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OUUUU7U/3N 



4Z2 



i 



THE ELEMENTS 



w. 



OP 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



J 
THE ELEMENTS 



OF 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



BY 



The Rev. SAMUEL CONNOR, 

AUTHOR or '* EPITOME OF LATIN PROSODY." 



». >■ 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR 

LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMAN, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 



MDCCCXXXII. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY RICHARD TAYLOR, 
RED LION COUHTy FLXBT STREET. 





ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Compiler of the following pages has endea- 
voured to prepare a clear, concise, and comprehensive 
Greek Grammar ; and for this purpose has carefully 
examined the chief Grammars published in England 
and abroad. 

In respect to the Vocabulary, which is attached, he 
would advise, that the Learner should begin to com- 
mit it to memory, when he has gone through tutttw 
in the three Voices. Besides the words he might 
have to learn in translating some introductory Book, 
as Valpy's Delectus ^ (which he might commence when 
he had made himself master of some of the Verbs,) he 
might take ten words of the Vocabulary each day, 
repeating fifty (a column) on one day in the week. 
Thus by the time that he had finished the Vocabu- 
lary, he would have acquired, with comparative ease, 
a stock of words, which would most materially facili- 
tate his progress in translation. 

Ockbrook, near Derby, Dec, 1830. 



r. 



CONTENTS. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Page. 

Of the Alphabet 1 

Of Syllables, Quantity, Breathing, Accent 5 

Of Apostrophe « • • • • . 7 

Marks of Punctuation and Distinction • 7 

ETYMOLOGY. 

Of the Parts of Speech 8 

Of the Article 8 

Of Nouns 9 

Of Adjectives and Participles 23 

Of Pronouns • 36 

Of Verbs $S 

Of the Augment and Formation of the Tenses 54 

Of Verbs in fii • > 62 

Of Irregular and Defective Verbs in /xi and jiai 74 

List of Irregular and Defective Verbs 81 

Impersonal Verbs , 92 

Of Adverbs , 93 

Of Prepositions 96 

Of Conjunctions 96 

Of Derivatives and Compounds 98 

SYNTAX. 

Of the Article 106 

Of Substantive Nouns 107 

Of Adjective Nouns 110 

Of Pronouns Ill 

Of Verbs 112 

Of Participles 117 

Of Adverbs 119 

Of Prepositions 121 

Of Conjunctions ...» 180 



Vlll 



PROM>DY. 

Page 

Of Quantity 133 

Of Feet 141 

Of Metre 141 

Of the Reading of Verse • 145 

Of Poetic License • • 147 

Of Accent 147 

Of Enclitics 153 



Of Dialects 155 

Of the Digamma • • « ••••••«• 190 

Grammatical Terms and Figures • • • • • 190 

Of the Greek Calendar 192 

Greek Vocabulary • • • . • • 194 

List of the Principal Greek Authors • • • . . ?04 

Abbreviations and Connexions. •••••••••• ^9 



•« 



THE ELEMENTS 



OF 



GREEK GRAMMAR. 



GrRAMM AR is a science, which teaches the form and use of words. 

The Elements of a language are letters ; these are combined into 
syllables, syllables into words, words into sentences, by means of 
which we express our thoughts. 

There are four Parts of Grammar ; viz. Orthography, Etymo- 
logy» Syntax, and Prosody. 

Orthography relates to the form of letters, syllables, and words : 
— Etymology to the derivation of words^ their signification, and the 
changes which they undergo : — Syntax relates to the formation of 
sentences : — and Prosody to the just pronunciation of words, and 
their harmonious arrangement. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Orthography teaches the nature and powers of letters, and their 
combination in words. 

Of the Alphabet. 

The Alphabet is substantially the same in all known languages. 
The first letters were pictures of visible objects ; their ybrww may 
still be considered as contractions of the original rude represen- 
tations ; their names were originally the names of the objects which 
they represented ; and their sounds were the initial sounds of those 
names. 

B 



The Greeks have Twenty-four Letters, taken principally from the 
Phoenicians. 



Fonn. 


Name. 


Power. Oldest Form known. 


A, a. 


"AX^, 


Alpha, 


a» 


A, A, A, 


B, i3. e, 


B^ra, 


Beta, 


b. 


^, 


r, y,r, 


Fa/ifio, 


Gramma, 


ghard. 


A, 


A, i. 


A^Xm, 


Delta, 


. ^' 


^, 


E. e. 


"Eif/iXov, 


Epsilon* 


■ « 

e short, 


€,E. 


Z, (.i. 


Zfjra, 


Zeta, 


z» 


X* 


H, V, 


"Hra, 


Eta, 


elong. 


H, 


0, ^, 0, 


G^ra, 


Theta, 


th, 


o. 


I, *, 


'Ura, 


Iota, 


i French, 


1, 


K, .:, 


KoTTTra, 


Kappa, 


k, 


K, 


A, X, 


Aa/i)3^a, 


Lambda, 


1, 


V. 


M, fi, 


Mv, 


Mu, 


m. 


M, 


N, V, 


Nv, 


Nu, 


n. 


N, 


iSr, £, 


«, 


Xi, 


X, 


S, §, I, 


O, 0, 


'O/idcpoi^, 


Omikron, 


o short. 


o, 


n, IT, cr, 


n?, 


Pi, 


P» 


P, 


P> f»P> 


'pj. 


Rho, 


r, 


^, 


S, or, s, 


S?y/xa, 


Sigma, 


s, 


c,c,§. 


T, r,7. 


Tav, 


Tau, 


t, 


T, 


Y, V, 


*Y\pi\6y, 


Upsilon, 


u French, 


Y, 


*, ^, 


*?, 


Phi, 


ph. 


♦. 


x» x» 


XT, 


Chi, 


ch guttural. 


X, 


% >^, 


^«, 


Psi, 


ps, 


"¥, 


£1, at. 


'O/i^ya. 


Omega. 


o long. 


XI. 



Note 1. The Ancient Greeks used only Sixteen Letters, introduced by Cadmus 
from Phoenicia about 200 years before the taking of Troy. It is said that Pala- 
medes added the three Aspirates and ^ in the time of the Trojan war; and that 
Simonides completed the Double Consonants, and added the Long Vowels about 500 
years before the Birth of Christ. 

Note 2. In the beginning of a word it is better to write ft y, ^, r, than €, /, 0, or 7. 

Note 3. 2, when it ends a word, or sometimes at the end of a syllable in a Com- 
pound word, is written thus, s ; — as dvtfjkevfio. 



The Letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants. 



w 



A Vowel 


ia the sign of an articulate sound 


, which < 


can be uttered 


by iuelf. 












There art 


! Seven Vowels ; viz. 
Two Short, 
Two Long, 
Three Doubtful, , 










Anciently e was used Cor n, and o for «. or av ;— then 

The Three last are called Doubtiul, because, as they 
and short in others, ed also their quantity la frequently i 


the long 
were dou' 

are lonR 


bled, mid form 
in some syllabi. 


ed 



From these Vowels are formed Twelve Diphthongs. 

If both Vowels perfectly coalesce, and each be equally heard, the 
Diphthong is called Proper ; if they do not perfectly coalesce, or 
one of them be sunk in the sotuid of the other, the Diphthong is 
called Improper. 

There are Six Proper Diphthongs, formed from the two short 
Vowels and n, when short, with < or u subjoined. 

Thus from r, i ^'\ from o, i "'' , from short a, i "'' 



!tophanes has shovn the pronunciation of the Dipl 

aive of the barking of a dog. 

s in Latin changed into ir, rarely ai; — ei into I, somi 



ong av, by making ii 



There are Six Improper Diphthongs, formed from the long Vowels 
ind a, when long, with i or v subjoined. 

In Three of these the sound of i is sunk ; the i is therefo 
lot in the line, but under it, and called < subscribed. 

Thus 9, p, y. The other Three are nu, vi, luv. 



tten 



Perhaps both av and vi should he considered sometimes as Proper, sometimes si 
Improper Diphthongs, according to the quanfily of the fornier Vowel. 

The ■ subscribed was anciently either otniifed, or added to the former Vowel, as 
APAN or APAIN, for Sp^v i and is yet sometimes joined to Capital Letters thus, 
A I. 

A Vowel is called pure when it follows a Vowel ; impure, when 
it follows a Consonant. In the former case it is called pure, because 
it forms a syllable of itself, without being joined to a Consonant. 

For the Changes and Combinations of Vowels by Contraction, 



ep. 16. 



Of 



E CuNSOHAi 



A Consonant c 

I Vowel. 



t be perfectly uttered, unless conibined with a 



Of the Seventeen Consonants Nine are Mutes, divided into 

Three Soft, ir, k, r ; 

Three Middle, /3, y, ^ ; 
Three Aspirate, ^, x> ^* 
Each Soft Mute has its corresponding Middle and Aspirate, into 
which it is ft'equently changed. Thus w has /3 for its Middle, and 
^ for its Aspirate. 

The A^irates are formed from r, r, r, witb an Attpiratioii. See p. 6. 

The other Consonants are : 
a, which may .be called a Solitary Consonant, from its peculiar 
power : — ^Three Double Letters, ^, formed from ^s, or aZ ; 

f» K^i y*» X* ; 

,/,, ^s, /3«, ^s : 

And the Four Liquids, X, /i, v, p. 

The Letters ^, ft, 9r, 0, if/, are also called Labials, being pronowiced by the Lips. 

V, «, 5, x» Palatals, Palate. 

i,^,^,X,i/,p,<r,r, Linguals, — Tongue. 

Observations, 

The Greeks in the formation of their words had particular regard to Euphony, 
and endeavoured to avoid the concurrence of Consonants which were difficult to be 
pronounced together, or were of different kinds, as well as the meeting of two Vowels 
of separate pronunciation. , 

1. Whenever in Declension or Conjugation two Consonants come together, which 
may be conveniently expressed by a Double Letter, it ought to be used. 

Thus of Xeyo), / tay^ the Future is written Xe^w, not Xkyam ; of 'Aparpf an Ara- 
biattf the Dat PI. "Apa^h not 'Apa^ai. 

But from this rule ^ must be excepted, which is never placed either for ds or o-d; 
— as also the Preposition er, which is not changed when o follows it. 

Thus ^^(tf, / »ing, Put if,o<a (instead of jidtrnj), not q.i^<o ; rovvSe, not rovZe ; 

kK<Tli)K*i>, not 6^(tf^(tf. 

2. When two Mutes come together, the former conmionly assumes the character 
of the latter ; and they must both be Soft, Middle, or Aspirate. Thus 6fcra>, 5ySoos, 
irjti^Briv,'' not ervirOriv. The Preposition ck, however, remains unchanged; as 
6jc0Xi)3w, not exOXiPja, 

But the same Aspirates are never put together, the former being always changed 

into a Soft} — as MarBaios, not MaBOdios; SaTr^w, not 2a00(tf. 
■* 

3. Two Aspirates in two successive syllables do not sound well ; whence the 
former generally, but in the First Aorist of the Imperative, Passive, the latter, is 
changed into a So&, ; — as BplKi Gen. rpix^s, for Bpix^ i 1 Aor. Imp. Pass. rv^Otiri, 
for rviftBriBt, 

Sometimes the two Aspirates remain : thus in some Compound words, as bpviBo- 
BripcLS ; — if a Consonant precede the second Aspirate, as BpeiftBeis ; — when Bev and 
Oi are affixed to words, as vavraxdBev ; — in diftiBtiv, &c. 

4. A changed Consonant is replaced in its former situation, when the letter, which 
caused the change, fisdls away ; — or in Verbs, when tiie Syllabic Augment permits. 
Thua^Bpl^, rpix^t h&s ^^ the Dative Plural Bpi^i ; rpi^ta, for Bpi^atf has in the 
Future Bpe^w ; kmiwutt for iviievia, has in the Imperfect evifjievov. 



5. r before y, k, ^, x is pronounced like v ; — thus dyyeXos is pronounced dvytXot' 

6. The Linguals d, 9, r, Z can stand only before Liquids, are usually dropped 
before tT, and before the other Linguals changed into <r, 

A, S, Vf Ty or VT together, are rejected before the final ai of the Dat Plur. of the 
Third Declension. 

7. Before /« the Labials 7r, ^i 0, ^^f are changed into /« ; the Palatals k, x ^^^^ 
y ; and the Linguals d, 9, t, t^ generally into <r. Thus ypdfifia for ypd^fia, 
pippeyfiai for jSejSpex/iai, ffffjta for fdfjta. 

8. N admits after it in the same word no Consonants except Vf Sf 9, v, as from 
dvj^p the Gen. dvSpbs for dvpbs, instead of dvepos : however there are some ex- 
ceptions. When it cannot have one of these letters, it is changed. 



Thus V is changed into -< u,, before j3, /i, 7r, 0, if/. 



r y, before y, ic, ^, ^ ! retaining the sound oiv» See above, 5. 

[a, pf fff before X, p, <r. 

Thus eyy pd^io for 6i/ypa0a>, e/il^aivia for ev^aiviOy kXKdiiirta for evXdfitrta ; — 
and in Latin illiteratus for inliteratuSf &c. 

The Preposition Iv remains unchanged in evpv9fjL08, evtreiu), ev^eofiai, &c. — 
N in the Preposition (rti)!/ falls away before ^, and before ff if followed by another 
Consonant ; as ffvt^dia, <rvoKidt,u}i (TVffTrdu), (tvotoXi), for ffvvlidia, &c. 

9. N (etpeXxvtrriKbv, from e^eXicvo), / attract,) is added to Datives Plural in en, 
^i, and >//c, — to the word eticocrt, to Verbs of the Third Person in e and i, and to 
various Adverbs, when the next word begins with a Vowel, in general at the end of 
a sentence, and also to lengthen a final short syllable in Poetry. Thus irdviv eTtrev 
aifTbs, yvvaiKiv eiKoaiv, 

It is also frequently added to the a of privation, when this is prefixed to a word 
beginning with a Vowel ; as iXeois, merciful ; <ii/cXe(i>s, for dtXeo/s, unmerciful, 

10. The Negative oh becomes ohK before a Soft Vowel, and oi)x before an Aspi- 
rate ; — ejc becomes kX before a Vowel ; — and oi;r(i), dxp^t and fiexpi before a Vowel 
take 8 ; as o^Tuts eiprj. 

11. P at the beginning of a word is doubled, whenever in Composition or Con- 
jugation it is preceded by a single Vowel. Thus dftpriros (for dpriros) is formed 
from pijTbSf eppeirov from piiru. 

In words, compounded with eil, the p is not doubled ; as evpaicrros ; also in 0tXo- 
priTiapt epe^a from pe^oi, and perhaps some others. 

12. When Three Consonants follow one another, the Greeks use other words to 
express the meaning ; thus rervfifievot el<ri for rirvrrvrai : — or they omit tr in the 
Second and Third Person Plur. of the Perfect, Indicative, Passive ; as TiTvp9e for 
rervilKy9e, ireirXtivrai for rri'irXriffvrai. 

But when the first or last Consonant is a Liquid, Three may be used ; as d<T9fjiat 
€<r9Xbs, rr€iJ,^9ei8 : — also in Composition ; as SvtT<ft9apTos, eKiTTiotns, 

Of Syllables. 
I'o Syllables belong Quantity, Breathing, and Accent. 

I. Of Quantity. 

Quantity is the measure of time in pronouncing a Syllable, ac- 
cording to which some are long, and others short. 

The Rules of Quantity may be divided into general and particular. 

The general Rules depend upon the analogy of the letters, and 
consist only in knowing the two short Vowels, e, o ; — the two long 
ones, ri, ta ; — the three doubtful, a, i, v ; — and the Diphthongs : so 



dial when a Syllable is to be lengthened, the short Vowels are fre- 
quently changed into the corresponding long ones ; and vice vers6. 

The Diphthongs are all long, except sometimes at and ok at the 
end of words. 

The particular Rules require a better knowledge of the language, 
and are therefore reserved for another place. 

II. Of Breathing, 

There are two Breathings, one of which is placed over every 
Vowel or Diphthong, beginning a word ;-^the Soft {Spiritus lents) 
(*) ; — and the Aspirate (JSpiritus asper) ('). 

The Soft merely denotes the absence of the Aspirate. 

The Aspirate has the force of h ; thus 6 is pronounced ho. 

Y and p at the beginning of a word have the Aspirate. 

Note 1. If p be doubled, the fonner has the Soft, the latter the Aairfrate; as 
Ij&l^eoi/. 

Note 2. Anciently H was the mark of the Aspirate in Greek, as it is in Latin : 
thus H.€Karbv was written for egarbv ; and IIH, KH, TH, for 0, Xt ^* ^7 degrees 
F, or the former half of H, became used as the mark of Aspiration, and was 
shortened into ( * ) ; while the latter half i, or ( ' ), was used to denote a gentle 
Breathing. 

Note 3. The ^olians, who avoided the Aspirate, used another sound, similar to 
a V, or W, to prevent the hiatus occasioned by the meeting of Vowels in different 
syllables ; — this was called Digamma, because its form resembled two Gammas, one 
over the other, as F, or P. Thus Peffirepa, for etnrepa, itPbv for itbv, tovto 
Pidov for TOVTO idov. Hence the Latin vespera, ovum, video, &c. 



III. Of Accent. 

The Greeks use three Accents to mark the elevation or depression 
of the voice in pronouncing a syllable, the Acute ('), the Grave ('), 
and the Circumflex (") ; but no Accent can be marked further firom 
the last syllable than the Antepenult. 

1. The Acute Accent raises the voice, and may be placed on one 
or other of the three last syllables. If the last be short, the Accent 
is generally on the Antepenult; but if long, the Antepenult cannot 
be accented ; as ^AXiiavdpos^ 'AXeldv^p^, 

%. The Grave depresses the voice, and is understood to every 
unaccented syllable, but marked only on the last in a word ; but 
when this syllable is also the last of a sentence, or followed by an 
Enclitic, it is changed into the Acute : as n/xi), hviip riSf xelp. 

3. The Circumflex first raises, and then depresses the tone, on 
the same syllable, which must dierefore be long, and equivalent to 



two short syllables. Thus aufia is equal to ado/iu. It is placed 
only on the last syllable, or the Penult, if the last be short : as c/jof , 

ffoie I. Many reckon but two AcrenU, Ibe Acute and Circumflex, lud coimder 
the Grave as a privation, or sinking of ilie Acute. 

Nole 2. A word wilh an Acute or Grave on the [aat syllable Is called Oijrtoi., or 
Acutitoa, — not accented on the last syllable, Baryloa, or Gravitoni — acccnled on 
the Penult, Pormyim; — on the Anlepenult, Proparozyloa ; — circumflesBd on the 
last syllable, Periapomenoa l — on the Penult, Properiipomenon. 

Special Rules for the regulation of Accents will be given in n 
future page. 

Of Apostrophe. 

The Apostrophe ( ' ) ileDotes the rejection of a Vowel or Diphthong 
before a word beginning with a Vowel. 

The Vowels frequently rejected, are a, f , t, o ; and the Diphthongs 
ai and oi : but n/i^l (except before an aspirated Vowel), Tfpi, irpb, 
and the Dative Singular of the Third Declension retain their final 
Vowel. Thus itap iftoi, for wapa ifiol ; /3(i«Xo/i' eyii, for povXaiiai 
eyai ; irepl eavroS, irpo 'Ofiiipov, TratTi elirep. 

Xote 1. If the Vowel, following the Apostrophe, be aspirated, the preceding Con- 
Bonant, or Consonanta, if Soli Mutes, are changed mio their corresponding Aspirates ; 
aa if' If for ewi ly, vixS' DXijv for i/vxTa BXqv. 

Nale 2. SometiineB these Vowels and DiphHiongs ate cut off by the Attics and 
Poets in the beginning of a word i as u Va5 for u fivaj, iing .■ — and the two 
words are frequently joined in one by Craais; thus rouTfiTTi for tovtS iari, 
tfyii for kbI eyii, iyifSa for eyu olSax where observe, that i ejected is always 
subsoihed. 

Marks of Pdnctuaiion and Distinciioh. 

The Comma ( , ) is the same as in English. 

The Colon ( ' ), marked at the top of the line. 

The Fall Stop ( . ), as in English. 

The Sign of Interrogation ( ; ), resembling the English Semicolon. 

The Hyphen ( - ), connecting the syllables of a word ; as \6-yos. 

The Points of Ditiinction, (Puncla Dicereseos) (" ), which separate 
two vowels in pronunciation, that would otherwise form a Diphthong, 
and are marked over the latter ; thus diin), which has three syllables, 
— aiirlj, only two. 

The Diastole, or Hypodiastole ( , ) like a Comma, and inserted 
between the parts of some Compounds, to distinguish them frotn 
other words ; as S,re, the Neuter of 5t, and re ; which is tlius distin- 
guished from uTt, when. 

An Explanation of some other Grammatical Terms, of frequent 



^ 



8 

uie, may not be improperly inserted here, though referred to in 
a future page. 

Prosthesis^ addition in the beginning of a word. 

EperUhesiSf insertion in the middle. 

ParagogCf addition to the end. 

Aph^esiSf a taking away from the beginning. 

Syncope, a taking away from the middle. 

Apocope, a taking away from the end. 

Mutation, or Metathesis, a transposition of letters or syllables. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Ettmoloot treats of the different sorts of words, their derivation, 
signification, and the changes which they undergo. 

Of the Pabts of Speech. 

There are Eight kinds of words, called Parts of Speech; viz. the 
Article, ro &pOpov ; Noun, ro ovofjia ; Pronoun, ^ iLvrtawfiia ; Ad^ 
jective, ro eirlderov ; Verb, ro ^fjfia ; Adverb, ro eirlpprifia ; PrepO' 
sition, ff irpddetris ; and Conjunction, 6 evydeefjios. 

They mjety all, howeveri be reduced to three Classes, viz. Nouns, Verbs, and In- 
declinable Particles. 

Inteijections are included by the Greeks among Adverbs. 

The four first kinds of words are declined with Gender, rb yiros ; 
Number, 6 apiOfios ; and Case, ^ imStris, Of the others, the Verb 
alone admits the difference of Number. 

There are Three Genders ; the Masculine, ro iiptreyiKov ; Femi- 
nine, ro driXvKdv ; and Neuter, ro ovBirepov, 

There are Three Numbers ; the Singular, 6 iviKos ; Dual (when 
only two are spoken of, though not much used), 6 ^vikos; and 
Plural, 6 irXrfdvvriKos. 

There are Five Ca^es ; the Nominative, ^/ ovofiaariKtl, or ehSeia ; 

Genitive, if yevticTi ; Dative, fj ^oriKti ; Accusative, fj ainanKri ;* and 

Vocative, ff Kkfiriicfi. 

For the Ablative of the Latins the Greeks have no distinct form, but its relation 
is expressed by the Dative or Genitive, or by Prepositions. 

The Article, 6, 4, ro. The, 

serves to distinguish the signification and gender of Nouns, and is 
declined thus : 



Singular. 



M. 

Nom. by 
Gen. Tovy 
Dat. rf, 

Ace. TOVf 



F. N. 

Ttjsy rovf 



9 
Dual. 

M. F. 



N. 



TtMf, 



Plural. 

M. F. 



N. A. r«, T€if 

G. D. roev, TOiVf Toiv, 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 



01 



ai, 



N. 

ra. 



rwi', rwv, r«v, 
roir, rats, roisy 

TOVSf TCLS, TCL. 



Note 1. The Article usually answers to the Definite Article the in English. — 
" AvOpiowos means a man, or man in general ; and 6 dvBptoTToSf the man. 

Note 2. The Article wants the Vocative, which is supplied by the Adverb of 
calling o^. 

Note 3. The oldest form of the Article was r5«, ri), rb ; Plur. roi, rai, ra. 



Of Nouns. 
A Noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. 

Sometimes the term Substantive Noun is used, in distinction from an Adjective, 
which is also termed an Adjective Noun. 

In Greek there are Three Declensions, al KXltreis, 

General Rules of the Declensions. 

I. The Nominative and Vocative are frequently the same in the 
Singular, always in the Dual and Plural. 

II. The Dative always has i, either final, or in a diphthong in the 
last Syllable. 

III. Neuters have the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative 
alike ; and these Cases in the Plural end in a. 

IV. The Dual has only two terminations, one for the Nominative, 
Accusative, and Vocative ; the other for the Genitive and Dative ; 
and has the Masculine and Neuter the same. 

V. The Genitive Plural ends in u)v. 



The First Declension 

has Four Terminations in the Nominative; — a, 17, Feminine; 
17s, Masculine. 

The following are the Terminations of the different Cases. 



-as. 







Singular. 




Dual. 


Plural. 


N. 


a» 


Vf 


a«, 


i;«, 


a> 


ai, 


G. 


rjs (as), 


IJS, 


ov, 


ov, 


atVf 


fi)i/. 


D. 


pCv'X 


»» 


^> 


V* 


aiy, 


atSf 


A. 


av. 


^Vf 


av, 


ny. 


a» 


as, 


V. 


a. 


n- 


a. 


a(rj). 


a. 


oc. 



The two first Declensions subscribe i in the Dative Singular. 



10 



N. h fwQaay the mute, 
G. rrjs fJLotftniSf of, ^c. 

A. ri^r liovaaVf 

N. A.V. ra, J fwvffaf 
G. D. ralv fiov<raty. 



N. at fJLovaaif 

G. rw V fjLovatSvf 

D, rats fjiovaats, 

A. roff uovffaSf 

• w fxovfrai. 

Singular. 

N. 6 yeavlasf the youth, \6 
G. rov i^eaWov, 
D» r» yearly, • 
A. roi' veaWav, 
V. J veaWa. 



Dual. 
N.A.V. r*i), «J vcaWa, 
G. D. TOiy yeaviaiy. 



Plural. 



N. oi yeayiaif 
G. rwy veoviwv, 
D. rois f^eaWaUi 
A. Tovs veaylaSf 
V* (J i/eai^cai. 



Examples. 

Singular. 
iwptcif the gift. 

^(MtpeaVf 
Btap€&» 

Dual. 
iiapeciy 
^lapeaiy. 

Plural. 
^ufptalf 
Zutptwy^ 
^(MtpeaiSf 
dufpeaSi 
dwptaL 

irpo(l>fiTrfSi the prO' 
irpof^ilTov^ \_phet, 

ffpo(pfir^9 

irpof^iiTriVi 

Tpof^rJTa. 

irpoi^ilTaf 
iTjOo^^raiv* 



Trpo^rJTaif 
wpotpriT^yf 

TTpOf^itTaiSf 

irpcipfiTOSi 
TTpoipfiTai. 



Si TifA^f the honour. 
rtfArjs^ 

TlfAfl. 
TlfAOiy. 



TifAaif 

TifJuSy^ 

rifiaiSf 

Ti/iai. 

Words to be declined. 

ff fiiXiaaaf the bee. 

TpaireZa^the table, 

^Ixl^if thirst. 

Bo(a, opinion. 

^^pa, the seat. 

Kap^la, the heart. 

fila, force. 

aeXiiyfif the moon. 

aperi, virtue. 
6 rafulas, the steward. 

K(y)(\lcLS9 the cocklem 

fiaOrirris, the learner. 

iroirfrijSf the poet. 

reXwyrfSf the tax-ga- 
therer. 



Of the Genitive Singular. 

Note 1. Nouns in a pure, ^a, 0a, and pa, retain a in the Genitiye and Dative ; 
as vo^i-a, -as, -q. ; Aijo-o, -as, -q. ; Map0-a, -as, -q. ; ^fjiep-a, -as, -q. 
But AvSSa and weipa (or (Twetpa) are found with ijs in the Genitive. 

Note 2. The termination in a, which makes as in the Genitive, is generally long. 
Hence words in a contracted, as 'ABrjva (for 'A^qvaa), fiva (for fivaa), and the 
Doric ^iXo/iriXa, &c. make -as : and for the same reason e^Xafca has eiiXoKas. But 
axavQ-a, whose final a is short, makes -i^s ; also some others. 

Note 3. Some Nouns in as make the Genitive in a, as well as in ov ; as HvOa- 
y6p'a9f Gen. -ow and -a ; warpaXol-as, Gen. -ov and -a ; and some have -o only ; 
as, Ouifidst Gen. Oiofia. 

These Genitives in a were in the Doric form. 



11 

Note 4. Some Nouns in tis also drop s in the Genitive ; as 6 IXo^^s, tov Hoiri, 

Note 5. The ancient terminations of the Gen. Sing, of words in ijs were eo and 
aoy whence, by changing o into ta, and adding Vt the Gto. Plur. was formed. From 
60 was formed the Attic Gen. in ov, and the ^olic ev ; and from ao came the Doric 
a, which the Attics sometimes retained. 



Of the Vocative. 

The Vocative is generally formed by shortening the termination of the Nomi- 
native. 

Note 1. Hence the following words make the Vocative in a short :— Nouns in 
Ttis and ri}« ; — ^in ri9, derived from ficTpeta, irujXiuf, and Tpi^ia, as yew fiirpriSt 
&c. — or denoting Nations, as ScvOi^s, a Scythian; TLeparis, a Persian; (but ileptnjt, 
the name of a man, has Heptrti ;) — and the words Xdyvfis, Mevat^^fti}?, and IIv- 

paixiitl^* 

But Airjrris, aivapeTnis, KaXKmeTtiSf and jcaXXiXa/i9r6ri|«, have ij. 

Note 2. Nouns in trri^s have both a and rj in the Vocative. 

Note 3. The Vocative of Nouns in as has a long. 

Note 4. The ^olians and Macedonians adopted the termination & even in the 
Nominative, instead of as and qs ; thus IwirSra for iTwdrris. 

Note 5. The Accent on Bome Nouns in Ttjs and ri^s is drawn back in the Voca- 
tive ; as eifpvoirtis, eifpvoira ; deow6Tfi9t SiowoTa, 



Of the Genitive Plural. 

Note 1. The Genitive Plural of the First Declension was originally in eutv ox 
atav ; the lonians retained the former, and the iEolians the latter. The Attics con- 
tracted eiov into wv, and the Dorians dutv into av* 

Note 2. The Genitive Plural is therefore always circumflexed ; as fiovffa, G. PI. 
/lAOVcroiv t-^except in Feminine Adjectives, that are Paroxjrtons, from os of the 
Second Declension ; as ayia (from ^yios), G. PI. ay'uav ; — and in these four words, 
a^vri, eTi^ffiai, xXot;i/9|S, and XPV^^^^* which retain the Acute on the Penult ; as 
a(pviitv, &C. 

The Second Declension 



has Two Terminations ; 

Singular. 



, Masculine or Feminine ; and oy^ Neuter. 
Dual. Plural. 



rv. OS, 


ov, 




w, 




o«, a, 


G. ov, 




oiv, 




wv, 


D. y, 
A. oVf 


ov. 


oiv, 

01, 




OlSf 

ovs, a, 


V. e. 


ov. 


(a. 




01. a. 




Examples. 






Singular. 


Dual. 




Plural. 


N. 6 Xoyos, the word. 
G. TOV Xoyov, 
D. tS \6y^f 
A. TOV Xoyovt 
V. JXdye. 


N.A 
G.D 


.V. r*i), w XSyuff 
Totv Xoyoiv. 


N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 
V. 


oi XSyoi, 
Thiv X6ya)Vf 
ToU Xdyois, 
TOVS XdyovSf 
to X6yoi. 



\t 



Singular. 

N. TV rdioy, the bow, 
G. rov rdlovf 
D. rw rdl^i 
A. TO Toiov, 
V. iJ rd^oy. 



Dual. 

N. A. V. T^f J r^£4i», 
G, D. Toiv t6^v. 



Plural. 

N. TO. r6(af 
G. nJv r6£wy, 
D. Toi$ rdioiSf 
A. TO, rofay 
V. « ro(a« 



6 ^ypofy the field, 
fiios, the ltfe» 
^XioSf the sun. 
dvfios, the mind, 
AvdpwTros, the man. 



Wards to be declined, 

4 irapOiyoSy the virgin, 
AfjireXoSf the vine, 
odoSf the way, 
vrjeoSf the island, 

t6 Biy^poVf the tree. 



TO p6^ovy the rose, 
Kpivov, the lily. 
(vXov, wood. 
aKfjirrpoVf the seep- 
tre. 



Note 1. The Attics frequently change os and ov into (us and tav, make the Voca- 
tive Singular the same as the Nominativci and in all Cases put ta, even in the 
termination of the Neuter Plural of the Nominative and Accusative, subscribing i 
wherever it occurs. 

Note 2. If a before the final os of the Nominative be long, they change it into e ; 
as vdbSf veuts ; Xads, Xews ; — if short, it remains ; as rduts. 

Note 3. When the word has e before the (i>, the Antepenult may be accented, 
though the Ultimate is long, as the two Vowels are pronounced almost like one ; — 
thus dvioyaav* 



Singular. 

N. 6 Xeitfs, for Xabs, the people* 
G. Tov Xeo), 
D. r(f \€(p, 
A. rbv Xeutv, 
V. b» Xeu>s, 

Singular. 

N. rb &vioyeti}v, for dvutyeoVt an 
G. rov dvibyeUf [upper room. 
D. Tif dvd)y€(i>t 
A. rb dvutyeuv, 
V. & dviityeiov. 



Examples, 

Dual. 



N.A.V. ro), S) Xecu, 
G. D. To7.v Xetfiv. 



Dual. 



N.A.V. ra», c5 dvtoyeutf 
G. D. ro7v dviayetfiv. 



Plural. 

N. ol Xe(fiy 
G. ra>v XeStVy 
D. rots Xe^^s, 
A. roi}9 Xettfff, 
V. cu Xcy. 

Plural. 

N. rd dvutyeatf 

G. rutv dviayeutv, 

D. rols dvu>yeiftSf 

A. rd dvioyeia, 

V. (tf dvutyeit). 



Note 1. Most Nouns in os and a>s are of the Masculine Gender ; but X9^^^ i^ 
Neuter, though rb xpetav is also used. Many in os are both Masculine and Femi- 
nine ; as 6 jj^ 17 ayyeXos, the messenger. 

Adjectives in a;s are both Masculine and Feminine ; as {^ i| tXews. 

Note 2. Some Masculines or Feminines in os are Neuter in the Plural, and de- 
clined accordingly ; as 6 ^vy6s, rd ^vyd. 

Note 3. The Noun Oebv, God, has the Vocative the same as the Nominative. 

Note 4. Some Attic Nouns in tas lose v in the Accusative ; as Nom. 'A9ws, 
Ace. 'A0a> ; Nom. 'AttoXXcus, Acc. 'ATroXXoi : and also some Acyectives Neuter in 
u)v lose V ; as Nom. dyriputv, Acc. dyfiput. 



13 



The Third Declension 

has Nine Terminations, and words of all Genders ; and all the Cases 
have a syllable more than the Nominative and Vocative Singular, 
unless prevented by Contraction. 

The Nouns of this Declension are therefore called Imparisyllabici those of the 
others Parisyllabic. 



Singular. 

N. a, I, V, w, y, f, f), $, ip, 

G. oSf 

D. I, 

A. a, v, 

V. in general like the N. 



Dual. 

OIV, 
€,' 



Plural. 



tay, 

tri, 

as, 

€S, 



a. 



a. 



N. 6 lArjy, the month. 
G. Tov fjirivdsf 
J), rf /ii;ve, 
A. Toy fJirjva, 

V. 



fJ fitly. 



N.A.V. Tw, d fjrjy€f 
G. D. ToTy fxiiyoiy. 



N» 01 firjyes, 

G. Ttoy firjyijyf 

D. ToTs fiija'tf 

A. Toijs fjfjyaSf 

V. <J fJLrjyes. 



Examples. 

Singular. 

4 eXTT^f, the hope, 
rijs iXiri^oSf 
rj eXiridif 
rrjy e\7r/^a, 
at eKiris. 

Dual. 

ra, fJ cXtt/^c, 
raiv cXtt/^oii'. 

Plural. 

at eXirides, 
Twy eKiriZiav, 
Tois eXTTtVi, 
TCLS eXirl^aSf 
0) eXwiBest 



TO (rQfia, the body. 

TOV (TijJfiaTOSf 

T^ trwfjLariy 



TO (TtOfiay 

0) (rdj/xa. 



Ttitf ti> (yuifjiaT€t 
Toiy (rwfxcLTOiy. 



ra (TwfJLaTa, 
Ttoy (rttiix&TUiy, 
Tots awfiaai, 
TO. (TUifiaTaf 
to adifjiaTa. 



Words to be declined. 

6 aufT'rjp, 'ijpoSf the saAf} trap^f aapKOSf the flesh. 
"' — f^priy,<^p€ydsithemind. 



viour. 

ufxl/f oiTTos, the coun- 
tenance. 

fxvSf /Lcvos, the mouse. 

Trais, Trai^oSi the boy. 



Opi^, Tpixos, the hair. 
^piSf epidoSf the con- 
tention. 



TO fiiX'i, -iros, honey, 
yoy-Vf -aroSfthe knee, 
irvpf irvpos, the fire, 
vd-bfpf -arcs, the 
water. 



Of the Genitive Singular, 

The Genitive admits of a great variety of formations, owing to the numerous ter- 
minations of the Nominative ; however, it always ends in os, except with the Attics, 
who frequently change it into tas. 



14 

These dUUerent formationf, together with the Genders of the Nouns, may be best 
learned by reading and referring to a Lexicon : suffice it to mention in respect to 
Gender,^ 

1. AU Nouns ending in at, Gen. avrot, €V9, avt and vv, are Masculine ; but av 

b Neuter in Adjectives :— 

2. All Nouns ending in at, Gen. aSos, ri}« Gen. rtiTos, avt, to, and is derived 

from a Verb, are Feminine : — 

3. All Nouns ending in a, t, v, at Gen. arw, ap, oOf and 09, are Neuter ; ex- 

cept 6 ypdp, 6 /ASt/Aapt rf od/iapt and 9 6ap. 

Of the Accusative, 

The Accusative Singular generally ends in a. We must however observe : — 

1. Nouns in c«, V9, aw, ow, whose Genitive ends in os pure, have v, instead of a, 
in the Accusative, which is formed from the Nominative, merely by rhanpfig the 
final 8 ; as 5^i«, G. 50io«, A. S^iv ; also Xds, G. XabSf A. \av : — but XP^vs makes 
Xp6a. 

2. Barytons in is and vs, whose Genitive ends in os impure, have both a and v ; 
as ^pi8, G. iptdos, A. ^pida and ^piv* 

3. Such Proper Names as Ilapis, "A^(i>i/i8, have more frequentiy v : — x^^^* 
favour, has xaptv ; but Xapis, one of the Graces, Xdpira ; and Als, G. Ac^, has 

A. Aia. 

4. Oxytons have a ; as eKiris, eXniScu 

But kXcIs, G. K\€idbs, — some in vs, G. eo«, as i»Ki>9, — and the Compounds of 
novs, as diTrovs, have both terminations : thus KXeiia or KXeiv, itxia or ine^v, 
Siiroda or divovv. 

Of the Vocative. 

The Vocative is generally, particularly with the Attics, like the Nominative. 
When different, it is formed by shortening the long Vowel of the Nominative, and 
cutting off the final s, or changing it into v, 

I. By shortening the long Vowel of the Nominative, 

This takes place, especially, when the long Vowel of the Nominative is shortened 
in the Genitive. 

Thus 1. rep^v, Gen. repevos, Voc. St ripev, 

2. firirrip, Gen. fitirepos, Voc. & /inrep ; av^p, Gen. dvdpbs for Avipos, 

Voc (tf avep, 

3. AtifioffBevris, Gen. -eos, Voc. w AimSoOeves, 

4. eOdaifi-tav, Gen. 'Ovos, Voc o^ e^daifiov, 

5. Xe-ftfv, Gen. -oi/ros, Voc & Xeov. 

6. prjT-tap, Gen. -opos, Voc w pfirop* 

Thus also Kvtav, Gen. ict;y6s for ki;($i/os, Voc. rvoi/ ; 'A9r($XX-ci>i/, Gen. -cat^os, 
Voc 'AttoXXov ; Hooei^'Stv (for -diov), Gem -(Dvos, Voc. Il^trec^ov and Iloo'ei- 
<J«y ; aiar-t^p, Gen. -^pos, Voc. vCJrep, 

Nouns in ta and (os. Gen. -009, have oc ; as ^x'^* ^^^ ^X^^ > ac^ow, Voc atSoi. 

From tills Rule must be excepted Participles and some other words, which, though 
they shorten tiie long Vowel of the Nominative in jthe Genitive, do not in the Vo- 
cative. 

II. By cutting off the final s. 

- This takes place with — 

1. Nouns in evs; as /SacrtXe^s, Voc fiaaCXev : and Barytons in is, ees, vs ; as 
50iS, Voc. 5^1 ; 9rXaic6eis, Voc vXaic^t ; pSrpwt, Voc. fiorpv : — also some Oxy- 
ton Nouns ; as 'AftapvXX^s, Voc. *Afiapv\Xi ; ix^iis, Voc. ix^v, 

2. Circumflexed Nouns of one syllable in v« v a»#»vr. Toe fiv : — also irais, vav9, 

3. Adjectives in vs, though Oxytons ; as 6^^s, Voc. 6^v. 



15 

4. Proper Nouns in as ; as 06a9, Voc. 06a ; KdXxas, Voc. KaXxa ; which may 
also take v, as 06av ; but chiefly among the Poets. 

Here also may be mentioned dva^t &i^d yvi/i) (for yvvai^), which have &va and 
yvvai in the Vocative. 

III. By changing the final 9 into v» 

Thus 1. Adjectives in 6i«i ejecting i to shorten the syllable, change s into v ; as 
Xapieis, Voc %apiei/, and sometimes ^opiei. In like manner ^t/t6ei9 
has Voc. 2cf«$ei/. 

2. Proper Nouns in as ; as Aias, Voc. Alav, or Ala. See above. 

3. Barytons in as ; as /lAcXas, Voc. fieXav. 

But Oxytons (with some exceptions) and Participles conform to the general Rule, 
and have the Vocative like the Nominative. 

Ofjhe Dative Plural*. 

The Dative Plural is formed from the Dative Singular, by inserting it before i, 
and ejecting ^, 0, v, r, or vr together, for the sake of softness, whenever they occur. 

Thus N. 501S, D. Sing. 6^u, D. Plur. S^tffi ; \afiird9, Xa/iirddi, Xafifrdtn ; 6pvis, 
6pvi9if &pvi<n ; xreh, Kvevi, xreffl ; oif9, &ri, &vi ; (rdpK, ffapKi, trap^i for frapKtrl ; 
Tvyj/as, Tvyj/avTi, rwi/zatrt. 

But x^^P) X^^P^* ^^ X^P^^* ^^'^ ^® Poetic Dative %6pi ; and )3o{;s has povffL 

Note, If vr be omitted before tr in the Dative Plural, the Penult is made long, 
as in Tv^avTh rvyf/affu Therefore Nouns in evrt make eitri in the Plural, and 
those in ovri make ovffi ; as riOevri, riOeifft ; XeovTi, Xeovixi. 

But from this Rule there are several exceptions. 

1. Nouns in avs and ^ev9 add c to the Nominative Singular ; as vav9, vavffi ; 
fiaoiXeitSj pafftXevtrt. ' . . 

But vieiis has vletrt ; SpofieifSf Spofiitrt, 

2. The Poets frequentiy insert e<r vr efftr, instead of ff, before c of the Dative Sin- 
gular ; as erre'if eireetri or eireetrtn ; ^yefJiSvh • i^ye/idvetri or ^ye/idvefrtn : the v 
also being retained. 

3. Nouns in tip, that are s3nicopated, have avi ; as irarijp, irarph9 for 7raTepo9, 
trarpdffi. 

But yavrijpi yaffrpbs, has yatrrfiptn. 

Note, There are some Nouns in tip, Gen. «pos, which lose e by Syncope in the 
Gen. and Dat Singular, and Dat Plural ; as ff arijpt fiffrrip. But ^rjfjiiiTrip and 
Ovydrrip lose it in all the Imparisyllabic Cases ; and likewise dvi^p, except that for 
the s3rncopated 6 It takes d ; v adiBitting after it no Consonants but v, o, 0, r ; as 
dvip09, dvSp69. 

By Syncope dpi^v also has for its Genitive dpvb9, and Kvtav, Kvvb9 ; losing in 
all their Cases the syncopated Vowel. 

Uari^p, a father, is thus declined. 
Singular. Dual. « Plural. 



N. 6 irari^p, 
G. Tov waTpb9, 
D. T^ war pi, 
A. rbv traripa, 
V. & irdrep, 



N. A. V. rw, St rraripe, 
G. D. rotv trarepoip. 



N. ol Trarepes, 
G. Toiv^rrariputv, 
D. rois ff arpdtfi, 
A. rot^s 7rar€pa9, 
V. b» frarepes. 



* The Dative Plural appears to have been formed originally from the Nomina- 
tive Plural, by annexing tri or c ; so that in the Neuter, instead of a, €9 was con- 
sidered the termination. 



16 



Of Contraction. 

When two or more Vowels, meeting together, form two syllables, 
they are often contracted into one. 

A Contraction of two syllables into one, without a change of let- 
ters, is called Synseresis ; as reix^'i, rccx^c : — if one letter or more 
be changed, it is called Crasis ; as Telxeos, relxovs ; fioaovat, floiScrt. 

Rules for the Contraction of Vowels, 

A before o, ui, oi and ov is contracted into w ; — as yeXaofxey, ye- 
XtHfiey ; yeXaui, yeXw ; yeXaotfii, yeXffii ; yeXaovtrt, yeXcJo'c. 

A before the other Vowels, into a ; — as yeXciere, yeXdre ; yeXciecr, 
yeX^v ; ycXaiyre, yeXare ; yeXcip, yeX^. 

Note 1. Whenever i is ejected, it must be subscribed ; as yeXaoifiif yeX^/it. 

Note 2. Four Verbs contract a into tf before 6 or 6c ; as xP^rai, xpvrat ; St- 
^deii, Si^j/ys ; ^aeiff, ^ys ; neivaeiSf netvys. 

Note 3. 'Savf in the Ace. and Voc. Plural, resumes the v of the Nom. Singtilar ; 
as Ace. vdaSf vavs ; Voc. vdeSf vavs. But in the Nominative, even among^ the 
Attics, the Ionic v^es is more frequently found than vdes. 

£ before a long Vowel or Diphthong is contracted into the long 
Vowel or Diphthong ; as icaX^oi, KaXiS ; KaXieiSf xaXeis, 

£ before o, into ov ; as relx^oSf T€l\ovs, 

£ before the remaining Vowels, into ei ; as dXriOias, iiXrjdeTs ; 
iiXridees, aXriSeis; iiXridi'if aXriSei, But eop has rjp; Kiap, K^p; 
(rriap, trrrip. 

Note 1. Ea and eSf when they stand at the end of a word, without a Consonant, 
are frequently contracted into rj ; as reixea, reixfl i AXfiSe€f dXriBv* 

Note 2. When a Vowel precedes ea, they are also contracted into a ; as vyceo, 
vyiri and vyia : if /o precede, the contraction is only in a i as epia, epa. 

Note 3. In the Neuter of the Second Declension, ea is contracted only into a ; 
as dtrrea, dtrrd. 

Note 4. E before at in Verbs is contracted into y ; as rvwreai, rvwry. 

Note 5. Proper Names from tcXeos are doubly contracted ; as Gen. 'HparXeeos, 
'HpaicXeow, 'H/oaicXow. 

I frequently contracts a, e, and another i, following, into i, though 
s follow ; as ttoXios, iroXis ; ttoXics, woXis ; ttoXic, irdXt, from irdXis. 

O before e, o and ov is contracted into ov ; as xp^^oerovy xpv^ 
(TOVTOv ; aiZ6o$i aiZovs ; ^i;Xooi;o'c, BriXovai, 

O before i, ec, ot and 17, into 01 ; as ai^dV, alBol ; ^i^Xdeis, ^i^Xots ; 
SrjXooifitf Bf/Xoc/ii; ^i/Xoijs, ^i^Xocf. 

O before a, 97 and w, into ta ; as ac^c^a, ai^ta ; SrfXdrirov, driXtSroy ; 
Br/Xoto, BrfXtS, 



17 

And 01 before e is contracted into ov, the i being rejected ; as 
fiohyKdifjiioy for fxol €yKu}fjitov» 

Note 1. The Infinitive in 6etv, and Nouns in o6i«, are contracted into ovv and 
ovs ; as dvikoetVt BrjXovv ; 7rXaje($6is, irXaKovs, The most ancient Infinitive was 
SilXoi/ievai ; thence the Doric Bri\o€fiev, Ionic driXSev, Attic SriXovv. 

Note 2. The Accusative in oas is contracted into ovs ; as /Aei^oas, neiZovt ; 
poos, povs. 

Note 3. Nouns in ori and oa, which are contracted in all their Cases, and thence 
called oXoiraBri, keep i} and a ; thus a7rX($)7, aTrX^ ; awXSa, cnrXcu 

Ya and ve are contracted into v; as (^drpvaSf liSrpvs; fi6Tpv€Sf 
fidrpvs. Before the other Vowels v suffers no Contraction. 

Contraction takes place in every Declension. 



The First Declension 

contracts, -according to the above Rules, aa into a ; as N. fci^da, 
fjivd ; G. fiyaast fivas ; &c. 

ea and eiy into 97 ; as N. yia, yrj ; G. ykas^ yrjs ; &c. 

But the terminations pea and oa.t>r orj drop the former Vowel ; as N. kpiut epa ; 
G. kpeas, epas ; N. aTrXoa, aTrXa ; or N. uTrXofi, awXri ; G. dirXas or dirX^s; &c. 

-^ eas and eij* into iys ; as N. *Epfji-iaSf -ijs ; G. *Bpfi'ioVf 

-ov : — N. 'AttcXX-^ijs, -^s ; G. 'AireXX-^ov, -ov ; &c. 



Second Declension, 

Sirigular. Dual. 

N. 6 vooSf vovSf the mind, 

G, VOOVf VOVf 

D. yof, vfy 
A. yoov, vovv, 
V, ySe, yov. 



N. A. V,j/<5w, r4i», 
G. D. vooiyj yoiy. 



Singular. 

N. TO oarioVf oaTovvythe hone, 
G. oariovy ocrrov, 
D. eari^t oor^, 
A. otrrioyy Stnovyy 
V. ocrrioy, otrrovv. 



Dual. 



N. A.V.OOT^W, 00'riil, 

G. D. dtrrioiyyOfrroiy, 



Plural. 

N". ydoif yoi, 
G,y6(ayy v<5yy 
D,y6ois, vdisy 
A. y6ovSy voy$f 
V. y6oty yol. 

Plural. 

N« / 9 m 

.o(rrea, ojra, 

G.ooTlctfVjdoTaTf', 

D. doT^oes,ooTocS| 

• oorea, oora, 

V.doT^a, djra. 



Note 1. The Compounds of v6os and poos are not contracted in the Neuter Plural, 
or in the Genitive ; thus edvoa, eivdiav, not evva, eiivStv. 

Note 2. 'L6ui9 is contracted thus : Sing. N. (rdos, frS>s ; A. vdovt trSfv : — Plur. 
A. trdovs, (Toas, <rws ; Neuter <rda, va. The other Cases are not contracted. 



18 



Third Declension, 

The Terminations of the Contracted Nouns of this Declension, 
being numerous, may be arranged in the following Classes. 



Singular. 
N. fi rptfipnSi 

G. Tpiilp'€OS, 'OVSf 

D. Tpiiip-eif -€i, 
A, Tpirip-eaf -iy, 
V. rplripes. 

Singular. 

N. TO reixoSf the rvallf 
G. rel^'-eos, -ov«, 
D. relx'^'if -€i, 
A. reixoSf 
V. r€?xo*. 



I. Words ending in ris, es, and os» 

Dual. 



N. A.V, Tpuip^eCf -jy, 
G. D. rptrip'ioiv, 'Oiv, 



Dual. 



N. A.V. reix'ee, -i;, 
G. D. Tei^'ioiVf •'oly. 



Plural. 

N. rptiip''€€Sf -eif, 

G. Tpirfp^i(ayf -wv, 
D. Tpiiipeet, 

A. Tpffip-eas, ^ets, 

V. rf>e4p-€€f, -€if. 

Plural. 

N. r€/x-e«> -»7> 

G, r€cx~^^^» "«>'> 

D, relxeffif 

A. rc/x-ea, -ly, 

V, re/x-€a, -j|. 



^ofe. Words in 69, chiefly Adjectives, are declined like those in qt, only as 
Neuters. 



II. Words ending in is and i. 



Singular. 






Singular. 




Ionic 


Attic. 




Ionic. 


Attic. 


N. 6 o^cr, the serpent. 




N. rh 


fflvrfTi, mustard. 




G. o^-ioj, -eos, 


-€WS, 


G. 


criv^w-ios, -eoSf 


'CtaSf 


D. ^-11, (l,) -€l, 


-«, 


D. 


aiyflV'U, ^eif 


-€i, 


A. ^iv. 




A. 


aivrytn^ 




V. o^-e, 


-IS. 


V. 


triyrfTTu 




Dual. 






Dual. 




N. A.V. O^-iCi -€€, 




N.A.V. (Tir^ir-ec, -€€, 




G. D. o^'loiVf 'ioiVf 


-eyv. 


G.D. 


(TiyflTT'ioiyf "ioiyf 


-cyy. 


Plural. 






PluraL 




N. 0^-t€S, (e«,) -€€«, 


-CIS, 


N. 


0'iv^9r-ia, -ca. 




G. d^-/ci>v, -^4i»|/, 


-€Ci»r, 


G. 


(nytfiT'iiav^ 'iiay^ 


-cwv, 


D. o^-iffif -€(ri, 




D. 


aiy^'iaif -ccri, 




A« o^-eas, (is,) -eaf| 


-CIS, 


A. 


dv^TT-ea, -ca, 




V. 6<p^l€Sf (CS,) -€€S, 


-CIS. 


V. 


tnyiiTT'ia, -ca. 





19 





III. 


Wo 


rds ending in m and 


faf. 






Singular. 




Dual. Plural. 




N. 


if alBilifs, shame. 








N. alBol, 




G. 
D. 
A. 






N.A.V. aidib, 
G. D. alBolv, 


G. ai^(J^, 
D. alBolSf 
A. at^ovs, 




V. 


al^Oi. 








V. al^o/. 






Singular. 




Dual. Plural. 




N. 


h ^X*^* ^^ echo* 






1 


N. Uxo^y 




G. 
D. 
A. 


inx'^h -Oh 




N.A.V. //x^, 
G. D. 7)xo'^- 


D. ^x°**» 
A. iJxo''*» 




V. 


ilXoi. 






1 


V. iJx^i'. 






IV. Words 


ending 


in as purej and pas. 






Singular. 




Singular. 




N. 


TO KpiaSf flesh. 




N. TO Kipasj the horn. 




G. 


Kpi-aroSf -aos^j -ois, 




G. Kip-aroSf 'aos*^ 


-ws, 


D. 


Kpi^ari, -at, -9, 




D. Kep^aTi, "dif 


-«^» 


A. 


KpeaSf 




A. Kipasy 




V. 


Kpias. 

Dual. 




V. Kipas. 

Dual. 




N.A.V. Kpi^are, -ae, 


a» 


N. A. V. Kip-are, -ae, 


-0, 


G. 


D. Kpe-droiPs ^doiy, - 


^v. 


G. D, Kep'droiVy "doiVf 


-^v. 


• 


Plural. 




Plural. 




N. 


Kpe-ara, -ao, -a, 




N. icep-ara, -aai 


-a> 


G. 


Kp€-dr(ov, "diaVf -wy 


} 


G. Kep-drtoVf -diav, 


-(Jr, 


D. 


Kpiaerij 




D. Kipaeri, 




A. 


Kpk-ara^ -oa, -a, 




A. Kip-ara, -ao, 


-a, 


V. 


Kpe-ara, ^aa. 


-a. 




V. jc^p-ara, -aa, 


-a. 



Singular. 
Ionic. Attic 

N. 6 l^aeriKevsj the king. 
G. /3aflriX-^os, -^o*, -ews, 

pafftA-€/, -i;«, -€t, 
A. /9o(rtX-^a, -^a, -ea and -ij, 
V. I3a(n\€v. 

Dual. 
Ionic. 

N.A.V. j3aartX-^e, -^€, 



V. Words ending in evs. 

Plural. 

Ionic. Attic. 

N. /SacTiX-^es, -^e*, -€?*, -ifj, 
G. /SaortXewi', 
D. fiaaiXeveri, 

A. /3a(rtX-^as, -$as, -cts, -^af, 
v. /3aartX-e€f, -ets. 



G. D. l^aeriXioiv. 



* The r is omitted by an lonicism. 
C 2 



20 



Singular. 

Attic. 

N. 6 Trijxysj the cubit. 
G. vifxr^osj -€«s, 

D. 7r^X"'*» •**» 
A. irnxw. 

Singular. 

N. 6 IxBvs, the fish. 

G. {x^^^^> 
D. Ix»f» 

A. ^x^*'' 
V. Ix^v. 

Singular. 

N. TO Atrrv, the city. 
G. AtrreoSf 
D. AtrT'ci, -€t, 

A. &OTV, 

V. &(rTV. 



VI. fFbrcb ending in vs and v. 
Dual. 



N.A.V. ^^x€€, 
G. D. Tfix^oiv, 



Plural. 

Attic. 

N. ?riix-*€€f, -CIS, 

G. TTIX^WVf 

D. vrixetri, 

A. ^^X"«***> "^"» 
V. 7r^X"^€^» -€iff. 



Dual. 



N.A.V. IxBve, 
G. D. ix^voc^. 



Dual. 

N.A.V. &<IT€€, 

G. D. atrrioiVf 



N. 
G. 
D. 
A. 

V. 



Plural. 

X^-vcs, 
X^vwi^y 
XOwflTi, 
X^'vo-Sf 

XO-V€«, 



-vs, 



-vs, 
-vs. 



Plural. 

N. S^r-ea, -ly, 
G. iKniutr, 
D. &07e(rc, 
A. AoT-ea, ^, 
V. fi^r-ea, -ly. 



Some words in avs, ovs, and eis are contracted only in a few 
Cases. 

Thus, 1. Sing. N. ^ vavs, G. vaos, D. va^, A. vavr (Poetic i^aa), 
V. vav. — ^Dual. N. A. V. vde, G. D. vaoty.— Plur. N. vaes (for 
wluch vrjes is better used), G, vatSv, D. yavalf A. yaas (yavs), 
V. vaes (vavs). Like i^avs is declined ff ypavs. 

2. Sing. N. 6 1^ 4 jSous, G. /3oos, D. /3ot, A. /3ovv (sometimes 
i3^o), V. /3ov.— Dual. N. A. V. (ide, G. D. /3oo£i/.— Plur. N. fides 
(fiods), G. fioQv, D. /3ov<tI, a. i3<5o« (/3ow), V. fioes (fiovs). 

But, on the contrary, b vovs, G. voos (the same as vovs, vov), re- 
tains PL N. voes, and A. voas ; and also 6 x^'vs, G. x^os (the same ' 

3. 'H K\els has in the Ace. Sing. kXelBa and icXcii/ ; and contracts 
the Ace. Plur. KXeihas into kXcIs. 

Nouns, that are contracted only in a few Cases, are called dXt- 
yoTraOrj ; and those, which are contracted in all, 6\o7rad^, as men- 
tioned before. 

Of the latter class the following words will serve as examples. 



N. b Xaac, Xds, the stone. 


N. b n-XaK'de<i, -q^i, the cake 


G. \aaos, kaos. 


G. iXaK-(iEV70i, -oucros, 


D. Xcia., \Sl, 


D. jrXaK-OEiTi, -ouiTi, 


A Xnaj' Xai' 


A. irXoK-iiei'ra, -ovvra, 


V. \iat, X«i. 


V. TXa«-(ie<, -ou. 


Dual. 


Duul. 


N.A.V. Xiae, XdE, 


N.A.V. n-Xa«-<ifrre, -o5^re. 


G. D. Xadoi.., Xdo.-. 


G. D. ^Xa«-o^«o<^,-«i»To,r, 


Plural. 


Plural. 


N. X^aei, Xa«. 


N. jrXaK-devret, -tiuiTes, 


G. \a&mv, Xawf . 


G. 5rXoi,-0^»TWV, -OVVTblV, 


D, \ilaff<, Xoffi. 


D. *Xat-oe tdi, -ou«, 


A. Xtiaas, Xaas. 


A. irXaK-devroi, -ovvras, 


V, Xdaes, Xdet. 


V. TrXav-derres, -oiJvref. 



N. o 'lIpoiA-^iji, -^i, Hercules. 
G. ' SipaKX-ieof, -itivi, -ovs, 
D. 'llpat:X-iei, -iei, -e?, 
A. 'HpacX-eco, -ia, -q, 
V. 'HpiKX-ees, -ew, -ti. 

Like 'HpaKXeifs all I'roper Nouns in xXii/s arc declined, as 6e- 
^tfrrocX^qs. 

Op lEKEGUia r Nounb. 
Irregular or Anomalous Nouns are such as have some irregiUarity 
in respect to Gender, Number, Declension, or Case. 

I. Heterogeneous Nouns, irregular in respect to Gender. 

1. Some are Masculine in the Singular, and Neuter or both Mas- 
culine and Neuter in the Plural ; as o eper^oi, PI. ra iperjik ; ii 
Sea/iiis, PI. oi ttrifioi and ra Seafta. 

2. Some are Feminine in the Singular, and both Feminine and 
Neuter in the Plural ; as i) K^XevSoc, PI. ai KiXcvOoi and 70 xiXtvOa. 

3. Some are both Masculine and Feminine in the Singular, and 
Neuter in the Plural ; as 19 fj r&prapoi, PI. to rapTapa. 

4. Some are Neuter in the Singular, and both Neuter and Mas- 
culine in the Plural ; as to araSiov, PI. rii araHtn and 01 araSioi. 

This seeming irregularity arises from Nominatives in the respective 
Genders being obsolete. 

As to some Nouns being Feminine in the Singular, and appearing 
Masculine in the Nom. and Ace. Dual, this may be accounted for 
by the Attic Dialect, in which ru is frequently used for rii. 



L 



22 



II. Words irregular in Number. 

1. Proper Names, and such Nouns as cannot well be expressed 
in sense beyond the Singular, want the Dual and Plural; as 6 
^wKpdrris ; 6 &i)p, air. 

2. Some words want the Singular and Dual ; as ra dXifura, when 
it signifies provisions; ra icripta, funeral rites: some names of 
Cities ; as ai *AO^vai : also of Feasts ; as ra Aiovvaia ; and the 
word, ai Evfievl^es, the Furies, 

III. HeterocliteSf irregular in Declension. 

Some Nouns admit diiFerent inflexions from the same Nominative, 
in some Cases, if not in all. 

1. Some are of the First and Third Declension; as 6 Aapjis^ 
G. rod Aapov and ^aprfvos ; 6 BeerTrortis, A. roy Betnr&njv and Be- 
avdrea, 

2. Some are of the Second and Third Declension; as 6 vovs^ 
G. rov vov and voos ; 6 icaXais, G. rov icdXai and icaXwos. 

3. Some have different Genitives, yet both of the Third De- 
clension ; as ^ di/xiSf G. rrjs BefiiBos and Bifiiaros ; ^ rlypis^ G. rris 
riypidos and rlyptos. 

Note* Sometimes also a Nominative is formed from an Imparisyllabic Genitive or 
Accusative ; as from 6 fjidprvp, rov papTvpos, comes & /idprvpos ; — from ri^v Ajf- 
fiiiripa, Arffirirpa, comes ^ ArifiriTpa, 

Among Nouns, irregular in Dedension, may be classed the name 
6 *lrjerovs, JesuSj which is thus declined : N. 6 *Iriaovs, G. rov 'Iiyo-ovy 
D. rf 'Ii^^ov, A. rop *lri9ovVf V. J 'Iiyorov. 

IV. Words irregular in Case. 

1. Of Defectives. 

Nouns, defective in their Cases, are : — 

1. Aptotes, or Indeclinables ; as the names of the letters^ "AX^, 
B^ra, &c. ; — ^many foreign names ; as 'APpaa/jtf AajSc^^ &c. ; — to 
BifiaSf TO orap, &c. ; — also words, shortened by Apocope, as to d£ 
for dbifia ; or increased by (ja or ^iv, which the Poets sometimes add 
to the Gen. and Dat., Sing, and Plur. ; as erkprfifn from krkpa ; — 
and also the Cardinal Numbers from irkvre to e/carov inclusive. 

2. Monoptotes, or such as have only one Case ; as N. ^ l^s. 
S, Diptotes ; as N. 6 Xts, A. tov Xiv. 

4. Triptotes ; as G. dWi^Xai)^, D. dXXi/\oc«, A. dXX/yXovs. 



23 



2, Of Redundants. 

Some words are redundant, as in the oblique Cases (see above), 
so also in the Nominative; — thus ^ ^x*'^ ^' ^X^^» ^ arpaTos or 
^ OTpaTia, TO hivdpov or div^pos, 6 kkriT^p or MiTiap ; — also some 
Proper Names, as Maiff^f, M&iffei/s, M«at;0r^s, Moii/orevf, Moses; 
Zevsy Aevs, Z^v, &c. Jupiter, 

Some words are redundant in several Cases, and seem to have 
but one Nominative, when the other is only obsolete ; — and again, 
some words are declined from obsolete Nominatives, but are not 
redundant in the oblique Cases ; as ^ yvvil (from yvvati)^ G. Trjs 
yvpaiKoSf &c. V, J yvvai. 

Of Adjectives and Participles. 

An Adjective is a word added to a Noun, expressed or under- 
stood, to express some quality or cireumstance respecting it ; and 
a Participle is a kind of Adjective, formed from a Verb, which in 
its signification imports time. 

The Adjective is frequently termed sn Acyective Noun, and then the Noun is 
called Substantive. See p. 9. 

Adjectives and Participles have three Genders, the Masculine, 
Feminine, and Neuter ; and follow the Declensions of Nouns. 

I. Of Gender. 
Of the Formation of the Feminine and Neuter, 

There are chiefly Ten Terminations of the Masculine, which are 
changed ; viz. as, eis, y^v, y^s, is, of, ovs, vs, iov, and ws. 
Adj. M. aSf F. aiva, N. av; as fiiXaSf fiiXaivUf fjiiXay. 

Except fieyaSf fieydXtif /leya ; and was, iraaa, wav, with its Compounds ; also 
those which have only two terminations, as 6 j$ 17 iLelvas, rb deivav. 

Part. aSf atra, ay ; as TV\l/as, rvypaaaf rvypav, 
A. €cs, cffflra, €v ; as xapleis, 'xapletrtraf xaplev. 
Except ehf fiiat ev, with its Compounds. 

P. eis, eltrttj ky; as rv^decs, rv^dei^a, rv^diy. 

But the termination eis, of both Participle and Adjective, is sometimes used by 
the Poets for the Feminine. 

A. rivy €v ; as 19 4 '■^/3»?v» to ripey. The Feminine r^peiva is 
Poetic. 



:»4 

A. i|s, cs ; as 6 1^ i( &Xi|6ifs, ro aXifO^s. 

A. iSf i\ as 6 1^ i^ «^M<9 ro c^. 

A. oSf Iff oy ; as iiyados, ayaOi), ayaOoK. 

But those whidi end in os pore and pos, have a in the Feminine, as &yio9, ay to, 
&yiov ; irovi|f»^, l^ov^pA, woy^p6y : — except those in eos and oos ; as ii^, &^, 
edv ; 67^00$) 6yi6^, iyCoor, But if p or a Vowd precede eot and 00s, the Femi- 
nine has a ; as dpyvpeot, apyvpeo, dpyvpeor ; €p660«, kpeea, epieov : — yeos also 
has via. 

Compounds and DerivatiTes are chiefly of the Common Gender, and have no 
particular Feminine ; as 6 |^ if iroXtnroiccXos, rb woXvwoiKiXov. '^AXXos rejects 
V in the Neuter ; as dXXo. (See the Pronouns Ik, &c.) 

P. OS, fit ov; as rvwT6fAeyaSf rvwroixini, rvirrofievoy, 
A. ovSf i|, ovy ; as cLirXovs, hwXij, hwXovy ; contracted from "oos. 

Compounds have no particular Feminine ; ns 6 ^ ii diirovs, rb diirow. 

P. ovsy ovvQf or ; as ^i^ovs, ^idovaa, ^My, 
A. vs, eia, V ; as yXvicvs, yXvKeia^ yXvicv. 

Except iroXifs, iroXXr^, xoXv. Compounds have the Masc. and Fern, the same ; 
BM b ^ i ddaKpvs, rb dioKpv, 

P. vf, vtrOf vy ; as ^eucyvs, ^eucyvaa^ deixyvy* 
A. (aVf oy; as 6 i^ff fieiiiay^ to fjieiioy, 

P. ftiv, ouaa, ov ; as rvvTiay, Tvirrovtra, rinrroy. 

Thus also iKiiiv, cffoOcra, egbv ; and acwv, dKovtra, okov. 

P. (Jv, overa, ovv ; as 2 Fut. Act. rvirtayp rvwovaa, rvirovy, 
A. wSf (ay; sls 6 i^ii evyeofs, t6 evyetoy, 

P. oif , i/?a, OS ; as rert/^clfSy rerv^via, rerv^i$s. 

But e<rr(us has etrrSKra in the Fern., and eerrcDros in the Gen., Masc. and Neuter, 
from e<rraff(i)S} syncopated and contracted. 

Note 1. The Middle and New Attics use the termination os for the Masculine 
and Feminine, particularly in Compounds and Derivatives. 

Note 2. The few Adjectives in utp form their Genders aa b ^ rj dtrdnap, rb 
dirarop. 

Note 3. The Cardinal Numbers from wevre to sKarbv inclusive have only one 
termination, and are of all Genders. 

Note 4. There are other Adjectives of but one termination ; viz. in ap, as (G. aSos)^ 
u {lios), tfi {tiros), vs (vdos), tas (utros), |, and ^ ; as fjiuKap (fidicaipa, Fem., is 
Poetic), ^vyds, dvaXxis, ddfir^s, ivrjXvs, dyvtas, ^Xi|, and aiyiXixp : — also those 
compounded with Nouns, as a^r($x6ip, &c. ; except Compounds of ttovs and irbXts. 

These Adjectives, however, are ratiier to be considered as having only the Mas- 
culine and Feminine. Instead of rb UpwaK we find rb dpiraKriKoy. 



25 



II. Of Declension. 

Adjectives and Participles have not only the Genders, but also 
the Numbers, Cases, and Declensions, in common with Nouns ; and 
therefore those which are regularly declined need no new examples. 
However, for their more ready comprehension, the following are an- 
nexed. 

Examples, 

1. Adjectives of Three Terminations. 

a. Of the First and Second Declension. 



Sin^lar. 






Singular. 


N. iiyad'OSi -i). 


-Of, 


N. 


&yt'OSj -a, -Of, 


G. ayad'OVf -q*. 


-ov, 


G. 


hyl'OVj -as, -ov. 


D. ayaO'^f -p, 


'f» 


D. 


dyt'-y, -^, -^, 


A. ayad'OVf -^v, 


-Of, 


A. 


&yi-of, -ay, -oy, 


V. aya6-e, -i), 


'dy. 


V. 


ayi-e, -a, -oy. 


Dual. 






Dual. 


N.A.V. iLyad-ib, 


-a, -01, 


N.A.V. &yl-k>, -a, -u, 


G. D. ayae-o2v, 


'aly, 'oly. 


G. D. Ayl-oiv, -air, -oiv. 


Plural. 






Plural. 


N. ayad'olf -aif 




N. 


&yi'Oii -at, -a, 


G. ayaO'(Svf -wv, 


-wi'. 


G. 


hyl'toy, -wv, -oiv, 


D. ayad'o7Sf -ais, 


"Ols, 


D. 


6.yl-oiSf -aiSf -ocs. 


A. ayad'OVSf -a«. 


-a, 


A. 


dy/-ovs, -a*, -a. 


V. cLyaO'Oif -ai, 


-^. 


V. 


dyi'Otf -at, -a. 


Singular. 






Singular. 


N. TTovrip'OS^ -a, 


-ov. 


N. 


a7r\-ovs, -^, (-a,) -ovy, 


G. TTovrip-oVf -as, 


-ov. 


G. 


AttX-ov, -^f, (-as,) -ov. 


D. TTOVrjp'a, -^, 

A. TTOvrip'Oy^ -av, 


^ 

-*»» 


D. 


AttX-^, -p, (^,) -^, 


-oy. 


A. 


AttX-ovv , -ijf , (av,) -OVf, 


V. woyijp'kf -a, 


-<Jv. 


V. 


AttX-ov, '% (d,) -OVf. 


Dual. 






Dual. 


N.A.V. wovrip'ti), 


-O, -W, 


N.A.V. inrXS, -d, -w, 


G. D. TTOvrip'olv, • 


-aiy, -oif . 


G. D. icir\-oiv, -aiVf -div. 


Plural. 






Plural. 


N. wovrip'Ot, '-<tt, 


-a> 


N. 


d7rX-ot, -at, -d, 


G. TTOVrfp'WVf -(Jr, 


-wy. 


G. 


dTrX-oii', -wy, -wv, 


D. TTOVfip'olsj -ats. 


-o?s, 


D, 


dTrX-oTs, -ai«, -ots, 


A. irovYip'OvSf -aSf 




A. 


dTrX-ovs, -OS, -d, 


V. TTOi/iyp-oc, . -ai, 


-a. 


V. 


dTrX-Of, -ai, -d. 



^v ^1 


b. Of the First and Third Declmswn. ^^M 


Singular. Singular. ^^^| 


N. fia-at, -ai^n, -ay, 


N. TTOi, iraira, -ray. 


G. ^eX-oi'os, -aivTis, -ayos, 


G. B-airis, jril(7i(f, ffavros, 


D. /iiX-ayi, -aiyg, -ayt, 


D. xair!, 5rdiTf(, irtUTi, 


A. ui\-aya, -aiyay,-av, 


A. Trayra, n-adoi-, Jrdc, 


V. ^i\.ay, -aiya, -ay. 


V. xai, TT&aa, Tray. 


Dusl. 


DuaL 


N.A.V.f/fX-ave, -alya, -ave, 


N.A.V.ird^e, TrdiTi., ir&yrt, 


G. D. /itX-ayoiy, -aiyaiv,'dyoiv. 


G. D. 5rd^mv,7rdTOiv, jraiTOO-. 


Plural. 


Plural. 


N. ui\-av£s, -atvai, -ava, 


N. irayres, iraaat, irayra. 


G. aeX-aviav, ~aivi2y, -iyuiy, 




D. fiiX-aai, -alyati, -aai. 


D. Traei, irairats, vaat. 




A. TrayTos, vuaas, irdiro, 


V. ^a-«.«, -a,ya^ -aya. 


V. jravret, wS/mi, wayra. 


Singular. Singular. 


N. rij^ai, -atra, -ay. 


N. xop'-e". -"-". -^y. 


G. rij-a^os, -d^^s, -ayro^. 


G. XOpl-^yrOS, -E^TTJi, -CTTOS, 


D. TiJ.-a>Tt, -dffj,, -avn. 


D. x°p(-en-<, -^-r-T,, ..vr., 




A. j(api-eyTa, -fimay, -ec, 


V. ri+-a., .a.a. -a.. 


V. xop'-e' or -en -eofff, -ey. 


Dual. 


Dual. 


V.A.V.T^-ayr^, -itxa, -ayr^. 


N-A-V-xiV^-eirei-iffffa, -eire. 


G. D. Tv4>-iyTo.y,-^<y«,y.-Ayroiy. 


G.D,x<'p'-*>"-oi'',-^ffiTaiK,-i»Toii'. 


PluraL 


Plural. 


N. rii^-avres, >-affai, -ayra. 


N. j(apl-tVT£s, -taaai, -tyra. 


G. Tv^p-AyTiiiy, -atiSy, -iliTiiii', 


G. \apt-ivTbiv, -caiTioy, -ivTutv, 


D. Titp-ani, -daais, -airi. 


D. xap'-"0", -^(To-nis, -tiffi. 


A. TV^-ayras, -daas, -avra, 


A. xnp'-ff™'- -eo-ffiis, -eyra, 


V. ri^-avrts. -aira,, -ayTti. 


V. x''p'-E>Tes, -eoaai, -ei-ra, 


Singular, Singular. 


N. ru<pe-eh, -ri-ra, -iy. 


N. Sout, Boijffo, Sov, . 


G. Tvipe-ivTos, -eimii, -iyras, 


G. Zd«-M, Soiiff^f, idwo.. 


D. rv^e-im, -f/irp, -iyri, 


D. ^6yTi, Soi-n,, Sdvr., 


A. rv<j,e-iyra, -tioay, -iy, 


A. Sovra, loviiay, Soy, 


V. TV^d-€h, -a^a, -iy. 


V. aojj:, Jo^oo, hoy. 


Dual. 


Dual. 


N.A.V.rv^fl-ivre, -don, -f^e, 


N.A.V. Sdvre, £oi™, Sd^e, 


G. D. Tvji9-iyroiy,-f'<raiy!-iyT0iy- 


G. D. d6yT0iy, ZoOiraiy, loyroiy. 


Plun.1. 


Plural. 


N. rv^e-^trei, -etirai, -iyra, 


N. SdvtsS, fovtrai, ^OVTO, 


G. Tvifd-iyTar, -eirmy, 'iyray. 


G. JdjTWV, BoBCTWl-, !()*TM1', 


D. rvijiB-f'iai, -clirais, -riffi, 




A. TvipO-iyTat, -eiWt, -iirn, 


A. Ziyras, duO^at. Hyra, 


V. r«?i9-^.Tes, -eTffu,, -^.ra. 


V. Jdprfi, Soiaa,, ?6yTa. 



27 



Singular. 

N. yXvK'VSf -€ta, 

G. yXvK'ioSf 'das, 

D. yXvic-^V, -€t, 'clq-f 

A. yXvif-vv, -elav, 

V. yXvK'Vf -ela, 



-V, 
-V, 



Dual. 

N.A.V. yXvic-€€, 
G. D, yXvK'ioiv, 



-eta, -^€, 
-e/aiv, -€oty. 



Plural. 

N. yXuif-e€s, -€ts, -elaif -^a, 

G. yXvK-ewy, -dwv, -^wv, 

D. yXvic-^o-t, -elais, 'itri^ 

A. yXvic-^as, -€«, 'das, 'ia, 

V. yXvic-^€s, -ets, -€(ai, -^a. 



Singular. 

N. BeiKP'VS, 'Vtra, 

G. ^ciifv-vfros, 'varis, 'vvros, 

D. ^€ti:v-vfrt, -v<n;, 

A. ^eiicf-vfra, -vo'ai', 

V. ^eifcv-vs, 'Vtra, 



'VVt 



-VVTl, 
-Vf. 



Dual. 

}^ .A,Y ,d€lKV'VVT€,'Vtra, 'VVT€, 

G.D. ^etfcy-vrrotyj-vflraiyj-vvroty. 



Plural. 



G. ^cuci'-ui/rwv, 

D. EeiKV'Vori, 

A. ^ecifv-vfras, 

V, BciKV'vyres, 



'verai, "VVTa^ 
'varwVf 'VPTfOPf 
'verais, 'veri, 
'varas, 'Vvra, 
'vaai, '"vvTa* 



Singular. 
N, Twrr-wv, 'ovaa, 

G. TVTTT'OVTOS, -OVflrjyS, 
D. TVTTT'OyTlf "OViri^y 

A, TVTTT'Otn'a, 'Ovtray, 
V. TVTTT'iav, "Ovaa, 



'OV, 

'OVTOS, 

'OVTi, 

'OP, 

'OV, 



Dual. 

N.A.V. rv7rr-ofre,-ovffa, '0VT€, 
G. D. TvtrT'dvTOiVf'Ovaaiv, 'Ovrotp. 

Plural. 
N. T\mT'OVT€s, 'ovaat, 'ovra, 

G. TVTTT'OVTtaV, 'OVCtQv, 'OVTbfV, 

D. TvvT'Ovffi, 'Ovarais, 'Own, 
A. TviTT-ovTas, 'Ovaas, 'Oyra, 
V. TVTTT'OVTes, 'OvtTai, 'ovra. 



Singular. 

N. TviT'tSv, 'Overa, -ow, 
G. TW'OvvroSf'OvtTfis, -ovvros, 

D. TW'OVVTi, 'OVffy, 'OVPTl, 

A. TVTT'Ovvra, 'Ovaav, 'ovv, 
V, rvTT'foP, 'Overa, -ow. 

Dual. 

N. A.V, rvir'OvvT€,'Overa, 'Ovvre, 
GJ^,Twr'OvvTOiv,'Ovtraiv,'OvvTOiv> 

Plural. 

N. rvx-oviTCS, -ovo^ai, -ovvra, 

G. TVTT'OvvTiav, 'Overbiv, 'Ovvrufy, 

D. TVTT'Ovtri, 'Ovffais, 'Ovtrt, 

A. rvTT-ovyras, 'overas, 'Ovvra, 

V. rvTT-ovyrc*, -ovorac, -ovira. 



Singular. 

N. r€rv^-ci;f, -via, 

G. T€Tv<P'6ro5, 'vlas, 

D. rervip'OTt, 'viq^ 

A. rcrv^-dra, -utav, 

V. T€Tv<p'(iis, -uea. 



-OS, 

-on, 

'OS, 
'OS, 



Plural. 

N. T€rv<li'6T€s, 'v7ai, 

G. Tcrvip'OTiay, 'VitSy, 

D. T€TV(p'6<ri, 'vla^s, 

A. reru^-oras, 'vias, 

V. t€tv<I>'6t€S, 'vlai, 



Dual. 



-ora, 

-dffi, 
-dra, 
-dro. 



N.A.V, T€Tv<li'6r€, 'via, '6t€, G. D. rervfp'OTOiy, -viaty, "oroiv. 



28 



Singuli 

N. &ypa<li'OSf 
G. Aypd^ov, 
D. iLypdift^f 
A. Aypa^'OVf 
V. &ypa<^€f 

Singuli 

N. evy-€«s, 
G. evyeoi, 
D« euye^, 

A. €Vy'€WPf 

V, €vy-€ai«, 



2. Adjectives of Two Terminations. 

a. Of the Second Declension, 

Dual. Plural. 



-oy, 



-OF, 

-oy. 



iar. 



-CftIV, 



-eciiF. 



Dual. 

N.A.V. dypa^oi, 
G. D. aypdi^oiv. 

Dual. 

N.A.V. evyeo), 
G. D. ewye^y, 



N. ^ypa^-oc, 
G. &ypcul>4ay, 
D. hypwpotSy 
A. aypdf^ovSf 
V. &ypa<l»'Oi, 

Plural. 
N. €i/y-€y, 
G. evycwf, 
D. evye^^^i 
A. et/y-eciif, 
V. evy-e^, 



Singular. 

N. keLv-aSf -ay, 
G. &e/vavro£, 
D. keivavTiy 
A. &€/y-ayra, -ay, 
V. aelv'aVf -ar. 



b. Of the Third Declension. 

Dual. 



N.A.V. aelyayrcj 
G. D. aeivdvroir. 



Singular. 



-cy, 



-cy, 
-ey, 



N. &pp-r\Vi 

G. &fip€VOSf 

D. Appevif 
A. &pp'€vay 
V. &^|5-€v, 

Singular. 

N. &X»ye-i)s, 

G. aXi;0-^o*, -01/*, 

D. oXi;6-^«, -€i, 

A. aXiy6-^a, -^, 

V. aXiy6-^s, 

Dual. 

N.A.V. &\rie'i€, -rj, 
G. D. &\rid-ioiVf "oXv. 

Plural. 
N. aXiyd-€€f, -els, 
G. oKqd'ktaVt '(aVf 
D. dXrjdeerif 
A. dXi;0-^as, -ets, 
V. aXriB'ies, -els, 



Dual. 

N.A.V. &^p€V€f 

G. D. hppivoiv. 



Plural. 
N. &€/v-avr€£, 
G* a€ivdvT(ov^ 
D. de/yaori, 
A. heLv-avraSf 
V. de/y-avres, 

Plural. 
N. 6,pp-ev€s^ 
G. a^pevitfVf 
D. &fip€<rif 
A. &fip-€vasf 

V. &pp^€V€Sf 



V 

-€S, 






-^a, -^, 



-^a, -17. 



Singular. 
N, ev^ap'tSj 

G. €V\dpiTOS, 

D. evydpiTi^ 

A. €vxap-tv (-tra), 

V. evxap'i. 

Dual. 
N.A.V. evydpiTCy 
G. D. €{f)(aplroiv. 

Plural. 

N. ebxdp'iTesj 
G. evxaplTfoy, 
D. ev^dpiffif 
A. €v\dp'iTas, 

V, €Vxdp'lT€Sf 



-a, 



-a, 
-a. 



-ea>. 



-€«il. 



-am^a, 



-a>^a, 
-avra. 



-€Fa, 



-era, 
-era. 



-«i 






-ira, 



'ira^ 
'ira. 



29 



Singular. 

N. ^/tt-ovs, -ovv, 

G. ^iTTodoSf 

D. EItto^i, 

A. ^/TT-oSa (-oi/y), -ovy, 

V. ^/tt-ovs (-ov), -ovv. 



Dual. 



N.A.V. a/TToae, 
G. D. ^nr6Boiv, 



Singular. 

N. &^aKp'VS, 
G. a^aKpvoSf 
D. iL^aKpyif 
A. d^aKp-vVf 
V. ABaKp-'V, 

Singular. 

N. ev^alfi-iaVf 
G. evdalfxovoSf 
D* eOdalfjLOvi, 
A. evdalfi-ovaf 
V. evBatfjL'OVy 



Dual. 



-V, 



-V, 
-V. 



N. A. V. iL^aKpyCf 
G. D. aZaKpvoiv, 



Plural. 

N. dlw^odeSf 
G. SiTTodiar, 

D. BlTTOfft, 

A* ^^T-o^asy 
Plural. 

N. &ddKp-V€S, 

G. d^aicpvciii^, 
D. iiBdKpvffif 
A. a^oicp-i/aff, 
V. A^tiicp-i/ef, 



-o^a, 






-va, 



-va, 
-va. 



Dual. 



-ov, 



-oy, 
-ov. 



N, A .V. evBal/jLovef 
G. D. evBaifiovoiy* 



PluraL 

N. ev^alfjL'Oves, •ovaf 
G. €vBaifi6v(oyf 
D. euBalfjLoat, 
A. cv^al/jL'Ovas, 'oraf 
V, evBalfjL'Oves, 'ora. 



Singular. 

N. /ic/^^-wv, -or, 

G. fieliovos, 

D. fxel^ovif 

A. fi€i(-ovaf -oa, -«, -ov, 

V. fjLeli'OVf -oy. 

Dual. 

N.A.V, fiel^ovef 
G. D. fjieiiovoiv* 

Plural. 

N. fi€lZ''or€5,''0€Sf''Ovsy -ova, -oa, -fi>, 

G. fJLeiZovwvj 

D. fxeli^oerif 

A. fX€l!^'OvaSf'oas,''Ovs, -ova,-oa,-(i;, 

V. fieii'0V€s,^0€Sf'OV5f -ova, -oa, -01. 



Singular. 

N. fjLcyaXiiT'tapy 
G. fieyaXiiTopoSf 
D. /JLcyaXiiTopi, 
A. /ieyaX^r-opa, 
V. fieyaXrir^opf 



-op, 



-op, 
-op. 



DuaL 

N.A.V. fJL€ya\iiTop€f 
G, D, /jLeyaXryropoiv, 



Plural. 



N. fjLeyaXiir-'OpeSf 
G. fieyaXrfTopfoVf 
D. fJieyaX-fiTopffi, 
A. fieyaXfiT-opas, 
V. fieyaXiiT-opeSf 



'opa. 



'Opa, 
-opa. 



3. Irregular Adjectives. 



Singular. 






Singnlat. 


N. fiiyat. -dXv, 


-a, 


N. 5ro\us, 


iroXX^, iroXii, 


G, fiey-dKov, -aXiji, 


-d\ov, 


G. iroWoS, 


iroXKijs, iroXKov, 


D. ^.y-«'\y, -riAp, 


-^j,, 


D. n-oXXy, 


ffoXXn, iroXXy, 

woXkijv, ToXi), 


A. liiy-av, -d\nv. 




A, iroXuv, 


V. fiiy-a, -dXr,, 


-a. 


V. TTOXO, 


iroXX^, ^o\v. 


Dual. 






Dual. 


N.A.V. /ley-a-Xw, -d\a, -aXw, 


^f.A.V.^^D^Xi, ToXXa, ToXXi, 


G. D. /ley-cOiKV, -^A 


iv,-a\oiv. 


G. D. B^oXXoi.'.^oXXa.i'.iroXXo? 


PInral. 






PInraL 


N. /ley-oXoi, -dkai, 


-aXa, 


N. TToXXol, 


xoXXa!, TToXXa, 


G. /ley-dXwv, -aXdiy, 


-a'Xwv, 


G. ffoXX.Si', 


TToWay, jroXXw, 


D. fiey-dXois, -dXais, 


-aXoii, 


D. JToXXoTs 


iroXXaii, jToXXoTi, 


A. /ley-a'Xous, -riXas, 


-dXa, 


A. JToXXoUt 


TraWits, TToXXa, 


V. fity-dXot, -dXai, 


-d\a. 


V. ToXXoi, 


TTOXXal, JTOXXl/. 


ffole. flliyas and iroXis 


have only t 


e Nom., Ace. 


and Vdc, Masculine an 


Neuter of the Singular, and 


take the o 


her Cases fro 


n ptydX-OT, -1), -ov, an 




III. 0/" Comparison. 

The CompaTBtive is generally formed by the addition of repoi, 
aad the Superlative by that of raros, to the Positive. 

In adding these Terminations sorae change is usually made in the 
Positive. 

Thus, 1. Adjectives in e« eject i ; as xapi-cit, -iTrepos, -iora- 

2. Thoae in as, ?]i, vt add rtpos and raros to the Neuter ; as /ifXac, 
fieXay-repos, -tutos ; &\rid-ijs, -eorepos, &c. ; yXut-ur, -vrrpos, &c. 

Some in i/c have also iuv and lorot ; aa fiaBit, ffaBirepos, 3n0irnros, or ^n- 
fliuiii, ;3aeiOTDB. 

3. Tliose in ijv and aic add iartpos and eararos to the Neuter; as 
rip-j|v, -ev^orepoi, &c. ; ei'Soi/i-iuj', -ovtirrepoi, &c. 

4. Those in os reject i, and afler a short syllable change o into u, 
to prevent the concurrence of too many short syllables ; as toSip-os, 
-drfpot, &c. ; tro^-oi, -iiirepos, &c. ; though we also find xeyorfpot 
and irrevorEpoi. If the preceding Vowel be doubtful, both o and u 
may be used ; aa iKavoi, iKavorepoi and ixavuiTepos. 

Some in oe lose o also by syncope ; as ytpaiot, yepolrrpos, Sc. ; and /liiTDc has 
/leoolrepos, &c. : while othcra, rtjecling ot, lake eorspM, eorarM, uid Jtfrepos, 
icrraTDE ; as afiopf-Df, 'EirrEpo;, &c. ; \o\.ds, -iarepos, &c. 



31 

5. Those in ap, cs, ovs follow the general rule ; as fidK-ap^ 'dpTc 
pos, &c, ; €v\ap'iSf ^iartpos^ &c. ; ^mtX-ov*, -ovtrrepoSf &c. 

6. Adjecdves in 5 change os of the Genitive into Itrrepos and /^a- 
ros ; as &oirai, iLpTrayltrrepos, &c. 

TAe above Comparisons at one view. 



apy 


fjiaKap, 


fjtaK&prepos, 


fiaKapTaros, 


as, 


fjieXas, 


/leXdvrepos, 


/leXdvTaros, 


€IS, 


Xapieis, 


XapUfTTepos, 


XapieffraTos, 


riv, 


ripriv. 


Tepeviffrepos, 


repeveffraTOS, 


1JS, 


dXtiOi^s, 


6Xti9e<Trepos, 


aXfi9e<TTaTos, 


IS, 


evxapf'Sf 


eijxO'pi'ffTepos, 


ehXCLpitrraTOS, 


OS, 


KOV^OS, 


Koviporepos, 


Kovt^oraros, 


— 


iTo<j>6s, 


tro^iorepos, 


<ro<j>ioTaTos, 


— 


yepaibs, 


yepairepos, 


yepairaros. 


— 


afioptpos. 


&fiop^e<TT6pos, 


dfiop^effraros* 


— 


XdXos, 


XaXiffrepos, 


XaXiffraros, 


ovs, 


SiirXovs, 


8nr\ov(rTepos, 


di'TrXovfrraTos. 


vs. 


yXvK^s, 


yXvKvrepos, yXvKitav, 


yXvKvraros, yXvKiffros. 


tav. 


evSaifiutv, 


€vdaifJiovi<Tr€pos, 


eitdaifioviffTaros, 


?, 


Upva^, 


apwaylffrepos, 


apiraylvraTOS, 



The following Comparisons are called irregular^ but the irregular 
Comparatives and Superlatives generally belong to other Positives. 

Thus similar Adjectives, in various languages, have been sup- 
posed to furnish examples of Irregular Comparison. 



ayaBosy good. 



KaKoSf badf 
fiiyasf great, 



Irregular Comparisons. 

cLpeltov^, 

fitXriiav^y jiiXrepos, 

KpaTliov\ 

Kpelffffdiv, Kptlmav, Kp^wiav. 

Kpiffffiay, Kopertavj Ka^ptay. 

Xwiwy^j X^foy, 

ifieplwv^f 

<l>ipr€poSf 

KaKlatyf (Poetic KaKwrepos,) 

Xelptay, (Poetic xepeiiay,) 

/jLei^wy, fidercrioyf 



ayaSwraros. 

&pi(rros, 

PiXTKrroSf fiiXraros. 

Kpdritrros. 



Xwitrros, Xftrros. 
(^epioTos. 

tpipraroSf i^kpTitnos, 
KdKitrroSf KaKUfraros. 
\€(pi(rros. 
fiiyicTTOs. 




32 



^ticpos, Utthf 



iXaxvs, little^ 
kclKos, beautiful^ 
fiaxpoSf Umg, 
altr)(p6sf basCf 
^Xdpos, hostile^ 
iroXvSf muchf 
fiadvsf deepf 
r^XvSf quick, 
wa^vs, thick, 
p^Bios, easy, 
olicrpos, miserable, 
wiwtav, ripe. 



fiucportpos, 

fielbty, 

iXdtrorwv, iXdrrbtv, 
KaXXltMfv, 

fAtlKlbty, 

altrxfiay, 
i\dl(»tv, 

TrXeoiy*, TrXeifov, 
fiaBvrepos, (^adliay, fi&atrioy, 
ray(yT€pos, raylioy, Batrtraty, 
7ra\vTepos, waaenav, 

olm-liov, 
weiralrepos. 



fiiKp6raros. 
eXdy(ierros, 

KoXXltfTOS* 

liilKiorosm 

ai(T\i€rros. 

^ydiOTOs, 

vXelirros. 

fiaOvraros, Pddums, 

raxyraros, rd')(i(rros» 

ira\vTaros. 



f *» 



PHOTOS. 

o^iKritrTos. 
TrewalraTos. 



* From TiKo, by degrees, whose Comparative was formerly ^Kiiav, thence more 
usually Vi<rc(av, as 9a<rv<av for rax£a>i'. ' From 7r\ios,fidL 

The Comparatives of KoKbSf fiaKpbSf ahxpbs, and kvOpbs are derived from the 
Nouns KoXXos, firiKoSf aitrxoSf and exBos ; and that of oucTpbs from oljcros. 

Of repriv we find the Feminine of the Comparative, repeivoripti (for repeivo" 
repa), from the Poetic Fem. repeiva. 

There are Comparatives and Superlatives, which seem to want 
the Positive, frequently formed — 

1. From Nouns; as KipBos, gain, KepUiay, Kipdi<rros; kvSos, glory, 

KvBlwV, KvhffTOS, 

2. From a Pronoun ; as avros, aUroraTos. 

3. From Verbs ; as tftepta, I bear, t^kprepos, fepraros, 

4. From Adverbs ; as 6.via, above, kyutrepos, ay&raro$. 

5. From Prepositions; as wpo, before, irporepos, irporaros. 

From 'trp6TaTos is formed Trpwros, by syncope and contraction. 

Sometimes a Participle is compared; as c^patfiiyos, i^piaiievko^ 
repos, &c. 

And sometimes Comparatives and Superlatives are again com- 
pared; as KaXXlfoy, KaXXiutrepos ; y(€tp(M)v, xeipdrepos ; fxeiZtoy, ^ci- 
^orepos ; eXax^rros, eXaxitrrdrepos ; Kv^iaros, Kvditrraros ; irpiSTOs, 
wpunaros. 

The Comparative may also be formed by adding the Adverb 
fiaXXoy, and the Superlative by the addition of fAoXitrra, to the Po- 
sitive. 



Comparatives and Superlatives aie declined like other Adjectives. 
If the ComparatiFes in toy are contracted, they are declined like 

/itl^ijiy. See p. 29. 

0/ Nujiieral Adjectives. 
Numeral Adjectives either simply expreaa the amount, as one, 
tjvo, three. Sec, and are called Cardinal Numbers ; or refer to a 
series, and mark the place of it, to which they belong, as Jirsl, se- 
cond, third, &c., and are thence called Ordinal. 

The latter are all declined like ayados ; as Trpuros, irpiirri, TrpiaTOv, 
Of the Cardinal Numbers the first four are thus declined : 



One, Singular. 




Ttto, Dual. 


Tfl-O, Plura 


N. eli, fila, Ik, 
G. eras, /J(di, ei'os, 
D. M, fti^, efi, 
A. iya, titav, iv. 


N. A. hvo or Si«, 
G. D. hvolv or SueTv. 


G. Svi:^, 

D. ioal. 


also found in the Pluml. 


Herodotus, hvelv, when used, is generally Tor the Genitive. 'Audu, both, in t1 
old Poets is frequently indedinable ; otherwise it has dudoTv in the Genitive an 


Three, Hural. Four, Piuroi. 


N. Tpeit, Neut. Tpia, 

G. rptiiv, 

D. rptal, 

A. T-peTs, Tpla. 




N. riaaapes, Neut. riaaapa 

D. Tiaaapat or rirpaai, 

A. reira'apac, reirffapii 



The other Numerals from irivre to cKar^v inclusive are indecli- 
nable, but irom iiaximai they are declined like Adjectives of the 
First and Second Declension. 

The Greeks used the Letters of the Alphabet, to denote numbers, 
in three difTerent ways. 

1 . To express a siytall series of numbers, each letter was reckoned 
accordingtoitsorder in the Alphabet; as A, 1 ; B, 2 ; E, 5 ; Q, 24. 
In this manner the Books of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey are distin- 



if tlie Alptiab 



e HNT will assist tlie memory in using iliis hind of nota- 
n be divided into four equal parlB, H wiU be the tirst letter 
of the second part,' or 7; N, of the third, or 13; and T, of the fourth, ot 16. 

2. Some Capital letters were used in denoting larger series of 
number* ; thus I for lo, (instead of fila,) 1 ; 11 for TrifTt, 5; A for 




34 



iitca, 10 ; H for HtKar6r, 100 ; X for x<^«<m* 1000 ; and M for fiv- 
pioi, 10«000. A large U, inclosing any of these characters, denoted 
five times as much as that character represented ; as H, 50. 

All these letters may be four times repeated, except II, which is never repeated. 

3. To express the 9 units, the 9 tens, and the 9 hundreds, the 
Greeks divided the Alphabet into three parts ; but as there are only 
iS4 letters, they used k\ called Mtrfifiov, for 6 ; b, called icoTTTra, for 
90 ; and ^, called ednn, for 900. 

In this notation the memory will be assisted by the technical syllable AIP ; the 
A' denoting 1 ; I', 10 ; and P', 100. 

It is to be observed that all the numbers under 1000 are denoted 
by letters with a small mark, like an accent, over them ; and that a 
similar mark, placed under any letter, denotes that it represents so 
many thousands. 



Ordinal : Jirst, &c. 

^evrepoSf 

rplroSf 

TiraproSf 

WefXTTTOS, 
I^KTOS, 

oy^ooSf 
epvaros, 

iy^iicaTOS, 

^ut^iKaroSf 

rpienai^eKaroSf 

retrtrapaKaiBiKaroSf 

IT € vrejca (^cicarosy 

lKKaiBit:aTOSy 

inroKaiBiKaroSf 

OKTUKaiB^KaroSf 

eyyeaKaiBiKaroSf 

elxotrTOSf 

eiKotrros vpQros^ 

rpinieoirroSf 

retrtrapaKotrroSf 

veyrrfKoiTTOSf 

iiriKOirroSf 

ifidofAriKotrros^ 

oyBoriiaxrras^ 

irveyfiKOtrro*, 







Table of Numbers, 




Cardinal : one, &c. 




1, 




eh, 


I, 


2, 


/y. 


Bvo, 


II, 


8. 




rpeUf 


III, 


4. 


«'. 


ritrtrapes, 


nil. 


5, 




wivTC, 


n. 


6, 


/ 

', 


H, 


ni. 


7, 


r. 


« \ 

enra, 


nil. 


8, 


v\ 


OKriff 


niii, 


9, 


ff, 


eyviOf 


mm, 


10, 




diKa, 


A, 


11, 


to. 


l^yBcKa, 


A I, 


12. 


•)3', 


Boj^cKa, 


All, 


13, 


t 


TpLtTKaiSeKaf 


AIII, 


14, 


T€(r(rapaKai^€Ka 


, Aim, 


15. 


1 
t€, 


wevTeKal^eKaf 


An, 


16, 




cKKaiBcKaf 


Am, 


17. 


.r. 


cTrroicac^cica, 


Ami, 


18. 


"»'. 


oKTWKaideKaf 


Aniii, 


19, 


^&, 


eyyeaicai^eKaf 


Anmi, 


20, 


1 


eiKOffi, 


AA, 


21, 


Ka\ 


e^iKOffi els, 


AAI, 


80, 


X'. 


TpicLKovra, 


AAA, 


40, 


1^.' 


TeffffapcLKovTa, 


AAAA, 


50, 


1 


irevriiKovTaf 


H, 


60, 


K, 


iiilKoyra, 


HA, 


ro. 


o', 


il^dofitiKovra, 


HA A, 


80, 




oyioiiKovTa, 


HAAA, 


90, 


V. 


iyyeyiiKoyra, 


R AAAA, 



S5 







Cardinal. 




100, 




kKaroVi 


H, 


«00, 


9% 


BiaKdffioif 


HH, 


soo, 




rpiaKOtrioi, 


HHH, 


400, 


1 

V, 


TcetrapaKotnoi, 


HHHH, 


500, 


¥» 


TrevraKotrioif 


H, 


600, 


9 

X» 


e£aic<$0'(Oi, . 


HH, 


700, 


i'> 


hrraKdeioif 


HHH, 


800, 


1 


oKTcucdtrioif 


HHHH, 


900, 


^. 


iyy€aK6eioif 


HHHHH, 


1000, 


.«» 


X^Xioi, 


X, 


2000, 


A 


Bi<r\i\iot9 


XX, 


3000, 


,r» 


Tpity\l\ioi, 


XXX, 


4000, 


A 


rerpaKicr )(i\ioif 


xxxx. 


5000, 


.€» 


TreyraKKrjJXioi, 


M, 


6000, 


J^* 


€iaKi<r)(lXioij 


MX, 


7000, 


^ 


hrraici(r\i\ioi, 


HXX, 


8000, 


fly 


6KraKitr\i\ioi, 


HXXX, 


9000, 


A 


eyveaKKTX^iXioif 


HXXXX, 


10,000, 


/> 


flVplOtf 


M, 


20,000, 


/«f» 


Bitrfivpioif 


MM, 


50,000, 


s^^ 


veyraicKrfjLvpioif 


M, 


00,000, 


p» 


BeKaKierfivptoif 


MM. 



Ordinal. 

haKotriotrroSf 
TpiaKoaioaroSf 
T€<r<rapaicoatofrr6sf 
TeyTaKotno<n6sf 

enroKotnotrrbsf 
OKraKotnoerroSf 
iyyeaKOffioffTOSf 

Bitrj^iXioerroSf 
rpi<r\i\io<rr6sf 
T€rpaKitr\iXio(rr6sf 
veyTaKitr^tXiofrTOSf 
e^aKi tr)(i\io<n'bsf 
ewraKi erj^tXtoor 6s, 
OKraKitrxiXiocTTos, 
iyyeaicitr'xiKunn'oSf 

JJlVpiOffTOSf 

Bitrfivptotrros, 

ireyraKifffjivpiofn'oSf 

d€KaKifrfivpiotn'6s, 

Thus the number 1828 is XHHHHAAnill, or ,aa>ic//. 

Note 1. When Cardinals are joined together without a Conjunction, the greater 
number is placed first, as ^eKarrivre ; but the less when a Coi^unction is used, 
as vevre i^ dcKa, or 7r€vreKaiB€Ka, 

Note 2. Instead of eighteen or nineteen the Greeks frequently said, twenty want- 
ing two, or one ; thus vrjes ivetv, or /ittas Seovirai eiKOiri, ships wanting ttoo, or 
one of twenty : and so for 28, 29, &c. 

Note 3. Tpirov ^fitrdXavrov signifies 2f talents ; i. e. the first a talent, the 
second a talent, the third a half-talent : — thus reraproVf ne/ixrov, &c ruiiroLKaV' 
rov, ^, ^, Sfc, talents. 

But rpia, wevre, &c rffiirdXavra signify 3, 5, &c. half-talents. 

Note 4. The Cardinal Numbers, compounded with <ri>v, signify, — 

1. TogetJier, as avvdvo, two togethisr. 

2, At a time, or the distribution of a nwnbtr into equal parts f as vifvrpei*, 
thre^ at a time. 

From the Ordinal Numbers are formed : — 

1 . Nouns ; as ff SvaSf rpias, &c. 

2. Adjectives: 

1. Multiples in irXSos (^Xovs); as diirXow, double; rpiTrXoih, ftc. 

2. Such as imply division ; as difACpr^Sf divided into two parts ; Tpifiepi^s, &c. 

3. Proportion&ls in vXatrio^ ; as ^tTrXdcrtos, twice as much ; rpiirXdinoSf &c. 

4. Such as relate to time ; as rpiralost on the third day ; rerapra7o9, &c : 
dlfirivoSf of two months* continuance ; &c: Siert^tf biennial; rpiert^s, &c. 

5. Adverbs; as ^Uf twice; rpHs, thrice; rerpaKiSy four times, Sic, 

d2 



36 



Of Pronouns. 



A Pronoun, as the name implies, is a word used instead of a Noon. 

There are Three Personal Pronouns, which may be called Sub- 
stantive; viz. cy«, // ov, thou; ow, of himself; — which are thus 
declined : — 



Singular. 

N. iyij, /, 

G. ifjLoVf or fAov, 

D. efiolf /Aolf 

A. €fJLk, fli. 

Singular. 

N. (TV, thou, 

G. ffov, 

D. 0vf, 

A. ee, 

V. <rv. 



Dual. 



N. A. FWf, v^, 
G.D. ywiy, vfy. 



G. ^fJuSpf 
D. fffuiTy, 
A. iifids. 



PIuraL 



Dual. 



Plural. 



N.A.V. 9^(JV, (Ti 

G. D. ff^oTiV, triply. 



N. iffieiSf 

G. vfiiSy, 

D, vfjuy, 

A. vfids, 

V. v/xe7F. 



Singular. 

N. — 

G. oiJ, 0/ himself, 

D. ol, 

A. g. 



Dual. 



N. A. ty<fKM)k, tr<lt€y 



PIuraL 
N. (T^cTs, Neut. o-^ea, 

G. (T^iJl^y 

D. e<l>ieif 

A. (T^ar, trivia. 

Note 1. Most of the Pronouns have no Vocative, and those which have make it 
always like the Nominative. Instead of saying like the Latins, O tu, the Greeks 
say St ovTos. 

Note 2. Ov may be considered a Reciprocal Personal Pronoun. 

From the above Pronouns and the Genitive avrov, of one*s self, 
are formed the Three Compound Reciprocals, kfiavrov, of myse^ ; 
treavTovy of thyself ; and kavrov, of himself ; which are thus declined: 



G. cfiavT'Ov, 'ffs, -ov, 
D. e/iaur-y, -y, -^, 
A. ifjiavT-oy, -i?v, -o. 



Singular. 
treavT-ov, 'fjs, -ov, 

aeavT'bv, -^v, -o. 



eavr-ov, -^y, -ov, 
eavr-ov, -i)i/, -iJ. 



Note 1. The Plural is found only of eavrov ; as G. eavriav ; D. eavr-oii, -ais, 
-ois ; A. eavT'odSf -ds, -ci. 

^o^e 2. ^eavrov is often contracted into <ravrov ; and eavrov into avTov ; 
which latter is used by the Attics in the Three Persons. *0 aifrds, the same, is 
frequently contracted into avrds and dtijTbs : G. rairov ; D. ravrf ; &c. 

Note 3. Homer never uses these Reciprocals, but e/Ae ahrbv, trk avrbv, and 
6 avrbv, or avrbv, &c. 

To the Reciprocal Pronouns must be added, G. dXX^Xair, o/owe 
another; D. a\X^\-ois, -ais, -oif ; A. dXXi/X-ovf, -ay, -a. 



■^b. 



B7 



The remaining Pronouns are Adjective^ and are divided into — 



1. Relative. 

Bsf fjf o, whOf which, 

avr-of, -i), -o, he himself, she, &c. 

2. Demonstratiye. 
ovroSf avTTjy TovTOf this, 
iKely-os, -ij, -o, that. 

3. Indefinite. 

&\X-os, -rff -Of another (JjhU alius), 
^rep'os, -a, -oy, /A^ other (alter). 
tU, tI, any, some one. 
6, >7, ro ^eiva, some one. 



4. Possessive. 

OS, or e-M, -17, -ov. Aw, &c. 
vwtrcjo-of, -a, -ov, <wr, o/*M* two. 
trtpiairep'Os, -a, -ov, your, of you two. 
iifiiTep-os ', -a, -oy, our. 
vfiirep-os*, -a, -ok, your. 
<r<l>iT€p-os*, -a, -ov, Metr. 



' df(69, Doric ' vft^ff, Doric and Ionic. 
' ffpbSf Doric. 



*0s, 9, o is thus declined : — 

Singular. Dual. 

N. ost $, o. 



G. ov. 



ijy, ov, 



I^« ^» ^» 4* 



A. 



OK, 



§K, O, 



N. A. S, &, c[^, 
G. D. olv, alv, oIk. 





Plural. 




N. 


0?, at. 


a. 


G. 


(Jk, (Jv, 


Jv, 


D. 


ols, aU, 


ols. 


A. 


OVS, &f, 


&. 



In the same manner are declined ahros and eKeivos. 
OvTos is compounded of the Article 6 and a{rros, and is thus de- 
clined : — 



N. odros, 

G. TOVTOVf 

D, TOVTIf, 

A. TOVTOy, 



Singular. 

avrri, rovTO, 

ravrrfSf to-UTOVf 

ravr^, tovt^, 

ravrriVf tovto. 



Plural. 

N. ovrocy aJrat, ravra, 

G. TOVTiaVf rovrwv, rovrktv, 

D. TOVTOis, ravrais, rovrois, 

A. rovrows, ravras, ravra. 

Dual. 

G. D. Tovroiv, ravraiVf TovToin 



N. A. rovrw, ravra, rovrw. 

Like OVTOS are declined the Compounds toiovtos, such; roaovros, 
so great ; and ri^XcKot/ros, so long (in point of time) ; as roiovros, 
roiavrrif toiovto, &c. But the Attics make these -ov in the Neuter. 

Tis is an Interrogative Pronoun, when marked with an Acute 
Accent; — an Indefinite, when with a Grave: thus rls, who? rls,. 
any one. 

It is thus declined : — 



Singular. 

N. ris, Neut. ri, 
G, rivos, 

A. riKa, ri. 



Dual. 

N. A. r£K^, 
G. D. riKOiK. 



Plural. 

N. riuksf Neut. rtKa, 

G. rivuVf 

D. naif 

A. riyas, rirci. 



In the Imparisyllabic Cases, when ti£ is an Interrogative, it has the Accent on 
the Penult ; when an Indefinite, on the Ultimate. 



as 

The Compound Svru, whoever^ it declined like Sc and rU ; — dnu 

N. SvrtSf iinSf SfTi ; 6. oiriyost ^orcKOs» ofrivoc ; &c. 

Note 1. In the Neuter & is often leparated from ri, with or without a Commif 
to be distinguished from the Coi\Junction hru 

Note 3. Ovvt ^ith the signification of the Latin -eunqMe, is added to Compound 
Relatives, and takes the Accent ; as hvrivovvt whotoever. 

The Indefinite 6, 4} ro ^ec^a is in general indeclinable ; but some- 
times declined thus : — 

Singular. 

N. 6, 4, TO ^eXra (Poetic ^eU), 
G. BetyOf MyaroSf Beiyos, 

D. Beiya, ^e/vari, Zeiyif 

A. Belya. 

Note 1. *0 ieiva seems contracted from 6 Sk eva ; liva bein^ {pcnremed by XcyM 
understood. 

Note 2. The Dual and Plural are scarcely found, but instead thereof is used the 
word ol rvx6vre9 ; G. r&v rvxovnov j &c 

The following list of Correlatives may be here inserted. 



rb, the. 

ToTos, (^ the kind, "I 

roiovroi, of this kind. J 

rSiToSf of the number, 
rotrovros, of this number. 
rtiXiKos, of the size or age, 
r jjXtJcovros, of this size, &c, 
wbs (ancient), what. 
wo7oftf of what kind. 
irSffoit (fwhat number. 
iriikiKos, of what size or age. 
vdrepoi, which of two. 

vodaTrbSf of what country. 



d, which. 

0iO9, of which kind. 

2(<roff, of which number. 

i^XIkos, of which size or age. 

byrbs (ancient), whctt. 

bTTolos, of what kind* 

OTrSiTos, of what number. 

OTrriXiKOS, of what size or age. 

oirdrepos, which. 
J ^fiedanbs, of our country. 
\vfie^a7rb9, of your country. 



Of Verbs. 

A Verb is a word which signifies to do^ to suffer y or to be; and is 
therefore Active, Passive, or Neuter. 

Active Verbs in Greek have three Voices, the Active, Passive, 
and Middle. 

1. The Active Voice (yiyos iyepyririKoy) expresses action, and 
terminates in the Present in u or fjti; as rvirrfaf I strike ; riSrifAt^ / 
place. 

2. The Passive (wadririKoy) implies the suffering or receiving of 
an action, and ends in the Present in /lat ; as rvurofjuii, I am struck; 
rldefjiaif I am placed, 

3. The Middle (jikvoy) is so called, because it preserves a sort of 
mediwm between the Active and Passivei partaking of both in s^- 



S9 

nification and termination : it sHgnifies wbat we do to or for our- 
selves ; as rvTTTOfiai, I strike myself; \vofAai nvay I set a person at 
liberty, for my onm pleasure or' bersefit. 

Neuter Verbs (ohdirepa, or avrowa&ririKa) are such as only express 
1>eing, or a state of being, and terminate in the Present in a> or /Lit ; 
as etfu, I am; yytalyu), I am well. 

Those that only imply being, are also called Substantive Verbs. 

Note I. The Active Voice must sometimes be explained reflectively. Thus we 
meet with avaXa/jipaveiv ig rvt v6vov, to recover from sickness ; where eavrbv 
must be understood after the Verb. 

Note 2. Sometimes Verbs of a Passive or Middle form have an Active significa- 
tion, and may therefore be termed Deponent Verbs, from having deposed, or laid 
aside, the form of the Active. 

To Verbs belong Modes, Tenses, Numbers, Persons, and Conju- 
gations. 

I. Of Modes. 

There are Five Modes (eyicXtVety). 

The Indicative (ojoc^nic^), or declaring Mode ; as rwrra, I strike. 
The Imperathe (TrpoaraKriKri), or commanding Mode ^ as rvrrt, 
strike thou. 

This is used in Past Tenses to express urgency of command, cm* completion of 
action ; as rroiriaov, do quickly, or ?i(we done. 

The Optative (evKriKff), or wishing Mode; as €%d€ rmrroifUf O 
that I may strike. 

Note 1. This Mode does not always imply a wish, but resembles the Latin Sub- 
junctive ; and is easily distinguished by the Syllables ai and ot. 

Note 2. In the Perfect Optative Passive, before ftijy, the Vowels a, t?, ia have 
c subscribed, which they retain through all Persons and Numbers ; as veipCk-yfktiv, 
-yo, &c. 

The Subjunctive, or Conjunctive (vworaicriKii), joined to a Con- 
junction ; as lav rvvTio, if I strike. 

Note 1. This Mode is used as the end, or design, or under a condition ; but not 
so often as in Latin. 

Note 2. The Second Person Sing, of the Subj. subscribes tto a, rj, iitj in the last 
Syllable; as Pres. Act rvirry9, Pres. Pass, rvirry, &c ; and the Third Person' 
Sing, subscribes it to a, 17, w, when final; these Persons being the lengthened 
forms of the Indicative, in which t is found. 

The Infinitive (dirapl^^aros), which is indefinite as to Person and 
Number ; as rvwreiv, to strike. 

This merely expresses the primary signification of the Verb. 

Here the Participles also may be mentioned. 

In these the Greeks possess a peculiar elegance and energy of their Language. — 
As they are a kmd of Adjectives, they haVe been treated of witii them in respect to 
Peclension,. &c. See p. 33* 



40 

IL Of Tenses f Numbers, and Persons. 

1. Every Mode has its Tenses, of which there are Nine, 

The Present (;xp6ros iveariifs) ; as rvmriit, I strike, or am sirikkig. 

The Imperfect (traparariKos), signifying, that at a past time the 
event did take place, hut was not perfected; as hwrrovf I was 
striking. 

The Perfect (wapaKelfievos), importing that the event has been 
ahready completely efiected ; as Tirvtjta, I have struck. 

The Pluperfect (vwepirvyTeXiKos), signifying that the event had 
completely taken place at some former period ; as ircrwpeiy, I had 
struck. 

The First and Second Indefinites, or Aorists {a6pL<noi\ so called, 
because Indefinite as to time, though generally denoting the past. 
Derived from the Futures, they are, like them, double in form, and 
single in signification ; as &v)//a, Hrvnov, I struck. They sometimes 
express a thing as usumI. 

The First and Second Futures (jii}s}iOVT€s) ; as rv\\fia, tvttw, I shall, 
will, or am to strike. 

The Third, or Paulo-post Future (fier* oXiyov fiiXXiify), denoting 
that something is on the point of being done ; as rerifxl/ofiai, I shaU 
soon he struck. 

Note 1. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are found, as distinct forms, only in the 
Indicative ; in the other Modes, and also in the Participles, the former is included 
in the Present, and the latter in the Perfect. 

Note 2. All the Tenses of a Verb are seldom in use. Particular attention must 
be paid to the Aorists and Futures ; for when the Pirst Aorist and First Future are 
used, the Second Aorist and Second Future of the same Verb are seldom found. 
But this does not affect those Tenses which are derived from the Second Future ; 
as they may be in use, though the Second Future is not. 

Note 3. The Futures are seldom found in the Imperative and Subjunctive, and 
the Third Future is used.only in the Passive Voice. 

Note 4. The Perfect and Pluperfect of the Middle seem to be only other forms 
of the same Tenses of the Active. Few Verbs have both these forms ; and when 
they do occur, their signification is precisely the same. 

2. Verbs like Nouns have Three Numbers, the Singular, Dual, 
and Plural. 

The Dual occurs very frequently with the Poets and Writers of Dialogues, but 
seldom with others, and never in the New Testament The Plural therefore is 
also used for two. 

3. There are Three Persons {irp6aiana), the First, Second, and 
Thu-d. 

Note 1. The Imperative has only the Second and Third Persons. 

Note 2. The Furst Person Dual and First Person Plural are the same, when the 



41 

latter ends in fiev ; viz. in all the Tenses of the Active, in the Aorists Passive, and 
in the Perfect and Pluperfect Middle. 

Note 3. The Second and Third Persons Dual are the same, when the Third 
Pers. Plur. ends in i ; viz. in the Present, Perfect, and Futures of the Indicative, 
and in all the Tenses of the Subjunctive, through all Voices. 

III. Of Conjugations, 

There are Two Conjugations ; one of Verbs in oi, and the other 
of Verbs in fit. 

The Verbs in ta are either Barytons, or Contracted. The latter 
are conjugated like the former, with the exception of the Present 
and Imperfect Tenses, which are contracted in all the Modes.. 



4t 



Exampieqfa Bar^ 



Principal Parts : Prea. rinrrm ; First Put. rwf^m ; 



Indicative. 



Pres. 



Imperf. 



Perf. 



Plup. 



rvtrr-ti, I strike. 
S. -•*, -•«, -e«, 

D. -erov, 'CroVf 

P. 'Ofuv, -«r€, -ov^t'. 



ervirr-ov, I struck f or uhu striking. 
S. -ov, -«s, -e, 

D. -eroVf 'er>iv, 

P. -o/ieVf -ere, -ov. 



rer 



S. 
D. 
P. 



-a, 
-afjieVf 



-a, I have struck. 
-as, -€, 

-arov, -arov, 
-arCf 'Utn. 



Aor. 1. 



Aor. 2. 



ererit^'eiVi I had struck. 
S. -6CV, -€ts, -«, 

D. -eirov, -eirrjv, 

P. -eifieVf -eire, -eicrav* 



t^Tvy^f-af I struck. 
S. -a, -as, -6, 

D. -arov, -drriv, 

P. -afieVf -are, -av. 



Put 1. 



Put 2. 



. 



ervTT'Ov, I struck. 
Like the Imperfect. 



TV^'ta, I shall strike. 
Like the Present. 



Imperative. 



Tv-^r-e, Mtrikt tkmu 
-^ -erw, 

-€rov, -erca»v, 



rervf-^ have thou struck. 
Like the Present 



TV^-ov, Strike, have thou struck. 
'OV, 'drut, 

-arov, -ariav, 
-are, -dnaaav. 



S. 
D. 
P. 



rvTT-w, I shall strike. 



■w. 



-ovfieVf 



-eis, 

-eirov, 

-eire. 



-61, 

-eirov, 
-overt. 



rv7r-e, strike, hm thou struck. 
Like the Present. 






* The original form of the Third Person Plur. was probably ovm whence the 
Latin was derived. ' The common form of the Third Person Plur. Plup., 

in the ancient Greek Writers, is krervfetrav. 



Verb in the Active. 



43 



Perf. rirv^a ; 



Second Fut. rvTroJ. 



Optative. 



rvTrr-oifiit ^^f^t I may str, 

-oirov, 'oirfiv, 
-oifieVf -oir6, -ot6v. 



rerv^-oc/ii, / may have sir. 
Like the Present. 



rvrj/'aifiL^f I might strike, 
-anil, -atS) -ai, 

-airov, -airijVf 
-aifiev, 'aire, -aiev. 



Subjunctive. 



rv7rr-a>, I str., or may str. 
-a», -ps, -y, 

-fjroVf -rjrov, 
-atfiev, -tirct -wfft. 



r€rv^-w, IsJunUdhavestr. 
Like the Present 



TVTT-oifiif I might strike. 
Like the Present. 



rtnl/'Oifiif I may strike. 
Like the Present 



rvTT'Oifiif I may strike, 
-difih -ols, -o«, 

'OiTOV, 'oirriv, 
'Oifiev, 'Otre, 'Oiev. 



rvi//-<i»» / should strike. 
Like the Present 



rvTT-o), / should strike. 
Like the Present 



Infinitive. 



rtfTTT'eiVf to 
strike. 



to have 
struck. 



rvyj/'aif to 
have struck. 



rvTT-eTv, to 
have struck. 



rv}l/-eiVf to 
be about to 
strike. 



Participles. 



rvTrr-wv, -oviraf -cv, 

G. 'OVTOSf ^c. 

striking. 



G. -oTOSf 8fc. having 
struek. 



rvi//-a», -atraf -ay, 
G. -avTOSf 8fc. hamng 
struek. 



rvTT-cuv, -oi)<ra, -Jr, 
G. -ovTOi, Sfc. having 
struik. 



A. 



Tvrr-eiv, to 
be about to 
\ strike. 



I J 



rOrj/'Utv, -ovtra, -$v, 

G. -ovro6, Sfc. about 

to strike. 



tvw-Sjv, -ov<ra, -di/y, 

G. '0VVT09, S^c about 

to strike. 



■ The £oUc fbrvi of the First Aor. Opt is frequentlf used, particularly by the Attics, in 

the Second and Third Person Sing., and in the Third nural. Thus S. , rvi//ei- m, -e. 

P. , — » HnfftMv, 



44 



Example of a BarfUm 



• 


Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Pret. 


rvwT'OfuUf J am struck. 
S. 'OfAaif -pS -erai, 
D. '6fA90oVt -eitBov, -«^ov, 
P. -ifi^a, 'etrBe, 'Ovrai. 


TviTT'OV, be struck. 
'OVf 'ioBia, 
'eaOov, -eoBwv, 
'BoBe, 'iaOiaaav. 


Imperil 


ervtrr-ofifiv, I was struck, 
S. 'Sfifiv, -ov, -ero, 
D. '6fie9oVf -etrBoVf -ioOiiv, 
P. '6fAe9€h -etrSe, 'Ovro. 


■ 


Perf. 


rirvfi'fiai, I have been struck. 

S. C'fiai, '<rait -rait "j 
D. '/AeOov, 'VBov, -aOov, 
P. \j-fieOa, 'OOe, -vrauj 

S. rervfi/iat, rervypai, rervwrai, 
D. rervfifieOov, rerv^Oov, rerv^Ooy, 
P. rervfifieOaf rirvipOet rervfifiivoi* eiffL 


rervir-<rOy have been 
struck. 
C'tro, -a9<a, "1 

'oBov, 'oBiaVf 
\j-aOe, 'oBtJirav.J 

rirvyj/Oy rerv^Bto, 
rervfOoVf rerv^Biav, 
rirv^Oe, rerv(p9a»aav. 


Plup. 


ireritft'fifiv, I had been struck, 
S. f-fujv, -ffo, -ro, 1 
D. 'fieOoVf 'ffOov, 'trOriv, 
P. l^'fieOa, '<r9e, -vro. J 

S. erervfifAfjv, ererinpOf erervxro, 

D. erervfifieOov, irervfOoVf erervi^Oriv, 

P. erervfifieOa, erervfOe, rervfifievot riaav. 


■ 


Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 


erviT'tiv, J 
S. 'HV, -j|s, -j|, 
D. 'firov, -riTfiv, 
P. 'tifiev, 'tire, 'tiaav. 


rvTT'iiBif J 
— , 'rjrut, 
'firoVf 'tfriav, 
'lire, -riruKTav, 


Fut 1. 
Fut. 2. 

Fut. 3. 


rvxriff'Ofiai, J 

rerv^l/'OfAai, I shall soon be struck. 
Like the Present 





' Originally the Second Person Sing, of the Present was rvvr'€<rai ; the loniana 
omitted the a, the Attics shortened eat into ec, which the Common Dialect contracted 
into o. Thus in the Imperfect ervvreao became ervTrreo, and was then contracted 
into ervwrov ; rvirronTo became r^trroto ; krir^faao, ir^tut and hrir^fta, 

' The Third Person Plur. of the Perfect and Pluperf. Indicative, as also the whole 
Perfect of the Optative and Subjunctive, are coi\Jugated either regularly and with 
one word, when iiai and /if|i/ in these Tenses are preceded by a Vowel ; or irre- 
gularly and periphrastically (eifti being added to the Perfect Participle), when preceded 
by a Consonant See p. 5. 19. 



45^ 



Verb in the Passive. 



Optative. 


Subjunctive. 


Infinitive. 


Participles. 


)ifiilVi that I may be struck. 
, -010, -Giro, 
}v, "OnrBoVi -oiuBriVt 
X, 'OitrBe, -oivro. 


rvTTT'WfJtaii I may be struck, 
-wfiaif -y, 'rjrai, 
-iiffieOov, 'tiaOov, 'titrOov, 
-offieOa, -fy<r0€, -uivrai. 


rvTrr-eaOai, 
to be struck. 


rvwrd/i€i/-o«, -»j, -oy, 
6. -oVf &c. 

being struck. 








• 


ftevos ettiv, I may have 
been struck. 
71/, -^0; -yrOf 1 
eOov, -ytrBov, -^aOriv, 
eOa, 'ytrOe, 'yvro. J 

liv-os ettiVt 6(7$, eirjf 

1* eltirov, ei'qrriv, 

I elrifiev, eltire, eiijaav. 


rervfi'fievos ut, I may have been 

struck. 

'iafjLeOoVf -fitrdov, 'fjcrBov, 
[^-ufieOaf -fjcrBe, -wvracj 

rervfifiev-os cD, ys, y, 
-io riroVi flTOV, 
-ot Sinev, rirey Sxn. 


rerv^-9ai, 
to have been 
struck. 


rervfifiiv'OSf -j|, -ov, 
having been struck. 










^^'^^'X I might be struck. 

-6C7S, -eirit 
-eitjrov, -eirirriVf 
/, -eifire, -eirjffav. 


-w, -ys, -y, 

-vrov, 'fjrov, 
'Qfjtev, 'Tjre, -wffc. 


rv^O-rivai, 1 

rvTT^vai, J 

to ?iave been 

struck. 


G. -ivTOSf &c 
having been struck. 


oifiriv, I may soon 8fc. 
Like the Present. 




TV^BritreaOai, 
TVTrriaetyBait 
to be ab. to be St. 
Terv-^t-eaOai, 
soon S^c. 


rv69n(T- 1 / 

about to be struck, 
reTvyj/SfJievoSf 

about Sfc, soon. 



I r€rifjt^-fir}v, tretJuXy-firiv, SedtiXtp-fitiv, XeKv-firfv, K€Kpi-fjtriv, iKrai-firiv, reBei-fJttfv, $e$ol- 
s conjugated, rerifiy-fifiv, -o, -ro ; &c. — and have in the Subjunctive rerifiiofJtat, Tre^iXuffjiai, 
Mif XcXui/iai, KCKpHfiai, exTiofJiai,, reBiijfiai, dedutfjiai ; from ri/idw, &c. 



4a 







ExampU^a BaryUm 





IndicatiTe. - . 


Imperatiye. 


■ • 


Pres. 

ImperC 


ritfTT'Ofiat, I strike myte\f. 
irvfrr-6/Ativ, J $truck 4«. 

Like the Present and 


r^xr-ov, strike SfC, 
Imperfisct, Paniye. 




Perf: 

Plup. 


rirviT'fi, I have struck ^. 
irerinr-eiv, I had struck 8fC. 

Like the Perfect and 


rervir-e, have thou struck ^. 
Pluperfect, Active. 




Aor. 1. 


irv^-^firiv, I struck SfC, 
S. -afifjVf -w, -«ro, 
D. -dfieOoVf -aoBov, -dtrOriv, 
P. -dfieBa, -aa^e, -avro. 


rinl/'Oi, have thou struck 4^. 
'at, 'daOkt, 
■ -aaOov, •daBtav, 
•aaOe, 'dcBiaaav. 




Aor. 3. 


ervW'Sfifiv, I struck Sfc, 
Like the Imperfect. 


TVTT'OV, have thou struck 8fc. 
Like the Present. 




Put 1. 


rO^I/^Ofiai, I shall strike 8fc, 
Like the Present 






Put 2. 


TViT'OViiai, I shall strike Sfc. 
S. -ovfiai, -y, -elrae, 
D. 'OVfieOov, 'eXtrOov, 'eiaOoy, 
P. 'OVfJLcOa, -elaOe, -ovvrau 


■ 





47 



Verb in the Middle. 



Optatnre. 



rvtrr-oi/Ariv, that I may strike Sfc. 



Subj unctive; * - Infinitiye. 



r^vT'diffiai, I may 
. strike Sfc, 



Like the Present Passive. 



rer^V'Otfjti, I may have struck S^c. 



rcrvTT-w, / may 
?iave struck ^c. 



Like the Perfect Active. 



rvTp-alfiriv, I may have struck Sfc. 
"aiurjVf -aio, -airo, 

'CuueBov, 'atvQoVf 'ai<r9fiv, 
'ai/ieOa, 'tuaOsj "Oivro, 



rviT'olfJtriVf I may have struck S^c, 



r^'tofiai, I should 
strike Sfc, 

Like the Present.. 



r^ir-tofiait I should 
strike Sfc, 



Like the Present. 



rwp'oifiriv, I may strike S^c. 
Like the Present 



rvW'oifJLijv, I may strike ^c. 
'oifiijv, -oTo, -oiro, 

-oiueOov, 'OlaBov, -oiffBriv, 
'Oi/ieOa, 'oTffBe, -oivto. 



rvvT'effOai, to 
strike 8fC» 



rerw-evat, to 
have struck ^c. 



Tii^-atrBaif to 
have struck 8fc 



rviT'etrSai, to 
have struck Sfc, 



ri-^/'etrOai, to he 
about to strike 8fc. 



ParticipleSk 



rvTT'Sfievot, 
striking S^. 



rervTT'WS, 
having struck ^c. 



rvyl/'^fjtevos, 
having struck ^c. 



rvT'dfJtevos, 
having struck S^c. 



rvvr-eXaOaii to be 
about tostrike Sfc. 



Tvrl/'6fievo9t 
about to strike 4*0. 



rvir-ovfievos, 
about to strike 8fc 



48 



■ I 



Examples of the Ccmiraeted Teiues of 



1 1 



-I 



II 





Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Prei. 


rifi-a^, I hommtr, 
S. -«iw, -cSeif, 


'dttf 

'if 


-a, -drt0. 




D. '&9TOV9 


'dsTOV, 


'dtrayt ^air^tv. 




-arov. 


'OLTOV, 


-arov, "drt^v. 




P. 'do/A€v, 'dere, 


'dovtri. 


-dere, ^akr^Mrav, 




'Afiev, -are, 


'Sitn, 


-are, 'dnaaav. 


Imperil 


irl/i-aov. 








S. -aov, -tus, 


-ae. 






'wv, -as, 


-a. 






D. 'derov, 


-aerfiv, 






-arov, 


'drnv. 






P. -dofiev, 'dere. 


-aov. 






'Utfiev, -are. 


-wv. 




Pre«. 


^iX'iio, I love. 


,v 


^(X-ee. 




S. -6w, -eets, 
-w, -et«, 


-«7, 


-66, -eeria. 




D. -eerov, 


'ierov. 


-ierov, -eeratv,. 




-eTrov, 


-eirov, 


-etrov, -eirav. 




P. 'iofiev, -eere, 
'OVfiev, -etre, 


"iovirif 

-OVffl, 


-iere, -eeroKrav, 
-etre, -eiriavav. 


Imperf. 


60/X-eov. 








S. -eov, -ees, 


-66, 






-OVV, -€«, 


-61, 






D. -ierov. 


-eerijv. 






-eiTOv, 


-eirriv. 






P. -eofiev, -eere, 


-60V, 






'OVfiev, -elre, 


-ovv. 




Pres. 


SrjX'OdJ, I show, 
S. -oa>j -decs, 
-w, -ocs, 


-dec, 
-oT, 


^X-oe. 
-oe, -oerkt,. 
-ov, -oifria, • 




D. 'Serov, 


'Serov, 


-6erov, -oirotv, 




-ovrov, 


-ovrov, 


-ovrov, -ovrwv. 




P. -6ofiev, 'oere. 


-Sovtri, 


-Sere, -oertavav. 




-ovfiev, -ovre, 


-ovai. 


-ovre, -oi)ria<Tav, 


Imperf. 


edrjX'Oov, 








S. -oov, -oes, 


-0€, 






-ovv, -ovs, 


•ov. 






D. -oerov. 


-oerijv, 






' ovrov, 


-ovrtfv. 






P. -dofiev, 'Sere, 


-oov. 






'OVfJiev, 'OVT6, 


-ovv. 





49 



Tbs in aWf cia, ooi, in the Active, 



Optative. 



ri/ft-aot/ic. 
9c^iy 'doiSf -doif 

M^icv, -doire, -doievt 



Subjunctive. 



Infinitive. 



-dut, -ays, -ay, 

'dijrov, -driTOVt 
'UTov, -arovt 

'dutfieVf 'dtire, -duxn, 
-Stfiev, -are, -Sun, 






Participles. 



-dtitv, -dovtra, -dov, 
-toil/, 'Hffaf -wi/. 



•ifo, -eots. 



"€01, 
-01, 



-eoirov, -eoiTtiv, 
'OiTov, -oirtjv, 

ifiev, 'ioire, -ioiev, 
piev, -oTre, -oiev. 



-eat, -fiyff, 
-w, -ys. 



-€ 






-eiv. 



-effrov, 'erjTOv, 

-firov, -fiTOV, 

-iatfiev, -erjre, -eoxTi, 

-Stfiev, -rire, -a><n. 



-OOi, 
-01, 



8tiX-6oi/ii» 
ifu, -6ois, 

ii, -019, 

-Soirov, -ooirrjv, 
-oXtov, -oirfiv, 

ifiev, -Soire, -ooiev, 
Mv, -oTre, -otev* 



piX'iiov. 
-etav, -eovffa, -gov, 
-&v, -ovffa, -odv. 



'6<a, 



StiX-oat. 



-018, 



-6y, 

-01, 



-OtITOV, -OflTOV, 

-&TOV, -iorov, 

■Scjfiev, -Sffre, -Suxri, 
'ij/iev, -tare, -Sktu 



SffX-oeiv, 
-ovv. 



dijX-oaty. 
-datv, -dovtra, -dov, 
-&v, -ovffa, -ovv. 



J 



E 



50 



Examples of the Cimtvacted Temes of 





Indicative. 


Imperatife. 


Pres. 


ri/ft-ao/fttti. 




-dtrai, 
'drat, 


rifi'dov. 
'doVf 






D. -adfitOov, 


-avBtiv, 


'AeirBov, 

'&9$0V, 


'devOov, 
-dvBov, 


"da^w, 




P. -adfinOa, 
't!tfie$a, 


-o<r0e, 


-dovrai, 


-Cl€9V6f ' 
-dtTvCf 


-oMm 


Imper£ 


irifi-adfiiiv, 
S. -adfiiiVi 


-aou, 
-A, 


'derOf 
-drOf 








D. -ad/ieOov, 
-litfieQov, 


-de<rOov, 
-a<rOov, 


-aiffOriVf 
'dffOfiv, 








P. -adfieOa, 
-(itfieQa, 


'defrOcf 
-affOCf 


'dovro, 
-Sivro. 






Pres. 


^iX-iofiai, 
S. -eofiaif 
-ovfiai, 


•ey, 


-eeraif 
-eirai, 


^iX-eov, 

'€0V, 
'OVf 






D. -e6fi€9ov, 
'OvfieOoVf 




-eiffOoyf 


-e€90ov, 
-eivBov, 


'9iaBm 




P. '€6u€9a, 
'OVfjieOa, 


'ieffOSf 


•iovrait 
'ovvrdi. 






Imperf. 


S. -eSfiriv, 

-OVfltlVf 


'iov, 
-oij, 


'iero, 
-eiTO, 


• 






D. '€6fA€9oV, 

-ovfieQoVf 




-eenQriv, 
-eitrOfiVf 


« 






P. -eoueBa, 
'OVfieOa, 




'ioVTO, 

-ovvro. 






Pres. 


d$i\-6ofiai» 
S. -dofiMf 
'OVfiai, 


-op, 

-0?, 


'Seratf 
-ovraif 


tflK-6ov» 
'6ov, 
»ov, 






D. 'o6fie9ov, 
-ovfieBov, 


-OVCT^V, 


^detrOav, 
'OVirdov, 


'devOov, 
-ovaBop, 


-ov<rO«i 




P. 'oSfieBa, 
'OVfieOa, 


-oi><r0e, 


'6ovraif 
-ovvrai. 


'oefrOsf 
'OvirOe, 




Imperf. 


iSfj\-o6fifiv. 
S. -oofjtijVf 

'OVfJlfJV, 


"dov, 

'OVf 


-oerOf 
-ovrOf 








D. 'oSfieBoVf 
'OVfieOoVf 


-6e<r9ov, 
'OVfrOov, 


'oitrOijv, 
'oixfOfiVi 








P. 'o6fie9a, 
-ovfieBa, 


-6efr9€f 
'OwrOcf 


'6ovrOf 

'OVVTO. 







51 



'^erbs in aw, ew, om, in tike Passive and Middle. 



Optative. 


Subjunctive. 


Infinitive. 


Participles. 


-doto, -doiTO, 
-yo, -^TO, 

V, -doiffOov, -aoiffOriv, 
:» 'doiirOe, -doivro. 


rifi-dutfiai, 
-dtj/iat, -dy, -dijrat, 
-utfiai, -^, -drai, 

-adijieOov, -dti<r9ov, -diitrOov, 
-dtfjieOov, -dfrOov, -d<rOoy, 

-aatjJieOa, -dfiffOe, -dutvrai, 
-w/ieOa, -dtrOe, -Hvrau 


nfi-d€<r0ai, 
-avBau 


rtfi-a6/tevo9, 

-<tffC61/0S. 










'6010, -€otro, 
'010, -oiro, 

r, ^6oi(t9ov, -eoiffOfiv, 
f "olffOov, 'oiaBrjv, 

f -ioia9€, 'Eoivro, 
-olffOe, -otvTO* 


0iX-6Wf(a(. 
-Etatfiai, -ey, -iijrai, 
-Stfuii, -y, -fjrai, 

-eutfteOov, -etitrOov, -itiaBov, 
-utfjieOov, -fi<r9ov, 'fjffOov, 

-etatfieOa, -iriaOe, -eatvrai, 
-uifieSa, -fiffOe, -Stvrau 


0i\-66<rOac, 
•eTaOai, 


pi\-€6uepo9, 
-ovftevos* 










'6oio, -ooiro, 
-oto, -o7to, 

V, 'SoiffOov, -oohOrjVt 
', '0ia9ev, -oi<r9ijv, 

:, 'SoiffOe, -Soivro, 
-oTtrBe, -cfivro. 


SriX-Swftai. 
-otitfiai, -oyt -Stirai, 
-Hfiai, -ol, -&rai, 

-odtfieOov, -6ii<r9ov, -6fi(r9ov, 
-MfjieOovt -SiijQov, -wffBov, 

-oijfieOa, -oijirOe, -Siovrai, 
-tofjteSa, -&<r9e, -favrai. 


drjX-SeffOai, 
-ov^ai. 


dri\-o6fi€vo9, 
-ovfievos. 


• 









E 2 



52 



Tables of Tywria, rifiatif ^iX^w, Bii\6wf in all 





Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Optative. 


Subjunctive. 


Infinitive. 


Pftrtidiia 


Pre8.A. 


rifirrtatt 


rvKre, 


rvirroifii, 


rvtrruff 


Tvtrreiv, 


rviTTtnf, 


Imp. 


ervirrov. 










■' 


Perf. 


r€rv6a, 


rerv^, 


rerv^ifii, 


rerv^, 


rerv^evai, 


rertff^ 


Plup. 


6rcrv06(v» 










1 


Aor. 1. 


Srvyj/at 


rv^ov, 


rv^aiftt, 


TV}pUft 


rv^€Uf 


rv^HO, 4 


Aor. 2. 


Srvirov, 


rvx€. 


TVWOlfil, 


TVKia. 


rvTreiv, 


rvTwVy 


Futl. 


rv^utt 




rit^l/oifii, 




rv^eiv, 


rv^mVf 


Put. 2. 


TVirii, 




rvwoif/tu 




rvireiv. 


rvirtSv' ' ' 


Pre8.P. 


rvirrofiat, 


rvirrovt 


rvirroifAtiv, 


Tvimofuut 


rvirrevBaif 


rvwT6iU9f^ 


Imp. 


erviTTOfiriv, 












PerC 


rerv/x/xai, 


TeTWJ/Of 


rervfjifAevos eljjv, 


rervfifievos w, 


r€rv^9ai, 


rervfifteMh i 


Plup. 


krervji^riVt 










1 


Aor. 1. 


rv^Otiri, 


Tv^Qeiriv, 


rv^9Ct, 


rvp9fivaif 


rvf9ei9, 1 


Aor. 2. 


eTvirtiVf 


rinTfiOi. 


Tvireiijv, 


rvwui. 


Tvirfivat, 


rvireky j 


Put 1. 


Tv^Qfiaoiiai, 




Tv^9ri(fointiv, 




rvdt9ri(reff9aif 

y\ 


rv^Oifiiimm 


Put 2. 


rvtrriffo^ai, 




rvxijffoifirjVt 




rv7rri<re<rBcu, 


rvirri<y6imm 


Put 3. 


rerv^j/o^at. 




rertnf/oifiriv. 




TBTV^6<r9tU. 


rervrpS/tnim, 


Pr. M. 


Tvnro^at, 


rinrrov, 


rvirroifitiv, 


rvirrufiaif 


rvirre<r9aif 


rvwrdftanug 


Imp. 


hrvirrofirjVf 










rervvtkt, J 


Perf. 


rervira, 


rirvxe, 


rerviroifit, 


TeTiiTTia, 


rervirevai, 


Plup. 


krervireiv. 










Aor. 1. 


erv^j/dfiriVf 


Tv^ai, 


rvyjrtii/iriv, 


rv}ptafiai, 


rv}pa(T9ai, 


rvylmfupm, 


Aor. 2. 


ervwdfAtiv, 


Tvirov, 


rviroifirjVf 


rvvti/icu. 


rvfr€99ait 


rvir^/MM%;i< 


Put 1. 


rv}j/ofiaif 




rtnf/oiuriVf 
rviroi/iiiv* 




Tvypeo9ait 


rtnjfSfiwmt^ ^ 


Put 2. 


rvTTovfiai, 






rvire'i<r9ai. 


rvirov/MMib^ 


Pre8.A. 


rifi-dut, -w, 


rifA-a€, -a, 


rtfi'doifii, -tffih 


rift'dutt '*»»» 


rifi-deiv, 'fv, 


rui-dtiv^ -A 


Imp. 


erifi'ttov, -wy, 












Perf. 


reriftiiKa, 


rerifiiiKe, 


reriftriKotfiif 


rsTifiriKUff 


rerififiicivai, 


reri/ftifKiii^ 


Plup. 


ereriftriKetVf 






M 






Aor. 1. 


erififjffaf 


riftriffov, 


rtfioi/itf 


TlfAtlffUt, 


rifififfai, 


rtfiriffas. 


Aor. 2. 


erifiov, 


rifie. 


TifJlU)* 


rifieiVf 


rifiutv. 


Put.1. 


rifiri<r<itt 




rifirifToifii, 




rifiriffeiv, 


rifiri<runf. 


Put. 2. 


rc/iu>. 




Tifiafifii. 




Tifieiv, 


rifiuv. 


Pres.P. 


rif/t-dofiai, 


Ttft-doVf &, 


rift-aoifiriVf 


rifi-dtafiaif 


rifi'd€<r9aif 


rifA'aS/ttvu^ 


Imp. 


krifi'adfitiVf 












Perf: 


rerifirifiaif 


r€rifiti<ro, 


rert/iy/ii|v, 


reriftiafuu, 


rerififi(r9ai. 


rert/ifinhmi 


Plup. 
Aor. 1. 


krcTiurifitiv, 
€rifiri9riv, 


rifiri9rjri, 


ri^fl9eirjv, 


riftri9<iii, 


Tifiri9rivaif 


rifiri9ei9^ 


Aor. 2. 


erifAiiVf 


rc/xijdt. 


rifieiriVt 


Tifiiii, 


Tifiriyai, 


ri/ieit, 


Put. 1. 


rtfAtiOriaofAai, 




rififi9ri<rolfiriVf 




Tifin9fi<re<r9ai, 


rifitiOtf^Sfm 


Put. 2. 


Tt^ri<rofiaif 




rifiriffolfiriVt 




rtfiri(r«<r9ai. 


ri/Ari96ti€^mi 


Put. 3. 


rerifiiiffofiai. 




rerififitroififiv. 




r€rifiri<r€<r9tu. 


r6rc/«9«idfM9 


Pr. M. 


rifi-dofiai, 


rifi'dov, Q, 


rifi-aoifiriv, 


rifi-duffiaif 


ri/i-d€ff9aif 


ri/A'€i6iU9m, 


Imp. 


eTtfA-aSfAfiVt 


f 


M 


f 


/ 




Perf. 


rertfia, 


rertfte, 


rerifioifjiif 


rerifxatf 


reriftevai, 


TeriftMS, 


Plup. 


ererifAew, 










\ 


Aor. 1. 


erifirjadfiriv, 


rlfAfiffaif 


rifiti<raifAriv, 


Tifiri<rii»fiai, 


Tifin(ra<r9ai, 


rtftii9dfi€im 


Aor. 2. 


crifiofiriv, 


TlfiOV. 


rifioifAtiVf 


rif/tutfAai. 


rifie<f9ai, 


rtftdfieiHrn, 


Put 1. 


rifiri<rofiai, 




rifATiffoififiv, 




rifiri<reo9ai. 


rc/if|<r6fMyti 


Put 2. 


rtfiovfiai. 




TlfiOlflflV, 




rtfi6T<r9at. 


rc/io^/Mmoti 



53 



their VoiceSy Modes, and Tenses, at one View, 



Indicative. 


Imperative. 


Optative. 


Subjunctive: 


Infinitive. Participles. 1 


€f^[X-eov,'OVVf 

ire^iXrjKaf 

etre^iXriKeiv, 

. 60(Xiy(ra, 

. e^iXoVf 


0iX-e6) -eif 

we^iXriK6f 

^iXriffov, 
(piXe. 


<l>iX-€Oifii, -oc/xi, 
irepiXrjKoifii, 

^iXoifii, 

^iXri<yoifjii, 

0i\o?/it. 


irepiX-^KUt, 

<l>iXriffto, 
0iXa>. 


<l>iX-€€iv, -etv, 

we^iXriKevai, 

fiXfiffai, 

^iXeev, 

(piXriaeiv, 

0tX6t3/. 


<l>iX-€U)v, -ittv, 

7re<ln\riK(its, 

0iX^(ras, 

i/nXrifrutv, 
<piX(Sv. 


» 6iX'eofiai, 
eptX-eSfirjv, 
ne^CXfifjiai, 
eire^iXrifiriv, 

. ii^CXriv, 
. ^iXi§9^(ro^ai, 
ipiXri<rofiait 


^iX-ioVf -ov, 
ire^iXti<ro, 

(piXfiOi. 


ptX-eolfiffv, 

W€^iXyfifiv, 

<l>iXri9eifiv, 

^iXeirjv, 

ipiXri9ri(roifitiv, 

(piXfjtroifiriv, 

we^iXrifroifArjv. 


^iX-eatftai, 

Tre^tXQfiai, 

piXij9ia, 
(piXw, 


piX-€€(T9ai, 

W€<l>i\ri<f9ai, 

^iXri9fivai, 

ifuXfivai, 

(piXri9ri(re(r9ai, 

0iX^<re<r0ac, 

7r€piXri<re(r9ai. 


<lnX-e6fievos, 

ire^iXfifAevos, 

^tXri9€is, 

0lX6(S, 
(piXlj9lJ(T6fl€V08, 

(ptXfjiTofievos, 
ve^iXtiaofievos. 


6iX-iofiait 

€ft\-e6fitiv, 

fri^iXaf 

eire^iXetVt 

e^tXri<rdfiiiv, 

efiXdftriVf 

^iiX^irofiaif 


^iX-eoVf -ov, 

Tre^tXe, 

<litXtj<ratf 
ifuXov, 


<fnX-€oi^riv, 

xe<f>iXoifii, 

<l>iXri(raifiriv, 
ipiXoifirfv, 
^iXijaoifiriv, 
^iXoifiriv. 


^iX-eu)fiai, 

jrepiXta, 

piXri<ru)ficei, 
0tXa>/iai. 


^iX-ee<y9ai, 

TTcpiXevai, 

piXriaafrBai, 
^iX€a9ai, 
^iXri(re<T9di, 
0tX67<rOat. 


^iX-edfievos, 

we^iXdts, 

<l>iXrj(rdfA€vos, 
^iXofjtevos, 
(piXijtrofjtevos, 
<piXovfi€vos, 


edriX-ooVf-ovv, 
SeS'^XuKa, 
edeSfiXwKetv, 
eS^Xuxraf 

$tlXwyu». 


drfX-oCf -ov, 

SeSffXiOKe, 

driXataov, 


StlX-OOlfllt-otfAl, 

deSijXijJKoi^if 
diiXiJiraifii, 

dlJjXiOffOlfAl, 


StiX-6(i),- w, 
SedijXutKiti, 

^]|Xw<T«>. 


dfiX-Seiv, -ovv, 
dediiXiaKevai, 
SrjXiSffai, 
driX(a<reiv, 


dijX-6iov, -tiSv, 
dedriXuKots, 
dijjXiixras, 
dtiXutffiiJv, 




SflX-dofiai, 

idfiX'OOfiiiv, 

SedriXu)fiatf 

eSeSriXwfitjVf 

eSffXtltOiiVj 

St/XutOriffOfiai, 

MfiX&aofiau 


diiX-6ov, -ov, 

deSriXutao, 

StiXiaOijri, 


SriX-ooifAfiv, 

MfiXiffiilv, 

dijXu)9€liiv, 

driXia9ij(roifitiv, 

deStiXioffoifiriv, 


dtiX-6o>fiai, 
SeSiiXuifiai, 
drjX<it9*S, 


SijX-deffBai, 

SedriXuiaBai, 

dijXto9fivai, 

dijX<it9fi(Te(r9ai, 

8eSfiXdi<r€ff9ai, 


driX-o6fA€vos, 

deStiXatfievos, 

driXiti9ei9, 

diiXut9riff6fievos, 

SedriXutffSf/tevos, 


SijX-Sofiat, 
idfiX-oSfiriVf 


dtiX-Sov, -ov, 


dijX-ooifAriv, 


dfiX-Siofiai, 


driX-6€<r9ai, 


dtiX-o6fjievos, 


driXuffai, 


driXuxraifiriv, 
dtiXuKToifiiiv. ' 


dfiXuKTiafjiai, 

1 


dtiXuKra<r9ai, 
SflXdi(re<r9ai. 


diiXiiJffdfievos, 

dl]lXiO(T6fl€V0S. 

- 


eitiXtafrdfitiv, 
itiXuffoftau 



i 



54 



Of thb Augment and Formation of thb Tbmses. 

I. Of the Augment* 

There are Six Tenses that receive an Augment ; of which Three 
admit it through all the Modes, — the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Paulo- 
post Future ; and Three only in the Indicative, — the Imperfect, and 
the two Aorists. 

The Augments are of two kinds, — Syllabic^ when the Verh begins 
with a Consonant ; and Temporal^ when it begins with a Vowel. 

Of the Syllabic Augment, 

This Augment is termed Syllabic, because it makes an additional 
Syllable, and consists in e prefixed to the Imperfect and the Aorists 
of the Indicative ; as Irt/Trrov, ervxI/Of irvwoy ; — and in the repetition 
of the first Consonant alsQ of the Verb, in the Perfect, Pluperfect, 
and Paulo-post Future ; as r^ri/^a, rervxj/ofiai ; — the Pluperfect re- 
ceiving an additional e ; as ererv^eiv. 

Note 1. If the Verb begin with a double Consonant, with tr joined to a Mute, 
with yv, ypiji or ^9, the repetition (or reduplication) of the first Consonant does 
not taJce place, e only being prefixed in the Perfect, Pluperfect, &c ; as ^oXXa^, 
ei^aXjca, eyffoKxeiv ; trrpi^at, earpe<l>a ; y va>pt^a>, eyvtaputa ; yptiyopeia, eypq- 
yopflKa ; ^9dvtOj efOaica. 

Note 2. When the Verb begins with a Mute and a Liquid, or with rr, wr, or fivt 
the first Consonant, though more usually repeated, may be omitted ; as PKairrdv%*, 
pepXacrrtiKa and kpK&arfiKa ; Kraofiatt KeKTiijJMi and eKrrj/iat, 

Note 3. If the Verb begin with p, the p is doubled, and 6 prefixed in all the aug^ 
mented Tenses ; as peat, ippeov, e^prixa ; except in Poetry, where p is sometimes 
single. 

Note 4. If the initial Consonant be an Aspirate, the corresponding Soft most be 
used in the Perfect ; as OeXnt, reBiKtiica, not OeBeXriica, 

Note 5. The e in the Augment of the Pluperfect is often omitted; as ire^oivucro. 

Note 6. Of the Syllabic Augment some traces are found in Latin ; as curro, cm- 
eurri ; disco, didici ; tango, tetigi ; &c. 

Of tlie Temporal Augment. 

The Temporal Augment, which takes place when the Verb be- 
gins with a Vowel, is so called because it increases the time or 
quantity of the Syllable. 

It is the same in all the Tenses that receive an Augment ; as 
aKovia^ ^Kovovy ^Kov^a, 4^'<7VK'a, &c. 



edtit, Imp. etaov, 


eXiffffut, 




eKxta, 


e9ia. 


iXicita, 


eBiZiitf 


iUviM, 


*e\uf, 


evruff 



evrtdta. 



55 

It changes a into ri ; as &yia, Imp. ^yov ; ^iw, ^Boy. 

€ — ^ I as eXiriiWf fjXiriZov, 

T — c ; as '"tKarWf "iKavov^ 

o — a> ; as dw&Zia, i&ifa(ov. 

i> — V ; as 'iffipi^ta, "vfipi^oy, 

at — 9 t as aipta, ypoy, 

av -— i}v ; as ahiavw, ifv^avov, 

oi — ^ ; as olKlitiff ^Kl^OV, 

Verbs, beginning with 17, w, z, v, and ov, receive no Augment \ 
and those in ei and ev are seldom changed. 

Note 1. These Five Verbs retain the a of the Present in the augmented Tenses ] 
«^a>, itut, ddtat, &rjdiZofiaif driOeaaat ; the two first for the distinction of the mean- 
ing, and the others on account of the sound. 

Note 2. The following change e into ei, or rather contract ee into ei :-— 

liiroficUf 
kpyd^ofiait 
kpEia, 
epTTta, 
ipirvZ^t 

Note 3. The Attics change ei into y, and ev into i|v ; as elSta, PIup. eXSeiv, Attic 
y^eiv ; evxoftac, eifx^firiv, Attic irivx^/itiv. They likewise change the Syllabic 
Augment into the Temporal ; as f/teWatf cfieXXov, Attic r^fieWov ; and prefix e to 
the Temporal Augment, aspirated or not according to the Verb ; as 6p&i$>f iipaov, 
Attic eutpaov ; otyii», Aor. 1. ^fa, Attic l^^a. 

'Epfitipevta and evpitrKio admit of no Augment. 

J^^o<e 4. Verbs beginning with eo retain e, but change o into <a ; as ioprdi^tift 
e^praZov. 

To these belong the three following Attic or Poetic Perfects of the Middle : SoiKa, 
FIup. k^Keiv, for kolxeiv, from eiKut ; eoXira, e(tfXTr6iy, from SXirut ; iopya^ kdjp" 
yeiVf from pe^oi. 

iVb^e 5. Some Verbs have in the Perfect a peculiar, or Attic Reduplication (as it 
is called), which consists in the first two letters of the Verb being repeated before 
the usual Temporal Augment ; as dyelpta, ijyepKaf dyiiyepxa ; hpvTTiMtf ipvxcit 
hpwpvxou 

This Attic reduplication is also fiiund in the Second Aorist, sometimes without 
the change of either Vowel ; as dpapoy from dpia ; and sometimes with the change 
of the first ; as ijyayov from dyut. 

This Reduplication remains in the other Modes, which only drop the Temporal 
Augment 

In Composition, 

Note 1. Compounds, whose Simples are seldom or never used, receive the Aug< 
ment, sometimes in the beginning, and sometimes in the middle. 
Thus, dft^tafiriretiff ij/i^ivpiireov ; dvriPoXeta, i/jvTiP6Xeov ; 
kyKiafudZ*^, iv€K<afiiaiov; irpojtrirevia, irpoe^^revov* 

Note 2. If a Verb be compounded with a Preposition, the Verb receives the Aug- 
ment; 9» Topcucovio, irapiiKOvovi irpoir^pai, 9rpo<rfi^epoi/ ;•— but when the mean- 
ing of the Verb is not changed by the Preposition, the Augment is sometimes placed 
before the Preposition ; as dvoiyia, ijvoiyov ; KaOevdta, iicdOeviSov ; though we also 
find KuOfiviov, 

Sometimes the Preposition only receives the Augment ; as MyKu, rjveyKov ; 
eyiwiaf iivenov i — sometimes both the Preposition and Verb ; as dvop96u>, ^vwp- 



56 



9oov\ evox^^ia, i^vctfvXeov: — ^and sometimes either the one or the other; as 
iivoiyuf, ijvot^a or ivetfi^a. 

Note 3. Verbs, compounded with £i; and dits, receive the Augment in the middle, 
if a Mutable Vowel follow, (the Mutables are a, £, o ;) as edayyeXt^oi, evtiyyiXi- 
Zov ; dvffapeffrita, dvtrripeffreoy : — and di^ in the beginning, when a Consonant 
or Immutable Vowel follows ; as ^vtrrvx^^t edvarvxeov ; dvtriajriia, h^vvwireov : 
~ is seldom changed. 



Note 4. If a Verb be compoimded with a Noun, with the a of privation, or ofiovt 
the regular Augment is prefixed to the Compound ; as Xi9oj3oXea», kyaQoPoKeovi 
A^poviia, i^^pdveov ; 6fio\oyeuf, utfio\6yeov : — ^but the following admit of no Aug- 
ment ; — Compounds of ola^t oTvoSt and otatvbs ; as oiaKiJ^ta, oiviI^<o, oliaviZofJuu : 
also these four ; oldia, olKOvpeut, otfidtaf and oitrrpeia or oivrpcua. 

Note 5. A Preposition in composition (except <l;t^i, ir«pc, and irp6,) before a 
Vowel loses the final Vowel ; as iLirex**^* tcom airb and ex^a. If after this elision 
the Preposition comes before an Aspirate, it changes its Soft into an Aspirate ; as 
A^atpiuf from &7rb and alpeia. 

Upb however b sometimes contracted ; as trpovx^ for vpoex**^' 

Note 6. In Latin the Temporal Augment may be observed in such words as ago^ 
egi; emo, emi ; fugio,fagi; JaeiOfJeci; vtdeOf vJdi; &c. 

II. Of the Formation of the Tenses. 
Synopsis of the Formation, 



r 1* 



TUTTTta, 

ruirrofjLaif 



ervvTOVf 



TV 



V\pUff 



irvxl^af 



{Tvirovfiat, 
h'VTTOVf 
rirvwoy 



iTVTrrSfifjy, 

€TV\l/nfA7iy, 

J 1. rirvfifjuttf erervfifirfv, 
] 2. T^rvypaif TcrvxI/ojjLau 
L3. Tirvjrratf krv^Qriy^ rv^Bfitroiiai. 



f eruwofjLfjy, 
\ irvirriy, 
erervweiy. 



rvfrfivoyiai* 



The Present, First Future, Perfect, and Second Future of the 
Indicative, Active, are the principal Tenses, from which the others 
are formed. 

Of the First Future^ Perfect^ and Second Future. 
1. The First Future is formed from the Present. 

The general principle is to insert tr (originally eo-) before the 
final (ii; as Tmy rltrw, 

1. If a Consonant precede the <r, they are either changed into a 
Double Consonant, as ttX^/ccii, (irXiKerw) vXe^w; ypa^oi, (ypo^o-ctf) 
ypaypto ; — or the Consonant is omitted, if both cannot be expressed 
by a Double Letter.; as ^^w, ^trw, for ^Saw ; ttX^Ow, ?rX4<ra^i for 
trXridau), 



67 



. (0. 






2. Verbs in n-rui and kti 
Tuipai ; — and those in fw an 

into au or fw; as ^pdfi 
rXdrrm), irX^ 

.(or,,), tot 

3. Verbs, wbose Characteristic is X, fi, y, p, do not take 
shorten tbe Penult, if long, (omitting the latter of two Vowels 
Consonants,) and circumflex the last Syllable ; as alpu, kpm ; aTi>Xu, 
ffreXu ; uptybi, icpTj'u; ri/iu}, yefiia. 

Note 1. The Chsraclerisdc Letter is Chat Hhich immedialdy precedes Ihi 



rvirrai, I 

nations 1 



the Future before 

rru), change these Terminations 

)eing more frequently changed 

but 



Nate S. The true ChunclerisCic does Dot alvTHyi immediKlely appear, through th 
substitution of other lettere. 

In Veths wiih ttt in the final syllable, the Chararteristic is 0, w, or f ;— in thos 
with iTiTj generaliy y, r, at x i — '^' ihoue with Zt generally S, sometimes y ; — in thos 
wilh fiv, ft I — and in those with ay and ok, y and k. 

4. Verbs in aui, ea>, and oio, change u and c into i), and o into u 
before a ; as ri/iriu, Tifiiiaiii ; iptKibi, ifuhfiou ; SijXfiu, SijXiow ; — bu 
there are several exceptions. 

Note 1. The follovring Verbs In i; have f instead of a in the First Future ;- 
nuifui, dXaXa'fu, svapi^u, Kpa^u, ipuif ui, flaorijliii, vuimiEiD, of^luiui, oXoXvCti 
iieZui. ovITaZm, oriffui, (Trcvriilii), crrtipifu, trrtCui, a^dZol, &c- 

' or Che Doric form. 
-tXaZai (icXayEw), and TrXafu. 



AToie 3. Verbs in au, preceded by e at i, 

Also in Xacu and pau after a Vowel ; as ye 
podo/iai, lifdai, Spdia, (Xaui, itdui, vdui, Jt 
d some others have both aain and ijoAf. 



n the First Future; : 



ran (ffsuffw), ysu I awini, irXtiu, irvsu, pew Ifioa, x''i". 

NB(e 5. Ka(u and iXaiiu change oim into auiiu. in the First Future. 

Hole 6. Some Verbs in au reluii o in the First Fulure ; as Ap6ui (Apiuvi), JUm, 



of the Latin Peircci we : 




it 



S. The Perfect it formed from the Ftrtt Future. 
The proper Augment being prefixed, the Tenniiutuoa au is 
changed into xa, £h into x'^i Bud 4™ into fa. 

The genera] formation of the First Future and Perfect may be 
thui exhibited. 

Verbi, having in the Present before m — 



'•X.*^ 



J 


1^. ■ 


•5 


♦. 


^ 


£, 


X. 


b 


'• 


a< 




'.S 


<Tor£, 




<orx. 


£ 


^> 


s 


"• 



rvirrw, rv^w, rtntfa, 
\iyt>, Xl^w, X^Xe^a. 
■JtX^Bia, irXliffw, ircirXqKa. 

{irX^O'ini'iirXairbi, T^Xam. 
opiiiriTU, dpu'f w, tiEpv^"- 
ij'aXXw, if/a\<S, fi/iaAjni. 



d ffp^c 



I, Fut a, 



It iTBfpuea U used >- 



■tpu, 



whicb haa and ! in the Future, hai only fii^x" '" ^^ Perfect. 

Nsls 2. iraeveral Aapintei meet, Tarioua changei Uke pli 
In tbe Future (, and ihoald have in the Peifect fifpixa, bi 
BavTia has fia^, and rera^ i — rpe^Wi SptSiu, rerpe^ii- 

^ste 3. Disayilablet in Xu, vu, pu change the e of tbe Pint Foture ji 
areXKui, Ful. ffTEXa, Pert ivraXta ; reiyiii, tevu, riroKa i cwtipui, 

Ifelt 4. IMuyliabiea in «vw, i>r«i, and vvai omit tbe v before k ; ai 06vit, 
riSvta ; tplviu, cpivw, jceicpuca | icreivw, icrtvw, acraica i T<ivki, revfi, raraito. 
The few that retain the v, change ita form into y; as rXivu, irXvyS, iriirXvyKa; 
falfui, farm, rifajta. 

Note 5. Verbs, which have pa in the First Future, Uke an tf betora e in the 
Perfect ; as viftu, vefiu, veve/itina ; also |3>iXXui, /3aXu, ^jSiXigca j /levki, ;i«>rw, 
fiE/iEt-qica. 

And same 

cnXifca for KeniXqira, from EoXew. 

3. The Second Future is formed from the Pretent, 
The Penult of the Present is shortened, and the last Syllable cir- 
Gumflexed. 

1. The Penult changes — n 1 rXiJSu, XaBm. 

" I into d; as J^P^^"' ^^"^9' 

ai f I fao'U, tpayu, 

ei into I j as XfiVui, Xitu. 
en — tl ; as f evyw, f vyw. 

2. Verbs in au and cui change these terminations into w; as 
fivKau, fivKw i ^iXiw, f iXui. 

3. Dissyllables, which have e and ei, followed by X, fi, y, pin the 
Present, change them into n in the Second Future; as Hpu, iap*i; 






aireipu, atiap^. — The c of the Present is changed !n otiier Verbs 
also of two Syllables, if it aland before, or after a Liquid ; as •nXtKut, 
TXatu; ifX^n-riii, rXairu ; irip^iii, rapSu ; — but j3\^u, Xcyu, and 
^Xiyin retain e. 

4. Polysyllables in ei before X, /i, v, p, change it into e In the 
Second Future ; aa ayfipio, aytpH. 

5. Verba in 1.T, nr, omit r; aa ritriu (from t-ckui), retru; tuutw, 
ruiru;— and such as have two Liquids omit the latter; as i/nlXXw, 
ij/oKa ; and, as abo?e, change e into a ; as ariWui, ffrnXu. 

Te/ivai, however, has bolh r(/i« and TofiCi in ihe Second Future. 

G. Verbs in fiu, aaui (or ttui), have y in the Second Future, when 
the First Future has £, — and S, when it has it; as upai^ui, xpa^ui. 
Sec. Put. KpayiS ; wpaaaai, wpa^ia, vpayio ; ^pa^ia, ^pa.<jui, ^paSiu. 

£;iuxu and iZ/ti^bi also have y in the Second Future. 

Note 1. Three Verba change t of Ihe Ptescni into (3 in l!ie Second Future ; 
pXdsrTui, jika^ai; xaXiiTTia, icaXu/3ui; mpuirrw, Kpu/Sui; — aa Ihey originally had 
/3 in the Present. 

Note 2. E%ht Verbs change ir of the Present into ji in the Second Future ; 
SwTia, ffawTiii, Spirria, flajTru, flpujrrw, pdwTiu, piTTTUi, orajTriiii which have 
□f <u, &C. ai the former characteristic of the Present nos {k 

i^o/a 3. The folloning have no Second Future : — Polysyllables in J;iii and vmu i 
—Verbs in au and ew after a Vowel ;— Verbs in ocu ;— Polysyllables in aivu, hum, 
(Tviit, ei/itf. ouu, uu, uiot, — and many ochera. 

fioti 4. The Second Future was originally (he same aa the First Future. Tuwrw 
(ruffltti) made rujritriu or riiraoi, i. e. rliijuui — the former Id the Ionic Dialed 

Of the remaining Tenses. 

1. Tertses derived from the Present, 

The Present Passive and Middle, and the Imperfect of the Three 

Voices. 

1. The Present Passive and Middle is formed from the Present 
Active, by changing the final tu into ofiat ; as rvirrui, Tvirro/icii. 

2. The Imperfect is formed from the Present, by prefixing the 
Augment, and changing the final u into oy for the Active ; as rvirru, 
ert/TTToy ; — and into o^iji' for the Passive and Middle ; as irvTrTOjiriv. 

2. Tenses derived from the First Future. 

The First Aorist Active and Middle, and the First Future Middle. 

1. The First Aorist Active is formed from the First Future, by 

prefixing the Augment, and changing the final ui into n ; as rv^iii, 

irv^a ; — to which is added ii<]'' for the Middle ; as irvipifiriv. 



60 

Noie 1. Verbs in \, fi, v, p make a Doubtful Vowel in the Penult long, change 
a into ff, and e into ei ; as KpXvGt, expiva ; t(/aXu>, e>f/i}Xa ; fievStf efieiva. 

If the a of the First Future be derived from at in the Present, the Penult of the 
First Aorist has a in the Common Dialect, as Vfifiaivia, arifiavSt, e<rrifiava ; and 
tj in the Attic, as etrrifiijva* 

Note 2. Elira and ijyeyKa are formed from the Present ; — rJKa, eOtixa, idwKa 
from the Perfect. 

Note 3. The following drop the ff of the Future : — 



dxiio, First Aor. iJKeia, 
dXevta, — ijXeva, 
Kaiat or KdiOf extja, 



K€ut or Ke'na, First Aor. eiceia, 

ffevutf effevOf 

j^iia or X6UW, — — ex^a or e^cva. 



2. TAe i^r*< Future Middle is formed from the First Future Ac- 
tive, by changing the final w into o/xai ; as ri/i//<i^, Tvypofjtat. 

The First Future Active of Verbs in Xa>, fiu), i/a>, pw being circumflexed, the First 
Future Middle likewise of such Verbs has a Circumflex ; as if/aXa>, yf/aXovfiai ; — 
i. e. >l/a\eaofiaif if/aXeofiat, xl/aXovfiat, 

3. Tenses derived from the Perfect. 

The Pluperfect Active, and the Perfect, Pluperfect, First Aorist, 

First and Third Future Passive. 

1 . The Pluperfrct Active is formed from the Perfect Active, by 
prefixing the Augment, and changing the final a into eiv ; as r6rv<l>a, 

€T€TV^eiV, 

2. The Perfrct Passive is formed from the Perfect Active, by 
changing the final a into /lai, and omitting the preceding ^, x» or ic, 
or changing it into another letter, according to euphony. 

Thus 0a is changed into /ifiac ; as r^T^^a, r^rvfLfiai ; — xa into 
y/iac ; as X^Xe^a, XiXeyfiai ; — jca into tr/iat ; as ^r^^paica, wi<^paafiai ; 
— and also into fiai ; as ei//a\jca, i\l/aXfmi, 

Note 1. Perfects in 0a impure change it into fiai ; as rereppa, rerepfiau 

Note 2. Verbs, having r, S, 9, ?, 99^ tt in the Present, and c in the Perfect 
Active, have <T/iai in the Perfect Passive ; as dvvru, rivvKa, ijvvfffiat, — But rd^ia 
has Terafiai, 

Note 3. Verbs in X, /i, v, p, and Pure Verbs have only ftai, if the Penult of the 
Perfect Active be long; as if/aXXoi, €\l/aXKa, li//aXf(ai; Troteoi, TreTTOci^ica, veiroi' 
tifiai. 

But some Verbs also, whose Penult is short, change Ka into /lai ; as dpSu), ^poKa, 
iipofiaii deo) I Mnd, dide^ai; dpata, Sedpafiaii eXdta, ^Xa/iai* and ijXafffiai; 
Bxxiif TeOvfiai ; Xvta, XeXvfxai. 

The following with the Penult long have a/iai in the Perfect Pasnve ; — dgovia 
(ijKOVffftai), Opavut, KeXevo), fcXeiu>, Kpovm, vaiu), irratu), oeiuif &c. The Second 
Person Sing, of such omits one <t; thus iiKovaat, not ifKovinrai, 

Noie 4. Verbs, which have yiea in the Perfect Active, have uftat in the Perfect 
Passive ; as Tre^ayica, irei/tafifjtaif for iri^avfiai ; — ^but eXey^*^, i5|Xeyx«» ^^^ 
fiXeyftai, for ijXeyxftai- 

Note 5. Dissyllables, which have eipa in the Perfect, change e into a, if a 



: Tpeiru, TiTpafinai i rpe^ai, 
>[Ul; OS ivrpifd'ii', 
Nale 6. Some Verbs shorten the long Byllable of the Perfei;t Active : bs Siliora, 

The following Tenses corae immediately from tlie Perfect Passive. 

3. The Pluperfect Pasiive is formed by prefixing the Augment, 
and changing fiai into ^>)v i as rtrvfifiai, irfrv^tfitjv, 

4. The First Aoriit Passive ia formed from the Third Person 
Sing, of thu Perfect, by dropping the reduphcation, changing rai 
into Bi/r, and the preceding Soft into an Aspirate Mute ; as TirvTrrai, 

JVo/e 1. A few Verbs assume a; aa ne/iv^rai, ifivJifBtiv; WBjrXijrai, iwXii- 
(tSllv; Ippvypai, ffipinB^v. eji^iupn., i/,f,^aB>,v : tixp'll'a'. expij 00.1 v ;— but 
one dropa iti aiauiarat, Evueiiv. 

ffatt !. Some Verbs thoxten the Penull ; as iKptjTai, ei'ipeBijv : iryviiTai, itry- 
viSi/v; TfBtiTai, ^re^qv; — especially alpiai and iu CotupoundB i an ppiITiii, 
ypiBifv : BifgpriTai, ifypiBllv. 

Kelt 3. ThoBc Verbs, which change e inlo a in the Perfect, here resume Ihe ■ ; 
as eoTpajrrni, iarpipB^v; rerpajrvai, trpifBriv. (See Ferftct Faulve, Note 5.) 

5. T/ie First Future Passive is formed from the First Aorist, by 
omitting the Augment, and changing c into ao[iat; as Irvipdiiv, 
Tvipdliaofiin. 

6. The Third, or Paula-post Future is formed from the Second 
Person Sing, of the Perfect, by changing at into o/iai ; as Tirvif/ai, 
rerv>pofiai. 

By some thin Teme is fnrmcd (torn the First Future Middle, by preliiing the 
continued Augment ; aa ru^ufiai, riri'it'Oiiai ; the Future Middle being often used 



4. Tenses derived from the Second Future, 

The Second Aorist Active and Passive, the Second Future Passive, 
and the Perfect, Pluperfect, Second Aorist, and Second Future 
Middle. 
I. The Second Aorist Active is formed from the Second Future, 

l)y prefixing the Augment, and changing the final u into ov ; as 

3. The Second Aorist Passive is formed from the Second Future 
Active, by prefixing tlie Augment, and changing ai into itv ; as 

rfTTitf, irujrtiv. 

3. The Second Future Passive is formed from the Second Aorist 
Passive', by omitting the Augment, and changing the final y into 

riiro/iai ; as eruirij*', rvwi/irofAai. 



i 




4. The Perfect Middle is formed from the Second Future Active, 
by prefixing tlie Augment of the Perfect Active, and changing w 
into a ; aa tvttu, r^rioro. 

Note 1. Verbs of tvro Syllables, wboBe Second Future hai e in the Peoult, or a 
{tarn e ur n in the Present, change it into o in the PerTecTt Middle ; as \iyai, \cyu, 
XAoya ! tpiino, SpapH, WSpo/m i aireipiii, airapSi, Sajrnpa. Bo'XXu likewlie 
hfls I3i0o\a, and Xayxa'vui has XeXayxn. 

But if the a of the Penult come Irom tf or a< in the Present, it is changed into q; 
OS XtiBbi, Xsdu, XsXtfea; paivia, favii, weifijva. Thus aUc doXXvi has r^SqXa, 
nXaJw eEjcXjjya, &c. 

JVola9. ifthe Second Future have i from ei of the Present, it is changed into oi; 
has leloiKa for fejoifa, to avoid the repetition off. 

5. The Pluperfect Middle ia formed from the Perfect Middle, by 
prefixing the Augment, and changing the final a into cic ; as rerinro, 

G. The Second Aorisl Middle is formed from the Second Future 
Active, by prefixing the Augment, and changing the final tt into 
ofxiiv % as 7iiirui, iTVTt6fit]y, 

7. The Second Future Middle is formed from the Second Future 
Active, by changing the final ai into ovfiai ; aa rvmi, rvjiovfiai. 

Three Verbs do not take a CircmnBex m the Second Future Middle ; vix. Sec 
Put. efoftni, iriojiai, ^liyo/tat. 



Ot Veebb ih mi, 

I. The Verbs in fu are formed from Verbs in ou, tu, ow, and 
vu, — 1.) by prefixing the initial Consonant of the Verb with T; — 
S.) by changing u into /it ; — 3.) by lengthening the Penult. 

Thus from arnui is formed lartnii, from Oiui tIBji/ii, from fdui 
ZiSaifit, from feiKfuiLi Seiki'I'^i. 

The reduplication is called — 

] . Proper, vrhen the initial Consonant of the Primitive is repeated 
wiili 1, a Soft being substituted for an Aspirate ; as Soai, SiSuni ; 

This lakes place, when the Primitive begins wlUi a single Consonant. 

i. Improper, when 1 only is prefixed ; as vt&u, iwriiiii ; ordw, 

This Ukes place, when the Primitive begins nith or, two Mutes, or a VoweL 
' ' I irrriifH and 'iartifii Is aspirated. 

BdupIiFalion lakes place only in the Present and Imperfect, but ii 
Verbs from uu ; as leiKvim, Seixvviu ; — to thoae formed fl-om 
lian two Syllables j as tpepvdia, Kpe/ivtiiii : — or la some Dissylla- 
US ^u'u, which makes ^ij^f. 

fe 2. Sometimes the first Iwo letters are repeated for the reduplication i as 
, u\i}pi, rfXdXijfii ; — or /i is added ; as irXeui, wXii/ii, TTi/iirXiijii. Some 



The 


initial 


Nxl 


1. Th 


i£ 


efiied t 
of more 



I 



63 

Verbs take 6 instead of t; as Bvdat, riOvtifii ; — and some have the reduplication 
in the middle ; as dviut, dviviut, dviviifjit. 

Note 3. The Poets change many Verbs in «ii into /it ; as yeXdut, yeXtipii ; Krdtop 

II. The Conjugation of the Verbs in fAi is peculiar chiefly in the 
Present, Imperfect, and Second Aorist ; the other Tenses are taken 
from Verbs in oi ; — thus ^l^utfii has Fut. duKrWf Perf. UBwkq, from ^6w. 

Note 1. Verbs in fii have no Second Future, no Second Aorist Passive, or Perfect 
Middle; — and Verbs in vfii not only have no redupIicatioUi Second Future, or 
Second Aorist*, but also borrow the Optative and Subjunctive Modes from the 
Verbs in vat. 

Note 2. The Present Passive and Middle is formed from the Present Active, by 
shortening the Penult, and changing /it into fiai ; as iVnjfii, 'hr&fiai ; riOrifii, 
riOcfxai; &c. 

Note 3. The Imperfect is formed from the Present, by prefixing the Augment, 
and changing /it into v for the Active ; as riOtifii, eriOffv ; — and /tat into /itiv for 
the Passive and Middle ; as riOcfiai, kriBifjkijv, 

Verbs in /it are seldom used in the Imperfect They generally in this, and some- 
thnes in other Tenses, adopt their original contracted form with the reduplication ; 
as terraov, 'itrnav ; ^rt06ov, krtOovv ; &c. 

Note 4. The Second Aorist Active is formed from the Imperfect, by omitting the 
reduplication ; as eriOriVf eQriv ; — or by changing the Improper reduplication into 
the Augment ; as itrri}!', itrTtiv, If the Verb have no reduplication, the Second 
Aorist is the same as the Imperfect. 

The Second Aorist Middle is formed from the Imperfect Middle by omitting the 
reduplication ; as ertde/tiyi/, kOifiijv, 

Note 5. Most Verbs in /tt have the First Aorist in ica ; as rtOij/ct, eOriKa ; and 
such Aorists are found only in the Indicative. There are two exceptions, T^ri^/tt 
and pfifii, which have eanjtra and li<pij<ya in the First Aorist. 

If it be assumed that the termination of the Third Pers. Plur. of 
the principal Tenses in Doric, -vti for -at, was the primitive form, 
and that the r was afterwards changed into or, the y rejected, and 
then the short Vowel changed into a Diphthong, or made long ; (as 
rvTrrovrif Tvirroven ; rerTJ^airi, rervipatn ; ridiyrif rideitrif and ri0e- 
aorc ;) — the agreement becomes clear, not only between all kinds of 
Verbs in &>, as well as in fit, but also between the principal and his- 
torical Tenses. For — 

1. The Third Pers. Plur. of Verbs in to, and of those in /it, viz. -ovtrt, -a<n, -etd't, 
-overt, -vai, have one principle, being derived from -ovrt, -avri, -evrt, -ovrt, 'Vvru 

2. The Active and Passive Voices agree in the Third Person of the Present and 
Future ; as -ovrt, -ovrat ; -avri, -avrai ; -evrt, 'Cvrai j &c. 

3. It becotnes dear how in Verbs in /tt the terminations -6a<rt, -oa<rt, 'Vatri are 
formed from -etcrt, -overt, -vert ; the a being substituted for v according to the Ionic 
Dialect ; as Tre^tX^arat for Tre^iXtivrai, riOearai for riOevTai, 

4. The reason is evident why a before the termination -ai of the Perfect is long; 
because the Syllable, in which v before <r is omitted, must remain long. 

5. In the same manner the analogy between 'Ovri and -ov, -avri and -av is 
shown. 

* Or the Second Aorist is the same as the Imperfect. 



64 



Examples of Regular Verbs 





From ( 


aw. 


Indicative. 


€ia. 




Pres. 


S. IvT'tllll, 


-i|«, 


-jj<ri, 


riO-tjfiit 


'IfS, -JJ«, 






D. 


-arov, 


-arov, 




^erov, -erov, 






P. 'ttfieVf 


-arc, 


-acf*. 


'€fl€V, 


-ere, -eZir*. 




Impert 


S. f<rr-Jfv, 


-jj«, 


■^' 


erlO'tiv, 


-jjs, -17, 






D. 


-arov, 


-ariyv, 




-erov, -eri|v, 






P. -afiev. 


-arc, 


-ao'av. 


-cfiev, 


rere, -eaav, 




Perfi 


efnroKcu 






riOeiKaK 






Plup. 


iirraKetv, 






ereBeiKetv* 






Aor. 1. 


e<Trii<rcu 






eBriKcu 






Aor. 2. 


S. €<Tr-tiv, 
D. 


-lyrov, 




eG'tiv, 


-erov, -eriyv , 






P. -ni^ev, 


-lyre, 


-tjffav. 


-€fiev, 


-ere, 'Ctrav. 




Put. 1. 


trrritria. 






Oriffia. 












Imperatiye. 


■ 




Pres. 


S. i<rr-a0c. 


-aV«*, 




rlO-ertf ((or • 


-e^c,) -erwS 






D. -arovt 


-ar<tfv, 




-erov, 


-erwv, 






P. -are. 


-ar«<rav. 


-ere, 


-erctfO'av. 




Perf. 


enraxe. 






reBeuce, 






Aor. 1. 


(rrfi<rov. 






OflKOV. 






Aor. 2. 


S. ffT'tlOl, 

D. -riTOV, 


-^rwv, 




6>-ert, (06S,) 
-erov, 


-ir«», 
-er«v. 






P. -^re, 


-^rwo-av. 


-ere, 


-er«i»0'av. 





' The Third Pers. Plur. of the Present is generally terminated in the Attic and 
Ionic Dialect in a<Ti ; as ifrraJSLfn or Icrracri, rtOeaai, diS6d<rt, $eixvva<Tu 

' The Penult of the Perfect in 17, from Verbs in eoi, is changed into ei ; as reOijKa, 
reOeiKa ; which is properly according to the Bceotic Dialect. 

"EffraKa is often changed by syncope into *i<rraa ; — ^we also find eortfira, and in 
the Pluperfect et<rrriK€iv. 



65 



in MJ, in the Active. 







From ow 


■ 


Indicative. 


Vfih 


Pres. 


S. 

D. 

P. 




-orov, 
-ore, 


-MO"!, 

'orov, 
"owrt. 


-Vfi€V, 


•vrov, -vrov, 
-vre, -v<ru 


Imperf. 


S. 
D. 
P. 




'409, 

'orov, 
-ore, 


'OTtIV, 

'oaav. 


hSeiKV'VVf 
'Vfiev, 


•w, -v, 
•vrov, -itrtiVf 
-vre, -v<rav» 


Perf. 




dedofKO. 






diieixa* 




Plup. 




edeStaKeiv. 






iieSelxBtv. 




Aor. 1. 




ediJKa. 






I^ei^a. 




Aor. 2. 


S. 
D. 
P. 


"Oftev, 


'orov, 
-ore, 


'Offav, 






Put 1. 




Swfft^. 






Sel^w. 






Imperative. 


Pres. 


s. 

D. 

p. 


'OTOV, 

-ore, 


'6rtov, 
-6rknrav, 




ieixv-vOi, 

-VTOV, 

-vre, 


-{frw*, 
-vnav, 
-ifrunrav. 


Perfi 




ieiktKe, 






ieietx^. 




Aor. 1. 




d&KOV, 






det^ov. 




Aor. 2. 


s. 

D. 
P. 


S'69t (Sifs), 
-6rov, 
'6re, 


'Sriav, 
-6riaffav» 









' The Second Aorist retains the long Vowel in the Penult of the Dual and Plural, 
except in rlQtiitt, SUiafii, and *ififitt and their Compounds. The Third Pers. Plur. 
is often syncopated; as Ij3av for Spti<rav. 

* The Poets retain the long Vowel in the Present Imperative ; as ^iffrtjOt, riOtfrt, 
The syllable Oi is frequently rejected ; as iora or V<rri|, rl9fi, SelKw. 

* The Second Aorist Imperative ends in Bit except Oh, ibt, Ss, evifffres, 9%^, 
0pe9. 



GG 



Examples of Regular Verbs 





From aw. 


Optative. 


€(0, 






Pres. 


S. Itrr-aitjVt 

D. 

P. -aitifiev, 


, -aitire, 


-aitj, 

'aifjrfiv, 

-aitjirav. 


riO'eitiv, 
-eltlfiev, 


-e£if«, 

-eitjrov, 

-eiiire, 


-eiti, 

-eiTfrfiv, 

-eitjaav. 




Perf. 


ifrrdKoifii. 






reOeiKOifit* 








Aor. 1. 


ffrri<Taifii, 






9flK€Ufil. 








Aor. 2. 


(rralfiVt Like the Present. 


Oelfjv, Like the Present. 




Fut. 1. 


<rr^<roifiu 






9fi<roifii, 














Subjunctive. 








Pres. 


S. ioT-w, 

D. 

P. 'StfAevt 


-firov, 
-are, 


-arov, 


rtO-Q, 

'S>fl6V, 


ys, 

'firov, 
'fire. 


-y, 

-firov, 

-dai. 




Perf. 


effraKio, 






TeOeucut. 








Aor. 1. 


ffrrftrut. 






QfjKiO, 


. 






Aor. 2. 


-uffieVf 


-ys, 

'firov, 

'fire, 


-riTOV, 


9-Q, 
'Wfjiev, 


-ys, 

'firov, 

-fire. 


-fjrov, 
-ijjfft. 










Infinitive. 








Pres. 


itrravai *. 






TiOivaiK 








Perf. 
Aor. 1. 


BifTaKevai, 


or e<rr aval, by sync 
[and crasis. 


reOeiKivai, 
OfiKUt, 








Aor. 2. 


(rrfjvai. 






Oeivat, or Ofivai. 






Fut. 1. 


ffrrifreiv. 






Orjiretv, 


- 












Participles. 


- 






Pres. 


cerr-ds, 


-a<ra, 


'&V. 


riO-eis, 


-elffa, 


-ev. 




Perf. 


eorajcctfs, or 


etrTtjKios, 


or €9r&9\ 


reOeiKuts, 








Aor. 1. 


<TTfl9a9, 






O^KttS. 








Aor. 2. 


(TT'ds, 


-atra, 


-&v. 


d-eis. 


-eXtra, 


-ev. 




Fut. 1. 


iTTTIiTUtV. 






$^(T(i)V. 









* The Present Infinitive Active always has the Penult short; the Second Aorist 
has a long Yowel or Diphthong, rj instead of a, ei instead of e, and ov instead of o. 



67 



in MI, in the Active. 





From ou}. 


• 


Optative. 


vw. 


Pres. 


S. dtd'oirjv, 
P. 'oitjfiev, 


'olrfrov, 
-o(iyre, 


'oltjfrav. 






Per£ 


deStoKoifJit. 




» 


Sedeixoifii, 




Aor. 1. 


dijKatfii. 






dei^atfit. 




Aor. 2. 


SoitjVf Like the Present 






Fut. 1. 


SuKrotfjii, 






Sei^oifiu 






Subjunctive. 


Pres. 


D. 

P. -(Hfiev, 


-UroVf 
-aire, 








Perf. 


SedutKta, 






Sedeixfit' 




Aor. 1. 


^d>Kio» 






Sei^fo. 




Aor. 2. 




-Qrov, 
-aire, 


-V* 

-iaroVt 

-Sxri, 












Infinitive. 




Pres. 


Sidovai^. 






BeiKvvvai K 




Perf. 


dedijjK6vai, 






ieSeixevai. 




Aor. 1. 


dtoKat. 






dei^at. 




Aor. 2. 


dovvai. 










Fut 1. 


^ItKTeiV. 






Sei^eiv. 






Participles. 


Pres. 


^e^-ot&s, 


-ovffa, 


-6v. 


deiKV'VSt 


'Vffa, -vv. 


Perf. 


^e^caiCii^. 






Sedeix^' 




Aor. 1. 


^faxas. 






Sei^as. 




Aor. 2. 


d'OifSf 


•ov<ra, 


'6v. 






Fut 1. 


daxnav. 






dei^iov. 





' Here may be noticed a Participle in four forms ; the Common, yeyijic-ws, -vta,, 
-6s, from yaw; — the Ionic, yeya-o^, -via, -ds; — the Contract, y6y-«i»s, -cJ<ra, -w«; 
— and that, which after the contraction assumes a Vowel, ycya-ws, -cJ<ra, -cus. 

F 2 



68 



Examples of Regular Verbs 



Pres. 

Imperfl 

Perf. 

Plup. 

Aor. 1. 
Fut 1. 
Put 3. 



From aw. 



Indicative. 



e«ii. 



S. itrr-a/iai, -a(rat(y), -arac, 
D. 'dfieOov, 'affOoVf -atrOov, 
P. '6fie9a, •avOe, -avrac 

S. Iffr'&fifjv, 'a<ro(iii), 'aro, 
D. 'dfieOoVf 'UffOov, -dtrQtiv, 
P. 'dfieOa, 'UffOe, -avro, 

^trrafiat, Lik«*^ Present. 



itrr^, rfv. Like the Imperfect 

effrdOijv* 

<TTaOri<roiiau 

6<Trd<T0fjtat, 



eTiB-ifitiVf 

'sifJieBov, 

ered-eifitiv, 
-eifieOa, 
kriOiiv. 
reOrfirofiau 
reOeitrofiau 



•evat{y), -erai, 
•etrOov, -etrSov, 

'€<ro (ov), -ero, 
•effOov, 'iffOtjv, 
■eaQe, . 'Bvtq. 

-eiffOov, -eitrOov, 
•ei99e, -eivTat, 

'CiffOf -eiro, 
•ei<r9ovt -eltyGtiv, 
-et<r©€, -eivro. 



Pres. 

Perf. 
Aor. 1. 



Imperadve. 



S. toT-a^o (oi), 
D. . 'affOov, 
P. 'avOe, 

'iffT'afTo, 

ffrdO-tjru 



'dffOta, 

"dcOiaVf 

'dnOittnav. 



rlO-effo (ow), 
-ec^ov, 

reQ'iiTu 



'iffOutVf 



Pres. 



Optative. 



S. itrr'alfjttiv, -ato, -alro, 
D. -ai/ieOov, 'oiaOov, 'alffOfjVt 
P. 'aifieOaf 'diffOef 'oivro. 



Perf. 


iffral/ifiv. 


Aor. 1. 


oraOeifiv. 


Put. 1. 


<rra9fi<rolfitiv» 


Put. 3. 


iffraffolfAfiv, 



TtO-eiutiVf -eto, -elro, 
'BifiiOop, 'stfrOov, -6t<rOjfv, 

reOeifitiv. 
reQeltiv* 
reOtjiTolfiilv, 
reOeuroififiv, 



69 



in MI, in the Passive. 



«p 



From ooi. 



Indicative. 



via. 



Pres. 

Imperfl 

Per£ 

Plup. 

Aor. 1. 
Put 1. 
Put 3. 



Pres. 

Pert 
Aor. 1. 



D. '6fjie9oVf 'OffOov, -offOov, 
P. 'dfieOa, -oifOe, -ovrau 

S. edid-SfifiVf '0<ro(ov), -oro, 
D. 'SfieOoVf 'OffOovt -StrOtiv, 
P. '6fi€$a, 'OtrOe, 'ovro, 

SeSofuu, Like the Present. 



iSeS6fi^v, Like Uie Imperfect. 



ki69fiv» 
doB^eofiai, 



dehcv-vfiai, -vtrai, 'vrait 
'•6fie9ovi 'VffOov, -vvOovt 
-{ffAeOa, 'VoQCf 'Vvrau 

edeiKvif/Afiv, -v<rw, -wro, 
'dfieOov, -vffOov, -^cOijy, 
'{ffieOa, 'VtrOe, -wro. 



'e*tMyfJuiu 



deixO^ffOfiau 



Imperative. 



S. diS'Offo (ov), 
D. 'Off&oVt 
P. 'OffOe, 

i€d"0(TOt 



'6<r9ta, 



SeiKV'ViTo, 
'V<r9ov, 
'V<r$e, 



'{ftr9iav, 
'VffOuKrav, 



Optative. 



Pres. 

Perf. 
Aor. L 
Put. 1. 
Put. 3. 



S. SiS'oififiv, 'dio, -oiro, 
D. -olfAcOov, 'oiffOov, 'olffOtiv, 
P. 'olfieOa, 'OiffOe, 'divro. 

SoOeiijv, 

doOfiaolfiriv. 

Sedotrolfifiv, 



70 



Examples of Regular Verbs 





From aio. Subjunctive. ew. 




Pres. 


S. IffT'tifiatf 'f, 'avail 
D. 'dtfjieBov, -aoBoVf -affOov, 
P. 'lifieOai -affOe, -uivTat. 


rtO-iSfiat, -y, -firai, 
-(OfxeOoVf -riaOov, -rivBov, 
'UffieOa, -rifrOe, -iovTai, 




Perf. 


€<rrfafiait Like the Present. 


reOutfiai, Like the Present. 




Aor. 1. 


(TraOiS, 


reOiS. 






Infinitive. 




Pres. 


XffratrOat. 


TiOeoBai, 




Pert 


earaffOau 


reOeitrOat, . 




Aor. 1. 


<rra9fivau 


reOrjvcut or reOeivai, 




Put 1. 


<rra9rt<re<r9ai. 


re9ri<r€<r9au 




Put 3. 


BfrraaecBai, 


reOelfrevOai, 






Participles. 




Pres. 


\9raiJLev0s, 


rtOifievos, 




Perf. 


e<rrafi€vos. 


reOeifiivos, 




Aor. 1. 


<rra9eis. 


relets. 




Put 1. 


9TaBfia6fievo9. 


re9ti<r6fi€V09» 




Put 3. 


e(Tra<r6fi€vos, 


redeiffdfievos. 





71 



in MI, in the Passive. 



^^ 










From 001. Subjunctive. vut. 




Pres. 


S. did-iofiaif -(ff -wrai, 
D. -dtfieOoVf 'iUffOoVf -StaQoVt 
P. -utfieOttf -StaBe, -iovrat. 


» 




Perf. 


Sedcjfiai, Like the Present 






Aor. 1. 


doOut, 








Infinitive. 




Pres. 


diSoffOai. 


deiKvvtrOai, 




Perf. 


deSStrOat. 


^e^ec^dai. 




Aor. 1. 


doOrjvau 


SetxOvvat. 




Put. 1. 


doO^ffetrOai. 


deix0^(^€ff9at' 




Put. 3. 


SedotreaOat. 








Participles. 




Pres. 


didSfievos. 


deiKVVfievos, 




Perf. 


deSofiivos, 


■ dedeiyfUvos, 




Aor. 1. 


SoOeis. 


deixOeis. 




Put 1. 


dodti<r6fi€vo8. 


SeixOfl^Sfievos. 




Put 3. 


dedoffofievos. 


■ 



Exampiet of Regular Verbt 





From cu. 


Indicative. eu. 




Pn>. 
Imp. 

Aor. !. 
F«tl. 


^<r7-<;/ii|>', Like the 


Pa«ive. 

Imperfect 


iBi^^v, Like the Imperfect. 






Imperative. 




Pre.. 
Aor. i. 
AoT. S. 


I'oTooo, or lorin. 


rifleoo, or H9ov. 
Biao, or Bov. 






Optative. 




Pr«. 

Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 
FuL 1. 


crrqffo<>DV. 


v,BeiM^. 






SubjunctiTc. 




Fres. 
Aor. !. 
Aor. 2. 


ffr^oiii/iai. 


ri^u/jai. 






InSoitive. 




Frea. 

Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 


(Trijiracea.. 
trr^treirecH. 








Participles. 




Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 

Fur.. 1 




TiSefitvos. 
e„«afce.o.. 





7S 



in MI, in the Middle. 



Pres. 

Imperf. 
Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 
Fut 1. 



From 



oar. 



Indicative. 



V(0, 



Like the Passive. 



didofiatf 1 

hdidSfitjv, J 

edtaKCLfiriv. 

eSdfitjVf Like the Imperfect 

SdjiTo/iat, 



SeiKvvfiat, -> 



Imperative. 



Pres. 
Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 



didoiTO, or didov, 
S6<ro, or dov. 



SeiKWiro. 



Optative. 



Pres. 
Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 
Fut 1. 



ditiKaifitiv. 
ditxroifjttiv* 






Pres. 
Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 



Pres. 
Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 
Fut 1. 



Pres. 
Aor. 1. 
Aor. 2. 
Fut 1. 






didovBau 

ddfKaodau 

d6<r9ai» 



SidSfjtevos, 

dtoKOLfievos. 

SSfievot, 



Subjunctive. 



dei^utfiai. 



Infinitive. 



SeUvvffOai, 



Participles. 






74 



Irregular and Defective Verbs in MI and MAI. 

I. 'EIMF, (from !«,) / am. 

Indicative. 

Prci. S,€lfii, eXsorelfitrri D.— , iirrbvt ktrrSv, P.6<r/i6v, €<rr^, eltri 

Imp. S.^v, ^s, htoriv. D.— , ^rov, tjrijv, P.^/iev, ^r^ ^(rov. 

Imp.M.S.^/«i}V, ri<To, ^ro. D.ijfieBov, ^aOov, ijffOriv. V.fjfieOa, ^o-de, rivTO* 

FutM.S.2(r-o/[*ai,-y, -eracor-rac D.-^/ieOov, -ecrOoVi -e<rOov. P.-^/icOa, -€(j^6, -ovroi. 



Pres. SJcr^i, or 2o'o, ^crrcu. 



Imperative. 

D.ecrroV} itrnav* 



V.etfre, 9tm»»<rav. 



Optative. 

D.— , tXiiroVf eliiTtiv, V,eiiifievt eltire, eitfi/aif. 
D. "olfieOoVt'OKTBovroMiiv, P.-o^/i60a,-oc<rOe,-oivro. 

Subjunctive. 

D. , riTOV, firov. F»&ftev,rire, Hcu 

Participles. 

Pres. t^v. otftra, Hv* 

Put. iff6fiev''0s, -9, -ov. 

^o^e 1. ''Hv is more frequently used than ^ for the Third Pers. Sing. Imperfect. 

Note 2. "U/ifiv and ^vro are generally used in the sense of the Imperfect 

Note 3. The ti is sometimes syncopated in the Plural of the Pres. Opt. ; thus €ifiev, €7r«i 
^6v. Elev is also used for the Third Pers. Sing. Opt in the sense of cfcrrw, let it be. 



pKs. . S. etiiv, eltis, 619. 
futM.S.^tf-ol/iifV| "OCO) -oiro. 



Pres. S.«i», y9, y. 

Infinitive. 

Pres. eivai. 
Put etretrOai, 



II. ''EIMI, (from loi,) / go. 

Active. 

Indicative. 



1^8. S. elfu, els or el, 6i(^c D. - 

Tkap. S.6lv (elov), 6T«» el. D.< 

PerfL S.elfc-a, -as, -e. D.. 

Iftup. S.eiie-eii/or jffc-eiy, -eis, •'ei. D.' 
Aor. 1. S,eTff'a, -as, -e. D.< 

Aor.2. S.loi', les, Ze. D.- 



-, Irov, Irov. 
-, Irov, irtiv. 
-, 'aroVf 'orov, 
-, -eiroj/, -6irj;v. 
-, -arov, -arjjy. 
-, terov, Urriv. 



Iftes, S.I01 or e7, fra». 
Aor.2. S.fe, Una, 



Imperative. 

D.— , Irov, iziav, 
D. , lerov, Unov. 



PAfiw, lr9f eZ(rt(i<ri,or 
P.!/«6y> Ire, Iffav, 
V.-aii€v, 'ar€,^atri» 
P. -ei/tev, -ecre, -6c<rav. 
P.-a/i6v, -are, -av. 
P.Zoftei/y lerc, ?ov. 



P. ire, truKTav. 
P.Iere, Umtffav, 



75 
Optative. 

Aor.3. BAotfit, lots, toi. D.—— >, Zotrov, toirtiv. TAoifteu, loite, loiev* 

Subjunctiye. 

Aor.2. S.lw, ly9, ly. D. , tfirov, tfitov. P.tw/ifiv, liire, l«<rt. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. etvat or tvai, Aor. 2. Iwy, lovtm, i6v, 

MiDDLB. 

Indicative. 

Perf. S. eta or ya, elaSf 616. D. , elarov, etarov, P. ela/iefi elare, etatfi* 
Plup. S. y6(V| y6(9, jffit. D. , yeirov, yeirijv, P. yeifiev, yeire, yeiaav, 

Aor.l. S.6i<r-afjiriv, -w, -oro. D.'diie9ov, ^atrOoVt -aerOifv. P.-4/i60a,-a<r0e,-avro. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Put 1. elfTetrBat, Aor. 1. eltrdfievof* 

^o/«. The Perf. and Plup. Middle are obviously formed by syncope from the cor- 
responding Tenses of the Active ; and the Plur. of the Plup. Middle is again syncopated 
thus : yfiev, yrCf y<raVf for ijeifiev, &c. 

III. "IHMI, (from ^w,) / go. 

Active. 
Indicative. 

Pres. BAfifj,i,ifi9,iti<n. D.— , Icrov, lerov. TAefiev, Ure, Uiin, 

Imp. S. — — — D, — — — . p, — . ,^ Uffav* 

Optative. 
Pres. S. — — ictjj. D. — — — P. — — — 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. Uvcu, Pres. Ult, Uiffa, lev. 

Middle. 
Indicative* 

Pres. 8.1«ftat| UvaifUrai. D.Ufte0ov,%e<r0ov,%€(r9ov. V.lifteBa, UffOetlevroL 
Imp. S.l€/itiv,Uffo, Uro. D.Ufte0op,UiFOov,Uff9n¥» VMpieOa, UiT9€t Urro. 

Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. Sing. Xetro, tivOia, Pres. UaOai. Pres. lifinvot. 



76 



IV. "IHMl, (from loi,) / send. 
This Verb has few irregularities, and is formed like Tidrifju. 

Active. 
Indicative. 



Imp. S/iijv, *ifis, V17. 
Pert S.e7ir-a, -a«, -e. 
Plup. S. etK-etv, -6(s» -ec 
Aor.l. S,^K-a, -as, -e. 
Aor.2. S»rivt rjt, ti. 
Put 1. S.l^<r-ca, -€19, -61. 



Fret. S.ie0i, ierat. 
Pert S. etK-e, 'irta, 
Aor.l. S.t)K-oy) 'dr<a, 
Aor. 2. S. Ss or eOi, Srcu. 



Pres. SAel-fiVt -ijs, -ly. 
Pert S. eiK-oifii, 'Ots, -oe. 
Aor.2. S.eV-jjj/, -jfs, -ly. 
Put 1. S. ^(r-oifii, -0(9, -ou 

Pres. S.la>, lys, iy. 

Pert .S.6Vie-u>, -ys, -y, 

Aor. 2. S. a) (ew, etoi), ys, ^. 



D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 
D. 



•fierov, i€Tov» 
-,*ierov, ierijv. 
-, 'arov, 'arov. 
-, '€irov, 'sirtiv* 



-, -arov, 'OTtiv* 
-, erov, ertiv, 
•f-eroVf -erov. 



Imperative. 

D.Verov, lertav* 
D.-erov, -erwv. 
D. -aroVf -4r«v. 

Optative. 

D. , 'tjrov, -fiTiiv, 

D. — , -oiroj/, -oiriy V. 

D. , -jjrov, -^rjjv. 

D. ^, 'OiTOVf -oi'r jj V. 

Subjunctive. 

D. , ITITOV, iriTOV. 

D. , -lyrov, -jjrov. 

D. , riTOVi VTOV. 



"PAefieVf XerCf lelo'c 

P. Xcfiev, Vere, cWav. 

P.-aftev, -are, -a<rc 

P.-et/iev, -etre, -etaav. 

P.-a/i6v, -are, -av. 

P. §/«6i/, ere, e<rav. 

V.'Ofiev, -ere, -ovai. 

P.*ere, lerctf<rav. 
P. -ere, -ercuo'av. 
P. -are, 'droKTav. 
P. ere, eroxrav. 



T.'ti/Jiev, 'fire, 'tjffav. 
P.-oi/iei/, -otre, -oiev. 
P.-17/iei', -lyre, 'tiffav. 
V.'Oifievt 'Otre, -otev. 

P.<fa>^6v, l^re, lfa)0'c 
F.'W/jiev, -Jjre, -wo-i, 
P.fD^ev, ^re, weri. 



Infinitive. 

Pres. (6i^at. 
Pert eiicevat. 
Aor. 2. etyai (^vai). 
Put 1. Vi<Teiv. 



Participles. 

Pres. tecs. 
Pert e(iC(^. 
Aor. 2. eVs. 

Put 1. ^CTfa)]/. 



Ab^e 1. The Third Person Plur. of the Pres. Indicative, Ionic, is liaaii and Attic, cacri. 

Note 2. The Imperfect is generally formed from leoi ; as *iovv, cecs. Vet, &c. Thus 
also the Compound ffvvltifii forms several of its Tenses sometimes from itself, and some- 
times from <rvvi6(i): — as in the Third Pers. Sing. <rvvirj<n and o'vvtec; and in the Plur. 
avvidffi and nvviovfri ; in the Imperative, avvieOi and ffvviet ; and in the Participle, 
o'vi^t-ets, -evros, and trvvt-ioPt -ovvros. 

Note 3. In the Pert Indicative, Active, the Attics have eoiiea for etjca ; and in the 
Passive, ecu^at for el/iat. 



77 



Pres. B.^€-fiMi 

Imp. S. le-fjLijVt 

Pert S. el-fjtai, 

Plop. S, 61- firiv, 



Passive. 

Indicative. 

-<Tat, -rat. D,'fji69ov, -aOovt 
'<To, -TO, D.'fJieOov, 'irOov, 
'ffai, -rau D.-/i60ov, -oQov, 



"90, 'TO. D,'fj,6$ov, 'irOov, 

Aor.hS, e9-tiv{€%-9tiv), 'tis, -ij. D. — , -ijrov, 

Fut. 1 . S. eO-^ff-oiiai, -y, 'Crau D. • SfieOovt 'eaOov, 

Put. S. S. ei<r-ofAaif -y, -erat, D. -oneOov, -eirOov, 



'ffOov, 
-<r9ov. 

'e<r9ov» 
-effOov, 



Pres. S.ceo'o, le^r^o;. 
Per£ S. eliTo, et<rO(i>. 
Aor. 1. S. IsOtirt, iOrirto, 



Imperative. 

DAetrOov, liffOwv, 
D.elffOoVf eiffBiav, 
D. WfiToy, iOiiTwv* 



T.-fieBa, -vQe, "Vto. 
F.'fieOaf 'trOe, -vtcu* 

V.'ti/Aev, 'fire, 'titrav, 
P. SfieOa, -eorOe, -ovrai. 
P. 'SfieOa, -effOe, 'ovrau 



F.XeaBe, le<r9ta<rav» 
'P,ei<r96, eiffOtoffav. 
P. WiiTe, iOiiriaoav, 



-o, 

-0, 



'TO, 
'TO* 



Pres. S. lei-fiijv, 
Pert S. ei-fiijv, 
AorA.S,€0€l'^v, '1J8, -f|. 
Fut.1.S.69i|<r-o//ii|Vi '010, 'Oiro* 
Put. 3. S. elff'oifAfiv, '010, 'Oiro, 

Pres. S.2a»/iai» iy, Irirai, 
Perfl S.«i»/«ac, y, ^rau ' 
Aor. 1. S. 6^a>, eOys, e^y. 

Infinitive. 

Pres. XeoBau 
Perf. eitrOac 
Aor. 1. 60^ vac 
Fut 1. eBfiffetrOai. 
Fut. 3. €%<r€o9at. 



Pres. SAe-fiat, -<toi, -roi. 

Imp. S.l«-/«i|v, '<ro, 'TO, 

Aor. 1. S. rfK'dfiriv, -w, -arc. 

Aor. 2. S. ^/Ai|v, 2(ro(eo,ov),ero. 
Fut l.S.fo'-o^ai, -y, -erau 



Optative. 

D.-/«£9ov> '<r9ov, 'fsBfiv* "P.-fieBa, '<rOe, 
D,'fie9ov, 'vQov, 'oOtjv. V,'fie9a, '<rOe, 
D. ' , 'tirov, -riTfiv* V»'fi/iev, 'tjre, 

D. 'OiiieOov, -oktQov, 'oic9fiv*V, -olfi^a, 'OioBe, 
D. 'olfieOov, 'OitrOov, -o/crdiji/.P. 'olfteOa, -oicrOe, 

Subjunctive. 

D. Ififfiedov, IriffBov, IfjirOov, P. IdtfJieOa, irj(rBe, 
D.&fieOov, fjffOov, fjffOov. 'P.&fieOa, ^trOe, 
D. ' , iO^Tov, iOrirov, F,eOiofiev, eOvre, 

Participles. 

Pres. iefievo9. 
Perf. €lfi€V09» 
Aor. 1. iOei9, 
Fut 1. iOtitrSiievos, 
Fut 3. eltroftevos. 

Middle. 

Indicative. 

D.-/i£0ov, -(rOov, 'ffOov, F.'fieOa, 'trOe, 
D.'fie9ov, "oBov, 'fsBiiv. 'P.'fieQa, 'ffSe, 
D. 'diieOov, -affOov, -dadtjv. P. -dfieOa, -atrOe, 
D.'dfieOoVy €oOov, evdtiv. V/efieOa, €<r9e, 
D. 'dfieSov, 'CffOov, -eeOov. P. -dfieOa, -etrOe, 



'VTO. 

'Vro. 
-f|<rav. 
-otvro. 
-otvro. 



iwvrai. 



iitvrau 
eQSnTu 



'vrat, . 

'VTO* 

'avro. 

l^vro, 

'Ovrai, 



Aor. S. S. Mffo (lo, ov), toBm. 

Pnii. 8. Ul'ftftp, -0, 'TO. 
Aor. S. S. €i-/«i|y» •o, -ro. 
Flit 1. S. i)9-o//(iyy, -040| -ocro. 

Fret. S. lufiatf ly, l^roi. 
Aor. 8. S. Sifuu, y, ^roi. 

Infinitive* 

Pres. %€ffdai. 
Aor. 8. S<rOai. 
Fat. 1. 4^6<^9<M« 



P. iffOe, HaOkuratt, 



78 
Imperative. 

Optative. 
D.-/«e9oy, -vOoy, 'ffOfiv, P. -fteOaf "oBe, "vro, 
J),'ne9ov, 'ffOoVf 'ffOfiv, P. -iieOcL, ^<rOe, -vro. 
J),'olfie0ov9'(naOov,''ol(rBii¥,'B* -oi/i€Oa« -oc^Oc, -oiyro. 

Subjunctive. 

VAw/teOov, lq<rOoVy 2^<rOoy. P. lu/ieOaf InvOe, lAvTOk 
D. &fi€9ov0 f^<rOoy, ^<rOov. P. &neOa, ri<rOe, Shfraiu 

Participles. 
Pres. l6/i6vos. 
Aor. 2. l/«eyoc 
Fut 1. li^^/ievos. 



NoU, "lefuu and l«/iipr, the Present and Imperfect Middle, signify—/ send myse^, &c. or 
/ am impelled s and hence they are generally used in the sense ofwUhmg. 



Pres. S. ny^ai, ^trtu, nTau 
Imp. S. i^/i^Vy Q(rOf $ro. 



Pres. S. ^<ro^ ^loBia, 

Infinitive. 

Pres. ^<r0ai. 



V. *HMAI, (from ««,) / «^ 
Indicative. 

D^^HeQov, h^Bov, ri^rBov. P. ^fteOa, ^ef^e^ ^trraiK 
D.ine9o¥, n^fBov, fiffO^v* P. ^/leBa, $a^, ^ro^ 

Imperative. 



P. ^^Cf ijtrOonrav. 
Participle. 

Pres. ^fievos. 



1 The Third Pers. Plur. of the Present Indicative is also— Ionic earai, and Poetic eXarai ■ 
and of the Imperfect, tkiro, eiaro, and 9jaro, 

^ Thus the Compound KaQfi<To in the Imperative, of which the Ionic is xaOfio, whence 
KdBeo, kolOov, 



VI. ^ElMAI, (firom Iw,) / clothe myself. 

Indicative. 
D. — — — p. — _ 



Pres.&Perf. S. elfuu, ^<rac, eirai, 

elffrai. 

Plup. S. eifiiiv, eltro, eiTO. 



D. — — — 



P. — — 



eivrcu. 



eivTO. 



€<T<ro, etrrOf eearOf eitrro. 



Aor. 1. M, S. el<r 1 

€<r<r V-a/iffff, -w, -aro, D.-4/i6^oy,-a<r0oyra<r0i7v.P.*a/i6aii,-^a#06,-avfo. 
eeiff J 

Participles. 

Pres. €i^6fws. Aor. 1. iwd/ievos. 



79 

Note 1. This Verb may be coniddered as Middle : the Active is ^u> or ivvv/iif forming 
Iffiii in the First Future, and eloa in the First Aorist, Infinitive eioaif with a generally 
doubled, and the preceding i omitted ; as Uooa, eooai. 

Note 2. The Third Pers. Plur. of the Pres. Indicative is also €Mrai, and of the Imperf. 
or Pluper£ eiaTO, Ionic 



VII. KEI^MAI, (from icita,) I lie down. 

Indicative. 

Pres. S.rec-/iai, -<Tai, -rai. D^-fieOovt '<r9ov, 'fi9ov, F,'fie9a, 'vOe, -prat. 
Imp. S,€K€i-fifiv, '(TO, 'TO. D.'fieOov, 'oQov, -trQmv, P.*/t€0a, -<T0e, -vro. 
Put 1. S, Keia-ofiai, -y, -eroi. D.-6fie9ov, -eaOov, ^etrOov, P.-d/icOa, -6(r0«y -ovrau 



Pres. S. Keioo, KeiaQta* 



Imperative. 

D. KeioBov, KeioOwv. 



V.KelffBe, KelaQiaoavo 



Optative. 

Pres. S. Keoi'/ifiVf -o, 'to* D. 'fieOov, -vBov, 'trOfiv, P. 'fieOOf -aOe, -vra. 

Subjunctive. 

Pres. S. ice-Cii/iat, -y, -ifrai. D»'iifieOovt 'ti<r9oPf -rioOov, V.-dffieOa, -fiffBe, -lavrai* 
Aor. 1. S. Keio'iofiaif -y, -ifrac D. -fii/i«Oov» 'iiaOovt 'tiaQov, F,'iafie9af -ifo'de, -lavrau 



Infinitive. 

Pres. KelvQau 



Participle. 
Pres. Keifievos* 



Note. The Third Pers. Plur. of the Pres. Indicative is also — Ionic Kearai, and Poetic 
Kciarai and Kcovrai ; and of the Imperfect, — Ionic Ksaro, and Poetic Keiaro and iceoyrow 



VIII. "ISHMI, (from laata.) I know. 

Active. 



Indicative. 



Pre*. SAa-tifit, -lyt, -iffft. D. , -arov, -arov* V.-afievrarerairi. 

Imp. SAu'tiVf -Jjff, •!!. !>• 1 -arov, -drriv. 2.^afievr^reraoav(-av). 

Imperative. 

Pres. S.I<TaO«, t<T<ir«. D.l^rarov, iadriav. F.tffare, laartaaav. 

Note. The a is frequently syncopated : thus XvBi, Ivnat &c 

Infinitive. Partici^^e. 

Pres. Mvai. Pres. Xaai. 



80 

Middle. 
Indicative. 

Prct. S. (<ra-/mi) -<7a», -rau D. -fieOov, -ffBoVf -trOov. T.^fieSa, -aOe, -vrat. 
Imp. S. iod'fitiVf -aot -ro. D. -fieOov, -trBov, -ffOi|V. P. -fieOa, ^vOe, -vro. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. IfjaoOau Pres. itrdftevos. 

Note. "Biritrrafuu is more commonly used than lffaf^a^ of the Middle. 
'Itrrifii is seldom found in the Passive. 



Pres. S»^fifii, . ^i)S| 0i}<ri. D. 

Imp. S.l^i|v, 'fiSf -If. D. 

Aor. 1. S. cf^i|<r-a, -as, -6. D. 

Aor. 2. S.e^-iji'y -i|s, -i|. D. 

Put 1. S.04<f-Cil, -61S, -61. D. 



IX. ^HlVir, (from ^aa»,) / «ay. 

Active. 

Indicative. 

— ^ -arov, -arj|v. 
— , -arov, -ari|V. 
— , -ifrov, -^rijv. 
— , -eroi', "crov* 



P. 'a/ieVf 'aret -uv. 
P. 'tifiev, -J|re, ^t/aav. 



Imperative. 

Pres. 5. ^dOi, ^rta. D. ^rov, ^dnav. 

Optative. 

^es.orA.2.S.0at-ijv, -i|s, -i|. D. , -iyroy> -^rijv. 

Aor. 1. S.0^<T-otfit,-ocs,-a*. D. , ^airov, -airmv* 

Subjmictive. 

Pre8.orA.2.S.^a>, ^ys, ^y» D, —^f ^fjrov, ^vtov. 
Aor. 1. S.04(r-w, -ys, -y. D. — 

Infinitive. 

Pres. ijidvat. 
Aor. 1. 0^<Tat. 
Put. 1. ^ritreiv. 



; -tITOV, 'fITOV* 



Passive. 



Indicative. 

P^rf. S. ire^a-fiat, — , -rai. 

Infinitive. 
Pcrf. Tre^dffOai, 



P.-j|/«€v, -fire, 'tieav. 
P. 'ttifiev, 'aire, -aiev. 

F,^i!lifi€v, ^re, ^&<rt. 
F,-u/i€v, "tire, -wo-i. 

Participles. 

Pres. ^aff. 
Aor. 1. ^riaai. 
Put 1. ^ri<ruv» 

Imperativie. 

Perf. S. ire^aOia, 



Participle. 
Perf. 7f€^a<r}ievo9, 



if' 



tnip.arA.2. £ 



Bot, -trfli,!/. 1 



Imperative. 

rres.orA.2.S.^daDor^Qo,^daeiu,D. V.1,da9e,^ii'rS«inav. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Prea. ot Kot. 2. ^daSai. Pres. or Aor. 3. ^/i<VD<. 

Nate. Thp is freqiiEntly omitifd in the Present and Impeifect Indicative Ac- 



GENERAL LIST OF IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

There are few Verbs in the Greek Language which can be regu- 
larly conjugated in all thejr Modes and Tenses. Some of these 
dcficieocies may be traced to Euphony, and of others it is difficult 
to assign the causes. 

Defective Tenses are supplied from obsolete forms of the same 
Verbs, from kindred forms in other Dialects, or from some other 
Verbs in use. 

Here we may notice : — 

1. Some Verbs are found only in the Active form, and some only 
in the Passive and Middle. 

Such Verbs may be hi 

2. Some Verbs ai 
perfect Tenses. 



t learned by observation, and reference to the Leiicon. 

I seldom or never found in the Present and Im- 



The most of these may be observed in the anneied List of Irregular and Defec- 
tive Verba. 

3. Some Verbs are generally found only in the Present and Im- 

The following List comprises most of the Irregular and Defective 
Verbs, showing the Verbs that are generally used, at least In the 
Present and Imperfect, which are placed first ; and also such as are 
obsolete, or little used, but assist in the formation of the Tenses. 



'Aa'w, Itdaxa, I iurf, hai I.) from itielf, 3 Sing. Fres. P. AZrat; A. 1. A 
&aaa, vrithout sugment; A. 1. M. do^dftijv; A. 1. P. i&aOtjv, or AaS^v:— 
i.) ft. 5t«I| a. 1. A. atra, for fiiFo ; A. 1. P. auQiiv. 




" Ay aft ai, (Poetic dydofiah Ayalofiai,) I admire, has from Ay&J^o/iai, F. 1. M. 
Aydvofuu; A. 1. M. i^ya(ra/ii|v ; A. 1. P. iiyd<rB^v, 

'Ay V if to, dyvvfn, I break, forms its Tenses from dyia ; as F. 1. A. df^cif, ^d|a» ; 
A. 1. A. fiKa, by Diaeresis ea^a ; P. A. fjxa ; P. P. ^yftat, eayfiai ; A. 2. A. rjyov, 
iayov ; A. 2. P. ijyfiv, edytjv ; P. M. fiya, eaycu — This e remains in the Subjmic- 
tive and other Modes ; as KareayHuru 

'Ayca, / lead, has 1.) fr. itself, P. A. rJX"^* Attic dyfiovcL, Boeotic dyeloxai 
P. P. fiyfiat ; F. 2. A. dyut ; A. 2. A. fiyov : — 2.) fr. dyayut, F. 2. A. dyaySt ; 
A. 2. A. rjyayov, Part, dyayutv ; A. 2. M. i/jyaydfifiv : — 3.) fr. F. 1. A. d^ta, as 
the Pres. of a new Verb, Pres. Imper. dKe, dKere, 

*'ABia, dvSdvta, I please, has 1.) fr. dieto, F. 1. A. dSriaia: — 2.) fr. &^, 
A. 1. A. ^tra, by DisErresis eaaa ; A. 2. A. ddov, eaSov, MoMc ^aSov, Inf. dSeiv ; 
P. M. fjda, Isada, Part eaiioa. 

"Afifii, I blow, retains if throughout, where other Verbs in /it lose the long VoweL 

Al piu), I take, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. atp-qtria ; P. A. ^priica ; P. P. ^ptntat ; 
A. 1. P. ypeBriv, Imp. alpeBrfri ; F. 1. P. aipeOfitrofiai: — 2.) fr. eXta, A. 2. A. etXov, 
Inf. eXelv, Part eXa»v ; A. 2. M. 6lX((|ii|i/, Subj. eXw/iac 

AiffOdvofiat, I perceive, has fr. aia9eia, F. 1. M. aM-qtronai; P. P. yoBfi' 
/lai ; A. 2. M. i/f<r06firiv. 

*A\iaivta*, dX^riOKut, I increase, has fr. dX^ew, F. 1. A. d\$fi<jia* 

'AXeeivw, dXeofiai, I shun, has fr. dXevut, F. 1. A. dXevtrta ; A. 1. A. 
ifkeva, for ^X6v<ra. See d\v<rK<a, 

'AXe^of, I help, has 1.) fr. dXejco), A. 1. A. In£ d\e%ai ; A. 1. M. In£ dXe^aoBai : 
— 2.) fr. dXe^eta, Pres. Inf A. dXe^etv ; F. 1. A. dXe^i^tro) :-— 3.) fr. the synco- 
pated form dXxia with reduplication, dXdXjcof, Imperf. or A. 2. A. ^XaXjcov ; Pres. 
or A. 2. Inf. d\d\ic€iv» 

'A\tvdea>, I roll, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. d\ivdri(Tbn—2,) fr. d\l<a, F. 1. A. 
dXiao). 

'AX((nca>, I take, has 1.) fr. dX<$a), F. 1. A. dXtatrej; F. 1. M. aXuitrofiiu; P. A. 
ffXofica, edXttfica : — 2.) fr. dXntfti, and with Passive signification, A. 2. ^Xiov, edXtov, 
Imp. £Xa>0t, Opt dXoiriv, Subj. £Xa>, Inf. aXiavai, Part dXo^s. 

Thus also the Compound dvaXifTKta, but with some change of the Augment ; as, 
F. 1. A. dvaXwtna ; P. A. dvriXutKa, dvdXutKa, i^vdXwKa ; P. P. dv^Xijjfjuii, dvd" 
Xiofiai : PI. P. i^vaXiofifiv, There is idso found A. 2. A. dvdXow ; A. 2. M. Part 
dvaXovfievos. 

'AXvoKia, I shun, has 1.) fr. dXv<r<Tu>, F. 1. A. dXv^(a : — 2.) fr. dXevw, F. 1. A. 
dXevffu* ; A. 1. A. rjXeva ; A. 1. M. Part. dXevdfievos. See dXeeivw. 

'AX^aivia, I find, takes fr. aX^cfti, F. 1. A. dX0i}(ra>. 

*Afiaprdv<a, I err, has fr. dfiapreo), F. 1. A. d/iapr^ero) ; A. 1. A. rnUtprtifra ; 
P. A. rindpTfiKa ; A. 2. A. T^fiaprov, Poetic ijjjLfBporov fr. dfifiporiia* 

'AfipXitncat, I cause abortion, has fr. djifiXotti, F. 1. A. dfipXuKrto, 

'Afi^iivvvfii, dft<l>irifii, dfKfiiiTKia, I clothe, has 1.) fr. a/i0t6a>, F,l. A, d/Jt- 
fpteffio; A. 1. A. i^fi<j>ieaa ; P. P. ^/i^leerfMtt, dfi^ieifiai ; F. 2. A. dfi^nSt : — ^2.) fr. 
dfivixfo or dft7re<rj(^ui, F. 1. A. djiipe^tti : — 3.) fr. dfii^idZ(o, F. 1. A. dfiftdaiff. See 
kvvviii. 

'Avolyia, I open, has F. 1. A. dvoi%ia', A. 1. A. i^vot^a, Attic dvet^Ko- \ P* A. 
dvet^xa ; P. P. dvetoyfiai ; A. 1. P. ^voix^i^v, dve^x^^"^* '^v€tfix9riv ; A. 3. P. 
ajvoiyiji' ; F. 2. P. avoiyritrofiai ; P. M. dvetpya, i^vetpya. 

This Compound Verb has three difierent Augments : — it takes the Augment of the 
Simple, changing ot into a>, with t subscribed, to which the Attics afterwards prefix an 
6, and sometimes they even change the a of the Preposition into ri in the beginning. 

* Many Verbs in aww are formed from aa> or ecu, and have therefore !|9« in Fut. 1. 



•Xviyu, lamnand, luu 1.1 tV. ilidf, F. 1. A. oVi^^ui A. 1. A. ijxiufa; P. M. 
^vuya, ivuyai — S.) fr. dynyia, F. 1. A. avuf^ctu; — 3.) Et. a'vwyq^i, Fiea. Im- 
pel. &viay[9i, for dviaytjfli. 

'Afl-ei^eava/iai, / Aole, has 1.) &. itself, ImpeiE ^n-eySav^^ilv faidirtixSa- 
vofHiv :— 2.) ft. QTTBxeGu, F. 1. P. i.TcexH<ii>iiat i P. P. air^K^I/"" i *■ 2. M. 

'An-aWv/tt. See oUu/tt. 

'Apeaicbi, /pleiuf, basfr. dpEW, F. 1. A. dpEirui ; \.\. h-ijpeaa; V. h..iiptta\ 
P. P. ijpnr/tai. 

Aiiavu, I increase, lias 1.) fr. oKcu, A. 1. A. Si-Ea;— 2.) fr, aij^w, F. 1. A. 
a£>€q<r<u; A. 1. A. ^liKn™; P. A. ^iiStica; P.P. ijuSiiriai: A, 1. P. nvKri9iiv. 

'A^do/iuE, / am oppressed, or indignant, has fr. li^dEEiif F. 1. M. ax^tj^ofxat 
tmiixSeaoiiai; A. I. P. ^x^eadiiv. 



Bofvu, /^ has l.)fr. Itself, A. t.P.e/lavdi]i-i—3.)ir./3au,F.l.M./3iivof(ai: 
A..1. M.ijitlTariqi'! P. A. /3e^i)ica, Ionic /3eJ3<io, Part. /3ef3auc, cDntiBCted|3E/3<v<: 
F. P. piStijiai and ^e/3aji/iai :— 3.) &. ^iptiui, Pres. Part. |3ij3ds ; A. !. A. IfJiiv, 
Imper. ^Si (in Compctunds avap^9i, larafiitBi; also ivijiaei, Eur^di; and, 
chortened, ai^^a, Earofja), Part. (3dc, dvajB^. 

BaWa,, I Ibroie, has 1.) &. itself, F. 1. A. ^oAw; A. 3. A. ejSuXov ; P. M. /3e- 
i8dXq ;— 2.) fr. /3aXtw, F, 1. A. j3aki,aBi :— 3.) fr. /3Xeu, P. A. flej3Xijico ; P. P. /3^- 
0ktlliat\ A. 1. P. fp\ii9iiv; F. 1. P. ;3XqSi)7a/iat: — 1.) fr. j3X^/ii, A. S. M. OpC 
/SXei/i^v, with Passive signiScatioa, Part. /3Xeis. 

BiABi,fliiiirx<i, Hive, has I.) tr.itseK, F. I. M. ^uLaoiiai; P. A. /Js^iuca ; 
P. P. 3. ffepluTai:—2.) ft /3iuiii, A. 2. A. efiiav, Imper. ^<u»i, Opt. fiwiiiv or 
0i^qv, Infln. fiiSivai, ParC f3io£>. 

BXam-Dvu, / iuil, has fr. /SXiurrEu, F. 1. A. /3Xa(rr>j(r(j 
Part pKaar^v. 

1.) ft. /?Xoiu, F. I, A. /3Xui( 



. S,3Xa« 



A. a. A. S^\wv. 

Bdcriu, //ee<f, has I.) ft. /Jdui, F. 1. A. jJ6a<o 
a.) fr. ;3offic™, F. 1. A. /Joirc^ffcB! P. A. /3e(3o«tii;, 

BovXo^ai, /asKciZfing, has fr. ^euXeo/iai, F. 
^Xij/ini; A. 1. P. i0ovM9nv; P. M. fiejlovXa. 



•2.)fr.3i/JXu-;.,, 

rnd jSuirui ; P. A. ^^aita :— 

. M. /3ovX^(ro^.i P. P. /3a- 

) fr. ^pdu, F. I, A. Ppiliau ; 
^nI; A. 1. P. e;3p(iSiji';— 



L 



rn/iedi, f marry, has I.) ft. itself F. 1. A. ya/i^nu, ■faniau; A. 1. A-iya/itjaa: 
A. 1. A. InBn. ¥<>i''^<"ii| yapiaai; P. A, yeyafiJita ; P. P. yejid^ir/tai ; A. 1. P. 
lya/iiiBtiv : — 2.) fr. yd/iui, A. 1. A. eyij/io, Infln, yS/im, Part, y^fias; A. 1. M. 
iyilliaiitiv, Infin. yij/iaireai. 

ri(p<ifficw, i jrow oW, has 1.) fr. ynpaai, F. 1. A. yupaaot -.—2.) fr. yVl/"- 
Pret InC yupdvot, Fart, yijpot. 

rivofiai, yiyvanai, yelpofiai, I am, or become, or an born, has I.) fr. 
yeviu, F. 1. H. yeviiiro/iai ; A. 1. M. ^fVKTO^ijv ; P. P. yeyiotlltai ; A. 1. P. eye- 
t'Ti9iiv;F.2.M.yevovnai; A. 2. M. ^evd/iriv ; P. M. ysyomi— 2.)fr. yeffDjiai, 
A. 1. U. ^riviiftgv :— 3.) fr. yaw, P. Ionic yeyoa for yeyijEa, Part. yeyaii«, 
yaym. 

PivAvKia, yiyrdiaKV, I Ioltib, has 1.) ft. yroui, F. 1. M. yviiiro/im; P. A. 



84 

iyv*Ka ; P. P. iyvtitvfiai ; A. 1. P. kyvdnrOiiv ; F. 1. P. yviatrQifeofjLai : — 2.) fir. 
yv&fiit A. 2. A. eyvuv, Imper. yv&9t, Opt yvoltiv, Sulj. yvw, Infin. yvStvait 
Part yvovs. 

A. 

AaiA), I divide, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. iaifffo; F. 1. M. Sal<ro/iai', P. P. ^£- 
Satfjiai: — 2.) fir. ^a^a>, F. 1. M. in Prose generally, datrofieu; P. P. diiav/iai; 
A. 1. P. edaoOfiv ; F. 1. P. da<r9ri<rofiai ; A. 1. M. idaad/iriv, 

Aaiw, I learn, has 1.) fir. itself, A. 2. P. iddriv: — 2.) fir. daeta, F. 1. A. ^aiyerw; 
F. 1. M. dariaofiai ; P. A. deddriicai Ionic Sedaa, Part deiaw9 ; P. P. iedatificu. 

Aalw, I bum, has in P. M. deiya, 

AoKViit, I bite, has fr. iifKio, F. 1. A. dii^ut ; A. 1. A. eitj^a ; F. 1. M. d^^o/juu; 
P. A. ieSfixct ; P. P* Sidtiyfiat ; A. 1. P. k^rix^fiv ; A. 2. A. Sdweov, 

£Ldfiv(a, I subdue, has 1.) fr. itself, A. 2. A. eSafiov, A. 2. P. edd/iiiv: — 
2.) fir. Safiveu) or Safivdut, F. 1. A. daftvri<TU> : — 3.) fir. dafidut or Ba/idZ(»», F. 1. A. 
Sa/ida(o: — 4.) fr. ^/ia<x> or ^/ieo), P. P. Sedftfiftai', A. 1. P. ed/iii9^v. 

AapOdvui, I tleep, has fir. dapOecj, F. 1. M. iapO^trofiai', P. A. SeidpOijKa; 
A. 2. A. iSapQov, Poetic ^dpaOov ; A. 2. P. eddpO-qv. 

Aeidut, I fear, has F. 1. A. deitriit; A. 1. A. edeitra, Poetic eddeura; P. A. ^e-; 
^6tica ; P. M. BedoiKa for iidoiSa, Ionic ^e^ta. Poetic SeiSux, Imper. ^€^«6, SeSiOi, 
ieidiOi, Part Mnits. 

AeiKvvu), SelKvvfii, I show, has fir. deiicttt, F. 1. A. ^etC<<>; P. A. BUfeixa; 
P. P. Bideiyfiai. 

Aifiia, I build, has A. 1. M. idetfidfiriv ; P. A. by syncope SeBfiiiKa ; P. P. ^€^- 
fiijfiai. 

Aeofiai, I need, or ask, has fir. deiofiat, F. 1. M. Se-qtrofiai; P. P. ^6^€i|/iat; 
A. 1. P. ederiOriv. 

AipKut, T see, has F. 1. A. dep^ttt; P. A. SiSepxa; F. 2. A. ^paica>; A. 2. A* 
eSpaKOV ', P. M. SiBopKa, dedpOKa ; A. 1. P. eSipxOtjv, with Active signification. 

Aiio, I bind, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. ^eao), ^^ao) ; F. 1. M. dri<rofiai ; A. 1. A. 
edritra ; P. A. SidcKa, dedrJKa ; P. P. dedejiai, dedrifiai ; A. 1. P. edevriv : — 2.) fr. 
didrmi, Imperf. eSiBtiv, Infin. BiBevai. 

Ae^dajco). I teach, has 1.) fr. itself, or diddx<i>i F. 1. A. ^c^a^o); A. 1. A. e^i- 
^a^a; P. A. oediSaxa; P. P. dedidayfiai; A. 1. P. 6^cda;^9i}v: — 2.) fr. $iBa<rK€u, 
F. 1. A. SidatTKriffut, 

AiSpdffKb), I flee, has 1.) fr. Spdia or SiBpdio, F. 1. A. Spdtno, ip'qtrak, or 
Bidpdfru) ; A. 1. A. eSpatra, and e^pa ; P. A. BiopaKa : — 2.) fr. Sptifii or SiSptifitf 
A. 2. A. eSpriv, Doric eSpav, Opt Spairiv, Infin. Bpdvai, Part ^pas. 

A or 6 0), / /AtnAr, or appear, has I.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. ^OK^aof ; A. 1. A. £^6ici|aa; 
P. A. dedoKTiKa ; P. P. SeSoKrifiat : — 2.) fr. ^((jco), F. 1. A. ^d^oi ; A. 1. A. e^o^a ; 
P. A. didoxa ; F- F* Seioy/iai, P. Infin. deSSx^ai. 

Aivafiai, lam able, has 1.) fr. itself, Imperf. eSvvd/ifiv, TJSvvd/itiv: — 2.) fr. 
dvvdouai, F. 1. M. dvvri<rofiai; A. 1. P. edvv^Otiv, ijdvv^9fiv; eivvdaBsiVt 
T^SvvaaOfiv ; P. P. SeSvvri/iaL. 

Avvia, I go in, or under, has 1.^ fr. Bvia, F. 1. A. Svtrot; F. 1. M. ^^<rMAai; 
P. A. SedvKa ; P. P. BeSvtTfiai : — 2.; fr. ivfii, A. 2. A. eSvv, Itnper. BvBi, infin. 
dvvai, Part ^i;s. 

E. 

'£da>, I permit, has F. 1. A. ^deroi; A. 1. A. daffa; P. A. etoKO, ieuccu 

'Edu), e<r 9 ia, iff 9 i (a, I eat, has P. A. riKa, eSriKa, Attic midoKa', P. P. ^^ij^o- 
/ib^t, idridefffiat ; P. M. ^^a, iSffSa ; F. 2. M. iSofiai for idov/iat. 



85 
"EOiUf I am accustomed, has P. M. e'naOa for etBa\ Plup. M. eiutOeiv, Part. 

£l^<Uy / teCf has F. 1. A. ettrio; F. 1. M. eltrofiaif iffofiai; A. 1. A. eltra) 
A. 1. M. eiffdfjiijVf Attic eeiffafiriv ; A. 2. A. eldov, iBov, Imper. ide, Attic ide, 
Opt iBoifiif Subj. f^a)| Infin. i^etVi Part. /^c&v. 

lEidiijjf I know, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. elSritrut ; P. A. el^iyiea; Plup. A. el- 
i^Kciv; (by syncope elSa, ci^etv, Attic y^etv;) P. Infin. eldrjKevai, by sync. 
eidevai ; P. M. ol^a, (ol^as, ^ol. otdatrBa, by sync. olaBa :) — 2.) fr. eidrifii, Pres. 
Opt eldeiriv, Subj. Pres. et^J), Infin. eiSevau 

"EiKot, I resemble, yield, has A. 1. A. elfa; P. M. olKa, eoiKa, Part eiKuts; 
Plup. M. koiKeiv, ki^Keiv; A. 2. A. eticov. 

'EXa v v(i>, J </rtt;6) has fir. eXdm, F. 1. A. eXdffut ; A. 1. A. ijkaffa ; P. A. ijXaKa, 
Attic eXijXaKa', P. P. ijXafiai, Attic eX^Xafiat, ^Xaa/iat; A. 1. P. 9^Xa9i|V| 
^Xd<rBriv ; F. 2. A. eXS) ; Pres. Imp. eXa. 

*£ X TT (i>, / cattle ^0 Ao^, has P. M. ^XTra, eoX^ra ; Plup. eatXTreiv. 

*Evvv(a, evvvfii, I clothe, has 1.) fr. itself, Pres. Inf. 'ivvvaOat: — 2.) fr. Uio, 
F. 1. A. €<rut; A. 1. A. elffa, Infin. €i<rai, efftrai ; A. 1. M. eiadfitiv; P. P. eifiai. 
Part eijievos ; F. 1. P. itrOritrofiai. 

'Ettoj, I say, has A. 1. A. ei'nra. Poetic ^eiira, Imper. eiTrov, Part eltras; 
A. 2. A. elirov, eeiwov, Imper. el-jrh. Opt elvotfii, Infin. eiireiv. Part eiinov. 

"EpScj, I do, make, has F. 1. A. ep^o), for which we find pe^w fr. pet^ut. 

"Eft put, I go, I go afflicted, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. eptrit) ; A. 1. A. eptrai — 
2.) fi". kfipkii}, F. 1. A. e^priffoi, 

"Ep^ofiai, I come, has fi*. eXevBut, F. 1. M. eXevtrofiati A. 2. A. fjXvOov, ^XOov, 
Imper. eXOe, &c. ; P. M. i^XvOa, Attic eXriXvOa, Poetic etXi7Xov9a. 

"EtrOca, etrOiu), I eat. See edw. 

Eiidui, I sleep, has F. 1. A. evdrjffdJ. 

EvpifTKU), I find, has fr. evpem) F. 1. A. evpri<n»', A. 1. A. e^priaa; A. 1. M. 
evptiadjjLtiv, by sync, evpdfiriv, Part evpdfievos ; P. A. e^pijKa ; P. P. e^prifiai ; 
A. 1. P. evpeQfiv ; F. 1. P. evpeBrfaofiai ; A. 2. A. evpov, Imper. evpe, Subj. 
ei;|t>a> ; A. 2. M. evpdfiijv. 

*£^<u (for 6x<u), I have, Imperf. ei^ov, has 1.) fr. ex^t F. 1. A. e^oi; — 2.) fir. 
axBia, F. 1. A. er^^^ero) ; P. A. eer^iyKa ; P. P. etrxriiiai, eax^licLi', A. 1. P. etrxkOriv ; 
F. 1. P. ffYeOriaofiai ; A. 2. A. etrxov, Imper. <rx6, Infin. (r;^6t]/, Part. (r;^te»i/; 
A. 2. M. effxofiriv, Imper. <txov, Opt axoiiiriv, Infin. (rxeffOat, Part trxS/ie- 
vos : — 3.) fr. trx'hp'h Poetic ^(TxiJH'h A. 2. A. Imper. erxes. Opt trxoifiv for vx^ifiv, 

Z. 

Zaof, / /tve, (^^s, ^y,) has 1.) fr. itself, F. Zv^f*** Kv^ofiai; A. 1. e^ijaa : — 2.) fi*. 
Zvf^h Imperf. eirjv, Imper. ^^0c and ^^, Opt ^aitiv (and ^wi^v fir. ^w/ut), Infin. 
^yv. Part ^a)v. 

Ttsvvvia, Zevvvfii, I boil, has fr. ^eo), F. 1. A. ^eao;; P. A. €^6fca. 

Zevyvva), Zevyvvfii, I join, has fr. ^evyia, F. 1. A. ^6t;|a> ; A. 1. A. e^ev^a ; 
P.' A. ^^ev^a; P. P. etevyp.ai\ A. 1. P. eZevxOriv', A. 2. A. e^vyov; A. 2, P. 
hl^vyiiv. Part ^vyeis. 

Zutvvviit, ^uivvvfii, I surround, has fr. ^6w or ^a;fu, F. 1. A. ^(U(r<i>; P. A. 
^^wica; P. P. eZditriJiaii A. 1. P. ei^attrOtiv; F. 1. P. ^^taaQtiaofiai. 

U. 

*H/3a<ric(<>, rifidtjit (Poetic rifiaiu), rffifOio), I grow, has F. 1. A. rifiriaa) ; A. 1. A. 
ripritra; P. A. ij^riKa. 



86 



e. 



ei\t*, I am wiUkig, hat fr. OcXew or iOeXikt, F. 1. A. AiXq^w, «0<Xi9<rw ; A. 1. 
A. iOiKti<raf i^OeX^^a ; P. A. reOcXijra. 

O^ctf, I run, has fr. Oevu, F. 1. M. Beitroiiau 

Btiydvi, I whet, has fr. 0i7yci», F. 1. A. OriK*> i A. 1. A. iOri^a; P. A. reOtixa, 

Bfiirta, I am atUmiihed, has A. 2. A. Sra^v, Part ra^ciiv; P. M. riBtiira, 

Btyy&vm, I touchf has fr. 0£ya>, F. 1. A. 0t|w ; P. A. reOixa ; A. 2. A. ^iyoy. 

ev^<fKM, / die, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. BvtiK^H F. 1. M. BvnKofuu; F. 3. 
reOv^io/iai: — 2.) fr. Oaveia, F. 2. A. Oavd; F. 2. M. OavdOfioi; A. 2. A. eOavopi 
•—3.) fr. 9v<ia>, F. 1. A. Bvrjouti P. A. riOvtiKa, rkQveiKa, reOvfia, riOvaa, Part 
r60yi|Kw«, reGveiK^, re^tiutt, reOveuIn, reOveM, reOva&^s, reBvwti P. Iii£ 
reOvdvat for reBvaevai : — 4.) fr. riOvtifii, 3 Plur. Pres. reOvatrif Imper. reOvadi, 
riOvari, Opt reOvaifiv, Infin. reOvdvai, Part redvas. 

Qodu, I sharpen, has fr. Oo<$a>, F. 1. A. Qouoia ; A. 1. A. e66a><ra, Infl Ooiaacu. 

Qopvvk^, 06pvvfih I spring on, has fr. Oopit*, F. 1. A. Oop^triai A. 2. A. 

£00(001'. 

I. 

'I jp^vw, I place, has 1.) fr. itself, A. 1. P. l^p^vOifv: — ^2.) fr. I9p^ia, F. 1. A. 
IBpvaut ; P. A. i^pvxa ; P. P. *idpvfiai, Infin. l^pvir^ac, Part idpvfievov, A. 1. P. 
IdpvOriv. 

*lZdvio, I place, or fraoAre sit, has 1.) fr. l^eiu, F. I. A. tZriau ; A. 1. A. iZfiaa t 
— 2.) fr. e^ca, F. 1. A. iota ; A. 1. A. laa. 

'iKveofiat, I come, hasfr. Vica), F. 1. A. t|u>; F. 1. M.(^o/iai; A.2.M. Ur^/iify, 
Infin. Ifcecrdat, Part iKdfievos, by sync. Vic/ievos ; P. P. ly/iot. 

'I\a<rieof(at, I appease, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. M. iXd^ouat: — 2.) fr. iXdu or 
IXdofiai, F. 1. M. iKdaofiati A. 1. M. Waadfiriv; P. P. tXatr/iat, Part 2Xa<T- 
fievos ; A. 1. P. IXdoOriv, Imper. iXd<r9fiTi : — 3.) fr. *iXrjfii, Pres. Imper. iXaBi ; 
Pres. M. iXa/iac. 

"Itrra/iai, I fiy, has 1.) fr. itself, Imperf. iTrrdfitjv: — 2.) fr. trrdw, F. 1. M. 
Trr^ffOfiat ; P. A. wewTTiKa ; P. P. Treirrafiai ; A. 2. M. ivrSfiriv, Infin. irTetrBat, 
Part 9rr6u6vo9: — 3.) fr. tirrj^/ic, A. 2. A. ^tttiiv, Infin. ^rrqi^of, Part xrds; 
A. 2. M. €7rrdfiriv. Part vrdfievos* 

"IffY^t I have, has F. 1. A. trx'h^^i P* A. ^^r^i^ica, &c.; from lf;^a», or rattier 
fr. <T;^€a>. 

K. 

KaOaipia, I purify, has A. 1. A. exdOypa, Infin. KaOypat; A. 1. M. Part 
icaOi^pafievos. 

KaOeJ^ofiai, Isit, has F. 2. M. KaOeBovfiai; A. 1. P. kKaOioBfiv, 

KaOitrrdvia, I place, has fr. KaOitrrrifii, F. 1. A. Karaariffta ', P. A. raOc- 
araKu; &c. 

K a £ A), / &um, has 1.) fr. itself, A. 1. A. Ixya : — 2.) fr. Kdto, Attic, A. 2. A. ecaov ; 
A. 2. P. kxariv. Part Kaets; F. 2. P. Karitrofiaii — 3.) fr. Kavia, F. 1. A. ca^crw; 
F. 1. M. Kavaofiai't A. 1. A. ejcavaa; P. A. KCicaviea; P. P. KeKavfiat; A. 1. P. 
kKavOrjv ; F. 1. P. KavOrjaofiai. 

KaXiio, I call, has F. 1. A. KoXetna, KaXriaw ; P. A. by sync KexXfiKa; P. P. 
KeKXrifiai; A. 2. A. eicaXov, Imper. koXov for jciiXe, whence dvdKoXov, Poetic 
ayKoXov, 

Kdfivio, I labour, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 2. A. xauta ; A. 2. A. exafiovi F. 2. M. 
Kafiovfiai : — 2.) fr. Kafie<a, P. A. KeicfiriKa for KexafitiKa, 

KeXo/iat (Poetic KcicXoftat), / command, has fr. iceXeo/iiai, F. 1. M. ireXif^o/im. 



rv; Pres. Inf. tipvavai, Pttt- XipiiA 



87 

■doi, I mix, hB> I.) fV. cfpvf)^!, Itaperf. 
—2.) &. icepnw, by aync icptfu,, F. I. 
. . .nicai P. P. leKCpaofiat, rixpaliai; 
A. 1. P. (ricepaffSijf, eKpo'0t)V! F. 1. P. mpao-S^iroftac, icpnfl^oa/tat, 

K<|>f olvui, / gain, bos 1.) b. ia^M, F. 1. A. ntptaviu ; A, 1. A. fKepSava ; 
P. A. tftepSana-.^i.) fr. wpjeu., F. 1. A. aepSiiiru,; A, 1. A. esepjijoa ; P. A. 
iceiCGpfgKa ; F. 1. P. KepfiqSqifDftai. 

Kixavw, I tatdi, has fr. iix^u, F. 1. A. cix^mj. 

Kixpo'«Mc£xP'rf^ I lend, grant, haa 1.) fr. itself, Pres.PsM. Kix/Jds i^Pres. P. 
EiXP"^"'' I'"'^ iC(xini/uvD> : — 2.) ft. xf<^'"> ^- ^- ^- XP^"'" ' ^- '' ^' 'XPI'" '• 
P. A. icexP5'"' 1 P- P' t^XPI/""' ^'''''" texPflf ^''''* ' *' ^' ^' ''"^ xpuoSeis. 

KXdJcu, / (SoBi, lotimJ, has fr. icXnyyw, P. I. A. nXayEui, Poetic icarXdyfw ; 
A. 1. A. eicXoyia; P. A. iceicXayxn; A. 2. A. lnXflyoi' ; P. M. neeXtjyo, Part, 
icreX^yils. 

Vfp, hss 1.) fr. K\aiio, F. 1. A. cXaiira ; F. 1. M. rXava 
....PI .i^\ , 



«Xdii 



fnXauoB ; P. A. KeeXniHtci i P.P. KeK\aviiai:—2.) (r. xXaiiia, F. 1, 



Kopevvfiu, EOpei'voui, I laliale, has fr. icopEiu, F. 1. A. eo^ 
£«if>eTa; A. 1. M. eicop«ttafi>)v i P. A. MKopijCa: P. P. teii6priii.a 
A. 1. P. eKopea6nv, Part loperfcii ; F. 1. P. eopEoeqffD/ja.. 

Kpa^w, / ihtui, baa fr. rpiSru, F. I. A. tpa^ia; A. 2, A. ccp 
eicpayifv ; P. M. K^epnyo i A. 2. Imper. tetpa^Si for Kfujjdi'ijSi. 

Kpe/tnvvviw, xpeudvvv/it, / Jian^i lias fr. KpffiAm, F. 1 
F. 1. M. cpe/id<ro;ioi ; Pres. P. tpifiaiiat; A. I. P. enpe/iairSqv. 

Kreivw, erirvuttf, (crivvu^i, /^ H«, has 1.) fr. il 



ov ; A. 2. P. 



raeii„o 



—2.) fr. I 



! P. P. ( 



\. 2. A. 



A. 2. M. « 

•2.) fr. iti.Xii'Jtu, F.l. 



1. M. Xqlo/iQi, 

VdCa^ii"; F. 2. A. Xaxwi A. 2. A. eXaxov, Poetic eXKaxav; P. A. XeKi/xa, 
AltieelXiixai P- P. riXijy/iai, Pari. eiXijy/ievDB :— 2.) fr. Xeyxu, P. M. XeXoyxa- 

Aaupdyii, I take, has fr. Xjj(3u, F. I. A.Xqif-w ; F. 1. M. Xij^o/tai, Doric Xa- 
Jiou/iai, XaJiaSuai : P. A. XeXij^a, Attic eiXij^a ; P. P. XeXijOfiai, Attic elXij/i- 
/iai{ A. I. P. iknf9jiv; F. 2. A. Xa/3<3 ; A. 2. A. IXa^v, Poetic iWafiov; 
A. 2. M. iXaPoinjv. 

Aav9av<a, I am concealed, haa fr. Xijdid, F. 1. A. Xijirui ; F. I. M. \i,aopat, 
Doric XaffoSuoi, Xaaeofiai; F. 2, A. XaSi ; A. 2. A. JXaeou: A. 2. M. eXaeii- 
/iijv, Infin. XaeKrSat; Poetic XcXaeGjeai ; P. M. XsXijfla i P. P. XeXjifffimi 
A. 1. P. eXqirClqv. 






/fear 



I. M.fiad^iTo 



I.M. c 



L 



P. A. fttltiBifKa ; 

Hi!x<i;iai, J fight, has fr. fioxEo^ai, F. 1. M. fiax^tropai, ftaxijiTDfiai; A. 1. 1, 
i^axwd/iijv, B/iaxion/"!" I P' ?■ ff^xij/tit; A. 1. P. efinxtTSiji' i F. 2, S 
ftaxov^ii- 

pui, ! divide, has F. 1. A, jicpw j P. M. pittopa. Poetic ep/iopa ; P. P. ^i 
E, Attic e'tiapfiai, t'ipapnai. 



88 

M^XXm, I mm about to bet has 1.) fr. itself, Impert efieWoVf Attic i^/ieWov: 
— 2.) fir. /uXXim, F. 1. A. fieXXrioui A, 1. A. ifiiXKtiva, 

M^\w,ue\o/iai, I care for, has fir. fieXeutt F. 1. A. fieXritno ; P. A. /jLC/iiKriKa ; 
P. P. fiefiekrifiai ; A. 1. P. efieXriOtiv ; A. 2. A. efieXov ; P. M. fiifiijXa, Part 
/i«fii|X«M. From P. P. fiefieXtjfiai we find fiefipXrirai, or fiiftpXercu, Plup. ^6fi- 
/3Xi|ro, instead of fie fieXrjraif &c 

M 6 vu», Poetic fiiuvio, I remain, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. /levw ; A. 1. A. efieiva ; 
P. M. /lifiova : — 2.) fir. /leveut, P. A. fiefievtjKCU 

Mcy v^M, filyvv/ii, I nUx, has fir. /ilyw, F. 1. A. m|u» ; A. 1. A. efiiXa ; P. A. 
fiifuxa ; P. P. fiefityfuu ; A. 1. P. efiixOtjv ; A. 2. P. e/iiytiv ; F. 2. P. fiiyiiiTo/uu. 

MtfiVTfffKti, I remind, has fir. fivAto, F. 1. A. /ivtitTut; F. 1. M. fivrgvofiai; 
P. A. fii/ivfiKa i P. P. fiifjivtjfiai ; A. 1. P. e/iv^erOtiv ; F. 1. P. fivfi<rB-^ffOfiai. 

MoXiaKta, fioXita, I go, come, has F. 1. A. fioXfftru} ; P. A. fieftoXr/Ka, Poetic 
/i6/i)3Xa>ica. 

Mopyvvof, fiSpyvvfii, 6fi6pyvvfii, I wipe, Yuls (r, fidpyto, and d/i6pyia, 
F. 1. A. fi6pS,w ; F. 1. M. fiop^ofiai, and 6fi6p^0fjuit ; A. 1. M. cfiop^d/ifiv, 
itfiop^dfitjv ; P. A. wfiopx<i' 

N. 

Vaiut, vaier&ij, I inhabit, has fir. i/ao), F. 1. A. vdtrta ; A. 1. A. evaaa. Poetic 
vdoaa ; A. 1. M. evatrdfiriv. Poetic vaotrdfitiv; A. 1. P. ivdvBijv, 

'Se/ibi, I distribute, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. vefiSt ; A. 1. A. eveifia : — 2.) fir. 
vefieit), P. A. vevifiijKa* 

Neofy I swim, has fir. vevw, F. 1. A. vevcno, 

'SriOat, I spin, has fir. veto, F. 1. A. vriffu); P. A. vevtiKa ; P. P. vivrifiai. 

O. 

'OZ(jj,Ismell, has 1.) fir. iteelf, F. 1. A. o(ra>; P. M. wia, Attic 6SiaBa; Plup. M. 
ddwdeiv: 2.) fir. 6^ewy F. 1. A. 6^60'a), 6^i9<ra) ; A. 1. A. w^ecra ; P. A. w^iijca. 

Otyoj, olyvu), olyvvu), olyvvfit, lopen, has Pres. P. o7y vv/xac ; Imperf. P. 
lAyvvfiijv, Poetic uiiyvvfjiriv; F. 1. A. ot^w; A. 1. A. ij'i^a, e^^a; P. P. (fyuai, 
lyy/iai ; A. 1. P. tfx^VVf et^x^Wt uttxOnv; F. 1. P. oixBriaofiai ; F. 2. P. oiy^- 
ooftai ; P. M. e^ya for fya. See also dvoiyia. 

OiSaivu), oi^dvia, oldiffKU), I swell, has fir. oldiu), F. 1. A. oilrivia; P. A. 

OiKTeipia, I pity, has F. 1. A. oiKrepSt; and fir. oiKreipiu), oucreip^aio, 

Oiofiai, otfiat, Poetic 6t(t), Stofiai, I think, has 1.) fr. itself, Imperil <^6firiv, 
furiv; A. 1. M. uiitrdfjiriv ; A. 1. P. inoQiiv, dtiBrfv : — 2.) ft*, oiiofiai, F. 1. M. 
oiriffofiai ; A. 1. M. t^ritrdfiriv ; P. P. tprifiai ; A. 1. P. t^riOriv, 

OiYO/tat, I go away, has 1.) fr. olxeofiai, F. 1. M. olxri<rofiai -, A. 1. M. 
VXV^^M^ ; A. 2. M. y'xo/iijv ; P. P. tpxVf^f^'' • — 2.) fr. oixoio, P. A. o!x<<>(ca for 

'0Xe(r9aiv<u, / s/tp, has 1.) fr. dXioBeat, F. 1. A. 6Xia9ri<rta ; P. A. wXcerOiira ; 
A. 2. A. aJXitrdov; P. M. uiXitrBa: — 2.) fir. dXioOavew, F. ]. A. dXiffOavqaia ; P. A. 
dtXttrOdpriKa. 

'OXXvto, oXXvfiit T destroy, has 1.) fr. itself, Infin.6XXvi/at; Pres. P. SXXvfiat : 
— 2.) fr. oXeu), F. 1. A. dXeoia; A. 1. A. o/Xeaa; P. A. wXeica, Attic dXwXeKa; 
P. P. (aXeuai ; F. 2. A. 6Xw ; F. 2. M. dXovfAai ; A. 2. M. dtXSfJinv ; P- M. «&Xa, 
Attic oXotXa. 

*Ofivvut, I swear, has 1.) fr. ofivvfii, Imperf. oifivvv: — 2.) fi*. Sfioia, F. 1. A. 
ofiooiit ; P. A. lofAOKa, Attic 6fito>fioKa ; F. 2. M. 6fiQVfiau 



80 

'Ovfijii, 6vivfifi$f I help, has 1.) fir. 6vona, F. 1. A. 6vri<ria ; A. 1. A. «5vi7<ra; 
P. A. wvriKa ; P. P. (Si/i^/iac ; A. 1. P. utvriOriv : — 2.) fir. Hvtjfii and dvlvijfjiit 
Pres. P. 5vTifiat, ovafiat, Svivafiat ; Pres. Inf. A. dvtvdvat ; Pres. Inf. P. 5va<r9ai, 
hvivaaOai* 

"Oirrofiai, dTrrdvbt, dTrrdvouai, I see, has fir. ovroftai, F.. 1. M. 8\j/ofiat 
(2 Pers. o^et Attic, for oxj/y) ; P. P. utfifiai ; A. 1. P. utifiOijv ; F. 1. P. 6^9rj<rofiai; 
P. M. (aira, Attic ovutva, 

"Optxif dpvvbi, 6 pvvji If I excitCf has F. I. A. dp&f Molic opaut; A. 1. A. 
Stpffa; P. M. cjpa, Attic opiapa^ hy metathesis bipopa; F. 1. M. opffofiai, 

*0<T ^paivofiatf I scent, hasl.) fi-.ttself^F. l.M. 6(r0(t>a]/ov/iae: — 2.) ir.hvppd- 
o/iaif Infin. ba(^pd<r9ai ; F. 1. M. 6a^pif<roiiai\ A. 2. M. d}ff^p6fjiriv, Infin. ho^pk- 
ffOai, Part dtr^pSfievos : — 3.) fr. Bffjtpofiat, Infin. 6<r^p€<rBai, 

'O0eiXwy 50X(i>, 60Xav(i>i 60X(<Tffa3/a>, I owe, has 1.) fir. d^Xeio, F. 1. A. 
60X^(ra>; P. A. cS^Xi^jca : — 2.) fi-. 6^6iX6<u, F. 1. A. d^etX^ao) ; P. A. dt^eiXriKa: — 
3.) £^. d^eiKia, Imperf. ut^eiXov ; A. 2. A. iS^eXov : — 4.) fr. 5^\ia, Imperf. w^Xov. 

n. 

Hd<rx*i** ^ *^ffer^ has 1.) fr. weiOta, F. 1. M. vehofiai : — 2.) fir. waOeut, F. 1. A. 
traOritru) ; P. A. weirdOrjKa, Ionic vcTrdBaa, Part. TreTraOfjicws, 7re7ra9aa»s, ^reTra- 
Ous ; A. 2. A. eiraOov : — 3.) fr. irevBia, P. M. 'TreirovOa, Part ifeirovQiit^, 

Tlepvfiiiu See irnrpdoKia, 

TieroyLat, 'TreTap.aif I fly. See ^ivra fiat. 

IleravvviOf irerdvvvjjLif I spread, has fr. irerdtti or TrerdZut, F. 1 . A. irerdtria ; 
A. 1. A. eireratra ; P. A. TreiriraKa, by sync. ireirraKa ; P. P. ireirirafffAai, ire- 
Trerafiai, Treirrafiai ; A. 1. P. eirerdtrBiiv ; F. 1. P. veraaOriffOfiai, 

niipvu), I kill, (Poetic,) has all its Tenses, except the Imperfect, from ^evw. 

Ilriyvvia, 7rriyvv/ii, I fix, has fir. Tr^yw, F. 1. A. nri^ta; A. 1. A. eTTiy^a; P. A. 
irk'TTfixo- » P» P« ireirtiyfiai ; A. 2. A. eirayov ; A. 2. P. €7rayjji/ ; P. M. ireirriya. 

Tlivto, I drink, has 1.) fir. wSut, F. 1. A. iroKTw ; P. A. w^ircjKa ; P. P. irewofiai 
for TriTTijjfiai; A. l.P. 67rd0jjv; F. l.P. TroO^aofiai: — 2.) fir. wito, A. 2. A. eiriov; 
F. 2. M. iriofiai, seldom Trtovfiai; (as ipdyofiai and eSofiai, for ^ayovfiat and 
6^oi)/iat:) — 3.) fir. Trlfit and irutjii, Imper. 7rt9t and Trdi^t. 

TLi'TrLtTKut, I give to drink, has fi*. iriia, F. 1. A. Triaw ; A. 1. A. eiriija, Infin. 
TTterat, Part vivas. 

TiiirXdia, viTrXrifit, irtfJiTrXdio, irlfJiirXtjfii, vifivXdvot, I fill, ha8l.)fi'ii 
vlfivXrifii, Imperf. or A. 2. A. eirifinXriv, Imper. Tri/iTrXjj for irlfiTrXaOi, Infin. 
vifiirXdvai, Part Trc/xTrXds : — 2.) fir. irXrjftt, Pres. P. TrXfjfjiat ; Imperf. eirXtijiriv : 
— 3.) fir. ttX^^o) the other Tenses are regularly formed ; as F. 1. A. TrX^ao; ; P. A. 
TreitXifKa ; P. P. TreTrXijiTfiai ; A. 1. P. eTrXtitrOriv. 

TltTrpjSLffKut, I sell, has 1.) fir. irpdat, F. 1. A. rrpdircj; P. A. wevpaKa; P. P. 
weirpafidt; A. 1. P. eirpdBtiv, Infin. irpaBrivai'. — 2.) fr. fripvrifii, Pres. Inf. 
irepvdvai. Part vepvds ; Pres. P. fripvtifiai. Inf. irepvaffOai, Part, vepvdfievos. 

Unrpdia, Trifiirpdut, Triirprifii, wifitrpriftt, Ibum, hasl.) fir. itself, Imperf. 
A. kiriyLirpiiv ; Pres. Inf. irifiirpdvai. Part irifivpds : — 2.) fr. TrpriOto, F. 1. A. 
frprjffut ; A. 1. A. eirprifra ; P. A. iriirpriKa ; P. P. veTrpriafiai ; A. 1. P. eirprifrOfiv; 
F. 1. P. vptiffOriffOfiai. 

Ulirrio, I fall, has I.) fr. Trerta, F. 1. A. Treerw (not used); A. 1. A. evetra: — 
2.) fir. 7reae(a, F. 2. M. 9re<Tovfiat; A. 2. A. eveaov, A. 2. Imper. Treere: — 3.) fr. 
vroiD, F. 1. A. 7rr«<Tto»; P. A. TreTrrciiica, Part 9r69rra>iea»$, by sync, ireirruts. 
Poetic treirrem. 

TlXdZ**>i ^ cause to err, has fr. nXdyyut, F. 1. A. irXdy^oi P» A. irewXayxa ; 
A. 1. P. evXdyxOflv. 



90 

IIX4m, I»aiit hAi 1.) fir. irXtvm, F. 1. A. irXcv^**; A. 1. A. iwXivaa; &c~ 
1.) fir. wXAfu cooM the Compoundf kirifrXiifv, k^iirXmf, 

Ttviiit, Poetic irvelmy I blow, has 1.) fir. irvevu, F. 1. A. irs^^M : — ^2.) fir. irvHia, 
P. P. friiryvfuu* 

TtvvOdvouaif I inquire, hear, has fir. irevOiif, F. 1. M. Tevtrofuui P. P. ire- 
wvcfuu fi>r ireTevfffAai ; A. 2. M. iirv96fifiv, 

P. 

*Pc(«i*, ipZm, I do, make, has F. 1. A. peCa> and ep^m : P. M. e^poya, Sopya i 
Hup. hapyetv. 

*Pe4a, Ifiow, has 1.) fir. ^eijta, F. 1. A. peifota ; A. 1. A. eppevva ; P. A. iioevKa; 
P. P. eppevuai : — ^2.) Gr.pviu, F. 1. A. fivfi<ru ; F. 1. M. ^vii<rofiai ; P. A. eppv^Ka; 
A. 2. P. epp{>fiv, Infin. pvrivat. 

*Peu», / «ay, has 1.) fir. itselfi F. 1. A. piiina\ P. A. Sppijiea; P. P. S/^prifiat; 
A. 1. P. epprfBiiv, eppeOi^v: — 2.) fir. ipew, P. A. elpijKa; P. P. elpif/iot ; F. 3. 
elprioofiai, 

*PfiyvvtMi, piiyvvpi, I break, hsis fr, p^ffffto or p'^yia,F, I, A. pri^ia; A. 1. A. 
Sppil^a ; P. A. efipriKCL ; P. P. eppfiyfuu ; A. 2. P. effpdyijv ; P. M. ippiaya for 

*Piavvvio, ^i^vvv fit, I strengthen, hasfir. p6<u orpwo), F. 1. A. p(i><ra»; A. 1. A. 
eppwoa ; P. A. eppwKa ; P. P. eftp(ofiai, Imper. ipp<a<TO (farewell), Infin. £p- 
pQaOai, Part, ipput/iivos; A. 1. P. eppwrOijv. 

S. 

^P€vv(fia, opepvvui, I extinguish, has l.)fir. <T)36a>» F. 1. A. <r)3e(rw, opri<ria 
F. 1. M. (Tpeffofiai, opfioofiaf*, A. 1. A. effpetra ; P. A. eopexa, iff^rjKa ; P. P. 
etrl^eaficu ; A. 1. P. etr^oOtiv i — 2.) fir. o^fit, A. 2. A. eafiiiv. 

26v«i>i / shake, drive, has 1.) fir. itself, A. 1. A. effewra^ etreva; A. 1. M. 
eereva/iiyv: — 2.) fr. <Tva», P. P. triffvfiai. Poetic etrtrvfucu', A. 1. P. etrvOtiv, A. 2. 
A. «<Fvov, etravov ; A. 2. M. e<rv6/iriv i — 3.) fir. ffeito, F. 1. A. aeiaio, &c 

SKe^awvA), OKeSdvvv/ii, tTKidvripi, I scatter, has ].)fi>. itself, P^res. P. 
ffKiSvafiai, Infin. OKidvaaOai, Part. (TKidvdfievos : — 2.) fr. OKetdta, F. 1. A. o'jte- 
^a(ra>; P. P. eaicedafffiat'i A. 1. P. kaKeSdtrOijv ; F. 1. P. VKeSaoO'^ffo/iai, 

SjceXXca, / <^ry ujd, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. eneeXo); F. 1. M. tTKekovfiai; 
A. I. A. sffKriXa: — 2.) fir. okKdio, F. 1. M. trKX^oofiai; P. A. 6<ncXi}iea: — 2.) fi*. 
OKXrtfii, A. 2. Inf. encXiivai. 

STrev^o), /pour out, offer, has fir. oveiScj, F. 1. A. oweloia ; A. 1. A. eoveiaa ; 
A. 1. M. koireiodfitiv ; P. P. eoTreiofiat ; A. 1. P. koireioOijv ; P. M. IttrwovBcu 

^Topevvvia, oropevvvfii, I strew, has 1.) fr. oropiio, F. 1. A. aropifnt; 
A. 1. A. kordpeoa : — 2.) fr. ordpwui. Part oropvvs. 

"SiTpdtvvvat, orpuvvvpi, I strew, has fi*. orpoio, F. 1. A. orpuMTw, P. A. 
eoTpiOKa ; P. P. eoTpiafiai ; A. 1. P. eorpioOijv ; F. I. P. orpioOfioo/uu^ 

T. 

TaXao), rX^fit, rerXrifn, I endure, hasl.) fr. rXao), F. I.A. rX^erw; F. l.M. 
rXrioouai ; P. A. rerXriKa, Ionic rcrXoa, Part rerXi^Jcofs, rerXaws : — 2.) fir. r\^/st 
or TerXtifii, Pres. Imper. rerXaOi, Attic rerXa, Infin. rerXavai, rXdvai ; A. 2. A. 
IrXjyv, Imper. rXrjOi, Opt. rXaijjv, Infin. rX^i^at, Part rXds, 

Teivio, ravvio, riraivitf, I stretch, has 1.) fr. reivta, F. 1. A. revlo; A. 1. A. 
ereiva: — 2.) fi*. ra^a>, F. 1. A. rdoio; A. 1. A. eraoa; P. A. rkraKa; P. P. re- 
rafiai', A. 1. P. era^jyi/; A. 2. A. erayov, ererayov, Part Poetic rcraywv. 



91 

Tifivto, I cut, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. refnw ; F. 8. A. raftw ; A. 2« A. ir^fLov 
and vrefiov ; P. M. Tirofia :— 2.) fir. Tfiriyv, F. 1. A. rfjktilm ;. A. 2. A. h'fuiyffv ; 
A* 2> P. €Tfidyrjv ; F. 2. P. TfiayiiffOfj^ai : — 3.) fir. rfAdio, F. 1. A* Tfirivfft ; P. A. 
rer/iiyjca ; P. P. reriJiripLai. 

TiKTbif I bring forth, has fir. reiMtf, F. 1. A. ri^Mt; F. 1. M. re^ofuu; A. 1. P. 
erixOriv ; A.. 2. A. ersKov ; A. 2. M. 6r€ie<$ui}V ; P. "ilL reTOKCi. 

Tivta, rivvviaf rivvvfii, I pay, pumth, has fir. rUa, F» 1. A« rlviai A. 1. A. 
iriffa ; P. A. ririKa ; P. P. rerifiau 

Tirpdia, rirprjfii, I bore, has 1.) fir. rp&ia, F. 1. A. rp4<r(i»; A. 1. A. Irpif<ra; 
P. A. rirpriKa ; P. P. rerptifiai ; A. 1. P. erptiBtiv : — ^2.) fir. 7irpaiv<i»y A. 1. A. 
erirpava, krlTpijva ; A. 1. P. krirp&vQtiv, l^urt rirpai'Oe^s. 

TtrpttftricA), I wound, has fir. rpoo), F. 1. A. rpw<rut; A. 1. A. erp«ii<ra; P. A. 
TerpijjKa ; P. P. Tirptofiai ; A. L P. krp^i^v ; F. 1. P. rpiaBiiaopLau 

Tpex<*>f I run, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. 0pe|«i>; F. 1. M. Ope^ofiai; A. i. M. 
eOpeKdfiriv : — 2.) fir. Bpifiat, A. 2. A. idpafiov ; F. 2. M. Spafiov/iai ; P. M. ^«- 
Spofia: — 3.) fir. cpafiiio, P. A. dedpdiiriKa. 

Tputyia, I eat, has F. 1. M. rpia^ofiat ; A. 2. A. irpayov* 

Tvyxdvat, I am, obtain, has 1.) fir. rev^^o;, F. 1. M. rev^ofiai ; P. A. rer6v;^a ; 
F. 2. A. rwxoi ; A. 2. A. ervxop : — ^2.) fir. rw^®*^* ^' !• A* Tvxh^^ J P* A. rerv- 

Y. 

*T9rc<Txv60/ia(, I promise, has fir. v9ro<r%^uai, F. 1. M. viro<rY4<fo^ai ; 
P. P. vireaxwai ; A. 1. P. vrreux^B^*' i A. 2. M. v7re<rx^M^* Imper. vinStrxov, 
Infin. vTroaxeerdat. 

^ da Km, I say, has 1.) fir. itself, Imperf. e^atrKov : — 2.) fir. 0aw, F. 1. A. 0^<tw ; 
A. 1. A. e^fiaai — 3.) fir. ^fifil. Imperil e^tjv, Imperf. M. I^fti^v. 

^epiii, I bear, bring, has 1.) fir. ^opeut, F. 1. A. ^opiabt, ^oprj<rio: — 2.) fir. ^piiOp 
Imperf e^povv\ F. 1. A. ^p^(T(a; A. 1. A. e^ptitra; P. A. I^pi^xa; A. 1. P. Part. 
Comp', eic0pi|O'06i8 fir. eK^ipia : — 3.) fr. otu», F. 1. A. olato ; F. 1. M. olvofiai ; 
A. 1. P. iptrOijv, Infin. o/aO^vat ; F. 1. P. oifrOrjffOfiat : — 4.) fir. eveyKta, A. 1. A. 
^i/eyica, Infin. eveyKOi, Part eveyicas; A. 1. M. i^veyKdfitiV, Imper. eviyKaii 
A. 2. A. ijveyKov, Part kveyKwv : — 5.) fir. evexA>» P« P. riveyfiai, Attic evtiveyuai; 
A. 1. P. ^j/ex^'?*' » ^* ^' ^' kv€x9fivo/iai ; P. M. iivoxa, Attic ivfivoxa : — 6.) fi*. 
eveiKbi, A. 1. A. ^vetica, eveuia : — 7.) fir. ^prifii, A. 2. Imper. ^6S. 

^Oav(i», / com« before, anticipate, has 1.) fir. 00a(i>, F. 1. A. ^Odtna; A. 1. A. 
e^Oaaa; P. A. e^Qaxax — 2.) fi*. ^Brifii, A. 2. A. ^^fiv, Imper. ^Orjri, Opt 
^Oaifjv, Suhj. 00ca, Infin. ^Orivai, Part ^Ods ; A. 2. M. e^Bafitiv, Part 00d- 
fisvos. 

99ivut, I corrupt, destroy, has fir. ^Olw, F. 1. A. A9iff<a; A. 1. A. e^Otaa; 
P. A. 600tjca ; P. P. SfOifiai, Infin. ^OioBat ; and fir. ^0ea>, ^OetrOai, ^delaBai. 

^piatna, ^plma, I shudder, has P. A. ire^piKa for Tre^ptxa, firom F. 1. A. 

9vw, I beget, produce, has 1.) fir. itself, F. 1. A. 0v<ta> ; P. A. iri^vKo ; A. 2. P. 
k^vriv. Part ^veis ; P. M* fre^va : — 2.) fir. 0i)/ii, A. 2. A« e^vv, Infin. ipvvai, 
Part 0ti9. 

X. 

Xaipio, I rejoice, has 1.) fr. itself, F. 1. A. x^P**^i P* ^* K^xapKa; P. P. xe- 
Xapfiai; A. 2. P. hxdprjv; A. 2. M. exapdufiv, Poedc KexapSfiriv: — 2.) fir. xapectf 
and x^ipito, F. 1. A. x^pri<rio, x^^H^V^*^ * ^* I* M* x^P^^^M^^ X^'^^f 4<^ofiat ; P. A. 
icexapijKa, Ionic icex^P*?^' * P* P* Kexdpfifiai, 



9ft 

XuvBApt^ I reethe, kold, has L) fr. ya^w, A. 2. A. jf^a^ov ; P. M. Kix^vdUf 
for M^a^ : — ^i.) fir. x^^*^* ^* ^* ^ x^^*?'" :^-S.) fir. x«^> P* !• M* x^^^^f^'^ 

Xti^KMf x^^"^^^^* ^S^P^t has fir. x<k<)'«'* P- ^* ^* X^^^ * F. 1. M. x AS'ot/^ai ; 
A. S. A. Sx^^^^ * ^* ^* '^^X'7''^* 

Xcw, / poKT, has 1.) fir. itself, A. 1. P. In£ yeOfivai, Part x^^^'** — ^O fi^* 
yevM, F. 1. A. x^<^*^ > ^' 1* A. cfx^v^ra, cfx^^^* ^X^^f Imper. x^^^* Ii^fin. x^^ 
Part x^as ; A. 1. M. Part x^afievos ; F. 2. A. x^*^ > A. 2. A. ex^^^ • — ^*) ^''* X^'^' 
F. 1. A. x>^<T(k»; A. 1. A. exvera; P. A. icexvica; P. P. Kexvfiai; A. 1. P. exvOrfv; 
F. 1. P. x^^^o/iai : — 4.) fir. x^^^> Pres. P. Part xwofcej/os. 

Xpittvvvm, xP'^^'^^^H''^ ^^^^*^****'^* hasfir. xp<$<>»or xp«>^» F. l.A. xP<i>»<''<tf ; A. 1. 
A. jfxp«i»<ra ; P. A. Ksxpfinca ; P. P. Kexpi»»fjuu, Kexpu<'fuu ; A. 1. P. €xf>c^<rOi|v. 

Xwwvw, x^^^'^V^^ I heap up, has fir. x<$w or x<^<<>) F. 1. A. x<^<^<(>t A. 1. A. 
ix*^^ft I P* P* ttix^HTiiai ; A. 1. P. exwcr^ifv ; F. 1. P. x*^*^V^o/^^^ 

O. 

'QOiio, I push, drive, has 1.) fir. itself, Imper£ P. itOeofifiv, F. 1. A. w0rf<rw: — 
2.) fir. wOio, F. 1. A. i5<t<u ; A. 1. A. iaoa, Attic iioaa ; A. 1. M. itaafitiv ; P. A. 
wica ; P. P. Hu/iai ; A. 1. P. toa9tiv. 



I 



I 






.1 



Impersonal Verbs. 

Verbs, strictly Impersonal, are used only in the Third Person 
Singular, in the Infinitive, and the Neuter, Singular and Plural, of 
the Participle. 

The following are the principal that occur in an Impersonal form. 

*ArriK€i, KadtiK€if 7rpo<r//fC6£, it be^ 
comes. 



*A7r^€£, it is sufficient. 
'ApeffKcif it pleases, Comp** ott- 

apioTKeif it displeases, 
'Ap/yyei, it kelps, 
*ApK€if it is sufficient, 
Aei, it becomes f it is necessary, 

AoK€i, it appears. 
'Eyxi^p^h it is allowed^ there is op- 
portunity, 
'EiCTTcXei, it is allowed. 
"Eerrif it is allowed, Comp*** 

ivetrrty ^Jeori, Part. l£oi/. 



MeXei, tt concerns. 

MerafiiXeiy it repents, 
'O^e/Xec, it becomes^ it is due. 
Uapeo-rc, or napa^ it is allowed, 
Ila/D^ec, it is allowed, 
Upeweif it becomes f it is proper, 
^vfi/iaiveit it happens, 
^vfi^epeif it is profitable, 

it is allowed. 

it is the practice^ it is 
usual, 

it becomes, it is neces^ 
sary. 



*Y7rapx€t, 
<&iXec, 



Here may be noticed, airoypri fr. kiroxpriiHi o.Troypq,, ^icypf, jcara- 
^(pfi it is stifficient, 

Etjoijrac, it is said. 



'A/LccXelrat, it is neglected, 
Be/^/dirai, life is spent, 
AiBoKraif it seems fit, it is decreed, 
"Eyywtn-ai, it is known, 
"Elfiapraif or elt/JiapTai, it is decreed 

by fate. 



Comp**" a Treiptira i, it is forbidden ; 

vpoeiprjraif it is predicted; 

helpriraif it is inquired, 
'Ei/^cxerai, it is allowed, 
'Ewipxeraif it occurs to the mind. 



93 



"HKovaraif it is heard. 
Aiyeraif it is said. 
AecVerai, it is lejl, it remains. 



No/i<4f€rac, it is decreed by laWf 

usual. 
Uivpuiraif it is decreed by fate. 



Op Adverbs. 

The Adverb is a part of Speech added to other words, Verbs, 
Adjectives, &c. to express some quality or circumstance respecting 
them. 

The Indeclinable Parts of Speech, viz. the Adverb, Preposition, and Conjunction, 
are comprised under the general name of Particles. 

The following are some of the principal Adverbs. 

1. Of Place. 



"EydUf ivTavda, here^ there. 


icrtjf Ivrof, 


within. 


eicet. 


there. 


^fivpotrdeVf 


before. 


ahrodif 


there, in the same 


oirltrto, 


behind. 




place. 


e^dl, CKTOSf 


without. 


OTTOVf 


rvJiere. 


iripaf iripavy beyond. 


BevpOf 


hit/ier. 


ov, Sdif 


where. 


ay\if aeraoVf 


eyyifSf wiXaSf near. 


TTOV, TTodl, 


where ? 


cKoSf noppo), 


far. 


ol, 


whither. 


Xa/xai, 


on the ground. 


TToI, 7r6er€i 


whither ? 


&Vli}, 


above. 


SSey, 


whence. 


iyepdCf Karati 


, below. 


wodev, 


whence ? 


ivBoVf 


within (rest). 


^9 


how ? which way ? 




2. Of 


• Time. 


• 


Nui', 


now. 


ohdivoTCf 


never. 


OTC, iivUay 


when. 


trrifiepov, 


today. 


roTc, rqylKa, 


then. 


avpioy, 


tomorrow. 


aelf 7ravT0T€y 


always. 


fieravpioyf 


two days hence. 


vork, 


sometimes. 


Xd^s, 


yesterday. 


vorCf Trrjt'lKai 


, when ? 


irpdxdesy 


the day before y ester 


^h> 


already^ soon. 




day. 


vpwif 


early. 


veoioTi, 


lately. 


Sy^k, 


late. 


TraXae, 


formerly. 


vplyf 


before. 


'n'p6Tra\aif 


long since. 


ovrrWf 


not yet. 


irapaxpny^a^ 


instantly. 




S. Ofl 


dumber. 




UpiSroVf first. \ 


Siral, once. 




^evrepov^ sec 


ondly. 


llsi twice. 




rpiroy, thirdly^ S^c. \ 


rpUf thrice 


• 



94 



woXK&KiSf frequently, 
woaaKiSf how often f 
roa&KiSf $0 often. 



9roXXax<<^s, tn many nfays. 
voffaxusf in how many ways f 
dix^ii doubly, 

rp^X^i trebly. 



4. Of Quantity f Quality^ Manner, 8^c, 



noXv, m$ich, 

iKlyoVf fiiicpQyf little. 

wiSsf how ? 

wdtroyf how much ? 

rdvoYf so much, 

&\is, enough, 

AyaVf fiaXa, Xlav, trAoSpa^ very 

much, 
irayvf altogether, very much, 
fi6yis, fi6\iSf scarcely i with dif- 

ficulty. 
riKa or ^Ka^ iipifia^ softly ^ silently^ 

gradually, 
KoXtSs, well. 

dpOufSf rightly, 

KaK(Ssf badly. 



mx^iSsf wisely. 

iiKriOiSs, truly, 

ehrif rashly, in vain. 

ayaifJLtorl, without blood, 

avy avre, avdis, agcun, backwards, 

very quickly. 



raxtOTO, 

iXa^oy, 

eicrdSriyf 

6.pTraySriy, 

KVvri^oVf 

Kpiffilriyf 

TTvi Koi Xa^i 
'EKXriyiffTlf 



troop by troop, 
by extension, 
by seizing, 
like a dog, 
secretly, 
with biting, 
with handandft)ot. 
like the Greeks, 
like the Romans, 



5. Of Certainty, Swearing , Negation, Prohibition^ Comparison, ^c. 



'IM, lo! behold! 

r}, ^Toi, ye, dv^ ^ fx^y, ^iiwov, surely, 

indeed. 
SriXairf, certainly, namely, 
vayTuts, -entirely, certainly. 
oyTws, truly, 

fia, ya\, yaiyl, yfj, yalfia, certainly, 
oh fia, not indeed, 

oh, ohK, oh')(^ no^ not. 
ohxh not ? 

ohlafim, by no means. 

not, (of prohibition.) 

not at all. 

more, rather. 

less, 

than. 

as, as if. 



fidWoy, 
^TToy, 



a, 



tos, wffTrep, 



KaOa, KadoLTrep, just as. 

The following Interjections may here be noticed. 



ovrw, ovrws, wSe, thus, 

elra, iveira, H^s, €0e|]ys, after^ 

wards, next, 
&fjLa, together, at the same time, 
ofJLov, Jointly, along with, 

trvXKii^lriy, in a word, in short, 
&y€v, &T€p, without, except, 
vXrjv, except, unless. 

d'Xph ^XP'*» M^*» /'^XP*** ^ ^** 

as, until, 

yj^pis, ydffijn, separately, without, 

in two divisions, te- 

parately. 

on account of, 

equally, perhaps, 

raxa, quickly, perhaps, 

rv\6y, by chance, perhaps. 



^ycKa, 



Of Exclamation, a, w, iov, J ir6iroi. 
Of Admiration, J, ^ev, cl, fiafiai, 



Of Approbation, evye, ela, Aye. 
Of Detestation, (kfraye, f2 J, Iov 
Iov, 



Of Threatening, oiiai. I Of Indignation, i^ev. 

OJ'6rief,o'ifioi,il}fv,lai,&,ot,a'a.'t,\ 0/ Joy, eioi, eiav, loii. 
Of Consternation, a &, Sa ia. \ Of laughter, h & &. 

Noll 1. Adrerbs of quality generall; terminate in us, as coXuc, well: — af distri- 
bution or arrsngemen I in !ov, as AyeXTjliv, fivck by flock; — lome In Sov, and tbose 
in liiv and ion, sipiify manner or reiembtance, as icuui]fAv, tike a dog; rpu^fqv, 
after tht manner af concealment, lecrelly i 'EUqciirrl, >n tlie Greek language, like 
the Oreelii. 



perly, then 



'"?"'• 



erbs di 



It af di 



1 ffo^wrtfjos 



n Adjeci 



the Compara 
Pronouns are 



io find fidXa, iiaWov, 

II me fositive Adverb ends in u 
aval, aviarlpio, irviTaTio. 

Note 3. Same Cues of Nouns an 
(supply wpis mpav,ot iv XP«*'V\ 
a great umy./or; — y (""Pplj '•' o'v)> "illldt way, 

Nate 4. A^ectives in'lbe Neuter, SinBulat or Plural, are often 
as Ttp&Tov,fiTit I jro\Kd, much. Such A<(iectivei are in the Ace 
by Jiard undentood. 

Note S. The sunie Adverb is frequently nseil in different lignil 
signiflej mliere aod whitlier. And Adverbs of Place are frequen 
of Time, and wea vtriS .- as SvBa, there and llien ; tic 



— patpAv (supply me' oSbv), 
a1, are often taken as Adverbs ; 



Adverbial Particles. 

Beaides those Adverbs which are used as above, there is a Bpecies 
of words, termed Adverbial Particles, which are used ouly in Com- 
position, and are either preSxed or added to other words to modify 
their signiiicatiun. 

Adverbial Particles, prejijed to words, are the following : — 

1. A, used in three different senses ; — 1.) In a privative or negative sense ; u 
dX'>P'>> unlhiml^fiil, from x°pK- ll>anki: i^irot, tncormptibU, ft. aBirlis, cor- 
npUble : — 3.) In an augmenls^ve or increased sense ; as d^vXos, full of wood, 
b. iiXov, wmdi irev^s, full ttrttehed, b. reivui, I itrelch :—3.) In a colleetive 
sense; aa SravTev, all together, fr. wavres, all. 

Tbe a is Bometimes also redundant, making no change in the meaning of the 

Wben the a stands before a Vowel, it generally takes a v ; as avS/totos for Ao- 
a bits away, and the V only remains ; as vwi'tifiDt for 



I 



96 

a bad lenie, tigidtyinghartUhip, difficulty, or pain ; as ivfffiev^s, malevolent; ivvdr 
Xt^ro9, hard to be taken. 

Particlesi added to the end of words, are the following : — 

1. Ae, (re, (e, denodng to a place, answering to the English termination wardf 
as oifpavdvie, to heaven, heavenward; oiKaSe, homeward; hceitre, thitherward; 
Xafid^e, earthward. 

2. 6c, (Ti, 01, xov, XV* signifying in a place ; as oifpav69t, in heaven ; 'AO^vi^ffc 
(with or without c subscribed), in Athene ; oIkoi, at home ; iravraxov and irav- 
raxVt JM every place, everywhere, 

3. Oe and 9ev, denoting ^om a place ; as oipavSOe or oifpavdOev, from heaven. 

4. Fe, added to a Noun or Pronoun, to render it emphatical ; as eyoiye. 

Of Prepositions. 

Prepositions are words which are usually placed before Nouns or 
Pronouns, to express the relation of one object to another. 

There are Eighteen Prepositions in Greek. 
Four require the Genitive : 



Ik, or e£, out of, 

irpOf before (as to place or time). 



'Avr2, against^ instead of, 
kirOffrom, 

Two require the Dative : 
iv^ m, among, \ avv, withy together with. 

One requires the Accusative : 
€iSy into, to, towards, against, in. 

Two require sometimes the Genitive, and sometimes the Accu- 
sative : 
?ia, (Gen.) through, by means of, vvkp,(Gen,) above f or, concermng^ 



(Ace.) through, on account of. 



(Ace.) above, beyond. 



Nine require sometimes the Genitive, sometimes the Dative, and 
sometimes the Accusative : 



&fx<l>t, about, 

ava, up to, up through, upon, 

evi, on, at, in, into, 

Kara, down from or under, through, 

beside ; against, according to, in, 
/xcra, (Gen,) with ; (Dat.) among ; 

(Ace.) to, after, I 



irapa, (Gen,)Jrom ; (Dat.) at, with; 

(Ace.) to, beside, through. 
w€pi, round about, about or near^ 

about or concerning, 
vp6s,{Gen,)at, by, from; (Dat.)a^; 

(Ace.) to, eiccording to, against, 
viro, under, by. 



For further particulars respecting the Prepositions, see Syntax,. 

Of Conjunctions. 

A Conjunction is a part of Speech that is chiefly used to connect 
words or sentences. 



The folton-ing are the principal Conjunctions, whidi may be thus 
arranged. 

1. Copulative. Kai, ri, ^Si, iSe, and; — hi, irpoiriu, besides, 

2. Disjunctive, *H, Jjroi, fiyovv, ^irov, eitlier, or; — ovhi, aire, 
friii, firiTt, neither, nor. 

3. Concessive. Etcai, k^v, Kaiwep, xalToi, KaiTotyt, although. 

4. Aduersative, 'AWa, firitp, avrap. Si, but ;-~Snws, efiiras, yet. 

5. Causal. Tap, for ; — on, that, because ; — Sii!ri, koOAti, because; 

orav, ojrdrni', rvhen, since. 

6. Inferential. Qvv, &pa, hw, roiyap, roiyopoui', rolfw, o^kovv, 
TovvtKti, therefore ; — Siowep, ouvexa, mherefore. 

7. Final or Perfective, "Irn, JJirus, that, to the end that; — &s 
that; — &ar€, SO that; — oippa, that, until, iBhilst ; — lais, ay, until; — 
/IT], that not, lest, 

8. Conditiotial, EI, iav, hy, flf, t/";^-eiye, c'iirep, if indeed; — 
ei /tij, unless; — rrXijV, except ;—-Trfiiv &y, before that; — a'lde, Eifle, 
O that. 

9. Partitive. Miy, Si, indeed, but. 



10. Expletive. *Ap, lipa, aS, ye, S-q, £qra, dtjy, ce, Key, fi^v, yv, 
TTcp, wov, iro), pa, re, rot, and some others, used by the Poets. 

These words are not eaeily translated, but they contribute to the force and ele- 
gance of the Greek Language. 

Some Conjunctions never begin a sentence, and are therefore 
called Postpositive ; such are — yop, (ih, St, re, roiyvy : — others 
begin, but may also be placed in another situation ; as ay, &pa, Sri, 
'ya: — and the rest are placed first, and may be called Preposi- 



For the government of Conjunctions, se 
The following are the principal significa 
pletive Conjunctions. 

'Apa, consequence, effect, transi- 



Syntaj 



Av, change, repetition. 
Fe, restriction, affirTnation. 
Ai;, time, confirmation, 
Aqra, affirtnation. 

Iconjtnnation. 
_ 



lime, conclusion, 
assertion, restriction. 



e indefinite. 

or manner indefinite, i 

nation. ■ 



98 



Correlative Particles, 



'ExecJav, irAfit, — 

*Hi, as far, — 

'^H/Ltai, when, — 

•H/LieK, when, — 

^iifjLos, when, — 

'HvIko, when, — 

"Itrov, just, — 

KaOdirep, as, — 

M^K, indeed, — 

Mky, both, — 

'O/LiotoK, like, — 

*Ofioliifs, like, — 

"Otov, where, — 

'OffffiiKi, as often, — 



TriviKavTa,then, 
rovrjy, so far, 
r<5re, then, 
ille, then, 
rfjfws, then. 
rrfvlKa, then, 
Koi, as, 
ovrti), so, 
Bk, but, 
U, and, 
&oT€, as, 
&(rv€p, as. 

ravdn, there, 
ToaacLKi, so 
often. 



Ov, where, 
OvTuts, so, 
Uapos, before, 
Upiy, before, 
nply, before, 
Tiporepov, before. 
Tore, then, 
T6t€, then. 
Tore, then, 
T6re, then, 
'Qs, as, 
'Qs, as, 
'^0*6^9 as, 
"Qiowep, as, 
"Clairep, as, 
"ClffTrep, as. 



• ejcel, there, 
•dts, as, 
-irplv, that. 
-V, tJua. 
•wpiy, that, 
-wply, that, 
- ore, when, 
•oray, when. 

• €Tr€tBay,when, 

• ^ylKa, when, 

• ovTia, so. 

■ waavrtas, thus, 

• ovrw, so. 
ovrta, so. 
Koi, so, 

• &(ra{mas, thus. 



Of Derivatives and Compounds. 

Of Derivative and Compound Nouns, 
I. Of Derivative Nouns, 
Nouns are geneTaHy derived from Nouns and Verbs. 

1. From Nouns, 

Substantive Nouns are sometimes formed from Adjective Nouns 
and Substantives, — Adjectives from Adjectives and Substantives. 

There are Six sorts of Derivatives from Nouns : — viz. Patrony- 
mics, Nationals, Possessives, Diminutives, Augmentatives, and De- 
nominatives. 

Patronymics. 

Patronymics, or Appellatives, taken from the name of the Father^ 
and given to his Descendants, are Masculine and Feminine. 
Masculines generally end in dris. 

1. From Nouns in as and ijSf of the First Declension, come the Patronymics in 
aSrjs ; as from Bopeas comes BopeddriSf from 'iTTTrori^s ^InTrordSfis, 

From Nouns in as the iBolians formed Patronymics in adios ; as 'TppdStos from 
*Tftpd9, 

2. From Nouns in os, of the Second Declension, come Patronymics in i^i|s and 
i(i)v ; as from ILpSvos come Kpovidris and Kpoviwv, The form itav was peculiar 
to the lonians. 

From Nouns in cos comes the form ladris ; as "HXios, *R\iddri£, Thus also Aaep- 
Ttddfis, fr. Aaeprios for Aaeprris, 



3. In Nouni of the Tliird DecJeiisioii the Genitive aervei as the \iaa\i of Die de- 

If the PmiilC oTtlie Genilive be short, the Fatronyinic ftom os ia fiinned in iS^t; 
ai 9f aroplitis bom OiaToip, Oca. QiaTopos : — if die Penult be long, in tajii« ; a) 
TfXaiiaiviaSti! from TeXa/iiui', Gen. TeXn/iulvaE. 

Hence from Noiine in evs, nhich in Ionic have the Genitive in qoc, the Fatro- 
nymica are fanned in tiiAltis; as nigXWii, HitXqot, ITqX)|VuJq;. 

Bui since these have aiso ecus in the Gen., we have the Patronymic IlijXoiJijt, 
conlTBcted TI>}\eiSi}s. 

The roims iBijs, laJqs, loviStjs, luixioSge are often interchanged. 

A Doric form of Patronymics was uivJas; as 'EffanctpiuvSas. 

Peminines end in as, it, vq. 

Thus 'HXids (rotn "HXios; Ilpin/ijs, BpioijI:, 'ArXavrJs, fivm the Genitives 
Hpidpov, BpuTftos," ArXavTos; 'ASpatrrivij ft." ASpaffroSf Nijpffij fr. ^tjpeiis. 

Nominative ; aa 'Avpirriiui'ii fr. 'Aepioio!, 'Hertiivi| fr. 'Heriwv, 'HAncrpuiuvij fr. 
'HXwrptww. 

Of all these Nouns auch as end. in St}s, (iiij, and aiyt) are of the 
Firat Declension, in iws of the Second, and in iiv, as, and ts of the 
Third. 

NaCionatt. 

National or Gentile Nouns of the Masculine Gender have in ge- 
neral the following terminations. 

I. —ot pure, from Primitivesinij, IE, low.andiuwi as 'Piu/ialos fr. 'Piipii, 'Afli,- 
valos fr, 'AO^wij, AvXi^ide fr. AiXis, BiiSdj.riw fr. BvKivTUV, Ba^vXiivios fr. 
Ba^tiXui'. 

S. — eus, ftDm eta and lof; as 'AXeEavSpeie fr. 'AXtS^vtpeia, Souvieis fr. 
Souviov. 

3. — (ji/oB, from a, k, and ijfi) ; as 'Be^ravijj'is fr. 'Ec^aravo, NKn^flci* 
fr. Ntoi^is, Su^qpAs ft. Swfiivij. 

4. — tvoB, from oil; aa Tapavrivos fr. TdpavToy, 'Pij^'ivdb fr. 'P^yioi'. 

5. . — Tijt (trjs, mr?jt, uirijs, iwriis) ; as 'A/3iijpirijs fr. 'A0Si)pa, AtjXirij!, or 
A^Xutt, fr. d^Xin, S?raaridrii« fr. Siraor^, 'H?rc(auri]s fr. 'HTTstpos, ZixeXturq; 
fr. 2«eX(H. 

Nationals of the Feminine Gender frequently end in — 

1. —aaa ; as 0py<rr>a fr. OpnJ, Kp^ooa fr. KpS!, toipiirctn fr. *oii/iJ, Ai^Buffira 
fr. Alfivs. 

S. —aiva fr. wr; as Aaxaiva fr. Aflicui'.— Or, 

3. — Conform to the common rule of A^cclives ; aa 'ASiivaia fr. 'ABiiviiiot. 

i. — Sometimes they are formed after the manner of Patronymics ; aa Siyait 
fr. SiyeiK, ■ij-aXis fr. 'IraXos. 

It may be observed tliat 'iTukiiiriii and SiceXiui^c signify the Greeks residing 
in Italy and Sicily ; 'IraXoi and SucoXoi, the native inhabitants. Thus also 'EXXt|- 
ignify persons using the Greek Language, and imitaCiug the manners of the 
"EXX|,i.t!, the natives of Greece. 



^^«aksi 
IvPoa 



Poisetiioet. 
Possessives ate derived from both Proper and Appellative Nouns. 

Somebmesthey enii in (OS or los; as 'Erropeot (r. ''Etruip, irarpuioi 



i 



100 

rp^ot, fir. wari^p ; — ^but they are more usually terminated in eiM or ko9 ; as 'A%iX- 
\eio9 fr. 'AytXXety*, AifXtaicds fir. A^Xo9. Some have both terminations ; as j3a<rc* 
\eios and pamXiKis fir. paviXeiis, dvOputireioi and &v9piairiKi^, also &v9pt!nnvos 
and dvOpwirw^iis fir. &v9puiro9. 

Diminutives, 

The chief terminations of this Class of Derivatives are the fol- 
lowing. 

1. — ttfov, etov, tov ; as yvvaiov fir. yvvi), dyyetov fir. dyyos, pifiXiov fir. /3(/3Xos. 

2. — oicvi} ; as irid&Kvti fi*. irc0os. 

3. — at ; as X^0d| fir. Xcdos, pStfiaK fir. p<afio\6xo9f pSda^ fir. p6dov, 

4. — ivva ; as icSpivpa fir. k^/oi}, ^tXcvva fir. 0(Xi|. 

5. — cs ; as Oepairatt/ls fir. Oepairaiva, Kptivls fir. Kprivfi. 

6. — ^tcricofi, ccrici} ; as fieipaicitrKos and fieipaiciffKri fir. fieipa^ ; Tat^icTKOSy irot- 
^lericif fir. irats. 

7. — tx^^» ^X'^V * '^ KvXtxvos fir. icvXtl, woKlxvti fir. t^Xcs. 

8. — aXcs, aXXcs ; as ^vcraXis fi*. f^vtra. 

iXosj tXXos, tXXa ; as vavriKos fir. vavTJis, XaiviKKa fir. \alva. 
vXts, vXXts ; as drpoicrvXts, or tirpoicrvXXis, fir. drpaKros, 
v\os, vWoff vWa ; as fiucKvXos fir. ftiKKbSf Doric for ftiKp68. 
vXKiov ; as et^vXXtov fir. el^os. 

9. ~~Siov ; as yrfdiov fir. y^, varpiSiov fir. irarrip. 

Some Diminutives have two or more terminations ; as fieipaieitrKos and neipoKiov 
fir. fteipat ; iTTTrapiov, iTriri^toVi iTTTrfericos, fir. WTros. 

From some Diminutives new ones are formed ; as fir. iroXlxvti (fir. ir5Xis) iro- 
X£%t/cov ; fr. ifidriov (fir. el/ia) IfiarUioVt IfiaTiddpiov, 

The Diminutive termination, however, is not always a mark of diminution ; thus 
fr. xpv^^h XP^^'-o^t gold ! fir. dpyvpos, dpyvpiov, silver; fr. voi/iPti, noi/iviO¥f 
a flock. 

We sometimes meet with Diminutives of Proper Names. 

Augmentatives, 

Of these some end in is ; as ^acrts, a great torcht fir. Sats ; — some in os ; as dp- 
veibs fir. &p9 ; — some in wi; ; as Spdffwv fir. Opaffvs ; — others in a^ ; as irXo^rali 
fir. irXovros. 

Denominatives, 

The following are the principal terminations. 
For the Masculine. 

1. — eis; as x<>p£6is fir. x^P^^* dfiaOoeis fir. afiaOos. 

2. — }}8 ; as oUiTfis fir. olicoff. 

3. — OS ; as ffrrovddios fir. (rirov^i), Travroios fr. irav, oifoavtos fir. o^pavbt, 
lirrrtK^s fir. Wttos, otw/xvXos fir. frrSfia, Kapwifioi fr. icap9r6s, aXi|div6« fir. dAi|9i)s^ 
dvOripbs fr. avBos. 

4. — overtos ; as ecoverios fir. eicoii'. 

5. — foBfis ; as Xc0(u^}}s fir. XcOos, rapaxfi>Sfli fir* rapaxri, 

6. — 0)1/ ; as AftveXutv fr. ^/iTreXos, ^Xaiwi/ fir. eXaia. 

See Numerals, p. 35. 

Some have various terminations ; as diiaBijdrjs and dfiaOoets fir. 6fia9o9. 



101 
For the Feminine. 

1. — a, fit aivaj fr. os ; as 0ed and Oiaiva fir. 9ebs, SovXti fir. dovXos, \vKaiva 
fr. Xvjcos. 

2. — aipa fr, tav; as Xeaiva fir. Xewi/, Oepdiraiva fi*. depairtav, 

3. — 6(a fr. 6VS and i|s ; as ^affiXeia fir. j3ao'c\6i^s, also /3a(nX(s, Pa<r(Xi<r<ra, 
fiaa'CKivva, firom the same ; lepeca fir. lepei^s, eiffefieia fir. eifaepiis, 

4. — 6ipa fi*. }}p ; as c^reipa fir. awrrip, 

5. — ca fir. i|s and oos ; as e^rv^^ fir. 66rv;^i)s, evi/ota fir. evi'oos. 

6. — (7(70 fir. a^, i^t rjs and vs ; as avatrva fir. dVa|| 7rev7i<r<Ta fir. wivtjs ; &c. 
See Nationals. 

7. — ^pta, ts, ait/ai fi". lys; as iroiriTpia fir. 9rot}}ri)S| Trpo^ijns fi*. irpo^rirrii* 
ixOvoTTtaXaiva fir. cxdvofroiXjjs ; Seffvdrrjs makes SeairSris and Beairoiva ; ai- 
XtiTifi has a{>X^ris and avXriTpis, 

8. — rijs ; as Kcueortis fir. KaKbs, rax^rtis fir. ra^ws. 

9. — vvif ; as diKauxrvvri fir. BiKaios, <Tu>^po<Tvvfi fir. viit^p^v. 

II. From Verbs, 

Besides the Participles there are many Nouns, both Substantive 
and Adjective, derived from Verbs, which in general are called 
Verbals, of which some follow the Active signification, and others 
the Passive. 

These Nouns are always formed from the Singular by rejecting 
the Augment, if there be any, and changing the termination ; and 
they are formed from the Active, Passive, and Middle. 

1 . From the Active, 

Nouns are formed chiefly from the Present and Second Aorist, 
and sometimes from the Perfect and First Aorist. 

From the Present come Feminines in i| or eia, which generally denote some 
action or power ; as vikii fir. vtKdu>f PaaiXeia fir. paffiXevw, dovXeia fir. dovXevta. 
To these may be added : — 

Feminines in is, and Neuters in os, which may also be derived firom the Present 
Middle ; as dvvafiis fir. Svvafiaif yevos fir. yivofiai. 

And Adjectives in i|8 ; as (rvi/6%i}s fir. trvvexdt* 

From the Second Aorist come Feminines in if or ea; as Xdxij fr.XaxeiVf 
idea fir. ideiv ; — and Neuters in os ; as Trades fir. wadeiv, Xa%os fir. Xax^iv. 
Also Adjectives in ]}s ; as eXXirri^s fir. eXXiveiv* 

From the Perfect we may notice SiSaxi^ fir* SediSaxct, Perf. of didatrKu>; 
r<ipaxi^ fir. Terapaxo-t Perf. of rapafrfrta. 

From the First Aorist, d6^a fr. edo^Uf Aor. 1. of toKe(ii\ OriKti fir. «0i|Ka, 
Aor. 1. of TiBfini. 

2, From the Passive, 

Nouns are formed from the First, Second, and Third Persons 
Singular of the Perfect. 

From the First Person those in fia, Neut ; firjt Fem. ; fios and fiwv, Masc. ; 
— as irpdyfia fir. nefrpayiiai, fiv^iiti fr. nenvriftai, if/aX/ids fir. e^aXfiai, eXerifnap 
fir. i^Xefifiat, 

From these words in fiwv come Substantives in /io<rvvf| ; as eXerifAoavvij. 



102 

From the Second Person come Nouns in is and m; as Xc^cs fr. XcXc^oi, 
woitimt fr. ireiro<9(rai, BoKi/iairia ft. MoKifiavai. 

Some Verbs in <uyw have both terminations ; as vypaivti, I wet, ^pavcai, 
whence Bypavtns and vypatrLa, t^pavtrts and ^ripavia fr. e^ripawcu. Here it u 
to be noticed, that those in crit are generally taken in an Active soise, as Bypavins, 
h$umeetation ; and those .in <rca Passively, as vypcuria, hmmidity. 

AdjectiTes in 9iot <v tniiot are formed like Nouns in <fis ; as Bav/idai09, xph' 

IftjlOt, 

From the Third Person are derived Substantives and Adjectives of different 
teiminatimis, which have always r for their characteristic. 

Thus, Masculines in general, and Active in signification, — ^in ri|« ; as Oear^ fr. 
T^iarai, Xvrp«ari^ fr. XeKvToiaTfu ; — in rifp ; as Trparr^p fr. ireirparaif vwn^p 
fr. vecufrrtu ; — in rutp ; as Krtinap fr. Kexnirai, ptir^ap fr. epfifiroL. 

All these terminations are sometimes found from the same root ; as Son^p, ^orifs, 
dt^Ti^p, iiStrriSf liitTtap* 

From these terminations are derived Feminines in rw, rpis, rpui, and reiptu 
See Denom. Fem. 

Here we may observe — 

To Nouns in rtfi may be referred those in tikos ; as KaBapri^s, KaOaprtK^ : — 
to those in rrip. Adjectives in nipios, and Substantives in rtipia and rripiov ; as 

fftart^p, trttrripws, vmrtipia ; Trort^p, irorriptov : — 
to those in rup, Substantives in ropia and ropiov ; as lanap, laropia, iaropiov. 

Those in rpo9f rpa, rpov, seen^ to be formed by syncope from words in rtiptot, 
Tfipia, rtipiov. 

Some of these Nouns take 9 instead of r ; as KoXvftptiOpa fr. Kokv/ipdua^ 

There are Three other terminations, derived from the Third Person Sing, of the 

Perfect Passive; viz. 

To$, generally with a Passive signification ; as iroifirbs fr. 'jreiroirirai : — 
Tvs, sometimes denoting art or capacity ; as KiOapitrrifs fr. KeKiBapurrcu : — 
Teov, corresponding to the Latin Gerund ; as XeKteov fr. XeXeicrai. 
These are sometimes formed from unusual Verbs ; as oicreov fr. oita ; and from 

thence A^ectives in sos ; as oiffriot. 

Note 1. These Verbal Nouns from the Perfect Pasrive do not alwajrs retain the 
Vowel of the Perfect : thus Opepfia fr. riOpapfAai, df^aipetrts fr. d^ypfitrat. 

Note 2. Sometimes the (t is omitted ; as xpa>fia fr. Kexp*^v/icu : — sometimes it 
is added ; as detrpits fr. SiSepcu: — and sometimes another Consonant; as dpx^Ofi^ 
fr. ofpxVM^'* 

S. From the Middle. 

From the Perfect Middle are derived Nomis with the following 
terminations. 

1. — ri ; as ewitrroXi^ fr. eirecrroXa, fr. kTriffTeXXa* ; but a is used instead of tf, 
if p precede ; as vwopd fr. eo'iropa, fr. trrrelpia. 

r baryton, generally in a Passive sense ; as Xoyos (whence \6yuiv), fr. 

2. — os\ XeXoya, fr. Xeyb). 

[ oxyton, generally taken Actively ; as ropbst fr. Teropa, fr. riftvt*. 
But Xoiir^s has a Passive signification. 

3. -i— 6i;s ; as ropeis fr. reropa. 

4. — ipo9 ; as (riropipos fr. etriropa, 

5. — avov ; as ^6avov fr. $6(i>. 

6. — ? ; as 0XAI fr. 0Xeya>, pwK fr. pri<T<Tw. 

7. — yp ; as TrapafiXw^ fr. irapapXiww, 



It may yet be noticed that there are Notins derived from Pav- 
tieiples ; as ovata, with its Compounds, from the Feminine of the 
Pres. Part, of ei^i, / am. 

From the Feminine of the Adjective IkHiv comes the Adj. e 



il. 0/ Compound Nouns. 
Some Nouns are compounded with Adverbs ; as o/idSouXot from 
o^ow and SovKoi, ■TraXivrpowos, /loyiXaXoi ;^— and some with Prepo- 
sitions ; as Avairrjpoi, wpooirTOi, ^povpos fr.xpo and ovpot : — but n: 
Compound Nouns are formed of Nouna and Verbs. 

In words compounded wiih bfiov, Klien v is omitled and e followii, oc reDialns 
fr. i/ioapi^iris, 

I. Of a Noun with a Noun. 

We sometimes find three or more Nouns compounded in one word, 
but usually only two. 



med of two Nemlaalives 
id iiax'ia. 
and oe, reject s before a Consonant! 
ns s ; as SeoaSoTOi: and so 



ipOEition one Vowel is used for another ; 



Note 1. Nouns in oi 
vavSeaia, &c. : — but i 
; a> Bea^uTos. 

Notei. Sometimes; 
/los for ilpepaSpiiios. 

Note 3. ria, (contracled ■ 
jiirpijs: — when la£t, the woi 

2. Some Compounds Hre formed of a Nominatiue and Genitive: as veiiaoaos 
fr. ffiwf and oIkos -, Kirpovovpat tr. KvviK and ovpau 

ffote 1. The Genitive of the First and Second Dedensiun in ou, and of the Third 
it) OS, generally omits the iinal letter before aConaonanli as Xfaroxrivos, XtOoro- 

Nole 2. The Doriar 



3. Some Compounds are farmed of a Nomiaalive and a Dalive, Singular or Plural : 
as ^apiao^os, fr. x^V' i""* oo^it ; opefffrpu^os, &. flpeffi and rpo^os. 

4. Some Compounds are formed of a Nominative and NamiHalive or Jcevsalive 
Kealer; ax iifyaBiifiot, fr. piya and Bv/ibs; SvoiiAxKvroi, fr. ivo/ta and eXutoi. 

5. Id respect to Compounds with^umerab il may be noticed, that iravrs some- 
limei ret»ni the final e, as irevreofipiyyos ; and sometimes changes il into a, aa 
jretrri-KOVS : — e£ also admits of a, aa sleriis and eSasnj! : — from iKTui is formed 
6*Tilirovs, and more frequently iicriwDV! ■■ — from eiKOffi, einotiVTAliov and ei'ico- 
aaardttovi — irom eKarbv, ii:ar6vrapxot. 



I Wem 



» compounded of a NeuH and a 



104 

II. OJ a Noun with a Verb. 

Noons, oompounded with Verbs, are generally compounded with 
the Present, the First Future, or the Second Aorist. 

That with the Pre lent, fepimapiros, repirucepawos, Xenrorocnfc, /Mufovot, 
f€pi<rfiiott roXoiirwpot. 

Those with the Future generally take i before a Consonant; as Seundeufutv, 
fr. the Put. of ieldtit and iai/utv ; kpviriiroXix, treurt^Owv. 

But Verbs that have t in the Penult of the Future, take o in composition ; as 
§iti60fip. 

Some Compounds take their second part from a Future in f or ^ ; as KaXXire^,- 
oUoTpvp, 

Compounds of the Second Aorist follow the same analogy as those of the Pre- 
sent ; thus iaxiOv/iot, Xa9i^oyyo9 ; and d^/i/ioBi^ fr. the Adverb d^j/e. 

Of Derivalwe and Compound Verbs. 

I. Of Derivative Verbs, 
These are chiefly derived from Nouns and Verbs. 

1. Some are derived from Nouns. 

Such are most in aut, ew, om, evta, aZ^, i^^iti, a»2[a», aivta, vvoi. 

Thus ri/iddf fr. rifii), ^iXew fr. ^tXos, dijXoia fr. dfiXos, lovXevut fr. iovXoSf di- 
KaZiit fr* ^iicif, eXfrt^cif fr. €\9rc8, varpt^t*** fr* irarp^otf <rtifiaipia fr. <r^fia, fifi- 
Kvp<a fr. /iriKO£, 

2. Some are derived from other Verbs. 

Thus Inceptives in ffKto or ffKo/iai ; as iXdffKOfiai, fr. iXato. 

Some from a Future ; as yafiritreua fr. the Fut of ya/ieu. 

Some by Reduplication ; as ftapfialpia fr. fiaiput. 

Some by the insertion of y, 0, c ; as irirvut it, ireTM^ reXeBuf fr. reXiia, ^Xeiew 
fr. dXiiMt, 

Some in avut and aiv(») fr. Verbs in aio and eta ; as KaOurrdvu} fr. KaOitrrdu, 
Xvtriralvu> fr. XvtrffdM, aif^dvia fr. at&^ew, Kepdaivut fr. Kcpdita, 

Some in i|/ic, utui, and v/ii, fr. Verbs in aia, 6«i», oat, and vw ; as Vorif/Ltc fr. oraw, 
riOtifii fr. TweiMtf oiSiafit fr. didow, dvfii fr. ^vw. 

Some in vvb) and t/v/L(t, with a single or double v : — 

1. fr. Verbs in ao), e<o, oiit ; as reeravvvia, ireTavvvp.it fr* verdia ; Kopewvia, 

Kopevvvntf fr. Kopeui ; ;^p(iii/i;v4t>, xpbtvvvfiif fr. XP^^* 

2. fr. Verbs in yo), ic(i>, x<^; as Z^evyvvia, l^€vyvvp.it fr. (svyw; ieiKVVu, 

deiKVVfii, fr. ^ecfcb) ; dxw/iai fr. dxofiai. 
Some from a Perfect Middle ; as KCKpdyu fr. KSKpaya : — ^in some the Redupli- 
cation falls away ; as Tpoficia fr* rerpofia. 

Some are gradually formed from other Verbs ; as eXcu, SXjcw, eXicv«i», eXicvora^M. 

3. Some Verbs are derived from Adverbs and Prepositions ; as eyyl^M fr. eyy^, 
dpTidia fr. dvrL 

ir. O/* Compound Verbs. 
Verbs are compounded with Nouns, Adverbs, and Prepositions. 

1. Some are compounded with Nouns ; as XiOoPoXita, fr. XiOos and /SoXew. 

2. Some with Adverbs ; as evdoKeutf fr. ev and SoKeta, 

3. Many with Prepositions. 



105 

Here it may not be amiss to notice the general force of the Pre- 
positions, in composition with Verbs, &c. 

'A/i0 1 generally implies round about, doubt, or ambiguity; as dfi^ipdWu, 1 
embrace; dfif^ido^ivj, I doubt, 

'Avd signifies repetition, or elevation; as dvaXan^vta, I take again s dva-* 
paivta, I ascend, 

*Avri implies opposition, equality, some duty or return ; as dvriXiyiOf I con- 
tradict! dpTideos, equal to a God; dvTidiSiOfii, I repay. 

'A TT 6 implies separation or negation, and sometimes augments the force of the 
Verb; as dvepxoiiai, I go away; dirS^rifii, I deny; dvoftavBdviMtf I unlearn; 
diroBeiicvvfii, I demonstrate. 

Aid imports division, through, or over; as SiaKpiviOf I distinguish ; diopdt^, I 
see through; diavpatrffio, I perfect; diapaivutf I pass through or beyond, 

Ecs denotes motion; as eifraycu, I introduce; 6t(r/3a\X(i>, I attack, 

'Efc or 'E^ signifies from, out, and sometimes adds force to the Verb; as Hav- 
rXita, I draw out ; e^ayopevta, I speak out, declare publicly ; ^atreo/LUzi, / beg 
earnestly. 

*Ev implies rest, also motion; as ivTiBrifii, I place on; efifieviit, I remain in, or 
persist ; evitifii, I send in, 

*Eiri imports motion, rest, addition or increase, and also diminution; as sTrixsio, 
I pour in ; errtfievia, I remain or persist in; sTTidiBwiii, J add; 6irtfiv((i>, I sigh 
gently ; ewikevKOs, whitish, 

Kard signifies down, strengthens, and also gives a bad sense; as Karafiaivia, I 
go down ; KaraKpivu, I condemn ; Karaxpaofiat, 1 abuse. 

Merd denotes participation, change, also beyond; as fieraXaiipavia, I partake 
with ; fieravoeia, I change my opinion ; iierafAOpt^Su), I transform ; fieraPaivia, I 
pass over or beyond. 

Tlapd imports proximity, and sometimes augments, or destroys, or changes the 
signification ; as irapeZofiai, I sit next ; irapo^vvia, I irritate ; wapai^poveio, I 
am mad; vapeivfa, I deceive, 

Tlepi signifies about, and also augments the signification; as TrepipaXKia, I 
surround; irepixalpia, I greatly rejoice; vepiyivofiaL, I surpass, 

Upb implies before; as vpoXiyia, I say before, or predict; vpottrrrifii, I place 
brfore. 

Jlpbs imports motion, and sometimes augments or diminishes the signification; 
as irpoffdyia, I lead to ; irpotrTiBtifii, I add to ; wpoffafftaipeia, I take away still 
more ; irpovavrofiai, I touch lightly, 

Jlifv implies with ; as trvvoiKeu), I live with, 

*Yir^(0 denotes excess, elevation, also in the place, or on account of; as vwip- 
fi€Tp09, immoderate ; vfrepTiBrifii, I place on or over ; vwepfiaivut, I pass over ; 
iffrepexfi»tlexcel; vrrepiiaxonai, I fight for, 

*Tird signifies under, and sometimes diminishes; as vwoTiBfifii, I place under: 
viraKovii), I hear with submission, or obey; ifvrdxXupos, somewhat pale. 



100 



SYNTAX. 

Stktax, or Construction, shows the right use of the several Parts 
of Speech in forming a sentence. 

I. Of the Article. 

1. The Article, 6, ^, rof agrees with the Noun, to which it relates, 
in Gender, Number, and Case. 

Thus, 6 fiifiXoSf the book ; to TraiBioy, the child ; 

ff fifiipUf the day ; ra dyofiara, the names. 

2. The Article is placed before the Noun, to which it relates ; but 
the Noun does not always follow it immediately, several words oflen 
intervening. 

Thus, 6 PatriXevSf the king ; 

oi iv To2s ohpavoTs ^yyeXof, the angels in Heaven ; 

TO, Trjs Tbiy woWiSy \pvxrjs o///iara, the eyes of the soul of many, 

3. The Noun, to which the Article relates, is frequently not ex- 
pressed, and is therefore understood, and must be supplied in order 
to complete the construction. 

Thus, oi adayaToit the godsy supply Beoi ; 

TO Xiyw, the word \iyto, supply prjfjLa ; 

TO (irpdyfJLaTo) rijs TvxriSf the things of fortune. 

When the Noun is expressed, to which the Article relates : — 

Note 1. The Article, joined with a Substantive Noun expressed, gives it a defi- 
nite sense. 

Thus, 6 Trpofft^Tfis, the prophet. 

Note 2. When two Substantive Nouns are connected by a Substantive Verb to 
form a proposition or affirmation, the Article joined with one of them, whether first 
or last in the sentence, denotes the subject of the proposition, the Noun without the 
Article being only the predicate or attribute. 
Thus, TTvevfia 6 Oebft, God is a Spirit. 

The same is to be observed in respect to Adjectives or Participles, when the Sub- 
stantive is not expressed ; as fiaKapioi oi eXeripoves, the merciful are blessed; — 
/laKOLpioi oi irevOovvTss, the mourning are blessed. 

Note 3. The Article is used to express a whole class or species of things. 

Thus, 6 ayBpurros eari Ovtirbs, man is mortal ; 

b Xiijv earl peya ^CJov, the lion is a large animal. 

Note 4. The Article is frequently put before proper names. 

Thus, 6 'loLKiaPoSf James. 
It is omitted, when some word of distinction with an Article follows. 

Thus, l^ioKpdTrjs 6 0tX6(ro0os, Socrates the Philosopher. 



107 

Note 5. The Article sometimes supplies the place of a Possessive Pronoun, but 
then the Genitive of one of the Personal Pronouns is understood. 
Thus, 6 Trarj)p, my father ; supply kpLov, 

Note 6. Although the Article has no Vocative, yet it is often used with a Noun 
in the Nominative for the Vocative. 

Thus, xaipe 6 paffiXevs riav 'lovdaiwv, hail. King of the Jews, 

When the Noun is not expressed, to which the Article relates : — 

Note 1. The Article is frequently used before a Genitive, some Noun referred to 
being understood. 

Thus, *AXeKavSpos 6 ^cXtTTTrov, supply vlbs, Alexander the eon of Philip. 
rd *OfiripoVf supply ffvyy pdfi/iara, the writings of Homer, 

Note 2. The Article, joined with an Adjective in the Neuter, expresses the 
abstract of the quality, signified by the Adjective. 
Thus, rb dfieXkSf carelessness ; supply fiOos. 

Note 3. The Article sometimes supplies the place of the Relative Pronoun. 

Thus, 17 eiTKTToXrjt rrjv eypa'^e^ efrri KaXi), the letter, which he wrote, is good. 
Or of a Personal Pronoun ; as 6 ^e elTre, hut he said. 

Note 4. The Article is frequently joined to a Participle. 

Thus, 6 fftvXdrrwv, the gtiarding, or he that guar deth; dv^p understood. 
Sometimes the Participle is understood ; as 6 nari^p vfiHtv, 6 (S>v) kv vols oit- 
pavols. 

Note 5, The Article in the Neuter Singular, joined with the Infinitive Mode of a 
Verb, is used for a Verbal Noun, expressing the action of the V«rb ; the Article 
being regularly declined, but the Verb remaining unchanged. 
Thus, Kaipbs rev apxeiv, time of beginning; 

rb Z^ITeTv etrrl uxpiKifiov, inquiry is useful. 

Note 6. Frequently the Article is connected with an Accusative and an Infinitive 
Mode. 

Thus, rb %a£p€ei/ rots fiifirmatn vdvras, this, that all should delight in tmi* 
tationsf 
wpb rov vfids airrjoai, before that you asked; 
kv Tip OTreipeiv airbv, while he sowed. 
In this mode of construction some word, as ;^poi'os, time, and Trpdyfia, circum' 
stance, must be understood after the Article. 

Note 7. The Article is used before Adverbs and Prepositions, the proper Noun 
being understood. 

Thus, 61 iriXas, {avSpes,) neighbours; 

rd Kad' rjfids, {trpdyfAara,) the things of our time. 
The Plural Article, followed by dn<pl or rrepl with a Proper Name, may have 
three significations ; thus 01 dfi^l or irepi JI\drii>va may signify — 1.) Plato him- 
self; — 2.) the attendants or disciples of Plato ; — 3.) Plato and his disciples. 

Note 8, With the Conjunctions fikv and ^6 the Article is used to contrast or 
distinguish. 

Thus, 6 /lev, the one; h ^k, the other: — rd fikv, some things; rddk, other 
things, 

II. Of Substantive Nouns. 

1. Of a Substantive with a Substantive, 

1. Two Substantive Nouns agree in case, when the one is used 
as attributive, descriptive, or appellative of the other. 



108 

ThuB, IIovXos iiitoaroKos, Paul an Apostle ; 

KpiT^ Ocf, to God the Judge ; 

Aafiii 6 PaaiXevSf King David. 
This agreement takes place, diough one or more words intervene. 
Thus, *0 Qeos etm wvev/xa, GoD is a Spirit ; 

6 AyBptiwos eXaXifO'e Htnrep vailiov^ the man spoke as a child, 

yvv^, ovdfiari Av^ca, a woman by name Lydia. 

Nate, Sometimes, however, without occasion, the one Substantive is put in the 
Gemtive ; as 'ABtiv&v iroXts ; Tpocifs wroXieOpov. 

2. One Substantive governs another in the Genitive, when the 
latter expresses that, which the former belongs to, or makes part of. 
Thus, fi fiaoiXela rwv ojipavufy, the kingdom of Heaven ; 

oi &vZpes Tov rdvov, the men of the place ; 

^Aiv^ v^arcifv, a sound of waters ; 

iivflp fieyaXris &perfs, a man of great virtue. 

Note 1. Sometimes an exception occurs to this rule, both Substantives being put 
in the same case. 

Thus, *£XXds 0ci»vi}, the Greek language; 
fidyo9 rexvri, the magic art. 
In such examples the one Substantive is used for an Adjective. 

Note 2. Frequently the Substantive, which should be in the Genitive, is governed 
by a Preposition introduced. 

Thus, KOtviavia kv rois KtvSvvois, for Koivtavid Kiv^vviov, 

%, Of a Substantive with an Adjective. 

Adjectives must agree with their Substantives in Grender, Num- 
ber, and Case. 

Thus, &vlp€s ayaBoXf good men ; 

ofjLiXiai caicac, evil communications ; 

iOyea iroWot, many nations. 

Note 1. The Substantive man, or tJtingf is frequently understood. 
Thzis, 6 oof^bs, supply dvOputnoSf the wise man; 
rd €fidf (xp'hf^^ra,) my thtngs, or property. 

Note 2. Sometimes the Adjective is in a different Gender from the Substantive, 
with which it stands, agreeing with some other Substantive understood. 
Thus, fftiXe tskvov, dear child (son). 

Note 3. Two or more Substantives Singular, joined by a Copulative Ooigunction, 
expressed or understood, have the Adjective in the Plural. . 

Thus, 6 7rari)p leal 6 vibs eioi dyadoif the father and son are good. 

Note 4. If the Substantives, connected by a Conjunction, differ in Gender, the 
Adjective agrees with the Masculine rather than the Feminine, and with the Femi- 
nine rather than the Neuter. 

Thus, dSekfftbs ^ dSeX^i^ yvfivoi, a brother or sister naked, 

ri ovos Kal rb Btipiov ehl didtftopai, the she-ass and the beast of prey 
are dissimilar. 
Frequently, however, when all or any of the Substantives signify tilings without 
life, the A<yective is put in the Neuter, xptipara (things) being understood. 

Thus, rf vdpdos Koi b ^pvcrds SoKOVVi dyaOd, sp^cenard and gold appear ^ood. 



ft?- 

3. Of a Substantive mith a Verb. 

A Verb agrees with its Substantive or Xominative in Number 
and Person. 

Tbus, Zev^is Eypai^E, Zeuxis painted ; 

rii otjiBaXfiai Kd/nrerov, tlie eyes shine ; 
KaTtfSovmv opviSes, hirda sing. 
Nntt 1. A Nominstive Dual is ftequently joined in prose with a Plural Verb, 

Thus, aiiijiu Xeyovai, both say. 
In the BBme manner & Subalantive Dual ia sometimes Tound with an Adjective 
Plural. 

e Plural of the Neuter Gender has generally the Verb in 



Note a. - 



Nun 



Thua, irdvra kyh 
Note S. A Suhstantii 
Plural Verb. 

Note i. Two or mor, 
ladvc Conji 



signifying multitude, though in (he SingtUar, may have a 



'• \a&s, all the people ihall sag. 

Nominatives, though in the Singular, if joined by a Copu- 
Bssed or understood, have the Verb in the Plural. 
Thus' t6 aripiia cai A eopirie iia^ipovai, the seed and the fruit differ. 
If Che Komiuatives diilbr in Person, the Verb agrees with the First Person rather 
than the Second, and with the Second rather than the Third. 

Thus, tyw Kai aii rd SiKaia jroi^ffD/iev, I and thou uiill do what u right. 
Note S. A Verb between two Nominatives ordHTerent Numbers, may agree with 
either. 

Thua, eOvoe ro\vavep'dTr^TaT6p itrri (or elxt) oi 'Apa^es, the Arabi ore a 
very papulous nalion. 

i. It is to be observed— 

a. The cause, manner, or instrument is put in tbe Dative. 

Thus, jL-parei (ei') /jij^t"'"''. he conquers by stratagems. 

b. The distance of one place from another is put in the Accu- 
sative. 

Th^^s,''E•(leoo!a.1rt■)(€lrp^iivi||l^plav{KaTl^)lllov,E'pkesilsisdistantBic, 
Sometimes the Accusative is underatood. 

c. The time When is commonly put in the Genitive, sometimes in 
the Dative ; — Hoiv long, in the Accusative. 

Thus, (Sii) ii/iipas jcal vvktos, by day and night ; 
(ky) VW P'?. on one day ; 
upyil (trnra) o\iyoy \T)(iiet xp^y""! anger prevails a short time. 

d. The question Whither ? is commonly answered by eis or jrpos, 
with the Accusative;— WAerc' by iv, with the Dative; — Whence? 
by tK or airo, with tbe Genitive ;— and By or through nliat place! 
by ha, with the Genitive. 

Thua, eii Ti)v 'AfTiox^iai', to Antioch ; 
iv 'Piu^jj, in Rome ; 
€K, or diro r^t wokeuit, from iJie city; 
ha yjjs, by land. 



3 



no 

e. The price or measure of anything is put in the Genitive; 
aometimes the price is put in the Dative. 

Thu8| iLyBpias (jcara ro firJKOs) ^vw^eKa wri^eay, a statue twelve 
cubits high ; 
ktyrivdfjLriy {6,yTi) ^vo ojSoXJi'y / bought it for two pence, 
(jbri) xpv9^ rriy yUriy utyiiaaTOf he bought the victory with 
gold. 

III. Of Adjective Nouns. 

1. An Adjective in the Neuter Gender without a Substantive 
governs the Genitive. 

Thus, TO Xoiiroy (ji^pos) rrjs ^fjiipas, the rest of the day. 

2. Adjectives, signifying plenty, worth, power, condemnation, dif- 
ference, and their contraries ; — also those compounded with a pri- 
vative, and such as signify an emotion of the mind, require the Ge- 
nitive. 

Thus, fietn-os Bopvfiov,Jvll oftumuU; 
eiralyov A^ios, worthy of praise ; 

eyicparris rtiy eiridvfjLiuy, having power over the desires ; 
eyoxos rov daydrov, guilty of death ; 
haijiopos rov etipov, different from the other ; 
Aweipos rrjs Ti\yTis, inexperienced in the art ; 
hriffTrifJuay rov wpdyfiaros, skilled in the affair, 

3. All Adjectives, taken partitively, govern the Genitive Plural. 
Thus, ol TTCLkatoi Tioy wotriTiSy, the ancient Poets; 

oi /Jtaraioi rwy iLyBpitiriav, foolish men; 

6 KaXXKTTOs Ttiiy Trorafiuy, the most beautiful of rivers. 

4. The Comparative degree is followed by the Genitive, which is 
governed by ayrl or wpo understood. 

Thus, fJiell^ijjy efjLov, greater than /. 

When fj or rjfrep, than, is used, the second Substantive is usually in the same 
case as the first, but sometimes in the Nominative, a Verb being understood. 

The Comparative fiaXKov is sometimes understood ; as leaXity rb fti) Zyv hirriv, 
^ l^yv dOXiiMts. 

5. Adjectives, signifying profit, likeness, trust, obedience, fitness, 
clearness, facility, and their contraries; — and those, compounded 
with ovy and o/iov, govern the Dative. 

Thus, \priaifiov iijjuy, useful to us ; 
ofioioi avrf, like to him ; 
wierTOs croi, faithful to thee ; 
virijKoos rf Oef, obedient to God ; 
eTirridrjs r^ ai/0p<tf7r^, suitable to man ; 



irpiicov ry /3affi\ti, becoming the king ; 

l^Xos ^fiiv, matiifest to us ; 

p^Siiv fiat, easy to me ; 

truyrpofos aJr ji, brought up mith him ; 

o[i6Texvoi kfioi, of the same trade with me. 

IIiotAs, and some, signifying lilteneas, may also have ilie Genitive. 

6. Adjectives are frequently joined with the Accusative, , 

position being understood. 

Thus, Metros jiaxVi supplj Kara, terrible injight. 



IV. Op Pkokouhs. 

The Personal Pronouns eyi and tri) are either Masculine or Fe- 
minine, according to the Gender of the person, to which they refer, 
but never govern a Case. 

1. A Substantive Noun agrees in case, and an Adjective Noun in 
gender, number, and case, with a Personal Pronoun, when they are 
used as appellative, descriptive, or attributive of the Pronoun, 
whether a Verb intervene or not. 

Thus, iybi IlauXos Syparpa, T Paul have written ; 

vfids eipj|Ka 0(Xoiis, / have called you friends ; 
tjjifii 01 ^uvarol, we, the powerful. 

2. A Personal Pronoun is governed in the Genitive by a Sub- 
stantive, when the Pronoun denotes that, which the Substantive be- 
longs to, or rnakes part of. 

Thus, TO riKvov ifioi, the son of me. 

The Personal Prononns, llius construed, are often used for Possessive Proi 
as ri ritvov e/ioS for e/iov. 

On the contrary a Possessive Pronoun is SDmctimes used afteF t Sutistanti 
stead of the Genitive of a Personal Pronoun, and the following Adjective I 
Btrurd, as agreeing with the Genitive of the Personal Pronoun, implied in th 



Thus, 



; i/tas tX^/iocos, for rixas ifiov r^ijfiovoe, (fte fortunea of i 
'elclted. 



3. The Demonstrative, Possessive, Indefinite, and Interrogative 
Pronouns agree with their Substantive in gender, number, and c. 
Thus, ovroi ivtjp, this man ; 

ifseripa w6\ii, your city ; 

•yvvatKis riiiet, certain women ; 

tIs BiSaxiJ aim lirri, what doctrine is this ? 

After airis, oSro«, skbTuob, and r(« the Sobstantive is generally oi 
these Pronouns ate immedialely joined with the Verbi as eceTfO! sSfj-] 
hath declared. 



I 



11£ 

4. The Reladve of agrees with its Antecedent in gender and 
nmnber, the case being regulated by some word in its own part of 
the sentence. 

Thusy 6 itrnPf os cXvc^eii the inon, who hopes ; 
ai ifiipaij kv als, the days, m nrAtcA. 

Note 1. The Reladve is tometimeii made to agree with its Antecedent, not only 
in gender and number^ but alao in case. 

Thus, hriorewrav rtf X5yy, f etwtv 'Iiyvovt, ikeff beUeved the ward, «dUdk 
Jesms said. 

Note 8. Twu or more Antecedents in the Singular, j<Hned by a Copulative Con- 
junction, expressed or understood, have the Relative in the Plural ; and if the An- 
tecedents differ in gender, the Relative agrees with the Masculine rather than the 
Feminine, and with the Feminine rather than the Neuter. 

Thus, 6 dvr^p mai ^ ywi), ol dyawum rbv Qebv, the wum and woman, who 
hoe God. 

Note 3. A Relative between two Antecedents of di£Rsrent genders may agree with 
eitiier. 

Thus, Tif (nrepnaTi oov, S« kori Xpior^, to iky teed, which U Christ, 

Note 4. Relatives, like Adjectives, often agree, not with die Antecedents ex- 
pressed, but with one implied and understood. 

Thus, ri}y ce^oXi^v, e^ ov, the hettd,/rom whom; Xpurr^ understood; 
rexvia fiov, o^, my little children, whom* 

Note 5. The Relative generally comes after the Antecedent, but smnetimes, 
especially when in the same case, it is put before it 

Thus, e/ieivev hv tf riv roirtfi, for ev rowtft, ev f ^v, he remained in the place, 
in which he was. 

5. The Interrogative tU governs the Genitive Plural, when the 
question applies only to a part of the persons or things mentioned. 

Thus, tU tovtuv Ttiy rpiuv ; wMch of these three ? 
Tivi Tuy dyyiXuv ; to which of the angels ? 

6. *0 avTos, signifying the same, is followed by the Dative; the 
Preposition avv understood. 

Thus, Tri$ avrfjs (rifilas toU k^aiiapravovvi, of the same punishment 
with the sinning. 



V. Of Verbs. 

1. Of a Verb with the Nominative. 

A Verb must agree with its Nominative in number and person 
(see Substantives) ; — and Substantive Verbs, Verbs Passive of nam- 
ing, and Verbs of state or gesture, have a Nominative both before 
and after them, belonging to the same thing. 
Thus, ol &ydpufiroi elwov, the men said; 

vfjieU iffre to <^ws tov Kotrfiov, ye are the light of the world; 
6 XpicTos oyoiAaierai larpos, Christ is called a Physician, 



11 



o 



2. Of a Verb with the Genitive, 

1. Substantive Verbs, when they sigmfy possession, property f or 
duty, are followed by the Genitive. 

Thus, Mtaerijs rjy ct^iwfjLaTos /leydXov, Moseswas of great reputation; 
avTtSy k(TTiy fi fiaaiXela tQv ovpavuiy, theirs is the kingdom 
of Heaven, 

The Genitive is governed by some Substantive or Preposition understood. 

2. Verbs, expressing the operation of any of the senses, except 
the sight, govern the Genitive. 

Thus, fii) fiov AwTov, touch me not ; 

iJKovffa (jtwyijs, I heard a voice. 
Verbs of sense with the Attics commonly take an Accusative. 

3. Verbs of beginning, admiring, desiring, wanting, remembering, 
accusing, partaking, excelling, ruling, valuing, and the like, with 
their contraries, govern, or are followed by, the Genitive. 

Thus, Apxetrde iLOi^rjs, Jfegin the song ; 
Oav/io^w aov, I admire thee ; 
hrierKowrjs opiyetrBai, to desire episcopacy ; 
XPlj^ere rovrtav &wdvT(jjy, ye need all these things ; 
Xiiyei rtoy wSytoy, he ceases from his labours. 

Note 1. Some of these Verbs govern the Genitive, but after others a Preposition 
or Substantive is understood. 

Thus, waveoOai rtis dpyfjs, (supply Awb or ^ic,) to cease from anger. 

Note 2. Many of these Verbs are occasionally found with other cases. 
Verbs of abounding, commanding, valuing are found also with the Dative. 
Thus, Ppviav {evi) fieXiTrais, abounding unth bees; 
^yeiro aifrols, he led them; 
vpiaffBai {etrl) fiovol, to purchcue for oxen. 
Verbs of desiring, remembering, obtaining, with the Accusative. 
Thus, woQSi aitrbv, I desire him; 

fiifivrifiai ravra, I remember these things; 
rvxeiv dTravra, to obtain all things. 
And many Verbs seem to require a Genitive or Accusative indiflferently ; but the 
Genitive ^en rather denotes a part in contradistinction to the whole, and depends 
upon rl, fiepos, or the like, understood. 

Note 3. The matter, of which a thing is made, is put in the Genitive after any 
Verb. 

Thus, rbv ii^ppov eiroirifrev (et) iox^p^v ^vXutv, he made the chariot of 
strong wood. 

4. Passive Verbs are followed by the Genitive of the Agent, 
governed by a Preposition, expressed or understood. 

Thus, Kol wpos vfiiSy \ei60iitTOfJiai ; shall I be left by you also ? 
(jtlXfoy yucwyrai ^iXoi, friends are overcome by friends. 

Sometimes Passive Verbs have the Dative of the Agent after them. 

Thus, ^va Tip MdpKtp vewpaKrai, how many things have been done by Mareut, 

I 



114 



3, Of a Verb with the Dative. 

1. *£0T^ or vwdpxeh taken for ^x^» ^ ^^^» ^ followed by the 
Dative. 

Thus, iarl fwi ypiifiara, I have ncJtes ; 

iipyvpioy ical jdpverloy ovk vwdp\ei fwi, silver and gold I 
have not, 

2. Verbs of acquisition, viz. of giving, declaring, using, serving, 
trusting, obeying, following, pleasing, conversing, contending, and the 
like, with their contraries, are followed by the Dative. 

Thus, f^orfdeiy r^ warpldi, to Jielp his country ; 
€iK€iv KaKoU, to yield to misfortunes ; 
fAaxetrOai to2s woXefiiois, to contend with the enemy ; 
nds &VI7P avrf vovei, every man labours for himself 

A Preposition may be understood after Verbs of following, comfersing, or con- 
tending. 

4:, Of a Verb with the Accusative, 

1. Verbs, having an Active signification, usually govern the Ac- 
cusative of the object of the action. 

Thus, Xa/i/3aVa» rijv inrnlda, I take the shield, 

2, Verbs of seeing always govern the Accusative. 
Thus, opia roy Kaipoy, I see the time, 

3, Every Verb may take an Accusative of a corresponding Noun. 
Thus, voKefjLoy voXefdieiy, to wage war, 

4. All Verbs are followed by the Accusative, when a Preposition, 
governing the Accusative, is understood. 

Thus, dXycii (jcara) rrjy K€(l>a\rjy, I am pained in my head. 

The Preposition most frequently understood before the Accusative is Kara, 

5, Of Verbs with two Cases, 

1. Some Verbs are followed by — 

a. A Genitive with a Dative. 

Thus, wXeoycKTui trov (ev) Tovr^, I have more than (sur^ 
pass) you in this, 

b. A Genitive and an Accusative. 

Thus, diofxai flrov (<cara) ra iUaia, I am in need of {apply 
to) you for justice, 

c. A Dative and Genitive, as Verbs of partaking. 

Thus* Koi.v(avQ <toi (Ik) rovrovf I partake with you of this. 



115 

d. A Dative and Accusative, 

Thus, |3oi(9w (foi {Kara) to irpay/in, / ajtii-( you in Ihin 
affair. 

e. An Accusative and Genitive; as Verbs of arfwwmg-, enoj/ing-, 

accusing, acquitting. 

Thus, Bavfid^ut ae (Syexti) TJjs aperrji, I admire you Jur 
your virtue. 

f. An Accusative and Dative ; as Verbs of giving, declaring, 

comparing, &c. 

Tbua, £os ravra cfioi, give these things to me. 

g. Two Accusatives ; as Verbs of asking, teaching, clothing, 

concealing, &c. 

Thus, alreiy Toy Qtov {earii) aofiay, to ask GOD for 
wisdom. 
And with the Attics sometimes Verbs of giving, hurting, nc- 
cusing, and their contraries. 

Thus, (c(s) ai yeiiui [liBv, I give i/ou nine to taste. 
In such instances the one case is governed by a Preposition, 
Adverb, or Substantive understood. 
2. Verbs signifying to do or speak well or ill have frequently two 
Accusatives, the one governed by Kara understood. 

Thus, «-oXX(i iiyaOa (nara) r^y 7r6\iy tiraljjae, he conferred many 
services on the city. 

Instead of the Accueative o( the thing, the Adverhs fS, >caXu;, cncus, are fre- 
quently substituted. 

Thus, TQV ifiXoy fij} KaxSis \iye, ipeak not ill of your friend. 

S. The Passives of such Verbs, as have two Cases, are followed 
by one of them. 

Thus, rcvoljirai (eic) Kl/Kov, it is made of wood. 

The Middle Voice, as it partakes of the signification, follows ilie 
Rules of the Active, in respect to the government of Notms. 

Some Verbs have different significations according to the differ- 
ent cases which follow them. 

Thus, d^ucDfTai atjiiniy avrott, they defend themselves ; 
^fivvaro Toirs woXe/ilovs, he repelled the enemies. 

Other Verbs have different cases, but the same signification. 

Thus, awoXaOeiy riyos, and inroXaiiety ri, to enjoy something. (See 

p. lis.) 

Verbs, compounded with a Preposition, frequently govern the 
case of the Preposition with which they are compounded. 
Thus, ffiiriXaj3ty fifiiv, he met us. 

Suropivyuf rqs tjiOopas, to escape the corruption. 



IIG 



6, Of Impersonal Verbs. 

1 . An Impersonal Verb governs the Dative. 
Thus, ixpeirey avrf, it became him, 

2. Ae? and ^pi* signifying necessity or want, and eXKelweif /LieXec, 
dia<liip€iy fiiretrrif Mexerai have the Dative with the Genitive. 

Thus, xf>// eroi ^/Xwv, you need friends ; 

€K€lvu>v Tois <l>av\ois fiiTeoTif the wicked have a share of them, 

S, Xpfif irphrei, and dei, it becomes, require an Accusative before 
an Infinitive. 

Thus, xpj) vfias woieiy rovro, it becomes you to do this, 

7. Of the Infinitive. 

1. The Infinitive Mode is governed by Verbs, Adjectives, or some 
Particle, such as its, vpiv^ &'XPh h^'XP*- 
Thus, QkXta fiiyeiVf I wish to remain ; 
Uayos €lw€iyf qualified to speak ; 
Cjs &w\fos eiweiy, to speak plainly, 

Z, The Infinitive is often put elliptically, the Imperatives ^ny, 
/SXeire, <rK6wei, or the Particle i^trre being understood. 

Thus, avTOS eyl wpwronri (/SX^ire) fid^etrdaif yourself fight among 
the foremost ; 
(j&cre) /jLiKpov Beiy, to want little, almost, 

3. The Greeks use fiiWio with an Infinitive, to express the Future, 
both Active and Passive, which in Latin would be rendered by a 
Participle of the Future and the Verb sum. 

Thus, wept wy vfieis fiiWere Kplyeiv, of which things ye are about 
to judge. 

When the event is to follow immediately, the Present Infinitive is used ; when at 
an indefinite distance of time, the Future. 

4. When the Conjunction that, 6ti or &s, comes between two 
Verbs, it is frequently omitted, by changing the Nominative into the 
Accusative, and the Verb into the Infinitive. 

Thus, ^fiTiy tre wapetyai, for Sri av iraprjs, I thought that you were 
present. 

Note 1. The Accusative before the Infinitive, if a Pronoun, is firequently omitted. 
Thus, e^Tj ^ijTelv, (supply iavTbvt) ^ *^^ that he was inquiring. 

Note 2. The Infinitive is often preceded or followed by a Nominative, instead of 
the Accusative, 

Thus, e^ritre 0(Xos eTvatt he said that he was a friend. 

6 ^AXeKavSpos efatXKev etyat Aibs vibs, Alexander said he vat this «o» 
qfjope. 



117 

5. The Infinitive of a Substantive Verb has the same case after it 
that it has before it. 

Thus, eBiovTo ahrov elyai vpoOvfiov^ they begged him to be zealous; 
i^efrri fiol yevetrdai ehBaifwvi, it is allowed to me to be happy ; 
iceXevta tre eJyai wpdOvfiovy I command you to be zealous. 

Sometimes the Accusative follows the Verb, and is understood before it 

Thus, deofieOa vfiStv elvai dyaOoifS, (supply vfidSf) we beg of you that you may 
be good, 

6. The Infinitive is used with or without a Preposition, in the 
sense of the Latin Gerunds and Supines. (See Article, p. 107.) 

Thus, iwitrrdfievos iro\€fil(eiyf skilled in waging war ; 
Metros Xiyeiy, powerful in speaking ; 
kv T^ fjiadeiVf in learning ; 

'irnrTovs vi/jiwet ewiffKoireiy, he sends trusty men to examine ; 
KaWiara lieiy^ most beautiful to behold, 

8. Of Participles, 

1. Participles, like Adjectives, agree with their Substantives in 
gender, number, and case. 

Thus, *ltaavvris Ktipvavtavy John preaching ; - 

/3X69rei rov *lrierovy epx^fjievoVf he sees Jesus coming ; 
vwoaTpixj^ayres oi &9rooroXoc, the Apostles having returned, 

2, The Participle governs the case of its own Verb. 
Thus, wifji\pas fte, having sent me ; 

iiKovovT€s Trjs tpbjyrjs, hearing the voice, 

S, The Participle governs a Verb in the Infinitive, when the Verb 
expresses the object, to which the action of the Participle is directed. 
Thus, wifji\lms /jie f^airrlieiyf having sent me to baptize, 

4. The Participle is often used instead of the Infinitive after a 
Verb or another Participle. 

Thus, oh iravffOfjLai ypa^tuv, / shall not cease writing ; 

elBiits iLwoBwerwyf knowing that he would recompense. 

After iffri or hv with a Dative, the Participle has the force of the Indicative with 
a Nominative. 

Thus, 6^ <roi i^dofiev^ etrri, if you please, 

5, Participles are elegantly used with Verbs of gesture , and eifti, 
ylyofAaif vTrdpyw, ^x^* icvpfo, rvyxjaytaf (jtddy^f \ayddyu>f to express 
what in Latin would be rendered by some Tense of a single Verb, 
or with the assistance of an Adverb. 

Thus, fxoyro i^ipoyres^ they went away, carrying ; or they carried 
away. 



118 

ovic exj^s vnrjpxev uty, fie was not an enemy ; 

Tov \6yoy erov Oav fjtdtras ^x^* ^ ^^^^ admired your speech ; 

2!wacpari|s rvyxdy^*- trepiwarwyf Socrates happens to be tvalk- 

fiiye us Kvptis ^lav (aeavroi/), remain as you are ; 

^ddvu rovs (jUXovs ehepyeruyy I anticipate my friends^ con" 

ferrmg heneJUs ; 
^aQty v7r€K<l>vy(ayf he was concealed, stealing away ; or he 

state away secretly ; 
XilffovfTi Xiyovres, they will be ignorantly saying. 

Note. The various modes of existence or action are expressed as follows, by 
Auxiliaries and Participles : viz. Simple existence, by ei/il ; — Commencement, by 
yivofiat; — Priority, by ifTTOLpxiff't — Energy, by e^w; — Accident, byicvpti), or rvyx*' 
rw; — Anticipation, by ^9dv<a; — Secrecy, or Ignorance, by XavO&via, 

6. The Adjectives BrjXoSf (jtayepos, a^avi^s, &c. with ei/ju, are fre- 
quently followed by a Participle. 

Thus, ahros tovto iroiQv fftayephs ijy, he was manifest doing this, 

7. A Substantive with a Participle, whose case depends upon no 
other wordy is put in the Genitive Absolute ; — sometimes by the 
Attics in the Accusative ; — very seldom in the Dative. 

Thus, TOV ijXlov riXXoyroSf the sun rising ; 

rpla oyra rwy *Atrffvpiuy t^povpia, there being three garrisons 

of the Assyrians ; 
o\s yeyofjLiyois, which thitigs being done. 

Sometimes either the Substantive or Participle is omitted ; as kfjiov waidds, sup- 
ply 8yro9f I being a child, 

8. The Participles of Impersonal Verbs are often used absolutely. 
Thus, Teix^trai ^ioy, it being necessary to build a wall, 

9. When the necessity of an action is to be expressed, the Greeks 
instead of a Participle use a Verbal Adjective, ending in reos, cor- 
responding with the Latin Participle in dus. 

Thus, 6 &yaBbs fioyos rifiriTios, the good man alone is to be ho^ 
noured ; 
ovTta ^^ etrri 7ro(i|reov, thus it is to be done. 

The Neuter Plural is more frequently used by the Attics. 

Such Verbal Adjectives in the Neuter, with the Verb earl, govern 
the ease of their Verbs, and the Dative of the Agent. 
Thus, ypawrioy kmi fww kirivroX^y, I mu$t write a letter, 

S<»netimes kvrl and the Agent are understood. 



119 

VI. Of Adverbs. 

1 . OJ f>n Adverb with a Substantive or Adjective Noun, or a Pronoun, 

1. Adverbs of time, place, quantity, order, cause, exception, and 
the like, are followed by the Genitive, which is generally governed 
by a Preposition understood. 

Thus, ^ois Tov vvv, till notv ; 

kyyvs (c^') a\o%, near the sea ; 
&\is \6y(av, enough of words. 

Note 1. To the Adverbs, which are thus followed by the Genitive, especially 
belong: — dfvev, arept without; dxph ^XP*^> ^^» ^^X^f separately; eyyi&s, near; 
evrbSf tvithtn; 6|a>, eKrbs, TrapeKrbs, Y^pis, without; efiirpoffOev, trpotrdpoiOev, 
ev(otriov, before; evavri, Karevavri, evavriov, opposite; ea>s, fJtexph to; fieraKbt 
between; 7rXi)v, besides f except; irSftpta, further; bTriffutf after; eir&via, above; 
evexa, h/€Kev, x^P*-"^* <^ account of 

Note 2. TLXiioiov is found also with the Dative ; as vKriaiov rivlf near to some 
one. 

Note 3. nXi)i/ sometimes assumes the nature of a Disjunctive, and is followed by 
every case, according to the government of the Verb, with which it is connected. 
Thus, oitSev e<rriv dfXXo <l>dpfiaKov, ttXt^v \6yos, there is no other medicine 
but reason; 
oh Oifiis vXrjv rots fiaOijrdiffiv Xeyeci/, it is not lawful except to the 
disomies to speak, 

2. Adverbs, signifying together, are followed by the Dative, 
governed by the Preposition trvv understood. 

Thus, &fjia {ffvy) ry fifJiip^', at day-break ; 

oyLov (jrvv) rols 6lXKois, together with the others. 

3. Adverbs of swearing are generally followed by the Accusative, 
governed by a Preposition understood. 

Thus, v^ Tfiv vfieTipay icavxiy^tv, by your rejoicing ; 
val fik ToBe vtcrjirTpoy, by this sceptre, 

Md generally denies, unless it is joined with val : vi) aflSrms, unless joined with 
a Negative. 

4. Derivative Adverbs generally require the same case with their 
Primitives. 

Thus, &{/a»s rrjs KKfitrewSj worthily of the ealUng ; 
6/jLoltas Tois Avdeeri, like the flowers. 

But bfioltas is found also with the Genitive. 

5. The Adverb J, of addressing, is joined with the Vocative ; 
and J (or &), of exclamation, grief or admiration, is joined with any 
case, except the Dative. 

Thus, J Aydptave, O man ! 

J TOV OavfAaros, wonder f 



120 

J raXas cyM, miserable num that I am / 
J ifA€ ^eiXay, O wretclied me ! 

Sometimes the Genitive is put alone, the Adverb understood. 
Thus, rn^ Tvxn^t fo>' « ^^ 1"^%^^* O fortune I 

6. The Adverbs ot and oval are followed by the Dative. 
Thus, oi lioij Ah me! 

oha\ vfiiyf woe to you ! 

7. "I^e (or 1^6,) and llov^ beholdy though sometimes found with the 
Nominative, are really Verbs, and govern the Accusative. 

Thus, i^e 6 hfivoi rov Oeov, befiold the Lamb of God ; 
iM fi€, behold me, 

8. Adverbs of time are sometimes changed into Adjectives. 
Thus, oif xf>]) wayyv\ioy evdeiy fiov\ri<^6pov &ySpaf it does not be- 
come a man of counsel to sleep the whole night* 

2, Of an Adverb with a Verb. 

1. Uply, before f with or without $, than^ (as it is frequently ua- 
derstood,) has sometimes the Indicative, Optative, or Subjunctive, 
but generally the Infinitive, preceded by an Accusative : — with av, 
it governs the Subjunctive. 

Thus, TTpiv rj ffvyeXdeiyf before they came together ; 
wply iLkiKTopa t^idyriaai^ before the cock crow ; 
irplv elirev, before he said ; 

wply fj ^x^^* ^foT^ ^ ^"f^y ^^^ f 

vply fj t^;/, before he should have seen ; 

irply hy incovcrys, before you should have heard. 

2. Adverbs of quality are elegantly joined with Verbs. 
Thus, ii^us ^e ((re) npos Awayras, be pleasant to all; 

€v wd(r\€iyf €v iroieiyf to receive, to confer benefits. 

3. M^, (Adverb of prohibition,) and ov, like the Latin Negatives, 
stand before their Verbs, but are translated after. 

Thus, ov (juifii, I say not ; 
fxij ypa^e, write not, 

^^9 forbidding, is used with the Present Imperative, and the 
Future Indicative ; — ^with the Aorist Optative, when referring to the 
past ; and the Aorist Subjunctive, when it refers to the Future. 

S. Of an Adverb with an Adverb, 

1. Some Adverbs have others particularly corresponding with 
them, which are therefore used in construction. 



1«1 

Thus, ws — ovTus ; ^TTov — licet ; tore — 6t€ ; &c. (See List of Cor- 
relative Particles, p. 98.) 

Sometimes one of the Correlatives is omitted. 

Thus, yevriO^Tta rb 9e\fifid (Tov, ws ev oi^pavif, Kal ^vi rrjs yrjSf — for ol;ra> 
Kai krrl rfjs y^s. 

2. Two or more Negatives strengthen the Negation ; and two Af- 
firmatives strengthen the affirmation. 
Thus, ovK itrriv ovBey, there is nothing ; 
ov firl TTioi, / rvill not drink ; 

ovdiirore ovMy ov firj yivrirat, nothing will ever be done ; 
afijjyy hiirjv \kyto vfxiy, verily ^ verily I say unto you. 
If a Verb come between the two Negatives, they make an affir- 
mation, as in English. 

Thus, ov dvydfxeda firl XoXetv, we cannot but speak, 

S, *CU strengthens the Superlative, particularly in Adverbs, and 
sometimes the Positive. 

Thus, &s TdxivTaj as quickly as possible ; 
&s aXriBws, certainly, 

VII. Of Prepositions. 

The principal relations of things to one another are expressed in 
Greek by three cases; — origin and possession by the Genitive, 
acquisition and communication by the Dative, and action by the Ac- 
cusative. 

The other relations of time and place, cause and effect, motion 
and rest, connexion and opposition, are expressed by Prepositions. 

Every Preposition has one primary meaning, to which may be 
referred all the other significations, attached to it, arising from the 
case, with which it is joined. 

The following Examples are given, as showing the government 
and chief significations of the Prepositions. 

Four Prepositions govern only the Genitive ; drri, iiro, €k or ef, 

irpo, 

1. 'ANXr, AGAINST, INSTEAD OF. 

It generally denotes some opposition, exchange, or comparison. 

Thus, iLyijp kyr* av^pbs ^irw, let man go against man; 

eipiiyri Ayri iroXefwv, peace instead of war; 

kyla hyrl dytatSy, sorrow against (in addition to) sor- 

rows; 

offkBaX/jLoy dvrl 6<l>daXfiov, eye for eye; 

dyr* dpeTrjs rifidaOai, to be honoured for virtue; 

dyrl TcoXXiay, against {instead of, equal to,) many. 



122 

9 

2. *AnO\ FROM. 

Thus, dwo Tov vvpyov, from the tower; 

dtro SeliryoVf from (after) supper; 

diro TOV ©xXov, from (on account of) the crowd; 

dwo tQv ^irXwv, from (apart from^ without) arms; 

dwo OvfjLoVf from (against) the mind. 

'Air^, in the sense of the last example, is sometimes written with the Accent on 
the Penult. Thus d'lrb yviafitjs imports — according to my mindf and dwo yvutfiris, 
against my mind:'—&iro rpdirov, unbecoming. 

3. *EK OB 'E/sr, OUT OF. 

Thus, dK£(r\l(rBri \iBos e$ opovs^ a stone was cut out of the mountain; 

ki AlyvTTTov, out of Egypt; 

e£ elpfivrfs woXefieiVf from peace to make war; 

€K <l>v<r€U)s ^oOelst given from (hy) nature; 

€K TiSy voinafy, from (by^ according to) the laws; 

€K delwyoVf from (after) supper; 

e£ Surayrwy ^ypos^ pale (distinguished) out of all, i. e. 

above all. 

'Ek and dirb are sometimes used indifferently. 
Thus, ol iXf or dirb rrjs Sroas, tfie Stoics; 
ef, or air' dpiarov, c^ter dinner, 

4. nPO\ BEFORE, as to place and time. 

Thus, TTjDo Twy Bvpwy, before the doors; 

Tcpo rod voXijjjQv, before the war; 

7r6\€fioy Tpb elpffyris aipieraif he chooses war before (in prefer^ 

ence to) peace; 
irpb TiiSy yvyaUwy /la^e^ac, to fight before (for, in defence of) 

their wives. 



The Prepositions ey and trvy govern only the Dative. 

1. *EN, IN, AMONG. 

It is used sometimes to express motion, for cis ; and frequently 
with the manner or instrument^ in the sense of through, by, with. 
Thus, ey rovr^ rf T6ir^, in this place; 

ey fjLol earl, it is in me, or in my power; 

iy Tpialy fifiipais, in three days; 

oiKeiy iy woKlTais, to dwell among citizens; 

dnoffTeWwy trrparibiTas ky ry SiKeXl^ sending soldiers (to be) 

in Sicily; 



123 

&yy€\o$ Karifiaiyetf ey rp KoXvinfiriOp^j^, an angel descended into 

the pool; 
€v €/Aol Spacvsf bold to {against) me; 

ilyero ev rf n-vevfiarii he was led by the Spirit f 

ir vlf fifjLiv €\akri(r€f He hath spoken to us by, or through, 

his Son; 

ey wiXrats iiayutyl^etrdai, tojight with shields; 

iy rovTois vttcltois, in (under) such Consuls; 

ky ^apfi&xf ktrfii it is in the place of medicine, 

2. SY% WITH. 

Thug) /3a0riXevs <rvy arparevinaTif a king with his army ; 

ffvy Tf Benryeiy dx^XOer, he departed with (at) supper»time ; 
c»y rf yofjt^i with (according to) the law* 



One Preposition, els, governs only the Accusative. 

Ers, INTO, TO, TOWARDS, AGAINST, IN. 

Thus, ey^Pri els irXo'ioy, he went into a ship ; 

iiyiPri els to opos, he went up to (on) tlie mountain; 

SLiroareXia els avrovs vpot^ifTas, I will send prophets to them; 
evyovs eU rov Bfjfwy, well 'disposed towards the people; 

els TpiTTjv fffiipay irapelvai, to be present against, or on, the 

third day; 
iyKXrifia els 'AOrfyalovs, an accusation against tlie Athenians; 
Xiyei els ahrov, he speaks in respect to him; 

els olKoy effTi, he is in a house; 

idwKey aW^ els triroy, he gave it to him towards (for) food; 

els BiKa ern, towards (about, for,) ten years; 

els &irai, for once; 

els Bvo, two by two. 



Two Prepositions, ^la and virkp, govern sometimes the Genitive, 
and sometimes the Accusative* 

1, AIA\ THROUGH, BY MEANS OF, ON ACCOUNT OF. 

The Genitive, THROUGH, BY MEANS OF. 

Thus, ha rrjs x^as, through the country; 

^la \eiiiQyos, through winter; 

irayra IC avrov eyiyero, all things were made by Him; 



124 

Sia fAiXayos ypafeiy, to write with black ink; 

^i fifAepwVf through (after) some days ; 

KtSfiai ^ca woWov, villages far asunder; 

^la riXovs, to the end^ continually; 

^la rpirris iifiipaSf every third day ; 

^i alerxvyris ^xeiy, to hold in respect; 

ha x^tp^s 1^^, / have in my hand, in my care* 

The Accusative, THROUGH, ON ACCOUNT OF. 
Thus, ^ca Toiis Beoifs eS irparrw, through the Gods I do well; 
ha tre rjXOoyf I came on thy account. 

Though ^ca with the Genitive chiefly signifies through, in refer-^ 
ence to the instrument or means, and with the Accusative generally 
refers to the cause or design, we sometimes find it used thus : — 

Bi oy rpdwoy ; in what manner ? by what means ? 

ha r iyrea Koi fAcXayalfia, through arms and black blood; 
vvKra h' afilipotrlfjy, through a heavenly night. 

2. 'YnET, ABOVE, BEYOND, has the Genitive or Accusative ; 
FOR, CONCERNING, only the Genitive. 

Thus, hnkp yrjs earrl; Is he above ground? 

vvkp &X6s wifixeiy, - to send over the sea ; 

vwkp Toy Bofioy, above the house; 

virkp TO. eaicafifieya wriB^, you leap beyond the line: 

inrkp Tov <l>iXov intoBayeiy, to die for his friend; 

*Ii<rafas Kpa^ei vwep rod *I<rpariX, Isaiah cries concerning Israel* 



Nine Prepositions govern sometimes the Genitive, sometimes the 
Dative, and sometimes the Accusative : a/x^c, aya, enl, Kara, fiera, 
vapa, T€pl, irpos, viro, 

1. 'AM*r, ROUND ABOUT, BESIDE, CONCERNING, 

ON ACCOUNT OF, 
governs the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative indififerently. 

Thus, a/Li02 woXeuK oiKovaiy, they dwell round about the city; 

ajiujil S" &fjLoi<ny fiaXero, he threw it roundabout his shoulders ; 
Toiis ajuKji* avToy dopv(l>6poi5, to the guards round about him; 

afitpl irdyov 6 voyos, one trouble about, or beside, another ; 

flpiire S' &fji(l>* avrf, he fell beside him; 

hfjuf dXa, about, or beside, the sea; 



125 

af(0i hiKaioavvfjs, about, or concerning, righteousness ; 

\6yos cLfifjil T^ Oayarf avrrjs, a report concerning her death; 
ra cLjufi rdv iroXefiop, the things concerning the war; 

afufl' *OBv<rrjo$, on account of Ulysses; 

dfufL ^o/3^, on account of fear. 

%. •ANA\ VF TO, UP THROUGH, UPON, 
governs the Genitive, Dative^ and Accusative. 

The Genitive, however, is rarely used ; and the Dative seldom 
but by Poets. 

Thus, dva vrios ^firfv, he went upon (on board) the ship; 

dva 0b}fiois, upon the altars; 

dva rov worafior, up the river; 

dpa Tredioy irXavdfrOat, to wander up (upon, through) the 

plain; 
dvit rrlv 'EXXa^a, through Greece; 

dya Kparos, up to (according to) strength, hy 

force. 

'Ava is likewise used in a distributive sense. 
Thus, dva Erfvapiov, up to a penny a-piece; 

e^iiyai dva vivre, to go out five by five. 

3. 'Ear, ON, AT, IN, UNTO, 
governs the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. 

The Genitive. 

Thus, eirl TTJs yfjs, on the earth; 

hrl TtSv v€(jie\wv, in t?ie clouds; 

€(jiavipu)<r€v iavrov hrl rrjs BaXdfforis, he showed himself at the sea ; 

eirl woKKiHv, in (among) many things; 

hrl fiafyrvpfov, in the presence of witnesses ; 

hrl Kpovov, in the time of, or under, Saturn; 

€vi Tov nai^os Xiywi^, speaking on (in respect to) the boy; 

kv Ijnov, in my time; 

€<t>* iavrov, of himself by himself; 

Q eirl TOV rafieiov, the man over tlie treasury, the 

treasurer; 

eirl rpiwv, in threes, three by three; 

M rrjs fi^ovris, to (for) pleasure. 

Sometimes with the Genitive motion is signified. 
Thu8| eirl Qp4icris kxwpei, he went to Thrace. 



126 

The Dathre. 

ThoSy M ry 0X/^«» m ajfktim; 

SccropaxOV ^ f'ip ^<^ avrov, Ae was troubled at his ward; 
ewl Tou f(Xou, m (anum^) his friends ; 

M, rf Otfusklft on the foundation ; 

ewl rovrocfy to (m addition to) these things; — 

on these things^ conditions; 

€wlrfwioT€if mithrough^hy^) the faith; 

if* Mfiip^ through the day; 

cxc ry Kip^ to (for) gain; 

Iwi ry Of ordfuiTif for (m honour of) thy name ; 

Kn^OivTes hrl fyyots dya&ois, created unto good works; 

rpets hrl Svalf three to (against) two; 

6XX0L €«■' SKkoUf some upon other s^ one after the other ; 

hrl ro90vTf orparevfiarit with so great an army. 

The Accusative. 

ThuSyWffru hrl Geov, faith in GoD; 

epxd/jLev^y hr* avroVf coming upon him; 

Kdif/oyrcu ex* avrovy they shall lament at (on account 

of) him; 
ipxeoBe hrl leltrvoy^ come to supper; 

fiaxrCKiEia e^' eavnfv Siafiepiadeitrai a kingdom divided against 

itself; 
fielyare hrl yp6vovj remain for some time; 

Ifiey woXKrjv hrl ymav, to go over much land; 
dpenj €117 hr* dvOpinrovSf there would be virttte among men, 

4. KATA% DOWN FROM, or UNDER, THROUGH, BE- 
SIDE, AGAINST, ACCORDING TO, IN, 

governs the Genitive and Accusative, and sometimes the Dative. 

The Grenitive. 

Thus, Kard rod icprifiyov, down the precipice ; 

jca6' SXrfs rrjs *lovdalas, through all Judea; 

^vvai Kara rrjs yrjs, to go under the earth; 

Kara rris odov, by (along) the road; 

Kard aKOTTov ro^eveiv, to shoot against (at) a mark; 

Kara tov Kvplov, against the Lord; 

Kara ice^aX^s ^X^^* having on his head; 
&ydpwTroi Kara tov /jLei^oros ofivvovai, men swear by the greater; 

oi Kara Avtrlov, those in the time cfLysias; 

Kurd rrjs dperfjs ^arior, I must speak concerning virtue* 



127 



The Accusative. 



Thus, Kara \6yov f Jv, 
jcar €fikf 

Kar* ovapf 

iiiffBrfy Kard KkuriAovSf 

Kard Td ^0viy, 

rjXOe KaT avrdv, 

ol icaff iifids AvOpunroi, 

irXeiv Kara roy worafAor, 

Kaff o^oVi 

Kaff tvQf 

Kara eyyeaKdtria irijf 



to live according to reason; 

according to me, as for me; 

in respect to (on account of) want; 

in a dream; 

they sat on seats; 

among the Gentiles; 

he came to him; 

the men of our time; 

to sail down the river; 

along the road; 

one by one; 

about nine hundred years. 



Kard is sometimes joined with the Dative, but only by the Poets* 

Thus, Kara trv^eoltny eipyyv, she confined them in the sties ; 
^aaofieda Kard tr<^Ltji, we will divide among them. 



5. META\ WITH, AMONG, TO, AFTER, 
governs the Genitive and Accusative, and sometimes the Dative. 

The Genitive, WITH, AMONG. 

Thus, KOiytayla /ler' avrov, fellowship with him; 

firj yoyyv^ere fier dXX^Xoiv, murmur not among one another; 

* otra kiroLriaev 6 Qeos fier aikuy, what GoD hath done with, or 

through, them; 

fjLaxetrSai fierd wdXefilioy, tofght with (against) enemies; 

/la^eo^ac /xerd <l>i\ioy, to fight with {in company with, for) 

friends; 

6 rroiiitras ro IXeos fier* avrov, he that showed mercy with (towards) 

him. 

The Accusative, TO, AFTER ; WITH, AMONG. 

Thus, Zevs l/3jy fierd dalra, Jupiter went to a feast; 

oi vofxoL fierd roy Qeoy trtj* the laws, after GoD, preserve the 

iovffi njv 7r6\iy, state; 

gierd rpets fi/iipas eye/po/iai, after three days I will rise; 
fierd x^tfxxs ^X^'^» '^ have among (in) our hands; 

iiXire fier ddaydrovs ficLKapas, he has sinned with (against) the 

blessed gods; 

fierd roy filov, with (during) life. 



128 

The Dative is found only among the Poets, WITH, AMONG, 

Thus, dpdfwp idevro fAerd 70/(71, they made alliance with them; 
fA€r dydpwvoitnv dydtrtrei, he rules among men. 

e. U\V\\ FROM; AT, WITH; TO, BESIDE, THROUGH, 
governs the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. 

The Genitive, FROM. 

Thus, ^pxeffdai vapa riyos, to come from some one; 

Trap* €fiov iJKovaas, thou hast heard from me. 

We also find— 

irapc^ \6yov, from, i.e. contrary to, reckon; 

wapd wdvrwv rvyxavei, he is from, i.e. distinguished from, 

above, all; 

wapd OeiSy koi Trap' dvQpinnav, from the presence of i. e. Vefore, 

gods and men. 

The Dative, AT, WITH, sometimes TO. 

Thus, wap* oxBais, at the banks; 

Trap' €fioi ^larpi'l^ei, he lives with me; 

livai Trapd Titrfra^ipvei, to go to Tissaphemes. 

The Accusative, TO, BESIDE, THROUGH. 

Thus, Tcapa ae ^pxofMi, I come to thee; 

Trapd rrjv OaXaaaay, beside the sea; 

Trapd Trayra rdy xp^^oy, through all the time; 
Trapd TOVToy dOvfwvtn Trayres, through him all are ^Uspirited; 
Trapd Toy yofioy, beside, i.e. against, the law; 

Trapd Toifs fieroxovs <rov, ' beside, (in comparison,) i. e. above 

thy fellows; 
^XcLTTtaaas avroy Trap' dyyiXovs, thou loweredst him beside, i.e. 

below, the angels. 

Thus Trapd hvyafiiy signifies above and below one's strength. 

Trapd Toy Torafwy i<l>€vyoy, theyjledbeside, i.e. beyond, the river. 

7. HEPr, ROUND ABOUT, NEAR TO, CONCERNING, 

governs the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative, indiscriminately. 

Thus, Trepl arreiovs, about a cave; 

Trepl Ptofio'is, about the altars; 

Trepl rd (rrtidri, about the breasts; 



U9 

irepl n€(Trififipiavy about noon; 

irepi ypvxvs fiaxcffOai, to fight about (for) life; 

trepl XpioTov MbKrfjs iypa\l/e, Moses wrote concerning Christ ; 

wepl irafTTi iroXei le^Uvai^ to fear concerning the wJiole city; 

TO. irepl yj^vxrjv, the things concerning the soul, 

8. nPO^S, AT, TO, TOWARDS, 

governs the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. 

With the Genitive it chiefly signifies AT, pointing out connexion 
with an object, in respect to situation, cause, or departure ; and may 
therefore sometimes be rendered WITH, BEFORE, BY, FROM; 
and sometimes it implies TO, TOWARDS, AGAINST. 
Thus, TTpos Oeov Koi ardpu>7r(or avalrios, innocent before GoD and men; 

irpos 6.7ravrtav depairevefrdai, to be served by all; 

irpos ritfy Qeiov, by the gods ; 

irpbs Qeov ra 6,ya6a, the good things from GoD; 

oi npos al/jLaros, those from blood, {the same blood,) 

relations; 

wpos rrjs wdXews ecrri, it is (useful) to the city; 

irpos fifiwy earl, it is at or with us, it belongs to us, 

it is our duty; 

irpos trov, ovB* e/Aov f^paaio, I will speak in respect to (for) 

thee, not (for) myself; 
irpos &\6s, at (near, towards,) the sea; 

vpos aydpos €\Qpov €Tri(j)ipu)y rrjv \prj<f>ov, voting against an enemy. 

With the Dative it chiefly signifies PROXIMITY. 

Thus, TTjOos T^ dvpq,, at the door; 

TTpos Ta7s ayKciXais ra naidla kojjli^€lv, to take children in the 

arms; 

irpbs r^ <r<l>€r€p^ ayaB^, to (for) their good; 

irpos Tols elpijfieyois, in addition to the things said; 

irpos iavrf, with or in himself; 

irpbs ry ijtvtrei, against nature. 

With the Accusative it generally imports MOTION. 

Thus, irpbs rbv iraripa jnov iropevofiai, I go to my Father; 

irpbs 'Fwfialovs jjiaxetrOai, to fight against the Romans; 
irpbs iffirepav, towards evening; 

ijirios irpbs wavras, gentle towards all; 

ovK &iia irpbs n^v fjiiXKovtrav Zd^av, not worthy in respect to (of) 

the future glory ; . 

K 



ISO 

irpos roi/s iiyy iXovs Xiyei, he speaks in respect to the angels; 

vpos rijv dX^Oeiav, according to the truth; 

wpos Tf^y (TKKrffiOKap^iay v^tav^ in respect to (on account of) your 

hardness of heart; 

TTpos opyi^v, nith {from) anger; 

6 \6yos riv TTpos rov 0€ov* the Word was with God, 

9. •YnO\ UNDER, BY, 

governs the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative. 

When signifying BY, it generally requires the Genitive; — 
UNDER, the Genitive and Dative: — and UNDER, with motion, 
the Accusative. 
Thus, vve xQovos, under the earth; 

v^* ^\i(^, under the sun ; 

vwo vdaov ajToBaveiv, to die under a disease; 

rvnrofiai vtt* aiirov, I am struck by him; 

viro Tpbteam dafjLij vai, to be subdued under the Trojans; 

vwo rrjy (rriyriv ijXBe, he came under the roof; 

^'Xwy vw cfiavrov (rrpariutras, having soldiers under me; 

viro rdy opdpov, under (about) day-break. 

In Greek, Prepositions are often put afler their cases, especially 
by the Poets ; as vewy atrb Kal K\i(nwy,from the ships and tents. 

The Poets likewise frequently separate a Preposition from the 
Verb, with which it is compounded ; as jcara yaia KoXwj/e, for yaia 
fcarefcaXv\//e. 

Vni. Of Conjunctions. 

Copulative and Adversative Conjunctions generally join the same 
cases of Nouns and Modes of Verbs, but not necessarily the same 
Tenses : — if the sense require, they connect dijBTerent Modes. 

Some Conjunctions are usually joined with the Indicative, and 
others with the Subjunctive, Optative, or Infinitive. 

Of the latter class the following are the principal. 

1. A^IGE, E^IGE. 

AWe, eiOe, O that, are used with the Past Tenses of the Indicative, 
and with the Present and Future of the Optative. 

2. 'EA^N, ^AN, ^HN, K%N. 

*Eay, for €1 ay, contracted ay or fjy, if; and K^y, for icot eav, al- 
though, govern the Subjunctive. 



131 

Note 1. The Particle dv, with which ei is compounded, and for which k6 and k€v 
are chiefly used in Poetry, signifies uncertainty or possibility ; and Coryunctions, 
compounded with it, generally govern the Subjunctive. 

Note 2. *Av is frequently followed by the Optative ; as el tls ravra vpdrroi, 
fiiya ft dv ^ipeXrjaeief if any one should do thiSf he would serve me greatly* 

Interrogative Particles with oLv generally take the Optative. 

The Present Optative with cLv is often used by Tragic Writers in the sense of a 
Future Indicative. Thus, fiivoifji dv, I will stay. Soph. 

Note 3. "^Av, ice, and xev give a Subjunctive sense to a Verb in the Indicative. 
Thus, eixov, I had; elxov dv, I should have. 

Note 4. When these Particles are joined with Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives, 
they may be translated — soever; as diravO* *6<y' dv Xeyio, all things, whatsoever I 
may say: — o,ri Kev Karavevffio, whatever I may nod, 

^Av in this case follows the Noun or Particle, and precedes the Verb. 

Note 5. Sometimes dv is understood ; as ^Xdov eyo), / would have come, 

3. E'l. 

E(, }/*, is usually joined with the Indicative, and sometimes with 
the Optative, but rarely with the Subjunctive. 

Note I, "El and *6re are used by the Dramatic Poets with the Indicative and Opta- 
tive only ; by Homer with the Subjunctive also, joined to dv or ice. 
El ydp, with the Indicative and Optative, is used for O that. - 

Note 2. When ei is used with an Imperfect or an Aorist Indicative, the Verb in 
the corresponding clause, preceding or following, is put in the Indicative with dv ; 
as el fii^ TOT eirovovv, vvv dv ovk ev^paivo/irjv, if I did not labour then, I should 
not now he glad, 

4. 'EHEr, 'EnEIAH\ 'EnEIH'; 'EOA'N, 'EnEIAA'N. 

'Ettci, iiretl^y cTrei)), since^ are joined with the Indicative, and 
sometimes with the Infinitive ; — kireiZri and kirei^ also with the Op- 
tative, the Particle av being expressed or understood. 

'Ettci V and eirei^aVi since, as compounded with ftv, govern the Sub- 
junctive. 

5. "EQS *AN, nPrN *AN. 

"Eios hvf until, and wplv av, before that, are, on account of hv, 
joined with the Subjunctive. 

6. "INA. 

"Iva, that, to the end that, governs the Subjunctive, but is also 
joined with the Past Tenses of the Optative, and very rarely with 
the Indicative. 

When it is taken as an Adverb, where, it is followed by the Indi- 
cative. 

k2 



132 



7. MH\ 

M»), lest, that not, is generally joined with an Aorist Subjunctive; 
but if a wish is expressed, it has the Optative. 

For the Adverb fii^, see p. 120. 

8. "onos, "onos "^an. 

"Oirtas, how, that, is joined with the Optative and Subjunctive ; 
but, when it signifies how, may also have the Future of the Indica- 
tive. 

"Oirw* ay, that, requires the Subjunctive. 

9. "OTE, 'OnO'TE ; "OTAN, 'OHO'TAN. 

"Ore, oTrdre, wlien, are used with the Indicative and Optative, and 
sometimes with the Subjunctive. 

See Note 1. to Conjunction et. 

"Orav, oTTorav, when, are joined with the Optative and Subjunctive. 

10. "OTI. 

"On, that, because, is used with the Indicative and Optative, sel- 
dom with the Subjunctive. 

It is sometimes placed before Superlatives, which it strengthens, like quhm in 
Latin ; as '6ti fteyiffroSf as great as possible, 
"Oti is properly the Neuter of '6(ttis, and generally governed by Kurd understood. 

11. "O^&PA. 

''0<l>pa governs the Optative or Subjunctive, when signifying that, 
or until ; and is used with the Present Subjunctive, or a Past Tense 
of the Indicative, when it signifies whilst, 

12. *OS, "OSTE. 

^Q,s, when signifying tliat, is joined with the Indicative, sometimes 
with the Optative and Subjunctive, but rarely with the Infinitive; — 
and, when it signifies to the end tftat, with the Optative,'Subjunctive, 
and Infinitive, or the Future Indicative. 

"QiffTc, so that, generally governs the Infinitive or Indicative ; but 
is also joined with the Optative and Subjunctive. 



Careful observation in reading will materially assist in forming a 
proper judgment, in respect to the usual government and construc- 
tion of Conjunctions. 



133 



PROSODY. 

Prosody is here considered, as including the Quantity of Syllables, 
the different kinds of Feet in Verse, Metre, and Accent. 

I. Op Quantity. 

General Rule. 

A short Vowel makes a short Syllable, and a long Vowel or 
Diphthong a long Syllable. 

The Vowels c, o, are short ; — 17, w, long ; — and a, t, v, doubtful, 
being long in some Syllables, and short in others ; — Diphthongs and 
Contracted Syllables are long, as ciccl", 6<l>pv€s, contr. otppv'^s. 

The Quantity of Syllables is determined by various methods. 

1. By Position. 

1. If a short or doubtful Vowel come before two Consonants, or 
a double Consonant, (whether in the same word, or at the beginning 
of another,) the Syllable is made long ; — as "epyov, Kpa^to^ "os re fxe. 

2. If a short or doubtful Vowel precede a Mute and a Liquid, 
the Syllable is common, but generally short; — as UarpoKkoSf or 
UarpoKKos: — but if it precede /3, y, B, followed by X, /i, or v, the 
Syllable is generally long ; — as 'ayXaos, kcMs. 

Note 1. If a short Vowel precede wr, kt, fiv, the Syllable may be common; and 
sometimes a short Vowel is rendered long before a single Consonant, particularly 
before a Liquid, which is easily doubled ; — as iroSXa Xiffffofieva), Hom. 

Note 2. Sometimes <t before a Consonant, in the same or the following word, is 
either omitted, or so joined in pronunciation with the following Consonant, that the 
preceding Syllable is not rendered long by position. 

Thus, »%( pods ^ifiSeis ffVfipdWerov ^^e ^KOfiavSpos. 
fiipy effrreply Kpio^ei 7ro\v<p<i)v6s Kopcjvti- 
Note 3. When three short Syllables come together, it is necessary, for the sake 
of the measure in Heroic Verse, that one be made long ; — as Uplafiidris. Ov is 
short in dvyaTrjp, and long in Ovyarepes. 

Note 4. A short Syllable is often made long, when the next word begins with a 
digammated Vowel. 

Thus, fieKavos oivoiOf for Poivoio, Hom. 

2, By one Fowel preceding another. 

1. A long Vowel or a Diphthong may be shortened at the end of 
a word, if the following word begin with a Vowel. 
Thus, &ita eXciiv 6 Be Key KexoXwaerai 6v Kev iKCjfiai. 

Note 1. This occurs sometimes in first and middle Syllables, particularly with ai 
and 01, 



134 

Note 2. Sometimes also at and oi final are short, before words beginning with a 
Consonant 

Note 3. A long Voweli or a Diphthong, may be considered as consisting of two 
short Vowels : — 'li the latter is supposed to suffer elision, the former will of course 
remain short. 

2. A Vowel before another does not suffer elision, as in Latin, at 
the end of a word, unless an Apostrophe is substituted. 

3. By Contraction, 

A contracted Syllable is long ; as o0i€s, o0cs. 

Two successive Vowels, forming two Syllables, even in different 
words, frequently coalesce in Poetry. Thus deds becomes a mono- 
syllable ; xpvo'e^ a dissyllable ; and in ** $ XoOer , ri ovk eyorjaev^** 
(Horn.) ri OVK are pronounced as one Syllable. 

4. By Derivation and Composition. 

Derivatives and Compounds generally retain the quantity of their 
Primitives and Simples ; as ^vyij from ecftvyoy, &Tlfios from rl/x//. 

A, privative, is short ; as "drifios ; but on account of two short 
Syllables following, it is frequently made long ; — as 'aico'/iaros. 

"'Ajoi, ^joc, fipi, SvSf ^a, Za are short ; as (a'Oeos^ &c. 

5. By Dialect, 

The quantity of Syllables is sometimes affected by the Dialects. 

Thus in the Attic the Accusative of Nouns in evs is long ; as 
PafftXid, 

In the Doric, a instead of 17 is long, but in the ^olic short ; as 
Doric yvvoT for yw?), ^olic i^/jupd for vv/i^ij, also vvfii^ds for vv/i- 
(jids, Ace. Plur. 

In the Ionic, a is short in the Penult of the Perfect ; as y^yaa, for 
yiyriKa ; — and in the Third Person, Plural, of the Passive ; as ^arai, 
^edfiridro. 

But the Ionic a in Verbs in aw is long, when preceded by a long 
Syllable; as rt/i^'aro for Tififvro; — and also in the Third Person, 
Plural, of Verbs in fjt; as riOidtri. 

In the Ionic and Doric, the Comparative in iwv has the Penult 
short, but the Attics make it long. 

Of the Doubtful Vowels, A, I, Y. 
a) In First and Middle Syllables, not including Increment, 

A Doubtful Vowel before a Vowel, or single Consonant, is ge- 
nerally short ; as ayXa^s, icafcos, KopXov, yrjdoffvrrf. 



135 
The following are some of the principal Exceptions. 

1. A is long, 

1. In Dissyllabic Oxytons in 09 pure ; as Xabs, vabs, vdbSf %d^s : — and in the 
Penult of Feminine Proper Names in dis ; as Oats. 

2. In the Penult of Nouns in avb)p, apos ; as dyaviapf fivtrdpbs : — ^and in the 
Penult of Dissyllables and Nationals in avosy aviSf especially if i precede ; as Sdvbs, 
rpavbs, Tepfiavb^, TepfidviSf 'lovXidvbSf Xpiffridvos. 

The a in Xpitrriavbs is also found short 

3. In the Penult of Proper Names not compounded, also of the Names of Stones 
and Rivers, in arijs and aris ; as MiOpLdd'rtis, 'A^aViys, ^rrapridTis, 'Evtppd'rris, 
TaydWris. 

Except y^apfia'rijSf ^avpofiarfiSf SoiKpaVijs, TaXa'Tfis, AaXna'rris, &c. 

4. In the Penult of Nouns in a<jjv, -aovos ; as Ma%a'a>v, Maxa'ovos : — Some- 
times also when the Genitive ends in wvos ; as ILotreidd'ijJV, UoffeiSd'iovos, 

5. In the Antepenult of Nouns in avios from Nouns in av ; as Tirdv, rtraVios. 

6. In the Syllable before the Antepenult in Numerals, ending in K6<noi ; as did- 

KOfflOl. 

7. In Derivatives from Verbs in aw pure, and paio ; as Bedfia, BedrtjSf from 
Oedofiai; TrpaTavs from (irirrpaffKio for) Trpaa>; dvidros from dvidw] Karapdros 
from Karapdofiai ; laVi/ios from Idofun ; 7r€pd'<nfi09 from irepddt. 

2. I is long, 

1. In Dissyllabic Oxytons and Properispomenons in 09 pure, as also Dissyllabic 
Oxytons in ifioi ; as lbs, ST09, XifiSs. Except /3id9, a how. 

2. In the Penult of Nouns in ii/ij, irtj, irrjSf ins ; as Stvrj, 'A<ppoSTTti, TroXtVijs, 
ttoWtis. 

Except KpXrrjs, and such Nouns, formed from Verbs, which shorten the Penult of 
the Perfect. 

3. In the Penult of Nouns in ivos, ivov, nav, (Gen. -tovos,) and tXi}, iXrjSf tXos, 
iXov, not Diminutives; as KdfilvoSf (reXlvoVf iri'iov, KovtXrjf veoyiXrjs, 'dpXXos, 
ireSiXov. 

Except KapxtvoSf KorivoSf lAvpatvoSf tti'vos, xtwi/, which are short ; k6^ivos 
has the Penult common. 

The Comparatives in uov are generally used long, but the Neuter is short ; as 
PeXriuw, PeXrtov. 

4. In the Antepenult of Diminutives in iSiov from pure Genitives ; as ifiarVSiov 
from Ifiariov. 

5. In the Penult and Antepenult of words, followed by p ; as *0<rtpi9, NIpevs, 
ffipbs, ^efupafiis. 

6. I is common in the Penult of Nouns in ta, 117 ; as, KoXld or KaXXd, KovVy or 
Kovty, 

3. Y is long, 

1. In the Penult and Antepenult of most Nouns followed by tr; as xp'^^^^f 
fivaapos. 

Except $v<ravos, Biiffiaf ^i/aifcds, and Verbals in vtris. 

2. In the Penult of Nouns in vvos ; as kIvSvvos, BiOvvos. But 'irXvvbs has it 
short 

_3. In the Penult of Dissyllables in vvrj and vpos; as fivvrjt rv'vij for rif, (ppvvti, 
Ovfidi. Except yiivrj. 



136 

4. In the Penult of Verbal Nouns in vfia, vfioSf vrrip, vrris, (Masc.) vriSf vros, 
vrtap ; as XiTfia, x^f*^^* ^VTt^pt fiijvvrjjs, TrpeffpvriSf KutKVTbs, Xvrwp. 

Some Verbals in vto9, from Perfects with a short v, are excepted, having the 
Penult short 

5. In the Penult of Dissyllabic Oxytons in vpi^ ; as yvpbs ; and also of laxvphs, 
6'iZvp6s* 

Except ^vpbs and Ttfpbvt of which the former always, the latter sometimes is short. 

6. In the Pronouns, *vfieZs, *vfiCav, &c. 

7. In the Penult of Adverbs in vSov ; as PorpySSv. 

8. In some Derivatives and Compounds of tr^v or ^iiv ; as ^vvbSf avvexri^' 

b) In the Increment of Nouns, 

Here it may be observed in general — 

1 . The quantity of the Nominative remains in the oblique Cases. 

2. Those Nouns, which are long only by position in the Nomina- 
tive, are shortened in the oblique Cases. 

3. A pure Genitive from a long Nominative is varied. 

A, I, Y are in general short. 

Thus, o'cJ/iQ, Gen. tr^fjidros ; KoXa^, KoXaKos ; viicrap, veKrapos ; 

Xa/i7ras, Xajinra Bos ; &\«, 'dXos; " Apaxpy" Apd/ios, 
€pis, Gen. eptdos ; \t\pt ^tfids ; fiiXi, /xiXtros ; vti//, vi^ltds ; 

O0CS, o<pios. 
irvpi Gen. TTvpos ; veicvs, viKvos ; )(XafxvSf ')(Xafivhos ; Kdpvs, 

Kopvdos; ovv^f ovijxos. 

Principal Exceptions, 
1 . Tlie Increment A is long, 

1. In Nouns in av, Gen. avos; as Tirdv, TiTdvos, — MeXavos and rdXavos 
have the Penult short. 



2. In the Doric Genitive ; as 'ArpeiddOf fiovtrd^cjv. 




(y{fpd> 
as have aK pure ; as ve-a^y -aicos. 

4. In the Dative Plur. of such words as have a long in the Gen. Sing. ; as Tirdvi. 
The Doubtful Vowels before ui are long in the Dat PI., when the Dat Sing, is 
long by position ; as eX/xIo't, rv^dfru 



* Some Poets, as Orpheus, Euripides, Anacreon, and Oppian, make the increment 
of Kspas long, but Homer makes it short. This difference exists in many other 
words. 



137 



2, The Increment I is long, 

1. In words of two terminations; as SeXiftiv and SeX^is, deXifiiivos. 

2. In Monosyllables, as 9is, &iv6s ; and those in i^j/j Gen. i7ro9 ; as Opl'tp, Bplirov, 
— Ais, Albs ; OpiKt rjOi^^s ; ort^, (TTtx^s ; ris, Tivbs, have the Increment short 

3. In Nouns making tOos in the Gen. ; as 6pvis, opvWos ; and in those making 
iSoSf if the last Syllable of the Nominative is long ; as KvrifiUi Kvrifiidos, 

4. In Nouns in t^. Gen. tyos, or ikos ; as fidari^i fidtrriyos ; ^oTvi^, ^oIvIkos, 

3. The Increment Y is long, 

1. In words of two terminations in vv and vs ; as ^dpKVv and ipSpKvs, fftdpKVvos. 

2. In some words in v^ and v\p ; as Pofifiv^i pSfifivKos ; Kripv^, KrfpvKos ; yixj/, 

yV'TTOS. 

But perhaps both yi)"^ and ypi}"^ may have the Increment common. 

3. A pure Genitive firom a long Nominative is sometimes common ; as dpvSf Spvos. 

c) In the Flexions of Verbs. 
The Present Tense, 

1 . Verbs in aw, preceded by a Vowel or p, have the Penult long 
both in the Present and Future ; as deaw, Qeaata ; Ipd'to, ^pd'ata ; 
with some exceptions : — Verbs in ayw have the Penult short, except 
in imVoi and Ki^avu), 

2. Verbs in iw, i^ui, i0w, ivto, have the Penult long ; as rl'oi, 
Tpi'l3(i)f Ppl'du)^ wi'vw ; as also Bly^u), kIv^u, 

The Attic Tragic Writers have ia> and Xvitt. 

3. Verbs in vvta, vpcj, v^Wj v/it, have the Penult long ; as t0vVw, 
Kv'p(Of Ppv'x^* <I>^H^9 i^evyvvfjn : but those in vu) in general have it 
common ; as Itrj^y'ia or lff\va>. 

The Passive and Middle of vfit are short ; as deUvvfiat ; but 'jrvxTp.ai is long. 

The First Future, 

1 . The First Future in aero;, ttrw, vtru), from aw pure, or joaoi, tto, 
i6fii, and v&i, is long in the Penult ; as eau), ed'tru) ; ^/odw, ^pd'ato ; 
r/w, rlVoi ; fipiBw^ Ppi'ffio ; to-x^voi, lO'^vVw. 

But &vvtM>f pXv<Of Kvcjj fieQvitit fivtot 'tttvu), and ravvio^ have the Penult of the 
Future in vcrw short. 

2. The First Future in aau), ttrw, vffw, from a^cu, i^o;, v^'o;, is short 
in the Penult ; as dp?rd^a>, dpiratTut ; owXlZwy birXtffta ; fcXv^'o), kXv rroi. 

3. Verbs in Xw, /iw, yw, pw, have the Penult of the First Future 
short; as \\fdXXWf \//aX(J; icplVoi, KpXviS, 



id8 



The Second Future. 



The Second Future has the Penult short ; as rifAvu), ra/LtJ'; faivut, 
^vff?; rvirrw, rvrrtS, 



Derived Tenses generally retain the quantity of the Tenses, from 
which they are formed. 

Thus, Pres. Kptyfa ; Imperf. ^Kplyoy ; Pres. P, Kpivofxai ; Imperf. 

Fut. 1. KpXvia\ Perf. KiKpXKa\ Plup. eiceicpl'iceiv ; Fut. 1. M. 
KpXyovfxai ; &c. 

Note 1. The First Aorist of Liquids has the Penult long in the Active and Middle ; 
as ^Kplva, eKplvdfifiv, 

Note 2. If the First Future is long by position only, the Pentdt of the Perfect is 
short; as ypdxj/iOf yiypaifta ; Kpd^l/ittf KCKpv^a. Except pi^putt eppii^a. 

Note 3. In the Attic reduplication the Penult is short ; as dpvrria, b>pvx<tf 6pdi)- 
pvxa. 

The Perfect Middle follows the quantity of the Second Future ; 
as rvTrw, TiTvwa ; with some exceptions ; as (^ifiplBuf ^piyoy tt^- 
frpdyay &C. 

The Temporal Augment makes i and v long ; as "tKo/jtai, 'iKOfArjv, 

A and v, hefore (ra in Participles, and before tn everywhere, are 
long ; as rvypdffa, ^eiicyvVa, rerv^ao-i, ^eiKytTfri, 

In Verbs in /ii, — 

1 . A Proper Reduplication is short ; as Tt^Orifii ; — an Improper 
Reduplication common ; as "frj/jLi : — unless they are made long by 
position. 

2. A, not before <ra or <n, is short in the Penult ; as larrdfjLeyf 
ifrrdre ; except in the Subjunctive. 

3. Y in Polysyllables is long in the Penult, only in the Sing, and 
Third Pers. Plur. of the Present, Indicative, Active ; as ^e/jo^v/Ki, 
leUyvai, leiKyvai : — but in I^issyllables it is everywhere long in the 
Penult ; as ^v"/ii, ^xTroy^ ^iTfjiai, 

d) In Final Syllables. 
A, I, Y, final. 
A, I, Y, final, are generally short ; as fiovtrdf fxiXX, yXvKv', 



139 

Principal Exceptions, 

1 . A final is long, 

i. In Nouns in ^a, 0a, euy and Polysyllables in aia ; as ArfSdf MdpOdf Oea, 
Kcpaid ; also ei/XaKa. But aKavQa has it short 

2. In eia from Verbs in evta ; as ^ovXeca from SovKevta ; PatriXeid, a kingdom ; 
but PaaiXeia, a queen, has it short. 

3. In ta ; as KaXid^ : — except Verbals in rpia ; as \pdXTpi& ; and ^la. 

4. In pa, when a Diphthong does not precede ; as ^fiepd, XVP^ • — except dyKvpa, 
yi^vpa, KepKvpa, oXvpa, VKoX6'jrevopa, fftpvpa, ravdypd ; and Compounds of 
fierpia, as yetofierpa. 

The following have pa long, though preceded by a Diphthong ; avpd, Xavpd, 
TrXevpd", (ravpd. 

5. In Adjectives in a pure and pa from Masculines in os ; as SiKaid, ^fieripd : 
—except did and worvia. 

6. In the Vocative of Nouns in as of the First and Third Declension ; as Alveid, 
IlaXXa. 

7. In the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Dual of the First Decl. ; as fiov<rd. 

8. In Doric words, where a is substituted for another long syllable ; as d iraya, 
for ^ irriyrl ; Poped for Popiov. 

9. In Accusatives in a firom Nouns in evs, generally in the Attic Dialect. 

2. I final is long, 

1. In the Names of Letters ; as ttc : — with kjoT. 

2. In Pronouns and Adverbs with the Paragogic t ; as ovto&V, vvvt : — except 
the Dat PI. as troifxt. 

The Preposition evi for ev is also short ; — ^the Adverb dvaificjri is long. 

3. The Attic i for a, e, o, is long ; as ravrV for ravra ; oSt for '6de ; tovtT for 
Tovro, 

3. Y final is long, 

1. In the Third Pers. Sing, of the Imperf. and Sec. Aorist of Verbs in vfii] as e^v. 

2. In Vocatives from vs ; as fiv, 

3. In the Names of Letters ; as fiv : — ^with ypv, fiera^v, dvriKpv. 

A, I, Y, followed by a Consonant in the final Syllable, 
AN, IN, YN, final, are generally short ; as rpoTref av, eplv, noXvv, 

Principal Exceptions, 

1. AN final is long, 

1. In Oxytons Masculine; as TtraV. 

2. In Circumflexed Words ; as irdv : — ^but trav is short in Composition. 

3. In the Accus. of the First Decl., when the Nominative is long ; as Aiveidv, 
<fnXidv. 

4. In the Adverbs &ydv, evav, Xidv, fcepdv. 



140 

2. IN final is long, 

1. In Nouns in ev, Gen. ivos ; as piiyfiiv. 

2. In Nouns of two terminations ; as ieX^tv and iekfis. 

S. In if/ilv and vfiivt when drcumflezed. Ilpiv is common. 

S. YN final is long, 

1. In Nouns in try, Gen. trve* ; as fiovvvv. 

2. In Nouns of two tenninations ; as ^SpKvv and ^opKw. 

3. In Accusatives from v« long ; as 6^pvv, 

4. In the Imperil and Sec Aorist of Verbs in vfii ; as eSeiKvvv, e^vv. 

5. In vvv, now ; but the Enclitic vvv is short. 

AP final is short ; as yiicrdp. 

Except Kap, ^pedp, ^ap: — ydp b conmion. 

YP final is long ; as xvp, fiaprvp. 
But the Penult of the Genitive b short ; as ^vpbSf fidprvpos. 

AS, IS, Y2, final, are generally short ; as Xa/Lixa f, irdXcs, Kopvs, 

Principal Exceptions. 

1 . A2 final is long, 

1. In the Nominatives of Participles ; as rv-^ds, laras, was, 

2. In the Nom. and Gen. Sing., and the Accus. Plur., of the First Decl. ; as ra- 
fiidSf ^iXids, fiovvds. 

3. In Nouns in as, Gen. avros ; as Aids : — with fieXds and roXas. 

4. In the Pronouns ^fids, vfids^ 

The Poets sometimes make these short ; as i^fieas: and also other Accusatives 
Plural. 

2. 12 final is long, 

1. In Nouns of two terminations ; as SeX^pts and deXifuv. 

2. In Nouns/ increasing long ; as Kvri/uSf opvls, kVs, But &pvis is also found 
short 

3. Y2 final is long, 

1. In Nouns of two terminations ; as ^dpKVs and ipopKvv. 

2. In Monosyllables ; as fivs ; with Ktofivs. 

3. In Nouns with vvtos, or os pure, in the Genitive ; as Seucvvs, d^pvs : — 
Ix^^s is common. 

4. In Verbs in vfii ; as 60i;s, deiKvvs. 



Example or Authority, however, must firequently determine the 
Quantity of Syllables ; and this is best supplied by the Poets. 



141 



II. Of Feet. . 

A Foot is a part of a Verse, and contains two or more Syllables. — 
The following are the principal. 

1. Simple Feet 



Pyrrhichius . . . 
Spondseus .... 

Tribrachys . . . 

I^olossus ..... 


. • . • \j \j 
. • . . wy ^ ^ 


Iambus w — 


Trochaeus — w^ 

Amphibrachys w - w 

Amphimacer, orCreticus . — w^ — 


Dactylus 

Anapsestus .... 


. . . . — V' ^ 

. . . . ^ »-' — 


Bacchius v^ — 

Antibacchius — w 



Proceleusmaticus 
Dispondseus . 
Diiambus . . 
Ditrochseus . 
Choriambus . 
Antispastus • 
lonicus a majore 
lonicus a minore. 



\j yj \j \j 



2, Compound Feet. 

Paeon I — w v^ w 

Paeon II v^ — w w^ 

Paeon III v^ w — w 

Paeon IV v^ w w — 

Epitritus I.'. 
Epitritus II. 
Epitritus III. 
Epitritus IV. 



w — wy — 

— w — w 

— wy W — 

w — — w 

wO 

WW — — 



w — — — 

• . . . . ^™ ^~ ^" w 



III. Of Metre. 

Metre, in its general sense, signifies an arrangement of Syllables 
and Feet in verse, according to certain rules ; and in this sense ap- 
plies not only to an entire verse, but to part of a verse, or any num- 
ber of verses. 

But a Metre, in a specific sense, means a combination of two feet, 
and sometimes one foot only. 

There are Nine principal Metres : — 



Dactylic, 

Iambic, 

Trochaic, 



Ionic a majore, 
Ionic a minore, 
Pseonic. 



Anapaestic, 

Choriambic, 

Antispastic, 

These names are derived from the feet which prevail in them. 

Originally, we may suppose, each species was composed of those 
feet only, from which it was denominated ; but others, equal in time, 
were afterwards admitted under certain restrictions. 

In Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapaestic Verses, a Metre consists of 
two feet ; in the others one foot constitutes a Metre. 



142 

NciB 1. A Verse is called Monometer, when it consists of one Metre ; Dimeter, 
when it has two ; Trimeter, when it contains three ; Tetrameter, when it consists 
of four Metres. 

Pentameter and Hexameter Verses contain, the former five, and the latter six 
Metres ; but they are measured by single feet, each foot a Metre. 

Note 2. Verses are also denominated — Acatalectic, Catalectic, Brachycatalectic, 
and Hypercatalectic : — Acatalectic, when the Metre b complete ; — Catalectic, when 
a Syllable is wanting at the end ; — Brachycatalectic, when two Syllables are wanting 
at die end ; — Hypercatalectic, when there is a Syllable too many. 

The Difference between Rhythm and Metre may be thus ex- 
pressed: — 

The former relates to the quantity of the Syllables in a foot, as 
far as regards the time required in pronouncing them, on the general 
principle, that a long Syllable is equal in time to two short ones : — 
the latter, Metre, includes both the time and order of Syllables, and 
does not admit the same interchanges of feet as Rhythm. 

All the Varieties of Ghreek Verse proceed originally firom these 
three Sorts : — the Epic, or Narrative, — the Lyric, adapted to singing, 
— and the Dramatic. 

The most common kinds of Verse are those, which consist of the 
frequent repetition of the same foot ; and are the Dactylic^ Iambic, 
Trochaic, and Anapaestic. 

A brief view of these four Metres is here given. 

1. Dactylic Metres^ 

1. The Hexameter is the most common among Dactylic Verses, 
and is used in Epic or Heroic Poetry in continued succession. 

It consists of six feet, viz. five Dactyls and a Spondee ; but instead 
of any of the four first a Spondee may be used ; and, as the last 
Syllable of every Verse is common, a Trochee may stand instead of 
the last foot. 



Thus, vovffov avd trrparbv wpot Kaicriv' oX^kovto ^k XaoL 

— WWI— ^ \ ^ \J SJ mm SJ ^l^^^l. ^ 

TToi^a ^i fioi XvffaiTC ^/Xi^v, to. h* ivoira di^ecfSe* 

Sometimes, instead of the Dactyl in the fifVh foot, a Spondee is 
admitted, and such a Verse is called a Spondaic Hexameter. 

Thus, l^rj ^k KOT OvXvfjtwoio Kaprivtav &t^a<ra» 

2, The Dactylic Pentameter consists of two feet, Dactyls or 
Spondees, and a long SyUable, followed by two Dac^lsi and a long 
or short Syllable. 



143 



It is generally found in connexion with the Hexameter, each being 
alternately used, and thus forms the Elegiac Metre. 



— \J v^ — — — w v-» — WW — w w — w 



Thus, iXirls kv dvdpu>iroi(Ti fjLoyrj deos iffdXri ^vearriv, 



^XXoi S'OvXvfinoyS' eKirpoXiwovres ifiay. 

The above are the chief Dactylic Metres, besides which there are 
several ; as, the Dactylic Dimeter Acatalectic and Hypercatalectic, 
the Dactylic Trimeter Acatalectic and Hypercatalectic, the Dactylic 
Tetrameter Acatalectic, &c. which are chiefly parts of the Dactylic 
Hexameter. 

2, Iambics, 

Of Iambics there are three kinds; Dimeters, Trimeters, and 
Tetrameters. 

1 , The Iambic Dimeter properly consists of four Iambuses, but 
may have a Spondee instead of the first and third Iambus. 

Thus we find, w — , w — | w -, w - 
Or, — 9^"\ — , ^ - 

Hence in every Iambic Verse a Spondee may be admitted in the 
odd places ; and as in every foot a long Syllable may be resolved 
into two short ones, considerable variety may be admitted : — a Tri- 
brach may be used in every place except the last, and in the odd 
places a Dactyl or Anapaest instead of a Spondee. 

The irregular feet however, particularly the Trisyllables, must not 
be so common as to obscure the Iambic character of the Verse. 

2, The lamJAc Trimeter consists of Six feet. 

^ -, w-|w -, w-| , yj - 

Thus, o Ka\ yipovTi Koi yi^ TifjLrjy <l>ip€i. 

Synopsis of the Iambic Trimeter. 
w — 3 w — I w — J w — 

Or, v.wv.,www|wv.«,wv.w 

- -, * I - -, * 

— W Wj * I — V-» Wj * 

w w — J * I W W — J * 

Note 1. In every place, marked here by an asterisk, one of the feet in the cor- 
responding part above may be supplied. 

Note 2. Every foot, except the last, admits an Anapaest of Proper Names. 



wy — J w 



J * 



* 

9 

W W — J * 



144 

d. Besides the Trimeter, the most common Iambic Verse is the 
Tetrameter Catalectic, 

Thus, €1 fjLOi yiyOiTO irapdivos KaXii re Kal Tipeira. 

The rules and licenses of this Verse are generally the same as 
those of the Trimeter ; and the Catalectic Syllable is common. 

S. Trochaics, 

Of Trochaics there are two principal kinds, Dimeters and Tetra- 
meters. 

1. The Trochaic Dimeter Acatalectic properly consists of four 
Trochees, but may have a Spondee for the second and fourth Trochee. 

Thus, - w, - w I - w/, - w 
Or,-w, — I -w, — 

Hence in Trochaic Verses a Spondee may be admitted in the even 
places ; and, as a long Syllable may here also be resolved into two 
short ones, a Tribrach may be used in every place, and a Dactyl and 
Anapaest (instead of a Spondee) in the even places. 

2. The most common Trochaic Verse is the Tetrameter Cata- 
lectic, consisting of Seven feet and a Catalectic Syllable. 



Thus, vovs opq,, Kol vovs aKovei* T&Wa KUKjid koI rv<l>\a. 
Synopsis of tJie Tetrameter Catalectic, 

-W, -w|-V^, -w|wv^, _w(-W, - 
Or, W.W,W..|v..W,WV..}.W.,WOW 



'9 



^ 



* 



Note 1. Every foot, except the fourth and seventh, admits a Dactyl of Proper 
Names. 

Note 2. In Tragic Trochaic Tetrameters an Anapaest is admitted only in Proper 
Names. 

Note 3. A Pause takes place at the end of the fourth foot, or second Metre, which 
properly ends with a word. 

Note 4. The Trochaic Tetrameter is easily reducible to the Iambic measure, if a 
Cretic, or its equivalent, be removed from the beginning of it 



145 

4. Anapcestics. 

The most comraon Anapaestic Metres are Dimeters, besides which 
are Monometers, of two feet. Of the former, the strictest is the 
Dimeter Catalectic, called a Paroemiac*. 

Anapsestics admit indiscriminately Dactyls and Spondees for Ana- 
paests, and may contain an indefinite series of Metres, which may be 
scanned as one Verse ; but for convenience they are generally di- 
vided into Dimeters. 

The only restriction in Anapsestics is that an Anapaest must not 
follow a Dactyl, to prevent the concurrence of too many short Syl- 
lables ; — ^that each Metre must end with a word ; — and that the 
third foot of the Paroemiac f must be an Anapaest. 

1. Of ike Anapcestic Dimeter Acatalectic. 



WW—, 

Or, -V.W, — ^\ — ^v., 



f 



2. Of the Parcemiac, or Dimeter Catalectic. 
Or, — WW, — ww| * ,* 

3. Of the Monometer Acatalectic, 

\j \j —f \j \j -' 
Or, — V Wj — w w 

A legitimate System of Anapaestic Dimeters should close with a 
Paroemiac, preceded by a Monometer Acatalectic. 



Observations on the Reading of Verse, 

1. That part of a foot, which receives the Ictus, or stress of the 
Rhythm, (the beat of the time,) is called Arsis, or Elevation ; and, 
when marked, is denoted by the common Acute Accent. The rest 
of the foot is called Thesis, or Depression. 

* From Trapoifiia, because that line sometimes contains a Maxim or Proverb, 
t The last Syllable of a Verse in this Metre is not common. 



14C 

The natural Arsis is the long Syllable of the foot, so that the 
Spondee and the Tribrach leave it uncertain where the Arsis takes 
place. But the fundamental foot of a Verse, (that is, the Dactyl in 
Dactylic, the Iambus in Iambic Verse, &c.) determines the Arsis 
for all the other feet, which are used as substitutes for it. 

Note 1. The SpondeCi accordingly, in Trochaic and Dactylic Verse is accented, in 
reading, thusi JL _ ; in Iambic and Anapsestic, _ i.. 

Note 2. As the stress, or ictus, of a long syllable, in consequence of the two times, 
which it contains, falls on the first of them, it must necessarily be placed on it, when 
the long syllable b reserved into two short ones. 

Thus a Tribrach for an Iambus is pronounced, w^wi and for a Trochee, ^ww- 

%, Caesura is properly the division of a metrical or rhythmical 
connexion, by the ending of a word. 

There is, accordingly, a Ccesura, — 1.) of the Foot; — 2.) of the 
Rhythm ; — 3.) of the Verse ; — all which must be carefully distin- 
guished. 

1. The CcBsura of the Foot, in which a Word terminates in 
the middle of a Foot, is the least important, and of little in- 
fluence on the Verse, as the divtsicm into feet is in a great 
measure arbitrary. 

2. The Casura of the Rhythm is that, in which the Arsis 
takes place on the last Syllable of a word, whereby the Arsis 
is separated from the Thesis. 

Such a final Syllable receives by the Ictus a peculiar em- 
phasis; so that the Poets often place a short SyUable in this 
situation, which thereby becomes long, and alone sustains the 
Arsis. 

3. The Ccemra of the Verse occurs, when the termination of 
a word falls on a place in the Verse, where one Rhythm, agree- 
able to the ear, closes, and another begins. 

In a more limited sense, by the Caesura of the Verse is un- 
derstood such a pause in certain places, aa is necessary to every 
good Verse of the kind. 

Note 1. Some kinds of Verse have the Csesura in a fixed place. Thus the Dac- 
tylic Pentameter requires the Caesura to be in the middle of the line, and this 
Caesura cannot be omitted ; — the Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapeestic Tetrameter Ca- 
talectic have their natural Caesura at the end of the fourth foot, but this may be 
omitted. 

Note 2. Other kinds of Verse have more than one place for the Ctesura, the choice 
of which is left to the Poet — In Hexameter Verse the €«8ura is generally in the 
middle of the third foot ; and either directly after the Arsis ; as, 

firjviv deidcf Bed, \ Iltj\i]'iddeio 'A^t^^os* — 
or in the middle of the Thesis of a Dactyl ; as, 

dvSpa fioi evveire^ Movcra, | •KdKvrpoTrov, 8s fi&ka iroXX^ 



147 



H(. Of PoBTic License^ 

In Greek Poetry a short and a long Vowel, forming two Syllables, 
frequently coalesce, and are pronounced as one Syllable ; as Uif- 
XrfiA^ebf ^A^iKfjos : — and sometimes two words are thus contracted ; 
as eyiit ohf fxrf dXXa, fitj oh. 

The Arsis makes a short Syllable long ; — as, 

iwovs B* Avro/Jii^ovra dotSs Zevyvv^fxev* &vwy€. 

Besides these deviations from the usual Rules of Quantity, the 
Ancient Poets — 

1. Lengthened a Syllable; — 1.) by changing short Vowels into 
long ones ; — 2,) by changing a Vowel into a Diphthong ; as devo/jiai 
for Mofjiai ; — 3.) by doubling, or inserting a Consonant ; as ^^^eiae 
for iBeitre, &irroXis for ^ttoXis ; — 4.) by Transposition ; as ardpirds 
for arpawos, 

2. Shortened a Syllable ; — 1.) by changing long Vowels into short 
ones ; — 2.) by rejecting one Vowel of a Diphthong ; as ?Xov for 
clXoy ; — 3.) by Transposition ; as iwpdSov for iirdpdoy, 

3. Increased the number of Syllables; — 1.) by resolving a Di- 
phthong ; as dvTf for adrf ; — 2.) by prefixing, inserting, or adding 
a letter or syllable ; as ddaxjeros for &tr')(€T0Sf dieios for BeloSf waiBetri 
or valdeerai for ^raio'c, i3/p0c for pirf, 

4. Lesseried the number of Syllables; — 1.) by Aphaeresis; as 
yipde for ^vepBe; — 2.) by Syncope; as iypero for eyelpero ; — 3.) by 
Apocope, and Apostrophe ; as ^(S for ^af/ia, fjLvpi* for fivpla. 



IV. Of Accent. 

Accents are small marks, which were introduced into the Lan- 
guage to fix the pronunciation, and facilitate it to Strangers ; where- 
fore the Ancient Greeks never used them. They were first marked 
by Aristophanes, a Grammarian of Byzantium, about 200 years be- 
fore the Christian era. 

The Accents denote the rising and falling of the voice. There 
are Three ; the Acute, ( ' ) ; the Grave, (' ) ; and the Circumflex, 
Cor"). 

No Accent can be marked further from the last Syllable than the 
Antepenult. 

1 . The Acute Accent raises the voice, and may be placed on one 
or other of the three last Syllables. If the last Syllable be short, 

L 2 



148 

the Accent is generally on the Antepenult ; but if long, the Ante- 
penult cannot be accented ; as *A\^^av^pos, 'AXe^av^p^, 

2, The Grave depresses the voice, and is understood to every un- 
accented Syllable, but marked only on the last in a word : — but 
when this Syllable is also the last of a sentence, or followed by an 
Enclitic, it is changed into the Acute ; as n/Lii), iiviip riSf x^'P' 

An Enclitic is a word, which inclines, or throws back its Accent on the preceding 
word; as avdptairSs etrri, adfid etrri. See p. 153. 

d. The Circumflex first raises, and then depresses the tone on the 
same Syllable, which must therefore be long, and equivalent to 
two short Syllables. Thus atjfjia is equal to aoofia. It is placed 
only on the last Syllable, or the Penult, if the last be short ; as 

l/L(OV, aVKOV* 

Note 1. All words should naturally have an Acute, as some elevation of the voice 
is necessary to pronounce any word. But because the voice, once raised, must sink 
again, this sinking may be on the same syllable, or on the following : — ^if it be on 
the same Syllable, thence comes a Circumflex ; but if on the following, the following 
has no Accent marked, but a Grave is understood ; whence such words are called 
Barytons. 

Therefore many consider that the Grave is not properly a distinct Accent, but a 
privation, or sinking of the Acute. — Accent is not to be confounded with Quandty. 

Note 2. A word with an Acute or Grave on the last Syllable, is termed Oxyton, 
or Acutiton ; — with an Acute on the Penult, Paroxyton ; — and on the Antepenult, 
Proparoxyton : — with a Circumflex on the last Syllable, Perispomenon ; and on the 
Penult, Properispomenon. 

A word, not accented on the last Syllable, is called Baryton, or Graviton. 

No word has more than one Accent, unless an Enclitic follow. 

There are Ten words which have no Accent, and are therefore 
called Atonies ; viz. 6, ^, oi, at, ei, ei*, ey, eic, (or ej,) ov, {ovk or 
ov)^,) (OS as. 

Note 1. The Article is acuted by many, when used as a Pronoun. 

Note 2. Ov at the conclusion of a Sentence, receives the Acute ; as likewise the 
others, when they stand after the word which depends upon them ; as Beits Us, 
KaKiav 6^. 

Note 3. 'Os, in the sense of thus, is accented. 

Rules of Accenits, 

The chief difficulty of the Greek Accents consists in two points ; 
•—in ascertaining, first, the quantity of the Penult and Ultimate ; — 
and, secondly, on what Syllable the Elevation of tone should na- 
turally take place. 

The former point is not so difficult, from the Rules of Quantity ; 
but it is very difficult to decide the latter. 

Instead, therefore, of multiplying Rules and Exceptions, first, a 



149 

few General Rules are subjoined ; and, then, some Special Rules on 
the change of Accents. 

General Rules for the marking of Accents. 

1, Monosyllables, if short, or not contracted, take the Acute (or 
Grave) ; as os, xeip. 

Contracted Monosyllables, and some others, which are long by nature, are circum- 
flexed ; as 0a)s from ^dos, vovs from voosi also ovs, vavSf ypavst vrdis, vras, &c. 

2, Dissyllables, if the former be long, and the latter short, in ge- 
neral circumflex the former ; as jiovtra : — otherwise they generally 
acute the former; as KwfjLrj, \6yos, 

EiTrep, ToivvVf &(rre, &c. being considered as two words, of which the latter is 
an Enclitic, cannot be circumflexed. — There are many other exceptions. 

3, Poly syllables y if the last Syllable be short, in general acute the 
Antepenult; as 6,vBpia'Kos \ — if long, the Penult; as trekiivri. 

Note \. The Diphthongs at and oi final are generally reckoned short They are 
long, however, in Optatives ; as ^iX'qffaif rervipoi. 

Note 2. The Attic mode of retaining the Accent on the Antepenult in MeveXeuts 
for MeveKaos, &c. and the Ionic Genitive, as IljjXfjia^eci), can scarcely be called 
exceptions, the two last Syllables being pronounced as one. 

Note 3. From this rule are to be excepted : — 

1. Oxytons ; — such are generally words in evs, ijs, w, and ws, whose Genitive 
ends in os pure ; as jBaffiXeitSf dXriBi^Sf &c. — Adjectives in ucos, Bos, Xos, pos, oros; 
as fBaffiXiKbSf &c — Verbals in ros and tf ; — Compounds of 'ttoi&o, dycjf ^epu), ov- 
poSf epyov; (except dvaepyoSf &c. See p. 151.) — Patronymics and other Deriva- 
tives in IS ; — ^with Substantives in fios, from the Perf. Passive. 

2. Verbals in eos and eov ; as ypairreos, ypavreov. 

3. The increasing Cases of Oxytons ; as Xafiirds, Xafiirddos. 

4. Many Derivatives ; as iraiSiov, evavrios. 

5. Compounds of paWutf TroXecti, x^^f ^^ "^^ ^^^^ ^ Preposition ; as eKtiPSXos ; 
— and Compounds of Kreivut, riKTio, rpe^ia with a Noun, if they have an Active 
signification ; as 9rpa>ror6icos, producing her first child; — ^but if they have a Passive 
signification, they follow the genera] rule ; as 7rpa>roroico9, the first-born child, 

6. Participles of the Perfect Passive ; as TeTVfifievos. 

7. Compounds of Perfects Middle with Nouns and Adjectives; as oiKovofioSf 
irafi^yos* 

4f, Pronouns are Oxytons ; except ovros, eKciyos, deiva, and those 

ending in repos, as fifxirepos. 

Note 1. Before ye they throw back their Accent; as lywye. 

Note 2. Tls, Indefinite, has a Grave on every Case except the Genitive, Dual 
and Plural, which is circumflexed ; as ris, ri, rivbsi &c. — But rfe, Interrogative, is 
marked with an Acute, which is placed on the Penult of the Imparisyllabic Cases ; 
as res, rif rivos, &c. 

5. The Accents of Verbs, like those of Nouns, are in general 
marked as far back as possible. Verbs in ta, not contracted, . acute 



150 

tlie Penult ; as ruicTut ; — but if contracted, the Ultimate is circum- 
flexed ; as rifjua from nyiata. 

Verbs in /lic, if Dissyllables, accent the Penult with an Acute or 
Circumflex, according to the quantity ; as ^v/ki ; — and, if Polysyl-* 
lables, acute the Antepenult ; as tarriixi. 

Particular Rules, respecting the other parts of Verbs, will be g:iyen under the head 
of the Change of Accents. 

6. The Prepositions^ that are accented, have the Accent on the last 
Syllable ; as avrl, avo, 

7. Adverbs and Conjunctions are accented variously, many ac- 
cording to their derivation ; but all these and many other words 
are best learned from reading and a Lexicon. 

In ovKOvVf according to its two senses, that Syllable which has the predominant 
sense receives the Accent ; as oitKovv, thus then! oI^kovv, not then. 

Rules for the Change of Accents. 

The Accent of the Primitive word remains the same, and on the 
same or the corresponding Syllable, through all its Derivatives ; as 
\6yoSf \6yoVf &c. 

From this general Rule, however, there are many exceptions, of 
which the chief are classed under the following Rules. 

I. One Accent is sometimes exchanged for another. 

1 . A Circun^x is used for an Acute, when a long, accented Penult 
is followed by a short Syllable ; as Trpo^^nis, frpoffJTai : — 

Or for a Grave, in the Gen. and Dat. Sing., Dual, and Plural, of 
Oxytons of the First and Second Declension, Attic Nouns excepted ; 
as Tifxrisf TifjLy, TifJLalVf TifjuSv, Ttfjtdis, from ri/K^ ; and vaov, va^, 
yaoiy, vatay, vaotSf from vaos ; — and in the Vocative in ev and oc of 
Oxytons of the Third Declension ; as (iatriXeVf ai^oi. 

Contractions also are circumflexed, if the former of the two Syl- 
lables to be contracted is acuted ; as vdos, vovs ; — otherwise they 
retain the Acute ; as iaraiMfSf karits. 

From this Rule except such as iixoa, ^x'*' i ''^i ^^y P* ^7* 

2. An Acute is used for a Circumflex, if the word be circumflexed 
on the Penult, and either increase; as ffwfiaros from ciSfAa; — or 
make the Ultimate long ; as fxoverrjs from /uovera. 

3. An Acute is used for a Grave, when the word increases ; as 
aras, ardyros ; — or when it terminates a sentence, or is followed by 
an Enclitic ; as KaXos eari, xeip* 



151 

II. The Accent is sometimes thrown back, nearer to the beginning 

of a word. 
This change is made — 

1. In some Neuters in es and ov ; as ahrapKriSf avrapKcs ; PeXrlufy, 
ftkXriov, 

2. In the Vocative^ — 1 .) of some Nouns in riys and tti/s of the 
First Decl. ; as Seo-Trorjys, MtnroTa ; ehpvoTc-qs^ evpvoira ; — 2.) of those 
words, which change 17 into e, and ut into o ; as Trarijpf vdrep ; atariip, 
ataTcp ; JlrifjioffOivrjs, ArjiiSffdeves ; 'AirdWiay, "AiroWov ; ehdalfiwVf 
evdaifjLov, 

Also in dvyarpa, Qvyarpts^ and Qvyarpas^ from dvydrrfp. 

3. In Conjugation^ when the Verb receives an Augment, and the 

last Syllable is short ; as irvwToy from rvirna, irvvov from rvTrtJ ; 

— and in Verbs in /lii ; as ridrifii from 0^<ii, SeUyvfii from ^eiKyvia, 

The Temporal Augment retains the Accent ; as AvfjirTov from SLvdirTu>f vpov- 
€ixov from .TTpovexb). 

4. In most Compounds ; as kKtay^ h^Kwv ; ao^os^ <piK6ffo<l>os ; ^6i, 

airo^os ; 17/Liai, KadrifJiat, 

Except 1.) Verbs from such as are circumflexed on the last Syllable; as drrovTeKCj 
from (TreXS) ; — 2.) Verbs from Dissyllabic Aorists and Perfects, with a Circumflex 
on the Penult ; as AipeiKa from eiKa ; but oTda throws back its Accent in trvvoida ; 
— 3. ) the Perfects and Aorists of the Infinitive and Participles ; as dirodedoffOat 
from SedoffOaif dvapds from pds; — 4.) Verbals in ros, and Compounds of epyov; 
as eifXoyriTbs from e^Xoyeo), avvepybs ; but SvffepyoSf icarepyos, vdpepyos, irepi- 
epyos, and the Contracts Kcueovpyos, iravovpyw, throw back the Accent 

5. In Prepositions, when they follow their case, or are used instead 
of Verbs, compounded of them and elfu ; as Oeov diro, rovrwy wepi, 
trap* ^/jioiye koI &\\oi, for Trdpeiffiy* 

But &va and dia do not throw back their Accent. 

Note I. Prepositions and the Conjunction dXKd lose their Accent, when the Syl- 
lable to which it belongs is cut off by Apostrophe ; as wap* efioVf dXK* hyta. 

Note 2. On the contrary, when a Verb loses its first Syllable, the Acute is re- 
moved from the Syllable lost to the next following ; as eipacav, 60av, ^dv : — if 
the Syllable remaining is long by nature, it receives the Circumflex ; as e0i|, 0^. 

6. In declinable Oxytons^ that suffer elision, when the Penult re- 
ceives an Acute ; as v6\X ixu>, ^e/v' ^vaOey. 

III. The Accent is sometimes thrown forward, nearer to the end of 

a word. 

This change takes place — 

1. In ProparoxytonSf when the last Syllable becomes long; as 
&ydpwnos, kvOpinrov ; &yios, hyla* — See p. 149. The Attic mode &c. 

2. In the Genitive Plural of the First DecL, which is always cir- 
cumflexed ; as fxovera, fwveriSy ,, — except of Adjectives, whose Mas- 



152 

culine is of the Second, unaccented on the last ; as &yios, ayia^ 
&yitjv ; with a0vwr, eriyo'/afr, ')(\ovvk>y, \pfi(rTk>y, 

3. In the Genitive and Dative offila ; as peas, fiig, ;— of &fjul>fa and 
huw ; as iLfifoiy and dvoif ; — also in fxrirpos and OvyaTpos, for fAr/ripos 
and 6vyar^pof , from fi^ri^p and dvyimnp ; which, however, when not 
syncopated, accent the Penult in every Case, except the Vocative, 
which frequently throws back the Accent. 

4. In the Dissyllabic Genitives and Datives of the Third DecLy 
that are not contracted ; as xeip^ xeipbsf xetplf xetpoiVf yeip^Vf x^P^^* 

To this Rule also belongs ywi), yvvaiKds, 

Exceptions : — Participles ; as wv, &vtos ; also these Genitives Plur., vaiduv, ^«h 
TittVf iravTiiiv with Traert, TpwtoVf SfitaatVf Oiiwv, wrutv, ^i^SiaVt d^diavj Kpanav, 

5. In some Contracts ; as yj^vtreoSi \pvtyovs ; also x^Xiceos , dp-- 
yvpeos, XlveoSf Trop<pvp€oSf (^oivtKeoSf which circumflex the contraction 
in ovs, 

6. In the First and Second Futures of Verhs^ whose characteristic 
is X, p, V, p ; as areXoF, oraXcJ ; — and in the Second Future Active 
through all Modes ; as rvTrcJ, n/Trot/xc, rvirecv, twcQv. 

Note 1. The Second Aor. Inf. Active circumflexes the last Syllable like the Second 
Future ; as rvireiv ; — and the Middle acutes the Penult ; as rvTritrOat. 

Note 2. The Second Put Indie and Infin. Middle circumflexes the Penult ; as 
rvfTOVfiatf TvrreiaOau 

7. In the First and Second Aorist^ Passive ^ of the Subjunctive and 
Infinitive ; as rvf^diOf rviria, rv^O^vai, Tvirrjvai, 

8. In Verbs in /ii, — 1.) in the Active, the Third Pers. Plur. of the 
Present Indie. ; as ndeitrif loratrc, ^i^ovaif ^eiKyvai, from rlOrifiif &c. 
— and the Present and Second Aor. Subj. ; as rc6fJ, Ow ; — 2.) in the 
Passive, the Present, Perfect, and First Aor. Subj. ; as nOtofim, 
Tcduifiai, redw ; — 3.) in the Middle, the Present and Second Aor. 
Subj. ; as riOtSfjiai, OuifAai, 

9. In the Imperatives eXOk, eM, evpk, i^e, and Xafik, which are 
accented on the last. 

10. In ihe Perfect Infinitive of all Voices^ in which the Penult 
receives the Accent ; as rervi^kvai, rervijiOai, Tervwiyai, 

All Infinitives in vat have the Accent on the Penult, except the old or Ionic In- 
finitive in -€fi€vai. 

11. /n Participles of the Second Aor. Active, of the Present Ac- 
tive of Verbs in /xi, and all in tos and eis, which accent the last Syl- 
lable ; as rvTT^v, laras, ^iBovs, rervtptjjs, rervfrifs, rv^Beis* 

The Perfect Participle, Passive, acutes the Penult ; as rervfifjiiyos. 

But if an abbreviation precede, or a letter be left out, the Accent b thrown back ; 
as eXriXafievos for cKriXafTfiivos. 




Some words, when tliey have no particular emphasis of their own, 
throw back their Accent on the preceding word, and are called En- 
clitics, from eynXiPM, I incline ; because they incline towards the 
preceding word, and are read as part of it. Thus, 
ijAfle /lot, 

Nate. EuElitics, wbMevei be their original Accent, thruw back only an Acute. 

The following are Encliti 



PronOKns ;- 



-/lou, /loi, fie 



EncLitic rt 



. If the Pel 



fiotei. Jfthepr 
uel rur;— eicept 




"?"'■. '•!"•"• "•t'^"' 
TOV, Ttv, TJ.. 

Verbs : — ei/ji and ipti/it, in the Present Indi 
Pers. Singular. 

Adverbi : — ?rij, iroi, tou, ffw, jtus, woflei 
used interrogatively. 

Conjunctive Particles : — ye, re, ve, Ker, 
and le after Accusatives of 



The Principle of these Rules is, that no two successive Syllables, 
in the same word, can be accented ; and that a circumflexed Syllable 
is equivalent to one aculed, followed by another unaccented. 

1. Enclitics throw their Accent on the last Syllable of the pre- 
ceding word, if that word is acuted on the Antepenult, i 
flexed on the Penult ; as AvOfiunrit eoti, aijfta. fiou. 



KaTtiKfii fioO, 01 



S. Enclitics lose their Accent after words circumflexed on the 
last Syllable ; as dyair^i fie ; — -and alter Oxytons, which then take 
the Acute Accent; as nV^p rts, koXos ioTt. 

tr the EncUtic aiier a Circumflex be a Distiyllable, it rather retains iu Accent ; 
as ovy nviB. 

3. Enclitic Monosyllables lose their Accent after a word acuted 
on the Penult ; as \6yos fiou ;— but Dissyllables 
e/rri ; else the Accent would be on the Praia ntepenult. 

4. The Enclitic Pronouns, on account of their emphasis, retain 
their Accent after Prepositions, and after Ivexn or fl ; as Ztit ai. 

5. 'Ett-i accents its first Syllable, if it begins a sentence, is em- 



154 



phatical, or follows — d\\\ ei, ical, fiev^ /i>/, ovk, Cjs, or rovr ; as ovk 

G. Enclitics retain their Accent in the beginning of a clause, and 
when they are emphatical. 
If several Enclitics follow each other, the last only is unaccented ; as el ris Tt 



The difference of Accentuation serves also to mark the difference 
of signification. 

The following are instances of this distinction : — 



"AycuK, leading; 
"AXijOes, truly; 
"AXXa, other things; 
"AirXoof, unnavigable; 
"Apa, then; 
Blost life; 
A/^o/xev, me give; 
A6kos, opinion; 
'Eltri, lie goes ; 
"Evi, he is in; 
*'ExOpa, enmity; 
ZJov, an animal; 
Qia, a sight; 
Oitoy^ running; 
"loyt a violet; 
KdKws, a cable; 
Aaos, a stone; 
AevKtif a poplar ; 
Mdvri, alone; 
Mvpioif ten thousand; 
"SioSf new; 
Nd/iof, a law; 
"O/AWff, yet; 
Ueidw, I advise; 
H6vTipo5f laborious; 
Tp6)(05, a course; 
^QifjLos, a shoulder; 
'^Q,j(p^s, paleness ; , 



kyiav^ a contest, 
&\tidh, true, 
AXXa, but. 
^nXooSf simple. 
apa, an interrogation. 
iStos, a bow, 
^MfjLCPt to give, 
Bok6s, a beam, 
eitrl, they are. 
eyi, in. 

Ixd/>a» hostile, 
iio^y, living, 
dehf a goddess. 
Betav^ of gods, 
lovy going. 
fcaXcJf , well. 
XaoSf a people. 
Xevfc^, white, 
fjiovfl, a mansion, 
fivploif innumerable. 
veoSf a fallow field, 
vofios, pasture, 
ofjius, together, 
weiOtitf persuasion. 
vovTipos, wicked. 
Tptyxps, a wheel, 
itfios, raw, cruel. 
d>xp6s, pale. 




The Pelasgi, a wantlering people, are said to liave been the first 
inhabitants of Greece. Their language was improved by Cadmus, 
who increased the number of letters, and introduced the Pliocnician 
Characters. 

When the descendants of Hellen, who spread their incursions from 
Thessaly, had made theiuselvea masters of the country, their lan- 
guage, which differed from the Pelasgic chiefly in its inflexions, be- 
came, after the Trojan war, the common language of Greece, under 
the name of Hellenic. 

It is probable that the only difierence which originally existed, 
was between the inhabitants of the sea-coast, and those of the inland 
part of tlie country. The former, inhabiting Attica, and Hellas or 
Achaia, then called lonja, spoke what is-called the Old Attic and the 
Ionic, anciently the same language. 

The People of the interior parisorGreece ui^ed arough and broad 
language, known by the name of the Old Duric. 

The jEolians, a branch of the original people, who settled in 
Boeotia and Peloponnesus, spoke a Dialect very similar to the Doric, 
although in general distinguished from it by Gra 

and civiliz 



a these Dialects n 



In the progress 
softened and improved. 

The Doric was mellowed into the language used by Then 

Tiie lonians, having made incursions into Asia Minor, and settled 
on a part of the coast, which received from them the name of Ionia, 
softened their language, through intercourse with their Asiatic 
neighbours, into the sweetness and sonorous grandeur of Herodotus. 

The Attic, having passed, like the otlier Dialects, through many 
gradations, one of which was marked by the name of the Middle, 
was refined iuto what was called the New Attic, and became so 
polished and elegant, that it was adopted by men of letters and elo- 
quence in every part of Greece. 

Thus the Attic, Ionic, Doric, and jEolic, are the four principal 
Dialects of Ancient Greece ; but the separate interests and pursuits 
of different independent States produced a greater variety ; and it is 
probable that every State had some peculiarities. 

These Dialects are distinguished from the Common Language, 
the voii'i) SiaXcKToi, called also Hellenism, consisting of those words 
and inflexions which were common to every part of Greece. 



156 

The Epic, or oldest Poetic Dialect, generally adopts the most an- 
cient forms, and consequently the most remote from the Common 
Dialect. 

Another important Dialect of the Greek was the Latin Language. 

Writers in the Old Attic ; ^schylus, Euripides, Sophocles, Thu- 
cydides. 

Writers in the Middle Attic ; Aristophanes, Lysias, Plato, Xe- 
nophon. 

Writers in the New Attic ; Isocrates, Aristotle, -^schines, De- 
mosthenes, Menander. 

Writers in the Ionic ; Pythagoras, Anacreon, Herodotus, Hip- 
pocrates, Arrian. 

Writers in the Old Doric ; Epicharmus, Sophron, and the Writers 
of the original Songs to Bacchus. 

Writers in the New Doric; Stersichorus, Pindar, Theocritus, 
Bion, Moschus, Callimachus, Archimedes. 

Writers in the jEolic ; Alcseus, Sappho. 

Writers in the Epic, or oldest Poetic Dialect ; Homer, Hesiod, 
the Author of the Orphica, Musseus, Apollonius Rhodius, &c. 



I. The Attic Dialect. 

The Attic Dialect abounds in contractions. Its favourite letter is 
w, which is frequently used for o. The Old Attic used short and 
simple forms; — the New softened, and in some cases lengthened, 
the word. 

The Attics frequently change — 



a into e ; as \aos into Xews. 

1} ; as ^^ into 4f^. 

o ; as aaraiftXs into 6(rTa<^is, 

k> ; as Kpa^u) into Kputi^at. 
€ into a ; as (iMWu into (iEdWw, 

17 ; as khvvdfxriv into ijBvyd' 

I ; as oBe into 6BL 
o ; as XAe^a into XeXo)^a. 
ai ; as Bk into Bal, 
17 into a ; asdva)3i76(intodva/3a6(. 
e ; as rrios into yews* 
ea ; as ijXioKa into idXwKa. 



into { ; as ^evpo into devpl. 

10 ; as hvo into Bvti ; iroXeos 

into voXews* 

61 into 97 ; as PatriXeis into fiatri- 

Xfs ; eWa into pOa. 

rfi ; as fcXec^a into icXi/t^a. 

€v into rfv ; as ehyj&ixiiv into i}v- 

H into €( ; as /3ovXp into /3ovXec ; 
o\/^ into 6\f/€i» 

01 into ec ; as ^voiy into dveiv. 

fi ; as icXoids into kX^s ; 
woXioiv into iroXefv. 



y into /3 ; as yX^x^^ ^^^^ I^Xfixfify* 
B into ff ; as oBfxij into otrfxii. 



^intod ; as icW^a into icvl^rf. 

tt; BSfTvpiieiy into (FvplTTeiy* 



157 



into flr; Bs KkavB fids into KXavfffios, 
; as OX^y into ^X^v. 

K into y ; as icva^evs into yva^evs* 

\ into y ; as /idXcs into fioyis, 
V ; as Xlrpoy into rlrpov, 
p ; as KXipavos into icplfiavos, 

ft into 0" ; as vi<l>afifiai into vitpatr- 
fxai. 

I' into X; asfrrev^ayi^intOTrXev/ia;!'. 

9rinto0; as aawdpayos into ao*- 
0af>ayos. 



0- into ^ ; as wi^paerfiai into tt^- 

p ; as dapffeiy into dappeiv, 
T ; as yXwerero into yXwrra. 
$ ; as (Tvv into £vv. 
r into 6 ; as KoXoKvvTti into icoXo- 

Kvvdri, 
X into J ; as Tr€vra\a into ir^v- 
ra£a. 



Observations. 

1. In respect to Prosthesis, Epenthesis, and Paragoge, with the opposites : — 

2V> the Beginning of a word the Attics sometimes prefix a ; as aaraxvs for ora- 
XV9\ — y ; as yX'^firi for Xriiirj. 

In the Middle of a word they insert i ; as vpoid for XP^^ > — o > ^ ^T^^X^ ^^' 
&yVX^ ;— w ; as etwda for el^a ; — p ; as icareppe^e for icarepe^e ; — r ; as 7rr<JXis 
for TT^Xis. 

At the End they add i ; as ovrotri for ovto9\ vvvl for vvv ; — the Particles ye, 
^j;, et, 061/, ouv, TTore ; as oiovei for olov ; — x'- » *^ ""'X^ ^^r j/at. 

FroOT <Ac Beginning of a word they take a ; as al 'yaSe for w dyaOk ; — e { as ptf 
for 6fi^. 

From the Middle they take the t of Diphthongs ; as kXclbi for icXatei ; — 6 ; as 
XvTO for XvETO ; — o ; as oTuai for olojiai ; — w ; as eKarepQev for eKarepioBev ; — 
ei ; as 50X(u for 606iXa> ; — p ; as pdXiTov for )36Xj3(rov. 

FroOT M« £nrf they take t ; as irpia for rrpuiX ; — v ; as icaX6 for KaXbv ; — va ; 
as 'ArriJXXw for 'A9r6\Xa>i/a ; — vov \ as Kapa for Kapijvov ; — <ra ; as /3a<r(X(s for 
P<uriXi<T<Ta. 

2. The Attics are particularly fond of Contractions ; as Troeecs for troieeis, rov- 
vofia for t6 ovopa, Kepg. for KepdL. They often subscribe the i, and often omit it 
when subscribed. Some doubtfiil Syllables they always lengthen, some they always 
shorten ; — some short Syllables they always make long ; as pa<nXe<as for patriXeos : 
— ^and sometimes they change the Accent, and the Soft Breathing into the Roi^h. 

3. In Nouns they change o, oi, and ov of the Second DecL into (o, subscribing i 
when it occurs. 

In the T?urd DecL they change eis into ys ; as lirveis into lirvys ; and the Gen. 
eos into eus ; as paatXios into paaiXeuts. 

In some Nouns they make the Accus. in &>, instead of tav, wo, or uva ; as Xayoi 
for Xayiav, Mivut for Mlvwa, Jloireidio for JIotTeiStovcu 

They make the Vocative like the Nominative ; as & trarrjp, & ^iXos. 

4. In Adjectives the Attics make the termination os common ; as 6 Kai 17 dypaipos. 
They use dina for Svo, dveiv for dvoTv, Terrapes for rictrape^. 

5. For the Pronouns see Examples. 

6. In Verbs; — 

1. The Attics change the Augment e into 17; as edvvdpriv into i^dvvdprjv ; 
— and €1 into y ; as eiSeiv into y^ecv. 

2. They prefix e to the Temporal Augment ; as etapaov for &paov, from 

OpOM, 

Note, The three Perfects eowa, soXira, eopya, have the Plup. e^iceiv, ecuX- 
9r«iv, kdtpyeiv* 



158 

3. They change Xe and /<6 of the Perfect into €i ; as XcX^^ into €&Xi|^a, 
/lifAaoftat into et/iapfiat ; — and 6 in the Penult of the Perfect Active into o ; 
as XeXo^o, or etKoxett for X^Xe^a* 

4. They prefix the two first letters of the Present to the Perf. Active and 
Middle, of Verbs beginning with a, 6, o ; as firom dXeta, cSXeica, dXwXeKo. — In 
this reduplication a long Vowel, or a Diphthong, is generally shortened ; as 
from dkii9k>f ^Xifca, dXriXexa ; kXe^Ot, ijlXevBa, ^XifXv^a. — In the 2nd Aor. 
the Augment is prefixed with a similar reduplication : thus Aor. 2. tjyayov 
for ^yov ; Imper. dyaye, Inf. dydyeiv, from dyta. 

5. They drop the reduplication in Verbs beginning with two Consonants ; 
as kpikdimjKa for PepXdtrrrjKa, 

6. They sometimes form the Pluperf. Singular in i;, };$» tf ; and the Third 
Pers. Plural in e<rav for eicrav ;-^ana reject the Augment ; as deSdjKci for eSe- 

7. They form the First Future and Perfect of Verbs in ca, as firom eo) ; thus 
OeXctf, 9eX^<Tu)f redeXijica, as if from OeXeu); — ^and sometimes drop <r in the 
First Future ; as vofiiSt, circumflexed, for vofiitna ; KOpeei for Kopetrei* 

Note. In the Future of Verbs the Old Attic used the contracted form, as 
KaX& ; the New Attic resumed <r, as KaXiaui, After the general adoption of 
this Future, the Attics still preserved the other form, improperly distinguished 
by the name of the Second Future. 

8. They add 9a to the Second Pers. Sing, in s ; as fjaOa for ris ; oiSatrOa 
(by Syncope olirBa) for oTdas, 

9. In the Third Pers. Plur. Imperative they change eruKrav and aruKrav 
into ovTiitv and avnav ; and aOiiKrav into aOtav ; as rvTrrovruv for rvrrTe- 
ruKTaPf Tv^dvT^v for rv^drutvavt TwreaOuiv for TwretrQutfrav. 

10. In the Perf Passive of Liquid Verbs they change /i before luu into <r ; 
as 7re<l>a<rfiai for ir€<l>afifiai. 

1 1. In the Optative of Contracts they use if a/ ; as ^cXoii|v for ^iXoifci, Ti" 
fitfrfv for rifi^fii. The Third Pers. Plur. is regular; as ^(Xoiev. — In the 
Third Pers. PI. Pres. Indie of Verbs in /it, as %<rriifu, &c. they use lirriairif 
riBiatri, S^6aait SeiKvvaffu 

12. In the Infinitive they change etv into ifieveu, fv into dfievaij ovv into 
Sfievaif and insert fie before vcu. Thus rwrifievcu for r^irreiv, rtfi^/ueyac 
for TifjMv, SfiXSfievai for ^ifXovv, rervi^efievcu tm rervfivat, rv^^ifievat 
for Tv^^fivai, 

13. They contract Perfect Participles, which omit k by an lonicism; as 
iffTuti firom e<rraia9, for etrroKt^s. 

7. To Adverbs they sometimes prefix a letter ; as exOes for xfiks ; — and add to 
the end ; as vvvi for vvv. Sometimes they take a letter or syllable from the be- 
ginning ; as dwep for KaOdvep ; — ^and use the Neuter Plur. of Adjectives in the 
Accus. (governed by Kard understood) adverbially ; as TroXXd for TroX^. 

They also use evravOi for kvravOa, kvBadl for evBdSe, Sevpi tor ievpo, &c. 

8. In the Prepositions they use evi for eVj Ki>v for viv, cus for irpot. 



II. The Ionic Dialect, 

The Ionic Dialect shuns and resolves Contractions, and is charac* 
terized hy the concourse of Vowels, the prevalent use of 17 instead 
of a and e, and the preference of smooth to aspirated Sounds. 



159 



The lonians frequently change — 

a into e ; as T^frtrapes into ritFffepes, 
yeXdkt into yeXiut. 
17; as 0'0^/a into (ro<pltj, 
w; as 'XpeicL into ypei^. 

€ into a short; tLSrifiytomtorafivia, 
71 ; as fiatTiXii into I3a(n\r[i. 
I ; as ^or/a into ItrTlri, 
€i; as ^veica into eivefca. 

9 into a short ; aspe/iijki/ta into^- 

€ ; as £i|/DoV into (epdi^. 

(■> ; as dpnyos into dptayds, 
I into e; as ttoXcos into ^roXeos. 

1} ; as yj/ifJLvSioy into \l/rffivdioy, 
o into ov; as ovofia into ovvofia, 

a>; as ^ev/oo into ^evpio, 
uf into o ; as ^wi) into ^o^. 

ao ; as ffuxjipwv into (Ta6<pp<ov, 
k>, contracted, into ei; ; as ^yainav 
into ijyawevv* 



at into tf ; as fwvtrais into fiovays* 
av into 17V ; as i^avv into i^vv. 

a>v; as uvtos into wimis. 
ei into ea ; as irovei crOai into iro- 

€v; as wXeiv into irXcvv. 
17 ; as Keipes into Krjpes, 
rfi; as IlijXe/^i^s into Ilf;- 
X97<5i7(. 
€0 into ev ; as frXioras into irXeu- 

vas. 
ev into 171/*; as evKofios into i^vico- 

flOf. 

a>; as efcirXevcras into €K- 
irXoMTas, 
ov into €0, €ii) ; as e/xov into ifxio ; 
rov into riia, 
€v ; as TToiovfTi into Troievffi. 
010; as Xoyoi; into Xoyoio, 
fi into (u( ; as r^T into rait. 



y into f ; as dXiyoi' into oXl^oy. 
i; as kviyKia into evelKM, 
icinto Xf ^s aicav6(vov into a^^av- 

TT into k; as ttov into kov ; ttcJs into 



T into 0; as /3arf>axo^ into /3a6f>a- 

^ into 9r; asa^aipov/LtatintoaTrat- 

povjjLai. 
X into ic; as ^i\ofiai into ^exofxau 
tramto^; as ^iflrtrds into Si^d^* 



1. In respect to ProsthetiSy EpenthesiSf and Paragoge, with the opposites : — 

To the Beginning of a word the lonians sometimes prefix a ; as itvas for vas ; 
— e ; as ee for i ; — o ; as 5ov for ov ; — r ; as rbv for 81/. 

/» /Ae Middle they insert e ; as a^eX^e^ for dSeXpbs ; — i ; as XdyoaV for \6- 
yoiy ; inserting i, instead of subscribing it; as Oprfixesfor Op^ices, pritSios for p^- 
it09 ; — i after 6 and ; as ^eTvos for C^i^os ; %P<^^ for XP^^ > — ^^^ ^ ^®' ^ > ^ 
H&vvos for fiSpos ; — y ; as ^piySoviros for epioovTros ; — «f ; as XeySfietrOa for Xe- 
ydfieOa ; — r ; as iJrre for 8ri ; — Ttj ; as ct^tv/ios for eTVfios, 

To the End they add « ; as Xdyociri for \6yois. 

From the Beginning of a word they take 6 ; as 6pri^ for eopri) ; — y ; as ala for 
yata ; — X ; as eipeiv for Xeipeiv ; — (r ; as fiiKods for fffiixpos. 

From the Middle they take e ; as tpaC for lipaK ; — « ; as ^i^ut for ^ei^oi ; — d ; 
as epios for eptSos ; — ic ; as pepaa for piprjKa ; — X ; as koXiov for icaXXiov ; — tr ; 
as eriOeo for hridefro ; — r ; as Kpeaos for Kpearos, 

From the End they take 1/ ; as eerd' ^ttws for effriv 59ra>9 ; — ^and sometimes a 
Syllable ; as KVKeSi for KVKeSiva, <r^i for <r^c<n, l^po) for l^pcDra. 

2. The lonians do not love Contractions ; they extend and resolve words, as 
voieut for TcoiSt ; — and sometimes transpose letters ; as KpaSla for Kapdla, yovvos 
for y6vvo9 ; — and also shorten long Voweii. 



160 

3. When a long closes tlie final Syllable, they make the word Ozyton ; and when 
a short closes it, they accent the Antepenult; — they change the Accent of increased 
or diminished words; — ^take away e from the Feminine in eia, and accent the Penult; 
as d\ri9ia for dXtiBeia. 

4. They sometimes use Soft Mutes for Aspirates, and Aspirates for Soft. They 
seldom reject a Vowel by Apostrophe ; but when an Apostrophe has been made, they 
sometimes leave a Soft Consonant before an Aspirate ; as Kar ov for xaG' ov. — 
And thus, when a word, beginning with an aspirated Vowel, is compounded with 
the Prepositions dvb, kvl, V9r6, Kurd, fterd, they do not change the Soft Consonant; 
as &m9 for d^et. 

5. In Nouns of the First DecL they change as and a of the Nom. into i|s and ij ; 
the Gen. ov into eut ; the Accus. i^v or av into ea ; Plur. eas ; and the Dat PI. into 
1^ and y<ri. 

In the Second Deel, they change the Gen. ov into oiO) and add « to the Dat. PL, 
neglecting v before a Vowel in prose. 

In the Third Decl. they change av of the Nom. into i|/v, and avs into fivs ; as 
rirtjv for rirdv, vriv9 for vavt ; — e of the Gen. into tf ; as paffiXfjos for SatnXeos; 
— and the Accus. of Contracts from ca and uw into ovv ; as ai$ovp for aiooa. 

From Neuters in as pure and pas the r of the oblique Cases is r^ected by the 
lonians and Dorians. See p. 19. 

6. In Adjectives they omit v in the Ace. Sing., and Nom. Ace. and Voc Plur. 
of Comparatives in wv ; as fiei^oa (contr. fiei^w) for fieiZova, 

7. For the Article and Pronouns see Examples. 

8. In Verbs; — 

1. They sometimes omit the Augment ; as pfj for eptj ; — or lengthen it ; as 
T^PovXdfiijv for epoyXdfirfv, 

2. They prefix an unusual reduplication ; as KCKafiov for eKa/iov, XeXa- 
OitrOia for XaOetrOut, 

3. They drop the k of the Perfect, from Verbs in akf and 6ii> ; as ftifiaa for 

4. They terminate the Imperfect and Aorists in ffKov ; as rvtrreaKov, rv- 
ij/affKOVf for SrvirroVt erv^a. 

5. They add <n to the Third Pers. Sing. Subjunctive in y ; as rvrrryci for 
Tvirry ; — and to the Subj. of Verbs in fii, though differently terminated ; as 
Si^(n for dtp, 

6. They change eiv, eis, ei of the Pluperfect into ea, eas, ee, &c. ; as ere- 
Tv^ea, ereTv^eaSf &c. 

7. In the Second Pers. Sing. Present Passive they omit the cr, which pro- 
perly belongs to the word ; as rijirreai for rvirreffaif commonly rvvry ; — 
and form the Third Pers. Plur., Present and Imperfect, Indie. Passive, in drat 
and aro ; as rvTrrearai for rvvTOvrat, kriQearo for kriBevro, earo for ^ro. 

In the Third Pers. Plur., Present Indie, of iffrtjfii, &c. they use loredoif 
rtOediTif didodaif SeiKvvdai, 

8. They resume in the Perfect Passive the Consonant of the Active ; as 
reTvtparai for rervfifiivoi el<ri ; — ^but when this is <r, they take the Consonant 
of the Second Future ; as we^pddarai for v€^pa<rfiivoi elaL 

9. They sometimes change contracted ei into if ; as k^[Ktj for k^tXei ;— and 
also into ea : as <ln\ea<r9ai for ^iXettrOai, 

10. They change the Infinitive in eiv, or ivai, into i/iev, fv into d/iev, 
ovv into dfieVf rjvai into vfiev ; as rvrrrefiev for rvtrreiVf rerv^efiev for 
rerv^evaij yeXdfiev for yeX^v, StjXSfiev for drjXovv, rv^O^fiev for rv^O^vai, 

9. In Adverbs they use Ktos for Trius, &c. drpeKeuts for drpsK&s, 

10. In the Prepositions they use eiv, elvi, for ev, es for ets. 

11. In the Conjunctions they use &v for oHv. 



161 



in. The Doric Dialect. 

The Doric Dialect is marked by a broad pronunciation! and its 
favourite letter is a. 

The Dorians frequently change — 



a into e ; as vaiSa into 7ra?^e. 

17 ; as 0'iy^v into viyrjvy with> 

out I subscr. 
V ; as ffhp^ into ovp^, (^ol.) 
e into a short; BSTpixta\ntOTpayjia» 
I ; as decs into di6$, (Boeot.) 
a> ; as rpei^ into Tpwfbta. 
17 into e; as" A/)i7s into" Af>ef.(^ol.) 
a long ; as tpiifxri into ^afxd. 
ia ; BSTTJs fieXifftrris into riSs 
fieXltrtruts, 
o into a ; as eiicotri into ecicari. 

01; ; as rinpofiai into rv^ov- 

fiau 
k> ; as opos into Jpos • (Ion. 

and ^ol.) 
01 ; as irvofi into iryoiii* 
k) into a long ; as vpQros into Trpa- 
ros. 
€v ; as ^yaTTOfv into fiyairevv* 



m into a ; as kraipos into I^Tapos. 
av into a ; as yavy into ydy. 

at ; as avXaf into (JXa£. 
ei into a ; as KXeiBas into icXa^as . 

17 ; as €<l>l\€i into e^/Xt;. 

ai ; as ^Oelpta into (pdalpta, 
€v into ov ; as Iowa into itrtrova, 
01 into ^ ; as iroifieyiKos into tt^- 

ov into a ; as Acve/ov into Acve/a. 
oc ; as fiovtra into fioiira. 

(^ol.) 
ev; as 01X0^0*1 into ^iXev^c 

(iEol.) 
61 ; as ohpayos into dfpayos, 
(JEol.) 
^ into 1; ; as /3o^ into Hon, 
00 and oa into 10 ; as alooos into 
aitws, P6ai into /3<&$. (iEol.) 



P into y; as jSX^^apa intoyX^^apa. 
^; as ofieXos into o^eXd^. 

(iEol.) 
(;; as (UpeOpoy into ^^f>e- 
fi'/yov. (iEol.) 
y into ^ ; as yy6^$ into ^ydfos, 
t into 6 ; as oi^Sev into oi»6ev. 

(; as &Si;x^^ ^^ &ivx^^* 
( into ^ ; as pi^io into ^p^cii. , 

^^ ; as Oeplieiy into depl^^eiy. 

9^ ; as tnfpl(4a into vyploZta. 
6 into flr ; as 6eo( into ffidf . 

^ ; as opyiSes into opytxes. 
K into r ; as acec vos into r^vof . 
X into y ; as ^Xdopev into iirOofxey, 
y into flr ; as rinrrofiey into rvirro- 



w into ; as koI elirn into «cp0a. 
p into fc ; as fiiKpos into fUKKos. 
<T into d ; as c^/uev into if^/icv. 

; as fiTiyifffjLos into /ii^vt- 
6/Lidf. 

f^; SLSr€Tv6i$fs into T€Tv6a}y» 

£ ; as Xvylffo) into Xvy/^o;. 

r ; as 0*1/ into rv* 
ffo'mto ( ; as opvaota into 6pv(w, 
T into d ; as fieXirfj into fxeXidtj. 

K ; as irdre into Trdica. 

f' ; as iparavevo'af into xav- 
vevffas, 

V ; as craSiov into tnrdSioy, 



Observations, 
1. In respect to ProtthesU, Epenthesis, and Paragoge, with the oppotites:-^ 

To the Beginning of a word the Dorians sometimes prefix )3; as firiXea for j^Xea; 
— also r; as tm for ^ ;— and they double it; as Terdxf»> for rdrna. 



16^ 

In tht Middle they insert a\ as Hovei^aev for IT^^^i^ov; — e, like the lonians; 
as K€veb^ for K€vb9\ — t after o; as irvoii) for trvor^', — v after e; as ^^i/revoi for 
(^tire^ ; — 6; as ^tjfid for ^i^*? ; — v ; as bpifvia for 6pvtt> ; — or ; as rvwrSuetrOa for 
rvwrSfieOa ; — they double ir, <r, r ; as OTnriSdev for 6ir6Qev, itraov fwr boov, 5rr* 
for 5rt. 

7*0 ^A« i?n£^ they add i ; as KcCKoiai for Kcikois ; — y ; as kyitv for ^ii» i^-^-9 ; as 
oTca^es for otKaSe ; — ya ; as ey wya for ey w ; — vif ; as iywvri for ey w. 

From /A« Begintihg they ti^e r; as ^/ios for riifiosi — ^they also use XQ for OeX^i. 

From the Middle they take e; as ey^vro for iyeverx); — c; as (f^-foT ir^eis; — 
o ; as Mevekas for Mev^Xaos ; — v ; as /3a<nX6<rt for j3aoiXet>cr« ^— «v ; as KcKofiai 
for KeXevofiai; — ^; as ll6pu)9 for Ilofyi^os;^ — 0; as ^<rX^v for 6<rOX6v; — p; as 
SfiTTOffOev for SftvpotrOev. 

Prom the End they take letters and syllables; — a; as irdp fbr 'irapd ; — s; as 
b for 88 ; — fia; as ^w for SSf/ta; — fivovi as icpi for KpifKPov\^-~Tep\ is fia for 
fiarep ; &c. 

2. The Dorians sometimes also withdraw t from a Diphthong ; as \apkv for Xa- 
fieiv ; — and i^eglect the c subscribed in ^, y, ^ ; — they transpose letters ; as ^p- 
h<rro9 for fipdiurroi ; — ^make long the Doubtfdl Vowels, shorten Accusatives Plur. 
in as ; and change the Accent ; as vvfKpas for vvfi^as. 

3. In Nount the Dorians use in the Nom. of the First Deel, a ahd a9 fbr if and 
i}s ; also a for ^. 

They change ov of the Gen. into a ; as AtSa for at^ov ; — make the Dat. in a, 
without subscribing « ; — and the Gen. PI. in av for cDv. — ^in the Gen. and Dat. Sing, 
they sometimes use a> ; as /ceXivcrc^, /i6X(<rcrii>, for fieXia<nj9^ fieXivay ; the « of the 
Dat. being indifferently subscribed or omitted. 

In the Second Dech they change ov of the Gen. into a> ; as 9e& for 9eoi) ; — and 
ovi of the Accus. PI. into os and los; as 9eb9 for Oeoiis, dv9pwna9 for dvOptb^ovs, 

In the Third DecL they change eos of the Gen. into evs; as ;^6(Xevs for ^eiXeos; 
— and form the Gen. and Dat. from Nominatives in V9 by rejecting s ; as ^SpKVS, 
Gen. and Dat. ^6pKv, 

The word paaiXeis exemplifies the different Dialects : — Gen. of Common, pa<n- 
Xeos; Attic, paffiXeuts ; Ionic, paoiXrios, or patriXeios; Doric and ^olic, /3a<r(X6t>s. 

4. For the Article and Pronouns see Examples. 

5. In Verbs ! — 

1. They form the Second Pers. Sing. x>f the Pres. Indie, in m; as rvvree 
for TVTTTeis ; — change ojiev of the First Pers. PL into ofids ; as Xeyofies for 
Xeyofiev ; — ov<rt of the Third Pers. PI. Indie into ovrt ; as rvirrovri for 
rvnTOvoi ; rvfirovTi, or TVTTOvvri, or rvrrevvrt, for rww'ovcrt:— thus also wcrt 
of the Subj. into Mvri ; — and loravri for Icfracrt, ri9evn for ri9€'i<ri ; — ^also « 
of the Third Pers. Sing, of Verbs in jii into ri ; as rWtiti for Ti9ii<ru 

2. They circumflex the First Future ; as rt^u) for 't^yj^m, rmff^fiai for r^- 
jpofiai. 

3. They change the Infinitiveln eiv, evaif into efjtevj or iftevai t-^v into 
Afievai ; — ovv into bfievai ; — tjvat into rip,evai :— ^w rvvrefiev, or rvirtc- 
/levai (or rvTrrev), for rvTrrciv ; r€Tv<pefi€vai for rerv^eveu, yeXdfievai for 
yeX^j/, brjX6fieva06)r SrjXovv, rv^9rifi€vai for rtf^^Otivat. ' 

4. They change the Feminine of Participles In ov^a Into oi&a, eiicro, and 
«(i>(ra ; as Tvirroiffaf rvirrevoaf rvir'ni&at for ri^wrbv&a ;-;-«nd the F^t Aor. 

in as, aoa, av, into aes, aiffaf aiv ; as r^ais, rir^ataeL, rv^Kecw. 

6. In the Passive they form the First Pers. Dual in 6(rOov, ^and Plur. in 
e<rOa; as TV'7rr6fie<r9ov, rv7rT6fie(r9a, for rv'!rT6fie9ov, &c. — shorten the 
Penult of the First Aor. ; as €7roi€9riv for eiroirj9riv't — and in the Third Pers. 
PI. of the Aorists use ev for ritrav ; as iTv^9€v for hrb^tiaav. 

6. They change ov of the Second Pers. Passive into ev ; as rvVrr^v for 
rvrrrov ; — and likewise ov, contracted, into ev ; as 'frocevites for '^ocov/fcv ; 
•"eilnto fi ; as kf^iXti for ^0iXee; — ahd ot into ^; as'iroli^itvfor irocov/ti. 



168 



J5. In 4dverbs Hney use ^furoffOev, pr SftirpoBei^, for Sfi,7rpO(T9ev, TrXarlov for 
ir\ri<riov, rtas for ws, &c. 

.7. ^,4Ae Preposition tjtiey use irori, irp^Si for vphsi irdp for irap^, &c 

8. /n ^^ Conjunctions they use a2 for et, fih for /i^y, & for hri, ya for ye, &c. 

IV. The MqIic Dialect. 

The £oKc Dialect agrees in maay respects with the Doric, and 
is followed by the Latin. It changes the Aspirate into the Soft 
Breathing, and resolves Diphthongs. 

The ^olians frequently change — 



a into € ; as Kparos into Kpiros* 

1} ; as arjp into ijfip. 

o ; as 6.via into ovm. 

t^ ; as iFopl into oitpl. (Dor.) 

ai ; as ras into ra/s. 

av ; as acXaai into icXava>, 
e into a; as oxurBev into oTrtcrOa. 
(l?or.) 

II ; as n'aXeoi into fcaXZ/tii. 
1} into a short ; as iniKri into irvXa. 

€ ; as" Apjfs into^Afyes. (Dor.) 

at ; as fn^yifOKw into /4i- 
fiyidtricta. 

€1 ; as Il97X€i;s into UeiXevs. 
c into € ; as rpLros into ripros. 

17; aaaKrl^" into dfcr//!'. (Ion.) 
o into a ; as eiKOffi into eiVarc. 
(Dor.)^ 

e ; as 7rf>of into irp^s. 

V ; as ovofia into ovvfia* 



o mto 

v into 
Of into 



ai into 

etinto 

€v into 

01 into 
ov into 



fi) ; as Ofxoios into &fu)u»s, 
ai\ as viro into Wac. 
c ; as v\l/6d€y into ii//(5dev. 
a ; as yeXiSv into ycXav. 
p ; as &pa ipto opa. 
1; ; as ')(€Xwvti into xeXvv);. 
a ; as iipxfuos into ^p^^aos . 
at ; as iraTs into vais, 
ri ; as eXdeli' into IXO^k. 
01 ; as oveipos into ovoipos, 
ii; as 'A^j^cXXevf into 'A^tX- 

X^ff. 
o ; as TToirifxa into irorifia* 
ao ; as Alveiov into Ai- 

f'ciao. 
ev; as aKovixevo^ into dicev- 

/xevos. 
ot; as rvTTTOvaa into ru- 

irroKra. 
a> ; i^s fLovffa into ^^va* 



j3 into ^ ; as djScXo** into d^eXos. 

(Dor.) 

^; asj3^f)edpoKinto^€pe6pov. 

/x; as l3ap(iiTos into j3ap- 

/iirof. 

yintof; as 6\iyov into dX/^ov. 

(Ion.) 
^ into /3 ; as SeXeap into (iiXeap, 
i ; as Af a into Z/a. 
6 ; as ovEey into ov6e v. (Dor.) 
4f into ^ ; as ^vyos into ^vyos. 
into ; as dkipu into ^X/jSoi. 
(Att.) 
.r; as uoO^ice into icar^Ke* 
(Ion.) 

M 



X into XX; astreXi/vfiintoo'eXXava. 
fi intp /3 ; as fxeWta into /^^XXco. 

IT ; as /xcra into ircra. 
y into /i ; as irevre into vifive* 
y into f ; as i^povely into ^pdrecs. 
£ into ^fc ; as ikvos into aKiyos, 
TT into ic; as ?ro7os into fco(os.( Ion.) 

/i ; as iraTiS into /lar J. 
7rrintO9'0'; as ejiTim-u) into €/x- 

9r{ffOr<il. 

ff into ^, 6, r ; as d/r/ii} into o^fni^ 

fjtrjyifffws into ^rjyidfios^ 

eiKOffi into ciuart. (Dor.) 

V ; as T€Tv<liios into rcr^- 

^a>y. (Dor.) 

2 



IGi 



V9 



into p ; as fxaprvs into fi&prvp, 
into {* ; as opvvoia into 6pv(w, 
(Dor.) 
r into 9r ; as ir^vre into iriuwe, 
(Ion.) 



^ into IT ; as &fi6l into a^irc. 

(Ion.) 
X into ; as avx>j>' into avfpiiv. 



Observations, 

1. In respect to Prottheti$f EpenthesiSf and Paragoget with the oppoHtes: — 

7V> ^Ae Beginning of a word they prefix e; as cdciTredov for Sdiredov; — o before 
v ; OS o^diitp for {jcfa>o ; — p before p, when 8, k, t, or ^ follows ; as ppodov for 
pSdoVt PpnKos for paicos, ppVTt^p for pvri^pf ^Ma for pi^a. 

/it ^/<e Middle they insert a ; as Qedutv for 0€a>i/; — i; as icaXais for raX<is ; — v 
after e, when another Vowel follows; as eva^e for ea^e; — fi\ as d^ipSveiv for 
dXidvetv i — y, ic, before x » *s 5yX*"l ^o' 5;^vJ7, oic;^os for S^os ; — (r ; as opera/ for 
6pw ; — they double X, fi, v, v, p, <r, t, &c. ; as dfifies for i^uels. 

To the End they add v ; as AriTutv for Ai^roi ;--0a ; as f}<r0a for ^s. 

From the Beginning they take 6 ; as aivbs for deivbs ; — /a ; as m for fiia ; — (r ; 
as itiXaC for (XfiiXa^, 

From the Middle they take e ; as ipbv for lep^)/ ; — t ; as 7roi|ri)s for 9roii}ri)s, 
%6^pes for %ecp6S, ffTrevSu) for vrrei^ia ; — o ; as dyvqKafies for rjyvo'qKafies ; — y, 
from words in vy^ ; as ^pv^ for ^dpvy^ ; — ^ ; as Ilapios for Ilapi^os ; — ^f( ; as 
taptrev for &piii]<rev» 

From the End they take v ; as 6vi<r9€ for ovivBev ; — s ; as d for Ss. 

2. The ^olians change the Aspirate into the Soft Breathing; as iljiiipa for 
rjpepa ; — ^resolve Diphthongs ; as vrdis for TraTs ; — ^frequently double the Consonant 
after a short Vowel ; as *6<r<Tov for *6(rov ; — draw back the Accent ; as vorafios for 
worafibs ; — and circumflex acuted Monosyllables ; as Z6t)s for Zevs, 

3. In Nouns of the First Deel. the JEolians change the Gen. Sing, ov into ao ; 
as dt^ao for ditov\ — ^the Gen. PI. utv into aiDV ; the Dat. ais into as; and the 
Accus. as into acs. 

In the Second DecL they drop the t subscribed in the Dative; and make the 
Accus. PI. in CIS. 

In the Third Deel. they sometimes form the Dat PI. in ois ; as TraBrjfidrois for 
vaBrifiaffi ; — ^the Gen. Sing, in evs for eos, from Nouns in evs ; as paaiXevs for 
paffiXeos', — and change the Gen. ovs of Contracts, from a; and (us, into o/s/and the 
Accus. into tav ; as alSws for aidovSf aid&v for aldSa. 

4. For the Article and Pronouns see Examples. 

5. In Verbs; — 

1. They change eis and ei of the Pres. Indie, into f|s and f| ; as rvvrnis, 
TV'icTtii for TvvreiSi rvirret ; — and aifii in the First Aor. Opt. into, eta ; as 
rvi/zeea for rvxpaifii, 

2. They change otpi of Contracted Verbs into tpijv ; as voufitiv for Trounfit ; 
— ov into tv ; as voievpes for voiovpev ; iroievri (instead of voievvrt) for 
9ro(oi)<ri. 

3. They change the Infinitive in eiv into tjv ; as rvTrrrjv ; — ^in eiv, con- 
tracted, into riv or eis ; as ^povrjv, or <pp6veis, for ^pov€iv\ Uie t indifferently 
subscribed or omitted ;— in ^v into aiv or aVs ; as yekaiVf or yeXats, for ye- 
X^v;— in ow into ots; bs xpvaois ior \pv90vv, 

4. In the Passive they change ne9a into ne9e and /iedev ; as rvTrrSfieOe 
and TvirrofieOev for rvwrofieOa. 

5. They form the First Aor. Participle in ais ; as rvxpais ; — and the Perfect 
in (OV ; as Terv^iav. 

6. They use riSefiui for riOrjpt, and riOevri for rt^etcrt, *i<rravTi for Icrrao't, 
dUovri for ^e^ovcrc, Jeeicvvvn for deiKvvtri, 



1G5 

6. In Adverbs the ^olians use hindQa for owKtBeVf iroWaKi for rro\\aKi9, 

7. /n the Prepositions they use (i^^i for &ii^ii Trerd for ^erd, irpks for Trp^s ; 
dfrai, Karat, rrapalf {tvai, for a7r6, Kard, rrapd, virS. 



The Boeotians change 

e into I ; as (iatriXeos into /3ao'cX/os. 

17 into €1 ; as fjputes into elpioes. 

( into ^^ ; as Oeplieiv into Oeplh^eiv, 

In Verbs ;— 

1. They change a<rt into av ; as rSrvfpav for rer^f^aat, 

2. In the Imperfect and Aorists of Verbs in ta, they change ov into ocrav, 
and av into aaav ; as Ti/wroaav for ervirrov, erv^affav for €rv\l/av, krv- 
vo(Tav for ervrrov. 

In Passive Aorists, and the Imperfect and Aorists Active of Verbs in p.i, 
they change (rav into v, and a long Vowel into its corresponding short one; 
as erv^Bev for €TV<p9ri(raVf eriBev for eTiBetrav. 

3. They also put €i for 1} ; as TiOeifii for riOijfAi ; whence redetica for 
re0i}ica. 



y^e iS^ptc, or oldest Poetic Dialect, 

generally adopts the most ancient forms, and consequently the most 
remote from the Common Dialect. 

1. The Poets admit the Synseresis, but avoid the Crasis. 

2. They omit the Article before Abstract Nouns. 

3. In Pronouns they use od, ol, e, for the same Cases of airos, (See also Ezam~ 
pies.) 

4. In Verbs t — 

1. They use the Perfect Middle more frequently than the Perfect Active. 

2. They form several Verbs of a peculiar termination, in Om, ku), ^a>, pa>, 
(rya>, <r9ta, airta, (Tx*»>t ^^^t €iv<a, ya>, otatOf ovoi, toto ; — ^as fiefiptitBia, &c. 

5. They use Particles, chiefly peculiar to themselves; as ^ri9d, vfios, iiea^a, 
vepOe, 6xct$ fee, pa, &c. 

For further Observations see Poetic License, p. 147. 



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190 



Of the Digamma. 

The ancient Dialects of Greece admitted few, or no Aspirates ; 
and the Digamraa was calculated to prevent the hiatus caused by 
the concurrence of Vowels. Aspirates were afterwards introduced 
into all the Dialects except the ^olic, which retained the Digamma. 
Hence it has preserved the name of the iBolic Digamma. 

It represented a rougher guttural sound than F, approaching the 
sound of the modem /; and received its name from its figure, Ft 
Digamma, or double Gamma. It was also pronounced like our w. 

The Digamma gradually disappeared from the Greek Letters ; 
but there still exist ancient inscriptions and coins, on which it ap- 
pears; as poifc/a for olc/a, a house; AIpI for Act, to Jupter, In 
Latin also we find the Digamma represented by o in many words ; 
as alitv^ originally alf^liiv^ aevum; fides, fiopes, boves; 'Etrrla, peor/a, 
Vesta; 'Axaids, 'AxaipoSf Achivus. 

The Lacedaemonian Dialect, a branch of the iEolici always pronouticed, and 
generally wrote, the Digamma like B, a letter which in modem Greek has the 
sound of v. 

This letter has also with great propriety been called the Homeric 
Digamma, from Its frequent use by Homer. But gradually disap- 
pearing, through the introduction of Aspirates, it was at length en*' 
tirely omitted by the transcribers of his works ; and in its stead the 
final Vy or the Particles y, ^, r* were inserted. 

Grammatical Terms and Figures. 

1. Prosthesis adds a letter or syllable at the beginning of a word; 
as i6yTa for ovra* 

2. Aphceresis takes away a letter or syllable firom the beginning 
of a word ; as Keivos for kKtivos, 

3. Epenthesis inserts a letter or syllable in the middle of a word; 
as irrdXis for ttoXc^. 

4. Anadiplosis is the doubling or repetition of the first syllable ; 
as ky^iyepKa for fiyepKa, KCKafjLwtri for leafKatru 

5. Diplasiasmus is the doubling of a Consonant ; as Sttttws for 
SjcofSf fxitrtros for fiiaos, 

6. Syncope takes away a letter or syllable from the middle of a 
word ; as erdpois for eralpois* 

7. Paragoge adds a letter or syllable to the end of a word ; as 
elirev for cIttc. 

8. Apocope cuts off a letter or syllable from the end of a word ; 
as iroXXaici for woXKaKtSf iia for ^(S/ca. 



[91 

9. Metathesis transposes letters or syllablea ; as Kpalla for Koptiu, 
hireptlaias for It-neipirrtos, 

10. /intilhesis, Antistaochon, or Metabola, puts one letter for 
another ; as rroijilri for oo^ia, 'iropaia for ■K6ppbi. 

11. Synceresis is the contraction of two syllables into one, with- 
out a change of letters ; as Tfl)(ci for re/x^V, 

12. Crasis is the contraction of two syllables into one, when one 
or both of the letters are changed ; as voii for voos. 

13. Dieeresh divides one syllable into two; as n-aVc for irais, 
jiiXeos for peXovs, 

14. SynalwpJte is an elision or contraction, that frequently takes 
place between two words, when the former ends, and the latter be- 
gins, with a Vowel or Diphthong; as rafia. for to. cfia, rouvofia for 
TO ovofia, Boi/idTioy for ro ifiaTiov, lafyii for koI iyii. 

15. TWsu is the division of a Compound word; as &Kpa irtJXii 
for &Kp6iro\ts. 

16. Enallage is when a Substantive is used for an Adjective, a 
Positive for a Comparative, an Active for a Passive Verb, and the 
contrary, or one foot for another ; as o XiSyoi o trot itki'ideta tirn, for 

1 7. Melaplasinus is a change of the termination in Declension or 
Conjugation ; as xXaSl for trXaS^, aiviiiti for aivk^a. 

1 8. Ellipsis is when one or more words are omitted in a sentence ; 
as TO TiSv ^CKiiiy, supply ^payiiara ; !) /loviriKi), supply r^i'ij. 

19. Periphrasis, or circumlocution, is when one word is expressed 
by several ; as /Si'tj Ilpid^ota for Uplofios. 

StO. PkonasmiLs is when a word is redundant or superSuous ; as 
fd^t axoTovs for itk6tos, iralitis S^biv for Trai^cts. 

21. Syttthesit is when the construction is regulated according to 
the sense, and not according to the Rules of Grammar ; as riKvov 

22. Systole shortens a syllable naturally long, or preserves short 
a syllable which ought to be long by position ; as rii H^^vas eyelpei. 
(Theocr.) 

r Eclasis, lengthens a short syllable ; as 'oiraXoi 



33. Diastole, o 

for 'airaKoi. 

24. Synixesis, i 
nounced as one ; j 

25, Dialysis is 
that part is read a 



r Synecphonesis, is when two syllables are pro- 
3 nqXifia'^eu 'AjftXijos. 

vhen a word at the end of a verse is divided, 
the commencement of the following line. 



192 



Of the Greek Calendar. 

The Attics divided their Year into twelve Lunar Months, which 
contained thirty and twenty-nine days alternately, the Months of 
thirty days preceding those of twenty-nine. The Months containing 
thirty days were termed wXiipeiSf — the others KotXoi, 

But as the Lunar Year, which they began with the first New Moon 
after the Summer Solstice, was shorter than the Solar by about eleven 
days, — ^when the twelfth Month ended before the Solstice, they added 
another Month, and thus that Year consisted of thirteen Months. 

The following are the names of the Attic Months (mostly given 
from Feasts), together with the Roman Months, to which they chiefly 
answered. 



*EKaTOfJL(iaiitv, July* 
Merayeirv((iiv, August, 
'Bori^pofjiiiDVf September, 
'M.aifiaicrripiiMtyy October, 
TLvayeypiiSjyf November, 
UotreideibVi December, 



TafiriXiiaVf January, 
'Av0€OTi7f)iaiv, February, 
*£Xa^i7/3oXi(iiv, March, 
Movvvx««^>', April, 
GapyiyXiwv, May, 
Sfccpo^pcctfv, June, 



The Attics divided each Month into three parts, or Decades, of 
which the first was termed firiyos ItrrafjiiyoVf or ap)(piJLiyov, of the 
commencing Month ; — the second, firiyos /jLeaovyroSf or eirl ^e/ca^c, of 
the middle Month ; — the third, fxrivos <pdlyoyTos^ or Travofjiiyovf or 
X^yovros, or eirl eha^i, of the ending Month, 

They distinguished the Days by the Ordinal Numbers, taking the 
days in each part by themselves, and reckoning backwards in the 
last, thus : — 



M17VOS IffTajjiiyoVf 
1. yovfiriyla; 
2* ^evripa ; 

3. rplrri ; 

4. rcrapriy, or rcrpas ; 

5. iri/jLTTTrif or ttcv- 

TaSf &c. 

6. ^icTJ/; 

7. ifidofjLri ; 

8. oylori ; 

9. kyy&Tri\ 
10. BeKarri, 



fieffovyros, 

11. ^putrri; 

12. Bevripa; 

13. rplrri; 

14. rerdprri; 

15. TrifjLTrrrf ; 

16. cicnj; 

1 7. e^^ofjLri ; 

18. oy^ori; 

19. eyydrri; 

20. ehas, or eiKOffrff, 



Xriyoyros, 

21. ^€Kdrri; 

22. eyyarri; 
23* oy^ori ; 

24, ifidofjLTi; 

25, iicrri; 

26, TrifiTrrri ; 

27, rerdprrf; 

28, rplrri; 

29, ^evripa; 

30, iyri K(d 

rpiaKas, 



vea, or 



Note. If the Month did not contain thirty days, whatever day or days were 
omitted, the last was yet termed the thirtieth. 



193 



The Four Seasons. 



To "Eap^ Spring. 

To QipoSf Summer. 

*H 'Oiri^a, j^utumn. 

*0 Xei/Mi>v, Winter. 



The Four Quarters of the World. 

'O Bopias, the North. 

'H MetnifiPpla, the South. 
'H *AvaTo\ijy the East. 
'H ^vfffiij, the West. 



Tlie Four Chief Winds. 



*0 Bop^at, the Northwind. 
'O Nc^of , the Southwind. 



*0 £v/90€, the Eastwind. 

'O Zii^pos^ the Westwind. 



The Twelve Signs of the Zodiac. 



*0 Kpiosy 
'O Tavpot, 
01 ^Idvfioi, 
*0 KcipKlvoSf 
*0 A^oiv, 
li UapBiyoSf 



tJie Ram. 


'0 Zvyoff, 


the Bull. 


*0 ^KopirloSf 


the Twins. 


•0 Tofonyr, 


the Crab. 


*0 Aly6K€paSf 


the Lion. 


*0 'Y^/Jox^o*, 


the Virgin, 


Ot •ix^*^^ 



the Balance, 
the Scorpion, 
the Archer, 
the Goat, 
the Waterman, 
the Fishet. 



o 



194 



Vocabulary. 



*Afip^, d, 6v, toft, delicate. 

'AyaO^, ^, by, good. 

'Ayci-XXwy-XAifyaXKOtto adorn. 
'AyavyTerymuchitoomuch. [be displeased. 
'Ayayaicr-cw, "tiirti, -^ca, to bear heavily, 
* Ay aX'd<a, '^ffktf -^jca, to love. 
'Ay-duf 'iiffia,'9iKa, to admirOi wonder at 
'Ayyi'XKittt "XSt, IjyyekKa, to announce. 
*Ay-€ipkt, '€p&, HyepKo, to gather together. 
T6 dyyos, mn, a vesseL 

• *H dyiXij, ijSf a herd. 
*'Aycos, a, ov, pure. 

Al dyieai, Stv, the arms. 

Td dyKivrpov, ov, a hook. 

Td ^ycoff, «o«, a valley. 

'AyKv\o9, II, ov, curved. 

*H dyKvpcL, a9, an anchor. 

*Ay\ahs, d, bv, bright, splendid. 

*Ayvb9, i), bv, chaste, pure. 

*H dyopd, as, assembly, place of assem- 

• 'H dypa, at, prey, [bly, address. 
*0 dypbs, ov, a field. 

*0 dyKuv, &V09, the elbow. 

'H dyvid, as, a street. 

*Aya>, d^u», rix^f ^^ lead. 

*0 dydiv, &VOS, a contest, assembly. 

*0 ddeX^bs, ov, a brother. 

'Adivbs, 4, bv, thick, close. 

*0 deBXos, ov, a contest, labour. 

'Ael, always. 

• 'Aetpia, depSt, IjepKth to lift up. 
*H ieXXo, tfs, a storm. 
*0 derbs, ov, an eagle. 
'A9p6os, a, ov, thick, close. 
*0 alyuxkbs, ov, the seashore. 
'H aiyXtf, ris, brightness. 
'H aldCts, bos, shame. 

•O al9ilp, epos, the air. 

AU9k>, -<fw, yKo, to bum. 

Tb alfM, aros, blood. 

. Alvbs, j), bv, dreadful. 

*0 atvos, ov, a speech, praise. 

'H alKf aiybs, a she-goat 

AlSXos, fi, ov, various. 

Alirbs, eia, b, high. 

Alp'iia, 'ii<ru, ypriKa, to take, choose. 
AXpm, dpa, ypua, to lift up, carry. 

Alr-eia, 'tiffia, yrriKa, to ask. 
*H dttra, ^s, fate. 

'H airia, as, cause, blame. 



*B aixfii^t fit, a point 

Al^j/a, immediately. 

'O altStv, Qvos, an age, eternity. 

*H dicavOa, tfS, a thorn. 

'AK-eofiat, 'iffofitu, to heal. 

*H dic^, fis, a point 

'H dicfii^, ns, a point 

*0 ^Ti dicbXovOos, ov, a follower, servant 

'Acov-ca, -o'ca, iJKOvKa, to hear. 

*0 g 4 Agpipi^, bs, accurate. 

• ^AKpo-dofiai, 'difofuu, to hear. 
"Ajcpos, a, ov, highest 

*H dttrij, ris, the seashore. 

*0 dxtav, ovTos, a javelin. 

'O'g ij dXal^utv, 6vos, a vain boaster. 
'H dXaXi^, ris, a military shout 

'AX'dofiai, -riffofiai, to wander. 
Tb dXyos, eos, gnefl 

*H dXea, as, the heat of the sun. 

' AXei-^u», -^u, ijXei^a, to anoint [assist 

• 'AXi^-iit or -iiit,'ri<ria, -i}ca,to drive away, 
'AX-6W, -6<r«if and -^o'Of, -ejco, to grind, 
'O g ij <iXi}0i)s, i«, true. [shun. 
"AXts, enough. 
'AXtr-6W, -^rrw, ^XlrtiKa, to sin. 
'AX-^a>, -lo(a, fjXixa, to roll. 

*H aXjci), ^, strength. 

'AXX-atrtru), -o^oi, 1jXXax<i» to change. 

'AXXos, ly, o, other. 

T6 ^(Tos, 60V, a grove. 

■ Tb dX^irov, ov, meal, ground com. 

*H dXtitmi^, €Kos, a fox. 

*H afta^a, 99, a chariot, waggon. 

*Afiapr'dvta, -rifyia, -^Jca, to err, sin. 

*Afi'dia, 'ti9ia, fiiitix<it to reap. 

*AfipXbs, eia, b, blunt, dull. 

'Aftei-Pat, -^ci»,4^ei^ to change, exchange. 

*H dfiiXXa, 9IS, a contest 

*H dfiireXos, ov, a vine. 

*Afi-vv4a, 'VvS>, ij/ivyKo, to help, drive 
. 'A/i-^(r(r6i,-^^«ii,4/ivxa,to tear. [away. 

*AfA<^i<r(3riT'eiit, 'iifr^, -^f^o., to doubt 

*H dvdyKif, ^s, necessity. 

*0 dva^, aKTOS, a king. 

*0 dvefios, ov, the wind. 

*0 dvrjp, dvbpbs, a man. 

Tb dvOos, eos, a flower. 

*0 g 19 dvOpuiros, ov, a human creature. 

*H dvla, as, sadness. 

*0 dvrXos, ov, a sewer, sink. 



19^; 



T6 Avrpov, ov, m cave. 

'Av-ifti, -ifiria, 4ivvKa, to finish. 
'Av-^y*i, -itf^Mi ijvktxa, to command. 
*H d^ivti, tis, an axe. 

'A^tot, a, ov, worthy. 

*AiraX6ff, 4t ^^» tender. 

'Airar-d^, -iifyio, -iiKa, to deceive. 
'Ax«cX-eM, -if^Wi -Vc«» to threaten. 
*At\6o9, fi, ov, simple^ single. 

*H Apd, at, prayer. 

• *0 dpafiot, ov, a noise. 
'Apy^, j), 6v, white. 
'O dpyvpot, ov, silver. 
'Ap€9Kia, dpetrio, ijpeKa, to please. 
'H dperrj, ^, virtue. 

T6 dpOpov, ov, a joint, limb. 

*0 dpiOfi^, ov, number. 

'Apurrepbs, d, 6v, left, (not right) 

Th dpurrov, ov, dinner. 

'Apjc-eoi, 'iffiit, -ejca, to be sufficient. 

• T6 ^f>/ia, arot, a chariot 
'Apv-€Ofiai, 'iifyofiai, to deny. 
*Apx-<i^«iiy -^iirw, -aca, to snatch away. 
*0 dpfitfv or dpfftiv, €vos, the male kind. 
*0 g 1} df>9, dpvb9, a lamb. 
'ApT'dw, 'Titrta, -Jjco, to hang up. 

*0 g 1} dpTio9, ov, perfect 

'O dprbs, ov, bread. 

'Apr- via, "VOia, -vko, to prepare, season. 

'Ap-itu, -ifoia, -vita, to draw up. 

• H dpx^it n^t the beginning, government 
'Ap^, dp&, fipcL, to fit 

*0 ^ f) direkyr^s, hi, wanton. 
'A<rje-CM, '^<ru», -tiKa, to exercise. 
*0 diTK^, ov, a leathern bag. 

'AfffievoQ, fi, ov, pleasing, willing. 

'AoTT'di^ofiM, 'dffofiai, to salute, embrace. 
*H d<nris, iSos, a shield. 

*0 der^p, epos, a star. 

Td dffTV, €109, a city. 

• 'AraXbs, i), 6v, tender, youthfbl. 
*Ar'du, 'iiOia, -f^ca, to hurt 

'O dr/t^, ov, vapour. 

*0 2^ 17 drpeKf^a, kg, true. 

*H aifyrj, ri£, brightness, ray of light 

*H aifX^y ^*» & ^^ 

*0 aiXb9, ov, a pipe. 

*H aUpa, at, a breeze. 

A^X-ica, -^trftf, -i}iea, to boast 

A(;w, a(;(rw, ^vra, to dry, blow, sound. 



'O d^voa, ov, or rb dfevot, eos, riches, reve- 
*0 d^pba, ov, froth, [nue of a year. 

'A^'Vfo, '{ftria, 'VKa, to draw up. 
T6 dx9o9, €09, a burden. 

T6 dxo9, €09, grief. 

T6 dxvpbv, ov, chaff. 

'Afa, d^ffia, to breathe. 

Bd-Zti), -Via or -|(ii, -xa, to speak. 
T6 pdOo9, €09, depth. 

Balvu, priffofiai, pepriica, to go. 
Ba-XXw, -Xw, pipXiiKa, to throw, strike. 
*0 pdvav<ro9, ov, a low artificer. 

Bd'irru, -^a>, -^a, to dip. 
T6 pdpo9, €09, weight 

*H pdffavo9, ov, trial, torture. 

'O pa<riXe{f9, eta9, a king. 

Ba<TTd'Z<i», -<r«, -ea, to carry. 
*0 pdrpaxo9, ov, a frog. 

Bepaio9, a, ov, fixed, firm. 

Td piko9, €09, a dart, missile weapon. 
*H pia, a«, force. 

*H pip\o9, ov, the bark of a tree, book. 
*0 pio9, ov, life. 

BXa-irra>, -^o), -0a, to hurt 
BXa(rr-<iva),-4(ra),-||jea, to sprout out 
BXe-iro), -^o), -0a, to see. 
T6 pXe^pov, ov, the eyelid. 

*0 g 4 pXfixpb9, bv, weak. 
BXv-^o) or pXvio, -(fw, -xa, to flow. 
Bo-aftf, -ij^Ai, 'tjKa, to shout 
Bo||&-eca, -4<r«if| -tiKa, to help. 
*0 p69po9, ov, a ditch. 

*0 poXpb9, ov, a bulbous root 

*H popd, a9, food. 

*H povX^, ri9, counsel. 

Bo(fX-o/jLai, 'fi<rofiai, to be willing. 
*0 povvb9, ov, a hill. 

'O ^ 17 j3o{;», /3o6«, an ox, or cow. 
B6ii>, pdtria & puKf a, -Ko, to feed. 
*0 ppaP€^9, €09, an arbiter. 

. Bpad{f9, eta, d, slow. 

Bpa^i^s, eia, d, short 

Bpefi'ia, -w, P. M. piPpofia, to murmur. 
Td ppe^9, €09, an infant 

Bpe-x<^> -^*«'» 'X^t to water. 
Bp(-aci», -^(Tca, to be or make strong. 

Bpl'9ii>, •9io, V.lA.piPpiBa, to be heavy. 
'H Ppovrrj, ^s, thunder. 

*0 pp6xo9, ov, a cord. 

Bpv-KW, -{ca, -^a, to bite. 



02 



n ppiof, ev. 


man. 


Bpi-X*. -t"- -X". 


tognublbeWeth. 


Bpia-<ncw, -on, -Ka, 


toeU. 


■H pi^o,, ov. 


p.per. 


•OfivBi,.cv, 


depdL 


■H /3(lp.ra, 1., 


■kin, leather. 


'H /3i(r<r<», ou, 


fine flu. 


•0 i 4 JMX™, o«. 


*ril,»doi 


■0^<-,.4.,<™. 


unltw. 


■h r"!:". i«. 


richet 


■H yala, ,., 


Iheeailh. 


roi-t*, -ot. 


tObOMt. 


'B yakiivii, n*' 


a aim. 


Ta/i-i-', -il"*; -■I'M. 


to marry. 


T4 ydvot, ««, 


ioy. 


•H yow^p, rpi.. 


the heUy. 


rovpM, «, *y. 


proud. 


•O i .7 T'*''""- '»^' 




r<X-au, -aau, -ata. 


tolaugfa. 


rspl»,T. M. yiyuxjia 


tobefuU. 


'O yipavot, «u, 




T4 yapin, BTot, 


a reward. 


'0 yipuv, ovroi. 




rrti-u, -au, -Ka, 


to make t«le, t»te. 


■H y<*upa, a., 


• bridge. 


r,e-^«, .4™, -.(«, 


tor^ice. 


Ti yfipo.. orw, 


old age. 


T4 yiipv*, ««, 


the voice. 


rJvopfl^ T.,.ft.r<,;,a., 


to be, to be made. 




rjvuaa, to know. 


rXd-^.., or 7X,;-f u, 


-fa., .^a. to dig. 



'H yva8os,oii, the jaw, 

ro-acu, -Saia, to sigh, deplore. 

royyf-tv, -nu, -co, to murmor. 

Topy&t, )}, iv, snift, terrific. 

H ypaZa, tjt, an old woman- 
Tpd-fu, -J™, -^, to write, paint, engrave. 

Ti yvioy, ov, a limb. 

• rv/ivbe, 1)1 iv, naked. 

H yvv^, yvfaicis, a voman. 

'O yii(;, ywjr4>, a vulture. 

'O j{ 4 Saifiuv, ovot, a good or bod ipiril. 
Aai-u, -cru, ~Ea, to learn, give a feast 
&&KVtif, StjiVj deS^x^' to bite. 



iarav-iti, -4<w, -^Ka, to expend, waste. 

Ti liwatav, ov, the pavement. 

Aaffh, do, i, thick, hairy, 

"H j(if >^, qt, the lanreL 

'0^4 Sa^iX^, h, ' plentifUL 

dei- j», -(Tw, -Ed, to (ear. 

AruE>^, 3al{!w, -%a, to ahow. 

'H Jsftij, HI, the evemng. 

AciUc, 4, iv, fearfuL 

AeivAi, 1), iv, dire, dreadful, ikilfuL 

Ti SeiKvov, ov, supper. 

Ti StXtap, nrot, meat. 

T6 fifui, the body. 

defiw, P. M. Sitaiia, to build. 

Ti fev^pov, ov, a tree. 

A«{tAc, d, ir, right, (not left.) 

Ti liicia, aros, a cup. 

T4 iipa; arm, (kin. 

'H isp^, or fetp^, ffE, the neck. 

Aap-KW, -£w, -j(a, . to aee. 

Ae-j;apa(, Soiiai, to rec^ve. 
dew, J«aki or Sriaui, -Ka, to bind. 

AifX-eu', -^ffut, -qcii, to hurt, deceive. 

dqXoc, 1), ov, manifeat. 

'O iiifiat, ov, the people. 
Ti i^rot, I 
'H flairs, 
&Ui-vKv, -Eld, -y, 

'o {( 4 asviiot. Of, 

it-tu. -«-, -««, 
Ti Jijcrvo.., ov. 



H Si^ipa, Off, 
'H fii^a, ifi, 

i.,i-K«,,-Sa,,-Xf 



diet. 



teach. 



'H JonJt, ov, 

'O fAot, DU, 



to expel, to fear. 

to puraue. [think. 

OEo, to observe, expect. 



'O JoEXm, au, 


ailave. 


'0 .'p'^"', ««. 


akia. 


■O Jowro., ov, 


anoiie. 


Tb gp/.«,'aroir. 


a prop. 


Ai*., l^M, 


Wgi«. 




an interpreter.. 


•0 ipoKm', ovTot, 


■ «tpent. 


-Ep-T.., -^^. 


to creep. 


Apaaau, -?«, 


to Miie, gTup. 


'Ept,-„,-„M, -.a, 


to dnm, guard. 


Ap&-<^, ■am, -.a. 


to do, flee. 






•aapi«»,ov. 


dew. 


'Epaif-itti, -ijata, 't)K 


a,toaak.'' 


■H ip5^ «p»i.. 


theiMk. 


•Sa9t-w, -ffK, -M, 


MeaL 


U-va,mei-u,-aa,- 




'E<reXi,, ,J, 4v, 


good, valiant 


T4 a-per, ov. 


• gift. 


'0 Su^-epo,, o„. 


the evening. 


- T4 lop, Jopot, 


Spring. 


■ 'HJffrla,a>, 


the heartb. 


■Err*«. 


near. 


'Effxoro*, 11,9c, 


laiU 


'Sjeiptt, tyepi,, -ta 


to eidte, ruae. 


'0 eraipM, oh. 




T4 iyxo". ««. 


■ ■pear, (vord. 


"Erepot, a, oc. 


another. 


-Eiu, P. Sinen, 


to eat. 


■0 Srn: ov. 




■BJo/fai, Sirt/iHi, 


torit 


■Oi^ SroM'ot, ov, 


ready. 


T4 iOvos, tat. 


■ nation. 


TA Irat. eoi. 


a year. 


T4 Wm, .0., 


cuitom. 


•O S 4 ^rv,.o., ov. 








Eii*-u, -5ff«, -ira. 


to sleep. 


E^, in vain, rubij, by chuice. 


EiW., elo, 4, 


ftraighu 


. EI-.«, -|«, P. M. iouca, to be like, yield. 


■H fiivi}, S., 


abed. 


Zi:.] -''-'■ 


f to shut up. 
1 to repel, fcrbid. 




I, to find. 


Eipis.i-.c, ,\ 


broad. 


•a eipiivn. >!'. 


peace. 


ES-XD;iai, -Eo/iai, to boMt, wish, pray. 


T4 eipot, «o>, 


wool. 


TA ^xe''s, eos, 


hatred. 


■0^4 Jk^Xo., ov. 


quiet, peaeefiU. 


•Exvpi,, d, 4v, 


guarded, strong. 


'H eXdlu, <u. 


the olive dee. 


'Ex«, gjw, 


to have. 


•EX-oi)™, -i~, -« 


K, to drive. 


■E«, l^o^a^ 


to be. 




aitag. 


"£«, )f™. 


to send. 


■O if ^ iXa^pi., 4v, 


light, nimble. 


"e™, a™. 


to put on, place. 


•EXflx*'. "'-^ *. 


liule. 


M«., !^9«, 


lo live. 


■o a^M, Ml, 


sorrow, an elegy. 


2>w, :<<>», IZeica. 


to boil. 


■eWt-x»,-£«^-x'., 


to reprove, convict. 


■O MXot, o«. 


emulation. 


•O IXeot, ov. 


pity. 


Z^T-ecB, -^TV, '^Ka, 


to seek. 


T4 at™, ««, 




Zivvii/H, Jiiffu, 5eM«a, to gird. 


"EX-™, -5«, -xa. 


to drav>, drag. 


Z.,pi,, d, ir. 


pure, powerfuL 


'H jXn-iK, iaoi, 


hope. 


■H i}/3„, >,,, 


youth. 


'O ivo., ou. 


a year. 


'Hy-io;.a., .^„o,«,. 


to lead, think. 


■Hiopr4,ii., 


a feaat. 


'Bli,, eT-, *, 


sweet. 


■B«-«£-T», -Ek, -x". 


to urge, hapten. 




■Oi^lT»TjJlJ«,*t, 


fit, suitable. 


"H-ict.., -5.a, 


to come, [morals. 


■H Jpa, OS, 


earth. 


■HXiflio., iE, ov. 


foolish. 


■Ep-d«.. «<--,.««, 


to love, dewre. 


■0 iiXwl, ov. 


the Sun. 


T4 Jpyov, 00, 


a work. 


■H ii^ipa, <u. 


a day. 


'Ep6l-;Q,,-™,-«a, 


to 6i, .upport 


■Oi^S,.ep«,ov, 


soft, gentle. 


Td efiGuSoE, cot, 


redneaa. 


■'Hp,ff««. em, t;, 


hal£ 


'Epfui.-du, -liow. -i,j<a, to.e«rch,inveiti- j 


TA i^THp. «r05. 


the liver. 


'Bps-^.... -iJ-«>,-ta. 


to cover, [gate. 




quiet. 


■0 !} ^ ^p,>io., <.►, 


deaert 


■0 «put, wot. 


a hero. 


'H ^tt, >£m, 




•0*4 ^avxot, ov. 


quiet 



198 



Ti hr^t opo9, the heart. 

'O hxott ov, a fonnd. 

*H B&KoM^a^ f|f , the sea. [rish. 

e<l-XXi#, -Xd, -Xjco, to fproiit forth, floa- 

OaX'irw, -^«, to warm, cherish. 

Baftd, firequently. 

Td Od/Apatf ekn, astonishment. 

Bd'Wrt, -rim, rira^, to hury. 

Ti 0dpeo8, eo9, courage. 

GavfA'dZ**, 'dom, 'Oxa, to wonder, admire. 

BM'doftoh ' dtrofioif to behold, contemplate. 

eei vw, 9evA, to strike. 

'H OefAts, ido9, right, law. 

'O Oe^, ov, God. 

*0 Oepdirwv, ovros, a servant. 

T6 0€po9, eo9, Summer. 

*0 $€9/i^, ov, a law. 

eew, 04(fw, to place. 

6ff«tf, Oevom, to run. 

6i|Xv«, 6MX, Vy feminine. 

•O ej)p, ^i7pd«, a wUd beast 

*0 $1^9, Brjrbt, a hired servant. 

*0 9fi9avpb9, od, a treasure. 

6(-y<tf, -^a», -jca, to touch. 

*0 ^ri Olv, Oiv^, a heap, the shore. 

0\d-iaf -aia, -xa, to break. 

eXi-Pmt, '\l/<a, -0a, to press, afflict 

*0 96pvpos, ov, tumult 

B6pia, to leap. 

• Bpa-b'ia, 'tria, to break. 
*0 Oprjvot, ov, complaint, lamentation. 

*0 $piafjipo9, ov, a triumph, 

•fl 9pl^, rpixbi, the hair. 

Qpiii'OKia, -fTiii, to leap. 

*H Gvydrtip, rpbt, a daughter. 

H OveXXa, rfs, a storm. 

'O 6vfib9, ov, the mind, anger. 

*H Oifpa, H8, a door, [crifice. 
Bifw, OixTiit, HBvKa, to bum incense, sa- 

Oij-TTTu, -1^0), to flatter, mock. 
*H ddtpa%, aK09, the breast, breastplate. 

*ldofiai, idtrofitu, to heal. 

'Id'-XKkf, -Xa>, to send, throw. 

'Id'WTio, -^«, to^send, throw, hurt 

*ld'X***f -5«, -;(a, to shout 

"Idios, a, ov, private, peculiar. 

'I^v-<5u>, -uKTiit, to bend. 

Tb iSos, 60S, sweat 

'l^pv-io, '(Tin, to place. 



'I0V*, ML, ^, 

*lKavb9, i), dy, 
*0 utenfs, ovy 

'iX-di^, 'if am, -^Ka, 

*0 l^ub, dvTOt, 

*IfuipM, 

Tbiov, 

*0 /^, oVf 

*0 ^ ^ twos, ov, 

"llTTU, c^w, 
*H Ipis, c^os, 

*I<T0«, If, OV, 



to seat 

straight, direct 
fit, suitable, 
a suppliant 
to come, 
to be propitious, 
a thong, 
to desire, 
the violet 
a missile weapon, 
a horse or mare, 
to hurt 
the rainbow, 
a nerve, strength. 
equaL 

*0 (^ If AOTwp, opo9, knowing,witnes8,his- 
*H 19x^9, i}09, strength, [torian. 

"^I^i, boldly. 

*H lx'^9 ^09> A ^^ 

Tb Ix^*'*' '^* ^ footstep. 

Ka$'aipt,'apiS,'apKa, to purge. 

Kawb9, i), bv, new. 

*0 Kaipb9, ov, occasion, time. 

KaUa, Kavffti, K&cavKo, to bum. 

'K.cucb9, i), bv, bad. 

KoX-ectf, -6<ra» or -^ff<a, rejcXifiea, to calL 

KaX6s, i), bv, beautiful, good. 

Kdfivia, Ka/iia, KhcfitiKct, to labour, be weary. 

JLd/A-wTtt, -^iOf -0a, to bend. 



*0 KavCyv, 6vo9, 


a rule. 


*0 cairi}Xo9, ov, 


a merchant 


*0 Kawb9, ov. 


smoke. 


*H KapSLa, as. 


the heart 


Tb Kdptivov, ov, 


the head. 


*0 Kapirb9, ov. 


fruit 



TLavx'^ofiai, 'tityo/iai, to boast, glory. 

T^ Kiap, aT09, the heart 

*0 ceXa^os, ov, a noise. 

*H jceXevOos, ov, a way. 
K6'Xa»,or jc^o/ia»,C6X4(fo/ta(, to command, 

• Kevbs, i), bvt empty. [exhort 

*0 Kipafi09, ov, potter's clay. 

Tb K€pas, aros, a horn. 

'O Kepavvbt, ov, lightning. 

KepdiJ, or KepawHu, Kepdato, to mix. 

Tb Kepdo9, €09, gain. 

*H K€<l>a\i^, 9}s, the head. 

Tb Kfjdos, €09, care, grief. 

'O Knwos, ov, a garden. 

'H Ktjp, Ktjpbt, fate. 



199 



*0 Klfp^f OV, 


wax. 


*0 KfipV^, VK09, 


a herald. 


*0 kMwo9, OV, 


danger. 


Kiy-eft»i "tfiriitf "^KOf 


to move. 


*0 Kurtr^, OV, 


ivy. 



*0 Kk.6io8, OV, a tender branch, [clatter. 
KXdZta,K\dy^ia, xixXriya, to make a noise, 
"KXa-tt, '9», "Ka, to break, distribute. 
KXei-Wy -<rw» -co, to shut up, celebrate. 
KXe-irrw, '"^na, -^a, to steal, deceive. 

• *0 K\ripo9, OV, a lot 

*H xXifia^, aK09, a ladder. 

KXi'Vt^ 'vA, -K€L, to bend, avert 
"XXv-l^ia, "ffitt, to wash ofil 

KXC'ia, -(fctf, to hear. 

*H Kviiiifi, if9, the leg. 

*H icoiXia, as^ the belly. 

K0TX09, 9, OV, hollow. 

Kotviv, 1), ^, common. 

*0 Kotpavot, OV, a prince. 

• *H Koirti, 179, a bed. 
KoXa-C***, -<rft», -co, to punish. 
KoX<i-9rra», -^a», to strike, to hollow by 
*H K6Wa, j|9, gum. [striking. 
*0 kSXitos, ov, the bosom. 

*0 Ko\Mvb£, OV, a hilL 

*H KSfiij, 1JS, the hair. 

*0 Kdvapos, OV, a sound. 

*H xSvts, ea>9; dust 

KS-irrat, 'xj/to, -^a, to cut, wound, str e. 

• *H Kopifvri, 179, a club. 
*H Kdpvs, v9o9, a helmet 

'H Kop^vrj, rj9, a crow, the top, a crown. 
Kov^os, ri, OV, light, inconstant, empty. 
Kpd-Z*»>, 'Koi>, -ya, to shout 
Kpalvitt, KpavSf, to perfect, create,rule. 
Td KpdT09, 609, strength. 

Kpe-Kta, -^w, -^a, to creak. 

Kp€/id'U>, 'Viit, to hang up. 

'O Kpfifivbs, OV, a precipice. 

• *H Kprivfj, fft, a fountain. 
'H KpiBi^, ri9, barley. 

Tb Kpivov, OV, the lily. 

Kpi'Vto, -via, -xa, to judge, distinguish. 
*0 Kpid9, OV, a ram. 

*0 Kp6Ta^o9, OV, the temples. 

'O Kp6T09f OV, beating, applause. 

Tb Kpvo9, €09, cold. 

Kpv-7rriit, -yptOf -0a, to hide. 
Krdpfiai, KTrftrofiaij to obtain, possess. 



Kreivt, crtfv«^,ljcrafca, to kilL 

*0 Kr€l9, KT9vb9, a comb. 

Kri'Ztft, '(T^, ^Ko, to build, make. 

*0 jcr^os, ov, a ram. 

*0 Kvado9, OV, a glass or cup. 

Tb Kvdo9, eo9, glory. 

'O kvk\o9, ov, a circle. 

KvX^-ii», -<ra», to roll. 

Tb KVfia, aro9, a wave. 

K^'fTTUt, -^a», to stoop. 

* Tb KVp09, €09, authority. 

%{)pia, K^ptna, to meet with, to be. 

*0 Kifijv, Kvvb9, a dog. 

KaiXi;-a», •<rw, -jco, to forbid, impede. 

*H KWfiij, rf9, a village. 
*H KtafTfi, fi9, anoar,hiltofa8word. 

*0 KSffA09, OV, revelry. 

'fL(it^b9, 1), bv, dull, dea£ 

*0 \aa9, \dao9, a stone. 

Aayxdvot, Xtf^ofuu, to obtain by lot 

. Ad'Zofiai, -aofiai, to take, seiae. 

'H XatXa^, airos, a storm, whirlwind. 
AaX'iut, -Tfffbt, 'tiKa, to utter a sound, speak. 

Aafipdvut, \riy\toiiat, to receive, take. 

Adfi-fTia, -"^la, -fa, to shine. 

Ad^, with the heels. 

*0 \ab9, OV, the people. 

*0 ^tl \dow9, OV, rough, hairy. 

Adia, to see. 

Ai-yta, -?«, -x«» to say, gather. 

Aelos, a, ov, smooth. 

Aei'V^, "^ta, -0a, to leave, faiL 

AeTrris, 1), bv, thin, fine. 

Ai'iria, -^a», to peeL 

AevKb9, ij, bv, white. 

Aedoota, to see. 

*0 Xeoii;, ovTO£, a lion. 

Ai7-'yw, -^ii», to cease. 

Ari'9(a, 'ffto, to lie hid. [rate. 
Atd'Ki»», '9ia, 'Ka, to agitate, hasten, sepa- 
AiySiiv, summarily, superficially. 

*0 ji^ 4 \iOo9, OV, a stone. 

*0 Xifii^v, evo9, a harbour. 

*H \ifivfi, fi9, a pool, marsh. 

'O \ip,b9, OV, hunger. 

*0 (^ rj \iirapi^9, b9, assiduous. 

AlffffOfiai, to implore. 

*0 \01yb9, OV, destruction. 

'O \oliopo9, OV, a reviler. 

AoV'bt, -(TO), "Ka, to wash. 



ftoo 



*0 \6^, 9V, 
T^ kv/ia, aro9, 

*H \{tpa, a9, 
*H Xvooctf ift| 
'O X^)^vo«» ov, 

*H XApri, f|c, 
'H /«4Ca, ^ 
*0 fiaZbtf ov, 



iht nedL, oett 
heavy, difficult, fiitaL 

c^conring, filth, 
plague, dettructioii. 

griefc 

a lyre. 
madneM, (of doga.) 

a lamp, 
to looeen, diflmiM. 

iigury, diigrace. 

a cake. 

the breast. 



*0 ^ rj /idKop, apo9, happy. 
'M.aivofiai, /uLVovfiaif to be mad. 
M.av9dvia, futOriironai, to learn. 
*0 fidvTtSt €U9, a prophet, soothsayer. 
"NLctpfi-aipia, -apQ, to glitter, shiue. 
Mdp-7rru>, *'\l/ia, -0a, to take, attiau. 
*0 ^ rf fidpTVp, vpos, a witness. 
M<i-ww, -^ft», -;^a, to pound, subdue. 
*H /iooTi^, tyo9, » whip. 

M&rriv, in vain. 

Max'O/icu, 'ffffoficu, to fight, quarrel. 
Md^, in vain. 

Mdat, to desire earnestly. 

M^yaff, fieyciXiy, f(eya, great. 
MiSij, to command. 

Met^'OAi, -^^w, -i/jca, to smile. 
*0 ji^ ^ fieipaii, tucoSf a youth. 
*0 (^ 4 fieuav, ov, less. 

MeXas, fiekauva, /leXav, black. 
T6 fceXi, iros, honey, [delay. 

MiXXio, neKXriffu, to be about (to do o|r be,) 
T6 fieXo9, eo9, a limb, song. 

MeX-nio, -^a», -0a, to sing. 
Mefi'^ofiM, -^o/iac, to blame, [strength. 
T^ fievos, 609, ardour of mind, anger, 
Mey-o), -cu, fiefiipfiKo, to remain. 
MeiTos, J}, ov, middle. 

Mcffrds, i), ^v, fulL 

*0 ^ ff fiETitapos, ov, high. 
T6 fierpov, ov, measure. 

Td fifi$o9, eo9, care, counsel. 

Td /t^KOff, eoe, length. 

*0 [ir^Vf fuiv^, a month. 

*H /t^vjf, f}9, the liloon. 

*H iivvis, cos, anger. 

"MiijvV'ta, -9ta, 'KO, to point out, inform. 
*0 fifipb9, ov, the thigh. 

*H /itfTifp, rp69, a mother. 



*H fAriri9, tio9, counseL. 

*H ftiixavT^, V9f a madiine. 
Mi-alvia, •^vii,itefilayKa, to pollute, stain. 

Miyvifia, fii^ta, -^a, to mix. 

MiKp69, d, bv, little. 

MifAiofA€u, -ii<rofiai, to imitate. 

*0 fctoOdt, ot;, a reward. 

Tb iu(ro9, eo9, hatred. [tion. 

Mv'dofiai, -4<rofiai, to remember, men- 

*0 pL6yo9, ov, labour, trouble. 

• M6vo$, f|, ov, alone. 
Mopfivpu, to murmur. 

*H fwpff^, v9, form, appearance. 

*H fiovffd, 99, the muse. 

*0 /i<$xdo9, ov, labour, trouble. 

Mv-eu, 'fiina, -ifica, to initiate. 

*0 fiv9o9, ov, a word, discourse, fi^>le. 

'O fjiv9, ftvb9, a mouse. 

*0 /iio/io9, ov, disgrace, blame. 

Ma)p6s, d, dv, foolish. 

• "Salio, to inhabit. 
'O vabs, ov, a ten^le. 
*H vav9, vab9, a ship. 

Tb veiK09, 609, contention. 

N6jcf>69, d, dv, dead. 

Ne/i-o), -(D, vevifiijKa, to distribute. 

Neos, a, ov, new, young, 

Tb vevpov, ov, a nerve, string, 

"Sev-io, '(7(1), 'Ka, to nod, promise. 

Tb ve^09, 609, a cloud. 

. Neoi, vev(r(a, to swim. 

*0 v^TTtos, ov, an infant. 

'H v^(ro9, ov, an island. 

N^-^o), -^ci», -0a, to be sober, to watdi. 

"SiK-dot, '^ri(r», -i}ra, to conquer. 

Ni-9rr<i>, -if'w, -0a, to wash. 

*0 v6fio9, ov, a law. 

'O voos, ov, the mind, tl^ought 

*H v6<ro9, ov, sickness. 

No<Tr-6«, -^<T«, to return. 

. No(r0t, apart. 

*H v^l, vvKTb9, night, 

Nv-<r(ra>, -^««, -;^a, to prick, pierce. • 

'O VA>ro9, ov, the back. 

^avOb9, fj, bv, yellow. 

K€V09, q, ov, strange, foreign. 

Mia, ^BtK^, to shave, polish. 

iSirjpb9, d, bv, dry. 

Tb ^t0o9, 609, a sword. 

Tb ^vXov, ov, wood, club, tree. 



1^01 



*H 6Sh9, ov, a way. 

*0 680^ 6vro9, a tooth. 

'Oivp'Oftai, 'OVfiat, to lament, weep. 
*0 o^ot, 0V9 a branch. 

"OZta, dZv'^^t 'ff^t to smell ot 
Ol-yWy -{wy fx^t to open. 

*0 olrosi ov, a house. 

'O olcroff, ov, compassion. 

*0 olfos, ov, wine. 

Olos, 9, 0V9 alone. 

• Oloa, a, ov, such as, ready, able. 
OlX'Ofiai, '^ffoftai, to go away, perish. 
*0 oliavbt, OV, a bird. 

Olw, olirw, to think. 

*0 6kvo8, ov, sloth, fear. 

*0 5X/3ov, OV, happiness, wealth. 

'OX^yos, ri, ov, little, in pL few. 

'OXXvfUy dXi'iTiii, -ca, to destroy. 
"OXoe, fi, ov, whole. 

*OfiaX^s, ^, bv, plane, level, equal. 

» *0 5/icXo9, ov, an assembly. 

"Ofivvfit, duSffio, 'Ka, to swear. 
*0f(6«, 1), 6v, like, equaL 

*H 6/i^i), 9}9, a divine voice, voice. 

T6 5vap, a dream. 

T6 5v6i^os, -608, reproach. 

T6 ovofia, arot, a name. 

*0 ji^ 17 5yos, ov, an ass. 

'OKiis, €ia, ^, sharp, quick. 

'OiT'dZia, -affta, to command to follow, 

• *H hvi^, ns, a hole. [pursue. 
T6 ^irXov, ov, a weapon. 
'OvT-ata, 'tioia, 't^Ko, to roast 

*H dinapa, as, Autumn. 

'Op'&ta, 'dffta, ^axa, to see. 

*H 6pyi), fis, anger. 

'Ope-yiii, '%ia, -xor to stretch out. 

'OpObs, 1), ^y, straight, 6rect, upright. 

*0 *6pKos, ov, an oath. 

*H 6pjui), 9}8, strong desire, attempt, 

• *0 j^ 4 opvts, i9os, a bird. [assault 
Td 5po8, 609, a mountain. 

*0 lipos, ov, a limit 

'Opit-avia, -^w, -^a, to dig. 
*Opx-€0ftai,, "^(TOftat, to dance. 
'Opiii, 5pffto, -Ka, to stir up. 

*'Offi09, a, ov, holy. 

"Oiros, If, 01/, as much, how much. 

16 harkov, ov, a bone. 

*OTpvv-ta, -d, to incite. 



*0 oifpavb9, ov, heaven. 

*0 oitpoSf ov, a fair wind. 

T6 ovs, dtrbv, the ear. 

'O0etX-w, -riirw, -f}Jca, to owe. 
'Oipi-XKiJ, 'Xu, 'Xxa, to increase, help. 
*0 ji^ 17 5^18, ea»8, a serpent 

*H byj/, birbv, the voice. 

'Oyj/k, late, in the evening. 

'O bxos, ov, a chariot, carriage. 

Hai-Zu), 'trw or -^a>, -x^' to play, jest 
. 'O j^ 4 irat8, waiSbs, a child, servant 
nat-<tf, -<rai, -jca, to strike, do quickly. 
*H vaXaftti, 119, the hand. 

*H ndXfi, i|s, wrestling. 

na-XXa>, -Xibf -ca, to vibrate. 
'H wap9evo8, ov, a virgin, 

lias, ira<ra, irai/, every one, alL 

Hd-airia, -orw, -ra, to sprinkle. 
ndo'x<i>, weUronai, to suffer, endure, 
nara-o'arw, -$«, -xa, to strike. 

• Ilar-ea), -^oa>, "^^xa, to tread on. 
*0 IT aril Pi Tpbs, a father, 
naval, -(ra», -jca, to cause to cease. 
nax^8, eta, b, thick, fat 
JUdij, irdffofiai, to possess, to taste. 
TLei'Ou}, 'ffio, -Ka, to persuade. 

'H ireiva, ijs, hunger. 

*H ireTpa, as, trial, endeavour. 

Ileipa), irepSt, TreirapKa, to pierce through. 
Tb ireXayos, eos, the sea. 

. IleXas, near. 

'H TreXrtj, i}&, a small shield. 

lUfi-ino, -^ta, -^a, to send. 
Tb irevOos, eos, grie£ 

Ilipa, beyond. 

T^ trepas, aro9, the end. 

IIep-aa>, -dtria or ^ffu, to pass or convey 
TIep-Ou, -ffij, -Ka, to destroy, [over. 
*H Trepbvti, qs, a buckle. 

JleT-dio, -dou, to unfold, open. 

• *0 ^rerpos, ov, a stone. 
'H 9rf7yi), fjs, a fountain. 

Tb wrifia, aro9, loss, destruction. 

Uripbs, d, bv, mutilated. 

'O irivaliy axof, a board. 

Hivu), wdiOia, -Kat to drink. 

HiiTTiii, veotUt vewTiaKaf to fall. 

*0 g ij viiav, ov, fat [disturb. 

n\a^<i>,9rXay$w,-yX«) *<> cau*e to stray, 
*H nXdv^, if8, error, wandering. 



20ft 



nX-<(<r<rw, 'dvkt, ^aKa, to form. 
TlXar^, eta, ^f broad. 

UXi'Kot, ^K^, 'X^t ^ fold, bind together. 
*H wXevpd, tts, the side. 

nXew, wXevfftOf -ca, to saiL 
TlKri-ffiria, 'K10, -xa, to strike. 
*0 w\ovro8, oVf riches. 

Ilvew, wevantf -xa, to blow. 
Tivl-yia, 'Kt»tt 'X^t ^ choke. 
'OjirSOos, ov, desire. 

• Tloi'Wf 'if aw, -j;jea> to do, make. 
HoucIXos, fi, ov, various, variegated. 
*0 woifii^v, ivo9, a shepherd. 

*H xoivi), rjs, punishment, recompense. 
*0 v6\efio9, ov, war. 

noX-661), '^a<a, 'tjKa, to turn. 
IloXids, d, bv, hoary, whitel 

*H v6\ts, €tM, a city. 

IIoX^, iroXXi}, iroXd, much. 
*0 wdvTos, ov, the sea. 

• 'O vorafibi, ov, a liver. 
*0 7r6Tfi09, ov, &te. 
USrvtos, a, ov, venerable. 
*0 vow, woSbv, a foot. 

*0 ^ 4 ^po-os, ov, mild, gentle. 

Hp^L-aoio, -^a>, -xa» to do. 
UpeirtM), to be decent or becoming, excel. 
Upri-Giit, 'Ota, -ra, to set on fire. 
Uplafiai, to buy. 

Tb irrepbv, ov, a wing. 

• Ilvjca, thickly, prudently. 
'H 9r^Xi;, 17s, a gate. 

Tb trvp, wvpbs, fire. 

'O frvpbs, ov, wheat 

*P^dio9, a, ov, easy. 

•Pai-w, -(fa>, -ica, to destroy. 

*Pd-wria, -xj/io, -0a, to patch,sew together. 
*P6-^<i>, -^co, 'X^* ^ ^^f make. 

*Pea), pevtna, 'Ka, to flow. 

'P^-ffiTw, -?«, "xa, to break, burst. 

• Tb pTyos, €09, cold. 
*Pi-7rra», -^w, -0a, to hurl down. 
*Pv'OfjLai, 'ffofiai, to defend, rescue. 
*Pii>vvv<o, puKTM, 'Ka, to Strengthen. 
*H irAp^, trapKbs, flesh. 

*0 j^ 4 <^a04sf ^^» manifest 

SjSewvd), v^eata, -ica, to extinguish. 
26£-6», -(Tb), -jco, to agitate. 

!S€jL(}/69, ?)» 63/, venerable, honourable. 
Tb ffvifia, UTOs, a sign, monument 



£d£ya», 

ISey-dctf, -^orw, -Jjjca, 

*0^iriSripost ov, 

Hlvofiai, 

*0 (Ttros, ov. 



to rot 

to be strong. 

to be silent 

faron, a sWord. 

to hurt 

com, provisions. 



XKd'Wru, -^a>, -0a, to cUg. 
IlKed'dia, 'dffta, 'uxa, to scatter. 
Tb irK€\os,yo8, a leg. [der, visit 

2Ke-9rro/iai, "^IfO/iat, to look round, consi- 

• TblffKevos, COS, a vessel, instrument 
'H (Tjciyvi), ri9, a tent 

*H (TKid, a«, a shadow. 

*0 vkStos, ov, darkness. 

Sjca)-9rr<tf, -^w, -0a, to cavil, scoff at 
2^, ov, safe. 

So0^, 1), dv, wise. 

SvA'ia, -<r«, -ica, to draw, extract 

^veipiOtltr'TrepSi, e<nrapKa,''to sow, scatter. 
XwevSu, vireivta, to pour out, sacrifice, 
S7rev-^«, -<Tw, to make haste, [covenant 
*0 (TTavpbs, ov, a wooden stake, cross. 

Sre-y«, -?a», -^a, to cover. 

2:r6-XX<a,-X(i>,e(rraXjca, to send, prepare. 
Xrip-yat, -|a», -^a, to love. 
Xrepebs, d, bv, solid, firm. 

2rep-£(u, -4<r6» & -£(f w, -xa, to deprive. 
T6 vrkpvov, ov, the breast 

Sr6-0<tf, -^0), -00, to crown, surround. 
Srpe-0a), -^, -0a, to turn. 

• Tb ffrriOos, eos, the breast 
T^ ardfia, -aro9, the mouth. 
ISrop-ipit, -etna & -4<r<a, to strew. 
*0 ffrpHTbs, ov, an army. 

*H ovXti, ffs, spoil, plunder. 

S0a-^ai, -^ii», -xo, to cut the throat, kill, 
S0a-XXci>, -X<u,-ra, to supplant,overtum,de- 
J^odpbs, d, bv, vehement, strong, [ceive. 
*H ff^payh, ldo9, a seaL 

I^X^^^^* near. 

^X^'Z^t '^^9 ""^^y ^ cleave, cut 

*H <rxoX)), 9}«, leisure. 

Tb aSffia, aro8, the body. 

*0 iru}pbs, ov, a heap. 

Taweivbi, 1), 6v, low. 

Tapd'iraot, -^ta, -xa, to disturb. 
T6 rdppos, 609, fear. 

Ta-(rara», -{w, -ya, to arrange, order. 
*0 ravpos, ov, a bull. 

Taxv9, eca, d, ' quick. 



203 



Teivt^f revio, rkruKa, to stretch. 
tb T6ixo9, eos, a wall, castle. 

T6 TSKfiap, the end, a sign. 

tb re\o9, €09, the end. 

TifivtOf refi&f retfiriKa, to cut. 
lb repas, aro9f a sign. 

Tb repfiOf aro9, the end. 

Tep-'TTiiff -i^o), '(jfa, to delight. 
TeV'X^t '^^t 'X^t to make, prepare. 
'H rexvflf V^9 wt. 

• T^Xe, afar off. 
Trip-ioff '^ffb>, -riKa, to guard. 
TiKTio, rHia, to bring forth. 
Tivd'ffffui, '^ia, 'X^> to shake. 
TirpwiTKiOf rpdnrw, to wound. 
Ti'ta, 'ffta, -xa, to honour, pay. 
T^ roKov, ov, a bow. 

'O r^^ros, oVf a place. 

Tpi'ina, 'tj/u»f -0a, to turn, put to flight 
Tpi^fOphl/MfTiTpe^afto nourish. 

• Tpix^iff to run, 
Tp&af rpeaia, rkrpeKa, to fear, flee. 
Tpl-pw, -i^a>, '^a, to rub, bruise, afflict 
*H rpiriprj9f eo9, a galley. 
Tpiiyw, TptitKoiiai, to eat 
Tvyxd'Viaf re^^ofiai, to be, obtain. 
Tv'VT6i, -if/o), -0a, to strike. 

*0 (^ 4 rbpavvo9, ov, a ruler, tyrant 
*0 Tvpb9, ov, cheese. 

Tv^\b9, ij, bv, blinds 

• *H ^Ppu, €(09, injury, insolence. 
*0 j^ 17 vyti}^, h, healthy, safe. 
*Yypb9, d, bv, wet, soft. 

T^ IjSufp, aT09, water. 

*0 vibn, ov, a son. 

*H f;Xj;, ri9, a wood. 

*0 ^wvo9, ov, sleep. 

Tb ^^1/09, €09, height 

^dyia, to eat 

4faiv<it,^avia,7ri^ayKa, to show, shine. 

• 4fav\o9, j|, ov, , vile, wicked. 
^dia, to shine, kill, say. 
4fei-Sofiai, 'troficu, to spare. 
4fep'pu}, '^ut, -0a, to feed. 

^kpit), otffio, to bear, carry. 

<tev-yw, -|a», -ya, to flee. 

'H ^TjfJiti, rj9, fame, rumour, [pate. 

4f0d'Vaf, -oru), -ira, to come before, antici- 
90'iuf, -rjffio, to corrupt, destroy. 

*0 ^B6vo9, ov, envy, reproof. 



'O ^i\o9, ov, a friend. 

<&Xe-ya>, -|w, -;^a, to burn. 

^oir-dto, -rjtrw, -tiKa, to go frequently. 
'O ^6pT09, ov, a burden. 

^pd'Zf»>> '9v, 'Ko, to say. 

^pd-ffffbt, '^io, -ra, to hedge in, fordfy. 
*H ippijv, ^p€vb9, the mind, wisdom. 

9v\d'ffff<it, -^w, 'X^f to guard. 
Tb 0vXXov, ov, a leaf. 

*v-«, -(Tw, -jca, to produce. 

*H 0a>v}}, ^9, the voice, sound. 

Xd-Zia, 'ffot, to retire, contain. 

Xaivat, xav£), ic£%aica, to gape with desire 
Xaipia, x^P^t 'pt^o^ to rejoice, [or admir**. 
XdKd'iii, -Via, -jca, to loosen, let down, yield. 
Xafial, on the ground. 

Xapd-vvia, -Co^, -ica, to engrave, cut 
*H x<^/ot9, iT09, &vour, thanks. 

Xarkia, to want, need, desire. 

Tb x^^f^^i O.T09, Winter, tempest 

. *H x^^-Pi P^^i tl^e hand. 

Xeu), x^^^ o' X^^^^y Kix^i^^f to pour out 
X^po9, a, oy, bereft. 

'H x^«Vi x^o*'^5> tlie earth, ground. 

*H x^6VJ|, j;s, derision. 

'H xoXi), ^s, bile, anger^ 

*0 x^pf09, ov, grass. 

Xp-dofiai, 'fiffofiai, to use. 

Xp-a6>, 'Titna, -ijkcl, to lend, deliver an ora- 

'H xP^^f ^^f *^^> necessity, [cle, colour. 
. Tb XP^^^t ^^*» ^ debt 

Tb XPW^f ^^09t ^ thing. 

XpL-ta, 'ffia, -ca, to anoint 

'O xpovo9, ov, time. 

*0 xpv(rb9, ov, gold. 

Xtop'iiJ, -riffta, -riKa, to go, contain. 

*0 x<^po9, ov, a place. [on stringed instr. 

'<S^d-XX«i», -Xw, -Xica, to touch, strike, play 

"irdia, ^l/rfvw, ^tjKO, to wipe, touch, soothe. 

^eif-du), -<rw, 'Ka, to deceive, lie. 

. *H ^l/rj^09, ov, a small stone, vote. 

^iKb9, 1}, bv, thin, bare. 

'H ^vxi), 97S) the soul 

'Qdeoi, dfOiiffu & (Scrctf, cujca, to push, drive. 

'Qjct)s, 6ca, 1^, swift 

*0 wfAOS, ov, the shoulder. 

'Qfjib9, 1), bv, raw, cruel. 

'Qv-iofiai, -riaofiai, to buy. 

*H oipa, as, time, season, beauty. 

'Qxpb9, d, bv, pale. 



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