado. gotten it. 



CONJUNCTIONS i8i 

No solo no se cansaban Not only were they not 

de oirle, sino que les weary of listening to him, 

daba mucho gusto. but weregreatly interested. 

No es pobre sino rico. He is not poor but rich. 

a. Compare the following sentences : 

No tiene sino dos hijos. He has only two sons. 

Iba a caer . . . mas Car- She was on the point oi 
denio, cogiendola entre falling . . . but Cardenio, 

sus brazos, le dijo . . . clasping her in his arms, 

said . . . 

250.— Sino, meaning but, only, or not more than, is 
a single word ; when it means if not it is written as two 
words : 

No ha estado en Londres He has been in London only 

sino dos semanas. two weeks. 

Si no ha estado en Lon- If he has been in London 

dres sino dos semanas, but two weeks, he must 

conocerd poco de la know little of the city. 

ciudad. 

251. — Whether ... or ... is translated into Spanish by 
si . . . o . . . 

Deseo saber si es turco I want to know whether he 
o cristiano o lo uno y lo is a Turk or a Christian, 

otro. or both. 

252. — Que as a conjunction is translated into English by 
'that'. 

Lotario no era tan igno- Lothario was not so dull 

rante que ... no hubiese but that ... he under- 

dado en la cuenta. stood. 

Sdbete que la fortaleza Know that the fortress has 

estd ya rendida. surrendered. 

253. — The conjunction que followed by a verb in the sub- 
junctive is often translated into English by the infinitive: 

Le dije que viniera. I told him to come. 

No creo que sea honrado. I do not believe him to be 

honest. 
Es preciso que procures It behoves you to try and 
verlo. see him. 



1 82 



CONJUNCTIONS 



a. In constructions of this kind where the verb of the 
main clause requires the use of the indicative in the 
subordinate clause, the conjunction is often dropped in 
English, but very rarely in Spanish : 

Creo que vendrd manana. I think he will come to- 
morrow. 

We know the hour has 
arrived. 

Camila replied that it had 
seemed to her that Lo- 
thario looked at her. 

b. After verbs meaning wishy demand^ request, que is 
sometimes omitted, but the practice is not general, and 
must be adopted cautiously : 



Sabemos que ha llegado 

la hora. 
Camila le respondi6 que le 

habia parecido que Lo- 

tario la miraba. 



Otro dia rogo Anselmo a 

Lotario (que) dijese al- 

guna cosa. 
Suplico a usted (que) se 

digne dar curse a esta 

solicitud. 
Espero (que) me respondas 

sin tardanza. 



Some other day Anselmo 
asked Lothario to say 
something. 

I beg you to be pleased to 
expedite this application. 



I hope you will answer me 
without delay. 

254. — Many conjunctions are formed with que combined 
with adverbs, prepositions, and other conjunctions : 
Aunque (although), porque (because), conque (so . . .), 
pues que (since), ya que (since), puesto que (since), su- 
puesto que (granting that), asi que (so that). 
Aunque es mayor el tra- So that, though the soldier 



bajo del soldado, es mu- 

cho menor el premio. 

(Cervantes.) 
No saiga, porque esta Ho- 

viendo. 
Conque te vas. 
Pues que no tiene remedio 

el mal, aceptemoslo va- 

lerosamente. 
Ya que usted lo confiesa, 

pasemos a otra cosa. 



has more to endure, his 

reward is much less. 

(Ormsby's transl.) 
Do not go out, because it is 

raining. 
So, you are going. 
Since there is no remedy for 

the evil, let us face it 

courageously. 
Since you admit it, let us 

pass to some other subject. 



CONJUNCTIONS 183 

Puesto que temes ser mal Since you fear that you will 

recibido ^ a que ir ? not be well received, why 

go? 

Supuesto que la joya es de Granting that the jewel is of 

tanto merito, ^por que such merit, why do you 

quieres deshacerte de want to get rid of it ? 
ella? 

265. — Before the middle of the eighteenth century 
puesto que and supuesto que were used in the sense 
of ' aunque ' (although), a practice now completely 
abandoned. 

256.~A clause containing como, as a conjunction, is 
rendered in English by the present participle, a construc- 
tion also adopted in Spanish : 

Como no supiera (or no sa- Not knowing the way, he 

biendo) el camino, resol- decided to wait for the 

vio esperar la Uegada arrival of other travel- 

de otros caminantes. lers. 

257. — Sometimes como is used instead of que to avoid 
the repetition of this ubiquitous word : 

Me dijo como no podia pa- He told me that he could 

garme en el acto. not pay me directly. 

Ordeno el senor de la casa The master of the house 

como se llamase un me- ordered that a doctor 

dico. should be called. 

258. — The expressions no obstante, no embargante, 
sin embargo, meaning notwithstanding, nevertheless, 
however, are to be considered as conjunctions : 

No obstante sus ruegos, Notwithstanding her en- 
la desecharon. treaties she was refused. 

Lo sabia y sin embargo se He knew it, and yet he 

callo. remained silent. 

a. These expressions are classified by some grammarians 
(Bello —Cuervo) with the prepositions. 



184 



CONJUNCTIONS 



259.— Conjugation of Poher, to put, to lay (irregular). 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive? 


Present. 


Present, 


pongo 

pones 

pone 

ponemos 

poneis 

ponen. 


ponga 

pongas 

ponga 

pongamos 

pongdis 


Past, 


pongan. 


puse 


Past (istform). 


pueiste 


pusiese 


puso° 


pusieses 


pusimos 


pusiese 


pusisteis 


pusiesemos 


pusieron. 


pusieseis 


Imperfect, 


pusiesen. 


ponia, etc. {regular) 
Future, 


Past {2nd form). 


pondre 


pusiera 


pondrds 


pusieras 


pondrd 


pusiera 


pondremos 


pusieramos 


pondreis 


pusierais 


pondrdn. 


pusieran. 


Future in the past. 


Future, 


pondria 


pusiere 


pondrias 


pusieres 


pondria 


pusiere 


pondriamos 


pusieremos 


pondriais 


pusiereis 


pondrian. 


pusieren. 




Imperative. 




pon 




poned. 


Past participle. 


Present participle 


puesto. 


poniendo. 



CONJUNCTIONS 



185 



Vocabulary. 



a causa de, because of, 
owing to. 

a proposito, convenient ; 
by the way. 

aceptado, adj\y accepted. 

boga, /. fashion ; en boga, 
in vogue. 

cataldn, m,y adj.^ Catalan, 
Catalonian. 

cerrar, to close ; cerrar la 
entrada, to bar the en- 
trance. 

colonizar, to colonize. 

comprender, to comprise, 
to include, to understand. 

contacto, m,^ contact. 

contraer, to contract ; con- 
trayendo, contracting, re- 
ducing, shrinking. 

desarrollo, m,y develop- 
ment. 

designar, to name, to de- 
signate. 

dialecto, m., dialect. 

esencial, adj.y essential. 

especialmente, adv.^ spe- 
cially. 

filologia comparada, com- 
parative philology. 

galo-romano, adj.y Gallo- 
Roman. 



gallego - portugues, adj,y 

Galician-Portuguese. 
geogrdfico, adj.y geographic, 
influjo, m.y influence, influx. 
intimo, adj.y intimate, close, 
linguistico, adj.y linguistic. 
Ueno, adj.y full; de Ueno, 

fully, entirely. 
manifiesto, adj.y manifest, 

obvious. 
marcado, adj.y marked. 
modificar, to modify, 
origen, m.y origin, source. 
ore, m.y gold, 
partir, to divide. 
peninsular, adj.y peninsular. 
punto de vista, point of 

view, 
rama,/, branch. 
remontar, to remount ; re- 

montar el curse, to go 

up the stream, to trace 

back the course. 
romance, adj.y Romance, 

Romanic. 
sentido, m.y sense, meaning. 
significado, m.y meaning. 
tendencia,/, tendency. 
tronco, m.y trunk, stock, 
variedad,/, variety. 
vulgar, adj.y vulgar. 



Compare the following expressions : 



A ver que sabe usted. 
Vamos a ver a Juan. 
I Quien viene ? — Vamos 
a ver. 



Let us see what you know. 
We are going to see John. 
Who is coming ? — Let us 



i86 CONJUNCTIONS 

Exercise. 
Origenes de la lengua castellana. 

Castellano es el nombre mas a proposito para designar 
el cuerpo linguistico en que estan comprendidas la parte 
central de Espana y las vastas regiones americanas y asia- 
ticas' colonizadas desde el siglo xvi por los espanoles. 
Podria llamarsele tambien tronco espanol, contrayendo el 
significado esencialmente geografico de esta palabra 
y usandolo en un sentido meraniente politico. Pero la 
primera designacion es preferible, especialmente a causa 
de haber estado en boga durante siglos, y porque aun los 
habitantes de las comarcas que quedan fuera de las dos 
Castillas lo aceptan de lleno y son los primeros en llamar 
su idioma lengua castellana. 

Es generalmente aceptado que el castellano es una de las 
ramas del latin vulgar de Espana, la segunda de las cuales 
es el gallego-portugues : las dos estan ahora separadas por 
diferencias marcadisimas ; pero no es dificil remontar su 
curso hasta el origen que es el romance espanol. Una 
misma lengua original, modificada diversamente en el 
curso de los siglos, se partio en dos variedades, el caste- 
llano y el poftugues, al paso que el Catalan, la tercera 
lengua peninsular, esta en mas intimo y mas visible con- 
tacto con el galo-romano que eon el romance espanol. 

En la formacion y desarrollo de estos tres grupos 
distintos los sucesos politicos tuvieron no mediano influjo. 

Los dialectos que se hablan en otras comarcas de 
Espana no tienen importancia sino del punto de vista de la 
filologia comparada. En America es manifiesta la ten- 
dencia a conservar la uniformidad del idioma sin cerrarles 
la entrada a las voces nuevas, a los modos mas ricos 
y precisos de expresion. 

Conversation. 
I Cual es el nombre mas a proposito para designar la 
lengua principal que Se habla en el centro de Espana ? 



CONJUNCTIONS 187 

I En que otras partes se habla esa misma lengua ? i Con 
que otra designacion se la conoce ? i Cual es preferible 
y por que ? i Que otras naciones a mas de la espanola 
aceptan este nombre ? ^ De donde tomo su origen el 
idioma castellano ? i Que otra lengua de la peninsula 
tuvo el mismo origen? (i. Hay separacion entre ellas? 
I Es facil remontar su curso ? i Cual fue la lengua que se 
dividio en las dos variedades castellana y portuguesa? 
^ Con que lengua tiene contact© el Catalan ? 

^i^ Que otro elemento tuvo influjo en el desarrollo de 
estos tres grupos de idiomas ? 

I Tienen importancia los dialectos que se hablan en otras 
comarcas de Espafia ? i Como se llama la ciencia que 
trata de las relaciones de unas lenguas con otras, segun su 
origen ? ^Sq conserva puro el castellano en America ? 
^ I Que tendencia se nota alli ? i Les cierran los hispano- 
americanos la entrada a las voces nuevas ? 

Translate. 

Esta es una edad de oro y hierro : estos dos metales 
deciden, con la ciencia, de la suerte de los hombres y de 
los pueblos. El oro y el hierro, o, mejor dicho, el acero 
(steel) han ligado a las diversas naciones de la tierra unas 
con otras. De acero son los rieles (rails), los buques, las 
locomotoras que llevan de un pais a otro los diversos pro- 
ductos de la agricultura y de la industria. El oro es la 
base de la moneda (money) con que se pagan (are paid) 
estos productos ; pero no es siempre la moneda misma. 
No seria posible hacer con moneda de oro todas las trans- 
acciones que se efectuan en el mundo en un solo di'a. Por 
eso existen la moneda de papel o papel-moneda (paper- 
money), el cheque, la letra de cambio (bill of exchange) 
que tienen valor segun el credito de las naciones o de los 
individuos. 

El oro y los rieles, que unen comercialmente a unas 
naciones con otras, sirven tambien para estrechar (tighten) 



i88 CONJUNCTIONS 

las relaciones politicas y para difundir (spread) las ideas. 
Aunque parezca que la sociedad de transportes y el agente 
comercial solo atienden a su propio provecho, una y otro 
contribuyen eficazmente a suavizar (make mild, soften) las 
costumbres y a mejorar (improve) el estado (condition) 
moral de los pueblos. 

Translate. 

A curious point to decide in the study of a language is 
the number of words used by the average man {hombre 
promedial) and by the great writers. The most contra- 
dictory statements on this point are to be found in very 
trustworthy authors {autores dtgnos de credito). One says 
that a farm-labourer [labrtego) uses only three hundred 
words, a figure (cifra) that seems to be rather low 
(mas bien baja^ tal vez bajd)y because the utensils of his- 
house and the tools and implements of his daily labour 
with their numerous parts and pieces evidently amount to 
more than three hundred words. 

We are told that one two-year-old girl used 489 and 
another 1121 words, while a lady who has recorded {ha hecho 
apuniaciones sobre) the vocabulary [lextco) of her son says 
that in his seventeenth month he used 232 words, and when 
six years old 2688 words at least, for it is probable that the 
mother and her assistants, who noted down (apuntaban) 
every word they heard the child use, even so did not get 
hold of (wo cogierofiy-no se apoderaron de) its whole voca- 
bulary. A Swedish [sueco) professor who has investigated 
the vocabulary of Swedish peasants, and who emphasizes 
(insiste en) its richness in technical terms, arrives at the 
result that 26,000 is probably too small a figure, and 
a Danish authority endorses {endosa, se adhiere a) this 
view. 

Shakespeare's vocabulary is often stated to be the 
richest ever employed by any single man (por un hombre 
solo). It has been calculated to comprise 21,000 words, 



CONJUNCTIONS 189 

or according to other writers 24,000 or 15,000. Milton*s 
vocabulary is said to comprise 7000 or 8000 words, figures 
that are also given to represent the number of words used 
by Cervantes, the Spanish writer who was most copious not 
only in words but also in variety of phrases and idioms. 



XXII 

SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, VERB, AND 
ADJECTIVE 

260. — The adjective must agree with the noun in gender 
and number. We have seen that some adjectives are in- 
variable in Spanish as far as gender is concerned : to these 
the present rule does not apply with reference to gender. 
There are also a few indeterminate and relative adjectives 
which are invariable both as to gender and number : we 
have mentioned que and cada in the preceding lessons. 

a. Agreeing in gender and number : 

No aprovecho el tiempo He did not take advantage 

bueno para ese negocio. of the right moment for 

that business. 

Dejo pasar la buena epoca He let the favourable time 

para esa empresa. for that enterprise pass. 

Pasaron los buenos dias The good days (times) ot 

de estos comerciantes. these merchants are over. 

Recuerda con tristeza He recalls with sadness the 

- las placidas horas de placid hoursof our country 

nuestras excursiones al excursions. 

campo. 

b. Invariable adjectives as to gender; 

El verde prado, la verde The green turf, the green 

hierba, lo verde de la . grass, the greenness of the 

llanura. plain. 

Las verdes campinas de The green fields of Anda- 

Andalucia, los verdes lusia, the green valleys. 

valles. 



190 



SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, 



c. Invariable adjectives as to gender and number: 



La casa que visitamos 

ayer. 
El terreno que compraste, 
Los hombres que llegaron 

de Francia. 
Cada libro tiene su merito. 
Para cada diez hombres 

un cabo. 
Mds sal que frutas. 
Mds hombres que ratas. 
Juan y demds gente. 

Para usted y para los 

demas. 
Alamos, nogales y demas 

arboles que en las huer- 

tas se crian. 



The house we visited yester- 
day. 

The land you bought. 

The men who arrived from 
France. 

Every book has its merit. 

For each ten men a corporal. 

More salt than fruit. 
More men than rats. 
John and the rest of the 

people. 
For you and the rest of you. 

Poplars, walnut-trees and the 
other trees which grow in 
the cultivated lands. 



d. An adjective that qualifies two or more nouns in 
the singular number and of different or of the same 
gender must be put in the masculine plural if it comes 
after them : 



El padre y la madre afli- 
gidos por la miseria bus- 
caron refugio en casa 
de un pariente rico. 



Afflicted by misery, father 
and mother looked for 
shelter at a wealthy re- 
lative's house. 



e. When the adjective precedes the nouns it may agree 
with the first : 



Su extremada hermosura 
y talento le granjearon 
muchos admiradores. 

El gran tino y diligencia 
del ministro salvaron la 
Republican 



Her extraordinary beauty 

and cleverness won her 

many admirers. 
The great tact and diligence 

of the Minister saved the 

Republic. 



* In such a case as this some writers use the plural form of the adjec- 
tive, but the practice seems against the genius of the language : 

Prociira sus mayores comodi- He looks for his better comfort and 
dad y agrado. pleasure. 



VERB AND ADJECTIVE 



T91 



/.In order to show that the adjective makes reference 
to only one of the nouns the article or the possessive 
or demonstrative adjective must be repeated before the 
second : 



The great tact and the dili- 
gence . . . 

H er extraordinary beauty 
and her cleverness . . . 



El gran tino y la dili- 

gencia . . . 
Su extremada hermosura 

y su talento . . . 

g. Adjectives like mismo, dicho, referido, mencionado 
when preceding several nouns in the singular number 
must be put in the plural : 



Los mismos Antonio Perez 
y Luis Rozo compare- 
cieron en esta fecha. 

Segiin el testimonio de los 
mencionados albaiiil y 
carpintero . . . 



The same Antonio Perez and 
Luis Rozo appeared on 
this date. 

According to the testimony 
of the above-mentioned 
bricklayer and carpenter 



h» Note the difference of meaning in the following con- 
structions : 



The army of France and 
Russia. 



El ejercito de Francia y 

Rusia (one army consist- 
ing of troops of the two 

countries). 
El ejercito de Francia y 

el de Rusia (two armies, 

a French and a Russian 

one). 
Los ejercitos de Francia y 

Rusia (one French and 

one Russian army or 

several armies of both 

countries). 

t. Titles like Majestad (Majesty), Alteza (Highness), 
Seiioria (Lordship), which, strictly speaking, are of the 
feminine gender, agree with the masculine when they refer 
to men : 
Su Alteza esta enfermo. His Highness is ill. 



The army of France and the 
army of Russia. 



The armies of France and 
Russia. 



192 SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, 

261. — A verb should agree in number and person with 
its subject : 

Tii eres sereno en el peli- You are calm before danger, 

gro, pero deberias ser but you ought to be more 

mds cauto. cautious. 

Nosotros estabamos tran- We were quiet ; they dis-. 

quilos; ellas se mani- played much uneasiness. 

festaban muy inquietas. 

262. — In some cases collective nouns form an exception 
to this rule. 

a. Singular collective nouns like gente, multitud (crowd), 
pueblo (people), meaning an indeterminate aggregate of 
persons or things, may be followed by the verb and also 
the adjective in the plural : 

Amotinose el pueblo, pero The people assembled mu- 
a la primera descarga tinously, but at the first 
huyeron despavoridos. volley they fled in terror. 

b. Two conditions are needed to justify this exception : 
the collective noun must be of an indeterminate kind, and 
it must not be contained in the clause in which the 
plural verb is to be used. Thus in the preceding example 
amotinose is singular because pueblo belongs to the first 
clause. We can say huyeron in the second clause because 
the subject is tacit. 

c. With collective nouns like regimiento, piara (herd ot 
swine), academia, rebafio (herd), conclave, congreso, 
recua (drove of pack mules), the jplural form of the verb is 
not sanctioned by good usage, because these bodies cannot 
be considered as of an indeterminate kind. 

263. — Two or more nominatives in the singular number 
require the verb in the plural number : 

Inglaterra y Francia esta- England and France were 

ban por la paz. in favour of peace. 

El hambre, la sed, la incle- Hunger, thirst, the severity 

menciadeltiempoyladu- of the weather and the 

raciondelashostilidades continuance of hostilities, 

habian quebrantado la • had broken the resistance 

resistencia del enemigo. of the enemy. 



VERB AND ADJECTIVE 193 

a. Yet when the nouns do not refer to living beings the 
verb may agree with the nearest subject : Un suspiro, una 
palabra lo haria (or harian). 

La hora, el tiempo, la sole- The hour, the season, the 
dad, la voz y la destreza soHtude, the voice and the 
del que cantaba causo skill of the singer all con- 
adniiracion. spired to impress the 

auditors with wonder. 

A. In connexion with the foregoing rule, when a verb 
refers to two or more pronouns of different persons the 
second person takes precedence of the third, and the first 
supersedes all other persons. 

Tu y tu amigo no ireis al You and your friend will 
campo este verano. not go to the country this 

summer. 

Vosotros, ellas y yo estu- You, they, and I were ex- 
vimos expuestos a un posed to a great danger. 
gran peligro. 

c. When the members of a double subject are connected 
with each other by the conjunction o the agreement with the 
verb follows (contrary to the English usage) the same rules : 

El padre o la hija salieron. The father or the daughter 

went out. 
El oyo estamos en un error. He is or I am in the wrong. 
Tu, ellas o yo debemos You, they or I must be 

estar presentes a la present at the ceremony. 

ceremonia. 

d, Usted, ustedes, which are pronouns of the second 
person, require the verb in the third person. This anomaly 
is easily explained by the origin of the word usted, which is 
a contraction of Vuestra merced (Your Mercy, Your Lord- 
ship), Vuesa Merced, expressions involving the use of the 
third person : la Merced del Sr. ; la Senoria de Vosotros.^ 

264.— The conjunction ni follows special rules. When it 
. comes before every one of the different subjects the verb 
agrees with the one nearest to it or takes the plural: 

1 Compare Lei and Ella in Italian, Sie in German. 

8129 O 



194 



SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, 



Ni la oposicion ni la anienaza Neither opposition nor threat 
le disuadieron de su em- dissuaded him from his pur- 

peno. pose. 

a. When ni is put after the first subject the verb may agree 
with it or be put in the plural. In this case no, and not ni, is 
used with the first subject : 

No lo disuadio de su empeno Opposition did not dissuade 
la oposicibn ni la amenaza. him from his purpose, nor 

threat either. 

265. — Two nominatives connected by the comparatives 
come, asi . . . como, tanto . . . como, or by the preposi- 
tion con, require the plural of the verb to which they refer : 



Asi el rice como el pobre 
deben contribuir a pagar 
los gastos de la Nacion. 

Tanto la madre como la 
hija fueron arrojadas a 
las llamas. 

La Muerte con todo su 
escuadr6n volante vol- 
vieron a su carreta y 
prosiguieron su viaje. 
(Cervantes.) 



Both the rich and the poor 
must contribute to pay the 
expenses of the Nation. 

Both mother and daughter 
were thrown into the 
flames. 

And Death with his flying 
squadron having returned 
to their cart, each pursued 
their way. (Motteux's 
transl.) 



a. But when the verb comes after the first nominative 
and before the others the singular form is required : 

La Muerte volvi6 a su And Death, etc. 
carreta con todo su es- 
cuadron volante y con- 
tinu6 su viaje. 

266. — Compare the following expressions : 

Tu con todos tus hijos 
vendreis a comer con 
nosotros. 

Vendrds con todos tus 
hijos a comer con noso- 
tros. 

Con todos tus hijos ven- 
drds a comer con noso- 
tros. / 



I You with all your children 
will come to dine with us. 



VERB' AND ADJECTIVE 



195 



267. — When todo used as a noun for purposes of 
recapitulation is the last member of a multiple subject, the 
verb must be put in the singular : 



La franqueza, el valor, 
la apariencia personal, 
todo en el era atractivo. 



His frankness^ his courage, 
his personal appearance, 
everything in him was 
attractive. 



268. — When the verb occurs between two nominatives 
the number is determined by that to which the verb 
directly refers : 

La causa de Dies nos Ueva The cause of our God leads 



y la de nuestro rey a 
conquistar regiones no 
conocidas. 
Yo no lo se, ni mis vecinos 
tampoco. 



us, as does the cause of 
our king, to conquer un- 
known regions. 
I do not know it, nor do my 
neighbours either. 



a. Exceptionally and as a consequence of this rule the verb 
may be put in the singular when placed at the end of various 
nominatives, if the last of these is in the singular: 

La evidencia de la razon y The certainty afforded by 
lajusticiade la causa sirvio reason and the justice of 

(or sirvieron) de estimulo. the cause served as an en- 

couragement. 

269. — Two or more neuters take a singular verb : 



Lo verde de las campinas 
y lo bianco de las caba- 
nas asoma ya en la le- 
jania. 

Pues sabe que lo male y 
que lo bueno esta sujeto 
a stibita mudanza. (Sa- 
MANiEGo, FdbulaSf Oxford, 
1917, p. 68.) 

Esto y lo que se temia de 
la tropa precipito la re- 
soluci6n del gobiemo. 



The verdure of the fields 
and the whiteness of the 
huts appear now in the 
distance. 

Because he knows that evil 
and good are both subject 
to sudden changes. 



This and what was feared 
from the troops hastened 
the action of the govern- 
ment. 



02 



196 



SYNTAX OF THE -NOUN, 



a. Two or more than two infinitives also require, as 
neuters, the verb in the singular : 



Madrugar, hacer ejercicio 
y comer moderadamente 
es provechosisimo para 
la salud. 



To get up early, to take a 
walk and to eat moderately 
is most beneficial to our 
health. 



b. Two or more noun clauses governed by que, if they 
are the subjects of a single verb, also require the singular, 
because in this case each clause is the equivalent of 
a neuter subject : 



Que usted fuera el dueno 
de la casa y que quisiera 
venderla me sorprendio. 



That you were the owner of 
the house and that you 
wanted to sell it surprised 
me. 



c. When the two neuters (whether adjectives, infinitives 
or clauses) imply reciprocity the plural is required : 

Aprender y divertirse no To learn and to amuse one- 
son incompatibles. self are not incompatible. 

Lo belle y lo util no se There is no opposition be- 
contradicen. tween beauty and useful- 

ness. 



Vocabulary. 



acertar, to succeed, to hit 
the mark. 

apenas, adv,y scarcely. 

asnal, adj.f belonging to the 
donkey, asinine. 

asno, m,f donkey, ass. 

balde, m.j bucket. 

borrico, m.j donkey, ass. 

burro, m., ass. 

casualidad,/, chance ; per 
casualidad, by chance, 
occasionally. 

colar, to go into, to pene- 
trate, to run into. 

fdbula,/., fable. 



fabulista, m, and/., fabulist. 

flauta,/., flute. 

flautista, m, and /., flute- 
player. 

ocurrir, to happen, to occur, 
to come to one's mind. 

oler, to smell; huele, it 
smells. 

prado, m.j field. 

reglar,/., rule. 

resoplido, m,y snort. 

tocar, to play (to play an 
instrument). 

zagal, m., shepherd (pastor 
is of more frequent use). 



VERB- AND ADJECTIVE 



197 



270. — Idiomatic expressions. 

For bueno que sea. 
For mds que digan. 
Rio arriba, rio abajo. 
Manana por la manana. 
For poco se cae. 

Iba camino de Burgos. 

Fara mi tengo que son las 

diez. 
Ahora caigo en la cuenta. 
Eso se cae de su peso, eso 

se viene rodado. 
De veras. 
En balde. 
De balde. 



However good it may be. 
Whatever they may say. 
Up stream, down stream. 
To-morrow morning. 
He was on the point of 

faUing, he almost fell. 
He was on the way to 

Burgos. 
As for me, I think it is ten 

o'clock. 
Now I see. 
It is evident, it follows, it is 

obvious. 
In truth, truly. 
In vain. 
Gratis, free of cost. 



271. Conjugation of Caer, to fall (irregular). 

Subjunctive. 



Indicative. 

Present, 
caigo 
caes, etc. {regular) 

Past. 

cai {regular) 
caiste {regular) 
cayo {regular) ^ 
cairn OS {regular) 
caisteis {regular) 
cayeron {regular) ^ 

Imperfect, 

caia, etc. {regular) 

Future, 
Caere, etc. {regular) 

Future in the past, 
caeria, etc. {regular) 



Present, 
caiga 
caigas 
caiga 
caigamos 
caigais 
caigan. 

Past {istform), 

cayese, etc. {regular^) 

Past {2nd form), 

cay era, etc. {regular^) 

Future, 

cayere, etc. {regular^ 



1 Y takes the place of the unstressed initial i of the inflexional ending 
in verbs of the and and 3rd conjugation when the stem ends in a vowel : 
caer (cayo, cayese, cayendo), oir (oyo, oyere), huir (huyo, huyese). 
Verbs in -eir do not follow this rule : they are irregular. 



198 SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, 

Imperative. 

cae (regular) 

caed (regular) 
Past participle. Present participle. 

caido (regular) cayendo (regular). 

Exercise. 
El burro flautista, 

Esta fabulilla, 
saiga bien o mal, 
me ha ocurrido ahora 
por casualidad. 

Cerca de unos prados 
que hay en mi lugar, 
pasaba un borrico 
por casualidad. 

Una flauta en ellos 
hallo, que un zagal 
se dejo olvidada 
por casualidad. 

Acerc6se a olerla 
el dicho animal, 
y did un resoplido 
por casualidad. 

En la flauta el aire 
se hubo de colar, 
y sono la flauta 
por casualidad. 

i Oh ! dijo el borrico, 
\ que bien se tocar ! 
j y diran que es mala 
la musica asnal ! 

Sin reglas del arte, 
borriquitos hay 
que una vez aciertan 
por casualidad. 
(TomAs de Iriarte, Fdbulas, Oxford, 1918, p. 10.) 



VERB AND ADJECTIVE 199 

Conversation. 

I Cual es el ti'tulo de esta fabula ? i Quien es su autor ? 
I Como dice el autor que le ocurrio esta fabula ? i Cu^l 
es el personaje unico de la fabula ? i Qu6 otras palabras 
hay en la fabula para designar el burro ? i Qu6 diferencia 
hay entre borrico y borriquito ? i Por d6nde pasaba el 
asno de esta fabula ? ^ En que pueblo quedaban los 
prados? ^Como acerto a pasar el borrico por estos 
prados ? i Que hallo el borrico en ellos ? i Quien habi'a 
olvidado la flauta? ^ Donde la habia dejado? ^Como 
habia dejado olvidada la flauta el pastor? i Fud la inten- 
cion del pastor dejar alli la flauta ? i Que hizo el burro 
cuando vio la flauta ? ^i, Es natural que los burros se 
acerquen a oler las cosas que ven? ^Solamente los 
borricos hacen esto ? ^ De que sentido (sense) se valen 
los animales en general para distinguir las cosas ? i Como 
hizo el borrico sonar la flauta? ^Quiso hacerla sonar? 
^Como sono la flauta? iQue dijo el borrico al oir sonar 
la flauta ? i Era musica verdadera el sonido de la flauta ? 
<i,Cual es la moraleja (moral) de la fabula? <:, Es posible 
acertar sin saber las reglas del arte ? i Como se acierta 
a veces sin saber las reglas ? 

Translate. 
Simon el Bohito (Simple Simon), 
Simon el Bobito llamo al pastelero ^ : 
'A ver los pasteles^! los quiero probar^!* 
'Si, repuso* el otro, pero antes yo quiero 
ver ese cuartillo"^ con que has de pagan' 
Busco en los bolsillos^ el buen Simoncito 
y dijo : ' De veras, no tengo ni unito/ 

A Simon Bobito le gusta el pescado^ 
y quiere volverse ^ tambi^n pescador, 
y pasa las horas sentado, sentado 
pescando en el balde de mama Leonor. 



200 SYNTAX OF THE NOUN, 

Empezando apenas a cuajarse^ el hielo^^ 
Simon el bobito se fue a patinar/^ 
cuando de repente^'^ se le rompe^^ el suelo 
y grita: 'Me ahogo^M venganme a sacar!' 

Vio un monton ^^ de tierra que estorbaba el paso ^^, 
y unos preguntaban : ' i Que haremos aqui ? ' 
'Bobos, dijo el nino, resolviendo ^"^ el caso; 
que abran un grande hoyo ^^ y la echen ^^ alli/ 

Lo enviaron por agua, y el fue volandito^^ 
llevando el cedazo-^ para echarla en el. 
Asi que^'^ la traiga el buen Simoncito 
seguira la historia pintoresca y fieP^ 

R. POMBO. 

^ pieman. ^ pig^ s ^q taste. * reponer, to reply, is conju- 

gated like poner. ^ fourth part of one real. This coin exists no 

longer. ^ pocket. "^ fish. ^ to become. ^ coagulate ; used 

here in the sense of hardening : ' As the frost was only beginning to 
harden.^ ^^ hielo means also ice. ^^ skate. '^ suddenly, all of 

a sudden. ^^ break. ^^ to drown. ^^ heap. ^^ estorbar 

el paso, to obstruct the way, to hinder. ^^ to decide, to resolve. 

^^ hole. ^^ to throw. ^® in a hurry. ^^ sieve. 22 vvhen, 

as soon as. ^3 faithful, true. 

Translate. 

Joseph Joubert was born (and this date should be 
remarked) in 1754, at Montignac, a little town in Perigord. 
His father was a doctor with small means ^ and a large 
family ; and Joseph, the eldest, had his own way to make 
in the world. He was for eight years, as pupil first, and 
afterwards as an assistant master ^, in the public school of 
Toulouse, then managed by the Jesuits. Compelled ^ by 
the weakness * of his health to give up ', at twenty-two, the 
profession of teaching, he passed two important years of 
his life in hard study, at home at Montignac ; and went in 
1778 to try^ his fortune in the literary world of Paris, 
then perhaps the most tempting"^ field which has ever 
yet presented itself to a young man of letters®. He knew 



VERB AND ADJECTIVE 201 

Diderot, D'Alembert, Marmontel, Laharpe; he became 
intimate with one of the celebrities of the next literary 
generation, then, like himself, a young man — Chateau- 
briand's friend, the future Grand Master '-* of the Uni- 
versity, Fontanes. But, even then, it began to be observed 
that M. Joubert ' cared ^^ far more about (de) perfecting 
himself than about making himself a reputation '. . . . 

When Napoleon, in 1809, reorganized the public in- 
struction of France, founded ^^ the University, and made 
M. de Fontanes its Grand Master, Fontanes had to 
submit ^^ to the Emperor a list ^^ of persons to form the 
council ^* of the new University. Third on his list,^'^ after 
two distingiwshed names, Fontanes placed the unknown ^^ 
name of Joubert . . . Napoleon trusted ^'^ his Grand Master, 
and Joubert became a councillor of the University. 

M. Arnold. 

1 small means, escasos medios. 2 assistant master, maestro 

auxiliar. ^ obligado. * debilidad. ^ abandonar, dejar. 

6 ensayar. ^ tentador. ^ man of letters, literate. ^ Gran 

Maestre. 10 se cuidaba. " fundo. ^^ present ar. i^ lista. 
1* consejo. ^^ third on his list, en tercet lugar en su lista. 

16 desconocido. ^'^ confiaba en. 

Exercise. 

In the following sentences the present tense should be 
changed into the past : — 

Me dicen que el amigo Juan tiene una casa de campo, 
en la orilla del rio, donde pasa el verano con su esposa 
y sus hijos que gustan mucho del aire libre y necesitan 
descansar al salir del colegio. 

No quiere mi padre que yo vaya a Rusia sin el : espera 
poder acompafiarme el afio proximo. 

El general sabe el camino, el nos acompana hasta aqui; 
pero como esta muy ocupado en la organizacion de un 
nuevo ejercito vuelve a la ciudad por el primer tren, que 
sale a las diez y cuarto. 

Aqui esta el criado. Trae los caballos para el viaje; 



202 SYNTAX OF NOUN, VERB, ADJECTIVE 

prepara el fiambre ; paga la cuenta del hotel y nos senala 
el camino. Es un hombre excelente, esta al servicio de 
mi hermano a quien respeta y quiere como a su mismo 
padre. 

No conozco a D. Diego. Creo que tampoco 6\ me 
conoce a mi. Es mas viejo de lo que dicen. Sus hijas 
son bien educadas y graciosas. 



XXIII 
VERBALS (Derivados verbales) ^ 

272. — The infinitive. The infinitive is in the Spanish 
language the word used to designate the verb. It ends in 
■ar, -er, or -ir : saltar, creer, decir. 

273. — The infinitive keeps its verbal character inasmuch 
as it can take a subject or an object as well as the other 
forms of the verb, but it does not express tense, number, 
or person. Alabarlo yo no seria posible, to praise him 
would not be possible for me. In this Spanish sentence 
yo is the subject and lo the object of the infinitive alabar, 
which, in its turn, is the subject of * no seria posible '. It 
can also be combined with predicative adjectives or nouns. 
Ser bueno o no serlo; pero no aparentarlo no sien- 
dolo ; to be good or not to be good, but not to try to 
appear so when one is not good. 

274. — The object and the predicative pronoun now 

^ This term is used by English grammarians to designate collectively 
the infinitive, the gerund, and the participles : 'Verbals are words which 
are considered to be *' parts ^' of verbs, and which in their nature partake 
of the character of verb and noun, or of verb and adjective. The Past 
Participles, as we have seen, are Verbals, and combine the characters of 
Verb and Adjective. . . . Other verbals are the Infinitive, and Supine, 
and the Gerund, which are Noun Verbals.' (Henry Cecil Wyld, Elementary 
Lessons in English Grammar^ Oxford, 1915, p. 127.) 



VERBALS 



203 



always follow the infinitive : Vine a ver a usted, I came 
to see you; ^es ella la duena de la casa?: creo que 
debe de serlo, is she the landlady ? I believe she probably 
is; me parece verlo, I think I see it; puede usted 
dejarlas salir, you may let them go out. 

a. When the object is a pronoun without preposition it 
forms a single word with the infinitive (see § 60). 

275. — The infinitive is often used with the definite or 
indefinite article : 



El saber su llegada la 

puso contenta. 
En un abrir y cerrar de 

ojos ya no estaba ella 

en la sala. 



To hear of his arrival made 
her happy. 

In the twinkling of an eye 
she had already disap- 
peared from the draw- 
ing-room. 

a. There are cases in which the infinitive used with the 
articles ceases to be a verbal and follows all the rules 
applicable to common nouns : it can then take the plural 
ending : 



El ser, los seres. 

Corre un decir muy co- 

mentado. 
Los decires del club son 

contradictorios. 
El cantar de los cantares. 



The being, the beings. 

A much commented saying 

is afloat. 
The chatter in the club is 

contradictory. 
The Song of Solomon. 



276. — In optative or imperative clauses the infinitive 
may take the place of other forms of the verb : 



; No cerrar la puerta ! (no 
cerreis la puerta). 

No matar (no mataras). 

; Desecharlosmalospensa- 
mientos ! 

A quien no sea de dnimo 

esforzado no armarlo de 

soldado (no lo armen). 

(Samaniego, FdbulaSy 

Oxford, 1918, p. 20.) 



Do not close the door (mind 

not to close the door). 
Thou shalt not kill. 
Reject bad thoughts. 

Do not make a soldier of him 
who has not a courageous 
soul. 



204 VERBALS 

277. — After a preposition the infinitive is used in Spanish, 
not the gerund as in EngHsh : 

Ella se canso de decirle She grew tired of telHng 

que era tarde. him that it was late. 

Con hacerlo me conven- By doing it he will convince 

cerd (see § 240). me. 

278. — In combination with the preposition a indepen- 
dently of other verbs the infinitive sometimes takes the 
place of an if-clause : 

A tener yo dinero, com- I should buy that book if 
praria ese libro. I had the money. 

a. Combined with the preposition a and the definite 
article the infinitive denotes coincidence of time : 

Al llegar a casa supe la I heard the news on reach- 
noticia. ing home. 

h. When used with con independently of another verb 
the infinitive has the meaning of a gerund or of a clause 
introduced by aunque : 

Con ser tan sagaz no evito With all his cunning he 

queleenganasen(Siendo could not help being 

tan sagaz . . ., Aunque deceived (see § 225). 
es tan sagaz . . .). 

279. — The verbs oir and ver and a few others of the 
same kind may take as their object an infinitive with which 
they seem to form a single part of speech : 

Vimos arder el bosque. We saw the wood burn (or, 

burning). 

I Oiste cantar el aria ? — Did you hear the air sung ? 

La oi cantar. — I did hear it sung. 

I Le oiste cantar el aria ? Did you hear him sing the 

— Lo oi, or le oi (or, Se air ? — I heard him (or, 

la oi cantar). I heard him sing it). 

In the first sentence bosque is the otJject both of ver 
and arder. In the second, aria is the object both of oir and 
cantar ; here we can say la oi cantar or oi cantarla, in 



VERBALS 205 

the manner of lo 01 decir or 01 decirlo (I heard it said). 
When the infinitive is not a verb used transitively it 
cannot take the object. We cannot, therefore, say: vi 
salirlo, but lo vi salir, I saw him go out. 

In the sentence ^Le oiste cantar el aria? Le can be 
taken to be a direct or indirect object: if the question 
refers to the aria it is indirect ; if it refers to the singer 
it is a direct object. ^Le oiste cantar el aria? 
may, therefore, mean either: Did you hear the air he 
sang ? or. Did you hear him sing the air ? If we say : i Lo 
oiste cantar el aria? the sense can only be the latter, 
because lo is always a direct object when it refers to the 
third person masculine singular. 

280. — A few verbs in Spanish, besides the two we have 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph, do not require 
a preposition before the infinitive. The following are 
those of most frequent use : 
acostum.brar, to be accus- pensar, to intend. 

tomed. poder, to be able. 

convenir, to be convenient, preferir, to prefer. 

to suit. pretender, to claim, to pre- 

creer, to believe, to think. tend, 

deber, shall, ought. prohibir, to prohibit. 

dejar, to let, to allow. prometer, to promise, 

desear, to wish, to want. querer, to wish, to want, 

escuchar, to listen to. recordar, to remember. 

esperar, to hope. saber, to know, 

imaginarse, to imagine. servirse, to please, to be 

impedir, to prevent. so kind, 

intentar, to attempt. soler, to be accustomed, to 

lograr, to succeed in. be wont. 

necesitar, to need, to want, temer, to fear, 
parecer, to seem. 

281. — Many verbs require the preposition a before an 
infinitive. Usage is the sole guide, and they can only be 
learned by practice. The following are a few of those in 
most frequent use : 

aprender, to learn. atre verse, to dare, 

aspirar, to aspire. ayudar, to help. 



2o6 



VERBALS 



comenzar, to begin. 
contribuir, to contribute. 
convidar, to invite. 
correr, to run. 
empezar, to begin. 
ensenar, to teach. 
forzar, to force. 
invitar, to invite. 
ir, to go. 
Uegar, to arrive, to come, 



to succeed. 
pasar, to pass, to proceed, 
renunciar, to renounce. 
sacar, to draw out. 
salir, to go out, come out. 
tornar, to return, to do 

again. 
venir, to come. 
volver, to turn to, to do 

again. 



282. — Verbs requiring con before an infinitive : 

amenazar, to threaten. with, 

contar, to depend on. 
contentarse, to be satisfied 



divertirse, to amuse oneself. 



283. — Verbs requiring de 

acabar (in the sense of 

having just finished), to 

end, to finish. 
acusar, to accuse. 
cansarse, to tire, to grow 

weary, 
cesar, to cease, 
cuidarse, to take care, to 

keep from, 
dejar, to leave off, to cease. 
descansar, to rest, to take 

a rest. 
desistir, to desist. 

284. — Verbs requiring en 

confiar, to trust in. 

consentir, to consent, to 
agree to. 

consistir, to consist. 

consumirse, to be con- 
sumed. 

convenir, to agree to. 

ejercitarse, to employ one- 
self. 

empeiiarse, to persist. 

esmerarse, to take pains 



before an infinitive : 

disuadir, to dissuade. 
encargarse, to take upon 

oneself 
guardarse, to keep from, to 

avoid. 
hablar,to speak, to mention. 
jactarse, to boast. 
olvidarse, to forget. 
preciarse, to boast. 
privar, to deprive. 
quejarse, to complain. 
terminar, to finish. 
tratar, to try, to endeavour. 

before an infinitive : 

in. 

insistir, to insist. 

obstinarse, to persist in. 

ocuparse, to busy one- 
self 

parar, to come to. 

pensar, to think of. 

quedar, to come to, to agree. 

tardar, to delay, to be late 
in. 

vacilar, to hesitate. 



VERBALS 207 

286. — Verbs requiring por before an infinitive : 

acabar, to end by. rabiar, to be crazy for. 

pugnar, to strive. trabajar, to work for, after. 

286. — In combination with certain prepositions the in- 
finitive has in Spanish a passive meaning : 

Le llevan a ahorcar. ^ They are taking him to be 

hung. 
Eso estd todavia por sa- That is still to be known. 

ber. 
Esta fruta no es de comer. This fruit is not to be eaten. 
No es cosa de alabar. It is not a thing to be 

praised.^ 

287. — For the meaning of deber, followed by an infinitive 
with or without the preposition de, see § 218. The following 
phrases may further illustrate the correct usage : 

Debe venir manaiia. He must come to-morrow. 

Debio de estar muy ocupado, He was perhaps very busy, as 
cuando no vino. he did not come. 

288. — Haber and tener, followed by que and an infinitive, 
imply necessity, obligation, duty ; in English, ^ to have to ' (see 
§§ 76, 131) • 
Hay que terminar el negocio The business has to be finished 

antes del s^bado. before Saturday. 

El Ministro Rodriguez tiene Rodriguez, the Minister, has to 

que dimitir. resign. 

Hay que tener paciencia.^ One has to be patient. 

a. It is to be noted that tengo que combined with the 
infinitive does not always mean necessity: 

He venido porque tengo noti- I have come because I have 
cias que comunicarles. news to communicate to you. 

Pregiintela usted si tiene que Ask her whether she has any- 
decir. thing to say. 

El pobre no tuvo que decir. The poor man had nothing to 

say. 

^ Compare the Latin : vultus nimium lubricus aspici (Hor.) ; dignus 
am art, 

2 Haber de and tener de followed by an infinitive have the same 
meaning as tener que: 

Ha de saber usted que tenemos You must know that we have to 
de morir. die. 

Tener de is less used than haber de. 



2o8 VERBALS 

289.— In haber menester, to need, to be in need of, menester 
is not an infinitive, as some good writers have thought, and as 
the illiterate in some Spanish-speaking countries evidently 
assume it to be (since they try to conjugate it). Menester 
(trade) is the Latin noun fninisterium'^, and as such it takes 
the plural ending : humildes menesteres, humble trades ; bajos 
menesteres, low trades. The following examples show the 
correct use of haber menester : 

No es eso lo que yo quiero, ni That is neither what I wish 

lo que yo he menester. nor what I need. 

Ella habia menester mucho She was in need of much 

dinero. money. 

290. — With the verbs parecer, semejar, an infinitive may be 
used as predicative noun or adjective : 

Parecealejarselatempestad. The storm seems to be sub- 
siding. 

291. — In some cases the infinitive takes the place of the 
subjunctive forms : 
(a) With verbs meaning doubts disbeliefs negation^ fear : 

Dudo haberme expresado I doubt having expressed 

en tales terminos. myself in such terms. 

Dudo que el se haya ex- I doubt that he expressed 

presado en tales termi- himself in such terms. 
nos. 

Note that when the subject of the subordinate clause is 
not the same as that of the main clause the use of the 
infinitive is excluded. 

(i) With verbs meaning purpose ^ intention : 

Tambien deseo yo hacer I wish also to write another 

otra * Pepita Jimenez '. ' Pepita Jimenez '. 

Deseo que usted haga otra I wish you to write another 

* Pepita Jimenez '. ' Pepita Jimenez '. 

Asi pudiera cantar el ro- He might just as well be 

mance de Calainos ; que singing the ballad of Ca- 

todo fuera uno para su- lainos, for any good or 

cedernos bien o mal en ill that comes to us in 

nuestro negocio [para our business. (Ormsby's 

que nos sucediera . . .]. transl.) 
Cervantes. 

^ French metier ^ Italian mesttere, Portuguese mester. 



VERBALS 



209 



292. — To form a single grammatical element (whether 
object or subject), the infinitive combined with no and the 
definite article must be preceded by the no, which follows 
the article : 



El no saberlo yo fue la 
causa de la demora. 



My knowing it was not the 
cause of delay. 



My not knowing it was the 
cause of the delay. 

The sequence is of importance because its alteration 
changes the meaning of the sentence : 

No el saberlo yo fue la 
causa de la demora (el 
saberlo yo no fue la 
causa . . .) 

a. Note that constructions in which the infinitive takes 
a subject pronoun are rendered in EngHsh by means of the 
present participle preceded by the possessive adjective : 

El haberlo visto yo no es 

la unica prueba de su 

existencia. 
Todo lo que dices, Cipion, 

entiendo, y el decirlo tii 

y entenderlo yo me 

causa nueva admiracion 

y maravilla. 

Cervantes. 



My having seen it is not the 
only proof of its existence. 



I 



understand all that you 
say, Cipion, and your 
saying it and my under- 
standing it causes me 
fresh wonder and amaze- 
ment. 



Vocabulary. 



alia, adv.y there ; alia a su 
manera, in his own pe- 
culiar way. 

anadir, to add. 

aqui, adv,^ here ; de aqui,. 
hence. 

asegurar, to assure. 

beatitud,/., beatitude, holi- 
ness. 

bienaventuranza, /, bless- 
edness, holiness, rapture. 



campanula,/., small bell; 
de muchas campanulas, 
of great standing. 

cierto, adj,^ true ; adv.y cer- 
tainly. 

cifrar, to write in cipher; 
cifrar en, to place. 

confesar, to own, to con- 
fess. 

conforme con, in accord- 
ance with. 



2IO 



VERBALS 



criterio, m., judgment, stan- 
dard. 

chispa,/, spark. 

desconfiado, adj.y diffident. 

describir, to describe. 

discrete, adj\y discreet, wise, 
witty. 

duda,/., doubt. 

duque, m., duke. 

ejemplar, m,y copy, speci- 
men ; adj\y exemplary. 

elogio, m,y praise. 

embajador,;;^., ambassador. 

embromar, to tease, to 
annoy. 

embuste, m,y artful tale, lie. 

estampar, to print, to stamp. 

falso, adj.y false, untrue. 

forastero, m., stranger, 
visitor. 

guia, m, and /., guide, 
guide-book; guia de fo- 
rasteros, court guide, 
directory. 

inolvidable, adj\y unforget- 
table. 

inverosimil, or inverisimil, 
adj.y unlikely. 

jactarse, to boast. 

lance, w., incident, episode. 

licencia, /., leave, leave of 
absence, licence, permit, 
licentiousness. 

luengo, adj.y long (obsolete : 
used only in proverbs). 



lugarefio, m.y villager. 
malicioso, adj.y cunning. 
mandar, to send, to com- 
mand. 
mayordomo, m.y butler, 

majordomo. 
mentira,/, lie, untruth. 
monte, m.y mountain. 
nacimiento, m.y birth ; lu- 

gar de nacimiento, birth 

place, 
ofender, to offend. 
papel, m.y paper, part; 

hacer papel, to play 

a part. 
participar, to announce, to 

participate, to partake. 
pasmo, m.y wonder. 
prodigio, m,y prodigy, 
punta, /., point, sharp end 

of a thing, top. 
rayar en, to be near, to 

border on. 
referir, to relate. 
refrdn, m.y proverb, saying. 
registro, m.y register, mark, 

book-mark. 
suponer, to suppose, to 

presume. 
suposicion,/., supposition ; 

de gran suposicion, of 

great importance. 
tone, m.y tone, tune ; darse 

tono, to give one's self airs, 
via,/., way. 



293. — Conjugation of Caber, to be contained in (irregular). 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. Present. 

quepo quepa 

qtiepas 
quepa 



cabes 
cabe 





VERBALS 211 


cabemos 


quepamos 


cabeis 


quepdis 


caben. 


quepan. 


Past 


Past (ist and 2nd forms). 


cupe 


cupiese or cupiera 


cupiste 


cupieses or cupieras 


cupo 


cupiese or cupiera 


cupimos 


cupiesemos or cupiera 


cupisteis 


mos 


cupieron. 


cupieseis or cupierais 


Imperfect, 


cupiesen or cupieran. 


cabia, etc. {regular). 


Future, 


Future, 


cupiere 


cabre 


cupieres 


cabrAs 


cupiere 


cabrd 


cupieremos 


cabremos 


cupiereis 


cabreis 


cupieren. 


cabrdn. 


•f 




Imperative. 


Future in the past, 
cabria 


cabe (not used). 
cabed. 


cabrias 




cabria 


Past parliciple. 


cabriamos 


cabido. 


cabriais 


Present participle. 


cabrian. 


cabiendo. 



294. — Idiomatic phrases : 
Esto no cabe en lo posible. 

No cabe en si de gozo. 

No cabe duda. 
No cabe argiiir. 

No cabe en si. 

Aqui no quepo. 

No me cabe en la cabeza. 

Esto no reza conmigo. 
Asi reza el cuento. 



This is beyond all possi- 
bility. 
He is beside himself with 

joy- 
There is no room for doubt. 
There is no arguing. 
(He is full of conceit. 
I He cannot contain himself. 
There is no room for me 

here. 
Itdoesnotenter into my head 

(I do not understand it). 
That does not apply to me. 
So the story goes. 



p 2 



212 VERBALS 

Esta conforme coti la pro- He is agreeable to the pro- 

puesta. posal. 

Tomar el portante. To go away. 



Exercise. 

I A quien no le agrada, cuando Vuelve al lugar de su 
nacimientO; darse cierto tono, sin ofender a nadie, mani- 
festando cuan importante papel ha hecho en el mundo ? 

Gente hay que no espera para esto a ir a su lugar. 
Nacido en uno muy pequefio de Andalucia tuve yo cierto 
amigo que, como llegase a ser personaje de gran suposi- 
cion y de muchas campanillas, cifraba su mayor deleite en 
mandar a su pueblo todos los anos un ejemplar de la Guia 
de forasteroSf con un registro en las varias paginas en que 
estaba estampado su nombre. Un afio fue la Guia con 
ocho registros, y el pasmo de los lugarefios, participado 
por carta a mi amigo, le dio un contento que casi rayaba 
en beatitud o bienaventuranza. 

No es menor el gusto que se tiene en contar lances y 
sucesos y en describir prodigios. De aqui sin duda el 
refran : de luengas vias, luengas mentiras. Baste, pucs, 
decir, en elogio de D. Fadrique, que el refran no rezo 
con el nunca, porque era la verdad en persona. Lo que 
no aseguramos es que fuese siempre creido en cuanto 
refirio. Los lugarefios son maliciosos y desconfiados ; sue- 
len tener un criterio alia a su manera, y a menudo las cosas 
mas ciertas les parecen falsas o inverosimiles, y las 
mentiras, por el contrario, muy conformes con la verdad. 
Recuerdo que un mayordomo andaluz de cierto inol- 
vidable y discreto Duque, que estuvo de embajador en 
Napoles, fue a su pueblo con licencia. Cuando volvio 
le embrom^bamos suponiendo que habria contado muchos 
embustes. El nos confeso que si, y aun afiadio, jactandose 
de ello, que todo se lo habian creido, menos una cosa. 

— I Que cosa era esa ?, le preguntamos. 



VERBALS 213 

— Que cerca de Ndpoles, respondid, hay un monte que 
echa chispas por la punta. 

Conversation. 

I Como se da tono el viajero cuando vuelve al lugar de 
su nacimiento ? i Esperan siempre estas gentes volver 
a su lugar para darse tono ? ,i. En que cifraba su mayor 
deleite un personaje de gran suposicion nacido en un 
pequefio lugar de Andalucia? i Que poni'a en el ejemplar 
de la Gttia de forasteros que mandaba a su pueblo? i En 
que partes de la Guia ponia registros ? Cuando su nombre 
salio ocho veces en la guia i quienes fueron sorprendidos 
y quien recibio gran contento? ^ Hasta que punto llego 
el contento del personaje cuyo nombre habia sido estam- 
pado ocho veces en la Guia de forasterosl 

I Que quiere decir el refran : luengas viaSy luengas 
mentirasl (i^Tiene el hombre gusto en contar lances 
y describir prodigios? i Que refran o proverbio sale 
de aqui? ^Se usa todavia en espanol la palabra luengo 
en vez de largo ? i Contaba D. Fadrique historias que no 
fuesen ciertas ? i Creian las gentes todo lo que el referia ? 
^Como es, generalmente, el caracter de los lugarefios? 
I Como suelen parecerles las cosas mas ciertas ? i Creian 
los lugarefios todo lo que contaba el mayordomo del Duque ? 
I Cual era la cosa que encontraban inverosimil ? 

Translate. 

Una zorra' diviso^ varias aves de corraP que estaban 
en el gallinero^, y quiso acercarse a ellas con palabras 
enganosas^ ^Tengo', les dijo, 'excelentes noticias^ que 
comunicarles. Los animales han acordado la paz' uni- 
versal. Bajen a celebrar^ conmigo esta feliz determina- 
cion^'. Un gallo viejo, muy seguro de si^^, miro'^ a su 
rededor^^ cautelosamente ^^ sin responder una palabra. 
Notando la zorra la inquietud '* del gallo, le pregunto la 
causa ^^ 'No es nada', explicd el gallo; 'estaba viendo 



214 VERBALS 

que vienen hacia aca dos perros ^^ '. La zorra se prepare 
a tomar el portante. ' \ Que ! ', grito el gallo, ' i no han 
acordado los animales la paz universal ? * ' Si/ replico la 
zorra, 'pero es muy facil que esos perros no lo sepan 
tod a via.' 

1 fox. 2 noted, observed. ^ aves de corral, fowls (birds of the 
court-yard). * roost. ^ artful, misleading. ^ news. ' peace. 
8 celebrate. ^ decision, decree. i« seguro de si, on his guard. 

^^ looked. ^^ around. ^^ cautiously. '* uneasiness. ^^ cause. 
^^ dogs. 

Translate. 

Peter the Great and the Monk, 
Peter the Great ordered many foreign books to be 
translated ^ into the Russian '^ language, and among others 
Puffendorfs ' Introduction to the knowledge of the States 
of Europe*. A monk^ to whom the translation of this 
book was entrusted^ presented it sometime afterwards 
to the Emperor. The monarch examined the translation ; 
at a certain chapter ^ however, he suddenly^ changed 
countenance*^, turned indignantly^ to the monk and said : 
* Fool ^, what did I order thee to do ? Is this a transla- 
tion?' He then referred ^° to the original and showed^' 
the poor monk a paragraph in which the author had 
spoken with great asperity ^'^ of the Russians, but which had 
not been translated. ^ Go ', resumed ^^ the monarch ^*, ' and 
instantly ^'^ carry out^^ what I have bidden ^^ thee [to do]. 
It is not to flatter ^^ my subjects ^^ that I have ordered this 
book to be translated, but to instruct ^^ and reform" 
them.' 

1 ordered many . . . books to be translated, dispuso que se tradujeran 
muchos libros. ^ ruso, rusa. ^ monje. * to whom the 

translation was entrusted, a quien se le Confi6 la traducci6n. 
^ capitulo. ^ de repente. ' semblante, aspecto. ^ indignado, 
indignadamente. » necio. lo recurrio. ^^ mostr6 a. 

12 aspereza. ^^ continuo. '* monarca. ^^ sin demora. 

16 ejecuta. ^^ mandado. i« lisonjear. ^^ stibditos. 

20 instruir. ^i reformar. 



r 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 215 

XXIV 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 

295. — The active participle as it existed in Latin (vocans), 
and as it is still used in some Romance and Teutonic 
languages, has disappeared from Spanish. Words in 
■ante, -ente of verbal derivation, which are still called 
active participles by some grammarians, are mere adjec- 
tives, having lost all the characteristics of the verb : 

Actitud insultante, gober- Insulting attitude, outgoing 

nador saliente, ano en- governor, incoming year. 
trante. 

Es persona interesante. He is an interesting person. 

Labor persistente. Persistent work. 

a. Note that in some cases the ending of the verbal 
adjective in Spanish corresponds to that of its English 
equivalent : insistente (insistent), estudiante (student), 
ignorante (ignorant). 

b. They do not now admit of a subject or object as verbs 
and real verbals do. They do not refer to any special 
time and they change only to express plurality as do 
adjectives generally.^ 

296. — The gerund (gerundio), ending for the verbs of 
the first conjugation in -ando (habl-ando), and for those 
of the second and third in -iendo (tem-iendo, sub-iendo), 
is generally rendered by the English verbals ending 
in -mg: 

Y hablando asi conmovia And talking in this fashion, 
las multitudes. he used to move the 

crowds. 

1 Aves producientes cantos, fuente manante metres, expressions 
to be found in authors who wrote before the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, are now entirely out of use. Lugarteniente, poderliabiente, 
fehaciente, words in which the second element had a separate value as 
an active participle, are nowadays mere nouns. 



^i6 PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 

a. In sentences like this, the Spanish gerund takes the 
place of an adverb, and is often rendered in English by 
means of a preposition followed by the gerund or by an 
adverb equivalent : 

Termin6 diciendo que se He ended by saying that he 

habia equivocado. had made a mistake. 

Ensenando aprendemos. By teaching we learn (we 

learn while we teach). 

297. — The gerund ma}' take a subject and an object : 

Llegando mi amigo a la On reaching the square my 

plaza descubrio la vef- friend discovered the truth 

dad del suceso (mi amigo of the matter, 
is the subject of llegando). 

Teniendo Juan tanto dinero John having so much un- 

ocioso resolvio comprar productive cash made up 

valores del estado (Juan his mind to buy State 

subject, dinero object). securities. 

298. — The subject of the gerund is as a rule the subject 
of the principal sentence : 

Siguiendo tu consejo, trate Following your advice, I 
de evitar el peligro. tried to avoid the danger. 

With verbs of action the gerund may refer to the ob- 
ject : 

La vi segando las mieses I saw her mowing the ripe 

(yo la vi a ella segando wheat. 

las mieses). 
Le pillaron cambiando de He was caught while chang- 

vestido (EUos lo pillaron ing his dress. 

a el cambiando de ves- 

tide). 

299. — If the verb does not signify action or motion the 
present participle cannot be used with reference to the 
object : 

Puse hoy en el correo I posted to-day a parcel 
un paquete que contiene containing ten books. 
diez libros (not conte- 
niendo as is sometimes 
said). ^ 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 217 



300. — In some cases the gerund is used as a mere 
invariable adjective : 



Boiling water dissolves bora- 
cic acid more easily. 

A burning forest is a beauti- 
ful though sad sight. 



El agua hirviendo disuelve 

mejor el dcido borico, 
Un bosque ardiendo es un 

bello aunque triste es- 

pectdculo.^ 

301. — The gerund may take as an object the enclitic 
pronoun, which in this case forms a single word with it : 
Dejdndonos en la calle Leaving us in the street he 



penetro a sus aposen- 
tos. 
No logro convencerlos le- 
yendoles la carta. 



went into his rooms. 

He did not succeed in con- 
vincing them by reading 
the letter to them. 

302. — As regards time the gerund expresses either 
immediate priority to or coexistence with the action or 
state of mind implied by the principal verb of the sentence : 

Viendose perdidos, resol- Seeing that they were lost, 

vieron capitular (prio- they decided to capitulate. 

rity). 
Dando las once sali (co- 
existence). 
Dejando a un lado sus 

propios negocios em- 

pezo a ocuparse en 

organizar los ajenos 

(priority ; he first gave up 

his own affairs, and then 

attended to those of other 

people). 

303. — The gerund is often combined with the preposi- 
tion en with the meaning of as soon as : 

En llegando tratare de I shall try to see him as 
verle. soon as I arrive. 

^ A few gerunds in Spanish are used as nouns, having lost all the 
characteristics of the verb : multiplicando (factor), sumando (item of 
an addition), considerando (recital, in legal documents), educando 
(pupil, student), examinando (examinee). 



I went out on the stroke of 

eleven. 
Leaving aside his own affairs 

he began to busy himself 

with setting in order those 

of other people. " 



2i8 PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 



304. — It is to be noted that the EngHsh gerund when 
used as the subject of a sentence and having an object of 
its own is rendered in Spanish by the infinitive : 

Comer frutas verdes es Eating unripe fruit is bad 

nocivo para los nines. for children. 

Tirar de un pesado ca- Pulling a heavy carriage 

rruaje cuesta arriba es uphill is hard on a horse. 
duro para un caballo. 

305. — The present participle is frequently used in 
Spanish for the formation of the continuous tenses with 
estar: estoy escribiendo, I am writing; estuve aguar- 
dando toda la noche, I was waiting all night; no me 
dijo que estuviese pensando en mudarse, he did not tell 
me that he was thinking of moving. 

a. Yet the correspondence is not absolute in the use of 
these tenses in the two languages, because the continuous 
form has very often to be used in English to render the 
Spanish imperfect : 



Iba a pescar todas las 

mananas cuando vivia 

en el campo. 
Llovia a cdntaros cuando 

termino la conferencla. 
Iba camino de Madrid 

cuando le encontre por 

primera vez. 



I used to go a-fishing every 

morning when I was living 

in the country. 
It was pouring in torrents 

when the lecture finished. 
I was going to Madrid when 

I met him for the first 

time. 



b. The continuous construction is also used with ir, 
venir, andar, continuar, quedar, seguir, and a few other 
verbs the meaning of which implies motion : 
Iba predicando la nueva He went preaching the new 



ley por todas partes. 
Vino cabalgando un fa- 

moso corcel. 
Quedamos aguardando sus 

gratas ordenes. 
Si siguiera estudiando, po- 

dria hacer una brillante 

carrera. 



law in every direction. 
He came riding a famous 

courser. 
We remain in expectation 

of your kind orders. 
If he would go on studying 

he might be able to 

develop a brilliant career. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 219 



Continuaba el ocupdndose He was going on putting 
en poner orden en el things in order in the 
barrio. quarter. 

306. — The gerund is used as the ablative in Latin in 
absolute clauses of an explanatory meaning : 
No sabiendo el camino. Not knowing the way, he 



resolvio pasar la noche 
en la primer posada. 
Faltdndoles absolutamen- 
te los viveres se rindie- 
ron a discrecion. 



made up his mind to pass 
the night at the first inn. 
Being absolutely without 
provisions they surren- 
dered unconditionally. 



a. Note that in constructions of this kind, and in all those in 
which the gerund fulfils an adverbial function, the phrase is 
clearer and more elegant in Spanish when the gerund is put at 
the beginning: 



Tendiendo per el suelo unas 
pieles de ovejas, adereza- 
ron los cabreros su riistica 
cena.^ 



Spreading some sheep-skins 
on the ground, the goatherds 
served their rural supper. 



Vocabulary. 



agitarse, to bestir oneself. 
amo, m,) master. 
ansiar, to desire. 
bdrbaro, adj.y barbarous. 
callar, to be silent. 
canonigo, m.^ canon. 
criar, to breed, to rear, 
cuadrupedo, m.y quadruped. 
cuidar, to take care of. 
debil, adj.y weak. 
demds, adj., others, 
desvelarse, to keep awake, 

to be wakeful, 
dormir, to sleep. 
enfermo, adj\, ill, sick. 
esperanza,/, hope. 
estupido, ^^'., stupid, foolish. 



exdnime, adj\y without 
strength, exhausted. 

falda, /, lap, skirt ; perro 
de faldas, perro faldero, 
falderillo, lap dog, pet 
dog. 

fatigar, to tire. 

fatigarse, to get tired. 

freno, m., bridle, brake. 

hambre,/., hunger. 

intinio, adj.y deep, intimate. 

iniitii, useless. 

mal, m.y evil, disease ; mal 
de rabia, rabies, hydro- 
phobia. 

mandria, ;//., worthless per- 
son, poltroon. 



1 The construction : Los cabreros, tendiendo por el suelo, etc., is 
equally grammatical, but not so clear and easy. 



220 PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 



mendigo, m.y beggar, mendi- 
cant. 
metodo, m.y method, way. 
morir, to die ; morir de 

hambre, to starve, to die 

of hunger. 
ocio, m.y leisure, idleness, 
plan, m., plane, level surface. 
posada,/., inn. 
postrar, to prostrate; pos- 

trado, adj\y exhausted. 
principe, m.y prince. 
quebrantar, to vi^eaken ; 

quebrantarse, to weaken 

oneself. 
quitar, to take away, to 

remove. 
rabia,/, rage, wrath, rabies. 



replicar, to reply. 

repose, m.y repose, rest. 

revolcarse, to roll, to wal- 
low. 

riqueza,/., wealth. 

salud,/, health. 

semejante, adj.y such, simi- 
lar, resembling. 

sibaritico, adj,y sybaritic, 
effeminate. 

tabla,/., board. 

trabajar, to work. 

vago, adj\y idle, vacant, 
vague. 

venta,/., inn, sale. 

zdngano, m.y drone. 

zarandajas, /. />/., trifles, 
odds-and-ends. 



Exercise. 
La yegua y la faldera, 

Viajando dona Prdspera ^ 
con su yegua y su perra de faldas, 

llegaron cansadisimas 
por la noche a la venta o posada. 

Quitanle a la cuadrupeda 
silla, freno y demas zarandajas, 

y revuelcase comoda 
en un plan a nivel como tabla. 

— ' i Que bdrbara, qu6 estupida ! * 
la perrita le dijo al mirarla, 

'con semejante metodo 
se fatiga uno mas, se quebranta. 

Yo misma estoy exanime, 
aunque vine en las faldas de mi ama; 

mas dormire a lo principe 
y manana estare descansada.' 

— 'Calla, la otra replicale. 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 221 

Lo que postra es el ocio y las faldas : 

los zanganos son debiles ; 
solo aquel que trabaja, descansa. 

Viniste cual canonigo, 
y por eso te sientes postrada: 

yo a ti y a Dona Prospera 
traje encima y por eso estoy guapa. 

El trabajo es paz I'ntima, 
salud, fuerza, riqueza, esperanza; 

perros vagos o iniitiles 
mueren de hambre o les da mal de rabia. 

Si ansias reposo^ agitate, 
y desvelate y cuida la casa : 

la vida sibaritica 
cria enfermos, mendigos y mandrias.' 

R. POMBO. 



Conversation. 

iCon quien viajaba Dona Prospera? ^A que hora 
Uegaron a la posada? <:, Como llegaron ? ^Que le qui- 
taron a la cuadrupeda? ^ Que hizo la yegua cuando le 
hubieron quitado la silla y el freno ? i Donde se revolco ? 
^Que dijo la perra faldera al ver revolcar a la yegua? 
^i^Creia la perra que un caballo descansa revolcandose ? 
I Como se sentia la perra ? i Donde habia reposado ella 
durante el viaje? ^ Como pensaba dormir? ^j^ Estaria 
descansada al dia siguiente ? i Que le replico la yegua ? 
I Por que son debiles los zanganos ? ^ Se puede descansar 
sin haber trabajado antes ? i Quien trajo encima a Dona 
Prospera y a la perra faldera? Y, sin embargo, <[, quien 
estaba mas cansada, la perra o la yegua ? i Como decia 
sentirse la yegua ? iDe que mueren los perros vagos 

inutiles? ^ Que consejo le dio la yegua a la perra? 

1 Como acaban los que llevan vida sibaritica ? 



222 PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 

Translate. 

Meanwhile in France things moved (than) fast. By 
breaking down {suprimiendo) the division between its 
separate orders the States-General (Estados Generates) 
became a National Assembly, and abolished {abolieron) the 
privileges of the provincial parliaments, of the nobles, 
and the Church [Iglesia], In October the mob (las 
turbas) of Paris marched on Versailles and forced both 
King and Assembly to return with them to the capital, and 
a Constitution hastily put together [hecha de prisa) was 
accepted by Lewis the Sixteenth in the stead of his old 
despotic power. 

The words used in Spanish to translate the English 
nouns horse and mare are derived from Latin, but while 
the first was formed from low Latin [caballus) the second, 
or the feminine, can trace its origin back to equuSy the 
word for 'horse' in classical Latin. 

'Men who write Grammars do not suppose now that 
they can set up [erigtr] a model of speech, however much 
they may wish to do so. Hardly (apenas) any one [habrd 
quien), as a matter of fact [en efecto\ alters (subjunctive 
in Spanish, altere) his way of speaking because a Grammar 
tells him that this way is wrong {improprio^ incorrecto) 
and the other way is right [correcto). This would indeed 
be putting the cart [carreta) before the horse. A Grammar 
does not attempt [se propone) to teach people how they 
ought (deben) to speak, but, on the contrary, unless (a 
menos) it is a very bad or a very old work, it merely 
states (muestra, expone) how, as a matter of fact, certain 
people do speak at the time at which it is written.' 
(Henry Cecil Wyld.) 

Translate. 

— Dime, i que vamos a hacer esta noche ? 

— Por lo que hace a mi (so far as I am concerned) 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 223 

pienso quedarme en casa. He trasnochado (sit up all 
night, to go to bed very late) cinco veces esta semana y he 
menester una noche siquiera de verdadero reposo. 

— I Tienes alguna cosa especial que hacer ? 

— No precisamente ; es que estoy cansado (the fact is, 
I am tired). 

— Pero a lo menos (at least), podre gozar de tu compafiia 
(I shall be allowed to enjoy . . .). 

— Supongo que no me quieres soltar (to let go, let 
loose). 

— No de buena gana (willingly), a lo menos. 

— I Que te propones ? (What do you suggest ?). 

— Nada especial todavia. Por eso te preguntaba. 

— Al fin te haces entender (Now you are talking sense). 

— Suponte que fueramos al casino. 

— I A tomar vino o cerveza o algo peor ? No, gracias. 

— Hay concierto alli esta noche. 

— I Musica militar, cenas en mesitas aisladas ? Gracias, 
muchisimas gracias. 

— Entonces, vamos al teatro. 

— Eso depende. ^i^ Que dan (play) esta noche ? 

— Algo de Ibsen. 

— No es mi autor favorito. i Cual de sus dramas? 

— Me parece que han anunciado Los Aparecidos 
(Ghosts). 

— i Esa lamentable y dolorosa creacion ! 

— ti^ De suerte que la conoces ? i Ya la has visto repre- 
sentar ? 

— No, la he leido. 

— Si, veo que tienes aqui todas las obras de Ibsen; 
parece que no te disgustan (you do not dislike them), como 
lo dices. 

— Las leo para poder decir si me agradan o me cargan 
(bore). Otros las alaban (praise) sin conocerlas. 

— Y ^ que dices de Los Aparecidos ? 

— Lo que has oi'do, que es un drama triste, lamentable. 



224 PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND GERUND 

que no me gusta; aunque me parece la obra de un 
poderoso genio. 

— De modo que no vas a verla, 

— Si puedo evitarlo ([Not] if I can help it). 

— Pues, por desgracia (unfortunately) no tengo otra 
cosa que proponer. 

— Gracias a mi buena suerte me he escapado esta 
noche de que me saques a rodar por esas calles (to drag 
me about). 

— No te expresas en forma muy obsequiosa (compli- 
mentary) que digamos (to be sure). 

Exercise on the right use of the present participle 
amd gerund. 

Habiendo terminado ya la primera parte de su historia 
de los Otomies, creyo que podia descansar viajando por 
el centro de Mejico donde ellos habi'an resistido a Cortes 
y donde estan viviendo aun en contacto pacifico con otras 
razas. — Ensefiando aprendemos : en rigor, lo que apren- 
demos ensefiando es lo que mejor sabemos. — Hojeando 
(turning the leaves) un libro antiguo descubrio mi amigo 
inesperadamente una fecha que habia menester para 
terminar una conferencia que estaba preparando. — En 
llegando a casa les escribire a mis abogados (solicitors) 
que se entiendan (to come to an understanding) con los 
herederos (heirs) de Don Jeronimo. — Vi a la hija del Sefior 
Gonzalez pintando la tela que ha sido tan aplaudida en 
la presente exposicion (exhibition) de pinturas. — Este nifio 
estara dando que hacer al publico de aqui a diez afios 
(In ten years from now this boy will cause people to be 
interested in him). 



225 



XXV 

THE PAST PARTICIPLE AND PASSIVE 
VOICE 

307. — The past participle of the regular verbs ends in 
-ado or -ido : hablado, aprendido, recibido. 

a. The past participle, as we have already noted, is used in 
Spanish in the compound tenses (see §§ 66 b^ 'job, 72), formed 
with haber: ha hablado, hemes venido, cuando hubo 
salido, como hubieramos sabido. As a part of these 
verbal forms the past participle is in Spanish invariable : 
Lo habia conocido (masc.) ; no hemes estudiade la 
leccion (fem.) ; han pasade las vacacienes (fem. pi.), 
the holiday is over ; para maiiana habremos recibide les 
libros (masc. pi.), by to-morrow we shall have received the 
books. 

b. As already stated (see §§ 66d, 'j6), the compound tenses 
may also be formed with tener in a limited number 
of cases, and with this verb the past participle is not 
invariable : 

Tenge advertide que par- I have given notice that I 

tire mafiana. shall go out to-morrow. 

Tendre encuadernades I shall have my books 

mis libres el mes en- bound next month. 
trante. 

Tienen per ahera suspen- They have for the present 

dida la ejecucion de la suspended the carrying 

ebra. out of the wor k 

c. Verbs used intransitively cannot form their compound 
tenses with tener. 

308. — The past participle combined with the tenses of 
the verb ser enters into the formation of the passive voice 



226 



THE PAST PARTICIPLE 



in Spanish ; as such it agrees in gender and number with 
the noun to which it refers : 



The fort will be destroyed 
by the enemy. 

She was sentenced by the 
jury to a year of penal 
servitude. 

His past is known. 

The ladies will be called 
before the men. 



El fuerte serd destruido 

per el enemigo (masc. 

sing.). 
Fue condenada por el 

jurado a un ano de pre- 
sidio (fem. sing.). 
Son conocidos sus ante- 

cedentes (masc. pi.). 
Serdn llamadas las seno- 

ras primero queloshom- 

bres (fem. pi.). 

a. — The passive voice may also be expressed in Spanish 
by means of the verb estar in a limited number of cases : 

Esta terminado el juicio. The law suit is finished. 

Manana estard descifrado The enigma will be unra- 

el enigma. veiled to-morrow. 

I Estd abierta la carta? Is the letter open ? 

But here the past participle may be considered as a mere 
adjective. 

b. Similar sentences may be framed with quedar, to 
remain, to stay, and with llevar, to take to, to carry : 

Queda establecida la ver- 

dad de su declaracion. 
Lleva recorridas veinte 

millas. 



The truth of his statement 

is established. 
He has traversed twenty 

miles. 



309. — The pronominal form se of the third person is 
much used in Spanish to form the passive voice : 



Alii se pelea por la espada, 
aqui por el caballo. 

Se dice. 

Se nos dice. 

Se averigu6 que el error 

procedla de una palabra 

mal escrita. 
Se le di6 una hora de ter- 



There they fight (it is fought) 

for the sword, here for the 

horse. 
It is said. 
We are told. 
It was found out that the 

mistake originated in an 

ill-written word. 
An hour's time was given 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 227 

mino para contestar. him to answer. 

Se le concedio una audien- An audience was granted to 

cia. him (he was granted an 

audience). 
Se le (or la) dio una man- She was given an apple. 

zana. 

a. Passive constructions of this kind may take in Spanish 
as in Enghsh the active form by means of the third person 
plural of the respective verb : 

Dicen (se dice). They say (it is said). 

Nos dicen (se nos dice). They tell us (we are told). 

Averiguaron el error (se They found the mistake (the 

averiguo el error). mistake was found). 

Le dieron (or la dieron) They gave her an apple (an 

una manzana (se le dio apple was given her). 

una manzana). 

310. — Although the ordinary passive form la casa fue 
vendida (the house was sold) is perfectly grammatical and 
quite acceptable in Spanish, care should be taken not 
to use it too frequently, and instead one may have 
resource to the pronominal se : se vendio la casa ; se 
realizaron nuestras esperanzas, our hopes were fulfilled ; 
se nos espera ansiosamente, we are anxiously expected. 
Nuestras esperanzas fueron realizadas, somos espera- 
dos ansiosamente are expressions that cannot be con- 
demned from a grammatical point of view, but they should 
not be used very frequently, because they give an appear- 
ance of affectation or strangeness to the style. 

a. But there are cases in which the passive English con- 
struction cannot and must not be literally translated into 
Spanish. I am told, se me dice (never yo soy dicho). 
The reason is obvious. In the ordinary passive inversion 
the direct object becomes both in English and Spanish the 
subject of the verb, but the indirect object remains the same. 
Now in passive constructions like ' I am told a story ' the 
subject corresponds to the indirect object of the active 
sentence : * they tell me a story '. Le (or la) dieron una 

Q2 



228 THE PAST PARTICIPLE 

manzana is the ordinary active construction in Spanish. 
Turning it into the passive form we can say : le fue dada 
una manzana, but not : ella fue dada una manzana (as 
in EngHsh : 'she was given an apple 'y 

b: Phrases, then, in which the pronoun combined with se 
takes the form of an indirect object cannot be replaced by 
the ordinary passive construction with the past participle : 

Se me aconseja que aban- I am advised to relinquish 

done mis derechos en my rights in this competi- 

esta competencia. (Soy tion. 

acohsejado que ... 

would be ungrammatical.) 

Se me dice que espere. I am told to wait. 

c» If the pronoun combined with se is a direct object of 
the verb, both passive forms are acceptable, but the one 
with se is preferable when no ambiguity results from its 
use : 

Se me conoce muy bien en I am very well known in 

esta plaza (or soy muy this city. 

bien conocido en esta 

plaza). 
I Se me eye desde aqui ? Am I heard from here ? 

(or I soy oido desde 

aqui ?). 

d. The passive voice formed by means of the pronominal se 
has in Spanish an impersonal appearance, so that the verb may 
be used in the singular, although in the ordinary passive form 
the plural might be required : 

Se veia a los reyes sentados The kings were seen sitting 

en la tribuna. in the tribune. 

Se interrogarA a los testigos. The witnesses will be ques- 

(Serdn inter rogados los tes- tioned. 
tigos.) 

1 Even in EngHsh, according to Dr. Sweet, * we still hesitate over and 
try to evade such passive constructions as she was given a watch, he was 
granted an audience, because we still feel that she and he are in the dative, 
not the accusative relation.' — New English Grammar, Oxford, 1903, 
§ 2313- 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 229 

e. But when the object does not refer to human beings 
the plural is required : 
Se ven desde aqui las mon- The mountains separating 

tanas que separan a Eu- Europe from Asia are seen 

ropa de Asia. from here. 

Se podan los ^rboles en Trees are pruned when the 

menguante. moon is waning. 

/. As the preposition a in Spanish is used before an object 
noun to express personality/ the singular of the verb is used 
when the preposition intervenes in sentences of this kind with 
reference to things or animals : 
Alii se trata a las bestias Beasts are affectionately trea- 

con carino. ted there. 

g. On the other hand the plural may be used with reference 
to human beings when the preposition is dropped : 
Se ven los reyes en el ta- The kings are seen on the 

blade. . platform. 

Se distinguen desde aqui los The riders are distinguishable 

jinetes(or se distingue des- from here. 

de aqui a los jinetes). 

//. But care must be taken when using the plural in this kind 
of sentence to avoid the ambiguity that may result from 
the reflexive appearance of the form. Se ahorcaban los mal- 
vados means *the wicked hanged themselves', rather than 
* the wicked were hanged '. To express this last meaning the 
singular and the preposition should be employed : Se ahorcaba 
a los malvados.^ 

^ See § 202. 

2 The indeterminate pronoun uno, una may, in phrases such as these, 
take the place of se, and the substitution is very often useful to avoid the 
ambiguity arising from the reflexive appearance given to the sentence by 
the pronominal se. 

Se ven los reyes en el tablado might mean '■ the kings see themselves 
on the platform' or * the kings see each other on the platform'. To 
avoid confusion, uno or una may be adopted in an active and direct 
construction : 

Uno ve los reyes en el tablado. One sees the kings on the platform. 
Una (fern.) puededistinguir des- One can recognize the riders from 

de aqui los jinetes. here. 

In old Spanish texts hombte (man) is to be found instead of uno 
in reflexive sentences : 
El no maravillarse hombre de Not to be taken by surprise is 

nada, basta a darnos vida enough to lead an easy life. 

descansada (El no maravi- 
llarse uno de nada . . .). 



230 



THE PAST PARTICIPLE 



311.— Certain Spanish verbs may be used with the reflexiv© 
forms in sentences devoid of all reflexive meaning. Their use 
offers some difficulty to the English student : 



Yo me rio, el se rie, ellos se 

reian. 
Se rie D. Juan de todo, pare 

no niega nada. 
Me acuerdo, el se acuerda, 

no me acorde. 



I laugh, he laughs, they were 

laughing. 
D. Juan scoffs at everything, 

but denies nothing. 
I remember, he remembers, 

I did not remember. 



a. Compare the difference between acordarse and re 
cordar : 
Me acorde tarda. I 



remembered when it was 

late. 
I recall his voice and gesture. 
I told him to remind me. 
They could not then recall the 

details pf the event. 
He is trying to recollect. 
Kindly remember me to him. 



Recuerdo su voz y su gesto. 
Le dije que ma acordara. 
No se aisordaban ya de los 

pormenores del suceso. 
Est^ tratando de acordarse. 
Tenga la bondad de darle re- 

cuerdos de mi parte. 

b. Estarse, quedarse, irsa, marcharse, salirse are also 
reflexive in form but not in meaning : 

No sa astd quieto. He does not keep quiet. 

Se quadaron a obscuras. They remained in the dark. 

Se va (or samarcha) maiiana. He is going away to-morrow\ 

Se salio al preso. The prisoner escaped. 

c. Antojarse in the sense of /o long^ to yearn, to desire earnestly, 
takes in its conjugation the reflexive form, although in fact it is 
not a reflexive verb : ma antojo a vacas da comer frutas, 
I occasionally long to eat fruit ; ellos sa antojaron esa noche 
de ir al teatro, they were very desirous that night of going to 
the theatre ; los ninos se antojarian de esa golosina si la 
vieran, the children would long for that delicacy if they saw it. 

d. Antojar when meaning to fancy, to imagine, to believe, is 
not used in the first or second person : it can only be employed 
in the third person singular, like the impersonal verbs : 



Se me antoja que esta es una 
nueva broma da Pedro. 

Se les antojard que astamos 
busc^ndolos. 

Si sa ta antoja vanir manana, 
avisama. 



I fancy this is a new joke of 

Peter's. 
They will imagine that we are 

looking for them. 
If a fancy takes you to come 

to-morrow, please let me 

know. 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 231 

Como se le antoje a D*. Rosa If Doiia Rosa takes a fancy 
leer el libro tendre que to read the book I shall have 
ddrselo. to give it to her. 

e. The verb ser is sometimes used with the pronominal se to 
emphasize the meaning of the sentence : 

trase una viejecita sin na- There was once a little old 
dita que comer. lady who had nothing at all 

to eat. 

trase un hombre a una nariz There was once a man at- 
pegado. tached to a nose. 

/. With these verbs, which, though reflexive in form, are not 
really so in their meaning, the passive construction with se 
cannot be used in a general sense. It is correct to say : 

Se cree que la epidemia cede. It is believed that the epidemic 

is subsiding. 

But it would be ambiguous to write : 
Se imagina que nadar es One imagines that swimming 
muy fdcil. is very easy ; or, he imagines 

that swimming etc. 

To avoid ambiguity a subject must be used with these verbs, 
excluding the passive construction : 

Uno se imagina que nadar es 

muy fdcil. 
La gente se imagina que 

nadar es muy fdcil. 
Nos imaginamos que nadar 

es muy fdcil. 

g. When a predicative adjective is combined by means of se 
with verbs expressing existence, a subject noun or pronoun 
must be used to avoid ambiguity, even when the verbs are not 
reflexive in form : 

En Espafia se vive feliz is incorrect. We must say : En 
Espana uno vive feliz or La gente vive feliz en Espana 
(People live happily in Spain). 

312. — The past participle in its variable form is, like the 
gerund (see § 306), often found in absolute clauses : 

Terminados los prepara- Once the preliminaries 

tivos, se dio principio a ended, the work was be- 

la obra. gun. 

Concluida la cena, toma- When supper was finished 

mos el portante. we went out. 



^ People think that swimming 
is very easy. 



232 



THE PAST PARTICIPLE 



313. — The invariable form appears in absolute clauses 
with the past indicative or the present participle of haber : 

He presented his creden- 
tials as (soon as) he 
arrived. 

Having learned his inten- 
tions, we made up our 
minds not to associate 
any longer with him. 

a. Absolute clauses in which the variable form is com- 
bined with a preposition : 



Llegado que hubo, pre- 
sento sus credenciales. 

Habiendo conocido sus in- 
tenciones resolvimos no 
volver a asociarnos con 
el. 



Despues de oidas las 
partes resumio el juicio 
en pocas palabras. 

Luego de sabida la noticia 
se dispuso a partir. 

Antes de dadas las ocho 
ya estaba yo aqui. 



After having heard the 
parties he summed up the 
case in a few words. 

Just after hearing the news 
he made ready to leave. 

I was here before the stroke 
of eight. 



b. Instead of the participle the infinitive may be employed 
in these clauses, saying despues de oir, luego de saber, 
antes de dar. 

314. — Passive sense implied by the preposition para and 
the variable participle : 



No es para ignorada esta 
ingeniosa doctrina. 

No son para contadas 
todas mis tribulaciones. 



This ingenious doctrine 
should not remain un- 
known. 

They are not to be told, all 
my tribulations. 

In this case also the infinitive may take the place of the 
participle : No es para ignorar, no son para contar. 

315. — There are in Spanish a number of participles the 
meaning of which instead of being passive, as in ordinary 
use, is obviously active. Amado means the person or thing 
which is loved ; hallado the person or thing which is or 
has been found ; but agradecido means he who is grateful ] 
callado, he who keeps silent) cansado may mean tired (m a 
passive sense) : me ha cansado (he has tired me out), or 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 



233 



tiresome (in an active sense) : es un libro muy cansado (it 
is a tiresome book). Bebido may be the thing which has 
been drunk or the person who has drunk to excess ; 
atropellado, when used in a passive sense, means run 
over, but in an active sense it is the equivalent o{ pushing, 
hasty : 



El huesped estd bebido. 
Ha bebido mucho. 

No me gustan sus modales, 

es muy atropellado. 
Fue atropellado por un 

automovil. 
Mi perro es muy agrade- 

cido. 
Ha agradecido mis fa- 

vores. 
Es hombre callado. 

Ha callado parte de la 
verdad. 



The guest is tipsy. 

He has drunk a great deal. 

I do not like his manners, 
he is very pushing. 

He was run over by an 
automobile. 

My dog is very grateful. 

He has thanked me for the 
favours shown to him. 

He is a silent (not talkative) 
man. 

He has not told the whole 
truth. 



a. Nacido (born), muerto (dead), atrevido (daring) are 
participles of the type known as ' deponentes ' (deponent), 
because they are passive in form but active in meaning. 

316. — Contrary to the usage followed in the case of the 
other two verbals (infinitive and gerund) the past participle 
does not combine with the enclitic forms of the object pro- 
noun to form a single word with them. These forms pre- 
cede or follow the auxiliary verb : 



Me han llamado. 

Hanle ofrecido un empleo. 

Seanle muy agradecidos 

sus favores ! 
Te han incluido en la 

lista.^ 



They have called me. 
They have offered an office 

to him. 
May his favours be much 

appreciated ! 
You have been put on the 

list. 



1 The use of the enclitic forms with the past participle in absolute 
clauses is not recommended by good authors, but instances of this 



234 



THE PAST PARTICIPLE 



317. — The variable participle combined with ser, estar, 
parecer, may be considered as a predicative adjective and 
as such can be referred to only by means of the neuter 
forms of the pronouns : 



Parecen cansadas y lo 
estdn en realidad. 

^Estdn preparados los an- 
damios ? — Si lo estin. 

^Fue reconocida la deuda? 
— Lo fue. 



They seem tired, and so they 
are indeed. 

Isthe scaffolding prepared ? 
— Yes, it is. 

Was the debt acknow- 
ledged ? — It was.^ 



318. — Faltar, to be wanting, to be in need of^ to lack, to 
miss, is used in peculiar constructions, with an appearance 
of reflexiveness : 



Me falta un libro en mi bi- 

blioteca. 
Nos falta tiempo. 

Nos faltan tres libras 
esterlinas para pagar 
la cuenta del mes. 

Me falta dinero. 

Le falta su hermano. 



Poco falto 
cayera. 

I Son las 
poco. 



para que se 
diez ? — Falta 



A book is missing from my 

library. 
We have not enough time 

(We have no time). 
We are short of £3 to pay 

the monthly bill. 

I am in need of money. 
He misses his brother (He 

is missing his brother). 
He nearly fell. 

Is it ten o'clock? — Short 
of it. 



a. The pronoun used with this verb is always an in- 
direct object, me, nos, le. The noun following the verb 

construction are found, though they are not frequent : Respondio . . . 
que, impuestales la penitencia, podrian ser recibidos : He answered 
that, once the penance was imposed on them, they might be received. 

^ It is to be observed that the use of the participles both present and 
past in Spanish has, to some extent, closer affinities with English usage 
than with the construction followed in the other Romance languages, 
notwithstanding the fact that the actual English ending of the present 
participle is not a participial inflexion but a noun-suffix. 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 



235 



looks like a direct object, but is in fact a subject, because 
the verb must agree with it : 

A Juan no le faltan rique- John does not lack riches or 

zas ni honores. honours. 

A ellos les falto paciencia They had no patience that 

ese dia. day. 

Vocabulary. 



acontecer, to happen. 

agasajar, to receive and 
treat kindly. 

Alberto Magno, Albertus 
Magnus^ Albert the Great. 

Alemania,/, Germany. 

aspecto, m.y aspect, appear- 
ance, view. 

atraer, to attract, to draw. 

cabana,/., hut. 

cielo, m., heaven. 

constelacion, /., constella- 
tion. 

descuido, m.^ neglect, care- 
lessness. 

desear, to wish. 

disposicion, /, disposition, 
inclination. 

gratitud,/, gratitude, thank- 
fulness. 

madera,/, wood. 

mdgico, adj. J magic. 



maravilloso, adj,^ wonder- 
ful, marvellous. 

peregrinacion, /, peregri- 
nation, pilgrimage. 

pescado, w., caught fish. 

pescador, m., fisher. 

pez, m.y fish in general. 

pico, m., small amount, odd; 
seis mil y pico de anos, 
six thousand years odd ; 
(of birds) beak, bill. 

planeta, m.y planet. 

ponderar, to extol, to exag- 
gerate. 

red,/, net. 

responder, to answer, to 
reply. 

rogar, to pray. 

signo, m.^ sign, signal. 

virtud, /, virtue, force, 
quality. 



Idiomatic expressions. 



escaleras arriba, upstairs. 

escaleras abajo, down- 
stairs. 

Me doy por vencido, I give 
up, I surrender. 

No puedo mas, I can do no 
more. 

No pudo menos de llorar, 



she could not help cry- 
ing. 

Dos de las ventanas dan 
a la calle, two of the 
windows face the street. 

Yo no me meto con usted, 
I do not want to have 
anything to do with you. 



236 



THE PAST PARTICIPLE 



Dar en el bianco, to hit the 

mark. 
Ese traje le sienta bien, 

that dress suits her well. 



No me importa eso, I do 

not care for that. 
No importa, ya estd dicho, 

never mind, it is said now. 



319." Conjugation of Traer, to bring to^ to carry to 
(irregular). 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


Present, 


Present, 


traigo 


traiga 


traes 


traigas 


trae 


traiga 


traemos 


traigamos 


traeis 


traigais 


traen. 


traigan. 


Past. 


Past (istform). 


traje 


trajese 


trajiste 


trajeses 


trajo 


trajese 


trajimos 


trajesemos 


trajisteis 


trajeseis 


trajeron. 


trajesen. 


Imperfect, 


Past (2nd form). 


traia, etc. {regular) 


trajera 




trajeras 




trajera 




trajeramos 




trajerais 




trajeran. 


Future, 


Future. 


traer6, etc. (regular) 


trajere 




trajeres 


Future in the past. 


trajere 


traeria, etc. (regular). 


trajeremos 




trajereis 




trajeren. 


h 


MPERATIVE. 




trae 




traed. 


Past participle. 


Present participle. 


traido (regular). 


trayendo (regular). 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 237 

a. Note the difference between traer and llevar : 

Tr^igame un libro. Bring me a book. 

Traiga agua para estos ninos. Bring water to these children. 

Lleve este dinero al Banco. Take this money to the Bank. 

Lleve a mi hermano con Take my brother with you. 

usted. 

El viento se llev6 las cartas. The wind carried away the 

letters. 

b. Traer means to bring a thing to a place near the person 
who is speaking : llevar is to take to a place distant from the 
person who is speaking. Ir a traer means to fetch. Vaya 
a traer agua para el enfermo, fetch some water for the patient. 
Argumento muy llevado y traido, a very trite argument ; a most 
commonplace suggestion. 

Exercise. 

Cuentan de Alberto Magno que, yendo en peregrinacion 
de Roma a Alemania, paso una noche a las orillas del 
Po, en la cabana de un pescador. Agasajado alli muy 
bien, quiso el doctor probar su gratitud al huesped y le 
hizo y le dio un pez de madera, tan maravilloso que, 
puesto en la red, atraia a todos los peces vivos. No hay 
que ponderar la ventura del pescador con su pez magico. 
Cierto dia, con todo, tuvo un descuido y el pez se le 
perdio. Entonces se puso en camino, fue a Alemania, 
busco a Alberto y le rogo que le hiciese otro pez semejante 
al primero. Alberto respondio que lo deseaba ; mas que 
para hacer otro pez que tuviese todas las virtudes del 
antiguo, era menester esperar a que el cielo presentase 
identico aspecto y disposicion en constelaciones, signos 
y planetas, que en la noche en que el primer pez se hizo, 
lo cual no podia acontecer sino dentro de seis mil y pico 
de afios. J. Valera. 

Conversation. 

^Quien iba en peregrinacion de Roma a Alemania? 
I Donde paso la noche ? i Que es una cabana ? i Cerca de 
que rio quedaba la cabana del pescador ? i Como fue 



238 THE PAST PARTICIPLE 

tratado Alberto Magno por el pescador? ^i^ Por que quiso 
el Doctor probar su gratitud ? i Que le dio al huesped ? 
,1, De que estaba hecho el pez ? i Por que atrai'a los otros 
peces ? I Como llama usted en espafiol el tejido que usan 
los Pescadores para coger pescado ? i Quedo contento el 
pescador con el regalo (present) ? ^i^'Como perdio el pesca- 
dor su pez de madera? (i. Que hizo entonces ? ^Que le 
pidio a Alberto ? ^ Que respondio Alberto ? Si deseaba 
hacer otro pez semejante al primitivo ^por que no lo 
haci'a ? I Que debia haber en el cielo para que fuera posible 
hacer el pez ? i Dentro de cuanto tiempo volverian a pre- 
sentarse las constelaciones en el mismo aspecto que teni'an 
la noche en que el Doctor hizo el primer pez ? 

Translate. 

La pequefia ciudad esta por todas partes circundada^ 
de huertas^ Muchas sendas^ la cortan* en diversas 
direcciones. A un lado y otro ^ de cada senda hay una 
cerca^ de granados"^, zarza-moras ^, mimbres^'y otras 
plantas. En muchas sendas hay un arroyo^^ cristalino 
a cada lado ; en otras un solo arroyo. Todas ellas gozan ^^, 
en primavera, verano y otono ^^, de abundante sombra ^^, 
merced a ^^ los alamos ^^ corpulentos ^^ y frondosos ^^ no- 
gales *^, y demas arboles de todo genero que en las huertas 
se crian. 

La tierra^* es alli tan generosa ^^ y feraz ^\ que no puede 
uno imaginarse el sinnumero ^^ de flores ^^ y la masa de 
verdura^* que ciiien^^ las margenes^^ de los arroyos, espar- 
ciendo ^^ grato y campestre ^^ aroma. Campanillas '^'^y mos- 
quetas ^^, violetas ^^ moradas ^^ y blancas, lirios ^^ y marga- 
ritas ^* abren alli sus calices ^^ y lucen ^^ su hermosura ^'^, 

El soP^ radiante'*^, que brilla'^^ en el cielo despejado ''^ 
y dora ^"^ el aire diafano *\ hace mas esplendida la escena ^*. 
Increible ^^ multitud de pajaros la anima *^ y alegra con 
sus trinos^"^ y gorjeos^^ En Andalucia, huyendo de la 
tierra de secano^'-^, buscando el agua y la sombra, se 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 239 

refugian ^^ las aves en estos oasis de regadio '^ donde hay 
frescura^^ y tupidas'^^ enramadas'^\ 

Tales eran los sitios ^'^ por donde paseaba el Comendador 
con las dos bonitas muchachas ^^ Apenas salieron ^^ de la 
poblacion ^^ tomaron la senda que llaman del medio. Ellas 
cogi'an floreS; se deleitaban oyendo cantar los colorines^^ 
o reian^^ sin saber de que. El Comendador meditaba, 
senti'a gran bienestar *^^, gozaba de todo, aunque mas tran- 
quilamente ^^ que ellas. J. Valera. 

1 surrounded. ^ vegetable gardens, irrigated land. ^ path. 

* cross. ^ on both sides. ^ fence. "^ pomegranate tree. 

^ bramble-berry. ^ osier. ^^ brook. ^^ enjoy. ^^ autumn. 

^^ shade. ^* owing to. ^^ poplar. ^^ stout, huge. ^^ leafy. 

1^ walnut-tree. '^ earth. 20 generous. 21 fruitful, fertile. 

22 immeasurable amount. ^s flower. 24 mass of verdure. ^^ to 

gird. 26 bank. 27 spread. 28 ymvsI. 29 bell-flower. ^^ musk- 
rose. ^1 violet. 32 purple. ^^ lily. *' daisy. ^ 



rose. 31 violet. ^2 purple. ^3 jjiy^ 81 daisy. ^5 ealyx. 

36 display. ^7 beauty. ^8 sun. '"^ radiant, brilliant. ^^ shine. 
^^ clear. •*2 gild, tinge with gold. ^3 diaphanous. ^* scene. 

^^ incredible. ^^ encourages. '''' trill. *^ chirp. *^ unirri- 

gated land. ^^ take refuge. ^^ irrigation. ^2 coolness, ^3 leafy. 
^^ groves. ^^ sites. ^^ girl. ^"^ they had just gone out of. 

^8 village. ^^ linnet. ^^ laugh. ^^ comfort, well-being. 62 j^ 

a more quiet manner. 

Translate. 

— How do you do?^ Allow me to introduce D. Pedro 
Gonzalez Ri'os from Saragossa. 

— I am much pleased to see you. 

— Where can we leave our horses ? 

— The hotel porter will take care of them. Robert, 
take these horses to the stablest Tell the stableman^ to 
give them plenty* of hay^, but no oats%- they must be tired. 

— Yes, sir. At what time shall I have them ready '^ ? 

— You need not trouble.^ We are going back to town 
in our motor car. Well, gentlemen^, now we must go 
into the lounge ^^ and have a good cup " of coffee. This 
place is supposed to be very good for the purpose. 



240 THE PAST PARTICIPLE 

— Very many thanks. We were beginning to feel really 
hungry. 

— In that case you would like, perhaps, to have some- 
thing more substantial. Would you like to add a couple ^'^ 
of eggs, ham ^^ and tomatoes ^* to our frugal lunch '^ ? 

— They would not do any harm. 

— Do they make butter ^^ and cheese ^'^ in this neighbour- 
hood ? 

— Yes, there is a co-operative dairy ^^ Every farmer ^^ 
milks ^'' his own cows^^, but at eight o'clock every morning 
the co-operative carts pass along and take all the milk^^ 
to the great dairy, where it is duly handled '^^ by experts^* 
and made into ^^ butter and cheese by means of scientific 
and very inexpensive ^^ proceedings ". 

— The villagers ^^ should be grateful to the men who 
organized ^**^ this great dairy on the trade union system ^^ 

— Yes, they ought to be ; but they think that the profits ^^ 
might be increased by a more careful management ^^ 

1 ^Como estd usted ? 2 caballerizas. ^ mozo de cuadra, 

caballerizo. * bastante, harto. ^ heno. ^ avena. "^ listo. 
8 No te afanes. ^ senores, caballeros. ^^ salon de hotel. 

11 taza. 12 par. 13 jamon. ** tomate. ^^ almuerzo. 

>6 mantequilla or manteca de vaca. ^^ queso. ^^ lecheria 

cooperativa. ^^ dueno de cortijo. 20 ordena. 21 vacas. 

22 leche. 23 debidamente tratada. 24 peritos. 25 convertida. 
26 barato. 27 procedimiento. 28 aldeanos. 29 organizar. 

30 sistema cooperativo. ^^ ganancias. ^2 administracion. 

Exercise on the Passive Voice. 

Son conocidas sus intenciones. Se sabe lo que desea. 
No han sido vendidos los libros de D. Inocencio todavia. 
Se ha esperado hasta hoy para dar la orden de embarque. 
Fue destruida por los enemigos gran parte de la ciudad. 
La parte mas graciosa de la costa se ve desde aqui. No 
se diga (it must not be said) que nosotras no la respetamos. 
Sus obras han sido traducidas a todas las lenguas europeas. 
Se conjetura (conjecture) que la familia sabe ya la noticia; 



AND PASSIVE VOICE 



241 



pero se cree que cllos tienen esperanza de que no sea 
cierta (true). Se dice que habra crisis ministerial al 
abrirse las Cortes (Spanish Parliament). No se 01a, 
donde nosotros estabamos, nada de lo que decia el orador. 
Se camina (travel) por sierras fragosas (craggy, rough hills) 
tres di'as antes de llegar a la hermita (hermitage). Se da el 
algodon (cotton grows or is grown) en los valles templados 
y humedos de la zona torrida (torrid zone). Se cultivaba 
la patata entre los indios al tiempo del descubrimiento. 



XXVI 

THE PLACE OF THE OBJECT PRONOUNS 
IN THE SENTENCE.— THE ARTICLE.— 
INTERJECTIONS 

320. — The object pronouns me, te, le, lo, la, se, nos, 
OS, les, los, las, when combined with each other and with 
a verb, follow precise rules as to the order of the sentence. 

a. The form se must be placed before any other form, 
whether preceding or following the verb : 

I am told. 

You will be duly informed. 



su 



Se me dice. 

Se te informara 

tiempo. 
Se les deja en libertad de 

elegir. 
Se OS ve muy de tarde en 

tarde. 

Se les dara tiempo de ma- 
durar el negocio. 

Digaselo. 

Traigaseme lo que he pe- 
dido. 

Olvidarasete mi nombre 
antes de poco (the form 
* Se te olvidara' is pre- 
ferable). 



They are free to choose. 

You are quite a stranger. 
(One sees you only once in 

a long time.) 
Time will be given to them 

to think the matter over. 
Tell it to him. 
Let what I have asked for 

be brought to me. 
You will have forgotten my 

name before long. 



242 PLACE OF OBJECT PRONOUNS 



b, Te and its plural os precede all other forms except 



se: 

Te lo dirdn (or dirintelo). 
Te me vienes con un palo. 

Te nos vendes por amigo 

y no eres creido. 
Os lo comprardn sin duda. 

c, Le, lo, la, les, los, las 

Me lo ensefia el curso na- 
tural del raciocinio. 

Me le dirds que no he 
recibido carta suya hace 
dos semanas. 

Ensenamelo. 

Digasemele (not often used 

out of the grammars). 
Os lo presto. 
Dejamelo. 



They will tell it to you. 
You come against me with 

a club. 
You pose as our friend and 

you are not believed. 
No doubt they will buy it 

from you. 

take the last place. 

The natural course of reason- 
ing shows it to me. 

You will please tell him forme 
that I have not had any 
letter from him for 
weeks. 

Show it to me, please. 

Let him be told it on 
account. 

I lend it to you. 

Leave it to me. 



two 



my 



The Use of the Definite Article. 

321. — The two languages differ somewhat in the use 
of the definite article, although the general rule stating 
that 'the definite article is placed before a noun to show that 
the idea expressed by the noun has been already stated ' 
is applicable both to English and Spanish. ' Thus in the 
fable of the wolf and the dog the two animals are intro- 
duced at first as un lobo and un perro (a wolf, a dog), 
and are then spoken of as el lobo, el perro (the wolf, the 
dog) : una noche di6 un lobo con un perro ; el lobo era 
todo huesos y pellejo, mientras que el perro estaba tan 
gordo como era posible estarlo ' (one night a wolf fell in 
with a dog ; the wolf was all skin and bones, while the 
dog was as fat as he could be). 

322. — Yet there are in Spanish a considerable number 
of exceptions to this rule. 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 



243 



a. Nouns used in the fullest extent of their meaning 
require the article as a rule : 



El deber primero, la di- 
version despues. 

La verdad prevalecera al 
fin. 

El precio de la plata sube 
cuando baja el del oro. 

El temor es mal conse- 
jero. 

Ama la gloria. 



Duty before pleasure. 

Truth will at last prevail. 

The price of silver rises 

when that of gold falls. 
Fear is a bad adviser. 



He loves glory. 

b. Yet the names of material things when taken in a 
general sense may be used without the article : 

Entra agua per la ventana. Water is coming in through 

the window. 
Ruedan piedras y lode Stones and mud are rolling 

montana abajo. downhill. 

AUi se encuentra oro, pla- Gold^ platinum and precious 

tino y piedras preciosas. stones are found there. 

c» To designate the hour, the day of the week, the day 
of the month, or the number of the year the article is 
generally used : 



My friend arrives at one 

o'clock. 
They close at twelve on 

Saturdays. 
Herbirthdayis on August 27. 

I met him (made his ac- 
. quaintance) in 1912. 

d. Before nouns expressing titles the article is required : 



Llega mi amigo a la una. 

Cierran los sabados a las 

doce. 
Su cumpleanos es el 27 de 

Agosto. 
Le conoci el ano 1912. 



El Emperador Carlos V. 

La reina de Inglaterra. 
El Alcalde de Valladolid. 
Los Condes de Florida- 

blanca. 
El seiior Romero. 



The Emperor Charles the 

Fifth. 
The Queen of England. 
The Mayor of Valladolid. 
The Counts of Florida- 

blanca. 
Mr. Romero. 



R 2 



244 ^HE DEFINITE ARTICLE 

e. No article is put before Don, Dona, Fray, San or 
Santo ; nor before Sefior when the person to whom it 
appHes is directly addressed : 

Sefior Uricoechea, ^sabe Do you know, Mr. Urico- 

usted quien estuvo aqui echea, who was here this 

esta manana ? — No, Don morning? — No, Don Ri- 

Ricardo, no lo se. cardo, I don't know. 

Estimado sefior y amigo : My dear Sir : . . , 

Dofia Mercedes Ruiz vive Dona Mercedes Ruiz lives 

cerca de San Francisco. near San Francisco. 

Fray Bartolome de las Fray Bartolome de las 

Casas fue llamado el Casas was called the 

Apostol de Indias. Apostle of the Indies. 

Estoy leyendo la vida de I am reading the life of Saint 

San Marcos. Mark. 

/. Yet with the names of the old patriarchs the article is 
still often used before Santo: El Santo Job; also when 
Santo precedes another title : El Santo Apostol, el Santo 
Rey. 

g. With the names of rivers and mountains the article is 
generally required : el Tigris y el Eufrates, el Tdmesis, 
el Orinoco, jel Chimborazo, la Silla, las Alpujarras, los 
Andes. 

h. Adjectives in the neuter gender used as nouns must 
necessarily have the article : 

Lo bueno de la historia es The best of the story is that 

que pasa en nuestros it happens in our time. 
dias. 

Me gusta lo antiguo, pero I like the antique, but I do 

no desecho lo moderno. not reject modernity. 

' /. Compare the following expressions : 

Hablo espanol. I speak Spanish. 

Cuando sepas hablar el When you know how to 

castellano. talk Castilian. 

Habla y escribe ingles (or He speaks and writes 

el ingles). English. 

^. In the formation of the genitive case one of the 
articles is dropped ih English when the sign of the 



ft 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 245 



genitive is used. The Spanish genitive case always requires 
the article : 

El padre de la nina esta de The girl's father has re- 

vuelta. turned. 

El regimiento del rey paso The king's regiment passed 

esta mafiana por aqui. here this morning. 

323. In the following instances the article is not required : 

a. Before proper names : 

Roberto Gonzalez, de Me- Roberto Gonzalez of Mexico 

jico, es dueno de esta owns this property. 
hacienda. 

Juan XXII fue portugues John XXII was a native of 

de nacion. Portugal. 

b. The article placed before proper names of persons, 
especially in the masculine, gives an unfavourable sense : 

Aqui estuvo el Perico esta That fellow Peter was here 

manana. this morning. 

La Isabel y la Juana com- Elizabeth and Jane appea- 

parecieron ayer ante el red yesterday before the 

juez. judge. 

c. The feminine article used with the names of actresses 
does not necessarily imply disrespect. Between members 
of a family it may be a term of endearment : 

Oi cantar a la Rosa en el I heard Miss Rosa sing at 

Real. the Royal Theatre. 

La Pepita llega hoy. Pepita arrives to-day. 

d. The plural article is used with family names as in 
English : Los Perez, los Cordovas, los Osorios y Onates 
y Mendinuetas y Gamboas. Las Caicedos (the Misses 
Caicedo). With a few famous old Italian family names 
the article is used in Spanish : el Tasso, el Ariosto, el 
Ticiano, el Petrarca. Not el Dante, because Dante is a 
Christian name. 

e. Proper names of countries, towns, or islands do not 
take the article as a rule : 

Este libro trata de This book deals with 
America. America. 



246 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 



Conozco a Venezuela, I know Venezuela, I am 

vengo de China, perma- on the way from China, I 

necere en Irlanda hasta shall stay in Ireland until 

conocerla mejor. I know it better. 

/. Proper names preceded or followed by an adjective or 
adjective equivalent take the article : 



El sencillo Don Antonio 

(or El sencillo de Don 

Antonio) consintio en 

dar su firma. 
La buena Maria le acom- 

pano hasta que salio del 

hospital. 
La Venezuela de hace 

cuarenta anos pocos 

saben lo que era. 
El Ramirez de que usted 

me habla debe haber 

partido. 
La Atenas de Pericles no 

se parece a la Atenas 

de hoy. 



Simple Don Antonio 
sented to sign. 



con- 



Good Mary accompanied 

him until he left the 

hospital. 
Eew people know what 

Venezuela was like forty 

years ago. 
The Ramirez you mention 

must have left. 

The Athens of Pericles is 
not like the Athens of to- 
day. 



g, A few names of towns and countries require the 
article : La Habana (Havana), La Coruiia (Corunna), el 
Ferrol, el Callao, La Plata, el Paraguay, el Peru, el 
Canada, los Estados Unidos (United States), el Ecuador, 
el Brasil, el Uruguay, el Congo, el Japon, and most of 
those in which an adjective forms part of the geographical 
denomination : la Nueva Guinea, la Guayana Inglesa, la 
America Meridional, los Paises Bajos, la Republica 
Argentina or la Argentina. Yet we say Costa Rica. 

h. One may say Egipto or el Egipto, China or la China, 
Indostdn or el Indostdn. The article is sometimes inter- 
polated by slovenly writers before nouns like Francia, 
Espana, Inglaterra, Suecia, etc. : this inelegant practice 
cannot be justified on the ground of good usage or addi- 
tional clearness. 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 



247 



i. In the case of vocatives or exclamations the noun 
takes no article : 



. donde vive 



Condesa, 

usted ? 
Venerables hermanos, la 

fiesta ha terminado. 
I Mala manera de acabar ! 

k. Nouns in apposition do not take the article unless it 
forms part of the noun : 



Countess, where 

live ? 
Venerable brothers, 

feast is at an end. 
A bad endinof ! 



do you 
the 



La serrana, joven de buen 

mirar. 
La suficiencia, defecto 

capital del sabio a 

medias, lo habia hecho 

antipatico. 
Napoleon, dueno de la 

mayor parte de Europa, 

era mds vulnerable que 

el Primer Consul.^ 
Lope de Vega, el Fenix de 

Ids ingenios. 

/. Predicative nouns may be used without the article : 

Es animal peligroso de las 
selvas americanas. 

Esc son tortas y pan pin- 
tado. 

Es medico de pocas luces 
y cirujano de mucha san- 
gre fria. 



The highland girl, a young 
woman of good looks. 

Self-assertion, the main fault 
of the mediocre scholar, 
has made him displeasing. 

Napoleon, the master of the 
greater part of Europe, 
was more vulnerable than 
the First Consul. 

Lope de Vega, a Phoenix 
amongst the men of genius. 



It is a dangerous animal of 

the American forests. 
All that is trifling. 



He is a doctor of scanty 
knowledge and a surgeon 
with much presence of 
mind. 



m. Nouns following a preposition in proverbial or every- 
day phrases do not, as a rule, take the article : 

A fuerza de sufrimientos. By dint of sufferings. 
A sangre y fuego. By fire and sword. 

1 Yet, when the noun in apposition is qualified by an adjective in the 
superlative degree, the article is required as in English : 
Shakespeare, el m^s excelso Shakespeare, the most sublime of 

de Ids poetas dramdticos. dramatic poets. 

Tu, el mejor de los amigos. You, the best of friends. 



248 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 

A campo traviesa. ^ Across the fields. 

Bajo pena de multa. Under penalty of a fine. 

Con razon o sin ella. Rightly or wrongly. 

De higos a brevas. Now and then. 

De sabios es mudar de Wise men change their 
opini6n. opinion easily. 

En tierra de cristianos. In a Christian land. 

Entre lobo y can. Doubtful (between wolf and 

dog). 

Entre manos. In hand, at hand. 

Para verdades el tiempo. With time the truth will 

leak out. 

Per mar y por tierra. By sea and land. 

Per amor de Dios. For goodness' sake. 

A ciencia y paciencia de He carried out his plan in 
las autoridades llevo a the face and with the 
cabo su plan. connivance of the autho- 

rities. 

m Yet we say por la razon o la fuerza, by right or 
might, contra la fuerza no hay valor, courage avails 
nothing against force. 

0. When, depending on a verb, one of these phrases 
refers to a noun the article is necessarily excluded : 

Por razon de su enferme- He was discharged on ac- 

dad lo licenciaron. count of illness. 

A causa de la demora 3e The performance was dis- 

suspendio la represen- continued on account of 

tacion. the delay. 

/. According to Cuervo 'it is contrary to the genius 
of the language to use the article after a when this prepo- 
sition is used to signify instrumentality \ 

Trabajado a cincel. Chisel work. 

Duelo a espada. Duel with the sword. 

q. The employment or the absence of the article may 
give a different meaning to the phrase : 

Esta en cama Luis. Lewis is ill in bed. 

Luis esta en la cama. Lewis is in bed. 

Da la razon de su dicho. He gives a reason for his 

sayings. 



INTERJECTIONS 



249 



Dio razon de su fortuna. 



He rendered account of his 
fortune (figuratively ; he 
squandered his fortune). 



r. Note the following idiomatic expressions where the 
article is omitted : 



Voy a casa. 
Sale de casa temprano. 
Estd siempre en casa. 
Anda per casa de D^ 

Mercedes. 
Va de caza. 



I am going home. 
He goes out early. 
He is always at home. 
He is at Dona Mercedes*. 

He is going hunting. 



Interjections. 

324. — The following are the most usual interjections in 
Spanish. They have no meaning outside their interjec- 
tional ones : 



Oh ! i Ah ! 

Ay! 

Ha! 

Ea ! (encourgaement). 

Huy ! 

Ole ! i Hola ! 

Puf ! (aversion). 

Bah ! (contempt, affected 

surprise). 
i Ca ! i quid ! 



Oh ! Ah ! 
Oh ! alas ! ah ! 
Ha! 

Come on ! 
Be careful. 
Halloo ! 
Ugh! Fie! 
Pshaw ! 



To express 
contradict. 



doubt or to 



325. — Some words of independent meaning are used as 
interjections : 



; Cielos ! 
; Dios mio ! 
i Ojala ! 
I Vaya ! 
i Toma ! 
i Anda ! 
I Dale ! 



Heavens ! 
Dear me ! 
Would to heaven ! 
Well ! really ! 
Indeed ! 
Go ! go away ! 
So ! Again ! 



250 



INTERJECTIONS, etc. 



326. — Adjectives used as interjections require the prepo- 
sition de after them : 

I Pobre de mi ! Ah me ! Poor me ! 

I Desgraciado de ti ! Unfortunate that you are ! 



i Necio de mi ! 



Fool that I was ! 



Vocabulary. 



absorto, adj,, abstracted, 
absorbed in thought. 

aficionado, adj\, given to ; 
m.f amateur. 

afirmar, to affirm, to state. 

bajo, adv., in a low voice. 

biblioteca,/, library. 

conque, conj,, so, then. 

deshacerse, to disappear. 

despacho, m., office, mes- 
sage. 

dramdtico, adj.,^ dramatic. 

entregado, adj., given to, 
delivered. 

escondrijo, m,, corner, 
hiding-place. 

estante, m., stand, shelf. 

extraiio, adj\, strange. 

golpe, m,, blow ; dar golpes 
en el suelo, to strike on 
the floor. 

i hola ! mterj,, halloo ! 



novelista, m., novelist. 

parar, to stop; venir a 
parar, to come to. 

pensativo, adj., thoughtful. 

permanecer, to remain. 

por aqui, around here. 

publicar, to publish. 

recordar, to recall, to re- 
member. 

revolver, to turn up; to 
search, turning things up ; 
rummage among. 

silencioso, adj., silent. 

sonreir, to smile. 

subir, to go up ; subirse, to 
get on, to mount. 

tejuelo, m,, printer's title. 

temporada,/, season, time. 

usar, to use, to make use of. 

valer, to be worth. 

volumen, m,, volume. 



327. — Idiomatic phrases : — 
Volver means sometimes to do a thing again : 
Volver a llenar, to refill. 
Volver a copiar, to recopy. 
Volver a hacer una cosa, to do a thing again. 
Volver a las andadas, to start again with an old 

habit, especially a bad one. 
Andar a vueltas de algo, to be struggling for some- 
thing. 



HACER, ANDAR 



251 



No hay que darle vueltas, talking is of no use. 
Andar a obscuras, to walk in the dark, to be in the 
dark. 
328. Conjugation of Hacer, to make (irregular). 
Indicative. 

hago, haces, etc. — [regular). 
hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, 

hicisteis, hicieron. 
hacia, etc. [regular), 
hare, haras, hard, haremos, 

hareis, haran. 
haria, harias, haria, haria- 
mos, hariais, harian. 



Present, 
Past. 

Imperfect. 
Future, 

Future in the past. 



Subjunctive. 
Present, 

Past [ist and 2nd forms). 

Future, 
Imperative. 
Past participle. 
Present participle. 



haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, 

hagdis, hagan. 
hiciese or hiciera, hicieses or 

hicieras, etc. 
hiciere, hicieres, etc. 
haz ; haced [regular). 
hecho. 
haciendo [regular). 



329. Conjugation of Andar, to go^ to walk (irregular). 



Indicative. 

Present. 

ando, etc. [regular). 

Past. 
anduve 
anduviste 
anduvo 
anduvimos 
anduvisteis 
anduvieron. 

Imperfect. 

andaba, etc. [regular). 



Subjunctive. 
Present. 

ande, etc. [regular). 

Past [istform), 
anduviese 
anduvieses 
anduviese 
anduviesemos 
anduvieseis 
anduviesen. 

Past [2nd form). 
anduviera 
anduvieras 
anduviera 



252 



ANDAR, OIR, VER 



Indicative. 



Future, 

andare, etc. [regular). 

Future in the past, 

andaria, etc. {regular). 



Subjunctive. 
anduvieramos 
anduvierais 
anduvieran. 

Future, 
anduviere 
anduvieres 
anduviere 
anduvieremos 
anduviereis 
anduvieren 



Imperative. 
2iTiA^. (regular) 
andad [regular). 



Past participle. 
andado [regular). 



Present participle, 
andando [regular). 



330. 



Conjugation of Oir, to hear. 



Indicative. 




Present. 

Past. 

Imperfect. 

Future. 

Future in the past. 


oigo, oyes, oye, oimos [regu- 

lar), ois [regular), oyen 
01, etc. [regular). 
oia, etc. [regular). 
oire, etc. [regular), 
oiria, etc. [regular). 


Subjunctive. 




Present, 

Past [ist and 2nd forms). 
Future. 


oiga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, 

oigais, oigan. 
oyese or oyera, etc. [regular), 
oyere, etc. [regular). 


Imperative. 
Past participle. 
Present participle. 


oye ; oid [regular), 
oido [regular). 
oyendo [regular). 


331. Conjugation of Ver, to see. 


Indicative. 




Present. 
Past. 


Veo, ves, etc. [regular), 
vi, etc. (rejorular). 



VER, DAR 



Imperfect. 



veia, veias, veia, 
veiais, veian. 



253 

veiamos, 



Future. 


vere, etc. (regular). 


Future in the past. 


veria, etc. {regular). 


Subjunctive. 




Present. 


vea, veas, vea, veamos, 




veais, vean. 


Past (ist and 2nd forms). 


viese or viera, etc. {regular). 


Future. 


viere, vieres, etc. {regular). 


Imperative. 


ve, ved {regular). 


Past participle. 


visto. 


Present participle. 


viendo {regular). 


a. Conjugation of Dar, to give. 


Indicative. 




Present. 


doy, das, etc. {regular). 


Past. 


di, diste, dio, dimes, disteis, 




dieron. 


Imperfect. 


daba, dabas, etc. {regular). 


Future. 


dare, etc. {regular). 


Future in the past. 


daria, etc. {regular). 


Subjunctive. 




Present. 


De, etc. {regular). 


■ Past {ist and 2nd forms). 


diese or diera, dieses or die- 




ras, diese or diera, diese- 




mos or dieramos, dieseis 




or dierais, diesen or dieran. 


Future, 


diere, dieres, etc. 


Imperative. 


da, dad {regular). 


Past participle. 


dado {regular). 


Present participle. 


dando {regular). 



Exercise. 

— I Que quiere decir esto de Azorin ? 

Rafael ha cogido un libro del estante, ha leido en el 
tejuelo : La Bruyere, Les caracteres y luego bajo : Azorin, 
y se ha vuelto hacia D. Pascual para preguntarle que 
significa esta palabra. 



254 OBJECT PRONOUNS, ARTICLE, etc. 

— Es, dice D. Pascual, un escritor que hubo aqui hace 
cincuenta o sesenta anos. Yo no le conoci ; pero se lo he 
oi'do contar a los viejos. 

— I Era de aqui ese escritor ? pregunta Rafael. 

— No se, contesta D. Pascual ; creo que si ; este libro 
debio de ser de el. 

— Y I como lo tiene usted ? 

— Probablemente el tendria alguna biblioteca que, 
con el tiempo, se deshari'a, y este libro vino a parar 
aqui. 

— Y I dice usted que se llamaba Azori'n ? 

— No ; el nombre era otro ; esto era un pseudonimo. 
Se llamaba . . . 

Don Pascual permanece silencioso, absorto, un momento, 
tratando de sacar de los escondrijos de su cerebro el 
nombre de este escritor ; pero no lo consigue. 

— No recuerdo, dice al fin, cansado de pensar ; 
pero este nombre es el que usaba siempre en sus 
escritos. 

Rafael que es un poco aficionado a la literatura se queda 
pensativo. 

— Es extrafio, dice, i De modo que en este pueblo 
hemos tenido un escritor ? 

— Yo creo que tenia antes por aqui uno de los libros que 
publico, dice D. Pascual. 

— j Hombre ! exclama Rafael, i Conque publicaba 
libros ? Entonces era un escritor de consideracion . . . 

Don Pascual se sube a una silla y va registrando los 
volumenes del estante. Rafael tambien se sube a otra silla 
y revuelve libros grandes y chicos. De pronto entra 
D. Andres, se para un momento en el centro del despacho, 
mira a D. Pascual, mira a Rafael, sonrie, da unos golpecitos 
con el baston en el suelo y dice : 

— I Bravo ! j Bravo ! Hoy estan ustedes entregados a 
la literatura . . . 

— j Hola ! D. Andres, dice Rafael. 



OBJECT PRONOUNS, ARTICLE, etc. 255 

— Estabamos buscando un libro de aquel escritor que 
hubo aqui que se llamaba Azorin, afiade D. Pascual. 

— I Azorin ? i Azori'n ? pregunta D. Andres que no ha 
oido hablar sino muy vagamente de este personaje. Si, si, 
un escritor que vivio aqui hace muchos anos. Si, seiior ; 
SI, si . . . 

Y da dos o tres golpecitos mas en el suelo con el baston. 

— I Usted recuerda, D. Andres, que libros son los que 
publico este escritor ? pregunta D. Pascual. 

— ^ Dice usted libros? replica D. Andres. Pero ese 
Azorin, i no fue autor dramatico ? 

— No, contesta D. Pascual ; yo aseguraria que fue 
novelista. Anos atras andaba por aqui un libro de el que 
yo le vi leer algunas veces a mi padre ; pero debe de 
haberse perdido. 

— Si, si, afirma D. Andres ; yo recuerdo haber visto aqui 
algunas veces ese libro. Su padre de usted decia que el 
habia conocido a Azorin . . . 

— Mi padre era de su misma edad, dice D. Pascual; el 
me deci'a que habia hablado con el muchas veces en el 
jardi'n del Casino Viejo. 

— Pero I vivi'a aqui siempre ? pregunta Rafael. 

■ — No, contesta D. Pascual; su familia si vivi'a aqui; 
pero el pasaba largas temporadas en Madrid y solia venir 
al pueblo los veranos. 

— Yo tengo idea, observa D. Andres, de que vivi'a en la 
calle de la Fuente, en la casa que hace esquina a la del 
Espejo. 

— No, no, contesta D. Pascual, no, el vivi'a en la calle 
de los Huertos, en la casa que es hoy de D. Leandro . . . 

— No es eso lo que yo le 01 a D. Frutos, que le trato 
tambien mucho, replica D. Andres. D. Frutos deci'a que el 
vivio en la calle de la Fuente, donde hoy vive D. Bartolome, 
el medico ... (To be continued.) 



256 OBJECT PRONOUNS, ARTICLE, etc. 

Translate. 

Azorin is the assumed name (pseuddnimo) of Jose 
Martinez Ruiz, a Spanish writer, born at Yecla, in Murcia, 
in 1876. He is very extensively known in Spain and 
Spanish America and amongst literary men of all European 
countries. He has written novels, critical and historical 
essays (ensayos), and a series (serte) of curious books 
aiming at (que tienen por objeto) the description of life 
in ancient [la vieja) and contemporary [contempordnea) 
Spain. 

In the short sketch [bosquejo) that we have given here 
he tries to describe in a humorous way the manner in 
which his popularity will begin to disappear in fifty or sixty 
years from now. The most respectable personalities of the 
small town where he was born would not be able (capaces) 
to tell, in half a century, whether Azorin wrote novels, 
poems, or dramas. They will not be sure whether his 
name was Azorin or Martinez, and there will be some 
doubts concerning the existence of two authors who were 
known to the literary world under the name of Azorin, 
when, in effect, there was only one. 

This, of course, is a very modest view of the writer's real 
merits {meritos\ He is a very well-known Spanish 
author, and although we cannot say that his name will live 
for centuries, because literary reputations are very uncertain 
[inciertos] values (valores), yet we believe we are justified 
in saying (podemos en justicia decir) that his claims 
(derechos) to immortality are supported {confinnados^ 
apoyados) by very substantial (sustanctoso, solido) work 
and by the number and the quality of th<e ideas that he has 
tried to spread (divulgar) in his country. 

Translate. 
Un caballero notorio ^ por su avaricia^ tenia tres hijos, 
uno de los cuales era de buen natural ^, pero atolondrado *. 
Cuando se veia en dificultades se excusaba ^ diciendo que 



OBJECT PRONOUNS, ARTICLE, ETC. 257 

estaba tratando de conocer la vida. Su padre vivi'a tan 
fastidiado ^ con su prodigalidad ^ que resolvio desheredarlel 
Sus amigos intercedieron^ en su favor, pero sus esfuerzos'^ 
resultaron" vanos.^^ 

Cuando el viejo caballero sintio aproximarse su fin, llamd 
a sus hijos y les dijo : ' Dejo a mi hijo Juan toda mi 
hacienda ^^ y le deseo que sea frugaP* '. Juan, en tono 
adolorido,^^ como es usual en tales ocasiones, le rogo al 
cielo que prolongara la vida de su padre y le diera salud 
para continuar gozando de la manda '^ 

El padre dijo en seguida : * Dejo a mi hijo Diego (James) 
mi dinero que monta^'^ a cuatro mil libras' (pounds 
sterling). 'jAh! padre mio/ dijo Diego, naturalmente 
muy afligido ^^, ' quiera el cielo darte vida y salud para que 
goces tii mismo de la manda.' El padre, dirigiendose en 
seguida al manirroto ^^, le dijo : ^ Por lo que hace a ^- ti, 
Ricardo (Richard), tu nunca llegaras a ser nada. Nunca 
seras rico. Te dejo un chelin ^^ para que te compres un 
cabestro ^^' * Ah, padre mio,' dijo Ricardo con voz tristi- 
sima, ' quiera el cielo concederte ^^ vida y salud para que 
goces tii mismo de la manda '. 

^ notorious, known. ^ avarice. ^ good-natured. * frivolous. 

^ excuse oneself. ^ annoyed. "^ prodigality. ^ disinherit. 

^ intercede. i^ effort. ^^ result. ** vain. ^* estate. 

^* frugal, economical. ^^ sorrowful. ^^ gift. ^'^ amounts. 

1^ in great affliction. ^^ spendthrift (literally, leaky hands), ^o ^g 

regards, ^i shilling. ^^ halter. 23 grant. 



XXVII 

WORD ORDER 

332. — The position of the different parts of speech in the 
sentence does not follow strict rules in any language ; much 
less so in Spanish, the syntax of which is remarkable for 
its looseness. The direct or regular order of the woi:ds 
should be as follows : the article, the noun (nominative), 

2129 S 



258 WORD ORDER 

the adjective^ the verb, and the object. The adverbs 
modifying the adjective are generally placed before it, 
and those modifying the verb may precede or follow, 
except no, which is always placed before the verb. El 
hombre honrado cumple puntualmente las mds in- 
significantes promesas que llegare a hacer, the honest 
man fulfils punctually the most insignificant promises 
he may make. . This is the regular or direct order of 
the sentences, which, except as regards the position of 
the adjective with respect to the noun, is the same in 
English and Spanish. 

333. — There are, however, numerous deviations from 
this regular order. 

a. The article always precedes the noun to which it 
refers. One or more adjectives connected or not by 
a conjunction or by other parts of speech may intervene 
between the article and the noun : el viento, the wind ; 
el frio viento, the cold wind ; el continue y desapacible 
viento del Este, the uninterrupted and unpleasant East 
wind ; la bien conocida y no menos tierna historia de 
Maria, the well-known and not less touching history of 
Maria. Even adjective equivalents may be placed between 
the article and the noun : < La su para ellos mal andante 
caballeria,' but this would now sound affected except in 
poetry. 

b. The article used to be put before possessive adjec- 
tives: this practice, which has disappeared from common 
usage, survives still in the Lord's Prayer : Santificado sea 
el tu nombre, hallowed be Thy name ; venga a nos el tu 
reino. Thy kingdom come. 

c. The article may be placed after the noun when used 
with proper names to which an adjective is added to 
denote a difference between persons or things of the same 
denomination : Carlos el Temerario, Charles the Bold ; 
Felipe el Hermoso, Philip the Handsome; Carlos el 
Hechizado, Charles the Bewitched. 



WORD ORDER 259 

d. Demonstrative adjectives are regularly placed before 
the noun : estas casas, estos soberbios edificios, aque- 
11a insuperable bondad suya (that unsurpassable kindness 
of his); but they may be placed after the noun for the sake of 
emphasis: el nine este da mucho que hacer, this boy 
here gives much trouble ; se habla todavia de la mujer 
aquella, they still talk of that famous woman. Note that 
the graphic accent is required in this case. 

e. Possessive adjectives precede the noun. Mi destine, 
my destiny ; sus grandes deseos, his vehement wishes. 
They may follow the noun for the sake of emphasis, and 
in that case they take the complete form which characterizes 
the pronoun : este es el libro mio, this is my book ; en 
ese barrio quedan las casas suyas, his houses are 
situated in that quarter. 

/. Cardinal numerals always precede the noun : Dos 
hijos y cuatro hijas, two sons and two daughters; 
ciento dos muertos y doscientos cincuenta heridos, 
one hundred and two dead and two hundred and fifty 
wounded. 

g. Ordinals may either precede or follow the noun ; we 
must necessarily say el primer hombre (when referring to 
Adam), el primer Ministro, the Prime Minister, but we can 
choose between el primer capitulo or el capitulo primero, 
la tercera vez or la vez tercera. 

h. Que, quien, el que, el cual follow the noun to which 
they refer : la casa que vemos de aqui, the house we 
see from here ; fui a ver al Ministro, quien me asegura 
que el peligro ha desaparecido, I have been to see the 
Minister, who assures me that the danger has disappeared. 

/. In interrogative clauses the relative (which in such 
cases bears the graphic accent) may be placed at the begin- 
ning of the sentence unless preceded by a preposition : 

s 2 



26o WORD ORDER 

I Que dice el diario ? What does the newspaper 

say? 
I Quien trajo la carta ? Who brought the letter ? 

I Para que me llamas ? What do you call me for ? 

I De quien tiene usted la From whom have you the 
noticia ? news ? 

k. The adjective, as a rule, follows the noun it 
qualifies : Dias obscures fueron esos para una raza 
amedrentada per supersticiones numerosas, those 
were dark days for a race scared by numerous supersti- 
tions. 

/. The following exceptions should be borne in mind : 
Adjectives implying an essential or inseparable quality of 
the noun to which they refer are generally placed before 
it : mansas ovejas, negra noche, azul espacio (meaning 
the blue sky), sus conocidas intenciones, his undisguised 
intentions ; los inveterados vicios de la monarquia, 
the deep-rooted vices of the monarchy. 

m» Adjectives of very general meaning may also precede 
the noun : gran pais ; buena apariencia (good appear- 
ance); malas maneras (bad manners); utiles y nuevos 
descubrimientos (useful and new discoveries). 

n. With proper nouns the adjective precedes, unless it 
be used with the article to differentiate between persons 
of the same name: el sarcdstico Marcial ; el pobre 
Verlaine; el ambicioso Carlos; el tufbio Magdalena, 
the muddy Magdalena ; el proceloso Cdntabro, the 
stormy Bay of Biscay ; el ruble Tiber, the reddish Tiber ; 
el azul Danubie, the blue Danube. Though la bella 
Francia is correct, yet we say la Francia inmortal, la 
Grecia sefistica y pendenciera (sophistical and quarrel- 
some Greece). 

o. Adjectives modified by adverbs or adverb equivalents 
should follow the noun : mentanas tan abruptas cemo 
solitarias, mountains as precipitous as they are solitary. 



WORD ORDER 261 

The expression tan abruptas como solitarias montanas 

is, however, found in poetry or in elevated prose. 

p. Very often one adjective precedes and another 
follows the noun in conformity with the foregoing rules. 
Tiene lagrimas el fondo de su gran mirada azul, there 
are tears in the depths of her large blue eyes. 

q. The adverb is placed before the adjective or adverb 
qualified by it : muy bueno, demasiado rice (too rich), 
perfectamente bien, no tan mal (not so badly), mucho 
major (much better). It may follow or precede the verb : 
Usted sabe muy bien , . ., or muy bien sabe usted 
. . ., you know very well ; aguarda ansiosamente (or 
ansiosamente aguarda) noticias de su hija, she is 
anxiously awaiting news of her daughter ; tarde acor- 
daste (or acordaste tarde), it was late when you 
noticed it. 

r. No always precedes the verb, the adjective, or the 
adverb it qualifies : Y no lloramos mas en aquel dia, and 
we did not weep any longer that day ; no muy triste, not 
very sad ; no indigno de figurar al lado de los mejores, 
not unworthy to be placed alongside of the best ; no mujer 
sine angel, not a woman but an angel. 

334. — Elements of the sentence. The regular order of 
the different parts of the sentence is in Spanish the 
same as in English. El ambiente esta suave como una 
muselina, the surrounding air is soft like muslin. El 
jaguar destruye el ganado, the jaguar destroys the 
herd. 

a. When the object is expressed by a noun, it is custo- 
mary to place it after the verb : 
Escribionovelasycuentos. He wrote novels and short 

stories. 
Presencio una larga serie He witnessed a long pro- 

de triunfos en la pista. cession of turf triumphs. 

Oigamosalos gramaticos. Let us listen to the gram- 
marians. 
Despertaron al carcelero. They awoke the gaoler. 



262 WORD ORDER 

b. When a direct and an indirect object are governed by 
the same verb, the direct object comes first if both are nouns 
or if one of them is the prepositional form of a pronoun : 

Pedir peras al olmo. To expect pears on elm-trees 

(to ask for the unattain- 
able). 
Dio un libro al major estu- He gave a book to his best 

diante. pupil. 

Entregue esta carta al Deliver this letter, please, 

destinatario. to the addressee. 

Di mi palabra a usted. I gave you my word. 

335. — Yet in poetry, in elevated prose, or in familiar 
conversation the order implied by the preceding rules is 
often altered : 

Un hombre conozco, ve- I know a man, a resident of 

cine de Lerida, que Lerida, who has the secret. 
posee el secreto. 

Temas de dolor espiritual, Topics of spiritual affliction 

Quevedo los convierte are turned by Quevedo 

en temas de escarnio. into matters of jest. 

Dire a usted la verdad. I will teH you the truth. 

La mujer y la tela no la Test neither women nor 

cates a la candela. cloth by fire. 

336. — If the direct object is represented by a noun and 
the indirect one by a pronoun without preposition the latter 
is placed before the verb or may follow it immediately, com- 
bining with the verb to make a single word : 

Le conto (or Contole) una He told him a story to keep 
historia para tenerlo him quiet. 

tranquilo. 

a. A peculiarity of Spanish is the redundant use of the 
indirect form of the pronoun in sentences of this kind : 

Le di a la senora el pa- I gave the lady the hand- 
nuelo que habia dejado kerchief she had dropped. 

caer (Di a la Sra. el 
paiiuelo is no less per- 
missible and has the same 
meaning). 



WORD ORDER 263 

Lo que le dije a usted (or What I told you. 

lo que dije). 

Le ofrecieron un empleo a They offered a post to John. 

Juan (or Ofrecieron un 

empleo a Juan). 

Es precise que a la socie- It is necessary to offer an 

dad se la (or le) de una apology to society. 

satisfaccion. 

I No podemos decir que a May we not say that we owe 

los viajeros franceses a debt of gratitude to the 

les debemos la gratitud French travellers inspired 

de que hayan sentido la by the sublime beauty of 

soberana belleza del the Guadarrama ? 

Guadarrama? 

b. With the direct object this construction may only be 
adopted when the second element is a prepositional pro- 
noun : 

Lallamaron a ella primero. They called her first. 
Le conoci a usted dema- I knew you too late. 
siado tarde. 

c. It would be wrong (although it is heard now and then) 
to say : La llamaron a Juana primero, Lo conoci a Pedro 
en casa de usted. 

d. There is yet another redundant use of the indirect 
form of the pronoun which is called the superfluous dative 
(dativo superfluo) by the grammarians. It serves to 
emphasize the meaning of the sentence in which it is 
employed, and hence very often it is not really superfluous : 

Me temo que os enganeis. I am afraid you are mis- 
taken. 

Temo que os enganeis would mean literally the same, 
but the insertion of me emphasizes the fear. 

Se bebio la leche de un He drank the milk at a 
tiron. (The indirect object draught. 

se is added to imply good 
appetite and enjoyment.) 

e. It should be noted that the verb is not reflexive, 
although the form is quite similar to the verbs of this type 



264 WORD ORDER 

(Nos comimos todo el pan que hallamos, we ate all the 
bread we found). 

/. The superfluous dative is also employed with the 
reflexive verbs of the genuine type : 
Se me murio mi hijo. I have lost my son. 

The expression murio mi hijo or se murio mi hijo does 
not convey the meaning of actuality that the use of the 
superfluous dative implies. 
Se me durmio el nino en The child went to sleep in 

los brazos. my arms. 

In this instance, as we have remarked before (see § 88), 
the indirect object is used to imply possession (los brazes, 
my arms). 

337. — When both the indirect and direct objects are 
pronouns, the order of the sentence is governed by the 
rules given in § 320 : 

Me lo dijo (or Dijomelo). He said it to me. 

No me lo repita, por favor. Do not repeat it to me, 

please. 
Nos la trajeron medio They brought her half dead 

muerta. to us. 

Te me das por vencido. You surrender to me. 

338. — The pronominal forms may be placed before the 
verb or after it at the beginning of a clause or a sentence 
(see § 60) : 

Suplicome (or Me suplico) He begged me to accompany 
que lo acompanara. him. 

a. They cannot be placed after the verb when it is pre- 
ceded by no, nor at the beginning of subordinate clauses 
introduced by the conjunction que or by the relatives in 
general. 

No me dijo que lo supiera. He did not tell me he knew 

it. 

No encontre quien me I did not find anybody to 

guiara. lead me. 

No me importa. I do not care, I do not mind. 

No los conoci ni los co- I did not, nor do I, know 

nozco. them. 



WORD ORDER 265 

b. They must always follow (except in poetry) the im- 
perative and optative forms (not preceded by a negation 
or by que) : 

Trdigame un diario de la Bring me a morning paper. 

manana. 

Sepanlo todos los intere- Let all concerned know it. 

sados. 

Mandadlos poner en liber- Give orders to set them free. 

tad. 

Idos de aqui. Go away from here. 

Amaos ^ los unos a los Love each other. 

otros. 

Que los saquen de aqui. Let them be taken out of 

here. 

No se lo garantice. Do not go security for it. 

c. The infinitive and present participle, with or without 
negation, now invariably take the pronominal forms at the 
end ; 

No sabiendolo a fondo re- Not knowing it thoroughly 
solvio no decirlo. he made up his mind not 

to say it. 

Ignorarlo es acaso lo me- Not to know it is perhaps 
jor. best. 

339.— In some cases it appears as though the meaning of the 
sentence were unaffected by using the pronominal forms either 
before or after the principal verb or after the infinitive governed 
by it : vinieron a encontrarme (they came to meet me) means 
exactly the same as me vinieron a encontrar or vinieronme a 
encontrar. Quiero saberlo, lo quiero saber, quierolo saber are 
equivalent expressions. Analogy has made a single grammatical 
element of the two verbs, and the verb used transitively com- 
municates its character to the verb used intransitively. But this 
alternative is not permissible when the infinitive is a verb used 
intransitively : vilo salir or lo vi salir is correct, but vi salirlo 
is not countenanced by grammar or by usage.^ 

1 Note that this imperative form, in all verbs except ir, loses the final 
d when OS is added to it. See § 60 a. 

2 On going more deeply into this peculiarity of Spanish syntax, w^e may 
notice that the sentences in which the three different forms can be used 
indiscriminately are those formed by verbs which govern an infinitive 



266 WORD ORDER 

a. The reflexive verbs admit of this double or triple con- 
struction both with the infinitive and the gerund : Quiero acos- 
tarme, me quiero acostar, I want to go to bed ; Estoy divir- 
tiiendome, me estoy divirtiendo, estoyme divirtiendo, I am 
amusing myself. 

b. Conjugation of Poder, to be able (irregular). 
Indicative. 

Present puedo, puedes, puede, podemos 

(regular\ podeis [regular)j pueden. 
Past. pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pu- 

disteis, pudieron. 
Imperfect. podfa, etc. {regular). 

Future. podre, podrds, podrd, podremos, 

podreis, podrdn. 
Future in the past, podria, podrias,podria, podriamos, 

podriais, podrian. 
Subjunctive. 

Present. pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos 

(regular), poddis (regular), puedan. 
Past (istform). pudiese, pudieses, etc. 
Past (2nd form). pudiera, pudieras, etc. 
Future. pudiere, pudieres, etc. 

Imperative (is lacking). 
Past participle. podido. 

Present participle, pudiendo. 

either without any preposition or by means of the preposition a, which 
implies a transitive meaning, or de, which occasionally may have the 
same character : 

Venimos a verlo, or Lo venimos We are coming to see you. 

a ver. 
Acabo de saberlo, or Lo acabo I have just heard of it. 

de saber. 
Dejaron de molestarte, or Te They gave up annoying you. 

dejaron de molestar. 

With other prepositions the case is not so obvious. We may say 
Empezo por decirme, but less acceptable is Me empezb por decir, 
though it is heard sometimes. 



WORD ORDER 



267 



Vocabulary. 



apretar, to press, to urge. 

asegurar, to fix ; to affirm. 

ciencia, /., science, know- 
ledge; a ciencia cierta, 
with positive certainty. 

confundir, to confuse, to 
confound. 

conviccion,/, conviction. 

definitivo, adj.^ definite ; en 
definitiva, in fine, sum- 
ming up. 

desquitarse, to get even 
with, to take revenge. 

dolido, adj.y sorry, sorrow- 
ful, chagrined. 

esfuerzo, m,, effort. 

firmar, to sign. 

gafas,//>/., spectacles. 

guardar, to keep ; se guar- 
da en el bolsillo, he puts 
in his pocket. 

herrador, m.y farrier. 

huerto, m.^ orchard. 



infructuoso, adj.^ fruitless. 

membrillo, m,y quince ; 
quince-tree. 

nariz,/, nose. 

obrar, to act. 

opinar, to be of opinion. 

peri6dico, m.y newspaper, 
journal, periodical. 

poesia,/., poetry, a poem. 

ponerse mal con alguno, to 
be at odds with some- 
body. 

prof undo, adj.y deep. 

prosa,/, prose. 

recitar, to recite. 

reloj, m., clock, watch. 

respetar, to respect. 

sonar, to strike, to sound. 

tornar, to turn; tornar a 
decir, to say again. 

trance, m., emergency, diffi- 
culty. 

verso, m.y verse. 



Exercise (end of the preceding one). 
Don Fulgencio entra. 

— jCaramba! (strange!), exclama D. Fulgencio. Les 
veo a ustedes discutiendo terriblemente. 

— Usted sabe, D. Fulgencio, ^donde vivio Azorin ? le 
pregunta D. Pascual. 

— i Orden, orden ! exclama D. Fulgencio asegurandose 
las gafas sobre la nariz. Ante todo, ^se refieren (refer 
to) ustedes a un escritor que hubo en este pueblo que se 
llamaba asi ? 

— Si, senor, contesta D. Pascual, est^bamos aqui 
diciendo si este Azorin era novelista o autor dramatico . . . 

— i Orden, orden ! torna a repetir D. Fulgencio. Con- 
viene no confundir a este escritor que se firmaba asi, con 
otro que hubo alios despues y que escribio algunas obras 



268 WORD ORDER 

para el teatro. Yo tengo entendido que Azorin estuvo en 
algunos periodicos de Madrid y que, ademas, publico un 
libro de versos. 

— ^ Dice usted de versos? pregunta Rafael, que ha 
escrito algunas poesias en un semanario de la provincia. 

— Si, senor, de versos, afirma con una profunda convic- 
cion D. Fulgencio. 

— Entonces, ese libro de versos i sera el que andamos 
buscando aqui ? 

— Perdon, dice sonriendo D. Pascual, yo respeto las 
opiniones de ustedes; pero creo que el libro que yo he 
visto afios atras era de prosa. 

— No, senor, no, afirma con la misma conviccion de 
antes D. Fulgencio. Ese libro es de versos. Yo le he 
tenido muchas veces en mis manos. 

— Mire usted, D. Fulgencio, que yo me acuerdo mwy 
bien de lo que he visto, se atreve a decir D. Pascual. 

— ; Caramba ! exclama D. Fulgencio, dolido de que se 
pongan en duda sus palabras. j Si estare yo seguro de que 
eran versos, cuando llegue a aprenderme algunos de 
memoria ! 

Si le aprietan un poco, este seiior es capaz de hacer un 
esfuerzo y recitar una poesia de Azorin ; pero D. Pascual, 
que le respeta, no llega a ponerle en este trance. Don 
Pascual se contenta con volverse hacia D. Andres y 
preguntarle : 

— Y usted ,1, que opina ? i Recuerda usted si era de 
versos o de prosa el libro de Azorin ? 

— i Hombre ! exclama D. Andres que no quiere disgustar 
a D. Pascual ni ponerse mal con D. Fulgencio, y que en 
definitiva no ha visto nunca la obra de Azorin. j Hombre ! 
Yo tengo un cierto recuerdo de que era prosa; pero al 
mismo tiempo recuerdo tambien haber oi'do recitar algo de 
Azorin asi como versos . . . 

Rafael, durante esta breve discusion, ha continuado 
buscando el libro en los estantes. 



WORD ORDER 269 

— iNo lo encuentra usted? le pregunta D. Pascual. 

— No, contesta Rafael, pero me voy a llevar este. 

Y se guarda un libro en el bolsillo, para desquitarse de 
sus pesquisas infructuosas. 

Un reloj suena las cuatro. 

— I Adonde vamos esta tarde ? dice D. Fulgencio. i A 
la Solana o al huerto del Herrador? 

— Iremos al huerto y veremos como marchan los mem- 
brillos, contesta D. Andres. 

Y todos salen. AzoRfN. 

Conversation. 

^Quien es Azori'n ? ,i,D6nde nacio? lEn que afio 
nacio ? i Cual es su verdadero nombre ? Que ha escrito ? 
I Es conocido en Espafia ? ^ En que otros pai'ses es cono- 
cido ? Segun el i es probable que la posteridad lo olvide ? 
I Sabian los caballeros que figuran en este dialogo quien 
era Azorin ? ^ Lo sabian a ciencia cierta ? i Ha escrito 
dramas el Senor Martinez Ruiz? ^ Ha escrito poemas? 
I Que libros ha escrito ? 

^Adonde fueron los del dialogo terminada la discusion 
sobre las obras de Azorin ? i Que iban a ver al huerto del 
Herrador ? i Que es un membrillo ? <i La conoce usted ? 
^i, A que fruta se parece ? 

Translate. 
Cervantes' penury. 
For the moment Cervantes was condemned ^ to continue 
his tedious^ routine work ^—making up* his books, having 
his accounts checked ^ by the Treasury^ at Madrid. The 
personal note is seldom audible '^ in the official record ^ of 
his doings ^ but there are signs that he was in very low 
water ^^ in the year 159O; when he thought of leaving Spain. 
On July 14 he empowered ^^ his wife and his sister 
Magdalena — both resident in Madrid at this time— to 
collect ^^ all manner of debts owing to him. He needed ^^ 



270 



WORD ORDER 



all the money he could scrape together ^\ The Administra- 
tion ^^, though remiss ^^ in paying its servants, was puncti- 
lious " in examining their accounts ; though their salaries 
were in arrears ^^, they were expected to make long journeys, 
and to pay all incidental expenses, without drawing upon ^^ 
the public funds ^^ which passed through (por) their hands. 
The thing could not be done. Cervantes was zealous" 
enough as a commissary '^^, but he had no head^^ for 
figures '^^ and the unmethodical ^^ man had to deal ^^ with 
complex % confused ^^ entries "^^^ which might have puzzled ^" 
a trained ^^ accountant ^l He was constantly occupied in 
producing ^^ his vouchers ^* ; he had before him the prospect 
of going to Madrid to have his accounts examined, and 
when the time for this ordeaP^ came (in December 1590) 
he empowered a substituted^ to act for him. Meanwhile 
he was in a state of poverty " extreme. One little fact ^^ 
speaks volumes.^^ On November 8, 1590, he needed some 
common cloth *^ to cover his nakedness *^ and he obtained 
it at last from Miguel de Caviedes and Company of 
Seville : but not till his friend Gutierrez became security ^'^ 
for the price (ten ducats), and not till he and Gutierrez had 
signed a bond *^ in the presence of four notaries — enough to 
guarantee^* the National Debt. J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly. 

^ condenado. ^ enfadoso. ^' routine work, trabajo rutinario. 

* make up, completar, acabar, ^ revisar. ^ Tesoreria. "^ per- 

ceptible. ® cronica, apunte. ^ hechos. '^^ to be in very low 

water, estar con el agua hasta el cuello. ^^ dar poder. ^2 percibir, 

cobrar. ^^ necesitar. ^* scrape together, }untar. *^ gobierno, 

administracion. ^^ remiso. ^^ exigente, puntilloso, ^^ in arrears, sin 
pagar. '^ girar a cargo de. 20 fondos, dineros. 21 diligente, celoso. 
22 comisario, delegado. ^3 jjo tenia cabeza para. ^* niimeros, cifras. 
26 inmetodico. ^6 entenderse, arreglarselas. 27 complejo. ^8 qq^, 
fuso, 29 partidas, asientos. ^^ aturrullar. ^^ experto. ^2 ^on- 
tador. '^ presentar. ^^ comprobantes. ^^ prueba, tortura. 

3^' substituto, suplente. ^"^ pobreza. ^^ hecho. ^^ speaks volumes, vale 
por muchos volumenes. *° tela ordinaria. ^^ desnudez. ^^ become 
secutity, salir fiador. *^ obligaci<3n. . ** garantizar. 



WORD ORDER 271 

Translate. 
Gil Bias va a la Universidad, 

Dijome un di'a mi tio ^ : ' Ola, Gil Bias, ya no eres nino : 
tienes diez y siete anos y Dios te ha dado habilidad ^ Hemos 
menester ^ pensar en ayudarte. Estoy resuelto * a enviarte 
a la Universidad de Salamanca, donde con tu ingenio'^ y 
con tu talento no dejaras de colocarte'' en algun buen 
puesto. Para tu viaje te dare algiin dinero, y la mula, que 
vale de diez a doce doblones', la que podras vender en 
Salamanca, y mantenerte ^ despues con el dinero, hasta que 
logres ^ algiin empleo que te de de comer honradamente/ 
No podia mi tio proponerme^^ cosa mas a mi gusto", 
porque reventaba^^ por ver mundo: sin embargo, supe 
vencerme ^^ y disimular '^ mi alegria. Cuando llego la hora 
de marchar, solo me mostre afligido^^ del sentimiento de 
separarme de un tio a quien debia tantas obligaciones '* : 
enterneciose *^ el buen sefior de manera que me did mas 
dinero del que me daria si hubiera leido o penetrado lo que 
pasaba en lo intimo de mi corazon. Antes de montar^^ 
quise ir a dar un abrazo a^^ mi padre y a mi madre, los 
cuales no anduvieron escasos en materia de consejos'*^. 
Exhortaronme ^^ a que todos los dias encomendase a Dios '^ 
a mi tio, a vivir cristianamente ^^, a no mezclarme ^* nunca 
en negocios peligrosos y sobre todo a no desear, y mucho 
menos a tomar lo ajeno^^ contra la voluntad de su dueno^^ 
Despues de haberme arengado^*^ largamente, me regalaron^^ 
con su bendicion ^^, la linica cosa que podia esperar de 
ellos. Inmediatamente monte en mi mula y sali de la 
ciudad. 

^ uncle. 2 ability. ^ ^gg^ § 289). * resolved, ^ ingenuity, 

adroitness. ^ colocarse en un puesto, to get employment. ' doub- 
loon, old Spanish coin (about 20 pesetas). ^ support yourself. ^ get, 
secure. ^° to propose. ^^ mds a mi gusto, more to my taste. 

*2 to be anxious, to desire vehemently, to burst. *^ conquer myself. 

" conceal. *^ afflicted. *« deber obligaciones a alguno, to be 



272 WORD ORDER 

under obligations to somebody. ^'^ to be moved. ^^ go on horse- 

back. ^^ dar un abrazo, embrace. 20 qjj materia de consejos, 
regarding advice. ^i exhort, admonish. 22 encomendar a Dios, to 
pray for. 23 \[\^q ^ Christian. 24 ^q meddle, to interfere. 25 some- 
body else^s property. ^c owner. 27 harangue. 28 ^q make a 
present, 29 blessing. 

Change the order of the words in the following sentences on 
this model: A la tercera esquina esta la entrada, or La 
entrada esta a la tercera esquina, or Esta la entrada a la 
tercera esquina, or Esta a la esquina tercera la entrada : — 

Te conozco. Una mujer he visto que no la conozco 
mas hermosa. Da al nino esta manzana. Para una familia 
de cinco personas o seis la casa es buena. El primer 
capitulo se aprende con facilidad. Se descubre desde 
aqui gran parte de la provincia. Bien esta que tu lo digas. 
Que el lo niegue resulta probable. Me lo dijeron. Per- 
diosele. Me lo dijo a mi. Regaloselo a ella. Lo que te 
ban dicho es cierto. Para salir debes abrir la puerta. A 
la tercera esquina (corner) esta la entrada (entrance). Esta 
bueno el tiempo para salir a dar un paseo. Vinieron a 
decirnos. Le salieron al encuentro. Dejaronlo hablar 
tres horas seguidas. 

Si a un padre un hijo querido 

A la guerra se le va, 

Para el camino le da 

Un Don y un buen apelHdo (surname). 

El que Ponce se ha llamado 
Le anade luego Leon, 
El que Guevara, Ladron 

Y Mendoza el que es Hurtado. 

Yo conoci a un tal por cual (a guy, a nobody) 
Que a cierto conde servia 

Y Sotillo se decia. 

Crecio un poco su caudal (means), 

Salio de misero y roto (wretched and tattered), 
Hizo una ausencia de un mes, 



WORD ORDER 273 

Conocile yo despues, 
Y ya se llamaba Soto. 

Vino a fortuna mejor, 
Eran sus nombres de gonces (hinges) ; 
Llego a ser rico; y entonces 
Se llamo Sotomayor, 

Calder6n de la Barca. 



XXVIII 
APPENDIX 

THE VERB 

340. — The Inflexions, There are three conjugations in 
Spanish, as we have seen. The different tenses and persons 
are formed by adding to the stem certain inflexions which are 
common to all regular verbs belonging to the same conjugation. 
The stem of the verb is obtained by taking from the infinitive the 
ending -ar, -er, -ir. Thus habl- is the stem of hablar, com- 
prend- is the stem of comprender, and recib- is the stem of 
recibir. The stress of the verb, which falls always, as far as 
the infinitive is concerned, on the last syllable, hablar, com- 
prender, recibir, alters its position according to the tenses and 
persons ; hablo, hablamos, hable, habldbamos, habldsemos, 
hablare, hablaria. 

341.— The future and future in the past of the indicative mood 
are formed from the infinitive, not from the stem. Hablar-e, 
comprender-ds. The reason of this apparent anomaly is 
that these two tenses were compound forms resulting from the 
combination of the infinitive with the present and the imperfect 
of haber. Hablar-he, comprender-has.^ Taking the infinitive 
as the stem of the future and future in the past, the inflexional 
endings for these tenses are the same in the three conjuga- 

1 The two forms were used interchangeably : descogerd e obrarlo 
ha (Juan Ruiz, Libro del buen amovj pag. ii, ed. de ^ La Lectura'). 
Casarme-he con ella, encerrarela, harela a mis mafias (Cervantes, 
El celoso exiremeno). 

2129 T 



274 



APPENDIX 



tions. The first conjugation differs completely (except in the 
first person of the present indicative and the future and 
future in the past) from the other two. The second and 
third conjugations differ only in the first and second persons 
plural of the present indicative and in the imperative plural : in 
all other tenses and persons they are the same. 
342. — Endings of the three conjugations: 





Indicative Mood. 


Subjunctive Mood. 






Present, 


Present, 


] 


c. 


2. 


3. 


I. 


2 and 3. 


■o 




•o 


•0 


•e 


•a 


-as 




•es 


•es 


•es 


•as 


•a 




•e 


•e 


•e 


a 


amos 


•emos -imos 


•emos 


•amos 


dis 


-eis 


•is 


■eis 


•dis 


-an 


I 


•en 


•en. 


•en 


an. 






Past, 


Past [ist form). 




I. 




2 and 3. 


T. 


2 and 3. 




■e 




•i 


•ase 


•iese 




-aste 




•iste 


-ases 


•ieses 




•6 




•16 


-ase 


•iese 




•amos 




•imos 


-dsemos 


■iesemos 




•asteis 




•isteis 


-aseis 


-ieseis 




•aron 




-ieron. 


•asen 


•iesen. 




Imperfect, 


Past (2nd form). 




I. 




2 and 3. 


I. 


2 and 3. 




•aba 




•ia 


•ara 


•iera 




•abas 




•ias 


•aras 


•ieras 




-aba 




•ia 


•ara 


•iera 




■dbamos 


-iamos 


■dramos 


•ieramos 




-abais 




•iais 


-arais 


•ierais 




•aban 




•ian. 


•aran 


•ieran. 






Future, 


Future, 




i» 


y 2, and 3. 


I. 


2 and 3. 






•e 




•are 


•iere 






-^s 




•ares 


•ieres 






-^ 




-are 


•iere 






-emos 


•^remos 


•ieremos 






•eis 




■areis 


•iereis 






-^n. 




-aren 


•ieren. 



- 


THE 


VERB 




2' 


Indicative Mood. 


Imperative Mood. 


Future in the past 




I. 


2. 


3. 


I, 2, and 3. 












-la 




•a 


•e 


•e 


-las 




— 






-la 













•lamos 




•ad 


■ed 


•id 


•iais 




— 


— 





•ian. 










Infinitive, 


Past Participle, 


Present Participle, 


I. 2. 3. 


I. 


2 and 3. 


I. 


2 and 3. 


ar -er -ir. 


-ado 


•ido. 


•ando 


-iendo. 



343. — Orthographic changes. In order to preserve the sound 
of the final consonant of the stem, certain orthographic changes 
are made which are not considered to imply any irregularity in 
the formation of the tenses. 

344.— The final z of the stem in verbs of the first conjugation 
changes to c before endings beginning v^ith e: 

caz-ar, to hunt ; cac-e, I hunted ; cac-emos, let us hunt. 

345. — The final c of the stem in verbs of the second and third 
conjugation changes to z before an inflexion beginning with 
a or o: 

mec-er, to swing ; mez-o, I swing ; mez-an, let them swing. 
unc-ir, to yoke ; unz-o, I yoke ; unz-dis, yoke ye. 
346. — The final c of the stem in verbs of the first conjugation 
changes to qu before e of the inflexional endings : 

revoc-ar, to revoke ; revoqu-e, I revoked. 
347.— The final qu of the stem in verbs of the third conjugation 
becomes c before a or o of the endings : 

delinqu-ir, to break the law ; delinc-o, I break the law. 
348. — The final g of the stem in verbs of the first conjugation 
becomes gu before the initial e of the inflexions : 
lleg-ar, to arrive ; llegu-^, I arrived, 
349. — The final gu of the stem in verbs of the third con- 
jugation changes to g before inflexions beginning with a 
or o: 

segu-ir, to follow ; sig-o, I follow ; sig-amos, let us follow. 
T 2 



276 APPENDIX 

350. — The final g of the stem in verbs of the second and third 
conjugation becomes j before a or o of the inflexions : 
cog-er, to take; coj-o, I take ; coj-an, let them take. 
eleg-ir, to elect, to choose ; elij-o, I choose ; elij-a, let him 
choose. 
351. — The verbs ending in -guar require the diaeresis on the 
u when the inflexion begins with an e : 

aguar, to put water in, to dilute ; agiie, I diluted. 
352.— Verbs the stem of which ends in 11 or n lose the 
unstressed initial i of the inflexion if another vowel-sound 
follows : 

bull-ir, to stir; bull-o (not buUio), he bestirred himself. 
gan-ir, to yelp ; gan-6, he yelped. But in bullia the i is 
preserved because it is stressed.^ 
353. — Verbs of the second and third conjugation, the stem of 
which ends in a vowel, change to y the unstressed initial i of 
the inflexion when followed by another vowel : 
ca-er, to fall ; ca-yo (not caio), he fell, 
le-er, to read ; le-yere (not le-iere), he might read, 
o-ir, to hear ; o-yeron, they heard. 
hu-ir, to fly ; hu-yo, he fled. 
354. — The verbs in -eir are irregular, and they drop the initial 
unstressed i of the inflexions, as will be seen later .^ 

355. — Irregular verbs. The irregularity of Spanish verbs is 
caused either by the introduction of new sounds between the 
stem and the inflexion, or by alteration of the stem, or by 
alteration of the inflexion. The irregular verbs are classified 
in different ways by grammarians. The classification in itself 
is of no importance so long as all the irregular verbs in general 
use are clearly set forth. 

1 The Academy includes these amongst the irregular verbs, which 
does not seem justifiable, because Spanish phonetics reject the combina- 
tion nio, Hie, etc., when the i is unstressed. Henchir, to fill, to tighten, 
the only verb ending in -chir in Spanish, loses the unstressed i. Yet it 
keeps it in hincbio to avoid confusion with hincho (swelled). 

2 It is to be noted that most of these changes are general rules 
applicable to derivation in all its forms : frac, fraques ; rapaz, rapaces ; 
loco, loquito; lago, laguito; duque, ducal, etc., as previously 
explained. 



THE VERB 277 

I. Verbs which take on an additional sound between the stem and 
the inflexion : 

a. Lucir (and compounds of lucir), and all verbs ending in 
-acer, -ecer, -ocer (except hacer; mecer, to rock ; cocer, to cook ; 
yacer, to lie down ; and placer, to please, and their compounds), 
take a c between the stem and the inflexion in the first person 
of the present indicative and in all persons of the present 
subjunctive: the c of the stem changes to z to preserve the 
sound. 

Lucir, to shine, to display. 
Pres, ind. Luzco, I shine, I display. 
Pres. subj\ Luzca, luzcas, luzca, luzcamos, luzcdis, luzcan. 

Conocer, to know, 
Pres, ind. Conozco. 

Pres. subj. Conozca, conozcas, conozca, conozcamos, 
conozcais, conozcan. 

Nacer, crecer, agradecer, amanecer (to dawn), anochecer (to 
get dark), are conjugated like conocer; pacer (to graze) is not 
used in the first person singular of the present indicative, but 
in the subjunctive present it follows conocer. Yacer (to lie) 
follows conocer, but it is also and more often conjugated 
as yazgo, yazga, yazgas, etc., or even yago, yaga, yagas (this 
last form is not often heard). 

Asir has asgo in the first person singular of the present 
indicative, and asga, asgas, asga, asgamas, asgdis, asgan in 
the present subjunctive. 

b. Verbs ending in -ducir have the same irregularity as lucir, 
and form the past of the indicative in -uje, -ujiste, -ujo, -ujimos, 
•ujisteis, -ujeron, and the past and future of the subjunctive in 
•ujese, -ujeses (etc.), -ujera, -ujeras (etc.), -ujere, -ujeres (etc.). 

Traducir, to translate. 

Indicative. 

Present, traduzco. 

Past, traduje 

tradujiste 

tradujo 

tradujimos 

tradujisteis 

tradujeron. 



278 APPENDIX 

Subjunctive. 

Present, traduzca Past {2nd form), tradujera 

traduzcas tradujeras 

traduzca tradujera 

traduzcamos tradujeramos 

traduzcdis tradujerais 

traduzcan. trg,dujeran. 

Past {ist form), tradujese Future. trad|ijere 

tradujeses tradujereS 

tradujese tradujere 

tradujesemos tradujeremos 

tradujeseis tradujereis 

tradujesen. tradujeren. 

c. Verbs ending in -uir, in which the two vowels are separately 
pronounced. They all (except inmiscuir, according to the 
Spanish Academy) take a y between the stem and the ending 
in the three persons of the singular and the third person plural 
of the present indicative, in all persons of the present subjunc- 
tive, and in the singular of the imperative. Verbs like seguir, 
delinquir, etc., in which the u is not sounded, do not belong to 
this class. 

Huir, to flee, to run away. 
Indicative. Subjunctive. 



'esent. huyo 


Present, huya 


huyes 


huyas 


huye 


huya 


(3 pi.) huyen. 


huyamos 




huydis 




huyan. 


Imperative. 1 


tiuye.^ 



d. Salir and valer take a g between the stem and the ending 
in the first person of the present indicative and in all persons 
of the present subjunctive. The imperative singular is formed 
by the stem alone without inflexion. They change the final 
vowel of the infinitive to d in the formation of the future and 
future in the past. 

' In huyo, huyese, huyendo etc. the y is the i of the inflexion modified 
according to the phonetic changes of the regular verbs ; see § 353. 



THE VERB 



2^9 



Valer, to be worth. 
Indicative. Subjunctive. 



Present. 


Present, 


valga 


valgo. 




valgas 


Future. 




valga 


valdre, valdrds, etc. 




valgamos 


Future in the past. 




valgdis 


valdria, valdrias, etc. 




valgan. 


Imperative. 


val. 





II. Verbs which change their stem : 

a. A considerable number of verbs of the first and second 
conjugation having e or o in the last syllable of the stem change 
the e to ie and the o to ue in the three persons singular and 
the third person plural of the present indicative and present 
subjunctive and in the singular of the imperative : 

I. Cerrar, to close ^ to shut. 2. Mover, to move. 



Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


Indicative. 


Subjunctive. 


Present, cierro 


Present, cierre 


muevo 


mueva 


cierras 


cierres 


mueves 


muevas 


cierra 


cierre 


mueve 


mueva 


(3 pi.) cierran 


cierren 


niueven 


muevan 



Imperative, cierra. 



Imperative, mueve. 



Adquirir (derived from querer) and jugar (which originally 
was spelt and pronounced jogar) are included in this group : 
adquiero, adquieres, etc. ; juego, juegas, etc. 

Errar, to make mistakes, to err, belongs to this group, but it 
changes the e to ye, instead of ie, as there is a tendency in 
Spanish to give the sound of y to the initial i followed by a 
vowel : yodo (iodo), yegua. 

Verbs in -ar which change e into ie : 

acertar, to hit the mark, to 

guess right. 
acrecentar, to increase. 



adestrar, to train. 

alentar, to breathe, to en- 
courage. 

apacentar, to graze, to feed. 

apretar, to press, to compress, 
to urge. 

arrendar, to let. 

asentar, to put down, to note 
down, to set. 



aserrar, to saw. 

atravesar, to cross, to bar. 

calentar, to warm. 

cegar, to blind. 

cimentar, to lay the founda- 
tion, to cement. 

comenzar, to begin. 

confesar, to confess, to own. 

denegar, to deny ; denegarse, 
to refuse. 

derrengar, to cripple. 

desterrar, to exile. 



28o 



APPENDIX 



dezmar, to decimate. 

empedrar, to pave with stones. 

empezar, to begin. 

encerrar, to imprison, to shut 
in, to contain. 

encomendar, to entrust, to re- 
commend. 

encubertar,to put under cover. 

endentar, to gear, to engage. 

enmendar, to mend, to make 
good ; enmendarse, to grow 
better, to reform. 

ensangrentar, to stain with 
blood. 

enterrar, to bury. 

escarmentar, to be taught by 
experience, to make one re- 
pent. 

estregar, to rub.* 

fregar, to rub. 

gobernar, to rule, to govern. 

helar, to freeze. 

herrar, to shoe. 

invernar, to spend the winter. 

Verbs in -er changing the e of 
ascender, to ascend, 
atender, to attend, 
earner, to sift. 
contender, to fight, 
defender, to defend, 
encender, to light. 
entender, to understand. 
extender, to extend, to stretch 

out. 



manifestar, to manifest, to 

show. 
mentar, to mention, 
merendar, to sup. 
negar, to deny, 
nevar, to snow. 
pensar, to think. 
plegar, to fold, to pleat, 
quebrar, to break, 
recomendar, to recommend, 
regar, to water, to irrigate, 
remendar, to mend, to patch, 
rev en tar, to burst. 
segar, to mow. 
sembrar, to sow. 
sentar, to seat, to fit ; sentarse, 

to sit down, 
sosegar, to keep quiet, to 

tranquillize, 
temblar, to tremble, 
tentar, to touch, to tempt, 
trasegar, to move around, to 

shuffle, to pour over, 
tropezar, to stumble. 

the stem into ie : 

heder, to stink. 

hender, to cleave, to split. 

perder, to lose. 

tender, to tend, to aim at, to 

lay. 
trascender, to transcend, to 

pass beyond, to smell, 
verier, to shed, to spill. 



Verbs in -ar changing the o 

acordar, to agree, to remind. 
acostarse, to go to bed. 
almorzar, to lunch, 
amoblar, to furnish (also 

amueblar). 
amolar, to grind, 
apostar, to bet. 
aprobar, to approve. 
asolar, to lay waste, 
avergonzar, to make one 

ashamed. 



of the stem into tie: 

colar, to filter. 

colgar, to hang. 

concordar, to be in accord. 

consolar, to comfort. 

contar, to count. 

costar, to cost. 

degoUar, to cut the throat, to 

slaughter. 
demostrar, to prove, 
descoUar, to tower over, to be 

prominent. 



* It is also used as a regular verb : estrego, estregas, etc. 



THE VERB 



281 



desolar, to devastate, to deso- 
late. 

desollar, to skin, to flay. 

desovar, to spawn. 

emporcar, to soil. * 

encontrar, to find, to meet. 

encovar, to put into a cave. 

engrosar, to become stout. 

esforzarse, to try to. 

forzar, to force, to compel. 

holgar, to be idle, to be useless ; 
holgarse, to be pleased. 

hollar, to tread. 

improbar, to disapprove. 

mostrar, to show. 

poblar, to populate. 

probar, to prove. 

recordar, to remind, to re- 
member. 

recostarse, to lean against, to 
recline. 



renovar, to renew. 

reprobar, to reprobate, to con- 
demn, to reprove. 

resoUar, to breathe, to take 
breath. 

revolcarse, to wallow, to roll. 

rodar, to roll, to run on wheels, 
to turn around. 

rogar, to pray, to beg. 

soldar, to solder. 

soltar, to let loose, to loosen. 

sonar, to sound. 

sonar, to dream. 

tostar, to roast, to toast. 

trocar, to barter, to exchange. 

tronar, to thunder. 

volar, to fly. 

volcar, to turn upside down, 
to overturn. 



Verbs in -er which change the o of the stem into ue : 



absolver, to absolve. 
cocer, to cook, 
doler, to feel pain, to ache, 
envolver, to wrap. 
Hover, to rain. 
moler, to grind. 
morder, to bite. 
mover, to move. 
oler, to smell.^ 



resolver, to decide, to solve, 

to resolve, 
revolver, to revolve, to stir, 
soler, to be wont, to be apt, to 

be accustomed. 
torcer, to twist, to distort, to 

turn. 
volver, to return, to turn over, 

to come back.2 



Note.— As a rule all compound verbs follow the irregularity 
of the simple form. Devolver is conjugated like volver, 
desalentar like alentar, conmover like mover. 

b. A few verbs of the third conjugation having e in the last 
syllable of the stem change it into i in the three persons singular 
and third plural of the present indicative, in the third person 
singular and plural of the past, in all the tenses of the subjunctive 
mood, as well as in the imperative singular and the present 
participle. 

1 This verb takes an initial h in the irregular persons: huelo, 
hueles, huele. In the regular forms the ti is not needed : olia, oliste» 
oliendo. 

2 The past participle of volver is vuelto. 



282 



APPENDIX 
Corregir, to correct. 



Indicative. 

Present, corrijo 

corriges • 
corrige 
(3 pi.) corrigen. 

Past, (3 sg.) corrigio 

(3 pi.) corrigieron. 

Subjunctive. 
Present, corrija 
corrijas 
corrija 
corrijamos 
corrijdis 
corrijan. 



Subjunctive. 

Past (istform). 

corrigiese 

corrigieses, etc. 
Past (2nd form), 

corrigiera 

corrigieras, etc. 
Future, 

corrigiera 

corrigieres, etc. 
Imperative. 

corrige. 
Pres, Participle, 

corrigiendo. 



1 



Note. — All verbs in -eir (like reir, freir, desleir) belong to 
this group, and they have a peculiarity with regard to all the 
irregular forms in which the inflexion begins with unstressed i. 
This is dropped in order to avoid the repetition of the vowel : 
rio (not riio) ; deslio (not desliio), he diluted ; friese, he might 
fry ; desliera, he would dilute. 

Verbs belonging to this group are : 



cenir, to gird. 

colegir, to gather, to infer. 

comedirse, to be civil, to con- 
trol oneself. 

competir, to compete. 

concebir, to conceive. 

conseguir, to obtain, to get, to 
succeed. 

derretir, to melt. 

desleir, to dissolve, to dilute. 

elegir, to choose, to elect, to 
select. 

embestir, to rush against, to 
assail. 

engrelrse, to become con- 
ceited. 

expedir, to dispatch, to ex- 
pedite. 

freir, to fry. 

gemir, to groan, to moan. 

henchir, to fill up, to swell. 



impedir,to obstruct, to prevent. 

investir, to clothe, to sur- 
round. 

medir, to measure. 

pedir, to ask for, to beg, to 
order. 

perseguir, to persecute. 

proseguir, to follow, to con- 
tinue. 

regir, to govern, to rule. 

reir, to laugh. 

rendir, to render, to submit, to 
surrender. 

renir, to quarrel, to scold, to 
fight. 

repetir, to repeat. 

seguir, to follow. 

servir, to serve. 

sonreir, to smile. 

tenir, to dye. 

vestir, to clothe, to dress. 



THE VERB 



283 



c. A few verbs of the third conjugation, which have e in the 
last syllable of the stem, change this e into ie in the three 
persons singular and third person plural of the present indica- 
tive and present subjunctive and in the imperative singular; 
they change this e into i in the first and second persons plural of 
the present subjunctive, in the third person singular and plural 
of the past indicative, in all the persons of the pasts and future 
of the subjunctive, and in the present participle. 



Divertir, to amuse. 
Indicative. 
Present, divierto 
diviertes 
divierte 
(3 pi.) divierten. 
Past. (3 sg.) divirtio 

(3 pi.) divirtieron. 

Subjunctive. 
Present, divierta 
diviertas 
divierta 
divirtamos 
divirt^is 
diviertan. 



Subjunctive. 
Past (istform). 

divirtiese 

divirtieses, etc. 
Past {2nd form). 

divirtiera 

divirtieras, etc. 
Future. 

divirtiere 

divirtieres, etc. 

Imperative. 

divierte. 
Present Participle. 

divirtiendo. 



Principal verbs belonging to 

adherir, to adhere. 
advertir, to advise. 
arrepentirse, to repent, 
asentir, to assent. 
concernir, to concern. 
conferir, to confer. 
consentir, to consent. 
convertir, to convert, 
desmentir, to give the lie. 
diferir, to differ. 
digerir, to digest. 
discernir, to discern, to distin- 
guish, 
disentir, to differ, to disagree, 
erguir, to raise up, to erect.^ 
herir, to wound, to strike. 
hervir, to boil. 



this group : 

inferir, to infer, to come to the 
conclusion. 

ingerir, to insert, to graft ; in- 
gerirse, to interfere. 

invertir, to invert, to reverse, 
to invest. 

mentir, to lie. 

pervertir, to pervert, to seduce, 
to mislead. 

preferir, to prefer. 

referir, to refer. 

requerir, to request. 

subvertir, to subvert. 

sugerir, to suggest. 

transferir, to convey, to trans- 
fer. 

zaherir, to upbraid, to tease. 



1 The initial ie becomes ye, as in the case of errar ; so we say yergO, 
yergues, etc. 



284 APPENDIX 

Dormir, to sleep, and morir, to die, change o into ue in all 
the forms in which the verbs of this group take ie instead of e, 
and o into u in all the forms in which these verbs take an i 
instead of the e of the stem : 

Duermo, durmio, durmiese, durmiendo. 

Muere, murieron, muriesemos, muriendo. 

Note. — Some of the verbs of this group and of the foregoing 
group form verbal nouns or adjectives in -iente, following the 
irregularity of the gerund : riente (laughing) from reir ; siguiente 
(following) from seguir ; sirviente (servant) from servir ; hiriente 
(striking) from herir ; durmiente (sleeper) from dormir ; hir- 
viente (boiling) from hervir. Yet we say diferente from diferir ; 
preferente from preferir ; concerniente from concernir. 

III. Besides the verbs classified in the preceding groups 
there are certain irregular verbs that do not admit of any 
special classification. They are called anomalous by the gram- 
marians. These verbs are : 

andar, to go, to walk, § 329. poder, to be able, § 339 b, 

caber, to be contained in, § 293. poner, to put, § 259. 

caer, to fall, § 271. querer, to wish, § 125. 

dar, to give, § 331 a. saber, to know, § 133. 

decir, to say, to tell, § 108. ser, to be, § 66 d, 

estar, to be, § 94. tener, to have, § 103. 

haber, to have, § 66 a. traer, to bring, § 319. 

hacer, to make, § 328. venir, to come, § 244. 

ir, to go, § 222. ver, to see, § 331.^ 
oir, to hear, § 330. 

Note. — The compounds of decir are conjugated like the 
simple verb, except in the future and future in the past, w^hich 
are regular: bendecire (I shall bless), maldecirian (they would 
curse), nos desdeciremos (we shall recent), el contradeciria 
(he would contradict). The past participle of bendecir, mal- 
decir, is both regular (bendecido, maldecido) and irregular 
(bendito, maldito), not following dicho in either case. Ben- 
decido and maldecido are used with haber: el obispo ha 

* Pudrir, which is the form accepted by the Academy instead of 
podrir, to rot, is now a regular verb. But the Academy accepts the 
two forms for the infinitive and also for the past participle : pudrido 
and podrido. Abrir, cubrir, escribir, imprimir are irregular only in 
the past participle : abierto, cubierto, escrito, impreso. 



THE VERB 285 

bendecido a su grey, the Bishop has given his blessing to his 
flock. Bendito and maldito are to-day mere adjectives : agua 
bendita, aquella generacion maldita. Contradecir can be 
conjugated like deeir in the future and future in the past 
(contradire, contradiria), but the regular forms contradecir^, 
contra deciria, are of frequent use, and have the official sanction 
of the Spanish Academy. Desdecir and predecir are always 
regular in the future and future in the past. All the com- 
pounds (unlike the simple verb) are regular in the imperative. 
Predice (not predi) ; contradicele (contradict him) ; bendice 
a tu siervo (bless thy servant). Satisfacer, to satisfy, is 
conjugated hke hacer, but it keeps the f of the stem : satis- 
fago, satisfice, satisfacia, satisfare, satisfaria, satisficiese, 
satisficiera, satisficiere, satisfecho. In the imperative one 
can say satisfaz or satis face, the regular form being preferable. 
Rarefacer, to rarefy, follows satisfacer. Other compounds Hke 
deshacer, contrahacer, rehacer, are conjugated like hacer. 
Compounds of other verbs, like componer, convenir, desoir, 
desandar, recaer, etc., follow the simple form. 

356. — There is a correspondence between the different tenses 
of the verb, so that the irregularity of certain tenses involves 
a similar irregularity in cognate forms. The irregularity of 
the present indicative involves the irregularity of the present 
subjunctive, and possibly of the imperative. The irregularity of 
the past indicative involves the same kind of irregularity in the 
pasts and future of the subjunctive and in the present participle ; 
the irregularity of the future indicative extends to the future in 
the past. Dar is the only verb which, being irregular in the first 
person singular of the present indicative, is not irregular in the 
subjunctive present (see § 331 a). 

357.— When a verb is regular in the first person of the 
present indicative it can be asserted that it is regular in all its 
moods, tenses, and persons. There is only one exception, 
andar, which is irregular in the past indicative and in the pasts 
and future of the subjunctive. 

S58.— Defective verbs. The defective verbs in Spanish are those 
that cannot be used in certain tenses or persons. Abolir (to 
abolish), aguerrir (to become trained for war), arrecirse (to grow 
numb), aterirse (to grow stiff with cold), desmarrirse (to grow 
sad), despavorir (to become frightened), embair (to deceive), 



286 APPENDIX 

empedernirse (to grow hard as stone), garantir (to guarantee), 
manir (to rot), and a few others less common, are only employed 
in those forms in which the inflexion is an i or begins with an 
i : aboli (I abolished), nosotros abolimos (we abolish), aboliese 
(that he would abolish); but it would be wrong to say abolo, 
aboles, abolan. 

a, Balbucir (to stammer) is not used in the first person 
singular of the present indicative nor in the present subjunc- 
tive. In these cases balbucear, which is regular, is used 
instead. 

b, Concernir (to concern) is used only in the third person 
singular and plural of each tense, and must be accompanied by 
the pronominal form: me concierne (it concerns me), esas 
cosas no os conciernen a vosotros (those things do not 
concern you). 

c, Placer (to please, to be pleased) is still used in its old 
forms : plugo (past indicative), pluguiese, pluguiera, pluguiere 
(pasts and future of the subjunctive), plague (present subjunc- 
tive) ; also in a pronominal form and only in the third person : 
como no le pluguiese venir, fuimos a verle, as it was not his 
pleasure to come, we went to see him. Placia, place, regular 
forms, and plazca, are quite usual in the pronominal form : me 
place saber que estd bien, it pleases me to know that he is 
well ; te plazca o no te plazca, has de venir, you have to come, 
whether it pleases you or not. 

d, Raer, to erase, to scrape, is not used in the first person of 
the present indicative nor in the present subjunctive: it is 
conjugated like caer. 

e, Roer, to gnaw, has no first person of the present indicative. 
In the present subjunctive roa or roya, roas or royas, etc., 
can be used : corroer only admits of corroa, corroas, corroa, 
corroamos, corrodis, corroan, for the subjunctive. It is used 
in all its persons and tenses except the first person singular of 
the present indicative. 

/. Soler, to be in the habit of, is still used in the present and 
imperfect of the indicative, and in the past participle. 

The past definite is dying away, and the other forms are little 
used. 



THE VERB 



287 



359. 



Irregular Past Participles. 



The following 

abrir 

cubrir 

decir 

escribir 

hacer 

imprimir 

morir 

poner 

solver 

ver 

volver 



verbs have an 

to open 
to cover 
to say 
to write 
to make 
to print 
to die 
to put 
to solve 
to see 
to return 



irregular past 

abierto 

cubierto 

dicho 

escrito 

hecho 

impreso 

muerto 

puesto 

suelto 

visto 

vuelto 



participle : 

opened 

covered 

said 

written 

made 

printed 

dead 

put 

solved 

seen 

returned. 



360. — A few verbs have two past participles, a regular and an 
irregular one : 

freir, to fry freido frito 

matar, to kill matado muerto 

prender, to arrest, to take root prendido preso 

proveer, to provide proveido provisto 

romper, to break rompido roto. 

a, Frito and freido can be used indifferently with haber : 
han freido (or frito) los huevos, they have fried the eggs ; 
with ser, estar, and tener only frito is permissible : la torta 
estd frita, the cake is fried ; me tiene usted frito, you bore 
me. As an adjective only the form frito can be used : aqui 
venden huevos fritos, fried eggs are sold here. 

b, Matado, past participle of matar, is used in a reflexive 
sense : Juan se ha matado, John has killed himself ; or it is used 
to mean slaughtered : habian matado mucho ganado a causa de 
la sequia, they had slaughtered a great deal of cattle as a result 
of the drought ; or with reference to the sores caused to horses, 
mules, or cattle by saddle or harness : tu silla ha matado a mi 
caballo, your saddle has bruised my horse's back. In all other 
cases muerto is preferable: han muerto a ese infeliz, they 
have killed that wretched man. 

c, Prender, in the sense of to arrest, generally forms preso : 
est^ preso, han sido presos ; but the form prendido is preferable 
with haber : han prendido al supuesto reo, they have arrested 
the supposed criminal. In other senses prendido is the only 
form accepted : ha prendido el incendio, the fire has caught ; 
no ha prendido la planta, the plant has not taken root. 



288 APPENDIX 

d. Provisto, from proveer, means furnished, supplied with. 
Proveido is applied to decisions of the courts or of the adminis- 
tration : Luis ha provisto bien su despensa, Louis has supphed 
his pantry with plenty of provisions ; su casa estd bien pro- 
vista, his house is well furnished ; el gobierno ha proveido el 
empleo, the Government has filled the vacancy (even in this 
last case provisto is equally acceptable). 

e, Rompido (seldom heard) is used figuratively : ha rompido 
en dicterios, he broke forth into insults. Roto may be employed 
both in a literal and a metaphorical sense: el nino se habia 
roto una pierna, the child had had one of its legs broken ; se 
han roto las hostilidades, hostilities have broken out. 



289 



XXIX 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL IRREGULAR, ANOMA- 
LOUS, AND DEFECTIVE VERBS 

(The numerals and letters after each verb mark the group to which it 
belongs, def. means defective.) 



Abastecer 

Abnegar 

Abolir . 

Aborrecer 

Ab solver 

Abstenerse 

Abstraer 

Acaecer 

Acertar 

Acontecer 

Acordar 

Acostarse 

Acrecentar 

Adestrar 

Adherir 

Adolecer 

Adormecer 

Adqnirir 

Aducir . 

Advertir 

Aforar 

Agorar 

Agradecer 

Aguerrir 

Alentar 

Aliquebrar 

Almorzar 

Amanecer 

Amoblar ^ 



La 


Amolar 


ILai 


Andar . 


def. 


Anochecer , 


La 


Anteponer . 


ILa2 


Antever 


III. 


Apacentar . 


III. 


Aparecer 


La 


Apercollar . 


11. a I 


Apetecer 


La 


Apostar ^ 


II. a 2 


Apretar 


11. a 2 


Aprobar 


IL a I 


Argilir 


ILa I 


Arrecirse 


II. c 


Arrendar 


La 


Arrepentirse 


La 


Ascender . 


IL a I 


Asentir 


Lb 


Aserrar 


II.c 


Asir 


II. a 2 


Asolar . 


ILa 2 


Asonar 


La 


Atender 


def. 


Atenerse 


ILa I 


Atentar ■' 


ILa I 


Aterirse 


ILa. 2 


Aterrar ^ 


La 


Atestar ^ 


II. a 2 


Atraer 



ILa 2 

III. 

La 

in. 

IIL 
ILa I 
La 
ILa 2 
La 
ILa 2 
ILa I 
ILa 2 
Lc 
def 
ILa I 
ILc 
IL a I 
II.c 
IL a I 
La 
ILa 2 
ILa 2 
II. a I 
IIL 
IL a I 
def. 
ILa I 
ILa I 
IIL 



1 Amueblar, which means the same, is regular. 

2 Meaning ' to bet^ this verb is irregular ; meaning * to place relays * 
or * to post soldiers ^, it is regular. 

3 In the sense of * making an attempt against somebody ' this verb is 
regular. 

^ Meaning * t® inspire terror, awe ^ aterrar is regular. 

s When taken in the sense of ' to witness ' this verb is regular. 



290 LIST OF IRREGULAR, ANOMALOUS 



Atravesar . 


II. a I 


Consonar 




Atribuir 


I. c 


Constituir , 




Atronar 


II. a 2 


Constrenir . 




Avenir . 


III. 


Construir 




Aventar 


II. a I 


Contar . 




Avergonzar . 


II. a 2 


Contender . 




Azolar . 


11. a 2 


Contener 
Contorcerse . 




Balbucir 


def. 


Contradecir . 




Bendecir 


III. 


Contraer 








Contrahacer 


Caber . 


III. 


Contraponer 


Caer . 


III. 


Contravenir . 


Calentar 


II. a I 


Contribuir . 




Carecer 


La 


Controvertir 




Cegar . 


II. a I 


Convalecer . 




Cenir . 


II. b 


Convenir 




Cerner . 


II. a I 


Convertir 




Cerrar . 


II. a I 


Corregir 




Cimentar 


II. a I 


Corroer 




Circuir . 


I. c 


Costar . 




Clarecer 


I. a 


Crecer . 




Cocer . 


II. a 2 






Colar . 


II. a 2 


Dar 




Colegir . 


II. b 


Decaer . 




Colgar . 


II. a 2 


Decir . 




Comedir 


II. b 


Decrecer . 




Comenzar . 


II. a I 


Deducir 




Compadecer 


La 


Defender 




Comparecer 


La 


Deferir 




Competir 


11. b 


Degollar 




Complacer . 


La 


Demoler 




Componer . 


III. 


Demostrar 




Comprobar . 


11. a 2 


Denegar 




Concebir 


11. b 


Denegrecer 




Concernir . 


. def. 


Denostar 




Concertar . 


II. a I 


Deponer 




Concluir 


I.c 


Derrengar 




Concordar . 


II. a 2 


Derretir 




Condescender 


II. a I 


Derrocar 




Condolerse . 


IL a 2 


Derruir 




Conducir 


Lb 


Desacertar 




Conferir 


ILc 


Desacordar 




Confesar 


Il.ai 


Desadvertir 




Confluir 


Ld 


Desaforar 




Conmover . 


ILa2 


Desagradece 


r 


Conocer 


L2 


Desalentar 




Conseguir . 


Il.b 


Desamoblar 




Consentir 


ILc 


Desandar 




Consolar 


ILa2 


Desaparecer 





AND DEFECTIVE VERBS 



291 



Desapretar . 


II. a I 


Deshacer . 


III. 


Desaprobar . 


. II. a 2 


Deshelar 


II. a I 


Desarrendar 


II. a I 


Desherbar . 


IL a I 


Desasir 


I. a 


Desherrar . 


ILai 


Desasosegar 


II. a I 


Desleir 


ILb 


Desatender . 


II. a I 


Deslucir 


La 


Desatentar . 


II. a I 


Desmarrirse 


def. 


Desaterrar . 


II. a I 


Desmedirse . 


ILb 


Desavenir . 


III. 


Dcsmembrar 


IL a I 


Desaventar . 


11. a I 


Desmentir . 


ILc 


Descaecer . 


La 


Desnierecer. 


La 


Descender . 


II. a I 


Desobedecer 


La 


Descenir 


II. b 


Desoir . 


IIL 


Descolgar . 


II. a 2 


Desolar 


. ILa2 


Descollar 


II. a 2 


Desoldar 


II. a 2 


Descomedirse 


11. b 


Desollar 


. IL a 2 


Descomponer 


II. a 2 


Desosar ^ 


. ILa2 


Desconcertar 


II. a I 


Desparecer . 


La 


Desconocer . 


La 


Despavorir . 


def. 


Desconsentir 


ILc 


Despedir 


ILb 


Desconsolar 


ILa2 


Despertar . 


II. a I 


Descontar . 


ILa2 


Desplacer . 


def. 


Desconvenir 


III. 


Desplegar . 


IL a I 


Descordar . 


ILa2 


Despoblar . 


II. a 2 


Desdecir 


in. 


Destenir 


. ILb 


Desempedrar 


II. a I 


Desterrar 


. IL a I 


Desencarecer 


La 


Destituir 


Lc 


Desencerrar 


ILai 


Destorcer . 


II. a 2 


Desencordar 


II a 2 


Destruir 


. Lc 


Desencrudecer 


La 


Desvanecer . 


La 


Desenfurecerse 


La 


Desvergonzarse 


IL a 2 


Desengrosar 


XL a 2 


Detener 


IIL 


Desenmohecer 


La 


Detraer 


IIL 


Desenmudecer 


La 


Devolver 


ILa2 


Desentenderse 


11. a I 


Dezmar 


ILai 


Desenterrar 


II. a I 


Diferir . 


ILc 


Desentorpeeer 


La 


Digerir 


IL c 


Desentristecer 


La 


Di uir . 


Lc 


Desentumecer 


La 


Discernir 


ILc 


Desenvolver 


ILai 


Discordar . 


II. a 2 


Deservir 


11. b 


Disentir 


ILc 


Desfallecer . 


La 


Disminuir . 


Lc 


Desfavorecer 


La 


Disolver 


ILa2 


Desflocar 


ILa2 


Disonar 


ILa2 


Desflorecer . 


La 


Disponer 


IIL 


Desfortalecer 


La 


Distraer 


IIL 


Desgobernar 


ILai 


Distribuir . 


Lc 


Desguarnecer 


La 


Divertir 


ILc 


1 This verb 1 


akes an h befor 


E ue : deshueso, d€ 


^shueses. 




U 


2 





292 LIST OF IRREGULAR, ANOMALOUS 



Doler . 


II. a 2 


Enmudecer . 


Dormir 


II. c 


Ennegrecer . 
Ennoblecer . 


Elegir . 


II. b 


Enorgullecer 


Embair 


def. 


Enrarecer . 


Embebecer . 


La 


Enriquecer . 


Embellecer . 


La 


Enrobustecer 


Embestir 


ILb 


Enrojecer . 


Emblandecer 


La 


Enronquecer 


Emblanquecer . 


La 


Enronecer . 


Embobecer . 


La 


Ensalmorar . 


Embravecer 


La 


Ensangrentar 


Embrutecer 


La 


Ensoberbecer 


Emparentar 


11. a I 


En sonar 


Empedernir 


def. 


Ensordecer . 


Empedrar . 


ILai 


Entallecer . 


Empequenecer . 


La 


Entender 


Empezar 


ILai 


Entenebrecer 


Empobrecer 


La 


Enternecer . 


Enaltecer 


La 


Enterrar 


Enardecer . 


La 


Entontecer . 


Encallecer . 


La 


Entorpecer . 


Encalvecer . 


La 


Entredecir . 


Encanecer . 


La 


Entrelucir . 


Encarecer . 


La 


Entremorir . 


Encender 


II. a I 


Entreoir 


Encerrar 


ILai 


Entreparecerse . 


Encomendar 


ILai 


Entreponer . 


Encontrar . 


ILa2 


Entretener . 


Encordar 


II. a 2 


Entrever 


Encrudecer . 


La 


Entristecer 


Encruelecer 


La 


Entumecer . 


Encubertar . 


ILai 


Envanecer . 


Endentar 


ILai 


Envejecer . 


Endurecer . 


La 


Enverdecer . 


Enfierecerse 


La 


Envilecer 


Enflaquecer 


La 


Envolver 


Enfranquecer 


La 


Equivaler . 


Enfurecer . 


La 


Erguir . 


Engrandecer 


La 


Errar . . . 


Engreir 


ILb 


Escarmentar 


Engrosar 


11. a 2 


Escarnecer . 


Engrumecerse 


La 


Esclarecer . 


Enhestar 


ILai 


Escocer 


Enloquecer . 


La 


Esforzar 


Enlucir 


. La 


Establecer . 


Enmagrecer 


La 


Estar . 


Enmelar 


IL a I 


Estatuir 


Enmendar . 


11. a I 


Estremecer . 


Enmohecer . 


La 


Estrenir 



AND DEFECTIVE VERBS 



293 



Excluir 


I.c 


Inducir 


Lb 


Expedir 


II. b 


Inferir . 


II. c 


Exponer 


III. 


Influir . 


Lc 


Extender 


II. a I 


Ingerir . 


II.c 


Extraer 


III. 


Inquirir 


11. a I 






Instituir 


1. c 


Fallecer 


. La 


Instruir 


Lc 


Favorecer . 


La 


Interponer . 


HI. 


Fenecer 


I. a 


Intervenir . 


111. 


Florecer 


La 


Introducir . 


1. b 


Fluir . 


I.c 


Invernar 


11. a I 


Fortalecer . 


La 


Invertir 


H. c 


Forzar . 


11. a 2 


Investir 


ILb 


Fregar . 


II. a I 


Ir. 


IIL 


Freir . 


ILb 






Garantir 


def. 


Jugar . 


IL a 2 


Gemir . 
Gobernar 


ILb 
II. a I 


Languidecer 


La 


Guarecer 


La 


Liquefacer . 


La 


Guarnecer . 


La 


Lobreguecer 


La 






Lucir . 


La 


Haber . 


. HI. 


Llover . 


lLa2 


Hacendar . 


IL a I 






Hacer . 


III. 


Maldecir 


IIL 


Heder . 


Il.a I 


Maltraer 


IIL 


Helar . 


Il.ai 


Manifestar . 


IL ai 


Hender 


11. a I 


Manir . 


def. 


Henir . 


ILb 


Mantener 


HI. 


Herir . 


H. b 


Medir . 


11. b 


Herrar . 


ILai 


Melar . 


H. ai 


Hervir . 


11. c 


Mentar^ 


H.ai 


Holgar . 


11. a 2 


Mentir^ 


11. c 


Hollar . 


11. a 2 


Merecer 


La 


Huir . 


I.c 


Merendar 


H. ai 


Humedecer . 


La 


Moler . 


Il.a 2 






Morder 


11. a 2 


Imbuir . 


I.c 


Morir . 


11. c 


Impedir 


ILb 


Mostrar 


ILa2 


Imponer 


HI. 


Mover . 


IL a 2 


Improbar . 


ILa2 






Incensar 


11. a I 


Nacer . 


La 


Incluir . 


Lc 


Negar . 


11. a I 


Indisponer . 


HI. 


Nevar . 


H. a I 


1 The I St person 


singular of t 


le present indicative 


is the same 


for these two verbs 


: miento vl lie 


; or I mention). The 


and and 3rd 



persons singular and the 3rd plural of the present indicative of mentar 
are the same as the 2nd and 3rd singular and 3rd plural of tiie present 
subjunctive of mentir. 



294 LIST OF IRREGULAR, ANOMALOUS 



Obedecer 

Obscurecer 

Obstruir 

Obtener 

Ofrecer 

Gir 

Oler . 

Oponer 

Pacer . 

Padecer 

Palidecer 

Parecer 

Pedir . 

Pensar . 

Perder . 

Perecer 

Permanecer 

Perseguir 

Pertenecer , 

Pervertir 

Placer . 

Plegar . 

Poblar . 

Poder . 

Podrir {or 

Poner . 

Posponer 

Preconocer 

Predecir 

Predisponer 

Preferir 

Prelucir 

Presentir 

Presuponer 

Pre vale cer 

Prevenir 

Prever . 

Probar . 

Producir 

Proferir 

Promover 

Proponer 

Proseguir 

Prove nir 

Quebrar 
Ouerer 

Raer \ 



pud 



La 


Rarefacer . 


I. a 


Reaparecer . 
Reblandecer 


I. c 


III. 


Recaer. 


La 


Recalentar . 


IIL 


Recenir 


III. 


Recluir 


IIL 


Recocer 




Recolar* 


def. 


Recolegir 


La 


Recomendar 


La 


Recomponer 


La 


Reconducir . 


11. b 


Reconocer . 


ILai 


Reconstruir . 


ILai 


Recontar 


La 


Reconvalecer 


La 


Reconvenir . 


II. b 


Recordar . 


La 


Recostar 


IL c 


Recrudecer . 


def. 


Reducir 


IL ax 


Reelegir 


ILa2 


Reencomendar . 


IIL 


Referir . 


llLfootnote 


Reflorecer . 


IIL 


Refluir. 


IIL 


Reforzar 


La 


Refregar 


IIL 


Refreir 


IIL 


Regar . 


ILc 


Regimentar . 


La 


Regir . 


ILc 


Regoldar 


IIL 


Rehacer 


La 


Rehenchir . 


III. 


Reherir 


IIL 


Rehervir 


IL a 2 


Rehuir . 


Lb 


Rehumedecer 


ILc 


Reir . 


ILa2 


Rejuvenecer 


IIL 


Relentecer . 


ILb 


Relucir 


IIL 


Remendar . 




Remoler 


ILai 


Remorder . 


IIL 


Remover 




Renacer 


def. 


Rendir . 



AND DEFECTIVE VERBS 



295 



Renegar , . 


II. a I 


Sarmentar . 


ILai 


Renovar 


II. a 2 


Satisfacer . 


IIL 


Reilir . 


II. b 


Segar . , " . 


ILai 


Repacer 


I. a 


Seguir . 


ILb 


Repadecer . 


I. a 


Senibrar 


ILai 


Repensar 


II. a I 


Sentar . 


ILa I 


Repetir 


II. b 


Sentir . 


ILc 


Replegar 


II. a I 


Ser . . . 


IIL 


Repoblar 


II. a 2 


Serrar . 


ILai 


Reponer 


III. 


Servir . 


ILb 


Reprobar 


II. a 2 


Sobrentender 


ILai 


Reproducir . 


Lb 


Sobreponer . 


IIL 


Requebrar . 


II. a I 


Sobresalir . 


Ld 


Requerer 


III. 


Sobresolar . 


IL a 2 


Requerir 


II. a I 


Sobrevenir . 


III. 


Resembrar . 


II. a I 


Solar . 


ILa 2 


Resentirse . 


II. c 


Soldar . 


II. a 2 


Resolver 


II. a 2 


Soler . 


def. 


Resollar 


II. a 2 


Soltar . 


ILa 2 


Resonar 


II. a 2 


Solver . 


II. a 2 


Resplandecer 


La 


Sonar . 


II. a 2 


Resquebrar . 


ILai 


Sonreir 


ILb 


Restablecer . 


La 


Sonar . 


ILa 2 


Restituir 


Lc 


Sosegar 


ILai 


Restregar . 


Lai 


Sostener 


IIL 


Retemblar . 


Lai 


Soterrar 


ILai 


Retener 


III. 


Subarrendar 


ILai 


Retentar 


Lai 


Subentender 


ILai 


Retenir 


11. b 


Subseguir . 


.ILb 


Retorcer 


IL a 2 


Subtender . 


ILai 


Retostar 


ILa2 


Subvenir 


IIL 


Retraer 


in. 


Subvertir 


. ILc 


Retribuir . 


Lc 


Sugerir 


ILc 


Retronar 


ILa2 


Superponer . 


IIL 


Revenirse . 


II. a I 


Supervenir . 


IIL 


Reventar 


Il.a I 


Suponer 


IIL 


Rever . 


III. 


Sustituir 


Lc 


Reverdecer . 


La 


Sustraer 


IIL 


Reverter 


ILai 






Revestir 


Il.b 


Temblar 


ILai 


Revolcarse . 


ILa2 


Tender 


. IL a I 


Revolver 


Il.a 2 


Tener . 


IIL 


Robustecer . 


La 


Tentar . 


II. a I 


Rodar . 


Il.a 2 


Tefiir . 


ILb 


Roer . 


def. 


Torcer . 


ILa 2 


Rogar . 


Il.a 2 


Tostar . 


II. a 2 






Traducir 


Lb 


Saber . 


IIL 


Traer . 


. IIL 


Salir . 


Ld 


Transferir . 


ILc 


Salpimentar. 


ILai 


i Transponer . 


IIL 



296 LIST OF IRREG., ANOM., DEFECT. VERBS 



Trascender . 


11. a I 


Venir . 


III. 


Trascordarse 


11. a 2 


Ver . 


111. 


Trasegar 


II. a I 


Verdecer 


I. a 


Traslucirse . 


I. a 


Verter . 


II. a I 


Trasoir 


III. 


Vestir . 


II. b 


Trasonar 


II. a 2 


Volar . 


II. a 2 


Trastrocar . 


II. a 2 


Volcar . 


II. a 2 


Trasvolar . 


II. a 2 


Volver . 


II. a 2 


Trocar 


II. a 2 






Tronar 


II. a 2 


Yacer . . 


La 


Tropezar 


II. a I 


Yuxtaponer . 


111. 



Valer 



I.d 



Zaherir 



II. c 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



(Abbreviations : adj,^ adjective ; adv.^ adverb ; conj., conjunction ; /., noun 

feminine; ni., noun masculine; />/., plural; prep.^ preposition; pron., 

pronoun ; rel.t relative.) 



a, prep.^ to, at, on. 

abajo, adv.^ below. 

abandonar, to leave, to ne- 
glect, to relinquish, to give 
up. 

abandono, m,^ neglect. 

abatir, to put down, to lower, 
to abate. 

abeto, m., spruce-tree. 

abogado, m,^ lawyer. 

abrazar, abrazarse, to em- 
brace, to hug. 

abrigo, in, shelter, overcoat. 

abril, m.^ April. 

abrir, to open. 

abrumador, adj.^ oppressive, 
overwhelming. 

absorto, adj.^ abstracted, ab- 
sorbed in thought. 

abstenerse, to abstain. 

abuelo, m,, grandfather ; abue- 
los, grandparents. 

abundant e, adj,^ abundant. 

aburrir, to bore ; aburrirse, to 
be bored, to become tired. 

ac^, adv.^ hither, here. 

acabar, to end, to finish, to put 
an end to ; acabar de, to have 
just . . . 

academia,/., academy. 

acarrear, to carry, to bring to. 

acarreo, carrying, cartage. 

acaso, w., chance, fate. 

acaso, afifz/., perhaps, by chance. 

aceptar, to accept. 

acera,/, side-walk, pavement. 

acerca de, prep.^ about, con- 
cerning. 

acercarse, to come near, to 
approach. 



acero, m.^ steel. 

acertar, to hit the mark, to 
succeed. 

aclarar, to make clear, to 
illustrate, to clarify. 

acomodar, to accommodate. 

acompanar, to accompany. 

aconsejar, to advise. 

acontecer, to happen, to ar- 
rive. 

acontecimiento, m., event. 

acordar, to agree ; acordarse, 
to remember, to recall, to re- 
collect. 

acostarse, to lie down, to go to 
bed. 

acostumbrar, to use, to ac- 
custom. 

actitud,/., attitude. 

acto, m,,^ act. 

actual, adj.^ present, actual. 

acuerdo, m.^ agreement; de 
acuerdo con, in accordance 
with. 

adelantar, to go forward, to 
advance. 

adelante, adv.^ ahead, for- 
ward. 

adelanto, m., progress, ad- 
vance. 

ademdn, m., gesture, attitude. 

adenids, adv,^ besides. 

administracion, /, manage- 
ment, administration. 

admirable, adj., wonderful. 

admirar, to admire. 

admitir, to admit, to accept. 

adoptar, to adopt. 

adquirir, to acquire, to get, to 
obtain. 



298 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



adusto, adj,^ gloomy, grim, 

stern, 
advertir, to take notice of, to 

observe, to warn. 
afdn, m,^ anxiety. Estar en 

afanes, to be in trouble, in 

difficulties. 
afanarse, to toil, to worry, 
afecto,- tn,^ affection, 
afeitarse, to shave, to enamel 

the face, 
aficionado, adj.^ given to ; m., 

amateur. 
afirmar, to state, to afilrm. 
aiigido, adj.^ afflicted, sad. 
agasajar, to receive and treat 

kindly, to regale. 
^gil, adj., nimble, supple, agile, 
agitarse, to bestir oneself. 
agradable, adj.^ agreeable, 

pleasant, 
agradar, to please, 
agradecer, to thank. 
agregar, to add. 
agricultura,/, agriculture. 
agua,/, water. 

aguardar, to wait for, to await. 
ahi, adv., there, 
ahogarse, to drown. 
ahora, adv., now. 
aire, m., air. 
alabar, to praise, 
^lamo, w., poplar, 
albergue, m,, shelter. 
albillo, fn., wine of white 

grape, 
alcalde, m., mayor, alcade. 
alcance, m., reach. 
alcanzar,to reach, to overtake, 
aldea,/., village, 
alegrar, to gladden; alegrarse, 

to be glad. 
alegre, adj., glad, happy, 
alegria, f., happiness, merri- 
ment, joy. 
algo, pron., adv., something, 

somewhat. 
algodon, m.., cotton. 
alguien, pron., someone, some- 
body. 



BXgnno, adj., pron., some, some- 
body. 

alimentar, to feed; alimen- 
tarse de, to feed on. 

alimento, m., food, nourish- 
ment. 

almacen, m., store, ware- 
house. 

alminar, m., minaret. 

almoraduj, m., sweet mar- 
joram. 

almorzar, to lunch, to break- 
fast. 

almuerzo, m., luncheon, break- 
fast. 

alrededor, adv., around. 

alto, adj., high, tall. 

altura,/, height, altitude. 

alzar, to raise. 

all^, ^^z;., there, thither; nids 
alld, beyond. 

alii, adv., there. 

amable, adj., kind, lovable. 

amar, to love. 

amarillo, adj., yellow. 

ambos, -as, adj., pron., both. 

ameno, adj., pleasant, agree- 
able. 

amigo, in., friend. 

amistad,/., friendship. 

amo, m., proprietor, master. 

anciano,a<^'.,old; ;//., aged man. 

ancho, adj., wide, broad. 

anchura,/, width, breadth. 

andaluz, adj., Andalusian. 

andar, to go, to walk. 

dngel, m,, angel. 

angosto, adj., narrow. 

animal, m., animal. 

animar, to encourage, to en- 
liven. 

anoche, adv., last night. 

anochecer, to grow dusky. 

ansiar, to desire. 

ansioso, adj., anxious. 

ante, prep., before. 

anteayer, adv., the day before 
yesterday. 

anteojos, m. pi., eye-glasses, 
spectacles. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



299 



anterior, adj.^ former, first. 

antes, adv,^ before, formerly. 

anticipacion, /., anticipation ; 
con anticipacion, in ad- 
vance. 

antier, adv.^ see anteayer. 

antiguo, adj.^ ancient, old. 

antojarse, to take a fancy to, 
to long, to desire vehemently. 

anual, adj,^ annual. 

anunciar, to announce, to ad- 
vertise. 

anadir, to add. 

alio, w., year ; ano bisiesto, 
leap year. 

apagar, to put out, to extin- 
guish. 

aparecer, to appear. 

apariencia,/., appearance. 

apellido, m,, surname. 

apenas, adv,^ ?:carcely, hardly, 
as soon as. 

apetito, m., appetite. 

aplaudir, to applaud. 

apoderado, m,^ attorney. 

apoderarse de, to possess one- 
self of, to get hold of. 

apreciable, adj,^ esteemed. 

apreciar, to appreciate. 

aprecio, m,^ esteem, apprecia- 
tion. 

aprender, to learn. 

apresurarse, to hasten. 

apretar, to press, to tighten. 

aprisa, adv.^ fast, quickly. 

aprovechar, to profit by, to 
take advantage. 

aproximar, to approach. 

apurar, to hasten, to worry. 

aquel, adj. and pron,, th^t ; the 
former. 

aqui, adv., here. 

arana,/, spider. 

^rbol, m., tree. 

arboleda, f., avenue of trees, 
grove, wood. 

arengar, to deliver a speech. 

argiiir, to argue. 
argument o, m., argument. 
arma,/, weapoUj arm. 



aroma, w., aroma. 

arreglar, to arrange, to settle. 

arriesgar, to risk. 

arte,/., art. 

arteria,/., artery. 

articulo, m., article. 

artista, m., artist. 

asar, to roast ; polio asado, 
roast chicken. 

asegurar, to assure, to insure, 
to assert, to fix. 

asi, adv.y so, thus. 

asiento, m., seat; hombre de 
mucho asiento, solid, well- 
balanced man. 

asistir, to be present, to attend. 

asno, m., donkey. 

aspecto, m.y aspect, appear- 
ance. 

dspero, adj., rough, rugged ; 
aspereza,/., asperity. 

asunto, m., subject, business, 
matter. 

atacar, to attack, to assault. 

atar, to tie, to fasten, to bind. 

atencion, /., attention, favour. 

atento, adj., attentive, respect- 
ful. 

aterrorizar, to inspire with 
awe, fright. 

atisbar, to watch, to pry, to spy. 

atractivo, m., charm, attrac- 
tion. 

atraer, to attract, to draw 
nearer. 

atreverse, to dare ; to venture. 

atribuir, to attribute, to ascribe. 

atropellar, to rush, to run over, 
to trample. 

auditorio, rn., audience. 

aumentar, to increase. 

aumento, m,, increase. 

aun, adv., even, still ; aun no, 
not yet. 

aunqiie, conj., though. 

automovil or auto, m., automo- 
bile, taxicab, or car. 
autor, m., author, 
a ve,/., bird ; ave de corral, fowl, 
a vena,/., oats. 



300 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



averiguar, to ascertain, to find 

out. 
avisar, to warn, to inform, to 

give notice, 
ayer, c^v,, yesterday, 
ayuda,/., help, support, aid. 
ayudar, to help. 
azahar, m., orange-blossom, 
aziicar, w., sugar. 
azul, adj,, blue. 

bajar, to lower ; to go down 
or come down. 

bajo, adj.^ low ; adv.^ in a low 
voice. 

bajo, prep,^ under, below. 

balde, m.y bucket ; en balde, 
in vain ; de balde, gratis. 

banco, m., bank. 

bano, m., bath. 

bdrbaro, m. and adj., bar- 
barian, barbarous. 

barco, m,, boat. 

barrio, m., quarter, district. 

base,/., basis. 

bastante, adv. and adj., 
enough, quite. 

bastar, to suffice, to be enough. 

bast6n, m., walking-stick, cane. 

baiil, m.y trunk, chest. 

bazar, m., bazaar. 

beber, to drink. 

bello, adj., beautiful. 

beneficio, m., benefit. 

bestia,/, beast. 

biblioteca,/, library. 

bien, adv., well. 

bien, m., good. 

bienaventuranza, /., blessed- 
ness. 

bienes, m. pi., goods, property. 

bienestar, m., well-being, con- 
tentment. 

bisiesto, adj., see ano. 

bizcocho, m., biscuit. 

bianco, adj., white. 

bobo, m., fool ; adj., foolish. 

boca,/, mouth. 

boga,/., vogue. 

bolsillo, m., pocket. 



bollo, m., cake, 
bondad,/., kindness. 
bonito, adj., nice, pretty, 
borracho, adj., m., drunk, 

drunken, drunkard. 
borrico, m,, ass, donkey, 
bosque, m., wood, forest. 
brillante, bright, brilliant. 
brillar, to shine. 
britdnico, adj., British. 
brusco, adj., brusque, rough. 
bueno, adj., good, 
bulto, m., form ; bale, 
buque, m,, vessel, ship, 
burro, m., donkey, 
buscar, to look for, to search, 

to seek, 
butaca,/, armchair. 

cabalgar, to ride. 

caballero, m., gentleman, sir. 

caballo, m., horse. 

cabana, /., hut, cabin. 

cabello, m., hair. 

caber, to be contained in. 

cabeza,/, head. 

cada,a^*.,/>row., each, each one. 

caer, to fall. 

cafe, m,y coffee ; restaurant, 
cafe, coffee-house. 

calcular, to calculate, to reckon. 

caldo, m., broth. 

calentar, to warm, to heat. 

calentura,/., fever. 

calor, m., heat, warmth ; hace 
calor, it is hot. 

calumniar, to slander. 

calurosamente, adv., warmly. 

calzado, m., foot-wear. 

callarse, to be silent. 

calle,/, street. 

cama,/, bed. 

cambiar, to change, to ex- 
change. 

camino, m., road, way. 

camisa,/, shirt. 

campana, /., bell ; campa- 
nilla, small bell ; de cam- 
panillas, important. 

campesino, m., peasant. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



301 



campo, m., field, country. 
canape, m., couch, settee. 
canasto, m., basket. 
cansado, adj., tired, bored, 

fatigued ; tiresome. 
cansar, to tire, to fatigue. 
cantar, to sing. 
capaz, adj,, capable, able, 
capital,/!, capital (town). 
capitdn, m,, captain. 
capitulo, ;w., chapter. 
capricho, m,, caprice, fancy, 
cara,/, face. 
i caramba ! inierj., gracious ! 

goodness ! 
c^rcel,/., jail. 
cardinal, adj., cardinal, 
carga,/., burden, cargo. 
cargo, m., employment, posi- 
tion, charge. 
carne, f., flesh, meat. 
caro, dear, expensive, 
carrera,/., course, career, 
carreta,/., waggon. 
carro, m., waggon, car. 
carta,/, letter, 
casa, /., house, home ; casa de 

comercio, commercial house, 

firm. 
casar, to marry, wed ; casarse, 

to be married. 
casi, adv., almost, nearly, 
casino, m., casino. 
caso, m., case, fact. 
castellano, m., Castilian. 
castigar, to punish. 
Castillo, m., castle, 
casualidad,/., chance. 
cataldn, m., Catalonian. 
catedrdtico, m., professor. 
catorce, num., fourteen. 
caucho, m., india-rubber, 
caudal, m., property, wealth, 

means. 
caudaloso, adj., (river) large; 

copious, 
causa,/., cause; a causa de, 

because of. 
causar, to cause, to be the 

cause of. 



cautela,/, caution, prudence. 

caverna,/, cave. 

cazar, to hunt. 

cedazo, m., sieve. 

ceder, to cede, to give away. 

celebrar, to celebrate, to per- 
form. 

celebre, adj., celebrated, fa- 
mous, notorious. 

cena,/, dinner, supper. 

cenar, to dine, to sup. 

ceniza,/, ash, ashes. 

centavo, m., cent. 

central, adj., central. 

centro, m., centre. 
I cenir, to gird. 

cerca,/, enclosure, hedge. 

cerca, adv., nearly, near. 

cercar, to surround, to be- 
siege. 

cerdo, m., pig. 

cerrar, to shut, to close. 

cerveceria, /., ale - house, 
brewery. 

cerveza,/, beer. 

cesar, cesar de, to cease. 

ciego, adj., blind. 

cielo, m., heaven. 

ciencia,/, science. 

ciento (cien), num., one hun- 
dred . 

cierto, adj., certain, sure, true. 

cifrar en, to place in. 

cima,/, top, summit. 

cinamomo, m., cinnamon. 

cinco, num., five. 

cincuenta, num., fifty. 

cisne, m., swan. 

ciudad,/, city, town. 

civilizacibn,/, civilization. 

claro, adj., clear. 

clase,/, kind, class. 

cl^sico, adj., classic. 

cliente, m,, client, customer. 

clima, m., cHmate. 

cobre, m., copper. 

cocer, to boil, to cook. 

cocina,/, kitchen, cooking. 

cocinero, m. (/ cocinera), 
cook. 



302 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



coger, to catch ; to pick. 

colar, to go in, to penetrate, to 
run in ; to pass through, to 
strain. 

colegio, m., college, school. 

colocar, to place, to put. 

coloquio, m., talk, conversa- 
tion. 

Colorado, adj., red. 

comandante, in., commander. 

comarca, /, region, tract, 
country. 

comedia,/, play, comedy. 

comenzar, to begin. 

comer, to eat, to dine. 

comerciante, m., merchant. 

comercio, m., trade, commerce. 

comida, /, food, dinner, meal. 

como, adv., as, like. 

i como ? interrogative adv., 
how? 

comodidad,/., comfort. 

companero, m., companion, 
comrade. 

compania, /., company, so- 
ciety. 

comparar, to compare. 

compatible, adj., suitable. 

competir, to compete. 

comprar, to buy. 

comprender, to understand, 
to realize, to comprise. 

computar, to compute. 

comiin, adj., common. 

comunicacion;/, communica- 
tion. 

comunicar, to communicate. 

con, prep., with ; con tal que, 
provided. 

conceder, to grant. 

concierto, m., concert. 

concurrido, adj., attended. 

condicion,/, condition. 

conferencia,/., lecture. 

confesar, to confess, to own. 

confiar, to trust. 

confirmar, to confirm. 

conforme, adj., agreeable, re- 
signed ; adv., according to. 

confundir, to confuse. 



I conocer, to know, to be ac- 
quainted with. 

conocimiento, m., knowledge ; 
conocimiento de embarque, 
bill of lading. 

con que, conj., so, then. 

conquistar, to conquer. 

conseguir, to get, to procure. 

consejo, m.,^ advice ; council 
(body of councillors). 

conservar,to preserve,to keep. 

considerar, to consider, to 
think over. 

consiguiente,a<^'., consequent ; 
per consiguiente, conse- 
quently, therefore. 

construir, to build, to construct. 

consultar, to consult. 

contacto, m., contact. 

contar, to tell, to relate,to count. 

contener, to contain. 

contentarse, to be satisfied 
with. 

contento,^^^'., satisfied, happy. 

contestar, to answer, to reply. 

continuar, to continue, to go 
on, to resume. 

contra, prep., against. 

contrario, adj., contrary, op- 
posite. 

contribuir, to contribute. 

conveniente, adj., convenient. 

convenir, to suit, to agree, to 
be proper or becoming. 

convento, m., convent. 

convertir,to convert, to change. 

conviccion,/., conviction. 

convidar, to invite. 

copiar, to copy. 

corazon, m., heart. 

corbata,/., tie, necktie, cravat. 

cordial, adj., cordial, heart-felt. 

corral, m., courtyard, poultry 
yard. 

correctamente, adv.^ correctly, 
right, rightly. 

corregir, to correct. 

correo, m., mail, post. 

correr, to run ; (water) to flow; 
correr a, to hasten to. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



303 



correspondencia, /., corres- 
pondence. 

corriente,/, current, stream. 

corriente, <7^*., current, (date) 
instant. 

cortar, to cut, to sever. 

cortes, adj.^ courteous. 

corto, adj.^ short. 

cosa,/, thing, matter. 

cosecha,/, harvest, crop. 

costa, y!, coast ; costas, /. />/., 
costs. 

costar, to cost. 

costumbre,/, custom, habit. 

crear, to create. 

crecer, to grow. 

crecimiento, m.^ growth. 

credito, w., credit. 

creer, to beHeve. 

criado, in.^ servant. 

criar, to breed, to bear. 

cristalino, adj.^ clear, crystal- 
hne, Hmpid. 

cristiano, adj. and m.^ Chris- 
tian. 

criterio, ;;^., criterion, standard, 
judgment. 

cuadra,/., stable. 

cuadro, m.^ picture. 

cuadriipedo, m.^ quadruped. 

cuajar, to coagulate, to harden. 

cual, rel,^ which ; cu^l? which ? 

cuando, adj.^ when. 

cuantioso, adj.^ large, copious. 

cuanto, adj.^ as much as. 

cu^nto ? adj.^ adv., how much ? 

cuarto, m., room, quarter. 

cuatro, num., four. 

cubierta,/, cover. 

cubierto, adj., covered. 

cubrir, to cover. 

cucaracha,/, cockroach. 

cuchillo, m., knife. 

cuenta, /, account ; tener en 
cuenta, to bear in mind ; por 
cuenta de, on behalf of. 

cuento, m., story, narrative. 

cuerno, m., horn. 

cuero, m., leather, hide. 

cuerpo, m,y body. 



cuidado, m., care. 

cuidar, to take care of. 

cultivar, to cultivate. 

cumbre,/., top, summit. 

cumplir, to fulfil. 

curloso, adj., curious, inquisi- 
tive. 

curiosidad,/, curiosity. 

curso, m., course. 

cuyo (-a, -OS, -as), reL, whose, 
of which. 

cheque, m., cheque ; (America) , 
check, 

chico,<7<^*., little; m., small boy. 

chimenea,/, chimney. 

chispa,/., spark. 

chistoso, adj., humorous, witty. 

choza,/., hut, cabin. 

chuleta,/., chop. 

damasco, m., damask. 

dano, m., harm, injury, da- 
mage. 

dar, to give, to produce ; dar 
a luz, to give birth to, to 
publish. 

de, prep., of, from, with. 

debajo, adv., underneath. 

debar, m,, duty. 

debar, to owe, must, ought. 

debil, adj., weak. 

dacencia,/, decency. 

dacenta, adj., decent. 

dacidir, to decide. 

decimo, adj., tenth. 

decir, to say, to tell. 

dadicar, to dedicate. 

defender, to defend. 

dafinitiva, /. : an dafinitiva, 
summing up, in fine. 

dajar, to leave, to let. 

dalanta, adv., before, in front. 

deleitar, to please, to delight. 

demasiado, adj. and adv., too, 
too much, (pi.) too many. 

damora,/, delay; sindamora, 
instantly, without delay. 

dantadura,/, set of teeth. 

dantro, adv., within, inside. 

daparar, to offer, to afford. 



304 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



departamento, /;/., compart- 
ment, department. 

dependiente, m., clerk. 

derecho, w., right. 

desalquilado, adj,, vacant. 

desarrollar, to develop. 

desarrollo, m., development. 

desayunar, desayunarse, to 
breakfast. 

descansar, to rest. 

desconfiado, adj., diffident. 

desconocido, adj., unknown. 

describir, to describe. 

descubrir, to discover. 

descuidar, to neglect; to be 
careless. 

descuido, neglect, negligence, 
carelessness. 

desde, prep., from, since. 

desear, to desire, to wish. 

desensillar, to unsaddle. 

desenvolver, to develop, to 
unwrap. 

deseo, m., wish, desire. 

desgracia,/, misfortune. 

desgraciado, adj., unfortunate. 

deshacer, to undo ; desha- 
cerse, to disappear. 

designacion,/, name, designa- 
tion. 

desocupado, adj., idle, vacant, 

despacio, adv., slowly. 

despacho, m., dispatch, ex- 
pedition. 

despejado, adj., clear, bright. 

despojar, to deprive of; das- 
pojarse de su traje, to un- 
dress. 

despu^s, adv., afterwards, after. 

desquitarse, to get even. 

destino, m., destination; des- 
tiny ; journey's end ; fate. 

desvelarse, to keep awake, to 
be wakeful. 

detener, to detain, to stop, to 
arrest. 

determinar, to determine, to 
decide. 

detr^s, adv., behind ; — de, be- 
hind, after, at the back of. 



devastacion,/., devastation. 

devolver, to return. 

devorar, to devour, to eat 
up. 

dia, m., day; de dia, by day ; 
al otro dia, next day. 

diablo, m., devil. 

dialecto, tn., dialect. 

dictar, to deliver (a speech), 
to dictate. 

dicho, m., saying. 

diente, m., tooth. 

diez, num., ten. 

diferente, adj., different. 

diferir, to defer, to differ. 

dificil, adj., difficult. 

dificultad,/, difficulty. 
j dignarse, to deign, to please. 

digno, adj., worthy. 

diligente, adj., diligent, indus- 
trious. 

dinero, m., money. 

Dies, m., God. 

directamente, adv., straight. 

dirigir, to direct, to address. 

discipulo, m,, pupil, student, 
disciple. 

discreto, adj., discreet, wise, 
witty. 

discurrir, to go about, to dis- 
course. 

discusion,/, discussion. 

disimular, to feign. 

disipar, to waste, to squander. 

disminuir, to diminish, to les- 
sen. 

disponer, to arrange, to order, 
to bid. 

disposici6n,yi, disposition. 

disputa,/., dispute, contest. 

distante, adj., distant, far. 

distinguir, to distinguish, to 
discern. 

distinto, adj., different. 

diverse, adj., different. 

divertirse, to amuse oneself. 

divisar, to observe, to per- 
ceive. 

doble, adj., double. 

docena,/, dozen. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



305 



documento, m,, document. 

doler, to ache, to feel pain ; 
dolido,^^*., sorry, sorrowful. 

dolor, m., grief, pain, sorrow. 

domingo, w., Sunday. 

donaire, m.y grace, elegance. 

donde, adv.^ where ; ^ donde ?, 
where ? 

dormir, to sleep; dormirse, 
to fall asleep. 

dos, num., two. 

drama, m.y drama, play. 

duda,/., doubt; dudar, to doubt. 

dueno, m., owner. 

dulce, adj., sweet ; w., sweet- 
meat. 

duque, m., duke. 

durante, prep,, during, in the 
meantime. 

durar, to last. 

dure, adj., hard. 

e (row/, used instead of y before 
initial i or hi, § 246), and. 

echar, to throw, to put forth ; 
echar a correr, to start run- 
ning. 

edad,/., age. 

edificar, to build, 

edificio, m., building, edifice, 
structure. 

educar, to instruct, to educate, 
to train. 

efecto, m., effect. 

ejemplar, m., copy; adj,y ex- 
emplary. 

ejecutar, to carry out, to exe- 
cute. 

ejercicio, m,, exercise, theme. 

elegir, to elect, to choose. 

elevado, adj., high, lofty, 
elevated. 

elogio, m., praise. 

embajador, m., ambassador. 

embaldosar, to pave, to floor. 

embarcar, to ship, to go on 
shipboard. 

embelesarse, to be charmed. 

embromar, to tease, to annoy. 

embuste, 7n., lie. 



emision,/., issue. 

emparedado, m,, sandwich. 

empefio, desire, effort, engage- 
ment. 

emperador, m., emperor. 

empezar, to begin. 

emplear, to employ, to use. 

empleo, employment, use. 

emprender, to undertake. 

en, prep., in, at, on ; en medio, 
amidst, amid. 

encargo, m., order, charge. 

encender, to kindle. 

encima, above, on top. 

encina,/., evergreen oak. 

encontrar, to find, to njeet. 

enemigo, m., enemy. 

Enero, m., January. 

enfermo, <7^'., ill, sick; m., 
patient. 

enganar, to deceive ; enga- 
narse, to be mistaken. 

enhiesto, adj., upright, erect. 

enorme, adj., enormous. 

enramada,/., bower, grove. 

ensenar, to teach, to show. 

enteramente, adv., entirely. 

enterarse, to become aware, 
to discover. 

enternecerse, to be touched, 

entonces, adv., then. 

entrada,/., entrance, opening. 

entrar, to enter, to get in, to 
go in, to come in. 

entre, prep., between, amidst, 
among, in. 

entregar, to deliver, to hand, 
to give. 

entretanto, adv,, meanwhile. 

entretenido, adj,, amusing, 
entertaining. 

entusiasmo, m., enthusiasm. 

enviar, to send. 

epoca,/., epoch, age, time. 

equivocaci6n,/,mistake,error. 

era,/., threshing-floor, potato- 
patch ; era. 

erizsLT, to bristle. 

error, m., error, riistake. 

escapar, to escape, to flee. 



X 



3o6 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



escaso, adj.^ scarce, short, 
escena,/., scene. 
escoger, to select, to choose. 
escondrijo, m., hiding-place. 
escribir, to write, 
escritor, m.^ writer, author. 
escritura,/., writing, deed. 
escuchar, to listen to ; to 

hear, 
escuela,/., school, 
ese, pron., that. 
esencial, adj\, essential. 
esfuerzo, m,, effort. 
esmeradamente, adv., care- 
fully. 
espacio, w., space, room. 
espada, /., sword. 
espantar, to frighten. 
espanol, adj., m., Spanish, 

Spaniard. 
esparcir, to spread, to scatter. 
especial, adj., special, 
especie,/., kind, species. 
espejo, m., mirror. 
esperanza,/., hope. 
esperar, to await, to wait, to 

expect, to hope for. 
espeso, adj., dense, thick. 
espiritu, w., spirit, mind. 
esplendido, adj., splendid, 

magnificent. 
esposa,/., wife ; esposas,/. pL, 

handcuffs. 
esposo, m., husband, 
esquina,/, corner. 
establecer, to" establish. 
estacion,/., season, station. 
estado, m., state, condition ; 

los Estados Unidos, the 

United States. 
estampar, to print, to stamp. 
estante, m., shelf, bookcase. 
estar, to be. 
Este, m. and adj., East. 
este, pron,, this. 
estilo, m., style. 
estimar, to prize, to esteem. 
estlo, w., summer, 
estorbar, to hinder, to obstruct, 

to hamper. 



estudiar, to study, to investi- 
gate. 

estudio, m., study. 

esttipido, adj., stupid, foolish. 

eterno, adj., eternal. 

evitar, to avoid. 

exacto, adj., exact. 

examinar, to examine ; to look 
into. 

excelente, adj., excellent. 

excepto, adv., except, but, ex- 
cepting. 

exclamar, to exclaim. 

exhortar, to exhort, to warn. 

existir, to exist, to be. 

exito, m., outcome, success. 

explicar, to explain. 

exponer,to lay down,to explain. 

exportar, to export. 

expresarse, to express one's 
self 

expreso, adj., in., express. 

extender, to extend. 

extenso, adj., extensive. 

exterior, adj., external, out-, 
ward ; m., outside. 

extraer, to draw, to extract. 

extranjero, adj., foreign. 

extranjero, m., foreigner; en 
el extranjero, abroad. 

extrano, m., stranger ; adj., 
strange. 

extremidad, /., extreme part, 
extremity. 

extreme, in., extremity ; en 
extreme, extremely. 

fabricar, to manufacture, to 

make. 
fdbtila,/, fable, 
fdcil, adj., easy, 
factura,/., bill, invoice. 
falda,/, skirt. 
false, adj., untrue, false, 
falta,/., fault. 
faltar, to be lacking, to be 

missing. 
familia,/, family. 
famoso, adj., famous. 
fantasma, m., phantom. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



307 



farol, in., lantern, street lamp. 

fastidiar, to annoy. 

fatiga,/, hardship, toil, fatigue. 

fatigado, adj., tired, fatigued. 

favor, w., favour. 

fe,/, faith. 

Febrero, m., February. 

fecha,/, date. 

fechado, adj., dated. 

feliz, adj., happy. 

fee, adj., ugly. 

feroz, adj., fierce, ferocious. 

ferreteria, /, hardware, hard- 
ware store. 

ferrocarril, tn., railway, rail- 
road. 

fertil, adj., fertile. 

festivo, adj., festive, jovial. 

fiambre, m., cold meat. 

fiel, adj., faithful. 

fiesta, /, feast, festival, festi- 
vity, merry-making. 

figurarse, to fancy, to imagine. 

fila,/., row, file. 

fin, m., end, purpose. 

firma,y], signature, firm. 

firmar, to sign. 

flaco, adj., meagre, weak, frail. 

flauta,/, flute. 

flor,/., flower. 

florecer, to bloom. 

forastero, m., stranger. 

formalidad, /, seriousness, 
gravity, formality. 

forma.r, to form. 

frac, m., dress-coat. 

franco, adj., frank. 

frase,/., phrase. 

frecuente, adj., frequent. 

freir, to fry ; frito, adj., fried. 

freno, ;;/., bridle, brake. 

frente,/, forehead. 

fresco, adj., cool, fresh. 

frescura,/., coolness. 

frio, m. and adj., cold. 

frisar, to approach, to be on 
the boundary of. 

fruto, 771., fruit ; fruta, /, 
fruit (edible). 

fit ego, m,, fire. 



fuente,/, spring, source, foun- 
tain. 

fuera, adv., outside, out. 

fuerte, adj., strong. 

fuerza,/, strength. 

fulano, 7n., So-and-So. 

fundar, to found. 

future, m, and adj., future, 
coming. 

gafas, / pL, spectacles, eye- 
glasses. 

gallego, adj., Galician. 

gallina,/, hen. 

gallinero, ;;/., hennery, hen- 
roost. 

gallo, m., cock, rooster. 

gana,/, inclination, mind, de- 
sire. 

ganado, in., cattle. 

ganancia,/, profit. 

ganar, to earn, to win. 

ganir, to yelp. 

garra,/., claw. 

gastar, to spend. 

gasto, m., expense. 

gate, in., cat. 

general, m. and adj., general. 

genero, m., kind ; pL, generos, 
goods. 

generoso, adj., generous. 

genio, m., character, disposi- 
tion, genius. 

gente,/, people. 

geogrdfico, adj., geographic. 

gestion,/., management. 

girar, to turn, to revolve ; to 
draw on. 

giro, in., draft, bill of ex- 
change. 

gloria,/., glory. 

gobernador, m., governor. 

gobierno, m., government. 

golfo, m., gulf, bay. 

golondrina, /, swallow. 

golpe, m., blow. 

gorrion, in., sparrow. 

gozar de, to enjoy. 

gracia,/, grace, favour. 

gracias,/. pL, thanks. 



3o8 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



gracioso, adj.^ graceful, arch, 
amusing. 

grado, w., degree. 

gramdtica,/, grammar. 

gran, grande, adj,^ large, big, 
great. 

grandeza,/, greatness. 

gratitud, /., gratitude, thank- 
fulness. 

grato, adj.^ pleasing, agree- 
able. 

gritar, to scream, to cry. 

grupo, Wf ., group. 

guante, in., glove. 

guapo, adj., handsome, pretty, 
neat ; sprightly, gallant. 

guardar, to keep, to guard, to 
watch. 

guarnecer, to garnish, to 
border, to protect. 

guerra,/., war. 

guia, m, and/., guide. 

guisar, to cook. 

gustar de, to like, to be fond of. 

gusto, m., taste, pleasure. 

haber, to have. 

hdbil, adj,, able, skilful. 

habitacion, /., room, apart- 
ment. 

habitante, m., inhabitant. 

habitar, to inhabit. 

habla, /, language, talk, dis- 
course. 

hablar, to speak, to talk. 

hacendado, m., farmer, land- 
owner. 

hacer, to make, to do. 

hacia,/r^/>., towards. 

hacienda,/, farm. 

hallar, to find ; — se, to be. 

hambre, /, hunger; tener 
hambre, to be hungry. 

harto, adv., quite, plenty ; adj.,^ 
full, complete. 

hasta, prep., as far as, until, 
till, even. 

hecho, m.^ fact ; part., made. 

hemisferio, m., hemisphere. 

heno, m., hay. 



heredar, to inherit. 

herida,/, wound. 

hermano, m., brother ; her- 
niana,/., sister. 

hermoso, adj., beautiful ; hand- 
some, fine. 

hermosura,/, beauty. 

heroe, in., hero. 

herrador, in., farrier. 

herramienta,/, tool. 

hielo, m,, ice, frost. 

hierro, in., iron. 

hijo, w., son ; hija,/., daughter. 

hinchar, to swell. 

historia,/, history. 

historico, adj», historic. 

hombre, w., man. 

honrado, adj., honest. 

hora,/, hour. 

hormiga,/, ant. 

hormiguero, m., ant-hill. 

horrible, adj., horrible, awful. 

horror, in., horror, awe. 

hotel, m., hotel. 

hoy, adv., to-day. 

hoyo, m., hole, pit. 

hueco, nt. and adj., hollow. 

huelga,/., strike. 

huerta,/., vegetable garden. 

huerto, m., orchard, fruit gar- 
den. 

huesped, m., guest, host, 
boarder. 

huespeda,/., guest (or hostess) ; 
landlady. 

huevo, m., ^g'g. 

huir, to flee, to run away. 

humano, adj., human ; humane. 

humanidad, /, human kind, 
humanity. 

hiimedo, adj., moist, wet, damp. 

humilde, adj., humble. 

humo, in., smoke. 

idea,/., idea. 

id^ntico, a^'., identical, equal. 
idioma, ;;/., language. 
iglesia, /I, church. 
ignorante, adj., m., stupid, 
io^norant. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



309 



ignorar, to be ignorant of. 

imaginacion,/, imagination. 

imitar, to imitate. 

imperio, m., empire. 

impertinente, adj,, imperti- 
nent. 

importancia, /., importance. 

importante, adj., important. 

importar, to import. 

imposible, adj., impossible. 

imprenta,/, press. 

impresionar, to impress. 

imprimir, to print. 

incierto, adj., uncertain. 

incluir, to include. 

indeciso, adj., hesitating, un- 
decided. 

indigena, m., native. 

indignado, adj., indignant. 

indio, m., Indian. 

indudable, adj., unquestion- 
able, undoubted. 

inesperado, unexpected. 

infeliz, adj., unhappy, luck- 
less. 

inferior, adj\, inferior, lower. 

infinito, infinite, endless. 

influjo, m., influence, influx. 

informar, to inform, to re- 
port. 

infructuoso, adj., fruitless. 

ingles, adj., m., English. 

inmediatamente, adv,, im- 
mediately. 

inmediato, adj., immediate. 

inmortal, immortal. 

innumerable, a^*., numberless. 

inocente, adj., innocent. 

in olvidable,^<r//'., unforgettable. 

inquietud,/, uneasiness, rest- 
lessness. 

insistir, to insist. 

insoportable, adj., unbearable. 

instante, m., instant. 

instructivo, adj., instructive, 
enhghtening. 

inteligente, adj., intelligent, 
clever. 

interes, m., interest. 

interesante, adj., interesting. 



interior, m., inner part ; adj., 
inside. 

internar, to confine, to take to 
the interior of a country. 

interrumpir, to interrupt. 

intimo, adj., intimate, deep. 

introducir, to introduce. 

iniitil, adj., useless. 

inverosimil, adj., unlikely. 

invertir, to invert; to in- 
vest. 

invierno, m.^ winter. 

ir, to go. 

isla,/, island. 

istmo, m., isthmus. 

izquierdo, adj., left. 

jabon, m., soap, 
jactarse, to boast of. 
jaguar, m,, jaguar, 
jamds, adv., never, ever, 
jamon, m., ham. 
jardin, m., garden, 
jinete, m., horseman, rider, 
joven, in,, young man; /., 

young girl, 
joya,/, jewel, 
jueves, m., Thursday, 
juez, m,, judge, 
jugar, to play, 
junio, m., June. 
Junta Directiva, /., Board of 

Directors, 
juntamente, adv., together, 

jointly. 
juntar, to join. 
junto, adj., together, adv., close 

by, near to. 
justicia,/., justice. 
justo, adj., just. 
juventud,/, youth. 

labrar, to till, to cultivate. 
labriego, m., farm-labourer. 
lado, m., side. 
l^grima,/., tear, 
lana,/., wool. 

lance, m., incident, episode. 
largo, adj., long; a lo largo, 
along. 



310 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



last! ma, /.J pity. 

latin, fHf latin. 

lavar, to wash. 

lavoteo, m., hasty washing. 

leccion,/., lesson. 

lectura,/, reading. 

leche,/, milk. 

lecheria,/., dairy. 

leer, to read. 

lejos, adv., far. 

lento, adj,, slow ; lentamente, 
adv., slowly. 

letra,/, letter. 

le van tar, to lift, to raise. 

libre, adj., free. 

libro, m., book. 

licencia, /, leave of absence, 
permit, licence. 

ligar, to bind, to attach. 

ligero, adj., thin, light, slight ; 
gentle, swift. 

limpiar, to clean. 

limpio, adj., clean. 

lindo, adj., pretty. 

linea,/, line. 

liquido, m.^ adj., liquid. 

lirio, m., lily. 

lisonjear, to flatter. 

\i%\.o,adj., ready, handy ; clever. 

lobo, m., wolf 

locomotora,/, locomotive. 

locuacidad,/., loquacity, talka- 
tiveness. 

lograr, to attain, to succeed. 

loseta,/, small paving tile. 

lucir, to show, to shine. 

luego, adv., soon, then. 

lugar, m., place, village ; en 
lugar de, instead of 

lugareiio, peasant, country- 
man. 

Itina,/, moon. 

lunes, m., Monday. 

luz, /, light; dar a luz, to 
publish, to issue, to give 
birth to. 

llamar, to call, to be called, to 
name; ^como se llama? 

what is his name ? 



llegada,/., arrival. 

llegar, to arrive, to come. 

llenar, to fill. 

lleno, adj., full ; de lleno, fully, 

entirely. 
Uevar, to carry, to take to, to 

bear, to bring. 
llorar, to cry, to weep. 
Hover, to rain. 
Uuvia,/., rain. 

macizo, adj., massive, solid. 

madera,/., wood, lumber. 

madre,/, mother. 

madrugada,/, morning. 

madrugar, to rise early. 

madurar, to ripen. 

maduro, adj., ripe. 

maestro, m., maestra, /., 
teacher. 

m^gico, adj., magic. 

magnifico, adj., magnificent. 

mahon, m., nankeen. 

maiz, m., maize, corn. 

mal, adv., badly, wrong. 

mal, malo, adj., bad. 

maleta,y., valise. 

malicia,/, cunning, malice. 

malicioso, adj,, cunning, ma- 
licious. 

mani^,/., mamma, mother. 

manclia,/., stain, spot. 

manchego, adj., appertaining 
to la Mancha. 

mandar, to send, to command, 
to order. 

mandria, m., good-for-nothing 
person, poltroon. 

manera,/, manner, way. 

manga,/., sleeve. 

manifestar, to manifest, to in- 
form. 

manifiesto, adj., manifest, ob- 
vious. 

manjar, m., food, article of 
food. 

mano,/, hand. 

mansion,/., mansion. 

manso, adj., tame, gentle. 

manteca de vaca,/, butter. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



311 



mantener, to keep, to uphold. 

mantequilla,/., butter. 

manzana,/, apple. 

manzano, m., apple-tree. 

manana, /i, morning ; adv., to- 
morrow. 

m^quina,/, machine, engine. 

maquinaria,/., machinery. 

mar, m.,f.y sea. 

maravilla,/., marvel, wonder. 

maravilloso, adj., marvellous, 
wonderful. 

marcar, to register, to mark, 
to brand. 

marcha, /., course ; march, 
progress. 

marchar, to walk, to march ; 
marcharse, to go away, to 
leave. 

margarita,/., daisy. 

marido, m., husband. 

martes, w., Tuesday. 

Marzo, m., March. 

mds, adv., more; mds bien, 
rather. 

mas, conj., but. 

matar, to kill. 

materia, /., matter; en ma- 
teria de, regarding, concern- 
ing. 

material, w., material. 

mayor, adj., larger, greater; 
elder, older. 

mayordomo, m., butler, major- 
domo. 

mecer, to stir, to rock. 

mediados (a), towards the 
middle. 

medico, m., doctor. 

medida,/, measure ; a medida 
que, in proportion as. 

medio, m., middle ; pL, means ; 
en medio, amid ; per medio, 
through, throughout, by 
means of. 

medio, adj., half, mean, aver- 
age. 

mediodia, m., noon, midday. 

medir, to measure. 

mejor, adj,, adv., better. 



mejora,/., improvement. 
melancolico, adj., melancholy, 
membrillo, m., quince, 
memoria, /, memory ; /. pi., 

regards, remembrances. 
mendigo, m., beggar, mendi- 
cant. 
menor, adj,, smaller, younger ; 

m., minor. 
menos, adj., adv., less, minus ; 

a menos, unless, 
mentir, to lie; mentira, /, 

lie. 
menudo, adj., fine, minute ; a 

menudo, often, frequently, 
mercaderla,/, merchandise. 
mercado, m., market. 
mercancia,/., merchandise, 
merced, /, reward, mercy ; 

merced a, owing to. 
merito, m., merit, 
mero, adj., mere. 
mes, m., month, 
meter, to put, to put into ; 

meterse, to meddle, to inter- 
fere, 
metodo, m., method, way. 
mezclar, to mix; mezclarse, 

to meddle, to interfere. 
mezquino, adj., poor, meagre, 

mean, 
mezquita,/., mosque, 
miedo, m., fear, 
miembro, m., limb, member, 
mientras, conj., while; mien- 

tras que, whereas, 
migas, /;{>/., marrow, crumbs. 
mil, num., thousand, 
milla,/., mile. 
millon, m., million. 
ministro, m., minister, cabinet 

officer, secretary of state. 
minute, m., minute, 
mirada,/, glance, look. 
mirar, to look at, to gaze. 
miseria,/, poverty, misery. 
misero, adj., miserable. 
mismo, adj., same, very; el 

mismo, himself. 
misterio, m., mystery. 



312 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



mitad,/., half. 

moda,/., fashion, style. 

moderno, adj.^ modern. 

modesto, adj.^ modest. 

modificar, to modify. 

modista, /., milliner, dress- 
maker. 

modo, m,^ manner, way; de 
modo que, so that. 

mojado, adj.^ wet, damp. 

mojar, to wet, to drench. 

molestar, to bother, to annoy, 
to trouble, to worry. 

momento, ni,^ moment. 

monarca, w., monarch, ruler. 

moneda,/., coin. 

monje, m,^ monk. 

mono, m.^ monkey, ape. 

monstruo, nu^ monster, pro- 

montana,/., mountam. 

montar, to mount, to ride. 

monte, m.^ mountain. 

monton, m.^ heap. 

monumental, adj.^ monumen- 
tal. 

morado, adj.^ purple, violet, 

morador, m.^^ dweller. 

moral eja,/, moral. 

morder, to bite. 

moreno, adj.^ brown. 

morir, to die. 

mortal, adj.^ mortal. 

mostrador, m.^ counter. 

mostrar, to show. ^ 

motivo, m.^ motive. 

mover, to move. 

movimiento, fn.^ motion. 

mozo, m.^ servant; young man. 

muchacha,/, girl. 

muchedumbre,/, crowd, multi- 
tude. 

mucho, adj,^ much, a great 
deal of. 

mucho, adv.^ much, a great 
deal. 

muebles, m, />/., furniture. 

muelle, m.^ spring, quay. 

muerte,/., death. 

muerto, adj.^ dead. 



mujer,/., woman, wife. 

mula,/.; mule. 

mundo, m., world. 

muralla,/., wall, rampart. 

murcielago, m.^ bat. 

murmurar,to grumble, to com- 
plain. 

muro, m.^ wall. 

musculoso, adj.^ brawny, mus- 
cular. 

miisica,/., music. 

muy, adv,^ very. 

nacer, to be born. 

nacimiento, m,^ birth, source. 

nada, />row.,j^., nothing. 

nadar, to swim. 

nadie, pron., no one, nobody. 

naranja, f., orange. 

nariz, /., nose. 

narrar, to narrate, to relate. 

natal, adj.^ native, natal. 

natural, m,, native ; adj., na- 
tural. 

naturaleza, /., nature. 

necesario, adj., necessary. 

necesitar, to need. 

necio, m., fool ; adj., silly. 

negar, to deny ; -se, to refuse. 

negocio, m., business, affair. 

negro, m. and adj., black. 

nevado, adj., snowy ; m., snow- 
covered mountain. 

ni, con/., nor ; ni . . . ni, neither 
. . . nor. 

nieto, m., grandson. 

nieve,/., snow. 

ninez,/, childhood. 

nino, m., child. 

no, adv,, not, no. 

noche, /, night ; de noche, at 
or by night ; esta noche, to- 
night. 

nogal, m., walnut-tree. 

nombrar, to appoint, to name, 
to nominate. 

n ombre, m., name. 

Norte, m.. North. 

nos, pron., us. 

nosotros (as), pron,, we, us 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



313 



nota,/, note. 

notable, adj.^ noteworthy, re- 
markable. 

noticia,/., news, information. 

novedad,/., novelty. 

novela,/., novel. 

Noviembre, m,^ November. 

nube,/, cloud. 

nuestro, adj. pron., our. 

nueva, /, new^s. 

nueve, num.^ nine. 

nuevo, adj.^ new. 

nuez,/., nut. 

numero, m., number. 

nunca, adv., never. 

nutritivo, adj., nutritious, nou- 
rishing. 

objeto, m., object ; con el ob- 
jeto de, in order to, for the 
purpose of. 

obligar, to force, to compel, to 
oblige. 

obra, /., work ; obrar, to act. 

obscuro, adj., dark. 

obsequiar, to present. 

observar, to notice, to ob- 
serve. 

obstdculo, m., obstacle. 

obtener, to obtain, to get, to 
procure. 

ocasion, /, opportunity, time, 
occasion. 

Occidente, m., West. 

ocio, m., leisure, idleness. 

ocultar, to hide, to conceal. 

ocupado, adj., busy. 

ocupar, to occupy ; ocuparse 
en, to busy oneself with. 

ocurrir, to occur, to come to 
one's mind. 

ocho, num., eight. 

Oeste, m., West. 

ofender, to offend. 

oficial, m\, officer; adj., official. 

oficio, m., trade, occupation, 
business. 

ofrecer, to offer. 

oido, m., ear, hearing. 

oir, to hear. 



ojald, interj., would to Heaven, 

I wish that. 
ojo, m., eye. 
oler, to smell. 
olor, m., odour. 
olvidar, to forget, 
onza,/., ounce, 
operacion,/, operation, 
opinar, to be of opinion, to 

opine. 
oponerse, to oppose, 
orden, m. and/, order, 
ordenar, to order, to dispose, 
ordenar, to milk. 
ordinario, adj., ordinary. 
organizar, to organize. . 
organo, m,, organ. 
orgullo, m., pride, 
oriental, adj.y eastern, east. 
Oriente, m.. East, 
origen, m., origin, source ; dar 

— a, to give rise to. 
orilla,/, bank, shore. 
oro, m., gold, 
otono, ni., autumn, fall. 
otro, adj., other, another. 

paciencia,/., patience, 
pacifico, adj., peaceful, pacific, 
padre, m., father ; pL parents, 
pagar, to pay. 
pdgina,/., page. 
pais, m., country, land. 
pdjaro, m., bird, 
palabra,/., word, 
pdlido, adj., pale. 
palm era,/., palm-tree. 
pan, m., bread. 
pantalbn, m., trousers. 
pano, m., cloth, stuff. 
panuelo, m., handkerchief. 
papd, m., papa, father, 
papel, m., paper ; role, part. 
papel moneda, m., paper 

money. 
par, in., pair, couple. 
para, prep., for, to, in order 

to. 
parar, to stop. 
pardo, ad/., grey, brown. 



314 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



parecer, to appear, to seem, to 
look like. 

pared, /, wall ; paredon, m., 
great wall, rampart. 

pareja,/, pair, couple. 

pariente, m., relative. 

parlero, adj., chirping, talka- 
tive. 

parte,/., part. 

participar, to communicate, to 
let know, to take part in. 

particular, adj., private. 

partida, /., departure, start, 
party. 

partido, m., party, side. 

partir, to start, to set out, to 
leave, to go, to divide. 

pasado, adj., past, last. 

pasar, to pass, spend. 

pasear, pasearse, to walk, to 
take a walk. 

paseo, m., walk, promenade, 
journey. 

pasmo, m., wonder. 

paso, m.y passage, way, open- 
ing. 

pastel, m., pie ; pasteles, 
pastry. 

pastel arc, m., pieman. 

patinar, to skate. 

pato, m.y duck. 

patriota, m., patriot. 

patrona,/., hostess, landlady. 

paz,/., peace. 

peculio, m., money, pecuniary 
means. 

pedir, to ask, to beg, to order ; 
pedir prestado, to borrow. 

peligroT^., danger. 

peligroso, adj., dangerous, 
perilous. 

pena,/., trouble, pain, sorrow. 

pender, to hang, to be hanging, 
to depend. 

penetrante, adj., keen, pene- 
trating. 

peninsula,/., peninsula. 

pensamiento, m., thought. 

pensar, to think, to think of, 
to intend to. 



pensativo, adj., thoughtful. 

pension,/., pension. 

pequeno, adj., small, little. 

pera,/, pear. 

perder, to lose. 

parecer, to perish. 

peregrinacion, /., peregrina- 
tion, pilgrimage. 

periodico, tn., newspaper. 

pariodo, m., period. 

perjuicio, m., damage, pre- 
judice, detriment. 

parmanacar,to remain, to stay. 

permiso, m., permission, leave. 

parmitir, to allow, to permit. 

paro, conj., but. 

parro, m., dog. 

persona, /!, person. 

parspactiva, /, prospect, out- 
look, expectation. 

pertenacer, to belong. 

pesar, m,, sorrow ; a pesar da, 
in spite of. 

pesar, to weigh, to be sorry. 

pascado, m., fish (for the table) . 

pascador, m., fisher. 

pescar, to fish, to angle. 

peseta,/, twenty cents. 

peso, m., weight ; dollar. 

pesquisa,/, search. 

pez, m., fish. 

pico, m., peak, beak, bill ; sals 
mil y pico, six thousand odd. 

pie, m., foot ; astar de pie, to 
stand. 

piadra,/., stone. 

piel,/, skin, hide. 

pierna,/, leg. 

piaza,/, piece, 

pillar, to catch, to seize. 

pintar, to paint. 

pintor, m., painter. 

pintorasco, adj., picturesque. 

pintura,/, picture, paint. 

piso, m., floor, story.' 

placer, m., pleasure. 

plan, m., plan, scheme. 

planeta, m., planet. 

planicia,/., plain. 

plata,/, silver. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



3^5 



plaza,/, square. 

plenittid,/, fulness. 

pluma,/., feather, pen. 

poblacion,/., town, population. 

poblar, to populate. 

pobre, adj.^ poor. 

poco, adj.^ little ; pL^ few. 

poder, m., power; poderoso, 
powerful 

poder, to be able. 

poesia,/., poetr}''. 

poeta, m.^ poet. 

politico, m., politician ; adj.^ 
political, polite. 

polvo, m.^ powder, dust. 

polio, m., chicken. 

ponderar, to exaggerate, to 
extol. 

poner, to put, to place. 

Poniente, w., West. 

popular, adj.^ popular. 

por, by, for, through ; por 
aqui, around here. 

por que, conj.^ because. 

I por que ?, why ? 

porvenir, m.^ future. 

posada,/, inn. 

poseer, to possess. 

posible, adj.^ possible. 

posicion,/, position. 

practicar, to practise. 

pr^ctico, adj,^ practical ; m.^ 
pilot. 

prado, m., meadow, turf. 

precaucion, /., care, precau- 
tion. 

preceder, to precede. 

precio, m.^ price. 

precisamente, adv.^ precisely. 

preciso, adj.^ precise. 

preferir, to prefer. 

pregunta,/., question. 

preguntar, to ask. 

preinio, ni,^ reward, prize. 

prepararse, to prepare. 

presentar, to present, to intro- 
duce. 

presente, m.^ present, gift ; 
adj,^ present. 

preso, adj.^ arrested. 



prestar, to lend ; pedir pres- 
tado, to borrow. 

presuroso, adj.^ hasty, speedy, 
prompt. 

primavera,/., spring. 

primer, primero, adj.^ first. 

primitivo, adj., primitive. 

principal,^., patron, manager; 
adj., principal. 

principe, m., prince. 

principiar, to begin. 

probar, to prove, to taste, to 
test. 

prodigio, m., prodigy. 

producir, to produce. 

product©, m., product, pro- 
ceeds. 

profesor, rn.^ professor. 

prof undo, adj., deep. 

prolijidad,/, prolixity. 

prolongar, to prolong. 

promesa,/., promise. 

prometer, to promise. 

pronto, adv., adj., soon. 

pronunciacion, /., pronuncia- 
tion. 

pronunciar,to utter (a speech); 
to deliver, to pronounce. 

propiamente, adv., properly. 

propiedad, f., estate, property, 
propriety. 

propio, adj., proper, own. 

proponer, to propose. 

proporcionar, to afford, to 
provide. 

proposito, m., purpose ; a pro- 
posito, convenient ; by the 
way. 

proteger, to protect. 

provecho, m., profit, advan- 
tage, benefit ; le hace pro- 
vecho, it does him good. 

provechoso, adj., profitable, 
advantageous, beneficial. 

proveer, to provide, to supply 
(with). 

provincia,/, province. 

provisto, adj., provided. 

proximo, adj., near, next. 

publicar, to publish. 



3i6 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



publico, adj.^ public ; w., public. 

pueblo, m,^ village, people. 

puerta,/., door, gate. 

puerto, m,, port, harbour. 

pues, conj,, since, well, for, as, 
then. 

puesto que, conj.^ since, inas- 
much as, because. 

punta,/., end, top. 

punto, m,, point, question, 
matter. 

punto de vista, point of view. 

pure, adj.^ pure. 

que, reL^ that, which, who. 
que, conj.^ that, in order that, 
quebrantarse, to feel broken, 

to weaken, 
quedar, to remain. 
querer, to want, to wish, 
querido, adj.^ dear. 
queso, w., cheese, 
quien, rel, pron,^ who. 
quinto, num., fifth, 
quitar, to remove, to take off, 

to rob. 
quizd, quizds, adv., perhaps. 

rabia,/, rage, wrath, rabies. 
rabiar, to be angry, to long 
' eagerly for, to become rabid, 
raiz,/., root, 
rama,/., branch, bough. 
rdpido, adj\, rapid, swift, fast. 
rapidez,/, rapidity, swiftness. 
raton, m., mouse. 
raya, /, line, parting of the 

hair, stripe, 
rayar, to draw lines ; rayar 

en, to border on. 
razon,/, reason ; tener razon, 

to be right. 
realizar, to realize, to sell, 
rebano, m., herd. 
rebosar, to overflow. 
recibir, to receive. 
recibo, w., receipt. 
recitar, to recite. 
reclamacion,/, claim. 
recluir, to seclude. 



recoger, to gather, to harvest. 

recomendacion, /., recom- 
mendation. 

recomendar, to recommend. 

recordar, to recall, to re- 
member. 

recuerdo, m.^ recollection ; 
souvenir. 

recuperar, to get back, to re- 
cover. 

recurrir, to resort to, to refer. 

rechazar, to refuse. 

red, /!, net. 

rededor, m., surroundings ; al 
rededor, around. 

redondo, adj., round ; en re- 
dondo, a la redonda, a- 
round. 

referir, to tell, to relate, to 
narrate, to refer to.- 

reformar, to reform. 

refrdn, m., adage; proverb. 

refugiarse, to take refuge, to 
seek shelter. 

regalar, to give, to make a 
present of 

regalo, w., gift, present. 

region,/, region. 

registro, m., record, registra- 
tion, book-mark. 

regla,/., rule. 

regordete, adj., plump. 

regresar, to return. 

regular, adj., indifferent. 

reinar, to rule. 

reir, reirse, to laugh. 

relacibn, /., relation, report, 
account; friendship. 

reloj, m., watch. 

remedio, m., remedy. 

remesa,/, remittance. 

remontar, to remount, to trace 
back. 

rendir, to yield, to bear. 

repasar, to go over, to glance 
over, to rehearse. 

repente, de repente, suddenly, 
all of a sudden. 

repetir, to repeat. 

replicar, to reply, to answer. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



317 



reponer, to replace, to retort, 
to reply. 

reposo, m.y repose, rest. 

representar, to represent, to 
give, to act. 

repiiblica,/, republic. 

reputacion,/, reputation. 

resolver, to solve, to decide. 

respaldo, m., back of a chair. 

respecto, m., relation ; con 
respecto a, with reference 
to, with regard to. 

respetar, to respect. 

respeto, m., respect. 

resplandeciente, adj., resplen- 
dent. 

responder, to reply. 

responsable, adj., responsible. 

respuesta, f., answer, re- 
sponse. 

resto, m., remainder, rest* 

resuelto, adj., resolute, deter- 
mined. 

resnltado, m., result, outcome. 

resultar, to result, to come. 

retrato, m., portrait. 

revolver, to turn, to turn up. 

ray, m., king. 

rico, adj., rich. 

riego, m,, irrigation. 

riel, m., rail. 

rigor, m., rigour, strictness. 

rio, m., river. 

riqueza,/., wealth, riches. 

risa,/., laughter. 

risueno, adj., smiling. 

robusto, adj., robust, strong. 

rodear, to surround. 

rogar, to beg, to entreat, to ask. 

rojo, adj., red. 

romance, adj., Romance, Ro- 
manic. 

romper, to break; 

ropa,/., clothes. 

rosa,/, rose. 

rubicundo, adj., reddish, rosy. 

ruego, m., request, prayer. 

ritido, m., noise. 

ruin, adj., inferior, poor, mean, 
coward. 



rumoroso, adj., noisy. 



s^bado, m., Saturday. 

saber, to know, to know how. 

sabio, adj., learned, wise. 

sacar, to extract, to take out, 
to draw. 

saldo, ;w., balance, settle- 
ment. 

salida,/., exit, outlet. 

salir, to go out, to leave ; to 
turn out. 

salto, m., leap ; waterfall, ca- 
taract. 

salud,/., health. 

saludar, to salute, to bow. 

saludo, m., salutation, greet- 
ing. 

san, santo, m., saint. 

sano, adj., sound, healthy. 

sardina,/., sardine. 

sastre, m., tailor. 

satisfacer, to satisfy, to give 
satisfaction. 

sazon, /., opportunity, season. 

sed,/!, thirst ; tengo sed, I am 
thirsty. 

seda,/, silk. 

seguida,/., continuation ; en se- 
guida, afterwards, to follow. 

seguir, to follow, to go on, to 
pursue. 

segtin, prep., according to, as. 

segundo, m., adj., second. 

seguridad,7^., certainty, safety; 
con — , with certainty. 

seguro, adj., sure, certain ; de 
— , surely ; estar — de que, 
to be sure that. 

seis, num., six. 

selvoso, adj., woody, wooded. 

semana,/, week. 

semanario, m., weekly paper. 

semblante, m., features, coun- 
tenance. 

semejante, adj., similar, such. 

sencillo, adj., simple, plain. 

senda,/., path. 

sentado, adj., seated, sitting. 

sentar, to seat, to establish; 



3i8 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



sentarse, to sit down, to sit, 
to perch. 

sentido, m., sense, direction. 

sentir, to feel, to regret, to be 
sorry. 

sena,/, sign ; senas, address. 

senor, m., sir, gentleman. 

senora,/., wife, lady, madam. 

seiiorita,/., miss, young lady. 

separar, to remove, to separ- 
ate. 

Septiembre, m., September. 

ser, m., being. 

ser, to be. 

sereno, adj,^ serene. 

servicial, adj., obliging. 

servicio, w., service. 

servir, to serve, to be good 
for ; servirse, to please. 

sesenta, nvim., sixty. 

setenta, num., seventy. 

si, conj., i^, whether. 

si, adv., yes. 

sibarita, m., sybarite. 

sibaritico, adj., sybaritic, effe- 
minate. 

siempre, adv.', always, ever ; 
conj., yet. 

siete, num., seven. 

siglo, m., century. 

significado, m., meaning. 

significar, to mean. 

signo, m., sign, signal. 

siguiente, adj., following, next. 

silencio, m., silence. 

silencioso, adj., silent. 

silla,/., chair, saddle. 

sillon, m., easy chair. 

sin, prep,, without ; sin em- 
bargo, nevertheless, yet. 

sincero, adj., sincere. 

singular, adj., singular. 

sine, conj., but. 

siquiera, adv., even. 

sirvienta,/., maid. 

sistema, m., system. 

sitio, m., place, spot. 

situado, adj., situated. 

sobre, prep., on, upon, above. 

sobre, m., envelope. 



sobresalir, to excel. 

sobretodo, m., overcoat ; sobre 
todo, adv., specially, prin- 
cipally. 

sobrino,;^., nephew; sobrina, 
/, niece. 

sociedad,/, society. 

sol, m., sun. 

solamente, adv., only. 

solazarse, to enjoy oneself. 

soler, to be accustomed to, to 
be wont, to happen. 

solido, adj., solid. 

solo, adj., single, alone, sole. 

solo, adv., only. 

soltar, to let loose, to loosen. 

sombra, /, shade, shadow. 

sombrero, m., hat. 

sombrio, adj., sombre, gloomy. 

sonar, to sound, to strike. 

sonido, m., sound. 

sonreirse, to smile. 

sorprendente, adj., surpris- 
ing. 

sorprender, to surprise. 

sorpresa,/, surprise. 

sosegado, adj., quiet. 

sospechar, to suspect, to con- 
jecture. 

suavemente, adv., softly, gent- 

siibdito, m., subject. 

subir, to ascend, to go up, to 
rise. 

subjuntivo, m., subjunctive. 

subyugar, to subdue. 

suceder, to happen ; to follow. 

suceso, m., event, incident. 

sudamericano, adj.. South 
American. 

sudor, m., perspiration, sweat. 

sueldo, m., salary. 

suelo, m., ground, soil, floor. 

suerte, /., fate, luck, sort, 
chance. 

suficiente, adj., enough ; suffi- 
cient. 

sugerir, to suggest. 

sujeto, m., person ; adj., tied, 
liable. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



319 



suma,/., sum. 

sumar, to add, to sum up. 

sumo, adj,^ supreme ; a lo 

sumo, at the utmost. 
suntuoso, adj.^ sumptuous. 
superior, adj.^ superior, upper. 
suponer, to suppose. 
supuesto, adj,, supposed ; per 

supuesto, of course. 
Sur, m, and adj.^ South. 

tabla,/., board. 

tacto, m.^ tact. 

tal, adj.^ such ; con tal que, 

provided ; tal vez, perhaps. 
tal per cual, ;/^., guy, a nobody. 
talento, m.^ talent. 
tamano, m,^ size, bulk. 
tambien, adv.^ also. 
tampoco, adv.^ nor, neither. 
tan, tanto, adv., so ; as. 
tanto, adj., as much, so much ; 

//., as many, so many. 
tapiz, m., tapestry. 
tardar, to delay, to be late. 
tarde,/, afternoon ; adv., late, 
taza,/, cup. 
te, m., tea. 
teatro, }n., theatre. 
tejer, to weave. 
tejuelo, m., binder's title. 
telegrafo, m., telegraph. 
telegrama, m., telegram. 
temer, to fear, to be afraid. 
temible, adj.^ awful. 
temporada,/., season, time. 
temprano, adj. and adv., early. 
tendencia,/, tendency. 
tenedor, m., fork ; — de libros, 

book-keeper, accountant. 
tener, to have ; to hold. 
terminar, to end, to finish, to 

conclude, to determine. 
terrene, m.^ ground, land. 
terrible, adj., terrible, awful. 
territorio, m., territory, piece 

of land. 
tiempo, m., time, weather. 
tienda, /, store, shop, tent ; 

ir a tiendas, to go shopping. 



tierno, adj.^ tender, young. 

tierra,/, earth, land, ground. 

tigre, in., tiger. 

timido, adj., timid, shy. 

tinta,/, ink. 

tic, m., uncle ; tia, ., aunt. 

tirar, to shoot, to draw, to 

throw away. 
tiro, m., shot ; caballo de tiro, 

draught horse. 
titulo, w., title. 
toalla,/, towel. 
tocador, m., dressing-table, 
tocante a, prep., concerning, 

as to, with respect to. 
tocar, to touch, to play (an 

instrument) ; to fall to one's 

share. 
todavia, adv., still, yet. 
todo, adj., all, every, 
toldo, ;;/., tent. 
tomar, to take, to drink, 
tomate, m., tomato. 
tomo, m., volume, tome. 
tone, m., tone, tune ; darse 

tone, to give oneself airs. 
ton to, adj., foolish, silly. 
torcer, to twist. 
tormento, m., torment. 
tornar, to return. 
torno, m., lathe; en torno, 

around. 
toro, m., bull, 
tortuga,/, turtle, 
tostada,/, toast. 
trabajar, to work. 
trabajo, m., work. 
trabar, to tie, to bind. 
tradicion,/., tradition. 
traducir, to translate. 
traer, to bring, to carry, 
traje, //^., costume, dress, gown, 
trance, m., emergency. 
tranquilo, adj., tranquil, quiet, 
transetinte, m., passer-by. 
transitar, to go, to pass by. 
transportar, to transport. 
transporte, m., transporta- 
tion. 
tro.^, prep,, after, behind. 



320 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



traste, m., fret ; dar al traste 

con . . . , to spoil. 
tratar, to treat, to try ; se tra- 

ta de, it is a question of. 
trace, num., thirteen, 
treinta, num., thirty. 
tren, m., train, 
tres, num,, three. 
trigo, m., wheat. 
triste, adj., sad, melancholy. 
triunfo, m., victory, triumph. 
tronar, to thunder. 
tronco, m., trunk. 
tropa,/, troop. 
tropico, m,, tropic. 
turco, adj., 5w65/.,Turkish,Turk. 

u, conj,, or (before o or ho, 

§ 247)- 

ultimamente, adv., lately, re- 
cently. 

ultimo, adj., late, last, latest. 

umbral, m., threshold. 

linico, adj., sole, only. 

uniformidad, f., uniformit}^ 

unir, to unite, to join. 

universal, adj., universal. 

universidad,/, universit3^ 

universo, m., universe. 

uno, una, (numeral) one. 

usar, to use, to v^ear. 

usted, pron., you. 

usual, adj., usual. 

utensilio, m., utensil. 

titil, adj., useful. 

utiles, m. pi., implements, 
utensils. 

uva,/, grape. 

vaca,/, cow, beef. 

vacilar, to hesitate. 

vago, adj., idle, vacant, vague. 

valer, to be worth, to be 
valuable. 

valeroso, adj., brave, coura- 
geous. 

valiente, adj., brave. 

valioso, adj., valuable. 

valor, m., value, bravery, 
courage. 



valle, m., valley. 

vapor, m., steam ; steamer, 
steamboat. 

variedad, /, variety. 

varios, adj., several, various. 

vecindad, /., neighbourhood, 
vicinity. 

vecino, tn., neighbour. 

veinte, num., twenty. 

venado, m., deer ; venison. 

veneer, to conquer. 

vender, to sell. 

venidero, adj., coming, ap- 
proaching. 

venir, to come ; venir a parar, 
to come to. 

venta,/., sale, inn,roadside inn. 

ventaja,/., advantage. 

ventajoso, adj., advantageous. 

Ventura,/., chance, luck. 

ver, to see. 

verano, m., summer. 

verbo, m., verb. 

verdad, /, truth; en verdad, 
indeed. 

verdadero, adj., truthful, true, 
real. 

verde, m., adj., green. 

verso, m.., verse. 

vestido, m., dress, suit, gar- 
ment. 

vestimenta,/, see vestido. 

vestir, vestirse, to dress. 

vez, /., time, turn ; otra vez, 
again ; tal vez, perhaps ; en 
vez de, instead of; a la vez, 
at the same time. 

via, /., way ; via ferrea, rail- 
way. 

viajar, to travel. 

viaje, m., travel, voyage, jour- 
ney, trip. 

viajero, m., traveller. 

vida,/, life. 

viejo, adj., old. 

viernes, m,., Friday. 

vino, m , wine. 

violeta,/, violet; <i!^'., purple. 

virtud,/., virtue, quality, force. 

visita,/., call, visit ; visitor. 



SPANISH VOCABULARY 



321 



visitar, to visit. 
viso, m.y lustre, sheen, 
vista,/., sight, eyesight, gaze; 

a la vista de, in sight of; a 

tres dias vista, at three days 

sight. 
viudo, widower ; viuda, widow. 
vivaracho, adj., lively. 
vivienda,/, house, residence. 
vivir, to live. 
vivo, adj., alive, live, bright, 

keen, lively. 
Vizcaino, m.and adj., Biscayan. 
volandito, adv., in a hurry. 
volar, to fly. 
volcdn, m., volcano. 
volumen, m., volume, bulk. 
volver, to turn, to return. 
volverse, to become. 
vos, proH., you. 
vosotros, profu, you. 
voz,/., voice. 



vuelta,/, turn, return, 
vuestro, pron., your, 
vulgar, adj., ordinary, com- 
mon, vulgar. 

wagon or vag6n, ph., (railway) 
coach, car (for passengers). 

ya, adv., already, 
yegua,/, mare. 
yo, pron., I. 
yugo, m,, yoke. 

zagal, m., shepherd, 
zagudn, vestibule, hall, lobby, 
zdngano, m., drone, 
zapatero, m,, shoemaker. 
zapato, m,, shoe, 
zarandajas, /. pL, trifles, ac- 
cessories, 
zona,/., zone. 
zorra, /, zorro, m., vixen, fox. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



va, transitive verb ; vn, intransitive verb. 



a, an, un, una. 
abandon, va.^ abandonar. 
able, habil, capaz ; to be — , 

poder. 
abound, vn.^ abundar. 
^hontjprep., acerca de, respecto 

de, sobre ; cerca de. 
above, prep.^ sobre, encima de. 
ahroady adv., en el extranjero. 
absolute, absolute. 
absorb, va., absorber. 
abstain, vn., abstenerse. 
abstracted, absorto. 
abundant, abundante. 
accept, va,, aceptar. 
accessories, las zarandajas. 
accompany, va., acompanar. 
according to, segun. 
account, la cuenta ; on — of, a 

causa de, por motivo de, 
ache, vn., doler. 
acquainted : to be — with, 

conocer. 
acquire, va., adquirir. 
across, prep., al traves de. 
act, el acto ; va., obrar. 
add, va., anadir, agregar. 
address, la direccion ; las 

senas ; el discurso ; va., 

dirigir. 
admire, va., admirar. 
adopt, va.y adoptar. 
advance, vn., avanzar ; ade- 

lantar. 
advantage, la ventaja, el pro- 

vecho. 
advantageous, ventajoso, pro- 

vechoso. 
advice, el consejo. 
advise, va., aconsejar. 
affair, el asunto, el negocio. 



affection, el afecto. 

afford, va., proporcionar. 

afraid : to be — , tener niiedo ; 
temer. 

after, prep., tras, detras de ; 
despues de. 

afternoon, la tarde. 

afterwards, adv., despues. 

again, adv., otra vez. 

against, prep., contra. 

age, la edad. 

ago, ha, hace. • 

agree, vn., convenir. 

agreeable, simpatico ; con- 
forme. 

agreement, el convenio. 

aid, la ayuda. 

air, el aire ; el ambiente. 

ale-house, la cerveceria. 

alike, adv., igualmente. 

alive, vivo. 

all, todo ; not at— , de ningiin 
modo." 

allow, va., permitir ; conceder. 

almost, adv., casi. 

alone, solo. 

alone, adv., solo ; a solas. 

along, prep., a lo largo de. 

already, ya. 

also, tambien. 

although, aunque. 

always, siempre. 

amateur, aficionado. 

ambassador, el embajador. 

amiable, amable, bueno. 

amidst, prep., en medio, entre. 

among, prep., entre. 

amount, vn., montar, ascen- 
der. 

amuse, va., divertir. 

ancient, antiguo. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



323 



and, y (e before i or hi). 

angel, el angel. 

animal, d animal. 

angry, enojado ; to get — , 

enfadarse. 
announce, va.j anunciar. 
annoy, va., molestar ; embro- 

mar. 
annual, anual. 
another, otro ; one — , uno a 

otro. 
answer, la contestacion ; la 

respuesta. 
ant, la hormiga. 
ant-hill, el hormiguero. 
anxiety, la ansiedad. 
anxiously, adv,, con ansia, 

ansiosamente. 
any, alguno. . 
anybody, alguien, alguno. 
anything, algo. 
anywhere, en alguna parte. 
ape, el mono, 
appear, vh., parecer. 
appetite, el apetito. 
applaud, va., aplaudir. 
apple, la manzana. 
appoint, va., nombrar. 
appreciate, va., apreciar. 
approach, V7i., acercarse ; va., 

acercarse a, aproximarse a, 

frisar en. 
April, Abril. 
argue, va., arguir. 
arm, el brazo. 
around, prep., alrededor de ; 

— here, por aqui. 
arrange, va., arreglar, dis- 

poner. 
arrested, adj., preso. 
arrive, vn., llegar. 
art, el arte, 
artery, la arteria. 
article, el objeto. 
artist, el artista. 
as, adv,, como; cual. 
ascend, va., subin 
ashes, la ceniza. 
ask, va., pedir ; interrogar. 
ass, el asno ; el borrico. 



assume, va., tomar, asumir. 
assure, va., asegurar. 
at, en ; a ; — last, al fin. 
attack, va., atacar. 
attain, va., lograr. 
attend, vn., asistir, concurrir. 
attorney, el apoderado. 
attract, va., atraer. 
audience, la audiencia, el audi- 

torio. 
aunt, la tia. 

automobile, el automovil. 
autumn, el otoSo. 
average, el promedio. 
avoid, va., evitar. 
await, va., aguardar ; esperar. 
awake, vn., despertar ; keep 

— , desvelarse. 
awful, horrible, terrible. 

back, la espalda ; (of a chair 

or document) el respaldo, 
bad, malo, mal. 
badly, adv , mal. 
balance, el saldo. 
bale, el bulto. 
bank, el banco ; la orilla ; la 

ribera. 
barbarian, el barbaro. 
basis, la base, 
basket, la cesta, el eesto. 
bat, el murcielago. 
bath, el bano. 
bay, la bahia, el golfo. 
be, vn., ser, estar. 
beak, el pico. 
tear, va., llevar ; — in mind, 

tener presente. 
beast, la bestia. 
beautiful, hermoso, bello. 
beauty, la belleza. 
because, porque ; pues. 
become, vn., llegar a ser, ha- 

cerse. 
bed, la cama; to go to — , 

acostarse. 
beer, la cerveza. 
before, adv., antes ; the day 

— , el dia anterior ; the 

night — , la noche anterior. 



Y 2 



324 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



before, prep,^ antes de ; de- 

lante de, ante, 
beg, va.^ pedir, rogar. 
beggar, el mendigo ; el po- 

bre. 
begin, va.^ vn., empezar. 
behind, a^z;., atras, detras ; prep. 

detras de. 
being, el ser. 
believe, va., vn,, creer. 
bell, la campana. 
belong, vn.y pertenecer. 
below, adv.^ abajo, debajo ; 

prep.y debajo de. 
beneath, adv., debajo. 
benefit, el beneficio. 
besides, adv.^ ademas; prep., 

ademas de. 
best, mejor. 
better, mejor ; it is — that, 

mas vale que. 
between, prep., entre. ' 
beyond, adv., mas alia ; prep., 

mas alia de. 
big, grande. 
bill of exchange, la letra de 

cambio, el giro. 
bill of lading, el conocimiento 

de embarque. 
bind, va., atar ; — up, envolver, 

ligar, trabar. 
bird, el pajaro. 
birth, el nacimiento. 
biscuit, el bizcocho, la ga- 

lleta. 
bite, va., morder. 
black, negro. 
blacksmith, el herrero ; el 

herrador. 
blind, adj.y ciego. 
blow, el golpe. 
blue, el azul ; adj., azul. 
board, la tabla. 
Board of Directors, la Junta 

Directiva. 
boarder, el (or la) huesped. 
boast, vn., jactarse. 
boat, el barco. 
body, el cuerpo. 
boil, va., cocer ; vn., hervir. 



bolster, el travesero. • 
book, el libro ; book-mark, el 

registro. ^ 

boot, la bota. 
born, nacido ; to be born, 

nacer. 
borrow, va., pedir prestado. 
both, ambos (-as). 
bother, va., molestar. 
bough, la rama. 
bow, va., vn., inclinar ; saludar. 
bower, la enramada. 
boy, el muchacho ; el chico ; 

little — , el chiquillo. 
branch, la rama ; el ramal. 
bravo, valiente. 
brawny, musculoso. 
bread, el pan. 
break, va., romper ; to feel 

broken, quebrantarse. 
breakfast, el almuerzo ; el des- 

ayuno. 
breakfast, vn., almorzar. 
breath, el aliento. 
breed, va., criar. 
brewery, la cerveceria. 
bridle, el freno, la brida. 
bright, despejado. 
brilliant, brillante. 
bring, traer. 
bristling, erizado. 
British, britanico. 
broad, ancho. 
brook, el arroyo. 
broth, el caldo. 
brother, el hermano. 
brown, moreno. 
bucket, el balde. 
build, va., construir, edificar ; 

erigir. 
building, el edificio. 
bulk, el bulto. 
bull, el toro. 
business, los negocios ; el ne- 

gocio. 
busy, ocupado. 
but, conj., pero, mas ; skio. 
butler, el mayordomo. 
butter, la manteca ; la mante- 

quilla. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



325 



buy, vaT, comprar. 

cabin, la choza. 
cake, el bizcocho, el bollo. 
calculate, va., vn., calcular. 
call, va., llamar ; {noun) la 

visita. 
canon, el canonigo. 
capable, capaz. 
capital, la capital (city). 
captain, el capitan. 
car, el vagon ; (tramway) el 

carro. 
cardinal, el cardenal ; adj.^ 

cardinal. 
care, el cuidado ; el esmero. 
careful, cuidadoso. 
carefully, esmeradamente. 
cargo, la carga. 
carry, va., llevar, acarrear ; 

carry out, ejecutar, llevar a 

cabo. 
case, el caso ; la caja. 
casino, el casino. 
Castilian, adj,, castellano. 
castle, el castillo. 
catch, va,, coger ; pillar, 
cattle, el ganado. 
cause, la causa. 
cause, va.^ ocasionar ; obligar. 
caution, la cautela. 
cave, la cueva, la caverna. 
cease, va., vn,, cesar, dejar 

de. 
celebrate, va., celebrar. 
celebrated, celebre. 
cent, el centavo. 
centre, el centre. 
century, el siglo. 
certain, cierto* 
certainly, per cierto. 
certainty, la seguridad, la 

certidumbre. 
chair, la silla; arm-chair, 

butaca. 
chance, la ventura, la suerte. 
change, el cambio. 
change, va., vn., cambiar, 

cambiarse ; transformarse. 
chapter, el capitulo. 



character, el temperamento, 

el genio, el caracter. 
characteristic, el rasgo ca- 

racteristico. 
charge, el cargo. 
Charles, Carlos, 
charm, el primor, el enc^nto, 

el atractivo ; va.y embelesar. 
cheese, el queso. 
cheque, el cheque, 
chicken, el polio. 
chief, el jefe. 
child, el nino, la niiia. 
children, los ninos ; los hijos. 
chimney, la chimenea. 
choose, va., elegir, escoger. 
chop, la chuleta. 
Christian, cristiano. 
church, la iglesia. 
cinnamon, el cinamomo. 
circumstance, la circunstancia. 
city, la'ciudad. 
claim, la reclamacion. 
claim, va,, reclamar. 
class, la clase. 
claw, la garra. 
clean, limpio ; va., limpiar. 
clear, claro. 
clerk, el dependiente. 
clever, listo, inteligente. 
client, el cliente. 
climate, el clima. 
close, va., cerrar ; encerrar. 
close by, prep., junto a. 
cloth, la tela, el pano. 
clothes, la ropa. 
clothing, la ropa. 
cloud, la nube. 
coagulate, vn., cuajar. 
coast, la costa ; — line, la linea 

de la costa, el litoral. 
coat, la chaqueta ; dress coat, 

el frac. 
cock, el gallo. 
cockroach, la cucaracha. 
coflfee, el cafe. 
coin, la moneda. 
cold, el frio. 
cold, adj., fri'o. 
college, el colegio. 



326 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



come, vn,, venir ; (to arrive) 
llegar; — back, volver, 
regresar; — in, entrar; — 
out, salir. 

comfort, la comodidad. 

comfortable, comedo. 

coming (future), venidero. 

commander, el comandante, el 
comendador. 

commence, va.^ vn., empezar, 
comenzar. 

commercial traveller,el agente 
viajero. 

common, comun ; vulgar. 

communicate, va,, vn., comu- 
nicar. 

companion, el companero. 

compel, va., obligar. 

compete, vn., competir.. 

complete, va.^ terminar. 

compress, z^^.j comprimir, ap re- 
tar. 

comprise, va., comprender. 

compute, va., computar. 

conceal, va., ocultar. 

concerning, />r^/»., respecto de, 
tocante a. 

concert, el concierto. 

conduct, la conducta. 

confide, va., vn,^ confiar. 

confine, va., internar. 

confuse, va.^ confundin 

conquer, va., conquistar, ven- 
eer. 

consequently, por consiguien- 
te ; por lo tanto. 

consider, va., considerar. 

consult, va., consultar. 

contain, va., contener. 

content, content©. 

contented [with], content© 
[de]. 

contents, el contenido. 

contest, V)i., disputar. 

continue, va., vn., seguir, con- 
tin uar. 

contrary, contrario. 

convenience, la comodidad. 

convent, el convent©. 

convert, va., convertir. 



cook, el cociner©, la cocinera. 

cook, va., c©cer ; guisar. 

cool, fresco. 

copious, cuantios©, c©pi©s©. 

copper, el cobre. 

copy, la c©pia ; el ejemplar. 

corn, el maiz ; el trig©. 

corner, el rincon ; la esquina. 

cost, el cost©. 

cost, va., c©star. 

cotton, el alg©d6n. 

couch, el canape. 

council, el c©nsej©. 

count, va., contar. 

countenance, el semblante. 

counter, el m©strad©r. 

country, el pais, el camp©, la 

patria ; la campina. 
courage, el valor. 
course, la carrera, el curs© ; of 

— , por supuesto. 
courtesy, la cortesia. 
courtyard, el corral. 
cousin, el prim©, la prima, 
cover, la cubierta, el abrig©. 
cover, va., cubrir. 
covert, el esc©ndrij©. 
cow, la vaca, 
create, va., crear. 
credit, el credit©, 
crescent, la media luna. 
crop, la cosecha. 
crumb, la miga. 
cry, el grit© ; vn», gritar. 
crystalline, cristalin©. 
cunning, la malicia, la astncia ; 

adj., malicios©, astut©. 
cup, la taza. 
current, adj., cerriente. 
custom-house, la aduana. 
cut, va., c©rtar, 

daily, el diari© (newspaper) ; 

adv. , diariamente. 
dairy, la lecheria. 
daisy, la margarita. 
damage, el dan© ; va., dete- 

ri©rar. 
damask, el damasc©. 
damp, humed©. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



327 



danger, el peligro. 

dare, vn., atreverse. 

dark, obscuro ; to get -, obs- 
curecer. 

date, la fecha. 

date, va., fechar. 

daughter, la hija. 

day, el dia. 

dead, muerto. 

dear, caro, querido. 

death, la muerte. 

deceive, va., enganar. 

decide, va., vn,, decidir ; re- 
solver ; determinar, 

deed, la accion ; la escritura, 
el documento. 

deep, profundo. 

deer, el venado. 

degree, el grade. 

deign, vn., dignarse. 

delay, 1^;^., demorar; (noun) Isl 
demora. 

delicate, delicado. 

delight, va., deleitar ; to be 
— ed, estar encantado. 

deliver, va., entregar. — a lec- 
ture, dictar una conferencia. 

deny, va., negar. 

departure, la partida. 

deprive, va., privar, quitar. 

describe, va., describir. 

desire, el deseo, el empeno, la 
gana. 

desire, va,, desear, ansiar. 

destination, el destine. 

detain, va., detener. 

determine, va., vn., deter- 
minar, terminar. 

devastation, la devastacion. 

develop, va., desarrollar, des- 
envolver ; vn., desarrollarse. 

development, el desarrollo. 

devil, el diablo. 

die, vn., morir. 

different, diferente, diverse. 

difficult, dificil. 

diffident, desconfiade. 

difficulty, la dificultad. 

diligent, diligente. 

diminish, va., vn., disminuir. 



dine, vn., comer. 

dinner, la comida. 

direct, va., dirigir. 

disciple, el discipulo. 

discourse, vn., discurrir. 

discover, va., descubrir. 

discovery, el descubrimiente. 

discreet, discrete. 

dish, el manjar. 

distant, lejano ; to be — , dis- 

tar, vn. 
distinguish, va., distinguir. 
do, va., hacer. 

doctor, el doctor ; el medico, 
dog, el perro. 
dollar, (Spain) el dure ^ (S. A.) 

el peso. 
donkey, el asno. 
door, la puerta. 
double, deble. 
doubt, la duda. 
doubt, va., dudar. 
dozen, la docena. 
draft, el giro, la letra de 

cambio. 
draw, va., atraer ; va.,vn., tirar ; 

draw on, girar a cargo de. 
drench, va., mojar. 
dress, el traje. 

dress, va., vn,, vestir, vestirse. , 
dressing-table, el tocador. 
drink, va., beber. 
drone, el zangano. 
drown, vn., ahogarse. 
drunken, borracho. 
duck, el pate, 
due, debido. 
duke, el duqiie. 
during, pirp., durante, 
dust, el polvo. 
duty, el deber. 

each, cada ; cada uno, cada 

cual. 
.ear, el oido. 
earn, va., ganar. 
earth, la tierra. 
East, el Oriente. 
eastern, oriental, 
easy, facil. 



328 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



eat, va,f comer ; tomar. 

effort, el esfuerzo. 

eggf el huevo. 

eight, ocho. 

eighty, ochenta. 

either, uno ii otro. 

elect, va,y elegir ; nombrar. 

eleven, once. 

embark, w/., embarcarse ; 7'<7., 

embarcar. 
embrace, va.^ abrazar. 
emergency, el trance. 
empire, el imperio. 
employ, va., emplear. 
employment, el cargo. 
enchanting, encantador. 
enclosure, la cerca. 
encourage, va., animar. 
end, el fin ; el proposito. 
end, vn.f acabar. 
endles?, infinito. 
enemy, el enemigo. 
engagement, el compromiso, 

el empeno. 
engine, la maquina, la maquina 

de vapor. 
England, Inglaterra. 
English, ingles. 
Englishman, el ingles. 
enjoy, va,, gozar de, solazarse. 
enormous, enorme. 
enough, bastante. 
enter, va., entrar. 
entertaining, entretenido. 
enthusiasm, el entusiasmo. 
entirely, por complete, 
entrance, la entrada. 
entrust, va., confiar. 
envelope, el sobre. 
episode, el episodio, el lance, 
epoch, la epoca. 
escape, vn,, escaparse. 
establish, va., establecer. 
esteem, va., estimar. 
even, aun ; hasta ; siquiera. 
evening, la tarde. 
event, el suceso. 
every, todo. 
evolve, vii.y formarse, desarro- 

llarse, desenvolverse. 



exact, exacto. 
exaggerate, va,, ponderar. 
examine, va,, examinar. 
excel, vn., sobresalir. 
excellent, excelente. 
except, prep, excepto. 
exclaim, vn., exclamar. 
exercise, el ejercicio. 
exhort, va., exhortar. 
exist, vn., existir. 
exit, la salida. 
expect, va., esperar. 
expense, el gasto. 
expensive, costoso, caro. 
explain, explicar. 
export, va., exportar. 
extend, va., vn., extender. 
extensive, extenso. 
extract, va., extraer, sacar. 
extreme, extremado, extremo. 
eye, el ojo. 
eyeglasses, los anteojos. 

fable, la fabula. 

face, la cara ; el semblante. 

fact, el hecho ; in — , efectiva- 

mente. 
faith, la fe. 
faithful, fiel. 
false, falso. 
fall, vn., caer. 
family, la familia. 
famous, famoso. 
fancy, va., figurarse. 
far, adv., lejos. 
farm, la hacienda. 
farmer, el colono ; el labrador ; 

el hacendado. 
farrier, el herrador. 
fashion, la moda. 
fast, adv.y aprisa; adj. Hgero, 

liviano. 
father, el padre, 
fault, la culpa. 
favour, el favor, la gracia, 

la merced. 
fear, el temor, el miedo. 
fear, va., vn., temer; recelar. 
feast, la fiesta. 
feature, la faccion. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



329 



feed, va., alimentar. 

feel, va., sentir. 

feign, va., vn., fingir, disi- 

mular. 
fever, la fiebre. 
few, pocos, algunos ; a — , unos 

pocos. 
field, el campo. 
fierce, feroz. 
fifteen, quince. 
fifty, cincuenta. 
fill, va., llenar. 
find, va.y hallar, encontrar. 
finish, va.j acabar, terminar ; 

completar. 
fire, la lumbre ; el fuego ; la 

candela. 
fireplace, el hogar ; la chi- 

menea. 
firm, la casa de comercio ; adj., 

fir me. 
first, primero. 
fish, el pez ; el pescado. 
fish, vn,, pescar. 
five, cinco. 
flatter, va.j lisonjear. 
flavour, el sabor. 
flee, vn., huir, escaparse. 
floor, el suelo, el piso. 
flower, la flor. 
flute, la flauta. 
fly, vn,, volar. 
follow, va.f vn,, seguir. 
following, siguiente. 
fond, carinoso; to be — of, 

gustar. 
food, el alimento ; la comida ; 

el manjar. 
fool, el necio ; el loco. 
foolish, tonto. 
foot, el pie. 
footwear, el calzado. 
for, prep., para, per. 
for, conj., pues ; puesto que. 
forehead, la frente. 
foreign, extranjero. 
foreigner, el extranjero. 
forest, el bosque ; la selva. 
forget, va., olvidar. 
form, la forma. 



former, anterior ; the — ... 

the latter, aquel . . . 6ste , , , 
fortune, el caudal, la fortuna. 
forty, cuarenta. 
forward, adelante. 
found, va., fundar. 
four, cuatro. 
fourteen, catorce. 
fowl, el (fern.) ave de corral. 
fox, el zorro. 
frank, franco. 
free, libre. 
freely, libremente. 
French, frances. 
frequently, con frecuencia. 
fresh, fresco ; — water, el {fern.) 

agua dulce. 
fried, frito. 

friend, el amigo, la amiga. 
frighten, aterrorizar, espantar. 
from, de, desde. 
frost, el hielo. 
fruit, la fruta. 
fruitless, infructuoso. 
fry, va., freir. 
fulfil, va., cumplir. 
full, lleno. 
fully, plenamente, entera- 

mente^ 
furnish, va., suministrar ; 

amueblar. 
furniture, los muebles; piece 

of — , el mueble. 
future, el futuro. 



gain, el provecho, la ganan- 
cia. 

Galician, el gallego. 

garden, el jardin. 

garnish, va., guarnecer. 

gather, va., recoger. 

gaze at, va., mirar; con- 
templar. 

gentleman, el caballero ; el 
senor. 

gesture, el ademan. 

get, vn., llegar ; va., lograr ; 
conseguir. 

ghost, el fantasma. 



330 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



gift, el regalo, el presente. 

gird, va., ceiiir. 

girl, la nina, la joven ; la mu- 

chacha. 
give, va., dar ; regalar ; give 

way, ceder ; give up, dejar, 

abandonar. 
glad, alegre. 
glance, la mirada ; vn., echar 

una mirada. 
gloomy, lugubre, sombrio. 
glory, la gloria. 
glove, el guante. 
go, vn,y ir; — back, volver; 

— down, bajar ; — out, 

salir ; — up, subir ; — over, 

repasar; — shopping, ir a 

tiendas. 
God, Dies, 
good, bueno. 

goods. Ids generos ; el genero. 
government, el gobierno. 
governor, el gobernador. 
grace, el donaire, la gracia. 
graceful, gracioso, donairoso. 
grammar, la gramatica. 
granddaughter, la nieta. 
grandfather, el abuelo. 
grandson, el nieto. 
grant, va,, otorgar, ceder, 

conceder. 
grape, la uva. 
grass, la yerba ; la grama, 
great, grande. 
green, verde. 
grey, gris, pardo. 
grief, el pesar, el dolor, 
grieve, va., pesar. 
ground, el suelo. 
grounds, el terrene, 
grove, la enramada. 
grow, vn.^ crecer. 
grumble, vn., murmurar. 
guest, el huesped. 
guide, el guia, la guia. 
guidebook, la guia ; court 

guide, la guia de forasteros. 
gulf, el golfo. 

habit, la costumbre ; el habito. 



hair, el pelo. 

half, la mitad. 

half, medio; — an hour, 

media hora. 
ham, el jamon. 
hand, la mano ; va.^ entregar. 
handkerchief, el panuelo. 
hang, va., ahorcar, colgar, 

pender. 
happen, vn,, suceder ; pasar. 
happiness, la felicidad. 
happy, feliz ; alegre. 
harbour, el puerto ; la rada. 
hard, dure. 
harden, vn., endurecer, cua- 

jar. 
hardship, la penalidad. 
hardware, la ferreteria. 
hasten, vn., apurar, apresu- 

rarse. 
hasty, presuroso. 
hat, el sombrero. 
have, va., tener; {auxiliary) 

haber ; — just, acabar de. 
hay, el heno. 
he, el. 

head, la cabeza. 
health, la salud. 
healthful, saludable, sano. 
healthy, sano. 
heap, el monton. 
heap, va., amontonar. 
hear, va», oir. 

heart, el corazon ; las entranas. 
heat, el calor ; to heat, ca- 

lentar. 
heaven, el cielo. 
height, la altura. 
help, la ayuda. 
help, va., ay u dar. 
hen, la gallina. 
her, su ; {object) la, le. 
herd, el rebaiio. 
here, adv., aqui. 
hesitate, vn., vacilar. 
hesitating, indeciso. 
hide, la piel. 

hide, va,^ esconder, ocultar. 
high, alto ; elevado. 
him, le, lo. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



331 



hinder, va,, impedir, estorbar. 

hinge, el gozne or gonce. 

his, su (/»/. sus). 

history, la historia. 

hold, va.^ tener ; poseer. 

hole, el hueco, el hoyo. 

honest, honrado. 

hope, la esperanza. 

hope, va., vn.^ esperar. 

horn, el cuerno. 

horse, el caballo ; horseman, 

el jinete. 
host, la multitud ; el huesped. 
hot, caliente. 
hotel, el hotel, 
hour, la hora ; half an — , 

media hora. 
house, la casa. 
how ? I come ? 
how much ? i cuanto ? 
however, sin embargo. 
humble, humilde. 
hundred, ciento, cien. 
hunger, el {fern.) hambre. 
hungry, hambriento ; to be 

— , tener hambre. 
hunt, va.j cazar. 
hunting, la caza. 
hurriedly, a toda prisa. 
hurry, va.^ apresiirar; vn., 

apresurarse. 
husband, el marido ; el es- 

poso. 
hut, la cabana. 



I, yo. 

ice, el hielo. 

idle, desocupado, ocioso. 

if, si. 

ignorant, ignorante ; to be ~ 

of, ignorar. 
ill, enfermo. 

imagination, la imaginacion. 
immediate, inmediato. 
import, va.^ importar. 
important, importante ; it is 

— that, importa que. 
impress, va., impresionar. 
improvement, la mejora. 



in, en ; — order to, para, a 

fin de. 
incident, el lance, 
include, va.^ incluir. 
increase, va.^ aumentar. 
indeed, en efecto. 
Indian, adj., indio. 
india-rubber, el caucho, la 

goma elastica. 
indigenous, indigena. 
indignant, indignado. 
industrious, laborioso, dili- 

gente. 
inform, va., avisar ; informar. 
inhabit, va.^ habitar. 
inhabitant, el habitante. 
inherit, va,^ heredar. 
injury, el dano. 
ink, la tinta. 
inn, la posada. 
inner, interior. 
innocent, inocente. 
inquisitive, curioso. 
insist, vn., insistir. 
instant, el instante ; adj., del 

mes corriente. 
instantly, sin demora ; en el 

acto. 
instead of, en vez de. 
instruct, x;a.,encargar; educar, 

instruir. 
intelligence, la inteligencia. 
intelligent, inteligente. 
interest, el interes. 
interest, va., interesar. 
interesting, interesante. 
interfere, vn., meterse, entre- 

meterse, intervenir. 
intern, va., internar. 
interrupt, va., interrumpir. 
intimate, adj., intimo. 
introduce, t/<7.,presentar, intro- 

ducir. 
invest, va., investir ; invertir. 
invite, va., convidar, invitar. 
invoice, la factura. 
irrigation, el riego. 
island, la isla. 
issue, la emision, la salida. 
it, el, ella, ello ; lo, la. 



332 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



jaguar, el jaguar, 
jail, la carcel. 
January, enero. 
jewel, la alhaja, la joya. 
John, Juan, 
join, va.j juntar, unir. 
journey, el viaje. 
jovial, festive, jovial, 
judge, el juez. 
June, junio. 
just, justo. 
justice, la justicia. 

keen, penetrante, agudo. 

keep, va., guardar ; conservar ; 
— on, vn., continuar. 

kill, va., matar. 

kind, la especie ; human kind, 
el genero humane. 

kind, bondadoso ; amable. 

kindle, va., encender. 

king, el rey. 

kitchen, la cocina. 

knife, el cuchillo. 

know, va., saber; (to be ac- 
quainted with) conocer. 

knowledge, el conocimiento. 

lack, la falta. 

lack, va.^ faltar, hacer falta. 

lady, la seiiora. 

land, la tierra ; el terrene. 

language, el idioma; el (fern.) 

habla ; la lengua. 
lantern, la linterna, el farol. 
large, grande. 
last, ultime ; at — , al fin ; — 

night, anoche. 
last, vn,, durar. 
late, tarde ; to be late, tardar. 
Latin, el latin, 
laughter, la risa. 
lawyer, el abegade. 
league, la legua (about three 

miles) ; la liga. 
leap, el salto ; leap year, el afio 

bisieste. 
learn, va.^ aprender. ' 
leather, el cuero. 



leave, el permiso, la licencia. 

leave, va., dejar ; vn., partir. 

lecture, la cenferencia. 

left, izquierde. 

left-hand side, el lade izquier- 
de, la izquierda. 

leg, la pierna. 

leisure, el ecie. 

lend, va.y prestar. 

less, adv, menes ; ddj.^ menor. 

lesson, la leccion. 

let, va.y dejar ; let loose, 
seltar. 

letter, la carta ; la letra. 

library, la biblieteca. 

lie, la mentira; artful lie, el 
embuste. 

lie, vn,, mentir. 

life, la vida. 

lift, va., levantar. 

light, la luz ; adj,^ ligere. 

like, va.^ gustar. 

lily, el lirie. 

limb, el miembre. 

limit, el li'mite. 

limpid, cristaline. 

line, la linea, la raya. 

liquid, el liquide ; adj\, liquide. 

list, la lista. 

listen, vn., escuchar. 

little, pequerie ; chice. 

live, vn., vivir ; subsistir. 

lively, vivarache, vive. 

lobby, el zaguan. 

locomotive, la lecomotora. 

London, Londres. 

long, large. 

long, ^'/^., ansiar ; antejarse. 

longer, adv., per mas tiempo. 

look, la mirada ; vn., mirar. 

look into, va., examinar. 

loose, va.f seltar, aflejar. 

loquacity, la lecuacidad. 

lose, va., perder. 

loss, la perdida. 

Louis, Luis. 

lounge, el salon de hotel. 

love, va.f querer. 

low, baje. 

lower, inferior. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



333 



lower, va,, bajar. 
loyalty, la lealtad. 
luck, la suerte. 

machine, la maquina. 
Madam, Senora. 
magian, magician, el mago. 
magnificent, magnifico ; es- 

plendido. 
maid, la mujer soltera; sir- 

vienta. 
maize, el maiz. 
make, va., hacer. 
malice, la nialicia. 
man, el hombre. 
management, la gestion, la 

direccion. 
manifest, va., manifestar ; adj./ 

manifiesto. 
manner, el modo ; la manera. 
manufacture, la manufactura, 

la fabrica. 
many, muchos. 
mare, la yegua. 
marjoram, la mejorana ; sweet 

marjoram, el almoraduj. 
mark, va,, notar, registrar. 
market, el mercado. 
marrow, el tuetano ; (dish) las 

migas. 
marry, va., casar; casarse con. 
marvel, la maravilla. 
marvellous, maravilloso. 
master, el amo, el maestro. 
matter, el asunto, la materia. 
mayor, el alcalde, 
me, me. 

meadow, el prado. 
meagre, flaco, mezquino. 
mean, medio ; mezquino. 
means, los medios. 
meanwhile, entretanto. 
measure, la medida. 
measure, va., medir. 
meat, la carne ; cold meat, 

el fiambre. 
meet, va., encontrar. 
melancholy, melancolico. 
member, el miembro ; el socio, 
memory, la memoria. 



merchandise, la mercaderia. 

merchant, el comerciante. 

mere, mero. 

merit, el merito. 

Messrs., Senores, Sres. 

Mexico, Mejico. 

middle, el centro ; la mitad ; 

el medio, 
mile, la milla (=i'6 kilo- 

metros). 
milk, la leche. 
miller, el molinero. 
minaret, el alminar. 
mind, el espiritu, la mente. 
minister, el ministro. 
minute, el minuto; adj., me- 

nudo. 
mirror, el espejo. 
miserable, miserable. 
misfortune, la desgracia. 
miss, va., echar de menos or 
echar menos ; hacer falta ; 
to be missing, faltar. 
Miss, Senorita, Srita. 
mistake, el error ; la equi- 
vocacion. 

mistress, el ( fem.) ama ; la 
dueiia. 

mix, va., mezclar. 

mode, el medio ; el modo. 

modern, moderho. 

modest, modesto. 

modify, va., modificar. 

moist, hiimedo. 

moment, el momento; critical 
moment, el lance, el trance. 

monarch, el monarca. 

money, el dinero ; el peculio. 

monk, el monje. 

monkey, el mono. 

monster, el monstruo. 

month, el mes. 

moon, la luna. 

more, mas. 

morning, la manana ; la ma- 
drugada. 

mother, la madre. 

motion, el movimiento. . 

motive, el motivo. 

mount, vn., montar. 



334 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



mountain, la montafia ; . el 

monte. 
mouse, el raton. 
mouth, la boca. 
move, va.^ mover. 
much, adj, and adv,, mucho. 
mule, la mula. 
murderer, el asesino. 
music, la musica. 
my, mi, mis. 
mystery, el misterio. 

name, el nombre ; la designa- 

cion ; family name, el ape- 

llido. 
nankeen, el mahon. 
narrow, estrecho ; angosto. 
native, adj\, natal; el indigena, 

el natural. 
nature, la naturaleza. 
near, adv., cerca. 
necessary, precise, necesario. 
necktie, la corbata. 
need, va,, necesitar. 
neglect, va., descuidar. 
neighbour, el vecino. 
neither, tampoco. 
nephew, el sobrino. 
nest, el nido. 
net, la red. 

never, adv., jamas, nunca. 
nevertheless, sin embargo. 
new, nuevo. 

news, las noticias ; la noticia. 
newspaper, el periodico ; el 

diario. 
next, proximo. 
niece, la sobrina. 
night, la noche ; at — , de 

noche ; last night, anoche. 
nine, nueve. 

no, adv., no; adj., ninguno. 
noise, el ruido. 
noisy, rumoroso, ruidoso. 
nominate, va., nombrar. 
none, ninguno. 
nor, tampoco ; neither ... — 

. • ., ni . . . ni . . . 
north, el norte. 
nose, la nariz. 



not, no. 

note, la nota ; — book, el libro 
de apuntes. 

noteworthy, notable, digno de 
nota. 

nothing, nada. 

notice, la nota; to take no- 
tice, notar, distinguir. 

notice, va,, notar, observar. 

novel, la novela. 

novelty, la novedad. 

now, ahora, ya ; — and then, 
de vez en cuando. 

number, el numero. 

numberless, innumerable, sin 
numero. 

nut, la nuez. 

nutritious, nutritivo. 

oak, el roble ; la encina. 
oats {plur.), la avena. 
object, el objeto. 
oblige, va., obligar. 
obliging, servicial. 
obstacle, obstaculo. 
obtain, va., obtener ; allegar. 
occasion, la ocasion ; on this 

— , esta vez. 
occupy, va., ocupar. 
occur, vn., ocurrir. 
October, Octubre. 
odd, impar; twenty odd, 

veinte y pico. 
odour, el olor. 
odourless, inodoro. 
of, de. 

offend, va., ofender. 
offer, va., ofrecer. 
officer, el oficial. 
often, a menudo. 
oil, el aceite. 

old, viejo ; anciano ; antiguo. 
on, en, sobre. 
one, un, uno. 
only, adv,, solamente, solo; 

adj., unico. 
open, abierto. 
open, va., abrir. 
opportunity, la oportunidad. 
oppressing, abrumador. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



335 



or, o, u. 

orange, la naranja ; orange 

blossom, el azahar. 
orange-tree, el naranjo. 
orchard, la huerta. 
order, el {or la) orden ; in — 

to, a fin de. 
order, va., pedir ; ordenar. 
origin, el origen. 
osier, el mimbre. 
other, otro ; demas. 
ounce, la onza. 
our, nuestro -a, -os, -as. 
out, adv., fuera. 
outlet, la salida. 
outside, adv.f fuera. 
over, sobre, encima de. 
overcoat, el abrigo, el sobre- 

todo, el gaban. 
overflow, la crecida ; vn,, re- 

bosar. 
owe, vol., deber. 
owing to, debido a. 
own, propio. 
owner, el dueno. 
ox, el buey. 

page, la pagina. 

painting, el cuadro. 

pair, el par, la pareja. 

pale, palido. 

palm, la palmera. 

paper, el papel ; daily — , el 

diario. 
parents, los padres, 
part, la parte. 

party, la partida, el partido. 
pass, va., vn., pasar ; — the 

night, pasar la noche, per- 

noctar ; — by, transitar. 
passer-by, el transeunte. 
past, pasado. 
path, la senda. 
patience, la paciencia. 
pattern, el diseiio, el patron, 

la norma. 
pave, va., embaldosar. 
pay, va., pagar. 
peace, la paz. 
peaceful, pacifico. 



pear, la pera. 

peasant, el lugareno, el cain- 

pesino ; la lugarena. 
pen, la pluma. 
penetrating, penetrante. 
people, la gente. 
perceive, va,, percibir, divisar. 
perhaps, tal vez, quiza, quizas. 
perilous, peligroso. 
perish, vn., perecer. 
permission, el permiso. 
person, la persona, el sujeto. 
philology, la filologia. 
phrase, la frase. 
picture, el cuadro. 
picturesque, pintorescp. 
pie, el pastel. 

piece, el pedazo ; la pieza. 
pig, el cerdo. 
pigment, el color. 
pilgrimage, la peregrinacion. 
pity, la lastima, la compasion. 
place, el sitio ; to place in, 

cifrar. 
plan, el plan ; el proyecto. 
planet, el planeta. 
play, el drama. 
play, va,, vn., jugar ; deseni- 

peiiar. 
pleasure, el gusto ; to take — 

in, tener gusto en. 
plenty, adv., harto. 
plump, regordete. 
pocket, el bolsillo. 
poet, el poeta. 
point, el sitio ; el punto ; la 

punta. 
poisonous, venenoso. 
pole, la varilla. 
police, la polici'a. 
politician, el politico. 
poor, pobre ; mezquino. 
poplar, el alamo. 
populate, va., poblar. 
port, el puerto. 
portrait, el retrato. 
post, el correo. 
poverty, la pobreza; lamiseria. 
power, el poder ; la facultad. 
powerful, poderoso. 



33^ 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



practical, efectivo. 
practice, la practica. 
practise, va., practicar. 
praise, la alabanza ; el elogio. 
praise, va,^ alabar. 
prefer, va,^ preferir. 
prepare,z^«.,preparar,aderezar. 
present, el presente, el regalo ; 

adj., actual ; presente ; at — , 

actualmente. 
preserve, va,y conservar. 
press, la prensa. 
pretty, bonito. 
price, el precio. 
pride, el orgullo. 
print, va., imprimir. 
private, particular, privado. 
procure, va., obtener. 
produce, 2;<^.,producir; presen- 

tar. 
profession, la profesion. 
professor, el catedratico ; el 

profesor. 
promise, la promesa ; va.^ pro- 
meter. 
promptly, prontamente. 
proper, propio ; natural. 
properly, adv,, debidamente. 
property, la propiedad ; la 

hacienda. 
prospect, la perspectiva. 
prosperous, prospero. 
protect, va., resguardar ; pro- 

teger; guardar. 
proud, orgulloso. • 

prove, va,, probar. 
provided, conj,, con tal que. 
public, el publico. 
publish, va., publican 
pupil, el discipulo. 
pure, adj., puro. 
purpose, el fin, el objeto, el 

proposito. 
put, va., poner ; colocar. 
put out, va., apagar. 

quarter, el barrio ; un cuarto, 

la cuarta parte. 
question, la pregunta. 
quickly, adv., rapidamente. 



quiet, sosegado, tranquilo. 
quince, el membrillo. 
quite, adv., enteramente, del 
todo. 

race, la raza. 

rage, la rabia, la colera. 

rail, el riel. 

railroad, railway, el ferro- 

carril. 
rain, la lluvia. 
rain, vn., Hover, 
raise, va., levantar, alzar. 
rapidity, la rapidez. 
rather, mas bien. 
reach, va., Uegar a ; alcanzar. 
read, va., vn., leer. 
readily, adv., prontamente. 
reading, la lectura. 
ready, listo. 
realize, va., hacerse cargo de ; 

caer en la cuenta. 
reason, la razon. 
recall, va., recordar. 
receive, va., recibir. 
recently, recientemente. 
recite, va., recitar. 
reckon, va., contar, tener per. 
recollection, el recuerdo. 
recommend, va., recomendar ; 

encomendar. 
record, la relacion, el registro. 
recover, va., recuperar, reco- 

brar. 
red, Colorado, rojo. 
refer, va., referir ; vn., recurrir. 
refuge, el refugio ; to take 

refuge, refugiarse. 
refuse, va., vn., rehusar ; re- 

chazar. 
region, la comarca. 
regret, va., sentir, lamentar. 
relation, relative, el pariente. 
remain, t'w.jpermanecer; que- 

dar; quedarse. 
remember, va., recordar 
remittance, la remesa. 
repeat, va., repetir. 
reply, la respuesta. 
report, el informe, la relacion. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



337 



report, va.., informar. 
request, el ruego. 
resolute, resuelto. 
resort, vn., recurrir. 
respect, va., respetar. 
resplendent, resplandeciente. 
rest, el descanso ; el repose, 
rest, va.^ apoyar ; vn., des- 

cansar. 
result, el resultado. 
resume, vn., continuar. 
return, va.^ devolver ; volver ; 

vn.^ regresar. 
reward, va., recompensar ; 

{noun) el premio, la recom- 

pensa. 
rice, el arroz. 
rich, rico. 

riches (/>/.), la riqueza, 
ride, va., cabalgar. 
right, el derecho. 
right, derecho, recto, justo ; 

adv.y correctamente. 
rise, vn,, levantarse ; rise 

early, madrugar. 
risk, va., arriesgar. 
river, el rio. 
road, el camino. 
roast, va,, asar. 
robust, robusto. 
rock, la roca ; la pena. 
Romance, romance ; Romanic, 

romance. 
room, el cuarto ; el espacio. 
roost, el gallinero. 
root, la raiz. 
rose, la rosa. 
rough, aspero ; brusco. 
round, redondo. 
row, la hilera, la fila. 
rule, la regla. 
rxxn, vn., correr ; run away, 

huir. 
running, corriente. 
rush, vn., arrojarse ; atropellar. 

sad, triste ; afligido. 
saddle, la silla. 
safe, en salvo ; seguro. 
safety, la seguridad. 



Saint, Santo, San. 

sale, la venta. 

salute, va., saludar. 

S9,ndwich, el emparcdado. 

sardine, la sardina. 

satin, el raso. 

satisfied, contento ; satistecho, 

Saturday, el sabado. 

say, va., decir. 

saying, el dicho, el proverbio. 

scarce, escaso. 

scarcely, adv., apenas. 

school, la escuela. 

science, la ciencia. 

scream, vn., gritar. 

sea, el or la mar ; — coast, la 

costa del mar. 
season, la estacion, la sazon ; 

la temporada. 
seat, va., sentar. 
seat, el asiento. 
seclude, va., recluir. 
second, el segundo ; adj\, se- 

gundo. 
see, va., vn., ver. 
seem, vn., parecer. 
select, va., escoger. 
sell, va., vender, 
send, va., mandar, enviar. 
sense, el sentido. 
separate, adj., separado ; va., 

separar. 
serene, sereno. 
serious, serio ; grave ; formal, 
servant, el sirviente, el mozo. 
set, va., poner ; colocar. 
seven, siete. 

seventeenth, decimoseptimo. 
seventy, setenta. 
several, varios, -as. 
shade, la sombra. 
shadow, la sombra. 
shave, va., afeitar. 
shelf, el estante. 
shelter, el albergue ; la cubierta. 
shepherd-boy, el zagal. 
shine, vn., brillar ; lucir. 
ship, el buque. 
ship, va., embarcar ; vn., em- 

barcarse. 



338 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



shirt, la camisa. 
shoe, el zapato. 
shoemaker, el zapatero. 
shopping: to go —, ir a 

tiendas. 
shore, la orilla. 
short, corto. 
show, va.y mostrar ; ensenar ; 

lucir. 
sick, enfermo. 
side, el lado ; el borde. 
sieve, el cedazo. 
sight, la vista ; in — of, a la 

vista de. 
sign, el signo. 
sign, va.j firmar. 
signal, la senal. 
signature, la firma. 
silent, silencioso ; to be — , 

callar. 
silk, la seda. 
silly, necio ; tonto. 
silver, la plata 
similar, semejante. 
simple, sencillo. 
since, desde, despues de ; 

desde que. 
sincere, sincere, 
sing, va,y vn.^ cantar. 
single, solo. 
singular, singular. 
sir, senor. 
sister, la hermana. 
sit, vn,, sentarse. 
sitting, sentado. 
situated, situado. 
situation, el sitio. 
six, seis. 

sixteen, diez y seis. 
sixty, sesenta. 
size, el tamano. 
skate, vn,, patinar. 
skin, la piel. 
skirt, la saya ; la falda. 
slander, la calumnia. 
slaughter, va., matar. 
sleep, el sueno. 
sleep, vn,^ dormir. 
sleeve, la manga, 
slight, ligero. 



slow, lento ; slowly {adv.\ 

despacio. 
small, pequeno ; chico. 
smell, vn.^ oler. 
smile, vn.f sonreir ; sonreirse. 
smoke, el humo. 
snow, la nieve. 
so, asi ; tanto. 
soap, el jabon. 
sofa, el sofa. 
soft, suave. 
sole, solo. 
some, alguno. 
son, el hijo. 

song, el canto, el poema. 
soon, pronto. 

sound, el sonido ; adj.^ sano. 
sound, vn., sonar. 
south, el sur ; el mediodia. 
Spain, Espana {fern.). 
Spaniard, el espanol, la espa- 

nola. 
Spanish, espanol. 
spark, la chispa. 
speak, vn,, va., hablar. 
special, especial, 
species, la especie. 
spectacles, los anteojos, las 

gafas. 
speech, el discurso. 
speedy, presuroso. 
spend, va., gastar ; pasar. 
spider, la arana. 
spirit, el espiritu. 
spite, el despecho ; in spite of, 

a pesar de, a despecho de. 
spot, la mancha ; el sitio ; el 

lugar. 
spread, va,, extender, 
spring, el muelle ; la prima- 

vera ; la fuente. 
squander, va,, disipar, derro- 

char. 
square, el cuadrado ; la plaza, 
squint, vn., torcer los ojos, 

bizquear. 
stable, la cuadra. 
stain, la mancha. 
stamp, va., estampar. 
stand, vn.f estar de pie. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



339 



start, vn., partir, salir. 
state, el estado. 
state, va., exponer, afirmar. 
statement, la declaracion, la 

exposicion. 
station, la estacion. 
steam, el vapor ; — engine, la 

maquina de vapor, 
steamer, el vapor. 
steel, el acero. 
still, adv., todavia, aun ; — 

more, aun mas. 
stir, va., menear ; mecer. 
stone, la piedra. 
stop, vn.y parar. 
store, la tienda. 
story, el cuento ; la historia. 
straight, recto ; adv., directa- 

mente. 
strain, va., colar. 
stranger, el desconocido, la 

desconocida ; el forastero. 
street, la calle. 
strength, la fuerza. 
strictly, en rigor. 
strike, va., herir. 
strike, la huelga. 
strong, fuerte. 
student, el alumno. 
study, el estudio. 
study, va., vn , estudiar. 
stupid, estupido, imbecil. 
style, el estilo. 
subdue, va., subyugar. 
subject, la materia ; el asiinto ; 

el subdito. 
subjunctive, el subjuntivo. 
^\xhmit,va„ someter, presentar. 
subsequently, adv., despues, 

luego. 
succeed, vn., obtener exito; 

lograr. 
success, el exito. 
such, tal, semejante; — a, 

semejante. 
suddenly, adv., de repente. 
suffice, vn,, bastar. 
sufficient, bastante ; to be — , 

bastar. 
sugar, el azucar. 



suggest, va,, sugerir. 
suitable, propio ; compatible, 
sum, la suma. 
summer, el verano. 
summit, la cumbre. 
sumptuous, suntuoso. 
sun, el sol. 
Sunday, el domingo. 
supper, la cena. 
supple, agil. 
supply, va., proveer. 
suppose, va., suponer. 
sure, seguro. 

surprising, sorprendente. 
surround, va., rodear ; cercar. 
swan, el cisne. 
sweet, dulce. 

swell, vn., crecer ; hinchar. 
swiftness, la velocidad. 
swim, vn., nadar. 
sword, la espada. 
system, el sistema. 

tact, el tacto. 

tailor, el sastre. 

take, va., tomar ; (take to) 

llevar ; (take off) quitar. 
tale, el cuento. 
talk, vn,, hablar. 
talk, el coloquio. 
talkativeness, la locuacidad. 
tall, alto. 
tame, man so. 
tapestry, el tapiz. 
taste, va., probar. 
taste, el gusto. 
tea, el te. • 

teach, ensenar. 
teacher, el maestro, la maes- 

tra; el profesor,la profesora. 
tear, la lagrima. 
tell, va., contar ; decir. 
ten, diez. 
tend, vn., tender, 
tender, tierno. 
tent, la tienda. 
territory, el territorio. 
than, que. 
thank, va,, agradecer ; — you, 

gracias. 



340 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



thankfulness, la gratitud. 
that, conj,^ que ; (relative) que ; 

{demonstrative) ese, aquel. 
thaw, va., deshelar. 
the, el. 

theatre, el teatro. 
their, su, sus. 

then, adv,^ entonces ; luego. 
there, adv.^ ahi, alii. 
they, ellos, ellas. 
thick, espeso, denso ; six 

inches — , seis pulgadas de 

espesor. 
thin, delgado ; enjuto de car- 

nes, flaco. 
thing, la cosa. 
think, vn,^ pensar ; creer. 
third, tercero. 
thirst, la sed. 
thirteen, trece. 
thirty, treinta. 
this, este. 
though, aunque. 
thought, el pensamiento. 
thoughtful, pensativo. 
thousand, mil. 
three, tres. 
threshold, el umbral. 
through, por ; al traves de. 
throw, i/a., ec bar; arrojar. 
thunder, el trueno. 
Thursday, el jueves. 
tiger, el tigre. 
till, va.^ labrar ; prep,^ hasta. 
time, el tiempo ; at the same 

time, a la vez, a un mismo 

tiempo. 
timid, timido. 
tire, va., cansar. 
title, el titulo. 
to, a ; hasta. 
toast, va,^ tostar. 
toast, la tostada. 
to-day, adv,^ hoy. 
together, juntos ; adv.^ junta- 

mente, junto, 
to-morrow, adv.^ maiiana; — 

morning, manaiia por la 

maiiana. 
tone, el tono. 



tongue, la lengua. 

to-night, adv.y esta noche. 

too,«</z^.,tambien ; demasiado. 

tool, la herramienta. 

tooth, el diente ; set of teeth, 
la dentadura postiza. 

top, la cumbre. 

torment, el tormento. 

touch, va., tocar. 

towards, hacia. 

towel, la toalla. 

town, la poblacion ; la ciudad. 

track, la pista. 

trade, el comercio, el oficio. 

train, el tren. 

transit, el transito. 

translate, va,^ traducir. 

translation, la traduccion. 

transportation, el transporte. 

travel, vn,^ viajar. 

traveller, el viajero ; com- 
mercial — , el agente viajero. 

tree, el arbol. 

trifles, las zarandajas. 

trip, el viaje. 

triumph, el triunfo. 

troop, la tropa. 

trouble, el pesar ; la pena. 

trousers, los pantalones. 

trunk, el tronco-; el haul. 

trust, va.^ vn., confiar. 

trustworthy, digno de credito, 
digno de confianza. 

try,^^.,tratar,probar; ensayar. 

turf, el cesped, la pista ; el 
hipodromo. 

Turkish, turco. 

turn, va.^ vn., volver ; girar, 
revolver ; (noun) el turno. 

twelve, doce. 

twenty, veinte. 

twice, dos veces. 

twist, va., torcer. 

two, dos ; — hundred, dos- 
cientos. 

ultimo (date), pasado (mes). 
unbearable, inaguantable ; in- 

soportable. 
unclCy el tio. 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



341 



under, underneath, adv.^ de- 

bajo ; prep., debajo de. 
understand, va., vn., com- 

prender; entender. 
undertake, va., emprender. 
undo, va., deshacer. 
undoubted, indudable. 
uneasiness, la inquietud. 
unexpected, inesperado. 
unhappy, infeliz. 
uniformity, la uniformidad. 
unite, va., unir. 
unknown, ignoto ; descono- 

cido. 
unless, a menos que or de. 
unlikely, inverosimil orinveri- 

simil. 
unsaddle, va., desensillar. 
until, hasta ; hasta que. 
upon, en, sobre, encima de. 
upright (erect), enhiesto. 
us, nos. 
use, el USD. 
use, va., emplear ; usar; v.n., 

acostumbrar. 
useful, util. 
useless, inutil. 
usual, ordinario ; usual. 
utensil, el utensilio ; utensils, 

Ids utiles, 
utter, ?^«.,proferir; pronunciar. 

vacant, vago, vacante. 

valise, la maleta. 

valuable, precioso ; valioso. 

value, el valor. 

variety, la variedad. 

vary, vn., variar. 

vegetable, la legumbre ; — 
garden, la huerta. 

verb, el verbo. 

verse, el verso. 

very, muy. 

vestibule, el zaguan, el vesti- 
bule. 

victory, la victoria. 

view (point of), el punto de 
vista. 

village, la aldea ; el lugar. 

violet, la violeta. 



virtue, la virtud. 

visit, la visita. 

visitor, la visita. 

vogue, la voga or boga. 

voice, la voz. 

volume, el volumen ; el tomo. 

waggon, la carreta. 

wait, vn., aguardar. 

wake, va.y despertar. 

wakeful, desvelado. 

walk, el paseo. 

walk, vn., andar ; caminar, 

walking-stick, el baston. 

wall, la tapia ; la muralla. 

walnut-tree, el nogal. 

want, va,, querer ; desear. 

war, la guerra. 

warm, caliente ; it is warm, 

hace calor. 
warmth, el calor. 
warn, va., advertir ; avisar. 
wash, va., lavar. 
waste, va., disipan 
watch, z/<3!.,contemplar; mirar, 

atisbar. 
watch, el reloj de bolsillo. 
water, el {fern.) agua. 
waterfall, el salto de agua. 
way, el camino; la via ; el modo. 
we, nosotros, -as. 
weak, debil. 
wealth, el caudal. 
weapon, el {fern.) arma. 
weather, el tiempo. 
Wednesday, el mi^rcoles. 
week, la semana. 
weep, vn., llorar. 
weigh, va,, pesar. 
weight, el peso. 
well, adv., bien. 
west, el oeste ; el occidente ; el 

poniente, el ocaso. 
wet, mojado ; humedo. 
what,ique?,iquecosa?; icual?; 

lo que. 
whatever, cualquier cosa, lo 

que ; — may be, sea cual 

fuere. 
wheat, el trigo. 



342 



ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



when, adv,, cuando. 
where, adv., donde. 
whereas, mientras que. 
whether, conj.^ si . . . 
which, {inter.) cual ; {rel.) que, 

el cual. 
while, adv,, mientras, mientras 

que. 
white, bianco. 
who, {inter,) iquien?; {rel.) 

quien, que. 
whose, cuyo. 
why, per que. 
widow, la viuda. 
widower, el viudo. 
wife, la esposa. 
wine, el vino, 
winter, el invierno. 
wise, sabio ; cuerdo. 
wish, va.y querer ; desear. 
with, con. 
within, {adv.) dentro ; {prep.) 

dentro de. 
without, prep., sin. 
witty, chistoso. 
wolf, el lobo. 
woman, la mujer. 
wonder, el pasmo, la mara- 

villa. 
wonderful, maravilloso. 
wood, la madera, la leiia ; el 

bosque. 
woody, selvoso. 
wool, la lana. 

word, la palabra, el vocablo. 
work, el trabajo ; la obra, la 

labor. 



work, vn.^ trabajar. 

world, el mundo. 

worry, va., vn., fastidiar, abu- 

rrir. 
worth, el merito, el valor; it 

is not worth while, no vale 

la pena. 
worthy, digno. 
wound, la herida. 
wrath, la colera. 
write, va.j vn.^ escribir. 
writer, el escritor. 
writing, el escrito, la escri- 

tura. 
wrong, errado, falso. 

yard, la yarda (91 centimetres). 

year, el alio. 

yellow, adj., amarillo. 

yelp, vn., gaiiir. 

yes, adv., si ; — indeed ! i ya lo 

creo ! 
yesterday, adv., ayer. 
yet, conj., sin embargo ; adv., 

aun, todavia. 
yield, va., vn,, ceder; dar, 

rendir. 
yoke, va., uncir. 
yoke, el yugo. 
you, usted, ustedes. 
young,joven. — man,eljoven, 

el mozo. 
your, de usted, de ustedes ; su, 

sus. 
youth, la juventud. 

zone, la zona. 



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REC'D LD 

JUL 9 1961 



21-100w-l,'54(1887sl6)476 



Yb UL77. 




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