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Full text of "An elementary treatise on American grape culture and wine making"

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE 



ON 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE 



WINE MAKING. 



-BY 



'ETER tJ, /YlEAD. 



/i: 



2lluslrated with nearly 20O Engravings drawn from Nature. 



> ^ V 



- YORK : 
Harper & Brothers, Publishers, Franklin Square. 

1867. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by 
HARPER & BROTHERS, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New- York. 




JOHN A. GR'AY & tJJtEEN. 



PRINTERS, 

16 & IB Jacob Street, New-York. 



cue 



f 



R E F A C E 



THE present volume has been prepared in compliance with the 
urgent request of friends in various parts of the country. 

We conceive that an elementary work on the vine, to possess 
the highest practical value for the amateur, as well as the gar- 
dener and vineyardist, should treat of all the facts and principles 
involved in the subject, laying them clearly in order before the 
student, and linking them together with just so much of the 
theory as is necessary to explain lucidly their relation to each 
other, and unite them in the mind of the student in one harmo- 
nious and systematic whole. This is what we have aimed to accom- 
plish in the present work, indulging in no theorizing speculations, 
and introducing nothing of doubtful verification. We have given 
a simple record of our own practice and experience, stating no 
fact that we have not repeatedly verified, and which may not be 
repeated by others, with like results. We have striven to make it 
a safe guide to all. 

Although Grape Culture, and especially Wine-Making, are yet 
in their infancy in this country, the principles and conditions upon 
which success depends are so well established that, if we walk in 
the full light of the knowledge we have, we need tread no doubtful 
path. Though the work is strictly elementary, we have by no 
means intended to make it in any degree superficial, and have 
therefore labored to leave no important practical question unsolved ; 
indeed, some points, that have heretofore been entirely neglected, 
or very briefly noticed, are here treated with a degree of minute- 
ness somewhat commensurate with their importance, as will bs 
seen, among others, in the chapters on " Varieties," " Ripening," 
and " Taste." 

The engravings are so true to life, and so admirably executed, 
that they may be said, in some sense, to present a treatise in them- 
selves, from which may be obtained a good knowledge of the 
operations to be performed, as well as the manner of doing them. 
Our acknowledgments are made elsewhere. 

February 5, 1867. PETER B. MEAD. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. PAGE 

INTRODUCTION, . . . ";,-**. ". 5 

CHAPTER II. 
Climate Location Exposure Shelter, 11 

CHAPTER III. 

The Soil and its Preparation Manures, . ' ;-"" % :<i "V ' . 20 

CHAPTER IV. 

Laying out the Vineyard, . ' . " . ' . '" V" "." ' . 29 

CHAPTER V. 
Planting the Vineyard, . 34 

CHAPTER VI. 
Training First and Second Years, 66 

CHAPTER VII. 

Training Third, Fourth, and Fifth Years, ' ' . "* . . . 73 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Training Guyot Guyot Improved Upright Stock with alternate 
Spurs The Bow System The Jura, . . . . . 89 

CHAPTER IX. 

Training Thomery, : . -V . -.1 . ". . . 121 

CHAPTER X. 

Training Various Forms, . ,. . , ; ^. , . fc *- . 144 

CHAPTER XI. 

Description of Varieties, . . . . - . - . - . - ... 159 



4 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XII. PAGE 

Description of Varieties Continued, . . . *: 1 . 1<71 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Taste, as applied to Fruits, . . . ... ^ . '. , -,' . 225 

CHAPTER XIV. 

When Grapes are Ripe, . . . ; . . . .236 

CHAPTER XV. 
Propagation, 249 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Propagation Continued, . 277 

CHAPTER XVH 
Additional Remarks on Planting, 295 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Replacing and Renewing Spurs and Arms Opposite Arms 
Length of Arms Their General Management Overcropping, 305 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Stakes and Trellises, -. : ; . ''''. " ' . . . : ; ': -.; V ; '. . 329 

CHAPTER XX. 

Cultivation Winter Management Marketing Tying Growing 
Plants between the Rows How to keep Grapes in Winter 
Shelter for Protection and Ripening Manures Non-manuring, 340 

CHAPTER XXL 

Diseases and Insects, . . . . . . ,.J' . 374 

Part Second. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Plan of Quesnel Modes of Bedding Vines Plan of Charmeux 
Ground Training Training without Stakes Training on Trees 
and Trellis combined Ringing the Vine A Mildewed Leaf 
A Rack for Stakes" Heeling in," . . . . . .399 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

WineMaking, /. . . J' ;.M?;L .. . . ... 420 

CONCLUSION, 469 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THERE are few material interests that at pres- 
ent claim a larger share of public attention than 
the culture of the grape. This is true, whether 
we regard the grape as something that ministers 
to our enjoyments, or fills our pockets with gold. 
We have thought, therefore, that an elementary 
work on the grape, plain and practical, would 
now possess a certain degree of interest, and be 
of some value to the public. It would not be 
possible, of course, to exhaust such a subject in 
an elementary work ; we must necessarily treat 
it with much brevity, but we shall endeavor to 
present such a resume of the details and prin- 
ciples of grape culture as will enable any intelli- 
gent person to grow good grapes, and even make 
good wine. The subject, indeed, is worthy of 
profound study for the sake of its own pure 



6 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

and simple pleasures. It may at first seem a 
little dry in its details to the uninformed ; but 
in its fruition it possesses a degree of fascina- 
tion which can be claimed for no other culture. 
Besides what may be termed its intellectual 
pleasures, it has an interest of a more material 
kind, which will address itself not only to 
those who wish to grow their own grapes and 
drink their own wine, but more especially to 
that large class who look at the subject from 
the stand-point of profit. 

We do not propose to indulge in figures, 
whether of arithmetic or the imagination ; but 
we may say that grape culture is fast working 
itself up to the first position among the pro- 
ductive interests of the country. The capital 
invested in it may already be counted by mil- 
lions; and a time will come when the pro- 
ducts of grape culture will be found among 
the exports of the country. It is not claimed 
that we shall make better wines than those of 
Europe ; but we can and shall make them 
purer than most of those sent to us ; and pure 
wines will always find a good market and high 
prices wherever wines are used. Besides, our 
best wines will possess a fruity bouquet natu- 
ral to but few of the wines of Europe ; a bou- 



INTRODUCTION. V 

quet that grows upon the taste, and which will 
make our wines sought after by all connois- 
seurs. It is safe, then, to say that the products 
of grape culture will at no distant day have 
an important commercial value, as respects our 
foreign trade. They already have a very con- 
siderable value in our internal trade ; for, not 
to speak of the vast quantities of grapes that 
are consumed for the table, it is an indisputable 
fact that American wines, some of them con- 
fessedly impure and of inferior quality, are to- 
day selling in New- York for higher prices than 
imported wines of better quality. This is an 
anomaly, however, which must soon necessarily 
disappear. The purchasers of these inferior 
wines are not found among those who know what 
a really pure and good wine is ; and there are 
unmistakable indications that the public taste is 
happily being educated up to that point where 
pure and excellent wines will be the rule, and 
impure and faulty ones the exception. There 
we may safely leave the subject. 

Fears are sometimes expressed that grape 
culture will soon be carried to excess ; that the 
market will be overstocked, and prices, conse- 
quently, cease to be remunerative. More than 
fifteen years ago we heard the same fears ex- 



8 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

pressed in very much the same terms ; and to- 
day we have a sufficient answer in the fact, that 
grapes are now selling for three and four times 
as much as they did fifteen years ago. This is 
readily accounted for in the simple fact, that 
the demand has kept steadily in advance of the 
supply, notwithstanding the largely increased 
area of cultivation. A little reflection will con- 
vince the most obdurate of doubters that this 
must continue to be the case for many years to 
come. Let us for a moment look at some plain 
facts, within the reach and comprehension of 
any common-sense man. Taking the last cen- 
sus tables as a basis, we may safely assume that 
our population will increase for the next hun- 
dred years at the rate of forty per cent per 
decade. Let us then take into consideration 
the fact, that the taste for grapes and other 
good fruits is rapidly spreading among all class- 
es of the people, so that fruit consumers here- 
after will form a relatively larger proportion 
of the community than heretofore. If we put 
these two facts together, we may even take as 
a standard the rapid increase in grape culture 
which has been witnessed during the past five 
years, and the conclusion will still be unavoid- 
able, that the demand will be far in advance 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

of the supply : the mouths will multiply faster 
than they can be filled. This must be the case, 
however large the number of propagators may 
be, or however vast their facilities for multiply- 
ing the vine. The man has yet to be born who 
will be able to purchase our best native grapes 
for less than fifteen cents a pound. We know 
that grapes can be profitably grown for much 
less than ten. 

From what has been said, we are justified in 
concluding that grape culture is rich in the ele- 
ments of pleasure and profit. There is one 
other point that may be glanced at before pro- 
ceeding to the more immediate object of this 
work. A good deal has been said, at times, 
about the morality of the subject ; the wicked- 
ness of growing grapes for the purpose of mak- 
ing wine. We do not propose to discuss this 
point. The limits prescribed to this book will 
not permit it ; besides, it is really not necessary 
in this connection. We may remark, however, 
that our efforts to benefit mankind will be suc- 
cessful just in proportion as we deal with them 
as they are, and not as we would have them. 
We usually fail because we begin by supposing 
men to be what we only propose to make 
them : an inversion which defeats our purpose. 



10 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

]\Jea-will drink wine of some kind, reason as 
we may. Accept the fact, and strive to teach 
them to drink only that which is pure, and thus 
prepare them for the next higher step in moral 
progress, the drinking of no wine at all, if that 
be necessary, which some will doubt. Wine 
is not the only blessing that is abused ; but it 
can hardly be said that pure wine makes 
drunkards. The wine countries of Europe 
prove quite the contrary. We have no hesi- 
tation in recording our conviction, that grape 
culture may be made the handmaiden of the 
temperance cause. 



CHAPTER II. 

CLIMATE LOCATION EXPOSUEE SHELTEE. 

Is our Climate adapted to the Vine? We 
do not propose in this little volume to give a 
botanical description of the grape vine. Those 
who are in present need of that knowledge 
may consult Gray's Botany, or some other with- 
in their reach. The question, however, natur- 
ally arises at the start, whether our climate is 
adapted to the successful growth of the vine. 
This question, often asked, may be answered by 
pointing to the many successful vineyards scat- 
tered over the country. The vine, in fact, is in- 
digenous to almost every part of the American 
continent. As it is the improved forms of our 
native kinds that we depend upon, there ought 
to be no doubt of the compatibility of our 
climate with success. Foreign varieties have 
been tried, and failed. Seedlings of the native 
vines have been grown with eminent success. 



12 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Their relative merits will be discussed here- 
after. 

Location. Having determined upon plant- 
ing a vineyard, the first point to engage our at- 
tention will be the selection of a proper loca- 
tion. We attach more importance to this than 
some others do. It is said that we need not 
be particular on this point, since the vine is 
found growing wild almost every where, even in 
swamps. This is true ; but the fruit produced 
upon vines growing in wet places is very ill-fla- 
vored ; redolent, indeed, of that peculiar odor 
popularly called " foxy ;" the skin is thick, 
tough, and acrid, and the flesh hard and indi- 
gestible. If the same vine be removed to dry 
soil, and cultivated, these offensive characteris- 
tics become in a small degree mitigated ; show- 
ing conclusively the ameliorating influence of 
culture and position. The fruit even of the 
cultivated vine is more or less affected by what 
is called a " wet season :" it is found to lose a 
portion of its tenderness, and to deteriorate in 
flavor. These, and other facts, must necessarily 
lead us to attach much importance to the selec- 
tion of a location that is naturally dry ; and 
the experience of the great mass of cultivators 



LOCATION. 13 

will be found to agree with this. An opposite 
opinion will be found to prevail only among 
those whose experience in the vineyard is of a 
limited nature. If circumstances should com- 
pel the selection of a location not naturally 
dry, then recourse must be had to artificial 
drainage, and this should be of the most thor- 
ough kind. We should give a decided prefer- 
ence to tile drain. If tile can not be readily 
procured, then we must use stone ; and these 
should be so well laid in the bottom as to pre- 
vent the possibility of their being disturbed or 
clogged up by the adjacent soil. The location 
must not only be dry, but the grade must be 
such that no surface water can remain on it at 
any season of the year. Surface water, espe- 
cially in the winter, is a prevalent cause of 
the winter-killing of vines, both old and young, 
but particularly the latter. 

In selecting a site for a vineyard, low grounds 
should, if possible, be avoided. There are many 
objections to them, chief among which are 
these : they are subject to heavy cold fogs and 
vapors, and strong currents of cold air; they 
are more or less damp in spring and fall, and 
liable to early and late frosts; all of which are 
great impediments to the successful culture of 



14 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the grape. Hillsides have always been favor- 
ite spots for the grape; cultivators concede 
their peculiar fitness with great unanimity. 
Declivities, gentle slopes, in short, almost any 
elevated spot free from dampness, may be se- 
lected as a suitable place for a vineyard. But 
the best of all places is, undoubtedly, some ele- 
vated spot bordered by a large body of water. 
Hence the fewer casualties, the greater certain- 
ty of the crop, and the superior quality of the 
fruit grown in such localities as the Hudson 
Eiver and the Lakes. There are several reasons 
for this, the chief being the ameliorating influ- 
ence exercised by the water. The temperature 
of the surrounding air is very even ; sudden 
changes being comparatively rare, or at least 
shorn of most of their ill effects. Early and 
late frosts are not of such frequent occurrence, 
and the growing season is thus prolonged 
These facts will account for individual cases of 
failure or success, which seem at first to set at 
naught all our efforts to refer them to any par- 
ticular cause ; though it can not be denied that 
hidden causes are often at work, the results of 
which maybe seen, but can not well be over- 
come. The cause of disease being unknown, 
the application of remedies becomes altogether 



EXPOSURE. 15 

a matter of chance : we are just as apt to kill 
as cure. 

In selecting a site for a vineyard, wherein no 
inconsiderable capital must necessarily be em- 
ployed, prudence would suggest that we seek 
the advice of some experienced Mend, whose 
practiced eye would quickly detect most of the 
conditions which are favorable or unfavorable 
to the successful growth of the vine. We 
have received many letters, asking whether 
some particular spot is adapted to the grape, 
to which we have but one reply: the con- 
ditions can only be safely determined on the 
spot ; and it should not be concealed, that in 
some cases, even where the best judgment has 
been exercised, hidden local causes will operate 
to defeat in a measure our purpose. 

Exposure. Having thus briefly treated of 
the location, we pass next to the subject of ex- 
posure, by which is meant the aspect which the 
vineyard should have in reference to the points 
of the compass. On this point some diversity 
of opinion exists among practical men, owing, 
no doubt, to the fact that good grapes have 
been grown in various exposures. There is a 
pretty general agreement, however, that a south- 



16 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

era exposure is best, some claiming a preemi- 
nence for one facing southeast, and others again, 
but fewer in number, one looking to the south- 
west. Our own preference, all things consider- 
ed, is for one facing the southeast. But, after 
all, the exposure must, in some degree, be de- 
termined by the local surroundings. A vine- 
yard may be safely planted with an exposure 
ranging any where from east to south and west ; 
but we should hesitate to plant one looking 
due north, if we proposed to make wine. We 
might, under certain circumstances, plant one 
thus situated, and expect to get some good 
grapes for the table, but ripening a few days 
later than those having a southern exposure. 

The objects to be attained by exposure con- 
sist chiefly in the admission to the soil and 
vines of a due proportion of the sun's vivifying 
rays, and shelter from prevailing cold winds ; 
and here, again, we must bring to our aid the 
exercise of a discerning judgment. 

Shelter. This is so intimately connected with 
location and exposure, that we shall treat of it 
here. It is a subject of very great importance 
in its bearings on the well-being of the vine- 
yard, and one to which, strangely enough, vine- 



SHELTER. 1^ 

yardists have hitherto given very little attention. 
We know of vineyards that only require ap- 
propriate shelter to make them yield highly re- 
munerative returns. There are probably many 
such all over the country, the owners of which 
are mourning over their small success, while 
their vines are a prey to early and late frosts, 
mildew, tempests, and other casualties, which 
could be measurably controlled by proper shel- 
ter. The object of shelter is to protect the vine- 
yard from high and cold winds, and incidental- 
ly to secure freedom from unseasonable frosts, 
mildew, and analogous casualties. The atmos- 
phere that surrounds the vineyard should 
be warm, and not liable to sudden changes. 
The heat and moisture that exhale from the 
earth should not be liable to be blown sudden- 
ly away. The leaves should not be torn and 
twisted by strong winds. With all these, we 
should avoid destroying the life of the air: 
there should be gentle breezes passing around 
and between the plants, the leaves, and the 
fruit. Shut out rude Boreas, but let the 
Zephyrs wanton as they will. 

These leading objects can be measurably at- 
tained by affording proper shelter. A board 
fence will often answer a good purpose, and is 



18 AMEKICAN GRAPE CULTUEE. 

always better than no shelter at all ; for simple 
as it may seem, the influence of such a fence is 
felt for several hundred feet. In some cases suffi- 
cient shelter may be found in the natural wood 
surrounding the selected site; but in others, and 
the great majority of cases, it will be necessary 
to make the shelter by planting trees. Of de- 
ciduous trees, we should select the birch or 
the maple. If the ground could be spared, we 
should plant two rows of trees, though one row 
will answer the purpose very well. The birch 
we should plant three feet apart each way ; the 
maple, four feet apart. Of evergreen trees, we 
should select the Norway spruce, and plant 
four feet apart. The evergreens will make much 
the best shelter. The sheltering belt should be 
so arranged as to afford protection against prev- 
alent winds, and these, in most cases, proceed 
from the northeast, north, and northwest ; some- 
times from some point south. Wherever they 
come from, let them be shut off by belts or 
clumps of trees. 

A caution may be added, not to plant a belt 
or clump of trees in too close proximity to the 
vines. The roots of the trees will soon find 
their way among the vines, and damage them 
greatly. We have seen instances where at- 



SHELTEK. 19 

tempts were made to check this evil by opening 
trenches and cutting off the roots; but the 
check proved to be only temporary. If large 
trees surround the vineyard closely, ventilation 
is materially interfered with. There are other 
evils which we can not allude to here. The 
distance at which clumps and sheltering belts 
should be placed may be determined by the 
kind of trees and the distances at which they 
are planted apart. The proper distance for 
belts and clumps is about fifty feet from the 
vines. A hedge proper of Norway spruce, 
planted for a height of ten to fifteen feet, may 
be placed as near as twenty-five feet ; but forty 
would be better, with the height of the hedge 
increased to twenty feet. 

We must not be understood as saying that 
shelter is indispensable to all localities ; we 
know of vineyards that yearly produce the best 
results that have no shelter ; but, notwithstand- 
ing this, there are many places which, owing to 
their geographical position, are liable to sudden 
changes and violent winds ; and for all such, 
protection of some kind is a matter of great 
importance. 



CHAPTER DDL 

THE SOIL, AND ITS PREPARATION MANURES. 

Soil. The soil may next occupy our atten- 
tion. What is the best soil for the grape? 
This question has been variously answered. 
Those who live in a district where clay 
abounds say that a clayey soil is best ; while 
those who live where sand prevails will tell 
you that a sandy soil is best, and so on. The 
solution of these answers may be found in the 
fact that good grapes are grown in both 
kinds of soil. Our own experience, and a 
pretty extended observation among vineyards, 
lead us to give preference to sandy or gravelly 
loams. It has been said that any soil that will 
grow good corn will grow good grapes. We 
have no doubt of the truthfulness of the re- 
mark; and we should not hesitate to plant a 
vineyard upon such a soil, if favorably located. 
But we may go further, and say that good 



THE SOIL, AND ITS PKEPAKATION. 21 

grapes may be grown where good corn can not. 
Some of the best vineyards about New- York 
are planted in light sandy soils, to which muck 
has been added with a more or less liberal 
hand. There are many localities on Long 
Island and in New-Jersey, where light sands 
prevail, that could be converted into pro- 
ductive vineyards at a comparatively small ex- 
pense. We have never seen better grapes than 
have been grown on similar soils properly 
treated. The vine has such a wonderful power 
of adaptability that the soil, whether light or 
heavy, becomes almost a matter of secondary 
importance. 

Preparation. Not so, however, its prepara- 
tion for the reception of the plants. This 
should be most thoroughly done. In planting 
a vineyard, we are doing a work that is expect- 
ed to last for generations ; hence, every thing 
connected with it should be done in a manner 
to insure good and permanent results. Some 
soils will need more thorough preparation than 
others ; but all will need more or less. 

It may, or may not be, that some have recom- 
mended a more thorough and expensive mode 
of preparation than the case calls for. We 



22 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

leave each one at liberty to judge for himself, 
with the simple remark, that money spent in a 
judicious preparation of the soil is capital well 
invested, which is certain to return a good 
interest. A vineyard well prepared will pay 
better than one not so prepared : that may be 
received as an axiom in vineyard culture. 

There are three principal methods of prepar- 
ing the soil for a vineyard : trenching, trench 
plowing, and subsoiling. The first, except for 
small vineyards, and under peculiar circum- 
stances, may be too expensive an operation for 
general adoption : it is chiefly confined to the 
garden. The second and third are exceedingly 
useful, and may be adopted wherever a plow 
can be run. We propose to give a brief de- 
scription of each of the three methods above 
named. 

Trenching is done with the spade. It con- 
sists in first removing the earth from a trench 
to the depth that it is proposed to work the 
soil, the trench to be of any convenient width, 
(say two feet wide,) and as long as the plot of 
ground to be trenched. To be a little precise, 
we will suppose the soil is to be trenched to the 
usual depth of two feet : the trench will then 



THE SOIL, AND ITS PREPARATION. 23 

be two feet deep. With a line, mark off a 
slice two feet wide immediately adjoining the 
open trench ; throw one foot of the top soil of 
this slice into the bottom of the open trench, 
and on the top of this throw the remaining foot 
of bottom soil. By this operation the trench 
has been filled, and the order of the soils re- 
versed ; the best, or surface soil, being at the 
bottom of the trench, and the poorest, or sub- 
soil, on the top. We have at the same time 
opened a new trench. This is to be filled in 
the same manner as the first, and the operation 
repeated until the whole plot has been trenched. 
The last trench is to be filled with the soil that 
was removed from the first. If the plot of 
ground is large, some labor will be saved by 
making the trenches half the width of the 
plot, going down on one side and returning on 
the other. The last trench will then be on a 
line with the first, and there will be but little 
carting needed to fill it. This is a brief de- 
scription of trenching, but we hope sufficiently 
plain to be understood. It will be observed 
that our operation has buried the good soil, 
and brought the poor or subsoil to the surface, 
which must be enriched with muck, manure, or 
good surface soil from some other place, and we 



24 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

shall have a soil that will "bring any kind of 
plants to their highest state of excellence. 

TrencJi plowing is much less expensive than 
spade trenching, and but little inferior to it, 
when well done, putting the ground in fine 
condition for growing grapes as well as other 
crops. In trench plowing, oxen are to be pre- 
ferred to horses, their draught being steadier as 
well as more powerful. There is no plow in 
use at present specially adapted to this work, 
and we must therefore take the best we can 
get. The cylinder plow, on account of its easy 
draught, is perhaps one of the best. Two 
plows and two yokes of oxen are used; the 
work will be better done, however, if two 
yokes of oxen are attached to the second or 
following plow. The first plow opens a furrow 
as deep as the plow can be driven. The second 
plow follows immediately in the same furrow, 
and deepens it to the full capacity of the team. 
There must be no balks or jumps; the plow 
must be plunged in to the beam, and kept there. 
Men with spades should follow the second plow, 
to remove the stones, and keep the furrow open. 
The lot may be plowed round, or in lands ; but 
we prefer to return without a furrow, so that 



THE SOIL, AND ITS PKEPAKATION. 25 

the furrows may all be laid one way ; the work 
will be more than enough better to pay for the 
additional labor. The work will be easier at 
the start, if both plows are run a second time 
in the first furrow, and the soil thrown out with 
spades ; the plows will move easier in the sub- 
sequent furrows, as there will be less resistance 
to overcome. A common mistake in trench 
plowing, (and in all plowing, in fact,) is cutting 
the farrow slice too wide. It is true, that by 
cutting the furrow slice twelve inches wide we 
can get over the ground about twice as fast as 
when it is cut six inches wide ; but in the lat- 
ter case the work is more than twice as well 
done ; and since we can not do it but once, let 
us do it well. Let the furrow slices, therefore, 
be narrow, and the furrows deep. The work 
will be all the better if the lot is cross-plowed 
in the same way. The plowing may be repeat- 
ed with advantage as many times as can be 
afforded. This would very well meet our idea 
of thorough preparation with the plow. The 
manures used may be spread on the surface, 
and plowed in. The effect of trench plowing 
is not only to deepen the soil, but to mix the 
surface soil and subsoil together pretty 
thoroughly, and thus afford a deeper bed for 



26 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the roots of plants to work in: but among 
its most important results is the protection it 
affords against the ill effects of sudden changes 
of the weather, drought and wetness, heat and 
cold, etc. 

Subsoiling will next be described. This, for 
the vineyard, is the least thorough of the three 
methods named. It is but little, if any, less 
costly than trench plowing, and should not, 
therefore, except for very good reasons, super- 
sede it. The process of subsoiling is very simi- 
lar to that of trench plowing. Two plows 
are used, the common plow and the subsoil 
plow, which is simply a foot-piece in some 
wedge-shaped form, attached to a narrow up- 
right shank. Of subsoil plows, there are 
only two or three in use, either of which will 
answer the purpose well enough if the furrow 
slices are made narrow. Mapes's has the light- 
est draught. In subsoiling, the furrow is open- 
ed with the common plow; the subsoil plow 
follows in the same furrow, and should be run 
up to the beam to make good work. The lot 
may be plowed round or in lands; sloping 
ground, however, should be plowed up and 
down the slope when the soil is at all heavy ; 



MANURES. 27 

for the subsoil plow, in such soils, will leave an 
opening at the bottom of the furrow, which 
will for a time serve the purpose of a drain. 
There is this marked difference between sub- 
soiling and trench plowing : the operation of 
the first is confined chiefly to loosening the sub- 
soil, while the latter not only loosens the sub- 
soil, but mixes it with the upper or surface 
soil. The value of trenching, trench plowing, 
and subsoiling, may be taken in the order in 
which they are named ; and it is only the ex- 
pense of the first which should prevent its gen- 
eral adoption for fruit culture. 

Manures. A few brief remarks may here be 
added on the subject of manures. The vine is 
said to be a gross feeder. To some extent this 
is true ; yet there can be little doubt that the 
excessive application of gross manures is injuri- 
ous to the quality of the fruit, and enfeebling 
to the vine, unfitting it, indeed, to withstand 
the changing rigors of our variable climate. 
All kinds of marrires are said to be good for 
the vine, nothing coming amiss. If they are 
thoroughly decomposed, and have lost their 
grossness and unhealthful qualities, which 
produce distended rather than solid growth, 



28 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTUKE. 

we shall not object. Coarse, unfermented ma- 
nures should not be applied to the vineyard, 
except when they can be thoroughly and 
evenly mixed with and through the soil. 
On the whole, we know of nothing so good 
as old, well-decayed barnyard manure, com- 
posted with muck. This, thoroughly worked 
in and through the soil at the beginning to the 
depth of eighteen or twenty inches, will leave 
little or nothing more to be desired. Ashes, 
bones, lime, poudrette, etc., have their value, but 
should generally be applied as a top dressing, 
though they may all be likewise mixed with 
the compost last named. In preparing a vine- 
yard, the object to be aimed at is a thoroughly 
good, but not excessively rich, soil of consider- 
able depth. Depth, indeed, is of more import- 
ance than great richness, though a pretty good 
degree of fertility may be considered indispens- 
able for a productive vineyard. Where it can 
be done, a good plan is to place the materials 
of the compost heap in layers, and let them 
remain so for several weeks; then turn and 
mix them thoroughly, and repeat the operation 
every week or so till the compost is wanted for 
use. The oftener it is turned, the better it will 
be. 



CHAPTER IV. 

LAYING OUT THE VINEYAKD. 

laying out the Vineya/rd. Something may 
now be added, as to the best manner of laying 
out a vineyard. The directions which the rows 
should take is a matter of some importance, for 
we have no doubt that the thrift of the vines is 
sometimes more or less affected by it. Vine- 
yardists are not quite agreed as to whether the 
rows should run east and west, or north and 
south. Local causes, no doubt, operate in some 
cases to affect the results ; yet we believe the 
weight of authority preponderates in favor of 
running the rows east and west; and this agrees 
with our own most matured experience. It is 
not to be denied, however, that good grapes have 
been grown both ways, which will sufficiently ac- 
count for any diversity of opinion. It must not 
be supposed, however, that there is really not, 
under given circumstances, some one way better 



30 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

than another, though we may not be able to 
state it in general terms. If circumstances per- 
mitted, we should by all means arrange the 
rows so that the morning sun should have free 
access to the vines : the nearer this point can 
be attained, the better. In the majority of 
cases, this point can be secured by running the 
rows more or less nearly east and west. On 
hill sides there is a necessity, arising from the 
situation, that the rows should run more or less 
nearly at right angles with the slope of the hill. 
" Let every thing be well ordered " will ap- 
ply to the vineyard, even in matters not affect- 
ing the health of the vine or the quality of its 
fruit. A man's nature and habits may be seen 
in the smallest matters of every day life ; a man 
of refinement and taste may be as readily recog. 
nized by the arrangement of his trees and vines 
as by the neatness of his dress or the orderly 
disposition of the contents of his library or 
parlor. It may not enhance the value, but it 
clearly adds to the beauty of the vineyard, to 
have the vines planted in an orderly manner. 
Some find a difficulty in getting their rows at 
right angles ; but there are two or three simple 
rules for doing this, which can be readily under- 
stood by any body. There ought to be no diffi- 



LAYING OUT THE VINEYARD. 31 

culty in getting one straight line to begin with. 
This ascertained, stretch a string along this line, 
and let it project about eight feet beyond the 
point or corner where it is proposed to form the 
right angle. See Fig. 1. Drive a stake at this 
corner, a, and eight feet from it, on both sides, 
drive two other stakes, <?, d. With these two 
stakes as centers, take a string ten or more feet 
long, and describe an arc of a circle; a line 
drawn through the point, 5, where the two arcs 
meet, will be a right-an- 
gled line. Tie a loop at 
the end of a string, place 
it over the middle stake, 

a, and stretch the string ^ 

so that it passes directly rig. i. 

over the point, &, where the two arcs meet, 
and you will have the desired line. By meas- 
uring off the distances on these two lines, the 
rows and the vines will be equally distant 
from each other. We have named eight and ten 
feet, but any distances will do, so that the last 
be greater than the first. 

Another simple method is by the use of a 
ten foot pole. Ascertain one line as before, 
and drive a stake where it is proposed to have 
the corner. From this stake measure off eight 



32 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

feet on the line, and put a pin in it. With a 
loop attach another string to the stake, and 
measure off six feet on it, marking the point 
with a pin. Place one end of the pole on the 
first string at the point marked by the pin, and 
move the other string till the pin in it touches 
the other end of the pole, and a right angle 
will be formed. Both these methods are sim- 
ple and of easy application. 

Distances at which to Plant Something may 
also be said here in regard to the distances at 
which the vines should be planted, which vary, 
among different persons, from two to twelve 
or more feet. The discrepancies which exist 
among cultivators on this point may be re- 
ferred chiefly to the different systems of train- 
ing that have been adopted, and will disappear 
as uniformity becomes more general, which un- 
doubtedly will be the case to a much greater 
extent than obtains at present. Vines of dif- 
ferent kinds possess various degrees of vigor, 
and the inference is natural that some kinds 
should be planted closer together than others. 
The question to be decided is, not how far 
apart, but how close together vines may be 
planted consistently with the objects we have 



LAYING OUT THE YINEYARD. 33 

in view in growing them. We shall answer the 
question by saying, for general purposes, place 
the rows six feet apart, and the vines four feet 
apart in the rows, if two tiers of arms are con- 
templated. If only one tier, then the distance 
between the rows may vary from three and a 
half to five feet, and the plants may be five or 
six feet apart. For rank-growing kinds, a foot 
more may be added in each case. If the vines 
are to be trained on stakes, six by four is a 
good distance. The nature of the soil and the 
mode of training must have something to do 
with the decision of this question. The vines 
should be planted close enough to check re- 
dundancy of growth, but not so close as to im- 
pair their vitality. 



CHAPTER V. 

PLANTING THE VINEYAKD. 

Plants and Planting. This part of the sub- 
ject would seem to come in naturally at this 
point. We shall include under this head, the 
Best Kind of Plants to Purchase, How to Plant, 
Best Time to Plant, and Time to Buy. In regard 
to the first, vines are divided into, 1st, Plants 
from Single Eyes, of which Fig. 2 is a very fine 
specimen, and Fig. 3, on an enlarged scale, an 
extra fine one, as good, indeed, as it is possible 
to make; 2d, Plants from Cuttings, of which 
Figs. 4, 5, and 6 are good specimens of their 
kinds from two, three, and four eyes ; 3d, 
Plants from Layers, of which Fig. 7 is one of the 
best examples ; 4th, Plants from Green Wood. 
We present these engravings, in order that the 
reader may have the means of distinguishing 
vines of the best quality from those that are 
not. Further on we shall show how all these 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 



35 



are made ; at present we simply wish to indi- 
cate which are best to purchase. For general 




Fig. 2. 

planting we recommend plants one year old 
from single eyes: next, plants from cuttings, 
and preferably those from two eyes, or at most 
three; for special purposes, the best form of 
layers; and last of all, but especially to be 
avoided for the vineyard, plants one year old 
from green wood. 




PlR. 8. 



PLANTING THE VINEYAKD. 



37 



A few remarks may here be offered in regard 
to the relative value of vines one year or more 
old. There seems to be a prevalent opinion, at 
least among beginners, that, for planting, the 
vine increases in value with its age; whereas 




Fig. 4, 





Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



the very opposite of this is true. We lay down 
the general rule, that a well-grown vine is in 
its best condition for planting when one year 
old. There are but few exceptions to this rule, 
and some of these are only seeming exceptions. 
The real exceptions are vines that have been 



38 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

grown in large pots or tubs, and even these lose 
their value beyond the third year. The seem- 
ing exceptions consist of plants that have been 
root-pruned and transplanted when one year 
old ; but these are substantially one year old 
plants, better if the work has been well done ; 
but if not well done, they are not so good. 




Skillful nurserymen can, if they will, make 
strong. plants out of weak ones by root-pruning 
and transplanting; they can even make good 
plants exceedingly good in this way, at an in- 
creased cost ; but they are still substantially 
one year old plants. Fig. 8 is an example of a 
root-pruned vine grown a second year in a large 




Fig. 8. 



40 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

pot, and receiving special treatment, with a 
view of producing the best description of plant : 
nothing could be better. A vine three or more 
years old, that has not been transplanted, has 
generally but little value ; and yet people very 
often pay as much for one such vine as would 
buy a dozen really good ones. They are gen- 
erally bought under the supposition that they 




Fig. 9. 

will get fruit from them sooner, and more of 
it ; but they do neither. The results and 
advantages of root-pruning and transplanting 
are admirably shown in Fig. 9, a sketch from 
life. 

These different kinds of plants are not all 
planted in precisely the same way, and our 
purpose now is to point out the difference. We 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 41 

must here make the preliminary remark, that 
the roots of the plants should not be allowed to 
get dry. The roots are furnished with many 
little mouths, and if these get dried up, they 
never reopen. The plant has then to spend a 
portion of its vitality in forming new ones, 
which sometimes so exhausts it that it remains 
feeble during the whole season. Every thing 
should be so ordered as to secure, as far as pos- 
sible, the integrity of the vital principle of the 
plant. When the vines are taken to the vine- 
yard to be planted, they should be covered 
with wet matting or cloths, and removed only 
one at a time. 

First, let us take the single-eye plant. The 
ground having been already prepared, we 
have nothing to do but dig a hole of the prop- 
er size, and have at hand some good fine 
soil to place around the roots. It is a com- 
mon practice among beginners to bed the roots 
in manure; a practice that is often fatal to 
the best of vines, but especially to those that 
are weak. We may remark, in a general way, 
that we aim to place the roots from four to 
ten inches beneath the surface, according as 
the soil is heavy or light. We may also add 
the caution, that the soil will sink, but the 



42 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



vines will not. This may be avoided, to some 
extent, by working the soil in firmly among the 





Fig. 10. 



Fig. 11. 



roots, but without packing it. Now dig a hole 
about eighteen inches wide and from six to ten 
inches deep, according to the texture of the 




Fig. 12. 



soil, the greatest depth being for light sandy 
soil. The hole will then be like Fig. 10, c being 



PLANTING THE YINEYAKD. 43 

the heap of soil taken from the hole. Next, 
with the fine soil at hand raise a cone as shown 
in Fig. 11, so that the roots shall be about 
four inches from the surface. In the cut, how- 
ever, the cone is too sharp, except for very small 
vines. Now prune or shorten the principal 
roots as shown in Fig. 12, and place the plant 
on the center of the cone. While the plant is 
held in its place with the thumb and forefinger 
of the left hand, the roots must be carefully 
spread out, ray-like, with the right ; the assist- 
ant, with a spade, then sifts or shakes in some 
fine soil, which must be carefully and firmly 
worked in among the roots. By taking a portion 
of the roots at a time, and using the unemploy- 
ed fingers of the left hand, a little practice will 
enable one to so spread out and cover the roots, 
that no one of them shall come in contact with 
another. If the roots are abundant, and over- 
lap each other, as is the case with the best vines, 
the overlapping roots must be held up while 
those beneath them are being covered, so as to 
place a layer of soil between them. The hole 
is then to be filled up, and the cane cut down 
to three eyes or buds. 

Another plan, well adapted to light soils, and 
also to prevent the ill effects of drought, is to 



44 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 




Fig. 13. 



make the hole about five inches deeper, and 
proceed in all respects as above, except that the 
hole must not be entirely filled up ; an excava- 
tion of five or six inches 
being left, which may be 
filled up on the approach of 
winter. A vine thus plant- 
ed is shown in Fig. 13. 
This is also a good plan for 
weak vines, which are very 
apt to die if the roots at 
planting are covered as deep 
as they should be permanently. As a rule, 
the roots, in such cases, should not be covered 
more than four inches when the vine is 
planted. If water is needed in time of drought, 
the hole gives the plant the full benefit of it, 
and prevents rapid evaporation. The hole 
should be filled in the fall, and the soil raised 
around the plant so as to shed water, but should 
be opened again the next spring if the growth 
of the vine has been weak. A feeble vine thus 
planted is shown in Fig. 14, B being the soil 
covering the roots, C the depth left unfilled, F 
the ground surface, and D the point at which 
the cane is to be pruned. 

Some kind of protection often becomes neces- 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 



45 



sary for the newly planted vine. This may 
be cheaply provided by nailing together two 




Fig. 14, 

pieces of board one foot wideband from eigh- 
teen inches to two feet long, as shown in Fig. 15. 
Place this so that the two boards run south 
and east, with the plant in the corner or angle. 
This will shelter the plant on the north and 
west, the points where shelter is most generally 




Fig. 15. 

needed. Another and better form of shelter 
may be made of three pieces of board, put to- 
gether as in Fig. 16, and placed with the open 
side facing the southeast. 

Next in order comes the plant made from a 



46 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



cutting, which usually presents the appearance 
shown in Fig. 17, when grown from a long 




Fig. 16. 



cane. It will be observed that there are four 
tiers of roots. If the roots of the upper tier 




Fig. IT. 



are good, the lower tiers may be cut away, and 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 47 

the vine will in that case be planted as already 
described. If the upper roots, however, are few 
and feeble, the next tier must be retained, the 
upper one shaved off, and the two lower ones 
cut entirely away ; for if they were retained 
and covered with soil, the lower roots would, 
as a general thing, be too deeply planted. If 
two tiers are retained, the upper must be held 
up by the hand while the lower are being 
spread out and covered; and then the same 
operation must be repeated with the upper. 
But there is no necessity for retaining two, 
since the lower roots usually die in conse- 
quence of being placed so deep in the ground. 
With the exception noted, the vine from a cut- 
ting is planted in the same manner as one from 
a bud. When the plant has been made from a 
cutting of two eyes, (Fig. 4, p. 37,) there is only 
one tier of roots, and the treatment, of course, 
differs in no respect from that first described. 

Next in order comes the layer, which will 
need some special directions. The rooted por- 
tion of a layer consists of a piece of cane which 
has emitted roots from each joint. These roots 
are evenly and regularly disposed along each 
side, and overlap each other more or less. 
These roots should be pruned or shortened to 



48 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



about eight or ten inches in length. A layer 
thus pruned, and laid in the hole, with the 
roots spread out ready to be covered, may be 
seen in Fig. 18. Fig. 19 is a front view of 
the same vine. The hole should be dug some 
six or eight inches deep, as before directed, and 
twenty inches square, or large enough to admit 




Fig. 18. 



the roots when spread out. Proceed as fol- 
lows : set a stake firmly, to support the vine 
while growing ; then place the vine in position 
in the hole, and taking the roots on one side, 
spread out evenly all that will lie on the soil 
without overlapping each other, holding the rest 
lip ; cover them with an inch or so of soil, and 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 49 

then spread out the others in the same way, 
and cover with soil. Having finished one side, 
proceed with the other in the same way, and 
then fill up the hole. It must be borne in mind, 
that in ail cases of planting, fine soil is to be 
well worked in among the roots. 




Fig. 19. 

Lastly, we come to the plant from a green cut- 
ting. We would advise that this be left in the 
hands of the skillful nurseryman for a year or 
two more, to be manipulated by him into a tol- 
erably good vine. It is his business, and he 
can do it cheaper and better than you can. At 



50 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

that time it may be planted in the manner first 
directed. As for buying the vine the first 
year well, we would rather be excused. 

We have cautioned the reader against put- 
ting manure in contact with the roots, and it 
will do no harm to repeat the caution. After 
the roots have been covered with two or three 
inches of soil, all the manure necessary may be 
added to the top. A finely prepared compost 
may in this way be added with good results^ 
but care must be taken not to use stimulants 
too freely. We want a good healthy growth, 
commensurate with the vigor of the vine ; but 
beyond this, what is called a " great growth " 
is generally an evil, for the wood is made soft, 
fails to ripen thoroughly, and is, in conse- 
quence, often winter-killed ; besides, there are 
other and serious evils attending the too free 
use of gross manures. 

Time to Plant. In regard to the best time to 
plant, vineyardists are not all agreed, some fa- 
voring the spring, and others, and perhaps 
much the largest number, the fall. In some 
northern localities spring planting may have 
predominating advantages ; but, as a, general 
rule, we prefer to plant in the fall, and cover 
the vines. If done early, the roots have 



. PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 51 

an opportunity of establishing themselves in 
their new quarters, and are ready for early 
spring work. We usually have more time in 
the fall, are less hurried, and do the wbrk bet- 
ter. The vines in the fall are in their best con- 
dition for handling, and the buds receive less in- 
jury from the rough usage they generally meet 
with in being planted ; in short, all the ma- 
nipulations incidental to planting can be better 
done in the fall. In the spring the buds are 
soft, and many of them are rubbed off, leaving 
us dependent upon secondary buds and a small- 
er growth. Every thing seems to be "in a 
hurry," and most things get " a lick and a prom- 
ise," the vines receiving their full share. A 
succession of fears worry us from morning till 
night ; we are strongly tempted to slight our 
most important work, and only too often yield 
to the temptation. 

Time to Buy. Whatever may be said about 
the relative advantages of spring and fall 
planting, there ought to be no doubt about the 
great advantage of fall buying. The buds are 
then firm, and the vines can be handled with- 
out injury; the atmosphere is cool and moist, 
and the roots suffer but little from exposure; 
there is no danger of the buds swelling during 



52 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

transportation; every thing, in brief, is favor- 
able to the lifting, packing, and shipping of the 
vines, and they are received in good order. In 
the spring, the very opposite of these conditions 
exist, and it is no uncommon occurrence to re- 
ceive vines with the buds gone, bruised, or 
started into growth, greatly to the damage of 
the vines, and sometimes resulting in much 
loss. Our advice is, to buy in the fall ; to plant 
as long as the work can be well done ; to " heel 
in " the vines that are left over, and finish the 
planting early in the spring, or as soon as the 
ground has become warm. We should prefer 
to buy in the fall, even though we did not 
plant till spring. From what we have said, 
the reasons will be obvious. 

The plants, when received, should be " heeled 
In " as follows : select a dry place, where water 
can not stand, and dig a trench eighteen inches 
deep and from twelve to eighteen inches wide, 
throwing the earth all on one side. In this 
trench the vines are to be placed close together 
in a slanting position, and the roots covered 
with soil to the depth of a foot. Where a 
large number of vines are to be "heeled in," 
the trench may be dug wider, and when the 
.roots of the first row are covered, another row 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 53 

may be placed in front of them. Several rows 
may be placed together in this way. There is 
no danger of covering the vines too deep, if the 
soil is dry; the error of not covering them 
enough is often committed. The earth over the 
trench is to be rounded off, so as to shed water. 
If the canes are mostly covered, so much the 
better. For additional security, a little brush 
or coarse litter may be thrown on the top. 
Protected in this way, vines may be kept in 
good condition during the severest of winters. 

Where a cool cellar is at command, the "vines 
may be better kept with less trouble. In this 
case they should be bedded in clean coarse 
sand, that is just moist, but not wet. The 
vines may be placed close together on the floor 
of the cellar, and the sand worked in carefully 
among the roots, which should be covered from 
six inches to a foot. The vines maybe packed 
in boxes in the same way. If the sand should 
get dry, it must be moistened a little, but not 
made wet. An advantage will be gained 
by pruning the roots before packing them 
away. The wounds will callus before spring, 
and be ready to emit new roots immediately 
after being planted. 

Notwithstanding all the advantages of buy- 



54 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

ing and planting in the fall, a large majority 
will probably continue, as at present, to pur- 
chase in the spring. They will perhaps be 
governed by a desire to save trouble, or the 
fear of losing their plants through some mis- 
management of the details of "heeling in," or 
the trying alternations of winter. Under such 
circumstances, most of the advantages above 
named may be secured for spring by proper 
fall management of the plants on the part of 
the propagator. The plants should be "lifted" 
or dug up in the fall, and the unripe roots, if 
any, cut off, and the healthy character of the 
plants well ascertained. They should then be 
carefully " heeled in " in clean sand in the 
manner just described. Careful propagators 
have a cellar or pit specially prepared for this 
purpose, in which the plants keep admirably, 
the conditions of safety being well understood 
and thoughtfully provided. Where a cellar or 
pit is not possessed, recourse must be had to 
the open air. In this case, a place sheltered 
from the south should be selected, and the 
plants bedded in sand. This may be permit- 
ted to freeze a few inches, but the frost should 
not be allowed to reach the roots. The whole 
should then be covered with straw and ever- 



PLANTING THE VINEYARD. 55 

greens, to prevent thawing till the plants are- 
wanted in spring. In both these ways, vines 
may be kept from growing in the spring for a 
considerable time after vegetation has begun in 
the open air. In this manner good vines may 
be secured for late spring planting, after danger 
from late frosts has passed, and with a certain- 
ty of a good growth, if the vines are carefully 
handled, and the conditions of planting duly 
observed. Ultimate success depends so much 
upon securing a healthy, well-ripened growth 
during the first season, that we have dwelt 
somewhat at length upon this, part of the sub- 
ject. 



CHAPTER VL 

TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND TEARS. 

Training. If our directions thus far have 
been clear to the apprehension of the reader, 
and have been faithfully observed, we shall 
have a good and durable foundation upon 
which to build our superstructure. Unlike 
many other superstructures, this one must be 
built slowly ; as it were, one stone at a time. 
The laws of vegetable growth are inexorable. 
By no skill of ours can we alter them ; but by 
studying their nature and operation, we may 
gain as much knowledge as will enable us to 
apply them to certain given cases in such a 
manner as to produce their legitimate results 
with great uniformity ; we may, by judiciously 
cooperating with them, and affording the as- 
certained requirements, enjoy these results in 
their most perfect form. It is our purpose 
now to state what these requirements are, so 



TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEARS. 57 

far as we have ascertained them by our own 
experience. 

There are certain technical terms, the use of 
which it is hardly possible to avoid, even if it 
were desirable. t The most of these will be 
readily understood; those that are obscure 
will be properly explained. There are a few, 
however, of such various and loose application, 
that their use necessarily begets confusion. 
Such, for example, is the word lateral, which is 
applied to any shoot growing laterally from 
another, such as an upright cane, a horizontal 
arm, etc. ; it is also applied to the little green 
shoot which proceeds from the base of the 
leaves, and here it is simply meaningless. Dr. 
Grant has introduced the word ihallon for use 
here. It is clearly from the Greek tfaAAof, mean- 
ing a small branch, sprig, or little shoot, ex- 
pressing precisely what we desire to say. By 
the aid of a privative, we naturally form afhalr 
lage, athallizing, etc., words expressing an ope- 
ration which has heretofore required an ungain- 
ly circumlocution. We dislike the introduction 
of new words as much as any body can ; but new 
arts often demand, for the sake of precision and 
brevity, the introduction of new words, and 
their scholarly application, and there seems to 



58 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

be a necessity for it here ; we propose, there- 
fore, to adopt these new words, in the hope 
that their directness and conciseness will give 
them general favor.* 

We will now proceed with the subject of 
training with all the brevity that is consistent 
with clearness. There are still not a few per- 
sons who doubt the necessity or utility of 
training the vine. Some will point with a 
scarcely concealed look of triumph to the wild 
vine clinging to some primeval denizen of the 
forest, and wreathing it with festoons. We are 
not insensible to the picturesque beauty of the 
vine as it lovingly clings to some noble old 



* The following are the words, with their definitions, which we 
give in order that the reader may understand precisely how 
they are used : TJwUon, n. (Greek, tf aMof .) A sprig or little 
shoot, especially one proceeding from the base or leaf, as in the 
grape- vine. Athattage, n. (a priv. and tfaA/loj-.) The act or opera- 
tion of removing or pinching off sprigs or little shoots, either 
partly or wholly. Athattize, v. t. To remove or pinch off sprigs or 
little shoots, either partly or wholly. Athcdlizing, ppr. Removing 
or pinching off sprigs or little shoots, either partly or wholly. 
Athallized, pp. Having the sprigs or little shoots removed or 
pinched off, either partly or wholly. Thus tJiallons, for our pur- 
pose, will mean the little shoots growing from the base of the 
leaf on the green cane ; and atliaUage, the act or operation of 
pinching off the shoots at one leaf from the base, etc. Each 
time the thallon is athallized, an additional leaf will be left. In 
Fig. 21, p. 62, the thallons may be distinctly seen proceeding from 
the base of the leaves ; and it may be further seen that they have 
been athallized a third time, the plant being a strong one. We 
venture to hope that we have made the application clear. 



TRAINING FIKST AND SECOND YEARS. 59 

tree, and with its beautiful drapery strives to 
conceal the nakedness of its waning years; 
but we would respectfully suggest, that while 
it is a beautiful picture for some appreciative 
artist to copy, it is hardly a fit subject for the 
vineyardist to follow as a model. So, too, of 
vines more properly located, and growing un- 
pruned on apple and other trees. They will 
produce some good fruit, but not as good as it 
might be, and by no means as good as is grown 
on vines judiciously trained ; the fruit fails in 
quality, and dwindles away, from year to year, 
becoming at last almost as hard and indigesti- 
ble as that grown in the woods. Besides, the 
practice, if adopted, would be found an exceed- 
ingly wasteful one. The fact should be accept- 
ed, that training is a necessity to all who aim 
at economy and the best results. It has the 
great value of systematizing all our labors, plac- 
ing the vine within easy reach, and reducing the 
necessary manipulations to their lowest terms. 
By way of introduction, it will perhaps ena- 
ble the beginner more readily to understand the 
details of practice, if we first give him a general 
idea of the vine. The vine is composed of dif- 
ferent members or parts, known to cultivators 
by names that have a more or less technical ap- 



60 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



plication. These will be understood by an in- 
spection of Fig. 20, the left-hand side of which 
is a vine pruned for fruit. The part D, proceed- 
ing from the ground, is called the stock or body 
of the vine. The horizontal part, C, growing 
at right angles from the stock, is called a horizon- 
tal arm. A, A, A, on this arm, are spurs: 
B, B, B, are canes. There are other parts, 
which the reader will learn as we go along ; 




Fig. 20. 

but these are the principal ones, and the en- 
graving shows their relation to each other. 
The right-hand side of the engraving shows the 
vine in fruit on the renewal system, with the 
canes unpruned, which will be explained in its 
proper place. 

Double Horizontal Arms First Year. 
There are many modes of training, some of the 
best of which we shall explain ; but all good 



TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEARS. 61 

ones start from one and the same point. We 
therefore ask the reader's particular attention 
to what we shall say of the vine during the 
first three years of its life. That part of the 
subject being well understood, the rest becomes 
comparatively easy. We propose now to take 
a single vine, and carry it through the first year 
of its growth. At the time of planting, we 
directed the vine to be cut down to three eyes 
or buds. From these eyes three shoots will 
grow. When they have reached the length 
of three or four inches, the strongest must be 
selected, and the other two rubbed off. It is 
an object, however, to have the selected cane as 
low down as possible ; if, therefore, the three 
are nearly of the same strength, rub off the two 
upper ones. The one selected must be tied to a 
stake, and the tying repeated from time to time, 
as growth progresses. It is an essentially bad 
practice to let the canes grow on the ground. 

We propose the first year to grow one strong 
healthy cane, like that shown in Fig. 21. This 
can only be done by tying the cane to a stake, 
and having recourse to athallage. We thus 
secure large and durable foliage, fitted to with- 
stand changes in the weather and the attacks of 
disease ; better and more enduring roots ; and a 



21. 




Pi?. 22. 



TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEARS. 63 

healthy, well-ripened cane. As the young shoot 
progresses in growth, the thallons (C, C) make 
their appearance, and must receive our atten- 
tion. To secure the full benefits of athallage, 
it must be performed at the right moment ; 
this is when the first leaf on the thallon has 
reached the size of a half-dollar, (if the reader 
can remember how large that was ; to the best 
of our recollection, it was over an inch in 
diameter ;) the end must then be pinched off, 
(not cutj) so as to leave only the single little 
leaf. By athallizing at this early stage, we 
avoid that shock to the action of the roots 
which takes place when it is performed after 
the thallon has made a considerable growth. 
There ' is scarcely any check to the growth of 
the plant ; the vital force, or action, which 
would otherwise have gone to the extension of 
the thallon, is now directed in part to the little 
leaf and the bud at its base ; the leaf increases 
in size and improves in texture ; becomes, in- 
deed, much larger than it would otherwise have 
been ; the bud also increases in size, and finally 
bursts into a new shoot. All this has taken 
many days, but the thallon has not increased 
in length. After the bursting of the bud, the 
thallon is allowed to grow till the first new 



64 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

leaf lias reached about the diameter of an inch, 
when it must be athallized precisely as before. 
If the vine is growing strongly, it may be ne- 
cessary to repeat the operation a third time, 
after which the thallons may be allowed to take 
care of themselves. We have spoken of one 
thallon ; but there will be one at the base of 
nearly every leaf, and all must be treated alike. 
This is clearly shown on the vine in Fig. 21, 
where the first thallon has been athallized 
three times, and the others twice, with the ex- 
ception of one on the left, about half-way up. 
We have said above that the vital force is di- 
rected in part to the little leaf and the bud at 
its base ; the rest goes to increase the size of 
the cane and its proper leaves, as well as the 
buds at their base. The whole vine has thus 
been benefited, both above and below ground. 
The young vine, treated as above, is allowed 
to grow till about the beginning of September, 
when the extreme end of the growing cane is 
to be pinched out. This will materially help 
in ripening the upper portion of the cane and 
buds, especially if the operation is repeated at 
the end of two or three weeks. On the vine in 
Fig. 21 this has been done twice, as may be 
seen at A and B. With the exception of tying 



TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEARS. 65 

up, the vine will need no further care in the 
way of training. "When the leaves have ripened 
and fallen off, the vine will have the appearance 
presented in Fig. 22. It may be regarded as 
an example of a first-class vine. Let Fig. 23 be 
taken as the same vine on a 
reduced scale. In November, 
or before the ground freezes, 
the cane must be pruned to 
three eyes, as indicated by 
the cross mark. It may then 
be bent down, and an inch or 
so of earth thrown over it, 
and thus left for the winter. 
Fig. 24 shows how vines may ' 
be prepared for laying down 
and covering. Cedar brush 
may be thrown over the 
plants instead of earth, or 
the covering may be omitted 
altogether in favorable local- 
ities, though it is always a 
safe and prudent course to 
give some kind of protection 
to young vines. The pruning 
may be left till spring, but it 
is far better to do it in the fall. 

Fig. 23. 5 



66 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



Second Year. In the spring the first thing 
to be done is to uncover the vines. There is 
danger of doing this too soon. In northern 
and exposed localities, the vines should remain 
covered till danger from late frosts is past, for 
vines that are covered will not begin growing 





Fig. 24. 

as soon as those that are uncovered* If the 
pruning was neglected in the fall, it should be 
done as soon as the vines are uncovered. We 
shall say nothing here about cultivation, reserv- 
ing that for another place, but we shall suppose 
that the ground has been plowed or spaded, 
and the pruned vines tied to the stakes, ready 
for growth. We propose to grow two good 
canes this year. We left .three buds at the time 



TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEARS. 67 

of pruning, but one was simply intended to in- 
sure against loss by accident. When the young 
canes have grown about three inches, one of 
them must be rubbed off, and that should be the 
weakest; yet it is desirable that the two that re- 
main should be on opposite sides. Usually, in 
good vines, the three start about equally strong, 
and no difficulty is presented ; but when it is 
otherwise, we must either take both on the 
same side, and submit to a little present defor- 
mity, or we must endeavor to restore the equi- 
librium by bending the strongest cane toward 
a horizontal position, and growing the. weak 
one upright. In a large vineyard this would 
involve, considerable labor and skill, and the 
reader may determine for himself what he will 
do under the circumstances. Having selected 
the two canes, they should be tied up to pre- 
vent their accidental loss. These canes must be 
tied to the stake from time to time during the 
whole season of growth. One bunch of fruit 
may be allowed to grow on strong canes, but 
the vines, on the whole, will be better if all 
the fruit is removed. When the thallons make 
their appearance, they are to be athallized pre- 
cisely at the time and in the manner directed 
for the first year. The ends of both canes 



68 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



should also be pinched out as was then di- 
rected. The whole routine of training, indeed, 
is the same for the first and 
second years, the only differ- 
ence being, that during the 
second year we have two 
canes instead of one. 

If every thing has gone on 
nicely, as it should, at the 
end of the season, when the 
leaves have fallen, we shall 
have a vine with two good 
canes, like that in Fig. 25. 
It will occasionally happen 
that a vine here and there 
will be weak, and not able to 
produce two good canes. In 
such cases, the proper course 
is to grow only one cane the 
second year. If, however, two 
are grown, they will be too 
weak to lay down for arms, 
and they must therefore be 
cut back to two eyes each, 
Fig. 25. and only two canes grown 

the third year, Nothing will or can be gained 
by attempting to keep weak vines up to the 



TRAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEAKS. 69 



advanced stage of growth of strong ones. It 
will also happen that some vines will make 
too coarse or rank a growth. When this rank 
growth takes place, the wood is coarse and 
spongy, and the buds that are chiefly wanted 
for future use are imperfectly developed. In 
such cases it will be well to let 
three canes grow instead of two, 
which will have the effect of 
preventing this grossness, and 
improving the quality of the 
wood. A vine grown with three 
canes is shown in Fig. 26. At 
the time of pruning, the middle 
cane is cut entirely out at the 
cross mark. If the trellis has 
been put up, it is a good plan to 
lay the canes down horizontally 
about the first of August ; it is 
still better to begin to bend them 
to a horizontal position early in 
the season. The result is a bet- 
ter development of the buds 
near the stock of the vine. 
Our next labor will consist in pruning, and 
putting down, the vines for winter; but, before 
doing this, it becomes necessary to determine 



Fig. 26. 



70 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

what particular mode of training shall be 
adopted ; for our pruning now must give shape 
to this. There are several good methods of 
training the vine, the best of which we propose 
to explain. We shall begin with the double 
horizontal arm system, since a good knowledge 
of that will pave the way to an easy under- 
standing of the rest. Our pruning at the close 
of the second year will have in view the begin- 
ning of the arms. We say the beginning, be- 
cause, if we should form or lay down the whole 
arm at one time, the lower buds, or those near- 
est the body of the vine, would break feebly, 
and either remain weak, or disappear alto- 
gether. The vital force, or action, tends so 
strongly to the end of the cane, that we must 
in some way control it, in order to fill up the 
entire length of the arm with fruitful spurs. 
This can be done with certainty only by a grad- 
ual extension of the arm ; but even then the arm 
must not be extended beyond a certain length, 
or the vital force will overcome the restraint put 
upon it, and defeat our purpose. As a general 
rule, arms four feet long should not be in- 
creased more than one third of their length at 
a time, and that only when the canes are good. 
We will suppose our vines are four feet 



TKAINING FIRST AND SECOND YEAES. 71 

apart for a double tier of arms ; each vine will 
then have about seven feet of horizontal arm, or 
about three feet six inches on each side of the 
stock. In this case, the arms may be laid 
down from a third to half their length, or from 
fourteen to twenty-one inches. There will, how- 
ever, be here and there canes not stout enough 
to lay down as much as one foot. From such 
vines as may have three canes, the middle one 
must be cut through the old wood below the 
cross mark in Fig. 26, which will make the 
vine like Fig. 25 ; the canes must be cut at A, 
or from fourteen to twenty inches long. The 
canes are now to be placed in a horizontal posi- 
tion, and tied there, as shown in Fig. 27. The 




Fig. 2T. 

dotted lines show where the upright canes will 
grow from the upper buds. If all the lower 
buds, #, are rubbed off, the upper ones will 
place the spurs at about the proper distance 



72 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

from each other, except in a few kinds making 
very long joints ; in these it may be desirable 
to retain both the upper and the lower buds 
for making spurs. The canes just bent down 
may or may not contain the exact number 
of buds represented in the figure; that will 
depend partly upon the kind and partly upon 
circumstances. The spurs should be from six 
to twelve inches apart, according to the kind 
of vine. The smaller distance will generally 
answer for the Delaware, Rebecca, and kinds 
of similar growth; while the longer distance 
will suit the lona, Allen's Hybrid, etc. It 
may be reduced to a rule, thus : the distance 
between the spurs must be determined by 
the habit of the kind. The object is, to have 
the arms of about equal length, the same 
number of spurs on each arm, and the dis- 
tance between the spurs just sufficient to ac- 
commodate the foliage. The reader must keep 
this object constantly in view in forming the 
arms. The two years' growth previous to the 
formation of the arms will give him a good 
idea of the habit of the kind; but he must 
make proper allowance for the greater vigor 
of the vine during these two years. Fig. 27 
is a Delaware vine, and the portion of arm 
laid down is pretty nearly two feet long. 



CHAPTEE VII. 

TRAINING THIRD, FOURTH, AKD FIFTH YEARS. 

Third Yecv*\ We will suppose that the vines 
have been wintered as heretofore directed, and 
proceed with the training for the third year. 
The upper eyes on the arms in Fig. 27 will each 
produce a cane, as indicated by the dotted lines, 
and each cane will set two or three bunches 
of fruit. Just here it becomes necessary to 
decide how many bunches shall be left to ma- 
ture. The temptation to leave all is very great, 
and it is often done, to the great and perma- 
nent injury of the vine ; in this way, indeed, it 
is sometimes tasked so much beyond its power, 
that the fruit not only fails to ripen, but the 
leaves fall off prematurely, the roots and wood 
in consequence fail to ripen, and the vine often 
dies, or is winter killed. It is not necessary 
here to state the physiology of the case, or to 
present an array of reasons ; it will be suffi- 
cient to say, that, as a rule, not niore than one 



Y4 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

bunch to each shoot should be left this year, 
and on weak shoots none at all. A very strong 
cane, however, may have two bunches. 

We propose this year to grow a certain num- 
ber of upright canes with well-developed buds 
at the base for spurs, and two good canes 
to extend the arms. The cane which proceeds 
from the bud on the end of the arm is for the 
extension of the arm. It may be grown at an 
angle of about forty-five degrees, or, better still, 
when from eighteen inches to two feet long, it 
may be bent toward a horizontal position, and 
tied securely to the trellis from time to time as 
it increases in length. All the canes intended 
for the extension of the arms must be athallized 
as directed for the first year's training. The 
upright, or fruit-bearing cane, must be treated 
as follows : as the thallons make their appear- 
ance, they must be athallized, and the operation 
repeated two or three times, or as often as may 
be necessary. We repeat here the injunction, 
not to fail in doing it at the right time. When 
the upright cane has reached a length of about 
two feet, pinch out its extreme end, and no 
more. 

And just here let us say that it is a great fal- 
lacy to suppose that we wish to check the force 



h z 



THIRD, FOUKTH, AND FIFTH. YEARS. i o 

of tlie vital principle ; on the contrary, we "be- 
lieve that all checks are injurious, and just in 
proportion to their violence. Our object is not 
to check action, but to convert it all to use, 
with as little loss as possible ; to concentrate it, 
in short, upon those parts that are to produce 
useful results, such as the fruit and buds. To 
check the growth of the vine at this time, 
would be like spending our labor and skill to 
collect its vital forces, and then, just as they 
were ready to perform their allotted office, to 
take the readiest means to destroy them. That 
summer pruning, or pinching, as generally per- 
formed in the vineyard, does check the vital 
force, and inflict more or less injury, there can 
be no doubt ; but if summer pruning is per- 
formed at the right time, and in a proper man- 
ner, it is an exceedingly useful operation, and 
almost indispensable to the production of the 
best results. If we should allow this cane to 
grow five or six feet long, and then cut or break 
off two or three feet of it, as is commonly done, 
we should undoubtedly do great violence to 
the vitality of the vine ; but if we pinch out the 
extreme end, the loss amounts to almost noth- 
ing. There is no interruption to the action of 
the plant ; the vital force that would have gone 



76 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

to the extension of the cane finds more useful 
employment in improving the quality and size 
of the fruit, developing and maturing the fruit 
buds, and increasing the size and hardihood of 
the leaves. Nothing has been lost, but very 
much gained. 

In course of time the buds at the ends of the 
canes that have been pinched will begin to grow. 
The young canes proceeding from these end 
buds may be allowed to grow from six inches to 
a foot long, when their ends must be pinched 
out. The operation may be repeated even a 
third time with advantage. Practice will in no 
long time give considerable expertness in mat- 
ters pertaining to the summer treatment of the 
vine, and its labor will thus be considerably re- 
duced. 

Fig. 28 is a beautiful and truthful represen- 
tation of an Israella vine in the third year 
of its growth, taken from life. Some of the 
lower leaves have been removed to show the 
fruit, of which there is rather more than a vine 
at this age should generally bear. The thallons 
are omitted, so as to give a better idea of the 
character of the leaves. The fruit canes are 
longer than they should be, but the wood was 
wanted for a special purpose. The pinching of 





m 



78 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the fruit canes is not shown for want of room 
on the page. 

At the end of the season we shall have a vine 
with several upright fruit. canes, and two canes 
at the ends of the arms for their extension. 
The arms, as we have already said, should be 
extended very gradually. The second and sub- 
sequent extensions should be even more gradual 
than the first ; if the arms are carried out too 
rapidly, there is danger of weakening the ac- 
tion of the part first laid down. AS a general 
rule, one foot will be enough for the annual ex- 
tension of the arms. In some cases it may be 
more; in others less. We have already pretty 
clearly indicated the nature of both these 
cases. We shall suppose that about one foot is 
to be added to each arm. The end canes must 
then, of course, be cut to the required length. 
The upright canes now remain to be pruned. 
These we propose to convert into spurs. This 
is done by cutting these canes down to two eyes 
each. Fig. 29 shows the appearance of the 

-^ x .v \_ -i^. ll .i. J ,j_JLJL-ff JLA.J ft. -A. UL* *4-a f-.uk 

.^? * A ^^^^^^ - * ^ V^ 

Fig. 29. 

vine when pruned and the addition made to 
the arms, except that the addition in the cut is 



THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH YEARS 



79 



longer than it should be. The letter b shows 
the point at which the addition was made to 
the arnr ; and the letter a the buds on the un- 
der side which are to be rubbed off. 

To make the matter plainer, we introduce 
Fig. 30, a piece of an arm, with its cane, on a 
full scale, a is the point 
at which the cane is cut to 
make the spur ; e and/ are 
the two principal or pri- 
mary buds ; b and c are 
base buds, so called be- 
cause situated at the base 
of the cane. These base 
buds vary greatly in num- 
ber, and in some cases are 
not apparent. All the spurs on the arm are 
sometimes formed to produce two canes, and 
sometimes only one ; at others, again, these two 
kinds of spurs alternate. If we wish to grow 
two canes, the cut is made at a if only one, 
the cut is made about half an inch above the 
bud f. To save repetition, we will alternate 
the spurs in the vine we are growing, pruning 
every other one for two canes; the canes, there- 
fore, will be cut alternately at a and about half 
an inch above/. We shall thus illustrate the 




Fig. 30. 



80 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

double and single spurs at one and the same 
time. The vines having been pruned, will now 
be put down and covered for the winter. 

Fourth Year. We have now a vine with 
one portion of the arms spurred, and another 
portion newly added. Let us first follow out 
the spurs with two buds. The buds e and/, in 
Fig. 30, will each produce a cane, and each cane 
will set two or more bunches of fruit. That 
from e may be allowed to mature two bunches 
of fruit ; the cane from/ should not be allowed 
to bear any, all its strength being reserved for 
fruit the following year. The base buds b and 
G must be rubbed off. They would have been 
very valuable, however, if the buds above them 
had been accidentally lost. We could, indeed, 
have pruned this cane just above the bud /, 
and taken the lower cane from one of the base 
buds ; they are not always strong enough, 
however, to be depended upon ; but when they 
are, it is a good practice to use them, as the spur 
will then be a little shorter. We have reserved 
the lower cane for next year's fruit spur, not 
only because it is best situated for this purpose, 
but also because the upper one will produce the 
largest and best bunches of grapes. If the 
upper cane were reserved for next year's fruit, 



THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH YEARS. 81 

the spur would soon become inconveniently 
long. 

When the growing canes have reached the 
length of some two feet, pinch out the extreme 
end, as above directed. Kepeat 'the operation 
when the additional or new growth has reached 
the length of six inches to a foot ; and still a 
third time, if the action is very strong. Watch 
the appearance of the thallons, and athallize 
them at the proper moment. It will be under- 
stood that these directions apply to all the 
spurs having two canes. The treatment of the 
spurs having single canes is not materially dif- 
ferent. These may carry two bunches of fruit ; 
when the canes have grown about two feet 
long, the ends must be pinched out, and the 
operation repeated, in all respects, as above. 
Athallage must likewise be attended to as 
above. This will complete the treatment of the 
spurs. Fig. 31 represents a portion of an old 
arm with its spurs, and the new canes growing 
on them. It is a beautiful and truthful portrait, 
taken from life. In this example, the canes and 
thallons are ready for the operations of pinch- 
ing and athallage. 

In regard to the new portion of arm laid 
down, the cane from the end bud must be 

6 



82 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



grown at an angle for further extension of the 
arm next year. The buds on the lower side 
must be rubbed off; and the canes from those 
on the upper side are to be grown upright for 
future spurs. The ends are to be pinched out 
at the time and in the manner before directed. 
Athallage, also, must be promptly and faith- 




Fig. 81. 



fully attended to. We have said nothing 
about tying up ; but it will be understood that 
the canes are to be tied as they lengthen ; some 
care must be used, however, that the strings 



THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH YEARS. S3 

do not cut and injure the canes : they should 
always be loose. 

These details will carry us through the sea- 
son, up to the period of pruning. In the best 
vines the arms may now be completed. Lay 
down the end cane, therefore, and cut it so that 
there shall be an interval of about a foot be- 
tween the ends of the arms of adjoining vines. 
If the ends of the arms should meet, there 
would be no space for training the last fruit 
canes. Passing along to the portion of arm 
laid down last fall, the canes must be pruned 




to one and two eyes alternately, in the manner 
before described. Next will come the spurs. 



84 AMEKICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

An example of those having one cane is shown 
in Fig. 32. The pruning consists in cutting off 
the cane just above the bud I. The stump of 
the old spur may be cut at #, a. All the spurs 
with single canes are to be pruned in this man- 
ner. A spur having two canes is shown in Fig. 
33. This must be pruned by first cutting the 
left-hand cane entirely away at the mark a; the 




Fig. 83. 

right-hand cane is then cut at the mark u, 
which leaves two buds for the two new canes. 
The reader will observe that two simple cuts 
complete the pruning even for a spur of two 
canes, and will no doubt be impressed by the 
fact, that system not only simplifies labor, but 
divests it of much of the forbidding hardness 



THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH YEARS. 85 

that results from the constant exercise of per- 
plexing thoughts where system is not ob- 
served. Our vine is now ready to be laid 
down for the winter. 

Fifth Year. With our good vine, we shall 
this year fully establish the arms and complete 
the system of training. The arms are now all 
furnished with fruit spurs, except the small 
piece at the ends just laid down. The training 
is now only an extended repetition of the rou- 
tine pursued last year. Beginning at the end 
of the arms, we must rub off the lower buds 
from the part last laid down ; the upper buds 
will produce the usual canes for fruit spurs. 
These canes may carry one bunch of fruit 
each ; the ends must be pinched out, and the 
thallons athallized, as heretofore. The remain- 
der of the arm is furnished with spurs, which 
are to be treated precisely as was done last 
year. The canes growing from these spurs 
(except the lower cane, where there are two) 
may now carry two bunches of fruit. If, 
however, there should be any weak ones, the 
bunches must be reduced, or removed entirely. 
The reader must learn to exercise his judgment 
in regard to this and other matters that must 
necessarily vary somewhat in their treatment, 



86 



AMEKICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



as they may be affected by circumstances. If 
every thing has gone on favorably, at the end 
of the fifth year we shall have a perfect speci- 
men of double horizontal arm training. The 
pruning may now be done as directed last year, 
and the vine laid down for the winter. 

Fig. 34 will give a good idea of the appear- 





J 


4 \ 


1 




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Fig. 34. 

ance of the vine at this time, except that the 
fruit canes are all single, whereas we have made 
part of them double. It will be observed, too, 
at a, that a bud has " missed," and its place been 
supplied by a cane from a bud beneath. This 
and other methods of replacing spurs will be 
described elsewhere. 

Double Horizontal Arms, with two Tiers. 
We have alluded to the double horizontal arm 
system with two tiers of arms, one above the 
other. This is formed as follows : in pruning 
at the end of the first year, every other vine is 



THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH YEARS. 8t 

cut to the three lowest eyes, as described at the 
time. The intermediate vines are pruned about 
three feet six inches long, the canes from the 
two upper eyes being selected to form the arms 
for the upper tier. All the other buds are to 
be rubbed off. It will sometimes happen that 
a vine is not sufficiently strong to grow two 
canes at this height. In that case it must be 
cut lower for the canes, or even cut to three 
eyes, and another year taken to grow a 




rig. ss. 



cane that will be stout enough. There should 
be no hesitation in pursuing this course. With 
the exceptions here noted, the training is in all 
respects like that for a single tier of arms. 
Fig. 35 gives a good idea of the system when 



88 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

complete, except that the arms are too short for 
our description. In this figure the spurs are 
shown as carrying alternately one and two 
canes. The end vines must have only one arm 
each, in order to fill up the trellis, as shown in 
the engraving. The single arms will be on the 
upper or lower tier, according to the number of 
vines in the row. It is better to have both the 
single arms on the tipper tier, .where it can con- 
veniently be done. The trellis for this system 
should be six to seven feet high from the 
ground. The first tier of arms should be from 
twelve to fifteen inches from the ground, 
and the second tier midway between the first 
tier and the top of the trellis. The interme- 
diate spaces should be filled by two or three 
rows of wire. The manner of making a trellis 
will be described hereafter. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TRAINING GUYOT GUYOT IMPROVED UPRIGHT 
STOCK WITH ALTERNATE SPURS BOW SYS- 
TEM THE JURA. 

System of Guyot. Inventions are sometimes 
brilliant,, and nearly perfect at the moment of 
leaving the brain ; but often they result from 
the long-continued study of rude examples of 
the principle involved, and are only made per- 
fect by gradual improvements ; and the transi- 
tions are so simple and natural that we wonder 
they were not made before. The plan advo- 
cated by Dr. Guyot seems to be a case of 
this kind. Fig. 36 may be taken as one of 
its original forms. It is an old one, and con- 
sists in taking, at the beginning, a fruit cane 
from a bud on an upright stock, and bending it 
in a curve to the ground, where the end is se- 
cured. This cane is renewed each year. The 
whole arrangement is rude, the vine having no 



90 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

support ; in fact, it is left to take care of itself. 




Fig. 86. 



The attentive observer, however, could not fail 
to see how evenly the bending of the cane set 




Fig. 87. 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 91 

the fruit along its whole length ; and this nat- 
urally led to the next step in advance, that of 
giving some kind of support to the vine, while 
substantially the same mode of training was 
observed. (See Fig. 37.) To save expense, no 
doubt, three vines were planted to one stake ; 




Fig. 38. 



(clearly a mistake ;) but an improvement was 
made in adding a spur for renewal, instead of 
appropriating the cane nearest the stock. 

A still further improvement in time follow- 
ed, as shown in Fig. 38. Here the vines are 
supported by stakes and wire, and only one 



92 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



vine planted at the stake. System and order 
have now made their appearance in the vine- 
yard; let us hope, to abide there; for it is 
a good place for them. In the engraving, the 
end of the fruit cane has been " layered " to 
make a new vine ; a practice hurtful to the 
bearing vine, and not to be commended in 
ordinary circumstances. Yet another step for- 
ward, and we have the plan of Dr. Guyot, pro- 
perly so called, into which he has introduced 
the greatest degree of precision of which the 
case seems to be susceptible, in so training the 
vines on a wire trellis as to employ a system 




TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 



93 



of movable shelters, by which he claims to 
have secured such a degree of certainty, as re- 




Fig. 40. 



gards both the excellence and abundance of the 
crops, as to place them beyond the fear of fail- 




94 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

ure. The statistics which he presents, as the 
results of trials continued during a series of 
years, and on a large scale, would seem to war- 
rant his conclusions. The system of Dr. Guyot 
may be understood in a good measure from an 
inspection of Figs. 39-44. He has shelters to 




Fig. 42. 



be used at different seasons of the year, which 
would require quite a number of engravings to 
Jlustrate fully. Dr. Grant, however, just be- 
fore the appearance of Guyot's work, suggested 




Fig. 43. 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 



95 



a form, of shelter having considerable resem- 
blance to his, and which is shown in figs. 
43, 44. On the right, in Fig. 43, the vine is 
covered for the winter. In the spring the soil 
is removed from the vine, and placed as seen 
on the left. The bottom of the shelter rests on 
the raised earth, and is supported just above the 
middle by wooden pins on the trellis. A front 
view is given in Fig. 44. A vineyard shel- 




Fig. 44. 



tered in this way is almost as well protected as 
if the vines were under glass, and it is easy to 
perceive with how much certainty the crop 
may be secured. There can be no doubt that 
this system of shelter possesses great advanta- 
ges for many portions of our own country, lia- 
ble as we are to sudden and sharp changes of 
weather ; but there are few, perhaps, who will 
for some time yet be willing to incur the addi- 
tional labor and expense. We may remark 



96 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



that it is the system of Guyot without the 
shelter that is practiced among us. In this 
system, also, in its earli- 
est forms, may be seen the 
germ of the horizontal arm, 
which is the horizontal re- 
newal made permanent, and 
in that respect an improve- 
ment, especially where excel- 
lence of fruit is concerned. 

We propose now to de- 
scribe the training of Dr. 
Guyot. This, for the first 
two years, is like that al- 
ready described for horizon- 
tal arms, and need not, there- 
fore, be detailed here. At 
the end of the second year 
we have two upright canes, 
as in Fig. 45. The cane on 
the left must be cut at the 
two lowest buds, to form a 
spur ; and that on the right 
at the mark h; it should 
not, however, this year be 
more than two feet long. 
The cane on the right is for bearing fruit, and 




Fig. 45. 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 97 

must be bent to a horizontal position, as shown 
in Fig. 46. From the spur on the left two 
canes must be grown. The upper cane may 
carry one bunch of fruit this year ; the lower 
one, none. The thallons on both these canes 
must be athallized as directed for the horizon- 
tal system. "When about five feet high, pinch 
out the ends of both canes, and repeat the op- 




Fig. 46. 

eration, in the manner before described. There 
is a necessity for economizing action at all 
points ; we want especially to ripen the lower 
upright cane in the most perfect manner, as we 
expect it to carry a large crop of fruit next 
year. The two feet of cane that was laid 
down horizontally must have all the lower buds 
rubbed off; the canes from the upper ones may 
carry one bunch of fruit each. More would be 

an injury to the vine at this time. When these 

7 



98 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

fruit canes are about two feet long, pinch out 
the extreme end, as before directed for fruit 
canes. The thallons must also be treated in the 
usual manner. 

In the fall, the pruning will be as follows : 
the arm on the right, that has borne fruit, must 
be cut entirely away; the lower cane on the 
spur must then be cut about four feet long, and 
laid down horizontally, to take the place of the 
arm just cut away ; the upper cane must be cut 
to the two lowest buds, for producing two more 
upright canes. The reader will now doubtless 
perceive a necessity for keeping this spur as 
near as possible to the stock, since it must an- 
nually furnish a cane for laying down. 

Fourth Year. This system may now be con- 
sidered as complete. The treatment this year 
is only a repetition of that of last year, includ- 
ing pinching and athallage. The fruit canes 
may now be allowed to carry two bunches 
each, if the vine is in good healthy condition. 
The upper cane on the spur may also carry two 
bunches, and none of the canes, as a general 
rule, should exceed this number. The lower 
cane on the spur should never be allowed to 
carry fruit. As the vine gets older, three canes 
may be allowed to grow from the spur, but 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 



99 



two are generally much better. The pruning 
hereafter will be the same as last year: the 
arm is cut off, the lower cane on the spur cut 
to four feet and laid down, and the upper cane 
cut to the two lowest buds for a spur. Fig. 
47 shows an old vine in fruit on Guyot's plan. 




Fig. 47. 



There are three canes from the spur, however, 
and too much fruit, at least for ordinary vines. 
Two bunches are quite enough. 

Guyofs Plan Improved. We say improved, 
because, in our hands, it has yielded better 
results. The improvement consists chiefly in 
making the arm permanent, instead of renewing 
it annually, and was suggested by Dr. Grant. 
It is one of the best systems for the vineyard. 



100 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

After what has been said above, the manner 
of doing this will be easily understood. There 
is no difference in the plan up to the third 
year, when the cane is laid down for the arm. 
The spur is already pruned to two buds. 
The portion of arm laid down, however, should 
be only about fourteen inches long, or about 
one third the length of the arm when complete. 
Let us first look after the renewal spur. If the 
base buds break nicely, select two of them in 
preference to the buds left above them, which 
should then be rubbed off. The object is to 
get the spur as close as possible to the stock. 
The arm is treated as follows : the cane from 
the end bud is to be grown at an angle for the 
extension of the arm, and should be pinched 
when about four feet long. The canes from the 
other buds must be grown upright, and may 
carry one bunch of fruit each. When these 
canes are about two feet long, pinch out the 
end, and otherwise treat them as directed when 
growing horizontal arms. The thallons must 
have proper attention, and at the right time. 
The treatment here, indeed, is just the same as 
was given for fruit canes on a former page, and 
we may therefore pass on to the end of the sea- 
son, and explain how the vine is to be pruned. 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GTUYOT. 101 

The upper cane on the renewal spur is to be cut 
off at c, (Fig. 48,) the cut being made through 
the old wood ; the lower cane is to be cut at d, 
or the two lowest buds. The cane at the end of 
the arm is to be cut about fourteen inches long, 
and laid down for the extension of the arm. 
The upright fruit canes are to be cut about an 
inch above the lowest bud ; or, to prevent ac- 
cidental loss, cut above the second bud, and if 
every thing is safe in the spring, rub the upper 
one off. 

The next year two canes are to be grown 
from the renewal spur, and may carry two 
bunches of fruit each. The cane from the bud 
at the end of the arm must be grown horizon- 
tally for the extension and completion of the 
arm. The buds must be removed from the 
under side of the portion of cane just laid 
down, and the canes from the upper buds 
grown upright. These canes may carry one 
bunch of fruit each. The rest of the arm is 
spurred ; a cane must be grown from the lowest 
bud on each spur, and may carry two bunches 
of fruit each. The pinching, athallage, and 
general treatment will be like that of last year. 
Where the spurs are not too close together, 
they should have two canes, the formation and 



102 



AMERICAN" GRAPE CULTURE. 



treatment of which the reader already under- 
stands. 

The next pruning will be as follows: the 
upper cane must be cut entirely away from the 
renewal spur by cutting through the old wood, 
and the lower cane cut at the two lowest buds. 
Passing to the arm, cut all the canes on the 
spurs at the lowest bud, if single spurs are 
adopted, and at the second bud, if double spurs. 
The arm is now laid down its full length, and 




Fig. 48. 



the system is complete. The pruning, pinching, 
athallage, etc., will be the same each succeeding 
year. The spurs may hereafter carry, two 
bunches of fruit, but more than this will not be 
consistent with the permanent welfare and du- 
ration of the vine, as a general rule. The excep- 
tions to the rule must be determined by the 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 



103 



kind of vine and its native disposition to bear. 
In Fig. 48, the vine on the left shows the sys- 
tem of Gruyot ; that on the right, Guyot's sys- 
tem as improved, a and b indicating the points 
where the arm was lengthened, the last addition 
not being yet spurred. Fig. 49 shows the same 
vines in fruit and leaf. 




Fig. 49. 

The improved Guyot system is one of the 
best, both for the amateur and the vineyard. 
Its safety-valves give us a control over the vine 
which no system can possess without them. In 
practice we have found them a valuable aid, 
and in that light they are regarded by those 
who have adopted them. They are valuable in 



TRAINING SYSTEM OF GUYOT. 105 

other respects when understood, an important 
one being the facility they afford for replacing 
an arm without loss of fruit. The permanent 
arm, in place of the annual renewal, yields a 
better quality of fruit, which should be con- 
sidered of some importance, whether for wine 
or the table. 

In this connection we introduce Figs. 50, 51, 
the most beautiful and perfect portraits of the 
kind ever presented to the public. The vine on 
the left is ihelona; that on the right is the 
Delaware, the characteristics of each being finely 
shown. The lower leaves have been removed 
from one cane of each, to show the fruit. 

This system may be used with a double tier 
of arms, as shown in Fig. 52. In this case, the 
vines must be planted at equal distances, and 
the stocks buried and brought up together as 
shown by the shaded lines in Fig. 53, which is 
an example of the renewal system, which the 
reader can study till we find time to explain it. 

Upright Stock with Alternate Spurs. This 
is a neat and pretty mode of growing the 
vine for the amateur and the garden. It has 
a look of simplicity about it which will 
commend it to many. The reader perhaps 
thinks he has only to grow an upright 



106 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 




TRAININGUPRIGHT STOCK. 107 

cane, cut off the top, and the thing is done. 
We shall probably undeceive him when we 
state, that to grow the vine successfully in 
this way is a rather tedious process, re- 
quiring several years for its completion. The 
form is pretty, and it presents a good example 
of how subservient we can make the vine 
to our purpose. If we should form it from 
a cane of one year's growth, it would soon 
become bare at the bottom, yielding its fruit 
only at the top, and giving us a great deal of 
trouble to control it ; in short, it could not 
be done. We have elsewhere explained that 
the action of the vine tends strongly to the 
top. The position of the vine in this case 
strongly favors this tendency, and it is our 
purpose now to show how it may be measur- 
ably overcome or held in check. 

We shall take a vine that has been planted 
and grown one year, as described elsewhere. 
If the cane is not strong, it must be cut to the 
lowest bud, and grown another year ; for we 
shall have poor success here without a good 
cane. The cane is to be cut about two feet 
long, and tied to a stake. From the end bud 
a cane must be grown for extending the stock. 
The next bud below this must be selected for 



108 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 




TRAINING UTRIGHT STOCK. 109 

a fruit cane, and grown at an angle. Six inches 
below this, but on the opposite side, select 
another bud for the same purpose. Select 
another six inches below, and on the same side 
as the first, the object being to have the canes 
alternate on opposite sides, with about one foot 
between those on the same side. All the other 
buds are rubbed off. The lateral or side 
canes may carry one bunch of fruit each. The 
upright cane and the side canes must be 
pinched and athallized as usual; the upright 
cane, however, must not be pinched till it has 
grown about four feet. In the fall, the upright 
cane must be cut about fifteen inches long, 
which will allow of two additional side canes, 
one on each side. The side canes must then be 
spurred by cutting them off at the two lowest 
buds, and the vine is ready for winter. 

The next season, grow an upright cane from 
the end bud for extending the stock. On the 
newly added stock select two buds for the two 
new spurs on opposite sides. From the spurs 
grow two canes, using a base bud wherever it is 
strong enough. The upper canes from the spurs 
may carry two bunches each, and the two new 
canes one bunch each. Pinching and athalliz- 
ing must be attended to as usual. The appear- 



110 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



ance of the vine at this time may be seen in 
Fig. 54. X is the point where the vine was cut 




Fig. 51 



at planting; and A, where it was cut at the 




Pig. 55. 



112 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

end of the first year. The pruning will be as 
follows, beginning at the lowest spur on the left: 
the upper cane is to be cut off at m through 
the old wood, and the lower cane cut at n, or 
the two lowest buds. (The spurs on this vine, 
in fact, are two years old, and the stump made 
by last year's pruning is seen at r.) All the 
spurs are to be pruned like this one. The two 
upper canes are to be cut to the two lowest 
buds for spurs. The treatment in succeeding 
years is only a repetition of this. The stock 
may be extended to the height of five feet ; if 
carried much beyond this, the vine soon gives 
out at the bottom. With a stock four feet high, 
like that in Fig. 54, the vine may be kept in 
full bearing many years. When fully estab- 
lished, all the canes may carry two bunches 
each. 

Fig. 55 is a Delaware vine trained in this 
way, engraved from a photograph taken by 
Mr. Morand at lona. At X may be seen 
one method of replacing a spur. The vine 
carried just the number of bunches seen, 
but not without injury. Fig. 56 is the 
same vine in leaf. Fig. 57 shows how this sys- 
tem may be applied for covering a trellis or 
wall from eight to ten feet high. The inter- 




Fig. 56. 



114 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTUBE. 

mediate vines, X, are grown with naked stocks 
up to the point A, and thence spurred to the 
top of the trellis. In this way any amount of 
surface may be covered. 

The Bow System. This system, as practiced 
at the West, was introduced by German emi- 
grants, and in Ohio and other places is more 
or less common, but seems now to be giving 
way to other and better plans. Figs. 58, 59, 
60 will make it quite plain to the reader. The 
first year one good cane is grown, which is cut 
down to the two lowest buds, from which two 
canes are grown the following yeaiv One of 
these canes is pruned to a spur with three 
buds, and the other shortened to about two 
feet, as shown by the cross marks in Fig. 58. 
The cane is bent and tied to a stake as seen in 
Fig. 59. Usually, this cane is allowed to fruit 
its whole length. From the spur three canes 
are taken, which are also allowed to fruit. 
The appearance of the vine at this time is 
shown in Fig. 60. The pruning consists in 
cutting away the bow or bent cane. There 
are three upright canes left, the lowest of 
which should be cut to a spur of three buds, 
to produce three new canes. Of the two re- 
maining canes, one is cut off, and the other bent 




Fig. 57. 



116 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



or bowed, and tied to a stake. 
treatment follows year after year. 

I 



The same 




Fig. 58. - Fig. 59. Fig. 60. 

Figs. 60 and 61 show a better form of the 
bow system. In this the two canes, at the close 
of the second year, are both cut to spurs, each 
having two buds. From each spur two canes 
are grown, and fruited. The next pruning is 
as follows : the lowest cane on each spur is cut 
to two buds for a new spur, and the remaining 
canes shortened to about two feet, and bent as 
in Fig. 61. The bows are fruited their whole 



TRAINING Bow SYSTEM. 



m 



length, and the canes from the spurs are allow- 
e'd two bunches each. The appearance of the 




Fig. 61. 



vine at this time is shown in Fig. 62. Two 
courses may now be pursued : first, to cut off 
the end of the cane b at the lowest point 




Fig. 62. 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

where it is tied to the stake, and prune the 
lateral or fruit canes into spurs of one bud 
each ; in which case the cane a should be cut 
to its lowest bud for a single cane, to be treat- 
ed as a safety-valve. Second, (if this course is 
pursued, the spurs should have two upright 
canes instead of one,) cut the cane b entirely 




Fig. 63. Fig. 64. 

away, bow one of the upright canes, and cut 
the other to the two lowest buds for a spur. 

Figs. 63 and 64 are examples of growing the 
vine from spurs an low stocks. 

A little study of Figs. 65 and 66 will show 
how they may easily be converted into the bow, 
Gruyot, or horizontal arm system. 

The Jura Plan This is very simple, and 



TRAINING JLJKA PLAN. 



119 



will afford the reader a good subject for experi- 
ment as well as amusement. For the vineyard, 
too, we prefer it to the bow system, as it is even 



Fig. 65. 



Fig. 66. 



more simple, and will produce better fruit. The 
vines may be planted three or four feet apart. 
An inspection of Figs. 67, 68 will make the 
treatment very plain. The first year a good cane 
is to be grown, and in the fall cut down to 
about two feet. The second year four fruit canes 
are to be grown, as shown at # ? 5, <?, d, in the 
vine in Fig. 67. These are to be converted 
into double spurs in the usual way at the next 
pruning, and the system is complete. The prun- 



120 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



ing thereafter will consist in cutting away the 
upper cane, and pruning the lower cane to the 
two lowest buds. The stock is not to be 




Fig. 67. Fig. 68. 

lengthened. This plan admits of a variety of 
modifications, which the general principles we 
have given will enable the reader to study out 
for himself. 



CHAPTER IX. 

TRAINING THOMEEY. 

Tfiomery. Not withstanding all that has 
been said and written about the Thomery, 
there are few who have any just conception 
of what it really is. There has been a failure 
to understand its details, or to comprehend it 
as a- whole. One thinks it consists in growing 
vines in successive tiers, one above the other; 
another supposes that it is some peculiar 
manner of planting the vines ; still another has 
an idea that it is some special or peculiar mode 
of pruning, and so on ad infinitum. It is 
simply no one of these, but all of them, and 
more besides. The Thomery, in brief, consists 
mainly of a happy selection and combination 
of the best features of prevalent modes of 
training, and their successful application to 
overcome local difficulties of a trying nature. 
This system takes its name from a little village 



122 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

in France, called Thomery, where the system 
had its origin, and where it still finds its best 
exemplification. We hope, by giving an illus- 
tration, to make the system understood. In all 
that has gone before we have relied upon our 
own experience ; we shall still rely upon it 
here, and also call to our aid some of the best 
French authors, as well as the account of a 
friend personally cognizant of the details prac- 
ticed at Thomery. 

To Dr. C. W. Grant belongs the merit of 
having brought the Thomery prominently be- 
fore the American public. It was he who first 
studied and mastered it as a system, and suc- 
cessfully worked it out in practice ; and it is 
not too much to say that he has furnished 
the chief part of the material for nearly all 
that has been written upon the subject in this 
country. Candor and the amenities of litera- 
ture demand the acknowledgment of this much, 
and we do it most cheerfully. 

This method of training, and its appliances, 
need careful study preparatory to undertaking 
it. No part of it is obscure or difficult of execu- 
tion; but inasmuch as it is an extended sys- 
tem, each step of which, in its progress toward 
completion, prepares the way for the next, it 



TRAINING THOMERY. 123 

is important that the whole should be clearly 
seen from the beginning. The success and 
permanence of the result depend upon having 
each step well taken. 

The ground should be prepared in the best 
manner, and the plants be uniformly of the 
best quality. When plants of only moder- 
ate quality can be obtained, they may be im- 
proved by planting them two or three feet 
from the wall, and bringing 
them to it by one or more 
"beddings" as represented in 
Fig. 69. Each bedding will 
delay the beginning of train- 
ing one year; but, if well 
done, will secure plants of the 
requisite character. It is much 
Fig. 69. better, however, to be pro- 

vided with suitable plants at the beginning, 
and avoid the delay. Fig. 3, p. 36, represents 
a vine of the best possible character and qual- 
ity one year old. Fig. 8, p. 39, represents one 
of the best quality two years old. These may 
rank as nearly equal in value for our purpose. 

As we proceed, each vine with its arms is sub- 
jected to the same treatment as that for the for- 
mation of double arms, (p. 60, et $eq., and Fig. 




124 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

25,) or in the two-tier system, (p. 86, and Fig. 
35 ;) but, having greater regard to permanence, 
from the greater disappointment resulting 
from any degree of failure in the present case, 
we proceed rather more slowly in forming and 
lengthening the arms. While that is in prog- 
ress, more regard should be had to securing 
a perfect bearing condition than to getting a 
great quantity of fruit early. The former be- 
ing well done, the latter follows in due course. 
Fig. 70 is drawn from life, and is a very good 
representation of well-managed Delawares in 
process of formation, only the stopping of the 
canes, by which they were brought to the 
proper length, is not shown, in consequence of 
the small scale which the comprehensiveness 
of the engraving required. For this, see Double 
and Single Arm Systems, pages 86 and 87. 

Although it is desirable to form all the 
arms at the same time by equal steps, it is 
scarcely to be expected. Some difference of 
growth will take place, and the highest arms 
in the system will ordinarily require one year 
more of growth of stock than the lowest, 
before being ready for the first laying down. 
Thus D, Fig. 70, will require one year more 
than A., for the formation of its greater length 



TRAINING THOMEBY. 




126 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

of stock. In this matter the vigor and ability 
of the vines must regulate the rate of progress, 
according to the directions already given. The 
vines with longest stock, although later at 
the beginning, eventually become disposed to 
the most vigor, and this must be regulated, 
as before stated, by the quantity of bearing, 
according to general principles. 

Fig. 71 represents that part of the Thomery 
system that is the most immediately related 
to the main wall, which is all that we can con- 
sider at present, leaving the full exposition 
of the whole system for another occasion. 

This suite consists of five rows, the first and 
most important one of which we have just 
reviewed ; but the first row here differs from 
that in having only four instead of five tiers 
of arms, and, consequently, allowing one fifth 
more for length of cane for a wall of the same 
height. This should be at least ten feet from 
the ground to the top of the cap. 

The first trellis stands about twelve inches 
from the wall, and the vines are planted two 
feet apart in the rows; this, it will be seen, 
gives eight feet to be occupied by the arms of 
each vine, the arms being made a little shorter 
than the space, so that their ends may not touch. 



128 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

The distance between the tiers of arms is 
about two feet, affording room for canes of 
that length. 

The next row is seven feet in advance of 
the first, and the plants two feet apart in the 
row, as before; this leaves seven and a half 
feet space for the arms of each vine, with 
their tiers. The next row stands five feet in 
advance of the last; and the vines being set 
three feet apart, gives six feet in length for 
the arms of each vine. The fourth row has 
the vines trained on a different plan. See Fig. 
45. It is four feet in advance of the last, and 
the vines are set three feet apart. The fifth 
row is three feet from the last, and is trained 
on the single arm plan. The vines in this 
also are three feet apart. This might with 
about equal propriety have been with double 
arms at the same distance, with, the vines 
four or five feet apart in the row. 

The object of this graduation, which has 
probably been already anticipated in the 
mind of the reader, is to accommodate the 
vines to the lessening influence of the shelter 
as the distance from the main wall increases. 

Fig. 72 was taken from life at different 
periods, to represent different stages of prog- 




Fig. 72. 



130 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

ress during the season in one engraving. A, 
B, C, and F represent the vines as they ap- 
peared in June at the time for first pinching. 
D represents a vine at the first maturity of 
fruit, on which all of the proper summer op- 
erations have been well performed. Some of 
the leaves have been taken away at d, to show 
the canes and the fruit as it is borne uniformly 
throughout the vine. E is one like it late in 
the fall, with some of the bunches still hang- 
ing at f. The canes of the arm g are properly 
pruned, as may be done in November ; but, 
for safety, it is well to leave one bud more on 
each spur, to be rubbed off at starting in the 
spring. 

At A is shown a vine that has been de- 
layed two years in its progress by having had 
layers taken from it. The canes a and #, on 
the vine C, are ready to be depressed (like 
o on F) toward the horizontal position, to 
finish their growth for the beginning of arms. 
The student who has followed us attentively 
thus far has found that this system is no 
more difficult of comprehension than any other, 
except that there is more of it. It is not 
so well adapted for the vineyard as some 
others that we have described, except where 



TRAINING THOMEKY. 



131 



high and extended walls or close fences are 
its attendants ; but it is very advantageous 
for making the most of the shelter afforded in 
yards, gardens, and by the sides of buildings, 
and especially for arbors, on which the ordi- 
nary efforts always fail. 

Fig. 73 is part of an arm of a large vine 




Fig. 73. 

trained with the aim of covering a high trellis 
like Fig. 74. It has been planted twelve 
years, and has already been cut back twice 
in impracticable efforts to cover the whole ele- 
vation of about nine feet with bearing wood. 
Four feet of elevation is about the limit to 
which this can be done by ordinary means from 
one vine. Fig. 74 represents the trellis covered, 
which is quite practicable by the Thomery 
system, and easily maintained. 



132 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



In Fig. 75 is represented a vine that has 
been trained to cover a trellis twelve feet high. 
The bearing wood, it will be seen, is all near 




Fig. 74. 



the top. If pruned for next season at the 
cross marks, which is the usual course, the 
bearing portion will be moved one step higher, 




Jig. 75. 



134 AMEEICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

leaving another equal distance below unpro- 
ductive. "Cutting back" down to A, B, C, 
D, E, would only be attended with the loss 
of one season's fruiting, to go the same course 
over again. This does not come from faulty 
pruning, but from a radically defective plan. 

The principal objection to the Thomery 
plan for high trellises is the slowness with 
which it is necessary to proceed, six or seven 
years being required for its establishment in 
full bearing. There need be, however, but 
little if any delay in getting fruit beyond 
that of any other permanent system, and none 
at all when proper vines are obtained. 

In Figs. 45 and 48 a more expeditious way 
of covering a wall or arbor is shown, but 
one promising less permanence. Fig. 76 is a 
modification of the same, making it a renewal 
plan, for which canes are provided as at P, 
to be pruned at the cross mark, and laid 
down to take the place of the arm O, which 
is to be cut away. It may also be made 
a system of permanent arms by pinching the 
canes grown for renewal like the others, and 
then pruning all the canes on the arms to 
spurs. 

Vines are very picturesquely grown on the 




Fig. 16. 



136 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



sides of houses in a sort of fan method, as 
represented in Fig. 77, and at first are remark- 
ably productive; but they soon nearly cease 
to bear, except at their upper and most dis- 
tant parts. This vine has been a European 




Fig. 77. 



celebrity of sufficient notoriety to attract vis- 
itors from a distance, one of whom (Mr. Hay 
of Edinburgh) has recorded his disappoint- 
ment at the smallness of its crop by the accom- 
panying drawing, which he affirms is truthful. 
Grapes may be easily grown in abundance 
and perfection on the sides of buildings which 
are exposed to the sun two thirds of the day. 
The sides which have the morning portion 
are the most advantageous. The shade of the 



TRAINING THOMERY. 137 

vines of a well-covered trellis, standing about 
two feet from the sunny sides of dwellings, is 
most grateful in summer, and, unlike that from 
trees, brings no dampness or unwholesomeness 
of atmosphere with it. Well trained vines 
are not only admissible, but highly pleasing in 
almost every style of building, from the cozy 
cottage to the elegant mansion. Fig. 78 repre- 
sents a small cottage with its southeasterly 
and southwesterly sides sheltered by bearing 
vines. Those only who have made trial of 
them on small buildings can form an idea of 
their comfort, aside from their fruit, in the 
hot days of summer. This detail of the south- 
easterly side will soon be made clear to the 
careful student of the Thomery. 

Fig. 79 shows a more commodious dwelling 
with vines on the side that is almost fully ex- 
posed to the east, but inclining a little to the 
south. There is an iron trellis on its south- 
erly side, made of gas pipe, that is admirably 
adapted, by its neatness of appearance as well 
as by its cheapness, for the purpose. Some 
wire is needed to make it complete for the oc- 
cupation of the vines. The side occupied by 
the vines is 86 feet long and 24 feet high, 18 
of which are covered with vines in six tiers, 



TKAINING THOMERY. 139 

the first beginning three feet from the ground, 
and all of them being three feet apart. 
Twelve vines were set in a row two feet from 
the house and three feet apart. The second 
season these vines made a growth of eighteen 
feet and upward. At the time for pruning, 
the canes were bent along near the ground, 
and, being gathered together, were bent up- 
ward through the little pedestals, three of 
which are shown in the engraving. Four canes 
were passed through each, trained up perpen- 
dicularly, and cut off at points one foot above 
the height at which each was destined to fur- 
nish arms for the four upper tiers. The excess 
of one foot was to be used the next season 
in burying the horizontal portion six inches 
deep, when little disposition to put forth roots 
would exist. 

Six feet further from the house another row, 
containing six vines, was planted, and grown 
two seasons to stakes. At the end of that 
time they were led along the ground and up 
through the pedestals, to form the two lower 
tiers, in the same manner as those above. 
Three vines occupy each tier; consequently, 
each vine has twelve feet for the length of its 
arms. 



TRAINING THOMERY. 



141 



Figs. 80, 81, 82, are on so small a scale 
that the intricacy of the training will require 




t c a 3 ic 



Fig. 80. 



attention to follow it. The stable is 24 feet 
long, and the height to he covered, including 




afc U II It I I t I VW 

\\v\\\v\\\\\v\\ 



Fig. 81. 



roof, about 30 feet. For this purpose, eleven 
tiers on the Thomery principle were required. 
Three rows of vines were planted, each row 



142 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



two feet from the position it was intended to 
occupy. The vines were all bedded once, as 
represented by the dotted lines in Fig. 81. 
The rows were six feet apart at the beginning, 
and still maintain that relative distance. That 




1 1 m u m u IT 

Fig. 82. 

is their present condition. It is now pro- 
posed to establish all the tiers as nearly at 
the same time as practicable. The first row 
will therefore be trained for the highest part 
of the roof, the next following, and the third 
nearest the ground. The second row must be 
trained on stakes one year where the vines 
now stand, to be led along the ground the 
next year, and be turned up perpendicularly 
as their length will permit. The third row 
will follow in the same order. The manner of 



TK AINING THOMEE Y. 143 

forming the arms lias been already fully de- 
scribed. The letters in Fig. 80 will enable 
the reader to trace the course of every vine 
from the ground to the arms. All of those in 
the second and third rows are to be buried 
about six inches deep as fast as the two year 
old wood is formed, so that all will stand in 
one- row along the side of the building. This 
will be more clearly exhibited on a larger scale 
elsewhere; but the present will be found suf- 
ficient to enable any one who has mastered 
the general principles to perform all the opera- 
tions successfully. 



CHAPTER X. 

TRAINING VARIOUS FORMS. 

The Renewal System. This was so earnestly 
advocated many years ago by Mr. Clement 
Hoare, as to have had his name associated with 
it ever since. It consists of two horizontal arms, 
from which upright canes are grown in a serpen- 
tine course, the canes being alternately fruited 
and renewed. Some have misunderstood it, or 
modified it by growing the canes straight, and 
thus destroyed its best feature. Mr. Hoare un- 
derstood how the action of the vine tends to the 
ends of the canes, and advocated the plan of 
growing them in a serpentine form to equalize it. 
To take away this feature, therefore, is to dam- 
age the system. 

The reader now so well understands the for- 
mation of horizontal arms, that we can pass at 
once to the peculiar treatment of the spurs and 
canes. There should not be more than four 
spurs on each arm. Let us suppose that half 



TRAINING VARIOUS FORMS. 



145 



the arm lias just been laid down. Two buds are 
selected for upright canes, and one at the end 




Pig. 83. 

for the extension of the arm, all the others being 
rubbed off. The two upright canes must be 
grown in a serpentine form, like B, C, in Fig. 83, 

and the end cane, for the extension of the arm, 

10 



146 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

must be grown straight, and all pinched and 
athallized in the usual manner. In the fall, the 
end cane must be cut 'of the proper length for 
completing the arms, and the upright canes 
pruned, one to the lowest bud, and the other, 
this year, not more than two feet long. In the 
spring, from each of the spurs grow a cane for 
renewal, and also a small cane from one of the 
base buds. From the alternate canes pruned 
two feet long, grow as much fruit as the vine is 
able to ripen, and no more ; and from one of the 
base buds grow a small cane for a spur. From 
the portion of arm newly laid down grow two 
upright canes. The canes, in all these instances, 
are to be grown in serpentine form. The fruit 
canes are to be pinched two or three leaves 
above the fruit, the renewal canes pinched about 
the first of September, and athallage attended 
to in the usual manner. The reader must, by 
this time, so well understand these operations 
that it is not necessary to repeat them in detail. 
In the fall we shall have, beginning at the 
stock, first, a cane that has fruited, with a small 
cane at its base ; the old cane must be cut en- 
tirely away, and the small cane cut to its lowest 
bud ; secondly, we have from the spur a long, 
or renewal cane, which must be cut three or four 



TRAINING VARIOUS FORMS. 

feet long ; and also a small cane from a base bud, 
which must be cut low enough to get another 
small cane from a base bud; thirdly, on the part 
of the arm newly laid down we have an upright 
cane, which must be pruned to the lowest bud; 
last, we have another cane, which must be pruned 
about two feet long. The other arm must be 
pruned in the same way. The reader will get 
a good idea of the system from an examination 
of Fig. 83. 

In the spring the treatment will be as fol- 
lows, beginning at the stock, as before : from 
the first spur grow a cane for renewal ; on the 
cane on the second spur grow fruit, and take a 
small cane from a base bud ; on the third spur 
grow a renewal cane, and also a cane from a 
base bud ; on the cane at the end grow fruit, 
and also a small cane from a base bud. The 
summer treatment will be the same as before. 
The pruning and treatment in subsequent years 
will be only a repetition of what has now been 
described, each alternate cane being annually 
fruited, and the others renewed. Fig. 84 shows 
a section of the system complete, as arranged 
for covering a wall six or seven feet high. This 
system, though written about by almost every 
body, is very rarely comprehended, and it must 



148 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



be admitted to be a somewhat difficult one to 
maintain in perfect order through a long series 
of years. It is far less satisfactory in its re- 
sults than others that are much more simple. 




Fig. 84. 



Some depend for renewal upon the buds at 
the base of the canes on the spurs, instead 
of providing a small spur ; but the spur then 
soon becomes inconveniently long, and the 



TRAINING VARIOUS FORMS. 



149 



buds often fail. As between the renewal and 
spur systems in all their various forms, the lat- 
ter are much to be preferred, both on account 
of their greater simplicity, and the better qual- 
ity of the fruit. 

The Oblique System. The French are inge- 
nious as well as prolific in the forms which they 
give to fruit trees. The " cordon oblique " had 
hardly been worked out on the peach and the 
pear, when it was also applied to the grape, as 




Fig. 85. 

may be seen in Fig. 85, which is a copy from the 
work of M. Forney, 1862. It has such a look of 
the Frenchman about it that one would suspect 
its origin at first sight. Our engraver has fol- 
lowed the original literally, instead of making 
grape wood of the stocks, as he knows how to do 



150 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

better than any body else. The system is very 
simple, and the engraving shows quite plainly 
how it is formed. The vines are planted two 
or three feet apart, and grown obliquely at an 
angle of about forty-five degrees, the spurs being 
all on one side. With this exception, it is pre- 
cisely like the Upright Stock described at p. 
107, and the directions there given may be fol- 
lowed here. The two end vines, it will be seen, 
are somewhat modified to fill up the trellis ; the 
one on the right being made shorter, and the one 
on the left having two oblique arms. Any body 
but a Frenchman would have left out the two 
end vines ; but he understands the value of space 
too well, and, besides, brings his good taste as 
well as judgment to bear upon every thing he 
does, always striving to unite the beautiful with 
the useful. The trellis, too, it will be observed, 
is a little peculiar. The uprights are oblique as 
well as the vines, and do not stop at the hori- 
zontal top piece, but extend above it, so that the 
canes from the upper buds may have something 
to be tied to. Every thing necessary seems to be 
provided in the engraving. We do not present 
the system as being at all suited to the vineyard, 
but as something that may gratify the amateur 
in the garden, where it would have a pretty ef- 



TKAINING VARIOUS FORMS. 151 

feet. The only improvement we would suggest 
would be to bend the arms to a horizontal posi- 
tion, and grow them in tiers. 

Something like this was done by Dr. May, 
of Warsaw, 111., several years ago. He has two 
systems, the double horizontal arm, and the 
Guyot, with permanent arms. Beginning at 
the ground, he takes the arms up to the wire 
at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and then 
horizontally along the wire. His idea was, that 
he could in this way bend his arms down easier 
for winter covering. Figs. 86 and 87 are from 
a drawing furnished by Dr. May. 

Reversed Horizontal Arms. This plan con- 
sists in bending the arms in reversed order in 
the first stage of formation. The ends should 
be bent to the ground, and pegged there. Re- 
versing in this way tends to equalize the action 
of the plant, causing the buds near the stock to 
grow much stronger than they otherwise would. 
To secure its full benefits, the end should re- 
main pegged down during a portion of the sea- 
son, or until the action of the plant has well de- 
veloped the canes near the stock. If they are 
at the beginning well established in this way, or 
by laying down a portion only of the arm at a 
time, they will remain good pretty nearly as 



152 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 




TRAINING VAEIOUS FORMS. 153 

long as any other portion of the arm, except the 
extreme end. If they are weak at the start, 
they will speedily decline. The reader will 
comprehend this better when he has acquired a 
knowledge of the physiology of the vine. 

The Fan System. If not complicated by the 
addition of too many spurs, this system may 
be neatly worked out on a small trellis. It is 
easily formed, and will be readily understood 




Fie. 88. 



by referring to Fig. 88. The spurs should be 
formed in two successive years, so as to secure 
strength for the lower ones. The form is main- 
tained by repeated pinching, so as to restrain 
the strong and encourage the weak. The prun- 
ing is the same as in the plan on p. 155. 

Goblet, and other Forms. This (Fig. 89) is 
a very ornamental form in which to grow the 



154 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

vine, and is presented to the novice as an exercise 
or " study," that will give a good direction to 
his taste. It would form a pretty feature on a 
well-shaven lawn, where we have seen a similar 
form used with pleasing effect. The frame 
should be made of stout iron wire, and braced 
with cross pieces, as seen in the engraving. The 
fruiting canes are grown from four spurs. A 




Fig. 89. 

brief description will assist the novice in work- 
ing his " study" out. The first year a single cane 
is grown. In the fall this is cut down to the 
height at which it is desired to form the goblet. 
Two canes are grown the second year, and in 
the fall each of the canes is cut down to the two 
lowest buds. This will give four canes the third 
year. These four canes must next be cut so as 



TRAINING VARIOUS FORMS. 



155 



to form four double spurs, which will give eight 
canes. Figs. 90, 91, will show how this is done. 
The principle understood, the reader can have 



A C A 




Fig. 90. 



Fig. 91. 



goblets, globes, urns, or any other form which 
his fancy may suggest. Fig. 92 is an illustration 
of the globe form. It may 
be remarked that pretty con- 
stant pinching and athallizing 
will be necessary to' keep the 
form in its proper shape. 

Trouillefs Plcm. In the 
East it has been the practice 
Fig. 92. from time immemorial to 

grow the vine without stakes, and we have ac- 
counts of very old stocks of almost fabulous 
dimensions. It is done by spurring, and M. 




156 



AMEEICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



Trouillet's plain, shown in Fig. 93, will give 
the reader a very clear idea of the principle. 




Fig. 93. 



The Hermitage Plan. " Hermitage" wine is 
famous wherever good wine is known. It may 




Fig. 94. 



interest the reader to know how the vines are 
grown. The " system" is shown in Fig. 94. It 



TRAINING VAKIOUS FORMS. 157 




Fig. 95. 




Fig. 96. 



Fig. 97. 



158 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

might characteristically be called the " irregu- 
lar" system, so far as the planting is concerned, 
for no order is observed in this respect. 

Training on Trees. Where vines are grown 
on trees as a practice, it is usual to train the 
trees into such form as will admit also of train- 
ing the vines. A good example of this is shown 
in Fig. $5. 

Training on Stakes. The manner of training 
on stakes from three or four spurs is prettily 
shown in Figs. 96, 97. It needs no explana- 
tion. 



CHAPTER XL 

DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES ISABELLA GROUP. 

IN an elementary work like this, it is not 
desirable to give a full descriptive list of the 
numerous varieties of the native grape. A 
large portion of them have no value whatever, 
and others are confined chiefly to the garden 
or the curious amateur. We shall confine our 
descriptions principally to such as are generally 
grown in the vineyard. A full list, with elabo- 
rate descriptions, is reserved for another place. 

THE ISABELLA GROUP. For present pur- 
poses, we shall divide our principal vineyard 
grapes into two groups, the Isabella and Cataw- 
ba, the last group being distinctively vinous 
grapes. The characteristics of the Isabella 
group are, a thick and acrid skin, a tough, 
acid center, and a peculiar " foxy " odor. We 
shall begin with the first group, in which 
will be included the Isabella, Concord, Hart- 



160 DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES.' 

ford Prolific, Creveling, Adirondac, Israella, 
and Ives's Seedling. 



ISABELLA. 



Description of Varieties. The Isabella, o 
southern origin, may be said to be the mother of 
American grape culture. She performed her 




Fig. 98. Leaf of Isabella. 



work faithfully and well, and we would there- 
fore speak tenderly of her faults. A genera- 
tion has grown up around her, some of them 
far less comely than she, but others of great 
delicacy, refinement, and beauty. The Isabella 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 161 

is a good grower, hardy, and submits pretty 
well to treatment. The bunches are large, 
compact, and shouldered. The color is dark 
purple, with a light bloom. The berries are 
large, and oval in form. The flesh is neither 
melting nor tender, except near the surface, 
and has a tough, acid center, that always re- 
mains, and must either be rejected, or swal- 
lowed whole. The skin is thick and rather 
tough, with a certain acridity which produces 
soreness of the mouth when the grapes are 
eaten in quantity. Between the skin and the 
tough center there is a sprightly, sweet juice, 
that is really good. This goodness is increased 
in quantity in the most favorable localities, 
for the center then becomes somewhat broken 
down. The Isabella has the "foxy" odor 
peculiar to the native grape. It will not ripen 
generally in the New-England States, except in 
sheltered places. There is only one way of 
eating the Isabella and similar grapes, that 
yields much enjoyment, and that is, to break 
the skin, and place the berry at the lips so 
that the juice can be sucked in, while the skin 
and tough center are thrown away. 
CONCOKD. 

The Concord is only one remove from the 
11 



162 DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 

wild native, and, with the native vigor and 
hardiness of its parent, possesses also its 
strongly marked faults. It originated with 
Mr. Bull, of Concord, Massachusetts. The 
vine is hardy, vigorous, and early, ripening its 
fruit over a wide extent of country, which 
alone would give it value, if we had not much 
better grapes ripening about as early. The 
bunch is very large, compact, and shouldered. 
The color is dark purple, with a light bloom. 
The berry is large, round, and has a thin skin. 
The flesh is soft or buttery, with the fibrous, 
acid center characteristic of this class of grapes, 
and which only disappears when the fruit has 
passed the period of maturity. The juice is 
sweet, but without that vinous spirit that gives 
so much enjoyment in the use of the grape. 
In quality, it bears a close resemblance to the 
Northern Muscadine. The fruit, even in its 
best condition, has a strong a foxy" odor, which 
is very offensive, and only becomes more so by 
use ; this, added to its peculiar buttery flesh 
and want of spirit, renders it any thing but an 
agreeable fruit to tastes that have been culti- 
vated by the use of good grapes. It owes its 
popularity to its vigor and productiveness, and 
not to its goodness. When mature, the berries 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 163 

often drop from the bunch, and are disposed to 
crack ; hence it requires to be sent to market, in 
common with some others, before it is fully 
ripe. Its tenderness of skin also unfits it for 
distant transportation or close packing. 

HAETFOED PEOLIFIC. 

The Hartford Prolific is a seedling from 
the woods. It is hardy, a vigorous grower, 
very productive, and very early, ripening 
nearly two weeks before the Concord. The 
bunch is large, and shouldered. The color 
is dark purple, with a light bloom. The ber- 
ries are large, somewhat oval, with a thick 
skin. The flesh has the usual tough, acid cen- 
ter of this class. The juice is rather sweet, 
with more sprightliness than the Concord, but 
has little or no vinous flavor. The fruit is some- 
what less "foxy" than the Concord. When 
ripe, the berries often drop from the bunch. It 
has been popular on account of its earliness and 
large yield. 

CREVELHSTG. 

The Greveling had its origin in Blooms- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, and is no doubt a seed- 
ling of the Isabella, which it resembles. It 



164 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Las about the same degree of hardiness and 
vigor as the Isabella, but ripens about two 
weeks earlier, or nearly at the time of the 
Hartford Prolific. The bunch is large, taper- 
ing, and generally loose, with a small shouTder. 
The color is dark purple, with a light bloom. 
The berry is large, oval, with a thick skin. 
The flesh has the usual tough, acid center. 
The juice next the skin is sweet, and more 
sprightly than either the Concord or Hart- 
ford. The fruit, also, has less of the " foxy " 
odor. It has a habit, however, of setting 
its berries very thin, owing to imperfect fer- 
tilization. 

ADIKONDAC. 

The Adirondac was introduced in 1863, and 
had its origin among the Adirondac Moun- 
tains, N. Y., whence its name. It Is no doubt 
a seedling of the Isabella. In favorable locali- 
ties it is^ a good grower, but with us, and in 
many places where we have seen it, it drops 
its leaves early, and hence ripens imperfectly, 
and gets winter-killed. How far this is ow- 
ing to imperfections in propagation, remains 
to be seen. The bunch is large, compact, and 
shouldered. Color dark purple, with a light 



DESCRIPTION OF YAKIETIES. 165 

bloom. The berry is large, roundish oval, 
with a thin skin. The flesh is tender, with 
very little unripe center. The juice is sweet, 
with a pleasant, but not strongly marked fla- 
vor. In the Adirondac we see the first de- 
cided step in the breaking down and ripening 
of the tough, fibrous center, and the disappear- 
ance of the offensive " foxy " odor, more or 
less characteristic of the Isabella group. The 
skin, too, has become thinner and more ten- 
der. In quality, it is much the best grape 
thus far mentioned. It ripens early, or soon 
after the, Hartford Prolific. 

ISRAELLA. 

The Isradla, also lately introduced, was ori- 
ginated by Dr. C. W. Grant, of lona Island. 
The vine is vigorous, hardy, and productive. 
The bunch is large, compact, and shouldered. 
The color is dark purple, with a light bloom. 
The berry is large, roundish oval, with a mod- 
erately tender skin. The flesh is tender, and 
ripens fully, quite to the center. The juice is 
sweet and sprightly, with a pleasant flavor. 
In the Israella we have another step in advance. 
One great desideratum in the grape, in common 
with all fruits used as food, is thorough ripe- 



Fig. 99 Israelis 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 167 

ness in all its parts. Nothing less should 
satisfy us in the grape, any more than in the 
apple or the pear. In this respect, the Israella 
stands at the head of the Isabella group. The 
disagreeable " foxiness," too, has mostly disap- 
peared, and the fruit may be eaten without 
offense to the taste or smell. It ripens quite 
early, or about the time of the Hartford Pro- 
lific. It is a long keeper, the berries adhering 
well to the bunch. 



IVES'S SEEDLING. 



Iveds Seedling, just now becoming known at 
the West, originated with the Hon. Mr. Ives, 
near Cincinnati, something more than twenty 
years ago, by whom cuttings were liberally dis- 
tributed. Dr. Kittredge was one of the early 
growers of it, and for a time it took his name. 
It is probably a seedling of the Isabella, which 
it somewhat resembles. Its chief recommenda- 
tions are its hardiness and productiveness ; its 
prominent defects, a large, tough, acid center, 
and very " foxy" odor. Since the marked fail- 
ure of the Catawba in the vicinity of Cincin- 
nati, for which neither soil nor climate is well 
adapted, the Ives has been gaining favor, and 
Col. Waring, with whom the Catawba will not 



168 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

thrive, has pretty extensive vineyards of it. It 
has not even the remotest value as a table 
grape, but it is claimed that good wine may be 
made from it. We think that attempts to 
make real wine from any " hard-hearted " mem- 
ber of this family must end in a small measure 
of success. 

Comparison of Varieties. We have now no- 
ticed such of this group as are prominently be- 
fore the public. We propose next to group 
them together for certain purposes of compar- 
ison. 

\st. Quality. If we compare them, in quality, 
they will arrange themselves in the following 
order: Israella, Adirondac, Isabella, Greveling^ 
Hartford Prolific, Concord, Ives's Seedling. 
The difference between some is quite trifling, 
while between others it is very marked. 

%d. For tlie Table. If we compare them for 
the table, as articles of food, goodness must 
take precedence, and they will assume the same 
order. 

3d. for Market. If we compare them for 
market purposes, we must consider something 
besides goodness ; because, if a grape, however 
good, will not " carry" to market, it loses its 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 169 

market value : it may be the best grape for 
wine or for the table, for home consumption, 
but it is clearly not the best for market, how- 
ever much it ought to be so. That is a rare 
grape which possesses in itself all these quali- 
fications. We must look for it outside of this 
group. We may, notwithstanding, find here a 
grape that is best for both market and the 
table. In time our group will no doubt settle 
itself in this wise : Israella, Concord, Isabella, 
Hartford Prolific, Creveling. We omit the 
Ives, since it is clearly not a table grape. We 
are at a loss how to place the Adirondac, be- 
cause we have seen it winter kill so badly. If 
this is only a temporary fault, its excellence 
must give it a place far in advance of the Con- 
cord. We think the Hartford a better grape 
than the Concord ; but, though both have the 
vice of dropping their berries, the Hartford is 
much the greatest sinner, and we therefore place 
the Concord in advance of it for market. If, 
however, we add that the berries of the Con- 
cord crack pretty badly, it will reduce their 
vicious habits pretty nearly to a level. The 
Israella is as hardy as either of them ; ripens 
before the Concord, is as early as the Hartford, 
infinitely better than either, and free from their 



170 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

vice of dropping the fruit. These qualities 
give it the first position in this group as a 
market fruit. We place the Isabella after 
the Concord, only because it can not be ripened 
over so wide a surface ; but where it will ripen, 
it ought to take precedence of it. So, too, of 
the Creveling. We make no comparisons for 
wine, because we do not consider this group 
true wine grapes. 



CHAPTER XII. 

DESCRIPTION OF VAEIETIES CONTINUED. 

TJie Gatawba Group. We now pass to 
the Gatawba group, wliicli is composed of 
grapes tliat are distinctively vinous. It must 
not be understood, however, that all the grapes 
of this group are of the Catawba family. Al- 
len's Hybrid, for example, clearly is not ; but 
it is placed here for our present purpose, since 
it is a truly vinous grape, and has but little 
affinity with the Isabella family. The lead- 
ing characteristics of this group are, a flesh 
more or less tender, with a sweet juice having 
a vinous flavor. It is here that we find our 
best table as well as wine grapes ; some, in- 
deed, of such excellence as to elevate the na- 
tive grape to a very high position by the 
side of the best varieties of Europe. We 
shall include in this group the Catawba, Diana, 
Alleris Hybrid, Delaware, and lona. 



172 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

CATAWBA. 

If the Isabella was the mother of Ameri- 
can grape culture, the Catawba may be re- 
garded as the mother of American wine mak- 
ing. It has performed its mission equally 
well ; it has done, indeed, all that it is 




Pig. 100. Leaf of Catawba. 



capable of doing, and might now veiy well 
be laid aside as a pleasant memory, while its 
place is filled by others better fitted to per- 
fect the work it so well began. The Catawba 
had its origin in the South. Whatever of 
goodness the Isabella may have is found in 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 173 

the Catawba in a greater degree. The Isa- 
bella has sweetness nearly in its simplest form, 
and, consequently, only a feeble or low degree 
of vinous flavor, suited to tastes that are sat- 
isfied with sweetness chiefly, and look for lit- 
tle more. The Catawba has more sweetness, 
but added to it, enough of the acid of the grape 
to produce spirit' and animation. It is also less 
" foxy" than the Isabella. The Catawba, though 
very far from faultless, is altogether a better 
grape than the Isabella. It is hardy, and a good 
grower. The bunch is large, moderately com- 
pact, and shouldered. The color is a dark 
claret, covered with a fine light bloom. The 
berry is large, round, with a thick skin. The 
flesh has a large tough, acid center, between 
which and the skin is a sweet juice, having 
a spicy, vinous flavor. In the Catawba the 
" foxy " odor has lost a considerable degree 
of its offensiveness. The skin, however, is 
acrid, and often produces soreness in tender 
mouths. There is always some astringency, 
and often also a peculiar bitterness, in the 
Catawba, very unpleasant to the taste. The 
acid center disappears more or less, accord- 
ing as the grape is grown in localities more 
or less favorable to its ripening, but is 



174 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

never wholly absent. There is a considera- 
ble degree of vinous spirit in the juice of 
the Catawba; but, on the whole, there is 
a want of purity that detracts greatly from 
its excellence. The Catawba is so subject to 
mildew, sun-scald, and especially rot, both 
black and bitter, as to make its culture pre- 
carious, except under favorable conditions of 
soil and climate. It ripens too late for the 
New-England States. 

THANA. 

The Diana originated with Mrs. Diana Cre- 
hore, of Milton Hill, Massachusetts. It is a 
seedling of the Catawba. It is hardy, and a 
rank grower. The bunch varies from below 
to above medium size, is very compact, and 
usually shouldered. The color is a pale or 
tawny claret. The berry is of medium size, 
round, with a thick skin. The flesh has a 
small fibrous center, becoming sweet when 
ripe, and considerable toughness near the skin ? 
which, however, becomes pretty tender and 
good when fully ripe. The flesh, indeed, is 
somewhat meaty ; hence it is a good keeper, 
and will make a tolerable raisin. The juice 
is sweet, with a high vinous flavor. The Di- 
ana is sweet some time before it is ripe; in- 



Fig. 101 Diana, from a specimen bunch. 



176 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

deed, it is often sweet when not colored. It 
has a peculiar animal odor before ripe, which 
has been variously characterized, and some- 
times rather too broadly for good taste. This 
odor, however, gradually disappears as the 
fruit approaches full maturity, and almost 
ceases to be offensive. When young, the vine 
is disposed to overbear, and hence ripens its 
fruit imperfectly. It is only as the vine ac- 
quires age that the sugary sweetness and high 
vinous flavor of the Diana are fully developed, 
and then we see its great superiority to the 
Catawba. It requires peculiar treatment, how- 
ever ; and this is so little understood that it has 
been a great drawback to its cultivation. It 
will ripen in a considerable portion of the 
New-England States, in well-chosen and shel- 
tered positions. We have said that the Diana 
is hardy, but this is true only when its wood 
is mature. In a soil too rich it makes a very 
rampant growth, that is neither very hardy 
nor productive. It needs a deep, dry, but not 
rich soil. 

ALLEN'S HYBEID. 

Alleris Hybrid originated with Mr. J, 
Fisk Allen, of Salem, Massachusetts, a gen- 



Fig. 102 Allen's Hybrid. 
12 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

tleman to whom grape culture is largely in- 
debted. It is a hybrid between the native 
and foreign grape, its mixed character being 
plainly seen both in the fruit and the leaves. 
It is the first example of the kind of which 
we have any knowledge, and in this respect 
is one of our most interesting grapes. Mr. 
Allen raised other seedlings at the same time, 
but this is the only one that proved to be 
valuable. The vine is not very hardy, but 
a good grower, and yields readily to treat- 
ment. The leaves are well marked, having 
a peculiar crumpled appearance not common 
to any other variety. The bunch is large, 
compact, and shouldered. The color is amber 
green, with a translucent pearly bloom, and here 
and there dots of claret. The berry is large, 
nearly round, and has a thin, tender skin. 
The flesh is tender. The juice is sweet, rich, 
and spirited, with a pure vinous and mild 
muscat flavor. The Allen is one of our best 
table grapes. The flesh matures uniformly, and 
the skin is tender and good. It is free from 
" foxy" odor. The vine is not sufficiently hardy 
to adapt it to cultivation in the vineyard, except 
in sheltered localities. When exposed, it is 
apt to mildew and be winter-killed. For the 



DESCRIPTION OF VAKIETIES. 179 

garden, and places where shelter and ventila- 
tion are provided, it is one of the best grapes 
we have. It ripens nearly three weeks before 
the Isabella. 

DELAWARE. 

The origin of the Delaware is wrapped in 
mystery. That it is a native grape, there 
should be no more doubt than there is in re- 
gard to the Isabella and Catawba. The leaves 
on young vines often show the characteristic 
furziness; but seedlings which we and others 
have raised from it show the native character 
in fruit and foliage too broadly to be mistaken. 
The question of its origin would never have 
been raised, but for the excellence of its fruit. 
It was thought to be too refined for a native ; 
in fact, the native grape had become, in our 
minds, so almost indissolubly associated with 
the " fox," that we had learned to recognize a 
native by its offensive smell and tough center. 
Happily, the lona, which more than one old 
grape grower has pronounced to be a Frontig- 
nan, and which it certainly resembles very 
closely, has stepped in to spoil the logic of this 
kind of argument, and we may now claim to 
have at least three natives free from this offen- 
sive taint. The Delaware is hardy, a vigorous 



180 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

but compact grower, and few kinds yield so 
readily to treatment. The bunch is small, very 
compact, (the berries being often compressed in 
consequence,) and has a small shoulder, very 
much like a little bunch. The color varies 
from bright to pale claret. The berry is small, 
round, with a thin and rather tender skin. The 
flesh has only a very small fibrous center, but 
quite sweet when ripe. The juice is sugary 
and sweet, with a pure, delicate, but spirited 
vinous flavor. The berry is sweet some time 
before it is ripe. This sweetness of the 'berry 
before maturity is characteristic of the Diana, 
Delaware, and lona. The early ripening and 
hardy character of the Delaware fit it for gen- 
eral cultivation. 

The Delaware has taken, and will always 
maintain, a high rank among American grapes. 
It was the first to give us a true idea of purity, 
delicacy, and refinement, almost its only fault, 
besides its want of size, being its small fibrous 
center, which prevents it from being tender in 
all its parts. That little center, however, is 
sweet when ripe. It must be admitted, also, 
that the bunch is too compact; so much so, 
often, as to prevent the interior berries from 
becoming fully ripe ; it makes it difficult, too, 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 181 

to pick the berries to eat. These faults conced- 
ed, it still remains a delicious grape. It has 
performed the great and invaluable office of 
educating the American taste up to the stand- 
ard of European kinds; it has at least done 
this with a portion of the public, and prepared 
others for a truer appreciation of real excel- 
lence in the grape. The mass are already begin- 
ning to perceive the difference between a grape 
that must be shot down with closed eyes and 
wide open mouth, and one that may be deliber- 
ately eaten as food. 

IONA. 

The lona originated with Dr. C. W. Grant, 
of lona Island, N. Y. The vine is hardy, a 
vigorous grower, and yields readily to treat- 
ment. The bunch is large, moderately com- 
pact, and distinctly double shouldered or 
winged. The color is a bright claret. The 
berry is large, round, with a thin skin. The 
flesh is meaty, melting, and tender all the way 
through. The juice is sugary and sweet, spirited 
and vinous, with a pure but delicate muscat 
flavor. Just after " stoning," the berry becomes 
so transparent that the seed may be distinctly 
seen. The flesh is sweet enough to be eaten 
nearly two weeks before it is perfectly ripe. 



Hg. 103-Iona. 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 183 

It is a long keeper, and dries into an excellent 
raisin. The hardiness of the vine and the early 
ripening of the fruit adapt it to general culti- 




Fig. 104 lona. 

vation. It is the best of American grapes, 
both for the table and wine. 

When the excellence of the Delaware had 
become fully recognized and appreciated, the 
wish was very generally expressed, that we 
might be so fortunate as to have a grape as 
good as the Delaware, but twice as large. The 
thought seemed to be, that nothing more could 
be desired. This wish was soon more than 
realized by the appearance of the lona, which, 



184 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

in many respects, may be regarded as a Dela- 
ware greatly enlarged. There are some defects 
in the Delaware, however, which disappear in 
the lona. Some of these may here be noted. 
For example, the small fibrous center of the 
Delaware is replaced by thorough ripeness in 
the lona; all the flesh becomes equally ripe 
and tender, so that a berry, pressed between 
the tongue and roof of the mouth, melts en- 
tirely away, leaving nothing but the seeds and 
skin. There can be no perfection in the grape 
till this point is reached. Both are exceedingly 
delicate and refined ; but the lona has super- 
added a pure and delicate muscat aroma, gen- 
erally wanting in the Delaware. The skin of 
both is thin ; but that of the lona is so finely 
woven together, that none of the goodness 
within can escape: the berries never burst, 
even when fully ripe, though the bunches be 
piled thickly upon each other. A thin but 
firm skin is necessary to all wine and raisin 
grapes. The flesh of the Delaware, except the 
small fibrous center, ripens into pure, sweet 
juice, and thus it remains as long as the beriy 
retains its integrity ; but when a change takes 
place, as in time it must, the animating spirit 
soon passes away; the small center finally 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 185 

breaks down by decay, which vitiates the 
whole mass. It is true that this does not 
take place till some time after the berries are 
ripe ; but ultimately it does. Hence the Dela- 
ware is not a very long keeper. The flesh of 
the lona, on the contrary, ripens evenly and 
thoroughly in all its parts ; its uniform con- 
sistency is remarkable. It ripens into juice, it 
is true, from center to circumference ; but this 
juice is held together, as it were, in little sacs, 
and has such a peculiar meaty consistence, that, 
instead of decaying, it is slowly converted into 
a rich sugary mass equal to the best Malaga 
raisins ; hence it is a long keeper. It makes a 
good raisin without the help of artificial means ; 
the Delaware will not, even with their aid. 
This property of gradually resolving itself into 
sugar without evaporating all its juice gives the 
lona great value as a wine grape. The juice 
of the Delaware is rich in the peculiar sugar 
and acid of the grape, and hence it makes a 
fine wine ; its defect is the small fibrous center, 
which affects the wine just in proportion as it 
is more or less ripe : its presence contributes an 
element which interferes with vinous fermenta- 
tion, and prevents the wine from attaining per- 
fection and maturity. The juice of the lona is 



186 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

even richer than the Delaware in the peculiar 
sugar and acid of the grape ; but, unlike the 
Delaware, it has no fiber or unripeness to min- 
gle with the must, and hence it makes a perfect 
and enduring wine. The must of the Dela- 
ware has been recorded at 105 ; it will prob- 
ably go a little higher than that. We have 
seen lona register 130, the must being from 
grapes that had begun to shrivel. The must, 
indeed, is so rich in vinous properties, that we 
and others have made good wine from it in 
pint bottles, in a warm room, without the 
least disposition to acetous or destructive fer- 
mentation. 

We present this brief but somewhat analyti- 
cal comparison of OUF two best wine grapes, 
for the purpose of giving the beginner some 
useful ideas in regard to those nice shades of 
difference in the qualities of grapes, which not 
only impress a distinctive character upon them, 
but graduate their value for wine or the table. 
It is the only way in which we can acquire a 
real knowledge of the comparative excellences 
and defects of grapes, and form a true estimate 
of their value ; and we have often wondered 
that it has been so entirely overlooked, more 
especially since it is a chief element in those 



DESCRIPTION OP VARIETIES. 1ST 

questions already of general interest, the so- 
lution of which is so vitally important to all 
who contemplate planting vineyards. 

Comparison of Varieties. We now propose 
to compare the Catawba group in reference to 
the following points: 1st. Quality ; 2 d. Value 
for the Table; 3d. Market; 4th. Wine. 

1st. Quality. In regard to quality, they at 
once arrange themselves as follows: lona, 
Delaware, Alleris Hybrid, Diana, Catawla, 
In making this arrangement, we are governed 
strictly by the sum total of goodness possessed 
by each kind. There can be no difference of 
opinion in regard to it, except that there may 
be a few who will prefer the Allen to the 
Delaware. It is certainly one of the best of 
grapes, but it lacks the pure richness of the 
Delaware. We desire the reader to keep con- 
stantly in mind the goodness and defects of 
each particular kind. All his plans must have 
their origin and aim here, if he would attain 
to the largest measure of satisfaction and suc- 
cess. 

2 d. For the Table. For table use, we must 
be governed by tenderness of flesh, high flavor, 
general good quality, and long keeping ; hence 



188 AMEKICAN GKAPE CULTUKE. 

we place the grapes of this group in the follow- 
ing order : lona, Delaware, Allen! s Hybrid, Di- 
ana, Catawba. We look upon the grape as 
a nourishing and refreshing food; all grapes, 
therefore, that are not tender and digestible, 
should be excluded from the table. It is only 
the first three that fully meet these conditions. 
3d. for Market. We have already stated 
the conditions which should obtain in grow- 
ing grapes for market. The following, then, 
will be the order of this group : lona, Dela- 
ware, Catawba, Diana, Alleris Hybrid. The 
Allen is placed last because of our inability 
to produce it in quantity. It will always 
command a higher price than the Catawba. 
If the treatment of the Diana should ever be 
mastered, so as to insure its more general culti- 
vation, it will be found more profitable than 
the Catawba : it is a better grape, and a better 
keeper. We imagine, however, that it will be 
chiefly grown for wine. In regard to the 
others, enough is known to place their relative 
market value beyond a doubt. It is by no 
means the most productive grape that is best 
for market ; that clearly is best which will 
net the most profit. Up to a recent period 
the market was monopolized by the Isabella 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 189 

and Catawba, and other kinds could scarcely 
be sold, chiefly because the people had become 
familiar with the former, and knew nothing 
better ; but all this is changing now ; the people 
are breaking away from the bondage of names, 
and are rapidly learning to appreciate a fruit 
for its goodness and not for its name. Shrewd 
men are beginning to perceive this, and are 
wisely preparing themselves for the change. 
Have we not chased the " fox " long enough ? 
and is it not time that he were finally " holed ? " 
We have no doubt that a time will come when 
the merits of the last new fruit will be as 
eagerly discussed around the stands of the 
public market as they now are by pomologists 
in " learned assembly met," and possibly with 
nearly as much intelligence and good taste. 

4th. Wine. For wine, the arrangement 
will not vary much from that for the table. 
It is as follows : lona, Delaware, Diana, Alr 
lerits Hybrid, Catawba. Our placing of the 
Allen is altogether guess-work, for we have 
never made wine from it, and do not know of 
any body who has ; yet there can be no doubt 
that it will make a purer and much richer wine 
than the Catawba. It is not at all probable, 
however, that it will ever be grown in quantity 



190 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

to make wine from, and it therefore becomes 
a matter of small moment where it is placed 
in this list. There may be some, however, 
who would like to make wine from it in 
small quantity for their own use, and it is 
just as well that they should know that the 
wine is in the grape. 

We have included in this group all that 
could be justly considered as having any claims 
as true wine grapes ; if the list were still fur- 
ther reduced, there would be much gain to 
American wine making. In all that we have 
written, we have taken decided ground for 
pure wine; we have warred against adultera- 
tions in all their multifarious forms, and we 
shall do so to the end. Sugar, brandy, and 
alcohol are adulterations, and we are only 
grieved when we see well-meaning men pro- 
pose and defend them. We do not mean to 
countenance any thing but the pure juice of 
the grape. No kind, the pure juice of which 
can not be made into an enduring wine, should 
be admitted into the list of wine grapes ; other- 
wise we open the door, not only for sirups 
and confections, rhubarb and elderberries, but 
also for Gallizing, and other slow poisonings 
and absurdities. If drinks will be made from 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. .191 

such things, give them their right names, 
but do not call them wine. We may talk as 
learnedly as we please about cane and grape 
sugar, and the chemistry of fermentation ; 
we can only make real wine from the pure 
juice of the grape. We hope American wine 
makers will accept this truth, and not tamper 
with the public health and credulity. Our 
list, therefore, necessarily excludes all grapes 
that have large, unripe, acid centers, as well as 
those that are deficient in the acids and sugar 
peculiar to the grape, or in which these and 
other vinous elements, are not properly com- 
bined. American wine making is beginning 
to assume such importance and proportions, 
that a candid treatment of the subject could 
not be passed over, even in an elementary 
treatise on grape culture. There is another, 
but small class of wine grapes, which will be 
noticed elsewhere. 

We head the list with the lona, not alone 
because we have tried it, but because it pos- 
sesses in an eminent degree the qualities of 
the best known Mane grapes, in this respect sur- 
passing all other American grapes. This is not 
a matter of opinion ; it is a verified fact. On 
a small scale we have made excellent wine 



192 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

from it; better than any that we liave seen 
made from the Delaware, and that is great, 
praise ; but we have seen wine made from it by 
others in larger quantity, that was equal to the 
very best German wines. It has the richness, 
body, bouquet, and fullness of flavor that 
belong to the highest class of wines. If 
the fruit is good, so is the plant. This has 
now been sufficiently tried, and the testimony 
is pretty uniform in regard to its hardiness, 
health, and vigor. It is easily trained, and 
bears abundant crops of very beautiful fruit. 
The bunch is just sufficiently open to permit of 
the ripening of every berry. The skin, too, 
though thin, has such firmness of texture as to 
prevent even the ripest berries from bursting 
and wasting the juice. The fruit may, in conse- 
quence, be kept without loss till the berries 
begin to shrivel, when the expressed juice will 
be found to be exceedingly rich. In young 
vines, the bunches are sometimes a little loose, 
especially if the vine is growing with great 
vigor. We have given a fair description of the 
vine and its fruit, from which the reader can 
form an opinion as to its claim to occupy the 
position we have given it at the head of Amer- 
ican wine grapes. 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 103 

We place the Delaware second, because it 
possesses wine qualities in a greater degree 
than any other native grape, except the lona ; 
besides, such wine has been made from it in 
quantity by Mr. Mottier and others as to leave 
no doubt in regard to its proper place. To 
our taste, Catawba is a flat wine compared 
with the Delaware; besides, it is not half as 
enduring. We find in the Delaware many of 
the same wine qualities possessed by the lona, 
but some of them less strongly marked. Just 
that little fibrous center, and still more the 
compactness of the bunch, sometimes make 
the wine slightly imperfect. In good seasons, 
however, and whenever the fruit ripens per- 
fectly, these imperfections disappear, and we 
have a wine of great excellence. The vine 
is admirably adapted to vineyard culture, 
being so easily trained. A word of caution, 
however, may here be added: the vine is 
strongly disposed to overbear, and generally 
sets more fruit than should be allowed to 
remain. In all good seasons the bunches 
must be thinned out as soon as they set. 

The Diana we have placed third. It makes 
a wine but little inferior to the Delaware when 
the fruit is fully ripe ; it is not, however, so 

13 



194 AMERICAN G-BAPE CULTURE. 

pure and refined in its flavor. The peculiar 
odor of the fruit of the Diana is objected to by 
many who have not seen it when fully ripe 
and in its best condition. This aroma is not, 
it must be admitted, very pleasant ; the ripen- 
ing process, however, works it mostly off, and 
the matured fruit becomes an excellent vinous 
grape, but still slightly objectionable on ac- 
count of its odor. The Diana does not occupy 
its proper place, and perhaps never will till 
its treatment is better understood, and we are 
content to wait for its best fruit till the vine 
acquires age. It is, notwithstanding, a good 
wine grape. 

The Allen '# Hybrid was placed in this group 
because is to a good degree a vinous grape. 
It is not, however, sufficiently hardy for general 
cultivation. Its tenderness shrinks from the 
open exposure of the vineyard, where it soon 
dwindles and dies. It is really to be regretted 
that such an excellent grape can not be made 
more useful. 

The Gatawba is placed last, because its 
vinous qualities are the least of all the grapes 
in this group. The fibrous, acid center must 
always more or less impair the quality and 
durability of the wine. Its wine is good ; but, 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 195 

compared with Diana, Delaware, or lona, is 
wanting in purity, refinement, and life. It is 
not a wine of high flavor in any true sense, 
although it be strongly marked; it impresses 
the mouth and lips, but passes the palate 
with but little pleasurable sensation. Thus 
we have found it always when purest and 
best ; and even then it has not richness enough 
to cover its rather decided acidity. The 
crops of 1854 and 1859 ripened uncommonly 
well, and hence the vintages of those years 
gave the best Catawba wine that has yet 
been put in the market. It was very good. 
The truth is, a grape may be vinous in its 
character; may contain in itself the chief 
elements of wine; yet, if these are not duly 
combined, and the fruit does not ripen fully 
and uniformly in all its parts, it can not make 
a perfect wine. The imperfections in the grape 
will appear in the wine, and not only impair 
its goodness, but hasten the period of decay in 
proportion as these imperfections may exist in 
a greater or less degree. 

We have omitted from the wine list the 
Isabella and Concord, and all grapes of the 
Isabella class. We always have a reason for 
what we do ; in this case it consists in the fact 



196 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

that they are not wine grapes, if we know what 
wine is. The elements which make real and 
durable wine are not combined in any one of 
them in such degree and proportion as to 
render the manufacture of true and durable 
wine possible. Sparkling wines are made from 
them, and also from cider ; but this does not 
prove much. The majority of them have tough, 
fibrous centers, that never ripen, and supply 
an element incompatible with the manufacture 
of good wine, the presence of which prevents 
the perfection of the process. Others only 
become tender at the center by the breaking 
down of the mass by incipient decay, and not 
by ripening; and maturity acquired in this 
way is not calculated to enhance the goodness 
of any wine. The very few that do ripen make 
a feeble, flat wine, and all of them soon run to 
vinegar. These serious defects are in many 
cases met and overcome by the addition of 
sugar, alcohol, and other adulterations, which 
at once place the resulting liquor outside of 
our conception and definition of wine. All 
attempts to make wine from such grapes must 
necessarily end in failure. We would here 
make a suggestion. There is always a good 
market for vinegar : a fine article will com- 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 197 

mand as high a price as poor wine. These 
grapes, when not too "foxy," will make fine 
vinegar. Let them therefore be devoted to 
a purpose more consistent with their character. 
It will pay very much better than to waste 
capital and labor in efforts to make wine 
where there is none. 

But it is claimed that the Concord is an 
exception. Let us briefly examine this claim. 
It is said that the Concord at the West is a 
much better grape than it is at the East. We 
have been at much pains to procure the fruit 
from the West, and we are compelled to say 
that we can see no difference between a Con- 
cord of the West and a Concord of the 
East, both being equally ripe. This claim has 
no foundation in fact ; an equally ripened Con- 
cord is the same in both places. It is doubtless 
true that it often ripens much better at the 
Southwest than it does at the Northeast; and 
that has probably given rise to the impression 
that it is quite a different fruit at the West. 
It is also claimed that the Concord at the 
West can and does make real and excellent 
wine. We have tasted it doctored and mixed, 
and know what it is in that state. We 
have taken much trouble to have procured 



198 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

for us samples of Concord wine from the 
cellars of some of the best known makers 
at the West, with the solemn assurance that 
it was pure, unadulterated Concord ; and we 
have no doubt of it. A recently procured 
bottle of the pure Concord is before us as we 
write. We shall not undertake the impossible 
task of describing it, further than saying, that 
this, at least, resembles any thing but wine. 
We can not drink it ; neither can our friends. 
It is certainly very peculiar. If the leopard 
never changes his spots, neither does the 
" fox " his odor. We wish to be good-natured 
about it; but the fact is, we are positively 
ashamed of our own face when we taste it. 
As the result of our investigations, we are 
forced back to the conclusion, that the Con- 
cord is not a wine grape, even at the West. 

In addition to the leading varieties already 
described, there are other kinds more or less 
prominently before the public, which may be 
briefly noticed here. 

UNION VILLAGE. 

The Union Village originated with the 
Shakers of Union Village, Ohio, whence its 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 199 

name. The vine is pretty hardy, and perhaps 
the rankest grower of all our native kinds, the 
wood, leaves, and fruit being of extraordinary 
size. The bunch is extra large, compact, and 
shouldered. The color is dark purple, with a 
light bloom. The berry is extra large, (often 
an inch in diameter,) round, and has a moder- 
ately thick skin. The flesh has a fibrous cen- 
ter, small in proportion to the size of the 
berry, but is tender and juicy near the skin. 
The juice is sweet, and a little sprightly, but 
not vinous or high flavored. It resembles the 
Isabella in quality, and is no doubt a seedling 
from it. For a fruit of only moderate quality, 
its large size becomes a positive fault. Such a 
mass of flesh, of only negative goodness, when 
taken into the mouth, becomes really distasteful 
from its quantity. The bunch, however, is mag- 
nificent, resembling a well-grown Black Ham- 
burgh. The vine is somewhat tender when 
young, and should always be covered. The 
fruit ripens about a week before the Isabella. 
The Ontario is identical with the Union Vil- 
lage. 

EEBECCA. 

The Rebecca originated with Mrs. Peake, 'of 
Hudson, N. Y., after whom it was named. 



200 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

The vine is not very hardy, but a fair grower, 
though the wood is not large. It is easily 
trained. The bunch is of medium size, very 
compact, and usually shouldered, except on 
young vines. The color is green, tinged with 
amber, which becomes quite deep on the sunny 
side, and has a fine white bloom. The berry 
is of good medium size, roundish oval, with a 
thin skin. The flesh is tender and juicy, with 
very little fiber. The juice is sweet and a 
little vinous, with a very pleasant flavor. 
There* is a slight trace of the native odor in 
the unripe fruit. The Rebecca ripens quite to 
the center, and has consequently been much 
esteemed as a table grape. In some localities, 
generally where the soil is clayey, it has done 
well ; but it is not recommended for vineyard 
culture, and often fails in the garden. It 
ripens nearly two weeks before the Isabella. 

YORK MADEIRA. 

The York Madeira is an old variety, and 
originated at York, Pa. It may be remarked 
here that there are two grapes known by this 
name, a large and a small one, the latter being 
the true York Madeira. The vine is not veiy 
hardy, often losing its leaves, and consequently 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 201 

failing to ripen its crop. The bunch is of 
medium size, compact, and generally has a 
small shoulder. The color is dark purple, 
with a light bloom. The berry is of medium 
size, roundish oval, with a tolerably thin skin. 
The flesh has a fibrous, acid center. The juice 
is very sweet, somewhat sprightly, and pleasant 
flavored. In quality it is better than the 
Isabella, and ripens a week before it. Canfafs 
August is the same. 

ELSINGBUEGH. 

The Hiilsincjburgli came from a village of this 
name in New- Jersey, beyond which nothing 
seems to be known of its origin. It is hardy, 
and a good grower. The bunch is large, 
rather loose, and shouldered. The color is a 
dark, purplish black, covered with . a bluish 
white bloom. The berry is very small and 
round, with a very thin skin. The flesh ad- 
heres slightly to the skin, and is tender and 
melting, with no fibrous center. The juice is 
pure and sweet, with a rich vinous flavor. Its 
excellent quality makes it desirable where va- 
riety is wanted for the garden. It ripens about 
a week before the Isabella. 



202 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

CLINTON. 

The Clinton is supposed to have originated 
in Monroe Co., N. Y. It is hardy, an exceed- 
ingly vigorous grower, has long joints, and is 
very impatient of restraint. Color, dark pur- 
ple, covered with a light bloom. The bunch is 
medium, very compact, and shouldered. The 
berry is small, round, with a thick, very acrid 
skin. The flesh has a tough acid center. 
The juice remains sharply acid till after frost, 
when it becomes sweet, with some vinous spirit. 
It is not a table grape, and will only make a 
poor wine, by the aid of sugar. It becomes 
black early, but is not edible till touched by 
frost. The Golden Clinton is a sub-variety, 
differing in color, and producing a poorer 
fruit. 

TO KALON. 

The To KdLon originated with Dr. Spofford, 
of Lansingburgh, N. Y. It is hardy, and a 
vigorous grower. The bunch is large, moder- 
ately compact, and shouldered. The color is a 
dark bluish purple, thickly covered with bloom. 
The berry is large, varying in form, but is 
mostly oblate. The flesh becomes tender al- 
most to the center, with but little unripe 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 203 

toughness. The juice is sugary and sweet, 
with a delicate and very pleasant flavor. 
When grown under favorable conditions, the 
vine is productive and the fruit excellent; 
but the crop is often lost from mildew and rot. 
It ripens about a week before the Isabella. 

TAYLOE OE BULLITT. 

The Taylor or Sullitt originated near Louis- 
ville, Ky., and was introduced by Dr. Taylor. 
It is hardy, and a vigorous grower. The bunch 
is small, compact, and sets unevenly. The 
color is green, tinged with amber. The berry 
is small, round, with a moderately thick skin. 
The flesh has but little fiber or unripeness at 
the center. The juice is sweet, spicy, and 
spirited, but a little rough or harsh. The 
vine is not very productive. 

MILES. 

The Miles originated in Pennsylvania, and 
was introduced by Mr. Hoopes, of Chester. It is 
hardy, and a good grower. The bunch is under 
medium size, compact, and shouldered. The 
color is a dark bluish purple, with a light 
bloom. The berry is under medium size and 
round. The flesh is tender, with but little 
unripe fiber. The juice is pleasant, but rather 



204 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

sub-acid than sweet, with very little if any of 
the " foxy" odor. It is about ten days earlier 
than the Isabella. 

ANNA. 

The Anna originated with Mr. Eli Has- 
brouck, of Newburgh. It is a seedling of the 
Catawba. It is hardy, and a good grower 
The bunch is large, moderately compact, and 
shouldered. The color is green in the shade, 
covered with a thick pearly bloom, and dotted 
with claret ; but in the light it becomes bright 
amber. The berry is large, round, with a mod- 
erately thick skin. The flesh is somewhat 
meaty, and has a fibrous center, which is veiy 
tough and acid when only partially ripe ; but 
when fully mature, the juice is sweet and vin- 
ous with a pure and spicy muscat flavor. It 
begins to ripen early, but does not reach ma- 
turity till the end of the season. Like its 
parent, it is disposed to rot in unfavorable 
seasons, and is not adapted to general cultiva- 
tion. 



EOGERS'S HYBRIDS. 



Rogers '# Hybrids originated with Mr. Rogers 
of Salem, Mass. Much interest attaches to 
these seedlings, though we can not accept the 
idea of their being hybrids as fully established 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 205 

by the character of the fruit or the habits of 
the vine. They are all a great improvement on 
the wild native vine, and many df them are bet- 
ter than the Concord; but they all have the 
native characteristics strongly marked, while 
none of them possess the peculiar character- 
istics of the foreign grape. We may instance 
Allen's Hybrid as being strikingly different, in 
these respects, from any of Mr. Eogers's seed- 
lings. It is to be regretted that Mr. Rogers did 
not test them all, and make a selection of three 
or four of the best, instead of putting that office 
upon the public ; and yet we can not blame 
him for not having done this, well knowing 
the expenditure of time and money it involves. 
Our knowledge of these seedlings, acquired by 
six years' experience, leads us to divide them 
into three classes, according to color, making 
No. 4 the type of all the dark ones, No. 1 5 the 
type of the red ones, and No. 1 of the light 
ones. No. 19 so strongly resembles No. 4, and 
No. 3 so strongly resembles No. 15, that those 
who have the former would find their collec- 
tion but little enriched by additional numbers. 
There is such a strong general resemblance 
among these seedlings, that we should not be 
much surprised to learn that one parent had 



206 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

produced them all. While in vinous spirit, 
freedom from foxiness, and ability to ripen to 
the center, nonft of them rise to the rank of first 
quality, all of the four named may, in these 
respects, be placed considerably above the 
Concord. If they could be advanced another 
step beyond that they have already taken from 
the original, they would be very good indeed ; 
and we think this may be done by a proper 
observance of the well-known laws of thorough 
breeding, though not, perhaps, in one genera- 
tion. We will now describe the three that 
have been selected as types of color. We may 
say that all of them are hardy, and good 
growers. 

No. 1 is large, of a light amber green color, 
often with a shade of light crimson, and some- 
times mottled with dark crimson. The flesh is 
disposed to tenderness, and has but a moderate 
amount of impurity in its flavor; but it is 
wanting in richness and spirit, in these respects 
falling below Nos. 4 and 15. There are several 
light colored ones, (commonly called white,) 
but none equal, on the whole, to the best dark 
colored. 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 207 



EOGEES's NO. 4. 



No. 4 has large bunches, generally shouldered. 
Color purple, with a light bloom. Berry large, 
nearly round, with a rather tender but some- 
what acrid skin, with considerable " foxy" odor. 
The flesh is buttery, with a fibrous, acid center, 
which the ripening process never reaches. The 
juice is sweet, somewhat sprightly, and moder- 
ately vinous, but with that deficiency in anima- 
tion that characterizes all of what we have des- 
ignated as the Isabella family. It ripens about 
ten days before the Isabella. 

EOGEES'S NO. 15. 

No. 15, rather large bunch, moderately com- 
pact. Color, reddish copper. Berry large, 
nearly round, with a rather tender skin. In 
other respects, the same as No. 4. 

We notice next the group of small wine 
grapes, alluded to on a former page. They are 
of Southern origin, and are not extensively 
grown, though they are true wine grapes. 

HEEBEMONT. 

The Herbemont is of Southern origin. It is a 
very handsome vine, and not very hardy, espe- 



208 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



cially when young, but a very strong grower. 
The bunch is very large, very compact, and 




Fig. 104f Herbemont. 

shouldered. The color is a dark bluish purple, 
thickly covered with a light bloom. The berry 
is very small, round, with a thin skin. The 
flesh is tender and melting. The juice is sweet, 
pure, and refined, with a rich, sprightly vinous 
flavor. The Herbemont is an excellent table 
and wine grape, but is not sufficiently hardy for 
the vineyard at the North. It does very well 
in gardens in the vicinity of New- York, but 
young vines especially should always be covered 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 209 

in winter. It is an abundant bearer, and re- 
quires a longer season than the Isabella for the 
full maturity of its fruit. 

LINCOLN. 

The Lincoln is also a Southern grape. For 
a time it was thought to be identical with the 
Lenoir. The vine is a vigorous grower, more 
hardy than the Herbemont, and ripens its fruit 
earlier. The bunch is of moderate size, com- 
pact, and shouldered. The color is a dark pur- 
ple, covered with a light bloom. The berry is 
small, round, with a thin skin. The flesh is 
tender, and ripens quite to the center. The 
juice is sweet and sugary, with a rich vinous 
flavor. The Lincoln is an excellent table .and 
wine grape. The bunches are not proportionate 
to the size of the wood and leaf, and the vine is 
consequently only moderately productive. It 
ripens about a week before the Isabella. 

LENOIR. 

The Lenoir takes its name from Lenoir Co., 
North-Carolina, of which it is said to be a na- 
tive. It bears a close resemblance to the pre- 
ceding in the fruit and vine, but is readily dis- 
tinguished by the leaves. The bunch is of me- 

14 



210 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

dium size, compact, and shouldered. The color 
is a dark bluish purple, thickly covered with a 
light bloom. The berry is small and round. 
The flesh is tender, and ripens uniformly. The 
juice is sweet and sugary, with a pure, rich 
vinous flavor. It is an excellent table and wine 
grape. It ripens nearly two weeks before the 
Isabella. 

NORTON'S VIRGINIA. 

The Norton's Virginia is likewise of South- 
ern origin. It is not very hardy, but a vigorous 
grower. The bunch is large, quite compact, and 
often double shouldered or winged. The color 
is a very dark purple, thickly covered with a 
light bloom. The berry is very small, round, 
with a thin skin. The flesh is tender and melt- 
ing quite to the center. The juice is sweet, 
vinous, spirited, and rich in extractive matter, 
somewhat like that which distinguishes Port 
wine. The Norton is grown chiefly for wine, 
making a rather heavy, rough claret, free from 
all " foxy" aroma. The must is rich, and is 
often added to the juice of the Concord to im- 
prove it and make it durable. 

The following may be simply noted : 
JBland, (Southern,) long, loose bunch, good 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 211 

medium sized, round, berry, pale red color, acid 
center, pleasant flavor ; ripens late. 

Brinckle, (Philadelphia,) large bunch, large, 
round berry, purple color, tender flesh, some- 
what vinous flavor; ripens late; is essentially 
foreign, and mildews. 

Alexander, (York, Pa.,) large, compact 
bunch, large, roundish oval berry, purple color, 
tqjigh, fibrous center, sweet ; ripens in mid- 
season. 

Canbtfs August, same as York Madeira. 

Cassady, (Philadelphia,) medium compact 
bunch, small, round berry, amber green color, 
tough, acid center ; ripens late. 

Montgomery, foreign; possibly a seedling. 

GhiWs Superb, foreign seedling. 

Clara, (Philadelphia,) medium loose bunch, 
medium round berry, amber green color, pleas- 
ant flavor ; ripens mid-season ; claimed as a 
foreign seedling by Mr. Raabe. 

Emily, (Philadelphia,) also claimed as a for- 
eign seedling by Mr. Raabe, by whom two va- 
rieties were sent out bearing this name ; one 
proved to be foreign, and the other the Moun- 
tain Grape of Virginia. 

Garrigues, _ (Philadelphia,) in all respects 



212 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

like the Isabella, except that it ripens a few 
days before it. 

6?raAaw,(Philadelphia,) medium loose bunch, 
large, round berry, purple color, tough center, 
feeble flavor ; ripens late. 

Hydds Eliza, (Catskill, N. Y.,) strongly re- 
sembles the Isabella, but scarcely equal to it. 

Louisa, (Calrndale, Pa.,) ripens about a week 
before Isabella, and much like it. PMf^ 

Mammoth Catawba, a large Catawba, but 
much inferior in flavor. 

Marion, large compact bunch, large, roundish 
oval berry, purple color, tough center, austere 
flavor ; colors early, but ripens late. 

Meadds Seedling is nearly or quite identical 
with the Catawba. 

McNeil, medium compact bunch, medium 
oval berry, purple color, tough center, brisk and 
pungent; ripens late. 

Me Cowan, bunch and berry small, flesh tough, 
acid, and harsh ; has no value. 

Albino, medium compact bunch, small oval 
berry, amber green color, tough center, low fla- 
vor ; ripens late. 

Mary Ann, long compact bunch, large oval 
berry, purple color, tough fibrous center, feeble 
flavor ; ripens early. 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 213 

Wright's Isabella resembles Clinton, but has 
larger berries. 

Alvey, if not Lenoir, is so like it as to be 
scarcely distinguishable. 

Logan, large compact bunch, large oval ber- 
ry, purple color, tough center, low foxy flavor; 
quite early, beginning to ripen about ten days 
before the Isabella. It was first known as Ur- 
bana, and re-named by Mr. Campbell. It has 
also been confounded with Rulander, a foreign 
grape. 

Wilmington, (Delaware,) large compact 
bunch, large round berry, whitish or amber 
green color, unripe center, rich vinous flavor: 
ripens very late. 

Flora, (Philadelphia,) small, very compact 
bunch, rather small round berry, purple color, 
unripe acid center, sweet and pleasant flavor: 
ripens a few days before the Isabella. 

Honey Grape, (Philadelphia,) small compact 
bunch, small round berry, small unripe center, 
very sweet and sugary : ripens with Isabella, 

Mottled Catawba, (Carpenter of Kelley's Is- 
land, Ohio,) is like Catawba, except that the 
berries are mottled. 

Lydia, (Carpenter of Kelley's Island, Ohio,) 
large compact bunch, large roundish oval berry, 



214 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

pale amber green color, unripe center, pleasant 
flavor : ripens late. 

Elizabeth^ (Western New- York,) large com- 
pact bunch, large oval berry, dull green color, 
unripe center, feeble flavor : ripens late. 

Colemarfs White, medium compact bunch, 
oval berry, pale amber green color, unripe center, 
pretty good quality, but late and unproductive. 

Cuyahoga is Colemaris White revived under 
another name. 

Maxatawny, (Pennsylvania,) compact bunch, 
round berry, tough center, rich vinous flavor, 
but ripens very late. 

The Scuppernong is a Southern grape, with 
a very small bunch, and large round berry, 
tough, fibrous center, thick skin, sweet juice, and 
a strong, unpleasant aroma. It is the Southern 
" fox." The berries drop as soon as ripe. There 
are two kinds, a light and a dark-colored one. 

The Kansas July is a very early grape, from 
Kansas, bearing small bunches of very small 
berries, quite meaty and very sweet. The vine 
is very handsome. 

The Eureka is identical with Diana. 

Manhattan, (New- York City,) small, compact 
bunch, medium-sized berry, ambfer green color, 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 215 

tough center, good flavor; unproductive, and 
ripens late. 

Aiken, an Isabella producing large fruit 
under peculiarly favorable conditions. 

Cunningham, a grape of the Southern family, 
scarcely distinguishable from the Lenoir. 

Hentz, (Cincinnati,) large, loose bunch, pur- 
ple color, large, round berry, with the flesh and 
odor of the wild grape. 

Yeddo, from Japan, and altogether too tender 
for our climate. 

Cynthiana, a purple grape, said to be from 
Arkansas. It has the flesh and odor character- 
istic of the wild grape. 

The .O/iarter Oak, North America, Corail, 
Northern Muscadine, Dracut (so-called) Amber, 
TTnderhilPs Seedling, Perkins, Sage, Massachu- 
setts White, Miners Seedling, et id omne genus, 
may be disposed of in a few words as unmiti- 
gated " foxes " from the woods. 

There are several seedling grapes that have 
either just been given to the public, or probably 
will be, in regard to most of which but little is 
known. 

It is much to be regretted that we have not 
eome means by which seedlings could be thor- 
oughly tested in various parts of the country 



216 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

before they are sent out to the public. If three 
or four unprofessional men, living in different 
sections, could, by common consent, be selected 
for the purpose of testing seedlings and newly 
introduced fruits, much disappointment and 
expense would be saved to fruit growers gen- 
erally. It would perhaps be difficult to find 
competent and disinterested men who could 
give the necessary time to the task, or who 
would be willing to undertake the labor ; yet 
it would be a profound satisfaction to know 
that the fruit we are planting is precisely what 
it is represented to be. We shall probably, 
however, have to go on for some time yet, and 
take our chance. Some seedlings stand for 
years so exposed as to leave no doubt of their 
hardiness and period of ripening under similar 
conditions elsewhere ; but others are so covered 
and walled in as to prevent us from gaining any 
real knowledge on these points till it has lost 
most of its value to the public. If those who 
raise seedling fruits could be protected in their 
rights by 'law, as authors and inventors now 
are, the way would be opened for fully testing 
fruits, and the public spared the mortification 
and loss not only of planting inferior fruits, but 
old kinds under new names, and the production 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 217 

of seedlings would be encouraged, and the 
number of good grapes thereby more speedily 
increased. A man' who, through fraud or 
otherwise, plants an inferior fruit, supposing it 
to be a good one, loses so much of his life as is 
wasted in proving it: a loss which can never 
be repaired. There is room for wise legislation 
here. 

The new grapes alluded to above are as fol- 
lows : 

BRACKETT'S SEEDLING. 

Brackets Seedling, large in bunch and berry, 
and bearing a close resemblance to the Union 
Village. It originated near Boston. 

DIANA HAMBURGH. 

The Diana Hamburgh was raised by Messrs. 
Moore and Charlton, Rochester, N. Y., who say 
it is a hybrid between the Diana and Black 
Hamburgh. It resembles the Diana very closely 
in quality, the flesh, however, being more meaty 
in its consistence, and the skin thinner and 
darker. It is supposed to ripen late. Of the 
hardiness and general character of the vine we 
know nothing. 

FANCHER. 

The Fancher is in possession of Mr. F. B. 



218 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Fancier, of Troy, N. Y. Having examined the 
vine and the fruit on his grounds, we were led 
to the conviction that it is identical with the 
Catawba. We could perceive no difference in 
the wood, foliage, fruit, and general habit of 
the plant. It is affected by mildew and black 
rot precisely as the Catawba is. The vine is so 
situated as to favor its early ripening; other 
vines, similarly located, showed as much ma- 
turity as the Fancher. It is either the Catawba, 
or a pretty exact reproduction of it, an opinion 
which half a dozen or more examinations of the 
fruit has only tended to confirm. 

SARATOGA. 

The Saratoga is also in possession of Mr. 
Fancher. His published account says he got it 
of Dr. James, of "Waterford, N". Y., who received 
it twenty years ago from New-Orleans, under 
the name of Scaberan. This account leaves no 
doubt whatever that the Saratoga and the Fan- 
cJier are one and the same grape. 

WALTER. 

The Walter originated with Mr. A. J. Cay- 
wood, at Modena, N". Y. It is said to be a cross 
between the Diana and the Delaware. It bears 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 219 

a very close resemblance to the Diana, of which 
we think it is a seedling. It has the same 
sweetness, the same flavor, and the same con- 
sistency of flesh ; and the form, size, and color 
of the bunch and berry are the same. Its value 
will depend upon its hardiness, vigor, and early 
ripening, of which we have no knowledge, the 
vine having fruited only in the garden of the 
proprietor. 

MAETHA. 

The Martha was raised by Mr. Samuel Miller, 
of Calmdale, Pa. It is said to be a seedling 
of the Concord. It is hardy, and a strong 
grower. The bunch is of good size, and the 
berry large, of a pale green, a little warmed with 
chocolate or copper color. It has a buttery 
flesh, an unripe acid center, and a sweet juice, 
with some sprightliness, but no vinous flavor. 
Like its parent, it has a pretty strong " foxy " 
odor. 

DATA'S SEEDLINGS. 

Of Dandts Seedlings we know nothing, except 
that some of them are said to be promising, and 
bear a general resemblance to the Rogers's Hy- 
brids. 



220 AMEEICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

EUMELAN. 

The Eumelan sprang up, some twenty years 
ago, in the yard of Mr. Thorne, at the end of 
the Long Dock at Fishkill Landing, where we 
should little expect to find a grape. Mr. 
Thorne died ; and his brother, perceiving its ex- 
cellence, determined to transplant it to his own 
grounds; but it died in consequence of having its 
roots badly broken off among the rocks. A few 
cuttings, however, had been taken off, and from 
these the present vines were grown. We know 
but little of the habit of the vine, except that 
it is hardy, ripens early, and bears good crops. 
The fruit, however, is excellent, and entirely dis- 
tinct, resembling none of the Isabella family, 
except in color, and is free from " foxy " odor. 
The bunch is of good size and compact, and the 
berry nearly round, of a deep purple or bluish 
black color, and thickly covered with a light 
bloom. The flesh is thoroughly tender and 
melting, ripening uniformly to the center, and 
the juice sweet, sprightly, and decidedly vinous. 
It is a pleasure to meet a grape sometimes that 
is in no danger of being confounded with some- 
thing else. It is now in the possession of Dr. 
C. W. Grant. 

Of most of the following new kinds we have 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 221 

little or no personal knowledge beyond their 
names : 

Eva, Black HawJc, Young America, and 
Macedonia, seedlings of the Concord, raised by 
Mr. Samuel Miller, of Calmdale, Pa. 

Modena, a seedling of the Concord, raised at 
Modena by Mr. A. J. Caywood. It is said to 
resemble the Concord in quality, out is smaller. 

PcescheKs Mammoth, represented to be a 
large fruit, ripening a week or so after the 
Catawba. 

Lorain, a seedling raised at Sandusky, of 
which we know nothing reliable. 

Hattus, (perhaps the same as Hattie^) a claret- 
colored grape, said to be a seedling of the Ca- 
tawba, but of smaller size and quite acid. 

Laura, raised by Mr. H. B. Lum, of Sandus- 
ky, Ohio, said to be sweet, but " foxy." 

Framingham, (Boston,) a purple grape, re- 
sembling the Hartford Prolific, but having 
stronger native characteristics. 

Dorr^s Seedling, said to have been raised 
from the Delaware, which, except that the 
berries are larger, it resembles in form, color, 
and bunch; but it has the coarse flesh and 
strong " foxy " odor of the wild grape, and if 
really a seedling of the Delaware, possesses 



222 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

some interest ; but we would suggest to the 
originator not only not to name it after Mr. 
Downing, as proposed, but also not to dissemi- 
nate it. 

Canadian Hybrid, raised by Mr. Arnold, 
C. W. It is said to be a hybrid, but the fruit 
shows it to be a native of the Isabella family. 

Arnolds No. 1, recently figured in the Gar- 
dener's Monthly, and said to be a seedling of 
the Clinton. The bunch and berry are large. 
No mention is made of its quality. 

Cliarlotte, said to resemble the Diana, and 
ripen as early as the Delaware. 

Telegraph or Christine, represented as vigor- 
ous and productive, having a large bunch and 
berry, and ripening before the Concord. 

Neff, sometimes also called the Keiika, 
medium sized bunch and berry, copper color, 
with the flesh and " foxy " odor, of the native : 
ripens rather early. 

Salem, (ISTo. 53 of Eogers's Hybrids,) is said 
by Mr. Rogers to be the best of his seedlings. 
It is described as being hardy, vigorous, and 
productive, having a large bunch and berry, 
sweet and sprightly, and ripening as early as 
the Hartford Prolific or the Delaware. 

Carpenter, raised by Mr. Thompson, of Green 



DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 223 

Island, near Troy. It resembles the Black 
Hamburgh, of which it is a seedling. Having 
seen it, we are prepared to say that it is in all 
respects inferior to its parent. It is totally un- 
fitted for vineyard culture, in common with all 
the kinds that we have designated as foreign. 
Mr. Thompson has a number of other seedlings, 
both foreign and native, and of these the Ca- 
tawba seedling is the only one that approaches 
its parent in excellence. 

Just here is a proper place for a few remarks 
that will be of much benefit to the beginner. 
The foreign grape has been so often and so 
thoroughly tried, and so uniformly failed, that 
we should regret to see the experiment repeated 
under the supposition that it is still an open 
one. There is scarcely a single variety of the 
foreign grape that has not been tried in every 
conceivable variety of soil and locality, and 
under every kind of treatment ; they have been 
tried, not by dozens or hundreds, but by thou- 
sands, over and over again. Skill and money 
without stint have been lavished upon these 
experiments, and they have been persisted in 
for years, but always with the same results, and 
there can, therefore, be no doubt of the unfit- 
ness of the foreign grape for vineyard culture 



224 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

here. This is the rule ; but, like many other 
rules, it has its exceptions. Here and there in 
cities, and in a few sheltered positions possess- 
ing peculiarly favorable conditions for growing 
the grape, a few vines of the Early Black, Mil- 
ler's Burgundy, the Chasselas, or even the Black 
Hamburgh, have been grown with tolerable 
success, the fruit, however, falling much short 
of its characteristic excellence, being, in fact, 
quite inferior to several of our best native 
varieties. We know, indeed, of several in- 
stances where the Chasselas, under such condi- 
tions, has for a number of years produced mod- 
erate crops of inferior fruit ; but such sporadic 
instances do not in the least invalidate the fact, 
that the foreign grape is wholly unfitted for 
vineyard culture here. That fact will remain 
intact until we can command a much more uni- 
form temperature than we now possess, and* the 
hygrometric conditions of our atmosphere have 
been considerably modified. But even if the 
foreign grape were fitted for the vineyard, 
wherein consists the wisdom of introducing 
seedlings inferior to their parents ? 



CHAPTER XIII. 

TASTE, AS APPLIED TO FRUITS. 

WE must add here some remarks on the 
subject of taste, in its application to fruits ; 
a subject that can only be fully treated in an 
extended essay. We wish, however^ to pre- 
sent some facts that may lead the general pub- 
lic to do what is as yet done only by com- 
paratively few, to regard grape culture from a 
higher stand-point than they have heretofore 
done ; and to point out to them the source 
whence they can draw the greatest enjoy- 
ment in the use of the products of the vine. 
And as an inseparable part of the subject, 
we wish to indicate, also, some of the reasons 
why good grapes only should be planted in 
the future. 

The grape, in its best varieties, is truly a 
nourishing and delicate food, possessing val- 
uable hygienic properties, and the public will 

15 



226 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

not be satisfied with those that are indigesti- 
ble and ill flavored, when they can just as 
well have those that are tender and good. 
While we had only the Isabella and Cataw- 
ba, a necessity was laid upon us, and we were 
constrained to be content with them ; but we 
now have those which are far better, upon 
which we can . really feast. We have only to 
come prepared for their full and proper en- 
joyment : the table is set, and all who will 
may come and eat of the best. 

The public taste, so far from having been 
cultivated, has been depraved by the use of 
ill-flavored and indigestible grapes. The force 
of circumstances has compelled it to remain 
so for a time ; but there is no longer any rea- 
son why this should continue. It has ceased 
to be a matter of necessity, and has now be- 
come one of choice. Each one, therefore, in 
his own interest, should seek to free his taste 
from the bondage in which it has been held, 
and rise to the liberty of a purer enjoyment. 
Some have not been slow to do this ; and 
the number has been much increased by those 
accustomed to the use of the foreign grape. 
Experience, gained by comparing the differ- 
ent kinds, will soon show the public the 



TASTE, AS APPLIED TO FRUITS. 227 

broad distinction between the good and 'the 
bad, and they will not be slow to choose the 
one and reject the other. We have only to 
show them that, while the good yields both 
nourishment and enjoyment, the bad yields 
but little of either, and they will be at no 
loss which to select. We have no more faith 
in pandering to a depraved taste in matters of 
food and drink, than we have in pandering 
to a depraved taste in morals, literature, or 
the arts. All are essentially bad, and equally 
to be condemned. 

It is a fallacy to suppose that poor kinds 
of grapes can be grown cheaper than good 
ones, and that we must therefore grow the 
poor kinds for the " million." No sensible man 
should try to deceive himself with that spe- 
cious kind of reasoning. Good grapes, in 
this happy land at least, are not to be a lux- 
ury for one class alone. They can, and must, 
be placed within the reach of all, rich and 
poor alike. Taste is the common inheritance 
of man, and not, as is often supposed, some- 
thing which follows in the wake of wealth. 
It is sometimes found as keen and apprecia- 
tive in the cottage as in the palace. It is 
doubtless preserved in greater purity by some 



228 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

classes of society than others, and always will 
be ; but that should not content us ; it should 
rather stimulate us, seeing how altogether 
beautiful it is, to induce a healthy tone in 
the taste of all classes of society. We must 
dismiss the illusion that a poor man, simply 
because he is poor, can not appreciate the en- 
joyments of taste ; and we must no longer do 
him the injustice of growing for his special 
use an inferior class of food. The " millions " 
must have as good grapes and as good grain 
as the " tens." It is their right, and they are 
beginning to comprehend it. There is a power 
at work which will at no distant day sweep 
from the market every grape inferior to the 
Diana. No greater service could be performed 
for both grape growers and grape consumers. 
We can already see the beginning of the 
end. Many intelligent vineyardists, perceiv- 
ing the impolicy of spending their capital and 
labor in the cultivation of inferior varieties 
of grapes, are replacing them by better kinds. 
Causes are at work which will in time, and 
that no very distant time, effect a complete 
revolution in our estimate of the value of 
grapes for the vineyard. The change, indeed, 
is now going on pretty fast, and it would be 



TASTE, AS APPLIED TO FBUITS. 229 

at least wise to accept what must and ought 
to be, rather than to fight against it. It is 
better to accept the situation while we can do 
it without loss, than to wait till it is forced 
upon us, with its consequences. It would, 
notwithstanding, in many cases, be a hard, 
and in some perhaps an impossible task, to 
convince those who already have vineyards 
of poor kinds, that they would in the end 
be gainers by immediately, or even gradually, 
replacing them by better ones; and yet we 
believe this to be strictly true. The change, 
notwithstanding, will not be delayed; having 
been begun, it will go on just as rapidly as 
the material for effecting it can be produced. 
It is for those, however, who are now plant- 
ing vineyards to choose wisely as to the part 
they will take in carrying forward this reform 
movement in grape culture. Happily, they are 
aiding it to an extent that could hardly have 
been hoped for, so largely are they planting the 
good kinds ; and thus the movement goes on. 
There will be a strong opposition to it, no 
doubt, on the part of some who have vine- 
yards of poor kinds, since they will think that 
it involves a sacrifice of their invested inter- 
ests; but herein they will most certainly be 



230 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

wrong, as a little calm reflection can not fail 
to convince them. Their trouble will consist 
in preparing the way for calm reflection by 
first casting aside their prejudices. Others 
will continue to insist that poor grapes are the 
grapes for the " million," and not deceive even 
themselves ; but the " million " will insist that 
they are not, by eating only the good ; and thus 
the good, in the end, will prevail over the evil. 

For many years the conviction was strong, 
that American grape culture occupied much 
too low a position ; and that an intelligent ap- 
plication of the means within our reach would 
greatly improve both its modes and material, 
lift it to a much higher level, and give it an 
important place among the chief industrial in- 
terests of the country. Under this conviction 
a movement was begun, and both in public and 
private, we have not ceased to urge it on. 
The movement was slow at flrst, but it has 
gathered numbers, and is now becoming im- 
posing in its proportions. We propose to go 
on, and "fight it out on this line, if it takes 
all the summer " of life. Nothing but the best 
of grapes, and an improved public taste to en- 
joy them, will satisfy us. 

In partaking of food and drink, our enjoy- 



TASTE, AS APPLIED TO FRUITS. 231 

inent is mainly a matter of taste. If the taste 
be paralyzed to sucli a degree that the food 
passes the palate as it were without a sensa- 
tion, eating has ceased to be a pleasure, and 
fails, in a measure, to perform its function of 
supporting the body. Eating and drinking 
are necessary to sustain life ; but both were in- 
tended to be a pleasure as well as a necessity. 
The taste may become so depraved as at last 
to yield us' no appreciable enjoyment in the 
act of doing either ; and thus we may sink to 
the level of mere animals in all that pertains 
to what was intended to be one of the purest 
pleasures of life. On the other hand, the taste 
may become so vitiated and artificial as to re- 
ceive but little pleasure from natural flavors ; 
it then depends for excitement upon stimula- 
ting and pungent compounds. We say excite- 
ment ; for the capacity to receive pleasure from 
the normal exercise of the sense of taste is 
so greatly impaired, that the nerves must be 
sharply excited to produce a response, which 
comes quickly and as quickly passes away. 
These two extremes are by no means uncom- 
mon. There are persons to whom all flavors 
are nearly alike ; and there are others who 
have no perception of flavor except in its 



232 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

intensest form. The last are insensible to 
delicate and refined flavors, which are usually 
the most delightful of all ; their nerves can be 
excited by the flavor of our rankest " fox," but 
remain insensible to the delicate and pure 
flavor of a Front ignan. All this results from 
abuse. The nerves of taste, when in their 
natural and healthy condition, not only vibrate 
to the most delicate touch, but the vibrations 
linger like those of a musical chord, passing 
away by such delicate gradations, that we 
scarcely know when they cease. Our pleasure 
is just in that degree prolonged. 

If so much enjoyment may be found in the 
natural use of the taste, it becomes a matter 
of much moment to preserve its healthy tone. 
We should do nothing that may deprave or 
vitiate it ; but, on the contrary, do every thing 
to give a healthful vigor to its tone. Still fur- 
ther, we should, as it were, so educate it as to 
discriminate promptly and nicely between the 
good and the bad in flavors, and thus increase 
not only the amount but the degree of our en- 
joyment. In all matters of taste, whether re- 
lating to the intellect or the sensibilities, our 
enjoyment must be more or less enhanced by 
our ability to perceive even the nicest shades 



TASTE, AS APPLIED TO FRUITS. 233 

of difference in any object. There is a degree 
of pleasure in the very consciousness of possess- 
ing the power to do so. The want of this per- 
ceptive power reduces all flavors, good and bad 
alike, to one common level, and that level a low 
one. - * 

We have the evidence of this before us every 
day, and marvel that it is so common. What 
we wish to do here is to impress the reader 
with the fact that, on the integrity and preser- 
vation of his taste, will depend a large measure 
of his enjoyment. As grape eaters and wine 
drinkers, the great mass have this important 
lesson to learn. They have yet to learn that 
there are simple, natural pleasures, arising from 
the proper use of taste, which are far more sat- 
isfying and enduring than any derived from ar- 
tificial forms. Such knowledge would exercise 
a beneficent influence on intemperance in both 
eating and drinking. 

But we must not be content with the power 
simply to know what is sweet or what is sour, 
or what is essentially good or essentially ' bad ; 
we must not stop short of the power to perceive 
all the gradations which connect these together. 
We must know not only wherein one thing re- 
sembles another, but wherein they differ, and 



234 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

in what the difference consists. We must be 
able not only to recognize the excellence of 
both, but to know wherein one is better than 
the other, and why it is better. We must be 
able not only to appreciate all the goodness of 
the Delaware and the lona, but also to know 
wherein and why the lona excels the Delaware ; 
what, in fact, are the real excellences which 
place the lona above all other American grapes. 
When we can do this, we shall be the posses- 
sors of real knowledge, and know what its 
pleasures are. All may not attain to this im- 
mediately, or by intuition, but all may and 
should strive to reach it quickly by prompt and 
thorough training of the taste. In all that 
pertains to taste, no less than to knowledge, we 
should seek for the substance, and not the 
shadow: we should do our own tasting as well 
as our own thinking, always happy in having 
the intelligent in sympathy with us. 

Our taste, at present, is at a very low stand- 
ard ; too many of us are content with the posi- 
tively coarse and bad, to the neglect of the 
delicate and good. Forced by circumstances to 
begin low, we are too easily beguiled into re- 
maining so. There is no longer any excuse for 
this ; for we have now within our reach the 



TASTE, AS APPLIED TO FKTJITS. 235 

means of gratifying the most refined percep- 
tions. Our taste for grapes really began in the 
woods, and it is surprising how many still seek 
its gratification there, unsatisfying as it must 
be, while the good is so plainly in sight. But a 
movement has already begun; the masses are 
turning their faces to tha light ; numbers have 
already reached the outskirts of the woods, and 
some may be seen wending their way up the 
fair hill of culture, rosy with the excitement of 
their new-found pleasure. This must go on till 
the great body of the people are able, not only 
to distinguish between a good grape or a good 
wine and a poor one, but also to appreciate in 
good grapes and wine those nice shades and 
degrees of flavor which give a distinctive char- 
acter to our best grapes and wines, and from 
which is derived the chief zest of our enjoy- 
ment. Then, and not till then, shall we be 
able to put a just value upon grapes as a nour- 
ishing food, and wine as a refreshing drink. 



CHAPTER XIV. 


WHEN GRAPES ARE RIPE. 

ONE of the most important parts of an ele- 
mentary work on the grape is that which relates 
to the ripening of the fruit, more especially 
when that work regards the subject from the 
stand-point of food. The novice should be 
furnished with so much knowledge as will 
enable him to know when his grapes are ripe, 
and in what ripeness consists ; indeed, it is 
equally important to the grape grower and the 
grape consumer. Such knowledge is important 
to the grape grower, whether he purposes using 
the fruit for his own table, sending it to mar- 
ket, or making it into wine. For all these 
purposes, it is essential that the fruit should be 
ripe; and we hope that all who read these 
pages will be too conscientious to use grapes 
for food until they have at least acquired a 
tolerably good degree of ripeness, and in time 



WHEN GRAPES ARE KIPE, 237 

we hope we may add, full maturity. Those 
who are careful to send to market only ripe 
fruit, nicely put up, always obtain good prices, 
and find fruit growing profitable : grapes 
ought not much longer to form an exception 
to the rule of ripe fruit. 

In every city that has a market, there ought 
to be a Board of Health, composed of con- 
scientious and honest men, like that instituted 
in New- York last summer; and it should be 
their duty to see that no unripe fruit is offered 
for sale ; for of all complaints that affect the 
public health, there are none that run their 
course more rapidly, or prove more fatal, than 
those 'that have their origin in the use of 
unripe fruit. Grapes are no exception: emi- 
nently healthy when ripe, they are just the 
reverse when unripe. Each one, therefore, 
should gravely ;ask himself, how far he can 
conscientiously become particeps criminis in 
destroying public health and life. 

It becomes important, then, that those who 
plant vineyards should have some means of 
judging when the fruit is ripe. In the apple, 
pear, etc., mellowness is a good external indi- 
cation of maturity; but we have no such guide 
in grapes, for mere appearance and touch are 



238 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

no criteria. In our ordinary native kinds we 
must accept an approximation to ripeness, and 
not look for full maturity. If we judge by 
what we see in market, the conclusion is in- 
evitable, that there are a great many vineyard- 
ists who do not know when grapes have at- 
tained even this degree of ripeness. This is the 
most charitable construction we can put upon 
the fact that meets us every where. Some lots 
are so positively bad that the best arts and 
finesse of the agents can not " work " them off 
upon the public, and they are sold at a low 
figure to the " doctors " for making so-called 
wine ! and not only so, but these " wine doc- 
tors " go about among the vineyards, and buy 
up the worthless refuse for the same purpose. 
We hope that a practice so utterly disgraceful 
is not known out of New- York. Grapes that 
are not fit to eat are good enough to make wine 
of, forsooth ! Let those who buy wine bear 
this fact in mind. 

We have found two opinions quite prevalent 
in regard to the ripeness of grapes : one, that 
they are ripe when they are colored ; the other, 
that they are ripe when they are sweet. But 
being simply colored or sweet is not of itself a 
safe guide. For example, the Isabella and Con- 



WHEN GRAPES ARE EIPE. 239 

cord are colored two weeks or more before they 
are ripe, while the Diana and lona are sweet, 
but only a little colored, a couple of weeks 
before they are ripe. Color and sweetness are 
both important elements of ripeness ; but 
there are degrees of sweetness and color, and 
these must attain their full degree of force and 
depth before they can be regarded as indicat- 
ing ripeness. 

It will assist us much in understanding what 
ripeness is if we first have some knowledge of 
what the flesh of the grape is composed, and 
what changes take place in it. The flesh is 
composed chiefly of grape sugar, tartaric, tan- 
nic, carbonic, and other acids, potash, etc. 
These elements are contained in the juice ; the 
juice is held in little sacs or cells composed of 
cellular tissue, and the mass of cells are in- 
closed in the skin, and we thus have the berry. 
The berry is increased in size by the multipli- 
cation of the cells. The changes that take 
place as the berry proceeds to maturity are 
vito-chemical. The fruit will be good or bad 
as these changes are more or less perfect, and 
it will depend chiefly for its flavor and spirit 
upon the presence and due commingling of the 
sugar and acid of the grape. Some varieties 



240 AMERICAN GEAPE CULTURE. 

of the grape are constitutionally incapable of 
carrying the ripening process to maturity. 

From what has been said we may derive 
the following brief rule for ripeness in the 
grape : The berry is ripe when it is tender 
and melting in all its parts, without loss of 
its characteristic spirit and flavor. If the spirit 
and flavor are gone, we may conclude that 
the tenderness proceeds from incipient decay, 
and not from natural maturity. The berry is 
then in the condition of an overripe apple or 
pear. Ripening does not destroy the goodness 
of the fruit ; it only carries it forward to a per- 
fect condition. And just here is presented the 
line of demarkation between a good and a bad 
grape. In the latter, the ripening process, 
owing chiefly to constitutional causes, never 
performs its office fully, and the berry fails to 
mature; a portion of the flesh remains tough, 
and the acids unchanged; the sugar in the 
juice is imperfectly elaborated, and there is a 
marked deficiency of spirit and flavor, or they 
are so poorly developed as to be scarcely ap- 
preciable. In the good grape, on the contrary, 
ripening proceeds uninterruptedly to full ma- 
turity, and reaches all parts of the berry in 
consequence of the more delicate texture of 



WHEN GRAPES ARE EIPE. 241 

the cellular tissue; the flesh becomes tender, 
melting, or juicy, and thoroughly digestible. 
The flavor will be more or less vinous and 
spirited, according as the sugar and acids may 
be more or less perfectly elaborated, and as 
the aromatic principle may be present in a 
greater or less degree. 

But the reader may ask if there are no out- 
ward signs by which the ripeness of the grape 
may be determined. There certainly are such 
signs, and they have some value. The color of 
the skin constitutes one of these signs ; but 
there are others which can be recognized by 
the practiced eye alone. In purple grapes, like 
Isabella, the color should be uniformly deep. 
If, on holding the bunch up to the light, the 
skin shows a tinge of red, the berries are not 
ripe; but if the color be uniformly deep and 
dark, with a thick bloom, it is a pretty sure 
sign of ripeness. In dark claret-colored grapes, 
like Catawba, the color should be pure and 
deep, and covered with a thick bloom. In 
light clarets, like lona, the color should be 
bright and pure, and well covered with bloom. 
Claret-colored grapes are sometimes described 
as amber colored, but there is not a particle 
of amber about them. In light or green -colored 



242 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

grapes, like Allen's Hybrid, the green should 
have a tinge of amber, which should be quite 
deep on the sunny side, and the berry covered 
with a bright, pearly bloom. In unfavorable 
seasons and conditions the color will be im- 
perfect in all these cases, and so will the ripen- 



ing. 



Though the condition of color above de- 
scribed indicates ripeness, the grapes should 
not be cut for a week at least after this deep 
color is established, if they are wanted fully 
ripe. In purple grapes the color is deceptive ; 
it will seem to be dark and pure to ordinary 
observation, but on holding the bunch up to 
the light a reddish tinge will be seen, which 
shows that the berry is not ripe. The longer 
some kinds of purple grapes are left on, the 
better, for they never get fully ripe. In some 
of the light claret and green-colored grapes, 
ripeness is also accompanied with a certain 
degree of transparency; the lona , however, be- 
gins to be transparent just after stoning. 

But tasting is the surest and safest of all 
means for determining ripeness in the grape. 
The touch is of no use to us here. We can 
not feel the ripeness of the grape as we can 
that of the apple, the pear, or the peach, and 



WHEN GRAPES ARE EIPE. .243 

we must therefore have recourse to taste. If, 
on tasting a grape, we find the flesh tender or 
melting throughout, with a sweet and sprightly 
juice, accompanied with the characteristic 
flavor of the kind, it is ripe, and we may 
place it on the table, send it to market, or 
make it into wine, if it is a wine grape. If it 
is not in this condition, it should remain on 
the vine* till it is, or be given to the pigs, (if 
they will eat it,) or made into vinegar, but it 
should not be eaten or made into wine. 

There are only a few of our native grapes that 
ripen their skins, so that they may be eaten. 
They are not only generally sour, but often 
acrid and pungent to a degree that can not be 
tolerated by tender mouths. A few only of our 
best grapes are free from this fault. It is only 
when the skin ripens in common with the rest 
of the berry, that it may be eaten like the 
skin of the foreign grape. In certain condi- 
tions of the body, the astringent principle 
that resides in the skin of the grape is a valu- 
able medicine, and the edible condition of the 
skin therefore adds to the value of the grape. 

"We shall get a better idea of ripeness if we 
take the foreign grape as an illustration. This, 
as a class, ripens uniformly, and hence its great 



244 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

excellence. Its chief characteristic, that which 
gives it its greatest value, is the perfection of 
the ripening process, which reaches every part 
of the berry. This is fully recognized, and 
every advantage taken of it by the skillful 
gardener. He not only places the vine under 
the most favorable conditions for growth, and 
carefully removes every cause which may inter- 
fere with the full development of the fruit, 
but he applies his art in such a way as to facili- 
tate the development of the highest condition 
of excellence that the vine is capable of attain- 
ing to. In a true sense, he becomes a co-worker 
with nature. 

Let us take an example, say the Chasselas 
Musque or the Grizzly Frontignan, and see 
how the fruit is developed into this excellent 
condition. The vine, when started, is bent 
down, to equalize the action of the plant, and 
secure a good " set " of fruit along the whole 
length of the stock or cane ; for the gardener 
dislikes to see the bottom of his vine naked 
of fruit. When the fruit sets, he finds he has 
too many bunches, and the bunches are too 
compactly set. His object is handsome, well- 
colored, and high-flavored fruit; quality, not 
quantity ; but still, all the fruit his vine will 



WHEN GRAPES ABE KIPE. 245 

carry from year to year without injury. He 
judges liow much the vine will mature 
thoroughly, and removes the rest at once. But 
the bunches left are too compact to have 
the berries all ripen at the same time, or to 
admit of their being eaten conveniently; he 
therefore removes a half or more of the berries 
while they are very small, and as the result he 
has a bunch quite as heavy as it would have 
been without the thinning; but the thinning 
has admitted light and air to all parts of the 
bunch, and the vital force having a fewer num- 
ber of berries to act upon, they are made 
much larger, and the ripening process is more 
thoroughly performed. 

He wants the vine now to work principally 
upon the fruit, and he therefore pinches out 
the end of the cane a few leaves above the last 
bunch, athallizes promptly, and thus concen- 
trates the action of the vine on the fruit and 
the development of the buds for next year's 
canes. The fruit swells rapidly, and recourse 
is had to various means for securing handsome 
bunches of fully-ripened and high-flavored 
grapes ; and to this end, among others things, 
water is applied in due quantity and at proper 
intervals, and ventilation so regulated as to fur- 



246 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTUEE. 

nisli fresh air without having a current blowing 
directly on the vines, or causing a sudden change 
of temperature. When " stoning " takes place, 
it is accompanied by a beautiful translucency ; 
the berries "clear," and the ripening process 
has fairly begun. It is not confined to any 
particular part of the berry, but involves the 
whole mass at one and the same time, like fer- 
ment in a lump of dough. Air and water now 
more than ever influence the goodness and 
flavor of the fruit : the first is carefully regula- 
ted, and the last gradually withheld. Not a 
bunch is disturbed till the ripening is com- 
plete, and then he has grapes of such excel- 
lence as to reward him for all his labor, beauti- 
ful to look upon, and exceedingly good to eat : 
the flesh is tender and melting, the juice pure, 
sweet, and vinous, with a delightful muscat 
aroma, the skin quite edible, and there is no 
waste except the small seeds. He eats his 
grapes with great enjoyment, and both body 
and mind are refreshed. Here skill, working 
on proper subjects, produces its legitimate 
results in a high degree of excellence. 

Thus we see, in the best foreign varieties, 
that all the elements of a good grape have been 
brought together, as it were, in equilibria, and 



WHEN GRAPES ARE EIFE. 247 

so nicely adjusted under the most favorable 
conditions, that when motion begins in one, it 
is immediately communicated to all the rest: 
all move, and each performs, its allotted task 
in producing a perfect fruit. There are no 
woody, fibrous barriers to impede or shut off 
access to the interior, and which the ripening 
process can not overcome, but it finds, as it 
were, open doors and ready passages to lead it 
to the remotest parts of the berry, and it thus 
takes possession of the whole, converting it 
into a uniform mass of goodness. 

It is these elements, under precisely the same 
conditions and operating in the same manner, 
that, have heretofore been wanting in the 
native grape; and they had been so long and 
so earnestly hoped for, that most people had 
begun to think it impossible that they ever 
would be found there; but the supposed im- 
possibility having been proved possible, we 
may confidently look forward to the time when 
truly good grapes will be as common in our 
markets as poor ones now are. The structure 
of our native grape is radically faulty : woody, 
fibrous walls meet the ripening process at 
every step ; it finds no open doors or ready 
passages, but must perforce knock a hole 



248 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

through the inosculated cells, the obstructions 
becoming more formidable as the interior is 
approached, till at last it is fairly turned back 
by the impenetrable center, so weakened by its 
fruitless efforts to overcome the obstacles op- 
posed to it, that it is incapable of completing 
its allotted office. This is the general fault of 
the native, and a complete remedy can only be 
found in a new structure of the flesh, such as 
we find begun in the Diana, greatly improved 
in the Delaware and Allen, and completed in 
the lona. 



CHAPTER XV. 

PROPAGATION. 

WE propose here to give a description of the 
several modes in which the vine is propagated. 
There are perhaps few of our readers who will 
propagate their own vines; still, it is just as 
well that they should know how it is done; if 
for no other reason, because it is an important 
link in the circle of knowledge pertaining to 
the vine. Nurserymen, who make propaga- 
tion a specialty, surround themselves with the 
necessary appliances iii their most approved 
forms, and can therefore not only make better 
plants, but make them at a much less cost, 
than those who have nothing of the kind. 

The grape vine is propagated from single 
eyes or buds, cuttings, and layers, and also by 
grafting. New varieties are raised from seed. 
We shall take them up in the order in which 
they are named. 



250 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Single Eyes. The most perfect mode of prop- 
agating any plant is that furnished by nature, 
which is the seed. The seed contains the per- 
fect plant in embryo or miniature. The near, 
est approach to seed is the bud, which may 
also be said to contain the plant in embryo, 
with perhaps the single exception of the radi. 
cle; the germ of which, however, may be said 
to exist, at least in some buds ; for if the bud 
of a grape vine, and the buds of some other 
kinds of plants, be carefully dissected or de- 
tached from the parent plant, and placed under 
favorable conditions, they will develop into 
perfect plants of their kind. We have conduct- 
ed a series of . experiments with a view of 
establishing a general rule for all buds, but we 
are not prepared quite yet to state it. The 
analogy, however, between a seed and a bud, 
is a recognized fact. In the seed, the cotyle- 
dons support the plant while the mouths or 
rootlets are being formed on the radicle. Now 
if, in the grape vine, for example, we take 
a small portion of the cane (or mother plant) 
on each side of the bud, to support the infant 
plant while it is forming mouths of its own, 
we have something that answers to the cotyle- 
dons in the seed, and the analogy between the 



PROPAGATION. 251 

two becomes almost perfect. If the beginner 
will bear these things in mind, he will the 
better understand the process of propagation, 
and it will become invested with a new inter- 
est. The reader will infer, correctly, that we 
esteem a grape vine made from a single eye or 
bud the best that can be produced by any arti- 
ficial means. 

Vines from eyes are propagated under. glass. 
In order that the reader's mind may not be 
diverted from the main subject as we go along, 
we will here notice an objection made to this 
mode of propagation, and which, to many, 
seems to have considerable force. It is object- 
ed that propagating plants under glass is an arti- 
ficial process, and makes plants weak and tender. 
The sufficient answer to this is, that all modes 
of propagating plants from cuttings are strictly 
artificial, and that is clearly the best which 
places the cutting under the most favorable con- 
ditions for its full development into a perfect 
plant. This is so self-evident that it should need 
no argument. Now, it is found, as the result of 
repeated and careful experiment, that shelter, 
shade, moisture, etc., are indispensable to the pro- 
duction of the best plants from eyes or cuttings ; 
and it is further found that these, and all other 



252 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

requisites needed, are best furnished by glass 
houses constructed for the purpose. In short, 
better vines can be grown under glass in one year 
than can be grown in the open air in the old way 
in three years. Poor vines in abundance, how- 
ever, are grown in both ways. We want chiefly 
a porous, moist, warm soil, and a moderately cool 
but uniform and moist atmosphere. These con- 
ditions are needed with almost unvarying con- 
stancy, and are admirably supplied by a glass 
house ; but in the open air we have them Only 
" by fits and turns." The infant plant must be 
nursed into a vigorous childhood before it is 
exposed to the rigors of a changing climate, and 
not stunted and dwarfed by exposure before it 
is scarcely born. In breeding, this principle is 
now fully recognized. Exposure and hardiness 
were so intimately associated at one time, that 
it was thought necessary to rear young animals 
exposed to all the inclemencies of the weather, 
no shelter being afforded against even the rigors 
of winter ; but it is now found that the shelter of 
.a good barn gives a degree of vigor, health, and 
general development, and consequent hardiness, 
never attained in the old way. We must make 
an animal healthy to make him hardy. 

Single eyes are prepared in several ways, but 



PROPAGATION 



253 



they are substantially alike. Some are cut with 
an inch or so of wood above the bud ; some 




with the wood below the bud ; and others, 



254 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

again, with the wood equally divided on each 
side of the bud. Some place them in the soil 
upright ; some at an angle ; and others horizon- 
tally. Various forms and modes are shown in 
Fig. 105. When the cane on which the Bud is 
growing is large, it is usual to split it lengthwise 
through the. middle. It is well to prepare the 
buds a week or two before they are used, and 
pack them in moist sand or moss. The cut will 
then have become dry, and be ready to " cal- 
lus ;" the eyes, indeed, by cutting early, may be 
callused before they are placed in the propaga- 
ting bed, and a little time thus gained. The 
eyes will root a little more readily if the bark is 
removed ; but this is so troublesome, and the 
gain so small, that it can not be thought of on 
a lar^e scale. 

o 

At the proper time, say from the middle of 
February to the middle of March, the eyes are 
to be placed in the propagating bed. Two or 
three modes obtain here: some place a single 
eye in a very small pot, and plunge the pots in 
the beds ; others place the eyes about an inch 
apart in large pots; and still others place the 
eyes from one to two inches apart in the propa- 
gating beds. The eyes will root most readily 
in pots. 



PROPAGATION. 255 

Just here we must stop a 'moment, and ascer- 
tain what are the conditions needed to convert 
these eyes into strong and healthy vines. We 
want a clean, sharp sand for the sake of its por- 
ousness ; one of the largest and most successful 
propagators that we know 'is so particular as to 
wash his sand thoroughly clean. We want a 
suitable bed in which to place this sand. This 
may be made of planed or rough boards, so 
put together as to form an open box from 
three to five feet wide, and about one foot 
deep, the joints in the bottom being covered 
with thin slips or laths to prevent the sand from 
running through. This bed should run along 
the sides of the house, and also through the 
middle, when the house is wide enough. The 
top of the bed should come nearly up to the 
sill of the house, and be supported by posts 
and cross lies. The height of the bed, however, 
in reference to the sill, must be regulated by the 
form of the house. The pipes or tanks for sup- 
plying heat must run under the bed. If pipes 
are used, then all the space, under the beds must 
be boarded in for a hot-air chamber, with doors 
at short intervals for regulating the heat. If a 
hot water tank is used, no boarding in will be 
needed, for the beds will rest immediately on 



256 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the tank Next, sashes must be provided for 
covering the beds. With a proper glass struc- 
ture covering these appurtenances, we have all 
that is needed for propagating the best class of 
vines, except the knowledge, skill, and care of 
the propagator, which are brought into almost 
unceasing requisition. 

All things being ready, the sand is put in the 
bed from three to six inches deep, and in this the 
eyes are put from one to two inches apart, the 
Sand pressed firmly about them, and gently wa- 
tered. If the eyes are put in pots, the pots 
must be plunged in the sand. The sashes are 
then placed over the beds, and the boiler fired 
up. The sashes should be used chiefly for 
shade, and should therefore, during most of the 
time, be kept partly raised. On clear days the 
sashes should be shaded during the middle part 
of the day, by laying paper on them, which 
should be removed as the sun declines, and kept 
off entirely during cloudy weather, the object 
being to admit as much light as possible to the 
infant plants, but not the direct rays of the sun 
till they have become able to bear them. If the 
sashes are kept shut down, the plants are apt to 
<lampof This matter will need constant atten- 
tion. 



PROPAGATION. 257 

The next condition to be provided is a warm 
bed for the eyes to root in, and a cooler, but 
moist and uniform atmosphere for the tops to 
grow in. The heat for the bottom is obtained 
by closing all the doors of the hot-air chamber, 
which prevents the heat from the pipes from 
escaping into the house. A good thermometer 
must be used here, and strict attention paid to 
the fires, so that the heat may not at any time 
become too great. The bottom heat may go as 
high as 70 or 80 with safety, but from 60 to 
70 should be observed as nearly as may be. 
The temperature of the house should be kept 
about ten degrees below the bottom heat. 
This is- done by regulating the heat from the 
pipes, and opening the ventilators of the house. 
As the season advances, this matter will need a 
good deal of attention. Changes in the weather 
must be watched for and provided against, and 
every precaution taken to secure and maintain 
great uniformity in all the conditions named as 
necessary to success. 

Now, let us see what takes place in the bed. 
In a few days the buds will begin to swell, and 
then growth will begin ; but no roots have yet 
been formed. After the first start, the motion 
for a while is scarcely apparent : the cuts are 



258 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

" callusing," and the infant plant is being nour- 
ished by the small amount of matter previously 
laid up. In from eight to twelve days the pro- 
cess of " callusing " will be pretty well com- 
pleted, and soon thereafter the roots will begin 
to appear. When these are about an inch long, 
the eyes are taken from the propagating bed, 
and put in small pots in a good fine soil, pre- 
pared for the purpose. They have heretofore been 
shaded, and for a little while the shading must 
be continued, when the plants should be exposed 
to the light just as fast as they are able to bear 
and profit by it, and no more. They must now 
for a while be watched constantly, and not al- 
lowed to want for any thing. Water must be 
given just at the moment it is wanted, and then 
in sufficient quantity to go through the pot. 
Special care must be taken not to check root 
action. In two or three weeks the small pots 
will be well filled with roots, and the plants 
must be put in larger pots, and staked. When 
these pots get filled with roots, the plants must 
be changed to others still larger, and so re-potted 
from time to time as they need it, until at last 
they occupy pots holding gallons. The pots 
must at no time be allowed to get so full of roots 
as to check the growth of the plants : there 



PKOPAGATION. 259 - 

must be an uninterrupted growth of top and 
bottom. In the mean time, the plants must be 
carefully watered, tied up, athallized, and grad- 
ually hardened by exposure and the admission 
of more air daily. 

In the best arranged places the plants, when 
sufficiently advanced, are moved to unheated 
houses, with movable top sashes, which are more 
or less opened or entirely removed, as may best 
secure the health and ripening of the cane and 
roots. Sometimes the plants are turned out of 
the pots and planted in the borders of this 
house. At other times they are planted in the 
open air. There are a great many advantages 
gained by the use of the " hardening off" house, 
as it may be called, chief among which are these : 
the plants can at any moment be secured against 
sudden and unfavorable changes of weather, and 
the ill consequences that always follow such 
changes ; and if the season proves short, with 
early frosts, the sashes can be put on, and two 
or three weeks gained in this way for the perfect 
ripening of the plant. These advantages can 
scarcely be overestimated by those who buy 
plants. It is very seldom that they are secured 
by open air propagation of any kind. Fig. 



260 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



106 is a good example of plants made from sin- 
gle eyes. 



A 




Fig. 106. 

Single Eyes in Hot Beds. Very good plants 
may be made by placing single eyes and two- 
eyed cuttings in a common hot bed frame. 

The frame of the bed must be made to ac- 
commodate the size of the sash, which may be of 
any convenient size. A sash four feet wide and 
four and a half long we have found to be the 
most convenient of all that we have used. It 
is usual to make them long and narrow, and 



PKOP AG ATION. 261 

such can generally be bought ready made. The 
front of the frame should be about a foot high, 
and the back from four to six inches higher 
than the front, according to the width of the 
frame ; in other words, there should be just 
slope enough to shed water. It is a very com- 
mon mistake to make the slope quite steep. 
The frame may be made of common rough 
boards, or it may be made of worked boards, 
and painted, and put together with screws and 
hooks, so as to be taken apart : there are vari- 




Fig. 107. 

ous ways of making them. A good idea of the 
frame and sash, with its fastenings, etc., may be 
got from Fig. 107. 

A covering of some kind must now be pro- 
vided to protect the plants at night, and pre- 
vent the loss of heat. For this purpose, straw 
mats are commonly used, as they are conven- 



262 AMEEICAN GEAPE CULTUEE. 

lent and easily made ; boards, blankets, carpets, 
etc., are also used ; but the best thing we have 
tried is a light frame made of laths and filled 
with straw, and fixed to the back of the bed 
with a bolt hinge, so that it may not only lie 
flat on the sash, but be moved to any angle. 
When placed upright, it forms a good protection 
from northerly winds. It is in common use 
among the French, who generally weave the 
straw together in mats, which are stiffened by 
wooden slips on the edges, and at intervals 
through the middle, if necessary. 

Hot beds are commonly made by using long 
and coarse manure for the heating material; 
but we must alter and vary the material in this 
case, in order to produce uniform and good re- 
sults. For our purpose, dead leaves are the 
best material. Manure alone makes too strong 
a heat. Equal parts of leaves and horse manure 
make a very good and durable heating material ; 
but leaves alone make the "sweetest," most 
even, as well as most durable bed, one five feet 
thick sometimes retaining its heat for a year. 
If leaves alone are used, they should be gathered 
in the fall or early winter, and placed loosely 
together, and under cover, if convenient ; or 
boards may be laid over them to keep off snow 



PROPAGATION. 263 

and rain. It matters but little what kind of 
leaves are used ; they may be gathered indis- 
criminately in the woods. 

About two weeks before making the bed the 
leaves should be prepared as follows : make a 
layer of leaves about two feet thick, of any con- 
venient size, and just moisten them with water 
from a watering pot, if they are dry ; they must 
then be beaten down pretty firmly, and another 
layer added, and treated in the same way. The 
layers are repeated till the heap is finished, 
when boards should be so laid on the top as to 
shed rain. In from six to ten days the heap 
will begin to warm. 

Having the materials all ready, the bed should 
be started somewhere from the first to the mid- 
dle of March, or even as late as the first of April. 
Select a dry spot, where surface water will flow 
off readily. Cart the leaves to the spot, and 
proceed as follows: mark out the size of the 
bed, which should run lengthwise east and west, 
and be two or three feet wider than the frame ; 
then spread a layer of leaves about a foot thick, 
and beat them down firmly; if they are dry, 
moisten them with warm water before beating 
them down. Repeat layer after layer in the same 
way, beating each one down firmly, till the bed 



264 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

is raised three or four feet high. Unless the 
mass of leaves are put firmly together, it will 
not only require considerable time for them to 
heat, but the heat will be low and not uniform ; 
and they will not heat at all unless they are 
moist. These two particulars must therefore be 
attended to carefully. If leaves and manure are 
used together, they must be well mixed. The 
operation should be performed quickly, in order 
that the small amount of heat already in the 
mass may not be lost. 

Having laid up the bed of leaves, the frame 
is put on *so as to set level. For raising vege- 
tables, etc., the frame is placed with its front to 
the south; but for our purpose we shall place 
the front to the north. Leaves must then be 
packed around the outside of the frame up to 
the top. Next, clean sand must be put in to 
the depth of about six inches, leveled off neatly, 
and the sashes put on. All these things must 
be done as rapidly as possible, in order that 
there may be no unnecessary loss of heat. 

The sashes must be left on for a few days be- 
fore the eyes are put in, in order that the sand 
may become uniformly warmed. In conse- 
quence of the sashes facing the north, the sun 
will have comparatively little effect upon the 



PKOPAGATION. 265 

heat of the bed ; still it' will be necessary to 
raise the sashes a little on warm days when the 
sun is out ; they must not be raised too high nor 
kept up too long just now. In ventilating a hot 
bed, always raise the top or side opposite the 
point whence the wind comes. In this way the 
wind will never blow directly into the frame. 
As the sun goes down the sashes must be well 
covered, and the covering removed when the sun 
is well up in the morning. This is a general 
rule to be observed every day. 

When the sand becomes warm, single eyes 
or two-eyed cuttings may be put injprecisely as 
was directed for the propagating bed ; there is 
much advantage, however, in hot-beds, in put- 
ting the eyes in pots, and plunging the pots in 
the sand. Cold water must never be used. 

The frame will now need considerable care 
and watching. The same conditions, as nearly 
as possible, should obtain here as in the propa- 
gating house. Ventilation must be so adjusted 
as to preserve a rather low, moist atmosphere 
above the plants, without wasting the heat of 
the bed. The sashes must therefore be raised 
from a mere crack to several inches, according to 
the state of the weather, and the advanced con- 
dition of the plants; but the sashes must be 



266 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

raised at the top, bottom, or either of the sides, 
according as it may be opposite the point whence 
the wind comes. Water, also, must be faith- 
fully applied, but only when it is wanted, and 
no more than is wanted. The wants of the plants 
in these two particulars must be carefully and 
constantly watched and ministered to. 

No very precise rules can be given for shading 
and ventilation. We have several times stated 
the importance of having a uniform moist at- 
mosphere for the young plants to grow in, and 
it seems hardly necessary to repeat it here ; yet 
it is a point that must be constantly borne in 
mind. The importance of a strong light with- 
out the direct rays of the sun has also been al- 
luded to: it is the colorific and not calorific 
rays that are wanted. Ventilation and shading 
must have reference to these two points. If the 
sashes face the south, as is almost universally 
the case, the sun heats the frame early, and by 
mid-day it becomes almost seething. The plants 
would speedily die if left to such conditions, 
and it therefore becomes necessary not only to 
ventilate and shade early, but to exercise the ut- 
most vigilance all through the day to regulate 
the ventilation so as not to reduce either the 
heat or the moisture below what is necessary 



PROPAGATION. 267 

for the wants of the plant. Each of these must 
be nicely adjusted to meet the changes that are 
constantly occurring. Painting with white lead, 
sanding, etc., are usually resorted to ; but a bet- 
ter plan is given below. 

By our arrangement of making the sashes face 
the north, the necessary conditions are obtained 
with much less labor, and with a much greater 
degree of uniformity ; and this latter point is of 
the utmost importance. Not having to battle 
constantly with the direct heating rays of the 
sun, less ventilation is needed, and the proper 
degree of heat and moisture is more easily and 
uniformly maintained. We have found the la- 
bor to be reduced fully one half, and the success 
increased much beyond that amount; besides 
which, the plants are of a better character. 
A good plan for shading is to make a light 
frame, of the size of the sash, and cover it with 
thin brown muslin. By resting one end of the 
frame on the sash, it may be adjusted at different 
inclinations, so as to afford more or less shade to 
the plants without obstructing the light entirely. 
If a frame of this kind is not used, newspapers 
may be spread on the sash at the times needed, 
and secured there by laying strips of board on 
them. They should be kept on no longer than 



268 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

is necessary. If the reader bears in mind that a 
constantly uniform moisture is necessary for the 
young plants, he will by this time be able to se- 
cure it by a proper adjustment of shading and 
ventilation, being careful not to carry the latter 
too far. 

The strong light in which the plants have 
been growing will make " hardening off" an easy 
process. This should be begun as soon as the 
plants are well rooted, by admitting a little more 
air from time to time, thus preparing them for 
full exposure to the sun and air. When rooted, 
the plants should be separated and put in small 
pots, in soil prepared for the purpose, anil the 
pots placed in the frame. For a few days af- 
ter this they must be shaded from the mid-day 
sun, and the sashes kept a little closer shut ; at 
the end of which time the admission of air must 
be daily increased, and the sashes finally re- 
moved, as the weather, by this time, will be suf- 
ficiently warm to continue the growth without 
the aid of a frame. The plants may be shifted 
from time to time into larger pots, and thus 
grown during the season ; but they will become 
stunted in pots unless protected in some way. 
A better plan, therefore, is to plant them in 
nursery rows, in well prepared soil, or to plant 



PROPAGATION. 269 

them where they are to remain. These direc- 
tions, in connection with what has heretofore 
been said, will enable one to grow good plants 
in hot-bed frames, from single eyes ; very much 
better, indeed, than any that can be grown in 
the open air. 

By beginning later in the season, eyes may be 
started in a cold frame, which is simply a frame 
and sash without any heating material. The 
plants, however, will not be so good, since they 
will not make as good roots, nor have as long a 
season to grow in. The cold frame is made as 
follows : a dry spot is selected as before, and the 
ground spaded up and leveled off. The frame 
is then set on the ground, four or five inches of 
sand put in, and it is ready for use. The treat- 
ment of the plants is substantially the same as 
for a hot bed. 

We have said that vines can be made better 
and cheaper in regular propagating houses than 
in the ordinary way in the open air ; but there 
are certain adaptations or arrangements, by 
means of which those who have tii|ie, and delight 
in such employment, (and there are many such,) 
may grow tolerably good vines ; better than can 
be grown" without their aid. A description of 
one such has been furnished us by a friend, and 



2 TO AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

we give it in his own words. It afforded him 
much pleasure in times past, and we have no 
doubt will yield a similar pleasure to any one 
who may try it. It is as follows : 

"Domestic Propagation. Good vines may be 
produced with very little outlay, except that of 
constancy of attention, by any one who will un- 
failingly observe the following very simple di- 
rections. We will suppose the ground already 
well prepared, and so thoroughly mixed together 
as to be strictly one homogeneous mass suitable 
for inviting and entertaining the roots of young 
plants. Have in readiness three pine box boards 
about one foot wide and thirteen feet long, 
or of any other convenient length. Nail three 
battens, about two inches wide and eighteen 
inches long, across one of them, placing one near 
each end, and the other near the middle, leaving 
the ends to project equally on each side. 

" Dig a y little trench, three inches deep, with 
neat perpendicular sides. Set one of the boards 
on edge in the trench, at its southerly or front 
side, and dri^e three little stakes into the 
ground on the trench side to keep it there. 
Have the tops of the stakes a little lower than 
the upper edge of the board, through which 
drive one nail into each of the stakes. Drive 



PKOPAGATION. 271 

three stakes in a row close to the back of the 
trench, placing them like those already driven 
in front ; but these are to be set close against 
the back, to keep the rear board at the surface. 
Set the other board on edge, the lower edge rest- 
ing on the surface of the ground, and nail as be- 
fore. Shut tip the ends, and place the board 
with the battens upon the top, and the house is 
made. Two pieces with notches taken out to 
form the slots for the en/T battens should be 
nailed upon the upper edge of each of the side 
boards. (See Fig. 108.) 




Fig. ioa 

" The room inside is fourteen inches wide, to 
be divided for three rows of cuttings, the first to 
be set two inches from the front board, the next 
two inches from the back of the trench, and the 
third in the middle. The cuttings may be six 
inches apart in the rows. Good two-eyed cut- 
ings of the free rooting kinds will grow with a 
great degree of certainty in this simple arrange- 
ment, and make good plants for the nursery in 
one season, and very good plants for the garden 



272 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

or vineyard the next, under the following man- 
agement : 

" Plant as just directed. As early in the 
morning as the atmosphere begins to be warmed, 
take off the cover, placing it bottom side up back 
of the 'house, 7 to let the under side dry. At about 
eight o'clock put on the cover, to remain till 
four or five, if the day should be very hot and 
clry, or windy. The state of the weather must 
also regulate the time of taking it off in the 
morning. A little before sunset it is to be put 
on for the night. The cover should be placed so 
that the opening on each side of it will be 
equal ; that is, about an inch and a half each, if 
the board is one foot wide, which is about the 




Fig. 109. 

right proportion. Notches in the battens may 
regulate this with certainty. 

"This arrangement may be continued to any 
length desired, or may be multiplied indefinitely. 
It may also be made larger for the production 
of stronger plants, as represented in the illus- 



PROPAGATION. 273 

tration. (See Fig. 109.) In this the number 
will not be increased in proportion to the size, 
but the plants may be made much better. 
Every length of thirteen feet in the former will 
receive about seventy-five cuttings at the dis- 
tances named, and about one hundred in the 
latter. In the last, good vines for vineyard 
planting may be made in one season. The first 
of April, in the latitude of New- York, is gener- 
ally about the time for setting the cuttings. 

"The conditions of success in management 
are, ground always moist, and never wet ; water 
not permitted to remain on the leaves for want 
of ventilation, and no exposure to strong drying 
winds,. but careful increase of light and sun as 
the plants are able to bear it. The space of an 
inch and a half at each side of the cover will af- 
ford sufficient light to maintain healthiness of 
the leaves during the early stage, if the most 
advantage that can be had with safety is taken 
of the early morning and evening sun, without 
letting in enough sunshine to injure. After the 
plants have become pretty well rooted, the cov- 
ers may be put on with the battens under, 
which will nearly double the light. One hour 
of sunshine that can be borne without injury is 

18 



274 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

worth several hours of shade for giving increase 
and strength to the plants. 

" The careful propagator meets with no acci- 
dents, but one act of negligence may be fatal to 
the season's hopes. One of the first conditions 
to success is good, well-ripened wood, and that 
from strong vines, well grown in houses, is much 
the best. One good cutting is worth more than 
several poor ones. It is only very good ones 
that are fit to use for this purpose, and these are 
much less abundant than those that are toler- 
ably good or poor. The watering should be 
done from a watering pot with a fine rose; 
large streams act unfavorably upon the soil. It 
is most properly done in the morning, in the 
early part of theseason, and in the evening, 
after hot weather is established. The quantity 
should be sufficient to keep the soil always moist 
through its whole depth, but it should never 
be applied when not needed. In very drying 
weather, if the plants begin to droop during the 
day, and water seems to be called for, do not 
hesitate to apply it from fear of injury in conse- 
quence of the sun shining. 

" This arrangement is commended to all of 
both sexes, who feel themselves willing to give 
the requisite attention for three or four months, 



PROPAGATION". 275 

and who find enjoyment in observing and co- 
working with nature in her most interesting 
operations. Such will find the interest and de- 
light constantly increasing with increase of 
knowledge and experience, and those who desire 
it may reap a handsome pecuniary reward for 
their leisure hours." 

Single Eyes in the Open Air. It is some- 
times asked whether the vine can not be propa- 
gated from single eyes in the open air ; and the 
fact that the French have within a few years 
succeeded in doing so, seems to have given some 
interest to the question. About fifteen years 
ago we tried the experiment in a very thorough 
manner. A bed four by ten was prepared, and 
eyes from about a dozen different kinds of the 
native grape were put in, but the result was far 
from satisfactory. The experiment was repeated 
several times more carefully, and recourse had to 
watering, mulching, partial shading, etc., with 
much more gratifying results. Some kinds 
rooted much better than others. The constant 
care and labor necessary to success were ten-fold 
greater than are demanded in growing eyes un- 
der glass, and the results so greatly inferior, that 
we have not repeated the experiment since. 
An enterprising nurseryman, however, at our 



276 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

request, tried the experiment three years after- 
ward, but his success was far less than our own. 
It is safe to conclude, therefore, that the native 
vine can not be successfully, or at least profitably, 
grown from eyes in the open air. Because it has 
been done in France, it does not follow that it 
can be done here. The climate of the two 
countries is entirely different. 



CHAPTER XVI 

PKOPAGATION CONTINUED. 

Cuttings. If we succeeded in giving the read- 
er a clear idea of how plants are made from single 
eyes, he will readily understand how they are 
made from cuttings. These consist of pieces of 
cane having from two to five eyes or buds. A 
cutting of two eyes is seen at the right, Fig. 105. 
Cuttings are prepared by making a clean cut 
close under the lowest bud, which is removed, 
as is also the one above it when there are three. 
The cane is cut half an inch above the top 
bud, the slope of the cut being on the side op- 
posite the bud. Only thoroughly ripe canes 
should be used for cuttings, and those of me- 
dium size are best. Cuttings of two eyes are 
sometimes grown under glass. They are placed 
in the propagatiDg bed, with the upper bud an 
inch or so above the surface, as shown on the 
right in Fig. 105. Their management is then 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the same as for single eyes. In small, short- 
jointed wood, the bud should be just above 
the surface. 

Cuttings, however, are generally grown in the 
open air, and sonte kind of preparation is neces- 
sary to secure a good degree of success. The 
best soil is one that is light and porous, and at 
all times free from standing water. If not por- 
ous, it can be made so by the addition of sand. 
It should be worked deep, to insure against the 
ill effects of drought. It can hardly be made too 
mellow and fine. The cuttings having been 
prepared as above, are to be planted as follows : 
stretch a line, and along this line put in the 
cuttings about one foot apart; they are often 
put in much closer, but this is close enough. 
As they are put in, the soil must be pressed 
against them firmly. This is particularly neces- 
sary with two-eyed cuttings, to prevent them 
from being displaced ; but, aside from this, it is 
necessary to insure ready rooting. If the soil is 
not quite mellow, a dibble should be used for 
making the holes. The top eye of the cutting 
should be about an inch above the surface of 
the soil. Having completed one row, stretch 
the line two feet from it, and plant another, and 
so continue till all are planted. These distances 



PROPAGATION. 279 

are greater than are sometimes observed, but* 
none too great where good plants and much suc- 
cess are expected. Indeed, if they are not to be 
transplanted, they should be three or four feet 
apart. No weeds must be allowed to grow ; 
the hoe should be used before the weeds are 
fairly out of the seed leaf. 

The cuttings should be put in as soon as the 
ground can be thoroughly worked. When 
warm weather fully sets in, but not before, the 
ground may be mulched with straw, having 
first been well weeded. In case of drought, 
mulching will be found a great benefit. If the 
ground is not mulched, it should be repeatedly 
hoed to keep the weeds down, and make it mel- 
low. With watchful care, you may expect a 
fair proportion of tolerably good plants. We 
have seen acres of cuttings that did not 
produce a plant fit to sell at the end of the 
year. It often becomes necessary to transplant 
them, and grow them a second, and even a third 
year, to make salable plants of them. 

Layers. Though this is the easiest and most 
certain method of propagating the vine, it re- 
quires some knowledge, if not skill, to perform 
it in such a manner as to produce really good 
plants : poor ones are very common. The 



280 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

mother plant requires some kind of prepara- 
tion, and should have age, before being tasked 
,to produce plants in this way. No vine should 
be expected to produce good fruit and layers 
at the same time ; we may go further, and say 
that no vine can produce good fruit and layers 
for any length of time together. We say this 
for the benefit of those who think they can per- 
sist in layering their vineyards without injury 
to the fruit or the plant. 

A layer consists of a portion of cane laid 
in the ground while still attached to the mother 
plant, where it remains while taking root, and 
until the end of the season, when it is detached. 
The vine from which the layers are to be taken 
should be at least three or four years old, and 
the canes should have been well ripened the 
preceding year. The canes layered on the sarnie 
plant should always bear a small proportion to 
those not layered; for example, a plant of three 
canes should not have more than one layered. 
A layered plant is shown in Fig. 110 The soil 
around the mother plant should be made fine 
and mellow. A trench is to be made some ten 
or twelve inches wide, and six inches deep, but 
it must not approach nearer than two feet to 
the mother plant, to avoid damaging the roots, 



PROPAGATION. 281 

or having them interfere with the layer. The 
cane to be layered should be cut some four or 
five feet long. When the buds have broken, 
the cane should be laid carefully in the trench, 
secured there by pegs, and all the lower buds 
rubbed off. Of the remaining upper buds, from 
two to four may be selected for making the 
young plants, the interval between the selected 
buds being as great as possible. When the 
young canes have grown about six inches, a 
couple of inches of soil must be heaped about 
each of them in such a way as to leave six or 
eight inches of the layered cane uncovered be- 
tween each of the growing canes, which must re- 
main uncovered for a week or so; the object 
being to cause the roots to grow about the 
young canes, while the uncovered portion has 
none. The root action, in this case, is concen- 
trated upon given points, and produces better 
results ; and in the fall there is a naked portion 
of cane that may be cut off without destroying 
any roots. An inch or so of soil must be added 
as the young canes progress in growth, till the 
trench is finally filled. Stakes should be put 
in at the beginning to tie the canes to as they 
grow, as shown in Fig. 110. a, a, show where 
layers have been taken from the plant in former 



282 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 




Fig. 110. 



PROPAGATION. 283 

years, e shows where the present layer is to 
be detached. The thallons should be athallized 
in the usual manner. 

This is quite a different thing from laying a 
cane in the ground, and letting all the buds 
grow that will ; but it is the way to make good 
layers. Not more than four plants should ever 
be taken from one layer, and two or three will 
generally be much better. This number can 
not be exceeded with any hope of making good, 
well-rooted plants. The plants must be taken 
up in the fall, and divided by cutting off the 
unrooted portion of the old cane. 

Grafting. The native vine is sometimes, 
though not often, propagated by grafting. This 
process for the vine possesses very few of the 
advantages it has for the apple, pear, and some 
other fruits. There is seldom any need for it, 
for we can get fruit quite as soon by planting. 
In the green-house or grapery, vine grafting 
succeeds very well; but in the vineyard the 
cases of failure greatly exceed those of success. 
The union between the stock and graft is al- 
ways imperfect ; hence it is best to perform the 
operation under ground, where the graft will 
take root, and become an independent plant 

There are several modes of grafting the vine, 



284 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

two of the best of which we shall illustrate 
and describe. They are both performed under 
ground. The earth is removed from around the 
stock of the plant, so as to lay it bare some six 
or eight inches, as shown at A in Fig. 111. The 




Fig. 111. 

stock is cut square off four or five inches be- 
neath the surface. The graft is then prepared 
by cutting it wedge-shaped at the bottom. It 
should have two buds, one of which should be 
between the wedge, as shown at b on the left of 
the figure : the other bud being on the opposite 
side, is not seen. The split through the middle 
of the stock should be made with a thin-bladed 
knife, and held open with a thin-pointed stick 
while the graft is inserted in its place, so that 
the bark of the stock and graft meet on the 
outside edges. The operation completed is 
shown in the engraving. A strip of bast 
should be bound around the stock sufficiently 
firm to keep the graft in its place. 

The success of the operation depends very 
much upon keeping the graft in its place ; great 



PEOPAGATION. 285 

care, therefore, should be used to prevent it 
from being displaced. The hole should be 
filled up very carefully, and without pressing 
the soil against the graft. It should be well 
protected from disturbance of any kind. About 
a foot from the plant put in sticks at such an 
angle that their ends will meet over the plant, 
and about a foot above it ; tie the ends together, 
and over the sticks put a piece of oiled paper, 
muslin, or matting. If done right, it will look 
like a miniature tent, and protect the young 
plant from sunshine and weather as well as ani- 
mals. It should be removed when the plant 
has got fairly started. If the graft is inserted 
in the fall, it will be well protected by heaping 
sand over it in addition to the above. 

In the next method the grafting is also done 
under the surface. The cut, however, is less 
simple, but may be understood by examining 
Fig. 112. The graft is first cut square off at the 




Pig 112. 

bottom. A thin chip is then pared from one 
side to the bottom, <?, and the knife next entered 
at the edge of the bottom, and drawn up, so as 
to cut a thin tongue where the chip was taken 



286 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

off, as seen at d on the right of the figure. The 
stock is cut nearly at an angle of forty-five de- 
grees, and split through the center at right an- 
gles with the sloping cut, and the upper edge 
of the slit rounded off. The tongue is then in- 
serted in the split, so as to cover the surface of 
the angular cut on both sides of the split. The 
engraving shows the manner of doing this very 
plainly. The graft should be tied in its place 
with strips of bast or cotton twine. The oper- 
ation completed, the hole is to be filled up, and 
the plant protected in the manner above de- 
scribed. The portion of the graft projecting 
beyond the stock allows the graft to take root 
more readily than the first plan, and in this 
respect it is better ; but not being so simple, is 
less likely to be well done, and its advantages, 
in consequence, mostly lost. 

There are several other methods of grafting 
the vine, some of which answer the purpose of 
amusement; but there are none better than 
those given above, and few as good. 

Something may be said in regard to the best 
time for grafting. It may be done in the fall, 
early in the spring, or after the vines have 
begun growing. It has been successfully done 
at all these times, and so it has failed at all of 



PROPAGATION. 

them. There can be no doubt that success is 
affected to a considerable degree by the weather, 
climate, and condition of the vine. In the 
grapery success is quite common ; in the vine- 
yard it is quite the contrary. This, and other 
circumstances, would seem to indicate certain 
hygrometric conditions as influencing success. 
At one time it will be highly gratifying; at 
others quite discouraging. All that is certain 
is, that grafting the grape in the vineyard is an 
uncertain thing. Far north, fall grafting is not 
advisable ; where the climate is mild, however, 
it may be practiced with tolerable success. Dr. 
Massie's published experiments, conducted about 
six years ago, went to show that the success of 
fall grafting depended measurably upon the 
kind of winter that followed, notwithstanding 
all the care that was taken to protect the grafts 
by various appliances. That is precisely our 
own experience. To conclude, graft in the fall 
in mild latitudes, or in early spring, as may be 
most convenient, and do not expect any large 
measure of success in either case; but if you 
fail, do not mourn over it, for your loss has been 
small. Grafting the native grape is at best but 
an amusement, and should be so regarded. In 
our climate, it will probably never be reduced to 



288 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

a certainty ; and this is the less to be regretted 
in a plant that produces its fruit so soon from 
an eye or a cutting. 

Seeds Hybridizing. It seems hardly neces- 
sary to remark that new varieties are produced 
from seed alone. It has been thought by some 
that we should look chiefly to hybrids between 
the native and foreign grape for any marked 
improvement in the quality of the former, while 
others have doubted the possibility of getting a 
hybrid between them. We believe it is pos- 
sible, though quite difficult ; but we are by no 
means convinced that it is desirable, or that we 
shall gain what we wish. The Allen may be 
taken as an example. This presents good evi- 
dence of being a true hybrid. The fruit is ex- 
cellent, but the vine is tender and susceptible, 
and withers away when exposed to the force of 
our trying climate : in this respect yielding to 
the fate that has always overtaken one of it 
parents. No fact in grape culture is better de- 
monstrated than that the foreign grape is not 
adapted to our climate. It has cost us many 
thousands of dollars to prove the fact, and that 
ought to satisfy us. Is it wise, then, to seek an 
infusion of blood from a source that has been 
proved to be constitutionally unfitted to our 



PROPAGATION. 289 

wants ? Can we produce a hybrid that will not 
possess this constitutional failing? We think 
not. It must appear, more or less, in the whole 
race produced in this way. If we get enough 
of the goodness of the foreign grape to make it- 
self apparent in the seedling, we shall just as * 
certainly get enough of the evil to make the 
goodness of little or no use to us. The charac- 
teristics of one parent or the other will, as a rule, 
predominate in any hybrids that may be raised 
in this way, though we are not unmindful that 
crosses, where both parents possess the requisite 
hardiness, may, in time, be. produced that shall 
unite the most desirable qualities of both ; but, 
aside from the remoteness of the possibility, it 
may well be doubted whether such crosses will, 
after all, be so well suited to our climate as to 
possess any great value for general cultivation. 
But we may be pointed to Eogers's Hybrids as 
militating against this view of the subject. We 
think they fail to reach it ; or, if it be admitted 
that they do, they are only examples of the na- 
tive parent predominating in a very remarkable 
manner, and thus support our view. But there 
are good grounds for questioning the hybrid 
character of these grapes. A very critical exam- 
ination of the wood, leaves, and fruit, fails to 

19 



290 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

detect the foreign element in either. They pos- 
sess, on the contrary, all the peculiar characteris- 
tics of the native grape in wood, leaves, and fruit. 
The flesh of all of them is more or less " but- 
tery," like the Concord, though in several the 
fibrous center ripens much better than in the 
Concord, and, it may be added, they are much 
better grapes. In a very few there is a little 
of the meaty consistency seen in the Diana, and 
these begin to be vinous in their flavor, and in 
quality are the best of these seedlings. But in 
all this we can not detect the mixture of any 
foreign element. The experiments of Mr. 
Rogers are exceedingly interesting, not because 
he has failed or succeeded in producing hybrid 
grapes, but because he has demonstrated that the 
wild grape, through its seedlings, is susceptible 
of a very high degree of improvement. That is 
the source to which we must look for any valu- 
able results. We would not say one word to 
discourage him in his efforts to produce hybrids, 
but would suggest that he also use some of our 
best native grapes of a vinous character in his 
experiments. He will find less trouble in fertili- 
zing, and produce far more valuable results. 

To hybridize the grape is no easy matter; 
yet there are scores of people who think they 



PROPAGATION. 291 

have succeeded, and the country is likely to be 
flooded with their hybrids. There is one man, 
indeed, who claims to have discovered a simple 
way of hybridizing the grape, which makes the 
process positively certain : he has learned the 
" signs" by which we may know that hybridiza- 
tion has been really accomplished. This man 
sent to a friend for some Black Hamburgh pol- 
len. This friend being somewhat of a wag, sent 
him instead some pollen of the spinach. On 
being written to for the result, the reply came 
that " It had taken beautifully !" " There was no 
mistake about it !" We mention this circum- 
stance to show how easily one can deceive him- 
self in supposing that he has hybridized the 
grape. 

The theory of hybridizing is simple enough, 
and easily understood ; but its practice in the 
case of the grape is not without its difficulties. 
There are two important parts of flowers, the 
male and female, the latter being the pistil, and 
the former the stamens ; the last bear at their 
ends the anthers, which furnish the pollen. It 
is the pollen from the anthers, falling on the pis- 
til, which effects fertilization, and the consequent 
production of seed or fruit. To produce hy- 
brids and varieties, pollen is taken from the an- 



292 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

thers of one species or variety, and applied to 
the pistil of another species or variety. But, in 
order to secure fertilization by the pollen used, 
the stamens must be removed from the flower 
fertilized before the anthers have shed their pol- 
len. It becomes necessary, therefore, to cut off 
the anthers some time before the pollen is ripe. 
In some kinds of flowers it becomes difficult to 
do this, since fertilization takes place before the 
flower expands, and the difficulty is greatly in- 
creased when the flower is so small that it is 
almost impossible to handle it. 

The flower of the grape, among others, is 
difficult to fertilize artificially in the open air. 
The first thing to be done is to remove the 
stamens from the flower to be fertilized, and 
this must be done some time before it expands, 
or sheds its envelope, or the flower will be fertil- 
ized in the natural way, and it is never fertilized 
a second time. It is next absolutely necessary 
to protect the flower, not only from the access 
of insects, but also from the air, or the pistil will 
be fertilized by the pollen that is always float- 
ing about the vineyard at this time. When the 
flower has opened on the vine that it is proposed 
to cross with, the pollen must be collected 
from it on a fine camel's hair pencil, and brushed 



PROPAGATION. 293 

over the pistil of the flower previously prepared. 
This is a critical moment ; for just as you re^ 
move the covering from the prepared flower the 
pollen floating in the air may rush in and fertil- 
ize the pistil before you can touch it, and thus 
your purpose will be defeated. The fact is, 
there can be no certainty about hybridizing the 
grape unless the vine is shut up by itself, and 
all flowers removed from it except those to be 
fertilized. Hence it is that many think they 
have raised hybrids when they really have not, 
and it is nothing but the imagination that sees 
in them any thing of a hybrid character. The 
hybrid business is being rather overdone. 

Carefully conducted experiments in raising 
seedlings and hybrids should be encouraged, 
even to the extent, as elsewhere remarked, of 
extending the protection of the law to all plants 
raised in this way. Proprietorship, in this 
respect, should be as absolute as it is in regard 
to any other kind of property. If this were 
so, it would make inoperative the excuse often 
given for " coddling 1 ' seedling plants to a degree 
that renders any real knowledge of their hardi- 
ness and period of ripening almost an impos- 
sibility. 

It may be remarked, in conclusion, that seed- 



294 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

lings from our cultivated varieties vary greatly 
in their character. The great majority of them 
will be inferior to the parent, showing a marked 
tendency to go back to the woods ; some will 
resemble the parent so closely as to be scarcely, 
if at all, distinguishable from it, being, in fact, 
simply reproductions ; and very rarely one may 
be found superior to the parent. Seedlings 
just like their parents are getting to be quite 
common ; but we can not perceive any good 
reason for multiplying kinds in this way. A 
seedling ought not only to be better than its 
parent, or than other kinds, but also have some 
distinctive characteristic. Seedlings, again, will 
often differ broadly from their parents in color. 
Those from the Isabella, for example, are not 
unfrequently green in color instead of purple. 
It is characteristic of varieties to vary in this 
way. 



CHAPTER XVIL 

ADDITIONAL REMAKKS OK PLANTING. 

Additional Remarks on Planting. The di- 
rections already given are intended for general 
application, and will meet the requirements of 
all ordinary cases; but there are here and 
there peculiarities and extremes which are best 
treated by themselves ; for we could not, in 
planting a single vine, stop to explain excep- 
tions to the general rule, without greatly en- 
dangering the clearness of the subject. There 
are certain conditions of soil which call for 
exceptional treatment in regard to the depth at 
which the roots of the vine should be placed. 
A very heavy clay, under certain circumstances, 
may require the roots to be quite near the sur- 
face, while a gravelly, stony, shaly, or other 
light or very porous soil, may require them to 
be below the usual depth. 

There are two quite common and fatal mis- 



296 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

takes: one consists in planting too deep, and 
the other too shallow, and it would be difficult 
to say which has destroyed most vines and 
trees. If vines are planted too deep, they be- 
come enfeebled, and are winter killed ; if they 
are planted too shallow, the frost heaves the 
crowns above the surface, and they are also 
winter killed. The vines are then said to be 
tender, and the variety, in consequence, suffers 
in reputation ; whereas the cause of winter kill- 
ing often lies, not in the tenderness of the 
vine, but in the want of knowledge or judgment 
in the planter. There are other causes of win- 
ter killing, it is true, not related to planting, 
but which, as we have remarked elsewhere, 
are, to a good degree, within the control of the 
vineyardist. 

A very common fault in planting consists in 
not placing the crown of the plant at the 
necessary depth. We have seen many hun- 
dreds of vines with the middle and ends of the 
roots six inches below the surface, while the 
crown was scarcely two. The winter often kills 
the roots of such vines, but it first strikes the 
crown. Now, it should be borne in mind, that 
when the roots (in this book at least) are di- 
rected to be covered four or six inches deep, it 



ADDITIONAL KEMARKS ON PLANTING. 297 

is the roots proceeding immediately from the 
crown that are to be covered four or six inches, 
and not the ends of the roots ; the last, when 
the work is well done, will be a couple of 
inches deeper than the crown. The crown of 
the plant, if the hand is taken from it before 
the soil is worked firmly about it to the depth 
of two or three inches, will commonly spring up, 
often two or three inches ; and when the ground 
becomes settled, the crown of the plant will be 
found within two or three inches of the surface. 
We have found this to be very common, espe- 
cially where vines are planted in large numbers, 
and consequently in much haste. Thus it is 
often' the case that those who think they have 
planted ten or twelve inches deep, have really 
not planted more than six or eight, while those 
who think they have planted five or six inches, 
have not planted more than three or four. It 
seems to be very little understood, also, that 
the soil will settle without carrying the plant 
down with it ; and this constitutes another ele- 
ment of deception, for which allowance is seldom 
made. 

These grave errors may be easily avoided 
by observing the following practice : when the 
hole or trench is dug, press the soil down 



298 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

firmly, but without packing it ; this may be 
done with the feet ; then make a nice bed of fine 
soil for the roots to rest on. The plant having 
been put in its place, and the roots spread out, 
it must be held there until two or three inches 
of soil are worked in among the roots firmly ; 
but if, in the act of removing the hand, the 
plant shows any signs of springing up, the hold 
must be retained, and more soil worked in. It 
takes but an instant to ascertain whether the 
plant will retain its place. "When made secure, 
the hole may be filled up rapidly ; but as the 
soil is thrown in, it should be made just firm, 
and no more. The technical term for this is 
" firming." When planted in this way, about 
an inch may be allowed for settling; in the 
common way, three or four inches must gen- 
erally be allowed; that is to say, where the 
roots are wanted about four inches from the 
surface, they must be placed three or four inches 
deeper than this. For example : when we say, 
in planting, that the roots must be covered 
about four inches, they must be placed three or 
four inches deeper than this to allow for set- 
tling, if the common method of planting is pur- 
sued ; but if the bottom of the trench or hole is 
" firmed," as well as the soil as it is put in, not 



ADDITIONAL BEMAKKS OK PLANTING. 299 

even an inch need be allowed for settling ; for 
the word covering, as we use it, means the dis- 
tance between the roots and the surface when 
every thing has settled to its place. It must 
be remarked, that some soils sink or settle 
much more than others, and this condition must 
also be taken into consideration. 

In planting on hillsides, if they are steep, 
we make a considerable departure from ordi- 
nary conditions. It is often supposed that the 
roots here are a foot or more deep, when they 
are really not more than six inches. We sur- 
prised a large planter recently by convincing 
him that his roots were six inches deep, and 
not a. foot. Care must be used, in planting 
here, to have the roots deep enough on the face 
* of the hill : the hole would be better if dug a 
little sloping. If the reader will exercise a little 
good judgment in these and similar matters, he 
will have little or nothing to fear from the win- 
ter killing of his roots, provided there is no 
standing water about the roots or the collar of 
the plant. Where much planting is done, it is 
a good plan to divide the men into sets, select- 
ing two good men to put the plant in its 
place, with enough soil worked around it to 
hold it there, while others follow and fill up. 



300 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

In this way both skill and labor will be econo- 
mized. 

The opposite or extreme conditions alluded 
to above will be best illustrated if we select, 
as examples, an account of two well known 
vineyards. 

At Kelley's Island the soil is generally clay, 
with just enough limestone, sand, and gravel to 
make it the most adhesive and compact possible, 
so that the labor of first breaking it up is very 
great, and not to be accomplished by the usual 
means. The underlying rock is often not much 
more than a foot below the surface, and pre- 
vents the escape of water in times of wetness. 
Here the vines can not be set or covered deeply, 
nor can the ground be deeply worked. If this 
shallow soil should be worked and enriched 
down to the point where water lodges, the roots 
formed there in time of drought would suffer in 
time of wetness, and the health of the vines and 
the quality of the fruit would, in consequence, 
be greatly impaired. Here the indications are, 
to plant as near the surface as will permit of 
shallow cultivation, and be consistent with win- 
ter endurance under the very favorable modify- 
ing influences of the lake, without which the 
locality would be very unsuitable for a vine- 
yard. 



ADDITIONAL KEMARKS ON PLANTING. 301 

In contrast to this, may be adduced the steep, 
gravelly hillside which generally prevails at 
Hammondsport, where the drift soil has no prac- 
tical limit to its depth, and where water at the 
roots is never feared. Their enemy comes to 
young vines in the form of early drought, and 
the indications in this case are as deep planting 
as may consist with the avoidance of what is 
very indefinitely called " smothering" the plants. 
Four inches of depth at Kelley's Island would 
not be more than equaled by eight or ten 
inches at Pleasant Valley. 

In that remarkable vine district occupying 
a great part of the shore region of Lake Erie, 
these two extreme conditions are often found 
in immediate contiguity, and present a geo- 
logical study but little less interesting than 
the Valley of the Walkill. The tenacious 
clay and the deep gravelly drift meet in some 
places as if on a dividing line, while in 
others they run into each other by almost 
imperceptible gradations. These soils, under 
propitious circumstances, are so favorable to 
grape culture, that the fortunate possessor of 
any one of them, if we may judge from 
what is said, thinks his own the best. Under 
adverse circumstances, however, like those of 
last winter, which are always liable to occur, 



302 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

they will all suffer unless the treatment con- 
forms to the principles we have laid down; 
and we may confidently add, as the result of 
long experience and widely ext.ended observa- 
tion, that when these natural principles are 
mastered and judiciously applied, no such 
deep discouragement as followed the effects 
of last winter will again occur, nor will 
young vines, soon after being brought to a 
bearing condition, begin to suffer from ex- 
haustion. Success will always be best assured 
by working with nature rather than against her. 
In planting large vines, such as are represent- 
ed in Figs. 3 and 8, or any other, the roots of 
which, after proper pruning, remain long, large 
holes will be required. If the plants are to be 
set as near as two or three feet in the rows, it 
will be better to make a continuous trench, as 
represented in Fig. 113. Preparatory to plant- 
ing in this case, a trench is made fourteen 
inches deep, and in the bottom of it is placed 
a little more than two inches in depth of good 
surface soil, leaving it twelve inches deep for 
beginning to plant. At the place for each vine 
a little mound is raised about two inches 
high, on which set the vines, and the planting 
proceeds as we have already described, until 
the trench is filled to within six inches of the 



ADDITIONAL EE MARKS ON PLANTING. 303 

surface. During the early part of the season, 
and until the last of July, the trench is not 
permitted to fill up. Mg. 114, at D, D, D, 




Fig. 118. 

represents the appearance of the vines about the 
first of August, after having had all the sum- 
mer operations properly done. F {Fig. 113) 
shows one of the vines as it appears when ready 
for the first tying, which should not confine it 
closely to the stake, but only be sufficient to 
secure it from being broken by the wind. 
When large plants are used, it is well to take 
the canes from the second or third buds, so that 



304 .D" AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the subterraneous portion may consist entirely 
of old wood. 

In compact, clayey soils the vines may "be set 
two inches less in depth, and the basin left open 




U.HOtlONEJffl.W 



Fig. 114. 

one inch less in depth. In November, if it has 
not been done before, the trench may be entirely 
filled, and made a little rounding over the vines, 
so that the water will run off. The work of 
filling may be chiefly done with a plow, (prun- 
ing having been done as already directed,) leav- 
ing a small dead furrow midway between the 
rows. 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

REPLACING AND RENEWING SPURS AND ARMS 

OPPOSITE ARMS LENGTH OF ARMS THEIR 

GENERAL MANAGEMENT OVERCROPPING. 

Replacing Spurs. When detailing the man- 
ner in which arms and spurs are formed, the 
reader's attention was kept fixed directly on the 
object before him, so that he might obtain a 
clear idea of the principles applied, leaving 
exceptions and accidents to be treated of sepa- 
rately. We therefore propose now to speak of 
such of these accidents as the novice would not 
be likely to remedy, with the limited knowledge 
which he is supposed to possess. 

When giving the details for the formation of 
spurs, it was taken for granted that every bud 
set apart for the purpose would grow and make 
a spur ; but a bud will sometimes get accident- 
ally rubbed off, or the young cane will get 
broken, or some accident will leave a vacancy 

20 



306 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

just where a spur ought to be. There are 
several ways in which such a. vacancy may be 
filled, one of the simplest of which is shown in 




Fig. 115. 

Fig. 115. A is a portion of an arm from which 
a bud is missing. Its place is supplied by tak- 
ing a cane from the nearest adjoining bud on the 
under side of the arm, and bringing it up to the 
place of the missing bud in the manner shown. 
The buds/,y, are rubbed off, and a double spur 
formed from the two upper buds. 

In case there should be no lower buds from 
which to grow a cane, as may be the case when 




Fig. 116. 

they are rubbed off, then the next simplest me- 
thod is shown in Fig. 116, in which A is a 
portion of an arm. Cut an adjoining cane down 



REPLACING SPURS. 307 

to the two lowest buds, and grow two canes 
from it ; if the cane next the missing bud be 
from a base bud, so much the better. At the 
next pruning, bend this cane down parallel with 
the arm, and, selecting a bud over the missing 
one, cut the cane at that point, as shown at #, 
and tie it there -securely with bast or twine. 
The buds e, e, e, must be rubbed off. A cane 
wiH. grow from #, as shown by the dotted line, 
and this is converted into a spur. The cane/ 
will make a spur in its proper place. This arm 
was extended from the point g, and the bud 
there "missed," and this method was taken to 
replace it. 




& 

Fig. 117. 

Another plan is seen in Fig. 117. In this 
case, a chip is cut from the arm, as shown at C. 
The adjoining cane is then bent down, and cut 
off at the proper length. About one third of 
the thickness of the cane is then shaved off, so 
as to fit nicely the cut in the arm. It must then 



308 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

be bound firmly with bast, but so as not to 
interfere with the bud a. All the buds marked 
e must be rubbed off. If the base bud, b, has 
not been injured, it will break strongly, in 
which case grow a cane from it for a spur; 
otherwise grow a cane from the lowest bud e, 
as shown by the dotted lines. In many cases 
the union will become so perfect by this me- 
thod that the connecting cane, at the nfext 
pruning, may be cut off at A, h. If it does not 
become thus perfect, the cane may remain as it 
is. A cane will grow from a, as shown by the 
dotted lines, which is to be converted into a 
spur. 

Still another method, but not very different 
from the last, is shown in Fig. 118, A, as be- 




Fig. 118. 

fore, being a portion of an arm. In this case, 
bend down an adjoining cane, and cut it off at 
the proper length. Next cut the end at an 
acute angle, and from the extreme end cut a 
piece so as to leave an angular face about one 
third the thickness of the cane. Now cut 
from the arm an angular piece that will admit 



KENEWING SPUES. 309 

the end of the cane exactly and evenly, as 
shown in the engraving. It must then be 
bound in its place firmly, and the cane also tied 
to the arm in the middle, to prevent it from 
springing. The buds e are to be rubbed off. 
A cane must be grown from the bud b for 
a spur, and another from a for the same pur- 
pose. 

By one or other of these methods a spur 
may be readily replaced at any time, and the 
arm kept in full bearing. The union of arm 
and spur is not essential ; the spur will do well 
without it, as in the example first given. In 
the examples above, the arms are young and 
only Just ready to spur ; but the spurs may 
be replaced on an old arm just as easily by 
taking the lowest cane from an adjoining spur. 
On an old arm, however, there is seldom a 
necessity for replacing spurs in this way, if the 
vine has been well used ; for dormant buds 
seem to collect in proportion to the age of the 
vine; they would seem, indeed, to be a "pro- 
vision against old age." 

Renewing Spurs. It sometimes, however 
becomes necessary or desirable to renew old 
spurs. In time some of them may get to be 
inconveniently long or ill-shaped ; and if for 



310 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

this, or any other reason, it should be wished 
to renew them, the reader should know that he 
can generally do so. We present some exam- 
ples, all of them taken from life. It will give 
the reader a clearer idea of the subject if we 
describe what was actually done in each case. 
Fig. 119 is from an arm that had been laid 




down one year. The A on the right shows 
where the cane had been pruned. It was cut 
low to start two base buds, but only one grew, 
and the cane from this got so broken during 
the winter that it became necessary to start 
again. It was cut at the left A, and made a 
fine cane for a spur. It is ill-shaped, to be sure, 
but in two or three years, or as soon as elab- 
orated matter has accumulated at the junction 
of the arm and the spur, it may be cut off at 



RENEWING SPURS. 311 

the point d, a, and renewed. We have had 
several cases presenting this general appear- 
ance, but not all arising in the same way. All 
we wish to do here is to make the reader 
familiar with the principle and its applica- 
tion. 

We may remark here, that as the spur in- 
creases in age elaborated matter collects at the 
junction of the arm and spur, and is concerned 
in the formation of many dormant buds. It is 
no doubt also concerned in producing the in- 
creased flavor which we always find in fruit on 




old arms and spurs. It presents the granular 
appearance shown in Fig. 120. The little glob- 
ules at o-are all dormant buds. The reader 
will now understand how it is that we get new 



312 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

canes when old spurs are cut down. The spur 
in this example was cut down, and two canes 
selected, the one seen and another at A. Two 
canes having been allowed to grow, they were 
both rather less in size than was desired. The 
cane A was therefore cut off to strengthen the 
one left. By pruning this cane just above 5, and 
retaining the upper base bud a, a good double 
spur was formed. It might have been pruned 
below J, as there were two very nice base buds, 
# a. 




Fig. 121. 

In the next example, Fig. 121, the spur had 
become rather long, and was narrow at the 
base, (not filled out like Fig. 120,) and not 
satisfactory in several particulars. The base 
being examined, and the appearance of dor- 
mant buds proving satisfactory, it was deter- 
mined to cut the spur entirely away, and this 



EENEWING SPURS. 313 

was accordingly done, as shown by the scar on 
the top of the arm. Two or three little shoots 
in due time made their appearance, but none 
of them well placed ; the best, however, was 
selected, and grew finely. The next season 
a bud broke in a very good position, and the 
new cane grown last season, after some hesita- 
tion, was cut off, as shown by the scar on the 
side. The newly selected shoot made a fine 
cane, as the reader may see. The progress of 
such a case would naturally be watched with a 
great deal of interest. 




In the last example, Fig. 122, the spur was 
cut off nearly half an inch above the arm, and 



314 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the cane a selected and grown. This cane was 
cut to its lowest bud, with the intention of 
using a base bud for a second cane; but the 
case was neglected for some time, and several 
small canes grew from the remains of the old 
spur, and spoiled the intention ; these little 
canes, however, were at once removed, as shown 
by A, and the cane from the renewed spur 
made a very good growth. If it had not been 
for this neglect, the little stump seen just be- 
low a would have made a good cane, and, 
being well placed, it would have been taken 
for this purpose. 

We have now given the student a sufficient 
number of examples to make him familiar with 
the principle, and its application to a variety of 
cases. In renewing spurs, the chief thing to be 
looked after, in the first instance, is the appear- 
ance of the wood at the base of the spur. The 
condition of the little protuberances or dor- 
mant buds will be a good index of success. 
It is very seldom the case in old spurs, how- 
ever, that there are not dormant buds present. 
In the second place, the young shoot must be 
selected early, and all the others rubbed off, so 
as to concentrate the action of the plant on 



KENEWING ARMS. 315 

this one, and not have it uselessly wasted on 
many. 

^Renewing Arms. It sometimes becomes 
necessary to renew or replace an arm from acci- 
dental causes, and our work would be very im- 
perfect if we failed to explain how it is to be 
done. In the Guyot plan, with a permanent 
arm, the renewal is comparatively easy. The 
reader will remember that in this system we 
have two or three long canes or safety-valves, 
and these furnish the ready means for making a 
new arm. Let us suppose the arm in Fig. 48, 
p. 102, is to be renewed. If it has a spur or two 
that will bear fruit, it need not be cut off yet; 
but unless a few bunches of good fruit can be 
got from it, it should be cut entirely away at 
once. Now proceed as follows : Take the low- 
est-placed cane, d, cut it one third the length 
of the arm, and lay it down horizontally. From 
this point extend the arm in the usual manner. 
If the old arm, or any portion of it, was left on 
for growing fruit, it should be cut away at the 
end of the first season. One of the advantages 
of this system consists in the facility with 
which an arm may be renewed. 

Double Horizontal Arms. As a general 
thing, the best way to renew the arms is to cut 



316 AMEEICAN GEAPE CULTUEE. 

eacli arm off at the spur nearest to the stock, 
and grow a single cane from the lowest bud on 
the spur. This cane must next be bent to a 
horizontal position, and the arm formed by de- 
grees in the usual way. This severe cutting 
back will cause a number of dormant buds to 
break around the stock, all of which must be 
rubbed off. They have been called "water 
shoots," and are fruitless. If the spurs next 
the stock are poor, then the arms must be cut 
pretty close to the stock, leaving no spurs what- 
ever. There need be no apprehension in regard 
to getting canes in this case ; there will be an 
abundance of them, and the trouble will con- 
sist in making a choice and keeping the others 
from growing. The canes grown under such 
circumstances should early be bent to an angle, 
and the end pinched out when the cane is about 
five feet long. When the bud at the end 
breaks, let the cane extend a couple of feet be- 
fore it is pinched again. The pinching should 
be repeated three or four times. Unless these 
precautions are taken, the lower buds will be 
very small. More than the usual means will 
be necessary to equalize the action of the plant, 
as it will be exceedingly vigorous. In other 



KENEWING UPRIGHT STOCKS. 317 

respects, the new arm will be formed in the 
usual manner. 

When only a portion of an arm is to be re- 
newed, the cane for the renewed part must be 
taken from the lowest bud on the spur situated 
at the point from which the arm is to be re- 
newed. It will make the arm just a little 
crooked there ; but this, aside from its being a 
little unsightly, will in no respect be an injury 
to the vine. 

If, in double horizontal arms, each arm, as we 
suggested some years ago, was provided with a 
safety-valve, or upright cane, at some point be- 
low the bend in the arm, the arms in this sys- 
tem dould be renewed just as easily as in the 
plan of Guyot. Besides this, they have con- 
siderable value, when understood, in equaliz- 
ing action throughout the arm. We consider 
them an important feature in the horizontal arm 
system. 

Upright Stocks. The way to renew theee is 
to cut within a foot of the ground, select one 
from among the many canes that will make their 
appearance, and treat it in the manner in which 
the stock was first formed. It seems not to be 
generally understood that an old stock is full 
of dormant buds, and that they will start into 



318 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

growth just as soon as the vital force of the 
plant is concentrated upon them by cutting 
away the parts above. 

Opposite Arms. The French, with character- 
istic ingenuity and love of system, have a fond- 
ness for growing vines with the arms and spurs 
opposite each other: they have utilized the 
method beyond all other people. In the case 
of arms, they proceed from the same level ; and 
in the case of spurs, they are directly opposite 
each other on upright stocks. It involves some 
time and trouble, but will, no doubt, interest the 
novice, and we therefore propose to explain and 
illustrate the method by which it is done, leav- 
ing the reader to apply it according to his con- 
venience and taste. 

Let us, for an example, take a cane at the end 
of the first year, such as is shown in Fig. 23, p. 
65, and cut it down to two buds. Select the 
strongest cane, and rub the other off. When 
the new cane has grown from twelve to eighteen 
inches above the point where it is desired to 
have the arms, cut the cane off at this point. 
Action, in this case, has been arrested ; the vital 
principle has been checked in its upward course. 
For a moment, as it were, it seems quiet, but it is 
only to gather at all points with renewed energy. 



OPPOSITE ARMS. 319 

The thallons make a vigorous appearance, and 
would soon take the place of the cane that has 
been stopped. But this we do not want. . We 
are aiming now to develop and burst the buds 
which, if left to themselves, would not grow till 
next year. The thallons are, therefore, in our 
way, and we remove them entirely. This con- 
centrates the action upon the buds ; they soon 
begin to swell, and in no veiy long time break 
into leaf, and our chief purpose is accomplished. 
As soon as growth is fairly established in the 
young shoots, we select the top one, and pinch 
all the others entirely out, for we not only have 




Fig. 123. 

no use for them, but they would be in our way. 
When the new cane has grown about eighteen 
inches long, it will have the appearance shown 
in Fig. 123 which also shows where the cane was 
cut off. When the young cane has grown three 



320 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

or four feet, the end should be pinched, and the 
operation repeated as often as the new growth 
has three good-sized leaves. The thallons must 
be athallized the same as any other cane. 

At the end of the season it will be found that 
the base of the new cane is larger than the cane 
that was stopped, and has come round on the top 
of it, so as to be very nearly in a straight line 
with it. At the base, too, will be found several 
well-developed buds, on opposite sides, and also 
some smaller ones, all on the same level. It is 
from these base buds that the arms and spurs 
are taken. 

If we wish to grow an upright stock with 




Fig. 124. 

opposite spurs, the cane is pruned to the first 
bud above the base buds. This bud, and two 
base buds opposite each other, are selected to 



LENGTH OF ARMS. 321 

continue the system. When they get fairly 
started, they will look like Fig. 124. About a 
foot above the opposite canes two more are 
formed by cutting at A, and proceeding as 
before. In this way the stock can be extended 
as far as wanted with opposite spurs, which are 
formed in the usual way after the canes are 
established. 

If we want opposite arms, the new cane is cut 




Fig. 125. 

about an inch above the base buds, two of 
which are selected for canes, as shown in Fig. 
125, which is an exact representation from life. 
Having thus explained the principle, we leave 
the reader to work it out fully on the vine. 

Length of Arms. In this connection we re- 
iterate that arms can not be made much more 

than four feet long, without greatly weakening 

21 



322 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the spurs near the stock. The reader should, 
indeed, determine his mode of training before 
planting, so as to provide for the proper length 
of the .arms. The horizontal arm, whether 
double or single, is undoubtedly the best sys- 
tem. The plan of making double tiers of both 
is a good one. Four feet is the proper distance 
to plant for single arms, whether of one or two 
tiers. Four feet is also the proper distance for 
double arms of two tiers, the rows in both cases 
being six feet apart ; but for double arms of one 
tier, six feet is the proper distance, the rows in 
this case being from four to six feet apart. With 
two tiers, the upper one is a little more trouble 
to cover. It is done as follows : lay down the 
first tier, and cover by applowing, as elsewhere 
explained; before turning the second furrow 
slice, lay the arms of the second tier in the fur- 
row just made, and finish the plowing as usual. 
General Management of Arms. The reader 
should be quick to perceive that he can only 
attain a full measure of success, in respect to 
both pleasure and profit, by first acquiring a 
knowledge of the wants and capacity of the 
vine, and then ministering to them with con- 
stant good faith. A watchful supervision is 
needed at all times, and a few suggestions here 



GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF ARMS. 323 

will give a proper direction to this supervi- 
sion. 

In the spring, in particular, when the vines 
are beginning to grow, the vineyard should be 
gone over frequently and carefully, to see that 
every thing is going on as it should. It may 
be that a cane has made its appearance by the 
side of a spur, which it would be desirable to 
retain to take its place ; or it may be that seve- 
ral little shoots are growing around the spur, 
which would prove hurtful if not speedily re- 
moved. It will sometimes be the case, also, in 
double spurs, that the lower cane, for spurring 
next season, may be trained into a better posi- 
tion,' if attended to in time. Sometimes, too, 
there may, at first, be a want of action in the 
spurs nearest the stock, which may be supplied 
by lowering the end of the arm until the equi- 
librium is restored. If some canes are grow- 
ing stronger than others, pinching the strong, if 
done early, will strengthen the weak. If you 
want two canes on a stock to grow of about the 
same length, and see one beginning to take the 
lead of the other, bend it immediately toward 
a horizontal position, and place the weak one 
upright. If done at the right moment, success 



324 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

is quite certain ; if long neglected, the case is 
somewhat difficult to manage. 

We may state here that buds are sometimes 
double, or even treble / that is to say, two and 
three shoots will sometimes grow from the same 
bud. As a general rule, one of these shoots 
must be rubbed off when about an inch long, 
leaving only one to grow. Sometimes double 
buds can be advantageously used in forming 
spurs, or even in extending the arms. In the 
latter case, if both the end buds break double, 
one shoot can be used for the upright cane, and 
the other for the extension of the arm. On the 
whole, however, it is best to follow the usual 
course. 

Tying up must not be neglected. The young 
canes should have their first tying early, to pre- 
vent their accidental loss. Till the young canes 
get to be about a foot long, they are easily, 
broken at the base, some kinds more easily than 
others. If, therefore, a young shoot is growing 
angularly, and needs to be straightened, or is 
growing straight, and requires to be bent to an 
angle, it should be done by degrees, or there is 
much danger of its breaking. In tying, the 
string should be loose, or only just tight enough 
to keep the cane in its place. Various things 



GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF ARMS. 325 

are used for tying, but, on the whole, we have 
found nothing better than cotton twine. 

The fruit, too, must receive attention. Re- 
solve at the beginning to become one of our 
students, and grow only good fruit, ripe fruit. 
As a general rule, no cane, in any arm or spur 
system, should carry more than two bunches. 
If all that set are left, the vine is overtasked, 
and the ripening process imperfectly performed ; 
but if part are removed early, the ripening pro- 
cess is strengthened rather than weakened, and 
the goodness and ripeness which would have 
been diffused and imperfect in four bunches, is 
concentrated and made perfect in two. Here 
and -there a strong cane will be an exception to 
the rule, and may carry three bunches ; here 
and there, also, a weak one will form another 
exception, and should carry only one, or even 
none. The canes must all be examined, and the 
fruit adjusted to its capacity. 

The evil of overcropping, especially young 
vines, is very great and very common, and is 
sometimes indulged in by persons who should 
know better. The vine, no matter how healthy 
it may be naturally, is enfeebled and made 
sickly by it. The vital force is weakened, and 
is unable to perfect the ripening process ; the 



326 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

fruit is consequently imperfect, and the vine it- 
self becomes a prey to mildew. When, there- 
fore, a person who has enfeebled vines a couple 
of years old by letting them carry twenty or 
more bunches of fruit, says to you that such 
kinds "won't do well with him," you will un- 
derstand that the fault lies in his treatment, 
and not in the vine. He has overdone the 
thing, and the work of his own hands condemns 
him. The ill effects of overcropping are not 
confined to the grape ; they are more or less 
seen in all kinds of fruits. Let nothing, there- 
fore, tempt you into overcropping your vines; 
justice to yourself, to others, and to the vines, 
demands this. 

We may as well correct here a common mis- 
apprehension, that the largest wood is the best 
for fruit. This is not so ; the best grapes are 
produced on medium-sized wood, round, short- 
jointed, and having full, plump buds ; and the 
second bud from the base will produce larger 
bunches than the first ; hence the advantage of 
the double spur, in which we use the first bud 
for wood, and the second for fruit. 

A word or two in regard to the safety valves. 
If there is one to each arm in the double arm 
system, and there never should be more than 



GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF AKMS. 

one, their management is easy. Many years 
ago, in making some experiments, we found that 
a cane left to grow below the bend in the arm 
exercised considerable influence in equalizing 
action in the arm; in other words, we discov- 
ered a less disposition to extreme growth at the 
end of the arm, the spurs near the stock being 
about as strong as those near the end, and in 
some cases even stronger. This, with us, was 
the origin of the safety valve. We were not 
then as familiar with the effects of pinching as 
we have learned to be in later years, and used 
to bend the safety valve down to a greater or 
less angle, as we wished to modify action in the 
arm. Pinching or bending the safety valve, or 
both, will give us a very considerable control 
over action in the arm, if recourse is had to 
them at the right time. This is the general 
principle which governs the safety valve, and 
the reader will be able to apply it for himself. 

The upright canes in the Guyot plan should 
be used in the same way, though we used the 
safety valve years before we heard of Guyot. 
We may remark here, that to obtain the full 
benefit of the upright canes, the spur from 
which they are grown should be below the bend 
in the arm, and not, as in the Guyot proper, 



328 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

above it. This is readily done by making the 
arm from the tipper cane. In this system, we 
have found that two canes are as many as should 
be used. If more are used, the action is diverted 
too strongly from the arm. A friend, who grows 
a part of his vineyard on the Guyot plan, meet- 
ing with the same difficulty, we advised him to 
lay down one of the canes at right angles with 
the permanent arm, and let it carry a little more 
fruit. This he has done for four years past with 
satisfactory results, thus combining the renewal 
and the permanent arm. This would be a good 
plan to follow in some cases, while the vines are 
young. The rule should be, not to have more 
than two safety valves. If more action is 
needed in the arm, the uprights must be 
pinched ; and if this is not sufficient, they must 
be bent to an angle, but restored again if ac- 
tion becomes too great at the end of the arm. 

In conclusion, a general supervision should 
be exercised, to see that every thing is done at 
the right time and in the right manner. Such 
supervision should never be intrusted to negli- 
gent or incompetent hands. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

STAKES AND TRELLISES. 

Trellises. This is a subject of no little im- 
portance, not alone because it is a necessity, 
but also because of its considerable cost, what- 
ever form it may take. Various forms have 
been proposed and used, few of which need be 
noticed here, since they are mostly wanting in 
either durability or convenience. Something 
" cheap " seems to have been the leading idea 
in most of the contrivances that have been sug- 
gested ; that is very desirable in itself, but it is 
not all. What is wanted is, not something 
that is cheap as a part, but something that is 
cheap as a whole. We have seen some con- 
trivances in this way that " ate themselves up" 
in less than ten years, and a good trellis be- 
sides. 

Where stakes alone are used, there is nothing 
so good and durable as red cedar and yellow 



330 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



locust. The chestnut is next in value; the 
oak, also, is tolerably lasting. The bark should 
in all cases be removed from the portion put in 
the ground, since, in decaying, it produces va- 
rious forms of fungi, some at least of which 
are hurtful to the vine. 

One of the simplest forms of trellis is that 
shown in Fig. 126. If made entirely of cedar, 



Fig. 126. 



it will be quite durable; and by putting it 
carefully and neatly together, it can be made 
to assume a considerable degree of rustic 
beauty. If cedar is not plenty, common " hoop 
poles " may be used for the horizontal pieces. 
If cedar or locust is not used for the posts, it 
soon goes to pieces. When made altogether of 
cedar, it is one of the best forms of wooden 
trellis that can be used. If the system of 
training should make it desirable, the poles can 



STAKES AND TRELLISES. 



331 



be placed vertically instead of horizontally ; in 
which case none but the top and bottom hor- 
izontal poles will be needed. This trellis can 




Fig. 127. 

be made of any height desired. The ends of 
the posts should be cut off about three inches 
above the top piece. 




Fig. 128. 

Another kind of wooden trellis is shown in 



332 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



Fig. 127. In this the strips are upright, and the 
posts quite stout. The construction is so sim- 
ple as to be easily understood from the en- 
graving. This kind of trellis will suit the 
"fan" form of training, (Fig. 88, p. 153,) or 
any other in which the canes cross the uprights 
angularly. If used for horizontal arms, like 
Fig. 128, (which is an example of reversed 



Fig. 129. 



arms,) it is exceedingly inconvenient, as the up- 
rights seldom come where they are wanted. 
In this instance, however, the stock is to be 
carried higher, as shown in Fig. 129, which is a 



STAKES AND TRELLISES. 333 




334 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

part of the very extended and complicated sys- 
tem of Bronner. 

But the best of all trellises for the vineyard 
is that made of wire supported by cedar or lo- 
cust posts. Its first cost is greater than most 
other kinds, but it is cheaper in the end. 
When well made, it is not only of great dura- 
bility, but 'it is always in order and always 
ready for use. Fig. 130 is a trellis of this kind. 
It was made for growing several tiers of arms 
on, like the Thomery, and is consequently 
much higher than is needed for vineyard use. 

A trellis should be firm, the posts securely 
set in the ground, the wires made so tight as 
not to sway in the wind, and with the means 
of being loosened in winter. We will explain 
how this may be done. A hole should be dug 
about four feet deep, and in connection with it, 
and in a line with the trellis, a trench of the 
same depth, and eight or ten feet long. A cedar 
of this length, and of considerable stoutness, 
should have a hole or socket at one end for 
the end of the post to rest in securely, and the 
other end notched for a brace, which should 
also be of cedar or locust. The manner of fix- 
ing the post in the ground will be made plain 
enough by an examination of Fig. 131, in which 



STAKES AND TKELLISES. 



335 



the fine line denotes the ground level. It will 
be seen that this arrangement fixes the post im- 
movably in its place. All the end posts are to 
be fixed in this way. If the trellis is long, 
smaller posts must be put in at intervals, but 




sufficiently close to give proper support to the 
wire, which will be twelve, fifteen, or twenty 
feet apart, according to circumstances and the 
weight of the wire. 



336 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Some good mode of tightening the wires has 
always been a desideratum ; indeed, the trouble 
and vexation of doing this has deterred some 
from using a wire trellis. There are two or 
three plans that will accomplish the purpose ; 
but we are enabled to present one so simple and 
effectual that it will be unnecessary to describe 
any other. It consists only of an iron pin with 
a square head, as shown at A in Fig. 132. It 




Pig. 132. 

should be about six inches long and half an inch 
in diameter, or about the size of a common bed 
screw. About two inches from the end it should 
have a small hole pierced through it for holding 
the end of the wire. It can be readily and 
cheaply made by any blacksmith. The pin is 
driven into the post about half its length, as 
shown at B, which is a section of the post. 
The pin being driven into the post, the wire 



STAKES AND TRELLISES. 337 

must be drawn as tight as it can be by hand, 
the end passed through the small hole, and the 
pin twined a few times around. If a bed wrench, 
or any of the wrenches in common use, be put 
on the square head of the pin and turned, the 
wire can be made literally as " tight as a fiddle 
string." This is a simple and effective contriv- 
ance within the reach of all. If the end posts 
are not pretty stout, the top wires should be 
tightened first, and it would be better to do so 
in all cases. Turning the pin in reversed order 
will loosen the wire as much as may be desired 
in winter. 

Fig. 133 is the form of trellis which should be 
used- for the Guyot plan of training. The small 
posts that extend above the wires are for tying 
the long canes or safety valves to, a vine being 
planted at each post. 

Fig. 134 is th*e proper form of trellis for 
double horizontal arms. If two tiers of arms are 
grown, it is only necessary to make the trellis 
higher. 

There are other forms of trellis, but they are 
so much less desirable than those just given, 
that it seems hardly worth while to illustrate 
them. 

In regard to wire, it is now used of much less 

22 



338 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 




STAKES AND TRELLISES. 339 

size than was common some years ago. The 
numbers most frequently used now are from ten 
to fourteen. It should either be annealed or gal- 
vanized, the last being the best, but costing 
about double. There are two kinds of wire, 
hard coal and charcoaL The former is very 
brittle, and wears away pretty fast by oxyda- 
tion, and is therefore not the best for the vine- 
yard. Charcoal wire is tough, pliant, and dur- 
able, and is the kind that should be used. We 
have found No. 14 of this wire abundantly 
strong. 

If posts other than cedar or yellow locust are 
used, the portion put in the ground should be 
covered with coal tar, or, better still, plastic slate. 
Both should be applied when the posts are dry, 
and the coal tar will be more effectual if warmed 
before it is put on. The plastic slate is mixed 
with coal tar, and applied with a whitewash 
brush. 



CHAPTER XX. 

CULTIVATION WINTER MANAGEMENT M ARKET- 

ING GROWING PLANTS BETWEEN THE ROWS 

HOW TO KEEP GRAPES IN WINTER SHELTER 

FOR PROTECTION AND RIPENING MANURES 

NON-MANURING. 

Cultivation. The object of cultivation may 
be considered as two-fold : the intermingling 
and ameliorating of the soil in such a thorough 
manner as to make it a fit " house of entertain- 
ment " for plant food ; and keeping the surface 
mellow and clean, so as to maintain a healthy 
root action ; the two comprehending tillage, 
which has in view the health of the vine, and 
the ripening and excellence of the. fruit. The 
first point is best accomplished by fall plowing, 
which may be repeated in a very stiff new soil, 
so as to more thoroughly break it up and inter- 
mingle it, and expose all its parts to the action of 
the air, and the ameliorating influence of winter. 
The second is accomplished by plowing again 



CULTIVATION. 341 

in the spring, and the proper use of weeders and 
cultivators during the growing season. The 
plowing should not at any time be so deep as to 
cut the large or primary roots. The small hairy 
or fibrous roots near the surface may be plowed 
at the end of the season without injury. 

It will give the reader a clearer idea of this 
part of the subject if we repeat a part of what 
has elsewhere been said. We have noted the 
importance of having the primary roots pro- 
ceed from the crown of the plant, and of having 
the crown at a suitable distance beneath the 
surface, according to the nature of the soil in 
which it is planted. If another system of pri- 
mary roots is allowed to establish itself above 
the first, and take possession of the soil near 
the surface, it will, by degrees, if left to it- 
self, appropriate the chief part of the root 
action, and to that extent ..weaken the lower 
system, if not ultimately destroy it; besides, 
cultivation is seriously interfered with, and 
the vine made liable to suffer from drought. 
Now, the young vine has a strong disposition to 
emit primary roots from the stock very near the 
surface. These, therefore, should be removed 
when they first appear, and not left to attain 
size. It is just here that a mistake is often 



342 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

made, in allowing the disposition to become es- 
tablished, and then a good deal of time and labor 
.must be wasted in trying to correct it. It is an 
accepted rule, that it is best to break bad habits 
in childhood, since it is then easiest done. If, 
when weeding with the hoe, the soil be drawn 
from around the stock a few inches deep, it can 
readily be seen whether such roots have formed 
or are about forming, and it is a very easy matter 
to remove them. It takes but a moment, and 
is a very much better plan than to leave them 
till they get large and in the way. By persever- 
ing, for a while, in removing the roots as they 
appear, the disposition to make them will be 
overcome, and will be assisted by the increasing 
age of the plant. The object, then, should be 
to keep the stock free from roots for a few inches 
beneath the surface ; thorough cultivation, in- 
deed, up to the stock of the plant, would almost 
regulate this matter of itself. 

Let the novice remember that the primary 
roots must not be cut and dragged to the sur- 
face, and we will proceed to describe two kinds 
of plowing, the application of which he will now 
readily understand. As plowing can not well 
be done till the vines are pruned, this should be 
done soon after the fall of the leaf. Of the two 



CULTIVATION. 343 

kinds of plowing alluded to, one consists in be- 
ginning next the vines and turning the furrow 
slice to the vines, which may be called applow- 
ing, or plowing to the vines ; the other consists 
in beginning in the middle of the row, and 
turning the furrow slice from the vines, which 
may be called deplowing, or plowing from the 
vines. In deplowing, the dead furrow is left 
next the vines ; in applowing, it is in the middle 
of the row. When this dead furrow is needed 
to carry off surface water, it should be finished 
by hand with the hoe. The reader will get a 
tolerably good idea of deplowing by examining 
Fig. 40, p. 93, in which, however, there are 
only two farrow slices, in consequence of the 
vines being planted close together. The num- 
ber of slices will be in proportion to the width 
of the rows. 

In plowing, much time and many steps will 
be saved by beginning and turning at the right 
place. It will assist the beginner if we give an 
illustration, by taking the space between two 
rows of vines running east and west, and divid- 
ing this space by an imaginary line through the 
middle, calling the space on the north the upper 
side, and the space on the south the lower side. 
We will describe the operation of applowing, or 



344 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

plowing to the vines, which will leave the dead 
furrow in the middle, or where the imaginary 
line is. Beginning on the upper side, enter the 
plow three or four inches deep, and throw a 
furrow slice to the vines. When the end of the 
row is reached, turn to the lower side, enter the 
plow as before, and turn a slice to the vines; 
after which, go to the upper side again, and 
turn a slice into the furrow first opened; then 
to the lower side, and turn a slice into the open 
furrow there ; then again to the upper side, and 
so repeat till the space between the rows is all 
plowed. The dead furrow will be through the 
middle. Deplowing, or plowing from the vines, 
consists in beginning at the middle or the dead 
furrow, and reversing these furrow slices, which 
fills the dead furrow, and finishes by leaving the 
ground as it was at the beginning. Having 
explained and illustrated the meaning of ap- 
plowing and deplowing, we shall now be able 
to apply these terms without further circumlo- 
cution. We may remark here, that plowing 
should never be done when the soil is wet. 

Soils that are new, heavy, or stiff are specially 
benefited by fall plowing, which mellows them, 
makes them easier to work, and better fitted for 
sustaining the vines. For such soils proceed as 



CULTIVATION. 345 

follows : Early in November, the vines having 
been first pruned, deplow, and harrow well with 
a coulter harrow or a cultivator. In from one 
to two weeks, applow and harrow. The vines 
are now to be laid down, and covered by ap- 
plowing, and the dead furrow, where necessary 
to carry off water, cleaned out with a hoe, re- 
moving the " balk" or little ridge left by the 
plow. This may seem like a good deal of labor, 
but for new or stiff soils the advantages are 
sufficiently great to warrant the labor; -.r. 

For ordinary mellow soils, the following is 
the proper course : The vines having been 
pruned as soon as the leaves fall, are laid down, 
covered by applowing, and the ground har- 
rowed. The dead furrow through the middle 
of the row is then put in condition for carrying 
off water, and the vineyard is prepared for its 
winter rest ; in some sense, it may be said to 
have been put to bed and blanketed. In the 
spring, deplowing will fill up the dead furrow 
and uncover the vines, which should at once be 
tied to the wires to prevent loss by accident. 
The ground should then be thoroughly har- 
rowed. If the common harrow is used, the 
ground beneath the surface is packed ; but with 
the coulter harrow or a cultivator it is not only 



346 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

broken up, but left porous. The cultivator or 
the coulter harrow should, therefore, be used in 
the vineyard instead of the spike harrow. 

The operation that has just been described 
combines so admirably the advantages of winter 
covering and fall plowing, that it ought to be 
universally adopted. The primary roots are 
not cut and dragged to the surface, as they often 
are, even within a foot of the stock ; on the con- 
trary, they are not only not damaged in this 
way, but an additional covering is placed over 
them. The ground is mellowed and aerated, 
and when reversed in the spring by deplowing, 
is charged with ammonia and other erases, as 

O O / 

well as the liquid manure absorbed from the top 
dressing, all of which are placed within reach 
of the mouths of the plant ready for appropri- 
ation, and the new growth starts with a healthy 
vigor which it will maintain throughout the 
season, unless checked by unusual atmospheric 
conditions. These are great and substantial ad- 
vantages, which should not be lightly esteemed. 
Those, however, who plow in the fall very much 
as if -the vine were not a thing of life, and sen- 
sitive to the mangling of its vital parts, should 
leave nature to take care of the roots during the 
winter. When the vine is young and lusty 



CULTIVATION. 

with vigor, it may not harm it much to check 
it in this way ; but the practice can not be per- 
sisted in without damage. 

When the plowing is done, there will be a 
narrow slip along the vines which has not been 
moved by the plow. This must be thoroughly 
broken up with either the pronged hoe (some- 
times called a potato hook) or the pronged 
spade ; and which is best we have found to de- 
pend a good deal upon the countryman that 
uses them. In stiff or stony soils, a stout dou- 
ble pronged hoe, like Fig. 135, is used. This 




Fig. 135. 



instrument is also used for working the soil on 
steep hill-sides, where the plow can not be run. 
It is in common use by nurserymen, and is a 
very good implement to have at hand for various 
purposes. In deplowing in the fall, tne un- 
moved strip along the vines must be moved by 
hand at the time of plowing, so as to leave the 
stock of the vines in the open furrow. 



348 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

After the ground is plowed and harrowed, 
there is one object which must be kept steadily, 
in view, and that is, to keep the soil mellow 
and free from weeds. For weeding, we have 
used nothing so good as the improved horse- 
hoe, made of steel, and fitted with an adjusta- 
ble w^heel and clevis. It can be expanded from 
one to three feet wide, and has different sets of 
teeth, one for cutting weeds and stirring the 
soil, another for turning one or two light furrow 
slices, and so On. With a single horse it may be 
run from one to three inches deep. With this 
implement the soil may be easily kept clean and 
mellow. The reader, however, should try va- 
rious implements as they come into use, and re- 
tain those which are best adapted to the pur- 
pose. Implements are not yet perfect. The 
time to weed is just as soon and as often as the 
weeds can be seen, or just as they are leaving 
the seed leaf. The labor is then comparatively 
light and easy, but it becomes very hard work 
when the weeds get large enough to dispute the 
ground with you. It is also desirable to stir 
the ground as soon after heavy rains as it be- 
comes dry enough to work. 

The slip along the vines not stirred by the 
horse hoe must be weeded by hand. When the 



CULTIVATION 349 

soil ' is light and mellow, and not stony, the 
pushing hoe will be found more convenient than 
the draw hoe ; but better than either, and com- 
bining the advantages of both, is a recently in- 
troduced triangular hoe with a double cutting 
edge, being an easy tool to handle, and very 
thorough in its work. It is one of the few hor- 
ticultural implements in which the true princi- 
ple of cutting is introduced ; in other words, it 
makes an angular instead of a square cut. All 
square cutting weeders are imperfect, and in- 
ventors should bear this in mind. After mid 




Fig. 136. 

season, the skim teeth should be used on the 
horse hoe. In general terms, begin the season 
by running the hoe two or three inches deep, 
and gradually lessen the depth, till at last only 
the surface is stirred. The novice will soon 
learn to adapt his implements to the purpose. 
We introduce Figs. 136, 137, 138, 139, as ex- 



350 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



amples of implements in use among the French. 
We have never used them, but they have the 
appearance of being good of their kind. Some 




* 
*Wl v' wv~"~^ ^C* *-~^* 

Fig. 1ST. 



reader may take a fancy to some of them, and 
have them made for trial. They bear a close 
resemblance to implements' already in use 
among us, which can doubtless be improved. 
We have several times imported foreign imple- 




Fig. 138. 



ments, but never found them to excel our own, 
except in clumsiness and weight ; and it would, 



WINTER MANAGEMENT. 351 

therefore, be better to have them made here 
rather than import them. Fig. 136 is a plow. 
Fig. 137 is used as a substitute for the plow, 
turning two small furrow slices. Fig. 138 is a 
Jt cultivator, or weeder. Fig. 139 is 
^^jyL a triangular hoe, used for the same 
fflj m purpose as Fig. 135, above. 

li WJ Winter Management. There 
^H| Wr are some matters connected with 
IVi the winter care of the vineyard 
A which are too important to be 
If w overlooked, chief among which is 
covering. This, in some portions 
of the country, is a necessity, and 
Kg. 139. in most others an advantage suffi- 
ciently great to warrant the trouble. Its ob- 
ject is to protect the buds and wood as well as 
the roots from being injured or killed by the 
severity or changes of the winter. It is sup- 
posed by some that covering the vines causes 
them to start earlier in the spring, and in that 
respect is an advantage ; but early starting is no 
advantage, and covering has no such effect ; on 
the contrary, it retards the spring growth, and 
that is a real advantage. Others suppose that 
covering "makes the crop finer;" but it can 
have no effect in making it finer : it can only 



352 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



preserve what is already there. Its effect is sim- 
ply preservative, and in this respect it is very 
important. 

There are several modes of covering the vine ; 
some use the spade and others the plow for 
throwing earth over the vines, while still others 
cover with brush. There has been a supposed 
difficulty in bending the stock of the vine, and 
several methods are used for overcoming it. 




/ 




Fig. 140. Fig. 141. 

One plan is to set the trellis from six inches to 
a foot in front of the vines, and bring the 
stock up to the wire at an angle. In this way 
the stock is very easily bent to the ground. 
Another method is to plant the vines as usual, 
start the arms near the surface, and carry them 



WINTER MANAGEMENT. 353 

to the wire at about an angle of forty-five de- 
grees before bending them horizontally. This 
is the plan of Dr. May, shown in Fig. 87, p. 152. 

Where only a few vines are grown, they are 
pegged down and covered with the spade. 
Vines that are grown against walls and build- 
ings receive from these generally as much pro- 
tection as they need ; but if more is thought to 
be necessary, as may sometimes be the case, 
they can be bent down and covered with earth 
or brush. For this purpose nothing is better 
than branches of hemlock or cedar. The vines 
are sometimes bedded in straw, which affords a 
good protection; but there is this objection to 
it, that 'it harbors mice, which often destroy the 
vines. Manure litter is objectionable for the 
same reason. If it should not be desirable or 
convenient to lay the vines down, they may be 
protected by laying straw mats against them 
on the trellis. Buildings and walls, however, 
present such favorable conditions for the growth 
of the vine, that the wood becomes thoroughly 
ripe and hardy, and hence, as a general rule, 
needs no further protection than these afford. 

Figs. 140 and 141 show a good plan of pre- 
paring the vines for covering, in which each 
alternate vine is placed just beneath the sur- 

23 



354 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

face, as seen at a in Fig. 140, and the others on 
the surface, as seen in Fig. 141. All modes of 
covering are defective which expose the roots, 
or leave the ground in such condition as to 
favor the accumulation of water in any degree 
whatever. After the vines are laid down, they 
should be covered by applowing, or plowing to 
the vines, as explained under " Cultivation" In 
this way, the roots as well as the tops are 
covered and protected, and fall plowing thus 
becomes an advantage instead of an evil, as it 
is when done in the usual way. In the spring, 
the vines are uncovered by deplowing, or throw- 
ing the furrow slices from the vines, as also ex- 
plained under "Cultivation" In this way spring 
plowing and uncovering the vines become one 
and the same operation, and much time is 
saved. 

In the common method the stock is bent 
down toward the middle of the row, covered 
with the plow, and the finishing done by hand 
with the hoe. When the vines are bent down, 
they must either be pegged, or enough earth 
thrown on the stock to keep it down. The 
covering of soil need not be more than two 
or three inches thick. Where cedar or hem- 
lock is abundant, the vines may be pegged 



WINTER MANAGEMENT. 355 

down and covered with brush. It is better to 
place the vines so as to be covered with snow 
than not to cover them at all. 

In localities subject to late frosts, the vines 
should be left covered as long as possible, which 
generally has the effect of retarding the growth, 
and thus secures a degree of immunity from in- 
jury from this cause ; besides, if not started till 
the weather becomes settled, an unchecked 
growth is made, which is in all respects a great 
benefit to the vine. Care must be taken, how- 
ever, not to leave them down too long. When 
taken up, they should at once be tied to the 
stake or wire, as the case may be, taking every 
precaution not to injure the buds. 

There is a prevalent cause of " winter kill- 
ing," especially in young vines, which seems not 
to be generally understood. We refer to stand- 
ing water. This should not be allowed in the 
vineyard at any time. The water thataccumu- 
lates around the stock in little pools is a source 
of much injury, both in summer and winter. 
Where applowing is not done in the fall to 
cover the vines, or where brush is used as a 
covering, a man should go through the vine- 
yard with a hoe before the ground freezes, and 
round the earth up against the stock of every 



356 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

vine that has a depression around it where 
water can settle. 

The trellis wires should be moderately 
loosened in winter. The bark of the posts 
affords a convenient harbor for insects ; this 
might, therefore, be stripped off in winter, and 
the cracks and crevices filled with soap or coal 
tar. A general supervision of the vineyard is 
almost as necessary in the winter as in the 
summer. 

Marketing. Those who grow grapes for 
profit as well as pleasure will appreciate this 
part of the subject. The object here is to get 
the fruit to market in such form and condition 
as to realize the highest price. Ripeness is the 
first consideration. It is unnecessary to repeat 
here what we have elsewhere said on this sub- 
ject. The grapes should be well ripened before 
being gathered. Baskets and boxes are used 
for receiving the bunches as they are gathered, 
the ordinary bushel basket being in common 
use in some places, but a shallow basket is 
much better. The bunches should be cut with 
scissors, and handled so carefully as not to rub 
off the bloom. The best scissors for the pur- 
pose are those which hold the bunch when cut, 
called grape-gathering scissors 



MAEKETING. 357 

When gathered, they should be carried to 
the packing-house, or some other suitable place 
under cover, where they are to be prepared and 
assorted for market. There should be a smooth, 
clean table in the room, on which the bunches 
should be carefully laid as they are prepared. 
The packer can then assort them without un- 
necessary handling, which destroys the bloom. 
Having the bunches in full view, he is enabled 
to take up the best, or the second best, as may 
suit his purpose, and they are at once packed in 
boxes without handling again. 

The preparation is done as follows : Being 
provided with a pair of sharp-pointed scissors, 
called grape scissors, each bunch is taken up 
carefully by the foot-stalk, and all the unripe, 
imperfect, and bruised berries cut out. As this 
is done, the bunches are laid on the table, and 
the packer takes charge of them. They should 
be assorted into at least two qualities, the first 
comprising the largest an finest bunches. Par- 
ties can always be found who will take such 
grapes at an advance that will pay handsomely 
for the additional labor. This is one of the 
chief secrets of success in fruit-growing. As 
soon as it becomes known that your best and 
ripest grapes are put up fairly and honestly, a 



,358 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

demand will be created for them ; they will be 
sought after, and not have to go begging for 
customers. It should be the aim of the novice 
to establish such a reputation from the start. 
It is only too common a practice to pack the 
bunches as they come, with a few good ones on 
the top as a decoy : a species of deception which 
is sure to be discovered sooner or later, and fol- 
lowed by its appropriate reward. 

There will be some bunches too small and 
others too loose for market, besides ." odds and 
ends." The small and loose bunches can be 
sold for a less price, or kept for home consump- 
tion, or, if the variety is a wine grape, those 
that are thoroughly ripe can be made into wine ; 
otherwise they can be put with the " odds and 
ends," and made into vinegar, w x hich always 
commands a good price. There need be noth- 
ing lost. We hope, however, that no reader of 
this book will attempt to make wine from un- 
ripe or imperfect grapes. 

Boxes and baskets of various forms and sizes 
are used for marketing. If baskets are used, 
they should be strong, and have wooden covers, 
provided with lock and key. . Wooden boxes 
are much to be preferred to baskets. There are 
several in use which answer the purpose well. 



MARKETING. 359 

Small boxes packed in crates, however, are the 
most convenient for marketing grapes. The 
best that we have seen are those used by Mr. 
Wagener. The crate is eighteen and a half 
inches long, nine and a quarter wide, and eight 
and five eighths deep. The ends are made of 
inch board ; the two sides are formed of three 
laths one inch and a half w^ide, one at the 
top and bottom, and one in the middle ; and 
the top and bottom are formed of two laths, 
dividing each into three equal spaces. A nar- 
row strip of half inch stuff is nailed on each 
end for handles or ears. The boxes are nine 
inches long, six inches wide, and four and a 
quarter deep, made of scale board an eighth of 
an inch thick. They are made by French & 
Co., of Pulteney, N. Y. The boxes hold five 
pounds, and the crate six boxes, making thirty 
pounds. These crates are of convenient size, 
carry well, and are easily handled. Their cost 
is trifling, and they are not generally expected 
to be returned. For small quantities of a few 
pounds, fancy and plain pasteboard boxes 'are 
sometimes used ; but they should be packed in 
wooden crates, to prevent them from being 
crushed, and the fruit spoiled. 

It requires some skill and experience to pack 



360 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

grapes so that there shall be no space to permit 
of jarring in handling the boxes, and no crushed 
fruit. It is a kind of knowledge that can be 
acquired by practice alone. In handling, care 
should be taken at all times not to rub the 
bloom from the berries, and thus mar their 
beauty. 

We may remark in conclusion, that while 
poorly ripened and ill-assorted grapes are often 
sold with difficulty at low rates, those that are 
ripe and selected with care are uniformly sought 
after at high prices. 

And here we would add a concluding word 
to every fruit grower upon the advantage of 
earning a good reputation for growing the best 
kinds in their greatest excellence, and also for 
fairness in all the operations of preparing them 
for market, so that the " brand," when once in- 
troduced and known, shall be eagerly sought 
after by all consumers. Such reputation and 
superiority, it is true, can only be acquired by 
high culture and a strict regard of the morali- 
ties as respects both the man and the business ; 
but it produces that fine, manly development 
of the faculties which should be the emulation 
of all pursuits, and for which grape culture 
affords such a generous scope. No one need 



GROWING PLANTS BETWEEN THE Eows. 361 

fear that a time will ever come when the supe- 
riority that results from a high degree of skill 
in the management of the vine will fail to meet 
a correspondingly high pecuniary reward. 

Tying. It will do no harm to repeat the 
caution against tying too tight. Young canes 
are often tied so tight as to be cut nearly in 
two as they increase in size. The object of 
tying is simply to keep the cane in its place, 
and the string should be sufficiently loose to 
admit of a little play, which not only avoids 
cutting, but prevents the canes from being 
broken short off at the point of tying, an acci- 
dent which often happens. Arms, in being laid 
down, sometimes require to be tied firmly ; but 
in such cases the string must be loosened in 
good time. A small rope of straw may be 
used for tying the arms, and left to take care 
of itself. 

Should Plants le Grown between the Hows ? 
This question has no little importance, and 
should not be overlooked. There seems to be 
a great reluctance to give up the whole ground 
to the grape, especially when it is young. 
There can be no question that the vines will be 
all the better for having the soil entirely to 
themselves, and the best advice we can give is, 



362 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

to grow nothing between the rows ; not even a 
weed. 

How to Keep Grapes in Winter. Grapes 
have been supposed to be difficult to keep in 
winter; but they are about as easily kept as 
apples .or pears. All kinds, however, will not 
keep any more than all kinds of apples or 
pears. The keeping qualities depend upon 
the character of the flesh, which must be 
meaty to keep well; the Diana and lona are 
consequently good keepers ; but one might as 
well try to keep a Jargonelle pear as a Concord 
grape. Some kinds will keep longer than others, 
the best at the last drying into good raisins, 
showing but little tendency to decay. The con- 
ditions are, a moderately cool, dry, still air. 
These may be found in a suitable room (not 
artificially heated) of a cool, uniform temper- 
ature. 

Sulphite of lime has been successfully used 
for absorbing the moisture of fruit rooms, and 
this may be employed advantageously in any 
room where much fruit is kept. The lime may 
be placed in a trough standing on legs, and 
fitted with a faucet for drawing off the water 
absorbed. The lime may be dried and used 
again. A refuse product from, the salt works 



How TO KEEP G-RAPES IN WINTER. 363 

is used on a large scale. * The French sometimes 
make a rack, the cross pieces having circular 
holes on the sides for suspending bottles by the 




Fig. 142. 

neck, as shown in Fig. 142. The bottles are 
filled .with water, in which a portion of cane, 




Fig. 148. 

with the grapes attached, is placed. In this 
way they will keep good for some time. ." An- 



364 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



other mode of keeping small quantities is to 
suspend them from hoops in the manner shown 
in Fig. 143. The hoops are provided with 
small wire hooks, from which the bunches are 
suspended with the stem end down. On a large 
scale, a frame is made resembling an arbor, 
from which the grapes are suspended as shown 
in Fig. 144. By multiplying the cross pieces, 
large quantities may be keDt in this way. 




Fig. 144. 

In house rooms, under the conditions hereto- 
fore named, grapes may be kept in a closet, or 
in a bureau drawer. Clean white paper should 
be spread on the bottom, and the bunches 
placed on the paper singly, so that they do not 
touch each other. The drawer should be kept 
partly open till the weather gets cold, when it 



How TO KEEP GRAPES IN WINTER. 365 

must be closed. But the best of all arrange- 
ments for keeping grapes in rooms is that 
shown in Fig. 145. It may be made of any 
convenient size, so as to hold from one to three 
hundred pounds of grapes. Its manner of con- 




Fig. 145. 



struction will be readily understood from an 
examination of the engraving. The drawers 
should be deep enough for one layer of grapes, 
or about four or five inches, and the bottom 



366 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

made of slats. The bunches must be carefully 
laid on the bottom, and not touch each other. 
When filled, the lid must be raised and propped 
up, and the door opened, and remain so till 
the weather gets cold, when the lid must be let 
down and the door closed, and kept so. Venti- 
lation will not be needed except on an occa- 




Fig. 146. 

sional warm day, when the door and lid may 
be opened for a while. A little frost will do 
no harm; but if there should be danger of 
freezing, it may be prevented by throwing a 
blanket over the chest. In this way some kinds 
of grapes may be kept till spring. Fig, 146 
shows the chest closed. 



SHELTERS FOR PROTECTING AND KIPENING. 367 

For winter keeping, only the best and evenly 
ripened grapes should be selected. All bruised 
and imperfect berries should be cut out, and 
the bloom preserved as far as possible, for it has 
something to do with the keeping of the fruit. 
The bunches should be gathered when they are 
dry, and handled with care, so as not to loosen 
the berries from the stalk. Whether suspended 
from wires or laid in drawers, the bunches 
should not come in immediate contact with each 
other, and they should not be handled, except 
to remove decaying berries. Ventilation should 
be regulated with reference to a uniformly low 
temperature, ranging from five to ten above the 
freezing point. Much moisture in the air 
should be provided against, either by removing 
the cause of it, or, where this can not be done, 
using some good absorbent, such as the sulphite 
or chloride of lime. If moisture is deposited 
on the fruit, it is apt to produce mildew. With 
these precautions, grapes may be kept well 
during the winter. 

Shelters for Protecting and Ripening Fruit. 
It sometimes happens that a temporary shel- 
ter, even for a single night, will save a vine from 
an early frost, thereby adding two or three 
weeks to the season, and insuring the full matu- 



368 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



rity of the crop. It may be some favorite vine, 
the fruit of which is highly prized, or it may be 
a new kind which we are anxious to test, and 
an unseasonable frost, if not provided against, 
will blight our hopes. In such cases, a shelter 
like that shown in Fig. 147 will serve to protect 
a single vine, or a whole row, as the case may 
be. The cover can be made of straw, or thin 
boards ; or a light frame may be made, and 




Fig. 147. 

covered with brown muslin, which might hang 
over the sides a foot or so with advantage. The 
manner of bracing the posts is plainly seen in 
the engraving. It is in use by the French. 

Fig. 148 shows an arrangement for protecting 
vines growing against walls. Though intended 
for the first two rows of a Thomery, it can be 



SHELTERS FOR PROTECTING AND EIPENING. 369 



made narrower, and used for any wall. It is 
the application that we want to illustrate here. 
The projecting cap or eave, No. 1, is of itself a 
good protector ; but if more should become de. 
sirable or necessary, then the sash, No. 2, may 
be used, and will protect the two front rows. 
It may be let down as shown at No. 4. If No. 
3 is used, then we have a protection that can 
not fail to secure the crop in full maturity. 




Fig. 148. 

The principle may be extended so as to protect 
a full Thomery. Where sashes and similar con- 
veniences are not at hand, straw mats, pieces of 
carpet, or muslin, may be suspended from the 
cap of the wall or fence. If protectors such 
as we have described, or something similar, are 
used in a small way, so as to make their advan- 

24 



370 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

tages apparent, it will not be long before they 
become somewhat general in the vineyard. If 
it be first demonstrated on a small scale that 
the gain is very much more than enough to 
pay for the additional labor and expense, self- 
interest, if no other motive, will in time make 
shelter a necessary appurtenance of the vine- 
yard. To encourage such trial is the object of 
introducing the illustrations. 

Manures. A few additional words on 
manures will not be out of place. We should 
depend chiefly upon barn-yard manure com- 
posted with muck. It should be prepared at 
least one year before it is used, by being laid up 
and repeatedly turned, till it has become thor- 
oughly decomposed or carbonized. The leaves 
from the vines, or some from the woods, should 
be added to the heap, as may also most other 
things that go to the barn-yard, but all must be 
thoroughly decomposed. And let it be always 
remembered, in saving barn-yard manure, that 
the liquid is always of very much more value 
than the solid portion. Besides furnishing in 
itself the most precious of fertilizing materials, 
it performs the important office of a solvent, 
thus rendering available many essential mate- 
rials already in the soil, but which can not be 



MANURES. 371 

appropriated till they are made soluble. Spe- 
cial manures, such as ashes, bone-dust, etc., are 
best applied as top-dressings. The prunings 
should be dried and burned, and the ashes 
spread on the surface. We must apply nothing 
to the vineyard, either in kind or quantity, that 
will produce a gross, succulent growth. The 
time to apply manure is in the fall, after ap- 
plowing has been done. The fall rains will dis- 
solve a part of it, and carry it down a few 
inches, and the remainder will be covered 
when deplowing is done in the spring. There 
is some waste, to be sure, but it can not 
be helped ; for we can not apply and plow in 
the manure as we would for a crop of corn. 
The feeding roots of the vine adjust themselves 
near the surface, and the rains carry the manure 
quite deep enough for their appropriation. 

How often manures should be applied will de- 
pend upon circumstances. In a soil that is natu- 
rally very rich and deep, it should be applied only 
at long intervals, except it may be ashes ; while 
in one that is lean it should be applied more 
frequently. The condition of vigor in the vine 
should guide us in some degree in the applica- 
tion of manure, but we should by all means 
avoid letting the vines " run down" for want of 



3T2 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

nourishment in the soil. Manuring the vine- 
yard is one of those cases in which we must be 
guided chiefly by our good judgment, avoiding 
the two extremes of rankness or poverty of 
growth. 

Non-Manwing. We have already cautioned 
the student against overmanuring, or making 
the soil too rich. A word or two in regard to 
the opposite extreme will not be out of place 
There are some virgin soils so rich in plant food 
as not to need the addition of manure at the 
time of planting, and for some few years after- 
ward. There are others that need the addition 
of but a small quantity, and so on. There are 
those who have planted on naturally rich soils 
who entertain the idea that no manures will in 
the future be needed ; that plant food will be 
perpetually furnished by the gradual resolution 
of the mineral constituents of the soil. This is 
a delusion that has been fruitful of evil, and 
nothing but evil. It has reduced portions of 
the country to barrenness, and will reduce 
others to the same condition if persisted in. 
With the fruits of it staring us in the face 
daily, it is amazing that people will not heed 
its lessons. Inexhaustible fertility is a chimera. 
Nature has bountifully supplied large portions 



NON-MANUKING. 373 

of the earth with plant food, that man's first 
and most pressing wants, in taking possession 
of new territory, might be easily supplied ; but 
she has given us to understand, plainly and 
sternly, a thousand times over, that beyond the 
first instance she will only work with us, and 
not for us. This first supply of plant food 
seems to us like a providential beneficence for 
which we are not sufficiently grateful. If we 
approach the subject with just views of the 
economics of nature, we shall not only see the 
impolicy of exhausting the soil of its fertility, 
but the magnitude of the evil we are inflicting 
upon our own posterity and the country at 
large! As every crop we raise consumes a cer- 
tain amount of plant food, we can not, by any 
kind of logic, escape the conclusion, that crop- 
ping without feeding will ultimately produce 
barrenness and starvation. It will be wise, 
therefore, to begin to supply food before the 
stage of starvation,, with its attendant evils, is 
reached. The wants of the vine, in this respect, 
should be anticipated. If the supply of food 
is withheld till the vines show their want of it 
by feebleness and lessened crops, an injury will 
have been done which can not easily be re- 
paired. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

DISEASES AND INSECTS. 

Diseases. The laws of health and- disease 
are very much the same in animal and vegeta- 
ble life : plants, in common with man, will be- 
come liable to disease by an infraction of these 
laws. The subject is so broad that we can only 
treat it in a general way here. We wish to es- 
tablish the analogy, however, since it will do 
away many illusions in the mind of the novice. 
Different kinds of animals have their allotted 
periods of life : in one kind it may be ten years 
or less, while in others it may be fifty or more ; 
the elephant, for example, lives to a much 
greater age than the dog. .It is so with plants : 
some fulfill their life in a single year, while 
others count " the years of their life" by thou- 
sands. The average life of plants is greater 
than that of man. The existence of both is 
shortened by violence in various forms, and 
both are liable to disease. The average health 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 375 

and life of man is greatest when he lives in a 
condition of simplicity, supplying only the nat- 
ural wants of his appetites ; but when he places 
himself under artificial conditions, he loses a 
part of his hardihood, becomes more susceptible 
to disease in its various forms, and recourse is 
had to various means for restoring and main- 
taining, as well as may be, the operation of well- 
known physical laws, which are necessary to 
health. It is the same with plants. When 
growing in their natural condition, they are 
subject to few diseases ; but when placed under 
artificial conditions, and made tender and sus- 
ceptible by injudicious hybridizing, crossing, se- 
lection, propagation, etc., they become peculiarly 
liable to disease, and means must be used here 
also to restore and maintain the operation of 
those physical laws which apply to the case. 
These brief allusions sufficiently show the gen- 
eral analogy between animals and plants in re- 
spect to those physical laws which govern life. 
If the reader appreciates it as he should, he will 
learn to study the diseases of the vine for him- 
self, and not look upon them as a sort of fatal- 
ity not to be overcome. 

We will now confine our remarks to the vine. 
The vine, like man, is subject to disease ; and as 



376 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

some men are constitutionally more liable to 
disease than others, so some kinds of vines are 
constitutionally more liable to disease than 
others. There are conditions which favor, or 
even invite, the attacks of disease in men ; and 
it is the same with the vine. All kinds of 
vines, no matter what their constitution may be 
are liable to disease, if placed under conditions 
favorable to its attacks ; there is not a variety in 
cultivation that has proved an exception, and 
there never will be. When, therefore, it is said 
that a vine is healthy, it is in the sense that we 
say a man is healthy when he is not subject to 
constitutional disease ; at least, that is the sense 
in which we use the term. What we wish 
the reader to understand is simply this : that 
all kinds are liable to disease, some more 
and others less; and that all kinds, without ex- 
ception, if placed under conditions unfavorable 
to the healthy action of the leaves or roots, will 
become enfeebled or diseased. He will then ap- 
preciate the importance of studying the condi- 
tions which are necessary to health or strength, 
and endeavor to supply and maintain them ; he 
will understand that the health of the vine is 
in a great measure under his control, and that 
he can judge of the hardiness of kinds only by 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 377 

their deportment under reasonably favorable 
conditions of growth. What we should all of 
us do, therefore, is to study diligently the laws 
and conditions which are concerned in the pre- 
servation of health in plants, oiyin other words, 
the conditions that are necessary to normal de- 
velopment and hardy growth. These we have 
already so fully stated and so earnestly insisted 
upon, that it is unnecessary to dwell upon them 
here. 

Mildew. This is a wide-spread and destruc- 
tive disease, and difficult to manage when estab- 
lished. It is also known by the botanical names 
Erysiphe and Oidium. In portions of Europe 
the Oidium Tuckeri has at times been partic- 
ularly fatal. With us it has been much less 
injurious. Mildew is a parasite in the form of 
a fungus, and attacks the leaves, fruit, and 
wood. It first makes its appearance on the 
under side of the leaf, like a fine mould. The 
mycelium penetrates the tissue of the leaf, and 
destroys it, when the leaf becomes discolored in 
spots, showing where the fungus is at work. 
In this place we can not do more than .state 
briefly some of the causes and conditions which 
produce the disease, with the remedies that 
have proved most effectual in subduing it. 



378 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

The reader will get a pretty clear idea of the 
subject (and a general idea is all we can give 
him here) if he bears in mind that the sporules 
of this parasite are almost constantly floating 
in the air, waiting for a favorable moment for 
attack, and that the vine, to a very consider- 
able degree, is able to resist its attacks so long 
as its vital force remains unimpaired and in full 
vigor. Any cause whatever that impairs or 
lessens vital action favors the attack of the 
parasite. Hence sudden atmospheric changes 
from heat to cold, cold rains following hot, dry 
weather, cold nights following hot days, ex- 
treme drought, prolonged rains, and similar 
causes that lower the action of the plant more or 
less suddenly, are followed by attacks of mildew. 
It is generally first seen on the leaf, next on the 
wood, and last on the fruit, though some- 
times this order of attack is changed. It soon 
enters the tissue of the leaf, and gradually de- 
stroys it. It also penetrates the cells of the 
wood, giving them an inky appearance. The dis- 
ease has then become what we shall call consti- 
tutional, and admits of no cure except amputa- 
tion at some point below the parts diseased; 
even this must not be too long delayed, for we 
have found the disease to run through the cells 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 379 

with a rapidity that would hardly be suspected. 
It would be better to eradicate at once any vine 
that has become constitutionally affected, for it 
seldom recovers its health. Fortunately, this 
stage of the disease is not as yet often seen. 

Now, if the reader will bear in mind that the 
parasite is favored in its attack by a lowering 
of the vital force of the plant, he will recognize 
the propriety of the remedies to be used, which 
are twofold : first, to abate the cause, if possible ; 
secondly, to apply some remedy that will kill 
the parasite. The two must be combined ; for, 
if the cause which invited the disease remains, 
it will only favor the multiplication of the very 
enemy we are trying to destroy. In the grapery 
these remedies are more easily applied than in 
the vineyard ; still, we are by no means help- 
less. The atmospheric conditions may be 
against us, but we must not look idly on, like 
fatalists. Some effort must be made to save the 
crop. It may be that the soil is hard and com- 
pact ; if so, simply breaking up the surface a 
couple of inches will be a great benefit, but the 
utmost care must be used not to disturb the 
roots. The whole vineyard, including the 
drains, should be carefully examined to see 
where and how something may be done to 



380 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

restore the normal activity of the plant, by the 
application of the principles elsewhere ex- 
plained. 

At the same time we must have recourse to 
some remedy that will destroy the active cause 
of the disease. Remedies without number have 
been suggested, but, after long trial, only one 
has proved so effectual as to commend itself to 
general use, and that is sulphur. It should be 
applied directly to the parts affected, but espe- 
cially to the under side of the leaves. The 
sulphur should be in the finest state of powder, 
and dry; and it should be applied with con- 
siderable force, at least to the under side of the 
leaves, so as to penetrate the furze which gener- 
ally covers this part of the leaf. Sulphur ap- 
plied in this state, being acted upon by the sun's 
heat, would seem to combine oxygen enough to 
form sulphurous acid, the vapor of which de- 
stroys the mildew. We have found consider- 
able advantage in adding a portion of finely 
powdered lime, which increases the action of 
the sulphur. In this case, sulphite of lime is 
formed. 

Various contrivances have been invented for 
applying sulphur, one of the simplest of which 
is the bellows of De la Vergne, which resembles 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 



381 



a common bellows without a valve, Fig. 149. 
The sulphur is poured into the hole on the top, 
B, which is stopped with a cork attached to a 
string. The nozzle A, is about an inch in di- 




ng. 149. 



ameter,made of tin, and curved upward, and the 
hole at the end covered with wire gauze for 
dividing the sulphur, and surmounted with a 




Fig. 150. 



spreading or basket-like end piece to give it 
direction. A similar contrivance, but more 
complicated, is shown in Fig. 150. The sulphur 



382 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

is held in a circular tin box, which forms a 
part of the nozzle, the arrangement of which is 
shown on a larger scale. Still another form is 
shown in Fig. 151. In this the sulphur is 
forced through the nozzle by wind generated 
by a fan- wheel. The first bellows is much the 
simplest, and answers the purpose well, ena- 
bling one to apply the sulphur rapidly, and in 
a very thorough manner 




Fig. 151. 

But sulphur is best applied as a preventive 
rather than a cure ; for if the disease is allowed 
to become firmly established, it is exceedingly 
difficult to eradicate. The proper course, there- 
fore, is to apply the sulphur thoroughly to all 
parts of the vine early in the spring when vege- 
tation begins : many gardeners apply it in the 
grapery as soon as the vines are pruned in the 
fall. It should be applied again in June, or as 
often as we have reason to apprehend such 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 383 

a change in the weather as usually favors the 
attack of mildew, and before it has visibly ap- 
peared. If, in addition to this, we faithfully 
preserve all the conditions that are necessary to 
the health and well-being of the vine, mildew 
will be robbed of most of its terrors, and 
become a comparatively manageable disease. 
In this connection, the young vineyardist should 
especially see that no water is standing in or on 
the soil, avoid weakening his vines by over- 
cropping, provide for a circulation of air among 
the foliage by so tying the canes as to prevent 
the leaves from becoming a tangled and impen- 
etrable mass ; in short, apply faithfully the 
principles that have been fully explained in the 
progress of this work. 

Hot. Under this name, two or three diseases 
are known, variously called /brown rot, bitter rot, 
black rot, etc., the names in some places being 
interchanged. The brown rot, which is infre- 
quent, is a brown spot on the side of the berry 
similar to those seen on the apple and pear, dis- 
figuring the berry, but not injuring the quality 
of the fruit. The bitter rot, on the contrary, 
destroys the quality of the fruit, rendering it too 
bitter and acrid to eat. The black rot, the most 
common and destructive of the three, makes its 



384 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

appearance as a small diffused spot, which soon 
spreads, and involves the whole flesh. The dis- 
ease spreads through the bunch, and continues 
its ravages till the berries begin to color, when it 
disappears. In appearance it resembles the 
potato rot, and is about equally destructive. It 
is of fungous origin, though its nature is not well 
understood. There can be no doubt, however, 
that the predisposing causes are very much like 
those that produce mildew on the leaf. Some 
varieties of the grape, as, for example, the 
Catawba, are peculiarly susceptible to its at- 
tack, and in unfavorable seasons the fruit proves 
an entire loss. The Diana, Isabella, Concord, 
and others also suffer from its attacks in bad 
seasons, but in a much less degree. We know 
of nothing better calculated to arrest the disease 
than the general course of treatment recom- 
mended for mildew, and sprinkling the bunches 
with finely powdered lime, the treatment to be 
used as a preventive. The berries, however, 
should be removed when they become diseased^ 
carried from the vineyard, and destroyed. If 
the disease is of fungous origin, it is plain that 
leaving the berries on the bunch, or on the 
ground as they fall, only serves to increase and 
intensify it. 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 385 

Sun Scald. This makes its appearance on 
the leaves in spots of greater or less size, and 
destroys the tissue. It is of a brick-red color, 
and this may have given rise to the absurd 
brick-yard theory by which it was attempted to 
account for it. Its cause is not certainly known, 
but it is no doubt of atmospheric origin. It is 
supposed, with some reason, that globules of 
moisture are formed into lenses, and the sun, 
acting upon these, burns the leaves. It does 
not often affect the general health of the vine 
seriously. We know of no remedy. 

These are the principal diseases of the vine, 
in regard to which it may be said, that they are 
mostly of such a nature that remedies, to be 
effective, must be used as preventives rather than 
cures. 

INSECTS. 

It would be somewhat difficult to say whether 
the vine suffers most from insects or disease, but 
we think insects might easily be managed by 
concerted action. In every fruit-growing dis- 
trict there should be an " Insect Society," which 
should have a grand spring and fall exhibition, 
with smaller weekly ones ad interim. At these 
exhibitions prizes should be offered for the " big- 

25 



386 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

gest bushel " of rose-bugs, the u largest quart " 
of curculios, and so on. These prizes should 
be liberal enough to enlist the services of men, 
women, and children, among whom there are al- 
ways idlers enough to keep the " insect plague " 
within harmless bounds. We have tried the 
experiment with the best results. The insect 
collectors had access to all the trees and vines 
in the neighborhood, and they very seldom in- 
jured a plant. It is only by some kind of united 
action that much good can be effected. With 
its aid, the rose-bug has been made to disappear 
from some localities, and so might other kinds 
of insects. 

The Hose-bug, (Melolonfha subspinosa, Fig. 
152.) This is one of the most de- 
structive pests that troubles the vine. 
It makes its appearance in great mul- 
titudes about the time the vine comes 
Fig. 152. j n ^ o "blossom, which it soon destroys, 
and often injures the foliage. If the vine is jar- 
red, the beetles drop to the ground, but soon make 
their way back. This dropping propensity has 
suggested the best method of destroying them, 
which is to hold a basin of water under them, 
and jar the vine, when they immediately drop. 
A couple of active men will soon go over an 




DISEASES AND INSECTS. . 387 

acre ; but the operation will have to be repeated 
several times. When collected in this way, they 
must be killed by crushing or pouring boiling 
hot water on them, for they have as many 
lives as a cat. We have kept them in a barrel 
of water for haff a day, and had most of them 
come out alive. They are too stupid to know 
when they are dead. Birds will not eat them, 
for their hooked claws cause them to stick in 
the throat. We remember once seeing a cat- 
bird have one in its bill ; it seemed to be deliber- 
ating whether it should run the risk of swallow- 
ing it, but we finally got tired of waiting the 
result, and left. It has been said that poultry 
are very fond of them, but any body can con- 
vince himself that this is not so. The only effect- 
ual remedy is the basin of water and a stout 
foot. We have tried many others, but found 
them all wanting. 

May Beetle or Cockcliafer. There are several 
of this family that are hurtful to the vine, but 
the most numerous and destructive is the com- 
mon May Beetle, (Phyllophaga quercina of 
Harris,) of a dark brown color, and about three 
quarters of an inch long. At night the air is full 
of them, and a light will entice large numbers 
into the house. They destroy the fruit and 



388 AMERICAN G-RAPE CULTURE. 

leaves in the beetle state, and prey upon the 
young and tender roots of all kinds of plants 
when in the larva form ; they are especially 
destructive to the roots when the larvae get to 
be three or four years old, when they are about 
three eighths of an inch in di^neter, and quite 
an inch and a half long ; the head is brown, the 
body yellowish white, and the tail a dull blue. 
Multitudes of the larvae are turned up in plow- 
ing and spading. Poultry eat the larvae as well 
as the beetle greedily, and they should be al- 
lowed to run at large when these operations 
are performed. 

Late at night and about daylight in the morn- 
ing are the best times for destroying the beetles. 
If the plant is jarred at this time, they will 
generally drop, and may be caught on a sheet or 
in a basket. At midnight and later we have 
stripped them from the vine, guelder rose, etc., 
by handfuls, the plants seeming to be black with 
them. In the evening they are on the wing. 
It is only between midnight and daylight that 
they can be found congregated together in this 
way. Birds are very fond of them, but the 
beetles conceal themselves during the day, and 
are not easily found. 

We have no remedy for the larvae, except ex- 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 389 

posing them by turning up the soil, when large 
numbers of them will be destroyed by poultry 
and birds. The moles help a little, for we have 
found both the larvae and the beetle in its stom- 
ach. Fortunately, all the cockchafers prefer 
grass land for their nidus, so that the depreda- 
tions of the larvae are confined mostly to young 
vineyards made on newly broken land. 

The spotted bug (Pelidnota 
punctata, Fig. 153) is also an 
enemy to the vine, destroying 
the fruit and the leaves. It is 
a large yellowish brown beetle, 
with three dark spots on each 
Fig. 153. wing cover, and a similar spot 

on each side of the thorax. They appear in 
July and August, and, unlike the May beetle, 
fly by day. They are usually found on the 
under side of the leaf, and must be destroyed 
by hand, like the rest. They are not numerous, 
however. 

About the size of this, but appearing as early 
as May, is the golden bug, (Areoda lanigera^) 
a very beautiful beetle of a bright lustrous 
yellow. It sometimes eats the leaves of the 
vine, and very rarely the berries. The larvae of 
this and the Pelidnota are like that of the 




390 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

May beetle. We have several times hatched 
both these beetles from larvae found in old 
manure heaps, thinking we had the larva of 
the May beetle. 

The Vine Gliafer, (Anomcda ccelebs?) resem- 
bling a small May beetle, we have found one of 
the greatest beetle pests that infests the vine. 
They appear in June and July, are about three 
eighths of an inch long, rather broad, and of a 
muddy brown color ; we have sometimes seen 
them blackish brown. On the least jar they 
double their legs up quickly and drop to the 
ground. Catching them on sheets as they fall 
is the best way to destroy them. There is 
another beetle resembling this in color and 
form, but only about one third the length, that 
eats the unexpanded bud. Some- 
times they are quite numerous. 

Steel-blue Beetle, (Haltica cha- 
lybia, Fig. 154, enlarged four 
times.) In some seasons and 
places this beetle, though quite 
small, does a large amount of 
harm, appearing in great numbers, and attack- 
ing the buds just as they begin to swell. They 
sometimes bury their whole bodies in the bud, 
eating out the young bunches and leaves. They 





DISEASES AND INSECTS. 391 

continue their depredations until the fruit has 
set. Where they are numerous, grapes become 
very scarce. They seem to be somewhat migra- 
tory in their habits. The only remedy that we 
know of is to knock them off and kill them. 
Vine Hopper or Thrips, (Tettigonia vitis^Fig. 
155, enlarged four times,) This has 
become one of the most formidable in- 
sect enemies that the vineyardist has to 

Fig. 155. 

contend with. Its general appearance is 
like that of a cicada or locust, but it is verj 
diminutive in size, less than an eighth of an 
inch, but as "lively as a cricket." It is of 
a pale straw color or whitish yellow, with 
two little red lines on the head. They be- 
gin to appear in June on the under side of 
the leaf, and are then wingless. As they in- 
crease in size they shed their skins, and finally 
become winged. They suck the juice from the 
leaves, causing them to turn yellow, and un- 
fitting them for their functions to such a degree 
as to impair the ripening of both the fruit and 
the wood. They sometimes abound in such 
myriads that, if the vine be disturbed, it is 
impossible to breathe without inhaling them. 
Some of the remedies proposed for their de- 
struction are altogether impracticable in the 



392 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

vineyard. Of all the remedies we have tried, 
we have found lime and sulphur to be the best. 
Two parts of sulphur and one of powdered 
caustic lime should be well mixed, and applied 
with the bellows above described. It should 
be thrown on all parts of the foliage, but espe- 
cially the under side. Under this treatment 
they will cease to be formidable. Rain or high 
winds will make it necessary to repeat the 
application. The best time to apply it is in 
the morning when the air is still. 

The red spider (Acarus tellarius) is some- 
times . found on the under side of the leaf, and 
succumbs to the sulphur remedy above. It 
should be applied when they first appear, for 
they soon spin a fine web which is not easy to 
penetrate. A species of black Aphis, Fig. 156, 
is also sometimes found on the ends 
of the canes, but is readily destroyed 
by drawing tne cane through either the 
Fig. 156. gloved or naked hand. 

Caterpillars. Several kinds of caterpillars 
are more or less injurious to the vine. The 
large green caterpillars of some of the Sphinges, 
like those so common on the tomato, are some- 
times destructive to young vines, in a very short 
time consuming every leaf on the plant. Those 




DISEASES AND INSECTS. 393 

that live on the vine have been placed in a 
group by Harris, and called Pliilampelus, or 
lovers of the vine. Fig. 157 is the larva of 
one of these, of the natural size. Killing by 
hand is the only remedy. 




Fig. 15T. 

The bluish brown caterpillar of the Eudryas 
grata, which appears early in July, is a great 
pest in some localities. It not only consumes 
the entire foliage, but eats off the bunches of 
fruit. They are so small at first as scarcely to 
be seen, but grow fast. Lime and sulphur, as 
well as a solution of whale-oil soap, or the 
Gishurst compound, will destroy them ; but it 
is difficult to make solutions reach them, and 
hand-picking is tedious, as they conceal them- 
selves on the under side of the leaf. Birds are 
very fond of them ; hence in the cities, where 
there are no birds, these caterpillars make sad 
work with the vine. The lime and sulphur 
remedy may drive them off, but we have not 
tried it. 



394 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

The caterpillar of the Procris Americana is 
also a pest, but less formidable than the pre- 
ceding, since it is gregarious; the whole nest 
keep together, feeding along side by side. It 
first consumes the surface of the leaf. It is 
yellow, with black tufts along its back. 

The caterpillar of the Selandria vitis, a spe- 
cies of saw-fly, is also gregarious, feeding in 
rows on the under side of the leaf. It is light 
green, with a black head and tail. Both these 
kinds of caterpillars should be looked for early ; 
being in schools, they are easily killed. They 
may be found in July and August. Better 
still, look for the eggs on the under side of the 
leaf, and destroy them. 

The leaves of the vine will sometimes be seen 
rolled up. This is done by one of the leaf -roll- 
ers, a lively little green caterpillar, which, on 
being disturbed, will speedily roll itself out 
and fall down, suspended by a fine web. They 
may be crushed in the leaf. 

Early in the season, when the young shoots 
have grown an inch or so, the young leaves will 
be found drawn together so as to seriously in- 
terfere with the upward growth. If the leaves 
be drawn carefully apart, there will be found a 
small, brownish -yellow caterpillar, covered with 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 395 

short hairs, Figs. 158 and 159. It destroys 
the young bunches of fruit as well as the 
leaves. The caterpillar is very tender, and a 
slight pressure will crush it. The young leaves 
may thus be pressed together sufficiently hard 
to kill the caterpillar without injury to them, 
and then drawn apart. In this way they can 
be disposed of pretty quickly. Unless they are 
killed early, the crop will be materially less- 
ened. 





Fig. 158, Caterpillar. pig. 169, Moth. 

Occasionally the leaves near the end of the 
growing cane will be found covered with pro- 
tuberances, which, on being opened, are found 
to contain a small yellow slug, which seems to 
be the larva of some gall-fly, but which we do 
not know, not having yet succeeded in matur- 
ing them. They do not seem to materially 
check the growth of the cane, but still it would 
be well to destroy them. 

Young vines that start from a bud under or 

o 

very near the surface are sometimes eaten partly 
or entirely off by the cut-worm. Sometimes 



396 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the damage done in this way is quite serious. 
The worm may be found near the plant, and 
about an inch under the surface. Young vines 
in similar condition are also, but not so often, 
attacked by the wire-worm. The young vine 
makes a good start, but after a while stops 
growing, and finally sickens away and dies. 
The mischief is discovered only when it is too 
late. The course of the vine is similar to this, 
also, when the roots are preyed upon by the 
larva of the May beetle ; but the May beetle 
preys upon the roots of young and old alike. 

It would be curious to learn how much of 
the damage to fruit trees, of all kinds, now im- 
puted to drought, winter killing, etc., really be- 
longs to grubs of various kinds constantly prey- 
ing upon the roots, and thus unfitting the plants 
to withstand changes and extremes of any kind. 
We are now investigating this interesting ques- 
tion, and have already reached the conclusion 
that " drought," " winter killing," etc., are by 
no means as great sinners as they are made to 
appear. A " scape-goat" has always been found 
a convenient animal, and horticulturists have 
two or three almost as big as elephants. 

Those who wish to make themselves familiar 



DISEASES AND INSECTS. 397 

with the habits of insects should consult the 
works of Harris, Fitch, Trimble, etc., and the 
monthly publication called " The Entomolo- 
gist." 




Delaware. 



PART SECOND. 



CHAPTER XXIL 

PLAN OF QUESNEL MODES OF BEDDING VINES 

PLAN OF CHARMETJX GROUND TRAINING 

TRAINING WITHOUT STAKES TRAINING ON 

TREES AND TRELLIS COMBINED RINGING THE 

VINE A MILDEWED LEAF A RACK FOR STAKES 

" HEELING IN." 

WE have endeavored, as far as possible, to 
preserve the elementary character of this vol- 
ume, and have, therefore, confined the subject 
of training to the explanation and application 
of its principles, and working them out on the 
most useful forms, giving only a few examples 
of what is commonly called " fancy " training, as 
" studies " for the student, to aid him in a more 
thorough application of the principles to forms 
or systems in general. To this end we might 
have added a few more in the body of the work, 
but we wished to avoid distracting the reader's 



400 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

mind with unusual forms or references till lie 
had fully mastered the principles of training, 
and hence no reference is made to this part. 
The examples now presented will further as- 
sist the student in applying the principles of 
training to a variety of cases that occur in the 
surroundings of the home. He should study 
the principle as well as the form. 

Plan of Quesnel. We have elsewhere al- 
luded to the ingenuity of the French in work- 
ing out forms to meet the wants of cases as they 
arise, or rather to anticipate them. Fig. 160 is 
an example. It is a literal copy from Du Breuil, 
and shows, among other things, how the French 
alternate the double and single spurs, a practice 
quite common among them ^hen the necessity 
of the case calls for it, either for renewal or to 
favor the length of the arm. It affords facilities, 
also, for replacing an arm in the manner else- 
where described. It has been explained that 
there is a difficulty in keeping arms in full bear- 
ing when extended much beyond four feet in 
length. Where there is a necessity for making 
them longer, as in the example before us, the 
introduction of the single spur will aid mate- 
rially in keeping them in full bearing. They 
should be started, as a rule, from base buds ; 



PLAN OF QUESNEL. 



401 



and with, the attention that may always be 
given to the limited number. of vines grown in 
this way, these single spurs may be kept reason- 
ably short. When they get long, they must be 
renewed. 




The form in Fig. 160 maybe adapted to high, 
walls, sides of cottages, extensions, stables, etc. 
In the figure the wall is about twelve feet high 

26 



402 AMEKICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

and twelve feet wide, and the vines are planted 
two/ feet; apart. The plants should be of the 
best possible description, such as is shown in 
Fig. 3, p,^36. Such vines will have stout canes, 
which will hasten materially the formation of 
the upper tiers. The 'stocks that support the 
upper tiers should be carried up so as to shade 
equally the arms of the lower tiers, as shown in 
the engraving. The arms are formed in the 
usual manner. The vines are planted about a 
foot from the wall, and the trellis set the same 
distance from it, so as to allow of a circulation 
of air between the vines and the wall. 

Modes of Bedding Vines. But vines that 
are planted two feet apart, and only a foot, 
from the wall, speedily interfere with each other 
by the intermingling of their roots; and the 
weak are gradually overpowered by the strong, 
'the soil being warmest next the wall, the roots 
congregate and work there, so that the weak 
vines have but a remote chance of recovering. 
This difficulty is overcome, and the soil more 
evenly filled with roots, by planting the vines 
several feet from the wall, and bringing them 
up to it bjr layering or bedding. The wall will 
not be so soon covered, it is true,- but the vines 
may be fruited while being brought to the wall, 



MODES OF BEDDING 



403 



and in this respect there need be no special 
loss. 

Let us illustrate the manner of doing this.' 
Fig. 161 will help the reader to understand the 
operations to be performed. The vines may be 
planted from three to six feet from the wall, but 




Fig. 161. 



in the illustration the lesser distance will be 
taken. Proceed as follows : Three feet from the 
wall, and parallel with it, dig a trench, and in 
it plant the vines two feet apart. | Put a stake 
to each, and grow a single cane the first year, as 
seen at A. In the fall prune this cane about 



404 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

eighteen inches long, and lay it down for the 
winter. In the spring of the second year move 
the stakes one foot nearer the wall, and bed or 
layer the canes to the stakes, bending up the 
ends and tying them to the stakes. On the 
end of the cane bent up select two buds for 
canes, and disbud the rest. The lower bud 
should be on the side facing the wall, and low 
down, to facilitate the next bedding. The 
bedded portion of the cane should be treated 
as directed for layers. From the selected buds 
grow two canes, as seen at H. They may carry 
two bunches of fruit. In the fall, cut the 
upper cane entirely away at the cross-mark a ; 
then cut the lower cane about eighteen inches 
long, and cover for the winter. 

In the spring of the third year move the 
stakes one foot nearer to the wall, and bed the 
canes to the stakes as before. Select three 
buds for canes this year, like C, having the low- 
est bud on the side next the wall. The bedded 
cane must be treated as usuaL The canes may 
carry two bunches each. In the fall, cut the 
two upper canes entirely away at , prune the 
lower cane about eighteen inches long, and 
cover for the winter. In the spring of the 
fourth year, the canes are bedded to within a 



MODES OF BEDDING VINES. 



405 



foot of the wall, and three buds selected for 
canes on the vines that are to form the two 
lower tiers ; on those for the upper tiers select 
one bud. In this way all the arms may be be- 
gun at the same time ; for the vines are now so 
strong that those restricted to one bud will 




Fig. 162 



make canes reaching to the top of the wall. 
Each of the canes may carry two bunches of 
fruit. The upper canes in all the above in- 
stances should be pinched two or three leaves 
above the fruit, and the pinching frequently re- 
peated. The object is to make the lower cane 
as stout as possible, and to confine the action in 



40B AMERICAN GRAPE CULTUKE. 

the other canes as much as possible to the fruit, 
this being the only purpose for which these 
canes are grown ; if the action is very strong, 
they maybe bent down. In the fall of this 
year, the vines will present the appearance 
shown in Fig. 162* The upper canes must now 
all be cut off at a, and the lower canes pruned 
at the points where it is desired to form the 
arms. To ascertain these points, the vines must 
be bent to their places on the wall. The prun- 
ing finished, the vines are to be laid down for 
the winter. From this point the training is 
proceeded with as explained above in Fig. 160. 




Fig. 163. 

By the plan shown in Fig. 163, half the num- 
ber of vines may be saved, which is an object 
where good vines are scarce; but it will occupy 
a y^ar more to establish the vines in full bear- 
ing. In this case, the vines are planted four 



MODES OF BEDDING VINES. 407 

feet apart instead of two, and brought to the 
wall in the manner above described till the last 
bedding is reached, when two canes are bedded 
instead of one, and at an angle, as seen in the 
engraving. The ends are turned up, and one 
cane grown on each for stocks. 

Still another method may be pursued, which 
will be found very useful where the number of 
stocks required is so great as to make very close 
planting indispensable. Let us suppose we have 
a building so high and narrow as to require the 
stocks to be one foot apart in order to furnish 
the necessary number of tiers of arms. In this 
case proceed as follows : six feet from the build- 
ing plant a row of vines two feet apart; six 
feet in front of these, or twelve feet from the 
building, plant another row of vines two feet 
apart. The vines in these two rows must alter- 
nate each other in the line of direction to the 
building, so that the vines in the outer row, 
when bedded, will come between the vines in 
the first row. The first, or inner row, must be 
bedded to the building. The second row must 
be bedded to within five or six inches of the 
line where the first row was planted. At this 
point grow one good cane on each, and in the 
prune it about six feet long. In the 



408 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

spring, dig a very narrow trench, about six 
inches deep, from these canes to the building. 
Now procure some small round tile, pass the' 
cane through the tile, lay the tile in the trench, 
and cover, turning up the end of the cane about 
a foot from the building. The object of run- 
ning the cane through the tile is to prevent it 
from emitting roots, and interfering with the 
vines planted in the first row, which are already 
so close together as to need all the border adja- 
cent to the building. Instead of running them 
through the tile, they may be grown above 
ground till two years old, when the disposition 
to root will be less ; but the best plan is to use 
the tile, and put the vines in their places at 
once. If the number of vines required for the 
tiers makes it necessary, three rows of vines 
may be planted, allowing five or six feet of 
border for each row. 

The manner of performing the operation 
once understood, the reader will readily com- 
prehend how it may be modified and adapted 
to a variety of circumstances. For example, we 
may wish to grow vines on the side of a house, 
but there is no suitable place for a border 
within ten or twenty feet of it. In this case, 
the canes may be brought to the house gradu- 



PLAN OF CHAKMEUX. 



409 




1 4 1 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

ally through, tile, or the canes may be grown 
along the border till they are sufficiently long 
to reach the house, and then carried there 
through the tile, and brought up through neat 
earthen pedestals. There are many other cases 
in which the plan may be usefully applied, 
such, for example, as making a border on one 
side of a house while the vines are trained on 
another. 

Plan of Charmeux.- Fig. 164 presents .an- 
other good " study," which may be applied to a 
wall, a high trellis, or a house. It is another lite- 
ral copy from the French, showing the alternate 
single and double spurs, and also an improved 
arrangement of the stocks, by which the arms 
in the lower tiers are more equally shaded. It 
is the plan practiced at Thomery by M. Char- 
meux. It was found, in the course of time, 
that the shading of one arm more than another 
produced an unfavorable effect, destroying the 
balance of the arms, and the present arrange- 
ment was made to counteract it. It will be 
seen, on examination, that the stocks of the 
upper tiers shade the lower arms in about the 
same place on each side. This is a matter of 
more moment than would at first sight appear. 
The stocks might, indeed, be carried up behind 



GROUND TRAINING. 411 

the trellis, and shading the arms thus avoided, 
but it would involve considerable trouble. The 
reader will notice here, again, that the spurs are 
alternately single and double; and this he will 
find to be very often the case in French train- 
ing, where the arms much exceed four feet in 
length, and in some cases where it does not. 
By lessening or increasing the number of tiers, 
this plan can be readily applied to a wall, trel- 
lis, or house of any height. The mode of 
training the reader already understands. 

Ground Training. In Fig. 165 the reader will 




Fig. 165. 

find another " study," called ground training. 
It consists of a system of three double spurs, 
with the fruit canes bent horizontally in ray 
form, and tied to low stakes, from twelve to 
eighteen inches high. It is practiced in the 
north of France. A good stout cane must first 
be grown, and this pruned so as to get three 
canes for spurs at the proper height. These 
three canes must be pruned to the two lowest 
buds for spurs, and the spurs bent down hori- 



412 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

zontally, so as to "bring them all on the same 
level. To do the training neatly, at three feet 
from the stock, six stakes should be driven in 
at equal distances, so as to form a circle six feet 
in diameter. Connect the opposite stakes to- 
gether by wires crossing each other in the 
middle at the stock. From each spur two canes 
must be grown, making a cane for each wire. 
The canes may carry two bunches each, and 




Fig. 166. 

should receive their first pinching three leaves 
from the fruit. Athallage will need pretty 
constant attention. The fruit, in consequence 
of receiving so much radiated heat from the 
earth in the fall, will ripen finely. An early 
frost may.easily be kept off by throwing a sheet 
over the vine. 

Training without Stakes. Fig. 166 is an ex. 



TKAINING ON TKEES AND TKELLIS. 413 

ample of growing vines without stakes. It is 
given for information, rather than as an ex- 
ample to be followed here. It was first pro- 
posed by M. Miramont. Its primary object 
seems to have been to secure shade for the fruit 
as much as any thing else. The vines, of 




Fig. 167. 

course, must be grown close together, and fur- 
nished with two single spurs. 

Training on Trees and Trellis combined. 
Fig. 167 presents another example of French 
training, by which trees and a trellis are so 



414 . AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

covered as to form a beautiful rustic arbor, 
affording a grateful shade as well as fruit. The 
student will find a good deal of pleasure in 
working this "study" out. The trees should 
be planted at the same time as the vines, and 
should be open headed, or made so by pruning. 
Trees already planted may be adopted, however, 
if they are suitably located. The soil should 
have a thorough preparation; the vines must 
be planted some five or six feet from the trees, 
and brought to them by bedding. There 
should be three vines for each tree, except the 
last, which should have only one. One of 
these three should form an arm on the trellis 
on the right of the tree, another an arm on the 
trellis on the left, and the third trained over 
the tree. The arms should be extended and 
spurred in the usual manner. The beauty of 
the arbor will be enhanced if a vine is planted 
at each trellis post, and trained on a low stock 
with one or two double spurs. With these 
explanations, the student will, no doubt, be 
able to work this " study" out, and apply it 
wherever the conditions are found. 

Reversed Horizontal Arms. We present, in 
Fig, 168, an example .of the reversed horizontal 
arm, iu order to give the student a clearer idea 




Fig. 168. 



416 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

of the manner in which it is formed. It is not 
intended as a substitute for the gradual length- 
ening of the arm, but as particularly applicable 
to such varieties of the vine as grow rankly, 
and in consequence do not develop their buds 
strongly on the lower part of the cane. It is a 
very certain mode of getting strong canes for 
spurs near the stock. With the exception of 
the reversal, the arms are formed in the usual 
way. 




Fig. 169. 

Hinging the Vine. This is a very simple as 
well as a very old practice. It consists in re- 
moving a ring of bark from the fruit cane, just 
below the fruit, or even from old wood or an 
arm ; but is generally confined to the fruit cane, 
since it renders the wood above the incision 
useless. It may be applied to any fruit-bearing 
tree. The operation is usually performed with 



HINGING THE VINE. 417 

a knife, though a peculiar kind of shears has 
been invented, with which it is neatly and 
quickly done. Fig. 169 is a copy of a fruit cane 
on which the operation has been performed. 
Two incisions are made half an inch or less 
apart, nearly an eighth of an inch deep, and 
extending entirely around the cane. The bark 
between the incisions must be taken out clean. 
If done early in the season, the bark will peel 
off; but on old wood it becomes necessary to 
use the knife. By this operation the return 
of the sap is mostly prevented, vital action is 
intensified above the incision, and the ripening 
process greatly hastened. As the result, the 
berries are increased in size, and ripen before 
their natural time; but the ripening process, in 
consequence of being driven too fast, has elab- 
orated the juices of the fruit imperfectly, and 
the fruit is, therefore, deteriorated in quality. 
In other words, we have gained size and earli- 
ness at the expense of goodness, which is no 
gain at all. The deterioration will be in pro- 
portion to the earliness at which the operation? 
is performed. It may be done at any time^ 
between the formation of the fruit and the 
period of coloring; the later the better, so far 
as the quality of the fruit is concerned. It is* 

27 



418 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

one of those operations in horticulture which 
the novice will do well to have recourse to only 
as an amusement. 

A Mildewed Leaf. The beginner, unaided, 
may not readily recognize the appearance of 
mildew. To assist him, we have copied Fig. 




170, from Du Breuil. This is a leaf in an ad- 
vanced stage of the disease, and gives a very 
good idea of its appearance. It should first 
be looked for in the angles made by the veins 
on the under side of the leaf. 

A Rack for Stakes. Stakes soon decay 
when left on the ground during the winter. 
Fig. 171 shows a simple and convenient rack 
for keeping them. 

"Heeling In? We have elsewhere described 



HEELING IN. 



419 



the operation of " heeling in." Figs. 172 and 
173 will help the reader to a clearer idea of the 




Fig. 171. 



operation. Fig. 172 shows the trencn opened 
and the plants laid in, ready to be covered. 




Fig. 1T2. 



Fig. 173. 



Fig. 173. shows the trench filled and the plants 
covered. 



CHAPTER XXIIL 

WINE MAKING. 

IK this chapter we shall condense experience, 
reading, -and the memoranda of one of the most 
accomplished connoisseurs among us. A bib- 
liography will be furnished elsewhere. 

Wine making is regarded by some as a 
mysterious art, to be acquired only by a few 
specially gifted for the purpose ; and by others 
as something that follows in due course from 
planting any kind of grapes, and treating them 
in some fancied manner. Those who follow us 
through this chapter will see that it partakes 
of neither, but is a manly art, very simple in 
its general principles, but exceedingly attract- 
ive in its comprehensive details when pursued 
to its ultimate results. It needs no extensive 
scientific acquirements for its successful prac- 
tice, and the following directions will carry 
their reasons with them so obviously that no 



WINE MAKING. 421 

one need feel any doubt as to the proper course 
to be pursued to reach a good result ; the best 
results, however, will only be attained by the 
utmost diligence and care. 

The good housewife, who makes the best of 
bread, exercises as much skill, and of as fine a 
quality, as is required to make the best of 
wine ; and in both cases there are few who are 
able to appreciate fully the excellence either of 
the product or the maker. The illustration 
may be homely, but a better one could scarcely 
be found. A loaf of bread, perfectly balanced 
in farina and gluten, neither too moist nor too 
dry, exact in lightness, with its fermentation 
carried to just the proper point of sweetness, 
is a work of high art ; nay, practically, of the 
highest art, for it is the foundation upon which 
happy and healthful living is built. It will 
not do to say that this is an every-day per- 
formance, for it is nothing of the kind. More- 
over, no matter what the skill and experience 
of the housewife may be, she must have good 
flour to make the best of bread. And it is just 
so with wine. No matter what the skill and 
experience of the wine maker may be, he must 
have good grapes to make good wine, and the 
best of grapes to make the best of wine. 



422 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Wine making is so new in this country that 
its grand simplicity can scarcely be compre- 
hended by any of us. While chemistry has 
done much in explaining the action of the 
different processes, it has done very little in 
directing how the operations should be per- 
formed. The only difficulty in the way of 
uniform success in wine making, either for 
family use or commerce, is that of persuading 
all to begin the subject at the beginning, and 
then pursue it in due order. Some will persist 
in efforts to make good bread out of bad flour, 
just as others will persist in efforts to make 
good wine out of bad grapes. 

For the first step toward obtaining good 
wine, directions were given when we advised 
the planting of good grapes. That is the only 
step that leads in the right direction. Good 
wine can come only from the pure, unadulter- 
ated juice of good grapes that have been well 
ripened. The succeeding steps have also been 
fully described, but it may be intimated again, 
in view of its importance, that the bunches 
should be left on the vine to attain the great- 
est measure of maturity that is possible, even 
to the degree of shriveling in some cases. A 
slight frost will not damage them. The grapes 



WINE MAKING. 423 

should not be gathered when covered with 
dew or moisture. The bunches should be 
gathered without bruising them, using the 
scissors before mentioned, and the baskets or 
tubs usually made for the purpose. The 
assorting must be done with the utmost care, 
as elsewhere described. We repeat, none but 
sound, thoroughly ripe berries must go into 
the wine press. 

The implements used in wine making are not 
numerous, and consist principally of tubs, 
crushers, press, casks, vats, saccharometer, ther- 
mometer, siphon, etc., all of which are made for 
the purpose, and are readily bought. 

There is one item largely concerned in the 
manufacture of good wine, which, to save repe- 
tition, must be insisted upon from the begin- 
ning, and that is, the most scrupulous cleanli- 
ness, as respects the vessels, persons, and every 
operation performed. Those who reflect that a 
beverage is to be made, the goodness of which 
depends in a great measure upon its delicacy 
and purity, will at once recognize the absolute 
necessity of this. Wine of high character de- 
pends for its excellence upon fine, pure, deli- 
cate flavors, and these are marred or destroyed 
by want of cleanliness and the introduction of 



424 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

foreign substances, or by suffering any thing 
whatever but the juice of good ripe grapes to 
enter the must. Wine making is a careful, 
painstaking business, in which persistent and 
conscientious well doing and right doing are 
munificently rewarded. 

The Cellar. The cellar is of much impor- 
tance where wine making is largely pursued. 
It must necessarily be modified more or less 
by the location in which it is built. There are 
three leading objects to be attained, and these 
are pretty nearly of equal importance : first, 
a considerable degree of evenness of tempera- 
ture, which is best secured by sinking the cel- 
lar in the ground, and building the walls hol- 
low. Second, freedom from wetness, which is 
secured by selecting a dry spot for the cellar, 
and, where this can not be fully secured in this 
way, laying the walls in cement, and grouting 
and cementing the bottom. Third, ventilation, 
the means for which should be placed in the 
upper part of the cellar, and so arranged that 
the temperature can be altered gradually when 
necessary, sudden changes being hurtful. The 
cellar may be built over or not with rooms, 
oifices, etc., to suit the convenience of the own- 
er. The lower tier of casks should rest upon 



WINE MAKING. 425 

cradles, and be elevated from six to twelve 
inches above the floor of the cellar. Under 
certain circumstances carbonic acid gas will 
accumulate in the cellar in sufficient quantity 
to be detrimental to health. This must be 
provided against by careful ventilation. 

Casks. Large casks, for very good reasons, 
are generally claimed to be better than small 
ones. They are not only more economical, but 
a large body of wine will ferment more per- 
fectly than a small one. Still, we can not do 
without small casks, and their size must, there- 
fore, be regulated by circumstances. They 
should be made of well-seasoned oak, and fin- 
ished smooth inside and out to facilitate clean- 
ing. "When new, they should be soaked for a 
week or so in water, and then rinsed with hot 
water, to sweeten them ; or they may be washed 
with lime water, and rinsed. They should 
never be used except when perfectly clean. 
If hot water will not cleanse them, they may 
be washed with a weak solution of sulphuric 
acid. First put the acid in cold water, pour 
this in the cask, and then add the hot water. 
After being well shaken, the cask should be 
thoroughly rinsed with cold water. This is 



426 AMEKICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

used in France, and is highly recommended by 
those who have tried it. 

Bottles. Bottles should be made of glass 
sufficiently tough to withstand considerable 
pressure. The style is very much a matter of 
taste. They should be thoroughly clean. Shot 
are often used for cleaning ; but they are not 
safe, as the lead washes off. Clean coarse sand 
has been found to be equally good, and free 
from objection. 

Color of Wines. The color of wines is in 
some measure an index of certain properties, 
but affords no indication of quality. The col- 
oring matter resides in and near the skin, and 
consists of various extractive matters, which 
impart flavor and characteristics that are prized 
by some, but which are neither agreeable nor 
wholesome to others. White wines have a 
purity as well as an animation that never be- 
longs to the red. It should be observed that 
high color is often used as a mask for adultera- 
tion. There is an unfounded prejudice in favor 
of the quality of red wines that is largely taken 
advantage of by makers. 

Wines are often colored with elderberries, 
beets, Brazil wood, and other substances not 
so innocent ; but the best color is the nat- 



WINE MAKING. 427 

ural one, or that obtained from the coloring 
matter adjacent to and in the skin of the grape. 
This is obtained by cuvage, or fermentation on 
the skins. If the juice is pressed before fer- 
menting in this way, the wine will be white, 
no matter what the color of the grape may be. 

Fining or Clarifying. Wines, particularly 
the dry, usually clarify themselves, the impuri- 
ties gradually falling to the bottom when fer- 
mentation ceases. Isinglass and other sub- 
stances are used, but albumen or the whites of 
eggs will answer the purpose well. The whites 
of three or four eggs will usually be sufficient 
for forty gallons ; some use more, but this num- 
ber . is generally enough. The whites should 
be " beaten up," mixed with some water or 
wine, and poured in the cask, the wine being 
well stirred up. It should be used, if at all, 
after the second fermentation. 

Several preliminary operations should here 
be noticed. 

Stemming. This is done by hand, or by 
drawing the bunches through teeth attached 
to a grooved board, the purpose of the grooves 
being to convey to the tub the juice that flows 
from the bruised berries. Stemming is so much 
a matter of circumstance that no general rule 



428 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

for it can be given. In some cases wines are 
found to be better with a small portion of the 
stems in the marc ; in many red wines they are 
not at all admissible ; while in most white wines 
they are either admitted entire, or with only 
the larger branches removed. In making Jo- 
hannisberger the stems are all carefully re- 
moved, while in the case of some of the best 
French white wines they are admitted entire. 

Crushing may easily be done by hand in a 
tub, where not more than a barrel full is want- 
ed; but any way will do that crushes the ber- 
ries without breaking or bruising the seed. 
Rollers like those used by grocers for crushing 
sugar, only channeled, will answer the purpose. 
In Europe it is sometimes done, even on a 
large scale, by trampling with the feet. It may 
be well and quickly done, however, by the press 
mentioned below, being careful, however, to so 
set it as not to crush the seed. 

Pressing should be done with a press that 
has neither copper nor lead about it. Presses 
are made for the purpose, but a very good one 
is the cider and wine press now so common, 
which may be bought of any convenient size. 
Directions for use accompany each. Only one 
pressing should be put in the same cask when 



WINE MAKING. 429 

the finest and most delicate wine is wanted. 
The juice that runs from the marc by its own 
weight is called the " first running," and what 
is really the " first pressing " is the " second 
running." It is not safe to mix different kinds 
of must, unless they are all good ; when this is 
the case, one may be used to impart flavor or 
color to another, or for some similar purpose. 
In pressing, the marc becomes hard, and forms 
what is called " cheese." This is cut down at 
the side from time to time, and the parings 
placed on the top of the " cheese " for further 
pressing, so as to secure all the juice possible. 

Hacking. Its object is to transfer the wine 
from one vessel to another in such a way as to 
prevdfc the access of air, and at the same time 
not disturb the lees which have settled at the 
bottom. There are various contrivances for do- 
ing this, some of which are expensive ; but if 
bought, directions for their use accompany them. 
In Europe, Hilton's is thought to be one of the 
best. While the wine is running at the bot- 
tom, air must be admitted gradually at the top 
or bung, or the disturbance will be so great as 
to muddy the wine. The siphon, however, is 
often, used, and it is both simple and good. It. 
is only a tube with arms of unequal length. 



430 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

Some are made with a side pipe for starting 
the flow. When plain, it is first filled with 
wine, the short arm put into the cask to be 
emptied, and the long arm into the cask to be 
filled, which should stand lower than the first. 
When the siphon is filled, the finger must be 
held over the hole in the long arm till the si- 
phon is inserted into the cask. Those who make 
wine on a large scale will, of course, purchase 
the apparatus made for the purpose. 

Wines, briefly, are principally of two kinds, 
dry and sweet. In dry wines the sugar and 
acids are so nicely balanced that neither seems 
to predominate. In sweet wines .the sugar is 
in excess, and some, like Sherry and Madeira, 
may be called spirituous or alcoholic 0ines. 
SparMing wines partake more or less of the 
nature of both. Dry wines are the best, and 
the only ones that are suitable for daily use, to 
invigorate and refresh the body and mind. 

With a view to make the details more read- 
ily intelligible, we propose first to describe the 
process of wine making in its simplest form. 

After stemming (if done) and crushing, put 
the " marc " into a tub or any convenient ves- 
sel, and place it where a pretty equable tem- 
perature may be maintained, not falling below 



WINE MAKING. 431 

sixty-five degrees ; a range between seventy 
and eighty will be very good. Cover the ves- 
sel with a cloth that will not admit insects ; 
and for further safety, boards may be put over 
the cloth, with an inch or two of space between 
them for the admission of air, which the cloth 
will permit with sufficient freedom. Crash 
cloth is very good for this purpose. 




Fig. 174. 

Fermentation will begin about the third day, 
or soon after, which may be ascertained with- 
out uncovering by placing the ear near one of 
the spaces between the boards. After this has 
continued actively for twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours, the free juice may be drawn off through 



432 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

a cock prepared for the purpose, (as seen at a, 
Fig. 174,) and put into a cask. The remaining 
" marc " must be pressed immediately, so that 
the juice may be put at once with the first. 
The cask should be of such size as to be filled 
without taking all the juice, some being left for 
filling, from time to time, the vacancy that will 
be continually forming in the cask in conse- 
quence of the slow fermentation, which will 
continue for a length of time proportioned, in 
some degree, to the strength of the must, and 
also to the temperature. When the fermen- 
tation has so far abated that a bung may be 
driven tight without causing pressure from the 
collection of carbonic acid in the cask, the wine 
may be said to be made, although a second fer- 
mentation will be necessary for its completion. 
After the first fermentation has ceased, and 
the wine become clear, which will not be later 
than January, it should be drawn off from the 
lees, and put into a cask of proper size, which 
must be filled quite full. The second fermen- 
tation may be expected to occur about the fol- 
lowing June, or as soon as the heat becomes 
sufficient for its excitement, and will continue, 
if the must be rich, during most, if not all, of 
the summer. In the following winter, after 



WINE MAKING. 433 

the second fermentation has ceased, the com- 
pleted wine may be drawn off and bottled, 
when it is new wine, and ready, as such, for 
use. 

This, in brief, is the history of wine making 
in its most simple form : a plain statement of 
the processes without any attempt at explana- 
tion by theory ; and a general statement of 
what is known of the chemistry of wine making 
is quite as simple. The sugar of the grape, by 
a chemical action called vinous fermentation, is 
converted into alcohol, setting free carbonic 
acid, which escapes into the air in the form of 
gas, while the former remains dissolved in the 
water of the grape with the other constituents, 
chiefly unchanged. What fermentation itself 
is, is quite another question. If the vinous 
fermentation were perfect, every one hundred 
parts of the sugar would be converted into 
51*11 parts of alcohol and 48*89 parts of car- 
bonic acid. The action of the ferment depends 
for its force upon the rapid absorption of the 
oxygen of the air, without which it can not 
take place. 

Two modes of fermenting are practiced, above 
and below. In the first, the cask is kept full, 
so that the yeasty parts flow out at the bung, 

28 



434 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

In the second, a small vacant space is left at the 
top, and the apparatus of Gervais is used, or a 
sand-bag, or something similar, laid over the 
hole ; in which case the sediment sinks to the 
bottom when fermentation ceases. The appa- 
ratus of Gervais is seen in Fig. 174. In the en- 
graving the cask is represented as standing on 
one end, this position being necessary to se- 
cure the advantages of its fixtures ; but ordi- 
narily it rests on the side in a " cradle " pre- 
pared for the purpose. The outlet of the cock 
is covered at 5 with a perforated diaphragm, 
to prevent the settlings from running off with 
the wine. 

In wine-making countries the must from rich, 
well-ripened grapes goes through fermentation 
so surely that acetous fermentation is not feared. 
There are, however, large quantities of grapes 
grown from kinds that are not rich, and not 
calculated for making good wine, but which 
will make poor light wine in such quantity as 
to yield a valuable return, if it can be done with- 
out vinegar fermentation. In very bad seasons, 
the best kinds, from imperfect ripening, fall into 
the same defective condition in a greater or less 
degree. Overcropping and premature cropping, 
there as here, are constantly producing their 



WINE MAKING. 435 

disastrous effects, which are always shown in 
weakness of must. These musts will not bear 
the freedom of treatment that is not only safe, 
but advantageous to those of better quality. 
If some restriction is put upon the admission of 
atmospheric air during fermentation, its violence 
is abated in some degree, and the danger of the 
formation of vinegar instead of wine is lessened 
in the same proportion. Upon this the inven- 
tion of Mile. Gervais is founded. The bent tube, 
with its mouth under water, permits the escape 
of the excess of carbonic acid gas, but at the 
same time keeps the surface of the wine covered 
with it, and excludes the atmospheric air. On 
trial, however, the apparatus was found to have 
so little practical value, that it has been gene- 
rally laid aside in Europe. It has been used 
here pretty extensively in fermenting the must 
of the Catawba and other grapes, but with what 
benefit does not appear. 

A more recent question is, whether entirely 
free or partially closed fermentation is most ad- 
vantageous for rich musts, and this is now gen- 
erally settled in favor of the latter, which is 
usually conducted in pretty large vessels set on 
end, with a movable outer cover, and an ad- 
ditional inner cover, as seen in Fig. 174. With- 



436 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

out going into detail, the rule may be briefly 
stated thus : rich musts are benefited by, and 
even require, a freer admission of air and a high- 
er temperature than light and meager musts can 
endure. Thorough fermentation is indispensa- 
ble for making wholesome wine ; not necessa- 
rily the conversion of all the sugar into alcohol, 
but the conversion or deposition of all the yeast 
or ferment with which the must is charged. 
This is one of the prime conditions of that 
" fineness" which is so essential for health as well 
as enjoyment, that it may be said that no wine 
can be good without it. 

The temperature under which fermentation 
takes place actively, ranges from about sixty- 
five to one hundred degrees, and the quantity 
of sugar decomposed decreases as the tempera- 
ture falls below seventy ; in other words, thor- 
ough fermentation requires at least seventy 
degrees of temperature. When it is much 
above eighty, there is danger that fermentation 
will go on too rapidly, even to the destruction 
of the wine, if the must is not rich in sugar, 
and also free from the destructive elements 
that belong to unripeness in the fruit. 

Wine has heretofore been commonly treated 
of as something without life, indeed, but unlike 



WINE MAKING. 437 

any mere mixture, and yet not a chemical com- 
bination. Dr. Guyot, however, speaks of it as 
"a thing of life, which has youth and man- 
hood, old age and decrepitude." A late French 
writer, M. Pasteur, attributes all the changes 
which the juice undergoes by fermentation to 
living action, and bases his discoveries upon 
apparently good microscopic revelations. In 
this country, a similar view was taken of the 
subject by Prof. Gardiner some fifteen years 
ago. It is a question of cause and effect, which 
can only be determined by the most careful 
microscopic investigations. We shall adhere 
to established formulas, but propose to recur 
to these discoveries hereafter. 

We have given the reader a general idea of 
the processes by which good grapes are made 
into wine; but there are minor details of no 
little importance that claim our attention. 

After the grapes are assorted, every opera- 
tion should proceed rapidly. The stemming 
should be done speedily, as also the crushing, 
and immediately thereafter the pressing, unless 
we have in view fermentation of the " marc," 
or, as it is sometimes called, fermentation on 
the skins. For this operation we need a short, 
expressive term, and may as well adopt that 



438 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

used by the French, cvwage, so called from 
the vessel in which it is done ; literally, tub- 
bing. Whether immediate pressing or cuving 
is to be adopted will depend mainly upon the 
character of the grapes and the color of the 
wine ; for it is from the coloring matter in and 
adjacent to the skins that the wine derives its 
color. When a white wine is to be made from 
colored grapes, the skins should not be ferment- 
ed. The rule may be stated in general terms 
as follows : kinds that yield light musts do not 
require or admit of cuvage, and even in large 
casks must be treated with care, both as to the 
free admission of air and the temperature of the 
cellar. Those kinds only are benefited by cu- 
vage that have rich and pure-flavored skins, and 
yield a must of great general richness ; and these 
are benefited also by a pretty free admission of 
air. Fermentation in casks is always safe, and 
should always be resorted to in cases of doubt. 
If any of our " foxy" kinds are fermented on the 
skins, the odor appears in the wine stronger, if 
possible, than in the fruit. The Concord is bad 
enough in this respect, but Ives's Seedling can 
only be borne by those whose sense of smell has 
lost its best points of discrimination. Cuvage is 
admissible with the Delaware, probably also 



WINE MAKING. 439 

with the Diana, and is highly advantageous 
with the Ion a. The skins of the Delaware 
have very little decided character. Those of 
the Diana have considerable aromatic richness, 
but are rarely without some degree of their 
characteristic offensiveness. The skins of the 
lona are pure, rich in aromatic properties and 
tannic and tartaric acids, and give the wine a 
peculiar but beautiful rose color. 

The need of expedition arises from the facil- 
ity with which small masses of the marc that 
are not immersed in the juice take on acetous 
fermentation. When the marc is put into the 
tubs, it should be kept a little below the sur- 
face, of the free juice by a false cover kept at 
the proper depth by weights, or, better, by fas- 
tenings made for the purpose, as shown at d in 
Fig. 174. A false bottom is also required, as 
therein shown, and both this and the cover 
should be made so open by perforations and 
crevices as to permit the passage of the juice, 
while the skins and the more solid parts are 
retained. 

The Catawba is not fermented on the marc, 
and can not be successfully managed in the 
manner described. Its juice has very rarely 
any margin of alcoholic richness above the 



440 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

point that is safe from acetous fermentation 
when managed with the utmost care in the 
best of cellars after immediate pressing. It 
may be stated here that very little still Cataw- 
ba wine, entirely free from adulteration by sugar 
at least, finds its way into the general market ; 
a great proportion of that which professes to 
be pure is rather a sirup than wine. 

After crushing, the marc is taken immedi- 
ately to the press. A considerable portion of 
juice runs off before any pressure is made. 
This is called "first running," and is carefully 
tested by the saccharometer, and the degree 
noted before putting it into the large casks for 
fermentation. 

When pressure is made, the juice takes an- 
other grade, which is also measured and noted, 
and this is called " second running." This will 
not measure so high as the first. When the 
ordinary press is used, the pomace, called 
" cheese," after receiving a strong application 
of the screw, is cut down at the sides, and the 
portion cut off piled upon the top preparatory 
to the last pressing. This juice is also tested 
and noted, and is of still lower grade than the 
last in sugar, but contains more tannic acid. 
This excess of tannic acid in the Catawba, al-; 



WINE MAKING. 441 

though giving a degree of acerbity and bitter- 
ness to the wine, is indispensable to make it 
enduring. 

On comparing the degree of the different 
" runnings," an estimate is made of the average 
sugar of the whole ; and if this is found not to 
be above eighty degrees, it is not thought safe 
to trust to its own foundation of sugar, and 
cane sugar is added to the must before fermen- 
tation, and, of course, an impure Catawba wine 
is the result. The best Catawba wine that has 
been made was from must that registered at 
least ninety degrees on the average of all run- 
ings. 

In the vicinity of Cincinnati the Catawba 
generally ripens early enough to ferment thor- 
oughly by the natural temperature of the cel- 
lars ; but further north, along the lakes, artificial 
heat is required. To exclude the action of at- 
mospheric air during fermentation, the appara- 
tus of Mile. Gervais is used. (See Fig. 174, p. 
431. 

When the first fermentation has subsided, 
and the wine become still, it is "racked," or 
drawn from the lees ; and if much sediment 
forms during the winter, it is racked again 
before warm weather. After the second fer- 



442 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

mentation, if every thing has gone on favora- 
bly, the wine becomes clear, and does not need 
the operation called " fining." 

Almost every maker of wine has some pecu- 
liarities of his own, but all dry wines are made 
upon the same general principles. Let us next 
present an example of making good wine in a 
small or domestic way. We have some excellent 
wine thus made from the lona. As we were inter- 
ested in the proceedings, we will detail them so 
far as to enable the reader to repeat them. 
The object was to test the wine-making capa- 
city of the lona under a variety of circum- 
stances, and specimens were, therefore, procured 
from different localities, and gathered at differ- 
ent times, but all north of New-York. 

The grapes were crushed by hand and the 
juice strained through a cloth, a part of it, 
however, having been fermented on the skins. 
It was then put in clean demijohns and bot- 
tles, and these placed on a shelf in the room, 
each specimen having been first tried by the 
saccharometer, (GEschle's,) and its degree noted. 
All were above eighty-five degrees, and some 
above a hundred. Some were reduced to 
sixty-eight by the addition of water. There 
being no proper facilities for maintaining an 



WINE MAKING. 443 

even temperature, the mercury ranged from 
sixty-five to ninety-five. In the moderately 
rich must, fermentation began in about three 
days, and in the others later in proportion to 
the richness. 

Fermentation lasted more than a week in all 
cases, and in the richest more than four weeks. 
The " racking" was done by simply transferring 
the wine very carefully from one bottle to an- 
other. The progress was naturally watched 
with deep interest, and notes made daily ; but 
we present here only the result, which was in 
every instance a perfect wine, varying greatly, 
however, in important characteristics, as these 
were affected by the different times of gather- 
ing the grapes and by the different localities in 
which they were grown, the first exercising 
much the greatest influence, the last gathered 
and ripest grapes producing far the richest 
must and finest wine. These experiments de- 
monstrated not only that the lona will make 
excellent wine in this way, but that the must 
is free from those destructive elements which 
produce acetous fermentation, a point of great 
weakness in most of our native grapes. In 
this way, small quantities of good wine can be 
made from pure, rich must in an ordinary liv- 



444 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

ing room, if care is taken not to let the tem- 
perature sink below sixty-five at night. 

Let us suppose, here, that this new wine is 
wanted- for immediate use, and we may intro- 
duce the results of some of M. Pasteur's most 
recent experiments. They can be easily re- 
peated by any one. In experimenting for the 
destruction of fungi, which he supposed to 
cause the diseases of wine, he found that they 
were destroyed by heating it. His later ex- 
periments seem to show that a temperature not 
exceeding one hundred and fourteen degrees 
Fahrenheit is sufficient for the purpose. The 
question is, Will this injure the wine ? and just 
here is the point we alluded to. According to 
M. Pasteur, it not only does not injure the 
wine, but hastens its ripening, producing in a 
few hours all the fine qualities that we have 
been in the habit of expecting to come from 
years of careful keeping in good cellars. The 
process is applicable to all wines, and renders 
them, he says, capable of long, if not indefinite, 
preservation. We suggest, therefore, that the 
experiments of M. Pasteur be repeated on 
wine made in bottles,, to hasten its ripening; 
for it may be that we can have good wine to 
drink generally the first winter, instead of the 



WINE MAKING. 445 

second. It was so in the trial of the lona 
above given. 

To enable the reader to obtain a fuller know- 
ledge of the principles of wine making, we pro- 
pose now to give a connected summary of all 
the various processes. 

The grapes should in all cases be thoroughly 
ripe. For making sweet wine, those that will 
bear it may be left till they shrivel. They 
should be gathered when dry, since moisture 
on them will weaken the must, and our grapes 
have generally no strength to spare. They may 
even be kept some days in a suitable room. 
They should be cut with scissors, received in 
suitable baskets or tubs, and carried at once to 
the cellar or house. They should next be care- 
fully assorted, retaining for wine only those 
that are thoroughly ripe. The next operation 
will be stemming, if this is to be done. As 
soon as stemmed, the grapes are crushed, either 
in tubs or by passing through the rollers of 
the press. If crushed in tubs, these should 
have false bottoms with small holes, a faucet, 
and a cover, as already described. When 
cuvage is practiced, the marc should remain 
in the tubs from twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours, when the free juice must be drawn off 



446 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

by the faucet and the marc pressed. The tubs 
should be covered as before directed, to keep 
the skins below the free juice, and exclude dirt 
and air. 

The pressing is next in order, and should be 
done immediately to prevent souring. The 
press should be in the cellar, the temperature 
of which should be kept from sixty-five to 
eighty, and fire heat used if necessary. When 
pressing for wine is done, water may be added 
to the skins, and the juice used for making vin- 
egar ; or they may be used for making brandy. 

As fast as pressed, the juice is put in casks 
of suitable size, the larger the better, but not 
so large that they can not be filled. The ad- 
vantage of using large casks consists in the 
fact, that a large body of must will produce 
more heat than a small one, and fermentation 
may, therefore, be carried on at a lower temper- 
ature than would be consistent with a small 
body of must. If the temperature of the cel- 
lar is too low, it must be raised by artificial 
heat. The beginning of fermentation may be 
hastened by the addition of warm must, in the 
same manner that we hasten or restore the heat 
in a hot-bed by moistening it with hot water. 
When fermentation ceases, the cask must be 



WINE MAKING. 447 

bunged up. It will be prudent not to drive 
the bung tight at first; for if fermentation 
should not have pretty nearly ceased, gas would 
accumulate and burst the cask. It must, there- 
fore, be examined occasionally. There will be 
some leakage or waste in the casks, and the 
vacancy caused in this way must be filled up. 

After the first fermentation has ceased, which 
will not be later than January, the wine must 
be " racked" off, or separated from the " lees," 
oT settlings. In doing this the wine should not 
be exposed to the air, or it will lose a portion 
of its spirit and aroma by evaporation, if not 
injured in other respects. The flow of the 
wine must be stopped as soon as it ceases to 
run clear. The muddy portion and the lees 
are put in a separate cask, and generally dis- 
tilled into brandy. If much sediment settles 
during the winter, the wine must be racked 
again before warm weather sets in. 

About the following May or June the second 
fermentation will begin, and will continue a 
greater or less length of time, according to the 
richness of the wine. In our best wines it may 
be expected to continue a greater part of the 
summer. The casks during this time will need 
watching, as the fermentation may in some cases 



448 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

become so active as to endanger the cask by the 
rapid accumulation of gas, unless it is allowed 
to escape. In the following winter, after the 
second fermentation has ceased, the wine will 
be ready to bottle. In rich wines, however, 
there are always left traces of sugar and fer- 
ment, and in consequence a slow, insensible fer- 
mentation will go on, in some cases for years, 
during which the wine is said to be " ripening." 
We are only just beginning to have that kind 
of wine. This insensible fermentation may, 
under favorable circumstances, become active, 
and should be checked, which can usually be 
done by " racking." Dry wines, it may be re- 
marked, generally fine themselves, and resort 
need not be had to fining. 

Bottling should be done in cool weather, and 
not till fermentation has entirely ceased, other- 
wise the bottles will be liable to be broken by 
the accumulation of gas. The wine is usually 
drawn from the cask by a faucet, and passed 
into the bottle through a funnel. The bottles 
should only be filled to within a couple of inch- 
es of the mouth, so that, when corked, there 
shall be a small space between the cork and the 
wine. The corks should be of the best descrip- 
tion, and compressed at the bottom when put 



WINE MAKING. 449 

in. They should then be sealed by dipping 
them in melted sealing-wax, and placed upright 
till the wax cools. The bottles should then be 
packed away in the cellar on their sides, so as 
to cover the corks, which will prevent the accu- 
mulation of mould. A sediment will collect 
after a time. If this consists of cream of tar- 
tar, it may remain ; otherwise the wine must 
be transferred to other bottles, leaving the sedi- 
ment behind. 

Wasting. Even in the best of casks there is 
more or less evaporation of the spirit and wa- 
ter of the wine, which leaves a vacancy at the 
top. A vacancy is also caused by drawing off 
portions of the wine. This vacancy should be 
filled within a day or two. When this can not 
be done, it is usual to sulphurize it from time 
to time by burning a sulphur match. If, in 
filling up, there should be mould on the wine, 
the filling should be done through a email pipe, 
the end being put under the surface. When 
full, the mould should be carefully removed. 

Use of Husks. The husks are used for va- 
rious purposes, such as making vinegar, brandy, 
potash, etc. If used for brandy, they must be 
kept from the air, and worked up with as little 
delay as possible. The pomace or " cheese " is 



450 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

mixed with water and sugar, again fermented, 
and then distilled. But nobody will under- 
take to make brandy without providing suita- 
ble apparatus for the purpose. If vinegar is 
made, water must be added to the husks, which 
must be stirred up, and fermented till vinegar 
appears. If, however, the husks are " foxy," it 
will be better to press the husks after water- 
ing them, and ferment the juice: there will 
then be less of the "foxy" impurity in it. 
Potash is also made from the husks, but they 
are probably quite as valuable for manure for 
the vineyard. 

Sediment or Lees. These may be distilled 
into brandy or made into potash. The crust 
or salt that collects on the sides of the casks 
is crude cream of tartar, and as such may be 
sold. 

Changes or Diseases. Certain changes take 
place in wine, which are called diseases. What 
is called souring is the commencement of ace- 
tous fermentation, which is generally remedied 
by racking and sulphuring. Weak or watery 
wines are very apt to sour on exposure to the 
air. A remedy would be to add good wines 
of greater strength. Where the disposition to 
sour exists, suddenly increasing the temperature 



WINE MAKING. 451 

a few degrees will give it activity, or, in other 
words, bring on active fermentation. If a wine 
poor in sugar and rich in ferment gets stirred 
up, and the temperature at the same time in- 
creased, fermentation will be renewed, and soon 
pass to the acetous state unless checked. In 
this and similar cases, racking and fining should 
be resorted to ; and this is also the proper 
course to pursue with wines that are oily, 
sticky, or slimy. In. the case of mouldy wines, 
the mould should be removed, and the wine 
racked and fined. This is often caused by not 
keeping the casks well filled. Cloudiness or 
muddiness may be removed by fining. 

M. Pasteur, however, a distinguished French 
physiologist, at the instance of the French gov- 
ernment, has devoted several years to the study 
of diseases in wine, and has arrived at conclu- 
sions which must be regarded as of very great 
importance to the wine-making interests of all 
countries. These results may strike some of 
our readers as being quite improbable ; but ex- 
periments of a somewhat similar kind conduct- 
ed by others give a great degree of probability 
to M. Pasteur's theory in regard to wines. "We 
can not here do more than give an outline of 
the theory as applied to the diseases of wine, 



452 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

which is as follows : That all the changes that 
wine undergoes find their appropriate cause in a 
specific vegetable fungus. Thus, " souring " or 
" acetification," " mould," etc., are each produced 
by a different vegetable parasite or fungus, which, 
if allowed to go on to mature growth, will spoil 
the wine. Before the germs of these fungi are 
called into active life, no harm has been done, 
according to his theory. His remedy is to de- 
stroy them by heating the wine. For this pur- 
pose he submitted wines to a degree of heat 
reaching two hundred and fifty or more de- 
grees ; but his latest experiments would seem 
to show that one hundred and fourteen degrees 
of Fahrenheit are quite sufficient to insure the 
destruction of the parasite. The question will 
naturally arise, whether this degree of heat will 
not injure the wine. M. Pasteur answers it by 
saying that, so far from injuring the wine, it 
hastens its ripening, and brings forth in a few 
hours those fine qualities that we have been in 
the habit of expecting only from many years 
of careful keeping in good cellars. The pro- 
cess is applicable to all kinds of wines, and ren- 
ders them capable of long, if not indefinite, 
preservation. There is good reason to suppose, 
however, that these fungi will make their ap- 



WINE MAKING. 453 

pearance again if air is allowed access to the 
wine ; but then the process is very simple, and 
easily repeated. We commend this theory to 
the consideration of wine maters, with the 
hope that the experiment may be repeated. 
M. Pasteur's book is embellished with many 
fine microscopic illustrations, which materially 
assist the reader in comprehending his theory, 
and would seem to throw additional light on 
the hitherto inscrutable mystery of fermenta- 
tion. 

Adulterations, Gallizing, etc. Wine is the 
fermented juice of the grape: nothing more 
and nothing less. When a foreign substance 
is added to it, it becomes, to that extent, some- 
thing else. The fermented juice of the grape is 
essentially different from the fermented juice of 
any other fruit. The elements of the grape, 
during the process of fermentation, react upon 
each other in some mysterious way that de- 
prives the alcohol of its chief consuming and 
destructive qualities, and thus produces a 
beverage that may be safely and beneficially 
used for strengthening, invigorating, and sus- 
taining the body, while it gently exhilarates 
and cheers the mind. This is wine, pure and 
simple, and pure and simple we wish to keep 



454 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

it. The poetry of words may surround it with 
certain charms, but it can make nothing more 
of it. It is one of those productions of nature 
which man can not reproduce by any of the 
means at present at his command, however 
closely he may seem to imitate it ; and it is 
of these imitations, which are all more or less 
hurtful, that we now propose to speak. 

It will have become very plain to the reader 
that we have taken uncompromising ground 
against adulterations in all their various and 
specious forms. We did this many years ago, 
after having witnessed their uniformly pernicious 
effects, and we have neither read nor seen any 
thing since to shake our faith in simple purity. 
We do not mean to court popularity witli any 
class of men at the sacrifice of our conscientious 
convictions; neither shall we forget our self- 
respect by applying opprobrious terms to those 
who may differ from us. Our position is not 
such a bad one that it needs bad arguments to 
sustain it. Notwithstanding, we shall state our 
convictions very plainly, but without mean- 
ing to offend any one. 

There are certain kinds of adulterations, prac- 
ticed especially in large cities, that are so gener- 
ally recognized as being destructively poisonous 



WINE MAKING. 455 

that it is needless to waste time on them here : 
those who indulge in them are hopelessly be- 
yond the reach of argument as well as the influ- 
ence of moral law. There is another kind of 
adulteration, however, of a more specious kind 
that claims a brief notice. It is very largely 
practiced, both by those who do not know that 
it is an adulteration, and by those who do, but 
who claim that it is not injurious. We allude 
to the practice of adding sugar to the must, or 
Gallizing, as it has more recently been called 
after Grail, who enjoys.the unenviable reputation 
of having reduced it to a system. The practice 
is an old one, having been in common use for 
the fabrication of so-called domestic wines long 
before the days of Gall, Chaptal, Maupin, etc. ; 
but it was only at a comparatively recent 
period, and by slow degrees, that men could 
be educated into marring the noblest of all 
beverages. The "golden argument" in this 
case, as in too many others, alas, in the end 
became irresistible, and the addition of sugar 
to the must of the grape is now nearly as 
common as the addition of sugar to the juice 
of rhubarb or the currant. 

What Mr. Gall has done is simply to tell us 
how much sugar or how much water to add to 



456 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

weak or strong must, or no must at all ; noth- 
ing more, notwithstanding all the mystery that 
has been attempted to be thrown around the 
subject. In other words, he has told us how to 
make forty gallons of wine out of four, and 
even how to make forty gallons of wine out of 
no wine at all ; but in all this he has told us 
nothing new. He and his confreres have re- 
duced the formulas to a tabular form, and pub- 
lished them to the world, and to that extent 
have done what they could to make fraud an 
exact art ; for to publish tjie formulas is only to 
invite to their general practice. It is a pity that 
the talents of these men could not have been 
devoted to a nobler purpose. If we are told 
that in bad seasons the vintage would be most- 
ly lost if some such practice were not resorted 
to, we reply that this need not be so ; and even 
if it were, it is better that a few men should 
suffer a temporary loss than that many should 
lose their manhood, and even their souls. Some 
reader may expect to find these formulas here, 
but he will be disappointed. Their publication 
has been productive of nothing but evil, and 
we do not mean to multiply it. 

But it is said that some of our native 
grapes will not make wine without sugar. 



WISE MAKING. 457 

That is very true ; and it may be added that 
they will not make true wine with it. They 
are clearly not wine grapes, and that is the best 
that can be said of them. There need be no 
argument about that. It is further said that 
the addition of sugar is not injurious, and 
many arguments derived from chemistry are 
adduced to support this position, chief among 
which is the assertion that cane sugar is nearly 
identical with grape sugar, and potato sugar 
quite so, and that the result produced by fer- 
mentation is precisely the same in all. 

This is the little triangular argument that 
supports the arch. "Weaken this key-stone, and 
the whole structure falls to the ground. Now, 
let us look at a few facts. Chemistry itself 
has much to learn yet, and its formulas are by 
no means fixed. What a few years ago were 
supposed to be simple bodies have been dis- 
covered to be compound. The elements of the 
grape are not yet clearly and fully known. 
Fermentation is a profound mysteiy, and at 
best we only know its most striking results; 
the most learned men are not yet even agreed 
as to how many kinds of fermentation there 
are, and, of course, never will be until it is first 
ascertained what fermentation really is. It is 



458 AMERICAN GKAPE CULTURE. 

too soon, therefore, to say that grape sugar and 
potato sugar are precisely identical, or to say in 
what manner the peculiar elements of the grape 
react upon each other in the process of fermen- 
tation. But suppose present chemical analysis 
to reduce grape sugar and potato sugar to the 
same elements, can we be certain that we have 
all ? It is a well-known chemical fact that the 
same elements are sometimes so combined by 
nature as to produce quite different results; 
and it is now equally well known that the 
same element exists in more than one form. 
The diamond is pure carbon; yet we can no 
more make real diamonds from carbon than we 
can make real wine from potato or cane sugar, 
or bread from the maple. Aside from this, 
however, we have the highest authority for say- 
ing that these sugars are not precisely identical ; 
and each individual, without resort to chemis- 
try, may convince himself that they do not 
produce identical results by fermentation. The 
pure juice of the grape yields a beverage that 
produces an exhilarating glow, at the same 
time that it refreshes, strengthens, and satisfies. 
The sugar of the cane and potato yields a bev- 
erage that stimulates to intoxication, at the same 
time that it weakens, stupefies, and depraves, 



WINE MAKING. 459 

leaving an unnatural thirst for more. That is 
precisely the difference between the effects pro- 
duced by the two beverages, and upon that dif- 
ference is founded our objection to the adulter- 
ation. It produces other evils by no means of 
a minor kind ; but these are enough to condemn 
it. The case might even be put so broadly as 
to say that the one gives rise to drunkenness, 
while the other does not, and it would by no 
means be difficult to prove it. We put the 
subject upon the broad ground of public health 
and public morals, and affirm that no man has 
a right to conduct his business in such a man- 
ner as to imperil either. In the name of Ameri- 
can wine making, we enter a solemn protest 
against it. 

But let us look a little further at the subject 
of Grallizing, and see where it leads us. It is 
claimed that by this method wine can be made 
from green grapes. We reply, that in the same 
way wine may be made from the stems, the 
leaves, or the green wood ; wine just as good, 
and in which the taste shall not be able to de- 
tect any difference. What matters it, then, 
whether the fruit ripens or not ? Why not 
give our whole attention to the production of 
leaves and green wood, and make wine as abun- 



460 AMEKICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

dant and cheap as water ? Why not ? Are we 
coming to this ? If so, then it would be better 
at once to abandon the vine, and make plan- 
tations of rhubarb, currants, and the elder. 
But, in fact, why plant any thing ? Gallizing 
has already produced its legitimate results in 
the fabrication of wine, into the composition of 
which no portion of the vine enters. The imi- 
tation is so well done that the majority of those 
who taste it say it is good wine. If nothing 
but the taste were concerned, the subject would 
not be worth a moment's argument ; but it is 
the demoralizing effects which follow the use 
of these beverages which should alarm us. No 
man can study these effects as we have without 
feeling deeply concerned for the future. 

While we have an innate dislike for deception 
in all its forms, we are at the same time jealous 
of the character of American wines. So long 
as we have grapes that will make a pure and 
good wine, there is no excuse for growing those 
that will not. There is a higher motive than 
mere gain underlying this question, in which 
every member of the community is personally 
interested. We ask all, whether wine makers 
or wine drinkers, to examine the subject in the 
light in which we have put it ; to investigate 



WINE MAKING. 461 

the effects produced by pure and by adulterated 
wines, and then decide, each one for himself, 
how far he can conscientiously approve and 
encourage the fabrication of factitious wines. 
We ask chemists, who feel jealous of their re- 
putation, to consider, not how cleverly they 
can produce a fraud, but how surely they can 
detect one. We ask that science may be made 
the hand-maiden of virtue, and not of vice. 

CJiampagne, SparMing, or Effervescing 
Wines. These form a distinct class, their 
sparkling or effervescing quality constituting a 
well-marked characteristic. 

Champagne is so called from the district 
of Champagne, in France, where many sup- 
pose it to be chiefly made. It has been 
said, however, and we believe with no great 
departure from the truth, that more so-called 
champagne is made in New- York alone than 
in the whole district of Champagne. The 
name is commonly, though erroneously, ap- 
plied to any sparkling wine. With us, the 
wine should take the name of the grape 
from which it is made, such as Sparkling 
Catawba, Delaware, lona, etc., and this has 
already been begun. 

The making of what is called champagne 



462 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

is such a complicated art, and requires so 
much observation and experience, added to 
thorough knowledge, that it is proposed to 
indicate only its general principles, with a 
view to show what real sparkling Cham- 
pagne wine is, and how much more enjoy- 
ment there is in the true than the false, if 
people could only be induced to look for 
it where it may be found. 

In the distiict of Champagne, still and 
dry as well as sweet and sparkling wines 
are produced. In the general use of the term 
champagne only sparkling wines are meant, 
which are divided into two classes, according 
to the degree of effervescence, the more mod- 
erate being called "creaming," and the more 
active " effervescing ;" but the general term 
sparkling best meets the popular idea. 

The body or foundation of Champagne 
is still wine of the richest quality that has 
undergone the first fermentation. In the 
management of the second fermentation, a part 
of the carbonic acid gas is retained, and, under 
great pressure, induced to form some degree of 
cohesion with the wine, so that when the bottle 
is opened the gas escapes with much less free- 
dom than if it had not been firmly imprisoned 



WINE MAKING. 463 

in the wine. Science has given to this part of 
the art, theoretically, a great degree of exact- 
ness: a given amount of sugar converted into 
alcohol and carbonic acid will produce a certain 
pressure, which good bottles made for the pur- 
pose are able to withstand. About two atmos- 
pheres, or sixty pounds to the inch, are deemed 
the lowest admissible degree. This may be 
considered a pretty high pressure, but the bot- 
tles are made to endure two-fold more than that. 
If the pressure becomes very much higher, the 
bottles burst ; if very much lower, the wine lacks 
the force of effervescence that is deemed so desir- 
able. Our present knowledge, however, will not 
enable us to control or precisely estimate the 
strength of fermentation from given quantities 
of material, and hence some loss will occur under 
the best management. After the closest calcu- 
lation has been made, and the excess of sugar 
reduced, there will still be much left to experi- 
ment. The second fermentation is brought on 
in warm rooms, and carried to the point of 
breaking some of the bottles. When it is 
jduged that fermentation has reached the 
proper point, two methods are resorted to for 
checking it: first, sprinkling cold water on 
bottles; the second, removing the bottles to 



464 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

a cool cellar. The practice, however, varies, 
some taking the bottles to the cellar first, and 
the fermentation room afterward, according 
to circumstances. 

In the second fermentation there is one nice 
point to be attained besides the proper degree 
of fermentation, and this, to good judges of 
wine, is of the first importance. At the end 
of the first fermentation there is always, in rich 
wines, a considerable quantity of sugar await- 
ing conversion by the second fermentation. 
The " fineness" that is indispensable to excel- 
lence requires that this fermentation should be 
carefully conducted to the proper point; for, 
as elsewhere remarked, pure champagne is wine 
of the highest character with the sparkling 
quality added. This may be a difficult point 
to attain, but it is not beyond the reach of 
painstaking skill. It is such wine that some 
have learned to enjoy ; but it is not in demand 
by the generality of customers in this country, 
and special provision is therefore made for them 
by various additions, the chief of which are 
alcohol and sugar. Advantage is taken of this 
fact, and champagnes for exportation are made 
to suit the tastes of various nations, the makers, 
of course, having due regard to their own in- 



WINE MAKING. 465 

terests. Thus it is that pure Champagne is not 
made for general exportation ; much of the cost 
and care consequent upon making it is rendered 
unnecessary, and the excellence for which it was 
praised has been lost under the mask of sweets 
spirits, and flavorings. Under the circum. 
stances, still wines of tolerable quality, and 
without offensive odor or taste, are just as 
good as those possessing the richest qualities, 
since the effervescence, which has come to be 
regarded as the chief consideration, is not made 
to depend upon the natural sugar of the grape, 
but solely upon that added in the operation 
called "working," and the wines are hence 
called " worked wines." This " working," which 
consists in the addition of prepared liquor, 
(chiefly alcohol and sugar,) generally aver- 
aging from twenty to thirty per cent, enables 
the makers to keep their wines at nearly the 
same quality, irrespective of the seasons. In 
other words, the grape has much less to do 
with it than skillful confection. 

The most recent apparatus for adding this 
liquor in exact quantity is one of the most elabo- 
rate and complicated pieces of mechanism used in 
champagne making. It must take a partly 
filled bottle, add just so much liquor, and leave 

30 



466 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

just so much space in the neck, and all this 
it does like an automaton. Besides this, there 
are many other kinds of apparatus used for 
various purposes, of which a mere description 
in words would be useless. 

We have given but a brief glance at this part 
of the subject, and can not avoid saying that it 
has been the least satisfactory part of our labor. 
We have not alluded,, in this connection, to the 
making of sparkling wines in this country: 
both the apparatus and the art, however, have 
been imported. Our object has rather been 
to serve American wine makers by showing 
the difference between a true, and a spurious 
Champagne, with the hope of leading the way 
to the formation of a class who will create a 
demand for American Champagne in its purity. 
We live in the hope that a better taste will call 
for sparkling wine that, like the best still wines, 
will not only "leave the head clear and the 
mouth cool," but also afford the stomach that 
grateful refreshment from carbonic acid and 
pure wine that we now look for in vain except 
in wines of special importation. There are 
many who would pay liberally for such a 
luxury if they could learn its worth, and knew 
where to obtain it. 



WINE MAKING. 467 

It is unnecessary to say any thing here of the 
processes whereby such immense quantities of 
drink, called Champagne, are made : we have 
said quite enough elsewhere. It is only another 
phase of Gallizing. The carbonic acid is added 
by machinery, very much as it is added to soda 
water, and it is made nearly as cheap. These 
fabrications bear to pure Champagne the same 
relation that Gallized wine bears to pure wine. 

We have stated that there are two classes 
of champagne, the dry and the sparkling. The 
first is the best. Of the last, there are innu- 
merable brands, and two or three grades, being 
more or less sweet or dry, and of these the 
driest is best. There is a sparkling brand 
called " Consular Seal," imported by Tomes & 
Melvaine, of three grades, " dry," " drier," and 
" driest," indicated respectively by a red, blue, 
and black seal. The reader can prove for him- 
self that the driest champagnes are best by 
trying the " Consular Seal," which lie will find 
to improve as it gets drier. If he compares 
the "driest" with the common brands, his 
head will tell him the difference, if his taste 
does not. 




Israella 



CONCLUSION. 

OUR labor of love is now done, except a few 
words of explanation and acknowledgment. 
Some five years ago, in our " Hints," we prom- 
ised to write a work on Grape Culture, the 
design then comprehending two volumes, and 
we have been constantly reminded of it since ; 
but circumstances unnecessary to explain pre- 
vented us, till within a few weeks past, from 
even beginning the text. The engravings, how- 
ever, were put in hand ; but their execution 
was so unsatisfactory that they were thrown 
aside. There is but one man that we know 
of who can make a really truthful engraving of 
the wood of the grape vine, and he has ac- 
quired the ability to do so after years of 
training under Dr. Grant. We refer to Mr. 
Henry Holton, whose work is so truthful and 
spirited in execution as to extort our praise. 
There, has been nothing done in this country or 
Europe to compare with it. Even copies from 



470 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

the French, it will be seen, "become new things 
in his hands. To Mr. Holton, then, we had 
recourse ; but for various reasons the engrav- 
ings " dragged their slow length along." They 
might have been hastened by copying and 
transferring ; but that would not quite suit our 
sense of propriety. We therefore applied to 
Dr. Grant for permission to take electrotypes 
from some of his engravings, and got more than 
we asked for. The answer came that we could 
have whatever we wanted. It therefore be- 
comes our pleasing duty to make an acknow- 
ledgment befitting such generous liberality, and 
we do it very heartily. It may not interest the 
public, but it concerns us much whether we 
make use of the property of others with or 
without their approbation. It is thus that we 
have been enabled to illustrate the present 
volume with the most beautiful vine portraits 
that have ever been given to the public, and 
the minute truthfulness of which the reader 
will find of material assistance to him. 

One word more of encouragement to the be- 
ginner. There can be no doubt that grape 
culture, under proper conditions, is one of the 
most profitable departments of horticulture, and 
may be entered upon without misgiving by any 



CONCLUSION. 471 

one who has a suitable location, and will study 
and apply the conditions of success. "We can 
not promise, neither can you expect, a full 
measure of unvarying success from year to 
year ; for grape culture, like all other branches 
of industry, is occasionally liable to unfavor- 
able seasons, and at long intervals one that is 
exceedingly so, like that we have just passed 
through. But even such a season is not with- 
out its lessons. We may learn something, not 
only of the reliability of varieties, but also of 
the value of thorough preparation of the soil 
and judicious training. It has given us re- 
newed confidence in our preferences and treat- 
ment,- for we have heard of no cases in which 
similar ^.treatment has been adopted in which 
the effects of the season were not comparatively 
light ; and it has furnished additional evidence 
of the greater reliability of our best grapes as 
compared with the poor ones. There is nothing 
to dishearten in adverse seasons like the past; 
for they occur so rarely as to be but little 
feared, and less with grapes than other kinds 
of fruits. 

When we initiated the movement which re- 
sulted in the formation of the American Porno- 
logical Society, we had in view a central society 



472 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

which should properly test new fruits in refer- 
ence to their excellence, healthiness, and hardi- 
ness, and indorse them accordingly. This duty, 
honestly performed, would have been of incal- 
culable service to the public, and made the 
society a great benefactor to the country ; but 
it has been overlooked, and the public must 
still continue to do its own testing unaided. 
That the progress of fruit culture is greatly 
retarded from a want of this kind can not be 
doubted; but there is no present help for it. 
The grape-grower, therefore, in common with 
other fruit-growers, must test for himself such 
new varieties as may from time to time appear. 
In regard to those already before the public, he 
must select some competent guide in whom he 
may have confidence, and not allow himself to 
be bewildered and led astray by a multitude of 
advisers. The intelligent amateur may try all 
things, if he can afford it, with profit to himself 
and the public ; but the vineyardist, who grows 
largely, will find his greatest profit ultimately 
to consist in growing such kinds only as are 
known to possess excellence of a high standard, 
and eschewing all others; he should not, in- 
deed, waste his time in even testing any that he 
has not good reason to believe possess such ex- 



CONCLUSION. 473 

cellence, much less plant those that are already 
known to be wanting in the very characteristics 
which constitute a good grape. We hope the 
time for that has pretty well passed by. To 
this end, we have given you .the results of a 
wide field of observation, as well as the benefit 
of many years of experience devoted lovingly 
to the subject, with the hope, which we trust 
may not be a vain one, that they may be a safe 
guide to you, as well as a source of pleasure 
and profit, in all that relates to the vine. 

One word more on this point. Having se- 
lected wisely, devote yourself faithfully to the 
study and practice of those principles which are 
essential to success in grape culture. In all the 
pursuits of life success is measured by know- 
ledge, and the use we make of it. Fruit grow- 
ing is not an exception, however much the fact 
may be overlooked. Too many seem to think 
that they have only to put trees and vines in 
the ground, and look idly on while the fruit 
grows and ripens without thought or care from 
them; nay, there are not a few who begrudge 
even the small labor that is necessary to 
gather the fruit as it ripens and falls. This 
might, perhaps, be borne if these very men 
were not constantly moaning over their want 



474 AMERICAN- GRAPE CULTURE. 

of success, and disheartening the beginner with 
the mournful cry that "it won't pay." It 
would be surprising if it did. How can fruit 
growing .be expected to pay where there is such 
an utter disregard of the plainest conditions 
which Nature has made necessary to success? 
Fruit growing is a business, and, like other 
kinds of business, has its laws, which can not be 
disregarded with impunity; but, unlike other 
kinds of business, it must be conducted as a 
partnership, Nature always being one of the 
partners. She, indeed, is " the head of the firm," 
having been so made in the first instance by 
u Him who doeth all things well," with a prom- 
ise that she should remain so " through all the 
ages." But this firm is in no respect a " close 
corporation :" all who will may enter it. Na- 
ture receives each applicant with a gracious 
welcome, and makes but one condition. She 
opens her great Book of Laws, tells him to read 
them, and then says, with an encouraging smile, 
" Obey these, and you shall partake of our 
pleasures and profits : otherwise, not." That is 
the contract we make with Nature ; and as she 
has never been known to fail in one of her 
promises, we may be sure, if we come short of 
the pleasures and profits, that we have been 



CONCLUSION. 475 

wanting in the performance of some duty. 
This is the stand-point from which we must 
view success in grape culture. 

Further than this, as a grape grower, you are 
under certain obligations to the grape consumer 
to give him the best in its best condition ; and 
you owe it to yourself not to regard the great 
mass of the people, the " million," as an inferior 
and degraded class, incapable of any but the 
lowest forms of enjoyment, and for whom any 
thing is good enough that you can induce them 
to buy. That would be a gross outrage and 
insult to our common humanity. If the masses, 
from want of opportunity, have not yet attained 
to the same knowledge of excellence in fruits 
that you possess, remember that it is only a short 
time since you knew as little in this respect as 
they do now, and esteem it a privilege to help 
them to the same measure and degree of enjoy- 
ment. Be assured that all labor that tends to 
the improvement of public taste by placing the 
good within its knowledge and reach will meet 
its appropriate reward, not alone in that which 
makes rich, but also in that exalted conscious- 
ness of well-doing which riches can neither pur- 
chase nor take away. Attune yourself to the 



476 AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 

" key-note " that runs through this book, " Good 
grapes for all? and do your part to hasten the 
day when its vibrations shall be heard and felt 
in every dwelling in the land. 



INDEX. 



Acarus tellarius, 

Action, vital, 63, 70 

, , should not be checked, . . 

Adirondac, 

Adulterations, 453, 465 

Advice to be sought, 15 

Aiken, ...215 

Albino, 212 

Allen's Hybrid, 176 

, as a wine grape, 194 

Alvey , 213 

Alexander, 211 

American wine, 6, 420 

Angle, right, how to make, 31 

Anna, 204 

Anomala coslebs, 390 

Aphis, 392 

Applowing, 343 

Arbors 134 

Areola lanigera, 389 

Arms, beginning to form, 60, 70 

, must be formed gradually,. . .70, 78 

, how to lay down, 74 

, extension of, 74, 78 

, in double tiers, 86 

, reversed horizontal, 151, 414 

, renewing, .315 

, opposite, how formed, 318 

, length of, 321 

, general management of, 822 

Arnold's No. 1, 222 

Ashes...... 28 

Athallage, 57 

, benefits of, 63 



B, 

PAGE 

Barnyard manure best, 28 

Baskets, 358 

Bedding, 123, 402, 406, 407 

Beetles, 387 

Beginner, encouragement to, 470 

Bitter rot, 383 

Black Hawk, 221 

Black rot, 388 

Bland, 210 

Board fence as a shelter, 17 

Bones, 28 

ottles for wine, 426 

Bottling, 448 

Bow system, 114 

, improved form of, 116 

Boxes, 858 

Brackett's Seedling, 217 

Brinckle, .. ...211 



Brown rot, 383 

Buds, single, best plants made from,. . 35 

-, , how to plant, 41 

-, , propagating from, 250 

-, double and treble, 324 

Punches, how many on young vines, . . 73 

Bullitt or Taylor, 203 

Buy, best time to, 51 



0, 

Canby's August, 211 

Canadian Hybrid, 222 

Carpenter, 222 

Casks,... 425 

Cassady, 211 



478 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



Catawba, , 172 

, as a wine grape, 194 

. group, 171 

, comparison of quality, 187 

, comparison for table, 187 

, comparison for mar- 
ket, 188 

, comparison for wine, 189 

Caterpillars, 392 

Cellar for wine, 424 

Cellar, how to keep vines in, 53 

Champagne, 461 

, adulteration of, 465 

Charlotte, 222 

Charmeux, plan of, 410 

Charter Oak, 215 

Checks injurious, 75 

Child's Superb, 211 

Christine, or Telegraph, 222 

Clara, 211 

Clarifying or fining wines, ". . . .427 

Cleanliness indispensable in wine mak- 
ing, '...423 

Climate, 11 

Clinton, 202 

Cloudiness in wines, 450 

Cockchafers, 387 

Coleman's White, 214 

Color of wines, how obtained, 426 

Compost heap, 28, 370 

Conclusion, 469 

Concord, 161 , 195 

, not a wine grape, 197 

Corail,. 215 

Covering in winter, 65, 346, 352 

Creveling, 163 

Crushing grapes for wine, 428 

Cultivation, 340-351 

, implements used, 347-851 

Cunningham, 215 

Cuttings, plants from green, 34, 49 

, how to plant, 46 

, how to make plants from,. . .277 

Cut- worm, 395 

Cuvage, or fermenting skins, 438 

Cuyahoga, 214 

Cynthiana, 215 



D. 

Dana's Seedlings, 219 

Delaware, ...179 



PAGE 

Delaware, compared with lona, 184 

, as a wine grape 193 

Deplowing, 843 

Depth to plant, 41, 295 

of soil, importance of, 28 

Description of varieties, 159-224 

Diana, 174 

as a wine grape, 193 

Diana Hamburgh, 217 

Direction of rows, 29 

Diseases, 374 

Distances to plant, : 32, 822 

Domestic propagation, 270 

Domestic wine making, 442 

Dorr's Seedling, 221 

Double horizontal arms, 6D, 70 

, in two tiers, 8t> 



Double spurs, 84 

Dracut Amber, 215 

Drainage must be thorough, 13 

Dry location necessary, 13 

Dry wines, 430 

Dwellings, vines on, 136 



Elizabeth, 214 

Elsingburgh, 201 

Emily, 211 

Eudryas grata, 398 

Eumelan, 220 

Eureka, 214 

European grape, its failure here, 223 

Eva, 

Exposure, 

, southern, best, , 

, objects to be attained by,., 



Eyes or buds, how to plant, 

, make the best plants, . 



.221 
. 15 
. 16 
16 
41 
35 
, how to propagate from, 250 



F, 

Pall planting, 50 

Fan system, 153 

Fancher, 217 

Faulty structure of native grape, 247 

Fence, board, as a shelter, 17 

Fermentation, definition of, 483 

,first, 431 

, second, 432 

, above and ~below , 433 



INDEX. 



479 



Fining or clarifying wines, 427 

Flesh of the grape, of what composed, 239 

Flora, 213 

Fogs, 13 

Force, vital, 63, 70 

. 1 should not be checked, ... 75 

Foreign grape, fails here, 223 

, how ripened, 244 

Framingham, 221 

Fruit, how much on young vines, 7? 

Fungi in wines, 451 

Furrow slice should be narrow, 25 



G. 

Gallizing, 453 

Garrigues, 

Gervais, apparatus of, 434 

Goblet form, 

Golden beetle 389 

Golden Clinton, 205 

Good grapes for all, 22 

grown as cheap as bad 

ones, 22' 

Grafting, 28 

Graham, 21 

Grape culture, its importance, 5, 

, capital invested in, 

< , its commercial value,. . 

, steadily increasing, .... 

, rich in pleasure and 

profit, 

. , . 1 its relation to wine 

making, 

Grapes, demand for, 

- ,asfood 25 

, when they are ripe, 23 

1 of what the flesh is composed, 23 

, faulty structure of native, . . .24 

1 how to gather, 35 

, how to assort and pack, 3J 

, should be ripe when picked,.. 35 

, how to keep in winter, 3C 

, description of varieties,. .159-2 

, comparison of varieties,. 168, 1 

Green wood, plants from, 

Ground training, 4 

Growing plants between the rows, 3 

Growth, rank, not desirable 50, 

-, must not be checked, 



Guyot's system, 



-, improved,. 



altica chalybea, 390 

ring, 345 



artford Prolific, 163 

attus or Hattie, 221 

eelingin, 52,419 

erbemont, 207 

ermitage plan, 156 

idden causes of failure, 14 

ill sides favorite spots, 14 

oeing, 34T 

oney grape, , 213 , 

orizontal arms, 60, 70 

, in double tiers, 86 

:ot-bed, propagating single eyes in,. .260 

:ouses, vines on, 136 

:usks, use of, 449 

/ybridizing, 28S 

[yde's Eliza, 212 



I, 

mpediments to culture, 18 

implements used in wine-making,. 423 

mportance of grape culture, 5, 7 

nsects, 385 

ntroduction, 5 

...; 181 



ona, '.... 

compared with Delaware, 184 

as a wine grape, 191, 442 

sabella, 169 

group, 159 

, comparison of, for ta- 
ble 168 

, comparison of, for 

market, 168 

, not wine grapes, 170, 195 

Israella, 165 

, vine of, 76 

Ives's Seedling, 167 



J, 
Jura plan, 118 



C 

Kansas July, 214 

Keeping grapes during winter, 362 

Keuka, (Neff,) 222 

Kinds to buy, 34 

Kinds of wines, 430 



480 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



Lateral, (see Thallon,) 57 

Laura, 221 

Layers, how to plant, 47 

, how to propagate, 279 

Laying out the vineyard, 29 

Leaf rollers, .'.'..' 394 

folders, 395 

blisterers, 395 

, mildewed, 418 

Lees or sediment, 450 

Length of arms, 321 

Lenoir, 209 

Light soils, planting in, 44 

Lincoln, 209 

Lime, 28 

Location, its importance, 12 

, must be dry, 12 

Logan, 213 

Lorain, 221 

Louisa, .212 

Low grounds to be avoided 13 

Lydia, 213 



K, 

Macedonia, 221 

Mammoth Catawba, 212 

Manhattan, 214 

Manures, 23, 370 

, gross, injurious, 27 

, how to treat, 28 

, unfermented, unsuitable,... 2S 

, must not touch the roots, 41, 50 

Marc, 430 

Marion, 212 

Market, comparison of Isabella group, 1CS 

, comparison of Catawba group,18S 

Marketing, 356 

, boxes and baskets, 

Martha, 219 

Mary Ann, 212 

Massachusetts White, 215 

May beetle, 387 

May's system for covering, 151 

Maxatawny, 21 

McCowan, 212 

McNeil, 212 

Meade's Seedling, 212 

Melolontha subspinosa, 38C 

Mildew, 377 

Mildewed leaf, 418 



Miles, 203 

Miner's Seedling, 215 

Modena, 221 

Montgomery, 211 

Mottled Catawba, 218 

Mould in wines, 450 

Muddiness in wines, 450 



Vative grape, its faulty structure, ... 247 

NTefif, (Keuka,) 222 

^on-manuring, 872 

North America, 215 

Northern Muscadine, 215 

Norton's Virginia, 210 



0, 

Oblique system, 149 

Opposite arms, how formed, 318 

spurs, how formed, 320 



Order in the vineyard, 30 

Overcropping, 325 



P, 

Pasteur's experiments, 437, 444, 451 

Pelidnota punctata, 389 

Perkins, 215 

Philamepelus, 393 

Phyllophaga quercina, 387 

Pinching, time to do it, C3, 64,74-76 

Plant, how deep to, 41, 295 

, distances to, 32, 322 

Plants and planting, 31 

, best kinds to purchase, ....34, 35 

, best age to purchase, 37 

from single eyes, 34, 250 

, how to plant, 34 



from cuttings, 34, 277 

, how to plant, 46 



from layers, 34, 279 

-, how to plant, 47 

from green wood, 34, 49 

, relative value, 87 

, how to keep during winter, 52-55 

, best time to purchase, 51 

Planting in light soils, ,44 

, spring, 50 

, fall, 50 

, additional remarks on, 295 

Plowing stiff soils, 844 



INDEX. 



481 



Plowing mellow soils, 345 

Pceschel's Mammoth, 221 

Poudrette, 28 

Preparation of soil, 20-27 

Pressing grapes for wine, 428 

Primary roots,. 341 

Procris Americana, 394 

Propagation, 249-294 

, single eyes or buds, 250 

, under glass, 251 

, in hot-beds, 260 

, domestic, 270 

, single eyes in open air, ..275 

, cuttings, ...277 

__ layers, 279 

, , grafting, 283 

, seeds, hybridizing, 288 

Protection for young plants, 45 

Pruning the roots,. 43 

, summer, C3, 75 

at time of planting, 43 

at end of first year, 65 

, fall, 65 

. See Training. 

Q. 

Quesnel, plan of, 400 



Rack for stakes, .418 

Racking wines, 429 

Rank growth not desirable, 50, 69 

Rebecca, 199 

Red Spider, 392 

Renewal system, 144 

Renewing spurs, 308 

arms, 315 

upright stocks, 317 

Replacing spurs, 305 

Rentz, 215 

Reversed horizontal arms, 151, 414 

Right angle, how to make, 31 

Ringing the vine, 416 

Ripe, when grapes are, 236 

Ripeness, signs of, 238 

^_ ? rule for, 240 

, outward signs of, 241 

Rogers's Hybrids,. 204 

Root-pruning and transplanting, 88-40, 43 

47 

Roots must not get dry, 41 

, furnished with mouths, 41 



Roots, how to cover, 43 

must not be buried in manure, 41, 50 

Rose-bug, 386 

Rot, 383 

Rows, direction of, 29 



s, 



.103, 



Safety valves, 

Sage, 215 

Salem, 222 

Saratoga, .- 218 

Scuppernong, 214 

Sediment or lees, .450 

Seedlings should be tested, 216 

SeedSj plants from,.. 288 

Selandria vitis, 394 

Shelter, 10 

, its object, 17 

, various kinds, 18 

, for young plants,,. 45 

, Guyot's, 94 

, Dr. Grant's, 94 

, for ripening, 367 

Shortening or pruning the roots, 43 

Single eyes or buds make best plants, 35 

, how to plant, 41 

, under glass, 250 

, in hot beds, 260 

, in the open air,.. .275 



Soil, various kinds,. 20 

-, best for the grape,. 20 

, its preparation, 21 

-, importance of depth, 28 

, excessive richness objectionable, 28 

Souring, 450 

Sparkling wines, 430, 461 

Sphinges, 392 

Spotted beetle, 389 

Spring planting, 50 

Spurs, distance between, 72 

, formation of, 78 

, single and double, 79, 84,400 

, replacing, 305 

, renewing, 308 

, opposite, 320 

Stables, training vines on, 141 

Stakes, training on, 158 

- for vineyard, 329 

, training without, 413 

, rack for,. 413 

Steel blue beetle, 390 

Stocks, upright,. 105 



482 



AMERICAN GRAPE CULTURE. 



PAGE 

Stocks, upright, renewing, ......317 

, low, 118, 158 

Structure of native grape faulty, 247 

Subsoiling, ...... 26 

Summer pruning, 63. 75 

San scald, 385 

Surface water, evils of, 13, 855 

roots, 341 

Sweet wines,. . . .430 

System, double horizontal arms, 60, 70 

, double horizontal arms in two 

tiers, 86 

, Cuyot's renewal arms, 89 

, Guyot improved, 99 

, , in two tiers, 105 

, upright stock, alternate spurs, 105 

-, bow, 114 

, , improved form, 116 

, low stock, 118, 158 

, Jura, 118 

, Thoraery, 121 

^.^ !j f or walls,.. 125, 400, 410 

~, : , for garden, 127 

, , for trellis and ar- 
bors, 132,400, 410 

, Thomery, for dwellings, .137, 400 

410 

, Thomery, for stables,141, 400, 410 

, renewal, 144 

, oblique, _ 149 

, , of Dr. May, 151 

, re versed horizontal arms, 151, 415 

,fan, 163 

, goblet and other forms, 153 

, Trouillet's, 155 

, Hermitage, 156 

, on trees, 158 

, on stakes, 158 

, opposite arms, 318 

, opposite spurs, 320 

, of Quesnel, 400 

, of Charmeux, 410 

, of ground training, 411 

, without stakes, 413 

, trees and trellis combined,. . . .413 

T, 

Taste as applied to fruits, 225 

Taylor or Bullitt, 203 

Telegraph or Christine, 221 

Testing Seedlings, 216 

Tettigonia vitis, 391 



Thallon, (lateral,) 57 

, definition of, 58 



Thomery system, 121 

Thrips, 391 

Time to plant, 50 

to buy, 51 

To Kalon, 202 

Training, 56-158 

, general remarks, 56-59 

, its value, 59 

, first year, 60 

, second year, 66 

, third year, 73 

, fourth year, 80 

, fifth year, 85 

See System. 



Transplanting vines, 40 

Transplanting and root pruning, . . . .38-40 

Trellis, 829 

, wire, best, 334 

, mode of fastening wire, 336 

, wire should be loosened in win- 
ter, 356 

, vines on, 131, 132 

Trenching, 22 

Trench plowing 24 

Trees for shelter, 18 

must not be close to vines, 18 

, training on, 158, 413 

Trouillet's system, 155 

Tying must be loose, 82, 324, 361 



TJ, 

Underbill's Seedling, 215 

Union Village, . . .198 

Upright stock, alternate spurs, 105 

, must be gradually 



formed, 107 

Upright stock, renewing, 317 



V. 

Varieties, description of, 159-224 

, comparison of, 168, 187 

Vine, parts of, 59, 00 

as a gross feeder, 27 

-, ringing the, 416 

- chafer, 390 

- hopper, (thrips,) 391 

Vines, treatment of weak, 68 

, best age to purchase, 37 

should not grow on the ground, 61 



INDEX. 



483 



Vines on trellis, 181, 132 

on walls and arbors, 134 

on dwellings, 136 

on stables, (see System,') 141 

from eyes, how to plant, 34 

from cuttings, how to plant, . . 46 

from layers, how to plant, 47 

. See Plants. 

Vineyard, laying out, 29 

, how to form the rows, 31 

, distances to plant, 32, 322 

, planting the, 34 

Vital force, 63,70 

, should not be checked, ... 75 

w. 

Walls and arbors, (see System,) 134 

Walter, 218 

Water, evils of surface, 13 

, influence of, 14 

Weed, time to, 348 

Wilmington, 213 

Wines, American, 6 

Wine making, 420 

and bread making, 421 

, its simplicity, 422 

, good grapes necessary 

for, 422 

, implements used in, 423 

, cleanliness indispensa- 
ble, 423 

, cellar, 424 

, casks, 425 

, bottles, 426 

, color, how obtained,. ..426 

, clarifying, 427 

, crushing, 42 

, racking, 42J 



,Vine making, kinds of wine, 430 

, process of, 431 

, fermentation, .431-436 

, cuvage, 438 

, skins of " foxy " grapes,438 

, how Catawba wine is 

made, 439 

, domestic, 442 

, Pasteur's experSments,444 

451 

, summary of processes,445 

-448 

, bottling, 448 

, wasting, 449 

, use of husks, 449 

, sediment or lees, 450 

, changes or diseases,. . .450 

, adulterations, Galliz- 

ing.etc., 453 

, champagne, 461 

, , apparatus 

used,.... 465 

, , adultera- 
tions, etc.465 
Winter, how to keep plants during, 52-55 

covering, 65,346,352 

management, 351 

killing, 855 

Wire trellis, best, 334 

Wood, largest not best, 326 

Wright's Isabella, 213 



T, 

Yeddo, 215 

Young America, 221 

York Madeira, 200 

Young plants, protection for, 45 



THE END. 



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