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A HE foundation of this little Work 
is taken from a Publication made at 
Geneva in the year 1767, called, 
' Joh. Fred. Faselii Elementa Medici- 
nae Forensis/ TTiis was a class-book 
of a learned Professor ; but I ima^ 
gined such a forwr, and ^^'^^^dless 
divisions which he has adopted,%^'^'^d 
appear tedious to an English reader, 
who generaUi/ admires works more in 
detail. ' I have therefore admittedorily 
the materials of that publication, and 
have digested them into regular chapi- 
ters, in which I have endeavoured, as 
much as possible, to follow the order 
of nature, beginning mtk births, and 
ending with the dissolution of our 

By altering the form too, I have not 
been obliged to adhere istrictli/Ho the 
text, but have varied from it very 

B considerably.; 


considerably; and some chapters I 
have entirely added, as that upon 
Madness, Sge. whilst others I have 
omitted as useless in this country, as 
particularly one on Tortures, %c. But 
J hope I have neither added what is 
tedious, nor omitted what is necessary 
to be known. As nothing of the kind 
hath ever been published in this coun- 
try, Imf^wiUing to take the assist-- 
ance cf a learned foreigner, rather 
than ttavel a tract unbeaten by my- 
self J need say nothing concerning 
the utility of such a Work; it will rea- 
dily be pointed out to every serious 
mind. Life and death are objects too 
important to be sported with in the 
manner they are sometimes:, nor 
should the valuable connections of our 
feUow-citizens be ever sacrificed to the 
ignorance of the faculty, the caprice 
qf a court, or the artifices of revenge 
and disappointment. 


Curfy-Rivel^ • 1 
A*or.SS, 1787. 3 




On Pregnancy ••.•••••..•••••.•••• S 

CHAP. n. 
Of Parturition or Chad-biith 10 

CHAP. in. 
OnDivorces 32 


OnRapes..* : 41 

Of the Murder of Inftnts 48 


On Homicide 72 


Of Idiotism and Insanity •••••••.•. 115 

CHAP. vni. 
Of Impostors... ISO 


On the Means of preserving the Public 

Health 185 



• o « 

f . 

. !• \ 

I f 

institutes; &c. 


JL HERE is a kind of medical know^ what part 

of the stii* 

ledffe, which is not soimich concerned 4y of p*»y- 
in the cure of diseases^ as in the de- 
tection of error^ and the conviction of 
ruilt. A physician^ a surgeon^ or a whom 

, ' employed. 

coroner^ is often called, upon to make 
a deposition of what he knows coui^ 
cerning some particular transactions 
in a court of judicature. Such per-, where ex- 
sons then should he well acquainted ^^ '^*^' 
with the animal ceconomy ; and with 
those views of the science, which, in 
foreign countries, have been dignified 
with a peculiar name, as the medicino Name. 
of the courts, legal medicine^ or raer 
dical jurisprudence. 

B 3 This 


Thisr kaofviledge, in its more exten- 
sive sense^ is divided into two different 

vid^.'* kinds^ in one of which is explained 
those rules by which a judge may form 
in a court of judicature^ an accurate 

causes. opmiou of the cause which comes be- 
fore him : in the other^ an aequaini- 
ance is acquired with the best methods 

Heaitii of of ^cserving the health of our fellow 

ty. ^ eitizeDs. The first part is again di-* 
vided into three^ as the deposition is 
made in the civil courts^ in the crimi^ 
nai courts^ or in the eeclesiastical 
courts. But . as the courts of fo- 
reign countries are c<Histituted up-* 
on different principles from those 
of this kingdom^ I shall not follow the 

Natnrmi example of our learned professor^ in 
arranging the rules of this business in 
that diTwion, Imt shall give them in 
diffe^rent chapters^ according to the 
order of Nature^ and let the reader 
apply them as he shall think proper. 




X HERE are so many decisions^ both ^J^^, ;|ri 
ID civil and criminal courts dependent km!'! ??'re 
upqn pregnancy^ that an accurate 
knowledge of this aflfection is abso- 
lutely necessary to be acquired before 
a determination is made. And not-^ 
withstanding there may be an appa- 
mat indecency in the exposition^ yet 
truths property, and perhaps a life, 
are not to be sacrificed to a false deli- 
cacy, a mistaken modesty, or a love 
of ease. 

A greater expansion of the abdo- MarUof 
men than common, as it creates in a ^y^'^"*"* 
female the idea of pregnancy, may 
depend upon a ftetus, or any other Dbtin. 
body, filling up the womb, or parts ti^m •umf 
adjacent. If it be any foreign body^ ^^ 
it is called a mde, or fiUse concept MUewbrnt 

B 4 tion ; 



tion ; if a foetus^ true pregnancy. 
This too is of two kinds, ordinary and 
extraordinary. The firsts when one 
or more foetuses are lodged in the hol- 
low of the womb itself; the latter, 
ExtraorUi- whcn they are deposited in the ova- 
rium, the fallopian tube, or the gene-i 
ral cavity of the abdomen. The ova- 
rium is . that substance in the female 
body, which answers to the testicle in 
that of the male, and is supposed to 
contain the germen of the future ani** 
mal. The fallopian tube is a. dxtct 
which. cofiveys, the male semep .fcdnr 
the womb to the ovarium, aodis.sup-^* 
posed, to embrace the uterus an. the* 
time of conception. It is natural to) 
suppose then, that sonietimes the foetus 
may be lodged in these bodies, and* 
sreekan exit which it can.never obtain.. 
. It is^* not .uncommjon for women of 
abandoned characters^ or even mar- 
ried women, to concealand deny thfir- 
i^te of pregnancy; asd in such eases, 

;*.>.; - no 

116 nceurate judgment can be' formed 
till a proper examination be 
a medical perscMi^ and those signs of \ 
true pre^ancj be discovered ivbich, 
^re ^nerally acknowledged, liiese .= .. 
signs are various^ and thiej^ ma^.b^ signi. . i 
distinguished into c^ain^ uncertajni) 
wd false. 

The certain and most common, certain. 
and which may be taken abotit thi^ 
time when half the gestation is com- ■- -*• 
pleated^ are i 

1st. A swelling of the abdomenj fbdomlSi?' 
which prises from no morbid cause^ 
which continued to indrease so^ that it 
^^tends from the lower part even' to 
the, summit^ which has a shining ap* 
peai^ance^ and which is . peculiarly 
sharpened about the navel. Atrtl^ 
same time a troublesome sensati^^ pet 
culiar to such a. situation^ is.p^ceived^ 
apd other signs of pregnancy oet^ur;^ * 

2d. The orifice of the womb i^ oriacfof 

..." ^^ J . the womb. 

thicker^ more spongy, soft, a^cL Wi- altered. 

B 5 dened ; 

deiied; is shorter^ and exbibtti nei* 
ther a conica) nor cylindrical figure. 

^^^jj ^ 3d. A motion of the foetus is per- 
ceiired in the womb. 

soppreni- 4th. There is a suppression of the 

on of OMii- 

tet. menstrual flux^ when it cannot be ae« 

counted for from some evident disease^ 

and when the symptoms which ab* 

' company it do not remits as is the case 

when it arises from some other cawe. 

Swelling of 5th. A sweUinfif and hardness off 
the breasts^ with an inflation of the 
nipple^ and the vetna of the breasts 
assuming a blue colour. The disk 
round the nipple is of a dusky brown 
colour^ and the little eminences are 
much enlarged. 

Milk in 6th. A lymph flows from the breast 


upon pressure^ which are streaks of 

true milk. . 
Uncertain The Uncertain signs of pregnancy, 
pn^n^. cure frequent vomitings, especially in 
^^* a morning; a constipation of the 

belly; an incontinence or suppression 


of urine^ ^flkult respiration^ irr^n** 
1m appetite^ a fettdtaem or arersion to 
particular kinds of food^ head-adt^ 
vertigo^ pain of the teeth^ yellow spots 
ift the face^ the belly growing iSat^ a 
descent of t&e orifice of the womb, 
cnlargemeat of the veinfs^ swelling of 
tile legs and feet^ and pains in the 
loins^ &c. 

The false signs of pregnancy have J^ 
arisen from some superstitious notions 
which are now exploded^ and there- 
fore we shall omit to mention them in 
this place. 

It appears^ however^ that no accn- ho» to 
rate judgment can be formed^ but judgment 
from the certain signs ; and a know- 
ledge of these can only be acquired hf 
a minute examination and immediate 
inspection of the parts. This^ upon 
account of decency^ is generally com- 
mitted to midwives^ ignorant persons^ 
who hove no knowledge of the ani- 
mal <»conomy^ and may easily be de- 

B 6 ceiyed. 



How dis- 


ceived. : It would be much better theii^ 
thatthk (^ce $hQui4: be entrusted to/ 
the mcwre ; regular practitioner^ who 
being a person of educa^tipn^ w6uld 
add the influence of his judgment 
tojhis examination^ and would not b^. 
leontent \yith a single ^nqufry^ ,whic;b 
may be, uncertain^ but w^iild fre-. 
quently repeat it, till he had perfeetly' 
ascertained the truths ; 

, Wom^l^ sometimes, likewise /eigrt 
themselves to be pregn^t when they 
are not so. The absence of those 
signs before described, would be suffi- 
cient to confut<^ them ^ but, as much 
artifice is often used upon such occa^ 
sions,. it may be necessary to examine 
a little further, and here the following 
signs presents themselves c An impro* 
per age, either too. tender or too per- 
fect; a preternatural defect of the 
menses, even in those of a fit age ; 
too great a flow of them ; a copious 

and inveterate < fluor albiia.; various 




diseases of the vagina^ as the orifice of 
it being entirely shut; or a junction of 
its Bides^ so as^ not to admit of an en- 
trance; various ^seases likewise of the 
wombj such as schirrus^ or fleshy ex- 
crescences growing up in it,.or>it8 
mouth being entirely closed. 

• • 






PartnritioB Jt ABTVRiTioN may be received ia 
•■-^ several sense.. At one time it mean, 
the action of bringing a child into 
the world: at another the child it- 
self^ which is received into being. 
When taken in the first sense^ it is 
Ordinary, divided into ordinary and extraordi- 
nary. The ordinary is^ when the de- 
livery is made in the common and 
usual manner^ or rather by the com- 
mon passages^ notwithstanding any 
difficulties which may oceur in *the 
operation: for this is again divided 
into natural and preternatural^ or arti- 
"wy. ficial. The extraordinary delivery it 
operation, when it is performed by the Cesarean 
operation^ which is an extraction of 



the child^ by siakiiig an incisioa 
througb the abdominal muscles into 
the uteniji. This is seldom performed 
upon the living mother^ but may be^ 
and is indeed ahrays advisable^ should 
the mother die before she can be deli* 
Teredo and life is perceired in the child. 
Lathis way some great personages^ and 
particularly our Edward Y I. is said to 
have been bom. Another method 
latelf proposed in France^ and abao* 
lotely put in practice upon living 
sul^cts^ is^ by dirtding ike cartilage 
which binds together the bones that 
mrround the wonib^ and thus enfaurging 
the opening. This may likewise be. 
ealkd extraordinary^ thoi:^h the deli* 
very be made by the natural passages ; 
yet the strictness of terms confines it 
to those labours which are made by 
passages different from the common. 

When the word parturition Tektes wbenpn^ 
to the child itself, it may denote the lateitotte 
time when it is bbrn^ the conzormation 



Time of 


of its parts, or the external figure which 
it presents, the state of its life, and 
the number which are brought into 
the world. 

When it relates to the time in 
which it is born, it may be considered 
either as perfect or mature, or itnma- 
ture and imperfect. The former, when 
gestation has been carried on at least 

Imperfect, nine months : the latter, when it is 
completed before that time ; and in 
this last case, another division may be 

Abortions, made into abortions, where the deli- 
very is made before the seventh month ; 
and premature births, where the child 
is born between the seventh and the 
end of the ninth. To this head also 
belong too late deliveries . 

The signs of an immature child 
are taken from the following par- 

1st. - From its length, for if it be not 
one foot long, we may be nearly cer- 
tain that it is not completely formed. 



Signs of 





^d. Prom i4s weighty which should Weight 
exceed five pounds. 

3d, From the figure of the head^ Figure of 

, * parU, &c. 

&c. An incomplete child has a de* 
forniied face resembling aii old per-^ 
son^ with a wide mouth and slender 
ears like membranes ; its eyes are 
shut ; the hair of its head is of a whi- 
tish cast; the division between th^ 
bones of the skull^ Valkd the rhom- 
foidal suture^ gapes wide ; the boneiS 
themselves are moveable ; and the lips 
of the mouth resemble pieces of bliorody 
ftesb.'' . ^ . ') 

4th. From its habit of bodyy wHicE Hibu of 
is f or tiie racist part thin and tender, *^^' 
and covered with a short down, and ii 
of a reddish hue, parti^cularly oh the 
extremities and the face. If it be bl 
male, the ^rotum is of a round figure, 
and the *testides are not contained' 
in it. ! . ' 

6th. Prom its Umbsy wbiohr are- um\>s. 
thin and nveak, and the iiail^ upon its 



tion of 


Other cir- 

fingers are soft^ shorty ^not extending 
beyond the fingers ; nay, if it be very 
small, SB of one or two months, the 
nails are by no means perceptible, 
either upon the fingers or the toes. 
. 6th. From the conformation or 
constitution of its bones ; for it is evi- 
dent from experience^ that in every 
month of gestation, tiiere is some al- 
teration in this respect; ex. gr. in 
a foetus of five months, the orbits of 
the eyes are entirely formed into bony 
sockets ; and in one of seven months^ 
the small bones, subservient to the or* 
gan of hearing are io perfe<^, as 
scarcely to differ from those of a com- 
plete child. 

7th. From the umbilical cord, 
vrhich is very 9lender. 

8th. From other curious circum- 
stances vf^hich attend this little em- 
bryo, such as a constant indulgence in 
sleep, an abstaining from crying, an 
inti^rance of cold, an indisposition to 



siickj or ta uflfe its Umbs^ or the mus^ 
cles of other paxts^ such as those 
whieh are subseryieat to the evacu- 
ation (^ urine^ 5r the depositing of 
ihit meeomum. 

The signs by vrhich t^^ distinguish signs of 
a perfect child are taken^ cbia 

1st. From its size ; its length be- size. 
ing at least one fooi six inches. 

2d. From its weighty which should weight 
be at least six pounds. 

3d. From the formati^ of its bones, S^^ 
whiek is known only by experience. 
]^t in general^ a cUld can hardly 
be called complete^ all whose bones^ 
and every part are not entirely formed^ 
though age may give some addition to 
their substance. 

4th. From the ilmbilical cord, umbiiicai 
which is thick and firm. 

5th. From other circumstances, op- other dr. 
posite to those in that which was im- cei. 
perfect ; such as that he cries, moves 
bis limbs^ opens hui eyes, sucks at tho 






breast^ is not always asteep^ can bear 
cold^ has a white skin^ can evacaate 
urine and the faeces^ has long nails^ 
and his head covered^ with hair. 

That which relates to the conform-, 
ation of a child^ after it is brought 
into the worlds is distitiguished inta 
monstrous^ and not monstrous: the 
former including all deviations from 
the ordinary figure of man . M ongters ; 
are again divided into perfect and im« 
perfect. A perfect monster is- that 
vf hich absolutely differs^ ih air its parts; 
from the human appearance^ a» when 
it resembles any brute anitnals^ as a 
dog, an ape, &c. An itnperfect mon- 
ster is where only a partial alteration* 
is made in its figure; and this may 
again difier, according as this partial 
alteration is made in the head^ or other 
parts ; and this as it may be bom with-, 
out a head, or with the head of a 
beast, &c. Where a monster differs 
from a complete child, in other parts 



besides 'the head^ it is distiiiguished 
into iwo 801 ts/as in general 
are affiicted^ or as more particularly 
the • change is wrought in the genitals 
only^ and then it is called an her ma- Sj^ui. 
pfarodite^ vrhichis likewise perfect or 

In an enquiry into the nature of 
monsters in general^ three objects of 
consideration present themselves . 1st. 
What is- the cause of monsters ? 2d« 
Whether they are possessed of life? 
8d. Wfa^her at perfect monster can be 
considered as a human being ? 

)st. -The cause of monsters is vari- causcof 


ous/'as de^ndif^ <m such changes in 
the CdCistituttoitof the. mother^ as ca^ 

hardly be accounted for. 

Whatever view we take of the Theory of 


theory ' of '^imeration^ whether a ger.r on. 
men be formed in the ovarium of the 
female^ vv^hich is only impregnated by 
the semen of the male> or whether the 
homunculus is contained in that se- 


men^ naA the female aieids a misM fof 
its torm&tion; stiU ^^ see a strong 
resemblance to both parents m thar 
oflspring : and accidents^ or other 
causes^ contribute to make an entire 
alteration in the form of i;he liaeiMj 
and produce monsters. We wfll not 
suppose unnatural conne^ions^or that 
any impregnation can arise from 4hat 
source; but ima^nation has a great 
power 0¥er the body of a female^ 
especially during gestation ; and the 
fluid in which the fcetus emma^ or the 
womb itself may be dkordered^ so 4Uf 
to occasion great changes. Neither 
need we hove recourse to the tiie- 
ory of the ingenious Buffon to explain 
how these are brought about ; or sup* 
pose that every part of the human bo- 
dy has a r^resentati^a in the feenii* 
dating quality of both parents^ to tona 
its construction. The first nidi- 
mente or garmen of the human foody 
is not a human creature^ if it be «ven 

a living 


a Uying one ; it it a foundation only 
upon which the human superstructure 
is raised. This is evident to anatomic 
cal observation. Were a child to be 
bom of tiie shape which it presents in 
ihe first stages of pregnancy^ it would 
be a monster indeed^ as great as any 
which was ever brought to light. How • 
easy then is it for disorder to prevent 
the exertion of that plastic force^ 
which is necessary to form a complete 

2d. Monsters may live^ but it de- wimUmt 
pends on what parts are affected^ how can um. 
long life shall be continued to th^n. 
Where the monstrous parts are eon* 
fined to the extremities^ or even to 
those places which distinguish herma- 
phrodites^ we find from experience^ 
that the vital powers are strong and 
vigorous ; and were it not that sudh 
beings often fly from society^ lead 
sedentary lives^ and are deprived of 
some wholesome exercises to the hu- 


man constitution^ life might be en- 
joyed by them^ and to as great an ex- 
tent as by any other persons. . 
Are there 3d, With regard to perfect mon- 
moDstcrs? stcrs^ most of the authorities which as* 
tert that. any thing of that kind can 
exists : seem to be of no credit But 
^should any ever appear, we should 
consider that it is not form or shape, 
but reason and intelligence, which dis- 
tinguish human c/eatures from brute 
Herman. 'We are next to consider the nature 


what • of hermaphrodites ; and as these are 
living . beings, and som^ities capable 

^f all the functions of sooiety, such dis- 
tinctions* ought to bemade relating to 

^them, as, will place their situation in 
ihe most ) proper lights and the most 

<£iTou£able to. their happiness. They 
are great objects.of our pity and com- 

*placency; for they are: not only de- 

'prived of the common pleasures of 
mankind^ but are subject to disorders 



which are painful^ uncomfortable^ and 
inconvenient. A perfect hermaphro- Perfect 
dite^ or a being partaking of the dis- 
tinguishing marks of both sexes^ with 
a power of enjoyment from each^ is 
not believed by any one ever to have 
existed. Imperfect hermaphrodites^ imperfect 
or monsters^ whose organs of genera- 
tion are affected^ are frequently pre- 
sented to us. They may be divided^ 
according to the sexes^ into what ar^ 
called^ androgynus^ and androgyna. 
The first is the male^ who has in ffe- Androgy- 
neral his own organs tolerably per- 
fect^ but has some division in the flesl\ 
above, below, on, or in the scrotum, 
which puts on the appearance of the 
female pudendum. The penis like- 
wise may be so obliterated, as to give 
no external appearance of the male ; 
but the beard, and the constitution of 
his body, confirm him to be of that 
sex. The androgyna is a woman, 
who has the parts of generation nearly "^ 


like anotiiet^ Imt at the same time die 
clitoris grows to a great sm, asd gi^es 
tiie form of the male penis. This is 
a very tnconvement disorder^ as she is 
sometimes deprived of the pleasures 
peculiar to her sex^ and suffers much 
from disorders of the part. From her 
breasts^ and the deficiency of beard 
however/ she is distinguished from 
<be male; though it frequently and 
iuifortunately happens^ that such wo* 
men are more subject than others to 
robust and masculine constitutions. 
It is evident that the sexes here are 
as completely marked as in other per- 
sons^ and to all legal intents and pur- 
poses^ they are man and woman. 
Same important enquiries mav 

Henna- , . . - 

Dhroditef, arise upon this sul^ect. As 1st. How 
impotent far they are to be considered as impo- 
tent. This is^ I believe^ generally the 
case^ but not always^ and must depend 
Should upon proof. 2d. Whether they should 
ftey msr- ^ permitted to marry ? This depends 



tipon Ae former^ but must^ I shraid 
thiak^ be left to their 4>wn choice. 
'Sd. Wbetiier change of the ^^es MayUicy 

^ change 

niglrt be allowed ? This is eertaittly •<» > 
contradicted in the tenns^ ukd will bA* 
mit of no dispute. 

With regard to the state <yf life of 
a child^ the following question requires 
to be decided : At what time may a r^kaf b^! 
fiBtus be supposed to begin to live > ''^"^"''^ 
To answer this^ we must consider^ that 
conception is made in the ovarium of ^^^^ ., 
ti female after coition with a rnale^ ^}^ 
when the subtile aura of the semen 
hath so far penetrated into the germen, 
which may be supposed to contain 
the xmtline of the future man^ as to 
produce a turgescence and motion of 
its circulating humours. Atthistime^ 
it may be said^ that life begins^ t. e. im* 
mediately after conception. Hence 
those seem to err: 1st. Who would 
persuade ns^ {hat the foetus acquires 
life when it is so particularly active^ 

c 3 that 


ihat the mother becomes sensibleof its 
motions. 2d. Those ^bo think that 
• * life does not begin till ihe seventh or 
fourteenth day^ . or even till a month 
after conception. And 3d. Those 
who suppose that a fpBtus^ as long as 
it continues in the womb^ where it 
dpes not breathe^ cannot be called a 
living animal. The whole depends 
on our ideas of life and animation, and 
the' act of generation to create it. If 
'generation be the cause of animating 

, the rudiments of the future beings and 

if that animation be construed to be 
understood by what is meant by life^ 
then it i^iust certainly begin immedi- 
ately after conception^ and nothing but 
the arbitrary forms of human institu- 
tions can mttke it otherwise. 

On this occasion we may enquire;^ 
what part of the human body is the 

awtof the g^^j ^£ animation^ or the soul ! To 

which we answer^ that evidently it re- 
sides most conspicuously in the brain^ 



because that substance being hurt all 
the faculties of the soul become dis* ^ 
ordered ; and because all the nerves of 
the body^ which are the great instru*, 
ments of action^ are derived from it as 
a fountain. But it cannot be sup- 
posed that the whole of the brain is 
the immediate seat of the soul ; it is 
probably confined to what is called the 
sensorium commune^ or a small part 
from whence the nerves,, destined to, 
sense and yoluntary motions^ draw 
their origin ; as they do likewise from 
an appendix to it^ called the medulla 

The next thing to be considered is, 
what kind of children^ when born into wbatchiN 
the world, are to be deemed endued the power 

^ of Ufc. 

with life, or have a prospect of living ; 
for a foetus cannot live out of the 
womb of its mother ! 

1st. Then^ no abortion can be No&boi^ 
said to be endued with life, for if there 
be some signs of life when it is brought 

c3 into 

of seven 



into th^ yfortd, it caniuyi eontinM to 
liye^ for it can neither take the ati* 
ment which is necessary to its saste- 
nance^ nor^ if it could take it^ can it 
dbange such gross food into its tendef 
nature. Some authors haye asserted^ 
that children of five and six months 
have lived ; but this is probably a mis- 
take, it being generally agreed, that 
infants so young cannot su^atn the in*- 
demencies to which they must be 

2d. Children of seven months^ or 
dne hundred ^ud dghty4wo days alter 
marriage, may live, though ftaerall}^ 
they are puriy, and eofltittue but a sbort 
time on earth. 

3d. All children above seven months 
are supposed to be endued with vital 
priuciples, atid of consequence »e 
allowed the privilege of life. 

The ne!xt subject of consideration, 
is that of twins, suppoisiiious birthi> 
and superfofetation. 


The right of primogeniture must Twins how 
be determined in natural births^ by ed. 
that which was first born into the 
'worlds and which must be decided by 
the by-standers. If the delivery, how- 
ever, be made by a passage effected by 
art, the choice depending on the will 
of the surgeon, no proper determina- 
tion can possibly be made. 

In the affair of suppositious births, snnpotiti- 

* "^ out births. 

two questions occur, according as the 
birth is performed or not. In the 
former case, a physician may judge, 
Ist. From those signs in the mother, sms to 
which distinguish her having been de« 
Hvered of a child. 3d. From thosQ 
signs which refer to her incapacity of 
conception. 3d. From signs of im- 
potency in the father. 4th. From 
the umbilical cord in the child not ap- 
pearing as of one just delivered. Some 
persons look .upon Uie dissimilitude 
to the parents to be a sign, but this 
must be very fallacious. Where the 

c 4 suppositious 


suppositions birth depends on the pre- 
sent state of pregnancy, either the 
proper signs must be examined, or we 
must wait the event, should those 
signs deceive us. 

The impregnation of a woman al- 
snpcrfoe. ready pregnant, is called a superfoeta- 
tion. This is either true or false ; the 
former is, when it happens in the 
womb itself; the latter, when one 
foetus is deposited in the womb, the 
other in the ovarium, the fallopian 
tube, or the catity of the abdomen. 

The following requisites are ne- 
cessary to a superfoetation. 1st. The 
pregnant woman ought to bear two 
children, each of a distinct age. 3d. 
The delivery of these? children should 
be at different times, at a considerable 
distance from each other. 3d. The 
woman must be pregnant, and a nurse* 
at the same time. 

There have been many doubts 
about 4he reality of this superfoetation> 

. but 

Rfq -.istei. 


but there is no disputing of &cts^ for 
-which see Gravel on Superfoetation^ 
Eisenman's Anatomical Tables^ and 
the Leipsic Memoirs^ 1725. 

How this superfoetation is accom- 
plished^ is a matter of enquiry^ and de- 
pends in a great measure on the con- 
stitution^ or rather the formation of 
the womb of the mother. 

The last thing to be condid^red un- ugHima- 
der this head of parturition^ is the le- ^^' 
gitimacy or illegality of births; and 
this is divided into the time when a Di^j^ed 
child is born after conception^ and the *^° ^"•' 
conformation of its body. With re- 
spect to time^ physically considered^ 
( for laws may be as arbitrary as they 
please in this respect) all abortions^ 
too early births^ children of nine 
months^ and those who are late bom^ 
even to ten months^ may be considered 
as legitimate in old marriages. Ille- 
gitimate with respect" to the time of 
birth^ are all perfect and mature chil- 

c 5 dren^ 



Ateik, wh6 are born in the aixih or s^ 
venth month after the celebration of 
marriage ; and all late births^ when ex- 
tended to the eleventh^ twelfth^ or 
thirteenth months especially if the 
husband died of a chronic or lingering 
£iay*1n**^ Thcffe are many causes alleged to 
^•i»v«»7. occasion a delay or prolongation of de- 
livery^ such as great care and anxiety ; 
some severe diseases^ as Solent hoe- 
morrhages^ a phthisical disposition^ 
&c. but these^ one should imagine^ 
would rather hasten than retard such 
a circumstance. Experience is the 
only guide we can follow in such 
cases^ and^ for the sake of humanity^ 
the longest time that can be fairly 
proved^ should be the standard to 
which we should refer. 
Legitima. With respcct to the conformation 

cy from 

form. of the body^ all children may be con* 
sidered legitimate^ who are bom at or 
aftfer seven months ; but all abortions 



are iUegitim&te. Monsters^ likewise 
are not to be excluded for any trifling 
alterations ; but where all appearances 
of human nature are obliterated^ it 
would be wrong to take advantage of 
such a birth. 

C 6 CHAP, 




divw^^^' JLt is gmerally allowed^ that vari- 
ous disorders may constitute natu- 
. ral grounds for a divorce between 
two married^ persons; and notwith- 
standing the laws of particular coun- 
tries are generally founded on local 
customs^ and do not always refer to 
the natural reasons ; yet^ as no other 
concern the medical person^ and as 
they are proper to be knowti^ no fur- 
ther apology is necessary for their in- 
sertion in this place. 

Those disorders, or rather as they 

i^nsut^l" may be called defects of the human 
constitution^ which seem to constitute 
the natural reasons for a divorce, 
are such as are an absolute impedi- 
ment to the procreation of children. 

■ i . They 



They are of two kinds^ according as 
they have for their subject the organs 
of generation or not. The former 
may be divided into impotence in 
men^ and sterility in women^ which is 
either absolute or continual, or such as 
eludes all human art to remove. 

Absolute impotence in men takes inipoteDct 

Ist. When they are eunuchs^ or Eunucin. 
are deprived of both testicles^ which 
being receptacles of the semen^ with- 
out them no generation can be per- 

2d. When they are spadones^ or spidonet* 
such as have the nerves or muscles 
leading to the parts of generation 
bruised^ so as to deprive them of all 
perception of the venereal appetite. 

3d. When the penis is too shorty short pe- 

* nil. 

being amputated for disease. 

4th. When the penis is perforated Pcnii per- 
in such a manner that the semen can- 
not be thrown out with sufficieut force. 



This rule is to be admitted^ with some 
limitation^ as the theory of generation 
is not sufficiently established to deter^ 
min^ with accuracy this point. 
schirrous 5th. When both testicles are be* 


come schirrous^ so as not to be capa<- 
ble of a cure. * , 

Semen wa- ^^^' When the semen is too watery, 
^^^' and will not admit of amendment. 
This too being a disease that admits 
of a cure, should not determine ab- 
Penis 7th. When the penis is too thidk, 

thick. ^ ■ ^ '^ ^ ^ 

This is likewise only relative. 

Phymosis. 8th. When the preputium is so 
constructed or fastened to the glans 
penis, as not to admit of relief by a 
surgical operation. This disease is 
called capistration. ^ 

«chi#rous 9tii. When the vestciilae seminales 


seminales. ^^^ bccome schirroos. 
„_ Th«.di«.rfer./^! 
fwSr** pediment to the procreation of cbil- 
vorce. dren, and which are not deriyed frttm 



the Of g«itis of generation^ are iuch at 
are of a highly contagious nature^ or 
create an unconquerable aversion; such 
as the lues venerea^ melancholy^ epi* 
l^psy^ scurry^ scrophula^ and a highly 
feetid and disagreeable breath. But it 
is to be ho{)€d^ for the honour of phy* 
sic^ and the benefit of humanity^ that 
such diseases will meet with their pro- 
per cure : and indeed in all the cases 
here mentioned^ as the happiness of 
individuals is so much concerned^ and 
the public good on the other hand so 
much to be studied^ it is necessary 
that the observations be made with the 
greatest care^ and that the maturest 
judgment of the physician be exer- 
cised with discretion. ' ' 

Absolute sterility in a woman^ so sterility* 
as to unfit her for matrimonial duties^ 

1st. When the parts destined to J^rforl™". 
generation are so imperforate as not to 



Fluor aU 



Orifice of 



itdtnit of any relief without incurring 
great danger of life. 

2d. When she is so grievously af- 
flicted with the fluor albus^ vulgarly 
called the whites^ as not to admit of 
any cure. Mucti care and attention 
are here however requisite, and many 
medicines are to be tried before an 
absolute judgment be made: nay^ I 
should think much experience must be 
admitted, and the husband likewise be 
examined carefully with regard to his 
own abilities. 

3d. When the vagina is too strait 
and narrow, upon account of schirrous 
tumours, ^or of any other kind which it 
is impossible to remove. 

4th. When the orifice into the 
uterus is entirely closed. This will 
be known not only by the touch, but 
by the retention of the menstrual flux, 
which in time will force a passage, or 
from the dreadful symptoms it ia- 
duce3, require the hand of the surgeon 


to prodire it. This can hardly be 
called therefore an absolute impedi* 

6th. When there is an ulcer in ui^erof 


the uterus^ or the passages to it^ which 
sometimes is of so corroding a nature^ 
as to penetrate the rectum andblad-* 
der of urine. There are many other internal 
causes of sterility^ which are derived eased. 
from injuries or obstructions in the in* 
ternal parts destined to generation. 
But here all is darkness^ and it would 
be cruel to determine by any other^ 
than what are quite evident upon in- 
spection and accurate examination of 
the parts. 

Before this subject be dismissed^ Defectfiw 
it may be necessary to mention some on. 
other circumstances^ which^ although 
they mky not render either sex abso-^ 
lutely impotent^ yet may be considered 
as defects^ and some hindrance to the 
generative powers^ but by no means 
constitute reasons for a divorce : ig- 



ndranf personiB may consider them as 
such; this error is therefore to be 
guarded against. 

Those which occur in* the male sex 
are, where they are, 

1st. Monorchides, or such as haye 
only one testicle. These are by no 
means incapacitated, as the secretion 
only is made in that organ from which 
it is carried to the vesicuto seminales> 
and there deposited for use. So that 
oae testide is as efficacious as two« 
and the secretion is always propw** 
tioned to the evacuation. 

2d. Triorchides, or those who hama 
threie testicles. 
Spadones. 3d. Spadoucs, wh^e one testicle 
only is bruised. 

4th. Androgyni, for which see the 
account of hermaphrodites in the l^st 

5th. Those who are circumcised. 
This is an advantage rather than a 








6th. Those who bare remedied this paraphu 
defect by art. cwX 

7th. Chrysporchides^ or those whose cb^spor- 
testicles do not lie in the scrotum^ but 
in the abdomen j or in the groin. 

8th. Those who labour under a phi* pbymoni* 
mosis^ which is a disorder where the 
praeputium is brought over the glans pe» 
nisj and cannot be retracted but by art. 

9th. Those who have the prseputium JJiTJ?"^* 
buttoned over the glans. *®°*^* 

10th. Those whose penis is longer ]^^ 
or shorter than natural^ unless in rety ^^* 
great extremes. 

Women cannot be said to be inca* Defeeuin 
pacitated totally : 

Ist. Wheii they have a felling ProUptui. 
down of the womb ; for this may be 
only temporary^ and may be remedied 
by art. 

2d. When they have too large a cli- Large cli- 
toris^ or nymphffi. 

. 3d. When they are androgynae^ or Androgy- 
hermaphrodites from other causes. 




Pafti 4th, When they have the puden- 

"^^ dum too large and wide. 

F?owof 5th. When they have an irregular 

meases. ^^^ ^^ ^j^^ HienseS. 

Rupture of 6*^. When they have suffered in 
penoeum. ^jgiiygyy ^ rupture of the perinaum/ov 

the space between the fundament and 





XN the consideration of rapes^ three • 
objects of attention present them- 

1st. Whether a rape^ strictly so objecuof 
called^ be possible ? 

2d. Whether a woman^ upon a 
rape being committed^ can become 
pregnant ? 

3d. What are the signs of a rape 
being perpetrated f 

1 St. In answer to the first question^ 
whether a rape be possible^ meaning Jj,* JJJ^j 
upon a grown person^- it may be ne- 
cessary to divide it into two parts, as 
it is distinguished into the attempt 
and the consummation of a rape. The Aitewpt* 
attempt under which is to be under- 
stood a great force exercised oyer a 
woman to violate > her chastity^ .but 



where a compleat coition is pre- 
vented^ may be possible. But the con- 

maibn. Summation of a rape^ by which is 
meant a compleat^ full^ and entire 
coition^ which is made without any 
consent or permission of the woman^ 
seems to be impossible^ unless some 
very extraordinary circumstances oc- 
cur: for a woman always possesses 
sufficient power^ by drawing back her 
limbs^ and by the force of her hands^ 
to prevent the insertion of the p^s 
into her body^ whilst she can keep her 
resolution entire. Besides^ it is evi- 
dent that a lesser resistance can prevail 
against the motion of sLny body which 
acts against the weight ; and that is 
the case here : the penis^ in attempt- 
ing an immission into the vagina^ moves 
a body against the weight. 

DMipm- 2d. With respect to the next 

nancy fol- '• 

low a rape? question, whether a woman, upon 
whom a rape bath been committed, 
ean become pregnant ? It may be ne- 


cessary to enquire how far her lutt iiras 
excited^ or if she experienced any en* 
joyment. For without an excitation 
of lust^ or the enjoyment of pleasure 
in the yociereal aet^ no conception can 
probably take place. So that if an 
absolute rape were to be perpetrated^ it 
is not likely she would become preg^- 
nant. ' 

Sd. The .igo, .f . h.™g ^ - 


been perpetrated^ or rather attempted, 
are iaken from the evacuation of blood 
from the injured parts^ and great 
swelling and inflammation. But as 
these may be induced by other means^ 
or are not inconsistent with consent 
having be^i obtained^' they can only 
' be considered as corroborating^ but 
not as certain proofs. 

As rapes however are sometimes 

committed npon young children^ who 

may have the signa of their virginity 

obliterated by tfaem^ it may beneces* 

«8uy to consider what are tboi|e signs^ 


and nvhat are the marks of their being 
sigiwof destroyed. The signs* of virginity 
than may be allowed to be the fol- 

1st. Thelips'^of the pudendum are 
more prominent^ and close together. 

2d. The nymphas are small^ endued 
with a light rose colour^ and do not 
extend out of their place. 

3d. The prepuce of the clitoris^is 
sroall^ and does not cover the glans. 

4. The orifice of the urethra^ or 
urinary passage^ is entirely covered. 

5th. The wrinkles of the vagina are 
.considerable^ and raised above the 

6th. A bridloi or froenulum, ap- 
pears before the lips of the puden- 

7th, The hynien is likewise pre- 
sent^ by which is meant a thin tense 
membrane^ situated at the entrance 
into the vagina^ being sometimes of an 
,ovaI figure^, sometimes ^circular^ and 


^ 45 

sometimes semilunar^ and shutting up 
the greatest part of the passage. This 
hymen hath been esteemed a certain 
mark of virginity^ when other circum- 
stances concur to give it authority. It 
is not^ however^ by any means abso- 
lute^ eren in the youngest subjects ; 
for it may be so concealed in the back 
of the yagina^ as not to be perceptible 
at first sights or it may be destroyed or ^ 
obliterated by a yariety of causes^ 
besides a connection with a male. A 
fresh rupture of it, however, may be 
perceived, and some remains of it will 
continue evident for some time. 

The marks by which it is most ^ . . 

•^ Marks of 

probable that a female accustomed !j*^7ene. 
herself to venereal habits, and of '^' 
consequence is less to be believed 
upon a deposition for a rape, are the 
following : 

1st. The lips of the pudendum are 
flaccid and distended more than in a 

D 2d. 


Sd, The clitoris is enlarged^ and 
faath a prepuce which covers the glaas 
arising from constant friction^ and is 
produced to defend it from injuries^ ia 
proportion as it is exposed to them. 

3d. The nymphae .are likewise en- 
larged^ and are of a lighter and more 
obscure colour. 

4th. The orifice into the urinary 
passage is more open aiid exposed. 
This is owing to the flaccidity of the 

5th« The hymen is wanting^ as 
may naturally be supposed ; but it is 
not to stand as a test by itself, where 
the other circumstances do not occur. 

6th. Some small excrescences arise 
in the shape of the berries of the 
myrtle (called from thence carunculas 
myrtiformes ) at the entrance into the 

7th. The vagina is enlarged and 
spacious^ and this even where there 
has been no parturition. 



8th. The wrinkles are less promi- 
nent^ and in length of time are quite 

9th. The orifice of the qterus ap- 
proaches nearer than before to the ori- 
fice of the vagina^ This^ however^ 
must be entirely relative^ as the extent 
of the vagina must differ in every sub- 
ject ; and besides^ it presumes upon 
an acquaintance vrith the person pre* 
vious to the habit she is engaged in^ 
which is not easily to be acquired. 

D 2 CHAFi^ 




Jl his kind of homicide relates to the 
youngest and most helpless part of the 
&»^ned human species^ and is confined to them 
*s«i* in three states of their existence : just 
before they are born^ at the time of 
delivery^ and immediately^ or soon 
after they are brought into the world. 
The two last may be included together^ 
and constitute child murder^ strictly so 
, called^ and the other the murder of a 
child in its abortive state^ or the pre- 
mature delivery of it so as to procure 
its death*. 
stateofihe We shall first consider the state of 
^^ *'• the mother^ after she has been deli- 
vered of a child^ as a leading fact upon 
which much depends with regard to 
the destruction either of infitnts or 



abortions^ and then the particular na* 
ture of these homicides. 

The signs that a woman hath been si^ns of 
delivered of a child^ are of two kinds^ *'*'^' 
as this circumstance is recent^ or has 
happened for somb time back. The Recent 
signs of the former are, 

1st. An extraordinary swelling of 
the external parts of generation. 

2d. A preternatural distension of 
the vagina. 

Sd. A flow of the lochia^ which is 
a discharge that differs from the com- 
mon menstrual flux, . in being of a 
paler colour^ and having a sourish dis* 
agreeable smell. r 

4th. The orifice into the uterus is 
soft and open^ as if a late discharge 
had been made from it; the womb 
itself too not having properly col- 
lapsed and taken its natural shape. 

5th. There is a roughness and flac- 
cidity of the abdomen^ which is some- 
times covered likewise.vnth wrinkles. 

D 3 6th. 



6th. The breasts are swelled to a 
larger size than common^ and are hard 
and troublesome to the touchy some- 
times loaded with excrescences that 
feel like schirri. 

7tb. Milk is found in the breasts^ 
wbich^ when curdled^ forms the knots 
above- mentioned^ and may be ex- 
tracted from them by pressure^ or by 

8th. The nipples become thidc 
and strongs and the disk round them 
is much widened. 

The signs that a woman hath for- 
merly been delivered of a ehild^ ape the 

1st. All the signs of her having lost 
her virginity in the last chapter. 

fd. The orifice of the Wotnb has 
not its usual conic figure^ and is more 
open than in a maiden. 

3d. The lips of the orifice of the 
womb are unequal. 



4th. There is a roughnftss of the 
abdomen^ ^hich i» likewise more ex« 
panded^ and pensile or banging down. 
5th. There are small white and 
shining lines running on the abdomen. 
6th. The fraenum of the labiss pu* 
dendi is obliterated. 

7th. The breasts are more flaccid - 
and pendulous. 

8th. The lines on the breasts are 
white and splendid. 

9th. The colour of tiie disk is 

10th. The nipples are prominent. 
1 1th. There is a prominence of the 
inner coat of the womb. 

ISth. There is sometimes aninyer- 
sion of this body. 

The marks of abortion depend on Marks of 
the length of the pregnancy^ and must 
be referred to the judgment of the phy- 
sician^ &c. In general^ they are onfy 
those of lost virginity.— Vide last 

D 4 In 


In ovdiv to explain those distinc- 
tions by which we are to know that an 
infant^ who has been found dead and 
expopedj was murdered by any inhu- 
man hands or not^ we should divide 

Division of ¥ ¥ j. jfl • -l !_ • t_ 

the signs of ^* ^DtO tllOSC SlgUS Oy WblCh WC 

know that the child might be born 
alive^ and afterwards be destroyed. 

II. Those more evident marks^ by 
which we ascertain that it was brought 
into the world dead. 

III. Those which accurately point 
out, that force and violence were exer- 
cised to deprive it of existence. 

IV. Those more particular distinc- 
^ iions which are to ' be made on a tho* 

rough inspection and dissection of the 
dead body. 
Signs that I. We know that a child has 

a child was 

born alive, feecn bom alivc, when we find that it 
has exercised any of the vital actions, 
by which is meant^ not those similar 
actions by which life is supported 



when the foetus remains in the womb^ 
but those real actions which are in 
force after the child is brought into 
the world. These are the circi^tion 
of the bloody and respiration^ suehas^ 
is enjoyed by animals after their birtbi 

The following may be esteemed signs or 
proofs that a child hath enjoyed the ofMood!^ 
eirculation of its blood afler it is born^: 
and thus may be said to be bom dive. 

1st. The mother^ during the whole 
state of her pregnancy^ must haye en* 
joyed a good sitate of healthy and have 
perceived the motions of the infant to 
the time of her delivery. 

9d. The child> when born^ mu&tr. 
be of a* proper length and weight. — 
Vide chap. ii. p. 15. 

Sd. The blood vessels of the child 
must not be replete ynih blood.. . 

4th. There must be a settlement of* 
blood in divers parts of the external, 
sur&ce of the skin. 

D 5' 5th.. 


5th. The body of the child must 
not be rough nor flaccid. 

6th. The umbilical cord should be 
full of juice^ and of a white colour. 

7th. The placenta^ if it be to be 
founds should be turgid^ and its vessels 
full of blood. 

8th. In places that may be pressed 
in different parts of the body^ the 
blood ought to stagnate^ and become 

9th. A froth should appear upon 
the mouth of the infant^ and stick 
about its lips. 

10th. There should be every ap- 
pearance of a natural delivery. 

It should be remarked here^ that 
these signs should be taken eoHec- 
tively ; scarcely any of them will avail 
when taken separate from each other. 
Signs of The signs that an infant has 
on. ^ * breathed after it is brought into the 
world are, 



1st. The act of vociferation after 
delivery, if positive proof of such a 
circumstance can be obtained. 

9d. The lungs being endued with a 
colour approaching to a white, being 
of less specific weight than others^ 
i^rhen the child never breathed through 
them, and being put into water, having 
a disposition to swim in it. This will 
be considered more fully. 

3d. The lungs are more expanded 
than in dead subjects ; and, previous to 
delivery, adhere to or rather fill up the 
cavity of the thorax. 

II. The signs by which we can is skmof ■ 
some measure determine that an infant jngdei^ 
was brought into the world dead, are 
to be derived from the following cir- 
cumstances, and which appear to be of 
the utmost note. 

Ist. When the mother has been 
for some time afflicted during the time 
df her pregnancy, with various severe 

D 6 2d. 



Sd. When she has not perceived for 
some time the motions of the infant in 
her womb. 

3d. When upon dissection of the 
head of the infant^ the brain appears 
fluid like water^ and has not its usual 

4th. When the heart and other 
blood-vessels are filled vdth thick and 
coagulated blood. 

5th. When the body of the infant 
has its flesh collapsed and contracted, 
its skin soft and flabby, and its whole 
appearance of a red or scarlet colour. , 

6th. ^When compressions on the 
surface are attended with no eecAj^* 
moses, or stagnations of blood. 

7th, When the blood is of a putrid 
nature, whilst it continues in the ves- 

8th. When there are evident »gns 
of a putrefaction having taken place, 
whilst the. child was in the womb, such 
as a separation of the cuticle from the 



tiext surfece of the tkin ; the umhili- 
cal cord being rotten^ wrinkled^ of a 
yellow colour^ and as if melting away ; 
a swelling of the abdomen^ and a soft 
tumefaction of the whole body. 

9th. When the umbilical cord is 
not only rotten^ but devoid of hu- 

10th. When the bones of the skull 
of the infant are softer and more dis- 
joined than in one born ali^e. 

11th. When other internal parts 
besides the brain are found corrupted 
and decayed. 

13th. When lAie placenta, or afler- 
birthj at the time of detiyery^ or soon 
after^ is in a state of corruption. 

13th. When there is a defect of 
the excrement -in the large intestines^ 
and of urine in the bladder destined to 
its use. 

14th. When parturition was ex- 
ceedingly laborious. 




15th. When the lungs are more 
dense than in a live subject^ have a red 
colour^ subside in water when they are 
thrown into it^ and are so collapsed as 
not to fill up the cavity of the thorax. 

16th. When there is an unequal 
conformation of all the organs destined 
to their several functions^ with respect 
to length and thickness . 

17th. When the little body of the 
child^ if perceived soon after delivery, 
is not found warm to the feeling. 

18th. When the blood flows from 
the mother in a superabundant quan- 
tity, both before and after delivery. 

19th. When the mother, during 
her pregnant state, has been excited to 
a^ high degree of anger, or impressed 
with extraordinary fears. 

SOth. When she has suffered a great 
injury during that state, especially in 
the abdomen. 

21st. When at the time of deli- 
very a strong mephitic smell may be 

- perceived 

perceived to issue from the external 
parts of generation. 

8Sd. When there is a snbsidenee of 
the sutures upon the top of the head 
in the child^ without any marks of vio-^ 
lent depression. 

23d. When the meeonium^ a kind 
of fifeces^ flows from the child at the 
time of delivery. 

A neat handle hath been made of swinming 
the swimmings or subsidence of the «MmiDed. 
lungs. When other eircmmstances are 
taken into consideration^ it may be a 
corroborating proofs but can by no 
means be absolute of itself; for the 
lungs may swim from putrefaction^ 
where a child is bom dead^ or from 
inflation by a blow-pipe^ or other 
means. On the other hand^ the lungp 
may subside in a child that is bom 
alive : for a child may live, or have its 
circulation perfect, some time before 
it begins to breathe. 



Signs of vi- IH- We are to consider how to form 

pil^u*^ a judgment, concerning any violence 

thnt may have been used to procure the 

death of a child, and this we derive 

from the following circumstances. 

y^ji^ 1st. When at the time of inspec- 

woundi. iiQf^^ marks of certain injuries, such as 

might have been inflicted upon an 

adult, as fractures, or wounds, are 

evident to the senses. 

2d. When there are evident marks 
focatioiL of suffocation, or strangulation, such 
as a remarkable compression of the 
thorax or chest ; the aspera arteria, or 
vdnd-pipe being- filled with serum or 
mucus; a redness, or lividity of the 
countenance ; the tongue swelling and 
prominent; a red, or livid circular line 
about the neck-; -the cavities of the 
mouth and nose full of extraneous 
matter ; a fiiHing in of the flesh about 
the scrobictUum- cordis, or pit of the 
stomach; the lungs livid, filled with 
bloody and heavier than usual ; the 



vapours of sulphur burnt extending to 
the lungs; the cavities of the hearty 
as the right auricle and ventricle^ be- 
ing filled and expanded with blood ; 
the jugular veins^ and those about the 
head^ being also distended with blood ; 
a froth about the iftouth ; the bladder 
empty^f urine ; the child being found 
in places where it is liable to be de- 
stroyed by dirt or water^ as in ditches 
or lakes ; and lastly^ its being oppressed 
soon after delivery by bed-clothes^ or 
other coverings^ which might deprive 
it of life. 

3d. When there are evident marks Laxatioo 
of the luxation of the neck^ taken not 
only from the flaccidity of the head 
and neck^ but from depressions about 
the parts^ which are wide and deep. 

4th. When there are evident marks injuries of 
of mjuries to the skuU^ as great de- 
pressions and blots near to the sutures^ 
which arise from extravasations of 
Uood and serum^ and appear either 



under the skiti^ or in the hemisphere 
of the foraio^ or in its ventricles^ or in 
the hase of the skull. 
Umbilical 6th. When the umbilical cord 

<;ord not 

^^* does not appear to have been tied, or 
is entirely torn off from the body* It 
should be observed, that the neglect of 
tying the umbilical cord is not always 
the immediate cause of death to an in- 
fant, but only when » from such defect, 
a mortal heemorrfaage arises, and 
which may be known, 

JSS'of'* !»*• W*M»^ *« whole habit of the 
^••** body is quite pallid. 

2d. When the great blood-vessels, 

and the cavities of the brain, are empty 

of blood. 
3d. When there is a rupture of the 

cord in delivery, and the mother has 

suffered much hsemorrhage both before 

and after that event. 
circttm- IV. It is u^ccssary, perhaps, in 

stances on , . \ 

inspection, many cases where a suspicion of mur- 
der is great, but the facts are not so 



evident^ to~ exercise the judgment as 
well as the observation of the person 
employed to give a deposition. And 
here are some rules necessary to be ob- 
served to execute his intention in a 
masterly^ judicious^ apd accurate man- 
ner. In the first place^ he should con- 
sider^ whether the body be in a state of 
putrefaction^ or not^ and whether that J"^***" 
putre&ction is in such degree as to 
preclude all observation. If that be 
not the case^ perhaps an examination 
may be nmde upon the bones of the 
head, or other parts, so far as to 

Isl Whether the foetus be of ma- 
ture growth ; and this may be known 
from the size as well as the conforma- 
tion of them. 

^* Whether such violences have 
been used as to injure these parts, as 
by fractures^ &c. 

If a degree of putrefaction has not 
^en place, so &r as to preclude our 



obsiervation^ the rules may be divided 
into those that relate to the inspection^ 
and those that relate to the dissection 
of the bodj. 

When a proper inspection is made^ 
we should examine^ 

Ootiies, 1st. Whether the clothes in which 

the child is wrapped up be tinged 
with bloody or whether there be any 
blood upon the external surface of the 

sextnd 3d. Of what sex the child is^ and 
whether it be come to mature growth. 

Saperficies 3d. The whole superficies of the 

^y. body is to be examined from head to : 

foot, to see whether there are any €c- 
chymoseSy or stagnations of blood ; li- 
vid spots, or spots of various colours ; 
whether th^ skin itself be grown livid, 
with or without any signs of violeace, 
or other injuries, sucb as punctures in 
the head or neck, luxations, and sub- 
sidence of the sutures, with or without 
any violent depression* 

• 4th. 


4th, The heat of the face, in pAr- Heatofthe 
ticular, and of the whole body, are to ^^^' 
be attended to. And here we must 
guard a^inst deception, for a dead 
foetus may partake in some measure 
of the heat of the mother ; so that if 
a dead foetus were to be examined im- 
mediately after delivery, and a child 
born alive, some little time after deaths 
they might both enjoy the same de- 
gree 'of heat. Other circumstances 
then here must be taken into ,the 

5th. The cavities of the mouth Cavitc*. 
and nose are to be examined, to see 
whether any foreigir matter is depo- 
sited in them. This cannot be, unless 
the child had enjoyed life so far as to 
open these passages. We should ob- 
serve likewise, whether it has grasped 
any thing in its hands, as this is a cer- 
tain proof of life . 

6th. We should examine the um- umbiUcai 
bilical cord, whether it adhere to the 



placenta^ if it be tied^ or is broken^ or 
cut off^ and what is its colour, and 
what its length. 

piacente, '^th- The placenta, or after-birth, 
likewise should be examined, to see 
whether it adhere to the umbilical 
cord; whether it be dry or moist^ 
and how far it may have become 

Appear- Wc arc ucxt to consideri" what is to 

•nces on ' . 

dwstction. \^q jonc upon a dissection of the body, 
and this ought never to be omitted : 
and here the following rules should be 

priniipti ^^^' ^11 ^b^ three principal cavities 

he opcued? ^f the body, the head^ the thorax or 
chestj and the abdomen or belly^ should 
be opened^ to discover any injuries that 
may have happened to the substances 
contained in them, and the g^eat ves- 
sels which run through them. 

Lungiex- 2d. The lungs should be pro- 
perly examined^ and every enquiry 
made into their colour^ connection, 




density^ substance^ and specific gnv^y; 
and whether they may not be indurated 
in some places^ and how far they exhi« 
bit sig^s of putrefaction. 

3d. The aspera arterias or wind^ wind, 
pipe, should be cut through, to disco- ^^' 
yer how &r it is filled with mucus or 
serum » The great vessels, and the ca«- 
yities of the heart likewise, should be 
opened, not only to observe how far 
they are full or empty of blood, but 
that the colour and consistence of that 
fluid may be ascertained. Having 
made these observations, the lungs, 
with the heart are to be cut out of the 
body. After this the heart is to be se- 
parated from them, and the vessels 
tied ! they are then to be thrown into a 
large basoji of moderately warm water, 
and it i$ to be observed how far they 
sink or swim in it After this, each 
tube of the lungs ia to be examined se- 
parately, and the same observations to 
be made upon it. 



viiccr» of ^^- A^^ ^^^ other viscera^ but par- 
abdomen. ticujariy thosc of the abdomen^ are to 

be examined^ but the great intestines 
especially^ to see whether they are full 
of meconium^ and the bladder if it he 
exhausted of urine. 

We cannot help lamenting here^ 
that although so"^ much id required^ so 
little is generally done in these cases ; 
and that an innocent life is often sa- 
crificed to hurry, to negligence, or 
ignorance; whilst a wretch, who is 
devoid of shame, escapes from pu- 
nishment, for want of judgment, ac- 
curacy and attention. And it is to be 

. hoped, that this little treatise will meet 
the attention of judges and lawyers in 
this particular circumstance, which so 
often comes before them^ to the shaffle 
and scandal of humanity ; and that 
they will be enabled to correct the er- 
rors of coroners, or ignorant surgeons, 
who may have been misled in the de- 
positions they give in. It is ^ misfor- 

' tune. 


tiiiie; that men of eminence in the phy- 
sical line fly from bars of judicature^ 
as places of trouble and examination. 
It may be necessary, therefore, to give 
the court such checks upon igno- 
rance, as will serve to discover the 

The next thing to be considered Aborti^i- 
before we finish this chapter, is with 
respect to abortions, or the destruction 
of those unborn embryos which were 
never brought into tbe world: and 
indeed as such beings might live, and 
become of use to mankind, and as they 
may be supposed from the time indeed 
of conception, to be living animated 
beings, there is no doubt but the de- 
struction of them ought to be consi- 
dered as a capital crime. It is neces- ^^ ^,^^4 
sary then, that we enquire whether any pr^ure it, 
medicines can be given, or other 
means used, absolutely to procure this 
effect: and indeed it is evident, I be- r^ 
lieve, from experience, that such ' 

E things 


things cannot act as efficient causes, 
without the aid of those predisposing 
causes^ or natural habits of the body^ 
which are necessary to concur with 
them. As attempts of this kind> 
however^ should not be passed off with 
impunity^ and as the life of the mo« 
ther^ as well [as the child^ is endau- 
gered by such exhibitions^ if advised 
by any other^ they should be considered 
as highly culpable^ and for this reason 

^ should be made known. 

, , , The common methods made use of 


K^^'^^^y are the stronger vomits and purges^ 
Yenssection to a great degree^ all that 
class of medicines called emmena- 
gogues^ and those which have a ten- 
dency to promote salivation. Exter- 
nal methods are^ irritations of the 
mouth of the womb^ strong passions of 
the mind^ painful disorders^ fevers^ &c. 
The predisposing causes must he, 
great fulness of the bloody irritability 
of the womb, a defect in the nutri^ 



ment of the fcetus^ a womb that will 
not suffer itself to be distended beyond 
a certain degree^ and a morbid dispo- 
sition of the placenta. 

It is to be lamented here too^ that 
whilst this crime^ which is practised 
generally by the most abandoned^ es- 
capes unpunished^ a poor deluded crea-^ 
ture^ in the case of infant murder^ 
whose shame highly extenuates her 
guilty should suffer deaths where na- 
ture had acted so forcibly as almost to 
overcome her fatal resolutions^ and 
bad taken away all power to put in 
practice the subtle contrivances of art. 

£ S «iuv* 



Nature of 


A HAT wonderful machine of which 
human nature is composed^ which is 
directed and ordered by a contrivance 
unknown to the wisest of men^ and 
which gives birth to all our pleasures 
and. enjoyments^ contains nothing in 
itself to perpetuate its own existence. 
A very little derangement of its func- 
tions^ or of its acting principles^ will 
deprive it of life^ and destroy all its 
pri^edof Powers .of action. The most com- 
mon methods by which men lose their 
lives^ are by diseases which are gene- 
rally^ though impiously, attributed to 
the hand of God : for what we incur 
by our own vices and imprudence, 
what by the passions and evil disposi- 
tions of others preying upon our spi* 
rits, and what by bad customs and ha- 


By dig. 


bits^ we must attribute more of death 
to any other cause^ than what is as- 
signed. Where death is occasioned in 
any other manner than by disease^ it is 
called natural^ where it arises from fa^Jse?' 
some accident, which shall immediately 
cause a dissolution of our powers ; or 
homicide where it is effected by the vix)- Homicide. 
lent hand of another. In such a case, 
the law justly retaliates upon the of- 
fender, where it is committed from 
anger and malice, and is not, as in the 
case of war, protected by the sovereign 
influence of princes. 

Where it comes under the coghi- officers to 
zance of a court of judicature, the ^^^^'^' 
greatest circumspection and attention 
are required, and the laws of all counf- 
tries have appointed proper officers 
previous to any trial ; and as soon as 
possible after the murder, to enquire 
into the causes and nature of it, how it 
was committed, and what appearances 
present themselves upon inspectibil. 

e3 In 


^re^ In the exmination which is made, 
amine,**' ( before a decision be pronbunced)^ the 
following directions are necessary to 
be observed. 
When to I. The examination of the dead 
and where, body should bc as soon as possible after 
deaths in the day time, at a proper 
place, where a dissection, if necessary, 
(and it is almost always necessary) may 
be performed, and not according to 
Yulgar custom, where it is found, let 
it be ever so improper, and likewise 
by proper instruments, such as ar« 
generally used by surgeons in their 
dissections, and not by coatse and rude 
knives and scissars, which may mai^Ie 
and tear the body, but cannot ascer*- 
tain the cause of its death. ' 
Aeeitrate H. Bcforc a disscction bc proposed, 
«Twund" a very accurate inspection should be 
made upon the sound body, in order 
to discover how far the death %vas 
occasioned by suffocation from mineral 
vapours, the fermentation of new li' 


75 ■ 

quor^ the burning of charcoal^ or the 
electric shock of lightning. In such 
cases^ except the last, and then they 
do not seem to be the cause of the 
deaths ^ no marks are to be found. 

III. Upon a further inspection^ it is spouoo 
to be examined, 1 st. into any deyiations ^* ^^' 
from the natural state of the external 
superficies of the body, aft i^hether 
there are any spots which are derived 
from the blood's escaping into vessels 
not fitted to convey it; ecchymoses, 
which are stagnations arising under the 
skilly or pericranium of the head ; m 
any other spots in the external surface; 
and of these vre are to examine 
the situation, magnitude, figure and 
number. We must exknpiine likewise, 
under this bead, th^ nature of any tu- xumourr 
mours which may appear, and whe- 
ther they are owing to violence, or any 
other cause: their size and figure 
should also be described. And, lastly, 
we should enquire into the state^ of 

£4 putrefaction 




k vv 

ilood or 
olber hu- 
mour flow- 
ing from 

putrefaction of tlie body, which is 
known by the following particulars. 
1st. Bladders filled with a yellow or 
brownish liquor. 2d. The ^external 

cuticle separated from the true skin. 
3d. A lividity and blackness of the 
skin. 4th. A foetor, or disagreeable 
smell of the whole body. 5th. A con- 
siderable, swelling of the carcase. 6th. 
A particular lividity and blackness in 
the scrotum of male subjects. 7th. 
A blackness of the nails. 

2d. Into any wounds which are 
conspicuous^ and remark whether Ihey 
be over the whole bodyj or confined, to 
a particular part; jpind henet no probe 
or other instrument should be inserted 
which may enlarge them^ and alter 
their nature. 

3d. Whether from the carc^kse in 
general, or from any wound or apert 
ture, as the mouth, anus, &c>. there b^ 
a flowing of blood, urine, or mec^T 



4th. Into the habit of the body^ Habit of 
whether it be fat or lean^ or swelled 
from any cause. < 

IV. The directions to be attended DisscctioD. 
under a dissection are the following. 
, 1st. The integuments of the body^ integu- 
and especially of those places which "*"*'* 
require examination^ where any wounds 
present^ are to be dissected away^ and 
the muscles are to be cut through^ in 
order to open a way to the parts where 
injury is supposed to be done. 

2d. All the chief cayities of the 


body^ as the head^ the chesty and the 
belly^ are to be opened. 

2d, That cavity is to be penetrated where in- 
first where the injury is supposed to idveJt' 

4th. The parts circumjacent to a Part«cirt 
wound are not to be dii^sected before cent. 
the progress of the injury is traced to - 
its utmost extent. 

5th. Any bowel contained in the Bowels. 
cavity^ is to be examined according to 

£ 5 its 


its situation^ connections^ fconstitution^ 
and any wounds which it may hate 
receiyed^ in their lepgth^ breadth^ 
and depth. 
Fore fD bo- 6th. We should enquire if the 

diet. -_ \ 

bowel opened contain any foreign bo- 
dies^ either fluid or solid : if the for- 
mer^ their nature and quantity is to be 
determined ; if the latter^ their qua- 
lity^ number^ quantity^ figure^ and 

B?ood Tei- ^^^- ^^ *^^ great blood vessels 
'^^ passing through a cavity^ are to be 
examined whether they be entire or 
no^ and whether they contain blood 
or not. 
8th. The fi:reat nerve likewise^ as 
^<:* the medulla spinalis, or spinal marrow^ ' 
&c. should undergo an examination^ 
and the thoracic duct and receptacle a£ 
the chyle, vessels which carry the nu- 
triment from the stomach, and from 
the external surface into the mass of 



9th. Before the head be opened^ it Heui 
should be dUcoyered whether there are *^^ 
any wounds in the skull by fracture^ 
fissure^ intropression, &c. and of such 
the situation^ ske^ depths number^ and 
figure should be marked. 

loth. When the head is opened^ skuu. 
the skull i^ould be carefully taken off 
iritfa a saw. 

11th. When the brain is exa*" Brain. 
mined^ regard must be had to its sub* 
stance^ to its vessels^ whether they be 
fail or einpty of blood ; to the sinus- ^ 
ses of the 4qra mater> those large re-' 
ceptacles of blood which lie under the 
skull ; to the ventricles or cavities^ to 
see wheAer any fluid be contained in 
ihesi^ and of what nature^ and in what 
quantity ; to the base of the skull^ to 
Ascover if any foreign body lies upon 
it ; and lastly^ to the thickness of the 
bones^ Aether it be ordinary or ex- 

s6 Idth. 


Chest « 12ih. When the chest is opened^ 

the sternum is to be separated from 
/ the ribs with great care, lest the arte- 
ries or veins lying near it, or i^, the 
cavity, be injured. 

^^'' 13th. If a wound shoifld be made 

in the chest, and which penetrates 
either side, then we should not only* 
determine the ribs between wtnch the 
wound is made, but from whence we 
reckon. i 

««art' 14th. When the heart is examined 

we should take notice, whether poly4 
pous concretions? ocieur in its cavities, 
or in the greater vessels. 

Ruptureof 15th. When a rupture of any of 
the bowels is discov'ered.upoQ dissec- 
tion, we should carefully Qxamin<^ 
whether it be recent, or whether it 
be gangrenous, or have the signs of 

^ , 16th. When the bowels of the 


ofaMo-*' lower belly, which are lai^e cavities, 
"**"• are submitted to examination, we 


81 ^ 

should enquire with the utmost care 
into their contents/ and this not only 
by sinlple inspection^ but by the fire 
and comical mixtures. 

There are besides these^ some other l?!]lf' ^'•' 


ctrcumMatnces to be attended to^ as the 
comtitution of the dead person^ the 
instrument by which hi^ death was 
occasioned^ the symptoms tinder which , 
he laboured^ the nieans nsed to restore 
hini> ' the tinie when assisFtauce was 
called io him^ his situation When 
wounded^ his diet before and after^ 
and lastly^ whether he Was affected 
witb drunkenness. 

The different kinds of murder^ or Different 

. kinds of 

the different means by which it is com- murder. 
mitted^ may be reduced to poisons^ 
wounds^ bruises^ drownings and stran-^ 
gulati^n. The two first seem to be 
the most common ; the third is often 
rather a remote than a proximate 
cause, and the two others are chiefly 
discovered by the fisicts^ rather than 


,^ »- 


Of poisODS 


by any peculiar marks they leave oa 
the body. But 'first of poisons. 

A pdson may be defii>ed ^xxy sub* 
stance^ which^ lipptied to the human 
body H^^nallyj is injurious to its 
preservation^ or procures its dissolu- 
tion by its own proper qualities. The 

Ways by 

vbichtbey ^j^yg by which pois<His get %s^ the 
body^ are by the mouthy nose^ lungs^ 
^ and sometimes th^ external surfiice of 
the skilly and these modes of actiou 
may be explained in tb^ following 

Health supposes a natural hiBle or 
constitution of the fluids and ^lids df 
the animal body. AU poisons th^n^ must 
act in destroying tliis natural constitu* 
tion of parts^ aad changing it into a 
preternatural oae. The^e are various 
wfiysby which this is dpne ; the prin- 
cipal are the following* 

Byaeridf. Ist. By acrid thiugs^ which con- 
strii^e and erode the solids^ or some- 


Mode or 



times coagulate^ sometiinet reMlve 
the fluids. 

3d. When they possess a power of f^^^' 
stupefying or destroying the pov^ers of 
sensation and motion in the nerves, 
which are the great agents of the ani* 
mal machine. 

3d. When they possess a sharp and J^^*^ 
acute figure, which tean and lanci. ' '*'* 
nates the tender parts of the stomach 
and bowels. 

4th. When they induce a powerful S^^' 

5th. When they act not only from Tewcity. 
aciimony, but from a power of thick* 
ening the blood at the same tim& 

6th. When they have the power ^*■^ 
of thickening and of drying also the 

74h. When they act by some un- ^^1^^ 
known power, which is not yet dis- 

It would be useless, nay perhaps 
injurious to society, to enumerate all 





the poisons which belong to the diffe- 
rent heads. It is dangerous to entrust 
such materials in the hands of man** 
kind in general : we hope, therefore, 
we shall be excused if we mention only 
the principal ones, according to the 
foregoing arrangement. They are all 
taken from the animal, vegetable, and 
mineral kingdoms. 

The 1st class or acrids, include 
acids, and alcalies ; among the last of 
which may be included the effects of 
the putrefactive process, as being ex- 
posed to its influence. 

Those poisons of an acrid nature 
which have a mixed quality, are the 
metallic salts, orsome of the semi-me- 
tals themselves, as arsenic, &c. and 
some vegetables which are of a highly 
drastic nature, and which, used in 
small quantities, may produce useful 
evacuations in cases of disease. 

2d. The poisons which have a stu- 
pefying quality arc of the vegetable 
kind^ as the Cicuta^ lauro cerasus^ &c. 


^. Those which act mechanically Mechanic 


by the sharp points and edges with 
which they are endued^ are the pow- 
der of glass^ diamonds^ &c. 
4tb. Those which have a suffo* suffoca- 

1 /► tious. 

eating power^ are the vapours of new 
and fermenting liquors^ the smoke of 
charcoal and of sulphur^ the air of 
close and damp places^ &c. 

5th. Those which have a visci- viscu. 
dity joined with acrimony, are gene- 
rally vegetables, such as Cicuta major^ 
solanum, &c. 

6th. Those which are of a thick- Dryen. 
ening quality, and a diying one at the 
same time, are quicVlime, Ceriisse ; 
and among the regetables, several of 
the class of fungi, &c. 

7th. Those which have a secret Unknowa 


quality, not easily discovered, are thfe 
Taniotts tribes of animals which liv^ 
around us, such as spiders, toads, vi- 
pers^ -&P, 

' The 


How pot- 
tons affect 
the body. 





The effects which poisons produce 
upon the hody vary^ according to the 
nature of their qualities, the place 
which they affect^ and the subjects to 
whom they are applied^ according to 
age, temperament, habit of body^ &c. 
Thus the aconite affects^ the lips, 
month, forehead, tongue and stomach, 
by making them to swell, and causes 
anxieties, Tertigoes, faintings, and 

The cicuta occasions enormous vo^ 
mitings^ hiccups, heat of the stomach, 
swelling of the belly^ delirium^ and 

The acid spirits^ wherever they 
touch, cause erosions^ most grievous 
pains, vomiting, and hiccup. Arse* 
nic and cobalt excite inflammations of 
the stomach, &c. the most acute pains, 
heat in the mduth and jaws, nausea or 
sickness, vomitings spasmodic con* 
ti:actions of the chest, swelling of the 



belly^ coldness of the extremities^ cold 
sweats^ coDTulsions^ &c. 

When a raedical practitioner there- ^^^^ ^ 
fore, is called to a person who is sus- jj.^"* •"•*" 
pected to be poisoned^ if he be alive^ 
he may judge from the following ob- 

1st. Prom comparinip the symp- ^'^^^ 
toms which present themselves with •*^*«- 
those which generally attend the taking 
of poisons mentioned above. 

2d. From the sudden appearance d|[^^ 
of some symptoms^ such as spasms and ^mp. 
noient pains^ great thirsty sickness^ ^"^ 
vomitings f&inting, diolic» the throw- 
ing up some foreign matter from the 
general contents of the stomach, and 
UBiversal convulsion of aU the mus- 

3d. Prom the health of the patient ^^•[;;;"' 
foregoing this attack^ and his not 
having any connection with a person 
labouring. under any contagious or 
epidemic disease. 



fnd^u^ *th. From the patient having com- 
mitted no errors in diet^ &c. 

odoSiand 5th. From an ungrateful odour 
and taste of what has been taken. 
There are few poisons but what are at- 
tended with a very disagreeable smell 
and taste; hence a suspicion soon 
arises from this source^ which if im- 
mediately taken notice of, the patient 
may soon receive the proper relief. 

j"dge7na But if the pcrsou be dead; a very 

dead per- •. * j.» x"i_ j 

SOB. minute examination must be made, 

and the following particulars attended 

utn^nl '^*- "^^^ external habit of the bo- 
**'*• dy is to be inspected with the greatest 

accuracy and attention^ to discover 
whether there be any livid spots upon 
the surface of the skin ; whether there 
are any premature signs of putrefec- 
tion^ and whether there be any swel- 
ling of the belly^ or of the face ; for 
experience evinces that these changes 



are soon induced by poisonous sub- 

2d. The passages by which the poi- xhe f ai- 
son has been conveyed into the body, ****** 
are to be examined: these are the 


mouthy the throat or gullet, the sto- 
mach, and the intestines ; but chiefly principal, 
the stomach, as the same effects will Ijac*h."*^' 
be produced in it as in the other 
parts. We must examine then first 
into its constitution, and then into its 
When we examine the constitution in its con. 


or form of the stomach, we must 

1st. Whether it be inflated or cor- 
rugated in an extraordinary manner. 

2d, Whether it be inflamed, or in a 
state of gangrene or mortification. 

3d. Whether it exhibits upon its 
external surface supernatural spots, 
either of a red colour," or black or livid.. 

4th. Whether it be perforated into 
holes, either one or many. 



5th. Whether its veins be tinged 
with bFood more than usual. 

5th. Whether it be eroded^ and its 
inner coat be stripped off and bloody^ 
and swim amongst the other con-* 

7th. Whether there be ^ny eschar 
in its substance^ of a black or yellowish 

All these marks afford, very strong 
suspicions of poisons^ especially of 
those which are acute and acrid. 

The next observations are to be 
mwh.*^' made upon the contents of the sto-' 
mach^ previous to which two circum- 
stances must be attended to. 

1st. All the contents of the stomach 
are to be thrown into a vessel prepared 
for that purpose. 

2d. The surface of the stomach is to 
be inspected more carefully^ to disco- 
ver/ if possible^ whether particles of 
the poison may not stick to it^ which 
are to be collected. 




The Mttieirts of the stomach are 
to be considered as more or less iuid ; 
if they are not entirely so^ but consist 
of many solid substances^ then a por- soiid. 
tioQ of them is to be dried and put 
into an iron vessel lined with tin^ and 
b^Dg previously weighed, the follovr- 
iog experiments are to be made upon 

lit. It is to be thrown upon bum- To be tried 

by bum* 

iDgcoals ; whicb^ if it produces a va^ >nr- 
pour of a blue colour^ and an odour 
like (hat of gariic is perceived, it may 
he nearly ascertained that an arsenical 
matter was mixed with it. But in or- 
der to clear up this point to greater 

Sd. Another portion of the dried Brother 
mass is to be given to other animals, 
such ' as fowisi dogs, &c. which, if it 
causes their death, it is a proof that 
pcnson made a part of its contents. 

3d. Another portion of this dried j^iixedwiih 
mass is to be mixed with a quantity J^fJJ^ 


and melt- 

of suet and salt of tartar, which iieing 


put into a crucible^ and melted over 
the fire^ if a reguline .metallic, sub- 
. stance is produced... at the bottom, 
, it 'm clear that an arsenic :u ..contained 
in it.. . ■; . , ■• f .w »' .... .' ' 

Melted 4th. It may be enquired; jvdkfsthev 

metau. this . metalUc substance being xnal^ 
again with metals of a red colour^ turn 
them to a .white « .for%his is likewise 
proof of arsenic. .. ^ . *- ; 
.. The remainder of the ^ dried con- 
der weigh- tcuts^ if fouiid upon^ exp^i- 
ment^ must be nicely, and .accurately 
weired. . This, is to discoverj whe* 
tber the pr^pprtioqate qu^^ntity woold 
be sufficient to produce . the ejSeot. 
But in general, where arsenic has 
be^n administered,, so sipall a quantity 
is sufficient to }>roduce the inpeldr<^iid- 
ful influence, that it will be neari^i^. sa- 
tisfactory^ if any of it be found up^ii a 
chemical examination. 



When the fluid parts of the stomach FUiidpaits 
are examined^ the foUoMnng experi- 
ments are to be made; . . 

1st An alcaline liquor, as oil of ?yaica- 

* liucs. 

tartar per deKnquium^ for instance^ is 
to be thrown in^ and if it take a 
brownish colour^ it is a proof that 
mercury, in.the shape of corrosive sub- 
limate, or precipitate, has been mixed 
with it, if it ferments, that an acid has 
been exhibited. This, however, is no 
certain sign, as an acid may subsist 
very innocently in the stomach. 

2d. An acid- may be applied, and 
here, if an effervescence be produced, 
it is a proof of an alcaline substance, 
a,nd then, as in the last case, it must be 
by the quantity and acrimony of the 
substances that we determine concerni- 
ing their poisopiou^ nature, as in 
tliemselves, and v^en well diluted,; 
they are innocent and sometimes sa- 
lutary. \ 

F 3d. 

By acidt. 

•y colour. ^* ^^ coltmr is likewise to be 
attended to, as it may determiiie the 
exact nature of the poison which is 

By chemi- 4th. Some portion of the poisan 

cal analy- *^ ^ * 

"'• found may be sent to a chemieal elabo- 

ratory^ to examine more particularly 
its nature. • 

These observations^ it should be 
remarked^ however^ r^te more par- 
ticularly to poisons which produce 
their effect more immediately^ than to 
those which lie a long time firsts in 
the stomach. But we nciayy from the 
injuries done to the stomach itself^ de- 
termine likewise in some ineasure con- 


ceming even those more slowly actii^ 
poisons. The remains of inflamma- 
tion^ gangrene^ perforations^ &<q. will 
eontihue for a long time^ and if the 
patient should die of poison at ever so 
great a distance^ whilst the cause sdb- 
sists some effect will evidently be per- 



ceived^ or some change from a natural 

2d. Of wounds. Under wounds wounds 
may be comprehended every- disorder *^" 
which arises from some external vio- 
lence offered to the human body. To 
this head^ therefore^ may belong 
contusions^ luxations^ fractures^ and 
wounds^ more properly so called^ be- 
in^ a division of the muscular parts of 
the body. The first division of oivuion. 
wounds is into mortal^ and the con- 
trary. Every wound is of such a 
nature^ that death is absolutely the **'*^ 
consequence of it or not. In the 

^ Mortal by 

latter case it may be called mortal by accidem. 
accident This also we may divide 
into two kinds or orders. That 
wound' which is so inflicted that it 
may be relieved by the means cogni- 
zable by art, is of the first order. 
That where it happens that the death 
which is inciirred^ is owing not to the 
wound, but to other causes, then the 

F 2 wound 


wound is said to lie of the second cru- 
der of such as dire called iiioi'tail try 
• accident.. 

From what hath been' adv^iited^ 
the following positions may' be ^dc- 
duced. .. K. r: , 

' ' ' • • . 

posiiioM. 1st. Every wound/ absolutrfy mor- 
tal, will admit of no relief^ buf Witl 
certainly destroy, eitber by a sudcte'h 
or lingering death. ' - -- ^ 

2d. Death is always^ the insepara- 
ble effect of a wound absolutely 
mortal, ' \' ■ 

3d. A wound absolutely mortal ' ^ 
always the so/c. cause of death to the 
injured person, 

4th. The con8eq.uences here avad 
nothing: the wounded person, after 
the wound is inflicted^ is to aHiiilenis 
and.purposes a dead man ; the mjiiry 
then is absolutely mortal. ^ 
..5th. Wounds are by accident mor- 
tal, w'hcn the cause of death arises 


/ f ' 


partly from tl^e wouiid> and partly 
from other concurring causes. 

These distinctions are necessary^ Reasons 
thomgh not al\ya3rs attended to ; for it di^uncti. 
may so liappen^ where men judgie alone 
from consequences^ that a person may 
be punished for^a death occasioned by a 
wound which was not absolutely mor- 
tal. . It 18 highly important that in a 
deposition for murder^ such distinc- 
tions should be made of these kinds of 
wou^dsj as to place them in their pro- 
per light. In order to do this more 
effectually^ it is necessary to make the 
following divisions. 1 st. To consider nim*^ 
those kinds of wounds which are ab- 
splutely mortal^ or mortal by accident. 
2d,» In what parts of the body such 
You|ida are .most likely to be inflicted. 
3d. Some circumstances which niay 
occur to distinguish such wounds morfe 
accurately. : * 

I. It appears then, that because what kind 
£^ mortal wound cannot be cured by m^i. * 

p 3 any 



til*' h»att 



vC WBils. 

Action of 
the bra-'u. 


any art, that every wound which en- 
tirely takes off the influx of the blood 
into the heart, from the vein:> and its 
egress from the heart into the arteries, 
or which entirely destroys the powders 
of circulation, and the action of the 
heart, must be absolutely mtirtal. 
From the elements of physiology it 
appears, that the following circum- 
stances are necessary to promote the 
action of the heart. 

1 St. The soundness of the side8> of 
the cavities of the heart, Mf as to' be 
able not only to contain the blood, but 
to push it forward into the system. 
The strength required here is 'amaz- 
ingly great. 

2d. A free action of the btain and 
nerves going to the heart, called the 
cardiac nerves. 

3d. The motion of the blood 
through the coronary arteries which 
surround the heart. 



4tb. A free motion of the blood Longc 
tbrough the lungs. 

5th. A proper return of blood p^^^^^^^ 
through the veins. ^'*'"' 

6lh. A renewal by the aliment of ^u^^^^^^ 
nntrinient to restore the expence which 
is incurred by the several secretions^ 
&c. It appears then that all wounds ^^^^^y^^^ 
are absolutely mortal. thatorder. 

1st. Which injure the cavities of the 
hearty so that they cannot contain the 

8d. Which tnke away the free action «. 

of the brain and nerves golikg to {he 
hearty so that neither sense nor motion 
can be promoted in that organ so 
essential to life. 

3d. Which destroy respiration^ for 
dien- the blood cannot be carried 
throngh the lungs. 

4tb. Which stop thp motioi^of (he 
blood through the coronary arteries. 

5th. Which prevent, its return 
through the veins. 

F 4 6th. 


6th. Which prevent the use of ntitri- 
ment^ and consequeatly the accession 
of chyle • 

It appears then, that the subject oi 
wounds absolmtely mortal are thdse 
parts whose soundnei^s cannot be -taken 
away^ and life continue ; and that many 
of those tvounds which happen in iok 
ternal parts, to which the medical aid 
cannot reach^ are to be considered as 
absolutely mortal. 
Wuwhu When a wound is mortal by aoci* 
IJ^c^'i^lt^ dent^ death is either to be attributed to 
it in part as a concurriag eircam- 
stance^ or not at all: &s in such eaies 
as the following, ;>.... 

When left Ist. Where death is occasioned by^ 

to tbem- , 

sctfw. wounds being left to themselves, aa' 
for instance^ wounds of the head ^hich' 
may be cured hy the use of the trepan ;^ 
those of the greater blood yessels, 
where access liiay be acquired ; those^ 
of the viscera/ \f here the haifvd may be 
applied, and medicines may be admi- 
nistered ; 


nistered ; those "vrhicb i&duce dfeatli by 
enMimtioiis into cayities, which might 
be preyentedi or from which they may 
easily be discharged, 

8di Where other cauaes may be the ^|^^„ 
occasion yof deatb^ as the particular ^^^/"^ 
constitution^ or habit of the woiinded. ^'"'^ 
pn*son^ as well as his n^lect and want 
of prudence^ the fault of the medical 
practitioner, the blunders and care- 
lessness of by-8tanders^ or some previa 
ons . disorders which may have pre* 

IL We are now to consider the psrts 
second genec^l diyision^ or those Toul^sare 
wounds of the different p^^rts of the not. 
body which are to be accounted mor- 
tal absolutely or not; and here we. 
sballi treat of them in the following or^^ 
der; 1st. Wounds of the head and : 
neck. 2d. Wounds of the chest 3d.. 
Wotmds of the abdomen or beUy., 
4tb. Wounds of the extremities. 

f5 I. 


• • 

or the I. Of wounds of the head. 

These are external or internal, which 
may he again distinguished according 
to any injury done to the hrain, &c. or 

Extemai 1st. External wounds of the head, 
whether they are wounds of the inte- 
guments, or of the pericranium, or of 
the bones composing the skull, or of 
the face, are not absolutely mortal. 

Internal. 2d. Internal wounds of the head, 
unaccompanied with injuries of the 
brain, &c. are not to be accounted 
absolutely mortal. 

whene 3d. Thosc wounds of the iuucr part 

bram, hut, * 

•iected. of the head, where the brain, &c. like- 
wise is injured, are to be accounted ab- 
solutely mortal, or not, according to 
the following distinctions. 

1st. Wounds of the dura mater, 
where there is no ^inus or branch of 
the greater artery running across it 
that is injured, are not absolutely 
mortal. ' 



2d. Wounds of the dura mater in 
its sinus^ and the greater artery^ are to 
be accounted absolutely mortal. 

Sd. All wounds of the contents of 
the skiiU^ which are attended with 
great extrayasations of humours which 
cannot be evacuated : as in the ven- 
tricles of the brain^ and the base of 
the skulls are to be accounted abso- 
lutely mortal ; such are^ what are made 
at the bottom of the skulls in the boties 
of the temples^ the ethmoid bpnes^ and 
the inferior orbits of the eyes. 

4th. Sligfi! wounds of the brain 
itself, or of the superficial part of the 
cerebellum^ are not absolutely mortal. 

5th. All wounds of the cerebellum^ 
which are deep^ and of the medulla 
oblongata^ are accounted absolutely 

6th. All injuries of the origin of the 
spinal marrow^ and all deep wounds 
through its wliole length, may be pro- 
nounced absolutely mortal. 

f6 With 


woaniiscif With regard to wounds of the necfc^ 
we may make the followiiig observa- 

lateroai 1®*' Wounds of the internal ju- 

leml!' ^ulv veins are absolutely mortal; 
those of the external^ only so by 

Carotid ar- 2d. Wouuds of the Garotid and ver- 
tebral arteries^ may be pronounced 
absolutely mortal. 

Internal 34 Wouuds of the internal max- 

■laxiiury. jj|^jy artery, and the sublingual ar- 
tery^ belong to those esteemed ab- 
solutely mortal^ if they cannot be 

Branches 4th. Wousds of the brauches of the 
carotid artery, which can be tied or 
e^mpres^ed so as to stop the blood, 
may be accounted mortal by accident. 
intercwuj ^tfa. Wounds of the intercostal 
fcc7"' neryes, and of the parvagum, and of 
the phrenic nerves, whjcb tpn through* 
the neck, induce absolute death. . 


» f 


Gtfa, Wounds dT that plexus of From tpi- 
nefrves whieh reaches from the spinal rowtowm 
miirrow to the arm^ are the causes of 

7tb. All luxations of the first Luationi. 
and second vertebras bring absolute 

8th. Small wounds of the oesopha* oaopha- 
gus^ or gullet^ are only mortal by acci* * 
dent ; but if the gullet be cut through^ 
they -are amongst those which are ac- 
counted absolutely mortal. 

9tb. In the same manner slight wind* 
wounds of the aspera arteria, or wind- ^^^ 
pipe^ those which are mor- 
tal by accident; but if it be cat 
through^ they are always mortal. 

10th. All violent strokes upon the j^^^ 
litfynx, or caitilagitioiis muscles^ on 
the top c^ the wind-pipe^ so as to de- 
stroy (heir tone and poWer. of action^ 
will speedily induce the death of the 
sufferei".. ■'-■ ' ♦• 



Wounds of I^- Wounds of the ehest arc of 
chest. ^^^ kindfii^ as they are made in the 

cavity^ or ia the pairts surrounding it. 
Of the former^ 
Heart* Ist. All woii«4s of the hearty 

which penetrate into its cavities^ i. e. 
into its ventricles^ or auricles^ are .ah* 
soiutely mortal. T%e same may be 

Coronary ^. Of all wo«ii4b of the coroniu'? 

arteries* ^ •^ 

lurterias^ whidi surnnind the hearty 
and all the great ftrteiies and yeins 
which carry btood from the hearty and 
hriog it back again. 
intereostai gj Wounds of the intcrcostal 


arteries^ or small vessels which pass 
betwe^ft the rib^, aire oply mortal by 

Goiiet. ^h* W4>uiidB of <faat part of the 

gullet which Ueg in the chest are ab- 
fiohtte^ly mortal. The same may be 

Wind- 5th. Of wounds of the wkid-pipe 

pipe. . ^, .. ,. 

'^n the same situation. 



6th. All wounds of the pericardium^ Jiumr' 
or bag containing the hearty are not 
absolutely mortal. 

7th. Wounds of the lungs, -which Longi. 
pierce the great blood-vessels, are ab- 
solutely mortal ; but those which pcK 
netrate the smaller vessels, are only 
accidentally so. 

8th. Wounds of the air vessels of Broochia. 
any magnitude, are absolutely mortal. 

9th. Superficial wounds of the mus- i^*- 
cular part of the diaphragm, or midriff, 
are mortal only by accident ; but those 
which pierce the tendinous* are abso- 
lutely 90. 

10th. Iniuries to the thoracic duct. Thoracic 

\ ** dttcU 

which convey the chyle, are mortal 
absolutely, as are, 

Ilth. Those of the cardiac nerves, caHiac 

o nerves. 


II. Wounds made upon the parts sarrouii4« 

insT ^lia 

surrounding the chest, are to be judged cheit. 
by the following decisions : ' 



Int. All external wounds of the 
chest are ifiot absolutely mortal. 

Sd. A simple luxation or fracture 
of tfie ribs, is not absolutely mortal. 

dd. Considerable bruises^ and in- 
juries of the walls of the chesty with 
dilaceratioiis of the intercostal arte- 
ries; are absolutely mortal. 

4th. A'wonnd of the chest, where 
one side only is penetrated in a certain 
place, is mortal by accident 

&tfa. Evefy wound which is of any 
size, that pierces both sides of tb^ caTity 
of the chest, is absolutely mortal. 

As the chest is the seat of the great 
fountain of blood, it is no wonder that 
any injuries committed ther^ should be 
mortal^ and eren in those cases where 


the exceptions are made, the hananor- 
rhage ^f itself may cause death. 
woubdsof III. Wounds of the ^bdomeoj or 
■leni lower belly, are ju^ed by the folTow- 
ing rules. : 


1st. Everj wouiid of the abdomen 
which does not penetrate into its ca» 
viljr, whether it be a wound of the in- 
teg^uments^ or of the muscles^ or of the 
linea alba, as it is called, or of the 
navel, or of the abdominal ring, are 
not absolutely mortial^ nor are they 
such when they do p^ietrate the ca- 
vity, when none of the eontents are 
injured. ■ • 

2d. Wounds of the cmentwn, or OnMouiB^ 
caul, where ita Uood-vesselaaiie huct^ 
so that the hsMUorxha^ cannot be 
restrained by any arty are absolutely ^ 
mortal, otherwiie they are mortal only 

Sd. Wounds of the stomach are stonueh. 
absolutely mortal, when many of the 
nerves are 'at the same time injured^ 
when sobie of the principal blood-ves- . 
sels are ent' though, or they are made 
in such' a ^laeei that the food cannot "^ 
arrive at the hollow part of it^ but it 
thrown into the cavity of the abdo- 



^mall in- 

Great in- 


Liver if 


wounds of 

men. The $a»e may be observed 
where the bottom or curvature of it is 
wounded, or it 19 pushed to one side. 

4tb. A wound in the small intestines^ 
80 as to separate them from the sto- 
mach, is absolutely mortal. 

oth. Wounds of thegreat^ as well as 
smell inteatinea, at some distaace from 
the stomach, which do not divide the 
tube^ are not absolutely mortal. 

6tfa. Wounds of the liver^ which 
ace deep and broads nnd are supposed 
t» be.comieeted with iqjufi^s done to 
the ki^ vessels pussing tbroiigh it^ are 
absolutely mortal ; in like maniijier are 
any wounds of the duct of the Uyer^ 
of the cystic duct, of the gsU-bladder^ 
of the duetu$ eholedochm» of the vepa 
portarum, or of the artery of Uie liver. 

7th. Slight wounds of the {jver, 
which do. not oceasion nn extn^vasation 
of the humours, are mortal qnly by 



8th. A rupture of the liver is always Rupture or 
absolutely mortal. 

9th. Deep and broad wounds of the spiecu. 
spleen are absolutely mortal, as well as ' 
a rupture of the spleen, but slight 
wounds are bnfy mortal by accident. 

10th. All wounds of the receptacle ^^^^ ^ 
of the chyle are absolutely mortal } the ^{^yj 
same may be pronounced of 

11th. All the ici'^t Tes^eh, arteries. Great ▼€•- 
and veins, and the nerves which ran 
through the abdomen. 

12th. Wounds of the pancrcff 8, or pancrew; 
milt^ as the trunks of many large ves- 
sels pass through it^ are . absolutely 
mortal. The same may be said^ 

13th. Of wounds of the mesentery, Mesente- 
or external covering of the boweh, for '^' 
the same reasons, upon account of the 

14th. Wounds of the kidney which j^^^^ 
reach to the bosom of it, and cutoff 
the ureters, are absolutely mortal ; 
slighter ones are only so by accident. 


1 12 

BiiM]<ier. 15th. Wojmdspf the urinary ,blad- 
der^ where the blood cannot be stopped, 
are absolutely mortal^ and ho excuse 
^ can b^ipadebere from wQuiids beipg 
inflicted by surgical operations. Such 
being immediately und^r the eye of the 
operator^ can be easily restrained, so 
as to have no ill effect. 

G€iiiu!«in 16th, Wounds of the external parts 

HMO. ■■■■.■ ,Mr • , 

of generation in men^ in which may be 

included contusions of the testicles, are 

not absolutely mortal. 
Womb. . 1 7th. Wounds of the v omb are ab- 

30hite]y mortal. , , 

Extremi- J V. . Wouuds ,of the exjtremities in 

ties. : ' • ■ 

geueraVaire not absolutely mortal^ but 
sometimes they are^ as .when they are 
made opon the trunks of the largest 
yessels. in which c^se ^uch an^hsemor- 
rbage may arise^ as no art can r4[(straiii, 
or from the vital po^ers^ being weak- 
^ned^ a most ppweifui and fatal jgan- 
greqe oir mortification may be. occa- 


- » . . • 


sidhed^ and'^0 U3 to ilade the force of 

medicine^. -' - • - • ' n 

nil We come iiow to the last divi^ Further 

,:•.]'»•■. • , , . _ rules Oil 

8ion of rules, concerning wonnas, io wouuas. 
examine some circumstances by wfaibh 
the mortality of their nature may ht 
more exactly asdertained. Yhese relate; 

1st. To the wounded person hirti- From the 
self, in whom' we should attend to his ^^*** 
age, his constitution of body, his ex- 
eniptibn from former injuries, or his 
subjection to disease, the sex^ and if a 
woman, whether she be pregnant or 
not; the state of his mind, and how far 
his imagination might increase the effi- 
cacy of the wound; and lastly; whe- 
ther hie wias at the time inebriated with 
liquor. All these circumstances ag- 
gravate the mortality of wounds. 

2tf. 'To the symptoms which otcur,' symp- 
either fmmediately upon a perspn*s 
beiiig wduridied, or which appear some 
time after; the symptoms besides these' 
may be of three kinds. 



l8t. Those wbich acknowledge the 
wound to be their sole cause. 

2d. Which depend upon the wound 
partly as their cause . 

3d. Which do not acknowledge the ' 
wound to be their cause at all. Now 
in reviewing the symptoms^ it will ap- 
pear that the fir«t alone are objects of 

instt^Q. 3d. To the instrument with which 

the wjury was effected, in which its 
figure^ its size, its power of acting, 
are to be taken into consideration . 

•nme. ^^ T6 the time when death may 

occur afiter the wound is given. 

Cure. ^^^' ^^ th^ niethods made use of to 

effect a cure. 

Fxposuri-. '6th. To many occurrences which 
may arise from the circumstances of 
time, and any other Occidents which 
might render a wound more 'dange- 
rous, such as cold air, or a desert 
place, wli^re no one iraight be ^ r^ady 
to assist. . . ' 





W HEN the ideas of the mind are objectt ^r 
distracted^ and thought and reason *^'^' *"^''''' 
are confused and destroyed; it is 
coiifitnbn for the eivil power^ not 
only to take cog^nizanee of the un- 
happy persons subject to such raisfpr- 
tunes^ but to deprive them of their 
estates for a time; and put them under 
proper confinement. As the oonse- 
quenees are so dreaitfiilyii is necessary 
then that the decision be established 
upon the firmest and most eaitisfitctory 

IdiotiJBm and insanity^ though pu- How<)i». 
nished m the 8«imo manner^ seem to ^^""^ * 
vary from each other. It may be ne- 
cessary then to specify the ptoper dis- 
tinctions of each. 




Oil defects 
in iDf iBory 
and judg- 

Prone t<» 

to evacu- 


cut far. 



cause of. 

I. Idiotism is Ist^ either boro with 
the subject of it, or appears as soon as 
the reasoning faculties should begip to 

2d. It is established upon great de- 
fects of the memory, and much greater 
of the judgment, though this is not 
much attended to. 

3d. Idiots are in general prone to 
mischief, or to actions over which rea- 
son seems to have very little command. 

4tb. They have not a proper com- 
mand over the evacuation of fteces 
and utine, and drivel at the mouth. 

6th. They have generally strong 
and hearty constitutions. 

6tby They have a peculiar aspect, 
which describes a vacancy of thought 
and inattention to any engagement. 

7tb. They have little use of speech, 
and articulate very incoherently^ 

II. Insane persons aire either fu- 
rious or melancholic^ both of which 
acknowledge a great imbecility of the 



meatal &ciiltidt, and Which are de* 
rived from hereditary cdtostitutioiis, 
attention of mind^ - iriotent pttsnMa, 
the terrors of a false reL^ioOi imnko* 
derate tiBe.iof Tenery^ pflisOns^ of the 
narcotic rkiad^ softie preceding dtsor*- 
den^ the suppression of /^yacaatimis, 
indigestible aliments^ a sedaitaiy lite, 
&c. But they differ in the following \ 
particttlars, • . ^ • 

1st. The ' furiously inittne arena- pq,^^, 
tniall^: i»f angify ai^; violtot dispdsi^ ^Sntdfi^'* 
ti<ms^. in the ]mme of yOaUi, and of a ^^'^^ 
plethoric constitution; and tense fibre. . 

2d. Theyl^seaU^theirnaturiildeli- subj«ct to 
cacy of mannem, and becoiiie furious; ; «»-^- 
iHigo'WPnable^ Mid are particulariy a£»^ 
fbcted by pride^ Anger j^Jius^ed^ and re-* 
TengC/ .and very ^ft^U' lAteffiperati^ 

lust. . '. .', ... J :f - ' ■ • , 

8d. Thqr. refuse their fiolsd; ; and yet : 
praMwe their Jiitfi^agftr; |hey aoarcdy ''^'*^' 
09^ sleeiM^ ceotiiiuidly shying theit - 
idei|s lliom one tldtlg to ^netheti bear 

G the 

Refusal of 


tfaecidd With iiicf>iddibfe patience^ and 
B» not easify affected hj ^medidn^. 
Peculiar - Mk. Ttkcj iuLYt a^peetiliar l^bk^t^iAi 
tb^ejea, 4e8cr)ptiv<e df vioMkit ^iig^ 
ifkixed widr a ^glartn^s^ like Umt of 
ditoikea p&mh$, ^h^k ^fe'lids are 
comta&t^ Tibf tttittg> and ^heir liands, 
and sotiielitiies the ^Hble bod^, thfey 
kf^ in mbtion. v 
Meitncho- Melancholy pcrson 8 are, 
pwegma- *«*• Natuwtlly dull, sfb^lyfetimibg, 
^'''' and' ^sUy i^^atitig, iad dire sad and 

melanicholy, p{ t pht^gittfctifc teifapera- 
ment^ and rfelaf^it^d^fibre. 
FetHiii ^- WilDn the disordie^ sfekes them 

*^' they becofiie abject^ fea^l, fdnd bf 
solitude^ ppone to anger^ changeable in 
- their opinions and deiAres^ ^biit fixing 
th^r attefntion 'upeln a.siifgfe object. 
Constricted ^d. The bcUy is constipated^ the 
ia^weii, iirineis^itiMte'ili smtfll^quiiiKities; the 
abdomen is distettded^ wMh VFind ; a 
shMp acrid maitt^ls disehug^d by vo- 
miting; the f^ube -tiiO^tes rery slowly; 



the aliment is devoured with greedi* 
ness ; the imagination is perverted so^ 
as that they are persuaded that they 
are made of glass^ china^ &c . and lastly^ 
and worst of all^ they are induced to 
put a period to their exhitence. 

4th. Their eyes have a duU^ heavy^ Atoect 
and stn|iid loot; tbey seldom movej 
but continue iii one posture a very 

*' ■,': 


■ f 

o 2 



' ■ I • 

CHAP. vm. 

* If ■ , . • 

• f 


SL^rof xHiatE are various causes which in- 
impMiii- clocemen to firfgn disorders to which the 
human body is subject^ and with sueh 
fictions to impose often Upon a court 
of judicature^ or at least a civil magisr 
trate. To this they are induced from 
fearj from bashfulness^ or from lucre. 
Should they be submitted to a physician^ 
upon such an occasion^ he can only 
judge from the symptoms of the dis- 
ease^ and determine by their presence 
and absence. But there are many 
cases where artful people^ by a speci- 
ous tale^ and by feigning disorders, 
where much is to be known from their 
own confession, may cause a good deal 
of difficulty to discover the truth. Let 


him then attend to the following cir- 

1 st. All the t)h(Bnoinena \vhicli evi- Physician 
ently appear m the subiect at the time couttder 
of examination^ together with such as uomfn., 
may be related by the sick person, or 
the standers by, are to be careftilly and 
maturely weighed. 

2d, An account is to be taken of the J^^* *!; 
urine^ age, pulse, hereditary disposi- I'^^l 
tion, way of living, condition of the *°^'' 
person, and the disorders to which he 
has been subject. 

3d. The questions which ai'e to be cocfound 
put to the sick person, or the by- Itcu^' 
standers, are to be so framed as to con- 
found them. • 

4th. The pretended sick perscm is Frequent- 
to be visited frequently, and when he *^ ''"''"• 
least expects it. 


5th. Enquiry is to be made whether Enquire 
such causes as generally produce the *"** 
feigned disease have previously pre- 
sented themselves. 

a 3 There 



Dis^afes Theic 1^6 manj diseases wUch 
may be feigned^ particularly by a per- 
son who ba^ befor/e sufEered from them^ 
and especially if tbey bje demid of 

* feyer^ and de{^i]yd nf\on hi^ own rela- 

tion^ jj^t there arie bu/t ^ few which 
p^Tfi geiiexaUy. ol^ject^ of ^ ia^osition. 
These are epilepsy, ni^l^uchQlyj fool- 
ishqessj poBsessio^by.evil spirits^ and 
fft^inations. ., , 

,1/1.4 feigned epiteii3y av^y l»* 
kjfimn fyqxa a ^e^l,o^e^ 

1st. When the sick per;sian doef OAt 
fs^Jltpthiegpoimid ver)^ si^d^ly. 

2d^ WJ^n itbf^ £^e,«s pojt liyi4> IW!C 
t|*ft lijw gJ^le, wr apy chms/i 
made in the colour and rgs^.i^in), qf 
th?[. fax^c;:, . 

^, When tha patif^nt isaoop rouned 
by sternutatories, or l^qKi^iiig coals 

appUedrto tbe.bftpjl*- 

. 4tht Wbeii tfe^ Astils do ,nQt aj)peac 





^tb. \^l)^i^ tim puls^ i^ not al- 
tered^ • 

6th. When at iim end of the parox^ 
yi^m, jl]ly€^ patient does, not fidi iotp a pro* 
found sleep. 

7th. When he does not complain of ^ 
a dullness of sensation^ forgetfulness^ 
a swimming of the head^ great weak- 
ness^ and thirst. 

II. A melancholy that is feigned Mdancho. 
may be known by the absence of those 
symptoms mentioned in the last 

III. We may conclude that foolish* PooiMh* 
ness is fictitious^ when the person at 

any time appears rational : for persons 
afflicted in this manner are not furious 
as madmen^ nor thoughtful as the 
melancholy^ but speak confusedly^ 
neglect themselves^ and sing and talk 
like children, 

IV. Possessions by evil spirits^ as TotBtui- 
they constitute no real disorder^ can 

a 4 never 



never be feigned ; the pretences there- 
fore of such persons will not be de- 
tected by physicians. 
FsteiM- V. The same may be said of incan- 

lions. A A* i» • a' o 

tations^ fascinations^ &c. 

f , 






The general health of the pnbUc, ,.^, 
which IS of so much consequence^ es* ntioa, 
pecially in large towns^ calls loudly for 
the attention of the magistrate^ who 
should eiett every nerve to preserve 
and support it. This is best done by How best 

^ \ "^ executed. 

frequently consulting physicians of the 
first eminence^ concerning the proper 
means to be embraced ; and it would 
be liigbly useful if they were to be 
vested with proper authorities^ and put 
in practice" any scheme of this sort 
which they might think advantageous 
to the genera! service. 

HThe health of <he community seems 
in the best way of being preserved; 
when Ae following particulars are 

g5 observed;; 

observed ; and it is no small matter to 
see them regularly put in execution. 

1st. When every thing which may 
tendjo injure the public health is pro- 
perly prevented or averted. 

2d. When care is taken that the 
sick have every assistance to remove 
t^^e diseajse with which they are af- 
flipted^ or at least to mitigate its rage. 
Si. When contagious and ^ide- 
njiical disorders, are guarded, against^ 
a^^d U^ &]fp^ds^.pf iheva, wi;ien,they do 
^pevaili preMentgdi 
I. The caiis^e^ which are in^rious t^ 
calwsof ^^ health of th^ cofluaunity ms^y. be 
'•*^'^^- averted, : . .• 

By purify- l&t By preseifvi|p>gfthe wt^w ipuQh 
mgtbe air. ^^ possible, from. the effeirfsi of PiUtr^- 
faction, whjich, nmBt h^, d^Q« by, re^ 
n^ovingi all; k^^9<.o^; putrid, bpdjes, 
both animal and yi^g^tab^.; toK vege- 
tables u^; t^jgs Qornipti st«^ are more 
, offep^ei, oi: at ^ast ^a oiutobf so, and 
cons^u^n;tly equaUy peryic^s witb 


By avert- 


tnimals. Hie ky-stftlts of butchers 
should alwa^rs be situated at the extre-* 
milSes of to^ns^ and^ lai^ eess-pooh 
shouhl be ihade^ covered with earthy 
to receiye the blood and oSal meat. 
Bathers Kkewise should be punished 
fer keeping their meat tiH it be too^ 
stale ftr use. It is not only improper 
Ufiion account of the smelly but poor 
people^ by reason of the reduced price; 
are induced to putchase it^ and thus 
contrrbiatii to un\^holesome diseases. 

The water i&lso of towns should be 
carried 6ff, and not suffered to stag- 
nate iti the streets. It is generally pu- 
trid in itsdf; but mfuch more so when 
it becomes a r^ceptaclfe for all kinds of 
flHfc. llehce we see that most towns 
which aiie Hot accommodated with 
common scrwers, ate Tery unhealthy. 
lPh€ last thing (o be Cdnsrder^d utider 
this head are Hie burying grounds^ 
whith should always be removed to 
ionie dhftahce from a town. 

6 6 2d; 


9j wMe- ^* '^^^ ^^^^ means £^ Temovii^ 
^^S^!^ the causes of injuries to towns^ &c. is^ 
by taking care that the corn be not of 
an unwholesome and putrid nature ; 
that the flesh of animals be not dis- 
eased ; that the fruits be properly ri^ 
pened ; that the wine be not poisoned^ 
nor the beer foul and vapid ; and that 
all vegetables of a deleterious^ quality^ 
be not admitted to be sold. 
By good ^^' ^y taking care that the water 
water. which is drank be tolerably pure^ or 
free from any mineral substances^ 
which may be prejudicial to health. 
This is not always easily ascertained, 
and will require a chemical analysis. 
My nsguiA. 4th. By rcgulatiug the use of the 
u^^of ^pi. still, and taking cate that too much 

fermented liquors be not prepared. 
Bymianu. 5th. By providing a sufficicut qufttt- 
^ ^ ' tity of wholesome food for the use of 
the poor. 

Suppress 6th- ^y suppressing the common 
ing stewfi. gt^^g^ 0f at least regulating them in 



sochaman^er^ as that the disorder! 
now peculiar to such places^ and the ' 
common ^ects of riot and drunken* 
nes8, be as mnch as pDSsibleJpreyented* 
In a moral lights no vice can be tole* 
rated by the civil power ; butinaphy^ 
sical Yiew> we should certiunlj prevent 
many of the deleterious eflfects of th^ 
venei;eal disease^ if not in time eradi- 
cate it^ by having the brothels under 
the eye of the magistrate^ who could 
appoint inspectors under a licenc^j 
who should r€^larly make their re* 
port, and confine the sulgects of it in 
some well regulated hospital. If any 
way then could be- thought of^ which 
should avoid the enconragement of 
vice^ and yet admit of such an inspec-' 
tion^ it yrottld no doubt be of very great 
benefit to society. 

7th. By insane persons being pro* confining 
perly confined and provided for. ^^H,^" 

8th. By destroying mad animals; Destroy- 

and '"*""!^ 

ttUU animals. 

tMe <lftt ^iSbtm ^tif&tit^ slfffb^^d^ t& g6 

dtHer pt(ice» wHI^a wckHbi Ac. I^ 4:6 
Aot'thTfik ^pt^efia ^tlieiii np, ^ 

they n^j htif\gon H^ttf the d^sot^n 
wc! would tHsh ixk prevent. 
sopprcM- Mh. Bv ^ni^essif^' fts much^ as 

ing quacks - • 

potlnftle sH^ lUoHBtelte^tikd ahd quacks; 
and other {M^endcm- fd' tbef pKafctice 
cMPphymd. No dne cail tell haw^ tnneh 
tliey* kflg^re i^dcicty, . %y violent medi^ 
dines^ the eflfects of wKch -fliey d© not 
itei they- ma;^ intr odilce ftome ft^( dte- 
ease^ and h^ jneffiMctotisr ones thef 
pf eTCHt the eflfects of <iiase ^iicb arc 
Prevent- *Oth. By ^retcnthig apdthetiwiei^, 
i"f prafti' midwiveSj &c. from* practict^^ unless 
loners. pr0j)erly riecomnieiided. 
Presemng llth*. By taking earls fhbt founds 
HDfi.' lihg kifents^ or ofliers tvho may be de- 


9erted hy their parentft, he. taJt^n cmr^ 
of^dBdeducffiktd at the piibUD6jil|Mneex« 

12th. By preventing any persons Kegniatiii| 
from aelting" drugs vho:«re not. bred to dmci^ 
&e business, ot an apothecjary oc dmgi^ 
gist, or do not understiutd die xMtore 
of medicines. 

I3th. By regidaiing the shops* of Andshop^ 
those rrho sell dnig8> so thaithe^mwe 
active modiciaes, such as vomi^ amd 
purges^ enmcnagoipes^ and the' mi- 
neral acid spirits, be not promises* 
ously arranged with the rest^ biit b^ 
kept in some private^rawers, or in an^ 
ianecroom^ to whidi no>OQe shoold 
imve access but the^ master^. Aiih^ 
same time^ parttcukr care should be 
taken of the hbeiiR, so that they malM 
distinct marks^ &c. < ' . 

14tlL That it be esioined md- ProBMCii^ 
ivivea and surgeons t»4 csUl to^ their tions. 
ftssistance^ the Hioet abb physicians^ m 
cases of danger ; and that for this pw* 
pose^ physicians accommodate their 



fees to tbe abilities of the patient^ so 

that all wAy receiye the benefit of their 


csMrean 15th. By iiiidwives preserving the 
operation, jj^^ ^j^j, j ^^ ^ dissoction, should the 

Diother unfortunately die during the 

pain^ of labour. 
PreventiDK 16th J Bv iTuacdiBir aiTainst the eon- 
•atiie. tagiouB disofders which often a^ise 

among the homed and other cattle. 
Diseases H. Xhc best carc is taken that the 

are re- 
moved; diseases of the sick be as speedily as 

possible removed^ 
ByproTid. Isl.. When phvsicians of fifreat 

ing |>roper * •^ o 

pbysici- htiowiedge and the most liberal eduoa- 
tion are provided, to order medicines^ 
aud illiterate and immoral men be not 
suffisf ed to obtrude themselves on the 

]pabiic ,2d. When- public hospitalis are 
established^ and so conducted as to 
accommodate all tlie sick poor who 
may offer; 



^». When sfB^eons and tpothaca*- surgeon 
ries^ and midwites who are'sktlfidir in thecarks 
this bufliaess^ are > con$4iiuted 'by. the 
public to execute their fwrt of the bin 
fliness^ which they undertake with 
carefulness and assiduity* 

4(ii, When the apothecaries' shops vmtmg 
are oecasionalLy visited by the phy^ *^^' 

sicians^ to see that their drugs are ^ of 
the best qualify^ • and pcpvided in suf- 
ficient quantity^ fisi' the exigencies dT 
the sick : that tkieir bottles and other 
vessels be ]H:eser¥ed clean^ and fit to 
contain the ingredients deposited in 
them : diat the medieSanes be jfuresenred 
in a^ptoper place to preseffve them from 
injury^ and that the shopmen or ap- 
prentices be industrious^ sober^ and 
fitted fbr their business. 
III. The fiext thing t«^ be attended ContMiout 

,..-,, ' . - disorders 

to 18/ by what : mieana.: contagious and remedied. 
epidemic diseases are to be presented 
and removed. These are 6f two kinds^ 
what is Galled the pli^ue^ or any other 


dekteriulfti&.' ^ 

t :r 

By pvrifi. 

CfttiOD of 


ouhe i. The phgue ist a dunake. of s» 

rules fw alar mitim a iuittve> tiMiti enerv* pae^uf 

regulating ^ . * 

i^ tioB shoiiid be takaBiiby magistraie&td 

prevent its aocauL >; ! 

The &Howiag>^6eaa to iibftfpxcllfend 
the' principal iragahitiohBiJMMXiiaarjDte 
Ine oha6i;!Vttd.i \ 

Isii nBhe/fwqriiiCAtifilili 0£ tkeisif il 
to heite^kpad^ ^dictrciiyr. iinq^ ipiii ii 
tsttiraiioB that taxi jHloiBiite thisi^endt 
Stoius JnMre.pBo|)oiedry fiaa ^ia>]^irf^iae^ 
iiieiegiidoflpoii eG^freat, gniiaj the .Hgfat^ 
iagixjff.9^ fiira% iftifci Thite dantimd^ 
hem eicit^viB' JDBfrefyiii^ .tberj-aif, ai 
fa^&triB fimn4^ coritribiMe to.prmoota 
fliia 4iaeafle^ aa dbaeribed hj Doctor 
Mead. The clnnreh.. hieii^ i6u tht 
fime. purpoa^^; arai fsefuaiktiy tft ' be 
taB^y aiidi tfar ' gwatet ckuniMleaa in 
flsd'Stseetf^ ahd:a)kpaUfiD|daoe8^ i&to 
b^ (Asarrdd. BenUfes thi»> tBKiiifkm 
and pildh^ ^^/^im^ bt kiract isi the 
. w iL open 


apea plftMa^ and Tititqilur nay he awr 
ptmted ia the dbambers andisAdes of 
hf>ii«e6. M iRceU as tbe finisalioiK^ 
juniper and oilier ^iMpib foe kqpi op. 

2d. Liaeft ase to. be fHrmedt, which Pormiog 
arc not ta be tranagHwed by Ae u^ ' "" 
fected, ifeoi by tike bealthy; «t the 
same; ttme,^ proper houaes are to be 
allotted for thoae/wl|0 ace tjikai dowa 
iia tiie diieaee^ ^ and otbcesi Cob* Ifa^ 
feal% p^ptio^ tke ^nnily^ whcraA* 
disM^et prBFai]& « 

3di All: comaieiice^ wtii eo«flftm% £o??/*^ 


idffiie tlieidiseaee iapqetalttit^'iata^be 
aiMndai^ naywaiepaflMhalent ahAuld 
he m§S€lmik qik Mmm^ who ^aegven 
this rule. It is aa object of Ufo» nipich 
Mw^QOBce: to bo neg^e<et^ the lures 
(tfsDoiajiy /thfaasaiidii^depeifdingp on iti 

4ib. Vesseb vrb]«b eome Irom sueh vessels not 
couafeimtay&tabe dvi^eii from tiie harw 
kacboQF where, they attenpt to eator^ 
and bie obl^ped' to-aalaAe their goodsi 
and properly ventilate them^ in some. 




ttntnhaUted island! ^1 do not tbink ihe 
U6Hal manner in which quarantines are 
performed by ships in harboar^ are by 
any means adequate to the purpose. 
Were the phgue really on board anj 
siuch ships^ forty or sixty days, no nor ftny 
time would be sufficient to preyentthe 
disease^ unl^s the goods were pr<^rly 
ventilated ; bale goods being known to 
preserve tibe infection for many years : 
htit, besides HboM, - it >i^ impossible to 
keep the superior officers crf'a ship finmi 
leaving it, and flying to their domestic 
mansions^: to repose themselves after a 
long aild tedious voyage. T%e only 
remedy ii^ to appoint a place tot unit- 
ding and ventilating. 

5th. Physicians and surgeons, and 

Appraprm- •' p ' 

cuwlt roinistersjrare tobeappropriated to visit 
the sick in the plague^ and no others, 
lest the infection may be conveyed by 
them to raund parsons. The same 
rule is to be observed with r^ard to 


<Hb, Hoipitals'are to be provided fi*r provumg 
the pew wbP may b^ W* <rf tbif di«r *^^'**"'' 
ea^se, bat ^veiy caliD§0tii%ii .bet^en 
them and their frijendf Bbould be pre-, 

7th. The dead bodies ,9fe to b^ surm 
l)uried as so0n as possible ; and here 
a siupenaion shiH&M be miade of the law 
agaii^t burying in any thing but wool- 
len : nay that should be forbidden* as 
it is a powerful retainer of infection^ 
Lioeu h^ere riiouldibe pirefi^red. 

&b. Every thing which is capable ciMths, 
of Tuning infection^ as the cloajths j^g; ^"^' 
of the deceased^ smd the fumiture of 
the i^oonp^ should be ibaried. This is 
preferable to burning. Those things* 
which retain infection the inost^ are^ 
alt aocts^ of woollen . e^t))s^ , silks, cot- 
i(m%: linens* tlie sI^m^ of 9#ii|[)f^lp> hemp 
andflax^ &c, ,* . .• ^ . . , 

8th. Tbe food of thosejwho are! psot R^uutinr 
iufecte4rt such a tim^ysbpuld be prin-. heaiuiT. 
cipally c£ yegetables^ and of tbose 


trUdh coMibi the acid mH pretty 
strongly, togietlier trfth oil Mitt of 
£MtCi. The €he w^g «id mioaUiiig isf 
tdbKeo niirf abo be reeontiifetii^v 
But the best preservative is a mitid 
fkie ft^ihieai^ atld aifjdety; 

Similar ix. Jn dnetts^ whidi aie *te8s 


eiSkktme than the p)a)$«6^ bist snlt 
U^y iaifectious, and soni^fliea daa- 
gtirotis, the fallowing should lib i^- 

Ist. Physicians sAionld study the 
nisltlire of these remedies apprapriat^d 
to than, and consider with ctfris what 
are mdst likely to remove them. 

3d. The poor are to be mol^-into 
hospitals, and placed in Wards bj 

Sd. The sick, eveti in privtite fkmi- 
lies, should be separated from those 
who are healthy. 

4lh. The healthy i^boiftd live upon 
a fi^are diet^ nor indulge ](o etetes ei- 
ther in whie dr venfiffesirpkiistfred ; ^he 



air they bMlttte klKHllft; if l^ssible, be 
pttrifie(dr» . » < ^ • ' 

54k. Chtfwuigt tohaooe cinA other 
herhs^ and otfaer^ireserTatory medi* 
ernes should be useii. 

6th. Flowers growing m pota 
should be introduced into sick rooms,. 
as well as aromatic herbs. This should 
be done likewise iA c6iirt6 of judicar 
ture, .irhere it is feared that the gaol 
distemper prevails . 


•^ 'I m ii..«>^»w ■ > n *< ■ { » . ■ ! ■■ ! 1 ^ ' i 1 I If 

I^riDtedtf Smith & Davy/Quetrii SUM^^sven Oiftla. 

Published by J. Callow, 

A GUIDE to HEALTH and U)NG LIFE, By Lewis Gornai 
a Noble Venetian ; who, bf attetidihg la die Rales here 

' described, .repaired a debilitated Cunstiti^ion, retamc 
tt<9dth aod lActiYHy to extre|ne Okt Age^ and declares tit 
to b</the pIfaMnt Seaspn. of Life^ ISmo. sewed, |s. 

Is. 6d. , •»' .., -.5 ,:• 

FEVn, coilkiifimly t^UA WORM FEVER, sewed, 
.Is. 6d« 

the Royal College of Surgeon^f secoMl JBditl0n« with Addi- 
tions, price 3fl. 

Thijik not, ye candidates|lbr health. 
That ought can gain the wish'd-for prize; 
(Or pill or potion, power or wealth). 
But temperance and exercise. 

which is satisfactorily shewn the Efficacy of Ipecacnsnbit 
in relieving this, as well as its cotiBected Train of Com* 
plaints peculiar to the Decline ot'Life; translated frumtbe 
French, fourth Edition, with Additions, by Dr. Bucban, 
i2«. 6d. 

OBSERVATIONS on the Climate, Manners and Alnas^ 
ments of MALTA, principally intended for the informttioo 
of Invalids repairing to that Island for recovery of Health j 
by William Domeier, :M. D. of the Royal College of Pby 
ficians, liondon, boards, 4s. 6d. ISIO. 


" Fat paunches have lean patas, and dainty bits 
*' Make rich the ribs, but banker «ut the wits,*' 


Second Editioo, with Additions, price ^. 6d. 

WEBSTER'S <Dr.Cfaas.)^ACTS; t end i ng to she w the Con- 
nexiou of the Stomach with Life, Disease^ and Reooveiy, 
sewed, Is. 6d.