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The intimate relations which exist between the various de- 
partments of Zoology and practical medicine render a work 
embracing these subjects of considerable value to the medical 
man. This is especially the case in a country like England, 
possessing numerous colonies scattered over the surface of the 
globe, ill one or other of which the young practitioner is 
frequently destined to commence his career of responsibility 
and usefulness. 

At the present time there is no standard work in the English 
language upon Medical Zoology, the only book especially 
devoted to this subject being Dr. Stephenson's Medical Zoology 
and Mineralogy, which was published as far back as 1832. 
The numerous treatises on Materia Mediea refer only to those 
animals which are employed as remedial agents, while the 
writers on practical medicine seldom give more than a mere 
outline of the Entozoa and of those Animals which are injurious 
to man. 

The work of M. Tandon contains a more complete account of 
the Human Entozoa, and of those Animals which are either in- 
jurious or beneficial to man in a medical point of view, and is 
furnished with a larger number of illustrations, than any 
previous publication on the same subject. 

In the translation the text and arrangement of the original 
work have been closely followed ; only a few passages and 
two short chapters, the one on " False," and the other on 

" Fabulous Helinintha," have been omitted. The place of 
these omissions has been more than occupied by other matter ; 
all which additions are distinguished by being placed in brackets. 
The weights and measurements have been reduced from the 
Preneh to the English scale, and are generally given in parts 
of the pound avoirdupois, or in fractions or decimals of the 
English inch. The principal responsibility which the Trans- 
lator has taken upon liimself in the way of alteration has been 
the addition of the passages already referred to. Some of the 
numerous synonymes of the names of the animals which M. 
Tandon has included in bis work have been omitted, as being 
of little use to the student and apt to produce confusion. In 
one or two instances a different name has been made use of 
to the one proposed by the author ; in all such cases the one 
adopted is that by which the iininw] has been generally known 
in England, and of which the use has been recently confirmed 
by its being retained in Kiichemneister's Manual of Entozoa. 
In no department of Zoology has greater conftudon arisen from 
the want of a uniform nomenclature than in Helminthology. 

The Translator desires to return his best thanks to Professor 
Quekett for the information he kindly afforded him, particularly 
with regard to the Bothriocephalic latus ; an obligation which 
will be found specially mentioned in its proper place. His ac- 
knowledgments are no less due to Mr. Chatto, the librarian of 
the College of Surgeons, for his ready and valuable assistance 
in searching for names and references in the books of the 
library. The illustrations have been accurately copied by Mr. 
Joyce from the original wood cuts, and three additional en- 
gravings have been added from other sources. 

21, Jons Street, 

Bebfomi Bow. 


I ha 
of Zoo 


:8E Elements of Medical Zoology have been written 
principally for the use of those who are intended for the pro- 
medicine or the practice of pharmacy. 

I have been desirous of including within the limits of a small 
ie, a clear and comprehensive description of those portions 

Zoology which have any bearing upon medical science. 

In such an undertaking there were two errors to he guarded 
against. One was to avoid entering too much into the details 
of either Comparative Anatomy or of Zoology. The majority 
of students are already bachelors of science, and, therefore, 
possess a general knowledge of the structure and class! lie at ion 
of the Animal Kingdom. I did not consider that it fell within 
the limits of the present work, when speaking of the Cantlia- 
ridett, for example, to enter into a minute account of its ner- 
vous system, or when describing the Viper, to dilate upon the 
affinities of the genus or the family to wliieh it belongs. The 
other error was not to describe at too great length the parts of 
their products which are employed in medicine, and 
to infringe upon another department. 

Most authors who have written upon Medical Zoology have 

lopted a purely Zoological arrangement. This plan un- 
doubtedly possesses the advantage of imparting to their works 
a more scientific and less arbitrary arrangement, but, neverthe- 
less, it has also certain disadvantages ; it subordinates the 
Medical Zoology too muck to Zoology proper, and deprives it 

of that professional spirit which should govern all the studies 
of either a medical or a pharmaceutical school. A writer on 
Medical Zoology, who arranges his chapters according to the 
" Animal Kingdom," of Cuvier, lor example, will be compelled 
to speak of the Quadrumana and of the Lepidoplera, merely 
because these animals constitute two important divisions in the 
Zoological aeries. But the medical practitioner and the phar- 
maceutist makeno use of cither Mrmlcoi/s: <>v [Sitf/<r/!ies. . .If on 
the other hand the writer adopts a Zoological plan, but omits 
those divisions or families in which the medical practitioner 
lias no direct interest, his arrangement becomes disconnected 
and incomplete, and ceases in fact to be an arrangement. 
Again, there are animals distinguished from each other by their 
characters aud structure, which the Zoologist places in dif- 
ferent groups, often far apart, but which the medical practi- 
tioner, on the contrary, brings together for the purpose of 
studying them collectively, in consequence of the organs they 
inhabit, the diseases they give rise to, or the remedies which 
they require. Such is the' case with the Internal Parasites, 
animals which are dispersed through the system of the Zoo- 
logist, but which are associated in the works of medical 
authors. 1 

These considerations have induced me to adopt an arrange- 
ment founded upon the characters of the animal or its Medico- 
Zoological relations. Such an arrangement is more practical 
than scientific ; but it is simple, convenient, aud well adapted 
for the purposes of medical or of pharmaceutical study, and 
avoids leading the reader into details which are foreign to his 
daily occupation. 

I shall briefly point out the order and the family to which 
each animal belongs, and as the commencement of the work 
contains a special chapter on the subject of classification, it will 

1 Under the name of Enlozoa or Helmintha. 

he easy for the student, who desires further information upon 
this point, to ascertain either the class or the branch to which 
the animal belongs, and even to learn the affinities and the 
differences which arise from such an arrangement compared 
with other arrangements. 

Many animals and many animal productions, which were 
formerly in use, are no longer employed in medicine. These 
might hare been omitted, hut as it ia useful to have a know- 
ledge of this ancient Materia Medica, and to be acquainted with 
the history, the revolutions, and the progress of therapeutics, I 
have given a short description of these animals and of their 
productions in n separate chapter. 

For a long time Medical Zoohv^y was made to include only 
those animals or those parts of animals which are employed as 
remedies. Thus, in the Materia Medico, of Linnn?UB about thirty 
pages are occupied with the animals which, in his time, were 
employed in medicine (Caatliariiks, Leeches, Coehineal itueef). 
Bernard Peyrilhe, in his Lectures on Medical Natural History 
(first edition), has devoted forty-six pages to the description of 
these animals, but he ha3 somewhat extended the list and 
includes the Internal Parasites, as the Ta?ni<s, the External . 
Parasites, as the .Lice, and also those animals winch, without 
being parasites, injure man either by sucking the fluids of his 
body or by their poisonous properties, such as the Flea and the 

Medical Zoology ought also to include the Natural History 
of man, and should investigate some of those more difficult 
questions which are merely touched upon by the sciences of 
anatomy and physiology. This important division of the sub- 
ject has not been neglected. 

In a still more extended sense Medical Zoology should 
embrace the relations which exist between the various branches 
of the science of animals, and the different departments of the 
healing art. Thus Zoological anatomy, physiology, teratology, 

and pathology are intimately connected with human anatomy, 
physiology, teratology, and pathology, and are capable, in many 
instances, of elucidating, or even of explaining, some of the 
important problems connected with them ; hut to have ex- 
amined such matters in an efficient manner would have led me 
beyond the intentions of the present work. 

I shall commence with the Natural History of Man or An- 
thropology, Under this head I shall examine the principal 
characters of our species, its perfection, its accidental degra- 
dations, its unity, its races, and the manner in which it has 
been classified by various writers. 

This will he followed by a summary of the organization and 
classification oi'lhe aniirml kingdom. 

I shall then describe, imder the following heads : 
I. Animals and the actual products employed in medicine. 

II. Noxious animals, hut which are not poisonous nor yet 

III. Poisonous animals. 

IV. External parasites or Epizoa. 
V. Internal parasites or Entozoa. 

Piius, September 1, 1B59. 



Chapteb II. — Anatokv op Mam - 
Chapter m. — Of a supfohed Wild Man 
Chapter IV.— The Unity op the Humak Species 
Chapter V. — Op the Races op Maw 
Ceapteb VI.— The Huhas Kingdom 



BOOK I.— Organization of 
I. Organs and functions 
H, Organs and functions of reproduction 
ILL Organs and functions of relation 

BOOK II.- Classification of Animals -' 

I. Ancient .... 

IT. Linmeus - 

IIII. Lamarck - 

IV. Cu-vier ..... 

V. Present state .... 

OOK m.— Animals and the Animal products employed 
in medicine - - - - - 

SECTION 1 — Animals or Animal Productions fonnurl)' employed 

in Medicine - 
SECTION IL — Animals and Animal Productions <x 
ployed in Medicine 
Chapter I. — Animals employed whole 
3 I. Seink 

§ II. Wood Lice 

§ III. Cochineal Insect 


Chapter II. — Animals employed r 
5 L l'joliyJorniota 

L Phodcots 

§ HI. Snails 

§ IV. Oysters 

§ V. Coral 

§ VI. Sponga 
Chapter III. — Anim 

§ L Spermaceti 

§ IL Bile 

§ IIL Crabs' eyes 

§ IV. Spider's web 
SECTION m.— Animals o 
stoutly emjili.ycil is 
Chapter L — Liver On. 

| I. Oil from the liver of the Cod 

§ II. Oil from the liver of the Skate 

§ IIL Oil from tho liver of the Shark 
Chapter LT.— Music 

§ L Musk 

§ IL Civet 

§ LLL Beaver 

§ IV. Hyraoeum 

§ V. Ambergris 

I " 



§ I. Galls 
§ n. Cases 


Chapter ILL — Vesicatthg Ii 

§ t Cantharides 

§ n. Mylabris 

§ III. Cerocoma 

| IV. Meloe 
Chapter IV. — Leeches 

Chapter VI.— The Trehala 
SECTION IV.— Animals or Animal Products employed a: 
sories in Medicine - 
§ L Bones 
§ IL Blood 
§ IH. Flesh 
§ IV. Albumen 


§ V. Gelatine 

§ VI. Fat 

§ VH. Oiis - 

g VIII. Milk 

§ IX. Eggs - 

§ X. Honey 

g XI. Wtis 

§ XII. Hair and other Corneous substances 

BOOK IV.— Noxious Animals, but which era not poison- 
ous nor yet Parasites ... 
Chapter I.— Animais noxious i>uhinq inwa Lives 
§ I. Surra- salines 
J II. Hfomopis 
§ in. Cimicidse 
§ IV. Nepa 
§ V, Hippoboscid:e 
§ VI. Tsetse 
§ VII. Gnats 
§ Till. Stinging Animals 
| IX. Larvic of Flies 

§ X. Other Insects which may be accidentally introduced 
into the natural cavities of the body 


IOOK V. — Poisonous *"■"»!« ... 
SECTION I. — Animals which convey their poison by the month 
Chapter L— Poisonous Animals with Fangs 

§ I. Vipers .... 

§ IL Foreign Serpents ... 


§ I. Spiders ..... 

§ IT, Scolopcndra ... 

ACTION II. — Animals which inoculate their poison by mt 

of a special organ .... 
Chapter I.— Ounithorybchus ... 

.— Scorpions 
I.— Hymknopteba ... 

§ I. Beea .... 

§ II. Humble Bee - - - 

g HL Wasps .... 


SECTION HI.— Animal poisons 


Humours analogous to poisons 

- SI 

BOOK VI.— External Parasites 

r Epizoa - 


SECTION L— Epiaoa living on the skin 

- 25 

Chapter I. — Lice 


Chapter II. — Common Fl»a 

- 2S 

Chapter III.— Cmao« 


Chapter IV. — Tices 

- 30 

Chapter V. — Aroades 

Chapter VI.— Harvest Bud 

- 30 

SECTION II.— Epizoa living beneath the akin - 


Cbaptee I. — Sarcoptpb 

- 30 

Chapter 11. — Acaropsb 


Chapter III. — Dehodex 

- 32 

Chaptrs IV. — Some other species 

f Aoari - 


BOOK VTI.— Internal Parasites 

r Entozoa 

- 32' 

SECTION I.— Insect Entozoa 



- 321 

SECTION H.— Crustaceous Entozo* 


- 32< 

SECTION IIL— Entozoie Worms or 



Chapter I.— Ascarides 

- 33; 

Chapter II.— Oxthkis 


Chapter III. — Triohocephalps 

- 34S 

Chapter IV. — Akojitibtomuu 

Chapter V.— St robot los 

- 355 

Chapter VI.— Spproptsra 


Chapter VII.. — Filaria 

- 359 

Chapter VIII. ; — Theoosoma 


Chapter IX.— Fldkes 

. - 370 

Chapter X.— Festhoaria 


Chapter XI.— Tsnia 

- 378 

Chapter XII.— Both riocephalds 


Chapter XIII. — Cystic Heiwiktha 

- 391 

§ L— Cysticerci 


§ II.— Echinococei 

- 39* 

§ HI. — Acephalocjsta 


§ IV. — Transformations of Ihe Cystic Helminths 

- 396 

Chapter XIV. — Zooiooical views 


SECTION IV.— Infusorial Entozoa 

■ 405 


Page Fig. 

1. Head of European 


37. Dragon Leech 


2. Head of Kegto 


38, Jaws of a Leech 

- 142 

3. Abd-el-Kader - 


39, Leech bile - 


4. Yen - - 


40. Cynips - 

- 149 

5. Soulouque 


41. Torebra of Cynips 


6. Head of Negro 


42. Common Gall - 

- 151 

7. Sciok 


43, Section of Gall - 


8. Wood-looaa - 


44. Chinese Gall - 

- 155 

9. Armadillo 


45. Turpentine Gall - 


10. Cochineal insect 


46, Lurinua of the Trehala 

- 157 

11. Eerrues 


47. Trchala 


12. African Elephant - 


48, Helix pomatia - 

- 175 

18. Helix pomatia 


49. Common Sturgeon 


11. Cachalot 


50. Sperm Whale - 

- 189 

15. Greenland Whale 


51. Common Bee 


16. Whalebone platos - 


52. Mouth office 

- 201 

17. Crabs' eyes 


53. Leg of Bee - 


18. Cod 


54. Whalebone 

- 211 

13. Thornback Ray 


55. Htemopis 


20. Squalus Aeanthias 


56. Jaw of Hasmopis 

- 216 

91. Musk Deer 


57. Common Bug 


22. Musk apparatus 


53. Rostrum ofBug 

- 221 

23. Musk sack 


59. Reduvina, 


24. Civet .... 


60. Rostrum of Reduvina 

- 223 

25. Civet apparatus 


61. Notonecta - 


96. Zibeth .... 


62. Rostrum of Notonecta 

- 225 

27. Beaver - 


63. Nepa ■ 


28. Apparatus of the Castor 


64. Rostrum of Nepa 

- 227 

29. Glands of the Castoreum 


65, Horse Fly - 


30. Banian - . - . 


66. Beak of Horse Fly - 

- 22S 

31. Canthariiies 


67. Tsetse - 


32. Mylabrla . - - 


68. Trunk of Tsetee 

- 229 

33. Cerocoma 


69. Gnat - 


34. Meloe ... - 


70. Proboscis of Gnat - 

- 231 

36. Grey Leech 

- 139 

7 1. Proboscis in action 


36, Green Leech - 


72. Stinging hairs 

- 235 


73. Portuguese Man of War 

74. Larvm of Fly 

75. Hominivorous Fly - 

76. Common Viper 

77. Vipera Ammodytes - 

78. Vipera Pelins 

79. Head of a Viper 

80. Poison apparatus 

81. Cerastes iE^yptinuus 

82. Crotalus Durissus 

83. Poison fang - 

84. Month of Spider - 

85. Gland and Claw of Spider 

86. Seolopendra 

87. Hoad and claw of Scolo- 

pondra • - 

88. Common Scorpion 

89. Gland and spine of Scor- 

90. Poison apparatus of Bee 

91. Head Louse 

92. Rostrum of Head Louse 
83, Body Louse 

94. Pubic Louse 

95. Flea ... 

96. Mouth ofFlea 

97. Female Sarcoptus - 

93. Male Sarcoptus 
99. Rostrum of Sarcoptus 

50. Grooves foisted by the 

Sarcoptus - 
)1. AcaropsU 
)2. Demodex 

13. Lingualula 

14. Aacaris ... 9 

15. Structure of Ascaria - 3 

16. Oxyuris ... a 
>7. Trichocephalus - - 3 
is. Ancylostomum Duoden&le 3 
9. Strongylus 3 

0. HeadandtailofKtroU£yhis3, 

1. Filaria ... 
3. Flake .... 

3. Common Ttenia - 

4. Head of Ticnia 

5. Segment of Taania 

6. Sexual organs of Tfcnia - 

7. Rutiiricn-i-plialna latua • 
S. Head of Bothriooephalus 
9. Segments of Botfcrioce- 

D. Sexual organs of Both- 

t. Cystieerci - 
i. Echinococci 
i. Acephalocysta 
I. Trichomonas vaginalis ■ 





Mas ia the chief of living beings. 

Buffon considered him as the only animal with tiro lumit 
and two feet. 

Blumenbaeh pave as his attributes : ilie erect position and 
the possession ofttro hands. 1 

Other writers have combined these characters and have said 
of man: Situs ercvtni, iimitus Juu: pedes bini. 

To these principal characters, others have been subse- 
quently added, which, although less determinate and occupy- 
ing a subordinate rank, acquire a certain value by being 
associated together : such are the want of organs of defence 
(inermia), the absence of any natural covering against the 
inclemencies of the seasons (nudus), a projecting chin,* the 
contiguity of the teeth, or absence ot any vacant space 
between them, 1 their evenness, that is, they are all of nearly 
the same height. 4 the vertical position of the lower incisors, 5 


1 Enciiis et hhnamt*. (Blum.) 

3 MenliiiH prominulum. 

1 Ihtilm iilrini/iie rdiquis apjiritximati. 

' Di'tita* 'equates. 

' Incisures inferiarea erecti. 

the hands being provided with a ilislinctlv opposable thumb, 1 
the feet having a strong; projecting hod. 8 the breasts bein^ 
two in number anil placet! en the chest, 1 aiul lastly, the posses- 
sion of an extremely short coccyx.' 

By combining the preceding characters, man may be said to 
possess a body erect, unarmed, and almost uuked ; a projecting 
chin, teeth touching each other, and of nearly the same height 
(the lower incisors vertical), tun pet-feet hands (on the upper 
Lvmbs), tbat is to Bay, having a distinctly opposable thumb; 
two feet (on the lower limbs) plantigrade, and with a well- 
developed projecting heel; two pectoral mainline, and the 
coccyx not projecting. 

All these are. however, physical characters : there are others 
of a far higher order, which establish an immeasurable tnterv 
between our species and all other animals. Man is especial 
distinguished from even the most highly organized beings b 
his understanding, 3 his perlVvi ilulity. his knowledge of (_H>i 
his idea of the intiuite, his love of the beautiful, and by hia 
moral sentiment.* Thus, the great Linnwus, in his Si/stema 
Nalurte, after bestowing upon man the name of Sapiens, did 
not draw up for our species a series of distinctive characters 
taken from the number, the proportion, or the form o 
bodily organs, in the manner lie has done for all other livi 
beings. He justly despised the hands, the feet, the teeth, ai 
the mamma?; he coulined himself to writing after the generic 
name Homo, and repeated after his specific name these pro- 
found and significant words : Noses tk ii'strM ! T 

1 Manwum pollex plant- oppotittts. 
' Calcaneum prominent el. calidum. 
' Mamma pect/tralcs, diitx. 

* Coccyx abbreviate.— To these have also been added the lobule ol 

car, mill Hie |.rc-nuv. in tlu: ivuiiiiii), of tin; hymen and the menses. 

s " Man surpasses in dignify nil creatnl iiiiii.i;* Ik- thai, emanation fr. 
the Divine nature, "hmh animal r< in id t- 1 l 1 i.n f i r L - 1 1 n him." ( Daubentoo..) 

6 "In him we li mi rrlieiuij, jusrikv. jiniduUL-u, piety, modesty, clemency, 
valour, endunmee, faith, and nuineroua other virtues which ai" --* 
with in animals." (A. Pare.) 

* " Nosck IB 1PSDM grmliii ei) -prim nx i»tpit:,ti/r, tlkltimi/tie Stilt, 
t/Hti)it!tjiii srriptum /illfrix titire.i* .tuprti IMaiae tcinplitm." (Linn.) — El 
leben does not give the words nonce le ipsitm as the speeine eharaeti 
After the gcncri..' name, liu ilislmeaii.he- man hy the following; attribute: 
" Denies pn'mart'.- incixarts, supra •■< iiij>ra I V. Laniarii coniei tontjiti 
iHnf. rr<]ttute#. Manns in p/i/mis, nan in phm'i-t : Mfimmif petiartdes II . 
Cauda nulla." This is a very couiploLi: ami sei'miific deseriptio! 




Man is provided with an interim] osseous skeleton. This 

;eleton has an axis or column formed of 3*2 vertebra?, consisting 
tit' 7 cervical, 12 dorsal. 5 lumbar, ."> sacral, and 3 coccygeal. 

The head is placed at the upper part of the vertebral 
eolnmn : it is composed of the cranium and face. In the 
cranium there are H bones: 1 occipital, 2 temporal, 2 parietal, 
1 frontal, 1 ethmoid, and 1 sphenoid. Li the face there are 
14 bones: 2 superior maxillary, 2 malar, 2 nasal, 2 palatine, 
1 vomer, 2 inferior spongy bones, 2 lachrymal, and 1 inferior 
maxillary. Each jaw possesses 1 LI teeth : viz.) 4 incisors in the 
centre, 2 canineB, 1 on either aide, and 10 molars or tuber- 
culated grinders, 5 at each extremity, divided iuto false molars 
and true molars; the canines are somewhat pointed and pro- 
ject slightly beyond the edges of the incisors and the tubercles 
of the molars. 

Man lias 12 pairs of ribs articulated with the vertebral 
column, 7 superior pairs or true ribs, which are united ante- 
riorly to the sternum by cartilaginous processes, and 5 inferior 
pairs or false ribs which anteriorly are free. 

A portion of the vertebral column with the ribs and the 

ernum bound the chest or thorax, a large conical cavity 
which occupies the anterior and superior part of the trunk. 

The inferior extremity oi' the vertebral column or coccyx has 
aDove it a large pyramidal and triangular bone, termed the 
sacrum ; this bone is united at the sides with the iliac or hip 

The coccyx, the sacrum, and the two ossa imiominata form 
another large irregidar cavity, which is open above and below, 
but closed in front, and is known as the pelvis. 

Between the pelvis and the thorax is the abdomen. 

In man, the upper or thoracic limbs arc attached to the 
superior and lateral parts of the trunk ; each consists of a 
shoulder, arm, fore-arm, and hand. 

The shoulder is formed in front by the clavicle and behind 
by the scapula. The arm consists of the humerus ; the fore- 
arm has the radius on its outer and the ulna on its inner side. 
The' hand is divided into the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers. 
The eaqius has 8 bones arranged in two rows: in the first row, 
passing from without inwards, is the scaphoid, the semilunar, 

the cuneiform, and the pisiform bone; in the second and ill 
the same order is the trapezium, the trapezoid, the ob mag- 
num, and the unciform bone. The metacarpus is formed by 
5 bones, named according to their numerical order from with- 
out to within. The fingers are 5 in number in each hand ; 
they are named thumb, hides, middle, ring, and little finger, 
or in their numerical order, passing; from without inwards; 
each has three phalange*, except the thumb, which haa only 

The lower or abdominal limbs are articulated with the 
inferior or lateral parts of the trunk, and consist, like the 
superior, of four divisions — the hip, thigh, leg, and foot. 

The hip hone, the analogue of the acapnia, tonus a part of 
the pelvis, which ban been previously spoken of. The thigh 
has only a single bone, the femur. The. leg has the fibula on 
its outer, the tibia on its inner side, and the patella in front 
and above. The foot is divided into the tarsus, metatarsus, 
and toes. The tarsus is composed of 7 bones: viz., the calea- 
neum, the astragalus, the scaphoid, the euboid, aud the 3 
cuneiform bones. The metatarsus is composed of 5 bones, 
arranged parallel to each other, and named according to their 
numerical order, from within outwards. The toes are 5 in 
number, and are also named after their numerical order aud 
in the same direction : each has three phalanges, except the 
great toe, which has only two. 

In man, the length from the bend of the body to the sole of 
the foot is generally equal to 1m! 1" hi* height. The distance 
from the extremity of one middle finger to that of the other, 
when the arms are extended, ia equal to the height of his body. 

When the body is of average stoutness, the height is equal 
to five times its diameter. 

The head and ncek equal the sixth, and the head alone the 
seventh aud a half part of the entire height of the body. The 
long diameter of the face represents the tenth part, and the 
latter is equal to the length of the palm of the hand. 

Man ia remarkable for the general weakness of his organs 
at the period of birth, and for the length of time required for 
his physical education. He is partly naked and partly 
covered; bis hair is distinguished for its length. 

The human species i* especially I'rugivorous. Man drinks 
without being impelled to it by thirst, and he alone makes use 
of compound and fermented liquors. The latter he obtains 
from the grape, the augar-emc, barley, rice, dates, the cocoa- 
nut, the berries of the junipei'-tree, from the twigs of the pine 



and the birch, from the sap uf certain trees, and from the 
milk of several of the mammalia. 

His frugivorous nature accords with the character of his 
teeth, while his stomach is simple, and his alimentary canal of 
moderate length. The intestines are divided into the small 
and large intestines, the latter being provided with a rudimen- 
tary .'aval appendage. The great omentum bangs in front of 
the abdominal viscera, as far aa the pelvis. The heart is placed 
obliquely upon the diaphragm, with its apex inclined towards 
the left aide. 

The human head has a facial angle which varies between 85° 
and 64°. The maximum of 85° occurs in the European (fig. 1) ; 

'5° in the Chinese ; and 70° in the Negro (tig. 2). [In 
the adult Chimpanzee, the facial angle is only 35°, and in the 
Orang 30°. Professor Owen has shown that the measure- 
ments, which assigned a higher development of the facial angle 
to these anthropoid apes, were made on young animals, 
before the enormous canines of the second set of teeth had 
made their appearance and before the large elongated muzzle 
of the full-grown animal had become developed.] 

The human brain is distinguished by several important 
characters ; such as the great development of its anterior 
lobes, and of the eorpua callosum, by the number of its convo- 
lutions and anfractuosities, by the depth of the latter, and, as 
a necessary consequence, by the great extent of the cerebral 
surface ; it has been calculated that the volume of the enee- 

Klon U to that of the body as 1 to 28. ' Its average weight 

' In tho Sslmiri [a small a 


is about 44oz. fiOgrs. avoirdupois. 1 The posterior portions o 
the hemispheres overlap the cerebellum. 

[The following tables of the average weight am! relative si/f 
of the brain are taken from a paper hv the late Dr. Join 
Keid, in the London and Edinburgh Monthly Journal < 
Medical Science, for April, 1843. 

Table I. 

Average. Weiijht of the Encephulon hetireeit 23 ami 35 i/r,i 
age, in the two Sexes. Mules, 5'S brains we'ujhe,!. F,/i. 
36 brains icrii/hed, 


F Males. 


lb. o 

Average weight of eneephalon 

50 3i 

lb, t 



Tiedman says, " The female brain is lighter than that of t 
male. It varies between 21bs. Soz. and 31bs. lloz. troy, 
never found a female brain that weighed 41bs. The brain of 
girl, an idiot, sixteen years old, weighed only lib. 6oz. ldr. 
The female brain weighs on an average from 4 to 8 
than that of the male ; and this difference is already per- 
ceptible in a new-born child. 

" The brain arrives, on an average, at its full size towards the 
seventh and eighth year. Soemmering says, erroneously, that 
the brain does not increase after the third year. Gall and 
Spurzheim, on the other baud, are of opinion that the brain 
continues to grow till the fourteenth year. The brothers 
Wenzel have shown that the brain arrives at its full growth 
about the seventh year. This is confirmed by Hamilton's 

" Desmoulins is of opinion that the brain decreases in old 
people. From this circumstance he explains the dinihiutioi 

I ; 22 ; in some birds as 1 : 20 : IS : 16 Or : 12. The last proportion 
occurs in the lorn-tit. (Is. ("ieoitYov Saint-TIilaire). 

1 That of Iluiiiiymni nvi;.;ln-;l ;,<!hk, -isii grains, avoirdupois, which ia 
probably the maximum woiirlii. The "i.idir. of 8-loz. llilgrs. avoirdu- 
pois, which has been aliened to (Javier* brain, must be regarded as an 
exaggeration; while that of Ti-uv- r.iu%rri. and (if nearly "Uoz, avoirdupois, 
which aro supposed to have been the wek'hi <>\ tin: biiiins of Byron auii of 
Cromwell, are impossible. [The hrain of the late Dr. Ambereronibie 
weighed about Gin/.. ai'idrdup'.di. See (Juriiia '.:];'.■; .luurinti, Dee., 1844.] 

of the functions of the nervous system nod intellectual powers. 
The truth of this assertion has in it as yet beeu determined. 
The brothers Wen/.cl and Hamilton deny it. 

"It is remark a tile that the brain of a man. eighty-two years 
old, was very small and weighed but 31bs. 2oz. 3dr. ; and the 
brain of a woman, about eighty years old, weighed but 
21bs. 9oz. ldr. I have generally tumid the cavity of the skull 
smaller in old men than in middle-aged persons. It appears 
to me, therefore, probable thiit the brain really decreases in 
old age, only more remarkable in some persons than in 
others." ' 

The following are the results obtained by Dr. Reid, with 
;e to the weight of the brain at different periods of life. 

Table II. 


number of brains 


: number iifbinioa 

weighed, 154. 

weighed, 97. 


X umber 









lto 4 




2 to 4 




5 „ 7 




5 „ 7 




7 „ 10 




7 „ 8 




10 „ 13 






— ■ 


13 „ 16 








16 „ 20 




16 „ 20 




20 „ 30 




20 „ 30 




30 „ 40 




30 „ 40 




40 „ 50 




40 „ 50 




50 „ 60 




50 „ 60 




60 „ 70 



B S 

60 „ 70 




70& upw 




70& upw 




This table shows that, the brain attains its greatest absolute 
reight at an early age. The maximum is found in the table 
f the male brains at between 16 and 20. Br. Heid, however, 
states that this apparent excess of weight at that period over 
the next forty years must have arisen from sources of fallacy 
incidental to insufficient data. And in the group between 40 
1 50, Dr. Iteid states that some brains much below the 


were found, so aa to leave no doubt that the average 
•eight in that group was to be attributed to that cireum- 

A decided diminution in the weight of the brain was noticed 
in females above Go years i if age, but among the males this was 
not apparent until a later period. 

" Anatomists," says Tiedmnn. " (lifter very much as to the 
weight of the brain compared with the bulk and weight of the 
body; for the weight of the body varies so much, that it is im- 
possible to determine accurateh the proportion between it and 
the brain. The weight of nn adult varieB from 100 to 800lbs., 
and changes both in health and when under the influence of 
disease, depending in a great measure on nutrition. The 
weight of tlie brain, although d liferent in adults, remains gene- 
rally the same, unaltered by the increase or diminution of the 
body. Thin persons have, therefore, relative to the size of the 
body, a larger brain than stout people. 

" From my researches I have drawn the following con- 
clusions : 

" 1. The brain of the new-born child is, relatively to the size 
of the body, the largest ; the proportion is 1 : 6. 

" 2. The human brain \a smaller, in comparison to the body, 
the nearer man approaches to his full growth. In the second 
year the proportion of the brain to the body is as 1 : 14 ; in 
the third, 1 : 18 ; ni the fifteenth, 1 ; 24. In a full-grown 
man, between the age of 20 and 70 years, as 1 : 35 to 45. In 
lean persons the proportion is often as 1 : 22 to 27 ; in stout 
persons as 1 : 50 to 100 and more. 

"3. Although Aristotle has remarked that the female brain 
is absolutely smaller than the male, it ta nevertheless not 
relatively smaller compared with the body; for the female 
body is, in general, lighter than that of the male. The female 
brain is for the most part even larger than the male, compared 
with the size of the body." 

The brain of a man, eighty-two years old, was very small and 
weighed but 31bs. 2oz, 3dr. ; and the brain of a woman, about 
eighty years old, weighed 21bs, fioz. ldr.i 

The following table gives the results obtained by Dr. Reid 
from the examination of 92 bodies. 


Table III. 
? Weight of the Encephahn to the entire Body. 

weighed, fii . 

weighed, 35. 

Number Encophalou. 


Numberl Encephalon. 


weighed. 1 ok- dr. 



at. dr. 

1 to 5 



2 to 4 


1 to 8$ 

at 5 


i „ 9;-i 

5 „ 7 


. — — 

at 7 


i » ioh 

7 „ 10 


1 „ 13Vj 

13 to 15 


1 „ 15}i 

13 „ 15 


1 „ 22 

16 „ 20 


1 „ 30J 

20 „ 30 


1 „ 85f| 

20 „ 30 


1 „ S8A 

30 „ 40 


1 „ 37A 

30 „ 40 


1 „ 34$ 

40 „ 50 


1 „ 38 

40 „ 50 


1 „ 35 

50 „ 60 


1 „ 36? 

50 „ 60 


1 „ 38 5 V 

60 „ 70 


1 „ 30^ 



1 „ 38^ -| 

Man's face is more or leas flat {o» suhlime), while that of 
animals is provided with a snout, which in more or less pro- 
jecting (os bestiale). The human face ia small relatively to the 
nine of the cranium ; it is short, and has a vertical or slightly 
oblique direction. The forehead projects, and the features 
portray every thought and every change of feeling. 

The organs of the senses are well developed. That of touch 
is eitremely line, owing to the form of the hand, the softness 
and flexibility of the skin, and the various positions which the 
thumb is capable of assuming. 1 Taste is very delicate; and 
that of smell easily distinguishes between different odours. 
The ear has a marvellous power of appreciating the different 
intonations of sound ; anil sight, although restricted to a short 
distance, is nevertheless clear and distinct. The latter acts in 
front, and not at the sides of the body, thereby producing 
greater concentration and unity in its action. 

Man alone is cosmopolitan; for he only is acquainted with 
the use of fire and clothing. He appreciates and seeks for 
causes. He observes the actual, lie conceives the possible, and 
doubts the supernatural. (Bourdon.) He delights in amuse- 

which are best 

' In the monkeys it is the posterior pair of extremiui 
adapted for prehension, and not the anterior or superior pair, as ia man. 


ment and luxury ; he hopes and repents ; lie langliB and weeps ; 
he has the wonderful I'aculty of expressing abstract notions by 
the aid of sound, and it is tipou this faculty that his memory 
and his power of reasoning depend. (Cuvier.) The distinction 
which reason establishes between man and animals ia ao great 
that the most degraded Hottentot is capable of governing the 
most perfect of the mammalia, whether in the form of a 
mischievous monkey or of t lie sagacious elephant : he commands 
them, he compels them to obey him, and renders them subaer- 
vient to his use. (Adanaon.) 

Man has been justly pronounced the chief of animals and 
the ting of nature." He has no other musters thi 
passions and his fellow-men ; his superiority does not depend 
upon the strength of his body or the perfection of bis senses, 
but upon the faculties of his soul and the powers of bis mind. 3 

He haa measured the course of the stars, and calculated the 
period of their return. He haa invented sigiia in which to 
embody his ideas, and by which lie can preserve and transmit 
them to posterity.* Lastlv, the multiplicity of his industrial 
occupations bears a direct" relation to the variety of his amuse- 
ments and the extent of his dominions. 

Man'a body is adapted to the erect position. His upright 
ness results partly from the central situation of the occipital 
foramen (Daubenton), and to an arrangement of the vertebral 
column, which is peculiar to himself (Serrea). [In a well- 
formed European skull, the plane of the occipital foramen ia 
horizontal, and its anterior extremity is about halt' way between 
the tuberosity of the occipital bone and the incisors of the 
upper jaw. This central position of the occipital foramen and 
the condyles is one of the great peculiarities of man, who ia 
destined to stand erect. His head, therefore, is almost equally 
balanced on the top of the spine. In monkeys, who hold a 
middle rank between man and quadrupeds, the foramen 
magnum is placed farther back ; in the orang-utan, it is about 
twice as far from the. foramina incisiia as front the back of the 
head. Consequently, although monkeys can stand erect for a 

1 "He comes naked upon the earth . . . to his great profit and advan- 
tage be is armed wild innkT.-tainliiiM- and doLlied "ill) reason-" (A. Pare.) 
" Man ie a ph!!i>vj/,!tnM.I an hind." (Virey.) 

■ "Man ia more excellent and |.n-vi«i than all (lie animals." (A. Pare.) 

1 " Robur ct rirex in eupieiiiiu." (Eusf.achi.) 

* "Ho has reduced to writing ilie iloi.-iriiu's and spallations of philoso- 
phers, ao that uy this means «v are still alik' to otovc-rse and to dispute 
with Plato, Aristotle, and the other writers of antiquity." (A. Pare.) 



time, they cannot do so long. 1 ] Mail's buck is less covered, or, 
more correctly speaking, ii is more naked than his chest or his 
abdomen; a character which docs not belong to any other 
mammalian animal. (Blumeubach.) Mis loot is large and pro- 
vided with a projecting heel, upon which the leg is placed in a 
vertical position ; the toes are short and possess but little 
flexibility, and the great toe, although larger and longer than, 
the others, cannot be opposed to them. The muscles which 
maintain the foot ami the thigh in a state of extension are 
exceedingly powerful, and form the calf and the buttock. The 
pelvis is large, the legs are placed apart aud give firmness to the 
bipedal and erect position. Man could not, even it' he wished 
it, move conveniently upon all lour limbs. The interior extremi- 
ties, now become posterior, would he too long relatively to tbe 
superior, which would be similarly converted into anterior 
extremities. The length of the thighs would always bring the 
knees against the ground. The shoulders, placed too widely 

Sart, and the arms carried too far from the medium line, would 
support the anterior part of the body. The heel would not 
rest upon the ground. The weight of the head would not 
be properly sustained. The eyes, instead of looking forward, 
would be directed towards the ground. The arteries which 
supply the brain not subdividing as in most quarupeds, the 
blood which is requisite for the supply of so large on organ 
would be poured into it with too much force, and frequent 
apoplexies would be the result of the horizontal position. 

The straight and erect attitude of man is that of command. 
Hia head, directed towards the heavens, offers an august and 
dignified countenance. (A dun son.) It has been truly observed, 
that the erect attitude of man constitutes one ot his great 
physical distinctions, even as his intelligence forms a moral 

The nearly equal number of individuals belonging to the 
two sexes proves that monogamy is the natural condition of 

The male organ contains no central bone; it hangs in front 
of the pubis, aud the prepuce does not attach it to the abdomen. 
This fold of the skin covers the gland more or less completely, 
and is provided with its proper frenum. The scrotum is placed 
exterually, and is lax and wrinkled. 

in Osteology, l>y Lather Holuen, p. II", Sail edition. London, 

12 ASA.TOMT or MAN. 

The womb is a simple oval cavity ; at the entrance of t 
vagina there is generally a hymen or eanmculae tnyrtiformes. 
The mamma; are placed on the chest, and thus accord with the 
facility with which the female carries her infant in her arms. 

The human female has usually one young at a birth. Out 
of 150 to 200 deliveries there does not occur above one example 
of twins. It is extremely rare to meet with more. The 
duration of pregnaney is nine months. Children born before 
the seventh month seldom live. 

A fietus of a month old is from .02 to .03 of an inch in 
length j at two months it measures from an inch to an inch 
and a half; at three mouths from two to two and a half inches; 
at five mouths from eight and a half to ten and a halt' inches ; 
at seven months from thirteen to fourteen inches; at eight 
months from nearly fourteen to fifteen inches ; and at nine 
months eighteen inches and a half. 

[According to Miiller an embryo of thr fourth week measures 
3J lines. At the commencement of the second month the length 
of the embryo extends to a few lines or half an inch. The extre- 
mities are visible in the form of leaf-like appendages, and the 
cavity of the mouth evicts, and is wide open. In the course of 
the third month the fietus acquires I lie length of two and a half 
or three inches ; in the fourth, during which the sex becomes 
distinguishable, it reaches to four inches ; and in the fifth to 
twelve inches. At this period occur the formation of the fat, 
and the further development of the rudimentary horny 
structures, the nails and the down, lanugo, which appears over 
the whole surface, and the eyelids coalesce. In the fifth month, 
also, the movements of the embryo arc felt by the mother. A 
fastus born during the sixth mouth breathes, but does not con- 
tinue to live. In the xeventh linmr month the embryo acquires 
the length of 16 inches or more, and if expelled from the 
uterus is sometimes capable of living. In the eighth lu% 
month its length is 16J- inches ; the testes at tki 
descend from the abdominal cavity through the inguinal ring 
into the scrotum, which had hitherto the form of empty folds 
of the skin, and the eyelids become tree. In the ninth month 
the hair appears on the head, and the embryo measures 17 
inches in length. In the tenth lunar month its length reaches 
18 or 20 inches. 1 ] 

The milk teeth begin to appear some months after birth 
yBalj, vol. u. pp. 15S8 


[between the. fifth and eighth. 1 ] The incisors are the first 
teeth which are cut [those of the lower jaw generally preceding 
the upper by u week or two]. At two years of age [or from 
that to two and a half ] the healthy child in provided with 
twenty teeth. These teeth begin to be shed about the seventh 
year, and are replaced by others. Of the twelve molar teeth, 
which are never shed, four make their appearance at the age of 
four years and a half, four at nine yenrs of age, and four much 
later. The latter, termed the wisdom teeth, sometimes show 
themselves towards the twentieth year, but occasionally not 
until after the fortieth. 

[The periods mentioned in the preceding paragraph for the 
appearance of the permanent molars differ materially from 
those at which they occur in this country. The first per- 
manent molars do not appeal' before the seventh year, and 
sometimes the four are not through the gum until the ninth 
year. The second are in place between the twelfth and 
thirteenth years. These numbers were obtained by Mr. 
Saunders from the examination of a large number of children, 
for the purpose of ascertaining how far the teeth might be 
toasted wr the purpose of determining the age of children 
employed in factories, and to prevent anv infringement of the 
1'actories Eegulation Act. From all the eases which came 
under his notice, 31 r, Saunders has drawn the following con- 

" Thus then it appears, that of 708 children of nine years of 
age, 389 would have been pronounced, on an application of this 
test, to be near the completion of their ninth year; that is, 
they presented the lull developments of that age. But on the 
principle already stated, that of reckoning the fourth tooth as 
present when the three are fully developed, a still larger 
majority will he obtained, and. instead of 3S9. the proportion 
will be as follows : of 708 children, no less a number than 
530 will be fully nine years of age. What then are the 
deviations exhibited by the remaining 178? They are the 
following: 12(1 would be pronounced eight years and Bis 
months, and the remaining 52 eight years of age, so that the 
extreme deviations are only twelve months, and these only in 
the inconsiderable proportion (when compared with the results 
obtained by other criteria) of 32 in 708. 

" Again, of 338 children, of thirteen years of age, no less 
than 294 might have been pronounced with confidence to he 

' T. Bell : The Anatomy, Physiihgy, and Distant! of (In Ttctlt. |>. Si), 
dedit. London, 1SU5. 

of that age. The remaining 44 would have been considered as 
follows : 36 in their thirteenth, iunl eight near the completion 
of their twelfth year." 1 ] 

The feet us increases the more rapidly as it approaches t 
period of birth. The child increases less and less as it passe 
from that period. 

At birth the infant weighs from 3 kilogrammes (O'Glbs. 
avoirdupois) to 3 kilogrammes and a half (7'71bs avoirdupois). 
It has attained more than one quarter of its full height; ' 
two years and a half it has acquired tin 1 brill', and at nine 
ten years of age the three quarters. At thirty years of age it 
ceases to grow. 

[The length of the new-born infant varies from about ] 
inches to 22; the average, probably, being between IS and 
19, though Koederar states it to he 20^ inches. The mean 
weight is about 71hs. avoirdupois, or one twentieth of that ol 
the adult. Dr. William Hunter states, that of many thou- 
sand new-born perfect infants weighed at the British Hospital, 
in Loudon, by Dr. Macaulay. the smallest waB about 4lbs., 
the largest lllbs. 2oe., while the greater number varied from 
5 to &lbs. The average weight of 2(3 children at the natural 
period, weighed by Boedercr, was about U-Jlbs. ; the lightest 
Slllja. ; and the heaviest 81bs. The length of male slightly 
exceeds that of female children, while the dillerenee in weight 
is estimated by Dr. Clarke at about '.hi/., avoirdupois. In the 
case of twins, the average weight of each twin is in general 
less than that of children born at single births, though the 
combined weight of both is greater. Dr. Clarke found that the 
average weight of twelve twins was lllbs. avoirdupois each 
pair; the heaviesi being Wilis., and (he lightest fc'.lbs. 2 ] 

The average height of a man is 5378 feet. 3 A man is con- 
sidered to be of the ordinary height when he measures from 
5'249 to 5'754 feet. The woman is somewhat shorter, 
man is said to be short when he is much under 5'249 feet, and 
is called tall when he is above 5'7.>1 feci in bright. Men who 
do not measure 3'2S0 feet are du-a,ji, \\ bile those- who exceed 
6*5G0 feet a: 

also Mr. Saunders' 

1 Medical Gazette, vol. ii, 1837-38, p. 
work, entitled, Thr '/'■ dh <i- T(M of Age. 

' T. H. Tanner, .M.D., F.L.S.: A Practical Treatise 
Infancy and Childhood, p. lti. London, 1S5S. 

' According to Tcimn it is ;r-i'J5: uixording to Lulut, C'436; and accord- 
injr tu SilliuiuaiiLi, .)-429 feet. 

' By raising hie arms in the air a man measures from the sole of hie 


[The skeleton of O'Byrne, the Irish giant, which is preserved 
in the College of Surgeons, measures eight (bet from the 
vertex to the sole of the foot. In the annual Register 
Chronicle, for June, 1783 (vol. xxvi. p. 209), it is stated 
that in August, 1780, O'Byrne measured eight feet, that in 
1782 he had gained two inches, ami after he was dead he 
measured eight feet four inches, lie died in 1783, aged only 
22 : Ins death was hastened by excessive drinking, to which he 
was always addicted. None of his family were of more than 
ordinary stature.] 

The varieties of the human race which differ most as re- 
gards height are the Bosehesmans and the Patagonians. 
Putting aside the exaggerated statements of some travellers, 
we find that the proportion of their heights is as 8 to 27.' 

[Darwin, iu his interesting narrative of flic voyage of the 
Beagle, when speaking of the Patagonians, says : " Their 
height, appears ".'renter lliau it really is, from their large 
guanaco mantles, their long flowing hair, and general figure: 
on an average their height is about sis feet, with some men 
taller and only a few shorter; aud the women are also tall ; 
altogether, they are certainly the tallest race we anywhere 
saw.- Tlie skclcttui of a male Buschesuian in the College - of 
Surgeons (No. 5,3157) measures lour feet five inches from the 
vertex to the sole of the foot. If we assume that there is the 
same relative difference between the length of the skeleton 
and the body of the BoscheBman as there was in the case of 
O'Byrne (viz., the one twenty-fifth of the whole height), then 
the owner of the foregoing skeleton must have been four feet 
seven inches high.] 

The average weight of mankind, without reference to age or 
sex, is 1151bs. avoirdupois. That of a man is 1211bs., and that 
of a woman, llOlbs. Man attains lus greatest weight at about 
forty years of age, and begins to diminish very perceptibly at 
sixty. The average weight of the old person, in both sexes, is 
about the same as that of the individual at nineteen years of 

foot to the tips of bia fingeis 8'fioO rent, and from the aolc of his foot to the 
umbilicus S'^80 feet. (Silbermaun.) 

' It has been cak'uUiteil that 1 1 1 e illi'ni-'.U'.-c hi size but ween the Shetland 
pony and the larne Eiurlisli brewer's Ii.tsc is us I to 27. Thus the varia- 
tion iu the size of the human race i- '.-i.dit times- less than what occurs in 
the horse. 

11 Charles Darwin, If. A., F.R.S. : Jtmrii'i/ ti/Ili-smnrli's kilo Out Natural 
History and Gtotow uffhii Cin<iilriti nV/i d duriiiy (lit. Voyage of H.M.S. 
Beagle round Ike World, p. 2Z± 2nd edit. London, 1845. 

[M. Quetelet ' lias given the following table of the varktic 
"ghts of full-grown and well-formed persons in kill 
grammes ; the value of the number in avoirdupois has 
placed beside them, omitting fractional parts when under 
a pound. 

Maximum. | Minimum. | Medium. 

kil. lbs. 
985 218 
93'5 206 

kil. Ibs.t 

552 121j 


A healthy chUd begins to talk when he is from twelve 
fifteen months old, the first sound which he utters amongst 
nearly all nations and in almost every language are the syl- 
lables la, pa, ma, because they an. 1 the sounds which are I 
easily pronounced. Some children will articidate very die 
tinctly at two years of age, and will repeat nearly all that i 
said to them; but the majority do not talk until they ai 
years and a half old, and frequently not until much later. 

When the body lias attained ils lull height and size, it 
begins to spread and to become fat. The minute vessels are 
gradually filled up, the Bolids are rendered ? 
after a life of longer or shorter duration, passed amidst more 
or less excitement and anxiety, there comes old au'e, feebleness, 
decrepitude, and death. (Cuvier.) 

According to Duvilkrd (1800) the average duration is 28J 
years. According, however, to the more recent statistics, it ia 
33-63 years. 

Men who have passed the average period of life usually 
attain to 70 years of age. Persons who live to a hundred are 
exceedingly rare, and stdl more so those who exceed that age. 

[The returns of the Registrar General's Fifth Annual Report 
show, that in England the average duration of life at birth i 
41-18 years: and in children who have attained the age of o] 
year it is 47'71 years for the male, or iS'ou years for the 
female ; and for all children without reference to the ses it is 
48' 13 years. 

The following remarks are taken from l)r. Tanner's work on 
the diseases of children : ! 

"Let us suppose," says this writer, "that 100,000 chil- 
dren were born alive on the 1st January, 1841; and that 

' "Anna!i.< ■!'I!i/"i:-it£ 1'nt'lv/ue," ftc, torn. x. p. 27. 
' Op. oft. p. 6. 


they were the offspring of all ranks imd classes of Englishmen. 
From the usual proportion of the two seses registered, it will 
appear, that 51,274 were boys, and 48,726 girls. Of the 
100,000 children, 14,031 have perished during the first year, 
leaving 85,369 alive on the 1st January, 1812; they were 
exactly a year old, and are placed against the age ' 1 in the 
table. On the 1st January, 1843, the survivors were two 
years old, and in number 80,102; so that 5,267 have died in 
the second year. On 1st January, 1846, the fifth birthday 
was attained, and there were 74.201 living. Consequently, in 
the first five years, 25,709 children out of 100,000 have died. 
During the nest five years, when the children leave home 
more, nud when — as it appears from the parliamentary 
returns — great numbers pass part of the day at school, the 
mortality becomes considerably less, so that we find 70,612 
alive at the age of ten ; while ironi ten to fifteen the loss is 
email, 68,627 living to Hie latter age. The loss of life among 
girls now becomes rather greater than among boys, and it 
continues so for the eusuing live years, when both sexes are 
more detached from the care of their parents, and the majority 
pursue the professions or trades by which they afterwards 
gain a livelihood. The mortality appears to increase rather 
rapidly from twelve to fifteen ; and then at a slow regular 
rate from the age of fifteen to fifty-five : (Hi. 05!) attained the 
age of twenty, it was stated that 51,274 hoys were born 
alive to 48,726 girls; but the mortality in infancy is greater 
among boys than girls ; so that 31,958 males attain the age 
of twenty- live, and 31,023 females attain the age of twenty- 
four. This is about the average age of marriage in England, 
and the number of the two sexes is then nearly equal. The 
chance of living from twenty-five to forty-five is rather in 
favour of English women ; the violent deaths of men counter- 
balancing t lie dangers of d-beari rig. At the age of sixty 
37,9!)6 will be still alive, while 24^531 attain the age of 
seventy ; *. e., 11,823 men, and 12,708 women, the mortality of 
the latter being less than that of the former after fifty-five. 
At the ago of eighty, there is 1ml little doubt, that about 9,000 
of the 100,000 will still be found alive; but after this period 
the observations grow uncertain, although we may calculate 
that 1,140 will attain the age of ninety, 16 will be centena- 
rians, and 1 man and 1 woman, out of the 100,000, may 
remain to complete their one hundred and fourth year. 

" For convenience of reference, these calculations are 
arranged in the following table, which also contains a register 


showing the p.cprrtatiuii <>f life ; i. e., the mean number of yei 
which, lit any given age, the members of a coituu unity, tot' 
one with (mother, m-iv e\j>tvt to live. The menu i/iu-n/ioii 
life is found by adding the age to the expectation of Hi 
tnuH. the mean duration of a hoy's life at live years is 5+ 
49-84— 54'04. The probable duration of life is the age at which 
a given number of cliildren bora into the world will be reduced 
one hall'; so that there is un ei-unl diuncc of their dying before 
or after that age. Thus, ont of 51,274 males and 1S.72G 
females, a total of 100,000 new-horn infants, about oue-1 
of each sex will have died before eom-deting the age of forty- ' 
bo that the probable lifetime of an infant at birth is 45 yf 


Life Table fob England 





Expectation of Life. 









42-18 1 














1957 ; 














50*48 1 







50-38 1 



35.50 1. 











11-13 . 












36 99 







33 08 


34 25 ! 






29 83 






















21-07 j 







17*63 | 







14-40 1 







11-52 j 














6-92 | 







5-20 1 





3 75 


3*83 1 




























— | 

WILD MAS'. 19 

" This table reads thus : Of 100,000 births, 51,274 will be 
male children, and 48,721} females ; of which number 85,369 
will be alive at the end of one year, or 43,10 1 males, ;tnd 42,265 
females. So again, of the 100,000, uue male and one female 
will live to the age of 104. 

"To learn tin" expectntioiioflilV the table should be read as 
follows : At birth, a child's expectation of life is 11'IS years ; 
if a boy, 40' 19 years ; if a girl, 4218 years. Again, at the age 
of 40, a person's expectation of life is 27*14 years; hence the 
mean age to which persons who attain the age of 40 live, is 
40+27'-'l4=fi7-14 years."] 

The period when man is capable of reproducing hia species is 
that of puberty ; this occurs at from twelve to sixteen years in 
the male, and from eleven to fourteen in the female. The 
eireum stances being otherwise the same, this period occurs 
earlier in hot climates than iu those which are temperate, and 
in the latter sooner than those in which are cold. 

Puberty is the spriii^-iiiiieot' human life. Up to this period 
nature has ouly supplied the child with what was necessary for 
its nourishment and for its growth. His life has been co nfin ed 
to himself, he has been incapable of transmitting it ; but the 
moment when puberty arrives he has acquired, not only all that 
is necessary for his individual existence, but he can also impart 
existence to others. (Adanson.) This superfluity of life, which 
seeks to extend itself without, is marked by several signs, such 
as a change iu the voice, the growth of the heard, the enlarge- 
ment of the throat, and the development of the sexual organs. 



Does man exist, or has he ever existed, in a wild state ? 
The answer is, and should he, in the negative. Man {Homo 
sapiens) is essentially a social being. 1 If when he first appeared 
upon the earth, he remained for a time iu the so called state 
of nature he must rapidly have emerged from that condition. 
But this early sta^e uf society was never similar or analogous 
to the kind of life which is led by even the most perfect of the 

1 Ziuv irohlfixi)*. (Aristotle.) 


mammalia d animals. Tin 1 least enlightened populations, and t: 
lowest islanders, have always presented themselves in the co 
dition of a society more or loss perfectly organized ; sometimes 
even remarkably so, and manifesting, not only a craving for 
civilization, but also the capacity of attaining it. In fact, t 
in the smallest tribes, it is easy to recognise the presence 
influence of those important moral uiBtiurts which relate t 
family, to property, and to religion. 

Human society is essentially distinguished from t 
association of animals, such as those of beavers, bees, 
ants, both by the motives which produce it. the advautaj 
which are derived from it, and by its progress towards p 
fection. (Kullier.) 

It is with regret that we find a great naturalist admitting fi 
the noblest of living beings the existence of a savage type 
(ferns), l to which Tie gives as characters the quadrupedal 
station, the absence of speech, and a covering of hair (tetraput, 
mat us, hii-sutim)' 

Several writers have published apocryphal histories 
miserable individuals belonging to our Bpecies, who, liavir 
been abandoned cither tlm m^h poverty or crime, have lived ii 
woods, and caverns, amidst the beasts of the fields, 
persons, having lost the power of speech, could only utt 
discordant and inarticulate sounds, and approached to a sf 
of imbecility. 

It would be folly to seek with Lamettrie. 3 in these rare a 
happily exceptional cases, the primitive type of the human r 
These degenerated beings are physical and moral aberratioi 
from the normal or civilized man, and not individuals who ha 
returned to the primitive condition from which eivilizati< 

Linnrous mentions nine of these cases ; but he does i 
inquire into their origin, their authenticity, or their scientific 
value ; he gives them without order or date, and withot ' 
detail or comment. All these unhappy beings are childi 
not a single adult is amongst them ;' a very remarkable c 

' Homo ferua (Linn.) hob ml rvir.'V,'<i.s. (Exorleben.) 

' Aristotle and Pliny also believed in [.lie existence of a wild type of tt 
human race. 

* De Lauietirie has rehired ^.-vri-nl o>,am[iles, and from them he k 
drawn the six (.diameters uiiieh In.' a--di;ii- U> ni;in in a -iltitc of nature. 

' Lav rev li:i-i i-iHiktu in a va/ue liiiiiLuev i it' a «■ i 1 ■ 1 hull wliiisu skeletoa !]■ 
saw at Wilna. His description, which was probably taken from soi 
hasty notes made at the time, stems to have been written under the p 

a> MAN. 21 

stance, and one which bIiows that a state of isolation is not 
that which is adapted to our species. Some of these children 
Lave been found with herds of Bheep and oxen, and others 
even amongst wolves and bears! It is on this account that 
Linna'iis has eharaclcn/.ed them by epithets indicative of their 
singular association. (Jitriiih i/i-nt//*. hiwinux, hqiuitm, iirsuiun). 

When we inquire into the origin of these cases, we are 
astonished at the contradictions, the falsehoods, and the 
absurdities which we meet with. 

The following are two of the best authenticated examples r 
The Young Girl of I'/iiniijingnr: and ih<< Young Savage of Tarn. 

1. The young girl of 'C/ia//i/iai/iir[/ni''i 'hi Caaij'tra/cn, Linn.) had 
IrVed in the woods, in the midst of the wild animals, but it was 
not known what were the circumstances which led to this. 
She was captured and taken to a chateau in the neighbourhood 
where she was brought up. She resided for a long time in 
Paris, and was known by the name of Mademoiselle Lebhmc. 
We are indebted for her history to M. Racine. 

In the month of September, 1731, the servants of the 
Chateau de Sogny, near Chalons-sur-Marne, one night per- 
ceived a sort of phantom on an apple-tree in the garden ; they 
approached without noise and succeeded in surrounding the 
tree. But, suddenly, the phantom leaped over their heads, 
then over the wall of the garden and lied to the woods, where 
it mounted a large tree. The master of the chateau directed 
his servants, with the assistance of the country people, to cut 
down the tree ; it was necessary to serve several in the same 
way, in consequence of the phantom throwing itself from tree 
to tree. It was suspected that it was a young savage of the 
female sex, and the people endeavoured to pursuade her to 
descend. The mistress of the chateau, thinking that hunger 
aud thirst would soon induce her to do so, ordered a bowl of 
water and some food to be placed at the trunk of the tree. 
The young girl, for such it proved to he, tempted by the sight, 
partly descended and then remounted. At length she came 
down and proceeded to drink ; she performed this act by 
dipping her chin in up to the mouth, and swallowed the liquid 
in the same manner as a horse. 

When she was secured, the nails both of her hands and feet 
were very long and exceedingly strong, giving her great facility 
in grasping the branches of the trees, and probably assisting 
her to destroy the wild animals. The colour of her body was 

conceived notion that the skeleton bore a strong resemblance to that of the 
Orang-utan I 


change in En i 

■A upon some 

of a blackish cast, but this disappeared with the cbanj 
mode of living. 

Taken to the chateau, she iinmcdiiiU'Iy seized upon 
raw fowls, whieh the cook had in hie hands. She was not 
acquainted with any language, or articulate sound, hut merely 
attend barsh gut tend cries. She was. however, uble to imitate 
the voices of certain quadrupeds and birds. 

In winter time she was compelled to cover herself with 
the BkinB of animals ; but at alt seasons of the year she must 
have worn a girdle, to which she attached a short round club, 
whieh slie made use of to protect herself from the wild beasts. 
She once, as she al'leruards related, felled a wolf with a single 
blow on the head. When she killed a hare with her stick, 
she skinned it and cat it ; when, however, she had hunted one 
down, she opened a vein with one of her nail*, drank the blood 
and threw the rest away. Her mode of running was very 
surprising ; there appeared to he scarcely any motion in ' 
feet and body, so that she seemed to glide along rather tl 
run. She exhibited the same agility in swimming and seer 
fish by diving. She ate the latter with great relish. She 
able to remain a long time beneath the water, so that 
would have supposed that the water was her natural element. 

When she acquired the power of speech, she related that 
she had lost a companion of her own age. with whom she used 
to live. They were both swimming in a river (no doubt, the 
Marne) when they heard a noise which induced them to dive 
it was a sportsman, who having mistaken them at a disl 
for water-fowls, had fired at them ; they came out Borne wi 
off and went into a wood, where they found a chaplet. whii 
both of them wanted for the purpose of making themseh 
bracelets, her sister having struck her on the arm, she reti 
it by a blow on the head, so violent, that as she expressed 
her sister became red. Prompted by that natural impi 
which leads us to succour those of our own kind, she imin 
ately went in search of a tree which yielded a gum thi 
according to her, would cure the injury she had inflicted ; whi 
she returned her wounded companion was gone, and she ~ " 
saw her again. 

The exact age of the girl could not be ascertained, nor 
locality from whence she had come. When questioned 
signs as to where she was born, she pointed to a tree, 
gave the persons, however, to understand that she bad travert 
a great expanse of water. Condamine conceived the idea 
ascertaining the place of her birth, by presenting to her 

i her 



roots and the fruits of various American plants, in the hope 
that Bhe might recognise amongst them some of the objects 
which bIio had seen in her childhood, but tbe experiment was 

For a long time she refused to be clothed. 

At Paris she was placed in a convent, a solitude which was 
very different from that of the woods, and rendered her 
extremely melancholy. 

This girl was not an idiot like most of the wild children 
which have been described by writers. She knew how to cover 
herself with skins to protect her from the cold, and could 
arrange them with skill. She had made a belt in which to place 
her stick; she entertained the idea of ornamenting herself with 
a ehaplet; she desired to cure the wound she hud inflicted on 
her sister, and she was actjiiainteil with the virtues of a certain 
gum. Has the most perfect and the most exalted of the 
mammalia ever exhibited such si^ns of intelligence, or such a 
combination of ideas, as was presented by this unhappy girl, 
who, from having been deserted, had fallen into her degraded 

2. The young boy of Tarn, commonly called the wild boy of 
Aeegron, was the subject of public curiosity at the beginning of 
the present century. All Paris went to see this unfbrtunftte 
being. He had received the name of Victor. The Abbe 
Bonnaterre and Dr. ltard, have each of them published a full 
and most interesting account of him. 

The child was eleven or twelve years old, and had been seen 
several times in the wood of (Trim*) tearing up the 
ground in search of potatoes, which he eat raw; he also 
collected acorns and chesnuts ; he slept upon dry leaves, and 
upon any one approaching would climb into the trees. 

Towards the end of the year 1799 he was met by two 
sportsmen, who managed to secure him. 

The chdd was quite naked, aud his habits most disgusting ; 
he was ferocious and irritable, he was subject to spasmodic 
movements, which wen* often of a convulsive character, and he 
balanced himself to and fro like the animals in a menagerie. 
He would endeavour to scratch those who thwarted him, but 
he evinced no kind of affection, or recognition of those who 
had charge of him. He appeared to be indifferent to almost 
everything, but continually endeavoured to escape from the 
habitations of men, in order that he might return to the woods. 

He was incapable of uttering any sound, and the nervous 
system was probably diseased. 


Tl ii- unhappy being was taken to a village in : 
hood. He contrived to escape at the end of a week, i 
regained the mountains, where he wandered about ■for fiftt 
mouths, covered only with a ragged shirt, enduring the mi 
bitter cold and the most intense heat. 

He was again captured upon his entering a lone house it 
the Canton of Saint Sernirj, moat probably being driven to 
by want of food. He was taken. to the hospital of 
Affrique, thence to Bodez, and lastly, by the order of tl 
minister, to Paris. 

He arrived in the capital towards the end of the year 1800. 

His height was about four feet three inches ; his skin 
white and delicate; his hair was of a dark ehesnut colour; 
face was rounded, his physiognomy agreeable, hut with little 
expression; his eyes were deep set and black, and the t 
lashes largely developed ; the mw long and somewhat poinl 
his smile was pleasing ; the tongue was without any nn ' 
mat ion. 

Hie body was covered with sears and lacerations from the 
spines and branches of the trees. At the upper part of the 
trachea was a transverse mark, about an inch and a half long, 
which seemed to have been caused by some cutting instru- 
ment ! 

Pinel regarded the little savage of Tarn as a miserable idiot, 
attacked by an incurable disease, and pronounced him to be 
incapable of instruction, or of becoming fitted for society. 

l)r. Itard did not agree with this opinion, he ventured 
entertain some hopes nf him. and endeavoured to bring him 
in an establish incut lor the deaf and dumb. He has publish! 
a long account of the results which were obtained at the end 
of nine months. It must be admitted, that, in spite 
apparent satisfaction of the doctor, these results were far from 
brilliant. All that can he said is, that the little savage was 
not entirely wanting in intelligence. But the purely animal 
functions predominated in him over all others, and his look had 
always a certain amount of vacancy, which is well expressed in 
the engraving of his portrait. His voice was never capable of 
producing more than certain discordant and almost inarticulate 

He manifested great dislike to sitting in a chair, or sleeping 
in a bed. He often crawled on his knees, almost in the 
manner of a monkey. It was with difficulty that he was 
taught to walk slowly. For a longtime he refused all food, 
either raw or cooked. 


in ted; 

n the 





He smelt all his fond before eating it. He had not" the 
slightest idea of modesty. 

One morning after a fall of snow lie uttered a cry of distress, 
and quitting his bed ran first to the window, then to the 
door, then impatiently from one to the other, and at last escaped, 
half dressed, into the garden. There he manifested his joy by 
the most piercing erics, rolled himself in the snow, and gather- 
ing it up in h.'tixll'ulri swallowed it with an incredible avidity. 

The origin of this child ia uncertain ; it was suspected that 
he hud been deserted when he was between four and five years 
of age, and that he bad, therefore, passed seven years in the 
forests. Some persons, who were worthy of credit, declared 
that he was the legitimate child of a notary, who had been 
inhumanly abandoned, because nature bad deprived him of the 
power of speech. 

Whatever he might have been, Pinel has justly observed 
that the child was an idiot ; but in the history ot this idiot 
there are two circumstances related by Dr. Itard, well 
deserving ot' attention: 

1. The child sometimes went by himself into the garden 
belonging to the establishment of the deaf and dumb, and 
seating himself on the edge of a reservoir, his balancing motion 
gradually dimmished. ami his lu.niy l.ieeame perfectly quiet ; his 
countenance then assumed all the appearance of a profound 
and melancholy revery ; he would remain in that state for hours, 
closely watehing the surface of the water, upon which, from 
time to time, he would east the fragments of the dried leaves. 

2. If during t lie night the bright rays of the moon entered 
hiB chamber lie seldom failed to rise and place himself before 
the window ; there he would remain standing during a con- 
siderable part of the night, motionless, his neck extended, and 
his eyes faxed upon the distant view illuminated by the moon, 
in a state of ecstatic contemplation! . . . 

Has anything ever been observed in the most intelligent 
monkey which could be compared to the state of revery 
exhibited by this diseased and idiot child ? 




Man inhabits all the climates* of the earth, with the ex- 
ception of those of the polar regions. The populations of the 
various countries present certain differences in the form of tht 
head, the expression of the countenance, the height of thi 
body, the proportions of the limbs, the characters of the bai 
the quantity of the beard, and in the colour of the ski 
Nevertheless there exists but one species of man, and tl 
populations of every country and of every period have descend! 
from a. common stock. 

Some naturalists have endeavoured to establish sevei 
distinct species of men. 

Linuteus in his Syttoma Natures (1766) admits two specie 
of men, the Homo Sapiens and the Homo Troglodytes, tlnde 
the latter title he includes the Albino ; these, howi 
persons in a state of disease, and in the present day they are 
not regarded as even constituting a variety, Linnaeus imagined 
that this supposed second species lived in caverns, and for this 
reason he bestowed unon it the name of troglodytes, eliarac- 
teriaing it by the epithet of nocturnal (noctiiriiua). At the 
end of his Manliumi jihnilnnim ulli-ni, which appeared five years 
after the twelfth edition of the St/stema Nature, the illustrious 
naturalist of Sweden committed the serious error of including 
in the genus Homo an ape, the Gibbon of Buflbn. which he 
names Homo Lar ; ' " a surprising error committed by a great 
genius, which should never find i mi tutors." (Pouehet.) 

Virey (1821 ) also admit ted two species of men, distinguished 
by the difference of aperture in the facial angle ; in the one it 
varies between 85° and 90° ; in the other between 75° and 82°. 
Iu the apes it never exceeds 40°. These two species of men 
include six races characterized hv their clour, and these again 
comprise eleven sub-races, which are arranged according to the 
regions they inhabit. 

Desmoullna (1824) divided the genus man into eleven species 
more or less distinct; the characters he gives them are often 
established with considerable ability, but they ure always 
insufficient to induce us to reject the unity of the human race. 
He names these species: 1st, the Cclfti-Sci//!i-A rabs ; 2nd, the 
Mongols; 3rd, the Ethiopians; 4th, the Euro- Africans ; 5th, 
the Austro- Africans ; 6th, the Mnhn/s ur Oct-mntmx ; 7th, the 


Popovs ; 8th, the Negro-Oceanians; 9th, the Australasians; 
10th, Ihr Cuhnnlianx ; 11th, the Americans. 

Bory de Saint-Vincent (1S25) goes even farther than 
DeBmoulms ; hi* admits tifteen species of men. These are : let, 
the Japetk ; 2nd, the Arabian ,- 3rd, the Hindoo ; 4th, the 
Scythian; 5th, tin; ,SVhk' (Chinese); (ith, the Hyperborean; 
7 tli, the Neptunian ; .Slh. llic Aitsfrrilitxiiiii; 9th, the Columbian ; 
10th, the American ; 11th, the Pataijonian ; 12th, the Ethio- 
pian ; 13th, the Cfcjfi'o; 14th, the Malanian; 15th, the ifo(- 
tentot. He arranger* these fifteen species into two tribes: 1st, 
the Leiotbix, or those with smooth hair; this division includes 

thi'Jajiclic, A raid an. !iind,„>, Sfi/ihie. ami .SVm/i- species I icloLlijiiLir 
to the Old World; the lIi/prrbomtH, Neptunian, und Australa- 
sian spines, common to the Old aud the New, and the Colum- 
bian, the American aod the Paiar/onian species, peculiar to the 
New World; 2nd, the Oulotbis, or those with crisp hair, con- 
taining the Ethiopian, Cii/fre. :\!t:hnuttn, anil Hottentot species. 
In the present day man is generally regarded as constituting 
a simple species, in which ail the individuals are capable of 
mingling indiscriminately, and are able to produce an oftspring 
which is as fruitful as its parents. 



While fully admitting the unity of the human species it is 
impossible not to perceive the existence of numerous distinctions 
between the various nations which people the globe, and of 
hereditary peculiarities which are more or less permanent. It 
is a matter of convenience to designate these particular modi- 
fications by the title of race, and thus, while maintaining the 
unity of the species, to recognise the existence of varieties. 
These races art: sometimes propagated and preserved by the 
act of generation, while at other times they become united 
together, and are transformed by intermixture. 

The idea of these modifications is extremely ancient. Moses, 
and at a later period Ephoms tit' (.'unite, divided mankind, the 
one into three races, after the three sons of Noah ; the other 
into four, after the. four cardinal points. 

Linn am s recognised four varieties of his Tfnmo sapiens, cor- 
responding to the four quarters into which, in his time, the 
earth was divided. 1 

His variety, m'mslriisua, cannot constitute a rs 


um.-Tilwh proposed to establish five races: 1st, the CS 
b; 2nd, the Mongolian; 3rd, the Ethiopian; ith, I 

American ; 5th, the Malay. 

M. Dumeril make§ sii : 1st, the Caucasian or Arab-E 
fem I 2nd, the Hyperborean; 3rd, the Mongolian; 4th, t 
American; 5th, the Malay ; (ith, the Ethiopian or Negro. 

Bory de Saint-Vincent, whom we have previously seen t 
tmguisnea fifteen species of men, admits also the existence ( 
race* and sub-races. Tims the Japelic, to which we belong, is 
divided as follows :- 

( A (ltn* toaatn I *• C<™«<««» Race (western). 

i b. „ h^. | s; gj^aaa^ 

Int variety. 2nd variety. 

Many naturalists, of whom we are one, admit with Cuvier 
three principal races: 1st, tlie While or Caucasian; 2nd, the 
Yellow or Mongolian ; 3rd, the Black or Ethiopian. 

The Caucasian Race (fig. 3) occupies the whole of Europe, 


the North of Africa, and Western Aaia as far as the Ganges. 
It appears to have descended from the mountains of the Cau- 
casus, from whence it derives its name. 

The head is oval, and the forehead well developed, the eyes 
are placed horizontally, the cheeks scarcely project, the jaws 
are hut little advanced, the hair is Ion;; and smooth, and the 
skin is of a pinkish white. This ran- is the most intelligent. 

The Mongolian Sace (fig. 4) is found in Eastern Siberia, 

Kamtschatkn, Russian America, China, Japan, and the Ludrone 
and Plnllipine islands. It seems to have originated in tbe 
Altai mountain b. 

The face is flattened, the forehead low, oblique, and square 
set ; the eves straight and oblique, the cheeks projecting, the 
hair straight and black, the heard thin, and the skin of an olive 

The Ethiopian Race (fig. r>) inhabits Africa to the south of 
the Atlas mountains. It principal centre is Ethiopia, to which 
it has given its name. 

The skull is compressed (fig. 6), the nose flat, the jaws pro- 
jecting, the lips thick, the hair woolly ami crisp, and the skin 
more or less black. This race is tin- least intelligent. 

There are several intermediate varieties between these three 
races distinguished by characters more or less strongly marked; 



Fig. 5. — SatitauifUe. 

these may be regarded as i 

^11 ii '"Hl^ races. "This has induced i 

j0^ % ^\ ethnologists to enumerate as many 

Jgr •-'~~~^ J4 >^. ^ ati oldTfla varieties or sub-v 

JS^ /\ ^ of the human race. To the Cau- 

Uon/foli/m, and J£/hia 

plan they have added the Allf< 

human, American, Hi 


i Hottentot, and Caffre racea. 

; divisions are eontained in 

the moat recent and important 

works which have been published 

in thiB science. Their distinctive 

'characters accord very closely to their ge(i;;i'a|.i]iical distribution. 

The following is a summary id" the diameters of the several 

aub-raees of mankind aa presented by my friend M. Is. 

Greoflroy Sain t-llil aire, in his last course of lectures before the 

Faculty of Sciences at Paris. I have arranged them in very 

nearly the same manner as this learned naturalist. 

Fig. 6. 



Table V. 
Synoptical Table of the Human Races. 

/projecting!^ °' ^^ ^^ i n 

Skin 1 aDun( * ant *• Caucasian. 

' ( copper coloured, beard scanty 2. Alleghanian. 

/copper coloured 3. American. 

''smooth tawny (small stature) ... 4. Hyperborean 

Nose ( ^ e P re88e< ^ / f with the axis slightly 

Skin. ] yellow I oblique . . 5. Malay. 

eyes Iwith the axis very 

^ ^ oblique . . 6. Mongolian. 

very depressed (skin blackish). Lower 

, limbs very slender 7. Australian. 


very f black. ) very slender . 8. MaXanian. 
4 depressed I Lower > 
, Nose. \ Skin, 1 limbs. ) well developed . 9. Ethiopian. 

(.tawny 10. Hottentot. 

\ projecting (skin bronzed) 11. Caffre. 

[Dr. R. Gk Latham, the latest English authority on the races 
of men, in his work on the " Varieties of Man " has divided 
the human species into three primary varieties, the Mongo- 
lia^, the AtlantidsB, and the Japetidae. In his " Varieties of 
the Human Species," published in Orr's " Circle of the 
Sciences," l he has arranged them into nine principal groups. 
Before enumerating these, it is necessary to observe that — 

Ethnological facts are either physical or moral : physical, as 
when a class is determined from the colour of the skin ; moral, 
as when one is determined from the purity or impurity of the 

Moral characteristics are either philological (that is, con- 
nected with the language), or non-philological (that is, not so 

The variations which occur in the different languages allow 
of their being arranged under the four following heads : 

1. Aptotic (from a not, and ptosis a case). — Languages with- 
out inflections and monosyllabic, as the Chinese : 

2. Agglutinate. — Languages which are inflectional, but 
which have become so from the juxtaposition or composition 
of different words. 

3. Amalgamate. — Languages with inflections, which cannot 
be shown to have originated in separate and independent 

1 Yol. i. p. 308. 



Anaptofic (from ana back, and ptosis a case). — Langm _ 
which, like the English, once possessed inflections, but hi 
fallen back or lost them. 

Gaor/p 1. — Physiognomy : Mongol. Language : Monoi 
labic. Area: Ladakh, Bulistau (or Little Tibet), 
Nepal, Sikkim, Baton, Northern India, Arakhau, the Burmt 
Empire, Siam Cambojin, Cochin China, Tonkin, China, the 
Islands of Adaman, Nieobar, Carnicobar, Hainan, and tbB 
Mergui Archipelago. Division*: Tibetan (or Bhot), Siamese 
(or Thav), Burmese, I'egitan (or Mind). Kambogian Anemitii 
(or Cochin Chinese), Chinese; various tribes imperfectly 
tributed and described as Sub-Himalayaus, Xagaa, and " 
Mincopie (or Adaman Islanders), and Nicobarians. 

Gboup 2. — TACBArNAXB. — Physiognomy : Mongol. 
guage: Agglutinate. Area: Mongolia, Mantsburia (the parts 
north of I'ekin — the vallev of the river Amur, Selinga, or Sag- 
halin), Siberia, Independent Tartary, Chinese Tartary, Turkia- 
tan, Anatolia, Roumelia (or Turkey in Europe), parts of Bo- 
khara, Persia, Armenia, Syria, the Crimea, Lapland, Finland, 
Esthouia, Livonia, the Russian governments of Archangel, 
Olonetz, Novrugond, St. Petersburg!!. Tver, Yaroslav, Vologda, 
Permia, Yiatka, Kazan, Simbirsk, Saratov, Astrakhan, Cat 
casus, Nizhninovogorod, Penza, Tambov, .Hungary, the Kui 
Isles, Japan, Kamskatka. Divisions : 1. The Mongol! 
Stock ; 2. The Tungusian Stock ; 8. The Turk Stock ' 
Lgrian Stock; 5. The Peninsular Stock. 

Gboup 3.— The Causacian Stock in tue limited me. 
ISO OF THE TEKM (DlOBCUHLAT) — Latham). — Physiognomy 
European rather than Mongol. Lanqiwyr : Mouosyliabi 
rather than European. Area : Caucasus. Divisions : 1. ™ 
Circassian; 2. Mizhjeji, The Irou; 4. The Georgians 
Tue Lesgians ; (!. The Armenians. 

Group 4. — The Pebsiak Stock. — Physiognomy: Caucasi 
rather than Mongol. Language : in its present state with, bi 
few inflexions. Area: Kurdistan, Persia, Beluchistan, parts 
Bokara, the Kohistan of Cabul, Kafreatan. Divisions : Kuj 
Persians, Biluelii, Afghans (Pushtu), Pirripamisans (popi 
tions of Kall'rislau and the Kohistan uf Cabul). 

Group 5.— The Ism as Stock. — Organization referalle 
tteo types : in one the skin is dark, the face broad, the featui 
coarse ; in the other, the feature? are regular, the head dulikhi 
kephalic, the skin brunette rather than black. Language 
Modified by foreign admixture; most so in the northern pai' 
of India. Area : India, Ceylon, the Maldive islands, parts 


the Monosyllabic frontier, the mountains of the southern parts 
of Beluehistan, i. e., the country of the Brahui. 

Group 6. — The Ocbas Gitoui'. — Area: The Peninsula of 
Malacca, Sumatra, .lava, and the chain ending in Timor and 
fiotti ; Borneo, and the chain leading to the Philippines ; the 
Philippines; the Bashi and Babyani Isles; Formosa, Celebes, 
and the Moluccas ; the islands between Timor and New 
Guinea; Madagascar. 

Gboup 7. — Tub Ameeicaxs. — Area i The Aleutian Isles, 
North and South America; remarkable for the comparative 
absence of domestic animals. Pligntm/norni/ : Modified Mon- 
gol; the departure from the type being the most marked on 
the water system of the Mississippi and the coast of the At- 
lantic, Languages : Agglutinate. 

Dr. Latham remarks upon this series that he finds "no such 
misgivings as to the origin and affinities of the great American 
group as liud place in most works on the subject." He neither 
finds difficulty in connecting them with the Old World, nor 
doubt as to the part thereof from which they came. Thus he 
finds in North Eastern Asia just what the a priori probabili- 
ties of the geographical relations of the two continents indicate. 
His reasons for thus making short work of a hitherto long 
question, lie in the recent additions to our geographical and 
ethnograpical knowledge for the parts to the west of the 
Bocky Mountains, for the northern parts more especially; for 
Kussian America, for New Caledonia, and for the Oregon. It 
is only lately that we have known much of these districts, espe- 
cially in respect of their ethnology. More than this, it is 
only recently that the Far li'est of the parts between the 
Hoeky Mountains and Atlantic has been at all carefully 
explored. What followed from this want of information ? It 
followed, as a matter of course, that our notions of the so- 
called lied Man of America were formed upon the Indians of 
the Alleghany Mountains, the Mississippi, and the St. Law- 
rence. But "these were extreme samples; samples of the 
American in his state of greatest, contrast to the Asiatic. No 
wonder, then, that the connection between them was mysterious 
and uncertain. If investigators doubled, the want of data 
justified them. The populations which were the likeliest to 
supply the phenomena of transition were unknown or neglected. 
Again, there was only one population common to the Old 
and New World. This was the Eskimo, a population which 
at one and the same time occupies the Aleutian Islands, the 
Peninsula of Aliaska, the Island of Kadiak. the greater part of 




Russian America, the const of the Arctic Sea. Greenland, and 
Labrador. Here it cornea iu contact with the so-called lied 
Indian of the Algonkin class. 

Sow, between this so-called Red Indian of the Algonkin class, 
and the Eskimo in geographical contact with him. there is a 
broad line of demarcation — a line of demarcation ao broad as 
tn suggest the idea of contrast rather than connection. 
Hence, as long as we studied America on its eastern or At- 
lantic side, we got nothing from the Eskimo; nothing from 
the fart (apparently so important) of his being common to the 
two hemispheres, and (as such) being likely to supply the con- 
necting lint between them, lie was anything but such a link, 
lie was rather a knife to separate than a baud to bind. Tet, 
on the Western or Pacific side of the continent, this same 
Eskimo bo graduates into the American Proper, and the Indian 
Proper so graduates into the Eskimo, as to make the distinction 
between the two groups as difficult as, on the east, it had 
been easy." * 

Group 8. — The Afhican Stock. — Organization: Head 
rarely other thini dolikho-kephalic ; hair rarely straight, 
always, with individuals resident on their native area, black.; 
skin dark, in certain localities attaining the wrtrirnvm amount 
of blackness. In such eases the hair is crisp, and the lips 
thick ; »'. e., the physiognomy is Negro. Languages : Aggluti- 
nate. Area : Africa, minus the Island of Madagascar (wholly 
or in part), jilui Arabia and parts of Persia and Syria. 

GnolIP 9.— The EUROPEAN GbOCP. — ; Physiognomy i Cau- 
casian in the wider and more inconvenient sense of the term. 
Languages .- Either unplaced, or Indo-European (so called). 
Area: Western, Central, anil Southern Europe. Divisions; 
A 1, The Basks; B 2, The Skipitar; C 3, The Kelts; 1) i. 
The Greeks and Latins ; 5, The Sarmatians ; 6, The Germans. 
The three divisions marked D are easily, conveniently, and 
accurately looked on as sections of some higher denomination 
—species (so to say) of a genus. To this most writers add 
the Kelts ; some the Albanians. All exclude the Basks. The 
name of this higher class, when it is limited to the divisions 
under D, is Judo-Germanic; when extended to D and C aa 
well, Indo-European. The present writer objects to it in 
either form ; holding it to be a word as erroneous and incon- 
venient as QnwMum in the wide tense of the term. Each, how- 
ever, keeps its place and must be used, however unfit for use.] 

1 Opus cit, p. ;M9. 




Ma.NT naturalists have regarded mail merely as an animal; 
although it is true, they have pronounced him to be tlie most 
perfect and tiicjirst of animals. 

Linnams and his scl 1 ' place man in a distinct genus under 

the name of Homo. This genus is the first of the order An- 
thropiiinurpha or Primates of the class Mammalia, which is 
itself the first of the animal kingdom. 

According to Cuvier(tS00),M.Dumeril (1806), Ch. Bonaparte 
(1839), and Lesson (1S-I0), man should be placed apart in a 
separate family. The two first and flic last designate tiiis family 
by the name of llimnim, arid the tliinl by that of Hominides. 

Eluinenbach (1779), Illiger (1811), and Blainville (1816), 
arrange man in a distinct order; this order ia termed tnermis 
by the first, erect! by the second, and man by the third. Ac- 
cording to Zenker (1828), and Citrus (1834), he constitutes 
the Otan Homo. 

A small number of philosophical naturalists have regarded 
man, not as the bead of the animal kingdom, but as eonsf.itu- 
ting one of the giv-nt dieizioiw of nature ; they did not, how- 
ever, give to this division the title of' kingdom. Amongst these 
are Aristotle, Albert le Grand, Neaiider (1585), Ozanam 
(1691), Ch. Bonnet (1764), Adanson (1772), Daubenton 
(1782), Herder (1784), Vicq d'Azyr (1792), Geoffrey Saint- 
Hilaire (1794), Lacepi'de (1799), and others. Voltaire seems 
to have been 1 he first who looked upon man as constituting a 
srpitraie kingdom} (Is. (Jeotl'rov tSaint-llilaire.) 

De Brabancois (1816), Trevirauus (1820), and Fabre 
d' Olivet (1822), admitted this kingdom; but they named it. 
the first, moral kingdom, the second. Innimii kingdom (Mens- 
chenreich), and the third, mjni' homimi.l. The Abbe Maupied 
(1851) substituted for these titles that of social kingdom. 
MoBt naturalists and ethnologists of the present day have 
adopted this moral, human, or nominal kingdom. Amongst 

1 See amongst others Enleben (1TT7), Gmelin (1788], Fischer (1839). 

1 He (thi: Etcnuil ;irti ['.'■■.:!■) bus Upturn- til iijnin usiiii uix'iinization, feeling, 
and reason; upon animals fueling, ami that ubii-b hm Itnn instiuct; and 
npon vegetables nrgimi/aMoii evil v. Ui> [njivor. I liort'tin'is acts continually 
over these Tbiiee Kinoj.oms. (Voltaire, edit. PsUisot, Paris, 17»a, 
tom. xxsvi. p. 628. — Diatwjui-s c( uutrdiuun jjltilostiphiques, Sojlirouiiuc 
et A del 08.) 

1) 2 

36 AXTnBopoi.otiT. 

I. Is. Geof- 

ml Series. 

risli to 
and of 
a both 

is said : 

them, it ii sufficient to mention the names of MM. ] 
froy Srvint- Hiljiirc, Urimaiid, llollard, Horaninow, 
hotitt, Ni'iin d'Ksenbcch, .Kan Kayuaud. Bunge, and Bettea. 

Cotwidered in regard to his organization, man approximates 

■ ■ '■■■ "i. I In. ; I nit. I'niisiiii'ivd Willi respect to his 

!n' ia I'jir removed from them. If we wish to 
obtain a correct knowledge of his zoological relations, and of 
his proper classification, we moat contemplate him in I 
point* of view — that is to say, in his entirety. Pascal has bi 
" Mao Is neither angel nor beast, but belongB to both." 

In establishing a distinct kingdom for the reception of man, 
and in placing it immediately above the animal kingdom, the 
lord of creation is not confounded with the leasts, and yet he 
is always in close affinity with the mammalia ; that is to say, 
with the most perfect of the vertebrated animals. 

Amongst living beings, or in the organic world, there i 
therefore thrn: kingdoms: tin: frgctable, the animal, and t 
horn inn I. 

In the first, says M. Is. Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, life is a 
get.her vegetative ; in the second, to the vegetative life is adde 
animal life ; in the third, to the vegetative and animal life is 
superadded the moral life. 

It may be said, the plant lines, the animal lives o 
but man lives, feels, and thinks. In the first kiugdimi liib 
simple, in the second tirr.jbld, ami in the third threefold, Yegeti 
Iji/iti/, anamnlihi, and humnnitij, arc three terms which aiiec" 
each other in a progressive order, as simple as it is logica" 
is a series, in which, not only can none of the terms be t 
posed, but in which neither can any of them be added to. 
have no conception of anything in the organic word below the 
plant, and what, organized being are we able to imagine higher 
than man? There may be derives in the development of the 
vital, the sensitive, and the intellectual faculties; but there ia 
no intermediate condition between living and not living, 
between feeling and nut feeling, ami between thinking and not 
thinking. (Is. (iei.n'roy Saint- Hi laire.) 

Man is the highest and ultimate term of creation. He occu- 
pies the summit of the living pyramid. In the kingdom which 
he constitutes (Hominal), there is but one genus (Homo), 
and in this genua hut one species (Sapiens). This species 
presents three varieties or principal races (Caucasian, Mon- 
(iolian, and Ethiopian), and eight sub-varieties or secondary- 
races {Alleghanian, American, lliqnjroortKiu. Malay, Australian, 
Melanian, Hottentot, and Cajre). 




Ammals are living beings, containing a large amount of 
nitrogen, having the power of digestion, and possessed of 
sensation and locomotion. 

Like all living beings, the body of an animal is the seat of a 
double and continuous internal movement of molecular com- 
position and decomposition (Blainville), by means of which it 
incorporates into its substance materials derived from without, 
and which take the place of other particles that are discharged 
from within ; in this way every part of the body is insensibly 
renewed. This double movement, by which the individual per- 
petually takes from and gives to the external world, is one of 
the distinctive characters of life. 

The duration of life in each species is definitely fixed, but 
circumstances may prolong it, or accidents or disease may 
shorten or arrest it. 

Life presents a series of phenomena, which are capable of 
transmission. Every animal receives it from an annual, or 
from two animals denominated its parents; for life comes from 
life. (Cuvier.) 

That portion of the animal which is capable of becoming a 
new individual is called a germ, and the separation of this con- 
stitutes its birth. So long as life continues, the body undergoes 
a series of changes, which mark what is termed its ages. The 
time which elapses between the birth of an individual and the 
period when he attains his normal size is his youth; his increase 
during this interval determines his amount of growth. When 
he has attained his full dimensions, the time during which his 
body and his energies appear to remain in a stationary con- 
dition, constitutes his adult age. Lastly, the time during 
which he becomes enfeebled, and his body seems to diminish, 
forms the period of his old age. 


At a certain stage of their existence all animals a 
of producing their like ; and they thus transfer to oth 
that life of which they are permitted to have the 

When life ceases, the animal is said to he Send, 

To he horn, to live, to reproduce, and to die, are : 
characters which are common to all living beings. 

After death, tiie physical and chemical laws, which 1 
previously been rendered subservient to the I 
dividual, now become predominant, and the constituent t 
merits of the body are speedily decomposed. 

All animals lire ultimately composed of Osi/arii, Ht/tlm 
Carbon, and Nitrogen, which constitute their essential i-hem 

[There are, however, several other elementary bodies which 
enter in larger or small quantities into the composition of 
different animal structures. Miiller enumerates seventeen aa 
having been met with in the auimal kingdoi 

J. Oxygen. 
2. Hydrogea. 
i!. Cur ho ii. 

4. Nitrogen. 
E. Sulphur, ini 
6. Phosphorus 
1. Chloriue 
8. Fluorine 

5. Potassium 

10. Sodium 

11. Calcium 

12. Magnesium 

the teeth and bones. 


[i rhi.' t.iWl, ]iii!]iu-ri<um nigTum. 
a some marine animals.] 

The four elementary substances above mentioned comhin 
in various ways and in different pro port ions ; they give rise t 
a liquid element and to certain solid elements, which form t 
foundation of the general structure of animals, or of th( 
organization. The liquid element is the blood; fcl 
elements are the tissues. 

The blood, or nutrient fluid, is a liquid of a more 
intense red, sometimes of rose, lilac, yellow, blueish, 


green colour, at other times it is almost colourless [as in most 
of the in vert Hi nit i'il animals]. Examined beneath the micro- 
scope it is seen to consist of two portions, a yellowish trans- 
parent liquid, the tcritm, iiud of solid corpuscles, of a more or 
less regular form, the globules. These globules are extremely 
small. They arc of a circular form in nearly all the Mammalia, 
oval in the Reptilin, and always flattened. Their surface is 
smooth, rarely granulated (fraiuhoiseti). They contain a central 
spot, surrounded by a kind of dark border. In the higher 
animals the globules are composed of a nucleus (not/can), and 
an envelope. The latter is much the largest, and generally 
forms a more or less attenuated border around the nucleus. 
In the lower animals, particularly those with colourless blood, 
these two parts cannot be distinguished. 

[The exceptions to the circular form of the blood corpuscles 
of the mammalia occur iu the Camel and the Llama ; in these 
animals the globules are elliptical like those of birds and the 
cold-blooded Vertebrata. This peculiarity of the Camelidie was 
first pointed out by Mandle. There is a considerable difference 
in the si/e of the blood globulin in the d> lie rent Mammalia, a 
fact which should be borne in mind in reference to the opera- 
tion of transfusion. According to Mr. Gulliver ' the average 
diameter of those of man is the ^-jeT of an inch, that of the 
Elephant as much as xttj of an iuch, while in those of the 
Napu musk deer it is not more than T j j-j T , and sometimes as 
small as 15 % wlr of an inch. Miiller says "the diameter of the 
red globules in _Mau varies between the f^u to ^Vyof an inch. 
In others of the Mammalia the diameter of the blond globules 
ranges between the eitremc dimensions which arc given above. 
There is, however, no absolute rotation between the size of the 
animal and that of his blood ginlniles; thus ihey are nearly the 
Bame in the Horse as in the Bat ; while in the Sloth they are 
larger than those of t he Ox. Mr. Gulliver has pointed out that 
in investigations of this kind it is necessary to compare together 
those animals which most resemble each other in their organi- 
zation, and winch consequently belong to the same natural 
family. By proceeding in this manner, he believes he has 
been enabled to detect a certain relation between the size of 
the individual and that of the blood corpuscles. Thus, in the 
class Mammalia, the Elephant and the Whale possess the 
largest globules; whilst the Chevrotain, the most diminutive 
of tbe Ruminants, has the smallest. 

1 See Gerber'a Anatomy by Gulliver. Appendix, p. 5 et sequent. 



The following is the description which Kolliker has give 
oC iln- tinman blood globule in his Manual of Microscopi 
Anatomy. 1 

The ml globules, when examined individually, present th 
following structure: Tbeir form is mostly that of a biconcav 
or t^it circular dice, with rounded margins, and they accord 
ingly appear to the observer to vary in shape, according a 
dpeea or their aides, are directed towards him. In th« 
former ease they are pale yellow, circular ooipuacka, wide! 
almost alwavr- haw- ;i siiu r lit central ill- jj v< -ssiun, and this some, 
times has the aspect of a elear central spot, sometimes of ■ 
dark central body, according as the corpuscle is in or out o 
the focus of the microscope : (lie appearance in the latter ei 
in opt to be confounded with that of a nucleus. When s< 
from the side, however, the blood corpuscles show themselves 
ob dark red-shnped structures, of the form of an elonga' 
narrow ellipse, or like a biscuit seen edgewise. With reyart 
their intimate structure, every blond globule consists of a y> 
delicate yet tolerably firm and elastic colourless cell membrane, 
composed chemically of a protein substance nearly allied to 
fibrine ; contained in this envelope is a viscid coloured sub- 
stance, which in the separate blood globules appears yellow, 
and is composed principally of globuGne and hcematine. In 
the adult, the contents of the blood globule present no tr 
of morphological particles of granules, or oi a cell nucleus . 
they are accordingly true vesicles, and on that account, as well 
as from their shape not being globular, the name of "blood 
cells " is to be preferred. The elasticity, softness, and pliability 
of their envelope are so considerable, that they ere enabled to 
accommodate themselves to vessels which are narrower than 
their own diameter, and for the same reason, when they are 
elongated, flattened, or otherwise altered in form by pressure 
under the microscope, they an' able to resume their previous 
shape, The blood globule* arc rendered the more capable of 
adapting themselves to the vessels, by the fact that their 
surface is quite smooth and slippery, so that they easily glide 
along the similarly constructed walls of even the n 

In examining the blood corpuscles the nature of the fluid 
in which they are immersed must be borne in mind. If placed 
in water, the specific gravity of which is less than that of the 


serum of tlie Wood, they become biconvex in consequence of 
the water passiug into the envelope by eudosmose. If, on the 
other hand, the fiuid should be denser than the serum, its in 
the case of a strong saline or saccharine solution, the corpus- 
cles part with a portion of their contained fluid by exosmosis, 
they put on a shrivelled aspect, and become granulated on their 
surface; this shrivelled appearance may again he pit rid of by 
diluting the menstruum and reducing its specific gravity to 
the lowest point. 1 ] 

The organic timet ace three in number : 1st, cellular tissue ; 
2nd, muscular tissue; and 3rd, nervous tissue. 

Cellular or areolar tissue is composed of numerous Camella), 
which by their interlacement intercept a number of open spaces 
termed cells. The whole of this tissue has been compared to a 
sponge having the form of the entire body, and in which the 
other parts of the animal are placed. When this cellular tissue 
becomes condensed it forms layers of greater or less extent 
(membra tins), or tubes more or less ramified (vessels), or fila- 
ments of greater or less thickness (fibres). 

Muscular tissue is composed of bundles of fibres, striated or 
smooth, Bomethnes dotted, which have the property of con- 
tracting with more or loss force. 

Nereous tissue, sometimes called medullary matter, may he 
compared to a soft pultaeeous mass, in which may be distin- 
guished a number of microscopic fibres and vesicles of various 
forms 1 containing a fatty substance (medullary nervous 
matter), which readily changes into globules. 

Some writers admit other organic tissues as distinct from 
cellular j such, for example, as the fatty, glandular, and the 
eluHi'w tissues. 

The fatty or adipose tissue consists of vesicles having ex- 
tremely delicate, colourless walls, filled with an oily fluid, 
which is generally of a yellow colour. This fluid solidifies 
after death in consequence of the diminished temperature. 

Glandular tissue presents an infinity of minute delicate 
ramified tubes, which by their interlacing constitute a paren- 
chyma of a peculiar nature. All these tubes unite into a 
common duct. 

Elastic tissue is composed of homogeneous fibres, not striated 
nor dotted, but ramifying and anastomosing together. These 
fibres form ligamentous fascia? remarkable for their physical 
elasticity, but which have no power of spontaneous contraction. 


These tissues blend together, interlace, and combine for t 
purpose of forming the varic, 

three kinds: some serve to nourish the individual j others 
bestow upon him the power of perpetuating his species; 
while a third brine him in relation with the externa] world. 
These are respeclnclv named, the on/am of nutrition, the 
ofifriHH of rrproilncl 'iu/i, find (lie wr/iinx >>/' relation. The func- 
tions which are accomplished by the first two are common to 
animals ainl vegetables, ami aiv termed I lie rei/rta/ive or organic 
function ,- those which are fulfilled by the third are named the 
animal functions. 

I.— Organs and Functions of Nutrition. 

Nearly every animal possesses an internal cavity for t_ 
reception and digestion of its food. In the simplest species 
this receptacle is the essential and almost only organ witb 
which they are provided, while in the most perfect it ;' 
merely an accessory apparatus. Nevertheless, it becom 
more and complicated in proportion to the perfection of t 
entire organism of which, properly speaking, it forms I 

Food consists of liquids and solids. 

The first are taken into the mouth and comminuted by 
means of the jaws ,* these are sometimes two in number, placed 
one over the other, and act vertically ; at other times there are 
as many as four [insects] ; these have a lateral position, and 
act horizontally. The jaws, which have a vertical position, are 
generally osseous* ; they arc covered by a pair of lips, and fur- 
nished at their margins with hard ossicles or teeth ; these are 
divided into incisors, canines, and molars. At other times, 
a layer of corneous matter takes the place of the lips, the 
jaws project, and become converted into mandibles, and the 
whole forms a beak. The lateral jaws are calcareous or cor- 
neous. The two superior are also termed niniiil/lles ; and the 
two inferior jaics properly so called, or maxiUie, In the Crus- 
tacea, the latter are accompauied by auxiliary jaws, termed 
foot jaws. The inner margin of these organs is frequently ser- 
rated or provided with teeth, or at other times with a small 
moveable hook, or pointed claw. 

Liquids are drawn up by means of a beak or rostrum, a 
guekcr, or uproboscis. 

After the food has been taken into the mouth, it passes to 
the fauces or pharynx, and from thence it is conveyed into the 
' s greatly in its form and in 

vity. This cavity v 

DBOunzmen of an-tu.u.s. 43 

its capacity. In the simplest MwmiJH, it 13 a sac with a single 
opening, which servos bctlj for the reception of the food, and 
for tlu 1 discharge of t lie indigestible materials. Subsequently, 
the sac becomes elongated info a muscular membranous canal, 
provided with two openings, a mouth, and and an anus, each 
of which fulfils a separate function. This canal dilates at a cer- 
tain part and forms a stomach. This dictation divides the 
digestive canal into three part.-' ; viz., that which precedes the 
(stomach, the stomach itself, and the part which comes after 
it. The anterior portion forms the axophoijus, anil the pos- 
terior the intestine. The opening of the [esophagus into the 
stomach is termed the cardia, that of the stomach into the in- 
testine the pylorus. These openings may be brought close to 
each other, ur placed some distance apart. 

In genera], the oesophagus is not very long. This is espe- 
cially the ease in those animals which have little or no neck. 
In the ostrich, the (esophagus is remarkable for its length, while 
in the ogrier it does not eiist. In some birds, this portion of 
the canid dilates towards its lower part into a crop, and into a 
second gastric cavity or glandular stomach, the vrnlriculus »uc- 

The stomach is a regular or irregular cavity, with very thin 
or with very thick walls. It haw, usually, the form of a glo- 
bular or oval sac, or resembles that of the common bag-pipe. 
There may be observed oue or two culs-de-sac ; when there are 
two, one is often large and the other small. The stomach may 
be simple or compound. If we regard the dilitations of the 
oesophagus in the granivorous birds as gastric cavities, these 
animals will then have three stomachs — the crop, the glandular 
stomach, and the tjfcznrtl. In the O.r, and in all the ruminating 
animals, there are four stomachs — the inglnvies or paunch, the 
reticulum or honey-eomb stomach, the omasum or many-plies, 
and the abomanum or reed. The common Dolphin (Delphinua 
Delphi) has also four stomachs placed in succession. The 
medicinal leech has eleven pairs of stomachs, of which the last 
are very large, and were for a long time mistaken for a pair of 
enormously developed cascums. 

The intestine is the longest portion of the alimentary canal ; 
it forms numerous folds or reduplications, named its conro- 
lutions. This arrangement allows the canal to acquire con- 
siderable dimensions. It is generally longer in the herbivorous 
animals than in the carnivorous. In the first it is occasionally 
as much as thirty times the length of the animal's body, while 
' a the latter it iB often reduced to the same length. In some 



a dis- 

of the lower animals it is even short it than the body. In thoe 
species in which the nature of the food is changed, in p 
from the larval to the perfect stiitc ( Frog), the length of the 
intestinal canal changes with the period of life ; the tube is 
long while the creature is herbivorous, and is shortened when 
it becomes carnivorous. The intestine is divided into the 
small intestine or aiificiFcal, and into the large iiitt-n/iufi or 
postcaval. These two divisions are. separated by the ileo-cmcal 
value or valve of Bauhin. The first is divided into the duo- 
denum, jejunum, and ileum; and the second into the caecum, 
colon, and rectum. 

The food is permeated by certain fluids which si 
solve and adapt it for digestion ; these fluids are furnished b_ 
four kinds of secreting organs which are true appendage! of 
the digestive canal; these are the sulivary t/lumfs, the liver, the 
pancreas, and the i/ti.tlrii- ijhui <lx. which secrete (he gastric juice. 

The salivary ylitmh are placed in the neighbourhood of the 
mouth or of the oesophagus. They are usually two in number 
and are more developed in the terrestrial than in the aquatic 

The liver is a laTgc gland situated at the commencement o 
the intestine or near the stomach : it sometimes surrounds tl 
latter. In the leeches it is reduced to a network or thin k, _ 
of a brownish or blackish matter. The fluid secreted by the 
liver has received the name of bile ; it is discharged into the 
intestine or into the stomach. It is sometimes retained in a 
special reservoir, thcyc// bladder. 

The pancreas is another yliiml. smaller than the liver, anc 
Tery variable in its form ; its secretion enters the duodenum 
and its duct occasionally unites with that of the bde. 

The gastric qUindx consist of minute tubuli situated in th< 
thickness of the digestive mucous membrane; one end termi- 
nates in a blind extremity, while the oilier opens on the inner 
surface of the stomach, into which the tulmli discharge an acid 
secretion, which acts principally on the animal portions of the 

Besides the glands now spoken of, there are others which 
eliminate certain cxcreinenl itious fluids from the blood; amonj 
the latter are the kidnrys. winch secrete the u 

The alimentary matter, thus altered and Iran stormed, become 
separated into two portions the chyle and the excrement; the 
former is absorbed by the walls of the digestive cavity, while 
the latter is discharged by the amis. The chyle is a white 
opaque fluid, which becomes absorbed or conveyed by the 


venaB lactea to the different organs, where it is mixed with the 
blood with which the latter are supplied. Similar canals, 
termed lymphatics, convey to the blood the residue of the 
nutritive particles and the products of cutaneous absorption. 

The blood is everywhere present in the substance of the 
organs. In a great number of animals it is, moreover, con- 
tained in a system of ramifying tubes or vessels : these tubes 
being of two kinds — the one conveys the nutrient fluid to the 
different parts of the body, and is named arteries ; the other 
converges to the centre, or towards the centre of the animal, and 
is called veins. 

The movement of the nutritive fluid is sometimes irregular, 
and at other times regular and circular. In the latter case it 
is spoken of as the circulation. The current of the circulation 
may be simple or double, or even triple. In the sanguisuga it is 
in a manner multiple ; for independently of the general circu- 
lation, these animals present partial circulations between every 
five rings. 

The circulation of the nutrient fluid is frequently assisted by 
one or several special motor organs termed hearts. These 
organs are more or less muscular, sometimes placed in the 
middle of the body, at other times at each of the centres of 
impulsion. Generally speaking there is only a single heart 
provided with one, two, three, or four cavities. The cavities 
which receive the blood are termed auricles, and those which 
propel it ventricles. The latter are always thicker, stronger, 
and more robust than the former. 

In order that the blood may be capable of nourishing the 
body, it requires to undergo a particular modification from 
contact with the atmosphere. Hence a function arises which 
may be regarded as an act of nutrition by means of gaseous 
food (the complement of the nutrition, by solid and liquid 
aliments), and which has received the name of respiration. 
When the animal lives surrounded by the air, the respiratory 
organ is hollow, and is termed a lung ; when the animal resides in 
the water, it projects from the rest of the body and constitutes 
a branchia. In the most perfect species, the lung appears to be 
parenchymatous, but in reality it consists of an immense 
number of microscopic cells. In the snails this organ assumes 
the form of a large sac, which is covered on its inner and upper 
surface by a network of vessels. This sac may be considered 
as one of the constituent cells of the parenchymatous lung 
enormously developed. In insects there are neither lun^s nor 
branchiae, but a series of elastic tubes called trachea;, which 


convey the air to every pari of the body. The openings of tL- 
trachea? are placed along the sides of the body, and have 
received the name of xfii/uiti/ti. In the animals which are pro- 
vided with lungs, or with branehife, the blood is conveyed to 
the air, while in those which have trachea? the air is carried to 
the blood. The most perfect species, although they are 
provided with n special organ of respiration, lit the same '' 
absorb the air by the cutaneous surface of their bodies, 
animals which are most ,-hnplv orgaui/.ed breath exclusively b 
means of the skin. 

When, the blood is perfectly formed it diffuses itself thtougl 
the cells, or by the ramification and sub-division of i 
vessels, into the tissues of the organs, and then beeomea a 
verted into the various structure* which enter into their for 
mation. Several of the most important organs in tl 
economy appear to be provided for the production o 
secretions, all of which concur in the act of assimilation. 

II. — Organs and Functions of Reproduction. 

Beproduetion is one of the most important functions 
nature, for life is only given for the purpose of bestowing '' 
It is by reproduction that species* sire preserved, that races are 
propagated, and that the general balance of life is maintained. 
There are animals which seem formed solely for the fulfil- 
ment of this function ; they are horn, they reprodi 

Reproduction may be accomplished in several different wa; 

In the species which are most simply organized, the animal 
sometimes divides into several portions, each of which forms a 
new individual ; this is termed i /fW/wwH.v re product ion ; at other 
times the creature gives oil' from certain parts of its body buds 
or getmnce, which at a fixed period become detached and give 
rise to youn<r animals ; this is gemmiparotta reproduction. The 
latter is said to be external or internal, according as it takes 
place on the exterior of the body, or in a particular cavity 
within which the buds are formed'. The animals which arise 
from the Jistiipin-oun and i/eimniparous modes of reproduction 
are termed by some writers vr/i/wic i/enerationg. 

In the higher animals the act of re production is accomplished 
by means of speeisil organs ; this is genemlhe reproduction o 
generation. These organs are termed sexual, and consist c 




the female organ, which furnishes the rudiment b of the new 
individual (the germ), mid of the mute orpin, which produces 
the fecundating liquor {seminal fluid) which vivifies the 
former anil determines its development. 

The female apparatus is essentially composed of the organ 
which produces the germ, the ovary, and of a canal which con- 
veys them to without, ami which lias received tin- nnmcofor/iliiet. 

The tattle apparatus is sdways provided with a gland which 
secretes the seminal fluid, the testicle, and of the excretory 
canal of the gland, called rjai-iilii/ori/ duct. 

In some of these animals the scats are united in the same 
individual: these are named it ii el or auilri:,/i/iu:us. In this 
case either one individual may he sufficient of itself {Oyster) 
for reproduction, or it may require the union of two individuals. 
"When two androgynous individuals unite for the purpose of 
reproduction, sometimes the two n ran us fulfil their functions 
at the same time, and each individual fecundates the other 
and is itself impregnated ; such is the case with the Snail 
{Lima.r). At other times, the association of several, or 
at least three, individuals is required, the central animal per- 
forming the office of the male to the one in front of him, and 
that of the female to one behind him, as in the case of the 
Water snail (Li/vineits). More rarely the two portions 
of the double sexual organs do not act at the same time; 
each individual, notwithstanding its bisexual nature, only ful- 
filling one office ; but having performed for example the office 
of male, at a later period it acts as a female either with the 
same individual, or with smother ( Aitcr/lus) . 

In a great number of animals the sexes are separated and 
placed on distinct individuals: these are said to he unisexual. 

The #j«fe* externally resemble thfjewalr*. or differ from them 
more or less distinctly. In a small number of cases the two 
sexes would be taken to belong to different groups of animals. 
The unisexual character necessitates the conjunction of two 
individuals in the generative act; nevertheless these animals 
present two modes of union, which are very distinct from each 
other: in the one the fecundating fluid of the male is not 
applied to the germ until it has passed out of the body of the 
female {Carp), or at the moment of its discharge {Toad) ; in 
the other its application takes place in the body of the mother 
{Beaver). Sexual generation may therefore occur without 
connection of the sexes, or this connection may be very slight 
and accompanied by simple contact, or it may be accompanied 
with love, and followed by true intromission {copulation). 



Animals, which have a complicated sexual apparatus, besidi 
the parts already mentioned, present others which are cbargi 
with important functions. 'Ibe females are provided with 
uterus or icornb, in which the germ resides for a longer or shorter 
time before its birth ; tube*, or excretory canals, which receive 
the germs from the ovaries. and conduct them to the uterus; 
and a vagina or sheath, for the reception of the excitory organ 
of the male. The orifice of the vagina is termed the vulva. 
The males have veticulte neminales or reservoirs, in which the 
seminal fluid is accumulated ; canals, or vata differentia, which 
convey this fluid from the testicles to the reservoirs ;aud a verp 
or penu, for its introduction into the apparatus of the ft 
The extremity of the male organs is named the glam penis. 

In some few of the lower animals, the female can produi 
young without contact with the male. This form ot repro- 
duction constitutes pnrtlirnog?Hc«is, and occurs in the Aphides 
or plant lice. Under certain circumstances the eggs, which 
thus become fruitful without the co-operation of the opposite 
Bex, produce only mules; this Is termed arrenoto&tia, and takes 
place in the honeybee (Apis mrllijica). 

In the reproduction of some of the higher animals, the 
fecundated ovum is deposited by the female; but it is not 
until some time afterwards that it gives rise to a new individual; 
these animals are oviparous (Birds), At other times the egg is 
hatched at the moment of its expulsion, and the young animal 
issues from the body of its parent with the fragments of its 
former covering; such animals are said to be ovovivtparotu 
(Viper). Lastly, the fecundated egg is not expelled from the 
body of the parent, but is retained v, itliiu the uterus, and there 
grows, develops itself, and is hatched. This constitutes the 
viviparous reproduction of the MttnunaHa. In reality, all these 
animals are ovigerous. Their mode of reproduction only diners 
as regards the locality in which the development of the 
takes place, and as to the time which it occupies. 

The egg is essentially composed of the germ-vesicle o 
trimita, and of a protecting envelope ; the latter may be single 
and consist only of membrane, or it nm be double and eons : -* 
of mrmbrane aud shell. In the oviparous and ovoviviparous a] 
cies it moreover contains a certain amount of nutritive matte 
(the vitettus or albumen). In the viviparous species the gem 
receives its nourishment direct from the mother. 

When the egg is hatched it gives rise sometimes to 8 
dividual which resembles its parent (Hints), at other times t 
one which dili'ers essentially from it (Buttcrjliet). This ii ' 


mediate form between the germ and the perfect animal is 
called a larva. The larva* are always agamic, vet in some 
animals they have the power of reproduction. 1ml it is then 
always gemmiparous or fissiparous. These forma of larvae 
have received the name of scolex, and the existence of two 
modes of reproduction in the same species constitutes alternate 
genera/ion. Some animals pass through two or three inter- 
mediate forma before arm in;; at the perfect state. 
IH. — Organs and Functions of Belation. 

Moat animals possess five seme*. 

The sense of touch is that which is most frequently present, 
and is seated in the general integument ; but it also resides in 
certain special organs where it acquires a higher state of per- 
fection. These organs are the lips, the barbs, and the tentacles of 
certain animals, and the tail midfeet of others ; but, above all, 
it is in the hands that the sense of toueh becomes most acute. 

']'ii.->li- is ii species of touch of o still more delieate character; 
it is placed at the entrance of the alimentary canal, princi- 
pally in the floor of the mouth, in an organ termed the 
tongue. The tongue is an elongated muscular body endowed 
with greater or less motive power ; it is covered with papilla; 
(conical, foitgiform, cin-umcallato?), spines, hooks, and even with 
true teeth. In some animals, in which the sense of taste is but 
slightly developed, the tongue is searious, cartilaginous, or 
provided with a corneous investment. 

Smell is the sense for the perception of odours. The ol- 
factory organ is a single or double cai itj provided with a great 
number of irregularities or anfraetuosities, which are invested 
by a delicate membrane, the pituitary. This membrane com- 
municates externally through the openings termed anterior 
nares, nasal openings or nostrils; w certain animals these 
openings are protected by cartilaginous plates, which form the 
nose. The nasal fossa? have also posterior openings, v. Im-li lend 
to the cavity of the pharynx ; these are named posterior nares. 

In the snails the organ of smell is divided into two parts, 
which are placed at the extremities of the larger horns or 
tentaele*. It is composed of an oval or pyrii'orm ganglion, 
from which the short but extremely ramified nerves spread 
themselves over a peripheral pituitary membrane. There is no 
nasal cavity, and consequently no external opening. 

Sight is the faculty which enables animals to perceive ex- 
ternal objects by means of the rays of light, and to appreciate 
" 2 colours with which they are clothed. Vision takes place 

the colours wi 


50 mehk 

through the eyes. The eye ia a small hut complicated apparat 
of a more or leas globular form. It is essentially composed 
a retina or nervous element, of a choroid or vascular elemei 
and of a sclerotic or fibrous element. The latter becomes 
transparent in front of tho globe of the eye, and forms the 
coram. There exists in the eye a per feet dioptric apparatus; this 
consists of the tie/ueoux humour, the crystalline humour or lens, 
and the vitreous humour. There are also some accessory parte, 
as for example the moveable membranes or eyelids, which pro- 
teet the apparatus ; they uiav be naked or provided with certain 
hairs termed cilia or eyelashes. These membranes are gi 
rally two in number, but occasionally (as in birds) there 
third, the membrana nictUans. 

The higher animals generally possess two eyes, while some o\ 
the lower forms have four, six, eight, or even more. The medi- 
cinal leech has ten, hut they are altogether rudimentary. In 
insects the eyes are of two kinds; the one small, simple, and 
adapted for seeing objects which are near — these are termed 
ocelli stem urn tit or gi tuple eyes; the other kind consists of large 
compound eyes, generally adapted for seeing objects at a 
distance ; they are composed of a variable number of simple 
eyes aggregated and united together — these arc called compound 
eyes, 1 

Hearing is the sense which takes cognizance of those vibra- 
tions of external bodies which are transmitted through the 
surrounding medium, and give rise to sound; the organ through 
which this is accomplished is the ear. In the lowest animals 
the ear is reduced to a sack tilled with ;i special iluid, through 
which the nerve is distributed, iind which contains a number of 
Bmall stone-like masses termed otolitlics. This sack may or 
may not communicate externally. In the higher animals the 
auditory apparatus becomes more and more complicated. There 
is observed: 1st, the essential part or vestibule; 2nd, certain 
accessory parts which render it more sensitive; these are the 
semi-circular canals, the cochlea, ami a. chain of small bones, con- 
sisting of the xtttf >!■*. ihc os orbieulare, the i u c iw, nud the malleus; 
3rd, the part which collects the vibrations, or the external ear, 
consisting of the external auditory Jommen, and the concha. 
The concha is sometimes replaced by a circle of leathers or 

Several of the lower animals have neither n 

s many as 12,000 


Those species which have no distinct head, or the aeephala, an 
always ill provided with organs of the senses ; many of them 
seem only to have that of touch. 

In the very lowest animals the nervous matter would appear 
to be confounded with the general substance of the body. 
There is no centre of sensation. In animals whose structure 
is somewhat more com plicated, the nervous matter accumulates 
at certain points, and produces ganglion or nervous centres. 
These accumulations are at n rat small and irregularly dispersed. 
"When the organization is still further advanced the nervous 
centres become enlarged, and are brought near to each other ; 
they then assume an annular arrangement around the neck, or 
form an enlarged mass in the interior of the head. The 
ganglions cither isolated or united in small groups give rise to 
a rudimentary nervous system. The annular arrangement 
around the neck forms mi wy-upluiiful riia/ ,- while 1 he iuvuiuti- 
latiou of nervous matter in the head constitutes the eurep/ialon. 
The superior ganglia of the n-sopkigeal ring are named the 
cerebral ganglia, and the inferior the sitb-ceaophageal ganglia. 
This kind of nervous system is termed ganglionic. The enee- 
phalon is generally composed of the cerebrum or brain, the 
cerebellum, the pons Varolei or mesencephalon, and of the 
medulla oblongata, which is itself a continuation of the spinal 
card. The whole of this nervous system is termed cerebro- 

The impressions which are received through the senses are 
transmitted by the nerves to the central masses of the nervous 
system. When the animal perceives a sensation it frequently 
gives rise to an act of volition, which is also communicated by 
the nerves, either to the organs of the senses, or to those of 

The organs of motion are the limbs. These are made up of 
two portions; the one active, the muscles; the other passive, 
the bones, or certain hard parts which supply their place. 

The muscles are soft, of various shades of red, or of a greyish 
colour, and in some eases quite transparent ; they are formed 
of irritable contractile fibres, having various degrees of con- 
sistency, and arranged parallel to each otiier. Some are 
destined to bend or shorten the parts (Jlexors); others to open 
or elongate them (extensors). There are also muscles which 
are not under the control of the will ; these are frequently 
termed internal in contradistinction to the others, which are 
always situated, more or less, tow aids the surhiee of the body. 

[The muscles are usually divided into the voluntary and the 

inv-ihinltiyi/. The first, called al^o (lie muscles of animal I 
include those of |i>c<imoti<<n. ri->]*i rsii ion, ami ihose of the fac 
these are under the control of the will. The second, which 
comprise the muscles of the heart, the intestinal canal, and 
some others, are not subject tn the influence of the will. The 
ultimate fibres of these two sets of muscles differ in their ana- 
tomical structure. 

The fibres of the voluntary muscles are marked by parallel 
transverse lines or stria?, and are known as striated muscular 
fibre. The fibres of the involuntary muscles, with some ex- 
ceptions, are smooth and marked at intervals with ohlong 
corpuscles or nuclei ; the latter are best seen after the appli- 
cation of acetic acid. The principle exception to this character 
occurs in the muscles of the heart. The fibres of this organ 
resemble those of the voluntary muscles in having stria?, but 
they are less strongly marked, and are less regular, and the 
fibres themselves arc smaller in diameter than ui the voluntary 

The bonrs are hard, dry, and white. They are divided into 
the long, short, and jltil hour* ; it is more particularly the first 
which are met with in the limbs. The whole forms the skeleton 
or solid framework of the animal. There are many species 
which have no internal skeleton; but the skin becomes im- 
pregnated with calcareous matter (Crturfish), or is converted 
into a kind of corneous materiiil (Bir/li'x), which takes the 
place of the osseous framework, and forms a kind of dermal 
skeleton. In other animals, the skin is provided with special 
folds {mantle), which are more or less developed, and secrete 
calcareous plates of various forms to which the muscles are 
attached, arid which either partially or completely protect the 
usually extremely soft structures of the body; these plates 
are termed sheik-. The shell consists of a single piece in the 
univalves, as in the Snails, and of two pieces in the bivalves, i 
in the Oyster. 


classification or animals. 

I. Ancient. — The ancients divided animals into those v 
blood, and into those without. They considered only th< 
species were provided with this fluid, whose blood was o" 


colour, such as that of Bird* and Fiahen, believing that it did 
not esist in those in which it was very pale or altogether 
colourless, as in Insects and many Molluscs. These latter 
animals were named by them ranrnfftttMOH*. 

[This was the elassiiieai i,mi of Aristotle, who divided animals 
into the enaima and into the umiiuia, literally into those with 
blood and into those without blood. It is not, however, cor- 
rect to say that the Father of natural history disbelieved in 
the existence of a blood, or at least of a nutrient fluid analogous 
to it, in the lower animals, since lie distinctly says: "Every 
animal possesses a vital fluid, the loss of which occasions its 
death;" but, as the colour of this fluid in the higher classes is 
always red, for the purpose of distinctive description, he assumed 
the colour as an essentia! quality, and named the two series as 

The first classifications were extremely ai-hifniry systems; the 
characters upon which they were established were sometimes 
taken from the nature of the food, sometimes from the liinbs, 
and at other times from the integument*. If the classifications 
which were subsequently proposed were occasionally more 
happy in their arrangements, these improvements were rather 
the result of a kind of instinct, or of repeated attempts, than 
of careful observation and reflection. 

II. Liknjecs. — Linnams was the first to establish a rational 
classification of the animal kingdom. 1 This great naturalist 
arranged the various animals into sis classes ; Mammalia, 
Birds, Amphibia. 1'ishos, insects, and Worms. 

Mammal* I Maiiuindiu) are animals whose bodies arc provided 
with a covering of hair ; they have two jaws, an upper and an 
under, generally furnished with teeth, and covered by a pair of 
lips ; the respiration is pulmonary ; the heart is quadrdocular ; 
they have almost always four limbs, provided with hands or 
feet; they are viviparous. 

To this division he long the Apes, Bats, Bear*, the Beaver, 
Musk Beer, Wild Boar, Whale, S{e. 

1 This expression is unjust towards the memory of our illustrious 
countryman Ray. Although hi* iu'tiui.1 I'liLssiikar.iuii ha." Wn .hl]]>its(.'<1l'i1 
by others, yet (Javier, in his "Hisloiiv des Sniqu.-L's Natntvllcs," vol. H- 
p. 454, ifler describing Bay's iirran^ement of the mammalia, says, "la 
this classification we meet with the yerms of all tliuse which imvo been 
made since. Liaateaa, especially, hus rakuu nearly ail hi> diameters from 
thoae which Ray had pointed out ... . We are indebted to liny as the 
pioneer and model of all the elassificatorri who have succeeded him, so 
greatly was he endowed with the spirit of method." {Trans.) 



Bird* (Ave*) are animals whose body is covered with feathi 
they have two jaws, one superior, one inferior, without teeth 
lips ; they arc eon verted into mandibles, and form the 
the respiration is pulmonary; the heart quadriloeular ; tl 
have always four limbs, two wings and two feet; they 

To this division belong the Vultures, Woodpeckers, 
Herons, Phcasanls, Thrushes, &C. 

Amphibia {Amphibia) are animals whose body is g 

covered with scales ; they have two jaws, one superior, 

ferior, sometimes furnished with imperfectly developed teeth, 
with or without lips; their respiration is pulmonary, rarely 
branchial ; their heart triloeular or biWular ; they have some- 
times four limbs, very rarely only two, and occasionally nr ~- 
thev are almost always oviparous. 

To this division belong the Tortoises, Lizards, Frogs, Vi 
Snake*, Sturgeons, Ac. 

Fishes (Pisces) are animals whose bodies are covered tril 
scales ; they have two jaws, one superior, one inferior, some- 
times provided with teeth and covered by lips; their respiration 
ia branchial; their heart is biloeular; they have generally 
four true limbs (Jius placed in pttirs), and in addition to these 
accessory limbs (nini/lc Jinn) • they are almost always ovi- 

To this division belong the Eel, Cod, Sole, Tunny, Salmon, 
Carp, Ac. 

Insects (Tnsecta) are animals whose body is covered with a 
coriaceous or calcified skin ; they have four jaws placed 
laterally ; their respiration is tracheal ; their heart unilocular; 
they have generally sis limbs (always feet and sometimes two 
or four wings), rarely more; they are provided with antenna?; 
they are oviparous. 

To this division belong the Canthariie* beetle, FUes, Fleas, 
Tarantula, Scorpion, and Grai/ftsh. 

Worms (Fei-me.s) are animals whose body is covered with a 
soft skin, sometimes provided with a shell ; the jaws vary in 
their number and arrangement, and are sometimes wanting; 
the respiration is accomplished with or without a special 
organ : the heart is unilocular or wanting ; the limbs are 

rudimentary or absent ; they 

vided with tentacle* ; 

they are oviparous or reproduce without a true generative 

To this division belong Leeches, Snails, Slugs, the Oyster, 
Jladrtjiores, and Coral*. 


The following table contains a synopsis of the principal 
characters of these sii classes : 

(Jnwa 1, Milium. 

j arm (Mandibles 2. UrKns. 

l _u | Lungs 3. -\nf-ii in 

) Urandiiio 4. FisnES. 

(Antennai 5. bnmL 

(Tentacles 6. Womis. 

The classification of Linnasue is extremely important, in 
consequence of its scientific character, its simplicity, and its 
convenience. It affords an excellent summary of all that was. 
known at the time of its appearance, and has served as the 
starting-point for the various classifications which have been 
proposed since the period of this j I lusi rii ms. naturalist. 

It is, however, very evident that the tirst four classes of this 
classification are much more closely allied to each other than 
the fourth is to the tilth, or the fifth to the sixth. The last is 
moreover composed of very heterogeneous elements. It eon- 
taios, for example, the I.i-erhrs and the Earth Wo™*, which arc 
far more intimately allied to Insects; and the organization of 
the Cuttle fishes and the Slugs is much more complicated than 
that of the Worms, properly ho called, and is more allied to 
that of Fishes than of Corals. 

III. Lamarck. — Lamarck, taking as his basis the presence 
or absence of the skeleton and the structure of the nervous 
system, divided animals into those without vertebras or the 
Inverlebrata, and into those with vertebra? or the Vertebrate. 1 
The first he subdivided into the apathetic, which included part 
of the Vermes of Linnrcus, and into the sensitive, which included 
the remainder of the Vermes and the Insert a ol' 1 he same author. 
The vertebratii he termed inf.-l/i'/'-ii/ animals, which corresponds 
to the first four classes of Linnams. 

Lamarck commenced with the simplest animals, and gradually 
proceeded to those which were more elevated in the scale of 
organization ; thus following an inverse order to that of his 

[The taking these supposed endowments of the animals as the 
ground of classification was quite inadmissible, and hence the 
groups of Apathetic, Sensitive, and Intelligent animals have 
never been adopted. The grouping together of the first four 

1 Aristotle had termed these ;mirn:ils — animii'-t pmriJed "with blood. 
[Lamarck's division of tiie animal kingdom into the Vcrtebrata and into 
the Invert ebrata, corresponds to Aristotle's Etiaima and Anainia.] 


classes of Linnreua, under the title of the Vertebrata, 
remained a permanent acquisition to science.] 

IV. Cutler. — Profiting by the observations of hia predf 
eessors and hia own researches into the organi nation of t" 
animal kingdom, G. Cuvier revised, eojTected, and perfect 
the classification of Linnams. Like Lamarck, he recognised the 
resemblance which existed between the first four groups, and 
united them under the name of Vertebra/a, giving to this 
assemblage the title of brunch. From the Vermes he separated 
such animals as the cuttle-fish, the snail, and the oyster, to 
forma second brunch, which he termed Mollusca. Amongst 
the worms he discovered a small group with red blood (leeches 
and earthworms ; these he associated with the insects, and 
formed of them a third branch, the Articulata. The majority 
of the remaining having the parts of their bodieB 
arranged like rays around a coininon centre, he named them 

In Cuvier's classification there are, therefore, four principal 
branches — the Vertebrata, the Mollusca, the Articulata, and the 
Badiata. Tin' first group includes the Monkci/s, the Dog, the 
Beaver, the Whale, the Birds, the Tortoises, tin- Frogs, and tl 
Fish. The second contains the Buttles, Culthjish, Cain ma 
Snails, Slugs, Ousters, and Mussels. In the third are t 
Leeches, Earth- "■ or in. Vraujish, Crabs. Spiders. Cautharides, a 
Bee. Lastly, in the fourth are the Star-fish, Tape-tt 
y'hrrad-trorm. Conds. and Sponges. 

The following are the characters of each of these branches : 

1. Vertebrata. — Animals symmetrical, consisting < 
similar halves. Body supported by an internal skeleton, » 
posed of a number of separate pieces placed one over the otht 
(vertebra 1 ), forming a spinal column and canal, terminatii 
anteriorly in the head and posteriorly in a coccyx or tail. 

Digestive canal complete ; jaws two in number, one either 
before or above the other. A special organ of respiration 
frequently double ; lungs or braneliiic. Heart thick, muscular, 
frequently with four cavities, never less than two ; blood red, 
warm or cold. Nervous system ce re bro- spinal ; five senses. 
Limbs usually four, never more. Sexes separate. 

2. Mollusca. — Animals seldom symmetrical ; that is, they are 
composed of unequal portions. Body soft and without any 
internal skeleton, but covered with a cutaneous envelope pro 
vided with a particular fold (mantle), and often contuh 
calcareous masses called shells. 


Digestive canal complete ; jaws one, two, ot three Ui number, 
homy, sometime* rudimentary, anil at other limes wanting. 
A Kj)i'ci;il respiratory organ sometimes pulmon:. 
bmuuial Heart with two or three cavities; blood Botonrlatl 

or of a bluish east, always cold. Nervous system ganglionic, 
rarely symmetrical, and with no abdominal chain ; organ* of the 
senses only slightly developed. Limbs imperfect or absent, 
often consisting; of a large fleshy disc, at other times of a 
byssua, but never of wings. Seiea separate, or united in the 
same individual ; in the latter case two animals mutually im- 
pregnate each other, or one animal may suffice of itself. 

3. Artieiilatu. — Animals symmetrical; that is, composed of 
two similar halves j marked "by a series of transverse constric- 
tions, which divide them into a number of a 

the appearance of being formed of a seriea of rings. Body with 
no internal skeleton, but covered with a hard integument 
(dermal skeleton), which is either calcareous or corneous. 

Digestive canal complete ; jaws often four in number, alwavK 
lateral. Heart replaced by a dorsal vessel, blood generally 
colourless, sometimes pinkish, cold. Inspiratory organ rnontly 
consisting of trachea;. Nervous system ganglionic, nlwnyrt 
symmetrical, with an abdominal chain; organs of the neiwea 
only partially developed. Limbs perfect, with ginglymojil 
articulations, generally six in number, sometimes two ur four 
wings. Sexes almost always separate. 

4. S-infiata. — Animals syitimntriciil, but not formed of two 
similar halves, generally consisting of parts having a rndinleil 
arrangement. Body soft, without either an internal or i-tlcninl 
skeleton. The animals sometimes live in societies, and socrclu 
a horny or calcareous axis. 

Digestive system extremely simple ; sometimes consisting of 
a sac with two openings, at other times with only one. No 
heart. Circulatory system reduced to a few rudimentary 
vessels, blood colourless and cold. No special organ of respi- 
ration. No encephalou or oesophageal ring, rarely ganglions, 
sometimes nerves; no organs of the senses. Limbs repre- 
sented by filamentary processes. Sexual organs very imper- 
fect, often reduced to a simple ovary ; many reproduce by 
gemmation and fission. 

This classification may be tabulated as follows : — 

I. , (askeletoa . . 1. Vejitebbata, 
binary J no Be S mt ' ntfl } no skeleton. . 2. Moimsoa. 
^ "Ugmonts 


This classification, like that of Linnreus, proceeds from the 
complex to the simple ; but it is mori' even, regular, and natural. 
If the Mollmca were all formed of two dissimilar halves 
lite the Snmh, and if all the liudiata had a strictly radiated 
disposition, the classification of Cuvier might he symbolized 
by the four following figures, each of which corresponds to one 
of his branches : 

(J 1. Vebteiik.uw. 

2. Mollusca. 

3. Aeticitiata. 

Phesest state.— The investigations of modern anatomists 
and systomatists have introduced some slight modifications 
into the Cuverian distribution ; but these changes refer rather 
to the orders than to the branches, to the details rather than 
to the general arrangements. Although the names have been 
often changed, the principal groups have remained almost 
or entirely the same. Every one recognises the Vertebrate of 
Cuvier, or of Lamarck, in the Osteozoaria of De Blainville; 1 
hia Mollusca in lltrfarozixtnit of the same writer;- his Articu- 
late in the Entomazanriit ;* aud liin Ttodiatn in the Actinoso- 
wia; so that it is still the classification of Cuvier which pre- 

Nevertheless, this classification is far from perfect. If the 

1 These are the Myeloneura of Ehrenbcrp, and the Hypocotyledoau of 
Tan Beneden. 

a M. Van Benudcn \v.\f them to the Itfidialti under the name o( 
A t> •:>■■< dijkdtmes. 

3 There are the Epicotyledones of M. Van Benoden. 

* Mr. Milne i!d wards li;.s iutfidiitoil .-uini' i in port nut changes. 


AloHitzrn seem more allied to the Vertebrata in respect t(j 
S"Hif parts of their orsjaui/jilidii than the Artii-ittata, the latter 
certainly resemble them much more with respect to their 
faculties and their embryology, a fact which both Lamarck 
and De Blainville were fully conscious of. The division, 
liadinta especially, has been the subject of a great number 
of criticisms. It includes animals which are fixed to the earth 
after the manner of vegetables and also locomotive animals, 
animals which have organs of the senses and those that are 
without them. There is uo appearance of radiation in the 
Tlinail-ironni or in the Flukes; nevertheless, these animals 
have been placed in the same division as the Sra l[edge-hog» 
and the Corah. The Tape-worms and the liothriocepliala have 
segments placed end to end; why are they not arranged 
amongst the Articulate? 

A circumstance of the utmost importance, but one which 
has not been sufficiently considered in the classification of 
animals, ib, on the one hand, their stale of isolation or associa- 
tion, and, on the other, the unity of the organisms or their 

Zoologists have long since shown that certain animals, as 
the Polyps for example, possess a kind of life very different 
from that of ordinary animals, inasmuch as, instead of being 
isolated, numbers of them are grouped together and live in 

societies. I, lumens terms them iniiiiialiir ninipu-siln. Cuvier, 
speaking of these associations, savs, '■ The individuals are asso- 
ciated in large numbers to form compound beings." There 
are, therefore, isolated or solitary animals, and compound or 
associated animals. Again, between these two kinds of ani- 
mals there are others which are intermediate, and which 
present neither the perfect isolation of the first, nor the multi- 
plicity of the second. Natura no/i facit saltus ! Such, for 
example, is the worm. Philosophical anatomy has taught us 
that this annelid is composed of segments or articulations 
placed in a linear arrangement, in each of which the same 
organs are regularly repeated. It is a series of particular 
organisms, each of which has a nervous centre, digestive, vas- 
cular, secreting, and reproductive organs. It may be termed a 
distinct series of animals, symmetrically and longitudinally 
arranged, but intimately united and governed by a common 
life. These special organisms have received the name of 
Zoonites. (182(5.) Various physiological experiments have 
shown that it is possible, artificially, to render each organ- 
ism more independent of the whole, and to a certain extent 


to isolate the particular life of the zoonites from that of thf 
common life of the general association. 

Nature even goes further, and in the tape-worm ' exhibits 
these zoouites disengaging themselves, and becoming isolate' 
at a certain stage of their existence. The same animal thui 
furnishes science with a kind of (synthesis and analysis. 

Lamarck perfeetlv nndcrstimd the ditl'erence which sepa- 
rated a vertebra ted animal from an insect when he arranged 
these animalB in two series : the Inartimlata. (that is to say, 
the solitary animals, and the Articiila/a (that is, the zoonitex). 
But this illustrious naturalist appears to have lost sight of this 
fundamental idea, when be associated the polype or compound 
animals with Inarticulatrd animal*. 

I have therefore divided the miimal kingdom into three aub- 
kingdoms: I. The Isolated animals; II. Zoanite animals _ 
III. The Associated animals. I divide the sub-kingdoms into 
six branches, aceordhig to the characters of their nervous 
systems, which mav he cerebro-spinal. ganglionic, rudimentary, 
or wanting. I have retained, as far as possible, the na 
generally admitted, especially those of Cuvier and De Bl 


1st Sub-Kingdom. 2nd Sub-Kingdom. 3rd Sub-Kingdom, 

1st. Branch. 


(Musk deer. Cod.) 
2nd Branch. 4th Branch. 

Moi J.USC A A N N E L] 1> A 

MaLACOZOARIA. EntomozosriA. 

(Cuttlefish. Oyster.) jBli.-minni,- beetle. Leech.) 

3rd Branch. Cth Branch. 6th Branch. 

Beterohobpha IUdiata Zoophtw 

1 Linna;us haa said of the Tienias; " AniimdUa iac sum _ 

,ii>tij)Ut:i. i-iiii:nn .... lotettle. intra ■■in-fuliiii, artkiiiuiii itiiinttiti-itln r 
sua fructijicatione." He adds elsewhere : " Omnia articidius propria w 
gaudel." Vallieneri, Lamarck, ami Duveniny believed in the polyzoie 
nature of the Turiiiu* jud similar jnmuals. JIM. Leuekart, Eaehrieht, 
Steenstrup, Van Beneden, and Siebold, have illustrated the inultlplieity of 
their organisms. 


Amongst these branches", those of the Vertebraia and Mai- 
luica of Cuvier remain aJuioat without alterut ion. The Annelida 
represent the articulata of the great nut urn list with the 
addition of the intestinal worms ; but his fourth group has 
been altered and subdivided, JiLiinvillr had previously formed 
it into two sub-kingdoms: the Aetinomorpha or the Radiata, 

Epoperij so called, and the Hetertmorpha or Ileteroxoaria. I 
me adopted this division ; but I have considered it better 
to separate the truly astoeiated animals from those which, like 
the Til-tuns and tin- Sin i ■•ihhi-n, already begin to show a state 
of fusion ; in other words, into the radiated eoonites and into 
the compound unimnh coin posed <>f distinct individuals. 

A mere inspection of the table show* that a linear arrange- 
ment of the branches and classes cannot he natural. If we 
follow the order of the figures placed before each branch, the 
Anitrliittt arc separated too fur from the MolUuea, and especially 
from the Vertebraia. If, on the other hand, a linear arrange- 
ment iB adopted, and the Articulata are placed after the Mol- 
hisca, and the Radiata after the Jleteromorpha, the latter are 
arranged at too great a distance from the Molhtica, and the 
Radiata too far from the Annelida, The three groups of Iso- 
lated or Snfflifl animals (I., II., and III.) form a natural 
series. We pass in a natural manner from" the first to the 
last through the Mollmca. The animals having a ganglionic 
nervous system (II. and IV.) are brought together on a 
horizontal line, and the question of the preeminence of the 
Molluxca or of the Annelida, decided sonii'tiiiies in favour of 
the first (Cuvier), sometimes in favour of the second (Cams), 
obtains a solution. Uhiini ille lUTim^ed these animals below the 
Vertebraia, giving to each the same rank ; that is, he placed 
them at an equal distance. My method differs slightly from 
his, inasmuch as I place the Annelida at a somewhat greater 
distance. If hi some respects the Mollusca are endowed with 
a less perfect organization and with a lower grade of instinct 
than the latter, yet on the other hand they are single animals 
and not zoonites. The animals with a rudimentary nervous 
system, or in which it is wanting, offer so many points of 
resembknee that they are arranged in a horizontal series (III., 
V., and VI.), which is quite as natural as that of the vertical 
series of the isolated animals. We pass from the Hcteromor- 
pka to the Zoophilia by means of the Radiata or Aefinozoaria. 
The following is the number aud arrangement of the classes 
contained in each of the branches : — 


1st Sub-Kingdoi 

J properlv eo < 
"j called. ( 

III. — HeTEBOHORI'HA (Nnfotur/iaiiu. 


1, Masthalia (Musk deer). 

3. Reptiua (Viper), 

4. BATKACniA (Frog). 

5. Pisces (Cod). 
0. SItelairia' (Lancelet). 

7. Cephaiopoda (Cuttlefish). 

8. Ptebopoea (Clio lioreulis). 
0. Gastebopoe-a (Slug). 

10. Acephala (Oyster). 

11, TuHioATA'(Aaciditt). 

UA. j_Sarcodaria. 12. Inposioria' (Volvos). 

2nd Sub-Kingdom.— ZOONITES. 


projwrh f.v 



Issiscta (Cantharides). 
Arachnids (Scorpiuii). 
Cm-.-T.ii'nA (Criivlisli). 
IfoTiPKiu (Wheel tenimal 
Asmliu (liocch). 
Namatoidea (Threadworm). 
Tmkkatoda (Fluke). 
Ckstohjea (Tapeworm). 

i. EoHisoDEHaATA (Star-fish). 

3rd Sub-Kingdom.— ASSOCIATED. 

1, Associated properly t 
called 1 (Botrvllus). 
( 2. Bbtozoa. 
< 3. Polypipeba (Corala). 

[ 4. Sl'OHQIABIA (Sp.illU!;). 

1 Is. Ceoffroy Sfii nt- ¥T11 r< i ]■■.:-. C. Tionaparte. 

* First section of 1 1 1 ■_■ ."':. M< ,-■« , I ■■.■■././.■ j(h of Cuvier. 

■ Homogeneoun Infusoria of Cuvier. 

' Twr/iellririrr. nf ?i>me writers. 
1 Compound Acephala of Cuvier. 




Ik the earlier ages of medicine, the remedies derived from 
the animal kingdom were exceedingly numerous. It is only 
necessary to examine the catalogues which have been left us 
by the ancients to be convinced of this fact. These catalogues, 
which were mere compilations of receipts, contain the most 
extravagant remedies, brought together without any order, 
and, generally speaking, unaccompanied by any critical 

Physicians having made the organization of man the sub- 
ject of their special study at a very early period, it is hardly to 
be wondered at if they sought to obtain from his body various 
remedies against disease. Man was long regarded as an 
fl.TMTnn.1 par excellence, and it was, therefore, thought that this 
animal ought naturally to furnish a number of valuable 

Amongst other ancient remedies which were seriously 
recommended, was the use of tanned human skin as a belt, the 
nails and hairs either burnt or distilled, 1 the teeth, brain, saliva, 9 
wax, 3 urine* the excrements, the fat (especially of a person 
who had been hanged), the blood of a man who had been beheaded 
drank while it was still warm, 5 and filings of the human skull 
(Jtommis cranium raspatum) ! Lemery observes, " The skull 
of a person who has died a violent death forms a quicker and 
better remedy than that of a person who has died from a 
lingering disease, or who has been taken from a cemetery, 
because the first contains all his spirits, while in the others 
they have been exhausted either by the disease or by the 
earth." Boyle believed that powdered human skull, applied to 
the skin, had permanently cured him of bleeding from the 

1 The hair of children eased the gout; that of adults was employed 
against the bite of a dog ! 

* The saliva of a man who had fasted was a specific against the poison of 
serpents ! . . . 

* Wax cured the sting of the scorpion ! 

4 The urine of eunuchs rendered women fruitful ! 

* At Rome, the warm blood of the gladiators was ordered in various 
diseases ! In Egypt, kings attacked with elephantiasis were ordered baths 
of human blood! 

The progress of medical science and of common sense 1 
long since freed ua of these therapeutical extravagancies. 1 



A large volume might he furmed of the statements which 
are to be found in different authors, relating to the animals or 
their productions which were formerly used in medicine, but 
which are now abandoned, 

Linnseus very properly discarded maiiv of the fake and 
absurd statements of hia predecessors, tut one is surprised 
to find still included amongst his Male fin .McJica the fat of 
the teild cat (eati si/lrexlrix ti.rinu/iti), the text ivies of the horse 
(equi testiculi) am! the ;mii's of the u~liiile (vr/i prinpiu) 1 . 
The most celebrated men have always, to a certain extent, 
been enslaved by the prejudices of their time. 

The ancient therapeutists often sought 1'or what they termed 
correspondence between the disease and the remedy, but it ia 
impossible to conjecture what wen- the relations upon which 
they founded the virtues of many animal substances. Thus, in 
spitting of hlood, they recommended the patient to drink kid's 
blood mixed with vinegar ; in diseases of the kidneys they 
prescribed the back of a hare to be eaten raw or cooked, but 
without touching- it will: the teeth; in diseases of the spleen, 
they applied the spleen of a dog over the region of the affected 
organ ; in disorder of the liver, they ordered the dried liver of 
a wolf in wine sweetened with honey, or that of an ass bruised 
in honey with two parts of celery and three outs ! . . , 

The following are Borne of these therapeutic agents which 
belonged to the ancient medical /.oulogv, arranged in three 
series : 
I. The Entire Animal. 

1st. Simply opened or levixeil.- "Bid, mole, pigeon, toad, 

tree-frog, spider, scorpion. 
2nd. Driei/or reilneed to pointer- I ledge-hog, tit-mous 
water-wag-tail wren, goat sucker, plover, snake, 


toad,' e art h worm, bug, cricket, grasshopper, 

3rd. Calcined and reduced to ashes. — Badger, moust 

(mm combustits), crow, cuckoo, kingfisher, lizard. 

salamander, slug, scarabueus. 
4th. Infused in water. Magpie {aqua picarum, composi- 

turn), swallow (aqua hirundinum). 
5th. Boiled in milk.—ToaA, 
6th. Infused in. oil. — Dog (oil of young dogs)? fox. 

nawk, cameleon, scorpion (oil of Matlhiole), 

coekroneh, earthworm. 
7th. Distilled. -A lit s (waler of magnanimity). 

II. Bones of the dog, wolf, hare (astragalus), horee, eta; 

eagle (skull, vertebra), toad (left humerus'), carp, 
shad, and whiting. 

III. Blooo of the bat, lion, dog, mole, weasel, hare, rat, horse, 

ass, elephant, rlduueeivs, hull, camel, stag, gout, gold- 
finch, lark, pigeon, cock, pheasant, quail, ostrich, swan, 
duck, tortoise, lizard, frog, tree-frog, and snake. 

IV. Fat of monkey, dog, wolf, fox, wild eat, hedge-hog, badget 

rabbit, hare, marmot, beaver, porcupine, dormouse, 
ass, elephant, stag, fallow-deer, camel, eagle, falcon, 
kite, common fowl, pheasant, cassowary, heron, frigate 
bird, pelican, lizard, suake, frog, tree-frog,' carp, pike, 
eel-pout, and lamprey. 

V. Cove bin a. 

1st. Skin of mole, horse, ass, rhinoceros, eagle, tench. 

1 Zwelfer states that takes (a) composed of tlie toad preserved him from 
the plague, and that the name remedy hod relieved, ami even cured, some 
of his domestics aud friends of malignant diseases. Van Hcliaant also 
applied this singular remedy to the skin. 

* Catellos recent note* tutmero Ira, in throe or four pounds of olive oil. 
Some used thein while they are alive {vivos), others after they were dead 

■ Oligans Jacobasus pretends that the fat of the tree-frog causes teeth 
Which have been rubbed with it to fall out without pain. 

(a) The t«rm rate has been used instead of the obsolete word troche, 
by which the oI'Kt pliLinitm^niisL.- disi^Tii.rird ■'-..■]"' :l in compounds com- 
posed of various powders, raade up with my convenleal medium, not eon- 
Wining sugar, iuto little calsen of various forms, ami afterwards dried. The 
word trochiscus or troche is derived from trodios, a wheel, the cakes being 
very often made up into that shape. See the section on the so-called crabs' 
eves, p, 96. 


2nd. Hair of cat, fox, hare, horse, sbb, elephant, goat, 

3rd. Feathers of eagle, lark, partrii 

VI. Shells. 

1st. Univalve*- — snail, rudimentary Bhell of slug, whelk 

dental! urn. 
2nd. Bivalves — common mussel. 
3rd. Epiphra//ma of the large Roman snail. 

4th. Pearls n|' the pearl oyster and the mussel. 


1st. Jmrs of the pike, trout. . 

2nd. Teeth of wok, badger, wild boar, cod, &c. 

3rd. Toue/iic of grouse, liamingo. . 

4th. Stomach of hedge-hog, pigeon, common fowl, c 

ostrich, eel-pout. 
5th. Intestines of wolf. . 
(ith. Spleen of dog, ass. . 
7th. Liver of wolf, mole, bear, badger, weasel, otti 

hare, porcupine, elephant, goat, roebuck, eagle 

swan, duck, lizard, frog, e _1 
8th. Kidney* of ass. . 
Oth. Lungs of fox (pi/liKuiies ]in:parati), weasel, h 

;h. Heart o 

10th. Heart of monkey, lion, mole, stag, cro 
kingfisher, toad. . 
VIII. Bile, thine, excrements. 

1st. Bile of moil key, wit, dug. hedgr-hog, martin, weasel, 
bear ( fel i».fpi.fsn/iiiii), huir, ass, pig, elephant, 
goat, roebuck, fallow-deer, camel, eagle, peewit, 
nightingale, bee-eater, pheasant, partridge, crane, 
wood-cock, snipe, tortoise, lizard, frog, salmon, 
pike, carp, eel-pout, eel. . 

2nd. Urine of Etas, mule, rhinoceros, cow, goat, stag, 
camel, lizard. . 

3rd. Excrements of eat, dog {fed upon hones),' wolf, 
fox, martin, weasel, hare, mouse, 3 ass, mule, pig, 
elephant, ox, sheep, goat, roe-buck, fallow-deer, 
camel, eagle, hawk, crow, kite, pee-wit, swallow, 

1 Album gracum, apodittm ijr/rcvtn, nlhiim canis, nihil album, cy 
prut.— Libavius gives the method of preparing and preserving the a 

* Allium nigrum iterate nigrum, muscerda. 


cuckoo, pigeon, common fowl, peacock, quail, 

bustard, swan, goose, tortoise, lizard. 1 . 
EL Obgans or bepboduction. 

1st. Testicles of badger, weasel, otter, horse, ass, bare, 

common fowl. . 
2nd. Penis of ass, bull, stag {priapus cervi), whale, sea 

tortoise. . 

X. Eggs. 

1st. Cheering of the eggs of the frog. 2 . 
2nd. Entire eggs of lizard, barbel, pike, cuttle- 
fish. . 
3rd. Shell of crow, common fowl, quail, ostrich. . 

XI. Obgans of belation. 

1st. Brain of badger, hare, stag, camel, eagle, hawk, 
crow, pee-wit, common fowl, partridge. . 

2nd. Eye of hare, quail, crane. . 

3rd. Ear-bone of carp, whiting, cod, pike. . 

4th. Foot of hare (leporis tali). . 

5th. Hoof of horse, mule, ass, elephant, rhinoceros, 
tapir, elan (ungula preparata). 3 . 

6th. Claws of hawk. . 

7th. Claws of crab. . 


1st. Horn of rhinoceros, ox, sheep, goat. . 
2nd. Appendages of flying stag (horns). . 


1st. Suet of sheep. . 

2nd. Dried tears of stag. . 

3rd. Ink of cuttle-fish. . 

4th. Cocoons of silk- worm {English drops), spider 

{Montpellier drops). . 
5th. Bezoars. A. Stony {intestinal concretions) 4 of 

the monkey, wild boar, 5 Indian hog, 6 ox,* 

1 See the Stercoral Pharmacopeia of C. F. Pauliini (Heilsame Drek-Apo- 
theke, Frankfort, 1696, in-8). 

* Ranarum sperma exsiccatum, sperma ranee. 

* It was especially the hoof of the left foot which was employed. 

4 The name bezoar is given to calcareous masses, more or less solid, 
generally formed of concentric layers, and found in the stomach, intestines, 
and urinary passages of quadrupeds. 

* Pig stone, lapis pordnus. 

6 Malacca stone, lapis porci Malacensis, yellow bezoar. The bezoar of 
Ceylon (lapis porci Ceylanici) was larger and not so scarce. 
v Masang ae vaca, Indian yellow, gUUe stone. 



goat of Peru, 1 ibex, 1 camel, serpent, 1 viper.* 
B. Hairy (agagrojthilet)* of horse, ox, 


Cebtais' animals and auimal productions formerly in 
still occasionally, though very rarely, prescribed by medica 

They may be divided into three groups : 1st, Animals e. 
ployed whole; 2nd, Parts of animals ; 3rd, Animal production*. 



These animals are : 1st, the Scink; 2nd, Wood Lout 
Cochineal Insect. 

I. Scink. 

The Scink of the pharmaceutist" is a small Saurian rept 

belonging to the family Scineoidea; it is very comn 

1 Western hezoar. 

1 Oriental Ik::><h\ "reou rcsiumis bezoar. 

1 Serpent stone, cobra de capello. 

* Bezoar of Franco. 

5 Concretions which form in the stomach anii intestines of various quad- 
rupeds, from the accumulation of hairs swallowed by the animala in licking 
themselves. The hairs become felteii together in balls. 

6 Scinau officinales, Schreb. (Laeerta Sctneus, Linn.). The Araba term 
it el Adda. 


Nubia, Abyssinia, Egypt, Arabia, and in the south of Algeria 
and Morocco. 

The body is from nine to twelve inches in length ; it 
passes gradually into the tail, which is thick and corneal, Hid 
forms nearly one third of the entire length. The colour of the 
animal is of a silvery yellow, with dark transverse bands. The 
muzzle is wedge-shaped. The teeth are small, close set, find 
pointed. The feet are abort, the toes free, flat, and un- 

Before it is brought to Europe it is dried, the intestines 
having been previously removed, and the end of the tail cut off. 
The space that was occupied by the intestines is filled with 
aromatic plants, and it is then wrapped up in leaves of worm- 

The Scin-k was long regarded as a most useful and valuable 
remedy. In the Materia Medica it was said to be stimulant, 
restorative, and nntisyphilitic, but especially serviceable in 
restoring the powers of the body when they had been ex- 
hausted by voluptuous indulgences.' ( Dioscuri des.) It entered 
into the composition of several complicated formulae. 

The common Lizard* has been proposed as a substitute for 
the Scink. A species of AnolU? and an Iguana,* have also 
been mentioned for the same purpose. 

Very recently Dr. Goase, of Geneva, has advocated the 
therapeutic properties of the Seinks. He maintains that the 
undents were justified in employing them, and that these 
animals possess powerful stiinubmf and sudorific properties, 
which might be usefully employed in various diseases. 

g II. "Wood-lice. 

ndcr this name of Wbodltce 6 are included two small 

l.\/rpii' .,,■/.';■.■'«: r/,: jn-u tJiJiru'li-iiriM, Linn. 

Laceriii agilin, Linn. [The common of this country is not the 
Lacerta agilis of Liniueus, hut the Zuoiiea vivipara of Bell, or scaly lizard 
of Pennant. See Hell's Brit, lieptileB.1 

1 Atittliiis bidliiris, Cuv. |This i*[iei*iivi mis lir-l di~i'iiln--<I by Catesby in 
bis Natural History of Carolina, under llie iistme of the Green lizard; it 
is a very beaulii'ul species, of a ^rtciiish :;<>ld colour.] 
' Iijuana df.limJin.ii mil, I,;iur. (/. »>.tiliri;llis, CuV.). 

* The Sauriane are not the only reptiles whose medicinal virtues have 
been extolled. The old tbera| 'en lists mado u-e of a volatile salt containing 
a powder composed of viptrs, also cakes (sec note, p. 05], as well us a wine, 
a syrup, a jelly, and an oil. The fat of these animals was recommended 
in iivrvinis affections, and was considered to be a good cosmetic 

• Qntici, Asdli. 



in old 


species of isopod crustaeea. belonging to the family of the 
Om'scidaj: tbe common Hood-louse (fig. S), and the' officinal 
Armadillo (fig. 9), 

1st, The common Wood-louse ' is constantly found 

in the crevices of walla, under atones, and h 

The body 19 oval, oblong, of a grey colour, and 
' composed of a number of imbricated rings. It has 
" four antenna;, the lateral ones being provided with 
!* eight joints. It ia provided with two pointed ap- 
pendaiiva at its posterior extremity. 
■ Piff. 8. Wood-lice avoid the light and frequent damp 

Wooft-ltiiwi. situations, where they Iced upon d worn posing animal 
and vegetable matters ; their walk is naturally 
slow, but they can move quickly when irritated- When 
alarmed they have the singular power of rolling themselves up 
into a bail; they are ovoviviparous. At birth the young have 
only twelve feet [the adult animal baa fourteen, one 
being attached to each of tbe seven rings, which form 

2nd, The of/ici/tu! Armadillo 1 ia met with in France, hut 
belongs especially to Italy. 

The Armadillo ia closely allied to the preceding species. 
The rings are smooth and polished, and of a grey 
colour. The lateral antenna' have only seven joints. 
The posterior appendages of the body are not pro- 

The medicinal properties of the" If 'ood-louse and the 
AmiOitiihi were long spoken of in lii^li terms. Those 
individuals were preferred, which lived 011 walls and 
on stones covered by saline particles. CJalen speaks Fig. 9. 
of then- beneficial effects in obstructions of the Armadillo. 
abdominal viscera; Baglivi considered them as 
lithontripties, Vallisneri aa antiscorbutic, and Geoffrey aa 
anti-rheumatic. . . . Most writers have mentioned them as 
being aperient, laxative, and diuretic. It has been ascer- 
tained that they contain the hvdrochlorates and nitrates 
of potash and lime, which may possibly explain their former 
reputation in medicine. These minute Crustacea entered into 
the composition of numerous prescriptions. Patients awal- 

1 Onisais miUvs, Linn. In the old pharmacopeia* it fas called Quito 
and Poreettia. 

1 Armadillo officinal*, Cnv. It was known aa prepared wood-louse or 
armadillo of I In.- shops. 

it it 


lowed them raw, and that even while they were alive, con- 
suming as many as two hundred in the course of the day. 
De Haen seriously relates that in certain cases of weak sight, 
patients had eaten these animals with bread, and that tin's 
extraordinary remedy had been exceedingly efficacious. 

§ III. Cochineal Insect.— Coccus Cacti, Linn. 

The Cochineal is an insect belonging to the order Hemiptera, 
the tribe Homoptera, and to the family G-allinsecta. They 
constitute the genus Coccus of Linnaeus ; they are characterized 
by a pectoral beak, an abdomen terminated by setae, and by the 
presence of two wings in the male — none in the female. 
*' 1st. Common Cochineal (fig. 10). — The Common Cochineal, 
or Cochineal of the Nopal, 1 is an insect which is held in con- 
siderable estimation, on account of the beautiful and brilliant 
colour which it furnishes. 

This animal was employed in medicine and in the arts long 
before its true nature was ascertained. It was supposed to be 
a small berry or grain, known as shining grain.* Lopez de 
Gromara, in 1525, gave the first description of this insect, and 
of the plant upon which it fed. Thierry de Menonville, in 
1787, published an excellent treatise on the Cochineal. 
Reaumur has given some details respecting the generation 
and metamorphoses of those species which are met with in 

Habitat. — The Cochineal of commerce is found in different 
parts of Mexico. It lives on several species of Nopal, par- 
ticularly on the common,* the cochineal bearing, 4 and the Tuna * 

Description. — The Cochineal of the Nopal is a small insect. 
The male and the female are not alike, and might be supposed 
to belong to different genera. It has even been stated that 
the individuals which had been taken for the male were para- 

The body of the male is elongated, short anteriorly nar- 

1 Adanson has seen students when herborizing eat some dozens of these 
insects and find them very good. 

* Pomet said (1694) that the Spaniards exposed them to the action of 
heat, so that the young should not become developed in France. 

■ 3 Opuntia vulgaris, Mill {Cactus Opuntia, Linn. ). 

4 Opuntia coclienUlifera, Mill {Cactus cochenillifera, Linn.). 

* Cpuntia Tuna, Mill {Cactus Bonplandia, Kunth). 



rowed behind, and of a deep red ; the head i 

a rudimentary beak ; the imtentue a: 
of moderate length, filiform, aud corn- 

small, with 
imtenme are 

posed of eleven joints. The 
is terminated bv tw 

Fig. 10.— Oodiliicui. 1 

by two seta*, longer 
than the body, 'diverging, and very 
ll.l slender. The wings reach beyond the 
abdomen and cross each other horizon- 
tally on the back; they are oblong and 
Sierteetly transparent. The limbs are 
ong, with a single joint to the tai 
terminating in a hook. The 
is quick and active. 

The female is at least twice the si; 
of the male, the body ii oval, obi 
anteriorly, slightly attenuated bel 
convex above, and flat below, 
has ten distinct rings, of a brown 
colour, covered with a white powder. It is provided with sa 
extremely narrow, slightly conical, and very pointed rostrum 
from 3 to 4 lines in length. The uhdominal seta* are shorter 
than the body. The llmba are small, and the animal very 

The larval stage in both sexes does not last more than ten 
days ; that of the pupa fifteen. The male does not live more 
than a month. As soon as he is born he seeks the female and 
when impregnation is accomplished ho dies. The female lives 
a month longer, and during this time her abdomen becomeB 
considerably enlarged. When the period for laying the 
eggs has arrived she fixes herself to the plant. The e 
remain adherent to the under surface of her body, so that 
laying is hardly evident externally, As the abdomen emptu 
itself its inferior piirioles approaeiies the upper and thus iorms 
a considerable cavity below. Very si mn the parent insect dies, 
her abdomen driest up, the skin becomes hard and shriveUed and 
serves as a kind of shell for Llie protection of her offspring. 

The eggs are from 250 to 300 in number, and are united 
into a narrow band ; they are oval, of an intense red colour, 
and are covered with a farinaceous secretion. They are hatel 
in a few days. The larva- issue from beneath the dried-u] 
remains of the parent by an opening at the posterior part, am 
spread themselves over the nopals. During the first days 

1 a, mile ; t, female. 





their existence they traverse the tendercst parts of the plants, 
and seek out a suitable spot to attach themselves to. Having 
decided upon this, about one third of the individuals cover 
themselves with a white powder, which assumes tin- form of a 
eaeoon open at one end ; beneath this covering the larva 
becomes transformed into a chrysalis, and then into the per- 
fect insect. The abdominal seta' soon make their appearance 
through the opening previously mentioned, and the animal 
comes out backwards : these are the males. The other two- 
thirds are the females, whose bodies daily increase in size, 
while the males flutter around them, or walk over their backs. 

Ci/Ifi cation. — The Cochineal is found wild in the woods, but 
it is usually propagated and reared artificially. A certain 
number of nopals arc planted around the houses to form a 
uopalry. It is usually placed in an open situation, where there 
is no shade, but where it is sheltered from the west winds. It 
is surrounded by a hedge of reeds, as much to break the eurreutB 
of air as to guard the plantation from the attacks of wild beasts. 
A nopalry might not to be more than two acres in extent. 
The ground having been properly prepared, the plantation is 
formed by cuttings of the nopals planted about halfway in the 
ground. The cuttings are placed a foot apart and arranged 
in rows, with intervals of rather more than a yard between 

Females obtained from the woods, just before they are about 
to lay their eggs, or insects filled with egfjs, which have been 
preserved through the winter on the sheltered nopals, are 
placed, to the number of ten or twelve, in small nests, com- 
posed of the fibres of theeoeoa nut, or in small cylinders open at 
the ends formed of the leavi-sof" the dwarf palm, and suspended 
to the spines of the nopals ; at other times they are placed in 
the crevices of the plant. This iB called sowing the cochineal. 
The larvie soon come out of the nests and spread themselves 
over the nopals. They are afterwards arranged in groups on 
the most succulent and vigorous parts of the plant. 

The principal care wliii-h is required in raising the Cochineals 
is, to shelter thou from the effects of the wind and the rain; 
this is done by simply placing matting over the nopals. 

Thierry de Menonville introduced this valuable insect into 
Saint Domingo, but the revolution of Haiti prevented the 
Huceess of the experiment, and the insects were allowed to 

The Dutch succeeded in naturalizing them in Java. In 
L845, that is, in about ten years after their introduction, the 

quantity sold on account of the government amounted t 

Living individuals have, on several occasions, been intro- 
duced into Europe. Liunjeus tells us that Hulander presented 
some to the Botanic Garden at Upsal in 1756. 

The Cochineal has become acclimated in Spain, more par- 
ticularly in the neighbourhood of Malagar and in the kingdor. 
of Valencia. 

In 180U, M. Sou coy lii'i*. a naval surgeon, brought home som 
living Cochineals, which he transmitted to M. Robert, pro 
feasor of botany at Toulon. 

In 1827, the natu ri I izati on of the Cochineal waa attempt* 
in Corsica, but without success. The same year it was ii ' 
duced into the Canary Isles, where it met with the 1 
perfect success, for the eight and a half pounds of Cochines 
which these islands exported in 1831, amounted to i 
than S82.2001bs. in 1850. The diseased vines, upon which £ 
insects lived in 'the Canaries, have been lately rooted up a 
replaced by nopals. 

The Spanish Government, fully appreciating the value i 
this branch of industry, forbade the exportation of the precioi 
insect under the penalty of death. In spite, however, of this, 
in 1831, M. Sjmonnet, a pharmaceutist of Algiers, had the 
courage to run the risk of the nndrrtiiking and introduced the 
first Cochineals into the French settlements. He procured the 
insects from Valencia ; hut in consequence of had weather he 
had the mortification to find his endeavours unsuccessful. Two 
years afterwards, pr. Loze, a naval surgeon, brought several 
pots of the cactus, each having from thirty to forty of the 
Cochineal insects living upon them. At the end of 1834, he 
presented to the Academy of Sciences samples of his first crops, 
which were pronounced to be of an excellent quality. Recalled 
in 1S36, M. Loze was obliged to leave his cacti and the 
Cochineals in the garden of Hussein Bey, where they were 
exposed to every kind of risk. Some time after, M. Hardy, 
director of the central Nursery Garden, endeavoured to save 
what might be left of them. It was with difficulty he could 
find two or three of the nopals, with a few impregnated females 
upon them; it was with these fragments that lie was enabled 
to establish the vaJuiiblc cultivation of which we are speaking. 
In 1846, 371hs. were sold at Marseilles by order of the Minister 
of War. M. Chevreuil stated, that the produce from Algeria 
was equal in value and in quality to that of Mexico. Prom 
that time the cultivation of the Cochineal was rapidly developed. 



In. ls.',3. in the province of Algiers nlone, there were four- 
teen nopalries, containing 61, 500 nopals, and their produce 
aold at 15 francs the kilogramme (2'2055lb. avoir.). 

Collecting. The collecting of the Cochineals takes place 
in the tine weather, shortly before the time for laying their 
eggs, when the abdomen has attained its greatest size. Their 
Bize at this period is nearly that of a pea. 

The Cochineals which are sown in April are collected in the 
June following. From these are chosen females which are 
intended for the rearing of the summer cropj this begins 
towards the end of May and is completed in Nqitcrnber; from 
the second gathering females are again |uit aside lor the winter 
crop. In a favourable season, three gatherings may be 
obtained during the year. 

Wncu the time for collecting baa arrived, cloths are spread 
beneath the nopals, their joints are cut off and the insects 
detached by passing a fine brush or the blunt edge of a knife 
over the plant. This operation is ropeatdfl several times. 
Some growers do not mutilate the nopals, and scrape the joints 
without separating them from the trunk. 

The Cochineals from the lirst gathering are considered the 
most valuable.. 

The insects arc killed in several ways ; one is to place them 
in -baskets and. steep them in boiling water, thev are afterwards 
spread out on hurdles covered with elotbs, and dried, first in 
the sun, and afterwards in the shade, where there is a free 
current of air. By this method the insects lose in the water 
the wlitte" powder with which they are covered. The Spaniards 
term: these cocfiiiirlln rriwt/riifn. At other times the insects 
are merely baked in an oven ; when prepared in this way, they 
have an ashengrey colour, ami are named jusjieinl'i. Lastly, 
the cochineals arc killed by being heated on iron plates, when 
they, turn of a dark colour; this variety is known as the 
cochinella nigra. 

Reaumur says that it takes 05,000 insects to weigh a pound 
Fr. (lib. loz. lO^dr. avoir.) while, according to M. Fee, it 
does not require more than from 42 to 45,000. 

Three varieties of cochineal are distinguished in commerce: 
1st, The M.<:<lf/iit'. ' Jim: or rorhiiiclla -i,<<i>ru,ht of I he Spaniards ; 

it is of a purplish grey colour and covered with a whitish 
powder. 2nd, The Black cochineal ; this is the largest ; it is. 

1 Meateqae is the name of a Mexican province. (Ed.) < 


of a reddish or purplish black colour, and is almost or qui! 
devoid of the white powder. 3rd, The Spleestre cochineal t 
yrana Si/lnestria ,* this consists of the smallest insects ; it is of 
a dullish red colour, and is of the least value. This variety is 
obtained from the nopal plants which grow wild in the woods. 

In order to give the cochineals the farinaceous appearance 
which distinguishes the finest qualities, powdered talc 
white lead is mixed with them, lu this way the black vari 
is made to resemble the inesteque or fine variety. 

TTses. — Cochineal has been recommended in hoopmgcou; 
and dysury. It has also been used hi the form of a drink aa 
remedy for the troublesome form of cough which follows 

Carmine and lake carmine are formed from cochineal. 

The colouring principle of cochineal (coohiwlla or carmine) 
is a substance uf a brilliant purplish red colour, 
It fuses at 112° F. It is insoluble in ether, but very soluble 
in alcohol and whter. Alkalies change it to a violet colour, 
and acids to an intense red. Cochineal will preserve 
colouring properties unchanged for a century. (Hellot.) 

In 1736, there were imported into Europe 771,161 lbs. of 
cochineal of the value of fifteen millions of francs. At the 
present day, in the General Table of the commerce of France, 
that country alone receives about 761,776 lbs., valued at three 
millions of francs. 

[A syrup of Cochineal has been introduced into the last 
edition of the Pharmacopceia. 

Sykupus Cocci (fyntp ofCocliinral). — Take of bruised cochi- 
neal giv, boiling distilled water Oj. The cochineal is to 
boiled for fifteen minutes in the water in a closed vessel 
frequently stirring it; then strain. Add of sugar twice the 
weight ol the strained liquid, and dissolve with a gentle heat. 
Lastly, when the syrup has cooled, mis with each fluid ounce 
half a fluid drachm of spirit. 

Various properties have been assigned to cochineal, but 
without the least foundation ; its only real use is as a colouring 
matter. It is for this purpose that it is ordered to be added 
to the tinctura fiirt/timunU camposila, and to the tinctura 
cinchonas composita.'] 

2nd. Other species of Cocci. — Three other species of Coci 
which are now almost entirely neglected were formerly used 
medicine. These are : 1st, the Kermes; 2nd, the Coccus Poloi 
cub ; 3rd, the Coccus Laces, 

■ is 




1st. The Kerme» or Coccus of the oak ' lives upon a 
particular species, peculiar to the South of Europe, known as 
the Quercua eoceifcra (fig 11). This ia generally obtained 
from Montpellier, Provence, and Spain. 

This Bpecies of Coccus is larger than that of the nopal, the 
female attaining the size of a large pea. It has no trace of 
rings, iB of a globular form, and at first is of a bright red, but 
afterwards of a dark violet colour. and is covered with a white 
powder. It surrounds itself with line threads, out of which it 
forma a kind of cocoon. Each female lays from 1,800 to 2,000 

egg 8 - 

By analysis kermcs yield a red 
colouring matter similar to carmine, 
a peculiar animal principle termed 
coccinc, a yellow fatty matter, and 
some phosphates and salts. (Las- 

2nd. The Coccus Polonicw* is 
found in Poland andEuesia, and occa- 
sionally in France, attached to tho 
roots of a small plant, the Scleran- 
that pcrennis ; it is also found on 
the Potentffia irptans and P. alba 
of Linnmus. 

The male has 13 to 14 joints to 
the antenna; and is provided with a 
bushy tail. The female is of an 
oral form and reddiBh colour ; the 
first pair of feet are inaerted near 

antennas and are very short and strong. The insect ia 
icted in the Ukrane towarda the end of the month of June, 


Fig. \\.—Kerma. 

Coccue niids. Lion. ; commonly known in commerce And in pharmacy 
as animal kvrm.fR, v-'jpl/iN^. t-enn^, k.'nnen of r 1 1 ._■ ,<]];, •■liining grain. 

* Ooceui Poloiiirun, Linn, (l'.>i-i>ltin->)'h.,r/i 1'vlonirti. ISrandl), commonly 
termed Saint John's blood. [Ia Germauy, during the ninth, twelfth, thir- 
teenth, and fourteenth centuries, the rum! nerffl were bound to deliver 
annually to the convents, a c< : r(:iin quantity of kermes, the coccus polonicur, 
among the other products 'if industry. It was collected from tho trees, 
upon Saint John's day. between eleven o'clock and noon, with religious 
ceremonies, and was therefore called .l.,k<ti,i>i>',hit (Saint .'elm's blood), as 
also tho German cochineal. At tha above period a great deal of the 
German kermes wu-j consumed in Venice fin- diciii!; the scarlet to which 
that city gives its name. (I.' re's Hie. of Arts ami Seienees, art, Kermes.)] 
Another species is found in Armenia. /'. ILnmiii, Uranril (P. Anneuiea, 
Burmcisler), which also yields a colouring matter used in the arts, 



when the females are ripe. The abdomen is at this time 
swollen and filled with a purple fluid. The plants are route 
up with an iron instrument having the shape of a trowel. ™ 
cocci are freed from dirt by shaking them in sieves, 
insects ore sprinkled with vinegar, or with hot water, and a 
then dried in a warm place, or by the heat of the sun. but \ei _ 
slowly and with great care. If they are dried too ipiiekly the 
colour ia changed. (Bernitz.) 

3rd. The Coccus Ltircu ( Kerr) lives on several trees in India; 
amongst others, upon the Ficus rcligioea, the F. Indica, the 
Shamtuujvjtiba, the Crri/on hie. ij'rrunu inul the ISulfii frtmdosa. 

The lac insect has the body oblong, flattened below and 
convex above, narrowed towards the posterior extremity", and 
furnished with a thickened ridge around the thorax and 
abdomen ; the antenna) are filiform and bifurcated ; the eyes 
are placed towards the inferior part of the head ; its rostrum 

is placed beneath the thorax ; the ubd inal rings are obscure; 

according to Kerr there are fourteen rings ; but according to 
Eoxburgh there are only twelve ; the body is terminated by 
two diverging seta'. (Kerr, tswa^ermann.) The male is f urnishec 
with two large uieiul urinous wings. 

The insects attach themselves to the twigs and the y 
branches, which are about the thickness of the finger. 

It has been supposed that the insect pierces the bark of tbe 
trees upon which it lives, for the purpose of depositing its eggs, 
and that a resinous matter oozes out of the wound, which: 
dries upon tbe surface. The females of this species have the 
same habits as those of the Cochineal insect, and like them 
they become fixed at the period of "laying, and cover tbe eggs 
with their dead bodies. As, however, they exist in great 
numbers they become closely packed together and arranged in 
lines. It has been stated that the resinous matter sucked up 
by the insect is transuded through the pores of its body. 
(Latreille.) It seems, however, more probable that the single 
puncture of the bark made at tbe time when the insect 
becomes fixed is sufficient to allow of the exudation of the resin, 
in which the creature becomes enveloped, and to which it im- 
parts its red colour. 

When a branch covered with lac is examined a rough 
irregular crust is seen on the bark, pierced by a number of 
small holes, which communicate with cells placed 
These ceDs are oval and terminate in a fine point towards tb< 
wood and in a blunted extremity externally ; they are aboul 
-fe of an inch in their greatest diameter; they seem to 1 


moulded upon a very delicate shell (utricule, Virev). In the 
interior there is seen in the centre a red fluid, a cottony 
material of a white or rose colour, dark red globules, and small 
oblong bodies of the same colour. The shell is the abdomen of 
the parent insect, the globules are the eggs, and the oblong 
bodies the young larvae. 

It is the dead bodies of the females filled with eggs, and 
united together by the resinous matter previously spoken of, 
which form the substance known as lac, lac resin, or yum lac. 

There are four kinds of lac known in commerce : 1st, Stick 
Lac, in which the lac is still attached to the branches, where it 
forms an irregular crust of variable thickness, and of a dark 
x>paque red colour. 2nd, Seed Lac is that which has been 
removed from the branches and pounded ; it generally occurs 
in small fragments, and the colour is not so dark as that of 
the first. [Seed lac is prepared by removing the resinous con- 
cretion from the twigs; it is then coarsely pounded and 
triturated with water in a mortar; the greater part of the 
colouring matter is thus dissolved, and the granular portion 
which remains after being dried in the sun constitutes Seed lac. 
Bee art. Lac in Ure's Die. of Arts and Sciences.] 3rd, Shell 
. Lac is that which has been melted in boiling water, and then 
poured on to smooth polished stones. These plates resemble 
glass of antimony, but they vary much in their colour, accord- 
ing as they have been more or less deprived of the colouring 
matter ; they are consequently distinguished as the brown, the 
red, and the white. [In India the Seed Lac is put into oblong 
bags of cotton cloth, which are held over a charcoal fire by a 
man at each end, and as soon as it begins to melt the bag is 
-twisted so as to strain the liquified resin through its substance, 
and to make it drop upon smooth stems of the banyan tree 
' (musa pwradisd). In this way the resin spreads into thin 
plates, and constitutes the substance known in commerce by 
the name of shell lac. (Ure.)] 4th, Thread Lac is a preparation 
' made in England, which has the appearance of a number of 
reddish semi-transparent threads closely pressed and packed 

[Although no longer employed in medicine, lac is extensively 
used in the arts and manufactures ; it enters into the formation 
' of sealing wax, of certain varnishes, of French polish, and is 
used in the manufacture of waterproof hats. In addition to 
this resinous matter, a dyeing material, known as lac-dye, is 
.obtained from Stick lac. This is procured from a watery in- 
fusion of the ground stick lac evaporated to dryness. The 


residue is then made up into cakes about two inches square, 
and half-an-inch thick, which arc stamped with the trade mark 
of the manufacturer. In England this colouring matter i 
employed for dyeing scarlet cloth, and is found to yield a 
equally brilliant colour, and one less easily affected by t' 
perspiration than that produced by cochineal.] 


These are animals which furnish certain calcareous or horc 
structures which arc employed in medicine. They 
principally of — 1st, Pachydermia ; 2nd, Cuttle JUhe 
Oysters; 4th, Corah; 5th, Uponges, 

§ I. Pachyderm ata. 
Amongst these animals is the Elephant. {Ehphmi), one t 
the proboscidian mammalia, whose tusks are formed of e 
osseous substance known as ivory. 

There are two species of Elephant ; that of India (Elepka 
Indieits), 1 in which the summit of the head forms a sort of 
pyramid ; the forehead is concave, and the ears small ; that of 
Africa (Elephas Jfric/mus, Cuv.),in which the head is round, 
the forehead convex, and the ears large, so as to cover the 
shoulders. These animals are provided with tusks implanted 
in the inter-maxillary 
hone. They are two 
very long pointed teeth, 
curved and hollow to 
the extent of half their 
length. Those of the 
African Elephant (fig. 
12), are much larger 
than those of the Indian 
Elephant. The ivory of 
both is characterized in 
a transverse section by 
curved lines passing 
from the centre to the 
circumference, crossing 

' Porno miters consider Oiat there are two species of Indian Elephant 
and have named thum Elepluu Aiiaticua and Elephas Sumalraitvs. 

Fig. 12.— A/rkan Etepliant. 


each other, and by that means intercepting lozenge-like or rhom- 
boidal interspaces. 

Ivory calcined until it becomes white has been regarded as 
absorbent, astringent, and anthelmintic ; some therapeutists 
have termed it spode or spodium ; others designate it as caput 
•morlmuii. The various preparations into which it formerly 
entered have now fallen entirely out of use. 

The beautiful velvety black, known to painters as Ivory 
Hack, is obtained by calcining this materia! in closed vessels. 
[The calcined matter is afteruiLrds ground and then levigated 
on a porphyry slab : it is much used in copper-plate printing.] 

The tusks of tin- Eloplimit arc used in tht- making of artificial 
teeth. It is also used in the manufacture of artificial teats, 
pessaries, and other surgical instruments. 

The tusks of the Hippopotamus I Jli/ipopo/nwug ampliibhts, 
Lin.) and Wild Boar (Hun Scropha, Lin.) are also used in the 
manufacture of artificial teeth. 

[The tusks of I hi 1 lilrplunt are never UBed in the present day 
in the construction of artificial teeth, whatever they might 
have heen formerly: the objections to this materia] are that it 
is more easily destroyed by the fluids of the mouth, and at the 
same time is more costly than the teeth of some other animals, 
■which are better adapted for the purpose. The tusks of the 
Wild Boar, on account of their size alone, could seldom be made 
available for the manufacture of artificial teeth. The only 
teeth which hove ever been extensively used are the tusks of 
the Hippopotamus and the Walrus.] 

§ II. Sepiadte. 

The SepiatJa: or Oirf/lf-fix/n-.s are molluscous animals belong- 
ing to the decapod <lii ision of the cephalopoda ; they constitute 
the genus Sepia of Linnaeus. The body of the animal is fleshy, 
depressed, and contained in a mantle, having the form of a site, 
terminated posteriorly in a blunted extremity, and bounded on 
either side by a narrow lateral fin. The mouth is terminal 
and surrounded by ten arms provided with suckers ; two of 
these arms are pedunculated, and are much longer than the 

The most familiar species is the common CaUtr-fisli (Sppia 


The Common Ctit/le-tish varies in length from three to twenty 
eight inches. Its body is ova] and spread mit at the sides ; ■' 
upper surface is marked by purplish or reddish spots, and with 
white undulating lines upon a greyish or leaden coloured 
ground. The aperture of the mantle is imperfectly divided 
into three lobes; the two flus are united posteriorly. The 
orifice of the mouth is circular, membranous, and more or less 
fringed. There are two hard corneous jaws which shut into 
each other and resemble the beak of a parrot. (Bondelet.) The 
eyes are very large. The elongated arms or tentacles are nearly 
the length of the body, and their dilated extremities i 
furnished with a number of small pedunculated suckers. T 
other arms are furnished on their inner surface with Severn 
[four] rows of concave suckers. 

The Guttle-fish feeds upon crabs, squills, and various mol- 
lusca ; it breaks down the carapace or shells of these animals 
with its beak-like jaws, and their further comminution is 
accomplished by means of its strong muscular stomach, which 
acts like a gizzard. 

At the bottom of the abdominal sac is a bladder eontai: 
a black liquid, known as the ink of the Cuttlefish . This b 
der communicates by a small canal with the rectum. "When 
the animal is pursued or threatened with danger if. discbarges 
some of this black fluid, which diffuses itself through the water, 
and in the midst- of the obseurity which it produces the creature- 
endeavours to escape.' The pigment used in water colour 
painting and known as Mmnau Sepia* is obtained from this 
black liquid ; it has been stated that the Chinese colour, com- 
monly known as Indian ink, is prepared from a species of 
cephalopod allied to the Cuttle-fish. It is, however, almost 
certain that this ink is prepared from a kind of soot. 

Cuttle-fishes are bisexual and oviparous. Their eggs : 
soft, of a blackish colour, and collected together like a bunch 
of grapes, and hence the name of sea grapes, which is commonly 
given to them. 

The Cuttle-fish, encloses in its dorsal region a solid body, 
known as the Cuttle bunt; Scpiu-in, or shell of the Cuttle-fish; 
the French give it the name of hiscnil An mer? BlainviHe baa 
proposed to call it Srpiosltiire. This body is of an elongated 
oval form, somewhat broader behind than before, depressed, 


■s are 





on is 

., which 

is blad- 


1 Alrnai"ntit;ii 'pto >r wrultal (Linn.). 
1 K<> Ii'ttcni'. pi mi it nl ii r (Linn.). 
* Os officinale (Linn.). 


extremely porous, and very light. Its superior surface is 
convex ana granulated; its inferior is partly convex and 
partly concave; it terminates posteriorly in a thin dilated 
aliform margin, composed of calcareous and horny matter, 
which, becoming everted, forms a wide and shallow concavity. 
Quite at the extremity is a more solid portion, which has the 
form of a conical hook or apophysis ; it is sometimes straight, 
sometimes curved. The thickened part of the sepium is com- 
posed of thin parallel calcareous plates, which are deposited in 
such a manner that the last formed covers the greater part of 
all the others, but leaves their posterior margins uncovered. 
The principal ingredient is carbonate of lime. 

The bone of the cuttle-ji*h was formerly employed as an 
antiacid and absorbent. It enters into the preparation of 
certain tooth-powders. 

[The following is the formula of the tooth powder in the 
French codex : 


Red coral 

Bone of cuttle-fish aa Jj» gr. xiv. 

Dragon's blood 5iv, gr. vii. 

Cochineal 3j, gr. ij. 

Cream of tartar Jj, 3iv, gr. xxi. 

Powdered cinnamon . . . sij, gr. iv. 

*■ Clovea Sij, gr. viy. 

The cellular structure of the bone of the cuttle-fwli renders 
iib so light that it floats on water. It was analysed by J ohn, 
who gives the following as its composition : — 

Hard, Upper or Porous 

Outer Portion. Part. 

Carbonate (with a trace of phosphate) of lime ... 80 ... 85 

Non-gelatinous animal matter soluble in water 

with common salt 7 . . . 7 

Gelatinous membrane not soluble in water . . . . 9 . . . 4 

Water, with a trace of magnesia 4 . . . 4 

100 100 

It is used in the arts as a polishing material, for forming 
moulds for fine silver castings, and as a pounce to prevent ink 
from spreading after erasures.] 

§I1X Snails. 

Snails are gasteropodous mollusca, belonging to the genus 
Helix, the family HeUcidce, and to the order Pulmonilera. 
The characters of the animal are — 1st, an elongated body, 

o 2 


■with a thick collar bilobed inferiorly ; four cylindrical tentacles 
& crescent-shaped dentated upper mandible or jaw ; an ova! 
elongated foot; tin.' respiratory orifice on the right side; reproduc- 
tive orifice near the base of the right large or ocular tentacle. 
2nd, Shell dextral, globose or depressed, the spire usually short, 
with the last turn generally l«r»e ; umbilicus perforated or im- 
perforated ; the columella straight or spiral ; aperture transverse, 
oblique, and semilunar ; a thick peristome, terminating in an 
abrupt or reflected margin. 

Snails live in hedges, on dry plants, on the trunks of treea, 
in the crevices of \v;iI1,j. and mi stones. They teed principally 
upon vegetable substances. Their generative organs are 
androgynous ; they contain a copulative pouch, the dart 
enclosed in a sac, numerous vesicles, and a flngellum. At tha 
period of copulation a large spcnnatopliora issues from the 
male organ, and penetrates the female apparatus of another 
individual. These animals are oviparous and deposit their eggs 
in moist earth. The use of snails as a medicine has been 
advocated at various times. At the commencement of the 
present century Dr. Chrestien, of Montpellier, recommended 
them to be used boiled or in the raw state after removal from 
the shell. Other writers have recommended them to be 
sprinkled with sugar ; this causes them to give out a large 
quantity of their viscous Blime, which is to be taken by the 

The species which is be.-t known is the llrlis poma/ia (Linn.), 
or Roman snail. The shell of this species (fig. 13) is 1^ inch in 

Fig. 13. — Helix Pomatia. 1 
height, globose, obliquely bowed below, with fine and unequal 

1 The animal in a state of extension, and a separate view of the jaw. 


I^tudinal stria?, tolerably thick, verv slron:*. smooth, shining, 
jue, of 11 reddish or dirty yellow, and with three or four 
stinct yellow bauds. The spire is composed of five or six 
■ -. turns, which rapidly increase up to the last, which is 
large; the suture ia deep, the summit elevated, and the um- 
bilicus oblique; the aperture is interrupted by the penulti- 
mate curves, and is provided with an erected margin, which is 
thickened aud of a reddish white internally. During winter 
this aperture is closed by n membrane called the epiphragm, 
which is convex, thick, cretaceous, and of a greyish colour. 

These molluscs live in ^mlcns, vinevards, and forests. 

Tlie Hrlix pomatia formerly entered" into the composition of 
several pharmaceutical preparations. They were made into 
broth, into a mucilage, a syrup, a jelly, and a pomade. 
These preparations have long since fallen into disuse. Snails 
were recommended in herpes ; they were allowed to crawl over 
the of the skin ;uid deposit their mucus upon it. or 
they were pounded and applied to the part. (Adanson.) 
Dr. Gcehs, of Vienna, has extolled the efficacy of the pounded 
ehell in epilepsy and in intermittent fevers (1815). 

M. Oscar Figuier, of Montpellier, prepared a snail paste, 
which enjoyed a certain amount of repute. The species em- 
ployed iu the formation of this paste were the large garden, H. asperm and K, vermieulata. The //. pomatia and 
the wood snail, M. nemorali/t, might also be employed for this 
purpose; but these species, which are bo common in the 
northern and temperate p;irts of France, are not met with in 
the south. 

According to M. Soubeiran, a hundred individuals of the 
Mdix pouiniiii , which weigh two pounds, when they have been 
freed from their shells, yield about one pound three ounces of 
flesh, while one hundred of the H. nemoralix of the average 
size do not give much more than ten ounces. 

Snails contain a peculiar mucilaginous principle, whose 
characters are imperfectly known, but which seems to have 
some resemblance to gelatine smd mucus. 11. Oscar Figuier 
thinks that the properties of these molluscs are partly owing 
to an oil with a sulplnii'uii.s ndnnr. which may be extracted by 
means of ether, and to which he has given the name of 
kelicine. He recommends that this principle should be re- 
tained as much as possible unaltered in all the pharmaceutical 
preparations. According to a recent analysis of 11. Gohley, 
kelicine cannot be considered as a proximate principle; it does 


nous blood, of 

ebriiie. 1 

e Academy of 

not contain sulphur; it consists, like human venous 
oleine, margarine, cholesteriue, lecithin?, aud cerebrine. 

In n work preBeuted some months back to the Academy 
Medicine, M. Eugene Fournier has examined the proportions 
of inucilagc, of iodine, of sulphur, and of phosphorus, which 
are contained in snails. He shows thnt these proportions 
vary according to the loealitiea in which animals live and 
according to the nature of their food. He is of opinion that 
these principles might be artificially increased, and that the 
animals might even he made to assimilate other principles, 
such as doses of opium, belladonna, digitalis, aud of arsenic. 
It is known that these molluscs can feed without inc 
enee upon various substances, which exercise a more 
decided action upon man. 

M. Chatin considers that the Limnevs itagnalit of our ponds 
and marshes may he substituted for snails in the formation of 
syrups and lozenges. It is true that this mollusc has less 
mucilage, hut an equal weight of them coutains four times as 
much iodine. 

The English obtain from Prince's Island a large species 
Achatina (A. earinata), which they have introduced in 
Europe as a remedy in phthisis. 

§ IV.— Oysters. 

Oysters are acephalous conchiferous molluscs, with only one 
adductor muscle (ilonomviina) ; they belong to the genus 
Ostrca, which may be regarded as the type of the family 

The body of the aiiinial is of an oblong oval form, flat, often 
irregular, and covered by a thick mantle, which is fringed at 
its margins. The mouth is furnished with elongated trian- 
gular palpi. No foot. The branchiie are largo curved, nearly 
equal, the external shorter than the internal. The shell 19 
attached, hivalved, irregular, foliaceous, rough, and generally 
thick; upper valve short, flat, and moveable; lower valve' 
larger and convex. Hinge toothless. Ligament partly in- 
ternal, and inserted on both sides into an oblong cavity. 

Oysters live near the shore, at moderate depths, where the 
water is tranquil. They are sometimes developed in vast 
numbers, forming what are termed oyster banks. Some ( 
these banks are miles in extent, and seem to be inexhaustible 

1 Dr. Lamare has recently recommended helicini In plitlusk. 


In 1819, a bank was discovered near one of the islands of 
Zealand, which for the space of a year supplied the inhabitants 
of the Low Countries with such abundance of oysters, that the 
price of these shell-fish fell to tenpence a hundred ; as, how- 
ever, this bank happened to be situated almost on a level with 
low water, the winter being very severe, it was entirely destroyed. 

Of all Bhell-fish, oysters are probably those whose faculties 
are the most limited. Fixed to the rock or to some sub- 
marine body, the only food which they obtain is that which is 
brought to them bv the currents of the ocean, and they give 
no other signs of life than that of opening and closing their 
valves. Nevertheless, it appears that under certain circum- 
stances they may have the power of removing themselves from 
the spot to which they have been attached. 

These animals are androgynous, but the male and female 
organs do not perform their functions at the same time. The 
seminal fluid makes its appearance before the ova. 

The young oysters are lodged in the mantle of the mother, 
from whence they sally forth and swim around her, by means 
of their vibratile cilia, but take refuge between the maternal 
valves on the approach of the slightest danger. 

The shell of the oyster, like all others, consists of carbonate, 
with a small quantity of phosphate, of lime ; it was formerly 
extolled as a powerful absorbent and antiacid, and even as a 
lithontriptic. The shells were calcined and reduced to a very 
fine powder. In the present day the carbonate of lime or of 
magnesia is used instead. They are still, however, used in the 
preparation of certain dentifrices. 

l£ however, the valves of these molluscs are but little 
thought of as a remedy, the animal on the contrary is higlily 
prized as an article of food. The oyster fishery has for many 
years been an important branch or industry and commerce. 
These molluscs will be noticed again when speaking of the 
flesh of animals. 

§ V.— Coral. 

Red coral 1 is a marine production, distinguished by its 
hardness, its capability of receiving a high polish, and by its 
fine red colour. 

Coral is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea. 

1 CoraUium nobile (Gorgonia nobUis, Ellis ; Jsis nobUis, Linn. ; Coral' 
Hum rubrun, Lamk.). 


It is met with in different parts of the Mediterranean and in 
the Ked Sea ; it exists at various depths, hut never less than 
three yards, nor more than three hundred. 

Coral was lor a long time regarded it marine plant ; it is now 
known to he the production of polyps which live in societies, 
"When seen in the oeean this kind of coral resembles the 
trunk of a small leafless shrub. 

The centra] part of the coral is as hard as marble, and its 
surface is marked by parallel hut irregular stria>. This axial 
portion is covered by a soft fleshy layer, farmed of delicate 
membrane and fibres reticulated together, and inclosing a. 
number of glandular bodies, filled with a milky fluid, which 
seem to unite it to the calcareous portion. In the fleshy mass 
are depressions in which the bodies uf (lie p"lvps are lodged; 
these consist of a globular portion which is fixed, and of a free 
exsectile cylindrical portion terminated by a mouth sur- 
rounded by eight tentacula or arms, which are notched at 
their margins. 

The Coral from the coasts of Franco is considered to have 
the brightest and deepest colour, probably because it ih more 
carefully selected than that of other countries. That of Italy 
rivals it in beauty ; that of Barbary is larger, but not so bril- 
liant. I'ive varieties of eoral are known in commerce, and are 
distinguished by the following fanciful titles: — 1, The Frotk 
of Blood ; 2nd, 'The Flower of Blood ,- 3rd, 4th, and 5th, Blood 
of the First, Second, and Third quality. 

According to Vogel Coral contains nearly fnur-fifths o 
weight of carbonate of lime ; it also contains magnesia and 

[Witting states that 100 grains of red coral yield the follow- 
ing constituents i— 

Carbonate of lime 83'2S 

Carbonate of magnesia 3'30 

Oiideofiron 4'25 

Animal gelatine anil sand 7 75 

Loss 1-25 


Coral was formerly employed medicinally, and was looked 
upon as a tonic and an absorbent. M. Desboia, of Hochefort, 
pretends that it is tonic, because its colour is owing to i 
martial principle, that is to say, to a salt of iron; but there a 
bo many better ways of administering this metal that 1 
sooner the pretended touic properties of coral or its coloui' 


matters arc forgotten, the better. It has, moreover, been 
shown that this colour does not depend upon iron, but upon a 
red matter containing nitrogen, similar to that which deco- 
rates various shells, and which is deprived of all colour by the 
action of the feeblest acids. (Fremy.) With regard to ita 
absorbent properties, there are several bodies which arc better 
adapted for this purpose, so that even in this respect coral 
could not long continue to be used. 

The old practitioners administered coral in the form of a 
powder, bolus, electuary, as a drink, and as a tincture ; they 
also made use of a magestry or precipitate of coral, which was 
held in considerable repute. Lemery considered it adapted to 
renovate the heart. 

At the present time, coral is only used as a mechanical 
agent for the purpose of cleaning the teeth. It can only act 
Very Blightly as an absorbent, and still less as a tonic. 

Other upecies. — The old Materia Mcdiea also included Black 
coral, the Oori/onia Antipithes of Linmeus, and White coral, 
which was a mixture of Ociilina and the Can/ophi/llia ; the 
Ociilina virginea (Lamk.) being the species which was princi- 
pally made use of. 

The same virtues were attributed to these corals as to the 

The Black eornl is distinguished from the Bed bv the horny 
nature of the stem, and by its flexibility and smoothness. 

White coral differs still more ; the axis is stony or calcare- 
ous, but the polyps are contained in lamellated star-like cavities, 
and not in the fleshy cortical substance. 

§ VI. Sponge. 

Sponqe consists of aggregations of animals belonging to the 
class of Polyps. 

The species which is best known is the common domestic 
sponge or Spongia officinalis. Like the corals it is an inhabitant 
of the sea; it is very abundant in the Mediterranean, especially 
around the islands of the Grecian Archipelago. It is found 
attached to the rocks where they are least exposed to the 
action of the waves and currents. 

The Common sponqe presents itself in masses of various 
forms and sizes ; it is of a brown colour, and composed of a 
b'ght elastic and resisting tissue, which is traversed in every 
direction by numerous interspaces. This tissue consists of 
delicate flexible interlaced fibres provided with pores (ytcula, 


Lamk.) mid irregular canals, which com muni en te freely with 
each other. In this tissue there is found n number of silieious 
ur cutaneous particles (spicule), having a slender, simple, or 
tricuspid form. 

In its living state the Common Sponge is covered with 
mucous layers consisting of a kind of animated jelly. The 
moat opposite opinions have been entertained with regard to 
the nature of sponges. Amongst the ancients, come regarded 
them as plants ; others as being of a twofold n.iture. that is to 
Bay, as vegetables which served as a residence for certain 
polyps. IHoseorides, Pliny, and their commentators, ha' 
divided Sponges into males and females. liondclet, the ' 
Bauhins. liny, Touruefirt. Vaillant, Marsigli, and others, 
placed them in the vegetable kingdom ; while Nieremberg, 
Peyssonel, Tremhlay, Ellis, Lamouroux, and others, have mr' 
tained their animal nature. In the present day, the lat 
opinion is generally admitted to be the correct one. Eve 
different hypotheses have been held as regards this animal 
nature: 1st. That the fibrous portion and the muco-gelati- 
nous layer constitute a single animal. 2nd. That the muco- 
gelatinous layer alone forms the auimal. 3rd. That the sponge 
is a compound being, consisting of an aggregation of polyps, 
living in the Biibstauee of the enveloping imico-gelatinous sub- 
stance. 4th. That these polyps exist only in the interspaces, 
of the fibrous mass. 5th. That the polyps are found both in 
the muco- gelatinous layer and in the fibrous mass. The fourth 
hypothesis is the true one. 

The animalcules of the Sponges are a species of membranous 
tubes, capable of extending and retracting themselves. They 
have been compared to polyps deprived of tentacles and 
reduced to their most simple conditions. 

Sponges have yellow or whitish seed-like eggs, from which 
non-ciliated embryos are produced, iu the interior of which 
contractile cells become developed, and subsequently spicules, 
which are ultimately covered with vibrntile cilia. (Lieberkuhn, 
Bowerbank.) Several of these embryos unite together to form 
a colony, in which their individuality becomes exceedingly in- 

Sponge is composed of an animal matter which has been 
compared to albumen and to minus {Jihroiiir, Mulder). It is 
soluble in sulphuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids, and in 
liquor potassa. These solutions give a precipitate with nut- 
galls. Besides carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, sponge 
contains iodine, sulphur, ami phosphorus. It also contains 


bromine, carbonate, and phosphate of lime, sea salt, and traces 
of silica, magnesia, and alumina. 

Formerly Sponges were strongly calcined, or they were made 
hot and then reduced to a powder, which was used as a remedy 
in goitre and scrofula. Its curative properties were owing to 
the presence of iodine. 1 

Sponges were also used in surgery, to dilate certain wounda 
or natural cavities. For this purpose the sponge when per- 
fectly dry was dipped into melted wax and then compressed 
between two iron plates until cold, the pieces of sponge pre- 
pared in this manner were called tents. 

Every one is acquainted with the numerous domestic pur* 
poses for which sponge is used. 

Other species. — Besides the last species, which is known in 
common as the Fine Syrian Sponge, there are seven others : 
1st. Fine Archipelago Sponge, which is probably only a variety 
of the former; it is used for domestic purposes; it is also 
employed in the manufacture of porcelain and in litho- 
graphy. 3rd. Fine hard Sponge, commonly called Grecian 
Sponge; this is employed for domestic purposes, and also in 
certain manufactures. 4th. White Sponge of Syria, called 
also Venetian Sponge; this is made use of for the same pur- 
poses as the former. 5th. Gelatine (geline) Sponge, which 
comes from the coast of Barbary. 6th. The Brown Sponge of 
Barbary, also called Marseilles Sponge, the Spongia communis 
of naturalists ; this is used for cleaning rooms ana similar pur- 
poses ; it is fished on the coast of Tunis. 7th. The Sponge of 
Salonica (Gervais, Van Beneden). 



The animal productions which require to be noticed are: 
1st, Spermaceti; 2nd, Bile; 3rd, Crabs' eyes; 4th, The Web 
of the Spider. 

§ I. Spermaceti. 
Spermaceti is a substance which is obtained from several 

1 In ancient pharmacy the burnt bodies of the Alcyonia were also em- 
ployed, the same virtues being attributed to them as to the sponges. The' 
species which was principally used was the Alcyonium Lyncurium of 
Lamouroux, commonly called the Sea quince or Sea orange. 



epecies of cetacean mammals, particularly from the cachalot or 
spermaceti whale. It is also obtained from the common or 
Greenland whale. 

1. The Great Cachalot (Phyteter macrocephaluu, Linn.) is an 
enormous animal, 1 which is met with in all parts of the ocean. 
Anderson measured one which was 70 feet in length. This 
mammal (fig. 14) is of a blackish blue colour, darkest on the 
back [the under surface is whitish, find around the eyes] ; 
the head is very large, especially at its anterior part. 
The upper jaw has no teeth, or if they are present they 
— *~ Tudimentary and hidden in the gum. The lower jaw 
md about three feet shorter than the upper; it is 
provided on each side with from twenty to thirty cylindrical 
slightly curved teeth on either side. The vent is single, and 
not double, as in most of the C'etaeea. The eyes arc projecting 
and placed on eminences. The dorsal fin is reduced to a callous 
prominence. The tail is bilobed and is very flexible. 

j. 14.— CachaioU 

The Cachalot in swimming usually produces a foaming of the 
water, showing its back and the fleshy eminence which sur- 
rounds the vent ; its movements are not rapid. 

[Beale states, that when undisturbed the animal passes tran- 
quilly along, just below the surface of the water, at the rate of 
about three or four miles an hour, its progress being effected 
by a gentle oblique motion of the t;iil from side to side; when 
proceeding at its usual rate, the body lies horizontally ; the 
water by its progress being somewhat disl nrhod, is known by 
the whalers under the name of " White water ;" in this mode 
of swimming it is able to obtain a velocity of about seven 
miles an hour. When it swims at a more rapid rate, the action 
of the tail is altered, the water is struck directly upwards and 
downwards, and each time the blow is made with the inferior 

* Longitudo srepe texaginta pedum (Linn.). 


MiriV>'. the head sinks down eight or ten feet, and when 1 3so 
blow is reversed it rises out of the water presenting to it only 
the sharp cut-water portion.] 

2. The Greenland Whale {Baltmta MytHettV, Linn.). This 
animal is usually regarded its the most voluminoOJ of the 
Cetacea, and therefore, of all known animals.' Its diniensiona 

Fig. 15. — Greenland WJialr, 

have, however, been greatly exaggerated. Seoresby, who wnB 
present at the capture of three limidred and twenty-two indi- 
viduals, has never seen one which measured more thu IV 

sixty-five to seventy feet in length. 8 Its greatest circum- 
ference is I'rom thirty to forty feet. 

The Whalebone, Whale has no tocth, but there are rudiments 

of these organs in the lower jaw of the young animal. ((ieollVov 

Saint-Hilaire.) The upper jaw is kcel-shnpcd, and is provided 

on each side with a series of thin transverse plates, upwarda 

of three hundred in number, 

composed of the baleen or 

whalebone (fig. 1G). TheBe 

Elates terminate at their ju- 
nior margin in a fringe of 
coarse hair. The tongue is 
fleshy and very thick. The 
animal has no dorsal fin. 
The Whale, is an inhabi- 
tant of the Arctic regions. The species which is met with in 
the South Atlantic ocean, the Jialcena Auxtralis of Kleir, or 
Whale of the Southern Ocean, differs e.-sejitiallv from that of 
the North, the Ealama mysticetua ,■ it is the smallest of the two 

1 Maxima* omnium nmmnUum (Linn.). 
* Liunseus awerte that they occasionally a 
(tape 100 pedum). 

Fig. IS.— Whaleb, 

i the length of 100 feet 



species, usually measuring from thirty-five to forty-five feet* 
but frequently extending to fifty. 

3. Spermaceti. — This substance is found in the cellular tissue 
which separates the membranes of the brain in the Cachalot. 
The whole of the upper portion of the skull consists of large 
cavities covered in, and separated from each other, by cartila- 
ginous walls. It is iu these cavities that the sperniacetiia con- 
tained. l The cavity which is occupied by the encephalon 
appears relatively small to the entire volume of the head. 
Camper found in a head, measuring eighteen feet bug, that 
this cavitv was only twelve inches iu width, nineiu length, ai * 
seven in depth. 

In the living animal the spermaceti is dissolved in on oily 
liquid, but in the dead animal it becomes solidified. This h 
purified by being squeezed through coarse bags ; it is then 
boiled in an alkaline ley, which frees it from any remaining 
oil ; it is then washed and melted. 

In a Cachalot from the Moluccas, which was sixty-four feet 
long, M. Quoy calculated there were twentv-fbur barrels of 
spermaceti, each containing two hundred and seventy-five 
pounds, so that the entire quantity amounted to more than six 
thousand sis hundred pounds. 

The spermaceti of commerce and of the pharmaceutists is a 
white, friable Bubstance, soft to the touch, and breaking into 
shining greasy-looking seales. It melts at 113 c Fah. Boiling 
alcohol will dissolve the one seven hundredth of it. 

Chemists have long regarded spermaceti as a compound 
body, saponiliable by the action of alcohol, and to a cert ' 
extent analogous to the neutral fats. 8 M. Heintz, iu wo 
which he has recently published, assigns a more complicate 
composition to the substance. M. Chevreul obtained frot 

Sermaceti a peculiar body, to which lie gave the name of cetmt 
is is a white, laminated, friable substance, which melts a. 
120° Fah., and has no action on litmus. Boiling alcohol will 
dissolve two and a half parts of it. 

Spermaceti was formerly ad mini stored in diseases of the 
lungs and kidneys. In the present day it is uo longer used 
internally, but it enters into the formation of certain cerates 
or pomades, which are applied to cracked breasts and to the 

Eustules of small pos ; it is also employed in the manufacture of 
p salve. 
[There aro Wo preparations of spermaceti in the London 


Pharmacopeia, the Ceratum Cetacei and the Vngitentum Cetacei; 
they are both composed oi spermaceti, white wax, and olive oil, 
the latter- being the softest in consequence of the smaller 
quantity of wax and larger quantity of spermaceti, which is 
used in its preparation. They are employed as dressings for 
Misters and excoriated surfaces.] 

§ H. Bile. 

Bile is a fluid which is secreted by the liver, and is received 
into a special receptacle termed the gall bladder, from whence 
it passes into the duodenum. Some of the mammalia are un- 
provided, with this bladder, and the bile does not then remain 
for a time in the liver, but is immediately discharged into the 

Bile is a limpid viscous fluid, heavier than water, usually of 
yellow or green colour, having a faint nauseous odour, which, 
by a certain change, approaches to that of muse, and a sweetish 
Irat at the same time a bitter taste. It may be evaporated 
without undergoing decomposition. 

The bile of the Ox is sometimes employed in the form of an 
extract. Its specific gravity is 1*026 at a temperature of 12° 
Fah. When warmed in closed vessels bile becomes thickened, 
froths np, solidifies, and forms the substance known as extract 
of bile ; it readily mixes both with water and alcohol. 

[Ox Bile (Fel Bovinum, sen Tauri). — An extract of Ox bile 
was formerly used in medicine, and it has been lately reintro- 
duced. Dr. Copland l says he has made use of the inspissated 
Ox gall for many years with advantage, lie recommends it in 
mesenteric affections, and has found it exceedingly useful 
where the secretion of the bile has been deficient and the 
mucous membrane of the alimentary canal irritable and relaxed. 
Dr. Clay, 2 of Manchester, says, " its eliect upon the system is 
not purgative ; but it acts as a mere solvent of the material 
contained within the intestinal canal ; producing no excitement 
to propel ; but by liquifying the mass facilitates its excretion." 
It acts as an aperient, and may be given in doses of 3 j to ^j 

Bite contains 7 per cent, of solid matter, which is held in 
solution by mucus ; it consists of two nitrogenous soaps, having 
a Bweet but, at the same time, bitter taste ; the choleic of soda 
and the tauro-choleic of soda. The first, the biline of Berzelius, 
is the most abundant ; it contains an organic crystallizable 

1 Die. Pract. Med. vol. ii. p. 725. f Med. Times, 1842. 


acid, which has no sulphur amongst its constituent elements. 
The second ia present in smaller ip^nlitics ; its acid is un- 
cry stall inable, and contains sulphur. Besides these substances, 
bile contains oleic and margarie acids, cholesterine, some eoloui 
ing matter, and eertaiu salts. 

The bile of the sheep, the dog, and the cat differ slightly 
from that of the OX, 

§ III. Crabs'-eye». 

The great reputation which crabs' eyes formerly enjoyed a 
medicine, has greatly dimiuished since the commencement of 
the present century, 

The River Grub or Cnii/-JisJt ( .hlirettsJIuvitilMit) ie a decapod 
crustacean, which inhabits the rivers and brooks of Eoropt 
It hides itself beneath the stones at the hottom, 
hollows of the hauks. It seldom comes out of its hiding-pla 
exeept for the purpose of procuring its food, which consists c 
the dead hodies of submerged quarupeds, fishes, molluscs, the 
larvat of insects, worms, and all kinds of decomposing animal 

The Cray-Jink is an animal with an elongated body, varying 
in colour, according to the locality from which it comes, from 
a greenish or clear brown to a blueish green, The head is 
confounded with and united to the thorax. The carapace ia 
semi-cylindrical, and terminates anteriorly in a curved pointed 
rostrum, which is marked in the centre with a transverse, 
groove. The rostrum is dentatcd laterally, and has a double 
tooth on the upper part of its base. Th'e four antenna are 
thin and setaceous ; the external large, and supported upon a 
pedicle with three joints; the internal short and bifid. The 
eyes are hemispherical, and their diameter is not greater than 
that of their pedicles. The month is furnished with six pairs 
of modified limbs; the first pair has received the name of 
mandibles, and the last that of foot jaws. The abdomen (im- 
properly termed the tail) is large, composed of six segments, 
and curved interiorly. The first pair of thoracic limbs are 
much larger than the others ; they arc of unequal size, and are 
armed on their inner edge with tine teeth ; they support a 
pair of strong pincers, of which the external joint is fixed, 
while the internal, which is much the smallest, is moveable. 
The four last pairs of limbs are slender, and of nearly e j 
size ; the second and third are also each of them provided \ 
a pair of pincers ; but in these it is the external joint, and 
the internal, whieh is moveable. The five pairs of abdor 


or false feet are adapted for snimniiiii;- The tail is formed of 
five large plates, rounded nl their iii:n*L, r ins and ciliated; the ex- 
ternal plates are divided into two distinct pieces by a transverse 

The Crabs moult at the end of tlio spring. These Crustacea 
copulate with their abdomens opposite to each other. Two 
months afterwards the female lavs her eggs. The eggs, 
varying in number from twenty to forty, are collected together 
in bundles, and fixed to the false l'eet, by means of a slender 
flexible pedicle, which is slightly enlarged at its base. The 
eggs are spherical and of a reddish brown colour. The females 
carry these grape-like bodies about with them until the young 
are hatched. 

When tlii' Crahx are about to cast their shell, two calcareous 
masses are found in the lateral compartments of the stomach. 
These bodies have received the name of crabs' eyes. 1 They 
disappear after the moult has taken place. Reaumur ascertained 
that they served for the formation and hardening of the new 
skin. It appears, in fact, that the pouches of the stomach, 
which have just been mentioned, shortly before the casting of the 
shell occurs, secrete the calcareous salts, which exist in excess 
in the blood, and form these stony manses. .At a later period 
the stones are gradually dissolved and serve to calcify and 
harden the new skin. 

These concretions (fig. 17) are round bodies, convex on one 
side, and flattened on the other, compressed, narrow at their 
edge, and marked on one side with a circular groove. These 
masses are hard, smooth, and white, consisting of super-iir 
layers of carbonate of lime and 
of a certain quantity of it 
It is their form and the circular I 
groove which have obtained tor \ 
them the name of crabs* eyes. 
Their diameter varies from Fig- 17.- 

seven to fifteen lines in diameter, and their weight from seven 
and a half to twenty-two aud a hidf grains. M. Guibourt has 
noticed that when tiiese concretions are placed in boding water 
they become of a rose colour, which is a modification of the 
colour that the shell acquires when similarly treated. 
■ Tbe crabs' stones which are most esteemed come from 
Astrakan. They have been prescribed as absorbents in acidity 
of the stomach. They were reduced to a powder, washed, 

1 Gratis' ttMies, a,n,Tai<rnt« ;-a aticuH cfincrormn. 

vlule. consist 


ground with a small quantity of water, miied into a paste, and 
made up in the form of lo/,enges, which were then dried and 
known, as prepared erabs' eyes. Formerly these lozenges (called 
trochiaci) entered into the emu posit ion of a number of phartna- 
ceutieal preparations, which are no longer in use. 

Other substances, producing the s:imc Hl'ccts, and more certain 
in their action, luce been substituted Cor the crabs' eyes ; as, for 
example, chalk and magnesia. 

Some dentists still make use of these concretions in the 
manufacture of dentifrices. 

§ IV. Spider's Web. 

Spiders, or more correctly speaking the Annwuhe, constitute 
a numerous tribe belonging to the class Arachnida. Liunams 
placed them all in the genus Arancn, anil classed them with 
the insects. There are more than two hundred species in the 
neighbourhood of Paris. 

These animals have the head united to the thorax, the 
abdomen distinct, and supported upon a short pedicle. The 
abdomen is very large, especially in the females; the skin is 
soft and flexible. Spider* have six or eight simple eyes in the 
form, of hemispherical tubercles, which shine in the dark like 
those of cats. They have eight long slender legs, terminating 
in the male in two notched claws, and in the females in a 
single one. The organs of generation are placed in the former 
sex on either side of the head at the extremity of the palpi. 

[Only a portion of the generative organs are situated at the 
extremity of the palpi, consisting of a kind of vesieuhe seminalis 
or sperm reservoirs, and of the intromittcut organ. The true 
testicles are placed in the abdomen, between the lobes of the 
liver. They consist of two long simple interlaced cieca, from 
which two deferent canals pass to the anterior part of the 
under surface of the abdomen, and terminate by two 
approximate orifices, or else by a common opening between 
two apertures, winch lead to the pulmonary organs. During 
the breeding season these testicles are found laden with 
spermatozoa in various stages of development. These must be 
first transferred to the extremity of the palpi, and afterwards 
applied to the vulva of the female. 1 The female organs are 
found at the middle and inferior part of the abdomen near to, 
its commencement.] 

1 See Owen — Lectures on the Inrertthrata, p. 4( 
1855; alao SicKoU!- ■Aiitiiuiiii/u/ the havittbratu 
H. D., p. 394, London, 1851, 


Those animals mr exceedingly ferocious and cruel, so that 
c.i'M iln' season of love does not niter the savageness of their 
nature. The males, which arc much smaller and feebler than 
the females, are compelled to approach them with great 
caution. " One day," says De Geer, " I witnessed a male gently 
approaching his female, who was tranquilly reposing in the 
centre of her web ; he made use of nil the usual precautious, 
and several times retreated as if from fear. . . At length he 
placed himself beneath her, but at the cost of his life, for in a 
moment the female seized him with her claws, which she had 
only to close upon him; she then enveloped him iu her threads, 
and began to suck his blood. " I declare," be adds, " the 
spectacle filled me with a kiud of horror antl indignation." 

.Some females carry I hen' eggs mil lei' their abdomen. Others, 
when the young are hatched, place them on their back. 

Most of the spiders can form a web, either for the purpose 
of ensnaring their prey, i>r for protecting their eggs. 

Every one is acquainted with the tr?b of the spider. The 
silk of which it h composed is secreted by irregular grape-like 
ghmds (Treviranus.) from ( hese glands nine pairs of tortuous 
canals are given off, which ultimately terminate in small reser- 
voirs, in which the silky material is perfected. The three central 
pairs of reservoirs are the largest . the middle ones are placed 
very obliquely ; the others are arranged nearly transversely. The 
excretory canals of the three central pairs are nearly straight 
and parallel; those of t lie remaining six are narrower and more 
or less tortuous. Allot' them converge to the posterior part of 
the abdomen. 

Beneath the anus there may be observed sis fleshy pro- 
jections arranged in pairs ; they are cylindrical or conical, ami 
pierced at their extremities with an infinite number of minute 
apertures. These are the gpimtarets. The two upper pro- 
jections are the largest, the two inferior the smallest, and those 
in the middle the least prominent. 

While in the body of the animal the material for the forma- 
tion of the thread is a viscous liquid. This substance is 
transformed into a glutinous thread, which becomes firm as it 

Each thread, although extremely delicate, is, nevertheless, 
composed of as many filaments as there are pores in the 
difl'erent spinnarets. 

Some Spiders form a large triangular linri/oritn] web, with a 
small tubular chamber in one of the angles. Others construct 
a loose net-work, which is placed vertically, and in the centre 
it 2 


which cover 
ng. Others! 
which they 

of whicli they remain motionless. There are botiid which i 
up a hole in the wall or the rook with n silken covering, 
construct an extivmely delicate net-work, from which they 
hang suspended. Others throw off long threads, which trail 
along from the hinder parts of their bodies. Certain tropical 
spiders weave a net sufficiently strong to entangle some of the 
smaller birds, and even to offer a certain amount of resistance 
to man. 

It is needless to repeat all the marvellous statements which 
have been made upon the medicinal properties of the Spider's 
web. Formerly it was used as a cataplasm in hysteria. They 
were administered internally in the form of pills in fever. 
The celebrated Mont pel tier tlropx were obtained from them by 
distillation, and were recommended as a preventative to 

If the tceb of the. Spider is ever employed in the present day, 
it is for the purpose iff anvj-1 ing luniinrrhagefrom the capillary 
vessels. 1 


The animals, or animal productions, which arc endowed with 
medicinal properties, and which are capable of exercising a 
decided influence over our bodies, and are therefore constantly 
employed in medicine, are but few in number. 

These therapeutic agents will be arranged in seven divisions; 
1. Liver oil. 2. Musk. 3. Vesicating intent*. 4. Leeches. 
5. Galls. 6. Trehala. 


For some years the oil from the livers offish have b. 
frequently administered, so that its manufacture and commer 

1 Tlie two-spined ant, Furmira hiynn-u (Oliv.), of Cayenne, constnii. 
with the down whuii iii-udinpaiiiois t h o st'ixls ol'u culUm true (probably tL_ 
Bombiii- •jh-i/wiiin. A i] 1)1,,) a ii obi. onm[u>-rii ui n wry Jinc kind of felt which 
ia used with aatonifthiuj; Hnueeaa In stopping hemorrhage. (Iicscalier." 




- have lately become of considerable importance. It is stated 
that on the coast of Malabar alone, in the year 1804, 721.065 
gallons were exported, estimated in the official documents at 
tlie value of 517,167 franca. 

§ I. Oil from the Liver of the Ood. 

1. Cod. — OH from the liter of Ike Cod 1 is prtm-ipally 
furnished bv the common Cod, Godot Morrhua (Linn,), Morrttta 
BRbjni (H. Cloq.). 

This well-known fish belongs to the order Malaeopterygii 
mbbraehiata, ami to the family Gadidat. 

It inhabits every part of the Northern ocean, between the 
40° and 70° of latitude. An incalculable number are found 
every year on a submarine mountain, known as the Bank «f 
Newfoundland , which extends for one hundred and fifty leagues 
in front of the island of the same name. England employs 
10,000 men in this fishery. Thirty-six millions of Cod are 
salted on an average every year. One man will sometimes 
take from three to four hundred in a day, occupied from 
morning to night, in throwing his line, and in withdrawing the 
captured Cod. This fish is distinguished for its astonishing 
fecundity. Leenwenhoek calculated that each feuiali' con- 
tained 8,344,000 germs. The germs or roe furnish a kind of 
caviare. [True caviare is the salted roe of the Sturgeon ; it is 
much esteemed by the Russians, and is imported as a Injury 
into this country, but is an oily unwholesome kind of food.] 

The Cod (fig. 18) varies in length from three to four and a 
hall' feet, and measures about one loot in circumference; it 
weighs from fifteen to more than twent y pounds. | The weight 
of the common cod varies between twelve and eighty, op a 

hundred pounds ; see GrillUhs's Cuvier.] The body of the fish is 
elongated, smooth, of a greyish yellow colour, brown on the 

1 Oleum jecorii Marrhutc, or oktun Aaclli mujitrif, of i1il> older writers. 



|i;u-k. white on the ventral surface, and marked with a, 
white line on either side. Its head is strong and compressed, 
the mouth large, and the lower jaw provided with a single barb. 
It has three dorsal and two anal nus. The thoracic fins are 
slender and pointed : the niudal lin is not forked. 

The Cod is a. most voracious animal ; it feeds on fish, more 
especially on the herrings, and on various Crustacea and 

2. OH. — -The liver of the Coil is very voluminous, and fur- 
nishes a large quantity of oil. 

Tins oil was formerly employed for the purposes of illumin- 
ation, and in the manufacture of chamois leather ; but it waa 
used in a very impure state, not heius obtained exclusively 
from the Cod, but mixed with oil from the Shark, Tunny, 
Conger eel, and many other fishes. Since this oil haa 
been employed in medicine the great object has been to 
procure it free from all such admixtures. Besides the 
common Cod, this kind of oil may be obtained from several 
other fishes, which were formerly arranged in the same group 
with it, and which have similar characters and properties. 

The genus G-tuhtx of Idmifctis having been broken up by 
modern ichthyologists, unfortunately for science the name haa 
disappeared, whereas it should have been retained for the 
group to which the typical species belongs. 

The following are, however, the other Gadoids, which 
principally furnish the Corf lion- oil, or nlrinii jreoris Horrhuie; 
the Itortie, 1 the llae/rfi/rfc* the dtpalan, 3 the Make* the 
Whilinq? the Coal-JMifi the Liny? I he Torsi-* and the Bur- 
bots The flesh of these species is usually esteemed as food, 
both fresh and salted. 

Cod liver oil is brought from Dunkirk, Ostend, England, 
and Holland. Large quantities are manufactured at Bergen, 
in Norway (Jongh), also on the islands of Lofodes and St. 
John, in New found]:! ml (flogs)- From the latter locality 
alone there were exported in 1823, 415,000 kilogrammes of oil, 

I Gadus Calliirin.i, Liim. (M^rrhna Callarias, Cuv.) 
'Gadus jEghfimif, I. inn. (M-,itIiihi. Jj^iiu, Cuv.) 
'■'Ondim minute, Miill. iM'm-thnn miaaln, Cuv.) 

' Mrr/n:iii- viilij-irix, l.'nv. ( (,'itila.i Merluri.iis, Linn.) 
: ' M- rl iiiijas rui'Mfi: Cnv Hindus Mirlaii'ins, Linn,} 

II .Vi'rltiiiiiwt Ctir/jii»iiriu.i, Cuv. 1.1,'iulu- Cmhimarius, Linn.) 
> Motca vulgaris, Cuv. ( Gadus Mu'va, Linn.) 

4 UrasioiHS mili/ntis, Cuv. (Gadus B-romme, Miill.) 
9 Lota vulgaris, Cuv. ( Gadus Lota, Linn.) 



and in 182S, 1,895,000 kilogrammes. Each kilogramme 
weighs 2*20531bs. avoirdupois. 

There are three varieties of Cod liver oil:— 1. The While, 

2. The Brown, and 3. The Black. The first is the colour of 
Madeira wine, or of a golden yellow, and has little or no 
odour. The second haa the colour of Malaga wine, or is of a 
pale brown ; the odour is more strongly marked, and its con- 
sistency is thicker than that of the first. The third is of a 
clear chocolate or dark brown colour ; it has a very strong 
odour, and is still thicker than the second. 

The White ail is that which is obtained first, by simply 
allowing the livers to drain in tubs pierced at the bottom 
with a number of holes, or provided with stopcocks, or 
they are placed in a kind of cage whose sides are formed of 
coarse linen cloth; the quantity which is procured of this 
kind of oil is equal to about half the weight of the livera 
euijilovC'l. The blood and other impurities sink down, and 
the oil floats at the top. 

The Brown oil is that which is separated afterwards, when 
the substance of the liver is beginning to decompose. The 
separation of the oil is soiiielimes last-cued iiv pressure. 

The Black oil is that which is obtained by hoiling the livers 
in water, and by pressing out all the oil thnt remains in the 
putrid mass from which the two previous kinds have been 

All these oils have undergone more or less fermentation, 
and, in the latter case, the oil has also been subject to the 
influence of heat. 

In commerce, there is a fourth quality of the oil, called in 
England the pale, and in France the white. This variety has 
a yellow tinge, of the colour of champagne ; it haa very little 
odour or taste. It iB the spontaneous production of the first 
stage of decomposition which the livers undergo at the ordi- 
nary temperature of the atmosphere, bel ween the time of the 
fishing and the operation of extracting the oil. There is 
sometimes an interval of several days, which is a sufficient time 
for the commencement of decomposition. 

It is only within these few years that these four kinds of 
oils, especially the three first, have been met witli in a pure 
state in the shop of the druggist. They are now clarified and 
decolorized by chemical processes, rendered more limpid and 
less nauseous, part, of their chavactcvistie odour heing removed, 
and probably at the same time some of their properties ; they 
are also mixed with other oils. The consequence of this is, 


commerce are of 
Ik. 1 liivii-esses of 

tliixt raauy of tiie white or blanched oils of 
very sliifht medicinal value. 

Dr. Fleury lias justly observed that all the processes 
extraction, which have heen just mentioned, depend upon the 
putrefaction and fermentation of the livers, and that this is 
the source of the dark colour, the nauseous odour, and repul- 
sive flavour of the oil. He ha a therefore proposed a new 
method of preparation, which yields an oil that is clearer, has 
less smell, and is better flavoured, and, above all, produces it in 
greater abundance. This method consists in taking; the fresh 
livers, washing, and then draining them, and putting them in 
a pan, in which they are submitted to the action of a hot water 
bath. In about twenty minutes the oil begins to swim at the 
top. The operation lasts about three quarters of an hour. 
There remains in the pan a quantity of refuse, which is 
strained through a flannel or coarse cloth ; this part of the 
process may he aided by gently pressing the strainer. 

Mr. Hogg also prepares an oil from the fresh livers, but he 
employs a vessel with a double bottom, and instead of hot 
water he bents his apparatus by moans of steam. His oil is 
paler, more limpid, more transparent, and of a b'gbter yellow 
than that which is called white oil. It has the smell of the 
fresh fish, and has scarcely any taste. It is known as Hogg't 
golden green oil. (.Tough,) 

Lastly, Dr. Delattre, of Dieppe, conceived the idea of 
guarding the livers from the action at' the atmosphere during the 
extraction of the oil. For this purpose he lias constructed an 
apparatus consisting of three lar^e earthen vessels of aglobular 
form, which are hall' buried in a large sand bath, heated by 
means of a therm o-syphon. These vessels communicate with a 
reservoir, from which a current of carbonic acid gas is given 
off, which expels the air from them. The sand-bath is not 
heated until all the air has been expelled. The use of this 
apparatus prevents the formation of oleic, sulphuric, and 
phosphoric acids. 

M. Delattre distinguishes live varieties of Cod liver oil. 
1st. The Virgin,; 2nd, The Pole yellow; 3rd. The White; 
4th. The Brown; and 5th. The Blaek oil. He has deposited 
selected samples of these live varieties in the museum of the 
Faculty of Medicine. The virgin oil is obtained by exposing 
the fresh livers, immediately after their extraction from the 
fish to a dry heat of the temperature of 104° Fah. The 
yellow and while oils are procured, the first by a temperature 
of 122' Fah., and the second by a temperature of from 140° 

a>'im.u,s COW 

nmorn iv mii'I'.-i^f. 


. to lSS 13 Fah. The brown oil is obtained from livers 
ich have been kept three or four days ; fttid the A/uci from 
a which are from ten to fifteen daya old. 
cording to M. Delattre the ftrown oil is the only one 

i should be used for medicinal purposes. Tin' virgin oil 

i i ' ■ ' ■ i. i . ■ -;ir\ refinement. Tlie tfclkw and the ic/i///' Inm: 

.. ..n't I rr i|ii;ilitii's I kill the brown ; while the W."-£. nnHaiiiiiig 

chiili'ie and acetic acids, has a disagreeable acridity, which 
should cause it to be rejected. 

Coil liver oil, however it is obtained, should have thechurac- 
teriBtic odour of the sardine and a fresh flavour, without any 
Bond taste; at a temperature of 59 J Fah. it shoidd stand at 
392" of Lefebvre's oleometer. When a few drops are poured 
on to a piece of glass placed upon white paper, on adding a 
Very small quantity of concentrated sulphuric acid, it shoidd 

? reduce a carmine tint, inclining to the colour of catechu. 

OaA mer oil is a compound of oleine, of margarine, chlorine, 
iodine, bromine, sulphur, phosphorus, and of various acids; 
there is also found a small quantity of lime, magnesia, and 
soda, and a particular principle called GaJuim: 

Gaduine is a, colouring matter, which is at first yellow, but 
becomes gradually darker upon exposure to the air. It is 
soluble in alkalies. 

Some writerB have endeavoured to refer the medicinal pro- 
perties of Coil Liwr Oil tn the presence of iodine, and for this 
reason the proportion in which this substance is present has 
been very carefully inquired into. According to M. Berthi, 
there is 4'7 grs. in every 2 2 lbs. avoirdupois. A ceo riling to 
more recent analyses, it is not more than & grs., but the 
quantity varies in different samples of the oil, and according to 
the time of year. The hitter is the proportion which is found 
in the yellow oil. In the while oil there was found 3'9 gr., in 
the brown oil 3'7 gr., and in the black oil only 36 gr. 

Some practitioners consider that the bromine and the phos- 
phorus may aeeoimt for the action of this substance. Soubei- 
ran says that a great part of its medicinal virtues depends upon 
the oil itself, and upon the aromatic and sapid bodies which 
are mixed with it. 

§ II. Oil from the Liver of the Skate, 
il physicians have proposed to substitute the oil pro- 
I from the liver of the Skate for that which is obtained 

from the liver of the cod. They have even insisted upon the 
superiority of the latter for medicinal purposes ; this supposed 
superiority depended partly upon the fact that the oil from the 
liver of the SA-nft j was prepared with greater care, and was leas 
repugnant to the patient, than the commercial oil derived from 
the liver of the cod, which was thick and black. (Guihourt.) 

It was also supposed thai ahntr oil contained re iodine than 

that of the cod. Experience has shown that this is not the 

1. .Boys.— The Rays are fishes belonging to the order 
Selachia and to the family liaiida' ; they may he recognized by 
the flattened form of their bodies, which resembles a disc, 
arising from the enormous size of their pectoral Una, which join 
each other anteriorly, and extend backwards along the sides of 
the abdomen as far as the ventral fins. The eyes are placed on 
the dorsal surface of the disc ; while the mouth, the branchial 
apertures, and the nostrils are on the abdominal. 

This kind of oil is obtained principally from the Thornback, 
the Skate, the siin>i Ji'hji. and The J:'n//le Hay. The following 
ia a brief summary of their characters : 

n i j armed with prickles 1. Thornback, 

a3KS - • ■ j unarmed .... 2. Skate. 

nnin«l moderate .... 3. Stiwj Ray, 

L Bplnett - ■ j very long . . . . 4. Eagle Ray, 

The Thornback, Saia clnvala (Linn.), from the shores of t 
Mediterranean, is of a brown colour, spotted with white a 
black. The body attains a length of twelve feet. 

Y\g. 19.— Thornback Say. 



The Skate {Rata Rati*, Linn.) is a loienge shape. The bark 
is rough. It is larger than the preceding. Some have been 
caught weighing as much as eighty-five pounds. [Cuvier says, 
more than two hundred pounds.] Its liver yields a large 
quantity of oil. 

The Sting Ray (Raia Pnsfinara, Linn.) is not uncommon in 
Sh M editerranawL The head is heart shaped ; its body is of 
u brown or livid green colour above, and white below. It doea 
in it weigh more than from lour to sis pounds. 

The Eagle Ray (Rata Aquila, Liim.) In thia aperies the 
pectoral fins do not extend around the head, which is left free ; 
and the tail is extremely narrow and long, and has been com- 
pared to a whip. This species is found in the Ocean and in 
the Mediterranean sea. 

2. The Oil— Skate Oil is of a clear yellow, or of a light 

Elden colour : sometimes it has on orange or reddish tint. It 
s the same density as that from the cod, hut not so strong 
a flavour. 

This oil iB manufactured on the coast of Normandy, When 
pure it is known in commerce as Rouen oil. It is sometimes 
mixed with cod oil. 

Shale, oil may he manufactured by the pharmaceutist. Two 
methods have been recommended. In the one the livers are 
boiled in water and the oil is collected, which swims at the top ; 
in the other, which is that of M. Gobley, the liven are cut m 
thin slices, and then warmed in a vessel until the oil has 
separated. The liquid, which is obtained by thia means, is 
then strained through a woollen cloth, making use of slight 
pressure. It seems to the writer that it would be better to 
prepare this oil in the same manner as that of the cod, either 
by means of a water bath, as in the plan pursued by M. Fleury, 
or by means of a vapour bath, as in that of Sir. Hogg's, taking 
care, according to the method of M. Delattre, to make use of 
glass globes instead of pans. 

MM. Girardin and Preissier have compared together the 
oils obtained from the liver of 'the. Skate snid from that of the 
Cod. The flrBt preserves its normal yellow colour in a stream 
of chlorine even at the end of halt' an hour, while the Becond 
rapidly assumes a dark brown tint. Skate oil becomes of a 
clear red by the action of cold sulphuric acid, and the mixture 
when shaken acquires at the end of a quarter of an hour a dark 
violet colour, while the oil from the eod rapidly turns black. 
These characters are far from being constant. 

According to M. Personne skate oil contains less iodine 



than the cod oil. One litre or 1'67 of a pint, prepared 
direct heat, yielded M. Gobley 3S5 of a grain of iodide 
potassium. This chemist was unable to find any trace 
phosphorus. M. Delattre in some recent analyses obtained the 
following results: — 1st. That the proportion of iodine in shite. 
oil 18 one half the quantity of that m the cod oil. 2nd. That 
the sulphur is one quarter less. 3rd. That the phosphorus, on 
the contrary, is one third more. 

The oil of (lie skate is very mild, and infants of a month old 
are perfectly able to bear it. (Delattre.) 

§ III. Oil from the Liver of the Shark. 

Dr. CoUas baa published an interesting account in t 
Kevue Colonials upon the medical and surgical employment of 
this oil in the French establishments in India. 

1. Shark. — The Sharks, like the Bays, belong to the order 

The genus Soimlus contains a large number of species, all of 
which are distinguished by the length of their bodieB, and by 
the possession of a large muscular tail. The snout is supported 
by the cartilaginous processes which are appended to the 
anterior part of the skull ; the branchial apertures are placed 
at the sides of the neek ; the eyes are also situated on the 
lateral parts of the head ; the pectoral tins arc of moderate size. 

TheBe animals sometimes acquire a very large size ; they are 
extremely voracious, and their -riot Unions appetite leads them to 
seek with aridity after every kind of living prey. 

The majority are ovoriviparoua ; some of them discharge 
their eggs surrounded by a horny case. 

The genus Squalug, like the Baiida', belongs to the tribe of 
cartilaginous fishes; it seems, therefore, logical to admit a 
priori that The oil obtained from their liver should possess the 
same qualities as that from the latter group. But even sup- 
posing that Shark oil is inferior, it is not less important to 
know that, in case of necessity, it may be substituted for that 
of the Bay or the Cod family. (Collas.) 

The Sharks are a very common fish, and are easily captured; 
they frequent the shores, and are seldom found in the open 
sea. In the tropics, however, they are met with at a great 
distance from land. In the bays 1 liev arc said to live in shoals. 

There are several species which are capable of yielding the 
oil. Dr. Delattre has obtained it from the Si/itiihtx Acanthiag 
(fig. 20), from the lesser spoil W I)G<jjUh {St/tinhis vatulits, Linn.), 

AS'iM.u.s coiraTASTLi employed rs 

from the UummtU of [jaciepede (or Squttlu* o-ntrina, Liim.), 
from the MmkJUh ( Squalu* Squatina, Linn.), the Squaliu ifw- 
tcltis, Linn., anil from the Fos Shark (Squalut vvlpet, GmeL). 

Fig. 20.— Syualus Aaintltiat. 

2. Oil. — Dr. Collas gives the following directions for the 
extraction of the oil from the liver of the shark. After care- 
fully washing the liver and removing the gall bladder, it is cut 
in pieces and boiled in water in a large earthen vessel for nearly 
an hour. The tire must not be too fierce. The liquid is to be 
constantly stirred with a wooden spoon. When the oil floats 
at the surface it is removed. The residue is allowed to remain 
for a couple of days in an open vessel. The liver is then boded 
over again and the oil removed as it swims at the surface. 
These oils are nest Altered iu order to free them from im- 

Shark's liver oil has a fine amber colour, like pale brandy. 
At a temperature of 86° Fah. it is perfectly limpid. Its Bmell 
and taste resemble that of cod oil. When it is left undisturbed 
for sometime it throws down a considerable quantity of stearine, 
which appears as a white granular substance. Dr. Collas has 
given it the name of xqualiii, in order to distinguish it from the 
ordinary stearine of commerce, lie believes that this sub- 
stance might bo useful as the medium for applying certain 
topical remedies, which are used in the treatment of wounds 
and ulcers. He recommends it as a substitute for certain 
local applications, which are made use of in diseases of the 
skin. Bqualin does not seem to become rank like lard. It has 
also a much greater consistence than the latter kind of grease, 
which becomes fluid at the ordinary temperature of Pondi- 
eherry, and which requires to be mixed with suet in order to 
give it the consistency of pomade. 

According to Dr. Dekttre the active principles are present 
in larger proportions in the oil of the shark than in that of the 
cod; it is richer in iodine and in phosphorus, but it contains 
less bromine and sulphur. The increase in the quantity of 
iodine is double w bat is b.'Mt in the bromine. 


Compared irith the oil from the rav it contains one and a 
half times more iodine, and only one-iifth less phosphorus. 


In Medical Zoology the name of mwsk hearing is given to 
those animals which furnish medicine with the peculiar sub- 
stance known as mush, and some other analogous productions. 

True musk, and the substances which have the closest re- 
semblance to it, Bueh as civet and castoreum, are secreted by 
special organs. Mgraceam, which differs from the former in 
several respects, is furnished by the digestive organs. It is 
the same as regards ambergris. 

All the animals which produce musk, or a substance re- 
sembling musk, belong to the class Mammalia. 1 

We shall examine in a separate chapter each of theft 
substances: 1. Musk; 2. Civet; 3. Castoreum; 4. Hgra 
5. Ambergris. 

§ I. Musk. 

1. The Animal. — -The musk deer {Moselms moschiferus, 
Linn.)* is a mammalian animal belonging to the order Eu- 
minantia, and to the family Mosehida, 

It inhabits the mountains ami wooded districts of Thibet 
and China. Buftbn has described cue of these animals, which 

1 Secretions resembling musk are found in some other mammalia, 
as for example in Hie Genetic, the II: tm.-in, : Lie Hmi./i-r, ihe Musaraxgne, 
the Muik Rat, the Ondatra, and (lie Husk Ox. Tin.- Crocodile also gives 
off on odour of mask. The same is tin; ca?e with the fluids of several of 
the Cephalnpoda, and with that of some {natch, especially the Aromia 
niaschata ; bat neither these animal: 1 imr tln-iv soituI iund have been made 
use of as antispasmodics. The (ail nf I he Desman u!' Muscovy, or Muii 
Hat of Russia (Mtitial. : Musrmila. ticoltV.), U SimeHil fur as, a perfume. .*' 
owes its odour to a sul'stauee whieh is secreted by tivo small lollicuh 
glands placed nt its base. The oiimir is so strong That- it jienetrates II 
flesh 0? the pike and other fish ivhirh hare fid upon this animal. Pall 
states that a thermometer wlii.-li he liiul made use of for ascertaining tl 
temperature of an individual remained impregnated ir" 1 - ! ' 

"In China its common name is C/tc-hia/ta, thai is to say, the Deer whii 
ihsrhanj-s an atlt'iir i it is aU<> called Sr. Ir. i, rhe 'l\i,,rtjo or the C "' 

of the Tartars, the Kmlari of the Caliini.-s and M ononis, liie Dsaanja ol 

TuiiKLisiauit of the Veiiisoy, (Ik: ILiiulc (..f ili..-r .if the Baikal, the Dschija 
of those of the Cent a, tlief.Vwi or Gluo, or Allah, of the Tangnta of Thibe 
the Bios of the Ostiaks, the Kuboraa ■: the Kiistiuns of the Yeniscy, a 
their Saiga or""' 

a the borders of the Baikal. 


the Duke of Trillion' preserved for three years at his chateau 
of the Hermitage near Versailles, where the creature seemed 
to have become acclimated. 

This anima! (tig, 21) is about the size of a young roebuck 
sis months old. The colour of the skin is blackish with a 
mixture of yellow and red- 
dish brown. It, however, 
varies considerably ; in the 
t young animal it. ia of a red- 
dish grey, with patches of 
win!..' arranged in linos, 
while in the old it is of a 
blackish brown colour. The 
most constant character of 
tin' fur throughout the life 
of the animal is the pre- 
sence of two white bauds 
bordered with black, and 
em-losing between them a 
ijliick bund, which extends 
along the under part of the 
neck from the throat to the chest. The tail and a heart-shaped 
space around it are naked in the male, and always moistened 
with a strong smelling humour. On the other hand, the 
females, during the whole of life, and the males, up to two 
years of age, have the tail covered with hair on its upper part, 
and with wool on its under part. The animal has no horns. 
The mouth opens as far back as the molar teeth. The male 
has two canines in the upper jaw developed into the form of 
tusks ; these teeth project external W on cadi side of the mouth; 
they pasB downwards, curving backwards, and have the 
posterior edge adapted for cutting. The eyes are propor- 

Fig. 21.- Tim- Mink Deer. 

tionsJiy of a large size, and hav 

' I"}]" 1 - 


ears are moderately long, covered externally with reddish 
black hair, and internally with long grey hairs. The hinder 
limbs are longer and stronger than the anterior. An im- 
portant oBteologica] character is the presence of a Blender 
fibula, extending from the head of the tibia to the extremity 
of the astragulua. The feet are small. The anterior have two 
spurs which touch the ground, the external being the largest. 
The posterior have two unequal hoofs, the internal being much 
longer than the external. 

The Musk Deer is a timid, nocturnal mammal, very rapid in 
its course ; it has a leaping motion something like that of the 


hare; it leads a solitary 

upon the leaves, bark, and roots o 

Musk apparatus (fig. 22). — This consists of a sac. which is 
only present in the male ; il is placed tin I lie median line of the 
abdomen, between the navel and the orifice of the prepuce, but 
neareHt to the latter. This sac is of a rounded oval form, flat 
on its superior or adherent surface, hut convex and covered 
with hair on its inferior or free surface. In the adults this sae 
is from two to three inches long, an inch and a quarter to two 
inches in width, and from seven to ten lines in depth. When 
the skin is removed two bundles of muscular fasciculi are seen, 
which pass from the groia and surround the sac. (Pallas.) 
Immediately beneath in the proper envelope of the sac com- 
posed of three separate membranes. The first {fibrous coat of 
Pereira) has, on its external surface, some longitudinal folds, 
and in its interior numerous depressions : il receives branches 
from the iliac artery, (Pallas.) The second {pearly coat of 
Pereira) is thin, whitish, and with external projections, which 
correspond to the excavations of the first membrane ; it has 
also numerous grooves, which are traversed by blood vessels. 
Lastly, the third {Epidermoid coat of Pereira) is still more 
delicate than the second ; some have supposed they could 
distinguish an external silverv layer, and an internal layer of a 
reddish brown or yellowish colour. On the inner surface of 

d to 

cL c & 

Fig. 23. — Mush Apparatus. 1 
tho sac are strongly marked folds and excavations. Each ex. 
cavation contains two or more oval corpuscles of a yellowisl 
or reddish brown colour. These small bodies are glands for the 
secretion of the musk. They appear to be composed of a very 

1 a, muFk sac cut vertically ; b, its orifice ; c, orifice of the prepnee it 
its brush of airs ; rf, the glans traversed by the filiform prolongation ' 
urethra; e, testicle. 


thin membrane, containing a brownish coloured substance 
Towardl the middle' of ihe external or convey surfaci- nl' (lit- 
sac is a short canal, which passes obliquely, is about a line it) 
width, and lias its internal opening surrounded by a number 
ing hairs. A tittle behind tins orifice is that of the 
j.rvjiii.-.-, ■ bod of slit bounded by a brush of red-coloured 

Musk. — In the living animal the mttti has the Consistence 
of honey, is of a brownish red colour, ami has n u-rv strong 

The Chinese missionaries pretend that this secretion driven 
the carnivorous animals from the musk deer and thu 
a means of defence. Pallaa supposes that thif matter is inlemh'il 
to excite voluptuous feelings in the female during connection. 
It appears that during this act, the musk sac is compressed, 
and that a portion of the semifluid mutter escapes and lubri- 
cates the organ of the male. Oken compares musk to the 
sebacious mailer secreted by the prepuce. 

When the musk is dry it becomes almost solid, granular, 
and of a very dark brown. It feels unctuous arid fatty to the 
touch. It has a bitter and aromatic taste. Its stud! is rtill 
exceedingly powerful; a very small quantity will u:ciit a large 

mass of any substance, and it will be retained forn long I ■ 

The Bcent is agreeable when much diluted. 

Each sac, (iig. 23) does not contain 
more than 370 grains in the adult, and 
123 grains in the old animal. 

Two kinds of musk are known in 
commerce : 1st. The Tonquin or 
Chinese Musk ; and 2nd. The Kiilmrdin. 
or Russian musk. The Tonquin is more 
highly estimated than the Kabardin. 
This substance is not always sur- 
rounded by the natural sue, ami drug- 
gists therefore distinguish between 
VHtkimiketactm&muKkoutoflheaae. Fig. 23.-J1f a*4 Soft 

Musk contains ammonia, a volatile oil, stcarinc, oleine, ''ho. 
lesterine, an oil united with ammonia, gelatine allunnon, liiiriui', 
a substance soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol, hydro- 
chlorate of ammonia, and several other salts. (Blondeauand 
Gnibourt.) According to Dr. Hank', bitter almonds, when 
mixed with a sulutiuu containing musk, entirely neutralize the 
odour of the latter. It appears, however, that the odouris not 
destroyed since it returns to its original strength when the 


MEDICAL zooioer. 

hydrocyanic acid is dissipated. The golden sulpburet of an- 
timony, when mixed with musk, also removes its odour. 
Kermes mineral gives it ji smell of unious. (liley.) The Arabs 
were the first who introduced musli into medicine. 

Musk is adulterated by introducing earth, sand, and even 
iron and lead into the sac. Sometimes the scent is replaced 
by dried blood, muscle, gelatine, was, asphalte, styrax, 
benzoin, &c. 

[Musk is a remedy but little used in the present day. It 
acts as a stimulant on the nervous and vascular systems, but 
is liable to produce eructation aud derangement of the stomach. 
It may be given in substance, cither in the form of boluses, or 
suspended in water by moans of saccharine or mucilaginous 
substances. Its dose is from eight to fifteen grams. (Pereira.)] 

2. Otker species. — Three other species of deer are mentioned 
at capable of yielding musk :— 1. The Napa. 2. The Kran- 
ehil. 3. The Chrrroluiit of f he Altai. 

The Nhpu {AL.i.tch an J<ic<w /':!//{■«. lialhVs) is t'oimd in the woods 
of Java and Sumatra, where it feeds on the berries of a species of 
Ardisia. It is twenty-one inches lung and fourteen high; the 
colour is brown mottled with black on the back, grey mixed 
with white on the flanks, and white on the abdomen and the 
inner parts of the thighs. At the posterior angle of the lower 
jaw is a white line which extends to each side of the chin. A 
black line unites the i-ve with the nostrils. Its horns are short 
and straight. The tail is tufted, and white at its termination 
as well as below. 

2. The Kranchil (.tfoxefats KmnrJiil. Raffles) inhabits the 
forests of Sumatra, where it feeds upon the fruit of the Omelina 
villous; it is sixteen inches long and ton inches in circumference. 
The fur is of a reddish brown, passing into black on the back, 
and white on the inner parts of the thighs. The line on each 
side of the jaw reaches as far as the shoulder. It has no 
black line between the eyes and the nostrils. The tail ia tufted, 
and white at its termination. 

3. The Chevrotiiinof the Altai {Moxchus Attaints, Esch.) in- 
habits, as its name implies, the Altai mountains. (Johst.) 
has two white lines on its neck. 

The Civet belongs to the genus Viverra of Cuvier, forn 
part of the di^itigrade division of the Carnivora. It iseha 
terized by the possession of three false molars [premolars o 
Owen] above, and four below, of which the anterior are som 


times lost, two large tubercular teeth [motors of Owen] above, 
and one below — in all forty teeth, Tim genus comprises two 
species which require to he noticed. 1st. The Common Civet; 
2nd. The Zibet!, Civet. 

Common Civet, (fig. 24). — The Common or true Civet ( Viverrti 
Civrttii, ' Sell rub.) inhabits Guillen, Congo, find Ethiopia.. 

This small mammalia is about twenty-eight inches long, 
independent of the tail, and from ten to fourteen inches high 
at the shoulders. It has been compared to a fox, but it ia 
longer and does not stand so high. The hair is coarse and 
long, forming a kind of crest on the back, which becomes 
blended with the tail ; this crest rises up when the civet is 
irritated. The fur of the animal is of a dark brown, varied 
with pitches and bands of a blackish brown. The spine of the 
baek is of a black brown colour, and the flanks are irregularly 
spotted with the same. These patches become converted into 
black bands on the chest, the shoulders, and the buttocks. Two 
ilique bands of this colour are seen on the sides of the neck ; 

Fig aj.-aVf. 

they are separated from each other by an interval of a greyish 
white colour. The bead is elongated' and of a whitish colour 
but the circumference of the eyes, the cheeks and the chin, are 
brown, as well as the feet mid the posterior half of the tail ; 
the latter has three or four light coloured rnnrs towards its 
base. The muzzle of the Civet is pointed, but rather less so 
than that of the Fox ; the animal has long whiskers, and a tail 
Bhorter than its body. 

These animals are very ferocious, but are, nevertheless, 

1 In Darfnur it is r.iilo'l (lull [cat) l>y t lie Auiis. anil Mzourcm by the 
NegToes. It is also nailed Kitakua in Ethiopia, JSzimc or Nifusi in Congo, 
and Kaslor in G aineii. 



brought up in a domesticated state. They possess great 
activity and run like a dog. Their eyes shine in the dark. 
During the night they hunt: after small ijnarlnipeds and birdB. 
Civet apparatus (fig. 25.) — Tins (.'(insists of two sacs, situated 
iu the neighbourhood of the genital organs. They are present 
in both sexes. 

These sacs are each about the size of an almond. The inner 
surface is pierced with a number of apertures com muni eating 
with the 'glandular follicles, which secrete the scent. The 
follicles are surrounded by a very vascular membrane. A 
muscle covers the whole ami has the power of compressing the 
secreting follicles as well as the sac, and thus expels the civet. 
The sacs opeu into a kind of eloaea or shallow pouch, placed 
between the anus and the genital organs. 

Besides the scent glands, there is. also, on each side the 
anal orifice, a small opening from which a blackish and very 
offensive humour is discharged. This opening communicates 
with a round gland smaller than that which produces the civet. 
Civet scent. —Civet 1 ia an unc- 
tuous substance of a fatty resinous 
nature, which is at first semifluid 
and of a yellow colour, but after- 
I c wards becomes very thick and of 
a brown colour. It has a dis- 
agreeable ammoniacal odour, often 
. very strong, resembling a mixture 
1 of musk and fecal matter. Its 
; taste is acrid and burning. 

Civet is composed of ammonia, 
elaine, stearine, mucus, resin, a 
volatile oil, a yellow colouring 
matter of snbearbouate and phos- 
phate of lime and of oxide of iron. 
( Boutron- Charlard.) 

The Civet is reared in a domestic 
state in various parts of Africa, for 
the sake of its perfume. Some dealers bine as many as three 
hundred. They are fed excliisivelv upon llesh. which gives a 
strong penetrating odour to the perfume. (Aucapitaine.) Every 
eight days the contents of the sac are scraped out by means of a 

Fig. 25.- 

1 ZebedoHhe Arabs (Fiunreum, Gerv.). 

'a a, glaurii whiuli ..ri.-ivto rivet; their oni'iircs opening into tho 
pouch; e e.anal glanda; dd, their Orifices; e, anus ; f, vulva; u, clitoris. 

aMU.m.s Constantly SUPLOrSD IS MEDICINE. 117 

small spoon, or a hollow piece of bamboo, the animal having 
been previously secured. 

2nd. ZlBETi'l Civet (fig. 26).— The Zibetk Civet or Zibetk 
Zibstha, Linn.) ■ inhabits the Molucca and Philippine 

The animal i« from twelve to Bisteen inches Ion;;, and thir- 
teen inches high ; the fur is of a yellowish grey, marked with 
a number of black spots, Bometimes so dose 'together as [41 
form lines, especially towards its posterior pari. The tail ifl 
black along the whole of its upper part, but marked with black 
and white along the sides, giving it the appearance of half 
rings; the abdomen is urry ; ;\ lilack band eoiiimences behind 
the upper part of the ear. describes the segment of a circle as 
far as the fore limb, and forms the boundary of the spotted 
portion, separating it from the pure white of the sides and 
under part of the neck. Another band, somen hat larger, com. 

kPig. 28.— Zibetk. 
•a at the base of the ear, taking the same curve as the 
first, from which it is separated by a white band of equal 
width, and then unites with that from the opposite side under- 
neath the neck. A third descends vertically, a little below the 
ear. Lastly, a fourth, which divides the grey of the cheeks 
from the white of the neck, corresponds to the ascending por- 
tion of the lower jaw. 

The animal is nocturnal ; it appears to be omnivorous, but 
givcB the preference to fruits. 

The Zibrth di tiers from the Civet, principally by the absence 
of the dorsal crest, by the shortness of its fur, by the lateral 
bands of the neck, and by the half rings on its tail. The 
animal is bred like the Civet, and its perfume is collected in 
the same manner; it is afterwards spread out on the leaves of the 
pepper plant, in order to separate the hairs from it; it is aho 
said to be washed with salt and water or with lemon juice, 
before it is packed up in leaden hoses. 

The unlit of the Zibetk resembles that of the Civet. Both 

1 It is the Coot or Baar of the Arabs, and the Sawadu Punce of the 



these substances are adulterated with laudanum nud storax ; 
at other times with dried blood, grease, od of nutmegs, and a 
email quantity of musk. 

§ HI. The Beaver. 

Animal. — The Beaver (Cmfor Fiber, Linn.) belongs to the 
order Rodentia and to the family Sciurida. 

This animal inhabits the uncultivated districts of Canada 
and Siberia. A few are found in Prussia, in Poland, and in 
France, where it is named Bievres. It is supposed that 
the small river called Bievres, which empties itself into the 
Seine, at Paris, owes its name to its having been formerly 
frequented by these animals. The hist Beavers which were 
met with in France were found upon the banks of the Rhone 
and the Gardon. Some writers consider that the Beaver of 
France is a different speeds from that found in Canada. 

The Beaver (fig. 27) is from three to four feet in length 
from the muzzle to the end of the tail, and from twelve to 
sixteen inches in width across the chest; the fur consists of 
two kinds of hair, the one close set, very fine, and of a grey 
colour; the other lunger, coarser , and of a brown colour. The 
head resembles that of the Marmot ; it is nearly a 

Fig. 27.- 

it is wide; the ears are short; each jaw has ten teeth, o 
sisting of two incisors and four molars on each aide. In a 
skull of the Canadian Beaver {No. 21130), in the College c 
Surgeons, the lower incisor measured i^ inches in the curve o: 
the tooth, while the upper incisor from the same head ^ 
only 3$ inches. All these teeth are bevelled off from withi 
outwards so as to form a cuttiug edge ; they a_ _ 
yellow colour on their anterior surface, and white intern 
The crowns of the molars are flat and impinge vertically up< 
each other; they may be described aa a lamina o" ' 


upon itself so as to form three indentions on the outer edge 
ami our mi the inner; in the lower teeth this arrangement ia 
reversed. (Cuvier.) The mamma' are four in number, two of 
which are situated between the anterior limbs near the neck, 
and two on the chest. Tlie feet have five short toe*, quite 
distinct, azul provided on the fore limbs with very strong 
claws, those on the hind limbs are longer and are united by an 
it- membrane. The tail is oval, Hat, thick, and 
covered with scales. This tail answers at the same time the 
purposes of a trowel and an oar ; the animal constantly making 
use of it in swimming, and also to mould the earth with which 
construe ts its habitation. 

Hmrirs resemble land .'inhiials as regards the anterior parts 
of their bodies, and aquatic animals with respect to the 
posterior parts. During the summer time they live solitary 
or in couples in holes near the water. At the approach of 
winter, they assemble in large numbers on the borders of the 
river or lake. If the water is smooth and undisturbed they 
build their huts ou the banks; if, however, the water is swift; 
and shallow, they first construct a strong dam across it, 
formed of fallen trees, branches, stones, and mud; the whole 
being covered with a solid outer layer. The side of the dam 
next the stream is always perpendicular, while the opposite 
one is shelving. When it is built up the Bearers form their 
hut* against it ; they are made of the same materials, only of 
a smaller size ; there are several stages of them ; each is suffi- 
ciently large to contain eight or ten Beavers. The works are 
carried ou only during the night, ami executed with surprising 
rapidity. Yet the only implements which the lieu vers possess 
are their claws, their teeth, and their tail. ' When they have 
completed their dam and their dwelling-places, they lay up a 
store of bark for the winter and shut themselves in their 

Castor apparatus (fig. 28).— The castor is secreted by two 
large glands placed in the neighbourhood of the sesual organs. 
The ancients mistook these glmuls tor the animal's testicles. 

Beneath the tail of the Jieaiwr is a shallow pouch, which 
may be compared to the cloaca of the bird (AdauBon), and into 
which the arms and genital organs open. The anal orifice 
appears behind quite at the commencement of the tail. In the 
middle on either side are the openings of several small glands, 
termed the anal ijlrtiuh, which secrete an oily, yellow, disagree- 
able fluid, distinct from the caUoreum. These glands are 

" (Linn.) 

nsirueiuio domos ad ripas lupera 

n mtnafim 



oblong, lobed, nnd are each accompanied by one or two neees- 
sory glands. In front of the pouch is the genital orifice, 
which communicates with the preputial canal. The latter ib 
cylindrical, and covered with small papilla', which are pointed, 
of a blackish colour, and are directed backwards. It is to the 
right and left of this groove that llir glands arc placed 'which 
secrete the castoreum. These glands consist of two oval, pyri- 
f'onn sacs of uneuual size, which open into the preputial 
groove by two large orifices. Those of the adult animal are 
at least three inches in length, and sometimes as much as five ; 
they are larger than the testicles, and cannot be confounded 
with them. Moreover, they are 
present in the female as well 
as in the male, but they are some- 
what less developed. The outer 
surface is irregular, and in the in- 
terior are a number of delicate ciecal 
processes which secrete the caxto- 

Castoreum. — In the living animal 
the castoreum is an almost fluid 
unctuous substance of a strong 
penetrating and even ftetid odour. 

Fig-. 28.— Apparatus of the castor.' Fig-. 29.— Glands oftlie 
' a a, castor glands; b b, their orifices* in the preputial canal; c, 

penis ivitli its peculiariv formal prepuc; ; il. or.cniiu: nf ilii' proputial i: 
en, analglandH; //, their orifices; g, anus ; h, part o! tlie tail; (, prus 
h !:, Cov.pci-'si.'liiu'ls: II, tlie vtsiimla; semmale.s ; in m, different ca ' 
Lin: t-?.ii.ii-les: ... tlis> bladder. 

* a a, dried glands of the ©antorcum; 6, a portion of tlie preputial a 


The castoreuin of commerce is dried iu the two sites still united 
r, 29). These sacs are pyriform, elongated, Bome- 
what compressed and wrinkled, n(' a blackish brown colour ex- 
ternally, and of a yellow or reddish brown internally. When 
cut into their contents resemble a compact resinous muss, 
intermixed with membrane or with whitish fibres. Its odour 
is pary penetrating, and almost foetid; its taste is acid and 

Castoreum varies in value, according to its age, and to that 
of the animal which furnished it, and possibly according 
to how near the creature was to the period of heat. It loses 
its qualities very rapidly when kept in a moist situation. 

Linmcns believed that this substance was better when 
obtained from Beavers which bad fed principally on the bark 
of the poplar. M. Paul Gervaia, having had the opportunity 
of dissecting Beavers from the Klione, was struck with the 
resemblance between the odour of their cusftirrtim and that of 
the young shoots of the willow-tree, or of its bark when 
macerated. These trees form a large portion of the food of the 

There are two qualities of castoreum .- 1. American; 2. 
Russian. The first is divided into Canadian castoreum and 
Hudson's ha;/ castoreum. 

Castoreum contains castorine, a volatile oil, salicine, carbolic 
acid, benzoic acid, albumen, a fatty matter, mucus, carbonate 
of ammonia, and the salts of soda and potash. 

Cuslurint-wwi discovered by I'randt [indBizio ; it crystallizes 
in long diaphanous crystals find fasciculi ; its odour is the same 
as that of the castoreum ; it has a coppery taste. It is insoluble 
in cold alcohol and in water, but dissolves in boiling alcohol 
and volatile oils. 

Castoreum is adulterated in various ways : 1. The sacs are 
opened and the scent removed, ils pliu-e being supplied with 
dried blood, galbanum, or gum nminoniacum. 2. Artificial 
sacs are manufactured with the scrotum of the goat, or from 
the gall-bladder of various animals ; in this case the sac is falsi- 
fied as well as its contents. 

Castoreum is administered in several ways — in injections, in 
drinks, and in pills. Prom this substance is prepared a dis- 
tilled water, a common tincture, an [etherized tincture, and a 


[Castoreum was formerly employed in certain derangements 
of the nervous system, such as hysteria, apoplexy, Ac. It was 
-'-- supposed to exert a special influence over the uterus, and 


was used to promote the lochlal discharge, and for the expulsion 
of retained placenta. In the present day it is hut little em- 

f loved, being generally regarded as an almost inert remedy. 
t is best given in substance, either reduced to powder, or m 
the form of a pill. The dose should ho at least 3ij- (Pe- 

The London Pharmaeopieia contains a tincture of Castor 
(Tinctura Qrsforei), wMeh is made by macerating two ounces 
and a half of castor in two pints of rectified spirits lor fourteen 
days and then straining. This preparation, says Pereira, con- 
tains only half a drachm of castor in one fluid ounce of the 
tincture, and it would, therefore, be necessary to administer 
two ounces of the tincture to give a medium dose of castor 
(3j). The dose directed in the Pharmacopoeia is xx Wl to 

§ IV. The Hyraceum. 

AniMAL.— The Daman of Hie Cape ' (Hgrax Capensis, Ehr., 
Cavia Capensis, Pall.). — This animal was regarded liv Pallas and 
Enleben as a Rodent, and by Cuvier and Illiger as a Pachy- 
derm. M. Is. Geotf'rov Saint-liilaire, founding his opinion 
upon its organization and habits, considered ii as forming the 
connecting link between these orders. The toes have irregular 
corneous formations, partly resembling hoofs and partly 

The Banian inhabits the Cape of &ood Hope, Abyssinia, 
and even as far as Lebanon. It never descends into the 

This small mammal (fig. 30) is the size of a Marmot. (Pallas,) 
"With the exception of not having a horn it is almost a Rhino- 
ceros in miniature. (Cuvier.) Its form is heavy, short, and low 
on its feet. The fur consists of long, close-set, soft, silky hair, 
and of very fine scanty woolly libres. Its general colour is of 
a greyish brown. The head is thick and terminated by a short 
thick muzzle. The cars are short, run ml, and bordered by fine 
hairs; the neck is short and wider than it is long. The upper 
jaw has two strong incisors, which curve downwards; in the 
young animal there are two very small canines ; the lower jaw, 

■Commonly called Badger of the rochs (KVj>)i-'huii. KHp-Jasje, or 
KUp-iiasxc) or Marmot of the Cape. The Abj»6inian9 call it Gike accord- 
ing to Slmv.. niiii AJibiio iux'rinliii!; fo Hi'ul-i ; ibt Libiimans, [he sheep qf 
Israel (Ganm'm Israel.) 


somewhat duster Han 
the upper, has lour in- 
cisors, but no canines. 
(Cuvier.) On the upper 
lip are a number of long 
stiff black haire. There 
are also a quantity of 
large hairs beneath the 
eyebrows and beneath 
the throat. The abdo- 
men is very wide. The 
palms of the feet are 
naked and covered with 
soft Bkin. The fore 

feet have four toes, and the hind feet only three ; these toes 
terminate iu small round hoofs, excepting the innermost toe of 
the hind foot, which is armed with nn oblique hooked claw. 
There is no visible tail ; the coccyx is reduced to a small 
tubercle. There are three mammre on each aide, of which the 
anterior is axillary, ami the two others inguinal. 

The Daman is a very active animal am! cleanly in its habits; 
although naturally savage and timid, it is easily tamed, and is 
even capable of forming attachments. Its food consists of the 
fruits and roots of aromatic plants ; it is particularly fond of 
: Cyclopia qriiistoides, an elegant shrub belonging to the 
" of papilionaces. 

jim ofhyrgceum. — -This substance is found in small masses 
the sides of rocky mountains, in the clefts of the rocks, in 
__iveras T and in those places generally which are frequented by 
the Damans. The inhabitants collect these fragments while 
they are fresh, soft, anil somewhat glutinous. 

Sparmann, Thunberg, Burcbell, and Lichtenstein, all agree 
in regarding the Daman of the Cape as the animal which pro- 
duces the hyraceum. 

But how is this substance formed ? Is it by special glands 
the Musk-deer, the Civet, and the Castor T The anatomy- 
the genital organs, which has been published by Pallas, is 
loaed to this conclusion. 

the hyraceum, merely the dried urine of the Daman ? 
.ceording to Sparmann and Thunberg the Dutch call this sub- 
stance Badger's urine (JDassen-pisnat or ilivyrxpix) ■. they believe 
that the Damans have the habit of always discharging their 
rine in the same place, and that the urine in drying deposits 
certain substance, which gradually condenses and ultimately 

as in 



forms the hi/raceum. It will be presently seen that this ex- 
planation ib to a certain extent correct. 

Krausa suspected that it might be the menstrual discharge 
of the animal, but there is nothing to confirm thia notion. 

Dr. Edward Martiuv considers the hyraeewm as the secretion 
of the preputial glands, am! probalih also id' largely developed 
Taginal glands. But these elands would not have been over- 
looked by Pallas in bis dissections. 

Several modern writers admit, and it appears to the author 
correctly, that this substance is nothing more than the excre- 
ments of the animal mixed with its urine which have been 
dcpo-ilcd and dried in the crevices of the rock, and 
frequented by the animal. (Pereira, Yem'aux.) The ex- 
amination of the hi/riu-i-um made by L, Snubeiran, and its 
analysis by Scbrader and by Reichel, fully confirm this vi 
the matter. 

Hyracmtm. — This is a solid, hard, heavy substance, 
blackish brown colour, with certain portions clearer or more 
brilliant, and having a resinous appearance. It can be cut 
with a knife and softened between the lingers. It has some 
resemblance to the bdellium of India and to black myrrh. 
(Gruibourt.) When exposed to a moist atmosphere it Boftena 
and becomes more or less glutinous. Its odour is strong and 
disagreeable, somewhat analogous to that of custoreum, but not 
ao strong, ami fnnicwlial urinous. Its taste is bitter, astrin- 
gent, and acrid. 

Hyraccum is very soluble in water, to which it imparts a yel- 
low colour, especially when the water is hot ; it leaves a clear 
brownish yellow coloured residue. It is but partially soluble 
in alcohol, and in ether, to which it imparts a very light yelli 
tint. (L. Soubeiran.) 

"When examined by the microscope it is found to contain 
particles of plants ; as for example, tbe husks of grasses, frag- 
ments of cellular and fibrous tissue, and portions of tracheal 
vessels. There are also present hairs, purl idea of silicious 
sand, and granules of uric acid. (L. Soubeiran.) 

Chemical analysis shows that hj/remeum contains a yelh 
colouring matter soluble in common alcohol and in water, 
brown matter soluble in water, a green resin soluble 
alcohol, a small quantity of i'attv matter, and a large amount 
of insoluble residue, containing the remains of vegetable fibres 
and quartz. (Schrader.) 

The hyracntm of commerce is packed in cylindrical 
boxeSj each containing about a pound. 


This substance has been proposed an a substitute for easto- 
irum; some years ago it W8B brought into use in OOOSi 
of the high price of castnivimi. Al tin' present linn. 1 it is very 
rarely employed, and in all probability it will shortly he 
numbered with those Bubstances which, after having been 
boasted of as pa run vim, have been rejected from the liat of the 
,. (L. Soubeirau.) 

Materia 3 

§ V. Ambergris. 

Origin of Ambergris. — Various hypotheses have been 
put forward with respect to the origin of Ambergria. 

Avicenna and Serapiou assert that it is a bairn which grows 
upon the reeks, in the same manner as mushrooms do upon 
trees, and which afterwards falls into the sea. 

Cardan preten da that it is the dried saliva of the sea-cow. 

(fernandez Lopez considers it to be the excrements of certain 
birds which had led upon odoriferous plants. 

Others have regarded ambergris as the condensed froth of 
the sea, or as a kind of greasy earth which has become 
hardened, as bitumen, ils a species of resin, as a kind of 
gum, as the sperm of the whale, or as the excrement of 
crocodiles, Ac. 

Virey pronounces ambergris to be a species of adipocire 
arising from the decomposition of various odoriferous Poulps, 
which reside in the open sea. A circumstance which appeared 
to give some support to this suggestion, was the discovery on 
several occasions of horny mandibles in the interior of the 
pieces of amber precisely similar to those of the Cephalopoda. 

Pelletier and Caventou, who have given a good analysis of 
ambergris, describe it as a biliary calculus. 

Hcrval llarel has the credit of first recognizing the true 
source of this odoriferous substance. According to this 
writer it is produced by several large animals of the whale 
species. It is a residue of digestion, a kind of intestinal cal- 
culus or eoprolite. 

This statement has been confirmed by Swediaur and by 
Borne Delile. It is known that the Japanese call ambergris, 
kuasura no fuu; that is to Bay, excrement of the whale. 

Ambergris forms in masses in the alimentary canal of tho 
""achalots, 1 and is discharged with their excrements. Some 

1 Seep. B2, and Fig. 14. 


persons consider that this substance is a normal production of 
all the Cachalots ; others suppose that it is a morbid and, con- 
sequently, an accidental formation. 

The Cachalots ace capable ol' furnishing if in large quantities. 
A whaleman obtained forty -tour pounds from the intestines of 
one individual, and one hundred and fourteen from those of 

Ambergris is sometimes found floating on the sea, at other 
times on the shore, mixed with the excrements of the Cachalots, 
occasionally, as has just been Tiientioned, in the intestines them- 
selves. This substance is regularly collected on the coasts of 
Japan, of the Molucca islands, of India, of Madagascar, and 
of Brazil. When the Cachalots are opened the ambergris is 
found in the cmcum, and never in any other part of the intes- 
tinal canal. 

The food taken by these Cetacea seems to influence the 
formation of the ambergris. It appears that there 
species of Poulps (Eledons) which have the odour of musk ; 
that the Cuttle-fish and other molluscs, and even small fish, 
which have not been proncrly digested, give rise to this sub- 
stance. It is known that amongst these animals there are 
some which exhale a musk-like odour. "When the American 
fishermen discover aiiibvrjris in any part, they immediately 
conclude that it is frequented by some of the Cetacea. 

Some have supposed that only the Cachalot has the property 
of producing nmbfri/ris ; others, with more reason, admit that it 
is produced both by the Cachalot and the Baliena. The principal 
species which produce it are the Physeter macrocephalus ' and 
the Balmna mysticetus* 

2. Amberoiuk (amhra cinerea). — This is a tolerably hard, 
solid substance, of a greasy waxy nature; it is lighter than water, 
and melts at a low temperature. Its colour is a greyish black, 
sometimes yellow or brown; it is often covered with a white 
efflorescence, which forms on its surface and penetrates some 
little distance into the interior. Ambergris has a mild sweet 
odour, which extends to a considerable distance, and scarcely 
any taste. It is more or less Boluble in water and in alcohol, 
according to its state of purity. 

Ambergris forms irregular masses, sometimes composed of 
concentric superimposed layers, and at other tiniCB of small 
irregular roundish grains. In the interior there are occasion- 

.ii.. p.,. 


ally found the remains of molluscs and of fishes, such aa the 
mandibles, scales, and bones. The masses are generally from 
two ounces to a pound in weight. Tbey are, however, found 
weighing as much aa from ten to twenty pounds. A spermaceti 
whale which was stranded in 1741 near Bayonne, had a mane 
of amber in its interior which weighed more than ten pounds. 
Masses have been mentioned of from one to more than two 
hundred pounds weight. The East India Company, in 1695, 
had a mass weighing one hundred and sixty pounds. In 1721, 
Yiilmout de Honiara saw a mass of more than two hundred 
pounds in weight. Another has been mentioned weighing 
eight hundred and sixty-six pounds, which, however, seema 
scarcely credible. 

Ambergris contains nmbreine, a sweet balsamic alcoholic ex- 
tract, with benzoic acid, aqueous extract, beu/.oiu acid, and 
chloride of sodium. (John.) 

Ambreine was discovered by Jill. Pelletier and Caventoti ; 
its properties are analogous to those of cholesterol e. This sub- 
stance is white, insipid, has a Bweet smell, and is insoluble in 
water, but dissolves in alcohol and ether. 

It has been stated that Foxes arc very fond of amberijrU, and 
that they come down to the coasts in search of it, eat it and return 
it in the same state as they swallowed it with regard to ita 
perfume, hut altered in colour. This propensity is supposed to 
account lor the existence til' pieces of whitish ambergris which 
are found at some distance from the sea on the Landes of 
Aquitain and which the inhabitants term Fox amber (Bory) t 

[In England ambergris is only used as a perfume.] 


Vesicating or blistering insects are those whieh have the 
power of producing a vesicular inflammation of the skin. These 
insects are valuable external agents. They are rarely ad- 
min iatered internally. 

The blistering insects consist of Cantharides, belonging to 
the order t'olooptera and to I lie tribe 1 letcroraera. 

These insects originally formed a portion of the genus Meloe 
of Linnaeus, characterized by a rounded thorax and an inflected 


I claviform 

1 Coruiroiiift. 


head. This group baa been divided into thirteen genera. 
blistering iiiM-Tln form nine of these genera, of which foui 
are more important than the others, and require to he par- 
ticularly noticed. These genera are: 1. Giathurides ; 2. My- 
labra; 3. Gerocoma; 4. Meloe. The characters which dis- 
tinguish them arc principally furnished by the wings and the 
antennse. The fallowing is a summary of "these characters. 

, normally developed . (filiform I. Cantharidei. 

I A ntennte 

Wings J 

*■ absent .... 
The five remaining genera which possess more or less vesicat- 
ing properties are Hyclew, Itecatoma, Lydus, (Enas, and To- 

Dorthes asserts that the ancients employed the caterpillar of 
the Pnaleena Pilyocampa as a substitute for the Cautharides. 1 
§ I. Can thai-ides. 

1. Common Canthabtdes {Canthark vesicaforia, Lat.). a 
This insect is the principle blistering agent in us 

Aldrovandus, Johnston, Gesner, and others h 
under the name of Ocmtkarides several different species of 
coleoptera, sometimes oven insects belonging to other orders. 

1. Habitation — Cautliarides arc common in the southern 
countries of Europe. They are found on the ash, lilac, privet, 
and jasmine. They are also met with on I lie elder, rose, apple, 
willow, aud poplar trees. Richard found them on the honey- 
suckle and on the ehamaocerasus. Others have observed them, 
hut more rarely, on the walnut, the eynoglossus (dog's tongue), 
and even on wheat. Tiny often assemble in large numbers, 
and devour the leaves of the plant very rapidly. Paul Her- 
mann saw a large ash entirely destroyed by being deprived 
of its leaveB by these insects. 

2. Description. — The Common Otmtharides (fig. 31) is a 
coleopterous insect, measuring from six to eleven lines in 
length, and from one to two lines in breadth. Its body i 
elongated and cylindrical ; the head is large and cordiform ; : 

1 According io Hentz, there ia in the United States a species of Spider 
(Tegenariamtdicinalii,y< alck) uli'idi I huiiilialiiiimlBuBeaa a blistering agent. 
This species ik common in the neighbourhood of riiilodelphia. "' 
properties ore attributed to (!■«■ Clu/iiu atnlit-iivilu, Walck. 

1 Lytta visiattorui, i'uhi-., Melae ri:.iira(tirim, I. inn., commonly called Can 
thai-idea of the shops. Spanish fly, Cautharides fly. 


s furnished mlli 1"iil t fiiifunii anti'mirc, composed of elevei 
joints. Tlit* thorax i* nar- 
rower thnn the base of the 
head ; it is small, anil has the 
pfothorax almost si.] us 
deep furrow ia seen 
middle of the head and of the 
thorns. The elytra 
long as the abdomen, flexible, 
covered with fine markings, 
and provided with two longi 
tudinal nervures along the in 
nor margin ; they cover up the 
membranous and transparent 
wings. The feet are slender, 
and the filiform tarsi termi- 
nate in a pair of very curved Vig. 31— C<ut<toufe».' 
honks which are covered with 

thick-set hairs on their under surface. There are five joints 
in the tarsi of the two first pairs of feet, and only four in the 
last. The body and the elytra arc of a golden green colour 
with a metallic lustre, hut the anteiime are black. 

The animal gives off a very strong, disagreeable, poisonous 
odour, which spreads to a great distance. 

The males are smaller than the females. Audouin has given 
an accurate description of the copulation of these insects, 
which he witnessed on the branch of a lilac tree. The male 
harasses the female, who at first sluggishly opposes him, hut 
afterwards oners an active resistance. He then mounts on 
her bad and seizes her antenna? with his fore feet. On the 
first joint of the tarsus of these feet there is a deep groove, and 
ou the tibia a strong spine or hook, which, when the joint is 
flexed, enters the groove and forms a compile ring. It is with 
this kind of pincers that the male grasps the antenna? of the 
female, which he pulls and handles like a pair of horns. Having 
thus obtained the mastery, the act of copulation soon takes 
place. It lasts for about four hours. At the end of this time the 
female, who has hitherto remained immoveable, and apparently 
indifferent, struggles violently. The male, who ia weakened, 
fails off, and the intromit tent organ is torn away and remains 
in the vagina of the female. 

'«. SrviTiil oggt adhering together, magnified ; b, a single egg more highly 


After copulation the females bun" themselves in the earth, 
where they lay a considerable number of small eggB ; these a 
cylindrical, somewhat fattened at their sides, slightly c 
of a yellowish colour, and agglutinated together (fig. 31 

The larva.- which iaaue forth have a soft elongated body, o 
a yellowish white colour, composed of thirteen segments and 
provided with six abort scaly feet ; the head is rounded, 
furnished with two small filiform antenna', and a mouth armed 
with two stroll!," jaws and four palpi. Some writers assert that 
the larva? feed upon roots ; others believe that they are para- 
sites. Adanson says that they devour the ants. 

3. Colleetiiiif. — The collecting of the Chnt/uiridcs takes pla 
early in the morning before sunrise, while the animals are st: 
in an enfeebled state. Kor the purpose of eollectiug them, large 
cloths are spread at the foot of the trees and shrubs, which are 
then well shaken. 

Some writers recommend the persons who are engaged in 
collecting the insects to provide themselves with a mask and 
gloves. These precautions are, however, altogether UBeless- 

For the purpose of destroying the Cunlharldes they are 
steeped in boiling water or in hot vinegar, or they are exposed 
to the vapour of the latter after beini; placed in linen bags, or 
on horse-hair sieves. M. Lutrand recommends their being 
exposed to the vapour of chloroform. They are afterwards 
placed in a drying room. 

In the process of drying the insects lose considerably i: 
weight, so that each insect weighs very liti le inure than a g 

They are preserved in stoppered bottles. 

In choosing Vniitliiii-ii/i-x those th:it are fresh, dry, and whole 
should be selected. When they are three or four years old 
they are liable to be attacked by several small insects, which 
entirely destroy them, devouring even the elytra and the other 
bard parts. Even the best closed vessels will not always pre- 
serve them. They are eaten by a aniall coleopterous insect, 
theAntAreitua muxte-oriim, by the I'fiiicn, and by 1 lie Dermestes. 
Various means have been proposed for preserving them, but 
Unfortunately they are often insufficient. Camphor, which ia 
effectual for the moths, is of no use in the case of the Anthrenua. 
Murcury placed at the bottom of the bottle ia said to be an 
excellent means of preservation. (Soubeirau.) 

[Dr. Percira say* he has found the addition of a few dropa of 
acetic acid an effectual remedy against the attacks of the mites 
(Aeana domculicus).'] 

•ably in 
a grain. 


The Celonla niiraia, Linn., and the CaUiehrorna muscata are 
often found mixed with Cantharidrt, as well as a species of 
Chryxomela. (Emmel.) 

[These insects fire mixed by the dealers with the Cantharides 
for the purpose of fraud : they have no blistering properties, 
and are easily distinguished by the form and proportions of 
their bodies, I 

4. Active part. — The ancients believed that the vesicating 
properties of Cantharides resided in the hairs which cover their 
bodies. The active principle of these animals, Ctuiflitiridiii, 
was discovered by Robiquet in 1S40. This principle isa white 
crvstallisable substance, with an extremely acrid taate. When 
applied to the skin it rapidly raises a blister; taken inter- 
nally it is a virulent poison, t'nntharidin is fusible, very 
volatile, and is entirely dissipated when exposed to the air at 
the ordinary temperature. It is insoluble in water, but dis- 
solves in alcohol, more so in hot than in cold. Ether also dis- 
solves it. 

Is the cantliaridin distributed indiscriminately throughout 
all parts of the animal? Hippocrates considered that the 
antennie, the head, the elytra, trie wings, and the feet are inert, 
and recommended that they should be rejected. Sclvwilgue 
has revived this opinion. Linutcus. on tin' < -on trary, maintains 
that the vesicating properh resides nearly equally in every 
part of the insect. H, L'loquet and Audouin are also of this 
opinion. M. Furines, however, hris stated that a blister made 
from the powdered antenna', elytra, wings, and feet, after being 
applied for thirty hours, produced no effect. M. Berthoud in 
some recent experiments found that 3s5S grains troy (250 
grammes) of the thorax and the abdomen, which he terms soft 
parts, yielded 65 grains of cautharadin ; and that 1929 grains 
(125 grammes) of the antenna', heads, elytra, wings, and feet, 
which be terms corneous ^xrWs, yielded 'S17 grains, which is in 
the proportion of 4 to 1. 

Do Cantkaridee lose their vesicating properties by age P 
Foster assures us that when these insects have fallen into the 
condition of dust their remains have no action. 

Dumeril, on the other hand, has successfully employed Can- 
tiiaride* which had been preserved \\>v twenty \ ears. "We must 
not Buppose, as some phariiiurt'niists have done, that the active 
principle of these insects is not eaten by their parasites ; if this 
were really the case, the CimllutriJi^ v.\wi-}\ had been attacked by 
them, instead of losing their qualities, would, on the contrary, 
become more active. Observation shows that the excrement 

! MEDICAL ZOO 1,0 or. 

and remains of these parasites have no vesicating properties, and 
as they become mixed with the fragments of the Vonlhi.ridrg, 
the refuse which remains in the bottles ean have but a very 
slight action. According to M. Farines, the properties of the 
dust of the worm-eaten Citiitkaridct, compared with the ordi- 
nary powder, diminish in the ratio of 7 to 10^. On the other 
hand, Bobiquet, M. O uibourt, and Virey, in analysing this dust, 
have found hut a very small quantity of cantharidiu. 31. 
Berthoud obtained 1 i"> grs. of cantharidin from 1929 grs. of 
dust; that is, about three fifths the quantity which would be 
furnished by the same weight of sound Cantharides. It is, 
therefore, evident that the remains of the worm-eaten insects 
would not be altogether inert.' 

2. Otheb Species. — The genus Cantharis contains a large 
number of Bpecies. Dejean enumerate* thirty ; and Audouin 
raises the number to sisty-four. It is, however, very rarely 
that any other species is employed than the one which has just 
been spoken of. 

In the South of 1'' ranee, a species termed Qmiharti dubia, 
Fabr., Lylta dubia of Oliver, is found on the luceru. The body 
of this insect is black, and the head of a reddish colour, divided 
into two portions by a longitudinal black line. 

According to M. Courbou the piinefnfed Canfharhs, Lytta 
adsperna, Klug, Epicau/n ai/xpi'isti, Uej.. from "Montevideo, is an 
excellent vesicant, and acts more quickly than the common 

The latter species lives on the beetroot ; it is from T * to-^of 
an inch in length. I'ln- head.\. ami ahdnincri are of an ashen 
grey colour, covered with small black spots. The antenna; are 
black, and the feet of a reddish colour. 

Other Canthar'ulc* have been mentioned possessing vesicating 
properties, as for example that of Syria, l.i/tla fyriaca, Fabr., 
and a species from Arabia, which lives on wheat, Li/tfa set/eliim, 
Fabr. ... M. Leelerc describes in his thesis (1835) seven 
species, whose properties he had experimented upon. . . M. 
Courbon has also enumerated two species of Cantharis, the 
Epicaiita cnrfrwui'i. lleiche, and the Li/tlu vidua, Klug. [Ctinxima 
vidua, Dej.,) both from the neighbourhood of Montevideo. 

[There are five preparations of Cantharides in the London 

1 M. Limouain-Lamotto announced to tUe Pharmaceutical Society of 
Paris, tlmt blisters made from thtr viirm-caU'ii remains liud acted well. 
This statement was strongly contested, out was subsequently eotifinncd 
by M. Dubuc. 



. AcETirw Cantuaridir (EpUfxutiewm), i~inetjar of Ciin- 
■iden (Epixpostic). — Take of Cantharides rubbed <o powder 
jij; acetic acid Oj. Macerate the Cantharides with utewsid 
for eight day."- froquenik shaking ; kt.stlv press and strain. 
This ia lined as an extemporaneous biiHter. 

2. Tinctuea Cantharidis, Tincture of Cnntliaritlet. — Take 
of bruised Cant handes 3iv; proof spirit Oij. Macerate for seven 
days, then press and strain. 

The action of this preparation is diuretic and stimulant ; the 
dose is mlO to 3j- It should be given in some demulcent 
liquid, as barley water or linseed leu. Iu effects on the bladder 
must be carefully watched. (Pereira.) It is occasionally used 
externally as a rubefacient. 

3. CXBAIEH Casth All JOts, Cerate of Cantharides. — Cautha- 
ridea rubbed to a very fine ponder 3jj ; s|K'rmaeeti cerate ^vi. 
Add the Cantharides to the cerate, softened by heat, and mis. 

ThiB ia used to promote a discharge from a blistered sur- 
face and to stimulate issues and indolent ulcers. It is a more 
powerful preparation than (he next, which is used for (lie same 
purpose, and consequently it is more liable to affect the bladder, 
and to produce Luliammatinu of the lymphatics and general 

4. UsoirBNTTM CaStbabims, Ointment of Cn»th<trii!>:i. - 
Cantharides rubbed to a very tine powder jpij ; distilled water 

fxij : cerate of resin lbj. Iioil the water with the cantharides 
own to one half and strain. Mis the cerate with the strained 
liquor, afterwards let it evaporate to a proper consistence. 
This is milder but less efficacious than the former. 

5. EmFJ.ASTRUM CaNTBARIIJIS, Plaster of Canthariden. — 

Take of Cantharides rubbed to a very tine powder lbj : wax 
and suet each ^viiiss; resin 3iij ; lard ^vj. To the was, suet, 
and lard, liquified together, add the resin previously melted, 
then remove them from the fire, and a little before they con- 
crete, sprinkle in the cantharides and mix. 

"In making blistering plasters, care must be taken not to 
add the cantharides while the melted lard is quite hot, as the 
heat greatly injures the vesicating powers of the insect. For 
a similar reason the plaster should be spread by the thumb, a 
heated spatula being objectionable. To prevent the blister 
moving after its application to the skin, itB margin should be 
covered with adhesive plaster. In order to guard against any 
affection of the urinary organs, place a piece of thin book 
muslin or silver (tissue) paper between the plaster and the 
■kin. The efficacy of the blister depends on the fatty matter 

ssolviug the Cautharidin and transuding through the muslin 


or paper. SoTiie recommended the paper to be soaked in oil, 
which is supposed to dissolve the cantharidin. Now oil, not 
being tuisc.i hie with the blood, is not readily absorbed; and hence 
it is supposed arises its proteetive influence. The usual time 
requisite for a blistering plaster to remain in contact with the 
skin is twelve hours; the vesicle is then to be ent at its most 
depending pari and dressed with sp.Tma.rcti ointment. When 
we wish to make a perpetual blister, (he cerate of cantharidea 
is employed as a dressing, or, if we wish to escite less irritation 
and prevent the | hiss ibi lit y of the urinary organs being affected, 
the eerate of savin." (Pereira.)] 

§ II. Mylabris. 

The number of inserts belonging to the genus Mylabris ia 
very considerable. Oliver has described something like sixty. 
At the present time there are nearly two hundred. There are 
few groups in whieh the species have been more confounded 
together, or m which the synonyms are in greater confusion. 

The body of these insects is generally black. Some have 
tbe elytra of a dark yellow with black bandB or s[ 

These insects are very timid, and when it is attempted to 
capture them they fold up their feet and antennas, and, falling 
down, assume the appearance of death. 

1. Tbe Mylabris of the CHUXHU'(Hg. 32), .1/iih/tmaVAorii, 
Fabr., Meloe eiehorii, Linn.— This species is the one which is 
best known, and which has been most carefully examined. It 
is supposed to be the insect which Dioscorides and Pliny have 
mentioned under the name of Cantbaria. 

Habitat. — This Mi/lnbrie is found in several 
u * of the warm parts of Europe. 

*\*d"j? the flowers of the wild chicory, and on several 
^Ju other plants belonging to the family composite. 
A Description.- -The elytra are ot an obscure 

/illA yellow, with three large, somewhat zigzag, black 
■flWl\S bands. The first band is interrupted and some- 
/ \ times reduced to three or four spots. 
4 * This species of Mvlnbris is employed in Italy 

Fig. 32. Hylabra. Greece, Egypt, and as far as China. Some 
writers, however, think that the one found in France 
different from that of China, and that the latter alone em 
tutes the true JSglabrit of ilie, chicory. The others form oi. 
or two distinct species. It is at least certain that Liunieua ha 
confounded several species under the name of Meloe eiehorii. 

il.lSTJlllMl INSECTS. 


2. Otheb Species.— The speck's most nearly allied to the 
* of the Chicory are : 
. The enrUibfo Mi/Uibri.-i, Mi/Lihri* ciiriabilis, Pall., to which 
•. Bretonneau has drawn attention. 

2. The MylahrUofXi.l.t, Mylabrit Sidm, Fnbr.. M. jwstuhttn, 
31iv., is a lur^e species which lives in China, niid forma an 

extensive article of eimimcrce. According to Soubeiran it is 
largely employed in Germany, where it ia imported by the 
English merchants. 

3. The Blue Mylabris. Mylabrit ci/gnexcrns, Illig., has been 
recommended by M. Farmcs, a phanuacent ist of Pcrjiignan. 

The folio win g are the distinctive characters of these three 
species compared with those of the common species. 
y bauirls . I ochre yellow 

Jiuimi si";™p<»i ;■ «££■*£& 

(entire . . 2. Mvlii/irueariunint. 

Iroddish brown .1. Mylabru Sida, 

points 4. Mylabris eiiyitarais. 

According to Dr. CoIIbb, the Indian Mylabrit, Myhtbr'u 
Indicti, Fussl., M. punctual,, is successfully employed at 
Pondi cherry. 

il, Gruerin-Meneville has mentioned as a vesicating insect 
the Mylabris of the olive tree, Mylabris olem, Cbevrol, which is 
found in Algeria- 1 

III. Cerocoma. 

The Cerocoma of Schceffer (fig. 33) Cerocoma SeJto-Jiri, Fabr. 
Woe Schcr[feri, I,inn., is a small insect which lives on the 
graminea;, umbel life raj, and the compost tie. It buries its head 
in the flowers. It is found in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

The insect is from five to seven lines in length ; it is covered 
with down, and is of a golden green colour ■ the 
bead is small and black ; tltc thorax is of the 
same colour, while the antenna* and the feet an 
yellow; the elytra are the same length as tb 
abdomen, and are very flexible. The animal i 
an active flyer. 

There are several other species belonging to 
the genus Cerocoma in France, in Spain, and in 
the East, but their vesicating properties have not 


gram i 



§ IV. Meloe. 

The name of Meloe is given to insects allied to Mylabra and 
Cantharis ; they are remarkable for the shortness of the 
elytra and the absence of wings. 

These insects are generally of a blaek colour, but this is 
often mixed with shades of green and blue. The elytra are 
frequently punctated or rough. 

The Meloe are very fertile. CJodard saw a female deposit in 
two layings 2212 eggs. The eggs are very small. 

When the Ian':!' arc born they attach themselves to hyme- 
noptera, which are searching for food ; by this means they are 
transported to the nests of the bees, where they continue to 
live and complete their development. According to M. Fabre 
the larva? of the Meloe pass through four distinct forma before 
arriving at the pupa stage; these consist of the primitive 
larval tonu, of a second larval form, of a pseudo chrysalis, and 
of a third larval form. The primitive larva is coriaceous, and 
attaches itself to the hymenoptera ; the object of this is that 
the larva may be transported to a cell containing honey. 
When it reaches a cell it devours the egg of the hymenoptera. 
The second larva is soft, and differs altogether externally from 
the first ; it feeds upon the honey. The pseudo chrysalis has 
the body covered with a corneous integument, and is deprived 
of motion; it is* half in vacillated in the cast-off skin of the second 
larval form. The third larval form resembles the second; it is 
half enclosed in the cast-off integument of the pseudo chrysalis, 
as the latter was in those of the second larval form. After the 
latter stage the metamorphoses follow the usual course ; the 
larva becoming a true pupa, and the pupa a perfect insect. 

When a Meloe is irritated or attempted to be captured, 
it discharges from the joinl a of its le^s a viscid, acrid liquid, of 
a yellow colour, and having the odour of amber or of violets. 
An entomologist, at Montpellier, who had incautiously handled 
some of these insects, had his hands the next- duv covered with 
pustules. MM. Amoreux and II. Cloquet, however, assert 
that they have often handled them without experiencing any 
ill effects. 

the Mylabri* bimaculata , 01 L r . r""j'.iTiil«i! n;i the l.'.yiiinichiim eree&unt, 
a plant belonging to the family Asclepiadaeea;, and upon which the in- 
sect lived. This piviciulcr] f]>«rilii: iniisr In: fliissci! wiiii the innumerable 
remedies which have been pmpo^d without the least success against this 
fearful disease (Diimtrili, ainont'st which are also Found the Cttoinia attrata, 
the ProsctiralHPUfi, and the Tdophora. 

Species. — Four species of Meloe are more particularly 

made me of; the following is a short summary of their 

„■ , . 1 thn middle (dark violet) . 1. Met* pntambttm. 

(.filiform j notched (deep black with red 

( bauds) 4. M'h* HMhilit. 

L The -3/Wob Prowarabata, Linn,, (fig, 81) has the elytra 
slightly rugose. It is very common in 
Prance. The Melne Gallicui, Dej., ap- 
pears to be a variety. 

2. The Meloe rugo*u». Marsh, has the 
elytra extremely rugose. It is not un- 
common in the south of France, as for 
example in the environs of Montpellier. 

3. The Melon variegatut, Donav., has 
the elytra slightly rugose. It is found 
in the neighbourhood of Paris. ,f 

4. The Mrloc maialix, Linn., is dis- 
tinguished from the three previous spe- 
cies by the presence of transverse bands 
of a red colour on the abdomen. This 
insect is found in Spain. 

The use of the following species has also been recommended t 
the Meloe titttummtlis, Oliv., which is found in the neighbour- 
hood of Paris; the Meloe punctata*, Oliv,, under which til hi 
two species have been confounded, viz,,, the Tucciut of Rossi, 
and the coriarius of Hofmansegg ; and the Meloe Algeria, 
Linn., which inhabits Sardinia. 


Fig. H.-JMM 


Leeches are abranchial Annelida belonging to the family 
Hirundinida and to the genus 'Hirudo. 

They are found in ponds, ditches, marshes, streams, and 

The body of these animals is elongated, flattened, gradually 
narrowed anteriorly, and obtuse posteriorly ; it is soft, viscous, 
and slippery to the feel, and is composed i>f ninety- live equal and 
very distinct rings, which project at the sides. Leeches, when. 


they contract their bodies, assume the form of an olive. Their 
colour is more or leas of a greenish cast. The back baa 
parallel longitudinal bands of a reddish or brownish hue, 
spotted ivit.h black, continuous or intercepted, and sometimes 
reduced to mere points. The ventral surface is either of a 
uniform colour or spotted with black, aud bordered on 
side by a straight or undulating hand of the same colour. 

The anterior extremity is provided with an oral sucker, not 
very concave, aud with the upper lip almost lancet-shaped. 
Within the mouth are three jaws furnished with minute teeth. 
The eyes are ten in number, but are hardly visible ; they are 
placed on the upper lip, where they form a curved line, the 
anterior being the largest. The posterior extremity of '■ 
body is also terminated by a lvuml obliipieh placed sucker, at 
the base of which and at its upper part is the anal orifice- 
Leeches are androgynous. The sexual orifices are placed on 
the anterior third of the belly ; the male orifice between the 
twenty-seventh aud twenty- eighth ring, and the female five 
rings farther back. The first is a minute pore, surrounded by 
a thickened margin, and the second a small transverse slit. 

The copulation of these animals is double. In the act two 
individuals approach each other; t lair bellies tire placed opposite 
to each other, but in the contrary direction, so that the oral 
sucker of each is turned towards the anal sucker of the other. 
In this position the leeches unite with each other and copu- 
lation takes place. 

The period of ^'station lasts from twenty-five to forty days. 
When a leech is impregnated an enlargement takes place 
around the sexual apertures, which has received the 
the girdle or clitellum. 

At the time of laying their i.ggs tin.' 1 .et'eht's come from the 
water and seek tor some moist earth, where they can make a 
hole or gallery; they then discharge from their muciparous 
sacs a clear white and transparent liquid. ( Ebrard.) This froth 
has all the appearance of white of egg after it has been beaten 
up. (Wedecke.) The animal, by a scries of contractions of the 
anterior part of its body, facilitates the discharge of thiB fluid 
(Ebrard), and becomes entirely surrounded by it. The clitel- 
lum swells, and a pellicle is formed upon its surface. The 
worm appears to suffer, it twists about in every direction, the 
posterior part of its body remaining almost stationary and 
serving as the point of resistance. At the end of a certain 
time, the leech quickly withdraws its head from the pellicle 
before mentioned, and at the same time this is detached from 

■ litellum. 
from tbifl kind 
Bar. onen at i 


clitellum. The Leech then extricates itself backwards 
tins kind of membranous case. It thus forms an oval 
open at each end. The two orifices are then closed 
up by a thick brown mass. Before the animal comes out 
toe case, it has deposited a number of small ei^s, iii-ch iiLiyjjsiiiecl 
by a large quantity of albuminous matter. The sac becomes 
more solid, assumes a darker colour, and forms a closed 
capsule (anbryophore, Fennond). This kind of shell is not 
analogous to the covering of the eggs of the other oviparouB 
animals; it isasimple secretion from the skin; akind of structure 
which reminds one of the caducous membrane of the mammalia. 
The frothy matter surrounding the shell dries, becomes of a 
reddish colour, then brown, and ultimately forms a spongy net- 
work, which transforms the capsule into a species ot cocoon. 

The mere drying of the frothy mucus would not suffice to 
form the tissue of which we have been s 
bable that the capsule exercises some iuiiueuce on its forma- 
tion, for the spongy tissues alwajB begin to be organized 
from within outwards, so that the deepest 
portion is often found converted into the 
spongy tissue, while the superficial portion 
BtiU remains in the frothy state. If the 
transformation into the spongy tissue arose 
solely from drying, it is evident that this 
change should commence on the exterior. 
(Weber.) Possibly the deposition of the 
frothy matter takes place at intervals, and 
the part which is not dried, is that which 

last secreted ? 

Each Leech produces two cocoons, rarely 

Every cocoon encloses from ten to eighteen 
jgs. Chatelain has counted as many as 
twenty-one, and Charpeutier twenty-six. 

The eggs are hatched between the twenty- 
fifth and twenty-eighth day. (Aeliard, Chate- 
lain.) The temperature seems to exercise 
some influence on their development. At this 
time the young force oft' the flaps or 
opereula at the extremities of the capsule, 
pass through the spongy tissue, sometimes 
winding their way through the different 
laminre, and emerge at various parts of the 

At birth the leeches are about £l 
inch in length. They are filiform, transpa- 
rent, of an ashen colour approaching to 
white; scfmehuveaivililishcast. Theireyes 
are easily distinguished at the end of a few 
days ; the dorsal banda or spots make their 
appearance ; and by degrees the young 
animal assumes the livery of its parents. 
During the first days, when the young 
Leeches are alarmed or are pursued by 
their enemies, they return to their cocoon 
and hide themselves in the spongy tissue. 

1. Species, — Writers have described 
not less than fifty different species of 
Leeches; many of these are, nowever, 
mere varieties mil. distincUv characterized. 
In a recent work the number is reduced 
to seventeen, and even of these more than 
half are still very imperfectly known. 

There are three principal varieties of 
Leeches employed in France. These are : 
1st, The Greg Leech; 2 ._, . 
Green Leech. Leech ; 3rd, The Dragon Leech. The fol- 
lowing iB a summary of their characters : 

spotted. not spotted. 
Grey Leech 2. Green Leech. 3, Dragon Leech. 
[Trm EnffHsii «■ 

1. The Grey or Medicinal Leech, 
Hirudo medicinalis, Linn., Saiignixiigu 
mediciiialk, Sav., (fig. 30) is an inhabitant 
of Europe and certain parts of northern 
Africa. The body is olive green, mixed 
with grey. On the back are six rusty 
red longitudinal stripes ; the sides are 
olive green. The helly is spotted with 

2. The Green- or officinal Leech, Hirudo 
qfficiitalis, Moq., Sanguuvga officinalis, 

DZ^on Leech. Sav., (fig. 36) is found in the same 


LUOSM. 141 

localities as the former, The body is of a dear "live or green 

'aur. The hack has ai.\ rusty red longitudinal bands, 

ierally continuous. The margins are of an olive colour 

on the back and on the belly. This species differs but 

liltli' from the Grey Leech. 

The Dragon or 2V(iirf Leech, IJinidn tencfina, Johns., 
^ iiUiu/ii in/rrri'p/,1, Jtoij., (iig. 37,) in found in Algeria and 
the "whole of Baroary. The body is of a clear brilliant green 
colour. The hack has bii rows of spots, which are generally 
very distinct ; the margins are of an orange or reddish colour. 
The belly is sometimes apotted with black, sometimes not. 

The last species has been long regarded as being of an in- 
ferior quality ; Init recent experiments have shown that it is 
quite us mmrl as the Grey Leech. (Milton, Tripier.) 

These three leeches offer numerous varieties, which have been 
described in special monographs on the subject. The colours 
of the bands, the way in which they are intercepted, and the 
form of the spots, have been made the ground for giving a 
number of names which are quite undeserving of serious 
attention. The climate, the water, and the soil seem to in- 
fluence these points of difference. Leeches are Bometimes 
named after the country from which they come ; thus we have 
the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Hungarian, the African, the 
Algerian, and the Morocco Leech. The merchants divide the 
Leeches into /mm//, middle nzed, and large. The very small arc 
called threads (filet*); those which are just born sprouts 
(tjerutemtmt); and the very large ones cows {niches). 

The dealers nl'l en gorge the Lrrchc*. be fore selling them, with 
blood from the slaughter-houses, and thus convert the JileU 
into small ones, and the small ones into the middle-sized. 

Smut' years hack, under the name of Haimenteria, M. Fillippi 
introduced a new genua of American Hirundinidre, which 
differs from the ordinary Leeches in the structure of the mouth; 
this organ is provided with a stiff, pointed, small, protrusile 
sucker instead of the three jaws. This learned zoologist has 
described three species: the llwmenteria Ghi/i.iiii, 11, Mcxicanu, 
" H. officinalis. The first is found in the river Amazon, the 
r two in Mexico. The advantages offered by these species 
be referred to subsequently. 
2. Action on Man. — It has been long known that Leeches 
a pierce the skin of man, and of other vertebrata, for the 
purpose of sucking their blood. The attention of observers 
was directed at a very early period to the organs with which 
these creatures are enabled to inflict their wounds. But the 




lieroBcope or 
seek arc very 

first naturalists were unprovided either with the microscope 
the magnifying glass, and these organs of the Leech 
small and deep-seated. 

Arnaud de Velleneuve believed that the Grey Leech had a 
small prohoscis in its mouth, similar to that of the Gnats ; 
Gesner supposed that it was armed with a cleft and tubular 
tongue. Poupart imagined that the animal had no cutting 
instruments, and that it caused deep lacerations by a violent 
sucking action. Rondelet is one of the first who pointed out 
the presence of three small teeth or jaws ; his knowledge of 
them was, however, very imperfect. Muralto examined them 
more carefully. Dom Allou, Morand, Eraun, Kunzemann, 
and Brandt have described the jaws of the Leech more or less 

1. Jams (38). — The jaws of the Leech are three in number 
placed longitudinally : one superior and median, two others 
inferior and lateral. If the oral sucker is laid open, these 
organs are found closely approximated at their posterior ex- 
tremity and diverging at their anterior. 

The jaws of the Leech are semicircular, thin, cartilaginous, 
moderately strong, smooth and whitish bodies, having one 
straight margin, which is fixed, and provided with a process 
firmly imbedded in the muscles, while a second margin is free, 
rounded, and cutting. 

The process enlarges after its commencement, but is not 
branched. The convex border is 

JHk^ /v I 1 '/V anvnigfd i.-We together. Dom 

w'' : 'tm \ vilii^ '"■' All. in mill Careua Ixilievcd there 

■PV IvIKHB? Were tW0 r ° WS "*' teet ^ ' t ' U8 ' 

WJSSmj however, was an optical illusion, 
jif-il lllWHf/ caused by the curious form of 

these small bodies. M Brandt 
has only represented thirty-five 
teeth ; the writer has counted 
from forty-six to eighty-three ; 
' ie average number is from sixty- 
s to sixty-seven. These teeth 
chevron -shaped like the letter V reversed ; they are ar- 
ranged parallel to each other and are placed across the cutting 
edge of the jaw (fig. 38), having their angle turned towards 

1 n, oral undif/r : il. onil sm.'ker 0| >•:"'« 1 i" slimy i"t (lirec jnwi ; c, jaw 
magnified, seen in profile: d, portion of a. jaw highly magnified, su as io 
show the ehevmn.4n&ped denticles. 

Fig. 3B.— Jaw, of a leech. 1 


the axis of the mouth. Viewed sideways, the teeth appear 
like a number of elongated processes, blunted and swollen at 
pointed at their summits, and arranged symmetri- 
cally like the teeth of a comb, but with a slightly radiated dis- 
position. Viewed from above, and under a low magnifying 
power, their basal enlargements appear like two rows i " 
parallel projections. 

The denticles are unequal in size, the smallest being placed 
anteriorly. They increase in volume from before backwards, 
that is to say, towards the deepest part of the mouth. The 
two extremities of the jaws have no teeth. These denticles 
have been compared physiologically to the incisors of 

The jaws arc lodged in a kind of depression of which the 
margins barely rise above them. 

Eaeh jaw is provided at its base with a small fasciculus o 
muscular fibres, which diverge backwards and are intermingled 
With the muscles of the pharynx (fig. 38, b). 

There is also observed m the tissue of these organs fibres, some 
of which are transverse and pass from one extremity to the 
other, while others are longitudinal and oblique, and pass 
from cnrli denticle to the base of the jaw. 

A little in front of the jaws, in the interior of the sucker, 
is a strong tendinous ring, which forms the circumference of 
the mouth. 

2. The manner of biting. — When the Leech is about to bite 

elongates the oral sucker ; it then contracts the extremity 
the two lips, which become everted. The upper is a little 

■re shortened than the lower, so that the organ ceases to be 
longated, and becomes more or less circular. 

The Leech then draws a small papiliform piece of the skin 
into its mouth. (Poupart.) 

The three jaws are brought forwards; they emerge from 
ses, and are closely applied against the liille papiliform 
of the skin. The muscular tibrea of the sucker and 
tendinous ring on its inner surface then contract and act 
■nately. At the same time, the special muscles of the 
jaws draw them forcibly from before backwards, and the pro- 
cess of skin is wounded in three places. 

The denticles at the posterior extremity commence the 
incision, these being the strongest and the sharpest. 

The points of resistance are the rings of the sucker which 
at that time are drawn very closely together, and are firmly 
applied to the surface of the skin. 

the n: 

it elc 
of th 



jaws d 


Mf.iucAii zfDi.nor. 

wheels cut in 
;han those of 

In biting, the jaws act like small dentated wheels 
halves, op like very line curved saws. 

The teeth of the Leech being so much Bofter than thoBe of 
other animals, one is surprised to Hud bodies which have so 
little firmness producing such deep incisions. BlainviHe thinks 
that the fibrous cartilaginous tissue of the dentieleB owes its 
rigidity to the contraction of their muscular fibres, and this 
opinion is probably correct. If the transverse fibres and the 
longitudinal fibres, which cross them, are made to contract at 
the same time, the jaw must necessarily become rigid. More- 
over, the longitudinal tibreB passing obliquely, the effect of 
their contraction must be to elevate and render the points of 
the chevron-shaped denticles more projecting. 

The person wno is bitten has at first a sensation of pressure 
on the part where tho Leech has fixed itself. This increases, 
and is soon followed by a sharp acute pain, resembling a com- 
bination of pricking and tearing. 

3. The wound. — The wound of the Leech has a triradiate 
form produced by the three linear incisions, uniting in a com- 
mon centre, and forming three nearly equal 

gles with each other (fig. 39). Aldrovandus 
. uja given a perfectly correct description of the 
fc;,v; wound. 1 

In consequence of the lines enlarging towards 

the centre, and their margins being somewhat 

undulating (the wound being rather jagged than 

Leedi-bite. cleanly cut), and as the little crust which covers 

them passes slightly beyond their edges, it often 

happens that the three angles are partially filled up, and the 

wound becomes somewhat of a triangular form. 

Sometimes the wound inflames and loses its proper form ; 
it may also give rise to a slight suppuration, or even to a 
partial erysipelaB. 

The HiEmenteria which have been mentioned previously do 
not produce a true bite. According to the experiments of M. 
Craveri, their wound is small and have* no traces behind. (!) 

4. Suction. — After a Leech has punctured the skin, the 
mouth, aided by the muscular fibres which constitute the 
sucker, and especially the ring by which it is surrounded, per- 
forms the act of suction. 

Morand pretends that the anterior sucker acts like a pump, 
and that it is aided by the tongue, which performs the part of 

1 " Htlgendo Iri'in'ur,: vulnum HifMI tmprimunt, ita ul radii ab una centra 
terni eeque distant!* procedant." 

GSSCHXa. 145 

a piston. Unfortunately for this explanation Leeches have 
no tongue ; Morand having mistaken tor the latter organ the 
sulxesophagenl ganglia placed mii tin- estorinr of t hi' O'sophanus, 

Durondeau believed that the whole of the digestive system 
from the tail to the head served to draw tlie blood. But one 
simple fact suffi ces to destroy this theory ; it is this — that when 
a Leech is cut in two, it will still continue to perform the act 
of suction. Moreover, the structure of the alimentary canal is 
physically opposed to this i;cueral not of iiribibition. 

The experiments of Sway ne and Johnson have shown that 
in the operation of which we are speaking the animal does not 
withdraw its jaws from the wound, as many writers have 
asserted. We admit this fact, which we have also verified, 
but we believe that the muscular fibres which draw the jaws 
backwards and press them together towards a common centre, 
relax a little, the jaws then return to the beginning of the in- 
cisions, and as they diverge leave the centre of the wound 
exposed. This part of the wound is the largest and the 
deepest, and is that which principally furnishes the current of 

3. The quantity of liloo/l drawn. — Writers have never been 
agreed as to the quantity of blood which a Leech is capable of 

Tyson remarks that this animal eats more than its own 
weight at a meal. He compares it to a silk- worm, which, in the 
course of a day, will consume a quantity of leaves of a greater 
weight than its own body. 

Bay says, that a Leech weighing 130 grs. will suck up three 
times that quantity of blood ; while Adanson states that one 
weighing 30 grs. will absorb 240 grs., that is to say, eight 
times its own weight. Simon Bonnet believed the average 
quantity to be from 92 grs. to 138 grs. ; but as a considerable 
quantity of blood oozes from the wound, if left to itself the 
patient probably loses from 118 grs. to 277 grs. of blood. 
According to M. Alpliouse Sanson one Leech will consume 
247 grs. ; according to my own calculations it would he 
231 grs. 

Braun has remarked that the quantity of blood sucked up 
does not increase in proportion to the size of the animal. 
According to this writer a young Leech will consume three 
times its weight, and a full-grown one only twice its weight. 
According to M. Alphonse Sanson the small will consume 
three times aud four-fifths ; the middle sized small four times 
and two-thirds ; the middle sized large seven times ; and the 



large five times and one-third of their own weight. I havi 
repeated these experiments with the following results. 
Sanson experimented on six individuals ; my calculations fire 
based upon the results obtained from twentv individuals. 
Small Leeches, two and a half times; the small middle-si zed, 
four times ; the large middle-sized, five and a half times ; and 
the large, live times and one eleventh part of their own weight. 
We find, therefore, that the middle sized large Leechet are 
those which relatively consume the largest quantity of blood. 

[Pereira says, " the quantity of blood a leech is capable of 
drawing varies considerably. 1 believe four drachms to be the 
maximum. On an average I do not think we ought to 
estimate it at more than one drachm and a half. Of course 
this has no reference to that lust after the animal has fallen 
off, which varies according to the vascularity of the part ; in 
children being oftentimes very considerable. When the leech 
has had sufficient it drops off; but it is said if the tail be 
snipped, the animal will continue to bite, the blood passing 
out posteriorly as fast as it is taken in by the mouth. I have 
tried several, but they usually let go their hold the instant the 
tail iB cut. H. Cloquet has made the same remark.] 1 

These results, however, will vary with the species and race 
of Leech employed; according also as to whether the indi- 
viduals are strong or unheal thy ; as to whether they are par- 
tially gorged or not, and also as to whether they have come 
direct from the waters of their native marshes, or from the 
artificial reservoir of a chemist's shop. 

The digestive system of the Leech consists of eleven pairs 
of gastric pouches. These pouches increase in Bize as they 
proceed backwards, the last pair being very much larger 
than those which precede them. Tliis arrangement accounts 
for the large quantity of blood which these animals are capable 
of retaining. 

For a long time it was the custom to throw away all 
Leeches which had been used, but they are now disgorged and 
preserved for a future occasion. This disgorgement can be 
accomplished in various ways, as with salt, alum, sugar, ashes, 
tobacco, ipecacuanha, chalk, lime, charcoal, sawdust; or with 
salt and water, sea water, dilute vinegar, wine, beer, infusion 
of absinth, &c. Some have recommended friction, pressure, 
or even puiietm-iui: the animal. One of llie best methods of 
disgorgement is to place the Leeches in a solution composed of 

' Pereira, Materia Medico, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 2197, 3rd ed. Loadon, 1853. 

T.ELCHEK. 147 

teen parts of sea salt to one hundred of water at a tempera- 
; of between 104" Fall, and 1 13" Fah. The Leeches are 
l pressed gently, and afterwards placed in freah water, 

in some places the Leeches are simply thrown into the re- 
servoirs, where they are left l'or some months. 

The gorged Leeches are excellent for the purpose of repro- 

3. HiurDisicoLTuitE. — The enormous consumption of 
Leeches and their increasing scarceness have induced persona 
to rear them artificially, Hirudinieulture has for some years 
been an important branch of cam n nice, particularly in the 
Gironde and some other districts of the southern departments. 

The Leeches are placed in large ai'tinViiil marshes, in which 
the water is always Kept at a uniform level. Care is taken to 
place a supply of clay or of peat at the bottom and on the 
margins. Aquatic plants are also provided for the puriiiea- 
tion of the water and on which the Leeches can ml) them- 
selves or take refiige. 

M. Vayson, of Bordeaux, has recently suggested a smnll 
domestic marsh (avai/sonier), which will be exceedingly useful 
to the pharmaceutist and to persons who are desirous of 
raising Leeches on a small scale. This apparatus consists of 
a common earthen vessel, having the form of a truncated eone 
reversed. The lower part is perforated by a number of holes, 
but not so large as to allow of the Leeches passing through 
them; the vessel is then rilled with peat earth, and a number 
of Leeches are placed upon it. which embed themselves in the 
earth. The upper opeuiiu; of the vessel is then covered up 
with a piece of coarse canvas. WLen it is desired to send 
the leeches to a distance the earth is made as damp as possi- 
ble, and the vessel is packed in a box or wicker basket. 
When it is only wanted to preserve the animals, the lower 
part of the vessel Js placed in water to the depth of about four 
inches, and the creatures are left to themselves. In conse- 
quence of the infiltration, the lower liivers of the peat are soon 
saturated with water, while the upper portiou is almost dry. 
The Leeches know perfectly well how to choose between these 
two extremes the layer which is best adapted for them, and 
form in it galleries, in which they live, grow, and produce 
their cocoons. The vagsonier will answer both for the pre- 

rvation, the conveyance, and reproduction of the Leeches. 


Galls ' are excrescences or growths of the tissues of plants 
arising from the puncture of certain insects, and which are 
destined to lodge and nourish their larva. These excrescences 
are hollow and consist of an astringent tissue. 

They may be divided into two kinds : 1. Galls; 2. Case*. 

The first are more or less of a round form, have very thick 
waUs, and are produced by different species of Ci/nifs. 

The seeond are more or lesB elongated, have very thin walls, 
and are produced by different species of Aphides. 

1. Crutps. — The Cj/nips are minute Hymenoptera, belong- 
ing to the subdivision Terebrantia and to the family Pupivora. 

These insects have the head very small and the thorax 
dilated superiorly ; they look aB if they were deformed ; the 
abdomen ib compressed into a keel and cutting on its under 
surface, obliquely truncated, and obtuse at its termination. 

The Cynips puncture the plants by means of a Bpeeial in- 
strument; and introduce one or several eggs into the small 
cavity they have formed. The eggn soou increase in size ; the 
larvae have no feet, but are often provided with fleshy tubercles 
in place of them. The larvae are enclosed in the gall, which, 
grows around them, and where they remain for five or six 
months; some of them undergo their metamorphoses in this 
kind of prison, while others issue forth ami bury themselves in 
the earth. 

Oynipn of the common f/'rfl—l'i/iu/hi i/allwtinctoria, Linn. 
(tig. 40). — This is oue of the most interesting of these small 
insects. It is of a pale yellow colour, and is covered with 
a whitish silky down ; the under surface of the abdomen is 
black and shining ; the nervures of the anterior wings are 

Terebra (fig. 41). — The instrument by means of which the 
insect punctures the plant and produces the gall is only 
present in the female. It is a kind of auger or borer placed 
at the extremity of the body, having a curved form, and lodged 

1 These formations belong to botany as well as to zoology. 

in the interior of the abdomen ; its posterior extremity 
i beneath the anus, in a centra] canal, between two long 

ty ia 


half sheath. The borer 

Fig. 40.— Cynipt. 

Fig. 11.— Terebra of Cynipt} 

if it consisted of a single and very delicate seta 
ifttreille), but when magnified it is seen to be composed of 

_ree capillary pointed thread*, of which the central is some- 

•hat longer than the two lateral. 
The Cyiilps thrust this instrument into the tissues of the 

When a twig or a leaf has been punctured, the nutrient 
juices flow towards the wound, and an excrescence is formed, 
which gradually increases iu Bize and hardness. 

2. G alls .—There are few plants which do not have galls, 
but they are found more especially on the oak, poplar, elm, 
birch, pine, rose-tree, ivy, Ac. 

These excrescences have sometimes only a single cavity, in- 
habited by one larva ; at other times there are several cavities, 
either communicating with each other or separate, and form- 
ing the dwelling-places of a similar number of larva. The 
larva gradually consume the interior of their house, without 
however destroying it, as the latter continues to increase m 
proportion to the growth of the insect. 

Eeaumur noticed that the kind of insect exercised great 
influence over the form and consistency of the gall, so that 
where there are several of these excrescences growing on the 
same leaf, some may be woody, others herbaceous ; some 
smooth or tuberculated, while others are granulated or haired. 

In a medical point of view galls mav lie divided into the 
or true gttlfo and into the Iitiiri/ i/a'lh or beJcgua&t. 
True yulh. — These well-known productions are of a more 

1 A, extremity of the abdomen, mainlined : n, terclirn ; h. the valves; B, 
B teriilira separate and still more magnified ; a, the three threads of the 
relira ; b b, the valves. 


or loss rounded form, regular or irregular hi shape, and 
or less solid. The best known is the Aleppo gall 1 (fig. +2), 
whieh is found on the dyers' oak. Querent infectoria. It is 
produced by the species of Cynips which has been previously 
spoken of. This gall is about the size of a nut ; it is heai-y, 
and of a globular form ; the surface is smooth, but presents 
here and there some irregular tubercles. Its colour is a 
blackish or yellowish green ; it has strong astringent pro- 
perties. Care is taken to gather the gull before the insect 
has escaped. 

The galh, which are left on the trees, and which are col- 
lected after the escape of the Cynips, may be recognized by 
the presence of a round hole, which is made by the insect, and 
by their lightness. These galls are only slightly astringent, 
and are of a liuhler ci.dmir ('white mills). The best galls come 
from Syria ; those of Smyrna or the Morea are larger, but 
lighter, and not so good in quality. 

"When a gull is cut through there is seen — I, a Bmall cavity 
in the centre, in which is the larva ; 2, a not very thick, 
light, spongy layer, of u yellow or brown colour in its sub- 
stance, but white at the surface around the central cavity ; 
this layer contains a small quantity of starch (G-uibourt), and 
appears intended for the nourishment of the insect ; 3, three 
or four large cavities, which appear to be formed by the 
separation or folding together of certain fleshy curved scales; 
these provide 1'or the respiration of the larva ; 4, another sub- 
stance which is present in la rue quantities, and has ft compact 
radiating structure, which when magnified is seen to be made 
up of shining particles ; 5, an external green layer containing 
chlorophus and a volatile oil. 

The different species of oak produce a great number of galls 
more or less resembling the common '/nil,'' Some of these have 
been carefully examined. 

The smooth ijull. which .Reaumur termed gall of the petiole 
of the oak, grows on the young branches of the English oak 
{Querout setstfhra, Smith), in the neighbourhood of Paris, and 
on those of the Qirn-cnn I'gmtitictr, Willd., near Bordeaux. It 
is from T 6 „ to T "g of an inch in diameter ; it is light, spherical, 
without tubercles, of a reddish colour, and of a spongy texture. 

1 Commonly called natiiull, i"iiaier'.i ■/•'<'/. Luanl ijall, and black or green 

* The other pills 'niv (lidr nrij-'iutu (liferent species of Cynips; amongst 
f hem ie that of the common oak (C quercut folii, Linn.), and that of the 
C. i/nercta toga: of Fabricius. 


OALLS. 1-31 

Sometimes it contains only a single cavity, while at other 
timea there are three- or four, and the fame number of ('i/iii/is. 
With this species may he associated the round galls on 
the leaves of the oak, those which Beaamor terms ou rnmt 
galls, and the gooseberry seed i/olh, which onlv did'er in respect 
to their size. 

a nux 


Fig. 42.— Common Gall. 

The crowned gall \s probably produced hy the buds being 
puncturing at an early stage of their development. Its form 
is spherical, and it has a short pedicle ; ithove there is a, crown 
of blunt spines or tubereleB. Sueh is the small crowned gall of 

The. horned gaM of M. Guibourt appears as if it were attached 
by its centre to a very young branch. It is irregular, and seems 
to be formed by the union of several bodies, which are dilated 
at their bases, and horned at their summits. It is light, 
woody, of a yellowish colour, and hollowed internally into 
a number of chambers, each of which is surrounded by a 

air chambers ; ij, radiated nub- 


radiating substance. Each chamber opens externally by a 
separate aperture. 

The gall of Hungary, called also gall of Piedmont, is an 
irregular excrescence, which grows, un the nvorn of the English 
oak, after the ovary has been fee undated. The gall sometimes 
occupies half the cup, while the remainder of the acorn growB 
beside it ; at other times, it occupies the whole cup. In the 
centre of the gall is a small cavity, surrounded by a layer of 
half-woody matter ; air enters the cavity from its summit. 

The xf/uti in 011.1 i/ti/l, which Reaumur called artichoke gall, is 
also found on the English oak. It resembles the cone of the 
hop; it arises from the abnormal development of the in- 
vofucrum of the female flower previous to fecundation. 
Internally, there is a kind of woody receptacle, which Reaumur 
compared to the lower part of the artichoke ; this also arises 
from the excessive development of the base of the involuerum. 
The receptacle projects slightly at the margin, which gives it a 
cup-like appearance. 1 

The characters of the several galls which have been men- 
tioned might be arranged as follows : — 

! (tubercular . . 1. Aleppo, 

spherical ■? non- 

(_ tubercular . . 2. Smooth. 

spherical S. Croimtd. 

G* 11 ^ / -^.^i., (with horns i. Hiyrneii. 

! irregular j without homB 5 . Hungarian. 


Several 6. Squamous. 

Nutgalls contain tannin, gallic, ellagic, and luteogallic 
acids; chlorophyl, a volatile oil, extractive matter, woody 
fibre, gum, starch, liquid sugar, albumen, and various salts, 
amongst others the failures of potash and lime, Berzeliua also 
admits the presence of a small quantity of pectic acid, and 
combined with the tannin. 

M. Pelou/.e has carefully studied the tannin obtained from 
nutgalls. It is a solid, coluurlesn. inodorous, non-cry stallizablB 
substance; it has an astringent but not bitter taste; it red- 
dens litmus ; it is very soluble in water, but scarcely at all so 
in ether ; and it gives a black or green precipitate with the 

' Tour no lb rl siaics that ;u- S.du the ir;ill- t.f Sulria pnmifcra, Linn., ore 
colk'tlu'l I"! - Lin: |nir[i'W i>! iiuikiii" i kliiil »!' Mrariineitt ufthcrn. Accord- 
ing to Lesson the name might he done with those of the ground ivy 
{Glechoma hederacea, Linn.), 


salts of the peroxide of iron. It is one of the most powerful 
astringents known. 

Nutgalls or tannin are made into pills, into an ointment, an 
electuary, and into various drinks and gargles; from them is 
prepared the antihtemoi't'hoidal ointment of Cullen, and a 
powder for the purposes of embalming. 

[There are three preparations of galls ordered in the. 

1. Df.coctfm GAi.t.-E, Decoction of Gnl/s. — Bruised galls 
Jijss; distilled water Oij. Boil down to a pint and strain. 
Employed its a chemical antidote and teat. 

2. Tisctuha Gali-e, Tincture of OalU.- — Bruised galls Jv ; 
proof spirit Oij. Macerate for seven days, then press and 
Btrain. A powerful astringent. Dose from f3ss. to f3ij. 
Diluted with water, it forms a useful and convenient astrin- 
gent, gargle, and wash. (Pereira.) 

3. UtJGUENTUM G-ALL.e Oompositum, Compound oint- 
ment of Gulls. — Finely powdered nut-galls jvj; lard Ivj. 
powdered opium 3iss. Rub together. Astringent. Used in 
nremorrhoidal affections. Mixed, says Pereira, with zinc oint- 
ment it is applied to piles after the inflammatory stage is 

2. Bedeguars? — This name is given to galls which are 
covered with numerous close-set fibres or hairs. 

The bedtguars which are best known are those of the rose 
tree; they are caused by the Cynipa route of Linnffius (Diplo- 
levis roxit, Oliv.), a small liynicnoptei'ous insect of a shining 
black colour, with the feet and abdomen, excepting at its ter- 
mination, of a feruginous brown colour ; the wings are trans- 
Earent, and of a smoky hue.* MM. Brandt and Ratzebourg 
ave given a good description of them. 

The bedegaare are round or oval, more or less irregular, ex- 
crescences, sometimes resembling medlars (Blanchard); they 
are covered with filiform or scale-like processes ; they are often 
branched, and are of a green, reddish, or purple colour. In 
the interior are a number of larva* living in separate cells, 
which are each provided with hard thick walls ; in these the 
insects pass the winter as pupa). 

' Commonly calli'il ripi-lcs, »r sponges. [In soma parts of 
England they arc railed liohin's cushion.] 

3 In these e.Miv.-ci'ruc^ ihi!vc i» often found the Di/iMepit bedtgaris of 


Formerly bedeguars were employed in medicine on account 
of their stringent properties. 

§ II. Cases. 

The eases or vesirlrs (follkuli, Linn.) not only differ from tl 
galls by their less rounded form, their thinness, and the kind 
of insect which gives rise to them, but also with regard t 
their cavity, which is always much larger, and is capable < 
containing an entire colony of the insects. 

1. AtHinns. — The aphides or plant-lice which reside L 
the cases are small hemiptera, belonging to the subdivision 
Homoptera, and to the family of the Hymenelytra. 

The body is soft and ovate ; the head small, with the antennas 
longer than the body ; the second segment of the thorax is 
large and elevated ; the elytra and the wings membranous. 
At the extremity of the abdomen are two hollow tubercles, from 
which a saccharine fluid is discharged. 

These insects feed upon the juices of the plants, upon which 
they live in large numbers. In spring and summer eacb 
colony contains demi-pupa. which are apterous, but afterwards 
acquire wings, and other individuals who are always apterous. 
All these individuals are females, who are ovoviviparous without 
previous copulation. The ytiung emerge from the posterior 
part of the abdomen of the mother. The males only ap- 
pear towards the close of summer ; these are also apterous ; 
they impregnate the last generation, which is produced by 
the preceding individuals; these impregnated females are ovi- 
parous. The influence of a single impregnation extends over 
several generations to the number of eight or nine. (Bonnet, 

The Aphides multiply enormously. Reaumur calculated 
that five generations proceeding from a single mother, if no 
obstacle intervened, might give rise to the astounding number 
of 5,904,900,000 individuals. 

■Rerfram,— This organ, which is nearly perpendicular, arises 
from the loader surface of the head, between the anterior 
pair of limbs ; it is composed of three joints. The animal 
uses it to puncture the leaves and young twigs of the plant. 1 

2. Casus. — One of the must curious of these formations is that 
which is known as the Chinese gall (fig. 44).* 

1 The disease of certain trees, known as , 
ferent species of Aphides. 
* In China it is commonly called Yea-fou- 

', ia produced by dif- 

o a 1,1.8. 155 

his case grows on the leaves of DUU/Uum rccrmoswn, Zucc., 1 
;ree of Japan, belonging to the family hamamelida. 
se,)- According to M. Guibourt it is also developed 
ids of the tree. 

The insect which produces these cases belongs to the genus 
Aphis, or to one which is closely allied to it (Doubleday) ; it 
has been named Aphis Ohitumnt, Bell. 

It is a minute ovate insect, truncated posteriorly with 
moderut ' ' 

size, ott 

erately long antenna?, composed of five unequal joints. 
-' ". ches ' 

Chinese Galls are large : some equal a ( 
, others the closed hand. (Duhalde.) 
Their form is an irregular oblong, with 
angular protuberances, which sometimes 
have the appearance of horns ; some are 
single, others are bifurcated, and occasion- 
ally they are divided into ttu-ee or more 
lobes. The colour of these eases is at 
first a dull green, it then becomesyellow, 
and ultimately of a reddish <;rey. Thesur- 
. face has a soft feel like that of velvet; 
when examined by a lens it is seen to be 
covered with a very short compact down. 
The cavity of the excrescence isvery large, 
arising from the thinness of its walls 
{vj t° A °f an ' nt 'h). The tissue of 
which it is composed is firm, hard, and 
brittle. When one of these galls is broken 
it has a whitish, translucent, and re- 
6 ino us appearance. Its taste is astringent 
without any flavour or smell of resin. 
(Guibourt.) The inner surface is covered Fig. 44.— Chinese Gall. 
with a substance, having ,i ihalky appearance. (Pereira.) In 
the interior is found the remains of a large number of Aphides. 
The Chinese gulls are gathered in before the occurrence oi frost ; 
the insects which they contain are destroyed by exposing them 
to the vapour of boiling water. 

These cases are of great use, and are held in high estimation 
in China as a powerful astringent, not only for medical pur- 
poses, but also for dyeing. 

Allied to the ('hiix-xr yttllx are m-la in excrescences which are 
found in the East, and also in the South of France, and which 
are produced by another species of Aphis .- these are the 

' Commonly called in Japan Ou pey-tse, Ou-pti-tse, Woo-pti-tse. 
* According to M. Seheuk it is a torcirinthaccu), tlio Rhus semiatuta, 
Murr. viir. Osbtkii DC. 



s of the pistadas. These false gallB are found on 

the Pistacia vera, P. Terehinlhus, and the 

^ P. Len/inem. The insect which produces 

^fc themiathe Jp/ii* Pistacia:, Linn., a small 

^^g black insect, with a roughened thorax, 


?s from the piBtacias are at first 
if a green and afterwards of a red colour, 
nammelnted, light, with a turpentine 
lavour, and very astringent. 

They are distinguished into three kinds, 
according to their form : the riliauote, 
which grow at the extremity of the 
tranches ; the globular, which occur on 
the peduncles; and those which are formed 
like a cushion on the surface of the 
leaves. The first are sometimes three 
nches in length and resemble the pod 
■i' a leguminous plant. They are known 
n Judea under the name of caroub. 
The second and third often resemble the 
fruit of the turpentine tree. These are 
known under the name of baisonges? 

These excrescences are eaten by the 
inhabitants of the East. They are often 
employed as a substitute for the common 
Fig.45.— Turpentine GalL g a U 8j a, ne l they are also used as a red dye. 



The trehala or tric/tla 3 is a singular case which is well known 
at Constantinople and in some some parts of the East. 

At the last great exhibition some of these cases were sent 
from Turkey by M. Delia Sudda as a particular Bpecies of 
Tttarnm, without any other explanation appended to them than 
the word trehala. 

This production is described in the Persiau Pharmacopceia 

1 It is probable that. Linnieus has included several species under the same 
name, ami that this character is peculiar to the tentiscus. 

' In the Levant the Arabs call theru egi, emji. or basengi, and the Turks 

GALLS. 157 

of brother Ange, of Toulouse, under the name of sehakar tigal, 
which means sugar of nests. 

It was at first supposed that the trehala was obtained from 
an onopordon. It was afterwards jisiTrtuiiii'd that it grows on 
the branches of a Syrian echinope. ( Deoaune.) It is produced 
by an insect, and is found principally in the desert between 
Aleppo and Bagdad. (Bourlier.) 

1. Larinus.— This insect is neither a Cynips nor an Aphis, 
but a tetrameroua Coleoptera belonging to the family Khyn- 
cophora. It belongs to the genus Larinus, and has been 
named by M. Chevrolat Larinus subrugosus. It is closely 
allied to the Larinus onopordoms, Germ. 

The Larinus subritgoxus (fig, tii) is of an oblong form and of 
a black colour. It has a projecting snout, to the middle of 
which the antenna? are attached. The elytra cover the whole 
of the posterior part of the abdomen ; they are oblong, and 
terminate each in a soil and slightly recurred point. Their 
surface is marked by ten punctated lines, which commence at 
the anterior margin aud unite before reaching the opposite ex- 
tremity . 



. ill.— Larinus rftlie Trehala.' 

Pi s 

47. -Trehala.' 

2. The Case (fig. 47).— Thi 

i is 


an oval form, 



a, the case; A, Ijirinw subrugnsas a 
a, trehala before the escape of the in 


ft, a 

of its escape, 
vertical section of 


158 MEDICAL zoOLoar. 

attached in the direction of" its length to a branch of the t 
Its greatest diameter measures from T fi LI to -^ of ail inch in 
length; its external surface is very irregular, and of a light 
grey colour. The under surface in. flattened and marked by a 
deep groove where it was attached to the branch. When 
separated a large circular hole is found at one extremity, by 
which the insert escaped. 

The cavity of the trehrfa is large, and the perfect insect is 
often found in it just ready to escape. 

The internal surface is smooth and of a whitish or reddish 

Its tissue is not very thick ; it is irregular, hard, and h 
amylaceous appearance. It cracks when bitten, has a sweet 
taste, and yields mucilage. 

In water at the onlinarv temperature the /rflmla swells, but 
only partially dissolves, and changes into a mucilaginous mass. 
Iodine changes it to a blue colour, and in some caBes to that 
of red wi 

Analysis shows that it contains gum, a particular kind of 
starch which is much less soluble in water thau that from the 
potato, and a new kind of erystallizablo sugar, analogous to 
that from the sugar-cane, but much more solid; M. Berthelot 
has given this the name of trehalose. 

It is during tln L larval stage of ils existence that the Larinut 
xiibriHjomix constructs this curious kind of case. 

Does the treltala result solely from a wound inflicted by the 
insect '! Is it au excrescence similar tn the galls produced by 
the Cynipicbe, and to the cases uf the \ pliules ? or is it a nest 
which is made by the Liirinttx ? M. Guibourt admits the 
second mode as the way in which it is formed. A circum- 
stance which supports this opinion is the fact that the trehala 
is not attached by a point or a pedicle like the galls, but is 
fixed along its whole length by the groove which embraces the 
point of Bupport. It appears that the larva of the Larimts 
collects a considerable quiintity of saccharine and amylaceous 
matter, which il procures from the echiuops, and that it con- 
structs its dwelling by disgorging this matter and moulding it 
with its rostrum. 

M. Uourlier thinks that the format inn of the sugar, which is 
found in the case, might he explained by the presence of albu- 
minous matters in the saliva with which the insect binds 
together the starchy materials. 

Brother Ange and M. Guibourt think that the nest serves 
the Larinus for a habitation during the whole of iis life ; 1 

BONB, 159 

am. however, inclined to believe with M, li'mrlier, that the 
insect emerges after it bus assumed its perfect form." If it 
were otherwise, how could copulation take place, since each 
ease contains only one individual r 1 Moreover, most of the 
nests which I have examined were pierced at one end and 
were empty. 

The trehalas are generally collected before the animal has 

In Turkey and Syria a decoction ia made of the nests of the 
Larinus by breaking up about an ounce of them, placing the 
pieces in a pint and a half of boiling water, and stirring them 
for a quarter of an hour. This preparation is given to persona 
in affections of the respiratory organs, particularly those who 
are attacked with bronchitis. 

The treha/a is also employed as food. The use of it is as 
niversal in the East as that of salep and tapioca is in Trance. 1 

Thbke are certain animal productions which are made use 
f rather as food than as remedies, and are interesting as a 
latter of hygiene rather than of therapeutics. It is true they 
sometimes enter inio the formation of various medicines, but 
it is only as the medium through which the more active 
principles are administered ; some of them are used merely to 
tract, clarify, or colour other medicines. 
These substances may he arranged under twelve heads : 1st, 
ips; 2nd, blood; 3rd, flesh; 4th, albumen; 6th, gelatine ; 
\,fat; 7th, oil; 8th, milk; i)th, eggs ; 10th, honey; 11th, 
| 12th, the hair, and other corneous parts. 

§ L Botes, 

Bojiet are employed in the manufacture of gelatine. There 
are two methods of extracting it. The first, which is the pro- 
cess of Papin, consists in breaking the bones in pieces and 

' A closely allied insect, the Larinus admtalyirus of I kjoaD, out of wliich 
B gt'UUB Rhiwedha hnn been formed, km obtained a reputation an an 
""*"'). (Gerbi, l.alreille.) Suijii: swedes of f'araliiih-. (.'/»■ wi'mii'/iJh-, 
'nrtlidir have lie.'u uieiilioued ad possui-siiu; similar [irq per tits. 
lori, Hirsch.) 




boiling them at a temperature over 212° Fan. ; thiB is done b 
placing them in ;ili lip-tight Teasel k'nncd a digester. [If sue! 
a vessel is hall- filled with water and exposed to the heat o" " 
fire, the steam which is formed baa no means of escape, i 
therefore presses upon the water and prevents the further 
formation of steam till the temperature of the water i 
above the boiling point]. In the second, the chondral is 
deprived of the phosphate and carbonate of lime by the action 
dilute hydrochloric acid, and ia afterwards converted intc 
gelatine by prolonged boiling under the ordinary pressure c 
the atmosphere. This method is not so good as the former. 

When bone* are calcined in closed vessels they leave 1 
residuum of chare.™!, and about seven tenths of their weight 
of calcareous salts. This charcoal is known as animal charcoal 
or bone black. It ia impregnated with sulphuret of calcium, 
and empyreumatie matters, which enable it to decolorize 
liquids, but it imparts to them a disagreeable flavour. To 
deprive it of these mutters, it must be acted on by hydrochloric 
acid, which not only frees it from all smell, but at the same 
time increases it? ihvutan/.iiig properties. 

It is well known that animal charcoal is used for the pur- 
pose of decolouring various liquids, and especially syrups. 
M. Lebourdais has recently employed it in the extraction of 
the alkaloids. 

The bones of the sheep are said to be more easily acted on 
by acids, and is therefore recommended for the preparation c " 

The ancients recommended the use of the blood of a 
and even of man, in certain diseases. We have previous!* 
stated that the use of this fluid is entirely abandoned i: 
present day. 1 

The blood of the mammalia and of birds is eaten after it has 
been prepared in various ways, more particularly after it 1 
been coagulated and mixed with apices. 

Blood ia employed in the preparing and clarifying syrups, 
by calcining it with the phosphate of lime, the chalk, and 
especially the potash of certain varieties of animal charcoal 
which possess deeulorizing properties iu an eminent degree. 

Decomposed at a red heat with iron and carbonate of potash, 
blood, like all nitrogenous animal substances, produces terroey- 
anuret of potassium, 

1 See page G3. 

ILOOD. 161 

The serum of the blood has been larcely employed in paint- 
ing. (Carbonel.) Mixed with quick lime or with slacked lime 
reduced to powder, and to a suitable consistence, it forms a 
kind of glazing which resists the action of the sun and the rain. 

[The Animril C/mnioiil. Curhtt miimalix nf the rimrmacopeeia, 
is directed to be prepared from bullock's blood by fire. 

The idea of injecting the blood of a living animal into the 
body of another appears to have been first suggested by a 
celebrated G-erman chemist, Libaviua, at the commencement of 
the 17th century. The operation was first actually performed 
in London by Lower on a dog in 1(305, and lor the first time 
on the human subject by a medical man in Paris of the name 
of Denis in 1667, the blood which he made use of being that 
of the sheep. Several fatal accidents having followed the 
operation, it was forbidden to be used in France bv a decree 
of parliament, except by the previous permission of 1 he faculty 
of medicine at Paris, and from that time it I'ell into disrepute. 
It was again brought into notice by Dr. Bluudell in 1818, and 
a paper has recently been published by Dr. Waller ' in the 
Transactions of the Obstetrical Society, advocating the use of 
Transfusion in certain eases of Ixeniorrhage. 

It appears that in 1785 Dr. Harewood, afterwards professor 
of anatomy at Cambridge, drew attention in his "Thesis on 
Transfusion of Blood " to the value of this remedy in cases of 
hemorrhage. He, however, asserted that the blood of an 
herbivorous animal might be substituted for that of a car- 
nivorous animal, and vice vi-rsii, without injury. Dr. Blundell," 
on the contrary, maintained that the blood which is made use 
of must be from the same species of animal as that into which 
it is to be injected. Various experiments have now shown 
that this is the case, and that, although the injections of the 
blood of a different species may iviivc the animal for a time, 
it ultimately dies. This result may be accounted for by 
the difference which has been shown to exist in the size of the 
blood globules of different animals. Prevost and Dumas found 
that when the blood of the cow or the sheep was injected into 
cats or rabbits, the exsanguinated animals at first revived, 
but did not ultimately recover ; the temperature of the body 
speedily diminished, the pulse became rapid, other fatal 
symptoms came on, and the animals died almost always before 

1 Transactions nfihe OUMriral Simielii »f I.i,ud„n, 1659, vol. 1, p. 81. 
■ Researches Physiological and Pathological, 1321 ; eee also Medicu- 
Chirurg. Trims., 1818, vol. 9, p. 56. 



the sixth day. Blundell met with the same results from ii 
jecting human blood into the veins of a dog, while, on the otht 
Band, he kept a dog alive for three weeks without food by the 
daily injection of a tew ounces of the blood of one of its own 
speeies into the jugular veins. " Of all eases of hemorrhage," 
says Dr. Waller, " none seem mure favourable for a trial of this 
operation, than those which occur during the puerperal state, 
which from their severity are termed noonings." In performing 
the operation three things arc m.'Cessarv to be observed : — 

First, that great care be taken to get rid of any air that 
may be contained in the syringe ; secondly, to introduce the 
blood very slowly, experiments having proved that a sudden 
and large supply overwhelms the action of the heart, and 
causes immediate death ; thirdly, to wait a few minutes 
between each injection. The syringe \ised by the author is 
lined with tin, and is capable of containing two ounces of 
fluid ; it is furnished with a long tubule for the convenient in- 
jection into the vein ; a funnel communicates with the barrel 
of the syringe, through which the blood passes without being 
received into an intermediate vessel. 

It is seldom, if ever, necessary to inject a large quantity of 
blood: it is bet-U-r to discontinue the operation as soon as the 
rally is decisive, and there is no returning collapse. In one 
case attended by the author, four ounces only were sufficient 
to produce this effect. As a general rule, from eight to twelve 
ounces may he safely injected]. 

s III. Fleeh. 

The flesh of animals is of the utmost importance in hygi 
both as regards its nutritive p 
with which it is capable of bein 

Meat contains a variable umonnt of: — 1st, substances c 
taining a proteiue base (Albumen, fibrine, and easeine) ; 2nd, 
gelatine ; 3rd, fatty matters ; 4th, osmazome. Albumen, 
fibrine, and caselne are more or Icsb easy of digestion, but 
have no great nutritive properties. Gelatine is a food which 
is easy of digestion, hut neither has this much power of nu- 
trition. Fatty substances are difficult of digestion and contain 
very little nutriment. Osina/.oine or extract of meat is a food 
easy of digestion and of excellent properties. 

The meat which man makes use of may he arranged into 
seven principal groups: — 1, Meats properly so called; 2, the 


Jlesh of poultry ; 3, of game; 4,ofJtf:h; 5. of Mollusea; 6, of 
Articulata ,- 7. of Sadiata. Those animals whose flesh is only 
eaten occasionally, and as it were exceptionally, have been 
omitted, aB, for example, the Turtles, several large Reptiles, 
Froqs, and some Inserts. Amongst these animals the principal 
are the fresh or jrew Turtle, C'lielonia JUiilns. l.utr., which is 
ao common in certain portions of the Atlantic ocean, the 
Iguanas of the Antilles and Brazil, lamina tlelieatissirna, Laur., 
tvbercttlata, Lanr.. cornuta, Lacep., oarulea, Daud., xn&finciata, 
Brongn., the Basilisk of the .Moluccas, .llus'lieim crittatw*, 
Bory, the niigrutury hx-iist, 0,-i/lhis iHii/rntiyriiiK, jE/ji/ptim, and 
TataricuB, Linn., &c. 

1. Meats jn-'ipi -rlii so rolled, or butcher's meats, are five in 
number, and stand in the following order as regards their 
capability of digestion: — 1. Mutton/ 2, Beef; 3. Lamb: 4. 
Veal; 5. Pork. The muscle or flesh of these animals contains 
in every 100 parts : 

Water. Albumen. Gelatine. 

Mutton .... 71 parts. 22 parts. 7 parts. 

Beef ..... 74 — 28 — 6 — 

Lamb .... 75 — 27 — 6 — 

Veal 75 — 19 — 6 — 

Pork 76 — 19 — 5 — 

Very young animals yield a food which is easy of digestion, 
but which has little nutriment ; this arises from their flesh con- 
taining a greater proportion of gelatine and fat, but less 
albumen, fibriiie, and osmazome. Old animals yienl the 
nutritive elements, but are difficult of digestion ; their fibrine 
having become hard and dense, and their osmazome more 
abundant. The sucking pig is, however, less digestible than 
the mature animal, which is owing principally to the prepon- 
derance of the gelatine. 

The part of the animal tissues, which is most easy of 
digestion and the most nutritious, is the muscular fibre or 
fibrine ; after" that the liver, kidnev. pancreas, and brain ; and 
lastly, the tendons, aponeuroses, and lungs. 

[Bam Meat. — This was first recommended by Professor 
"Weisse, 1 of St. 1'ctersburgh, in the diarrliieii "I* children, which 
occurs during weaning, "Two teaspmml'uls," says Dr. Tanner, 2 
"of finely chopped heel' or mutton mav bo given daily to a child 
one year old : and if it crave for more, and evidence is afforded 

1 Journal far Kinderliranhhecten, lieraufiyegeben von F. J. Behread und 
A. Hildebnmd, vol. i, p. 9 9, Berlin, 1845. 
* Oputjanctl, p. 346. 

M 2 


of its digestion, the quantity may be increased. It ib very 
remarkable til at debilitated children, who refuse all other kinds 
of food, will eagerly take this; hut as the strength is regained 
the desire for it passes away."] 

The quantity of meat consumed in France in 1830 baa been 
estimated at 907,152,619 lbs. troy, of which 764,875,059 were 
furnished by the pig, ox, Bheep, and goat (J. fieynaud) ; the 
names are arranged in the order of their importance. 

[In London it i* difficult to ascertain the quantity of meat, 
fish, and poultry which is brought for the supply of its two 
million and a half of inhabitants. The following calculations, 
which are taken from Dr. "Wynter'a interesting work, 
"Curiosities of Civilisation," can only he regarded us approxi- 
mations to the truth ; but in every case there is little doubt they 
are below tlie actual amount which is consumed. 

According to the ollicial account the number of live stock 
exhibited at Smithileld in IWtt was :— 

Oxen, 294,571 ; sheep, 1,150,060 ; calves, 36,791 ; piga, 
29,593. Total, 1,893,888. 

But this is far from giving a true idea of the whole amount 
brought into London. Much stock arrives in the capital which 
never enters the great mart. A more eon-eel estimate of the 
flocks and herds which arc aiunially i-oiisimied in London may 
be gathered from a report of the numbers transmitted by the 
different lines of railway, compiled from official sources fay 
Mr. Ormonhy, the cattle -traffic manager of the North Western 
Bail way. 


Sk „p. 



Total for 

By Eastern Counties - - 
„ L. & N. Western - - 
„ lireat Northern - - - 
„ Great Western - - - 
„ L. & S. Western - - 
„ South Eastern - - 
„ London & Brighten & S 


„ Sen from North of Eng 

land & Scotland - ■ 

„ Sea from Ireland - - • 

Imported from the Con Linen 

Driven in by marl, mid iron 

the neighbourhood o 

the metropolis (oh 

tained from the toll-gate 

Total - - • 




















'* 14S 













The following table, obtained from the daily bills of entries 
at the Custom House, shows the continental sources from 
whence Loudon derives o portion of its food. 


Holland - - - 
Denmark - - - 
Hanaeatii: Towua 
Belgium ... 

Purtugul - - - 


ai.iJtii aaivjis 

In addition to the live cattle which are thus brought to 
the London markets, there i* a large quantity of country 
killed meat conveyed In the railways to the dead meat markets, 
the principal of which are Leadeuhall and Newgate markets. 
According to the rot urns obtained from the different railway 
companies, the following was the weight of country killed 
meat convoyed by the undermentioned lines: — ■ 

I Eastern Counties 10,398 tons. 
North Western 4.602 
Great Western 5,200 
Great Northern 13,152 
South-Eastern 1,085 
South- Western 2,000 
Brighton and South-Coast .... 100 

Thus no less than 30,487 tons of meat are annually 
" pitched " at Newgate aud Leadeuhall markets. As the 
Scotch boats convey about 700 tons more, there are at least 
87,187 touH of t'rmnt'ry killed meat trough! to Loudon by steam. 
Taking into ncooiint the t|iiimiitv nf meat derived from all 
sources, Dr. Wynter gives a summary of the grand total in 
the following table : — 






Live stock brought to London 

Total supply of li>f stock and meal 
lo London ...... 













Thia, he says, he is convinced is still below the truth, for 
does not include the country killed meat sold at Farringdi 
and Whitecbapei markets. The total value of this enormi 
supply of flesh cannot be much less than fourteen millii 

2. The /ft** A of poultry is obtained principally from foi 
species, which Btand in the following order as regards thi 
easiness of digestion : — 1, the Ibwl ; 2, the Turkey; " ' 
Duck ; and 4, the Goose. 

These birds afford a tibre which has but little density, 
slight quantity of gelatine, and iml much osiuas'.ome. Their flesl 
is easy of digestion. According to Brande 100 parts of the 
fowl yield 73 parts of water, 20 of albumen, and 7 of gelatine. 

Like butcher's meat, the younger the animal the greater it 
the digestibility of these birds. Domestication general!' 
renders the flesh tenderer, and more easily acted on by thi 
gastric juice. When these birds are shut up and gorged t. : 
grow to a large size, aud become charged with fat. Oci 
sionally some, of their organs, especially the liver, been: 
hypertrophied {Geese, Duels). The tissues are then 
and more indigestible. 

3. Game. — The principal species niimiigHt the mammalia are 
the— 1, Goaf, C< : .rvt/s caprrolus, Linn. ; 2, the Hare, Lepy 
tiwidim, Linn.; 8, the h'ubliil, Lrjittv etlmeuhu, Linn.; ai 
amongst the birdB — 1, the Partridge ; l 2, the Pheasant 
Phasianvs Colchicus, Linn. ; I), the Grouse; 2 4, the Pigeon; 
5, the Woodcock, £>rolopti.r nt.ificntti, Linn. 

The flesh of game is generally easy of digestion; but that 
the birds with Ion;; beaks must, be excepted ; it contains ve 
little gelatine or fat. To secure its being easily digested 
must, however, be taken in moderate quantities. 

In 1857 Paris alone consumed poultry and game to i. 
value of 17,052,013 francs. 

[The great emporiums for game and poultry in London a 
Leadenhall and Newgate markets, It is impossible to obt 
anything like an acurate account of the quantity consumed ii 

1 In France there are four species of Partridge : the Common Partridge 
Perdii cbierea, Lath., the Viiei-awy l'mir\,U)r, P. srxatilis, Mej., the Met, 
Partridge, P. rttljia, I'. pis*., ami tliu Muck Partridge, P. petrosa, Lath. Th 
latter is of rare occurrence, 

5 In France tlioiv an: tlirw si<::r]<:± uf GVrms»; the Wood Grouse, Tttrat 
UrryiiHa/i, Linn., the Muck Cot'k, 'P. tttrij, [Jan., and the Common Grouse 
'/'. Inyn/ius, Linn, 

3 In Franco Ihero are Jour species of Pigeons : Columba palumbvt, Q. 

i C. Turtur. 

FLESH. 167 

the metropolis. The following estimate was given to Dr. 
Wynter * hy a dealer who turns over 100,000/. a year in this 
trade. As the list takes no account of the quantity which 
goes direct to- the retailer, nor of the thousands sent as 
-presents, it must fall short of the actual consumption. 

Grouse 100,000 

Partridges 125,000 

Pheasants 70,000 

Snipes 80,000 

Wild Birds (mostly small) 150,000 
Plovers ....... 150,000 

Quails 30,000 

Larks 400,000 

Widgeon 70,000 

Teal 30,000 

Wild Ducks 200,000 

Pigeons 400,000 

Domestic Fowls .... 2,000,000 

Geese 100,000 

Ducks 350,000 

Turkeys 104,000 

Hares 100,000 

Babbits 1,300,000 

Total 5,759,000] 

4, Msh. — Man uses a great number of fish as articles of 
food. Amongst these animals twelve principal species require 
to be mentioned; these are — 1, Common Whiting, Merhtngus 
vulgaris, Cuv. ;* 2, the Sake, Merlucius vulgaris, Cuv. ; 3, the 
Cod, Morrhua vulgaris, H. Cloq. ; 4, the Sole, Solea vulgaris, 
Cuv. ; 5, the Plaice, Platessa vulgaris, Cuv. ; 6, the Trout, 
Salar Ausonii, Valenc, Salmo fario, Linn. ; 7, the Pike, Esox 
Lucius, Linn. ; 8, the Carp, Cyprvnus carpio, Linn. ; 9, the 
fFurbot, Rhombus maximus, Cuv. ;* 10, the Salmon, Salmo 
Salmo, Valenc. ; 11, the Mackerel, Scomber Scomberus, Linn. ; 
12, the Herring, Clupea harengus, Linn. 

According to Brande, 100 parts of haddock yield 82 parts of 

1 Curiosities of Civilization, by Andrew Wynter, M.D., p. 224, London, 

* The Coal Fish, M. Carbonarius, Cuv., and the Pollock, M. Pollachius, 
are also used as food. 

8 The Sole, Plaice, and Turbot are commonly known as flat fish. Others 
of these fish which are eaten, are the Brill, Rhombus vulgaris, Cuv., and the 
Flounder, Platessa Flesus, Cuv. 




water. 13 of albumen and fibrinc, and 5 of gelatine ; and the 
sole 73 parts of water, 5 of albumen and fibrine, and 6 of 

Placed according to their facility of digestion, fish might be 
arranged in the following manner: 1, Sea fish with white 
flesh ; 2, Flat fish also with white flesh ; 3, Fresh water fish ; 
4, Fish with red flesh. 

The flesh of these animals usually eon tains less nourishmet 
tluin that of the other vertebrata. 1 

5. Flesh of MoUutea.—Amoagtk these animals 
Oysters; 2, Venerida ; 3, Mussels; 4, Snails; 5, 
oilier j/iiriutile mi/I murine aperies. These animals are a 
in the order "f I heir rapaeiry lor digestion. 

The species of Oysters 2 which are eaten in France, i 
Atlantic coasts, are the Common Oyster, Ostrea ei/n/is. Linn.; 
and the Horse Oyster, O. Jlippojms, Linn.; on the Mediterra- 
nean eoasts. the Jl-ilitern/iiivi Oyster, O. rusiirea, Fav. non 
Deal)., I.i. M'-'li/err/uiea of M. ile Serrt/s, and the O, lacteola 
of Moquin Tandon. In Corsica is eaten the O. lamellosi 
Broechi. There is also found in the Mediterranean the cres 

Under the name of the Common Oyster are ineluded & 
varieties ; for those of C/iwi//e of Mnrcnnes, and of Ostend, I 
altogether different from each other. 

At Home the Oysters from the Lucrin lalic were held i 
high estimation (iiobilissimus cibus), Nero preferred thoa 
from Corsica. Naples obtains Oysters from the lake I 
which enjoy a eertaiii reputation. (L'oste.) Excellent OyxU 
are found in Algeria, near Bone. Those from the coast o 
Languedoc are of an inferior quality. At PariH and i 
north of France there is an enormous consumption of Oyster 
from Mareirnes, Caneale, and Ostend. 

Fresh Oysters arc easy of digestion provided they are not 
eaten in too large quantities. Their eajwbility of digestion is 
owing to the salt water they contain and to the bile which is 
present in their largely developed liver. 

Oysters are generally eaten entire and while they are still 
alive. J Some persons reject the heard and fringes of the 
mantle in the larger varieties, and eat only the central portion. 

Eaw Oysters are B delicate, savoury, and strengtl 

1 In 1857 Paris alone consumed lish to the value of 9,169,£ 

' See page 86. 

* Fitra epula, Liun. 

of fooji. Adolphe Pasquier and Sainte Marie have recoui- 
mended them as remedies. They are suitable in dyspepsia 
and in chronic aJreetaani of the digestive organs, and even in 
diseases of the chest. They are often recommended to the 

Cooked Oyster* are indigestible, 

Ottreacvlture . — The artificial production of Oyster* has 
become an important branch of industry. 1 As far back as tie 
time of Kondelet. tbe art of souring these molluscs was known. 
In the present day this art has become greatly developed, and 
the multiplication of these animals is carried on on a large 
scale. The natural banks are divided into several portions, 
which are successively fished, and then allowed to repose for 
some time, in order that the animals may be replenished. 
Means are also taken to favour and hasten this process. 
Besides this, artificial banks are formed, which, like the natural 
banks, are divided into separate portions. 

The Oysters are placed in large reservoirs, where they grow 
and become of a green colour; this is called bedding the 
Oyster*. At Marennes these reservoirs are termed clairet. 
They are like a number of fields, which have been inundated, 
placed along the banks of the Seudre ; they differ, however, 
from the ordinary beds or reservoirs, inasmuch aa they are not 
covered by the tides. (Coste.) An oyster, sii to eight months 
old, when placed in the elaire*, requires two years before it 
arrives at its proper size and condition. By far tbe greater 
portion of those which are eaten never arrive at this state. 
The full-grown oyster when placed in tbe reservoirs becomes 
of a green colour in a few days. (Coste.) 

The green colour of the Oyster does not affect tbe whole at 
the animal. It shows itself more particularly on tbe four 
branchial folds ; there are also trace* of it on the inner surface 
of tbe first pair of labial palpi, on the external surface of tbe 
second, and in a part of the alimentary canal. 

For a long time it was supposed that tbe green colour of the 
Oysters was owing to the sou of tbe reservoirs, to tbe decom- 
position of the ulva and other water plants, or to a diseased 
condition of the liver, a kind of jaundice, which imparted a 
green colour to the parenehyms of tbe breathing organs. 
Gaillon asserted that ft arose from one of the navicube, VArie 
osfreariiu, which penetrated tbe substance of the animaL 
Bory de Saint-Vincent proved that this vibrio wan not natu- 
rally of a green colour, Out, that under certain eirenasataneea, 
1 In 1557 Fsrti iimnii I l/>»,37» fnaa "art* irfsyma. 


it became coloured like the Oyster, and by tbe 
According to thin naturalist, the green colour depends upon 
molecular substance (the green waller of Priestley), which 
becomes developed in .ill waters under the influence of ligl 
According to M. Valenciennes, this colour is caused by 
peculiar animal production differing from every organic sub- 
stance which has hitherto I icon examined. M. Berthelot has 
analyzed this substance, and finds tlint it dues possess peculiar 
characters. It does not resemble either the colouring agent 
of the bile, of the blood, or of any of the ordinary organic 
colouring substances. 

These green molecules enter the bronchia 1 during the act 
respiration, where they become arrested, and ultimately gor; 
obstruct, and colour the organ. At the same time, one of t 
principal functions of the body being interfered with, tl 
animal becomes distended and subject to a kind oi 
which renders its tissues more tender and more delicate. 1 

[The London market 2 is principally supplied with Oysters 
from beds at Whitstable, Rochester, Milton, Colchester, Bun> 
ham, Faversham, and Quceuborough. all artificial beds, fur- 
nishing natives. Those of the river Crouch, or Burnhani 
oysters, are pre-eminent for their marine flavour ; probably on 
account of the facilities for rapid importation of them in " 
condition. Besides these, considerable quantities of 
oysters, or those which grow upon natural bids, and which are 
sometimes called rock oysters, are brought from various parts 
of the coast. The sea oyster is often, before being brought to 
market, kept for a time in artificial beds to improve its flavour. 
Much of the quality depends on the ground and condition of 
the beds, and oysters of different years from the same p! 
often vary materially in this respect. They are considered 
grown for tbe market when from five to se 
oysters at four years. The age is shown by the annual 
of growth or shoots on the convex valve. Up to thi 
four years, each annual growth is easily observed, hut 
their maturity it is not so easy to count the layers, 
oysters become very thick in the shell. In the neighbourly 
of fresh water tbe oyster grows fast, and improves in body 

In London the chief consumption of the common or i 
oyster is "from the 4th of August to January, and 

1 See p. 86. 

1 A History <■/' llriti-Ji .M/ilhisni iL-ir ShelU, In- fclward Forbes »] 
Silvanus Hauley, vol, 2, pp. 313—319, London, 1653, 

FLMH. 171 

from October to March. The consumption is said to be 
greatest :n the hottest months after the commencement of the 
oyster season ; the warmer the weather, the more oysters are 
consumed. They are brought to market in craft of various 
sizes ; they are [lacked in bulk closely in the hold ; in. some 
cases a cask of salt water is kept, from which to sprinkle them 
superficially. Those that come by rail are packed with their 
convex shells downwards, in bags and barrels. From the 
boats they are transferred to the salesmen, who keep them in 
a little salt and spring water, and shift them every twelve 
hours. Some pretend to improve them by "feeding" them 
with oatmeal. Oysters, like other bivalves, live chiefly on 
infusoria. The quantity consumed annually in London varies 
in different seasons. One informant slates twenty thousand 
bushels of natives, one hundred thousand bushels of common 
oyBters, to be about the mark ; another estimates the quantity 
Si.ild iu tin 1 season, from I lie -II h of August to the I1MU of -May, 
to be nearly one hundred thousand London bushels, each 
bushel being three Manchester or imperial bushels ; and that 
about thirty thousand bushels of natives are sold during the 
same period by various companies. During the season com- 
mencing on August the 4th, 1848, and ending May 12th, 
1849, M. Wmkeiuleu estimates about one hundred and thirty 
thousand bushels of oysters to have been sold in London, 
though of that quantity about .one fourth was sent away to 
various parts of the United Kingdom and the Continent. 

Oysters of good repute are iished in the neighbourhood of 
tbe Channel Islands. There are tw r o oyster-banks, the one off 
Guernsey, and the other off Jersey. The former is of little 
importance ; the latter of considerable value. They belong to 
the region of ovster-bauk.s, which extends ill on" the coasts of 
Normandy and Brittany. Dr. Knapp states that the number 
annually procured here t'or the use of the Channel Islands and 
English markets cannot be less than eight hundred thousand 
tubs, each tub containing two English bushels ; and in some 
years thrice that quantity is believed to be procured from 
those hanks during the season. As many as three hundred 
cntterB have been employed upon them dredging. The oysters, 
on the Jersey bank, are of large size, and are sold at from five 
to seven shillings the tub, or from three to four pence per 

The oyster-fishery of most consequence in Scotland is that 
of the Frith of Forth. The oyster beds there extend about 
twenty miles, from the Island of Muera to Lockenzie, and are 



dredged in from four to six or seven fathoms water, 
price varies, wholesale (1S53), from two shillings to 
shillings and sixpence tin.' hundred; the retail price from 
and sixpence to four shillings and sixpence, or even 
shillings. Mr. George Moffat, fish dealer in Edinburgh, 
mates the number of oysters dredged in the Forth in 
season at 2,027,520 • only three fourth parts of which, how- 
ever, it is believed, are sent to Edinburgh, being 1,520,640, 
The same gentleman has calculated that 7,346 oysters are 
daily consumed in Edinburgh during the season, from the 
beginning of SqiteinluT till the end of April. 

On both sides of Ireland oysters abound in many places. 
There are oyster beds in the Shannon, said, in 1836, to yield i 
revenue of 1,400J. annually, and to employ seventy men ani 
sixteen boats.] 

The VeneridiE and the Mi/lilidis (ire far from being held h 
such repute as Oysters. These mollusca are eaten both tm 
and cooked. 

The Veneridce are collected in considerable quantities, ! 
are eaten by the poorer classes. 

It is principally two species which are fished: the Tetau 
viiyiiiea, Lion., and the I'ertwi tlecmisata, Linn., which h 
what smaller than the former. 

The Common MttKicl, Mf/lihia a/nlin, are sought after in 
many countries. An apothecary of Orleans has published a 
wort on the employment of these mollusca in affections of the 
air passages. 

Other salt and fresh water bivalves are eaten, as the Olamt, 
Razor-fishes, Scollops, CocMas, &C. 

[In England the common Mussel 1 is much used in many 
places for food, and still more for bait. Dr. Knapp, <._ 
Edinburgh, has given a very interesting account of the 
quantities of this animal destroyed annual! v in the neighbour- 
hood of that city. " As an article of food," he states these 
cannot be uBcd fewer than ten bushels per week in Edinburgh 
and Leith, say for forty weeks in the year, in all 400 bushels 
annually. Each bushel of mussels, when shelled and freed 
from all refuse, will probably contain from three to four pints 
of the animals, or about 900 or 1000, according to their size 
Taking the latter number, there will be consmned in Edinburgl 
and Leith about 400,000 mussels. This is a mere trifle com- 
pared to the enormous number used as bait for all sorts o 

>s aad Hauley, Opus cit, vol. 2, p. 1 7L 

fiah, especially haddocks, cod, ling, halibut, plaice, Bkate, 
whiting, &c. In Newhaven alone there arc four large deep-sea 
fishing boats, which generally go out three times a week, and 
fish for about thirty weeks in the year, excluding Sundays and 
bad weather. Each of these hosts carries eight men, with eight 
lines of 800 yards in length, which, at a low calculation, take 
1200 mussels to bait each time they are used; so that each 
boat will use 2W,80O mussels per week, equal to 864,000 per 
annum. There are sixteen smaller boats, whose consumption 
of mussels comes to 3,456,000. The total consumption of 
mussels for bait annually in Newh.ivcu alone may be reckoned 
at 4,320,000. At all the other fishing stations in this district 
a similar use is made of these abundant and prolific shell-fish, 
bo that Dr. Knap]) calculates that thirty or forty millions are 
used for bait alone by the fishermen of this district each year. 
The best mussels at Newhaven arc fished in three fathoms of 
water, and are sold at BJ. per basket, each containing nearly a 
bushel. Supposing each bushel contained 1000 mussels, this 
quantity would be worth more than 1300Z. 

The common Caekle is a sp.vies of shell-fish held in little or 
no estimation by the rich, but to the poor it is in some parts 
almost a necessary of life, and in others it affords thein a cheap 
and palatable luxury. 

The following remarks are taken from the authors already 
quoted : 

The edible Cockle, CnrJittiit eMe, inhabits most parts of the 
British coast, especially where there are large tracts of sand. 
The variety most common in our markets rarely exceeds an 
inch and four-fifths in length by an inch and a half in breadth, 
auJ comes in most instances from estuary sands. Every where 
this excellent mollusk is sought after for food, and it is one of 
the most savoury of its tribe; indeed, preferred by many 
persons to the oyster. It is equally good raw and cooked, 
dressed either by rousting or boiling, and gives a delicious 
flavour to fish sauce. In times of scarcity Ctrl-let have afforded 
valuable supplies of food for the poor, and in the Zetland isles 
bushels of their shells may be seen near cottages. Lieut. 
Thomas informs us that in Sanda, among the Orkney isles, 
during the late failure of the potato crop many of the poorer 
people subsisted almost entirely on Cockles. 

The following estimate of the quantity of fish of all kinds 

which arc hrought to the London market, is quoted from Mr. 

Mayhew's "London Labour and London Poor" byDr.Wynter,' 

1 Opus rir, p. 212. 

174 MEDK 

who remarks upon it, that the figures seemed to him to lie si 
enormous, that he hesitatingly submitted the table to one o 
the largest salesmen, who aBBured him that it was i 

Description of Fish. 

No. of Fish. 

Weight of 

Salmon and Salmon Trout {29,000 boxes, 14 



Li vi: Oml (averaging lolhs. each) - 
Si'li-j. (averaging jib. each) - 

4 00,000 




Wlr'tini: On-i'vupsi^ Sox. each) 
Haddock (averaging albs, each) - 
Plaico (averaging lib. each) - 


6. :20,0ft) 





Min'ki'rfl iavi!i-:-iL;!nj; lib. each) - 



Fresh Herrings (250,000 barrels, 700 flsli p" 



Ditto in bulk 



Eels from Holland (principally), England, ani 
Ireland (6 Ash per lb.) - 


I 9,797,760 

{ I27.6B0 

rloiind'.'i's (7200 qrtns. 36 fish per orta.) 



Dabs (T500 qrtns. 36 fish per qrtn.) - 



Barrelled Cod (15,000 barrels, 40 fish per 



Dried Salt Cod (51bs. each) - - - - 



Smoked Haddock (65,000 barrels, 300 fish per 

19,500,000 10,920,000 

Hl..;i|..'i> (Ulis.uori hi.n-rl-, 150 fisli per barrel) 

147,000,000 10,600.000 

Red Herrings (100,000 barrels, 500 fish per 

barrel) ....... 


1 4,000,000 

Dried Sprats (9,600 large bundles, 30 fish per 

bundle) ....... 



Oysters ■ T"*. - *. - - 


T.-il>sri-rs iavcrniriiii; lib, each fish) 



Crabs (averaging lib. each fish) - 


Shrimps (326 to a pint) - 


Wilka (227 to half bushel) - 


Mussels (1000 to half bushel) 


Cockles (2000 to half bushel) 

lVriwinklos (Jimih.o half bushel) 


The species -if Simih whit-h are sought for in France are, i 
the North, the Edible snail, Helix I'oinal in (lig. -18); the Woo, 
snail, H. Syluatiea, Drap. ; and the Grove Snail, JL nemorttlit 
Linn. At Hontpellier, the common snail, H, aspersa, Mul 

the II. Lvrmie ulala. Mull. ; the H. Fitatut, Miill. ; and even the 
H. variabilis, Drap. In the department of the Vaucluse, the 

Helix pemalia.' 

?ulata, H, Fisana, H. variabilis, the 
Heath snail, H. ericetorum, and BometimM the H. Altfira, 
Lran. In Provence, the species just enumerated, and in addi- 
tion H. aperta, Born, and II. mflnnvslonia, Drap. In certain 
localities the ITrlix wpitiun and II. linmta are also eaten ; and 
in others the H. hortemus, Mull., and II. urbuetorum, Linn., 
or Shrub snail. 

All these snails do not produce eiaetly the same kind of 
flesh. Epicures set u r reat storo Ijv the Ilrlij: vcnitwutata, which 
is known at Montpellier by the name of the Mbrmuta (modest), 
because it draws itself far into its shell. The If. uatica is con- 
sidered still more tender and delicate ; it is called in Provence 
Tapada (closed), on account of the eak'itreous lid which closee 
up the shell. The species which is hardest is the Helix 

Snails are principally collected towards the close of winter, 
before they have taken fresh food. It is said that those in- 
dividuals which inhabit elevated situations are the best; it is 
also asserted that the animals retain the flavour and perfume 
of the plants they have eaten. This is, no doubt, the reason 
why the Snails of certain countries, or of certain districts, are 
held in high repute. 

The flesh of Snails is generally tough and insipid. It is 
necessary to prepare them with strong seasonings, as with 
plenty of ham, anchovies, parsley, aromatic herbs, pepper, or 
garlic. It is moreover a kind of food which digests but 

imal qitcnrted, with a separate view of the jmr. 

sn to 



At various periods considerable pains have been taken 
obtain these lnollusks in large quantities. 

The Kornans kept them in pens called cochlearia, (Varron.)' 
They were fattened with various plants. A amall quantity of 
wine and Bome laurel leaves were added to give them a better 
flavour. The pens were situated in moist shady plaees, and 
were surrounded by a ditch or wall. Pliny has not forg. 
to transmit to us the name of the person who invented the 
cochlearia. 1 Addison has given a lull description of that 
capuchin monks at Fribourg. 

Besides these, many of the marine Cia.-deropods are eat , 

for instance, some of the Mitrrridie, Turbos, Liitorimdw, B\ 
cinidw, Strombid/s, and PatdlidtE. 

6. Flesh of Arliculata. — Amongst these animals is the Ori 
fish, Astacus ftuviatilf.8 ; 3 2, the Prawn, Pahsmtm aerraiu* ; 
the Common tqihiy LobsU-r, Puliiivrus rulqaris ; 4, the Lobxtt 
Momarw vulgaris ; 5, the Common ulioro Crab, Corvinu* Me 

The flesh of all these animals is hard and fibrous, and is apl 
to resist the action of the gastric juice. Nevertheless, that of 
the Gray-fish is nut very dillieult of digestion; but the other 
species, especially the Lobsters and the Crabs, are frequent 
sources of indigestion. 

[Enormous quantities of Lobsters are consumed in London; 
they are taken on various parts of the English e oast, particularly 
on rocky shores. From the southern and western coasts a con- 
siderable number are constantly sent off to the London markets, 
by the South- Western Mail way from Southampton, and by the 
Great Western from Bristol ; also by steamers from Guernsey 
and Jersey ; and again from the coast of Ireland to Liverpool. 
From the coast of Scot] a ml, the Ovl;ney and Lewes islands, it 
is computed that not less than 150,000 reach the market at 
Billingsgate; but the principal supply is from Norway, from 
whence there is sent not less than £i00,000. There is often in 
the season a supplv at Billingsgate of not less than from 20,000 
to 25,000 lobsters in one day],* 

7. The flesh of Radio to. — Amongst this group are several 
Species of the Sea Jl.cdge-hog. The inhabitants of Provence 
and of Langucdoc are Join! of the Echinus meitlentm, Linn. 
_E. lividux, Deslong. ; and E. granulans, Lamk. The latter 

1 Cochlearium vivaria (Pliny). 

* He calls Mm Fulvias Hispima. 
' See p. 96, M. Lereboullet has recently described two new species. A, 

lofiuicomii and A. pailipes. 

* A Htiiory of British Crustacea, by Thos. Bel], p. 2*3, London, 184S. 


species, is also procured on the coasts of Naples and La Mancbe. 
Ill Corsica and Algeria the Echinus mi-lo, Liimk,, is miide use 
of. Some species of Holothuria are also eaten lit Naples, the 
Holothuria tubulosa, Blainv. ; at the Ladrone islands, the II. 
OtUm mti*, Quoy and Qaim; and in China, the Tn/niiuj. II. 
fdulii. Less. 

BuoTii. — The flesh of animals serves for the preparation of 
hi;,U,x, ■! liquid and very nourishing kind of food, which is ex- 
tremely useful both to the invalid and to the convalescent. 

Broth is an aqueous solution, the base of which consists of 
some kind of flesh ; it is made by boiling the meat for a long 
time oyer a slow fire. Broth always contains gelatine, fat, 
and osmazoine. Some vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, or 
lettuces, are generally added, which somewhat alter Us cnm- 
position. The broth which is principally used is made from 
Beef. The more this kind of I'md is onncentratod the greater 
is the amount of nourishment which it contains ; 2'iO lbs. of 
meat will yield two hundred basins of broth of more iban half 
a pint each, or altogether 17t> piuts of broth, and 110 lbs. of 
the boiled meat. 

Broth is also made from bones, to which n small quantity of 
meat is added and a largi- quantity .it' vegetables. The quantity 
procured from the bones is to thai which is obtained from meat 
as 3 to 2. One hundred pounds of meat, of which a quarter is 
employed to make broth, with two pounds and a quarter of 
gelatine obtained from bones, w ill give two hundred basins of 
broth and eleven pounds of boiled meat ; while the remainder 
would furuisli fort v- four pounds of roast meat. 

[In cases of irritable stomach, where the ordinary ltinds of 
food cannot be retained, as, for instance, in the obstinate 
nausea and vomiting which sometimes accompany pregnancy, 
a preparation known under the name of Liebiifs New Soup for 
Invalids is reeouunemled us being often t'nlcrated when every 
other kind (if food is rejected. It is (mule as follows; — 

Take i lb. of newly killed beef or fowl, chop it very line, 
add 1£ lb. of distilled water, four drops of pure muriatic acid, 
34 to 67 grains of common salt, and stir well together. After 
an hour the whole is to be thrown on a conical hair sieve, and 
the fluid allowed to pass through without any pressure. The 
first thick portions which run through are to be returned to 
the sieve, until the Huid tillers through quite clear. On the 
flesh residue in the sieve pour slowly ' lb. nf distilled water, 
and let it percolate through. There will be thus obtained 
rather more than a pound of cold fluid (cold extract of flesh) 


of a red colour, and possessing a pleasant taste of soup ; < 
which from one tableepoonful to a cup may he taken a 
pleasure. It must not he warmed, since it is rendered muddj 
by heat, awl deposits a thick coagulmu of alhumen and tht 
colouring matter of blood. When the flavour is thougl 
disagreeable it may be concealed by the addition of a 
claret]. 1 

There are several other kinds of broth which are occasion* 
made use of ; these are : — ■ 

1. Veal broth.— This contains only a small quantity i 

felatine, of fat, and of osmazome, and is not very nourishing. 
t is employed as a drink rather tliiin as food. When much 
diluted it constitutes Veal water. A broth is also prepared 
from the lungs of the calf. 

2. Chicken broth.— This contains gelatine, a small quantity 
of fat and of osmazome. It is still lighter and less nourishing 
food than the preceding. 

3. Tortoise hroth is prepared rom the flesh of the Tettvdo 
Grwca, Linn., of the T. Mauritania!, Dinner, and of the T. 
marginata, Selieepf. These species are Terrestrial, and common 
in Algeria; the third is also found in the Morea. Some of the 
fresh water tortoises may be substituted for them, such as yel- 
low Tortoise, Texiutlo Europata, Gray, from the south of 
Europe, or the Emi/x (\t*pir/r, Ni.-h\i\. ami I he _/:'. Sir/rix, Dumer ; 
the one inhabits the eastern parts of Europe, aud the other 
Spain and Algeria. 

4. Viper broth, Vipera A.ipi.t, "Mei-rem, is made from the 
animal after the head, skin, and intestines have been removed. 
This broth was formerly regarded :is a powerful remedy in 
obstinate gonorrhea, and ;is capable of restorinn the powers of 
the body when they have been exhausted by excess. It is 
nearly banished from the list of materia medica. 

5. Frog broth. — This contains gelatine and a small quantity 
of osmazome. It is insipid, and has very Little nutriment. It 
is considered to he a cooling diet : it is made from the green 
or common Frog, Sana gtcvlenta, I.iun., aud also from the 
Sana temporaria, Linn. : 125 grammes or 1!)28 grains of frog's 
thighs are put into 500 grammes or four times the same 
quantity of water. 

[The common Frog of this country is the Kana tem- 
poraria : the R. eBCulenta, or edible Frog, does not exist in 

j :■ 

G. Snail broth. — This is even less nourishing than the last. 
In. the north of France it is made from the large HelLt 
pomatia; in the south from //. an/irrsii and venniculata ;' in the 
Isle of France the Navicella elliptica, Latnk., is made use of for 
this purpose. 

7. Ountrr broth. — This is regarded as a restorative and an 

8. Cray-Jish broth- — This alsi> ranks as a restorative, and 
was formerly recommended in phthisis, in leprosy, and other 
cutaneous affections.* 

§ IV. Albumen. 

Albumen is a colourless, inodorous, and tasteless substance, 
which is coagulated bv heat. This coagulation commences at 
a temperature of lOi 6 Fnh., but it is not complete except at a 
temperature of from 140" to 158°. "When its solution is 
extremely diluted, heat does not thicken it; but by boiling 
and evaporating it in vacuo a residue is obtained of insoluble 
albumen. Alcohol precipitates albumen from its solutions. 
If water ia poured upon the precipitate, a portion of it is 
redissolved ; another portion is converted into coagulated 
albumen. The latter contains all the properties of fluid albu- 
men, except its solubility. Albumen contains a small quantity 
of sulphur and of phosphorus. 

It ia very useful in the treatment of the first stage of 
poisoning from the salts of copper and of mercury. Mixed 
with a large quantity of water it is successfully employed as 
an emollient. Some practitioners have recommended it in the 
treatment of certain cases of yellow lever. Mixed with oil it 
is stated to relieve the pain in parts which have beeu burnt ; 
it has also been administered in diseases of the eyes. In some 
cases of fracture the limb is surrounded by hut bandages Boaked 
in albumen; it has been used as a dressing for slight exco- 
riations of the skin. It is, however, principally employed for 
clarifying wine, beer, and vegetable juices. Its nutrient pro- 
perties, either alone or in combination with other animal 
principles, have been previously noticed.' 
§ V. Gelatine. 
This substance is obtained by boiling the skin, ligaments, 
tendons, membranes, cellular tissue, or bones of animals in 

1 See pages B3, 174. 
' See pages 8B, 168. 
' See page 96. 
* Seepage 162. 




water.' It ib first obtained in solution by evaporation ; 
then concentrated, and as it cools it forma a tremulous 
and becomes gelatine 

A question arises as to v.-[ii'tiicv-'/i'l,t/iiif exists ready formed 
in tbe animal structures which yield it, or whether the com- 
position of then' structures is changed by the action of the 
i appears to be the most 

£le molecular movement, 
e game aa that of the 

boiling water? The latter opin 
probable ; but the alteration ih a e 
for the composition of gelatine i 
tissue from which it is derived. 

Pure gelatine is solid, but its hardness and consistence 
vary greatly ; it is heavier than water, semi-transparent, 
colourless, inodorous, and tasteless. It possesses great ad- 
hesive properties, and it is from this substance that common 
glue, Flanders glue,* month glue, and food lozenges are made. 
Gelatine is only slightly soluble in cold water, but readily 
dissolves in boiling water. In order that a hot solution should 
form a jelly in cooling, it must contain at least 2-£ parte of 
gelatine to every 100 of water. If it is boiled too long a certain 
quantity of water becomes united with the gelatine, which in 
consequence is changed, and will no longer form a jelly. 

Gelatine is partially soluble in dilute, but not in strong 
alcohol; it is precipitated by tannin. 

Ligaments and tendons by boiling yield a kind of gelatine, to 

which Mudler has given the name of choudrin. It differs 

principally from ordinary gelatine in not being precipitated 

by tannin. 

It i 

if pharmacy. 

The purest gelatine is tnown under the name of grenetine 
[from Grenet, the name of the maker] ; it is more especially 
employed in pharmaceutical preparations. 

Stag's Hou.v (wiik Cera').— During the summer the fur 
of the common Stag is of a yellowish brown colour, with a 
black line along the back, while the sides of the animal are 
marked with numerous pale spots. In winter time it is of a 
unif orm greyish brown colour. The rump, the buttocks, and 
the tail are always of a pale reddish colour. The head of the 
Stag is provided with horns, which were formerly used in the 
manufacture of medicated jellies and of emollient drinks. 
The horns are shed every year during the spring and are 

e from young animals.] 

re-produced in the summer. At first the new horns are 
simple protuberances, and are known by the name of Jaqt, but 
as they grow thev branch into a number of projections termed 
antlers. The extremities of the antlers are known in pharmacy 
as horn tips. In the fourth vear tlie horn termini 
expansion termed the palm, which is provided with a number 
of points. The burr is a rough channelled projed li tin- 
base of the horn. The female of the Stag or Jtiml hoi H 

The horn tips are divided into small fragments by tucniin of 
a knife or a file. They are then boiled for some time in wafer, 
to which thev give up their gelatinous principle. Isinglass is 
now generally substituted for Stub's horn. 

Besides gelatine, Stag's horn furnished several oilier pre- 
parations, which are uow rarely made use of. These TOM 
1. Volatile essence of Stag* horn, which is only au olonginoiM 
Bubcarbouate of ammonia. 2. Vuhitile oil of Slo-j's horn; this 
is very similar to Dippel's auiinal oil, and consists essentially 
of subearbonate of ammonia. 

Stags' horns were also calcined (cornu uttuw), ground Up, 
and made into lozenges. 

[A preparation of this kind is Btill retained in the Phurmo- 

CoHNU rsTTTM. Burnt horn. — Burn pieces of homt in an 
open vessel until they bei otiic perfcel Iv while ; then powder mid 
prepare them in the same manner as directed with respect to 

In the older editions of the Pharmacopeia this prepara! ion 
was termed Cornu Cervi ustitin and Cornu Cervi calcinatum, 
and was accordingly directed to be made from Stags' horns. 

This substance is sometimes used in the manufacture of 
tooth powder; it contains u large ipiaulitv of phosphate and tl 
small quantity of carbonate of lime; it can only ncl niecliaiii- 
cally as a fine powder, and is in no respect superior to the 
common prepared chalk.] 

The same uses were formerly made of the horns of the Elk, 
C. Alee*. Linn. ; the Fallow Deer, C. Dama, Linn. ; and of the 
Eein Deer, C. Tarundus, Linn. 

Isinglakb,- Tsivt/hm or Fish ghte \* the prepared air blad- 
der or swimming bladder of the Sturgeon. The Sturgeons 
(Acipenser) belong to the cartilaginous fishes and to the family 

The flesh of these animals is held in high estimation. Their 
feeundity is extraordinary; a single female has been known 
to contain 1,467,857 eggs. When these musses of eggs or 


s Bolted, they form the article of food 

The species from which isinglass 
the Huso or G-reat Sturgeon. It i: 
Seunuo, the Sterlet, and the Stttrio or common 8tm 
The following ia a summary of the character! of these 
species : 

(entire ( short The Huso. 

The lipi 

J Snont 

long { 

- 1 i.ii ■_■ i . i and m 
tuned and broad 

1 known as 
procured is 

The IIuso, Aripmsi-r Hum, Linn., inhabits the tributary 
streams of the Caspian and Black seas. It ib sometuues pro- 
cured in the Po. 

The back is of a dark blue, almost black colour, and the 
belly of a clear yellow ; the body is long, the head large, and 
the snout very obtuse. It is from 10 ft. to 16 ft. long, and 
weighs upwards of 200 lbs. ; it has been known to measure as 
much as 30 ft., and to exceed 2000 lbs. in weight. 

The Sewrugn, A. strfhilux, I'albis, inhabits the rivers which 
empty themselves into the Black and Caspian seas, particularly 
thf Volga and the Danube. 

The back is of a brown colour, and the belly white. It 
seldom more than 3J ft. in length. 

The Sterlet, A. Buthenus, Linn., is found in the Caspi 
aea, in the Volga and the Ural. 

It is distinguished by the blaek colour of its back, by 
yellow plates, and by its white belly shaded with pink ; 
upper and candid lints arc grey, and the lower Ted. The plal 
which coyer the body arc arranged in three rows. 

It is of the same Bize as the previous specie*; i 
rare to meet with individuals 4£ ft. in length. Its weight 
from 30 lba. to 37 lbs. 

The Common Stun/eon, A. Stttrio, Linn. (fig. 4! 
species is found in various parts of the ocean, in the Medi- 
terranean, the Red. the Eusiue, and the Caspian aeas 

In the summer time it ascends the great rivers, particular! 
the Volga, the Danube, the Po, the Garonne, the Loire, tl 
Rhine, &c. (Laeepede.) 

[This species has been caught in the river ThameB.] 

The plates on the body are arranged in five longitut 
rows. Individuals arc commonly met with varying from 13 
to 16 ft. in length. One which was captured in the Loire, 
presented to Francis I„ measured nearly 20 ft. ; some are si 
to have measured 25 ft. 

GEHTuns. 168 

In the preparation of isinglass, the air bladder of the 
Sturgeon is first well cleaned, stripped of rta exh 

brane, which is of a diirk brown colour, and freed l'i i all the 

blood which it contains. It is thou split open longil nihimlU . 

cut up into pieces, wash (.'il, kneaded by llii' hands", aiade up 
into different forms, and afterwards left to dry gradually ID 
the shade. 

Four kinds of raw isinglass are known in commerce i 1. E|ff< 

Isinglass [long mid short staph' of Foolish market]. Thin con- 
sists of small cylinders folded upon themselves so as In bear a 
rude resemblance to an ancient lyre. 2, Ilfnr/-n/»i 
[also known as long and short staple]. This null diffeffl ffOtB 
the former as to the manner in ivbich the cylinders an- folded. 
3. Book isinglass. This consists of layers fob led into squares 
and joined together by means of a sleel which jiassi'S through 
them. 4. Leaf isinglass, which only differs iron thfl former 
in the folds being separate. The first is the pureil and I In- 
most valuable. 

Isinglass is also sold in the form of tablet*. This is of less 
value than the other kinds, and is made by boiling tho Bnl, 
heads, and other parts of the Sturgeon, and thru spreading 
them out on boards. 

Isinglass is bleached by means of sulphurous acid. When 
cut up into long strips, a very excellent kind of QlS*glua 
is made from "it, which is known as English glue. 

From purified isinglass is also formed another kind of fish- 
glue, known as glass glue or vitreous glue (cilreuse). 

It is calculated that 1000 large Sturgeons yield lit! t lbs. of 
isinglass, which is about 4 m. 3^ dr. for each individual. The 
Sterlets would not produce more than 80 lbs., which is about 
one-third of the former quantity. 

Isinglass is principally obtained from the ports of Russia 
on the borders of the Caspian Sea. The Dutch were formerly 


largely engaged in this kind of manufacture, but the article 
was of au inferior quality. 

Isinglass is almost entirely composed of an animal substance 
which is readily conycrled into gelatine. 

Ishighiss is light, coriaceous, of a whitish colour, semi- 
transparent, and bears some resemblance to parchment ; it is 
tasteless, inodorous, and insoluble in cold water, but dissolves 
in boiling water, and forms a transparent jelly in cooling. 
Fifteen grains of mtii/his* are snlUeient to impart a firm con- 
sistence to an ounce of water. 

Besides the various species of Sturgeon, isinglass may be 
obtained from the air bladder of several other fish, as this 
organ always contains a large quantity • ■£" gelatine; but this 
kind of isinglass is of an inferior quality to that from the S 
geon. Thus it is obtained from some of the Siluridte ; and a 
Lyons a very transparent vitreous-like isinglat 
the scales of the Carp. 

An inferior kind of itiittghm is known i: 
is made from the air bladder of the Cod, and also a false 
isinglass manufactured from the stomach of the calf. Pereira, 
Las described a kind of false ismi/his* from Para, which is 
nothing more than the ovary of some large fish, probably, he 
says, of the SuiUs O-iaas. 

Isingliss is used for the purpose of clarifying numerous 
liquids. [Cotirl or Blurt shaking Piaster is made with a 
solution of isinglass and tincture of benzoin laid upon black 

It is employed in the making of jollies, syrups, and blanc- 
mange. [Considered medicinally, it is emollient and demul- 
cent. It is employed, dissolved in water or milk, and rendered 
palatable by acid and sugar, as a nutritious substance for 
invalids and' convalescents. (Pereira.)] 

Sippocollr is a kind of ulue made from the skin of th 
which comes from India and China, it is obtained from t: 
tilages of the Ass and the Zelra ,- it answers for the t 
purposes as isinglass. It is considered to be a. mild astr 

Skin. — The skin of some c 
For several purposes. 

That of the Chatiwis, Antifope niph-npra, Pall., is valuable o 
account of its great pliability ; it is used for the purpose o 

1 It is also known under the Dame of iodMai or hoUai. The ChinMi 
call it itgu-kiao mhoki-hao. It in a strongly siromatiseil gelatin' 

rating mercury fVoin other metals; by ft™ mm},', tht CDW- 
y passes through the pores of tin- skin while the impurities 
are retained. 

That of the Gnzrlh: . bi/i/c/ie Dotvm, Pall., is used for pocking 
the hepatic and socotrine nines of commerce. 

The akin of the Skeep, Ovis Aries, Linn., according to the 
mode in which it is prepared, furnishes purclimi nl and chuumis 
and nioroeco leather. In pharmacy it is used for the making 
of piasters. 

Nests of Esculent Swallow.— The nests of these birds 
maybe associated with in ins; hiss, which they closely resemble 
in their appearance. The birds belong to the family of the 

There are five species of the ICttaitent Sictillow; four of 
which belong to the Indian Archipelago. Only one species is 
found in the Isle of France. The principal species are the 
Common Esculent Sirtil/uic,' distinguished by a white natch 
at the base of the tail feathers, and the fiicus-eat iug swailow,- 
which is of a uniform brown colour. 

The nests have an oval cup-like form, they are from 2J to 
2£ inches in length and about an inch and a half in width. 
They are firmly attached to the rock. They have a yellow 
colour, are semi-transparent, and of a firm and tenacious con- 
sistence. The free edge of the nests is somewhat thickened, 
their surface is rough, and when broken they present a 
vitreous-like fracture. They are formed in successive layers. 

Many naturalists have supposed that these nests were com- 
posed of the remains of certain lisli. or of the mucilage of various 
Zoophytes ; others have believed that the birds formed them 
from the juice of a tree, with the fronds of lichens, or from 
gelatinous sea weeds. It is now ascertained that at the period 
of nidification the birds disgorge a viscid humour, which is 
secreted by the salivary glands or by the follicles of the crop ;' 
it is analogous to the fluid with which the European swallows 
cement the clay of which their nests are constructed.* 

There are three gatherings of the nests in a year. Those 
which are intended for the first laving of eggs are the purest 
and the most valuable ; those which belong to the last aro 

1 Callocalui Urat, HirunJn iwuihata, Linn. 

5 Ctilhettiiti fm-ifilutiiii, C. .Boiiup., Hirtindt) fiiciftujti, Thutib., Calfocatia 

iifica, Gray. 

' E. Home, Blyt, L&idlej, Itler. 

* According to a Chinese physician these ucsta are formed of the con- 

"dttttd yuslric juiei: tritli:>iit uinj ■itlmUlim. (Iticr.) 


mixed with feathers and fragments of vegetation. In Bom. 
there are found portions of algte and lichens, ((iuibourt.) 
It is probable that the nests of the different spews do not 

resemble earh other. 

The material of which the nests are composed is insoluble 
in cold water, but softens by moisture ; it dissolves in boiling 
water in the same manner as gelatine. Every 100 parts 
contain 9025 of animal matter and some salts. (Muller.) The 
nests are supposed to possess restorative properties. (Cuvier). 
They are used for the purpose of making soups and various 
kinds of ragouts. They are also prepared like mushrooms. 
Their substance softens and resembles vermicelli. 
§ VI. Fat. 

Fat is a secretion of the adipose tissue of animals. It exists 
in considerable quantities beneath the skin, on the surface of 
the muscles, in the omentum, at the base of the heart, and 
around the kidneys. It becomes fluid at a temperature of 
from 59° to 10-1° Pah. 

The fat of the Pig has received the name of hofa lard, this 
term being more especially applied to it after it has been 
purified. The fat of the Sheep is termed met. 

Fat is freed from the foreign matters with which it is mixed 
by cutting it into Bmall pieces, melting it at a moderate tem- 
perature in water, then pouring it efl' and filtering it through 
a fine cloth. Some persons recommend that the water in 
which the melting takes place should have a certain quantity 
of sulphuric acid mixed with it. [Many plans of purifying 
fats have been proposed ; one of the best is to mix two per 
cent, of strong sulphuric acid with a quantity of water, in 
which the tallow is heated for some time with much stirring ; 
to allow the materials to cool, to take off the supernatant fat, 
and re-melt it with abundance of hot water. 1 ] 

Fat is usually of a sottish consistence, but varies in this 
respect according to the animal, and according to the part 
from which it iB obtained. It is lighter than water, colourless, 
or of a yellow tint, sometimes odorous, sometimes inodorous, 
and has a bland insipid taste. It is essentially composed of 
elaine, a body which is liquid at a temperature of 46° Fah., 
and is only slightly soluble in alcohol even when boiling, and 
of stearine, which melts at a temperature of 100° Fah., [Brande 
says about 110° Fah.,] and is still less soluble in alcohol. 
Acted upon by a solution of caustic potassa these substances 
1 Sue I're's Die. of Arts anil Sciences, art. Fat 




are converted into two acids : oleic acid, which ia principally 
derived i'rom the elaine, and marganc acid, winch appears to 
be formed in a great measure by the atearine. 

Lard is a while, soil, semi-trans parent fat, Kith little or no 
Bmell ; it melts at about S0 C ' Fab. [In order to separate this 
fat from the membrane in which it is contained, it is melted over 
a slow Are, then strained through flannel or linen, and poured 
■while b'quid into a bladder, where it solidifies on cooling {adept 
pr<rparafw). Occasionally salt is added to preserve it; but 
uncalled lard should he employed for medicinal purposes. By 
melting in boiling water, lard may be deprived of any salt 
which may have been mixed with it. "While solidifying, lard 
should be kept stirred, to prevent the separation of the stearine 
and elaine. (Fereira.)] 

Suet is a white hard fat ; it melts at from 98° to 125° Fah. 

Beef fat is of a pale yellow colour ; it has scarcely any smell, 

id melts at 100° Fah. 

Sear's fat is of a yellowish white colour, semi-fluid, of a 
peculiar odour, and has a nauseous taste. 

Goose fat is of a yellow colour and has a disagreeable smell ; 
it melts below 80 n Fah. 

Ostrich fat, Stmthio Canning, Linn. — This is a fine, white, 
firm fat, with only a slight odour resembling that of the pre- 
ceding ; it melts at about 79° Fab. ' (Duroziez.) 

Writers mention several other kinds of fat, which were 
formerly used in medicine ; a b'st of these has been given in 
the first book of this work.* 

Lard is used in the manufacture of the various kinds of oint- 
ments and pomades. 

After a certain time fat undergoes a change; it turns yellow 
and becomes rancid. 3 In order to prevent lard from turning 
rancid, it should be carefully covered up and kept in a cool 
place. M. Deschanip (d'Ava'lhm) recommends that it should be 
impregnated with the odoriferous and resinous principles of the 
buds of the poplar or with benzoin. The first process consists in 
adding from twelve to one hundred of the buds. This fat is of 
a green colour, and cannot, therefore, be used for making white 
pomades. It becomes of an orange colour when mixed with an 
alkali. Benxoinated fat is prepared by heating in a water-bath 
for two or three hours four parts of pounded benzoin in 100 

1 An Ostrich will supply nearly one-tbird of its weight of fat. (Gos 

1 MM. Fl. Provost and Em. Rousseau state that the fat of the Ostrich 
has very little tendency to become ranoid. 


parts of fresh fat, and stirring while cooling. This fat beeomem 
rancid sooner than that which has been mixed with the buds 
of the poplar. M. Koubeiran proposes to substitute, for the 
benzoin, th% balaam of tola, which is left in the preparation of 
the syrup. One hundredth part by weight of the tolu dissolved 
in alcohol is to be mixed with the lard; it is then to be warmed 
and stirred for the purpose of evaporating the spirit. 

Lard is adulterated with inferior kinds of fat and with salt. 
Plaster of Paris i* also sometimes mixed with lard. The two 
last adulterations are easily detected by melting the lard ii 
water; the salt is dissolved, aud the plaster is precipitated. 

§ Vll. Oils. 

Animal oils 1 are fatty substances characterised by the great 
fusibility remaining liquid al a temperature below (.>"" 
50° Fab. 

Animal oil is produced in great abundance by the Whale 
and the Porpoise. 

Whale oil, known under the name of FUh oil. is obtained 
from the Common Urwnlaml Whale"- and by the Rorqual, 
species of Whales in which the skin of the throat and the belly 
is arranged in folds or plica. The fat or blubber of these ani- 
mals is iirst rut away with enormous knives ; it is then divided 
into smaller pieces, packed in casks, and afterwards melted. 

This kind of oil is thick, of a dark brown colour, aud has a 
rancid fishy smell ; it becomes congealed at a temperature of 
32° Fah. The Whale produces an enormous quantity of oil ; 
a single individual is capable of yielding a ship's cargo.' [A 
ship's cargo will, of course, vary with the size of the vessel 
and the quantity of oil, with the species of whale and the a L 
and size of the individual ; hut. after making all allowance for 
the difference which may arise from these causes, the above 
statement seems exaggerated. The largest cargo ^ver known 
by Dr. ScoreBby to have been brought to this country, wi 
that by Captain Moutor, of the Resolution, of Peterhead, i . 
1814. It consisted of I'ortv-l'our whales, yielding two hundred 
and ninety-nine tons of oil, which sold at f!l,3(iis : and adding 
the whalebone and the bounty, which was at that time allowed 
to whaling vessels by the government, the entire return* 
amounted to £11,000. The total value of the British whale- 


fishery for t lie same year, which was a yery favourable olio, 
was £700,000.] 

Tk» Oil of the Porpoiee, Drlphinm globia-pt, Cuv„ is of a 
citron colour, and its sp. gr, 0'91 at a temperature of 68'"'' Fall. 
It is vi-n soluble in alcohol. It contains less cetine 1 than 
wbale oB> and much more phocine. 

According to M. Bertbelot the latter principle forms a tenth 
part; in another species, probably the Dclphinim marginahu, 
l)uvern., the same chemist found only the one hundredth part of 
this substauce. In other Cetacea there are only tracea of 

OU is obtained from the Ihtgong and the Spermaceti whale* 

Oil is also found in the organs or in the productions of some 
other animals ; as. for instance, in the yelk of birds' eggtj this 
is easily extracted by compression. 

In the distillation of mtrogenised organic matters, such na 
Wood, bones, muscle, &c, a very thick, brown, extremely fetid 
oil is obtained. When this lias been distilled several times, it 

forma a colourless liquid, which has long been known as Sip- 
pel's animal oil; it was formerly in great repute in the treat- 
~ '* "f diseases of the nervoiiB system. 

Milk is 


glands of the female mammalia. 

what viscid fluid, with an agreeable odour, which 11 

by heat, and has a mild sweet taste. 

Milk consists of a mucdaginous solution, which holds in 
■uspensiona fatty matter composed of small spherical globules. 

§ vm. Milk, 
i emulsive fluid, which is secreted by the mammary 
white, opaque, si 

' SM p. 9. 


r caseine, albumen, butter, sugi 


It is composed of easeur 
of milk, and several salts. 

"When milk is evaporated, as in boiling, < 
it, a pellicle forms on the surface, and if this is removed it i 
replaced by a second. This pellicle is almost entirely t 
posed of caseous matter and of cream. 

The principal milks are those of the Cow, the Sheep, the 
Goat, the Woman, the Ass, and the Mure. 

1. Cow's milk has a density of 1-0324. It is of a yellowish 
white colour, very opaque, and with a sweet taste. It contains 
in every 1000 parts, 885 parts of water, 35 of soluble and in- 
soluble caseous matter aud albumen, 30 of butter, 40 of sugar 
of milk, of the phosphates of lime, magnesia, potash, soda, 
and iron, of the chlorides of potassium and sodium, and 
of soda. 

When milk is left undisturbed its surface becomes gradually 
covered with a thick, unctuous, yellow layer ; this is cream ; it 
consists of large globules, which, when united by the process 
of churning, forms butter. The cream separates but slowly, in 
consequence of its density differing but little from that of the 
milk ; it is compiist/d of butter (huh/nun) and of milk. "When 
agitated the butter separates and leaves a fluid termed butter- 
milk. This liquid contains all the elements of the milk, but 
ODly a very little caseum, and a large proportion of butyric 
acid. When nearly all the cream has been removed, it is 
skimmed milk ,- when this is left to itself acetic and lactic acids 
are formed and coagulate the casein. A clear yellow liquid 
with a sweet taste then separates, which is termed icliey. The 
coagulation of the caseous matter (curds) is usually accom- 
plished by artificial means. 

When milk is filtered it leaves behind it the insoluble 
caseous matter and the fat globules; a clear fluid passes 
through, which becomes thickened and coagulated by heat in 
proportion to the quantity of albumen which it contains. 

The caseous matter or casein exists in considerable quantity 
in milk under the form of very minute globules ; it is insipid 
and inodorous. Its composition is the same as that of 

Butter, 1 or the fatty matter of milk, is met with in the form 
of globules, varying in Size from ,,-giyy t"-nroVoo °f an inch. It 
is composed of three fatty bodieB : oleine t 
and butyrine. 

1 In Psria there was consumed, in 1S67, 10,661,366 francs worth of 

MTtK. 101 

Sugar of milk or Bait of milk (lac/inr) is solid, Of » I* Mr} 

flavour, and with no smell. It crackles l».'twoen I lie tooth. It 
crystallizes in white, semi trans pa rent, regular prisms. \t the 
ordinary temperature of the atmosphere water will diwuilvo one- 
ninth part of its weight. Occasionally a mniill ••unrilily of 
blood is found in milk. (Lepage.) -More niroly then ll titO 

found infuse.) I* Nil aniimileuho u lii'-li change its onloitr 

2. Sheep's milk has a density of 10406. It give-t man 
cream and butter than that of the Cow; hut its hutU'r in 
softer, and melts mure easily, while ita casein is mure pinn 
and more viBeid. 

3. Goat's milk has a density of 1*08-10. It giws off lln> 
odour of the goat. Its fatty matter is thick, anil ils butter 
firm and white, hut is less in quantity than in the two prtTJOU 

4. Human milk has a density of I 028. II euiitainH a i 

Biderable quantity of sugar of milk and very little milrinO. 
Tbe latter is very soft, viscous, and tremulous. This mill, con- 

a good deal of cream. 

5. Ass's milk has a density of 10855. It has tint KHM Mf*> 
ince, smell, and taste aa human milk. It contain* li- i 

I, and what there is is not wo thick ; its buiicr El soil, 
bite, and insipid ; its casein is less in quantity, ami snl'l. 
" Mare's milk has a density of HW-Hi. II contains yen 
I butter; its casein ia soft, and its scrum tnlerahlV 
indant. The Kalmucks, by acidulating and fermenting tins 
k, obtain from it araka. (Paliaa.) 
L ACTO D ENS imetf.h.— Que veil ne has invented an instrument 
r the purpose of determining the density ot' milk, which ho 
terms a lactodensivinter. It is an areometer. The density of 
■water being 1000, the average density of pure milk from tho 
Cow is 1031., and when the cream has hecn separated IUII8 (the 
temperature being 59° Fah.). As a matter of convenience the 
two left hand figures are omitted. Thus, when the instrument 
marks 25 or 80 degrees, it shows that the density of the 
milk which has beeu examined is 1025 or 1030, or in other 
words that a litre (1700 pint) of the milk weighs either 
1025 grammes (2 lhs. 8 oz. 478 grs. Troy), or 1030 grammes 
(2 lbs. 9 oz. 65 grs. Troy). The density 'of milk which has not 
been deprived of its cream should vary between 29 and 33 
degrees, that of skimmed milk between 325 and 37'5. The 
addition of one tenth part of water to milk will lower the in- 
dicator three degrees, and in skimmed milk 325. 

Ckeamometeb. — This is another instrument proposed by 


Quevenne. Ab skimmed milk becomes more dense, its pro- 
perties may be changed by removing a portion of the cream, 
and then adding a certain quantity of water. Unfortunately 
this is what happens every day. The laetodensimeter will 
detect this double fraud, out the ereamotneter will. 

The latter instrument consists of a kind of gage, of 
tolerable size, and divided into 100 parts. This is allowed 
to remain in the fresh milk for twelve hours. The cream 
gradually rises to the surface. The average quantity of cream, 
is 11 to 12 for every hundred partB of milk. All milk which, 
yields a leBs quantity than this has been more or less deprived 
of itsscream. One of the inconveniences of this instrument is 
that it only affords the required information after the lapse of 
twelve hours. It has been recommended to substitute for it 
simple agitation. A given quantity of milk is to he boiled for 
ten minutes, taking care that it is continually shaken during 
this time. It is then placed in a flask. When it is cooled 
down to - — 4" Fab., the mouth of the vessel is closed, and it is 
well shaken until all the butter is separated. It is then 
strained through a fine cloth. The butter is then to be 
washed, pressed, and « cighed. Every litre (l'7ti0 pint) 
of milk ought to yield at leaBt 30 grammes of butter (4626750 
grs. Troy). 

Lactoscope, — This instrument is intended in certain cases 
to indicate the richness of the milk in butter. It was invented 
by M. Donne. Its action depends upon the opacity which the 
liquid receives from the presence of the fat globules. The 
instrument consists of two plain glasses, between which the 
liquid is placed ; the instrument is then examined in a dark 
place by the flame of a candle through this layer. The glasses 
are separated from each other until the opacity is such that 
the flame ceases to be visible. The thickness of the layer 
which is required to produce this result should be thinner in 
proportion to the quantity of fatty matter present. One of 
the glasses is fixed ; the other on a moveable foot, one turn of 
which corresponds ti> a thii-kness of B -L of an inch. The cir- 
cumference is divided into fifty equal portions, which constitute 
degrees; a good milk should mark 34 degrees. Unfortunately 
for the accuracy of the lactoscope, the opacity of the milk 
does not depend only upon the fat globules, but also upon 
the caseine held in solution; it also depends upon the various 
substances which are introduced by the dealers. 

Adulteration. — Of late years the adulterations which are 
practised on milk have been carefully inquired into. One 



plan IB to remove the cream, anil tlien mis the milk with 
water; in order to restore to it its opacity and consistence, as 
weU as to remove the blue tint which is induced hv the mini, 
teration, sugar, glucose, farina, and dextrine are added ; various 
other substances are also made use of, such as infusions of rioe, 
barley, 4c,; gummy and albuminous matters, lish glue, liquorice 
juice, the colouring matter of the marigold, and baked carrot* 

Preservation. —The lower the temperature the better milk 
keeps; but in order to preserve it for any length of time \ annus 
plana have been proposed. 

1. Concentrate the milk to one third or one half) |>ul il 
into well- stoppered vessels and expose them to the beat of I 
water bath for a period of two hours. (Ap/ier/'s process.) 

2. Evaporate at a low temperature, and drive in air, which 
iacilitates its thickening. {(Jul/nis's proceM.) 

3. The foregoing processes are now abandoned. The follow- 
ing are much better: — To every litre (1*760778 pint) of milk 
add from 75 to 80 grammes (1157 to 1234 grs.) of sugar. It 
]"b then concentrated in u flat -bottomed vessel in which the 
liquid is kept constant I v moving in order to prevent the form- 
ation of a pellicle. Wnen it has become reduced lo one-lit'lli 
of its original volume, it is put into tin boxes, which are then 
treated according to Appert's method. ( Lupim'x prucrxs.) 

4. The milk is charged with carbonic acid bj the same kind 
of machine as is used in the manufacture oIWH/.it water; il is 
then placed in bottles in the usual manner. (lictheV* procesn.) 

5. Lastly, milk is preserved without the addition of any 
foreign substance, and without the abstraction of its cream, or 
the evaporation of its aqueous particles. It is simply placed 
in a tin vessel which is provided with a pewter tube. This is 
warmed for three-quarters of an hour in a water bath for the 
purpose of expelling all the air, and the tube is then hermeti- 
cally closed by means of pincers. (Mabru'x process.) 

§ IX. Eggs. 

The eggs which are employed in medicine are those of the 
common fowl, Phasianux Q alius, Linn. 

Every egg consists of a calcareous covering or shell; of a 
semi-opaque membranous envelope which covers the internal 
surface of the shell ; of the glairy liniments or ehalazm which 
connect the envelopes with their contents ; of the white or 
albumen, a transparent liquid with a very slight tint of a 
greenish yellow, and which is contained in a loose cellular 


tissue, varying in density in the different layers ; of the yel 
low or ■uiMlug, a globular opaque mass of a golden yellov 
colour surrounded by a very delicate membrane, the vitellin 
membrane, mid suspended in the midst of the albumen ; last! 
of the germ of the bird or eieatrimda, a small white body whict 
adheres to the yelk. 

A hen's egg contains on an average 367 grs. Troy of the 
white, and 321 grs. Trov of the yelk. 

The shell is composed of animal matter, carbonate of lime, 
a small quantity of carbonate of magnesia and of phosphate 
of lime, with slight traces of an oxide of iron. Sulphur is 
present in the animal matter and beeomes liberated in the 
form of sulphuretted liydrngcu, when shells which have been 
previously calcined are acted upon bv the stronger acids. 

The internal membrane appears to be of an albuminous 
nature. (Vauqueliu.) This also contains a small quantity of 
sulphur. It readily dissolves in liquor potansiC without pro- 
ducing ammonia. 

White of egg consists of a solution of albumen, with the 
presence of certain salts, a small quantity of sugar and pro- 
bably also of carbonate of soda. It almost entirely dissolves 
in either eold or tepid water, leaving only a few particles of 
.membrane. In boiling water the albumen becomes coagulated, 
and forms a white compact mass. 

The yelk consists of a large quantity of water, of vitelline, of 
margarine, and of oleine, of a viscous matter, of cholcsterine, 
of osmazone, of a colouring matter, of the sails usually present 
in animals, aud contains traces of lactic acid. (G-obley.) 

The oil of the yelk is composed of oleine, margarine, of a 
small quantity oi' uliolcsterine, and of colouring matter. 

There are two kinds of colouring matter in the yelk ; the one 
is red, contains iron, and resembles the colouring matter of the 
-blood; the other is yellow, and appears to be analogous to the 
colouring matter of the bile. 

Eggs are said to he fresh when they have not been laid more 
than two days in summer or six in winter. 

Eggs change in proportion to the length of time they have 
been laid. The evaporation of the water in their interior takes 
place through the pores of the shell, and forms a apace at one 
extremity (air chamber). 

If the white of an egg is coagulated which is not fresh, when 
the shell is broken a depression is seen at one end. When 
eggs have been laid some time the ehalaza? become relaxed, 
and lose the power of supporting the yelk ; the hitter, in con- 


sequence of its greater Specific gr&Ylty, falls to the lowest part. 
Farmers mid egg-merchants nsi-,=rt:iiii this tact by examining the 
egg before a lighted candle, or bv the light of the sun. 

Fresh egga, when gently shaken in the direction of their 
length, give no evidence of any internal displacement. Stale 
eggs, on the contrary, give rise to a slight shock, arising from 
the displacement of their contents. M. Delaine, of Dijon, has 
given the following directions for ascertaining whether an egg 
is fresh or not :— Dissolve eight ounces of common salt in 
1"760 pint of water, and when the water is dis.-ii.iHed place the 
egg in the solution. If it has been laid the same day it i;ues 
direct to the bottom of the vessel ; if not. it does not sink so 
far; and if it is three days old it floats in the liquid ; if it is 
more than five days old it comes to the surface, and the shell 
projects in proportion to the age of the egg. 

Eggs may be preserved fresh for a whole year by covering 
the pores of the shell with Famish, with a layer of was, or with 
some fatty substances. Cadet Gassicourt recommends the 
egg* to be placed in a vessel in layers, and then to pour in 
lime water, containing a small excess of the powdered lime, so 
that the eggs shall be covered to the depth of from six to seven 
inches of the liquid. 

It is supposed that, in this case, a deposit of carbonate of 
lime takes place, which fills up the pores of the shell, render- 
ing it thereby imperii) cable to air, and so preserving the animal 
matter in its interior. 

, The following process has been proposed by M. Delarue : — 
Take 1543 grs. of slack lime for every 200 eggs. Mix with 
the lime, as intimately as possible. 15-i grs. of powdered sugar; 
the whole is then to be placed in millieient water to cover the 
egga. In fifteen days the operation is completed. The small 
quantity of saccharate of lime which Is formed penetrates the 
shell, anil prevents the entrance of air. 

The Chinese place their eggs in water holding in solution a 
tenth part of sea salt until their density becomes greater than 
that of the liquid. 

Eggs may also be preserved bv placing them in ashes, dry 
sand, bran, millet seed, saw dust, powdered charcoal, Ac. 

The parts of the egg which aro employed in medicine are the 
white and the yelk. 

The white ib used for clarifying syrups and many other 
liquids ; this effect is produced by its eoagidation by the heat 
from the liquid, or by the acids or tho spirit contained in it. 
The coagulated albumen forms a kind of mesh, which, as it 


i the impurities 
n emulsions. It 

sinks to the bottom of the liquid, i 

The yelk enterB into the formation of certain emulsions. It 
serves for making emulsions with resins, gum resins, and 
volatile oils. The yelk can be perfectly mixed with witter. 

Eggs form a valuable and plentiful source of human food. 
The annual consumption of hens' eggs in Paris ib about 115 for 
each individual. 8 In the rest of France, especially in the 
country places, this number is doubled. It is calculated that 
7,231,160,000 eggs are consumed in France independent of 
those which are exported to other countries, or which are used 
for the purpose of hatching. 

[The white of egg is a valuable remedy in cases of poisoning 
by bichloride of mercury, sulphate of copper, and bichloride of 
tin. Its efficacy in these eases depends on the combination of 
the albumen with the oxide or chloride of the metal. (Pereira.) 
There is no necessity of separating the white from the yelk, as 
the latter is ellicacious as well as the former. 

Eggs beaten up with warm water, and to which a small 
quantity of brandy or port wine has been added, and then, 
flavoured with sugar or nutmeg, are valuble adjuncts to the 
dietary of I.I10 wick room. 

The Mistuba. Spihitds Vini Gaxlici consists of Brandy 
and Cinnamon "Water each f §iv, the Yelks of two Eggs, 
Purified Sugar ^as, Oil of Cinnamon m.ij. ML*. — This pre- 
paration is stimulant and restorative, and is used in the last 
stage of low fevers and in cases of exhaustion. The dose 11 
from f^ss to fjiss.] 

§ X.— Honey. 

The honey-producing animals are Beet, Wasps, and some 
allied insects. 

The Aphides also secrete a sweet fluid by means of a pair of 
abdominal glands which communicate with two tubes on the 
upper surface of the abdomen. 

It is stated that honey has been found in the 
certain exotic species of Ants, but it is doubtful whether they 
have not stolen it from some other animals. However this 
may he, the most perfect melliferous animals are the Bees. 

1. Bees. — The Common or Money Bee. Apix MelUfica, Linn., 
is an insect belonging to the order Hyineuoptera, and to the 
family Anthophila. 

i come originally from llrceeo, 
} different parts of 



The fema 
now known 

is large, strong, and lias an elongated hod' 
ating, and upon her devolves the laving of ' ( 
male or drone ; b, female or queen 

The Bee appears to hav« 
from whence it has been transported 

Every one is familiar with these insects ; the body iw covered 
with hairs, is of a brownish black colour and is marked with a 
transverse greyish band on the abdomen. The antenna) are 
filiform and shorter than the combined length of the head ami 
the thorax. The Bimple eyeB are arranged in the form of a 
triangle, placed in the females on the forehead, and in the 
males on the vertex. 

Bees live in societies called swarms. When one of these 
swarms is artificially lodged it constitutes a hive, Each 
Bwarm constructs a very peculiar and complicated nest. It 
consists of partitions compiled of hexagonal cells. These par- 
titions are arranged perpendicularly ; each consists of two rows 
of cells placed opposite each other and connected together by 
their bases, so that the cells themselves are placed horizontally. 
Each partition with its double series of cells forma a comb. 

It is in the interior of these cells that the eggs are deposited 
and the food is Btored up. 

Each swarm consists of three kinds of individtllll ! I . ■ 

ttale; 2, male*; 3, neuter* or workers (fig. 51). 
* v 6 


which the ancients called a king, but which is 
queen, is found solitary in every s' 


The mates or drones vary in number from 600 to 1000 in 
each roum. They are smaller, leas robust, and have a shorter' 
abdomen than the female. They have no sting. Their office 
is to impregnate the female. 

The workers or neuters number from twelve to twenty or 
even thirty thousand in each hive, and are the smallest mem- 
bers of the community-. The working bees have a sting. The 
duties of these are to take charge of the eggs and of the young, 
and to construct the combs. They generally divide these 
labours amongst them: some attend evlurjivoly to the young — 
these are the nursing lees ; others collect the nectar and pollen 
of the flowers and form from them the honey and the wax, 
construct the combs, and lay up a supply of food— these are the 
wax workers. 

Many writers regard the associations of Bees as a republic. 
Linnams terms the government a gynoeratic republic. This' 
celebrated naturalist believed that the queen is guarded from 
sight by the workers, and that she is not able to emerge 
from her dominions ; this, however, is an error. The associa- 
tion of Sees appears rather to be a true monarchy, at the head 
of which is placed a sovereign, who is the only one of her sex, 
and who is solely engaged in laying eggs. But who governs the. 
society ? It governs itself; each sex. each individual instinct- 
ively,necessarily, and blindly exceutes the functions which are 
assigned to it ; and each displays the same zeal, skill, and per- 
fection in the fulfilment of its duties. 

Copulation takes place at the beginning of Bummer, out of 
the hive. The female rises into the air until she is lost to sight, 
surrounded by a crowd of males. (Huher.) One only of the 
latter is summoned to partake of her favours. This male 
usually belongs to another hive. (Hainet.) The female soon 
returns, bearing at the extremity of her abdomen the genital 
organs of the male. 

As soon as the female is impregnated, and the males are no 
longer of any use to the community, the workers wound them 
with their stings, and put them to death. This slaughter 
usually takes place in the month of August, when the vicinity 
of the hivo is covered with the dead bodies. 

Two days after the queen has been impregnated she begins 
to lay her eggs, and becomes the object of the attention and 
solicitude of the entire colony. The workers clean her by 
rubbing her with their probosces, and from time to time pre- 
sent her with the honey with they have disgorged. 

There are several layings. Keaumur has calculated the 

number of eggs which the female can lay in the course of thru 
weeks at 12,000. She generally deposits from 200 to -HH) a 
day. 1 The eggs are oblong, slightly curved, attenuated at the 
extremity, by which they arc attached to the cell, and arc 
somewhnt transparent. These eggs produce workers and a 
single female. 

It has been recently stated, that the queen haH (he power of 
lay iu« eggs before copulation as well as after it has taken 
place, when the seminal fluid has lost its livimilatiiii; |io\\crs, 
but that these eggs only give rise to males. It is also supposed 
that, after she has been lecimdated. she ean prevent t he seminal 
fluid from coming in contact with the eggs, ami thai she ran 
thus deposit male germs at her pleasure. 

The neuters are imperfect females ; that is to say, individuals 
who have been arrested in their development, and do not 
possess the copulative vesicle. Nevertheless, under certain cir- 
cumstances they do lay eggs, but they are always male eggs. 

Suitable cells are prepared I'or the reception of the 
new generation. Each egg has its particular cell. The cells 
which are intended for workers are regular and perfectly equal 
polyhedra. Those for the males are somewhat larger, ue lea* 
regular, nearly cylindrical, and as if they were eni;ine-tiii'neil 
The male cells are dispersed amongst those of llie workers. 
The cells for the females hang down. 

The eggs are hatched at the end of four or live days, v\ hen 
there comes forth a small whitish larva, composed of fourteen 
segments with a corneous head and uo feet. The larva remain! 
motionless within its cell. The workers feed it with a mixture 
of honey and pollen, of which the quantity varies according to 
the age of the individual. 

Five or six days after they are born, the period for their 
metamorphosis has arrived, and the workers then close up the 
mouth of the cells with a convex lid or cup of wax. 

The larvfe spin around their bodies a covering of silk, and at 
the end of three days they arc transformed into nymphs. 

"When they have remained in this state seven days and a 
half, they undergo their last metamorphosis, and are changed 
into Seem. They then eat their way through the lid, and 
emerge from their cells. 

The males are twenty-one days from the time they are 
hatched until they assume their perfect state. The females 
are thirteen days. The nature of the food exercises great 
influence over the duration of this period. By varying the 

1 Lioiiitui savH l.h:K c;n:-li qiiv-'.'n Lij- Jn.LOO ivyear. 


food of the larvse, the workers con at their option produce 
workers or queens ; that is to Bay, females whose development 
has been arrested, or females who are normally developed. 
When a swarm has loBt its queen, the workers demolish 
several of the ordinary colls lor the purpose of forming a royal 
ceil. A larva is placed in this, and after being fed on the 
necessary kind of food, instead of producing a working bee, it 
ia transformed into a queen. 

When the young bees have come forth, the workers im- 
mediately clean out the cells, and prepare them for the 
reception of another set of eggs. This, however, is not the 
case with the royal cells ; these are destroyed, and fresh oneB 
formed for every laying. 

When a queen is born in a hive, a great agitation is per- 
ceived, and the whole colony appears to be in motion ; on the 
one hand, the old queen endeavours to reach her new-horn 
rival for the purpose of plunging her sting into her body, 
while on the other hand crowds of workers interpose to defend 
her. Some are charged with wax, and eeein desirous of 
enclosing the new queen in her cell, aud to provide for her 
safety by making her a prisoner. In a short time the old 
queen issues forth from the hive, with all the appearance of 
anger, and is accompanied by a large number of the com- 
munity, She and her partisans assemble together at some 
distance from the old hive, and become the founders of a new 
colony. The young queen remains behind, and is soon at 
the head of a numerous society by the successive development 
of the larva; belonging to her generation. In this manner a 
young swarm is produced, which take possession of the first 

If two or three queens are born at the same time, they 
wage war against each other until only one of them ia left 
alive, who, having couquered her rivals, becomes the sovereign 
of the new society. 

When a Beeond queen is introduced into a hive, she is 
either destroyed by the legitimate sovereign, or by a number 
of the workers, who precipitate themselves upon her, 
plunge their stings into her body. (Huher, He Beauvoys.) 

Sometimes one colony will attack another in order to rob 
it of its provisions. If it should be victorious, the hont 
belonging to the enemy is carried off, and transferred to the 
own hive. Sees paBS the winter in a torpid state, 
recently been proposed to preserve them during their lctharj 
in a kind of pits. 

Fig. 62.- Mouth* 


». 52).— See* are 

a proboscis, which 
is the homologue of the lower lip 
of other insects. 

Swamraerdam thought the pro- 
boaciB was tubular, and perforated 
i at its extremity, and that thua it 
was organised to draw up the 
juices of the flower after the 
manner of a pump. According 
to this celebrated anatomist the 
most external pieces, which form 
the case, served only to separate 
the petals, while the inner por- 
tions were intended to compress 
;he tube, and cause the ascent of the sugared fluid. This 
ruction was favoured by the pressure of the atmosphere, and 
by the dilitation of the abdomen, which formed the vacuum of 
the pump. 

Beaumur has given a more correct account of this apparatus 

and of the functions which are performed by the different 

He has shown that the proboscis is a kind of velvetty 

u ib, which by its movements becomes charged with the 

meyed liquor ; that this fluid then passes between the 

„xternal pieces or jaws, and thus gains an opening at its base, 

which had escaped the notice of Swammerdam. 

It appears, therefore, that the instrument with which the 
Bees collect the honey is not entitled to be termed a, proboscis. 
Entomologists have named it the Ugula. 

The Ugula is a long, lancet-shaped, slender, obtuse body, 
marked with transverse lines, and covered with hairs, which 
are directed from the base towards the apex. It is contracted 
at its commencement, and appears to be articulated by a 
pedicle, which is short and truncated ntiteriorly, while poste- 
riorly it is attenuated, and then suddenly dilated. On either 
side of the contracted portion are two appendages, paraglossa, 
having the form of short obtuse processes furnished with hairs. 
Further back, where it becomes dilated are the labial palpi. 
These are longer than the paraglossia, but shorter than the 
tongue; they pass from behind forwards, and from within to 
without ; they diminish in size towards their termination, and 

a number of unequal joints. Still further 
buck are the narrow lancet-shaped jaum, looking as if they 
were provided with a median nervure. 

The opening of the mouth is situated at the upper port oi 
the base of the tongue ; it is of a moderate size, and is closed 
ty a small Heidi v triangular lube, which Reaumur' named the 
tongue. This aperture, which is the opening of the pharynx, 
communicates with a dilated esophagus. When a Bee is 
compressed between the lingers a drop of honey often issues 
from this spot. 

The nectar of flowers and the various sweet vegetable juicea 
after they have been imbibed and swallowed by the Bee 
become modified in the stomach (Reaumur), and transformed 
into honey. This is disgorged and deposited by the animals in 
particular cells prepared for the purpose in the layers of the 

3. HoNET. — Honei/ (mrl) is a sugared, perfumed, semifluid 
substance of the consistence of syrup, and of a more or less 
golden yellow colour. 

The collecting of the honey takes place during the months 
of September and October. There are various ways of ob- 
taining it. The old method was not without danger to the 
operators as well as to the Bees. The head was covered with a 
mask, the hands with gloves, and the legs with cloths. The 
hive was then smoked. When the Bees, having been driven 
out by the smoke, had assembled at the top of their abode, the 
hive was turned topsy-turvy. The combs had then to he cut 
away, and, in order that the insects should not be injured in 
the operation, they .were compelled to retire further off by 
again smoking them by means of a piece of smouldering tow 
or linen fixed to the end of a stick, so that it could be directed 
towards the comb to which the Bees had attached themselves. 
This method was exceedingly detrimental to the multiplication 
of the Bees. In the present day a different plan is adopted. 
In the evening the hive is gently raised from its support, laid 
upon its side, and left in this position during the night. Early 
the next morning an empty hive is rubbed with honey, and 
fixed with its opening upwards; the other hive is then placed 
upon it, bo that the two openings correspond. By this means 
the full hive is placed below the other in a reversed position ; 
it is then struck repeatedly with a small stick, and the animals, 
in consecpience, pass into the upper hive. When all or the 

1 Epiphurimx or ejiighssa (Snvignj). 

number of the Bees are supposed to haw entered I lie 
ity hive is detached, and placed where the full hive 1ml 
i removed from. The latter is then reversed upon n cloth, 
which the combs fall. The Been whirh remain behind are 
'en off, either by moving then with a feather, or by smoking 
Some recommend the fumes of tobacco, :iml athui 

In order to extract the honey from the comba they lire 
upon sieves, or in coarse sacks, and exposed to a slight 
v simply to the warmth of the sun; ji viscous fluid 
a from them, which is known as virgin honey; it is the 
pure and the most valuable. 

hen no more honey cornea away the comba are broken uj>, 
then allowed to drain again, and this time the I" n I 
lewhat increased. 
After this the combs arepreased, care having firs!. Iicen 
iken to remove the eggs. By this means a hirger supply of 
honey is obtained, but of an inferior quality, holding iu sus- 
pension a certain amount of extraneous matter, which either 
at the top or amka to the bottom. The honey muni 
some time to settle, and then skimmed and oarSfoUj 
id off. 
The less heat and the less amount of pressure which »<■<■ QHd 
e better the honey. 

Good honey ia aoft, of a pale yellow colour, with granular 
particles disperaed through the semifluid portions. It is 
entirely soluble in water, and capable of undergoing siN-nlmHc 
fermentation. It has a bland, sweet, pleasant, and more or 
less aromatic flavour. 

Writers distinguish sis kinds of honey : l.t.liat I'niiii Mount 
Hymetta, from Mount Ida, from Million, and from Cuba; 2. 
that of Narbonne; 3. that of Gatinaia; i. that of Saintonge; 
5. that of Burgundy ; (j. that of Brittany. 

The honey from Mount Hymetta was celebrated in the curliest 
ages of the world. Martial, Horace, and Kiliua Italian have 
extolled its flavour and its perfume. It is a white, liquid, aud 
transparent honey. 

Narbonne honey enjoya a well-merited reputation in phar- 
macy. ItisHomewhiit solid, < if a whitish colour, very granular, with 
a strong smell and an aromatic taste, which is nceasioually slightly 
pungent. It contains a small quantity of wax and acid. ThiB 
honey Comes almost exclusively from the little town of 
The honey of Gatinais is next in esteem after that of 

be let 

the be 


Narbonne. It ia not so granular as the latter, 

colour, and less aromatic. It has a pale y 

very sweet taste. It cornea from that portii 

ment of Seine et Manic which ia to the south of the Seine, and 

from a part of Orleans. It is often sold in Paris under the 

name of Narbonne honey. It is the best for the preparation 

of syrups. 

Saintonge honey is very thick, less granular than that from 
Narbonne, but nearly as white. It has a strong aromatic 
odour and an agreable flavour. It is very similar to that from. 
GAtinais, but it ia not of ao deep a colour. Thia honey is 
principally employed in the country where it is produced. 

Burgundy honey is held in less repute than the former 

The honey of Brittany is the moat inferior of all. It is 
of a brown red colour. It has a sharp taste, and a amell re- 
sembling gingerbread, which sometimes ia not at all agreeable. 
It contains a fuaible granular matter, soluble in water and in 
alcohol. It ia seldom employed in medicine. It is especially 
reserved for veterinary purposes. The nature of the flowers 
influences the colour, taste, perfume, and other qualities of the 

Some honeys are abnoat white ; others are of a golden 

Kllow, red, fawn, brown, and even black colour. A Bee 
longing to Madagascar and the Isle of Bourbon (Apti 
waicolor, Latr.) produces a green honey. 1 

The honey prepared from the nectar of the labiata is 
generally very much perfumed; that from the South of France 
appears to owe its good qualities to the great number of these 
plants, which are found in that part of the country. The 
aromatic odour which eharai-lemcs the honey from the neigh- 
bourhood of Montpollier, part icularly that from the sources of the 
Lez, appeara to be owing to this circumstance. Sauvage stateH, 
that having planted a hedge of roaemary before a hive, of which 
the honey had no particular Bmell, from that time it became 
perfumed. M. Biot noticed in the Balearic ialea, and 
TJe Candolle in the Corbieres, near Narbonne, that the honey 
of theae countries owed its supcrioritv lo the same family of 
plants. Olivier haa stated, that the honey of Upper Provence, 
which is of an excellent quality, is collected from lavender. 
The good qualities of Cuban honey arise from the orange 

' It is obtained from the Mimosa heterophytta wd from the Weirmnnna 

HOITEY. 205 

flower. Bosc states thai the delteiouaneBS of the honey from 
the neighbourhood of the orangery at Versailles ia owing to the 
Bame cause. It ia add that it ia the black or buck wheat 
which gives the inferior qualities to the honey of Brittany. 
The makers of gingerbread at Hheima are aaid to pay a higher 
price for the honey which is obtained in the spring from the 
willows, than that which is obtained in autumn from the buck 
wheat. (Allaire.) The aromatic flavour and odour of the honey 
from Gatiiiais appear to depend upon The flowers of the 
safiron, which are produced in large quantities in that country. 
The yew, according to Virgil, and the box tree, according to 
Pliny, imparted a better flavour to the honey of Corsica. 

Aristotle pretends, that at a certain period of the year the 
honey from the neighbourhood of the Caucasus rendered those 
who ate it insensible. Xenophon and Diodorus of Sicily 
relate that the soldiers became furiously intoxicated after 
eating the honey in the neighbourhood of Trebizond. These 
statements have been confirmed by several modern writers. 
Tournefort believes that these deleterious properties are owing 
to the flowers of the Aziilea J'ontica ; others that they depend 
hi a great measure on the Shododendrum Ponticum. Gulden- 
staedt tasted some honey which was collected from these 
shrubs. It was of a dark brown colour, with a bitter taste, 
and caused deafness and giddiness. Smith Barton has de- 
scribed the aymptomB produced by a poisonous honey found in 
South Pensylvania, near the Ohio. During his voyage to the 
Brazils, Auguste de Saint-Hilaire remained in a state of 
delirium for several hours from only taking two teaspoonfula 
of a mild plensant honey gathered by a bee, Pollutes Leche- 
guana, A. St.-Hil. ; from a species of fir tree, the PaUulinia 

Various writers have published cases which show that honey 
collected from narcotic or poisonous plants may produce 
nausea, colic, and even actual poisoning. Lambert says that 
the honey collected from a certain tree in Colchis produced 
vomiting. La bill an here suspects that the poisonous efi'ects in 
Asia Minor are caused by the Cocculus suberosus. In Brazil a 
drink called grappe is concocted from wild honey and certain 
fruits, which causes vomiting. (Roulox Baror.) The honey 
from Pensylvania, South Carolina, Georgia, and the two 
Floridas, when it has been collected from the Kalmia 
august ij'ul i<t„ lutijbliu, or liinnta, or from the Andromeda Mariana, 
produces disorder of the stomach, vomiting, convulsions, and 
sometimes death. Haller mentions the case of two Alpine 

villagers who were poisoned by honey from the aconite. 
Serlnge mentions another instance where two Swiss herdsmen 
having eaten aome honey, I'olleeted frmn tin- Actmitum Napelhu 
and lycotonum, 1 were seized with convulsions and delirium; 
one of them, who was unable to vomit, died discharging blood 
and froth from his mouth. 

The qualities and effects of honey are veiy variable, 
which is excellent at one period of the year may become 
noxious at another. Every bee-keeper knows that the 
hive produces a somewhat different honey every month owing 
to the difference in the flowers upon which the Bees feed. 

Honey is a mixture, in variable proportions, of two different 
sugars: glucose, which is solid. erystaUiflable, and perfectly 
resembles the solid sugar of the raisin ; the other is liquid, non- 
crystalliBable, and has a rotatory movement to the left. 
Soubeiran has mentioned a third sugar, distinguished from that 
in grains by being convertible by acids, and from the fluid 
sugar in having a rotatory motion towards the right. Small 
quantities have also been found of a vegetable acid, and 
colouring and odorous principles which exercise so much influence 
over the qualities of the honey. According to M. Guibourt, 
some honeys appear to contain manna. 

Honey is adulterated by the addition of water, starch, the 
pulp of ohesnuts, bean or maize flour ; gum tragacanth and 
sand are also mixed with it. Then' adulterations are detected 
by dissolving the honey in water, when the starch and other 
matters sink to the bottom. The addition of iodine produces 
a blue colour. Honey is also adulterated with starch sugar. 
"When this is the case, it has a peculiar appearance and a 
disagreeable taste. Dissolved in water it gives a copious 
precipitate with oxalate of ammonia and the salts of baryta, in 
consequence of the sulphate which it contains. 

Under the name of Narbonne honey, various inferior kinds 
are sold, which have been whitened, and to which the perfume 
of the best honeys has been imparted by straining it over 
flowers of rosemary. 

§ XI. Wax. 

Bees* are the principal (c^r- producing animals. 

It has long been known that certain vegetables, as, for 
example, the Ceroxylon andicola, and the Benincasa cerifera, 

1 This was the honej c 
s See p, 196. 

toe Common Humbk Bee, Bomiuj U 

-wax. 207 

produce a substance con.-u.sf big of wax and some other prin- 
ciples. 1 The twigs, leaves, and fruits of many plants are 
covered with a powder, which is a waxy matter differing very 
little from that which is produced by Bees. Prom these 
circumstances it was supposed that the insect received the wax 
already prepared from the plant; it has, however, been shown 
to be an animal formation. No doubt the Bee obtains the 
elements of the wax from the plants ; but she modifies and 
transforms them. 

Bonnet and Hunter maintained that wax was a secretion. 
It is, however, to the experiments of Iluher of Geneva that 
we are indebted for a practical demonstration of the fact. He 
enclosed a swarm of Beea in a new hive, and gave them 
nothing but honey and water. At the end of some days the 
insects had constructed several layers of cells of a very pure 
wax. MM. Dumas and Milne Edwards repeated the ex- 
periment with both honey and sugar, and obtained the same 

1. Wax Organs. — Hunter and Huber asserted that the 
elaboration of the wax took place by means of eight small 
pouches placed between the lower segments of the abdomen. 
M. Leon Dufour denies the existence of these presumed wax 
pouches. Some writers, guided by the fact that secretions of 
the nature of wax are met with in several other insects, 
conclude that the wax of the Bee accumulates by exudation on 
the inner surface of the deUeate membranes, 
which bind the joints of their feet together. 
According to M, Leon Dufour, the Bee swal- 
lows the pollen and other vegetable substances 
which contain the elements of the wax. It 
then yields this matter fully elaborated from 
i the mouth in a sort pulpy condition. This 
pulp is deposited and formed, as it were, in a 
kind of mould, in the wax receptacles placed 
along the lateral parts of the abdomen, where 
it assumes the form and consistency of plates. 
The legs of the Bee, and especially the 
posterior pair (fig. 53), are admirably adapted for 

1 The wax of Japan ia found in the fruit of the Rhus sutxedancum. 
Myrtle wax is obtained fo>:n the wnoil nt' Mi/rim cerifera. Other kinds of 
wax axe extracted i'mm the f-nittm sebijentm. G:lti*ii<t* wriferita, Myristica 
sebifera, and Myristica Bicuhyba. 

' Hinder litnb of a worker : a, basket seen on its outer or convex surface; 
the inner or concave ia placed opposite to it; b, the brush. 


the purposes for which thcv arc required, and have the first joint 
of the tarsus dilated. This dilatation is most marked in the 
workers; it has a square form, and its inner surface is provided 
with several rows of still' hairs placed transversely, which gives 
to this part the name of the brash. The leg is dilated, and 
forma a triangular cavity on its inner surface, which is known 
as the basket; the outer surface is somewhat convex, and 
bordered by long curved hairs. 

It is by means of this simple apparatus that the workers 
gather the pollen and waxy secretions of the plant. The 
pollen is supplied by the stamens, and the waxy secretions, 
which cover the leaves and the fruit, readily adhere to the 
hairs of the Bee. These materials are gathered together in 
small pellets by means of the brushes, and are then deposited 
in the basket by the second pair of feet. The workers may be 
often seen returning to the hive with their bushels completely 
full. Keaumur calculated that eight baskets full of pollen 
would weigh '771 of a grain. Each Bee will make four or five 
journeys in a flay, carrying two baskets full each time ; conse- 
quently, in the space of a month, 18,000. workers would 
accumulate 8S lbs. avoir, of this material. 

Such are the instruments with which the Bees collect and 
transport the elements of the wax, and such is the manner 
in which they gather, accumulate, and carry away theBe pre- 
cioub materials. 

It has been previously seen how the animal prepares, dis- 
gorges, and elaborates the wax, and how it deposits it in the 
cavities of its abdomen. 

The plates of wax are small, and appear as if they were 

formed of [irvpeudjcnlnj- fibres. ( Dujardin.) 
The basket, or dilated portion of the Bee's 


hook with which it draws the plates of wax from the sides of 
its body. The insect deposits them one upon the other, like 
layers of bricks, and moulds them into the walls of its cells. 

For this purpose the Bee makes use of its mandibles. 1 
These organs are very small in the males and the femaleB, but 
they are well developed in the workers. They are hollowed 
out, and divided into two portions by a longitudinal ridge. 
When the mandibles are approximated, they form a pair 
of cutting pincers, and at the same time a kind of groove. It 
is with these instruments that the animals construct the 
beautiful cells of their comb. 

1 See p. 201, fig. B2, B. 

It has jiiBt been stated tlinl IS, 000 workers in tbe space of 
a month will bring to their hive more than 88 lbs. of pollen. 
But at the end of a year the Bame number of insects will only 
have yielded a little more than 2 lbs. of genuine was. What 
then haa become of the remainder of the pollen? It has 
evidently been either consumed as food, or rejected as useless. 

2. Wax.— Wax is a combustible inriteriiil of which the 
Bees compose the cells or comb, which is provided for the 
reception of their young and their food. 

When the honey has been removed from the corah, it is 
melted at a moderate heat of from 143° to 145° Fab. It is 
then poured into moulds, and forms the yellow or crude wax. 
It oweB its colour and its odour to foreign matters. 1 

For the purpose of purifying the wax, it is made up into 
inin ribbons or films, or it is melted and poured in the liquid 
state on to cylinders of wood, which revolve horizontally in 
the water, and divide it into lumps. The films or lumps of wax 
are then placed on webs of canvas, and exposed in a meadow 
to the action of air and sun light, care being taken that it is 
sprinkled every night with water. By degrees the was loses 
its yellow colour and becomes bleached, the process com- 
mencing at the surface, and gradually proceeding inwards. 
ThiB process has Ihc inconvenience of occupying a long time, 
and in some establishments the process of bleaching by 
chlorine has been imbstitiLVed for it. Immersion of the lumps 
or ribbons of was in a solution of chlorine, or exposing them 
to the action of chlorine gas, produces in a short time the 
same effects as the former process does in a long time. The 
same thing may be accomplished by means of other chemical 

A small quantity of suet is often mixed with the wax hi 
order to restore to it the suppleness it has lost. 

Wax which has been completely deprived of its colour, is 
called virgin or irliite wax. 

Virgin wax should be solid, opaque, white, brittle, and 
without any decided taste or smell. It softens and becomes 
malleable at a moderate temperature. It melts at about 149° 
Fab., and when thrown on red hot coals it inflames and burns 

■ax seen beneath the microscope have 
the appearance of an amorphous substance. If, however, they 
are melted on the glass plate, and then allowed to cool, they 

adulterated with potato starch. (DclpccK) 



assume a crystalline structure. This structure becomes n 
evident when it is examined by polarized light, and when c 
of the thin plates of gypsum, which M. Biot terms sensitive 
plates, is placed over it. (Dujardin.) 

"Was contains three distinct principles — viz., cerine, 
cine, and ceroleine. Tbe cerine, or cerotic acid, forms thi 
greatest part of the compound; it melts at 172° Fob.; it 
dissolves in boiling alcohol, which throws it down as a deposit 
in coaling. Mvriciiie is white, inodorous, and tasteless; it 
melts at 161° i'ah. ; it requires 2tH) parts of boiling alcohol to 
dissolve it. Ceroleine forms only a very small proportion of 
the was, about 1 or 5 per cent. ; it melts at 84 lab. ; it is 
soft and very soluble both in alcohol aud ether, even when 

Wax forms the basis of cerates. It also enters into the 
composition of a great number of unguents and plasters. 
It has even been recommended medicinally in the form of 
electuary, emulsion, and pills. 

[Wax forms the hardening material of all the cerates of the 
pharmacopceiu. The two simple cerates are the common cerate 
and the cerate of spermaceti ; the latter has already been 
noticed under the head of spermaceti. 1 

Ckkathm, Cerate. — Wax |xs, Olive oil Oj. Add the oil 
to the melted was, and mk. 

Wax also enters into the composition of several of the 
plasters and ointments of the pharmacopoeia.] 

Other kisdh of Wax. — Certain species of Cocci exude a 
waxy material, which bears some resemblance to spermaceti, and 
from which boogies are made. The Coccus Sinensis (Westwood) 
furnishes the Chinese Wax. The Coccus ceriferu* (Fabr.), 
which lives in Bengal, produces a similar substance. In 
the Common Gacltinral,* principally in the variety known as 
Sileer Cochineal, a white powder is seen on the females, 
which consists of wax. 

§ XII. Hair and other Corneous Substances. 

Hairs, hoofs, and feathers have long since been banished 
from the materia medica; 1 but the corneous parts of animals 
still render us important services in other respects. 

Horsehair is employed in the manufacture of mattresses, 
chairs, and various kinds of elastic tissues. 



Fig. 61— Whaltbont. 


The hair of the os, after being calcined, has been profitably 
employed for some years, by M. Liauce, in the preparation of 
kermes mineral. 

.8 sufficient to recall the various uses to which whalebone 1 
is applied. This material consists of corneous plates from 6 to 
9 feet in length, arranged 
parallel to each other, and 
attached vertically to the pala- 
p tine surface of the maxillary 
bones (fig. 54). These plates 
have their inner edges narrow, 
and terminating in a number 
of coarse fibres, which are the 
free ends of the fibres of 
which the plates are composed. "When the mouth of the 
whale is closed on a swarm of moHusea, or on a shoal of small 
fishes, the water escapes through the intervals of the platea 
and the fringes of coarse hair. Thus the whole forms a kind 
of filter, which strains off the water, but retains what 
was in it. 

The feathers of Birds are used for making mattresses, 
bolsters, quilts, and various kinds of ornaments. The body 
feathers (Hm, Grehn, Pmyurn), the down {Goose, Eider duck), 
the great wing and tail feathers (Ostrich, Goose, Grow), and the 
covertures which protect the base of the latter (Peacock. Egret, 
Marabout) are all employed for some purpose or another. 

Feathers form an important branch of commerce ; in 1833, 
there was imported into France 230,222 lbs. of feathers of the 
value of £29,318. 





General Observations. 

The noxious animals which are not poisonous nor yet parasites 
are those in which there is no special gland for the secretion of 
a poison, and which are not permanent inhabitants either of 
the interior or of the esterior of our bodies. 

There are some, however, which not only eause pain, hut 
also produce other symptoms, which seem to show that there is 
something more than a mere mechanical action in their 
puncture. The saliva which is deposited in the wound probably 
possesses some specific action. 

The number at those animals is very considerable. There 
are many species, both large and small, which every one is 
acquainted with, which wound us with their horns, their teeth, 
their beak, their claws, or with particular instruments. It is 
unnecessary to enumerate their names. Generally speaking, 
they are animals which avoid man. They only wound hin 
when they are attacked, tormented, or mutilated, or when they 
are endeavouring to escape from the hand which has seized 

It has been asserted that several large tailless bats belonging 
to South America, and particularly the Vampire ' and the 
Javelin Bat, I'liiilhutloma huttntatum, Ouv., could destroy a man 
by sucking his blood. It is now ascertained that these 
animals only inflict small circular or elliptical wounds, which 
are painful, and are sometimes accompanied by a considerable 
amount of local inflammation (Azara Tsehiidi) : in some rare 
cases this may assume a poisonous character from the state of 
the climate. (Cuvier.) 

' Vumpyrus spectrum, Spix, Vespectilio Vaiapyms, Lmn., commonlj 
known in Brazil aa the A mttrogiun 


The Musaraiqne, the Bat, and even the Squirrel, can bite so 
as to draw blood. It is the same with certain Birds, and 
lome large kinds of Lizards. 

Other Birds defend themselves with the spur attached to 
their foot, or with tin; points of their wings. 

Several Species of linys inflict wounds with tin' toothed spine 
of their tail ; and the Weaver with the spines of their fins. 

The Torpedo and iji/nutotiis u'ivc electric shocks. 

The Crustacea will seize the fingers or the skin with their 
Btrong dentated claws. 

Many Insects bite, prick, or scratch, Ac. 

The injuries which can be inflicted by Ants have been 
greatly exaggerated. The bites of these minute animals are 
altogether insignificant, at least in our country. Some foreign 
Ants are more disagreeable, especially when they occur in 
large numbers; such as the Anta of Southern Afrie*, mentioned 
by Father Labat ; the Flaminq Ants (Flammanfs) of the 
woods of Cayenne, which, according to Barrere, give rise to 
febrile disturbances ; and the Fire Ant of Surinam, of which 
Stedroan has given an account. Adanson relates that certain 
Red Ants of Senegal bve in the branches of a species of oak, 
where they compose their nest of the leaves, and that they 
throw themselves on persons who are so imprudent as to come 
near, and bite them severely. This celebrated naturalist was 
once attacked by these insect's ; bis hands and face were covered 
with blisters as if they had been burnt. 

It is known that a kind of acid vapour {formic acid) is 
eihaled fi-om the bodies of the Ants. The vapour is not a 
poison, but it. may produce some alight action on our bodies, 1 
and may even produce small blister*, accompanied with a 
peculiar kind oi itching. It is asserted that a large number 
of these insects assembled together on one spot, or the vapour 
arising from a formicary, is capable of producing a species of 

The Flies in our country sometimes bite very disagreably, 
especially towards the autumn ; but these insects are rather 
inconvenient than hurtful. 

One of the/*<w most to be dreaded is a species of Stomosys, 
which appears about the middle of the summer, and assembles 
in swarms around the heads of horses and of cattle ; it also 
attacks man. 

ru/a, Linn.) crawls over a piece of litmua 


There are many inserts which exhale a very disagreeable, 
stinking odour. This smell arises from a fluid which they 
disgorge, or transude from some part of their body, principally 
when they are touched. Some of the hcitles belonging to the 
families of Siljihidip and Cnruhidw discharge a very ibstid fluid 
from the mouth. The Brachinidw or Bombardier beetles dis- 
charge a still more offensive fluid from the anus. The large 
Cicada pour out a fluid which is probably an urinary secretion. 
The Blattidm have two vesicles at the side of the anus, which 
impart a most nauseous odour to our food. The Coed exude 
a bitter and acrid liquid from between the articulations of the 
thorax and the tarsi of the anterior feet. 

Lastly, the Flies and other insects which frequent putrid 
meat, and other kinds of filth, may convey to our bodies the 
germs of dangerous disorders. 

The present division of the work will be devoted to the con- 
sideration of: 1. The Serrasalmes ; 2. Hone Leech; 3. Bugs; 
4. The Nepa; 5. The Hipjioboscidm ; 6. The Tsetse; 7. The 
Gnats; 8. Stinging animals; 9. The Larvee of Flies; 10. 
Insects introduced accidentally into the natural cavities of the 

§ I. Che Serra-salmes. 

The Serra-sr.ihirrn (J't/nticcntmu!) are fishes belonging to the 
Salmonidw. They live together in shoals, and are carnivorous. 
They attack with the greatest ferocity all animals which may 
chance to come into the same waters as themselves, not ex- 
cepting even man himself. They fix themselves on to the skin 
and tear their victims with their triangular cutting teeth. 
Their bite is so sharp and so quick that it is not felt more than 
the cut of a razor. (A. de St. Hilaire.) 

One of the best known spe.-ies is the .Piranha or Demi Fish 1 
discovered by M. de Caatelnau in Uruguay, in the rivers 
Tocantin and Amazon. 

When any object is thrown into the water inhabited by the 
Piranhas, these fish immediately attack it. One of the com- 
panions of M. de Castelnau, being oppressed by the heat, 
wished to bathe, but no sooner had he entered the water than 
he was attacked by a shoal of the Piranhas, and he saw his 
blood pouring forth and discolouring the water. He made for 
the bank, which was fortunately close at hand, and he thus es- 
caped what was otherwise certain death. (De Castelnau.) 

§ II. Hcemopls. 

ILemopis SANainsTUJA, Moq., or Hone Leech (fig. 55). — 
This creature ia met with in nearly every part of Europe. It 
is iiiuiul in Sweden, in the South of Spain, in Portugal, and in 
Turkey. It is very common in the North of Africa along all 
parts of the coast, and ha* been found ia 
all the waters which have been visited by 
the French troops in their furtheBt ad- 
vances into the desert. Larrey noticed it 
in Egypt, and Barker Webb in the Canary 

The Hamopis inhabits the marshes, 
ditches, and smaller rivulets. The full- 
grown animals usuaUy bury themselves 
in the mud. The young appear to prefer 
the running waters, where they remain at 
the surface ready to plunge below upon 
the slightest disturbance. (Guyon.) 

Description. — The body of the H&mopis 
is soft, depressed, elongated, and gradually 
narrowed towards the anterior extremity ; 
when it is squeezed between the lingers it 
feels bike a dead or diseased medicinal 
Leech. The body has from !15 to 97 short I 
and rather indistinct rings, and an upper I 
lip composed of three segments. The back ' 
is of a brown or greenish brown colour, 
sometimes approaching to a reddish or 
Sienna earth colour, or to an olive or green 
eolour. It has generally longitudinal rows 
of minute close-set black spots. There are Fig. 55. —Hamopia. 
usually sis of these rows, but sometimes 
only four, and still more rarely only two. In many indi- 
viduals theBe spots are replaced by one or two large hands 
of a red colour, shaded off at the margins. Individuals are 
occasionally met with, in which the back is of a uniform colour. 
The margins are not very prominent, and are marked by a 
very distinct 1 line of au orange, yellow, nr reddish brown colour. 
Thebellyis of a uniform blackish slate colour, geuerally darker 
than the back, sometimes of a red or of au olive colour, and at 
other times of a dull black ; sometimes it is marked with obscure, 
isolated, irregular spots, and at other times it is free from 
1 Margins lateraiifiavo, Linn. 

them. The suckers are smooth, slender, and of the t 
colour aa the belly ; the mini ie half the sine of the ventral. 
The eyes are ten in number, very distinct, and arrange 
curved line ; sk are placed on the first segment. 

At the period of reproduction the r/i//-l///tt/' i-i paler than the 
rest of the body ; it commences at the 22nd ring, and termin- 
ates at the 28th. Of the male and female orifices the first ia 
placed between the 24th and 25th rings, and the second 
between the 29th and 30th. 

The cocoons are oval, Btnaller and shorter than those of 
the medicinal Leech, and covered with a looser and more 
irregular tissue. In one M, Tandon found eight embryos. 

The Horse Leech has often been confounded with the true 
Leeches. It differs : 1, as regards its size, which is somewhat 
larger; 2, by its jaw*, which are smaller, not so strong, and 
furnished with a smaller number of teeth (thirty instead of 
sixty), which are not so pointed (tig. 56) ; 3, by a softer and 
less contracted body ; 4, by the rings being less marked, less 
coriaceous, and forming during their contraction ridges, which 
i apparent ; 5, by smaller and not such prominent 
", by the absence of the rod or brown 
dorsal bands ; 7, by the belly 

cutaneous tubercles ; 

Fig. 58. — Jam of Hamnpis.' 

being darker than the back, 
and having no black mar- 
ginal bands. 

2. Its action ox the 
YEJiTKiiiiATA. — Aldrovamlus 
believed that nine of these 
Leeches were able to kill a 
horse. This statement, which lias been repeated by Gisler, 
Weser, Miiller, and many other writers, has latterly been dis- 
puted. It bears the impress of exaggeration, and is, there- 
lore, rejected. It has even been asserted that these annelides 
do not pierce the skin of the vertebra tu or suck their blood. 

The Morse Leech has been dearly proved to be aa eager 
after blood as the Medicinal Leech, but the latter is provided 
with the means of penetrating the skin at any part, even such 
skins as those of the parhvdermata. while the IT&mopix, with 
■ ita less developed aud more feeblv armed jaws, can only pene- 
trate the mucous membranes. Hence the necessity which 
this species is under of introducing itself into the natural 
cavities of horses, oxen, and other animals. 


Dr. Guyon lias frequently found in the neighbourhood of 
Algiers Horse Leeches lodged in the nose, pharynx, and air 
assagea of the animals which have been slaughtered for the 

3 of the troops and the people. Amongst other instances 
ox had twelve of these leeches in the mouth and fauces, 
five around the anterior part of the glottis, four in the ven- 
tricles of the larynx, and six about the fourth or fifth ring of 
the trachea ; altogether twenty-seven. These Leeches were 
still attached: twelve hours after the death of the animal. 

The camels and the mules are frequently tormented by the 
Hwmopis, which penetrates into the nasal fosBse and into the 
air passages. These annelides easily gain entrance into the 
mouths of animals which come to the water they inhabit for the 
purpose of drinking. Whatever part of the body the Hamopis 
may be lodged in, it is always attached by means of the anal 
sucker, which fixes itself firmly to the mucous membrane. 
The oral sucker applies itself to the surrounding parts accord- 
ing to the caprice of the leech. Thus, upon examining the 
mucous membrane in the neighbourhood of im Hivmopix, it is 
seen to be covered with a number of small wounds and cica- 
trices. (Guyon.) "When the Leeches are sufficiently gorged, 
they detaeb. themselves from their victims at the time of their 
visiting the watering places, and thus regain their natural 

Dr. Guyon has made some experiments upon these animals. 
He introduced them into the sesophagus and oviduct of fowls, 
and into the naBal fossa 1 and the rectum of rabbits. At the 
end of thirteen days the aniinnls appeared very much wasted; 
they eat but little, and bad a melancholy appearance. The 
fowls perished in about thirty days, and the rabbits in about 

M. Tandon also made several experiments ; he placed two 
large Horse Leeches at the back of the mouth of two small rab- 
bits. The animals penetrated into the trachea; one stopped 
at the commencement of the canal, the other passed completely 
in. The first rabbit died in about an hour and a hall", wliile, 
the second was suffocated in three quarters of an hour. 

The Horse Leech is one of the main causes of disease in the 
animals of Algeria. It is not, however, probable that nine of 
them would destroy a horse, as Btated by Aldrovandus, 
since it has been seen that an ox was capable of supporting 
twenty-seven without receiving any material injury. At the 
same time they might cause the animal to be very unwell, and 
■if nine full-grown leeches were to fix themselves on the same 


part of the air pnssngos, the animal might hi 
the ease of the rabbits mentioned above. 

3. Action on Man.— The Hiemopia also introduces itself 
into the mouth, pharynx, nasal fossa?, larynx, and trachea of 
man. Most if not all the cases, which have been recorded by 
writers, of Leeches being lodged in the alimentary canal or air 
passages of our species, are to be referred to the Hamopis in a 
country where these imiiiiiils are abundant; great caution should 
be used in drinking water from the rivulets, and especially 
from the marshes. 

The young worms, which are not more than -fa inch in 
length and not thicker than a fine thread, are carried along by 
the water, and swallowed without being noticed. They 
become arrested and hx themselves to various parts of the 
mouth, especially to (he back part of it. 

At first a slight pricking is felt at the back of the mouth, 
and afterwards the presence of a foreign body. 

It has been stated that the bite of the Hamopis is more 
painful than that of the Medicinal Leer/,. (Savigny, Audouin.) 
M. Tandon at first supposed that the difference depended upon 
the jaws being less compressed, and the teeth being not so 
sharp, or in consequence of the mucous membranes which are 
wounded being very sensitive. But M. Guyon has satisfied 
himself that their wounds arc not very serious ; only the pre- 
sence of the animals in the nasal fossic, and still more so in the 
air passages, produces great inconvenience, and in Borne cases 
threatens the individual with suffocation. 

The wounds inflicted by the lliemupis heal very quickly 
when the animals which inflicted them are removed. 

The Home Leech was noticed in 1756 at the Biege of Mahon. 
Since that time a great number of Boldiers and travellers have 
suffered from imprudently drinking the water from ditches and 
marshes. Larrev in E^ypt, Bory St. Vincent in Spain, and 
Barny in Algeria, have often been consulted by soldiers who 
had these animals attached to the back of the mouth or to 
the air passages. 

Dr. G-uyon once found one of these leeches on the conjunc- 
tiva of a soldier, where it had got while he was washing him self. 
On another occasion he extracted one from the vagina of a 
young girl who had been for some time in the water. 

This gentleman could not succeed in inducing the Hasmopis 
to bite the external parts of the human body. M. Tandon 
also attempted the same thing on several occasions, but with 
no better success. He placed some of these leeches of different 


i the parts of his own body where the skin is most 
slicste, he also tried them on the arm and thigh of a child, 
but the animals never attempted to bite. On one occasion he 
bathed the inner surface of his iirm with blood; the leech 
moved about and felt the blood, it even dilated its sucker, but 
it never cut the skin or made any attempt to do so. 

The Horse Leech is never employed in medicine, 1 the reason 
for which ia sufficiently evident. In the countries where they 
are abundant, they might he used instead of the common Leech 
in the few instances in which it is required to apply them to 
the mucous membranes at the entrance of one of the internal 
cavities of the body. It would, however, be very necessary to 
watch the animal, in order to prevent its entering too far. 

§ III. Cimiaidse. 

The CimicidfS, or Bugs, belong to the order Hemiptera and 
o the family GeoeoreH. 

Linnams, who was the founder of group Cimrx, assigned as 
itB characters — rostrum inflected; antenna' longer than the 
thorax; wings four, placed transversely, the upper pair coria- 
ceous; the body flattened, and the feet adapted lor running. 

This genus, which is far from a natural one, contains 121 
species. Linnieus was compelled to divide it into twelve 
sections, according to the presence or absence of wings, the 
nature of the elytra, the thickness of the body, and the form and 
characters of the antennas. At the present time the Linnaian 
genus corresponds to more than forty genera, containing more 
than 1000 species. 

1, Commok Bog (fig. 57).— Every one is familiar with the 
Common Bug or Bed Bug, Cimex hrliihrius, Linn. There are 
few persons who have not at some time or another been bitten 
ty this disagreeable and stinking inseet. 

The bug lives in the crevices and corners of old wood ; 
behind curtains, looking-glasses, and picture- frames ; in all 
kinds of old furniture, and especially in bedsteads. The 
Battened form of its body enables it to penetrate into the 
narrowest aperture. 

The animal avoids the light,- hilling itself during the day- 
time. It seldom remains on our bodies or on our dress. 

The Bug is said to have been introduced into Europe. 

1 Nocturnam fatidvm animal. (Linn.) 

iodv. about -fa mch 
Fig. 57.— Bug. 


However, Aristotle, Pliny, and liio-cureles distinctly refer U 
it. The ancients gave it the name of Oorii. The insect wai 
not known in Filmland before the 1 7th century. It 
to have been Imported from America in ltililj, with a cargo o 
wood.' Othera believe that it came from India. 

Description. — The Bed Bug has an oval body, about fa inch 
in length, somewhat narrowed anteriorly, 
thin at the sides, very depressed, soft, and 
of a reddish or ferruginous brown colour. 
It is covered with very short hairB. The 
head is of a square form and provided at 
the commencement of the rostrum with a 
hood which serves as a sheath to the base of i 
the latter. The eyes are round and block ; 
the antennas setiform and composed of four 
cylindrical joints ; the first very Bhort ; the 
second thick, long, cylindrical, and partially 
covered, with hairs; the third very long, much slenderer than 
the othera, and slightly dilated at its extremity. The thorax 
has the first segment hoi [owed out anteriorly, and truncated pos- 
teriorly ; the sides are dilated, rounded, and membranous. The 
animal has small rudimentary elytra. It has no wings. The 
legs arc of moderate size and black at their extremities; the 
tarsi are short, and consist of three joints ; the first is very 
slightly developed, the second is conico-cylindricaL the last is 
somewhat shorter th;m the second, cylindrical, andarmed with 
two strong hooks. The abdomen is large, oval, composed of 
eight segments, fimbriated at its margins, very depressed, and 
easily crushed between the fingers. It is marked with a black 
spot posteriorly. 

The scent of these insects arises from a fluid, which is 
secreted by a pyriform reddish gland, placed in the centre of 
the metathorax, and opening between the posterior legs. 

Bugs lay their eggs about the month of May. The e_ 
have an oblong form and are of a white colour. They are 
slightly narrowed at one extremity, where there is a small, 
round, slightly convex operculum, which closes up the orifice 
from whence the larva issues forth. When seen under the 

1 tiimuenB, upon the authority of Aiu'lusi, Kta*c= thai this insect was 
introduced into liuslntnl shortly lid'onj 1 070. 11 outlet relates that in 1503, 
two ladies having Vvti hiir.jn 'hiring iho uii-lii hi I no Bnijs, inquired of a 

Biuiiiiiiil mau to know what these Utile iiiiimula were. This circ *" 

proves that the introduction of these animals was prior to 1686, 

Fig. 58— Eaitrua. 1 

cimcinx. 221' 

croscope, the shell of these eggs is found to be covered with 

ioute projections. 

The larva di tiers from the perfect insect by the absence of 
the elytra, and by its paler colour, which is more or less of a 
yellow tint. 

Mouth (fig. SH). — This consists of a short rostrum, which 
does not reach farther than the base 
of the first pair of limbs. In a state 
of repose it is lodged in a small groove 
directly under the thorax. The 
rostrum contains three joints ; the 
first and second are cylindrical, some- 
what depressed, and of nearly equal 
length; the second is stouter; and the 
third, which is conical, is somewhat 
longer than the others. This apparatus 
contains three stiff-pointed seta?. 

Action on Man.- — All are aware of the avidity with which 
these animals attack man, and with what eagerness they suck 
his blood. They also torment young pigeons and some other 

The odour of man's body attracts these insectB. When one 
has the misfortune to sleep in a room infested with bugs, they 
issue forth from their hiding-places as soon as the light is 
extinguished, and hasten in multitudes towards tie bed. Some 
mount the walls and reaching the ceiling, let themselves fall 

Having got to the sleeper, they seek out the parts of his 
body most favourable for their purpose, plunge their rostrum 
into his skin and gorge themselves with his blood. 

These animals do not draw up the blood by suction, 
after the manner of the Leech. The buccal apparatus, which 
is nearly the same in all sucking insects, does not allow 
of this kind of action. The set© of the mouth when placed 
together move alternately up and down, causing the blood to 
mount into the icsophaguw, much in the same manner as water 
in a chain-pump. (Dumeril.) This ascent is favoured by the 
viscous nature of the fluid, and especially by its globules. 

Bug* do not attack the partB about the genital organs or 
about the anus. They may, however, introduce themselves into 
the ears or nose, and gain entrance to the frontal sinuses, at 

1 a, end of the rostrum j b, its base ; c c, portions of the antcmue ; dd, 



not, however, 
the nail of the 

least, when they are young (Easpail) ; they do not, 
remain there long. 

M. Dumeril found the egga of the Bug under the nail 
great toe in a dead hody. Thia is, however, an exceptional 
case, as these insects are not permanent inhabitants o! man's 
body. So soon as they have gorged themselves with his blood 
they leave him. 

The bite of the Bug gives a kind of smarting painful sei 
tion; it produces a red mark with a depressed spot in 
centre; it frequently produces a small blister. 

2. Otheh. Species. — M. Signoret has discovered 
species which lives in the Island <>f Reunion ; he has described 
it under the name of the Round Bug, Acantkia rotwndata, Sign. 

M. E. Everamann has described and figured a third species 
under the name of the Vilmtr-d Bug, Acauthia ciliata, Everam., 
which lives in the houses at Kasan. 

It is smaller than the common apecies, and differs also in 
being of a more oval form and of a reddish grey colour. It is 
covered with grey or yellow hairs, and has a strong rostrum. 

Tins specieB does not live in company in the erevieea of old 
wood, but leads a solitary life on the walls and furniture. It 
is sluggish, and moves hut slowly ; it appears stupid, and like 
an insect benumbed with the cola. 

Its hite produces a considerable amount of swelling, which 
lasts for some time ; it is much more painful than that of the 
Common Bug. (Everamann.) 

3. Allied Insects. — With the Bugs may be associated the 
Rcdus'tida and the Notonectulce. 

1. The Iteduvius personatus (fig. 59) ia a common insect in 
France. It is occasionally found in the neighbourhood of 
Paris ; it lives in houses, taking up its abode in ovens and 

The animal is from half to three-quarters of 
an inch in length, oblong, flattened above, of a 
brownish colour, with obscure markings on the 
thorax. It resembles a long fly; the bead is 
narrow, supported on a distinct neck, and is pro- 
vided with compound eyes and with two simple 
eyes. The thorax is nearly triangular, very 
distinct, and almost bilobed ; the anterior lobe, 
which is usually the smallest, is separated from 
the poaterior by a groove. The elytra are as 
long as the abdomen, placed horizontally, very -pie. 59. 
thin, and partially overlap each other. The Eeduvina. 



gs are well developed and are used in flight. In flying 
insect makes a slight noise, similar to that which is 
produced by the Oioccridie and the Lungicornes Beetles, but 
the separate sounds succeed each ether more rapidly; this 
noise is produced In- the friction of the head against the thorax. 
Tlie legs are long and slender, the tarsi short and provided 
with three joints. The abdomen is flattened above and con- 
vex below. 

The Beduvina gives nil' a disagreeable odour, which has been 
compared to that of a moose. These animals nourish them- 
selves by sucking the bodies of other insects, hunting them 
and piercing them with their pointed rostrum. 

The larve, which are very hideous, 1 also lead a life of rapine ; 
they even pursue the Common Bug. (Linmeus, Fabricius.) These 
larvae resemble small spiders; they discharge trnm the whule nf 
their body a viHcid humour, to which all the dust, earth, and 
offensive matter adheres with which the animal comes in con- 
tact. They hide themselves in corners and in holes in walls, 
and in heaps of dirt ; 2 they watch until some insect approaches 
and then throw themselves upon him ; at other times, when 
pressed by hunger, they advance slowly or by sudden jerks, 
but cautiously, so as not to alarm their victim, upon whom 
they suddenly precipitate themselves and Beize him with their 
fore feet. (De freer.) 

Mouth, (fig. 60). — The beak of the Reduvius personatus is 
short (about -J b . inch) and curved ; the surface 
is armed with stiff hairs ; it consists of four 
joints, of which the first is the thickest, 
the third the longest, and the fourth the 
shortest ; the base of it is covered by a rudi- 
mentary upper lip ; its termination is received 
into a groove on the under surface of the 
thorax ; the beak encloses four stiff lancet- 
like setfe. It appeared to M. Tandon as if Fig. 
two of these seta were serrated at their edges. 

Action on Man. — The Beduvina attacks man, and the wounds 
which it inflicts are very painful. Latreille was once bitten 
on the shoulder by one of these insects ; his whole arm became 
swollen and continued so for some hours. 

Entomologists are agreed that these insects are not provided 

1 Larea hofrida, psrsatmta, Linn. 
■ Cimez stercurarius, Frisoh. 

* a, first joint; h, second joint; c, third joint; d, terminal joint; * "" 
pound eye ; /, single eye. 

— EnKtrum.' 




with a poison ; and, in fact, at present no gland or reservoir for 
the reception of such a fluid has hitherto been discovered. If, 
however, the bite of the Ri-ducnia was purely mechanical, howifl 
it possible to explain the rapidity with which it kills or stupiflea 
small insects (De Geer), and also the phenomena which it pro- 
duces on our own species p These effects ore probably caused 
by the saliva. 

Other Species. — There is a red and a black species, and 
also the Beduvittx mtrntttx, whew bites are equally painful. 

According to Major Davis, another species, BeAmuiMrrstm 
(Fabr.), is met with in India, which produces slight electric 

2. The Noloifctu qlnura is a species of water ] 
rnonly known as the Boat Fh/ (fig. GI); it is very different from 
the Bpeeies of liuijg which have been previously mentioned. 

This animal is found in the neighbourhood of Paris and 
throughout nearlv the whole of Europe ; it is aquatic, and lives 
in ditches, ponds, and other masses of stagnant water; it 
usually maintains itself at the surface of the water, but L 
diately plunges beneath when any one approaches. 

Description. — The body is about half an inch in length, 
oblong, narrow, nearly cylindrical, somewhat con- 
tracted posteriorly, convex above, flattened below, ■ 
and has its sides fringed with long hairs, which 
spread out and sustain the animal in the water; the 
head is large and of a grey or greenish colour ; the 
eyes are large, oblong, and occupy all the sides of J 
the head ; the antennro are shorter than the head, and K 
composed of four slender joints ; the first is very I 
short and cylindrical, the second is longer and I 
slightly bent, the third is cylindrical and not quite ' 
so long or so thin as the second, the last is shorter 

d slenderer than the third. The thorax is wider p;„ gi_ 

than it is 

dark grey posteriorly. The elytra are about the same 
length as the abdomen, and of a greenish grey colour, with 
black spots on their anterior iiau-^iiis, the wings are mem- 
branous, of the same length as the elytra, and of a white 
colour; the four anterior feet are short, and constructed in the 
usual manner ; the posterior are double their length, they are 
strongly ciliated, and their tarsi are unprovided with hookB ; 
the hinder limbs act as oars. The abdomen is black above, and 
greenish grey at the extremity. 

The Water Bugs in the various stages of larva, nymph, and 
perfect insect, feed upon small aquatic insects, which they 

ciKicr&x. 225 

seize with the hooka of the anterior feet and pierce with their 
beak. These animals are exceedingly voracious, and when 
other insects are not present they will devour their own species. 
They have a very singular mode of swimming, placing themselves 
on their backs, and generally in an inclined position. From this 
circumstance they have received (lie asms of Notoneeta, which 
literally meana bnck swimming. The head is somewhat higher 
than the rest of the body when the animal ascends through 
the water, and a little lower when it remains at the surface or 
when it descends; while in the act of swimming, the anterior 
limbs are placed against the thorax and only the posterior pair 
or oars are in motion ; when, however, the animals are on the 
mud at the bottom of the water, or on a leaf, or when they are 
walking, it is the anterior feet which are brought into use, 
the posterior remaining motionless, and trailing after the 

De Geer has described the male organs of the Water Bug ; 
they are contained in the last segment of the abdomen. If the 
belly is compressed, a large scaly piece issues forth of a black 
colour and cleft at its extremity ; at this part a portion is 
seen projecting from between two plates, which is the penis. 

In the act of copulation the male and the female place 
themselves side by side, the male being 
somewhat the lowest; they swim about f 
joined together in this manner with | 
great swiftness. 

The eggs are deposited on the stems | 
and leaves of aquatic plants, and even 
on the epidermis of I. lie insects ; they 
are oblong, cylindrical, and of a yel- 
low colour ; they are hatched at the 
commencement of spring. 

The young larva immediately begin 
to swim about ; they resemble the per- 
fect insect, only they have no wings. 
The nymphaj have rudiments of the 

Mouth (fig. 62). — The beak is very I 
strong and about T l 5 of an inch in I 
length; it has an elongated conical 
form and is composed of tour joints, of 

' A, head seen in profile ; a, rostrum ; b, first joint J c, second joint ; a 
thirdjoint; e, terminal joint : /, nidiimiril of tlnMipner lip ; B, rostrun 
separate ; C, seta with fringed margin ; D, one of the two straight sets:. 

Pig. fl2.- 



which the first is thick, the third the longest, and the laat very 
slender and not very pointed. The sucker ia formed of a short, 
pointed, superior piece, and of three slender sharp-pointed set» 
as long as the case. One of them is ciliated on one side and 
plumose towards its extremity. 

Action on man. — The Notomcta bite strongly, hut these 
insects do not emerge from the water, aud consequently, unlike 
the Muduvina, they do not enter into houses ; they are only to 
be feared when the hand is incautiously placed into the element 
in which they reside; the pain they occasion is tolerably 

As the insects which are attacked by the Notonecta soon 
die, BOmewriti-iN h;nv siuppiised that they discharge u poisonous 
fluid into the wouud ; hut where is this poison organ to be 
found ? Is it not the saliva which, in this case, also exercises 
a poisonous influence F 

§ IV. Neps. 
The Grey Nepa, Nepa cinerea, Linn., (fig. 63,) commonly 
called Water Scorpion or Water Spider, is a 
Heniipterous insect belonging to the section He- 
teroptera and to the family Hydrocores. It is 
common throughout the whole of France [and 
England"!, where it lives in ditches, marshes, and 
other pools of fresh water. 

The body is three-quarters of an inch long, of 
m oblong oval form, very depressed, and of an 
ashen colour, with red on the upper part of the 
abdomen ; it terminates in a tail consisting of 
two slender filaments, which are tubes, through 
which the animal breathes. The antenna* are 
short, three-jointed, and cleft; the thorax is nearly 
—Ntpa. Bquare ; the elytra are horizontal, coriaceous, 
and of a dingy grey ; the anterior limbs have the 
coxaa short,and the thighs large and terminated by strong pincers, 
which give the insect some resemblance to the scorpion. 

The Nepa swims slowly and with difficulty (Lamk.), it often 
walks at the bottom of the water; it comes forth at night 
time, and flics with great agility. 

The eggs resemble small grains surrounded by seven bands; 
the insect deposits them on the stems of the water plants. 

The larva) are hatched in the middle of summer ; they differ 
from the perfect insect in the absence of wings and of the 
abdominal filaments ; the nymphai are provided with elytra. 

Mouth (fig. 
almoBt perpen 
short, conical 



Mouth (fig. 64). — This consists of a curved rostrum, placed 
almost perpendicularly (Lunik.); itia 
short, conical, pointed, and tolerably 
stout ; the rostrum is composed of 
three joints, of winch the secuiid in 
the longest. It encloses four slender 
pointed threads ; two are provided on 
one side with a hind of straight 
narrow, and are very finely 
notched towards the base ; the others 
are finer, and have also a narrow 
edge, but less developed than in the 
former ; one of them is provided at 
its termination with a number of 
fine hairs directed from behind for- 

Action on maw.— The Xepa bite 
very sharply, and cause a good deal 
of pain; the wound is not dangerous. 

§ V. HippoboscidtB. 

The Horse Fly, Hippobosca equina, Linn., (fig. G5,) is an 
insect belonging to the order Diptera, and to the family 

This insect settles on horses and cattle, generally beneath the 
tail near the anus ; they select the parts which are devoid of hair. 

Description.— The Horse Fly is of a brown colour mottled 
with yeUow and white ; it has a small head, 
a short thorax, and a flat abdomen; the 
antenna! have the form of tubercles, and are 
immersed within the head; the eyes are 
compound and occupy the entire side of the 
head ; it has no simple eyes ; the wings are 
horizontal, obtuse, partially cross each other, Fig. 65.— Hurse. Fly. 
and extend beyond the abdomen ; the bal- 
ancers are placed beneath two flattened scale-like eminences ; 
its limbs are well developed, and give the animal something of 
the appearance of a spider. 

These insectB walk quickly and often sideways; their flight 
is abrupt and rapid. 

The female lavs neither an egg nor a larva, but a true nymph ; 

1 A, Rostrum seen From I lie siilu : a, first .joint : /•, wciind joint ; e, ter 
miual joint ; B, rust rum squirmc ; C, sttn: tuiiiaiin;d in the rostrum ; a, 
one of the two setas with a lateral blade ; b, filiated seta; c, non-ciliated 

« 2 


medicai zooioor. 


this is of a large size, and fills up the whole of the abdomen ; 
ita skin hardens after it is bom. The Horse Fly emerges from 
the nympha by detaching a portion of the envelope. (Eeaumur.) 

Mouth (fig. 66). — This consists of a short, straight, cylindrical 
beak (haiuitellum), formed by the union of two modified palpi ; 
these resemble a pair of small blades, or coriaceous valves ; they 
are flat, oblong, straight, and terminate in a rounded extremity ; 
thi j v him from tin' clypcus, which is hollowed out at its lower 
border, pass parallel to each other, and then form by their re- 
union a semitnbe, which covers the sucker. 

The sucker is a large filiform, cylindrical, curved process, 
wbich commences from a kind of bulb in the 

I mouth ; this apparently simple process consists of 

two sets, one superior, one inferior ; the first has 
a canal on its under surface which covers over the 
It is with this instrument that the Mippobosea 
/^y^"T~~^ BO * ormcn t'B horses and cattle as to drive them 
' I \ frantic ; it punctures the skin and eagerly sucka 
Fig. 6*i.-Beai. their blood. 
Action on man. — According to the experience 
of Eeaumur, the Hippobosca is as eager after the blood of man 
as of the other mammalia. The same naturalist assures us 
that its bite is not more acute than that of a flea; Eeaumur 
is, however, mistaken in this respect, as the bite of this insect 
is very painful. 
% VI. Tsetse. 
The Tsetse or Tsetse (fig. 67) is a very formidable Fly which 
inhabits Africa. Bruce, who met with it 
in Abyssinia, has given a bad drawing of 
^ it, but has correctly described its habits. 1 

^vjlt •^ MM. Arnaud, iivingstone, Oswald, L. 

f 3^^^Sjfes^> de Castelnau, and Anderson, have collected 
many curious details L-oiiooniinc; this insect. 
Mr. Westwood has given a very good de- 
letion of it. . 

[tie Tsetse belongs to the genus Glossina. 
It is named the Htlinij Glossina, Glossma 
morsitans, Westw.* 


Fig. 67.— Tsetse. 

1 Mr. Anderson has .. 

a very correct drawing of the insect in the 

■ This insect i a called Zebud in the Chaldean version of the Bible, Zimh 
a the Arabian version, and Tsaitsalya in tin: Kiii i ■...].! inn; \\i-i Greeks give it 
be name of Cynomyu, and ihe Negroes of Tie-Tse. 




Nearly all the central countries of South Africa are more or 
infested by the 'Txetae; it is very common in all the countries 
situated to the north of Lake Ngnmi ; and is again met with in 
Soudan and in the tropical districts. 

This insect usually frequents the bushes and reeds on the 
borders of marshes. It is larger than the common fly, and of 
a whitish yellow colour; the thorax is of a pale cheanut on its 
upper surface, is covered with grey hairs, and has four longitu- 
dinal interrupted black bands in the centre ; its proboscis 
(fig. 68) is twice as long as the head, and is extremely slender; 
it resembles a fine corneous thread; the palpi are straight, of 
the same length as the proboscis, and form ft sheath for it ; 
the abdomen is of a light yellow with darker spots or bands ; 
the wings are smoke-coloured. 

The buzzing of the Tbetse is a mixture of a dull and a sharp 
sound, producing a very discordant noise ; 
this buzzing spreads a terror and dis- 
order amongst men and animals which 
even the mid beasts of the eountn 
when they are twice their number 
not produce. (Bruce.) 

Its vision is extremely acute, and it darts 
like an arrow upon the animal that it 
intends to attack : it always makes its 
puncture between the belly and the thighs, 
when a swelling soon rises up around the 

The horse, the ox, and the dog, after they have been attacked 
by this insect, waste away and die in the course of a few 
days ; those which are fat and in good condition soon die, while 
the others drag on a miserable existence for some weeks; three 
or four flies are sufficient to produce these disastrous results. 
The blood of the animals which die is altered and diminished 
in quantity ; the fat in the neighbourhood of the wound is soft, 
viscous, and of a yellow colour ; in general, some portion of 
the intestines is enormously swollen ; the flesh putrifies very 
quickly (Castlenau) ; and the heart, the lungs, and the liver 
are more or less affected. The goat is the only domesticated 
animal which can live with impunity in the midst of these 
flies ; dogs escape the danger when they are fed exclusively by 
means of the chase, but it' these animals are fed with milk they 
invariably die; on the contrary, the calf has nothing to fear 
so long as it sucks. 

The bite of the Tsetse ts not dangerous to the wild 

Fig. 68— Trunk. 



the elephant, zebra, buffalo, and the various kinds of antelopea 
and gazelles whieh abound in the countries inhabited by this 
fly, do not experience any ill effects from it. 

These insects do not bite when it is bright moonlight, or 
when the nights are very cold. 

Action on man. — The 7W«-« also attacks our species, but its 
action on man is attended with but little danger; its bite is very 
analogous to that of the gnat's, 1 but the pain does not last so 
long. (De Castelnau.) M. Arnaud, however, suffered for some 
months after being bitten by one of these inserts. 

M. Chapman, one of those who have penetrated the furthest 
into the interior of South Africa, states, that whilst he was 
hunting, having a small hole in hit iiraM nude by* pin, he has 
often seen one of the Tsetse, which appeared to know that it 
eould not penetrate his dress, dart down, and, without ever 
missing its mark, wound him through the undefended opening. 
Is the Tsetse a poisonous animal ? Its effect on the domesti- 
cated animals would appear to answer the question in the 
affirmative, but its action on man declares the contrary. How 
then are we to explain itw fatal HI'ivl.-; oil cattle? At the same 
time these results vary in different species, and in some they 
are of no consequence. 

§ VII. Gnats. 
The Chmts, Cnh\r, arc insects lichin^ini; to the order Diptera, to 
the tribe Kemovera. and to the family of the C'ulicidie. Linnieus 
assigned as their charac- 
ter the possession of se- 
taceous darts enclosed 
in a flexible sheath. 

1. The Commoh 
Gnat. (fig. 69), CUw 
pipiens, Linn., is the 
best known species. 

This insect has a long 
body and limbs, covered 
with hairB, and of a grey 
colour ; the antenna? are 
plumose in the males ; 
the eyes are large, and 
converge posteriorly ; 

the palpi are projecting, filiform, and covered with hairs; the 
abdomen has eight hrown coloured rings. 
These insects are very abundant, especially where there is much 
■water. They assemble in swarms, which, as they ascend and de- 
Bcend, perform a variety of movements, and create a singing 
noise aa they follow in the track of man and other animals. 
They are fond of blood, but they also suck the juices of 

Copulation takes place towards the close of the day. The 
female deposits her eggs on the surface of the water, and, 
crossing the hinder legs, arranges them beside each other in a 
perpendicular direction ; the eggs have the shape of a sugar- 
loaf, and the mass forms a small boat, which floats on the 
surface of the water; each female lays about 300 eggs a year. 

The eggs are hatched in about two days ; the larva} abound 
in ponds, marshes, and stagnant waters, especially during the 
spring; the head of the lame is provided with ciliated appen- 
dages, which enable them to procure their food ; the abdomen 
is long and cylindrical, and terminates in a respiratory tube. 
The animal suspends itself in the water with its head down- 
wards for the purpose of breathing. These larva? swim about 
by suddea darts ; when the water is disturbed they precipi- 
tate themselves with great rapidity to the bottom, with 
a zig-zag motion. (Lamark.) They 
change into nymph*, which can row — ■ 
themselves about by means of their 
tail and two fin-like appendages ; 
they have two corneous tubes | 
beneath the thorax. Lamark © 
rectly observes that this second state | 
of the Gnat ia, properly speaking, 
neither a larva, a chrysalis, nor a 
nympha ; all the metamorphoses 
take place in about three or four 

Mouth (fig. 70). — Reaumur has 
given an admirable description of 
the mouth of the Gnat, and of the ' 
manner in which it acts. There is Fig. 70.— Proboscis* 

1 A, proboscis ; a, lower lip, forming a sheath ; b, jawa and mandibles, 
having the form of filaments united together ; <■, upper lip, farming a. fifth 
filiament; dd, eyes; e, head;,//, uijutilliirv palpi i B, Hpuate filaments; 
a, one of the two serrated filaments ; b, one of the two with lancet-shaped 
pointa; c, upper Up, 

232 medical zoolort. 

a long, slender, projecting proboscis, composed— 1, of a 
braaous cylindrical tube, terminating in two small lips, forming 
a slight enlargement or disc ; 2, of a sucker or dart formed by 
the union of five scaly and setaceous threads. The tube is cleft 
superiorly, forming a half canal, but the terminal lips are 
united above so as to form a ring around the dart ; of the five 
threads, two are terminated by a small lancet-shaped dilatation, 
two others have on their outer edge near the point very fine 
teeth directed from before backwards, while the fifth is set% 
ceous and armed with fine Bpines throughout its entire length. 
Action on man. — The bite of the Gnat, which is scarcely 
felt in temperate climates, becomes unbearable in hot countries. 
These animals follow man everywhere ; they enter his houses, 
particularly at night, announcing their presence by a loud 
singing noise, and pierce his skin, which even his clothes are 
not sufficient to protect. 

When a Gnat mis selected (he part which he intends to suck, 
he applies the terminal expansion of the proboscis to the 
spot ; he then thrusts out the dart from the centre of the 
expansion and penetrates the skin ; in proportion as the 
dart is buried, the external protecting tube, whose ex- 
pansion is fastened around the wound, becomes longer than 
the portion which ia not inserted 
"ig. 71, A) ; as the tube is cleft 
i its upper surface it opens from 
jove downwards, leaving the dart 
exposed; it becomes bent and forms 
| at first an arch, of which the dart 
is the cord ; it afterwards forms an 
angle, which is at first very obtuse, 
and afterwards very acute. At a 
certain time the head of the animal 
makes its nearest possible approach 
to the terminal expansion, and the 
groove forms between the latter 
and the bite a vertical fold (fig. 
I 71, B). 

A m orei it regarded the Gnat as 
a poisonous insect ; this is some- 
3 there ie no gland for the secretion of a 
poison. it appears, however, that when the animal has 
punctured the skin it disgorges into it a drop of fluid, which 

1 A, proboscis when the Beta! are first introduced ; B, proboscis when 
the seta; are completely immersed. 

is probably saliva ; the sets) which form the dart leave a narrow 

Sjaee between tbem, but sufficient to give passage to thia 
uid. It is through the same channel that the blood ia 
pumped up by the insect. Beaumur believed that the saliva 
poured out by the Gnat is also intended to render the blood 
more fluid. M. Dumeril thinks that it first exercises a narcotic 
action, which momentarily deadens the local sensibility ; this 
enables the insect to suck without being perceived; afterwards 
it gives rise to an acute inflammation accompanied with consider- 
able pain, and a small edematous spot, which every one is familiar 
with. Persons are sometimes completely disfigured by the 
bites inflicted by Gnats and the inflammation which accompanies 
them. These bites, when they are severe and numerous, 
produce restlessness and even fever | the insupportable itch- 
ing caused by them compels the person to be perpetually 
scratching himself, but even this affords only a momentary 
reb'ef ; the more the person scratches himself the more the 
local inflamation and the pain seem to increase ; the pain 
varies not only according to the size and vigour of the Gnat, 
but also according to the susceptibility of the part which ia 

2. Otheb species. — The principal Gnat* in France besides 
the Common Gnat are the llim/cil Glial, (Jalex annulatus, Fabr., 
which is of a brown colour with transverse bands of white, and 
the Oiilex puUcar'm, Linn., which has no hands, but three indis- 
tinct spots. The latter is the largest ; it inhabits the southern 
parts, particularly in the nei^hbi-nHiooil of Cette. 

The Greepini/ Gnat, Simiilann reptan*, Latr., which is black 
with a white ring, and about the size of a flea, is common in 
Sweden, and forms the type of the genus Sisnulium. 

The Musquitoes of America are true Gnats; those of the 
French Colonies appear to belong to the genus Simulium. 
The bite of these insects is extremely painful ; cloth clothes do 
not always preserve the person against their attacks. When 
these animals bite a person who is asleep he wakes up with 
his body covered with small pimples with a black spot, or a 
collection of dark serum in the centre surrounded by a ring of 
a deep fawn colour (Bouftiers) ; a severe itching is felt, the 
person scratches himself, the skin becomes abraided, and the 
inflammation continues to spread. 

In the moist forests of the Isle of France and of Mada- 
gascar, there is an insect which appears to be closely allied to 
the Gnats, whose bite also causes intolerable pain; it is named 
Bigaye or Rizigaye. 

234 medical zoology. 

In conclusion, it must be observed, tbat amongst the Diptera 
there are animals lesa known and Icbb common than the Q-nats 
which do not spare man when they hare an opportunity of 
attacking him. Such is the case with the Autumn Fly, Conops 
calcitrant, Linn., which bites the legs, especially on the ap- 
proach of rain 5 and also with the Breese Fly, Tahanug bovinus, 

§ Vm. Stinging Animals. 

The caterpillars of several of the Bombyciilw, or nocturnal 
moths, called Processionaiy Mo/hx,' which live in societies on the 
oak and the pine, protected by n silken covering,* are clothed with 
fine hairs, which become blended with the covering of their 
nest and the tiBsue of their cocoons ; these fine hairs penetrate 
the skin, and cause great irritation and even swelling of the part. 
Other species which are mentioned as producing similar effects 
are the Bombyx of the oak, Fhalama ijuercus, Linn. ; ft Liparis, 
Liparis aurifiua, Ochaen, whose caterpillar resides in wood; and 
a lAthoaia, Lithoxia caniola, Fabr., whose caterpillar lives on 

The ancients were acquainted with urtieatiug Caterpillars ; 
Dioscorides mentions tbern under the name of Eutoma; the 
Romans called them Eruew. 

"When Reaumur was engaged in studying the habits of the 
Proccssionary Moth, he experienced great irritation of the 
skin on his hands, fingers, and body, especially about the 
nostrils and around the eyes ; he was constantly sneezing, and 
could only partially open his eyes ; his skin became inflamed 
and covered with red patches and pustules; this state lasted for 
four or five days. When these hairs, says Reaumur, become 
buried in the skin, they are like so many small spines, which 
it is very difficult to remove. 

On one occasion the celebrated naturalist inadvertently 
caused an exanthematous eruption on the neck and shoulders 
of four ladies who had assisted him in some of his experiments, 
yet the ladies had never touched either the caterpillars or 
their nests. 

Charles Bonnet, after taking some of these Caterpillars out 
of the water in which they had been drowned, found that his 
fingers became numbed ; they afterwards began to itch, fol- 
lowed by a burning sensation and swelling. 

Charles Morreu made some experiments which proved the 

1 The principal are the Procetiionary Moth; properly bo called, Phalana 
proceaioaea, Lien., anil the I'ityacampa. Bomhyz Pityucampa, God. 

* There arc 600, 7U0, ujid even 300 in a neat. (Morren.) 



in a 


f these hairs at a distance ; like Reaumur, he saw the 
.of scales and hairs fly off into the air from the vessels 
. the Caterpillars were kept ; these became dispersed 
about and produced the affection of which he speaks. These 
filaments are not the ordinary hair which covers the caterpillar, 
but are extremely small and invisible to the naked eye, and 
become detached when the animal changes into o chrysalis. 
(Heaumur, Morren.) These hairs (tig. 72) are of various 
lengths, and are more or 
less pointed, but they often 
get broken and are trun- 
cated ; some are transpa- 
rent, others are somewhat i 
opaque and marked with 
luiigiiudinal atri», or are 
finely punctated ; there 
are sonic which appear to 
be hollow, divided into 
compartments by trans- 
verse partitions, and filled 
vrfth some peculiar sub- 
:e. Heaumur says he 
seen a hair in the 

Ltre of each swelling. 

Do theBe hairs act merely 
mechanical manner, 
or has the matter which occasionally fills the interior of them 
anything to do Kith the irritation, as Charles Morren supposes? 
Is it true that the presence of formic acid has been detected in 
many of them p Whatever it may be, it is necessary to be on 
one's guard against the species of Caterpillars u Inch have just 
been mentioned, and, generally speaking, of all those which are 
covered with hairs. 

M. Borkhausen does not hesitate to say, that when the 
irritating action of the I'/wrxxioiittn/ Moths takes place in the 
interior of the lungs, or of the alimentary canal, that death 
may ensue ? 

The ancients employed urtieatinj; Caterpillars in the forma- 
tion of sinapisms. (Dioscorides.) Reaumur and Dortbes thought 
that when pounded they might, under certain circumstances, 

•■ made useful as a substitute for Ca ntharides. 1 

Certain marine animals, at the head of which are the Actinite 

id the Medium, have more or less urticating properties. 
See page 12 7. 

Fig. 72. — Stiut/iny llirir* 



These animals are commonly known by the name ol 
Nettle.* * 

A Gi/anea* of Pond i cherry is particularly mentioned a 
which secretes an eitremely acrid and irritating finid. 

The Physalia, or Portuguese Man of War, also causes a con- 
siderable amount of irritation ; it is provided with an oblique 
, wrinkled crest, which stands 
1 up like a sail ; when they are 
I taken hold of they produce a 
I tolerably acute burning sensation, 
which continues for some time ; 
I sometimes it causes a feeling of 
generally speaking the effects do 
not extend beyond the hand. The 
I commonest species is the Rhyaalia 
I pelagica, Bobc. 

1 The stinging apparatus of the 
Medus» consists of microscopic 
capsuleB situated in the skin, on 
which they form minute projec- 
I tions ; they are principally noticed 
on the extremities of the long 
tentacles. These capsules are 
hard and transparent ; they con- 
tain a second thin and flexible 
membrane, at the bottom of which is a long slender thread 
coiled up when in repose ; this thread can emerge from the 
capsule, and its base is then seen to be provided with a 
number of sharp points like the barbs of a hook (Jiastte, 

Certain capsules have a small dart, which is provided with 
gland and lateral muscles. 

This apparatus serves the Mudusie as a means of attack and 
defence. The burning sensation which these animals produce 
when they are touched, and which is most perceptible on the 
mucous membranes, has, been aptly compared to the effect 
of stinging nettles ; it may even give me to vesications. 

The Rhizostoma Aldrovandi, which lives in the Mediter- 
ranean, and that of Cuvier, Rhixaxtonia Vurierii, found in La 
Manehe, secrete a slime which is eitremely irritating ; a single 
drop is sufficient to produce inflammation of the conjunctiva 
1 The offspring of tbtsc are Polyp*. 
■ Medtua {Cyaaea) Caliparea, Eeyn. 


md the eyelids ; this slime produces a number of small papilla) 

n the hand, which are accompanied with an intolerable itching. 

§ IX. Larva of Flies. 

The larval of certain Flies often torment the human species. 

, "W. Hope has published an interesting work on the 

lubject ; he nas given the name of mi/asis to the disorders 

produced by these animals and other Diptera. 

1. Species.— The larva which are most frequently met with 
in wious parts of the body belong principalis to lour species: 
1. The Flesh Fly; 2. The Bluebottle Fly; 3. The Golden Fly; 
4. The Haminivurous Fly. The following is a summary of 
their characters : — 


[ widely separated behind 

[ Thorax 

1. Flesh Ffy. 

I black, abdomen blue 

with black bands . 2. Bluebottle Fig. 
. | golden green, abdo- 
■■. men without bands 3. Golden Fly. 

dark blue, abdomen 
\ with purple bands. 4. Homixivonut 
The Flesh Flif is very common, and is the largest of the 
four. Its body iB of a golden yellow anteriorly, and covered 
with long, stout, black hairs ; the thorax is grey, with four 
longitudinal black bands ; the abdomen is of a shining black 
colour, with four square white spots on each ring. 

This insect Hies rapidly, and produces a constant buzzing 
noise ; it is ovo viviparous. 

It hunts about for decomposing flesh for the purpose of 
depositing its larvie upon it. 
TheBe are soft, whitish coloured I 
grubs, without feet, terminating I 
in a pointed extremity ante- 1 
riorly, but thick and truncated I 
posteriorly. The mouth is a | 
sucker, tumished with 
hooks, adapted to tear and I 
divide their food (fig. 74). 

The Blue or Meat Fly' 
one of the largest species found „. „ 

in France ; its size is, however, 
less than that of the Flesh Fly. The head is of a brown colour, 

1 Sarcophaga a 
' Caltiphora vi 
phala, De Geer. 

<%:- ^ 


with yellowish reflexions ; its presence is indicated by its loud 
buzzing noise ; its sense of smell is very acute, and it recognises 
the presence of meat, especially when it is fresh, at a long 
distance off. It is oviparous as well as the two following 
species ; its larva is called a maggot. 

The Golden Fly' ia about the same 
lize its the common house fly. It lays 
I eggs principally upon carrion. Its Lai 
I devour dead bodies, even those which 
I have been injected, (flaspail.) 

The Iiowiiui-<>ruii..i Ply, Liu-ilia komi- 

livora, Coq. (fig, 75), inhabits Cayenne. 

[t is about the third of an inch in length ; 

' the palpi are of a yellow colour, and the 

Fig. 75. head very large ; the face is of a golden 

Hcmimvorvu, Fit,. ye ll ow> au( i the feet black ; the wings are 

transparent and smoke-coloured, especially towards their base. 


2. Action on man.— It is well known that the larva of 
the three first species of Flien which have been mentioned may 
be deposited and developed in wounds, and in the natural 
cavities of the human body. 

It is especially in hospitals that these untoward events take 
place. Several surgeons met with the same thing in Algeria 
and in the Crimea. 

Instances of the larvce of Flits being vomited or found in the 
stomach are not rare. Mr. Hope mentions seven or eight cases. 3 
The presence of these animals in the intestines ia less frequent. 
Brera mentions one example, and Mr. Hope a second. 

Latham found the larvce of a Fly in the maxillary sinus of 
a woman. Vohlfant and Mangles met with them in the frontal 
sinuses. A curious instance at the last kind has been published 
by Dr. Astros, of Aix. A woman, while sleeping in the open 
air, was attacked by Flies, which deposited their eggs, or their 
larva?, in her nostrils. For three days she felt a slight dull 
pain, which appeared to commence in the frontal sinus and 
extended to the right temple. The pain was followed by a 
tingling sensation, and a peculiar kind of noise, resembling that 
produced by an insect gnawing a piece of wood. The noise 
was heard by other persons beside* tlie patient. For two days 
after bleeding at the nose, the patient discharged a considerable 

1 Lucilia Casar, Rnb JV-y,, Mimfu Cirsar, Linn. 

* See Airel, Osiimder, I'M-mii. Joerdefis. — Tlie larra of the JUatca 
metcorica, Fabr., is souietiuiea developed in the stomach of man. 

a one hundred and 


number of the larvce of a My. As many a 
thirteen were counted. 1 

Dr. Chevreul, of Angers, aaw ten of tlie larva of a Sleek Fly 
come out of the ear-passage in a child of dirty habits. 

Ruysch found them in the urinary passages. 

Professor Lallemand extracted upwards of twenty of the 
same kind of larva; from the vagina of a female, who had had 
ulceration of the neck of the uterus for eighteen months. 

In 1826, at the Hotel-Dieu, at Montpellier, a student re- 
moved in the presence of M, Tandou thirty larvce of a Fly from 
d cancer at the bottom of the abdomen of an unfortunate 
patient who was dying. 

Andry, Panarolus, Lieutaud, Bertrand, Alibert, and others, 
have recorded similar instances. 

These examples are fortunately rare. The injuries which are 
inflicted by the hominieiiroiai Fly are, however, more frequent. 
The larvse of this species are often met with in the nasal and 
frontal sinuses in Guiana. M. Coquerel met with a consider- 
able number in a condemned criminal, who was killed by them. 
Dr. Saint- Pair saw six similar eases iu 1855 and 1856. Three 
of the patients died after great suffering ; two of them had the 
nose entirely destroyed, and the last escaped with only the 
mutilation of this organ. 1 

At first the patients experience only a slight uneasiness in 
the nasal foBS«. This is followed by headache and icdema of the 
parts about the nose, which extends more or less on to the face ; 
afterwards there is free haemorrhage from the nose and acute 
pain in the suborbital region, which the patients compare to 
being beaten with a hammer. Ulcerations subsequently occur 
on the nose, through which some of the larvai escape. The 
general symptoms are the same as those which accompany 
acute inflammation ; this is followed by erysipelas of the nead 
and face, sometimes by meningitis, and lastly bv death. 

In one of the cases recorded by M. Saint-Pair, 800 larva 
were expelled by means of injections ; but it was impossible to 
get rid of them all. They soon gained the globe of the eye 
and crawled between the eyelids. The lower eyelid became 
gangrenous, and the inferior margin of the orbit was exposed. 

1 M. Legrand da Ssutle has recently communicated a similar instance 
to the Insstitut. It occurred in a young girl nine years of age, whoso frontal 
sinuses contaiueil it uuiubur of /n>T<r which produced perpetual frontal head- 
ache, accompanied with convulsions. 

* Dr. Daniel has recorded another instance which was fatal, and in which 
the left ear was filled with larvw. 



The larvse entered the mouth and eat away the gums, laying 
bare the superior maxilla. The patient dit-d Wronteen days 
aft ' 




after he had entered the hoBpital. 
Another patient, under the 

found in the nasal fossa and in the pharynx. After 
death the mucous membrane of these cavities was found to be 
nothing but a black putrid mass. 

Can, however, the larva of the Flies of our country, or of 
any other, penetrate the skin so long^ as it is healthy and the 
surface unbroken P Unfortunately it is too clearly proved that 
these animals are capable of abvaiding the Bkin. 

Leeuwenhoeck relates a case in which a number of tumours 
about the size of the end of the finger made their appearance 
on the leg of a lady ; the limb ultimately became of a monstrous 
Bize. In one of the tumours there was found some of the larvaj 
of a Flesh Fly. 

M. Hope states an instance of a young man in Jamaica, who 
bad lame in the substance of the cheek and of the gums. It 
has just been seen that the larvie of the hominivorous Fly, after 
having destroyed the naaul fonate, produced similar ravages. 

Saltzmann saw a young man in the hospital at Strashurg 
whose whole akin was penetrated by thousands of larva. In 
the groin and on the legs masses of flesh were completely de- 
stroyed. The left eye was eaten away. The patient died. 

In June, 1829, John Page, a pauper, died ironi the injuries 
inflicted upon him by the larva; of a Fly at Asbornby, in Lin- 
colnshire. The man was in the habit of strolling about the 
country, and subsisted on the pittance he obtained from door 
to door ; the support he usually received from the benevolent 
was bread and meat ; and after satisfying the cravings of 
nature, it was his custom to deposit the surplus provisions, 
particularly the meat, betwixt his shirt and skin. Having a 
considerable portion of this provision in Btore so deposited, he 
was taken rather unwell, and laid himself down in a field; 
when from the heat of the season at that time, the meat 
speedily became putrid, and was of course struck by the flies ; 
these not only proceeded to devour the inanimate pieces of 
flesh, but also literally to prey upon the living subatanee ; and 
when the wretched man was accidentally found by some of the 
inhabitants, he was so eaten by the maggots that his death 
seemed inevitable. The surgeon who saw him declared that 
his body was in_ such a Btate, that dressing it must be little 
short of instantaneous death, and in fact the man only sur- 


ived the operation a few hours. White maggots of enormous 
size were crawling in and upon his body, which they had most 
shockingly mangled, and the removing of the external ones 
served only to render the sight more horrid.' 

M. J. Cloquet lias published a atill more remarkable case. 
A rag gatherer, about fifty years of age, waa found sleeping in 
a ditch in the Boulevard of Paris, near Montfaucon, and taken 
to the hospital of St. Louis. The skin of his head was raised 
up in rounded taniours, which had irregular openings through 
which the flesh could be seen in a putrid state. An enormous 
number of the larv<z of a fly were moving about inside the 
tumours. Fifteen to twenty of the larva' escaped from between 
his eyelids, which were swollen and closed up. The cornea 
were opaque and as well as the sclerotic had been perforated. 
The eyeballs appeared to be empty. Other larva- issued from 
the nose and the ears. They were also lodged at the orifice of 
the prepuce and around the onus. The unhappy man personi- 
fied all the horrors of the affliction of Job. Never, says M. 
Cloquet, had I seen a spectacle more horrible or disgusting 
than this miserable being, devoured alive by these larva: of the 
carrion fly. 

The previous cases must remove any doubt as to the state- 
ment of Plutarch with respect to the great criminals, who, he 
says, were condemned by the kings of Persia, to be eaten alive 
by the larva; of Flies. The guilty person was placed between 
two boats of the same size, turned one over the other, the head, 
the hands, and the feet being left uncovered. His iace was ex- 
posed to the sun, smeared with honey. The larvie which were 
born penetrated into the flesh of the unhappy being. . .Mith- 
ridates, who was exposed by Artaxerxes Longimanus to this 
horrible punishment, lived for seventy days in the most cruel 
agonies. When the upper boat was removed all his flesh and 
his entrails were seen to be eaten away by myriads of worms. 

"With the exception of the (Estrida, which will he noticed in 
another chapter, neither the Flies nor their larva: can be 
regarded as parasites. They are never observed on man except 
by accident. Even the ho-minivorouj Fly does not form an 
exception to this statement. Generally these larva are 
introduced into our bodies, so to speak, in spite of themselves. 
In true parasitism, where one individual liveB at the cost of 

' M. Tandon relates this case on the authority of M, Koulin, but it 19 
originally recorded in Brown's edition of While's History uf ,-idlovrnt, p. 
!!■!, London, 1810. (Ed.) 


another, the latter is not destroyed by it, except under peculiar 
circumstances. If it had been otherwise, the species of para- 
site, or of the animal which nourishes it, most necessarily 
have disappeared; a fact which is contrary to the general laws 
of nature. Kunzmann correctly observes that the wounds 
made by insects for tho purpose of feeding at our expense, are 
never followed by such serious consequences as those which 
they inflict upon us ia self-defence. 

§ X. Other Insects which may be accidentally introduced into 

the natural cavities of the body. 

All that has been said in the previous ohapterwiih reference 
to the introduction of the larvm of Flies into the natural 
cavities of man's body will also apply to other insects. Aa 
regards the latter, however, they are Bometimes larvm and 
sometimes the perfect insect. It must also be observed, that 
these false parasites are not always carnivorous animals ; they 
are, therefore, not always able to nourish themselves at the 
expense of man's tissues, bo that they soon perish for want of 
food. Their being placed in a locality which is not adapted for 
them is generally fatal. 

Many writers have mentioned cases of this kind. Fabricius, 
of Hiluen, Tulpius, Lister, Paykull, Boson, Thompson, Bate- 
man, Lemaout, and others, have given examples of them. The 
JSphemerides des curieux de la nature contains some of these 
cases, and Mr. Hope has i-nllerti'd together all the instances of 
this kind, which appeared to him to be authentic. 

The cavities of the body, which are attacked by these animals, 
are first the alimentary canal, then the nostrils, the auditory- 
canal, and the lachrymal duct. 

These insects belong especially to the Coleoptera, amongst 
which the principal that have been mentioned, are : Sphod- 
rus leucothalrrms} Clairv., the Dytiscus marginatum, the Oxypo- 
rus uubterraneus* Fabr., the Pmderus elongatus, Fabr., the 
Staphylinus politus, the 5. punctulatiis, and the S. fuecipes, 
Fabr., the Dermestes lardarius, Linn., the Qeotrupes vernalis,' 
Latr., the Slaps mortisaga* Oliv., the Tenebrio molitor, Linn., 
the Forjieula auricwlaria and F. minor, Linn. 

Amongst the Myriopoda or thousand feet, the Geophilus 
electricus i has been particularly named. 

1 Carabia Itacoi/iatmus, Linn. 

* Sttiphylinus subterranem, Linn. 
' Scarabawi vernalis, Linn. 

* Tenebrio mortisaga, Linn. 
1 Scolopendra electricus, Linn. 


Amongst the Lepidoptera or Butterflies, hare been men- 
tioned, the Aglosm pinjiialis and A. farinalia, Latr., and the 
Cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassier, Schr.' 

Mr. Hope has given the name of canthariasis to the injuries 
produced by the Coleoptera and the Myriopoda ; MessrB. Kirby 
and Spenee had previously given the name of xolecftiasis, or 
leholechiaiik, to those which were caused by tin.' lepidoptera. 

It is easy to explain the entrance of those insects into the 
stomach and intestines, which feed upon lard, tat, flour, and 
other substances, which Berve for food ; but it is more difficult 
to account for their introduction into the other natural 

The presence of these insects in the alimentary canal seldom 
produces much inconvenience, especially when the animals, or 
their larva?, are small and few in number. Sometimes they are 
partly or entirely digested, at other times they merely act as 
foreign bodies, deranging the stomach and the intestines. The 
Oantkarides, the Mylabra, or the Mt-luc, when swallowed incau- 
tiously, or when they have been given for criminal purposes, 
may produce a kind of poisoning, and even death. 

Adult insects, which are rejected by vomiting, or which are 
passed by the bowels, never appear to have been long in the 
body, nor is there any evidence that it was there they underwent 
their metamorphoses. They have probably been swallowed 
after their transformation. 

The introduction of these hirvsr into i lie other natural cavities 
of the body is usually attended with serious symptoms. 

M. Seoutetten relates the case of a fanner ot' Metz, who ex- 
perienced a very disagreeable irritation in the nostrils, accom- 
panied with an abundant secretion of mucus. In addition to 
this he had frequent headaches, and the pain which was at first 
bearable soon became very severe, and increased in intensity with 
every paroxysm. The mucus discharge was mixed with blood 
and exhaled a fetid odour. This was followed by an involuntary 
discharge of water from the eyes, nausea, and vomiting. Some- 
times the pain was so intense that the patient was afraid he 
should lose his senses. The features became distorted, the 
jaws contracted, and the temporal arteries pulsated violently. 

1 Papitio bnutica, Linn. 
— To what insect does the larva belong which takes up its abode in the 
cribriform-plate of the ethmoid bone, and predneel Ibo A iMM kuown by the 
name P6ew>h in the north-neat of India. * The larva is small, articulated, 
and terminates in a spiral tail ; the mouth and eyes are very distinct. 
( Taruck-Chander-Lahoiy . ) 

B. 2 

The senses of hearing and of sight were so sensitive that the 
least noise or light was quite unbearable. At other times t 

Etient became completely delirious, pressed his head betwee 
i hands, find did not know how to endure himself. These 
paroxysms occurred five or six times during the day, and t 
often during the night. One of them continued for fiftee 
days almost without interruption. After lasting a year, his 
sufferings were suddenly terminated by the expulsion of i 
living Sfohpeiitlra eleefrica Hi inches in length. 1 

Mr. Hope only mentions one case of death caused by the 
pretence of a meal-worm, Trnebrio molitor, in the nasal ft 



Mast animals are mentioned, whose flesh is injurious when 
taken as food, and which can produce symptoms resembling 
those of poisoning ; but these animals are not, correctly speak- 
ing, venomous or pot 'no no us animals ; none of them are provided 
with a poiBon or with an organ for the secretion oi poison. 
The majority only act id this manner under particular circum- 
stances. Others are rather indigestible than directly injurious. 
TheBe animals consist of: 1, Fishes; 2, MoUusca ; and 8, 

1. Fishes. — It has long been known that many persons 
have been more or less ill after eating certain species of Fi#h. 
These disorders in some cases have terminated iu death. 
Adanson saw negroes die alter severe vomiting and convulsions 
from eating of the <Jst radons or Trunk Fishes, Dr.Praeger men- 
tions four cases > if poituniiui; followed by death, which happened to 
I sailors, belonging to Danish, Dutch, and French vessels, from 
partaking of these fish. One of them had only eaten the liver. 
The Fish, nevertheless, are not poisonous animals. What 
then is the cause of their injurious effects ? 
1, It has been supposed that it depended upon some morbid 
condition of the flesh, which predisposed it to undergo rapid 
decomposition (Burrows), and in consequence gave rise to symp- 
toms resembling poisoning. This opmion has been founded 
upon seeing half the fish, which was eaten while it was fresh, 

ahimals nunaiotrs as food. 


producing no ill effects, while the other half, which was eaten 
on the next day or the day after, has been followed by serious 
disturbances. The injurious efieote which are produced by the 
2Wny, Tkymnus vulgarix, Cuv., after its flesh has began to 
change, is well known. (Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

2. Other persons hare believed that at the period of spawning, 
or at all times, the animal contains certain portions which cannot 
be eaten with impunity, while all the rest eun. They endeavour 
in this way to account for the ditferent eili.vts which have been 
observed. For example, the Barbel is very injurious at the 
period of reproduction. Its injurious properties depend upon 
the ova. 1 M. Moouin-Tandon knew ayoung man at Toulouse, 
who had acute gastric pains, and who vomited a certain quantity 
of blood after eating half a Barbel. 

3. Some naturalists have suggested that the injuries of 
JFish depended upon the substances upon which they had fed ; 
that they had swallowed mineral, animal, or vegetable sub- 
stances, which were of a dangerous nature. Some have spoken 
of submarine copper, sulphate of baryta, sulphate of iron, the salts 
of iodine, &c. ; narcotic fruits or plantB have been mentioned. 
Crabs, Annellides, Starfishes, miri'osi-o|ii<' Medusa;, eggs, Ac., 
have also been named. It is said that the Batistes are very in- 
digestible, and even poisonous, after they have fed upon certain 

4. Several medical men have thought that the very prepara- 
tion which Fish undergo is sufficient to engender injurious 
properties in their flesh. Persons have been mentioned who 
could not eat fried Fish without vomiting. (Xouyer-Willermay.) 

5. Lastly, other medical men have maintained that the in- 
jurious effects depended upon the state of the person who was 
affected, and not even on the nature of the Fish which had been 

It is very probable that all these suppositions are correct. 
Several of the causes which have been suggested may occur 

Are there, however, Fish which are dangerous at all times, 
and under every circumstance ? If we arc to place any re- 
liance on the statements of travellers and naturalists, certain 
species possess this character at the moment they are caught, 
both when they are in spawn and when they are not in spawn, 
whatever maybe their age, (.he nature of their food, or the way 
in which they are cooked. The species which have been men- 

1 Ova cholcram envsant, Tim. 



lioned as being the most dangerous belonging to the gem 
Meletta,* Sphyrawa,* Caranx,' Scants.* Diodon* and Oneion^ 

Most of tbe bo termed poisonous Fishes are only bo at times 
that is to say, when they have led upon certain animals at tl 
period of reproduction, or under certain other peculiar 
stances. Such are the File Jish, the Conger eel, the Mackerel, 
and the Herring. 

It is more particularly in hot climates that it is necessary to 
guard against the ill efteets of these Fish. M. Fonssagrives 
observes that the species, which are to be most dreaded are in- 
habitants of the tropical seas, and that the species which 
dangerous in our climates become still more bo in th< 

The first Bymptom produced by eating these Fish is disorder' 
of the stomach; this Sb followed bypain in the epigastrium, ac- 
companied by a feeling of oppression and dyspniea. General 
symptoms supervene, ushered in by shiverings and cold sweats. 
The countenance becomes injected and swollen, and red spots 
or vesicular eruptions break out over the body. These erup- 
tions are often followed by an irritation or itching, which is 
sometimes quite unbearable. The patient has constant nausea, 
pain, vomiting, and spasmodic affections of the bowels, simula- 
ting cholera, deafness, and imperfect vision ; he becomes eoma- 
toze and passes into a peculiar state of insensibility. When 
the patient escapes death, his convalescence iB long and 

2. MoLLiisci. — Two cases of poisoning are recorded from 
Snails which had been collected ; the one series from a 
belladonna plant, the other from the sumac, cariaria mifrti- 
folia, Linn. Mussels' 1 and Oysters* are the species of mol- 
lusca which most frequently produce these accidents. There 
ia great difficulty in explaining the way in which they act, 
and various suggestions have been put forth ; such as the 
presence of copper in the rocks on which they live, their 
having been attached to the copper bottoms of vessels, the 

1 For example, the poisonous Meletta, Meletta venenoaa, and JIT. TKriisa, 

* The large Sphyraina, Sphyrona Caracuda, Cuv., and the S. Becu*a> 

3 Caranx fallax, Cuv. 

* Scarus capitaneus, Cuv. 
! Diaton tigrin us, Cuv. 

* Gneiun macti/uluB), Bibron. 


preBence of a small crab, which lodges within their valves, 
the spawn of the Star fishes, or of certain Medusa, which 
they had eaten (Lamouroui), a peculiar disease to which 
they may he liable, the fermentation and decomposition of their 
tissues, and even the ■ phases of the moon, &C. 

3. Cbiistacea.- — Certain Orustacca produce similar disorders 
to those which have just been described. AmongBt these ani- 
mals the principal are the Land Crab, Oecarrinus rvricola, 
(is it when they have eaten the fruit of the msnchineal tree ?)' 
and the Hermit Crab, Paauru* Berrtliardus. 

Prawn* and Shrimp* have also been mentioned, but it must 
be by the merest accident that these Crustacea, as well as the 
Hermit Crab, can produce any injurious effects. 


The name of Poisonous Animal* is given to all those creatures 
which produce a poison. These animals are provided with 
special gl aii ds for the secretion of the poisonous fluid, andwith an 
apparatus for its transmission ; some convey the poison by means 
of the mouth, or by some part of the mouth modified for that 
purpose ; while others are provided with a special organ. This 
division of the poisonous animals into those which transmit the 
poison by means of their mouth, and into those which a 

Amongst the animals which are injurious, bat not poisonous, 
it has been previously seen that some possess a saliva which 
appears to have properties that are very analogous to a poison ; 
-"- ^\ e cage ^ the Hedttviiia and the Gnat*.* 


The animals which convey their poison by means of the 

mouth, or by means of some part of the mouth, have special 

1 Detectaturfructiliui jaandaellie el inJe srepe vcrtenatus fertar. (Linn.) 


teeth or fangs in the interior of this cavity provided for that 
purpose, or they have, placed hy the side of it, clatc-shaped 

antenna: or foot-jaws, which, like the fangs, a ■" 

the organ which secretes the poison. 1 

e connected with 

1. Common Vipek.- 
to he carefully avoidei 
Habitat.— The Con. 



The poisonous animals provided with fangs are the Ophidia or 
Serpents. The most dangerous are the Vipers. MM. Du- 
meril place them in the sub-order Boleaoglypba, characterised 
by the possession of an upper jaw, which has the two anterior 
teeth hollowed out into a canal. 

§ I. Vipers. 
The Common Viper or Asp 1 in a serpent 

It belongs to the family Yiperina. 
3rt Viper is frequently found in the 
Cevennea, in Lozere, and Aveyron. 
It especially abounds at Montmo- 
rency, and in the Forest of Fontaine- 
hleau; it usually keeps near the 
I roads and footpaths, in stumps of 
I trees, on bits of rock, or beneath 
stones and bushes. 

Description. — -It varies from 1 to 
2} feet in length.) the body at its 
d inch in diameter ; the general colour 
is brown or of a reddish tinge, passing into an ashen or blackish 
1 It is stated that certain Mollusca, as, for example, the Coitei and the 
Pleurolomn, inflict bites which inflame and beeome dangerous. It is sup- 
posed hy some thai this dq.i-mfs upon ?. |.n>:su[i « hidi lii-j animals introduce 
into the wound. Whence, however, it mat be asked, does this poison come 1 
M. Loven supposes that the hooks or teeth pith ulik-;i Un iiuigue la armed 
arc deeply buried in the wound, and produce the subsequent inflammation. 
Captain Beecher was wounded by a specimen of the Conns aulicus, and the 
wound swelled and became very painful. Has the animals, aa M. Loven 
supposes, the power of discharging these lingual teeth! 
* Vipera aspii, Merrcm ; Ctilubtr aspis, Linn.; Vipera Cherseax, Lair. 
[It appears from ilie description in ilie n U, and from what is said of the 
other species, that this is not the Common Viper of England. The species 
which is known in this country aa the Cn'iimon Viper or Adder, as it is 
frequently termed, is that which in ineniioned in the next page under the 
title of Viperu Berus, and which is described in Hell's British Reptiles, 2nd 
edit., p. 61, under the name of Ptlias Berus, snd which is the only species 
of Viper that is met with in Great, Britain. (Ed.)] 

Fig. 7 

- Common Piper. 

thickest part is nearly a 


band on the back, and a row of irregular dark *\>»tn > >■ ■ I In- 
sides; specimens of a uniform colour an m ; the bfll) It off 
slate colour; the bead of the Viper is of h tuDtrifSfjUlft form, 
BOmewhat larger than the neck, obtuse unci bmoattd Ubf> 
riorly.aiul covered with granulated scales; toemuula i« KrTWMl 
by su small scales, two of which are perforated In I In' mulnli, 
which form two black spots ; on the upper part an- Iwn Murk 
linea united in the form of a V i the upper j«ir a wliitimh mnl 
spotted with black, while the lower is ol a yellow colour ; I lu* 
eyes, which are very small, active, anil bright, tfl ■OMflfd 
with black; the tongue is long, forkeil, of ft black or greylidi 
colour, soft and retractile ; the scales are imbricated mnl etiri 
nated, characters which distinguish them i'nmi tho»i> of Um 
The males ;ire generally smaller tlmii I lie fciiiftlm. 
This reptile is fond ot heat, especially moist Inni , || nmi :l 
after shrew mice, field mice, and even inolcn, dtftrOTlng « birgn 
number of these animals; it also foodl upon Uufdl, I'rngs, "mull 
molluscous animals, insects, and worms. It hiilcn itself in llut 
day and pursues the animals upon which it Uth during tlui 
night time. 

The Viper appears to be a timid animal ; its nOTOMBtl IN 
abrupt, sluggish, and irregular; tlie instincts of the niiiiniil lire 
but feebly developed; it is incapable of being tiwflW him thf 
Colubridie, and when retained in captivity it refuse* il» I'ooil. 
At the approach of winter it retires into In. lei- in J.i Innhl 
ings, into the decayed trunks of trees, into the earth, or under 
moss; several of them are usually rolled op togelhoi', mid in 
this manner they pass the cold wcnlhcr in a lorpul state. 

The male has a double penis, which increases in si/,o during 
copulation, and fixes the two sexes so firmly together (hit a 
they are disturbed during the act, the male, which i* weaker 
than the femalo, is carried away backward* hy the hitter. 

The Viper is ovovivi parous. (Aristotle..) The young urn 
born with the fragments of egg awe adhering to them ; the cgg», 
just before they hatched, an' as large lis those of the wren. 

2. Otebb Species. — There arc two other speeds of I'iprr 
in Europe — the Ammodytea and the Bern*. The following table, 
gives the characters which distinguish them from the CBnMMfl 

l !}»■>■ : 

g , /truncated .... 1. Vipera AtpU. 

\ elongated . . . . '1. Viptnt .imimi-h/i..:'. 
with plates 3. Vipera Berut. 



The Vipera Ammodytes, which baa a horn on the muzzle, 1 (_ D . 
77,) inhabits the mountains of Dauphine ; the head is separated 
from the body by a distinct neck ; the muzzle is prolonged 
into a soft, obtuse, elevated point. 

Fig 1 . 77. — Vipera Ammodytes. Fig. 7S. — Vipera Peliut. 

The Vipera Berus (Daud), or small Viper, 2 (fig. 78), is found 
in the neighbourhood of Paris. It was this species which bit 
M. Constant Dumeril in the Forest of Senart in September, 1851. 

Fig. 79.— Head of a Viper.' 

The body is elongated, the neek much constricted, and with 

a brown line along the back ; it has a large pentagonal plate 

hollowed out anteriorly on the summit of the head ;* behind 

1 Coluber Awmodytes, Linn. ; Echidna Ammodyles, Merrem. 

1 Pelius Berus, Merrem ; Coluber Berus, Linn. 

' Head of Pelius Berus [Common English Viper]. — a, poison gland, 
seen through an opening in the external pterygoid muscle ; b, its duet ; c, 
termination of the duct at the base of the poison fang; d, poison fang; t, 
external opening ; /, fangs of replacement ; g, external pterygoid muscle ; 
h, internal pterygoid imnrinj t lachrymal gland; j, anterior temporal 
muscle ; *, elevator muscle of the loner jaw ; /, depressor muscle of the 
lower jaw; m, retractor muscle of the lower jaw; n, tongue ; o, its laryngeal 
opening; p. its bifurcation. 

* In the Common Viper [that is, of France, Vipera aspis,] there ia a small 
hexagonal plate at the same part. 

Tig. 80. 

this are two oblong irregularly pentagonal plates. The head 
ia somewhat convex, (fig. 79.) 

Naturalists consider that the present species differs suffi- 
ciently from the two first to form a distinct genus. (Pelius.) 

3. Poison Apparatus. — This consists of— 1, the Oland; 2, 
the Duct ; 3, the Poison Ihng. 

1. Oland.— This is situated by the side of the head, behind and 
partly below the globe of the 
eye, above the superior max- 
illary and transverse bones, 
in front of the anterior tem- 
poral muscle ; it is embraced 
by the external pterygoid 
muscle, which forms over it, 
especially anteriorly, a strong 
tendinous covering; it is 
rather an assemblage of lobes 
than a gland, properly so ' 
called. The substance of 
the gland is soft and yellow, 
and has a spongy appearance; examined beneath the microscope 
it presents a series of oval dilatations or lobules composed of a 
granular tissue ; these dilatations are arranged very regularly 
along the course of the excretory ducts, like the barbs of a 
feather, along the two sides of its axis. The number of these 
lobes varies in different individuals ; M. Leon Soubeiran has 
generally found from 6 to 8, independently of a certain number 
of secondary lobes placed at the commencement of the principal 

2. Duct. — The duct of the poison gland is a narrow cylin- 
drical canal ; it passes from behind forwards in a nearly 
horizontal direction and terminates in the fang of the same 
side; towards its middle portion, juBt below the inferior 
margin of the orbit, the canal forms an oval dilatation. It is 
this enlargement, which is very slight in the Vipera aspis, that 
has been described under the name of the poison reservoir. 
M. Soubeiran has recently examined this part, and he finds 
that its walls contain a number of simple follicles, which oi 
into the cavity, and form a special glandular apparatus placed 

kthe course of the excretory eanal, like the prostate of the 
■ III, 

1 Poison apparatus of Pelius Benin [Common English Viper]. — n, pinnated 
_nd ramified gland; b b, its duct; H, reservoir placed in the course of the 
duel; d, fang, out vertically; e, basal orifice, receiving the duct of the 
gland ; / its terminal orifice. 


gasteropoda in the course of their deferent canal. The follicles 
which he has described appear to be moat numerous towards 
the posterior extremity ; they are very long, and appear to be 
separated from each other. 

3. Poison Fang. — The fang is a tooth moulded into the form 
of a tube ; it is much longer than the other teeth, and is placed 
in the upper jaw ; there is one on either side the mouth. They 
are very pointed and curved, the convexity being placed ante- 
riorly, and provided with a narrow canal, which commenceB at 
the anterior surface of the base and terminates by an extremely 
narrow elongated aperture on the same surface of the apex of 
the fang. A fine canal passes through the convexity and con- 
nects the two apertureB. This canal is sometimes obliterated. 

The two lower thirds of the fang are invested by a strong 
fold of the gum ( mccu*, Mead). They extend backwards, and 
form a groove or case, which receives and conceals the tooth 
when not in use. 

These organs are firmly attached, and, as it were, anchylosed 
to the superior maxillary bones. The latter bones are very 
small and very short, but enjoy great freedom of motion. There 
are two muscks which govern these movements; these are the 
external pterygoid, which elevates the bone, and the internal 
pterygoid, which depresses it. 

Immediately behind \.\\t: fangs are two or three smaller teeth, 
or the forms of teeth, destined to replace those which are in 
use when lost (Hosa) ; these are unattached, and are enclosed 
in the fold of gum previously mentioned. 

In a state of repose the fangs are concealed ; but they are 
withdrawn from the fold of the gum and elevated when the 
animal is about to use them. But it was an error to suppose, 
in consequence of this, that the teeth themselves are moveable ; 
it is the maxillary bone to which the iiing is united that alone 
moves. The remaining teeth in the upper part of the mouth 
are attached to the palate, where they form a double row. 

4. Action on Man. — 1. Bite. Eedi appears to have been the 
first who accurately described the effects of the Viper. Mead 
and Fontana described still more carefully the bite and the 
poisonous action of this dangerous serpent. 

Vipers habitually employ the formidable weapon with which 
they are armed to destroy the small animals upon which they 
live. They avoid man, but when trod upon or handled they 
become enraged and defend themselves with their poison fangs. 

"When a Viper is struck it first coils itself up, leaving its 
head in the centre or at the Buinmit of the coil, and drawn a 

POisosrors asimalb. 253 

little back, as it' for the purpose of reconnoitring. Speedily the 
animal uncoila itself like a spring. Its body is then launched 
out with such rapidity, that, for a moment, the eye cannot 
follow it. In this movement the Viper clears a space nearly 
equal to its own length, for it must lie observed that it never 
quits the ground, where it remains supported on ita tail, or on 
the posterior part of its body, ready to coil ilselt' up again and 
launch itself forth afresh to aim a second blow, if the first should 
fail. To do this the Viper distends its mouth, draws back its 
fangs, arranges them in the right direction, and then plungea 
them into its enemy by the blow of its head or of its upper 
jaw, which strikes the object like a hammer; when this is done 
the fangs are immediately withdrawn. The lower jaw, which is 
closed at the same moment, serves as a pnint of resistance and 
favours the entrance of the poison fangs ; hut this assistance is 
very slight, and the animal, as has just been Btated, acta by 
striking rather than by biting. There are, however, times 
when the Viper bites without coiling itself up, and then launching 
itself forth. This occurs, for instance, when the creature meets 
with some Btnall animal, which it destroys at its leisure, and 
without rage, or when it is seized by the tad or the middle of 
the body, when, it turns round and plunges in its fangs. Aa 
the teeth are buried in the tissues of the body the poison ia 
driven down the cannls which pass through them by the action, 
of the muscles' which rinse the mouth, and this injection takes 
place with all the more force in proportion to the vigour and 
rage of the serpent and to the supply of poison with which it 
is furnished. 

2. Wound. — -The wounds inflicted by the Viper have a pecu- 
liar appearance, which allows them to be recognised by mere 
inspection, and to he distinguished from those of anon- venomous 
serpent, as, for example, from those of a Coluhra. In fact, all 
serpents which are not furnished with fangs produce a number 
of punctures formed by the teeth of the two jaws, which are 
arranged in two curved lines, with the concavities looking 
towards each other. In the bite of the Viper there are only 
two large punctures corresponding to the two poison fangB. ! 

These wounds inllmne, become red and swollen, and some- 
times livid ; at other times they are surrounded with vesicles 
or watery bulla. 

1 The external pterygoid muscle, in contracting for the purpose of raising 
the fang at the same time, compresses the glaud which it covera, 

' Plutarch mentions the presence of two hardly perceptible 
which the Asp hid inflicted on the arm of Cleopatra. 




The general symptoms which accompany the wound have 
been frequently described. The person at first experiences 
pain in the part which has been bitten, which gradually extends 
itself throughout the limb, and even to the internal organs. 
The swelling, the redness, and the lividity, spread to the neigh- 
bouring parts ; faintings come on, the pulse becomes rapid, 
small, and irregular. There are gastric derangements, bilious 
vomitings, difficult respiration, profuse cold sweats ; disturbance 
of the vision and of the intellect, and convulsions, which are 
almost always followed In general jaundice. There is sometimes 
acute pain in the region of the umbilicus. The blood which 
issues from the wound often becomes black; after a time it 
changes into a sanies ; and lastly, in some instances, which are 
fortunately very rare, gangreue comes on. 

In weak, sickly, or timid persons, and in those who have just 
eaten, the symptoms increase more rapidly, and are more Bevere 
than in those who are strong, healthy, courageous, and who at 
the time are fasting. 

The bite of the l'ip-'r is generally dangerous. 

Ambrose Pare relates, that during his residence at Mont- 
pellier with Charles IX. he was bitten in the extremity of his 
mdei finger, when examining a Viper. He felt a sharp pain, 
but that the immediate application of a ligature and tincture 
of opium cured it in a few days. 

When Bernard de Jussieu was herborizing in the month 
of July, 1747, on the hills of Montmartre, one of his pupils 
seized a Viper, which he mistook for a Colubra ; the serpent 
bit him in three places (on both thumbs, and on the index- 
finger of the right hand). At first there was swelling and 
inflammation, afterwards t'ainr.ings, and a yellowness, which was 
limited to the fore arm. There were no other derangements. 

It would be easy to multiply similar examples. At the same 
time it must not be supposed that these bites are never tataL 
In certain cases they may cause death. 

Bedard relates in his lectures the case of a young man in the 
neighbourhood of Angers, who, happening to fall down in a 
meadow, was bitten in several places by a Viper, and died in 
consequence in the course of a few hours. 

A woman bitten in the thigh died at the end of thirty-seven 

M. Dusoaxd mentions eleven cases, four of which were fatal. 

Matthiole records a case which proves that a Viper, even 
when cut in two, may still bite when handled incautiously. A 
countryman falling down in a meadow, happened to divide one 

roisotfotra animals. 256 

i the middle ; he seized the portion of the 
trunk to which the head was attached in an awkward manner, 
and was in consequence bitten in the finger, and died from the 
effects of the wound. 1 

Eedi and Saviard speak also of severe bites inflicted by Vipers 
whose heads were separated from the body. 

Dr. Scoutetten mentions a similar instance. In July, 1837, 
a young man in the neighbourhood of Met?,, when seeking for 
worms for the purpose of fishing, saw two serpents, which he 
mistook for Oolubm. He cut them in pieces with a pickaxe ; 
soon afterwards, having taken hold of one of the heads, he felt 
himself bitten in the right index finger ; he shook his hand 
violently, and it was only after several efforts that he succeeded 
in disengaging it. 

[The common Viper, says Bell,* ib everywhere deservedly 
feared on account of its venom, which, although less virulent 
than that of many other species, is yet sufficiently so to produce 
severe symptoms, and sometimes, in the warmer climates, even 
fatal results. In this country I have never seen a ease which 
terminated in death, nor have I been able to trace to an authen- 
tic source any of tbe numerous reports of such a termination 
which have at various times been confidently promulgated. At 
the same time the symptoms are frequently so threatening, that 
I cannot but conclude that in very hot weather, and when not 
only the reptde is in full activity and power, but the constitu- 
tion of the victim in a state of great irritability and diminished 
power, a bite from the Common Viper would very probably 
prove fatal. The remedies usually employed are the external 

^ application of oil, and the internal administration of ammonia.] 
S II. Foreign Serpents, 
The principal foreign serpents which are poisonous are — 
1. the Cerastes; 2. the Crotali; 3. the Bothrops ; 4. the 

1. The Cebasteb or horned Serpents, are allied to the Vipers. 
They differ from them in their supra orbital plates, rising up 
into pointed processes, and assuming the appearance of a pan* 
of small horns. 

The principal species are the Cerastes of Egypt, Cerastes JEgyp- 
tiaeus (fig. 81), and the Cerastes of Persia, Ger. Persicus. These 
animals are justly dreaded ; the first species, which is also met 

1 Mntthiole says on Ike ipol, but this is hardly credible. 
* Boil's British Reptilet, 2nd ed. p. 62, London. 



with in the Sahara of Algeria, and in Morocco, is said 
death in a few hours. 

2. The CBOTii] 
», are serpents 

lid to cause 
:, or Battle 


^^^^J/m^^ to tne family Crotalidre ; they 
^^flR BB^ flrC ^ ar S e an< ^ strong, and may 

_^^flP B fflTT r attain a length of more than 

' -^3 Hr^T^y^ upper part of their bo die a 

H^^^^/ covered with si m pie scales. 

Ti*-'' ^l£g- BSE^t The end of the tad is furnished 

^^^wflhk with several horny rings, which 
^^"■^n; lock loosely into each, and pro- 
Fig. 81.— Cmufrt AZgyptiaau. duce a rattling noise as the 
anhnal moves along, and hence 
the name of Eattle Snakes. Their poison fangs are very long, 
and the poison reservoir of considerable size. 

^The principal species ape — the Ci-olahm Durissus (fig. 82) of 
South America ; the Oro- 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^ t«l*>* horridus of Tropical 

v ,'- I fife America, particularly of 

Jfl ^^P Mexico. Guiana, and Bra- 

} jfl Ifi^^^ *& '< alu ' L tlle Orotalm mili- 

i « ^I^T "'"'* ^ rom ^^S 011 ' '-The 

H^^^f latter species is said to be 

i. '--;■=, the most dangerous. 

'■'";;-£ (Bs3(^K*. ^- Qe C rof "ti naturally 

*^^^^^^^^^l^^^^g?^^^ inspire a feeling of dreao, 
^^^mmtr f or their p<iison will de- 

Fig. 82. — Crotulus Duristus. stroy an ox or a horse 

almost instantaneously. 
Dogs will resist its influence somewhat longer. A Crotaliui, 
about three feet long, killed one of these animals in fifteen, 
minutes ; a second at the end of two hours ; and a third at the 
end of three. Four days afterwards it wounded a dog, which 
only survived thirty seconds, and another which only lived four 
minutes. Three days afterwards a frog perished in two seconds, 
& chicken in eight minutes, and a white amphisbena also in 
eight minutes. (Halm.) 

M. Eousseau rapidly destroyed pigeons by forcing into then- 
pectoral muscles the iangs of a Crotalu* which had been dead 
two days. 

These animals 
poison produt 


__e applied immediately death may be averted. According to 
Sir Everard Home, when a finger has been bitten it passes 
into a complete state of mortification ; in other casea, the 
edges of the wound become gangrenous, the cellular tiaaue is 
destroyed, and the muscles are greatly inliamed. According to 
Laurenti, the bite of these terrible serpents produces swelling 
of the body and of the tongue, the mouth seems on fire, the 
thirst is excessive, and the person diea in the eourae of a few 
minutes in a state of frightful agony. In the ease of the un- 
fortunate Drake, who was bitten in the hand, and in whom the 
wound was cauterised an hour afterwards, there were huntings, 
stertorous breathing, scarcely any pulse, and involuntary evacu- 
ations ; the eyes were closed, the pupils contracted, the body 
eold, and the limbs iiisensible ; he died at the end of nine 
hourB. (Philorel.) 

When the patient is so fortunate as to escape death, he 
sometimes feels the effect of the injury for the remainder of 
his life. Lesseur, who was wounded at Simon, eight years 
afterwards, when he was in Paris, felt a great weight in the 
limb which had been wounded. 

M. Alfred Duges waa bitten on the 21st of August, 1857, at 
Silao, in Mexico, by a vi:iuii<; Vrvtti/ux.' about eight inches long, 
on the upper part of the second joint of the index-finger of the 
left hand ; he felt a most agonising pain at the moment, as if 
some caustic had been applied to a recent wound ; the part was 
strongly ligatured, and the wound cauterised with nitrate of 
silver ; there was great exhaustion, cold sweats, a feeling of 
intense anxiety about the region of the heart, and the mouth 
was very clammy; at the end of an hour the wound was cauter- 
ised a second time, on this occasion with the bromide of iron ; 
the hand by Hub time was very much swollen, and the arm 
painful up to the axilla; cataplasms and embrocations of olive 
"Iwere applied to the limb. On the 22ud, the finger and the 

wis of the hand were greatly enlarged, and could not bear the 

ast pressure; its condition might lie compared to that of a large 
chilblain. On the 23rd, the swelling and the pain had some- 
what subsided. On the 24th and 25th, the hand became of a 
deep brown colour, and waa still much swollen. On the 27th, 
the colour was less intense, but the patient still felt pain in 
closing the finger. (A. Duges.) 

3. The Bothrops, or Javelin Snakes, also belong to the family 
if the Crotolida? ; they are characterised by the possession of 
cavities hollowed out behind the a small cor- 

a the Crotalut triitriatvi i Durissus. 


'■■-■ Bealea are 


naire. vTOBerlu 

neous spine at the extremity of the tail. The t 
carinated, and there are no large plates on the head. 

The most formidable species is the Jaeelia Snake, properly 
to called, or Yellow Viper ofMnrtiiiiijite. 1 

This serpent inhabits Martinique and St. Lucia. In 1826, 
a reward ot two shillings was offered in these islands for every 
head of one of these snakes. In the neighbourhood of Fort 
EoyaL, 700 were killed in three months. (Kufz.) This serpent 
is about six feet long ; its colour varies from a clear yellow to 
a dark brown ; the head is large. 

The wound of the Javelin Snake is always fatal to the 
smaller mammalia ; sometimes it will also destroy the larger 
ones, such as the os. 

The negroes who work in the plantations, and the Boldiers 
on duty at Martinique, are often wounded by these dangerous 
reptiles. M. Blot has recorded three eases (a negro, a negress, 
ami a mulatto,) in which death occurred almost immediately 
alter the bite was inflicted. M. Guyon saw several soldiers 
perish ; death generally occurs in three, twelve, or twenty-four 
hours, or some days, after the aceident. 

The person who is bitten usually feels an acute pain, which 
is followed by a livid swelling ; his hody loses its warmth, and his 
sensibility damnifies or become* extinguished; at the same time, 
he experiences extreme las- 
situde, and a general feeling 
of illness, the pulse and the 
respiration become feeble, the 
idt L ;i:i wonder, conia comes on, 
a blue tint spreads over the 
surface of the skill; some- 
tunes there is intense thirst, 
paralysis, and occasionally a 
congested state of the lungs, 
which is followed by a more 
or less copious and bloody 
expectoration. (Guy on.) 
Another species of Javelin 

1 But/traps lancedalus, WlgL, Vipera lunewluta, DeimL, V. Maycra, 
Shaw Triyonotcpt'iilxis lannvialits, Upp., commontv raited the Ydtuw 
Serptnl of the Antilles. 

' Poison ap|)iirai u-i nf Buthrupn Januara- <t, (ana; h, it* terminal Open- 
ing-; c, its haul opening : d. poiriuii canal ; c, maxillary hone ; /.pterygoid 
bone ; o, tendon of external pterygoid muscle ; h, tendon of internal ptery- 
goid muscle. 





Fig. 83.— Poison Fun jr. 


the Jararaea} is found, in Brazil, which inflicts much 
injury upon the natives. 

Br. Auzoux presented to M. Tandon a prepared head of the 
last-named serpent, from which the accompanying drawing has 
been taken (fig. 83). 

4. The Nain. or Spn-tarlcd Si-qienta? [called also the Hooded 
Snakes,] have the body large anterior! v, and forming a kind of 
disc, owing to the singular power which these animals possess 
of expanding the first pair ot ribs. These serpents aro met with 
in Arabia and in India. 

The principal species is the Spn-tnrleil Serpent, properly 
so called, 1 or the Vubra tie Oapello. It has, on the cervical 
expansion of the body, a brown mark in the form of a pair of 
of. spectacles. 

This group also contains I. lie ibtjr Sri -p put* which appears 
to be the true Asp of the ancients, celebrated as having caused 
the death of Cleopatra. 

The Naia produce most dangerous wounds ; the subtility of 
of the poison is such that death is almost instantaneous. 

A chicken, bitten by one of these animals, brought by an 
Indian juggler, vomited ; its limbs became rigid, and it died in 
about ten minutes. A second chicken, slightly bitten twice, 
died in eight minutes. 

Some years ago, one of the keepers of the reptiles at the 
Zoological Gardens in London was wounded by one of these 
snakes ; the man died in about half an hour. One of the most 
remarkable phenomena which lie exhibited before his death, 
was a paralysis of the inspiratory muscles of the thorax. 

[Early on the morning of the 20th of October, when in a 
state of inebriety, the man took out the Cobra aud put 
it round his waist ; after play ins; with it some lime, the animal 
bit him at the root of the nose. He was brought into the 
University College Hospital about forty minutes after the 
accident; the patient's face was slightly livid, the respiration 
imperfect; he walked with difficulty from the cab to the ward, 
and pointed to his throat as the seat of pain ; he could not 
speak, had difficulty in standing, and was unable to swallow. 

' Botlirops Jararaca, Duiner, Cuphias Jararuca, Neuw. 

* The three previous genera am SoleuuKlypha, like the Vipers ; the Ntiaa 
arc I'terogryphn, characterised by having tho poison fang grooved and not 
perforated at its hase. 

' Ifaja tripudiaui, Merrem. Coluber Naja, Linn. 

* Naja Haje, Sehleg., Coluber Haje, Linn. 

B 2 


Tie fa»w had wxaded the njtfe t*± rf the now, I 
the omk! Um and the inner eactito* of the ere; a 
Ml itftiivMhtHMB^IllMII 
ataporiafMry feD oVaed apon f iiiia t aa , ] 
of the e j tre «il r act in, and the patient died mac 
Mate fi/t v-fi r e minutes a: 
Dr. "' 


I by order of the East India Company in 1T9C 
■hi af rcnman bAb tie peraani had hca*i t 




The venomous mijmiiU which inoculate their poison by m 
of antenna; terminating in a pair of pincers are the Arackaula 
and those which perform the act b v means of foot-jaws are t* 
Scolopendrida. All of them belong to classes of animals wbi 
have no teethorupper and under jawslike those of the Yertebi 
their jaws consist of lateral pieces which move in a horizo 
direction. Sometimes the animal has attached to the 1 
appendages or talons, improperly regarded as mandibles ; these 
are the clawed antennae which produce and inject tbe poison. 
Sometimes they have a pair of small dilated feet, placed very 
close to the mouth, and terminating in a strong hook; 
are the foot-jaics. 

§ I. Spiders. 

Spidert, and the web which they form, have been previot 

1. The Cave Spideb. 1 — This species ia very common : 
t'rance and Italy. 

Tbe body is about half an inch in length, covered with b 
of a dark grey colour ; it has a number of triangular bla 
spots along the middle of the tack and the abdomen; 
iii;irnli!)li;H arn (jrceii or of a steel blue colour. 

2. Other Species. — The moat important are:— 
1. The Mi/galee* {Crab Spider* and Mason Spiders), remark- 
able for th« Luriniual insertion of their palpi. 

1 Lancet, 1852, vol. 2, p. 897. 

• Segatria cellarit, Latr., Aranta Flori 


' Mj/gaU, Walck. 

, Rossi, Segatria ptrfida 



2. The Cluhioncs, in which the eyes are arranged in two lines. 1 

3. The Theridions, especially the Malmigiiatte? of Corsica and 
Italy, and the Maettmf of South America. 

4. The Phohi, particularly the Phalmigioidfa, or Domestic 
Spider with long feet* 

5. TheJjpeira.aiiuuigsd which there isihv,1 mm it Jiadema,lj'mn. s 
Lastly. The Tarantula, which is considered in a separate 


3. Poison apparatus (fig. 84). — Nature has provided the 
Spiders with twnc/iirlii'tTrs uraii/nnne, terminat- 
ing in a pair of claws, and placed in front of 
the mouth ; these constitute the poison appa- ■ 

The secreting glands are placed at the base 
of these claws, and extend more or less into ' 
the region of the head ; these are vasiform 
tortuous tubes, terminating in a blind ex- 
tremity, and surrounded by a layer of muscu- 
lar fibres, having a spiral arrangement ; Fig. 84 — Mouth? 
towards the anterior part, these glandular 
tubes are suddenly narrowed and form a t' 
duct, which passes through the claw 
and terminates at its extremity. 

The chelici'i-s ci insists of three pieces, 
a lower, a middle, and a terminal piece. 
The first piece is short ; the middle 
iB large and stout, and furnished with 
numerous hairs ; towards its termina- 
tion, and on its inner side, is a double 
row of hard conical scaly points, having 
the appearance of teeth ; there are 
three of these teeth on each side, and 
a seventh which is placed lower down. 
The third piece, which is termed the 
hook or claw, is moveable, and articu- Fig. $5.- Gland and Claw. 7 
lated to the middle piece. The claw is 

' The Chibiuna Nulrir, Lair., is especially dangerous. 

» Theridim Vi-imtUrium, tt'al^k., Aranua 'vi-giUtala, Rossi. 

' Theridioit niurtttni,, WiUi'k.. Amnm maclana, Fabr. 

* Pholctn phalaniji'iides. Walck. 

• Epira diadema, Walck. There is a species of Epira in Sew Holland 
which the natives make use of as food. 

'bi, manililiU's or clawod antenna; : I) b, ilitir claws; cc, jaws; ltd 
enormous maxillary palpi. 
7 a, poison gland ; b, part of the canal placed in the mandihle ; c, claw 

of a conical form, curved inwards, very pointed, and perfei 
smooth ; when not in use it is folded inwards, and lies betwi 
the two rows of teeth aa in a groove. Near the point 
claw, and on its under surface, is a narrow opening to allow 
the exit of the poison. Leeuwenhoi k was the iirst who pt " ' 
out this aperture, which is very narrow, and not easily seen. 
Mead erroneously denied its existence. 

4. Action on man. — "When a spider bites it drives both 
claws into its victim, and at the same time a drop of poison is 
distilled into each of the wounds. 

Much has been said of the poison of the Spider. LutrciUe 
has stated that the bite of one of a moderate size is sufficiei 
to kill a house fly in a few minutes. Other observers have in- 
formed us that the bite of oue of the large Spider* of South 
America (Myyale) would destroy a humming bird, or even a 

Are Spiders, especially those of Europe, dangerous to man? 
Is it true that the wonnds of several species have been followed 
bv serious results, and even hv death itself? 

Martin Lister saw some of these bites accompanied by in- 
flammation. Is this fact quite certain? Sehnrig mentions 
the case of a bite having produced chlorosis. Cromstock 
speaks of another which mused St. Vitus's Dance. But these 
writers and these instances are scarcely to be depended on. 
Turner, Scaliger, Flacourt, Brogiani, and others, also regarded 
itjiiilrrx as very dangerous animals. 

On the other hand, Knincois Bon states that he had been 
bitten more than once, hut that he had never felt the least ill 
effects from it, and he believed, therefore, that theae ani- 
mals were not poisonous. Robert, Boyle, and Amoreux 
entertained the same opinion. De Geer, remembering that 
Clerck had been often hit ten liv fSpiders without experiencing 
any inconvenience, concluded that they are not poisonous. 
Lastly, H. Cloquet observed that the poison of theae animals 
had no effect upon himself. 

It is, however, certain that in hot climates, Spiders are 
able to produce, especially in young children and in women, 
a certain amount of local pain, which is followed by a small 
livid inflamed spot, and sometimes even by a pustule. Some- 
times there is only a red spot, which is hardly perceptible ; while 
at other times there iB a true tumour. It is seldom that the 
bites are accompanied by general symptoms, but when this is 
d, its terminal opening ; e, groove bounded by the leeth, and receiving the 
clan- when not in use. 


tho ease the symptoms are similar to those which are produced 
by other poisons. 

Latreille considers it is necessary to be careful of Spiders, 
especially the large species, whan tlicy are met with in hot 
climates, Rossi asserts that the Midmiijaat-le can produce 
serious disturbances aud even death. The latter assertion 
seems to he an exaggeration. It is. however, supported by 
several modern observers (Cauro, Graells, Lambotte). A 
medical man of the name of Bonifacio mentioned a case of this 
kind to M. Moquin Taudon (1S52). According to Thiebaud 
de Berneaud, in the Island of Elba this Spider is as much 
dreaded as the Scorpion. 

M. Abbot declares that the bite of the Malmignatte of 
America is exceedingly dangerous. 

Are we to admit with Fabricius, that the hunting Spider of 
South America can cause a violent attack of fever iu man ? 
Must we also give credence to the following statement of 
Adanson? This celebrated naturalist states that in Senegal 
he felt for a whole year a kind of painful shivering, the course 
of which was indicated by a red line along the back and on the 
chest, where a large species of Spider bad passed 1 white he 
was changing hiB shirt. 

It has been previously mentioned * that the Tt-genaria medi- 
cinali* and the Chiiiium:- mviliciiiidis have vesicating properties. 
It iB also asserted tliat the latter is narcotel and irritates the 
bladder. M. Ozanam has published a memoir on the employ- 
ment of Spiders in medicine. 

Tarantula. — The Spiders known under the name of Taran- 
tula are especially mentioned as lining exceedingly poisonous. 

These animals belong to the genus Lyeosa of Latreille ; they 
are characterised by having the eyes arranged in an elongated 
quadrilateral form, the two hinder ones not heing supported on 
eminences, and by the first pair of feet being louger than the 
second. The abdomen of the Tarantula is oval, and the whole 
body is covered with a thick coating of down. 

Most of them live upon the ground, where they form holes, 
which they enlarge us they grow older, and line with a coating 
of silk. Some reside in walls or in cavities of rocks. They 
keep close to their dwelling, watching for their prey, upon 
which they dart with astonishing rapidity. They can run very 

The number of species of tho Lyeosa is very considerable. 
1 The animal, therefore, had not bitten him I 
' See p. 128. 


Two species only require to be noticed, the common Tarantula, 
and the Tarantula with a Uaek abdomen. 

The common Tarantula ' inhabits the south of Italy, 
very common in Apulia and in Calahria. It is about : 
in length. Its body is entirely black, with the under surfs 
of the abdomen red, with n black band across the 

The Tarantula with a hhirk abdomen 2 is found in the South 
of France. It is smaller than the former. The under surface 
of the abdomen is black, with the exception of the margins, 
which are red. 

A number of fabulous tales, all of them equally absurd, have 
been related of the Tarantula. Many medical men have writ- 
ten concerning this Spider. Estimable obse 
whom may be mentioned Baglivi, have given a long account of 
the dangers which attend them. 1 Ancient authors have declared 
that the poison of the Tarantula has brought on in man symp- 
toms resembling those of a milignant fever. According to 
others it only produces erysipelatous spots and slight cramps 
or tingliugs. Many think that the bites of this Spider produce 
convulsive attacks which compel the patients to perform a wild 
and irregular kind of dance. This disease has even received 
the name of tarantula. The patients have been called taranto- 
lati. It has been seriously asscrtnl that the supposed malady 
could only be cured by the aid of music. Some medical men 
have even carried the absurdity so far as to name those airs which 
are best adapted to soothe the tarantolati. Samuel Hafenrefl'er, 
professor at Ulm, in his treatise on diseases of the skin, has not 
failed to mention them. 

The fear which was formerly inspired by the Tarantula has 
been overcome in the present day. Serrao, physician to the 
king of Naples, endeavoured to undeceive the public with 
regard tn faraitfi.ini. ami the remedies which had been proposed 
for the disease. The abbe Bertholon relates that a country- 
man having consented to be bitten by the Tarantula, the only 
effect was a slight swelling, which disappeared in twenty-four 
hours. Epiphane Ferdinand declared, in 1621, that in twenty 
years he had never known a person in Naples die from the bite 
of the Tarantula. Dr. Laurent, who inhabited that city for a 
long time, declares that tho Tarantula only produces a sharp 

1 Lyeoia Tarantula, Latr., Aranea Tarantula, Linn. 

* Lycosa melunogastra, Latr., Tarantula Nurbonensis, Wftlck. 

1 It appears that Baglivi was acquainted with the Tarantula with thi 
black abdomen. Chabrier, of Montpellier, has made some curious observa- 
tions on the same species. 

P0IB0S0U8 AJflliALH. 


pain, such na ia caused by the bite of a bet ind bfa 

lowed by a alight ion. which in ooomS ilk ftOCOtt' 

ponied by a small pustule, which, however, is easily rHDOYtd b] 
the application of simple emollients, or even pure water, I Kent I 
We are acquainted in the present day with tT 11 -■nthtnll iW 
instances of serious disorders and convulsion*, produced bi bhfl 
if these animals. As the Tarantula are Hpiih-r I 

e aud inhabitanta of hoi countries, ji in mil v pi-udciil i.< ■ n l 
^linst being bitten by them. 

Dr. Salvatore, of Henzi, Home yearn back rem I, M il"- 
Academy of Medicine at Pane, ■ memoir In wbiob u ral ill i 
the case of a harvestmnu who was bitten in the 1'iHit ; while iu--i 
asleep he suddenly woke up with a feeling of acute [>aiu in the 
injured part, lie soon began to feel giddy, then 
and feebleness of the muscular system, and ullirwardj nam! 
prostration and delirium. The effect of munc was 1-rii-d ! Tin 
patient danced, he perspired abundantly, and KM i 

Epiphane Ferdinand maintains that tarantism ia a triif 
disease. M. Ozanam has very ren'iitlj ri'in'mlni'i'd lliii oplnJcm 
He considers that the disease is chiiractenscil hj a peculiar run 
dition of the nervous system, over which music ban a aalutary 

§ II. Scolopendra. 

The Scolopk^dra are insects hclmit;ui<; I" I In- unli i \I\ li-i 

poda and to the family Chilopoda, They mv coin nit li r I 

Milltpides. 1 

The characters of this genua aw an elonijBted depressed body, 
composed of not less than twenty articulations : Hie anli'mi.n 
are somewhat longer than the head, letaeeous, mid formed of 
seventeen segments; there are four pairs of small simple me. 
and twenty-one pairs of feet, of which the last are inclined 
towards the median line, and form a kind of tail. 

The Scolopendra 
hiding beneath stones, the £ 

old worm-eaten trees. These animals feed on the eaiih-uorm 
and on small insects. 

The species which is most dreaded in the South of Franco 
and of Europe is the Scolopendra ci-ngulutn. 

These insects vary considerably in size ; the largest of the 
Scolopendra of Europe do not measure more than live inches 
in length, while those of India attain to eight inches. [The 
largest British species rarely exceed two indies in length,] 

1 Centipeda, KiiBMdfl of Ibo older writers. 

i very quickly; they avoid the light, 
the beams of bouses, and the hark of 




« S 2. POISON i 

\^ J> The mouth of the Scolopendra is c 

^^n*^ j&&^^ posed of a square-shaped Lip, of two 
^ijC5i mandibles, of two palpi, or small foot 

fctttttdf jawg, and of tt second lip formed by 

JJ^RKt another pair of dilated foot jaiei, which 

■Cf^ are joined together at their commence- 

y»wj^ ment. The latter (Jbrcipes) ' are the 

jJWff, orgaus which constitute the formidable 

tt»B^ weapons of the animal. 

>»JR|*4 The poison gland is lodged in the in- 

Prf'il \ teriorot these organs towards their base. 1 

Fig. 86.— Scolopendra.* It is oval 7 oblong, and provided with a 

long narrow excretory canal. The forceps 

terminate in a strong pointed 

moveable hook; the claw is pro- 

I vided with a small oblong aperture 

u its under surface, which allows 

| of the exit of the poiBon. 5 

This opening in the Scolopendra, 
I Scopoliana, is close to the point on 
I its under surface, and not within 
I the curve, which is strongly ea- 
I rinated; a very slender canal passes 
| from it to the base of the claw. 

3. Action on man. — The bite 

I of the Scolopendra pierces the skin 

I and inoculates its poison like that 

| of the Spider. The claws are 

sed and seize the tissue one on 

either side, they are then pressed 

horizontally together aud inflict 

1 Pressures seuforcipts, Leeuwenh. 

1 M. Lespee has studied [lie poison apparatus of a tropical species of 
Seotvpendra, which was tumid alive at hnrdcaus in a buadle of ox hides 
which had come from I'oiHliehery. 'flic ylarid reached halfway up the large 
joint of the claw, resting against its external pciuon ; it was oblong, obtuse 
at the base, narrowed aiiieninLy. and presented a! that part an oblique 
canal, which passed to the claw. Its tissue was very soft, of a pinkish hue, 
and punctated. Its canal was tolerably large and not quite equal in length to 
the large diameter of the gland. The bock was strong, curved, and painted. 

■ Leeuweiihoek and Mead have described (lie claw of the Scolopendra 
from the East Indies. They represent r.lie , .polling [lie same as it has been 
described above. In a Scolopendra. observed by _\L l.o.-pes, the opening 
was also below, but at the base of the claw. 

* Head and anterior part of the Scolopemlra Scapalvma, Koch. 

3 A, head of Sc^'iii-mlni SrujH/lituta, -ecu from below : a a, the claws ; 

poiaosoua asimals. 

Eiunds, into each of which a drop of poison is 
^...^ .pedes," savs A.uibroise Pare, " excite considerable 
irritation, redness, and swelling in the part they have bitten." 

The inhabitants of hot climates have a great dread of the 
Scolopendra. The species which are found in these countries, 
being larger than those of the North, secrete a greater quantity 
of poison, and probably also one that is more dangerous. 

In general the Scolopendra of our climates have but little 
danger attached to them. Amoreux says that those in the 
neighbourhood of Moutpellier are free from poison. This 
talented naturalist is evidently mistaken. These insects in the 
South of France secrete a poison Like the rest of their class ; 
only it is small in quantity, and not very active. 

M. Murrain Tandon knew the case of a medical student, who, 
when herborizing at Maguelonne, in 1826, was bitten in the 
finger; the wound caused severe pain, and the part was very 
perceptibly swollen, but there were no other ill effects. The 
next day f lie finder was in its usual state ; only there was a 
dark spot where it had been punctured. 

M. Robelin, prosector to the faculty of Sciences at 
Montpellier. was bit ten in the second joint of the middle finger 
by a large Scolopendra (i} inches in length). He felt a very 
acute pain, which was followed by swelling of the whole limb. 
He was compelled to carry his arm in a sling ; and in spite of 
the wounds being cauterised, the symptoms lasted nearly eight 

The bitea of the Scolopendra often occasion a febrile con- 
dition, accompanied with shlverings. 

Some foreign species, amongst others the Scolopendra marsi- 
tans, Linn., inflict wounds which are still more painful, and 
cause still more serious symptoms. 

Worbe declares that there exists a species in Senegal which 
often produces very serious disturbances ; but that, contrary to 
the common opinion, it docs not. cause death. A young Frenchman 
who had recently arrived at the Isle of St. Louis laid on a mat- 
trass placed in an office, when one night hi.; awoke in violent pain, 
uttered a piercing cry, and, getting up hurriedly, complained of 
horrible tortures over his knee. In a few minutes the part 
was swollen as large as the fist, having a bhtrk point in its 
centre (probably two). The usual remedies were employed, 

b, the ja«v: c, maxillary palpi : (/, labruin; e e, partialis of the unteanre ; 
/.inferior ansli of first ring; B, foot jaw (ruin the right side, seen from 
below: a, poison gland ; 6,itn canal; e, opening ■'[' l-Iu'.i ; d, inferior groove; 
e, oblique coarse of groove, 



and in five hours the pain aad the swelling had disappeared. 

In the following case death was the result: In 1828 an 
officer of the garrison at Cayenne came out of a dancing-n 
and drank some water ont of a small jus. It was dark, and a 
Scolopendra, which was probably lodged in the neck of the jug 
entered the mouth ami at larked llir pharynx. The surgeon of 
the regiment extracted the insect in bitB. The pain was very 
acute and the swelling enormous. Fearful disturbance of the 
nervous system came on, and the officer died in a short time. 
(V. Mougeot.) 

Are we to believe, with Bontius, that the Scolopendra of the 
East Indies can cause an affection resembling madness? 

Some travellers have pretended that the virulent poison pre- 
pared by certain Indian tribes on the Upper Orinoco, the Eio 
Negro, and the Amazon, and known under the name of curare, 
contains the poison of a Scolopendra} (Dc Caatelnau.) 

The animals which possess a special organ for the insertion 
of their poisons are — 1. The Ornifhorhynchus ; 2, the Scorpions ; 
3. certain Kymenoptera. In the first the organ is placed on the 
binder feet; in the second and iiiird it is situated at the extremity 
of the abdomen, sometimes externally, and fixed (Scorpions), 
sometimes internally and protractile (Thjmrnoptera) . 

In the Ornitliorhynchus the poison apparatus belongs to the 
male; in the Hymenoptem it is limited to the female ; in the 
Scorpion both sexes are furnished with it. 



The OmitliorhynchvK. Oritit!/urhi//ir/itix parmloxue, is a mam- 
malian animal belonging to the order Edentata, and to the 
tribe Monotremata. 

' The Iuli, which also belongs to the Myriopoda, according to some 
writers, are venomous insects. The lliironeaii itpcrius. lulus ierrestris, it is 
true, secrete a scented substance ivlijch li.i- 1 .■:.■.. n i .-< . 1 1 : j ■ ; l ren [ to the (ieutonide 
of nitrogen. This substance causes little or ao irritation. In the Antilles 
there is an lulus, whose secretion can produce a tolerably acute inflammation 
of the eyes. (Sale.) 

roisosroirs ajomals. 269 

It inhabits the rivers and marshes of New Holland, in the 
neighbourhood of Port Jackson. 

It is a very curious animal, remarkable for the elongated, 
depressed, fiah-like form of ita body, and for its curious 
flattened beak, furnished at its margins with trausverse laminre, 
and bearing a close resemblance to the bill of a duck. The 
teeth are only present at the back part of the mouth, two on 
each aide in both the upper and under jaws; they are rootless, 
with flattened crowns, and are composed of numerous small ver- 
tical tubes. The tail is compressed ; the feet have a membrane 
which unites the toes, and stretches beyond the claws in the 
anterior, but terminates immediately after its commencement 
in the posterior feet. 

1. Poison apparatus. — This apparatus consists of a gland, an 
excretory canal, and a spur. 

The gland is placed beneath the akin, on the external surface 
of the femur j 1 it is large, triangular, convex above, concave 
below, smooth, composed of several lobes, and covered with a 
delicate but firm membrane ; it is of a brown colour. From 
this arises a small canal with thick walls ; it descends behind 
the thigh and leg, becomes narrower, and terminates in a small 
Bac situated in an excavation of the foot. This eac, which is 
about T 2 S of an inch in diameter, ia a reaervoir in which the 
poison accumulates ; from the centre of it another very minute 
membranous canal passes off, which communicates with the 
inoculating organ. 

This organ is a large, conical, pointed spur, which is attached 
to the tarsus, and furnished with a canal. It consists of a 
layer of horny material and a bone of the same form placed 
within the latter. (Van der Hasven.) Its orifice is near the 
point on the convex surface. It is of a tolerable size, and of an 
oval form. (Blainville, Meckel.) 

2. Action on man. — According to Van der ilieven the poison 
of the Ornithorynckus exercises no injurious influence upon 
man, although its effects are often very disagreeable. Such, at 
least, is the opinion which is generally entertained at Port 

"When the animal is attacked, it endeavours to strike with ita 
hind feet and wound with its apura. The wound which it 
inflicts causes acute pain, accompanied by inflammation. 
The part swells, but there is no iiiskmec knwn iif du;itli hiving 
ensued. Sir J. Jamison, of Botany Bay, having wounded an 
Ornithorynckus with his gun, a person who was with him was 
1 Glandulafeaoralei, Meckel. 


struck in taking up the animal. In a short time the limb 
swollen, and all the symptoms were present which are produced 
by the bite of a venomous animal ; in spite of the immediate 
application of remedies, the wound continued painful for 
long time, arid the person lost the use of his Innb for more 
than, a month. (Van der Hceven.) 



Scorpions belong to the class Arachnida, to the order Pedi- 
palpl, and to the family Kcorpinnida?. The head is confounded 
with the thorax, the body is elongated, and the abdomen ter- 
minates abruptly in a long tail, composed of sis joints, of 
which the last is reflected, and terminates in a hooked claw. 

The Scorpions are characterised by their enormous palpi, of 
which the first or basal joint has the form of a rounded concave 
jaw, and at their termination a pair of pincers. 

Beneath the body, near the commencement of the abdomen, 
there are two peculiar appendages, called the combs. 1 These 
organs consist of a stem or basal portion, composed of two 
slender rods, closely united together, and a series of teeth, which 
axe attached to and are capable of moving on a corresponding 
number of bvlhs or marginal tubercles. Writers are not agreed 
upon the uses of these curious appendages. Amoreux compares 
them to a pair of ventral fin*, and states that they move in 
unison with the feet. Tulk thinks they are intended to trim 
the palpi, the tarsi, and the end of the tail. Treviranus regards 
them as venereal organs. Leon Ihdina- believes that they serve 
to grasp aiul stimulate the genital organs. 

The Scorpio:/' inhabit warm climates ; they are not found on 
mountains, or where the sub-alpine plants grow. (L. Dufour.) 
They live on the ground, under stones and pieces of wood, in 
dark, moist situations. They frequent the cellars and under- 
ground parts of houses. They only emerge from their hiding- 
places in the evening or at night time. 

These creatures teed upon wood-lice, spiders, and small in- 
sects. They are especially carnivorous animals, even devouring 
their own species, the old ones eating the young. The Scor- 
pions move slowly and deliberately, carrying their clawed palpi 
Htretched out in front of them, as if feeling for any obstacles 

1 Pectinea duo labtut 

tr pectus etai 




gen i 

Lt may he in their way. The tail is then straight, and trailH 
,ong the ground. When they are irritated Hie palpi are imme- 
diately retracted, for t!ie purpose of defending the head; at the 
same time the tail is curved on to the back, and becomes rigid. 
The animal vibrates the poison spine backwards and forwards 
in front of its mouth, prepared to strike at any moment. At 
first the Scorpions retreat backwards, like the crabs and some 
of the spiders, but they soon advance with boldness and impe- 
tuosity. The extremity of the tail is provided with a number 
of strong muscles, which provide for it various movements, 
inimals possess both strength and courage. A small 
i will often attack and destroy a spider larger than 
It seizes it with one or both of its claws, and thep 
ikes it on the head. If the spider endeavours to surround 
the Scorpion with its threads, when the latter has killed the 
spider, he cuts off all its feet with its pincers, and conveys the 
mutilated body to his, and either eats it entire or sucks 
the Boft parts, and then abandons the carcase. (Adanaon.) 

Small birds which have been wounded by a Scorpion stagger, 
tremble, appear to be suffocating, and turn round as if they 
were giddy. They soon fall down, become convulsed, and die. 
Dogs have heen known to perish in about five hours, after a 
'eneral swelling of the body, vomitings, and convulsions. 
The males are smaller than the females ; the penis is double, 
and placed near the combs. The females have two vulval. 
During copulation tliev are placed upon their backs. 

The eggs are 40 (Eedi) or 60 (L. Dufour) in number. The 

Sriod of gestation lasts a year. The animal is ovo viviparous, 
urmg the first few days the female carries her young on her 

1. Species. — The principal species are— 1. The Common; 
2. the Palmated; 3. the Red; 4. the African Scorpion. The 
following is a summary of their characters :— 

i 2 paira (9 teeth) 1. Common Scorpion. 

«i .™i ' n v..;™ _™i. -!** 5 s teeth ■ - 2 ' 1'alinatcd Scorpion, 

ealatoral 3 p»in«unb mth j 23 l0L . th , . 3. Red Scorpion. 

( 5 pairs (13 teeth) 4. African Scorpion. 

The Common Enro/inm Scorpion* (lig. SS) is common in the 
rhole of the South of France. It is an inch and a half in 
;ngth. It is of a more or less dark brown colour. 

1 Scorpio Earopttui, Linn., Sc. Jluvicaudus, Gecr. 


The palmated Scorpion* inhabits Algeria ; it is about the 

same irolijur a» the c 

moil species. 

Fig. 88. 


'■ Scorpion* is ibi 
at Souvignargues, Cette, Nar- 
bonne, and Port Venires. It 
s met with most frequently in 
he vegetable zone which in- 
cludes the olive. It is from 3 
to 3i inches in length ; it ia of 
a clear yellow colour, with the 
spine of the tail of a blackish 
colour. This species is remark- 
able for the number of teeth on the combs, there being from 
thirty to thirty-three. 

The African Scorpion 3 is peculiar to Algeria. It is sis 
inches long, and of a blackish brown colour. 
2. Poison APPABiTTTS (fig. 89). — This terrible instrument 
of the Scorpion occupies the laat joint of the 
tail (in canda venerium). It consists of a 
dilated portion and a spine. 

The dilated portion, improperly called 
■iiipulla, is a kind of oval knot covered with 
a tew hairs ; it is convex below, and has a 
slight medium longitudinal groove ; at this 
part there is a kind of raphe, which indi- 
cates the line of separation between the 
I two glands which secrete the poison. When 
an incision is carefully made at this part, 
the dilated portion may be penetrated with- 
out injury to its contents, in consequence of 
a very delicate, almost linear, space which 
separates the interna] pans. (L. Dufour.) 

The dilatation is formed by two closely approximated sub- 
hemispherical bodies ; that is to say, they are flat on the side 
which is next the central space, and conves on the opposite 
side. Each of these bodies is drawn out into a slender neck 
towards the spine. 

These bodies have been supposed to be hollow capsules, 

' Sc.palmalus, Ehr., Baliiai jialmatns, Koch. 

* Sc. Occilanut, Amor., Bulhus Occilaaas, Leach commonly called the 
ushi'i: or ifrlfow Scorpion, 

1 Scorpio Tunetamu, Redi, Sc. J/a, partim Linn., Sc. ftinestus, Ehr. 
This and the preceding species belong to the section Andronecha. 

* A, spine and dilatation containing the poison ; B, section of the dilata- 
tion towards its centre, showing the two glands surrounded by a muscular 

polsoNorra insects. 

whose wnlk arp composed of a multitude of minute glands, 
closely impacted together, and communicating with each other. 
M. Leon Dufour, however, asserts that they are solid, and con- 
sist of a white opaque libro-eartilaginous structure. He adds, 
that wheu carefully torn, four or five vessels may he seen, 
principally in the convex portion ; some of these are simple, 
others of them are branched and ramify between the muscles. 
These vessels, of which it is not easy lo determine the precise 
distribution, are not simple markings, as the mere inspection of 
them might lead one to suppose, since they can be raised up 
with the point of a needle. They all converge to a central or 
median trunk, which gradually narrows as it enters the neck. 
They are therefore secreting organs with regard to their 
branches, and excretory organs as regards their trunk. The 
latter part is composed of an external contractile coat, contain- 
ing an elastic tube, which may be traced into the spine. 
(L. Dufour.) 

Jean Holier discovered a layer of flat, smooth, muscular fas- 
ciculi around these bodies. M. Blanchard has given a drawing 
of these fibres, which arc directed from before backwards. 

The spine is a kind of strong terminal vlait; which is elon- 
gated, slightly curved, and very pointed. 1 Near the point, and 
somewhat towards the under surface, are two small openings 3 
of an oblong form, obtuse next the point, and narrowed at the 
opposite extremity. ThotB openings appear to be rather closer 
to each other on the convex than on the concave margin. 

M. Leon Dufour believes I hat each gland is provided with 
an excretory canal, and that the two, passing parallel to each 
other, terminate separately in one of the small apertures of the 
spine. M. Blanchard states that there is only one canal for 
the two glands. The delicate dissections and accurate drawingH 
of this skilful anatomist leave no doubt that such is the case. 

"Wben the Scorpion is about to strike, an exceedingly minute 
drop of the poison is seen to exude at the extremity of the 
Hpine, the discharge taking place before this is introduced 
into the flesh of the victim ; tut the Becretion becomes more 
abundant when the point meets with the resisting body. 
(Blanchard.) The poison is expelled by the contraction of the 
surrounding muscular fibres. 

1 Macro arcuahia, Linn. 

* Galen did not consider that the spine of the Scorpion was perforated. 
Leenwenhoek, Vallisncri, Ghedini, and Linna:u6 mention three apertures ; 
Mead and Hauptrtuia saw very distinctly two lateral openingB in the red 



3. Action ok man. — The wound of the Scorpion generally 

Eroduees a dark red spot, which gradually enlarges and becomes 
lack in the centre. This spot lasts lor seven or eight days, 
rarely as long aB a fortnight. Ambrose Pare has accurately de- 
scribed the effects of one of theBe wounds. " There comes on," 
he says, " an inflammation in the wounded part, accompanied 
with much redness, pain, and swelling. The patient has sweats 
and chills, like a person attacked with fever, and a creeping 
sensation over the surface of the body. 

The experiments of Eedi, Fallopius, Morgagni, and Amoreux, 
have shown that the Scorpions of Europe are not dangerous. 
The common species only produces local and trifling dis- 

The red, which is larger, produces more 
Maupertuis killed a dog in five hours by causing him to 
bitten under the belly. 

If we are to Delieve Dr. Maccari, who has had tbe 
to experiment upon himself, severe and even fatal consequences 
may ensue in man. The poison of the last species is more 
active in proportion to the age of the animal. 

It will be readily supposed, from what has been said, that 
the African Scorpion, which is remarkable for its great 
can inflict serious wounds. Mallet de la Brossiere wit 
alarming symptoms in two persons who were wounded at 
The symptoms generally consist of pain and swelling 
wounded part, vomiting, accompanied with fever and a nervot 


Qg dis- 


1 to be 


Dr. Guyon has related Beveral cases which were followed h 
death in Algeria. It should be mentioned that in these c 
the wound occurred on the head. 

Bontius declares that the wound of the great Scorpion of 
India, a species which is often confounded with that of Africa^ 
but whieh is much larger, produce* insanity. 

According to M. Cassan, at St. Lucia, in the torrid zone, 
there is a large Scorpion whose poison causes death in a very 
short time. 

It may be slated generally that Scorpions are danger 
proportion to their size, their age, the state of irritation they 
may be in, and the temperature of the climate in which they 
reside, The wounds, however, even of the largest species are 
rarely fatal. 



The poisonous Hymenoptera are — 1. The Sees; '2. The 

Mumble Sees; 3. The Wasps. The Bees and the Humble. Been 

belong to the family Mellif'era, anil the If- 'tups 1 to theDiploptera. 

§ I. Bees. 

The Common or Money Bee, Apis Mdli/icii, Linn., has already 

n mentioned when speaking of huney and was. 1 

. Poison apparatus (fig. 00).— This apparatus is only 

Fig- SO.— Poison Apparatus.* 
present in the females and in the workers ; the males are not 

' The Scoliidtr, the Pompflini, and the other Hymenoptera furnished with 
a sting, may also attack man. 

3 See p. 193. 

3 A, extremity of the ahdiim.-n, with the Minii retnicicd ; a, sting in its 
case ; b, its base, composed of I'anilagi' and lnustlts : H. ]>oUon apparatus; 
o, poison glands: b, poison reservoir: i;. its excretory canal ; dd, extremities 
of the two darts forming the sting; t, the dans conjoined ; /, sheath of the 
sting opened above; a, scaly appendages forming together a cleft piece ; 


provided with it. The ancients believed that they were pro- 
vided with a sting, hut that they disdained to make use of it. 

The poison apparatus consists of glands for secreting the 
poison, and of a sting for its inoculation. In order to under- 
stand the structure of these organs, the extremity of the 
abdomen must be carefully dissected. 

Glands. — These organs are two in number, having the form 
of simple flexible tubes terminating in a blind extremity; 4 their 
ultimate structure resembles that of the salivary glands. Each 
of these bodies gives rise to a small canal ; those canals unite 
together and form a single very tortuous duet, which opens into 
the reservoir ; this is a tolerably large oblong fusiform sac, some- 
times slightly constricted in its centre, and provided with very 
thin muscular membranes and contractile walls. At the oppo- 
site extremity of the reservoir is an excretory canal, which 
leads to the base of the sting. 

Sting. — This is placed at the posterior extremity of the body. 

"When not in use the sting is completely enclosed in the 
abdomen ; it can be protruded and retracted at the will of the 
animal, and can also be moved in any given direction so as to 
encounter the object which (lie insect is desirous of stinging. 

The sting of a Bee has been accurately described by Swam- 
merdam and Beaumur ; it is composed of — 1, a base ; 2, a case; 
3, a dart. 

1. The hose consists of several cartilaginous pieces ; Swam- 
merdam reckons eight, and Keaumur six. Audouin observes 
that the latter writer overlooked two pieces which had been 
described by Bwammerdam. M. Dumeril has recognized the 
presence of a ninth piece placed on tho median line, and 
having the form of the letter V. The branches of the latter 
piece are directed forwards and articulated with the case; 
their office is, possible, to draw the latter inwards. The other 
eight pieces are arranged four on each side; they are united 
together by a strong membrane, and the whole constitutes a 
kiud of envelope, which, by its external circumference, is at- 
tached to the last segment of the abdomen, while its internal 
surface surrounds the sting. Connected with the eight nieces 
are four muscles, two of which are protractors, and two 

h h, eight cartilaginous pieces which support the hase of the darts and 
attach them to the abdomen ; i i, protractor and retractor muscles of these 
pieces ; k, extremity of a dart magnified to show the point and the teeth 

piiiL'fil iilun^- ils (inter edge. 

it neighbouring genera the tabular glands arc ramified. 

roisosora insects. 2i7 

Belonging also to the base of the sting are two long whitish 
membranous appendages, eaeh of which is grooved, accompanies 
the sheath, ana partly covers it. Swaumierdam considers that 
these bodies arc destined to move the ease inwards and out- 
wards. Keaumur believes that they prevent the soft parts of 
the abdomen from coming in contact with the case, and vice 

2. The ease is a horny covering, dilated towards its base, 
and gradually diminishing to the extremity, which is very 
pointed. The case is incomplete ; that is to say, it does not 
form a perfectly closed cylinder ; it Jb a half canal, or ib grooved, 
longitudinal, and interiorly. 

3. The dart is a double organ ; it consists of two long 
delicate setro, which are received into the case, but do not 
entirely till it ; they are placed close to each other on their 
inner surfaces, which are smooth, but traversed throughout 
their entire length by a delicate groove. The apices are 
extremely pointed, and furnished on their outer edges with 
ten small teeth directed from before backwards. These setfe 
separate and diverge towards the base ; they are articulated 
with the cartilaginous pieces; they are accompanied on their 
under surface by the case, which also divides into two branches, 

2. Action on man.— Wound. — When a Bee wishes to mate 
use of its weapon, it protrudes ils sting by the contraction of 
the muscles whieh attach it to the hist segment of the abdo- 
men. The case, which is pointed, penetrates the body which is 
attacked, and thus furnishes a point of resistance to the baBe. 
The muscles of the latter act upon the seta:, which are buried 
deeper in the skin, and are sometimes so firmly fixed by means 
of their teeth, that when the animal wishes to escape, the 
whole of the sting is torn from its body and mutilates the 
rectum and the oviduct ; the sting then remains in the wound, 
and the animal soon dies. In the aet of penetration the sting 
has a quivering motion, which lastB for some minutes. (Kunz- 

If the sting merely caused a puncture of the skin, the 
wound would not be followed by am injurious effects ; but the 
instrument discharges a certain quantity of poison. The 
reservoir containing the poison contracts, and its contents are 
driven along the excretory canal, and enter the space produced 
by the divergence of the seta! at their base; it then passes 
along the canal formed between the set*, and by that means 
enters the wound. 

That it is the poison of the Bee, and not merely the wound, 

I of only 
gs, papil- 


which produces the pain and inflammation in the part, is proved 
by taking a small quantity of the fluid on the point of a 
needle and inserting it into the skin, when the same symptoms 
are immediately produced as those which arise from the wound 
made by the Bee itself, (Audouin.) 

Dr. Kunzinann has noticed that when the abdomen has 
been cut off from a live Bee, twelve hours afterwards, the 
least touch is sufficient to cause the sting to protrude 
the same force and rapidity as if the animal was still alive, and 
the person may he wounded just as eft'ectually as when that 
ia the case. 

The effect of the bite is usually alight, 
transient pain ; sometimes, however, it causes sw 
lary eruptions, erysipelas, and even a phlegmon! 
tion, followed by suppuration and gangrene. When the sting 
remains in the wound, the irritation appears to be much 
greater than at other times. 

Fabrice, of Hilden, relates the case of a young girl who 
wounded near the ear ; the swelling extended over the head, 
and was followed by an abscess. 

Zacutus saw the sting of a Bee produce gangrene around 
the wound. 

In the Raccoglitorr mtdieo & Maw is recorded the case 
a man, thirty-sis years of age, of a sanguine temperament, ai 
athletic form, who was stung by three or four Bees on t 
back of the hand; immediuteh' hi* sisiht became dim, he k 
his strength, and his body was covered with a profuse pers] 
ration ; the lace was greatly injected, there were violent pains 
the head, a folding <>l' oppression, with general disturbance 
the system, and the fear of death. He was put to bed, and i 
eruption of small vesicles, similar to those produced by a 
nettle, broke out on the lower extremities, aivompanied with in- 
flammation and intense fever; in an hour afterwards all these 
symptoms disappeared as if by magic. 

Debrest, de C'usset, mentions the case of a villager, ab> 
thirty years of age, who was stung by a Bee below the eyebi 
be fell to the ground, his face became, inflamed, and, i 
losing a large quantity of blood from the nose, died in a : 
minutes. Is this case well authenticated ? 

It may be readily supposed that if a person is wounded 
several Bees at once, if, for instance, he should be attacked te 
a Bwarm, that the results might be serious. (Amoreux.) 

In the Archives Generates de Medicine, is the case of 

poisosotrs DfSECTB. 279 

who died after being wounded by a number of Bees on the 
chest and face.' 

At the siege of Massa, the crusaders were attacked by 
swarms of Bee*, which the besieged threw upon them with 
their hives. This novel kind of tioe ^really incommoded the 

a recommends that in extracting the sting imme- 
diately after it has been inserted it should not be taken hold 
of by the dilated extremity of the sheath, which is alwayB filled 
with poison, and would therefore communicate more of it to 
the wound ; it should be grasped below this part without com- 
pressing it as it is drawn from below upwards. 

§ II. Humble Bee. 

The Humble Bees are larger than the Bees, and are remark- 
able for their transverse upper lip, and for their false pro- 
boBeis, which is shorter than the body. The principal species 
are the — Lapidary or Red-tailed Bee; the Moss or Carder Bee ; 
and the Common Humble Bee. 

The Red-tailed Bee, Bombus lapidarius, has the body black, 
with the last three segments of the abdomen red; it makes its 
nest on the ground, at the bottom of old walls and between 

The Moss or Carder Bee, Bombus maseorum, is of a yellow 
colour, with the hairs of the thorax of a fawn colour. 

The Common Humble Bee, Bombus terrestris, is black, with 
the posterior portion of the thorax and base of the abdomen 
yellow; the thorax is black, with a bright yellow band 
anteriorly ; the basal segment of the abdomen black, second 
yellow, third black, and the three posterior ones white. 

The sting of these insects is more puwerfnl than that of the 
Bee, and occasions more pain and severe inflammation. The . 
poiBon glands are not single, but double. 

In 1679, several persons in Poland were stung by targe 
Hmnhle Bees ; the wounds produced swellings and inflamma- 
tion, which could only be arrested by deep scarification. 

J III. Wasps. 
The Wasps have their lower lip the same length as their 
mandibleB, and their wings are folded up when in a state of 
repose. The two species which are to be guarded against in 
France [and also in England] are the Common Wasp and the 

' Br. Kuuzmann mentions the death of a horse. 


The Common Wasp, Vettpa milgrtrit, is rather less than nn 
inch in length ; it is of a black colour, with yellow in front of 
the head, and a black spot in the middle ; it has several yellow 
spots on the thorax, and a band of the same colour, with 
three hlack spots on the posterior margin of each segment. 

The Horn/'/. 1'i^pn th-ubm. is more than an inch in length; 
the head is of a fawn colour, with yellow in front ; the thorax 
black, marked with spots of a fawn colour ; the abdominal 
segments of a blackish brown, with a yellow band with two 
or three black spots. 

The pain from the sting of the lVu*p is sharp, hut that from 
the Hornet is very severe. (Amoreux.) 

Eeaumur tested the eil'eet of these insects on hiuiself and on 
his servant. "Being stung by a Wasp" says this celebrated 
naturalist, "I thought I might gain something from his 
infliction by bearing it with a good grace. I allowed the 
animal to wound me at his leisure ; when be had withdrawn 
his sting of his own accord, i irritated and placed him on 
the hand of a domestic, who was not expecting to be 
stung, but the wound did not cause him much pain. I 
then made the Wasp sting me a second time, when I 
scarcely felt it. The poisonous fluid was nearly exhausted 
by the former experiments, and I could not induce the 
Wasp to make a fourth wound. This experiment, and some 
others, which people will probably not care to repeat, have 
taught me that where the animals are undisturbed the sting 
is never left in the wound. The ating is flexible, and is not 
driven straight in, but forms a curved or zigzag wound. If 
the insect is compelled to withdraw it suddenly, the friction 
is sufficient to retain the stins, which is somewhat hooked, and 
tears it oft'. On the other hand, if the animal is not disturbed 
it withdraws the sting gradually. Tin- sting of the Hornet is 
more severe than that of the IVaup : in this country, however, 
it is not of that importance which it is represented by some 
writers, who prescribe for it all the remedies which they make 
use of against the most dangerous poisons." 

A lady, says Riehoraud. was wounded by a Hornet on the 
middle finger of the left hand. The pain was very severe ; in 
a few moments her whole body was swollen ; the skin became 
inflamed and covered with wheals, and a violent fever set in. 
Cabanis treated the patient successfully. In a few hours the 
swelling, redness, and fever subsided. On the fourth day, 
nothing remained, of all this disturbance, but a small black 
spot which marked the situation of the wound. 

Haldanus re] 
hand, was foil 

desquamation c 

animal roiaoys. 


Haldanus relates a case where the wound of a Wasp, on the 
hand, was followed by a total prostration of strength and 
desquamation over the whole surface of the body. 

Lansoni speaks of a woman who was wounded on the cheek, 
and had, in consequence, an ulcer, which lasted for three 

Facts of this kind are far from common, and cases of death 
are still more rare. 

In 1776 a gardener at Nancy, when eating an apple, which 
contained a Wasp, was bitten on the soft palate. It produced 
a violent inflammation, pain, and great swelling. The man 
died in a few hours. 

Chaumeton mentions the ease of a young man who was 
wounded in tin 1 throat by a Was-p, which lie had not perceiyed, at 
the bottom of a glass. The effects were exceedingly rapid. 
The throat inflamed, and the young man died suffocated. 

In a communication from Montbard to the Patrie, of 
September 19th, 1858, it is stated, that "the youngest son of 
M. L., a briekmaker, died from the sting of a Wasp. The un- 
fortunate youth, who was sixteen years of age, was drinking 
from a bottle, when a Wasp, which he had not seen, got into 
his thrnnt aud wounded him. He died suffocated from the 
swelling, which enBued before any assistance could be pro- 

Some of the cases which are related of scyere injuries arising 
from the sting of the Bee are no doubt to be referred to those 
of the Wasp and Hornet. 

It is an old saying that the stings of twenty-seven Wasps 
are sufficient to kill a man, and thotte of sis Hornets a horse. 1 



These poisons are fluids secreted by special glands and 
provide the animal with the means of attack ur defence. 

A poison differs from a vims, in the latter being a morbid 
and accidental formation, transmitting the C'vuiinal disease from 
one individual to another, and which is reproduced by the 
disease it has occasioned. 

Poisons are diminished in intensity during their action, which 

1 SeTeral miters have related the case of n mare mid her foal being dc- 
itroyed by a sirariii i>f H'jm lOiii'li the former hart disturbed from Bear 
the bush to which she was fat-teucd. 

ib always more or less prompt ; they are decomposed in the 
production of their specific eft'eets. A virus remains for some 
time in a state of apparent inaction, to acquire after a longer 
or shorter time its greatest intensity ; it increases in viru- 
lence by the production of its morbid effects. 1 

The ancients supposed that in poisonous animals there were 
two poles of antagonism, one of which was seated in the poison 
apparatus, the other in the head. Charms pretends that the 
disorder produced by the Viper consisted principally in iU 
opening the door to the. irritated spirits. 

The various poisons are not identical ; there are probably 
several kinds ; some, even in very small quantities, produce 
great pain, while others cause only a very slight amount 
pain. The danger of their inoculation is not in proportion to 
tho ill effectB they give rise to. Some act upon the entire 
organism, while others act only locally. There are those which, 
are almost invariably fetal ; while others only cause trifling 

Some writers have asserted that each poison according to its 
nature acts on a particular system of organs. The ancients 
believed that the poiwn of the Asp was somniferous. Fon- 
tana maintains that that of the Viper acts on the nervous 
system, and toajfuliites the blood. According to MM. Brainard 
and Burnett, that of the CrotaUtt disorganises the blood glo- 
bules, and renders the blood more liquid. According to 
Amoreux that of insects more especially aft'ects the skin. 

In all eases the poisoning when it is virulent commences in 
the neighbourhood of the wound, from whence it spreads and 
becomes general. Death sometimes occurs very rapidly 
(Crotalus). In other cases it only takes place after a longer 
or shorter interval {Viper). Whatever may he the rapidity 
of the poisoning it is never instantaneous. There requires a 
certain time for the effects to be developed either in the part 
which was bitten or in the system generally. 

The action of these poisons varies very much according to 
circumstances which serves to explain some of the contradictions 
that are met with in different writers. Their action appears 
to he increased by an increase in the temperature,* by the 

1 Limiseus defines » poison as follows: " Vbhekcm est quod perexigua dos 
corpori Aumanp ingeshm uuf extu-i admolum. ri i/uii,luiu pwuliari, effectus 
producit violentissuHus, qui in jierair'n-m -fimitalis rl ritir trudimt." (Eianth. 


L and also at the period of heat. 
naked by cold, b v weakness, by age. 

figoa* ■ • I ■*£* ntlnc .1 
It is, on the coatrarv. di 
and by disease, and ah»o w 

The /wnmir karmlese 
they are dangerous when introduced br modulation. The 
anneals sere aware of that distinction- Celsua distinctly says 
that no injory arise* from swallowing these p * i aatu. 1 This fart 
was, however, only clearly established by the experiments 
of Redi. Fontana,'and Cbarras, It is alio well known that 
boars and herons habitually reed upon Viper* without ex- 
perienehsg any inconvenience from it. 

The potion* do not lose their properties by drying. 1 Mangili 
killed pigeons with potion which had been dry for eighteen 
months. Naturalists and others with good reason dread 
wounds which might be caused br the fangs of the Crolalu* or 
the Viper long after the animal* have been dead. 

It is believed that immersion in alcohol does not destroy the 
noxious properties of the potion. SI. Joly killed sparrows by 
wounding them with the fengs of a riper, which had been pre- 
served in spirits. It appears, however, that long immersion in 
this Buid ultimately destroys the poisonous properties. Duver- 
noy having taken some of the poison from a Crotaltu durtitnt, 
preserved in a jar, on the end of a lancet, and having introduced 
it under the akin of the ear and thigh of a rabbit, no effects 
were produced. 

1. Ophidiaxs. — The potions of the Ophidht are the most 
terrible and the best known. 

That of the Viper was first thoroughly investigated by Fon- 
tana, who made more than six thousand experiments in reference 
to this subject. 

The quantity of poison contained in each apparatus of the 
Viper was estimated by Fontana at something more than ,* B of 
& grain, or a grain and a half for the two. M. Tandon calcu- 
lates that there is as much as one grain in each. Into every 
wound the animal discharges about ^ of a grain of the poison. 

The potion of the Viper (venenum Vipens) when fresh has 
something of an oleaginous consistence. Eedi compares it to oil 
of sweet almonds. The poison is almost colourless, slightly 
opalescent by reflected light, or of a pale yellow colour. That 

1 " Fnvmni lerpaitit iton gattu, ted euljitre meet." (Celaus.) — Galen 
relates the case of a man whose servant wag wishing to kill him gave him 
wine in which he had steeped a Viptr, mid this cured him of his disease. 

* M. Paul Gervaia, however, states that he wounded a young dog with the 
fangs of a dried Crtitalia, and that the; produced no poisonous effects. 



of the different species of Cro/ahs is green, and that 
Javelin snake transparent. (Guy on.) 

At the moment of its secretion the poison of serpents is 
neither acid nor alkaline. According, however, to Dr. Rous- 
seau, that of a Crotahis slightly reddens the tincture of turnsole. 

The poison of the Viper has no distinct flavour. According 
to some it is at first insipid, but sift it wards leaves a somewhat 
astringent taste in the fauces : according to others it possesses 
an intolerable acridity, which it is difficult to describe. 1 It haa 
scarcely any odour. It falls to the bottom of water, in which it 
preserves its viscidity for some time, but is ultimately dissolved, 
W hen dried on a plate of glass it looks like a layer of gum full 
of cracks. 

In the dried state the poison dissolves in water; hut it 
soluble in sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, which only acts 
partially upon it, and it assumes the condition of a liquid paste. 
It acts in the same manner with regard to nitric acid, except that 
it becomes somewhat yellower. The vegetable acids, the alkalies 
and oils, do not dissolve, it. "When heated it does not melt, but 
swells up, and becomes thick. Placed in contact with flame 

occurs with vegetable matters. 

Prince Lucien Bonaparte has shown that the poison of the 
Viper consists essentially of a principle to which he has given 
the name echidnine or ripcriite. This principle presents itself 
under the appearance of a colourless, n-ini^psiiviit, and rather 
thick varnish. It has no smell or positive flavour. It does not 
redden the tincture of turnsole, nor does it render the syrup of 
violets green. It has some resemblance to gum Arabic ; but 
it contains nitrogen. Dissolved in a solution of caustic potash, 
the hydrated binoxide of copper turns it of a beautiful violet 
colour, a phenomenon which also occurs n r ith gelatine and 

Thapoison of the Viper appears to act much more powerfully 
on man than on animals. 

It is injurious to all the warm-blooded vertebrata. The 
larger species do not die, but the small generally succumb. 
Thus the horse 2 almost always resists it, the sheep often, the 

1 M. L.-A. tie Monlesijiiiou averts that he has tasted it several til . 

without on liiiiimii 1 1 mi t; iniil anv 'li-linet taste, 

1 Best: mentions ilic nisi' of rwo Iuj]>-.-s ;\\vx\\ were !>ii.teu in America by 
the black Viper, the one on the leg, the other in the tongue. The Gist 

AwniAL poiaoNa. 285 

it sometimes, 1 a pigeon diea in eight or ten minutes, and a 

The animals which are bitten in the cheat, abdomen, liver, or 
intestinea die in a ahort apace of time. 

Animals wounded in the ears, the head, the periosteum, the 
dura-mater, the brain, the marrow of the bonea, the cornea, or 
stomach, seldom manifest any appreciable phenomena. 

When the poison of tire Viper is applied lightly to the 
abraided skin of a rabbit or a guinea pig, it is not followed by 

I death ; applied to the muacular fibre or to the nerves, it pro- 
duces no effect. 
The -poison of two Vipers injected into the jugular vein of a 
large rabbit produced death m less than two minutes, after 
giving rise to eriee and convulsions. The blood becomes 
coagulated in the ventricles of the heart. The mysentery, the 
intestinea, and the muaclea of the abdomen are inflamed. 
The poison of the. Viper does not produce any appreciable 
change when applied to the warm and palpitating parts which 
have been removed from an animal. 
The coldblooded vertebrata reaiat the effects of the poiaon 
longer than the warmblooded. A lizard died at the end of half 
an hour ; in the tortoise death enauea very slowly in whatever 
part the animal may he bitten. The common snake and the 
slow-worm arc not affected by it. It is the same with the eel, 
the snail, and the leech. 

A Viper wounded by another Viper does not die. A Viper 
which sends its fangs into ita lower jaw or any other part of its 
body, does not appear to be inconvenienced by it.* 

What is the quantity of the Viper * poison which is requisite 
to kill a man ? The two hundredth part of a grain inserted 
into the muscles is sufficient to destroy a small bird almoat in- 
stantaneously ; it takes sis times as much to kill a pigeon. 
^Po^tana calculated that it requires more than two grains to 
produce death in man.* As the whole apparatus only contains 
escaped with a swelling, whieb lasted for some days, and a weakness which 
continued for some weeks ; the noottd died in lag (Uau an. hour. 

1 Is it true, as stated by Lenz. that the Hedgehog may be bitten with 
impunity on the snout and lips, and even on the tongue ? 

" Fontwna says that small animals die In from fifteen to twenty seconds. 

* The bite of a Javelin Snake is equally harmless to himself. (Ouyon.) 
A cage is mentioned of a Rattle Snake dying from the effeets of his own 
bite. (Halm.) 

* And eight for an ox. 


two grains, 1 and that each wound only introduces the -fV of a 
grain, it would follow that a person might be bitten by several 
Vipers without dying, and that one could never cause death : 
this, however, is contrary to what has been observed. It has 
been shown that under certain circumstances a single wound 
may be fatal. The calcination of Montana is, therefore, 

The poison of Serpents has been recommended in America as 
a remedial agent ; it has been pretended, tbat persona who 
were inoculated with it were secure against tbe yellow fever 
and tbe black vomit. Peyrilhe states, that the poison of the 
Viper has been tried in hydrophobia. He somewhat amusingly 
adds, " this remedy should only be used with the consent of 
the patient and the approval of the magistrate." M. Desmartis, 
of Bordeaux, submitted to the Academy of Sciences a memoir 
on the employment of poisons in medicine. He also recom- 
mends the bite of the Viper against hydrophobia. 

2. Arachnida. — The poison of these animals bas received 
but little attention. Orfila places that of Spiders amongst the 
list of septic poisons ; but be forms bis opinion rather from its 
effects than from its nature. 

Fontnna says, that of the Scorpion is white and viscid, and that 
when it is placed upon the tongue it produces a sharp and 
burning taste. This poison resembles gum. According to 
M. Blanchard it holds in suspension irregular granules ; it is 
acid, and reddens litmus paper. 

According to Amoreux, it acts on the cold-blooded animals 
in the same manner as on the other vcrtebrata. It has been 
seen that this is not the case with the poison of tbe Serpents. 
It is worthy of remark, that the poi-vm of the Viper produces 
but little suffering when it is introduced into the tissues, even 
when it proves fatal, wbde that of the Arachnids occasions 
more or less pain, but seldom kills. 

M. Onanam believes that he has recognized therapeutic pro- 
perties in the poison of the Araehnida, and that it is sometimes 
sudorific, and at other times anti-periodic. 

3. Insects.— Very little is known of the poison of the fft/me- 
noptera. Swammerdam believed that this poison was the bile 
of the animal. It is a clear, limpid fluid, which quickly coagu- 
lates when exposed to the air. It does not alter vegetable 

be slightly styptic. Swammerdam and 

1 It has beer, previously mentioned that Montana only estimated it at a 
pram and a half. 

of poi 




ANIMAL P0IB05S. 287 

Ludovic, having placed some of the poison on the tongue, 
experienced a bitter taste, which gradually became more acrid 
and penetrating, extended over the whole of the mouth, as far 
as the fauces, and produced a How of saliva, as if they had been 
chewing pellitory root. Fontana declares that this poison acts 
on the tongue like a powerful caustic. Ludovic compares the 
sensation to that which is produced b_y nitric acid on the skin. 
Other writers describe it as a burning sensation. According 
to Adanson. the poison of the Bee is more active in the summer 
than in winter. 

Humours analogous to Poisons 
The viscid exudation winch lubricates the skin of the Toad, the 
iton, and the Salamander, is at present regarded as a species 
poison; it appears to answer the purpose of repelling the 
of those animals by its nauseous odour and disagreeable 
But these animals have no instrument for the inocula- 
tion of the fluid, and at the same time it is so situated that they 
cannot directly employ it as a means of attack and defence. 
1. Toad.— The humour of the common Toad, Bufo vidgariz, 
secreted by cutaneous ghmds or pustules placed on the back 
and in the situation of the parotid gland. 
This is a thick, viscid, milky fluid, with a slight yellow tint 
" poisonous odour. It has a disagreeable, caustic, bitter 
! ; it reddens turmeric ; it solidifies on exposure to the air, 
and when placed on a plate of glass it assumes a scaly appear- 
ance. It is soluble in alcohol, which shows that it is not an 
albuminous substance. According to Pelletier, it contains an 
acid, partly free and partly combined with a base. It is this 
acid to which it appears to owe its acrid properties. 

In the experiments of MM. Grat inlet and Cloez, birds, such 
as linnets and finches, which were inoculated with this fluid, 
died in about six minutes, but without being convulsed. These 
animals opened their beaks, and staggered aa if in a state of 
drunkenness ; they lost the power of co-ordinating their move- 
ments. In a short time they closed their eyes, as if they were 
goilii; to sleep, mid fell down dead. 

These gentlemen ascertained that this fluid destroyed birds 
even after it had been dried. Two milligrammes ( T ^ gr.) 
have destroyed a linnet in lil'ieeu minutes. 

It acts equally after its acid lias been saturated with potash. 
When a small quantity of the fluid is introduced beneath the 

1 According to some writers it also nerves to Jiiuiuisli the effects of the 
ma's rays. 

akin of smaller mammalia, such as the dog or goat, it kills them 
in less than an hour, 

M. Vulpian has repeated and varied these experiments with 
the common Toad and Natter Jack Toad, Bufo calamiia. He 
experimented on dogs and Guinea pigs, and proved that these 
animals died in from hall' an hour to an hour and a half. The 
symptoms which were noticed might be divided into several 
Btages — -1st, a period of excitement ; 2nd, one of depression ; 
3rd, vomiting or attempts at vomiting; -1th, intoxication i 
dog, but convulsions in the Guinea pig, and then death. 

The fluid of the Toad acta as a poison on frogs, and generally 
killa them in the course of an hour. It is even sufficient if a 
certain quantity of it is spread on the hack of these animals. 
The fluid has no action on the Toads themselves. 

This fluid acts powerfully on the heart, and arrests its move- 
ments. MM. Gratiolet and Cloez have noticed, in the dead 
bodies of birds, the singular fact that the semicircular canals of 
the ear are always filled with blood. 

It is asserted that in certain countries the Indians hunt after 
several species of TimJh with pointed sticks. They transfix: the 
animals with these sticks, and when they have collected a con- 
siderable quantity of them they place them before a large fire, 
but at a sufficient distance to prevent their being roasted. The 
heat excites the cutaneous secretion, which is collected by the 
Indians aa it is discharged from the pustules for the purpose of 
poisoning their arrows. 

2. Triton, or Aquatic Salamander, Triton cristatu*. — The 
humour of this species in secreted by numerous follicles which 
project along the sides of the neck, back, loins, and tail. When 
these wart-like bodies are pressed the fluid comes out in drops. 
The experiment succeeds better if the animal's body is pre- 
viously dried by wiping it with a cloth. 

The fluid is of a white colour, or of a very faint yellow, and 
somewhat thicker than milk. It gives off a poisonous, pene- 
trating, and disagreeable odour. When examined beneatn the 
microscope it appears to consist of a number of oval globules. 
It thickens on exposure to the air, coagulates, and becomes of 
a yellow colour. It dries rapidly, and when in the dry Btate 
on a plate of glass, il appears cracked, like a thin layer of gum 
Arabic. 1 It does not readily mix with water ; it will do so par- 

1 If a Triton is killed by immersion in alcohol, the middle parte of its 

body become covered with the milky fluid. whi.:h ..i/uUtes in the form 

of a very thin layer. Clii- Mating la thickest on the rides of the neck and 
at the commencement of the tail. (H. Cioeae,) 


tially, but Roon forms an irregular coagulum. Alcohol coagu- 
lates almost tlie whole of it. 1 Wheu the fluid is placed on the 
tongue, it does not at first produce any (libit, but in the couree 
of a few minutes a burning sensation is felt in the fauces. 

This fluid poisons ranch in the same manner as that of the 
Toad, but it also produces violent convulsions. 

With only a small quantity, M. Vulpian haa succeeded in 
killing dogs, Guinea pigs, and frogs. 

This fluid acts less energetically than that of the Toad. 
Death took plane in frogs only at the end of from bis to twelve 
hours. When placed on the back of these animals it had no 
effect. (Vulpian.) 

Like the milky humour of the Toad, it acts powerfully on 
the heart, but it does not destroy its irritability bo completely 
as the latter. 

The humour of the Tritons appears to have a stupifying rather 
than an exciting effect; it does not produce either nausea or 
vomiting. Lastly, it has no action on the Tritons themselves. 

M. Philipaux, whilst making some experiments on the 
Tritons, was suddenly attacked with inflammation of the con- 
junctiva, which lasted for two days. 

Two other persons, who were wiping some Tritons, having 
got some of the water in which these animals were placed on 
their face and eyes, met with similar results. (Vulpian.) 
3. Terrestrial tiitlamnnilrr. Kahniwntlnt mtia/ltila. — This ai 
produces a milky fluid, which is principally contained in the 
warty tubercles on the loins. 

The humour resembles that of the Tritons. 
Laeepede says, that when a drop is placed upon the tongue 
it causes a burning sensation. Duges performed some ex- 
periments with this fluid. He gave pieces of bread and Bitiall 
quantities of honey, mixed with the fluid, to doves and sparrows, 
who eat them without experiencing any inconvenience. Duges 
therefore concluded that the fluid is not poisonous; but if 
the learned professor had administered the poison of the Viper 
or the Crotaltis to these animals in the same way, he would 
have met with similar results. The injurious effects of the 
humour of the Salamanders are only produced when it is ino- 
culated into a wound, and so introduced into the circulation. 

' If & Triton is killed 1>y immersion in alcohol, the middle portion of its 

body bccmn'- i\iv.-:vl n-iiu rli-. milky fluid, which coagulates iu the form of 
a very thin layer. This coating is thickest od the sides of the neck and at 
the commencement of the tail (H. Gosse.) 


The experiments of MM. Gratiolet and Cloez on the terre* 
trial Salamander, and which have since been repeated by M. 
Vnlpian, leave no doubt aa to the poisonous property o' 
milky fluid which is furnished by this animal. 

When introduced beneath the skin of the wing or of the 
thigh of a small bird, such its a lark, for instance, it does not 
appear to act as a caustic. At first the animal seems not to 
bo inconvenienced by it, but in the course of two or three 
minutes a singular disturbance is set up, the leathers are 
bristled, the bird staggers, opens its beak, and snaps it convul- 
sively. At the same i ime it becomes rigid, turns its head back- 
wards, utters plaintive cries, is agitated, and after rolling o 
several times it soon dies. (Gratiolet and Cloez.) 

A Yellow Hammer, inoculated in the thigh, died in twenty- 
two hours. A Chaffinch, inoculated under the wing, died i 
twenty-five minutes ; a pigeon, in twenty ; other birds, in t ' 
or seven minutes; and a Yellow Hammer, in less thai 
minutes. In general death occurs the more speedily in propor- 
tion to the small quantity of blood which iB lost. (Gratiolet 
and Cloez.) 

Experiments which have been tried on small mammalia 
not been attended with the same results. Guinea pigs and 
mice, which were inoculated in the thigh, in the course of ten 
infinites manifested greai anxiety. At times the respiration waa 
panting and painful. The animals continually fell oft' to sleep, 
but this was interrupted In slight convulsiiins, resembling elec- 
tric shocks. At the end of some hours these disturbances dis- 
appeared, and tin: animals recovered their usual state o: 
Thus a quantity of the fluid which would have been sufficient 
to destroy a dove, only produced slight temporary convulsions 
in a mouse. But, a dove being much larger than a mouse, the 
reason of this difference can only be referred to the nature and 
organization of the animals avte\l upon. (Gratiolet and Cloez.) 
In conclusion, all birds which were subjected to the action of 
the fluid of this Salamander had epileptic convulsions, but did 
not die. 

The fluid of the Salamander is injurious to frogs, but pro- 
duces no effect on the Salu in and <:>:<; themselves. (Vulpian.) 

In general it appears to be less active than the fluid of the 
Toads or Tritons, During the whole period of its action, the 
disturbances of the heart are sb'ght. 



Aa there are creatures termed Parasites, which live on the 
Surface or in the interior of other animals, feeding upon their 
fluids, or upon the substance of their bodies, bo, also, there are 
lome 'which live at the expense of man. 

The human parasites arc generally very small animals. Their 
species are not numerous, hut the number of the individuals is 
sometimes appalling. 

At different periods considerable importance has been at- 
tributed to these parasitic animals. An English medical writer 
who lived at the commencement of the last century, imagined 
that all diseases were to be referred to the presence of micro- 
scopic animals.' M. Eospail has lately advocated the same 

In medicine the title of Ejtizoa is given to those Parasites 
which derive their nourishment from the skin ; they have dJbo 
been named Eutozmi or Ectoparasites. 

Some of the E-p'izoa are born upon that part of the body on 
which they reaide {Lice), while others come from without 

The Epizoa may be divided into two scries: 1st, those which 
reside upon the surface of the Bkiu ; 2nd, those which live in 
the interior of it. 


The Epizoa which live upon the skin are : 1, the Louse ,- 2, 
the Flea; 3, the Chigoe; 4, the Ticks; 5, the Argot ; G, the 
Harvest Bug. 


The genus Louse or Pediculus belongs to the order Hcniip- 
tera, and to the fimilv Ro-lrata. Its characters are — antennie 



aa long aa the thorax ; a sucker inclosed rr 
sheath, and armed with retractile hooka ; ey. 
either side behind the antenna; ; abdomen more or 
at its margins ; three pairs of feet, and no wings. 
There are four species of Lice which infest the 
ject; 1. Mead louse; 2. Bodu louse; 3. Louse 
sons; 4. Pubic huge. The following ia a suinm 
characters : 

I ash coloured (tabulated) . . 
K foblong, thorax distinct, vm hb. Abdomen I ^nf' 

\ rounded and confounded with thorax ■ . • ■ > ■ 

1. Heao Louse (fig. 91).— The head 
commonly known, and baa been figured i 
This spei ' 

Head Luus 

common Lome 1 
arious worke. 
ies, as its name implies, 
found on the head in people who 
are neglectful of their person, and 
especially in children. It is, how- 
ever, never met with in very young 
children, as, for example, in those 
who have not been weaned. (Na- 
talie Guillot.) 

The body of the insect is flat- 
tened and somewhat transparent, 
smooth in the centre, slightly wrin- 
kled at the sides, and of a 
grey colour, with patches of black 
in the neighbourhood of the atr~ 
mata. "When the animal ia old or filled with food it has a r 

tinee. On each aide, there ia, generally, an indistinct 
line divided into a number of small spots in tbe direction of the 
segments. The head is ovo-rhomboidal and has no palpi. T 1 — 
antenna? are filiform, about the same length aa the head, a 
composed of five nearly equal joints; they are in a state of col 
atant vibration when the animal is moving about. (De Geer.) 
The eyes are simple, round, black, and placed very far behind the 
antennas ; the thorax is nearly square, one fourth the length o 

disease ; such as measles, rheumatism, gout, pleurisy, jaundice, and whit- 
low*. With the exception of the itch insect, which appears to have bi 
drawn from nature, a!! (In- oilier-; iiru purtlv iui;is. r :n;irv beings, 

1 Pedleului capitis, Dc Geer, P. tiumanut. Linn., P. ctrvicalU, Leach. 

' A, female actn from the back ; B, extremity of the abdomen ii 
male, showing iu spur; C, the egg or nit attached to a hair. 


the abdomen, rather narrower in front than behind, and divided 
into three divisions by shallow indentations ; the limbs consist 
of a hip composed of two pieces, a thigh, a leg, and a tarsus con- 
sisting of one large joint. The tarsus terminates in a stout hook, 
which is received into a notched projection ; the two together act 
like a pair of pinchers, and enable the animal to fix itself to the 
hairs. The abdomen is of an ova! form, indented and lobulated 
at its margins. There are eight segments and sixteen stigmata. 
The traeheie are festooned, and may be seen through the 
skin, forming a number of curves, which alternate with the 
marginal lobes. Swammerdam suspected that Lice were andro- 
gynous, in consequence of bis having found ovaries in all those 
which he dissected. Adanson aud Lamarck fell into the same 
error. It would appear that Swammerdam. had only met with 
the female. Leeuwenhoek determined the existence of the 
two sexes. The males have at the extremity of the abdomen, 
which is rounded, a horny, conical, recurved, pointed spur, 
with which they can inflict a wound. This spur seems to be 
the sheath of the genital organ. In the female the extremity 
of the abdomen is grooved, and during copulation she plaeeB 
herself on the back of the male. 

Lice are oviparous, and their eggs, which are found attached 
to the hairs, are termed nit* (fig. 91, U). They are oblong or 
rather slightly pyriform, of a white colour, and open at their 
upper part. 

The young are hatched in five or six days; they cast their 
skin several times, and, at the end of eighteen days, are capable 
of reproduction. A Louse has beeu known to produce fifty 
eggs in the course of six days, and there were others still re- 
maining in its body. 1 According *° a calculation of Leeuwen- 
hoek's, two female* mis;lif; become the grandmothers of 10,000 
lice in the space of eight weeks ; others have calculated that 
the second generation of a single individual might furnish 
2500 liee, and the third generation 125,000 ; but the usual rate 
of reproduction does not advance with this frightful rapidity. 

1. Mouth (iig. 92). — In front of the head there is a short 
conical fleshy projection, containing a sucker {Rostruvi), which 
the animal can protrude and retract at pleasure. This sucker 
is only seen when in action. Leeuwenhoek lias compared it to 
a fine thread ; but, contrary to his usual habit, he observed it but 
very imperfectly. 



Irieal sheath, . 
tremity, and 

This organ is an obtuse, sub cylindrical : 
I oapable of being dilated at its extremity, 
I then presenting six small hooks, which curve 
I from oefore backwards, and which, from their 
I position and direction, are evidently intended to 
I retain the sucker in the skin. 

In the interior of the sheath arc four capillary 

| threads, which are round, very pointed, and 

closely packed together. 

HusiruHi ' This structure of the month confirms the opinion 

of Fabricius, who regarded the lice as degraded 

Hemiptera, deprived of wings. (Burmeister.) 

2. Action on man. — -Lice puncture those parts of the skin 
covered with hair and suck up it* juices by means of the ap- 
paratus which has just been described. It has been supposed 
that the itching which these insects produce is caused by the 
spur of the male, and not by the oral sucker, which belongs to 
both sexes. But if the creature first made a wound with its 
spur in order that it might subsequently- introduce the sucker,, 
then the female ought also to be provided with one. Accord-, 
ing to the account of some writers the entrance of the sucker 
into the Bkin does not cause any sensation, unless it touches a 
nerve. Leeuwenhoek made the experiment on his own hand. 

Are we to believe, with Linnaeus, 3 that in rainy weather 
these insects descend the sides of the head ? 

Bonr Louse (tig. 93).— The Body or 

tes Louse' was for a long time confounded 

I with the former. It was De Geer who first dis- , 

lliii^iiislnd betyveen the two insects. 

I As its name implies, this Loans is found on 

I different parts of the body and on the clothes. 

I It is somewhat larger, of a lighter colour, and 

I less strongly marked than the common Louse. 

I It has a uniform tinge of a dirty white colour.* 

I The skin is not so hard, and the eyes are more, 

prominent. (Offers.) The junction of the 

F Js- 03 - thorax and abdomen is more constricted, and, 

y oust. t k o f ormep j 8 gcarcely one-third the size of the 

1 A, buccal projection beginning to be everted : B, the Bame fully ex- 
truded, and bei'iinx 1 i: 'iiviniil inio a tubular rostrum ; a, body of rostrum 
b, hooka ai Eta I'ntiviniiy ; <\ pMroet, tamed uf four topQLuj threads. 

' " Inxlawe plitriti. di-si.rndit ad latem rn/iilis." (Linn.) 

1 Ptdicului corporis, De Geer, P. knmtnms, Linn. 

' A black variety is mot with on the bodies of Ethiopians, Pcdiculu* 




latter. The mnrginal lobules are indistinct, and the feet are 
closer together and more slender. 

ThiB species causes greater irritation than the Former. 

3. Lice of sick persons. 1 — This name liaB been proposed fora 

use which gives rise to a disease termed phthirwsis. 

MM. Alt and Burmeister have given a minute description of 
this species. It is of a pale yellow colour. The head is 
rounded. The antenna; arc longer, and the thorax larger than 
'n the hotly Louse. The thorns is of a trapezoid form, 
than one-third the size of the abdomen. Its margins 
an:- in-arly even. 

This species seems to differ in its habits from the other Lice, 
inasmuch as it introduces itself under the skin. It is as- 
serted that it deposits its eggs under the epidermis, and that 
each nest becomes a bulla; or vesirle. from whence the young 
Lice escape as soon as they are hatched to spread and multiply 
themselves in the surrounding parts : in this way the disease 
continues to spread, and its severity increases with each suc- 
ceeding generation. (Raspail.) 

This disease has been mentioned by several writers. 
Torestus speaks of a young girl who was afflicted with it, and 
Borellus of a soldier. Bernard Valentin relates the history of 
a man forty years of age, who was troubled with an intolerable 
itching on all parts of his body, ami with large tubercles, which 
were filled with an enormous number of Lice. Bremser once 
met with a mass of Lice in a tumour on the head. M. Jules 
Cloquet in another invalid found some thousands of these 
creatures in a sub-cutaneous cavity. Cazal quotes the case 
of an old man, sixty -five years of age, who could not scratch 
himself without a swarm of these ineeeta issuing from his neck 
and shoulders ; they were renewed with an astonishing rapidity 
.... Dr. Jules Sichel, in 1825, published a monograph on 
pthiriasis, in which he enumerates the various parts in which 
this disease has made its appearance. 

Instances of death have been mentioned, but M. Bayer re- 
gards these cases as doubtful. If, however, we are to believe 
the aucient writers, the king Antioehus, the philosopher 
Pherecydes, Sylla the dictator, Agrippa, Valerius Masimus, 
the emperor Arnould, cardinal Duprat, and Philip the Second, 
king of Spain, died from this disease. Historians state that 
Lice were seen to issue from the body of Herod as a stream 

pubescent, y nigrescent, Olfura ; another of a brownish red has been found 
on the Circenlanders. 

' Pcdiculm tabetcentium, Alt, P. subcutaneta, Hasp. 





issues from the earth. It is stated that Fonocroau, bishop of 

Noyon, was covered with such multitudes that it was necessary 

to fasten his body in a leathern neb before he was buried. .(P) 

4. The Pubic Louse 1 (fig. 

94). — ThiB species, which is 

known by the common name of 

Crab Louse, attaches itself to 

the hairs of the sexual organs. 

the arm pits, and even oi the 

eyebrowB.* It is never met with 

in the head or in the beard. 

Hitherto it has only been found 

in the white races. 

Its body is large and de- 
pressed ; the thorax very short. 
The four posterior feet are 
Fig. 91.— Pubic Louse. 1 tolerably large, recurved, and 

so arranged as to hook them- 
selves into the skin, so that it is extremely difficult to induce 
the animal to leave go its hold.* 

The eggs are oblong, and adhere to the hairs by an expansion 
which forms a sheath around them. 

The rostrum of this species iB Btronger than that of the other 
Lice. The akin is covered by small red-coloured patches 

Animals which may be mistaken for lice. 

The Lice of other mammalia and those particular forms of 
Lice belonging to tlie melius Ricinus (if De Geer, which infest 
birds, may accidentally yet upon man and cause more or lesa 
irritation, but in general this is all the injury they produce. 
The latter species have the mouth formed for biting, and are 
furnished with a pair of hooked mandibles, 
they can bite with considerable force and give riae to a number 
of round or oval red spots, but these are seldom accompanied by 
pustules or vesicles. 

The same thing may happen with certain arachnida belong- 
ing to the genus Dermanyssus of Duges. These vi 

1 I'edicnlu* pubis, Lion., P. i 
frrui, OlfprH.— Luach proposed U 
name of Pfithirus. 

' " They are found attached to the eyelids." (CelsuB.) 

9 a, an egg attached to a hair. 

1 " They are so firmly attached to the akin that it ia aearccly possible to 
detach them." (A. Pare\) 




with in hen-roosta and pigeon-houses, even long after the birda 
upon whieh they lived have ceased to frequent these places. 

Another species of araehnida belonging to the genua Gamatus 
of Latreille, gets upon the clothes, and from tbem upon the 
body ; these animals do not fix themselves to one spot, but 
move about over the surface of the skin. Persons who are 
travelling in the country are occasionally tormented by them. 

The Ornithomya (Latr.), a species of fly infesting certain 
birds, may also gain access to man, and attach itself to his skin 
by means of its claws. 

The genus Pulex belongs to the, Siphonoptera of Latreille, 
but is now approximated to the Diptera, notwithstanding that 
it is unprovided with wings. 1 This genus Is characterised by 
a straight unjointed rostrum, which incloses two blades or 
lancets, and which is covered at its base by two scales ; the 
eyes, are two in number, and scarcely project from the sides 
of the head ; the abdomen is compressed ; the limbs are sis in 
number, and adapted for leaping. 

The Common Flea* (fig. 95) has an oval compressed body 
covered with a strong chitinous integument of a shining red- 
dish brown colour. The body is invested with a kind of 
armour, and when it is erushed a slight noise is heard from the 
resistance and rupture of the skin. The greatest diameter of 
the F lea is from the back to the belly, which both terminate in 
a thin sharp edge. The body is divided into twelve segments, 
of which three form the short thorax and seven the abdomen. 
The head ia small, compressed, rounded above, and forms a 
kind of hood. In front of this are two abort, nearly cylindri- 
cal antennie, composed of four joints, of which the second ia 
moderately long, and the third large and notched. When the 
Flea is moving about these organs are in a state of constant 
vibration ; but when at rest they are hud along the sides and 
in front of the head. (De Greer.) The eyes are simple, large, 

[' Althoagh the Kings are not functionally developed, traces of them are 
present ia the form of it pair of small scales attacheil to the middle segment 
qf the thorax, and of a much larger pair appended to the third segment of 
the thorax, which cover the aides of the first and part qf the second abdo- 
minal segments. Ed.] 

* Pakx hommil, Du£cs, P. irritant, Linn., P. vulgaris, De Oeer. 

Fig. B6.- 

and rotuid. Behind each there is a small aperti 

be closed up by a moveable 
| valve. The limb's of the Flea 
3 long, strong, and spinous, 
I and the tarsi five-jointed, ter- 
■ -limiting in a pair of strong 
aws. The anterior pair of 
mbs are placed at Borne dis- 
I tance from the otberB, and are 
■ inserted almost immediately 
beneath the head. The pos- 
terior are the strongest, and 
enable the animal to accomplish leaps which are greatly dis- 
proportioned to the size of its body. The abdomen is very 
large, and each of its segments is composed of two pieces, a 
superior and an inferior : this arrangement permits of the 
enormous distensions which the body undergoes after the ani- 
mal has been sucking the blood of its prey, or after impregna- 
tion. The penultimate ring of the body supports a number of 
very slender spines, which are inserted in a corresponding 
number of minute areola ; this segment has received the name 
of pytjidiv/in. 

Fleas are bisexual. The male is only half the size of the 
female, and the back of the latter is the most convex. During 
copulation the abdomenB of the insect b are placed opposite to 
each other, the male being underneath. 2 

The female lays eight to twelve smooth oval eggs ; they are 
slightly viscid, and of a white colour. Ke Geer detected a 
Flea in the act of depositing her eggs. ThiB animal does not 
attach its eggs either to the hairs or to the skin, but drops 
them by chance upon the ground. (Bcesel.) The eggs roll 
about like globules of mercury. They are generally found in 
the crevices of the floor, in old furniture, in dirty linen, or in 
any place where filth has accumulated.* 

Along with the eggs there are found a quantity of dark pur- 
ple grains of various forms. These purtii-Jes are not the excre- 
ments of the insect, but dried blood obtained at man's expence, 
and intended for the nourishment of the larvse. (Defrance.) 

At the end of four or five days in summer, and of eleven in 
winter, the larvas ibbuc forth under the form of long cylindrical 

1 a, male ; b, female; c, egg. 

* " Femma in coitu ascendil in eerpiu morij." (Leeuwenhoek.) "Main 
femina jungitur." (Linn.) 

J They have been met with beneath the nails of the feet. 

ms, whose bodies are composed of thirteen segments plenti- 
fully furnished with hairs. The head is scaly, of a yellow 
colour, provided with autennie, and the posterior extremity of 
the body is furnished with two hooks. The larv» have no feet 
(Leeuwenhoek, Rrcsel) ; but they are very active, twisting 
about in all directions, and moving along with the bead erect 
( De trance) . At first they are 
white, but afterwards of a reddish | 
colour. In eleven or fifteen days, 
nccordiog to the time of year, the I 
larva? inclose themselves ii 
silky, oblong, whitish coci 
within which they are trans- I 
formed into pupa; ; the latter are | 
provided with limbs placed close 
to the sides of the body. (De- 

It takes from twelve to fifteen | 
days before the pupaa bec< 
perfect Fleas. 

1. Mouth (fig. 96).— The beak I 
or rostellum of the common Flea 
is placed almost perpendicularly ; 
when not in use, it is curved slightly backwards and concealed 
between the long thigh joints of the anterior pair of limbs. 
The mouth consists of three parts : 

1. An oblong plate (lower lip or labrum) supporting two 
palpi, each composed of four segments, of which the second is 
the largest. 

2. Of an external articulated Bheath, which supports and 
receives into a groove on its under surface a pair of lancets. 
The case is composed of two piece? ( jaws) placed close toge- 
ther, oblong, concave, each supporting a palpus inserted very 
low down, and which is made up of four segments, of which the 
first is tolerably large. 

3. Of two straight blades or long sharp lancets, with serrated 
margins. These lancets are employed in puncturing the flesh 
and in sucking. 

2. Action on man.— Fleas produce a disagreeable itching as 

Part, of the Mo«. 

' A, 

icivd : a, left jaw; b, the lancets or mandibles ; c, left labial palpus; 
illary pal|)i ; B, parts of the rostrum; a a. maxilla or inferior 

t.'iii.'h with iis ynilTHi. ; Ii b. iIjc: hiufets or mandibles ; e, lower lip, with 
!0 palpi ; 0, point of one of the lancets. 

rom the ter- 
ite sensation, 


they move over the sensitive portions of the skin from 
minal hooka of their feet. 

The puncture of these insects ' causes a more acute 
"When the Flea is about to inflict its wound, it separates the two 
valves of the sheath, which protects the lancets, and plunges 
them into the skin. It then immediately begins to suck, and 
fills itself with the blood. 

The quantity of blood which this creature can absorb is verv 
considerable in comparison with its size. It may be esti- 
mated by the volume of the gorged abdomen and the largo 
amount of its excrement which partly retains the colour of the 

The puncture of the Flea leaves a small reddish spot on the 
skin, in the centre of which is a minute, almost microscopic 
aperture; in infants, m ftmmlrs, and in persons whose skin IB 
exceedingly delicate, there is also a. slight swelling. (Bartbez.) 
Very rarely this tumefaction is followed by a vesicle, or by 
slight inflammation. 

2. Otuee species.— Linnaius believed that the human Flea 
and those of other animals constituted only a single species. 
Bose was the first to remark that the Fleas of the mole and of 
the fox presented some differences in their organization. 
Duges has examined the Fleae of the Jog, mouse, and bat ; he 
has compared them with that of man, and has shown that each 
of them forms a. distinct species. Thus, the head of the Flea 
which frequents the dog, has a number of spines below ; whilst 
there are only four spines placed posteriorly in that of the 
mouse; and two which are situated anteriorly iu that of the 
bat. In that of man there are none. The eyes are large in the 
latter species, of moderate size in the Flea of the dog, small in 
that of the mouse, and wanting in that of the bat. 


The Cldgoe or Jigger* is one of the most troublesome para- 
sites known. 

It is an inhabitant of tropical America, particularly Guiana 
and Brazil. It resides in the forests, on various shrubs and 

1 Momu pvticum. (Sauvagesl. 

' Dermalophilut penetrans. Oner., Pulex penetrant, Linn., Sar 
penetrant, Guild. At Saint Domingo and Guiana it ia commonly 


plants, and especially on the dried leaves. They are sometimes 
so numerous, that the clothes and body of a person who may 
have seated himself on the ground or on a fallen tree, are imme- 
diately covered with them. 

1. Description. — The Chigoe is smaller than the common 
Flea, but it acquires a considerable size when gorged with 
blood. The insect is of an elongated oval form ; it is flattened, 
of a reddish brown eolour, with a white spot on the back. Its 
skin is so tough that it is torn with difficulty. The articulations 
of its feet arc of a whitish eolour. 

The males are smaller than the females. The abdomen of 
the latter is proportionally more developed than in the other 
sex, and becomes of a globular form after impregnation. 

The eggs are oval, oblong, and whitish. They appear to be 
attached to the mother by a very short funis. It is thought 
that when these insects do not attack the human species they 
deposit their eggs in the ground. (Pohl, Kollar.) 

The larva of the Chigoe lias not hitherto been detected. 

2. Mouth.— This organ is only imperfectly known ; it is only 
ascertained that the aniaial possesses a long, rigid, pointed 
rostrum, proportionally larger than that of the common Flea. 

3. Action on wan.— The Chigoet attack men, but it is only 
the females after they have become impregnated, for the pur- 
pose of depositing their young, and providing them with nutri- 
ment. These insects are found principally upon the feet, 
where they penetrate between the flesh and the nails. They 
are very rarely met with on its dorsal surface, on the hands, 
or on other parts of the body. Persons who travel without 
shoes axe more exposed to these attacks than others ; those 
who perspire much are less liable to them. 

In spite of the length of its rostrum, the Chigoe introduces 
itself without causing any pain, or changing the colour of the 
skin, at least during the earliest portion of* its sojourn. In a 
few days the parasite begins to develop itBelf, and its presence 
is indicated by a slight itching, which gradually increases, and 
ultimately beeomes intolerable. When the presence of the 
Chigoe is accompanied by an appreciable amount of pain, half 
of its body has already penetrated the tissue. The animal at 
first resembles a brown speck ; this speck gradually increases ; 

Nigva ; in Brazil, Jatecuba, Mygor, and Tunga. The Spaniards, on their 
first arrival in America, named h Chega and Chego ; and the French, pique 
and Chique. Is it not the Pedtcuht rkmaides of Linnscos 1 " Habitat in 
America, pellet obambulanliuai in/runs, sanguintm haurieiti, is iitova deponent, 
xlcera cacoetliica cauians." (Uolandcr.) 


it booh assumes the appearance of a reddish swelling, in which 

is difficult to recognise au abdomen. 

The Chigoe shortly attains the size of a sniaU pea. Its body 

nothing more than an enormous sac, resembling a cyst, of a 
brown or livid colour, containing a sanious pus. In the inte- 
rior of the abdomen are a vast number of globules, which are 
the eggs. 

It is very difficult to make these formidable parasites quit 
their hold ; they allow the rostrum to be broken off before they 
will disengage themselves from the tissue in which they have 
inserted it. When handled too roughly, the rostrum, head, and 
feet remain behind, and soon give rise to an unhealthy inflam- 
mation or ill-conditioned ulcer. 1 

The feet are so met 11110* i-mtivelv covered, and, as it were, eaten 
away by the Chigoes. When the animal has made its puncture, 
the skin presents a small white spot, surrounded by a circle of 
inflammation, which afterwards swells up and forms an ill- 
deiined tumour. When the parasites are numerous and close 
together, the disease may present a certain amount of danger. 

The Chigoes are sometimes found between the claws of the 
dog, but more particularly on the under surface of the feet o 
the hog ; these pachyderms have been even regarded as propa- 
gators of this species of insects. (J, Goudot.) 


to the family 
encase the sucker 
which is truncated 


The Tick*, or Ixodes, arc arachnidans h 
of the Acaridffi or Mites, in which the p 
and form with it a short, projecting be 
and somewhat dilated at its extremity. 

The Ticks frequent thick woods, hooking themselves to low 
growing plants by their anterior feet, while the others remain 
extended. (Latreillc.) They attach themselves to the different 
mammalia, and fix themselves to their skins. 

These animals lay an enormous number of eggs. M. Cha- 
brier asserts that they issue forth from the mouth. 

1. Species.— In France the two principal species are — 
1. The Wolf Tick; 2. Reticulated Tick. 

The Wolf Tick of the French, Ixodes Ricinus,, Acanis 

Bicinus, Linn., Acarus reduvius, De Geer, is of a deep blood- 

' " Ulcera cacoelhica txcitat." (Lion.) 

Lav be mentioned the Niipuj, 
e Greer, A. Americana*, Luin., 


red colour, with the anterior scaly plate obscure ; the sides of 
the body are margined, and provided with a few hairs. 

It attaches itself to dogs. 

The reticulated Tick, Ixodes reticulatm. Latr., Acamx redu- 
vius, Schrank, Ci/nnrhicslcs pictus, Ilerm., is of an ash colour; 
marked with small spots and annular lines of a reddish brown. 
The margins of the abdomen are striate,], ami the palpi almost 

It attaches itself to oxen, sheep, and several of the domes- 
ticated mammalia. 

Amongst the foreign speci 
Lb. Nigua, Guer, Acarws Nigut, 

and the human Tick, lx. huminix, Koch, a species of arachnida 
which is atiD very imperfectly known. 

2. The mouth. — The beak or rostrum of the Tick is obtuse 
anteriorly. It presents — 1. a supporting piece, formed by a 
small scale received into a groove of the thorax, serving as a 
receptacle for the hase of the sneker ; 2. a sheath, composed of 
two very short scaly portions, concave on their inner surfaces, 
rounded and somewhat enlarged at their termination (each of 
these pieces, when seen beneath a magnifying glass, appears 
to be divided transversely) ; 3. a sucker, placed in the sheath, 
consisting of three very hard, horny, conical blades, of which 
the two iateral are the smallest, and cover the third ; the latter 
is large, obtuse at its extremity, and somewhat transparent ; its 
margins, and tho whole of its inferior Hiiri'aee, are covered with a 
multitude of strong serrated teeth ; in the centre it is furnished 
with a groove. 

3. Action on man. — M. Easpail states that, between the 
month of December, 1868, and the month of May, 18(30, on 
several occasions he found young Ticks having but eight feet 
(a circumstance which proves Ihev were adults) on the head of 
his daughter, who was between three and four years of age. 
The terriblo irritation which the child sull'ered showed that the 
skin had been deeply wounded. 

Some twenty years since, a young man, on his return from 
hunting in the neighbourhood of Melun, found on his arm a 
small livid swelling, as large as a lentil, and accompanied with 
considerable pain : it was an enormous Tick, which ho had got 
in the forests. 

Dr. Ernest Cosson, when travelling in Algeria, in 185G, and 
when he was in the oasis of Asia, in the province of Oran, was 
obliged to pitch his tent on a piece of ground which was fre- 
quented by sheep. The next morning his servant woke him 

304 MEDICAL Z0010GY. 

bt breast the 
caused him 

1«, wot 

up, having three Ticks cloBe together on his right 
size of a pea. The presence of these parasites caused 
great pain. 

The Sick* plunge their beaks into the skin in the same way 
as one may thrust in a trochar. The Btiiall recurved hooks 
which cover the Burface prevent their being withdrawn from 
the part they have penetrated. The sucker is bo firmly em- 
bedded that it can only be removed by force, and at the same 
time tearing away a portion of the skin which adheres to it. 

These arachmilii an- extremely voracious, and suck up a large 
quantity of blood. Their body, which is capable of undergoing 
great distension at its sides and on the upper part, swells out 
and assumes the appearance of a livid excrescence. 

A Tick has been known to penetrate a small tumour on the 
abdomen of a female. (Hussem.) 


The Argades are araclmida which are closely allied to the 
Ticks; they differ from them by the inferior situation of the 
mouth and by their free conical palpi, composed of four articu- 

These animals have an oval elliptical body \ it is very flat, coria- 
ceous, granulated, and very extensible. 

They are exceedingly i'ondof blood. Some writers have com- 
pared them to the Bugs, which they resemble somewhat in their 
general appearance ; they do not quit the body, however, like 
the latter, but fix themselves after the manner of the Ticks. 
They are true Epizoa. 

1. Species.— There are two principal specieB which require 
to be noticed; these are — 1. the Argot of Persia; 2. the 

The Argas of Persia, or Bug of Miana, Argas Persicus, Fiseb, 
is common at Minna, in Persia. Its size is about that of the 
common Bug j the body is rough, of a blood-red colour, and 
covered with some elevated white spots. 

The Argas of Chinche, Aiyns Chinche, Gerv., inhabits 
Columbia, where it has been found by M. Justin Goudot. 

It is of the same Bize as the former, and of a reddish colour. 

2. The mouth. — In the Argades the beak reBembles that of 
the Ixodes, but it is placed inferiorly, and is uncovered. 

3. Action ok man. — For a long time it was supposed that 



the Art/afcs only attacked pigeons ; we have, however, a Euro- 
pean speck's, the Bordered Art/a*, Art/, margina/us, Latr., which 
frequents the dove-cots and sucks the blooa of these birds. 

At the present time it is well known that these parasites will 
attack man. In Persia it is saitl that they give the preference 
to strangers (?) The bite produces acute pain, and it lias hen 
even asserted that they may tiring on consumption and death. 

The Chincke inflicts great injury in Columbia. (Goudot.) 


The Harvest hug. Lrpluxuatuwiiuhn. Latr., Acarus aut rimnalis- 
Shaw, ib also a species ot'Acarus. 

As the Araehnida are usually provided in the perfect state 
with eight feet, and only sis in the larval stage, Siebold, bub- 
pected that the il.arvesl liui;. which lias only six feet, was an in- 
completely developed animal, and it has, in fact, proved to be 
the larva of one of the Trombidiidre. 

The Harvest bug is very common in France ; it is found on 
the blades of grass and other plants of moderate height, under 
heaps of dried leaves, in the fields and the woods ; it is also met 
with on small shrubs, such as gooseberry bushes and furzes. 
Defraneo met with it in gardens, on clods of earth, on trellis- 
work, and in the orangeries, probably waiting for an oppor- 
tunity to attach themselves to some mammalia or to man. 
He has seen them on the ears, eyelids, and on the under 
surface of the belly of the dog. This parasite also attacks cats, 
but it does not seem to cause them much inconvenience. 

1. Description. — The Harvest hug is very minute, and re- 
quires a sharp eye to detect it, unless there are several of them 
together. The body is oval, soft, shining, and of a bright red 
colour. It has short four-jointed palpi; tiie thorax and abdo- 
men are distinct. The feet are slender, of equal length, and 
terminated by rudimentary suckers. 

2. Mouth. — According' to Shaw, the Isptus is provided with 
a sucker or protractile rostrum. This instrument is very small, 
stiff, and pointed ; but M. Tandou has never had the oppor- 
tunity of examining it. 

3. Action on man. — Those who live in the country, espe- 
cially women and children, are perfectly familiar with the Har- 


yest bug. It makes ite appearance, or ratter renders people 
conscious of its presence, about the middle of July, and disap- 
pears towards the middle of September. These animals a 
moat plentiful in hot, dry seasonB. (Defrance.) 

The Harvest bugs attach themselves to man, and work thi 
way beneath his akin, near the roots of the hairs. They ei 
dally attack persona with delicate skins, appearing to pr 
the legs, the inner part of the thighs, and the lower part of tl 
abdomen; but they are also found on the chest and arm 
M. Dumeril once saw more than a dozen of these a 
together at the base of a single hair in a child. 

These animals can move about with considerable rapidit; 
and will mount from the feet to the head iD a very short spac 
of time. They are often stopped by the garters and the bandi 
of the dress, when they attach themselves to the part wher 
their progress has been arrested. 

M. Dumeril considers that the Harvest bugs fix themaelvt 
by their claws, and insinuate their sucker beneath the epidermis 
and that it ia principally the movements of the feet and claws, 
which give nae to the accompanying irritation and intlar 

The analogy between these creatures and the other parasiti 
arachnida, induces M. Tandon to think that the injury must b 
produced by the beak; hut that, possibly, the saliva t" " 
animal has some specific action, since the pain which the ai 
give rise to ia quite disproporlioued to the microscopic appeai 
ance of the instrument which they plunge into the skin. 

The wound of the Marcrxt bmj occasions an acute burnir 
and insupportable itching, which deprives the person of slee 
Latreille compares it to that of the itch insect. The e' 
becomes swollen and red, and sometimes even of a 
colour. It forms irregular spots of a very large size, compar 
to that of the parasite. The persons attacked scratch ther 
selves until they bleed, and thus increase the violence and exter 
of the inflammation. 

The vesicles produced by these insects soon heal if the* 
are not touched, but if they are constantly irritated they will 
terminate in suppuration. 

John has seen tlu-i-e unimals produce an cxanthematous e 
tion. Moses also mentions a case of papillar and vesictil 
inflammation, accompanied by an insupportable itching, in i 
whole family, from the same cause. The circumference 
irritable spots were covered with red patches ; when e: 


microscopically, they appeared to contain numbers of the Har- 
vest bug. 

The Chigoe and the Harvest bug form a kind of transition 
between the external euticulnr parasites and the internal cuti- 
tieular parasites ; that ia to say, between i he Epigoa which live 
upon the surface of the skin, and the Epizoa which reside in 
the substance of its tissue. 

tut; '. 



zon which live beneath the skin are— 1. the Sarcop- 
2. the Aearopsis ; 3. the Demodex ; and 4. some species of 
Acarida; which are imperfectly known. 


The Sarcoptus, or Itch insect, is an arachnidan belonging to 
the family of the Acaridse. 

Histokt. — The history of this animal is exceedingly curious. 
Avenzoa, an Arabian physician of the twelfth century, appears 
to have been the first tn notice the pivsence of a small animal 
in the itch, so small that it is scarcely visible, and is hidden beneath 
the epidermis, bat which escapes when an opening is made. He 
gave it the name of Soab. Babeliih twice mentions the itch 
InBect. He relates that one of the ancestors of Pantagruel, 
Enay, was very expert in, removing mites from the hands. In 
another place, Ponurge is asked, but where did I get this insect 
which is between, my fingers? Amhroise Pare is still more 
explicit ; he says, " The cirons are small animals, always bidden 
beneath the skin, under which they ereep and move about, 
gnawing it away hit by bit, and producing a most troublesome 

irritation and itching " Scaliger, Aldrovandus, 

Mouifet, and especially Costoni ami Wiehmami, have spoken 
of the itch insect. In spite, however, of these authorities, and 
of the tolerablv n ecu ran-' tiinnvs published in the Acta emdi- 
torum 1682, by M. A. C. LV 1726, and by De Geer in 177S, 

1 The an 

fi/njticiaa i<; 

iding the ani- 
irv to the hos- 


many practitioners, not. having succeeded in 
mal, considered its existence as very doubtful. 

In 1812, (rail's, of Belbe/.e. the chid' apothecary to the hos- 
pital of Saint Louis, published a treatise on the itch, in which 
he declared he had seen more than three hundred of the insects, 
all of them having the same form, hut provided sometimes with 
eight feet, sometimes with six, :i circumstance which he referred 
to the difference of the sexes. Gales does not describe the 
animal, but he gives a drawing of it. Tin's treatise was favour- 
ably received, and tho presence of an animal in the disease in 
question was again admitted without opposition. The drawing 
given by this writer continued to be copied into various works 
for the space of fifteen years as an exact representation of the 
Parasite of the itch. Unfortunately, this drawing differed 
materially from the animal described by those who had first 
written upon it. Doubts wen- again entertained, and the sub- 
ject was investigated more closely. Gales declared he had 
found the animals in the pustules themselves, where it is quite 
certain he never saw them. Alibert and Biett made a great 
many searches for it, but they were always unsuccessful. It 
waB suspected that the writer of the treatise had imposed upon 
the public. At length M. Raspail discovered that the anima l 
figured was nothing more than the cheese mite. 

Persons were again incredulous, and the existence of the 
itch insect was denied a second time. In 1821, Mouronval 
published a dissertation to prove the cause of the itch was 
neither a maggot nor a virus. The author had examined more. 
than i-ii/h/irn hinn/i-nl persons attacked with itch. Lastly, Dr. 
Lugoc oflcred 30U francs as a premium to any one who would 
undertake to demonstrate the presence of an animal in the 

However, in 1834, a medical student, "Francois Eenucci, a 
native of Corsica, who was clinical assistant to Professor 
Alibert, offered to extract and demonstrate the presence of the 
creature which had given rise to so much controversy. The ex- 
periment was perfectly successful, avid some of the students who 
were present succeeded themselves in iusolaf ing the insect. It 
was proved, therefore, that the older writers were correct, and 
that there really is a special parasite which gives rise to the 
itch, and the matter was thus finally set at rest. 

itiffuri'nl i-arittiis "/ iitinate inwis irliieh inii in: seen by Moans nf a, good 
micimcti/if- iii lim Umni ami tiriiw <if tick peti/ifr, and uj t/ivsc li/m are about 
io become so, Paris, iu-S. See p. 291. 


MM. Raspail, Leroy, and Vandenkeck have studied the 
structure and physiology of this curious animal. Several recent 
writers, amongst whom it is sufficient to mention the names of 
MM. Aubti, Biett, Cazenave, Gras. Hi'bra, Piogey, and Rayer 
have added several important poratfl of detail to what was 
previously known; but most of these gentlemen have eon. 
aidered the matter rather from a pathological than from a 
natural history point of view. M. Bourguiguon presented the 
French Institute An Entomological and 1'u/holoaical Treatise 
on ihf. Itch insect of man. This important work received the 
approval of the Institute, and was ordered to be printed. 
Lastly, M. Lamjuetiu, in a valuable thesis, has recently sup- 
plied several points which were incomplete in the remark- 
able monograph just mentioned, and M. Robin, at the repeat 
of M. Tandon, has made a careful examination of the various 
parts of the rostrum with the microscope. 

2. Classification. — Liunseus at first regarded this parasite 
as a well-defined species, and placed it in the genus Acarus, 
naming it Acorns scabei. Afterwards he associated it with the 
Flour mite, under the name of Acarus Sim. He assigned 
as a reason for this, that nurses often communicated the itch 
to children who had any irritation on the skin, by powder- 
ing them with old ihini 1 ir.hir.k irus itijrs/ed by mites, Pallas has 

clearly distinguished between the Acarus of the itch and that 
which is found in flour. Latreille admitted the distinction, 
and proposed a new genus, under the name of Sareoptus' for 
the reception of the first.- From that time the creature has 
been known as the Sairoj'tus scabei. 

The Sarcoptus diners from the Acarus in not having the 
body divided into two portions, and in the cephalotborax not 
being distinct from the abdomen; by their ieet being arranged 
in two groups, those of the first pair being large, those of the 
Becond very small, the first pair terminating in prolongations, 
which support carunculse, having the form of suckers. In 
the Acari these caruncuiro are rudimentary, and without any 
prolongation. The Sarcopti are further characterised by the 
absence of eyes, and by a rostrum in which may be noticed two 
mandibles, two masilli, two maxillary palpi, and a lower lip. 

3. Dehcbiptton. — The Itch insect (fig. 97) is extremely 
minute, so that it is only just visible to the naked eye ; it is 
■012 of an inch in length, and 009 of an inch in breadth. The 
body is nearly circular, flattened, and has been compared to 
that of a tortoise. (P. Borel.) It is soft, shining, slightly, 

1 ZipJ flesh, aad k&htw to cut. 


t ran spa 


transparent, of 8 white colour, a little opalescent, and has a 
pinkish tint. The dorsal 
surface ie convex, and the 
ventral somewhat less bo. 
The margin is slightly un- 
dulating, find the surface of 
the abdomen is marked by 
more or less parallel, irre- 
gular, but often curved, lines 

The rostrum is anterior, 
small, and straight; it is 
somewhat oval and obtuse ; 
at its commencement there 
are observed two hairs. 

The posterior part of the 
body is very obtuse, and 
often slightly mde; 
wards the centre. 

The limbs are eight in 
number, two pairs in front, 
and two pairs placed farther 
back, and at some distance from the others. The limbs a: 
short, conical, distinctly jointed, and furnished with Btiff hai: 
of various lengths. The two anterior pairs have the tbigl 
divergent from each other ; the feet terminate in a very Blende 
straight, rigid, tubular portion, provided at its extremity witfc 
a vesicular cushion or sucker. This slender portion, with its 
sucker, has been named the ambulacrum (nrolium). The fou] 
posterior legs terminate in a long, curved, pointed thread, o 
brown colour, without any sucker ; these limbs are abdomii 
and not thoracic, a very important and distinctive charact 
M. Bourguignon has ascertained that each limb consists of a 
hip, trochanter, Bmall trochanter, thigh, leg, and tareus. 

The body of the insect has a few hairs scattered here and 
there, and on its dorsal surface are three kinds of horny appen- 
dages or spines; the first are arranged symmetrically on ita 
central and posterior part ; these are fourteen in number ; 
they are of a conical form, are traversed by a canal, and fur- 
nished with a dilatation or basal follicle ; the second are 
smaller, and placed near the first ; the third are still more 
minute ; they are arranged in concentric lines, have no canal, 
and reBemble conical pointed tubercles, 
i, Ihe egg. 


The animal being a °fti nature haa furnished it with hard 
resisting parts, or apodemata, which perform the part of a skele- 
ton. These apodemata have a horny appearance, are of a dull 
red colour, aad form a solid frame work, to which the muscles 
are attached. On examining the Siircopitus on its ventral sur- 
face, there are seen three of theBe apodemata, of which the 
central one, which is placed longitudinally, performs the office 
of a sternum. Anteriorly it is bifurcated, and each branch 
again divides into two, the innermost of which unite to form a 
complete ring, while the external pass to the base of the limb. 
The lateral apodemata are analogous to the scaly pieces named 

? itinera, which in many insects give insertion to the limbs, 
hey are composed of a long, curved portion, and of two 
branches, the internal passing to the anterior limb, the external 
to the second limb. There are also epimera having a similar 
arrangement at the base of the posterior limbs. 

The digestive system of the Sarcoplus contains a mouth placed 
at the anterior part of the rostrum, and consisting of mandibles 
and maxilla?, which will be presently described. It is probably 
these mandibles and maxillae that Leroy and Vandenkeck have 
spoken of as teeth. 

The month communicates with a long and straight eesophagiiB. 
Arrived at the anterior third of the body, this canal terminates 
in an oblique reniform stomach, transparent, and very difficult 
to he seen. (Wieger.) The intestine is short and slightly un- 
dulating ; it contains a number of brown granules, which oc- 
casionally accumulate towards the commencement of the 
rectum. The latter is nearly a straight canal. The anus may 
be observed on the dorsal sin-face in the middle of the indenta- 






tion on its posterior margin. 

Neither stigmata nor tracheae are to be met with in the Sar- 

eoptus. M. Bowgnignon thinks that the animal respires by 

the mouth. It is more reasonable to suppose that in this kind 

:hnida this function is fulfilled by means of the skin. 

In the centre of the anterior fourth of the body, and placed 
,_, inst the cesophagus, may be noticed a small, oblong, trans- 
verse mass, from whence a number of extremely delicate fila- 
ments radiate. This is the nervous system. 

state of repose the Sarcopti have their limbs retracted 
beneath their bodies, as under a carapace. When they walk 
they extend these organs, stretch out their ambulacra, and 
fasten their suckers. They can tunnel their way with con- 
siderable speed. M. Bourguignon considers that one of these 
insects could travel from the hand to the shoulder in less than 


The Sareopti are unisexual. 
I males (fig. 98) are scarcer than the 
I females, the proportion being not 
I more than one ot the former to ter. 
I of the latter. We owe the discover; 
I of the males 1" Mil. Bourgogne and 
I Lanquetin. The following are the 
I characters iu which they differ from. 
I the females ; they are smaller (008 

eh), more oblong, natter, 
I darker colour, and more active ; the 
] rostrum is proportionally smaller 
I and less triangular ; they have not 
I so many homy appendages on the 
I dorsal surface : the anterior apode- 
mata extend beyond the anterior 
third of the body, reaching nearly 
to its centre ; the posterior limbs 
are not ao wide np;irt. and the epimera on eai-li side are united 
together ; the third pair of feet are furnished with longer 
hairs ; lastly, the fourth pair are mueli shorter, and have am- 
bulacra terminated by a sucker. 

The genital apparatus of the male is placed towards the 
middle of the body, near the third pair of limbs. It is sup- 
ported anteriorly bv a median apodemata, which is articulated 
with those of the last pair of limbs. The male organ consists 
of a deferent canal ; of three bifurcated portions, which re- 
present the testicles ; of one or two median glandular bodies, 
which probably fulfil the part of prostate glands; and of a toler- 
ably long perns, contained in a groove. The male orifice opens 
a little in Iront of the posterior margin of the body. 

The vulva is placed on the ventral surface, at a short dis- 
tance from the sternal apodemrta : it i.n a slightly Binuous 
opening about '003 of an inch (Cli. Rubin) in length. It com- 
municates with a granular body, which is hardly discernible 
except at the period of reproduction. 

At the time of heat, the males quit their dwelling-places 
during the night to go in search of the females. They are. 
much more active than the latter, running about from right to 
left, and occasionally fighting with each other. M. Bourguig- 
non once found two males and a single female in the same 
spot. The latter immediately began to fight, but a 

' were aware they wore discovered, they speedily took to 


These acari copulate belly to belly. (Worms.) A single 
union suffices for impregnation. When the eggs enlarge they 
are scattered through all parts of the body. The eggs (fig. 
97. it) are quite enormous when compared with the size of the 
mother; when laid, they are at least one-third the length of the 
animal. The female usually lays one egg daily, and has several 
layings in succession ; she can produce as many as twenty in 
the course of a month. The eggs are rarely placed in groups 
of three or four. When laid they are eiipsoid or oral, slightly 
depressed, semitranBparent, and have a whitish pearly look. 
They resemble the pearls of the l/nio margaritifer. They 
measure '007 of an inch in the long diameter, and '003 of aa 
inch in the short. It has been noticed that they are partly 
developed within the body. It is not until they have been 
laid ten or twelve days that they are hatched. 

At birth the Sarcopti are not more than '006 of au inch in 
length. They have six feet instead of eight, oue of the pos- - 
terior pairs being wanting. These larvuj are very active, they 
shelter themselves beneath the loose particles of the epidermis, 
and seem incapable of boring a channel for themselves. At the 
end of some days they are somewhat swollen, the skin becomes 
iirst wrinkled, then torn, and afterwards falls off. An additional 
pair of feet are developed, and the animal arrives at its perfect 

4. The Moutu (fig. 99). — M. Ch. Robin has carefully 
examined the rostrum of the Sarcnpliot (head of Rovirguignon) . 
There is seen, first, a pair of strong oblong mandibles, carry- 

ing towards their extremity and 
moveable hook ; this is pointed, 
somewhat curved, and when not 
in use it is received into an ob- 
lique groove, with irregular den- 
tated margins situated on the 
opposite side of the prolonged 

Eortion of the organ. This pro- 
inged portion, together with 
the hook just mentioned, acts 
like a pair of pinchers. Next 
are the maxilla} ; these are small, 
narrow, and curved from without 
inwardB. Their base is articu- 
lated to a small square piece, 

i their upper Bide a small 



the mentum or chin. Their free extremity is directed abruptly 
from within outwards. The palpi are large pieces, supported 
by the maxilla-, curved, pointed, and composed of three unequal 
joints. The terminal joint, which is the smallest, presents ex- 
ternally a single lung hair, while the middle joint has two. 
The lower lip is nearly triangular, and somewhat pointed. 
Towards its base and on both sides there is a very long hair] 
above and near to its middle portion it is provided with t 
lancet-shaped tongue. The whole of the rostrum is surrounded 
at its commencement by a thin sinuous margin (cntnerostoma). 
This margin advances on to the sides of the palpi in the form 
of transparent membranous plates, which arc as long as the 
organs themselves. It is these processes which have been 
mistaken sometimes for false palpi, and sometimes for lips, 

5. Action on man. — The Sarcopti are found more especially 
upon the hands, in the intervals of the fingers, on the anterior 
surface of the wrist, on the penis, in the bend of the arm, 
the breasts and on the abdomen in women, on the ankle, ai 
last, more rarely on other parts of the body, the face forming 
nearly always an exception. (Lanquetin.) 

Their presence is recognised by that of the grooves, 
latter will be noticed presently ; their importance has 1 
strongly insisted upon as a means of diagnosis by MM. Bie 
Cazenave, and Piogey. 

The Sarcopti give rise to an intolerable itching, causing tht 
patients to scratch themselves violently, and thereby iucrease 
the disorder of the Bkin. The disease produced by the Sav 
copti has received the name of the itch. 1 

The Sarcoptus of the itch is a nocturnal burrowing animal, 
and is admirably adapted 1'or eating its way through our 
tisanes, and living in them. Its great object, when it finds 
itself on the skin, is to discover a fitting locality for its 
habitation. It carefully explores the cracks and folds of the 
epidermis ; it tapB the base of the hairs where the follicle has 
raised the euticular covering (Bourguignon), and if the spot 
seems suitable it immediately sets to work, 

In the hollowing out of its gallery, the Sarcoptvs is found to 
exhibit distinct preferences. It prefers the hands; it is found 
in this part of the body seventy times out of a hundred ; it has 
been noticed eight times out often on the penis. (Piogey.) 

ing three hairs ; d, lower lip, with its Email lancet- shaped tongue in 
middle, and supporting two small hairs; B, a mandible separated 
its hook. 

1 Psora, Linn., scabies, Sanvages, loepsordenaic, Piorry, 


M. Bourguitfiu'in states that on the 4th of February, 1846, 
he placed a female ou his left fore arm. The animal, having 
found a small portion of the epidermis detached between two 
hairs, immediately fixed itself, and in less than ten minutes 
had disappeared beneath the epidermis. But as the fore-arm 
was not to its taste, the mischievous Sarcoptus, availing itself 
of the sleep of the experimenter, during the night emerged 
from its retreat to seek its fortune in some other part of the 

When a Sarcoptus, after several attempts, has selected a 
locality which suits him, he elevates himself by the long hairs 
attached to the posterior feet, so as to place himself at a con- 
siderable angle with the skin, and with the rostrum placed 
below. This position facilitates the first incision of the cuticle, 1 
and the rostrum iB Boon buried beneath the epidermis. The 
little miner continues working for about a quarter of an hour. 
At the end of that time, he withdraws himself: it might be 
supposed that he was about to select some other spot, but that 
is not the case ; it is a necessary and intentional proceeding. 
The animal next cuts the skin to the right and to the left of 
the part where he first commenced. (Bourguignon.) The 
object of this operation is easily understood as the original 
aperture would not allow its body to enter, which is ao much 
larger than the rostrum. The Snrcnptus, therefore, enlarges 
the passage so as to allow of hia passing in. From this time he 
is entirely buried in the skin, and doeB not again come out. 
He continues to excavate to the right and to the left of him, 
and in this way forms a curved passage. In this work the 
jaws and the palpi move horizontally, and the niaxillse nearly 
vertically, M. Tandon does not consider that the hook be- 
longing to the latter can be used in the work of excavation, 
on account of its minute size (the supposed functions of this 
organ are Bpoken of subsequently) ; the lower branch, however, 
of the pincers may act as a kind of scoop. 

The first difficulties having been overcome the parasite now 
rapidly advances.* The horny appendage and the stiff hairs 
support him, and furnish him with points of resistance in hia 
diminutive gallery. They are straightened out when the animal 
is at work, but are laid smooth when he advances. 

It is usually during the night that the animals are engaged 
in excavating their galleries. 

Fig. 100.— Groove.' 

and about two-thirds 
of a line in diameter. 
They resemble the 
kind of mark whii 
is formed by a 
being drawn ligh' 
over the skin. (Ca: 
rare, Lanquetan.) 
is not correct to com- 
pare them to a 
scratch. 2 These gal- 
leries are curved, un- 
dulating, or even 
angular ; when fol- 
atraight. They never 

lowing a natural fold of the skin they 
open into each other. 

The colour varies with the state of the patient. In voi 
children and in persons with a delicate skin, the gallei 
appear of a greyish white ; in those who are dirty, and whi 
skin is hard and coarse, they become of a dark blackish coloi 
They also become of a particular colour in persons who 
engaged in certain occupations. (Lanquetin.) At certi 
intervals, and generaUy where the furrows of the epidt 
cross each other, the galleries are pierced by small open a 
which allow the access of the external air, and mark the spi 
where the little miner has rested himself. These openinj 
sometimes look like very small black dots ; it is through thi 
that the young escape. 

Along the track of the galleries, or in its immediate vicinii 
is a vesicle about the sir.e of a grain of millet seed, roundi 
pointed, and transparent at the summit, of a rose tint in t' 
child, and of a dark red or brownish colour in the adult, 
base is sometimes surrounded by an inflamed areola, while 
other times the part of the skin upon which it is placed is 
These vesicles are sometimes apart, sometimes close togethei 

1 It is said that at the pe 
activity, and that at that ti 
four lo five lines. 

itialicutum longum 
larcoptua at the e 

■r sulvuli relinquunL" (Caral. 

Lin of t: 

i, Sarcoptua at the end of its gallery! b, the d 
moult ; e c. eggs, the first about to be hatched ; d d, excrements ; e, youn) 
or larva ; f, ro iho lmIIl.ty ; ;; ;i. -in;; 1 1 ...jujiuii;.'", through which ti 
air gains access to the interior of the gallery. 


at the end of a certain time are often confluent. In their interior 
is a serous or viscous flniii. I rtmspareiil', and of a yellow or rose 
colour ; sometimes there is also a small portion of blood ; it is 
then that the vesicle has a brownish tint. Occasionally the 
gallery passes over the vesicle and rests upon it, an arrange- 
ment which is easily understood, from the circumstance that 
the gallery is beneath the epiiknnh, while the vesicle is beneath 
the derm or cutis. (Piogey, Lanquetin.) 

The vesicle is not always present, owing to its passing 
through its existence in four or five days, while the gallery 
lasts for several months. 

One end of the galleries terminates in a projection, which 
requires to be cim-iullv studied. This projection 1 looks like a 
very small but well-defined white spot ; where this communicates 
with the gallery, the latter appears as if it were interrupted ; tliis 
arises from it* being deeper at its termination. It is in this 
depression that the Sorooptu* a lodged, for it is never met with 
in the vesicle. (Renucci.) When the skin is carefully raised it 
points to the posterior part of the animal. It was in conse- 
quence of persons seeking for the Sarr.optus in the vesicle 
itself that they were unable to find it, and were therefore led 
to deny its existence. 8 

The males do not form a gallery ; they are satisfied with ex- 
cavating a space sufficient to conceal themselves in ; they hide 
themselves beneath a, raised portion of the epidermis, so small 
that it is scarcely visible to the naked eye. Their hiding-place 
is always near that of the female. (Lanquetin.) 

In order to obtain a Harcoptux the epidermis must be torn 
away with a pin or a needle at about ,-£-5 of an inch from' 
the white spot ; the part must be dissected very gently towards 
the centre of the prominence already mentioned, the instrument 
roust then be passed beneath the animalcule, and the creature 
carefully removed. (Henucci.) The only difficulty in the oper- 
ation is to avoid killing the Sarcoptus. "When exposed, the 
little parasite looks like a grain of starch ; he conceals his 
rostrum and his limbs beneath the carapace, and pretends to 
be dead ; il'he is placed on the finger he remains for some time 
motionless, but he soon regains his liveliness and moves 
quickly away. (Eenueci.) 

Is the Sarcoptus of the itch a venomous animal ? M. Tandon 

1 Acariaa emiaence. (Bazia.) 

■ "Hoe obiter obaervaadum Syronea, noa ia ipsis pustulifi, aed prope 
habitant." (Moufftt, 1834.) " Acarua sub ipsa pustule uiinime qwcreuduB 
at, eed longiua ruccsait, scqueado rugam euticulio observatur." (Lina.) 



are miniature 
lers ; they are 
ch ia received 


has no hesitation in believing that it 

representations of the antennal pincers of the spidera . 
provided with a moveable and pointed hook, which is received 
into a groove with dentated margins, and can be opened in 
accordance with the wants of the animal. In the spiders the 
two hooks which are external move almost horizontally from 
without to within, so as to antagonise each other, and ao aa 
to seize and pierce their prey, in the Sarcoptu* these organs 
are placed superiorly, and act from above downwards, but 
without antagonising, so aa to bury themselves in the tissue 
and inoculate it with the poison. It has not, indeed, been 
proved that the hook of the parasite ia perforated at ita ex- 
tremity, 1 but it ia reasonable to suppose that it is so ; since 
that of certain acari, animals which are closely allied to it, 
and whose mouth differs essentially from that of the Spidt 
does present a small but distinct opening. (Haspail.) 

When the Sarcvptus is working at its gallery it does n< 
make use of its poison; but when the animal stops in any pai 
to eat, or for the purpose of depositing its eggs, it pierces the 
tissue with its jaws, and discharges some drops of liquid. This 
fluid acts like the poison of the Cynips. and produces a swelling 
or vesicle, which may be regarded as an animal gall: 1 thia explains 
why the vesicles are situated deeper than the galleries. With 
regard to those which are not placed in the tracks of the latter, 
they probably arise from the abaoqjtiou of the venomous fluid 
by the lymphatics. 

6. Other sPECiEa.— It has been supposed that in Norway 
there is another species of Sarcoptus peculiar to man, forming 
a different kind of gall, the animal producing thick scabs, which 
spread over nearly the whole of the body. Professor Boeek of 
Christiana observed three cases of this disease in 1852. The 
scabs presented masses of the Xart-opti, anil of their excrements 
and eggs. M. Boeck found that these Xtir.-wpfi did not differ 

Pfrom the species which has just been described. This view " 
been confirmed liv the observations of MM. Cazenave, Chanzil 
Lanquetin, Bourguignon, and Hehra. 
The Sarcop/i of the mammalia differ from that of man ; thug 
the species belonging to the horse, of which a good representa- 
tion nas been given by M. Gohier and 51. Kaspail, has a very 
straight rostrum ; all the feet have caruncuhe, and at the same 
time two rigid haira longer than the ambulacra. 




Can the itch u? animals communicate itself to man ? 

M. Dumeril believes he has proved that a Phaseolome from 
New Holland transmitted its itch to several persons who were 
employed in the Museum of Natural History, 

Other examples appear to show that the Sareopti of the 
horse, the camel, the ox, the lion, the dog, and the cat, may be 
developed on man, and produce a cutaneous disease similar to 
that which occurs on the animal from which it had been taken. 

It has moreover been recently shown that the species of 
Sarcoptits which has hitherto been supposed to be pecidiar to 
man is met with on the hog and the llama. (Lanquetin, Kobin.) 



Allied to the Sarcoptm is an animal discovered by Dr. Leroy 
de Mericourt in Newfoundland upon the person of an offieer 
■who had come from the Havannah, and of which he has published 
a description and drawing. M. Alexandre Laboulbene has 
provisionally arranged this acarus in the group Tyrogh/phus, 
although he considers it must constitute ;i distinct genus. 

Before he was acquainted with M. Laboulbene's memoir, 
M. Tandon had named this animal in his lectures the Acaropse ; 
he therefore continues to speak of it under this title. 

Description. — The AiwopM- of Mrrimurt, Acaropeis Meri~ 
courti, Tt/roglyphus 
Mericourti, Laboulb., 
Acaropsis peclinata, 
Moq. (iig. 101), is a 
inch in length, oval, 
covere d withlon g flex- 
ible hairs.and of apale 
colour ; the rostrum 
(head, Laboulb.) is 
projecting, conical, 
and with a pointed 1 

prolongation ; the f> ig . ioi._^ cor(ps 

palpi are enormous, 

1 A, animal aeen from its Lack , B, right palpus. 



and greatly dilated it their base ; they form two oblong conical 
bodies, attenuated at tbeir extremities, slightly curved, and their 

size is out of all proportion to that of the animal. These two 
palpi are extremelv divergent ; at the extremity is seen — -1, a 
feind of slender hook, slightly curved from without inwards, not 
verv pointed, and possibly articulated and moveable ; 2, another 
hook placed internally, smaller and more slender, curved in 
the same direction, of an oval shape, very pointed, beautifully 
pectinated on its inner margin, and supporting at its base a 
slender curved hair, which surpasses it in length, and appears 
to be inserted on a small projection. The animal haa no eyes ; 
the thorax is confounded with the abdomen ; the feet are eight 
in number, long, strong, and covered with hairs, but not having 
one third the thickness of the palpi. They seem to terminate 
in a rudimentary caruncule. 

The animal is undoubtedly an Acarus, but it is distingi 
from all the known genera by the enormous development a 
size of its palpi and by the singular pectinated organ by whicl 
they are terminated. The pointed rostrum appears to be i 

Ced of modified jaws, which are straight, pointed, and form ■ 

Ought not the enormous didai'tile arms, described as palpi, 
to be considered us antennae converted into pincers ? 

2. Actios on mas, — The Aoarypri* Mtrieourti was noticed 
in a patient with an exanthemntous eruption. Three indi- 
viduals were procured from pus which was discharged from the 
ear after inflammation of the auditory canal. They seemed to 
have lived in the pimples on the skin Burrounded by a serous 

Was the animal really developed in the pimple, or did it 
come from without ? It is extremely probable that it is a 
species of Acarus peculiar to this exanthema. 



TflE Betnodese foHkulorwm, Owen, Arams foil 'ten Jorum, Simon 
(fig. 102), wuh discovered almost simultaneously by M. Gustavo, 
Simon, and M. Henle, in 1842. M. Dujardin has Btudied it 
upon his own person, and M. Grubv carefully examined it 


1. Description. — The Demode? folUmhintm is one of the 
lowest organised of the 
Araehnida, and has a 
worm-like form. It mea- 
sures from T B5 to tJj of 
an inch in length, and 
from -i^ to -y^o of an 
inch in breadth. The | 
body is somewhat flat- 
tened, of a greyish white 
andaeini-tranaparent; the 
head is confounded with 
the thorax, and forms an 
oblongeephalothorax;the ; 
rostrum is small, and is 1 
composed of two lateral i'jg. 102.— Demodex.' 

palpi wit!) a sucker placed 

between them. The hist or terminal joint of the palpi appears to 
be notched ; above the sucker is a triangular lip formed by two 
slender pieces plaeed close together; the abdomen, which is 
small in the young animal, is elongated in the adult, and 
gradually narrows and terminates in a point ; it might be 
compared to a long tail, and gives the animal a vermiform 
appearance. When the Demodex ia in motion, its diminutive 
feet are moved alternately and with great quickness; they 
are aided by the palpi and the rostrum, as well as by the 
vermicular contractions of the abdomen. The feet are eight in 
number, and are placed at equal intervals; they are short, 
cornea], and composed of three joints, of which the last is pro- 
vided with three hooks, one long and two short. The young 
animal has only six feet ; these organs are remarkable for their 
shortness, Beared y rendiing to the margin of I lie eephalothorax ; 
they appear to lie quite rudimentary, especially when they are 
compared with those of the Sarcopti. 

When examined under a microscope with a high power, 
the body of the Demodex presents a number of minute granules, 
and some roundish uneven transparent corpuscles, which are 
possibly the eggs or the canmelv young animals. 

The Demodex is oviparous. The eggs arc very large in pro- 
portion to the size of the animal ; they are elongated and 
somewhat pointed at the ends. (Lanquetin.) M. Tandon 
examined one, shortly before it was hatched, when the feet 
and rostrum of the young animal could be seen within it. 

1 A, animal Been from the abdomen; B, rostrum; C, egg. 




r, and 
i the 




: out 

Three principal forms of tbis Acarua have been observed :- 
1, the cephalothorax, equalling one-third of the length of the 
abdomen, which is soft, terminated bv a rounded extremity, and 
marked by fine transverse lines — this iB probably the typic; " 
form ; 2, the cephalothorax, as long as the abdomen or nea 
bo: 3, the cephalothorax. longer than the abdomen, and I 
latter terminating in a point. 

2. Actios os mas.— The Drmodex occurs in both sexes and 
at every age, excepting that of the young infant. M. Simon 
found them in the nose, and M, Heule in the external auditory 
canal. They appear to be very common, since out of every t 
individuals they will be found in at least one or two. 
Gruby states that he met with them in forty persona i 
of sixty. 

The Demodex is found in the normal or dilated ducts of the 
sebaceous glands, particularly in those of the alas of the noae; 
they also live in the follicles of the hairs of the nose, especially 
those which are distended by epithelial cells, or by the accumu- 
lation of fatty globules ; lastly, they are found in the follicles 
of the hairs of the lace, lips, forehead, and cheeks. 

The animals are placed parallel to the axis of the follicle 
with their heads directed towards the base of the sac. Persons 
whose skins are greasy and those who have freckles seem to be 
most liable to them. 

These Arachnids generally live in small communities; 
many as from fifteen to eighteen may be found in a 6 

The Demodex is entangled in the midst of the fatty a 
sebaceous matter. . 

These animals do not cause any diseased action. "When the) 
are numerous the skin swells and becomes red and wrinkled ; 
the mouths of the follicles are much dilated, and there is a 
considerable amount of itching. 

In order to procure these animals it is sufficient to s^ 
the parts which are affected by them between the fingers, 
then to examine the expressed matter beneath the microscope. 
[The addition of a drop of sweet oil to the small particle of 
sebaceous or fatty matter in which the Demodex is enclosed 
facilitates the finding of the animal, and serves to free it from 
the extraneous matter.] In the dead body, sections of the- 
skin may be made in the direction of the 1 




The Bermanyms of Bory, Dermanyg&a* Boryi, Gerv. ThiB 
species of Arachnida was observed on a lady forty years of 
age, and has been described and figured by Bory de Saint- 

The lady was troubled with a slight itching on every part 
her of body; this gradually increased, and at length became 
unbearable ; whenever she rubbed or scratched the parts which 
were most irritable, a number of little acari, hardly visible to 
the naked eye, came forth ; the largest was not half the size 
of a tobacco seed ; they were of a brownish colour, and ran 
about by thousands in every direction. Several of them, when 
placed in a box on a piece of muslin, lived from forty-eight to 
fifty hours. 

Did these animals really come from the body of the person p 

Was it not the same in this ease as in a similar one related 
by M. Simon of a woman at Berlin, whose skin appeared to 
produce a number of small acari ? It was found that they 
were the common Dermaayasus, Avium, which the woman got 
every day in passing through a hen-house. 1 

2. The Dermanyshts of Busk. — Is the acaniB described by 
M. Busk to be considered as another species of Dermanyssut 
which is peculiar to man ? This creature was found in some 
large sorea on the soles of the feet of a black sailor. 

The patient appeared to have contracted the disease by wear- 
ing a pair of shoes which, he had lent to another negro, whose 
feet were ulcerated in a similar manner. The latter was an 
inhabitant of Sierra Leone, a circumstance which is remarkable 
in conjunction with the fact that in some water which was 
brought from the river Sirrae, on the coast of Africa, one very 
nearly perfect specimen, and fragments of others very similar 
to, if not identical with, the one noticed in the negro's foot, 
were found. 8 

3. EtiTABBua cancbtfoemis.— This arachnida was noticed 
by Dr. Hessling in 1852, in a case of plica polonica. The 
animal has a rounded cordiform shaped body, very obtuse, and, 
as it were, hollowed out in front. The feet are close together, 
and somewhat curved. 

:it, vol. ii. p. 242. 



CffiLOGXATiiTB mobsitans. — This species was also found 
by Dr. Hessling under the same circumstances as the preceding. 
Tin- body is rigid, and somewhat pointed anteriorly and 
posteriorly. The feet are arranged in two groups, like those 
of the fwcoptus, and armed with small hairs. 

M. Heading does not consider that either of these insects 
is peculiar to the disease, but that it merely afforded a favour- 
able locality for their development. 

We find, therefore, that it is especially amongst the Acari 
that we meet with the cutieular paraaites. Messrs. Kirby and 
Spence have proposed to designate the diseases which these 
animals give nse to by the general name of Acariatit. 



The study of the External Barotites naturally leads to that 
of the Internal Barotites. The number of the latter animals is 
very considerable, if we associate with the true Parasites the 
animals which accidentally suck our blood or devour our organs, 
creatures which are sometimes' even more formidable than those 
that we are about to describe. The Internal Barotites, that 
is to say, the animals whieli live constantly at the espense of 
man, either when he is in health or in 8 state of disease, are 
not numerous, nor need they alarm us, for the disorders which 
they give rise to are not in general very severe. Thus, as it haa 
been mentioned elsewhere, 2 it is one of the conditions of para- 
sitism that the animal upon which the parasite lives must not 
be destroyed by it. "W e have seen that children sometimes 
support thousands of worms, and yet they do not appear to be 
ill. It is true that in many cases the parasite does not so much 
attack the organism in which it is placed as its superabundant 
products. (Beneden.) 

In medical Natural History the term Entozoa is given to 
those parasites which live in the cavities or tissues of the body. 
Some writers have proposed to call them Entopartmtes. 

Most of the Entozoa are born externally, and are only intro- 
duced in man's body at some determinate period of their 

These animals may he divided into four series — 1. Insect 
Entozoa ; 2. Cretaceous Entozoa ; 3. Entozoic "Wobms ; 
4. Ikjtusobial Entozoa. 




Veterinary surgeons and entomologists hare long known 
that the ox, sheep, horse, dog, &c., are tormented hy the larvae 
of certain, flies which live in their bodies as true parasites. 
These larv* belong to the family (Extridea. 

It was thought at first that tnese Insects were only met with 
in the mammalia. Condamine and Barrere state that they 
have found them under the skin and in the nostrils of man ; 
but their accounts are very indefinite. Rudolphi admits the 
fact. Latreille relates that larvae similar to those of the 
(EUridea had been extracted several times from the maxillary 
and frontal sinuses of man ; these cases are, however, by no 
means well authenticated. 

The majority of these instances, and many others which it 
would be easy to accumulate, are wanting in accuracy, and 
would equally apply to the larvas of the Museida as of the 

Facts which unfortunately cannot be doubted, prove that the 
larva; of some of the latter family, which are parasitic upon the 
mammalia, may occasionally be developed in man ; and that it 
is even possible that one or two spedes ex..-?! which are peculiar 
to him. 

1. Ctjtehebba nokialis, Goud. — M. Justin Goudot has 
mentioned that a species of (Eetrus, which he names Cuterebra 
noxalie, commits serious ravages in certain parts of America, 
more particularly iu New Grenada. 

The genua Cuterebra was proposed by Bracy Clark, and 
adopted by Latreille. Its characters are — cavity of the mouth 
straight and triangular, forming a small retractile proboscis ; 
no palpi ; and the antenna) with a plumose style. 

The Cuterebra noxialis has been found in the ox, the dog, 

and the 

.M'-" ; "' 

Its presence in man ii 

Description. — : The insect is eight lines in length. It has the 
forehead projecting, obtuse, brown, and covered with blackish 
hair ; the antennas are yellow, with the first joint furnished at 
its extremity with a small tuft of short hairs ; the eyes are 
brown, with a blackish hand in the middle ; the thorax, 
of a blueish tinge, marked with grey and black longitudinal 
bands, is covered with very short black hairs ; the abdomen, 
spotted with a beautiful blue colour, has a dirty white tinge on 


the first segment, and on the anterior margin of the second ; 
the wings are brown ; and the feet yellow, with hairs of the same 
colour (male). 

The larva is known in Cayenne as the Macaque, and in New 
Grenada as the Gvstmo. It attains a length of nearly thirteen 
lines. Its body is smooth, and of a whitish colour. The first 
three segments are covered with irregularities, in the form of 
very small black spines ; the three following have two circular 
rows of hooks of the same colour, more robust, and directed 
backwards. The mouth is armed with two hooks. 

2. Other species. — Linna?us, in a letter to Pallas, mentions 
another larva of a diptera which lives in the human body. 
GmeUn speaks of this insect under the name of (Extrus komini*. 
This is also found in America. 

The knowledge which we have of tbJB animal is confined to 
its size, which is that of the common fly ; and to its colour, 
which is a uniform brown (totusfuscus). 

Its larva lives sis months under the skin of the abdomen. 

This is very probably another species of the Cuterebra. But 
is it really confined to man, or does it, like the preceding 
species, belong to the mammalia as well as to man ? M. Justin 
Guidot regards it as altogether an imaginary species. 1 

The larva of an (Estrus was found on the head of a man in 
Trinity Island. It is deposited in the College of Surgeons in 
London. Mr. Hope has named it (Estrus Guildingii. Is this 
a distinct species from that of M. Goudot P 

Lastly, several cases have been observed in Europe of 
(Es/n'Jea being found in the human body ; such as the Toon, or 
(Extrus of the ox, and the (Estrus of the sheep. The one belongs 
to the genus Mypodentia, 1 the other to the genus Cephalemyia ; s 
the first is characterised by the opening of the mouth being 
T-shaped, and by the absence of palpi and antennas ; the second 
by the mouth being round, by tuberculiform palpi, and by 
antenna; consisting of a simple style. 

3. Action on man.— The Guterebra are found on various 
parts of the body, but more especially on those which are acci- 
dentally uncovered. 

Pray Pedro Simon, in hia History of the Conquest of JVew 

1 And that it is the same with regard to the (Estrus humanus of RudoIpM 
and M. Guerin Menevillo. 

1 Hapodemut hovis, Latr. ; (Estrus bonis, Linn. ; called by Reaumur Warn 


3 Ctphalemyia ovis, Latr. ; jEstrua ovis, Linn. ; called by Reaumur Fig of 


Grenada, mentions certain larves which torment the human 
species. He says that they settle principally between the collar 
oi the cuirass and the skin. 

Arture, physician to the King of Cayenne, says, that worms, 
which cause considerable tumours, are sometimes found in 
America, on the bodies of persona who are of unclean habits. 

Alexander Humboldt states, that in South America he saw 
Indianswhose abdomens were covered with small turn ours, which 
he presumed were caused by the larvae of certain (Estridea. 

Dr. Eoulin has reported an interesting case which occurred 
at Mariquita, in Columbia. A man had on bis scrotum a tumour 
of a conical form, measuring something more than, two inches 
in diameter at its base, and about five or six lines in height. 
The apex, which was very red, presented a small opening, about 
a line across. Dr. Eoulin having enlarged the opening with a 
lancet, a whitish pyriform larva issued forth, measuring as much 
as ten lines in length and five or six in breadth. On the 
thickest part of its body it had several rows of blackish spines. 
The larva resembles one which in those districts is met with 
in the skin of the cattle, chiefly on the sides of the neck and 
on the shoulders. Dr. Eoulin saw a second larva of the same 
kind in another man, in the skin near the nape of the neck. 

The observations published by Dr. Guyon are perfectly in 
accordance with the details which have just been recorded. He 
found parasitic larva; in a negro on the twelfth day of a variolous 
eruption. In the pustules on his legs there were whitish 
worms, which the patient expelled bj gently tapping his limbs. 

M. Justin Goudot and Weddell have noticed similar in- 
stances, the first in New Grenada, and the second in Brazil. 
These facts have been confirmed by other cases collected by 
Mr. Say at Philadelphia, by Mr. Howship at Surinam, and by 
M. Percheron in Peru. 

All these diptera appear to belong to the Cuterebra, but it 
is not ascertained that all belong to one and the same species. 

When a larva begins to develop itself in any part of the 
skin, a slight pain is felt, and a swelling, with a minute open- 
ing, from which a small quantity of a serous fluid issues, is 
perceived in the neighbourhood. At this period it is easy to 
get rid of the parasite; a mercurial friction and a small quan- 
tity of ammonia are sufficient to kill it. 

If curative means arc neglected, the animal grows rapidly, 
buries itself deeper in the tissues, and produces a tumour, 
which becomes gradually larger and more painful. It is then 
necessary to extract the larva. 


Il is ninrc particularly at five or sis o'clock in the m Grain* 
arifl at night, that the larva begin t<i suck. M. Goudot oom- 
pcrea Hie MUtttion which they produce to that of a number of 
Deedla being driven into the skin, only the punctures occur 
in jjjrka. 

The (Enlrii of Europe introduce themselves far more rarely 
into the body of man than the Ciitrrebra of America. 

Wohlfart lias published a remarkable ease of an old man 
who had been troubled for several days with an intense 
headache, and who afterwards discharged from his nose eighteen 
worms ; these were placed in a. glasB, with a small quantity of 
earth, and were metamorphosed at the end of a month. 
Wohlfart lias given drawings of the larvic, and the flies which 
come from them, but, unfortunately, they are very badly 

Datham, in England, states that lie procured the lame o_ 
(BftH, similar to those of the os, from the frontal sinus of a 

Braey Clark reports that a larva of the same speciea ! 
been I'Mracted from the jaw of another woman. 

In the Juurnitl d" Y'ltndri-momle is the case of a eountr 
woman, who, being exceedingly thirsty, drank some i 
out of a muddy pond, where a shepherd was in the habit a 
watering his flock. The water got into her nostrils as well a 
her mouth ; some days subsequently, after being very ill, a 
when she had taken an emetic, she discharged about sevent] 
two smalt white worms, precisely similar to those which z 
found in the nasal fossfe of the sheep. 

Bobineau-Desvoidy communicated to the Entomolog 
Society of France the ease of a woman who, after suffering ii _ 
violent pains and symptoms of inflammation of the neck of tl 
bladder, expelled with the urine the larva of an (Estrus- 
learned entomologist gives no intimation as to the genus t 
which the larva belonged. 

Bateman speaks of three lame of the (Estri being taken from 
I he throat of a. man. and .Mr. Hope of another larva found in tl; 
stomach of a dead body. Eudolphi, in Prussia, Esehricht, L. 
Denmark, and Metaxa, in Italy, have mentioned the presence 
of other larva? in the ear, beneath the skin of the forehead, and 
elsewhere .... Unfortunately, in all these cases tho species 
of (Estri cannot be determined. 



The Linguatula. 

Thf. Linguatula (Liiitj)Ki(uht, l'rol ich) were at first considered 
as intestinal worms, having the general appearance, hooks, and 
habits of these animals. Some naturalists have classed them 
with the Araehnida, M. Van Beneden' has shown good rea- 
sons for associating them with the Crustacea. These extra- 
ordinary animals may, in fact, be regarded as Crustacea which 
have heen degraded to the form of a helmintha. 

The Liny uti tut./: arc characterised by a flat, elongated, sub- 
articulated body, winch is dilated in front, and attenuated pos- 
teriorly ; an antero- inferior mouth, having two pairs of retractile 
hooks; an anal orifice at the opposite extremity ; and no limbs. 

These animals possess a complete intestinal canal, a kind of 
dorsal vessel, a nervons system, consisting of a rudimentary 
ring without cerebral gimslia, but with, a moderately developed 
subsosopbageal ganglion, from whence two principal filaments 
proceed in the length of the body. The sexes are separate ; 
the male orifice is placed anteriorly, and the female posteriorly. 

The LAiiguntuIw are oviparous. The young animals resemble 
certain Crustacea which are parasitic upon fishes. (Van Bene- 
den, Harley.) 

The LinmuttuJte are at first asexual, and live encysted in the 
body of different herbivorous mammalia. They pass from 
thence into the bodies of the carnivora which feed upon these 
animals, where they complete then; development, and become 
sexual. • (Leuckart.) a 

1. Lingttatcla nENTtcr/LATA. — This animal has been seen 
in the lungs, the trachea, the larynx, the uasal sinuses, and the 
liver of several of the mammalia ; it has been found hi the hare, 
rabbit, guinea pig, goat, and more rarely in the wolf, dog, and 
horse. It has trcohed dill'ereut names, derived from the 
animals in which it has been found. 

Description (tig. 103). — The animal is from two to three 
lines in length, and about one line in width, oblong, tongue- 

1 [Van Beneden, Rechenhes mr ^organization et le developpcment dei Lin- 
guatidea—Meuuiirm, ik I'Aruil. /Ivy. de Bruretles, 1849.] 

1 Linguatulu termta, frill., Tiiimi t-iijirimi, ,\ \hi£.,Tt:trtti/uia eotriir, Boa;., 
Pentaatoma terrutum tt ilmiirukiium. liii'lil,, J'vttiist'-iiuiin cvHstrictum, Sie- 
buld, Liitgualula cORslrkla etjtrox, Gujuh. 

i developed i> the bodies of a 

dmimtk*. They hare also reeerred the nunes of J 
raw and Erniecc* wnmer. The division of Zoology i 

If the other divisions of natural history delight us by the 
varieties of colouring, the beauty of form, the complexity of 
structure, and the marvellous instincts of the creatures they 
include, the study of the Kclmintha is equally interesting, 
especially to the medical man, when it is carefully pursued. 

For a long time little was known of any of the intestinal 
worms excepting those wbieh reside in the body of man, or in 
those of the domesticated animals; even of these only such as 

™, Dies. 

live in the intestinal canal had been noticed, and the facta 
relating to their natural history were exceedingly vague. It 
was towards the close of the "last century that men began 
seriously to inquire into their structure and modes of life. 

In the present work only those specioB of Helmintha will 
be treated of which reside in and derive their nourishment 
from the human body. I shall therefore pass over those speciea 
which are found in the bodies of our domestic animals, as well 
the Accessory worm, 1 that is to say, those of the Helmintha 
which are peculiar to the mammalia, the fishes, or to other 
animals, and only become introduced into our bodies acci- 
dentally, or are placed there for the purpose of deceiving. 

The Helmintha are invertebrata, unprovided with limbs or 
organs of respiration. The character which they possess in 
common is to lodge and nourish themselves in the human 
body, during a considerable portion or the whole of their 

These parasitic worms are sometimes solitary, and are some- 
times collected together in variable numbers. They are met 
with in different parts of the body, as in the alimentary canal, 
or the ducts which open into it ; in the blood vessels ; in the 
substance of the liver; in the parenchyma of the lung, and in 
the structure of the brain. They have even been found. in the 
osseous tissue, and in the midst of the fat. It is exceedingly 
important, even for the zoologist, to be aware of what part of 
the body they inhabit, since it facilitates the determination of 
the species. It may be said generally that the Helmintha 
almost always reside upon the mucous membranes or in the 
cellular tissue. 

The presence of these worms occasionally produces scarcely 
any appreciable disorder. The animals live, as it were, in a 
latent state. In some cases there is a slight irritation, or a 
trifling amount of itching. At other times there is a feeling of 
weight, or increased appetite, occasionally an undefined feeling 
of illness, or sudden and violent pain ; the person gets thin ; 
there are pains in the intestines, hasmorrhages, chronic inflam- 
mation, and the formation of abscesses. These disorders are 
followed by spasmodic convulsions, chorea, epilepsy, amaurosis, 
apoplexy, ana a disease similar to what is commonly termed 
the ''staggers" in sheep. In some cases, which are happily 
very rare, these disorders terminate in death. The various dis- 
eases attendant upon the presence of the entoaoa are fully 

1 Vermes accemcrii. (Bremser.) 



described iii the excellent work of M. Davaine, entitled 1 
de* Entozoairex et den i 

[The English reader will find a full account of the disease! I 
and their treatment in Dr. Laukester's valuable transit I 
tion of Kiichenmeister's work on the Animal and Vegetable | 
Parasites of the Human body, published by the Sydenl 

The injurious effects of these Entozoa must not, howevi 
be exaggerated. M. Dujardin lias met with cases in which til 
animals were developed by thousands, and yet the ] 
appeared to be in good health. 

The multiplication of the worms is most rapid in debilit* 
persons, who are living in cold and damp sit nations, and n 
are already in a bad state of health from other ( 
((irisolle.) Improper nourishment greatly favours the a rt 
irace of the Relmintha. Damaged food, green fruita, i 
vegetables, sweets, impure water, are all of them circumstance* 
which have considerable influence on tlie development of theee 
animals. Childbood is the period of life which most favours 
their presence, possibly in consequence of the preponderance 
of the lymphatic system in the early periods of life. (Bouchut.) 
Some families seem to he more predisposed to verminous affec- 
tions than others. It appears, also, that the nature of the con- 
stitution (Jielminthoiu, Kei[ ) has great influence. 

Some Entozoa are indigenous to several countries, as, for 
example, the Ttenia to Germany and to Holland, and the Both- 
riocepkalus to Switzerland and to Russia. (Boudin.) 

The Hehnintka are worms having generally long cylindrical 
bodies. Some are thread-like, others ribbon-shaped, and some 
resemble small leaves. In some the body k elastic, and covered 
by a strong integument ; whde others are soft, and have no 
distinct integument. Their bodies aro either transversely 
striated or distinctly articulated, and of a white, greyi * 
yellow, or reddish colour. The contents of the alimentary ci 
and the ova frequently modify the colour. 

One division of the Entozoa have a 

ilete intestine, 1 

vided with a mouth and an anus. In a few the mouth i 
Bents certain hard parts ; some have a ramified digestive 
with only one orifice ; others have oral suckers, and have r 
anal orifice or intestine. 

A nervous system is only found in a small number, and n 
always of a rudimentary k'ind. Some have suckers or hooks 
by means of which they can fix themselves. 

The ancients believed in the spontaneous reproduction of the 
intestinal worms. Some were supposed to originate from 
imperfectly digested food; others from decomposing excre- 
ments; some from vitiated and fermented bile; and others, 
again, from the crude, thickened, andpittrifying humours.' 

" Worms," says Ambrose Pare, " are formed from a thick, 
viscous, crude matter, which, becoming corrupted in the 
stomach, then descends into the intestines." 

The theory of spontaneous generation has teen maintained 
in our own time by several physiologists of repute. 5 Bedi, 
Audry, and Vallisneri strongly protested against this ancient 
doctrine. Thanks to the labours of many eminent naturalists 
of the present day, 3 this mode of reproduction is no longer 
admissible. It is now generally admitted that the Entozoa 
are produced by other Entozoa. 

In these animal* the BUM may be separated or united. The 
males are generally jhmvUi d with a verge or spiciilum, which 
may be single or double. Their spermatozoa are sometimes 
filiform, sometimes globular, diaphanous, and more or less 
adhesive. There are oviparous Enlo/.tia and ovoviviparous En- 
tozoa. The larva?, in a great number, differ materially from 
the adult. Some can reproduce the in selves by gemraas or buds, 
giving rise to the curious phenomena of the alternation of 
generations. Lastly, it has been shown that at a certain 
period of their lives some of these animals make extended 
migrations, in order to reach the individual in whose body they 
are ultimately to reside. 

The Helmintha of man may be divided into two series : the 
cylindrical, which tire jjrorided with a visceral canity, and the 
noncylindrical, which are deprived ofu visceral cavity. Of the first 
some live in the alimentary cuual : J these consist of the genera 
Ascabib, OxYUfius, Tbichooephaltjs, and Ancyiostoma j — 
others reside out of the alimentary canal ; these include the 
genera Sthos&tltjs, Spieopteka, and Fiiabia. The second 
are flat, and are found external to the alimentary canal ; these 
constitute the genera Tuecoboma, Distoma, and Festucabia ; 
or they may have a riband-like form, and live in the canal ; 3 

■ SieWd, Van Bcncdcti, Kikkcnnicister, Lcuckart, Filippi, Claude Ber- 

* This refers to the perfect state, for the lairas of a great number live out 
of the alimentary canal, and even external to man. 

* The larvse all lire external to man, and external to the digestive canal. 

these are the genera Tenia and Bothp.iocepiialt/b ; in nil , 
twelve genera. The following ia a table of these genera, with 
their principal characters :— 

Genera of Helmintha living in Man. 
I. — Cylindrical with a visceral cavity. 
A. Living in the alimentary canal (unuexual). 

1. Ascabideb. Body attenuated posteriorly, and still 

more ao exteriorly. Mouth with three tubercles. 
Tail of the male narrower than that of the female. 

2. Oxyubus. Body attenuated anteriorly, and still 

more so posteriorly. Mouth with rudimentary 
tubercles, and a dilatation around it. The tail of 
the male somewhat thickened. 

3. Tbicuocephalus. Body capillary anteriorly. Mouth 

without tubercles. Tail of the male like that of the 

4. An cyi.o stoma. Body slightly attenuated anteriorly. 

Mouth with four hooka. Tail of the male cup- 

B. Liviiii/ nut of the alimentary canal (unisexual), 

5. Stronqylus. Body attenuated posteriorly. Month 

with six lobee. Tail of the male cup-shaped. 

6. Spiroptera. Body attenuated anteriorly. Mouth 

armed witb papilla). Tail aliform. 

7. Filahia. Body equal (filiform). Mouth with three 

tubercleB. Tail simple. 


A. Flat (living externally to the digestive canal). 1 

8. Thecoboma. 5 Unisexual. The male carrying the 

female in a groove on its abdomen. 

9. Distoma. Androgynous. An abdominal aucker. 

10. Festucaria. Androgynous. No abdominal Bucker. 

B. Mband shaped (living in the alimentary canal, andro- 


11. T^nia. Four rounded suckers. Genital pores mar- 

12. Boturiocephalub. Two longitudinal fossse. Geni- 

tal pores mesial. 




The genus Asearw was established by LinnieuB. The term 1 
is especially applicable to the Oflyuru*,' which, unfortunately 
for the etymology of the subject, is no longer associated with 
the present group. 

1. Ascabis Lumbeicoides. — A. giijas, Goeze, Mauria lum- 
bricoiden, Zeder. This specieB is one of the commonest and best 
known of the Helmintha. It is noticed by the moat ancient 
writers. The first inquirers gave this animal the name of 
Lumbricvs teres, and regarded it as identical with the Earth 
worm, or Lumbricus terrentris. They supposed it was the same 
worm, which, having been accidentally introduced into the 
alimentary canal, had become modified by its change of resi- 
dence. The Lumbricus terrestris is, however, an animal having 
a far higher grade of organization. 

The following are the characteristic differences of the two 

Bnimnl s ; — 

Asearui. Lumbriovs. 

1. Body without sete. 1. Body with eight rows of 


2. Movements very slight. 2. Movements active. 

3. Mouth with three tuber- 3. Mouth with two unequal 

cles. lips, one superior, one 


In addition to these characters, the Ascan'des have colour- 
less blood, a rudimentary nervous system, the sexes separate, 
a permanent genital constriction in the female, the eggs sepa- 
rate and provided with a thin aemitransparent covering; while 
the Lumbrici are provided with red blood, have a well-de- 
veloped ganglionic nervous system (with an oesophageal ring 
and an abdominal cord), u genital enlargement at the period of 
reproduction in all the individuals, and ovigerous capsules, pro- 
vided with a thick opaque covering. 

The Ascaris of man was for a long time confounded with 
those of the horse and of the hog. In the present day it is 
well known, that although the latter parasites are closely 
allied, they are nevertheless distinct species. 

M. Jules Cloquet has published an excellent work on the 
Asearis Iwnbricoides. 


b ■ km I ■ ■: 

of «ba 

ridges and four km- 
dontl, one abdominal, and 

ro lateral 

This worm has a somewhat polished surface, 

is of a whitish or Bulk-white colour, sometimes 

doll red, or more rarely to a brown 

k'ur. Tbe skin is thick, strong, 

BBBj elastic, and almost perfectly transparrat. 

I There is no distinct head, and consequently 
H no neck. At tbe anterior extremity (fig. 104) 
^fl tt a somewhat triangular mouth. Around its 
^fl orifice are three small tubercles, of which one is 
^M superior, and the others interior -, these are capa- 
H ble of being alternately divaricated and approxi- 
H mated. Budolphi terms them ru/rp*, Cuvier 
^| fteihy papilla, Blaiiwille nodule*, and Dujardin 
^| value*.* Some writers have unadvisedly desig- 
H nated the whole as tbe head. These tubercles are 
^L\ provided with a small cavity at the inner part 
^M of their base. 

I The mouth communicates with an cesophngus, 

^M which may be seen through the skin ; it ib long, 

^M somewhat triangular, and provided with thick 

H muscular walls. Very narrow at its commence- 

H ment, it gradually increases in size, and is then 

^|^^B^| suddenly constricted. The stomach consists of 

L^^S^H two globular dilatations ; its walls are thinner 

H than those of the oesophagus. The intestine is 

""""""""""^ straight, and presents some slight bendings ; it 

Atcarii. becomes narrowed towards the vent. It consists 

ot' two membranes, which can be separated from 

each other; tbe external is thin, smooth, and transparent; the 

internal thick, rugose, and slightly coloured. The canal appears 

1 l.lnnuMia wiys : "Corpus teres ulraipif extnmttat* altmitatum." 
* Trcul.ler observed amongst a Dumber of A..,;iri<Ir.< in I lie ^niall intestine 
i in which tlic muath bad on]}' wo tubercles. 

PAEAsnrc woums. 337 

to be surrounded by while vesicles, suspended in the cavity of 
the body, which arc regarded by M. J. Cloquet aa absorbent 
vessels. It is supported bv two paira of bgaraents, one of which 
is placed superiorly, and the other inferiorly. 

The anus is situated near the posterior extremity of the 
animal, and has the form of a transverse opening. 

Each of the pairs of ligaments which have just been mentioned 
form a triangular canal. M. Blauchard believes that in the in- 
terior of these canals there are two vessels, one of which is deep- 
seated, and the other placed superficially. The two deep-seated 
vessels anastomose together opposite the anterior third of the 
caaophagus. One of them is moreover provided with a small con- 
tractile sac (heart?). The superficial vessels unite behind 
the preceding and auastomose with them anteriorly. This 
arrangement is very remarkable, and resembles that of aome of 
the anellidte. 

The At/twit luiiihriroiih's, sic cording to the observations of 
MM. Jules Cloquet and Bi mi chard, is provided with a nervous 
system, consisting of two white curds running along the sides 
of the body. By following the track of these uerveB two 
ganglionic masses are met with, united together by a double 
cord, which surrounds the o?sopliagus. 

Beneath the akin there are transverse fibres, placed at 
regular intervals, and covering a thicker layer of longitudinal 
flhres, from which filaments are given oil", having no particular 
direction, aud of which the majority are free and iloating in the 
interior of the body. Many of these liiaments attach them- 
selves to the internal organs, and assist in retaining them in 
their proper place ; they arc more numerous towards the extre- 
mities than in the middle portion of the body. 

The Ascaris lumbricoides is unisexual. M\ Jules Cloquet 
lias calculated that the females are fuiir times as numerous as 
the malea. The latter arc smaller than the females; this cir- 
cumstance is remarkable, because, as a general rule, it is con- 
trary to what occurs amongst aniimils which are polygamous. 
Amongst the males, tiie caudal extremity (fig. 105, b) is some- 
what slenderer than it is in the females ; it is also slightly 
curved. The penis, or spiculuin, is double ; it is formed of two 
slender horiij curved processes, rather less than a hue in length ; 
they are placed close to the anus, anil emerer from this aper- 
ture. The testiclea and the spermatic cords are filiform, and 
surround the alimentary canal. At the anterior third of the 
body in the female is a circular construction (fig. 105, c). 
Linnmus did not notice this narrowing, but stated that at this 

that I 


(inrt the ariimul lind no enlargement (elitellwm) Hke th»t 
Earth-worm, and Gram this alone he con 
Umbrivoide* >• retry different from the i 

niniiiiil -,' l.jjjuaiuf would have found the dkriaae- 

tion far greater if hi- had noticed, tint there is 

log where in the Earth-w 

[a mi in!:. r^ment; and that the < 

fttmil, while the other ' 

hi thi* oonatrictioti that the vulva is p 

the right side. This orifice is rerv a 
nimiiiiiiiicrires with a narrow vagina (#1 
Hlainville) from four to six linea in 
which leads to a short uterus, provided* 
two long flexible horns, arranged i] 
of the abdomen, and formed of two ( 
membranes. These horns become conti 
with the ovaries, which are eseessiviely 1 
slender tubes, twisted upon themselves, a 
ittrrounding the alimentary eanal. The o 
rlc* closely resemble the testicles, 
period Of reproduction, thehomaof then 
are llllcd with an enormous quantity of e_ 
M, Ksehrirlit calculates that they amount t 
■event] thousands iti each individual. 

The eggs (li^. 106, d) are ovoid, and eovt 

by a transparent envelope. Tyson and Wee 

ncr, mill hli Imminently Brera and Rudolphi 

described them as being villous. Goeze a 

M. J it leu Uloquet maintain that they ; 


Ai'i'uriliiig In tin- recent, obs cr vat ions of if. Davaine, thee 
iw urn expelled with the fiecea. M. Richter, *'!'l i li< in iii pure water, found that at the end of eleven 
muni Iih lliey each contained a living embryo, but he did l 
hit l.ln'tii hatch. (Kiiehenmeister.) M. Davaine has been moi 
furl ii i m! it, iiikI n.n utile l.n l'u|]i>w mil their devt'liipmeut, whit 

iiiiiinii il at. the end of sis months. The embryo is cylii 

drieiil. The three lobes of the mouth are not present, and a 
characteristic of the adult worm ; the caudal extremity tern 
nates abruptly in a point. 

1 "A Lttmhrim dittinttisiimtis." (Linn.) 

• u, a cepliJtlui i-sln/iiiilv, wirli tin; ihr™ (.iiWrclos of tlie mouth ; 6, c 
Jnl oxlromltj- uf llm male, the two Bpieula ; c, genital constriction, oi 
iiw feiaiUi! with the aomal orifica; d, ogg. 


[The following is the account which Kuchenmeister gives of 
Verloren's and ltichter's experiments upon the eggs of Axcaris 
marpinata and of A. lumbricoideg. 

In the early part of the month of August, 1853, Verioren 
put a fragment of a mature female, Axcir/nt min-ginata, of the 
dog into water, bo as to preserve the eggs in the water by the 
prevention of evaporation. Of these he examined specimens 
from time to time under the microscope. The segmentation 
of the vitelli and the development of the young, immediately 
commenced. In about fourteen days the process was com- 
pleted, and perfectly developed young worms made their 
appearance; these moved briskly within the egg shells, but 
did not break through them, as Verioren expected, from similar 
successful experiments by Schubart. With the decrease of 
temperature towards autumn and winter, the mobility of the 
embryos witlun the egg-shells also diminished, until at last it 
entirely ceased in the winter, but recommenced in the follow- 
ing spring, and again became very distinct in the summer 
months. During the whole course of the experiment a spon- 
taneous exclusion of the embryos from the eggs never took 
place. In eggs, therefore, the following remarkable 
peculiarities may be observed :— The eggs of other animals 
may, indeed, he for a long time before the young make their 
appearance; as, for example, in many insects; but this always 
takes place within a year ;' the eggs of many animals may 
also be delayed for a long time in their development, but 
then the development of the young cannot have commenced 
at all. But if this be once the case, and the young be 
developed, it must either be excluded soon, or it dies in a 
few days, whilst in the present instance, the ready-formed 
embryo lives more than a year in the egg-shell, lite other 
worms in an encysted state, which live enclosed in their 
cyst. Both are, probably, enabled to live for a certain time 
unchanged in the egg-shells or cysts, both, as is well known, 
agreeing in being asexual, and therefore their species difficult 
to determine; this condition is only changed by other favour- 
able circumstances, and the animals thcrehv carried on towards 
their development. Lastly, it is certain that the embryos of 
the nematode worms may pass the winter in a sort of torpid 
state hi the open waters. 

When Verioren set free the embryos artificially by crushing 
the eggs, they soon died, partly stifled by the tungoid struc- 

1 [That is to say, naturally, for Roaurnur. by placing the eggs of the insect 
in an ice-house, retarded their development beyond the year.] 



tures growing about them, and partly from their becoming 
the seat of fungoid growtliB. Independently of Verloreo'a 
investigations, and at a period when the experiments of that 
savant eould not have been known in Germany, 11. E. Eiehter 
of Dresden, had also put the eggs of ;in Ascaris lumbricoide 
into water (on the 15th of November, 1854). The eggi 
which were all without living embryos, and which had no 
even exhibited globules of segmentation, were i 
by Eiehter for some time after their being placed i 
but on the 15th October, 1S55 (consequently after the 1 
of eleven months*), he found living embryos iu all the egL;s. i 
which he aeut a considerable number to llaubuer, Leuckart, 
and myself. These were employed in experiments, ~ ' 
unfortunately famished no result. 

"When I examined dry e^s of the same worm, which Eiehter 
had sent to me, I had only the opportunity of confirming 
Kichter's statement, that on the loth of November, 1854, t 1 " 
eggs had hardly commenci'd any development. 

All this shows that a portion of the egjjs of the nematode 
worms issues, in the first instance, passively from the body of 
their previous host into the external world, and first of all 
passes the stage of its development, up to the formation of 
embryos, in the open water.] 1 

2. Another species. — Mr. Bellingham has described* an- 
other species otAtaaris peculiar to man, which he discovered in 
Dublin, and for which he has proposed the name c " 
alata. MM. Dujardin andDiesiug admit the species, although 
it has only beeu observed once. The two individuals which 
were found were females. 

This animal was three and a half inches in length, half a line 
in width anteriorly, and three-fourths of a line posteriorly. 
At the anterior extremity it had two semi-transparent mem- 
branous wiwt/x, exrcndoiu' fur about a hue and a quarter, and 
rather straighter anteriorly than posteriorly. The body was 
bent anteriorly. The tail was straight iin.l -polled with black. 
It resembles the species of Ascaris which infestB the cat, 
Ascaris inystax, Bud. 

M. Diesing suspects that this worm might 1 
Ascaris lumbricoides, whose skin had becomo inflated and 
raised up around the mouth. If this species is to be retained, 
the oral appendages approximate it to the genus Oxyuris, and 
justify M. JJiesiug's union of these genera. 
1 Opm at, vol. l,p. 310. 
' [Amah of Nat. MUt., vol. liii. p. 173.] 


[Kuchenmeister rejects the AacarU afata, observing that it 
is probably only a young individual of one of the long-known 
Nematoda, if, indeed, he adds, it be a worm at all.] 1 

3. Action on mas. — The Aicaris lumbricoides inhabits 
every country. It is frequently found in the intestines of 
children, less frequently in those of adults, and hardly ever in 
those of old people. It is found more particularly in young 
persona of a lymphatic temperament, who live upon bad and 
indigestible food, and who iniabit low, damp, and ill-venti- 
lated localities, circumstances which in large towns are very 
common to the children of the poorer classes. 

M. Cruveilhier found more than a thousand in the body of 
a young idiot girl. 

According to Petit, of Lyons, the son of a veterinary sur- 
geon at Eoanne discharged two thousand in the course of five 

The Aecariihs are genernllv met with in the small intestines. 
They have, however, been found in other organs, but this was 
an accidental occurrence. Thus M. Jules Cloquet has seen 
them in the large intestines. Eudolphi thinks that they are 
always expelled with the fasces, when they have passed into 
the colon. 

These Hehnintha may ascend to the stomach and from thence 
to the pharynx. It has been stated that some have passed 
into the larynx (Blandin, Tonnelle), and even into the bronchi 
(Chassaignac), giving rise to very dangerous results. 1 M. 
Jobert de Lamballe has mentioned the name of a person who 
died suffocated by one of these worms, which had penetrated 
into the trachea. MM. Lepelletier and Lebert have also men- 
tioned a case of death from suffocation. 

It is not extremely rare to find the Aicaris lumbricoidet 
introducing itself into the nasal fossa!, and then passing out 
by the nostrils. Achille Kichard met with a case of this kind 
in an infant. Martin Slubber speaks of a man who discharged 
one when in the act of sneezing. Bremser has described ft 
similar instance, in which an old woman discharged one of 
these worms when blowing her nose. M. Cruveilhier relates 
the case of a patient, who, after excessive pain in one of his 
nostrils, to his great astonishment, drew from it a very long 

The Asearit lumhricoides may enter the biliary ducts (Ton- 
nelle, Bstevenet) and may even lodge itself in the gall-bladder. 
1 Oput cil, vol. 2, p. 100. 
* These perforations often take place *fter death. (CrovollMor.) 


Loennec met with it in the dead body of an infant whieh had 
vomited 9 bm quantity of these worms, the biliary ducts wen? 
distended, and the substance of the liver looked as if it had 
been eaten away. 51. Bouisson has recorded an instance in 
which a fragment of an Aicari* had become the nucleus of a 
biliary calculus. 

Gmelin discovered an AscarU three inches in length a 
pancreatic duct. 

Several of these creatures have been expelled thi 
opening in the umbilicus (Poussin), and others, in 
strangulated hernia which was gangrenous, issued from an ab- 
scess in the abdominal walls. Dr. Brizet, of Chalabre, found a 
live Aicaru nearly eight inches long in a tumour in the groin, 
which appeared like an inflammation of the inguinal glands. 

Authors have recorded cases in which the patients have had 
one of these worms in the maxillary sinus (Deseiiamps), in 
the frontal sinuses, in the kidneys, in the bladder (Dumeril), 
or in the uterus. It is, however, necessary to remark that 
many of these eases are incorrect, and that what has been 
mistaken for Axcarides has been cither worms belonging to 
other genera, the larv* of other animals, or even foreign bodies 
of an entirely different nature. 

The instances in which the Atcarides have been found in t! 
neighbourhood of the alimentary canal after it has been j 
forated, are extremely rare, in spite of M. Easpail 'b i 
to the contrary, who considers these Helmintha as i 
leeches. MM. Beequerel andBailly have mentioned an instai 
of perforation of the eajcum. A very curious specimen of tl 

kind has been preserved in the Dupuytren Museum. In 18 

M.Cloquetfoundinthebodyof an infant three large Ascaride* 
on the anterior surface of the sacrum, in the folds of the rocso- 
rectum. These eotozoft had emerged^ through an ulcerated 
opening in the intestine, but they had not caused any inrlani- 

The abscesses caused by these worms have been divided into 
two series ; the non-xtcrcoraccous, in which the perforation ii 
small that the ftecal matter cannot pass out, and the stercori 
out, whieh allow the excrements to filter out. (G-uersant.) 

The Ascuris alaia was found in the small intestines. 



The Oxyvrh vermicularis. Dialling., Ascitis vermicularis, 
Linn., was regarded by Linnaus m a species ufAscaris. 1 

Jt was I)i'rili]ii^c]i:iin|js vim established the genua Oxyuria. 
The meaning of the word ia pointed tail? a character which 
per fret] j applies d.j the females, but not to the malea. 

The Oxyuridcs are distinguished from the Ascurides by the 
rudimentary condition of their throe oral tubercles, and by the 
aliform enlargements at the mouth, which are wanting in the 
Ascarides. In reality, these characters are insufficient, and it 
ia this which has induced M. Diesiug to regard the Oxyurides 
as a section of the Ascarides. 

1. The OxruEis Vebmiculabis ia the only species be- 
longing to the genus which is found in man. The animal hears 
a strong resemblance to the Vibrio of paste made from flour. 

Description (fig. 106). — The O.rt/uridcs are very small Sel- 
minlha, measuring from three to lour lines in length. Linnasus 
has undoubtedly confounded them with another worm, when 
he says they may attain the length of an inch. Their width 
varies from the y^ 5 to the -^ of an inch. The body is filiform, 
attenuated at the two extremities, 
and provided with indistinct trans- 
verse markings ; it consists of a 
strong, elastic, semi-transparent 
tissue of a snow-white colour. 

Anteriorly these animals have a 
slightly enlarged portion, which is 
known as the head, and is sup- 
ported by a very imperfectly de- 
nned neck. Several writers have 
imagined that this part is provided 
with two appendages or membra- 
nous contractile vesicles in the 
form of wings. According to 
MM. Dujardin and Easpail, there 
exists at this part a uniform ves- Fig. I Ob.— Orbits. 3 

1 See preceding chapter. 

9 Ofin sharp, alijib \iil. 

* a, male ; b, female; c, cephalic extremity, showing the three tubercle 
and the aliform dilatation ; d, caudal extranttj ul iW matt; e, caudal ex- 
tremity of the female ; f, egg 


I iml*-r»l 
n II euuuined bi uiaffc tie 
Motive njijA-aruK'e of two 
i n^mn-i ui opaque canal 
■ m HwHw4 I'V intlMrem* »tri«", which a**e l 

■ II : !■■..:. ) Thi mtmtk m hollowed 
tuna m ft ■Qclur, unci i* i-oosequentlT 

'Mi which haa jurtbdauay 

I'KI, f), 11 lug QUM -light projecting tuberde*. 

villi ft thoft triangular u^jphagua, which" 

■1 wftUft, nini i» dilated into »" 

< »>ili Urn stomach; the latter i 

i in •■ it icemen t of the intestine ia 

■ i luM I '" ftl Iiiry 



I hw the appearance 

unwed ouch other— the crop, the 

dilatation. These pooches: 

II.. , '1 

i ih n 'Iv itraight, runs in the lenrti rf 

1 1 ' 

m ii uniform diameter up to the rtctua. 

It IIM VMtl 

i ii brown, yellow, or greyish, gramaar 

mailer U 1.. ii i 

1 < bint) >i Ih.i 

'I'linul e 1 Nun arrived at the posterior 

win'" fiilarged, iiml forms a short rer- 

i .i.. 

iiLiiiU tln< whole width of the visceral 

\\ i 

rrinmiil inn llicciuiiil ^railuallv narrowa. 
1 lulu Llw i'omo. At this part it appears 
lnil not iptml, us is stated by Bremeer. 

in- ll wliloli 

Mi In ■liHlilli 



.'P inn.', the rime*, which is possibly of • 
Mull ii' Hi* (rrmnulea which have beat 

1 it i |iw 

■ im>iiHniiHl 

U m placed towarda the middle part of 

III! ll 1 M, l„l 

il" margin* tiif everted, and form a, pair 

llf«lt| -T- 1 


II |l [| I I,,,,, ba 

, |ii.mie.l md ii !.nii;ihidinnl central vessel 

imitniHH W il in 

ii,. i .. 

1 titinl hands or fibres, whieb 

■ '"'I il 

ii .1 ly \l H.i>n'ml Td*m are plneed at 

'i luti >>»l» i H\f\ 

- i ■ lei n.ii. mid more opaque 

limit ll 'il ill On' liaam«MU< evieud tVimi the head tot 

... i. nl th« 1*11 l%i ■■■ Hlwwi Ktt* tin animal that k 

. . .i . . i,-, .,!... ii ■! i - ,!hi.i, i.ii ..-.I Lonndiag to I 

lliv .I.H. ii In. I, ml ... ■ . | ,wv» the bauds is 

iiimeil ill' eli».i|.i m-tm^vd BValvi Mw»Mlfti fUrM&njj * longitudi 
li\.'i .'ii Hi.' Mil Pi WA * tWwlttWwJ IftJW uii the inte 

EMS. 345 

According to M. Baspail, the akin, when seen beneath the 
microscope, appenrB to be composed of flattened cells having 
the form of transverse parallelograms separated by fibres or 
bands, more distinct in the transverse than in the longitudinal 

If the worm is divided, the pieces contract, or become coiled 
up. Duges has skilfully availed himself of these contractions 
in the study of the different organs. On wounding or cutting 
a living annual, the viscera sometimes form a kind of hernial 
sac and become more distinct. 

During life the Oxyurideg move in an undulating and 
tolerably active manner. They twist themselves about in vari- 
ous ways in the midst of the thickened mucus by which they 
are surrounded. They can advance or retreat with equal 
facility. It is said they can even leap, and in that manner 
clear spaces Bix or eight times the length of their bodies ; the 
vivacity of their movements is increased when they are irritated. 
They move out of the way of any impediment which they may 
meet with. They appear to avoid the light ; their abode 18 
no better lighted than that of the majority of the intestinal 

When they are wounded, the extremity of the body, which 
is nearest to the injured part, seems to turn towards the wound, 
to examine it, and to endeavour to remove this as the source of 
ita suffering. (Duges.) Every section, to whatever part of the 
body it may belong, continues to bve for aome time if it is of 
a auitable length. Duges observed that the part to which the 
head was attached lived lunger than that belonging to the tail, 
and this longer than a Bection from the middle of the body. 

The Qxyurides prefer living in society, and are seldom found 
solitary. They gather together in clusters, intertwine, roll 
themselves up mto halls, and often form masses of considerable 

These entozoa are unisexual. The males (fig. 106, a, rf) 
seem to be scarcer and smaller than the females. They are 
not more than from one to two lines in length. Their bodiea 
are thread-like, with the caudal portion aomewhat thickened, 
and bent into a spiral form. They have two spiculae. The 
females (fig. 106, b, c) are fusiform, very attenuated posteriorly, 
with the caudal portion awl-sbaped and straight. The sexual 
orifice is placed a little in front of the anterior fourth of the 
body ; it is a transverse opening with projecting lips, which oc- 
casionally gives egress ti> tbeeggs during certain contractions of 
the animal. The oviduct may be compared to a straight bag, very 


long, and with great power of contraction, although formed by 
an extremely delieate membrane. It is no doubt bound down 
by the general covering, for when it pauses out of wounds it 
becomes elongated and much increased in size ; it occupies the 
whole length of the worm with the exception of the cephalic 
extremity and the tail ; there seems to be no opening excepting 
that opposite the vulva. Anteriorly it becomes narrower and 
more twisted ; posteriorly it terminates in a pointed cul de *k. 
Towards l.he ant trior third il pivM-nts ;t nmr-lrii-tinn. M. Kaj- 
pail shows that the anterior portion is more especially the ovary, 
and that the remainder corresponds to the uterus. This canal 
seems to consist of two folds, I'm* iln-ji's has re marked that where 
there are wounds in the middle of the body there usually 
emerges a large gut and a small gut. 

The Oxt/tiridw are sometimes found twined round each 
other. Some of these animals arc probably in the act of copu- 
lation. The observations of Dunes on the Uhiiditis give soma 
support to this notion. As the males and the females are not 
always met with at the same time, Bremser haB suggested that 
the generation of the 0.i\r/irri<!/\i is analogous to that of the 
Aphides, which only produce females during the summer, while 
food is plentiful, but dining the autumn they lay eggs, which, 
in the following spring produce both females and males. The 
latter fecundate their own females, and also those of the follow- 
ing generation. It iB difficult to decide the question. It may, 
however, be remarked, that the nutriment furnished by the 
rectum to the Qxyuridt's is always equally abundant, and if 
there are circumstances under which it varies it does so with 
great irregularity. 

Duges has on several occasions surprised the Oxyvrides in 
the act of laving their eggs. The eggs are very numerous. 
M. Raspail haw culci'laled that each worm may contain 3,024. 
The eggs (fig. 106,/) are elliptical or oval, flattened, provided 
with two coverings, and filled with a gelatinous transparent 
material. Then- long diameter is live or six times the size of 
the globules of tho human blood. The surface is granulated. 
"While they ore still in the animal they are constantly chang- 
ing their place ; some pass from before backwards, and others 
in the opposite direction. It is this movement which has caused 
several observers to mistake them for embryos, and to con- 
clude that the Oj-j/tiriJcs were viviparous parasites. Goeze 
is amongst the number. But, as it is mentioned above, Duges 
has seen the eggs issuing from the vulva. At the same time 
it is not impossible that these entozoa may be oviparous at 

one season, and viviparous at another, just in the same manner 
as the Aphides and the Planaria, although the locality in which 
they reside cannot be much influenced by external agents. 

2. Action on man. — The Oxyurides are found in infanta. 
They are also met with in adults, but not so frequently. M. 
Taudon knew a tolerably robust man, fifty yoarB of age, who 
had been tormented with them [for ten years. M. Cruveil- 
hier found them in a person of seventy. These worms are very 
common. Their presence seldom produces any serious dis- 
turbance of the health. 

Notwithstanding what has been said, they are not met with 
in very young infants. M. Tandon's colleague, M. Natalia 
Guillot, physician In the Hojiititl Neiker, in the course of twelve 
yearB never met with the Oxynris vermicularix in children 
before they were weaned. 

These entozoa reside in large intestines, particularly in the 
lower part of the rectum, near the anus. Their presence 
causes a peculiar and disagreeable itching, especially at night 
when the person is going to bed. 

The fa;ees usually contain some of the worms, which twist 
and move themselves about on the surface of the expelled mat- 
ter, and die as soon as this becomes cold. They are never 
found either dead or alive in the centre of the excrements, and 
they soon perish when placed in any saline liquid. (Raspail.) 

when the tfayuride* increase to an alarming extent, they 
ascend the intestines and pass into the ea?eum. (Bremser.) 
Wolf, Bloch, and M. Andral state that they have found some 
of these animals in a cyst formed in the walls of the stomach. 
Brera says that he has observed them in the oesophagus of a 
woman. Fernel has stated that they sometimes pass into the 
mouth, and that during slivp they even get into the nose. 

In young girls the Oxyurides may introduce themselves 
into the vagina. Sauvages gives the name of pudendagra ab 
Ascaridibm to a disease caused by the irritation of these 
Helminths in the vulva. Becker, Scharf, and Bremser speak 
of aged females in whom the presence of the Oxyurides had 
produced a kind of nymphomania. Benedetti found these 
worms between the placenta and the walla of the uterus in a 
woman who was in the eighth month of her pregnancy. 

Tra soinftl was robeed by J „ 
dworma, it was fortrjClexL Donne; the winter of 1 
» Undent of Gottinern. who was diiftftrtiag the i»1tc i 
colon is the body of a young girl fire yean old, ft 

f to ft species not preriansly knows, 
Cn.f6.Wagler, mamtained that they were Oxy* 
large size. Other persona mtatooktbem for Terj ■ 
rid**.* From this ft sctio m iliannsirm, or rather quarrel, a. 
which might hare been eaailr settled if the newly disco* 
worm had only been carefully compared either with an J 
or an OxgurU. fitederer, having beard of the dispute, b 
animal in question brought to him, and having examined ii 
Buttner, t nev both came to the conclusion that it was ~ 
specie*. Buttner gave it the name of Trichiuru (bair-fc 

About the same time an epidemic was raging in the d 
of the French army stationed at Gottingen. Boeder) 
Wsgler five it the name of morbus macaw* ; and as the 
Trickiurr.* were frequently found in the bodies of the Boldiera 
who died from it, Btederer entertained the notion that these 
parasites were the cause of the disease. But all the soldiers 
did not have Trichiuret, and on the other hand many persons 
had them, who bad died from other diseases besides the morbut 
mucosas. Linnanis regarded the TrichiurU as a species of 
Ancarut. It was, however, soon discovered that the anterior 
part of the animal had been mistaken for the posterior, and 
it was therefore considered necessary to change the name of 
Trichiurit to that of Trickocephalus* 

1. The Tkichocepiia.i.113 of mas. — Trichoccphalog hominis, 
Goeze, AxcarU Trichina, Linn., Trichoccphalu* aispar, Hudolp. 
As the name implies, this is the only species which is found 
in man. 

Dencription (fig. 107). — The worm is from one and a half to 
two inches in length, and from -j-g^ to -j-Jf-j of an inch in width. 
The body is cylindrical, slender, slightly annulatod, of a white 
or whitish, sometimes yellow, colour, and at other times o 

1 See preceding chapter. 

' Seo page 31!, 

■ tt(ilv£ rpix&i » hair, and Ki<pa\li tho h 



same colour as its food. The body looks as if it was formed 
of two portions ; one anterior and filiform, the other posterior 
and somewhat thicker. 
The slender portion oc- H 

t cupieB two-thirds of the H 

< r 1 ^HflH 
writers describe it as 1 

J the neck. It does not, 1 
however, support any 1 

cephalic enlargement, 1 ^^F^^l 
but gradually narrows 1 ^^^jj^fl 
to a point. ^t^^^ri^^^^siw^^l 
The month (fig. 107. ^■^j^ 

1 c) is a small round ter- | 

minal opening, which it Fig _ i 07 .-Trickocepluitus.' 
is difficult to detect. 

Wrisberg believed he had seen a small tube at thia part, but 
neither Muller, Rudolphi, nor Bremser.was able to discover it. 
The anus is placed quite at the posterior extremity of the 

The digestive canal forms almost a straight line from the 
mouth to the anus. The cesophagus occupies the capillary 
portion. It must necessarily be of extreme tenuity. The 
remainder of the canal appears to be somewhat thicker, and as 
if it were muscular. According to Meyer there is no distinct 
gastric enlargement. 

The Trichoeephali are unisexual. The males (fig. 107, a) are 
shorter than the females ; the thick portion of their body is 
proportionately long, and is bent into a spiral form. The 
spermatic vessels SM situated posteriorly, and after pursuing 
a very tortuous course terminate at the anal aperture. At 
that part there is a small, uiibeyliiidriejil. elongated sheath, 
which forms a cup at its termination, is semi-transparent, and 
forms a case for the spicnlum. The latter is single, filiform, 
pointed, and capable ui' being retracted. The females (107, S) 
are always straight ; never spiriibnn like the males. This cir- 
cumstance at first led Rtcderer, Wagler, and Wrisberg to look 
upon the two sexes as two distinct species. Pallas discovered 
the male in the Trichoeephalus of a lizard, and described it 
under a specific name {Tcenia spiralis) ; he also thinking that 
the spiral form indicated a distinct species. The oviduct is 

1 a, male; b, female; c, cephalic extremity with the terminal mouth; 

d, caudal eitruiuiiy of the male with generative sheath and ita spiculmn ; 

e, an egg. 


placed around tbe alimentary canal, and opens at the junction I 
of the capillary with the thicker portion oi the body. 

The eggs (fig. 107, c) are large in proportion to the size of I 
the animal ; ttiey are elliptical, and terminated at each extern)- I 
ity by a small rounded nodule ; the shell ia strong. According I 
to the receut observations of M. Davaine, the eggs are not 
hatched in the intestine of man ; they are always expelled in I 
the same condition as when they were laid. 

M. Davaine has succeeded in developing the eggs in water. 
At the end of six months the segmentation of the yelk com- 
mences, and the embryo makes its appearance two monthi 
later. To a certain extent it possesses the form of the adult; 
it is about the yJ,^ of an inch in length. 

Trichina.— MM. Kuclienmeistcr and Wedond think that 
the larva of tbe Trichoce|>halus is probably the small encysted 
entozoa discovered in 1835' by Prof. Owen in the dead body 
of an Italian, who died in St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and to 
whieh he gave the name of Trichina spiralis. All the volun- 
tary muscles of the body were observed to be covered with 
minute white spots. Upon examining these granulations, 
Prof. Owen found that they were oval, and eaeh containing a 
small worm. He considered the worm to be a new species, 
which was not referable to any known genera. Several in- 
stances of its occurrence have since been recorded by different 
observers. [It has been found in England, Germany, and 

The cyBts are of an elliptical fif^ure, with the extremities more 
or less attenuated; they are always more opaque than the in- 
termediate part of the cyst, which is in general sufficiently 
transparent to show that it contains a minute worm coiled up. 
The usual size of the cyst ia -^ of an inch in the long diameter, 
and y^i of an inch across their middle part. (Owen.) Each 
cyst consists of two layers ; the external is produced by the 
diseased tissue, and is surrounded by a vascular net work, 
while the interior is formed by the worm itself. (Luscha.) The 
worm has no orgiiiiiu connection with the cyst; sometimes two 
Trichina, rarely three, occur in tbe same cyst. By cutting off 
the extremity of the cyst, which may be done with a cataract 
needle or a hue knife, and gently pressing on the opposite ex- 
tremity, the Trichina and the grunuhir secretion with which it 
is surrounded will escape ; and it frequently starts out as soon 
as the cyst is opened. When first extracted, the Trichina ii 

* Tiedcmau noticed similar vesicles as for back as 1822. 

la U 

Pig. 107.— Trk/tucephalus' 

' extremity t 


Hame colour as itH food. The body looks as if it was formed 
of two portions ; one anterior and filiform, the other posterior 

and somewhat thicker. 

The slender portion oc- 
cupies two-thirds of the 
entire length. Some 
writers describe it as 
the neck. It does not, 
however, support any 
cephalic enlarj 
but gradually r 
to a point. 

The mouth (fig. 107, 
e) is a small round ter- 
minal opening, which it 
is difficult to detect. 
Wrisberg believed be had & 
neither Muller, Kudolphi, ni 

The anus is placed quite at the poster! 

The digestive canal forms almost a straight line from the 
mouth to the anus. The cesophagus occupies the capillary 
portion. It muBt necessarily be of extreme tenuity. The 
remainder of the canal appears to be somewhat thicker, and as 
if it were muscular. According to Meyer there is no distinct 
gastric enlargement. 

The Trichoctphali an 1 unisexual. The males (lig. 107, a) are 
shorter than the females ; the thick portion of their body is 
proportionately long, and is bent into a spiral form. The 
spermatic vessels are situated posteriorly, and after pursuing 
a very tortuous course terminate at the anal aperture. At 
that part there is a small, subeylindrical, elongated sheath, 
which forms a cup at its termination, is semi-transparent, and 
forms a case for the spiculum. The latter is single, filiform, 
pointed, and capable of being retracted. The females (107, b) 
are always straight ; never spirit'orm like the males. This cir- 
cumstance at first led Kiederer, Wsigler, and Wrisberg to look 
upon the two Bexes as two distinct species. Pallas discovered 
the male in the Trichocrpkirfus of a lizard, aud described it 
under a specific name (Tcenia spiralis) ; he also thinking that 
the spiral form indicated a distinct species. The oviduct is 

1 a, mile; b, female ; 
if, caudal extremil ■* tl 
e, an egg. 


- :■ 

■, owing to "the ■i( j U of the 7Wr"4i»*. 

; P i 'ra ia w ia iwiDond, the entozoa 
at innraraT Oavoe in which thev are 
lodged in the ttanack, and frora thence ro»ie their way into 
the rmII mtectmea. On the third or fourth day sperm eeBs 
and egga are found, and the mm hare heroine distinct. Soon 
afterwards the eggs are fecundated, and are developed in the 
body of the female*. The young are expelled from the vaginal 
aperture situated on the anterior half of the worm. Virehow 
baa found them under the form of minute fSlaria in the 
mesenteric gland* and in the serous cavities, parricularir 
those of the jteritoneum and the pericardium ; they appear to 
traverse the intestinal walla, in all probability by penetrating, 
like the Peoroepenma, the epithelial cells of the intestine. 
Vin.-h.ijw baa been unable to detect them in the blood or in the 
course of the circulation. 

Ab they continue their migrations they are found in the 
primitive muscular fasiculi, where they are met with in con- 
siderable numbers three weeks alter the food has been taken, 
and have attained nearly the same size as those which had been 
enclosed in the flesh eaten by the animal. 

In order to be certain that the animal was not already ij 
fested by the Trichin/e, Virehow, on several occasions befor 
feeding the animal, excised and examined a portion of 1 
muscles of the back, and was unable to find a trace c " 
entozoa, where they were afterwards so plentiful. 

The Trichina: penetrate the primitive muscular fasiculi i 
succession. Behind them the muscle becomes atrophied whil 
an irritation is excited around them, and on the fifth week they 
commence to he encysted, the saivok-imiiii becomes thickened 
and a cyst is formed around them. 

Virehow prosecuted Ids experiments by means of the musclea 
of a woman who had died m the same manner as has been 


mentioned with regard to the rabbits, and whose body pre- 
sented no other lesion than the presence of innumerable Tri- 
cAitue. What ia most important, is the fact that these entozoa 
may exist even in fatal numbers, and yet not be visible to the 
naked eye. This was the case with the body of the female 
mentioned above ; it is only when the cyst is in a very ad- 
vanced state of cretification that they are visible to the naked 
eye, and this may not take place for months after the animals 
are first encysted. 

The patient had been under the care of Professor Zeucher, 
of Dresden, and bad been brought from the country. On 
making inquiries in the locality from whence the woman had 
come, Professor Zeucher found that ft. pig had been killed con- 
taining Trichinm, and that the hams and sausages which had 
been made from it contained a large number of these entozoa. 
The butcher who had killed the animal and Beveral other 
persons had had rheumatic and typhoid symptoms of greater 
or less severity, but no other person besides Professor Zeueher's 
patient had d'ed in consequence.] 


The genua Ancylostomum 1 is allied to that of Sfcrongylus, 
which will be noticed hi the next chapter ; it ia characterized 
by having its mouth provided with a corneous armature. This 
genua includes only a single species. 

1. The Ancylostomum nnoDEiTALE, Kuch., Ancyhatoma 
duodenale, Dub., was discovered, in 1838, by Dr. Angelo Dubini, 
in the body of a young peasant in the hospital at Milan. 

Description (fig. 108). — The body of these entozoa varies from 
about two and a half to rather more than four and a half linea 
in length; it is nearly straight. <>r slightly ourveil, cylindrical, and 
transparent at the anterior part, yellow, reddish, or brown pos- 
teriorly, and marked in the central portion with a small dark 
Hpot, which corresponds to the commencement of the intestine. 

Tbe mouth ia circular, and consists of a large horny capsule, 
which is obliquely truncated, and is furnished at its upper part 
with four strong teeth in the form of hooks, which curve towards 
its centre ; on the inferior portion aro four small conical pro- 

1 *A-fita\ot curved, and otiSuh mouth. 


» MV i- . i ■ ■■ - .1 mthoi 

murium- N' ,v ' •**» ** W 

■ •■ I 


,.|Vll IVvvh . 

MKUtClL C00L06T. 

|ir<iW>ly organ* of UkL 1 
lobular, and of a daari 

about four lines in length, i 
ad with the and 
nm ill. At this part there i* i *acsi 
ii membrwotM cup-like ■ 
tided wilh i' radiatlu 
of which are placed on c 

one in the centre; all tin in in ■■■ 

simple, except the centra], which i* kifn 
■ Mini Tin 1 Hpiculiim ia loo,, _ 
Tlio female ia hi jimp what larger than tic 
male, measuring from three to four sal 
'i half linei in length. One male ■ 
(bund bo three female* 

M I 'ill. mi onoe i'mmd a pair m eaitm; 
the mole was linnly attached by means at 
hiit ciiinliil membrane around' the ndn 

Df M« leimile. 

\i now on man. — Since hia first 
iliBi-oi.'i'i of tho J'liylostoinum, Dr. Dn- 
linii li:i? imi uilli it twenty times in one 
hundred bodies. MM. Primer, Bflhan, 
and Grioatnwr, found it at Cairo, in 
ftp iW and M Bachricht met with it in 

Tin' fajWoafoMum inhabits the duo 
fauun sml the commencement of the 
Jejunum, The Dumber of individuals ia 
mmetimM rorj considerable. 

n li Rnnlj attached to the 

niUeiXM membrane bj means of its hooks. 

'■ ■ ■ live itself there is a slight 

lentil, in the centre of which is a 

.hlle li is saiii that these entozoa 

,1i»*l ni»mrwThat}Wi M. Dubini 

■ i . itroj the patient. 

be nc. doubt. Grie- 

i.iiiti fiirnW h\ the worms blood 

tea, »n.l thai ntcfa a piece of in- 

hM«M« iVgwOat mW »t\ •.-** in »)w (M*ri« ,-J body. 


testine may be entirely filled with blood, which has flowed out 
of the punctured places. One consequence of thiB disorder is 
anasmia, and the name writer concludes that the chlorosis, so 
generally diffused in Egypt, which he had previously described 
aa the Egyptian chlorosis, and which in a greater or leas 
degree attacks at least one fourth of the population, is pro- 
duced by this worm. 

In the milder form of the disorder, there is paleness of the 
general integument and mucous membrane, palpitation of the 
heart, quick piilse, slight bodily lassitude without emaciation, 
and occasionally slight disturbances of the digestion (Gastro 
enteritis) occur. If this condition remains uncured for a, long 
time it passes through many intermediate steps to the higher 
degree of the disorder, whii-.h rloscs as i 'hi orotic marasmus. 
The disease often lasts for years, but in many cases its progresB 
is very acute. Even with great care the individuals remain 
pallid, sickly, and miserable ; slight acute diseases, which make 
their appearance, are very serious, and at last dysentery carries 
off the patient. Only occasionally a patient recovers by a 
change of climate and all other conditions of life. Fatiguing 
labour and debilitating antiphlogistic treatment hasten the 
end. Or the patients die from diarHi;<.-a genera) dropsy with- 
out albumen in the urine, &c, in spite of all the iron and 
wine.] ' 



The genus Slrongyhts a was founded in 1788 by Otto 
Frederick Miillcr in his Zoologia Danica. 

The characters of the Stronggli are as follows: The body 
elongated, cylindrical, and attenuated posteriorly ; the mouth 
has six tubercles; the tail is simple in the female, but in the 
male it terminates in a cup, in the centre of which is the 
double penis. 

Lamark considers these animals as the most highly organized 
of the entozoa. 

The tvpe of the genus was the species which is found in the 
horse, the Strongglus equinus of Muller, or Strongylu* armatus 
of Budolphi. 

1 [KUchenmeisler, Ofnu at, vol. i. pp. 386-387.] 
1 Srpoyyitoi, cylindrical. 


1. The Strokotlcs of the kidket, Stronoj/lma rmaVa. 
Strongi/lu* ff'ff"'. Hud., Eutlrontfi/liia gigot, Diea., baa been long 
known. Gmelin regarded it as an Ascarti, and made tn 
species of it. Rudolphi recognized that tin 1 
parasite belonged to the genua 
Of Muller. 

Description.— Strovgyhi* renalia (fig. 109) 
varies in length from six to thirty-tan 
inches ; it is said that it may even attain to 
j the length of six feet ; its thickness m equal 
, to that of a large quill, occasionally it is 
equal to the diameter of the little finder. 
Cuvier considered it was the moat volumi- 
nous of all the intestinal worms. It is. ia 
fact, the giant of the cylindrical entozos. 
Bremser speaks of a Stron</i/lua from the 
martin which was thirty-two inches in 
length this was probably a different 
species. But if the Kidneys of this (mall 
mammal could sustain a worm of Buch a size, 
there would be nothing surprising in finding 
ne three feet long in the human subject. 
[A worm one foot eight inches in length, 
occupying the entire capsule of the left 
kidney, whose parenchyma was entirely de- 
stroyed by it, M in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons (No. 177a).] 

The body of the Strtmgyfut renali* is 
cylindrical, and only very slightly attenuated 
at the two extremities: the surface is smooth, 
and obscurely annulated. Bremser was not 
able to perceive the rings. When alive 
" a reddish hue, either of a rose tint 
more or less intense brick red 
colour. Some are of a blood red colour, 
but this tint is soon lost when the animal ia 
placed in spirits of wine. 

The Strongylus renalis has no cephalic 
enlargement. The anterior extremity (fig. 
110, a) is obtuse, and, as it were, truncated. 
The mouth is placed in its centre ; it ia 
eular, and surrounded by six tubercles. 
1 " i straight, and more or less strii 

Numerous filaments connect it to the sul 

is cir- 


neous muscular layer. The anus is 
situated at the extremity of the tail. 
The uervous system consists of 
a single nerve, of a dead white 
colour, passing along tbe ventral 
surface from the anterior to the 
posterior extremity; it is provided 
with a series of ganglions, from 
which a number of i 

ments are distributed to the neighb our ing parts. 

The Strongylut renalu is unisexual. The males (fig. 109) 
are smaller than the females. The dilated portions of their 
caudal extremity (fig. 110, b) has the form of a sucker, with a 
smooth even margin ; in the centre is a projecting vesicle, 
from which a long double filiform penis emerges in the shape 
of two rigid ami [jointed threads. 

The female has no caudal dilatation ; the tail is simply and slightly curved ; the genital orifice is placed in 
front of the centre of the body ; the ovary is single, and has 
the form of a tube of considerable length ; it is estimated to be 
three or four times as long as the body. 

[It commences by an obtuse blind extremity close to the 
anal extremity of the body, and is firmly attached to the 
termination ot the intestine ; it passes first in a straight bne 
to the anterior extremity of the body, and when arrived within 
a short distance from tbe vulva is again attached to the parietes 
of the body, and makes a sudden turn backwards; it then 
forms two long Iooub about the middle of the body and returns 
again forwards, suddenly dilating into a uterus, which is three 
inches in length, and from the anterior extremity of which a 
slender cylindrical tube or vagina, about an inch in length, is 
continued, which, after forming a small convolution, terminates 
in the vulva at the distance of two inches from the anterior 
extremity of the body.]' 

This species has not been seen in coitu, but in a neigh- 
bouring species the sucker of the male was firmly applied 
against the female, and the two animals adhered strongly 

Second species. — IVI, Diesing has described another species, 
under the name of Strungylus louf/evaginatits. 

1 a, cephalic extremity, showing the sis tubercles; b, caudal extremity 
of the mile with its pouch and the principal spiculum or penia. 
■ Richard Owen, apuMcit, p. IDS; and Art. Entozoa, Cyclopedia of Anatomy 
d Physiology, voL U. 1837. 


This in Gtxmd in 1&45, ia Traa r than k. hy Dr. J« 

t eephafic ejtre n uly is c 
e n. ■-.-'; : - - - ~l led nth ■ j [ ajattsa 
TWuUek&cnn^to^ F ofuiiachmleneth.aiwl^ t efanim 
in breadth; it i* shghtlr attenuated antericrlT : the tail is bra 
sal ia provided with a aabeampanukted bilobi 


it :-:e ;f 

alensV I 

trmsrerae atrix, and is of an orange colon-. 

Tbe ft nude ia two inches in length, and -fe of an inch in thick- 
ness ; it is attenuated anteriorly and posteriorly. The genital 
Orifice is placed beneath tbe end of the tail. 

Tbe tiirongylu* lo*getagi*at*t ia OTOTmpsroos. 

The distinction between this species and tbe Stmmyfku 
renalu is very marked, so that 51. Dieting has no hesitation in 
making these worms tbe types of two distinct genera. The 
lint, Eattrongglut, contains the Stro-ngylu* renali* ; the Si 
Strongglu*, applies to the Strongylu* longevaginatu*. The t 
genera are principally distinguished by the evenness of the m; 

nuch and its having a double penis in tbe first, while h ii 
obed and has only a single penis contained in a dro " 
sheath in the second. 

3. A enow Of MAS. — The fitrongyhi* renalig, as its I 
implies, is found in the kidney. It is also found in the cellular 
tissue surrounding the kidney, and possibly in the midst of the 
neighbouring muscles. 

It is sometimes discharged with the urine, hut that only 
happenswiththeyoungworm. Bremser has figured some small 
filiform worms, $ of an inch in length, whieh had been expelled 
with the urine. He supposes, with reason, that they were 
imperfectly developed Stronm/li. 

Dr. nrtaud had a female under bis care who discharged 
eleven of these worms through the urethra, and yet she con- 
tinued to live. 

The Strongylwt of which he speaks often shows itself only i] 
one kidney, tbe other remaining uninjured. It enlarg 
becomes folded upon itself, causes the organ to swell and 
become inflamed; it gradually destroys its substance a 
paralyses its functions, giving rise to the most frightf 

Strmii/gltit longcvaginatut was met with in the lung of ■ 
child sis years old, in whom there were several, some f 
others adherent to the substance of the lung. 




The genus Spiroptera established by Rudolphi is principally 
characterised by toe tail of the male twins twisted into a spiral 
form, and furnished with marginal appendages, between which 
thepenia emerges. 

This genus comprises a large number of species which live in 
the bodies of the mammalia and of birds, and some few iii 
those of fishes. M. Diesing enumerates fifty-eight species; 
only one of these has been found in man. 

1. Spirdpteoa Hominis. — Thia worm was discovered by 
Dr. Barnett, of London. Rudolphi gave it the name of Spirop- 
tero, Komini*, which has been adopted by MM. Dujardiu and 

Description. — The Spiroptero, is from eight to ten lines in 
length ; the body is narrow, cylindrical, and attenuated at both 
extremities. The head is truncated, and pmviiled witb one or 
two papilla*. The tail in the male is provided on either side 
with a delicate membranous aliform expansion, between which 
ia the spiculum, in tbe form of a. pointed appendage ; the tail 
of the female is thicker, and has a short obtuse apex. 

The two sexes differ in length, the male being the Btnalleat ; it 
is about eight lines in length, while the female is as much aaten. 

This entozoon ia still imperfectly known. Dr. Brighton dis- 
covered a similar but larger animal in South America. M, 
Diesing regards it as a variety of Dr. Barnett'a entozoon. 

Action on man.— The Spiroptero was discharged from the 
bladder of a female twenty-four years of age, who had been 
troubled for some time with retention of urine. Dr. Lanza 
and Luearelli have since found this worm in the urine of 
another female. 

The larger variety from South America was discovered in 
the bladder of a female aged thirty-five. 


1. HlSTOBY. — The Filaritt MediiiensU has been known from 
the earliest times. The first person who appears to have 
mentioned it is Agart hare hides, an historian and philosopher, 
born at Cnidus, and who ' ed between 140 and 150 years, 
B.C., at Alexander. 

800 ittdicai zoologt. 

Plutarch speaks of this entotoon in his Table Talk, i 
*n\», " The people who lire near the Bed Sea are %i 
an extraordinary and hitherto unheard-of i 
worms issue from their bodies in the form of serpent*. ^ 
gnaw their arms and leg« ; when these creatures are t 
tliey withdraw themselves, and insinuating themselves I 
the muscles give rise to horrible sufferings." 

Many merlicai men, who have not had the opportunity u 
examining the Filaria medinensi* for themselves, and are on" 
ncm minted with it through the imperfect descriptions of t 
oliler writers, have put forward the most extravagant si 
concerning this worm. 8oranus maintains that it i 
IWIWm plexus; Pollux says it is a corrupted nerve; Ambi 
Pari regards it as a tumour produced by an ebullition of the bio. 
Gui de Chauliac sees in it a thickening of a vein ,- Frsganti 
a portion of black bile ; Bicherand, a fibrous concretion ; 
Lnrrey, a ip/nntity of atrophied cellular tissue. 

In 1752, Hcnn Uallandat gave some correct ideas concerning 
this worm; in 1830, Dr. Bruktour; in 1844, Dr. Maisson- 
nenve; in 1868, Dr. Cezilly ; and recently, Dr. Thibaut and 
Dr. Bonoit published minute details on the same subject. I,in- 
nieus placed this Helmintha in his genus Gordius. 

Miiller having proposed the genus Filaria' for the receptioi 
of certain cntozoa, the present worm haB since been arranged n 
that group. 

'I'll*- FiUir'm M'dincmig, or Dracunculus? occurs i 
Petra, Senegal, Congo, on the coasts of Angola, in India, i 
America. It is exceedingly rare in Europe, and when it <h 
occur it has been imported from one of the countries of wh: 
it is a native. 

2, Debchii'TION, — The Filaria medinensis has a veiy a 
organization. The uiiimul varies much in length; some 
been mentioned which were not. more than 4j iuehes loi 
while Dr. Giutrac, oi'Bordcaux, received one from the Havai 
which measured 19| inches. Heath states that out of seve 
four cases the smallest had this length, while the Ion; 

' Filun, u thread, or filarial*, a ball of thread. 

i Filtiria Mtilinennis, Gnicl . ( Gordius Medwensit, Linn., Filaria L 
culat, fircnie. ^commonly Worm of Medina, Guinea Worm, Worm of Si 
Cutaneous Worm, It waa the ApunnTioi' of the Greeks, a name which "l 
Romans translated by the word Dracmeulut, and the French b. 
muu. Amutiw Luaitanufl named it Vest milena; Sloane, Venn 
and Kampfer, Dracuncului Pen/arum. It is called in Senega], Somgoyfs 
in Arabia, Farentil; in Persia, Pejunch ,- in India, Nora mbo and Nat 

measured 8 feet. Some writers have recorded the existence of 
Filaria which had attained the length of from 9? to 16 and even 
30 feet. The latter measurements are evidently exaggerated. 

The body of this entozoon is slender, cylindrical, and some- 
whatcampreBBed ; it resembleB the string ot a violin. It is of the 
same thickness throughout its whole length, except at the pos- 
terior extremity, where it ia somewhat attenuated. It iB ot an 
opaque milk-white colour, but becomes yeUow when placed hi 
alcohol. (Budolphi.) On eaeh side there ia a longitudinal, 
greyish, semi-transparent line the ^ of an inch in diameter. 

When examined by the microacope, the body of the animal 
is seen to be marked by numerous transverse lines. 

The anterior or cephalic extremity terminates in a bluntish 
point having the form of a sucker. Kampfer describes this 
pucker as a proboscis ; he says that the Persians call it the beard, 
and that when it is examined by the microscope it appears to 
be formed of hairs. According to Fermin, llemersand, and 
Lachmund, the oral extremity supports two filaments which 
these writers regard as hairs or antennas. Bremaer observes 
that theBe pretended filaments probably arise from some injury 
to the animal. May they not have mistaken the tail for the 
head, and the double penis for two antenn* ? Adanson states 
that the mouth of the Filaria is provided with two obtuse 
points. M. Diesing describes thia orifice as circular, and 
furnished with four spinules arranged crosswise. M. Maison- 
neuve declares that there are neither beard, points, or hooks. 
In the young animals (fig. Ill, a) which M. Tandon examined 
while alive with M. Ch. Kobin, the mouth did not offer any 
kind of appendage, but was provided with three small rounded 

The tail is short, obtuse, and always curved. The transverse 
markings aie very distinct^ wpeenlly on the concave side. 

According to Dr. Maisonneuve the body may be compared to 
a tube with thickish walls (about T j ff of an inch), consisting of 
two membranes, the external hard and coriaceous, the internal 
thin, and readily separating into very delicate longitudinal 
filaments, but not easily torn in tho transverse direction, 

In the interior of the body there is no canal or any distinct 
tube, but a whitish pulpy substance, which will be spoken of 

Analogy would lead to the notion that this creature is 
organised with respect to its digest] he same 

manner as all the internal worms, 6S] hich are 


allied to it. On examining with M. Ch. Robin, young indivi- 
duals taken from the body of the parent while they were still 
alive, M. Tandon satisfied himself of the correctness of tl ' 
sup [limit ion. He distinctly saw tlic alimentary canal com met 
ing at the mouth, and passing without any convolutions to t 
anal orifice placed at the commencement of the tail. T" 
canal consists of a narrow (esophagus, occupying half the len;_, 
of the body. The (esophagus terminates in n canal of doubl 
its size, representing the Btomach and intestines ; this i 
slightly contracted posteriorly, and terminates in a pointe 
conical cul de sac, which opens at the base of the taiL "Whe 
the Filaria contracts itself, the alimentary canal in seen to b 
unadherent to the cutaueous envelope ; its walls are thinne 
than those of the cesophagus ; the anus ia transverse, and buj 
rounded by a projecting contractile lip. 

Dr. Dariste and Doumeing have witnessed very diati 
vermicular movements in the Filaria. 

Patients are said to feel the movements of the animal, which 
cause them considerable pain. M. Malgaigne has noticed that 
if the animal is drawn out and becomes broken off, that it 
suddenly retracts itself within the limb, lie therefore observes 
that in order to extract the animal without difliculty it must 
be killed by means of some application. 

The Filaria medinengis is ovovivi parous and very prolific. 
(Jacobson, Eobin.) 

When the body of an adult specimen is opened it is seen to 
contain the pulpy matter which has already Deen referred to; 
this substance, when examined by the microscope, presents, 
according to M. Guitrar, a multitude of transparent elongated 
depressed bodies, partly folded upon themselves, and which 
this gentleman regards as Kmall itnbrcmched vessels. M. Jncob- 
son has seen these transparent bodies moving rapidly about, 
and has recognised in them a prodigious number of small aelivc 
worms. MM. Mac Clelland, Ch. Eobin, and Benoit, have 
confirmed this view of them. It appears that after the Filaria 
has been fecundated, that the excessive development of the 
generative organs, the exclusion of the eggs, and the growth of 
young, ultimately obliterate the alimentary canal, already 
singularly contracted in so slender an animal, and that the 
individual henceforth becomes converted into a thread-like sac 
filled with diminutive worms. 

When examined in the interior of the mother, the young 
(fig. Ill, A) are rolled up sometimes with the tail projecting, 
and at other times coiled up. The body (fig. Ill, B) ia not 


cylindrical, but flattened. Just before the period of birth the 
body is the 3^ of an inch in length, andthe-roW in diameter. 
Its anterior extremity is somewhat nar- 
rowed, and terminates in a mouth provided 
with three tubercles (fig. Ill, a). The 
anus (fig. Ill, B and b) is situated about 
the posterior fourth of the body, where 
there is a slight enlargement. From this 
part the body suddenly contracts, and forms 
a very Blender and very pointed tail. The 
toil is -n^nj of an inch in length, not curved, 
somewhat rigid, hut capable of being bent 
in every direction ; there is a marked dif- 
ference between it and that of the adult 
animal ; it bends abruptly opposite the 
anus after death. The surface of the body 
is finely ridged over the whole of its surface. 
These traces of segmentation are Bituated 
at regular distances from each other. 

The young worms will live for Borne 
days in water at the ordinary temperature. 
(Jacobson, Maissonneuve.) They move 
about in it with great rapidity. They 
may be left in a drop of water until it dries 
up bo as to deprive them of motion, and they 
will subsequently recover their activity upon the addition of 
fresh water, six or twelve hours after their di'sic-cntion, (Deville, 
Eobin.) In order that the experiment should succeed, it is 
necessary that the desiccation should be incomplete : when 
they have been rendered absolutely dry, they do not recover 
their vitality. 

3. Otheb species. — Some writere have described three 
other species of Filaria living in man. These arc : — 

1st. Mlaria oeuli (F. lachn/malis of some writers), w 
not uncommon in the negroes on the Angola coast, wb 

called Loa; it is also met with at (i I • - 1 . i i ; 

seen by Mongin at Cayenne, and by Blot at Martiniqi 

This entoEOon is from 1 inch and -^ to 1 inch and T ° 5 ii 
filiform, slender, pointed at one end, and obtuse 
it is tolerably firm, and of a white or yellowish a 

1 Youne Filaria Mcdmentii. — A, individual coiled Dp, 
body of its parent; B, the same uncoiled in n drop of watol . 
wiili its three nodules and the mouth; b, "' 
and the anus. 



M. Guyon approximates this animal to the Stronyr/litt 
others consider it is a young Filaria riu-iii/iensi*. 

2. The Filaria lends, l>ies. (F. oculi kumani, Nordm.), notice 
by M. Nordmann, in 1831. 

This species is from -A to ■& of an inch in length, and the 
j-Ju in width. The body is filiform, thickened posteriorly, 
and provided with a pointed tail ; it is transparent and partly 
coiled up iu a spiral form. 

The alimentary canal may be seen through the integument, 
and is surrounded by the folds of the oviduct. 

This animal is very imperfectly known ; only the female has 

Is this species to he considered as really distinct from the 
preceding ? 

3. Filaria lymphntica (Hawularia Ipnphatica, Treutl., Ten- 
tacularia stibmmprcena. Zeder, TricliOMina stibco-oipreasfi.. Ifiid., 
Filaria hronchialh. Dies.). This species was discovered in 1700, 
by Treutler, who formed a new genus for its reception, under 
the name of Hamularia, characterized by the presence of two 
filamentary tentaeula or oral hooks. Further observations have 

shown that in this case the tail was mistaken for the head, and 
the double male organ for appendages belonging to the mouth ; 
the new genus was therefore suppressed and the worm trans- 
ferred to the Filaria. 

This worm is from £$ to ^ of an inch in length ; it is cylin- 
drical, filiform, slightly narrowed anteriorly, somewhat com- 
fressed at the sides, semi -trans pa rent posteriorly, and of a 
hickish-brown colour with white spots. After it ia dead the 
extremities are somewhat curved. 

The male possesses a double penis, which resembles a pair of 
slightly curved pointed booklets. 

According to M. Weinland this species does not diner from 
the Slruiii/ylus longesaginatus. 

4. Action on man,— The negroes are often tormented with 
the Filaria Medinenti* ; and Europeans who visit India are 
equally liable to its attacks. M'Gregor relates that an English 
regiment arrived at Bombay in the month of September, 1789 ; 
at that time not one of these men was attacked by the worms, 
but at the period of the monsoons 300 soldiers were ill with it. 
It has already been stated, that where the worm has been met 
with in Europe, the individuals had always come from the 
countries inhabited by the worm. Dr. Brulator met with two 
cases at Bordeaux ; both the patients had come from Bombay : 
the same was the case with a patient of Dr. Thibaut; 



Maisonneuve noticed it in an old soldier who had resided at 
Senegal ; Professor Malgaigne in a Bailor under similar circum- 
stances. Kiempfer has recorded the case of a man who was 
attacked with the worm long after he had returned from the 
coast of Africa, and who, up to that time, had never had the 
slightest symptom of the complaint. 

The Filaria Xe&nmu&s lodges beneath the skin in the cellular 
tissue, and sometimes between the muscles. It most frequently 
selects some part of the lower extremities, such as the foot or 
leg, and works its way upwards towards the thigh. Kaampfer 
extracted two of these worms from the scrotum. Baillie has 
seen it in the testicle. The worm is also found, but more 
rarely, in the arm, elbow, neck, or even the head. Carter 
noticed it in the chin of a woman. M. Clot-bey met with it 
in the frenum of the tongue. In one of the plates belonging 
to the Voyage awe I/ides orientates of Jean Hugens (Theodore 
do Bry's edition) is the representation of an Indian having a 
Filaria extracted from the leg by winding it round a stick, and 
another in whom it is being removed from the eye 1 by the 
same means. According to Dr. Cezilly, in Senegal, the Filaria 
is frequently developed in the parietes of the chest, principally 
upon the ribs. He once saw it in the mammary gland. 

•Are we to admit, with Nysander, that the Guinea worm can 
introduce itself into the bones P 

Out of 181 cases published by M'Gregor, the worm oc- 
curred 134 times in the feet, 33 times in the legs, 11 times in 
the thighs, 2 in the scrotum, and once in the hand. 

The worm has never beeu found in the visceral cavities. 

The Filaria Medinensis sometimes occurs singly, while at 
other times there are several of them. Heath noticed that 
out of 74 patients several had as many as two, three, four, 
or even five. Bosmaim says they may amount to as many as 
nine or ten. Arthus mentions a case in which there were 
twelve. Chapotin treated a patient who had thirteen. Andry 
cites a case of twenty-three. Hemersand saw thirty in the 
cook of a vessel. Pouppee-Desportea mentions a case in 
which he counted fifty. 

The Guinea worm having gained an entrance into the body, 
takes a long time to become developed. This period varies 
from two months to a year or more. M. Maisonneuve men- 
tions an incubation of sii months ; M. Fieipio one of eight ; 
M. Thibaut another of eight and a half; MM. Lubat and 

1 Is this the same, or is it not rather the Filaria oculi* or F. lentil f 


3 or 


Bernier mention a case in which thia period extended over fifteen 
months ; and M. Cezilly has recorded eases in which two, nine, 
ten, fifteen, and sixteen months elapsed. Kaanpfer speaks of 
a case in which two years had passed by. 

The presence of the Filaria is announced by a sensation of 
itching in the part ; at first this is slight, but it gradually in- 
creases until it becomes quite unbearable. The part affected 
resembles a varicose vein, and can be moved under the akin. 
Thia kind of subcutaneous knot gradually extends, and the pain 
becomes excruciating. For the greater part of the time there 
is no derangement of the general health, but sometimes there 
are shiverings alternating with attacks of heat. At otl 
times there is fever and a feeling of anxiety. A small abt 
forma, which is often pointed, and terminated by a vesicle 
by a black point surrounded by a brownish areola. When it 
opens a kind of serous liquid, or sometimes a small quantity 
of pus, comes out, and occasionally a white slender thread. 
The tumour may be transformed into a diituse inflammation, 
but this seldom happens. 

Is the presence of the Filaria ever fatal p The 
have been mentioned are rare, and, at the same time, inconi 
sive. Gallandat mentions the case of a negro who was attacl 
in the scrotum, and Clarke of a child who had Filaria in 
right thigh and foot. Both these cases are imperfect, ani 
does not appear that death was caused by the worms. (Cezilb 
The Filaria oeulis resides in the lachrymal gland and in { 
globe of the eye. In 1768, Bajon extracted one of thi 
worms from the eye of a young negress about six or si 
years of age. Dr. Guyon extracted another from the ej 
a negresB in Guinea. 

The worm is seen winding about and moving around 
globe of the eye, in the cellular tissue which unites the i 
junctiva with the sclerotic. Sometimes its presence does 
occasion any disagreeable sensation (Bajon) ; while at other 
times it causes very acute pain (Mongin). Occasionally it ia 
accompanied by a constant watering of the eye. 

The Filaria of Hie crystalline lens, as its name impb'es, is 
found in that part of the eye. It was found for the first 
time by M. Griefe, after an operation for cataract in the 
liquor of Morgagni. M. N ornmnn detected two Filaria coiled 
up together, by means of the microscope, half an hour . 
the operation. The following year the same observer 
with another Filaria in a crystalline lens which had bei 
opaque, and had been extracted by professor Jiingken. La 


M. Geacheidt, of Dresden, obtained it from the crystalline 
lens of a man sixty-one years of age, who had been operated 
on by Professor Amnion ; there were three specimens of the 
worm, of which one was coiled up in a spiral form. 

The Filaria lymphatica oOBOXa in the bronchial glands. It 
was found in the body of a man aged twenty-eight, who died 
from phthisis, brought on by onanism, venereal excesses, and 
mercurial medicines. 

5. G-esebal bemahkb.— How do the Filariw introduce 
themselves into the human body ? 

Valmont de Bomare pretends that the Guinea worm is pro- 
duced by an iuBect which iiitroJiiw* its eggs beneath the skin. 
Dr. Chisalm also supposes that this Filaria is introduced in 
the form of an egg. It has been shown that thia animal is 
ovo viviparous. 

MM. Maisonneuve and Deville, when examining a furuncu- 
lous tumour produced by a Filaria, found in some a whitish 
looking fluid which came from thousands of small living worms, 
precisely resembling those which have been previously de- 
scribed. The young Filarite are therefore deposited in the part 
inhabited by their parents ; there they become developed, and 
thus render the disease more dangerous and more prolonged. 

But from whence do these worms come, and how do they 
gain access to the individual in whom they appear for the first 

The resemblance of the Guinea worm to the Gordlus aquaticits 
or hair worm of our ponds and rivers led Meyer to suppose 
that the entozoon was the latter animal which had penetrated 
the cellular tissue. This opinion has been recently revived by 
Dr. Cezilly. Linnaeus had, however, already distinctly defined 
the two species, although lie placed them in the same genus. 

This illustrious naturalist nevertheless supposed that the 
Filaria normally lived out ofmarfs lodg in the morning dew, 
and that it introduced itself parasitical ly into the naked legs of 
the slaves. 1 This explanation is rendered extremely probable 
from what we know of the habits of the Oordlut aquaticvs, 
of several other species, and of the Mermis, which constitutes 
a closely allied genus. It is well known that these animals 
are erratic worms which reside in water or moist earth, that 
they afterwards introduce themselves into the body of an in- 
sect, where they undergo a certain amount of development, that 
they then emerge from the body of their victim, copulate, and 

i This is also the opinion of Joerdsos, Ciiapotin, Loath, Heat, Glcon. So. 




return into the water or into moist earth [where they deposit 
their eggs]. 

Dr. Carter believes that the Guinea tvorm is an inhabitant 
marshes, and that it enters the body by penetrating the 
akin. He relates the case of a school at Bombay, of which the 
pupils went to bathe in a pond in the neighbourhood : out of 
fifty children twenty-ona were attacked by the Guinea worm ; 
some of them had as many as four or fire. In confirmation of 
this view may be adduced the caBe of the negroes, who, being in 
the habit of entering the water more frequently than the whites, 
and generally having their feet naked, are far more subject to 
the attacks of the worm than Europeans. 

It is difficult to explain how the young worms can penetrate 
the skin, since they nave neither jaws, mandibles, or osseous 
pieces attached to the mouth. Some have supposed that the 
Guinea worm is taken into the body with the drink. 1 The 
larva* are swallowed when the brackish waters of certain rivers 
are drank. Dr. CeziUy rejects this explanation on account of 
the absence of the worm in the vi?ctT;il e.'ivi ties, and became 
of their being constantly found in the subcutaneous cellular 
tissue ; there are, however, other worms which enter the body 
by means of the digestive organs, but which do not reside in 



The existence of entozoa in the blood was long doubted, 
but in the present day it can no longer be questioned. These 
worms are even somewhat numerous, when considered in rela- 
tion to the entire animal aerieB. They are found both in the 
warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, 8 and belong to genera 
which differ essentially from each other. These parasites axe 
collectively termed the Htematozoa, or Sanguicola. 3 

Amongst these parasites, the genus which forms the subject 
of the present chapter is one of the most curious. The animal 
which is the type of it was found in Egypt in 1851, by Dr. 
Bilharz, who regarded it as a species of Distoma. M. AVeinland 
has formed a special genus of it, founded principally upon its: 
unisexual character, and on the extraordinary dift'ereuce which 

1 Burckhardt, Bilharz. 

* They have been seen in the dog, rat, field mouse, horse, dolphin, seal, 

off, rook, heron, lizard, frog, pike, tench, gudgeon, fcc 

' Under this term are included the Helinintha and Infusoria. 


exists between the male and the female. He gave the new 
genus the name of Sckwtozoma, a term which had been pre- 
viously applied by Geof. St.-Hilaire to a particular form of 
monster. M. Taudon therefore proposed for it the name of 
T/iecosoma. 1 

1. Tiiecosoma h^matobium, Distoma hamiatohiwm, Bilh. — 
Dr. Bilharz first discovered the male of this curious Bpecies, 
and three mouths afterwards the female. The two sexes are bo 
dissimilar, botli as regards size and form, that they may easily 
be regarded as two distinct animalB. The male carries the 
female in a kind of canal under its belly. 

Description. — The male Theco&oma is from -^ to ^ of an 
inch in length. It is soft, smooth, and of a white colour; the 
anterior part (trunk) is depressed. :md hi met -shaped; it is 
somewhat convex above, and plane or concave below ; the pos- 
terior part (tail) is round and eight or nine times longer 
than the trunk. In front of the cephalic portion is a kind of 
cup, placed somewhat interiorly, and of a triangular form. 
Beneath the body iB another cup, of the same size aa the pre- 
ceding, but of a circular form. These two cups are covered 
with fine granules. The alimentary canal appears to be divided 
into two portions. 

Commencing from the vicinity of the cup, on the under sur- 
face of the abdomen, is a I niinit udinal groove, iu which the female 
is lodged, like a sword in its sheath ; the cephalic portion is 
placed anteriorly, and the tail posteriorly, the latter being free. 

The genital pore of the male is situated between the groove 
and the tail. 

The female is much smaller than the male, especially with 
regard to its thickness, it being very slender, and somewhat 
transparent. The body is tlriuvik-il, and does not consist of two 
distinct portions, like that of the male ; its tail has no groove. 

M. Tandon believes that the sexes have been mistaken, and 
that it is the female which is the largest, and carries the male 
on the under surface of her abdomen. The presence of the 
two cups, or dep re salons, indicates its alliance with the genus 
Di stoma. 

2. Action os man. — The Tliecosoma inhabits the vena 
portte, and the mesenteric, hepatic, and intestinal veins. The 
worm is by no means uncommon, since out of 3tS3 autopsies, 
Dr. Griesinger met with it 117 times. It occurs moBt fre- 
quently from June to August, and is scarcest from September 
to January. 

fctpcfi a case, and ai>m a body. 



Eyebt medical man is familiar with the name of the liver 
Flute, but few have had the opportunity of seeing it. 

Litmoms at first regarded the Fluke as a &7uy, while Goeze 
considered it to be a Planaria. In the Sysfema Nafuree the great 
Swedish naturalist created the genua Ftweioht 1 for the recep- 
tion of this entozoon and two other parasitea, which are found 
in fish and in the eulamary. lie, however, confounded the human 
Fluke will) that of auimals Clericus and Daevereu Bhowed 
tlmt the human Fluke waa different to that of the mammalia. 
G-melin adopted this separation. Subsequently Betz (17S6) 
and Zeder (1800) needlessly changed the name of Pasciola for 
that of Distoma.* 

1. Liter Fll'KK [Vintoma hepatiettm], Fnseiola hepatica, 
Linn., 3 — is found in France. According to Moulin it is not un- 
" a Holland, Sweden, Norway, and even in Greenland. 
Beicription (fig. 112).— The liver Fluke 
is from -ft to -^ of an inch in length, 
rarely exceeding the latter measurement ; its 
breadth varies from -^ to ^ of an inch. The 
body is flat, oval, and somewhat oblong, 
more contracted anteriorly than posteriorly, 
and obtuse at its terminations ; the margins 
of the body are exceedingly narrow. Lin- 
naeus compares the aiiimal to a pumpkin 
seed, Bremser to the blade of a lancet, and 
Cuvier to a small leaf. It is of a soft con- 
sistence, and ui'a greyish livid brown colour. 
The body is capable of contracting and ex- 
tending itself either partially or in its entire 
length, much after the manner of a leech, 
but with greater energy and regularity. 
The anterior part of the Fluke is contracted, and forms a 
kind of cylindrical neck, which is paler than the rest of its body, 

1 Faiciula, a band. 

1 This denomination is, moreover, incorrect, fur these wonne hive not A 
mouths, F. Mullcr (17S71 very properly n-lmvil the l.inmesn nsm 

1 Faicinln htnnink, fhiitl . Distmati lii-fKitiva, Keiz., 1.1, hepaticum, 

[It is the I)i.ilt'ina Itr/iaHei/ia df EnjrlUli authors, a uiime which h 

been retained by Kuchenincister in hia Manual of Animal and Vtgtta 

Fig. 112.— Fluke. 


q of a yellowish white colour. At the anterior extre- 
mity is a eup-like depression {acetabulum), directed obliquely 
downwards, and having a somewhat triangular form. Within 
this depression is the oral aperture. Towards the anterior 
third of the ventral surface, is another depression (fig. 112, o), 
whose position varies somewhat ; several writers have supposed 
that this was also perforated. According to some it was a second 
sucker, while others considered it was either the anus, or the 
aperture of the female organs. Liunieus described the two cups 
as pores ; this opinion has been adopted by those helmintholo- 
gists who either proposed or accepted the inappropriate term of 
Dhtoma. Observation, has shown that the second depression 
is not furnished with any opening, but is a shallow sub-triangular 
Bucker, by means of which the animal attaches itself. 

Somewhat further back are some white opaque spots, and a 
fasciculus of vessels or tubes of a brown colour. 

The body of the Distoma has no visceral cavity ; it is a small 
parenchymatous mass, without any apparent muscular fibres, 
and is covered with a line chisel v adherent skin. 

Prom the oral sucker an oasophagus passes off, which soon 
divides into two slender brandies, which descend on either 
side of the abdominal cup. These branches approach each 
other, and communicate by a system of transverse vessels, and 
are then continued U: the posterior extremity of the body. In 
their course the canals give off a number of branches from their 
exterior, which subdivide and terminate near the margins of 
the animal ; these branches are placed at an equal distance from 
the two surfaces of the body, and, what is remarkable, the ter- 
minal divisions are of nearly the same diameter as those which 
are first given off. Deslongchamps regarded the whole of this 
apparatus as a ramified intestine; it is rather a brandling 
stomach, analogous to that of the small leeches, which are para- 
sitic upon the molluscs. There are as many branches as there 
are subdivisions, and an extremely delicate network of minute 
vessels are sent off, which ramify principally over the dorsal 
surface of the animal. These minute vessels communicate in 
the manner of veins, and give rise to a number of transverse 
branches, which communicate with a longitudinal vessel situated 
in the median line. The latter, which is of a large skc, is 
regarded as an urinary apparatus ; it commences opposite the 
abdominal sucker, passes beneath the skin, and enlarges in its 
course to the posterior extremity of the body, where it termi- 
nates hi an open orifice. 

The bile forms the exclusive nourishment of the Dietona. 


Thie entozoon is androgynous ; MM. Mentis and Blanchar 
have well described its double genital apparatus. A little ij 
front of the abdominal sucker in a small elongated appendae 
(fig. 112, a), twisted once or onee and a half times upon itself, 
and capable of beiug retracted ; this is tlie penis, which has 
been mistaken by some naturalists for a tentacle or eiirhus. 
Its base communicates with a pouch, which serves it as a case 
when it is retracted (receptacle of the cirrhus, Rudolphi). 
Passing backwards from the pouch is a straight eanal, placed 
near the middle of the animal, which terminates in an oval 
seminal vesicle, filled with a white semifluid humour. A semi- 
nal duet, which is eommon to all the branches, secreting the 
white fluid, terminates at the posterior part of the vesicle. To 
the right and left of the vesicle there are also some after 
branches belonging to the teBticle. More externally are two 
long canals communicating with the Bheath of the penis ; these 
are probably deferent canals or accessory duets of the testicles. 
Except at the period of reproduction, only a small opening i 
seen at the part which is occupied by the penis. 

The opening of the female organs is close to, and behind tl 
base of, the male organ. According to Pes long eh amps, it is 
difficult to perceive the opening, especially in the adult. Th" 
vulva communicates with an oviduct, which is at first situate 
in the median line, is slender and tortuous, but afterwai 
increases in thickness, becomes twisted, and forms severs 
enlargements, which pass from right to left; it then j u 
becomes slender, and placed in the median line, and reachei 
an oval cavity, which is possibly the uterus ; from behind thj 
there passes off to the right and to the left two Blende 
horizontal canals ; these sixm divide into two portions, one o 
which passes forwards, and the other backwards, parallel to th< 
margin of the animal. These canals give off a great number o 
branches externally, and represent the ovarie 

The Distoma is oviparous ; its c^gs (tig, 112, h) are extremel 
small, elliptical, and semitransparent. At one end there is i 
kind of oblique lid. 

The Distoma undergo a very curious series of transformatioi 
but these have only been traced in those species which do n 
infest the human body. At birth these worms have a ciliate 
body, resembling that of the infusoria ; in its interior anoth 
animal becomes developed, which has the form of a locomotive 
sac. These young sacciform larva? (nurses) continue to live ft 
a certain time. They are sexless individuals, but can nev 
theless reproduce themselves by the process of gemmation ; 

give rise to another series of beings of an oblong form, and pro- 
vided with a tail (Ccrcaria). The latter introduce themselves 
into the bodies of other animals, where they become transformed 
into the fully developed Flake, capable of reproducing itself hy 
a true act of generation.* 

2. Otheb species. — Four other species of Fluke have been 
detected in the human body ; these ore the DUtoinn hnaeolatum, 
DidomUM ophthalmobium, Distoma heteroph/es, and the DUtoina 
Baskii. The following are their characters, compared with 
those of the Distoma kepatieum : 

i-.„.- (ramified 1. Drstoma htputicum. 

lattst™ | lImpK ,,„„„,„ s DMomlJ :„,,,!„:.„. 

A lido mi mil sucker ) t scarcely larger than 

( snbceutral, ) the K£*L h DUlona D P AiA °' Blu6 '"'"» 
' * j much larger than 

( the mouth. 4. Distoma lieterophi/et. 
Cudescribed species 5. Distoma BaskU. 

Distoma lanceolatum? — Tliis species was first described by 
MM. Bucholz and Mehlis. It is rarer than the first, with 
which it baa been often confounded. Chabert met with it in 
France, in a voting girl twelve years of age, from whom he 
eipelled a large number of the worms by the use of his einpy- 
reumatic oil. 

The siae of this Flake is smaller than that of the Distoma 
hepatieum. Its body is from the f s to the -^ of an inch in 
length, and from ^L to the -^ of an inch in breadth ; its form 
is lancet-shaped, it is very flat, tolerably transparent, and 
of a whitish colour. The oral sucker is proportionally larger 
than iu the preceding species, and about the same size as the 
ventral sucker ; they are both circular. 

The intestines are straight and unbranched. 

The penis has not a spiral form. 

The eggs may be seen through the integuments, and ore of a 
brown or black colour, according to their stage of development. 

Distoma ophthalmobium. — M. &escheidt, of Dresden, met 
with this species of Flake onee in Germany. 

This worm is from "009 in. to "196 in. in length, and "006 in. 
in breadth. The body is of a lanceolate oval form. The two 
suckers are circular; the posterior is farther from the cephalic 
extremity than in the other species, being nearly in the centre 
of the body. 

' Steeaatrup, Van Bciicdcn. de Fillippi, Wagener. 
* Fasciula laut\t'uhita, Hoq. Tmid. 


Dwtomn. heferopit/es. 1 — We are indebted to Dr. Bilharz for a 
knowledge of this curious species. He met with it twice in 
Egypt, in 1851. 

This Fluke ia about '039 in. in length, and "019 in. in breadth. 
The body ia oval, somewhat more dilated at its posterior than 
at its anterior part, depressed, and of a, reddish eolour. It has 
a small funnel-shaped oral sucker, which opens more inferiorly 
than anteriorly. The ventral sucker is twelve limes the size of 
the former. 

In consequence of the transparency of the animal the dilate 
a?sophagua is seen anteriorly, and m the median line the u~ 
nary canals. 

The sac of the penis may he also seen, hearing a strong n 
semblance to one of the suckers, surrounded by Beyenty-t 
horny filaments. The testicles are placed posteriorly. 

The eggs are of a red colour. 

Dutoma Buskii. — [In the winter of 1843, fourteen flufo 
were found by M. Busk in the duodenum of a Lascar who diec 
in the Seaman's Hospital. There were none in the gall, 
bladder, or gall duets. These flukes were much thicker and 
larger than those of the sheep, bring from an inch and a half to 
near three inches in length. They resembled the Distoma 
hepaticum in shape, but were like the Distoma Jitnceolalum in 
structure ; the double alimentary canal, as in the latter variety 
being not branched, and the entire space between it towai 
the latter part of the body being occupied by a branched ute 
tube. Two specimens of this fluke are in the Museum of If" 

. Action on man. — The Liver fluke is found in the g 
bladder, the hepatic duets, and perhaps also in the subst 
of the liver. The presence of these animals produces £ 
dilatation of the biliary ducts ; their internal surface becom 
covered with a thick dark coloured mucous secretion. £ 
times this niiicosity hardens and becomes converted into a 
of osseous matter. Fortassiu mentions the case of a woman u 
whose liver there wore more than two hundred Flukes. 
Bilharz has described a curious disease which occurs at Cai 
produced by the presence of these entozoa, consisting 
fungus-like excrescences of the mucous membrane of tl 
bladder. According to M. Siebold, a Fluke has been seen ii 
tumour on the foot by Dr. Giesker. M. Dujardin says, tbj 

paha8it:o wobms. 


by M. Duval i 

this species v 
vena porta}.' 

The Distoma lanctohtum slao inhabits the liver. 

The Distontum opJithalmohium lives between the crystalline 
lens and. its capsule. Geeobeult once found four of these para- 
sites in the eye of a child five years old. 

The DtfUmtt fotenphj/et wn found on two occasions in large 
quantities in the intestines of a boy. 

The Distoma Duskii was found in the duodenum. 


The genus Fentumria^ was first established by Selirank 
(1788). In 1800 Zeder gave it the name of Monostoma? which 
Eudolphi and other writers have adopted, although it is a more 
recent and less appropriate name. 

The genus Ffslucaria ditl'ers from that of Distoma in the 
absence of the ventral sucker. In the previous chapter it was 
seen that this sucker had been mistaken for a mouth. Hence 
the reason of the name Distoma being applied to the Flukes, 
and that of monostoma to those parasites which were supposed 
to have only one mouth. In reality, both genera have but a 
single mouth. 

1. Festucakta Lentis, Monostomum lentis, Nord. — This 
small worm, which is very imperfectly known, is the only species 
which has been found in man. 

Description. — The Festmaria lentis is - 003 of an inch long. 
It might be mistaken for the Fasciola oculis. Its body is 
depressed, it has a single sucker, the mouth is anterior 
and terminal in its position, and there is a small anal pore 
towards the caudal extremity. Below and behind the oral 
sucker is the opening of the male genital organ, which consists 
of a protractile penis. Close to thiB is the opening of the female 
organs, which it is difficult to deteet. 

Action on man. —All that is known about this worm is 
vas discovered in Germany, by Professor Jiingken, in the 
rystalline lens of an old woman who had cataract. He obtained 
t specimens. 

1 This example probably referred to tbo Thecosoma hamalobium ; see 



Two kinds of flat worms are met with in the human body, 
belonging to two different genera ; these are the Twnia and tfie 
Hothriocefhahix. These animals have been known to medical 
men from the earliest times, but they have not always been 
distinguished from one another, in most 
works they have been confounded toge- 
ther under the name of Solitary worm or 
Tosttia. Tho name of solitary worm was 
given to it from the belief, which was 
long entertained, that these parasites 
bved singly. The word Ttenia 1 signifies 
a ribbon or band, and is derived from the 
general form of their body. 

1. Common t.enia, Taenia Solium. 
Linn. — This species, which is familiarly 
known as the Solitary or Tape worm, is a 
very common entozoon. It is found in 
Prance, Italy, Holland, Germany, and 
England. It has also been observed 
in Egypt, and is so common in Abys- 
sinia that it is only absent as it were 
by chance. Whenever a slave is sold ha 
is always provided with a plentiful t 

'Description (fig. 113).— The body i 
the animal is flat and narrow, resem 
bling a piece of tape, and is composed o 
segments, which are joined tog " 
their extremities. The body is very k 
but it is very difficult to deteniiini- i 
actual dimensions. "I believe," s 
Bremser, " that no one has ever yet s 
an entire Tape worm, that is to say, r 
vided with both its head and the whi 
of its tail ; for it often happens thi 
last segments, which are usually 

e anterior segments nean 
e completely developed. 

r*.nAaiTTC worms. 377 

son it ia impossible to determine what is the precise length 
which this worm can attain if all its segments remained attached 
together." The Tte-nios which are found iu dead bodieB ore not 
any the more entire. Writers have varied exceedingly aa to 
the dimensions which they have assigned to this entonoon. 
Some state that they measure from 9 to 12 feet. Bremser says 
that specimens 25 feet in length are not uncommon. Eobin 
found in the body of a man who, shortly before his death, had 
evacuated a part of a Ticnia measuring more than three-and- 
twenty feet, one of these worms folded up immediately below 
the pylorus, one portion of it extending the whole length of 
the intestine to the vieinity of the anus. The animal, when it 
was unfolded and the portion added which had been previously 
discharged, measured thirty-two feet. The average length of 
the Common Twnia may he estimated at from 12 to 15 feet. 
M. A. Foster says its dimensions vary from 14 inches to 32 feet. 

The body of the I\enia gradually narrows from behind for- 
wards, until it becomes a mere thread. Thus the width of the 
animal varies considerably. At the anterior part it is scarcely 
'025 inch in width, while towards the posterior part it is often 
as much as '2 to *4 inch. Bremser observes that when a Ttenia 
is measured it is necessary to notice whether it is in a state of 
contraction or not, for without that precaution the measure- 
ments will not be correct. The thickness of the animal is also 
very variable. Some are thin, and in consequence they are 
almost transparent, while others are tolerably thick. 

The parenchyma of this entozoon 
is soft, and almost white ; it contains 
a number of microscopic calcareous 
granules disseminated through nearly 
every part of it. 

According to Linnseus, the Taenia 
has no head. Its anterior estreiuitv 
presents, however, a Binall enlargement, 
which usually receives that name (fig. 
114). This enlargement is generally 
very small, and is difficult to distinguish 
with the naked eye. Bremser only 
met with one individual which had a 
large and very apparent head. But 
even what Bremser terms Large, did not 
e than '078 of an inch ; in 

1 A, head ; a, anterior part, somewhat attenuated ; 6 b, oscula ; e, double 
crown of tusks ; d, proboscis ; c, torn men cam cut of neck; /, first articu- 
lations ; B, hooks ; a, baft ; b, guard ; c, claw. 


general the head is not more than *039 or '058 of an inch in dia- 
meter The form of the head varies, but it is always more or less 
globular ; occasionally it is ovoid ; it is provided with four cir- 
cular projections, placed at equal distances from one another, 
and arranged in a crucial form. In the living animal each pro- 
jection has a circular disk (oscula) in its centre, surrounded bv 
a rim of denser material than the rest of the tissue, and which 
appears to be of a muscular nature. These mouths have been 
compared to small suckers. While it is alive, the Tcenia con- 
tinually elongates and retracts, the mouth bearing papilla; 
Bremser remarks that the animal always extends the opposite 
projections, and at the same time retracts the other two. 

Between and in front of the mouth is a convex protuberance 
forming a kind of rudimental proboscis, which, however, ie not 
perforated, but is surrounded by a double row of hooks. These 
bodies are of a horny nature, and vary in number from 12 to 
15 in each row. Each hook consists of a stem or handle, which 
is almost straight, of moderate thickness, and forms nearly 
half its length ; of a curved pointed claw ; and of a guard 
or tubercular projection placed at the junction of the stem 
with the claw. This projection serves as a point of resistance 
during the backward and forward movements of the hook ; it 
is generally surrounded by a sheath. The hooks alternate 
with obtuse appendages, which are nothing more than the dis- 
articulated sterna. According to Bremser a Timia loses its 
hooks as it becomes old. Some writers have supposed that the 

Eroboscis had an opening in the centre of the double crown of 
ooks which represented the mouth. According to this view 
the openings in the disks would be accessory mouths ; it was 
in accordance with this idea that Virey gave the animal the 
name of Pentastoma, or ftve-mouthed. It has been previously 
mentioned that the projection is not perforated. 

The head is supported upon a short slender neck, which has 
no visible articulations. This neck, as well as the head, ap- 
pears to be composed of a gelatinous looking material. 

Beyond the neck is the body, composed of segments or 
Zoonites,' (fig. 115). These segments are very numerous. M. 
EBchricht possesses a Tama in which there are more than 1000. 
Adanson asserts that the worm may have as many as 1240. 
The segments are united together in a single linear series. 1 
The first segments arc always shorter than they are wide ; as 
they grow in size their length increases proportionally much 

i See page 59. 

* These zoonitea are generally from 'ill in. to - 787 in. in length, and 
from '276 in. to -472 in. in breadth. 

more than their width. They soon become of a square form, 
and afterwards oblong, and ultimately their length is equal to 
twice their width. 1 Individuals are occasionally met with in 
which some of the segments are 
wider than they are long, followed 
by others in which these propor- 
tions are reversed; a circumstance 
which proves the irregular con- 
traction of the Twnia. In some 
cases these unequal contractions 
arise from the sudden destruction 
of the animal hy placing it in 
spirits of wine. At other times 
the contractions are still more 
marked, and produce actual mon- 
strosities. (Bayer, Follin.) In 
general, however, the segments 
which arc miiai'iU'velopt'd arc longer 
than they are wide. The last seg- Fig. US.— Separate leginenti* 
ments are only slightly united to- 
gether and readily separate. 

Each segment has tour borders and two surfaces. The an- 
terior border unites with the previous segment ; it is always 
thinner than the posterior and generally narrower. The pos- 
terior border is thickened, and appears to project ; it is either 
undulating or indented. The lateral margins are seldom straight 
or parallel, but incline slightly towards each other. One of 
them is provided with an opening, which will he described 
presently. TheBe borders form with the posterior a projecting 
angle, which gives the animal the appearance of being notched 
at its sides. The two surfaces are Hat, but sometimes they pro- 
ject slightly towards the centre. 

The ento7.oon is covered with a very thin skin, which is in- 
timately united to the subjacent tissue, so that it can only be 
taken oif in strips, and then only on the largest segments. 

The digestive system of the Tmtia consista of four slei 
canals, which pass from the mouths. These canals, which look 
like so many white lines, soon unite to form two, which pass 
along the whole length of the two sides of the animal. They 
take a parallel course at a short distance from each lateral 
margin. At the posterior part of the segments they com- 

' " Animalia cempotisa litaplici catena." Linn. 

■ a, genital openings ; d, deferent canal and testicle ; /, oviduct ; g h, 




munieate by means of transverse branches which run aloiw 
the posterior margin. The lateral canals are provided with 
valves, which prevent the nutrient fluid moving in a retrograde 
direction. Carlisle emleav.mri'd to inject one of these canals 
from behind forward, but the fluid would not pass ; in order 
to succeed it must be injected from one of the mouths. 

M. Blancbard has described a circulatory system in tha 
Tcmiitt, consisting of four slender vessels, two corresponding to 
each surface, and communicating together by means of very 
delicate branches. Some recent observation! tend to show that 
these canals are urinary vessels. (Van Breneden.) 

Nervous centres are said to have been discovered in the hesd 
of this entozoon. These consist of two cerebral ganglions united 
together by a slender commissure, and of two long cords which 
are given oil' from the ganglions and can be traced along the 
margins of the different segment*. A small ganglion is also 
stated to exist beneath each mouth, which is connected by < 
delicate filament with the cerebral ganglion. M. Dumeril, 
who has dissected a large number of Tania, and has noticed 
these lateral cords, does not regard them as nerves, but as 

Beneath the !_'i'1kt;i1 integuments some longitudinal muscular 
fibres are said to be present, which are not intercepted at the 

When the Tenice are examined in the living state, and when 
they are surrounded by the mucous secretion of the intestines, 
they are seen to move about with an undulating motion. 1 Dee- 
longehamps having placed some of the young Taenia! in tepid 
water, states that they swam about in the Bame manner as 
leeches. A. Richard relates, that, having immersed a living 
Tenia in tepid milk, it executed very distinct movements, 
which were renewed when the liquid was changed. 

The Tenim are androgynous, each adult segment containing 
both male and female organs (fig. 116). An opening situated 
at the side constitutes the sexual aperture ; the orifice is very 
distinct, and pierces a prominent papilla. It is in the middle 
segments that this opening is Been must clearly, and is stated 
to be surrounded by a small projecting margin. For a long 
time these apertures were regarded as mouths or suckers which 
were intended to fix the animal to the intestine and to suck 
up its food. 2 The great length of the entozoon, 
tenuity of the alimentary canals, the size of the li 
' Gomes, Dealaades. 
* " Sinyuto articulo proprium <x. Liu] 

and the prominence of the genital pore, which is able to apply 
itself with a certain force i 
some show of proba- 
bility to this opinion. 
The pores are placed 
sometimes on one aide, 
sometimes on the 
other, but without any 
regular alternation. 
Sometimes there are 
two, three, or even 
four, arranged conse- 
cutively on the same 
aide, while there will be 

only one or two on the Fig. 116.- Sexual organ*.' 

opposite side. When 

examined with a magnifying glass, the genital pore resembles a 
cup-shaped depression. In the centre is a minute aperture 
from which a short small spieutum is occasionally seen to pro- 
ject ; this opening leads to a horizontal tortuous (deferent) canal; 
the latter 1b of an opaque white colour, and terminates in 
the testicle, which is placed towards the middle of the segment. 
Behind the male orifice, and frequently confounded with it, is 
the opening of the female organs. This opening communicates 
with a canal (cn'/iiui) which passes parallel to t.lic deferent canal, 
but which islimnor ami bcciiiik'sccjiniivti'd with a granular, irre- 
gularly lobed organ, having a grape-like form. This organ, which 
some authors have described as n. ramified intestine, is the ovary. 

"When a Tamia has attained a certain stage of develop- 
ment, its ovaries enlarge and become very apparent. At 
this period individuals have been found folded up so to place 
some of the genital pores opposite to each other ; a circum- 
stance which has led some writers to think that the animals were 
in the act of copulating. The invertebrata, however, which 
can procreate of themselves, do not copulate. In these 
animals there is an internal communication between the 
ova and spermatozoa. Copulation takes place in all thoBe 
androgynous animals which are deprived of this communica- 
tion, but then it occurs between two or more individuals. 

The Tenia are oviparous. They deposit their eggs (fig. 116, 
_B) in incalculable numbers, each segment containing hundreds. 

' A, double sexual apparatus; a, genital depression; b, Epieulum ; c, 
female orifiue ; ft testicle ; (, deferent canal; /, oviduct; g, axis of ovary; 
h, grape-lite ovaries ; B, egg. 


The egg has a rounded form, and is of a white colour. It i» 
provided with three coverings ; an exterior one which ia of i 
kind of albuminous layer, a middle one which ia hard and re- 
sisting, and an internal one which iB very thin and easily torn. 
The embryo may be seen in the interior, having its head' armed 
with three pairs of spines which resemble those of the adult; 
only they are proportionally larger. The eggs are liberated in 
three ways : 1, The impregnated segments sepnrate from each 
other' (ng. 114). These zoonites have been mistaken for a dis- 
tinct species of worm, and received the name of Omurhifm 
(Vrrmrx cttntrhititii, encumrrini). from having been compared 
to the seeds of the pumpkin, (Lamarck.) Andry regards them 
ns the eggs of the animal. In reality they are ovigroua cap- 
sules, but at the same time they retain their vitality and pos- 
sess a very distinct motion. (Siebold, Mignot.) The vitality 
of the segments is speedily extinguished, they become decom- 
posed, and the eggs are set at liberty. 2. The eggs are 
discharged through the genital pore in the usual manner; the 
latter process does not occur so frequently as the former. 
Goeze only noticed it once. Lamarck states that by lightly 
pressing some of the segments the eggs can be discharged. 
8. Under certain circumstances the ovary and the segment 
buret at the sides, and the zoonite becomes perforated. 
Masars de Cazeles mistook a Tama perforated in this manner 
for a new Bpccies, to which he gave the name of Taniii fenestrate. 

M. Weinland has described, under the name of abietina, a 
variety of the Common Tcetiia, which was sent from North 
America to Professor Agassix, and in which the ovaries were 
ramified in a peculiar manner. 

2. Other specles. The other species of Tani ue which have 
been noticed in the human body are : — the Ta-nia nana, the 
T&nia Jt-avopuncttita, the T<eitia Eehinococcvn, and the TwiM 
inermis. The following are their characters: — 

alternate ... 1. Tania ioIbm 

unilateral J colour. 2. Tttnia nam. 

(Spotted. 3. Tienia Jtaiv 


Seiual orifices 

\ without hooks 5. Tasini* 


The Ttenia nana} was found in considerable numbers in 
Egvpt in 1851 by Dr. Bilharn, in the small intestines of a joung 
mail who had died from meningitis. 

This entonoon is very small, not being more than half an 
inch in length, and not thicker than a needle. The segments 
are proportionally somewhat large. The head is large, obtuse 
anteriorly, and supported upon a long neek. Its proboscis is 
pyriform, and the mouths projecting. 

The eggs are globular and furnished with a thick, smooth, 
yellow shell, through which the three pairs of hooks with 
which the embryo in provided nin be readily seen. 

The Tama jhvpinictala was discovered in Massacbusets in 
1842, by Dr. Erm Palmer, and described, unfortunately, from 
portions without the head by professor Weinland. It came 
from an infant nine months old, who was however in good 
health, had been weaned at six months, and fed in the usual 

It was mistaken at first for a Bothriocephalus. 

The worm ia from 8 to 12 inches in length, and from -078 to 
•118 of an inch in width. It is of a whitish colour, with a dis- 
tinct yellow spot in the centre of each segment. The segments 
are very regular, excepting towards the posterior extremity, 
where they are so much contracted anteriorly that they are 
almost of a triangular form. 

The most remarkable character of Ibis species is the situa- 
tion of the sexual orifices, which are all situated on one side, 
as ia the case in the Tamice of several of the mammalia. The 
ovary does not consist of a central stem with lateral branches, 
but of a mass of germs in the centre of each segment. 

The eggs are spherical and transparent, and have a yellow 
spot in the centre. They are provided with three coverings, 
of which the innermost is resisting, and breaks under pressure 
at acute angles ; the second is thicker and wrinkled. 

The Ta-itia JSchinocoecus is a species which is still imper- 
fectly known ; it ia often met with in Iceland, where it is found 
in large numbers in the intestines of the dog ; it is believed 
that it is also found in the human subject. M. Tandon con- 
siders that the latter statement is extremely doubtful. 

This Tama is extremely small, being almost of microscopic 
dimensions. Its length is hardly more than 118 of an inch; 
it has only three or four segments, of which the lam is already 
fully developed, being impregnated and filled witl 
has from 28 to 30 hooks. 

1 Taaia Eijypliaca. Billl. 

iddle of the Kg- 


The penia is seen at the side, behind the middle ( 
nn'iit . Its ovary is large and winding. 

The eggs are spherical. 

The segments after their separation become as large as the 
entire Tamia. 

The Teenia inermi* ' was discovered, in 1855. by M. Kuchen- 
meister. It is an inhabitant of Europe, and appears to be not 
uncommon in Germany. It is found in the small intestines. 
An individual of this species was recently obtained from a pork 
butcher of Lou vain, and another from a young girl of Liege, 
(Van Beneden.) 

This Tamia closely resembles the Common Taenia, with which 
it has been confounded. It is, however, clearly distinguished 
by the absence of the hooks and the simplicity of its ovaries. 
Those who first noticed it probably mistook it for an individual 
of the common species in which the hooks had become lost 
either through accident or age. 

The head of the Ttenin inermis is somewhat larger than that 
of the Taenia communis, and iB very obtuBe, and as it were 
truncated. It has neither books nor proboBciB ; the suckers are 
very large ; and the segments separate very readily. Its 

ovaries consist of a longitudinal canal, which gives off » 

thing like siity lateral parallel branches, which are ( 
simple or bifurcated, but never dendritic. 

The eggs are oval and smooth. 

Some writers have mentioned the following species as para- 
sitic upon man ; further information is still required concerning 

1. The Teenia of the Cope, Tamia Capemii, is mentioned by 
Kuchenmeister as having been obtained from a Hottentot. 
M. Weinland considers it is a variety or monstrosity of the 
Tamia communis or the Teenia inermis. M. Leuehart thinks it 
is the same as the latter. [Kuchenmeister has founded this 
species upon the characters of the separated segments, not 
having Been either the bead or the neck of the worm. He 
himself expresses a doubt as to whether it is really a distinct 

2. The Teenia tropica is common in the Indies, one half of 
the negroes being affected with it. It is seldom met with in 
Europeans. It has, however, been noticed in thoBe who have 
resided on the coasts of Guinea, and who were at the same time 

y. its 

V mow. 


affected with the Mlaria Mediimutis? It has never been Been 
in the Malay race. It is said not to have hooka ? 

M. Van Beneden approximates this species to the Ttznia 

3. The Taenia serrata, which is very common in the dog, is it 
ever found in man as some medical men have stated p 

4. M. Eschricht says he received a Taenia canina? Linn., 
which had been passed by a negro slave. Is this fact correct ? 

8. Action on Man. — The TiEitiw usually inhabit the small 
intestines. When they are numerous or greatly developed 
they descend into the large intestines. It is very rarely 
that they ascend into the stomach. Aubert, of Geneva, lias 
described a tumour in a testicle, caused by the presence of a 
Taenia ( ! ) 

This cntozoon is sometimes solitary, while at other times 
there are several of them together. Two or three are often met 
with in the same patient, lludolphi mentions a ease in which 
there were four. M. Barth had charge of a patient who had 
six ; M. Monod succeeded in expelling fourteen at the same 
time, and De Haen cured a woman aged thirty who had 
eighteen. The name of Solitary Worm by which this creature 
is generally known is, therefore, very ill chosen. 

These worms gain access to the intestinal canal in the larval 
state.' The cephalic hookB axe at this time directed forwards 
and can easily penetrate the mucous tissues. They are then 
moved from before backwards, the claw penetrating at the 
Bame time, and, by this means, the head of the worm is buried 
in the thickness of the mucous membrane. (Van Beneden.) 

M. Sappey found a Taenia serrata in the intestines of a dog 
where the head had penetrated the epidermis, and was resting 
in contact with the subjacent layer of the mucous membrane. 
He succeeded in dissecting out the worm with a portion of the 
epidermal layer remaining around its neck like a collar. 

The presence of the Tnmim gives vise to a feeling of uneasi- 
ness, to a sensation of weight, to flatulency, and to pains in 
the abdomen; the latter are usually slight, especially at the 
commencement of the disease. The patient is subject to 
shiverings ; he has a feeling of anxiety, and has an inordinate 
desire for food, while at the same time lie gets thin. 

M. Van Beneden suspects that it was the larvffi of the 
Taenia Eehinocoacus which produced the terrible epidemic, 

1 Seep. 360. 

' T. cucumerina, Bloeh. 

' See chapter xiii. on the cystic heluiUitlm. 


which destroyed one sixth of the inhabitants of Iceland. 
(Schleianer.) 1 

When the person has expelled a large number of the frag- 
ments of a Ta-nia the parasite ultimately perishes. During 
the treatment of a patient the anterior portion of the worm, 
and more especially the head, is anxiously sought for. The 
patient is often supposed to have discharged only a number of 
segments, while, in reality, he has got rid of the most active 
and important portion of the worm. By a careful examination 
of the fajcal matter the head can sometimes he detected. Out 
of a hundred persons affected with Twnia, who were treated by 
Bremser, only one of them detected the expulsion of the head 
of the worm, and yet ninety-nine out of the hundred, were 

Some writers haTe asserted that a Ttsnia will live for ten 
years, a statement which appears to be very doubtful. Patients, 
however, have been known to discharge portions of Twnvs 
during that space of time, but in all probability they came 
from different individuals. 



The genus Bothriocrphi'Ins was established by Bremser. It 
differs essentially from that of Tama. The head has two fossa 
or pita instead of the four mouths, and has no circlet of hooks. 

1, Botiiriocephalus Latos. 4 — This entozoon inhabits the 
north of Europe, where it is more common than the Tamia 
toliwn ; it is found more particularly in Russia, Poland, and 
Sweden. M. Kiichenmeister says he has met with it in Ham- 
burg, but only in Jews. It has also been observed in France. 
Two years ago Professor Grisolle succeeded in expelling a 
very long one from one of his patients. Mr. Jackson has twice 
met with this worm in England. In general the Bothriocepha- 
lus is common where the Taenia is rare, and vice versa. 

[Mr. Jackson's cases occurred in America, one of the patients 
being an Englishman. In the College uf Surgeons, No. 204 of 
the Natural History series, is a specimen of the Bothriocephalic 
latm, which was procured by the late Sir Anthony Carlisle from a 

y the Tamia urrata. 


femalewhowas a native of Switzerland. 
IVili'-wnrQuekctt has kindly informed 
me that five other specimens have since 
been added to the collection. Three 
of these -were purchased at the sale of 
the late Mr. Gardener's collection. 
One of them was said to have come 
from a person belonging to the Rus- 
sian embassy, another from a person 
who had been travelling in Switzer- 
land, and the history of the third was 
unknown. The fourth specimen oc- 
curred in the practice of Dr. Gull: the 
patient was a little girl live years old, 
who resided at Woolwich, where there 
is always a number of foreign sailors. 
The fifth came into the possession of 
Mr. Camplin, and was passed by a 
lady who was a native of Eussia, and 
who, after a residence of Borne years 
in England, paid a temporary visit to 
her native country. In all the cases, 
there lore, in which the history of the 
disease can be traced, with the ex- 
ception of that which came under the 
notice of Dr. Gull, the Geographical 
distribution of the worm ia most 
rigidly maintained. In the case of 
the child residing by the water-side, 
the presence of foreigners readily ex- 
plains the mode in which the worm 
might have been conveyed to this 
country, and impure drinking water 
would suggest itself as the means of 
transmission from one individual to 

Description.— The Bothriocqihnhis 
lirti.ta (tig. 117) is also one of the flat, 
arfii-ulated entozoa. Its usual length 
is from 6 to 20 feet. Bremser men- 
tions the case of a young Swiss who 
expelled three pieces, of which the longest measured twenty- 
five Vienna feet. Other writers mention 60 feet. Goeze 
s that he received a specimen from Bloeh which measured 
o c 2 


more than 230 feet, Boerhave declares tbat he expelled a 
Bothriocephalus from a Russian which was not Ibbs than 1200 
feet in length ? The greatest width of this worm is from the 
■898 of an inch to the 1-220 of an inch. Budolphi, however, 
asserts that he saw one which was 3296 inches in width. It 
is difficult to admit the correctness of this measurement. 

The Bothriocephalus is generally of a greyish white or yel- 
lowish colour ; it never has the milky whiteness of a Ttenia 
The middle of the last segments are more or less of a brown 
colour arising from the presence of the eggs. When this worm 

»r ■■" 



is put into alcohol it assumes a grey colour. From this cir^ 
cumstance it received the name ot Tcenia grUea, which was 
given to it by Pallas. 

The head of the Bothriocephalus (fig. 118) is 
very small (about *093 inch), oblong, somewhat 
depressed, and obtuse; there are two oblong, 
lateral depressions or pits placed opposite to 
each other, which Budolphi justly regards as the 
oral apertures. 

[Kuehennieister examined five heads of the 
Bothrioeephalj, only one of which was, however, 
tolerably treah. The two lateral pits (the ana- 
logues of the sucking discs of the Taenia) are 
tinsiirii'orm ; they appear, like the sucking discs 
on the feet of flies and mites, on leeches, &e., 
rather to a-ifect I he adhesion in accordance with 
the well-known laws of partial or total vacua, 
than to have anything to do with the nourish- 
ment, which is probably introduced through the 
entire akin. An actual opening on the head of 
the Bothriocepkalue could not be detected any 
Fig. 118. more than in the other Cestoidea?] 
Bead. The neck is sometimes very apparent and 

distinctly developed, while at other times it can 
be scarcely discerned. Bremser has figured two heads with 
well- developed necks, and a third in which it is almost absent. 
The neck appears to possess no articulations, but by means of 
the microscope a number of closely arranged ridges can be per- 

The segments or zoonites are at first nearly square, but they 
soon become wider than they are long. At the posterior part 
of the body the transverse greatly exceeds the longitudinal 

1 Kikheameister, opus cil. vol. i. p. 97. 


diameter (fig. 119). M. Esehrieht calculated that a Bingle 
Sothriocephtthm contains 10,000 segments. 

At the posterior extremity of the animal there is sometimes 
observed ft kind of incision or longitudinal rent, which divides 
the worm into two portions, and may give to thia extremity the 
appearance of a head. BremBer has figured a portion of a 
Bothrioeephulu* vAkh a fissure of this kind. At other times the 
rent is longer, and the worm appears to be furnished with two 
tails. M. Kayer lias «n several examples of this. 

As in the Tenia, filiform alimentary canals may be noticed at 
the anterior part, which pass in the 
length of the body. These canals can I 
sometimes be seen through the skin. 

According to M. Blanchard, the Both- 
riocephalus has a nervous system re- 
sembling that of the Ttenia, but not so 

The animal contracts and dilates it- 
self in a very irregular manner, but its 
movements an 1 generally sluggish. The 
head ia said, however, to be distinctly 

About the centre of the under surface 
of the segments (fig. 119) is an oval I 
or conical papilla, provided with an 
aperture through which there emerges 
a small slender somewhat pointed body, 
which is regarded as the penis. Behind this body is another 
smaller pore without a papilla. This does not always exist ; it is 
supposed to be the vulva, and, like the penis, is not present in 
every segment ; the hermaphroditism of the animal is not there- 
fore uniform; it possesses some segments which are androgynous, 
while others arc male and female. 

According to M. Eschricht, the penis is furnished with a 
small sheath and communicates with a tolerably long deferent 
canal ; this is folded several times upon itself, gradually increases 
in thickness, and terminates in a vesicula seminalis, having the 
form of an oval pouch. The testicle consists of white granules, 
and is furnished with three slender ducts, which terminate in 
the before-mentioned vesicle. The female organs are some- 
what more complicated; the ovaries are oblong and very 
distinct, the oviduct presents itself under the form of a tortuous 

1 a, male orifice with the ji 





canal, especially at the period when the ova are mature. The 
uterus has two pouches or diverging horns, which communicate 

" the Bothriocrphnhis (fig. 120) are exceedingly 
numerous. According to M. Escbrichr, 
each individual has as many as ten millions. 
The egga are of an elliptical form; when 
highly mugnified they appear to be filled 
with ;rniu tiles. 

The larva of the Bolhriocepiaha is un- 
known, as well as the circumstances under 
which it passes the first period of its exist- 
ence. The propagation of this entoaoon 
is supposed to occur in the same manner as 
that of the Bothriocrphali of other animals. 
The egg produces an asexual larva, pro- 
Fig. 120.' vided with a pouch-like body; this larva 
Sexual Ornaru. lives for a time in the body of some animal, 
and subsequently introduces itself into the 
human body, and is there transformed into the perfect animal.* 
M. Van Beneden observes that the herbivorous mammalia 
have tape-worms which are not furnished with books, and that 
these animals cannot swallow the lame of these worms with 
the flesh of other animals, as is the caBe with the caraivora. 
It is therefore possible that the human Bothriocephalus is 
produced from a larva which does not become encysted. 5 

2. Anotheh. species. — Mayor, of Geneva, has recognised 
two species of the Botkriocephalus latus, one with short the 
other with long segments. The first attains a length of sixty- 
five feet, and is about half an inch in width ; the segments are 
about '078 of an inch (two millimetres) in length. The second 
is not more than twenty-six feet long and about - 354 of an 
inch in width; its segments are '157 of an inch in length. 
According to this gentleman, I lit: oil of the male fern invariably 
expels the Bof.hrwcephalus with the long segments, while that 
with the short segments usually resists it, and requires to 
effect its expulsion that the powdered root of this plant, 
or a decoction of the bark of the root of the pomegranate 
tree, should be employed. Zoologists consider that these sup- 
posed species are mere varieties of the large Bothriocephalic. 

1 A, bisexual apparatus; a, male orifice with the penis; 6, testicle; e, 
vulva; d, uterua with horns; e, tortuous oviduct; f, ovary; B, egg. 
9 See p. 396. 
* See p. 399. 


3. Obseevations. — On comparing the Bothriocephalus la tut 
with the Taenia communis, their distinctive characters may be 
arranged as follows :— 

The Bothriocephalic- — 1, is of a grey colour ; 2, it has an 
elongated head, without any terminal enlargement or circlet 
of hooks ; 3, it is furnished with two elongated fossa? ; 4, the 
segments are wider than they are long ; 5, the sexual orifices 
are central. 

The Taenia — 1, is white; 2, the head is globular, with a 
terminal enlargement and two circles of hooks ; 3, it has four 
rounded oscula; 4, the segments are longer than they are 
wide ; 5, the sexual orifices are marginal. 

Action on man.— Like the Taenia, the Bothriocephalus 
inhabits the small intestines. 

The disorders which these worms produce, and the symptoms 
which indicate their presence, are the same in both species. 

The Tape worms without hooka belong to the herbivora, and 
those with hooks to the carnivora. In man, who is omnivorous, 
both species are met with. As a vegetable feeder he is tor- 
mented with the Bofhriocephalus latus, aud also with the Taenia 
inermis, and as a flesh feeder with the Taenia communis and 
the Taenia nana. 



TTndee the name of Vesicular or Cystic Helmintlia, 1 are 
included those entozoa which terminate in a vesicle, are con- 
tained in a cyst, or are composed of the latter only. The old 
writers gave them the name ot&gdotidi, w ttvdatid IVorms. All 
these TLelminlka are agamic, that is, are deprived of sexual 
organs. The reason of this wilt be seen hereafter. 

Zoologists have distinguished three genera of the Cystic Hel- 
mintha— 1, the Gysticerci; 2, the Echinococci; 3, the Acepha- 

§ I. Cysticerci. 

The Cystioeeci' are helraintha which are furnished with a 
caudal vesicle. 

They become developed in the cellular tissue of the muscles, 1 

1 Cystica, Rud.; Vermel veiiculares, Lion.; Bltuttnv&rnitT of the Germans. 
' KArru ii bladder, and Kfp 1 "" a tail- 
' Werner, Himley, Demarqoaj. 


they have also been noticed in the liver, 1 the heart, 3 the el 
pleius," the brain,* between the sclerotic and the conjuni 
and in the anterior chamber of the eye, 6 

These animals are very minute, and are contained in a 
circular or oval cyst of a somewhat iibroua structure, which ia 
developed at the expense of the organ which nourishes the 
parasite. This cyst contains a second, furnished with an open- 
ing, around which a third sac is adherent, and encloses the 
worm which is attached to it. (Follin, Robin.) This sac ib of 
a globular, oval, pyriform shape; its parieties are thin, smooth, 
or granulated, semi transparent, of a whitish eolour, and tolerably 

The head and the neck ore always contained in the vesicle, but 
they can be partly or entirely withdrawn at the will of the animal. 

The head iB provided with four suckers placed on a similar 
number of projections, and with a terminal proboscis sur- 
rounded by a. double circle of spines, just in the same manner 
as in the head of a Tasnia. Tbe neck varies in length, and 
formed of a number of closely arraoged segments. 

When the head is retracted the opening has the appearani 
of a small navel, which appears to be surrounded with a kin 
of whitish coloured sphincter; beneath this spot is the re- 
tracted head and neck. 

There are three principal Bpecies of the Ch/sticerd: — 1, Cesfi- 
oermts cellulosw; 2, Oyriicercu* (enuicollis; 3, Cr/sticerctf 

1. The Cysficereua CcUulosw (fig. 121)' is not commonly met 
with in man ; it is supposed to be the Bame as the worm which 
is so frequently developed in tbe pig, and produces the peculiar 
affection which is known aa measly port ; it has also been 
noticed in the ox. 

The cysts measure from the '590 to the -787 of an inch in the 
large diameter, and from the '198 to the 236 in the small. The 
head has 32 hooks." Some writers consider that the species which 
is met with in animals, and is furnished with from 26 to 28 
hooks,9 is a different species from that which is found in man. 

1 Lcucksrt. 

' Morgagni, RudolpM, Bonilland, Andrei, Leudet. 

3 Treutler, Fischer. 

4 Rujeth, Chomel, Dnbreuil, Leudet, Calmeit, Bonchnt. 
Eatlia, Htermg, Siebold, Cunier. 

* Soemmering, Lngan. 

* Tenia cdkdota, Gmel. ; Hydatigera celtvlosa, Lamk, 
■ Himley, RervaiB, Ch. Eobin. 

5 Davaine, Follin. 

id ia 


There is a variety (albopunctatus) which has a well-marked 
white spot at the 
opening of the vesi- 
cle. 1 

The Cysticercus 
dicystus of Laennec 
which was found 
in the brain of a 
man who had died 
of apoplexy, and in 
which the body ter- 
minated in a double 
vesicle, must be re- 
garded as a mon- 

Fig, 121.— Cyatiterci.'' 

2. Thi 

The Gysticercwt Acanfhotrias ("Weinl.) or three-armed 
cyslicercus, was found in 1845, at Richmond, in Virginia, by 
Professor Wyman, in the muscles of a woman fifty years of 
age, who had died of phthisis. 

It is nearly the '393 of an inch long without the vesicle, which 
resembles that of the OysUcercus cellulosa. 

It is characterised by having three kinds of hooks arranged 
in three rows, fourteen in each row ; its suckers are visible to 
the naked eye, and its neck is distinctly articulated. 

M. "Weinland proposes to found a separate genus on this 
species under the name of Acanthotrias. 

3. The Ck/gticercus tenuicoUis (Rud.) has been seen occasion- 
ally in the liver and in the mesentery, but only very rarely. 
Bosc and H. Cloquet have had the opportunity of examining 
it. It ia also found in monkeys, horses, pigs, and oxen. 

The neck is long, round, and rugose. Its vesicle appears to 
be small in man, but in other animals it becomes very large.' 

The following species must be regarded as doubtful, the 
characters which have been assigned to them not being suffici- 
ently marked. 

1. The Cyxticercu* hepaticus, Delle Chiaje, which resides 
in the liver, and has an oval elongated body. 

2. The Oytticercus vUceralU, Rud., which resides in the 
abdomen and the thorax, and has a globular body. 

1 Ttenia alba punctata, Treutl. 

* A, animal 'withdrawn into its vesicle ; B, animal extended ; C, head 
and neck ; Ti, one of the hooks. 

■ The Ttenia, which produces this species ia very common in the animals 
which are slaughtered for food. It U also found in the butcher's dog and 
i i the shepherd's dog. 


3. The Cyaticercvs ffitcheriatau, Laenn., which has a very 
slender body and a pyriform vesicle. 

4. The Cystictrcus aortlcvs, Notar., which haa an oval body 
and filiform hooks. 

5. The Cysticercus vetitxs, Crepl., in which the body i» 

In March, 1859, M. Ka?berlc communicated to the Society 
of Natural History of Strasbourg, a description of what he 
considers to he two new species of Cysticerri — the O. turbinate* 
and the O. melanocephalus. The first is characterised by the 
manner in which it is coiled up and by the possession of 32 
hooltB ; the second by a cephalic spot, and by haying 24 hooka. 
Both animals were found in the brain. 

§ U. Echi no cocci. 

The Echtnooocci' are worms which are enclosed in vi 
variable numbers in a memhranous cyst (sporocyst) . 

The Ecliinococcus hominis (fig. 122), Bud., has been descril 
in several special memoirs. 

This worm is found in several organs, but more especially 
the kidneys and lungs. Zeder met with it in the brain 
young girl. Itudolphi, Eschricht, and Lebert have seen 
the liver. Morgagni once found it in tho heart. Luderaen 
mentions the ease of a man aged 40, who had died of 
dropsy, and whose spleen was transformed into a large 
dilated sac, containing an enormous number of Echinococei. 
Collet haa recorded the case of a woman, aged 47, who, in 
about four months, discharged 135 Echinococei in coughing. 
Albers and Boch have both seen a case of goitre which was 
occasioned by an Echtnococcus. (Foster.) M. Gescheidt found 
it between the choroid and the crystalline lens. 

The cyst or capsule of the Echinococci varies generally in 
size. Some are not larger than a mustard seed, while others 
are of the size of a chicken's egg. This cyst causes the paren- 
chyma of the diseased organ to recede, and induces around it 
the formation of a new tissue, so that the hydatid is completely 
embedded in an adventitious cyst. These cysts are not always 

The shape of the cyst is globular, oval, or pyriform. It is 
composed of two membranes, the one enclosed in the other. 
The external (Hydatid of authors) consists of a structure wbu 
has the appearance of coagulated white of egg, without 
fibres or cells, and is arranged in layers. (Davaine.) 1 
' ExT>ut a hedgehog, and k6kkvs a grain. 



t in 


tenial cyst, corresponding to the _?<Tmii<rtJ memhrane of Goodsir, 
is formed of a fibrous, 
tissue, with a number 
of elementary granules 
dispersed through it. In 
the interior is a clear 
limpid fluid, sometimes 
colourless, and at other 
times with a slight yel- 
low or reddish tinge. 
Small corpuscles, like 
Fig. 122.— £cAinoeoceiu.» grains of sand, float free 

in the fluid ; these are 
at first attached to the internal surface of the cyst by means 
of a very slender pedicle, which tears with great facility. 
(Davaiue.) When examined beneath the mieroscope, these 
corpuscles are seen to be elongated, more or less ovoid, globu- 
lar, or pyriform in shape, and depressed. Each of these is a 
small intestinal worm. Its anterior extremity is furnished, 
like that of the Cysticerci, or the Tienia, with four suckers and 
a double row of hooks. Germs arc also developed on the exter- 
nal surface of the first membrane, and sometimes in its sub- 
stance. They usually become detached, like the first-mentioned 
bodies, when they have attained the size of a hemp seed. At 
the end of a certain time the y form in their interior the second 
membrane, and it is from this that the young Echinococci are 
produced. (Davaine.) 

Some writers consider that the EcMnococcus of the monkey, 
the dog, the ox, and the sheep, is a distinct species from that of 
man, and have given it the name of the Echinococcus veterino- 
rum, Kud. 

Others go even further, and admit that each of the animala 
which have been named is infested with a distinct species. 

§ HI. Acephalocysts. 

The Acephaloctsts, Acephalocr/stis (fig. 123), 2 described by 

Laennec, are growths in the form of membranous cysts, but 

which are without head, mouth, or alimentary canal, even in 

the embryonal condition. 

1 A, animal attached to the internal wall of the sporocyst, the head and 
neck retracted within its body; a, the head; b, the mouths ; e, the circlets 
of hooks ; d, the proboscis ; e, the body ; f, the pedicle ; B, the animal de- 
veloped ; a, the head; 4, the osaula ; c, the circle of hooks ; d, the proboscis; 
e, the neck ; /, the body ; C, one of tho hooks ; a, the claw ; b, tie guard ; 
e, the handle. 

* a priv, «(^axij the head, nfitmj a bladder. 


The Acephilocysts are found in the liver, spleen, and kidneyB. 

Bdelard met with them in the bladder, Cullener in the substance 

of the bones, and M. Rostan in the arachnoid membrane. Dr. 

CajTere found one which weighed over three ounces and a half 

(119 grammes), in the brain of a young man. 
Many naturalists have considered these cysts as true Hel- 
mintha, but an or- 
ganization of such 
extreme simplicity 
lu'liinjjs to the class 
Monadaria (Blain- 
ville), and is allied 
to the Volvoeida>. 

[The last state- 
ment in the preced- 
ing paragraph will 
senreely be admit- 
ted, since there 
are few naturalists 
to the vegetable 

Fig. 123.— Acephatocysls. 

i any doubts 

in the present day who 1 
nature of the Volvocida;.] 

Goeze and Eudolphi do not admit their animal nature ; and 
Cuvier and Meckel held the same opinion. These vesicles 
have, however, separate and independent life, which may be 
traced through its several stages. (Dujardin.) 

The membranous, tremulous, semi-transparent vesicles which 
are found encysted in various parts of the body, are therefore 
to be regarded aa hydatid ITelmintha. 

The true Aceph'alocysU are simple spherical non-adherent 
bodies, often containing other vesicles, enclosed the one within 
the other. 

In the present state of the science, the Acephalocysts must 
not be regarded as a special genus of Helmintha, but as 
Ck/sticerci and Echinacocvi, which are incompletely developed, 
that is to say, whose evolution has been arrested. It is not 
uncommon to find some of these cysts contain both unarmed 
vesicles and larva; furnished with hooks, and which consequently 
possess the characters both of an Acefkalocyst and of an Echv- 
nocoecua. (Van Beneden.) 

j IV. Transformations of the Cystic Helmintha. 
The Cystic or hydatid Helmintha, that is tost 

and the Echinococci \ 

(' Vys'if 

transformed into the Hut i 

PAHAamo wobms. 897 

mintli a. The first are incompletely developed or larval stages 
of the second. 

A knowledge of these transformations has afforded a ready 
explanation of the origin of verminous diseases. 

The history of this discovery possesses the greatest possible 
interest for the medical practitioner as well as for the naturalist. 
Mora than a century ago, Abilgaard noticed that a particular 
species of parasite, known as the Sokutoeopiahit dimorphus, 
which infests certain fishes belonging to the family of the Qas- 
teroetei or Stickle-bachs, is sometimes found in the water-fowl, 
which feed upon the latter, but that the parasite has then passed 
into a further stage of development. M. Creplin, in 1829, by 
carefully comparing the intestinal worm of the Gasterostei, 
which annually ascend the tributary rivers of the Baltic, with 
those of the piscivorous birds which frequent these streams, 
clearly proved that the Behistocepkalus dimorphux only acquires 
its sexual organs (that is to say, becomes a perfect animal) when 
it has been developed in the interior of the bird. 

The changes which this worm undergoes consist only in its 
attaining a larger size, and in the appearance of the sexual 
organs. Other changes of a more complicated and curious 
character, amounting to a true metamorphosis, have been 
noticed by M. Van Beneden in other worms, auch aa the 
Bothrioeephali of fishes. Many fishes are inhabited by small 
entozoa, known under the name of Scoliaes. These worms have 
neither hooks nor suckers, and arc entirely deprived of sexual 
organs. At a later period the Scolices are furnished with four 
cephalic Buekere, armed with a series of hooks, and are con- 
verted into TetrarhyneL These remain in their cyst until the 
fish in whose intestines they are lodged are eaten by some 
larger species. The worm then emerges from its cyst, makes 
its way through the intestine of the devourer, and fixes itself 
to its mesentery. At a subsequent period, if, in its turn, this 
fiah is devoured by another, as, for instance, by a shark, the 
worm becomes elongated, its body flattened, segments are 
formed, the sexual organs are developed, and the entozoon 
is transformed into a Botknocephalus. 

These remarkable facts serve to explain the great resem- 
blance which M. Siebold has pointed out between the head of 
the Cysticercux fitmtarit, which lives in the mouse, and the 
head of the Tmnia enmiootiu, which inhabits the cat. One is 
led to the conclusion that the two parasites are identical. 
In fact, they only diner from each other in the presence of a 
small cavitary vesicle in the first, and in the greater length of 

398 MEDICAL /OH 1,011V. 

the second. M. Siebold introduced several species of Q/xficerci 
into the stomachs of dogs and rabbits ; he found that after a 
time the worm lost the caudal vesicle, elongated, became flat 
tened, divided into segments, and was transformed into a Tcenia. 

Siebold gave encysted Kchinocorci- to dogs mixed with their 
food, lie showed tiisit in some of these cases the last segment 
became dilated into the vesicle, and the entozoon was developed 
into a Gysticereus; but, in a large number the worm became 
elongated, flattened, articulated) and was converted into a 

Kiichenmeister, in 1835, by some experiments which he per- 
formed upon a woman condemned to dentil for assassination, 
showed that when the Gysliccrcus eellulotw passed into the 
human intestines, it became developed into the common Tcenia. 
He administered to the woman a number of Vysticerci obtained 
from a pig : twelve were given in some blood puddings, and 
eighteen in rice, eighty-four hours before death ; fifteen in ver- 
micelli soup, thirty-Bix hours before; twelve mixed with 
sausage-meat, twenty-four hours before ; and eighteen ha soup, 
twelve hours before. The woman had, therefore, swallowed 
seventy-five Cystwt-rci. The examination of the body was 
made forty -eight hours after execution. Four small individuals 
of the Tamia communis were found attached to the mucous 
membrane of the abdomen. In the water with which the in- 
testines had been washed six other young Tama were found, 
but they were not furnished with hooks. 

It appears, therefore, that the Ct/xticercus cellulosce becomes 
converted into the common Tama in the alimentary canal of 

Similar experiments were made by Leuckart, who adminis- 
tered a number of the Cyxlicerci from the pig to a young man 
thirty years of age. At the end of two months this man had 

M. A. Humbert, of Geneva, even went 80 far as to experi- 
ment upon himself. On December the 11th, 1854, he swal- 
lowed fourteen fresh Gysticerci in the presence of MM. Vogt 
and Mouliuie, Early in the month of March, 1855, he felt the 
presence of Tmniw, and discharged large fragments of them. 1 

On the other hand, it has been proved that the mature eggs 
of the Tanim give rise to the development of Cy&tkerci in the 

n dogs fully confirm 


tissues of animals. 1 Pigs have been fed with the eggs of the 
Tarda communis when the animals have hecome measly. 

The Oynticerci found in the butchers' shops, and at the pork 
butchers,* are the principal source of the common Tape worm. 
These hydatids are consumed with the flesh of the pig (an ani- 
mal which is so often infested by them) especially when this is 
eaten raw, or merely salted and smoked, or when it is only 
half-cooked. More rarely they are found in the flesh of the ox 
and some other animals. 

According to the report of the medical men of Vienna per- 
sons who are employed in butchers' shops and in kitchens are 
those who are most frequently affected with Tape irornts. 3 In 
Abyssinia, where the people are in the habit of eating raw 
meat, this parasite is very common. (Auher, Siehold.) The 
Carthusian monks of the same country, who neither eat meat 
nor drink milk, are entirely free from the worm. (Buppell, Rein- 
lein.) At Stettin Twniis were found in seven children, for 
whom raw meat had been prescribed. (Scharlau.) 

The following are then the successive transformations which 
the Twnia communis undergoes before arriving at its perfect 

The egg encloses a short unarticulated embryo, which, when 
it is hatched, is furnished with three pairs of hooks (hexa- 
canthi), of which the two central are for the purpose of fixing it 
to the tissues of the ;miiu:il .selrctnl by the parasite for its abode. 
Once it is attached to an animal, as for instance a pig, 
this kind of rudimental larva becomes, or more correctly speak- 
ing engenders by an agamic process, a new individual enclosed 
within its parent ; tbt» latter becomes encysted in the infected 
animals, like n caterpillar in its eoccoon, where it becomes trans- 
formed into a chrysalis. (Van Beneden.) 

This second larva has a head with four suckers, a double cir- 
cle of hooks, and a moderately long neck, which terminate! in 
a membranous enlargement or vesicle with delicate walls, and 
filled with serum ; within this the young animal can withdraw 
itself, or entirely close itself up. This kind of minute worm 
resides in large numbers in the cellular tissues, on the fat, 
beneath the skin, in the midst of the muscles, and in the peri- 

' Kiichenmeiater, Van Beneden, Gurlt, Eschricht, Lcuckart, 4e. 

' A piece of pork weighing lour drachms and a half, which Kiichonmel* 
ler obtained from a pork butcher in Saxony contained 133 Cr/atirerci. 

' Pork butchers and butchorB are very subject to the common Tape worm. 


The animal lives in ita cyst like a Cynips in a gall-nut, 

Inthifl second state the larva forms the Cysticerous cellulose* ; 
it is the hydatid stage. 

The larva is capable of producing other individuals Bimilarto 
itself by the process of gemmation, but not by a true act of 
generation. "When the pig becomes measly it contains mil- 
lions of individuals. 

If this larva and its progeny cannot escape from the tissues 
in which they have become encysted, their development does not 
pass beyond the condition of the Cytticercut. 

"When the Cystict-rcus enters the alimentary canal of man, it 
attaches itself by means of its hooks and its suckers to the sur- 
face of the mucous membrane. It soon loses its vesicle, 
which becomes degenerated by eiosmosis, and assumes the ap- 
pearance of a flattened appendage. The animal becomes more 
transparent, lengthens, assumes a flattened form, and produces 
a number of segments, which constitute special organisms 
placed end to end, and enjoying a community of life, but each of 
which, at the same time, is provided with ail the elements 
essential to its individuality. 1 This long chain of zoonites may 
be regarded as another form of agamic: reproduction. 

This third stage corresponds to the perfect animal, and con- 
stitutes the Ttsnia. 

It has been seen that the lame, when they emerge from the 
egg, are neither flat nor vesicular, and that the Cysticerci are 
flat worms furnished with an Hydatid termination. The 
Acephalocysts may be described as large Hydatids without 
the flat anterior body, while the Tceniae, on the contrary, have 
long flat bodies without the terminal Hydatid, 

In the course of two or three months a Ttsnia may attain 
the length of several yards. 

Each segment is both male and female. At the period 
of procreation the ovaries are enlarged and become distended 
with an enormous number of eggs. After this the articula- 
tions separate from each other, and each of these becomes an 
indi' , pi:nt.U , nt organism. 

The fourth stage is that of the Cueurbitins,' 1 or separated 

These are passed out with the excrements ; they continue 
to live for some days; they then decompose, and the eggs 
which they contain are dispersed abroad. 

1 " Tcenia natos tutu nepotes concatenate scrie lunyituJinuliter prodvcuxl," 
» See page 382. 


The eggs retain for a long time the power of germinating ; 
they resist the effecta both of high and low temperatures, of 
dryness and humidity, and also of water and of alcohol. At 
length they pass either with the food or the drink into the 
interior of some animal or of man : they then become hatched, 
and give rise to a new generation of Cgsticerci, which in their 
turn are developed into Tcenue.' 

These four states of the Hcfaiintha— the rudimentary, the 
vesicular, the. fiat, ond the disjointed^— have been named by M. 
Van Beneden the protoscolcx, the totitoteolex, the strobila, and 
the proglottis. 1 These names had previously been used in a 
generic sense, when each of the forms to which they refer was 
regarded as a distinct species of animal. M. Van Beneden 
would now make use of them as general terms, a useless inno- 
vation, since we have already the terms larva, Cysticercus, 
Tosnia, and cucurbitin.* 

The first larva or protoscolex, and the Cysticercus or deutosco- 
lex, live in the substance of the different tissues. The Taenia 
or strobilis resides in the alimentary canal. The cucurbitins or 
proglottis emerge from this cavity. The first larvcs and the 
Cysticerd developed witliin them are compelled to become 
encysted. The Tanux and the cucuruUins, meeting with no 
obstacle or hindrance, do not form a cyst. The first become 
elongated, develop themselves, but remain adherent ; the 
second separate, move away, and become locomotive. 

The first larvce and the Gysticerci are very short, and fur- 
nished with an imperfectly articulated neck, and have no sex- 
ual organs; they propagate themselves by gemmation. The 
Trnniw are very long, form distinct zoonites, and are androgyn- 
ous ; they reproduce by a true act of generation. Lastly, the 
cucurbitins are disarticulated zoonites, that is to say, single 
individuals, formed at the espense of a multiple individual; these 
disseminate the mature eggs. 

These remarkable transformations occur therefore in one and 
the same species ; germs which emigrate, larvm which repro- 

' M. Siobold ia of the opinion that the Cysticercus cellulose give rise to 
different kinds of Ttaiite, according to ttie animal into which it is tmn»- 
portcd. Thus it becomes Tirnia serrate in tha dog, Tttnia crassipes in the 
fox, T<mia marc-atata in the wolf, and Ttenia crussicoUU in the martin. 
M. Van Beneden justly considers that the Cysticercus cillvlosa can only 
.' ■.'. '.:■■■.■: 

* Scokx, 0. F. Miiller ; strobila. Snare ; proglottis, Dujardin. The name 
strobila ia applied in botany to that form of fruit which ia commonly known 

* We have also those of hydatid and zoonite. 



duce themselves, parts which are repeated, organisms which 
become individualized, and zoonites which become isolated. 

What takes place in the development of the Twnia communis 
also occurs in other Tunics. Just at) the Cysiicercus cellules® 
is transformed into the Teenia communis, so the Echinococcv* 
veterinorum is metamorphosed into the Twnia echinococcus} 
Unfortunately our present knowledge does not enable ua to 
trace these transformations in all the species. There are 
T/cniw whose larvw are not known, and there are larvae whose 
Ttsniie are not ascertained ; which, for example, are the 
Oysticerci that produce the Taenia nana, the Teenia ftavopunctata, 
and the Taenia inermis ? And, again, which is the Taenia that 
gives rise to the Oystieereus Acanthotrias ? 

The following conclusions may be drawn from the preceding 
facts : — 

1. The vesicular Helmintha or hydatids are the larvee {sec-lex) 
of the flat Helminths. 

2. The Acephalocysts are vesicular Helmintha, whose de- 
velopment is incomplete or arrested. 

3. The larvfe assume the forms of JSchinococci or of Cyt- 

4. The larvae attain the perfect or flat state (strobilis) by 
passing from one animal of a lower grade to another which is 
more elevated. 

6. The same thing occurs between animals and man. 

6. A difference in the locality influences their development 
A residence in the alimentary canal is necessary for their 
complete development. 

7. Certain vesicular Helmintha which become diverted from 
their proper migrations never arrive at the perfect state ; they 
live as larva? and perish sexless. 

8. The vesicular Helmintha are of no sex, because the lame 
have none. 

9. The vesicular Helmintha multiply themselves by gemma? 
or buds. 

10. The flat Helmintha reproduce themselves by sexual 
generation ; they are androgynous and form eggs. 

11. The cucurbitins or zoonilcs (proglottis) are segments 

1 Transformations which are equally curious occur in animals. Tha 
Cyiiicarui Jastiolaris of the mouse produces the Tumia crassicoUis of tha 
oat; the Cysticercia pissifvrmit of the rabbit, the Ttinia serrata of the 
dag; the Cysticercvi tongicutiis of the held mouse, the Ta-nia Craetipt* 
of the fox ; the Camurus eerebrtdii of the sheep, the Tania croitirv* of the 
wolf, &e. 


of the fiat Helmintha, which become separated and isolated 
when the eggs are mature. 

12. The gemma, eggs, or larvai of the^ai Helmintha pass from 
an anima! into man's body, or from one animal to another, by 
means of the food or the drink. 



The division of the Helmintha into those which reside in the 
alimentary canal, and into those which live out of it, although 
a convenient classification for the medical practitioner, is quite 
insufficient for the zoologist. Moreover, it is not altogether 
correct. It has been seen that the Ascaris lumbricoides, although 
it is a true intestinal worm, yet that it is occasionally found 
in the bladder, the nasal cavities, and in the meso-rectum, &c. 
The Flukes are also met with external to the intestine as well 
as in its interior. 

The twelve genera that have been described, when considered 
in relation to their structure, present three distinct types of 
organization ; these are represented by the Ascaris, the Fluke, 
and the Ttenia. 

In the first type the animal is vermiform, possesses a visceral 
cavity, and haB a more or less complete alimentary canal, which ia 
provided with a mouth and an anus. The sexes are always 

In the second type the body is short and fiat, it has no 
visceral cavity, the digestive organs are incomplete, there is a 
minute pore which takes place of a mouth, and the anus is 
either rudimentary or absent ; the animal is almost always 

In the third type, the body is flat, and composed of seg- 
ments placed end to end, the visceral cavity is absent, the 
digestive organs are incomplete, the mouth is represented by 
absorbing pores, the anus is wanting; the animal is andro- 

The cucwrbitins, or separated zoouites of this third type, 
possess many of the cliai-u-tcr* which belong to the second, for 
a series of F,':'h^ y\:m-<\ nul to cm! wonlil resemble a Tmnia. 

The Helmintha which form the first section belong to the 
genera. Ascarides, 0.r>/i/rix. 'frirorcphtilax. Ancylaxtoma, Slrong- 
ylus, Spiroptera, and Filaria. The Helmintha which form the 
id 2 



second belong to the genera Tkeeotoma, Dhioma, and Festuearia. 
Lagtly, the third includes the genera Taenia and Botkrioeepkalut. 

Zoologists have placed these three types of animals in dif- 
ferent orders or in different classes. Linnreus arranged the 
two first amongst tho Intestina, and the third amongst the 
Zoopkyta. Zeder, Budolphi, and Bremser term the Entozoa 
belonging to the first type Nematoidea, those of the second 
Trematoda, and those of the third Cestoidea. Cuvier divides 
these animals into two orders : the Cavitary, which includes 
and corresponds, therefore, to the Nematoidea, and into the 
Parenchymals, which includes the others; he subdivides the 
latter into the Trematoda and Tamioidea. M. Milne Edwards 
considers them all as Eittamazaairia or Annelida, but he divides 
them into three separate classes, each of which corresponds to 
one of the types that have been spoken of. These are the 
ffelmintha, the Turbcllaria, and the Cestoidea, M. Tandon 
accords with these views of the learned professor of the 
Museum of Natural History. He admits of these three groups 
which constitute his sixth, seventh, and eighth classes of 
worms, Annelida or Entonwzoaria, belonging to the sub- 
kingdom Zoonites. He considers, however, that it is desirable 
to retain the older titles by which they have been distin- 
guished. For this reason he has given the name of Nematoidea 
to the first group, Trematoda to the second, and Cestoidea to 
the third. There is a less amount of relationship between the 
Nematoidea and the Trematoda than there is between the latter 
and the Cestoidea. 

The most perfectly organized of the intestinal worms are 
unquestionably the Nematoidea, and amongst these the Ascarides 
and the Strongyli. 

The following table contains all the Bpecies which 
with in man. The number of these species amounts to tweni 
nine ; amongst them there are ten species which are either 
imperfectly known, or their presence in man has not been 
clearly established. These are distinguished by an asterisk. 

[In the original table, M. Tandon has included five other 
species under the title of doubtful H.elmintha ; these have been 
omitted ; while the Trichina is not included amongst the perfect 
worms, but is inserted with a query as to its being the young 
of Tricocephalus dispar. Tho grounds upon which the Trichina 
is raised to the rank of a distinct species are given at page 
352. M. Tandon has also placed an asterisk before Disto 
Buskii ; the distinctive characters of this species having bi 
given at page 374, this has been removed.] 




Species of Helmintha living in Man. 


. Ascaria lumbricoides. 
. Ascaris alata. 

3. Osyurua venuicularis. 

4. Tricocephalus diapar. 
6. Trichina spiralis. 

6. AneyloBtomum duode- 

7. Strongylua renal is. 

8. Strongylua longevagina- 

9. Spiroptera hominiB. 
10. Filaria medinensiB. 

•11. Filaria oculi. 
*12. Filaria lentia. 
•13. Filaria lymphatica. 



L4. Thecosoma sanguieola. 

15. Diatoma hepaticum. 

16. Diatoma lanceolatum. 
*17. Distoina ojithalmobium. 

18. Distoma heterophyes. 

19. Diatoma Buakii. 

20. Featucaria leatia. 

21. Ttenia communiB. 

Larva, Gygticereus cel- 

22. Taenia nana. 

Larva, .... 

23. Taenia flavopunctata. 


*24. Taenia echinococcuB. 

Larva, JScMnococcits 
*25. Tenia inernuB. 

*26. Taenia acanthotrias. 1 

Larva, Ct/ttieercusAcan- 
•27. T»uia tenuicolliB. 1 

Larva, Cyslicercus tenuu 
*28. Tsenia dentalis.' 

Larva, Eckinococcux 

*29. Bothriuceplmlu 
Larva, . . 



The infuaorial animalcule, which are the moat diminutive 
of living beings, are developed in all climates, in every possible 
locality, and at every period of the year. They are found in the 
bodies of living beings, and in the midst of inorganic substances. 



1 Perfect state not known. 

* Perfect Btatc not been observed in man. 

* Perfect state doubtful in man. 

* The Tienia Capenais and the Taenia tropica 
Cysticercia hepaticus, ttowh, Fischeriania, aorncui 
imperfectly characterised to be included in the table. 

not well defined. The 



ParaBitio infusoria, whose presence is either the cause or the 
reHult of certain disorders, are met with in the human body, 
sometimes when it is in a healthy state, and at other times 
when it is in a state of disease. 

Lebert has juBtly remarked that these animalcules are 
principally found in wounds where the discharge has been 
retained or has decomposed. They are found in the mucus of 
the intestinal canal (Lee uwenhoek, Pouch et) ; in stale or infected 
secretion of the vagina (Donne, Dujardin) ; in the tartar of the 
teeth (Mandl.) ; and in the milk (Puchs). 

The species which are most deserving of notice belong to the 
genera — 1, Paramecium; 2, Gcrcomonas ; 3, Trichomonas; Yir- 
gulina; 5, Vibrio. The following is a summary of the 
characters of these genera : 

j with a mouth. 1. Paramecium. 

Infusoria ) ( One largo vibratile t A tail . 2. Cercommai. 

(—■it i_ii.l cilium. . . . (No tail. 3. Trichomona*. 
(wuhouta mouth. A tail . 4. F^Wma. 

( NoTitaiileolram. ] SotiliL5 . VibL. 

1. Paramecium. — This genus consists of flattened oblong 
infusoria, provided with a longitudinal fold which leads to the 
mouth. The body is covered with fine cilia. 

On examining with the microscope some pua obtained from 
a small ulceration of the rectum, and the mucous secretion of 
this part of the intestines, in a sailor who had survived an 
attack of cholera, but who had subsequent derangement of the 
digestive organs, Dr. Malmstein, of Stockholm, found in 
these secretions, besides pus cells and blood globules, a large 
number of infusoria, which he has described and figured under 
the name of Paramecium coll. 

He afterwards observed the same infusoria in a woman who 
had chronic inflammation of the large intestines. The patient 
having died, M. Malmstein found the infusoria were more 
abundant on those parts of the mucous membrane which had 
undergone the least amount of change than where the disease 
was further advanced, or in the pus which it had given rise to. 

These animalculm are very active ; they present themselves 
in large numbers, as many as from twenty to twenty-five were 
found in a single drop of mucus. They die very quickly 
when removed from the intestine. 

2. CebcomoNAS, Cercamonas Davainei, M. Tandon.- — M. 
Davaine, in 1853, discovered in the warm dejections of cholera 
patients a species of Cercomonas, which occurred in large 


Subsequently the same gentleman met with this animalcule 
on two occasions in the evacuations of patienta attacked with 
simple diarrhcea. The cholera was still prevalent. 

The animalcules are ^ of an inch in length. The body is ovoid 
op pyriform, but somewhat variable in shape, and very pointed 
at the two extremities. The integument is soft, and of a white 
colour. One or two very small corpuscles, or nucleolar bodies, 
may sometimes be seen in the interior. Anteriorly is a very 
Blender, long, flexible vihratile filament, which commences 
abruptly from the anterior margin ; this is detected by the 
motion it produces in the water, but it can only be seen at 
intervals, and hy prolonged examination. At the opposite ex- 
tremity is another filament, which is thicker at its commence- 
ment where it becomes blended with the posterior part ; it is 
about the same length or a little longer than the body ; it is 
rigid, nearly straight, and sometimes attaches itself to sur- 
rounding objects ; when thia is the case the Cercomonas vibrates 
to and fro like the pendulum of a clock. 

The Cereomouads are extremely active, a circumstance which 
renders it very difficult to determine their characters. 

These animalcutcB die as soon as the fluids in which they are 
contained become cold ; this proves that their formation does 
not depend upon the decomposition of the fluids. They are 
true parasites, which live in the intestines of man when certain 
conditions are present that are requisite for their existence. 

Another aperies of Cercomonas was found on one occasion in 
a young man in a well-marked case of typhoid fever, and with- 
out any symptoms of cholera, This waa also discovered by M. 

This second species differs somewhat from the first ; it is 
Smaller and more oval ; its anterior cilium is of the same length 
and equally flexible ; it commences less abruptly. The caudal 
filament arises somewhat from the side ; it is proportionally 
smaller, and is not blended with the posterior part of the body. 
This Cercomonas has an undulatory motion in the length of its 
body, which sometimes appears to be slightly wavy. This 
species might be termed the Cercomonas ohliqua. 

3. Trichomonas, Trichomonas vaginalis, Duj. — This species 
was discovered by M. Dunne in the mucus of the vagina 
(fig; 124). _ 

The Trickomonads aasemble together and form irregular 
masses with the particles of thickened mucus. 

Some writers do not admit the animal nature of these minute 




objects. 1 They regard them 
detached epetlielial cells. Others 
hare adopted the views of MM. 
Donne and Dujardin. 3 Some 
have even looked upon these 
animalcules aa Acari.' 
Fig. 121.— TrKhomouai vayinalii. The Trichomonas vaginalis is 
^ O ' o0 inch in its long diameter. 
The body is globular, oval, or pyriform, unequal, slightly 
granular, gelatinous, transparent, and colourless, or of a milky 
appearance. They often adhere to other bodies. They have 
an anterior flahcl] iform filament (sometimes two, rarely three), 
thick at its base, flexible, and about 10 ' oo of an inch in length ; 
there are also four or five abort cilia placed on one side of it at 
its commencement. 

Some have assigned to this animalcule a small, oblique, ter- 
minal mouth. MM. Scannoni and Kolliker have not observed 
it, but they believed they had seen a shallow, oblique groove 
the anterior part, near the cilia. 

The Trichomonas vaginalis ia not found in recently 
mucus, but only in that which is beginning to decompi 
Whenever this animalcule is met with the vaginal mu 
encloses bubbles of airj which give it a frothy appearance. 

[The Trichomonas vaginalis only occurs in women with 
gonorrhieal discharge, or with an abundant vaginal secretion 
mixed with mucus and pus corpuscles ; never in a normal and 
healthy vaginal secretion, but only in pathological conditions. 
The mucus, however, need not be frothy, as Donne supposes, 
so long as it is not quite normal. 4 ] 

4. Vibgtlina, Virgulina tenax. — This animalcule is found 
in the tartar of the teeth. A small portion must be mixed 
with a drop of distilled water, which haa been previously 
warmed, and examined with a magnifying power of from 
to 500 diameters. 

These animalcules vary in size from the t sVq of an 
upwards, and move about rapidly. (Mandl.) 

They are found in large quantities in patients who have been 
put upon a low diet for some months. They also form the 
greatest portion of thickened mucus of the tongue in persons 
who are troubled with indigestion. 

' MM.Labert, Valentin, J. Vogel, Siebold, L. Wagner. 

' MM. R:iS[.:lil, !"V:i 1 1 /i jr.!. Kulljker. 

* MM. Froriep, Ehrenberg. 

* Kiichenmeiiter, oput eil, vol. i. p. 7. 

e at 




The Virgulina tenax has an elongated, membranouB, trans- 
parent body, somewhat thickened, and truncated at its anterior 
part ; it is furnished with a tail one third or one fourth shorter 
than the body. 

M. Mandl. is of opinion that these animalcules contain & cal- 
careous element in their tissues, which assists in hardening the 

5. Vibkio, Vibrio rugula, Miill. — Leeuwenhoek first noticed 
this animalcule in his own digestions during a Blight illness. 

Miiller, who has described and figured it, saw it by thousands 
in an infusion of flies. 

Dujardin found it in an infusion of crushed hemp seed, of 
Neufchatel cheese, of stale gelatine, and of the liver of the 

M. Pouchet detected it in the dejections of cholera patients, 
where it was present in myriads. It was not found in the 
Tomited matters. 

Dr. Hassall also found the Vibrios in the dejections of cholera, 
and in the intestinal secretions some time after death. 

These animalcules are hardly visible. They are from y^^^ 
to tb,4o5 of an inch in length, and from -nnrW to \bt\bt> oS 
an inch in width. (Dujardin.) The body is cylindrical, at- 
tenuated at each extremity, sometimes straight, sometimes with 
from five to eight inflexions, and semitransparent. Its vacuoles 
are distinct, globular, and hyaline. 

This animalcule moves about with great activity in an undu- 
lating or serpentine manner. Leeuwenhoek compared these 
movements to those of an eel. 

Some naturalists question the animal nature of these minute 

In all persons, whether ill or well, two other species of Vi- 
brios are met with in the mucus of the mouth, mixed with the 
scales of epithelium and large granular molecules. These are 
the Vibrio Bacillus and the Vibrio lineola of Miiller. The first 
is yp^g of an inch in length, very flexible, and very slender, 
and contains a number of well-defined oval vacuoles. The 
second, which measures about -rs.Vrrfr °f an ^h m length, is 
thick, somewhat bent, and the vacuoles are globular, but in- 

The blue and the yellow colours which, under some circum- 
stances, are found in milk, are caused by the Vibrio cyanogeiw* 
and the Vibrio xanthotjenm of Fuehs. 



Allantoidians, 62. 

Allocotylcdons, 58. 

A bd -el-Ka Jet. 28. 

Alimentary canal, 43. 

Acanthia ciliata. 222. 

Ambergris, 110, 125, 125, 


Am bra cinereo, 126. 

rotundata, 222. 

Ambrcine, 127. 

Acaridaj, 307. 

American, 26, 31, 33. 

AcsropBia, 307, SIS. 

Ammodytea, 219. 

Mcricourtii, 319. 

Amphibia, 54. 
Anallantoidians, 62. 

pectinate, 319. 

AcanthrotriaB, 393. 

Anatomy of Man, 3. 

Ac&ros, 309. 

Ancyclontoma, 333, 334. 

Americanus, 303. 

duodenalc, 353. 

autumnalis, 305. 

Aneylostomuni duodenale, 353, 405. 

■ domestiens, 130. 

Angle, facial, 5. 

■ folliculorum, 319, 320 321. 

Andromeda Mariana, 205. 

■ nigua, 303. 

Animal, definition of, 37. 

reduTius, 302. 

organization of, 37. 

ricinus, 302. 

Animal charcoal, 161. 

acabei, 309. 

kingdom, 35. 

Siro, 309. 

Annelida, 60, 137, 404. 

Acephals, 61, 62, 88. 

Anoliua bullaris, 69. 

AcijphalocjBts, 391, 395, 400, 402. 

Ant, 65, 213. 

Acetum cant hari dip, 133, 

fire, 213. 

Achatina carina ta, 86. 

flaming, 213. 

Aripenser, 181. 

red, 213. 

Hnso, 182. 

Antelope Dorcas, 185. 

Kuthenus, 182. 

rupicapra, 184. 

. — BteUatus, 182. 

Anthremis musjeonim, 130. 

. Sturio, 182. 

Anthropomorpha, 35. 

Aconitum Napollos, 208. 

Aphides, 154,190. 

Actinias, 235. 

Aphis, 155. 

Actinizoaria, 60, 62. 

Cbinensis, 155. 

Adipose tissue, 41. 

Piataciee, 156. 

African, 34. 

Apis Mellifica, 196, 275. 

Aglossa farinalia, 243. 

unicolor, 204. 

pingualis, 243. 

Arachnida, 62, 98, 260, 286. 

Aleyoninm Lyncuriom, 91. 

Aranea, 98. 

Album Griccum, 06. 

diadems, 261 . 

nigrum, 66. 

Florentioa, 260. 

Albumen, 179. 

guttata, 260. 

Alcyonia, 91. 

maetani, 261, 

Alcyonium Lyneurium, 91. 

Araneidse, 93. 



Argadea, 304. 

Blood globules, 37, 40. 

Argas, 291. 

Blamenbach— characteristics of ' 

of Persia, 304. 

man, 1 ; races of men, 26. 

Persieas, 304. 

Boat-fly, 224. 

Chinche, 304. 

Bombycidte, 234. 

marginatus, 305. 

Bombua lapidarua, 279. 

Armadillo officinalis, 70. 

muscoram, 279. 

Aromia Moscbata, 110. 

Wrrestria, 279. 

Articulata, 67, BO, 81 

Bombax globosum, 100. 

Arteries, 4S. 

Bombyx Pityoeampa, 234. 

Artificial teetn, 8L 

Bone of cuttle fish, 82, S3. 

Aecarides, 331, 335, 403, 404. 
Ascaris, 333, 335. 

Bones, 159, 160. 

alata, 340, 406. 

Bono black, 160. 

gigas, 335. 

Boschesman, 15. 

marginala, 839. 

Bothriocephali, 397. 

in yalai, 340. 

Bothriocephalua, 332, 334, 3SC, 404. 1 

■ lumbricoides, 335, 406. 

latua, 386, 405. 

vermicularis, 334. 

Bothropa, 255, 257. 

Asp, 248, 253, 282. 

Jararaca, 258. 

Asa, 65, 68, 67. 

lanceolatus, 258. 

Astacus flsviatilis, 98, 176. 

Bory de Saiut Vincent — races of 1 

Australian, 26, 31. 

Autumn fly, 234. 

Bracbinidss, 214. 

Azalea Pontics, 205. 

Brain, human, 5. 

average weight of, 5, 6, 7, 9, 

Branahue, -ih. 


Breeze-fly, 234. 

Brosmius vulgaris, 102. 

Badger, 65, 66, 67, 110. 

Bryoioa, 62. 

Baiauia Australia, 93. 

BufFon — characteristics of man, 1. 

Mystics tus, 93, 

Bufo calami ta, 288. 

Balistes, 245. 

vulgaris, 287. 

Barbel, 67, 245. 

Bug, 65. 

Bat, 64, 65. 

ciliated, 222. 

Batrachia, 62. 

common, 219. 

Bear, 66. 

ofmiama, 304. 

Bearer, 65, 118, 118. 

Bedeguar, 149, 153. 

Burbot, 102. 

Bee, 275. 

Bull, 66, 67. 

eater, 66. 

Bustard, 67. 

humble, 275, 379. 

Butea frondosa, 78. 

■ moss or carder, 278. 

Butbus Occitanus, 272. 

red-tatted, 279. 

palmatua, 272. 

Beef, 163. 

Butter, 190. 

Bazoara, 67, 68. 

Byron, brain of, 6. 

Bigajc, 283. 

Bile, 95. 

Biline, 95. 


Bizigaye, 233. 

Blapa mortisagn, 242. 

Cacblot, 82,94, 126. 

Blattida;, 214. 

Cactus Bonplandii, 71. 

Blood, 160. 

eoehinellifera, 71. 

transfusion of, 181. 

opuntia, 71. 

INDEX. 413 

Calculi cancrornm, 97. 

Cervns, Capreolus, 166. 

Calli chroma muacata, 131. 

Dama, 181. 

Calliphora Yomitoria, 237. 

Tarandua, 181. 

Calloehalia escnlenta, 185. 

Cestoidea, 404. 

fncifaga, 186. 

Cetaces, 92, 126. 


Cetonia aurata, 131, 136. 

Calmar, 56. 

Chamois, 184. 

Calves, 164, 165. 

Chevrotain, 114. 

Camel, 86, 66, 87, 68. 

Chigoe, 291, 300. 

Camcleon, 65. 

Chincho, 804. 

Ciintharidin, 131. 

Chinese gall, 154, 156, 

CantharideB, 127, 128, 243. 

musk, 113. 

collecting of, 130. 

Chrvsomela, 131. 

Cantharis dubia, 132. 

Cicadso, 214. 

vesieatoria, 128. 

Cimex leetularins, 219. 

Capalan, 102. 

Civet, 110. 

Caranx, 2 IS. 

scent of, 116. 

Carabidie, 214. 

Classification of animals, 52 ; Aris- 

Carbo animalis, 181. 

totle, 53 ; LinnieUB, 53; Lamarck, 

Carcinas mamas, 178. 

55 ; Cuvier, 56 ; Monuin-Tandon, 

Cardinal edule, 173. 


Carmine, 76. 

Clubione medicinalis, 263, 

Carp, 65, 66. 

Clubiones, 261. 

Corjophyllia, 89. 

Cobra de Capello, 259. 

Cases, 154. 

Coccus eacti, 71. 

Casowary, 65. 

illicis, 77. 

Castoreum, 110, 118. 

lacca, 76, 78. 

glands of, 120. 

■ Polonicns, 76, 78. 

American, 121. 

Cochineal, 68, 71, 83. 

Canadian, 121. 

Cochinolla, 76. 

. Hudson's Bay, 121. 

Cockle, edihle, 173. 

Russian, 121. 

Cockroach, 65. 

Castor Fiber, 118. 

Cod, 67, 101,102. 

Cat, 66. 

• oil, 103; varietieBof, 103, 1W. 

Caucasian race, 28, 30, 61, 82. 

Coelognathns morsitans, 300, 324. 

Cavia Capensis, 122. 

Ctenarus cerebralis, 402. 

Cavitaria, 404. 

Coluber Ammodjtes, 250. 

Cellular tissue, 41. 

Bonis, 250. 

Calto-Scjtb Arabs, 26. 

Conger eel, 102. 

Cephalopoda, 110, 125. 

Conops cakitmna, 234. 

Centum cetacei, 94. 

Common gull, 148. 

Cerates, 255. 

Coral, 87. 

-EgjptiaeuB, 255. 

composition of, 88. 

Persieus, 255. 

Cerate, 210. 

Corallium nobile, 87. 

Ceratum, 210. 

Cercaria, 873. 

Comu ustum, 181. 

Cercomouas, 406, 407. 

Cow, 66. 

Davainei, 406. 

Crab, 97. 

Curiae, 210. 

land, 245. 

Cerocoma, 128, 135. 

river, 88. 

Schwfferi, 135. 

Crabs' eyes, 07. 


stones, 87. 

Cervua Aloes, 181. 

Crane, 66, 67. 

414 tBSEX. 

Cray 6sb, 96, 102. 

Delphinns marginatns, 188. 

Creamometer, 191. 

Demode*, 307. 320. 

Creeping gnat, 233. 

folliculoram, 320, 321. 

Cricket, 186. 

Dentalium, 63. 

Cromwell, brain of, 5. 

Derm any saus, 296. 

Crotalus durissua, 256. 

■ avium, 323. 

horridus, 256. 

miliaria, 256. 

— ■ ■ of Buak, 323. 

Croton lacciferum, 78. 

Dermatophiliis penetrans, 300. 

Crow, 66. 

Dermestes lardarius, 130, 242. 

Crowned gall, 151. 

Desman, 110. 

Crustacea, 62, 83, 213, 244. 

of Muscory, 40. 

Cnckoo, 67. 

Deutoscolex, 401. 

Cucumerini, 382, 

Diodon, 246. 

Cucurbitini, 382. 

figrinus, 246. 

CacurbitiQB, 400, 401, 402. 

Diplolepis rosffi, 153. 

Culei aunulatus, 233. 

Dippel's animal oil, 189. 

pipiena, 230. 

Diptera, 227, 230, 237. 

Cnterebra noxialis, 325, 

Distoma, 333, 334, 404. 

Cattle- bone, 82, 83. 

ttuskii, S73, 374, 405. 

Cuttle-fish, 87, 81, 82. 

hfematobium, 369. 

Cuvier— races of men, 28. 

hepaticum, 370, 405. 

Cynanchum excelsum, 136. 

heterophyes,373, 374, 405. 

Cjnipe, 148, 149. 

laneeolatum, 373, 406. 

gallie tinetoriie, 148. 

— ■- opthalmobium, 373, 406. 

— quercua folii, 150. 

l.ii.jtylium raeemoanm, 155. 

quercua tojea, 150. 

Dog, 65, 68. 

rosra, 153. 

Dog-fish, 108. 

Cysticerci, 391, 396, 398. 

Dormouse, 65. 

CjBtieercua, 401. 

Dorse, 102. 

Acanthrotias, 393. 

Dracuneulus, 360. 

tortious, 384. 

Persarura, 360. 

oelluloBfB, 392,398,400, 

Dsaanja, 110. 

402, 405. 

Dschija, 110. 

dicyatuB, 393. 

Duck, 65, 66. 

. faaeiolariB, 397, 402. 

Dugong, 189. 

Ilium/Hi — rates of man, 28. 

hepatieus 393. 

Dupuvtreu, brain of, 5. 

longicollis, 402. 

Dyticus marginatua, 242. 

melanocephalus, 394. 

pisifonnia, 402. 

tenuicollis, 393. 


turbinatua, 394. 

vesicas, 394. 

Eagle, 65, 66, 67. 

vise oralis, 394. 

ray, 106, 107- 

Ear, 50. 

Earth worm, 65. 


Echinococci, 391, 394, 396. 398, 402. 

Daman of the Cape, 122, 123. 

Eoliinococcua hominis, 394, 405. 

vet-ermorum, 395. 

Dafljeapis, 123. 


Deeatoma, 128. 

Ectoioa, 291. 

Decoctum gallie, 155. 

Eel, 65, 66. 

Delphinns globiceps, 189. 

Eel-pout, 65, 66. 

IBDBX. 115 

Eggs, 193, 194, IBS, 198. 

yiesh of game, 163, 106. 

Eider duck, 211. 

of mollnaca, 163, 168. 

Elementary bodies in animals, 33. 

of poultry, 163, 166. 

Elephant, 65, 66, 67, 80. 

of radiata, 163, 178. 

■ tuaka of, 81. 

Flamingo, 66. 

Elepbas Africanus, 80. 

Flea, 291, 297. 


Fliea, 213, 237. 
Fly, flesh, 237. 
bluebottle, 237- 

Euccphalon, 6, 7, 8. 

Entomozoaria, 404. 

golden, 237. 

Entozoa, 324, 330. 

hominivorous, 237. 

Epeira, 2S1. 

Fluke, 370, 403. 

Epicaula adsper&a, 132. 

Forficula auricularia, 242. 

cavernosa, 182. 

Epizoa, 291. 

Fox, 65, 68. 

Eructe, 234. 

shark, 102. 

Ethiopian race, 29. 

Frigate bird, 65. 

Euatrongylue gigas, 356. 

Frog, 67. 

Eutarsus cancrifonnin, 323. 

Eutoma, 234. 

Eye, fiO. 




Gadun, 102. 

JlgleSnus, 102. 

Facial angle, 5. 

Brosme, 102, 

in Chinese, 5. 

. Callarias, 102. 

European, 6. 

CarboaariuB, 103. 

Lota, 102. 

Merlangus, 102, 

Falcon, 65. 

Fallow deer, 65, 68. 

Mcrlucius, 102. 

Fasciola, 370. 

minutus, 102. 

hepatica, 370. 

Molva, 102. 

Fat, 186. 

Morrhua, 102. 

Feathers, 211. 

Galls, 100, 148, I4S. 

Fel bovinum, 95. 

Gall of Aleppo, 153. 

— lauri, 96. 

artichoke, 152. 

Festicularia, 333, 334. 

crowned, 152. 

Feslucaria, 375, 404. 

gooseberry seed, 151. 

homed, 152. 

lentis, 378, 404, 40S. 

Fieus religiosa, 78. 

Hungarian, 152. 

Indies, 78. 

Piedmont, 152. 

Filaria, 333, 334, 359, 403. 

smooth, 152. 

bronehialis, 364. 

squamous, 152. 

dracuneulus, 360. 

Gamaaus, 297. 

lachrymalis, 363. 

Gasteropoda, 62, 83. 

lentis, 364, 405. 

Gasteroetei, 397. 

lymphatics, 364, 40B. 

Gastric glands, 44. 

Medinensis, 360, 466. 

Gazelle, 185. 

oculi, 363, 406. ruricola, 267. 

Fishes, 244. 

Gelatine, 179, 180. 

Flesh, 162. 

Genette, 110. 


Geophilus electriens, 242. 

offish, 163, 167. 

Gcotrupes vernalia, 242. 



Glandular [issue, 41. 

Helix hortenaia, 175. 

Glossina morsitans, 228. 

lineata, 175. 

Gnats, 230. 

melanostoma, 176. 

Goat, ringed, 233. 

nemoralia, 85. 

Gneion, 246". 

Pisana, 176. 

Goat, 65, 66. 87. 

Pomatia, 84, 85. 

Goatsucker, 61. 

stagnalia, 86. 

Goose, 211. 

sylvatica, 174. 

Goldfinch, 65. 

variabilis, 175. 

Gordius, aijualicua, 367. 

venniculata, SB. 

Medincnsia, 360. 

Helminths, 330, 332, 334, 401, 4(4, 

Gorgonia autipathea, 89. 
nobilis, 87. 


cyetic, 391, 306. 

Grasshopper, 85. 
Great cache! ot, 91. 

hydatid, 896. 

Hippobosca equina, 227. 

Grebe, 211. 

Hippoboacidee, 227. 

Greenland whale. S3, 188. 

Hippoeolla, 184. 

Green or officinal leech, 14a 

Hippopotamus, 81. 

Grouse, 66. 

■ ampbibiua, 81. 

Guinea worm, 360. 

Gryllufl ^gyptiuH, 163. 

Hirudo, 137. 

migratoriua, 183. 

mcdicinalis, 140. 

Tartaricus, 163. 

officinalis, 140. 

sanguiauga, 215, 


troctintt, 141. 

Hirundo eseulenta, 185. 

Haddock, 102. 

: fueifsga, 185. 

Hiementeria, 141, 144. 

Hirundiniculture, 147. 

Ghiliaoi, 141. 

Holothuria edulia, 177. 

Mexicans, 111. 

- tubulosa, 177. 

officinalis, 1*1. 

Homarua vulgaris, 176. 

Hasmopis, 215, 218. 

Homo, 2. 

sanguiauga, 215. 

Hair, 310. 

Lar, 26. 

Hairy galls, 149. 

1 sapiens, 2, 26. 

Hajo serpent, 259. 

Troglodytes, 26. 

Hake, 102. 

Honey, 196, 202. 

Hare, 65, 66, 67. 

adulteration of, 206. 

Harvest bug, 291, 805. 

bee, 196, 187. 

Hawk, 65, 66, 67. 

Heart, 45. 

Horned gall, 157. 

Hedgehog, 64, 65, 63. 

Homet, 279. 

Helieidse, 83, 84. 

Horse, 64, 65, 66, 67,68. 

1 Helicinea, 85. 

fly, 227. 

Hen, 211. 

leech, 215, 216, 217, 218. 

Hermit crab, 247. 

Human kingdom, 35. 

Heron, 66. 

Hnmantis, 109. 

Helix, 83. 

Huso, 182. 

. Algira, 175. 

Hycleus, IBB. 

apcrta, 175. 

Hydatids, 391,400. 

— — arhustomm, 175. 

Hymeuoptera, 148, 153, 196, 26«, 

asperea, 85. 

275, 266. 

ceapitum, 175. 

Hyraceum, 110, 122, 123, 124. 

ericetorunj, 175. 

Hyrax Capenais, 122. 




Ibex, 68. 

Iguana cserulea, 163. 

■ cornuta, 163. 

delicatissima, 163. 

fasciata, 163. 

tuberculata, 3.63. 

Indian elephant, 80. 

hog, 67. 

ink, 82. 

Insects, 296. 
Intestines, 43. 

divisions of, 44. 

Isinglass, varieties of, 183. 
Isis nobilis, 87. 

Itch insect, 309. 
lulus, 268. 

terrestris, 268. 

Ivory, 80, 81. 

black, 81. 

Ixodes, 302. 

hominis, 303. 

Nigua, 303. 

Ricinus, 302. 


Jararaca, 258. 
Javelin bat, 212. 

snakes, 257. 

Jaws, 42. 
Jigger, 300. 
Juvenis bovinus, 21. 

lupinus, 21. 

ovinus, 21. 

ursinus, 21. 


Eabardin, 113. 
Eermes, 76, 77- 
Kingfisher, 65, 66. 
Kite, 65, 66. 
Kranchil, 114. 

Lactodensimetre, 191. 
Lactoscope, 192. 
Lamb, 163. 
Lamprey, 65. 
Lapis porci Ceylonici, 67. 

Malaccensis, 67. 

porcinus, 67. 

Lard, 186, 187, 188. 
Larinus odontalgics, 159. 

subrugosus, 157. 

Lark, 65, 66. 

Latham — on the races of men, 31, 

Leblanc (Mademoiselle), 21. 
Leech, 100, 139, 142, 143, 144, 146. 

dragon, 140, 141. 

green, 100. 

grey, 139, 140, 141, 142. 

Leptus autumnalis, 305. 
Liebig's soup, 177. 

Life, average duration of, 17. 

table of, for England, 18. 

Ling, 102. 
Linnaeus—characters of man, 2. 

on the races of men, 27. 

Lion, 65, 66. 

Linguatula, 329. 

denticulata, 329. 

Liparis auriflua, 234. 

canifolia, 234. 

Liver, 44. 

Lizard, 60, 65, 66, 67. 
Lota vulgaris, 102. 
Louse, 291. 

body, 292, 294. 

head, 292. 

pubic, 292, 296. 

of sick persons, 292, 295. 

Lucilia hominivora, 238. 
Lungs, 45. 
Lydus, 128. 
LymnsBUS stagnalis, 86. 
Lytta adspersa, 132. 

dubia, 132. 

segetum, 132. 

Syriaca, 132. 

vidua, 132. 


Lac, 79. 

Lacerta agilis, 69. 
Scincus, 68. 


Macaque, 326. 
Magpie, 65. 
Male organs, 47. 

E E 



Malmignatt*, 261. 

!" ■ ■.-■ 1: ■[. 

Mao, 1. 

Kranchil, 114. 

erect position, 1L 

— moschiferus, 110. 

height of, 14. 

Mouse, 65, 66. 

original state of, 20. 

Mucilage of snails, 86. 

species of, 25, 26. 

Mule, 60. 

■ weight of, IB. 

Muaaraigne, 110, 213. 

Mandibles, 42. 

Musca Csesar, 238. 

Marabout, 211. 

caroaria, 237. 

Marmot, 65. 

vomitoria, 237. 

Martin, 66. 

Muscles, 51. 

Maxilla), 42. 

Muscular tissue, 41. 

Medicinal leech, 140. 

Musk, 100,110. 

Medusa;, 235. 

deer, 111,113. 

Meletta, 240. 

oi. 110. 

Meloe, 137, 12J, 13G, 243. 

rat, 110. 

Algeria, 137. 

Musi[uitoeB, 233. 

autumnalis, 137. 

Musael, 66, 246. 

bimaculala, 136. 

common, 172. 

eichorii, 134. 

Mutton, 163. 

. Gallicua, 137. 

Mygale, 260, 262, 263. 

mailis, 137. 

Muscovita, 110. 

Proscarabasiis, 137. 

Mylabrie, 128, 134,243. 

punctatus, 137. 

bimaculata, 136. 

rugosus, 137. 

Schieffuri, 135. 

cichorii, 134. 

cvanescens, 135. 

variegatns, 137. 

Indica, 135. 

Merlangus carbonarius, 102. 

oleas, 135. 

vulgaris, 102. 

punctum, 135. 

Merlucius vulgaris, 102. 

pustulata, 135. 

Sidne, 135. 

Mermie, 367. 

Milk, 189. 

variabilis, 136. 

preservation of, 193. 

Mvricine, 210. 

. of ass, 190, 191. 

Mytilus cdubs, 172. 

of cow, 190. 

of goat, 190, 191. 


of sheep, 190, 191. 

of mare, 100, 191. 

Naia, 255, 299. 

of woman, 190, 191. 

Naja Haje, 25. 

Millipedes, 265. 

tripudians, 259. 

Mistura sphitus Vini Gallici, 

196. Napu, 114. 

Mole, 64, 65, 66. 

Navicella clliptica, 179. 

Molva vulgaris, 102. 

Negro, 5. 

Mollusea, 244, 246. 

Nematoidea, 62, 604, 605. 

Mongolian raeo, 29, 31, 32. 

NematiOideum iiominis viscerum. 

Mont-fish, 109. 


Monkey, 65, 66,67. 

Nepa, 226. 

Monostomum lentis, 375. 

Montpellier drops, 100. 

Nervous system, 34. 

Morbus mucosus, 348. 

Morrhua JEglefiuus, 102. 

Nightingale, 66. 

Catlarius, 102. 

Noctonecta glauca, 22*. 

minuta, 102. 

Noxious animals, 212. 

Moschus Altaicus, 114. 

Nutgails, 153. 




Oculina, 89. 

virginea, 89. 

CEnas, 128. 
CEstridea, 325. 
CEstrus bovis, 326. 

Guildingei, 326. 

hominis, 326. 

ovis, 326. 

Oil, 188. 

of dugong, 189. 

of porpoise, 189. 

of whale, 188. 

Oniscus asellus, 70. 

Ophidia, 283. 

Opuntia cochenillifera, 71. 

Tuna, 71. 

vulgaris, 71. 

Orang-outang, 10. 

Organic world, divisions of, 36. 

tissues, 41. 

Organs of motion, 51. 

of nutrition, 42. 

of relation, 49. 

Ornithorynchus, 268. 
Ostracion, 244. 
Ostrea cristata, 168. 

edulis, 168. 

hippopus, 168. 

lacteola, 168. 

lameliosa, 168. 

Mediterranea, 168. 

plicata, 168. 

rosacea, 168. 

Ostreaculture, 169. 

Ostrich, 65, 66, 67, 187, 211. 

Otter, 66, 67. 

Ovis Aries, 185. 

Ox, 66, 67, 68, 164, 165. 

- gall, uses of, 95. 
Oxyporus subterraneus, 242. 
Oxyuris, 333, 334, 403. 

vermicularis, 343, 405. 

Oyster, 86, 168, 169, 246. 


Pachydermata, 80. 
Psederus elongatus, 242. 
Pagurus Bcrnhardus, 247. 
Palinurus vulgaris, 176. 
Pallulinia Australia, 205. 

Pancreas, 44. 
Papilio brassier, 243. 
Paramecium, 406. 

coli, 406. 

Parenchyma, 404. 
Partridge, 66, 67. 
Peacock, 67. 
Pearl oyster, 66. 
Pediculus, 291. 

capitis, 292. 

— cervicalis, 292. 

corporis, 294. 

humanu8, 292. 

■ inguinalis, 296. 

morphio, 296. 

^— — pubescens, 294. 
pubis, 296. 

■ subcutaneus, 295. 

tabescentium, 295. 

Pee-wit, 66, 67. 

Pelias Berus, 240. 
Pelican, 65. 
Penguin, 211. 
Pentastoma, 376. 
Perdix cinerea, 166. 

petrosa, 166. 

rubra, 166. 

saxatilis, 166. 

Phalangioides, 261. 
Phalsena processionea, 234* 

quercus, 234. 

Phasianus Colchicus, 166. 

Gallus, 193. 

Pheasant, 65, 66. 
Pholci, 261. 
Phthiriasis, 295. 
Phyllostoma haustatum, 212. 
Physalia pelagica, 236. 
Physeter macrocephalus, 92. 
Pig, 66, 164, 265. 

stone, 67. 

Pigeon, 64, 65, 66, 67. 
Pithecus Lar, 21. 
Pike, 66, 67. 
Platessa flesus, 167. 

vulgaris, 167. 

Plover, 64. 

Polistes Lecheguana, 205. 

Porcupine, 65. 

Pork, 163, 165. 

Potentilla alba, 77. 

reptans, 77. 

Portuguese man of war, 286. 
Poulp, 56, 126. 


Proeeasionary moths, 28*. 
Protoglottia, 401. 
Protoacolcx, 401. 
Ptinea, 130. 
Pulex, 297. 
hominis, 297. 







- penetrans, 300. 

— vulgaris, 297. 
Pulmoaes prepaiati, 66. 
Pupipara, 227. 
Pupivora, 118. 
Pvgoccntrua, 214. 

eoccifcra, 77. 

Pyrenaica, 150. 

sesaiflora, 150. 
Quail, 65, 67. 
Quetclet — weight of man, 16. 

Rabliit, 65. 

Radiata, 57, 58, 61,62. 

flesh of, 176. 

Raia Aquila, 107. 

batis, 107. 

clavala, 106. 

Pastinaca, 107. 

Rana esculenta, 178. 

tempore ria, 178. 

Rat, 65, 213. 
fiajfl, 106,213. 
Red coral, 83. 
lli.'diivikla, 222, 
Reduvina, 222. 
Reduvius peraonatus, 222. 

senatus, 221. 

" s of, 48. 

Reptilia, 62. 
I iteration, 4a. 
RhamnuB Jujuba, 78. 
Rhinoceros, 65, 66, 67. 
Rkizostoma Aldrovandi, 236. 
Cuvlerii, 236. 

Rodentia, 118. 
Roebuck, 66. 
Rorqual, 183. uiaculata, 2- 
Sular Ausonii, 167. 
Salivary glands, 44. 

SliIuiu Ittrio, 167.'.v:t inl ■ ITlipt.t, [-11. 

officinalis, 1*0. 

Sareophaga carnaria, 237. 
Sun-ups vl la- penetrans, 300. 
Sarcoptus, 307, 318. 

Ecabei, 309. 

Saunders (Mr.) — eruption of molar 

teeth, 13. 
Scarab&us, 65. 

vernalis, 242. 

Scarus, 246. 

capitaneus, 246. 

■ ; ihaloB dijnorphua, 397. 
Scink, 68. 
Seolices, 397. 
SclerantkuB perennis, 77. 
Scolopcudra, 265. 
cingulata, 265. 

Seolopendridie, 260. 
Scomber Scombrus, 167. 

capitaneus, 246. 

Scorpio Europaiua, 271. 

Occitanua, 272. 

palmatuB, 272. 

Scorpion, 64, 65, 268, 270. 

African, 271 . 

— — common, 271. 

■ palmated, 271. 

red, 271. 

Seed lac, 79. 
.SiJire-ilriiiccHarifi, 260. 
Sepia, 82. 
— — — officinalis, 81. 



Sepium, 82, 83. 
Serpent, 68, 248, 255. 
Serrasalmes, 214. 
Sewruga, 182. 
Shad, 65. 
Shark, 102. 

oil of, J 08, 109. 

Sheep, 67, 68, 164, 165. 

skin of, 185. 

Shell lac, 79. 
. Sight, 49. 
Silkworm, 67. 
Simulium reptans, 23a 
Silphidse, 214. 
Size of foetus, 12, 14. 
Skate, 106, 107. 

oil of, 105, 106, 107. 

Skeleton, 52. 

Skin, 184. 
Slug, 65. 
- Smell, 49. 
Smooth gall, 150. 
Snail, 66, 83, 174, 246. 
Snipe, 66. 
Solea vulgaris, 167. 
Solitary worm, 376. 
Soulouque, 30. 
Spermaceti, 91,94. 
Sphserodus leucothalmus, 242. 
Sphyraena Becuna, 246. 

Caracauda, 246. 

Spider, 64, 67, 98, 99, 262. 

cave, 260. 

web of; 91,98. 

Spiroptera, 333, 334, 359, 403. 

hominis, 359, 405. 

Spodium GrsBCum, 66. 
Sponge, 89. 

composition of, 90. 

nature of, 90. 

■ brown, 91. 

common, 90. 

fine Archipelago, 91. 

hard, 91. 

■ ■ Syrian, 91. 

gelatine, 91. 

■ Grecian, 91. 

« Marseilles, 91. 

■ Salonica, 91. 

white of Syria, 91. 

Spongia officinalis, 89. 

spiculae of, 90. 

Sporocyst, 394. 

Squalus, 108. 

Squalus Acanthias, 108. 

Catulus, 108. 

r- Centrina, 109. 

Mustelus, 109. 

Squatina, 109. 

Vulpes, 109. 

Stag, 65, 66, 67. 

horn of, 180. • 

Staphiiinus fuscipes, 242. 

politus, 242. 

punctatus, 242. 

Sterlet, 182. 

Stick lac, 79. 

Stickle back, 897. 

Stigmata, 46. 

Stomach, 43. 

Strobila, 401. 

Strongylus, 333, 334, 355, 403. 

gigas, 356, 405. 

— longivaginatus, 357, 


renaiis, 356, 405. 

Struthio camelus, 187. 
Sturgeon, 181. 
Sturio, 182. 

stellatus, 182. 

Suet, 186, 187. 
Sus scropha, 81. 
Swallow, 65, 66. 

esculent, 185; nests of, 

Swan, 65, 66. 
Syrupus cocci, 76. 


Tabanus bovinus, 234. 

Table of the animal kingdom, 62. 

Taenia, 332, 334, 376, 404. 

Acanthotrias, 405. 

iEgyptiaca, 383. 

canina, 385. 

Capensis, 384. 

communis, 399. 

crassipes, 402. 

— crassicollis, 397, 402. 

cucumerina, 385. 

dentalis, 405. 

Echinococcus, 382, 383, 405. 

■ faenestrata, 382. 

flavopunctata, 382, 383, 405. 

inermis, 382, 384, 405. 

mediocanellata, 384. 


422 I1TDEX. 

Taenia nana, 382, 888, 405. 

serrata, 885, 402. 

Solium, 376, 882, 405. 

tenuicollis, 405. 

tropica, 403. 

Taenioidea, 404. 
Tannin, 153. 
Tapeworm, 376: 
Tapir, 67. 
Tarantula, 263. 
Taste, 49. 
Teeth, 13. 

eruption of, 13. 

Tegenaria medicinalis, 182. 
Tench, 65. 

Tenebrio molitor, 242. 
Testudo Europea, 178. 

Graeca, 178. 

marginata, 178. 

Mauritanica, 178. 

Tetrao lagopus, 166. 

tetrix, 166. 

urogalius, 166. 

Tetraonix, 128. 
Tetrarhynci, 397. 
ThecoBoma, 338, 884, 868, 404. 

haematobium, 869. 

sanguicola, 405. 

Theridian mactans, 261. 
Thornback, 106. 
Thread lac, 79. 
Ticks, 291, 302. 
Tick of wolf, 302. 

reticulated, 302. 

Ticdman on the human brain, 6. 
Tinctura cantharides, 133. 


Gallae, 153. 

Tincture of cantharides, 133. 

of galls, 153. 

Titmouse, 64. 
Toad, 64, 65 t 66, 287. 

common, 288. 

Natter Jack, 288. 

Tooth powder of French codex, 83. 
Torpedo, 213. 
Tortoise, 65, 66, 67. 

sea, 67. 

Touch, 49. 

Tracheae, 45. 

Transfusion, 161. 

Trahala, 100, 156, 157, 158, 189. 

Trahalose, 158. 

Tree-frog, 64, 65. 

Trematoda, 405. 
Trepang, 177. 
Trichina, 350. 

spiralis, 850, 405. 

Trichomonas, 406. 

vaginalis, 407. 

Tricocephalus,333,334, 348,351,403. 

dispar, 405. 

Tricula, 156. 
Triton, 289. 

custatus, 288. 

Trombediidae, 305. 

Trout, 66. 

Trunk-fish, 244. 

Tsetse, 228. 

Tunny, 245. 

Turbellaria, 404. 

Turbot, 167. 

Turpentine gall, 156. 

Tyroglyphus Mericourtii, 269. 


Unguentum cantharidis, 138. 

— : Gallae compositum, 153. 


Vampire, 212. 
Vampyrus spectrum, 212. 
Vegetable wax, 206. 
Vena Medini, 334. 

mitena, 334. 

Veins, 45. 
Veneridae, 172. 
Vermes accessorii, 331. 

cucumerini, 382. 

cucurbitini, 382. 

Vesicating insects, 100. 
Vespa Crabro, 280. 

vulgaris, 280. 

Vespertilio vampyrus, 212. 
Vibrio, 406. 

Bacillus, 409. 

cyanogenus, 409. 

lineola, 409. 

regula, 409. 

xanthogenus, 409. 

Victor, 23. 

Viper, 68, 248, 283. 

common, 248. 

Vipera ammodytes, 249. 



Vipera aspis, 248. 

Berus, 248. 

' lanceolata, 258. 

Meegera, 258. 

Virgulina, 406. 

tenax, 408. 

Viverra civetta, 115. 


Volvocid®, 396. 
Volvox, 60, 62. 

Whalebone, 211. 

whale, 93. 

Whiting, 65, 67, 102. 
Wolf, 65, 66. 
Woodcock, 66. 
Woodlouse, 68, 69, 70. 
Wren, 64. 



Water scorpion, 226. 

wagtail, 64. 

Wax, 206, 209, 210. 

organs, 207. 

Weasel, 65, 66. 
Weight of brain, 7. 

of child at birth, 14. 

Wild boar, 81. 

boy of Aveyron, 23. 

cat, 64, 65. 

Whale, 64. 

Yeh, 29. 


Zebra. 184. 
Zebud, 228. 
Zebeth, 117. 

scent of, 117. 

Zimb, 228. 

Zoonites, 59, 60, 62, 376, 402. 
Zoophyte, 60, 404. 
Zoophytes, 61, 62, 245. 

Printed by W, H. COX, 5, Great Queen Street, W. C. 


l ■■ avofd fine, this 1 k si Id be returned on 

1 ilie date last stamped below. 



D799 Moquin-Tandon.A. 44320 
MBZh Elements of medical 

V C.c>£jL~, APftF