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ELEMENTS 



COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY. 



ELEMENTS 



OF 



COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY. 



BY 



E. G. LATHAM, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., Ac, 

LATE FKLLOW OF KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; ANU LATE PaOFESSOE OP ENGLISH 
IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. 



Library, 

LONDON: 
WALTON AND MABERLY, 

UPPER GOWER STREET, AND IVY LANE, PATERNOSTER ROW; 

LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS, AND GREEN, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 
1862. 



Tlie, Right of Translation is Reserved. 



P/O-/ 



HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS 

THE PEINCE LOUIS LUCIEN BONAPAETE, 

EMIFENT FOR THE ZEAL AND EFFICIENCY 

WITH WHICH HE HAS CONTRIBUTED TO OUR KNOWLEDGE OF 

SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT BRANCHES OP 

COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY, 

as well as in recognition op much special information, freely 

imparted, 

London, 

June ith, 1862. 







PREFACE. 



Tbe object of the present work is to lay before the 
reader the chief facts and the chief trains of reasoning 
in Comparative Philology. 

This last term is by no means unexceptionable. It has 
the merit, however, of being in general use, and it con- 
veys no notions which materially mislead even the most 
uncritical. Neither is it, by any means, an easy matter 
to supersede it by one which shall be exactly adequate 
to the subject. Those which have suggested themselves 
to the present writer or to others convey either too 
much or too little. 

That such a work is wanted is known to every 
student. Since the publication of the Mithridates, no 
work equally extensive and systematic has appeared : 
nor has the Mithridates itself been re-edited with the 
proper annotations or additions. 

The main mass of facts lies in the details of the lan- 
guages themselves. Of these details, the ones wdiich 
best suit a general exposition are the actual enu- 
meration of the existing forms of speech and the 
phenomena connected with their distribution over the 
earth's surface ; the phenomena of their distribution, 
taken by themselves, being of great importance and 
interest. In some respects they are ethnological rather 
than philological in the strictest sense of the term. They 



viii PREFACE. 

must, however, be known before even the rudiments of 
the subject can be studied ; and it is plain that they 
must be known in their integrity. Any important 
omission would damiage the systematic exhibition of 
the whole. There is no language which does not illus- 
trate some other ; and the least that is required of any 
general investigator is that he should know the details 
of his subject-matter — not some, but all. 

I notice this, because the purely descriptive portion 
of the work fills more than six-sevenths of the volume ; 
and has the appearance of starving the remainder, A 
larger work would have removed this disproportion. 
Still, with languages and dialects as numerous as they 
are, the preliminary exposition must be accommodated 
to the multiplicity of its details. In some cases, no 
doubt, space might have been saved. In languages, 
however, which are either known from only a single 
specimen or are on the verge of extinction I have given 
more than I should have done otherwise. 

The words which are selected as samples are not 
chosen on a priori principles. This means that I have 
not assumed that the names of certain parts of the 
body, of the sun, moon, &;c., are the oldest and most 
permanent parts of a language without an approach 
to something like a preliminary trial. I have not 
assumed beforehand that they are what is sometimes 
called words of primary necessity. On the contrary, 
I have actually tried by the comparison of allied 
languages what words are the most permanent. It is 
only, however, where the materials were sufficient that 
I could thus pick and choose. In many cases, especially 
with the languages of South America, I have been fain 
to take what I could find. 

I must also add, that the short lists of the present 
work are not intended to represent the evidence upon 
which the affinities between the languages which they 
illustrate is founded. For this they are insufficient. They 



PREFACE. ix 

are rather meant as simple examples. Still, even as 
evidence, they are valid so far as they show likeness. 
A few words are enough for this. To predicate difference 
a greater number i's required. It follows, however, 
from the fact of their being the words which are con- 
spicuous for their permanence, that, as a general rule, 
languages, when taken altogether, are less alike than a 
list of selected words makes them. 

Failing to find a vocabulary, I have occasionally 
given a Paternoster as an illustration ; and here the 
converse is the case. Languages, as a general rule, are 
Tnore alike than the comparison of their Paternosters 
suggests. 

As for the words themselves, I am, for an in- 
ordinately large proportion of them, simply under the 
guidance of my authorities : indeed, many forms of o^ 
speech are known only from a single specimen, often the 
contribution of an imperfect investigator. Upon the 
whole, however, I have found that they are sufficient 
for the purpose. At any rate, inaccurate specimens 
conceal, rather than exaggerate, affinities. 

The several groups, or classes, as given in the classifi- 
cation of the present volume, so far as they depart from 
the ones in general currency, may be divided into three 
classes. 

1. The first contains those where the nuinivfium 
amount of positive evidence is required. Here, the 
criticism deals with the real presumptions in favour of 
my own view as opposed to those against it. This 
means little more than the expression of an opinion 
that the current doctrine is, in itself, improbable ; that 
the onus probandi lies with those -who assert, rather 
than with those who decline to admit, it ; and that, on 
the part of those with whom the onus lies, the case 
has not been made. It is clear that this is a criticism 
of the common grounds of assent rather than a matter 
of philological fact. 



X PREFACE. 

2. The second contains those members which have 
the probabilities on their side, but which, from want 
of data, are susceptible of having their position im- 
proved, if not absolutely altered, when our knowledge 
increases. The South-American languages especially 
belong to this division. There is some evidence in 
favour of their being what they are here made ; but 
that evidence is sufficient only because it coincides with 
the a priori presumptions. 

8. The third class (and this more especially applies 
to the speculations on the original extent of. the Slavonic 
and Lithuanian languages) is not only opposed to 
common opinion but has no presumptions in its favour 
— except, of course, such as show themselves when the 
fact is known, and which are, really, no true presump- 
tions at all. It is the intention of the author, if oppor- 
tunities permit, to mend the evidence on these points. 

The second part, or the part which treats of lan- 
guage in general, is short. This arises (as aforesaid) 
from the great amount of preliminary detail which 
was absolutely necessary. The notice, however, short 
as it is, goes at once, to the two main problems, the 
origin of inflections and the origin of roots. Of the 
ground covered by these questions it only gives a 
general view, along with a few suggestions as to the 
method by which it is to be explored. 

What now follows is the qualification of an expres- 
sion which will frequently occur, and one which, without 
explanation, may seem to savour of arrogance. I often 
allude to what I call the current opinion ; and I gene- 
rally do so to condemn it. 

The notice, however, does not mean that all the world 
is wrong, and that it is the mission of the present in- 
quirer to set it right. Current opinion merely means 
the doctrine laid down in partial treatises, popular 
works, and other productions, which either fail to give a 
sufficiently general view of the subject, or are taken 



PREFACE. XI 

from second-band, or third-hand sources; the doctrine 
of laymen, amateurs, and speculators, rather than pro- 
fessed philologues, responsible authorities, and cautious 
critics. With many of these latter, I unwillingly differ. 
Still, wherever I consider myself right, I give every one 
else the credit of being so, who, with a first-hand know- 
ledge of the subject, has not committed himself to any 
of the notions I have objected to. 

The same principle is extended to what may be called 
discoveries. -As a general rule, they belong so tho- 
roughly to the domain of common-sense, that, with a 
scientific method, they come of themselves, and, so 
doing, carry with them but slight claims for bold origin- 
ality and the like heroic qualities. Where I am right 
in any view not generally received, I am, unless the con- 
trary be expressly stated, an independent witness : and, 
in claiming this for myself, I award the same merit 
(such as it is) to others. Where the line of inquiry lies 
in a right direction, any amount of similar results may 
be obtained by independent investigatoi-s ; and that many 
good results are actually thus obtained is certain. Philo- 
logical papers are spread over such a vast variety of 
periodicals, monographs, and difierent works in different 
languages, that the mere search for them is a matter 
of time and labour — to which favourable opportunities 
must be added. If, then, I pass over many important 
observations without special reference to the observer, 
I do it without, at all, implying that my own are either 
the only or the earliest ones. I often find them in 
other writers ; but I have never encouraged the notion 
that they were borrowed. A like liberal construction 
is what I ask from others. The history of the opinions 
connected with any department of knowledge is one 
thing ; the investigation of the facts themselves is 
another ; and, in proportion as any branch of know- 
ledge advances, agreement independent of communica- 
tion increases. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Dialects and Languages. — Stages of Languages. — General Distribution. 
— Large, Small, and Medium Areas. — Insular and Continental Distri- 
bution. — Obliteration of Intermediate Forms. — Classification by Type 
and Definition. — General View of Seven Great Divisions. — The Class 
Natural ........... 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Bhot and Burmese Group. — Bhot of Bultistan, Ladak, Tibet Proper, and 
Butan. — Written and Spoken. — Local Dialects. — Changlo. — Serpa. — 
Tak.— Maniak. — Gyarung. — Tochu. — Hor ..... 11 

CHAPTER III. 
Nepalese and Sikkim Languages. — Gurung and Murmi. — Magar and 
BramM. — Chepang. — Hayti. — Kusunda. — Newar and Pahari. — 
Kiranti and Limbu. — Lepcha. — Dhimal. — Bodo. — Garo. — Borro. — 
Sunwar ........... 19 

CHAPTER IV. 

Languages of Assam. — Northern Frontier. — Aka, Dofla, and Abor. — 
Miri. — Mishmi. — Soutbern Frontier. — Kasia. — Mikir. — Angami. — 
Nagas. — Singpho 28 

CHAPTER V. 

Continuation of the Garo Line. — The Khumia, Old and New Kuki. — The 
Continuation of the Naga Line. — Munipur Group. — Koreng, Luhuppa, 
Tankhu, Khoibu, &c. — ^The Karens. — The Burmese Proper . . 36 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Thay, or Siamese, Group. — Its Extent and Direction. — The Siamese 
Proper.— The Laos.— The Khamti.— The Ahom.— The Shans.— The 
Palaong. — Cultivation of the Siamese Proper 50 



XIV CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE 

The Mon Language of Pegu. — The Kho of Kambojia, — Their original 
Continuity ........... 56 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Andaman Islanders . . . . . . . . .58 

CHAPTER IX. 
Cochin-China, or Annam, and Tonkin ...... 61 

CHAPTER X. 

China. — Canton, Fokien, and Mandarin Dialects. — Stages. — Are there 
any? — Gryami. — Tanguti . . . . . . . . 63 

CHAPTER XL 
Observations on the preceding Oroups. — Brown's Tables. — Affinity be- 
tween the Burmese and Tibetan. — Direction of the Chinese. — Nearest 
congeners to the Malay. — Indian Affinities of the Mon . . .68 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Tungtis Class. — Mantshfi and Orotshong. — Orthography of Castren's 
Tungfis Grammar .......... 72 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Mongol Class. — Mongolian Proper, — Buriat. — Olot. — Aimauk. — 
Pelu.— Sok 83 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Yeniseians. — Objections to the Name Ostiak. — Castren's Researches. 
— Northern Branch. — Inbazk, Denka, and Pumpokolsk Vocabularies of 
the Asia Polyglotta. — Southern Branch. — TheAssan. — Kot. — Castren's 
Discovery of a Kot Village. — The Ara Legend." — Kanskoi and Kamas- 
sintzi Vocabularies. — The Grlosses Kot and Kem. — Speculations as to 
the original Extent of the Yeniseian Area ..... 88 

CHAPTER XV. 
The Turk Languages. — Import of the Term.— The Uighur. — Tshagatai. 
— Uzbek. — Turcoman. — Khirghiz. — Barabinski. — Tshulim. — Teleut. 
— Koibal. — Karagas. — Soyony . — Yakut. — Bashkir. — Kasan. — Nogay. 
— Meshtsheriak. — Kumuk. — Kuzzilbash. — Cumanian . . .98 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The Yukahiri 117 

CHAPTER XVII. 
The Ugrian Class. — Its Importance and Peculiarities. — Castren's Re- 
searches. — The Samoyed Division 125 



CONTENTS. XV 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

PAGB 

The Ugrian Class. — The Ostiak, the Vogul, and the Magyar . . .138 

CHAPTER XIX. 
The Volga Fins.— The Mordvin.— The Tsherimis 147 

CHAPTER XX. 
The Votiak, Permian, and Zirianian . . . . . . .150 

CHAPTER XXI. 

The Fin Proper. — Division into Tavastrian and Karelian. — The Tver 
Dialect.— The Vod.— The Estonian 152 

CHAPTER XXII. 
The Lap of Norwegian, Swedish, and Russian Lapland . . . 161 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
The Peninsular Languages. — Korean. — Japanese and L6ch6. — Aino or 
Kurilian.— Koriak and Kamskadal 165 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
General Observations on the preceding Languages. — Value of the Class. 
— Original Turk, Mantshfi, Yeniseian, and Ugrian Areas . . .175 

■ CHAPTER XXV. 
The Darahi (Denwar) and Kuswar. — The Paksya and Tharu. — The 
Kooch 179 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
The Kol Group.— Its Affinities with the Mon 183 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
The Khond Class. — Khond. — Gadaba and Yerikala. — Savara . . 185 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
The Ghonds 188 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
Uraon and Rajamahali ......... 199 

CHAPTER XXX. 

The Tamul Class. — Telugu or Telinga. — Tamul Proper. — Malayalim. — 
Canarese. — Tulu or Tulava. — Rude Tribes. — Tuda. — Budugur. — 
Irular.— Kohatar . ' 202 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
TheBrahfii 210 



XVI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

PAGE 

Languages akin to the Hindi, — Its Dialects. — The Punjabi, — The Hindos- 
tani,— The Gujerathi.— The Marathi. —The Bengali, &c.— The Uriya .216 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
The Singalese,— The Rodiya,— The Maldivian . . . . .232 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
The Paropamisan Group. — The Dard Branch. — The Shina. — The Deer and 
Tirhai, — The Arniya or Kashkari, — The Cohistani or Lughmani and 
Pashai.— The Siaposh 236 

CHAPTER XXXV. 
The Languages pf certain migratory Populations of India . . . 245 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
The Gipsy 248 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 
The Kajunah . .250 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
The Pushtu, Patau, or Afghan . _ 252 

CHAPTER XXXIX.* 
The Persian. — The Huzyaresh, — The Parsi. — The Modern Persian, — The 
Biluch.— The Kurd, —The Buruki 254 

CHAPTER XL, 
The Iron 264 

CHAPTER XLI, 
The Armenian ..,.,.,.... 266 

CHAPTER XLII. 
The Dioscurian Group, — Meaning of the Term. — Georgian Division . 268 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
The Dioscurian Group. — Lesgian Division 271 

CHAPTER XLIV. 
The Dioscurian Group. — The Tshetsh Division. — Grammatical Structure 
of the Tushi 274 

CHAPTER XLV. 
The Dioscurian Group, — The Tsherkess, or Circassian, Division . . 279 



CONTENTS. xvii 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

PAGE 

The Malay and its more immediate Congeners. — The Tshampa. — Samang. 
— Nicobar, — Silong. — Malay of the Malayan Peninsula. — Of Sumatra. 
— The Rejang and Lampong. — Of the Malagasi of Madagascar. — Of 
the small Islands off Sumatra. — From Java to Timor . . . 283 

CHAPTER XLVII. 
Languages of Borneo, &c., to Ceram .,...,. 305 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 
The Languages of the Sulu Archipelago. — Phillipines. — Formosa . , 312 

CHAPTER XLIX. 
Micronesia. — Tobi, — The Pelew Islands.— The Caroline and Marianne (or 
Ladrone) Archipelagoes. — The Polynesia 320 

CHAPTER L. 

The Papua Class. — Gruebe, &c, — New Guinea. — New Ireland, &c., to 
New Caledonia 329 

CHAPTER LI. 
The Viti, or Fiji, Group. — Its Relations to the Polynesian and the 
Papua ............ 345 

CHAPTER LII. 
The Australian Group ......... 350 

CHAPTER LIII. 
Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania 362 

CHAPTER LIV. 
Review of the preceding Class. —Its Characteristics, Divisions, and Value. 
— The so-called Negritos 372 

CHAPTER LV. 
Languages of America. — The Eskimo.— The Athabaskan Dialects. —The 
Kitunaha. — The Atna. — The Haidah, Chemmesyan, Wakash, and Chi- 
nuk ... ........ 384 

CHAPTER LVI. 

Languages of Oregon and California. — Cayds, &c. — Lutuami, &c. — 
Ehnek. — Weitspek. — Kulanapo. — Copeh. — Pujuni, &c. — Costano, &c. 
— Eslen.— Netela.— San Diego, &c 404 

CHAPTER LVII. 

Old California -. . 422 

b 



xviu CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

PAGE 

Languages of Sonora, — Mexico. — Guatimala. — Honduras. — Nicaragua, 

* &c. . . . .427 

CHAPTER LIX. 
Sahaptin, Paduca, and Pueblo Languages ...... 439 

CHAPTER LX. 

Languages between the Athabaskan, tbe Rocky Mountains, and the At- 
lantic. — The Algonkin. — The Sioux. — The Iroquois. — The Catawba, 
Woccon, Uche, Natchez, Chetimacha, Adahi, and Attacapa Languages. 
— The Pawni, Riccari, and Caddo. — The Languages of Texas . . 447 

CHAPTER LXI. 

Languages of South America. — New Grrenada. — The Quichua. — The Ay- 
mara.— The Chileno.— The Fuegian 478 

CHAPTER LXII. 
Languages of the Orinoko, Rio Negro, and Northern Bank of Amazons. 
— Yarura, &c. — Baniwa. — Juri. — Maipur. — Carib. — Salivi. — 
Warow. — Taruma. — Iquito. — Mayoruna. — Peba. — Ticuna, &c. . . 485 

CHAPTER LXIIL 
The Moxos, Chiquitos, and Chaco Languages 499 

CHAPTER LXIV. 

Languages of Brazil. — Guarani. — Other than Guarani. — Botocudo, &c. — 
Languages neither Guarani nor Botocudo. — The Timbiras. — The Sa- 
buja, &c. ........... 507 

CHAPTER LXV. 
General Remarks on the American Languages ..... 517 

CHAPTER LXVI. 
The Semitic Languages. — The Phenician and Punic. — The Hebrew and 
Samaritan. — The Assyrian and Chaldee. — The Syriac. — The iEthiopic 
and Amharic. — Gafat. — Arabic. — Hururgi, the Amazig or Berber . 524 

CHAPTER LXVII. 
The Agau, Agaw, or Agow, and Falasha. — The Gonga Dialects. — The 
Kekuafi 542 

CHAPTER LXVIIL 
The Coptic. — The Bishari. — The Nubian Languages. —The Shilluk, 
Denka, &c.— The Mobba and Darrunga. — The Galla Group.— The 
Dizzela, Dalla, Shankali or Shangalla 546 



CONTENTS. XIX 

CHAPTER LXIX. 

PAGE 

The KaflSr Class of Languages 558 

CHAPTER LXX. 
The Bonny, Brass Town, Ibo, and Benin Languages, — The Mandingo, 
Accra, Krepi, Kru, &c. — Remarks on the Mandingo Class. — The Beg- 
harmi. — Mandara, — Kanuri. — Hawssa. — Sungai. — Kouri. — Yoruba. — 
Tapua or Nufi.— Batta— Fula, &c.— The SerawuUi.— Woloff, &c.— 
Hottentot 567 

CHAPTER LXXI. 
The Hottentot 598 

CHAPTER LXXII. 
On the African Languages in General . 599 

CHAPTER LXXIII. 
The Indo-European Languages (so-called). — The Skipitar, Arnaut, or 
Albanian ........... 605 

CHAPTER LXXIV. 
The Sanskrit. — Persepolitan. — Pracrit. — Pali. — Kawi.— Zend . . 608 

CHAPTER LXXV. 

The Lithuanic Division of the Sarmatian Class. — The Lett, Lithuanian, 
and Prussian . 623 

CHAPTER LXXVI. 

The Slavonic Division of the Sarmatian Class. — The Russian, Servian, 
and Illyrian. — The Slovak, Tshek, Lusatian, and Polish. — The Kassub 
and Linonian 627 

CHAPTER LXXVII. 
The Latin and the Languages derived from it.— The Italian. — Spanish. — 
Portuguese. — French. — Romance. — Romanyo ..... 632 

CHAPTER LXXVIII. 
The Greek 651 

CHAPTER LXXIX. 
The German Class.— The Mo3Sogothic. — The High and Low German. — 
The Anglo-Saxon and English. — The Frisian. — The Norse, or Scan- 
dinavian . 658 

CHAPTER LXXX. 
The Keltic Languages. — British Branch. — Gaelic Branch . . . 664 

b 2 



XX CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER LXXXI. 

PAGK 

The Bask, Basque, or Biscayan . . . . . . . ,675 

CHAPTER LXXXTI. 
General Remarks upon the Indo-European Class . . . . . 689 



PART 11. 

CHAPTER I. 
Language in Greneral. — Stages , . 697 

CHAPTER II. 
On Classes .706 

CHAPTER III. 
Analytic and Synthetic View of Methods. — Origin of Derivatives and of 
Roots.— Of Derived Forms, Voice, &c 713 

CHAPTER IV. 
Roots 728 



Addenda and Corrigenda .753 

Index 758 



TABULAE VIEW 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS, 



FIRST PRIMARY GROUP. 

Tibetan and Burmese. 
Tibetan. 
Bultistani of Little Tibet — Ladakhi, Tibetan — written (or older) ; spoken 
(or newer) — Butani or Lhopa {divisions chiefly political) — Clianglo, 
Bhot of Kunawer. Milchan — Theburskud — Sumchti. 
Serpa [details doubtful). Tbaksya — Sunwar. 

Eastern Bbot {transitional to Burmese). Takpa — Manyak — Thochu— 
Gryami. 

Northern Bhot. Hor, 

Nepalese. 
(a) Gurung — Murmi ; (6) Magar — Bramhd ; (c) Chepang— Vay6 — Kusunda 
{Nepalese leading to Northern India) ; {d) Newar — Pahri {do.) ; (e) Kirata — 
Limbu {do.) ; (/) Lepcha {leading to Asam) ; (g) Dhimal — Bodo — Borro — 
Garo {leading to Singpho through Jili). 

Asam, <Cr. 
Dofla, Abor, and Aka. Miri {on the northern frontier) ; Angami {Naga, so- 
called, on the southern), 

Tayung and Mijhu Dialects {languages) of the Mishmi. 
(?) Deoria Chutia, 

Manipur, d;c, 
Kasia. Mikir. 

Jili {running westward through the Garo) — Singpho — Kakhyen. 

Naga Dialects {so-called) minus the Angami {see above) and the Mithan 
{Singpho or transitional) — numerous. 

Koreng— Songpu— Luhuppa — North Tankhul — Khoibu — Maring — Kapwi 
— Maram — Manipur. 

Kuki and Luncta — Mru — Kami and Kumi — Sak — Shendu — Khyen. 

Rukheng (Arakan) — Burmese Proper. 

Sgau — Pwo — Thoting-lhu, 



xxii TABULAR VIEW OF 

Siamese. 
Ahom — Khamti — Shan — Laos — Siamese Proper — Palaoung. 

M6n. 
Mon of Pegu— Kha — Khong of Kambojia. 

Islands. 
(?) Andaman. 
(?) Carnicobar. 

Chinese and Oochinchinese. 
Anam of Cochinchina and Tonkin. 
Chinese. 



SECOND PEIMAKY GROUP (Tueanian). 

Tungus — Mongol — Turk. 

(?) Yeniseian. 1. Northern Branch of the Sim and the Pit, &c. 2. South- 
ern Branch — Assan — (extinct) Arini — [extinct) Kot. 

(?) Tshuvash. 

(?) Yukahiri. 

t/grian. 

Samoyed. South-eastern; Motorian (extinct) — Koibal (do.) — Kamass. 
South-western (Ostiak, improperly so-called) — Northern; Yeniseian — Tawgi 
— Yurak. 

Ostiak — ^Vogul — Hungarian (Magyar). 

Mord vin — Tsherimis — Votiak . 

Permian and Zirianian — Karelian — Tavastrian and Quain — Fin — Vod — Es- 
tonian — Lief. 

Lap. 

Peninsular. 

Korean. 

Japanese — Lfichu. 

Aino of Sagalin — of Kuriles — Kamtshatka. 

Gilyak (?) Koriak — Kamtshatkan (leading through the Aleutian to the 
Eskimo). 



THIED PRIMARY GROUP. 

Indian. 

(1.) 
Languages with the Sanskrit element not sufficiently large to make their oingin 



Den war and Darahi — Tharu — Kuswar — Pakhya — Kooch. 
Ho (Kol) of Singbhum— Suntal, &c. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. xxiii 

Khond — Gadaba — Yerakali — Savara (more Kol than the others though 
further South) &c. — leading to Telugu. 

Ghond. 

Uraon — Rajmahal. 

Telinga or Telugu — Tamul — Malayalim — Canarese — Tuda — Budugar — 
Irular — Kohatar — Kodagu or Curgi — Tulava. 

Brahui. 

Cant languages, and languages of migratory Indian Tribes. 

Thug — Bagwan — Taremuki — Korawi — Ramus! — Mang — Nut — Katodi — 
Bowri — Guhuri — Gypsy. Khurbat and Duman of Persia ; Ghager, Helebi, 
and Nawer of Egypt, &c. 

(2.) 
With a proportion of Sanskrit sufficiently large to make their origin disputed. 

Cashmirian — Hindi — Punjabi, &c., and Bengali of Asam — as spoken in 
Arakan — Uriya (Udiya) — Gujerati — Catch {leading to Sind) — Sindhi = 
Siraiki — Lar — Marathi (Mahratta)— Konkani. 

Singalese — Rodiya — Maldive. 

******* 

Swauti — Shina — Dir — Tirhai. 

Kashkari (Dard) — Arniya — Kashkari — Chitrali. 

Kaferistani — Siaposh. 

Cohistani — Lughman — Pushai . 

( ?) Kajunah, 

Persian. 
Pushtu Patan, or AlFghan ; eastern and western — Biluch — Persian (general 
language) — dialects of Tajiks out of Persia, Baraki, &c. — Kurd. 
(?) Iron. 

Dioscurian. 
Armenian. 

Georgian, Kartulinian — Mingrelian and Imeretian — Suanetian — Lazistani. 
Tushi— Ingtish— Tshetsh. 
Kabardinian — Tserkess Proper. 
Adige, Abchazi — Tepanta. 

Avar — Anzukh — Tsari— Andi, &c. — Dido and Unso — Akush — Kasikumuk 
— Kurali. 



FOUETH PRIMARY GROUP (Oceanic). 

Malay, <&c. 

Samang of Juru of Kedah. 
Silong — Nicobar. 

Malay (general language) — Tshamba — Jakun — Atshin — Singkal— Pakpak 
Toba and Banjak Batta — Korinchi — Rejang — Lampong (with Javanese ele- 



XXIV TABULAR VIEW OF 

ments) — Ulu — Lubu (unlettered) — Nias — Maruwi — Poggi, or Mantawa, 
Islands — Enganho (outlying) — Sunda — Madura — Sumenap — Javanese — Bali 
— Sasak — Bima — Sumbawa — Timbora — Ende — Mangarei (one of the first 
languages of the series in which Australian icords were observed) — Ombay 
(see Mangarei) — Solor — Savu — Roth — Timur — Manatoto — Timorlant — Kissi 
— Baba (Bebber) — Key Doulan — Wokan, &c. 

Borneo — Parts about Labuan — Banjermassin — Kayan of Centre — Nortbern 
districts. 

Celebes. Bugis — Mandhar — Macassar — Menadu (dialects numerous) — Gu- 
nong-Tellu— Buton — Amboyna — Saparua — Temati — Tidor — Ceram— Halma- 
hera or Grilolo. 

Sulu — Bissay an — Iloco — Cayagan — Tagala — Umiray — D umagat, &c . — 
Bashi. 

Formosan = Sideia and Favorlaug. 

Micronesia. 
Tobi — Pelews — Gruaham — Chamor — Ulea — Yap — Satawal. 
Mille — Tarawan — Fakaafo and Vaitupu. 

Polynesia. 
Samoan (Navigators" Isle) — Marquesas — Kanaka (Sandwich Isles) — Tonga 
— Tahitian — Paumotu — Maori — Easter Island— Wabitao — Mayorga— Ticopia 
— Cocos Island — E-otuma. 

Papuan. 
Guebe — Waigiu — Parts about Port Dorey — Lobo — Utanata — Mairassis — 
Triton Bay— Onin-^Miriam — Eedscar Bay and Dufaure Islands — New Ire- 
land and Port Praslin — Bauro and Guadalcanar — Vanikoro — Tanema and 
Taneama — 'MallicoUo— Tanna — Annatom — Erromango — Lifu and Mare — 
Baladea — Dauru. 
Fiji. 

Australian. 

Cape York — Massied — Kowrarega and Gudang — Moreton Bay— Sidney 
— Muruya— Peel — Batburst — Mudji — Kamilaroi (Wellington) — Wiradurei — 
Lake Macquarie — Witouro — Woddowrong — Koligon — Jhongwborong — Gnu- 
rellean — Corio — Coliak — Lake Hindmarsh — Pinegorine — Dautgart — Lake 
Mundy — Molonglo — Boraiper — Yakkumban — Aiawong — Pai-nkalla — Head of 
Bight — ^W. Australia — Port Philip — King George's Sound, &c. 

Tasmanian — Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern dialects. 



FIFTH PRIMARY GROUP (American). 

Aleutian. 

Kadiak — Kuskutshewak — Tstu-gatsi —Labrador, Greenlandic — Namollo. 

Athcibaskan. 
Kenay — Kutshiu (Loucheux) — Dog-rib, Slave, Beaver, Chepewyan Proper, 
Takulli — Tsikanni— Sussi. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. xxv 

Atna — Koltshani — Ugalents. 

Tlatskanai — Umkwa— Kwaliokwa. 

Navaho — HUpa — Apatsh — Pinalero — Jecorilla. 

Oregon. 

Kitunaha. 

Kolush — Sitkan — Skittegats — Chemmesyan — Haidah — Hailtsa and Hailt- 
zuk — Wakash — Chinuk — Watlala. 

Shusliwap. Selish — Okanagan — Spokan — Piskwaus — Billecliula — Skitsuish 
— Skwali— Kowelitsk — Tsihaili — Nsietshawus. 

Jakon. 

Kalapuya — Willamet {ahin to) Molele — Cayus and Wailatpu {leading to 
Sahaptin and Wihinast). 

Lutuami. 

Shasti — (ahin to Copeh) Palaik (aJcin to Wihinart) — Bonak. 

California, 

Ehnek. 

Talewah. 

Weitspek — Wishosk and Weiyot. 

Copeh— Mag Readings— Upper Sacramento — Cushna — PujunI— Secumne — 
Tsamak — Talatui — San Raphael — Tshokoyem ( Jukiousme) — Sacramento — 
Choweshak — Batemdakai — Yukai — Kulanapo— Khwaklamayu. 

Coconoons — Tulare. 

Costano —Santa Clara — Eslen — Ruslen — Mutsun — Carmel — Soledad -^ San 
Antonio — San Miguel — San Luis Obispo — Santa Inez — Los Pueblos — Santa 
Barbara — San Fernando — Los Angeles. 

San Gabriel (Netela). San Juan Capistrano (Kij). 

San Luis Rey. 

San Diego, or Dieguno — Cocomaricopas — Yuma — Mohave. 

Old California. 
Cochimi of San Xavier — San Borgia — Loretto — Waikur — Ushita? — 
Pericu. 

Sonora, d-c. 

Pima — Opata — Eudeve — Seres — Hiaqui — Cahita — Tubar — Tarahumara — 
Cora. 

Otomi — Mahazui. 

Mexican. 

Huasteca. Maya — Katchiquel — Quiche or Utlateca — Zutugil or Zacapula — 
Atiteca — Chorti — Mam — Manche — Popoluca — Tzendal — Lacondona — Ache — ■ 
Zapoteca ? 

Pirinda — Tarasca. 

Totonaca — Mixteca — Mixe ? 

Lenca. Guajequiro — Opatoro— Intibuca. 

Nagranda. Chorotega — Wulwa— Waikna. 



XXVI TABULAR VIEW OF 

Savaneric. Bayano. 

Cunacuna. 

Cholo. 

Paduca class, 
Wallawalla — Kliketat — Sahaptin — Wihinasht — Shoshoni — TJta — Pa-uta 
— Cheniuhuevi — Cahuillo — Cumanch. 

Algonkin class. 

Blackfoot. Arapaho. 

Shyenne — Cree — Ojibwa — Nipissing — Old Algonkin — Messisaugi — Ot- 
tawa — Knistinaux — Potowattami — Sheshatapush — Skoffi — Montagnards. 

Bettuck. 

Menomeni — Sack and Fox — Kikkapu — Ilinois — Miami — Wea — Piankeshaw 
— Shawni — Micmac — St. Jolin's— Etshemin — Abnaki— Passamaquoddy. 

Matik — Massachusetts — Narraganset. 

Minsi — Delaware — Lennilenape — Nanticokes — Susquehannok — Mohicans 
— Manahok— Powhattan — Pampticough. 

Sioux growp. 
Upsoroka or Crow — Mandan— Assineboin — Yankton — Winehago — Dakota 
—Osage— Quappa— Teton— loway—Omahaw — Minetari. 

Iroquois group. 
Wyandot — Huron. 

Iroquois. Mohawk — Cayuga — Onondago — Seneca — Oneida — Tuscarora — 
Nottoway — Hochalaga. 

Woccon — Catawba— Cherokee — Chikkasah — Muskogulge— Choctah — Semi- 
nole — Uche — Natchez — Chetimacha — Adahi — Attacapa. 

Caddo — Witshita — Kichai — Hueco — Pawni — Riccaree. 

South American. 
Muysca or Chibcha — Correguage — Andaqui. 

Quichua = Quiteno — Chinchasuya — Cauki — Lamano — Cuzcucano — Calcha- 
qui. 

Puquina — Yunga — Mochika. 

Yamea — Mainas. 

Aymara = Lupaca — Pacase — Canchi — Cana — Colla — CoUagua — Caranca — 
Charca, 

Araucanian — Puelche — Fuegian. Alikhdlip — Tekinica- 

On the Orinoco^ 
Yarura— Betoi — Otoiaaka. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. xxvii 

On Rio Negro. 
Baniwa of Isanna — Barree — Baniwa of the Javita — Baniwa of the Tomo 
and Maroa — TJaenambeu or Mauhe — Juri— Coretu of Wallace — Coretu of 
Balbi. 

Maipur. 
Maipur — Achagua — Pareni . 

Carib. 
Wapisiana — Gruinau — Maionk ong — Woyawai — "Wayamera — Macusi — Are - 
cuna — Soerikong — Mawakwa — Accaway — Caribisi — Pianoghotto — Tiveri- 
ghotto — AtOBia and Daurai — Tamanak — Carib — Jaoi — Arawak. 

(?) 
SaHvi — Macoa and Piaroa. 
Warow. 
Taruma. 

Juripixnna — Iquito — Xumano ? 
Mayoruna — tJrarina. 
Peba — Yagua — Orejones. 
Ticunas — Zapara — Yamea ? 

On the Ucayale. 
Fanos. 

Head-waters of Beni. 
Yuracares. 

Between Andes and the Moxos area. 
Sapiboconi. Antes. 

Moxos. 
Movima — Cayuvava — Itonama — Moxos — Canichana— Chapacura — Paca* 
guara— (iV^or^A) Itenes {East). 

Chiquitos. 
Paioconeca (West) — Chiquitos {Central) — Otuke (Bast) — Zamucu {in direc* 
tion of the Chaco). 

Chaco. 
Mataguaya {in direction of Chiquitos) — Vilela and Lule {in direction of 
Aymara) — Mocobi and Toba — Mbaya or Guaycuru — Abiponian. 

Brazilian not Guarani. 

BoroTO. Guachi— Guato — Quskna, {in Matagrosso) . ? — Payagua (m Para- 
guay). 

On Tocantins. 

Caraja — Apinages — Chuntaquiro, or Piro — Cherente and Chavante — Ca- 
raho — Tocantins {in Goyaz) — Timbiras— Ge or Geiko — {in Para and Ma- 
ranham). 

Kiriri — Sabuja. 

Botocudo — Jupuroca — Mucury — Naknanuk — Maconi — Mongoyos — Malali — 
Machakali — Patacho — Camacan— Purus — Coroados— Coropos. 



xxviii TABULAR VIEW OJF LANGUAGES, ETC. 

SIXTH PRIMARY GROUP (African). 

Phenician of Phenicia, of Carthage — Samaritan — Hebrew — Aramaic, 
Syriac and Chaldee. Gheez — Tigrg — Amharic — Gafat. Arabic — Hururgi, &c. 

Amazig or Berber — Si wall — Tunis — Tripoli — Algiers — Morocco — The Sa- 
hara — The Canary Isles (extinct). 

Agaw and Falasha. 

Gonga — Kaifa — Woraita — Wolaitsa — Yangaro — Ukuafi. 

Memphitic, Sahitic and Bashmuric dialects of the Coptic. 

Bishari — Kenzy, Nlib and Dongolawy dialects of the Nubian — Koldagi of 
Kordovan. Shabun — Fertit — Shilluk — Denka — Fazoglo or Qamamyl — Tu- 
mali and Takeli — Dor — Nyamnam. 

Mobba — Darrunga. 

Danakil (Afer), Somauli and Galla. 

Dizzela — Dalla — Shankali, or Shangalla, of Agaumidr, 

Kaffir. 

Wanika — Pacomo — Wakambo — Msambara — Msequa — Sohili — Suwael, 
or Suwaheli — Makua — Meto — Maravi — Matalan — Kerimane, or Quilimane — 
Inhambane dialects — Zulu — Kaffir Proper — Bechuana, Bayeiye {of great Lahe) 
— Heriro {on Atlantic ahout Walwish Bay) — Benguela — Angola and Congo 
dialects— Gabfin dialects — Otam {of Old Calabar) and allied dialects. 

Bonny — Brass — Ibo — Benin and of Delta of Niger. 

Dahomey dialects — Anfue — Widah — Mahi — Acra, or Gha, and Adampi 
— Krepee or Kerrapay — Otshi dialects ; Akkim — Akwapim — Akwambu — 
Fanti (Fetu) Borom — Amina — Avekvom of Ivory Coast — Kru — Grebo — 
Bassa — Dewoi — Sokko — Kissi — Mendi — Vey — Mandingo — Bambarra — Jal - 
lunka. 

Ligurian. Venetian — Carnic. 



SEVENTH PRIMARY GROUP (European). 

L (?)Bask. 

II. Indo-European (so-called). 
A. Keltic. 
B. — 1. Albanian or Skipitar. 

2. German. 

3. — A. Samiatian — Sanskrit — Lithuanic — Slavonic. 

B. Latin and Greek, &c. 



CHIEF AUTHORITIES 



WORKS ALLUDED TO 



Adelung — Mithridates . 

Ahrens — De Grsecse Linguae Dialectis. 

Arago (Jacques Etienne Victor) — Voyage autour du Monde, 

Baer — Beitrage, &c. , Russian America. 

Balbi — Introduction a 1' Atlas Ethnologique. 

Balfour — Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Languages of 
Wandering Tribes of India. 

Barth — Travels in Africa. 

Beitrage zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebrete der Arischen, 
Celtiscben, iind Slawischen Sprachen herausgegeben von A. Kuhn und A. 
Schleicher, Berlin. 

Beke — Transactions of the Philological Society of London. Abyssinian 



Belcher (Sir Edward) — Voyage of the Samarang. Appendix. 

Bille (Steen) — Reise um Jorden i Korvetten Galathee. 

Biondelli — Saggio sui Dialetti Gallo-Italiani. 

Bleek — De Nominum Generibus Linguarum Africse Australis, Copticse, 
Semiticarum aliarumque sexualium. Bonnae, 1851. 

Papers in Transactions of the Philological Society of London. 

Bonaparte (Prince L. L). — Specimen Lexici Comparativi omnium Lin- 
guarum. Europsearum Parabola de Seminatore ex Evangelio Sancti Mathsei in 
Ixxii Europagas Linguas versa. Canticum Trium Puerorum in eleven Basque 
Dialects. Gallician, Sardinian, and other translations of the Gospel, &c. 

Brooke (Sir James) — Languages of Borneo. 

Brown — Transactions of Asiatic Society of Bengal. Languages of Assam, 
&c. 

Transactions of American Oriental Society. Naga Languages. 



XXX CHIEF AUTHORITIES AND 

Buchanan — Asiatic Transactions. Languages of Burmese Empire. 

Bulletin de la Glasse Historico-Philologico de I'Academie Imperial des 
Sciences de St. Petersburg. 

Burchardt — Travels in Nubia. 

Buscbman — In Berlin Transactions. Athabaskan, Mexican, Califomian, 
and Sonora languages. 

Caldwell — Grammar of the Dravirian Languages. 

Castelnau — Expedition dans les Parties Centrales de I'Amerique du Sud, 
&c. 

Castren — Buriat, Tongus, Samoyed, Yeniseian, Zirianian, Koibal and 
Karagas grammars. 

Clarke (John) — Specimens of Dialects, short vocabularies, &c., in Africa, 
1849. 

Crawford — Embassy to Ava ; to Siam ; Malay Dictionary ; Indian Archi- 
pelago. 

C rowther — Yoruba grammar and vocabulary. Edited by Bishop Vidal. 

Cunningham — Ladak. 

Denham — Narrative of Travels in North Africa. Begharmi and Mandara. 

D'Orbigny — L' Homme Americain. 

Eyre — Travels in Australia. 

Fitzroy (Admiral)— Voyage of the Beagle and Adventure. Appendix by 
Darwin, 

Forest — Voyage to New Guinea. 

Gabelentz — Die Melanesischen Sprachen. Ueber de Formasanische Sprache, 
&c. 

Gallatin — In Archaeologia Americana, and Transactions of the American 
Ethnological Society. 

Gerard — see Lloyd. 

Gily — Saggio di Storia Americana, Otomaka, &c. 

Guimaraes (J. J. da Silva) — Diccionario da Lingua Geral dos Indies de 
Brasil, com di versos vocabularies, Bahia, 1854. 

Hahn — Albanesche Studien. 

Hale — Philology in the Exploring Expedition of the United States under 
Captain Wilkes. 

Hodgson (Brian) — Papers in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Howse — Transactions of Philological Society of London. Kutani, and other 
vocabularies. 

Jukes — Voyage of the Fly. 

Jiilg — Litteratur de Granmatiken, Lexica und Worterversamlungen aUers 
Spracken der Erde, 1847. 

King (Dr. Richard) — Bethuck Vocabulary — MS. 

Klaproth — Asia Polyglotta. 

Kolle — Bornu Grammar. 

Larramendi Diccionario Trilingue del Castellano, Vascuence, y Latina. 
1745. 

Leach — Vocabularies of the Deer, Tirhai, &c., in the Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 



WORKS ALLUDED TO. xxxi 

Leake— Travels in the Morea. 

Leyden— Asiatic Researches, Indo-Chinese Languages. 

Lisiansky — Voyage round the World. 

Logan — Papers in Journal of the Indian Archipelago. 

Ludwig — The Literature of the American Aboriginal Languages. 

Macgillivray — Voyage of the Rattlesnake. 

Marsden — History of Sumatra — Miscellaneous Works. 

Michel Franscique — Le Pays Basque, Paris. 

Molina — Luis de Neve, Grammatica, Ragionata della Lingua Otomi con un 
Vocabulario Spagnuolo, Italiano, Otomi. 

Mosbleck — Vocabulaire Oceanien Fran^ais et Fran^ais Oceanien des dia- 
lectes partes aux Isles Marquises, Sandwich, Gambler, &c. 

Miiller, Max — Lectures on the Science of Language. Paper in Transactions 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Newbold — Settlements in the Malayan Peninsula. 

Osculati — Explorazione, &c., Zapara. 

Petherick — Egypt, Soudan, &c. Nyamnam and Dor. 

Pottinger — Travels in Beluchistan. 

Raffles (Sir Stamford) — History of Java, Appendix. 

Richardson (Dr.) — Expedition in Search of Sir J. Franklin. 

Ridley — Transactions of the Philological Society of London. Kamilaroi 
Language. 

Riis — Elemente des Akwapim Dialects der Odschi Sprache. 

Rosen — On the Iron, Lazic, Circassian, and Georgian. 

Riippell — Reisen in Kordovan. 

Salt — Travels in Abyssinia. 

Scherzer (Dr. Karl) — Sprachen der Indianer Central Americas, Wien, 
1855. 

Schleicher — Handbuch der Lithauischen Sprache. 

Schoolcraft — Indian Tribes. 

Scouler — Transactions of the Royal Geographical Society. Oregon and 
Hudson's Bay Country Vocabularies, collected by Mr. Tolmie. 

Smith (Buckingham) —Grammar of the Heve (Eudeve) language translated 
from a Spanish MS. 

Spiegel — Grammatik der Huzvareschen Sprache. Grammatik der Parsi 
Sprache. 

Squier — Transactions of American Ethnological Society. On Central 
America (Spanish Translation, in which alone the vocabularies for the Lenca 
dialects are to be found). Monograph of Authors who have written on the 
Languages of Central America, &c. 

Stewart — Transactions of Asiatic Society of Bengal. Naga and other lan- 



Tasmanian Journal of Natural History. 

Tattam Egyptian Grammar — Lexicon iEgyptiaco-Latinum. 

Tolmie — See Scouler. 

Turner (Professor) — Report, &c. 



xxxii CHIEF AUTHORITIES, ETC. 

Tutschek, Lawrence, M.D, — A Grrammar of the Gralla Language, Munich, 
1845. 

Wallace — Narrative of Travels on the Amazon. 

Williams (Monier) — Sanskrit Grammar. 

Wilson (H. H.) — Ariana Antiqua. Papers in Transactions of Asiatic 
Society. 

Zeitschrift flir vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete Deutschen, 
Griechischen und Lateinischen — Herausgegeben von D. A. Knhn, Berlin. 




COMPAKATIVE PHILOLOGY. 



CHAPTER I. 

Dialects and Languages.— Stages of Languages. — General Distribution.— 
Large, Small, and Medium Areas. — Insular and Continental Distri- 
bution. — Obliteration of Intermediate Forms. — Classification by Type 
and Definition. — General View of Seven Great Divisions. — The Class 
Natural. 

There are slight differences of speecli between members 
of the same family. Between different villages and 
towns they increase, and they become greater still, when 
there is a difference of tribe, clan, or nationality. What 
this difference consists in varies with the circum- 
stance of the case. It may be a difference of words, or 
it may be a difference of pronunciation. Let a Scotch- 
man, an Irishman, and an Englishman, utter a series of 
sentences, consisting of exactly the same words, and a 
difference of some kind or other will be the result — a 
difference which some may call a difference of tone, 
others, one of accent ; a difference for which the name 
may be doubtful ; but, at the same time, a difference 
which would make the speeches, if heard at a distance 
too great to allow the exact words to be heard, look 
like speeches in three different languages. 

When differences of this kind reach a certain point, 
they constitute dialects ; and when two forms of speech 
differ so much as to be mutually unintelligible the result 
is two different languages. Such, at least, is the rule in a 

B 



2 DIALECTS AND LANGUAGES. 

rough form. I say in a rougJi, form, because both dialect 
and language are vernacular, rather than technical, 
terms ; terms, which, in some cases, mean less than in 
others ; terms of which no exact definition has been given. 
Nor is it recommended. On the contrary, latitude must 
be allowed. So much depends upon the nature of the 
subject spoken about, and so much on the aptitude of 
the individuals speaking, that it is difficult to say when 
mutual unintelligibility begins. Two dull men from 
different parts of the same country may be puzzled over 
an out-of-the-way proposition, where a quick wit, with 
a simple question, would make easy work of things. 
"When we talk of two dialects being either mutually 
unintelligible, or the contrary, we should think of this. 
The dialect itself is but one point. The speaker gives 
us another : the subject under speech the third. 

Sooner or later, however, the line of mutual intelligi- 
bility is passed, whether for quick ears or slow, whether 
for simple questions or complex ones ; and then we have, 
under all conditions, a change of language. Many a 
language, however, is little more than a dialect, with its 
dignity augmented through certain extreme circumstances. 
Its alphabet (for instance) may be peculiar. It may 
represent a different nationahty. Its culture may be 
independent. A Dane and a Swede can understand each 
other ; but the Danish_can no more be called a dialect 
of the Swedish, than the Swedish can be called a dialect 
of the Danish. 

It is safe, however, to consider such forms of speech 
as are, in all cases, mutually unintelligible as different 
languages ; and it would be scientific to treat each such 
language as a philological unit, of which the dialects 
and subdialects are the fractions. I say that this would 
be scientific ; but I do not say tbat it would be conve- 
nient, or, in all cases, practicable. We cannot, as has 
just been stated, call such forms of speech as the Danish 
and Swedish dialects : nor yet the Spanish and Portu- 



STAGES OF LANGUAGE. 3 

guese, nor yet many others. The philological relations 
allow, the political relations forbid, us to do so. 

The limitation at the other extremity is somewhat 
more practicable ; though it is, by no means, without its 
complications. That certain forms of speech, which, in 
common parlance, are called dialects rather than lan- 
guages, are mutually unintelligible, I believe ; though, at 
the same time, I am sure that they are rarer than is 
supposed. Are these to be called languages ? If so, it 
is very possible that there may be more than one lan- 
guage in both Italy and Germany ; in both Spain and 
France ; possibly in both England and Scotland. How 
far this is actually the case is another matter. The 
question now under notice is the application of certain 
terms to certain cases. It must not be too strict where 
the form of speech is new, and the class to which it 
belongs has been but little studied. We may say that 
every mutually unintelligible form of speech supplies us 
with a fresh language ; and, in languages of this kind, 
Aft'ica and the New World abound. They are con- 
veniently called languages, because we have never been 
in the habit of talking about them as dialects ; in fact, 
we have hardly talked about them at all. 

If the phenomena of transition create difficulties in 
our classification when we look to the geography of our 
languages and dialects, still more do they do so when 
we take cognizance of them in time. Changes of some 
sort are always going on ; and, as long as any language 
lasts, such changes afiect it — in the course of a single 
generation but little, in the course of many genera- 
tions, much. The result of this is, that extreme forms 
differ notably ; intermediate ones notably or slightly, as 
the case may be, i. e, as they approach each other. At 
the point of contact, the difference is imperceptible. 
The Latin of Ennius, and the Italian of Leopardi, are 
the extremes of a long chain. So is the English of 
the present writer and the Anglo-Saxon of ^Ifric. 

B 2 



4 DISTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGES. 

That eacli gives us a different language is beyond doubt, 
but it is also beyond doubt that there lias been no 
period in the history of either the Italian or the English 
when the speech of the grandson was unintelligible to 
the grandfather, and vice versa. 

Next to the difference between dialects, languages, and 
groups, comes the notice of the general phenomena con- 
nected with their distribution over the earth's surface. 
They m.ay be studied in any one of the great continents. 
They may be studied in the islands of the Indian Ocean 
and the Pacific. They repeat themselves. Sometimes 
there is a vast area with only a single language cover- 
ing it. Sometimes there is a multiplicity of mutually 
unintelligible forms of speech within the limits of a 
narrow area. We find the illustration of this in poli- 
tics. There are large homogeneous kingdoms, like 
France. There is a concatenation of petty principalities, 
like the German states. Hence, there are areas charac- 
terized by uniformity of language spread over a large 
surface ; and areas characterized by a multiplicity of 
mutually unintelligible forms of speech spread over a 
small one. Besides which, there are languages of a 
moderate, or medium, area. 

Some of these areas are continental, i. e. extend over 
vast tracts of continuous land. Sometimes they are 
oceanic, or spread over islands, archipelagoes, and chains 
of archipelagoes. Between these two there is one im- 
portant difference. Languages of a continent touch 
each other at their circumferences and may or may not 
graduate into each other. Languages of an archipelago 
are definitely bounded. We always know where their 
circumference is limited. The limit is the sea, and the 
sea is mute. 

The continental areas lead to another matter for con- 
sideration. Why are the small, small? and the great, 
great ? 

Whatever may be the extent of the following fact, it 



GROUPS. 5 

is for certain great districts, an undeniable one. The 
present writer may extend it further than others. 
Every one, however, recognizes it as a fact of some ex- 
tent, greater or less. Particular languages spread and 
obliterate intermediate forms, and when these interme- 
diate forms are obliterated, languages, originally different, 
come in contact. The lines of demarcation then be- 
come clear and clean. 

At the present moment there are three languages 
connected with each other indirectly, and that not very 
remotely ; but, still, when compared with the inter- 
mediate forms, separate, substantive languages — lan- 
guages which no one can confound with each other. They 
are the French of Paris, the Italian of Florence, the 
Castilian of Madrid — three lettered and literary lan- 
guages. The provincial forms of all these are both 
numerous and well-marked, and at the circumferences of 
their several areas they stand in strong contrast to the 
central forms. In still stronger contrast do the northern 
and southern, the eastern and the western patois stand to 
each other, e.g. the Bearnais to. the Walloon, the Cala- 
brian to the Sardinian, the Murcian to the Gallician — 
the Gallician being, though a dialect of Spain, almost as 
much Portuguese as Spanish. With differences like 
these, it is probable that on the French and Spanish, 
and the French and Italian frontiers there may be 
dialects of which the philological position is ambigu- 
ous ; dialects which, whilst they graduate towards the 
French of Paris in one direction, are intelligible to the 
speakers of dialects which graduate in the Castilian and 
tlie Florentine on the other. Such is actually the case. 
There is more than one patois of French Savoy which 
may pass for a form of the Northern Italian ; but, on 
the other hand, there are many dialects of Northern 
Italy which may be called French. Again, there are 
forms of the Proven9al which are quite as Spanish as 
French. 



6 CLASSIFICATION. 

The line, then, of demarcation is in some cases ob- 
scure or faint. Yet the forms of speech are grouped. 
This is done by arranging them round some centre, and 
calling them French, Italian, or Spanish, as the case 
may be. To do this, is to classify according to type. 
In this way the dialects of the French, and many other 
languages may be classified : indeed, it is to dialects, or 
languages that approach them, that the classification by 
type best applies. The main languages, however, are 
classified by definition, i. e. by such clear and un- 
doubted lines of demarcation as separate the English 
from the German, the Swedish fi:om the Dutch. Between 
these there is no doubtful frontier. 

Though it cannot be denied that a classification of 
languages, according to the extent to which they simply 
bear a likeness to each other, is practicable, it may 
safely be said that, for all the ordinary classifications, they 
go upon likeness, and something more. They go upon 
either a real or supposed affinity . Nor is this difier- 
ence unimportant. There is, between most languages, a 
certain amount of liken,ess independent of any historical 
connection. This means that a certain number of words 
in different languages will be, more or less, like each 
other, not because two or more tongues have borrowed 
and lent, nor yet because one mother-tongue is at the 
bottom of the whole, but because the human organism 
(by which is meant the mind and the organs of speech 
taken together), under certain conditions, acts with a 
certain amount of regularity. 

Again — languages, between which the relationship or 
historical connection may be of the slightest, may re- 
semble each other in points of great importance, simply 
because they are both in the same stage of growth or 
development. 

The historical philologue looks upon languages and 
dialects, as a genealogist looks upon sons and nephews, 
uncles and cousins. If the family likeness coincide 



CLASSIFICATION. 7 

with any nearness of kinmanslnp, well and good ; but 
it is not necessary that it do so. The grandson may 
resemble the grandfather, rather than the father, and first 
cousins may be liker each other than brothers and sisters. 
If so, he takes the likeness as he finds it. He takes it 
as he finds it ; inasmuch as it is a family tree, rather 
than a family picture, with which he deals. 

In one important point, however, this comparison 
foils. The philologue who looks upon languages from the 
historical point of view has, in most cases, to infer the 
relationship from the likeness : in this respect resem- 
bling the genealogist who is taken into a picture-gallery 
and required to ascertain the degrees of relationship from 
the similarity of feature or expression ; assisted in some 
respect by the style of painting, the dress of the indivi- 
dual, and other adjuncts. 

For historical purposes the important parts of a lan- 
guage are the details ; the details in the way of its 
words, glosses, roots, or vocables ; its nouns and verbs ; 
its adverbs and pronouns. Where these are common to 
two languages, the chances are that the actual relationship 
is in proportion to the extent of the community. This 
means that 50 jper cent, implies a closer affinity than 40, 
40 than 30; and so on. I give these figures chiefly for 
the sake of illustration. Of the application of the nu- 
merical system in general, I have no great experience — 
except (of course) in a rough way. No percentage, how- 
ever, is conclusive. To say this, is merely to say that 
there are different rates, at which languages alter. If 
so — the one which either drops or changes the meaning 
of three words per annwni will lose its likeness to the 
common mother-tongue, sooner than its congener which 
drops or changes the same number in a decennium. Per- 
centages, then, give presumptions only. When these 
coincide with the geographical relations they improve. 

With these preliminaries, we may lay the map of the 
world before us, and mark out seven great areas ; — seven 



8 CLASSIFICATIOJS". 

great areas coinciding with seven long and broad lines of 
definite and decided demarcation. Two of these, beinp* 
effected by the ocean, rather than by displacement and 
obliteration, command less importance than the rest. 
They cut-ofi' the New World in the west ; and the islands 
of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific in the south. For the 
present, then, little need be said about either A merica or 
Oceanica. Neither does Africa require any immediate 
notice. Its Peninsular character simplifies its philology. 

The other four areas lie in the great central nucleus 
of Europe and Asia combined — Europe and Asia — Asia 
and Europe. For the purposes of ethnology they form 
but a single continent. 

The Western division is the one with which we are 
most familiar. It is bounded on the south and west by 
the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the German Ocean ; 
on the north, by the line which divides Norway and 
Sweden from Lapland and Finland. The Gulf of 
Bothnia then follows, dividing Sweden and Finland. 
Finland, though deeply indented by both Russia and 
Germany, is not left behind us before we reach the 
frontier of the Government of Yitepsk, whence our line 
is continued along those of Smolensk, Moscow, Vladimir, 
Riazan, Orlov, Voronezh, and Don Kosaks (in none 
of which any language other than Russian is spoken), 
until we reach the sea of Azov ; after which the Black 
Sea, the Sea of Marmora, and the Greek Archipelago, 
lead us to the Mediterranean, with which we started. 
This includes Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Ger- 
many, the valley of the Danube, and Greece — allowance 
being made for the Turk and Hungarian, which are 
intrusive. AU this really means Europe minus Lap- 
land, Finland, and those Governments of Russia, in 
which Ugrian languages in fragments still continue to 
be spoken. The displacements that break up any pos- 
sible transitions, which may originally have existed, are 
nearly all effected by the encroachment of one language 



CLASSIFICATION. 9 

— the Russian ; tbe nearest approach to the original 
status being in Yilna ; where the Lithuanic come almost 
in contact with the Fin. 

The great Northern area is, in Russia, conterminous 
with the western ; Ugrian being spoken (in fragments, 
and on spots like islands in a Russian Sea) in Curland, 
Livonia, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Novogorod, Tver, Vo- 
logda, Viatka, Nizhni Novogorod, Kazan, Penza, Tam- 
bov, Saratov, and Astrakhan. Its southern boundary 
is the northern ridge of Caucasus. Then comes the 
Caspian Sea ; then the frontier between the Turks and 
the Persians ; then the western and northern boundary 
of Tibet ; then the western and northern ones of China. 
This gives us the eastern part of European Russia, the 
Governments of Caucasus and Orenburg ; Siberia, Mon- 
golia, and Mantshuria. The boundary then becomes the 
Sea of Okhotsk, and the northern parts of the Pacific up 
to Behring's Straits. This means — roughly speaking — 
northern Asia, with a large part of Europe. 

The chief displacements here have been effected by 
the spread of the Turk language ; which on the East has 
done, in the way of the obliteration of possible tran- 
sitions, aU that has been done by the Russian — all ; 
if not more. 

The South-eastern area (we unconsciously, but not 
inconveniently, adopt the phraseology of the railway 
engineer) begins with the northern frontier of China ; 
and, as far as China and Tibet are concerned, is conter- 
minous with the Northern, until we reach the extremity 
of Tibet. It there, (or thereabouts,) crosses the Hima- 
layas, so as to include Nepaul, and the Sub-himalayan 
turais, and, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, takes the 
sea as its boundary. After this, the coast (with the ex- 
ception of the Malayan Peninsula) leads us round Ava, 
Siam, and Cochin-China, to the original starting-point 
near Pekin. The displacements here have been effected 
by the Chinese and the Tibetan. The area included 



1 CLASSIFICATION. 

gives Tibet, Nepaul, the Trangangetic Peninsula, Asam, 
Siam, Pegu, Cambogia, Cochin-China, and Cliina. 

The South'ivestern area contains India, Persia, and 
Caucasus ; and the displacing languages here are the 
Indian, the Persian, and the Arabian ; the latter being 
treated as African. Whether African or Asiatic, it 
covers an enormous area, and has effected corresponding 
displacements. The fact of its having done this is all 
that is now under notice. 

1. The languages of the Western group are all in an 
advanced stage of development. 

2. The languages of the Northern group are all in a 
Tnedium state of development. 

3. The languages of the South-eastern group are all 
in an early stage of development. 

With a view to their stage, the first are called Inflec- 
tional, the second Agglutinate, the third Monosyllabic. 

There are a few exceptions to this statement. As a 
rule, however, it holds good. 

To enlarge upon this would be to anticipate. A 
notice, however, is by no means superfluous. It helps 
to show that the groups are natural. So does the fact 
that most of the languages of the first class are what 
is called Indo-European ; most of the languages of the 
second what is called Turanian. 



TIBETAN, BHOT, AND BURMESE LANGUAGES. 11 



CHAPTER II. 

Bhot and Burmese Group,— Bhot of Bultistan, Ladak, Tibet Proper, and 
Butan. — Written and Spoken. — Local Dialect?, — Changlo, — Serpa. — 
Tak . — Maniak . — Gyarung. — Tochu. — Hor. 

NowHEKE is it more necessary to remember the difference 
between classification by the way of type and classifica- 
tion by the way of definition than it is in the field 
upon which we are now entering ; the field upon which 
we break gi^ound in regard to the details of our subject. 
Roughly speaking, this is that part of Asia which con- 
tains Tibet and the Burmese Empire — a large and 
irregular tract of country exhibiting great extremes 
both in its political and its physical character. What 
it is that connects them in the way of Philology we 
shall see as we proceed. 

If we look on to the predominant languages of this 
vast region, and compare only the literary language of 
Tibet with the literary language of Ava, nothing is 
much easier than to draw clear and definite lines of de- 
marcation between them. They are, at least, as diffe- 
rent from each other as the Italian of Florence and the 
French of Paris. But this is only because the forms 
which we compare are extreme ones. The details of 
the local dialects give us a very different result. They 
give us, instead of neat and clean masses of separable 
languages, transitions of various kinds and in numerous 
directions ; in other words, they preclude the classifica- 
tion by definition, and force us upon classification by 
type. 

The philological boundaries of Tibet are better 
known than the geographical ; in other words, we 
know, with the exception of the details of the extreme 



12 TIBETAN, BHOT, AND BURMESE LANGUAGES. 

east, all the languages with which the Bhot is conter- 
minous. At its western extremity it is bounded by the 
Cashmirian and the Dard, on the north-west by the 
Turk of Chinese Turkestan, on the north-east by the 
Mongolian, on the south by the Hindi, the Nepaul forms 
of speech, the Dhimal, the Bodo, and the Garo. The 
mountains that bound the valley of Asam to the north 
are, more or less, Bhot. But of these, more will be said 
in the sequel. 

The word Bhot, or Bhotiya, meaning a Tibetan, is 
the root of the words Butan and Bultistan ; Bultistan 
being the Persian for the land of the Bultis, i. e. Little 
Tibet. 

In Bultistan, the creed is Mahometan, the frontier 
Turk and Indian, the blood (apparently) more Paropar- 
misan than the language. Of the literature and the 
dialects I can say nothing, having seen no written com- 
positions from Little Tibet. Neither can I say whetlier 
the alphabet is exclusively Arabic. The dialect, how- 
ever, for which we have any specimens, is that of Ladak ; 
that of Ladak being that of Tibet in general. 

In Ladak, both the creed and literature are Buddhist, 
and the blood seems to be as purely Bhot as the lan- 
guage. The political relations, however, are with Britisli 
India and Cashmir, rather than with China ; and it is 
only when we reach the Chinese parts of Tibet that 
we find the Bhot characteristics at the maximum. 
Here are preserved, in innumerable monasteries, heaps 
upon heaps of Buddhist literature, in which translations 
from the Sanskrit take an inordinate degree of promi- 
nence. The alphabet in which they are written may 
date from the second centur}^. It is of Indian origin ; 
though, in its present state, a well-marked variety. 

Between the Tibetan as it is written, and the Tibetan 
as it is spoken, it is usual to draw a broad distinction, 
inasmuch as the former either actually preserves, or 
appears to preserve, a number of letters with which 



tlie latter dispenses. 


These are exhibitec 


type. 






English. 


Wxitten Tibetan. 


Spoken Tibetan. 


Man 


mi 


mi 


Head 


mgo 


go 


Hair 


skra 


kra 


Eye 


mig 


mik 


Ear 


sa 


amch 


Tooth 


so 


so 


Blood 


khrag 


thak 


Bone 


ruspa 


ruko 


Hand 


lagpa 


lango 


Foot 


r kangpa 


kango 


Sun 


nyima 


nyima 


Moon 


2 lava 


dawa 


Star 


s karma 


karma 


Fire 


me 


me 


Water 


chhu 


chhu 


Stone 


rdo 


do 


Tree 


I jonshing 


shingdong 


Oae 


5'cliig 


chik 


Two 


grnyis 


nyi 


Three 


grsum 


sum 


Fowr 


bzhi 


zhyi 


Five 


hna 


gna 


Six 


druk 


thu 


Seven 


J dun 


dun 


Eight 


h rgyud 


gye 


Nine 


dgn 


guk 


Ten 


bchxL 


chu 


— 


thamba 


— 



13 



Btitan differs from Tibet Proper, cliiefly in being 
more open to influences from India. The Butanis call 
themselves Lhopa. 

Another, and a more extreme form of the Eastern 
Bhot, is the language of Takyul, or the land of the 
Tak, or Takpa, which is the country marked Tovvang 
and Towang Raj in the ordinary maps. 



English. 


Lhopa. 


Takpa. 


Man 


mi 


men 


Head 


gutoh 


gokti 


Hair 


kya 


pu 


Eye 


mido 


melong 


Ear 


navo 


neblap 



14 





TAKPA, ETC. 




English. 


Llicpa. 


Takpa. 


Tooth 


soh 


wah 


Blood 


tliyak 


khra 


Bone ■ 


rutok 


rospa 


Hand 


lappa 


la 


Foot 


kanglep 


leme 


Sun 


nyim 


plang 


Moon 


dau 


leh 


Star 


kam 


karma 


Fire 


mi 


meh 


Water 


chhu 


chhi 


Stone 


doh 


gorr 


Tree 


shiiig 


shendong 


One 


che 


' the 


Two 


nye 


nai 


Three 


snm 


sum 


Four 


zlii 


pli 


Five 


gna 


liagni 


Six 


dhu 


kro 


Seven 


dun 


nis 


Eight 


gye 


gyet 


Nine 


gu 


dugu 


Ten 


Chatham 


paki 



Further to the South, in contact with the language of 
Nepaul, is spoken the Serpa which seems to be all but 
actual Bhot. 



English. 


Serpa. 


English. 


Serpa. 


Man 


mi 


Hand 


lango 


Head 


go 


Foot 


kango 


Hair 


ta 


Shy 


nam 


Eye 


mik 


Sun 


nimo 


Ear 


amchuk 


Moon 


oula 


Tooth 


so 


Star 


karma 


Blood 


thak 


Water 


chhu 


Bone 


ruba 


Stone 


doh. 



Beside the Bultistani, Ladaki, Thibetan, and Butani 
varieties, there are several local dialects, of which, as may 
be supposed, we know but little. In Lower Kunawer 
the language is Indian rather than Bhot ; but in Upper 
Kunawer there are the Kanet dialects and sub-dialects. 
In Kampur, Milchan* is the word for the language in 
general of the parts around, so that the Milcban is the 

* Probably the Hindu Mlech. 



MILCHAN. 



15 



language of the district ; of which the Lubrung (or 
Kanam) and the Lidung (or Lippa) are varieties. Mean- 
while ThehuTskud denotes a provincial dialect, such as 
that of SugQum, and others. 



EngUsh. 


Milchan. 


Tlieburskud 


Sumchu. 


Man 


mi 


mi 


me 


Women 


chismi 


eshrt 


esplung 


Head 


bul 


pisha 


pisha 


Tongue 


le 


le 


le 


Eye 


mlk 


me 


ml 


Ear 


kanung 


rupung 


repung 


Foot 


bung 


bunk 


bunkun 


Sun 


yune 


ne 


nimok 


Moon 


gulsung 


gulsung 


gulsung 


Star 


skara 


karma 


karma 


One 


It 


te 


It 


Two 


nish 


nishi 


nlsh 


Three 


stiin 


sum 


hum 


Fmir 


pu 


Pl 


pu 


Five 


gna 


gnai 


gna 


Ten 


sal 


chui 


sa 


The Infinitives run as follows : — 






In Milchan . 


. lonJimih or 


lonhmig 




— Lippa . 


. lodenh' or 


lodent 




— Kanam 


. . . logma 






— Sugnum . 


. . lopang 






— Sumchu . 


. . lomma or 


loma. 



The following language, though Bhot, belongs geo- 
graphically and politically to Nepaul. 



English. 


Tiiaksya. 


English. 


Thaksya. 


Man 


makai 


Fire 


hme 


Head 


ta 


Water 


kya 


Hair 


chham 


Tree 


ghyung 


Hand 


yayathin 


One 


di 


Eye 


mi 


Two 


gni 


Foot 


malethin male 


Three 


som 


Blood. 


ka 


Four 


bla 


Bone 


nati 


Five 


gna 


Ear 


hna 


Six 


tu 


Tooth 


gyo 


Seven 


gnes 


Day 


sar 


Eight 


bhre 


Sun 


ghaw-gni 


Nine 


ku 


Moon 


latigna 


Ten 


chyu 


Star 


sar 







16 



GYARUNG, ETC. 



One of the Butan dialects is known under the name 
Changlo. It is spoken in the North-east, apparently 
in contact with some of the languages of the Asam 
mountaineers. 

The Chinese call certain rude tribes in the south-east 
of Tibet, and (consequently) to the north-west of their 
own frontier, Sifan, a term said to mean Western Bar- 
barian. 

The area to which this name applies is anything 
but well marked. A line drawn from the Koko Nor to 
the frontier of Yunnan will pass through it. But the 
frontier of Yunnan is a long one. The Thochu, Man- 
yak, and Gyarung vocabularies belong to this district ; 
all being, inter alia, collected through the exertions of 
Mr. Hodgson. 

Of these, the Manyak lies to the south, the Gyarung 
in the centre, and the Thochu to the north. I have 
little hesitation in saying that, though Chinese in 
respect to their political relations, and Tibetan in re- 
spect to their geography, these three forms of speech 
are as much Burmese as Bhot. 



English. 


Changlo. 


Gyarung. 


Manyak. 


Thochu. 


Man 


songo 


tir-mi 


ohhoh 


nah 


Head 


sliarang 


ta-ko 


wulli 


kapat 


Hair 


cham 


tarni 


mui 


hompa 


Eye 


ming 


tai-mek 


mne 


kan 


Ear 


na 


time 


napi 


nukh 


Tooth 


sliia 


ti-swe 


phwih 


sweh 


Blood 


yi 


ta-shi 


shah 


sah 


Bone 


khang 


syarhu 


rukhu 


ripat 


Hand 


gadang 


tayak 


lapcheh 


jipab 


Foot 


bi 


tami 


lipchheh 


jako 


STcy 


ngam 


tu-mon 


mah 


mahto 


Sun 


lani 


kini 


nyima 


mun 


Moon 


murgeng 


tsi-le 


leh 


chhap 


Star 


mi 


tsine 


krah 


ghada 


Fire 


ri 


ti-mi 


sameh 


meh 


Water 


lung 


ti-chi 


dyah 


chah 


Stone 


shing 


rugu 


wobi 


gholopi 


One 


tliur 


kate 


tabi 


ari 


Two 


nyik-ching 


kanes 


nabi 


gnari 





THE HOR. 






English. 


Changlo. 


Gyarung. 


Manjak. 


Thocliu. 


Three 


sam 


kasam 


sibi 


ksiri 


Four 


hM 


kadi 


rebi 


gzari 


Five 


nga 


kunggno 


gnabi 


wari 


Six 


khung 


kutok 


trubi 


kbatari 


Seven 


zum 


kushnes 


skwibi 


stari 


Eight 


yen 


oryet 


zibi 


kbrari 


Nine 


gu 


kunggu 


gubi 


rguni 


Ten 


shong, se 


sih 


cbechibi 


paduri. 



17 



The Hor, or Horpa, occupy the western part of 
Northern Tibet and parts of Chinese Tartary, or Little 
Bokhara, and Dzungaria. They decidedly touch both 
the Turk and Mongol areas ; and, as they are nomads 
rather than agriculturalists, they are more Tartar in 
habit than Tibetan. At the same time, their language 
is Bhot ; and so, to a great extent, is their creed. The 
major part is Buddhist : though there are some Maho- 
metans amongst them — a few within the frontier of 
Tibet ; more beyond it. To some of these the Tibetans 
apply the name Khachhe ; which is, word for word, the 
Chinese Kao-tse. They call themselves, however, Igur ; 
and from this, along with a few other facts of less im- 
portance, I look upon them as Turks in blood, though 
Bhot in language. 



English. 


Hor. 


Tibetan. 


Uigur. 


Man 


vzih 


mi 


er, kishi 


Head 


gho 


go 


bash 


Hair 


spu 


kra 


satsh 


Eye 


mo 


mik 


kusi 


Ear 


nyo 


amcho 


kulak 


Tooth 


syo 


so 


tish 


Blood 


sye 


thak 


khan 


Bone 


rera 


ruko 


sungguki 


Hand 


Iha 


lango 


iHk 


Foot 


ko 


kango 


adakhi 


Sky 


koh 


Tiamkhah 


tengri 


Sun 


gna 


nyima 


kim 


Moon 


slikno 


dawa 


ai 


Star 


sgre 


karma 


yuldus 


Fire 


umat 


me 


cot 


Water 


hrah 


chhu 


snw 


Stone 


rgame 


do 


tash 



18 





THE HOR. 




English. 


Hor. 


Tibetan. 


Uigur. 


Tree 


nah 


shindong 


yikhatsli 


One 


ra 


chik 


bir 


Two 


gre 


nyi 


iki 


Three 


su 


sum 


utsh 


Four 


pla 


zhyi 


tort 


Five 


gwe 


gna 


bish 


Six 


diha 


tliu 


alty 


Seven 


zne 


dun 


yidi 


Eight 


rMee 


gye 


sekis 


Nine 


go 


guh 


tochus 


Tm 


m> 


chuh 


on. 



The details of the Tibetan, where it comes in contact 
with the languages of the Paropamisus, are obscure. 
They will be noticed in the sequel. 



NEPAUL AND SIKKIM. 19 



CHAPTER III, 

Nepalese and Sikkim Languages. — Gurung andMurmi. — Magar and Bramhu. 
— Cliepang. — Hayu. — Kusunda. — Newar and Pahari. — Kiranti and 
Limhu. — Lepcha. — Dliimal. — Bodo. — Garo. — Borro. — Sunwar. 

It is convenient to speak of the languages of Nepaul and 
Sikkim as if they constituted a definite group. It is 
convenient to do this, because these countries, with their 
peculiar political relations, though Indian in their geo- 
graphy, and Tibetan in their ethnology, are neither 
exactly Tibetan, nor exactly Indian as a whole ; but 
rather a district per se. 

The dialects and sub-dialects of this class are refer- 
able to the following groups: — (1), the Gurung; (2), 
Magar; (3), Chepang ; (4), the Hayu; (5), the Ku- 
sunda ; (6), the Newar ; (7), the Kiranti ; (8), the 
Lepcha. 

(1). The Magar occupy the lower, the Gurung the 
higher levels of the Himalaya ; the Gurung being, like 
the Magars, a military caste ; but (unlike the Magars), 
being Buddhist rather than Brahminic ; and, as such, 
more Bhot, in respect to their civilization, than Indian. 
Some of them are, perhaps, more pagan than Bhot. 
They are a rude set ; shepherds rather than agricultu- 
ralists ; but little being known of their language. The 
Murmi is one of its dialects. 



English. 


Gurung. 


Murmi. 


Man 


mM 


mi 


Head 


ki-a 


thobo 


Hair 


moi 


kra 


Hand 


lapta 


ya 


Foot 


bhale 


bale 



c 2 



20 



NEPAUL AND SIKKIM. 



Englisli. 


Gurung. 


Murmi. 


Eye 


mi 


mi 


Ear 


nabe 


nape 


Bone 


nugri 


nakhu 


Blood 


koh 


ka 


Tooth 


sak 


swa 


Bay 


dini 


dini 


Sun 


dhini 


dini 


Moon 


— 


ladima 


Star 


pira 


karehin 


Fire 


mi 


me 


Water 


kyu 


kwi 


Tree 


sindu 


dhong 


Stone 


yuma 


yumba 


One 


kri 


grik 


Two 


ni 


gni 


Three 


song 


som 


Four 


pli 


bli 


Five 


gna 


gna 


Six 


tu 


dhu 


Seven 


nis 


nis 


Eight 


pre 


pre 


Nine 


kuh 


kuh 


Ten 


chuk 


cbiwai. 



(2). Occupants of the lower levels, and the western 
districts, the Magars have been in more than ordinary 
contact with the Hindus of the Oude and Kumaon 
frontiers. No wonder, then, that the blood and lan- 
guage but imperfectly coincide. Many Hindus are said 
to speak Magar, whilst numerous Magars have either 
unlearnt their own tongue or speak the Magar along 
with it. The creed is imperfectly Brahminic ; the 
alphabet Indian ; the tendencies and civilization Indian. 

The Bramhti dialect, spoken by a degraded population 
of the parts about, is more Magar than aught else. 



English. 


Magar. 


Bramhu. 


Man 


bharmi 


bal, bar 


Head 


mitalu 


kapa 


Hair 


cbham 


syam 


Hand 


hutpiak 


bhit 


Foot 


mibil 


imzik 


Eye 


mik 


mik 


Ear 


nakyeh 


kana 



NEPAUL AND SIKKBL 



21 



English. 


Magar. 


Bramhti. 


Bone 


miryaros 


wot 


Blood 


hyu 


cbiwi 


Tooth 


siak 


swa 


Day 


namsin 


dina 


Sun 


namkhan 


uni 


Star 


bhuga 


— 


Fire 


mlie 


mai 


Water 


di 


awa 


Tree 


sing 


simma 


Stone 


thung 


kungba 


One 


kat 


de 


Two 


nis 


ni 


Three 


song 


sworn 


Four 


bull 


bi 


Five 


banga 


banga. 



(3, 4). The Chepang and Vayu, or Hayu, is a broken 
and depressed tribe of this district. The Vayti con- 
sider themselves a distinct people, falling into few or no 
subdivisions. Their language is said to be unintelligible 
to any one else ; and so it seems to be from the speci- 
men. They believe that at some remote period they 
were a powerful people, though now reduced. 

(5). The Kusunda are even more broken up than 
the Vayu, with whom they are conterminous. 



English. 


Chepang. 


Vayu. 


Kusunda. 


Man 


pursi 


sing-tong 


mihyak 


— 


— 


lon-cho 


— 


Head 


tolong 


pfi-chhi 


chipi 


Hair 


men 


song 


gyai-i 


Hand 


kutt 


got 


gipan 


Foot 


la 


16 


chan 


Eye 


mik 


m6k 


cliining 


Ear 


ne 


nak-chu 


chyau 


Bone 


rhus 


ru 


gou 


Blood 


wi 


vi 


uyu 


Tooth 


srek 


lu 


toho 


Day 


nyi 


numa 


dina 


Sun 


nyam 


nomo 


ing 


Moon 


lahe 


cho-lo 


jun 


Fire 


me 


me 


ja 


Water 


ti 


ti 


tang 


Tree 


sing, singtak 


sing-phung 


i 



22 





THE 


NEWAR. 




Englisli. 


Chepang, 


Vayu. 


Kusuiida. 


One 


yazho 


kolu 


goisang 


Two 


nhizho 


nayung 


ghigna 


Three 


sumzho 


cLuyung 


daha 


Four 


ploizho 


bining 


pinjang 


Five 


pumazho 


— 


pagnangj^ng. 



(6). The Newar belongs to the central valley, or 
Nepaul Proper, the most favoured tract of the king- 
dom, and the tract where the rudeness of the original 
paganism is at its minimum ; the creed being partly 
Brahminic partly Buddhist. The Pahri, or Palii, one of 
the broken tribes, is Newar ; in other words, the Pahri 
is to the Newar as the Bramhu was to the Magar. 



Englisli. 


Newar. 


Pahrf. 


Man 


mijang 


manclie 


Head 


chhong 


chhe 


Hair 


song 


son 


Hand 


pakha 


la 


Foot 


pali 


li 


Eye 


mikha 


mighi 


Ear 


nhaipong 


nhuapuru 


Bone 


kwe 


kusa 


Blood 


hi 


hi 


Tooth 


wa 


wa 


Day 


aM 


nhinako 


Sun 


suja 


suje 


Star 


nagu 


nung-gni 


Fire 


mi 


mi 


Water 


lau 


lukhu 


Tree 


sinia 


sima 


Stone 


lohong 


longgho 


One 


chhi 


Chi 


Two 


ni 


ni 


Three 


son 


sung 


Four 


pi 


pi 


Five 


gna 


gno 


Six 


kha 


ku 


Seven 


nhe 


nhe 


Eight 


chya 


chya 


Nine 


gunh 


gun 


Ten, 


sanho 


gi. 



(7). Occupants of the valley of the Arun, and the 
district which takes its name from them, the Kirant, 



THE KIRATA. 



23 



Kiranti, or Kiratas, are the most eastern of the tribes 
of Nepaul, being conterminous with the Lepchas of 
Sikkim. The name is Indian ; so that little is to be 
inferred from either its antiquity or the extent of its 
application. Whenever there was a population in a 
certain relation to the Hindu, the term would apply. 

The Kirata under notice, fall into two primary divi- 
sions, the Limbu and the Kwombu. The Limbu have 
an alphabet : the Kwombu dialects are unwritten. 



English. 


Kirata. 


Limbu. 


Man 


mana 


yapme 


— 


— 


yemboch:-., 


Head 


tang 


thagek 


Hair 


moa 


thagi 


Hand 


chukuphem^i 


huktapbe 


Foot 


iilfhuro 


langdappbe 


Eye 


mak 


mik 


Ear 


naba 


nekho 


Bone 


saiba 


sayet 


Blood 


bau 


makbi 


Tooth 


kang 


hebo 


Bay 


len 


lendik 


Sun 


nam 


nam 


Moon 


lava 


lavo 


Star 


sangyen 


kesva 


Fire 


mi 


me 


Water 


chawa 


chua 


Tree 


sangtang 


sing 


Stone 


lungta 


lung 


One 


ektai 


thit 


Two 


hasat 


nyetsh 


Three 


sumya 


syumsh 


Four 


laya 


lish 


Five 


gnaya 


gnash 


Six 


tukya 


tuksh 


Seven 


bhagya 


nuksh 


Eight 


reya 


yetsh 


Nine 


pbangya 


phangsh 


Ten 


kip 


thibong. 



Until a few months back, the Kiranti lanofuacre was 
in the same predicament with those that have just been 
noticed. Perhaps, it was less known. At any rate, it 
took no remarkable prominence in the philology of 



24 



THE KIRATA DIALECTS — LEPCHA 



Nepaul. It miglit consist of a single dialect, or of 
many. It was akin to tlie Limbu and the Limbu 
akin to it. Of its other varieties we knew nothing. 
A recent paper of Mr. Hodgson now supplies vo- 
cabularies for its dialects and sub-dialects ; for 
which the following is the suggested classification : — 
1. Waling; 2. Yakha ; 8. Cliourasya ; 4. Kulung ; 
5. Thulung; 6. Bahing ; 7. Lohorong ; 8. Lambich- 
hong. These constitute the Waling branch of the 
Bontawa group, of which 9. Rungchlienbung ; 10. 
Chhingtang, are also members. Then come, 1 1 . Cham- 
ling, or Bodong ; 12. Nachhereng ; 13. Balati ; 14. 
Sangpang ; 15. Dumi ; 16. Khaling ; 17. Dungmalu. 

(8). The Lepcha spoken in Sikkim, is, like the Limbu 
dialect of the Kiranti, a written language ; though its 
literature is of the scantiest. 



English. 


Lepclia. 


English. 


Lepcha. 


Man 


maro 


Fire 


mi 


— 


tagri 


Water 


ong 


Head 


atliiak 


Tree 


kung 


Hair 


achom 


Stone 


long 


Hand 


kaliok 


One 


kat 


Foot 


dianghok 


Two 


nyet 


Eye 


amik 


Three 


sam 


Ear 


anyor 


Four 


phali 


Bone 


arhet 


Five 


phagnon 


Blood 


vi 


Six 


tarok 


Tooth 


apho 


Seven 


kakyok 


Day 


sakne 


Eight 


kaken 


Sun 


sakhak 


Nine 


kakyot 


Moon 


dau 


Ten 


kati. 


Star 


sahor 







Now, all these languages are not only members of 
the same great class with the Bhot, but the fact of their 
being so is clear and patent upon the most cursory 
inspection. No language, however, of a Brahminic or a 
Buddhist population, especially if it be on the frontier of 
Hindostan, can escape the certain results of contact with 
India ; and this shows itself in the vocabulary. The 
proportion which these Indian elements bear to the rest. 



DHIMAL AND BODO. 25 

varies with the language. It may be but small. It 
may be moderate. It may be so great as to destroy 
the original character of the tongue altogether. In 
the following languages, the numerals are Hindu ; and, 
though this is an artificial characteristic, it is a convenient 
one. It gives a Hindu aspect to the vocabulary ; and, 
as a general rule, where the numerals are Hindu, a very 
great proportion of the other words is Hindu also — so 
much so, indeed, as to make the position of the lan- 
guage, on the first view, equivocal. In some cases it 
may really be so. The first language of our list is, in 
the eyes of many, a dialect of the Hindu, containing a 
few Bhot fragments, rather than a Bhot dialect in what 
may be called a metamorphic form. 

1. The Kooch of Kooch Behar, as spoken by the 
Mahometan and Brahminic sections of the name. The 
Pani Kooch, or unconverted Koocli, are believed to use 
a more decidedly Bhot form of speech. 

2. The Darahe (or Dahi) and Den war. 

3. The Kuswar. 

4. The Tharu. 

5. The Pakhya. 

The populations which 'speak them are called, by Mr. 
Hodgson, to whom all the details are due, the Broken 
Tribes. His list contains, besides the preceding, the Che- 
pang, the Bhramo, and the Pahri. These, however, are not 
only clearly Nepalese, but have been referred to a given 
Nepalese language, and subordinated to it as a dialect. 
It is the equivocal character of the foregoing languages 
that places them in a group by themselves ; a group 
which is merely provisional, as further researches will 
show. 

The Bhimal, avoiding both the open plains and the 
mountain heights, occupy the turai between the Konka 
and Dhorla, where they are conterminous with the Bodo. 
Nor is this all. The two populations are not only 
conterminous but intermixed, each inhabiting separate 



26 



DHIMAL AND BOBO. 



villages. For all this, there is a notable — I might say 
a wide — difference between their languages. It is with 
the Hayti, and Kusunda group, or, at least with the 
languages to the west, that the Dhiinal appears to have 
its closest affinities. The Bodo, on the contrary, is all 
but one with the Borro of Cachar, besides being closely 
allied to the Garo of the Garo Hills, in the north-east of 



Cll^Cll. 










English. 


Pliimal. 


Bodo. 


Garo. 


Borro. 


Man 


waval 


hiwa 


mande 


man.se 


— 


diang 


manshi 


— 


— 


Head 


purling 


khoro 


skho 


khoro 


Ear 


nhatong 


khoma 


nachil 


khama 


Eye 


mi 


mogon 


mikran 


nigan 


Blood 


hiki 


th.oi 


anchi 


thoi 


Bone 


hara 


begeng 


greng 


begeng 


Tooth 


sitong 


hatha! 


jak 


nakhai 


Hand 


khur 


akhai 


jatheng 


atheng 


Foot 


khokoi 


yapha 


sal 


san 


Sun 


bela 


shan 


jashki 


hatolthi 


Star 


pliuro 


hathotkhi 


wal 


wat 


Fire 


men 


wat 


Chi 


doi 


Water 


clii 


doi 


— 


— 



The Bodo are called by the Hindus, Mekh, or Mlech ; 
and they are so called because they pass for impure in- 
fidels. 

The Borro of Cachar take us into Asam ; and (of 
Asam) towards the southern, rather than the northern, 
boundary. But the northern boundary is the one that 
we must first examine ; remembering that the moun- 
tain-range which forms it runs due east fi'om that part 
of Butan which gave us the Changlo and the Takpa 
vocabularies. 

Of the Sun war vocabulary of Hodgson I am unable 
to give the exact locality. 



English. 


Suuwar. 


English. 


Sunwar. 


Man 


mura 


Foot 


kweli 


Head 


piya 


Eye 


michi 


Hair 


chang 


Ear 


nopha 


Hand 


table 


Bone 


nishe 





THE SUNWAR. 


27 


English. 


Siinwar. 


English. 


Sunwar, 


Blood 


usi 


Thine 


ike 


Tooth 


kryu 


His 


hareake, mereke 


Day 


nathi 


Our's 


go-ainke 


Sun 


na 


Tour's 


gai-ainke, inke 


Star 


soru 


Their's 


hari-ainke 


Fire 


mi 


One 


ka 


Water 


paakliu 


Tico 


nishi 


Tree 


rawa 


Three 


sang 


Stone 


phunglu 


Four 


le 


I 


go 


Five 


gno 


Thwi 


gai^ 


Six 


ruk 


He, she, it 


hari 


Seven 


chani 


We 


govki 


Eight 


yoh 


Ye 


gaivki 


Nine 


guh 


They 


harevki 


Ten 


■sashi. 


Mine 


ake 







Of the preceding forms of speech, the Gurung, Magar, 
and Kiranti, seem to be the most Bhot ; whilst the 
Newar and Kusunda point the most decidedly towards 
India ; the Garo to the Singpho ; and the Lepcha to 
the North Asam, class. 



LANGUAGES 



CHAPTER lY. 

Languages of Assam. — Northern Frontier. — Aka, Dofla, and Abor, — Miri. — 
Mishmi. — Southern Frontier. — Kasia. — Mikir. — Angami. — Nagas. — 
Singpho. 

Collectively, the Aka, Dofla, Abor, Miri, and Mishmi, 
may be called the hill-tribes of the northern boundary 
of Asam. They all, with the exception of a few of the 
Miris, lie to the north of the Burhamputer, along the banks 
of which the displacement and obliteration of transitional 
forms of speech have been great. The chief language 
of Lower Asam — the valley — is Indian ; the Asamese, 
properly so-called, being even more Indian than the 
dialects of the broken tribes. It is limited, however, 
to the level country ; the mountains of the southern 
and the northern boundary being held by aborigines. 
But these are separated from each other ; or if con- 
tinuous, are only traced in their continuity round the 
valley, not across it. 

The hills that form the northern boundary of Asam 
are occupied by numerous rude tribes known as Aka, 
Dofla, and Abor ; all three using dialects of the same 
language. That of the Miri is closely allied. Those of 
the Taying and Mijhu dialects of the Mishmi are further 
removed. 

Beginning with the eastern boundary of Tibet, the 
order of the numerous hill-tribes of the northern boun- 
dary of Asam, of which the languages are known to us 
through vocabularies, is as has been given — Aka, Dofla, 
Abor, Miri, and Mishmi. The Miri stretch farthest 
across the valley, or southwards, while the Mishmi 
occupy its eastern extremity ; where there has been a 



OF ASAM. 



29 



partial displacement — a displacement effected by the 
Ahom and Khamti of the Thay stock, of whom more 
will be said as we proceed. 



English. 


Dofla. 


Abor. 


Miri. 


Mail 


bangni 


amie 


ami 


Hair 


dumuk 


dumid 


dumid 


Head 


dompo 


dumpong 


tiipko 


Ear 


niorung 


nanmg 


ieruug 


Eye 


nyuk 


aming 


amida 


Blood 


ui 


yi 


yie 


Bone 


solo 


along 


along 


Foot 


laga 


ale 


leppa 


Hand 


lak 


elag 


elag 


Sun 


dani 


arung 


dainya 


Moon 


polo 


polo 


polo 


Star 


takar 


tekar 


takar 


Fire 


ami 


emme 


umma 


Water 


esi 


asi 


achye 


One 


aken 


ako 


ako 


Two 


ani 


ani 


aniko 


Three 


aam 


angom 


auniko 


Four 


apli 


api 


apiko 


Five 


ango 


pilango 


angoko 


Six 


akple 


akye 


nkengko 


Seven 


kanag 


konange 


kinitko 


Eight 


plagnag 


pini 


piniko 


Nine 


kayo 


kinide 


konangk 


Ten 


rang 


iinge 


uyingko. 



The Mijhu and Tayung forms of speech are called 
dialects of the Mishmi. Perhaps they are so. At the 
same time they differ from one another more than the 
Aka and Abor, which have been quoted as separate sub- 



stantive languages :- 



English. 


Tayung. 


Mijhu. 


Man 


nme 


ktchong 


Head 


mkau 


kau 


Eye 


mollom 


mik 


Ear 


nkruna 


ing 


Blood 


rhwei 


vi 


Bone 


lubunglubra 


zak 


Hand 


ptoya 


yop 


Foot 


mgrung 


mpla 


Smi 


ring-ngiiig 


lemik 



30 





MISHMI— KASIA- 


-MIKIR. 


English. 


Tayung. 


Mijliu. 


Moon 


hho 


lai 


Fire 


naming 


niai 


Water 


macM 


ti 


One 


eking 


kmo 


Two 


kaying 


kaning 


Three 


kachong 


kacham 


Four 


kaprei 


ka.mbum 


Five 


inangu 


kalei 


Six 


tharo 


katham 


Seven 


uwe 


nun 


Eight 


elyeni 


ngun 


Nine 


konyong 


nyet 


Ten 


halong 


kyep. 



The southern range now claims notice. We touched 
it when the Garo and Bodo were under notice. 

Due east of the Garo country come the Kasia dis- 
tricts ; the language of which is less like its immediate 
neighbour, than its locality suggests. 

The MiJcir believe that their ancestors came from 
the Jaintia Hills ; but no specimen of the Jaintia 
dialects, eo nomine, being known, the value of the belief 
is uncertain. Their present occupancies are in North 
Cachar, Lower and Central Asam. The "sounds of 
their language/' writes Robinson, " are pure and liquid," 
and the gutturals and strong aspirates are but few. 
There is a "slight nasal inflection and an abrupt 
cadence." Some of the Mikir are imperfect converts to 
Brahminism. 



English. 


Easia. 


Mikir. 


Man 


uman 


arleng 


— 


— 


penso 


Woman 


ka kantei 


arioso 


Head 


kakli 


iphu 


Eye 


ka kamat 


mek 


Ear 


ka skor 


ino 


Nose 


ka kamut 


inokan 


Mouth 


ka shintur 


ingho 


Tooth 


ka baniat 


isso 


Tongue 




ade 


Hand 


ka tkallid 


ripa 


Foot 


ka kajat 


kengpa" 





THE ANGAML 




English. 


Kasia. 


Mikir. 


Sim 


ka sngi 


arni 


Moon 


ubanai 


cheklo 


Star 


uMur 


cteklo longsho 


Fire 


kading 


me 


Water 


kaum 


lang 


Stone 


man 


arlong 


Wood 


kading 


theng 


One 




nisi 


Two 




hini 


Three 




kithom 


Fov/r 




phili 


Five 




phanga 


Six 




therok 


Seven 




tlieroski 


Eight 




nerkep 


Nine 




serkep 


Ten 




kep. 



31 



The Angami succeed the Mikir ; rude hill-men, pagan, 
and unlettered. Their language seems to fall into 
dialects and sub-dialects ; its affinities being such as its 
locality suggests. They are more especially, Mikir, 
Aka, Dofla, and Abor. 



Eiigliali. 


Angami. 


English. 


Angami. 


Man 


ma 


Fire 


mi 


Woman 


tkenuma 


Water 


zu 


Head 


uchu 


Stone 


kecke 


Eye 


lunhi 


Wood 


si 


Ear 


uneu 


One 


po 


Nose 


unheu 


Two 


kana 


Mouth 


ume 


Three 


se 


Tooth, 


uhu 


Four 


da 


Hand 


ubiju 


Five 


pengu 


Foot 


uphi-ju 


Six 


shuru 


Shy 


keruke 


Seven 


thena 


Day 


ia 


Eight 


thata 


Sun 


naki 


Nine 


tkeku 


Moon 


thirr 


Ten 


kerr. 


Star 


themu 







And now begins a district where classification by 
means of definition is impracticable. The Angami, and 



Little moons. 



32 



NAGA DIALECTS. 



the tribes to the east of them, are called Naga ; Naga 
being a generic name for the wild tribes of mountains 
that homidi . Asam to the south. It is not, however, 
a name founded on their languages, and I doubt if it be 
natural. I think that all the Naga dialects might be 
grouped as Singpho without unduly raising the value of 
the class so-called. 

The earliest notice of the forms of the Naga (from 
which I have separated the Angami) is by Brown, the 
fullest is to be found in the second volume of Trans- 
actions of the American Oriental Society, where there 
are specimens of no less than ten of their dialects, or 
sub-dialects. 



English. 


Nowgong. 


Tengsa. 


Kliari. 


Hatigor. 


Man 


nyesung 


mesung 


ami 


nyesung 


Woman 


— 


anakti 


anudi 


tatsii 


Head 


takolak 


tako 


te-lim 


takolak 


Hair 


ko 


ko 


kwa 


ko 


Eye 


tenok 


te nyik 


te-nik 


te-nok 


Ear 


tenaung 


te-lanno 


te-nbaun 


te-naung 


Tooth 


tabu 


ta-pbu 


ta-pba 


ta-bu 


Hand 


tekha 


ta-khat 


ta-kbet 


ta-kha 


Foot 


tatsiing 


ta-cbing 


ta-cbang 


ta-tsiing 


Shy 


• mabat 


anung 


aning 


anyang 


Sun 


annu 


tinglu 


subih 


annu 


Moon 


yita 


luta 


leta 


yita 


Star 


pitinu 


lutingting 


peti 


pitinu 


Fire 


mi 


masi 


matsii 


mi 


Water 


tsu 


tii 


atsii 


tsii 


Stone 


lungzuk 


lungmango 


along 


lungzuk 


Tree 


santung 


sangtung 


sundong 


santung 


One 


katang 


kbatu 


akbet 


— 


Two 


anna 


annat 


anne 


— 


Three 


asam 


asam 


asam 


— 


Four 


pazr 


pbale 


phali 


— 


Five 


pungu 


pbungu 


pbanga 


— 


Six 


tank . 


tbelok 


tarok 


— 


Seven 


tanet 


tbanyet 


tani 


— 


Eight 


te 


tbesep 


sachet 


— 


Nine 


taku 


tbaku 


taken 


— 


Ten 


tarr 


thelu 


tarah 


— 



THE SINGPHO. 



33 



English. 




Namsang, &c. 


Joboka, &c. 


Man 




minyan 


mi 


Woman 




dehiek 


tnnaunu 


Head 




kho 


khangra 


Hair 




kacho 


kho 


Eye 




mit 


Tnik 


Ear 




na 


na 


Tooth 




pa 


va 


Hand 




dak 


cha,k 


Foot 




da 


tsha 


Sky 




rangtung 


rangphum 


Sun 




san 


ranghan 


Moon 




da 


letlu 


Star 




merik 


letsi 


Fire 




van 


van 


Water 




jo 


ti 


Stone 




long 


long 


One 




vanthe 


tuta 


Two 




vanyi 


anyi 


Three 




vanram 


azam 


Four 






aU 


Five 




banga 


aga 


Six 




irok 


azok 


Seven 




ingit 


annat 


Eight 




isat 


achat 


Nine 




ikhu 


aku 


Ten 




ichi 


banban. 


English. Mithan. 


Tablun 


?• 


English. 


Mithan. Tabluug. 


Man mi 


sauniak 


Water 


ti riang 


Woman — 


chikkho 


Stone 


ling yong 


Head khang 


sang 




Tree 


pan peh 


Hair kho 


min 




One 


atta cha 


Eye mik 


mik 




Two 


unyi ih 


Ear na 


na 




Three 


azum lem 


Tooth va 


pha 




Four 


ali peU 


Hand chak 


yak 




Five 


aga nga 


Foot tchya 


yahlan 


Six 


arok vok 


Sun ranghon 


wangh 


i 


Seven 


anath niath, neth 


Moon letna 


]e 




Eight 


ainet thuth 


Star lethi 


chaha 




Nine 


aku ther, thu 


Fire van 


ah 




Ten 


ban pan. 



The Jactung, JVIalung, and Sima dialects are closely 
akin to this. 

In a limited sense, Singpho is a convenient name for 
a group of dialects, of which (1) the Singpho Proper, (2) 

D 



S4 



THE SINGPHO. 



the Jili, and (3) the Kakhyen, are known by specimens. 
On the north-east it touches the Mishmi, and the intru- 
sive Khamti. On the south-east it comes in contact with 
certain dialects of the Siamese group ; being itself the 
nearest congener not belonging to their class. 

The Singpho Proper are Buddhists, with a Shan 
alphabet. The Muttuk, Moran, or Moameria, are 
Hindu in creed, though of suspicious orthodoxy. Of 
their language, eo nomine (unless the Mithan of the 
foregoing table be one), I have seen no specimen. I 
find, however, statements to the following effect, viz. 
that that of the Khaphok tribe is just intelligible to a 
Singpho Proper ; that in the Khanung there is still a 
resemblance to the Singpho, but that the language is 
no longer mutually intelligible ; and thirdly, that the 
Khalang and Nogmun forms of speech are truly 
Singpho. 

Of the Jili vocabulary (the only one we have) seventy 
per cent, is Singpho, twenty-two per cent. Garo. This 
gives an indirect connection with the Bhot ; a connection, 
however, which is no closer than that with the Burmese. 
In short, the Singpho group is eminently transitional, 
its value being, in the present state of our knowledge, 
uncertain. 



English. 


Singpho. 


Jili. 


Kakhyeu. 


Man 


singpho 


nsang 


masha 


Hair 


kara 


kara 


kala 


Head 


bong 


nggum 


paong 


Ew 


na 


kana 


na 


Eye 


mi 


njn 


mi 


Blood 


sai 


tashai 


tsan 


Bone 


nrang 


khamrang 


— 


Foot 


lagong 


takkhyai 


nego 


Hand 


letta 


taphan 


letla 


Sun 


jan 


katsan 


tsan 


Moon 


sita 


sata 


tsata 


Star 


sigan 


sakan 


shigan 


Fire 


wan 


tavan 


wan 


Water 


ncin 


mchin 


entsin 


Stone 


nlving 


talong 


long 


Tree 


phun 


phtin 


phoun 



THE SINGPHO. — THE DEORIA CUUTIA. 



35 



English. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

EigU 

Nine 

Ten 



Singpha 

dima 

nkhong 

masum 

meli 

manga 

kru 

sinit 

macat 

tseku 



Jili. 



Kakhyen. 

nge 

onkong 

mesong 

meli 

menga 

kaou 

senit 

matsat 

tiekho 

shi. 



Of the Deoria Cliutia, I only know that the following 



IS a specimen. 

English. 

Man 

Hair 

Head 

Ear 

Eye 

Blood 

Bone 

Foot 

Hand 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 



Chutia. 

mosi 

kin 

gubong 

yaku 

mukuti 

chui 

pichon 

yapasu 

otun 

sanh 

yah 

jiti 

nye 



English, 


Chutia. 


Water 


ji 


Stone 


yatiri 


Tree 


popong 


One 


dugsha 


Two 


dukuni 


Three 


dugda 


Four 


duguchi 


Five 


dugumua 


Six 


duguchu 


Seven 


duguchi 1 


Eight 


duguche 


Nine 


duguchuba 


Ten 


dugucbuba and 



It is, probably, Singpho. 



1)2 



36 THE BURMESE GROUP. 



CHAPTER V. 

Continuation of the Garo line. — The Khumia, Old and New Kuki. — The 
Continuation of the Naga line. — -Munipur Group. — Koreng, Luhuppa, 
Tankhu, Khoibu, &c. — The Karens. — The Burmese Proper. 

Caucasus itself, with all its accumulation of mutually 
unintelligible forms of speech, within a comparatively 
small area, is less remarkable for the density of its lan- 
guages than the parts now under notice. Whether we 
look to the Garo, Kasia, and Mikir areas themselves, or 
the parts which immediately underlie them, viz : 
Cachar, Sylhet, Tipperah, and Chittagong ; whether 
we look to the Naga districts of Asam and the parts 
that lie due south of them, or the valley of the Upper 
Irawadi and its feeders, we find an accumulation of 
actual languages, or possible dialects, such as we rarely 
find in the Old World elsewhere. 

We may take up our line from either the Garo, Bodo, 
Kasia, and Mikir, or from the Nagas. I begin with 
the former. 

The Khumia occupy the skirts, the Kuld the tops of 
the hills. Except so far as the difierence of level may 
develope difierences in their mode of life, a Kuki is a 
Khumia, a Khumia a Kuki. The Kuki, however, are, 
as may be expected, the ruder and more truly pagan 
tribe ; the creed being, nevertheless, tinctured with 
Indian elements. 

The Kuki, who about sixty years ago came from the 
jungles of Tipperah to settle in Cachar, were, at first, 
in the same category with the Nagas, i. e. naked. In 
the course of time they ceased to deserve the name. 
They not only wear clothes now, but are skilful in the 



, THE BURMESE GROUP. 37 

cultivation and weaving of cotton. They are well 
clothed and well fed ; on a level with the Angami 
Nagas for physical strength and also with the Kasia. 

In Cachar they are called the Old Kuki. They fall 
into three divisions — the Ehangkul, the Khelma, and 
the Betch, the first being the largest. The whole, how- 
ever, are under 4000. 

The Old Kuki of Cachar have a New Kuki to match. 
Both came from the south — both from the ruder parts 
of Tipperah and Chittagong. They came, however, as 
the name implies, at different times, and, as their lan- 
guage suggests, from different districts. The New 
Kuki form of speech is not always intelligible to an 
Old Kuki. Mr. Stewart saw one of the Khelma tribe 
as much puzzled with what a New Kuki was saying to 
him as he would have been with a perfect stranger. 
On the other hand, the Manipur dialects and the New 
Kuki are mutually intelligible. I do not think that 
the vocabularies verify this doctrine, either in the way 
of likeness or of difference. It may, nevertheless, be 
accurate. 

Mug is the name by which the native population 
of the towns and villages of Arakan is designated. 
The Mugs amount to about six-tenths of the whole 
population ; one tenth being Burmese, and the remainder 
Hindu. The only town of importance is the capital. 
Some of the Mug villages lie but just above the level 
of the sea ; others are on the sides, others on the tops, 
of hills. The early history of Arakan, so far as it may 
be dignified by that name, makes it an independent 
State, sometimes with Chittagong and Tipperah in sub- 
jection to it, sometimes with Chittagong and Tipperah 
separate. The island of Eamri, Cheduba and Sando- 
way are parts of Arakan ; Mug in language, British in 
politics. 

In the hill-country the type is changed, and instead 

the comparatively civilized Mug we get tribes like 



38 THE BURMESE GROUP. . 

the Kuki and Naga. The best known of these 
are — 

The Tribes of the Koladyn River, which form a 
convenient if not a strictly-natural group. The Ko- 
ladyn being the chief river of Arakan, and Arakan 
being a British possession, the opportunities for collecting 
information have been favourable ; nor have they been 
neglected. Of the names of tribes, and of specimens 
of language, we have no want ; rather an emharras 
de richesse. Buddhism, as a general rule, is partial 
and imperfect ; partial as being found in some tribes 
only, imperfect as being strongly tinctured with the 
original Paganism. And of unmodified Paganism there 
is, probably, not a little. The forms of speech fall into 
strongly-marked dialects, in some, into separate lan- 
guages ; by which I mean that, in some cases, they may 
be mutually unintelligible. The government seems to 
be patriarchal during a time of peace, ducal during a 
time of war ; ducal meaning that a tribe, or a con- 
federacy of tribes, may find themselves, for the time, 
under the command of some general chief. The story 
of almost every tribe is the same. It came upon its 
present locality a few generations back, having originally 
dwelt elsewhere ; somewhere northwards, somewhere to 
the south, somewhere to the east. It dispossessed cer- 
tain earlier occupants. But these earlier occupants may, 
in their turn, be found in fragments, consisting of a 
single village, or of a few families. The form that the 
history, if so it may be called, of these marchings and 
countermarchings, of these fusions and amalgamations, 
of these encroachments and displacements, assumes, is 
deserving of notice. 

One of the forms of tribute to a certain con- 
queror of one of the branches of the Khyens was 
the payment of a certain number of beautiful women ? 
To avoid this the beautiful women tattooed themselves, 
so as to become ugly. This is why they are tattooed 



THE BURMESE GROUP. 89 

at the present time. So runs the tale. In reality, 
they are tattooed because they are savages. The nar- 
rative about the conqueror is their way of explaining 
it. In Turner's account of Tibet, the same story 
repeats itself, mutatis mutandis. The women of a 
certain town were too handsome to be looked at with 
impunity ; for, as their virtue was proportionately easy, 
the morals of the people suffered. So a sort of sump- 
tuary law against an excess of good looks was enacted ; 
from the date o^ which to the present time the women, 
whenever they go abroad, smear their faces with a 
dingy dirty- coloured oil, and so conceal such natural 
charms as they might otherwise exhibit. 

There is another class of inferences ; for which, how- 
ever, learned men in Calcutta and London are chiefly 
answerable. Some of the tribes are darker-skinned 
than others. The inference is that they have Indian 
blood in their veins. They may have this. The fact, 
however, should rest upon its proper evidence. I ven- 
ture to guess that, in most cases where this darkness of 
complexion occurs, the soil will have more to do with it 
than any intercourse with the Hindus. There will be 
the least of it on the hill-tops, less of it on the hill-sides, 
most of it in the swampy bottoms and hot jungles. 
At the same time, some Indian influences are actually 
at work. 

The tribe which, most probably, is in the closest geo- 
graphical contact with the Kuki of Chittagong is the 

Mru, or Tung Mru, the name being native. It is 
also Rukheng. It means in Rukheng, or the language 
of Arakan, over and above the particular tribes under 
notice, all the hill-men of the surrounding district ; this 
being the high country between Arakan and Chittagong. 
That the Mru are the same as the Mrting, who deduce 
their origin from Tipperah, I have no doubt ; though I 
doubt the origin. They were all parts of one and the 
same division. At the present moment, the Mrii are in 



40 THE KAMI, ETC. 

low condition ; fallen from their ancient high estate ; 
for at one time, a Mrti chief was chosen king of 
Arakan ; and when the Rukheng conqueror invaded the 
country, the country was Mrti. However, at present, 
the Mru are despised. Their number in Arakan 
amounts to about 2800. Their present occupancy is 
somewhat west of their older one. This was on the 
Upper Koladyn ; whence they were expelled by — 

The Kami or Kumi, — The Kami or Kumi are them- 
selves suflfering from encroachments ; gradually being 
driven westwards and southwards. They state that 
they once dwelt on the hills now held by the Khyens. 
What this means, however, is uncertain. The Khyens of a 
forthcoming section lie south of the Koladyn on the Yuma 
Mountains. If these, then, were the men who displaced 
the Kami and Kumi, the Kami and the Kumi them- 
selves, when they moved upon the Mru, moved north- 
wards. But this need not have been the case. Khyen 
is a name given to more populations than one ; and the 
very Mru of the last noticed are sometimes called 
Khyen. If so, it may have been from one part of the 
Mru country that the Kami and Kumi moved against 
another part. I do not give this as histor}^ ; scarcely 
as speculation. I only give it as a sample of the com- 
plications of the subject. Word for word, I consider 
the Kami and Kumi to be neither more nor less than 
the name of the Khumia of Chittagong. I also think 
that Mru is Miri. The Kami (Kumi) of British Arakan 
amount to 4129 souls. 

The Sak or Thak. — The Sak, or Thak, are a small 
tribe on the river Nauf 

English. Mrl. Kumi. Kami. Sak. 

Man mrti ku-mi ka-mi lu 

Head 16 a-lu a-lti a-khu 

Hair s'hdm s'ham a-s'ham kfi-mi 

Eye min me a-mi a-mi 

Uar pa-ram ka-no a-ga-na a-ka-n4 

Tooth yun he a-fha a-^Aa-w4 



iTV/ 



THE KAMI, ETC. 



41 



English. 


Mm. 


Kumi. 


Kami. 


Sale. 


Mouth 


naur 


li-boung 


a-ma-ka 


ang-si 


Hand 


rut 


ka 


aku 


ta-ku 


Foot 


khouk 


khou 


a-kho 


a-tar 


Shin 


Pi 


pe 


a-phti 


mi-lak 


Blood 


wi 


a-tM 


a-tki 


th^ 


Bone 


a-hot 


a-hu 


a-M 


a-mra 


Sun 


ta-nin 


ka-ni 


ka-ni 


sa-mi 


Moon 


pu-la 


hlo 


14 


f/tat-ta 


Star 


ki-rek 


ka-si 


a-shi 


«Aa-geing-fM 


Fire 


ma-i 


mha-i 


ma-i 


ba-in 


Water 


tu-i 


tu-t 


tu-I 


mi(?) 


Bird 


ta wa 


ta-wii 


ka-va 


wa-si 


Fish 


dam 


ngho 


moi 


pan-na 


Snake 


ta-ro-a 


pu-wi 


ma-khu-i 


ka-pu 


Stone 


ta-wlia 


lun-s'houng 


ka-mn 


ta-lon 


Tree 


tsing-dung 


din-koung 


a-kun 


pung-pang 


Mountain 


shung 


mo-i 


ta-kun 


ta-ko 


Fiver 


au 


ka-wti 


ka-va 


pi-si 


Village 


kwa 


a-v§,ng 


vang 


thing 


Home 


kin 


6m 


in 


kyin 


Egg 


diti 


diu 


du 


wa-ti 


Horn 


anSng 


ta-ki 


at-ta-ki 


a-rung 


One 


loung 


h^ 


ha 


su-war 


Two 


pre 


nhti 


nl 


nein 


Three 


shun 


turn 


ka-tun 


thin 


Four 


ta-li 


pa-lu 


ma-li 


pri 


Five 


ta-ngd 


pan 


pang-nga 


nga 


Six 


ta-ru 


ta-r<i 


ta-6 


khyouk 


Seven 


ra-nhit 


sa-ru 


sa-ri 


tha-ni 


Eight 


ri-yat 


ta-ya 


ka-ya 


a-tseit 


Nine 


ta-ku 


ta-kau 


ta-ko 


ta-fu 


Ten 


ha 


hau 


ha-suh 


si-su. 



The Reuma or Shendu. — In 21° 15' N. L. the 
Meeykyoung falls into the Koladyn from the east. It, 
of course, arises on some higher level, and this higher 
level is the watershed between it and the drainage of 
the Manipur system. The Shendu is known through a 
short vocabulary of Captain Ticket's. 

Sylhet and Tipperah are like Asam ; i. e. more or less 
Indian. The aboriginal dialects, however, are allied to 
each other and to the Burmese. 

It may safely be said that all the preceding speci- 
mens represent dialects or sub-dialects of a single group ; 



42 THE KOREKG. 

all spoken by rude tribes, and all indigenous to the north- 
western parts of the Peninsula. 

And now we go on from the Nagas. Of the frontier 
between the southern members of the group represented 
by them and the northern tribes of Munipur I can give 
no account. It seems, however, that over and above 
the civilized and Buddhist occupants of the capital and 
the parts around, the phenomena which we have seen in 
the Naga districts repeat themselves. From the southern 
slope of the Patkoe range the feeders of the western 
branch of the Irawadi cut channels and fertilize valleys, 
the occupancies of rude tribes. 

That some of the forthcoming samples may represent 
dialects rather than separate substantive languages is 
probable. If so, as our knowledge increases, the de- 
tails will be fewer. This, however, is no more than has 
taken place with the philology of Caucasus itself 

The language of this class which more especially leads 
to those of the last, is (I think) the Koreng ; so that if 
we make the Munipur the centre of our group, the 
Koreng is its osculant or transitional member, leading 
toward the Naga division. 

The following specimens are all taken from a paper 
by the Rev. N. Brown in the seventh volume of the 
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and they 
are. accompanied by a table giving the percentage of 
words common to any of two of them : — 



(!•) 



English. 


Koreng. 


Songpu. 


Man . 


cha mai 


mai 


Head 


cha-pi 


pi 


Hair 


ta-tham 


sam 


Mouth 


cha-mun 


mhoang 


Tooth 


ahu 


hu, nai 


Eye 


mik 


mhik 


Ear 


kon 


anhukon 





THE KORENG. 




English. 


Koreng. 


Songpu. 


Blood 


ta-zyai 


zyai 


Bone 


para 


karau 


Hand 


cha-ben 


ban 


Foot 


cha-pi 


phai 


STcy 


tiBggem 


tingpuk 


Sun 


ting-naimik 


naimhik 


Moon 


charhu 


VM. 


Star 


chagan 


ganchongna 


Day 


nin 


kalhan 


Fire 


cha-mi 


mai 


Water 


ta-dui 


dui 


Bird 


ntliikna 


nroi 


Egg 


pabum 


nroidui 


Earth 


kadi 


kandi 


Fish 


cba-kba 


kha 


Tree 


sing-bang 


thing bang 


Stone 


talo 


ntau. 



43 



(2.) 



English. 


Luhuppa. 


North TankhuL 


Man 


mi 


mil 


Head 


kui 


ak^o 


Hair 


kosen 


sam 


Mouth 


khamor 


ania 


Tooth 


ha 


aha 


Eye 


mik 


amicha 


Ear 


khana 


akhana 


Blood 


ashi 


asii 


Bone 


arii 


arUk^u 


Hand 


pang 


akhui 


Foot 


phai 


akho 


STcy 


kazing 


kazirang 


Sun 


tsingmik 


yimit 


Moon 


kachang 


kacheang 


Star 


serva 


sapachengla 


Day 


ngasun 


masiitum 


Fire 


mai 


mai 


Water 


taru 


aichu 


Bird 


va 


ata 


Egg 


haru 


hachii 


Fish 


khai 


khi 


Stone 


ngalung 


lunggan 


Tree 


thingrong 


thingbang. 



44 



THE KORENG. 



(3.) 



English. 


Khoibu. 


Maring. 


Man , 


thami 


hmi 


Head 


lu 


lu 


Hair 


sam 


sam 


Mouth 


mur 


mur 


Tooth 


ha 


ha 


Eye 


mit 


mit 


Ear 


khana 


nhamil 


Blood 


hi 


hi 


Bone 


thuru 


kru 


Hand 


khut 


hut 


Foot 


wang 


ho 


STcy 


thangwan 


nungthau 


Sun 


nongmit 


nungmit 


Moon 


tangla 


tangla 


Star 


tikron 


sorwa 


Day 


nongyang 


nunghan 


Fire 


mai 


mai 


Water 


yui 


yui 


Bird 


watsa 


wacha 


Egg 


wayxii 


wayui 


Fish 


thanga 


hnga 


Stone 


thuUung 


khlung 


Tree 


hingtong 

(4.) 


hingbal. 


English. 


Kapwi. 


Maram. 


Man 


mi 


m 


Head 


lu 


a-pi 


Hair 


sam 


tham 


Mouth 


mamun 


ta mathu 


Tooth 


nga 


agha 


Eye 


mik 


mik 


Ear 


kana 


ink on 


Blood 


thi 


a-zyi 


Bone 


maru 


mahu 


Hand 


kut 


Tan 


Foot 


ki 


phai 


Sky 


tangban 


tinggam 


Sun 


rimik 


tamik 


Moon 


tha 


Iha 


Star 


insi 


chaghantai 


Hay 


tamlai 


lanla 


Fire 


mai 


mai 


Water 


tui 


a-thui 



THE KOREKG. 



45 



English. 
Bird 

Egg 

Fish 

Stone 

Tree 



Kapwi. 

masa 

makatui 



lung 
thingkung 



Marani. 

aroi 

aroigliuTn 

khai 

akoi 

ntau. 



As the table itself, containing as it does some lan- 
guages foreign to the present district, will be required 
elsewhere, I satisfy myself by giving the following 
extracts from it. The percentage of Munipur words in 
the preceding vocabularies is as follows : — 

In the Maring 50 

Kapwi 41 

Khoibu 40 

Middle Tankhul .... 35 

South Tankhul .... 33 

Luhuppa 31 

North Tankhul . . . . 28 

Champhung 28 

In the Koreng itself it is 18. 

All dialects giving, in Brown's Tables, more than 25 
per cent., I have classed as Munipur, the classification 
being provisional, and, by no means implying that 25 
jper cent., constitutes a dialect. The great point to 
work-out here is the direction of the affinities. 

Word for word Koreng seems Karen ; Maring 
Maram ; and Mru, Mrung, and Miri. 

But it is not only from the Naga that the Koreng leads. 
The Munipur, which has only a percentage of 16 with 
the Proper Burmese, has one of 1 5 with the Karen, 1 5 
with the Abor, 16 with the Jili (decidedly Singpho) 21 
with the Songphu, 25 with the Maram, and 25 with 
the Singpho. 

Between the Burmese Proper and the Siamese area 
there intervene — 

The Karen Dialects. — The Karen tribes are believed 
to have great extension in a vertical direction, i. e. from 



46 



THE KAREN. 



North to South, being said to extend from 28° to 10° 
N. L. If so, some contain Siamese, some Burmese, and 
some Chinese subjects. It is the southern section, how- 
ever, which is best known ; the languages here having 
commanded great and especial attention on the part of 
the American missionaries, whose exertions seem to have 
been rewarded with unusual success. The Proper Karen 
dialects are the Sgau and the Pwo : to which a third 
form of speech the Thoung-lhu is closely allied. Limited, 
as it is, by the literary Burmese, the Siamese, and the 
Mon of Pegu, the Karen division is a natural one, so 
far as the dialects that belong to it are known to us at 
the present time. 



English. 


Sgau. 


Pwo. 


Thoung-IM. 


Man 


po-khwg, 


psh4' 


Ian 


Head 


kh6' 


kho' ■ 


katu 


Hair 


kho-thu 


kh6-thu 


tu-lu 


Eye 


me 


me 


may 


Ear 


na 


na 


nau 


Tooth 


me 


thwa 


ta-gna 


Mouth 


tha-kho 


n6 


proung 


Hand 


tsM 


tshu' 


su 


Foot 


kho 


khan' 


khan 


Skin 


phi 


phi 


phro 


Blood 


thwi 


tshii thwi 


thway 


Bone 


ghi 


ghwi 


htSDt 


Sun 


mu 


mu 


mu 


Moon 


14 


1& 


lu 


Star 


tsM* 


sh&< 


hsa 


Fire 


me'u 


m6* 


may 


Water 


thi 


thi 


htl 


Bird 


tho' 


th6' 


a-wa 


Fish 


nya' 


y4* 


lita 


Snake 


gu 


wgii 


h'm 


Stone 


lu 


Ion 


lung 


Tree 


the' 


th6n 


thing-mu 


Mountain 


ka-tsii 


kh6'-lon 


koung 


Fiver 


thi-klo' 


thi-kl6 


nhrong 


Village 


tha-wo 


ta-wun 


dung 


Home 


hi 


yen 


sam 


Egg 


di' 


di* 


de 


Horn 


ku-nu 


n6n- 


nung 


One 


ta 


kada 


ta 



THE BURMESE PROPER. 47 



Two. 
ni 

thun 
li 

yei 
gliii 
nwi 
gho 
khwi 
Ten ta-tshi ka-tshi 



English. 


Sgau. 


Two 


kM 


Three 


thu 


Four 


Iwi 


Five 


ye 


Six 


ghu 


Seven 


nwi 


Fight 


gh6 


Nine 


khwi 



Thouug-lbu. 

ne 

thung 

leet 

ngat 

ther 

nwot 

that 

koot 

tah-si. 



The Burmese Proper now finds its place. It is a lite- 
rary language ; and, not only is it this, but it is the 
only important one of the group. It has been culti- 
vated as such some centuries — it is not safe to say how 
many. Perhaps it is six or seven hundred years since 
the first composition in Burmese was written. The 
alphabet is of Indian origin, and it came in with Budd- 
hism and the Pali literature. To this, the ordinary 
Burmese has always been subservient ; so that it has 
been limited to secular literature. What this is will 
appear when we speak of the Siamese ; for the difference 
between the literary Siamese and the literary Burmese 
is but small. It is a mere difference of degree. The 
philological view of the Burmese is, that it was originally 
a dialect of the parts about Ummerapura, to which, 
after an alphabet had been supplied, it became current 
over a large district, and was embodied and kept, more 
or less, stationary in books. At the same time it was 
a dialect of a valley belonging to the broader part of a 
river, and, as such, was a dialect of considerable geo- 
graphical magnitude in the first instance. 

Its literature is purely Buddhist ; and, in this, it differs 
from the Munipur form of speech, which, to say nothing 
about its being a dialect of a smaller area, was, to a 
great extent, Brahminic as weU. But its true Buddhist 
literature is Pali. 

The older notices, and they are scarcely older than the 
early volumes of the Asiatic Researches, wherein we find 



48 



THE BURMESE PROPER. 



valuable Papers by Buchanan and Leyden, divide it into 
four dialects ; the Burmese Proper, the Arakan, the 
Tenasserim, and the Yo. This means merely the diffe- 
rent ways in which Burmese, as Burmese, was spoken. 
It never anticipated such divisions as the present work 
has indicated, viz. Khen forms of speech from the Yoma, 
or Yo country ; and dialect after dialect from one river, 
the Koladyn, along with the several southern forms found 
in Tenasserim ; though these are less marked than the 
others. I think that it merely meant the variations 
which the Burmese, or Avan, eo nomine, as a separate 
substantive language, underwent. According to the 
view implied in this division, there would have been 
one great, and several smaller, languages. 

However, the Burmese and Rukheng (of Arakan), 
under this view, are as follows : — 



English. 


Burmese. 


Rukheng. 


Man 


lu 


yonkkya 


Woman 


mairima 


mingma 


Head 


k'haung 


gaung 


Eye 


myitsi 


myitsi 


Mouth 


n'hiok 


kandwen 


Sun 


na 


rii 


Moon 


la 


la 


Star 


ke'nekkat 


kre 


Shy 


moh 


kaungkan 


Fire 


mih 


mi 


Water 


re 


ri 


River 


myit 


mrik 


Sea 


pengle 


panle 


Stone 


kj-auk 


kyauk 


Mountain 


toung 


toung 


One 


tit 


taik 


Two 


n'hit 


n'haik 


Three 


thon 


thong 


Fm/r 


le 


le 


Five 


nga 


na 


Six 


k'hyaiik 


khrauk 


Seven 


k'how-n'hit 


k'hu-naik 


Eight 


s'hit 


s'hit 


Nine 


ko 


ko 


Ten 


tase 


tase. 



TREATISE OF SCHLEIERMACIIER. 49 

Before the Rukheng became Burmese it, doubtless, gave 
us the analogues of the Kami, Mru, and Sak, multiplied by 
the number of the hills and vallej^s. With the Yoma this 
was still more the case ; less so with Tenasserim, where 
the Burmese is recent and intrusive and (as such) not to 
be found in the aboriginal dialects ; or (if found) found 
in a less degree. 

One of the opera major a in Comparative Philology is 
connected with the Burmese — a prize essay of Schleier- 
macher's. The question to be investigated was the 
effect of writing upon language. Schleiermacher argued 
that it was slight ; and, to justify his doctrine, compared 
the Burmese which had, according to all opinions, been 
written but a few centuries, with the Chinese that had, 
according to many opinions, been written for almost as 
many millennia. He showed that both were, essentially, 
the same ; and he inferred from this that languages 
could be kept stationary without writing. The merit of 
Schleiermacher's treatise lay in its inductive character. 
It took two facts and compared them. Had the 
work been worse than it is (and it is not unworthy of 
the great powers of the writer) it would have deserved 
the prize simply from this fact. I imagine that the 
majority of the candidates worked the question a priori; 
but — 

" illacrymabiles 

Urgentur ignotique, long^ .... 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro." 

The first I knew of the Burmese was from this 
dissertation. I have not seen it quoted, either in 
Germany or in England. Nevertheless, from the simple 
fact of its inductive character, I look upon it as a 
landmark ; and that, not only in the philology of these 
parts, but in comparative philology altogether. 



50 , THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Thay, or Siamese, Group. — Its Extent and Direction. — Tlie Siamese 
Proper.— The Laos.— The Khamti.— The Ahom.— The Shans.— The 
Palaong. — Cultivation of the Siamese Proper. 

The general name for the group now coming under 
notice is either Thay, or Siamese. It is represented by 
the literary language of Siam ; so that, being a small 
class, it is not very important whether we call it by the 
one name or the other. By a small class, 1 mean one 
which falls into few minor groups ; also one in which 
the differences of its two extremes are inconsiderable. 
In other respects the group is a large one. 

The Thay area is remarkable for its inordinate exten- 
sion in a vertical direction, i. e. from north to south. A 
Thay form of speech is spoken at the north-eastern end 
of Upper Asam, in contact with the Mishmi and the 
Sing-pho. This is in N. L. 28°. And a Thay form of 
speech is again spoken at the neck of the Malayan 
Peninsula, or as far south as N.L. "7°. Meanwhile, the 
breadth of this preposterously long strip of language is 
inconsiderable. Neither is its continuity demonstrated. 
How the Khamti districts meet the Laos, or whether 
they meet it at all, no one knows ; the details of the 
Singpho dialects and the Chinese of Yunnan being 
obscure. 

The Thay of the Lower Menam is the ordinary 
Siamese ; and it is in Siam where the Thay civiliza- 
tion is at its maximum. This is essentially Buddhist. 
I know of no Thay tribes that retain their original 
paganism. I know of none where Brahminism has 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



51 



made progress, and the language been j^^reservec?. The 
sacred literature of Siam is in the Pali tongue ; the 
secular in the native language. It is pre-eminently 
metrical ; little beyond the correspondence of ordinary 
life being in prose. The songs are in verse, the dramas 
in verse, the histories in verse. 

The Lau occupy the Upper and Middle Menam, their 
political relations being with Siam rather than Burma. 
A Lau is a Siamese Shan ; a Shan a Burmese Lau. 
Ruder than the Siamese of Bankok, the Lau are not 
only lettered Buddhists, but the possessors of a some- 
what peculiar alphabet. 



English. 


Laos. 


Siamese. 


Man 


khon 


khon 


Hair 


pliom 


phom 


Head 


ho 


hoa 


Ear 


pu 


pu 


Eye 


ta 


ta 


Blood 


leut 


leut 


Bone 


duk 


kaduk 


Foot 


tin 


tin 


Hand 


mu 


mii 


Tooth 


khiau 


khiau 


Sun 


kangwan 


tawan 


Moon 


denn 


tawan 


Star 


lau 


dau 


Fire 


fai 


fai 


Water 


nam 


nam 


Stone 


pin 


Iftn 


Tree 


ton 


ton 


One 


niing 


nUng 


Two 


song 


song 


Three 


sam 


sam 


Four 


si 


si 


Five 


ha 


ha 


Six 


hok 


hok 


Seven 


tset 


chet 


Eight 


pet 


pet 


Nine 


kau 


kau 


Ten 


sip 


sip. 



The Khamti of the north-eastern parts of Asam are 
rude tribesmen, though not unlettered pagans. Their 

E 2 



52 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



creed and alphabet are those of the Siamese. They are 
intruders, the original population having been akin to 
the Singpho. Such, at least, is the inference drawn from 
the condition of the Kbaphok ; the Khaphok being said 
to be not only serfs to the Khamti but serfs who speak 
a language which certain Singpho understand. A por- 
tion, however, of the Khamti area may also have been 
Mishmi. 

The Khamti, however, are not the first members of 
the Thay family whose language found its way into 
Asam. The details of the Ahom conquest are obscure ; 
as is the date of it. When it took place, however, 
the Ahom, like the present Siamese, were a lettered 
nation, with a Buddhist creed and an alphabet like the 
Lau. Although, at the present time, there may be 
found much Ahom blood among the men who speak 
the Indian of Asam, the Ahom dialect itself is nearly 
extinct. 

The Thay of the Burmese Empire are called Shans ; 
the Shans being the occupants of a number of small 
States between the Burmese, the Siamese, and the 
Chinese frontiers. They are neither pagan nor unlet- 
tered ; their creed being Buddhist, their alphabet Lau 
or Thay. Of the Shan dialects, eo nomine^ I know 
but little. I imagine, however, that the following voca- 
bularies must represent something like two extreme 
forms ; the former being from the Tenasserim frontier, 
the latter from the east of Bhamo. 



EngUsh. 


Ahom. 


Western Shan. 


Eastern Shan. 


Khamti. 


Man 


kun 


ktonputrihn 


koun 


kun 


Hair 


phrum 


khonho 


khounho 


phom 


Head 


kha 


ho 


ko 


ho 


Bar 


pik 


h<i 


mahou 


pu 


Bye 


ta 


matta 


weta 


ta 


mood 


let 


lit 


let 


lilt 


Bone 


tau 


sot 


loak 


nuk • 


Foot 


tin 


ten 


tin 


tin 


Hand 


kha 


ml 


mhi 


mu 


Tooth 


khui 


khyo 


khio 


khui 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



53 



English. 


Ahom. 


Western Shan. 


Eastern Shan. 


Khani! 


Sun 


ban 


kawon 


kanwan 


wan 


Moon 


den 


len 


leun 


liin 


Star 


dau 


loung 


lao 


nan 


Fire 


fai 


hpihn(?) 


fai 


fai 


Water 


nam 


ndn 


nam 


nam 


Stone 


fra 


mahein 


mahin 


pin 


Tree 


tun 


ton 


toun 


tun 


One 


ling 


nein 


neun 


niing 


Two 


sang 


Ltsoung 


tsong 


song 


Three 


sam 


htsan 


tsam 


sam 


Four 


si 


htsi 


tsi 


si 


Five 


ha 


ha 


ha 


ha 


Six 


ruk 


hoht 


houk 


hok 


Seven 


chit 


tsit 


tsat 


tset 


Eight 


pet 


tet 


piet 


pet 


Nine 


kau 


kown 


kao 


kau 


Ten 


sip 


tseit 


sib 


sip. 



Thei Palaong inhabit the valleys that lie beyond the 
first range of mountains to the south-east of Bhamo ; 
the mountains themselves being the occupancy of the 
Kakhyen — the Kakhyen being decidedly Singpho. To 
the south and west lie the Shan : to the east the 
obscure frontiers of the northern and north-western por- 
tions of the Kambojian and Antlmitic areas. The fullest 
specimen of the Palaong language, eo nomine, is one 
collected by Bishop Bigaudet of the Ava and Pegu 
Mission ; upon which there is a short commentary, by 
Mr. Logan, with whom I, unwillingly, differ as to its 
affinities. I cannot connect it with the language of Co- 
chin -China and Kambojia rather than with those of 
Siam and Burma ; though it has (as is to be expected 
fi:om its locality) decided south-eastern affinities. Mr. 
Logan attributes its Shan elements to contact and inter- 
mixture ; in my mind, gratuitously. 

English. Palaong. ^ 



Read 


kun 


kho, Shan^ dec. 


Ear 


biok 


pik, Ahom 


Eye 


metsi 


— 


Foot 


djeuri 


tin, Thay 


Sun 


sengee 


— 


Star 


lao 


lao, Shan, <Scc. 



54 THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Palaong. 




Water 


em 


nam, Shan 


Stone 


mao 


mahin, Shan 


Tree 


tangae 


tun, A horn 


One 


he 


— 


Two 


e 


hai, Ana^nitic 


Three 


06 


ba, Anamitic 


Four 


phoun 


bon, Anamitic 


Five 


phan 


nam, Anamitic 


Six 


to 


sau, Anamitic 


Seven 


phou 


bay, Anamitic 


Fight 


ta 


tam', Anamitic 


Nine 


tim 


chin', Anamitic 


Ten 


keu 


mu'oi, Anamitic. 



The extent to wliicTi the Burmese and the Siamese 
lanofuao^es have been cultivated is much the same in 

CD O 

each. Each is the language of a Buddhist population ; 
each is embodied in an alphabet of Indian origin ; and 
each, as a vehicle of literature, is placed in a disadvan- 
tageous position — each being, for every thing except the 
most ordinary secular purposes, replaced by the Pali. 
From this each has taken a great number of words. 

Still there is a native literature in both the Burmese 
and the Siamese. 

The earliest inscription in the latter language is 
referred to the beginning of the thirteenth century ; 
the grounds, however, that justify the assumption of 
antiquity are not very clear. 

The popular poetry is sometimes sung, sometimes recited : 
the music of the Siamese being spoken of with higher 
praise than that of the Burmese. The chief minatrels 
are from Laos. "When an entertainment is given, a 
priest is invited to the house who recites a short story 
or an ode. Hence, a small vernacular literature of a 
lyric and romantic character — a very small one. Besides 
this, there is an approach to the drama. Except that 
the ode appears somewhat worse, and the drama some- 

* The numerals are apparently borrowed. 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



55 



what better, than in Siaio, this is the character of the 
Burmese literature as well. 

Siam itself is, as may be expected, the chief seat of 
the Thay stock ; probably the area which contains the 
greatest number of Thay individuals ; at any rate that 
where the Thay civilization is at its maximum. 
Whether the blood be the purest is another question. 
It is probable that this is far from being the case. If 
the dominant population be of northern origin, there is 
every chance that the conquest of the country was made 
by a male rather than a mixed population. And even 
if it were not so, there is an enormous amount of 
Chinese elements superadded to the original basis. 
Pallegoix's calculations make the sum-total of the popu- 
lation of Siam 6^0 00, 000. Dr. Bowring puts it at 
something between 4,500,000 and 5,000,000. Palle- 
goix's elements are as follows : — 



Thay 

Laos 

Kan 

Khongs 

Mon 

Kambojians 

Chinese 

Malays . 



ren, \ 
ongs I 



1,900,000 
100,000 

50,000 

50,000 

500,000 

1,500,000 

1,000,000 



Like the Burmese, the Siamese have encroached on 
their neighbours. There has been, as has been stated, a 
Thay conquest of Asam. Kambojia pays tribute to 
both Siam and Cochin-China. In the Malay Peninsula, 
Ligore, Kedah, Patani, Perak, Kalantan, and Tringanu 
are, more or less, directly or indirectly, under Siamese 
control. 



56 THE MON AND KHO. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The M6n Language of Pegu. — The Kho of Kambojia. — Their Original 
Continuity. 

Pegu gives us a new language — the Mon ; the name 
being native. It is what the inhabitants of the Delta 
of the Irawadi call themselves. Their neighbours the 
Burmese call them Talieng. The Mon alphabet is of 
Pali origin: the Mon literature Buddhist. The Mon 
themselves are now British subjects. Before the cession 
of Pegu, they belonged to Ava — a fact which has a 
bearing on the history of their language. The Burmese 
has encroached upon it, and is encroaching ; indeed, I 
am told that there are few M6n who do not speak Bur- 
mese, some having unlearned their native language. 

In the 16th century the king of Pegu seems to have 
been a powerful monarch ; inasmuch as the Thay 
histories speak of a Pegu invasion of Siam, and a Pegu 
conquest. Whether, however, the leading men in this 
event were actual Mon is uncertain. A conquest from 
the kingdom of Pegu may have been effected by Bur- 
mese. 

But little, too, is known of its nearest congener, the 
Kho, Kamer, or Chong of Kambojia. Its alphabet is 
Pali origin ; its literature Buddhist. It appears (though 
the evidence is not conclusive) to fall into more dialects 
and sub-dtalects than one. 

Lying between Siam and Cochin-China, the kingdom 
of Kambojia has had the ordinary history of areas simi- 
larly situated. When it has been strong it has struck 
its own blows — to the right and to the left. When it 



THE MOH AND KHO. 



67 



has been weak, it has been stricken on both sides. When 
the Portuguese first discovered the country, its power was 
at or near its zenith ; and Siam and Cochin-China were, 
at best, but its equals. At present they encroach upon 
it ; yet, jealous of each other, leave it a modicum of 
independence. So that, with the parts to the east of 
the Mekhong under Cochin-China, and with the western 
side under Siam, there is still a central portion under 
the king of Kambojia. The population is about 
500,000, of which about 400,000 are of the Kho 
family, the rest being Chinese, Cochin- Chinese, Siamese, 
Malays, Portuguese, and half-bloods. 



English. 


Mdn. 


Kambojia. 


Ka. 


Khong. 


Man 


bani 


manus 


— 


rum 


Head 


kadap 


kabal 


tuwi 


tos 


Eye 


mot 


panek 


mat 


mat 


Mouth 


pan 


mat 


boar 


raneng 


Sun 


man-tangwe 


tangai 


tangi 


tangi 


Moon 


man-katok 


ke 


kot 


kang 


Star 


nong 


pakai 


patua 


sum 


Sky 


taka 


kor 


krem 


pleng 


Fire 


kamet 


plung 


un 


pleu 


Water 


dat 


tak 


dak 


tak 


River 


bukbi 


tanle 


dak-tani 


talle 


Sea 


taUe 


sarmot 


— 


— 


Stone 


kamok 


tamo 


tamoe 


tamot 


Mountain 


tu 


pnom 


manam 


nong 


One 


mue 


moe 


moe 


moe 


Two 


ba 


pir 


bur 


bar 


Three 


pai 


bai 


peh 


peh 


Four 


pol 


buan 


puan 


pon 


Five 


pasun 


pram 


chang 


pram 


Six 


ka-rao 


pram-moe 


trao 


ka-dom 


Seven 


ka-bok 


pram-pil 


pub 


ka-nul 


Fight 


ka-cliam 


pram-bai 


tam 


ka-ti 


Nine 


ka-chit 


pram- buan 


chin 


ka-sar 


Tm 


cboh. 


dap 


chit 


rai. 



The Carnicobar language is Mon with Malay ele- 
ments. 



58 THE Ai!TDAMAN ISLANDERS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Andaman Islanders. 

So much has been said about the black skins and 
the savage habits of the Mincopie or Andaman is- 
landers, that the opinion of many ethnologists has 
been in favour of separating them from the populations 
of their neighbourhood, and either mixing them up 
with the so-called Negritos, or making a separate class 
of them. They are noticed as early as the twelfth 
century, i. e. by the two Mahometan travellers of Re- 
naudot. These write, that beyond the Nicobar Islands 
" lies the sea of Andaman. The people on this coast 
eat human flesh quite raw ; their complexion is black, 
their hair frizzled, their countenance and eyes frightful ; 
their feet are very large, and almost a cubit in length, 
and they go quite naked. They have no embarkations ; 
if they had, they would devour all the passengers they 
could lay hands on.'' Marco Polo writes equally unfavour- 
ably — " Andaman is a very large island, not governed 
by a king. The. inhabitants are idolators, and are a 
most brutish and savage race, having heads, eyes, and 
teeth resembling those of the canine species. Their 
dispositions are cruel, and every person, not being of 
their own nation, whom they can lay hands on, they 
kill and eat.'"* 

A Paper, by Lieutenant Colebrooke, is the chief 
source of our knowledge concerning the Mincopie, the 
author being indebted to his predecessors Major Kyd 
and Captain Blair, for some of his facts. He describes 
them as plunged in the grossest ignorance and barbarity ; 



THE ANDAMAN ISLANDERS. 



69 



barely acquits them of the charge of cannibalism ; and 
unhesitatingly affirms that they are guilty of the 
murder of the crews of such vessels as may be wrecked 
upon their coast. Does he do this on the strength of 
his observation or his reading ? 

The late Sir Charles Malcolm, who had had one of 
the natives aboard-ship with him, took considerable 
pains to dilute the charges that lay against this ill-famed 
population, and spoke in strong terms as to the gentle- 
ness and docility of the individual with whom he thus 
came in contact. 

With the last year or two our knowledge of them 
has increased, and the extent to which they are Burmese 
is likely to be recognized. 



Englisli. 


Andaman. 




Man 


kamolan 


cbamai, Koreng, <i:c. 


Hair 


otti 


kbotu, Sgau. 


Head 


tabay 


tuwi, Ea. 


Eye 


jabay 




Ear 


kwaka 




Mouth 


morna 


boar, Ka, 


Am 


pilie 




Nose 


melli 




Finger 


mornay 




Hand 


gonie 






onie 


pang, Lukuppa. 


Blood 


kotsbengoM 




Belly 


napoi 




Teeth 


mahoi 




Breast 


kah 




Tongue 


talie 




Bone 


gitongay 


ghi, Sgau. 


Chin 


pitang 




Foot 


guki 




Knee 


ingolay 




Leg 


tshigie 




Fire 


mona 


in6u, Sgau. 


Water 


migway 


may, Thounglhu. 


Sky 


madaino 




&un 


abay 




Moon 


table 




Star 


tshelobay 





English. ■ 


Andaman. 


LJ.1 JLtJJLl^X^X/JiiXVO. 


Wind 


tomjamy 




Wood 


tanghi 


ton = tree, Siamese; i 


House 


beaday 


Kapwi. 


Bird 


lohay 


tho, Sgau; tawu, Mru. 


Fish 


naboM 


nya, Sgau. 


Black 


tshigiuga 




Cold 


tshoma. 





thinkung, 



(A^' 



COCHIN-CHINA. 61 



CHAPTER IX. 

Cochin-China, or Annam, and Tonkin. 

The ethnology of Cochin-China is also that of Tonkin ; 
the language, manners, and physical conformation of the 
occupants of the two countries being the same. The 
collective name for them is Anam, or Annam ; when(;e 
we get the adjectives Anamese or Anamitic, as the name 
of the group ; which is a section of the division to which 
the Chinese belong. The Tonkinese call the Cochin-Chi- 
nese Kuang and Kekuang ; names which are, probably, 
the same as Khyen and Kakhyen. The Cochin-Chinese, 
on the other hand, call the Tonkinese Kebak. 

Tabard, in the preface to the Anamitic Dictionary, 
expressly states that the language is spoken beyond the 
boundaries of both Tonkin, and Cochin-China, and that it 
extends into Siam, Kambojia, and Tsampa. If it ex- 
tend far into Kambojia, the Kho area must be of the 
smallest. 

In Kambojia, where we find Buddhism, we find it con- 
nected with a knowledge of the Pali language and the 
use of an Indian alphabet. The alphabet, however, 
in Anam is Chinese ; and it is Chinese which is the 
learned language. 



English. 


Cochin-China. 


Cochin-China. 


Tonkin, 


Man 


nga'oi 


danon 


nguoi 


Head 


dau 


tu 


drau 


Eye 


male 


mok 


mok 


Mouth 


mieng 


kau 


kau 


Sun 


mat-troi 


nhet 


nit 


Moon 


mat-tran 


blang 


blang 


Star 


sao 


sao 


sao 



62 





cocHii; 


r-CHINA. 




English. 


Cocliin-China, 


Cochin-China. 


Tonkin. 


Sky 


troi 


bloei 


bloei 


Fire 


lu'a 


hoa 


boa 


Water 


nu'oe 


nak 


nak 


River 


song 


sou 


sou 


Sea 


bien 


be 


be 


Stone 


da 


ta 


dra 


Mountain 


nui 


nui 


nui 


One 


mot 


mot 


mot 


Two 


hai 


hai 


hai 


Three 


ba 


teng 


tarn 


Four 


bon 


bon 


bon 


Five 


nam 


lang 


lam 


Six 


sau 


lak 


luk 


Seven 


bay 


bai 


bai 


Fight 


tarn' 


tang 


tarn 


Nine 


chin' 


cbin 


chim 


Ten 


mu'oi 


taap 


tap. 



The An am analogues of the Ka and Chong, the rude 
tribes of the more impracticable parts, are the tribes of 
the Nguon, Moi, Romoi, Kemoi and, Diditsh (all un- 
known in detail), who occupy the mountain ranges 
between Tonkin and Cochin-China, and Cochin-China and 
Kambojia. 



OHINA. 63 



CHAPTER X 

China. — Canton, Fokien, and Mandarin Dialects. — Stages. — Are there any? 
— Gyami. — Tangnti. 

Of the dialects of the Chinese Proper, as opposed to the 
Anamitic of Tonkin, we know but little ; little, at least, 
for such a country as China, with its vast area and its 
numerous inhabitants. Indeed, if we consider this, it is 
a country for which our knowledge of its local dialects 
is at a minimum. Elsewhere we generally know some- 
thing of the details of what may be called the fringe ; 
i. e. the tract where two countries come in contact with 
each other. But China has so thoroughly overlapped all 
its neighbouring populations, that knowledge of this 
kind is out of the question. Add to this, the fact of its 
being, as China, a terra incognita for anything but a 
few points on the coast. 

Still there are a few weak lights. They chiefly shine 
on the south and the west. 

The most southern dialect for which we have speci- 
mens, is that of the province of Quantong, or Canton — 
and next to this, that of Hokien, or Fokien, for which 
we have the elaborate dictionary of Medhurst. Med- 
hurst himself was not in China ; but he knew the 
Chinese as a resident in Liverpool, who had made it his 
business to attend exclusively to the Irish, might know 
the Irish Gaelic. He was connected with the Chinese of 
the great immigration to the Malayan Peninsula and the 
Indian Islands. Of these the majority were from the 
south. 

Medhurst commits himself most explicitly to the 



64 CHINESE DIALECTS. 

statement that there are forms of even the Canton and 
the Fokien dialects which are mutually unintelligible ; 
and adds that, in his intercourse with the Chinese emi- 
grants of the Indian Archipelago, he has more than 
once had occasion to interpret between them. He also 
adds that, in the same province, the difference of dialects 
is sometimes so great, that people divided by a moun- 
tain, a river, or twenty miles of country, are mutually 
unintelligible. That statements of this kind must be 
received with caution has already been suggested. 
Meanwhile, in the ten divisions of the province of 
Fokien, there are as many dialects ; Fokien being one 
of the smallest provinces of the empire. 

The Fokien is not so provincial a dialect as to re- 
main unwritten. On the contrary, the work from 
which the preceding observations are drawn, is founded 
upon a native publication, the Sip gnoe yiTn— fifteen 
sounds f published in 1818, in which not only the pecu- 
liarities of the Fokien dialect are given, but the 
difference between the reading idiom and the colloquial. 
Another work of the same kind is quoted by Adelung 
from Bayer, and, doubtless, there are more of the same 
kind. This means that the Fokien, though not the 
classical, is one of the written languages of China. 

The classical language of China is the Mandarin, it 
being in the Mandarin dialect that the business of 
the empire is carried on. It is also the language of the 
Chinese literature. Whatever may be the antiquity of 
this, the antiquity of the oldest specimen of the language 
is but moderate. It is, of course, as old as the oldest 
copy of the book that contains it, and it is very probable 
that it is not much older. At any rate, any antiquity 
beyond this that may be claimed for it, should be proved 
rather than assumed. Those who believe in the great 
age of the earliest Chinese literature, e. g. those who Qot 
only believe that the works of Confucius (for instance) 
have come down to us, but that Confucius lived some- 



STAGES OF CHINESE. 6*5 

where between the times of Archiloehus and ^schylus, 
reasonably expect that, as the Greek of the days of 
Solon differs from the Greek of the reign of King Otho, 
the Chinese shall do the same ; not, perhaps, to the 
same extent, but still to some extent — to an extent 
sufficient to enable us to talk about the stages of the lan- 
guage, and to compare the old Chinese with the middle, 
and the middle with the modern. Something, too, they 
may reasonably expect illustrative of the history and 
development of the language ; though, from the fact of 
the present Chinese being in an early stage of develop- 
ment, not very much. Little, however, of all this will 
they actually find. The difference between the Manda- 
rin of to-day, and the oldest classical Chinese is (roughly 
speaking) the difference of two centuries, rather than 
two millenniums — assuming, of course, anything like an 
ordinary rate of change. 

But is there not in China an amount of unchanorinsf 
immobility, in language as in other matters, which w^e 
fail to find elsewhere ? To this I answer that such may 
be, or may not be, the case. Let it be proven, and it 
is an important fact in the history of mankind. At 
present it is enough to state that nothing in the 
way of the language of China is older than the oldest 
copy which exhibits it, except so far as its antiquity 
is supported by better reasons than the supposed an- 
tiquity of the author. 

Concerning the dialect out of which the Mandarin 
was more especially developed, we may safely say 
that it must be sought to the north of the province 
of Fokien, and the south of the province of Pecheli. 
This means that the group to which it belongs has its 
area in the middle of the empire. The extent to which 
it is other than southern has already been indicated. 
The extent to which it is other than northern, is in- 
fierred from the direction in which it has extended 
itself. On some points (at least) it is less archaic than 
the Canton. 

F 



66 



CYAMI VOCABULARY 



English. 


Mandarin', 


Canton 


Head 


teu 


te'u 


Eye 


mu 


mok 


Ear 


61 


y 


Nose 


pi 


pi 


Mouth , 


ke'u 


hou 


Tongue 


Shi 


shit 


Hand 


gheu 


sheu 


Foot 


kio 


koh 


Blood 


khiue 


hint 


Sun 


2hi 


yat 


Moon 


yue 


yuet 


Star 


zing 


zing 


Eire 


kho 


ho 


Water 


shui 


shoi 


Tree 


mu 


mok 


Stone 


Bhi 


shap 


One 


i 


yik 


Two 


ny 


y 


Three 


zan 


zam 


Four 


BZU 


si 


Five 


ngu 


ong 


Six 


m 


lok 


Seven 


tsi 


tsat 


Eight 


pa 


pat 


Nine 


kieu 


kou 


Ten 


Bhi 


shap 



Of tlie Chinese of the extreme west I only know 
the Gyami vocabulary of Hodgson. A vocabulary 
of Stra-lenberg's, headed "Tanguhti who belong to the 
Dalai Lama, and have one religion with the Kalmucs 
and Mungals/' is Bhot. 



English. 


Gyami. 


English. 


Gyami. 


Man 


rin 


Two 


liangku 


Head 


thau 


Three 


Bangku 


Hand 


syu 


Fowr 


siku 


Foot 


chyaa 


Five 


wuku 


Sun 


rethau 


Six 


leuku 


Moon 


yoliang 


Seven 


chhiku 


Star 


singshu 


Eight 


paku 


Fire 


akkha 


Nine 


chyaku 


Water 


shiu 


Ten 


issha. 


One 


iku 







TANGUHTI VOCABULARY. 



67 



2. 



English. 


Ta^gult'. 


Englsh. 


Tanguliti. 


Father 


pha, abba 


Foot 


kangwa 


Mother 


mha, amma 


One 


dschyk 


Brother 


pungu 


Tioo 


ny, na 


Sister 


poima 


Three 


ssuum 


Wife 


dsgymse 


Four 


dscysz 


Fire 


may 


Five 


duga 


Water 


tzu, loo 


Six 


uruch 


Earth 


tza 


Seven 


dliun 


Mountain 


la, rhe 


Eight 


dsquat 


Sun 


nara, nima 


Nine 


dsgu-tomba 


Moon 


dawa 


Ten 


dsgyn 


Horse 


tha 


Eleven 


dsgii-dschyk 


Dog 


ky 


Twelve 


dsgu-ny 


Head 


mgho 


Twenty 


nyr-dschyk 


Stream 


tzu 


Thirty 


nyr-dsgu-tomba 


Wind 


long 


Forty 


dschyack-dsgu 


Man (homo) 


my 


Fifty 


duga-dsgu 


Eye 


mybi 


Sixty 


dbuin-dsgu 


Tongue 


thgi 


Seventy 


dsguat-dsgu 


Mouth 


cha 


Eighty 


dsgU-tomba-dsgu 


House 


tungwa 


Ninety 


dsgu-dsgU 


Iron 


tscha, tawar 


One Hundred 


yreen 


Gold 


sin-, kinsa 


One Thousand 


namm. 


Silver 


mui, insa 







F :i 



68 



BROWN'S TABLES. 



CHAPTER XI. 

observations on the Preceding Groups. — Brown's Tables. — Affinity between 
the Burmese and Tibetan. — Direction of the Chinese. — Nearest Con- 
geners to the Malay. —Indian Affinities of the Mon. 



The first reduction of the languages of the preceding 
chapter to anything like system is to be found in the 
papers of Buchanan and Leyden in the early numbers 
of the Asiatic Transactions. The next landmark is 
Brown's vocabularies and table. Of the former we 
have already spoken. The latter is as follows : — 





1 


6 
92 


1 


1 

1 


5 


8 


i 

8 


d 
3 


10 


6 
3 


3 


i 
1 

1 


i 




1 

1 


1 
1 




bf) 

a 

'ft 

o 



i 

s 




■a 
1 




i 

Q 



■a 
g 




'o 






i 

a 

< 

5 


Khamti .... 


Siamese . . . 


92 










3 


6 


8 


3 


10 


1 


3 


1 





1 




















c 





5 


A'ka 


1 







47 


20 


17 


12 


15 


15 


5 


11 


3 


10 


3 


8 


8 


8 


5 


6 


10 


8 


10 





A'bor 


1 





47 




20 


11 


10 


18 


11 


6 


15 


6 


1] 


6 


8 


6 


8 


8 


8 


10 


10 


18 





Mishirai . . . 


5 


3 


20 


20 




10 


10 


10 


13 


10 


11 





11 





3 


5 


6 


8 


6 


13 


10 


8 


1 


Burmese . . . 


8 


6 


17 


11 


10 




23 


23 


26 


12 


16 


8 


20 


6 


11 


11 


11 


10 


13 


13 


16 


16 


1 


Karen 


8 


8 


12 


10 


10 


23 




17 


21 


8 


15 


10 


15 


8 


12 


4 


12 


8 


12 


12 


10 


15 


2 


Singpho . . . • 


3 


3 


15 


18 


10 


23 


17 




70 


16 


25 


10 


18 


11 


11 


13 


15 


13 


25 


13 


20 


18 


5 


Jill 


10 


10 


15 


11 13 


26 


21 


70 




22 


16 


10 


21 


13 


11 


11 


18 


20 


20 


13 


20 


20 


3 


Graro 


3 


1 


5 


6 10 


12 


8 


16 


22 




10 


5 


6 


5 


8 


5 


8 


13 


11 


5 


5 


5 


3 


Manipuri . . . 


3 


3 


11 


15 11 


16 


15 


25 


16 


10 




21 


41 


18 


25 


28 


31 


28 


35 


33 


40 


50 


6 


Songpu . . . . 


1 


1 


3 


6 





8 


10 


10 


10 


5 


21 




35 


50 


53 


20 


23 


15 


15 


13 


8 


15 


6 


Kapwl . . . . 








10 


11 


11 


20 


15 


18 


21 


6 


41 


35 




30 


33 


20 


35 


30 


40 


45 


38 


40 


5 


Koreng . . . . 


1 


1 


3 


5 





6 


8 


11 


13 


5 


18 


50 


30 




41 


18 


21 


20 


20 





10 


15 


3 


Mar^m . . . . 








8 


8 


3 


11 


12 


11 


11 


8 


25 


53 


33 


41 




21 


28 


25 


20 


16 


23 


26 


3 


Camphung . . 








8 


6 


5 


11 


4 


13 


11 


5 


28 


20 


20 


18 


21 




40 


20 


20 


16 


15 


25 


3 


Luhuppa . . . 








8 


8 


6 


11 


12 


15 


18 


8 


31 


23 


35 


21 


28 


40 




63 


55 


36 


33 


40 


5 


N. T^ngkhul . 








6 


8 


8 


10 


8 


13 


20 


13 


28 


15 


30 


20 


25 


20 


63 




85 


30 


31 


31 


3 


C. Tangkhul . 








6 


8 


6 


13 


12 


25 


20 


11 


35 


15 


40 


20 


20 


20 


55 


85 




41 


45 


41 


1 


S. Tangkhul . 








10 


10 


13 


13 


12 


13 


13 


5 


33 


13 


45 


11 


16 


16 


36 


30 


41 




43 


43 


5 


KhoibH . . . . 








8 


10 


10 


16 


10 


20 


20 


5 


40 


8 


38 


10 


23 


15 


33 


31 


45 


43 




78 


3 


Maring .... 








10 


18 


8 


16 


15 


18 


20 


5 


50 


15 


40 


15 


26 


25 


40 


31 


41 


43 


78 




3 


Anamese . . . 


5 


5 








1 


1 


2 


6 


3 


3 


6 


6 


5 


3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


1 


5 


3 


3 





DIRECTION OF THE CHINESE. - 69 

Whoever studies it must see that, between the per- 
centages of the Anamitic and Siamese on one side, and 
those of the remaining forms of speech on the other, 
there are the elements of a great class. This comprises 
the Singpho and the Jili — specially allied to each other. 
But it also gives a decided affinity between the Jiji and 
the Garo, which brings the languages of India and the 
extremity of Asam in connection. 

The affinities of the Garo with the Tibetan were 
indicated by Robinson, and the indication w^as legiti- 
mate ; though it would have been better, perhaps, to 
have made them Burmese. At any rate it was good 
against Mr. Hodgson's view, which made them Indian 
rather than Monosyllabic at all — a view wdiich, with 
laudable candour, he afterwards relinquished. 

Soon afterwards additional vocabularies, accompanied 
with a few short but sound remarks, added the whole 
Naga group to this class. 

The relations of the Burmese, Mon, Siamese, Anamitic, 
and Chinese to each other form the basis of more than one 
speculation. They bear upon tlie history of the exten- 
sion and development of the Chinese itself. They bear 
upon the origin and direction of the Thay and Burmese 
movements. They bear upon the relations of the Malay 
languages to those of the continent. Finally, the 
Indian elements of the Mon have commanded atten- 
tion. 

1. If the nearest conveners of the Chinese be in the 
south and east, the lines of conquest and encroachment 
on the part of that inordinately-extensive population 
must have run north and west. At present the lan- 
guages with which the Chinese lies in contact give con- 
trasts rather than affinities. With the Mantshu and 
Mongol, and even with the Corean, this is notoriously 
the case ; and, to a great extent, it is the case with 
the Tibetan. On the north and west the Chinese keeps 
encroaching at the present moment — at the expense of 



70 PERCENTAGES OF BROWN'S TABLES. 

the Manfcshu and the Mongolian. For the provinces of 
Chansi, Pe-tche-li, Chantung, Honan, &c., — indeed, for 
four-fifths of the whole empire, the uniformity of speech 
indicates a recent difi'asion. In Setshuen and Yunnan the 
type changes, probably from that of the true Chinese to 
the Tibetan, Thay, and Burmese. In Tonkin and Cochin - 
China the language is like but different — like enough to 
be the only monosyllabic language which is placed by any 
one in the same section with the Chinese, but different 
enough to make this position of it a matter of doubt 
with many. Putting all this together, the south and 
south-eastern provinces of China appear to be the oldest 
portions of the present area. 

2. Separated as they are, the Mon and Kho are liker 
to each other than either is to the interjacent Siamese; 
the inference from this being that at one time they were 
connected by transitional and intermediate dialects, ab- 
original to the lower Menam, but now displaced by the 
Siamese of Bankok introduced from the parts to the 
northwards. 

3. If so, the nearest congener to the Malay of the 
Malayan Peninsula is not the present Siamese, but the 
language which the present Siamese displaced. 

The southern Thay dialects are not only less like the 
Mon and Kho than is expected from their locality, but 
the northern ones are less like those of the Indo-Bur- 
mese frontier and Asam than the geographical contiguity 
prepares us to surmise ; since the percentage of words 
common to the Khamti and the other dialects of Muni- 
pur and Asam is only as follows. 

Siamese. Kham'I. 

per cent, with the Mar^m. 

, , , Camphung. 

, ,, Luhuppa. 

, ,, Nortli Tankhul. 

, ,, Central Tankhul. 

,, Khoibti. 

, , , Maring. 














































INDIAN ELEMENTS IN THE MON. 



71 



Siamese. 


Khaiiiti. 







per cent. 


with the Kapwr. 


1 


1 n 


, , Koreng. 


1 


1 


, , Songpu. 





1 


„ Aka. 





1 


„ Abor. 





3 ,, 


,, South Tankhul 


1 


3 ,, 


, , Garo. 


3 


3 


, , Munipnri. 


3 


5 


, , Misshimi. 


6 


8 


,, Burmese. 


8 


8 


, , Karen. 


3 


3 


,, Singpho. 


10 


10 „ 


„ Jill. 



The further the Thay runs south, the more it stands 
in contrast to the languages by which it is bounded. 
Those with which it has the most affinities are the 
Singpho dialects, and after these the Western Ehot. It 
seems as if the Menam directed its course. It follows 
its stream, displaces the forms of speech by which the 
Mon and Kho may reasonably be held to have gradu- 
ated into each other, and, having done this, comes in 
immediate contact with the Mala}^, with which it has 
fewer affinities than its juxtaposition suggests. For — 

The true Malay affinities are with the Kho and Mon, or 
rather with that intermediate variety which the spread of 
the Thay abolished. No wonder, then, that its connec- 
tion with the languages of the continent is obscure. 

4. A paper of Mr. Mason's, in the Transactions of 
the American Oriental Society, exhibits some remarkable 
points of likeness between the Mon and certain lan- 
guages of India. The first numerals are especially 
prominent in this comparison. 

Does this justify us in connecting the two forms of 
speech ? I doubt it. The question, however, will bo 
considered when India comes under notice. 



72 THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER XII. 

The Tungus Class. — Mantshu and Orotshong.— Orthography of Gastrin's : 

Tungtis Grammar. 

The Tungus area is large in extent, irregular in outline, 
and obscure in its relations. On the south it comes in 
contact with China and Corea ; on the south-west with 
Mongolia. Between Corea and the Amtir, it reaches the 
sea ; the peninsula, however, of Sagalin and the mouth 
of the Amiir itself are Kurilian. It crops out again to 
the north ; and the shores of the Sea of Okotsk are 
the occupancy of the Lamut Tungus to the south and 
the Koriaks to the north. There are sporadic Tungus 
further on — on the coast of the gulf of Penjinsk, and 
even in the peninsula of Kamtchatka. The Aldan, a 
feeder of the Lena, is pre-eminently a Tungus river : so 
is the Tunguska (as its name indicates), a feeder of the 
Yenisey. And this gives us a notion of the magni- 
tude of the area in its western and northern prolonga- 
tions. Between the Yenisey and the Kolyma it is con- 
tinually presenting itself; so that there are Tungus 
in contact with the Koriaks, the Jukahiri, the Jakuts, 
and the Samoyeds. There are Tungus on the Wall of 
China, and there are Tungus on the shores of the Arctic 
Ocean. 

The class falls into two divisions — the Mantshu and 
the Orotong or Orotshong ; the former giving the Tungtis 
of the Amur, the latter the Tungus of the Lena and 
Yenisey. The former gives the Tungiis of the Chinese 
Empire, the Tungus of the Imperial Dynasty, the Tungus 
of a Buddhist literature and Mongol alphabet, the Tun- 



THE TUNG US LANGUAGES. 73 

giis of the civilized section of the name. The latter 
belongs to Russia and Siberia, and, except so far as it 
has been cultivated by Europeans, is an unwritten lan- 
guaoje. 

The term Orotong is Mantshti ; being applied by the 
Mantshlirians to such other members of the stock as are 
other than Mantshti. The tribes, however, of the Lower 
Tunguska apply it to themselves. In its more limited 
sense, Tungiis itself coincides with Orotong. No one 
ever calls a Mantshti a Tungtis. A Tungus Gramrnar, 
however, is the title of Castren's work on the Orotong 
of Irkutsk, and its allied dialects. 

In respect to the direction in which the Tungtis lan- 
guage has spread itself it is safe to say thus much, viz. 
that it runs from east to west, and from south to north, 
rather than vice versa. There are good grounds for 
holding that both the Corean and the Kurilian extended 
beyond their present limits ; so that it is likely that the 
Mantshiis were originally strangers to the Sea of Japan. 
The evidence that the Tungtis of the Arctic and Sub- 
arctic regions is intrusive, is more satisfactory still. The 
head-waters of the Amur, and the parts about Nerts- 
hinsk, give a good provisional origin to the Tungus. 

The Mantshti alphabet — the alphabet of a language 
with a very scanty literature — is a modification of the 
Mongol. The Orotshong dialects, however, are given 
either in Russian or Italian letters : the Tungtis Gram- 
mar of Castren being in the latter. 

The following are the more important terms connected 
with the ethnology and philology of the Tungtis : — 

Lamut. — This means sea, and it applies to the Tun- 
gtis of the Sea of Okotsk. The affinities of the Lamut 
dialects run in the direction of — 

Dauria. — The Daurian Tungtis are those of the 
Baikal Lake, the Sayanian Mountains, and the circles of 
Yerkneudinsk and Nertskintsk. It is the dialects and 



74 THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 

sub-dialects of these tribes that are more especially illus- 
trated in Castren's Grammar, which most particularly 
gives the dialects of the Urulga and Maniko tribes. Of 
the language of 

Tshapodzhir Tungus, we have vocabularies only. 
They occupy the banks of the Yenisey, and constitute 
the most western division of the stock. 

The differences of the Timgus forms of speech lie 
within a narrow compass, and (I believe) coincide with 
the geography of the area. Between the Lamut and 
the Tshapodzhir there is, apparently, a greater difference 
than can be found between any interjacent varieties. 
The same applies to the Nertshinsk dialects of the south, 
and more northern dialects of the Yakut and Samoyed 
districts. In short, the different forms of speech gra- 
duate into each other. They also take slight modifica- 
tions from the languages of their several frontiers. On 
the south, the Mantshli is encroached upon by the 
Chinese. In Siberia, it takes in Russian, Mongol, and 
Turk words. About the Mantshii of the Kurilian fron- 
tier more will be said in the sequel. 

The Mongols call the Mantshu either Uzun DzTixirtshit 
or Angga Dzhurtshit ; and this is a word which appears 
and reappears under a multiplicity of forms. It is 
Tshurtshit, Zhudzhi, Nyudzhi, and Geougen ; the 
latter being a name of some, real or apparent, historical 
importance. Castren has allowed himself to believe 
that a population bearing this name in certain of the 
Chinese compositions, was as old as the eleventh cen- 
tury before our sera. They were barbarians who paid 
an insignificant tribute to China. The truly historical 
Nyudzhi, however, are the founders of the present 
Chinese dynasty, their conquests having been effected 
about A.D. 1644 ; and it may be added that a Nyudzhi 
vocabulary, taken by Klapoth from a Chinese narrative, 
is Mantshli. 



THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



10 



Castren found outlying Tshapodzhirs as far west as 
the Obi. In Bronson, a vocabulary of the Giliak lan- 
guage, often — I believe, generally — considered to be 



irilian, is Mantshu. 




The Mantshu call — 




China .... 


Nikan. 


The Mongolians . 


Monga 


The Russians 


Oros. 


Nertshinsk 


Niptshi 


The Giliak .... 


FiaJca. 


Korea .... 


Solgo. 



The last name is remarkable because the Mantshu 
tribes of the Upper Sagalin are called Solon ; and 
because there is evidence of other kinds that a portion, 
at least, of what is now Mantshuria, was once Korea. 



English. 


Maiitblm. 


Timgus of the Amur. 


Man (homo) 


beye 






Head 


udzhu 


topti 


Hair 


funiekhe 


nurikta 


Eye 


yasa 


yesa 


Ear 


shan 


syen 


Nose 


okhoro 


ongokto 


Mouth 


anga 


ommiiu 


Tongue 


ilengu 


ini 


Tooth 


veikhe 


ikta 


Hand 


gala 


nyala 


Foot 


betkhe 


adbigi 


Sim 


shlin 


delesa 


Moon 


bia 


bega 


Star 


uzhikha 


ohikta 


Fire 


tua 


toho 


Water 


muke 


mu 


Stone 


vekhe 


dsholo 


One 


emu 


mu 


Two 


dzheio 


dyul 


Three 


elan 


ela 


Four 


diun 


duye 


Five 


sundzha 


tonsa 


Six 


ningsun 


nyuyu 


Seven 


nadan 


nada 


Eight 


dzakun 


tshapku 


Nine 


uyun 


khuyu 


Ten 


dzhuan 


dzh.i. 



76 



THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



The following short tables give a notion of the sub- 
dialects of this division : — 



English. 


Middle Amur. 


Mouth of Sangara. 


Mantshu. 


Kisi. 


One 


amun 


omu 


amoa 


omu 


Two 


dyno 


dzur 


dzhoua 


dyul 


Three 


elan 


ela 


gilang 


ela 


Four 


diyin 


duye 


tuye 


duye 


Five 


tonsya 


tonga 


sundzha 


tonsa 


Six 


nunyun 


nyungu 


nyunguen 


nyungu 


Seven 


nadan 


nada 


nadang 


nada 


Fight 


dzabkun 


dzhakfo 


tsakoi 


tshapku 


Nine 


yogin 


huyu 


uyen 


khuyu 


Ten 


dzhan 


dzhoa 


dzliuyen 


dzha. 



Dialects other than Mantshu. 



1. 



English. 


Nertshinsk. 


Yakutsk. 


Lamut. 


Man (homo) 


boie 


boye 


bye 


Bead 


deli 


dyll 


del 


Hair 


nyurikta 


nyuritta 


nyurit 


Eye 


isal 


eha 


esel 


Ear 


zin 


zen 


korot 


Nose 


ongokta 


ongokto 


ongata 


Mouth 


amga 


hamun 


amga 


Tongue 


ingni 


ingni 


ilga 


Band 


dzhalan 


nggala 


ngal 


Foot 


bokdil 


halgan 


bodan 


Swn 


shivun 


ziguni 


nyultan 


Moon 


biga 


bega 


bekh 


Star 


oshikta 


haulen 


otshikat 


Fire 


togo 


togo 


toh 


Water 


mu 


mu 


ma 


Tree 


too 


mo 


mo 


Stone 


dzhalo 


dzholo 


dzhola 


One 


omon 


omukon 


omin 


Two 


dzhur 


dzhur 


dzhur 


Three 


ilan 


elan 


elan 


Four 


dygin 


dygin 


dugun 


Five 


tongna 


tonga 


tongau 


Six 


nyungun 


nyungun 


nyungun 


Seven 


nadan 


nadan 


nadan 


Eight 


dzhapkun 


dzapkan 


dzhapkan 


Nine 


yagyn 


jagin 


uyun 


Ten 


dzhan 


dzhan 


men. 



THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



77 



English. 


Yenesei. 


Tsbapodzliir. 


L. TungiTska. 


Mangasela. 


Man (homo) boya 


doyo 


boya 


boyo 


Head 


dil 


dyl 


dil 


dil 


Hair 


nyurikta 


nyurikta 


nuriktalx 


nyurikta 


Eye 


osha 


esha 


obsah. 


esha 


Ear 


shin 


shern 


syen 


shen 


Nose 


nigslia 


oiokota 


onoktah. 


ongokto 


Mouth 


amga 


amga 


amga 


ammungah 


Hand 


hanga 


nali 


ngala 


ngala 


Foot 


halgar 


bodol 


khalgan 


halgan 


Sim 


shiggun 


dylega 


delatsba 


delyadzya 


Moon 


byega 




baga 


beya 




Star 


oshikta 


osliikta 


oshikta 


oshikta 


Fire 


toggo 


togo 


toggo 


togo 


Water 


mu 


mu 


muh 


mu 


Tree 


mo 


mo 


mo 


mo 


Stone 


dishollo 


zhynlo 


hysba 


dzyollo 


One 


utninukon 


omukon 


mukon 


ommukon 


Tico 


dzyur 


dzhur 


dyur 


dyur 


Three 


illun 


ilan 


ilan 


illen 


Four 


diggin 


dygyn 


degenn 


diggin 


Five 


• tungya 


tunga 


tonga 


tongna 


Six 


nyungnn 


nugun 


nungun 


nyungun 


Seven 


nadan 


nadan 


naddan 


naddan 


Eight 


dzyapkun 


dzhamkun 


dzhapkul 


dzapkun 


Nine 


yegin 


yegin 


iyogyin 


yogyin 


Ten 


dzyan 


dzban 


dyann 


dzhan. 



Castren's Tungiis Grammar is drawn up in the ordi- 
nary Roman alphabet, the author having preferred this 
to the Russian. The latter would, indeed, have fitted 
the language well, being both more copious than the 
Roman, and being already applied to more than one 
language of Northern Asia. More than this : one of 
Castren's own grammars — that of the Ostiak language 
— is Russian in respect to its letters. Nevertheless, the 
Tungus orthography is Roman, the grammar itself being 
in German. 

The introduction of the European alphabets into Rus- 
sian Asia is a point which we may advantageously con- 
template, inasmuch as the principles by which it has 
been regulated are, if not unexceptionable; at least laud- 
able. 



78 TUKGUS ORTnOGRAPHY. 

These alphabets are two : the Russian and the 
Koman or Italian. The former is the easier to handle 
— the easier by far. By this I mean that, when an 
unwritten language has to be written, and the elemen- 
tary sounds of that unwritten language are new and 
strange, the Russian orthography can be applied with 
greater ease than any other in Europe. Of the pre- 
viously unwritten languages, the following have, within 
the last few years, been embodied by means of the 
Russian alphabet : — 

1. The Aleutian of the Islands between Kamtskatka 
and America. 

2. The Iron, or Osset, of Caucasus ; the application 
being made by Sjogren. 

3. The Ostiak ; the application being made by Cas- 
tren. This was in 1849. 

4. The Yakut ; the application being made by Mid- 
dendorf and Botlinck. 

What have been the applications of the Roman alpha- 
bet ? — what the principles on which those applications 
were made ? To the Fin of Finland it had been applied 
from the beginning; Finland having, until 1812, been 
Swedish. On the other hand, the Zirianian and the 
Permian languages are written in Russian. The Esto- 
nian, however, and the Magyar are Roman ; so that, on 
the whole, it is not too much to say that the Roman is 
the alphabet for the Fin family. 

In 1830, the great Danish philologue, Rask, found 
his attention dii'ected to the Georgian and Armenian 
languages ; each with an alphabet one- third longer than 
our own, and each with strange sounds for those alpha- 
bets to express. However, they did express them ; 
having signs or letters to match. These signs Rask 
transliterated into Roman ; and that upon a principle 
which, though negative rather than positive, is worthy 
of imitation as far as it goes. He avoided the expres- 
sion of simple sounds by complex combinations. If a 



TUNGUS ORTHOGRAPHY. 79 

new sound appeared, a new sign was excogitated. Tt 
might be wholly new, it might be an old letter modified. 
The former gives us the better and bolder, the latter the 
more usual and easier, plan. How^ever, in the proposed 
alphabet the Georgian runs thus : — 

a, e, i, o, u, p, f, v, jz, 

t, d, ]>, k, g, K, r, q, X, 

s, z, s, z, c, 3, 3, c, i, 

3. j, h, h, 1, m, n, r, 1). 

y:, Ip, and h, were sounded as the 2^K tK f^i^d ^^^^ i^ 
ha-p/iazard, nu-thook, and in-Morn ; the original alpha- 
bets having thus compendiously expressed three pairs of 
compound sounds. If it were not for this, the combina- 
tions of p, t, k, and h would have sufficed. The y was, 
nearly or exactly, the Arabic c, a variety of g. The 
corresponding variety of k is expressed by q, compared 
to the Arabic -:. Another guttural was expressed by x 
(Arabic •). For two varieties of h, were proposed h 
and t) ; for the sibilants s' (sh) ; z' (zh) ; c (ts) ; c' (tsh) ; 
5 (dz) ; 3 (dzh or the English j). Then, for a pair of 
sounds described as approaching dhz, and dhzh, 3 and 3. 
The Ai-menian transliteration had the additional signs e, 
e, t, and i'. 



a, 


e, 




^, 


i, 


0, 


u, 


P. 


b, u or w 


V, 


F^ 


t, 


d, 


f; 


k, 


g. 


k, 


X or i 


X, 


s, 


z. 


1 


% 


c, 


3, 


3. 


c, 


i 


i 


1. 


m, 


n, 


1% 


1', 


h 


h. 



Previous to the work in which these two alphabets 
were proposed, the author had been engaged on the Lap 
of Norw^egian Lapland, and had published a grammar 
on it, in which the signs 5 and 3 were introduced ; as 
well as n for the ng in king, sing, &c. 

Though Castren's Ostiak Grammar, published in 
1849, is in Russian, his Zirianian Grammar, published 



80 NYUTSHI RECORDS. 

in 1844, is in Roman letters; these being those of 
Rask, except that for 5 and 3, he used dz and dz. 
The Samoyed was the next sound-system he found 
it necessary to investigate. Here there were two 
modifications of I, viz., t, \, and {) the sound of the gii 
in French words like Boulogne, along with similar modi- 
fications of d, t, s, z, and c ; which were written dy, ty, 
sy, zy, tshy — there or thereabouts. 

Lastly, the Tushi alphabet of Schiefner contains x, h, 
^, g, c, c, c, i, s, z, t, p, 1, ^ 

All this, though exceptionable in many respects, is 
better than the system too much in vogue amongst our- 
selves of making combinations. 

It has already been stated that there is such a thing 
as a Mantshu alphabet, and that it is a modification of 
the Mongol. This implies a Mantshu literature. It is 
a scanty one ; as may be seen from Klaproth's Mantshu 
Chrestomathy. Neither is it ancient. It is possible, 
however, that it may be both older and more important 
than it seems. A paper,* by Mr. Wylie, of Shanghae, 
gives us the following list of Neu-chih translations from 
the Chinese, during, or earlier than, the Ming dynasty : 
(1,) History of Pwan-kti ; (2,) History of Confucius; 
(3,) Travels of Confucius ; (4,) Domestic Discourses ; 
(5,) Discourses of the Wise and Able from the Domestic 
Discourses ; (6,) History of Keang Tae-kung ; (7,) His- 
tory of Woo Tzye-seu ; (8,) Narrative of the Display of 
Rarities by Eighteen Kingdoms ; (Q,) History of Sun 
Pin ; (1 0,) Treatise on Carriage Driving ; (11,) History 
of Hae Tseen Kung ; (12,) History of Madame Hwang; 
(13,) National Surnames ; (14,) Ha ta yang urh kan, — • 
whatever that may mean. 

More interesting, still, is the notice of two Neu-chih 
inscriptions. The first, which from its locality, may be 
called the Kin -chow monument, has been seen in situ 
by no European. Neither is it copied verbatim et 

* Joiirnal of the Royal Society. Vol. xvii. Part 2. 1860. 



NEUCHIH RECORDS. 81 

literatiTn in China. Still, there is a Chinese work in 
which there is a notice of it, and in which there is a 
translation ; viz. The Choice Selections from Lapidary 
Literature. This is the translation of the author whom I 
follow of Shih mih tseuen hwa, by Chaou Han, and is 
dated 1618. It contains the Chinese equivalent of the 
Neuchih ; of which the following is the translation in 
English, by Mr. Wylie : — 

The local military director and prince of the blood, brother to the emperor 
of the Great-Kin dynasty, having enjoyed a season of tranquillity within the 
boundary of his jurisdiction, was hunting on the south side of Leang Hill. 
On coming to Keen -ling (the imperial sepulchre) of the Tang dynasty, finding 
the pavilion and side buildings in a state of decay, every vestige of magnifi- 
cence having disappeared, he gave orders to the local authorities to assemble 
artisans to repair and beautify the place. Now having again visited the 
sepulchres, finding the paintings all renewed, and the side galleries completely 
restored, he was inexpressibly delighted, and returned after partaking of an 
entertainment by the Prefect of Le-yang. 

T'een-hwuy, 12th year (a.d. 1134), being the 51st year of the sexagenary 
cycle, 11th month, 14th day, Hwang Yung-ke, Territorial Secretary to the 
Supreme Council, and Wang Kwei, Secondary Prefect of Yew-chow, members 
of the suite, have written this in compliance with the command. 

Translation of the preceding in^cnption. 

The heading of the tablet reads ' ' Record of the journey of the military 
director and prince of the blood, the emperor's brother." 

The author of the Shih mih tseuen hwa adds the following note ; — name or 
surname is mentioned. As the date is 1134, it should be the brother of 
T'ae-tsung, according to the history of the Kin dynasty. She-tsoo had eleven 
sons ; there being eight besides Kang-tsung, T'ae-tsoo and T'ae-tsung, it is 
uncertain which is the one referred to. We cannot decipher a single word of 
this inscription, which is written in the Neu-chih character. This table cor- 
roborates what Wang Yuen-mei says : — " When enlightened princes are watch- 
ful over their virtue, foreigners are attracted from every region. There is a 
translation at the end, in the Chinese character, consisting of one hundred 
and five characters, inscribed on the left side, but it is entirely different. 
The engraved inscription is at Keen-ling, on the characterless tablet." 

This is not the only notice. How far, however, the 
testimonies of the two authors quoted may be inde- 
pendent is more than I can say ; but in the Record of 
the Metal and Stone Inscriptions of Shense {Kwan- 
chung kin shih ke), dated 1781, the following statement 

G 



82 NEUCHIH KECORDS. 

concerning the inscription in question occurs: — "the first 
part is written in the Neu-chih character, the latter part 
is a translation written in the ordinary character ; the 
heading is in the seal character. At Keen-ling, in ^ Kin- 
chow/'' 

Of the other inscription, we still want even the pre- 
liminary details. There is only a general notice of its 
existence. 



THE MONGOL LANGUAGES. 83 



CHAPTEK XIII. 

The Mongol Class. — Mongolian Proper. — Buriat. — Olot. — Aimauk. — 
Pelu.— Sok. 

The Mongol area is large, but not very irregular ; 
neither are its frontiers very varied. On the south, it 
marches with China and Tibet ; on the west, with the 
Turk area ; on the east, with the Mantshu. On the 
north, there are the Tungus and the Russian of Siberia 
along with the languages of a few fragmentary abori- 
gines. There are two isolated offsets, one in Cabul, and 
one on the Volga. The differences of dialect lie within 
a narrow compass. The divisions are (1) the East Mon- 
golian, or Mongol Proper ; (2) the Kalka ; (3) the Buriat ; 
(4) the Ulut, Olot, or Eleut, or Kalmuk ; (5) the Aimauk. 

1. The Mongol was reduced to writing in (about) the 
time of Kublai Khan : the alphabet being taken from 
the Uighur Turks. The classical composition in this dia- 
lect is a Mongol history by Sanang Seetsen. The literary 
influences are, at the present time, Chinese and Tibetan. 
Buddhism, however, was preceded by Fire-worship and 
(apparently) by an imperfect Christianity. 

2. The Kalka, in which the chief compositions are 
songs, leads from the Mongol Proper to 

8. The Buriat ; the Buriats being (like the Orotong 
as compared with the Mantshu) Siberian rather than 
Chinese. Amongst the Buriats, Buddhism prevails ; the 
Buriat Christianity being inchoate, the Buriat Maho- 
metanism inconsiderable in amount. As contrasted with 
the Mongols Proper, the Buriats are, to a great extent, 

G 2 



84j the MONGOL LANGUAGES; 

Pagans and in contact with Pagans — except (of course) 
so far as they are under the influences of Russia. 

In 1831, they numbered 72,000 males and 80,000 
females : the present census amounting to about 
190,000. They fall into the Buriats beyond, and the 
Buriats on this side of, the Baikal. The former are the 
Khorin, the Selenga, the Barguzin, the Kudarin, and the 
Kudin (in part) tribes ; each with some peculiarities of 
dialect. The latter — named after the rivers along which 
they lie — are the remainder of the Kudin, the Upper 
Lena, the Olkhon, the Ida, the Balagan, the Alari, and 
the Tunka divisions ; the latter being, to some extent, 
Turk and Samoyed in blood. The Selenga form of speech 
is spoken in the greatest purity by the Atagan, Tsongol, 
Sartal, and Tabang-gut. 

The Buriat of the parts about Nizhni Udinsk, the 
Buriat of the extreme west, call — 

Themselves Buriat, 

The Russians Mangut, 

— Tungus Kaldzhak-shin, 

— Katshintsi Turks Kat-kum, 

— Kot Kotoh-kum, 

— River Birus Byr-hu. 

The chief difference between the Buriat and the 
Kalka seems to be political. Neither is it quite certain 
that Castren's divisions between the Buriat of this side 
of the Baikal, and the Buriat beyond the Baikal, is 
natural. 

The Selenga forms of speech approach most closely 
to the written or literary language. 



English. 


Selenga. 


Khorin. 


Nizhni Uda. 


Tunkin. 


Man (vir) 


ere 


ere 


ere 


ire 


Man (homo) 


khung 


khung 


kung 


kung 


Head 


tologoi 


tarkM 


tologoi 


tologi 


Hair 


usu 


uhun 


uhung 


uliung 


Eye 


nyude 


nyudeng 


nyideng 


nyudeng 



MONGOL DIALECTS. 



8^ 



English. 


Selenga. 


Kliorin. 


Nizlmi Uda. 


Tunkiu. 


Ear 


shikhe 


shikheng 


shikeng 


shikeng 


Nose 


khamar 


khamar 


kamar 


khamar 


Mouth 


ama 


amang 


amang 


amang 


Tongue 


khele 


kelen 


keleng • 


khelengn 


Hand 


gar 


gar 


gar 


gar 


Foot 


khul 


khol 


kol 


kol 


Sun 


nara 


narang 


narang 


narangn 


Moon 


sara 


hara 


hara 


hara 


Star 


odo 


odon 


odong 


odong 


Fire 


gal 


gal 


gal 


gal 


Water 


oso 


uhan 


uhung 


uhungn. 



4. The Ulut are the Mongols of Dzungaria ; the 
Kalmuks of the Volga being Dzungarian in origin. 

5. On each side of a line drawn from Herat to 
Cabul, lies, to the north of the proper Afghan, and to 
the south of the Uzbek and Turcoman, frontier, a great 
range of undulating country, often mountainous, almost 
always hilly, well-watered in some parts, bleak and 
rough in others. This falls into a western and an 
eastern division, with an important watershed between 
them. From the west flow the Murghab, the Tejend, 
and the Furrarud ; from the east, the Helmund, the 
south-eastern feeders of the Oxus, and the north-western 
feeders of the Cabul river. The former of these dis- 
tricts, lower and less mountainous, is the occupancy 
of the Tsliehar Aimauk ; the latter that of the Hazara. 
Both are noticed in Elphinst one's Caubul : both are 
placed in the same category. The only doubt in the 
mind of the author is as to the nature of the class that 
contained them. He hesitates to make them Mongols. 
They generally spoke Persian. A sample of the lan- 
guage, since published by Lieut. Leach, settles the doubt 
— for the speakers of it, at least : — 



English. 


Aimauk. 


Kalka. 


Head 


ekin 


tologoi 


Ear 


tshakin 


tsike 


Nose 


kabr 


khamar 


Eye 


nuddun 


nidu 



SQ 



THE SDK VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Aimauk. 


Ralka. 


Tongue 


kel^i 


kole 


Hand 


ghar 


gar 


Fire 


ghar 


gal 


Water 


ussun 


usu 


Tree 


darakt* 


modo 


Stone 


kuri 


tsholo 


One 


nikka 


nege 


Two 


koyar 


klioyiu 


Three 


ghorban 


gurba 


Four 


dorban 


diiiba 


Five 


tabun 


tabu. 



There are a few Mongols in Bokhara ; traces, real or 
supposed, of some in India ; the same in Persia and 
Syria ; the same in parts of Russia and Tartary. 

The Soh, or Sokpa, of the northern frontier of Tibet, 
and, apparently, the most southern member of the group 
is Mongolian. 



English. 


Sok. 


English. 


Sok. 


Man 


khiin 


Fire 


kwal 


Head 


thola gwe 


Water 


usu 


Hair 


kechige 


Stone 


chhilo 


Hand 


kar 


Tree 


moto 


Mouth 


ama 


One 


nege 


Ear 


khikhe 


Two 


hoyur 


Eye 


nutu 


Three 


korba 


Tooth 


syuchi 


Four 


tirba 


Foot 


khoil 


Five 


thaba 


Blood 


khoro-gwe 


Six 


chorka 


Bone 


yaso 


Seven 


tolo 


Day 


wundur 


Eight 


nema 


Sun 


nara 


Nine 


yeso 


Moon 


sara 


Ten 


arba. 



The Pelii. — From the Japanese encyclopaedia, known 
in China as Kho-khan Zanzai-tu-khuy, completed A.D. 
1713, Klaproth gives a specimen of a Mongol dialect 
entitled Pelu ; adding that Pe means north, and Iw 
means western barbarians. If so, the Pelu are the 
north-western barbarians. 



• Persian. 



THE PELU VOCABULARY. 



87 



English. 


Pelu. 


Mongol. 


Man 


kore 


ere 


Woman 


khoton 


khatun 


Father 


kozike 


etshige 


Mother 


koke 


eki 


Brother 


teuge 


dagu 


Girl 


oka 


okin 


Sky 


tengri 


tangri 


Sun 


nara 


nara 


Moon 


zara 


zara 


Star 


khuton 


odon 


Sea 


talai 


dalai 


River 


murun 


muran 


Water 


uzo 


uzu. 



Word for word, I hold that Pelu is the same as 
Paloung, the name of a T'hay popidation already 
noticed, and of one which lay west of Cochin-China, 
and, to some extent, north as well. 



88 THE YENISEIANS. 



CHAPTER XIY. 

The Yenlseians. — Objections to the name Ostiak.— Castren's Researches. — 
Northern Branch. — Inbazk, Denka, and Pumpokolsk vocabularies of the 
Asia Polyglotta.— Southern Branch.— The Assan. — Kot. — Castren's Dis- 
covery of a Kot Village. — The Ara Legend.— Kan skoi and Kamassintzi 
vocabularies. — The Glosses Kot and Kem. — Speculations as to the origi- 
nal extent of the Yeniseian area. 

This is, perhaps, the most broken-up population in the 
world ; so that I shall say nearly all that I know about 
it. It is possible that a large proportion of this is 
ethnographical, rather than philological ; still, it is so 
fragmentary a population that I shall write a few pages, 
even though they may be out of place. I shall also add 
my speculations as to the original importance of the 
class. 

Yeniseian was the name proposed by Klaproth, 
though it is not the term used by Adelung before, nor 
that used by Castren after him. It may, possibly, 
be exceptionable ; inasmuch as the Yeniseians are, by 
no means, the only populations of the Yenisey. On the 
other hand, however, they are nearly limited to the 
drainage of that river, and they also seem to be the 
aboriginal occupants of a great portion of its valley. 
They extended as far south as 53° N. L., and as far 
north as 67° N. L., at least. Adelung and Castren call 
them the Yeniseian Ostiaks. They are, however, widely 
different from the true Ostiaks — those of the Obi. 

It is to be regretted that Castren laas gone back to 
the old term, and that when he speaks of the populations 
under notice, he calls them Ostiaks of the Yenisey, just 
as he calls the Samoyeds of the Ket and Tshulim, Os- 



THE YENISEIANS. 89 

tiak Samoyeds. In each case, the word is used impro- 
perly. Indeed, it is doubtful whether it is the best 
term for the Ostiaks Proper, though it is a convenient 
one. It is a convenient one, because they have no other 
general name at all. 

The Turk is the language to which (in the first in- 
stance, at least) it belongs ; for it is the Turks who 
apply the name. And they apply it to more populations 
than one. They apply it to the Ostiaks Proper and 
they apply it to the Bashkirs. Whether they have not 
applied it elsewhere, and that in unexpected quarters, is 
a question from which, for the present, Ave refrain. 

When Castren undertook his second journey, he was 
specially instructed to ascertain the ethnological and 
philological relations of those "tribes which, dwelling 
between the Yenisey on the east, and the Obi on the 
west, bore the indefinite name of Ostiak.'' It is un- 
necessary to say that these instructions were carried out 
with zeal and skill. The investigation, however, was, at 
first, left in the hands of his fellow-traveller Bergstadi, 
who passed a part of the year 1846 in the village of 
Anzeferova, on the Pit. After a while, however, Castren 
descended the Yenisey, and, after coming in per- 
sonal contact with the tribes of the Sym and parts about 
Turukhansk and Inbazk, made himself master of the 
language sufficiently to become the author of a grammar 
and a vocabulary. 

Their most northern limit is the country about Man- 
gaseia or Turukhansk, in (jQ° N. L., where their neigh- 
bours to the north are the Avamski and Karasin 
Samoyeds, to the west the Samoyeds of the Tas, and to 
the east the Tungtis of the northern Tunguska river. 
Of the exact dialect here spoken there are no specimens. 
It seems to be taken for granted that it is the same as 
that of the next group. 

This appears about 63° N. L., where, in the parts 
about Inbazk, the Yelogui falls into the Yenisey from 



90 THE YENISEIANS. 

the west, and the Bakta from the east. Here the fron- 
tagers are again Samoyeds (of the Karakon section) 
and Tungus. An Inbazk vocabulary, eo nomine, is to 
be found in the Asia Polyglotta : akin to which is a 
shorter one of the 6dh (or sable) Ostiaks, who, in 1723, 
called themselves Denka. According to Messerschmidt, 
they could count no further than five. The Denka were 
especially found on a stream called 6dh-Shosh {Sable 
river), a feeder of the Podkamennaya Tunguska — the 
name being apparently of Tungus origin ; for several of 
the Tungus tribes call themselves Denka, which means, 
in Tungus, men. Though it is expressly stated that , 
this name was native, and as there is no sign of the 
w^ord under notice having any meaning in any Yeniseian 
dialect, it is possible that the blood of the Denka was 
Tungus. Be this as it may, the dialect belongs to the 
Inbazk division. 

In 60° N. L., the Sym and Pit fall into the Yenisey, 
much after the manner of the Yelogui and the Bak^ ; 
the former from the west, the latter from the east. $he 
banks of each are Yeniseian localities. A little to the 
south of the latter lies the village of Anzeferova, the 
spot where Bergstadi and Castren made their chief 
researches in the Yeniseian. Hence, it must be sup- 
posed that it is the Pit and Sym forms of speech that are 
most particularly represented in the grammar. The 
frontier on the east is Tshapodzhir ; on the west, 
Samoj^ed and Ostiak. 

To the south and west, the Ket is a Yeniseian locality, 
the dialect of which is represented by the Pumpokolsk 
vocabulary of Klaproth, a dialect which, like the last, 
is in contact with the Samoyed and Ostiak. The 
river Kem, which falls into the Yenisey, a little below 
Yeniseisk, bears a Yeniseian name. Of the Yeniseian of 
the Ket, as represented by the Pumpokolsk vocabulary, 
I think that thus much may be said, viz. that, notwith- 
standing certain special affinities with the dialects of the 



THE YENISEIANS. 91 

next group, it is a northern rather than a southern form 
of speech, i. e. that it belongs to the Sym group of 
dialects. 

About 5*7° N. L. is the boundary of philological 
area ; and we no longer meet what may be called the 
proper Siberian populations, like the Samoyeds, Ostiaks, 
and Tungus, but populations whose language is Turk. 
In other words, the philological frontier changes ; and, 
with it, change the Yeniseian forms of speech. All the 
preceding dialects appear in Castren's Grammar, under 
the name of Ostiak of the Yenisey. The name that 
now presents itself is Kot. 

A few Russianized Kot were seen by Gastrin as far 
west as Ansir, Barnaul, and Yelansk. They stated that 
they were a remnant of the Baginov Uluss, which mi- 
grated from the River Poima. These, he thinks, are the 
Yeniseians, whom Klaproth calls the Kongi'oitshe, a name 
which, he also thinks, has originated out of the Tartar 
name for Krasnoyarsk, the town where the tribute was 
paid. It means, a place with a bell. The Poima is a 
feeder of the Ana. 

Now, it is on the Ana, along with the Ussolka, that- 
Klaproth fixes another division of the southern Yeni- 
seians, of whose language he gives a specimen, which 
differs from the Kot only as one dialect or sub-dialect 
differs from another. He calls them the Assan. Gas- 
tren sought for them with care and pain. He found 
none on the Ussolka ; though he especially visited the 
chief or only volost on its drainage. All he found was 
Russians, who knew of nothing older than themselves. 
Two families were, apparently, of Tungus blood ; but 
nothing did either they or any one else know about the 
Assan. 

Neither was he successful on the Lower Ana. Towards 
its head-waters, however, he found an account of some 
Kot who had lived there lately, but who had been 
ordered to move to the Uda, where they then lived with 



92 THE YENISEIANS. 

the Buriat, in a village named Badaranovka, thirty 
versts below Nizhni Udinsk. Before they left the Ana, 
they spoke Buriat. They amount, now, to eleven tri- 
bute-payers, half of whom (the division is difficult) 
speak Buriat, half Russian. They call themselves Ko- 
tovzy, the name being native, the form Russian. The 
Karagas Turks call them Kodeglar. I imagine that 
these are the Assan, or nearly so. 

At length, he found the Kot, eo nomine and eci lin- 
gua. But they were but a fragment. Their original 
area was the drainage of the river Kan. There were 
Kot settlements near the present villages of Agulskaya 
and Korastelia. There were Kot settlements about Ansir, 
Yelansk, and the now important town of Barnaul. A 
few years ago, seven Kots paid tribute from the neigh- 
bourhood of Kansk. The Agul, the Kungus, and the 
XJlka were once Kot rivers. There were Kots on the 
Mongol frontier, whose language is now that of the 
Buriats. 

: Nevertheless, a few. speakers of the Kot language still 
exist ; a single village on the Agul being their locality — 
their neighbours being Kamass Samoyeds, themselves 
more than half Turk. 

The Kot of the Agul, being lighter taxed than if 
they were passed for Russians, make much of their little 
nationality, and keep up their language accordingly. 
Five individuals from the settlement were seen by Cas- 
tren ; and his Kot Grammar was the result. 

The Arini were all but extinct in the middle of last 
century. A specimen, however, of their language has 
survived. So has the following legend : — 

Before they left the main stream of the Yenisey for 
their present occupancy in the district of Sayania, and 
whilst they called themselves Ara (being called by the 
Russians Arinzi), they lived part of the year in one 
place, part in another. Their summer residence was an 
island in the Yenisey, named, in Russian, the Tates- 



THE YENISEIANS. 93 

hewki Ostrog. In winter, they joined the Katsha Turks, 
and fed their flocks on Mount Kumtige, near the Katsha. 
Their tribe was, at first, a large one ; but they fought 
against each other, and became weak. While these wars 
were going on, a young Ara walked out, and found a 
snake. He cut it in two. The head, which still kept 
in a little life, went back to the king of the snakes, and 
told his tale. So the king of the snakes held a council, 
and asked the wise men of Snakeland what was to be 
done. It was summer-time, and ail the Ara were in 
tlie island. The snakes agreed to do this — they were to 
swim across to the opposite bank, and then cry out, 
" Boat ! boat ! " So they swam across, and the Ara 
heard a cry of " Boat ! '' They went with all the boats 
they could muster : but, wonderful to relate ! they found 
no men on the shore (for they thought that it was one 
of their countrymen who had called), but only snakes — 
especially young ones. There were more young than 
old. They were almost all young ones, and they all 
wanted to speak — all at once. But the old king of the 
snakes told them to be quiet, and then put as many of 
them in the boat as it would hold. Then he made the 
old man row them over to the island, one boatful after 
another, until they were taken across. Then the king 
of the snakes himself got in, and was rowed over by 
the old man in like manner with the rest. 

As they were rowing, the king of the snakes said to 
the old man, " When you get back again to your own 
home, remember to strew ashes all round your tent, and 
then to drag over them a sail-cloth of two different 
colours, and made of two kinds of horse-hair — one 
white, the other black.'" So the old man did as the 
king of the snakes had bid him ; and went home, and 
took the ashes, and dragged over them a sail-cloth made 
of two kinds of horsehair, and went to rest. And he 
awoke in the morning, and, behold ! the whole TJluss 
was gone, and all the men of the tribe dead. Only the 



94 



THE YENISEIANS. 



old man and his family were spared ; and from liim 
come all the Ara. 

When an Ara dies, his bow and arrows are placed in 
his grave, over which his best horse is slaughtered, and 
flayed. The skin is then stretched over a pole, set up 
on the grave, and the flesh is feasted on. The women, 
after their confinements, wash themselves three times 
within the first seven days, and then fumigate them- 
selves with a herb named irhen. The first friend that 
visits them names the child. Their oaths are taken 
over a bear's head, of wliich the swearer fixes his teeth 
in the nose. When a sentence equivalent to banishment 
is pronounced against a culprit, he is placed between a 
dog and a reindeer. These are then set free. Whichever 
way they run must be taken by the man also, who is no 
longer allowed to remain where he was. Even a draught 
of water from his old locality is forbidden. So is all 
farther intercourse with any of his original neighbours. 
These remarks apply to the Dzizerti or Yesirti, as well 
as the Ara ; the Dzizerti being, like the Ara, an extinct 
or amalgamated tribe. 

The word Ara is said to mean wasps ; the population 
to which it applies being so denominated from their war- 
like activity. But it most likely means nothing of the 
kind. Word for word, it seems to be Yarang. 



English. 


Inbazk. 


Pumpokolsk. 


Assan. 


Kot. 


Arini. 


Man (hoTno) 


ket 


kit 


hit 


Hit 


khitt 


{vir) 


tshet 


ilset 


hadkip 


hatkit 


birkhanyat 


Head 


tsig 


kolka 


takai 


tagai 


kolkya 


Hair 


tonge 


kliynga 


khingayang 


hingayang 


khagang 


Foot 


toigen 


aning 


pulang 


pulang 


pil 


Eye 


des 


dat 


tesh 


tetshagan 


tieng 


Ear 


hokten 




klokan 


kalogan 


utkhonong 


Nose 


olen 


hang 


an 


ang 


arkhui 


Mouth 


ko 


kan 


hohui 


hohu 


bukhom 


Tongue 


ei 


iiygyi 


alup 


alup 


alyap 


Sun 


i 


hikhem 


oga 


ega 


ega 


Moon 


kMp 


khep 


shui 


shui 


eshui 


Star 


koogo 


kaken 


alak 


alagan 


. ilkhoi 



THE YENISEIANS. 



95 



English. 


Inbazk. 


Pumpokolsk. 


Assan. 


Kot. 


Ariiii. 


Fire 


bok 


butsh 


bat 


kbott 


kbott 


Water 


ul 


ul 


ul 


ul 


kul 


River 


ses 


torn 


ul 


kem 


sat 


IJdl 


kai 


kbai 


yii 


dzbii 


kar 


Tree 


oksa 


oksy 


atsh 


atsbsbi 


kusb-osbtsbe 


Stone 


tshugs 


tsbys 


sbish 


sbish 


kbez 


Egg 


ong 


eg 


sbulei 


sbulei 


ang 


Fish 


isse 


gite 


tyg 


tig 


ilti 


God 


eis 


es 


etsb 


esb 


es 


Sl:y 


eis 


es 


etsb 


esb 


es 


House 


khush 


bukut 


biisb 


busb 


bu 


Milk 


mamel 


den 






tengul 


Saoiv 


begges 


tyg 


tik 


tik 


tbe 


One 


khus-ein 


kbuta 


hutsba 


butsba 


kbusei 


Ticp 


un-em 


binneang 


una 


inya 


kina 


Three 


dong-em 


donga 


tongya 


tongya 


tyonga 


Four 


zi-em 


ziang 


sbeggiang 


tsbega 


sbaya 


Five 


gag-em 


kbeilang 


geigyan 


kega 


kbala 


Six 


ag-am 


aggiang 


gedudzbiang 


kelutsba 


ogga 


Seven 


enh-am 


onyang 


geiliniang 


kelina 


unnya 


Eight 


unem-boisan 


- bing-basi- 


geiltaniang 


kbeltonga 


kina-mant- 




kbogen 


kbaiyang 






sbau 


Nine 


khusem-boi- 


kbuta-yamos 


- godzbi-buna- 


butsbabunaga kusa-mant- 




san-kbogen 


kbaiyang 


giang 




sbau 


Ten 


kbogen 


kbaiyang 


bagiang 


baga 


kboa. 



I think that, in investigating the extent of the origi- 
nal area of the Yeniseians, we may use the words het 
and hem as instruments ; the first meaning man, the 
second river. 

Let us consider, then, the presence of these forms as a 
presumption in favour of Yeniseian blood, and ask how 
far they lead us. 

(1 .) Kot, het, &;c. — The Mongol form for the Teleuts is 
Teleng-^i/^ ; the Teleuts being considered to be Mongols 
in blood, though Turk in language. 

The Iv-het are a small tribe of fifty-seven tribute- 
payers, near Tunka — at present considered as Soiot. 
What Castren heard about the Irket was that they had 
migrated from the river Sikir, and that they had 
divided themselves into two divisions. One took to the 
level country belonging to the Bucha Gorkhon tribe of 



96 



THE YENISEIANS. 



Buriats. With these they intermarried, probably from 
the necessity of their taking a wife out of a tribe dif- 
ferent from their own ; they themselves being only a 
single tribe. 

(2.) Kemi. — The twenty-eight Dyon or Yon of the 
Tshulim Turks were originally called Tutal, a name which 
is now limited to two of these tribes. The people of the 
towns call them Uriankbai. The Tutal name, however, 
for the Tshulim river is Tshum. I think that, word for 
word, this is Tom as well as Kem and Tshem. In the 
Pumpokolsk dialect this (torn) is the actual word for 
river. 

The Alakh and the ^em-tshik form the western' 
soiu-ces of the Yenisey, which is named by the Chinese 
and the Mongols Ulu Kem = great river, ulu being a 
Mongol term, but kem a Yeniseian one. Here dwell the 
Soyon, Soyony, or Sayanzi, the only names, according 
to Tshitshatsheff, which are known in these parts ; the 
form Soiot being inaccurate. The language and manner 
of life of these nomads are partly Mongol, partlj" Turk. 
At present they fall into two divisions, one of which 
is directly dependent upon China, whereas the other is 
under a zaizan, who resides at Urgha. This confirms 
the doctrine suggested by the word Irket^ viz. that the 
Soiot are, more or less, Yeniseian in blood. 

I now subjoin the following vocabularies from Stalen- 
berg : — 

( I .) That of the Kanskoi, of the river Kan, who call 
themselves Khotovzi. 



English. 


Khotovzi. 


One 


opp 


Two 


tzida 


Three 


naghor 


Four- 


thseta 


Five 


ssoumbulang 


Six 


muctu 


Seven 


seigbe 


Eifjht 


schidfetse 


Nine 


togus 



English. 


Khotovzi. 


Ten 


bud 


Eleven 


biid-op 


Twelve 


biid-tzida 


Twenty 


tuserm 


Thirty 


nogh-tuserm 


Forty 


nogb-opp-tuser. 


Fifty 


soum-tuserm 


Sixty 


mouck-tuserm 


Seventy 


seig-tuserin 



THE YENISEIANS. 



97 



English. 


Khotovzi. 


English. 


Khotovzi. 


Eighty 




Fire 


tbuy 


Ninety 


togus-thiserm 


Water 


ai 


Hundred 


thun 


Earth 


dscha 


Thousand 


byat-tun 


Mountain 


bia 


God 


num 


Sun 


kaya 


Father 


abam 


Moon 


kysschtin 


Mother 


imam 


Horse 


nunda 


Brother 


aya 


Head 


stiba 


Sister 


yhse 


Man {homo) 


hya. 


Wife 


nah 







This is Samoyed. Still, the people call themselves 
Kotovzi ; as do the existing Kotovzi, who are probably 
their descendants, but who speak Buriat. 

(2.) That of the Kamacintzi, who call themselves 
Kishtim, and hve on the River Mana : — 



English. 


Kamacintzi. 


English. 


Kamacintzi. 


One 


chuodschse 


Sixty 


bkelusa-tu 


Tioo 


ynge 


Seventy 


hkelina-tugu 


Three 


tonga 


Eighty 


cbeltong-tugu 


Four 


schagae 


Ninety 


hwelin-tugu 


Five 


bkagse 


Hundred 


dnss 


Six 


hkelusa 


Thousand 


hag-duss 


Seven 


hkelina 


God 


esch 


Eight 


cheltonga 


Heaven 


urach 


Nine 


bwelina 


King 


patschai 


Ten 


haga 


Water 


uhl 


Eleven 


baga-chuodschge 


Earth 


pang 


Tivelve 


haga-inse 


Mountain 


kgy 


Twenty 


yn-tung 


Sun 


egje 


Thirty 


tonga -tu 


Moon 


tzui 


Forty 


tonga-tu-chuodsclia3 


Wind 


japei. 


Fifty 


hkog-tugu 







These are simply Yenisei an. 

(3.) A Turk dialect in the Asia Polyglotta head Kan- 
gazen, in the few words, wherein it is other than Turk, 
is Yeniseian. 



% 



Library. 



98 THE TURK DIALECTS. 



CHAPTER XY. 

The Turk Languages. — Import of the term.— The Uighur. — Tshagatai. — 
Uzbek. — Turcoman. — Kirghiz. — Barabinski. — Tshulim. — Teleut. — 
Koibal. — Karagas. — Soyony. — Yakut. — Bashkir. — Kazan. — Nogay. — 
Meshtsheriak. — Kumuk. — Kuzzilbash. — Cumanian. 

When the word Turk is used by either the ethnologist 
or the philologue, it has so wide a signification that the 
Turks of European Turkey form but an inconsiderable 
fraction of the great population to which it applies. The 
so-called Tartars (or Tatars) of Independent Tartary 
are Turks ; so are the Turcomans of the Persian fron- 
tier ; so are the occupants of more than one district 
named Turkestan ; so are several other populations with 
several other names. Even in respect to its literary 
development, the Turkish of Constantinople divides its 
honours with the Uighur and Tshagatai dialects, 
which, at the present time, are, comparatively, incon- 
spicuous dialects, but which, in point of priority of cul- 
ture, are to be preferred to their congeners of the west. 

Turk, then, is a generic name, and the class it applies 
to is a large one. Its area is of great magnitude, and 
that in every direction. A language intelUgible at Bok- 
hara is spoken on the very confines of Afiica. A lan- 
guage scarcely unintelligible at Constantinople is spoken 
at the mouth of the Lena, on the shores of the Arctic 
Sea. We have a vocabulary of the Cumanian Turk 
once spoken in Hungary. The Uighur Turk is spoken, 
at the present moment, on the frontiers of Tibet and 
Mongolia. 

The Turk area, then, is large, and it is irregular as 
well ; and very various indeed are the districts with 



THE TURK DIALECTS. 99 

which it comes in contact. In the south-east, it touches 
Tibet ; in the south, India and Persia. By the Kurd, 
Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, and Greek, the Turkish of 
Asia Minor is irregularly bounded. It mixes itself with 
the languages of Caucasus ; is spoken in contact with 
the Russian in the Crimea ; and with the Bulgarian, 
Servian, and Romaic in European Turkey. The govern- 
ment of Caucasus and Astrakan, to the south ; of Viatka 
and Perm, to the north ; and of Grodno, to the west, 
contain Turks. Orenberg is Turk in language : so is 
Kazan. Tobolsk and Tomsk give us the Turks of 
Southern, Yakutsk those of Northern Siberia. Dioscu- 
rian, Mongolian, Tungus, and Ugrian forms of speech, 
all come in contact with the Turkish. 

In some cases, the Turk has been encroached on ; 
in others it has encroached. In Hungary, it has given 
way : indeed, as a general rule, it has given way where 
the language with which it has come in contact has been 
European. In Siberia, for instance, it yields to the 
Russian. Where the language is Ugrian, it encroaches. 
It has most especially encroached on the Samoyed. In 
consequence of this, the coincidence of Turkish blood 
with the Turkish language is anj^thing but close. The 
blood is Turk where the language is Hungarian or Sla- 
vonic. The language is Turk where the blood is Ugrian or 
Mongol. 

Notwithstanding the inordinate size of the Turk area, 
the differences which it presents are but slight. As a 
general rule, the dialects graduate into each other ; and 
I doubt whether even the extreme forms — provided that 
the conversation be on a simple subject — are mutually 
unintelligible. 

In respect to the direction in which the Turk lan- 
guage has diffused itself, we may safely say that in the 
north and west it is intrusive. Except Independent 
Tartary and Turkestan, there is no spot where Turkish 
is spoken where it cannot be shown to be exotic. The 

H 2 



100 THE UIGHUR. 

claims, however, of Independent and Chinese Turkestan 
to be considered as the fountain and origin of the Turk 
language has yet to be examined. These, however, are 
matters for the ethnologist rather than the philologue. 

The name Turk, totider/i Uteris, first appears in A.D. 
569, when Justin sent an embassy to the Khan Zemar- 
chus, whose residence was near the Ek-tagh ; the words 
in italics being Turkish glosses. 

Of the Turk of this district, Klaproth gives the 
following words, taken from Chinese authorities, who 
refers them to the language of the Tuk'iil, i. e. Turks. 



English. 


T'uk'iii. 


Turkish. 


Sky 


tangri 


tiingri 


House 


ui 


ui 


Helm 


t'uk'iii 


tekhieh 


Bair 


shoka 


shadzh 


Chief 


kan 


khan 


Black 


koro 


khara 


Old 


kori 


khan 


Wolf 


furin 


buri. 



As the source of these samples is China, it is fair to 
suppose that they represent a language of the Chinese 
frontier, i. e. one of the most Eastern divisions of the 
group. It to this that the name Uighur most especially 
applies ; the proper Uighur being the population which 
most closely came in contact with two of the languages 
— the Tibetan and Mongol — which lay to the east of it, 
and approached the third, i. e. the Chinese. This is an 
inference from the fact that, at the present time, a tribe 
calling itself Ighnr speaks Tibetan, and touches the Sok 
districts of Mongolia. 

The Uighur Turks were the first of their stock to 
use an alphabet, and used it betimes, perhaps as early 
as the seventh century. The Mantshu alphabet (as has 
been stated) came from Mongolia ; and the Mongolian 
from the Uighur Turks, the Uighur Turks having taken 
it from Syria, under the instructions of the Nestorian 
missionaries. 



THE UIGHUR. 101 

It is chiefly in its descendants — the Mongol and the 
Mantshti — that this interesting alphabet survives ; since 
it was replaced by the Arabic when Mahometanism re- 
placed Christianity. Nevertheless, a few samples of it 
are extant, viz. (1) the Baktyar Nameh of the Bodleian ; 
(2, 3) the Miradzh and Tezkirehi Evliyd of the Bihlio- 
th^que du Roi ; and (4) Kaudatkuhilik in Vienna. 
None of these, however, except so far as the alphabet is 
concerned, are much more tlian literary curiosities. The 
first was written A.D. 1434, the second and third A.D. 
1436, the fourth, A.D. 1459. The Miradzh, a history 
of the ascension of Mahomet, is a translation from the 
Arabic ; the Tezkirehi Evliyd, or Legend of the Saints, 
being one from the Persian. The Baktyar Nameh is 
either a translation from the same language, or rifac- 
ciamento. The Kaudatkuhilik, or Science of Govern- 
ment, shows a little more originality — the matter, and 
perhaps the composition itself, being older than the MS., 
perhaps as old as A.D. 1069. 

The Mogul dynasty was Tshagatai, and the Indian 
descendants of the Great Mogul are of Tshagatai blood. 
So are many families in Caubul, just as certain families 
in England are Norman. The familj^ of Timur was 
Tshagatai ; Kokan, or Ferghana, being the district where 
the Tshagatai language was most especially cultivated. 
The Persian, however, was in immediate contact with it, 
and in some of the provinces prevailed over it. Ande- 
jan, however, the district of the capital, was so Turk, 
that " there was no one/' writes Baber, *' who did not 
understand the Turki tongue." Asfera and Marghinan 
were Persian. The languages acted and reacted on 
each other. Persian models were copied by Tshagatai 
writers, and Persian works translated by them. 

Of the Tshagatai, eo nomine, as spoken at the present 
moment, I have seen no specimens. Nor is this strange. 
The language spread itself beyond its own boundaries, 



102 THE UIGHUR. 

and, having found its way into Persia, Afghanistan, and 
India, became Persian, Indian, or Pushtu. 

Theoretically, the main differences between the Tsha- 
gatai and Uighur are considerable ; and they would be 
more so if the existing Uighur works were older. But 
they must be the newesfc of their class. Were they not 
all subsequent to the Hegira ? subsequent to the intro- 
duction of the Arabic alphabet, which must have been 
used concurrently with the Uighur, and subsequently to 
the predominance of Persian and Arabic models ? The 
old Uighur compositions would have been different, they 
would have been Christian in creed and Syriac in style. 
But none such exist. Yet they must have existed, or 
why the alphabet ? Why its extension into Mongolia ? 
Uighur, then, as the word has been used, means New 
Uighur. 

But what if the Uighur alphabet, concurrent with the 
Arabic in the newer Uighur literature, were also concur- 
rent with the Arabic in the earlier Tshagatai? In such 
a case, the works in question may be Tshagatai — for, it 
must be remembered, that it is only the alphabet which 
makes them Uighur. Their date is that of the Tshaga- 
tai dynasty. If so, the division between the two groups 
is either artificial or provisional ; in which case Uighur 
means the Turk of Chinese Turkestan, Tshagatai the 
Turk of Bokhara and Ferghana. However, according 
to common parlance, the works already enumerated are 
Uighur. A Uighur alphabet makes a Uighur work. 
At the same time, it should be added that Davies 
(though without quoting his authority) especially states 
that during the period immediately subsequent to their 
conversion, the Tshagatai made use of the Uighur 
alphabet. 

The Memoirs of Timur, and the Institutes of Timur, 
though translated from a Persian original, are said to be, 
in their earliest form, Turkish compositions — the Turk 



THE UIGHUR. 103 

dialect being the Tshagatai. These earlier forms, how- 
ever, have yet to be discovered. Ulug Beg, about A.B. 
1446, was a Tshagatai poet, as well as a Tshagatai 
patron of astronomy. His age, it should be observed, 
is within ten years of that of the Uighur MSS. Then 
comes Mir Ali Shir, a poet also, whose works, though 
unedited, are extant. Thirdly, comes the Emperor 
Baber himself 

The evidence of the Arabic alphabet being used con- 
currently with the Uighur, is to be found in the MS. of 
the Koudat, where there are interlineary glosses and re- 
marks, some in Arabic, some in Persian — all, however, 
in the ordinary alphabet of the Koran. Now, whether 
these be as old as the rest of the MS. or not, the reader 
who wrote them must have been the reader of a work 
in Uighur. 

The Uzbek has, to a great extent, replaced the 
Tshagatai, if, indeed, the two dialects were notably 
different. Khiva is Uzbek. The dominant populations 
in Bokhara and Ferghana are Uzbek — the remainder 
being Tajik. So it is elsewhere. This means that, 
except in the parts about Khiva, there is in the Uzbek 
countries, side by side with the ruling nation, a subor- 
dinate population speaking Persian — differing in its 
numerical proportion to that which speaks according 
to the country. Thus — 

In Khiva, the Uzbek is at its maxiTnum. 

It preponderates in the parts about Balk. 

So it does in Kunduz. 

So it does in Huzrut, Imaum, and Khullum. 

On the other hand, in Khost, Inderaub, and Taulik- 
haun, the Tajik element prevails. 

In Meimuna, Andkhu, and Shibbergaun, the second 
element, though other than Uzbek, is still Turk, i. e. 
Turcoman. 

The Turcomans are independent nomads between 



104 



THE KIRGHIZ. 



Bokhara and the Caspian, bounded on the south by 
Persia, and on the north by the Uzbeks and Kirghiz. 

Whether the Kirghiz can be separated from the 
Turcomans and the Uzbeks by any definite line of de- 
marcation, is uncertain. The central portions, however, 
of their area may be looked upon as the points where 
the blood and language most closely coincide : where 
foreign elements and foreign contact are at the mini- 
tnum, and where the type of the group is to be sought. 
On the east and north the character changes. There 
is contact with strange languages ; those languages being 
no longer Persian and Tibetan, but the Ugrian and Rus- 
sian of Siberia. That the Kirghiz of the northern portion 
of their area are intrusive is certain, though it is difficult 
to give the exact boundaries of their original occupancy. 

The name deserves notice. In Menander's account of 
his embassy to the Turk king Dizabulus, whose sove- 
reignty seems to have lain in the Tshagatai district, we 
find the word Xep^i'S — a Kirghiz female slave being one 
of the presents. In the Chinese geographers, Kilikiszu 
are placed on the Yenisey, where the term is current at 
the present time. Finally, I believe that, word for 
word, Kirghiz is Tsherkess, i. e. Circassian. The 
Kirghiz of Pamer are on the Persian and Uzbek 
frontier. 



English. 


Uzbek. 


Turcoman. 


Kii-ghiz. 


Head 


bash 


bash 


baz 


Hair 


zatsh 


zatsh 


tshatsh 


Hand 


al 


kol 


kol 


Foot 


ayak 


ayak 


ayak 


Eye 


kyus 


kus 


kus 


Ear 


kulak 


klak 


kolak 


Tooth 


tish 


dish 


tiz 


Blood 


kan 


kan 


kan 


Day 


kUndus 


kyondos 


kundus 


Sun 


kyonash 


koyash 


kUn 


Moon 


ai 


ai 


ai 


Star 


yoldos 


yoldos 


dzhildzhis. 



THE BARAMA TURKS. 105 



English. 


Uzbek. 


Turcoman. 


Kirgliiz. 


Fire 


ud 


Ot 


Ut 


Water 


zu 


zu 


zu 


Tree 


agatsh 


agatsh 


agatsh 


Stone 


tash 


tash 


taz 


One 


bir 


bir 


ber 


Ttoo 


ike 


iki 


oki 


Three 


utsh 


utsh 


utsh 


Four 


dyort 


durt 


tyort 


Five 


bish 


bish 


bez 


Six 


alty 


alto 


alty 


Seven 


edi 


edi 


dzhede 


Eight ^ 


zigis 


zikis 


zikes 


Nine 


tokas 


tokos 


tokus 


Ten 


on 


on 


on. 



The Barahinski, Baraha, or Barama Turks, between 
the Obi and the Irtish, touch the Ostiaks on the north, 
and are probably the occupants of an originally Ostiak 
area. At any rate, their language is Turk, the soil 
Ugrian, their blood, in all probability, mixed. Their 
political relations are Russian, and their creed Sha- 
manism, or imperfect Christianity rather than Mahome- 
tanism. 

Like the Barabinski, the so-called Tartars of Tobolsk 
are Turks ; occupants of ground originally Ugrian, and 
so far as it is not Russian, Ostiak. 

The Verkho-Tomski tribes. — Verkho means upper, 
and is a Russian word. Hence, the Verkho-Tomski are 
the Turks of the Upper Tom, i. e. the Tom above 
Kuznetsk. 

The Abintsi are a part of them. Their dialect, pro- 
bably, graduates into that of 

Kuznetz, where the frontier is Mongol and Samoyed. 

The Teleut are believed to be Mongols in blood, 
though Turk in speech. Below Kuznetsk 

The tribes of the Tshulim, though occupants of a 
district originally Ugrian, are said to mix Mongol (? Ye- 
niseian) words with their vernacular Turkish. Their tribes 
are called Dyon or Yon. 



106 THE TURKISH OF SIBERIA. 

The Turkish of the Yenisey, especially in the circle 
of the Minusinsk, and in the Sayanian mountains, is 
spoken by individuals who seem to have adopted it after 
the abandonment, not only of some native language 
other than Turk, but after the adoption of some inter- 
mediate one, different from both the Turk and the ori- 
ginal mother-tongue. Thus, a language which will be 
noticed in sequel under the name of Yeniseian, seems to 
have been replaced by the Samoyed, the Samoyed itself 
having been replaced by the Turk. Phenomena of this 
kind make the parts about Minusinsk one of the most 
obscure areas in Asia. We may advantageously con- 
sider these strata and substrata of languages in detail. 

1. There is the Kussian — recent in origin, but en- 
croacbing upon even the Turk. 

2. There is the Turk, which has spread itself in the 
west, at least, at the expense of the XJgrian, and which, 
in its Barabinski, Tobolski, and Tshulim elements, so 
far as it is heterogeneous, is XJgrian. 

3. There is the Mongol, which on the Tom, and in 
the Teleut districts may have preceded the Turk, itself 
preceded by something Samoyed or Yeniseian. 

4. There is the Ostiak of the Obi — the language 
which best represents the Ugrian of the Kirghiz fron- 
tier. 

5. There is the Samoyed, spoken as far north as the 
Arctic Sea, and as far south as the parts about Lake 
Ubsa within the Chinese frontier — the Samoyed which, 
in some cases, has been replaced by the Mongol, itself 
replaced by the Turk. 

6. There is the Yeniseian — a language known only 
in fragments, but which, in one case at least, has been 
replaced by Samoyed. 



THE TURKISH OF SIBERIA. 



107 



English. 


Baraba. 


Tobolsk. 


Tshulim. 


Kuznetik 
bash 


Head 


bash 


pash 


bash 


Eye 


kos 


kus 


kos 


kus 


Ear 


kulak 


kulak 


kulak 


kulak 


Nose 
Month 








mondu 
aksy 




parun 
auus 


murun 
agus 


XrX UUiHO 




Hair 


tshatsh 


tsats 


tshatsh 


tshatsh 


Tongue 




til 


til 


til 


Tooth 
Hand 




tish 
khal 


tish 
kal 


tish 
kol 




Sun 


kyosh 


kun 


kun 


kun 


Moon 


ai 


ar 


ai 


ai 


Star 


eldar 


yoldus 


yoldus 


tshlitis 


Fire 


ut 


ot 


ot 


ot 


Water 


zuu 


su 


su 


su 


Tree 


agaz 


yagats 


agats 


agatsh 


Stone 


tash 


tash 


tash 


tash 


One 


bir 


bir 


bir 


pir 


TXM 


ike 


ike 


ike 


iki 


Three 


ytsh 


itsh 


itsh 


utsh 


Four 


tyort 


dort 


dyort 


dort 


Five 


bish 


bish 


besh 


bish 


Six 


alte 


alty 


alte 


alty 


Seven 


sette 


siti 


sette 


setti 


Eight 


zogus 


segis 


zegus 


segys 


Nine 


togus 


togus 


togus 


togus 


Ten 


on 


on 


on 


on. 



Respecting the Teleuts, it has already been suggested 
that though Turk in Lxnguage, they have generally been 
looked upon as Mongols in blood : and it has also been 
suggested that, in the way of blood, they may be less 
Mongol than Yeniseian. The Mongol name is Teleng- 
gut, as has already been stated ; whereas Abulgazi calls 
them Uriat, which, word for word, is Urianchaiy Yarang, 
and the like — all apparent derivatives of Ara. At the 
time of the Russian conquest they were called White 
Kalmuks. 



Etiglisb. 


Teleut. 


English. 


Teleut 


Head 


bash 


Sun 


kun 


Eye 


kus 


Moon 


ai 


Ear 


kulak 


Star 


yiltis 


Nose 


muran 


Fire 


ot 


Mouth 


ous 


Water 


su 


Hair 


tshatsh 


Tree 


agash 


Tongue 


til 


Stone 


tash. 


Hand 


kol 


• 





108 



THE KOIBAL. 



Of the language of the Katshintsi Turks, the Kats- 
halar, of the Turks of Katsha, although we hear much 
about them in the way of history, we have, eo nomine, 
but few words ; mere obiter dicta of Castren's. Their 
dialect is essentially Koibal or Soiot. 



English. 


Katsha. 


EngUsh. 


Katsha. 


Woman 


ipthi 


Saddle 


izer 




epthi 


Butterfly 


irbakai 


Wind 


aba 


Sable 


kish. 



The Koihals form eight tribes ; in two of which the blood 
is Samoyed, in three Yeniseian. In 1847, a few old 
people knew a few Samoyed words. From the generation 
which preceded them a vocabulary in Samoyed was col- 
lected. Even then, the Samoyed was going out fast. 



English. 


Ktibal. 


English. 


Koibal. 


Man (vir) 


ir 


Snake 


dilan 


{homo) 


kizi 




tbilan 




er 


Tree 


agas 


Woman 


ipthi 


Earth 


dhir 




epthi 




tbir 


Head 


baa 


Stone 


tas 


Hair 


sas 


Hill 


tax 


Ear 


kulak 




tag 


Eye 


karak 


Fiver 


khem* 


Mouth 


axse 


Ice 


bus 


Bone 


sok 


Village 


&1 


Blood 


kan 


One 


ben 


Hand 


kol 


Two 


ike 


Foot 


azak 




iki 


Tooth 


tis 


Three 


tis 


Tongue 


til 




us' 


Shy 


tiger 


Four 


t6rt 




t^ger 


Five 


bis 


Sun 


khun 




bes 


Moon 


ai 




bis' 


Star 


.dhetes 




bes' 




theltes 


Six 


al 


Fire 


ot. 




alty 


Water 


sus 


Seven 


dhite 




sug 




thite 





8U 


Eight 


sigus 


Bird 


kus 




s6gus 


Egg 


numertka 


Nine 


togos 




numerka 





t6gos 


Fish 


balak . 


Ten 


on. 




* Yeni 


seian. 





THE KARAGAS. 



109 



The Koibal is stated by 


Castren to have as dialects, 


the Kondakov and the Salbin. Out of the few words 


he gives, I pick out a few evidently Turk. 


English. Kandokov. 


Salbin. 


Hair 


shash 


Tooth 


tish 


Beard 


sagal 


Belly 


karyn 


Star dhettes 


thythysh 


theltes 


thyltesh 


Earth dMr 





— - thir 




Bain nangmer 


nangmyr 


Tree 


agasb. 


The Karagas, amounting in 1851 


to 284 and 259 


females, fell into 




a. The Kas ; 




K The Sareg Kash ; 




c. The Ty^ptei ; 




d. The Tyogde ; 




e. The Kara Tyogde. 




They all, now, speak Turkish. 




English. Karagas. 


English. 


Karagas. 


Man (vir) er 


Water 


sug 


(homo) kishi 


Ice 


tosh 


Woman epshe 


Egg 


Dyumurha 


kat 


Fish 


balak 


£ye karak 


Snake 


thulan 


Ear kulak 


Bill 


tag 


Mouth akse 




dag 


Tooth dish 


Stone 


taish 


Tongiie tel 


Village 


nyon 


del 


One 


bira 


Hair thash 


Two 


ihi 


Hand kol 


Three 


ixis 


Foot but 


Four 


tort 


Blood khan 




dort 


Beard sahal 


Five 


beis 


Shy t^re 


Six 


alte 


Sun kun 


Seven 


thede 


Moon ?ai 


Eight 


sehes 


Star settes 


Nine 


tohos 


Fire ot 


Ten 


on. 


Water sux 







IJO 



THE SOIONY. 



The Soiony (TshitshatshefF takes pains to tell us that 
this is the right form of the word) are chiefly within 
the Chinese frontier. Still some are Russian. Their 
original language I hold to be Yeniseian ; yet, now, 
they speak Turkish. In Castren, as obiter dicta, 
and as illustrations of his Koibal and Karagas vocabu- 
lary we have a few Soyony words. They are the tribes 
from whom the Sayanian range takes its name. Some 
of the Soyony, as here stated, speak Turkish; others 
Buriat ; some, probably, Saraoyed. The basis, however, 
seems to be Yeniseian. 



English. 


Soiony. 


English. 


Soiony. 


Head 


pas 


Star 


theltes 


Hair 


tiik 


Fire 


ot 


Tooth 


tes 


Water 


sux 


Tongue 


tib 




sug 


Eye 


karak 




su 


Ear 


kar 


Earth 


dhir 


Foot 


put 




thir 


Beard 


sagal 


Stone 


tas 


Belly 


karen 


Hill 


tag 


Sun 


kar 


Ice 


tosh 


Star 


dheltes 


■ Tree 


yas. 



The Sayanian tribes, one of which is said to be 
named Sokha, lead to the Sokhalar of the Lena and the 
Arctic Sea, the Turks of the extreme north, the Turks 
who are usually called Yakuts ; but whose native names 
must be carefully remembered as Sokhalar — lar being 
the sign of the plural number. The Sokhalar, from the 
parts about Lake Baikal, are said to have separated 
from the Bratli (? Buriats), with whom they formerly 
made one nation, under a chief named Tarkhantegin ; 
the land upon which they intruded themselves having 
been Samoyed, Tungtis, and Yukahiri. 

The language of the third column of the following 
table is from the Asia Polyglotta. It is simply headed 
Yeniseian, i. e. Turk of the Yenisey. 



THE SOKHALAR OR YAKUT. 



Ill 



English. 


Yakut. 


Yeniseian. 


Head 


baz 


basH 


Eye 


kharakh 


karak 


Ear 


kulgakh 


kulak 


Nose 


jnurun 


buruu 


Mouth 


* ayakh 


akay 


Tongue 


til 


tyi 


Tooth 


tiz 


tish 


Sun 


kun 


kun 


Moon 


ai 


ai 


Star 


Zulus 


tshiltis 


Fire 


wot 


ot 


Water 


wi 


su 


Hill 


taz 


tag 


One 


bir 


bir, nagysh 


Two 


iki 


iki 


Three 


uz 


utsh 


Four 


tirt 


tort 


Five 


vez 


besk 


Six 


alta 


alta 


Stven 


seta 


dzhuti 


EigM 


ag,5*r 


segus 


Nine 


dogys 


togos 


Ten 


on 


ongir^. 



Such are the details of the Turks of Siberia, who are 
so far exceptional as to be, to a great extent, Pagans, 
rather than Mahometans, and, of course, unlettered. 
Since the Russian conquest of Siberia, Christianity has 
made some way amongst them. There is, however, 
some Mahometanism, and a little Buddhism. 

The Turks of the Khanats of Kazan, Astrakan, and 
the Crimea now claim notice. They are all intrusive, 
i. e. other than aboriginal to the countries where their 
language is spoken. 

The Bashkirs, chiefly occupants of the Government of 
Orenburg, Turk in tongue, are, more or less, Ugi'ian in 
blood. So are, probably, 

The Meshtshenaks, who are believed to have immi- 
grated from the Oka, in the Mordvin and Tsherimiss 
neighbourhood. 



112 



2 


THE 


KAZAN, 


ETC. 




English. 


Kazan, 


Meshtsheriak. 


Bashkir. 


Nogay. 


Head 


bash 


bash 




bash 


bash 


Hair 


tshatsh 


tsats 




zaz 


zatsh 


Homd 


, kol 


kul 




kol 


kol 


Eye 


kus 


kus 




kyus 


gyos 


Ear 


kolak 


klak 




kulak 


kulak 


Tooth 


tyesh 


tish 




tish 


tysh 


Tongue 


tyel 


til 




tel 


til 


Blood 


kan 


kan 




kan 


kan 


Day 


kyun 


kun 




kyun 


giin 


Sun 


kuyash 


kuyash 




kun 


gyon 


Moon 


ai 


ai 




ai 


ai 


Star 


yaldus 


yuldus 




yuldus 


ildis 


Fire 


ut 


ut 




ut 


ut 


Water 


zu 


zu 




zu 


su 


Tree 


agatsh 


agatsh 




agatsh 


agatsh 


Stone 


tash 


tash 




tash 


tash 


One 


ber 


ber 




ber 


bir 


Two 


ike 


ike 




ike 


iki 


Three 


utsh 


uz 




ysh 


utsh 


Four 


diirt 


dyort 




dort 


dort 


Five 


bish 


besh 




besh 


bish 


Six 


alty 


alty 




alty 


alty 


Seven 


yedi 


idi 




yedi 


siti 


Fight 


zigis 


zigis 




zigis 


zegis 


Nine 


tokus 


togus 




togus 


togus 


Ten 


on 


on 




on 


on. 


rhe Kuzzilbash is the Turk of Persia : 




English. 


Kuzzilbash 






English. 


Kuzzilbash 


Head 


bash 






Hand 


el 


Eye 


gos 






Sun 




gun 


Ear 


kulakh 






Moon 


a 


Nose 


buruni 






Star 




yuldus 


Mouth 


aghis 






Fire 




oth 


Hair 


sadzh 






Water 


su 


Tongue 


til 






Tree 




dyadzh 


Tooth 


dish 






Stone 


dash. 



The Basian, Karatshai, and Kumuk that of Caucasus. 

English. Kumuk. Karatshai. 

Head bash bash 

Eye fljos gos 

Ear kulakh kulakh 

Nose burun burun 

Mouth * aus ul 

Hair sadzh gadzh 

Tongue dil til 

Tooth dish dish 



TURK PATER-NOSTERS. 113 



English. 


Kumuk. 


Karatshai, 


Hand 


kol 


kol 


Sun 


gun 


gun 


Moon 


ai 


ai 


Star 


yoldus 


iildus 


Fire 


ot 


ot 


Water 


su 


su 


Tree 


terek 


ayadzh 


Stone 


tash 


tash. 



Of the following Pater-nosters, all of which are taken 
from the Mithridates, the first three represent the lan- 
guage of the parts to the north of the Caucasus or to the 
east of the Caspian, i. e. the Tartar of Independent 
Tartary. The last three, on the other hand, give the 
Turkish of Asia Minor. The first of them is from Georgie- 
wicz, who, in the sixteenth century, lived thirteen years 
in Anatolia as a slave. The second is the Turkish of 
Armenia ; the third, like the first, of Anatolia ; its date 
being A.D. M566 — earlier than the Armenian specimen, 
but later than that by Georgiewicz. — JDe Turcarum Mo- 
ribus, Lyons, A.D. 1555. They are given, verbatim, et 
literatirrij as they stand in Adelung, i. e. they have not 
been collated with the originals. 

1. 

Atha vizum, ki kok-ta sen ; evlia ol dur senung ad-ung ; kelsen memleket- 
ung ; olsun senung iradat-ungale jer-dahi gug-de ; ver visum gundelik et- 
mege-muzi bu-giun ; va vizum jasu-ngisch kail ot-nitegim kail biz juz jasun- 
gisleru muze ; dahi koima bilzi visvasije ; killa kurta vilzi jeman-dan. Amen. 

2. 
Atha wisum, chy chok-ta sen ; algusch ludur sinung ad-ung ; kelsuum sen- 
ung hauluchung ; belsung sinung archung aley gur-da uk ackta ; wer wisum 
gundaluch otmak cbumusen wou-gun ; kay wisum jasochni alei wis dacha k a 
yelle nin wisun jasoch lamasin ; dacha koima wisni suna-macha ; ilia garta 
wisni geman-dan. 

3. 

Ya Ata-muz, ki yuksek ghiogh-da sen ; aadin ari olsun ; padashah-lighin 
ghelsun ; boiruklerin itsmish olsun giogh-da, kibi dahi yirda ; her-ghuinaghi 
e kmeki-vir bize bu-ghiun ; muzi va burgjleri-muzi bize bagishla, nitshaki biz 
dahi burgjleri-muza baghishleriz ; va bizi sinisha ghiturma; likin Yarama- 
zdiz bizi sali-vir (va kortar va sakla) ; zira-ki senungh-dier padisha-lik, va 
kadirlik, va bojuklik, ta gjanid gjavidana. Amin. 

I 



114 THE CUMANIAN. 

4. 

Baba-moz hanghe gugte sson ; chuduss olssum ssenung ; adun gelsson ssen- 
ung memleclitun ; olssun sseimng istedgting nycse gugtlie, vie gyrde ; echame 
gu-mozi hergunon vere bize bu gun ; hem bassa bize borsligo-moze, nycse bizde 
baslaruz bortsetiglere-mozi ; hem yedma byzegeheneneme ; de churtule bizy 
Jaramasdan. Amen. 

6. 

Baba-miz ki chioiler-de sin ; senin ad-in mubarek olsun ; senin padischia- 
lij-in chielsin ; nikhe chi§i-de boile kher-de senin murad-in olun-sun ; her- 
chiun laziru oalaru ekmekhe-mizi bize ver cu chiun ; ve borglari-mizi bisc 
baghishla nikhe ki biszde borghila-miza baghishlariz ; ve bizi ighva-den emin 
eile ; amma bizi fena-den kurtar. 

6. 

Bisum Ata-mus ki kiokler-deh sin ; seniing ad-Ung mulcaddes olsun ; senling 
7nelait-xmg kielsun ; siniing iradet-ViXig olsun nitekim kioh-deh dachi jer-deh ; 
her kiunki bisiim etmeke miisi wer bise bu kiun ; we-bisiim burdschler-iimi 
bise baggischlek, nitekem bis dachi bisiim burdschluler-iimiisi baggischlerus ; 
w6-bisi tadschnhe adehal etma; lekin scAenV-den-bisi nedschat eile; sira 
senung-diir melcut, we sultanet, tve Medschi ta ebed. Amin. 

In A.D. 1770 died Yarro, a native of Czarszag, the 
last Hungarian who spoke the Cumanian dialect of the 
Turk. For this we have the five following Pater-nosters ; 
all imperfect. 

1. 

Bezom Afcta-masz, kem-ke kikte. Szelezon szen-ad-on ; 

dosson szen-kiiklon netze-ger-de, ali-kiik-te ; bezom ok nemezne ( ? okne- 
mezne) glit biittor gungon borberge; eli bezon mene-mezne ther-mez-bezgo 
ovgyi tengere 

2. 

Bezen Atta-maz, chen-ze kit-te. Szen liszen sin-ad-6n ; 

Boson mittigen kenge .... ale-kik-te ; puthuter kingiri ilt bezen 

iltne, bezen kutin ; Bezen migni bolsotati bocson 

megne tenge nizni. Amen. 

3. 

Bezon Atta-maz kem-ze kek-te. Szen leszen szen-ad-on ; 

mitzi jegen-ger-de, ali kek-te ; bezom akko mozne bergezge pibbiitoor kiingod; 
lit bezon mene-mezde utrogergenge ilt mebezde. ..... Olyon 

angja manya boka tsali botsanigjs tengere. Amen. 

4. 

Bezam Atta-masz ken-ze kek-te. Szen-lezon szen ad-on ; 

Boson szen-kiiklon netze ger-de, ali guk-te ; bezamok menemezne ( ? bezam 
okmene-mezne) gutba tergunger ( ? gutbater gunger) ; ali-bezam me-mezne 

tscher-mez-bezga ; kutkor-bezga eniklem-bezda ; 

Ovia malna szembersank bokvesate ; tengeri ovia tengeri 

tengeri. Amen. 



THE TSHUVASH. 



115 



5, 

Bezen Atta-maz ken-ze kik-te. Szen leszen szen ad-on ;...., 
Doson szen kiiklon nicziegen ger-de, ali kek-te ; bezen ako-moze ( ? okne 
mezne) bergezge pitbiitor kiingon ; il bez mene-mezne neszem-bezde, jermez 
bezge iitrogergenge iltma tscher-mez-bezga ; bezne olgya> manga kutkor bezne 
algya manna szen borszong boka csalli {aliter osalli) bocson igyi tengere. Amen 

In the Government of Kazan reside as many as 
800,000 Tshuvashes, differing from the other Ugi^ian 
populations in their somewhat superior civilization, and 
from the so-called Tartars in the fact of their being 
Christians rather than Mahometans. Respecting their 
language much has been written ; some inquirers main- 
taining that it is essentially Ugrian upon which a great 
deal of Turk has been engrafted ; others that it is Turk 
at bottom, but Ugrian in respect to its superadded ele- 
ments. 



English. 


Tshuvash. 


Osmanli. 


Tsheremis. 


Head 


puz 


bask 


bui 


Eye 


kos 


gos 


shinsya 


Ear 


khulga 


khnlak 


piliksh 


Nose 


sumsah 


burun 


ner 


Mouth 


zuvar 


aghis 


usbmu 


Hair 


zuz 


satsh 


ip 


Tongue 


tsbilge 


dil 


elmye 


Tooth 


shil 


dish 


puntshal 


Hand 


alia 


el 


kit 


Sun 


khwel 


gyun 


ketshe 


Moon 


oikb 


ai 


tilsye 


Star 


zuldur 


yildis 


shuder 


Fire 


wot 


od 


tul 


Water 


sbiva 


su 


wut 


Tree 


evyz 


agatsh 


pu 


Stone 


tshol 


task 


ku 


One 


pra 


bir 


iktet 


Two 


■ ikke 


iki 


koktot 


Three 


vise 


utsh 


kumut 


Four 


dwatta 


dort 


nilit 


Five 


pilik 


besh 


visit 


Six 


alta 


alty 


kudut 


Seven 


sitshe 


yedi 


shimit 


Eirjht 


sakar 


sekis 


kandashe 


Nine 


tukhon 


dokiis 


indeshe 


Ten 


wonka 


on 


lu. 

I 2 



]16 THE TSHUVASH. 

The Tshuvash plurals end in -zam or -zem ; the 
Osmanli in -lai% or -lev. In Tshuvash ap, or a&, in 
Osmanli, 7nen=-I. The Tshuvash verb substantive is 
holah zz sum ; the negative, -asb- ; as kazariadip = oro ; 
kuziarmastap =z non oro. 

Schubert reckoned the Tshuvash at 370,000 ; a high 
number for a Ugrian, or even a Turk, population in 
these parts. 

The Pater-nosters of the preceding pages were taken 
down before the grammatical structure of the dialects 
which they represent was studied. As such, they are, 
more or less, inaccurate. On the other hand, they are 
better samples of the average character of the Pater- 
nosters of rude languages than more accurate com- 
positions would have been. 

They show difference rather than likeness : whilst, on 
the other hand, words like those of our vocabularies 
show likeness rather than difference. Hence, we get, as 
a rough rule, the doctrine that, in the present work, 
languages are more like each other than the Pater-nosters 
make them, and less like each other than the lists of 
words make them. 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



117 



CHAPTER XYI. 



Tlie Yukahiri. 



Due east of the Sokhalar lie the Yukahiri, or Yuka- 
giri, who call themselves Andon Domni — Yukahiri being 
the Turk, and Atal the Koriak, name. ''Their lan- 
guage/' writes Klaproth, is " one of the most outlying in 
Asia/' It is one, too, of which next to nothing is known. 
It is, also, a language of a receding frontier. In a.d. 
1739 the numbers of the Yukahiri were high. The 
tribes of the Omolon, according to Sauer, were called 
Tsheltiere ; those of the Alasey, Omoki ; those of the 
Anadyr, Tshuvantsi and Kudinsi. A numerous tribe 
named Konghini occupied the Kolyma. *' Wars,'* 
writes Prichard, " with the Tshuktshi and Koriaks have 
almost exterminated them.'' 

But there must (if the views of the present writer be 
correct) have, also, been encroachment from the West — 
effected, most probably, by the Sokhalar. 

The language is certainly very different from that of 
any of the surrounding populations* 



English. 


Yiikahiri. 


Koriak. 


Yakut. 


Tungis. 


Head 


monoli 


lawut 


baz 


dyll 


Eye 


angdzha 


lalat 


kharakh 


eha 


Ear 


golendhi 


vyilut 


kulgakh 


zen 


Nose 


yongyul 


enigytam 


murun 


ongokto 


Mouth 


angya 


zekiangin 


ayak 


liamun 


Hair 


manailae 


katshugui 


az 


nyuritt 


Tongue 


andzhui) 


giigel 


tyl 


ingni 


Tooth 


tody 


wannalgyn 


tiz 


ikta(?) 


Hand 


tolondzha 


myngakatsh' 


ili 


ngala 



118 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



English. 


Yukaliiri 


Koriak. 


Yakut. 


Tungus. 


Day 


bondzhirka 


hallo 


kun 


inangi 


Sun 


bugonshe 


tyketi 


kun 


ziguni 


Moon 


kininsbe 


geilygen 


ui 


bega 


Stcbt- 


lerungundzhia 


lelapitshan 


Zulus 


haulen 


Fire 


yenyilo 


milugan 


wot 


togo 


Water 


ondzM 


mimal 


u 


mu 


Tree 


tsbal 


uttepel 


maz 


mo 


Stone 


kaU 


guggon 


taz 


dzholo 


One 


irken 


onnon 


bir 


omukon 


Two 


antaklon 


nioktsh 


ike 


dzhur 


Three 


yalon 


niyokh 


uz 


ilyan 


Four 


yekalon 


niyakh 


tirt 


dygyn 


Five 


onganlon 


myllangin 


ves 


tongo 


Six 


malhiyalon 


onnanmyllaDgin 


alta 


nyungun 


Seven 


purkion 


langin 


seta 


nadan 


Eight 


malhielekhlon 


niyokh-myllangin 


agys 


dzTiapkun 


Nine 


khuni-izkeel- 
lendzbin 


khonnaitskinkin 


dogys 


yagin 


Ten 


kuniella 


mynegytkin 


on 


dzhur. 



The root malhiy in the Yukahiri numerals for six and 
eighty is the onalhuk (r\%alguh) — two of several of the 
dialects of North-west America ; and I may add, that, 
East of the Lena true American characteristics present 
themselves, and that prominently. 

In 1850, I published, in my work on the Varieties of 
Man, the following tables, one of which gave a certain 
number of affinities between the Yeniseian and the 
Yukahiri, the other some between the Yeniseian and the 
Samoyed. I also expressed the opinion that, on the 
strength of these affinities, the three gi'oups might be 
thrown into one, and that the name of the class thus 
formed may be Hyperborean. Whether the tables were 
sufficient to justify the formation of such a class is 
another question. They ought to have been fuller. 



A. 

The itenisean and the Yukahiri of the Asia Polyglotta. 
English, beard Kott, 

Inbask, Tculye, Jculgung 
Pumpokolsk, clepuk 
Assan, culup, chulp 



Arinzi, horolep 
Yukahiri, bu-gylbe 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



119 



English, head 
Inbask, tshig 
Yukahiri, yoh 

English, moutli 
Pumpokolsk, Ichan 
Yukahiri, any a 

English, nose 

Inbask, olgen, olen 

Pumpokolsk, Jiang 

Assan, ang 

Yukahiri, yonyul, iongioula. 



English, tongue 
Assan, alUp 
Kott, alUp 
Arinzi, alyap 
Yukahiri, andzhub 

English, ear 
Assan, Jcologan, Mohan 
Kott, Icalogan 
Yukahiri, golondzhi 

English, man 
Inbask, ^et. Net 
Pumpokolsk, ilset 
Kott, hatket 
Yukahiri, yadu 

English, dog 
Inbask, tsip, tip 
Yukahiri, tahaka 



English, thunder 
Arinzi, eshath-yantu 
Yukahiri, yendv. 



English, lightning 
Inbask, yakene-hoh 
Yukahiri, hug-onshe 

English, egg 
Inbask, onge 
Arinzi, ang 

Pumpokolsk, tanyangeeg 
Yukahiri, langdzhango 

English, leaf 
Assan, yepan 
Kott, dipang 
Yukahiri, yipan 

English, eat 
Assan, rayali 
Yukahiri, lagid 

English, yellow 
Kott, shuiga 
Yukahiri,, tshakatonni 

English, moon 
Pumpokolsk, tui 
Arinzi, shui 
Yukahiri, Tcinin-shi. 



B. 



The Yenisean and the Samoyed of the Asia Polyghtta. 



English, arm 
Arinzi, Tchinang 
Mangaseia, kannamunne 

English, finger 
Inbask, tokan 
Pumpokolsk, tok 
Tawgi, fyaaka 
Yurass, tarka 

English, flesh 
Arinzi, is 
Assan, ig, igi 
Pumpokolsk, zig 



Mangaseia, osa 
Turuchansk, odzha 
Narym, &c., ueg 
Karass, hueg 
English, fir-tree 
Inbask, ei 
Arinzi, aya 
Obdorsk, ye 

English, egg 
Inbask, Ong 
Arinzi, ang 
Pumpokolsk, eg 
Tas, iga 



120 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



English, egg 
Assan, shulei 
Kott, shulei 
Motorian, shlok 

English, tree 
Assan, atsh 
Kott, &c., agshe 
Motorian, &c., cha 

English, brother 

Assan, pohesh 

Koibal, pa^im— younger 

English, butter 
Assan, hayah 
Motorian, chayaJc 



moon 
Assan, shvA 
Koibal, Tcui 

English, sun 
Assan, cfcc, ego, 
Motorian, haye 

English, stone 
Inbask, gijgs, tyes 
Pumpokolsk, <^ys, Tcit 



Kott, 
Arinzi, Tches 
Motorian, dagia, 

English, summer 
Assan, shega 
Kott, chtishsJtega 
Arinzi, shei 
Motor, claghan 
Koibal, taga 

English, they 
Asssin,'hatin 
Arinzi, itang 
Motor, tin 



woman 
Inbask, ^ft^fi'm 
Arinzi, byJc-hamalte 



It is clear that, if Castr^n^s 
moyed with the Fiu be (as it is) 



Obdorsk, pug-utsu 
Pustosersk, pug-iga 

English, river 
Denka, chuge 
Pustosersk, yaga 

English, great 
Assan, paga 
Arinzi, hirhha 
Pustosersk, pirge 

English, evening 
Inbask, his 
Pumpokolsk, bigidin 
Assan, pidziga 
Yurass, pausema 
Obdorsk, paus-emya 
Pustosersk, paus-emye 

English, hill 
Inbask, &c., chai 
Samoyed, syeo, Jco 

English, bed 
Inbask, chodzha 
Obdorsk, choha 
Tawgi, Jcufu 

English, birch -tree 
Inbask, uusya 
Assan, uga 
Kott, uga 
Pustosersk, chu 
Tawgi, &c., }:uie 
Ket, tiue 

English, leaf 
Yeniseian, yp-an 
Pumpokolsk, ejig 
Pustosersk, wyba ] 

Obdorsk, wiibe 
Yurass, newe 
Tomsk, tyaba 
Narym, gabe 
Kamash, dzhaba 

association of the Sa- 
right, the Yukahiri and 



o^J 



THE YUKAHIRI. 121 

Yeniseian should be in the same category, and, as such, 
IJgrian also. Does Castren make them so ? The answer 
to this question is as follows : — 

Of the Yukahiri he says little or nothing any way. 

Of the Yeniseian he expressly states that it is other 
than Ugrian, 

An opinion to this effect and from such a quarter 
rendered a re-consideration of the doctrine involved in 
the previous classification imperative ; and so sensible 
was I of this that, having published a notice of the 
tribes under consideration between the publication of 
the Lectures on the Altaic family, and the Grammar of 
the Kott and Yeniseian, " in deference to his " (Castren 's) 
"opinion, I suspended my judgment until the last-named 
work should be published.'' 

When published, as it was soon after, it' put the 
Yeniseian as it stands in the present work — -leaving the 
Yukahiri to be dealt with as it best may. 

In Sauer's account of Billing's Expedition there is a 
list of 250 Yukahiri words. These, in conjunction with 
the list of Imperial Vocabularies, and a Pater-noster 
from Witsen's North and East Tartary, constitute the 
whole of our data. The greater part of them appears 
in the Asia Polyglotta ; in the body of the work by 
itself, and in the Atlas in a tabular form, compared or 
contrasted with the Koriak, Kamskadale, and Eskimo 
languages ; from all of which (as aforesaid) it differs 
visibly. 

How far is it Samoyed — the Pater-nosters being 
compared? The following are the details, clause for 
clause. 

Yukahiri. — Otj^ mitsje. 
Turuklmnslc Samoyed. — Modi Jescje. 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Mi Jeseme. 
Arcliangel Samoyed. — Mani Nisal. 
OstiaJc. — Jez mi. 
Vogul. — Mem Jef. 



122 THE YUKAHIRI. 

(2.) 
Yukahiri. — Kandi Kudsjunga. 
TuruJchansh Samoyed. — Teio na Csonaar. 
Tawgi Samoyed.'- — Neiteio Nuontone. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Huien tamuva Numilembarti tosu. 
OstiaJc. — Kundina jejand Nopkon. 
Vogul. — Conboge Eterdarum. 

(3.) 

YukaJiiri. — Temlalangli nim totlie. 

Turukhansh Samoyed. — Todi nilo torcke csuzuiro. 

Tawgi Samoyed. — Tonon nilo tontokui kusiuro. 

Archangel iSamoT/ec?. —Tadisse pider nim. 

Ostiah. — Nuni nip tat. 

Vogul. — Naerderoin amut nema. 

(4.) 
YuJcahiri. — Legatei pugandallanpoh tottlie. 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — Todi naksiaro toretusu. 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Tonon nuontomeiro tondo tuifantu. 
Archangel Samoyedj. — Pider parowadie tosu. 
Ostiah — Tule nutkotsj tat. 
Vogul. — Nerosia sochtos. 

(5.) 

Ytdcahiri. — Latiot t'sjemol alkatei, konda koet zjuga (? kundsjunga) je 
leviangh. 

TuruJchansJc Samoyed. — Todi agnaara toretusu tone na csonaar i jacsona. 

Tawgi Samoyed. — Tonon nianzepsialo tuifano, tondone nuontono mamoru- 
tono. 

Archangel Samoyed. — Pider gior amgade numilembart, tarem jae. 

OstiaJc. — Tat tenel tat tat nopkon its jots jogodt. 
. Vogul. — Omut nun gerae tegali eterdarum scinan maanki. 

(6.) 
Yukahiri. — Lunliangel miltj^ monidetjeliih keyck mitin telaman. 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — Modi puieresiudara kirva toratsin mena ereksone. 
Taiogi Samoyed. — Mi niliusiame kirvu tozu nanc jele. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Man jeeltema nan tuda. 
Ostiak. — Nai me 'tsjelelemi tallet meko shek titap. 
Vogul. — Candalas tep mi me tiegalgad. 

(7.) 

Yukahiri. — Jeponkatsj mitin taldelponmitlapul, mitkondan (? mit kondan) 
poniatsjock tannevinol mitlapUl. 

Turukhansk Samoyed. — I kai nene noina oteine, tone imodinani kalodie 
neine oteoponede. 

Tawgi Samoyed. — Kuoje nane mogorene oteine, tondone oniede kuvojefan- 
tome naine oteaoponteinianan. 



THE YUKAHIRI. 123 

Archangel Samoyed. — Ali ona mani isai, tai mano wangundar mani mi 
manuo. 

OstiaTc. — Kvodtsjedi mekosjek kolzja mei, tat mei kvodtsjedi kolzja mei. 
Vogul. — Julokults me gavorant, tuigali menik julgoli amut tzagaraldin. 

(8.) 
Yuhahiri. — Je kondo olgonilak mitel olo oimik. 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — Iro sirene ta ora basiedo. 
Taiogi Samoyed. — Letancto men koli cakento. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Ja merum haniia sa neninde baka. 
Ostiah. — Nik jegosjid kvondik mat kekend. 
Vogul. — An mengolen julvagarias. 

(9.) 
Yukahiri. — Kondo moliak mitel kimda annelan, 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — I role sireno kodago chore. 
Taiogi Samoyed. — Si lupto men muzcy logoto. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Japtan mane suadera. 
Ostiak. — Tat . . . mat losogod. 
Vogul. — Toromalt derku mem kul. 

(10.) 

Yukahiri. — Le dot pugundal lenpoh, je tonbank, je tiindalov kundejank. 

Turukhansk Samoyed. — Tone todi tonea naksiaro i niclioro i su vui-aaro i 
reine. 

Tatvgi Samoyed. — Tondo tonon noncinu nu ontomouro ni ebomeon ni timeon 
nlecneeno. 

Archangel Samoyed. — Tekindapt scbin pider parowadea ni hooka, wadado, 
il iwan. 

Ostiak, — Tat tat nudkotsj, orup, uvorganin, tam nun. Nat. 

Vogul. — Tagolodamu negotsku, vaan booter, nemonsoigi nekostatiu. Peitse. 

Eernarks. 
1. 
Otje is, apparently, the Russian otets, otce. That mitsje is the Turuk- 
hansk modi is probable. Compare totlie (thine) with todi, and the probability 
increases. 

2. 
Kandi is the relative pronoun, and, word for word, the Ostiak kundina. 

8-4. 

Nim is German. Totlie has akeady been noticed. 

5. 

Latiot.—Whsit la means is uncertain. Perhaps it should be separated 
from tiot, which is totlie = thy. T'sjemol is, perhaps, the Ostiak tenel. In 
leviangh, the -ngh is inflexional, probably the sign of a locative case. The 
simple form in Billing is hvjie. 



124 THE YUKAHIRI. 



Miltje and mitin are the pronouns of the first person. Monidetjelah and 
telaman = this day and daily. The root is tel; and it appears in both the 
Samoyed and Ostiak. It appears, too, with the terminations -ma and -mi. 
In Billing, pondscherJca = day, whilst pondscherJcoma = to-day, the tna 
being man. 

7-10. 

The likeness here seems limited to the roots pon and tan, in No. 7, as com- 
pared with the Oiea^^onteinisxnaLTx of the Tawgi. 



THE UGRIAN CLASS. 125 

CHAPTER XVII. 

The Ugrian Class. — Its Importance and Peculiarities. — Castren's Researches. 
— The Samoyed Division. 

Every language is, in its way, a philological study ; 
and so is every group of languages. The Ugrian class, 
however, is one of pre-eminent importance. It is the 
most northern of all : and, in remembering this, we 
must also remember that the world is a sphere. It is 
like an apple or an orange. Now it is one thing to cut 
round an apple in the latitude of its pips : it is another 
thing to do so just below its calyx, or just above the 
stalk. The one section is a long, the other a short, one. 
A language (if such a one existed) that went round the 
world at the equator would cover infinitely more ground 
than one that encircled one of the Poles. Yet the 
number of degrees would be the same. The Malay 
tongues are spoken over fewer degrees of latitude than 
the Ugrian. How different, however, is the real length 
of their ai*ea. If they were spoken within the Arctic 
Circle, they would cover less ground than the Turk. 
Now the Ugrian tongues belong to the region where 
the degTees of latitude are of the narrowest. Some of 
them, indeed, lie to the south — e. g. the Magyar. As 
a general rule, however, they are northern. 

Again — there are certain parallels which may be 
called zones of conquest and encroachment. The extreme 
north is unfavorable to the development of mind and 
muscle. So are the Tropics. Hence, the nations of 
the medium, or temperate, districts are like two-edged 



126 teE UGRIAN CLASS. 

swords. They cut both ways — encroaching accord- 
ingly. 

The Ugrian tongues are the tongues of the North, 'of 
the narrow longitudes, and of the un:ftivoured climates. 
They have been inordinately encroached on. Again — 
they lie, to a great extent, between Europe and Asia. 

The Ugrian area was once continuous. It is now 
fragmentary. Many of the Ugrian districts are islands, 
with a sea of Slavonism around them. Or we may 
change the metaphor, and call them oases. The desert 
around them is sometimes Slavonic, sometimes Turk. 

The Tungus, the Mongol, and the Turk were philo- 
logical classes in the way that the Solidungula con- 
stituted a class in Zoology. The difference between the 
horse and the ass was all the difference they embraced. 
The Ugrian is a class in the way that the Rodentia are 
a class. There are many members, and the differences 
embraced are the differences between a mouse and an 
agouti. 

The chief languages of the Ugrian class are the 
Ostiak, the Vogul, the Magyar, the Permian, the Votiak, 
the Tsherimis, and the Mordwin — all recognized by the 
earlier philologues. Then comes the Samoyed, recognized 
as Ugrian since the researches of Castren. Then the 
Yukahiri and the (?) Yeniseian, of which much has al- 
ready been said. 

The Koriak and its congeners can only be made 
UgTian by raising the value of the class. 

In three respects Ugrian philology is easy. A lan- 
guage spoken in the centre of Asia has affinities on each 
side— north, south, east, and west. A language 
spoken on the northern end of the world has affinities 
in one direction only — to the south. The affinities of 
the Lap are one-sided ; those of the Turk (to borrow an 
expression from the geologists) quaquaversal. 

Secondly — the boundaries of an island or an oasis 
are easily marked out. The limits of a tract in tl;^ 



THE SAMOYED. 127 

middle of a continent may easily be indefinite. Now, 
many of the Ugrian tongues are absolutely isolated. 

Thirdly — the Ugrians have generally been encroached 
on. Hence, there is much. which, though Russian, Li- 
thuanic, German, or Turkish in speech, is Ugrian in 
blood ; although the converse is (comparatively speaking) 
rarely the case. 

There are not ten millions of Ugiians (tested by their 
language) in the world. Of these nearly half are in 
Hungary ; three-fourths of the remainder being the 
Fins of Finland. Assuredly, the Ugrian is a fragmen- 
tary class. 

The Ugrians lead not only from Asia to Europe, but 
to America as well. 

The data for the Ugrian languages are ample. This 
is because the nationality of the Finlanders, not discou- 
raged by Russia, has been devoted with more than merely 
laudable activity to the study of them. From the days 
of Porthan to those of Sjogren and Castren, the inves- 
tigation of Ugrian ethnology has been pursued with 
learning and acumen. 

The language of the present group which is best 
known, and which most especially illustrates the word 
Fin or Ugrian (for the two terms are nearly synony- 
mous), is the Fin of Finland. As a literary language it 
is, by no means, unimportant. Neither is it the lan- 
guage of a nation destitute of political importance. 
Still it is not the right language to begin with. It is 
part and parcel of the present work to make an approx- 
imate sequence in the way of connection : and the group 
of prospective languages which comes nearest to the 
preceding is — 

The Samoyed : this being a name for a class of 
dialects which, within the last ten years, has commanded 
more attention than any class of equal political and lite- 
rary unimportance. Yet fifty years ago they were 
known only by name. The Mithridates gives us little 



128 THE SAMOYED. 

more than a few Pater-nosters. The Asia Polyglotta, by 
means of the Vocabularies of Strahlenberg and Messer- 
schmidt, gave us fuller materials. Nor were they neg- 
lected. Klaproth, who spared so few that few have 
cared to spare him, has got less credit than he deserves 
for the amount of arrangement which he introduced 
amongst them. Castren has been hard upon his errors; 
— perhaps unduly so : but when men deal in hard mea- 
sures towards others, hard measures is all they can expect 
for themselves. I find no notable and really material dif- 
ferences between his divisions and Castren's — no notable 
and really material ones. Some, however, exist ; though 
unimportant. As for Castren^'s own, I take them as I 
find them ; seeing plainly that they are made on the 
principle of demarcation rather than type ; and (as such) 
only provisional. How far they are based upon single 
characters rather than upon a multiplicity of characters 
in mass, the incomplete state of his Grammar and Dic- 
tionary (both of which are posthumous works, with little 
or no original matter added by the able editor) prevents 
me from ascertaining. 

The first fact connected with the class is the vast 
style of its area both in respect to latitude and longi- 
tude. The first Samoyeds are found as far west as the 
neighbourhood of Mezen ; the last on the banks of the 
Chatunga. Considering, however, their Arctic locality, 
this is nothing very extraordinary. The degrees of 
latitude in the neighbourhood of the Icy Sea are 
narrow. Much more interesting is the extension south- 
ward, or the fact of their being found so low as 50° 
N.L. within the Chinese frontier. Of these southern 
Samoyeds there are two divisions ; one on the upper, or 
middle, Obi ; one on the upper, or middle, Yenisey. 
Between the two there is this difi^erence — the Samoyed 
area of the Obi is either nearly, or wholly, continuous; 
in other words there is a chain of Samoyed localities 
which, either nearly or wholly, continues the chain of 



THE SAMOYED DIALECTS. 129 

dialects fi'om the Barabinski steppe to the mouth of the 
river. The Samoyeds, however, of the upper Yenisey 
are utterly isolated. They are found on the Yenisey 
where it is cut by the Russian and Chinese boundary, and 
they are not found again until we approach its mouth. 

In man}^ respects these South-eastern Samoyeds (the 
simple term Southern is insufficient) are the more impor- 
tant members of the class. In the first place, it is likely 
that they represent the occupants of the original situs 
of the family: so that it spread from south to north 
rather than from north to south. This, however, is a 
matter which requires more consideration than it has 
received. Neither is it a doctrine to which the writer 
commits himself without reserve and conditions. In the 
next place, it is in the south that the Samoyed has been 
(what we are scarcely prepared to expect) an encroaching 
language. 

Who would unlearn his own mother-tongue for the 
Samoyed ? Not the Turks, not the Mongols, scarcely the 
Tungus — though it is possible that certain tribes belong- 
ing to some (or all) of these divisions may have done so 
to some slight extent. The populations which have most 
especially, either by amalgamation or conquest, allowed 
their own language to.be replaced by the Samoyed are the 
Yeniseians of the Kot and Ara divisions. This, however, 
we have already seen. On the other hand, the Samoyed, 
(in some cases as pure Samoyed, in others as Samoyed 
which has superseded the Yeniseian,) is, itself, replaced 
by the Turk ; as we saw when speaking of the Koibal 
and Karagas, and as we suggested when speaking of the 
Tuba and other dialects. Probably, also, certain Tungus 
and Buriats are Samoyed in blood though other than 
Samoyed in speech. Of the Turk language, however, in 
Samoyed mouths,* there is no doubt. 

Its encroachment is recent. In the Asia Polyglotta, 
there are two Vocabularies ; one headed Motorip.n, re- 
presenting tlie language of the Matar, Matlar, or Matorzi, 

K 



130 THE NORTHERN SAMOYED. 

and one headed Koibal. Both these were collected by 
Messerschmidt, in the last century. The Motorian Sa- 
moyed, then nearly extinct, is now no longer to be found 
— at least eo nomine. The Koibal may possibly be 
spoken by a few individuals. Still, the Koibal of the 
Koibal Grammar of Castren is simply Turkish. The 
Kamas, the third of Klaproth's (or Messerschmidt's) Vo- 
cabularies, is still spoken ; and Castren has given us a 
Grammar of it. Still the main language of the division 
is Turkish — with the exception of a minimum of 
Kot. There m^ay be a Soiot form of the Samoyed; 
though this, if it exist, is, probably, Samoyed in the 
mouth of Yeniseians. The few words, however, that 
we know of the Soiot are Turk. Still the details of 
the country within the Chinese frontier are most im- 
perfectly known. On the part of the Northern Samoyeds, 
the philological encroachment has been less. Still there 
have been encroachments. Castren writes that some of 
the frontier Ostiaks have learned to speak Samoyed. 

Of the J^orthern Samoyeds the chief divisions, ac- 
cording to Castren, who founds them upon the differ- 
ences of dialect, are three ; (1 ), the Yurak ; (2), the 
Tawgi ; and (3), the Ostiak. 

(1.) The Yurak Samoyeds are those that lie in the 
closest contact with the Kussians. To them the name 
Samoyed was first applied. It is a name which is, by 
no means, native. The native name is Kasovo {Hasa- 
wayo), or Nyenets ■=. man. 

The Yurak Samoyeds, or the Samoyeds of Yugoria, 
appear on the eastern coast of the White Sea, towards 
the mouth of the river Mezene. On the lower course 
of the Petshora they are more abundant still. They are 
separated from the Russian Laplanders by the White Sea 
and by the valley of the Dwina ; fof the parts about 
Archangel have long been wrested from them and Rus- 
sianized. 

Between the Petshora and the Ural, the Samoyed is 



THE NORTHERN SAMOYED. 181 

bounded on the south by the Zirianian area. On the 
Obi he comes in contact with the Ostiak ; and that at 
the very mouth of the river. In the parts, however, 
about Obdorsk Samoyed is spoken. From tlie Obi to 
the Tas all is Yurak Samoyed. On the Tas, however, 
there is a break ; beyond which the details are obscure. 
The Yurak division is generally carried as far east as 
the Yenisey. We will here, however, carry it to the Tas. 

The Yurak Proper is only one dialect out of five ; 
the other four being represented by the (a), Kanin and 
Timan ; (h), the Ishim ; (c), the Bolshizemla and 
Obdorsk ; {d), and the Kondin, or Kazym, forms of 
speech. 

(2.) The Tawgi division reaches from the lower Yeni- 
sey to the Chatunga ; the tribes which belong to it being 
sometimes called the Avam, or Avamski, Samoyeds. 

(3.) The Ostiak Samoyeds have the disadvantage of 
being described by an inconvenient name. The true 
Ostiaks are something else, as has been seen. 

Of their dialects, however, in situ, the most northern 
is that of the parts about the Tym and Narym ; next 
comes that of the river Ket ; thirdly, that of tlie Tshulirm 
The Ket forms of speech extend as far as the rivers 
Parabel and Tshaya, feeders of the Obi, on the frontier 
of the Barabinski steppe. The dialect of the Circle of 
Pumpokolsk is also akin to the Ket. 

The migrations are represented by the Karasin and 
Tas forms of speech ; the former being spoken in the 
parts to the north of Turukansk, on the Yenisey, and 
the latter by the Tym and Karakon tribes of the Tas ; 
tribes that use the reindeer and call themselves Mo- 
kase. 

In the way of language, the Kamash, Kamas, Kang- 
mash, or Kamasintzi (the Motorian and Koibal being 
extinct), are the only existing representatives of the 
Southern Samoyeds. They are Nomads and Shamanist 
pagans, on the head-waters of the Kan and Mana, 

K 2 



132 THE SOUTHERN SAMOYED. 

From one division of them Castren got the materials 
for his Grammar. 

I have said that between the groups of Klaproth and 
Castren there were some differences of detail. Klaproth 
lays the Tawgi in the same class with the Yurak ; along 
with which he places the Pustosersk, the Obdorsk, the 
Mansaseia, and the Turukansk dialects. His second 
class contains the Tas, Tomsk, Narym, Ket, Tym, and 
Karas forms of speech, along with a short specimen of 
what he calls the Lak. Finally, a list headed Taigi 
(the import of which is not explained), finds place in 
tlie third division, containing the Motorian, the Koibal, 
and the Kamash. 

Even in Castren the details and value of a fourth 
section called (most inconveniently) the Yeniseian, are 
obscure. The class itself is small. Its name gives the 
locality of its members. They lie between the Yurak 
and Tawgi divisions on the lower Yenisey. 

It is from Castren that all the following specimens 
are taken, and it is in the orthography of his Samoyed 
Grammar and Dictionary that they are given. 





NORTHERN 


SAMOYED. 








(!•) 








Yurah. 




English 


YuraV. 




English, 


Yurak. 


Man {homo) 


nenete 




Ear 


h4 




nienece 




Beard 


munate 




nieneca 







munace 




nience' 






munac' 




nienec' 






munabt' 


Man (vir) 


b^sawa 




Tongue 


nami 


Head 


~aewa 




Tooth 


tibea 


Hair 


iiotba 






tiwe 




~6bt 






teu 




6abt 






tiw 




eabt 




Hand 


~uda 




tar 




Foot 


"ae 




tabor 




Blood 


h^m 


Eye 


saeu 






xeam 



SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



133 



English. 


Yurak. 


EngHsh. 


Yurak. 


Blood 


horn 


Earth 


ya 


Nose 


puiyea 




yea 


Mouth 


na 


Hill 


sea 


Bone 


ly 




sa 




le 


Tree 


pea 


Sun 


h4yer 


Iron 


yesea 





haiyer 




yese 




hayar 


Fish 


halea 


Moon 


yiry 




hale 




yiry 




hale 





yiri 


Dog 


yandu 


Star ■ 


numgy 




yando 


Night 


pi 


House 


h4rad 


Egg 


s^rnu 




xdrad 


Fire 


tu ' 


Water 


yi 


Stone 


pae 


Rain 


saru 


Mountain-range soty 




sani 




soty 


Lake 


to' 



The Kondin vocabulary is 
the chief words wherein it 
Yurak : — 



short. The following are 
differs from the ordinary 



English. 




Kondin. 




Yurak. 


Man (vir) 




huberi 




nienece 






hiiweri 






Eye 




haem 




saeu 


Mouth 




ivang 




»a' 


House 




xarad 




h&rad 


Iron 




wese 




yfise 


Rain 




satu 




s&iu 


Lake 




m^ri 




lo' 


Water 




wit 

(2.) 
Tawgi. 




yi' 


English. 


Tawgi. 






English. 


Tawgi. 


Man (vir) 


kuayuma 






Hand 


yutu 


Head 


~aewa 






Foot 


~oai 




~aiwTia 






Nose 


puiyea 


Hair 


~apta 






Mouth 


na 




~&bta 






Blood 


kam 


Eye 


saime 






Bone 


lata 


Ear 


kou 






Sun 


kou 


Beard 


munduis^ang 




Moon 


kitada 


Tongue 


sieya 






Star 


fata 


Tooth 


timi 






Night 


fing 



134 



SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



English. . Tawgi. 






English. 


Tawgi. 


Egg manu 






Fish 


kolu 


Fire tui 






Bog 


b&ng 


Stone fala 






House 


koru' 


Earth mou 






Water 


U 


mamara 






Bain 


soruang 


Tree fa 






Lahe 


turku. 


Iron basa 












(3.) 








OstiaJc. 

^ 






English — man (homo) 




X. 


Tas— sai 




Narym — kop 






Tshwaia — sei 




Ket—^vim. 






Nat-pumpoholsk- 


-saiji. 


Middle Ostia^—'kma. 






English — hand 
Ket—uiiQ 




Nat-pumpoJcolsJc—knme 








Yelogui — kup 






Nat-pumpoholsh- 


-utte 


Baihha — ^kup 






Yelogui—vA 




Tas— kup. 






Tas—ut 




English — head 






Baihha — ut 




Ket—o\\Q 






Karassin — ut. 




Nat-pumpoJcolsk — ul 






English — nose 




Yelogui — ul 






Narym — tob 




Baihha — ul 






^ei— toppa 




Karassin — ul. 






Nat-pumpoholsk- 


-toppa. 


English — heard 






Tshwaia — toba 




Narym— und 






Baihha — tobe 




Yelogui — unde 






TfiLS — tope 




Baihha — unde 






Karassin — tup. 




Karassin — unde 






English— 6^ooc? 




Middle Obi — umd 






Narym— kan 




JCet — nmdde. 






Tshulim — kam 




English — tongue 






Nat-pumpoholsh- 


-kame 


Narym — se 






Yelogui-kem 




Tshulim—sie. 






Baihha — kem 




English— eye 
Narym — hai 






Tas—kem 
Karassin— kem. 




Ket—a&i 






English — lone 




Yelogui — sal 






Narym — li 




Baihha — sal 


f 




Nat-pumpoholsh- 


-le. 


English. 


Uppei 


rObi. 




Man (homo) 


kum 


also Middle Obi, 




(mr) 


teba, 


also Tshaia. 




Hair 




opte 







SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



135 



English. 


Upper Obi. 


Beard 


umde 


Eye 


sei, ako Tshaia. 


Ear 


kuc, also Tshulim. 


Nose 


puto; Tshaia, ^vXo; Mid. 05/, pot 


Mouth 


eang ; Tshulim, oang. 


Hand 


ude; Tshulim, uto 


Foot 


tobe ; Tshulim, toba. 


Blood 


kam, also Tshulim. 


Bom 


la, 


Sim 


tel, also Tshaia. 


Moon 


ire, also Tshaia. 


Star 


kasangka; Tshaia, k^sanka. 


Night 


pa ; Middle Obi, pe. 


Fire 


tii, also Tshaia 


Fiver 


kegea, aho Tshulim. 


Stone 


tang ; Tshaia, t4. 


Tree 


puo, also Tshaia. 


House 


muat 


Egg 


kegai, also Tshulim. 


Salt 


seak ; Middle Obi, sak. 


English — earth 


3. 

English — moon 


Middle Ohi—U 


Narym — are 


Ket—tii 


Ket—ivQ 


Narym — 'cu 


Tshulim~\vQ 


Tas— so 


Yelogui — ire 


Iiaikha—%vi 


Tas — irea 


Karassin — sii. 


Nat-pumpoholsh — era 




Karassin — era. 


English — hill 




Narym — kd 


English — water 


Baikha—\A 


Narym— ixt 


Yelogui—ki 


ot. 


Karassin— M. 




English — stone 


English — house 


Narym — po 


Narym — m4t. 


Tshwaia — pii 




Nat-pumpokolsk—-pu. 


English — lake 


Yelogui — pd 


Bakta — tu 


Baikha — pd 


Tas— tvi 


Tas—^h 


Karassin — tu 




Middle Obi— to 


English — sun. 


Ket— to 


Narym — *cel 


Upper Obi — to 


Yelogui, tfcc. — tel 


Tshwaia — to 


Tshwaia, c&c. — tyel. 


Nat-pumpokolsk — to. 



136 



SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



English- 


-rain 




Tas—^xji 




Narym— 


-liurom3 




Baikha — pu 




Bailcha — sorom3 




Karassin — p<i. 




Karassir 


. — sorpma 


English— /s7t . 




Ket—^VkTO 




Tas— kuele 




Middle OU—%oro 
Tshivaia—soTO 




Nat-pumpoJcolsk— kuele 
Yelogui — kuele. 


Nat-pumpokalsJc— 


-semi. 












English— 6(75^ 




English— 


-tree 




Narym— yidihi 




Narym— 


-po 




Ket — napi 




TsJuvaia- 


— puo 




Yelogui — eng 




Nat-picmpoTcolsk— 


-pe 


Tas— eng 




Yelogui- 


-pu 




Karassin — eng. 








(?4.) 








Yeniseian. 




Englisb. 




Yeniseian. 


Chant a. 


Baikha 


Man {homo) 


ennete* 






{vir 


) 


kasa 






Head 






abuli 


eba 


Hair 







to' 


t6' 


Beard 




muddute' 






Eye 




sei 







Ear 






kd 


k6 


Nose 






fuiya 


puiya 


Mouth 






t' 


na» 


Tongue 






siolo 


sioro 


Tooth 




tl 






Hand 






ura 


uda 


Foot 






"k 


~6 


Blood 






ki 




Bone 






Hri 


lidi 


Sun 




kaiya 






Moon 






ilio 


yirie 


Star 






foresee 


fadesei 


Night 






fi' 


fi 


Fire 







tu 


tu 


Water 






bi' 


bi' 


River 






yaha 


yoha 


Rain 






sale 


sare 


Snow 






sila 


sira 


Earth 






da 


y^ 


Stone 






m 


fu 


Tree 






fe 


fe 


House 






kamoro 


kamodo 


Salt 






si 


si' 


Egg 




niona 






Fish 






kale 


kare. 



SAMOYED DIALECTS, 



137 



B. 

SOUTHERN SAMOYED. 



English. 


Kamas. 


English. 


Kamas. 


Man {homo) 


keiza 


Moon 


khi 


Head 


ulu 


Star 


khinzigai 


Hair 


adde 


Night 


pki 


Eye 


sima 




phy 


Ear 


ku 


Eire 


*sii 


Beard 


miiizen 


Bain 


surau 


Tongue 


*sika 


LaTce 


thu 


Tooth 


thima 


Water 


bu 


Hand 


uda 


Stone 


phi 


Foot 


iiyii 


Hill 






iiyu 


Hill-range 


bor 


Nose 


phiya 


Earth 


tu 


Mouth 


ang 


Tree 


pha 


Blood 


khem 


Iron 


batza 


Bone 


le 


Fish 


kola 


Sun 


kuya 


Dog 


men 



The Yurak Samoyeds call {X\Qms,Q\ve^Hdsawayo = mien; 
the Tawgi and Yeniseian Samoyeds call them Juraka 
and Julaka ; the Samoyeds of the Obi, Ko'elak, Kwdlak, 
and Kwdleng. Meanwhile the Yurak call the Ostiaks 
Hahi. It is the Yeniseian Samoyeds who give to the 
great river on which they are fixed the name which 
nearest approaches its European one. They call it 
YeddosL The Tawgi call it Yentayea. The Obi 
Samoyeds, on the other hand, know it as the Nyandesi, 
the Kola {^rivev), and the Tyagandes Kola — broad 
river. 



138 THE OSTIAK. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The Ugrian Class. — The Ostiak, the Vogul, and the Magyar. 

The Ostiah is the language of the Obi and Irtish on 
the drainage of which it is spoken from about 56° to 67° 
N.L. I am not aware that it touches any part of the 
water-system of the Yenisey ; though certain tribe^ 
belonging to the Samoyed and Yeniseian groups have 
improperly been called Ostiak. This inaccuracy, with 
which Klaproth and others found it necessary to contend, 
is now unimportant. The latest authorities, when they 
have not discarded the term altogether, have, in general, 
warned the reader of its impropriety. So influential a 
writer, however, as Castren still applies the term Yeni- 
seian Ostiak to a form of speech which, whatever else it 
may be, is certainly different from the dialects under 
notice. 

These belong, as has just been stated, more especially 
to the Obi and the Irtish, where they are bounded on 
the south by the Barabinski and Tshulim Turks, on the 
west by the Voguls and Zirianians, on the north by the 
Samoyeds of the Icy Sea, and on the east by other 
Samoyeds, and the Yeniseians of the Ket. In 1838 
the number of Ostiaks was about 19,000. Narym, 
Surgut, Beresov, and Obdorsk are the towns which lie 
most especially on the Ostiak frontier. 

The only Grammar of the Ostiak is one by Castren, 
in which, contrary to his ordinary habit, he has repre- 
sented the language in Russian, rather than Italian, 
letters — Russian as adapted by Sjogren to the Iron. 
The dialect is that of the Irtish ; besides which there 



THE OSTIAK. 139 

are, at least, two others on the Obi, viz : the Surgut 
and the Obdorsk. The former falls into sub-dialects ; 
at any rate certain words are quoted as belonging to the 
upper Surgut, or the Surgut of the river above, and 
others as belonging to the lower Surgut, or the Surgut 
of the river below, the city. 

That the language of a nation of fishers and foresters 
should be uncultivated and unlettered is what we both ex- 
pect and find. That it has been largely superseded by the 
Barabinski and Tshulim Turk is probable. That cer- 
tain Ostiaks of the Samoyed boundary have exchanged 
their mother-tongue for that of their frontagers is es- 
pecially stated by Castren. 

The Ostiaks call the river Obi As. 

The As~yakh=Men of the As=Asicol3d, or 06icolse, 
call 

The Ostiaks of the Demianka, Tahonto-yahh. 

Irtysh, Long-gol-yakh. 

other rivers, Nang-wanda-yahh. 

Narym, and the banks of the river Ket, are the 
most eastern points of the Ostiak occupancy ; and there 
the Ostiaks come in contact with the Samoyeds. Now 
the term for ifaan changes here, and is — 

In the singular number, hup = homo, 
plural ■ kula — homines. 

Hence the compound Gentile names end differently, 
and a Narym Ostiak calls 



Himself 

The Surgut Ostiaks 

— Russians 

— Turks in general 



Dshumul-hula. 
Tangyl-hula. 
Ruzhil-kula, 
Tul-kula. 



of the Tshulim Tshulim-kti-kula, 



— Tungusians . . Guellon-kula. 

of the river Obi Koldy. 

Tym KoLsukh-ku. 



140 



THE VOGUL. 



The Asjakli of Surgut call tbemsolves Naxta-yahh. 

the Ostiaks of Naryrn NyoruTn- 

yakh. 
— — Samoyeds Yeryan-yaJch. 

Turks . Katan-yakh. 

■ Russians Rutsh-yakh. 

Germans AHmet-yakh. 

Word for word, Njorum=N'aTym,==fen ; and, as a 
Ugrian gloss, it is an instruuient of criticism. Where 
the root n-r-m and a swampy locality go togetlier, we 
have a presumption in favour of either a Ugrian occu- 
pancy or a Ugrian neighbourhood. 

The Vogul language belongs to the ridge of the Urals 
and to its two sides ; being spoken by about 900 indi- 
viduals in the Government of Perm, and 5000 in that 
of Tobolsk, a few of whom are tillers of the soil, the 
majority being fishers and hunters. It is the only 
Ugrian language of which we have no Grammar ; 
indeed, it is the one which, upon the whole, has com- 
manded the least attention. The Vocabularies, however, 
are sufficient to show not only that it is truly Ugrian, 
but that it belongs to the same class with the one which 
now comes under notice. 



English. 


Ostiak. 


Vogul. 


Man {vir) 


kuim 


kom 


(homo) 


koiet 


klas 


Head 


ngol 


pank 


Hair 


upat 


ata 


Eye 


sem 


sliam 


Ear 


pel 


bal 


Nose 


nal 


nol 


Mouth 


lul 


tozh 


Tongue 


nalim 


nelma 


Hand 


ket 


kat 


Foot 


kur 


lat 


Sun 


syunk 


kotal 


Moon 


tylesh 


yankop 


Star 


koz 


kenza 


Fire 


tyod 


taut 



THE VOGUL. 14 

English. OstiaV. Vogiil. 

Water ying ^it 

Tree yog yo 

Stone kiw ku 

One ogy , 

Tivo ketto 

Three kholyni • • 

Four nul 

Five uet 

Six kut 

Seven labiit 

-Ei^A< nuul 

yirteng 

iyani 



* 



The Yoguls hold a cheerless and inhospitable tract of 
land bounded by the Zirianians, the Samoyeds, and the 
Kondicho, whom Voguls call by the name they give 
themselves, viz. Mansi. 

In the south part of the Vogul country Christianity 
has advanced a little ; feebly and imperfectly, but still a 
little. In the north, paganism prevails. 

The Yoguls caU the Irtish . Simp. 

■ Tawda . Tagget. 

Konda . Khonda. 

How far the Ostiak and Vogul extended southwards 
before the encroachment of the Turks is unknown. 
Neither is it known whether their extension was easterly 
or westerly. The opinion of the closest investigators, 
amongst whom may be placed Castren, is in favour of 
their having extended themselves bodily from the south. 
Be this as it may, the Government of Orenburg, though at 
present the chief occupancy of the Bashkirs, was origin- 
ally Ugrian. More than this, its Ugrian elements, though 
not exactly either Ostiak or Vogul, were closely akin to 
both. In Orenburg, however, no one, at the present 
moment, uses the original language. It is spoken 
nevertheless. It is spoken elsewhere ; far to the south 
and far to the west of its original locality. It is 



142 THE MAGYAR. 

spoken by more individuals than any Ugrian tongue 
whatever ; indeed, by more than all the speakers of all 
the Ugrian tongues put together. It is the language of 
no less than 4,000,000 Hungarians, the native name of 
whom is Magyar. 

Magyar, then, is the term by which we denote the 
descendants of those Ugrians who, in the tenth century, 
cut their way from the ridge of the Ural and the 
streams of the Yaik to the rich pastures and fertile 
tilths of Hungary, as opposed to the Slavonians, 
Rumanyos, and Germans of that kingdom ; and Magyar 
is the name of the language as well as the people. The 
time when it was introduced into Europe is one of 
which the history is too obscure to allow us to give the 
exact details of the languages which it displaced. Thus 
much, however, is certain, viz. : that it came in contact 
with German on the west, with Rumanyo in the east, 
and with Slavonic forms of speech on every side ; 
besides which there were the dialects which it actually 
displaced, the majority of which, I believe to have been 
Turkish. 

As the first Magyar Christians were converts to the 
Latin rather than the Greek Church, their alphabet is 
Roman, so that the history of their civilization and 
literature is that of Poland and Bohemia rather than 
Servia and Bulgaria ; indeed, Poland and Hungary are 
the two countries where the Latin, from its inordinate 
use as the language of law, religion, and learning, has 
made the nearest approach to an actual vernacular 
without becoming one. 

The early works in Magyar were few and far between. 
Neither were they important. In a bibliographical list 
of all the compositions in Magyar, printed in 1803, the 
total number of works referred to the j^ear 1784 (a date 
of which the importance will soon appear) amounted to 
no more than 29 : the majority of which consisted of 
funeral sermons. Amongst the most important ones of 



THE MAGYAR. 143 

the list at large were three translations — one of a for- 
gotten tragedy of Cronegk's, one of Yoltaire's Zaire^ 
and one of the Cyropcedia. 

The year 1784 was the year of the Emperor Joseph's 
famous edict by which he attempted to introduce German, 
as the language of the Diet, the Law Courts, and all 
pubHc offices. It enacted, inter alia, that within three 
years from that time, unless special circumstances could 
be adduced which should justify him in allowing a 
respite, all the cases in all the Courts, whether in first 
instance or as appeals, were to be conducted in German. 
This excited universal consternation. The Diet at 
Presburg resolved that the records of its proceedings 
should be in Magyar ; and that a committee should 
report on the best means of fostering the study of the 
native tongue. One of the recommendations of this 
Committee was the establishment of a national theatre : 
another was the establishment of an academy. Neither 
was carried into effect at the time : both bore fruit in 
the sequel. 

The language of the claims thus enforced was the 
Magyar. The language, however, against which the 
edict of Joseph was more especially directed was the 
Latin ; for it was the Latin, rather than the Magyar, 
which had up to then become the language of the laws 
and the constitution. And, to a great extent, it was tlie 
Latin, rather than the Magyar, which was defended. 
Still, the upshot of the national movement was the de- 
velopment of the Magyar. 

The history of the Magyar literature now becomes 
the personal history of those energetic patriots who 
availed themselves of the reaction in its favour : first 
and foremost of whom was Francis Kazinczy. For more 
than forty years he laboured at the language. I say the 
language rather than the literature, because his literature 
was a means rather than an end. It was the language 
which he wished to improve. The efforts of the Ger- 



144 THE MAGYAR. 

mans in the same direction were before his eyes ; and 
he claimed for the Magyar the same freedom in deahng 
with its elementary terms and making new compounds 
out of them as the Germans were indulging in. He 
substituted home-made terms for terms of foreign origin. 
In a language upon which both the Latin and the German 
had so long exercised what he (as a purist) would consider 
baleful influence, there was much to be done in this way ; 
yet Kazinczy was not the reformer that was tempted by 
his opportunities. Some went farther than he did. He 
was, however, upon the whole successful in his coinage. 
For secretary and counsellor he introduced titoknok, and 
tanacsnotj from titok, a secret , and tanacs =^ counsel. 

With the words ending in ne the sign of the feminine 
gender, he dealt more boldly still. They correspond to 
the German forms in -inn, as freundinn = female friend, 
to a certain extent only. Baratne, from harat = a friend, 
meant, up to 1800, not so much friend of the female 
gender as a friend's wife. In like manner kircdyne, 
from kiraly, a king, meant a king's wife rather than a 
queen or female king. Both these words either changed 
or enlarged their meaning under the influence of 
Kazinczy. There was a word for the Latin virtus 
wanted, and there was a competition between Kazinczy 
and others as to who was to coin it. There was also 
a prize of fifty florins oflfered for a native equivalent 
to spiritus ; another one for universum. These words, 
though manufactured rather than grown, have kept 
their place better than was to be expected. 

At the same time, the quantity of still-born words in 
Magyar is very great. No wonder. The births are nu- 
merous. In 1845 Dr. Block published a German and 
Hungarian Lexicon. In 1847 a second edition was 

o 

wanted, and the whole work had to be recast ; so great had 
been the additions to the language within the last two 
years. I take this, as Mr. Watts takes it, i. e. as a mea- 
sure of the rate at which innovation goes on ; adding 



FIN AFFINITIES OF THE MAGYAR. 



145 



?< 



that it is from a paper of Watts' in the Philological 
Transactions that the whole of the foregoing notice is 
taken. 

The following list of the Fin affinities of the Magyar 
is picked out of the tables of the Asia Polyglotta. By 
going to other sources it might be largely increased. 



English. 


Magyar. 


other Ugrian Languages. 


Eye 


szem 


sem, OstiaJc, d-c. 


Belly 


has 


waz, Fin 


Tree 


fa 


pu, Fin and Permian 


Hill 


hegy 


kuruk, Tsherimis 


Leaf 


lewel 


lybet, &c., Ostiah, d^c. 


Blood 


wer 


wyr, ditto 


Bad 


kar 


kurya, Fin 


Bread 


kenyer 


kinda, Tsherimis 


Thou 


te 


ty, &c., Permian, (be. 


Ice 


jeg 


yenk, &c., OstiaJc, d-c. 


Egg 


mony 


muno, Tsherimis, dsc. 


Feather 


toll 


tuul, Vogul, d'C. 


Fire 


tiiz 


tut, OstiaTc, d'c. 


Finger 


uij 


lui-yoi, ditto 


Fish 


hal 


kul, ditto, d'C. 


Spring . 


tawasz 


kaved, Karelian 


Foot 


lab 


lal, Vogul 


Goose 


lud 


lond, Ostiak, d-c. [vin 


'Grass 


pasit 


^a.dj,Ostiak ; ^izhe,Mord- 


Throat 


torok 


tun, Ostiak, d-c. 


Good 


30 


joivo, Fin 


Code 


kakas 


kikkas, &c., Estonian 


NecTc 


- nyak 


naugol, Ostiak 


Hand 


kez 


ket, Ostiak, dc. 


House 


haz 


kat, ditto, d'c. 


Heart 


sziv 


sem, ditto 


Spy 


meny 


manen, Mordtin 


Horn 


szarv 


saw, &c., Estonian, dc. 


Cold 


hideg 


itek, Ostiak 


Bone 


czont 


koint, Fin 


Head 


fo 


pa, ditto 


Herh 


fu 


pum, Ostiak 


Slow 


lassan 


lasy, Vogul 


Live 


elet 


let, &c., Ostiak, dc. 


Easy 


konmu 


kunna, Vogul 


Man (vir) 


fery 


veres, Zirianian 


Mouth 


szaj 


su, Fin 


Night 


es 


at, Ostiak 


Take 


elvenni 


wain, Vogul 
L 



146 



FIN AFFINITIES OF THE MAGYAR. 



English. 


Magyar. 


Other Ugrian Languages 


Ear 


ful* 


pel, Ostiak 


Horse 


lo 


lo, Vogul 


Rye 


ros 


oros, ditto 


Reed 


veres 


Tyr, ditto 


Sow 


vetek 


vidit, Mordvin 


Sand 


humok 


yema, Yogul 


Sleep 


alom 


olm, ditto 


Surf 


gyors 


tshuros, Fin 




sereny 


saray, Ostiak 


BlacTc 


fakete 


puqqete, ditto 


Sister 


hugom 


iggem, ditto 


Silver 


ezyst 


esys, Permian 


Son 


fui 


pu, Vogul 


Sun 


nap 


nai, Ostiak 


Stone 


ko 


ku, Vogul 


Star 


tzillag 


tisil, Permian 


Deep 


mely 


mil, Ostiak, &c. 


Dead 


hallal 


kul, ditto 


Drink 


iszom 


asokh, Vogul 


Over 


felette 


palla, Fin 


Under 


allat 


alia, ditto 


Water 


viz 


wisi, ditto 


Wind 


szel 


tyl, Permian 5 


Winter 


tel 


telli, Ostiak 


We 


mink 


mung, Vogul 


Worm 


fereg 


perk, ditto 




nyii 


nynk, ditto 


Tooth 


fog 


penk, Ostiak 


Tongue 


nyelu 


nalem, ditto 


One 


egy 


ogry, Ostiak 


Two 


ketto 


ketto, ditto 


Three 


harom 


korom, Vogul 


Four 


negy 


niil, Ostiak, 


Five 


ot 


net, ditto 


Six 


hat 


kut, ditto 


Seven 


het 


sat, Vogul 


Eight 


nyoltz 


nuul, Ostiak 


Ten 


tiz 


das, Permian. 



The dialects. of the Magyar are few and unimportant. 
They are said to fall into two divisions, divided by the 
Danube. 



Note. — The statement made in the previous sheet, that there is no gram- 
mar of the Vogul, requires correction. There is a very recent one, in Hun- 
garian. 



THE MORDVm. J 47 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Volga Fins. — The Mordvin.— The Tsherimis. 

Next to the Magyars, and the Finlanders Proper, the 
MordviDS are the most numerous of the Ugrians. They 
are the most southern members of the family ; the Hun- 
garians, as strangers to their present locality, being laid 
out of the account. They are also the most western ; 
some being found in the Governments of Tambov and 
Penza. For this reason, the Mordvin area takes great 
prominence in all speculations as to the original extent of 
the Ugrians in the direction of the Euxine and Poland. 
That they have extended further is a matter of history. 
That they have extended very much further is one of the 
most reasonable of ethnological opinions. 

They fall into three divisions, the Mokshad, the 
Ersari, and the Karatai ; of these, the second has a 
name sufficiently like that of one of the Turkoman 
tribes, to be, in all possibility, more or less Turk in blood 
— though the conjecture rests on only colourable data. 
The same applies to the Karatai ; inasmuch as Karatshai 
is also a Turk name. The Mokshad give no such com- 
plications. 

The Mokshad are on the Sura ; 

— Karatai near Kazan ; 

— Ersari on the Oka. 

In the southern part of the Government of Astrakan 
some fifty Mordvins constitute an outlying group of (I 
believe) recent settlers. So do 340 individuals in the 
Crimea. 

L 2 



148 



THE MORDVIN 


• 


)utioii of the others is 


as folloA;^ 


In Penza ... 


106,025 


— Simbirsk . . 


98,968 


— Saratov . 


78,010 


— Samar . 


74,910 


— Nizhni Novogorod 


53,383 


— Tambov . . . 


48,491 


— Kazan .... 


14,867 


— Orenbm-g . . 


5,200 



The name Mordvln is native, and signifies man ; as 
it does, not only in other Ugrian languages but in certain 
Persian and Indian dialects also. 

The Mordvin, so far as it is written (which is very 
* little), is written in Eussian letters ; the Mordvin 
Christianity being that of the Greek Church. 

The Mordvins are far more Russianized than either 
the Tsherimis or the Votiaks. Their language, too, is 
one of the most outlying members of its stock. 

The Mordvin Grammar of Gabelentz is founded upon 
a translation of the Gospels ; the alphabet being the 
Russian. In this the vocalic harmony shows itself but 
partially. "Whether this be due to the language or the 
author, is doubtful. Gabelentz refers to the latter. 

The Tsherimis language is spoken by nearly 200,000 
individuals, of which nearly three-fourths are inhabitants 
of the Governments of Viatka and Kazan. The dialects 
on the two sides of the Volga differ from each other ; 
and, it is probable, that they fall into sub-dialects ; for 
the population is sporadic and fragmentary, and the 
Tsherimis villages stand far apart. The native cultiva- 
tion of the language amounts to nothing beyond a few 
songs. The exertions of the missionary have given a 
Catechism, and a translation of the Gospels — the alpha- 
bet being Russian. In Gastrin's Grammar, however, it 
is Roman, and so it is in Wiedemann's German. There 
is no reason for believing that any notable number of the 



THE TSHERIMIS. 



149 



speakers of the Tsherimis language are other than Tsher- 
imis in blood. The converse, however, is far from being 
the case. Both Turks and Russians may be, more or 
less, Tsherimis in blood. 

As a member of the Ugrian group the Tsherimis is 
comparatively isolate. Its nearest congeners, I believe 
to be the Ostiak, Yogul, and Magyar. 

The Tsherimis falls into two dialects, divided from 
each other by the Volga. One has, the other has not, 
the vocalic harmony. Such, at least, is the statement of 
Wiedemann. Our data, however, are scarcely sufficient to 
bear out a negative statement. 



English 


Tsherimis. 


Mordvin. 


Man {vir) 


mara 


mirda 


{homo) 


edem 


loman 


Head 


hui 


pra 


Hair 


ip 


tsher 


Eye 


shinsha 


syalme 


Ear 


piliksh 


pUye 


Nose 


ner 


sudo 


Mouth 


ushma 


knrgo 


Tongue 


yolma 


kel 


Tooth 


pu 


p&i 


Hand 


kit 


ked 


Foot 


yal 


pilge 


Sun 


ketshe 


tshi 


Moon 


tilsye 


kov 


Star 


shuder 


teshtye 


Fire 


tul 


tol 


Water 


wiit 


wat 


Tree 


pu 


tshufto 


Stone 


ku 


kav 


One 


iktet 


wait 


Two 


koktet 


kafto 


Three, 


kumut 


kolmo 


Four 


nilit 


nilye 


Five 


wisit 


waze 


Six 


kudut 


kota 


Seven 


shimit 


sisem 


Eight 


kandashe 


kauksa 


Nine 


indeshe 


waiksye 


Ten 


lu 


kamen. 



150 THE VOTIAK. 



CHAPTER XX. 

The Yotiak, Permian and Zirianian. 

The Votiah is the TJgrian of the Government of Viatka ; 
in which the circle of Glasov is the chief Votiak locahty 
— then, those of Malmysh, Yelabuga, and Sarapul. Into 
the Yelabuga dialect the Gospel of St. Matthew, into 
the Glasov dialect that of St. Mark, has been translated. 
Many of the Votiaks speak Turk as well as their own 
language ; the Turkish elements being at their maximum 
in Yelabuga and their minimum in Glasov. In the 
library of the Bible Society at Viatka is a translation of 
all the Four Gospels, except a part of St. Luke. Though 
not without decided Tsherimis elements, the Votiak 
affinities are less with the languages that have preceded, 
than with those that are about to follow it ; these 
being 

The Permian and the Zirianian ; the former, the 
XJgrian of Perm ; the latter, the Ugrian of Vologda. 
They are closel}^ allied dialects of one and the same form 
of speech. The Zirianian section falls into four sub-dialects, 
three being pretty closely allied to each other, but the 
fourth being an .outlyer, much mixed up with the 
Saraoyed. Nevertheless, somewhat unfortunately for the 
philologue, it was in the northern, the outlying, and the 
modified dialect of the Zirianian that the first attempts at 
a grammar were made. This was Florov's, published in 
1813, the dialect being the Udorian — i. e. that for the 
parts about Udorsk. Since then, the Gospel of St. 



THE ZIRIANIAN. 



151 



Matthew has been translated into the Ustsyssola dialect ; 
probably the purest of the four. Yet, even here we 
have a great number of Russian words. The other two 
forms of speech, allied (as aforesaid) to each other and to 
the Ustsyssola, are the Zirianian of the Upper Yytshegda, 
and the Zirianian of the Yaren. 



English. 


Votiak. 


Permian. 


Ziriauian. 


Man (vir) 


kart 


aika 


weres 


(homo) 


mura 


mort 


mort 


Head 


jor 


jor 


jor 


Hair 


jirsi 


jors 


jorsi 


Eye 


sin 


sin 


sin 


Ear 


pel 


pel 


pel 


Nose 


nyr 


nyr 


nyr 


Mouth 


im 


im 


worn 


Tongue 


kyl 


kyl 


kyv 


Tooth 


pin 


pin 


pin 


Hand 


ki 


ki 


ki 


Foot 


pud 


kok 


kok 


Sun 


shunde 


shonde 


shonde 


Moon 


tples 


tyles 


tyles 


Star 


kesele 


kod 


kadzil 


Fire 


tul 


by 


bi 


Water 


. wu 


wa 


wa 


Tree 


pu 


pu 


pu 


Stone 


is 


is 


is 


One 


odyk 


otyk 


ytyp 


Two 


kik 


kyk 


kyk 


Three 


kwin 


kwiu 


kuim 


Foiir 


nU 


njula 


njul 


Five 


^t 


wit 


wit 


Six 


kuat 


kwet 


kwait 


Seven 


sisim 


sysim 


sisim 


EigU 


kiyamis 


kykamys 


kekames 


Nine 


ukmys 


okmys 


ykmis 


Ten 


das 


das 


das. 



The Zirianians have long been converted to the Greek 
Church ; being, along with the Permians, the first of the 
Eastern Ugrians to whom the Gospel was preached. 
Their apostle was St. Stephanus. 



152 THE FIN PROPER. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

The Fin Proper. — Division into Tavastrian and Karelian. — The Tver Dialect. 
—The Vod.— The Estonian. 

A DISTINCTION, drawn by the native investigators in 
Fin philology, now requires notice. Whatever may be 
its real value, it is a distinction upon which much stress 
is laid. It is that between the Tavastrians and the 
Karelians. 

The Tavastrians are the Finlanders of the south-west, 
especially of the parts about Tavastahus, the Karelians, 
those of the interior; the interior meaning those parts 
both of the Duchy and of the Government of Olonets 
which are drained by the Lakes rather than by the 
Baltic. To either the Tavastrian or the Karelian area 
belongs the great mass of the Fins of Finland. 

But besides these, and besides the Ugrians of Estonia, 
of whom more will be said in the sequel, there are 
several sporadic populations, lying like islands in the 
midst of a Russian population, sometimes forming an 
imperfect connection with the Ugrians to the south of 
the Gulf of Finland, and sometimes absolutely detached, 
of which the ethnological history has been investigated. 
Some of these are recent settlers : others the representa- 
tives of an original population which was once Ugrian, 
but is now Slavonic. To separate the old from the 
new has been one of the objects of the n.ative inquirers. 
To separate the Karelian from the Tavastrian has been 
another. 

Again — the names Fin and Finland are anything but 



THE FIN PROPER. 153 

native. The nearest approacli to a general name is 
Suomelaini (in the plural Suomelaiset) a word which 
means the men of the fen, morass, or swamp. Word for 
word it is the Sabme of the Laps ; a name which will soon 
re-appear. Suomelaiset, however, is only an approach to 
a general name. The Quains are Kainulaiset, and the 
Karelian s Kirialaiset. A third division is Hamalaiset. 
Now the name Yam is prominent in the history of the 
early contests between the Slaves and the Ugrians ; as 
the name of a separate section of the Suomelaiset — the 
Hamalaiset being supposed to coincide with the Tavas- 
trians. 

Beyond the proper Fin districts the language of 
Finland is spoken in Norway, where, in the district of 
Soloer, on the Glommen, a Fin settlement, from Sweden, 
was effected in 1624. The chief Fin parishes are Hof 
and Grue ; where the district is called Finskoven or 
the Forest of the Fins, and where the settlers amount 
to about 2000. 

The following populations are al], more or less, spo- 
radic, and all held to be recent settlers rather than 
aborigines, as well as to be Karelian rather than Tavas- 
trian. 

1 . The Auramoiset of the Government of St. Petersburg 
— 30,000 in number. 

2. The Savakot to the number of 43,000. 

3. Karelians of — 

The Government of Archangel . ] 1,228 

Novogorod . 27,076 

St. Petersburg . 3,660 

Tver . . . 84,638 

Yaroslav . . 1,283 

To which add some in Olonets. 

The following is the Parable of the Sower, in the Fin 
of Tver, contrasted with that of Finland Proper. 



154 THE YOB. 

Tver. 
Ka laksi kulvaa kulvamax ; I kulvmssa mulvvennet uvat langettyx deda- 
vas : i tuldyx linnut ; i giat nokittyx. Muvvenet langettyx kivi ruopahilla 
kumbazien-pzalla yaga oli muS-dda: i tervax guo novstyx, zen-tax, evldu 
muassa suvax : Paivazen novstuo guo kellissuttix, i kuin evldu uurdunuSt 
kuivettyx. Muvvennet langettyx tug'iix i kazvo tug'ii i gz'at katto. A muv- 
vennet langettyx huvalla mu5;lla i kazvettyx lizavon-kera, kumbane toi su&n 
kumbane kuuzikummenda, kumbane kolmekummenda. Kella ollax korvat 
kuiilla kuulgax. 

Mn. 

Katso kylwaja mene kylwamaan. Ja hanen kylwaissansa, lankesiwat 
muutamat tien obeen, ja linnut tuliwat, ja soiwat ne. Muutamamat taas 
lankesiwat kiwistohon, kussa ei beilla ollut paljo maata, ja nousiwat peari 
paalle, ettei heilla ollut sywaa maata. Mutta koska aurinko nousi, niin he 
poudittin : ja orjantappurat kawiwat ylos, ja tukabuttiwat ne. Muutamat 
taas lankesiwat hywaan maahan, ja tekiwat hedelman, mutuama satakertaisen, 
muutama kuudenkymmenen kertaisen, ja muutama kolmenkymmenen kertai- 
sen. Jollo on korwat kuulla, se kuulkaan. 

The Ugrians of the parts to the south of the proper 
Fin area who pass, and that on good grounds, for 
aboriginal, are — 

1. The Tshud, or Yesp. 

2. The Izhor. 

3. TheVod. 

1. The Tshud or Yesp (15,617) on the bank of the 
Onega and Bielozero, speak a dialect which is held to be 
Tavastrian, and which they call Liudin Kiele, i. e. 
Lingua Ludina. 

•2. The Izhor (17,800) in the Government of St. 
Petersburg, who call themselves Ingrikot or Ingriaus. 

3. The Yod, who occupy a few villages in the circles 
of Yamburg and Oranienbaum, to the number of 
15,148, who call themselves Yadjalaine and Yadjalaiset 
and whose language is the Yes — tunnet paiattaa 
Vaihsi = loquerisne Votice. 

What has been written about the division between 
the Karelian and Tavastrian deserves notice, as a fact in 
the history of opinion rather than as a fact in language. 
It is one, however, that must needs be known if we wish 



TAVASTRIAN AND KARELIAN. 155 

to look at the Fin question from a Fin point of view. 
I have doubts, however, whether it is more — doubts 
that, coming from an amateur in London, in opposition 
to the decided and (I believe) unanimous voice of such 
competent judges as the native philologues themselves, 
must be taken at the reader's, rather than the writer's, 
valuation. I cannot, however, see that the report is 
borne out by the evidence ; admitting, at the same time, 
that it is very likely that I have not seen the evidence 
in full. Indeed, it is morally certain that I have not. 
Still, I see a generalization of great breadth, and along 
with it probable and particular sources of error — one of 
which is the love of generalization itself, combined with 
the fact that in comparative philology it is over-hastily 
indulged. I think that, "mutatis mnutandis, what the 
Fins write about Tavastrians and Karelians has been 
written by Englishmen of equal eminence about the 
Angles and Saxons ; and, as an Englishman, I am well 
aware that nine-tenths of what is so written is wrong. 
It is written by able men, nevertheless. At the present 
moment, Ahlqvist's Grammar of Vod is lying before me ; 
and it fully verifies the statement that, even when we 
have got our results as to the distribution of the 
several Fin forms of speech over the two divisions, they 
are, by no means, decided. The Vod, itself, is a Yarn 
dialect with Karelian elements. The written language 
itself is more Karelian than is generally believed. The 
Ugrian of Ingria is, more or less, Vod. Lastly, the 
Estonian and Vesps are less Karelian than the rest. Upon 
the recognition of Karehan elements in the literary Fin, 
great stress is to be laid ; since it is probable that, either 
consciously or unconsciously, most inquirers have taken 
it as the standard Tavastrian. 

Such are the qualifications. As to the characteristics 
themselves, they are, to a great extent, arbitrary ; at 
any rate, the evidence to any one of them being the 
sign of others is wanting. Again — though the details 



156 , FIN PROPER. 

of the sporadic Fins are numerous, our information 
as to the local dialects of Finland itself — vast as is 
its area — are of the scantiest. Lastly, neither the 
Karelian nor Tavastrian are extreme forms. They may 
graduate into one another less than the present writer 
believes them to do. 

All this means, that, in the division before us we 
have a classification by definition, where, in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, definition by type is alone 
practicable. 

The earliest specimens of the Fin language are 
referrible to the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries ; amongst 
which is a Translation of the Psalms by Agricola, 
Bishop of Abo. It is preceded by a short poem in 
which the heathen gods and goddesses, in whom a 
latent belief, notwithstanding the professed Christianity 
of the country, still existed. The list contains more 
than twenty names ; the majority of which can be found 
at the present time. Indeed from the time of Bishop 
Agricola till now, the old Fin mythology has commanded 
the attention of able inquirers ; of Ganander and 
Porthan, followed by Topelius in the last generation, 
and Lonrott and Castren in the present. Topelius col- 
lected more especially the poems which bore upon the 
history of a particular personage — Wainamoiuen ; so 
forming what we may call a Wainamoinen cycle. With 
this the Fin lays took form, until, from accretion upon 
accretion, the Kalevala was the result. If we look at 
this remarkable poem in respect to its parts, it is a 
series of rhapsodies. If we look to it as a whole, it 
may be dignified by the name of Epic. It is pagan 
in respect to its machinery and subject-matter, though 
not without decided Christian elements : indeed, towards 
the end, the Virgin Mary under the name Marietta, 
and Herod appear. It should be added, however, that 
this is in a kind of appendix to the work rather than 
in the body of the poem itself. 



THE ESTONIAN. 157 

Whatever may be the age of either the oldest or the 
newest portions of the Kalevala, the language is the 
Fin of the present day. 

The TJgi'ians who occupy Estonia are in contact with 
the Germans and Lets rather than with the Scandina- 
vians, For this reason the foreign influences have been 
German rather than Swedish. The Estonian alphabet 
is Roman, the religion Protestant. At one time, when 
all Ingria was Ugrian, the Estonian and Fin populations 
must have been in contact. 

The Estonians call themselves Rahwa, and their coun- 
try Marahwa, or Rahwa Land ; the parts north of the 
river Salis being their chief area. 

In Liefland the Rahwa number . 

— Estonia . 

— Yitepsk — .. 

— Pskov . 



— St. Petersburg 



252,608 
9,936 
8,000 
7,730 

633,490 



The Estonian is divided into two main dialects ; one 
with Reval, the other with Dorpat as its centre ; so that 
we hear of the Dorpatian and the Revalian forms of 
speech as paramount. I believe, however, that almost 
every parish presents some peculiarities, and I am by 
no means sure that the distribution of the numerous 
dialects and sub-dialects thus developed corrresponds with 
the usual classification. 

A love for son or and music is exhibited throuorhout 
the Rahwa country ; and of this we may judge by more 
than one collection of songs, legends, charms, nursery 
rhymes, and the like. The harp was the instrument — 
the harp, or kandel. With this the bards, the exact 
analogues of the Gaelic bards of almost our own days, 
musical and locomotive, used to wander from place to 



158 THE ESTONIAN. 

place, as the harvest-home, or the wedding-feast, might 
tempt them. The last of them died in 1813. He had 
no fixed residence ; but was known, and welcomed, 
whithersoever he chose to roam, as the wanna laulumees, 
or the old singer. 

Those who apply classical names to modern pheno- 
mena describe the Ugrian metres in general as trochaic ; 
sometimes being dactylic, but never iambic. This means 
that the accent is on the first, third, and fifth syllables, 
rather than the second, fourth, and sixth ; a fact which 
arises out of the structure of the language. 

The common formula is -^, -«, -v, -«; sometimes 
with -»^w» instead of -^, more rarely with --, or the 
so-called spondee ; e. g. 

Toulis rebbust Korge-sare, 
Mufla walgest Tiittar-sare, 
Mufia tumest teised sared. 

or, 

Kotkad lensid Some -male, 
Some-maalta Soksa-male. 

Within a certain interval, a certain number of words 
must begin either with a vowel, or, if with a consonant, 
with the same ; as 

Minna sulg ei annud suda 
Egga ^arg ei ^obmud ^eada. 

This is the alliteration of the old German metres ; 
almost to its minutest details. It is held, however, 
to be no more German in origin than the German is 
Ugrian. 

Archaic words are, in Estonia, as elsewhere, poetical ; 
a fact which creates trouble and perplexity to modern 
commentators ; indeed, many expressions which have 
wholly dropped out of the current language are to be 
found in the songs. 



FIN AND ESTONIAN. 



159 



English. 




I'm. 




Yod. 




Estoniau. 


Man {vir) 


mios 




m^s 




mees 


{homo} 


ingemin 




mSs 




innimene 


Mead 




poja 




pa 




peja 


Hair 




iwusa 








karw 


Eye 




silme 




silma 




silm 


Ear 




kyrwa 




korwa 




korw 


Nose 




njena • 




nena 




ninna 


Mouth 




suu 




s<i 




sun 


Tongue 




kieli 




c'6U 




keel 


Hand 




kesi 




c'asi 




kilssi 


Foot 




jalka 




jalka 




jalk 


Blood 




weri 




weri 




werri 


Sun 




poiwa 




paiwa 




paw 


Moon 




kou 




ku 




kuu 


Star 




togyt 








tjecht 


Fire 




tuli 




tuli 




tulli 


Water 




wesi 




wesi 




wesi 


Tree 




ptiu 




vh 




pu 


Stone 




kiwi 




'ciwi 




kiwwi 


One 




yks 




uhsi 




yks 


Two 




kaks 




kahsi 




kaks 


Three 




kolmi 




kolme 




kolm 


Four 




nelja 




nell'a 




nelje 


Five 




wisi 




wtsi 




wis 


Six 




kusi 




kasi 




kuus 


Seven 




seitseman 




seitse' 




seitse 


Eight 




kadeksan 




kahetse 




kattesa 


Nine 




ydeksan 




uhetse' 




uttesa 


Ten 




kymmemen 


'cijmme 




kuemme. 




English. 




Kareliar 


1. 


Olonets. 




Man {vir) 


mizajh 


L 


mes 






{hx)mo) 


inegmine 


mes 






Head 




pija 




pa 






Hair 




tukka 




tukka 




Eye 




silma 




silma 






Ea/r 




korwa 




korwu 




Nose 




nena 




nena 






Mouth 




shun 




su 






Tongue 




kijali 




keli 






Hand 




kasi 




kasi 






Foot 




jalja 




jalgu 






Blood 




weri 




weri 






Sun 




paiwane 


pewen 


■ 


Moon 




kuudoma 


ku 






Star 




tagti 




techte 




Fire 




tuli 




tuli 





160 





KARELIAN. 




English. 


Karelian, 


Olonets. 


Water 


wesi 


wesi 


Tree 


pun 


pu 


Stone 


kiwi 


kiwi 


One 


juksy 


juksi 


Two 


kaksi 


kaksi 


Three 


kolmje 


kolshe 


Four 


neUa 


nelU 


Five 


wiisi 


wizhi 


Six 


kuuzhi 


kusi 


Seven 


zMtslieman 


setshemi 


Fight 


kagekshan 


kaesak 


Nine 


iujekshan 


igokse 


Ten 


kymmen 


kiimmene. 



The Liefs gave its name to Liefland or Livonia. 

In Livonia, about twelve individuals still speak the 
Lief language.* They are to be found near the mouth 
of the river Salis. 

In Curland about 2000 use an allied form of speech 
— falling into an Eastern and a Western dialect. 



* Elsewhere, the number of these Liefs is put at twenty-two. 
number, however, is only twelve. 



The present 



THE LAP. ]C1 



CHAPTER XXII. 

The Lap of Norwegian, Swedish, and Russian Lapland. 

The last division of the Ugrian stock is, at one and 
the same time, the most northern and the most western. 
It is also the one whereof the physical form of the men 
who constitute it is the most abnormal. Notwith- 
standing a considerable amount of exaggeration as to 
the shortness of their stature and the slightness of their 
frames, the Laplanders are an undersized population ; 
and those who enlarge upon the differences between lan- 
guage and blood make much of tlie phj^sical contrast 
between the Lap and his well-fed and warm-housed 
congeners. They also make much of his nomad habits, 
as opposed to tlie agriculture of the cow-keeping Fins. 
Yet the Ugrian character of the Lap language has long 
been recognized. It was recognized before the word 
Ugrian came into vogue ; indeed, one of the first 
inklings as to the true nature of the Magyar arose 
out of comparisons made with the Lap. 

In the way of dialect the Lap language falls into 
two primary divisions ; the basis of which is, perhaps, 
political and religious rather than truly ethnological. 
There are the Laps of Russia and the Laps of Scandinavia. 

The imperfect Christianity of the Laps of Russia is 
that of the Greek Church ; the alphabet applied to their 
languages being Russian. They amount in the Govern- 
ment of Archangel to 2289. 

The Laps of the Duchy of Finland are Scandinavian 
rather than Russian ; or, if not actually Scandinavian, 
transitional. 

The Scandinavian Laps fall into two divisions — one 
containing those of Sweden, the other those of Norway. 

M 



162 THE LAP. 

It is from want of information that I have but little 
to say about the former. 

The Norwegian Laps are called, by the Norwegians, 
Fins ; the Fin of Finland being called a Quain — so that 
Finmarken, the great Lap district, is the March of the Fins. 
They called themselves Sabme ; but are not displeased 
to be called Fins by their neighbours. Between the 
Norwegian Lap and the Fin Proper, there is much in- 
termarriage ; a little between the Lap and Norwegian. 

Their imperfect Christianity is that of the Latin 
Church, in its Protestant and Lutheran form. Their 
alphabet, in its present form, is an improvement on the 
Norwegian. It is an improvement, because the first of 
three elaborate Lap Grammars was the work of one of 
the first of comparative philologists — Rask. He met 
the fact of the Lap system of elementary articulate 
sounds being in many respects peculiar, by the bold 
application of new and well-adapted letters. These 
have been recognized both by Stockfleth and Friis ; by 
the former in his Norwegian and Lap Dictionary, by the 
latter in his Grammar and Reading-book. 

According to Friis, the Lap of Norway falls into two 
main dialects, a northern and a southern. The north- 
ern, or that of Finmark, falls into the subdialects of th 
parishes of 

1. TJtsjok, Tanen, Varanger, Vestertanen, and Lang- 
:Qord. 

2. Karasjok, Laxfjord, Porsanger:Qord. 

3. Kontokseno, Hammerfest, Lopper, Allen, Skjoervo, 
Karlso, Lyngen.. 

The southern into those of 

1. Yalsfjorden and Tyfjorden, with the intermediate 
parishes. 

2. Yessen and Roraas, with the intermediate parishes. 
South of Roraas the Lap area ceases to be continuous. 

A few outlying families, however, are to be found in 
Hedemarken. 



THE LAP. 



163 



That the extension of the Laps to the south was, 
at one time, greater than at present is a matter of 
history. That the whole of the Scandinavian Peninsula 
was originally Lap is a fair inference. The statement 
that fragments of a Lap population were to be found on 
the very shore of the Baltic at the beginning of the 
historical period is, perhaps, exceptionable. Many, how- 
ever, of the provincial terms from the parts about Ber- 
gen are of decided Lap origin. That some of the Fins 
Proper may be Lap in speech is probable. With this 
exception the Lap language coincides pretty closely 
with the Lap blood. 

As a general rule the Russian Lap has fewer details 
in the way of inflection and vowel-changes than the 
Norwegian and the Swedish. It has in many cases 
replaced the final vowel by the Russian liquid. It has, 
in one district, Norse, in another Karelian, in another, 
Russian glosses. To judge of it in its purity these must 
be eliminated. Of the Norse dialects it is the Lap of 
the Hill Laps to which it comes nearest. It is divided 
into three main dialects. 

1. That of Petsingi, Muotki, Patsjoki, Synjel, Nuoto- 
sero, Jokostrov, and Balra. 

2. That of Semiostrov, Lavosero, Voronesk, Kildin, 
Maanselka. 

3. That of the Terski Peninsula, on the West of the 
White Sea. 



English. 


Lap. 


English. 


Lap. 


Man {vir) 


olma 


Fire 


tollo 


(homo) 


almaz 


Water 


tatse 


Head 


oike 


Stone 


kedke 


Eye 


tjalme 


One 


akt 


Ear 


pelje 


Two 


kwekt 


Nose 


njuone 


Three 


kolm 


Mouth 


nalme 


Four 


nelje 


Tongue 


njuoktem 


Five 


wit 


Hand 


ket 


Six 


kot 


Foot 


juolke 


Seven 


kjeta 


Sun 


peiwe 


Eight 


kaktsat 


Moon 


mano 


Nine 


aktfe 


Star 


taste 


Ten 


tokke 
M 2 



164* THE LAP. 

The Lap is usually connected more closely with the 
Fin Proper than the present writer connects it. Klaproth, 
for instance, throws both into a class headed Germanized 
Fins; a class which contains the Magyar, the most 
southern of the Ugrian forms of speech, just as the Lap 
is the most northern. The languages which this very 
unnatural class brings together, are simply certain lan- 
guages which have been in contact with the Germans of 
either Germany Proper or Scandinavia. The present 
place of the Lap, which gives it a sub-order to itself, 
is, more or less, subject to correction. It rests upon the 
extent to which tlie Lap is a language of which the 
frontier has receded, rather than upon any minute philo- 
logical investigation of the structure of the language 
itself. As far, however, as the writer has examined 
this, it confirms his view. Upon the whole, however, 
the displacement of probably transitional forms in the 
retrocession of the Lap frontier is his chief argument. 



0\y-i 



PKNINSULAR GROUP. 165 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Peninsular Languages. — Korean. — Japanese and Luchu. — Aino or Ku- 
rilian. — Koriak and Kamskadal. 

For the group that now comes under notice I have sug- 
gested the name Peninsular ; inasmaich as the area to 
which it belongs stands in strong contrast to those of 
the preceding ones ; all of which lay inland, and con- 
sisted of large blocks of land. The area, however, under 
notice, is essentially maritime ; so much so that it has 
but one large mass of inland district, whereas, on the other 
hand, it has two (if not three) well-known peninsulas, 
and one important archipelago. From this we may 
anticipate its chief details. lb belongs to the north-east 
of Asia, and contains, along with other tracts of minor 
importance, Korea, Japan, the Kurile Isles, and Kam- 
tshatka. 

It is, in respect to its import, a wider class than any 
one of the last four, — wider than even the Ugrian ; by 
which I mean that the difference of its extremes is 
greater than the difference between any two Ugrian 
forms of speech. It falls, too, into divisions of greater 
magnitude — indeed, it is possible that there may be 
points of view from which those who contemplate it may 
think it should be broken up. Upon the whole, how- 
ever, I consider that it is natural. 

Upon one condition required to make it so there is 
neither doubt nor shadow of doubt — viz. : the extent to 
which it is separated by broad and trenchant lines of 
demarcation from the other languages of Asia. With 
the Ocean on one side, and with languages which have 



1Q6 THE KOREAN. 

effected such vast displacements as the Chinese and 
the Tungus on the other, anything like ambiguity in 
respect to its boundaries is out of the question. 

Its nearest approximations, then, are distant — distant, 
but important. Nothing is, at one and the same time, 
other than monosyllabic and even approximately akin to 
the Chinese. The Korean, however, the most southern 
continental language of the present group is less distant 
from the Chinese than anything else — anything else 
other than monosyllabic. Indeed, if this affinity were 
all we looked to, the present group would have been 
taken earlier, i. e. in the place of the Tungus. Se- 
quences, however, of this kind are impracticable. 

On the north the affinities are decidedly with the lan- 
guages of America — a fact upon which more will be said 
when the philology of the New World comes under 
notice. 

The several members of the group not only stand 
clearly and definitely apart from one another, but the 
distances between them are considerable — at least in the 
present state of our knowledge. In the present state, 
too, of our knowledge they seem equal — this meaning 
that the Japanese is (there or thereabouts) as like (or 
unlike) the Korean on the one side as the Aino on 
the other. This doctrine, however, will probably be 
modified as our information increases. 

Of the Korean I know of no grammar, and only a 
few vocabularies — the chief of which is Medhurst's. 
Klaproth's, upon which the greater part of the current 
opinions is founded, is taken partly from Broughton's 
Voyage, partly from Witsen, and partly from Chinese 
and Japanese sources. 

To this, as well as to the remainder of our materials, 
much can, doubtless, be added ; since the Korean is a 
lettered language, the immediate origin of the alphabet 
being obscure. 





THE JAPANESE. 


] 


English. 


Korean. 


English. 


Korean. 


Eye 


nuon 


Tree 


nan 


Head 


mati 


Stone 


tu, tol 


Ear 


kui 


Fish 


koki 


Nose 


ko 


One 


hodzhun 


Mouth 


yip 


Two 


tupu 


Tongue 


hie 


Three 


sai 


Tooth 


ni 


Four 


nai 


Hand 


sun 


Five 


tashu 


Foot 


pal 


Six 


ishu 


Sun 


heng 


Seven 


iki 


Moon 


oru 


Eight 


ita 


Star 


pern 


Nine 


yahao 


Fire 


pol 


Ten 


ye. 


Water 


mu 







16' 



The Japanese is purely and exclusively insular ; i. e. 
has no congener on the continent with which it can be 
immediately connected, or from which it can be definitely 
derived. The Keltic of the British Isles is nearly in 
this predicament — nearly, but not quite. It has the 
Armorican of Brittany as a congener ; not to mention 
the ancient language of Gaul, which has an historical, 
though not a present, existence ; whilst the Gaelic of 
Ireland and Scotland, though itself strange to conti- 
nental Europe, is, still, indirectly connected with it 
through the British. There is nothing, however, on the 
mainland of Asia which is so near to the Japanese as 
the Armorican is to the Gaelic. In no other island is 
the isolation (or insulation, as we may call it) so com- 
plete. The language of the Luchii islanders is Japanese. 



English. 


Japanese. 


Luchu. 


Eye 


mi 


mi 


Head 


kaote 


busi 


Ear 


mimi 


mimmi 


Nose 


khana 


honna 


Mouth 


kuti 




Tongue 


sita 


stska 


Tooth 


kha 


kha 


Hand 


te 


ki 


Foot 


ad 


shanaa 



168 



THE J 


APANESE.— THE 


Amo. 


Eiiglisli. 


Japanese. 


Lucliu. 


Sun 


fi 


tida 


Moon 


zuki 


gwazi 


Star 


fosi 


fusM 


Fire 


fi 


fi 


Water 


midz 


mizi 


Tree 


ki 


ki 


Stone 


isi 


ishi 


Fish 


ivo 


io 


One 


fito 


tizi 


Two 


fitak 


tazi 


Three 


miz 


mizi 


Four 


yots 


yuzu 


Five 


izuts 




Six 


muts ■ 


mutsi 


Seven 


nanats 


nanatsi 


Eight 


yats 


yatsi 


Nine 


kokonots 


kannizi 


Ten 


tovo 


tu. 



The small islands between the Luchii group and For- 
mosa are in the same category with the Ltichus them- 
selves, i. e. they are Japanese rather than Malay. The 
names of them end in -sima (Madzhikosima, &c.) ; sima 
meaning island. 

In Yesso the Japanese is intrusive ; the original lan- 
guage being the Aino, or Kurilian. The Kurilians, or 
Aino, occupy two localities on the main land and all 
the islands between Kamtshatka and Japan. The locali- 
ties on the main land have been already mentioned. 
One was at the mouth of the Sagalin, one at the 
southern extremity of Kamtshatka. 

That the Kurilian area, like the Korean, once ex- 
tended beyond its present frontier, is likely. The 
numerals of the Mantshti of the frontier seem to have 
taken the Aino ending in /. 



English. 


Aiuo of Kamtsliatka. 


Tarakai. 


YesQ. 


Man 


okkaiyu 


okkai 


oikyo 


{vir) 


ainuh 


ainu 


ainu 


{homo) 


guru 


guru 




Eye 


sik 


Bhigi 


*_^— 


Head 


gpa 


shaba 






THE AmO DIALECTS. 



169 



English. 


Aino of Kamtshutka. 


Tarakai. 


Yeso. 


Hair 


ruh 


numa 


karnu 


Ear 


gsahr 


kisara 





Nose 


ahdum 


idu 




Mouth 


tshar 


paru 




Tongue 


aukh 


ai 




Tooth 


imak 


uimaki 


mimak 


Hand 


dek 


tegi 




Foot 


kehmma 


kima 




Blood 


kehm 


kim 




Sun 


tshupu 


tshukf-kamoi 


touki 


Moon 


tshupu 


tshukf 


zuki 


Star 


kytta 


nodzi 


noro 


Fire 


apeh 


undzhi 


abe 


Water 


peh 


raka 


vakha 


Tree 


nyh 


nii 




Stone 


poinah 


shioma 





Egg 


nokh 


nuku 


_ 


Fish 


tshep 


zepf 


zizf 


One 


syhnap 


shnepf 


senezb 


Two 


dupk 


tup 


zuzb 


Three 


raph 


repf 


rezb 


Four 


yhnap 


inipf 


inezb 


Five 


ahsik 


ashiki 


asaraniof 


Six 


ihguahn 


yuvambi 


yuiwambe 


Seven 


aruahn 


aruvambi 


aruambe 


Eight 


duppyhs 


tubisambi 


zuyemambe 


Nine 


syhna.pyhs 


slinebishambi 


sinesambo 


Ten 


upyhs 


wambi 


fambe. 



The Kamskadal, (or KamtshatJcan,) and the KoriaJc, 
are members of the same chiss, though separated by 
Klaproth. 



Engl-sh. 


Koriak. 


Off Karaga.* 


Man (vi')) 


oiakotsh 




■ {homo) 


nuteiran 


nutaira 


Head 


lent 


leut 


Hair 


kytyhuir 


kitigil 


Tongue 


iilygyl 


yilegit 


Mouth 


dzhekergen 


homagalgen 


Ear 


wilugi 


welolongen 


Eye 


lelugi 


lalangen 


Nose 


eyekitshg 


haahgeng 


Beard 


lelyugi 





* This means that part of the coast which lies opposite the island of 
Karaga, in opposition to the island itself, for which see the following table. 



170 





THE KORIAK. 




English. 


Koriak. 


Off Karaga 


Blood 




mulumul 


Bone 


khattaam 


komlathom 


Hand 


mynnagylgen 


mylgalgen 


Night 


nigonok' 


kyhmeu 


Sky 


khayan 


haian 


Sun 


titkapil 


dykupyhsol 


Moon 


gdilgen 


yailgat 


Star 


engen 


angehri 


Fire 


milhemil 


milgupil 


Water 


mimel 


mimlipil 


Earth 


nutelkhan 


nutalgan 


Tree 


uttuut 


utut 


Hill 


gyeigor 


knayukM 


River 


weiom 


woyampyh 


Sea 
Egg 


inung 


inu 
ligliguh 


Fish 


innaen' 


annaau 


House 


rat' 




Horn 


yinnaVgin' 




Dog 


atar' 


hathan 





atan 




Milh 


nyokin 




One 


onnen 


ahnahn 


Two 


hyttaka 


ytahgau 


Three 


ngroka 


rohgau 


Four 


ngraka 


ragau 


Five 


myllanga 


millangau. 


English. 


The Kolyma. 


Karaga. 


Man (vir) 


khuyukutsh 


inylakhylsh 


(homo) 


uimtahula 


oshamshahal 


Head 


lawut 


tennakam 


Hair 


katshugui 


lankhshakh 


Tooth 


wannalgyn 




Tongue 


giigel 


laksha 


Mouth 


shekiangin 


shekshen 


Ear 


wyilut 


ilyufi 


Eye 


lalat 


ellifa 


Nose 


enigytam 


enku 


Beard 


lelu 


lilyuf 


Blood 


mull j omul 


mutl'muth 


Bone 




hatamfa 


Hand 


myngakatsh 


k'onmenkhlan 


Night 


nekita 


tenkiti 


Sky 


khain 


shilkhen 


Sun 


tykete 


shahalkh 





THE KORIAK. 




English. 




The Kolyma. 




Karaga. 


Moon 




geilygen 




shagalkh 


Star 




lelapitshan 


L 


engysh 


Fire 




milugan 




mi'lchamil 


Water 




mimal 




iin 


Earth 








nyutinnyut 


Tree 




uttepel 




nguft 


HiU 




nayu 




mysankosi 


River 




waim 




gykhi 


Sea 




ankan 




nyungen 


Bgg 




lygby 




t'higlhifuha 


Fish 




kokayalgating 


tahataha 


House 




yayanga 




shishtshu 


Dog 




attahan 




atapela 







khatalan 






MiUc 




lyukhoi 






One 




onnon 




ingsing 


Two 




niokhtsh 




gnitag 


Three 




niyokh 




gnasog 


Four 




niyakh 




gnasag 


Five 




myllangin 




monlon. 




English. 




Reindeer Tshuktslii. 




Man (vir] 


1 


oyakutsh 






klaul 






Head 




leut 






Hair 




kirtshivi 




Tooth 




rytlynti 


% 




Tongue 




gil 






Mouth 




inkigin 






Far 




weliulgin 




Eye 




lilagin 






Nose 




ekhaekh 




Beard 




walkalorgiid 




Blood 




mullumul 




Bone 




attitaam 




Hand 




mingilgin 




Night 




nikittya 




Shy 




eikhi 










ying 






Sun 




titktshit 




Moon 




geilgin 






Star 




engerenger 




Fire 




JJiilgin 






Water 




mimil 






Farth 




nutetsh 


in 




Tree 




uttuu 






Hill 




piet 





171 



172 



THE KAMTSHATKAN. 



English. 


Reindeer Tsliuktsl 


mu 


khallelegin 


River 


waem 


Sea 


angka 


Egg 


ligli 


Fish 


annegui 


House 


oranga 


Horn 


ritten 


Milk 


lukhai 


One 


ennene 


Two 


giyakh 


Three 


guakh 


Four 


gyrakh 


Five 


millgin. 



The following is the Kamtshatkan of the Middle of 
the Peninsula. 



English. 


Kamtshatkan. 


English. 


Kanilshiitkan. 


Head 


kobbel 


Fish 


etshuda 


Eye 


elled 


Fiver 


kug 


Ear 


ilyud 


God 


kutkhai 


Nose 


kayako 






Mouth 


tskhylda 


Sky 


kokhal 


Hair 


tsheron 




kollaa 


Tooth 




Snow 


kolaal 


Tongue 


dydzil 


One 


dysyk 


Hand 


tono 


Two 


kaas 


Day 


taazh 


Three 


tsuk 


Sun 


koatsh 


Four 


tshaak 


Moon 


quingan-kuletsh. 


Five 


kumnak 


Star 


ezhingin 


Six 


kylkoak 


Fire 


pangitsh 


Seven 


etakhtana 


Water 


1 


Eight 


tshonutono 


Tree 


00 


Nine 


tshanatana 


Stone 


kual 


Ten 


tsliemyktagona. 


Egg 


nygagada 







To the north of this Kamtshatkan of the Middle dis- 
trict is spoken the language of the former, to the south 
of it the language of the latter of the following tables : 
in the first of which it is to be observed that one of the 
vocabularies, though it represents a Kamtshatkan form of 
speech, is headed Koriah, 



THE KAMTSHATKAN. 



173 



English. 


Koriuk of the Tigil. 


Kamtsh itkan of the Tigil. 


Man (vir) 


kymshan 


kamzhan 


(homo) 


tshandzhal 


uzhkamzha 




kelgola 




Head 


komptko 


ktkhyn 




koltsli 




Hair 


tshelgad 


kuiba 


Eye 


leUe 


■ lella 


Beard 


luel 


luulla 




elnn 




Hand 


kh'ketsh 


khkatsh 


Shy 


kysha 


keis 


God 


kuikynakhu 


kutkha 


Fire 


hymlee 


brjuumkhitsli 


Tree 


ua 


uu 


Earth 


nutelehan 




Egg 




lylkhatsh 


Fish 


nishatkin 


onnitsh 




dentsh 




River 


kytshme 




Hill 


enzalkhen 


aala 


House 


kisht 


kisba 


Snow 






Dog 


kosha' 






hetan 




English. 


Ukah. 


South Knnitshatkan. 


Man (vir) 


kangge 


elku 


{homo) 


kliyllgoglila 


uzhkamzba 






kulusanga 


Head 


hbhahel 


tsbysba 




kols 





Hair 


zelgakh 


kubiin 


Eye 


ellath 


nannin 


Beard 




kuukun 


Blood 


mythlung 




Bone 


kotham 




Hand 


sotong 


sytbi 


STcy 


kokhau 


kagal 


Ood 


dusdeakhtshik 


kut 


Fire 




blumligtsh 


Tree 


utha 


uuda 


Earth 


b'sjTnth 


ua 
symmit 


Egg 




lylida 


Fish 


entshude 


entsbudu 



174 THE KAMTSHATKAN. 



English. 


Ukah. 


South Kara 


River 


kothhoul-kygh 




Hill 


pehkugtsh 


namtid. 


Dog 


koslia 


kosha. 



I know of nothing that illustrates the grammatical 
structure of either the Karatshatkan or the Koriak. 

The Kamtshatkan call themselves Itulman ; the 
Koriaks call them Kontshala and Numelaha ; the 
Kurilians call them ArutaTunkar. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 175 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



General Obsei-vations on the preceding Languages. — Value of tie Class. - 
Original Turk, Mantshu, Mongol, Yeneseian, and Ugrian Areas. 



In taking a review of the group which has just been dealt 
with, we cannot but be satisfied with the precision 
and definitude of all its boundaries : those of the class 
itself, taken as a whole, being pre-eminently broad 
and clear. Where the Mantsliu and the Chinese, the 
Mongol and Bhot, the Turk and Bhot, the Turk and 
Persian, confront each other, there has been encroach- 
ment accompanied by the obliteration of transitional 
forms, on both sides — the Mantshu, for instance, press- 
ing southward, on the one hand, and the Chinese press- 
ing northwards on the other. And so on with the rest. 
Where the Turk and Persian cease to confront each 
other, the Caspian intervenes with its waters. After 
this comes the mountain-range of Caucasus, to the 
very feet of which the Turk and Russian have extended 
themselves — doubtless at the expense of some language 
akin to the Circassian, or, at any rate, more akin to it 
than. they are themselves. In Europe, all beyond the 
Dnieper, at least, though now Russian, was originally 
other than Russian ; so that whatever may have been the 
affinities of the original languages of the Governments of 
Kursk, Penza and the districts nearest the Mordvin area 
to the Mordvin and its congeners, all such transitions as 
they may have efiected are annihilated. Again — ^in 
Norway and Sweden the present Norwegian and 
Swedish are intrusive ; so that whatever came in contact 



176 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

with the southern area of the Laps is annihilated also. 
The remaining boundaries are formed by the Ocean. 

Still the distances between the languages of the pre- 
sent group and those of the rest of the world, though 
great, are, by no means, equal. There are points where- 
at there is an approximation. These are the neigh- 
bourhood of Behring's Straits ; Korea ; and Lithuania 
—in other words, the Koriak is notably American, the 
Korean notably Chinese, and the Lithuanic notably 
Ugrian. This merely means that there are certain points 
about which the encroachment and displacement have 
been less than they have been about others. 

This applies, in a less degree, to the minor divisions 
which lie between the secondary groups. The Tungtis, 
the Mongol, and the Turk, with their intrusions, have 
effectually obliterated any such congeners as may have 
led from one of them to the other. From the small 
amount of difference between their extreme dialects we 
infer that their diffusion has been recent. 

The Ugrian, on the other hand, was a large class, 
falling into divisions and sub-divisions, and covering a 
surface which grows wider and wider the more we go 
back. It is now discontinuous ; the result of its dis- 
continuity being definitude of boundary. In Hungary 
alone it has been intrusive — we might say protrusive ; 
for the Magyar of Hungary is separated from its nearest 
congener by many degrees of latitude, having found its 
way into Hungary not by any gradual extension of the 
Ugrian frontier, but by being bodily projected (so to say) 
into a strange and foreign country. Of pure protrusion 
and projection — protrusion and projection accompanied 
with a separation from its congeners — it is one of the 
most remarkable examples in ethnographical philology; 
and one which should never be either forgotten or over- 
looked when we have languages in extraordinary locali- 
ties to account for. 

Something in the way of an approximation to the 



OIT THE TURANIAN CLASS. 177 

original area of the Tiingus, Mongol, and Turk languages 
is possible. It is the easiest with the Turk. There are 
many localities where we know that the Turk is not in- 
digenous. It never came from Hungary ; nor yet from 
Constantinople ; nor yet from the Lower Lena ; notwith- 
standing the existence of the Cumanian, the Osmanli, 
and the Yakut forms of speech in those districts. It 
scarcely originated on the northern side of the Caucasus 
in immediate contact with the Tsherkess ; nor yet in the 
Sayanian range, where it is spreading itself at the 
present time. It could scarcely have originated in the 
immediate contact of either the Tunglis or the Mongol, 
from which it differs as a language which meets another 
from some distant quarter and in an opposite direction. 
If the doctrine that it is more L^gi'ian than either Mon- 
gol or Tungus be true, it must be a language of western 
rather than Eastern Asia. 

The area for which the evidence of the Turk being 
intrusive is at its minimuTrt, and (changing the ex- 
pression) the area for which the evidence of its being 
indigenous is at its niaxiTiiuin, is Independent Tartary. 
On the other hand, it is little better than a desert. 

Next to this comes Chinese Tartary. This, however, 
is unfavourable to its Ugrian and (I may add) its 
Yeniseian) affinities. 

Next comes the Tshuvash and Tsherimis frontier. 

To go in detail through the remainder of the groups 
would be to give a theory of the ethnology of Siberia. 
The conditions, however, which are required are the 
same throughout. Where can we prove intrusion ? 
Where is the residuary locality where it cannot be 
proved ? When this is obtained, how will it account 
for the affinities ? Such is the method. As far as I 
have been able to work it, I have been led to place the 
Mongol nucleus in the parts about the Hi and the lakes 
of its vicinity ; the Tungus on the Upper Anmr, the 
Korean somewhat to the west of its present area ; and 

N 



178 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

the Aino to some portion of the districts now occupied 
by the Lamut. The Koriak, the Jukahiri, the Yeniseian, 
the Samoyed, the Yogul, and the Ostiak, I refer, one 
and all, to some point considerably to the south of their 
present northernmost localities. In this, however, there 
is a mixture of ethnological and philological conside- 
rations. 

The best name for this class, and perhaps the com- 
monest, is Turanian : a term which sometimes gives a 
larger and sometimes a smaller class than the one which 
we are now leaving, for India, Persia, and Caucasus. 



THE PARAHI, ETC. J 79 



CHAPTER XXV. 

The Darahi (Denwar) and Kuswar.— The Paksya and Tharu. — The Kooch. 

The present section of the class now coming into notice 
is artificial. It is ambiguous. It is more than this. It 
is only equivocally ambiguous. The languages which it 
contains take their present place because they are, to 
some extent, both Bhot and Indian. Yet they may be 
so much more Bhot than Indian, or so much more 
Indian than Bhot, as to require no intermediate classifi- 
cation. Again, one of them may be Bhot, one Indian, 
and one truly ambiguous. They are so Tamul. What 
they really represent is the author's want of knowledge 
and leisure. 

The class, then, is provisional. Thus much, however, 
may be said of its members. 

1 . That they are Indian in respect to their numerals, 
throughout ; and Indian in a great many other words. 

2. That, so far as they are other than Indian, they 
are Monosyllabic and Tamul. 

The degree to which they are this varies with the lan- 
guage ; and it is possible that, in some of them, the ori- 
ginal element may be so thoroughly displaced, as to leave 
the other bases Monosyllabic and Tamul only in the way 
that a knife with a new blade and a new handle is still 
the same knife. But, again, the group is artificial, 
and the Hindii character of the numerals is, to a great 
extent, an arbitrary test. 

The Darahi and Kuswar are spoken by two broken 
tribes (I use Mr. Hodgson's expression) in Nepaul. 

N 2 



180 



THE DARAHI, ETC. 



English. 


Duralii. 


K us war. 


Man 


manas 


gokchai chawai 


Head 


mud 


kapa 


Han- 


bar 


bar 


Eye' 


ankhi 


ankhi 


Ear- 


kan 


kan 


Mouth 


muhun 


muhu 


Tooth 


dant 


dant 


Hand 


hat 


bath 


Foot 


god 


gor 


Blood 


ragat 


rakti 


Bone 


had 


hadh 


^Tcy 


sarag 


sarang 


l>ay 


din 


dini 


Night 


rato 


ratbi 


Sun 


gama 


suraj 


Moon 


Janha 


jun 


Star 


tirya 


tarai 


Fire 


age 


aghi 


Water 


hate 


hani 


Earth 


mati 


mati 


Mountain 


danda 


pahar 


Stone 


pathar 


pathar 


Bird 


chari 


chari 


Dog 


kukur 


kukol 


Pm 


anda 


dimba 


Fish 


machha 


jbain 


Floiver 


phul 


phul 


Horn 


sing 


sinjek 


House 


ghar 


ghara 


River 


khola 


kosi 


Snake 


samp 


samp 


Tree 


rak 


gatch 


One 


ek 


ek 


Two 


dwi 


dwi 


Three 


tin 


tin 


Four 


char 


char 


Five 


panch 


panch 


Six 


chah 


chah 


Seven 


sat 




Eight 


ath 


„ _ 


Nine 


nou 




Ten 


das 





The Denwar is nearly identical with the Darahi- 
differing, however, inter alia, in the following words. 



THE DARAHI, ETC. 



J81 



En-lisli. 


Demvar. 


Daralii. 


Egg 


dimba * 


anda 


Mother 


ambai * 


uya 


Mountain 


pakha * 


danda 


River 


lari 


khola 


Road 


bat* 


panya 


Stone 


donkho 


pathar 


Tree 


gatch* 


rak 


Water 


kyu 


pati. 



The Pakbya and Tharu, like the Daralii and Kuswar, 
are Nepalese in respect to their geography. 



English. 


Pakhya. 


Tharu. 


Man 


manchha 


manhai 


Head 


manto 


mudi 


Hair 


rawa 


bar 


Eye 


ankha 


ankh 


Ear 


kan 


kan 


Mouth 


mukha 


mukha 


Tooth 


data 


data 


Hand 


hatkela 


tar-hatti 


Blood 


ragat 


lohu 


Bone 


had 


had 


Day 


duiso " 


dina 


Night 


rati 


rati 


Sun 


gbama 


rauda 


Moon 


chandramabel 


chandraraajuu 


Fire 


ago 


agi 


Water 


pani 


pani 


Earth 


mato 


mati 


Mountain 


pahar 


parbat 


Egg 


pliul 


anda 


Fish 


machha 


macheri 


Floiver 


phul 


phul 


Horn 


sing 


sing 


House 


ghar 


ghar 


River 


khola 


khola 


SnaTce 


sapa 


sapa 


Tree 


rukha 


gatch 


One 


yek 


yet 


Two 


dui 


dui 


Three 


tin 


tin 


Four 


char 


char 


Five 


pach 


pacLe 


Six 


chha 


chha 



Agree with Kuswar^ 



182 





THE 


DARAHI, 


ETO. 




English. 




Pakhya. 




Tharu. 


Seven 




sat 




sat 


Eight 
Nine 




ath 
nau- 




ath 
nau 


Ten 




das 




das. 



The Kooch belong to India (and Sikkim ?) rather 
than to Nepal ; being occupants of the northern parts 
of Rungpur, Purnea, Dinajpur, and Mymangsing. The 
Bodo of their frontier call them Kooch ; the more distant 
Bodo of Asam call them Hasa. The Dhimal call them 
Kamul, which, word for word, seems to be Dhimal. 
For the Brahminic Kooch the following is a vocabulary. 
For the Kooch, however, who are still the pagan occu- 
pants of the more impracticable forests, we have no 
specimens. 



English. 


Kooch. 


English. 


Kooch. 


Man {vir) 


beta clioa 


Star 


tara 


Woman 


beti choa 


Fire 


agni 


Son 


beta 


Water 


jal^ 


Daughter 


beti 


Fiver 


nodi 


Head 


mura 


Stone 


pathar 


Eye 


chakbu 


Wind 


batas 


Nose 


nak 


One 


ek 


Ear 


kan 


Two 


du 


Beard 


dadbi 


Three 


tin 


Mouth 


mukh 


Four 


char 


Tongue 


jivha 


Five 


panch 


Tooth 


dant 


Six 


choi 


Hand 


hatb 


Seven 


sat 


Foot 


bhori 


Eight 


ath 


Blood 


lohu 


Nine 


nou 


Sun 


bela 


Ten 


das. 


Moon 


chand 







The Kooch, whose separation from the Bodo and Dhi- 
mal, is philological, rather than ethnological, and which, 
even philologically, is, to some extent, artificial, are 
bounded on the south by the Bengali area. The 
Bengali language, however, is not the nearest congener 
of the class to which the Kooch, though an outlying and 
equivocal member, belongs. 



THE KOL DIALECTS. 183 



CHAPTER XXYI. 

The Kol group. — Its Affinities with the Mon. 

The dialect, other than Bengali, which, in the way of 
geography, is nearest to the most southern language of 
the Tibetan, Burmese, or Nepalese group, is that of the 
natives of the Rajmahal hills ; but this, for a reason 
which will appear in the sequel, is pretermitted for the 
present ; instead of which we notice the Kol dialects of 
Ramgurh, Mongliir, Chuta Nagpur, Gangpur, Sirgujah, 
and Sumbhulpur : which fall into divisions and sub- 
divisions. The Sontals, indigenous to the parts about 
Palamow, have recently intruded themselves amongst the 
Rajmahalis, and, having so done, constitute the most 
northern section of the group. Still they are intrusive, 
and must be kept separate. 

Ho, meaning man, is the true and native name for 
the Kol of Kolehan, 

The Singbhum Kol is the same as the Sontal except 
that some of its forms are somewhat shorter, as ho = horl, 
ho = huho, moya and turia = mone-gotang, turin- 
gotang, &c. The same is the case with the Bhumij and 
Mundala dialects. In these, however, the numerals for 
7, 8, 9, and 10 are Hindu — sath, ath, nou (noko), and 
das (dasgo). 



English. 


Sontal. 


English. 


Sontal. 


Man 


horh 


Foot 


suptijanga 


Head 


buho 


Blood 


myun 


Hair 


uh 


Bone 


jang 


Eye 


met 


Sun 


singmanal 


Ear 


lutu 


Moon 


chandu 


Hand 


thi 


Star 


ipil 



184 



t 


KOL AND MON. 




English. 


Sontal, 


English. 


Sontal. 


Fire 


sengel 


Five 


mone-gotang 


Water 


dah 


Six 


turin-gotang 


One 


midli 


Seven 


lair-gotang 


Tivo 


barria 


Eight 


iral-gotang 


Three 


apia 


Nine 


are-gotang 


Four 


ponia 


Ten 


gel-gotang. 



An observation, and an important one, of Mr. Mason's, 
respecting the affinities of the Mon of Pegu and the Kol, 
requires notice. The first numerals and several other 
words in the Mon are also Kol. I cannot, however, 
with Mr. Mason, infer from this any affinity between the 
Kol and Mon which is, at one and the same time, funda- 
mental and direct. What I see is this — the chances of a 
considerable influence from the east coast of India upon 
Pegu and, perhaps, Cambojia at an early period. The 
Mon are called by the Burmese Talieng ; which is, word 
for word, Telinga, The number of the monosyllabic 
languages, which, in an early stage, had no numerals of 
their own beyond five, is considerable. The Mon nu- 
merals, then, and the other words may have come from 
India — imported and incorporated. More than this is 
not necessary to explain the facts ; which, on other 
grounds, will scarcely cover the inference of Mr. Mason. 

The eastern coast, however, of India when the words 
in question were introduced (and, with them, the name 
Talien), must have been Kol rather than Telinga. 



THE KHOND DIALECT. 185 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

The Khond Class. — Khond. — Cadaba and Yerikala. — Savara. 

The Khonds come next ; belonging to Orissa rather than 
Bengal. The Khond calls his own country Kui Dina or 
Ku Pruti, and that occupied by the Uriyas Sasi Dina. The 
word malo is Uriya, and means a Highland. Within 
the Sircar of Ganjam (in which the Uriya and Telinga 
languages meet) lie the Zemindaries of Gumsur, Koradah, 
Souradali, and Kimidi. Each has its "nialo — and the 
Kimidi Malo is pre-eminently Sour. It falls into — 

1. The Sano Kimidi Malo. 

2. The Bodo Kimidi Malo. Observe the word Bodo. 

3. The Pariah, or Porolah, Kimidi Malo. 

In the Bodo Kimidi Malo the Khond and Sour are 
both spoken. The Pariah Kimidi Malo being chiefly (or 
exclusively) Sour. 

On the south-east and east of the Kimidi Malo lies 
the Souradah — which seems to mean the Sour Country ; 
though Khond in population. 

The smaller divisions of the dina are called in Khond 
khand = piece, or part. The dina is specified by the 
name of the chieftain ; thus Rogo Dina or Gune Dina 
is the fief (so to say) of Rogo or Guni. The people are 
Rogo Millaka, or Dina Millako, i. e. Children of Rogo. 
There is no collective name. The following is Khond, 
eo nomine ; the numerals being Indian — - 



English. 


Khond. 


English. 


Khond. 


Man 


lokka 


Ear 


kirru 


Head 


tlavu 


Motith 


sudda 


Eye 


kannuka 


Tooth 


ahami 



186 



THE KHOND DIALECT. 



English. 


Kliond. 


English. 


Khond 


Hand 


kaju 


One 


rondi 


Foot 


vestamu 


Two 


jodeka 


Blood 


rakko 


Three 


*tini-gota 


Bone 


■ pasu 


Four 


*sari 


Sun 


bela 


Five 


*paiichu 


Moon 


layadi 


Six 




Star 


sukala 


Seven 


*sata 


Fire 


nade 


Eight 


*ata 


Stone 


viddi 


Nine 


*nogatta 


Tree 


mranu 


Ten 


*doso. 



The following, viz. the Gadaba, belongs, I presume, to 
the TYialo of Gaddapur, one of the districts of Gtimstir : — 



English. 


Gailaha. 


English. 


Gadaba. 


Man 


lokka 


Stone 


birel 


Head 


bo 


Tree 


sunabbo 


Eye 


olio 


One 


vokati 


Ear 


nintiri 


Two 


rendu 


Mouth 


tummo 


Three 


mudu 


Hand 


titti 


Four 


nalugu 


Foot 


adugesananu 


Five 


ayidu 


Blood 


yignan 


Six 


aru 


Bone 


vondramgoyi 


Seven 


yedu 


Sun 


singi 


Eight 


yeni-mede 


Moon 


arke 


Nine 


torn-inidi 


Star 


tsukka 


Ten 


pade. 


Fire 


sungol 







Of the following I am unable to give the exact lo- 
cality. 



English, 


Yerukali 


English. 


Yerukali. 


Man 


lokka 


Stone 


kellu 


Head 


talayi 


Tree 


chede 


Eye 


supan 





marom 


Ear 


soyi 


One 


vondu 


Mouth 


vayi 


Two 


rendu 


Tooth 


pallam 


Three 


mume 


Hand 


ky Kol 


Four 


nalu 


Foot 


keru 


Five 


anju 


Blood 


regain 


Six 


aru 


Bone 


yamaka 


Seven 


yegu 


Sun 


berule 


Eight 


yethu 


Moon 


tarra 


Nine 


ombadu 


Star 


tsukka 


Ten 


pothu. 


Fire 


nerupu Tamil 







The numerals marked thus are Hind6. 



THE SAVARA. 



1 



The village is also named Millaka, preceded by the 
name of the founder. Thus Diggo Millaka is the village 
founded by Diggo. In Uriya it is a gam = Diggogam. 



English. 


Savara. 


Man 


mandra 


Head 


abobumu 


Eye 


amu 


Ear 


lav 


Mouth 


amuka 


Tooth 


ajagna 


Blood ■ 


mijamo 


Bone 


ajagna 


Hand 


asi 


Foot 


aji 


Day 


tamba 


Sky 


agasa 


Sun 


Tuyu 


Moon 


vonga 


Star 


tute 



Englisli. 

Fire 

River 

Stone 

Tree 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 



Savara. 

togo 

nayi 

aregna 

anebagna 

aboy 



yagi 
vonjii 
mollayi 
kudru 

gulgi 
tamuji 
tinji 
galliji. 



The Savara numerals are Kol rather than either 
Khond or Tamul, though the Sours are, by no means, 
the nearest to the Kol area. 



188 ^__ THE GHONDS. 



CHAPTER XXYIII. 

The aiionds. 

The barest part of the maps of India (and by hare I 
mean a district which the paucity of names, whether of 
villages or natural objects, proclaims to be unexplored) 
is a large space named Ghondwana — -large and undefined, 
the occupancy of a population named Ghond. Word 
for word, this is Khond. Nothing, however, in the 
way of either affinity or difference between the Khonds 
and Ghonds is to be inferred from the similarity. 
Neither is a native name. Each is a name which cer- 
tain Hindus apply to certain tribes which they consider 
ruder and more barbarous than themselves. Like other 
names of the same kind it may denote anything or 
nothing in the way of relationship. It may apply to 
tribes closely allied ; or it may apply to tribes, toto coelo, 
different. 

The western frontier of the Klionds of the Giimsur 
Malo and the frontier of the most eastern Ghonds touch 
and run into each other. " At Sarangaddah, the Uriya 
quarter is situated between a Khond village to the west, 
and a Ghond settlement to the east. In other places 
a Khond village aligns with it. 

" A few families of the Ghond race have emigrated from 
Kalahandi and Bastar at various times. Some have set- 
tled at Sarangaddah, while others have passed on into the 
Goomsur Malo, and penetrated as far to the eastward as 
Udyagiri, near the head of the Kurminghia Pass, where 
a colony has established itself. They are also met with, 
as a few families, at Chachingudah, and Kiritingiah, of 
Goomsur, lying between the above points. These emi- 



ff\:^' 



THE GHONDS. 189 

grations still continue in times of scarcity, but their 
numbers are v^ry trifling. It is in the countries bor- 
dering this malo to the west that they are known as a 
people. The Patros of the frontier divisions of Lonka- 
godah and Bellagodah are of this race, as is also the 
Chief of Mohangiri, under Kalahandi, not to mention 
in this place other men of influence. The Gonds settled 
at Sarangaddah, i^eceive land of the Patro in return for 
general service. They intermarry with the families of 
their race in Goomsur : they reside at the godah. With 
regard to their customs, their mythology difiers from 
that of the Uriyas or Kondhs. They sacrifice animals, 
drink ardent spirits, eat flesh, but eschew that of the 
cow : they will not partake of food with any other 
class. Their feelings on the question of human sacrifice 
are not, as yet, accurately ascertained ; but it is asserted 
that they do not perform the rite. The titles amongst 
them are Dalbehra and Magi. They esteem them- 
selves of great purity of race, so that in former days 
they considered the approach of a Brahman to their 
dwellings as conveying an impurity to the spot ; they 
are now, however, somewhat less rigid on this ground. 
The Uriyas of the hills, while they regard the Khonds 
as a distinct and inferior race, assign to the Ghonds a 
common origin with themselves. The tradition received 
at Sarangaddah is as follows : — 

"A certain raja, named Sobhajoi Singh, being unmar- 
ried, and desirous of issue, called to his bed four parties 
in succession. Those selected were the daughters of a 
washerman, a potter, a distiller of spirits, and a Brah- 
man ; and the respective issue was a Doholo or Dolo, a 
Kohouro, a Gond, and the Nolo Benso Patro — the proge- 
nitors of the four classes now met with in the Malo."* 

The details of the Kol frontier are not so well-known. 

Neither are those of the districts where the Ghond and 

* Paper by Lieut. J. P. Feye, — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. xvii. part 1. 



190 



THE GUNDI. 



Mahrafcta, the Ghond and Bengali, the Ghond and Telngu, 
the Ghond and the Hindi forms of speech come in con- 
tact. These, however, are the languages by which it is 
bounded. 

A short vocabulary by Mr. Manger, of the Ghond, is 
to be found in the 1 45th number of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society, and a longer one in a previous number. 
The former gives the language of the parts about Ellich- 
poor, where the Mahratta is the language with which 
it is most in contact. The latter is from the district of 
Seonee ; on or near the Kol frontier. The following 
extracts are from Mr. Manger's notice of it; 



English. 


Gundi. 


Englisk 


Giindi. 


MaU 


m^ndsa 


Back 


murchur 


Boy 


perga 


Ai-ms 


kayik 


Infant 


chowa 


Thighs 


kurki 


Young man 


pekur 


Navel 


mud 


Old man 


sena 


Knees 


tungru 


Woman 


maiju 


Legs 


potri 


Girl 


pergi 


Feet 


kal 


Young woman 


rayah 


Water 


er 


Married woman 


lunguriar 


Fire 


kis 


Head 


tulla 


Tree 


murra 


Forehead 


kuppar 


Flower 


pungar 


Eyebrows 


kunkunda 


Firewood 


kuttia 


Eyelids 


mindi 


Salt 


sowur 


Eyes 


kunk 


Oil 


ni 


Nose 


mussur 


Ghee 


palni 


Ears 


kohi 


Milk 


p^l 


Cheeks 


korir 


Butter 


nenii 


Lips 


sewli 


Mare 


kr(ip 


Mouth 


tudhi 


'Cow 


mura 


Tongue 


wuiija 


Heifer 


kullor 


Teeth 


pulk 


Calf 


paia 


Chin 


towrwa 


Bullock 


koda 


Throat - 


gunga 


Udder 


tokur 


Neck 


wurrur 


Horns 


kor 


Shoulders 


sutta 


Buffalo 


urmi 


Nails 


tirrls 


Horse 


perr^l 


Armpit 


k^ukli 


Wheat 


gohuc 


Stomach 


pir 


Bread 


gohuc sari 


Loins 


nunni 


nice 


paraik 


Entrails 


puddu 


She goat 


peti 



GUNDI GRAMMAR. 



191 



English. 






Gundi. 


English. 




Gundi. 


Dog 






naie 


Between 


nuddum 


Cat 






bhongal 


Behind 


Pija 


Wild cat 






wurkar 


Above 


purro 


Fowls 






kiir 


Beneath 


sidi 


Code 






gunguri 


On account 


lane 


Chickens 






chlwar 


Hither 


hikkg 


Eggs 






mesuk 


Thither 


hukke 


Mice 






uUi 


Now 


indeke 


Serpents 






turrds 


When 


boppor 


Fish 






mink 


Here 


iga ^ 


Tiger 






p611ie 


Thus 


ital atal 


WalTc 






takana 


Daily 


dink 


Run 






witt^na 


One 


undl 


Laugh 






kowana 


Two 


rund 


Sing 






wurana 


Three 


miind 


Dance 






yendana 


Four 


nalo 


Speah 






wtinkana 


Five 


saiyan 


Fight 






turritana 


Six^ 


s6,r(in 


Beat 






jittana 


Seven 


6ro 


Weep 






urtana 


Eight 


armtir 


No 






hille 


Nine 


urmah 


Yes 






hinge 


Ten 


pudth 


Near 






kurrun 


Twenty 


wisa 


Before 






nunne 


Fifty 


punnas 


Within 






rupper 


Hundred 


nur. 


Kora 




a horse. 


Korank hor 


ses. 


Korana 
Korada 


\ 


of 


a horse. 


Korankna of horses. 


Korat 


n 


to 


a horse. 


Korankun horses. 


Kor^tu 










Koratsfin 


by 


a horse 


Koranksiin by horses 


Nak or nunna 


1 




Imma 


thou 


Wur 


he 


Nowa 


my 




Niwa 


thy 


Wnnna 


his 


Nakun 


me 




Nikiin 


thee 


Wunk 


him 


Naksun 


hy me 


! Niksiin 


by thee 


Wunksun by him 


Mak 


we 






Imdt. 


you 


Wurg 


they 


Mowan 


our 






Miwat 


your 


Wurran 


their 


Makun 


us 






Mekun 


you 


Wurrun 


them 


Mdksun 


by us 




Miksun 


by you 


Wurrunsun by them. 


Yii-g 


this 






Bur 


who 


Ud he, she, it. 


Yenna 


oft 


his 




Bona 


whose 






Yenk 


this 






Bonk 


whom 


Ten \ h 
Tdne; 


im, her, it, 


Yenksun 


hy this 




Bons6n 


by wliom 


them 



192 



GUJSTDI GRAMMAR. 



Yirg 


these 


Burk 


toho 




Yirran 


of these 


Boran 


of whom 




Yirkun 


these 


Bonk 


whom 


Tunna, his, hers, theirs. 


Yirruusun 


hy these 


Bonsun 


hy whom 






Bore, some one. 


Bara, something. 




Bora, what ? 


Plural, Barauk, what ? 




Wunka 


speah 




Wunkunna 


to speak 




Wunki 


speaking 




Wunktur 


spoken 




Wunksi 


having spoken 




Nunna wunki 


I speak 




Imma wunki 


thou speakest 




Wur wunki 


he speaks 




Mar wunki 


we speak 




I mar wunki 


ye speak 




Wurg wunki 


they speak. 


Nunna wunkundan \ 


I Nunna, wunksi howe 


Imma wunkundi > / was 


speaking, &c. \ Imma, wunksi howe, &c 


Wur wunkundur ) 


( same for all persons. 




Mar wunkundum 


) 




Imar wunkundir 


> I shall have spoken. 




Wurg wunkundurg 


) 





Nunna wunktan, / spoke. 
Imma wunkti 
Wur wunktur 



Wunka, speak thou. 



Mdr wunktum 
Imar wunktir 
Wurg wunkttirg 

Nunna wunksi 
Imma wunksi 
Wur wunksi 
Mar wunksi 
Imar wunksi 
Wurg wunksi 

Nunna wunkika 
Imma wunkiki 
Wur wunkaniir 
Mar wunklkum 
Imar wunkikir 
Wurg wunkanurg 



Wunkar, speak ye. 



I had spoken, &c. 



I shall speik. 



ff\J 



GUNDI GRAMMAR. 193 

Nunna ■wunkundan howe 

Imma wunkundi howe 

Wlr wunkundur liowe f- / shall he speaU 

Mar wunkundir howe 

Wurg wunkundurg howe 

1. 
Mowa Dowial budrut purro muddar-warre ; Niwa purrol dhurmat-ma 
aie. Niwa nijpat waie. Niwar bichar ital budrit purro mundar atal durtit 
purro d,ud. Mowa pialda sarin neut mak punkiut : unde babun mar upnun 
reina dhen-6m kisia-turrum, atal imma mak dherum kisiut, unde makun 
miwa jhara-jberti te niuni watnat unde burrotsun mak pisib^t, barike 
niwa rajpat, unni niwa bul, unni niwa dburmat mal sudda mund ital 
and. 

In English. 
Our Father heaven above inhabitant ; Thy name hallowed be. Thy king- 
dom come. Thy will as heaven above is, so earth on be. Our daily bread 
to-day to us give : and as we our debtors forgive, so thou to us trespasses for- 
give, and us into thy temptations do not throw, and from evil us deliver, for 
thy kingdom and thy power and thy glory established remain, so be it. 

2. 

1. Kodawund niwa Purmesur nunna andur, namunne niwur Deo bor6 
hille audur. 

2. Apun lane kital penk, bore budde ai jins ital budrate nuni dhurtile, 
unni yete mundar, atal miuni kemut imat wurea k^l minni kurmat, unde 
wurrun rdmakisni minni kemat ; iden laine laine m^k an mundur, unde 
dourana papun sate chawtin purro s^siut dusta-tona, nati unni punti-lor 
purro, wurg admirun bor nowa bairi munda, unde mat awen — men sun 
hazaron nakun mink pundaturg, unde nowa wunktan purro taki-turg, nunna 
wurrun purro durmi kia tona. 

3. Purmesur-da parrol labarit purro minni yeumat, tin-lainun papi ainun 
wurg manwal bor Purmesur-da parrol labarit purro yetanur. 

4. Purmesur-da pidl purriat unde tan swaf ir^t sarrun pialk bunni buta 
kimpt, unde sub miwa k^m kimpt, at ernfida pi^l Purmesur-da pial mundur, 
ud pial imma buttiai kam kemut, imma unni niwa pergal unni niwa pergol, 
unni niwa rutkawal unni niwa kunda, unni niwa pownalur run munddr ; tin 
laine Purmesur sarun pialk ne budra unni dherti unni sumdur unni cheit- 
kunne jinsk iwite mundatan, awen kitur, nude yerrfin pial rum tur, tuilaine 
id pialtun Purmesur dhurmat-mal tane kitur. 

5. Imma upnon babonna unni awunna sewa kimpt, ten sun niwa yarbul 
durtit purro Purmesisr nikun situr, par^l aud. 

6. Imma mauwan minni jukmat. 

7. Imma pap minni kema. 

8. Imma kulwein minni kema. 

9. Imma upnon biganun purro labari gohai minni sena. 

10. Imma upnon biganun -ta rota lob minni kema. Imma upnon biganun- 
na maigu-na lob minni kema, unde wunna rutkawal unde wunna kfinda, 
innui wunnal guddal unde buttie-jins, upnon biganun-na mundar tan purro 
lob minni kema. 

O 



194 SPECIMENS OF THE GUNBI. 

Jn English. 

1. Tlie Lord thy God I am, besides me thy gods not any shall he. 

2. Ta yourselves graven images, any sort of creature such as in heaven and 
on earth, and in s^, are, such do not make — you their feet do not embrace, 
and their obeisance do not perform ; because to* me jealousy is, and father's 
sins for children on, punishment inflict, grand childrea and great-grand chil- 
dren upon those men who my enemies are, and I from amrnig those a thou- 
sand (who) me as a friend take, and my commands according to walk, I on 
them my shadows throw, 

3. God's name in, falsehood do not take, for guilty will be that man who 
God's name in falsehood shall take. 

4. God's day remember and it holy keep ; six days daily work do, and all 
thy labour perform, but seventh day God's day is, that day thou any kind of 
work do not make, thou and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy servants, 
and thy cattle, and thy stranger (thy) house dwelling ; because God six days 
in, heaven, and earth, and sea, and each creature in them existing, them 
made, and seventh day rest took, therefore that day God hallowed estab- 
lished. 

5. Thou thy father^s and mother's service perform, therefore thy life, the 
land upon, God to thee has given, prolonged may be. 

6. Thou a man not kill. 

7. Thou adultery not do. 

8. Thou theft not do. 

9. Thou thy neighbour against false witness not give. 

10. Thou thy neighbour's house covet not. Thou thy neighbour's wife covet 
not, and his ho use -servants, and his ox, and his ass, and anything, that thy 
neighbour's is it upon covetousness not make. 

3. 
Sandsumjee-na saka kuydt, ro Bafcan, 
Sark ask kitur, Sing-Baban hille puttur, 
Yirrun ask kitur, awlte Sing-Baban autarietur. 
Aular yetana Baban punwake. 
Taksitun Baban, tunwa pari sumpte kiale 
Barike bouke aie penk putta sika. 
Hikke Sing-Baban putti-le-ai latur. 
Loro askna sowati, sarun mutta. 

Awitun, koti annate tulla dtirissT, *'assun inga chawa putti," 
Ud it, ahe kint annate tullatun durritun, 
Unni Sing-Baban purtUr, 
Sing-Baban techi urmi sarte michitun, 
Unni nai-plla taniga dussitfin, 
Unni itttir, nai-jula wattoni, 

Nai-pilla mis^te ; tank kawai kede kiate tare kitfm, 
Sing-Baban, urmi ittfin, ke yenk borre minni jera^t, 
Na tokar jemat, unni torde pal ptirsi ten tihat. 
Au sarlinge ask whdr setfin, pistur ka satur ? 
Sing-Baban gursunddr. 
Augrul tinde techi mfira na sarkte nuchitun. 



SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 19. 

Murai itttin Sing-Baban bore jarniut 

Natokar jemat torde pal pirsi ten tihat, 

Agra kubber tuUick setun, satur ke pisltir ? 

Sing-Baban gursunddr, 

Agral techi kuan ruppa nucbitun. 

Tisro dian bur settin, satur ka pistur ? 

Sing-Baban aga tinde gursunddr. 

Agral dnde ttinsi ptillia-na surrit purro. 

Nucbicbi situn, Pfillial ask mandsal wandurg ; 

Sing-Baban na arana kinchturg. 

PuUial mian tras lakt, naur murri atidtir, 

Ingi tecbi ygt, Tunwa rtind wot unni tunwa pilausdn niaro irt, 

Khandk tullana tunwa pilautin tbitana 

Pillan hotlta, pal Sing-Baban uhnud 

Tbe kina kina ke, Sing-Baban husiar atur. 

Undl dian wunna avari tunwa pilanstin 

Milaf kissicblsi, unni pi Ian tin indalat 

Immer urpa mundana turrim^t minni 

Tisro diaii Sing-Baban itturke, mowa kaia desita 

Makun putchial, kor, pheta tuchim 

Adungi battum surde ucclii raimat 

Punkatur unni marratur maralur agdol passiturg 

Tecbi wit, wurg tunwa guttri potri nuchi surrit^rg 

Ud tecbi tuccbit, Sing-Baban tunsi kursi yetiin . , 

Unni tunwa awarinna kal kurttir, 

Munna munnake tinde dian unde indalatur 

Ki nak gullele tuccbim ud benbud 

Uccbi raimat, Wtirrtir sipabi gullele-warre agdol pussittir 

Ud vit ktissi, Gtillele nucbi surrittir. 

Ud tecbi urriwat Sing-Baba sit ; 

Sing-Baba tunna tummtir singne gursi latur, 

Pittun ptidtir tunna tummur tan tindlir 

Tbe kina ke, Sandsumji niga sube wattir 

Unni Sandsumji nida latur peuk bouk wandum ? lour ebat • 

Penk bouke waiyun ? aga Sing-Baba timhen kitun 

Sing-Baba taksittir tunna tummur sungue muttur 

Wasiaauttir, uddam atur wtirrtir Bummenal 

"Wtin Sing-Baba teta latur, Wur tedtir ; 

Tunnardn gussalakt wur Bummenal tingiettir 

Sing-Baba penk tecbietur. 

Sube indalattir ke imma boni audi ? 

Wur ittur ke immer urmitiun unni mtiramtir keat 

Unni tunwa tumman indalatur, hun dain kesi terah 

Wur vittar kesi tuttur. 

Yen mtinte jins unde punchatite puna atur 

.Tub Sing-Baba indalatur k^ iwen puche kimpt 

Awen sun pticbe kial latur, yir btir audtirl 

Mtinne urmi wunktun yir Sandstimjeentir murri audur. 

o 2 



196 SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDL 

Wtirg indalatur, imma bane putti ? Awitttin 

Maiga rundidian mungi muttur. Bahur mungi muttur 

Awittun niwa sartinge ask tuttchi maiga pikklle nuchi angi 

Unni igga Mile sai6r, to murana sarte nuchiche sittir 

Awen ptiche kial atlir, Maiga Baban at ? 

Miiraittin ke, Maiga rund dian mungi muttur 

Awen sarlingi ask agral wosi kfiante nuchi sltlin 

Aga tinde bille saitir. To agrul tunsi kojane bewatun 

Sing-Baban pticbe kial attirk^ agral imma behuth ? 

Wtir ittur id nowa awan pucbe kimpt 

Wunna awal ptillian pticbe kia latur 

Imma bugga punne mat! ] Ud it 

Mowa surde awe sardnge ask mucHche mutta 

Nunna techi urri wat^n, nowa pil§,n notita 

P^l y^n iihth^n unni hinda hiinda bala buttir 

Nowa chowanfin thet^n sube j^nk ptilliS.na 

Kal ktirt^r unni tane penk thaira kitur. 

Unni awe sarunge askntin ^den pdllian sitlirg. 

Udnetl t^l Sing-Baban putt41 attir 

Unni pulli^l nlide penk thairi mat 

Sandsumjee Bab^na id saka §,ud 

Bhirri b^ns-BLirri-ta s^ka ^ud. 

In English. 
Sandsumjee's song hear, Father. 
Six wives he took, Sing-Baba not bom, 
Seventh wife took, by her Sing-Baba was conceived. 
Of her pregnancy Father was not informed. 
Departed Father, his kinsfolk being assembled together 
For this reason to some one it happened to offer a sacrifice to a God. 
Hereupon Sing-Baba began to be bom. 
Small wife was sleeping, the other six were there. 
Said they, grain basket's mouth into, her head let us introduce in our hous 

child is bom, 
So said, so done, into mouth her head introduced, 
And Sing-Baba was bom, 

Sing-Baba having taken up, into Buffaloes' stable threw, 
And a puppy instead placed, 
And said, a puppy is born, 

A puppy having brought forth, thence crows to frighten they set her, 
Sing-Baba, buffaloes said, that him let none hurt, 
Nor blow strike, and into his mouth milk having poured him suckled. 
The six wives said, let us go and see him, is he living or dead 1 
Sing-Baba was playing. 

Thence indeed having taken him into cows' stable threw. 
The cows said Sing-Baba let no one hurt 
Or blow strike, into his mouth milk pouring him suckled, 
Therefore information they sent to seek, is he living or dead ? 



SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 197 

Sing:Bal)a was playing. 

Thence having taken well into threw. 

On the third day having gone to see, is he living or dead ? 

Sing-Baba there indeed was playing. 

Thence indeed having taken, Tiger's path upon. 

They threw him, Tiger's female and male were coming ; 

Sing-Baba's cries they heard. 

Tigress compassion felt, "my child it is." 

Having said so, took him away. Their den came to and their pups from 

apart set, 
Meat bringing their pups to feed 
Their pups weaning, with milk Sing-Baba suckled, 
So continuing to do, Sing-Baba grew up. 
One day his mother her whelps 
Together brought, and to whelps began to say 
Yourselves among together stay, fight not. 
The third day Sing-Baba said, my body is naked 
To me a dhoty, dohur, and pugrey give. 
She going Bazar road seated remained. 
A muslin-maker and cloth-maker that way came 
Having got up ran, they their bundles having thrown away fled, 
She having taken up brought Sing-Baba took and put on 
And his mother's feet kissed. 
Staying staid then one day indeed began to say 
That to me a bow give. She again went 
Seated remained a sepoy armed with a bow that way came. 
She ran having cried out. Bow thrown away, he fled. 
She having it came and to Sing-Baba gave; 
Sing-Baba big brother little brother together played. 
Birds shot big brother little brother to them gave to eat 
So continuing to do, Sandsumji home returned with his friends 
And Sandsumji began to say has any one become inspired, let him arise ; 
God into one not entered] Then Sing-Baba inspiration received. 
Sing-Baba was coming, big brother little brother together were 
Coming came, in the midst was a brahman 
Him Sing-Baba required to get up, he refused ; 
Big brother became angry, the brahman eat up 
Sing-Baba the image took up. 
All began to say, that you, who are you I 
He said that you the Buffaloes and cows ask 
And to his little brother said, mother go and call. 
He ran and called. 

These three species before the punchaite assembled came. 
Then Sing-Baba said that them question. 
From them they asked, this one who is he ? 
First the buffaloes said this Sandsumjee's son is. 
They said, you how understand ? These said 
In our house two days staid* How did he remain ? 



198 SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 

These said thy six wives having taken into our house to kill threw 

And there not injured, then cows' house into threw 

From these asked, How into your house Baba came ? 

The cows said, At our house two days stayed. 

These six wives thence having taken into well threw, 

There indeed not injured, thence taking I know not where took. 

Sing-Baba they questioned that thence you went where ? 

He said of my mother ask. 

They mother-tigress asked 

You where found ? She said 

On my road these six wives threw away ; 

I having taken brought, my whelps weaning. 

Milk him suckled and here there with prey 

My young fed. All-understood, tigress' 

Feet embraced, and her a Grod established. 

And these six wives to this tigress gave. 

That day Sing-Baba illustrious became 

And Tigress indeed as a God established became. 

Of Sandsumjee Baba this song is. 

Of Bhirry bamboo-jungle Bhirri the song is. 

Data for the Gundi are pre-emiuently deficient. 



THE URAON AND RAJMAHALI. 199 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Uraon and Eajmaliali. 

It has already been stated that, though the Kol dialects, 
eo nomine^ were the ones which were noticed next to 
those of the class represented by the Darahi and Kus- 
war, the form of speech, other than Hindu, which lay 
in the closest geographical proximity to the Himalayas 
was not, eo nomine, KoL 

The notice of it was postponed for the following 
reason — its affinities are believed to lie with Khond to 
the south, and with the Uraon to the west of the Kol 
area rather than with the Kol itself. 

Such, at least, is the doctrine expressed in a work 
which, from both its merits and its circulation, is likely 
to influence the opinion of investigators — Mr. Caldweirs 
Grammar of the Dravirian Language — Dravirian mean- 
ing akin to the Tamid and its immediate congeners. 
That the Tamul is a language of the extreme south we 
have seen : whereas the language under notice, though 
scarcely one of the extreme north, is a northern one — 
northern enough to be spoken along a mountain-range, 
the foot of which is washed by the Oanges. Near to 
where this river is cut by the 25 th degree of N. L. 
stand the Rajmahal Hills : where two forms of speech 
are used. One is the ordinary Suntal of certain intru- 
sive Kols. The other is an older, and apparently a 
native, dialect — which we may call the Eajmahali. 

Now, Caldwell has committed himself to the doctrine 
that the Rajmahali is more Dravirian than the Kol — 
though further from the centre of the Dravirian a^rea : 



200 



THE URAON AND RAJMAHALI. 



indeed, he excludes the Kol from the Dravirian class — 
or, at any rate, hesitates to admit it. 

I treat, then, the Rajmahali as more Khond than Kol 
— only, however, provisionally and until further materials 
for forming a judgment are supplied. 

In the following table the words marked are from the 
list in Caldwell's Grammar ; the others from a vocabu- 
lary by Major Roberts in the fifth volume of the 
Asiatic Researches : — 



English. 


Rajmahali. 


English. 


Rajmahali. 


Man 


*male 


Nail 


uruk 


Head 


kUk 


Hand 


*sesu 




*kupe 


Fingers 


angilli 


Hair 


tuUi 


Foot 


tshupta 


Nose 


moi 




*kev 


Blood 


kiss 


Arm 


tat budahi 




*kesu 


Sun 


*ber 


Eye 


kun 


Moon 


*bilpe 


Eyebrow 


kunmudha 


Star 


badekah 


Ear 


kydule 




bindeke 




*khetway 


Fire 


tshutsha 


Tooth 


pul 


Water 


um 


Belly 


kutshah 


Stone 


tshatshar 


Bone 


*koclial 


Tree 


intin 




kutshul 


Fish 


min 


Bach 


kukah 


SnaJce 


nlr. 



The following (from Caldwell) is a comparison of the 
Rajmahali and Tamul pronouns : — 



English. 


£ajmaha,li. 


Tamul. 


/ 


en 


en, nan 


Thou 


nin 


nin 


He, she, it 


ath 


&ta 


We 


nam 


nd,nL 




om* 


6ni 


Ye 


nina 


nim 


They 


awar 


avar 


This 


Ih 


1 


That 


Ah 


> 


Here 


Irio 


inge 


There 


&no 


ange. 



The Uraon, compared, by Caldwell, with the Raj- 



THE URAON AND RAJMAHALL 



201 



maliali, is placed by liim in the same category. It is a 
language of western rather than the northern frontier of 
the Kol area, within which it is spoken. It is held, 
however, to be intrusive from the parts about Hotasghur 
near the junction of the Coylle and Soone. 
Its position is provisional. 



English. 


Uraon. 


English. 


Uraon. 


Man 


alia 


Foot 


dappe 


Head 


kuk, M. 


Hand 


khekhali 


Hair 


chutti 


Sun 


dharmi 


Ear 


khebda 


Moon 


chando 


Eye 


khan 


Star 


binka 


Blood 


khens 


Fire 


chek 


Bone 


khochal 


Water 


um. 



The words marked with an asterisk are from Caldwell. 



202 



THE TEiiEGU. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

The Tamul Class. — Telugu or Telinga. — Tamul Proper. — Malayalim. — Cana- 
rese.--Tulu or Tulava. — Rude Tribes. — Tuda. — Budugur. — Irular. — 
Kohatar. 

The Telugu, or Telinga, is spoken from Chicacole to 
Pulicat, and extends westwards as far as the eastern 
boundary of the Marathi ; being the chief language of 
the northern Circars as well as parts of Hyderabad, 
Nagptir, and Gondwana. 



English. 


Telugu. 


English. 


Teluo;u. 


Man 


al 


Thou 


nivu 


Head 


tala 


He 


vadtt 


Hair 


ventruka 


She 


ame 


Ear- 


chevi 


It 


adi 


Eye 


kannu 


We 


memu 


Mouth 


noru 


Ye 


miru 


Tooth 


pallu 


They 


varu 


Bone 


emika 


Mine 


nadi 


Blood 


netturu 


Thine 


nidi 


Egg 


gaddu 


His 


vadidi 


Bay 


pagalu 


Our 


madi 


Night 


reyi 


Your 


midi 


Sky 


minnu 


Their 


varidi 


Sun 


poddu 


One 


vokati 


Star 


chukka 


Two 


rendu 


Fire 


tippu 


Three 


mudu 


Water 


nillu 


Four 


nalugu 


River 


€ru 


Five 


ayidu 


Stone 


rayi 


Six 


&TVL 


Tree ■ 


chettu 


Seven 


«du 


Village 


uni 


Eight 


€nimidi 


Snake 


pama 


Nine 


tommidi 


I 


nenu 


Ten 


padi. 



THE TAMUL. 



SOS 



The Tamul succeeds the Telinga about Pulicat, and is 
spoken along the coast of Coromandel as far as Cape 
Comorin. It then turns north ; but is succeeded in the 
parts about Trevandrum by the Malay aUm. Inland, it 
extends to the Ghauts and Nilgherries. It is spoken, 
also, in the north of Ceylon, and by numerous settlers 
and emigrants in Pegu, Penang, Singapore, and the 
Mauritius. 



English. 


Tamul. 


English. 


Tamul. 


Man 


al 


/ 


nan 


Head 


talei 


Thou 


ni 


Hair 


mayir 


He 


avan 


Ear 


kadu 


Slie 


aval 


Eye 


kan 


It 


adu 


Mouth 


vayi 


We 


nam 


Tooth 


pal 


Ye 


nir 


Bone 


elumbu 


They 


avar 


Bhod 


udiram 


Mine 


enadu 


Egg 


muttei 


Thine 


unadu 


Day 


pagal 


His 


avanadu 


Night 


ira 


Our 


nam adu 


Sky 


vanam 


Your 


umadu 


Sun 


pakalon 


Their 


avarudu 


Moon 


tingal 


One 


onru 


Star 


vanmin 


Two 


irandu 


Fire 


neruppu 


Three 


mnnru 


Water 


tanni 


Four 


nalu 


River 


aru 


Five 


anju 


Stone 


kal 


Six 


aru 


Tree 


sedi 


Seven 


ezhu 




maram 


Eight 


ettu 


Village 


ir 


Nine 


ombadu 


Snake 


pambu 


Ten 


patta. 



The Malayalmi is the language of the western side 
of the coast of Malabar. On its east lies the Canarese ; 
on its north the Tulava ; on its south the Tamul. The 
Tamul touches it at Trevandrum ; the Tulava and Cana- 
rese of Canara about Mangalore. It stretches over 
about six degrees of latitude, but only in a narrow strip 
between the Ghauts and the sea. It is the vernacular 



204 



MALAYALIM. 



of Cochin, and the northern and middle parts of Tra- 
vancore. It is a separate substantive language, possibly 
more akin to the Tamul than its other congeners — but 
no Tamul dialect. 



English. 


Ma'ajalim. 


English. 


Malayalim 


Man 


al 


I 


gnan 


Head 


tala 


Thou 


ni 


Hair 


talamudi 


He 


avan 


Ear 


kada 


She 


aval 


Eye 


kanna 


It 


ada 


Mouth 


vaya 


We 


guangal 


Tooth 


palla 


Ye 


ningal 


Bone 


ella 


They 


avara 


Blood 


chora 


Mine 


enre 


Egg 


mutta 


Thine 


ninre 


Bay 


pagal 


His 


avanre 


Night 


rav 


Our 


nangade 


Sky 


manam 


Your 


ningade 


Sun 


surga 


Their 


avarude 


Moon 


tingal 


One 


onna 


Star 


minjawna 


Two 


rendu 


Fire 


tiyya 


Three 


munnu 


Water 


vellam 


Four 


nala 


River 


piizha 


Five 


anja 


Stone 


kalla 


Six 


ara 


Tree 


chedi 


Seven 


ezha 





maram 


Fight 


etta 


Village 


tara 


Nine 


ombada 




desam 


Ten 


patta. 



SnaJce 



The Canarese touches the Telinga in the north-east, 
and the Tamul in the south-east. Mysore is its centre. 
It touches the coast between Goa and Mangalore ; where, 
however, it is intrusive. 



English. 


Canarese. 


English. 


Canarese. 


Man 


alu 


Tooth 


kallu 


Head 


tale 


Bone 


eluvu 


Hair 


kudala 


Blood 


netturu 


Ear 


kivi 


Egg 


tatti, motti 


Eye 


kannu 


Hay 


hagalu 


Mouth 


bayi 


Night 


iralu 



THE KODUGU, OR CURGI. 



205 



English. 


Canarese. 


English. 


Canarese. 


Sky 


banu 


They 


avaru 


Sun 


hottu 


Mine 


nannadu 


Moon 


tingalu 


Thine 


ninnada 


Star 


chukki 


His 


avanu 


Fire 


henki {Sing.) 


Our 


nammadu 


Water 


niru 


Your 


nimmadu 


River 


hole 


Their 


avaradu 


Stone 


kallu 


One 


ondu 


Tree 


gida, niara 


Two 


eradu 


Village 


halli, uru 


Three 


muru 


Snake 


havu 


Four 


nalku 


I 


nanu 


Five 


ayidu 


Thou 


ninu 


Six 


aru 


He 


avanu 


Seven 


elu 


She 


avalu 


Eight 


entu 


It 


adu 


Nine 


ombhattu 


We 


navu 


Ten 


hattu. 


Ye 


nivu 







In Curgi the language changes, and is, as may be ex- 
pected, of so transitional a character, that whilst Ellis 
calls it a dialect of the Tulu, Mogling of Man galore 
states that it is more allied to the Tamul and Malay alim. 
It is called the Kodugu. 

The Tulu, itself, is the most northern language of its 
class which touches the sea ; and it is essentially a 
language of the coast. It has extended further north ; 
having been encroached on by the Konkani dialect of 
the Marathi, which abounds in Tulu words, apparently 
derived from the earlier occupants. It is a language of 
not only a small area but a decreasing one : being 
pressed upon by the Canarese. It extends from the 
Nileswara on the south, in N.L. 18° 30', where it 
touches the Malayalim to the Bhahavara in N.L. 13° 
30, four miles north of Upi, where it is succeeded by 
the Konkani. The German missionaries at Mangalore 
preach to the upper classes in Canarese, but to the 
lower in Tulu. 



English. 


Kodugu. 


Tulu. 


Man 


maniis 


al 


Head 


mande 


tare 


Hair 


oraraa 


kudalu 



206 



THE KODUGU, OR CURGI. 



English. 


Kodugu. 


Tooth 


pall 


Eye 


ane 


Ear 


kemi 


Mouth ■ 


bayi 


Hand 




Foot 




Blood 


chore 


Bone 




Day 


pagil 


Sun 




Moon 




Star 




Fire ■ 




Water 


nir 


Earth 




Mountain 




Rker 


pole 


Stone 




Tree 


mara 


Bird 


pakki 


Egg 




Fish 




Flower 




jiovn 
Snake 


pamb 


I 


nan 


Thou 




He 





She 




It 




We 




Ye 




They 




Mine 




There 




His 




Ours 




Yours 




Theirs 




One 




Tivo 




Three 




Four 




Five 




Six 




Seven 






Tulu. . 

kuli 

ane 

kebi 

bayi 

kai 

tajji 

nettar 

elu 

pogal 

polutu 

tingalu 

daraya 

tu 

nir 

nela 

gudcle 

tude 

kalla 

mara 

pakki 

mutte 

tetti 

min 

pu 

kombu 

parapunu 

en 

aye 

aval 

av 

enklia 

inukulu 

akulu 

ennow 

innow 

ayanow 

enknlanow 

inkulanow 

akulunow 

onji 

erad 

muji 

nalu 

ayinu 

aji 

el 



THE KODUGU, t)R CURGL 



207 



English. KodugiL Tulu. 

EifjTit ename 

Nine orambo 

Ten pattu. 

The following are, according to Caldwell, the writer 
from whose Dravirian Grammar the preceding details 
are exclusively taken, the statistics of the above-men- 
tioned languages ; one of which, apparently, includes 
the Curgi. 



1. Tamul is spoken by 

2. Telinga 

3. Canarese „ 

4. Malay alim „ 

5. Tulu 



10,000,000 

14,000,000 

5,000,000 

2,500,000 

150,000 



3J, 650,000 

The previous forms of speech constitute a natural 
group — a natural group, and not a very large one. 
They all belong to the Dekhan. They are all spoken 
by populations more or less Hindu. They are all t'ue 
languages of the civilized Indian. Their area is con- 
tinuous ; in other words, they are all in contact with 
each other, and their frontiers join. There is nothing 
between the Telinga and the Tamul, the Tamul and the 
Canarese, the Tamul and the Malayalim. Their area is 
continuous. 

The following are from the. Nilgherry Hills. They are 
all rude dialects of the Canarese ; of the Canarese rather 
than the Tamul ; though not without Tamul elements. 

1. 

EndLh. 



Erglish. 


Tuda. 


Man 


al 


Wom.an 


knell 


ITead 


madd 


Eye 


kann 


Ear 


kevvi 


Tooth 


parsh 


Mouth 


bor 


Blood 


bach 


Bone 


elf 



Foot 

Hand 

Day 

Sim 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

River 



Tuda. 
kal 
koi 
nal 
birsh 
teggal 

nebb 

nir 

pa. 



208 



THE BUDUGUR, ETC. 



2. 



English. 


Budugur. 


English. 


Budugur. 


Man 


manija 


Star 




Woman 


hennu 


Fire 


kichchu 


Head 


mande 


Water 


niru 


Eye 


kannu 


Fiver 


holla 


Ear 


kive 


One 


vondu 


Tooth 


haUu 


Two 


yeradu 


Mouth 


bai 


Three 


muru 


Blood 


netra 


Four 


nalku 


Bone 


yellu 


Five 


eidu 


Foot 


kalu 


Six 


aru 


Hand 


kei 


Seven 


yellu 


Day 


dina 


Eight 


yettu 


Sun 


hottu 


Nine 


vombattu 


Moon 


tiggalu 


Ten 


hattu. 


English, 


Imlar. 


3. 

English. 


Irular. 


Man 


manislia 


Fire 


tu, tee 


Woman 


ponnu 


Water 


dani 


Head 


tele 


Fiver 


palla 


Eye 


kannu 


One 


vondu 


Ear 


kadu 


Two 


erndu 


Tooth 


pallu 


Three 


muru 


Mouth 


vai 


Four 


naku 


Blood 


latta 


Five 


eindu 


Bone 


yellambu 


Six 


aru 


Foot 


kalu 


Seven 


yettu 


Hand 


kei 


Eight 


yettu 


Bay 


nalu 


Nine 


vombadu 


Sun 


podu 


Ten 


pattu. 


Moon 


nalavu 






English. 


Kohatar. 


English. 


Kohatar. 


Man 


ale, manija 


Moon 


tiggule 


Woman 


pemmage 


Water 


nire 


Head 


mande 


Fiver 


pevi 


Eye 


kannu 


One 


vodde 


Ear 


kive 


Two 


yede 


Tooth 


paUe 


Three 


munde 


Mouth 


vai 


Four 


nake 


Blood 


netra 


Five 


anje 


Bone 


yelave 


Six 


are 


Foot 


kalu 


Seven 


yeye 


Hand . 


kei 


Eight 


yette 


Bay 


nale 


Nine 


vorupade 


San 


potte 


Ten 


patte. 



(^J 



THE CANARESE. 



209 



There is an old Literary, or High Canarese (as, 
indeed, there is an old Literary, or High Tamul, and (?) 
Malayalim), with a greater admixture of Sanskrit. It 
gives p rather than A, in which several of its modern 
congeners agree with it. 



English. 


Old Canarese. 


New Canarese. 




Dmj 


pagalu 


hagalu 


pagil — Tulu 


Floxoer 


puvvu 


huwu 


puwu — Tuda 


Horn 


pandi 


lia,Tidi 


pandi — Kodugu 


Name 


pesaru 


hesaru 


pudar — Tula 


River 


pole 


hole 


pole — Kodugu 


Road 


pade 


hadi 




Snake 


pavu 


havu 


^sih—Tuda 


Tiger 


puli 


huU 


pivri — Tuda 


Tooth 


pallu 


hallu 


pall — Kodugu. 



All the languages of this class may be grouped round 
the Canarese. This, says Mr. Eeeve, is so like the Telugu 
that, in many cases, the change of an initial or inflection 
will make a complete correspondence. Still, if many 
initials or many inflections are changed, the difference 
will amount to a good deal. That the Tulu and Kodugu 
of Curg are mutually intelligible is beyond doubt, and it 
is not unlikely that, for short and simple sentences, the 
Tulu and Malayalim may be the same. The same is said 
to be the case with the Tamul and Malayalim. In this 
(the Malayalim) and the Telinga we have the two ex- 
tremes ; one for the north-east, one for the south-east. 



210 THE BRAHUI. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

The Bralitii. 

The language which now comes under notice lies not 
only beyond the proper Tamul area but beyond the 
geographical boundaries of Hindostan. It is a language 
of Biluchistan — but not the Biluch itself. That the 
Brahui, Brahuiki, or Brahooi, differed from the lan- 
guage of both the Biluches and the Afghans was known 
to both Elphinstone and Pottinger; for both state the 
fact. Both, however, treat the Brahui as Biluches with 
certain differential characteristics ; neither asking how 
far some of these may be important enough to make 
them other than Biluch. This is because the political 
term Biluchistan has concealed one of the most import- 
ant and interesting affinities in ethnology. 

A short specimen of the Brahui language in Leach's 
Vocabularies commanded the attention of Lassen, who, 
after enlarging upon its difference from the Persian, 
Biluch, and Pushtu, drew attention to some notable 
similarities between, the numerals and those of the 
South Indian dialects. Following up this suggestion, 
the present author satisfied himself that the Brahui 
tongue was, in many respects, Tamul — an opinion which 
others have either recognized or been led to form from 
their own researches. 

In the country, however, which they now occupy, the 
Brahlii consider themselves aboriginal ; the Biluch, ad- 
mitting that they are, themselves, of foreign origin. The 
rugged and impracticable nature of the Brahui moun- 
tains favours this view. 



THE BRAHUI. 



211 



It is from LeacVs notice that the following para- 
digms are taken. They consist, however, solely of cer- 
tain Brahlii forms and their English equivalents — 
grammatical terms, su(;h as Case, Number, and the like, 
being avoided. They stand in the text of Leach — more, 
however, in deference to "old-established usage'' than 
because the Brahui and Latin grammars are believed to 
give parallel forms. 

Extract. 

To denote abstraction an is introduced, as viatan asit = one from two, and 
hulidn ditar = hlood from the horse; ustat dua = wishes from the heart. 

To denote donation, ne or e is added, as ddde yete=give to him. 

To make a noun the instrument of a circumstance, ene is added, as zagh- 
mene=-with a sioord, from zaghm = a sioord; latene^with a stick, from lat = 
a stick. 

To make a noun the cause of a circumstance, an is added, as ta]pdn =from 
a wound, the original case being tap=a wound. 

To denote inclusion, tt is added to the noun, as sharti=in the city, from 
shar=a city ; jangatt TcasTcune = died in battle, from jang = battle. 

Position is denoted by adding at to the noun, as da Tcasarat duzare — there 
is a thief on that road, from hasar — a road, speaking of a road as a whole, 
or by adding ai as hasarai pirii araghase — there is an old man on the road, 
in the limited sense. 

To denote approach or direction, di is added to the noun, as /' Haidrd- 
hadai kawd'^I will go to Hydrahad. 

Superposition is denoted by the addition of d; as hull d = on the horse ; 
katd likhakh^put on the bed. 

Companionship is denoted by the addition of to, to the inflected case of the 
pronouns ; as neto bafar = / \vill not go tvith thee, from ni = thou. 





A good Man. 




sharanga 


narina 


sharang^ 


narinagh^k 


sharangd, 


narinan^ 


sharang^ 


narinaghata 


sharangd, 


narinaie 


sharanga 


narinaghate 


sharang^ 


narinaghan 


sharang^ 


narinaghatiyan 


Dd, juw£ln e 




that is good 




D^ juwanosite 




that is better 




Da kuUn juwanosite 


that is better than 


all 


Dk edan juwan 


e 


this is belter than that 


D^ kul meettyan doulatmand e 


Be is richer than all the Meers. 


I 


I 


Nan 


we 


Kana 


my 


Nana 


ours 


Kane 


me 


Nana 


us 


Kany^n 


from me. 


Nany^n 


from us 

P 2 



212 



THE BRAHUI. 



m 




thou 




Num 




ye 


m 




thy 




Numa 




yours 


Ne 




thee 




Nume 




you 


Ny^ 


from thee 




Numyan 


from you 


m 




this 




Dafk 




these 


Bkn^ 


of this 




Dafta 




of these 


Dade 


to this 




Dafte 




to these 


Dadan 


from this 


1 Da%an 


from these 


Od or 


that 


Ofk 




those 


Ona 




of that 




ofta 




of those 


Ode 




to that 




Ofte 




to those 


Odan 


from that 




Oftyna 


from those 


Eor 


ed 


that 




Efk 




those 


Ena 




of that 




Efta 




of those 


Ede 




to that 




Efte 




to those 


Edan 


from that 




Eftyan 


from those 






Tenat 


self 










Tena 


of self 










Tene 


to self 










Tenyan 


from self 








Tenpaten 


among 


'hemselves {h]^3LB = 






Der 


who? 










Dinna 


whose ? 










Dere 


whom ? 










Deran 


from whom ? 




V asitut 


/ am 


alone 


Nan asitan 


We are one 


Ni asitus 


Thou 


art alone 


Num asiture 


We are one 


Od asite 


Re is 


alone 


Dafk asitur 


They 


are one 


I' aret 


I am 




Nan aren 


We are 


Ni ares 


Thou art 


Num areri 


You 


are 


Od are 


He is 




Dafk arer 


They 


are 


I' asut 


I was 




Nan asun 


We were 


Ni asus 


Thou wast 


Num asure 


You 


were 


Od asak 


He was 


Dafk asur 


They 


were 


I' masasut 


I was 


being 


Nan masasun 


We were being 


Ni masusus 


Thou wast being 


Num masasure 


You 


were being 


Od masas 


He was being 


Dafk masasu 


They 


were being 


I' masunut 


I had been 


Nan masunun 


We had been 


Ni masunus 


Thou hadst been 


Num masanure 


You had been 


Odmas 


He had been 


D£ 


ifk masun<i 


They 


had been 



men) 



THE BRAHUI. 



213 



T' niarev 


/ will nolo he 


Nan marsn 


We will now he 


Ni mares 


Thou wilt noio he 


Num mareri 


You will now he 


Od marek 


He will now he 


Dafk marer 


They will now he 


I' marot 


I will hereafter he 


Nan maron 


We will hereafter he 


Ni maros 


Thou wilt hereafter he 


Num marode 


You will hereafter he 


Od maroi 


He will hereafter he 


Dafk maror 


They will hereafter he 


Ni mares 


Be them 


Num marere 


Be you 


Od mare 


Let him he 


Dafk maror 


Let them he 




Preceded by agar=if. 




I' masut 


If I might he 


Nan masun 


If we might he 


Ni masus 


If thou mightest he Num masude 


If you might he 


Od masuk 


// he might he 


Dafk masur 


If they might he 




Infinitive or verhal substantive, liarrafing. 


I' harraffiva 


I ask 


Nan barrafon 


We ask 


Ni harraffisa 


Thou askest 


Num barraf ore 


You ask 


Od harraffik 


He asked 


Dafk barrafor 


They ask 


I' harraffenut / asked 


Nan barrafFenun 


We ashed 


Ni harraffenus Thou ashedst 


Num barraffenure 


You asked 


Od harraffene He asked 


Dafk barraffenur 


They asked 


I' harraffeta 


I was asking 


Nan barraffena 


We were asking 


Ni harraffesa Thou wast asking 


Num barraffere 


You were asking 


Od harraffek 


He was asking 


Ofk barraffera 


They were asking 


I' harrafesasut / had asked 


Nan barrafesasun 


We had asked 


Ni harrafesasus Thoih hadst asked 


Num barrafesasure You had asked 


Od harrafesas ffe had asked 


Dafk barrafesasti 


They will ask 


I harrafot 


I will ask 


Nan barrafeniin 


We will ask 


Ni harrafos 


Thou wilt ask 


Num barraf onure 


You will ask 


Od harrafo,i 


He will ask 


Dafk barrofen^ 


They will ask 


Harraf 


Ask thou 


Harrafbo 


Ash you 




Preceded by agar = if. 






V harrafut 


If I might ask 




Ni harrafus 


If thou mightest ask 




Od harrafuk 


If he might ask 




Nan hurrafuna 


We might 


ask 




Num harrafude^ 


You might 


ask 




Dafk barrafur 


They might ask 




I' harrafiv 


I shall have asked 




Ni barrafos 


Thou shalt have asked 




Od barrafoi 


He shall have asked 




Nan barafina 


We shall have asked 




Num barraf ere 


You shall have asked 




DMk barrafenure 


They shall 


have asked 



214 



THE BRAHUI. 



Adverbs. 



To-day 


amli 


On this side 


Mudk 


To-morroio 


pagi 


Whence 


arakS, 


Day after to-morrow palrae 


Above 


burzd, 


Day after that 


ktide 


Belotv 


shef 


Day after that 


ktidram^s 


Instead 


3%ai 


Yesterday 


daro 


Every day 


harde 


Day hefore yesterday mulkhudti 


As far as 


iska 


Day before that 


kumulkhudti 


Again 


pada^ 


Day hefore thai 


kudirmulkhudu Whe^'ever 


arangl 


Fwrnerly 


ewadai 


Opposite 


moni 


Midday 


manjan 


Enough 


bas 


Afternoon 


digar (tire pare) 


Instead 


p^rae 


Midnight 


nem shaf 


Successively 


pahn^d,pahndati 


Now 


dksh 


Near me 


knear, as kanek 


After 


guda 


When 


chi wakt 


Here 


dade 


Yes 


hand on 


There 


ede 


No 


a ha 


Out 


pesban 


For saTce 


mat 


In 


fahti 


At first 


awal 


Beyond 


inur 


QuicJcly 


zu 


As far as 


harr^nk 


In the evening 


beg& 


Late 


madana 


Sometimes 


asi asi wakt 


Near 


nrnsti 


Slowly 


mada 


On all sides 


char man kund 


{ There 


hamengi 


On the left side 


chapa p^ran 


On the right side r^sta paran 


Also 


tarn 


Even so 


ha mon 


But 


guda 


Besides 


baghair 


According to 


mujibat 


Even so 


handoan 


Merely 


beera 


Without 


baghar 


Where 


ar^de 








Glossal^. 




English 


Bralmi. 


English 


Brahui. 


ITead 


katumb 


Face 


mon 


Hair 


pisbkou 


Son 


mar 


Beard 


rish 


Daughter masid 


Mustache 


barot 


Wife 


arwat 


Lip 


ba 


Brother 


celum 


Eye 


khan 


Father 


bav 


Sar 


hhaff 


Mother 


lumma 


Tongue 


duvi 


Sister 


id 


Tooth 


dandan 


Woman 


zaif 


Nose 


bamtis 


Sun 


dey 


Foot 


nath 


Moon (new) nokh 


Nail 


zU 


Star 


istar 


ffa/nd 


du 


Fire 


khakar 


Back 


baj 


Water 


dir 



THE BRAHUI. 



215 



English 

Tree 

Stone 

I 

We 

Thm 

Ye 

One 

Two 



Brahui. 

darahht 

khaU 

I 

nan 

ni 

num 

asit 

irat 



English 


Brahtii. 


Three 


musit 


Four 


tshar 


Five 


pandzh 


Six 


shash 


Seven 


haft 


Eight 


hast 


Nine 


nu 


Ten 


dah. 



Data^ for the Bralilii, as for the Gtindi, are pre- 
eminently deficient. 



21 G LANGUAGES AKIN TO THE HINDI. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Languages akin to the Hindi. — Its Dialects. — The Punjabi. — The Hindostani. 
The Gujerathi.— The Marathi.— The Bengali, &c.— The Uriya. 

Of the foUowing languages all that need be said at pre- 
sent is, that they are akin to the (1 ) Hindi. They are — 

(2) The Gujerati, or Gujerathi, of Gujerat. 

(3) The Mahratta, or Marathi, of Aurungabad, &;c. 

(4) The Bengali of the lower Ganges, the valley of 
Asam, and parts of Sylhet and Chittagong. 

(5) The Uriya of Orissa. 

I give these divisions as I find them, adding that, 
though convenient, they are, by no means, unexception- 
able. In the first place, the difierence between a lan- 
guage and a dialect has never been satisfactorily ex- 
plained : so that neither term has yet been defined. It 
will be seen, ere long, that there are several other forms 
of Indian speech, of each of which, though we may say 
with truth that it is more Hindi, more Bengali, or more 
Marathi than aught else, we cannot say that it is a 
Marathi, a Bengali, or a Hindi dialect. For this reason 
it is inexpedient to give the numbers of individuals by 
which each tongue is spoken. And it is also incon- 
venient to say whether such and such languages are 
mutually unintelligible. It is only certain, that whatever 
difi'erence may exist between any two is exaggerated 
rather than softened down when they are written. This 
is due in a great degi*ee to the difierence between the 
alphabets. Though they are all of Sanskrit origin they 
differ fi:om each other in detail. 



LANGUAGES AEUT TO THE HUTD . 217 

Of the languages und^ notice, the Gashmiii the 
Gajerati and the IJiija^ are spoken not only over the 
smallest areas hat hj the fewest individiials ; the hugest 
areas heing those of the Maraihi and Hmdi ; the largest 
mass of speakers heing those of the Bengali language. 
It is the Bengali which has the greatest tendency to ex- 
tend itself heyond the frontiers of India ; the Bengali of 
Asam and Chittagong being the form of speedi which is 
more especially encroaching npon the Tibetan and Bur- 
mese areas. 

The languages that lie in the closest geographical con- 
tact with the members of the Tamnl gronp are the Marathi 
and Uriya. The affinities of the Cashmirian witii the 
Dard tongues aie decided. 

I guard against the notion that the differenoe be- 
tween the six tongues of the forgoing list is greater 
than it reaUy is. A little more Sanskrit or a little 
less ; a little more Persian or a little less ; a Telinga 
or a Canarese element more or less; an alphabet of 
more or less detail — ^in these points and the like of 
them consist the chief differences of the languages akin 
to the HindL 

I guard, too, against the notion that the preceding 
list is exhaustive. Before Hindostan has been traversed 
we shall hear of such sectional and intermediate forms as 
the Jutki, the Sindi, the Punjabi, the Hamti, ihe Mar- 
wari, the Konkani, and others ; of all whereof thus much 
may be said — 

1. That they are allied to each otiier and to the 
Hindi. 

2. That they are not akin, to the Sanskrit in the 
manifest and unequivocal way in whicli the Sanskrit, 
Pali, and Persepolitan are akin to each other. 

3. That they are not Tamul or Telinga in the way 
that the Canarese, the KJiond, &c., are Canarese, Tamul, 
and Telinga. 



218 



THE PUNJABI. 



English. 


Hindi. 


Englisli. 


Hindi. 


Man 


manas 


Water 


pani 


Woman 


nari 


Fiver 


nadi 


Head 


sar 


Stone 


pathar 


Eye 


ankh 


Tree 


rukh, &c. 


Ear 


kan 


Wood 


lakri 


Nose 


nak 


One 


ek 


Mouth 


mukh 


Two 


do 


Tooth 


dant 


Three 


tin 


Hand 


hath 


Four 


chhar 


Foot 


pan 


Five 


paneh 


Blood 


lohu 


Six 


chah 


Sky 


nak 


Seven 


sat 


Sim 


snraj 


Eight 


ath 


Moon 


chand 


Nine 


nao 


Star 


tara 


Ten 


das. 


Fire 


ag 







In Kumaon and Gurwhal this dialect takes the name 
^ of Khas ; and in Nepaul, (where it is also spoken, eo 
nomine) there is another variety of it, the Purbutti. 

These are essentially the same with the following : 
■with Gadi (akin to the Handuri) for the parts between 
Gurwhal aod Cashmir. 



English, 


Punjabi. 


Gadi. 


Man (homo) 




manas 


{vir) 


garwali 


zanana 


Head 




muna 


Hair 


akh 


akr 


Eye 


kan 


kan 


Ear 


nak 


nak 


Nose 




ma 


Mouth 


dand 


dand 


Tongue 


hath 


hath 


Tooth 


pao 


par 


Hand 




ragat 


Foot 




amr 


Sun 


suraj 


dera 


Moon 


chand 


chandar 


Star 


tara 


tara 


Fire 


ag 


ag 


Water 


pane 


pane 






nai 


Stone 


patthar 


nar 


Tree 


rukh 


rukh 



THE PUNJABI. 



219 



English. 


Punjabi. 


Gadi. 


Tree 


kath 


cliiri 


One 




ak 


Two 




do 


Three 




tre 


Four 




char 


Five 




panj 


Six 




cliek 


Seven 




sat 


Fight 




ath 


Nine 




nao 


Ten 




das. 



The following, from Leach, gives a rough sketch of the 
grammatical character of the Punjabi, eo nomine. 



Ghoda 
Ghodeda 
Ghodenu 
Ghodeton 

Ghodi 
Ghodida 
Ghodinil 
Ghoditon 



a horse 
of a horse 
a horse 
from a horse 

a mare 
of a mare 
a mxire 
from a mare 



Ghode 
Ghodyanda 
Ghodyanu 
Ghodyanton 

Ghodiyan 
Ghoniyanda 
Ghodiyanu 
Ghodiy^nton 



hon 
of 
horses 
from, horses 

mares 
of mares 
to mares 
from mares 



Hacha ghoda a good horse Hache ghode good horses 

Hache ghoded^ of a good horse Hachyan ghodyandA. of good horses 

Hache ghodenu a good horse Hachyjin ghodyanu good horses 

Hache ghodeton from a good horse Hachyan ghodyanton fi'om good horses 

Main or m^n / Asi we 

Meda or mend^ my Asad^ sad^ our 

Menu or maink^ me Asan^ sd,nil vs 



Medekulon J 
Medethon > or 
Mede pason ) 



maithon 
maithin 
mendekulon 



Tdn 

Teda, tenda, tond^ 
Tenu, tunnu 
Tethon, tuthon 

£ 

isda 

Isnil 

Iskulon, isthon 



Asathon sathon 
Sathi nasathin 

thou 
thy 
thee 
from thee 

this 
of this 
this 
from this 



from us 

TusI, tus^n you 

Tuhada, tusad^ your 

Tuhannu, tusann^ you 

Tuhathon, tus^thon froin you 

E these 

Inh^nda of these 

Inhanu these 
Inha kulon, inh^ p^on from these 



220 



THE PUNJABI. 





Usda 

Usnii 

Usthon 



that 
of that 
that 

from that 



Main h^n, an 
Tun hen, en 
hen, en 

Main hais^n, sa 
Tun haisen, sae 
haisi si, ah^ 



A'pe 
A'pna 
A'pnu 
A'pthon 

Kouna 

Kisda 

Kisnu or k^nu 

Kisthon 

Kya or ki 
Kisd^ or kd,da 
Kisnu, kanu 
Kisthon, kaithon 

I am 
thou art 
he is 

a I was 
1 thou wert 
he was 



Main hund^ san / was being 
Tun hund^ saen thou wert being 
hunda si he was being 



Main hoy^ san 
Tun hoya saen 
hoy^ si 

Main howang£b 
Tiin liowengEl 
heveg^ 

Tfin ho, 



/ had been 
thou hadst be 
he had been 

I shall be 
thou shalt be 
he shall be 

be thou 



Main how^n / may be 

Tun hoven thou mayst be 

hove he map be 

Main hundan / had been 

Tun hundon, hun- thou hadst been 

huud^ he had been 





Onh^nd^ 

Onhanu, onh^nii 

Onakulon 

Onhathon 

Onha pason 

self 
of self 
to self 
from self 

who? 
whose ? 

from whom ? 

what ? 
of what ? 
what ? 
from what ? 



those 
of thos 
those 

from those 



Asi han, an 
Tusi ho, 
hain, ain 

Asi haisen, ^he 
Tusi haisao, ahe 
haisin, sin 

Asi hunde san 
Tusi hunde s^,o 
hunde san 

Asi hoye san 
Tusi hoye sa,o 
hoye san 

Azi howange 
Tusi hovoge 
ho ange 



Asi hoviye 
Tusi hovo 
howan 

Asi hunde 
Tusi hunde 

hunde 



we are 
you are 
they are 

we were 
you tve7'e 
they ivere 



we were 

you were 

they were being 

we had been 
you had been 
they had been 

we shall be 
you shall be 
they shall be 



Tusi hovo, vo be you 



we may be 
you may be 
they may be 

vje had been 
you had been 

they had been, 



THE PUNJABI, 



221 



Ism i m^hful hoyS, 
Ism i fail honewaU 
Masdar hond, 



been 
he 
to he 



Main akhn^ 
Tun akhnain 
aMdai 

Main ^khy^ 
Tun ^khyai 
Us ^khy^ 

Main a^Ada skn 
Tun aMd^ saen 
kJchdsb si 

Main akhd^ si 
Tun akh^ si 
Us akhya si 

Main ^khanga 
Tun akheng^ 
akhega 



/ 

thou 

he speaks 

I spoke 
thou spokest 
he spoke 



Asi §,Mnyan 
Tus^ ^khde,o 
a^Viden 

Asan akhyl, 
Tus^n ^khya 
In^ akhya 



/ was speaking Asi hkhde san 
thou wast speaking Tusi ^Mde s^,o 
he was speaking a,khde sin 

/ had spoken Asan ^khya si 

thou hadst spoken Tus^n akhy^ si 
he had spoken Ina d,khya si 



/ will speak 
thou wilt speak 
he will speak 



Tun hkh or akh speak thou 



Main akhan 
Tun ^klien 
O^khe 



/ may speak 
thou maysi speak 
he may speak 



Asi akhange 
Tusi akhoge 
akhange 

Tusi akho 

Asi ^khiye 
Tusi ^kho 
^khan 



Maink^Ad^,akMa / might speak Asi ^Mde 
Tun ^khdo thou mightest speak Tusi akhde 

^Mdd, he miqht speak kkhde 



we speak 
you speak 
they speak 

we spoke 
you spoke 
they spoke 

we were speaking 
you were speaking 
they were 



we had spoken 
you had spoken 
they had spoken 

we will speak 
you will speak 
they will speak 

speak you 

we may speak 
you may speak 
they may speak 

we might speak 
you might speak 
they might speak 



Main kehni an / am telling 



Tun kehni en 
kehni e 



Main ke,ai 
Tun keai 
Usne keai 



thou art telling 
she is telling 



I told 
thou toldst 
she told 



Asi kehni ^n, we are telling 

kehndiyan 
Tusi kehndiyano you are telling 
kehndiya en, they are telling 

kehndiyan 



Asan keai 
Tusan ke,ai 
Un^ keai 



we told 
you told 
they told 



Main kehndi san / was telling 



Asi kehndiyan ^ve were telling 



Tun kehndi s^en thou wast telling Tusi kehndiygln you were 

kehndi si she was telling kehndiyan sin they were telling 



222 


THE ] 


PUNJABI. 




Main kehS, si 
Tun ken^ si 
Us keha si 


/ had told 
thou hadst told 
she had told 


Asan keha si 
TusEln keha si 
Una keha si 


we had told 
you had told 
they had told 


Main kahangi 
Tun kahengi 
kahegi 


I tcill tell 
thou tvilt tell 
she will tell 


Asi kahanginy^n 
Tusi kahogiyo 
kahanginyan 


we will tell 
you will tell 
they will tell 


Tun koh 


tell thou 


Tusi koho 


tell you 


Main kahan 
Tun kahen 
Okahe 


I may tell 
thou mayst tell 
she may tell 


Asi kahyye 
Tusi kaho 
kehan 


we may tell 
you may tell 
they may tell 


Main kehandi 
Tlin kehandi 
kehndi 


I might tell 
thou mightest tell 
she might tell 


Asi kehndiy^n 
Tusi kehndiyo 
kehndiy^n 


we might tell 
you might tell 
they might tell. 



In Tirhut the language is transitional to the Hindi 
and Bengali. 

The Multani of Multan graduates from the Punjabi to 
the Yutki, or vice versa. 

The Hindi of the Mahratta frontier is called hy the 
Mahrattas, Rangri Basha ; a contemptuous term, such 
as barbarous would be in the mouth of a Greek, meaning 
a language other than Mahratta. Being a negative term 
we can attach no very definite import to it. 

The Marwari is the Hindi of Marwar — the chief 
dialect of Rajputana. The Bikaner is another Hindi 
dialect ; i, e. it is a dialect of Northern India, which is 
not Gujerathi, not Marathi, not Bengali, and not Uriya ; 
and which is more Hindi, eo nomine, than aught else. 

In Rohilcund the blood is, more or less, Afghan ; so 
that Hindi, in its full purity, is not to be found there. 
This must be sought in Delhi and Oude. 

Bundelcund and Bahar are more Hindi than Bengali ; 
though, to some extent, Bengali also. In Bahar, how- 
ever, we are within the old Kooch area ; and in Bundel- 
cund. on the Ghond, and Khond frontier. 

The Hindustani, which means the language of Hin- 
dostan in general rather than that of any particular 



0\J 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



223 



population, and which differs from the Hindi, eo nomine, 
much as a King of the French differs from a King of 
France, is a language with a Persian, rather than an 
Indian, name. As such, it is a general, ratlier than a 
particular, term ; and it was originally applied not by 
the Hindus themselves, but by a population on the 
Hindu frontier. 

The Hindustani is a mixed tongue, scarcely, however, a 
Lingua Franca in the way of the Italian of Algiers and 
Anatolia. It is essentially Hindi, as may be seen from 
both the vocabulary and the paradigms. At the same 
time it contains much Persian, and some Arabic which 
is wanting in the true vernaculars. Above all, it is the 
lanoruao'e of the Mahometan rather than the Brahminic 
population of India ; so much so, that in the Grammar 
of Mr. Hadley, in which we find either the first or an 
early attempt to reduce it to rule, it is called the Moors, 
i. e. the Moorish. It is written in the Arabic alphabet, 
and not in any alphabet derived from the Sanskrit. 

The following details of its Accidence are from the 
Professor M. Williams' Grammar, in which the English 
alphabet, with certain modifications, is both used and 
recommended. The extreme simplicity of the declension 
should be noticed, as well as the postpositive character 
of the affixes by which the several relations which in 
Latin and Greek are rendered by true cases, are ex- 
pressed. In mardkd, &c., there is no true case at all, 
but only an approximation to one : in other words, 
there is merely a noun with a preposition — the Pi'^posi- 
tion itself being a Pos^-position. 



Nouna. 



Hard 


man 


Mardkg, 


marCs 


ke 




kl 




Mardko 


man-to 


Mardse 


man-from 


Mardmen 


man-in 


Mardne 


man-by 



•mard 


men 


mard-on-k^ 


mens^ 


ke 




kl 




mard-on-ko 


m£n-to 


mard-on-se 


men- from 


mard-on-men 


men-on 


mard-on-ne 


men-hy. 



224 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



The oblique cases (or rather their equivalents) of the 
pronouns are formed in the same way. So are those of 
the adjectives. 



Ver\ 



Main htin 
Tti hai 
Wuh hai 


J am 
thou art 
he she it is 


Ham hain 
Tum ho 
We hain 


we are 
ye are 
they are 


Main thg, 
Ttitha 
Wuh tha 


z. 
Masculine. 
I was Ham the 
thou wast Tum the 
he, or it was We the 
3. 
Feminine. 
I was Ham thin 
thou wast Tum thin 
she was We thin 


we were 
ye were 
they were 


Main thi 
Tfi thi 
Wuh thi 


we were 
ye were 
they were 


Main m§,r-tin 
tti m^r-e 
wuh mare 


/ may strike 
thou mayest strike 
he may strike 


Ham m^r-en 
Tum m^r-o 
We mar-en 


we may strike 
ye may strike 
they may strike 


Main mar-tin-g^ 
Tu mar-e-g^ 
Wuh mar-e-g^ 


0. 

Masculine. 
I will striJce Ham m^r-en-ge 
thou wilt strike Tum mar-o-ge 
he will strike. We m^r-en-ge 


we will strike 
ye will strike 
they will strike 




Feminine. 
Main mar-un-gi Ham mar-en-gin 
Tu m^r-e-gi Tum mar-o-gin 
Wuh mar-e-gl We mdr-en-gin 



The participial character of these forms is apparent ; 
the forms in -a and -i being as truly masculine and 
feminine as amatus and amata, amaturus and amatura, 
in Latin. Indeed, if a male, instead of ego amaturus sum, 
and a female, instead of ego amatura sum, said ego ama- 
turus, or ego amatura, we should have a participle with 
the omission of the auxiliar taking the garb of a true 
tense. The same is the case with main mdr-td and 
mxiin mdrtt. 

The equivalent to the infinitive ends in -na ; as 
mdrnd = to strike zzferire = rvirTeiv. 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



225 



English. 


Hindustani. 


English, 


Hindustani 


Man {homo) 


admi 


Hand 


hath 


(vir) 


mard 


Foot 


panw 


Woman 


randl 


Sun 


fcuraj 


Head 


sir 


Moon 


chand 


Hair 


bal 


Star 


tara 


Eye 


ackh 


Day 


din 


Ear 


kan 


Night 


rat 


Nose 


nak 


Fire 


ag 


Mouth 


munh 


Water 


pani 


Tongue 


jibh 


Tree 


per 


Tooth 


dant 


Stone 


patthar. 



The geographical boundaries of the Hindustani are 
indefinite ; inasmuch as it is the language of a creed 
rather than a locality. It has been placed, however, 
next to the Hindi Proper because it is the Hindi Proper 
which has the best claim to be looked upon as its 
groundwork — the Hindi Proper meaning the Hindi of 
Delhi and Oude. 

The affinities of the dialects that now come under 
notice are so thoroughly reticular (by which I mean 
that the connection between them resembles that of the 
meshes of a net rather than the links of a chain) that 
no arrangement of them can be strictly natural. In 
passing, then, from the Hindustani to the Gujerati I 
consult convenience rather than aught else. On the 
south the Gujerati is bounded by the Marathi ; and on 
the west by the Marwari dialect of the Hindi. It 
probably comes in contact with certain Bhil forms of 
speech, though the details upon this point are obscure. 
In Cutch it graduates into the Sindhi. 

Sir E. Perry expressly states that the Gujerati inter- 
preters of the Supreme Court can understand the natives 
both of Sind and Cutch. At the same time there are 
certain dialects of which they can make little or 
nothing. 



English. 


Gujerdti. 


English. 


Gujerati. 


Man {homo) 


jana 


Head 


mathum 


{vir) 


manus 


Hair 


nimalo 


Woman 


bayadi 


Eye 


ankh 



226 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



English. 


Gujerati. 


English. 


Gujerati. 


Ear 


kan 


Moon 


chand 


Nose 


nah 


Star 


taro 


Mouth 


mohodum 


Day 


din 


Tongue 


jubh 


Night 


rat 


Tooth 


dant 


Fire 


a? 


Hand 


hath 


Water 


pani 


Foot 


pag 


Tree 


jhada 


Sun 


suraj 


Stone 


patthar. 



In the Collectorate of Surat the passage from Gujerati 
to Marathi begins. In Durhampur and Bundsla, petty 
States to the south of the town itself, the Marathi shows 
itself In Penth, still further to the south, though 
north of Damaun, the language is "Marathi with nu- 
merous Gujerathi words/' South of Damaun the 
Marathi, eo nomine, and, in unequivocal forms, extends 
along the coast of Goa ; and, inland, as far as the Ghond, 
Telinga, and Canarese frontiers. 



English. 


Mahratta. 


English. 


Mahratta. 


Man {homo) 


maiish 


Foot 


paie 


iyir) 


purush 


Sun 


suria 


Woman 


baiko 


Moon 


tshundr 


Head 


doksheh 


Star 


tshandani 


Hair 


kes 


Hay 


vuas 


Eye 


doleh 


Night 


vatr 


Ear 


kan 


Fire 


vistfi 


Nose 


nakh 


Water 


panni 


Mouth 


• I'hond 


Tree 


. dzad 


Tongue 


jib 




bruksh 


Tooth 


dant 


Stone 


duggud. 


Hand 


hat 







The limits of the Marathi to the east are. obscure. 
In Candeish it comes in contact with certain Bhil 
dialects, with their congeners. Aurungabad, Berar, 
and Poonah are pre-eminently Marathi. Nagpur is 
Marathi where it is not Ghond. About Berar the 
Marathi, the Canarese, the Telinga and Ghond meet. 
In Bejapur and Satpura, Canarese and Marathi villages 
alternate with each other. In the parts about Pandarpur 
lie the limits of the Canarese to the north. 



THE MARATHI. 227 

Roughly speaking, the Konkani, a well-marked dialect 
of the Marathi, stretches in a narrow strip, between the 
Ghauts and the sea, from Goa on the north to Mangalore 
on the south. The more minute details, as given, on 
sound authorities, by Sir Erskine, bring the Marathi a 
little lower down and carry the Tulu a little further 
up. At Carwar, about 55 miles south of Goa, Konkani 
is the vernacular; but all the inhabitants can speak 
Marathi. The limit to the south is a village about 
four miles from LTdapi near Cundapur, where the Tulu 
begins. 

In the Konkani there are differences ; though not 
(perhaps) local ones. It is the mother-tongue of the 
Shenvi Brahmins in Bombay who pronounce certain 
words more fully than others. Thus : — 

The Shenvi udak = water = the common udih ; 

vriksh= tree = vrikh ; 

trin = grass = tan. 



For a, the sign of the masculine gender in Hindi and 
Marathi, the Konkani gives o — as do the Marwd,ri and 
the Gujerati. 

The Konkani contains numerous Tulu and Canarese 
words. 

The Bengali, or the vernacular of Bengal as opposed 
to the Hindustani, is spoken by more individuals than 
any of its congeners — perhaps, by more than all of them 
put together. It is the Bengali, too, which more than 
any other dialect of India has encroached upon the area 
of the monosyllabic languages of the Bodo, Garo, and 
Kasia districts ; upon Asam, Sylhet, and Tipperah. 



EngUsh. 


Bengali. 


English. 


BengalL 


Man 


manushya 




chul 


Tooth 


danta 


Mouth 


mukh 


Head 


mastak 


Eye 


chhakhyuh 


Hair 


kesh 


Ear 


karna 
Q 2 



228 



THE BENGALI. 



English. 


Bengali. 


English. 


Bengali . 


Hand 


hat 


Moon 


Chandra 


Foot 


haa 


Star 


tara 


Blood 


rakta 


Fire 


agni 


Bay 


din 


Water 


pani 


Night 


ratri 


Stone 


prastan 


Sun 


surjya 


Tree 


gachh. 


English. 


Asam. 


2. 

English. 


Asam. 


Man 


manuli 


Bay 


din 


Tooth 


dant 


Night 


rati 


Head 


mur 


Sun 


beli 


Hair 


suli 


Moon 


jun 


Mouth 


mukh 


Star 


tora 


Eye 


soku 


Fire 


J'ui 


Ear 


kan 


Water 


pani 


Hand 


h^t 


Stone 


hil 


Foot 


bhori 


Tree 


gosh. 


Blood 


tez 







In Arakan the three following forms of speech are 
current ; all Indian. The Rtiinga is used by the Mahome- 
tans ; the Rossawn by the Hindus. 



English. 


Kuinga. 


Rossawn. 


Banga S. 


Man 


manush 


munusa 


manu 


Woman 


mialaw 


stri 


zaylan 


Head 


mata 


mustok 


tikgo 


Mouth 


gab 


bodon 


totohan 


Arm 


bahara 


baho 


palpoung 


Hand 


hat 


osto 


hatkan 


Leg 


ban 


podo 


torua 


Foot 


pan 


pata 


zamkan 


Sun 


bel 


suja 


baylli 


Moon 


sawn 


sundra 


satkan 


Star 


tara 


nokyotro 


tara 


Fire 


aniri 


aagani 


zi 


Water 


pannse 


dzol 


panni 


Earth 


kul 


murtika 


mati 


Stone 


shil 


shil 


hil 


Wind 


ban 


pawun 


bo 


Bain 


jorail 


bisti 


buun 


Bird 


paik 


pukyi 


pakya 


Fish 


maws 


mutsse 


mas 


Good 


gum 


gum 


hoba 


Bad 


gumnay 


gumnay 


hobanay 





THE 


URIYA. 




English. 


Euinga. 


Rossawu. 


BangaS, 


Great 


boddan 


danger 


domorgo 


Little 


thuddi 


tsuto 


hurugu 


Long 


botdean 


dingol 


digul 


Short 


baniek 


bati 


bate. 



229 



The Udiya, or Uriya, of Orissa is bounded on the 
north by the Bengali, on the south by the Telinga, and 
on the west by certain Ghond and Khond dialects. It 
is spoken by few individuals and over a small area. 



English, 


Uriya. 


English. 


Uriya. 


Man {homo) 


minipo 


Moon 


chando 






Star 


tara 


Woman 


•maikiniya 


Fire 


nina 


Head 


motha 


Water 


paid 


Pair 


balo 


Stone 


pothoro 


Eye 


akbi^ 


Tree 


gocbcho 


Nose 


nako* 


One 


eko 


Mouth 


muho 


Two 


dui 


Tooth 


daT.to 


Three 


tini 


Tongue 


jibho 


Four 


chari 


Hand 


hato 


Five 


pancho 


Foot 


goro 


Six 


chlio 


Blood 


rokto 


Seven 


shato 


Day 


dino 


Fight 


altho 


Night 


rati 


Nine 


nov 


Sun 


surjiyo 


Ten 


dosho. 



With the Uriya we take leave of the languages of 
the eastern side of the Peninsula and the languages of 
the Khond and Kol frontiers, and pass to the other side 
of India. 

The Sindhi (of Sind) falls into dialects and sub- 
dialects ; the Kutch being treated as one of tliem. 
How this stands to the Gujerathi has already been 
stated. The Siraiki is the dialect of Upper, the Lar of 
Lower, Sind : to which may be added a fourth, spoken 
in the Desert, as far east as Jessulmer. 



English. 


Siraiki. 


Lar. 


Man 


maru 







murs 




Woman 


zal 


mihri 


Head 


matho 


sisi 


Hair 


war 


jhonto 



230 





THE SINDHI. 




English. 


Siraiki. 


Lar. 


Hair 


choti 




Eye 


ak 




Ear 


kan 




Hand 


hath 


kar 




chambu 




Foot 


per 




Mouth 


wat 




Tooth 


dand 


danda 


Tongue 


jhibh 




Day 


dink 




Night 


rat 




Sun 


srjj 


adit 


Moon 


chandr 




Star 


taro 




Fire 


bar 


jando 







jeru 


Water 


pani 






sandaro 




Tree 


wan-per 




Stone 


rahan 
khod 






On the south, and south-west, the Sindhi is bounded 
by the Biluch and Brahui. 

As the Cashmirian (of Cashmir) belongs geographi- 
cally to India, I place it in the present division : from 
which it leads to the next but one. 



English. 


Cashrair. 


English. 


Cashmir 


Man 


manyu 


Water 


ab 


Woman 


zanana 




pani 


Head 


kalah 


Fiver 


kul. 


Eye 


ach 


Stone 


kain 


Ear 


kan 


Tree 


kulu 


Nose 


nast 


Wood 


zun 


Mouth 


afio 


One 


ak 


Tooth 


dand 


Two 


zih 


Hand 


atha 


Three 


trah 


Foot 


kor 


Fou/r 


tsor 


Blood 


rath 


Five 


panz 


Sky 


nab 


Six 


shah 


Sun 


aftab 


Seven 


sat 


Moon 


tzandar 


Eight 


ath 


Star 


tarak 


Nine 


noh 


Fire 


nar 


Ten 


dah. 





agan 







(r^J 



THE CASHMIRIAN. 281 

Such is the vernacular Cashmirian, or the Cashmirian 
of common life ; the language of literature and polite 
society being Persian — Persian rather than either Cash- 
mirian Proper, or Hindi. As far, however, as the 
Cashmirian Proper is written at all, it is written by 
means of an alphabet of Sanskrit, rather than Arabic, 
origin. In creed the Cashmirians are more Mahometan 
than Hindu. 



282 THE SINGALESE. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

The Singalese. — The Rodiya. — The Maldivian. 

The nearest representatives of the aboriginal language of 
Ceylon must be sought for in the dialects of the ana- 
logues of the Khonds, Glionds, Kols, Tudas, and tlie 
like : and these we expect to find in a rude state in the 
more impracticable parts of the island. We expect, too, 
to find them in a broken and fragmentary condition. 

And such is the case. One population which, on the 
strength of its pagan, or semi-pagan barbarity, has com- 
manded no little attention on the part of investigators, 
bears the name Vaddah, a name which is, more or less, 
general, and which is of Hindu origin. Whether, how- 
ever, it represents the aborigines of the island, is 
uncertain. I know of no monograph that gives us 
the minute details of the Vaddah creed. I learn, how- 
ever, from Dr. Rost, who has kindly favoured me with 
more than one valuable fact relating to the population 
under notice, that their language varies but little fi-om 
the common Singalese. If so, however much they 
may represent the indigenous blood of Ceylon, they 
are no representatives of the aboriginal language, except 
so far as fragments of it may be preserved in their 
dialect. However, of the Yaddah, eo nomine, I have 
seen no specimens. 

Still, there is a representative of the primitive tongue 
in Ceylon ; and the Rodiyas, a broken and sporadic 
population, amounting to (perhaps) a thousand in all, 
give it. 



THE SINGALESE. 



233 



English. 


Bodiya. 


Englisli. 


Rodiya. 


Man (vir) 


gawa 


Hand 


dagulu 


Woman 


gawi 


Blood 


talu 


Head 


keradiya 


Sun 


ilay at teriyang^ 


Hair 


kaluwali 


Moon 


Jiapa teriyangd 


Eye 


lawate 


Star 


h^pangawal 


Ear 


irawuw6 


Fire 


dulumvi 


Nose 


galla 


Water 


nilatu 


Mouth 


galagewunu 


Tree 


uhalla 


Tongue 


dagula 


Stone 


boraluwa. 



The Singalese Proper is not only more Hindi than 
the Tamul, Malayalim, and their congeners, but more 
Hindi than most of the dialects of the preceding group. 
It is the language of a Buddhist as well as that of a 
Brahminic population — the sacred language of the Budd- 
hists being Pali rather than Sanskrit. 



Englisli. 


Singalese. 


English. 


Singalese. 


Man (homo) 


manushyay& 


Blood 


rudhiraya 





minih4 


Day 


dawasa 


(vir) 


purshay^ 


Night 


ratriya 




pirimay^ 


Sun 


ira 


Woman 


stri 


Moon 


handa 




gani 


Star 


taruwa 


Head 


oluda ? 




t^ruwaka 




isa 


Fire 


ginna 


Hair 


isa kesas 




gindara 


Eye 


asa 


Water 


diya 




akhsiya 




diyara 




net 




watura 


Ear 


kana 


Tree 


galia 


Nose 


nahe 


Stone 


gala 


Mouth 


kata 


One 


ek 


Tooth 


data 


Two 


de 


Tongue 


duva 


Three 


tun 


Hand 


ata 


Four 


liatara 




hastlaya 


Five 


pas 


Foot 


patula 


Six 


ha 




pad^ya 


Seven 


hat 


Bone 


ashiya 


Eight 


ata 




atiya 


Nine 


nama 


Blood 


le 


Ten 


daha. 



The language of the Maldives and Laccadives is Sin- 
galese ; the alphabet Arabic. 



234 



THE MALDIVE. 



English. 


Maldive. 


Man {homo) 


niihung 


(vir) 


firihenung 


Woman 


ang-henung 


Head 


ho—Kol 


Hair 


istari 


Hand 


aitila 


Foot 


fiyolu 


Tongue 


du 


Tooth 


dai 


Nose 


nefai 



English. 

Mouth 

Eye 

Day 

Night 

StLn 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Tree 



Maldive. 

aga 

lo 

duas 

re 

ini 

hadu 

tari 

alifang 

feng 



The following is a specimen of the language ; it is a 
copy of a letter written by the Maldive Malim of a 
boat at Columbo to his countrymen at Galle : — 

At Galle stopping of the Maldives all to the people, Arab boat the Malim. 
The chiefs salam ; now at this port are boats Arab boat Finladu boat offering 
boat Fadiyaru's boat Ahanima didi's boat mandu house boat bitter-tree- 
corner -house boat ; now all people health in remain ; at your port you have 
news you must send ; at this port there is news I hereby send ; from Europe 
a new governor is come ; England's king is dead ; lacs many strings salams ; 
this port's fish we have sold Himiti fish seven tens seven dollars, Male ato?u 
fish five twelves seven, Fading fulu weighed fish forty seven ; thus having 
sold it stopping for the price ; lacs many strings salams ; this is written here 
Thursday on the day. If God permits in fourteen days sailed I shall be ; 
desire is to me. 

Galigai tibi Diwehing-ge em^me kalungna^r, Arabu od\ Malimi. Kalegefanu 
salamen ; mifahara^f mirarhugai hurhi oc^i faharhi Arabu-oc?i Finladu odi 
wedung odi Fac^iydru odi Aham,ma did! oc^i, mandu ge odi hiti gas darhu ge 
odi ; mifahara^r em^me kalung gada weeba tibuwewe ; tiya rarhugai hurhi 
kabareng fonuw^ti ; mirarhugai hurhi kabaru mi fonuwie ; welatung au boc?a 
sahibeng atuewe ; Wilatu rasge maruwej/jewe ; lanka gina farhu^r salamen ; 
mirarhu mas vik^i Himiti mas hang diha hai riyalaya^/, Male atoZu mas fas 
doZos hataka^. Fading iwlu kira mas sa^is hatakagr ; mihidang vik^kaigeng 
tibi agimiwewe ; lanka gina farhung salamen ; miliyunl mitangwl burasfati 
duwahung. Mai kalageru^fsewiyai sauda duwahu a?ugac?w fur^nemewe ; hitai 
hurbi mewe. 

In ordinary English, thus : — 

'* The Malim of the Arab boat to all the people of the Maldives stopping 
at Galle. 
The chief's greeting ; the boats now at this port are the Arab boat of 
Finladu, the offering boats * of Fadiyaru and Ahammadidi, and the boats of 



* These are the vessels which bring the annual presents to the Government 
of Ceylon. 



THE MALDIVE. 235 

Manduge and Hiti-gas-darhu-ge ; all the people are in good health ; send 
what news you have at your port ; I hereby send what news there is at this 
port. A new governor is come from Europe ; the king of England is dead. 
Very many greetings. We have sold at this port Himiti fish for seventy-seven 
dollars, Maleatolu fish for sixty-seven, and Fadingfulu fish weighed (?) for 
forty-seven ; having sold the fish we are waiting for the price. Very many 
greetings. This is written on Thursday. If God permits, I shall sail in 
fourteen days ; such is my wish." 



236 THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

The Paropamisan Grroup. — The Dard Branch.— The Shina, — The Deer and 
Tirhai. — The Arniya or Kashkari. — The Cohistani or Lughmani and 
Pashai, — The Siaposh. 

I NOW come to a class for which I propose the name 
Paropamisan; its chief area being the parts between 
the southern slope of the Hindukush, and either the 
main stream of the Indus itself, or that of its feeder, the 
Caubul river. To these drainages, however, it is by no 
means limited. Some of its members are on the water 
systems of the Oxus, some on that of the Yarkend river, 
some (perhaps) on that of the Amur. They are all 
mountaineers, most of them being independent, and 
some being either actual Kafirs (i. e. infidels) or im- 
perfect converts to Mahometanism. Our knowledge of 
them is eminently imperfect. 

The language of a Paropamisan is Indian rather 
than Persian. If so, the class under notice is tran- 
sitional. I repeat, however, the statement, that it is 
one concerning which our details are of the scantiest. 

If the district over which the languages of this class 
are spoken be (as I hold that it is) the country from 
which the Hindi elements of the Hindi Proper and its 
congeners was introduced, scanty as the details are, they 
are important. They are important even if this be not 
the case : inasmuch as they belong to Persia rather than 
Hindostan in the ordinary geographical and political 
sense of the word : and show how little the philological 
frontiers and the physical frontiers coincide. This, how- 
ever, is no more than what we found to be the case with 
the Brahui. 



THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



237 



Again — Casbmir is quite as much Paropamisan as it 
is Indian in the strict sense of the term. 

The dialect spoken due north of Cashmir, and in 
contact with the Bhot of Ladak and Little Tibet is the 
Sldna, known through a Vocabulary of Captain Cun- 
ningham's ; closely akin to which are the Deer and 
Tirhai Vocabularies of Leech. These latter are spoken 
in, or about, the Valley of Swaut, and may (perhaps) 
be called the representatives of the Swauti form of 
speech. 



English. 


Shina. 




English, 


Man 


musha 




Fire 


Woman 


grin 




Water 


Head 


shis 




River 


Eye 


achhi 




Stone 


Ear 


kund 




Tree 


Nose 


noto 




Wood 


Mouth 


anzi 




One 


Tooth 


duni 




Two 


Hand 


hath 




Three 


Foot 


pa 




Four 


Blood 


lohel 




Five 


Sky 


agahi 




Six 


Sun 


suri 




Seven 


Moon 


yau 




Eight 


Star 


taro 




Nine 


Fire 


agar 


2 


Tm 


English. 




Deer. 




Man 




mish 




Woman 




is 




Head 




shish 




Foot 




khor 




Eye 




achhi 




Nose 




nistui 




Tongue 




jib 




Tooth 




dand 




Hand 




thoho 




Lip 




dudh 




Ear 




kan 




Day 




dus 




Water 




wahe 




Milk 




shid 





Shina. 

phu 

wahi 

sin 

bat 

turn 

katho 

ek 

do 

che 

chhar 



shah 

sat 

ast 

no 

dahi. 



Tirhai. 



achha 
nasth 
zhibba 
dand a 
hast 

kan 

das 

wa 

dudh 

ik 



288 



THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



Englisli. 


Deer. 


Tirliai. 


Two 


do 


4u 


Three 


shta 


tra 


Four 


chor 


tsor 


Five 


panch 


pants 


Six 


sho 


kao 


Seven 


sliat 


sat 


Eight 


paslit 


akt 


Nine 


noh 


nao 


Ten 


das 


das. 



I would call the sub-section to which these belong 
the Dard group. Captain Cunningham would include 
under this the Arniya of Chitral and Gilghit : which is 
nearly the Kashkari of Leech. I give, however, less 
generality to the word, and would simply call the group 
Kashkari. 



English, 


Amiya. 


Kashkari. 


Man 


rag 


moashi 


Woman 


kamri 


kumedi 


Head 


sur 


sur 


Eye 


ghach 


ghach ? 


Ear 


kad 


kad 


Nose 


naskar 


naskar 


Mouth 


diran 




Tooth 


dond 


dond 


Hand 


hast 




Foot 


pang 


pong 


Blood 


le 




Shy 


asman 




Sun 






Moon 






Star 


satar 




Fire 


ingar 


ingar 


Water 


augr 


ugh 


River 


sin 





Stone 







Tree 


kan 




Wood 


Jin 




One 


i 


i 


Two 


ju 


D'u 


Three 


triu 


trui 


Four 


chod 


chod 


Five 


punj 


punj 



e\J 



THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



239 



English. 


Arniya. 


Kashkari. 


Six 


chui 


chui 


Seven 


sut 


sut 


Eight 


ansh 


ansh 


Nine 


neuhan 


nehan 


Ten 


ash 


ja^. 



The south-western sub-section (which we may call 
the Cohistani) is represented by the Lughman and 
Pashai of the Cohistan of Caubul. 



English. 


Lughman 


Pashai. 


Man 


adam 


panjai 


Woman 


masi 


zaif 


Head 


shir 


sir 


Nose 


matht 


nast 


Tongue 


jub 


jib 


Eye 


aneh 


anch 


Ear 


kad 


kad 


Hand 


atth 


ast 


Tooth 


dan 


dan 


Foot 




pae 


Sun 


thur 




Moon 


mae 


mae 


Day 


lae 


dawas 


Night 


veil 


vyal 


Fire 


angar 


angar 


Water 


warg 


wark 


Tree 


kati 


kadi 


Stone 


wad 


wad 


Fish 


mach 


macch 


One 


i 


i 


Two 


do 


do 


Three 


te 


te 


Four 


char 


char 


Five 


panj 


panj 


Six 


khe 


she 


Seven 


that 


sat 


Eight 


akht 


ash 


Nine 


no 


no 


Ten 


de 


de. 



The populations hitherto mentioned are, one and all, 
Mahometan : though in different degrees. The nearer 
they are to Persia the more decided the creed. Some, 
however, are such imperfect converts that they are 



24^0 THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 

denominated by their purer neighbours Half Maho- 
metans. 

But the tribes which now come under notice are not 
even Half Mahometans. They are, in the eyes of the 
true behevers, actual infidels ; so that Kafir is what they 
are called, and Kaferistan is their country. 

That the difference of creed exactly coincides with a 
difference of dialect is unlikely. Hence, the Kafirs 
Proper may graduate into the Cohistanis on one side 
and into the Kashkaris on the other. The particular 
division for which we have a specimen of the dialect 
calls itself Siaposh ; its occupancy being the right bank 
of the Kuner and the watershed which divides it from 
the eastern feeders of the Oxus. According to Dr. 
Gardiner* the typical Kafirs, eo nomine^ as opposed to 
the Half Mussulmen, are — 

The Kafirs of Esh, calculated at 15,000 
Ushah „ 12,000 



27,000 

Now, whether Kafir, or half Kafir, this, at least, is 
certain of the western tribes ; viz. that the fragments 
of their creed are Hindu. 

It is also certain that several legends point to India ; 
though not exclusively. They point to India on one 
side, and to Persia on another. 

That they are Franks is believed in some quar- 
ters. There is, however, a Cohistani population which 
calls itself Purauncheh. It is just on the cards 
that this may have given rise to the word Feringi = 
Frank. Upon their setting on stools and chairs in pre- 
ference to lying-down like the mass of orientals I lay 
but little stress. As little do I lay on the fact of their 
being notorious wine-bibbers. The grape grows in their 

* Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. xxii. 



o\J 



LEGENDS. 241 

country, and they know how to convert it into wine. 
Under these conditions they may easily indulge in drink, 
without being, of necessity, Europeans in blood. 

There is a tradition that they are descended from 
Alexander the Great. 

A small pool, near a place called Door, to the east or 
north-east of Bamian, where there is an intrusive popu- 
lation of Kalzubi Turks, but where the aborigines are 
Therba and Shu Paropamisans, gives us the following 
legend. 

It is believed to be bottomless. The water is bitter and bituminous, 
bubbling up with sulphuretted hydrogen, and surrounded by incrustations of 
sulphur. Lambent flames are said to occasionally play over its surface. Near 
it is a dark cave, and in this cave are the remains of idols — more than one. 
The chief of these represent Moh and his wife, Mabun, deities whom even 
the Mahometans of the district reverence. No one enters the cave with his 
shoes on. 

Two other caves are dedicated to Sheh, the Destroyer, iand Zhei, the God of 
Fire. At each new moon the Therba (who reckon by months rather than 
years) make a fire-offering to Zhei. 

Two other caves are dedicated to Hersh and Maul. Small beads of gold 
and stone, found in these parts by natives who dig for them, are called Solo- 
mon's grains, 

Moh created the earth, and his wife Mabun created the wilderness. From 
them sprang the first giant race. They slept alternately for 999 moons 
and reigned 450,000 moons. After this period, three sons rebelled, viz. 
Sheh, the life-destroyer, Zhei, the fire-god, and Maul, the earth-quaker ; and, 
by their combined efforts, Moh was buried beneath the mountains. Confusion 
lasted 5000 moons, after which the three victors retired each to his own 
region for 10,000 moons. Maul was lost in darkness of his own creating, 
Sheh fled with his family towards the sun, which so much enraged Zhei, that 
he caused fire to spread over the earth ; this was quenched by the spirit of 
Mabun, but not till the whole giant race was destroyed, and the earth re- 
mained a desert for 3000 moons. Then Hersh and Lethram, originally slaves 
of Moh, and great magicians, emerged from the north, and settled in these 
mountains. By some Lethram is considered as the incarnate spirit of Mabtin 
and the Queen to whom Hersh was vizier. Hersh had three sons, Uz, Muz, 
and Alk. These he left in charge of all their families, while with a large 
army he travelled toward the sun in pursuit of Sheh, who was supposed to 
be still living. So the three sons of Hersh and their descendants reigned 
happily for 18,000 moons, till Khoor (Cyrus?) invaded and conquered the 
country, but, after many years' struggle, they expelled the invader, and re- 
tained the name Koorskush (Cyrus killed), now Khirghiz. The descendants of 
Hersh continued to reign for 10,000 moons more, till Khoondroo (Alexander ?) 

R 



242 LEGENDS. 

invaded the country ; after which no separate legend of them seems to be 
recollected. 

In the same district stands the fort of Khornushi, to which you ascend by a 
series of steep steps on hands and feet. Then comes a narrow ledge of rock, 
from which a ladder of skin ropes, or a basket and windlass, takes the ex- 
plorer upwards. At the top, a bason of bubbling brilliant water, hot in the 
winter and cold during the summer, always full, and never over-flowing, 
gives rise to the following legend — an echo of remarkable clearness, adding to 
the mysterious character of the spot. 

When Noah was at Mecca, Khor, the chief of the district, went to pay 
homage to him : thereat Noah was well pleased, and promised to grant him 
any favour for which he should ask. So Khor asked for water, but the 
voice in which he spoke was rough and loud, and his manner coarse. At this 
the patriarch was offended. So that instead of blessing the land of Khor he 
cursed it, and condemned it to become solid rock, nevertheless he kept his 
promise in the matter of the water, and sent his grandson Shur to carry it into 
effect. The grandson cried Nu Shu. Echo answered Nu Shu. The sound 
Nu Shu reached Mecca. And now Nu Shu is the sound which the water 
murmurs, and which Echo still conveys to Mecca ; the place retaining the name 
of the three parties concerned— Khor, the prince who spoke so rudely ; Noah, 
the patriarch who disliked Khor's manners ; and Shu, the grandson who did 
the work in opening the basin and calling out the words which Echo delighted 
in repeating. 

As far as this belief in Alexander goes, the Paro- 
paraisans are simply in the position of the most western 
of the Bhots ; inasmuch as the same belief prevails in 
Bultistan or Little Tibet. Indeed, I believe that, at one 
time, the Paropamisan area extended further to the east. 
In the collection of ethnographical casts brought home by 
the brothers Schlagintweit, it was remarked by the col- 
lectors, and assented to by the present writer, that the 
faces from the extreme east, though the faces of Bhots, 
were, to a great extent, Persian in form and feature. If 
so, there are good grounds for holding that the blood and 
the language do not, very closely, coincide ; and that 
there is Paropamisan blood in the veins of men and 
women whose language is Bhot, and whose creed (in 
some cases) is Buddhist. And this is borne out by Dr. 
Gardner's tables — approximations as they are — wherein 
we find the following statistical catalogue, which is, evi- 
dently, to a very considerable extent, either inferential or 
conjectural. 





PAROPAMISANS. 






(1-) 




Bu, or Bull, calculated at 


12,000 


Kahuz, or Huhi „ 


12,000 


Phali, or 


Phagi „ 


12,000 


Aspah 


)j 


12,000 


Kulis 


» 


12,000 


Muklu 


» 


12,000 


Maha 


» 


12,000 


Ka-lesh 


) 




Ma-lesh 


and > 


12,000 


Lesh 


) 






84,000 




(2.) _ 






Chinese Subjects. 




Beh, or Bethel „ 


12,000 


Plahi, or 


Plaaghii „ 


12,000 


Bhoti (?) 


i} 


12,000 




36,000 



243 



In respect to the wine it should be noticed that one 
of the poetical, or rhetorical, names of the Paropamisus 
points towards the fact of the grape growing there. It 
is called in Persia and Cashmir the Wine-cellar of 
Afrasiab. 

It should also be added that on the western frontier 
we have the venue of several of Rustam's exploits ; 
Rustam being the great hero of Persia. 

The Dangri (i. e. Dunger) of Yigne, is Paropamisan. 

There are numerous architectural and sculptured re- 
mains in the Paropamisan country. 

English. Siali P6sh.* Sanskrit * 

Star tarah tara 

Sun sol ' surya 



Moon 
Fire 



m^s 



From Prichard, 



R 2 



244 



PAROPAMISANS. 



English. 


Siali P6sli. 


Sanskrit. 


Rain 


wash 


varsha 


Snow 


zuin 


himd 


Spnng . 


vastink 


vassanta 


Hot 


tapi 


tap 


Man 


naursta 


nara 


Woman 


mashi 


manuschi 


Mr 


kar 


karna 


Eye 


achan 


aksclian 


Nose 


nasii 


nasa 


Teeth 


dint 


dante 


Finger 


agun 


anguli 


One 


ek 


eka 


Two 


du 


dui 


Three 


tre 


tri 


Four 


chata 


chatur 


Five 


pich 


pancha 


Eight 


asht 


ashtan 


Nine 


nu 


navan 


Ten 


dosh 


dasan. 



The Puraunchehs are mentioned by Elphinstone, who 
only knows them as a class of carriers, called Hindki 
or Indians. He adds, however, that Baber gave them a 
separate language. I have been told that this is still 
spoken by a few families. 



MIGRATORY TRIBES. 



245 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



The Languages of certain migratory Populations of India. 

There are numerous forms of speech iu India, which, 
like the Hindustani, belong to certain classes of indi- 
viduals rather than to certain districts. They partake, 
more or less, of the nature of Cant or Slang. Of many 
of them a good account is given by Mr. Balfour. 
The following are the Tkug numerals. 



English. 




Thug. 






Bagwan. 


One 




udanka 




ungud 


Two 




sheluke 




duke 


Three 




udanu 




ruk 


Fmr 




poku 




phoke 


Five 




molu 




but 


Six 




shely 




dag 


Seven 




pavitru 




puyater 


Eight 




mungi 




mung 


Nine 




tiosu 




kone 


Ten 




avataru 




sula 


Eleven 




ekpuru 




ekla 


Twelve 




habru 




jewla. 


le Taremuhi are. wandering 


tinkers. 




English, 


Taremuki 






English. 


Taremuki. 


Man 


lokro 






Hand 


hath 


Woman 


chaU 






Foot 


pug 


Head 


mathoe 






Water 


pani 


Eye 


dolo 






Stone 


duggru 


Nose 


nak 






Earth 


mattri 


Ear 


kan 






Tree 


jhar. 



The Bhatui are jugglers, posture-makers, and exhibit- 
ors of feats of strength. 



246 



MIGRATORY TRIBES. 



English. 


Bhattii. 


Man 


mfins 


Woman 


30 


Head 


mtindhi 


Eye 


akhoe 


Nose 


luk 


Ear 


kunnu 


Hand 


hut 


le Korawi 


are mu 


English. 


Korawi. 


Man 


amlun 


Woman 


punjeri 


Fire 


nerpu 



English. . 


Blmtui. 


Foot 


pae 


Fire 


ugg 


Water 


pani 


Stone 


pathar 


Earth 


bhui 


Tree 


ihar. 



English. 


Korawi. 


Stone 


kellay 


EaHh 


tirri 


Tree 


muru. 



The Ramusis are men of predatory habits in the 
Mahratta country, but Canarese or Telinga in origin. 

^Englisli. Ramusi. English. Ramusi. 



Eye 


kunnul 


Fire 


dhupa 


Tooth 


punnul 


Water 


nidul 


Sun 


goanda 


Stone 


ratul. 


Moon 


phakut 







So are the Mangs who also belong to the Mahratta coun- 
try. 



English. 


Mang. 


English. 


Maog. 


£ye 


kewrja 


Fire 


dhupa 


Tooth 


chawur 


Water 


nir 


Sun 


goanda 


Stone 


upalla. 


Moon 


goanda 







There are seven castes of Nuts* or BazighurSj imperfect 
Mahometans, who dance and juggle in Bengal. 



English. 


Hindostanee. 


Nut. 


Nut. 


Fire 


ag 


ga 


kag 


Bamboo 


bans 


suban 


nans 


Oven 


chilum 


limchi 


nilum 


Breath 


dum 


mudu 


num 


Femembrance 


iad 


dal 


kiad 


Beggar 


fuqir 


riqifu 


nuqir 


Home 


ghur 


rughu 


rhur 


India 


Hindustan 


Dusitanuk 


Kindustan 


Here 


idhur 


dhuri 


bidhur 



Captain Richardson, in Asiatic Transactions, vol. viii. 



MIGRATORY TRIBES. 



247 



English. 


Hindostanee. 


Nut. 


WJien 


jub 


buju 


Who 


kon 


onk 


Long 


lumba 


balum 


Mouth 


mas 


samu 


Sect of people 


nut 


tunu 


Age 


omr 


muru 


Saint 


pir 


ripu 


Fort 


qilla 


laqeh 


Opposite 


ruburu 


bururu 


Gold 


sona 


naso 


A search 


tulash 


lashtu 


Disagreement 


iimbunao 


nunbeh. 


Heir 


waris 


ruswa 



Nut. 

nub 

ron 

kumba 

nas 

kut 

komr 

chir 

rulla 

kuburu 

nona 

nulash 

kunbunao 

quaris. 



The Katodi are catechu gatherers in the Mahratta 
country. 



English. 


Katodi. 




English, 


Katodi. 


Call 


akh 




Hawh 


moregai 


Boiled rice 


anuj 




Take 


li 


Hedgehog 


ahida 




Give 


wope 


Kite 


alav 




Turban 


salu 


Crab 


kirlu 




Dog 


s6na 


Foivl 


kukdai 




Boy 


sora 


Iguana 


gohur 




Girl 


sori 


Arrow 


cliumboti 


Crow 


hadia 


Munjus 


nagulia 




Man 


hodus 


Crane 


bugad 




Woman 


hodis. 


To these add the Bowri £ 


tnd Gohuri. 




English. 




Bowri 




Gohuri. 


Man 




mank 


hoe 


gohur 


Woman 




manu 


ssi 


gohurni 


Head 




goddo 




mathoe 


Eye 




dolo 




ankhi 


Nose 




nak 




nak 


Ear ■ 




kan 




kan 


Hand 




hatha 




hath 


Foot 








pae 


Water 




pani 




pani 


Stone 




bhatti 


1 


bhatta 


Earth 




bhoe 




jami 


Tree 




jbar 




jhaiT. 



Of the characteristic elements in these forms of speech 
some are purely artificial like those in the Nut Vocabu- 
lary) ; others of Tamul origin — Tamul meaning, not 
only the Tamul proper, but its congeners. 



24a 



THE GIPSY. 



CHAPTER XXXYI. 

The Gipsy. 

Wherever we find a Gipsy who retains any portion of 
his original language, no matter where we find him, that 
primitive element, be it much or little, is Indian. It 
is also Indian of the Hindi, rather than Indian of the 
Tamul type. The first of the following short vocabula- 
ries of the Gipsy language of different countries, is from 
Persia, the next from ^gy pt, the last from Norway. 

The Gipsies of Persia are known under the names of 
Ghurbat (or Khurbat), Goabaz (probably the same word), 
Duman, and Kaoli. 





(1.) 




English. 


Khurbat. 


Dumau. 


Head 


sir 


murras 


Hair 


val 


khaUuf 


Ewr 


kan 


priuk 


Eye 


akki 


jow 


Tooth 


dandeir 


ghiolu 


Hand 


kustum 


dast 


SVM 


gaham 


gaham 


Moon 


heiuf 


heiuf 


Star 


astara 


astara 


Fire 


ag 


ar 


Water 


pani 


how 


I 


man 


man 


Thou 


to 


to 


He 


hui 


hui 


One 


ek 


ek 


Two 


di 


di 


Three 


turrun 


sih 


Four 


tshar 


tshar 


Five 


penj 


penj 


Six 


shesh 


shesh 


Seven 


heft 


heft 


Eight 


hest 


hest 


Nine 


na 


na 


Ten 


das 


deh. 



THE GIPSY. 



249 



In Egypt they are known as Ghagar, Helebi, and 
N^wer ; the first being the least Arabic of the three. 



(2.) 



EngUsh. 


Ghagar. 




Helebi. 


Nawer. 


Head 


sir 




ras 






shirit 










kamoklili 








Hair 


bal 




shara 




Eye 


hank a 




hazara 




Ear 


kirkawiyeh 


wudu 




Teeth 


dandi 




sinnan 






sinnam 




suvan 




Sun 


kam 




shems 


shems 




karzi 










karieh 








Moon 


kano 




kamr 


mahtaweh 




kariz 









Star 


astra 




nejm 




Fire 


ag 




meguindara 


ag 


Stone 


path 




hajjar 




Tree 


kerian 


(3.) 


misbgareh 


kannin. 


Englisli. 


Gipsy of Norway. 


Tater.* 


One 




gikk 




jek 


Two 




dy 




dui 


Three 




trin 




triu 


Four 




schtar 




schtaar 


Five 




pansch 




pantsch 


Six 




sink 




schoov 


Seven 




schuh 




efta 


Eight 




okto 




ochto 


Nine 




engya 




enja 


Ten 




ty 




desh. 



To which add astro =z star, bal =. hair; si zz heart ; 
sap zz snake; RorriTnanozz Gipsy. f 

With these specimens for the two extremes we may 
easily believe that the Gipsy of the interjacent countries 
is truly Indian in its basis. 



* A variety of the ordinary Gripsy, which, in Norway, is called Fante. 
t Sundt. Beretning om Fante eller Langstrygerfolket. 



250 



THE KAJUNAH. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

The Kajunah. 

In Cunningham's Ladak is a specimen of the language 
of Hunz-Nagar, to the north and north-east of the 
Chitrali : and in contact with it ; with the Bhot ; with 
the Turk of Chinese Turkestan ; and, probably, with 
some Mongol form of speech. I cannot, like its collec- 
tor, connect it, ofi-hand, with the Shin a and Arniya. 
The following table shows too much difference for this. 



English. 


Sliina. 


Arniya. 


Kajunah. 


Man 


musha 


rag 


hir, er 


Woman 


grin 


kamri 


gus 


Head 


shis 


sur 


yetis 


Eye 


achhi 


ghach 


ilchin 


Ear 


kund 


kad 


iltumal 


Nose 


noto 


naskar 


gomoposh 


Mouth 


anzi 


diran 


gokhat 


Tooth 


duni 


dond 


gume 


Rand 


hath 


hast . 


gurengga 


Foot 


pa 


pang 


goting 


Blood 


lohel 


le 


multan 


Sky 


agahi 


asman 


ayesh 


Sun 


suri 




sa 


Moon 


yun 




halans 


Star 


taro 


satar 


asi 


Fire 


agar 


ingar 






phu 




phu 


Water 


wahi 


augr 


chil 


River 


sin 


sin 


sindha 


Stone 


bat 




dhan. 



Besides which, the numerals are not only different 
from the Dard dialects, but from those of all other lan- 
guages known to me. 



THE KAJUNAH. 



251 



One 




bin 


Seven 




talo 


Two 




altas 


Eight 




altambo 


Three 




husko 


Nine 




huncbo 


Four 




walto 


Ten 




tormo 


Five 




sundo 


Twenty 




altar 


Six 




mishando 








Ja ba= 


I am. 




Hurtu bai= 


ive are. 


Um ba 


= thou art 




Ma bau=ye 


are. 




Ai ba = 


-he is. 




Menig bau= 


-.they 


are. 



Meanwhile, the following forms are from the Shina ; 
the first being (apparently) Kajunah ; the second Indian ; 
the third Brahui. 



1. 

Be = be thou, being. 
Bilo = <o be. 
Bo je = being. 

2. 



Mo bos = 7 aw. 
Tu hsiO = thou art. 
A'b hao= Jie is. 



Be ha,s:=we are 
Tso bath=2/e are. 
A'b 'hk=zthey are. 



Mo asulus = / was. 
Tu d>&u\\x — thou wast. 
Ah usulu=Ag xcas. 



Be asilis=:M;e wei'e. 
Tso asilit=ye were. 
Ze asili=<Ae2' ivere. 



The Kajunah is just more Paropamisan than aught 
else. Still, provisionally (and only jprovisionally), I 
separate it. 



252 



THE AFGHAN. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

The Pushtu, Patau, or Afghan. 

Afghan and Afghanistan are Persian names. The 
native name is Pukhtu in one, FusJitu in another dialect. 



English. 


Western Pushtu. 


Eastern Pukhtu. 


God 


khoda 




Heaven 


asman 




Father 


plar 





Mother 


mor 




Son 


zoe 




Daughter 


loor 




Brother 


wror 




Sister 


khor 




Husband 


meru 




Wife 


ourut 


khizu 


Girl 


peghlu 





Boy 


zunki 


huluk 


Man 


uieru 




Head 


sur 




Nose 


puzu 


pozu 


NostHl 


spuzhmen 


spegme 


Hair 


veshtu 




Eyebrow 


w66 rtidzgge 


wrtize 


Eyelashes 


baua 




Eye 


sturgi 






lemu 




Forehead 


wuchwely 


wuchwoly 


Beard 


zhiru 


giru 


Nech 


tsut 


tsut 




mughzy 




Arm 


las 




Hand 


mungol 




Nail 


nook 




Belly 


nus 


gera 


Bach 


sha 







THE AFGHAN. 




English. 


Western Puslitu. 


Eastern Puklitu. 


Flesh 


ghwushu 


ghwukhe 


Bone 


hudtiky 




Blood 


vini 




HeaH 


ziru 




Ear 


gwuzh 


ghwug 


Mouth 


khoolu 




Tongue 


zuba 


zhebu 


Tooth 


gasli 


ghakh 


Foot 


pshu 


khpu 


Day 


rwudz 




Night 


shpu 




Sun 


nmur 


nwur 


Moon 


spozhmy 


spogmi 


Star 


stori 




Fire 


or 




Water 


obu 




River 


rod 


seen 


Sea 


deria 




Tree 


wunu 




Stone 


kane 




I 


zu 




We 


muzh 


mungu 


Thou 


tu 




Ye 


tase 




One 


yo 




Two 


dwu 




Three 


dre 




Four 


tsulor 




Five 


pinza 




Six 


spuzh 




Seven 


owu 




Eight 


uti 




Nine 


nu 




Ten 


lus 





253 



In India the word Fukhtu becomes Patau. 



254 THE PERSIAN. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

The Persian.— The Huzvaresh.— TheParsi.— The Modem Persian.— The 
Biluch.— The Kurd.- The Buruki. 

I BEGIN the notice of the languages of Persia and its 
congeners with the following extract from Prichard. 

The first appearance of the ancient Medes and Persians, during the sixth 
century before our era on the theatre of human affairs, was almost as sudden 
as that of the Huns, or Turks, or Mongoles, in a later age. Shortly before 
the period when they gained the mastery of the world, their name seems to 
have been unknown to Europe and to Western Asia. The Greeks of the 
Homeric age, and while the kingdom of Lydia was growing up in Asia Minor, 
appear never to have heard of the Persians ; nor have we any proof that their 
existence was known except by the predictions of the Prophets to the ancient 
Hebrews. Even in the historical records referring to preceding times, which 
the Greeks afterwards found in the east, there is no trace of an ancient 
empire, or even of an independent nation, in the countries between the 
Tigris and the Indus, dating its existence many generations before Cyrus. 
The Assyrian kingdom of Ninus and Semiramis and their successors is said to 
have reached to the borders of India. Whence, then, came that great and 
powerful race, who suddenly overturned all the dynasties of Asia, subdued 
the civilized parts of Africa and of Europe ? Were they one, perhaps the 
first, of those great swarms, who, from the remote regions of High Asia, have 
poured themselves down in different ages to overrun the Eastern world ? or 
had they been, as it is generally supposed, the primeval inhabitants of some 
region in the vast extent of Iran, who, like the Arabs in later times, after 
remaining for ages in quiet obscurity, suddenly emerged, as if moved by some 
inward impulse, and like that people became almost universal conquerors ? 

Samples of the language of the Sassanian period have 
come down to us as inscriptions, as legends on coins, and 
as written compositions. As the dynasty reigned from 
the third to the seventh century, and as the reigns 
of both the earliest and the latest of the kings are illus- 
trated by memorials of some kind, the presumption is 
against uniformity. So is the fact. There are divisions, 
sub-divisions, and cross-divisions in the criticism of the 



THE PERSIAN. 255 

Sassanian memorials. The older differ from the newer, 
both in respect to the language whicli they exhibit, and 
in respect to the alphabet in which they are embodied. 

The notice of the inscriptions comes first. The chief 
are from Nakhsi-Rustam, Persepolis, Kirmanshah, and 
Hajlabad. They have long commanded the attention 
of Orientalists. The chief of the earlier memoirs upon 
them was by De Sacy, and it is a memoir to which later 
investigators have added but little. The inscriptions are 
neither numerous nor long : neither are they rich in 
forms and words. Titles, as in inscriptions in general, 
form a large part of them. Of verbs, there is no in- 
stance. The alphabet is Semitic ; and, like the other 
Semitic alphabets, with the exception of the -Ethiopian, 
is read from right to left. The alphabet is Semitic, and 
lapidary, i. e. it is, comparatively speaking, rectilinear 
and angular rather than curvilinear and round. 

The older the coin, the more lapidary the character of 
the letters of its legend ; a fact upon which Mordtmann 
has suggested the following classification; a classification 
which gives (1 ) coins with their legends in the lapidary 
alphabet ; (2) coins with their legends in an alphabet 
more cursive than lapidary ; (3) coins with their legends 
in an alphabet actually (or nearly) cursive. The first 
class represents a period from Artaxerxes to N arses, when 
the tendency to transition begins. All, or almost all, of 
the bilingual inscriptions belong to this period. 

The second, of which the typical representatives are 
the coins of Varames lY., reaches from Sapor II. to 
Chosroes II. : the third from Chosroes II. to the end of 
the dynasty, and a little beyond it ; a little beyond it 
inasmuch as some of the early Caliphs used the Sassa- 
nian alphabet in their legends. A series of coins fi:om 
Taberistan belongs to this period. That the three classes 
graduate into each other is plain. 

The same applies to the language, so far as our scanty 
data allow us to judge. Mordtmann suggests that the 



256 THE PERSIAN. 

earliest and the latest legends belong to different lan- 
guages ; or rather to the same language in stages suffi- 
ciently different to be treated as such. Spiegel, on the 
other hand, refers them all to one language. 

So much for the inscriptions and coins. It was ne- 
cessary to begin with them, because they give us dates, 
which the literary compositions, though much more valu- 
able as representatives of the language, do not. 

The particular dialect that the Sassanian memorials 
represent is that of south-western Persia. The extent to 
which it is mixed with Semitic elements is in favour of this. 
So are the localities of the chief inscriptions ; especially 
those of Persepolis and Nakhsi-Rustam. The dynasty I 
believe to have been other than Persian ; so that it would 
take the language of the capital as it found it. The Se- 
mitic alphabet, also, lay near at hand. It was current 
in Syria, and Mesopotamia ; not to mention the fact of 
its having extended itself to Caubul some generations 
before. The use, however, of it was, as far as we 
can judge from negative evidence, an innovation — the 
legends of the Arsacidan coins having been Greek. 

The common name for this form of speech, from the 
time of D'Anquetil du Perron until the last ten years, 
was Pehlevi, Spiegel, however, in the preface to his 
Parsi Grammar, a forerunner of his one upon that of the 
Sassanian compositions, has named it Huzvaresh ; and 
given fair reasons for doing so. At any rate, the name 
Pehlevi is inconvenient. 

What Spiegel calls the Parsi is treated by him as 
either the actual Huzvaresh, or a near congener of it, 
in a newer form, and, as a kind of Huzvaresh of the 
early Mahomedan period, i. e. of the time between the 
last of the Sassanians and Firdusi who wrote under 
Mahmud of Ghuzni. The Parsi compositions are, one 
and all, translations from the Huzvaresh. Their alpha- 
bet is Huzvaresh. They are without either dates or 
names. The translations, however, of two works, the 



THE PERSIAN DIALECTS. 257 

MmoJchired, and the Shikand-guondni, are held to be 
older than that of a third, the Patet Irani. Finally, 
the language is held to be transitional to the Huzvaresh 
and the modern Persian. 

A well-known statement from the Fevheng-i-Jihdngiri 
tells us, that when that work was written there were 
seven dialects of the Persian language, of which four 
were obsolete, and three in use. These seem to have 
been literary forms of speech ; or, at any rate, forms 
of speech which had been subjected to a certain amount 
of cultivation. I imagine that there were written 
compositions in all of them, and that they were men- 
tioned by the writer just as the Sicilian, the Bolognese, 
or the Milanese might be mentioned by an Italian 
critic as dialects of the Italian Peninsula. If so, they 
were provincial or local forms of speech. If so, they 
were forms of speech which were scarcely dialects in 
the strictest sense of the word ; inasmuch as literary 
influence had, to some extent, acted upon them — such 
influences always having an assimilating tendency. 

Of these, the four obsolete dialects were the Herevi, 
the Segzi, the Zavuli, and the Sogdi, i. e. the dialects of 
Herat, Seistan, Zabulistan, and Bokhara — the ancient 
Sogdiana. The three in use were the Pehlevi, the 
Parsi, and the Deri. Of these names four are not only 
geogi'aphical, but are visibly so. Parsi is ambiguous. 
It may mean eitlier the dialect of the province Ears, or 
the dialect of certain books belonging to the Parsis. 
Pehlevi is, perhaps, the Huzvaresh — though the iden- 
tification is not without its elements of uncertainty. 
Deri is a difficult term, being, apparently, word for 
word, the same as Deer, Tirhai, &:c. If so, it is a 
geographical term. If so, however, is it geographical 
without being definite? — inasmuch as D-r means no 
particular place, but any place with certain physical 
characters. It means no more than the word Highland^ 

s 



258 THE PERSIAN DIALECTS. 

a word which may apply anywhere where the Lands 
are High. 

Simply from finding that the vocabularies headed 
Der, Tirye, &;c., come from Caubul, and the Indian 
frontier rather than from the western side of Persia, 
T am inclined to make the Deri an Eastern dialect. 
Whether it is that of Firdusi is another question ; indeed, 
the whole question concerning the seven dialects of the 
Ferheng-i-JihdngM, is rather one of exegesis than one 
of proper philology. That a language like the Persian, 
which is spoken over a vast area, should fall into dia- 
lects and sub-dialects, is no more than what we expect 
a priori. We expect, too, a priori, that some of these 
should be of sufficient importance to command the 
attention of native commentators. That any such 
commentator should give us either the whole details, 
or an accurate classification, is unlikely. It is only 
likely that he will give some extreme or well-marked 
forms. 

Upon the actual details of the Persian dialects, as at 
present spoken, I can give nothing definite. The dialects 
of Ghilan, Mazenderan, and Aderbijan, are said to ex- 
hibit notable characteristics — indeed the statement may 
be found in good books, that Pehlevi is still spoken in 
certain parts of the last-named province. Whether this 
be the case or not, depends upon the meaning attached 
to the word. All that can safely be inferred from the 
assertion is the existence of some archaic dialect. Upon 
the dialects of the towns, and upon those of the country 
in general, the literary language, in its cultivated form, 
has had great influence ; in other words, the ordinary 
language of a great part of Persia approaches it in the 
way that the ordinary language of the towns of England 
approaches the English. 





THE BILUCH. 


c 


English, 


Persian. 


English. 


Persian. 


Man (homo) 


admi 


Moon 


mah 


(vir) 


mard 


Star 


sitara 


WoTnan 


zan 


Fire 


eatash 


Head 


sar 


Water 


ab 


Hair 


mu 


Stone 


sang 


Eye 


chashm 


Tree 


dara,kht 


Nose 


bini 


One 


yak 


Mouth 


dahan 


Two 


do 


Tooth 


dandan 


Three 


sih 


Tongue 


zabaa 


Four 


cbahar 


Hand 


dast 


Five 


panch 


Foot 


pa 


Six 


sha,Rh 


Blood 


khun 


Seven 


haft 


Day 


roz 


Eight 


hasht 


Night 


shab 


Nine 


nau 


Sun 


aftab 


Ten 


das. 



259 



Of either the Persian eo nomine, or a language which 
differs from the Persian in name rather than in structure, 
spoken beyond the boundaries of Persia, the most im- 
portant are — 

] . The Persian of the Sarts of Bokhara, on the 
north-east. 



English. 

Head 

Hair 

Hand 

Foot 

Eye 

Ear 



Bokhara. 

tser 

mui 

dest 

pai 



qush 



2. The Biluch of Biluchistan, 



English. 


Biluch. 


Hair 


phut 


Eye 


tsham 


Tongue 


zawan 


Tooth 


dathan 


Nose 


phonz 


Foot 


path 


Moon (new) 


nokh 


Fire 


as 


Water 


aph 


Tree 


darashk 


St&ne 


sing 


I 


ma 


We 


md 



English. 


Bokhara. 


Sun 


aftab 


Moon 


mah 


Star 


sitara 


Water 


ab 


Stone 


tsenk. 


on the south-east. 


English. 


Biluch. 


Thou 


than 


Ye 


shurn^ 


One 


yak 


Two 


do 


Three 


shai 


Four 


tshyar 


Five 


pantsh 


Six 


• shash 


Seven 


hapt 


Eight 


hast 


Nine 


nu 


Ten 


dah. 



s 2 



260 



THE KURD. 



3. The Kurd of Kurdistan, falling into the Luristan, 
the Felleh, and other dialects. 



English. 


Kurd. 


English. 


Kurd. 


Man 


piaou 


Foot 


peh 


Head 


ser 


Blood 


khura 


Eye 


tshav 


Sun 


hatava 


Nose 


kuppu 


Moon 


mahang 


Ear 


gheh 


Star 


asteria 


Hair 


jakatani 


Bay 


ruzh 


Mouth 


zar 


Night 


show 


Tooth 


didan 


Fire 


aghir 


Tongue 


ziman 


Water 


aw 


Beard 


rudain 


Stone 


bird 


Hand 


dest 


Tree 


dar. 



In the following list (the Zaza is a Kurd dialect from 
the north-western frontier) observe the affix min. It is 
the possessive pronoun, upon which more will be said 
when the American and Kelsenonesian languages come 
under notice. In a vocabulary which I took from a 
gipsy in England, I found the same incorporation. 



English. 


Zaza. 


English. 


Zaza. 


Head 


sere-mm 


Star 


sterrai 


Eyes 


tchime-miw 


Mountain 


khoo 


Eyebroios 


burne-mm 


Sea 


aho 


Nose 


zinje-mm 


Valley 


derei 


Moustache 


simile-min 


Eggs 


boiki 


Beard 


ardishe-mm 


A fowl 


kergbi 


Tongue 


zoane-mm 


Welcome 


lebexairome 


Teeth 


dildone-mm 


Come 


beiri 


Ears 


gusbe-mm 


Stay 


roshe 


Fingers 


ingishte-mm 


Bread 


noan 


Ann 


pazie-mm 


Water 


awe 


Legs 


binge -mm 


Child 


katcbimo 


Father 


pre -mm 


Virgin 


keinima 


Mother 


mai-mm 


Orphan 


lajekima 


Sister 


wai-mm 


Morning 


sbaurow 


Brother 


brai-mm 


Tree 


dori 


The back 


pushtiai-mm 


Iron 


asin 


Hair 


pore -mm 


Hair 


aurisb 


Cold 


serdo 


Greyhound 


taji 


Hot 


auroghermo 


Pig 


kbooz 


Sun 


rojshwesbo 


Earth 


ert 


Moon 


hashme 


Fire 


adir 







THE B 


ARAKI. 


i 


English. 


Zaza. 




English. 


Zaza. 


Stone 


see 




Mare 


mahine 


Silver 


sem 




Grapes 


eslikiishi 


Strength 


kote 




A house 


ke 


Sword 


shimsliir 


Oreen 


kesk 


A fox 


krevesh 


Crimson 


soor 


Stag 


kive 




Blach 


siah 


Partridge 


zaraj 




TMiite 


supeo 


Milh 


shut 




Sleep 


ransume 


Horse 


istor 




Go 


shoori. 



261 



4. In Afghanistan and elsewhere, there are certain 
populations which the Afghans, or whoever may be the 
predominant population, separate from themselves, some- 
times under the general name of Tadzhik, Deggaun, or 
Parsiwan, and sometimes under some specific or particular 
denomination. Most (perhaps all) of these use a form 
of speech which is essentially Persian. Such is that of 
the Barakis, of Afghanistan, a population of which there 
are two divisions, one in the province of Lohgad, who 
speak Persian eo nomine^ and one of the town of Barak, 
" who speak,'' writes Leach, " the language called Baraki/' 
But this is Persian also — i. e. the Persian of Barak, 
though not of the purest kind. Possibly it contains 
an artificial element ; at any rate, Leach's notice of it 
should be known. 

It makes the Baraki originally inhabitants of Yemen, 
whence they were brought by Mahmud of Ghuzni, when 
he invaded India ; the Sultan, pleased with their services, 
was " determined to recompense them by giving them in 
perpetual grant any part of the country they chose ; 
they fixed upon the district of Kaniguram in the country 
of the Waziris, where they settled. There are 2000 
families of the Rajan Barakis, under Rasul Khan who 
receives 2000 rupees a year from Dost Muhammed Khan. 
The contingents of both these chiefs amount to 50 
horsemen who are enrolled in the Ghulam Khana divi- 
sion of the Cabul army. There are also 2000 families 
of Barakis at Kaniguram under Shah Malak, who are 
independent. The Barakis of this place and of Barak 



262 



THE BARAKI. 



alone speak the Baraki language. We receive a warning, 
from the study of this vocabulary, not to be hasty in 
inferring the origin of a people merely from the construc- 
tion of their language ; for it is well known that the 
one now instanced was invented by Mir Yu'zu'f, who led 
the first Barakis from Yemen into Afghanisthan : his 
design was to conceal and separate his few followers from 
the mass of Afghans (called by them Kash), who would 
no doubt at first look upon the Barakts with jealousy as 
intruders. The muleteers of Cabul, being led by their 
profession to traverse wild countries and unsafe roads, 
have also invented a vocabulary of passwords." 



English. 


Baraki. 


English. 


BaraU. 


Head 


sax 


Village 


gram 


Nose 


neni 


House 


ner 


Eye 


tsimi 


Egg 


wolkh 


Ear 


goi 


Milk 


pikakh 


Tooth 


gishi 


Fish 


mahi 


Sun 


toavi 


One 


she 


Moon 


marwokh 


Two 


do 


Star 


stura 


Three 


ghe 


Day 


rosh 


Four 


tshar 


Night 


gta 


Five 


penj 


Fire 


arong 


Six 


ksha 


Water 


wokh 


Seven 


wo 


Stone 


gap 


Eight 


antsh 


Tree 


darakt 


Nine 


noh 


City 


ksliar 


Ten 


das. 



How far the dialects of Wokhan, Shugnan, and Roshan, 
are Persian rather than Paropamisan, or Paropamisan 
rather than Persian, or how far they are transitional to the 
two, is a point for which we want data. 



Note. 

At the risk of appearing unduly speculative and presumptuous, I venture 
on the following suggestion, viz. that the true name is Husvadesh rather than 
Huzvaresh. The preliminary remarks of Spiegel (pp. 22-23) supply the 
bases of this conjecture. Quatremere gives the following translation of a 
passage in the Kitab-ul-Jihrist — "Zes Perses ont au^si un alphabet Zewaresh 
dont les lettres sent tantdt li4es, tantdt isoUes,^' &c. This gets rid of the 



THE BARAKI. 263 

initial syllable. It also renders it probable that the r is a clerical error for d. 
If so, it is simply the language, or alphabet, of Siwdd. 

I also suggest, on the strength of Mohl's conjecture, that the root of the 
word Pehlevi — boundary or march, that the term, like the German Marco- 
mannic, may be the language of any district which constituted a frontier, so 
that there may have been more Pehlevis than one. One of these was the 
district named FeMeh, which, comprised the five towns of Kei, Ispahan, 
Hamadan, Mah-nehavend, and Aderbijan. The authority for this is Ibn 
Hauqal, who travelled in Persia in the fifth century of the Hejira. Other 
statements (which may be found in Spiegel) confirm this by connecting the 
Pehlevi with the Ghilan dialect. 

Geographically, then, the Pehlevi was a dialect of the north-west, the Deri 
(which was spoken with great purity in Balkh) being one of the north-east. 
But it was also used in a chronological sense, and meant (as Spiegel remarks) 
Old Persian. 

The geographical Pehlevi, then, may be one dialect, the chronological or 
historical Pehlevi, another. It is this latter which is most especially con- 
nected with the Huzvaresh. 



264 



THE IRON, 



CHAPTER XL. 

- The Iron. 



Iron is the native name for a population which is called 
by its neighbours Osset : its occupancy being the parts 
about the Vladikaukasus, where it is bounded by the 
Georgian on the south, and certain Lesgian and Tshetsh 
dialects on the north, east, and west. Of all the lan- 
guages of Caucasus, it is the one which nearest ap- 
proaches the Persian, and (through it) its real or sup- 
posed congeners of what is called the Indo-European 
class : for which reason it has commanded more than 
ordinary attention. It cannot, however, be separated 
from the other languages of the great mountain-range 
to which it belongs. 



English. 

Man 

Head 

Eye 

Nose 

Ear 

Hair 

Mouth 

Tooth 



Beard 



Iron. 


English 


moi 


Hand 


ser 


Foot 


tsaste 


Blood 


findzh 


Sun 


khuz 


Moon 


dzikku 


Star 


dzug 


Fire 


dendag 


Water 


awsag 


Stone 


botso 





Iron. 

kukh 

kakh 

thuh 

khor 

mai 

stal 

sing 

dun 

dor. 



The nearest congeners of the Iron are the Persian on 
the one side and the Armenian on the other, the rela- 
tionships on each side being distant ; or, at any rate, less 
near than the geographical relations of the three lan- 
guages would lead us to expect. 



OR OSSET. 265 

Among the Persian forms of speech the Iron is nearest 
to the Kurd. 

Next to the Georgians, the Iron is the population of 
Caucasus which is most thoroughly brought under 
Russia. Hence, the language, so far as it is written at 
all, is written in Russian characters. Such is the case 
with the Dictionary of Sjogi'en ; in which the Russian 
alphabet, with the addition of several new signs, is the 
medium. 

Of Iron dialects there are, at least, two — the or- 
dinary Iron and the Dugorian. A third, quoted as 
the Tagauriany may be one of two things. It may 
be a real fresh dialect or it may be another form for 
Bugoo^ian. 

Of the grammatical structure of the Iron, a short 
sketch (of which an abstract is given in the present 
writer's Varieties of Man) is published by Rosen. 

That the Iron are the descendants of the Alani, who 
were, themselves, the descendants of certain Medes, by 
whom a district of Caucasus was colonized in the time 
of the Achsemenidse, is a doctrine of Klaproth's, which 
has met with more approval than it deserves. It rests 
on a confusion between the name As (=:Ossef) as applied 
to the Iron by themselves, and the name As ( = Osset) as 
applied to them by some one else. 

The similarity of form between Iron and Iran, the 
name of a province of Persia, as well as the Sassanian 
for Persia in general, is more important. The true ex- 
planation, however, of this has yet to be given. 

Upon the claims of tlie Iron to be placed in the same 
class with the Latin, Greek, German, Slavonic, and Li- 
thuanic, more will be said in the sequel. 



266 



THE ARMENIAN. 



CHAPTER XLI. 



The Armenian. 



The nearest congeners to the Armenian are the Iron on 
the one side, and the Georgian on the other : the rela- 
tionships on each side being distant ; or, at any rate, less 
near than the geographical relations of the three lan- 
guages would lead us to expect. 



English. 


Armenian 


Man (homo) 


mart 


(mr) 


air 


Bead 


klukh 


Hair 


hyer 




lav 




mas 


Eye 


agn 




atsk 


Nose 


untsh 




kit 


Mouth 


pyeran 


Ear 


ungn 



Beard 
Blood 



morusk 



ariynn 



Englisli. 


Armenian 


Tooth 


adamn 


Hand 


dzyern 


Foot 


wot 


Tongue 


tyesu 


Heart 


zird 


Sun 


aryev 


Moon 


luzin 


Star 


azdegh 


Fire 


hur 




grag 


Water 


tshur 


Snow 


ziun 


Stone 


khar 


Bill 


sar 


Fish 


tsugn. 



There are Armenians beyond the limits of Arme- 
nia. There is a colony in Persia near Isfahan, founded 
by Shah Abbas, the founder of the Georgian colony in 
Khorasan. There are Armenians in India, and many 
thousands in Constantinople. In European Russia their 
census is as foUows : — 



THE ARMENIAN. 267 

In the Government of Astrakan . , 5,272 

Bessarabia . . 2,353 

_ Ekaterinoslav .14,931 

St. Petersburg . 170 

Stauropol. . . 9,000 

— - Tauris. . . . 3,960 

Kherson . . . 1,990 



Total . . . 37,676 

But the most important settlement is that of the Mechi- 
tarist monks on the Island of St. Lazarus, in Venice. 
Here is the centre of the Armenian literature ; with its 
library, rich in MSS., some published, some unpublished. 
Nine-tenths of the Armenian compositions that appear 
in print proceed from this Venetian press. The Arme- 
nian literature goes back to the fifth century, and the 
Armenian alphabet, which, as far as the relation of signs 
to sounds is concerned, is one of the completest in exist- 
ence, has, in the form of its letters, deviated from its 
prototype (whatever that was) to a great degree. It 
affects straight lines and angles, and exhibits a mini- 
Tnum of curves. In the order and names of its letters 
it is Greek. 

The languages that have more especially encroached 
on the Armenian are the Turk and the Persian. 



268 THE GEORGIAN. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

The Dioscurian Group, — Meaning of the Term. — Georgian Division. 

So much is said and written about the Caucasian di- 
vision of the human species, where the word is used in a 
general sense, that, when we come to the mountain-range 
of Caucasus itself, and find ourselves in the midst of 
details which are truly and strictlj^ Caucasian, we are 
constrained to either repudiate the current meaning of 
the word, or to use it with a circumlocution, and talk of 
Caucasus in the limited, or Caucasus in the geogra- 
phical, sense of the word. 

We may do this, or we may coin a new term. The 
term, here and elsewhere, proposed by the present writer, 
is Dioscurian; Dioscurias being the name of one of 
those towns of the Caucasian sea-coast which is not 
only mentioned by ancient writers, but mentioned with 
reference to one of the most remarkable characteristics of 
modem, as it also was of ancient, Caucasus. This is the 
multiplicity of languages and dialects. The business, 
says Pliny, of Dioscurias had to be transacted through 
the medium of thirty interpreters. Now, the number 
that would be requisite for a similar function in modern 
Caucasus, is undoubtedly less, the Turkish being pretty 
generally understood, and serving as a kind of lingua 
franca. Nevertheless, the actual number of separate 
substantive languages, dialects, and sub-dialects, is, still, 
considerable, as will be seen when we come to the de- 
tails. Meanwhile the leading groups are represented 



THE GEORGIAN. 269 

by the following languages : (1 .) the Georgian ; (2.) the 
Lesgian ; (3.) the Tshetsh ; (4.) the Circassian. 

The most northern, and at the same time the rudest, 
of the Georgian populations, are the descendants of the 
Suani, lying inland, at the head- waters of the Zkhenist- 
zkhah, Eguri, and Egrisi, between Sukhumkaleh and the 
Phasis. They call 



Themselves 


. Suan. 


The Abkhas . 


. Mibkhaz, 


— Kartuelians 


Mkarts. 


— Mingrelians 


. Mimrel. 


— Karatshai . 


Ows. 


— Iron . 


. Sawiar. 



The Mingrelians face the Euxine, belonging to the 
drainage of the Phasis ; the upper portion of which is 

Imerithi, the land of Imer, or Iber ; word for word, 
the ancient Iberia. To the east of Imerethi lies the 
watershed of the Phasis and Kur, the occupancy of the 

Kartuli, Kartueli, or Kartulinians, the Kartueli 
form of speech being the Georgian of Tiflis ; the Geor- 
gian of the literature and alphabet. 

Guriel is connected, in the way of dialect, with Min- 
grelia, being, probably, transitional to the speech of that 
principality and 

Lazistan, or the country of the Lazi. This extends 
along the sea-coast, from the parts about Batum, at 
the mouth of the Tsorok, to Rizeh, east of Trebizond — 
perhaps further. Inland it extends over the country 
between Kars and the Black Sea. Its exact boundaries, 
however, are not known. 

The Lazi are subject to Turkey, and are Mahometan 
in creed. The other Georgians are Christians, according 
to the church of Armenia, and subject to Russia. Like 
some of the Tsherkess, the Lazi were originally Christian ; 
their conversion having been effected about the seventh 



270 THE GEORGIAN. 

century. Even now, they abstain, to a great extent, 
from polygamy. 

The Georgian alphabet, which, as far as the relation of 
signs to sounds is concerned, is one of the completest in 
existence, affects, in the form of its letters, curves, and 
eschews straight lines and angles. This places it in 
strong contrast with the Armenian. Yet it is from the 
Armenian that it was, most probably, derived. Indeed, 
the ecclesiastical alphabet (for the preceding remarks 
apply to the vulgar alphabet only) is evidently of Arme- 
nian extraction 



LESGIAN DIALECTS. 271 




CHAPTER XLIII. 

The Dioscurian Group. — Lesgian Division. 

The Caucasians of the Koisu and Terek, rivers whicli 
fall into the Caspian, constitute the Lesgian group ; occu- 
pants of Eastern, rather than of Central or Western 
Caucasus ; occupants of parts of Daghestan and Tabas- 
seran, and conterminous with Shirvan, a province of 
Persia. The Georgians call the Lesgians Lekhi, which 
is the Greek Arlyat,. 

Daghestan, or Leghistan, the country of the Lesgi, is 
the ancient Albania ; the country conquered by Pompey. 

Lesgian, like Circassian, is no native name ; for the 
Lesgians, like the Circassians, have no term which is at 
once native and collective. Its details are to be found 
in the hilly country out of which the rivers of Daghes- 
tan arise, the actual coast of the Caspian being Turk 
and Persian rather than Lesgian. 

In the watershed between the Aksu and Koisu 
(Turkish terms) lie the Avar and Marulat tribes. Word 
for word, Marulat, the plural of Marul, from Mehr a 
hill, is the Greek MavpdXoL. The Marulat tribes are — 
Khunsag, Kaseruk, Hidatle, Mukratle, Ansokul, Ka- 
rakhle, GuDibet, Arrakan, Burtuna, Anzukh, Tebel, 
Tumurga, Akhti, Eutul, Tshari, Belakan. 

The Andi and Kabutsh are outlying members of this 
group. So are the Dido and Unso, whose districts lie 
as far south as the upper Samur. 

The Kasi-kumuk lie to the east of the Koisu, in the 
Kara-kaitak district, and in part of Tabasseran. 



272 



LESGIAN DIALECTS. 



The Akush and Kubitsb lie between the Koisu, 
the upper Manas, and the Buam ; the Kura in South 
Daghestan. 

The Leso:ians are called 





By the Circassians 


Hannoatshe. 






T<a>iP^-^l-> 


. Sueli, 

Tshari. 




English. 


Avar. 


JLoJJc 


\JiDi-k • 

Antsluikli. 


Andi. 


Man (liomo) 


bahardzli 


tehi 


tshi 




{vir) 


tshi 




bahartsh 


bahartsh 


heka 


Head 


beter 




beter 


beker 


mier 


Hair 


sab 




sab 


sab 


zirgi 


Eye 


beer 






beer 


kharko 




een 




in 


een 


hanka 


Nose 


kbomag 




khumug 


mushush 


mahar 


Mouth 


kaal 




kaal 


kaal 


kol 


Tooth 


sibi 




sibi 


sibi 


solvol 


Tongue 


maats 




maats 


maats 


mits 


Foot 


pog 




pog 


pog 


tsheka 


Hand 


kwer 




kwer 


kwer 


kazhu 


Sim 


baak 




baak 


baak 


mitli 


Moon 


moots 




moots 


moots 


horts 


Star 


zoa 




zoa 


zabi 


za 


Fire 


tsa 




tsa 


tsa 


tsa 


Water 


htlim 




htlim 


khim 


tlen 


Stone 


itso 




teb 


khezo 


hinzo 


Tree 


guet 








tketur 


One 


zo 




zo 


hos 


zev 


.Two 


kigo 




kigo 


kona 


tshego 


Three 


shabgo 




tavgo 


khabgo 


khlyobgu 


Four 


ukgo 




ukkgo 


ukhgo 


boogu 


Five 


sugo 




shogu 


shugo 


inshtugu 


Six 


antgo 




antic 


ankhgo 


ointlgu 


Seven 


antelgo 




antelgo 


antelgo 


ot'khkhlugu 


Eight 


mitlgo 




mitlgo 


mikgo 


beitlgu 


Nine 


itshgo 




itsgo 


itshgo 


hogotshu 


Ten 


anntsgc 


) 


antsgo 


anzgo 


khotsogu. 


English- 




Dido. 




Akush. 


Kusi Kuinuk. 


Man {homo) 






murgul 


viri 


{vir) 


tsekvi 




adim 


tshu 


Head 




tkin 




bek 


bek 


Hair 




kMi 




ashme 


tshara 


Eye 




ozurabi 


uhli 


ya 


Nose 




mail 




kank 


mai 



LESGIAN DIALECTS. 



273 



English. 


Dido. 


Akush. 


Kasi Kumuk. 


Mouth 


haku 


moli 


sumun 


Tooth 


kitsu 


tsulve 


kertsbi 


Tongue 


mets 


limtsi 


maz 


Foot 


rori 


kash 


dzan 


Hand 


retla 


kak 


kua 


Sim 


buk 


beri 


barkh 


Moon 


butsi 


baz 


bars 


Star 


tsa 


zuri 


tsuka 


Fire 


tsi 


tsa 


tsba 


Water 


htli 


shin 


tsbin 


Stone 


gul 


kaka 


tsheru 


Tree 


gurushed 


kalki 


mursh. 


Euglish. 


Curali. 


English, 


Curali. 


God 


Kysser 


Horse 


belgan 


Man 


adam 


Dog 


byz 


Beard 


szrall 


Sheep 


langat 


Hand 


kill 


Finger 


tapalar 


Belly 


sarar 


Cow 


slavra 


Fox 


ihi 


Wolf 


wiUi 


Foot 


kokar 


Mouth 


damni. 



I know of no grammar of any Lesgian form of 
speech. 



274 THE TSHETSH. 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

The Dioscurian Group. — The Tshetsh Division.— Grammatical Structure of the 

Tushi. 

The tribes of the next group occupy the watershed 
between the Kuban and the Terek, being an inland and 
central population ; a population with affinities in the 
way of language which connect it with both its eastern 
and its western neighbours. 

This population is called by the Russians Tshetshents 
by the Turks, Tsherkes, and by the Audi Lesgians, Miz- 
dzhedzhi. One of their tribes is named Kisti, the Georgian 
name for their area being Kisteti. Guldenstadt has 
used this name as a general denomination for the whole 
group ; for which he is blamed by Klaproth. The word, 
however, has the merit of being pronounceable, which is 
scarcely the case with the name of Klaproth's choice, 
Mizdzhedzhi. In the opinion of the present writer, 
Tshetsh, the Russian word divested of its non-radical 
elements, is the most eligible. 

The Galga, Halha, or Ingush tribes of the Tshetsh, 
in contact with the Circassians of the Little Kabarda, 
are the most western members of the gToup. They call 
themselves Lamur, or Hillmen. 

The second section is called 

By themselves . . Arshte. 

— the Tshetshents . Aristoyai. 

— certain Turk tribes Kara-hulakh. 

They occupy part of the valley of the Martan. 



THE TSIIETSH. 



275 



The third section is that of the Tshetsh, or Tshet- 
shents Proper, in contact with and to the east of the 
Arshte. 



English. 


Tshetsh. 


Ingush. 


Man (horno) 


steg 


stag 


(mr) 


maile 


mairilk 


Head 


korte 


koi-te 


Hair 


kazlieresh 


beshkenesh 


Eye 


berik 


berg 


Ear 


lerik 


lerk 


Nose 


mara 


mirha 


Mouth 


bagga 


yist 


Tooth 


tsargish 


tsergish 


Tongue 


mot 


motte 


Foot 


kok 


kog 


Hand 


kuit 


kulg 


Sun 


malkh 


malkh 


Moon 


but 


but 


Star 


seta 


seta 


Fire 


tze 


tze 


Water 


khi 


kha 


Stone 


kera 


kera 


Tree 


khie 


keie 


One 


tza 


tza 


Two 


Shi 


shi 


Three 


koe 


koe 


Four 


di 


di 


Five 


pkhi 


pkhi 


Six 


yalkh 


yalkh 


Seven 


uor 


uor 


Eight 


bax 


bar 


Nine 


ish 


ish 


Ten 


itt 


itt. 



The Tushi lie on the upper Alasani, within, or on, the 
Georgian frontier. They are the Only members of the 
Tshetsh group of whose language we know the gram- 
matical structure ; of which the following is a sketch. 

The declension of the personal pronouns is as follows. 
With a slight modification it is that of the ordinary 
substantive as well. 

T 2 



276 



THE TSHETSH. 



Singular. 

Nominative 

Genitive 


I. 

so 
sai 






Dative 


son 


Instructive 


as 






Affective 
Allative 


SOX 

sogo 


Elative 


soxi 


Comitative 


soci 






Terminative 

Adessive 

Ablative 


sogomci 

sogoh 

sogredah 



Thou. 

ho 

hai 



hon 

ah 
aha 

hox 
hogo 

hoxi 

hoci 



hogomci 

hogoh 

hogredah 



He. 

o 

oxu 

oux 

oxuin 

oxun 

ouxna 

oxus 

oxuse 

ouxse 

oxux 

oxugo 

ouxgo 

ouxxi 

oxxi (?) 

oxuci 

ouxci 

oxci (?) 

ouxgomci 

ouxgoh 

ouxgore 

ouxgoredah. 



Plural. 



We. 



Ye. 











Nominative 


wai 


*txo 


su 


Genitive 


wai 


'txai 


8ui 


Dative 


wain 


'txon 


sun 

suna 

ais 


Instructive 


wai 


a'txo 








asi 


Affective 


waix 


*txox 


sux 


Allative 


waigo 


'txogo 


sugo 


Illative 


wailo 


'txolo 


sulo 


Elative 


waixi 


*tzoxi 


8UX1 


Comitative 


waici 


*txoci 


suci 


Adessive 


waigoh 


'txogoh 


sugoh 


Inessive (c) 


wailoh 


'txoloh 


suloh 


Ablative (c) 


waigre 


'txogre 


sugre 


Elative (c) 


waike 


<txobe 


sulre 


Conversive 


waigoih 


'txogoih 


sugoih 



Thou. 

ohi 

oxri 

oxarn 

oxar 
oxra 

oxarx 

oxargo 

oxarlo 

oxarxi 

oxarci 

oxargoh 

oxarloh 

oxargore 

oxardah 

oxarlore 

oxargoih. 



That some of these forms are no true inflections, but 
appended prepositions, is speedily stated in the text. 





THE TSHETSH. 


2' 


Cardinal. 


Ordinal. 


Cardinal. 


Ordinal. 


1. cha 


duihre 


8. barl 


barloge 


2. si 


silge 


9. iss 


issloge 


3. xo 


xalge 


10. itt 


ittloge 


4. ahew 


dhewloge 


11. clia-itt 


cha-ittloge 


6. pxi 


pxilge 


12. si-itt 


si-ittloge 


6. jetz 


jeixloga 


19. tqeex9 


iqeexcloge 


7. worl 


worloge 


20. tqa 


tqalge. 



This last word the author of the gi-ammar connects 
with the word tqo = also, over again {audi, wied, 
erum) ; as if it were 10 doubled, which it most likely 
is. In like manner tqeexc is one from twenty = un- 
deviginti : — 

100 =pxauztqa = 5x20. 
200 =i9atatq= 10X20. 
300 = pxiiseatq =15x20. 
400 =tquaziq = 20x20. 
500=tqauzig pxauztqa = 20x 20+100. 
1000 = sac tqauziqa icaiqa = 2x 400+200. 

The commonest signs of the plural number are -i and 
-si. The suffixes -^le and -bi, the latter of which is 
found in Lesgian, is stated to be Georgian in origin. 
No reason, however, against its being native is given. 

In verbs, the simplest form is the imperative. Add to 
this -a, and you have the infinitive. The sign of the 
conditional is he or h ; that of the conjunctive le or I. 

The tenses are — 

(1.) Present, formed by adding -a or -u to the root : 
i, e. to the imperative form, and changing the vowel. 

(2.) Imperfect, by adding -r to the present. 

(3.) Aorist, formed by the addition ©f -r to the 

(4.) Perfect ; the formation of which is not expressly 
given, but which is said to differ from the present in not 
changing the vowel. However, we have the forms xet 
=Jind, oceti= found (perf.) ; xetin= found (aorist). 
From the participle of the perfect is formed the 

(5.) Pluperfect by adding -r. 

(G.) The future is either the same as the present, or a 
modification of it. 



278 THE TSHETSH. 

I give the names of those moods and tenses as I find 
them. The language of the Latin grammar has, pro- 
bably, been too closely imitated. 

The first and second persons are formed by appending 
the pronouns either in the nominative or the instructive 
form. 

Tha participle of the present tense is formed in -in ; 
as dago = eat^ dagu-in = eating. 

The participle of the preterite ends in -no ; as xace 
= hear, xac-no = heard. 

There are auxiliary verbs, and no small amount of 
euphonic changes, of which one, more especially, deserves 
notice. It is connected with the gender of nouns. When 
certain words (adjectives, or the so-called verb substan- 
tive,) follow certain substantives, they change their initial. 
Thus, hatxleen wd^ = the prophet is, hatxleensi ha. = 
the prophets are, waso wa, = the brother is, wasar 6a 
= the brothers are. 

The nearest congeners of the Tshetsh are the Lesgians, 
and, without unduly raising the value of the group, they 
could be thrown in the same division. The same is 
probably the case with the populations who use the next 
forms of speech. 



THE CIRCASSIAN. 279 



CHAPTER XLV. 

The Dioscurian Gfroup.— The Tsherkess, or Circassian, Division. 

The word Circassian is of Italian origin, and should be 
pronounced as if the initial G were Tsh — ^indeed, the 
word itself may be written (as it generally is written 
by foreign authors) Tsherkess. It is no native term ; 
but one applied by the Turks and Russians. The really 
native names ai'e Adig^ and Absne ; each denoting a 
different division of the population — no name at once 
collective and indigenous being known. 

The Absn^ occupy the sea-coast between Sukhum-kaleh 
and the Straits of Yenikale, along with the valleys of 
the rivers that descend from the western slope of Cau- 
casus. The Georgians call them Mibkhaz, and Abkhazi, 
their country being Abkhazeti. This ending in -eti ap- 
pears and re-appears. It is the Georgian for -land; so 
that Abkhazeti is Abkhaziland. Word for word, Abkhazi 
is the Greek and Latin *'A^acr<yoc and Abasci. 

The Great Abaska-land, or Abkhazeti proper, extends 
from the frontier of the Adig^ to MingreHa and the Suan 
country — both Georgian. The six tribes of the Little 
Abaska-land call themselves Tepanta. 

Word for word, A-dig-e is Ztj^oi, the name under 
which the author of the Periplus of the Euxine, written 
in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, speaks of one of 
the tribes of the coast. In doing this, he places them 
east of their present locahty ; which is more inland, and 
lies to the north of the axis of Mount Caucasus, on the 
drainage of the Kuban. 



280 



THE CIRCASSIAN 



The tribes of which the Adig^ are the representatives, 
although now exclusively mountaineers, were, probably, 
once spread, more or less, over the plains to the north 
of the Caucasus, as well as over the hills and valleys of 
the great range itself No wonder. Both Turks and 
Russians have encroached on their area, once larger than 
it is at present. More than one map of the fourteenth 
century carries a Circassian population from the Straits 
of Yenikale to the mouth of the Don, along the whole 
eastern coast of the Sea of Azof; and Klaproth believes 
that the present Kosaks of these parts are, more or less, 
Circassian in blood. Equally strong is the evidence to 
a Circassian population in the Crimea. The upper part 
of the river Belbek, in the south of that peninsula, is 
called Tsherkestus, or the Circassian plain, to this day. 
On it stand the remains of the Tsherkes-kyerman, or 
Circassian fortress. But this may, possibly, represent 
an intrusion. 

The A dige dialects are (1.) the Circassian Proper; 
(2.) the Besleneyevtsi ; and (3.) the Kabardinian. 



English. 


Tsherkess. 


Absiie. 


Man (homo) 


dzug 


agn 


{vir) 


tie 


katzha 


Head 


shha 


kah 


Hair 


shhats 


kuakokh 


Eye 


nne 


uUah 


Ear 


takumah 


lemha 


Nose 


peh 


pintsa 


Mouth 


dzhe 


utslia 


Tooth 


dzeh 


pitz 


Tongue 


bsa 


ibz 


Foot 


., tie 


shepeh 


Hand 


ia 


meppe 


Sun 


dgeh 


marra 


Moon 


masah 


mis 


Star 


vhagoh 


yetshua 


Fire 


mapfa 


mza 


Water 


pseh 


dzeh 


Stone 


miweh 


kau 


Tree 


dzig 


adzh 



THE CIRCASSIAN. 281 



English. 


Tsherkess. 


Absn6. 


One 


se 


seka 


Two 


tu 


nkh-ba 


Tliree 


shi 


khpa 


Four 


ptle 


pshiba 


Five 


tkhu 


khuba 


Six 


khi 


ziba 


Seven 


ble 


bisbba 


Eight 


g» 


akhba 


Nine 


bga 


ishba 


Ten 


pshe 


zbeba. 



The languages of Caucasus have no near congeners ; 
or, rather, their nearest congeners are remote. This is 
the case both on the north and the south side of the 
range. The Tsherkess stands as much by itself as the 
Armenian ; the Armenian as the Tsherkess. No wonder. 
In the first place, the relations of the area are only bi- 
lateral ; i. e. there are no frontagers on the Euxine, and 
the intrusion has been inordinate. 

And it began betimes on its northern side. Centuries 
before the time of Herodotus the influx of Asiatic tribes 
into Europe had set in ; and the level plains to the 
north of the Caucasus lay in their way, either as roads 
or as halting-places. The result of these movements 
was the enormous displacement represented by the term 
European Scythia. Concurrent with this would be the 
obliteration of anything in the shape of a northern 
prolongation of the Tsherkess and its congeners. Nor 
would any approach to the original situs be obtained 
until we reached the Mordvin frontier. Here we expect 
(and find) Caucasian affinities ; but they are (as we expect 
them to be) few and faint. 

Hence, the apex of the Dioscurian area is what a 
botanist would call truncate; i, e. it terminates ab- 
ruptly along its whole northern boundary. 

On each side, too, it ends abruptly. This is because 
it has the Caspian to the east, and the Black Sea to the 
west. 



282 THE CIRCASSIAN. 

All the languages, however, are, there or thereabouts, 
in situ ; a condition suggested by the mountainous cha- 
racter of the district. 

On the south, the Persian, by which the Dioscurian 
area is bounded, is an encroaching language. On the 
south-east there is the Turk of Asia Minor, and, before 
that, there was the Greek. Originally, both the Georgian 
and Armenian must have extended much further in this 
direction. The ethnographical archaeology, however, of 
Asia Minor is obscure. 

With such geographical conditions the Dioscurian 
tongues seem much more isolated than they really are. 
Ugrian elements, however, have long been recognized 
in them ; and lately Tibetan — this being what the situs 
and the displacements suggest. 

On the other hand, the Persian affinities of the 
Iron have long been known ; and it is possible that 
they are closer than the present writer makes them. 
Bopp has written upon those with the Georgian — 
though the conclusion at which he arrives, viz. that the 
latter language is what is called Indo-European, is denied 
by the present writer. If the Georgian be Indo-Eu- 
ropean, so many other tongues must be in the same 
category, as to raise the value of the class indefinitely, 
and to make it no class at all. 

Upon the Persian and Armenian, more wiU be said 
in the sequel. 



THE MALAY. 



283 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

The Malay and its more immediate Congeners. — The Tshampa. — Samang. — 
Nicobar. — Silong. — Malay of the Malayan Peninsula. — Of Sumatra. — 
The Rejang and Lampong. — Of the Malagasi of Madagascar. — Of the 
small Islands off Sumatra. — From Java to Timor. 



We now return to the frontier of the Mon of Pegu, the 
Kam of Kambojia, and the Thay of Siam. The con- 
tinuity, which once existed between the first two, has 
been broken by the intrusion of the third. Hence, 
the forms of speech belonging to the Malayan Penin- 
sula have no longer their nearest congeners with which 
they can be compared. This gives them the appearance 
of comparative isolation — but only the appearance. 

If we treat the Malayan Peninsula as an island, all 
the languages of the group now coming under notice are 
insular, or, at any rate. Oceanic : with the single excep- 
tion of the Tshampa, spoken along a strip of land on 
the coast of Kambojia. 



English. 


Tshampa. 


English. 


Tshamp 


Man 


orang 


Sky 


langi 


Head 


ako 


Fire 


apoi 


Eye 


mata 


Water 


aya 


Mouth 


chabui 


River 


sungai 


Sun 


naharai 


Sea 


laut 


Moon 


bulan 


Stme 


bj^tao. 


Star 


bintang 







Of the Peninsular forms of speech the most northern 
for which we have a specimen — is the Samang. It is 
also the rudest ; the men who speak it being so dark in 
respect to their complexion as to have been classed 
among the Negritos. 



284 



NICOBAR.— SILONa. 



English. 


Juru Samang. 


Kedah Samang 


Man 


teunkal 


tumkal 


Woman 


mabei 


badon 


Head 


kala 


kay 


Eye 


med 


med 


Nose 


muk 


muk 


Mouth 


temut 


ban 


Tongue 


litig 




Tooth 


lemun 


yus 


Ear 


pol 


anting 


Hand 


tong 


chas 


Foot 


chau 




Blood 


koad 


cheong 


Bone 


gehe 


aieng 


Shy 




kael 


Sun 


mitkakok 


mitkakok 


Moon 


bulan 


kachik 


Star 




bintang 


Fire 


us 


us 


Water 


hoh 


bateac 


Tree 


kuing 


chuk. 



Then come the languages of the Nicobar Islands — 
Nicobar and Carnicobar ; of which all that can be said 
is, that they have Malay elements. Their place here is 
provisional. 



English. 


Carnicobar. 


Teressa. 


Nancowry. 


Man (homo) 


bayu 


dzhubayu 


Head 


goseb 




Hair 


kbeui hehok 




Eye 


obmat 




Ear 


nang 




Nose 


ebelme mbang 


moah 


Mouth 


monoi 


meno 


Hand 


• 


genas 


Foot 


gundron 





Blood 


mam 


vboa 


San 


huik 




Moon 


tingset hahae 


khaset. 


en those of the Mergui Archipelago ; e. g. that of Sil( 


English. 


Silong. 


English. 


Silong. 


Man 


mesa 


Ear 


tengah 


Head 


atak 


Tongue 


klek 


Hair 


dutak 


Tooth 


lepadn 


Eye 


matat 


Hand 


langan 



THE MALAY PROPER. 285 



English. 


Silong. 


English. 


Silong. 


Foot 


kakai 


Fire 


apoi 


Sun 


matai-alai 


Water 


awaen 


Moon 


bulan 


Stone 


batoe 


Star 


bituek 


Tree 


ki. 



The Malay Proper, as far as several important points 
in its grammar go, is by no means very widely separated 
from the languages of tlie stock to which the Thay 
and its congeners belong. As far as the absence of de- 
clension and conjugation are concerned, both are in the 
same predicament. The Malay denotes gender by the 
addition of words meaning male or female; number 
by that of terras signifying many ; case by prepositions 
— many of which are themselves nouns. The degrees 
of adjectives are equally expressed by circumlocutions. 
Verbs exhibit, as the equivalent to the signs of tense 
and mood, numerous separable and inseparable particles. 
Sometimes a singular noun is made plural by simple 
reduplication, as orang orange men. 

The phonesis, however, which gives so monosyllabic 
a character to the languages of the Continent, changes 
its character in the Archipelago. The vowel sounds are 
simple. Like those of the consonants, they are clean 
and clear as far as they go — which is not far. The 
sounds of the so-called aspirates, /, v, th, dh, sh, zh, are 
wanting — though the latter exist as compound sibilants, 
tsh and dzh — a phenomenon found elsewhere. The 
semivowels and liquids are prominent. So is the nasal 
ng (as in king), and the Spanish n. The former is often 
initial — which it never is in English. A Malay, for 
instance, says ang ; but he can also say nga — the 
sound of the ng remaining the same in both cases. 

The concurrence of consonants, in the same syllable, 
when both are mutes, is avoided — just as it was in the Fin. 

The majority of the themes are dissyllabic, with the 
accent on the penultimate. . All this gives the conditions 
of a soft and melodious language, with an easy intona- 
tion, and few harsh combinations. At the same time 
(as aforesaid) the inflection is at a miniTnum. 



286 



THE MALAY PROPER. 



I am unable to give the exact locality from -which the 
Malay Proper was derived. It is believed to have 
spread from Menangkabaw in Sumatra ; but Mr. Crau- 
furd remarks that the Menangkabaw form of speech, 
though truly Malay, was somewhat less so than some of 
the dialects of the Peninsula. The difference, however, 
between the Malay of commerce spoken with a difference 
in a given locality and the true provincial dialects of the 
same, has not been sufficiently attended to. The Malay of 
commerce is certainly, in many senses, a lingua franca. 
In distinction to the proper languages of the islands, it 
is spoken in Java, in the Moluccas, in Borneo, in Celebes, 
and elsewhere. It does not seem to have altered much 
since the time of Pigafetta, who, as a companion of 
Magalhaens, collected a Malay vocabulary. Its literature 
is scanty, consisting of little more than songs, tales, 
and unimportant histories. The language, however, of 
all is the same ; and few archaic words occur. There 
are no inscriptions, no old manuscripts, no native al- 
phabet — the one in use being the Arabic. 

Of foreign elements, the Sanskrit, the Arabic, and the 
Telinga are the most important. Though rich in little 
songs and lyrics, the Malay metres are few and rude : 
the poetical element consisting in the idea rather than 
in the versification. The language boasts no classic. 



English. 


Malay. 


English. 


Malay. 


Man (homo) 


orang 


River 


kaK 


ivir) 


lake laki 




sungi 


Woman 


perampuan 


Bill 


gunung 


Head 


kapkala 




■bukit 


Eye 


matu 


Sun 


mata bari 


Nose 


idung 


Moon 


biilan 


Mouth 


mulut 


Star 


bintang 


Tooth 


gigi 


Day 


hari 


Ear 


talinga 


Night 


malain 


Hair 


rambut 


I 


aku 


Hand 


tangan 


Thou 


angkau 


Foot 


kaki 


One 


satu 


Land 


tanah 


Ten 


sapulu. 


Sea 


laut 







BATTA8, ETC. 



287 



But though not a literary, the Malay is, as aforesaid, 
pre-eminently a commercial language. Hence, the de- 
tails of the provincial dialects, as spoken by the Orang 
Benua, or the Men of the Country, in the Peninsula, 
though very important, are nearly unknown. 

One of these is the Jakun. 



EngUsh. 


Jakun. 


English. 


Jakun. 


Head 


ulah 


Water 


yeho 


Hair 


bulu-ulah 


EaHh 


bumi 


Hand 


kokot 


Shine 


shongkor 


Day 


trang 


Sun 


matu-hari 


Dead 


mago 


Moon 


hantu-jahat 


White 
BUlcTc 


balhut 
hedjeaow 


Star 


cheong. 



The gambler seekers, like the Katodi of India, have a 
sort of slang of their own. 

The occupants of the extreme North of Sumatra are 
the Orang Achi, or men of Achin ; a town once famous 
and powerful, but now reduced, though still independent 
of the Dutch. The political limits of the State are un- 
known, or undefined. It is only certain that they have 
been contracted. The Dutch have encroached on the 
West ; whilst, on the East, small independent States have 
been formed — Langkat, Balu China, Dili Sirdang, Batu 
Bara, and Asahan. The nearer the town, the greater 
the population. Of all the Sumatrans, the Orang Achi, or 
Achinese, are the most Arab. I do not mean by this 
that their Mahometanism is either purer, or more ex- 
clusive than that of the other Malays ; inasmuch as 
upon this point I have no accurate information. I 
only mean that Arab manners and Arab modes of 
thought are more conspicuous in Achin than else- 
where. The amount of Arab blood, in the way of in- 
termixture, is probably in proportion to the other Arab 
elements. 

South of the Orang Achi lie the Orang Batta, or 
Battas, a population which has commanded more of the 



288 



BATTAS, ETC. 



attention of ethnologists than any other occupants of 
Sumatra. This is because they are cannibals ; and can- 
nibals of a peculiar kind, under peculiar circumstances. 
They are cannibals and yet not Pagans. They are can- 
nibals, and yet not without an alphabet. They are 
cannibals with either the germ or the fragments of a 
literature. 

In respect to creed, the Battas are in the same class 
with some of the Orang Benua, who have adopted a 
certain amount of Hinduism without abandoning their 
original pagan creed. The exact proportion of the two 
superstitions is not easily ascertained. The Battas, how- 
ever, seem to be both more Indian, and more Pagan, 
than the Johore tribes. 



English. Atshin. 


Singkal Batta. 


Pakpak Batta. 


Toba Batta. 


Banjak Batta. 


Man orang 


dyelma 


delma 


dyolma 


atha 


Head uluy 


takal 


dagal 


ulu 


ulu 


Hair ook 


buk 


bee 


obuk 


bo 


Eye mata 


mata 


mata 


mata 


mata 


Nose idong 


igung 


ebgu 


igung 


igong 


Mouth bawa 


bawa 


baba 


baba 


baba 


Tooth gigoi 


eppen 


eppe 


mgiengi 


yeng 


Ear Tiluyung 


tshopping 


penggen 


prengol 


telinga 


Nech takui 


gabarong 


ran 


kukong 


lingau 


Breast dakda 


tandan 


tanden 


andora 


arop 


Arm dzharro6 


tangan 


tangan 


botohon 


gau 


Hand tappa dzharroe tappa tangan 






Leg kakie 


nehe 


paha 


ha6-hae 




Foot udzhung, kakie tappa nehe 


palan paha 


pat 




Blood darra 


darro 


daroh 


moedar 




Bird tshitshim 


manu 


pedo 


pidung 


mauo 


Fish ilkait 


ekan 


ikan 


dekee 


ennas 


Dog assiu 


biezang 


pangeia 


bieyang 


assu 


Hog bui 


babie 


babie 


babie 





Ox lemau 


lembu 


lembong 


lomon 


dzhawie 


Sand annu 


grosiele 


grassie 


horsiek 





Stone batu 


batu 


batu 


batu 


batu 


Earth tano 


tano 


tano 


tano 


leppel 


Fire apui 


apie 


apie 


apie 


ahee 


TTo^er yeyer 


leiy 


leiy 


oek 


oee 


Sky kilet 


kilat 


kilat 


porhas 


kilat 







THE KORINCHL 


289 


English 


. Atshin. 


Siugkal Batta. 


Pakpak Batta. Toba Batta. 


Banjak Batta. 


Sun 


matoroi 


mato arie 


mata harie 


mata-ni-harie mata bolal 


Star 


bintang 


bintang 


bintang 


battang 


bintau 


Moon 


buluan 


bulan 


bulan 


bulan 


bawa 


I 


ulun 


aku 


kam 


aho 


rehu 


Thou 


deku 


rona 


rene 


ho 


rio 


He 


dzhie 


iya 




yebana 


dio 


We 


ulun ulun 


rita 


kamu 


ha mis 


memainam bune 


Thy 


dzhie dzhie 


adina 




nasieda 




One 


sa 


sada 


sara 


sada 


assa 


Two 


duwa 


duwa 


dua 


dua 


dua 


Three 


Uo 


telu 


telu 


telu 


telu 


Four 


puet 


ampet 


ompat 


opat 


ampe 


Five 


liman 


limai 


liema 


liema 


lima 


Six 


nam 


anam 


enam 


anam 


anam 


Seven, 


tudzhu 


pitu 


pitu 


pitu 


fitu 


Eight 


lappan 


walu 


ualok 


ualu 


walu 


Nine 


sekurung 


siwa 


siwa 


siea 


siwa 


Ten 


pulu 


sapula 


sapulu 


sappulu 


fulu. 



The Singkal, Pakpak, and Toba of the preceding 
tables are dialects of the Batta. The Banjak is spoken 
by the aborigines of a small island off the coast, who 
must be distinguished from a concuiTent population of 
settlers from Atshin. 

The Malays of MenaoigJcahaw occupy the most fa- 
voured parts of Sumatra ; viz. the drainage of the 
Indrajiri and Lake Sinkara. In one portion of their area 
the population is reckoned at 128 to the square mile ; 
in another at 300, and even 400 ; an estimate which 
gives 385,000 for the whole Menangkabaw district. 

Continued southward the mountain range of the 
Menangkabaw Malays becomes more and more imprac- 
ticable ; so that the details of its population are 
unknown. It is only known that it is Malay ; and 
that it is thinly spread. Wilier makes a separate 
division of it, containing the Malays of Sapulo Bua 
Bandar^ and the Malays of Gunong Sungu Pagu. 

South of these lies the country of the Korinchi, 
who differ from the Battas in being Mahometans, and 
from the Menangkabaw Malays in using an alphabet of 
Indian, rather than Arabic, origin — an alphabet not 

U 



290 



THE KORINCHI, 



identical with that of the Battas, though not unlike it 
in detail, and evidently of the same general character. 

Whether the following list represent a Malay ; a native 
Sumatran, dialect, pure and simple ; a native Sumatran 
dialect modified by Malay influences ; or, so much Malay 
modified in Sumatra, is uncertain. The want of data for 
the solution of this question has just been indicated. The 
difference of alphabet tends to disconnect it with the 
Malay proper. 



English. 


Korinchi. 


English. 


Korinchi. 


Head 


kapala 


Fire 


apui 


Eyes 


mata 


Water 


aiyah 


Nose 


idong 


Earth 


tana 


Teeth 


gigi 


Swine 


jukut 


Hand 


tangan 


Bird 


buhong 


Blood 


darah 


Egg 


tetur 


Day 


ari, hari 


Fish 


ikal 


Night 


mala 


Sun 


mata-awi 


Dead 


mati 


Moon 


bula 


White 


putih 


Star 


binta. 


Blach 


ita 







The Southern Sumatran s, so far as they are of pure 
blood, are in the same category with the Korinchi ; i. e. 
they are Mahometans with alphabets different from 
that of the Koran, alphabets suggestive of a prior 
connection with India. Of these there are two ; the 
JRejang and the Lampong, allied in general character, 
yet different in detail ; allied, too, in general character to 
the Korinchi and Batta — different, however, in detail. 



(!•) 



English. 


Rejang. 


English. 


Rejang. 


Head 


ulau 


Sun 


matti-bili 


Eyes 


matty 


Moon 


bulun 


Nose 


long 


Fire 


opoay 


Hair 


bu 


Water 


beole 


Teeth 


aypiri 


Earth 


pita 


Hand 


tangan 


White 


putiali 


Day 


bili-beeng 


Black 


melu. 


Night 


bili-kalemun 




/ 



THE REJANG AND LAMPONG. 



291 



(2.) 



English. 


Lampong. 


English. 


Lampong. 


Head 


iiluh 


Sxm 


mata-ranni 


Eyes 


raattah 


Moon 


bulun 


Nose 


iong 


Fire 


appay 


Hair 


biilio 


Water 


wye 


Teeth 


ipun 


Earth 


tanali 


Hand 


chulii 


Wliite 


mandak 


Day 


ranni 


Black 


mallum. 


Night 


binghi 







The Eejang alphabet is used by the Orang Serawi, and 
the Orang Palembang ; the latter being only partially 
Sumatran. Javanese settlements now become numerous 
and important ; and it is Javanese blood with which the 
proper Palembang population is largely crossed. 

According to Zollinger the Lampong language is no 
original tongue, but a mixture of all the languages of its 
neighbourhood on a Malay basis. I doubt whether this 
be the exact explanation of the fact of its containing a 
notable proportion of Sunda, Javanese, and Bugis words, 
and but few peculiar ones. It is, probably, more or 
less, a transitional form of speech. It is strongly 
accented ; words which are totally different from each 
other in meaning being distinguished only by either 
the quantity of the syllables, or their tone. This makes 
it difficult to write in European letters. 

We now ask whether analogues of the rudest Orang 
Benua are to be found in Sumatra. The answer will be in 
the affirmative. That there is something older than the 
civilization of the Mahometan Malays is clear. There are 
the influences suggested by the Batta, Korinchi, Rejang, 
and Lampong alphabets. More than this, there are half- 
Pagan and half-Indian elements in the creeds of the Battas 
themselves. This, however, is scarcely the exact parallel 
to the true aboriginal condition of the rudest — the very 
rudest — Peninsular tribes. What is there that represents 
Sumatra before the advent of the Indians ? There are 
two wild populations, one in the northern, one in the 
southern parts of the island, unknown to each other, and 
probably speaking mutually unintelligible languages. 

u 2 



292 



LUBU AND ULU. 



The men of the northern division are known under 
the name, which the Battas give them, of Orang Lubu. 
They are found up the Mandau river above Siak. 

The southern aborigines are the Orang Kubu ; so- 
called by the people of Palembang, occupants of the 
jungle, rude and naked. 

For the former we have specimens in two dialects. 



English. 


Lulju. 


Ulu. 


Man 


obang 


orak 




lokiloki 


lokloki 


Woman 


paradusi 


pedjussi 


Head 


kapolo 


kopolo 


Eye 


moto 


motto 


Nose 


hedong 


idung 


Mouth 


muli 


montshong 


Tooth 


gigi 




Ear 


talingo 


leliengo 


Hair 


abok 


ebo 


Hand 


palakpak 


tangan 


Foot 


palakpak 


tapa 


Land 


tana 




Sea 


loi 





River 


batang ao 


aiyer 


Hill 


tandzhong 


gunung 


Sun 


motobi 


motori 


Moon 


bulen 


bulet 


Star 


bintang 


bientang 


Day 


obi 


ari 


Night 


kalam 


mallem 


J 


oku 


oku 


You 


aka 


enko 


One 


satu 


eso 


Ten 


sapulu 


sepulu. 



Now follow, for the small islands off Sumatra, the 
Maruwi and Nias (closely allied), and the Poggi, or 
Mantawi, forms of speech. 



English. 


Maruwi, 


Nias. 


Poggi. 


Man 


alia 


niha 


mantaow^ 


Head 


ulu 


huhguh 


ootai 


Bye 


matta 


mata 


matah 


Nose 


iahong' 

ihong 

bu 


ighu 


assak 


Hair 


bu 


ali 



* Whence the name of the people and the islands. 



SMALL ISLANDS OFF SUMATRA. 



293 



English. 


Maruwi. 


Nias. 


Poggi 


Teeth 


ahean 


ifuh 


chone 




ahin 






Hand 


anaku 


tanga 


kavaye 


Blood 




ndob 


logow 


Day 


hallal 





mancheep 


Night 


bangi 


bongi 


geb-geb 


White 


matti 


mate 


mataye 


Black 


uding 


afusi 


mablow 


Dead 


mutome 


aituh 


mapuchu 


Fire 


awal 


alituh 


ovange 


Water 


wai 


idanau 


jojar 


Earth 


wei 








lansa 


tannh 


polack 


Svdne 




bachu 


buku 






bavi 


babui 


Bird 


manno 


manok 


umali 






fohfoh 




Egg 


antU 


ajuloh 


agoloh 


Fish 


nass 


ia 


eibah 


Sun 


matta 


ballal 


mata-luoh-chulu 


Moon 


bowah 


bawa 


lago 


Star 


bantun 


onoh u'dufi 


panyean. 



The last of these minor islands is that of Enganho, 
on the southern side of the eastern end of Sumatra. It 
stands more alone than any of the preceding ones. 



English. 


Enganho. 


English. 


Enganho. 


Man 


taka 


Water 


lewo lewo 


Head 


oeloe 


Stone 


bakoe bakoe 


Hair 


boeloe 


Sand 


hawo hawo 


Eye 


bakka 


Fish 


kwau 


Ear 


kaleha 


Bird 


weo weo 


Nose 


fanoe 


I 


oe4 


Mouth 


haure 


Thou 


bareg 


Tooth 


kaa 


He 


bohej 


Hand 


afa 


One 


dahei 


Finger 


gaheho 


Two 


adoea 


Belly 


koedei 


Three 


agoloe 


Foot 


afo 


Four 


aopa 


San 


kahaa 


Five 


alima 


Moon 


moena 


Six 


akiakia 


Day 


ilopo 


Seven 


alimei-adoea 


Night 


tikodo ilopo 


Eight 


agoloe 


Earth 


tehopo 


Nine 


aopa 


Sea 


parowa 


Ten 


tahapoeloe. 


Fire 


howi howi 







294 MADAaASGAR. 

Now comes an area which, as a phenomenon in the 
distribution and dispersion of languages, is the most re- 
markable of all on the earth's surface. Asa general rule, 
the populations and languages of islands are represented 
by those of the nearest continent. With the exception of 
Japan, where a continental congener of the Japanese is 
wholly wanting, and Iceland, which has taken its language 
from Norway rather than from Greenland, this is always 
the case. Britain dates from Gaul : the Canaries from 
the opposite coast of Africa : Sumatra from the Malayan 
Peninsula : Newfoundland from North America. 

In conformance with this, Madagascar ought to have 
been peopled from Africa, and the Malagas! (or language 
of Madagascar) ought to find its nearest congeners on 
the coasts of Zanzibar and Mozambique. But it does 
not. The Malagasi is, essentially, a Malay language ; 
and that it is so has long been known. The learned 
Keland knew it two centuries ago. 

Whether it were the first language spoken on the 
island is another question. 

There is no lack of statements to -the effect that a 
second population, with black skins, crisp hair, and 
African features, is to be found in the island. But this 
may be found, to some extent at least, in the true 
Malay islands of the Indian Archipelago : and, in many 
cases where it is not found, it has been invented. I 
lay, then, but little stress on it. 

Of African elements in the Malagasi none have been 
pointed out : though it should be added that few, with 
adequate knowledge, have made a search for them. Of 
the language itself, I believe that the dialects and sub- 
dialects are few. If so, we h^ve a fact in favour of its 
comparatively recent introduction. This, however, is a 
point upon which our data are deficient. 

The Malagasi grammar is much more complex and 
elaborate than the Malay, or (changing the expression) 
the Malay is much less elaborate and complex than the 
Malagasi. Humboldt has drawn attention to this, and 



MADAGASCAR. 



295 



suggested that it is in the Philippine division of the 
Malay group that the origin of the Malagasi is to be 
sought. Mr. Craufurd has urged this as an argument 
against the reality of the affinity. It is, certainly, a 
fact which requires explanation — perhaps confirmation. 



English. 


Malagasi. 


English. 


Malagasi. 


Man 


ulu 


Swine 


lainbu 


Head 


luha 


Bird 


vurong 


Eye 


maso 


Sun 


aduli 


Nose 


urong 


Moon 


fia 


Hair 


vnlu 




masso-auru 


Teeth 


nifi 




vula 


Hand 


tango 


Star 


vinta 


Blood 


ra 


One 


issa 


Day 


anru 


Two 


rue 


Night 


halem 


Three 


telu 


Dead 


matti 


Four 


effat 


White 


futi 


Five 


lime 


Black 


mainti 


Six 


ene 


Fire 


afu 


Seven 


fitu 


Water 


ranu 


Eight 


valu 


Earth 


tane 


Niyie 


siva 


Stone 


vatu 


Ten 


fulu. 



The western third of Java is the area of the Siinda 
language ; the language of the district which gives its 
name to the Sunda Straits. The little that is written 
in the Sunda is written in the Javanese alphabet : the 
language itself being less cultivated, less ceremonial, and 
less studied by Europeans than the Javanese. 

The Javanese, closely allied to the Malay Proper, is 
the most cultivated of all the tongues of the Archipelago. 
It has long been written ; and that in a native alphabet. 
At present the creed is Mahometan : yet the alphabet, 
along with the literary influences, is other than 
Arabic. 

The NgokOy however, or natural vernacular, is used 
only between equals in rank. For the purposes of 
ceremony there is an artificial form of speech called the 
Bhasa Krama. This, with most especial care, avoids 
such terms as are not merely vulgar in the ordinary 



296 



JAVANESE. 



acceptation of the word but current in common life; 
for which it substitutes paraphrases, archaisms, introduc- 
tions from the Kawi, the Malay, and the like. In 
epistolary correspondence the ceremonial language is used 
even by superiors addressing their inferiors. In books 
it is mixed up with the Ngoho. 



English. 


Sunda. 


Ordinary Javanese. 


Basa Krama. 


Man {vir) 


mantisa 


manlisa 


jalmi 




lalaki 


lanang 


jaler 




pa-megat 








jalma 


uwong 


tiang 


Woman 


awewek 


wadon 


istri 


Head 


pulu 


andas 


sirah 




sirah 




mustaka 




mustaka 






Eye 


mata 


mata 


maripat 




panon 




tingal 


Ear 


cheuli 


kuping 


talingan 








karha 


Nose 


irung 


chungun 


ru 




pangembu 


irung 


grana 


Tooth 


untu 


untu 


waja 


Tongue 


letah 


elat 


lidah 


Hand 


panangan 


tangan 


astah 


Foot 


suku 


sikil 


suku 


Shy 


langit 


langit 


akasa 


Sun 


metapoek 


srengenge 


suria 


Moon 


bulan 


wulan 


sasi 






rembutan 




Star 


benteung 


lintang 




Earth 


taneu 


bumi 


buntala 


Stone 


batu 


watu 


sela 


Water 


chai 


banui 


toya 


Fire 


seuneu 


geni 


latu 








brama. 



The learned language of Java — the analogue of the 
Sanskrit in India and the Pali in Ava — is known under 
the name of Kawi; a language in which there are 
numerous inscriptions and, at least, one long poem — the 
Bratayuda founded on the Sanskrit Mahabarata. The 
opinion of Sir Stamford Raffles, who first gave pro- 
minence to this remarkable dialect, was that the Kawi 



JAVANESE. 



297 



language was Sanskrit modified by the vernacular Ja- 
vanese. The opinion of Wilhelm von Humboldt, an 
opinion in which Mr. Craufurd agrees, is exactly the 
reverse. It makes the Kawi neither more nor less than 
archaic Javanese with an inordinate intermixture of 
Sanskrit. 

The island Madura gives another variety : a variety 
falling into two divisions, the Madura Proper and the 
Sumenai^. The language of Bali is closely allied to the 
Javanese. The alphabet is Javanese also. Bali, how- 
ever, differs both from Java, and all the other islands 
of the Archipelago, in being, at the present moment, 
what it was before the extension of Mahometanism to 
Sumatra — Braminic and Hindu. The Kawi language in 
Bali is what the Arabic — the language of the Koran — 
is in Java. Nor is the native literature unimportant. 
It is partly Kawi, partly Balinese — -just as, in the middle 
ages, the literature of Italy was partly Latin, partly 
Italian. 



English. 


Madura. 


Sumenap. 


Bali. 


Man {vir) 


manosa 


manusa 


mantisa 





laki 


lalaki 


lanang 








muani 




oreng 


oreng 


janma 









wong 


Woman 


bini 


bibini 


luh 








histri 


Head 


chetak 


chetah 


tanggak 






sirah 


tandas 








sirah 


Eye 


mata 


mata 


mata 






socha 


pening'alan 


Ear 


kopeng 


kopeng 


kaping 






karna 


karna 


Nose 


elong 


elung 


chunguh 






grana 




Tooth 


gigi 


gigi 


gigi 






waja 




Torigue 


jila 


jila 


layah 






elad 


elat 


Hand 


tanang 


tanang 


tanang 



298 



s 




SUMBAWA. 




English. 


Madura. 


Sumenjip. 


Bali, 


Foot 


soko 


soko 


suko 


Sky 


lang'it 


lang'e 


lang'it ■ 








ankasa 


Sun 


ngareh 


are 


mata-nai 









suria 


Moon 


bulan 


bulan 


bulan 








sasih 


Star 


bintang 


bintang 


bintang 


Earth 


tana 


tana 


gumi 




bumi 


bumi 




Stone 


bato 


batu 


batu 


Fire 


apoi 


apoi 


api 

geni 

yeh 


Water 


aing 


aing 









toya. 



The language of Lombok — the Sasak — belongs to 
the same group as the Bali. Lombok, however, is 
Mahometan. What the Sasak contains in the way 
of literature is unknown. 

Sumbawa contains two written and one unwritten form 
of speech. The Surnibawa Proper is written in the Bugis 
character. So is the Biwua, This latter language, how- 
ever, has also an alphabet of its own — little known, 
embodying next to nothing of a literature and bearing 
a general resemblance to those of Celebes and Sumatra. 
In Sumbawa the decided Malay character undergoes a 
modification and Bugis elements become somewhat 
prominent. The Sumbawa, however, and the Bima are 
as little Bugis, as they are Malay or Javanese, dialects. 



English. 


Sasak. 


Bima. 


Sumbawa. 


Man {homo) 


kelepe 


dho 


tau 


{vir) 


mama 


dho-mone-mone 


lake-laki 


Woman 


nina 


dho -si we 


perampuan 


Head 


otah 


tUta 


ulu 


Eyes 


m^ta 


mada 


mata 


Nose 


irung 


ilu 


ing 


Hair 


bulu 


honggo 


welua 


Teeth 


gigi 


woi 


isi 


Belly 


tian 


loko 


baboa 


Hand 


ima 


rima 


umang 


Fool 


nai 


ede 


aje 





SUMBAWA. 




English. 


Sasak. 


Bima. 


Sumbawa. 


Blood 


geti 


rah 


dara 


Day 


kelelie 


mrai 


iso 


Swn 


mota-jelu 


liroh 


singhar 


Moon 


ulan 


wurah 


vrulan 


Star 


bintang 


ntara 


bintoing 


Fire 


api 


api 


api 


Water 


ai 


oi 


jerie 


Stone 


batu 


wadu 


batu 


One 


satu 


sabua 


satu 


Two 


dua 


lua 


doa 


Three 


telu 


toin 


tiga 


Four 


mpat 


opat 


ampat 


Five 


lima 


lima 


lima 


Six 


nam 


Ini 


dnam 


Sei:m 


pitu 


pidu 


tfiju 


Eight 


balu 


waru 


delapan 


Nine 


siwa 


chewi 


sambelan 


Ten 


sapulu 


sampulu 


sapulu. 



299 



The Timhora (perhaps, the same word as Timor) 
known only through a short vocabulary, is one of the 
first of languages of the Indian Archipelago in which 
Kelsenonesian elements were detected ; several of its 
words being Australian. 



English. 


Timhora. 


English. 


Timhora. 


Man (homo) 


dob 


Star 


kingkong 


— (vir) 


sia-in 


Fire 


maing'ang 


Woman 


onayit 


Water 


naino 


Head 


kokore 


Stone 


ilab 


Eyes 


saing'ore 


One 


sina 


Nose 


saing kome 


Two 


kalae 


Hair 


bulu 


Three 


rub 


Teeth 


sontong 


Four 


kude-in 


Belly 


somore 


Five 


kutelin 


Hand 


taintu 


Six 


bata-in 


Foot 


maimpo 


Seven 


kumba 


Blood 


kiro 


Eight 


koneho 


Bay 


kongkong 


Nine 


lali 


San 


inkong 


Ten 


sarene. 


Moon 


mang'ong 







Flores, or Ende, gives, according to Craufurd, no less 
than six forms of speech — the Ende, the Mangarei, the 
Kio, the Roka, the Konga, and the Galeteng. I only 
know the first two through any vocabulary. Like the 



300 



FLORES. 



Timbora, the Mangarei has Australian elements. The 
Malay and Bugis words decrease. Neither is the lan- 
guage written. We are beyond the influences of Maho- 
metanism as a predominant religion. We are (in the 
present state of our knowledge) beyond the influences of 
India, and its literature. 



English,, 


End?. 


Englisli. 


Ende. 


Man (homo) 


dau 


Star 


dala 


(vir) 


uli-dau 


Fire 


a pi 


Woman 


ana-dau 


Water 


wai 


Head 


ula 


Stone 


batu 


Eye 


ana-mata 


One 


sa 


Nose 


niju 


Two 


zua 


Hair 


fu 


Three 


telu 


Teeth 


nihi 


Four 


wutu 


Belly 


tuka 


Five 


lima 


Hand 


lima 


Six 


lima-a 


Foot 


wahi 


Seven 


lima-zua 


Blood 


raha 


Eight 


ruabutu 


Day 


giah 


Nine 


trasa 


Sun 


reza 


Ten 


sabulu. 


Moon 


wMan 


2.) 




English. 


Mangarei. 


English. 


Mangarei. 


Man 


amunu 


Swine 


bai 


Head 


jahe 


Bird 


olo 


Eye 


nana 


Egg 


asowa 




mate 


Fish 


appi 


Nose 


mini 


Moon 


uru 


Hair 


jahe 


Star 


ipi-berri 


Teeth 


wasi 


One 


isaku 


Hand 


tana-raga 


Two 


lolai 


Bay 


usa 


Three 


lotitu 


Night 


gamu 


Four 


lopah 




humu 


Five 


lima 


White 


buti 


Six 


daho 


Black 


metam 


Seven 


fitu 


Fire 


atta 


Eight 


apu 


Water 


ira 


Nine 


siwa 


Earth 


tana 


Ten 


turn. 



The language of Omhay is known through a single 
vocabulary. It agrees with the Timbora and Mangarei 



SAVU. 



801 



in the fact of Australian words having been detected 
in it. 

Rotti, of which the language 
fectly, is more Timor than aught 
scarcely a dialect of that language 

The same applies to the Solor. 



is known but imper- 
else. It is, however, 



English. 

Hair 

Head 

Blood 

Neck 

Hand 

Svm, 

Moon 

Star 



Solor. 

rata 

kotang 

me joe 

wulin 

liman 

rarak 

wulan 

etak 



English. 


Solor. 


Tree 


pokang 


Fire 


apeh 


Man (homo) 


atadiekan 


(vir) 


bailikej 


Eye 


matan 


Ear 


tilong 


Tooth 


iepang. 



The same to the Savu. 



English. 
Head 

Eye 

Nose 
Hand 

Blood 

Day 

Night 

Black 

Dead 

Fire 

Water 

Earth 

Swine 

Fish 

Bird 

Egg 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 



Savu. (1*/ dialect.) 
naka 

naka-funu 



nah 

namanas 

mesinokan 

muti 

matin 

hai 

owai 

nahieh 

fatu 

fafi 

koloh 

tainoh 

ekan 

nainoh 

fulun 

fafinomi 



Savu. (2n<i dialect.) 

katu 

katu 

matta 

namata 

ingutu 

wulaba 

wolaba 



dupudee 
bulla 



ailei 

voorai 

wovadoo 

vave 

doleelab 

manoo 

dulloo 

ika 

lodo 

lodo 

wTirroo 

weru 

wetu 



302 



SAVU. 



English. 


Savu. {\st dialect.) 


Savu. (2«rf dialect.) 


One 


aisa 


usse 


Two 


nua 


Ihua 


Three 


tenu 


tuUoo 


Fowr 


hah 


nppah 


Five 


lema 


lumme 


Six 


naen 


unna 


Seven 


petu 


pedu 


Eight 


panu 


arru 


Nine 


saioh 


saio 


Ten 


boaisa 


singooroo. 



For Timor itself, although we have an amount of 
specimens of the most prevalent language, we are greatly 
in want of details, in the way of dialects. Yet there 
are few countries in which such details are more needed. 
Timor is the most eastern island of its range — as its name 
(which means eastern) implies. This makes it the nearest 
point in the ordinary Asiatic world to Australia. If 
this fact stood alone, it would be important. Still more 
important is it when taken in conjunction with the 
Australian elements in the Timbora, the Mangarei, and 
the Ombay vocabularies. For every one of them in these, 
we may expect two in Timor, i. e, in the languages 
which are the analogues to the Jakun in the Malay 
Peninsula, or the Ulu and Lobo in Sumatra. Such, 
doubtless, exist. What they are has to be learned. 



English. 


Timur. 


Manatoto. 


Rotti. 


Man 


aima 

loh 

ulu 


etobu 


hahalohi 


Head 


ulu 


langa 




naka 










garain 




Eyes 


mata 


matak 


mata 


Nose 


enur 


enol 


pana 


Hair 


fnhk 


garerun 


langa-bulu 


Teeth 


nehan 


nihi 


nesi 




resiel 






Blood . 


rahan 


rahan 


dah 


Day 


loron 


lailon 


laido-anok 


Night 


halan 


hainin 


makah-atuk 


Dead 


matai 


matai 


mati 


White 


mutin 


rabuti 


fulah 


Black 


maitan 


zuamaitan 


mati 



TIMOR. 



803 



English. 




Timur. 




Manatoto. 


Rolti. 


Fire 




ahi 




amarin 


hai 


Water 




vehi 




vehi 


owai 


EaHh 




rahi 




raia 


dahai 


Stone 




fatuk 




hahe 


batu 


Swine 




fahi 




hati 


bafi 


Bird 




manoli 




manoli 


man 






foheli 






hoi 


^99 




tolon 




tailon 


tolon 


Fish 




nahantasi 


elian 


ehak 


Sun 




loroh 




lairon 


lailoh 







neno 








Moon 




fulan 




•ulun 


bulak 






funan 








Star 




fetoen 




atah 


du 






k'fun 








One 




eida 




nehi 


aisa 


Tioo 




rua 




erua 


dua 


Three 




tolo 




etellu 


tellu 


Fmr 




haat 




ehaat 


haa 


Five 




lema 




lema 


lema 


Six 




naen 




naen 


naen 


Seven 




hetu 




hetu 


hetu 


Eight 




walu 




walu 


falu 


Nine 




sioh 




sioh 


sioh 


Ten 




sapulu 




sapulu 


sapulu. 


With the following 


specimens from the small islands 


east of Timor, I conclude the notice of the 


languages of 


the present division. 








Englisli. 


Kissa. 




Baba. 


Keh Doulan. 


Wokan. 


Man 


mohoni 




amenmeni 


bunran 


lesi 


Woman 


mavek 




wata 


wat-waat 


kodar 


Head 


ulu-wakhu 


otone 


uhu 


fuku 


Hair 


murukon 


murutne 


morun 


kuku 


Hand 


liman 




liman 


liman 


lima 


Foot 


ehin 




logami 


chaa 


ebahi 


Eyes 


makan 




makne 


matan 


mata 


Nose 


iruni 




irinne 


mirun 


juri 


Mouth 


nuran 




norinne 


ngoen 


fafahi 


Ears 


kiUn 




telinne 


arun 


tahari 


Sun 


leri 




leher 


leher 


larat 


Moon 


woUi 




voile 


huan 


fulan 


Star 


kaleor 




tiola 


nahr 


tawar 


Earth 


noha 




noha 


noho 


fafa 


Fire 


ai 










Water 


oira 




iera 


wair 


waA'a. 



304 



KISSA AND MALAY. 



Of these, the Kissa has commanded attention from 
the character of its letter-changes when compared with 
the Malay. 



English. 


M.lay. 


Kissa. 


Stone 


batu 


wahku 


Sea 


tase * 


kahe 


Eye 


mata 


makan 


Dead 


mati 


maki 


HeaH 


ati 


akin 


Heavy 


brat 


werek 


Broken 


»patah 


pahki 


Ear 


telinga 


kilin 


East 


timur 


kimur 


Hog 


babi 


wawr 


Feather 


bubi 


wulu 


Hot 


panas 


manab 


Wrong 


sala 


hala 


Ha/rd 


kras 


kereh 


Milk 




huhu 


Wash 


baso 


baha 


New 


bharu 


wohru. 



In this prevalence of the sound of k we have a 
Polynesian characteristic. 



BORNEO. 305 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

Languages of Borneo, &c., to Ceram. 

In Timor (for reasons which will appear in the sequel) 
it is convenient to finish the present group ; having 
done which we go back to the longitude of Java, and 
move along the line of the Equator ; in other words, we 
begin with a series of languages and dialects, for which 
the great island of Borneo is our starting-point. 

In Borneo there is no native alphabet ; yet there 
are traces in the aboriginal creeds, not only of Indian 
influences, but of Mahometan as well. 

In Borneo there are numerous foreign elements, which 
vary with the district. As a rule, they attach them- 
selves to the coast ; but they difier with the different 
parts of it. On the west the Malays, on the south-east 
the Bugis, on the north the Sulu populations have made 
settlements. 

All that belongs to the natives is, roughly speaking, 
unlettered and pagan. Where they have contracted 
decided maritime habits, they are Biajuks, Biajus, or 
Bajovjs ; these terms being (generally) equivalent to 
Orang Lautzz the Men of the Sea. The rudest among 
them have been called Sea Gipsies. "^ Where they are 
river boatmen or landsmen they are Dyaks ; though 
neither term can be taken absolutely. The division, 
then, between the two denotes a difibrence of habits 
rather than of blood. 



306 



BORNEO. 



The details for Borneo, until lately, were scanty. 
Since Labuan, however, has become English, they have 
increased. For the remainder of the island, the Dutch 
are our chief authorities ; and it is probable (indeed 
certain) that the knowledge of what is to be found in 
Holland is, on the part of the present writer, very 
imperfect. 

Dialects for the parts about Labuan from Sir J. 
Brooke. 



English. 




Sangouw. 


Biajuk. 


Murung. 


Kupuas. 


Man 




ulu 


ulu 


urun 


icho 


Head 






takulu 


kohong 


utok 


Eyes 






mata 


mata 


mata 


Nose 




ingher 


urung 






Hair 




buk 


balau 


baru 


buru 


Teeth 




ifie 


kasingye 


kusing 


kusing 


Hand 




tesa 


lengye 


rongo 


renga 


Blood 






daha 


doho 


doho 


Day 






andau 


onong 


sunit 


Night 






malem 


homoram 


kaput 


Dead 




matty 


matei 


matoe 


motoe 


White 




pute 


bapute 


putich 


mitu 






toete 


brea 






BlacTc 




menaram 


babilem 


Ttiahuk 


morim 






apy 


apui 


apoi 


bakok 






danom 


danum 


bea 


tuhasak 


Earth 




boenoe 


petak 


potak 


tanak 








hntn 


botu 
boui 


botu 
bowi 


Stoim 




bawie 


IJaAiU. 

babui 


Bird 







burong 


burong 


burong 


^99 






tantelu 


tolu 


tolu 


Fish 




lauk 


lauk 


rouk 


uchin 


Sim 




mata-sou 


matan-andau 


ma.ta,n-onong matan-onong 






bolan 


bulan 


buran 


pun-allah 






bientang 


bintong 

(2.) 


bintong 


bintong. 


English. 


Suntah 


. Sow. 


Sibnow. Sakarran. Meri. 


Millanow. Malo. 


Man 


dari 


dali 


orang orang 


idek 


tooli babak 


Head 


ubok 


bok 


bok bok 


fok 


bok bok 


Hair 


obak 


bak 


pala pala 


uho 


ulow ulu 


Ear 


kagit 


kagit 


pundin punden telinga 


linga telingj 


Eye 


buttok button 


mata mata 


mata 


matta mata 



Nose undong indong idong idong singote udong ingar 









BORNEO. 




807 


English 


Suntah, 


Sow. 


Sibnow. 


Sakarran. Men. 


Millanow. 


Malo. 


Mouth 


bubbah 


bubbah 


mulut 


mulut munong 


bah 


baba 


Teeth 


jipuk 


jipun 


gigi 


gnali nipun 


nipun 


isi 


Totvgue jurah 


jurali 


dila 


dila jillali 


jullah 


lela 


Hand 


tangan 


tonga n 


lungan 


tangan tujoh 


agum 


tangan 


Shy 


rangit 


longit 


langit 


langit langit 


rangit 


suan 


Sun 


batundu battun unde mata'an 


mata'an mattadullow mattalow 


matasu 


Moon 


buran 


bulan 


bulan 


bulan tukka 


bulan 


bulan 


Star 


betang 


betang 


api undow 


bintang futtak 


bintang 


bintong 


River 


sungei 


sungee 


sungee 


sungei like 


sungei 


simgei 


Egg 


turo 


tulo 


tillo 


tullo tujjoh 


tello 


telui 


Stone 


batu 


batu 


batu batu batow 


sanow 


batu 


Fowl 


siok 


ok 


manuk manuk aal 


slow 


manuk 


Bird 


manuk 


burong 


bukong burong manuk 


manuk 


burong. 




For the central parts of the island. 








English. 




Kay an. 


Eiighsh. 


Kayan. 






Man 




laki 


Foot 


kasa 






Woman 




doh 


Sea 


kala 






Head 




kohong 


Earth 


tana lim 






Hair 




bok 


Sky 


langit 






Beard 




bulo 


Sun 


matin-dow 




Eye 




mata 




bulan 






Ear 




apang 




kraning 






Nose 




urong 


Fire 


apui 






Mouth 




ba 


Water 


atta 






Tongue 




jila 


Fish 


masik 






Teeth 




knipan 


Egg 


tilo. 






Hand 




kama 









Celebes, in respect to our knowledge of its philological 
details, is more like Sumatra than Borneo ; in other 
words, we have a fair amount of data for its numerous 
dialects. 



English. 


Mandhar. 


Macassar. 


Bugis. 


Man (homo) 


tau 


tau 


tawTi 


(mr) 


chacho 


borani 


horoani 


Woman 


bahini 


bahini 


makonrai 


Head 


ul 


uluna 


ulu 


Eyes 


mata 


matana 


mata 


Nose 


eng'a 


ing'a 


ing'a 


Hair 


welua 


rambut 


welua 


Teeth 


isi 


gigi 


isi 


Belly 


porot 


batan 


babua 


Hand 


lima 


liman 


lima 


Foot 


aje 


banuge 


aji 


Blood 


dai-a 


dara 


dai-a 



X 2 



308 



English. 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Earth 

Stone 

Bird 

^99 
Fish 





BORNEO. 




Maiidhar. 


Macassar. 


Bugis, 


matahari 


singhar 


matasa 


wulan 


bulan 


wulan 


binoin 


bintoin 


bitoin 


api 


pepe 


api 


wai 


jene 


wai 


tana 


bntah 


tana 


batn 


batH 


batu 


mantHnanu jang'anjang'an 


manumanu 


ndoh 


bayu 


iteloh 


bale 


juku 


baleh. 



The Bugis, like the Batta, the Korinchi, the Kejang, 
and the Lampong, has an alphabet, which, saving such 
exceptions as may be taken from the fact of its being 
common to ^ve languages, is a native one, i. e. is neither 
decidedly Arabic like the Malay, nor decidedly Indian 
like the Javanese. It is Batta, &c. in its general 
character — not in its details. It embodies more of a 
literature than any of its congeners. I have before 
me a Bugis poem, on the hero of a recent war against 
the Dutch. 



English. 


Gunnngtello. 


Menadu. 


Man {homo) 


manusia 


to 


(vir) 


satulai 


toama 


Woman 


tabua 


wewone 


Head 


lunggongo' 


ulu 


Eyes 


mata 


waren 


Nose 


ulingo' 


nirung 


Hair 


woho 


wubuk 


Teeth 


dang'eta 


wahang 


BeUy 


mbong'a 


poot 


Hand 


otoho 


leng'an 


Blood 


duhu 


raha 


Sun 


mutuhari 


ndoh 


Moon 


ulano 


lelehon 


Star 


olipopo 


tototian 


Fire 


tolu 


api 


Water 


teloho 


rano 


Earth 


huta 


tana 


Stone 


batu 


watu 


Bird 


burung 


koko 


ErjU 


putitor 


atelu 


Fish 


tota 


pongkor. 



ff^ 



CELEBES. 



309 



The Menadu falls into numerous dialects, and sub-dia- 
lects ; though, probably, into no more than several of 
its congeners. Its minutice, however, have been given 
in detail by A. J. F. Jansen, from whose paper the 
following short extract is taken as a specimen of the 
amount of variety which obtains in these parts. 



English 


Man {homo) 


Man (vir) 


Sea 


Wind 


Rain 


Tonsea 


touw 


tuama 


laur 


reges 


nuran 


Klabat-atas 






tasik 




uran 


Likwpang 






laur 






AHs 












Negrijbaru 












Klabat-bawa 










nuran 


Tondano 






lawanan 




naro 


Rembokeng 






lour 




uran 


Kdkas 










nuran 


Langowan 






tasik 




uran 


Saroinsoig 







lur 






Tournshon 







tasik 






Kahaskassing 






unner-untasik 





Tounbaririj 






laur 






Bonder 







taasik 


reger 




Romohon 






laur 


reges 




Tounbassian 












Touwasang 






salojon 


kakab 


tukam 


Tounpasso 







lur 


reges 


uran 


Kawangkoan 












Ponosakan 


intouw 


lolakij 


balangan 


sompot 


ujan 


Passatig 


tomata 


maanij 


wolangon 


sonsam 


L tihiti 


Ratahan 




mouanij 


wolangon 


wahe 


tahiti 


Bantik 


toumata 


mahuanen 


rawdouw 


pipihi 


tahiteij 


Sangij 




eseh 


lauduk 


anging 


tahiti 


Tagulangdang 












Talaur 


kawenua 






angin 


uran 


Hotontalo 


tau 


tololai 


auhu 


dupoto 


didih 


Botango 


momata 


rorach 


augu 


hibuto 


huah 


Parigi 


tau 


langai 


tampanao 




uda 


Taheang 


tau 


nganemaini 






Bolong-mongondo intau 


lolakij 


dagat 


tompot 


ujan 


Bolong-itang-ota 






bolango 


dupota oha 


Kaidipang 












Biiol 


tau 


maane 






ulano 


Patos 


tona 


langai 


asih 


poiri 


udah. 



In Buton and Amboyna, the variation of dialect is 
but slight ; increasing in Saparua, Ternati, and Ceram. 



310 



CELEBES. 



English. 


Buton. 


Man {homo) 


tau 


{vir) 


tau 


Woman 


makonrai 


Head 


ulu 


Eyes 


mata 


Nose 


ing'a 


Hair 


welu 


Teeth 


isi 


Belly 


babrea 


Hand 


liman 


English. 


Saparua. 


Man (homo) 


tuma-tawu 


{vir) 


manawau 


Woman 


pipinawa 


Head 


uruni 


Eye 


maani 


Nose 


iiini 


Hair 


rhuwon 


Tooth 


nioni 


Belly 


tebfini 


Hand 


rimani 


Foot 


ahini 


Blood 


lalani 


Bay 


kai 


Sun 


ria-ma-ano 


Moon 


hulano 


English. 


Ternati. 


Man (homo) 


manusia 


{vir) 


nonau 


Woman 


fohekeh 


Head 


dopolo 


Eyes 


t^ko 


Nose 


Idling 


Hair 


rambut 


Teeth 


gigi 


Belly 


hoot 


Hand 


tangan 


Foot 


kaki 


Blood 


dara 


Day 


modiri 


Sun 


m^ta-hdri 


Moon 


btilan 



English. 

Foot 

Blood 

Bay 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Stone 

Bird 



English. 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Stone 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 



English. 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Stone 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 



Buton. 

aje 

dara 



matabari 

wulah 

bintoing 

api 

ayer 

batu 

manuk. 



Saparua. 

bumario 

babtilo 

waelo 

hatuo 

isahi 

rua 

oru 

baan 

rima 

nobo 

bitu 

w&m 

siwah 

dbuttibi. 



TematL 

tina-bintan 

ukut 

aki 

marib 

rimoi 

romo-didi 

ra-angi 

raba 

roma-toba 

rara 

tomdi 

tof-kangi 

siyu 

yagiraoi. 





TERNATL 




Euglish. 


4 

Ceram. 


English. 


Ceram. 


Mmi {homo) 


tau-mata 


Stars 


butlung 


— (mr) 


ese 


Fire 


putung 


Woman 


babini 


Water 


4ke 


Eyes 


mata 


Stone 


b£tu 


Nose 


irung 


One 


sembua 


Hair 


tita 


Two 


dartia 


Teeth 


isi 


Three 


t4telu 


Belly 


tiang 


Four 


epa 


Hand 


takiar 


Five 


lima 


Foot 


bisi 


Six 


n6ng 


Blood 


d^ra 


Seven 


pltu 


Day 


eloh 


EiglU 


w41u 


Sun 


eloh 


Nine 


sioh 


Moon 


btUan 


Ten 


mapuru. 



311 



Here ends the north-eastern line, from the extremity 
of which we return to the parts due north of Borneo, i. e. 
the Sulu Archipelago. 



312 



THE SULU. 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 

The Languages of the Sulu Archipelago. — Philippines. — Formosa. 

Of the dialects of the long island of Palawan, I know 
no specimens. They are probably Sulu like the follow- 
ing. 



English. 


Sulu. 


EngKsh. 


Sulu. 


Man 


ossoog 


White 


mapote 


Bead 


00 


Black 


maitom 


Eye 


mata 


Fire 


kalaryu 


Ewr 


taingah 


Water 


tubig 


Nose 


ilong 


Stone 


bate 


Hair ' 


bohoe 


Bird 


manok 


Teeth 


nipun 


Egg 


iklug 


Hand 


kamot 


Fish 


ista 


Blood 


dugu 


Sun 


adalow 


Belly 


tian 


Moon 


bulon 


Bone 


btkug 


Star 


bitohon 


Foot 


siki 


Earth 


leopah 


Day 


hadlaou 


Black 


maitum 


Night 


gabi 


Dead 


miatai nah 



In Mindanao the Bissayan falls into no less than Gye 
dialects. It changes again in lolo, in Bohol, and in 
Samar where it approaches the Tagala. The Capul or 
Bissayan of the island of Abac falls into the Inabacnum 
dialect of the north, the Inagta of the south, and the 
General Language in which our authority Garcia de 
Torres preached and administered the sacraments. 

The Bissayan of Panaz also falls into sub-dialects — 
one of which is the Hiligueina, the other the Haraya. 

The Camarinos of the next group is the most 



THE PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES. 



313 



Bissayan of the class, and it is probably transitional. 
The Tagala is the language of the capital, Manilla. 
The Pampanga and the Iloco approach the Tagala. Of 
the Pangasinan I only know the name. The Zambali 
is a mountaineer, the Maitim a (so-called) Negrito, form 
of speech. 



English. 


Bissayan. 


noco. 


Cayagan. 


Tagala. 


Man 


lalaqui 


lalaqui 


lalaqui 


tauo 


Hair 








boboc 


Head 








olo 


Tooth 








ngipin 


Tongue 








dilah 


Eye 








mata 


Ear 








tayinga 


Nose 








hilaga 


Hand 








Camay 


Blood 


dugu 


darat 


daga 


dugu 


Day 


adiau 


ad Ian 


aggao 


arao 


Sun 


adlao 


init 


bilac 


arao 


Moon 


bulan 


bulan 


fulan 


buan 


Star 









bitoin 


Fire 








apuy 


Water 


tubig 


danum 


danum 


tubig 


Bird 


mamuk 


tumatayab 


mamanu 


ibon 


Fi^k 


isda 


ikan 


sira 


isda 


Milk 


gatas 


tubigtisoso 


gatto 


gatas 


Tree 


ponosacahuy 


kago 


kayu 


cahuy 


Stone 


bato 


bato 


battu 


bato 


One 


usa 


meysa 


tadday 


ysa 


Two 


duha 


dua 


dua 


dalaua 


Three 


tulo 


taUo 


talu 


tatlo 


Four 


apat 


eppat 


appa 


apat 


Five 


lima 


lima 


lima 


limo 


Six 


unum 


innem 


anam 


anim 


Seven 


pito 


pito 


pitu 


pito 


Eight 


ualo 


ualo 


ualu 


ualo 


Nine 


siam 


siam 


siam 


siyam 


Ten 


napulo 


sangapulo 


mafulu 


iangpono. 



The following are said to be Negrito forms of speech. 

1. 



English. 


Umiray. 


St. Miguel. 


St. Matheo. 


Man 


laqui 


lacay 


lacay 


Woman 


tuvanac 


bacus 


bacus 


Ear 


talinga 


talinga 


talinga 



314 



THE PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Umiray. 


St. Miguel. 


St. Matheo. 


Blood 


saquo 


dalaa 


galaa 


Hand 


cumot 


gumut 


gavat 


Foot 


siquii 


tecut 


daadaa 


Sky 


langot 






Moon 


panuodan 


bulan 


bnlan 


Star 


butatalaa 


bitung 


bitung 


Fire 


gagavas 


nayan 


nayan 


Water 


urat 


vagut 


lau 


Stme 


batu 


batu 


batu 


Tree 


pamutingueo 


labat 


labat 


Bird 


manoc 


manoc 


manoc 


Fish 


ican 


ican 


isda 


I 


yaco 


tiyac 


heyaco 


Thou 


icamo 


hicamu 


hica 


That 


edu 


yiay 




We 


dicame 


Mcami 




Ye 


dicamu 


decamu 


hicamu 


They 


ediya 


sediya 


huya. 


English. 


2 
Dnmagat. 


English. 


Dumagat. 


Hair 


i^ede 


Moon 


bilanc^ 


Eye 


mataade 


Star 


bitone 


Ear 


sugede 


NigU 


alinde 


Beard 


baangc^e 


Sea 


dagat 


Hand 


alemside 


River 


sayogc^e 


Feet 


hitiade 


Earth 


limacdle 


Knee 


bolongde 


Tree 


hapoyofe 


Neck 


liog 


Forest 


cabutanrfe 


Sun 


pigluncZe 







For the BasM islands, the following vocabulary is 
taken from E. Belcher's Voyage of the Samarang. 



English. 


Bashi. 


English. 


BashL 


Head 


ogho 


Moon 


bughan 


Hair 


buoc 


Earth 


madedah 


Eye 


mata 


Fire 


apui 


Ear 


titiduan 


Water 


danum 


BeUy 


budek 


Egg 


ocloy 


Bone 


tughan 


Fish 


amon 


Foot 


cocon 


Black 


mabaghen 


Day 


arao 


Dead 


nadiman. 



In FoTTYiosa we reach the end of the long series of 
languages akin to the Malay in this direction ; for to the 



FORMOSAN. 315 

north of Formosa the Japanese dialects begin. That a 
Malay form of speech was spoken in Formosa was known 
to Klaproth. That there were more forms of speech than 
one on the island was also known. Whether they 
were all Malay was another question. 

Between 1624, and 1661, the Dutch occupied the 
island, and attempted not without a partial success, to 
introduce Christianity. The result was the data for 
what, until lately, was the only Formosan vocabulary 
known : one of the Sideia dialect. About twenty 
years ago, however, a Favorlang dictionary by Gilbert 
Happast, A.D. 1650, was discovered and published. 
This gave a second dialect — almost a second lan- 
guage. 

A MS. discovered at Utrecht, and published by Yan- 
der Vlis, has supplied a sub-dialect of the Sideia, 
which, inter alia, gives a regular letter change between 
r and s. 



English. 


Klaproth's Formosan 
{SideU.) 


Vander Vlis. 


Father 


rama 


sama 


Mother 


rena 


sena 


Water 


ralaum 


salong 


Tlmnder 


rungdung 


singding 


Tree 


parannah 


pesanach 


Foot 


rahpal 


sapal 


Great 


irang 


isang 


Two 


ranka 


(so) soa. 



It is reasonably suggested by Gabelentz that this is 
a specimen of a dialect, elsewhere called SaJcam. 

The Tackais and Tiloes are apparently dialects, or 
sub-dialects of the Favorlang. 

Upon the Formosan languages, with the additions 
supplied to the original Sideia data by the Favorlang, 
we have a valuable monograph by Gabelentz ; the au- 
thority for everything contained in the preceding, 
notice, which is not found in Klaproth. Its main object 
is the fixation of the places of the Formosan in the 
Malay class. Gabelentz decides that its affinities are in- 



316 



FORMOSAN. 



definite and miscellaneous, i. e. that it is not so decidedly 
Philippine as its geographical relations suggest. From 
this work, I take the following tables, which give twenty- 
four words out of one hundred and twenty-six. In the 
present work they serve a secondary purpose, viz., the 
elucidation of the general characters of the affinities 
which bind the several languages of the present group 
together. With the exception of Guaham, Chamori, 
Yap, Ulea, and Satawal, all the names have already 
been met with ; so that, if the reader will remember 
that these are names for certain dialects from the 
Ladrone and Caroline archipelagoes, he will be suffi- 
ciently master of the nomenclature. 



English. 


Man 


Head 


Hair 


Forehead 


Favorlung bahosa, sjara 


oeno 


tdu, ratta 


tees 


Sida 


paraigh 


vaungo 


vaukugh 




Tagala 


lalaqui 


olo 


bolo, bohoc 


noo 


Bissayan 


lalaqui 


olo 


bolbol, bohoc 


adtang 


Pampango 


t lalaqui 


buntuc 


bulbul, icat 


canuan 


Iloco 


lallaqui 


olo 







Malay 


laki 


ulu, kepala 


rambut, bulu 


dahi, batuk 


Javanese 


tijang djaler 


sirah, kepolo 


rambot, woeloe 


bathok 


Bugis 


woroane 


ulu 


weluak 


linroh 


Dayalc 


olo hatu4 


takolok 


bulu, balau 


lingkau 


Sunda 


laki, pamegat 


hoeloe, mastaka 


boe-oek 


tarang, taar 


Bali 


muwani, lanang 


tandas, sirah 






Lamj)ong 


bakas 


hulu 


buho 




Batta 


morah ^ 


ulu 


obu 




Guaham 


lahe 


oulou 


gapoun oulou, 


hai 


Chamori 


lahi 


ulu 


gapunulu 




Yap 


pimohn 


elingeng 


lalligel 




Ulea 


m3,moan 


methackitim 


timui 





Satawal 


mal, mar 


roumai, simoie 


alerouma, timoe 


man hai 


Malagasi 


ahy 


loha 


volo 


handrina. 


English. 


Eye 


Nose 


Ear 


Mouth 


Favorlang 


macha 


not 


charrina 


ranied, sabbacha 


Sida 


matta 


gongos 


tangira 


motaus 


Tagala 


mata 


ylong 


tayinga 


bibig 


Bissayan 


mata 


ylong 


talinga 


baba 


Pampangc 


1 mata 


arung 


talinga 


asboc 


Iloco 
Malay 


mata 
mata * 


idung 


talinga 


miilut. 







FORMOSAN. 


317 


English. 


Eye 


Nose 


Ear 


Mouth 


Javanese 


moto 


grono, hiroeng 


taliengngan 


tjangkem, tjotjot 


Bugis 


mata 


ingok 


dachuling 


timu 


Dayah 


mata 




pinding 


njama 


Sunda 


mata 


hiroeng 


tjeli, tjepil 


soengoet 


Bali 


mata 


kunguh 


kuping, karna 


bungut, changkam 


Lampong 


mata 


egong, long 


chiuping 




Batta 


mahta 


igung 


suping 


bawa 


Guaham 


mata 


goui inn 


talanha 


pashoud 


CTmmori 


mata 


guihin 


talanja 


patjud 


Yap 


eauteg 


busemun 


ilig 


langach 


Vim 


matai 


wathel 


talengel 


eol 


Satawal 


metal, messaii 


poiti, podi 


talinhe 


ewai 


Malagasi 


maso 


orana 


Bofina 


vava. 


English. 


Tooth 


Tongue 


Beard 


NecJc 


Favorlang 


sjien 


tatsira 


ranob 


bokkir, arriborri- 
bon 


Sida 


waligh 


dadila 




taang 


Tagala 


ngipin 


dila 


gumi 


lyig 


Bissayan 


ngipun, salat 


dila 


sulang, bungut 


liog 


Pampangc 


► ipa,n 


dUa 


baba 


batal 


Iloco 






' 


atingnged 


Malay 


gigi 


lidah 


janggut, ramos 


leer, jangga 


Javanese 


wodjo, hoentoe 


hilat 


djenggot 


djouggo, goeloe 


Bugis 


isi 


lila 


jangkok 


olong 


Dayah 


kasinga 


djela 


djanggut 


ujat 


Sunda 


hoentoe, waos 


leetah, ilat 


djanggot 


beheng 


Bali 


gigi, untu 


layah, hilat 




bahong 


Lampong 


ipon 


ma 




galah 


Batta 


ningi 








Guuham 


nifin 


oula 




agaga 


Chamori 


nifin 


hula 


atschai 


hagaga 


Yap 


mulech 


athaen 


i-ap 


liigunag 


IJlea 


nir 


luel 


elsa-1 


uel 


Satawal 


ni, gni 


Jouei laouel 


alouzai, alissel 


faloui, ounouga'i 


Malagasi 


nify 


lela 


volom-bava 


tenda, vozona. 


English. 


Breast 


Belly 


Arm 


" Ha/nd 


Favorlang 


arrabis, zido 


chaan 


tea 


rima 


Sida 


av^u 


vauyl 


pariau 


rima 


Tagala 


dibdib, soso 


tiyan 


patay 


Camay 


Bissayan 


dughan, soso 


tian 


butcon 


camot, Camay 


Pampango 


salo, susu 


attian 


tacdai 


camat, camauo 


Iloco 


barucung, susu 






ima 


Malay 


dada, susu 


prut 


tangan 


asta, tangan 


Javanese 


djodjo, soesoe 


pedahaarrau 


langngen 


hastho, tangngan 



318 




FORMOSAN. 




English. 


Breast 


Belly 


Arm 


Hand 


Bugis 


aroh, susu 


babuwa 




lima 


Dayak 


usok, susu 


knai 


lenga 


lenga 


Sunda 


dada, soesoe 


betteng, lamboet 


lengen 


lengen, panangan 


Bali 


niu-niuh 


basang, watang 




lima, tangan 


Lampong 


susu-amah 


batong 




chiulok, chulu 


Batta 




boldok 


tangan 


tangan 


Guaham 


ha ouf, soussou 


touiann 


hious 


kanai 


Chamori 


hauf, susu 


tudjan 


kanei 


kanei 


Yap 


niierungoren, thi 
thi 


- thugunem 


pach 


karovinarine-pagh 


Ulea 


uwal, thithi 


siel 


bai 


humutel 


Satawal 


loupai, oupoual, 
ti, toussagai 


segai oubouoi 


rape lepei 


ga leima, pra 
nema 


Malagasi 


tratra 


kibo 


sandry 


tdnana. 


English. 


Finger 


Foot 


Heart 


• Blood 


Favorlang apillo 


asiel 


totto, tutta 


tagga 


Sida 


kagamos 


rahpal, tiltil 


tintin 


amagh 


Tagala 


dali 


paa 


poso 


dugo 


Bissayan 


torlo 


teel, siqui 


posoposo 


dugo 


Pampango taliri 


bitis 


pusu, busal 


daya 


Iloco 






naquem 


dara 


Malay 


jari 


kaki, pada 


ati 


darah 


Javanese 


derridji 


soekoe, podo 


batos, hati 


rah 


Bugis 


jari 


ajeh 


ati 


dara 


Dayak 


tundjuk 


pai 


atei 


daha 


Sunda 


ramo 


soekoe, dampal 


djadjantoeng 


gettih 


Bali 


jariji, hanti 


chokor, suku 


jantung 


gateh, rah 


Lampong 


jari 


chiukot 


jantung 


rah 


Batta 


djidi muduk 






mutter 


Guaham 


kalouloud 


adin 






Chamori 


kalulud 


adding 




haga 


Yap 


pugelipagh 


garovereven 




ratta 


Z/lea 


kasthel 


petehl 




ta 


Satawal 


attili pai 


pera perai 




atchapon 


Malagasi 


rantsan-tanana 


tongotra 


fo 


ra. 


English. 


FUsh 


Bone 


Milk 


Skin 


Favorlang 


' b6a 


oot 


tach zido 


maram 


Sida 


wat 


toural 


hakey 


validt 


Tagala 


laman 


bot-d 


gatas 


balat, 


Bissayan 


onor, tayor 


tulan 


gatas 


anit, panit 


Pampango 


laman, bulbul 


butul 


gatas, sabad 


balat, catat 


Iloco 


dumara 








Malay 


daging 


tulang 


susu, ayar-susu 


kulit 





• 


FORMOSAN. 




31! 


English. 


Flesh 


Bone 


Milk 


Skin 


Javanese 


dhaging 


tosan, baloong 


to jo soesoe 


koelit 


Bugis 


juku 


buku 


susu 


uH 


Dayah 


isi 


tolang 


djohon-tusu 


upak 


Sunda 


laoek, daging 


toelang 


tji-soesoe 


koeUt 


Bali 


hisi, daging 


tulang, balung 


nyonyo 


kulet 


Lampong 

Batta 

Guaham 


dagaing 


tulan 


wai-susu 


bawa 




tolan 







Chamori 






tschugususu 




Yap 






lengiren 


. 


Ulea 






f &U 




Satawal 


fetougoul 


roulou pei 




pouai 


Malagasi 


nofo 


taolana 


ronono 


hoditra. 



Whether this be the language of the aborigines of 
Formosa is doubtful. All that can be said is, that no 
sample of any second language is known. 



320 



TOBI. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

Micronesia. — Tobi. — The Pelew islands. — The Caroline and Marianne (or 
Ladrone) Archipelagoes. — The Polynesia. 



By Micronesia is meant everything between Gilolo and 
the Philippines on one side, and the Navigator's Is- 
lands, or Sarnoan Archipelago, on the other. The first 
steps in the passage are long ones, and the group is, to 
some extent, artificial. 

For Tobi, or Lord North's Island, and the Pelew 
group ; important as these islands are for any investiga- 
tion which, like the present, derives Polynesia fi:om 
Micronesia, and Micronesia from either the Philippines 
or the parts about Tidore and Gilolo, we have but 
scanty data. 



English, 


Tobi. 


English. 


Tobi. 


Man 


amare 


Moon 


mokum 


Woman 


vaivi 


Star 


uitsh 


Head 


metshemum 


Fire 


yaf 


Hair 


tshim 


Water (fresh) 


taru 


Beard 


kusum 


{salt) 


tat 


Hand 


kaimuk 


Stone 


vas 


Foot 


petchem 


Bird 


karum 


Bone 


tshil 


Fish 


ika. 


Sun 


yaro 







For the Pelew islands we have the following voca- 
bularies, the first of v/hich is from lilarsden, the second 
from Keate's account of the islands. 



English. 


Pelew (1.) 


Pelew (3.) 


Man 


arracat 


masaketh 


Head 


pudeluth 


botheluth 


Eye 


muddath 


colsule 


Nose 


koyum 


kiule 


Beard 


unwulel 


ungelell 


Hand 


kurruel 


kemark 



THE PELEW ISLANDS. 



321 



English. 


Pelew (1). 


Pelew (2). 


Blood 




arrasaack 


Day 


kuguk 


cucuk 


Night 


kapisongi 


kaposingi 


Dead 


luathe 


raathee 


White 


kalelu 


kellelu 


Black 


kaletori 


cattetou 


Fire 


ngaou 


karr 




miul 




Water 


ralm 


an-al 


Earth 


kutum 




Storve 




path 


Bird 


kochayu 


cockiyu 




malk 




Egg 




niese 


Fish 


nikel 


neekel 


Sun 


kioss 


coyoss 


Mom 


puyur 


pooyer 


Star 


beduk 


bethuck 


One 


tang 


tong 


Two 


urung 


oroo 


J. Iiree 


othay 


othey 


Fwur 


awang 


oang 


Five 


aim 


aeem 


Six 


lollom 


malong 


Seven 


awith 


oweth 


Eight 


ai 


tei 


Nine 


etteu 


etew 


Ten 


truyuk 


tricook 




magoth 


makotli. 



Few languages are more important than those of tlie 
small islands hereabouts. They should be compared not 
only with the Philippine, but the Formosan — with which 
the Pelew has some remarkable coincidences. 

The typical languages of Micronesia are the following. 



English. Guaham. 


Chamori. 


Yap. 


Man lahe 


laM 


pimolin 


Woman palawan 


palauan 


wupin 



Ulea. 



Head ouloii ulu elingeng 

Hair gapoun-oulu gapunulu laliigel 



mamoan 
tabut 



Satawal. 

mal 

rabout 

faifid 

methackitim rouinai 

simoie 

timui aleroumai 
timoi 

Y 



322 



MICRONESIAN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Guaham. 


Chamori. 


Yap. 


Ulea. 


Satawal. 


Eye 


mata 


mata 


eauteg 


matai 


metal 


Nose 


goniinn 


guihin 


busemun 


wathel 


poiti 


Tooth 


nifin 


nifin 


mulech 


nir 


ni, gni 


Tongue 


oiila 


hula 


athaen 


luel 


laouel 


Beard 




atshai 


rap 


elsal 


alouzai 


NecTc 


agaga 


hagaga 


liigunag 


uel 


faloui 















ounougai 


Ear 


talanha 


talanja 


ilig 


talengel 


talinhe 


Mouth 


pashoud 


patjoud 


langach 


eol 


ewai 


Breast 


haouf 


hauf 


niierungoreng 


uwal 


loupai 




susu 


susu 


thithi 


thithi 


ti 


BeUy 


touiann 


tudjan 


thugunem 


siel 


segai oubouoi 


Arm 


hious 


kanei 


pach 


bai 


rape lepei 


Hand 


kanai 


kanei 


karovenarenepagh humutel 


galeima 












pranema 


Finger 


kalouloud 


kalulud 


pugehpagh 


kasthel 


attilipai 


Foot 


adin 


adding 


garovereven 


pethl 


peraperai 


Blood 




haga 


ratta 


ta 


achapon 


Sky 




langin 


lang 


lang 




Day 




haani 


— — 


_ — 





Night 




poeni 


kainep 


ebong 


poum 


Sun 




addau 


al 


al 


ial, alet 


Moon 




pulan 


moram 


moram 


ma.ram 













alig ouling 


Star 




putiun 


tuv 


fiss 


fiez 


aoud 




mapagahes 


tharami 


tharami 


saronn 













ieng manileng 


Wind 




mangeu 


niveng 


aang 


ianhe 


Rain 




utjan 


nu 


uth 


oroo 


Water 


ha,noum 


kanum 


munum 


eliimi 


ral 


River 




saddug 


luU 

eatsh 

nao 


eath 




Sea 


tassi 


tahsi 


lao 


tati 













amourek 


Fire 


goifi 


quafi 




eaf 


iaf 


Smoke 


assu 


athanenevi 


aevi 


oath 





Earth 





tahno 


wunau 


vaUi 


merolo 


Stone 


ashou 


atju 


malang 


vas 


fahou 


Tree 




uddunhadju 


pan 


oluel 


pelagoullouk 


Great 




dankulu 


poga 


eolep 


etalai 


Little 




dikiki 


watich 


edigit 


emouroumors 


Cold 







olliim 


isaleu 




Warm 






eatho 


lass 


issa pouers 











. 


elief 


I 




quaho 


igagk 


ngang 




Thou 






hago 








MILLE AND TARAWAN. 



323 



The Marianne islands are continued into the Kingsmill 
(Tarawan) group, and the Radack and Ralik chains ; our 
scanty clcda for these being due to Mr. Hale, the philologue 
under Captain Wilkes in the United States Exploring 
Expedition. 

(1.) 



English. 




Mille. 


English. 




Mille. 


Man 




momam 


Stone 




rukkah 


Head 




borrum 


Bird 




pao 


Ea/r 




ladzhilligin 


Egg 




lip 


Eye 




middarn 


Fish 




ik 


Hand 




ban 


I 




1 


Foot 




nen 


He 




ia 


Mouth 




langwen 


One 




dzhuon 


Nose 




bathart 


Two 




rua 


Teeth 




nin 


Three 




tilu 


NaU 




agguk 


Four 




emen 


Sim 




al 


Five 




lailem 


Moon 




allung 


Six 




dildzheno 


Sta/r 




edzhu 


Seven 




adzheno 


Fire 




kidzbaik 


EigU 




dzhurigol 


Water (fresh) 


reniun 


Nine 




me dzhuon 


{salt) 




lajet 

(2 


Ten 




dzhuon. 


English. 




Tarawan. 


English. 




Tarawan. 


Man 




umane 


/ 




ngai 


Head 




atu 


Thou 




unggoe 


Beard 




buai 


He 




tena 


Ear 




taringa 


One 




te 


Eye 




mata 


Two 




ua 


Nose 




bairi 


Three 




teni 


Tongue 




newe 


Fowr 




a 


Sun 




tai 


Five 




nima 


Moon 




makainga 


Six 




ono 


Fire 




ai 


Seven 




iti 


Water (salt) 


taari 


Eight 




oanu 


Bird 




man 


Nine 




rua 


Fish 




ika 


Ten 




tegaun 


Stone 




atip 










My house 


im 


■arh 






Thy 


house 


im 


-urn 






His 


house 


im 


-en 






Our house 


im-erro 






Their house 


im 


-derh 






IMiose hmse 


im-en-wen. 





Y 2 



324 



POLYNESIA. 



The following represent the dialect of De Peyster's 
Islands : — 



English. 


Fakaofo. 


English. 


Fakaofo. 


Man 


tangata 


Mouth 


ngutu 


Woman 


fafine 


Nose 


isu 


Eye 


mata 


Tongue 


alelo 


Ear 


talinga 


Sun 


la 


Hair 


ulu 


Moon 


masina 


Beard 


kumikumi 


Fire 


afi 




talafa 


Bird 


manu 


Tooth 


nifo 


Fish 


ika 


Foot 


vae 


Stone 


fatu 


Hand 


lima 


Tree 


lakau. 



With the Samoan Archipelago begins Polynesia Pro- 
per as opposed to Micronesia. 



English. 


Marquesas. 


Kanaka (of the Sandwich Islands) 


Man 


enama 


kanaka 


Head 


upoho 


poho 


Eyes 


mata 


maka 


Nose 


ihu 


ihu 


Mouth 


fafa 


aba 


Ear 


puaina 


pepeiac 


Tooth 


niho 


nino 


Tongue 


eo 


lelo, leo 


Back 


tua 


kua 


Beard 


kumikumi 


umiumi 


Blood 


toto 


koko 


Bone 


ivi 


iii 


Hand 


ima 


limo 


Foot 


vae 


vae 


Day 


a 


la 


Night 


po 


po 


Sun 


aomati 


aomati 


Moon 


mahina 


mahina 


Star 


fetu, hetu 


hoku 


Earth 


henua 


honua 


Sea 


tal 


kai 


Fire 


ahi 


ahi 


Water 


vai 


vai 


Stone 


kea 


pohaku 


Tree 


kaau 


laau 


Bird 


manu 


manu 


Fish 


ika 


ia 


One 


tahi 


kahi 





POLYNESIA. 


325 


English. 


Marquesas. 


Kanaka (of the Sandwich Islands). 


Two 


ua 


lua 


Three 


toil, toru 


kolu 


Four 


ha 


ha 


Five 


' uma 


lima 


Six 


ono 


ono 


Seven 


hita 


hiku 


Eight 


vau 


valu 


Nine 


iva 


iva 


Ten 


onohuu 


umi. 



(•2)- 



English. 


Maori (of New Zealand). 


EngUsh. Maori (of New Zea 


Head 


upoho 


Nose 


ihu 




huruhurie 


Day 


ao 




makawe 





mahana 




mahunga 




ra 




whakahipa 


Sun 


ra 


Belly 


kopu 




rnamaru 





m^nawa 


Moon 


komaru 




rui 




maraina 


Back 


tuara 


Star 


whelu 


Body 


tinana 


Stone 


kamaka 


Bone 


iwi 




kohalii 


Ear 


taringa 




toka 


Eye 


kanohi 




nganga 




kara 


Bird 


manu 


Mouth 


mangai 


Fish 


ika 




waha 




ngohi. 




mawhera 







MISCELLANEOUS VOCABULARIES. 



(!•) 



English. 


Rotiinia. 


English. 


Rotuma. 


Woman 


hani 


Eye 


matho 


Head 


thilu 


Mouth 


nutsu 


Ear 


thalinga 


Blood 


toto 


Tooth 


ala 


Sun 


asa 


Tongue 


alele 


Day 


asa 


Foot 


afthia 


Moon 


hula 


Nose 


isu 


Star 


hethu 


Beard 


kumkum 


Fire 


rahi 


Hair 


levu 


Water 


vai 



326 



J 

English 






Rotunia. 


English. 


Rotuma. 


Water 


(salt) 


sias 


Three 




(fresh) 


tan 


Four 


hake 


Stone 






hathu 


Five 


lima 


Bird 






Tna.nmanu 


'Six 




^99 






kalodhi 


Seven 


hithu 


Fish 






ia 


Eight 


valu 


One 






esea 


Nine 











ta 


Ten 


pohe 


Two 










sanghulu 



(2.) 



English. 


Ticopia. 


English. 


Ticopia. 


Man 


tanhata 


Ear 


tarinha 


Woman 


fefinetapti 


Sun 


lera 


Bea/rd 


tarafa 


Moon 


marama 


Mmth 


nhutu 


Star 


fetu 


Arm 


lima 


Fire 


afi 


Head 


ulu 


Water 


vai 


Hair 


raulu 


Sea 


moana 


Tooth 


nifo 


Fish 


ika 


Blood 


kefo 


Milk 


vaiu 


Tongue 


lelo 


Egg 


fouai 


Nose 


issu 


Bird 


manu 


Eye 


mata 


Stone 


fatu. 



(3.) 



EngUsh. 


Cocos Island. 


English. 


Cocos Island 


Eyes 


matta 


Moon 


massina 


Nose 


esou 


Star 


fittou 


Hair 


urug 


One 


taei 


Teeth 


nifo 


Two 


loa 


Hand 


fatinga-lima 


Three 


tolou 


Fire 


umu 


Fow 


fa 


Water 


waij 


Five 


lima 


Earth 


kiUe 


Six 


houno 


Stone 


fattou 


Seven 


filou 


Swine 


wacka 


Eight 


waJo 


Bird 


Ufa 


Nine 


ywou 


Fish 


ica 


Ten 


ongefoula. 


Sun 


la 







^ 



POLYNESIA. 



327 



(4.) 



English. 


Wahitaho. 


English. 


Waliitaha 


Head 


houpoco 


Star 


ehani 


Eye 


matta 


One 


tahi 


Nose 


hihou 


Two 


houah 


Tongue 


houhoho 


Three 


tohou 


Tooth 


niho 


Four 


fah 


Hand 


mana 


Five 


himali 


Dead 


matte 


Six 


bono 


Swine 


boaca 


Seven 


fetto 


Fish 


eatou 


Eight 


vabo 




ehika 


Nine 


hiva 


Sun 


eha 


Ten 


onohohou. 


Moon 


oumati 








(5.) ■ 




English. 


Mayorga. 


English. 


Mayorga. 


Head 


hulu 


One 


taha 


Lye 


mata 


Two 


hua 


Nose 


yhiu 


Three 


tolu 


Tongue 


loulu 


Four 


fa 


Tooth 


nifu 


Five 


nima 


Hand 


afi-nema 


Six 


ono 


Dead 


matte 


Seven 


fito 


Water 


bay 


EigJU 


fatu 


Earth 


yuta 


Nine 


giba (?) 


Swine 


pauca 


Ten 


tongoa-fulu. 


Egg 


tomoa 







(6.) 



English. 


Paumotu. 


EngUsh. 


Paumotu. 


Man 


hakoi 


Sea 


takarari 


Woman 


erire 


Fire 


neki 


Head 


penu 


Water 


komo 


Tongue 


mangee 


Wind 


rohaki 


Bone 


keingi 


Fish 


paru 


Moon 


kawake 


Tree 


moboki. 


Rain 


toite 







The practice of extending the tabu to words is 
Polynesian : e. g., when a chief dies the use of such 
terms as are either identical with, or similar to, his 
name is forbidden. There is also, in the larger islands, 



328 POLYNESIA. 

a kind of ceremonial language. That these are artificial 
elements is plain. They are elements, however, of which 
most languages show either the rudiments or the frag- 
ments. 

In Basque we have a ceremonial conjugation. In 
South America there is more than one language where 
the women use one word, the men another ; a fact 
which has been exaggerated into a pair of languages 
(one for each sex), with an explanatory hypothesis to 
match. 

Bating, however, the facts of this kind, the Polyne- 
sian dialects are those wherein the artificial element is 
at zero. It is but lately that they have been written at 
all : nor were they, before the introduction of the pre- 
sent missionary influences, in either direct or indirect 
contact with any languages more cultivated than them- 
selves. For the phenomena, then, of a thoroughly 
natural and spontaneous development they are materials 
of pre-eminent value. 



NEW GUmKA. 329 



CHAPTER L. 

The Papua Class.— Guebe, &c. — New Guinea.— New Ireland, &c., to 
New Caledonia. 

In making the Malay division end at Cerara, and the 
Papua begin at Guebe, I chiefly consult convenience ; 
inasmuch as, along the line of contact, there are notable 
signs of transition. 

From the small Archipelago, at the north-western 
extremity of New Guinea, and from New Guinea itself, 
the line of Papua languages runs south and south-east, 
via New Britannia, New Hanover, New Ireland, the 
Solomon Islands, &c., Malhcollo, Erromango, Tana, Erro- 
nan, Annatom, to New Caledonia. The Louisiade Archi- 
pelago is also Papua ; as are the islands in Torres 
Straits — i. e. they are Papua rather than Australian. 
Twenty years ago, the languages of this class were all 
but unknown, not one of them having ever been re- 
duced to writing, or even learned by an educated Euro- 
pean. That no Hollander ever spoke any of the dialects 
of the north-western coast of New Guinea cannot in- 
deed be asserted unconditionally — though the doctrine 
de non apparentihus, kc, suggests that such was the 
case. Nothing, however, of any importance concerning 
them was communicated to the world at large. Of the 
Tana language, a MS. grammar by Mr. Heath had 
been inspected by Dr. Prichard, who stated that 
the language which it represented differed entirely from 



330 



GUEBE AND WAIGIU. 



the Polynesian. It abounded with inflections, and had 
a peculiar form by which three persons were spoken 
of — a form distinct from the dual, and distinct from 
the plural, a form for which the term trinal was sug- 
gested. 

The little knowledge involved in these fragmentary 
facts, created a tendency to put a high ordinal value on 
the characteristics of the Papua grammar ; a value in 
which there is, probably, a certain amount of exaggera- 
tion. 

Beginning with the language of the small island of Que- 
he, which lies somewhat nearer to Gilolo than to New 
Guinea, we find in the following vocabulary, at least, a 
notable difference between it and the Waigiu spoken 
immediately under the Equator and within sight of the 
mainland of New Guinea itself 



English. 



Gueb6. 



WaigW. 



Man 


syniat 




Woman 


pine 




Head 


kouto 


kagala 


Eye 


tarn 




*EyeB{'t) 


tadji 


jadjiemouri 


Nose 


kassugnor 


soun 


Mouth 


kapiour 


ganganini 


Lips 


kapiondjais 




Teeth 


kapiondji 


onalini 


*Tongue 


mamalo 




Ear 


kassegna 




Cheek 


affoffo 




Beard 


ajangout 


gangafoni 


Hair 


kalignouni 




Neck 


kokor 




Belly 


siahoro 


synani 


Arm 


kamer 


kapiani 


Hand 


fadlor 


konkafeni 


Back 




kouaneteni 


Foot 




kourgnai 


Shin, 


kinot 


rip 


Swn 


astouol 




*Fire 


ap 




Sea 


tasfi 





^' 





PORT DOREY. 


English. 


Gueb6. 


* Water (fresh) 


aer omissi 


*Bird 


mani 


*Fish 


hin 


One 


pissa 


Tioo 


pilou 


Three 


pitoul 


Four 


piflfat 


Five 


pileme 


Six 


pounnoun 


Seven 


piffit 


Eight 


poual 


Nine 


pissiou 


Ten ' 


otsha 



831 



WaigilL 



The Papuan Proper is chiefly known from the parts 
about Port Dorey ; where the first of the following vo- 
cabularies was collected by Forrest, as early as a.d. 
1774-1776. 



English. 


Papuan. 


Arago. 


Man 


sononman 


snone 


Woman 


binn 


biene 


Head 




vrouri 


Eye 




tadeni 






grarour 


Mouth 




soidon 


Tooth 




nacoere 


Tongue 




ramare 


Ear 




kanik 


Hand 




konef 


Ai'm 





bramine 


Leg 




oizof 


Foot 




oibahene 


Blood 




riki 


Day 




ari 


Sun 


rass 


rias 


Moon 


hyck 




Star 


mak 




Fire 


for 


afor 


Water 


war 


ouar 


{salt) 


warmassin 




(sweet) 


warimassin 




Fiver 


warbike 




Sea 




sorene 


Fain 




meker 



Fish 



332 



PORT DOREY, ETC. 



English. 


Papuan. 


Arago, 


Bird 


moorsankeen 


man (?) 






bourore 


Hog 


ben 


baine 


Tree 


kaibus 




House 


rome 


rouma 


Egg 




bolor 






samoure 


Hill • 


bon 




Sand 


yean 


iene 


White 


pepoper 




Black 


pyssin 




One 


oser 


ossa 


Two 


serou 


serou 


Three 


keor 


keor 


Four 


tiak 


tiak, nal 


Five 


rim 


rime 


Six 


onim 


oneme 


Seven 


tik 


sik, fik 


Eight 


war 


Guar 


Nine 


siore 


siore 


Ten 


samfoor 


samefou] 



Taking the numerals as a test, the Archipelago and 
the neighbourhood of Port Dorey give a multiplicity 
of sub-dialects. 

(1.) 



English. 


Aiopin, 


Tandia. 


Dasen. 


One 


wosio 


nai 


joser 


Two 


woroe-o 


roesi 


socroe 


Three 


woro 


toeroesi 


toroe 


Fmr 


woako 


attesi 


ati 


Five 


rimo 


marasi 


rembi 


Six 


rimo-wosie 


marasimge 


rimbi-oser 


Ten 


sagoero 

(2-) 


oetiu 


arisa. 


English. 


Jower. 


Wandamin, 


Arfak. 


One 


re-be 


siri 


woam 


Two 


re-doe 


mondo 


jan 


Three 


re-oe 


toro 


kar 


Four 


re-a 


at 


tar 


Five 


brai-a-re 


rim 


maswar 


Six 


brai-a-rebe 


rimmasiri 


kaswar 


Ten 


brai-a-redoe 


rimmasoerat 


marswar. 



NEW GUINEA. 



833 



(3.) 



English. 




Omar. 




Insam. 




Amberbaki. 


One 




kotim 




keteh 




toe 


Two 




redis 




roesi 




ker 


Three 




etirom 




korisi 




noer 


Four 




eat 




aka 




boat 


Five 




matisi 




rima 




mer 


Six 




kolim 




keteh 




ebetoe 


Ten 




maptides 


boeki, roesi 




onger. 








(4.) 








EngUsh. 


Karon. 




Pome. 


Seroci. 




Moor. 


One 


dik 




korii 


bo-iri 




tata 


Two 


we 




koiroe 


bo-roe 




roeroe 


Three 


gre 




toro 


bo-toro 




oro 


Fowr 


at 




at 


bo-ab 




ao 


Five 


mik 




rim 


rim 




rimo 


Six 


mak 




ona 


boiri-kori 


i. 


rimo-tata 


Seven 


fret 




itoe 


bor-kori 




roeroe 


Eight 


ongo 




waro 


botd-kori 




oro 


Nine 


masiwo 




isioe 


boa-kori 




ao 


Ten 


mesoe 




awrali 

(5.) 


soerat 




toverah. 




Hillmen 


, to the West 










of Amsterdam, 


and 








English. 


Middleburgh 


I. 


Ron. 


Beak & Mefur. 


One 




inele 




joser 




sai 


Two 




ali 




noeroe 




doei 


Three 




told 




'ngo-kor 




kior 


Four 




fak 




fak 




fiak 


Five 




mafoek 




lim 




lim 


Six. 




maflenene 


onim 




onim 


Seven 




ane mele 


onememaeroe 


tiek 


Eight 




ali 




onemegnokor 


war 


Nine 




tolo 




onenfak 




slew 


Ten 




feh 


(6.) 


onemerim 




samfor. 


English. 




Ansoes. 


Salawatti. 


One 






koiri 




sa 




Two 






korisi 




roe 




Three 




todoe 




tor 




Four 






moano 




fat 




Five 






di 




rim 




Six 






wona 




onim 




Seven 


'/ 




itoe 




fiet 




Eight 






India toro 


war 




Nine 






india ato 




si 




Ten 






hoera 




lafa. 





334 



t 


NEW GUINEA. 




Che following vocabularies are from the south and 


it, being chiefly spoken on the coast. 




English. 




Loho. 


Utatanata. 


Man 




marrowane 


marrowane 


Woman 




mawinna 




CheeTcs 




wafiwiriongo 


awanu 


Eyes 




matatongo 


mame 


■ Hand 




nimangouta 


toemare 


Head 




umun 


oepauw 


Arms 




nimango 


too 


Bach 




rasukongo 


urimi 


Belly 




kamborongo 


imau 


Foot 




kaingo 


mouw 


Hair 




monongfuru 


oeirie 


Mouth 




oriengo 


irie 


Nose 




sikacongo 


birimboe 


Neck 




garang 


ema 


Tongue 




kariongo 


mare 


Teeth 




riwotongo 


titi 


Sun 




orak 




Watei- 




malar 


warini 


Rain 




■ komak 


komak 


River 




■walar nabetik 


warari napettike 


Bird 




manoe 




Hog 




bui 


oe 


Island 




nusu 




Tree 




akajuakar 


kai 


Bow 






amure. 


English. 


Triton Bay 


Mairassis. 


Onim. 


Man 


marowana 


iohanouw 




Head 


monongo 


nangoewoe 


onimpatiu 


Hair 


monongfoero nangoekatoe 


ampoewa 


Eye 


matatongc 


> namboetoe 


matapatin 


Nose 


sikaiongo 


nambi 


wirin 


Mouth 


oriengo 


naros 


soeman 


Tooth 


roewatongo sifa 


Tiifin 


Hand 


nimangoeta okorwita 





Foot 






nimin kaki 


Sun 


orah 


ongoerah 


rera 


Moon 


foeran 


foeran 


poenono 


Earth 


ena 


gengena 


gai 


Fire 


iworo 


api 




Water 


walar 


wata 


weari. 



For the islands of Torres Straits, viz. : the Darnly 



THE LOUISIAPE ARCHIPELAGO. 



335 



Islands (Erroob and Maer) and the Murray Islands, 
vocabularies in the appendix to Juke's Voyage of the 
Fly give somewhat full specimens. The tables in which 
they appear show the difference between the South 
Papua and the North Australian. It is a difference, 
however, which is easily exaggerated; as in the first 
seventeen words we find the following coincidences. 



English. 


Papua. 


Australian. 


Chech 


bag 


bag 


Eye 


iUcap 


danacap 


Eyelid 


illcamush 




Eyelash 




dammuclie 


Ear 


gereep 


coora 


Nose 


peet 


peecbi. 



The collective name for the Erroob, Maer, and Massied 
forms of speech is Miriam. 

The Redscar Bay, Dufaure Island, and Brumer Island 
dialects are known through the vocabularies of the 
Rattlesnake, collected by Macgillivray. They are allied 
to each other — the latter being very closely allied to 
the Duchateau Island of the Calvados, and the Brierly 
Island of the Louisiade, group. 



English. 


Erroob. 


Redscar Bay. 


Man 


kaimeer 


tau 




laminar 




Woman 


koskeer 






mada 


ahine 


Child 


kabelli 


mero 


Head 


kerim 


kwara 


Eye 


irkeep 


mata 


Ear 


laip 


taiya 




peU 






gereep 




Nose 


peet 


uda 


Mouth 


nuga 

tae 

meet 


maa 


Lips 


pipina 


Teeth 


tirreg 


isi 


Tongue 


werrut 


mala 



336 



NEW IRELAND. 



English. 


Erroob. 


Redscar Bay. 


Hair 


moos 


hui 


Neck 


perreg 




Hand 


tag 


ima 


Foot, or Leg 


taertar 






gab 




Blood 


mam 




Sky 


baz 


garewa 


Sun 


gegger 


mahana 


Moon 


maeb 


nowarai 


Star ' 


waer 




Fire 


lira 


kaiwa 


Water {fresh) 


nea 


goila 


{salt) 


goor 


arita 


Stone 


bakeer 


weu 


Wind 


wag 




Sea 


carrem 




Sand 


wae 


geragera 


Tree 


igger 




I 


cai 




Mine 


cara 




Thou 


ma 




Your 


mara 




One 


netat 


ta 


Two 


naes 


ma 


Three 


naesa netat 


toi 


Four 




bani 


Five 




ima. 



Here we leave the southern, and returning to the 
parts about Waigiti, follow the northern, eastern, or 
north-eastern line. 



English. 


New Ireland. 


Port Praslin. 


Head 


ptikltik 





Ear 


pralenbek 


palalignai 


Eye 


matak 


mata 


Hair 


iuk 


epiu 


Bea/rd 


kambissek 


katissende 


Nose 


kambussuk 


mbussu 


Mouth 


lok 


mlo 


Tooth 


insek 


ninissai 


Tongue 


karmea 


kermea 


Arm 


limak 




Finger 


oulima 


lima 


Neck 


kondaruak 


kindurua 


Back 


taruk 


plaru 



THE SOLOMON ISLES. 



337 



English. 


New Ireland. 


Port Praslin. 


Foot 


balankeke 


pekendi 


Sun 


kamiss 




Moon 




kalan 


Fire 




bia 


Water 


malum 


molum 


Sea 




bun 


Bird 


manuk 




Fish 


siss 


sis. 



Bauro, or San Christoval, along with Guadalcanar, 
belongs to the Solomon Islands. The Rev. J. Patteson's 
First Attempt in the Bauro Language gives us our ma- 
terials, which consist of the Lord's Prayer, two short 
prayers, and a catechism concerning the Fall of Man 
and his Redemption. 



English. 


Bam-o. 


English. 


Bauro. 


Man (homo) 


inone 


SJcy 


aro 


(vir) 


sai 


Moon 


hura 


Woman 


urao 


Water 


wai 


Hand 


rima 


House 


oma 


Day 


dangi 


Tree 


hasiai. 


English. 


Guadalcanar. 


English. 


Guadalcanar 


Man (Jiomo) 


inoni 


Sit 


tooru 


{vir) 


mane 


I 


inau 


Woman 


kene 


Thou 


io 


Father 


amma 


He : 


ia 


Son 


gare 


Thine 


amu 


Child 


mare 


His 


ana 


Good 


siene 


One 


tai 


Bad 


tos 


Txm 


arua 


Die 


mai 


Three 


oi-u. 


Hear 


noro 







In Vanikoro, three languages are spoken. 



English. 


Vanikoro. 


Tanema. 


Taneanxu. 


Man 


lamoka 


ranuka 


amualigo 


Woman 


verume 


ranime 


vignivi 


Beard 


tingtime 


kole 


vingumia 


Arm 


me 


menini 


maini 


Tooth 


ugne 


kole 


indzhe 
Z 



338 



THE NEW HEBRIDES. 



English. 


Vanikoro. 






Tanema. 


Taneamu. 


Mouth 


ugrenili 








Tongue 


mea 




mia 


mimiae 


Hair 


wennbadzha 


valanbadzha valanbadzha 


Bach 


dienhane 




delenana 


diene 


Leg 


kelenili 




alenini 


aeleda 


Moon 


mele 








Fire 


nebie 




gnava 


iaua 


Water 


wire 




nira 


ero. 


The next 

1 ^-vT%^«i y^ r\n 


two vocabularies are 


from the Ne\ 


leDnaes. 




(1.) 






EugUsh. 


MaUicoUo. 






English. 


Mamcollo. 


Man (homo) 


nebok 






Bird 


moero 


(vir) 


bauenunk 






Fish 


heika 


Woman 


rambaiuk 






One 


sikai 




rabin 






Two 


e-na 


Father 


aramomau 






Three 


e-roi 


Child 


urare 






Four 


e-vatz 


Head 


basaine 






Five 


e-rima 


Eye 


maitang 






Six 


su-kai 


Ear 


talingan 






Seven 


whi-u 


Tooth 


rebohn 






Eight 


oroi 




warrewuk 






Nine 


wbi-vatz 


Nose 


noossun 






Ten 


singeap. 


Hair 


membrun baitang 1 












(20 






EngUsh. 


Tana. 






English. 


Tana. 


Man 


aremana 






Sea 


tasi 


Woman 


peran 






Good 


niasan 


Father 


rumune 








aumasan 


Son 


mati 








ratutakat 


Body 


nupuran 






Bad 


ellaha 


Heart 


reren 






Holy 


ekenan 


Sun 


mere 






Great 


asori 


Moon 


maukua 






Many 


repuk 


Bird 


manu 






Eat 


ani 


Fish 


namu 






Speah 


mani 


Tree 


nei 








mankeari 


Fire 


nap 






Hear 


matareg. 


Earth 


tana 











The Gospel of St. Luke in Annatom was published 
in 1852, by the Rev. J. Geddie ; and in 1853, that 
of St. Mark in Sydney. These, along with other 
external confluences, have introduced — 



ANNATOM. 



339 



From the Oi^eelc. 




Agelo 


angel 


Areto 


bread 


Apeitome 


circumcision 


From the English. 




Slip 


sheep 


Flaur 


flour 


Mint 


mint 


Waina 


idne 


Mune 


money 


Wik 


week 


English. 


Annatom. 


Man 


atimi 


Husband 


atumnya 


Wife 


ehgai 


Woman 


takata 


Head 


nepek 


Hair 


iimri idjini 


Eye 


esganimtai 


Ear 


intikgan 


Nose 


ingedje 


Mouth 


nipjineucse 


Tongue 


naniai 


Tooth 


nijin 


Band 


ikma 


Finger 


nupsikma 


Foot 


eduon 


Blood 


unja 


Sky 


nohatag 



Aprofeta 

Sito 

Baptizo 



Pigad 

Leven 

Ru 

Kot 

Apalse 

English. 

Day 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

God 

Wind 

Rain 

Fire 

Water 

Sea 

Stone 

Land 

Rock 

mil 

Dog 
Bird 
Fish 



prophet 

wheat 

baptize. 



peg 

leaven 

rue 

coat 

palsy. 

Annatom. 
adiat 



mahoc 

moijeuw 

Atua 

nimtinjop 

incopda 

caup 

wai 

unjop 

hat 

otohtan 



lo-la eduon 
kuri 
man 
mu. 



With the Polynesian and Malayan languages in gene- 
ral, the Annatom has, at least, the following words in 
common — 



English. 


Annatom. 




Water 


wai 


wai — Ende 


Fire 


caup 


api — Gu^e 


Bird 


man 


mani — Guebt 


Tooth 


nijin 


nihi — Ende 


Foot 


eduai 


Idi — Bima 


Die 


mas 


mati — Malay 


House 


eom 


umah — Javanese 


One 


ethi 


aida — Timor 


Two 


ero 


erua — Manaioto., t&c. 


God 


Atua 


KlMSi-- Polynesian, d-c. 

z 2 



340 



ANNATOM. 



English. 

Hill 

Stone 

Mom 

Hen 

Dog 

Kava 



Annatom. 

eduon 

hat 

atimi 

jaa 

kuri 



wotang — Solor 
fatu — Timor 
atoni — Timor 
jangjang — Macassar 
kuri — Ticopia 
kava — Polynesia. 



Words like aJctaJctai, epto, eropse, esvi, inwai, inpas, 
inridjai, imtak, uctyi, imiisjis, intas, eucjeucjaig, injop, 
&c., show that the Annatom phonesis is less vocalic than 
that of the other islands. 

In Erromango there are, at least, two dialects ; 
apparently three — the third the common language of 
the island at large, or its central districts. 





English. 




Northern Dialect. 


Southern Dialect. 




Man {homo) 


neteme 




yirima 




Woman 




nasivin 


yarevin 




Sky • 




unpokop 


nimpokop 




Earth 




nemap 




dena 




Sun 




nipminen 


umangkam 




Moon 




itiis 




iriis 




Star 




mose 




umse 




Sea 




t&k 




de 




HUl 




numpur 


numbuwa 




Bush 




tebutu] 




undumburui 




Plant 




denuok 




dokmus 




Ood 




nobu 




uboh 




Chief 




natA.Tnonok 


yarumne 




Father 




itemin 




rimin 




Mother 




dinemi 




ILnin 




W(yrd 




nam 




novul 




Fire 




nom 




nampevang 




Breadfruit 


nimara 




nimal 




House 




nimo 




nima 




Fruit 




nobuwan-ne 


nimil. 


English. 




Erromango. 




English. 


Erromango 


Man 




etemetallam 




Yoimger brother abmissai 






neteme 






Son 


niteni 


Womom 




wasiven 
nahivin 






Head 
Eye 


numpu 
nimmint 


Father 




etemen 
itemjn 






Ood 
Sky 


Nobu 
pokop 


Mother 




dineme 






Sun 


nitminen 


Wife 




retopon 






Mom 


tais 


Brother 




avongsai 






Star 


masi 



THE LOYALTY ISLES. 



341 



English. 


Erromango. 


English. 


Erromango. 


Wind 


mankep 


Hill 


nuinpua 


Fire 


nom 


Stone 


inevat 


Day 


kwaras 


Bird 


menuk 




dan 


Fish 


nomn 


NigU 


nimerok 


Tree 


nei 


Earth 


maap 


Fmit 


nobowane 


Sea 


tak 


Leaf 


ankalon 


Water 


nu 


House 


nimua. 



For the language of LifUj a language of the Loyalty 
group, we have but few data — ^viz., A Book for Boys 
and Girls ; The Lord's Prayer ; the Creed, Prayers, a 
Primer (?), A Book for showing the Rule of God ; a few 
words ; and the numerals. 



English. 


Lifu. 


EngUsh. 


Lifa. 


One 


chas 


Si^ 


chagemen 


Tioo 


luete 


Seven 


luegemen 


Three 


konite 


Eight 


konigemen 


Four 


eketse 


Nine 


ekegemen 


Five 


tipi 


Ten 


luepi. 


It is closely allied to the 


Mare. 




English. 


Mare. 


English. 


Mare. 


Man (homo) 


ngome 


Foot 


wata 


(vir) 


chamhani 




roata 


Woman 


hmenewe 


Blood 


dra 


Father 


chacha 


God 


Mackaze 


Mother 


ma 


Shy 


dwe 




mani 


Sun 


du 


Son 


tei 


Moon 


jekole 




tene 


Day 


rane 


Boy 


maichamliane 


Night 


bune 


Child 


wakuku 


Wind 


iengo 


Daughter 


moclienewe 


Fire 


iei 


Brother 


cheluaie 


Water 


wi 


Elder brother 


mama 


Earth 


rawa 


Younger brother achelua 


Hill 


weche 


Eye 


waegogo 


Stone 


ete 


Mouth (lip) 


tubenen-gocho 


Tree 


iene. 


Hand 


ara.Tiine 







In Xew Caledonia, the language of Cape Queen 
Charlotte is known under the name of Baladea ; for 



342 



NEW CALEDONIA. 



which Gabelentz would substitute the native name 
Buaura. A small tract published in Rarotonga, in 
1847, gives us the main materials for this dialect; it 
consists of passages from the Bible, and either represents 
the language imperfectly or the language is inadequate 
to the translation. The sounds of /, ?, ^, and s, are 
wanting. Many of the roots are monosyllabic ; many, 
apparently, dissyllabic, the concurrence of consonants 
being rare. Its proper inflection is of the scantiest. It 
uses prefixes as weU as sufl^es ; suffixes as well as 
prefixes. 



English. 


Baladea. 


Man 


ngauere 




unie 


Womcm 


vio 


Father 


chicha 


MotJier 


nia 


Child 


vanikor 


Son 


niao 


Daughter 


vanivio 


Hair 


ngo 


Face 


kaua'e 


Eye 


erne 




neme 


Eair 


uanea 


Mmith 


uange 


Tongue 


nekune 


Nech 


gouka 


Hand 


imi 



Foot 
Blood 



inte 



English. 


Baladea. 


God 


Intu 


Shy 


okua 


Srni 


ni 


Bay 


ni 


Moon 


moe 


Star 


veo 


Night 


pune 


Fire 


dadi 


Water 


tei 


Sea 


injo 


Tree 


ngae 


Good 


ade 


Bad 


die 




puru 


Great 


akae 


Many (all) 


chapi 


Eat 


ki 


Speah 


ni. 



Compared with the other Oceanic languages it gives- 



English. 

Moon 

Night 

Earth 

Land 

Sea 

Sheep 

Man 

Eye 

Hand 



Baladea. 

moe 

pune 

nu 

nonte 

injo 

mamoe 

unie 

neme 

imi 



mahoc — A nna torn 
bune — Mare 
ano — Bauro 
nonte — Maro 
injop — Annatom 
mamoe — Mare 
inoni — Bauro 
name — Tana 
lima — Malay, &c. &c. 



NEW CALEDONIA. 



343 



English. 


Baladea. 




Blood 


inte 


unja — Annatom 


Name 


vane 


attavanim — Erromam 


Heart 


nue 


mori — Mare 


Kingdom 


toku 


doku — Mare 


House 


tuna 


oma — Bauro 


Clothing 


kui 


kukui — Mare 


High 


toana 


toane — Mare 


Live 


omoro 


amurep— Erroraango. 



The following numerals are from the southern portion 
of the area under notice : — 



FenvAi 

Oalaio 

Indeni* 

Fonqfono 

Mami 



Twpua 

Fenua 

Galaio 

Indeni 

Fonofono 

Mami 



One 


Two 


Three 


Four 


Five 


touo 


bouiou 


bogo 


mabeo 


kaveri 


'■ tchika 


iou 


too 


djiva 


djini 


tedja 


aH 


adi 


abouai 


naroune 


nenqui 


lelou 


eve 


ouve 


idi 


tat 


loua 


tolou 


fa 


lima 


Six 


Seven 


Eight 


Nine 


Ten 


\ kaveri 
( ajouo 


vio 


viro 


reve 


anharou 


tchouo 


timbi 


ta 


toudjo 


nhavi 


teiamoua 


edouma ebouema 


napou 


ekatoa 


1 poulenqui 


polelon 


I pole 


polohoue 


nokolou 


ono 


fitou 


parou 


iva 


kadoua. 


English. 




Isle of Pines. 


Yengen. 




One 




ta 


bets 




Two 




vo 


heluk 




Three 




veti 


heyen 




Fom 


^ 


beu 


pobits 




Five 




tahue 


nim 




Six 




nota 


nimwet 




Seven 




nobo 


nimweluk 


Eight 




nobeti 


nimweyen 


Nine 




nobeu 


nimpobit 


Ten 




nokau 


painduk. 



Ueaj though one of the Loyalty Islands, is not 

altogether like the rest of the Papuan districts. Its 

name, even, is foreign ; Uea being the native term for 

Wallis's Island. From this, one of its three languages is 

* Oi Nitendi. 



344 UEA, ETC. 

stated to have been introduced ; the present speakers 
of it being the descendants of settlers of uncertain date. 
Of the two other forms of speech, one is from New 
Caledonia the other (that of the following specimen) 
native. 



Engli8b. 


Uea. 


Englisli. 


Uea. 


One 


pacha 


Six 


Zo-acha 


Two 


lo 


Seven 


Zo-ala 


Three 


kun 


Eight 


Zo-kunn 


Four 


tliak 


Nine 


Zo-thak 


Five 


thabumb 


Ten 


«e-bennete 



In like manner FotuTia, though belonging to the New 
Hebrides, is Polynesian, rather than Papuan, in speech ; 
the language being more especially akin to that of 
Rarotonga. Again — in some parts of Fate^ or Sand- 
wich Island, a Polynesian dialect is spoken. Thirdly, 
in Mau, to the north-east of Fate, the people speak the 
Maori, i. e. the language of New Zealand. 



THE FIJI. 345 



CHAPTER LI. 

The Viti, or Fiji, Group.— Its Relations to the Polynesian and the Papua. 

For reasons which will appear in the sequel, the Fiji or 
Viti is given in a chapter by itself. 

The Fiji or Viti Archipelago extends from 1 6° to 2° 
S. L. and fr'om 177° to 182° W. L. The islands them- 
selves amount to more than 200 : of which not less 
than 100 are inhabited. Yanua Levu and Viti Levu 
are supposed to contain 40,000 individuals each. The 
remaining population, spread over the smaller islands, 
may amount to 90,000 more. The language, however, 
is the same throughout : though dialects and sub-dia- 
lects are to be expected. The chief of these are those of 
Lakemba, or the Windward Islands, Somosomo, Vewa, 
Inbau, and Rewa. 

The following list, from Gabelentz, shows the extent 
to which its vocabulary agrees with the Malay and Poly- 
nesian. 

English. 

Shj 

Moon 

Clouds 

Fain 

Storm 

Wind 

East Wind 

Lightning 

Flame 

Night 



Fiji. 


Malay and Polynesian. 


lagi 


p. langi, m. langit 


vula 


m. bulan 





p. ao, m. awan 


uca 


p. usa, m. ujan 


cava 


p. afa, awa 


cagi 


p. angi, m. angin 


tokalau 


p. tokelau 


liva 


p. uila 


udre 


p. ura 


bogi 


p. pongi 



346 





THE FIJI. 




English. 


Fiji. 


Malay or Polynesian. 


Shade 


malumalu 


p. malu 


Earth 


vanua 


p. fanua, m. benua 


Land 


qele 


p. kele 


Stone 


vatu 


p. fatu, m. batu 


Hill 


bukebuke 


p. puke, m. bukit 


Banh 


taba 


p. tafa, tapa, m. tepi 


Reef 


cakau 


p. bakau 


Way 


sala 


p. hala, ara, m. djalan 


Ashes 


dravu 


p. lefu 


Bust 


umea 


p. umea 


Water 


wai 


p. wai 


Fresh water 


dranu 


p. lanu 


Sea 


wasa 


p. vasa 


Man (homo) 


tamata 


p. tangata 


(mr) 


tagane 


p. tane 


Father 


tama 


p. tama 


Mother 


tina 


p. tina 


Elder brother 


tuaka. 


p. tuakana 


Younger brother 


taci 


p. tasi 


Son-in-law 


vugo 


p. hungoni 


King 


sau 


p. hau 


Lord 


tui 


p. tui 


Head 


ulu 


p. ulu, m. ulu 


Ear 


daliga 


p. talinga, m. telinga 


Eye 


mata 


p. m. mata 


Nose 


ucu 


p. isu, m. idong 


Mouth 


gusu 


p. ngutu 


Beard 


kumi 


p. kumikumi, m. kumia 


Hand 


Hga 


p. lima 


Breast 


sucu 


p. m. susu 


Belly 


kete 


p. kete 


Leg 


yava 


p. avae, wawae 


Knee 


duru 


p. tuli, turi 


Heart 


loma 


p. uma 


Vein 


ua 


p. uaua 


Bone 


sui 


p. sivi 


Blood 


dra 


m. darah 


Dog 


koli 


p. kuli 


Bat 


beka 


p. peka 


Bird 


manumanu 


p. manu, m. manuk 


Pigeon 


ruve 


p. lupe 


Snake 


gata 


_p, ngata 


Fish 


ika 


p. ika, w. ikan 


Lobster 


urau 


p. kura, ula, m. udang 


Butterfly 


bebe 


p. pepe 


Ant 


lo 


jp. lo 


Fly 


lago 


^. lango, m. langau 



English. 

Midge 

Louse 

Tree 

Root 

Barh 

Leaf 

Fruit 

Banana 

Cocoanut 

milk 

Yam 
Cane 

Sugar-cane 

Hedge 

Canoe 

Mast 

Rudder 

Sail 

Nail 

Comb 

Bag 

Basket 

Girdle 

Holy 

Soft 

Tarns 

Right 

Ready 

Ripe 

Easy 

Empty 

Weak 

LiUle 

New 

Hot 

Red 

Hear 

See 

Cry 

Eat 

Drink 

Bite 

Spit 

Taste 

Stand 



THE FIJI. 




Fiji. 


Malay or Polynesian. 


nana 


p. naonao 


kutu 


p. m. kutu 


kau 


p. kau, m. kaju 


waka 


p. aka, m. akar 


kuli 


p. kili, m. kulit 


drau 


p. lau, m. daun 


vua 


p. fua, m. buab 


vudi 


p. futi 


niu 


p. niu, TO. nior 


lolo 


p. lolo 


bulu 


p. pulu, bulu 


uvi 


p. ufi, TO. ubi 


gasau 


p. kaso, kaho 


dovu 


p. to, tolu, TO. tubbu 


ba 


p. pa, m. pagar 


waqa 


p. vaka 


vana 


p. fana 


voce 


p. fose 


laca 


p. la, TO. layer 


kie 


p. kie 


vako 


p. fao, TO. paku 


seru 


p. selu, heru, to. sisir 


taga 


p. tanga 


kato 


p. kato 


van 


p. fau 


tabu 


p, tabu 


malua 


p. malie 


lasa 


p. lata 


donu 


p. tonu 


oti 


^. oti 


matua 


2). TTiatua 


mamada 


p. mama 


maca 


p. maha 


malumu 


p, malu 


lailai 


jp. lahilahi 


vou 


J3. foU 


katakata 


p. kasa 


kulakula 


^. kula, kura 


rogo 


p, rongo, longo, to. di 


sarasara 


p. araara 


tagi 


p. tangi, TO. tangis 


kana 


p. kaina, kainga 


unuma 


p. inu, TO. minum 


kati 


p. kati 


lua 


p. lua 


tovolea 


^9. tofo 


tu 


p. tu 



347 



?ar 



348 



y" 



English. 

Lie 

Come. 

Go 

Enter 

Creep 

Sleep 

Grow 

Die 

Know 

Enjoy 

Possess 

Hold 

Bring 

Loose 

Bore 

Shoot 

Turn 

Enclose 

Rub 

Sweep 

Cut 



Divide 

Dig 

Fall 

Peel 

Wash 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 

Hundred 



THE FIJI. 


Fiji. 


Malay or Polynesian. 


koto 


p. takoto 


coa 


p. tau 


se 


p. se 


curu 


p. uru, sulu 


dolo 


p. tolo 


moce 


p. mose, mohe 


tubu 


p. tupu, m. tumbuh 


mate 


p. mate, m. mati 


kila 


p. ilo 


reki 


p. reka 


rawa 


p. raiaka, rawa 


kuku 


p. kuku 


kau 


p. kau 


talu 


p. tala 


coka 


p. hoka 


Tana 


p. fana 


wiri 


p. viri, viK, m. pilni 


bunu 


p. puni 


solo 


p. holo 


tavi 


p. tafi 


sele 


p. sele 


koti 


p. koti 


tava 


p. tafa, m. tabang 


vaci 


p. fasi 



kelia 

ta 

voci 

vuluvulu 

dua 

rua 

tolu 

va 

lima 

ono 

vitu 

walu 

ciwa 

tini 

drau 



p. vase 

p. keli, m. gali 

p. ta 

p. fohe 

p. fulu, pulu 

p. taha, tai 

p. lua, rua, m. dua 

p. tolu, toru 

j9. fa, wa 

j3. lima, rima, m. lima 

p. ono, m. anam 

p. fitu, witu 

^. valu, warn 

p. iva, hiva 

^. tini 

p. lau, rau. 



With the Annatom it has the following amount of 
likeness. 





THE FIJI. 




English. 


Rji 




Sun 


siga 


nagesega 


Night 


bogi 


epeg 


Watei' 


wai 


wai 


Stone 


vatu 


hat 


Man {homo) 


tamata 


atimi 


{mr) 


atagane 


atamaig 


Father 


tama 


etmai 


Tongue 


yame 


namai 


Name 


yadha 


idai 


Bird 


manumanu 


man 


Dove 


rui^e 


nalaupa 


Dog 


koli 


kuri 


Bag 


kato 


cat 


Ale 


kedhega 


asega- 


Dark 


buto 


aapat 


Narrow 


warowaro 


ehroehro 


Right 


matau 


matai 


Left 


mawi 


moiii 


Dry 


madha 


mese 


Deep 


nubu, titobu 


obou 




bukete 


OJWUC 


Hide 


tabo-naka 


adahpoi 


Turn 


saumaka 


adumoij 


Open 


salia 


asalage 


Sit 


tiko 


ateuc 


Weelc 


ta^ 


taig 


Sleep 


modhe 


timjeg 


Drink 


unuina 


nmni 


Die 


mate 


mas 


Two 


rua 


ero 


Who 


dhei 


di 


They 


era 


ara 


To 


vei 


vai. 



349 



Upon the grammatical relations of this important 
language more will be said in the sequel. 



350 AUSTRALIA. 



CHAPTER LII. 

The Australian Group. 

The isolation of the Australian languages has often been 
insisted on. Yet they have not only miscellaneous 
affinities but three vocabularies (1.) the Ombay ; (2.) 
the Mangarei ; and (3.) the Timbora, have, for some 
years, been pointed* out as vocabularies from the Malay 
area with decided Australian affinities. 

The definite line of demarcation which is drawn be- 
tween them and the Papuan of New Guinea is im- 
peached by the Erroob and Darnly Island vocabularies of 
Jukes ; not to niention those of Macgillivray from the 
Louisiade Archipelago. 

The fact that, notwithstanding the mutual unintelli- 
gibility of the majority of the forms of speech of which 
we have specimens, combined with the fact of these 
being numerous, the languages for the whole of Austra- 
lia form but one class, has been urged by Grey, Tlired- 
keld, the present writer, and others' — by all upon inde- 
pendent researches. Upon the value, however, of the class, 
but little criticism has been expended. 

Affinities, especially in respect to grammatical struc- 
ture, with the Tamul languages have been indicated by 
Norriss. I doubt, however, whether they are the near- 
est — indeed, I think that indirect relationship and a 

* Appendix to Jukes' s Voyage of the Fly by the present writer. 



AUSTRALIA. 



851 



real or apparent partial coincidence in respect to the 
stage of their development is all that the comparisons 
warrant. 

The numerals are on the low level of those of South 
America — rarely reaching five; generally stopping at 
three. 

Beginning with the north, and more particularly with 
the parts about the Gulf of Carpentaria, we have — 



EngUsh. 


Cape York. 


(1.) 

Massied. 


Gudang. 


Kowrarega. 


Head 






pada 


quiku 


Eye 


dana 


dana 


dana 


dana 


Ear 


cartisa 


ctira 


ewunya 


kowra 


Nose 


picM 


pechi 


eye 


piti 


Mouth 


anca 


anca 


angka 


guda 


Teeth 


dang 


danga 


ampo 


danga 


Tongue 


nay 


nay 


untara 


nai 


Hair 


mucii 








(0/ head) yal 


eeal 


odye 


yal 


NecTc 


kurka 


kercuk 


yiiro 


mudul 


Hand 


geta 


geta 


arta 


geta 


Sun 






inga 


gariga 


Moon 






aikana 


•kissnri 


Star 






onbi 


titure 


Fish 


wapi 


wapi 


wawpi 


wawpi. 



Then, for the eastern coast — 







(2.) 






English. 


Moreton Bay. 


Sidney. 


Jervis Bay. 


Muruya. 


Man 




kure 


mika 


yuen 


Woman 




dyin 


kala 


wangen 


Head 




kabara 


hollo 


kapan 


Hair 


cubboaeu 


kitong 


tirar 


tiaur 


Eye 


mil 


mebarai 


ierinn 


mabara 


Nose 


moral 


nokoro 


nokoro 




Mouth 




karka 


kame 


ta 


Teeth 


dear 


yira 


ira 


yira 


Tongue 


dalan 


dalan 


talen 


talang 


Ear 


bidne 


kure 


kouri 


guri 


Hand 


morrah 


damora 


maramale 


mana 


Foot 






tona 


dana 


Sun 


baga 


gan 


ore 


bogorin 


Moon 


galan 


gibuk 


tahouawan 


dawara. 



52 




AUSTRALIA. 




Inland- 


__ 


(8.) 






English. 


Peel River. 


Bathurst. 


Wellington. 


Mudji. 


Man 


iure 


mauung 


gibir 


kolir 


Woman 


inor 


balan 


inur 




Head 


l?iira 


balang 


budyang 


ga 


Hair 


tR,ikul 


gian 


uran 




Eye 


mil 


mekalait 


mil 


mir 


Nose 


mum 




murung 




Mouth 


ngankai 


nandarge 


ngan 




Teeth 


yira 


irang 


irang 


yira 


Tongue 


tale 




talan 


talai 


Ear 


bina 


benangarei 


uta 


bina 


Hand 


ma 




mura 


mara 


Foot 


tina 


dina 


dinang 


dina 


Sun 


toni 


mamady 


irai 


murai 


Moon 


palu 


daidyu 




kilai. 



The Kamilaroi (of which the Wellington and Mudji 
are dialects) is spoken over a district between 400 
and 500 miles, and 50 broad: chiefly towards the 
head-waters of the Hunter river. 

(4.) 



English. 


Kamilaroi. 






English. 


KamilaioL 


Man 


giwir 






Sun 


do 


Native 


murri 






Moon 


gille 


Head 


kaoga 






Star 


mirri 




ga 






Fire 


wi 


Eye 


mil 






Water 


koUe 


Nose 


muro 






Bam 


yuro 


Teeth 


yira 






One 


mal 


Ear 


binna 






Two 


bularr 


Tongue 


tulle 






Three 


guliba 


Chin 


tal 






Four 


bularrbularr 


NecTc 


nun 






Five 


bulaguliba 


Foot 


dinna 






Six 


gulibaguliba. 


Day 


yarai 










Conterminous with the Kamilaroi are 


the— 






(5.) 






English. 




Wiradurei. 




Witouro. 


Man 




gibir 




gole 


Woman 




inar 




bagorook 


Head 




balang 




moornyook 


Eyes 




mil 




mirrook 


Ea/rs 




uta 




wingook 


Nose 




murung 




karnyook 


Bme 




dal 


>al 




goorooh 



^ 



WITOURO, ETC. 



353 





English. 


Wiradurei. 


Witouro. 




Blood 


r 


kuaiugi 


goortanyook 




Teeth 




irang 


leanyook 




Tongue 


talain 


tallanyook 




Hand 


r 


mura 


munangin 




Foot 




dinang 


tinnamook 




Sun 




irai 


mirri 




Moon 






menyan 




Stars 






toortbaram 




Fire 




win 


wing 




Water 


kaling 


moabeet 




Ea/rth 




takun 


dax 




Stone 




walang 


lax 




One 




wakol 


koen meet 




Twa 




buloara 


buUait. 




I 




ngatoa 


bangeek 




You 




nngintoa 

(6.) 


bangen. 


English 




Lake Hindmarsh. 


Lake Mundy. 


Molonglo. 


Head 




boropepinack 




kotagong 


Hand 




mannyah 




marroula 


Feet 




jinnerr 




jinygy 


Eyes 




mer 


meerrang 


magalite 


Nose 




kar 


karbung 


noor 


Tooth 






tungan 





Sun 




narwee 


tharrerong 


eurroga 










buggarang 










mummait 


Moon 




yarrekudyeah 


bambourk 


cobboton 


Star 




toura 


yeeringminap 


ginaga 


Fire 




wheey 
wanyup 


wheein 


kanby 


Water 




gartyin 


barreet 


naijjon 






allangope 


(7.) 




EugUsh. 


Jhongworong, 


Pinegorlne. 


Gnurellean. 


Head 




morromgnata 


poko 


tonggognena 


Eyes 




meringgnata 


ma 


meregnena 


Nose 




kawinggnata 


kowo 


tandegnena 


Foot 




gnenonggnata 


gena 


genongbegnena 


Sun 




nowan 


yourugga 


nowwer 


Moon 




yambuk 


yourugkuda 


torongi 


Star 




fort 


tutta 


tortok 


Fire 






peda 


wembe 


Water 









kordenok. 
A A 



354 



PARNKALLA, ETC. 







(8.) 




English. 


WoddowTong. 


Koligon, 


Dau^gart 


Head 


morrokgnetok 


morrokgninok 


benianen 


Eye 


mergnetok 


mergnetok 


mergnanem 


Nose 


kanugnetok 


konggnetok 




Foot 


genongnetok 


kenonggnetok 




Sun 


mere 


na 


derug 


Moon 


yem 


bard bard 


barinannen 


Star 


fotbarun 


karartkarart 


bommaramorxig 


Fire 


weang 


wean 




Water 


gnobet 


kan 

(9.) 


baret. 


English. 


Boraiper. 


Yakkumban. 


Aiawong. 


Head 


poorpai 





petpoga 


Hand 


mannangy 




mannourko 


Foot 


tshinnangy 




dtun 


Eye 


merringy 




koUo 


Nose 


cheengi 




roonko 


Tooth 


leeangy 




ngenko 


Sun 


nauwingy 


ynko 


ngankur 


Moon 


mityah 


paitchoway 


kakkirrah 


Star 


tootte 


poolle 


pille 


Fire 


wannappe 


wheenje 


kabungo 




wolpool 


koonnea 





Water 


tarnar 


tinbomma 


ngookko 




konene 







I 


yetwa 




ngappo 


Thou 


ninwa 


nimba 


ngurru 


She 


niyala 




nin 


We 


yangewer 


innowa 


ngenno 


Ye 






nguno 


They 


wootto 




ngauo 


One 


keiarpe 


neetchar 


meiter 


Two 


poolette 


parkooloo 


tangkul 


Three 


pooleckwia 


parkool-netcharri 

(10.) 


tangku-meiter. 


English. 


Parnkalla. 


Head of Bight. Westfirn Australia. 


Head 


kakka 


karga 


katta 


Hand 


marra 


merrer 


myrea 


Feet 


idna 


jinna 


jeena 


Eye 


mena 


mail 


mail 


Nose 


mudla 


mullah 


moolya 


Tooth 


ira 


erai 


nelgo 


Sun 


yurno 


tshiadu 


nganga 








batta 



PARNKALLA, ETC. 



355 



English. 


Parnkalla. 


Head of Bight. 


Western Australia. 


Moon 


perra 


perar 


meki 


Star 


purle 


kalga 


milyarm 


Fire 


gadla 


kaUa 




kalla 


Watet 


kapi 


gaippe 






kauo 


kauwe 


kowwin 


I 


ngai 


ajjo 




nganya 




ngatto 


janna 


bal 


Thou 


ninna 






nginnee 


She 


panna 






ngangeel 


We 


ngarrinyalbo 






nganneel 










arlingul 


Ye 


nuralli 






nurang 


They 


yardna 






balgoon 


One 


kuma 


gumera 


kain 


Two 


kuttara 


kootera 


karclura 


Three 


kappo 


(11.) 




ngarril. 


English. 


Port PhUip. 






English. 


Port Philip. 


Man 


meio 






Foot 


tenna 


Woman 


ammaik 






Sky 


poulle 


Tongue 


tatein 






Moon 


kaker 


Head 


iouk 






Star 


poulle 


Beard 


molda 






Sun 


tendo 


Mouth 


ta 






Tree 


ara 


Nose 


modla 






Fire 


alia 


Arm 


aondo 






Water 


kawi 


Eye 


mennha 






Sea 


kopoul 


ffai/r 


iouko 






Bird 


pallo 


Ear 


ioure 






Stone 


poure 


Tooth 


ta 






Fish 


rouia 


Nail 


perre 






One 


mangorut 


Finger 


malta 






Two 


pollai. 


Hand 


malla 














(12.) 






English. 


King George's Sound. 






English. 


King George's Sound 


Woman 


iok 






Tongue 


talin 


Head 


kat 








tarlin 


Hand 


mal 






Eye 


mehal 




mar 






Nail 


piak 


Beard 


annok 








perre 





narnak 






Foot 


kean 


Mouth 


taa 









dien 


Arm 


marok 









teal 


Hair 


kaat 









tchen 




tchao 






Blood 


oop 


Tooth 


ollog 






Sky 


marre 




orlok 






Moon 


meok 
A A 2 



356 



3 


KAMILAROI. 




English. 


King George's Sound. 


English. 


King George's SounJ 


Star 


tchindai 




pouai 


Sun 


kiat 


Bird 


kierd 


Fire 


kal 


Stone 


poie 




karl 





boiel 


Water 


kepe 


One 


ken 


Sea 


mamorot 


Two 


kadien 


Tree 


tarevelok 


Three 


taan. 


^99 


kirkai 







Some (at least) of the Australian languages are named 
after the word meaning ]}^o ; so that the Kamilaroi, the 
Wolaro% the Wailwun, the Wiralhere, and the Pikabuly 
take their designations from their negatives ; these being 
ka'inil, woly waily wira, and pika, respectively. Jf this 
nomenclature be native it is remarkable. In Italy and 
France the same principles prevailed in the twelfth 
century. In the early stages, however, of rude lan- 
guages it has yet to be discovered beyond the area now 
under notice. 

The following are paradigms for the Kamilaroi : — 



mute, an opossum. 
mutedu, an opossum (agent). 
mute-ngu, of an opossum. 
mute-gOf to an opossum. 



mute-diy from an opossum. 
mute- da, in an opossum. 
mute-Tcunda, with an opossum. 



ngaia, I. 


ngulle, thou or you, and I 


, ngedne, we. 


ngai, my. 


ngullina, he and I. 


ngeane-ngu, of us. 


ngaiago, to me. 


ngulle-ngu, belonging to ngeane-go, to us. 


ngai adz, from me. 


you and me. 


ngeane-di, from us. 


ngaiada, in me. 


ngullina-ngu, belonging ngeane-da, in us. 


ngaiakunda, 


to him and me. 


ngeane-Tcunda, with us 


with me. 


nguUe-go, to you and me 




ngununda, me. 


&c. &c. 




inda, thou. 


inddU, ye two. 


ngindai, ye. 


inda-ngu, "1 ^. 
or nginnu, J ^' 


indale-ngu. 


ngindai-ngu, 




&c. 


inda-go, to thee, 


indale-go. 




&c. 


&c. 




nglrma, he, she, or that. 


ngdrmd, they. 


numma or ngubho, this. 


nguruma, that (iste). 


"^^rb-'^Mme). 


andi ? who ? 


nunnlma? which? 


minna or minya? what 1 


nyaragedul or ngaragi 


', another. 


kdnvmgo, all. 



KAMILAROL 357 

glr bumalnge, did beat to-day. 
gir bumalmien, did beat yesterday. 
gir humallen, did beat some days ago. 

humalda, is beating. humalla, strike. 

bumalle, will beat. bumallawd, strike (empbatic and 

bumabigdrl, will beat to-morroio. earnest). 

bumalmia, strike (ironical — ''if you 

dare''). 

buTnaldai, beat (as yelle inda bumaldendai, beating ; bumahigendai, 

bumaldai, if you beat). having beaten; bumalmiendai, 

bumallago, to beat. baring beaten yesterday ; bumal- 

lendai, going to beat. 

In a systematic and general work like the present, 
wherein it is scarcely possible for the writer to treat 
each part of the subject with the care demanded by a 
special monograph, I may be excused for giving some 
extracts from certain papers, of comparatively distant 
dates, bearing upon certain parts of the subject — papers 
written when our data were scantier than they are at 
present, and papers of which the object was less to prove 
certain points, than to prepare the way to the breaking- 
down of several arbitrary lines of separation and to draw 
attention to the over-valuation of certain isolated 
characters. 

And first in respect to the affinities between the Aus- 
tralian languages taken in mass among themselves. 

That the Australian languages are one (at least in the way that the Indo- 
European languages are one), is likely from henceforward to be admitted. 
Captain Grey's statement upon the subject is to be found in his work upon 
Australia. His special proof of the unity of the Australian languages is amongst 
the unprinted papers of the Greographical Society. The opinions of Threl- 
keld and Teichelmann go the same way. The author's own statements are as 
follows : — 

(1.) For the whole round of coast there is, generally speaking, no vocabu- 
lary of sufficient length that, in some word or other, does not coincide with 
the vocabulary of the nearest point, the language of which is known to us. 
If it fail to do this it agrees with some of the remoter dialects. Flinder's 
Carpentarian, compared with the two vocabularies of the Endeavour River, 
has seventeen words in common. Of these, three (perhaps four) coincide. 
Eye, meal, C. ; meul, E. R. : hair, marra, C. ; morye, E. R. : fingers, mingel, C. 
mungal bah, E. R. : breast, gummur, C. : coyor, E. R. 



358 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



Endeavour River. — Two vocabularies. — Compared with the vocabularies 
generally of Port Jackson, and the parts south and east of Port Jackson : — 
Eye, meul, E. R. ; milla, Limestone Creek : nose, emurda, E. R.: morro, 
L. C. : ears, mulkah, E. R. ; moTco, Port Macquarie : hair, morye, E. R. : 
mundah, Burra Burra : breast, coyor, E. R. : Tcowul, Port Jackson : fingers, 
mungal bah, E. R. : maranga, B. B. : elbow, yeerwe, E. R. : yongra, Menero 
Downs : nails, Tcolhe, E. R. ; karungun ? P. J. : beard, wollar, E. R. : walo, 
Jervis's Bay ; woUaJc, Port Macquarie. — The number of words submitted to 
comparison — twenty two. 

Menero Downs (Lhotsky), and Adelaide (G. W. Earl). — Thirteen words 
in common, whereof two coincide. 



English. 
Hand 
Tongue 



Menero Downs, 
morangan 
talang 



Adelaide, 
murra 
taling. 



Adelaide (G. W. Earl) and Gulf St. Vincent (Voyage de 1' Astrolabe), 
Adelaide, Gulf St. Vincent. 

mutta molda 



English. 
Beard 



Ear 
Foot 
Hair 
Hand 

Leg 

Nose 

Teeth 



in 

tinna 
yuka 
murrah 
irako 

mula 

tial 



ioure 

tenna 

iouka 

malla 

ierko 

mudla 

ta. 



Gulf St. Vincent (Voyage de I'Astrolabe) and King George's Soimd (Nind 
and Voyage de I'Astrolabe) ; fifty words in common. 



English. 


Gulf St. Vincent. 


King George's Sound. 


Wood 


kalla 


kokol 


Mouth 


ta 


taa 


Hair 


iouka 


tchao 


Nech 


mannouolt 


wolt 


Finger 


malla 


mal 


Water 


kawe 


kepe 


Tongue 


talein 


talen 


Foot 


tenna 


tchen 


Stone 


poure 


pore 


Laugh 


kanghin 


kaoner. 



(2.) The vocabularies of distant points coincide ; out of sixty words in 
common we have eight coincident. 



English. 


Jervis's Bay. 


Gulf St. Vincent. 


Forehead 


holo 


. ioullo 


Man 


mika 


meio 


Milk 


awanham 


ammenhalo 


Tongue 


talen 


talein 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



359 



English. 


Jervis's Bay. 


Gulf St. Vincent. 


Hand 


maramale 


malla 


Nipple 


amgnann 


amma 


Blaci 


mourak 


pouilloul 


Nails 


berenou 


pere. 



(3.) The most isolated of the vocabularies, e. g. the Carpentarian, if com- 
pared with the remaining vocabularies, taken as a whole, has certain words to 
be found in different and distant parts of the island. 



EngUsh. 


Carpentarian. 


Limestone Creek. 


Eye 


mail 


milla 


Nose 


hurroo 


morro. 



The following is a notice of certain words coinciding, though taken from 
dialects far separated : — 



Lips 


tambana. 


Menero Downs 


tamande, G. S. V. 


Star 


jingi, 


ditto 


tchindai, K. G. S. 


Forehead 


ullo, 


ditto 


ioullo, G. S. V. 


Beard 


yernka. 


ditto 


(arnga, j g. ^ g 
Inanga, J ^- ^- ^- 


Bite 


paiandi. 


ditto 


badjeen, ditto 


Fire 


gaadla, 


ditto 


kaal, ditto 


Heart 


karlto, 


ditto 


koort, ditto 


Sun 


tindo. 


ditto 


djaat, ditto 


Tooth I 
Edge S 


tia, 


ditto 


dowal, ditto 


Water 


kauwe, 


ditto 


kowwin, ditto 


Stone 


pure, 


ditto 


boye, ditto. 



(4. ) The extent to which the numerals vary, the extent to which they agree, 
and the extent to which this variation and agreement are anything but coin- 
cident with geographical proximity or distance, may be seen in the following 
table : — 



English. 


One 


Moreton Bay 


kamarah 


Island 


karawo 


Bijenelumbo 


warat 


Limhakarajia 


erat 


Terrutong 


roka 


Limhapyu 


immuta 


Kowrarega 


warapune 


Gudang 


epiamana 


Damley Island 


netat 


Raffles Bay 


loca 


Lake Macquarie 


wakol 


Peel River 


peer 



Two 


Three 


bulla 


mudyan 


poonlah 


madan 


ngargark 


2+1 


ngargark 


do. 


oryalk 


do. 


lawidperra 


2+1 


quassur 


do. 


elabaio 


do. 


nes 


do. 


orica 


orongarie 


buloara 


ngoro 


pular 


purla 



360 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



English. 


One 


Two 


mree 


Wellington 


ngungbai 


Toula 


bula-ngungbai 


Corio 


koimoil 






Jhongworong 


kap 







Pinegorine 


youa 







Gnurellean 


lua 







King George's Sownd, 


keyen 


cuetrel 


murben 


Karaida 


mal 


bular 


culeba 


Lachlan, Regent Lake 


nyoonbi 


bnlia 


bulongonbi 


Wollmidilly River 


medung 


pulla 


colluerr. 



(5.) In respect to tbe vocabvlarieSy the extent to which the analysis which 
applies to the grammar applies to the vocables also may be seen in the fol- 
lowing instance. The word hand Bijenelumbo and Limbapyu is hirgalk. 
There is also in each language a second form — anbirgalh — wherein the an is 
non-radical. So, also, is the alk ; since we find that armpit=ingamb-alk, 
shoulder =mundy-alk, and fingers=:mong alk. This brings the xooi=.hand 
to hirg. Now this we can find elsewhere by looking for. In the Liverpool 
dialect, Ur-ilz=.hand, and at King George's Sound, peer=nails. The com- 
monest Toot=hand in the Australian dialects, is m-r, e.g. : — 



Moreton Bay 


murrah 


Corio 


far-onggnetok 


Karaula 


marra 


Jhongworong 


far-okguata 


Sydney 


da-mora 


Murrumbidje 


mur-rugan 


Mudje 


mara 


Molonglo 


mar-rowla 


Wellington 


murra 


Head of Bight 


merrer 


Liverpool 


ta-mura 


Parnkalla 


marra. 



All this differs from th e Port Essington terms. Elbow, however, in the 
dialects there spokeu=ioaare smd forearm=am,- ma-woor ; wler, too=palm, 
in Kowrarega. 



English. 


Hand 


English. 


Foot 


Termtong 


manawiye 


Gnurellean 


gen-ong-begnen-a 


Peel River 


ma 


Moreton Bay 


chidna 


Raffles' Bay 


maneiya. 


Karaula 


tinna 






Lake Macqaarie 


tina 


English. 


Foot 


Jhongworong 


gnen-ong-gnat-a 


Moreton Island 


tenang 


Corio 


gen-ong-gnet-ok 


Peel River 


tina 


Colack 


ken-ong-gnet-ok 


Mudje 


dina 


Bight Head 


jinna 


Wellington 


dinnung 


Parnkalla 


idna 


Liverpool 


dana 


Aiawong 


dtun 


Bathurst 


dina 


K. George's Sound tian 


Boraipar 


tchin-nang-y 


Gould Island 


pinyun and pinka 


Lake Hindma/rsh 


jin-nerr 






Murrumbidje 


tjin-nuk 


English. 


Hair, heard 


Molonglo 


tjin-y-gy 


Moreton Island 


yerreng 


Pinegorine 


gena 


Bijenelumbo 


yirka 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



861 



English. 


IIah\ heard 


English. 


Tooth 


Regent's Lake 


ooran 


Moreton Island 


tiya 


Lake Macqimme 


WTirung 


Moreton Bay 


deer 


Goold Island 


kiaram 


Lake Macquarie 


tina 


Wellington 


uran 


Sydney 


yera 


Karaula 


yerry 


Wellington 


irang 


Sydney 


yaren 


MurrumUdje 


yeeran 


Peel River 


ierai 


Gould Island 


eera. 


Mudje 


yarai. 










English. 


Tongue 


English. 


Eye 


Moreton Bay 


dalan 


Moreton Island 


mel 


Regent's Lake 


talleng 


Moreton Bay 


mill 


Karaula 


talley 


Gudang 


emeri=eyebrow 


Gould Island 


talit 


Bijenelumho 


mercle=eyelid 


Lake Macquarie 


talan 


Regent's Lake 


mil 


Sydney 


dalan 


Karaula 


mil 


Peel River 


tale 


Mudje 


mir 


K. George's Sound talien. 


Corio 


mer-gnet-ok 






Colack 


mer-gnen-ok 


English. 


Ear 


Dautgart 


mer-gna-nen 


Kowrarega 


kowra 


Jhongworong 


mer-ing-gna-ta 


Sydney 


kure 


Pinegorine 


ma 


Liverpool 


kure 


Gnurellean 


mer-e-gnen-a 


Lake Macquarie 


ngureong 


Boraipar 


mer-ring-y 


Moreton Bay 


bidna 


Lake Hindmarsl 


. mer 


Karaula 


binna 


Lake Mundy 


meer-rang 


Peel River 


bine 


Mtcrrumbidje 


mit 


Bathurst 


benang-arei 


K. George's Sound mial. 


Gould Island 


pinna. 



The main evidence, however, of the fundamental 
unity of the Australian languages lies in the wide 
diffusion of identical names for objects like foot, eye, 
toothy fire, and the like. 



362 



TASMANIAN. 



CHAPTER LIU. 

Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania. 

The earliest vocabulary we have for Van Dieman's 
Land is nine words in Cook. Then follows one by La 
Billardiere, then one by Allan Cunningharj, collected in 
1819, then one by Gaimard taken from the mouth of 
a Tasmanian woman with an Englishman as an inter- 
preter, at King George's Sound, then one by Mr. Geary, 
published by Dr. Lhotsky in the transactions of the 
Geographical Society (vol. ix.) ; and lastly one, procured 
by R. Brown, representing nearly the same dialect as 
that of La Billardiere. 

The following, however, from the Tasmanian Jour- 
nal of Natural History, contains more than all put to- 
gether, and, for practical purposes, all we have. For 
which reason it is given in extenso. 



English. 


East. 


West. 


South. 


North. 


Uncertain. 


Albatross 









tarrina 




Arm 




altree 






gouna houana 


Bad 

Badger 

Bandicoot 


publedina 
padina 




' carty 
. peindriga 


lennira 


^ probaluthin 
( probylathany 


Baric 











tolin6 


Basket 











terri 


Beach 






minna 




quenitigna 


Beard 
Belly 


minlean 


cawereeny 




( lomongui 
< tamongui 


canguin^ 
> mackalenna 


Belonging to 






{ morangui 


patourana 



1 




TASMANIAN. 




363 


l«. 


East. 


West. 


South. 


North. 


Uncertain. 


Bird 









- 


mouta-mmita 


Blackmail 


-. 




palewaredia 






Blacl-en 











langnoiri 


Bleed 






kenna teewa 






Blush 


wadebeweanna — — 








Boat 


luirapeny 


lallaby 






luiropay 


(native) 






pokak 




S luiropay 
\ picanini 


Bone 






Teewandrick 






Boy 


plerenny 











/7-«7 X fcuckana 
(^^^^^^)iludawinna| 










Bread 


towereela 










Breast 


wagley 









' workalenna 
lere-laidene 


Brother 


pleragenana 










BiillocJcs 




backalow 






bacala 


Burn 






maranneck 







Bush or grass 









womy 


Cape Gh'inim 




pilree 









Cat 


largana 


noperena 








Cave 







pootark 







Cheeh 






nobittaka 






Chief 


bimgana 










Child 


badany 




leewoon 




pagarai 


Children 








looweinna \ 
pickaninny j 




Chin 


camena 








anaha haouha 


Circular 
Head 




martula 








Cloud (white 


) 




pona 







(black) 






roona 






Coal 










conora 


Coal dust 










lolra 


Cockatoo 








eribba 




Cold 










' tenna 
ranana 












Come 


tepera 


ganemerara 


tarrabilyie 




togannera 


Coj'robory (v) 






terra gomna 




Country , 
round ' 




( wallantanal- 
( inany 








Covering 


legunia 











Coio 


cateena 










Crackle 










tanina 


Crooked 


powena 










Croio 




nanapalla 




lind 




Cry 









targa 




Crystal 






keeka 


heka 




Day 


lanena 




loina 


loyowibba 





364 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



English, 


East. 


Day (a) 


magra 


(to) 


waldeapowel 


{fine) 


lutregala 



"West. 



Dead 



Devil 



comtena 



Die 




Dim 




Dog {native) 




{British) 


Door 




Drake 


lamilbena 


{wild) 


malbena 


Dress 


legunia 


Drinl 


leguna 


Drops of rain 


Di-y 


catrebuteany 


Ear 


pelverata 


Earth 


gunta 


Eat 




Eggs 





Elbow 


rowella 


Ermi 


rekuna 


Evacuate 


legana 



patanela 



loputallow 



Eye 



Eyebrow 

Face 

Family 

Fare 

Father 

Feathers 

Fetch 

Fighi 

Finger 

Finger {fore) 

Fire 

Fish 

Fist 



lepena 



niparam 

munlamana 

munwaddia 



patarola 



trew 



lewlina 



poUatoola 



manrable 



tatana 



lopa 



South, 



f lowatka, v. 

(lowatka, p. 
rargeropper 
namneberick 



lowdina 
mooboa 
temminoop 



North. 



talba 



towrick 



meenawa 



rinadena 



cowanngga 



( newinna 

\ (gibbee) 

palinna 



leemanrick namericca 

leelberrick 

bringden 



motook 
unee 
\ lopa 



( unee \ 



Uncertain, 
moogara 



mata 
buguee 



laina laima 



blatheraway 
cuegnilia 
vaiguiouagui 
coantana 
tuwie, dodoni 
malquera topani 



laedae 
crowdo 
nubere 
nubamibere 



tagarilia 

ardoungui 

ringeny 

lorildri beguia 
logui 

wighana or 
poper, nvhe 
penunina 
penungana 



reannemara 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



English. 


East. 


^lame 




rimer 





hy 




\- {blow) 




flying 


pinega 


p'cetm 


leward 


^og 


muna 


foot 


langaaa 


frog 


pulbena 


frost 


ulta 


pirl 


ludineny 




( cuckana 



West. 



South. 



lula 



labittaka 



North. 

paraka 

mounga 

labrica 



,,. , ^ ( cucKana ) 
<«'«'<=) (ludmeny } 



fo on 

lOo home 
hod 



Grass tree 

Great 

Ground 

Gull 

Gun 



tabelty 



naracoopa 
robenganna 



tack any 
pandorga 



Jmulu \ 

\ manginie | 



haku-tettiga 



rodidana 
coratlienana 

gunta 

rowenanna 

lUa 



myna or megra neena 



nala 
lola 



365 

Uncertain, 

weealeena oelle 
lugna pere 



1 tringena mava 
< teannie mare- 
{ doungui 
f jackay (?) 
\ tangara 



( wome roonina 
1 poSne nimene 

lackrana 



longa 















I keelana 


Hair 


cethana 


r palanma or ^ 
" _ pareata 




parba 


< pelilogueni 
\ peliogirigoni 














[ henimenna 


Hand 


anamana 








rabalga 


< rilia 

[ reegna ri riri 


Hawk 


pueta 












{eagle) 


eugenana 






cowenna 


cockinna 




Head 


pathenanadd 


li pulbeany 




awittaka 


ewucka 




Here 












lomi 


High 

ma 








neika 




weeticita 


Horse 


baricutana 










parwothana 


Hunt 








poopu 




mulaga 


Hut 


leprena 






( temma 
( poporook 


tama lebirinna 


I 








■ mena 
. manga 


— - 


f meena 
\ mana 


Island 


leurewagera 










leareaway 



366 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



English. 


East 


West. 


South. 


North. 


Uncertain. 


Island J 
{large) S 












laibrenala • 










Kangaroo \ 
(inale) < 




lemmook 


lalliga 


) lathakar 
\ leigli lenna, 


{female) 




lurgu 






{pouch) kigranana 











{rat) 


reprenana 










{sJcin) 












boira tara 


Kill 







wanga 




manglie 


King 


bungana 










Knee 


nannabenana 








■ ragualia 
. rouga rouga 












Know 






( tunapee 

I manga-namraga . 


tunapry 
labberie 


Lad 


plerenny 




_. — 






Large 






marinook 






Laugh 








tenalga 




Leg 


lathanama 


leea 






■ lagana 

■ erai 












Lie {verb) 






katenna 




towlangang 


Light 










tretetea 


Lightning 






nammorgun 







Lips 












mogudelia 


Little 


■ canara or \ 
curena j 










Lobster 











nuele 


Long way 
or time 


}- 




manta 




relbia 


Love 











loyetea 


Low 










lewter 


Magpie 


canara 











Mahe 




— :- 






pomale 


Man 


ludowing 




periTia 


penna (wybra) 


{old) 


' lowlobengang 
I or pebleganana 


I 








S 








Many 







nanwoon 




tagalinga 


spears 










prennatagaling 


Mersey River 


paranaple 








Moon 


lutand 


weena 


weipa 


webba 


luina weedina 


Mosquito 







redpa 






Mother 


powamena 


pa.Tnena 









Mountain 


truwalla 











Mouth 


youtantalabana canea 




^ 


1 weenina 
I mougui 












Muscles 


.\ — 








mire.mine-mine 



MuMort, {bird) youla 



laninyua 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



367 



English 

Nails 

Navel 

NecTc 

Night 

No 

Nose 

Nurse 

Oak 

Oar 

Old 

One 



East. 



lepera 
leware 



lemana 



petibela 



milabena 



West. 



denia 



Other 

Oysters 

Parrot 

Pelican 

Pillow 

Pipe 

Plant 

Plenty 

Porcupine 

Porpoise 

Port Son^el 

PiU away 

Rain 

River 

{large) 

Rivulet 

Rods 

Rojye 

Round (tv/m) mabea 
Run (verb) moltema 

Sand 

Say 

Scold 

Scorches {it me) 

Scrape {wood) 

Sea 

Sea-weed 

See 



taralanorana 



trewdina 



mena 



trewmena 



warthanina 
waddamana 
montumana 



panatana 



nabowla 



mella 
emita 



cartela 



Seal 

Sharpen 

Sheep nemiwaddinana rulemena 

Shew 



South. 



rorook 
pootsa 
rowick 
^ makrie J 



North, 



meenamru 



panna 



naba 
murrock 



nanwoon 
menna 



taddiwa 



caracca 
lanaba 



milma 
parappa 

talawa 



tagowawmna 



kenweika 



nirnpa 

roorga 

lapree 

manga namraja 

keekawa 



neethoba 
\ lamunika 



Vncertain. 
pereloJd 
lue 

leewarry 
poobyer, nudi 
mongui mongui 



parmery 
paunera 

louha or toba 
mola 



terre 
cardia 



parragoa 



magog 
patbana 

reugnie 

carne 

peun-meena 
I rina-nnigri 
\ rouigri 



lapey 



368 

English. 

Ship 

Shoulders 

Shout 

Sick 

Side (one) 

Sit 

Sit you down 

Sh/ - 

Sleep 

Small 

Snake 

oldina 



East, 
luiropony 

camey 



crackenicka 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 

West. South. North. 

cawella 

meevenany 
loila 



Soon 

Spear 

Stars 

(little) 

Stone 

Stop 

Strike 

Strong 

Sulky 

Sun 

Swan 
Swiftly 



palaua 
lenigugana 
lenicarpeny 
neckaproiny 

kalipianna 
ratairareny 

petreanna 

f robigana "1 
\ wubia J 



yanna 



Tattoo 
Teeth 

Tell 

They {he, her, 

them or that) 

Thigh 

This 

Throw away 



Thumb 

Thunder 

Tiger 

Tongue 

Tree 

Two 

Waddy 

Wake 

Walk 



nabageena 
publee 

yannolople 
tula 



tuUana 



crackena 



roroowu 
teeboack 



crackena 



loina 



nicka 



wan 
nawaun 



toronna 



powranna 



poiranapry 

rugga raccah (s) 

moorden murdunnab 



loyna 
cocha 



lowerinna 
niamana 



lerga rocah 
lowenruppa 



(tabelty) 



Uncertain. 

hagny bagny 

raeenattie 
maubia 
megH mere 
medi 

i malougna or lo- 
( gouan 



prenna (v & s) 

lonna loine 
rogueri toidi 



workalenna 
pajanooboya 
panubere 

catagunya 

r woorangitie 
L penutita 

palere 

pegui canan 

came 



I para way 
Xpegara paguera 



peragui 
calabawa boula 



tawie mogor 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



369 



English. East. West. 

Walking 

Wallaby tablety 

Was 

Warm, 

Water (fresh) legani lerui mogo 

Water-bag 

White-man ,-r- — 

Wind 

Wing 

Woman (lubia) 

(old) lowlapewanna 

Wombai 



South. 



Wood 

Yes 

Yonder 



weela 



nitipa 

numeraredia 
lee wan 
lappa 



North. 
( teiriga ^ 
(tablee S 

tanah 

moka 



loyoranna 



Uncertain, 
tolo magara 

tara lo cougane 

crackne 
( lini mocha 
V roti 

moclia carty 
regaa 



(lubia) lurga lolna (lubia) quanipatarana 



watka 



nana 
ninga 



quoiba I 
walliga ' 



renave 
narapa nina 
neenie. 



The following, like the extracts of the preceding chap- 
ter, are from an earlier paper (indeed from the one which 
gave the others), and are inserted upon the same prin- 
ciple, and with the same excuse for their incomplete- 



ness. 



Port JDalrijmple and King George's Sound (Nind and Astrol. :)— Wound, 
barana, P. D. ; bareuJc, N. : wood, moumbra, P. D. ; p&urn, N. ; hair, 
l-ide, P. D. ; kaat, N. : thigh, degagla, P. D. ; tawal, N. : kangaroo, 
tarameif P. D. ; taainoiir, N. : lips, mona, P. D. ; mele, K. Gt. S. : no, 
pouiie, P. D. ; poualt, poort, K. G. S. : egg, Tcomelca, P. D. ; kierl-ee, 
K. G. S. : bone, j^nale, P. D. ; nouil, K. Gr. S. (bone of bird used to suck 
up water) N. : skin, Tcidna, P. D. ; hiao ? K. G. S. : two, kateboueve, P. D. ; 
kadjen, K. G. S. (N.). Fifty-six words in common. 

Po7't Dahymjile and Gulf St. Vincent. — Mouth, mona, P. D. ; tamonde, 
G. S. V. (a compound word, since taa is mouth, in K. G. S.) : drink, kible, 
P. D, ; kaive, G. S. V. : arm, an7ne, P. D. ; aondo (also shoulder), G, S. V. : 
hawk, gan henen henen, P. D. ; nanno, G. S. V. : hunger, tigate, P. D. ; 
takiou, G. S. V. : head, eloura, P. D. ; ioullo, G. S. V. : nose, medouer 
(mula), P. D. ; modla, G. S. V. : bird, iola, pallo, G. S. V. : stone, lenn 
parenne, P. D. ; poure ? G. S. V. : foot, dogna, P. D. ; tenna, G. S. V. : 
sun, tegoura (also moon), P. D. ; tendo, G. S. V. Seventy words in com- 
mon. 

B B 



370 



TASMANIAN. 



Port Dalrymple and Jerds's Bay. — Wound, barana, P. D. ; Tcaranra, 
J, B. : tooth, iane, P. D. ; ira, J. B. : skin, kidna, P. D. ; hagano, J. B. : 
foot, dogna, P. D. ; tona {tjenne, tidna, jeena), J. B. : head, eloura, P. D. ; 
hollo, J. B, Fifty-four words in common. 

What follows is a notice of some miscellaneous 
coincidences between the Van Dieman's Land and the 
Australian. 



English. 


Van Dieman's Land. 


Australia. 


Ears 


cuengilia, 1803 


gundugeli, Menero Downs 


Thigh 


tula, Lh. 


dara, Menero Downs 


Stone 


S pure, Adel. 
\ voye, K. G. S. 


lenn parene, P. D. 


Breast 


pienenana, Lh. 


voyene, Menero Downs 


Skin 


kidna, P.D. 


makundo, Teichelman 


Day 


megra, Lh. 


nangeri, Menero Downs 


Run 


mella, Lh. 


monri, Menero Downs 


Feet 


perre, D. C. 


birre, generally toe-nail 


Little 


bodenevoued, P. D. 


baddoeen. Grey 


Lip 


mona, P. D. 


tameno {upper lip), ditto. [mar 


Egg 


komeka, P. D. 


muka, egg, anything round, Teichel- 


Tree 


moumra, P. D. 


worra (forest), Teichelman 


Mouth 
Tongue 
Tooth 


f kamy, Cook. 
i kane, P. D. 


( speak ) 
kame < mouth > Jervis's Bay 


Speak 


( cry ) 


Leg 


darra, P. J. 


lerai 


Knee 


gorook, ditto. 


ronga, D. C. 


Moon 


tegoura, P. D. 


kakirra, Teichelman 


Nose 


medouer, P. D. 


V mudla, ditto 
I moolya, Grey 


Hawk 


gan henen henen, P. D. 


gargyre, ditto 


Hunger 


tegate, P. D. 


taityo, Teichelman 


Laugh 


pigne, P. D. 


mengk, Grey 


Moon 


vena, 1835 


yennadah, P. J. 


Day 


megra, 1835 


karmarroo, ditto 


Fire 


une, 1803 


yong, ditto 


Dew 


manghelena, rain 


menniemoolong 
( neylucka, Murray, P. D. 


Water 


boue lakade 


< bado, ditto 
( lucka, Carpentarian. 



Papuan affinities of the Tasmanian. 



Feet 

Beard kongine 



C perre 

\ perelia (nails) 



petiran, Carteret Bay 

J gangapouni, WaigiH 
\ yenga, MallicoUo 







TASMANIAN. 3 / 1 


Bird 


mouta 


manouk, Mallicolh 


Chin 


kamnena 


gambape, WaigiH 


Tooth 


( canan 
< iane 
( yane 


gani, movth, Waigiu 

insik, teeth, Port Praslin, Mallicolh 


Sand 


gune 


coon, yean 


Wood 
Tree 


|gui 


kaibus, Pap. and Mallicollo 


Ear 


koyge 


gaaineng, New Caledonia 


Mouth 


mougui 


wangue and mouanguia 


Arm 


houana, gouna 


pingue 


Shoulders 


. S bagny ) 
' \ taguy j 


bouheigha 


Fire 


nuba 


afi, Mepp, nap, Mallicollo 


Knees 


rangalia 
rouga 


banguiligha 


Dead 


mata 


mackie 


No 


neudi 


nola 


Ears 


cuegni-lia 


guening 


Nails 


pereloigni 


pihingui 


Hair 


pelilogueni 


bouling, poun ingue 


Teeth 


pegui 


( penoungha 
1 paou wangne 


Fingers 


beguia 


badouheigha 


Nose 


mongiii 


mandec, vanding 


Sleep 


makunya 


kingo. 



The Tasmanian, with its four dialects, is spoken by 
fewer than fifty individuals, occupants of Flinders 
Island, to which they have been removed. 



B B 2 



372 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 



CHAPTER LIV. 

Review of the preceding Class. — Its Characteristics, Divisions, and Value. — 
The so-called Negritos. 

The details of a large group being now done with we 
may take a retrospect of the class at large. 

The first thing which commands attention is its thorough 
insular or oceanic character ; on the strength of which 
those who choose to give it a general name may call it 
the Oceanic class. Subordinate to this is the remarkable 
distribution of some of its members ; even when treated 
as Oceanic. Easter Island is nearer to America, Mada- 
gascar nearer to Africa than to Asia. Formosa, on the 
other hand, is in the latitude of China and on the verge 
of the Japanese waters. The small islands that lie im- 
mediately to the North of it end in a compound of sima, 
which, in Japanese, means island. 

In no one out of the thousand and one islands and 
islets in which the preceding dialects are spoken, are 
there any clear and undoubted signs of any older popu- 
lation than the speakers of the present languages, dialects 
and subdialects, in their oldest form. I say clear and 
undoubted, because, in some, they have been either inferred 
or presumed — it may be on reasonable grounds. The 
strongest presumptions (not unaccompanied by evidence) 
in favour of anything of this kind are in Formosa. 

In one great division of the group (i. e. in Polynesia 
Proper) the diffusion has been decidedly recent ; this 



m GENERAL. 373 

being an inference from the great uniformity with which 
the language is spoken from the Sandwich Islands to 
New Zealand, from Easter Island to Ticopia. 

That the line of migration for Micronesia and Polynesia 
was round the Papuan area rather than across it was 
suggested by Forster. His suggestion, however, has been 
but imperfectly recognized, so that some writers have 
unconsciously re-discovered it, and others have speculated 
from a point of view which they would never have 
taken had the investigations of that able man been fami- 
liar to them. In blaming others for this neglect the 
present writer by no means exculpates himself. 

Of the difference between the Oceanic tongues 
and those continental forms of speech which lie 
nearest to them, in the way of geography, too much has 
been made. Of the continental languages those which 
are the most monosyllabic, accentuate, and (to European 
ears) cacophonic, (such as the Burmese and the Chinese,) 
are those which are the best known in Europe, while, 
on the other hand, it is the Malay and the Javanese, with 
their soft sounds, their dissyllabic and polysyllabic voca- 
bles, and their liquid articulations, which have commanded 
the most attention. In the Manillas and Madagascar a 
comparatively complex grammar adds to the elements 
of contrast. 

That the difference is considerable cannot be denied. 
The remark, however, upon the extinction of the 
nearest congener to the Malay, which was made at the 
beginning of our exposition, helps to account for it. 

Another series of facts that calls for a few remarks 
lies in the domain of the ethnologist rather than in that 
of the pure philologue — a series of facts suggested by a 
term that has been used more than once — viz. Negrito. 
That the Papuans, and that the Australians are of that 
colour which the name Negro, as applied to the African, 
suggests, is well known. As they are not yellow, and 
as hrown, maroon, chocolate, and the like, are by no 



374 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

means current terms in Geography, we call them some- 
what laxly, and somewhat too generailiy, Blacks. And Black 
let them — ^largely and generally — be called. The mam 
fact connected with their colour lies in the real or sup- 
posed existence of men and women of the same dark 
hue, not only in New Holland and New Guinea, but in 
certain islands of the Indian Archipelago. In what 
particular islands they are to be found, and what shade 
of darkness those that are found actually exhibit, is a 
matter upon which it is difficult to obtain precise in- 
formation. Twenty or thirty years ago, these indi- 
viduals — individuals who may conveniently be called 
the Blacks of the Malay area — were ascribed to almost 
every island in the Archipelago with the exception of 
Java. As the islands, however, have become better 
known, the Blacks have become conspicuous from their 
non-existence ; the real fact being that in certain localities 
certain tribes are, at one and the same time, ruder than 
the rest, more pagan than the rest, darker-skinned, and 
(in some cases) worse-fed, than the rest. Of the Blacks 
of the Philippines (the only group wherein their absolute 
non-existence has not been demonstrated) this is (in all 
probability) the most that can be said — in other words, 
it may safely be stated, that the existence of a variety of 
mankind forming a class to which the term Negrito can 
either scientifically or conveniently apply is imaginary. 
How far the same applies to the Samangs of the main- 
land remains to be seen. Of the Andaman islanders, 
for the philology of the present group, no cognizance 
need be taken. Their affinities are with the Mon and 
Burmese. 

Now, however unreal this Negrito element in the 
Indian Archipelago may be, it is clear that, so long as it 
is assumed, it must serve as a basis for a good deal of 
hypothetical speculation. In the first place, the lan- 
guages which go with it run a great chance of being 
separated from their geographical neighbours on a priori 



IN GENERAL. 375 

grounds. And on a priori grounds this separation has 
been imagin'ed. After what has been stated, it is need- 
less to add that it has no existence. The Umiray, the 
San Matheo, and the Dun^agat forms of speech are, eo 
norriine, Negrito, and ed lingua akin to the Tagala or 
the ordinary Phib'ppine : as may be seen by either the 
cursory inspection of them supplied by the present work, 
or a reference to the fuller vocabulary of Steen Bille's 
Voyage of the Galath^e, from which (the only authority 
for the class) they are taken. 

In respect to the relations borne by the Papuan lan- 
guages to the Australian, and those borne by the lan- 
guages of the two groups (taken together) with the 
Malay and Polynesian (in the ordinary sense of the terms), 
this same difference of physical conformation (which 
is to a great extent real) has had a similar effect in en- 
gendering guess-work. The statement that, between 
the Black tongues and the Brown or Yellow there is 
no affinity, is simply a crudity uttered upon a prioH 
grounds by authorities who ought to have been more 
cautious. There are plenty of affinities. What they are 
worth is another question. Whatever the Papuan and 
Australian languages may be like, or unlike, they are 
more like one another than aught else ; they are, also, 
more like the Malay and Polynesian, however little or 
great that likeness may be. Whether great or small, 
however, there is some likeness. 

And, in like manner, whether the likeness be little or 
much, the Malay languages are liker to the southern 
members of the monosyllabic class than to any other 
forms of speech. Indian affinities they may have, and 
Turanian affinities they may have, but they have only 
these so far as they have them through the interjacent 
tongues, or else through being in either the same, or a 
similar, stage of development. Common sense suggests 
this, and observation verifies it. 

That the class is a natural one is admitted ; the 



376 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

only doubt being whether it be not too large a one. In 
other words, it may be a congeries of three or tv»^o classes 
rather than a single group. The present writer, whilst 
he insists upon its being single, admits that it is a class 
of a high ordinal value ; what that value is being unde- 
termined. It falls into two primary divisions : — 

The first contains the Malay, the word being used so 
as to include everything from the Siamese frontier to 
Formosa on the north and the islands beyond Timor 
to the east. In this, the Malagasi and Formosan are 
extreme, or aberrant, divisions : the remainder being 
grouped round Flores, round Celebes, and round Min- 
doro, as centres, and the principle of classification being 
that of type rather than definition. The ordinary way 
of taking the Malay as a starting-point is inconvenient : 
inasmuch as, the Malay is an extreme rather than a 
central form of speech. 

The second division of the group begins with Lord 
North's Island, and ends in the parts between the 
Kingsraill group and the Samoan Archipelago, contain- 
ing, inter alia, the Ladrones and Carolines, i. e. Micro- 
nesia. That the Tobi and Pelew languages (the former 
apparently with special affinities to the XJlea) belong to 
this rather than to the Philippines is an inference from 
the few data we possess : the Pelew being a very out- 
lying language. That the class ends exactly at the 
Navigators' Islands is scarcely a safe assertion. That 
the Kingsmill (or Tarawan) dialects belong to it, and 
that the Samoan does not, is all that is absolutely cer- 
tain. It may be added that, in other respects, i. e. on 
ethnological grounds, the group is a natural one. It 
is one, however, for which we are greatly in want of 
data, I know of no grammar for Micronesia ; and, al- 
though it is nearly certain that more is known in Spain 
about the Ladrone and Caroline dialects than is current 
amongst philologues, I know of no written compositions 
or carefully-constructed vocabularies. 



IN GENERAL. 377 

Witli the Navigators' Islands, or the Samoan Archi- 
pelago, the third class, or that containing Polynesia 
Proper, begins : the Nukahivan being more especially 
Samoan, and the Hawaian of the Sandwich Islands 
being more particularly Nukahivan. Then come the 
Society and Friendly Islands, forming the central mass, 
from which Paumoto (Dangerous Archipelago), Easter 
Island, Rarotonga, the Austral Islands, and New Zea- 
land — each in their several directions — seem to have 
been peopled ; with Ticopia, Rotuma, Ilea, &c., as offsets 
in the West. The minute detail of all this has been 
carefully investigated by able philologues, missionary and 
lay ; indeed the amount of material collected for Poly- 
nesia Proper stands in a favourable contrast to the scanti- 
ness of our data for Micronesia. 

The ordinal value of the Polynesian class is as low 
as that of the Turk ; and, if we allow for the difference 
between a wide diffusion over a continent and a wide 
diffusion over an ocean, it is with the Turks that the 
Polynesians must be compared. They have spread both 
recently and rapidly. In the Micronesian and Malay 
groups there must be some five or six sections, each of 
which is of as high an ordinal value as all Polynesia. 
On the other hand, it is possible that the oldest island 
beyond the Samoan Archipelago has received its popula- 
tion from the Navigators' Islands subsequent to the date 
of the settlement of the Norwegians in Iceland. 

The second grand class may be called Keleno7iesian, 
(a term which is preferable on etymological grounds to 
Melanesian,) or the class appertaining to the islands 
with a dark-skinned population. Of this enough has 
been said already. It falls into two or three primary 
divisions as the case may be — certainly into the 
Papuan and Australian, perhaps into the Papuan, the 
Australian, and the Tasmanian. 

The Polynesians went round Kelenonesia ; and, ac- 
cording to many good authorities, the Fijis give us an 



878 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

area where the two streams met. Individually, I think 
that the Papuan element in their dialects has been over- 
valued. I commit myself, however, to no decided opinion. 
The Fiji group was, therefore, dealt with by itself, and 
the chief Papuan affinities (taken wholly from Gabelentz) 
which its vocabularies exhibited were given somewhat 
fully. 

Each of the Kelenonesian groups (even if we take in 
the Tasmanian as a primary one) is of high ordinal 
value, especially when it is compared, or contrasted, with 
the Polynesian Proper, to which it stands much in the 
same relation as the Ugrian does to the Turk, Mongol, or 
Tungus. This is an inference not only from certain ex- 
treme forms but from the decided contrasts which certain 
languages of islands in close geographical relations to each 
other present. That certain phenomena of transition will 
occur when the forms of speech from the central parts of 
New Guinea become known is what may reasonably be 
expected. Still, the extremes will remain as distant 
from one another as before ; and so will the chasms in 
the interjacent area. As it is, the New Guinea lan- 
guages appear to constitute a group equivalent to all the 
rest put together ; beyond which the Soloman Islands, 
the New Hebrides, the Loyalty Islands, and New Cale- 
donia, form three subordinate divisions of a second class, 
themselves falling into sections and sub-sections. With 
data, however, so scanty as those which we possess, no 
arrangements can be other than provisional ; so that it is 
only on the principle that truth comes more easily out 
of error than out of confusion that the previous classi- 
fication has been suggested. 

That the grammatical structure of the Papuan lan- 
guages has been credited with certain remarkable cha- 
racteristics — characteristics of sufficient importance to 
be set against a considerable amount of glossarial co- 
incidence — has already been stated. I think, however, 
that much of their value depends upon their novelty. 



IN GENERAL. 379 

Gabelentz, with whom any investigator must differ with 
hesitation, lays manifest stress upon two points — the 
quinary character of the Papuan numeration and the 
system of personal pronouns. But the former is a nega- 
tive, rather than a positive, character — all the more so 
from the fact of the five numerals as far as they go, 
being undeniably and admittedly both Malay and Poly- 
nesian. 

With the personal pronouns the matter is less simple. 
They present two phenomena ; ( I ) the so-called Exclusive 
and Inclusive forms, and (2) the so-called Trinal num- 
ber. 

Of these the Annatom gives a fair example ; where 



Ainyak = / 
Akaijan =^you two + / 
Ajumrau = you two — I 
Akataij = you three + / 



Aijumtaij = you three 
Akaija = you + / 
Aijama = you — /. 



That these are rare ways of speaking cannot be 
denied. Few persons in English care to say how many 
persons they address, or yet to say whether they are 
themselves included in what is said. What, hov/ever, 
are such expressions as nos otros, vos otros, in Spanish, 
and nui altri, vui altri in Sardinian, but plurals, which 
(whatever they may be at the present time) are exclu- 
sive in their origin ? It can scarcely, however, be said 
that these are inflections. 

And the same applies to the so-called trinal number. 
Who calls vje three, in English, a Number at all, i. e. a 
Number in the technical and grammatical sense of the 
word ? Who even calls us two a Dual ? Yet that 
the Papuan Trinal is neither more nor less than this is 
plain from the following forms in the MallicoUo : — 

Kba-miihl = you two 
Na-taroi = you three 
Na-tavatz = yo^i four 
Dra-tin = we three 
Dra-tovatz = toe four. 



Inau = / 








Khai-iin = 
Na-ii = he 


you 






Na-muhl i 
Drivan j 


= we 


two 


1 exclusive 
\ inclusive 



38a OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

As points, then, of grammar, or, at any rate, as points 
of inflection, I submit that the Quinary Numeration, 
the Exclusive and Inclusive Pronouns, and the Trinal 
Number be eliminated from the consideration of the 
Papuan characteristics ; and I add that, even if they 
were grammatical they would scarcely be characteristic ; 
inasmuch as they may be found elsewhere, and that not 
only sporadically, or among the languages of the world 
at large, but within the Malay and Polynesian area 
itself. 

Other points of criticism connect themselves with the 
phonesis. The Polynesian languages are pre-eminently 
vocalic. They are vocalic if we look to the paucity of sepa- 
rate consonantal sounds ; h, d, g, s, and r, being generally 
wanting. They are vocalic if we look to the fact of few 
or no words ending in a consonant. They are vocalic 
if we look to the non-existence of two concurrent conso- 
nants in the same syllable. 

Now, in all these matters the Papuan tongues present 
some contrast. In some of the islands there are conso- 
nantal endings ; in some concurrent consonants ; in all 
of them more elementary consonants than are to be 
found in any language of Polynesia. Yet they differ 
among themselves in the extent to which they are thus 
consonantal ; some having many, others but few, words, 
where a consonant is final. None are more vocalic 
than the most vocalic of the Malay tongues ; and among 
the Malay tongues themselves some are more consonantal 
than others. Above all, it is not with the Polynesian 
that the Papuan tongues are, in the first instance, to be 
compared — still less exclusively. 

As has already been stated, the ordinal value of the 
Polynesian class is nil, or nearly so. The real point of 
contact between the Papuan and Non-papuan tongues 
lies in the parts about Ceram. From these I think 
that New Guinea was peopled at a period anterior to 
the peopling of Micronesia ; at a time when the remote 



IN GENERAL. 



381 



ancestors of the Eastern Moluccas were ruder, more un- 
dersized, and darker-skinned (for in this sense the term 
Negrito may have an ethnological import), than they 
are now ; at a time when they were cliiefly pagan ; at 
a time when the useful arts were in their very rudi- 
ments ; at a time when the numeration went no further 
than the five fingers of a single hand. If so, the Poly- 
nesians should give us the extremities of two chains, 
rather than any link between them. 

The relations of the Papuans to the Australians is 
more equivocal. I once suggested, on the strength of 
certain New Caledonian affinities, that Tasmania was 
peopled by means of a migration that came via the 
Papuan islands, i. e, round Australia, lather than across 
it ; a doctrine which at present I am prepared neither to 
abandon nor assert. 

In like manner Australia may have been peopled from 
New Guinea, or from Timor : if from Timor, at a period 
of greater rudeness and barbarity than even that which 
(by hypothesis) prevailed in the Eastern Moluccas when 
New Guinea was first occupied. When Australia was 
first trod numeration had not even renchad five. 

The numerals are preceded by prefixes (as may be 
seen in the specimen) throughout the Papuan languages ; 
and in comparatively distant localities these prefixes 
coincide — e. g. in the Louisiade and New Caledonia. 



English 


One 


Two 


Brierly Island 


paihe-tia, 


pahi-wo 


Cook's New Caledonia 


wa-geeaing 


wa-roo 


La Billardiere's do. 


oica-nait 


oua-dou 


English 


Three 


Four 


Brierly Island 


paihe-iwaxi 


paihe-^ak 


Cook's New Caledonia 


wa-teen 


wa-mbaeek 


La Billardiere's do. 


owa-tguien 


oua-tbait 


EngUsh 


Five 


Six 


Brierly Island 


paiheAvoao. 


paihe-won 


Cook's New Caledonia 


wa-nnim 


wa-nnim-geeek 


La Billardiere's do. 


o?(a-nnaim 


(m-naim-guik 



382 



OCEANIC LANGUAGES 



English 


Seven 


Eight 


Brierly Island 


^aAe-pik 


paihe-w&n 


Cook's New Caledonia 


?^-a-nnim-noo 


wa-nnim-gain 


La Billardiere's do. 


owa-naim-dou 


OM-naim-guein 


English 


Nine 


Ten 


Brierly Island 


paihe-siwo 


paiAe-awata 


Cook's New Caledonia 


wa-nnim-baeek 


wa-nnoon-aiuk 


La Billardiere's do. 


owa-naim-bait 


owa-doun-hic. 



Traces of this, however, may be found within the Malay 
area. 

Another point worth noticing is the following ; a 
point best illustrated by certain American languages, 
e. g. amongst others by those of the following table : — 

(1.) 



English. 


Mbaya. 


Abi[)onian. 


Mokohi. 


Head 


wa-guilo 


we-maiat 




Eye 


rti-gecoge 


7i«-toele 


m'-cote 


Ear 


wa-pagate 






Nose 


m'-onige 






Tongue 


no-gueligi 







Hair 


na-modi 


we-etiguic 


wa-ccuta 


Band 


w^■-baagadi 


wa-pakeni 


%a-poguena 


Foot 


wo-gonagi 


(2.) 




English. 


Moxa (1).* 


Moxa (2). 


Moxa (3). 


Head 


ntt-ciuti 


WM-chuti 


7m-cliiuti 


Eye 


mi-chi 




nu-ki 


Ear 


wM-cioca 






Nose 


nw-siri 


nu-siri 




Tongue 


WM-nene 


nu-nene 


nu-nene 


Hand 


nu-hoTB 


WM-boupe 


nu-hore 


Foot 


wr-bope 




ni-ho-pe. 



Here the prefix is the possessive pronoun, so that na- 
guilo = TYiy head, &c. ; the capacity of the speaker for 
separating the thing possessed from the possessor being, 
apparently, so small as to make it almost impossible to 
disconnect the noun from its pronoun. 

The Papuan and (?) Tasmanian give the same amalga- 
mation. 

* These are three diiFerent dialects. 



IN GENERAL. 383 

Upon what may be called the Ablative Subject, more 
will be said in the sequel. 

What follows is an extract from three very short vo- 
cabularies, illustrating the statement, made some chap- 
ters back, that the Ombay, the Mangarei, and the Tiw- 
hora, had Kelenonesian affinities. 

ATm=ibarana, Ombay ; porene, Pine Grorine dialect of Australia. 

'H.a.nd=oidue, Ombay ; hingue, New Caledonia. 

Nose=mow?u', Ombay ; maninya, mandeg, mandeinne, New Caledonia ; 
mena, Van Dieman's Land, western dialect ; minij Mangerei ; meoun, 
muidge, imigui, Macquarie Harbour. 

Head=imo«7a, Ombay; 7noos (=hair), Darnley Islands; moochi (=hair), 
Massied ; immoos (=:beard), Darnley Islands ; eeta moochi (=beard), 
Massied. 

Knee={cici-houha, Ombay ; bowka, houlkay (=forefinger), Darnley Is- 
lands. 

Leg=M*aZ;a, Ombay ; horag-nata, Jhongworong dialect of the Australian. 

Bosom=:a7nz', Ombay ; naem, Darnley Island. 

Tliigh=tYg?ia, Ombay ; tinna-mooTc (=foot), Witouro dialect of Australian. 
The root, tin, is very general throughout Australia in the sense of foot. 

Belly=^e-Z;a_p-awa, Ombay ; coopoi (==navel), Darnley Island. 

Staasz^ipi-herre, Mangarei; bering, hirrong, Sydney. 

'Ha,nd=tanaraga, Mangarei ; taintu, Timbora ; tamira, Sydney. 

Head=ya/<,e, Mangarei ; chow, King George's Sound. 

Sia.rs=:Hngl:ong, Timboro ; chindy, King George's Sound, Australia. 

M.oon=mang'' ong, Timbora ; meuc, King George's Sound. 

Sun=.ingJcong, Timbora ; coing, Sydney. 

Blood =:^•ero, Timbora ; gnoorong, Cowagary dialect of Australia. 

Head =^'oZ:or^, Timbora ; gogorrah, Cowagary. 

'Fisb.=:appi, Mangarei ; ^vapi, Darnley Island. 

Of these affinities nearly all are Australian. In 
those with the Papuan dialects the parts about Ceram 
and Gilolo are the most abundant. 




384 NORTH-WESTERN AMERICA. 



CHAPTER LV. 

Languages of America. — The Eskimo. — The Athabaskan dialects. — The 
Kitunaha. — The Atna. — The Haidah, Chemmesyan, Wakash, and 
Chinuk. 

The languages of the New World now come under 
notice ; languages of which the origin some few years 
back was obscure. This was because most of our data 
for the ethnology of America were derived from the 
Indians of Canada and the United States rather than 
from those of the Hudson's Bay Territory and Russian 
America. As long as the parts between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific were insufficiently explored, 
the nearest congeners to the populations of the north- 
eastern parts of Asia were insufficiently known. With 
the improvements in this respect the mystery has di- 
minished — so much so that, even before we leave Asia, 
decided affinities between the languages of Siberia and 
the languages of the northern coast of the Pacific pre- 
sent themselves. 

The lines by which America might be peopled from 
Asia are three — the first, via Behring's Straits ; the 
second, via the Aleutian chain of islands — islands run- 
ning from Kamtshatka to the Peninsula of Aliaska ; the 
third, via the Kurile islands, from either Korea or the 
Peninsula of Sagalin. Of these, though the presumptions 
may be in favour of the first, the phenomena in the 
present state of our knowledge, favour the second. 

For Europe and Asia the Circumpolar forms of speech 



THE ESKIMO. 385 

belong to different genera, if not to different orders ; 
and they are comparatively numerous. Above all, they 
have (every one of them) decided southern affinities — 
so much so as to give them tlie appearance of being 
intrusive. With the Norwegian and Russian this is 
not only the case, but it is known to be so. Of the 
Lap and Samoyed the southern origin is less decided. 
On each side, however, there are southern affinities. 
With the Tungus these southern affinities are more 
decided still. The nearest approacli (after the Lap) to 
anything like an original Arctic situs is supplied by the 
Yukahiri and Tshuktshi. Yet even here it is only an 
approach. 

In America, on the other hand, the Arctic region is 
mainly covered by dialects of a single language — the 
Eskimo ; the intrusion from the south being inconsider- 
able. Hence, the Eskimo area is horizontal rather than 
vertical ; broad rather than deep ; and running, in its 
extension, from east to west rather than from north to 
south. The language of Greenland and Labrador is 
Eskimo. The language of the eastern extremity of 
Asia is Eskimo. The language of the Aleutian islands 
is Eskimo. The language of the interjacent regions 
is Eskimo also. 

So much for the breadth and continuity of the Es- 
kimo area. 

In respect to its depth, it has its maximum on the 
Atlantic, where it reaches the latitude of Newfoundland. 

It is on the side of the Atlantic* that the contrast 
between the Eskimo and the ordinary Indian of North 
America — the Red Indian as he is often called — is most 

* It is often useful (not to say necessary) to speak thus ; indeed, we must 
occasionally write Atlantic and Pacific instead of West and East. This is 
because we have occasionally to shift our position. The Eskimos of Green- 
land are an Eastern, and the Konaegi of Kadiak a Western, population, only, 
when we look at them from Europe. When we begin with the Namollos of 
the Asiatic side of Behring's Straits, and go on with the Aleutians, and the 
Konsegi, East ))ecomes West, and vice versd. 

C C 



386 



NORTH-WESTERN AMERICA. 



decided. Hence, as long as the phenomena of transition 
which are exhibited on the side of the Pacific were un- 
known, the connection between the aborigines with 
both the Siberians and the Americans was not only 
doubtful, but the line of demarcation which was drawn 
between the Eskimo and the Indian was exaggerated. 

The Eskimo is the only language common to the two 
continents ; and this it is in two ways. The Aleutian 
dialects are in situ, and, as such, actually transitional. 
But, besides these, there is, in the parts about the 
Anadyr and Tshuktshi Noss, a population of compara- 
tively recent origin, occupant of the parts between the 
most western of the true Tshuktshi of Be bring 's 
Straits — a population which seems (so to say) to have 
been reflected back from America upon Asia. On the 
other hand, however, no true Asiatic language is spoken 
in any part of America. 

The best known of the Aleutian forms of speech, 
which probably represent a group of the ordinal value 
of all the others put together, is the Unalashkan. 



English. 


Unalashka. 


Kadiak. 


Kuskutshewak. 


Labrador. 


Man 


tayaho 


sli6k 


tatshu 


inuit 


Woman 


anhahenak 


aganak 






Bead 


kamhek 


naskok 


kainikuk 


niakko 


Hair 


imlin 


neoet 


nuiat 


nuiat 


Nose 


anhozin 


kinaga 


nikh 


kingat 


Mouth 


ahilrek 


kanot 


kanik 


kannerk 


Ear 


tutusak 


khiune 


tshuutuik 


suit 


Ears 


tutasakin 


khiudok 




sintik 


Eye 


thak 


inhalak 


vitatuik 


aiiga 


Tongue 


alinak 


ulue 


alianuk 


okak 


Hand 


khianh 


taleha 


yagatshutuik 


aggait 


Foot 


kitok 


looga 


igiit 


itigak 


Tooth 


kiahuzin 


hudeit 


kuutuik 


kiutit 


Blood 


ainak 


auk 




auk 


Shy 


inayak 


keliok 


kiilyak 


kiUek 


Sun 


ahhapak 


madzak 




sekkinek 


Moon 


tuhedak 


yalok 


tangek 


takkek 


Star 


Rta,Ti 


ageke 


mittit 


ubloriak 


Fire 


keyhnak 


knok 


knuik 


ikoma 


Water 


tanak 


tanak 


muek 


immek 







THE ESKIMO. 


387 


English. 


Unalashka. 


Kadiak. 


Kuskutsliewak 


Labrador. 


Rain 


khetak 


ketok 






River 


khehanok 


kuik 


kvak 


kok 


Sand 


khoohok 


kabea 


kaguyak 




Sea 


allauk 


(mak 


immakh-pik 


immak 


Snoio 


kannek 


annue 


kanikh-obak 


kannek 


Stone 


kuwauak 


yamak 


tkalhk-uk 




Tree 


yakak 


kobohaktsbalakua 





One 


atoken 


ataudzek 


atuuchik 


attousek 


Two 


arlok 


azlha 


ainak 


marruk 


Three 


kanku 


pingasvak 


painaivak 


pingasat 


Four 


sikhin 


stam6k 


tshanuk 


sittamut 


Five 


khaan 


talimik 


talemek 


taUek 


Six 


atln 


ahoilune 


akbvinok 


arvanget 


Seven 


ukun 


malehonhen 


ainaakbvanam pingasullo 


Eight 


kankheen 


inglulun 


pinaiviakhvanam pinaiuik 


Nine 


sikheen 


kulnuhin 


chtameakhvanam tellimella 


Ten 


atek 


kulen 


tamemiakhvanam tellimayoktut. 


It 


is to the Eskimo of this 


latter, lai 


•ger, and more 


compl 


ex group 


that the Namollo, or : 


Eskimo of the 


Asiatic continent belongs. 








English. 


Tshuktshi Nos. 


Mouth of the Anadyr. 




Head 


nasbko 




nashkok 




Hair 


nuyak 




nuyet 




Nose 


tatUk 




kbiinggak 




Eye 


iik 




iik 




Ear 


tshintak 




tshiftukhk 




Blood 


auku 




auka 




Shy 


kiiilah 




keilak 




Sun 


shekkinak 




matshak 




Moon 


tankuk 




iralluk 




Star 


igalgtak 




iralikatakh 




Fire 


annak 




eknok 




Water 


mok 




emak 




Tree 


unakhtsik 




unaktshek 




Fish 


salyuk 




ikahliik 




River 


kuik 




kuigutt 




Sand 


kannak 




kaujak 




Snow 


annu 




anighu 




One 


attashek 




attazhbk 




Two 


malgok 




malgukh 




Three 


pegayut 




pingayu 




Four 


ishtamat 




ishtama 




Five 


tatlemat 




taklima 




Ten 


kulla 




kuUe. 
C C 2 



388 THE ATHABASKAN GROUP. 

Next to the Eskimo comes the great Athabaskan 
fiimily, stock, group, or class. 

The Athabaskan area touches Hudson's Bay on the 
one side, the Pacific on the other. 

With the exception of the Eskimo, the Athabaskan 
forms of speech are the most northern of the New World. 

For the northern Athabaskan s (the main body of the 
family) the philological details were, until lately, emi- 
nently scanty and insufficient. There was, indeed, an 
imperfect substitute for them in the statements of several 
highly trustworthy authors as to certain tribes whicli 
spoke a language allied to the Chepewyan and as to 
others who did not ; — statements which, on the whole, 
have been shown to be correct ; statements, however, 
which required the confirmation of vocabularies. These 
have now been procured ; if not to the full extent of all 
the details of the family to an extent quite sufficient 
for the purposes of the philologue. They show that the 
most western branch of the stock, the Chepewyan Pro- 
per, or the language of what Dobbs called the Northern 
Indians, is closely akin to that of the Dog-ribs, the Hare 
(or Slave), and the Beaver Indians, and that the Daho- 
dinni, called from their warlike habits the Mauvais 
Monde, are but slightly separated from them. Farther 
west a change takes place, but not one of much import- 
ance. Interpreters are understood with greater diffi- 
culty, but still understood. 

The Takulli, Nagail, or Chin division falls into no less 
than eleven minor sections ; all of which but one end 
in this root, viz. -tin. 

1. The Tau-im, or Talko-^m. 

(?) 2. The Tsilko-im or Chilko-tin, perhaps the same 
word in a different dialect. 



3. 


The Nasko-^m 


8. 


The Natliau-^m. 


4. 


The Thetlio-^m 


9. 


The Nikozliau-itm. 


5. 


The Tssitsno-ti7i 


10. 


The Tatshiau-^m, and 


6. 


The Nulaau-^m. 


n. 


The Babin Indians. 


7. 


The Ntaauo-^m." 







THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 389 

Sir John Richardson has shown, what was before but 
suspected, that the Loucheux Indians of Mackenzie 
River are Athabaskan ; the Loucheux being a tribe 
known under many names — under that of the Quar- 
rellers, under that of the Squinters, under that of the 
Thycothi and Digothi, under that of Kutshin. The 
particular tribes of the Kutshin division, occupants of 
either the eastern frontier of Russian America, or the 
north-western parts of the Hudson's Bay territory, are 
as follows : — 

1. The Artez-kutshi nzH-ard people. 

2. Tlie Tshu-hutshizz Waiter people. 

3. The Tatzei-/<;^6^s/l^ = Rampart people; falling into 

foiu" bands. 

4. The Teystse-hutshi zzTeoiple of the shelter. 

5. The Ysint?i-kutshi nzTeoiilQ of the lakes. 

6. The Neyetse-Zci/is^i = People of the open country. 

7. The Tlagga-silla = Little dogs. 

This brings us to the Kenay. A Kenay vocabulary 
has long been known. It appears in Lisianisky, tabu- 
lated with the Kadiak, Sitkan, and Unalaskan of the 
Aleutian Islands. It was supplied by the occupants of 
Cook's Inlet. Were these Athabaskan? The present 
writer owes to Mr. Isbister the suggestion that they 
were Loucheux, and to the same authority he was in- 
debted for the use of a very short Loucheux vocabulary. 
Having compared this with Lisiansky's, he placed both 
languages in the same category — rightly in respect to 
the main point, wrongly in respect to a subordinate. 
He determined the place of the Loucheux by that of the 
Kenay, and made both Kolush. He would now reverse 
the process and make both Athabaskan (in the widest 
sense of the word), as Sir John Richardson has also 
suggested. 

For all the languages hitherto mentioned we have 
specimens. For some, however, of the populations 
whose names appear in the maps, within the Athabaskan 



390 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



area, we must either rest satisfied with the testimony 
of writers or rely on inference. In some cases, too, 
we have the same population under difierent names. 
Without, then, giving any minute criticism, I will briefly 
state that all the Indians of the Athabaskan area whose 
names end in -dinni are Athabaskan ; viz. — 

1. The See-issaw-cZin-m m Rising-sun-meTi. 

2 . The-tsawot-(imm z= Birch-rind-me?i. 

3. The Thlingeha-(imm z= Dog-rib-me^i. 

4. The Etsh-tawlit-c?mm = Thickwood-me?i. 

5. The Ambah-tawut-cZmm = Mountain-sheep-me??.. 

6. The TsiUaw-awdut-cZmm zz Bushwood-me'}^. 
Hare-Indians and Strong-hows are also Athabaskan 

names. The ITare-Indians are called Kanclio. The 
Nehanni and some other populations of less importance 
are also, to almost a certainty, Athabaskan. 



English. 


Kenay. 


Kutshin. 


Slave. 


Dog-rib. 


Man 


tinna 


'tinne 







Woman 


mokelan 


tshekwe 






Head 


shangge 




saykwi 


ta 


Hair 


stseahu 




sakwigah 


theoya 


Mouth 


shnaan 




kwariclil 




Teeth 


shrlkka 




saygli 


baighu 


Tongue 


stsilue 






eththadu 


Ear 


stsllu 





settzay 


bedzegai 


Eye 


snasha 




sentah 


mendi 


Hand 


shikuna 




siiilaTi 


mila 


Sun 


channu 


sakh 


sah 


sa 


Moon 


nee 


thun 


sah 


tethesa 


Star 


skin 




fwun, them 


thiu 


Fire 


taaze 




khiin 


khun 


Water 


vllni 


to 


tti 


tu 


River 


katnu 


dessh 






Rain 




dsha 


chon 


tshon 


Day 


chaan 


tzinna 






Night 


kaak 


hetleghe 






Snow 


ajjah 





jeah 


yah, teiU 


Stone 


kaliknike 







thai 


I 


su 


si 




.- 


Thou 


nan 


nin 






FatUr{my) 


stukta 


se-tsay 






Son {my) 


ssi-jsk 


se-jay 







THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



39] 



Kuglish. Kenay. 


Kutshin. 


Slave. 


Dog-rib. 


One tsllgtan 


tilagga 


thelgai 


*enclai 


Two n<itna 


nakhei 


olkie 


*nakha 


Three toluke 


thieka 


tadette 


*ttaglia 


Four tanke 


tanna 


tinghi 


*tting 


Five tskilu 


illakonelei 


.saj^elle 


*sastillai 


Six ktijtoni 




etseute 


*utkettai 


Seven kantsehe 




thlazadie 


*kliosingting 


Eight Itakule 




etzandie 


♦etzenting 


Nine Ikitslthu 




etMMeihiilai *khakuli 


Ten klujfin 




kennatai 


*honana 


The Beaver Indian 


is transitional to 


the Slave and 



the Chepewyan Proper. 

The Sikani and Sussi tongues, lying as far south as 
the drainage of the Saskatshewan, and as far west as 
the Rocky Mountains, are, and have been for some years, 
known as Athabaskan. 



English. 


Chepewyan. 


TakullL 


Man 


dinnie 


dim* 


Woman 


chequois 


tsheko 


Father 


2?tah (my) 


apa 


Mother 


zinah (my) 


unnungcool 


Son 


eiazay (my) 


eyoze 


Daughter 


zilengai 


eacha 


Head 


ed thie 


bitsa 


Hair 


thiegah 


ozega 


Ear 





otso 


Eye 


naekay 


beni 


Nose 




paninsrhis 


Tongue 


• edthu 


tsoola 


Tooth 


goo 


ohgoo 


Hand 


law 


la 


Feet 


cuh 


osha 


Blood 


deU 


skai 


Hov^e 


cosen 


kukh 


Axe 


thynle 


shashill 


Knife 


bess 


teish 


Shoes 


kinchee 


keskut 


Sun 


sah 


tsa 


Moon 


sah 


tsa 


Star 




shlum 



* The words marked thus are either a second dialect or a second vocabu- 
lary of the Slave. 



392 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Cliepewyan. 


Takulli. 


Fire 


counn 


kwun 


Water 


toue 


too 


Rain 


thynnelsee 


naoton 


Snow 


yath 


ghies 


River 


tesse 


akokh 


Stone 


thaih 


tse 


Meat 


bid 


utson 


Dog 


sliengh 


tkli 


Beaver 


zah 


tsha 


Bear 


zass 


sus 


Great 


unshaw 


tsho 


Cold 


edzah 


hungkaz 


Black 


dellzin 


dulkuz 


Red 


delicouse 


dulkun 


I 


ne 


si 


Thou 


nee 


yin 


One 


slachy 


etkhla 


Txm 


naghur 


nangkakh 


Three 


taghy 


ta 


Four 


dengky 


tingti 


Five 


sasoulacliee 


skunlai 


Six 


alkitachy 


ulkitaki 


Seven 




takalte 


Eight 


olkideinghy 


ulkinggi 


Nine 


cakinahanothna 


lanizi etkhlahkula 


Ten 


canotlina 


lanizi. 



The Atna at the mouth of the Copper Kiver, the 
Koltshani higher up the stream, and the Ugalents 
around Mount St. Elias, are all Athabaskan — not, indeed, 
so decidedly as the Beaver, the Dog-rib, or the Proper 
Chepewyan; but still Athabaskan. They ai^not Eskimo 
though they have Eskimo affinities. They are not 
Kolush, though they have Kolush affinities. They are 
by no means isolated, and as little are they to be made 
into a class by themselves. At the same time, it should 
be added that by including these we raise the value of 
the class, and we raise it stiJl more when we include 
the Kolush. 



English. 
Eye 
Hair 
Teeth 



Ugaleuts. 



Atna. 


Kolstshani. 


snyga 


tshinfcagi 


stsega 


stshjga 


gu 


nogu 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



398 



English. 


Ugalcnts. 


Atna. 


Kolstshani. 


Nose 




sontshis 


santshis 


Hand 




sla 


kun 


Head 




ttsa 


sla 


Ear 




stsega 


stsi 


SU71 


kaketlkh 


naai 


naaitshete 


Moon 


kakha 


goltsei 


sattslietle 


Star 


tlakhekl 


zzliun 


son 


One 


tlkinke 


slielkae 


ilite 


Two 


loate 


natekka 


laken 


Three 


totlkoa 


taakei 


takei 


Four 


kalakakya 


tiJnki 


tani 


Five 


tsoane 


altshen 


taltshan 


Six 


tsun 


kastaan 


kistan 


Seven 


laatetsun 


kontsegai 


kontshaga: 


Eight 


katetsun 


tkkhladenki 


tan 


Nine 


kutkte 


tklakolei 


takolei 


Ten 


takakkh 


plazha 


natitlya. 



The Athabaskan is broadly and definitely separated 
from the language of its frontiers in proportion as we 
move from the Pacific towards the Atlantic. 

The most southern of the Athabaskans Proper are 
the Sussis, in north latitude 5]° — there or thereabouts. 
But they are only the most Southern of the Athabaskans 
en masse. There are outlyers of the stock as far soutli 
as the southern parts of Oregon. More than this, there 
are Athabaskans in California, New Mexico, and Sonora. 

Mr. Hale showed that the Umkwa, Kwaliokwa, and 
Tlatskanai dialects of a district so far south as the 
mouth of the Columbia, and the upper portion of the 
Umkwa, were outlying members of the Athabaskan stock, 
which dialects were afterwards shown, by a discovery of 
Professor Turner's, to be only pe^iultimate ramifications ; 
inasmuch as in California, New Mexico, Sonora, and 
even in Ohihuhua, as far south as SO® north latitude, 
Athabaskan forms of speech were to be found ; viz. the 
Navaho, the Jecorilla, the Pinalero, along with the 
Apatsh of New Mexico, California, and Sonora. To 
these add the Hoopah of California, which is also 
Athabaskan. 



394 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



(10 



English. 


Tlatskanai. 


Kwaliokwa, 


Umkwa. 


Man 


khanane 




titson 




taiitsen 




tone 


Woman 


tseokeia 


oat 


ekhe 




tseake 






Head 


khostoma 


nin 


suga 




stsie 




si 


Hair 


khotsosea 


soaktlane 


suga 




stsose 




sala 


Ear 


khotskhe 


khonade 


tzige 




stsakhai 




tzuge 


Eye 


nakhai 




nage 


Nose 


khointsus 


dalainstzetze 


ziz 


Mouth 


khokwaitzaale 




ta 




wunaya 







Tongue 


khotzotkhltzitzkhltsaha 


uofaa 


lasom 




seqinakal 




santkhlo 


Tooth 


khotsiakatatkMtson 


koute 


uo 








cugu 


Hand 


kholaa 




zlaa 




sla 




zila 


Foot 


khoakhastlsokai 




zkhe 




nokatkh 






Swn 


iaose 




za 




szlakhalaklia 




khangze 


Moon 


taose 




igaltzi 


Star 






khatlatze 


Fire 


tkhlkane 




khong 


Water 


to 




tkho. 



(2.) 



English. 


Navabo. 


Apatsh. 


Pinalero, 


Man 


tennai 


ailee 


payyahnah 


Woman 


estsonnee 


eetzan 


etsunni 


Head (my) 


hutzeetsin 


seezee 




Hair (my) 


hutzee 


seesga, 


setzezil 


Face (my) 


huunee 


streenee 




Ear (my) 


^wtjah 


seetza. 


sitzchar 


Eye (my) 


hunnah. 


sleeda 


tshindar 


Nose (my) 


Awtchih 


seetzee 


chinchi 


Mouth (my) 


huzz&i 


sheedsi 




Tongue (my) 


huttso 


sheedsiTe 




Tooth (my) 


hurgo 


sheego 





eah 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



895 



English. 


Navaho. 




Apatsh. 


Pinalero. 


Sun 


cliokonoi 


skeemai 


yahehe 


Moon 


klaihonoi 


clanai 


ilsonsayed 


Star 


sonh 




suns 


ailsonsatyou 


Dap 


cheen-gfo 


eeska 




Night 


klai-gro 




cla 




Light 


lioascen-(70 


skee 




Rain 


naheltinh 


nagostee 




Snow 


yas 




zahs 




Hail 


neelo 




heeloah 




Fire 


konh 




koa 




Water 


tonh 




toa,h 


to 


Stone 


tsai 




zeyzay 


tshaier 


One 


tlahee 




tahse 




Two 


nahkee 


nahkee 




Three 


tanh 




tau 








(3.) 




English. 




Hoopah. 




Jecorilla. 


Head 




okheh 




it-se 


Forehead 




/lotsintah 


pin-nay 


Face 




Aaunith 




Eye 




Attanah 




pindah 


Nose 




/mntchu 


-jwtehess 


Teeth 




Aowwa 




egho 


Tongue 




sastha 




ezahte 


Ear 




Aotcheweh 


wickyah 


Hair 




tsewok 




itse 


Nech 




Aosewatl 


ttvckcost 


Arm 




Aoithlani 


witse 


Hand 




AoUah 




w/slah. 



The Kitunahay Kutani, Cootanie or Flathow area is 
long rather than broad, and it follows the line of the 
Rocky Mountains between 52° and 48° north latitude. 
How definitely it is divided by the main ridge from that 
of the Blackfoots I am unable to say ; but as a general 
rule, the Kutani lie west, the Blackfoots east ; the former 
being Indians of New Caledonia and Oregon, the latter 
of the Hudson's Bay Territory. 

On the west, the Kutani country is bounded by that 
of the Shuswap and Selish ; on the north by the Sussi, 
Sikanni, and Nagail Athabaskans ; on the south (I 



396 



THE KUTANI. 



think) by some of the Upsaroka or Crow tribes. All 
these relations are remarkable, and so is the geographical 
position of the area. It is in a mountain range ; and, 
as such, it is a district likely to be an ancient Occupancy. 
The languages of the frontiers are referable to four 
different families — the Athabaskan, the Atna, the Al- 
gonkin, and the Sioux ; from all of which the Kutani 
differs notably ; though, like all the languages of America, 
it has numerous miscellaneous affinities. In respect to 
its phonesis it agrees with the North Oregon languages. 
The similarity in name to that of the Loucheux, whom 
Richardson calls Kutshin, deserves notice. 

The Ktitani vocabulary of Mr. Hale was obtained 
from a Cree Indian, and is not to be depended on. This 
being the case it is fortunate that it is not the only spe- 
cimen of the language. There is an earlier one of Mr. 
Howse's, published in the Transactions of the Philologi- 
cal Society. It is as follows ; being given in full as 
representing all that is known of the language : — 



Englisli. 


Kiitani. 


English. 


Kiitani. 


One 


hook cain 


This Indian 


in nai ah quels 


Two 


ass 




mah kin nic 


Three 


calie sah 


That Indian 


CO ah quels mah 


Four 


had sah 




kin nic 


Five 


yea co 


These Indians 


wai nai ah quels 


Six 


in ne me sah 




mah kin nic nin 


Seven 


whist taw lah 




tie 


Eight 


waw ah sah 


Which man ? 


cath lah te te calt ? 


Nine 


ky yie kit to 


Which Indians ? 


cah lah ah quels 


Ten 


aye to vow 




mah kin nic nin 


An Indian 


ah quels mah kin 




tie? 




nic 


Which gun ? 


cah lah tah vow ? 


A man 


te te calt 


Who 


cath lah 


A woman 


balle key 


My son 


cah mah hat lay 


A shoe 


cath lend 


His son 


hot lay is 


A gun 


tah vow 


He is good 


sook say 


I 


cah min 


It is good 


sook kin nai 


Thou 


lin coo 


He is arrived 


swan hah 


He 


nin CO is 


I love him 


hones sclah kilt 


We {thou and I) 


cah min nuh lah 


He loves mc 


sclah kilt nai 



THE KUTANL 



897 



English. 


Ki'itaui. 


English. 


Kiitani. 


/ see him 


hones ze caught 


Brother, youngest 




[ see his son 


hones ze caught ah 


{by brothers) 


cats zah 




calttis 


Brother, youngest 




He sees me 


ze caught tene 


{by sisters) 


cah ze ah 


He steals 


i in ney 


Sister, eldest 


cats sous 


I love him 


hones sch\h kilt 


Sister, youngest 


cah nah nah 




ney 


Uncle 


cath ah 


I do not love him 


cah sclah kilt nai 


Aunt 


cah tilt tilt 


My husband 


can no claw kin 


Grandfatli£r 


cah papa 




nah 


Grandmother 


cah de de 


He is asleep 


come ney ney 


Thy husband 
My loife 


in claw kin nah nis 
cah tilt nah mo 


I am a man 


,te te calt ne ne 








Thy wife 
Son 


tilt nah mo nis 


I am a looman 
miere ? 


balle key ne ne 
cas kin ? 


can nah hot lay or 
ah calt 


Where is my gun ? 


cass kin cah tah 








vow? 


Daughter 


cass win 


Where is his r/im ? 


cass kin tah vow 


Come here 


clan nah 




I'q ? 


Go away 


cloon no 




IS i 


Take care 


ill kilt we In 


A lake 


ah CO CO nook 


Get out of the way you vaw 


How much ? 


cack sah ? 


Come in 


tie cath ah min 


It is cold weather 


kis caw tit late 


Go out 


sclah nah ah min 


A tent 


ah caw slah co 


Sto2y 


mae kaek 




hoke 


Run 


sin naek kin 


My tent 


cah ah kit lah 


Slowly 


ah nis cah zin 


Thy tent 


ah kit lah nis 


Miserly 


per tin 


His tent 


ah kit lah is 


Beggarly 


coke CO mae kali 


Our {thy and my) 


cah ah kit lah 




knn 


tent 


nam 


I give 


hone silt ah mah tie 


Yes 


ah ah 




sis ney 


No 
Men 


waw 

te te calt nin tie 


Thou givest 


kin nah mah tie 


Women 


balle key nin tie 




zey 


Girl {in her teens) 
Girls {in their 

teens) 
Boy 
Boys 


nah oh tit 


He gives 


sclah mah tie zey 




He gave 


cah mah tie cates 


nah oh tit nin tie 


I beat 


hone cah slah tea 


stalt 

stalt nin tie 


Thm beatest 


kin cah slah leat 


He beats 


kis kilt cone slah 
leat 


Little hoy 


stalt nah nah 




Child 


cah mo 


Give me 


ah mah tie kit 


Ch lldren 


cah mo nin tie 




sous 


Father {by the cah de doo 


He gave me 


nah mah tie kit 


sons) 






sap pe ney 


Father {by (he call sous 


1 love you 


hone sclah kilt 


daughtei's) 


. 




ney 


Mother 


cah mail 


He loves 


sclah kilt 


Brother, eldest 


cah tat 


Bo you love me 


' kin sclah slap ? 



898 



THE KUTANI. 



EngHsh. 


Kutani. 


English. 


Kutani. 


/ hate you 


hone cah sclah kilt 


Red pine 


he mos 




ney 


Cedar 


heats ze natt 


Thou hatest 


kin cah sclah kilt 


Poplar 


ac cle mack 


He hates 


cah sclah kilt 


Aspen 


ac CO CO zle mack 


I speaJc 


hones ah ney 


Fire 


ah kin ne co co 


Thou speahest 


kins ah 


Ice 


ah CO wheat 


He speahs 


kates ah 


Charcoal 


ah kits cah kilt 


We speak 


hones ah nah slah 


Ashes 


ah CO que me co 


You speaJc 


talk e tea leat 


Kettle 


yeats skime 


They speaJc 


seals ah 


Mat tent 


tah lalt ah kit lah 


I steal 


hone i he ne 




nam 


I sleep 


hone come ney 


Head 


ac clam 




ney 


Eyes 


ac cack leat 


We sleep 


hone come ney nah 


Nose 


ac coun 




lah ney 


Mouth 


ac calt le mah 


I die 


hones alt hip pe 


Chin 


ac cah me zin ne 




ney 




cack 


Thou diest 


kins alt hip 


Cheeks 


ac que ma malt 


We die 


hone ah o co noak 


Hair 


ac coke que slam 




nah slah ney 


Body 


ac CO no cack 


Give me to eat 


he shoe 


Artns 


ac sglat 


Eat 


he ken 


Legs 


ac sack 


My gun 


cah tah vow 


Belly 


ac CO womb 


Thy gun 


tah vow nis 


Back 


ac cove cah slack 


His gun 


•tah vow is 


Side 


ac kin no cack 


Mountain 


ac CO vo cle it 


Ears 


ac coke co what 


Rocky mountain 


ac CO vo cle it nook 


Animals 


yah mo 




key 


Horse 


kilt calt law ah 


Snowy mountain 


ac CO vo cle it ac 




shiu 




clo 


Stallion 


cass CO 


Road or track 


ac que mah nam 


Mare 


stoifgalt 


Large river 


oath le man me 


Bull 


neel seek 




took 


Cow 


slouke copo 


Small river 


hah cack 


Birds 


to coots cah min 


Creek 


nis cah took 




nah 


Large lake 


will caw ac co co 


Blue jay 


CO quis kay 




nook 


Crow 


coke kin 


Small lake 


ac CO CO nook nah 


Raven 


nah nah key 




nah 


Snakes (rattle- 




Rapid 


ah cah hop cle it 


snake) 


wilt le malt 


Fall 


wheat taw hop cle 


Garter snake 


ah CO new slam 




it 


Roots (camass) 


hap pey 


Shoals 


ah coke you coo 


Bitter root 


nah cam me shou 




nook 


Tohacco root 


mass mass 


Channel 


hah cath slaw o 


Sweet potatoes 


ah whis sea 




weak 


Moose herry 


ac CO mo 


Wood or trees 


ah kits slah in 


Strawberry 


ac CO CO 



THE ATNA, OR SELISH, DIALECTS. 



899 



EngUsh. 


Kutani. 


English. 


Kutaui. 


Pipe 


couse 


Red deer 


kilt caw sley 


Pipe stem 


ac coot lah 


Moose deer 


snap pe co 


Axe 


ah coot talt 


Woolvereen 


ats po 


Tobacco 


yac ket 


Wolf 


cack kin 


Flesh 


ah coot lack 


Beaver 


sin nah 


Calf 


ah kin co malt 


Otter 


ah cow oh alt 


Tiger 


s'vie 


MinJc 


in new yah 


Bears of aU kinds 


cap pe tie 


Martin 


nac suck 


Blach or brotcn 




Musquash 


an CO 


bears 


nip pe CO 


Small grey plain 




Ch'izzle bear 


kit slaw slaw 


wolf 


skin koots. 


Rein deer 


neats snap pie co 







West of the Kutanis and south of the Takulli Atha- 
baskans He the northernmost members of a great class, 
which extends as far south as the Sahaptin fi'ontier. It 
has been named by Hale and Gallatin Tsihaili-Selish, 
It contains the Shushwap or Atna Proper, Kuttelspelm 
(or Pend d'Oreilles), Selish, Spokan (or Kettle Fall), 
Okanagan, Skitsuish (or Ooeur d'Alene), Piskwaus, Nus- 
dalum, Kawitchen, Cathlascou, Skwali, Chechili, (Tsihaili,) 
Kwaintl, Kwenaiwtl, (Kowelitsk,) Nsietshawus (or Killa- 
muk), and Billechula, spoken at the mouth of Salmon 
River ; a language to which a vocabulary from Mac- 
kenzie's Travels of the dialect spoken at Friendly 



Village 


is referable. 








English. 


Atna.* 


Pisl<aws. 


Skwali. 


Kowelitsk. 


Man 


kwlniMkh 


skaltamikko 


stuinsh 


nawetkhlamakb 


Woman 


SMmotkhlitshk 


swrnaem 


stkhladai 


kawitkhl 


Father 


katsa 


laaus 


baa 


koma 


Mother 


kekha 


shkui 


sokho 


kota 


Son 


skusS,a 


ashkusas 


nimjtda 


nwman 


Daughter 


stwmkaalt 


stwmkas 


nibada 


tsimwrnan 


Head 


skapkht^u 


khumukwm 


skhaius 


khomwt 


Hair 


khauitwn 


skhiaukwn 


skhatso 


kwskws 


Ear 


tkhlamt 


tana 


kholane 


khoolan 


Eye 


khukukhlostan 


sinatkhlo- } 
shomttn S 


khalom 


mos 


Nose 


spitsaks 


muksin 


makiisin 


mwkwsMn 


Mmith 


spiilutsin 


skhumtsliin 


kamukh 


kwnikh 


Tongue 


tikhwatsk 


milik 


tkhlalab 


tekhutsitkhl 


Teeth 


khalakhu 


khalekhu 


tswnis 


yenis 


Hand 


lakhaleakst 


k&likh 


tshalash 


lakhaiaka 



* From Hale, in Gallati 



400 



THE ATNA, OR SELISH, DIALECTS. 



English. 


Aina. 


Piskaws, 


Skwali. 


Kovvelitsk. 


Fingers 


lakhaleakst 


kaiikh 


tshalash 


lakhaiaka 


Feet 


leakhin 


stsoohin 


tsMshin 


tsotkhl 


Blood 


metikhea 


mitkhlkaia 


stulikwan 


skwaitkhl 


House 


tshitukh 


stukul 


alwtkhl 


khakh 


Axe 


tkhlumen 


khaweskhan 


khamatn 


kbMstn 


Knife 


khutkhlakst 


mikha.mun 


snokh 


kwakhomim 


Shoes 


skitkhltso 


skhamhin 


ialshin 


tswtkhlshin 


Shy 


slkhleakhwt 


khitmomtaskhut 


tkhltalakun 


San 


skwokwa?/s 


khoslium 


tkhlukhatkhl 


tkhlokliwaokin 


Moon 


makhen 


suakhaam 


stkhliikhwalwm tkhlokhwatkhl 


Star 


sukoshint 


pukhpukliaiauit stshishus 


kase 


Day 


pakhiauit 


skhzdkhztlt 


skhlakhel 


skhaiekh 


Night 


khwtshitshoi 


shtsowi 


tkhlakh 


kwaiekli 


Fire 


teekwu 


shtshiatkitp 


hot 


moksip 


Water 


sliawitkhlkwit 


sliauitkhlkwa 


kho 


kal 


Rain 


klakstan 


stau 


skhaktni 


BtlkvfU 


Snow 


makha 


shmaa 


makho 


skhlakhwit 


Earth 


tklilokalukh 


wmaumit 


suatiukhtin 


twtniikh 


River 


tsuakh 


npukwatkwi 


stulakww 


skewitkhlko 


Stone 


shkhanikh 


khwtkhlot 


tshetkhla 


trtkalis 


Tree 


tsigkap 


sliuopt 




iamwts 


Meat 


tshee 


skattk 


maiats 


kos 


Dog 


skakha 


khMkhwtk- \ 
hltshin S 


skobai 


kakha 


Beaver 


skalau 


skalau 






Bear 


skkwmkhaes ' ' 

(black) ;; 


mikhatkhl 







Bird 


spiott 


huhuiui 


tkhlitknaalkitm 


Fish 


shuauwitklil 


nacauitkhlkwa 







Great 


khaiom 


kwwtunt 


hekhwo 


tuwuikh. 


Cold 


tshMatkhl 


shtshilt 


tws 


tkhlek 


White 


pewkh 


paiakh 


khokkliwkh 


kskhwokh 


Black 


kwaiokhwaiil 


khwaii 


khaimetsh 


ksnwkhu 


Red 


tshiwkhwt* 


kwil 


khaikwitshltt 


uktseakhu 


I 


ntshatshua 


intsha 


uis,u 


wntsa 


Thou 


anwwl 


inui 


duthwe 


nwwe 


He 


wniiwis 


tswnil 


tsunitkhl 


tsMne 


One 


nkho 


naksh 


nutsho 


ots 


Two 


siselw 


tkhauMs 


sale 


sale 


Three 


ketkhles 


katkhles 


tkhlikho 


katkhle 


Four 


mos 


mushits 


mos 


mos 


Five 


tshelikst 


tshiliksht 


tsilats 


tshelatsh 


Six 


takhamakst 


hotshimakst 


tsilatshe 


takham 


Seven 


tshutsitkhlka 


shispwlkh 


tsook 


tsops 


Eight 


nkoops 


tuwin 


takatshe 


tshamos 


Nine 


twmtkhlin ) 
wkokaa f 


khakhanot 


khoMn 


tookhu 


Ten 


opitkst 


opanikst 


panutshs 


panutsh. 



THE ATNA, OR SELISH, DIALECTS. 



401 



The Tsihaili-Selish languages reach the sea in the parts 
opposite Vancouver's Island. Perhaps they touch it to 
the north also. Perhaps, too, some of the TakuUi forms of 
speech still further north do the same. The current 
statements, however, are to the effect that to the south 
of the parts opposite Sitka and to the north of the 
parts opposite Vancouver's Island the two families in 
question are separated from the Pacific by a narrow 
strip of separate languages. These are, beginning from 
the north — 

1. The Kolush. 

2. The Hccidah, spoken by the Skittegats, Massets, 
Kumshahas, and Kyganie of Queen Charlotte's Islands 
and the Prince of Wales' Archipelago. 

3. The Chemmesyan, spoken along the sea-coast and 
islands in north latitude 55°; 

4. The Hailtsa, containing the dialects of the sea- 
coast between Hawkesbury Island and Broughton's 
Archipelago ; also those of the northern part of Van- 
couver's Island. 

From the Piskwaus, in the preceding group, the tran- 
sition, in the opinion of the present writer, who only 
attempts a provisional and approximate arrangement, 
lies through the Billechula (which he makes Atna) to 
the Hailtsa and its congeners of the present group. 



English. 


Kolusli of Sitka. 


Skittegats. 


Cliemmesyan. 


Hailtsa. 


Man 


chakleyh 


keeset 


tzib 


numus 


Woman 


shavvot 


kna 


imnaach 


kanum 


Head 


ashaggee 






hete 


Hair 


' koshahaoo 


cutts 







Ear 


kakook 








Nose 


kaclu 


coon 






Mouth 


kake 






* 


Tongue 


katnoot 








Tooth 


kaooh 








Hand 


kacheen 







haiasi 


Feet 


kahoos 









Sun 


kakkaan 


tzue 


kiumuk 


tkhlikshualit 


Moon 


tees 


kukn 


kiumugumaatuk 


nusikh 


Star 


kootahanaha 


kaaldha 


pialust 





D D 



402 


THE SITKA, 


ETC. 




English. 


Kolusli of Sitka. 


Skittegats. 


Chenimesyaii. 


Hailtsa. 


House 


tasnenawin 


tkwutkhle 




mukatee 


Axe 


tkhlakatstJiin 


khwestwn 




taawish 


Day 




koondlain 


tseicoosah 




Fire 


haan 


tsinoo 




tsultila 


Water 


ieen 


huntle 


use 


waum 


Rain 


sevva 


tuU 


waash 


yukhwa 


Snow 


kleyt 


tuU hatter 


moaks 


kwispish 


Stone 


te 


tlaha 


loap 





Tree 


shaak 


kyet 


kunagun 





I 


chat 


cagen 


newyo 


nuka 


Thou 




tingkyah 


noone 


tsu 


He 




anhest 


qua 




One 


tlekh 


skwansun 


kaak 


manuik 


Two 


teeh 


stung 


tupchaat 


maluik 


Three 


nezk 


thkoonweelh 


gundh 


yukhtuk 


Four 


taakun 


stunsun 


tuchaalpuch 


mouk 


Five 


kejetsckin 


kleith 


kuhdhoouis 


shiowk 


Six 


kletuschu 


ktonell 


coald 


ketkhliouk 


Seven 


tachate uschu 


tseekwah 


tupooald 


matkhlius 


Eight 


nesket uschu 


stansanghah 


kundh 


yukhtaksimus 


Nine 


kuschok klathshskwasunha kustamoas 


mumiskumea 


Ten 


tschinkat 


klath 


kippio 


koljushun. 



Next come the languages of Quadra's and Vancouver's 
Island and a small portion of the opposite continent. 
Then the Tshinuk and its congeners. 



English. 


Nsietshawus.*- 


WatlalaCT'^Amji/r). 


Ntitka. 


Man 


taiilaho 


tkhlekala 


checkup 


Woman 


suitkhlats 


tkhlkakilak 


klootzmah 


Father 


uluQ, 


tkhlukhlam 


noowexa 


Mother 


u\u& 


waiak 


hoomahexa 


Son 


twuMWon 


itshikhan 


tanassis checkup 


Daughter 


txlwnwwitn 


wkttkhan 


tanassis klootsmah 


Head 


takhen 


kakhstakh 


towhatsetel 


Hair 


tkhluakhen 


wk-Mshshw 


hapscup 


Far 


twne 


amemtsha 


parpee 


Eye 


taskhatkhl 


iakhot 


kassee 


Nose ' 


tiwakhiswn 


imiktshi 


neetsa 


Mouth 


shinuotsins 


emekushkhat 


ictla-tzul {sing. ) 


Tongue 


tikhitsas 


mankhutkonuma 


choop 


Teeth 


tkhlasawin 


tkhlbekatsh 


cheechee 


Hand 


tshalas 


titmekshi 


kookaniksa 


Fingers 


kwkwtsatsha 


titmekshi 


uc-tza 


* 


Or Killamuk ; a language of the Selish, or 


Atna, group. 



THE NSIETSHAWUS. 



403 



English. 


Nsietsiiawus. 


Watlala {Tshinuk). 


Ntitka. 


Feet 


nikheicjins 


tumepsh 


kliskin 


Blood 


skiuo 


tkhlkawwlkt 


atzi-mis 


Knife 


tukhaiotkW 


khawekhe 


chiltaj'ek 


Shoes 


mitcinasMtim 


tkaitkhlpa 




Sh/ 


taskhitkhwn 


koshakh 


sieyah 


Sun 


tataitkhtMn 


katkhlakh 


oophelth 


Moon 


tttkhosliittMn 


«ktkhl«men 


oophelth 


Star 


nukhikliiaikhia 


tkblkhekhanama 


tartoose 


Day 


\mmiwm 


iotshoktigh 


nas-chitl 


Night 


\xu\U\ 


aiikap 


atajai 


Fire 


tkhlaskhokh 


watotkhl 


eennuksee 


Water 


tkhlakhilo 


tkliltshokwa 


chabak 


Rain 


tkhlasilotkhl 


ishketkhlti 


meetla 


Snow 


tkblaskhwnMn 


tkhtttka 


queece 


Earth 


tawekh 


v-elkh 


klattumiss 


River 


nisatintslii 


tkhlokhonet 


tzac 


Stone 


tashwnsli 


khalainMt 


maoksee 


Tree 


tkhlaasklii 


tkamonak 


soocbis 


Meat 


tatse 


ipkhalewa 


cbis-qui-mis 


Dog 


tsaskhakhea 


khotkliot 


aemitl 


Beaver 


tatokhwoso 


ikhwakhwa 




Bear 


tatontshiesbo 


kanokh 


cbi-mitz 


Bird 


tkUaskhokha 


tkalakalabakh 


kaenne 


Fish 







keesapa 


Great 


tuwwtkli 


iakaitkhl 


asco 


Cold 


tatsuwaii 


tsometigh 


ate-quitzi-majas 


White 


tahaklii 


tkhop 


atit-tzutle 


Blach 


tsuwwlMkhi 


tkhM 




Red 


tkhlakiil 


tklpal 




I 


«ntsM 


naika 


cheUe 


Thou 


ttnaike 


maika 


sua 


He 


tsMnitkhl 


iaklika 


abkoo 


One 


twheike 


ikht 


sahwank 


Two 


tkhlasale 


makusht 


attla 


Three 


tshanat 


tkhlom 


katsa 


Four 


tkhlawos 


laket 


mooh 


Five 


tm\hm 


kwanan 


soocbah 


Six 


tsiilukhatshi 


takh?/m 


noohoo 


Seven 


tutshoos 


SMDitmakust 


attlepoo 


Eight 


tukatshi 


ksotken 


atlabqueltb 


Nine 


tkhleio 


kweos 


sawwaukqueltb 


Ten 


tkhlaahantshs 


tatkheelikma 


hyo. 



The class to which the Nutka and its congeners 
belong is called the Wakash. The Tlaoquatsh and 
Wakash Proper belong to it. 

D D 2 



404 OREGON AND CALIFORNIAN LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER LVI. 

Languages of Oregon and California. — Caytis, &c. — Lutuami, &c. — Ehnek. — 
Weitspek. — Kulanapo. — Copeh. — Pujuni, &c. — Costano, &c. — Eslen. — 
Netela. — San Diego, &c. 

All the preceding languages belong to the Hudson's 
Bay Territory and to British Oregon rather than to 
California. Those that follow belong to California 
and American Oregon. Though the minute details 
of the frontier are not accurately known there seems 
to be a notable change in the parts about it. The 
nature of this, in a rough way, may be illustrated 
by the following table. 

Contrast the two columns. How smoothly the words 
on the right run, how harshly sound (when they can be 
sounded) those of the left. Not, however, that they 
give us the actual sounds of the combination hhl^ &c. 
All that this means is that there is some extraordinary 
sound to be expressed which neither any existing sign 
nor any common combination will represent. In Mr. 
Hale's vocabularies it is represented by a special letter. 



English. 


Selish. 


Tshiuuk. 


Shoshoni. 


Man 


skaltamekho 


tkhlekala 


taka 


Woman 


swma^m 


tkhlakel 


kWMM 


Boy 


skokosea 


tklkaskws 


natsi 


Girl 


shautwm 


tklalekh 


naintswts 


Child 


aktult 


etshanuks 


' wa 


Father 


iMaus 


tkhliamama 


dpui 


Mother 


sktiis 


tkhlian^a 


pia 


Wife 


makhonakh 


iuakh^kal 


wepui 


Son 


skokosea 


etsokha 


natsi 


Daughter 


stumtshaait 


okwwkha 


nanai 


Brother 


katshki (elder) 


kapkhu 


tamye 


Sister 


tklkikee 


tkhliau 


namei. 



OREGON AND CALIFORNIAN LANGUAGES. 405 

As a general rule the harsher phonesis lies to the 
north, the softer to the south, of the Californian frontier. 
That the difference, however, is, by no means, absolute, 
may be seen from the following list : — 



(1-) 



English. 


Wishosk. 


Weiyot. 


Boy 


ligeritl 


kushama 


Married 


wehowut'l 


haqueh 


Head 


wutwetl 


metwet 


Hair 


pah'tl 


paht'l 


Face 


kahtsouetl 


sulatek 


Beard 


tseh'pl 


cheh'pl 


Body 


tah 


Mt'l 


Foot 


wehlihl 


wellih'tl 


Village 


mohl 


katswah'tl 


Chief 


kowqueh'tl 


kaiowuh 


Axe 


mahtl 


mehtl 


Pipe 


malit'letl 


mahtlel 


Wind 


rahtegut'l 


ruktagun 


Duck 


ha,halitl 

(2.) 


hahaUih. 


English. 


Dieguno. 


Cachan. 


Leg 


cwith'l 




To-day 


enyat'l 




To-morrow 


matinyat'l 




Bread 


meyut'l 




Ear 


hamat'l 


smytli'l 


Neck 




n'yeth'l 


Arm ) 
Hand t 


selh 


iseth'l 


Friend 




Byet'l 


Feather 




sahwith'l. 



And the mixture may be seen on the frontier. The 
Tshinuk, a harsh tongue, has for its nearest congeners 
the Killamuk on one side and the Lutuami (apparently 
soft) on the other. 

The Gayus, or Molele, group is, apparently, transi- 
tional. 



406 





CAYUS, ETC. 




English. 


Cayu9. 


WiUamet. 


Man 


ytiant 


atshanggo 


Woman 


pintkhlkaiu 


pummaike 


Father 


pintet 


sima 


Mother 


penln 


sinni 


Son 


wai 


tawakhai 


Daughter 


wai 


tshitapinna 


Head 


talsh 


tamutkhl 


Hair 


tkhlokomot 


amutkhl 


Ear 


taksli 


pokta 


Eye 


h&kamush 


kwalakkh 


Nose 


pitkhloken 


unan 


Mouth 


sumkhaksli 


mandi 


Tongue 


push 


mamtshutkhl 


Tooth 


tenif 


puti 


Hand 


epip 


tlakwa 


Fingers 


gpip 


alakwa 


Feet 


tisli 


puuf 


Blood 


tiweush 


meeuu 


House 


nisht 


hammeih(=^re) 


Axe 


yengthokineh 


khueshtan 


Knife 


sliekt 


hekemistah 


Shoes 


taitkMo 


ulumof 


Sly 


adjalawaia 


amiank 


Sun 


hue wish 


ampiun 


Moon 


katkhltop 


utap 


Star 


tkhlikhlish 


atuininank 


Day 


eweiu 


umpium 


Night 


ftalp 


atitshikim 


Fire 


tetsh 


hammeih 


Water 


iskkainish 


mampuka 


Rain 


tishtkitkhlmiting 


ukwii 


Snow 


poi 


nukpeik 


Earth 


lingsh 


hunkhalop 


River 


lushmi 


mantsal 


Stone 


apit 


audi 


Tree 


lauik 


huntawatkhl 


Meat 


pithuli 


umh6k 


Dog 


naapang 


mantal 


Beaver 


pieka 


akaipi 


Bear 


limeaksh 


alotufan 


Bird 


tianiyiwa 


pokalfuna 


Great 


yaumua 


pul 


Cold 


shunga 


p^ngkafiti 


White 


tkhlaktkhlako 


kOTTlTnOU 


Black 


shkupshkupu 


maieum 


Red 


lakaitlakaitu 


tshal 



LUTUAMI, SHASTI, PALAIK. 



407 



Erxglisli 


Caytis. 


Willamet 


/ 


ining 


tsbii 


Thou 


niki 


maha 


He 


nip 


kak 


One 


na 


wrifin 


Two 


leplin 


k^en 


Three 


matnin 


upshin 


Four 


piping 


taope 


Five 


tdwit 


htiwan 


Six 


noind 


taf 


Seven 


noilip 


psMnimua 


Eight 


noimat 


keemtia 


Nine 


tanauiaishimshin 


wanwaha 


Ten 


ningitelp 


tinifia. 



The Lutuami, Shasti, and Palaik are thrown by 
Gallatin into three separate classes. They are, without 
doubt, mutually unintelhgible. Nevertheless they can- 
not be very widely separated. 

The chief language in contact with the Shasti is the 
intrusive Athabaskan of the Umkwa and Tlatskanai 
tribes. Hence the nearest languages with which it should 
be compared are the Jakon and Kalapuya, from which 
it is geographically separated. For this reason we' do 
not expect any great amount of coincidences. We find 
some, however. 



English. 


Lutuami. 


Shasti. 


Palaik. 


Jakon. 


Man 


hishuatsMS 


awatikoa 


yatiu 


kalt 


Woman 


sknawats 


taritsi 


umtewitsen 


tkhlaks 


Father 


kaxiktishap 




waii 


• swnta 


Mother 


ankompkiswp 


milatkhi 


taii 


tkhla 


Son 






yatiitsa 


sinmaats 


Daughter 






lumauitsa 




Head 


nus 


uiak 


lah 


tkhlokia 


Hair 


lak 


inakh 


tiyi 


sinwtkhlosin (my) 


Ear 


mumoMtsh 


isak 


kwrnumtiats 


kwolkwwtsa 


Eye 


lolwp 


oi 


as% 


skikisM 


Nose 


psklsh 


eri 


iami 


titsina 


Mouth 


shum 


an 


ap 


khai 


Tongue 


P^WMS 


ehena 


ipili 


twlela 


Tooth 


tut 


itRa,n 


itsa 


stelieliki 


Hand 


nap 


apka 


il 





408 



LUTUAMI, SHASTI, PALAIK. 



Englisb. 


Lutuami. 


Shasti. 


Palaik. 


Jakon. 


Fingers 


kop& 


akhasik 


il 


kwotkhl 


Feet 


pats 


akwes 


tsiko 




Blood 


poits 


ime 


ahati 


pouts 


House 


latsMsh 


wma 


tiluts 


tsitsaiskia 


Axe 


lakotsish 


aniakidi 


shlakotkis 


pakhtiu 


Knife 


wate 


atsirai 


shatikh 


kiai 


Shoes 


wakslina 


atsitkh 


kelala 


skanaiksealuista 


Sh/ 


paishish 


wwkwe 


Msehela 


Iaa 


Sun 


sapas 


tsoare 


tsul 


pitskom 


Moon 


wokaukash 


apkhatsu 


tsul 


okhon 


Star 


tsliol 




tsamikh 


tkhlalt 


Bay 






matikhtsi 




NigU 


pshin 


apkha 


mahektsa 


kaehe 


Fire 


loloks 


im^ 


mails 


kilita 


Water 


^mpo 


atsa 


as 


kilo 


Rain 


kwtolshas 


titshik 


enwaetsa 


tkhlakos 


Snow 


kais 


khae 


ti 


kimit 


Earth 


kaela 


tarak 


k^la 


onitstuh 


River 


kokai 


asurahaua 


atsMma 


haiu 


Stone 


kotai 


itsa 


ttlisliti 


kelih 


Tree 







tsatiashta 




Meat 






mishuts 




Dog 


watsak 


hapso 


watsak lia 


tskekh 


Beaver 


pum 


tawai 


pum 


kaatsilawa 


Bear 


tokwnks 


haukidai 


lokhoa 


kotiimamo 


Bird 


miak 


tarar^kh 


lauitsa 


kv.kwaia 


Fish 






alish 




Great 


moonis 


k^mpe 


waw^ 


haihaiat 


Cold 


kataks 


isikato 


wstse 


kwutitMkhwnu 


White 


palpal 


itaiu 


tiwitsi 


kwakhalt 


Black 


posposli 


epkhotarakhe 


hakutshi 


kaitsht 


Red 


taktakali 


eakhti 


takhlakhe 


pahali^t 


I 


no 


iaa 


it 


kone 


Thou 


i 


mai 


pikhk^ 


nikh 


He 


hot 


hina 


piklika 


kwoutsi 


One 


natshik 


tshig,mu 


um\a 


khwm 


Two 


lapit 


hoka 


kdki 


tsokhwakhwa 


Three 


ntani 


hatski 


tsUsliti 


pusuntkhlkha 


Fowr 


wonip 


iraliaia 


hatami 


tsuikikhatsokhwakia 


Five 


tonapni 


etsha 


molosi 


holatkhlkha 


Six 


nakskishwptane tahaia 






Seven 


tapkishwptdne 


hokaikinis 






Eight 


ndanekisll^^ptane 


hatsikiri 






Nine 


natskaiakish 


kirihariki-ikriu 




Ten 


taunip 


etsehewi 


hamish 


sauitiistw. 



LUTUAMI, SHASTI, PALAIK. 409 

Neither are there wanting affinities to the Sahaptin 
and Cayus languages — allied to each other. Thus — 

Ear=mumutsh 'LutviSimi=hu-mumuats Palaik =mw<saw Sahaptin=^8aA; 

Shasti= «a^aA Cayus. 
Mouth=-shum Lutuami=s7i^tw^-^•a^•sA Cayfis^Aim Sahaptin. 
Tongue=pawus LutvLa,mi=pawish Sahaptin =j5ws A. Cayus. 
Tooth=tut Lutuami=:^i7 Sahaptin. 
Foot=.ahwes Shasti=aMMa Sahaptin. 
Blood=ahati Va\aJk=.hiJcet Sahaptin. 
Fire=loloJcs Lutvia,m.i=:ihikska Sahaptin. 
One=natshih Lutuanii=waA;s Sahaptin:='na Caytis. 
Two=lapt hx\t\iSLmi=:lapit Sahaptin=:7i Cayds. 

The Lutuami seems somewhat the most Sahaptin of 
the three ; and this is what we expect from its geogra- 
phical position. It is also, like the Palaik, conterminous 
with the Wihinast ; both Palaik and Lutuami, along with 
the Shasti, having Shoshoni (for which see the sequel) 
affinities. 

English. Shoshoni. 

Nose . moui=iami, Palaik. 

Mouth timpa=shum, Lutuami. 

Ear inana=:isak, Shasti. 

Sun tava=sapas, Lutuami. 

Water pa=ampo, Lutuami. 

I ni=no, Lutuami. 

Thou - i=i, Lutuami. 

He oo=:hot, Lutuami. 

One shimutsi =te7wamww, Shasti ; umis, Palaik. 

The latter of the following vocabularies, which, with 
those that follow, belong to California, was taken 
from a Seragoin Indian, i. e, from an Indian to whom 
it was not the native tongue. We are warned of this 
by the collector — the inference being that the Tahlewah 
vocabulary is not wholly trustworthy. 



English. 


Ehnek. 


Tahlewah. 


Man 


ahwunsh 


pohlusan'h 


Boy 


anak'hocha 


kerrhn 


Girl 


yehnipahoitch 


kernihl 


Indian 


ahrah 


astowah 


Head 


ak houtshhoutsh 


astinthah 


Beard 


merruhw 


semerrhperrh 



410 



THE EHNEK, ETC: 



English. 


Ehnek. 


Tahlewah. 


Neck 


sihn 


ichonti 


Face 


ahve 


wetawaluh 


Tongue 


upri 


so'h 


Teeth 


wu'h 


shti 


Foot 


fissi 


stah 


One 


issah 


titskoh 


Two 


achliok 


kitchnik 


Three 


keurakh 


kltchnah 


Four 


peehs 


tshahanik 


Five 


tirahho 


schwallah 


Ten 


trah 


swellah. 



The junction of the Rivers Klamatl and Trinity gives 
us the locality for the Weitspeh. Its dialects, the 
Weiyot and Wishosk, extend far into Humboldt County, 
where they are, probably, the prevailing forms of speech, 
being used on the Mad River, and the parts about Cape 
Mendocino. From the Weitspek they differ much more 
than they do from each other. 



English. 


Weitspek. 


English. 


^. Weitspek. 


Man 


pagehk 


Moon 


ketnewabr 


Woman 


wintsuk 


Star 


haugets 


Boy 


hohksli 


Day 


tehnep 


Owl 


wai inuksh 


Dark 


ketutski 


Head 


tegueh 


Fire 


mets 


Hair 


leptait] 


Water 


pata 


Far 


spehguh 


I 


nek 


Eye 


mylih 


Thou 


kehl 


Nose 


metpi 


One 


spill ekoh 


Mouth 


mihlutl 


Two 


nuehi- 


Tongue 


melipl'h 


Three 


naksa 


Teeth 


merpetl 


Four 


tohhuniie 


Beard 


mehperch 


Five 


"malirotum 


Arm 


melisheh* 


Six 


hohtcko 


Hand 


tsewush 


Seven 


tchewurr 


Foot 


metske 


Fight 


k'hehwuh 


Blood 


happ'l 


Nine 


kerr 


Sun 


wanoushleh 


Ten 


wert'Ueliwerh 



Mendocino is the name suggested for the Choweshak, 
Batemdaikai, Kulanapo, Yukai, and Khwaklamayu 
forms of speech collectively. 

], 2. The Ghoweshak and Batemdaikai are spoken 



THE KULANAPO, ETC. 



411 



on Eel River, and in the direction of the southern 
branches of the Weitspek group, with which they have 
affinities. 

3, 4, 5. The Kulanai^o is spoken about Clear Lake, 
the Yukai on Russian River. These forms of speech, 
closely allied to each other, are also allied to the so- 
called Northern Indians of Baer's Beitrdge, &c. — 
Northern meaning to the north of the settlement of 
Ross. The particular tribe, of which we have a vocabu- 
lary, called itself Khwakhlamayu. 



English. 


Khwakhlamayu. 


English. 


Khwakhlamayu 


Head 


khoTTiTno 


Moon 


kalazha 


Hair 


shuka 


Star 


kamoi 


Eye 


iiu 


Fire 


okho 


Ear 


sliuma 


Water 


aka 


Nose 


pla 


One 


ku 


Mouth 


aa 


Tivo 


koo 


Tooth 


00 


Three 


subo 


Tongue 


aba 


Four 


mui-a 


Hand 


psha 


Five 


tysha 


Foot 


sakki 


Six 


lara. 


Sun 


ada 

(2 


.) 


- 


English. 


Kulanapo. 


English, 


Kulanapo. 


Man 


kaah 


Moon 


luelah 


Woman 


dah 


Star 


uiyahoh 


Boy 


kahwih 


Day 


dahmul 


Girl 


dahliats 


Dark 


petih 


Head 


kaiyah 


Fire 


k'hoh 


Hair 


musuh 


Water 


k'hah 


Ear 


shlmali 


I 


hah 


Eye 


ui 


Thou 


ma 


Nose 


labahbo 


One 


k'hahHh 


Mouth 


katsedeh 


Two 


kots 


Tongue 


bal 


Three 


homeka 


Teeth 


yaoh 


Four 


dol 


Beard 


katsutsu 


Five 


lehmah 


Ann 


tsuah 


Six 


tsadi 


Hand 


biyyah 


Seven 


kulahots 


Foot 


kahmah 


Eight 


kokodohl 


Blood 


bablaik 


Nine 


hadarolshuin 


Sun 


lah 


Ten 


hadorutlek. 



412 



THE COPEH. 



The Copeh is spoken at the head of Putos Creek. 
How far this "will eventually turn out to be a convenient 
name for the group, or how far the group itself will be 
natural, is uncertain. A vocabulary in Gallatin from 
the Upper Sacramento, and one from Mag Readings, in 
the south of Shasti county, belong to the group. 



English. 


Copeh. 


Mag Readings. 


Upper Sacramento. 


Man 


pehtluk 


winnoke 




Woman 


mulilteh 


dokke 




Mead 


buhk 


pok 





Hair 


tiih 


tomi 


tomoi 


Eye 


sah 


chuti 


tumut 


Nose 


kiunik 




tsono 


Mouth 


kohl 




kal 


Teeth 


siih 


sti 




Beard 


clielisaki 


khetcheki 




Arm 


sa>lila.li 




keole 


Hand 


semh 


shim 


tsemut {fingers) 


Foot 


mai'h 


mat 


ktamoso 


Blood 


sahk 


chedik 




Sun 


sunh 


tuku 


sas 


Wind 


toudi 


kleyhi 




Rain 


yohro 


luhoUo 


• 


Snow 


yohl 


yola 




Fire 


poh 


pan 


po 


Water 


mehm 


mem 


mem 


Earth 


kirrh 


kosh 





About eighty or a hundred miles from its mouth, the 
river Sacramento is said to form a division between two 
languages, one using momi, the other kik, for vjater. 

For the former group we have the (a) Pujuni, (h) 
Secumne, and (c) Tsa^mak specimens of Hale, as also the 
Cushna vocabulary, from the county Yuba, of School- 
craft. 



English. 


Pujuni. 


Sekumne. 


Tsamak. 


Man 


9une 


mailik 


mailik 


Woman 


kele 


kele 


kule 


Child 




maidumonai 




Daughter 




eti 





Head 


t9ut5(il 


tsol 


t§ult9t 


Hair 


oi 


ono 


oi 



THE PUJUNI, ETC. 



413 



English. 


Pujuni. 


Sekumne. 


Ear 


ono 


bono 


Eye 


wat9a 


il 


Nose 


henka 


suma 


Mouth 


molo 


sim 


Neck 


tokot6k 


kui 


Arm 


ma 


wah 


Hand 


t9apai 


ma 


Fingers 


t9ikikup 


biti 


Leg 


pai 


podo 


Foot 


katwp 


pai 


Toe 


ta^ 


biti 


House 


he 


he 


Bow 


olumni 




Arrow 


huia 




Shoes 




sohtm 


Beads 




hawitt 


Sky 


hibi 




Sun 


oko 


oko 


Bay 


oko 


eki 


Night 




po 


Fire 


9a 


sa 


Water 


momi, mop 


mop 


River 


lokolok 


mumdi 


Stone 








Tree 


t9a 


tsa 


Grapes 




muti 


Deer 


wil 


kut 


Bird 




tsit 


Fish 




pala 


Salmon 


mai 


mai 


Name 




ian6 


Good 


huk 


wenne 


Bad 




t909 


Old 




hawil 


New 




be 


Sweet 




suduk 


Sour 




oho 


Hasten 




iewa 


Run 


tshel 


gewa 


Walk 


iye 


wiye 


Swim 


pi 




Talk 


wiwina 


enun 


Sing 




tsol 


Dance 




paio 


One 


ti 


wikte 


Two 


teene 


pen 


Three 


shupui 


sapui 



Tsamak, 

orro 

hU 



kulut 

kalut 

tamsult or tamt9ut 

tcikikup 

bimpi 

pai 



9a 

momi 

munti 



kut 



huk 
maidik 



414 



i 


THE 


PUJUNI, ETC. 


English, 


Pujuni. 


Sekumne. 


Four 


pehel 


tsi 


Five 


mustic 


mauk 


Six 


tini, (sic) 


tini, a (sic) 


Seven 


tapui 


pensi (?) sic 


Eight 


petshei 


tapau (I) sic 


Nine 


matshum 


mutsum 


Ten 


t.sha.panaka 


aduk 



Tsamak. 



Hale's vocabulary of the Talatui belongs to the 
group for which the name Moquelumne is proposed ; a 
Moquelumne Hill and a Moquelumne Eiver being found 
within the area over which the languages belonging to 
it are spoken. Again, the names of the tribes that 
speak them end largely in -mne, — Ghupumne, &c. As 
far south as Tuol-umne county the language belongs to 
this division ; viz. (1 .) the Mumaltachi ; (2.) the Mul- 
lateco ; (8.) the Apangasi ; (4.) the Lapappu ; and (5.) 
the Siyante or Typoxi bands speak this language. 



(1-) 



English. 


Talatui. 


San Raphael. 


Man 


sawe 


lamantiya 


Woman 


esuu 


kulaish 


Father 


tata 


api 


Daughter 


tele 


ai 


Head 


tikit 


molu 


Ear 


alok 


alokh 


Eye 


wilai 


shuta 


Nose 


uk 


huke 


Mouth 


hube 


lakum 


Rand 


iku 


ak 


Foot 


subei 


koio 


Sim 


hi 


hi 


Dap 


hi umu 


hi 


Night 


ka-wil 


walayuta 


Fire 


wike 


waik 


Water 


kik 


kiik 


Stone 


sawa 


lupoii 


Bird 


lune, ti 


kakalis 


Home 


kodja 


koitaya 


One 


kenate 


kenai 


Two 


oyo-ko 


oza 


TJiree 


teli-ko 


tula-ka 





THE 


TALATUI, ETC. 


41 


English. 




Talatui. 




San Raphael. 


Four 




oi^u-ko 




wiag 


Five 




kassa-ko 




kenekus 


Six 




temebo 




patirak 


Seven 




kanikuk ( 


?) sic 


semlawi 


Eiglit 




kauinda 




wusuya 


Nine 




ooi 




umarask 


Ten 




ekuye 

(2.) 




kitsLisb. 


English. 


Tshokoyem. 




Enghsh. 


Tshokoyem. 


Man 


tai-esse 






Star 


bittish 


Woman 


kuleh-esse 




Day 


biabnab 


Boy 


yokeli (small) 




Night 


kawul 


Girl 


koyah 






Fire 


wikib 


Head 


mololi 






Waier 


kibk 


Ear 


ahlohk 






River 


polab 


Eye 


shut 






Stone 


lepeb 


Nose 


huk 






I 


kahni 


Mouth 


lapgup 






Thou 


mib 


Tongue 


lehntip 






He 


ikkob 


Tooth 


kuht 






Tliey 


mukkam 


Neck 


helekke 






All 


mukkam 


Foot 


koyok 






Who 


mabnti 


Blood 


kichawh 






Eat 


yoblomusib 


Sky 


lililih 






Drink 


usbu 


Sun 


hih 






Run 


bibcbiah 


Moon 


pululuk 






See 


elHb. 



The tribes under the supervision of the Mission of 
Dolores were five in number; the Ah wastes, the Olhones, 
or Costanos (of the coast), the Romonans, the Tulomos, 
and the Altatmos. Tlie vocabulary of which the fol- 
lowing is an extract was taken from Pedro Alcantara, 
who was a boy when the Mission was founded, A.D. 
1776. He was of the Romonan tribe. 



English, 


Costano. 


English. 


Costano. 


Ma7i 


imben 


Ear 


tuorus 


Woman 


raticbma 


Eye 


rebin 


Boy 


shlnismuk 


Nose 


tis 


Girl 


katra 


Mouth 


werper 


Head 


tile 


Tongue 


tassek 



416 



THE COSTANO, ETC. 



English. 


Costano. 


English. 


Costano. 


Tooth 


Slit 


River 


crush 


Neck 


Ian 


Stone 


erek 


Foot 


kolo 


T 


kalinah 


Blood 


payan 


Thou 


mene 


Shy 


reneme 


He 


wahche 


Sun 


islimen 


They 


nekumsah 


Moon 


kolma 


All 


kete 


Star 


agweh 


Who 


mato 


Day 


puhe {light) 


Eat 


ahmush 


Night 


moor {darh) 


Drink 


owahto 


Fire 


roretaon 


Run 


akamtoha 


Water 


sii 


See 


atempimah 



In the north of Mariposa county, and not far south 
of the Tuolomne area, the language seems changed, and 
the Goconoons is spoken by some bands on the Mercede 



river. 



The Tulare, akin to it, is probably conterminous with 
the Mohave of the San Bernardin and the Santa Barbara 
forms of speech. 



English. 


Coconoons. 


Tulare. 


Head 


etc 


utno 


Hair 


tolus 


cells 


Ear 


took 


took 


Nose 


thedick 


tuneck 


Mouth 


sammack 


shemmak 


Tongue 


talcotch 


talkat 


Tooth 


talee 


talee 


Sun 


suyou 


oop 


Moon 


offaum 


taahmemna 


Star . 


tchietas 


sahel 


Day 


hial 


tahoh 


Fire 


sottol 


ossel 


Water 


iUeck 


illick. 



For the counties (missions) which touch the sea, we 
have, to the south of the Costanos, the following voca- 
bularies : — 

(i.) 

Soledad. San Miguel. San Antonio. 

mue loai 

shurishme tlene 

nikana tata tele 



English. 


Eslen. 


Ruslen. 


Man 


ejennutek 


muguyamk 


Woman 


tamitek 


latrayamank 


Father 


aliay 


appan 







SANTA 


BARBARA, ETC. 


4n 


English. 


Eslen. 


Rusleu. 




Soledad. 


San Miguel. 


Sau Antonio. 


Mother 


azia 


aan 




nikana 


apai 


epjo 


Son 


panna 


enshinsh 


nikinish 


paser 





Daughter tapana 


kaana 




nika 


paser 





Head 








tshop 


tobuko 


traako 


Hair 








worokh 


teasakho 




Ears 








otsho 


tentkhito 


tishokolo 


Nose 








us 


tenento 




Eyes 









hun 


trugento 




Mouth 








hai 


treliko 




Shy 


imita 


terraj 








napalemak 


Moon 


tomanisaashi 


orpetuei-isbmen 






tatsoopai 


Day 


asatza 


ishmen 








trokana 


Light 


jetza 


sliorto 










Night 


tomanis 


orpetui 










Fire 


manamenes 


hello 










Water 


azaTia,x 


ziy 








tsha 


Bow 


payunay 


laguan 








kakheia 


Arroio 


lottos 


teps 








tatoyen 


Great 


putuki 


ishac 








katsha 


Small 


ojask 


pisLit 











More 


nitsclia 


ka 










There 


nimetaha 


me 










One 


pek 


enjala 




himitsa 


toM 


kitol 


Two 


ulhaj 


ultis 




utshe 


kugsu 


kakishe 


Three 


julep 


kappes 




tkapka 


tlubahi 


klap'hai 


Four 


jamajus 


ultizim 




utjit 


kesa 


kisha 


Five 


pemajala 


hali izu 




paruash 


oldrato 


ultraoh 


Six 


peguatanoi 


hali shakem 


iminuksha piaite 


painel 


Seven 


jula jualanei 


kapkamai shakem uduksha 


tepa 


t'eh 


EigU 


julep jualanei 


ultumai shakem 


taitemi 


sratel 


shaanel 


Nine 


jamajas jualanei packe 




watso 


teditrup 


tetatsoi 


Ten 


tomoila 


tamchajt 


matsoso 


tnipa 


tsoeh. 








(2.) 










English. 




Santa Barbara. 


San Luis Obispo. 




Sh, 




alapai 




tikbis 






Sun 




alishakua 


s'maps 




Moon 




aguai 




tabua 






Stars 




akehun 




k'sbibimu 




Water 




oh 




to 






House 




ahpa 










Man 




eheye 




h'lmono 




Woman 




elinek 




tasiyubl 




Child 




tupneesh 




tschuilmono 




Ston£ 




kheup 




tkhenp 




Bay 




husiec-esini 


t'chashin 



E E 



418 



SANTA BARBARA, ETC. 



English. 


Santa Barbara. 


San Luis Obispo. 


One 


paka 


tskhumu 


Two 


shlfoho 


eshin 


Three 


masekh 


misha 


Four 


skumu 


paksi 


Five 


yiti-paka 


tiyehui 


Six 


yiti shkome 


ksuhuasya 


Seven 


yiti-masekh 


kshuamishhe 


Fight 


malahua 


sh'komo 


Nine 


spa 


shumotchi-makhe 


Ten 


keshko 


tuyimili 


Eleven 


keilu 


tihuapa 


Txvelve 


masekh -eskumn 


takotia 


Thirteen 


kel-paka 


huakshumu 


Fourteen 


kel-ishko 


huaklesin 


Fifteen 


kel -masekh 


huaklmishe 


Sixteen 


peta 


peusi 


Lake 


eukeke 




Sea 


skahamihui 


t' shnekhan 


Mountain 


oshlomohl 


tspu 


Bow 


akha 


takha 


Arrow 


yah 


tslehui 


Chief 


huot 




Bad 




tsohuis 


Earth 


iti-kiala-kaipi 


-. 


River 


shtejeje 


tslimi 


SaU 


tipi 


tepu 


Light 


neuk 


tina 


Night 


sulcuhu 


tch' khime 


Cold 


sokhton 




Hot 


sientseuk 




White 


ohuokh 




BlacTc 


akemai 




Doo^' 


ekeipe 




Body 


hekiampium 




Father 


hokonosh 


sapi 


Mother 


khoninash 


tuyu 


Brave 


akhauishash 




Much 





tsekhu 


Little 




tsihuisnin 


Head 




p'sho 


Heart 





nokhop 


Hand 




nupu 


Ear 




p'ta 


Friend 




tsakhsi 


Enemy 




tsinayihlmu. 



THE NETELA, ETC. 



419 



(3.) 



English. 


Netela. 


Kij. 


Man 


yiits 


woroit 


Woman 


sungwal 


tokor 


Fatlier 


nana 


anak 


Mother 


noyo 


aok 


Son 


nakam 


aikok 


Daughter 


nasuam 


aiarok 


Head 


nuyu 


apoam 


Ear 


nanakwum 


anana 


Eye 


nopulum 


atshotshou 


Nose 


nomuitm 


amepin 


Mouth 




atongin 


Tongue 




anongin 


Teeth 


noto 


atatwm 


Hand 


natakalom 


aman 


Fingers 


watshkut 




Feet 


nee 




Blood 


noo 


akhain 


House 


niki 


kitsh 


Sun 


temet 


tamet 


Moon 


moil 


moar 


Star 


suol 


snot 


Day 


teme 


oronga 


Night 


tukmwt 


yauket 


Fire 


mughat 


tshawot 


Water 


pal 


bar 


Rain 


kwast 


akwakit 


Snow 


yuit 


yoat 


Earth 




touanga 


Stone 


tot 


tota 


Dog 


aghwal 


wausi 


Bear 


hunot 


hunar 


Bird 


cheymat 


amasbarot 


Fish 


mughut 


kwaiing 


Great 


oboloo 


yoit 


Cold 




atsho 


White 


kwaiknot 


arawatai 


Black 


yottatkhnot 


yupikba 


Red 


koiakuiet 


kwauokha 


I 


no 


noma 


Thou 


om 


oma 


He 


wanal 


ahe 


One 


puku 


puku 


Two 


wehe 


wehe 


Three 


pahe 


pate 



E E 2 



420 



THE YUMA DIALECTS. 



English. 


Netela. 


Four 


watsa 


Five 


mahar 


Six 


pawahe 


Seven 


aghwohuitsh 


Eight 


weheswatsa 


Nine 


pehelenga 


Ten 


wehkun-mahar 



Kij. 



The Yuma Indians occupy each, side of tlie Colorado 
both above and below its junction with the Gila. They 
are also called Cuchans, and are a fierce predatory 
nation, encroaching equally on tribes of their own lan- 
guage and on aliens. 

Cocomaricopa. 



English. 

Man 

Woman 



Head 

Hair 

Ear 

Nose 

Mouth 

Tongue 

Tooth 

Beard 

Hand 

Foot 

Sky 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Snow 

Fire 

Water 

I 

He 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 



Cuchan. 
epatsh 

sinyak 

metepaie 

ecoutsucherowo 

and 
umwelthoocouo 
eetche 
smythl 



epulche 

aredoche 

yahboineli 

eesalclie 

emetchslipaslapya 

ammai 

nyatch 

huthlya 

klupwalaie 

halup 



apatch 
seniact 



ametche 



aka 

nyat 

habritzk 

sin 

havick 

hamuk 

chapop 

scrap 



house 
kaacke 



sandek 

haveka 

hamoka 

champapa 

sarap 



Dieguno. 
{ ^ycutcht 
( epatck 

sun 



estar 



hiletar 



hu 



selh 
hamulyay 



kha 
nyah 

hina 

hawue 

hamuk 

chapop 

suap. 



THE YUMA DIALECTS. 



421 



(2.) 



English. 


Mohave. 


English. 


Mohave. 


Man 


ipali 


Moon 


hullya 


Woman 


sinyax 


Star 


hamuse 


Head 


cawawa 


Fire 


awa 


Hair 


imi 


Water 


aha 


Face 


ihalimi 


T 


nyatz 


Forehead 


yamapul 


Thou 


mantz 


Ear 


esmailk 


He 


pepa 


Nose 


ihn 


One 


setto 


Eye 


idotz 


Two 


havika 


Mouth 


ia 


Three 


hamoko 


Tongue 


ipailya 


Four 


pinepapa 


Tooth 


ido 


Five 


serapa 


Arm 


isail 


Six 


sinta 


Foot 


imilapilap 


Seven 


vika 


Blood 


niawhut 


Eight 


muka 


Sky 


amaiiga 


Nine 


pai 


Sun 


nyatz 


Ten 


arapa. 



The Cocomaricopa Indians are joint occupants of 
certain villages on the Gila ; the population with which 
they are associated being Pima. Alike in other re- 
spects, the Pima and Cocomaricopa Indians differ in 
language. 



422 OLD CALIFORNIA. 



CHAPTER LYII. 

Old California, 

San Diego lies in 32^° north latitude, a point at 
which the philology diverges. I first follow it in the 
direction of Old California. It is stated in the Mithri- 
dates that the most northern of the Proper Old Cali- 
fornian tongues, the Cochhni, is spoken as far north as 
33°. If so, the Dieguno maybe Old Californian as well 
as New; which I think it is, believing, at the same 
time, that Cochimi and Cuchan are the same words. 

Again, in the following Paternoster the word for sky 
— am7)ii in the Cuchan vocabulary. 

Cochimi of San Xavier. 

father sky 

Pennayu makenamb^ yaa ambayujui mijk mo ; 

name men confess and love all 

Buhu mombojua tamma gkomend^ hi nogodono demuejueg gkajim ; 

and sky earth favour 

Pennay^a bogodofio gkajim, gui hi ambayujup maba yaa keammete decuiny : 
mo puegin ; 

sky earth 

Yaa m blihula mujua ambayup mo dedahijua, amet 6 nd guilugui ei pag. 
kajim ; 

this day day 

Tamad^ yaa ibo ejueg quiluguiqui pemijich 6 m5u ibo yanno puegifl ; 

and man evil 

Guihi tamma yaa gambuegjula kepujui ambinyijua pennayala dedaudug^jua, 
giulugui pagkajim ; 
and although and 

Guihi yaa tagamuegla hui ambinyijua hi doomo puhuegjua, he doomo 
pogonunyim ; 



OLD CALIFORNIA. 423 

and earth bless evil 

Tagamuegjua guihi usimahel keammet e decuinyimo, guihi yaa hui ambinyi 
yaa gambuegpea pagkaudugum. 

Of recent notices of any of the languages of Old Cali- 
fornia, eo nomine^ I know none. In the Mithridates 
the information is pre-eminently scanty. 

According to the only work which I have examined 
at first hand, the NacliriMen von der Americanise] ten 
Halbinsel Kalifornien (Mannheim, 1772 ; in the Mith- 
ridates, 1773), the anonymous author of which was a 
Jesuit missionary in the middle parts of the peninsula, 
the languages of Old California were — 

1 . The WaiJcur, spoken in several dialects. 

2. The Utshiti. 

3. The Layamon. 

4. The Cochimi, north, and 

5. The PericUj at the southern extremity of the 
peninsula. 

6. A probably new form of speech used by some 
tribes visited by Linck. 

This is what we learn from what we may call the 
Mannheim account ; the way in which the author 
expresses himself being not exactly in the form just 
exhibited, but to the effect that, besides the Waikur 
with its dialects, there were ^\q others. 

The Waikur Proper, the language which the author 
under notice was most especially engaged on, and which 
he says that he knew sufficiently for his purposes as a 
missionary, is the language of the middle part of the 
peninsula. How far the Utshiti and Layamon were 
dialects of it, how far they were separate substantive 
languages, is not very clearly expressed. The writer had 
Utshis, and TJtshipujes, and Atschimes in his mission, 
"thoroughly distinct tribes — lauter verschiedene Volck- 
lein," Nevertheless he always speaks as if the Waikur 
tongue was sufficient for his purposes. On the other 
hand, the Utshiti is especially mentioned as a separate 



424 OLD CALIFORNIA. 

language. Adelung makes it a form of the Waikur ; as 
he does the Layamon, and also the Cora and Aripe. 
Then there comes a population called Iha, probably the 
Picos or Ficos of Bagert, another authority for these 
parts. Are these, the sixth population of the Mannheim 
account, the unknown tribes visited by Linck ? I think 
not. They are mentioned in another part of the book 
as known. 

To the names already mentioned — 

1. Ika, 3. Utshipuje, 

2. Utshi, 4. Atschime, 
add * 

5. Paurus, 9. Mitsheriku-tamais, 

6. Teakwas, 10. Mitsheriku-tearus, 

7. Teenguabebes, 11. Mitsheriku-ruanajeres, 

8. Angukwaros, 

and you have a list of the tribes with which a mission- 
ary for those parts of California where the Waikur 
language prevailed, came in contact. Altogether they 
gave no more than some 500 individuals, so miserably 
scanty was the population. 

The occupancies of these lay chiefly within the Co- 
chimi area, which reached as far south as the parts 
about Loretto in 2 6° north latitude ; the Loretto Ian - 
guage being the Layamon. This at least is the in- 
ference from the very short table of the Mithridates, 
which, however little it may tell us in other respects, at 
least informs us that the San Xavier, San Borgia, and 
Loretto forms of speech were nearer akin to each other 
than to the Waikur. 



English, 


San Xavier. 


San Borgia. 


Loretto. 


Waikur. 


Sky 


ambayujub 


ambeink 




terereka-datemba 


Earth 


amet 


amate-guang 




datemba y 


Fire 





usi 


ussi 


^ 


Man 


tamma 


tama 


tamma 


ti / 


Father 


kakka 


iham 


keneda 




Son 




uisaham 




tshanu. 



OLD CALIFORNIA. 



425 



The short compositions of Hervas (given in the Mith- 
ridates) show the same. 

Waikur Paternoster, with the German Interlineation, from the 
Mithridates. 
Kepe-dare tekereka-datembi dai ; 
unser Vater gehogene Erd du hist ; 

ei-ri akatuike-pu-me ; 

dichodas erJcennen alle werden; 
tshakarrake-pu-me ti tschie ; 

loben alle loerden Lent und ; 
ecun gracia-ri acume care tekerekadatembi tschie ; 
dien gratia o dass haben loerden wir gehogene Erd und ; 
eiri jebarrakemi ti pu jaupe datemba 

dir dase gehorsamen werden Menschen alle heer Erd, 
pae ei jebarrakere aena kea ; 
wie dir gehorsamen drohen seynd; 
kepecun bu. kepe ken jatupe untairi ; 
unser Speis uns gebe dieser tag j 
cate kuitscharake tei tschie kepecun atacamara 
uns verzehe du und unser Boses ; 
pae kuitscharrakere cate tschie cavape atukiara keperujake ; 
wie verzehen loir auch die Boses uns thun; 
cate tikakamba tei tschie ; 
uns helfe du und; 

cuvumer^ cate ue atukiara ; 

wollen werden Nicht ivir eticas Boses; 
kepe kakunja pe atacara tschie. Amen, 
uns beschutze von Bosen und. Amen. 

The compound tekereka-datembi = hent land — sky =i 
heaven. 

To this very periphrastic Paternoster we may add the 
following fragments of the Waikur conjugation : — 



Be ^ 
Ei 




' ego ludo 
tu ludis 


Tutau 
Gate 


- amukirere= - 


ille ludit 
nos ludimus 


Pete 




vos luditis 


Tuc^va . 




L illi ludunt 


Be ^ 




' ego lusi 


Ei 




tu lusisti 


Tutau 
Cate 


■ aniukiririkeri= - 


ille lusit 
nos lusimus 


Pete 




vos lusistis 


Tucava . 




^ illi luserunt. 



!26 OLD CALIFORNIA. 

Amukirime = ludere. 
Amukiri tei=ZMC?e. 
Amukiri t\i=ludite. 

Be-ri ■) ( I wish I had not played 



Ei-ri 

Tut&u-ri L , . 

Gate ri r ainukinrikankara= 

Pete-ri 
Tucava-ri 



Thou, <kc. 
He, <kc. 
We, c&c. 
Ye, &c. 
L They, &c. 



Of the Pericu, spoken at the south extremity of the 
peninsula, I know no specimens. 

With this concludes the notice of the languages of 
Old California ; languages belonging to the most neg- 
lected class in philology ; languages of which our data 
are pre-eminently fragaientary ; above all, languages 
which (from the probably approaching extinction) are 
destined to be but imperfectly known. All that can be 
said of them is, that they appear to graduate into each 
other, and that, at the neck of the peninsula, they 
certainly graduate into those of the mainland. That 
they are all Yuma is probable. What value is im- 
pressed upon the class by making them so is another 
question. 



THE PIMA, ETC. 



427 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

Languages of Sonora, — Mexico. — Gruatimala. — Honduras. — 
Nicaragua, &c. 

With the neck of the peninsula ; the southern bound- 
ary of California ; the northern boundary of Sonora ; 
and the line of contact between the Cocomaricopas and 
the Piraa Indians, begins a new division. Upon the 
difference between the Pimas and the Cocomaricopas, 
there is no want of decided statements. Many notices 
of the two populations are accompanied by comparative 
vocabularies, in which the difference is manifest — all the 
more so from the contrast it supplies to their topogra- 
phical contact, and the similarity of their habits. They 
" agree in everything but their languages, and in this they 
differ'' is the common (and true) statement concerning 
them. 

But though the distinction is real, it must not be 
overvalued. At the same time the Pima class (of unde- 
termined value) is a real one. 

That it contains the Pima Proper, the Opata, and 
the Eudeve, may be seen from the Mithridates. 



English. 


Pima. 


English. 


Pima. 


Man 


huth 


Sun 


tabs 


Woman 


hahri 


Moon 


mahsa. 


Indian 


huup 


Star 


uon 


Head 


mouk 


Snow 


chiah 


Hair 


ptmuk 


Fire 


talii 


Ear 


ptnahauk 


Water 


suutik 


Nose 


tahnk 


I 


ahan 


Mouth 


chinits 


He 


yeutah 


Tongue 


neuen 


One 


ynmako 


Tooth 


ptahan 


Two 


kuak 


Beard 


chinyo 


Three 


vaik 


Hand 


mahahtk 


Four 


kiik 


Foot 


tetaght 


Five 


puitas. 


Sky 


ptchuwik 







428 THE OPATA, ETC. 

In Spanish America the character of our material 
changes, and we get Artes rather than vocabularies — 
the Allies, concerning which more will be found in the 
sequel. 

Opata. 

Tamo mas ie^Miacachigua cacame; 

Amo tegua santo h ; 

Ame reino tame macte ; 

Hinadeia iguati terepa ania teguiacachiveri ; 

Chiama tamo guaco veu tamo mac; 

Guatame neavere tamo cai naideni ac^ api tame neavere tomo opagua ; 

Grua cai tame taotitudare ; 

Cai naideni chiguadu — Apita cachi^. 

That the language of the Papagos, Papagocotam, is 
also Pima rests upon good external evidence. Whether 
the speech of the Ciris, and population of the island of 
Tiburon and the parts opposite, be also Pima, is at 
present uncertain. 

The Ibequi belongs to the same class — slightly en- 
larged. 

Hiaqui. 

Itom-didhaA ^eve-capo catecame; 

CLe-cherasu yoyorwa; 

Itou piepsana em yaorahua ; 

Em harepo in buyapo annvM amante (tevecapo?) vecapo annua beni 

Machuveiiom-buareu yem itom a,micsi-itom ; 

Esoc alulutiria ca-aljiton-anecau itepo soc alulutiria ebeni itom veherim 

Caitom butia huenacucbi cativiri betana ; 

Aman -i^om-yeretua. 

So, also, the 

Tubar. 

/<e-canar fe^ruiuicarichua catemat; 

Imit tegrmuarac milituraba teochiqualac ; 

Imit huegmica carinite bacacMn-assifaguin ; 

Imit avamunarir echu naiiagualac imo cuigan amo nachic ie^/mue-caricheri ; 

Ite cokuatarit, essemer taniguarit, iabbe ite mzcam ; 

Ite tatacoli ikiri atzomua ikirirain ite bacachin cale kuegma naiiegua cantem ; 

Caisa ite nosam bacatatacoli ; 

Bacachin ackiro muetzerac ite. 



THE CORA, ETC. 4*29 

Soj also, the 

Tarahumara. 

Tami nono, mamu regui guami gatiki ; 

Tami noineruje mu regua ; 

Telimea rekijena ; 

Tami neguaruje mu jelaliki henna, guetshiki, mapu hatschibe reguega 

guami ; 
Tami nututuge hipeba ; 
Tami guecanje tami guikeliki, matame hatschibe reguega tami guecanje putse 

tami guikejameke ; 
Ke ta tami satuje ; 
Telegatigemeke mechka huU. Amen. 



So, also, the 



Cora. 



Ta yaoape tapahoa, pethebe ; 

Cherihuaca eiia teaguarira ; 

Chemeahuabeni tahemi (to us) eiia chianaca ; 

Cheaquasteni eiia jevira iye (as) chianacatapoan tup up tapahoa, ; 

Eii ta hamuit (bread) eu te huima tahetze rej rujeve ihic {to-day) ta taa ; 

Huatauniraca ta xanacan tetup itcahmo tatahuatauni titaxanacante ; 

Ta vaehre teatcai havobereni xanacat hetze huabachreaca tecai tahemi ruta- 

huaga tehai eu ene. 
Che-enhuatahua. 



With these end our data, but not our lists of dialects ; 
the names Maya, Guazave, Heria, Sicuraba, Xixime, 
Topia, Tepeguana, and Acaxee all being, either in 
Hervas or elsewhere, applied to the different forms of 
speech of Sonora and Sinaloa ; to which may be added 
the Tahu, the Pacasca, and the Acasca, which is pro- 
bably the same word as Acaxee, just as Huiimi is the 
same as Yuma, and Zaque as Hiaqui. Of the Guazave 
a particular dialect is named as the AJiome. Add to 
these the Zoe and Huitcole, which are probably the 
same as the Huite. 

That some of these unrepresented forms of speech be- 
long to the same class with the Pima, Hiaqui, &c., is 



430 THE OTOMI. 

nearly certain. How many, however, do so is another 
question. It may be that all are in the same predica- 
ment ; it may be only a few. 

These languages lead us to the Mexican Proper ; of 
which it is difficult to give the true situs. This is be- 
cause it is a pre-eminently intrusive tongue. It is, pro- 
bably, spoken beyond its original boundaries in every 
direction ; sometimes (as in Central America) in isolated 
patches. Again — there are in many of the districts which, 
originally, belonged to the Mexican empire, local names 
of Mexican origin which are as strange to the spot on 
which they appear as the German or Kussian names in 
Estonia, or Livonia. Thirdly, the ordinary name for 
the language — Astek — seems to be, word for word, the 
same as the Maya term Huasteca ; a fact which sug- 
gests that the Mexicans were only Asteks in the way 
that the English are Britons, i. e. not at all, except 
so far as they took possession of a country originally 
British. The nearest approach to a true Mexican name, 
— a name which, in opposition to Asteh, is Mexican in 
the way that English is English as opposed to British 
— is Nahuatl. At any rate, Astek is an inconvenient 
synonym for Mexican. 

Of all the languages hitherto named, the one to which 
the Mexican is nearest allied, is the Tarahumara, through 
which it graduates, through the Cora, into the Sonora 
tongues, and through them to California, &c., &c. 

That the sound expressed by tl is Mexican, may be 
seen from even the shortest vocabularies. 

More has been written on the Otooni than any other 
language of these parts ; the proper Mexican not ex- 
cepted. It was observed by Naxera that it was nioTW- 
syllabic rather than polysynthetic, as so many of the 
American languages are, with somewhat doubtful pro- 
priety, denominated. A Mexican language, with a 
Chinese characteristic, could scarcely fail to suggest 



THE OTOMI, ETC. 431 

comparisons. Hence, the first operation on the Otomi 
was to disconnect it from the languages of the New, and 
to connect it with those of the Old World. With his 
accustomed caution, Gallatin satisfied himself with stating 
what others had said, his own opinion evidently being 
that the relation to the Chinese was one of analogy 
rather than affinity. 

Doubtless this is the sounder view ; and one con- 
firmed by three series of comparisons made elsewhere 
by the present writer. 

The first shows that the Otomi, as compared with the 
monosyllabic languages of Asia, en masse, has several 
words in common. But the second qualifies our in- 
ferences, by showing that the Maya, a language more 
distant from China than the Otomi, and by no means 
inordinately monosyllabic in its structure, has, there or 
thereabouts, as many. The third forbids any separation 
of the Otomi from the other languages of America by 
showing that it has the ordinary amount of miscellaneous 
affinities. 

Hence, in respect to the Chinese, &;c., the real question 
is not whether it has so many affinities with the Otomi, 
but whether it has -more affinities with the Otom,i than 
vjith the Maya or any other American language; a 
matter which we must not investigate without remem- 
bering that some difference in favour of the Otomi is to 
be expected, inasmuch as two languages with short or 
monosyllabic words will, fi^om the very fact of the short- 
ness and simpHcity of their constituent elements, have 
more words alike than two polysyllabic forms of speech. 

The fact, however, which most affects the place of 
the Otomi language is the quasi-monosyllabic character of 
other American languages, e. g. the Athabaskan and the 
Attacapa. 

Of the Pirinda and Tarasca we have grammatical 
sketches, with abstracts of them, by Gallatin. The fol- 
lowing are from the Mithridates. 



432 THE TARASCA, ETC. 

Pirinda. 

Cabutumtaki ke exjechori pininte ; 

Niboteachatii tucathi nitubuteallu ; 

Tantoki hacacovi nitubutea pininte ; 

Tarejoki nirihontamanicatii ninujami propininte ; 

Boturimegui dammuce tupacovi cbii ; 

Exgemundicovi boturicbocbii, kicatii pracavovi kuentumundijo boturicho- 

chijo ; 
Niantexechichovi rumkuentuvi innivocbocbii ; 
Moripacbitovi cuinenzimo tegui. 
Tucatii. 

Tarasca Paternoster. 

Tata uchaveri tukire bacahini av^ndaro ; 

Santo arikeve tucbeveti bacangurikua ; 

Wetzin andarenoni tucbeveti irecbeekua; 

Ukuareve tucbeveti wekua iskire avandaro, na bumengaca istu umengave ixu 

excberendo. 
Hucbaeveri curinda banganari pakua intzcutzini yaru ; 
Santzin wepovacberas bucbaeveri batzingakuareta, izki bucbanac wepocbacu- 

vanita baca bucbaveri batzingakuaecbani ; 
Ca bastzin terubtazema teruniguta perakua bimbo ; 
Evapentztatzini yaru catzingurita bimbo. Isevengua. 

Totonaca. 

Quintlatcane nac tiayan buil ; 
Tacollalibuacabuanli 6 mi maocxot ; 
Niquiminanin 6 mintacaccbi 
Tacbolabuanla 6 min pabuat 
Cbolei ix cacnitiet cbalcbix nac tiayan ; 
quin cboubcan lacalliya 
niquilaixquiub yanobue ; 
Caquilamatzancaniub quintacallitcan 
Cbonlei o quitnan lamatzancaniyaub 

6 quintalac allaniyan ; 
Ca ala quilamactaxtoyaub 
Nali yojaub naca liyogni 

Cbontacbolacabuanla. 

The same, from Uervas. 

Kintaccan 6 nitiayan buill ; 

Tacotllali buacabuanla o min pexca maocxot 

Camill omintagcbi, 

Tacbolaca buanla ixcacgnitiet ot 

skiniau ebon cbolacan ocnatiayan ; 

Alyanobue nikila ixkiu ki lacali chaocan ; 



THE MAYA LANGUAGES. 433 

Kilamatzancaniau kintacagllitcan 

Kintalacatlanian oclionkinan iclamatzan — 

Caniau kintalacatlanian ; 

Nikilamapotaxtou ala nicliyolau 

Lacotlanaeatalit nikilamapotexto 

Lamatzon lacacoltana. 

Chontacholacahu anla. 

Mixteca Paternoster. 
Dzutundoo, zo dzicani andihui ; * 
Naca cuneihuando sasanine ; 
Nakisi santoniisini ; 

Nacahui nuunaihui saha yocuhui inini dzahuatnaha yocuhui andihui ; * 
Dzitandoo yutnaa yutnaa tasinisindo hiutni ; 

Dzandooni cuachiisindo dzaguatnaha yodzandoondoonhi hindo suhani sin 
Huasi kihui nahani nucuitandodzondo kuachi ; 
Taliui nahani ndihindo sakanayvlmaka dzakua : 
Nacuhui. 

Hervas writes, that the Zapoteca (probably Maya), 
Mazateca, Chinanteca, and Mixe were allied. The 
Mixe locality is the district around Tehuantepec. 

The Maya stsiiids in contrast to the Mexican Proper 
(how it comports itself to the less known languages of its 
frontier is uncertain), by having a milder phonesis — 
such, at least, being the inference from the ordinary 
specimens. 

The Maya, in the limited, or proper sense of the word, 
is the language of Yucatan. It is also the name of a 
group ; i. e. it is used as a general, as well as a parti- 
cular, term. Mr. Squier, who has done so much for the 
class that he ought to be allowed to fix its nomenclature, 
suggests the name Tzendal. I believe, however, that this 
is simply another form of Ghontal ; a name which will 
re-appear in the sequel. Maya, too, is the older term. 
The Maya phonesis, in some of the dialects at least, 
is that of the Sahaptin and Shoshoni rather than the 
Atna and Tshintik. 

No tongue has more dialects (for they all seem to be 
this) which are designated by separate names and (as 
such) wear the garb of separate languages than the Maya. 

* Possibly the Masya dehmalu. 

F F 



434j the MAYA LANGUAGES. 

Some may be so. I think, however, that they are 
dialects with independent names. The distribution of 
them is remarkable. There is a northern section, spoken 
in the parts about Tabasco, which in the present state 
of our knowledge is isolated. This is — 

The Huasteca — word for word, Asteh The termina- 
tion -eca, is Maya. The speculations which arise out 
of this similarity of name, as well as those which are 
suggested by the prevalence of the termination -eca 
in Mexican narratives, form no part of our present in- 
quiries. 

The Kachiquel is Maya : the Kachiquel being one of 
the chief languages of Guatemala. 

So is the Quiche, called also the TJtlateca, 

So is the Zutugily called also the Zacapula, with 
the Atiteca. 

So is the Poconchij or Pocoman. 

So is the Chorti. 

The Mam is, probably, the same. Is Manche another 
form of Mam ? 

So, perhaps, is the Popoluca. 

So is the Tzendal, spoken in Chiapas, 

The Lacandona, spoken by some still independent 
tribes in Vera Paz, is, probably, in the same category 
with the Mam. No specimens, however, are known. 

The Ache. — Of this Fray Francisco Gomez Torque- 
mada writes that, " en a quella tierra (Guatemala) 
aprendio brevemente la Lengua Ache : que es la de sus 
Naturales y muy difficultuosa de aprender, porque le 
avia comunicado Dios el don de lenguas, que refiere su 
Apostol S. Pablo, y en ella aprovecho algunos aiios.'' 
Is it the same as the Atiteca ? 

In the Mithridates is the notice of a Zapoteca 
language, but nothing more. Squier suggests that it 
may be the Zacapula or Zutugil, — at least his notice 
of a work by Fray Luis Cancer runs thus — 



THE LENCA, ETC. 



435 



Varias Cancionies en Verso Zapoteca (Z acapnia?) sobre los Misterios de 
la Religion, para el uso de los Neofitos de la Vera Paz. 

Vera Paz is the Zapoteca locality as given by Adelung. 

The displacement in Honduras, Nicaragua, &;c., has 
been great. Hence of the languages other than Maya 
little is known ; many of them being extinct. 

The Lenca language is represented by four vocabu- 
laries from the four Pueblos of Guajiquiro, Opatoro, 
Intibuca, and Sirmlaton ; that of the last being shorter 
and less complete than the others. They are quite re- 
cent, and are to be found only in the Spanish edition of 
Mr. Squier's Notes on Central America; the English 
edition being without them. 





Honduras, 




English. 


Guajiquiro. 


Opatoro. 


Intibuca. 


Man 





taho 


amashe 


Woman 




move 


napu 


Boy 




guagua 


hua 


Head 


toro 


tolioro 


cagasi 


Ear 


yang 


yan 


yangaga 


Eye 


saing 


saringla 


saring 


Nose 


napse 


napseh 


nepton 


Mouth 


ingh 


ambeingh 


ingori 


Tongue 


nafel 


navel 


napel 


Teeth 


nagha 


neas 


nigh 


Neck 


ampshala 


ampshala 


cange 


Aiin 


kenin 


kenin 


kening 


Fingers 


iasel 


gualalasel 




Foot 


guagi 


quagi 


guaskaring 


Blood 


uahug 


uah 


quch 


Sun 


gasi 


gashi 


gashi 


Star 


siri 


siri 




Fire 


uga 


'ua 


yuga 


Water 


guass 


uash 


guash 


Stone 


caa 


caa 


tupan 


Tree 


ili 


iK 


ili 


One 


ita 


ita 


itaska 


Two 


naa 






Three 


lagua 







Four 


aria 






Five 


saihe 


saibe 




Six 


huie 


hue 






F F 2 



436 



LANGUAGES OF HONDURAS 



English. 


Guajiquiro. 


Opatoro. 


Intibuca. 


Seven 


huis-ca 







Eight 


teef-ca 






Nine 


kaiapa 






Ten 


isis 


issis 






Nicaragua. 








(1-) 




English. 




Masaya. 


Subtiaho. 


Man 




rahpa 


wuho 


Woman 




rapa-ku 


w-ahseyomo 


Boy 




sai-ka 


w-asome 


Girl 




sai-kee 


w-aheoun 


Child 




chichi 


?i-aneyame 


Father 




ana 


goo-ha 


Mother 




autu 


goo-mo 


/ Husband 




a'mbin 


'mhohue 


Wife 




a'guyu 


wume 


Sm 




sacul-e 


w-asomeyamo 


JDaughter 




saicul-a 


n-asayme 


Y 




( a'cu 
|edi 


goochemo 


Head 






Hair 




tu'su 


membe 


Face 




enu 


grote 


^ Forehead 




gnitu 


goola 


Ear 




nau 


nnhme 


Eye 




setu 


nahte 


Nose 




ta'co 


mungoo 


Mouth 




dahnu 


nunsu 


Tongue 




duhu 


greuhe 


Tooth 




semu 


nahe 


Foot 




naku 


graho 


Slcy 




dehmalu 


nekupe 


Sun 




ahca 


numbu 


Star 




ucu 


nuete 


Fire 




ahku 


nahu 


Water 




eeia 


nimbn 






(esee 
( esenu 


nugo 


Stone 






I 




icu 


saho 


Thm 




ic-a 


sumusheta 


He 




ic-a 




We 




hechel-u* 


semehmu 


Ye 




hechel-u* 




They 




icanu 




This 




ca-la 


-— " 



* Compare with the Tarascan uchaveri. 



AND NICARAGUA. 



437 



(2.) 



English. 


Wulwa {Chontai). 


English. 


Wulwa (Chontai). 


Man 


all 


Head 


tunni 


Woman 


y-all 


Eye 


minik-taka 


Son 


pau-ni-ma 


Nose 


magni-tuk. 


Daughter 


pau-co-ma 








(3.) 




English. 


Waikna {Moskito Coast). 


English. 


Waikna (Moskito Coast) 


Man 


waikna 


Head 


let 


Woman 


mairen 


Eye 


nakro 


Son 


lupia-waikna 


Nose 


kamka. 


Daughter 


lupia-mairen 







The following is spoken in Costa Rica, between the 
river Zent, and the Bocca del Tauro. 



English. 


Talemenca. 




English. 


Talemenca. 


Ear 


s%-kuke 




Star 


bewue 


Eye 


m-woaketd 




Fire 


tshuko 


Nose 


s^A-tshiukoto 




Water 


ditzita 


Mouth 


«w-'kuwu 




One 


e-tawa 


Tongue 


es-kuptu 




Two 


ho-tewa 


Tooth 


sa-ka 




Three 


msigna,-tewa 


Beard 


as-karku raezili 


Four 


Bke-tewa 


Neck-j&int ? 


tzin 




Five 


si-tewa 


Arm 


sa-fra 




Six 


si-wo-ske-le 


Hand 


sa-/ra-tem-sek 


Seven 


si-wo-wora, 


Finger 


/ra-wuata 




Eight 


" si-wo-magnana 


Nail 


sa-krasku 




Nine 


si-wo-sTce-tewa 


Swn 


kanhue 




Ten 


sa-flat-ka. 


Moon 


tulu 








St. Salvador — 








English, 




Savane 


ric. 


Bayano. 


Woma7i 




auich 




purra 


Hair 




chuga 


?s 


saglaga 


No8e 




vas'e 




asagua 


Eyes 




siguac 


va 


ivia 


Mouth 




ca 




cagtLiqui 


Teeth 




daj^ 




nugala 


Ears 




old 




ouja 


Hand 




covar^ 




arcana 


Foot 




sera 




naca 


Srni 




chuhi 






Moon 




datu 






Sta/rs 




behug 


uipa 




One 








quenchique 



438 





VERAGUA. 




English. 


Savaneric. 


Bayano. 


Two 




povuar 


Three 
Fowr 




pavuar 
paquevuar 


Five 




atate 


Six 




nercua 


Seven 




cugle 


Eight 




pavaque 


Nine 




paquevaque 


Ten 




ambuc. 


arien — 

English. 


Cunacuna. 


Darien. 


One 


quensa-cua 


conjungo 


Two 


vo-cua 


poquah 


Three 


paa-cua 


pauquah 


Fowr 


paque-cua 


pake-quah 


Five 


atale 


eterrah 


Six 


ner-cua 


indricah 


Seven 


cugle 


coogolah 


Eight 


vau-agua 


paukopah 


Nine 


paque-haguc 


pakekopah 


Ten 


ambegui 


anivego. 



We now leave the Isthmus in order to take 
cognizance of three other groups, which have, ap- 
parently, been pretermitted in the preceding notices. 
These are the languages akin to the Sahaptin ; the lan- 
guages akin to the Shoshoni ; and the languages of 
the Pueblo Indians — the groups being, to some extent, 
artificial. 



SAHAPTIN GROUP. 439 




CHAPTER LIX. 

Sahaptin, Paduca, and Pueblo Languages. 

The reason why these languages, with their compara- 
tively northern situs, have been left until the very 
frontier of South America is touched, lies in their geo- 
graphical relations to the languages of the next division. 
As far as it has been practicable, we have, hitherto, kept 
to the west of the Rocky Mountains, having begun 
with the coast of the Pacific, because it was there that 
lay the nearest points of contact between America and 
Asia, and we have kept to the west, because, though difier- 
ent in its character under different circumstances, there 
has always been a connection between even such ex- 
treme languages as those of Central America and those 
of the Arctic Circle. Of course, this does not exclude a 
similar connection with tlie languages on the other side 
of the Rocky Mountains. Two chains of affinity, how- 
ever, cannot be followed out at the same time. Mean- 
while, that to which the preference has been given 
is, to say the least, a convenient, as well as a natural, 
one. The line, however, of the Rocky Mountains, them- 
selves, is, by no means, purely and simply, a line from 
north to south. In Utah and New Mexico it takes us 
in the direction of the Atlantic. 

This turns our attention to the parts about the Great 
Salt Lake, and (as the dialects there spoken have defi- 
nite and decided affinities which run as far north as the 



440 



SAHAPTIN GROUP. 



Kiver Columbia) to certain districts in Oregon as well. 
Here present themselves several dialects referable to 
two groups. (1 .) The Sahaptin, and (2.) the Paduca. 

' a-) 

(From Dr. Scouler.) 



Euglish. 


Sahaptin. 


Wallawalla. 


Kliketat. 


Man 


nama 


winsh 


wins 


Boy 


naswae 


tahnutshint 


aswan 


Woman 


aiat 


tilahi 


aiat 


Girl 


piteu 


tohauat 


pitiniks 


Wife 


swapna 


asham 


asham 


Child 


miahs 


isht 


mianash 


Father 


pishd 


pshit 


pshit 


Mother 


pika 


ptsha 


ptsha 


Head 


huslms 


tilpi 


palka 


Arm. 


atim 


kamkas 




Eyes 


sMlhu 


atsliasli 


atshash 


Nose 


nathnu 


nathnu 


nosnu 


Ears 


matsaia 


matsiu 




Mouth 


him 


em 


am 


Teeth 


tit 


tit 




Hands 


spshus 


spap 


alia 


Feet 


ahwa 


waha 


waha 


Legs 


wainsh 


tama 




Sun 


wishamtuksh 


au 


au 


Moon 




ailhai 


ailhai 


Stars 


witsein 


haslu 


haslo 


Clouds 


spalikt 


pashst 




Rain 


wakit 


sshhauit 


tohtoha 


Snow 


maka 


poi 


maka 


Ice 


tahask 


tahauk 


toh 


Fire 


ala 


sluksh 


sluks 


Water 


tkush 


tshnsh 


tshaush 


Wood 


hatsin 


slukls 


slukuas 


Stone 


pishwa 


pshwa 


pshwa 


Ground 


watsash 


titsham 


titsham 


Good 


tahr 


skeh 


shoeah 


Bad 


kapshish 


milla 


tshailwit 


Hot 


sakas 


sahwaih 


sahweah 


Cold 


kenis 


kasat 


tewisha kasat 


Far 


waiat 


wiat 


wiat 


Near 


keintam 


tsiwas 


tsa 


High 


tasLti 


hwaiam 


hweami 


Low 


ahat 


smite 


niti 



SAHAPTIN GROUP. 



44] 



English. 
White 
Black 
Red 
Here 
There 
Where ? 
When ? 
What ? 
Why? 
Who? 
Which ? 
How much ? 
So much 
How far ? 
So far 
How long ? 
Too long 
This 
That 
I 

You 

He, she, it 
We 
Ye 
They 
Togo 
To see 
To say 
To talk 
To walk 
To read 
To eat 
To dnnk 
To sleep 
To wake 
To love 
To take 
To knoio 
To forget 
To give 
To seize 
To he cold 
To he sick 
To hunt 
To lie 
To steal 



Sahaptin. 

naihaih 

sunTilisimuh 

sepilp 

kina 

kuna 

minul 

mana] 

mish] 

manama ? 

ishi ? 

ma? 

mas? 

kala 

miwail ? 

kewail 

mahae ? 

kohae 

ki 

joh 

su 

sui 

ipi 

nun 



kusha 

hakesha 

heisha 



wipisha 

makosha 

pinimikslia 



watanisha 



lukuasa 

titolaslia 

inisha 

inpisha 

iswaisa 

komaisa 

tukuliksa 

mishamisha 

pakwasha 



Wallawalla. 

koik 

tshimuk 

sutsha 

tslina 

kuna 

mina? 

mun? 

misli ? 

maui? 

skiu? 

mam] 

milk? 

kulk 

maal? 

kwal 

maalh 

kwalk 

tsM 

kwa 

su 

su 

ipin 

nama 

ena 

ema 

winasha 

hoksha 

nu 

siniwasa 

winashash 

wasaska 

kwatashak 

matskuskask 

pinusha 

tahshisask 

tkeshask 

apalashask 

askakuaskask 

slakskask 

niskamask 

skutskask 



Kliketat. 
olask 
tsimuk 
sutsa 
stskiuak 
skone 
mam ? 
mun ? 
misk ? 

skiu? 

milk? 
skulk 



tsM 

skwa 

suk 

suik 

pink 

nemak 

imak 

pamak 

winaska 



painskask 
salaitisas 
tskiskkskask 
pakwaskask 



wasaska 



takskaska 
tkeksak 

skukuaska 



wanapska 

iswaiska 

painska 

nistewasa 

tskiska 

pakwaska. 



442 



PABUCA GROUP. 



The Paduca forms of South Oregon and Utah seem 
to be in situ ; those of New Mexico, Texas, and New 
Leon, &c. being intrusive. In respect to these, I 
imagine that a line drawn from the south-eastern corner 
of the Utah Lake to the source of the Red or Salt Fork 
branch of the River Arkansas, would pass through a 
country nearly, if not wholly, Paduca ; a country which 
would lie partly in Utah, partly in New Mexico, and 
partly in Kansas. It would cross the Rocky Mountains, 
or the watershed between the drainages of the Colorado 
and the Missouri. It would lie along a high and barren 
country. It would have on its west the Navaho, Moqui, 
and Apatsh areas ; on its east certain Sioux tribes, the 
Arapahos, and the Shyennes. It would begin 
CaUfornia and end in the parts about Tampico. 



in 





(1.) 




English. 


Shoshoni. 


Wihinasht. 


Man 


taka 


nana 


Woman 


kwuu 


moghoni 


Head 


pampi 


tsopigh 


Hair 


tupia 


ikuo 


Ear 


inaka 


inako 


Bye 


pui 


pui 


Nose 


moui 


moui 


Mouth 


timpa 


tupa 


Tongue 


aku 


eghu 


Teeth 


tangwa 


tama 


Foot 


nampa 


kuki 


Sun 


tava 


tava 


Moon 


mushha 


musha 


Star 


putsihwa 


patuzuva 


Day 


tashun 


tavino 


Night 


tukwun 


tokano 


Fire 


kuna 


koso 


Water 


pa 


pa 


Stone 


timpi 


tipi 


Tree 


shuwi 




I 


ni 


ni 


That 


i 


i 


He 


00 


00. 



PADUCA GROUP. 



443 



(2.) 



English. 




Uta. 






Comanch. 


Ma7i 




tooonpayah 


tooavishchee 


Woman 




naijah 




wyapee 


Sun 




tap 




taharp 


Moon 




mahtots 




mush. 


Star 




qualilantz 




taarch 


Boy 




ahpats 




tooanickpee 


Girl 




mahmats 




wyapeechee 


Read 




tuts 




paaph 


Forehead 




muttock 







Face 




kooelp 




koveh 


Eye 




puttyshoe 




nachich 


Nose 




mahvetah 




moopee 


Mouth 




timp 




teppa 


Teeth 




tong 




tahnee 


Tongue 




ah oh 




ahako 


Chin 




hannockq 


uell 




Ear 




nink 




nahark 


Hair 




suooh 




parpee 


Neck 




kolph 




toyock 


Arm 




pooir 




mowa 


Hand 




masseer 




mowa 


Breast 




pay 




toko 


Foot 




namp 




nahap 


Horse 




kahvah 




teheyar 


Serpent 




toeweroe 




noheer 


Dog 




sahreets 




shardee 


Cat 




moosah 






Fire 




coon 




koona 


Food 




oof 






Water 




pah 

(3.) 




pahar. 


English. 


Piede {or Pa-uta). 




English. 


Piede {orPa-ida). 


One 


SOOS 






Six 


navi 


Two 


weioone 






Seven 


navikavah 


Three 


pioone 






Eight 


nanneetsooin 


Four 


wolsooing 






Nine 


shookootspenkermi 


Five 


shoomin 






Ten 


tomshooin. 






(4.) 






English. 




Chemuhuevi, 




Cahuillo.* 


Man 




tawatz 




nahanes 


Woman 




maruqu 


% 




nikil 



* The affinity between the Netela and Kij with the Shoshoni, suggested by 
Hale and Gallatin, has been enlarged on by Buschmann. The Cahuillo has 
affinities on each side. It is not in situ. At the same time, it is only by 
raising the value of the class, that all may be made Paduca. 



444 



PADUOA GROUP. 



English. 


Cheniuhuevi. 


Cahnlllo 


Head 


mutacowa 


niyuluka 


Hair 


torpip 


piiki 


Face 


cobanim 


nepush 


Ear 


nancaba 


nanocka 


Eye 


puoui 


napush 


Nose 


muvi 


nemu 


Mouth 


timpouo 


netama 


Tongue 


ago 


nenun 


Tooth 


towwa 


metama 


Hand 


masiwanim 


nemobemosh 


Foot 


nampan 


neik 


Bone 


maiigan 


neta 


Blood 


paipi 


neo 


Sky 


tnup 


tuquashanica 


Sun 


tabaputz 


tamit 


Moon 


meagoropitz 


menyil 


Star 


putsih 


cbehiam 


Fire 


cun 


cut 


Water 


pah 


pal 


One 


shuish 


supli 


Two 


waii 


mewi 


Three 


paii 


mepai 


Fowr 


watchu 


mewitchu 


Five 


manu 


nomequadnun 


Six 


nabai 


quadnunsupli 


Seven 


moquist 


quanmunwi 


Eight 


natch 


qiia,TiTnimpa 


Nine 


uwip 


quanmunwichu 


Ten 


mashu 


noTTiarChumi. 



else, 



The Kioway is, apparently, more Paduca than aught 



English. 


Kioway. 


English. 


Kioway. 


Man 


kiani 


Blood 


um 


Woman 


mayi 


Bone 


tonsip 


Head 


kiaku 


Sky 


kiacoh 


Hair 


ooto 


Sun 


pai 


Face 


caupa 


Moon 


pa 


ForeJiead 


taupa 


Star 


tab 


Ear 


taati 


Fire 


pia 


Eye 


taati 


Water 


tu 


Nose 


maucon 


I 


no 


Mouth 


surol 


Thmi 


am 


Tongue 


den 


He 


kin 


Tooth 


zun 


We 


kime 


Hand 


mortay 


Ye 


tusa 


Foot 


onsut 


They 


cuta 



THE TESUQUE, ETC. 



445 



English. 


Kioway. 


English. 


Kioway. 


One 


patco 


Six 


mosso 


Two 


gia 


Seven 


pantsa 


Three 


pao 


Eight 


iatsa 


Four 


iaki 


Nine 


cohtsu 


Five 


onto 


Ten 


cokhi. 



The comparative civilization of the Pueblo Indians 
has always attracted the attention of the philologue. 
Until lately, however, he had but a rriinimum amount 
of trustworthy information concerning either their habits 
or their language. He has now a fair amount of data 
for both. 

Of the Pueblo languages two (the Moqui and Zuni) 
belong to the drainage of the Rio Colorado, and four 
(the Tesuque, the Taos, the Jemez, and the A coma) to 
that of the Rio Grande. 

(1.) 



English. 


Tesuque.* 


English. 


Tesuqne. 


Man 


sae 


Snow 


poh 


Woman 


quie 


Fire 


tah 


Boy 


enouh 


Water 


poh 


Girl 


aguuh 


Ice 


ohyeh 


Head 


pto 


Stone 


kuh 


Hair 


po 


I 


nah 


Face 


tzae 


Thou 


uh 


Ear 


oyez 


He 


ihih 


Eye 


tzie 


She 


ihih 


Nose 


heu 


They 


ihnah 


Mouth 


so 


Ye 


nahih 


Tongue 


hae 


We {inclusive) 


tahquireh 


Tooth 


mouaei 


{exclusive) 


nihyeuboh 


Beard 


hompo 


One 


guih 


Hand 


maho 


Two 


quihyeh 


Foot 


auh 


Three 


pohyeh 


Bone 


haehun 


Four 


ionouh 


Blood 


uh 


Five 


pahnouh 


Sim 


tah 


Six 


sih 


Moon 


pho 


Seven 


chae 


Star 


ahgoyah 


Eight 


kuhbeh 


Day 


tahn 


Nine 


kuaenouh 


Night 


kuriri 


Ten 


taheh. 


Rain 


kuohn 







More Pima than aught else. 



446 



ACOMA AND COCHETIMI. 







(2.) 




EugUsh. 


Acoma* 


Cochetimi. 


Kiwomi. 


Man 


hahtratse 


hachthe 


hatshthe 


Woman 


cuhu 


coyoni 


cuyauwi 


Hair 


hahtratni 




hatre 


Head 


nushkaine 




nashke 


Face 


howawinni 




skeeowa 


Eye 


hoonaine 




shaana 


Nose 


ouisuine 




wiesMn 


Mouth 


ouicani 




cliiaca 


Tongue 


watchlmiitni 




watshin 


One 




ishka 


isk 


Two 




kuomi 


'tuomi 


Three 




chami 


tshabi 


Four 




kiana 


kiana 


Five 




tama 


taoma 


Six 




chisa 


chisth 


Seven 




maicana 


maicliaiia 


Eight 




cocomishia 


cocumshi 


Nine 




maeco 


maieco 


Ten 




'tkatz 


cahtz. 



The Moqui has decided Paduca affinities. 



* Perhaps, more Sioux than aught else. 



ALGONKIN CLASS. 447 



CHAPTER LX. 

Languages between the Athabaskan, the Rocky Mountains, and the Atlantic. 
— The Algonkin. — The Sioux. — The Iroquois. — The Catawba, Woccon, 
Uche, Natchez, Chetimacha, Adahi, and Attacapa Languages. — The 
Pawni, Riccari, and Caddo. — The Languages of Texas. 

Unlike the Eskimo and the Athabaskan, the Algon- 
hin area touches the Ocean on one side only — being 
bounded on the west by the Bocky Mountains. Never- 
theless, it is of great magnitude, being spoken in Labra- 
dor, and in North Carolina ; on the Saskatshewan and 
the Potomac ; in both the Canadas, in Nova Scotia, 
in New Brunswick, in the Hudson's Bay Country, and 
in every one of the United States north of Georgia. 
On the north it is bounded by the Athabaskan, the 
eastern half of the area whereof it subtends. The whole 
question, however, of its magnitude, along with that of 
the direction in which it extended itself, can scarcely be 
entertained until the main details of the two classes 
that succeed it, the Sioux and Iroquois, have been gone 
into. 

Though the Blackfoot is one of the most recent ad- 
ditions to this class ; in other words, though the Black- 
foot is one of the languages which were the last to be 
recognized as Algonkin, I take it first — the Blackfoot 
being in contact with the Kutani and certain forms of 
the Athabaskan already named. 



448 



ALGONKIN CLASS. 





(1.) 




EngUsh. 


Blackfoot. 


Menomeni. 


Man 


tnatape 


enainniew 


Woman 


aquie 


metamo 


Boy 


sacomape 


ahpayneesha 


Oirl 


aquecouan 


kaykaw 


Head 


otocan 


maish 


Hair 


otocan 


maynaynunn 


Face 


otochris 


oshkayshayko 


Scaip 


c'otoka.n 


menainhquon 


Ear 


otokis 


maytahwoc 


Eye 


y wapespi 


maishkayshaick 


Nose 


mocquisis 


maycheosh 


Mouth 


naoie 


maytone 


Tongue 


natsini 


maytainnonniew 


Tooth 


nogpeki 


maypet 


Beard 


mongasti 


maynaytonankkonnuck 


Neclc 


nogquoquini 


mayke§ekon 


Arm 


otttis 


maynainh 


Shoulder 


Catsiquin 


ohpaykeko nainh kum 


Bach 


okaquin 


oppainhquon 


Hand 


otttis 


ohnainkonnon 


Finger 


inaquiquitsi 


ohtainiioliaykon 


Nail 


teotenoquits 


meshkanshcon 


Breast 


oquiquini 


ohpaun 


Body 


stomi 


mayeow 


Leg 


^^- osicsina 


maykaut 


Foot 


ocatsi 


mayshait 


Bone 


osicsi 


oLkonne 


Blood 


apani 


mainhkee 


Sun 


natos 


kayshoh 


Moon 


natoscoucoui 


taypainhkayshoh 


Star 


cacatos 


ahnanlikock 


Day 


' apinacoush 


kayshaykots 


Night 


coucoui 


wahretopaykon 


Fire 


sti 


ishkotajv^e 


Water 


ocquie 


naypaywe 


Stone 


>',' sococotosc 


ahshen 


Tree 


mistes 


meanshab 


Bird 


picsi 


waishkaynonh 


Egg 


wouaou 


wahwon 


I 


nistoa 


naynanh 


Tlmi 


cristoa 


kaynanh 


He 


• hume 


waynanh 


She 


hume 


aynanh 


They 




wanonanh 


Ye 




keenwoah 


We 




kaynanh {inclusive). 







oshneeshayak {exclusive). 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



449 



(2.) 



English. 


Ojibwa. 


Ottawa. 


Potowatami. 


Head 


ne ostegwon 


ondip (his) 




Hair 


mistekiah 


nisis {my) 


win sis 


Ear 


ottowug 


tawag 




Eye 


oskingick 


tchkijik 


neskesick 


Nose 


schangguin 


tchaje 


ottschass 


Mouth 


oton 


t6ne 


indoun 


Tongue 


otainini 


tenanian 




Tooth 


rrieput 


put 


webit 


Hand 


nenintchen 




neninch 


Feet 


ozia 


sit (sing.) 


nesit (sing.) 


Sun 


kisis 


kisis 


kesis 


Moon 


tepeki kisis 


tipiki kisis 


kesis 


Star 


anang 


anang (pi) 


anung 


Day 


kigik 


kijig 




Night 


tipik 


tipik 





Fire 


ishkoda 


ashkote 


scutah 


Water 


neebi 


nipisli 


nebee 


Stone 


ossin 






Tree 


metik 







Fish 


kekon 






I 


neen 




neenah 


Thou 


keen 




keen 


He 


ween 





weene 


One 


paizMk 


ningotchau 


n'godto 


Two 


neezhwand 


ninjwa 


neish 


Three 


nisswaid 


niswa 


n'swoah 


Four 


newin 


niwin 


nnaeou 


Five 


nahnun 


nanau 


n'yawnun 


Six 


gotoasso 


ningotwaswi 


n'godto wattso 


Seveti 


neezhwawsee ninjwaswi 


nouk 


Ei^ht 


shwawswe 


nichwaswi 


schwatso 


Nine 


shongguswe 


shang 


shocktso 


Ten 


medoswe 


kwetch 

(3.) 


metato. 


English. 




Old Algonkin. 


Knistinaux. 


Man 




alissinap 





Woman 




ichweh 


esqui 


Head 




oostikwan 


istegwen 


Hair 




ussis 


mistekiah 


Eye 




ooskirishek 


eskisoch 


Nose 




yash 


miskeewon 


Tongue 




ooton 


otoyanee 


Teeth 




tibit 


meepit 


Blood 




mishweh 


mithcoo 


Sun 




kisis J, 


pesim 
G G 



450 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Old Algonkin. 


Knistinaux. 


Moon 


debikatikisis 


tipiscopesim 


Star 


alank 


attack 


Day 


okonogat 


kesecow 


NigU 


debikat 


tipiscow 


Fire 


skootay 


esquittu 


Water 


nipi 


nepee 


Rain 


kimiwan 


kemeroon 


Snow 




mispoon 


Fartk 


ackey 


askee 


Noon 


sispin 




Stone 


assin 


assene 


Tree 


metseeb 


■ mislick acbemusso {wood 
standing upright) 






Bird 


piley 


peasis 


Fish 


kikons 


kenosee 


J 


nir 


nitba 


Thou 


kir 


kitba 


He 


wir 




One 


peygik 


pauck 


Two 


ninsh 


nisbiib 


Three 


nisswey 


nisbto 


Fowr 


neyoo 


nayo 


Five 


nabran 


nayabnun 


Six 


ningootwassoo 


negoto ahsik 


Seven 


ninsbwassoo 


toboocop 


Eight 


nisswassoo 


ian^naon 


Nine 


sbangasso 


kaga,temetMut 


Ten 


metassoo 
(4.) 


mitatat. 


English. 


Sheshatapoosh. 


Skoffi. 


Man 


napew 


nabouw 


Woman 


scbquow 


scbow 


Head 


stoukoaau 


oostookooban 


Hair 


peesbquahan 


teepisbquooubn 


Tongue 


tellenee 


eelayleenee 


Tooth 


mepeetbex 


weeeepicb 


Hand 


teekecbee 


mesticbee 


Feet 


neesbetch 


mesbetcb 


Shy 


wasbesbquaw 


walk 


Sun 


besbung 


beesboon 


Moon 


toposbabesbung 


teepeesbowbesbum 


Star 


jobokata 


woocbabaykatak 


Day 


jeesbekere 


jeesbekow 


Night 


tapisbkow 


tapisbkakow 


Fire 


schootoo 


scbkootow 


Water 


nepeee 


nepee 


Stone 


asbenee 


asbenee 


Tree 


mistookooab 


mesbtooquab. 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



451 



(5.) 



English. 


Micmac. 


Etchemin. 


Abenaki. 


Man 


tchinem 


oskitap 


seenanbe 


Woman 


epit 


apet 


phanien 


Head 


wnidgik 


neneagan 


metep 


Hair 






nepiesMmar 


Ear 


hadougan 


chalkse 


neta^takw (my) 


Eye 


poMogwl 


n'siscol 


tsesiku 


Nose 


uchickun 


nitou 


kitan 


Mouth 




neswone 


nedwn (my) 


Tongue 


willenonk 


nyllal 


mirasw 


Teeth 


usibidul 




nepit 


Hand 


kpiten 


petin 


nezetsi (my) 


Foot 


wkkttat 


n'sit 


nesit 


Shy 


mooshkoon 


tumoga 


kisukn 


Sun 


nakawget 


asptaiasait 


kizws 


Moon 


topanakoushet 


kisos 


kisous 


Star 


kmaaokoonich 


psaisam 


itatattessM 


Day 


naakok 


kisuok 


kizeuku 


Night 


pishkeeaukh 




kizuku 


Fire 


hiikteu 


skut 


skwtai 


Water 


chabuguan 


somaquone 


nabi 


Stone 


kwndau 


panapsqu 


nimangan naz 


Tree 


neepeejeesh 


apas 


abassi 


I 


nil 


nel 





Thm 


kil 






He 


negeum 


"WTirt 




One 


nest 


naiget 


pezekw 


Two 


tali* 


nes 


niss 


Three 


chicht 


nihi 


nass 


Four 


new 


naho 


ieu 


Five 


nan 


nane 


barenesliw 


Six 


achigopt 


gamatchine 


negitdaus 


Seven 


atwrnoguenok 


alohegannak 


tanbawaus 


Eight 


sgomolchit 


okemulchine 


ntsausek 


Nine 


pechkwnadck 


asquenandake 


nuriui 


Ten 


ptolu 


neqdensk 


mtara. 




(6.) 




English. 


MiDsi. 


Nanticok. 


Mohikan. 


Man 


lenni 


wohacki 


neemanaoo 


Woman 


ochqueu 


acquahique 


p'ghainoom 


Head 


wilustican 


nulahammou (the) 


■weensis (his) 


Hair 


weicheken 


nee-eesquat 


weghaukun 


Eye 


wichtawah 


nucksskeneequat 


ukeesquan (his) 


Nose 


wuschginqual 


nickskeeu 


okewon 


Tongue 


wichkiwon 


neeannow 





Mouth 


M^'doon 


huntowey 


otoun 






G G 2 



452 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Minsi. 


Nanticok. 


Mohikan., 


Tooth 


wicbput 


neeput 


"wepeeton 


Hand 


wanachk 


nuluutz 


oaniskan 


Foot 


wichyat 


nist 


ussutin 


Sun 


giscliuck 


aquiquaqueahquak keesogh 


Moon 


nipahump atupquonihauque 


s nepauhauck 


Star 


alank 


pumioije 


anauquanth 


Day 


gieschku 


nucotucquon 


waukaumauw 


Night 


tpocheu 


toopquow 


t'pockk 


Fire 


tendei 


nip 


stauw 


Water 


ruby 


pamptuckquah 


thocknaun 


Stone 


aclisum 


kawscup 


thaunaumku 


Tree 


michtuk 


peluicque 

(7.) 


machtok. 


English. 




Massachusetts. 


Narragansetts. 


Man 




wosketomp 


nnin 


Woman 




mittamwosses 


squaws 


Head 




puhkuk 


uppaquontup 


Hair 




meesunk 


wesheck 


Ear 




wehtauog 


wuttowwug 


Eye 




wuskesuk 


wuskeesuck 


Nose 




wutch 




Mouth 




nuttoon 


wuttone 


Tongue 




meenannoh 


weenat 


Tooth 




• meepit 


wepit 


Hand 




nutcheg 


wunnicheke 


Foot 




wusseet 


wussette 


Shy 




kesak 


keesuck 


Swn 




nepauz 


nippawuz 


Moon 




nepaushat 


manepausbat 


Star 




annogs 


anockgus 


Day 




kesukod 


wompau 


Night 




nukon 


tuppaco 


Fire 




nootai 


squtta 


Water 




nippe 


nip 


Tree 




mehtug 


mintuck 


I 




neen 


neen 


Thm 




ken 


keen 


He 




noh 

(8.) 


ewo. 


English. Miami. 




Iliuois. Sauki. 


Shawni. 


Man hetaniah 


inim neneo 


ileni 


Woman metamsah i 


ickoe kwyokih 


equiwa 


Head indepekoneli 


WTipip weshi 


weelekeh 


Hair nelissah ^ 


aississah nenossoueh 


welathoh 



Ear 



tawakeh 



nittagai 



nektowakye {my) towakah 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



453 



English . 


Miami. 


Iliuois. 


Sauki. 


Shawui. 


Eye 


keshekweh 


isckengicon 


neskishekwih 


skisseeqwa 


Nose 


kekiwaneh 




nekkiwanuek 


ochan 


Mouth 


lonenneh 





wektoneh 




Tongue 


wehla.Tieh 


wilei 


nennaneweh 


weelinwie 


Teeth 


weepitah 




nepitan 


weepeetalee {his 


Hand 


oneksah 


nich 


nepakumetcheh 


niligie 


Feet 


katali 


wissit 


nckatcteh (?) 


kussie 


STcy 


kesheweh 


kisik 


apemekeh 


menquotwe 


Sun 




kisipol 


kejessoah 


kesathwa 


Moon 




kesis 


tepakeeskejes 


I tepethaka- 
\ kesathwa 


Star 


alangwa 


rangkhoa 


anakwakeh 


alagwa {yl) 


Day 


wasekhe 


kisik 


keeshekeh 


keeshqua 


Night 


pikkuntahkewe peckonteig 


tapakeh 


tepechke 


Fire 


koMeweh 


scotte 


eskwatah 


scoote 


Water 


nepeli 


nipi 


neppi 


neppee 


Stone 


saaneh 




asenneh 




Tree 


mistaakuck 


toauane 


namateli 


metequeglike(p?.) 


I 


neelah 


nira 


neenah {me) 


nelah 


Thou 


keelah 


kira 




kelah 


He 


weelah 


onira 





welah. 



The Bethuck is the native language of Newfoundland. 
In 1846, the collation of a Bethuck vocabulary enabled 
me to state that the language of the extinct, or doubt- 
fully extant, aborigines of that island was akin to those 
of the ordinary American Indians rather than to the 
Eskimo ; further investigation showing that, of the or- 
dinary American languages, it was Algonkin rather than 
aught else. 

A sample of the evidence of this is to be found in the 
following table ; a table formed, not upon the collation 
of the whole MS., but only upon the more important 
words contained in it. 



English, son. 
Bethuck, mageraguis. 
Cree, equssis. 
Ojibbeway, ningwisis 

negwis 

Ottawa, hwis. 
Micmac, unquece. 
Passamaquoddy, n''kos. 



=my sou. 



Narragensetts, nummuchiese = my 

son. 
Delaware, quissau = h.is son. 
Miami, ahwissima. 

ungwissah. 

Shawnoe, hoisso. 

Sack and Fox, neJcwessa. 

Menomeni, tieJceesh. 



454 



THE BETHUCK 



English, girl. 
Bethuck, woaseesh. 
Cree, squaids. 
Ojibbeway, ekwaizais. 
Ottawa, aquesens. 
Old Algonkin, ickwessen. 
Sheshatapoosh, squashish. 
Passamaquoddy, pelsquasis. 
Narragansetts, squasese. 
Montaug, squasses. 
Sack & Fox, skwessah. 
Cree, awdsis = child. 
Sheshatapoosh, awash = child. 

English, mouth. 
Bethuck, mamadthun. 
Nanticoke, mettoon. 
Massachusetts, muttoon. 
Narragansetts, wuttoon. 
Penobscott, madoon. 
Acadcan, mefon. 
Micmac, toon. 
Abenaki, ootoon. 



nose. 
Bethuck, gheen. 
Miami, Jceouane. 



Bethuck, hochodza. 
Micmac, neebeet. 
Abenaki, neebeet. 

English, hand. 
Bethuck, maemed. 
Micmac, paeteen. 
Abenaki, mpateen. 

English, ear. 
Bethuck, mootchiman. 
Micmac, mootooween. 
Abenaki, nootawee. 

English, smoke. 
Bethuck, hassdik. 
Abenaki, ettoodaJce. 

English, oil. 
Bethuck, emet. 
Micmac, memaye. 
Abenaki, pemmee. 



English, Sun. 

Bethuck, Tceuse. 

Cree, &c., kisis. 

Abenaki, kesus, 

Mohican, kesogh. 

Delaware, gishukh. 

Illinois, kisipol. 

Shawnoe, kesathwa. 

Sack & Fox, kejessoah. 

Menomeni, kaysho. 

Passamaquoddy, kisos=moon. 

Abenaki, kisus = moon. 

Cree, kesecow = day. 

Ojibbeway, kijik = day and light. 

Ottawa, kijik=do. 

Abenaki, kiseoukou=do. 

Delaware, gieshku=do. 

Illinois, kisik — do. 

Shawnoe, heeshqua=do. 

Sack & Fox, keeshekeh=do. 

English, fire. 
Bethuck, hooheeshaiot. 
Cree, esquitti, scoutay. 
Ojibbeway, ishkodai, skootae. 
Ottawa, ashkote. 
Old Algonkin, skootay. 
Sheshatapoosh, schootay. 
Passamaquoddy, skeet. 
Abenaki, skoutai. 
Massachusetts, squitta., 
Narragansetts, si 



English, white. 
Bethuck, wohee. 
Cree, wabisca. 

wapishkawo. 

Ojibbeway, wawbishkaw. 



Old Algonkin, toabi. 



Micmac, ouabeg, wabeck. 
Mountaineer, loapsiou. 
Passamaquoddy, wapiyo. 
Abenaki, wanbighenour. 

ivanhegan. 

Massachusetts, wompi. 
Narragansetts, ivompesii. 
Mohican, waupaaeek. 



OF NEWFOUNDLAND. 



455 



Montaug, wampayo. 

Delaware, wape, wapsu, wapsit. 

Nanticoke, wauppauyu. 

Miami, wapeTcinggek. 

Shawnoe, opee. 

Sack & Fox, wapesJcayah. 

Menomeni, zvaitbish Tceewah. 

English, black. 
Bethuck, mandzey. 
Ojibbeway, mukhudaiwa. 
Ottawa, macJcateh. 
Narragansetts, mowesu. 
Massachusetts, mooi. 

English, house. 
Bethuck, meeooticJc. 
Narragansetts, 



English, shoe. 
Bethuck, mosen. 
Abenaki, mkessen. 

English, snow. 
Bethuck, TcaasussabooTc. 
Cree, sasagun=lasJi\.. 
Ojibbeway, saisaigan. 
Sheshatapoosh, shashaygan. 

English, speak. 
Bethuck, ieroothacTc. 
Taculli, yaltudk. 
Cree, athemetakcouse. 
Wyandot, atal-ea. 



English, yes. 
Bethuck, 
Cree, ahhah. 
Passamaquoddy, netek. 

English, no. 
Bethuck, newin. 
Cree, namaw. 
Ojibbeway, kawine. 
Ottawa, Tcauween 

English, hatchet. 
Bethuck, dthoonanyen. 
Taculli, thynle. 

English, knife. 
Bethuck, eewaeen. 
Micmac, uagan. 

English, bad, 
Bethuck, muddy. 
Cree, myaton. 
Ojibbeway, monadud. 

mudji. 

Ottawa, matche. 
Micmac, matoualkr. 
Massachusetts, matche. 
NaiTagansetts, matchit. 
Mohican, matchit. 
Montaug, mattateayah. 
Montaug, muttadeeaco. 
Dela,ware, mahhtitsu. 
Nanticoke, mattih. 
Sack & Fox, moichie. 
matchathie. 



The Shyenne language was suspected to be Algonkin 
at the publication of the A ixhceologia Americana. In a 
treaty made between the United States and the Shyenne 
Indians in 1825, the names of the chiefs who signed 
were either Sioux, or significant in the Sioux language. 
It was not unreasonable to consider this as primd-facie 
evidence of the Shyenne tongue itself being Sioux. 
Nevertheless, there were some decided statements in the 
way of external evidence in another direction. There 
was the special evidence of a gentleman well-acquainted 



456 



THE SHYENNE 



with the fact that the names of the treaty, so significant 
in the Sioux language, were only translations from the 
proper Shyenne, there having been no Shyenne inter- 
preter at the drawing-up of the document. What then 
was the true Shyenne ? A vocabulary of Lieut. Abert^'s 
settled this as far as the numerals went. Afterwards a 
full vocabulary, collated by Gallatin, gave the contem- 
plated result : — '' Out of forty-seven Shyenne words for 
which we have equivalents in other languages, there are 
thirteen which are indubitably Algonkin, and twenty- 
five which have afiinities more or less remote with some 
of the languages of that family."* 



English. 


Arapaho. 


other Algonkin Languages. 


Man 


enanetah 


enainneew, Menomeni. 


Father, my 


nasonnah 


nosaw, Miami. 


Mother, my 


nanah. 


nekeah, Menomeni. 


Husband, my 


nash 


nah, Shyenne. 


Son, my 


naah 


nah, Shyenne. 






nikyfithah, Shawnee. 


Daughter, my 


nahtahnah 


netawnab, Miami. 


Brother, my 


nasisthsah 


nesawsah, Miami. 


Sister, my 


naecahtaiah 


nekoshaymank, Menomeni. 


Indian 


enenitah 


ab wainbukai, Delaware. 


Eye 


mishislii 


maisbkaysbaik, Menomeni. 


Mouth 


netti 


may tone, Menomeni. 


Tongue 


nathun 


wilano, Delaware. 


Tooth 


veathtah 


wi pit, Delaware. 


Beard 


vasesanon 


witonabi, Delaware. 


Back 


nerkorbah 


pawkawniema, Miami. 


Hand 


machetun 


olatsbi, Shawnee. 


Foot 


nauthauitali 


ozit, Delaware. 


Bone 


hahunnah 


obkonne, Menomeni. 


Heart 


battah 


maytab, Menomeni. 


Blood 


bahe 


mainbki, Menomeni. 


Sinew 


anita 


obtab, Menomeni. 


Flesh 


wonnunyah 


weensama, Miami. 


Shin 


tahyatch 


xais, Delaware. 


Town 


haitan 


otainabe, Delaware. 


Door 


tichunwa 


kwawntame, Miami. 


Sun 


nishi-ish 


kaysbob, Menomeni. 


Star 


ahthah 


allangwb, Delaware. 



Transactions of tbe American Etbnological Society, vol. ii. jx cxi. 1848. 





AND . 


ARAPAHO. 4 


English. 


Arapalio. 


Otiier AJgonkin Languages. 


Day 


ishi 


kishko, Delaware. 


Autumn 


tahuni 


tahkoxko, Delaware. 


Wind 


assissi 


kaishxing, Delaware. 


Fire 


ishshitta 


ishkotawi, Menomeni. 


Water 


nutch 


nape, Miami. 


Ice 


wahhu 


mainquom, Menomeni. 


Mountain 


ahhi 


wahcMwi, Shawnee. 


Hot 


hastah 


ksita, Shawnee. 


He 


enun 


enaw, Miami. 






waynanh, Menomeni. 


That {in) 


hinnah 


aynaih, Menomeni. 


Who 


unnahah 


ahwalinay, Menomeni. 


No 


chinnani 


kawn, Menomeni. 


Eat 


mennisi 


mitishin, Menomeni. 


DHnJc 


bannah 


maynaan, Menomeni. 


Kill 


nauaiut 


osA-nainhaiay, Menomeni. 



457 



Arapaho is the name of a tribe in Kansas ; occu- 
pant of a district in immediate contact with the Shyenne 
country. 

But the Shyennes are no indigence to Kansas. Nei- 
ther are the Arapahos. The so-called Fall Indians, of 
whose language we have long had a very short trader's 
vocabulary in Umfreville, are named from their occu- 
pancy, which is on the Falls of the Saskatshewan. The 
Nehethewa, or Crees, of their neighbourhood call them 
so. Another name is Big-helly, in French Gros ventre. 
This has given rise to some confusion ; Gros-venire being 
a name given to the Minetari of the Yellow-stone River, 
who belong to the Sioux family. Not so the Gros- 
ventres of the Falls. Adelung remarked that some of 
their words had an affinity with the Algonkin. Um- 
freville's vocabulary was too short for anything but the 
most general purposes and the most cautious of sugges- 
tions. It was, however, for a long time the only one 
known. The next to it, in the order of time, was one 
in MS., belonging to Gallatin, but which was seen by Dr. 
Pri chard and collated by the present writer. His en- 
quiries were simply to the effect that the language had cer- 
tain miscellaneous affinities. A vocabulary in Schoolcraft 



458 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 



tells us more ; viz. not only that the Arapaho language 
is the same as the Fall Indian of Umfreville, but that it 
has definite and preponderating affinities with the Shy- 
enne, and, through it, with the Algonkin class in gene- 
ral, especially wibh the Menomeni. 



English. 


Arapaho. 


Shyenne. 


Scalp 


mitliasli 


metake 


Tongue 


nathun 


vetunno 


Tooth 


veathtah 


veisike 


Beard 


vasesanon 


meatsa 


Hand 


mahchetun 


maharts 


Blood 


bahe 


mahe 


Sinew 


anita 


antikah 


Heart 


battah 


estah 


Mouth 


nettee 


marthe 


Qirl 


issaha 


xsa 


Husband 


nash 


Tiah 


Son 


naah 


nah 


Daughter 


nahtahnah 


nahitch 


One 


chassah. 


nuke 


Two 


neis 


neguth 


Three 


nas 


nahe 


Four 


yeane 


nave 


Five 


yortlnin 


noane 


Six 


nitahter 


nahsato 


Seven 


nisorter 


nisoto 


Eight 


nahsorter 


nahnoto 


Nine 


siautah 


soto 


Ten 


malitalitah 


mahtoto. 



The Sioux, second in respect to the magnitude of its 
area to the Algonkin only, lies west and south, rather 
than east or north, and belongs to the prairie States, 
rather than to those of the sea-board. 





Sioux vocabularies. 






('•) 




English. 


Mandan. 


Crow, 


God 


mahhopeneta 


sakahbooatta 


Swn 


menakha 


a'hhhiza 


Moon 


esto menakha 


minnatatche 


Stars 


h'kaka 


ekieu 


Rain 


h'kahoost 


hannah 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 



459 



English. 


Mandan. 


Crow. 


Snow 


copcaze 


makkoupah {hail) 


River 


passahah 


ahesu 


Day 


hampah 


maupah 


Night 


estogr 


oche 


Dark 


hampaheriskah 


cMppusheka 


Light 


edayhush 


thieshe 


Woman 


meha 


meyakatte 


Wife 


moorse 


moali 


Child 


sookhomaha 


bakkatte 


Girl 


sookmelia 


meyakatte 


Boy 


sooknumohk 


shakkatte 


Head 


pan 


marshaa 


Legs 


doka 


buchoope 


Eyes 


estume 


meisbta 


Mouth 


ea 


ea 


Nose 


pahoo 


buppa 


Face 


estah 


esa 


Ears 


nakoha 


uppa 


Hand 


onka 


buschie 


Fingers 


onkaha 


buschie 


Foot 


shee 


busche 


Hair 


hahhee 


masheab 


Canoe 


menanko 


mahesbe 


Fish 


poh 


booah 


Bear 


malito 


duhpitsa 


Wolf 


haratta 


chata 


Dog 


mones waroota 


biska 


Buffalo 


ptemday 


bisba 


Elk 


omepah 


eitcbericazzse 


Deer 


mahmanacoo 


ohha 


Beaver 


warrappa 


biruppe 


Shoe 


hoompah 


hoompe 


B&w 


warraenoopah 


bistuheeah 


Arr<yw 


mahha 


ahnailz 


Pipe 


ehudka 


ompsa 


Tobacco 


. mannasha 


hopa 


Good 


shushu 


itsicka 


Bad 


k'hecusli 


kubbeek 


Hot 


dsasosh 


ahre 


Cold 


shineehush 


hootshere 


I 


me 


be 


Thm 


ne 


de 


He 


e 


na 


We 


noo 


bero 


They 


eonah 


mihah 


One 


mahhannah 


amutcat 


Two 


nompah 


noomcat 



460 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 





English. 


Mandan. 




Crow. 




Three 


namary 




namenacat 




Four 


tohha 




shopecat 




Five 


kakhoo 




chihhocat 




Six 


kemah 




ahcamacat 




Seven 


koopah 




sappoah 




Eight 


tatucka 




noompape 




Nine 


mahpa 




ahmuttappe 




Ten 


pei-ug 




perakuk. 






(2.) 




English. 


Yankton. 


Winebago. 


Dahcota. 


Osage, 


Man 


weechasha 


wongahah 


weetshahsktah 


L neka 


Woman 


weeah 


nogahah 


weenowkhindgah wako 


Father 


atcucu 


chahchikal 


atag 


indajah 


Mother 


hucoo 


chahcheekah 


eenah 


enauah 


Son 


cheecheeteoo 


eeneek 


r^;i;f**^M-''^"««<»^> 


Daughter weetachnong 


heenuhk'hahhah 


meetshoongkshee 


Head 


pah 


uahsuhhah 


pah 


watatereh 


Hair 


paha 




pahkee 


pauha 


Ear 


nougkopa 


nahchahwahhah 


pohe 


naughta 


Eye 


ishtah 


ischuhsuhhah 


ishta 


eghtaugh 


Nose 


pasoo 


pahhah 


poaghay 


pau 


Mouth 


e-e-e 


eehah 


ea 


ehaugh 


Tongue 


chaidzhee 


dehzeehah 


tshayzhee 





Teeth 


hee 








Hand 


napai 


nahbeehah 


nahmpay 


numba 


Fingers 


napchoopai 


naap 


shake 


shagah 


Feet 


ceeha 


seehah 


seehah 


see {sing.) 


Blood 


uoai 


waheehah 


wey 




House 


teepee 


cheehah 


tea 


tiah 


Axe 




mahs 


onspa {axe) 





Knife 


meena 


mahhee 


eesahng 


mauah 


Shoes 




waukootshey {sing.) hanipa {sing.) 


analahah 


Shy 




mahkheehah 


mahkpeea 


mahagh 


Sun 


oouee 


|haunip {day), 
\ weeah {sun) 


• weeahnipayatoc 


^ S haunip {day), weerah 
( meah {sun) 


Moon 


hayaitoowee 


( hahnip {night), 
\ weehah {sun) . 
i weehah {sun) ] 


weehyayahatoo 

1 


( hanip {night), weerah- 

i meumboh {sun) 

( 


Star 


weehchahpee 


■ kohshkeh(ms- 
pended) ] 


1 

' weeweetheestin 

1 


\ weerah {sun), kohshkeh 
) {suspended) 


Day 


aungpa 


haumpeehah 


anipa 


hompahe 


Night 


hahaipee 




hiyetoo 


hene 


Fire 


paita 


pegdhah 


paytah 


pajah 


Water 


meenee 


nihah 


mi nee 


neah 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES 



461 



English. Yankton. 


Winebago. 


Dahcota. 


Osage. 


Rain 


mahajou 


neezhuh 


magazhoo 


neighshee 


Snow 


wah 


wuhhah 


tahtey 


pau 


Earth 


mongca 


inah.'nan 


mahkah 


monekah 


River 


wacopa 


olisunwah 


watapafl 


waucbiscab 


Stone 


eeyong 


eenee 


ceang 




Tree 


chaongeena 


nahnan 


tschang 




Meat 


tado 


chahhah 


tando 


taudocab 


Dog 


saonka 


chohnkeehah 


shoomendokah 


sbongab 


Beaver chapa 


nahapah 


tschawpah 


sbabab 


Bear 


•wahunkcaiceecha 


wauhungkseetshah wasauba 


Bird 


zeecanoo 


"wah.nigohha.h 


zitka 




Fish 


hohung 


hohhah 


boa-abug 


bongb 


Great 






tungkab 


grondab 


Cold 


snee 


seeneehee 


snee 


nubatcha 


Whdte 


scab 


skah 


skah 


skab 


BlacTc 


sapah 


sebhah 


sabpab 


saubab 


Red 


shah 


shoosh 


sbab 


sbugab 


I 




neeah 


meeab 


veca 


Thou 




ney 


neeab 


deea 


He 




neeah 


eeah 


aar 


One 


wanche 


jungklhkh 


wajitab 


minche 


Two 


nopa 


nompiwi 


nompah 


nombaugh 


Three 


yameenee 


tanniwi 


yabmani 


laubenab 


Four 


topah 


tshoplwi 


topab 


tobab 


Five 


zapta 


sahtshkh 


zabpate 


sattab 


Six 


shakpai 


ahkewe 


sbakkopi 


sbapab 


Seven 


shakoee 


shahko 


sbabkopi 


panompab 


Mght 


shakundoliuli 


a-oo-ongk 


sbabundobab 


kelatobaugb 


Nine 


nuhpeet chee- 
wungkuh 


■ jungkitshooshkooni noptshi wongbah 


sbankab 


Ten 


weekcheeniiTiuh 


kahapahni 

(3.) 


wiketsbimani 


krabra. 




English. 


Omaha. 


Minetari. 






Man 


noo 


mattra 






Woman 


waoo 


meeyai 






Father 


dadai 


tantai 






Mother 


eehong 


eeka 






Son 


ee jinggai 


moourisbai 




Daughter 


ee jonggai 


macatb 






Head 


pah 


antoo 






Hair 


pahee 


arra 






Ear 


neetah 


labockee 






Eye 


ishtah 


ishtah 






Nose 


pah 


apah 






Mouth 


cehah 


ee-ee-eepchappab 



46: 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Omaha. 


Mitietari. 


Tongue 


theysee 


neigh jee 


Teeth 


e-e-e- (sing.) 


ee-ee 


Hand 


nomba 


sbantee 


Fingers 


shagai 


shanteeichpoo 


Feet 


see (sing.) 


itsee 


Blood 


wamee 


eebree 


House 


tee 


atee 


Axe 


mazzapai 


wee-eepsailan^ 


Knife 


mahee 


matzee 


Shoes 




opab 


Sun 


meenacajai 


mahpemeenee 


Moon 


meeombah 


obseamene 


Star 


meecaai 


eekab 


Day 


ombah 


mabpaih 


Night 


hondai 


ohseeus 


Fire 


paidai 


beerais 


Water 


nee 


meenee 


Main 


naunshee 


harai . 


Snow 


mah 


mabpai 


Earth 


moneeka 


amab 


River 


watishka 


angee 


Stone 


ee-eeh 


mee-ee 


Tree 


herabaimee 


beeraiechtoet 


Meat 


tanoka 


cuructscbittee 


Bog 


sheenoota 


matsbuga 


Bear 


jabai 


meerapa 


Beaver 


wassabai 


labpeetzee 


Bird 


washingguh 


sacanga 


Fish 


hoboo 


boa 


Cold 


snee 


ceereeai 


White 


ska 


hoteecbkee 


BlacJc 


sabbai 


sbupeesha 


Bed 


jeedai 


isbshee 


I 




mee-ee 


He 




nee 


One 


meeacbchee 


lemoisso 


Two 


nomba 


noopah 


Three 


rabeenee 


namee 


Fov/r 


tooba 


topah 


Five 


satta 


cbeehoh 


Six 


sbappai 


acamai 


Seven 


painumba 


cbappo 


Eight 


hrairabainai 


nopuppee 


Nine 


shonka 


nowassappai 


Ten 


kraibaira 


peeragas. 



THE IROQUOIS LANGUAaES. 



463 



The Iroquois falls into a northern and a southern 
division, separated from one another by a mass of appa- 
rently intrusive Algonkin. 



(!•) 



English. 


Mohawk. 


Cayuga. 


Tuscarora. 


Nottoway. 


Man 


oonquich 


najina 


aineehau 


enika 


Woman 


ooonliechlien 


konheghtie 


aitsrauychkaneaweah ekening 


Head 


anoonjee 


onowaa 


oktahreh 


setarake 


Hair 


oonooquiss 


ononkia 


oowaara 


howerac 


Ear 


wahunclita 


honta 


ohhulmeh. 


suntunke {pi-) 


Eye 


ookoria 


okagKha 


ookawreh 


unkoharac {jpl.) 


Nose 


geneuchsa 


onyohsia 


ohtchyuhsay 


oteusag 


Mouth 


"wachsacarlunt sishakaent 


oskawrukweigh 


eskakarant 


Tongue 


oonachsa 


aweanaghsa 


auwuntawsay 


darsunke 


Tooth 


cuhnoojah 


onojia 


otoatseh 


olosag {jpl.) 


Hand 


oochsooclita 


eshoghtage 


okehneh 


nunke 


Foot 


oochsheeta 


oshita {sing.) 


uhsek {sin^.) 


saseeke 


Sun 


kelanquaw 


kaaghkwa 


heetay 


aheeta 


Moon 


kilanquaw 


soheghkakaaghkwa heetay 


tethrake 


Star 


cajestuck 


ojishonda 


otcheesnoohquay 


deeshu 


Day 


wawde 


onisrate 


auwehneh 


antyeke {time) 


Night 


aghsoiithea 


asoke 


oosottoo 


asunta {time) 


Fire 


ocheerle 


ojista 


stire 


auteur 


Water 


oochnecanos 


onikanos 


auwuh 


awwa 


Stone 


oonoyah 


kaskwa 


owrumiay 


okhoutakh 


Tree 


kerlitte 


krael 


oughrukeh 


geree 


Fish 


keiyunk 


otsionda 


kuhtchyuli 


kaiuntu 


I 


ni 


I 


ie 


ee 


Thou 


esse 


ise 


tsthauwuh 




He 


longwha 


aoha 


hearooh 




One 


oohskot 


skat 


eukche (R.) 


unte 


Two 


tekkinih 


tekni 


nakte (R.) 


dekanee 


Three 


ohson 


segh 


aksunk (R.) 


arsa 


Fwi/r 


kupyayrelih 


kei 


kuntok (R.) 


hentag 


Five 


wissk 


wis 


weesk (R.) 


wkisk 


Six 


yahyook 


yei 


oohyok (R.) 


oyag 


Seven 


chahtakh 


jatak 


ckeoknoh (R.) 


ohatag 


Eight 


soytayhhko 


tekro 


nakreuh (R.) 


dekra 


Nine 


tihooton 


tyohto 


nereuh (R.) 


deheerunk 


Ten 


weeayhrleh 


waghsea 


wakth'siiTik (R.) 


washa. 



464 



THE IROQUOIS LANGUAGES. 



(2.) 



English. 


Wyandot. 


English, 


Wyandot. 


Qod 


tamaindezue 


Fingers 


eyingia 


Wicked SpiHt 


deghshurenoh 


Nails 


ohetta 


Man 


aingalion 


Body 




Woman 


utehkeh 


BeUy 


undeerentoh 


Boy 


omaintsentehah 


Feet 


ochsheetau 


Girl 


yaweetseutho 


Bone 


onna 


Infant, child 


cheahhah 


Heart 


yootooshaw 


Father 


hayesta 


Blood 


ingoh 


Mother 


aneheh 


Town, village 


onhaiy 


Wife 


azuttunohoh 


Warrior 


trezue (war) 


Son 


hoomekauk (his) 


Friend 


nidanbe {brother) 


Daughter 


ondequieu 


House, hut 


neraatzezue 


Brother 


haenyeha (my) 


Kettle 


yayanetch 


Sister 


aenyaha 


Axe, hatchet 


ottoyaye (axe) 


An Indian 


iomwhen (pi.) 


Knife 


weneashra 


Head 


skotau 


Canoe, boat 


gya 


Hair 


arochia 


Indian shoes 


araghshu 


Face 


aonchia 


Bread 


datarah 


Forehead 


ayeutsa 


Shy, heaven 


caghroniate 


Ear 


hoontauh 


Sun 


yaandeshra 


Eye 


yocliquiendoch 


Moon 


waughsuntayande 


Nose 


yaungah 


Star 


teghshu (pi.) 


Mouth 


esskauliereeli 


Day 


ourheuha 


Tongue 


undauchslieeau 


NigU 


asontey 


Tooth 


uskoonslieeau (jal 


Morning 


asonravoy 


Beard 


ochquieroot 


Evening 


teteinret 


NecJc 


ohoura 


Spring 


honeraquey. 


Hand 


yorreessaw 







(3.) 



English. 


Onondago. 


Seneca. 


Oneida. 


Man 


etshinak 


unguoh 


loonkquee 


Woman 


echro 


yehong 


acunhaiti 


Head 


anuwara 


oonooen 


onoonjee 


Hair 


onuchquire 


onunkaah 


onanquis 


Ear 


ohucta 


waunchta (pi.) 


ohuntah 


Eye 


ogachra 


kaka 


oliknTilau 

onoo-oolisahonoo-ooh 
\ sah 


Nose 


oniochsa 


cagonda 


Mouth 


ixhagachrahuta 


wachsagaint 


yesaook 


Tongue 


enachse 


wanuchsha 


owinaughsoo 


Tooth 


onotschia 


kaimujow 


onouweelah 


Hand 


luiages 


liashrookta 


snusagli 


Feet 


ochsita 


oochsheeta (sing.) 




Sky 


tioarate 


kiunyage 


ochsheecht 



THE IROQUOIS LANGUAGES. 



465 



English. 


Onondago. 


Seneca. 




Oneida. 


Sun 


gaxachqua 


kachqua 




escalter 


Moon 


garachqua 


kachgua 




konwausontegeak Q) 


Star 


otschischtenocqua 


cajeshanda 


yoojistoqua 


Day 


wochuta 


unde 




weeneeslaat 


Night 


achsonta 


nehsoha 




kawwossonneak 


Fire 


otschischta 


ojishta 




ojisthteh 


Water 


ochnecanos 


onekandus 


oghnacauno 


Stone 


onaja 


cosgua 






Tree 


garonta 


kaeet 






I 


I 


ee 






Thwi 


his 


ees 






He 


rauh 


ahwha 






One 


skata 


skaut 




kuskat 


Two 


tekinu 


ticknee 




teghia 


Three 


achso 


shegh 




hasin 


Four 


gajeri 


kaee 




cayeli 


Five 


wisk 


wish 




huisse 


Six 


achiak 


yaee 




yahiac 


Seven 


tsoatak 


jawdock 




tziadac 


Eifjkt 


tekiro 


tikkeugh 




tagheto 


Nine 


watiro 


teutough 




wadehlo 


Ten 


wasshe 


wushagh 




woyehli. 


The Woccon and Catawba < 


ire two languages of the 


same group, spoken in 


North 


Carolina ; and they are 


the only two languages 


of that State, 


for which we have 


specimens 


— both short. 








English. 


Catawba* 






English. 


Catawba. 


Man 


yalDrecha 






Feet 


hepapeeah 


Woman 


eeyauh 






Blood 


eeh 


Father 


yahmosa 






House 


sook 


Mother 


yascu 






Axe 


pot-tateerawah 


Son 


koorewa 






Knife 


seepah 


Daughter enewah 






Shoe 


weedah 


Head 


iska 






Sky 


wahpeeh 


Hair 


gitlung 






Sun 


nooteeh 


Eye 


doxu 






Moon 


weechawanooteeh 


Ear 


peetooh 






Star 


wahpeeknee 


Nose 


eepeesooh 






Day 


yahbra 


Mouth 


esomo 






Night 


weechawa 


Tongue 


peesoomoseh 






Fire 


epee 


Tooth 


heeaup 






Water 


eyau 


Hand 


ecksapeeah 






Rain 


cooksoreh 


Finger 


eekseeah 






Snow 


wauh 



* Slightly more akin to the Cherokee, and the Uchee, on the one side, and 
the Sioux dialects on the other, than aught else. 

H H 



466 



6 


THE Ci 


TAWBA. 




English. 


Catawba. 


English. 


Catawba. 


Earth 


munn 


/ 


derah 


River 


esauli 


Thou 


yayah 


Stone 


eedee 


He 


oiiwah 


Tree 


yup 


One 


dupunna 


Meal 


weedeeyoyundee 


Two 


naperra 


Dog 


tauntsee 


Three 


namunda 


Beaver 


chaupee 


Four 


purrepurra 


Bear 


nomeh 


Five 


puhte-arra 


Bird 


koching 


Six 


dip-karra 


Fish 


yee 


Seven 


wassinen 


Great 


paukteherd 


Fight 


tubbosa 


Cold 


ckeliulichard 


Nine 


wuncbali 


White 
Black 


saukchuh 
haukchuh 


Ten 


pechana. 



The old languages of the CaroliDas, Georgia, and 
Florida were — 

1. The Wataree.* 

2. The Eeno — Compare this name with the 
Texian Ini ; 

3. The Chowah, or Chowan ; 

4. The Conpjaree ; * 

5. The Nachee — Compare with Natchez ; word 
for word ; 

6. The Yamassee ; 

7. The Coosah — Compare (word for word) with 
Coosada, and Coshatta. 

In the south lay the Timuacana — of which a few 
words beyond the numerals are known. 

In West Florida and Alabama, the evidence (I still 
follow the Mithridates) of Du Pratz scarcely coincides 
with that of the account of Nunez de Vaca. This 
runs thus. 

In the island of Malhado were spoken languages of 

1 . The Caoques ; 

2. The Han. 

On the coast — 

3. The Choruico — Cherokee? 



The name Riccar(?e, probably, belongs to these parts. 



THE CHEROKEE. 4G7 

4. Tlie Doguenes. 

5. The Mendica. 

6. The Quevenes. 

7. The Mariames. 

8. The Gualciones. 

9. The Yguaces. 

1 0. The Atayos — Adahi ? This seems to have been 
a native name — "die sich Atayos nennen." 

1 1 . The Acubadaos. 

12. The Quitoles. 

13. The Avavares — Avoyelles? 
1 4. The Muliacone. 

1 5. The Cutalchiche. 

1 6. The Susola. 

17. The Como. 

18. The Camole. 

Of migrants from the east to the west side of the 
Mississippi, the Mithridates gives — 

1 . The Pacana, conterminous with the Attacapas. 

2. The Pascagula ? Muscogulge. 

3. The Biluxi? Apalach. 

4. The Appalach ? Apelousa. 

The Taensa are stated to be a branch of the Natchez, 

The Caouitas are, perhaps, word for word, the Con- 
chattas ; also the Coosa, Coosada, Coshatta. 

The Stincards are, word for word, the Tancards = 
Tuncas = Tunicas. 

The Cherokee is spoken, at the present moment, by 
more individuals than any other Indian tongue. Many 
of the Cherokees have taken up a portion of the Ameri- 
can civilization ; cultivate land, hold slaves, and increase 
in numbers. The language is also spoken by many 
who are other than Cherokee in blood. It is written, 
and that in a syllabic alphabet, excogitated by a native 
Cherokee, in Africa, named Sequoyah, or Guess. Like the 

H H 2 



THE CHEROKEE. 



Vei, however, it is no evidence to the truly indigenous 
independent growth of an alphabet. Guess knew the 
English alphabet, i. e. he knew that languages could be 
reduced to writing, and the principles on which an alpha- 
bet could be formed. In this lies the real invention of 
an alphabet ; an invention which the present writer 
maintains has only been made once. 



English. 


Cherokee.- 


r 

Chocktaw.* 


Muskogulge {or Creek). 


Man 


askaya 


hottok nokni 


istahouamiah 


Woman 


ageyung 


kottok oliyo 


hoktie 


Bead 


askaw 


nushkobo 


ikah 


Hair 


gitlung 


pansh§ {his) 


isti 


Ear 


gule 


hoksi'bbsh 


huchko 


Eye 


tikata 


mishkin 


tolltlowah 


Nose 


koyoungsahli {my) 


ibichulo 


yopo 


Mouth 


tsiawli 


ishte 


chaknoh 


Tongue 


gahnohgah 


issunliisli 


tolasoah 


Tooth 


tetsinatutawgung {my) 


notS 


notte (jsZ.) 


Hand 


agwoeni {my) 


ibbuk {his) 


inkke 


Feet 


tsulahsedane {his) 


iye {his) 


eili {sing.) 


Sun 


nungdohegah 


hashe 


habsie 


Moon 


nungdohsungnoyee 


hushmunokaja 


halbisie 


Star 


nawquisi 


fichik 


kootso Isonibah 


Day 


ikah 


nittok 


nittah 


Night 


sungnoyee 


ninnok 


neillhi 


Fire 


atsilung 


liuok 


totkah 


Water 


ahmah 


oka 


wyvah 


Stone 


mingyah 


tiille {m^tal stone) cbatto 


Tree 


uhduh 


itte 


ittah 


Fish 


atsatih 


nun6 


tlakklo 


I 


ayung 


unno 


unneh 


Thou 


ne 


chishno 


chameh 


He 


naski 




muh 


One 


saquoh 


achofee 


hommaye 


Two 


talee 


tuklo 


hokko 


Three 


tsawi 


tuchina 


totcheb 


Fov/r 


nunggin 


ushta 


osteh 


Five 


hiskee 


tahlape 


chahgkie 


Six 


soodallih 


hanali 


ebba,h 


Seven 


gulgwaugih 


untuklo 


koolobah 


Eight 


tsunelah 


untuchina 


chinnabah 


Nine 


sohonhailah 


chokali 


ostabah 


Ten 


uhskoUiih 


pokoli 


pahlen. 



* The CMkkasali belongs to this division. 



THE UCHEB, ETC. 



469 



English. 


Uchee.* 


Natchez.t 


A.daihe. 


Chetemaclia.t 


Man 


cohwita 


tomkuhpena 


haasing 


pautchehase 


Woman 


wauhnehung 


tahmahl 


quaechuke 


kithia 


Father 


chitung 


abishnisha 


kewanick 


hineghie 


Mother 


kitchunghaing 


kwalneshoo 


amanie 


haiUe 


Son 


tesunung (my) 


akwalnesuta 


tallehennie 


hicheyahanhase 


Daughtt 


;7'teyunung {my) 


mahnoonoo 


quolasinic 


hicheyahankithia 


Head 


ptzeotan 


tomne apoo 


tochake 


kutte 


Hair 


ptsasong 


etene 


calatuck 


kutteko 


Ear 


cohchipah 


ipok 


calat 


urahache 


Eye 


cohchee 


oktool 


analca 


kane 


Nose 


cohtemee 


shamats 


wecoocat 


chiche 


Mouth 


teaishhee 


heche 


wacatcholak 


cha 


Tongue 


cootineah 


itsuk 


tenanat 


huene 


Tooth 


tekeing 


int 


awat {'pl.) 


hi 


Hand 


keanthah 


ispeshe 


secut 


unachiekaithie 


Fingers 


coonpah 




okinsin {sing.) iinache kitset 


Feet 


tetethah 


hatpeshe i^'mg.) 


nocat {sing.) 


sauknuthe {sing.) 


Blood 


wace 


itsli 


pchack 


unipe 


Home 


. 


hahit 


coochut 


hanan 


Axe 




ohyaminoo 







Knife 


eoutchee 


pyhewish 






Shoes 


tethah 


popatse 







Sky 


houpoung 


nasookta 


ganick 


kahieketa 


Sim 


ptso 


wah {fire) 


naleen 


thiaha 


Moon 


shafah 


kwasip 


nachaoat 


pautne 


Star 


yung 


tookul 


otat 


pacheta 


Day 


uckkah. 


wit 


nestach 


wacheta 


Night 


pahto 


toowa 


arestenet 


timan 


Fire 


yachtah 


wah 


nang 


teppe 


Water 


tsach 


koon 


holcut 


ko 


Fain 


chaah 


nasnayobik 


ganic 


kaya 


Snow 


stahae 


kowa 


towat 


nactepeche 


Earth 


ptsah 


wihih 


caput 


nelle 


River 


tauh 


wol 


gawichat 


koneatineshe 


Stone 




ohk 


ekseka 


nonche 


Tree 


yah 


tshoo 


tanaek 


conche 


Meat 


colahntha 


wintse 


hosing 


kipi 


Dog 


ptsenah 


waskkop 


- 





Beaver 


samkkeing 




culawa 




Bear 


ptsaka 


tso kohp 


solang 


hacuneche 


Bird 


psenna 


shankolt 


washang 


thia 


Fish 


potshoo 


henn 


aesut 


makche 


Great 




lehkip 


tocat 


hatekippe 


Cold 




tzitakopana 


hostalga 


kasteke 



* Slightly more akin to the Catawba and Cherokee than aught else, 
f Slightly more akin to each other and Muskogulge than aught else. 



470 



THE UCHEE, ETC. 



English. 


Uchee. 


Natchez. 


Adaihe. 


Chetemacha. 


White 


quecah 


hahap 


testaga 


mechetineche 


BlacTc 


ishpe 


tsokokop 


hatoua 


nappechequineche 


Red 


tshulhuh 


pahkop 


pechasat 


pinnoneche 


I 


'te 


tukehah 


hicatuck 


uteclieca 


Thou 




uhkehah 




utietmhi 


He 


coheetha 


akoonikia {;tlm 


here) nassicon 


hatche 


One 


sah 


■wdtahu 


nancas 


hongo 


Two 


nowah 


ahwetie 


nass 


hupau 


Three 


nokah 


nayetie 


coUe 


kahitie 


Four 


taltlah 


ganooetie 


tacache 


mechechant 


Five 


chwanhah 


shpedee 


seppacan 


hussa 


Six 


chtoo 


lahono 


pacanancus 


hatcka 


Seven 


latchoo 


ukwoh 


pacaness 


miclieta 


Fight 


peefah 


upkutepish 


pacalcon 


kueta 


Nine 


'tah'thkali 


wedipkatepish 


sickinish 


knicheta 


Tm 


'tthklahpee 


okwah 


neusne 


heiliitie. 



Allied one to another, the Pawni and Riccari are 
Caddo languages. 



English. 


Pawni. 


Riccari. 


Woman 


tsapat 


sapat 


Boy 


peeshkee 


weenatch 


Girl 


tchoraksh 


soonahtch. 


Child 


peeron 


pera 


Head 


pakshu 


pahgh 


Ears 


atkaroo 


tickokite 


Eyes 


keereekoo 


cheereecoo 


Hair 


oshu 


pahi 


Hand 


iksheeree 


tehonare 


Fingers 


haspeet 


parick 


Foot 


ashoo 


ahgh 


God 


thouwahat 


tewaroohteh 


Devil 


tsaheekshkakooraiwah 


kakewaroohteh 


Swi 


shakproo 


shakoona 


Fire 


tateetoo 


tekieeht 


Moon 


pa 


wetah 


Stars 


opeereet 


saca 


Rain 


tatsooroo 


tassou 


Snow 


toosha 


tahhau 


Day 


sliakoorooeeshairet 


shacona 


Night 


eeraishnaitee 


eenahgt 


Light . 


Bhuslieegat 


shakoonah 


Dmk 


eeraishuaite 


tekatistat 


Hot 


toueetstoo 


towarist 


Cold 


taipeechee 


teepse 


Yes 


nawa 


neecoola 


No 


kakee 


kaka 



THE PAWNI AND RICCARI. 



471 



English . 


Pavvni. 


Riccari. 


Bear 


koorooksb 


keahya 


Dog 


ashakish 


hohtch 


Bow 


teeragish 


nache 


Arrow- 


leekshoo 


neeche 


Hut 


akkaroo 


acare 


Canoe 


lakohoroo 


lahkeehoon 


River 


kattoosh 


sahonnee 


I 


ta 


nanto 


One 


askoo 


asco 


Two 


peetkoo 


pitco 


Three 


touweet 


towwit 


Four 


shkeetish 


tcheetish 


Five 


sheeooksh 


tcheetishoo 


Six 


sheekshabish 


tcheetishpis 


Seven 


peetkoosheeshabish 


totchapis 


Eight 


touweetshabish 


tochapiswon 


Nine 


looksheereewa 


totchapisnahhenewon 


Ten 


looksheeree 


nahen 


Twenty 


petouoo 


wetah 


Thirty 


luksheereewetouoo 


sahwee 


Hundred 


sheekookshtaroo 


shontan. 



In a country like Texas, where the spread of the popu- 
lation from the other portions of the Union has been so 
rapid, and where the occupancy is so complete, we are 
prepared to expect but a small proportion of aborigines. 
And such, upon the whole, is the case. The displacement 
of the Indian tribes has been great. Even, however, when 
Mexican, Texas was not in the category of the older and 
more original portions of Mexico. It was not brought 
under the regime of the missionaries. 

The notices of Texas in the Mithridates, taken along 
with our subsequent data, are to the effect that (a) the 
Caddo, (b) the Adaize or Adahi, (c) the Attakapa, and 
{d) the Choktah are the prevailing languages of Texas ; 
to which may be added a few others of minor import- 
ance. 

The details as to the distribution of the subordinate 
forms of speech over these four leading languages are 
as follows : — 

a. The Nandakoes, Nabadaches, Alich (or Eyish), and 
Ini or Tachi are expressly stated to be Caddo ; and, as 



472 LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 

it is from the name of the last of these that the word 
Texas is derived, we have satisfactory evidence that some 
members, at least, of the Caddo family are truly and 
originally Texian. 

b. The Yatassi, Natchitoches, Adai^i (or AdaM), 
Nacogdoches, and Keyes, belong to the Caddo confede- 
racy, but without speaking the Caddo language. 

c. The Carancouas, the Attacapas, the Apelusas, the 
Mayes, speak dialects of the same language. 

d. The Tunicas speak the same language as the Chok- 
tahs. 

Concerning the philology of the Washas, the Bedies, 
the Acossesaws, and the Cances, no statements are made. 

It is obvious that the information supplied by the 
Mithridates is measured by the extent of our knowledge 
of the four languages to which it refers. 

Of these, the Choktah, which Adelung calls the Mo- 
bilian, is the only one for which the Mithridates itself 
supplies, or could supply, specimens ; the other three 
being unrepresented by any sample whatever. Hence, 
to say that the Tachi was Caddo, that the Yatassi was 
Adahi, or that the Carancoua was Attacapa, was to give 
an instance, in the way of explanation, of the obscurum 
per obscurius. Since the publication of the Mithri- 
dates, however, we have got, as has been seen, samples 
of three more — so that our standards of comparison 
are improved. They are to be found in a tabulated 
form, and in a form convenient for collation and com- 
parison, in both of Gallatin's papers. They were all 
collected before the annexation of Texas, and they 
appear in the papers just referred to as Louisiana, rather 
than truly Texian, languages ; being common to the two 
areas. 

The later the notice of Texas the greater the promi- 
nence given to a tribe of which nothing is said in the 
Mithridates, viz. the Gumfianch. As late as 1844 we 
had nothing beyond the numerals and a most scanty 



LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 473 

MS. list of words to tell us what the Cumanch language 
really was. These, however, were sufficient to show 
that its affinities ran northwards, and were with the 
Shoshoni. 

The tendency of the Mithridates is to give prominence 
to the Caddo, Attacapa, and Adahi tongues, and to in- 
cline the investigator, when dealing with the other forms 
of speech, to ask how far they are connected with one 
of these three. The tendency of the later writers 
is to give prominence to the Cumanch, and to suggest 
the question : How far is this (or that) form of speech 
Cumanch or other than Cumanch ? 

Working with the Mithridates, a MS. of Mr. Bol- 
laert, and Mr. Kennedy's volume on Texas before me, I 
find that the list of Texian Indians, which these authori- 
ties justified me in publishing in 1848, contained (I) Cos- 
hattas ; (2) Towiachs, Towakenos, Towecas, and Wacos ; 
(3) Lipans or Sipans ; (4) Aliche or Eyish ; (5) Acosse- 
saws ; (6) Navaosos ; (7) Mayes ; (8) Cances ; (9) Tonca- 
huas ; (10) Tuhuktukis ; (11) Unataquas or Anadarcos; 
(12) Masco vie ; (13) lawanis or lonis ; (14) Wico ? 
Waco; (1 5) Avoyelles ; (1 6) Washitas ; (17) Ketchi ; 
(18) Xaramenes; (19) Caicaches ; (20) Bidias ; (21) 
Caddo ; (22) Attacapa ; (23) Adahi — besides the Caran- 
kahuas (of which the Cokes are made a branch) classed 
with the Attacapa, and not including certain Cherokees, 
Choktahs, Chikkasahs, and Sioux. 

A Washita vocabulary, which will be referred to in 
the sequel, concludes the list of Texian languages known 
by specimens. 

At present, then, the chief question respecting the 
philology of Texas is one of distribution. Given as 
centres to certain groups — 

1 . The Choktah, 

2. The Caddo, 

3. The Adahi, 

4. The Attakapa, 



474 



LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 



5. The Cumanch, and 

6. The Witshita languages, 

how do we arrange the tribes just enumerated ? Two 
works help us here : — 1. A letter from the Ex-president 
Burnett to Schoolcraft on the Indians of Texas. Date, 
1847. 2, A Statistical Notice of the same by Jesse 
Stem. Date, 1851. 

Stem's statistics run thus : — 



THhes. 








Numbers. 


Towacarros 141 ) 


Wacos . 








114 [29 


Ketchies . 








38) 


Caddos 








161) 


Andarcos 








202 [ 47 


loni . 








113 


Tonkaways 








1152 


Wichitas 








• 100 


Lipans 








500 


Comanches . 








20,000 



giving us several of the names that have already ap- 
peared ; giving also great prominence to the Cumanches 
— numerically at least. 

In Mr. Burnett's Letter the term Caddo i^ prominent; 
but whether it denote the Caddo language, or merely 
the Caddo confederation, is uncertain. Neither can I 
find fi:om the context whether the statements respecting 
the Indians of the Caddo connection, for this is what we 
must call it at present, are made on the personal autho- 
rity of the writer, or whether they are talcen, either 
directly or indirectly, fi^om the Mithridates. The term 
that Burnett used is stock, his statement being that the 
Waco, the Tawacani, the Towiash, the Aynic, the San 
Pedro Indians, the Nabaduches, and the Nacodocheets are 
all both Texian in origin and Caddo in stock. 

His other tribes are — ■ 

1. The Ketchi: a small tribe on Trinity River, hated by 
the Cumanches as sorcerers, and, perhaps, the same as— 

2. The Hitclii, once a distinct tribe, now assimilated 
with their neighbours. 



LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 



475 



3. The Tonkaways, a separate tribe, of which, how- 
ever, the distinctive characters are not stated. 

Whatever may be the exact details of the languages, 
dialects, and subdialects of Texas, the general outline is 
simple. 

The Choktah forms of speech are anything but native. 
They are of foreign origin and recent introduction. So 
are certain Sioux and other dialects spoken within the 
Texian area. 

The Gumanch is in the same predicament ; though 
not, perhaps, so decidedly. It belongs to the Paduca 
class, and its affinities are with the Shoshoni and Wi- 
hinast of Oregon. 

The Caddo Proper is said to be intrusive, having 
been introduced so late as 1819 from the parts between 
the Great Raft and the Natchitoches or Red River. I 
hold, however, that some Caddo forms of speech must 
be indigenous. 

The Witshita is probably one of these : — 



English. 


Caddo, 


Witshita. 


Head 


cundo 


etskase 


Haw 


beunno 


deodske 


Eye 


nockkochun 


kidahkuck 


Nose 


sol 


dutstistoe 


Mouth 


nowoese 


hawkoo 


Tongue 


ockkotunna 


hutskee 


Tooth 


ockkodeta 


awk 


One 


whiste 


cherche 


Two 


bit 


mitcb 


Three 


dowoh 


daub 


Four 


peaweh 


dawquats 


Five 


dissickka 


esquats 


Six 


dunkkee 


kehass 


Seven 


bissickka 


keopits 


Eight 


dowsiekka 


keotope 


Nine 


pewesickka 


shercheke ite 


Ten, 


binnab 


skedorasb. 


'obably, also. 


the following — 




English. 


Kichai. 


Hueco. 


Man 


caiuquanoquts 


todekitz 


Woman 


cbequoike 


cabheie 



476 



LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 



English. 


Kichai. 


Hueco. 


Head 


quitatso 


atskiestacat 


Hair 


itscoso 


ishkesteatz 


Face 


itscot 


ichcoh 


Ear 


atikoroso 


ortz 


Eye 


quideeco 


kidik 


Nose 


chuscarao 


tisk 


Mouth 


hokinnik 


ahcok 


Tongue 


hahtok 


hotz 


Tooth 


athnesho 


ahtk 


Hand 


ichshene 


ishk'ti 


Foot 


usinic 


OS 


Fire 


yecenieto 


hatz 


Water 


kiokoh. 


kitsah 


One 


arishco 


cheos 


Two 


chosho 


witz 


Three 


tahwithco 


to-w 


Fowr 


kithnucote 


taliquitz 


Five 


xs'toweo 


ishquitz 


Six 


napitow 


kiash. 


Seven 


tsowetate 


kiownitz 


Eight 


naikinukate 


kiatou 


Nine 


taniorokat 


choskitte 


Ten 


x'skani 


skittewas. 



I conclude with a language which is decidedly Texian 
-the Attakapa. 



English 


Attakapa. 


Man 


iol 


Woma/n, 


nickib 


Father 


shau 


Mother 


tegn 


Son 


shka 


Daughter 


tegu 


Head 


ashhat 


Hair 


taesh 


Ear 


ann 


Eye 


uiU 


Nose 


idst 


Mouth 


katt 


Tongue 


nedle 


Tooth 


ods 


Hand 


Tiish 


Finger 


nisliagg 


Feet 


tippel 


Blood 


iggli 


House 


ank 


Sky 


tagg 



English. 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Day 

Night 

Fire 

Water 

Rain 

Snow 

Earth 

Fiver 

Stone 

Tree 

Meat 

Bear 

Bird 

Fish 

Great 

Cold 

White 



Attakapa. 



tegidlesh 

ish 

iggl 

tegg 

cam 

ak 

caucau 

aalesat 

ne 

aconstuchi 

wai 



oged 
stigne 



iagghan 
uishik 
tsamps 
cobb 



LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 



477 



r English. 


Attakapa. 


BlacTc 


ianu 


Red 


ofg 


I 


ne 


Thou 


natt 


One 


hanneck 


Two 


happalst 


Three 


batt 



English. 


Attakapa. 


Fwir 


tsets 


Five 


nilt 


Six 


latst 


Seven 


paghu 


Eight 


tsikuiau 


Nine 


tegghuiae 


Ten 


heissigu. 



The Attakapa is one of the pauro-syllabic languages 
of America, by which I mean languages that, if not 
monosyllabic after the fashion of the languages of south- 
eastern Asia, have the appearance of being so. They 
form a remarkable class, but it is doubtful whether they 
form a natural one, i. e. whether they are more closely 
connected with each other in the other elenients of philo- 
logical affinity than they are with the tongues not so 
characterized. 

The Adahi or Adaize (? Yatassi) and the Attakapa 
are the two most isolated languages of North America, 
each having, however, miscellaneous affinities. 

As the languages to the west of the Attakapa have 
already been noticed, so those of South America now 
come under consideration. 



478 .LANGUAGES OF SOUTH AMERICA, 



CHAPTER LXI. 

Languages of South America — New Grenada, — The Quichua. — The Ayniara. 
—The Chileno.— The Fuegian. 

It may safely be said that there is no part of the 
world, of which the Comparative Philology is more un- 
certain and obscure than South America. That there 
are vast tracts elsewhere, for which our data are scan- 
tier, is not denied. Scanty, however, as they may be, 
they are, generally, better arranged ; for in South America, 
though our materials are by no means deficient, our 
classification is at its minimum. The notices of the 
Mithridates were chiefiy taken, either at first hand or 
through Hervas, from the Jesuit missionaries, whose 
communications were all of the same character. They 
gave us almost always a Paternoster, occasionally a hymn, 
sometimes the numerals, more rarely a full and copious 
general vocabulary. They also, for the most part, gave 
us a very compendious grammar or Arte ; a grammar 
or Arte^ in which the principles of the ordinary Latin 
Grammar of Europe were applied to forms of speech to 
which they are wholly unsuited. Besides their inherent 
imperfections, these Artes have the additional demerit of 
being amongst the scarcest of philological works. They 
are, for American books, old ; the majority being of the 



LANGUAGES OF SOUTH AMERICA. 479 

seventeenth century. They are printed in Lima and other 
Transatlantic towns, rather than in Madrid or Lisbon. 
Finally, they are often in MS. That many of these 
were known to Adelung, is shown in almost every page 
of his great work. Perhaps he knew of most of them. 
Nevertheless, as a mere matter of bibliography some 
have been noticed, and that for the first time, since his 
death. So far, then, as this is the case, they give us new 
materials. That the main mass, however, of our fresh 
data consists of fresh observations is no more than what 
we expect ; no more than the actual fact. Still, com- 
pared with what has been done elsewhere, they are few 
Whoever goes over the elaborate bibhographical work of 
Ludwig may see this. He may see that the number of 
languages for which there are few or no authorities later 
than Hervas is inordinately large ; so large, as to con- 
vince us that, whether by investigators on the spot or by 
enterprizing travellers, the philology of South America 
has been (as compared with that of other countries) greatly 
neglected. He will see that, for all has been done in 
recent times, the names of Spix and Martins, Prince 
Maximilian of Neuwied, Castelnau, D'Orbigny, Sir 
Robert Schomburgh, and Wallace (each in his own 
special area), give a monopoly of authority. Where 
these writers have either observed or collected, we have 
a fairly-illustrated district. Elsewhere there is sad 
barrenness. 

The parts, then, where the most has been done, are 
Brazil (a vast area), the Missions of Moxos and Chiquitos, 
along with parts of Peru, British Guiana, and the parts to 
the west of the Rio Negro ; more especially the valley of the 
XJap^s. In New Grenada also, of the languages whereof 
the information of the MithHdates is of the scantiest, we 
have a fair mass of new details collected by the occupants 
of the republic itself They are, however, from the fact 
of their being chiefly published in Bogota, pre-eminently 



480 LANGUAGES OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

inaccessible. To the present writer at the present time, 
the very existence of them is known almost wholly 
through Ludwig's notices. 

The parts for which our knowledge is most pre- 
eminently stationary are, Venezuela, Peru, Chili, the 
Argentine Kepublics, Paraguay, and Patagonia. 

Again ; as the organization of the Missions is less 
complete amongst the Portuguese than it is (or was) 
amongst the Spanish populations of the New World, the 
diiSerence between the amount of research bestowed upon 
the aborigines of New Grenada, Peru, &c. and those of 
Brazil, is considerable. 

The details, then, of Portuguese America are more 
unsatisfactory than those of Spanish. In those parts of 
the continent which belong to England or Spain, or 
which have been Dutch, the philology has been left to 
accident — so that in respect to them we are in no 
better position than we are with the languages of the 
Hudson's Bay Territory and the English portion of 
Oregon — a worse position than we are in with respect 
to those of the United States ; where a partial investi- 
gation has been undertaken by the Government. This 
means that a list of words has been prepared which is 
filled up as new languages present themselves ; a plan 
which, whilst it stimulates and directs inquiry, makes 
classification a simple matter of inspection. 

The natural road from North to South America is by 
the way of the Isthmus. At the same time the fact of 
the West-India Islands forming a second chain of com- 
munication must not be overlooked. 

In the present chapter, the plan adopted in North 
America will be followed, i. e. the languages to the 
west of the Andes will be treated first. The great 
block of land drained by the Orinoco, the Amazons, 
and the Rio de la Plata will follow ; and Brazil will 
come last. 



THE CORREGUAGE AND ANDAQUI. 



481 



There are alSinities in both directions. The first line, 
however, is the one which is most conveniently taken. 

For New Grenada, but few vocabularies are known 
to me — the Artes, «Sz;c., referred to by Ludwig, being 
difficult of access. 

Beginning with the parts to the south of the Choi 
and Muysca (now called Chihcha) areas for which a 
few words only are known to me, we come to the — 



English. 
Man 


Correguage. 
emuid 


Andaqui. 


Woman 


dome 





Head 
Hair 


sijope 
dana 


quinaji 


Eye 


nancoco 


sifi 


Ear 


cajoroso 


sunguajo 


Nose 


jiniquapui 


quifi 


Teeth 


cojini 


sicoga 


Foot 


coaj)i 


soguapana 


Heart 


decocho 





Tongue 




sonae 


Hand 





sacaa 


Shy 


queneme 




Sun 


ense 


caqui-kebin 


Moon 


paimia 


mitae-kede 


Star 


manoco 


fisona-ivine 


River 


siacha 


jiji 


Water 


oco 




Earth 


choa 


mijinae 


Stone 


cata, 




Egg 


cuejepi 


guaso. 



The title of the earliest grammar of the Peruvian is 
Gramatica d arte general de la lengua de los Indios 
del Peru ; nuevamente compuesto por el Maestor Fray 
Domengo de San TJiomas de la order de Santa Domengo 
en dichos reynos. The precise date of this is A.D. 1560. 
In the Dictionary, however, bearing the same date, the 
language is called the Lengua General de la Peru^ 
Llamada Quichua. The particular tribe with which 
this term originated was that of the Quichua on the 
Aymara frontier and conterminous with the Collas. 

I I 



482 THE QUIOHUA AND AYMARA. 

Of the dialects, the most northern is the Quiteno 
of Quito. Then follow, the Chinchasuya, between 11° 
and 1 3° S. L. ; the Cauki of certain districts to the 
south of Lima ; the Lamano of the parts about Truxillo ; 
the Cuzcucano of Cuzco ; and, finally, the Calchaqui of 
Tucuraan. 

The A ymara area has its liistorical centre in the parts 
about the Lake Titicaca, where the famous Peruvian 
legislator, Mango Capac, first made his appearance. 
The monuments of Tiaguanaco and Carangas belong 
to it. So do those numerous tombs containing the 
artificially flattened skulls upon which so much has 
been written by ethnologists. According to Garcillasso 
de la Vega it was the third Inca, Llogue Yupanqui, 
who brought the Aymaras under the Quichua dominion. 
They lie between 15° and 20° S. L., occupants of the 
highest range of the Andes, on both sides. Some of 
them belong to the drainage of the La Plata, being 
found on the upper part of the Pilcomayo. This 
brings tliem in contact with Chaco tribes ; whilst 
in the direction of Bolivia they touch the Chiquitos. 
As a general rule, however, they are surrounded by the 
Quichua dialects, by which they have, to all ap- 
pearance, being encroached on ; indeed, the capital 
Cuzco, Quichuan as it is in many respects, is a town 
upon Aymara ground. So is Potosi ; so also a great 
portion of the Provinces of Tinto, Arequipa, La Paz, 
and Chuquisaca, with considerable parts of Tarapaca 
and Atacama. 

The Mithridates names the Lupaca as the commonest, 
and the Pacase as the most refined of the Aymara 
dialects ; amongst wdiich are enumerated the Canchi, the 
Cana, the CoUa, the CoUagua, the Caranca, and the 
Charca ; this last being conterminous with the Guarani 
Chiriguanos. 



THE QUICHUA AND AYMARA. 



483 



EngUsb. 


Quichua. 


Aymara. 


Araucanau. 


Man {homo) 


runa 


hake 


che 


{vir) 


ccari 




huento 


Woman 


huarmi , 






Head 


uma 


pegke 


lonco 


Eye 


nain 


naira 


nge 


Ear 


rinri 






Nose 


cenca 


nasa 


yu 


Tongue 


kallu 


lagra 


gehuun 


Hair 


chuccha 


naccuta 


lonco 


Hand 


maqui 


arapara 


cuugh 


Foot 


chaqui 


cayu 


na,Tnon 


Sky 


hananpacha 





huenu 


Earth 


allpa 


urakke 


tue 


Sun 


inti 


inti 


antuigh 


Moon 


quilla 


pagsi 


cuyem 


Fire 


nina 


nina 


k'tal 


Watei^ 


unu 


huma 


ko 




yaeu 








One 


hue 


mai 


quigne 


Two 


ycay 


paya 


epu 


Three 


quinza 


kimsa 


cula. 



Mainas. — The Paternoster. 
Paparapoa ya-uranso inapaJce; apuri nen kema mucharinso-ni ; kema 
inapa keyavei ; kema lovanturanso lelinso-ni mompuye inapaJce; napupon- 
tinati isse-ke-nta ; cus-saru-mpoa taveri rosa nanni ketuke ipure ; huchampo- 
anta anis nke mompupe campoanta aloyotupe saya-pita amsere campo-anta ; 
CO apukesne tentacioneke co anotakeve ; ina-kera ateeke campu kera co loyave 
pita. 

The exact place of the Puquina of Hervas and the 
Mithridates, as well as that of the Yunga (or) Mochika, 
is uncertain ; all we have of them being a Paternoster 
in each, which runs thus :— 

Puquina. 

Seniki, hanigo pacas cunana ascheno pomana upalli suhanta po capaca 
aschano seilguta huachunta po hatano callacaso hanta kiguri hanigopa casna 
ehe cahu cohuacasna hamp. Kaa gamenke ehe hesuma : Senguta camen sen 
tanta sefi hochahe pampache sumao 'kiguiri sen, seiiguta huchachas keno 
gata hampachanganch cagu : Ama ehe acrosumo huchaguta sen hotonava 
enahata entonana keipina sumau. 

Yunga (Mochika). 

Muchef, acazloo cuzianqiiic ; Zunkoc licum apmucha ; Piican nof zungcu- 
zias ; eyipmang zung polengnum mo uzicapuc cuzianguic mun ; Ayoineng 
inengo much sollon piicam fiof alio molur ; Ef kecan nof ixlllis acan mux 
efco, xUang museyo much ziomun ; Amus tocum nof xllamgmuse iz puzereric 
namnum ; Lesnam efco ilof pissin kich. 

I I 2 



484 



FUEGIAN. 



Languages 


of the P. 


^mpas 


3— 


English. 


Puelche. 






Man 


chia 






Woman 


yamcat 






Head 


cacaa 






Cheek 


yac alert 


) 




Eyes 


yatitco 






Ea/ra 


jsipcjexl 


e 




Hand 


yapaye 






Sun 


apiucuc 






Moon 


pioo 






Fire 


aquacak 


e 




Water 


yagup 






Mountain 


atecq 






From Tierra del Fue 


go 


English. 




Alikhillip. 


Man 




ackinish 


Head 




ofchocka 


Nose 




nohl 


Hair 




ayu 


Hand 




yuccaba 


Teeth 




cauwash 


Eye 




telkh 


Ear 




teldil 


Foot 




cutliculcul 


SJcy 




accuba 


Day 




anoqual 


Earth 




barbe 


Sun 




lum 


Moon 




conakho 


Star 




conash 


Fire 




tettal 


Water 




chauash 


One 




towquiddow 


Two 




telkeow 


Three 




cupeb 





English. 


Puelche. 


Bow 


aeke 


Arrow 


quit 


Young 


yapelgue 


Old 


ictza 


I, me 


kia 


He, she 


sas 


Give me 


chutaca 


Eat 


akenec 


Sleep 


meplaumm 


I will 


kemo 


1 will not 


canoa. 



Tekeenika. 
oha 
lukabe 
cu shush 



marpo 

tuun 

della 

ufkhea 

coeea 

howucca 

tann 
lum 
anoco 
appernish 



shamea 
ocoale 
combabe 
mutta. 



It is needless to state that the Fuegian has affinities 
in one direction only ; and that, there, it is the point 
of a pyramid. 



YARURA, BETOI, AND OTOMAKA. 



485 



CHAPTER LXII. 

Languages of the Orinoko, Rio Negro, and northern bank of Amazons. — 
Yarura, &c. — Baniwa. — Juri. — Maipur. — Carib. — Salivi, — Warow. — 
Taruma. — Iquito. — Mayoruna. — Peba. — Ticuna, &c. 



We now move towards the head-waters of the Orinoko. 
Furthest to the west and north He the Yarura, Betoi, 
and Otomaka. 



English. 


Yarura. 


Betoi. 


Otomaka. 


Man 


pumme 


umasoi 


andua 


Woman 


ibi, ain 


ro 


ondua 


Father 


aya 


babi 




Mother 


aini 


mama 




Head 


pacchil 


rosaca 




Eye 


joride 


ufoniba 




Nose 


nappe 


jusaca 




Tongue 


topono 


ineca 




Hair 


keun 


rubuca 




Hand 


icchi 


rumcosi 




Foot 


tao 


remoco 




Day 


do 


munila 




Sky 


ande 


tencucu 


caga 


Earth 


dabu 


dafibu 


poga 


Water 


ui 


ocudu 


ia 


Fire 


conde 


futu 


nua 


Sun 


do 


teo -umasoi 




Moon 


goppe 


teo-ro 


- 


Beard 


tambe 




perega 


One 


caneame 


edojojoi 




Two 


noeni 


edoi 




Three 


tarani 


ibutu 





Word for word, Baniwa is, probably, Maniwa, 
Maniva, Poignaviy and Guipoignavi of other writers 
— especially does it seem to be, word for word, the 



486 THE BANIWA, ETC. 

G-uipoignavi of Humboldt. Now the Baniwa districts 
are those through which runs the frontier between Brazil 
and Venezuela. There are also those which give us the 
point where the researches of Mr. Wallace from the 
South, and of Humboldt from the North, respectively 
terminated ; the former having moved upwards from the 
Rio Negro, the latter downwards from the Orinoco. 
Now as Humboldt names the language for the parts in 
question Poignavi, giving two words of it, one of which 
(oueni zz water) coincides with the ^lni and weni of 
Wallace's Bmiivja, the identification under notice is 
legitimate. 

There are (at least) three dialects of the Baniwa, 
eo nomine — the Baniwa of the river Isanna, the 
Baniwa of the Tomo and Maroa rivers, and the Baniwa 
of the Javita ; this last being spoken beyond the 
boundary, i. e. in Venezuela. 

The affinities between the five forms of speech 
under notice appear to run just as Mr. Wallace 
has arranged his specimens of them, i. e. Tariana, 
Baniwa of the Isanna, Barree, Baniwa of the Tomo 
and Maroa, and Baniwa of the Javita. Between 
the extremes there is a considerable difference : a fact 
which should lead us to reflect upon what would be our 
opinion if, instead of being preserved, the intermediate 
forms had been lost. This would depend, to a great 
extent, upon the way in which these extremes were 
represented ; it being certain that, if our specimens 
represented those parts of the two forms of speech 
which differed rather than those whicli agreed with 
each other, we should pronounce them to be separate 
Icinguages. 











Baniwa (Toraa and 


English. 


Baniwa (Isanna). 


Barree. 


Baniwa (Javita). 


Maroa). 


Man 


atchinali 


henul 


henume 


catenemuni 


Woman 


inaru 


ineitutii 


neyau 


thalinaferai 


Boy 


mapen 


hantetchule 


iilubevlil) 


mathicoyou 


Girl 


niapeni 


heineitutchi 


neyauferium 


mathicoyou 







THE BANIWA, ETC. 


481 










Baniwa (Tonia and 


English. Baniwa (Isanna). 


Banee. 


Baniwa (Javita). 


Maroa). 


Head 


nhuhideu 


nodusia 


nobie 


washio 


Mouth 


nonuma 


nonuma 


enoma 


wanoma 


Eye 


nuiti 


niiita 


nofurli 


waholisi 


Nose 


nitucii 


niiti 


nuyapeu 


wasiwi 


Teeth 


. noyeihei 


nahei 


nasi 


wathi 


Belly 


noshada 


nodullah 


paneni 


wabnwiti 


Arm 


nozete 


nodana 


nanu 


wacano 


Hand 


nucapi 


niicabi 


nappi 


wacavi 


Fingers 


nucapi 


nucabi heintibe napbibre 


wacavitheani 


Toes 


rnihipa 


nisi heintibe 


geiut sisine 


watsisiculoasi 


Foot 


nupepa 


nisi 


nuitsiphabe 


watsisi 


Bone 


noapi 


nabi 


nopuina 


warlaunku 


Blood 


nuira 


niya 


miasi 


wathanuma 


Sun 


camiii 


camu 


namouri 




Moon 


keri 


tbekhe 


narhita 


enoo 


Star 


iweri 


wenadi 


uiminari 




Fire 


tidge 


cameni 


arsi 


cathi 


Water 


uni 


uni 


weni 


weni. 


The Ghimayios 


is nearer to these than 


to aught else. 


English 


Cliinianos. 


English. 


Chinaanos. 


Head 


nuhla 




Sun 


somanlu 


Eye 


nullata 


Moon 


uaniu 


Nose 


intshiuongeu 


Earth 


tocke 


Mouth. 


mima 




Fire 


oeje 


Tongue nehna 




Water 


ubu 


Tooth 


nihi 




One 


apbuUa 


Hand 


gabi 




Two 


biagma 


Foot 


nou 




Three 


mabaagmamacke 



The tlaenaTYiheu, or Himiming-Blrd Indians, lie 
beyond the districts personally visited by Mr. Wallace, 
i. e. on the Lower Japnra. He met, however, with 
some of them on the Rio Negro, and obtained some 
information concerning them, as well as a vocabulary of 
their language. He connects them more especially with 
the Coretu and the Juri. The point, however, of most 
importance concerning this Uaenambeu vocabulary is the 
fact of its representing the language of a group of tribes 
already known to us — already known to us under the 
name Mauh^. 

The Coretu lie on the Apaporis, between the Uapes 
and the Japura. The Tucano belong to the same rivers : 



488 



CORETU, ETC. 



the Cobeu to the main stream of the Qap^s. The 
G obeu, Tucano, and Coretu, are members of the same 
class ; the exact value of it being uncertain. The 
Cobeu bore their ears, and enlarge the hole until it will 
take in a bottle-cork ; hereby illustrating our -remarks 
on the word Orejones. The reason for writing Coretu 
of Wallace lies in the fact of there being in Balbi 
another Coretu vocabulary : which, with the exception 
of one word {haie zz aoue zn sun) is not the language of 
the vocabularies more especially under notice. 

The Juri lie between the lea and the Japura, and 
are called, also, Juripixunas = Black Juri, and Boca- 
prietos =: Blackmouths from the custom of tattooing the 
parts about the mouth in such a manner as to resemble 
the black-mouthed squirrel- monkeys (Callithrix sciureus). 
A portion of them has migrated to the Rio Negro, settled 
there, and become more or less civilized. 



English. 


Uaenambeu. 


Juri. 


Coretu. 


Man 


achijari 


tclioucu 


ermeu 


Woman 


inaru 


tchure 


nomi 


Boy 


maishu 


raiute 


ingigu 


Girl 


maishu 


nitemi 


nomi amanga 


Head 


eribida 


tchokireu 


cuilri 


Mouth 


erinuma 


tchoia 


diishi 


Eye 


eridoe 


tchoit 


yealluh 


Nose 


nuetacu 


youcoue 


ergilli 


Teeth 


nuaei 


tchatikou 


gohpecu 


Belly 


nucutu 


turaeh 


tobtono 


Arm 


eribedo 


tchoua 


dicah 


Hand 


erikiapi 


tclioupumau 


muhu 


Fingers 


nucapi 


tchoupei 


muetsbu 


Toes 


nuipamena 


tchoupomoru 


giapa muetsbu 


Foot 


eriipa 


tchouoti 


giapa 


Bone 


nuapi 


tchouino 


gnueh 


Blood . 


nuiri 


ecbonim 


dii 


San 


camui 


iye 


auoue 


Moon 


cari 


noimo 


iamimiaga 


Star 


ibidji 


ouca 


omoari 


Fire 


itchipa 


u 


piulre 


Water 


una 


coora 


deco. 


rhat neither Juri nor . 


Juripixunas 


are native names 



will be seen in the sequel. 





MAIPUR, ETC. 


48 


riie follow 


mg is the Goretu of Balbi. 




English. 


Coictu. 


English. 


Core'u. 


Eye 


siroho 


Foot 


namaigo 


Head 


caixmeo 


Sun 


haie 


Nose 


liissapo 


Moon 


haio-pucku 


Mouth 


hiamolocko 


Earth 


gaira 


Tongue 


coahuro 


Water 


cootabu 


Tooth 
Hand 


simaliapo 
coholo 


Fire 


aegace. 



The Baniwa of the Tomo and Maroa is more 
especially Maipur ; that of the Isanna Carib ; whilst 
that of the Javita leads, more especially towards the 
languages of Ecuador. Meanwhile, it is generally 
recognized that (whether the affinity be great or small) 
there has always been one between the Maipur and the 
Carib, en Tnasse. 



English. 


Maipur. 






English. 


Maiptir. 


God 


purruna-minari 




River 


ueni 


Man 


cajarrachini 




LaJce 


cavia 


Woman 


tinioclii 






Mountain 


japa 


Shy 


eno 






Roch 


chipa 


Earth 


peni 






Tree 


aa 


Sun 


chie 






Head 


nucliibucu 


Moon 


chejapi 






Ear 


nuachini 


Star 


urrupu 






Eye 


nupurichi 


Bay 


pecumi 






Nose 


nuchirri 


Night 


jatti 






Mouth 


nunumacu 


Wind 


chipucu 






Tooth 


nati 


Cloud 


tamana 






Tongue 


nuare 


Rain 


tia 






Arm 


nuaua 


Fire 


catti 






Hand 


nucapi 


Water 


ueni 






Foot 


nuchii. 


The Achagua is ak 


in to i 


;his. 






English. 




Maipur 






A-chagua. 


/ 




nura or 


cana 




nuya 


Thou 




pia — 


capi 




qiya 


He 




ia — 


he 




piya 


She 




yyya — 


cau 




ruya 


We 




uaya — 


cavi 




quaya 


Ye 




nia — 


caui 




iya 


They 




nia — 


cani 




naya. 



490 



THE CARIB GROUP. 



So is the Pareni. The next twenty vocabularies 
belong to the great Garih group. 

(In New Grenada.) 



English 




Guaque. 




English. 


Guaque. 


Head 




jutuye 




Tongue 


inico 


Hair 




jutuyari 




Hand 


ninare 


Eye 




emuni 




Sun 


vebi 


Ear 




janari 




Moon 


nuna 


Nose 




onari 




Star 


cbirique 


Teeth 




yeri 




Fire 


majoto 


Foot 




ijupuru 




Earth 


neno 


Bone 




yetije 




Stone 


jefu 


Mouth 


indare 




^99 


ismu. 




(In Demerara and Venezuela 


) 


Eiiglisli. 


Wapisiana 




English. 


Wapisiaua. 


Head 




uni'uai-aitana 


Earth 


emu 


Eye 




ungwawlien 


Fire 


tegberre 


Nose 




ungwiitippa 


Water 


tuna 


Mouth 


untaghu 




Bow 


sumara 


Hand 




ungwaipanna 


Arrow 


urregburi 


Foot 




unketewi 




Dog 


arimaragba 


Sun 




kamo 




One 


peiteieppa 


Moon 




keirrh 




Two 


tiattang 


Star 




weri 




Three 


itikineita. 


English. 


Waiyamera. 


Guinau. 


Maiongkong. 


Woyawai. 


Head 


ipawa 




intshebu 


bobuba 


igteburi 


Eye 


yenuru 




nawisi 


uyenuru 


eoru 


Nose 


yonari 




intshe 


yoanari 


younari 


Mouth 


tshuaduru 


noma 


andati 


emdare 


Hand 


yanaroru 


inkabe 


yamutti 


yamore 


Foot 


kiporu 




intsbibe 


obutu 


borori 


Sun 


weyu 




kamuhu 


tsbi 


kamu 


Moon 


numa 




kewari 


nuna 


nuni 


Star 


serrika 




yuwinti 


yetika 


serego 


Earth 


nono 




kati 


nono 


roon 


Fire 


wata 




tsheke 


wato 


wetta 


Water 


tuna 




oni 


tuni 


knisbamina 


Bow 


urahaberaglia 


tsbimar] 


-tsbebi tsimare-buru klaffa 


Arrow 


parau 




tsbimari 


tsimarei 


woiyu 


Dog 


okheri 




kwashi 


tsefete 


tsawari 


One 


tuwine 




pareita 


toni 


tioni 


Two 


asare 




yamike 


ake 


asake 


Three 


ware 




piampai 


yam airtuaba 


soroau. 



THE CARIB GROUP. 



491 



English. Caribisi. 


Accaway. 


Macusi. 




Ar6ciina. 


Socrikong. 


Head yububo 


yubobo 


pupei 




opuwei 


ipei 


Eye yenuru 


yenum 


uyenu 




yenuru 


itaana 


Nose yenetari 


yen 


uyeuna 


uyeuna 


akone 


Mouth 


yubotarri 


hunta 




undek 




Hand yennan 


yenarru 


huyenya 


uyena 


omamiara 


Foot pupu 


yubobo 


hupu 




uta 


itua 


Sun wehu 


weyeyu 


web 




wae 




Moon nuno 


nuno 


kapoi 




kapui 




Star siriko 


irema 


siriko 




serrika 




Earth yoporo 


ito 


nung 




nunk 




Fire watto 


watu 


apo 




apok 




Water tuno 


tuna 


tuna 




tuna 




Bow htirapa 


ureba 


hurapi 


a 


urapa 




Arroio purrewa 


pulewa 


parau 




purrau 




Dog keikutshi 


piro 


arimagha 


arimaragha 


One owe 


tigina 


tiwing 


tanking 




Ttoo oco 


asakre 


sakene 


atsakane 




Three orwa 


osorwo 


etseberauwani 


eserewe 




English, 


Mawakwa. 


Pianoghotto. 


Tiverighotto. 


Head 


unkaua • 








oputpa 


Eye 


ngnoso 




yenei 




oneama 


Nose 


ngndewa 




yoanari 






Mouth 


ngnomiti 




yefiri 




opota 


Hand 


ngnkowa 




yenari 







Foot 


ungeopa 




putu 




upti 


Sun 


kamu 




weh 




weh 


Moon 


kirsu 




nuna 




niano 


Star 


wishi 




siriko 




seriko 


Earth 


tsbimari 










Fire 


tsbikasi 




matto 




apoto 


Water 


wune 




tuna 




tuna 


Bow 


thseye 




urapa 






Arrow 


kengye 




purau 






Dog 






keikue 






One 


apaura 










Two 


woaraka 










Three 


tamarsi 










English. 


Atoria. 




Daurai. 


Head 


unruai-eterna 


wauunbarra 


Eye 


wawanumte 




wauuni 


Nose 


wauuni 




opebe 


Mouth 


otagh 


lU 




otagho 


Hand 


unkuai 




okei 




Foot 


unkheti 




okheti 


Sun 


kamoi 




tamoi 


Moon 


keivrhe 




kairra 



492 



THE CARIB GROUP. 



English. 




Atoria. 




Daurai. 


Star 




watsieirhe 




wonari 


Earth 




tari 




dari 


Fire 




tegherre 




tekeri 


Water 




tuna 




onabo 


B(m 




parauri 




parauri 


Arrow 




peiiri 




werakure 


Dog 




teni 




teni 


One 




peitaghpa 




weitappa 


Two 




pauiteitegh 




peitategh 


Three 




ipiketaub 




hikeitaba. 


English. 


Tamanak. 


Carib. 


Jaoi. 


Arawak. 


Man {homo) 




oquiri 




lukku 


{mr) 


nuani chivacane yon 






Woman 


aica 






biara 




puti 


apouitime 






Head 


prutpi 


upupu 


boppe 




Eye 


januru 


enuru 


voere 




Ear 


parani 


pana 


pannai 




Nose 


jonnari 


enetali 


hoenali 




Tongue 


nuru 


nuru 






Hair 


cipoti 






ubarrahu 


Hand 


janignari 


amecu 




ukkabuhu 


Foot 


ptari 


ipupu 






Shy 


capu 


cabo 


capu 


munti 











kassaku 


Earth 


nono 


nono 


soye 


wunnabu 


Sun 




wey 


weyo 


bR,(1dalli 


Moon 




nuno 


nonna 




Fire 




wato 


uapoto 


elelulun 


Water 





tuna 




wuniabu 


One 


ovin 


aunik 


tewyn 


abba 


Two 


oco 


wecu 


tage 


biarna 


Three 


ooroo 


wua 


terewaid kabbuin. 



For these latter dialects our chief authority is Sir R. 
Scliomburgh. The number of vocabularies as collected by 
him during his expeditions into the interior, is eighteen, 
none of which, he states, bear a closer affinity to each other 
than the French and Italian. This statement, however, 
is one which the present writer is not prepared to adopt. 
Of these eighteen vocabularies, only one or two have 
been published in extenso. From the report, however, of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
A.D. 1848, the foregoing short extracts have been taken. 



WAROW, SALIVI, AND TARUMA. 



493 



(1.) 



Euglisli. 


Salivi. 


En;ilish. 


Salivi. 


Shy 


mumeseche 


Eye 


pacute 


Sun 


miimeseche cocco 


Ear 


aicupana 


Moon 


vexio 


Nose 


inam 


Star 


sipodi 


Mouth 


aaja 


Earth 


seche 


Neck 


uncua 


Water 


cagua 


Arm 


ichechee 


Fire 


equssa 


Hand 


immomo 


Man 


cocco 


Finger 


endecce 


Woman 


gnacu 


Belly 


teacce 


Bird 


gnendi 


Heart 


omagnaa 


Fish 


paji 


Thigh 


icooco 


River 


oclii 


Knee 


gnujui 


Lake 


iboopu * 


Leg 


injua 


Tree 


nonhue 


Foot 


caabapa. 




(2.) 




English. 


Warow. 


English. 


Warow. 


Man 


nlbur4 


Feet 


miimu 


Woman 


tida 


Blood 


hotuh 


Boy \ 
Girl ] 


noboto 


Sun 
Moon 


yah 
wanehuh 


Head 


makwau 


Star 


keorah 


Neck 


mahaabey 


Rain 


naabaa 


Eyes 


maamu 


Wind 


ahaaka 


Nose 


mayhecaddy 


Fire 


ikkunuh 


Mouth 


maroho 


Water 


he 


Hair 


maaheo 


Earth 


hotah 


Ear 


mahohoko 


Sky 


nahaamtituh 


Arms 


mahaara 


Hill 


hotaquay 


Hand 


maamuhoo 


Wood 


daunah 


Fingers 


mamuhoo 


Rock 


hoeyu 


Bone 


muhu 


Sand 


kahemrah 


Shin 


mahoro 


Island 


bulohoh 


Flesh 


matumuh 


One 


hesacha 


Bad 


maalmh 


Two 


monatnu 


Belly 


mobunuh 


Three 


dianamu 


Breast 


maameyhu 


Five 


mahabass 


Thighs 


marolo 


Ten 


moreycooyt. 


Leg 


maahah 


^•) 




English. 


Taruma. 


English. 


Taruma. 


Head 


atta 


Hand 


ahu 


Eye 


atzi 


Foot 


appa 


Nose 


assa 


Sun 


ouang 


Mouth 


merukukanna 


Moon 


piwa 



49-fc 



MURA. 



English. 


Taruma. 


English. 


Star 


wingra 


Arrow 


Fire 


hua 


Dog 


Water 


tza 


One 


Earth 


, toto 


Two, 


Bow 


tzeika 


Three 




(4.) 


English. 


Muia. 


Englisli. 


Head 


abbaih 


Foot 


Eye 


gossa 


Sun 


Nose 


jtauhaing 


Moon 


Mouth 


abbassah 


Earth 


Tongue 


abboa 


Fire 


Tooth 


aithoa 


Water 


Hand 


uhna 





Taruma. 
kupa 
hi 
oshe 
tyuwa 
ungkehah. 



Mura. 



cahaiiang 
mettie 
huaing 
pae. 



The next three lists from the occupancies bearing 
the names at the head of the several columns, re- 
present the dialects not of the Juri of Wallace (who 
seem to be the true Juripixunas or Blackmouths) but 
of the people who apply that name and in whose lan- 
guage it is significant. 



Engliah. 


S. Pedro & Alnicida. 


S. Pedi-0. 


Alraei 


Man 


apiaba 


apuava 




Woman 


ciinha 


cunha 




Head 


acang 


nhacang 





Hair 


aba 


Java 


ava 


Eye 


ceca 


ceca 




Ear 


namby 


namby 




Mouth 


juru 


juru 




Foot 


py 


iporong ava 




Arm 


jyba 


juva 





Hand 


po 


ipoha 




Shy 


ybake 


yuvacca 




Star 


jacytata 


cbacauma 




Fire 


tata 


tata 




Water 


yge 


yg 


yg 


Tree 


ymyra 


vuyra 




House 


oca 


joca 




Wind 


ybutu 


ynutu 


evatu 


Black 


pixum^auna 


sum 


sun 


One 


oyepe 


oyepenho 


oyepe 


Two 


mocoi 


moca 




Three 


mozapyr 


mozapu 





IQUITO, ETC. 


4 


The Iquito, akin to the preceding — 




Englisli. Iquito. 


English. 


Iquito. 


Man icouan 


Ear 


qiiiatoiim 


Woman icouan 


Hand 


yanamaca 


Head manaca 


Foot 


quiainoi 


Eye panami 


Sun 


yanamia 


Nose cachirica 


Moon 


cashi 


Mouth kainga 


Water 


aqua. 


Of the Xumano or Ghomano, I only 


know the i 


ving words. 




Englisli. -■ Xumano. 




Sun sima 




Moon vueta 




Star 


vuete. 





495 



For the Mayoruna Castelnau has given two voca- 
bularies, one representing the language of the converted, 
the other that of the unconverted, tribes. 



English. 


Mayoruna (1). 


Mayoruna (2) 


Man 


dara 


dara 


Woman 


shirawa 


tirahua 


Head 


moho 


macho 


Eye 


bedo 




Nose 


delian 


dizan 


Mouth 


ibi 


ira 


Ear 


pabauan 


pahiuran 


Hand 


macou 


poro 


Foot 


tacu 


tahi 


Sun 


bari 


bari 


Moon 


oueu 


houiji 


Water 


waca 


houaca. 



Mayoruna is a name which occurs in the Mithridates ; 
the Mayoruna language being said to belong, with the 
Barbudo, Iturale, and Musimo forms of speech, to the 
Ui"arina class. 

It is safe to say that the Peha, Yagua, and the Ore- 
jones forms of speech are more closely connected with 
each other than any of them is with anything else. The 
exact amount of affinity is uncertain, though there can 



436 



PEBA, YAGUA, ETC. 



be but little doubt that the tliree languages are mutually 
unintelligible. The Aissuari, the Yurumagua, and the 
Cahumari languages, mentioned in the Mithridates, 
but not represented by any specimen, are likely to 
have belonged to this class. It may easily, however, 
be imagined that the distribution of unrepresented 
languages over classes like those before us is doubtful. 
What may probably have been Peba, or Urarina, may, 
with nearly equal probability, have been Omagua, 
Iquito, or aught else. 

As Orejones means large-earedy it must be dealt with 
as a common rather than a proper name. If so, it may 
occur in more quarters than one ; i. e. whenever ears 
are either naturally large or artificially enlarged along 
with a language in a neighbourhood where orejo — ear. 
The same applies not only to Barbudo, Encahellado, 
(?) Zapara {Xeherro ?), and other names of European, 
but to many of even American origin ; as may be seen 
by paying attention to the manner in which (inter alia) 
certain words ending in -mayo, and -agua, present 
themselves at long distances from each other — these 
words being Guarani. 



English. 


Oregones. 


Peba. 


Yagua. 


Man 


comai 


comoley 


huano 


Woman 


erigno 


watoa 


huatarunia 


Head 


huha 


raina 


firignio 


Eye 


oi 


vinimichi 


huirancai 


Nose 


hoho 


vinerro 


unirou 


Mouth 


huai 


rito 


huicama 


Far 


kinoleo 


mitiwa 


ontisini 


Hand 


onokui 


vinitaily 


huijanpana 


Foot 


etaiboi 


vinimotay 


moumoumatou 


Sun 


idoma 


wana 


ini 


Moon 


hiutsara 


remelane 


alemare 


Water 


ainoe 


ain 


haha. 



Wherever the ticuna poison is used, with a popu- 
lation in the neighbourhood which uses the name, Ticuna 
Indians may be expected ; and any two groups of such 
may be in any degree of relationship. One of Cas- 



TICUNAS, ETC. 



497 



telnau's vocabularies gives us a language under this 
name. It stands well apart from the ones that have 
already been noticed ; but, as the samples are short, we 
should remember that Hervas states that the Peba and 
Ticuna (also called Xumano) are connected. 



English. 


Ticunas. 


English. 


Ticunas. 


Man 


iate 


Ear 


nachinai 


Woman 


niai 


Hand 


tapamai 


Head 


nahairou 


Foot 


nacoutai 


Eye 


nehaitai 


Sun 


iakai 


Nose 


naran 


Moon 


tahuaimaika 


Mouth 


naha 


Water 


aaoitchu. 



Further south on the frontier of the Quichua we 
have, from a longer list of Osculati's, the following 
words for the Zapara. 



English. 


Zapara. 


English. 


Znpara. 


Man 


taucko 


Sun 


janockua 


Head 


anackaka 


Star 


naricka 


Ear 


taurike 


Moon 


cacikua 


Eye 


namisia 


Fire 


anamicukucia 


Nose 


mihucua 


Water 


muriccia 


Tongue 


ririccia 


Tree 


nackuna 


Teeth 


icare 


Sand 


hiocka 


Mouth 


atuapama 


Bird 


piscko 


Beard 


amu 


Egg 


ickuqua 


Arm 


curemasaca 


Belly 


raarama 


Hand 


hickoma 


Foot 


hinocka 


Day 


nuackate 


Blood 


nunacke. 


Night 


nignacka 







To these parts belongs the following Paternoster of 
the— 

Yamea. 
Neike alien arrescunia abecin ; termo atiahua renumucha hoe tanla ; habecia 
nei-nin ; anto nein arresiuma hoe baceiada renua nanca naerra ino popo nin ; 
mirle termo pahoinlama nei amiziara aintanei errama ; halayan nei nei huchanla 
tirra nei holayan lobua remorezio-nei ; lara hiamnerra nei han hucha-nen ; 
tiarre ala ninze harramale nei. 

These languages belong to Ecuador ; soutli of which 
is a great gap. Hence the next chapters begin on the 

K K 



498 ZAPARA, ETC. 

eastern Andes at. the sources of the Beni and Mamore, 
and (crossing the watershed) of the Vermeyo and Pilco- 
mayo. The division of these into the languages of 
(1.) the Missions, and (2.). the Chaco, is, more or less, 
artificial ; as is the secondary division of the Missions 
into those of {a) Moxos, and (6) Chiquitos. For the 
Peruvian affinities of this class the Aymara, from its 
being in situ, is more important than the Quichua. 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



499 



CHAPTER LXIII. 

The Moxos, Chiquitos, and Chaco Languages. 

In the following list, the first language is in contact 
with the Quichua and Aymara, with which it is, proba- 
bly, more closely allied than the present classification 
makes it. Here it is treated as transitional to the 
Peruvian and the languages of the Missions. 



English. 


Yuracaies. 


Man 


sufie 


Woman 


yee 


Bead 


dala 


Cheek 


pune 


Eyes 


tanti 


Ears 


meye 


Hand 


bana 


Sun 


puine 


Moon 


subi 


Fire 


aima 


Water 


sama 


Mountain 


monono 


The Sapiboconi has s 


English. 


Sapiboconi. 


Mail (homo) 


reanci 


Woman 


anu 


Head 


echuja 


Eye 


etuachuru 


Nose 


evi 


Tmgue 


eana 


Hair 


echau 


Hand 


erne 


Foot 


ebbachi 



English. 


Yuracarcs. 


Bow 


mumuta 


Arrow 


tomete 


Young 


sebebonte 


Old 


calasune 


7, me 


SB 


He, she 


lati 


Give me 


timbucke 


Eat 


tiai 


Sleep 


atesi 


Twill 


cusu 


I mil not 


nis cusu. 



English. 

Day 

Sky 

Earth 

Moon 

Fire 

Water 

One 

Txoo 

Three 



Sapiboconi. 

chine 

euacuepana 

mechi 

bari 

cuati 

eubi 

carata 

mitia 

curapa. 

K K 2 



500 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 







0-) 








Moxos Languages. 






English. 


Saraveca 


1 


English. 




Saraveca. 


Man 


echeena 


Bow 




echote 


Woman 


acunechu 


Arrow 




maji 


Head 


noeve 




Young 




inipia 


Cheek 


nunaapa 


Old 




vuchijari 


Eyes 


nol 




/, me 




nato 


Ears 


nuniije 




He, she 




ecbeche 


Hand 


aniquaichi 


drive me 




ich a munazii 


Sun 


caame 




Eat 




inucha 


Moon 


cache 




Sleep 




itie meia 


Fire 


tikiai 




I will 




areaca nojajai 


Water 


une 




I will not 


maicha nojari. 


Mountain 


uti 










English. 


Cliapacura. 


Ecglish. 




Chapacura. 


Man 


kiritian 


Bow 




parami 


Woman ■ 


yamake 


Arroio 




chininie 


Head 


upachi 


! 


Young 




isohuem 


CheeTc 


urutarachi 


Old ' 




itaracun 


Eyes 


tucuche 


/, me 




huaya 


Ear 


taitataichi 


He, she 




aricau 


Hand 


umichi 




Give me 




niiapache 


Sun 


huapirito 


Eat 




cahuara 


Moon 


panato 




Sleep 




huachia^ 


Fire 


isse 




I will 




mosicbacum 


Water 


acum 




I will not 


masichacum. 


Mountain 


pecun 










English. 




Movima. 




Cayuvav 


a. 


Man {home) 




itlacua 




jadsi 




Woman 




cucya 




itorene 




Head 




bacuacu 


a 


abaracama 


Eye 




chora 




iyocori 




Nose 




chini 




ebarioho 


Tongue 




rulcua 




ine 




Hair 








apotacame 


Hand 




chopa 




arue 




Foot 




zoipoh 




ahei 




Day 




ernes 




iriarama 


Sky 




benra 




idah 




Earth 




llacamb 


11 


idatu 




Sun 




mossi 




itoco 




Moon 




ychcho 




yrare 




Fire 




vee 




idore 




Water 




tomi 




ikita 




One 








pebbi 




Two 








bbera 




Three 









kimisa. 





THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



501 



EngUsh. 


Moxos. 


English. 


Moxos. 


Man {homo) 


acciane 


Sky 


anumo 


Woman 


eseno 


Earth 


moteji 


Head 


nuciuti 


Sun 


sacce 


Eye 


nuehi 


Moon 


coje 


Ear 


nicioca 


Fire 


une 


Nose 


nusuri 


Water 


jucu 


Tongue 


nunene 


One 


etona 


Hand 


nubu 


Two 


apina 


Foot 


nibope 


Three 


mopona. 


Day 


saccerei 






English. 


Itonama. 


EngUsh. 


Itonama. 


Mail 


umo 


Bow 


hualic/ikut 


Woman 


caneca 


Arrow 


chere 


Bead 


uchu 


Young 


tietie 


Cheek 


papapana 


Old 


viayachne 


Eyes 


icachi 


I, me 


achni 


Ear 


moc/itodo 


He, she 


oni 


Hand 


malaca 


Give m£ 


macuno 


Sun 


apache 


Eat 


ape 


Moon 


tiacaca 


Sleep 


conejna 


Fire 


bari 


I will 


ichavaneve 


Water 


huanuve 


I will not 


huachichvaco 


Mountain 


iti 






English. 


Canichana. 


English. 


Canichana. 


Ma7i 


enacu 


Bow 


niescutop 


Woman 


ikegahui 


Arrow 


ichuhuera 


Head 


eucucu 


Young 


ecokelege 


Cheek 


eicokena 


Old 


enimai-a 


Eyes 


eutot 


/, Trie 


ojale 


Ear 


eucomete 


He, she 


enjale 


Hand 


eutijle 


Give me 


sichite 


Sun 


nicojli 


Eat 


alema 


Moon 


nimilacu 


Sleep 


agaja 


Fire 


nichucu 


I will 


huarehua 


Water 


nese 


I will not 


nolmacA. 


Mountain 


comee 






English. 


Pacaguara. 


English. 


Pacaguai-a. 


Man 


uni 


Hand 


mupata 


Woman 


yucha 


Sun 


vari 


Head 


mapo 


Moon 


ochQ 


Cheek 


tamo 


Fire 


chU 


Eyes 


huiro 


Water 


jene 


Ear 


paoki 


Mountain 


raachiva 



502 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



English. 


Pacaguwa. 


English. 


Pacaguara. 


B(m 


canati 


Give me 


ekiahue 


Arrow 


pia 


Eat 


hihue 


Young 


huakehue 


Sleep 


ocAahuan 


Old 


chaita 


I will 


akekia 


/, me 


ea 


I will not 


ojeamakea. 


He, she 


aa 






Euglish. 


It6n^s. 


Enghsh. 


Iteu^s. 


Man 


huataki 


Bow 


pari 


Woman 


tana 


Arrow 


kivo 


Head 


mahin 


Young 


iroco 


Cheek 


buca 


Old 


ucuti 


Eyes 


to 


/, me 


miti 


Ear 


iniri 


He, she 


comari 


Hand 


uru 


Give me 


huiti 


Sun 


mapito 


Eat 


caore 


Moon 


panevo 


Sleep 


upuiira 


Fire 


iche 


I will 


imere 


Water 


como 


I will not 


inimere. 


Mountain 


pico 

(2 


'■■) 






Chiquitos J 


Languages. 




EngUsh. 


Paioconeca. 


English. 


Paioconeca. 


Man 


uchanenuve 


Bow 


tibopo 


Woman 


esenunuve 


Arrow 


coriruco 


Head 


ipe 


Young 


umono 


Cheek 


ipiki 


Old 


ectia 


Eyes 


ihuikis 


/, r/ie 


neti 


Ear 


isenoke 


He, she 


piti 


Hand 


iruake 


Give me 


pipanira 


Sun 


isese 


Eat 


ninico 


Moon 


kejere 


SUep 


pimoco 


Fire 


chaki 


I will 


nikenino 


Water 


ina 


I will not 


isini kinovo 


Mountain 


• iyepe 






English. 


Chiquito. 


Zamucu 




Man (homo) 


noneis 


nani 




Womxin 


pais 


cheke 




Head 


taanis 


yatoitae 


Eye 


sutos 


yede 




Ear 


umapus 







Nose 


ifias 


yucunachu 


Tongue 


otus 







Hair 


taanis 







Hand 


ees 


yuman? 


ii 



THE MISSIONS AND THE OHACO. 



503 



English. 


Chiquito 




Zamucu 




Foot 


popez 




irie 




Day 


anenez 




dire 




Shy 


apez 




gnieate 




Earth 


quiis 




nup 











numi 




&u,n 


suus 




guiedde 


Mom 


paas 




hetoxei 




Fire 


tuus 




yot 




Water 


peez 




pioc 




One 







chomara 


Two 






gar 




Three 






gadioc. 




English. 


Otuke. 


English. 




Otuk6. 


Man 


vuani 


Bow 




revica 


Woman 


vuaneti 


Arrow 




tehua 


Head 


ikitao 


Young 




ichaoro 


ClieeTc 


irenara 


Old 




eadi 


Eyes 


ichaa 


T, me 




iki cliaocho 


Ear 


ichaparara 


He, she 




iki chaano 


Hand 


seni 


Give me 




iyura 


Sun 


neri 


Eat 




oaketa 


Moon 


ari 


Sleep 




anutake 


Fire 


rera 


I will 




wia sike 


Water 


uru 


I will not 




oraebiescate 


Mountain 


batari 









In 1831 the number of the Cayuvava was 2073, all 
of whom were Christians of the Mission of Exaltacion. 
Their original locality lay about 12° S. L. where they 
were conterminous with the Movima, and Itenes. 

In 1830, the number of the Movima was 1288, all 
of whom were Christians in the Mission of Santa Anna. 
Their original locality was about 14° S. L. where they 
were conterminous with (inter alios) the Cayuvava and 
the Moxos. 

In 1830, the number of the Itonama was, at 
The Mission of Magdalena . . . .2831 
San Kamon . . . .1984 



Total . . .4815 
All Christian. 
At the junction of the Itenes. with the Mamor^, the 



504 THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 

Itenh language is spoken by 1000, or 1200 individuals, 
whose name (Itdnes or Ite) is native. 

Chiquitos is no native, but a Spanish name ; the name 
which the chief divisions of the group give themselves 
being J^agiunaneis — men. It is from them that the 
Mission of Chiquitos takes its name, in the centre of 
which the Chiquito Troiper is spoken by some 14,000 
souls. The language is important now, and was im- 
portant originally. At the present time it serves as a 
sort of Lingua Franca, being the form of speech which 
numerous other tribes who, without learning Spanish 
have unlearned their own language, have adopted. It was 
important in the time of Hervas, when it fell into two 
dialects, three older ones having previously become ex- 
tinct, or nearly so. Of these one was the Manaz ; the 
tribes that spoke it being — 

The Manzica The Quimomoca 

— Yuracareca — Tapacuraca 

— Sibacca ■ — Yirituca. 

— Cuzica 

The existing dialect of the Tao is spoken by — 

The Tao The Peguica 
• — Boro — Bocca 

— Tabiica — Tubaciaca 

— Taiiepica — Aruporeca. 

— Xuhereca 

and part of the Piococo — the Pinoco being the language 
of 

The Pinoco Proper The Poxisoco 

— Quimeca — Motaquica 

— Guapaca — Zamaquica 
— - Quitaxica — Taumtoca 

and part of the Piococo. 

The termination -ca is specially stated to be a Chi- 
quito plural. It does not, however, follow that every 
tribe bearing it was Chiquito. All that is actually 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



505 



needful to account for the term is a Chiquito neighbour- 
hood in which the name may have originated. 

Of the tribes that speak the language known by the 
general name of Zamucu, or Sarnitcu (this particular 
form of speech being only one out of several) some are 
settled in the Missions of San Giovanni, San lago de 
Chiquiti, and San Ignacio, while some run wild in the 
more impracticable districts of the forest country around 
them — conterminous in some part, at least, of their 
fi'ontier with the Chiriguanos. Hervas gives us three 
main dialects. 

1. The Zamucu, in the limited sense of the term, 
spoken by the Zamucu Proper, the Satienos, and per- 
haps, the Ugarafios — the testimony as to these last 
being doubtful ; since, according to some, they have a 
peculiar language of their own. 

2. The dialects of the Caipotocado, Tunachas, Imo- 
mos, and Timinahas. 

3. The Morotoco of the Morotocos Proper, the 
Tamoenos, the Cucurates, or Cucutades, the Panonos, and 
(perhaps) the Careras and the Ororebates. 

Such is the list of Hervas of the Zamucu tribes as they 
stood in his time. The names that I find in D'Orbigny 
are Zamucu, Morotoco, Potarero, and Guaraneco. 







(3.) 








Chaco 


Languages. 




English. 


Matagiiaya. 






English, 


Mataguaya 


Man 


inoon 






Bow 


luchang 


Woman 


kiteis 






Arrow 


lotec 


Head 


litec 






Young 


magse 


Eyes 


notelo 






Old 


chiut 


Ears 


nokeote 






/, me 


yam 


Band 


noquec 






He, she 


atachi 


Sun 


ijuaba 






Give me 


maletuec 


Moon 


guela 






Eat 


tec 


Fire 


itag 






Sleep 


nobina 


Water 


guag 






I will not 


ykite. 


Mountain 


lesug 











506 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



Toha Paternoster. 
Co-taa adoonatil keda piguem ; 
Yaliateton adenagati ; 
Llaca-anac comi abogot ; 
Contidi-neco ked^ piguem nacaeno ena alua ; 
Canadena cadimeza naax sinaax ocom uadom 
Caditca mantiguema aditi-ogoden emeke comi scaiiema sitiogodenax 
Tacame catino 
Calac sanem comi. 



EngUsh. 


Mbaya. 


Abiponian. 


Mbokobi. 


Vilela. 


Lule. 


Man (Aomo)uneleigua 


joale 


yoale 


nitemoi 


pele 


{mr) 






cualegzac 


quima 


cumueptito 


Woman 


igualo 




aalo 


kisle 


vacae 






canelma 


coenac 




lucueptito 


Head 


naguilo 


napanik 


icaic 


niscone 


tocco 


Eye 


nigecogee 


natoele 


nicote 


toque 


zu 


Ear 


napagate 


[gat 


maslup 


cusp 


Nose 


nionigo 


ncaatagan- 


yimic 


limic 


nus 


Tongue 


nogueligi 




lagra 


lekip 


lequi 


Hair 


na,modi 


neetequic 


naccuta 




caplhe 


Hand 


nibaagadi 


napakena 


napoguena 


isip 


is 








ycaelgrat 






Foot 


nogonagi 




capiate 


ape 


elu 


Shy 


ytitipigime 


ipigem 


ipiguem 


laue 










cbajenk 








EaHh 









basle 


a 


Sun 


alilega 


grabaulai 


daazoa 


olo 


ini 


Moon 


epenai 


grauek 


chidaigo 


copi 


alit 


Fire 


nuledi 


nkaatek 


anodek 


nie 


icue 


Water 


niogodi 


enarap 


ebagyac 


ma 


to 


One 


uninitegui 




iniateda 


yaguit 


alapea 


Two 


itoata 





inabaca 


uke 


tamop 


Three 


dagani 




iiiabacacaocaini 


nipeiuei 


tamlip. 



Of the Chaco languages, the Mataguaya is the most 
akin to the Chiquitos ; the Vilela and Lule to the 
Aymara. 



THE GUARANI, ETC. 507 



CHAPTER LXIV. 

Languages of Brazil, — Guarani. — Other than Guarani.- -Botocudo, &c. — Lan- 
guages neither Guarani nor Botocudo. — The Timbiras. — The Sabuja, &c. 

The Lingua Geral, or current Indian of the Empire, is 
Guarani ; a language which is not only spoken by many 
Portuguese, but one for which several native tribes of 
comparatively small importance have exchanged their 
own. Little, however, will be said about the Guarani, 
the general phenomena, connected with its remarkable 
distribution being commonly known. A form of speech 
akin to it is spoken on, or even within, the frontier of 
Ecuador ; whilst others are spoken on the Rio Negro, 
on the lower Amazons, along the coast of the Pacific 
as far as the neighbourhood of Monte Video, in Para- 
guay, and by the Chiriguanos and Sirionos on the 
frontier of Peru. That the tribes which use this tongue 
are numerous we readily believe : nor are there wanting 
long lists of them. The present writer has collected 
more than forty. The statement, however, that 
such and such populations speak the same language is 
one thing ; an actual specimen of the language itself, 
eo nomine^ is another. This is often wanting, or, at 
any rate, the specimen is a short one. Yet it may consist 
of only a single word and still have its value. The 
chief Guarani languages are — 

1 . The Omagua. 

2, 3, 4. The Tupi, Tupinambi, and Tupinaquin. 

5. The Guarani Proper of Paraguay and the South- 
west. 



508 



THE GUARANI, ETC. 



6. The Chiriguano of the South-west on and within 
the frontier of Peru. 



English. 




Guarani. 




Tupi. 


Man (homo). 


aba 




aba 


— {vir) 




me 






Woman 




cugna 




cunha 


Head 




acang 




acanga 


Eye 




tesa 




teca 


Ear 




namby 






Nose 




te, tu, hu 


un 


Tongue 




cu 




apecu 


Hair 




og 




oca 


Hand 




po 




pu 


Foot 




pi 




pi 


Day 




ara 




ara 


Sky 




ibag 




ibaca 


EaHh 




ibi 




ibi 


Sun 




quarassi 




coaracy 


Moon 




yasi 




iacy 


Fire 




tata 


• 


tata 


Water 




i 




i. 


English. 


Omagua. 




English. 


Omagua. 


Man (homo) 


ava 




Sky 


ehuatemai ritama 


(vir) 


mena 




Earth 


tujuca 


Woman 


huaina 




Sun 


huarassi 


Head 


yacae 




Moon 


yase 


Eye 


ssissa zaicama 


Fire 


tata 


Ear 


nami 




Water 


uni 


Nose 


ti 




One 


uyepe 


Tongue 


cumuera 




Two 


raucuica 


Hand 


pua 




Three 


iruaca. 


Foot 


pueta 









East of the Murus on the Madera, extending east- 
wards still in the direction of the Tapajoz, lie the 
Mundrucus. 



English. 


Mundrucu. 


English. 


Mimdrucu. 


Sye 


ueta 


Foot 


worcanaputa 


Head 


ija 


Sun 


uashi 


Nose 


heinampo 


Moon 


uashiat 


Mouth 


woropi 


Earth 


ipu 


Tongue 


waico 


Water 


hu 


Tooth 


worno 


Fire 


tasha. 


Hand 


woipo 







BRAZILIAN LANGUAGES. 



509 



I connect the Mura with the Mundrucu, notwith- 
standing its place in a previous chapter. I also make 
them both Guarani (raising the value of the class) — 
but Guarani with Carib affinities. The following voca- 
bularies from Castelnau, evidently, represent languages 
of the great Guarani class ; though their exact place in 
it is uncertain. 



English. 


Apiaca. 


Cayowa. 


Man 


couimahe 


awa 


Woman 


cogna 


coniah 


Head 


ai-acana 


siakan 


Hair 


ai-ava 


siawou 


Eye 


ai-re-coara 


chercisa 


Nose 


a-si-gna 


chanl 


Tooth 


ai-ragna 


ioway 


Tongue 


ai-cona 


iocalike 


Ear 


ai-nembia 





Hand 


ai-pore 




Foot 


arpia 




Sun 





quara-ou 


Moon 


jahi 


yaseu 


Star 




yotete 


Fire 


tatan 


tata 


Water 


equat-daramau 





To the Botocudo class belong (] .) the Botocudo 
Proper, spoken between 18" and 20" S. L. (2.) The 
Jupuroca, spoken on the Mucury near the town of 
Caravellas, apparently, but not necessarily, falling into 
six sub- divisions. Such at least is the inference from 
the statement that the names of the heads of the 
several Jupuroca chiefs are (1.) Guiparoca, (2.) Potica, 
(3.) Tupi, (4.) Mechmech, (5.) Megwi Megu, (6.) Uroue. 
(3.) ? Mucury. 

(1.) 

English. Botocudo. Jupuroca. Mucury. 

Man onaba 

Woman jokounang 

kgipack 

kerang 



Brother 

Hair 

Head 



giaecana 
euqiiijacca 
carenqiieti 
enelem 



510 



BOTOCUDO CLASS. 



English. 


Botocudo. 


Jupuroca 


Mucury. 


Eye 


ketom 


equitongh 




Ear 


uniaknom 


gioni 




Tooth 


kiiomir 







Beard 


giakiiot 






Blood 


comtjaack 







Hand 


po 


impo 


imp6 


Foot 


po 


impo 


imp6 


Bone 


kiock 






Belly 


conang 








Moon 


concang-eion 


caratuti 





New 


etran-him 






Star 


more 






Fire 


ghompeck 


giompequi 


jampec 


Water 


magnar 


ninhanga 




Tree 


tachoou 







^gg 


bacan-nigcon 







Fish 


impock 


eimpoca 


ep 


Devil 


lantchong 




lanchou 


One 


mekenum 








(2.) 




English. 


Naknanuk. 


English. 


Naknanuk. 


Head 


kraine 


Tooth 


kiijounne 


Nose 


kujink 


Hand (foot) 


po. 



About the languages of the next class little is said in 
the Mithridates ; more in the Travels of Spix and Mar- 
tins, and of Prince Maximilian of Neuwied. Balbi throws 
them all into a single group, which he calls the Macha- 
cari-Camacan. The area of this group is conterminous 
with that of the Botocudos ; whilst the author from 
whom these vocabularies are taken, commits himself to 
the statement that the Machakali bears a decided 
similarity to the Botocudo, having both a guttural and 
a nasal pronunciation. At any rate the Rio Mucury is 
occupied by both the Proper Mucury tribes and the 
Machakali, or Machakaris ; though the present writer, 
who, without hesitation, treats the Machacari-Camacan 
of Balbi and the Botocudo as separate sections of the 
same group, considers that the nearest congeners to the 
Botocudo are the Mongoyos and Malali. 



BOTOCUDO CLASS. 



511 



0.) 



English. 


Mongoyos. 


God 




Man 


hoiema 


Woman 




Head 


hero 


Hair 


ke 


Eye 


kedo 


Ear 


nikobko 


Hand 


ninkre 


Arm 


nikhona 


Foot 




Beard 


nikhran 


Blood 


kedio 


Sun 


hoiseu 


Fire 


diakhkeo 


Water 


sa 


River 




Tree 


hanoufe 


Egg 




White 


hoai 


Blach 


khokada 


Fish 


hona 



Macoui. 


Machakali. 


amieto, toupa 


toupa 


atempeep 


idijun 


aiento 


abation 




etation 


epotoi 




endaen, acu 




idcai 


idcai 


impeoi 




aimke 


aquitktain 


agnim 


niponoi 


ingpata 


idapata 


aquedhum 




inken 


kechiniong 


abcaai 




coen 


cbechan 


counaan 


counaana 




idakeng 


abooi 


abaai 


amnietim 


nipitim 





crebran 


imraetan taranou 


tapagnon 


maau 





(2.) 



English. 

God 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Hair 

Eye 

Ear 

Hand 

Arm 

Beard 

Blood 

Swn 

Fire 

Water 

Tree 

Egg 

White 

Black 

Fish 



Patacho. 


Camacan. 


nimissoum 





monactiin 


cahe- 




achoun 


totsa 


inro 


epotoi 


ining^ 


angona 


inglento 




incoca 




incrou 


aguipeaton 


igihia 




loghe 


eughem 


iso 


mayon 


chiou 


— : — 


jaron 




sin 


mawmipticau 


he 


petitieng 






hai 


tomeningna 
micai 





512 



BOTOCUDO CLASS. 



English. 


Menieng. 


Malali. 


Head 


inro 


akeu 


Eye 


imgutu 


keto 


Nose 


incMvo 


aseie 


Mouth 


iniatago 


aietoco 


Tongue 




gnocgno 


Tooth 


io 


aio 


Hand 


iniru 


aiimke 


Foot 




apao 


Sun 


chioii 


hapem 


Earth 


e 


am 


Fire 


iaru 


couia 


Water 


sin 


keche. 



Of the languages neither Guarani nor Botocudo, I 
begin with those on the drainage of the Tocantins. 



English. 


Timbirap. 






English. 


Tirahiras. 


Head 


jora 






Sun 


puttu 


Eye 


intho 






Moon 


putturagh 


Nose 


ingniakra 






Earth 


pia 


Mouth 


sharicoa 






Fire 


cochto 


Tongue 


ingnoto 






Water 


CO 


Tooth 


itzoa 






One 


itaputshitti 


Hand 


ingniucrahy 






Two 


ipiacruttu 


Foot 


babalnecrahuk 




Three 


ingere. 


English. 


Ge. 






English. 


Ge. 


Head 


grangbla 






Sun 


chughera 


Eye * 


alepuh 






Moon 


paang 


Nose 


aenocopioh 






Earth 


chgku 


Mouth 


aingco 






Fire 


ping 


Tongue 


aenetta 






Water 


aeco 


Tooth 


aijante 






One 


gumtung 


Hand 


senaenong 






Two 


uaeu 


Foot 


aepahno 






Three 


balipe. 


English. 




Caraja. 




Apinages. 


Man 




abou 




iprie 


WomoM 




awkeu 




iprom 


Head 




woara 






Hair 




woara-day 






Eye 




wa-a-rouwai 




Tooth 




wa-a-djou 






Tongue 




wa-darato 






Hand 




wa-debo 






Foot 




wa-av 


ra 







TOCANTINS LANGUAGES. 



513 



V 



English 




Cai-Hja 




Apinages. 


Water 




beai 




piacom 


Fire 




eatou 




COUCOIIDOU 


Sun 








bure 


Moon 









burua. 


English. 


Tocautins. 


Caraho. 


Chereiite. 


Chavante. 


Man 


papay 




ambeu 


ambei 


Woman 


mentija 


meca-ouare picon 


picon 


Head 


iscran 


icran 


dicran 


dicran 


Hair 


itki 


ikei 






Eye 


into 




datoi 


datoi 


Nose 






danescri 


danescri 


Tooth 


ninhlou 


itchoua 


daguoi 


dagnoi 


Tongue 


gnoto 


ioto 






Hand 


gnoucra 




danicra 


dai-iperai 


Foot 


it-pari 




dapra 


dapra-canou 


Water 


inko 


ko 






Fire 


couvou 




congeu 


congeu 


San 


kathoa 


put 


biuden 




Moon 


budouvrou 




oua 


oua. 


English. 


Chuntaquiro. 


English. 


Chuntaquiro. 


Eye 


weari 




Sun 


katchi 


Nose 


weiri 




Moon 


ceri 


Tooth 


weii 




Star 


catahiri 


Foot 


waiti 




Water 


una. 



Spoken in Bahia. 



EngUsh. 


Kiriri. 


Sabuyah. 


Head 


tzambu 


zabiik 


Eye 


po 


poh 


Nose 


nembi 


nabitzeh 


Mouth 


waridga 


oriseh 


Tongue 


nunu 


nunu 


Tooth 


dza 


zah 


Hand 


mysa-buanghe 


mussoh 


Foot 


by 


puih 


Sun 


uche 


utsheh 


Moon 


cayacu 


gayacu 


Day 


cayapri 




Earth 


rada 


rattah 


Fire 


isujiuw 


essu 


Water 


dzu 


tzoh 


One 


bihe 




Two 


wachana 




Three 


wachanidikie 





L L 



14 




PURUS, ETC. 




Spoken 


in Rio Janeiro and Minas Geraes. 


English, 


Purus. 


Coroato. 


Coropo. 


Head 


n'gue 


gue 


pitao 


Eye 


miri 


mere 


ualim 


Nose 


nhe 


nlie 


sMrong 


Mouth 


jora 


tshore 


tshore 


Tongue 


tope 


tompe 


tupe 


Tooth 


dje 


tshe 


shorim 


Hand 


core 


tshopre 


tshambrim 


Foot 


jupre 


kakora 


tshambrim 


Sun 


ope 


hope 


nasceun 


Moon 


petara 


petahra 


nashe 


Day 


bricca 






Earth 


aje 


uasche 


hame 


Fire 


pote 


pohe 


ke 


Water 


nliama 


nhaman 


teign 


One 


omi 


scombriuan 


nam 


Ttvo 


curiri 


tshiri 


gringrim 


Three 


prica 


patapakon 


pateliackon(?) 



Spoken in Matagrosso and in the direction of the 
Chaco. 



English. 


Guana. 


English. 


Guana. 


Man 


tabanan 


Ear 


guiaibaino 


Woman 


zeeno 


Hand 


no 


Head 


kom baipoi 


Foot 


djabawai 


Hair 


dooti 


Swi 


kathai 


Eye 


onguei 


Mom 


kobaivai 


Nose 


agueiri 


Star 


ickerai 


Tooth 


onbai 


Water 


bouna. 


Tongue 


nabainai 






English. 


Guato. 


English. 


Guato. 


Man 


matai 


Tongue 


cbagi 


Woman 


monnagai 


Ear ■ 


mavi 


Head 


dokeu 


Hand 


ida 


Hair 


maeu 


Foot 


apoo 


Eye 


marei 


Fire 


mata 


Nose 


taga 


Water 


maquen. 


Tooth 


maqua 






English. 


Guachi, 


English. 


Guacbi. 


Man 


cbacup 


Hair 


ioatriz 


Woman 


outie 


Eye 


iataya 


Head 


iotapa 


Nose 


ianote 





PAYAGl 


[JA, ETC. 




English. 


Guachi. 


1 English. 


Guachi. 


Tooth 


iava 


1 Sun 


oes 


Tongue 


iteche 


1 Moon 


oalete 


Ear 


irtanmete 


Star 


aate 


Hand 


iolaimason 


Water 


euak. 


Foot 


iacalep 






English, 


Bororo. 


English. 


Bororo. 


Eye 


itai 


Sun 


cuerou 


Nose 


kinamalo 


Moon 


ari 


Mouth 


noiri 


Star 


ikai 


Tooth 


ita 


Fire 


tola 


Hand 


chetara 


Water 


ikotowai 


Foot 


igoulai 






English. 


Payagua. 


English. 


Payagua. 


Ood 


haasum 


Leg 


yehega 


Father 


iralgwah 


Water 


waaae 


Brother 


yaguwah 


Bread 


asyah 


Child 


ddawat 


Bow 


s(iu 


Mother 


yosawsah 


Truth 


sahc 


Wife 


elmhirah 


Pretty 


laaa 


Sister 


yagubira 


Ugly 


thlak 


Face 


igwetshogra 


One 


petshaah 


Hand 


sumahyah 


Two 


serac^ 


Foot 


sewti 


Fmr 


pegas. 


Finger 


igutsan 







515 



The Guanans of Martius live between the Paraguay 
and the Sierra de Chainez and are stated to be related 
to the Cahans, Coahunas, or Men of the Wood, whom 
the Guacurus call Cayubabas. To this add that the 
Guana vocabulary of Castelnau is given by Ludwig 
to these same Guanans. If so, we may compare it 
to the Cayubaba, or Cayuvava, of the mission of 
Moxos. Doing this we shall find that the resemblance 
is of the slightest, consisting chiefly (perhaps wholly) in 
that between 



English. 
Tongue 



Guana, 
na-hanai 



Cayubaha. 
ine 



But Avhat if there are two Cayubabas ? 



L L 2 



518 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

on a mere cursory and superficial inspection. The Es- 
kimo is a definite class, with its maximum of difierence 
on the side of the Atlantic. The Athabaskan is also a 
definite class when compared with the Algonkin, which 
underlies it when we pass the Eocky Mountains. On 
the side, however, of the Pacific, the phenomena of 
transition present themselves. The Kenay was not 
generally recognized as Athabaskan, until compared with 
the Loucheux ; and, as long as the Kenay was unfixed, 
the Ugalents and its congeners were unfixed also. As 
it is, they form a definite sub-class, with Eskimo affini- 
ties on one hand, and Atna afiinities on the other ; the 
Kolush being truly transitional. The Chesmesyan, the 
Hailtsa, the Wakash, and the Chinuk, are connected 
through their miscellaneous affinities, and are all 
characterized by their harsh phonesis. The Jakon and 
Kalapuya lead to the languages of the Sahaptin and 
Shoshoni phonesis — among the congeners of which the 
sound of tl appears and reappears. In the Mexican, 
this becomes prominent ; and in the Maya, to say the 
least, has no inordinate prominence. 

Between the Rooky Mountains and the Pacific, the 
Algonkin, with its intrusive character and wide diffusion, 
has done so much in the way of the displacement and 
obliteration of such forms of speech as may have shown 
signs of transition that it is the best-marked class on 
the continent. Its spread, however, appears to have 
been from west to east, and the result of it has told most 
on the fragmentary and isolated languages of the Iroquois 
family, which it has affected in the way that the Turk 
and Russian have aflfected the Ugrian. In its ordinal value, 
it is, apparently, higher than the Turk, the Mongol, or 
the Tungus ; lower than the Fin. Taking it along with 
the Athabaskan and its congeners as far as American 
Oregon, and with the Eskimo, it probably forms a class 
to which the Iroquois, the Sioux, the Catawba, the Uche 
(with its congeners), and (perhaps) the Caddo, form a 



THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 517 



CHAPTER LXV. 

General Remarks on the American Languages. 

The primary division is that between North and South 
America ; the difference between them being partly 
real and partly what may be called subjective. It is 
real, because the Isthmus of Darien is a narrow neck of 
land, and the points of contact between the two penin- 
sulas are few ; nor are they notably increased by taking 
in the West-Indian Islands as a second passage. 

It is subjective (by which I mean that it is referable 
to our want of knowledge) through the scantiness of 
our materials for Nicaragua, Costarica, Honduras, and 
St. Salvador on the one side, and for New Grenada on 
the other. There is, then, a true want or deficiency 
of investigation, and there is, also, the fact of the 
displacement and obliteration of the native tongues 
having been great. Nevertheless, the coincidences be- 
tween the two classes are numerous. 

In North America the connection with Asia is de- 
cided. Through the Aleutian dialect of the Eskimo, 
and the Kamtshatkan, it is direct. Through the Yuka- 
hiri and other tongues it is indirect. That this affinity 
was concealed so long as we took the Eskimo in the At- 
lantic portion of its area, and compared, or contrasted, 
it with the Algonkin — itself on its Atlantic side also — 
has already been stated ; and it may be added that, even 
on the side of the Pacific, it is, by no means, apparent 



518 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

on a mere cursory and superficial inspection. The Es- 
kimo is a definite class, with its maximum of difference 
on the side of the Atlantic. The Athabaskan is also a 
definite class when compared with the Algonkin, which 
imderlies it when we pass the Rocky Mountains. On 
the side, however, of the Pacific, the phenomena of 
transition present themselves. The Kenay was not 
generally recognized as Athabaskan, until compared with 
the Loucheux ; and, as long as the Kenay was unfixed, 
the Ugalents and its congeners were unfixed also. As 
it is, they form a definite sub-class, with Eskimo affini- 
ties on one hand, and Atna affinities on the other ; the 
Kolush being truly transitional. The Chesmesyan, the 
Hailtsa, the Wakash, and the Chinuk, are connected 
through their miscellaneous affinities, and are all 
characterized by their harsh phonesis. The Jakon and 
Kalapuya lead to the languages of the Sahaptin and 
Shoshoni phonesis — among the congeners of which the 
sound of tl appears and reappears. In the Mexican, 
this becomes prominent ; and in the Maya, to say the 
least, has no inordinate prominence. 

Between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, the 
Algonkin, with its intrusive character and wide diffusion, 
has done so much in the way of the displacement and 
obliteration of such forms of speech as may have shown 
signs of transition that it is the best-marked class on 
the continent. Its spread, however, appears to have 
been from west to east, and the result of it has told most 
on the fragmentary and isolated languages of the Iroquois 
family, which it has affected in the way that the Turk 
and Russian have affected the TJgrian. In its ordinal value, 
it is, apparently, higher than the Turk, the Mongol, or 
the Tungus ; lower than the Fin. Taking it along with 
the Athabaskan and its congeners as far as American 
Oregon, and with the Eskimo, it probably forms a class 
to which the Iroquois, the Sioux, the Catawba, the Uche 
(with its congeners), and (perhaps) the Caddo, form a 



m GENERAL. 519 

co-ordinate. At any rate, the Athabaskan and Algon- 
kin, the Sioux and Iroquois, belong to the same class 
with one another, and to different ones when compared 
in mass — whatever the value of those classes may be. 

The South Oregon languages graduate into the Cali- 
fornian, and the Californian into those of the Paduca 
class and those of Sonora ; until we come to the two 
great divisions of the Mexican and Maya ; the former 
of the greater historical importance, the latter important 
from the multiplicity of its dialects — dialects which 
simulate separate substantive languages. 

The Moqui, a Pueblo language, has decided Paduca 
affinities. 

If the Attakapa seem to be pre-eminently isolated, the 
vast displacements which have occurred all around may 
account for it. It has, for an American language, a 
monosyllabic look. So has the Otomi, which has been 
compared with the Chinese. So have some of the 
Athabaskan tongues. So have some of the Algonkin, in 
certain vocabularies ; their congeners, meanwhile, being 
as polysyllabic as the American languages in general. 
This leads to the consideration of certain doctrines con- 
cerning what is called the general grammatical structure 
of the languages of the New Woiid ; in which, we are 
told, that they all agree in grammatical, though differing 
in glossarial, detail. The term expressive of this general 
character is jpoly synthetic. What is its import ? 

It is a fact that in an American sentence the term 
denoting the object coalesces with the verb ; so that, 
while a Roman delivered the equivalent to I call in the 
single word voco, the American can, in a single word, 
say I call him, her, or therrij as the case may be. 

It is also a fact that there are certain very long 
words expressive of what in Europe is expressed by 
short ones, and that out of these long words compounds 
may be made which are no longer than either of the 
single elements. This looks as if each were picked 



520 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

to pieces, and a part alone taken. There is something 
in each (ct fortiori in both) of these processes which 
bears out the term polysynthetic. Valeat quantum. 

The former process is quite as European as American, 
and is, to a certain extent, a piece of printer's philology. 
In catch ^em, in je Vaime, &c., there is a true incorpo- 
ration of the objective pronoun with the verb : which, 
in the Norse, Lithuanic, and other languages, has given 
us a passive voice developed out of a middle, itself deve- 
loped out of the amalgamation of the verb with the 
pronoun. In the Magyar this incorporation has com- 
manded no little attention. 

In respect to the other phenomenon — the phenomenon 
of a composition with a decomposition to precede it — 
it would be important if proven. The fact, however, of 
the decomposition is more than doubtful. It is not out 
of the full-formed pair of primary compounds that the 
secondary compound is made, but out of the original 
parts which existed while they — the apparent primary 
compounds — were merely compounds in iDosse. 

Another fact which suggests the term is the incor- 
poration of the personal pronoun with the names of cer- 
tain parts of the body, as shown in the difficulty there 
is in getting an American to say eye or head^ &c. purely 
and simply. He always says my-eye, your-head, or 
something of the kind.* But this is Papuan, not to 
say Kurd and Gipsy, as well. 

The same criticism applies to the inclusive and ex- 
clusive plurals ; which are, by no means, American : nor 
even Asiatic, The Spanish nosotros has already been 
alluded to. 

Still there is polysyntheticism to a certain degree — 
though much of it is of the grammarian's making. Ex- 
isting, however, as it does, it may occur in every degree. 

* This may be seen in almost any one of the vocabularies, wherein the most 
cursory inspection tells us that the parts of the human body nearly always 
begin with either the same syllable or the same letter. 



IN GENERAL. 521 

Where the amalgamation is perfect we have such voca- 
bularies as the Iroquois and such paternosters as the 
Tarasca. Where it is incomplete we have the show of 
a monosyllabic language. 

The doctrine, then, that the diiferences in grammatical 
structure are differences of degree rather than of kind, 
and that there is nothing in one language which, either 
as a fragment or a rudiment, is not to be found in 
another, is contravened by nothing from America. 

The languages to which those of America are the nearest 
equivalents in the way of development are, by no means, 
their nearest congeners in the way of actual affinity. 
These are the languages of the Papuan and Australian 
areas ; and, to a certain extent, those of Polynesia. The 
limited numeration and the concrete view of plurality 
are points in which they have a decided likeness ; and 
it is scarcely necessary to add that the culture of the two 
families is on a like low level. 

In North America the phenomena in the way of dis- 
tribution and difiusion which presented themselves in 
Asia re-appear ; and in South, there is a re-appearance 
of the phenomena of North, America. Small areas 
with a multiplicity of mutually unintelligible forms of 
speech stand in strong contrast to large ones with a 
minimum of dialectual difference. What the Atha- 
baskan and the Algonkin are in the one peninsula, the 
Quichua, the Carib, and, above all, the Guarani, are in the 
other. From the want, however, of details, the direction 
of the several movements by which they spread is, for 
the most part, undetermined. 

With any South American vocabulary of adequate 
length, some North American root presents itself — some, 
indeed, from the extreme north, e. g. the Eskimo area. 
Now, as borrowing is out of the question (whilst the 
words are not of the sort to be independently excogi- 
tated by distant speakers), this, along with the phe- 
nomena of transition, is the chief philological argument 



522 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

in favour of the fundamental unity of the two classes. 
That the transitions are obscure is, from the scantiness 
of our data for the most important points, what we 
expect, a priori. 

When well within South America — for New Granada 
gives us but few materials — however difficult it may be 
to give a systematic classification of definitely affiliated 
languages, it is much more difficult to find a language 
wherein miscellaneous affinities are wanting. The stu- 
dent from Peru finds Quichua words in every vocabulary 
he lights upon : whilst the student from Brazil finds 
Guarani ones. These languages are, certainly, the most 
widely spread of any : but the same coincidences — 
allowance being made for the diflference in the number 
of the words compared — occur in all the other tongues ; 
even those of which our knowledge is the slightest. 

The details of the classification are given in the pre- 
liminary table. The ordinal value, however, of the 
whole American class requires a brief notice. I doubt 
whether, on the whole, it is higher than that of the so- 
called Indo-European in its most restricted form, i. e. 
in the form to which it is limited in the forthcoming 
chapters of the present work. 

However, in order that this statement may not pass 
for a paradox, it must be remembered that the value of a 
class depends not upon the number of the minor divisions 
and sub-divisions which it may contain, but upon the 
amount of difference between the extremes. If, (the 
limits of the English, the German, the Eussian, the 
Latin, the French, and their congeners being limited to 
areas no larger than the county of York,) the remainder 
of Europe were filled-up with some scores or hun- 
dreds of languages, each as different (and not more 
different) from one another as the above-named languages 
are among themselves, the value of the class at large 
would be the same ; though that of its subordinate 
sections would be less. Instead of some three primary 



IN GENERAL. 523 

divisions with a mass of divisions there would be some 
scores of genera consisting of either a single species or 
of few. There would be, in short, a hundred languages 
resembling the E-ussian and the German in their differ- 
ence from each other, but not resembling them in being 
spoken over large areas. Tested by the difference be- 
tween its extreme members (say the Eskimo and the 
Fuegian) the American class, in my mind, is one of a 
very moderate ordinal value ; for, with a view to the time 
required to effect change, a little consideration tells us 
that the period which will modify one form of speech 
may just as easily modify a hundred. 



524 THE THENICIAK 



CHAPTER LXVI. 

The Semitic Languages. — The Phenician and Punic. — The Hebrew and Sa- 
maritan. — The Assyrian and Chaldee. — The Syriac. — The iEthiopic and 
Amharic. — Graf at. — Arabic. — Hururgi, The Amazig or Berber. 

The Phenician of Tyre and Sidon and the parts 
around is known only by inscriptions ; and as these 
are without date the exact state of language which 
they indicate is uncertain. They are spread over a 
wide tract of country ; a tract which agrees with the 
notions suggested by the ordinary historical accounts 
of the commercial and colonial relations of those two 
cities. They are either rare or non-existent beyond 
the range of Mount Taurus. They are rare or non- 
existent along the eastern parts of Africa. They are nume- 
rous in Spain, and they have been found in Sicily and 
Malta. Between those which represent Carthage and 
those that represent Phenicia the line of demarcation is 
partly uncertain, partly conventional. Nevertheless, it 
is convenient to separate, so far as it can be done, the 
Phenician from the Punic — allied or identical as they 
may be. 

In the way of language the Phenician inscriptions 
are unimportant. In the history of the alphabet they 
are of interest. It was from Phenicia that the Greeks 
took their letters : the Old Italians theirs ; and from 
these two all the alphabets of the West have originated. 
Those of the East (in the mind of the present writer) 
have, also, a like origin. The proof, however, is less patent. 



THE PHENICIAN. 525 

The Phenician alphabet consisted of signs for the mutes 
and liquids. Then comes what are considered signs for 
certain breathings, as h and its congeners ; along with 
certain semi- vowels and nasals. In the Phenician itself, 
and in its immediate eastern descendants, these are 
treated as consonants — so that the alphabets under the 
ordinary doctrine are alphabets without vowels. If 
so, such a word as Tnilk is written mlk ; the context 
being held sufficient to say whether the actual word was 
melek, or milik, or muluk, or melik, or milek, or milk, 
or melkj or mlik, or mlek, or what not. Meanwhile, 
the semi- vowels, in many instances, were vowels also, so 
that swl might stand for sul, or syl for sil. In like 
manner the sound of what, as a consonant (or rather as 
a non- vowel), has been compared with the lene breath- 
ing of the Greeks is, in certain cases, represented by 
the equivalent of a. 

In the Phenician stage, then, of the alphabet all that 
can be said of certain letters is that they were occasion- 
ally vowels. In the Greek and Latin, however, the}' be- 
came real ones. This is a definite fact. Whatever difficul- 
ties we may have in reconciling the powers of certain 
letters on the Phenician inscriptions with the doctrine 
that they partook so much of the nature of consonants, 
and so little of the nature of vowels as to be equivalent 
to the lene and aspirate breathings of the Greeks (' and *), 
the semi- vowels of the English (y and w), and the na- 
sals of the Portuguese {a 6), it is beyond all doubt that 
in the Greek and Latin they became a, rj, e, and o, all 
trace of their consonantal power having been lost at 
an early period. This change, however, they underwent 
only in their progress westward. 

They also underwent another — this, too, in their pro- 
gress westward. In Phenicia they were written from 
right to left ; in Greece and Italy (after a time) from 
left to right. 

Again — the Phenician alphabet, as far as it is known 



526 THE PHENICIAN. 

to us, is known to us from inscriptions only. Hence, 
it consists of capital letters only, and these in a form 
that suits the carver on stone rather than the writer 
on paper or parchment. 

The Phenician of Carthage is conveniently called Punic, 
and, like the Phenician Proper, it is known through in- 
scriptions. Unlike the Punic it is known by something 
more than inscriptions. In the Little Carthaginian 
(Poenulus) of Plautus one of the characters is a Cartha- 
ginian, who speaks his own Punic. 

On the east the Phenician, in the limited sense of 
the term, came in contact with the Galilean, into 
which it probably graduated ; as the Galilean itself did 
into the Syrian, the dialects of the country beyond 
Jordan, and (on the south) the Samaritan. That there 
was some difference between the Galilean and the 
Hebrew of Jerusalem we learn from the New Testa- 
ment : the Gahlean being, nevertheless, a Hebrew 
dialect ; indeed, between the Phenician and the Hebrew 
the difference was political rather than philological. It 
is the Hebrew into which the Punic of the Foenulus has 
been more especially transliterated. 

Concerning the Samaritan, of which the chief original 
speakers were of the tribe of Ephraim, we know that 
it wanted the Hebrew sound of either sh or th ; so that 
Sihboleth, Shibholet, or Sihholeth, was the Samaritan form 
of Shibboleth. 

The Samaritan alphabet was older, and more like the 
Phenician than the Hebrew. That a copy of the Pen- 
tateuch is written in it, that it stiU exists, and that it 
gives some important variations from the Hebrew text, 
is well-known, though its age is uncertain. The re- 
mainder of the literature consists in a chronicle and 
some private letters, written in Arabic with Samaritan 
characters. In the neighbourhood of Nablus, fragments 
of the Samaritans still exist ; some others, I believe, in 
Cairo. It is the Samaritan characters that give the 



THE HEBREW. 527 

legends of the Maccabean coins. That the blood in 
Samaria differs notably from the language, is an infer- 
ence from the statement in Ezra, that the men and 
women who returned to Samaria after the removal of 
the population by Nebuchadnezzar, were (amongst 
others) Babylonians, Susanites, and Elamites : i. e. Assy- 
rians, or Arabs, or Persians, or a mixture. 

The Hebrew of Judea now follows ; the slight differ- 
ence between which and the Samaritan is enhanced by 
the difference of alphabet. 

The fundamental date in our criticism of the Hebrew 
language in respect to its history is the second year of 
the reign of Darius II., in which were delivered the pro- 
phecies of Haggai and Zechariah. Though Malachi, as 
the last of the prophets, is generally, and perhaps rightly, 
held to follow these two in time, we have no exact dates 
for him. On the other hand, those of Haggai and Zecha- 
riah (more or less) are precise. Their compositions cannot 
be older, though they may be later. This coincides with 
the time of Thucydides, and Aristophanes in Greece, the 
culmination of the Attic period. The language of these 
is essentially that of the oldest composition in the New 
Testament. Such being the case, one of three things is 
the inference. 

1. That the older writings, in their transcription, 
were accommodated to the newer medium, just as was 
the case with the older compositions in English, where 
we have not only differences of dialect, but differences 
of time as well. 

2. That the newer writings were written upon the 
model of the old, just as Ciceronian Latin is written by 
late Italians. 

3. That the language actually remained unchanged, 
just as, to some extent, and for some time, and as, com- 
pared with certain other languages which changed quickly, 
the Old Norse of Iceland did. It is unsafe to lay down 
any general rule for particular cases of this kind. Each 



528 THE HEBREW. 

raust be tried on its own merits; and it belongs to the 
great Biblical and Semitic scholars to investigate the one 
under notice. The question of permanence is one which 
is, more or less, regulated by circumstances. A language 
which resists influences for a century may fail to do so 
for a millennium ; or a language, which, with no altera- 
tive influences to touch it, may remain unchanged for a 
century, may, under conditions unfavourable to its per- 
manence, transform itself into something else in a gene- 
ration or two. 

Haggai, then, and Zechariah are loci standi for the 
typical, historical Hebrew of the Jewish Scriptures, 
with its massive quadrate alphabet, with Jerusalem as 
its local centre, with the tribes of Benjamin and Judali 
as its speakers, with Jewish or Hebrew as its name, 
and with the middle of the flfth century B.C. as its date. 
It covers everything in the Old Testament with the 
exception of Ezra and Daniel, and gives us nothing 
beyond ; i. e. nothing which exactly coincides with the 
standard it exhibits. 

From the names of the families or tribes in Ezra, 
some of which are named from the localities which they 
inhabited before the Captivity, it was the language of 
Jerusalem and something more — as is to be expected. 
That it did not all go back to Jerusalem we learn from 
the subsequent notices of the Jews in various parts of 
the Persian Empire, not to mention those of Egypt. 

That Hebrew was the name for the language of the 
Holy Land at the time of our Saviour's Crucifixion, we 
learn from the trilingual inscriptions over the cross — in 
Greek, in Latin, and in Hebrew : and that the Galilean 
was a well-marked dialect of it, we learn from the 
answer of the woman to Peter, whose " speech bewrayed 
him." — St. Matthew xxvi. 73. 

In no part of the world do small differences in the 
way of speech appear greater than they do about 
Judaea. The ordinal value of the whole Semitic class 



THE HEBREW. 529 

itself is of the smallest ; but in Judaea and on the 
Hebrew frontier everything creates distinctions. To 
differences in nationality and religion differences of 
alphabet are added; and, out of all these combined, 
come names like Hebrew, Samaritan, and Phenician — 
names through which dialects take the guise of languages. 

That these complications increase as we proceed we 
shall soon find. How the Hebrew comported itself to 
the Syrian on the north, to the forms of speech on the 
Tigris and Euphrates on the east, and to the Arabic on 
the south, is a difficult question : for it must be remem- 
bered that, over and above the differences of name, 
alphabet, and nationality, there was a difference of 
time ; the newest Hebrew being older than the oldest 
Syriac, and much older than the oldest Arabic. 

As far, at least, as name went, the Aramaic of 
the time of the kings of Judah was recognized as 
a different language from the Hebrew, both before 
the Captivity and afterwards. " Then said Eliakim, 
Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Aramaic 
language ; for we understand it : and talk not with us 
in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are 
on the wall.'' "Then Rabshakeh stood and cried 
with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and spake," &;c. 
(2 Kings xviii. 26, 28.) Then they cried "in the 
Jews' speech unto the people that were on the walls," 
&;c. (2 Chron. xxxii. 18.) This applies to an ad- 
dress of Rabshakeh, on the part of the King of As- 
Syria, who, as speaking to Jews, addressed them in their 
language — not in his. I do not look, however, upon 
this answer as conclusive to the fact that, on all occasions 
and under all circumstances, the Syrian was unintel- 
ligible to a Jew. All that it tells is, that Eliakim, who 
understood Syrian, considered that Rabshakeh, who was 
unnecessarily departing from the use of his own mother 
tongue, would do well in using, out of two languages, 
the one which, besides being his own, was less patently 

M M 



530 THE HEBREW. 

plain to the common people than the one he was using. 
A latent wish too, to let Rabshakeh know that he (Eli- 
akim) could speak Aramaic is not to be overlooked. All 
that Eliakim said to Rabshakeh might be said by a 
Dane who spoke Swedish to a Swede unnecessarily talk- 
ing Danish, or by a Portuguese to a Spaniard under 
similar circumstances. This means, that I do not look 
upon the passage as conclusive to the Aramaic and the 
Judsean having been mutually unintelligible languages ; 
which I think they were not. 

In thus calling these two forms of speech Judaic and 
Aramaic I give the original terms of the Jews them- 
selves. The Greek, Latin, and ordinary equivalent of 
Aramaic is Syrian. Here it applies to the Assyrian, 
i. e. the language of the subjects of Sennacherib rather 
than those of Benhadad. 

In Ezra we find a similar distinction, the date being 
the time of Artaxerxes ; when the notification that the 
re-constitution of Jerusalem was going on, and that it 
ought to be stopped, is written in Aramaic ; as were other 
documents appertaining to the administration of Judea. 
But too much stress must not be laid on this ; inas- 
much as a slight difference between the languages would 
be enhanced by the difference between the alphabets. 

In Daniel we get a new term, and it is because this 
name is an important one ; an obscure one ; one which, 
firom its ambiguity, has created no little confusion ; and 
one of which the history is mixed up with that of the 
Aramaic and Jewish, that the preceding minutice have 
been indulged in. Along with Shadrach, Meshach, 
and Abednego, Daniel is brought up under the master 
of the eunuchs to be taught "the learning and the 
tongue of the Ghasdim (Chaldees)/' Elsewhere the 
Chasdim and Arameans (Chaldees and Syrians or 
Assyrians) are associated. Now, it is only in the 
latter half of the book of Daniel, and only when the 
kingdom of which Babylon was the capital is con- 



THE SYRIAC. 531 

trasted with that of the Medes and Persians, that Chas- 
dim is a national name. In the earlier chapters, and 
when the contrast is between the Babylonians and Jews, 
it means astrologer. 

The Aramaic that was spoken by Rabshakeh was the 
language of ^t<?syria rather than Syria. It was also 
the language of Nineveh rather than Babylon. The 
Aramaic of Ezra and the earlier chapters of Daniel was 
also Assyrian rather than Syrian ; but it was the 
Assyrian of Babylon rather than Nineveh. 

It is from the Assyrian of Babylon that Chaldee, as 
a name of the later Hebrew, is taken, and it is from 
Nineveh that we get Gccldaiii, as a name of the exist- 
ing Christians of the parts about Urumiah. 

Of the true Syriac of Damascus, Emesa, and Edessa, 
the literary history begins no earlier than the fourth 
century. 

It is Christian. It is embodied in an alphabet 
which, though it agrees with the Hebrew in the number, 
order, and names of its letters, difters from it in the 
form of them : the language itself being in contact with 
the Greek and encroached upon by it. If it were 
really spoken in Cappadocia it was the most northern 
dialect of its class. The Palmyrene, known only by 
inscriptions of the third century, is either a peculiai- 
alphabet or the ordinary alphabet adapted to lapidary 
purposes. 

In the third century, as now, Irak and Khuzistan 
were districts in which the Persian and the Arab popu- 
lations came in contact ; and in the third century (and 
even earlier) the Syrian language was widely current in 
both Arsacidan and Sassanian Persia. In his life of 
Antony, Plutarch tells us how Mithridates, a cousin of 
Moneses, asked for some one who could communicate 
with him in either Parthian or Syrian. In the seventh 
century a Syrian abstract of Aristotle's Dialectic is said 
to have been made for Chosroes Nushirvan. More than 

M M 2 



532 THE SYRIAG. 

this, the geographical details of the Semitic tribes of 
south-western Persia are known. The particular popula- 
tion which occupied Khuzistan and Irak was that of the 
Nabatheans ; so-called by both the Arabian and Persian 
historians ; though the name has a wide as well as a 
limited signification. Masudi writes that Ardeshir Ba- 
began besieged a Nabathean king in Sevad. The date, 
however, is too early for this to pass as actual history. 
Tabari, however, states that "at this present time the 
Nabatheans who dwell in Sewad are descended from the 
Arameans." 

That these Nabatheans were of the rudest is likely 
enough ; indeed, it is specially stated that such was the 
case. Nevertheless, they could mix up their language 
with that of the traders, the soldiers, and the common 
people as well as more learned men. Meanwhile but a 
little beyond them was the alphabet, the literature, and 
the civilization of Palmjrra — largely Greek; but, at the 
same time, Semitic as well. It is to the Palmyrene that 
the lapidary Sassanian most closely approaches. 

It is not for nothing that I have gone into these 
details. With the multiplicity of names and alphabets, 
the differences between the languages under notice have 
been exaggerated. Let any one who doubts about 
their being essentially dialects of a single language pre- 
pare himself for the investigation by a due valuation of 
the extreme differences between the different dialects of 
Germany, France, or Italy. If he come to the conclu- 
sion that such an examination proves too much, and 
that the result of it is a splitting up of several French, 
Italian, and German dialects into so many separate 
substantive languages, I have nothing to say against his 
conclusion. I have only to ask him to suppose the 
Arabic, the Syriac, and Hebrew all written in the same 
alphabet, and compared with one another in the same 
stage. Unless this be done, differences will be exagge- 
rated and names will mislead. 



THE GHEEZ AND TiaRE. 533 

If this uniformity be admitted, the conclusion must 
give the comparative recent diffusion of the forms of 
speech in which it appears — either this or a great indis- 
position to change. Of the two alternatives, the former 
is the more likely, though I do not press it as the only one. 

The direction in which the stream of language moved 
is obscure ; all that can be said is, that there are none of 
the languages on the Asiatic side of the Red Sea into 
which they graduate. The converse is the case in 
Africa. This induces me to leave the Arabic for the 
present, and to begin at the other side of the Semitic 
area, and, having first considered the extremes, to pro- 
ceed to the consideration of the middle ground. 

The Gheez is the language of the earliest -^thiopic 
translation of the canonical Scriptures, of more than oue 
apocryphal portion of them, and of a few writings on 
ecclesiastical subjects. It is read, at the present time, in 
the churches, in the way that the Latin is read in the 
Roman Catholic countries, and the Old Slavonic in 
Russia. Its alphabet is syllabic, and the writing runs 
from left to right, and not from right to left, as is the 
case with the Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic. The details 
of its origin we cannot give, nor name its immediate 
prototype. 

Of the descendants of the Gheez, the nearest is that 
of the present province of Tigr^ ; indeed, the Tigre is 
generally looked upon as modem Gheez, the Gheez as 
ancient Tigr^ — the Tigr^ being a written language ; its 
alphabet, the Gheez with modifications. Of its dialects 
and sub-dialects we know nothing. The parts about the 
ancient city of Axum are the probable localities of these 
two varieties of the ^thiopic. 

Gondar, on the other hand, and the southern pro- 
vinces of Abyssinia, give the Amharic area : the Am- 
haric language being spoken at the present time by the 
majority of the southern Abyssinians ; and being written 
in an alphabet of Gheez origin. 

The Oaf at lies in contact with the Amharic and Agaw 



534 



THE GAFAT. 



on the north, and the Galla on the south ; by both of 
which it has been encroached on — by the former first, 
by the latter recently : indeed, the Galla encroachment 
is still going on. Bruce has given a specimen of it, so 
has Dr. Beke : who remarks that his own vocabulary is 
more Amharic than his predecessor's. 



English. 


Gafat (1). 


Gafat (2). 


Man {homo) 


sabush 


sebew . 


(vir) 

People 


tab^tish 
s^boach 






Woman 


^nsit 


anset 


Boy 


busb^n 






Girl 
Head 


^skbarai 
damoa 




demow 


Hair 


tsagera 


chegur 


Eye 


yena 


eiu 


Ear 


ankwagi 


ankwagi 


Nose 


^unfwa 


anfu 


Mouth 


simota 


semota 


Lip 


kanfarish 


semota 


Tongue 


melasish 


melasi 


Tooth 


sinna 


sena 


Hand 


tsatan 


edzhedzhe 


Foot 


cbamme 


chama 


Bone 


damush 
atsemo 




atsant 


STcy 


samai 




Sun 


dzh^mber 


cheber 


Moon 


chereka 


tserakit 


Star 


kokab 


kokeb 


Fire 


esatsh 


satawi 


Water 


ega 


ege 


Stone 


dzhindzish 


denguish 


Tree 


zafi 


mazafash 


One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Si:)c 

Seven 

Eight 


edzhe 

helitta 

sosta 

arb^tta 

hamista 

sedista 

sebatta 

seminta 
















. ,... 


Nine 


zateiia 





Ten 


asser 





It is into the Amharic that Dr. Beke believes that the 
Gafat is gradually merging. The special Gafat locality is 



THE GAFAT. 535 

a small district in the south of Damot. It apparently falls 
into dialects, or sub-dialects ; since the language of Dr. 
Beke's informants varied according to the district from 
which it came. Some gave to almost every word the ter- 
mination ~ish ; others -oa ; others no addition at all. The 
former of these affixes is truly Gafat : the latter is Agaw 
as well. 

The alphabet of the present Arabic is closely akin to 
that of the Syriac ; from an early form of which, the 
Cuhc, it seems to have been derived. But the Arabic of 
the Koran is not the oldest language of which we find 
memorials in Arabia. Neither does it give us the only 
Arabic dialect. Certain valleys in the south-east abound 
in inscriptions to which the name Himyaritic has been 
applied. The alphabet of these is the ^thiopic, which 
differs from all the other Semitic alphabets in being not 
only written from right to left, but in being syllabic. 
Whether this give us a new language in the strictest 
sense of the term is uncertain. It is certain that it 
gives us as much of one as is given by the Phenician, or 
even the Syriac. At any rate, it gives us a dialect of 
the south-east rather than one of the parts about Mecca ; 
a dialect of the fourth century, rather than one of the 
seventh ; and, finally, a dialect which, in its literary as- 
pect, at least, connects Arabia with Ethiopia. 

In favour of JEthiopic elements thus introduced upon 
the cognate Arabic, the Himyaritic inscriptions only give 
us a presumption. Arabic elements, however, in Africa 
are important realities. That the present language of 
-^gypt, Barbary, and large tracts elsewhere, is Arabic is 
well-known. In all these cases, however, the analysis 
is, comparatively, easy — the mixture being heterogeneous. 
Arabic, however, introduced into Ethiopia would be 
like Dutch introduced into England ; in which case it 
would, with certain words, be hard to say to which lan- 
guage they belonged. Even if the language were, for 
all practical purposes, Dutch, there might still be a basis 
in the older tongue. 



536 



TIGRE, AMHARIC, ETC. 



Mutatis mutandis, this applies to several forms of 
speech on the ^Ethiopic frontier — in all of -which 
analysis is required ; in all of which, amid much which 
is Semitic, there is something that is ^thiopic rather 
than Arabic. When the Arabic has overlaid two lan- 
guages instead of one the analysis becomes more intri- 
cate. 

The languages of Hurur and Adaiel are of this kind. 



English. 


Tigr6. 


Amharic. 


Arkiko. 


Hurur. 


Adaiel. 


Man 


saboi 


wond 


nas 


abbok 


adma 


Woman 


saboite 


set 


eseet 


edok 


barra 


Head 




ras 


ras 


roos 


mooiya 


Hair 


tsuqure 


tsequr 




tsequr 




Eye 


aire(ou) 


ain 


en 


ain 




Nose 




afintcha 


anf 


oof 




Mouth 





af 


af 


adde 


aof 


Teeth 


sinne 


ters 


inob 


sin 




Tongue 


melhas 


melas 




arrat 




Ear 


izne 


djoro 


izun 


ut'hun 




Beard 


tchame 


tim 


dimne 


dubun 




Hand 


eed 


eedgekind 









Leg 


iggere 




igger 


igger 




Foot 




tscbama 








God 


esger 


igzer 




goeta 


alia 


Sun 


tsai 


tsai 


tsai 


eer 


aire 


Moon 


werhe 


tcherka 


werhe 


werhe 


alsa 


Star 




quokub 


kokub 


toowee 


urtoohta 


Fire . 


howwe 


a'sat 


essaat 


issat 


2;ira 


Water 


mi 


waha 


mi 


mi 


ii 


Wind 


nefds 


nefas 


nefas 


doof 


arhoo 


Rain 


_ — 


zinam 




zenab 


rooboo 


River 


kolle 


babr 




zer 




Earth 


midre 


mider 


midur 


diche 


bare 


Hill 


amba 


amba 


dubr 






Mountain 




tarara 




sare 


alii 


Stone 


hemne 


dengea 




un 


daha 


Fountain 


ain 


mintch 




ain 




Fish 




assa • 


assur 


tulum 


kullum 


Horse 


f'ras 


feras 


feras 


feras 


ferasa 


One 


adde 


and 


ante 


ahad 


* 


Two 


kiUete 


quillet 


killi 


kout 




Three 


selaste 


sost 


selass 


sheeste 




Four 


erbahte 


arrut 


ubah 


harrut 




Five 


aumishte 


aumist 


amoos 


hammest 




Six 


sedishte 


sedist 


soos 


sedeest 






* Numerals said to be the same as 


the Danakel. 





TIGRE, AMHARIC, ETC. 



537 



EngUsh. 


Tigr6. 


Amharic. 


Arkiko. Hurur. 


Adaiel. 


Seven 


shubarte 


subhat 


subbu sate 




Eight 


shumunte 


semint theman sut 




Nine 


tishate 


zetti 


fcse 


zeythan 




Tm 


ashur 


assin assur assir 




Another language of this kind is the 




English. 




Gindzhar. 




English. 


Gindzhar. 


Man 




radzMl 




Leg 


kurah 


Woman 




marra 




Foot 


kafat kurai 


Boy 




dzhenna 




Day 


mabar 


Girl 




bint 




Night 


liel 


Father 




dbu 




Morning 


sobabh 


Mother 




urn 




Evening 


asbir 


Brothei 




akbu 




Earth 


wota 


Sister 




okbt 




Water 


alma 


Head 




ras 




Grass 


gesh 


Hair 




shar 




Mountain 


gallah 


Eye 




ein 




River 


hor 


Nose 




ad^n 




Good 


sammi 


Month 




shamak 




Bad 


fassil 


Neck 




raggaba 




Black 


aswad 


Hand 




id 




White 


abiad 


Arm 




derah 




Red 


ahmar. 



Of the following, the fornier is the dialect which 
most approaches the Himyaritic ; the latter that of the 
island of Sokotra. 



English. 


Mahari. 


Sokotran 


Back 


dara mothan 


tadah 


Belly 


djof 




Cow 


bakaret 




Donkey 


heir 




Eyebrow 


ahajor 


hajhar 


Fire 


sbeewot 


sheiwat 


Father 


heb 




Fish 


seit 


sodab 


Frog 


dthafzat 




God 


bal 




Hair 


shof 


shif 


Knee 


barak 




Milk 


isbakbof 


huf 


Mouth 


warak 




Nose 


nakhrir 


nabir 


Red 


aufar 


aufer 


Rice 


hiraz 


arbaz 


Sun 


beiom 


sbobum 


Star 


kabkob 


kokab. 



538 MODERN SYRIAC 

We now return to the Hebrew and Syriac in the 
newer forms. The language of the Talmud, written 
in a modification of the Hebrew alphabet, represents 
the language of the Jews after the destruction of 
Jerusalem. It has largely influenced the Hebrew of 
common life in conjunction with other causes ; so much 
so that it may be doubted whether this latter be a true 
vernacular ; by which I mean, that is it to be compared 
with Latin as spoken by a mass of individuals who have 
learned it either directly or indirectly through books rather 
than with the Italian or Spanish which have developed 
themselves freely and spontaneously. In all languages 
the continual reference to written works developes an 
artificial element. In the modern Jewish this is believed 
to be considerable. It is a matter, however, upon which 
no one but a learned and critical Jew can speak with 
confidence. 

The same applies, in a still greater degree, to the 
fragmentary Samaritan. 

The same, too, to the modern Syriac. It is said to 
be spoken by a few individuals in the Lebanon. It 
would, perhaps, be better to say that there are some 
individuals in the Lebanon who can speak it. 

Further north, the evidence of either it or an allied 
dialect being a true vernacular improves ; it being spe- 
cifically stated that most of the Nestorians, though they 
use their own language in intercourse with each other, 
are able to speak the so-called Tartar of the Turks around 
them with ease and fluency. Very few, however, have 
any tincture of literature ; their MSS. being scarce, and 
printed works, up to A.D. 1829, non-existent. In that 
year, however, the Gospels were printed from a copy, ob- 
tained from Bishop Mar Johannan, through Dr. Wolff*, 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1840, the 
American missionaries introduced a printing-press ; so 
that, over and above some important translations from 
the Scriptures, a series of tracts, from the Dairyman's 
Daughter to Dr. Watts's hymns, has been published. In 



AND HEBREW. 



539 



thus adapting an ancient language to the spiritual wants 
of a poor and illiterate community of oppressed Chris- 
tians, the names Perkins, Halliday, Grant and Stoddart, 
to the preface of whose grammar of the Modern Syrian 
the foregoing facts are due, are honourably conspicuous. 
The schools of the mission have gradually increased in 
number, and in 1853 they amounted to eighty. 

We can scarcely consider either the modern Syriac 
or the modern Hebrew as a true spontaneous develop- 
ment of the old language. Literary influence has en- 
gendered an artificial element in them ; and the fact of 
every community where either is spoken using a second 
language has taken them out of conditions under which 
true philological growth proceeds. What they do illus- 
trate is, the laws by which such forces as the ones just 
noticed act — and, in this respect, they deserve all the 
attention that has been awarded them. 

Even the Arabic is scarcely a language that has been 
left to its own natural growth. Except in the ruder 
dialects of Arabia itself, of which we know little or 
nothing, the Koran has always exercised a conservative 
influence ; whilst, in Malta, where there is no Koran, 
there is a second language. 



English. 


Arabic. 


Syriac. 


Hebrew. 


Head 


ras 


rish 


rosli 


Hair 


saro 


shar 


sear 


Eye 


ayn 


eyn 


ayn 


Ear 


adzn 


adno 


ozen 


Nose 


anph 


hhatm 


aph 


Mouth 


pham 


plLum 


pi 


Tooth 


sen 


sheno 


shen 


Tongue 


lishan 


leshono 


lashon 


Hand 


yad 


yad 


vad 


Foot 


rigl 


reglo 


regel 


Sun 


shams 


shemsho 


shemesh 


Star 


kaukab 


kiikbo 


kokab' 


Bay 


yawm 


yeum 


yom 


Night 


laila 


lailo 


laila 


Fire 


anisat 


eshotto 


esli 


Water 


nia 


mayo 


mayim 



540 



THE AMAZIG OR BERBER GROUP. 



English. 


Arabic. 


Syriac. 


Hebrew. 


One 


akhad 


hhad 


ebbad 


Two 


thuna 


tharin 


shanim 


Three 


thaleth 


tholth 


sbelosh 


Four 


arbat 


arba' 


arba' 


Five 


hhams 


hhamesh 


bbamesh 


Six 


sit 


sheth 


sbesh 


Seven 


sab' 


sheba' 


sbeba 


Eight 


sam^a 


tbmon 


shemoneh 


Nine 


tish 


tsha 


tesha' 


Ten 


asliar 


'sar 


'asar. 



The Amazig (or Berber) area is the largest in Africa, 
extending from the confines of Egypt to the Atlantic 
Ocean. More than this — the Canary Islands, until the 
extermination or fusion of their aborigines, were Amazig. 

Again — the ancient Mauritanians and Gsetulians 
were not only the occupants of the Amazig area, but of 
Amazig blood. Of Amazig blood were the native tribes 
with which the Greeks of the Cyrenaica came in con- 
tact. Of Amazig blood were the native tribes with 
which the Phenicians of Utica and Carthage came in 
contact. The subjects of Masinissa and Jugurtha occu- 
pied localities of which the ancient names are explained 
by means of the modern Amazig. 

At the present time there are ^wq names for ^ve 
divisions of the Amazig populations, and seven names 
for the Amazig forms of speech. How far either series 
is natural is another question. 

(] .) The Kahails — who speak the Kabail language, 
are the Amazig of the northern part of Algiers rather 
than Morocco. 

(2.) The Showiah are the Amazig of Morocco rather 
than Algiers. They occupy, however, some of the 
central districts of Algiers ; their language being the 
Showiah. 

(3.) The Shiluk lie to the south of Morocco, their 
language being the Shiluk. 

(4.) The Berbers belong to the south-eastern parts of 
Algiers, to Tunis, to Tripoli, and the corresponding 



THE AMAZia OR BERBER GROUP. 



541 



parts of the Sahara. Their dialects are the Larua and 
Zenaitia. 

The extent to which the few fragments of the Lance- 
rotta and Fuerteventura dialects of the Canary Islands 
agree with the Shelluh may be seen from the following 
table : — 



English. 


Canary. 


Shellub. 


Barley 


temasin 


tumzeen 


Sticks 


tezzezes 


tezezerat 


Palm-tree 


taginaste 


taginast 


Petticoat 


tahuyan 


tahuyat 


Water 


ahemon 


amen 


Priest 


faycag 


faquair 


God 


acoran 


mkoorn 


Temple 


almogaren 


talmogaren 


House 


tamoyanteen 


tigameen 


Hog 


tawaeen 


tamouren 


Ch-een Jig 


arclLormase 


akermuse 


Sky 


tigot 


tigot 


Mountain 


thener 


athraar 


Valley 


adeyhaman 


douwaman. 



The Canary Islanders were called Guances, and their 
language the Guanch. 



542 



THE AGAW. 



CHAPTER LXVII. 

The Agau, Agaw, or Agow, and Falasha. — The Gronga dialects. — The Kekuafi. 

AgaumidrzuAgau-land, and one of the vocabularies 
of Dr. Beke, is headed Agau of Agaumidr : a name 
which suggests the notion that one part of the Agau area 
was more decidedly Agau than the remainder. And 
this seems to have been the case ; since Agaw is either 
an Amharic or a Gheez term ; Aghagha being the native 
name. 



English. 


Waag, 


Faslaha. 


Agaumidr. 


Man (homo) 


egir 


ira 


aghi 


{vir) 


gelua 


garwa 


ngardzhi 


People 


yek 




aghi 


Woman 


yehona 


yewina 


hona 


Boy 


ashkir 


korri 


ansai 


Girl 


yehon-ashkir 


korra 


ansagha 


Head 


aur 


agher 


ngari 


Hair 


tsabka 


aghet 


tsitsifi 


Eye 


yel 


ill 


el 


Ear 


keretz 


anko 


- ankwagi 


Nose 


yassin 


komba 


san 


Mouth 


miya 


af 


kambi 


Lip 


kifar 


kanfer 


kanfar 


Tooth 


erruk 


irku 


arkui 


Tongue 


lakh 


lanah 


tsangi 


Hand 


nen 


nan 


taf 


Foot 


tsab 




chappi 




chafu 


. lukkokocham 


chammi 


Bone 


ngas 


ngach 


ngats 


Blood 


bir 


karbat 


beri 


Sun 


kwora 


kuara 


awas 


Moon 


arba 


serk 


arfa 


Star 


tsegaloa 


chingaroa 


bewa 





THE 


AGAW. 




English. 


Waag. 


Faslaha. 


Agauniidr. 


Wind 


figia 




nefas 


Rain 


suwa 


sua 


heri 


Fire 


lia 


ea • 


ag 


Water 


akwo 


agho 


agho 


Hill 


aroa 


debba 


kan 


Plain 


shuwa 


wulagha 


wutaghi 


Stone 


kamga 


kiinga 


karing 


Tree 


zaf 


chafa 











satsi 




haa 


kana 


kani 


Eivei's 


wirba 


kiira 


beni 


Lake 


bahar 




bar 


One 


Iowa 


lagha 


laghu 


Two 


linga 


linga 


langa 


Three 


sbakwa 


sigha 


shuga 


Four 


siza 


sigba 


shuga 


Five 


akwa 


ankua 


ankua 


Six 


walta 


wolta 


walta 


Seven 


langata 


langatta 


langatta 


Eiylit 


sohota 


saghotta 


saghatta 


Nine 


tsaicha 


sessa 


sesta 


Ten 


tsikka 


cliikka 


tsikka. 



543 



The Agaw is bounded on the east, north, and north- 
east by the Tigre ; being spoke in the province of 
Lasta, and along the banks of the Tacazze. The par- 
ticular dialect of the district named Waag is called 
Hhamara — which, word for word, seems to be "Kafiapa 
and Amhara ; the former term being as old as the time 
of Agatharchides, who uses the expression Ka/ndpa Xe^ts 
for one of the languages of these parts. In the southern 
parts of Lasta, the Agaws are genuine mountaineers. In 
Waag, and along the Tacazze, the land lies somewhat 
lower. As a general rule, however, the Agau districts 
lie in the more impracticable parts of Abyssinia, and the 
dialects, pro tanto, take the appearance of aboriginal 
forms of speech. The Agaws of Waag are the Tsherats 
Agaws of Bruce. 

Gonga is a name found in Ludolf : who places the 
tribes to which he applies it in the Bahr-el-Abiad, 
about 10° N. L. Dr. Beke has supplied as vocabu- 
laries for the forms of speech referable to this class ; (1.) 



544 



THE GONGA DIALECTS. 



the Kaffa; (2.) the Woraita; (3.) the Wolaitsa; (4.) the 
Yangaro. Word for word, I imagine that Yangaro is 
Zinzero or Gingero, a name which in the old maps de- 
notes one of the most southern provinces of Abyssinia. 
To this district belongs Enarea, believed to have been 
once a Christian kingdom. Now, however, it is over- 
run by the Galla. 

The name Gonga is native. In the western parts 
of the valley of Bahr-el-Abiad, visited by Dr. Beke, 
and named in the native dialect Shinasha, in Agawi, 
Tsintsi, in Amharic and Gafat Shinasha, and con- 
verted by the Portuguese into Chinchon, the natives 
believe that, before the invasion of the G alias, their 
country was both populous and powerful, and their lan- 
guage was spoken far, to both the south, and the west. 
They also apply the name Gonga to a large tract of 
country to the south. 



English. 


Gonga, 


Kaffa. 


Woratta. 


Yangaro. 


Man (homo) 


aso 




asso 


assu 


(vir) 


lugsho 




atuma 


gunagtisba 


People 


asachi 








Woman 


macha 




machoa 


nawase 


Boy 


lolo 




naha 


nangoto 


Girl 


na 




macbenat 


keredzho 


Head 


toko 


tommo 


kommo 




Hair 


chig 


fungilla 


kommo (?) 




Eye 


abo 


afi 


afo 




Ear 


wadzho 


wamo 


aitsa 




Nose 


sicho 


suUia 


sidi 




Mouth 


nono 


nona 


nona 




Lip 


lelfo 


nono 


mitharsa 




Tooth 


gasso 


gasho 


acha 




Tongue 


elbeto 


milaso 


intsarsa 




Hand 


kiso 


knsha 


kusbia 


. 


Foot 


cha,TnTni 








God 


Yiko 


Yero 


Tsossa 


Balamo 


Shy 


daro 






bidani 


Sim 


aba 


abo 


awa 


knwa, 




ainehei 








Moon 


azicha 


agino 


agena 


kita 




gumbehei 








Star 


keno 


kurchihe 


tsolentsa 


garkamo 







THE KEKUAFI. 




English. 


Goiiga. 


Kaffa. 


Woratta. 


Yangaro. 


Earth 


decho 


showo 


saha 


donokamo 




aifareni 








Wind 


dzhongo 




agatsa 


kocho 


Rain 


amso 




ira 


iro 


Fire 


tamo 


kako 


tammo 


gea 


Water 


acho 


acho 


hatsa 


akka 


Stone 


suco 


hechechence 


shucha 


shuha 


Tree 


mitto 


mitto 


mitsa 


ihho 


One 


ikko 


ikka 


itta 


isso 


Two 


gitta 


gutta 


laha 


hep 


Three 


kedzha 


kedzha 


hezza 


kes 


Fmr 


auda 


haudda 


hoida 


achech 


Five 


hucha 


hucha 


huchesa 


huch 


Six 


shirta 


shii-ita 


husupona 


isson (?) 


Seven 


sabata 


shehata 


lapona 


nafun 


Eight 


seminta 


shiminta 


hospona 


nangiri 


Nine 


dzheta 


yidea 


hodiipona 


izgin 


Ten 


tacha 


ashiri 


tama 


assir. 



545 



Word for word, Kekuaji is Eloikob. Let us see how 
this can be. Eloikob is the native name : the name 
which certain tribes of the part of Africa now under 
notice give themselves. Their neighbours, the Wakamba, 
who lie between them and the coast, and from whom 
the term has been taken, change it into Akahij for the 
singular, and Mukahi, for the plural, number. A further 
change converts it into Mkuafi, and Wakuqfi. The 
Eloikob, or Kekuafi, area, lies, then, in contact with that 
of the Wakamba 



English. 


Ukuafi. 


Man 


ortaba 


Nose 


orldungnana 


Head 


eluginia 


Hair 


orlbabid 


Face 


engomon 


Ear 


engiok 


Eye 


engon 


Tooth 


orlala(?) 


Tongue 


orlala (?) 


Back 


orl-gunim 


Beard 


osirlrimi 


Blood 


osarge 



English. 


Ukuafi. 


Bone 


orl-oido 


Hand 


engaina 


Foot 


engeju 


Day 


engorlon 


Shy 


engadambo 


Sun 


engorlon 


Moon 


orlaba 


Star 


orlogirai 


Earth 


engui-lu 


Bird 


enkeni 


Fish 


esingeri. 



N N 



54G THE COPTIC. 



CHAPTER LXVIII. 

The Coptic. — The Bishari. — The Nubian Languages. — The Shilluk, Denka, 
&c. — The Mobba and Darrunga. — The Galla Group. — The Dizzela, 
Dalla, Shankali or Shangalla. 

The language of ^gypt in its oldest form is that 
of the oldest hieroglyphic inscriptions. Upon the 
details of the interpretation of the hieroglyphics them- 
selves I can form no independent opinion. I can only 
remark that the strictest test of a deciphered cypher, 
viz. that of enabling the master of it to apply it 
according to the rules of its decipherers and to obtain a 
result of literal and self-apparent accuracy, is one which 
in the existing transliterations is not come up to. If 
otherwise, why have we not a series of old ^Egyptian 
texts in the ordinary Coptic alphabet, of which an ordi- 
nary Coptic student could judge ? 

The language in its newer form is written in an 
alphabet derived from the Greek, and embodies an early 
translation of the New Testament, parts of the Old, and 
several ecclesiastical compositions. It falls into three dia- 
lects: the Sahitic, or Thebaic, of Upper, the Memphitic 
of Middle, iEgypt, and the Bashmuric of the Delta ; all 
giving a considerable mixture of Greek words : which, 
in the Bashmuric, are the most numerous. 

As a true vernacular it is extinct ; at least, though I 
have heard of its being still spoken, I have not succeeded 
in finding the details of the evidence. Neither would 
the mere fact of its being spoken make it a true verna- 



THE COPTIC. 547 

cular. It might be spoken merely as any other literary 
language might be used in conversation. It is the Arabic 
that has superseded it ; in the case of which language the 
difference, in JEgypt, between the blood and the speech 
is considerable. 

In structure the Coptic is more simply agglutinate 
than the full Semitic tongues, with which it chiefly 
agrees in the personal and possessive pronouns. It is 
often (perhaps generally) treated as Sub-semitic ; though 
in the application of this name ethnographical reasons 
have, either consciously or unconsciously, been mixed up 
with philological ones. That it is, to some extent, Se- 
mitic is true ; but it is inconsistent to make it this to the 
exclusion of other languaojes that are more so. It will 
be noticed again in the sequel when a language from a 
very different quarter — the Basque — comes under notice. 

It is the valley of the Nile which gives us Egypt ; 
the plateaux and hills between the river and the Red 
Sea being other than Egyptian. This is what they 
are now. This is what they seem to have been at the 
beginning of the historical period. That the Arabic 
, prevails largely in these districts is well-known : indeed, 
in the northern half it prevails exclusively. The blood, 
however, is less Arab than the language : while the lan- 
guage itself, as we proceed southwards, becomes other than 
Arabic. In the parts about Kosseir, the Bishari, or Beja, 
is spoken ; the Bishari tribes being the conquerors of 
the Ababde ; the Ababde being Bishari, and the Bishari 
Ababde, with this difference — the Bishari speak their 
own language, the Ababde have exchanged it for the 
Arabic. Such, at least, is the common statement ; the 
presumptions being in favour of it. At the same time 
the evidence is capable of improvement. That the 
Ababde are other than Arabs is shown by their colour 
and by the texture of their hair. They may, however, 
have been other than Arab, and yet not, necessarily, 
Bishari. The presumptions, however, as aforesaid, are in 

N N 2 



548 THE BISHARI. 

favour of the common doctrine. The Ababde lie nearer 
to the Nile ; the Bishari to the sea. Both extend into 
Nubia ; both into Egypt. 

The country about Suakin is the occupancy of the' 
Adareb, of whose language, eo nomine, I have seen no 
specimen. A Suakin vocabulary, however, eo nomine, 
is Bishari. 

No Bishari compositions are known ; nor is it known 
that the Arabic alphabet has been applied to the language 
— though the tribes that speak it are, with few or no ex- 
ceptions, real or nominal Mahometans. For the Haden- 
doa and Hallenga languages, vocabularies, iis nominihus, 
are wanted. They are spoken between the Mareb and 
the Tacazze ; the few words known as Taka or Boje 
(? Beja) probably represent them. 

In language, as well as in physical form, and in geo- 
graphical position, the nearest neighbours to the Bishari 
are the Nubians. 

Nubia begins where Egypt ends, i. e. at Assuan, 
or Syene ; and where Nubia begins a new language 
presents itself We may call it Nubian : subject to the 
necessity of remembering that the term has a wide and 
a restricted sense. There is the name of the class and 
there is the name of a special dialect. 

The Nubian class falls into two divisions of uncertain 
value ; (1 .) the Nubian Proper, (2.) the Koldagi, 

The Nubian Proper is spoken along the Nile, from 
Egypt to Sennaar ; falling into three dialects, (1 .) 
the Kensy of Kenuz on the north, (2.) the Noub, or 
Nubian, in the limited sense of the word, in the middle 
districts, and (3.) the Dongolawy of Dongola. The 
Nubians are also called Berbers, Berberins, or Barabbra ; 
a term which, from being applied to the Amazig tribes, 
has occasionally created confusion. It is the Nubians, 
however, to whom it applies with the least impropriety. 

One of the numerous languages of Kordovan is named 
the Koldagi, and I believe that it is the language of the 



THE BISHARI. 



549 



capital. It is, liowever, only one form of speech out of 
many. Like the Nubian, it is known through vocabu- 
laries only. Like the Nubian, it is the language of a 
rude and imperfectly Mahometan population. Its Nubian 
affinities were pointed out by Riippell. 



Englislt. 


Bishari. 


Nubitin. 


Koldagi. 


Man 


otak 


itga 


kordu 


Woman 


tataket 


ideynga 




Bead 


ogurma 


urka 


oar 


Hair 


tamo 


shigertyga 




Eyes 


tilyly 


mainga 


kale 


Nose 


ogenuf 


soringa 


hein 


Tongue 


medabo 






Mouth 


oyaf 


akka 


aul 


Teeth 


tongrek 


nyta 


gehl 


Ear 


toiigy 


okiga 


uilge 


Beard 


hamoi 


sameyga 





Foot 


ragad 


oyga 


kuddo 


Shy 


otryk 


sema 





San 


toyn 


mashakka 


es 


Moon 


ondzliim 


inatiga 


mindo 


Star 




windzhega 


ondu 


Fire 


toneyt 


ika 


eka 


Water 


ayam 


amanga 


otu 


Tree 




dzhollaga 


saleg 


Stone 


awey 





kagen 


One 


engaro 


werka 




Two 


molobo 


onogha 




Three 


mehay 


toskoga 




Four ' 


fadyg 


kemsoga 




Five 


eyyib 


didzha 





Six 


essagour 


gordzhoga 




Seven 


essarama 


kolodga 




Eight 


essambay 


idonoga 




Nine 


ogamhay 


oskoda 




Ten 


togaserama 


dimaga 





To the south of Obeyd, the capital of Kordovan, the 
geography is obscure. In Africa, however, we may often 
procure specimens of a language where we fail in finding 
the place where it is spoken. This is because it is the 
land of slavery ; and because residents in any of the 
great centres of the traffic may generally find representa- 
tives of even very distant languages. The vocabularies 
may be relied on ; because when a man says that such 



550 THE SHABUN, FAZOGLO, ETC. 

or such a word means horsey man, and whatever else it 
may be, he is to be believed. Their geography, however, 
is to be criticized ; because when we hear that such or 
such a place lies so many miles west of so and so, the 
likelihood of error, both in respect to distance and in 
respect to the points of the compass, is considerable. 

I find it difficult to say where Kordovan ends and 
Sennaar begins. Sennaar, pre-eminently an African — 
not to say a Negro — country, is also the occupancy of 
the Sheyga Arabs ; and where Arabic is the current 
language, the indigenous dialects stand a fair chance of 
being neglected. Such is the case with Sennaar. Of 
non-Arab vocabularies brought from Sennaar, in the 
limited sense of the term, I know none. All I know is 
certain vocabularies brought from certain frontier dis- 
tricts, which may reasonably be believed to belong to 
Sennaar forms of speech. The proportion that the in- 
digence bear to the Arabs is unknown. The chief native 
population, however, is called Funge. But who has ever 
seen a specimen of the Funge, eo nomine ? 

That some, however, of the languages spoken to the 
south of Obeyd represent the Funge is probable. Of 
these we have samples in Riippell, and others. Thus — 

The Shabun is said to be spoken to the south of 
both the Kordovan and the Sennaar fi-ontiers. It is 
not very closely allied to anything. It is nearest, how- 
ever, to the Fertit — the most southern of the languages 
of Riippell. 

The Shilluk, whose name, from the fact of its appear- 
ing elsewhere, I imagine to be Arab rather than native, 
lie on the Bahr el Abiad, and, like the Denka, their 
frontagers, are Pagans. 

The Fazoglo language is the same as the Qamamyl 
of Caillaud, and — less like the Shilluk than is the 
Denka — apparently belongs to the same class ; that 
class being one of small dimensions. 

There is an imperfect Mahometanism in Darfur, the 
country of the Furian language ; of which only one 



THE FURIAN, SHILLUK, ETC. 



551 



language 


(probably one out of many) is 


known by vo 


cabularies 




(!•) 






Euglish. 


I'urian. 


Takeli. 


Fertit. 


Shabun. 


Man 


duedeh 


ead 


kosbi 


le 


Head 


tobu 


aik 


kummu 


eldah 


Eye 


kuli 


undik 


allah 


leg 


Nose 


dormi 


endir 


alu 


nagul 


Mouth 


udo 


engiarr 


ammah. 


keing 


Tooth 


kaki 


nim 


ensi 


engar 


Tonfjue 


dali 


auga 


timi 


denkela 


Ear 


dilo 


hennu 


utai 


neni 


Hand 


donga 


ora 


adgianas 


nimel 


Foot 


taroh 


dakaak 


tibrenu 


ongi 


Fire 


utu 


ebe 


ouwe 


yab 


Water 


kori 


ek 


ongou 


knaf 


Sun 


dulle 


ani 


aloh 


kwedyude 


Moon 


dual 


oai- 


ibue 


eiwah 


Star 


ui'i 


lain 


berabe 


robah 


Tree 


kurne 


fa 


donzu 


yareh 


Stone 


dete 


arnan 

(2.) 


ekbur 


kokol. 


EngUsli. 


ShiUuk. 




Denka. 


Fazoglo. 


Man 


uguilu 




moed 


meloko 


Head 


uidzh 




nam 


alio 


Eye 


uang 




ninu 


are 


Nose 


ung 




oum 


kara 


Mouth 


dok 




tok 


antu 


Tooth 


lek 




ledzh 


dovidit-ufuti 


Tongue 


leb 




leb 


halla 


Ear 


yib 




yet 


ilai 


Hand 


kiam 




ruib 


raba 


Foot 


lustiella 


kwen 




Fire 


maidzb 




maid 


mo 


Water 


fi 




fiou 


fi 


Sun 


kiong 




akol 


mondzo 


Moon 


goi 




fai 


shig 


Star 


kielo 




kuol 


iso 


Tree 


yad 




tiem 


engoule 


Stone 


niarkiddi 


kur 


bale. 



The following are to the south of the Denka and 
ShiUuk areas. 

(3.) 



EngUah. 


Dor. 


English. 


Dor. 


Man 


boodoo 


Hair 


biddoo 


Woman 


koomara 


Forehead 


hickomoo 



552 



2 


THE MOBBA. 




Enalisli. 


Dor. 


English, 


Dor. 


Eye 


komo 


Sun 


kade 


Nose 


honiogi 


Star 


kir 


Lip 


taragi 


Water 


mini 


Beard 


betara 


Wood 


ungor 


Foot 


umbundo 


Fish 


gooboo 


Fire 


fudoo 


Bird 


umboroam. 


Shj 


hitero 








(4.) 




Euglish. 


Nyamnnra. 


English. 


Njamnam. 


Man 


koombai 


Flowed' 


mooma 


Boy 


godee 


Shield 


abrooda 


Girl 


umbagadda 


Lance 


baasoo 


Slave 


buroo 


Trombash ? 


gangoo 


Chief 


mumba kindoo 


Knife 


sali 


Woman 


ineckeri 


Pig 


akoroo 


Hut 


beia 


Fire 


yaw 


Elephant 


omburra 


Wood 


naaki 


Buffalo 


jari 


Pipe 


cabunga 


Antelope 


ombuddi 


Tobacco 


goondoa 


Fmvl 


kundoo 


Come here 


moicundoora 


Ivory 


rinda omburra 


Go 


mundo. 



The Mohha, Maba, or Bora Mdhang is the lan- 
guage of Waday Proper, and the chief tongue of Dar- 
saleh : being understood by many populations to whom 
it is not vernacular. It is known by a few specimens 
in the Mithridates, and by a longer vocabulary of Bur- 
chard t's. Barth, too, has collected more than two thousand 
words of it, along with some phrases and a translation 
of the Lord's Prayer, a part only of which is published. 
The tribes who speak it are — 



]. The Kelingen. 7. Kumo. 



2. Kajanga. 

3. Mald,nga. 

4. Madaba, 

5. Madala. 

6. Kodoyi. 



13. Bili. 

14. Bilting. 



8. Jambo. 

9. Abue Gedam. 15. Ain Gamara. 
10. Ogodongda. 16. Kororaboy. 



11. Kawak. 

12. Ashkiting. 



17. Girri. 

18. Sheferi. 



Mararit and Menagon are the names of two tribes 
of the Abu Sharib, who are specially stated to speak the 
same language — a language in which Barth has collected, 
but not published, about 200 words, along with a trans- 



THE GALLA CLASS. 



553 



lation of the Lord's Prayer. The Tama speak an aUied 
dialect. As for the remainder of the group, it is said 
to consist of numerous tribes whose dialects differ so 
much, that one can scarcely understand the other with- 
out recourse to the Mobba. The Mimi are said to 
speak a peculiar language, so are the Kaudard : as also 
the Koringa, about 17° N. L. 

(1.) 



Engliih. 


Mobba 


English. 


Mobba. 


Head 


kidjy 


Sun 


anyk 


Hair 


soufa 


Moon 


ayk 


Eye 


kapak 


Stars 


meniet 


Nose 


kharsounak 


Day 


dealka 


Cheek 


ghambilanak 


Night 


kosonga 


Beard 


gamur 


Fire 


wossyk 


Mouth 


kana 


Water (rain) 


andjy 


Teeth 


saateni 


Stone 


kodak 


Tongue 


adalmek 


Mountain 




Ear 


kozah 


Wood 


songou 


Nech 


bitik 


Fiver 


bettak 


Arm 


galma 


Bird 


abyl 


Hand 


kara 


Fish 


hout 


Foot 


djastongoly 


Milk 


sila. 


Blood 


ary 

(2 


•) 




English. 


Dar-runga. 


English. 


Dar-runga. 


Man 


kamere 


One 


kadenda 


Woman 


mimi 


Two 


embirr 


Eye 


khasso 


Three 


attik 


Ear 


nesso 


Four 


mendih 


Hand 


tusso 


Six 


sabotikeda 


Foot 


itar 


Seven 


ow 


Sun 


agning 


Eight 


sebateis 


Water 


tta 


Nine 


atih 


Fire 


nissiek 


Ten 


buf. 



The Bishari (for it is to them that we must now 
I'eturn) are succeeded by the most northern members of 
the great Gcdla class. 

Next to the Caffre and Berber this is the largest of 
all the Afi'ican groups. It is also a complete one ; 
at any rate, it falls into three well-marked divisions : 
(1 .) the Danakil ; (2.) the Somctuli; (3.) the Ilmormo, or 



554 THE GALL A CLASS. 

Galla Proper. It has a vast knovjn extent from north 
to south. It has a vast unknown extent from east to 
west. It has an irregular outline, being deeply indented 
by the languages of the Abyssinian class ; or, rather, it, 
itself, cuts deeply and irregularly into Abyssinia — ^for 
the Galla tribes have long encroached upon the southern 
provinces of that empire ; and much that was once 
Semitic is now Galla. Bounded on the north by the 
Bishari and Nubian, and on the east by the sea, it is 
limited by the Tigre, Amharic, and other languages in the 
north-west. South, however, of the latitude which coin- 
cides with the southern boundary of Abyssinia, it ex- 
tends indefinitely inland. In the parts about Hurur the 
Semitic forms of speech protrude themselves largely and 
irregularly. To the south-east it comes in contact with 
the northernmost members of the Kaffir family : the 
boundary lying near, but not on, the Equator. The 
Ukuafi seem to touch it on the interior. 

The Galla population is pastoral rather than agricultural, 
and African rather than either Negro or Arab in 
physiognomy ; i. e. the colour is more brown than black, 
the features more prominent than depressed, the hair long 
and twisted, rather than woolly. Paganism is still rife 
amongst the southern, or pure Galla (or Ilmormo) tribes : 
an imperfect Mahometanism is adopted by the Danakil. 
Fragments of an early Christianity — Abyssinian in its 
origin — are believed to be discoverable. The language 
is known both by grammars and vocabularies. It is 
unwritten ; i. e. there is no native alphabet, and no appli- 
cation of the Arabic. 

The Danakil call themselves Afer^ and it is not im- 
probable that the term Africa comes from them. The 
Egyptians may have diffused it. Danakil itself is, like 
so many others, a word strange to the language to which 
it applies. I cannot but think that, word for word, it 
is Dongola, yet the Dongolawy are Nubians. Probably, 
some third population gave them both the same name. 



THE GALLA CLASS. 



ODD 



The Danakil begins between Suakin and Arkiko, and 
extends from the Red Sea to the frontiers of Abyssynia. 

The Somauli area begins near the straits of Babel- 
niandel, and runs southward and inland; Berbera, the 
great slave mart being the chief Somauli town : the 
Somauli tribes, too, being the occupants of the parts about 
the Semitic town of Hurur. 

The Galla Proper, or Ilmormo, belong to the interior 
rather than the coast, their area being one of great, but 
unknown magnitude, with a sinuous outline, and an en- 
croaching frontier. Sometimes this encroachment is 
effected at the expense of the Danakil : sometimes (per- 
haps oftener) at that of the Abyssinians. The former, 
for instance, has given way before the Asubu, the latter 
before the Edjow, tribes. The kingdoms of Shoa and 
Efat are, now, more Galla than Abyssinian. The town 
of Ankober is a Galla capital : though mixed in respect 
to its population. No tribe in Africa has the discredit 
of being ruder and more savage in its warfare than the 
Gallas. Their physical appearance is that of the Bishari 
rather than the Negro. 



English. 


Galla. 


Danalfil. 


Sliiho (about Arkiko).* 


Man 


nama 






Woman 


rete 






Head 


mata 


ammo 


ammo 


Hair 


refensa 






Eye 


hedzha 


inte 


inte 


Nose 


funyan 


san 


san 


Tongue 


arruba 






Mouth 


affan 


afa 


afa 


Teeth 


ilkae 


budeua 


ekok 


Ear 


gura 






Beard 


arreda 






Foot 


fana 






Sun 


addu 


aero 


airo 


Moon 


dzhea 


alsa 


alsa 


Star 


urdzhe 


ettukta 


ittuk 


Fire 


ibiddeh 


gira 


gera 


Water 


veshan 


leh 


le 


Tree 


niouka 







The Arkiko of the town is Amharic. 



556 



THE GALLA CLASS. 



English. 


Galla. 


Danakil. 


Shiho (about Arkiko) 


Stone 


dagga 


data 


dak 


One 


toko 


inneke 


inek 


Two 


lumma 


lumma 


lamma 


Three 


sedde 


sudde 


adda 


Four 


affar 


fere 


afur 


Five 


shur 


konoyoie 


kon 


Six 


dzha 


lelehe 


leh 


Seven 


turbah 


melhene 


melhen 


Eight 


seddet 


bahara 


valir 


Nine 


suggul 


segala 


suggai 


Ten 


kudun 


tubban 


tummum. 



The following are languages, more or less isolated, of 
the Abyssinian frontier. 



English. 


Dizzela. 






English. 




Dizzela. 


Man 


gunza 






Tree 




gea 


Woman 


kwa 






One 




metama 


Head 


illukoma 






Tioo 




ambanda 


Eyes 


illikumah 






Three 




kwokaga 


Nose 


kotuma 






Four 




zaacha 


Ear 


tsema 






Five 




mankus 


Teeth 


kuusma 






Six 




wata 


Tongue 


kotettuma 






Seven 




linyeta 


Sun 


woka 






Eight 




sugguata 


Moon 


bega 






Nine 




sasa 


Star 


bega 






Ten 




. chik'ka. 


Water 


iah 
















(2.) 








English. 


Ualla. 






English. 




DaUa. 


Man 


kwa 






One 




ilia 


Woman 


dukka 






Two 




bella 


Head 


annasunga 






Three 




sette 


Eyes 


wa 






F(mr 




salle 


Nose 


bubuna 






Five 




bussume 


Ear 


ukuna 






Six 




erde 


Sun 


wah 






Seven 




varde 


Moon 


terah 






Eight 




kwon kweda 


Stars 


shunda 






Nine ' 




kwuuntelie 


Fire 


tuma 






Ten 




kwuuUakudde 


Stone 


uga 


(i 


!•) 








English.. 


Shankali. 




Agawmidr. 


Seven 


langitta 




langata 


, &c. — Agaio 


Sun 


oka 










Sky 










wak — 


9alla 



THE SHANKALI, OR SIIANGALLA. 



557 



English. 


Sliankali. 


Agawmidr. 


Star 


bawa 


bewa — Agaw 


Water 


aya 


ahu — Agatv 


Rain 
Cloud 


dema 




dimna — Agaio 


Smoke 


tukwa 


tikki—Tigre 


Clay 


tukwa 


dhoke—Galla 


Tree 


mugha 


muka — do. 


Shade 


gisa 


cbiso — Gong a 


SpHnfj 


aimusa 


mincha — A ga w 


Market 


gabea 


gebaia — Galla 


Bridle 


sugha 


lughwam — A gawi 


Whip 


jilanda 


halinga — do. 


Mouth 


sima 


simota — Gafat 


Tooth 


kussa 


gSiSso—Gonga 


Rainy season 


china 


gana — Galla. 



In Salt, the Dalla and Dizzela, like tlie language 
represented by the third vocabulary, are given as Shan- 
galla. They are all spoken by Negroes rather than 
true Abyssinians. 



558 THE KAFFIR CLASS. 



CHAPTER LXIX. 

The Kaffir Class of Languages. 

Within a degree or two of the Equator the Galla and 
Ukuafi are succeeded by that large class of languages, 
which those who have no dislike to double names call 
South African, whilst others, who have no objection to 
using a word in a general as well as a particular sense, 
call Kaffre or Kaffir ; a word which is both the name 
of a class and the name of a particular division. 

On the western coast the languages of this group ap- 
pear north of the Equator, and, with the exception of 
the Hottentot area, they cover all the intervening space. 

Their peculiarities of grammar have been carefully 
studied and illustrated. 

(1 .) If a new word be introduced into the language of 
the Amakosa Kaffres, it takes an inseparable prefix 
before it can become naturalized. Priest, for instance, 
becomes it'TTi-priest ; Pharisee, f7'?7i-pharisee. In the 
words um-tu -zz person ; ^-hashe =i horse ; m-kosi =. cap- 
tain ; i^i-caca — servant ; u-sana, zz infant ; ^tm-lambo 
zz river ; u-hu^o zzface ; aku-tysizzforce ; aba-ntuzz: 
people; ama-zwe zz words ; in-homo = cattle ; imi^tizz 
trees, &c., the syllables in Italics are wholly foreign 
to the root. Adventitious, however, as they are, the 
system of prefixing them is general. 

(2.) When two words come into certain syntactic 
relations, one of them changes its initial letter according 
to that of the other, just as if, in English, w^e said, for 



THE KAFFIR CLASS. 559 

sunbeam or white manf bunheam (or sunseam) for 
wJiiteman (or miteman). 

(3.) Tlie prefix, however, is part of the word ; 
whence it follows that, for the purposes of determining 
the change which one word, in these syntactic relations, 
impresses on another, we must look to the initial letter 
(or letters) of the prefix rather than to those of the 
words to which it is united. A word (no matter how 
it begins) takes U7)i as its prefix ; the rule being that 
when one word begins with um the other begins with 
w. The Kaffre for a Tnan of the people is um-tn wa- 
bantu, whereas a captain of the people is m-kosi ya- 
bantu. 

In this way the System of Prefixes and the System 
of Alliteration, in the Amakosa Kaffre at least, are con- 
nected. 

That facts of this kind should tell upon the phrase- 
ology of the grammarian is only natural. They give 
him his declensions ; for it is clear that according to the 
nature of the prefix we may arrange the noims to which 
they are united into classes. Doing this, we may talk 
of the Classification of Nouns, just as Latin scholars 
talk of the Declensions. 

Again — the form of the Plural is often determined 
by the prefix. Thus, in Bakeli : — 





First Declension, 




SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


a-\a.ta,=ckest 




6i-vata=:chests 


a-hohi=hat 




hi-hohi=:hats 


i-eli=tr€e 


Second Declension. 


je-]i=trees. 


SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


di-'kaki=zstone 




ma-\iaki:=stones 


di-eki=lato 




m-eki=:lav's. 



And so on for seven other classes or declensions ; the 
number of classes in the Bakeli being nine. In other 
languages, however, they are more numerous ; e. g. in 
the Herreo they are eighteen. 



560 



THE KAFFIR CLASS. 



The origin of these prefixes is another question. They 
are noticed here for the sake of ascertaining their value 
as characteristics. 

The forms of speech which immediately underlie the 
Galla and XJkuafi are the following — belonging to the 
inland districts rather than to the coast. On the coast 
the language is the Suaheli, Suwaheli, or Sohili, contain- 
ing numerous Arabic elements and partaking of the na- 
ture of a Lingua Franca. 



English. 


Wanika. 


Wakamba. 


Msambara. 


Sohili. 


Man 


muta 


muntu 


mgossi 


mtu 


Woman 


mtsheta 


muka 


mdere 


mtunke 


Head 


dzitzoa 


mutue 


mtoe 


kitoa 


Eye 


dzitjo 


ido 


yisso 


dshito 


Nose 


pula 


embola 


pum 


pua 


Tongue 


lamini 


uimi 


uraka 


ulimi 


Tooth 


dzino 


ino 


zino 


dzhino 


Ear 


sikiro 


idu 


gutui 


shikio 


Hand 


mukoTio 


mukono 


mukono 


makono 


Foot 


gulu 


mudumu 


emrondi 


gu 


Sun 


dzua 


kua 


zua 


dzhua 


Moon 


muesi 


moi 


muesi 


muesi 


Star 


nioha 


nioa 


niniesi 


niota 


Fire 


muotto 


muagi 


muotto 


muotto 


Water 


madyi 


mandzi 


mazi 


madzhi 


Stone 


dziwe 


dziwe 


ziwe 


dzhiwe 


Tree 


muhi 


inutte 


muti 


mti 


One 


emmenga 


umue 


mosi 


emmodsha 


Two 


embiri 


ili 


kaidi 


embili 


Three 


tahu 


itatu 


katatu 


tatu 


Four 


enne 


inna 


kanna 


enne 


Five 


tyano 


idano 


kashano 


tano 


Six 


tandaho 


dandatu 


ententatu 


setta 


Seven 


fungahe 


mama 


fungate 


sabaa 


Eight 


Dane 


munda 


nane 


nani 


Nine 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


Ten 


kumi 


kumi 


kumi 


kumu. 



The Makua extends, at least, as far as Quilimani. 

The Monjii, Muntu, or Makoa, is spoken to the back 
of the Mozambik coast ; of which the Maravi of KoUe's 
Polyglotta is, perhaps, the most inland dialect. In In- 
hambane, where Portuguese influences succeed to Arabic, 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



561 



such differences as exist are, probably, political rather 
than philological. At any rate, the dialects seem to 
graduate into each other. South of. Inhambane and 
Sofala begins the Kaffraria of the British and Dutch 
frontiers with, iis nominibus, the Zulu, the Kaffre 
Proper, and the Bechuana as important and well-illus- 
trated lano^uaojes — the last in contact with the Hotten- 
tot ; to the north of which the Heriro, a true Kaffir 
tongue, appears in the parts about Walwisch Bay. To 
this, on the north, succeed the Benguela, the Angola, the 
Congo, and, on the Equator, the Rungo, or Orungo, of the 
Gabun. For the parts about Corisco Bay, we have 
evidence that the language is essentially the same ; 
whilst for Fernando Po and the Cameroons we have 
abundant details — the languages being the Ediya of 
Fernando Po and the Isubu and Dualla (little more than 
dialects) of the Cameroons. 

At the head waters of the Gabun lie the districts of 
the Bakele, estimated by the missionaries at about 
100,000 — lighter coloured than the tribes between them 
and the sea ; darker than those of the mountains 
behind them. Compared (as it is by either the author 
or the editor of the grammar) with the Mpongwe of 
the Gabtin it differs very materially ; the verbal resem- 
blances being about one in ten. The present list, 
however, makes them more. 



English. 


Mpongwe. 


Bakele. 


Man 


kadia 


makalie 


Woman 


owanto 


raiali 


Child 


onwana 


mana 




erumbe 


ndenbisliili 


White man 


otangani 


ntanga 


Head 


ewonjo 


langaka 


Hair 


orue 


lashoi 


Tongue 


onleme 


latheni 


Mouth 


ogwana 


gwana 


Tooth 


ina 


dishoa 


Eye 


intya 


dishi 


Ear 


oroi 


gwale 




562 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



English. 


Mpongwe. 


Bakele. 


Nose 


inyoi 


dioi 


Beard 


ilelu 


jeli 


Blood 


ntyina 


dikitha ' 


Belly 


iwumu 


mai 


Bone 


epa 


avesha 


Heart 


ntyondo 


lema 


Foot 


ntyozyo 


dibo 


Arm 


oga 


mbo 


NecTc 


ompele 


kinh 


Nail 


ntyanga 


landaka 


Milk 


ambeningo 


manyadibo 


House 


nago 


mbank 


Hill 


nomba 


mbeka 


Sun 


nkombe 


dioba 


Moonlight 


ilanga 


mieli 


Star 


ogegeni 


vietch 


Cloud 


evindi 


avingi 


Flower 


olonda 


tapesha 


Tree 


erere 


jeli 


Sand 


intya 


dishi 


Fire 


inu 


du 


Water 


aningo 


madiba 


Wind 


ompunga 


punga 


Fat 


nye 


dia 


Burn 


pia 


dika 


Bite 


noma 


kiele 


Dig 


tumba 


kwete 


Write 


ten da 


lenda 


Fill 


jonia 


lonisha 


Speak 


kamba 


lubila 


Drink 


jonga 


nata 


Run 


pula 


punda 


Die 


juwa 


shasha 


Boil 


benla 


taka 


Kiss 


samba 


viba. 



The following are miscellaneous illustrations of the 
languages on the north-western portion of the Kaffir 
area. 

(From the Polyglotta Africana.) 

Woman Head 

muhata muntue 

mehetu mutue 

mbant umodsh 



English 


Man 


Kisama 


diala 


Songo 


diala 


Runda 


ekiunds 


Luhalo 


diyala 



muhetu 



muntue 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



563 



English 


Man 


Woman 


Read 


Basunde 


bakala 


kento 


tu 


Nyombe 


iyakala 


nkelo 


ntu 


Kasange 


diala 


muketu 


motue 


Bumhete 


balera 


okasu 


modsue 


Babuma 


balga 


mokas 


modsue 


Mutsaya 


lebalaka 


mukeat 


motsue 


Ntere 


bara 


mokas 


motsue 


Kanyilca 


muanumulon 


muanumekas 


motu 


Mbamba 


balera 


okas 


otue 


Musentando 


yakala 


kento 


ntu. 


English 


Nose 


Eye 


Far 


Kisama 


dizolu 


diso 


ditue 


Songo 


dizunu 


liso 


litu 


Runda 


mushor 


liz 


didsh 


Lubalo 


lizulo 


liso 


litue 


Basunde 


mbombo 


odiz 


kutu 


Nyombe 


dizulu 


liso 


kutu 


Kasange 


dizolu 


aso 


kutue 


Bumbete 


yolo 


odisn 


ledsue 


Babuma 


yulo 


dsis 


dsue 


Mutsaya 


yul 


dsijs 


dsui 


Ntere 


yilo 


dsis 


dsue 


Kanyika 


muol 


diz 


ditu 


Mbamba 


yolo 


diz 


tue 


Musentando 


luzunu 


dizu 


kutu. 


English 


Mouth 


Tooth 


Tongue 


Kisama 


dikanu 


diso 


demi 


Songo 


ndikanon 


lizo 


lemi 


Runda 


mulam 


dizeu 


ardim 


Lubalo 


likano 


lizo 


limi 


Basunde 


noa 


dinu 


ludimi 


Nyombe 


monu 


dieno 


ludimi 


Kasange 


kanua 


lizu 


limi 


Bumbete 


moyu 


dinu 


ukumonyui 


Babuma 


monyua 


dsino 


lelim 


Mutsaya 


monyua 


dseni 


lilim 


Ntere 


monyua 


dsina 


limi 


Kanyika 


mosuk 


din 


ludim 


Mbamba 


onyun 


dini 


lelemi 


Musentando 


nua 


dinu 


ludimi. 


English 


Fire 


Wafer 


Sun 


Kisama 


tuwia 


menya 


de kombi 


Songo 


tubia 


menya 


moanya 


Runda 


kasli 


menyi 


muten 

o 2 



564 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



Water 

raema 

nlangu 

nlangu 

meya 

andsa 

madsa 

madsa 

madsa 

moaz 

andsa 

maza 

To these add the numerals of the Fan, 
much is made in Mr. Du Chaillu's work, 
to the same class as the rest. 



English 


Fire 


Lubalo 


tibia 


Basunde 


mbazu 


Nyombe 


mbazu 


Kasange 


tubia 


JBumbete 


mba 


Babuma 


mbaa 


Mutsaya 


mba 


mere 


mba 


Kanyika 


mudil 


Mbamba 


mba 


Musentando 


tiwia 



Sun 

moanya 

muini 

tangu 

likombi 

ntangu 

mi 

mui 

tari 

munyenyi 

nyango 

tango. 

of which so 
They belong 



English. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Fov/r 



Fan. 

fo 

vei 

m 

tani 



English. 
Six 



Nine 
Ten 



Fan. 
sheme 
zangoua 
moftm ouam 
iboum ibou 
woom aboum. 



On the Old Calabar the change is somewhat greater. 
Still, the so-called Kaffir or South-African characters 
have long been recognized in these parts ; and the 
nearest congeners of the Otam, TJdom, or Old Calabar, 
are the Isubu and Dualla. 

{Languages with Otam, Isubu, Bakele, and Nufi, 
affinities from the Polyglotta Africana.) 



English. 


Afudu. 




Mfut. 


Mbe. 




Nso 




Nose 


idsion 




nkodiu 


etsoei 




dzui 


Eye 


edsi 




dsit 


ero 




ze 




Ear 


kato 




ti 


atone 




ketor 


Mouth 


akuan 


ndum 


etsou 




su 




Tooth 


edsin 




dedson 


ason 




son 




Tongue 


nyuam 


derim 


inemi 




kendemi. 


EngUsh, 


Murundo. 


Undaza. 


Ndob. 


Tumu. 


Nkele. 




Konguan 


Nose 


mofiki 


dsolu 


dsu 


edsu 


diodsu 




nyuen 


Eye 


diso 


diz 


dziet 


dzid 


dis 




nies 


Ear 


ditoi 


eloi 


inyu 


eyu 


ore 




atu 


Mouth 


mombo 


madumba num 


num 


wuana 




nyu 


Tooth 


disonga 


dini 


min 


dzen 


disuna 




nenyan 


Tongue 


woena 


lelimi 


demog 


demo 


lawem 




deler. 



r^ 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



665 



English. 


Mbarike. 


Tiwi. 




Boritsu. 


Nose 


ruan 




ehinga 




geu 


Eye 


ayip 




asie 




egi 


Ear 


aton 




ator 




atu 


Mouth 


ndso 




itsoa 




onu 


Tooth 


anyi 




inyik 




odun 


Tongue 


odsia 




nomboro 




omien. 


English. 


Yala.* 




English. 




Yala. 


Man 


onuro 




Tongue 




ugblenye 


Woman 


onya 




Fire 




ola 


Head 


lefu 




Water 




yenyi 


Hair 


ndsirehu 


L 


Sun 




yeno 


Nose 


leni 




One 




osi 


Eye 


eyi 




Two 




epa 


Ear 


•woro 




Three 




eta 


Mouth 


okono 




Fowr 




ene 


Tooth 


anuro 




Five 




erua. 


English Mmth 


Tooth 


Tongi 


he Nose 


Eye 


Ear 


Bayon ndsu 


sonta 


lem 


dsi 


li 


eton 


Pati nso 


nzou 


lim 


adsi 


all 


aton 


Kum ndso 


son 


den 


nkontse 


tse 


ton 


Bagha ndsu 


aso 


alo 


atse 


ali 


aton 


Balu nsud 


nzon 


lem 


le 


le 


ntud 


Bamon ndsot 


nson 


alem 


edyi 


ele 


atot 


Ngoala atsor 


ason 


andio 


esuye 


ndi 


atonuri 


Momenya ndsue 


son 


lam 


dzoti 


litab 


tonti 


Papiah nsu 


esan 


alam 


nquerse 


arse 


tonule 


Param ndzue 


izon 


titep 


atsi 


eti 


eton. 


English 


Fire 




Water 




Sun 


Bayon 


mu 




ndsib 




nyum 


Pati 


mu 




ndsi 




nyu 


Kum 


mu 




ndsab 




nyam 


Bagha 


mu 




ndsab 




no 


Balu 


mu 




. nke 




ngam 


Bamon 


mu 




nke 




nyam 


Ngoala 


mu 




nki 




muno 


Momenya 


mu 




ndsob 




no. 


Papiah 


mu 




nsi 




nyam 


Param 


mo 




nzi 




minoch. 


English. 


Ngoten. 




Melon. 




Nhalemoe. 


Nose 


die 




dio 




do 


'Eye 


dis 




dek 




deih 


Ear 


eto 




eto 




eto 


Mouth 


nsiol 




nsol 




nsear 


Tooth 


esyon , 




eson 




ason 


Tongue 


egeam 




egiera 




egiem. 




* 


See pa 


ge 688. 







566 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



English. 


Ekamtulufu. 


Udom. 


Mbofon. 


Eafen. 


Man 


manum 


manu 


manun 


nindun 


Woman 


raanka 


manka 


manka 


nike 


Head 


esi 


esi 


esi 


idsi 


Hair 


nnji 


nnu 


nyu 


ndu 


Nose 


miu 


ntanaman 


ntanamin 


nnui 


Eye 


amar 


lemar 


amoramer 


ayet 


Ear 


eton 


eton 


etun 


otun 


Tooth 


aman 


leman 


nemen 


eyin 


Tongue 


liliwi 


leliwe 


neriwe 


erib 


Sun 


no 


ndsol 


ndon 


ndsudsi 


Fire 


ngon 


ngun 


ngon 


ngun 


Water 


alap 


alap 


aneb 


ayib. 



The languages akin to the Otam have been so 
thoroughly recognized as Kaffir, or South African, that 
they are given in the present chapter ; though they are, 
really, transitional. Of those that next come under 
notice all that can be said is that they have, gene- 
rally, been associated with their congeners to the north 
rather than the south. They have, however, affinities 
on either side. 



BONNY AND IBO DIALECTS. 



567 



CHAPTER LXX. 

The Bonny, Brass Town, Ibo, and Benin languages. — The Mandingo, Accra, 
Krepi, Kru, &c. — Remarks on the Mandingo class. — The Begharmi. - 
Mandara. — Kanuri. — Hawssa. — Sungai. — Kouri,— Yoruba. — Tapua or 
Nufi — Batta.— Fula, &c.— The Serawulli— WolofF, &c.— Hottentot. 



The Okiiloma and Udso are Obane (or Bonny), the Aro 
and Mbofia, Brass Town (Oro or Ejo), dialects. The 
remainder belong to the interior of the Delta of the 
Niger ; the Isoama and Isiele being Iho Proper, or Ibo in 
the limited sense of the term. It is a name, however, 
which may be given to the whole class. 



English. 


Okuloma. 


Udso, 


Aro. 


Mhofia, 


Sobo. 


Man 


oubo 


owebo 


nowoke 


unyoka 


osale 


Woman 


erebo 


yorobo 


unwai 


nuame 


aye 


Head 


dsibe 


tebe 


isi 


isi 


uhiomi 


Hair 


nume 


dime 


abosi 


ebesi 


eto 


Nose 


nini 


nine 


imi 


imi 


unwe 


Eye 


toru 


toro 


anya 


enya 


ero 


Ear 


beli 


beri 


nte 


nte 


eso 


Tooth 


aka 


aka 


eze 


ezie 


ako 


Tongue 


bele 


belo 


ile 


ile 


ereme 


Sun 


erua 


erei 


anyano 


enyan 


ore 


Fire 


fene 


fene 


oko 


oko 


esale 


Water 


minqi 


beni 


mmeli 


min 


ame. 


English, 


Egbele. 


Bini. 


Olomo. 


Isoama. 


Isiele. 


Man 


omoi 


okpea 


asi 


nuoke 


onyeke 


Woman 


ogbutso 


ogwoho 


asarae 


ndiora 


onyui 


Head 


usumi 


oh una 


qika 


isi 


isi 


Hair 


etc 


eto 


ehu 


asi 


edsi 


Nose 


isue 


ihue 


iso 


imi 


imi 


Eye 


eloe 


aro 


ilogo 


anya 


enya 


Ear 


eo 


eho 


goso 


nte 


anti 


Tooth 


ako 


ako 


ako 


eze 


esi 



568 THE DAHOMEY DIALECTS. 



English. 


Egbele. 


Bini. 


Olonio. 


Isoama. 


Isiele. 


Tongue 


olemi 


oneme 


ore 


ile 


ile 


Sun 


ele 


ufore 


ahoni 


anyanu 


enyanu 


Fire 


itari 


. etare 


igesane 


oko 


oko 


Water 


ame 


ame 


ame 


mmeli 


mmi. 



I now come to a group, which, in the present state 
of our knowledge, must be treated as the Bhot and 
Burma group was treated in Asia. It is a large one in 
every respect : large in respect to its geographical area ; 
large in respect to the members of which it consists. 
It is a complex one as well : inasmuch as it falls into 
divisions -and sub-divisions. And it is also a wide one ; 
i. e. its extremities differ greatly from each other. 
Lastly, it is provisional, and, more or less, artificial. 
I shall exclude from it the Woloff and some other 
tongues on the north. I have excluded from it the Ibo 
and some other tongues on the south. Yet, I fail to 
find a clear line of demarcation. The class, in short, is 
certainly either too large or too small. It stands, how- 
ever, as it is, because it is valid as far as it goes ; be- 
cause it is convenient ; and, finally, because any miscon- 
ception as to its character, any possibilitj^ of mistaking 
it for a natural instead of an artificial one, has been 
guarded against. 

Eoughly speaking, it extends from the Niger to 
the Gambia, and includes the numerous dialects and 
subdialects of the Slave, Gold, Ivory, Pepper, and Grain 
Coasts, along with the Mandingo languages. Towards 
the interior its extent is uncertain ; whilst, on the coast, 
there is a strip of low land not belonging to it : so 
that, in tracing it along the Atlantic, we first lose and 
then find it again. 

At the mouth of the Formosa the Yebu dialect of 
the Yoruba touches the sea with the Benin at its back 
stretching inland. The main language, however, is that 
of Dahomey, spoken (there or thereabouts) from Lagos to 
the Volta, and extending far inland, with ^he Anfue, the 



THE DAHOMEY DIALECTS. 



569 



Dahomey Proper, and the Mahi as its chief dialects ; 
each with divisions and subdivisions. The numerous 
vocabularies headed Fot, Popo, Widah, Atye, Mahi, 
and Badagry, &;c., belong to this great group. 



English. 


Widah. 


Dahomey. 


Mahi. 


Man 


sunu 


sunu 


nyaneou 


Woman 


nyoni 


nyonu 


iyon 


Head 


Ota 


ta 


onta 


Hair 


da. 


da 


oda 


Nose 


awoti 


asti 


awote 


Eye 


nuku 


nuku 


onuku 


Ear 


oto 


to 


otogue 


Tooth 


adu 


adu 


adu 


Tongue 


ede 


de 


ede 


Sun 


ohwe 


pewesiwo 


uque 


Fire 


ozo 


zo 


uzo 


Water 


zi 


zi 


ezi. 



The Accra, Inkra, or, as the natives call it, the Gha 
language, is nearly related to the Otshi, being spoken 
near Cape Castle ; the Ada^npi being a dialect of it. 

The Kerrapay is spoken in Abiraw, Odaw, Aokugwa, 
Abonse, Adukrum and Apiradi, villages or towns of 
Akwapim, other than Otshi ; in which, however, the 
Otshi, as the language of the dominant population, is 
generally understood. 

Date and Kubease, like Abiraw, &;c., are Akwapim 
villages, whereof the language is other than the Otshi. 
It is, also, other than the Kerrapong, Kerrapay, Kerrapi, 
or Krepee ; what it is being uncertain. * 



(1-) 



English. 


Adampi. 


Anfue. 


Man 


nuzu 


nutsu 


Woma'-i 


nyoru 


lonu 


Head 


eta 


ita 


Hair 


eda 


eda 


Nose 


DOti 


anati 


Eye 


onku 


anku 



570 



THE GOLD COAST DIALECTS. 



English. 




Adampi 




Anfae. 


Ear 




eto 




eto 


Tooth 




adu 




adu r' 


Tongue 




ade 




ade 


Sun 




ewo 




oudo 


Fire 




ezo 




itso 


Water 




ezi 




edsi. 






(2.) 




English. 


Accrah. 




Adampi. 


Krepee. 


God 


mah'u 




mab'wu 


mah'nu 


Devil 


bo'san 




az'za 


baiya 


Man 


bom' ma 




nu'mu ** 


u'chu or amiLa 


Woman 


yo 




ye'o 


yonno 


Boy 


Vaka 




j ho' qua 


deyve 


Girl 


ob'bli'o 




ya'yo 


tubboqua 


Infant 


abbe'fah'o 




jho'qvia-borbio 


veve'ahja 


White man 


blofonyo 




blofon'o 


yovo 


Wife 


n'yah 




a'yo 


sun'no 


Head 


echu or echo 


ye 


tab 


Hair 


echawe 




yebuob 


dah 


Bye 


emay or hingma 


hingmai 


unku 


Nose 


gungo 




gugon 


watt6 


Mouth 


narbo 




ny'am 


nume 


Teeth 


ngoneeng 




lun'go 


addu 


Tongue 


lilla 




lilla 


adda 


Ear 


toe or toy 




toe 


etto 


Sun 


un 




pun 


awa 


Moon 


yon'che'16 




u'ramme 


wa:a 


Star 


ou'rabme 




ii'ramme dodo'e 


rotev'e 


Air 


koy'ah 




koiyo 


av'vu-voh 


Fire 


lab 




lah 


edjo 


Water 


noo 




Tiyu 


ech^ 


SJcy 


n'wa 




e'om 


jimma 


One 


eku'me 




kok'ka 


dek'kah 


Two 


en'yo 




en'yo 


a'ya 


Three 


etta 




et'ta 


atong 


Four 


edj'wa 




adj'way 


en'ua 


Five 


en'nu'mo 




en'nuo 


atton 


Six 


ek'pah 




ek'pah 


ad'da 


Seven 


pah' wo 




m'pah'go 


adderre 


Eight 


pah'no 




pahn'yo 


en'yg 


Nine 


na'ing 




na 


en'yeda 


Ten 


nu'mah 




nu'mah 


a' wo. 



The Otshi is the language of the Gold Coast ; such, 
at least, is the name given by the chief authority for 



THE AVEKVOM. 



571 



its grammatical structure — Riis. The numerous vocabu- 
laries of Bowdich named Inta belong to this class. 
Another general name, (and perhaps) the best, is Fanti. 

The Ashanti of Coomasee, the capital, along with 
the Coromantin and the Boroom, belongs to this group. 
So do the numerous vocabularies of the Mithridates 
headed Akkim, Akripon, Fetu, &c. 

For the Ivory coast the following vocabulary of the 
Avekvom is the only one I know. 



English. 


Avekvom. 


Other Languages. 


Arm, 


ebo 


ubok, EJih 


Blood 


evie 


eyip, EJik; eye, Jebu. 


Bone 


ewi 


beu, Fanti. 


Box 


ebru 


br^nh, G7'ebo. 


Canoe 


edie 


tonh, Grebo. 


Chair 


fata 


bada, Grebo. 


Dark 


eshim 


esum, Fanti ; ekiin, EJik. 


Dog 


etye 


aja, ayga, Jebu. 


Door 


esliinavi 


usuny, EJik. 


Ear 


eshibe 


esoa, Fanti. 


Fire 


eya 


ija, Fanti. 


Fish. 


etsi 


eja, eya, Fanti. 


Fowl 


esu 


suseo, Mandingo ; edia, Jebu. 


Ground-nut 


ngeti 


nkatye, Fanti. 


Hair 


emu 


ihwi, Fanti. 


Honey 


ajo 


ewo, Fanti ; oyi, Jebu. 


House 


eva 


ifi, Fanti ; ufog, Efik. 


Moon 


efe 


h&.bo, Grebo ; ofiong, EJik. 


Mosketo 


efo 


obong, Fanti. 


OU 


inyu 


ingo, Fanti. 


Main 


efuzumo-sohn 


sanjio, Mandingo. 


Rainy season 


eshi 


ojo, mm, Jebu. 


Salt 


etsa 


ta, Grebo. 


Sand 


esian-na 


utan, Efik. 


Sea 


etyu 


idu, Grebo. 


Stone 


desi 


sia, shia, Grebo. 


Thread 


jesi 


gise, Grebo. 


Tooth 


enena 


nyeng, Mandingo; gne, Grebo. 


Water 


esonh 


nsu, Fanti. 


Wife 


emise 


muso, Mandingo ; mbesia, 


Cry 


yaru 


isu, Fanti. [Fanti 


Give 


nae 


nye, Grebo; no, Efik. 


Go 


le 


olo, Jebu. 


Kill 


bai 


fa, Mandingo ; pa, Jebu. 



572 



THE MANBINGO LANGUAGES. 



That the Kru languages are either actually Man dingo, 
or members of a closely-connected class, is certain. Dr. 
Kolle, indeed, separates them. The present writer did 
so in 1847 ; the data being, at that time, both insuffi- 
cient and imperfectly known to him. Soon, however, 
after the publication of his treatise Mr. Dupuis informed 
him that he held the two groups to be intimately allied ; 
if, indeed, they, really, were two. Dr. Bleek has expressed 
himself (and I believe he is the first writer who has done 
so in print) to the same effect: — "The Mena " (Man- 
dingo) " family which includes the dialects spoken by the 
Krumen,"" &;c. 

. {From the Polyglotta Africana.) 

English. Dewoi. 



Woman 




nyero 


ma 


Head 




duru 




tru 


Hair 




mi 




mi 


Nose 




mera 


mola 


Eye 




gire 




gire 


■ Ear 




lo 




lo 


Tooth 




mire 




nire 


Tongue 




mia 




mio 


. SVM 




owu 




giro 


Fire 




nae 




nye 


Water 




ni 




ni. 


English. 


Km, 




Grebo. 


Gbe. 


Man 


nyiyu 




nyebeyu 


gandsie 


Woman 


nyiro 




nyire 


nyiro 


Head 


debo 




lu 


duru 


Hair 


nui 




pumle 


mi 


Nose 


mera 




mia 


mra 


Eye 


gie 




yie 


girie 


Ea/r 


nogu 




nua 


dohu 


Tooth 


nye 


' 


nye 


nyire 


Tongue 


me 




mme 


meo 


Swn 


giro 




unwe 


giru 


Fire 


ne 




na 


nasuru 


Water 


ni 




ni 


ni. 



The Mandingo Proper is the language of the Maho- 
metan Blacks of Medina and the Lower Gambia. Being 
occasionally written in the Arabic character, it has a 



THE MANDINGO LANGUAGES. 573 

tincture of cultivation. Though we can scarcely call it 
classical, the Mandingo of Medina is the standard dialect 
of the group. 

If we look to the Polyglotta Africana for the proper 
Mandingo forms of speech we find the following thir- 
teen : — 1 . Mandingo z= Kalbunga, Toronka, Jallunka, 
Kankanka ; 2. Bambarra ; 3. Kono ; 4. Yei ; 5. Soso 
(SlisTi, or Soosoo) =: Solima and Kisekise ; 6. Tene ; 
7. Gbandi ; 8. Landoro ; 9. Mendi ; 10. Gbese ; 11. 
Toma; 12. Mano ; 13. Gio. 

The differences between the Mandingo, Jallunka, and 
Bambarra, have always been considered small. The 
Kono is an allied form of speech under a new name. The 
Yei is more like the Mandingo Proper than its geogra- 
phical position suggests. 

The Susu, probably, includes the Tene. 

In Jallonkadu the language is in contact with the 
Fulah of Futa-torro. 

In Bambarra, the language is said to be mixed 
with the Woloff and Fulah. 

In Bambarra, too, it has departed considerably from 
the strict Mandingo type, and becomes either a well- 
marked dialect, or a fresh language. Between Sego and 
Jenn^ (both on the Niger) it is replaced by the Sunghai. 

More divergent than the Jallunka and Bambarra, 
but, still, visibly .Mandingo, the Susu is spoken over a 
large unexplored tract at the back of Sierra Leone, of 
which the best-known tribes are the Sulimas, described 
by Major Laing. Bounded on the north by the Fulahs 
of Futa-dzhallo, they are Black Pagans, with warlike 
dispositions, and commercial aptitudes. 

The Kissi lies to the south of the Sulima ; being, 
probably, a dialect of the Susu. 

Between the Vei district about Cape Mount and the 
Kissi country, lies the 'Mendi. 

The Vei, spoken over a small tract of country, extends 



574 THE VEI ALPHABET. 

from tlie Gallinas to Cape Mount : extending inland 
40 or 50 miles. It seems to be intrusive; and there 
is a belief amongst the Yei themselves that they 
migrated from the Mani country under the captainship 
of two brothers Fabule and Kiatamba. When this took 
place is uncertain. 

The existence of a native alphabet has given promi- 
nence to the Yei language. The first notice of it was 
given by Lieut. Forbes, in 1849, who inquired whether 
the missionaries of Sierra Leone had ever heard of a 
written language amongst the natives of the parts about 
Cape Mount. He also showed a MS. which was soon 
afterwards in England and in the hands of Mr. JNorriss, 
who deciphered and translated it. Meanwhile the 
missionary committee appointed Mr. Kolle to visit the 
country referred to by Lieut. Forbes and to make 
inquiries on the spot. This led him into the presence 
of a Yei native, named Doalu Bukere, about forty years 
old ; who, assisted by ^ye of his friends, invented the 
alphabet in question. 

Without undervaluing Doalu Bukere's ingenuity, we 
must remember that, as a boy, he had learned to read 
English, and afterwards, Arabic. When grown-up to be 
a man he was all but a regular letter-carrier. His 
masters, who were slavers, and traders, despatched him 
to distant places as a messenger, and he told Mr. Kolle 
that the communication of distant events by means of 
the letters he conveyed struck him forcibly. " How is 
this, that my master knows everything I have done in 
a distant place ? He only looks at the book, and this 
tells him all. Such a thing we ought to have, by which 
we could speak to each other even though separated by 
a great distance." 

The Sokko is associated with the Jallonka in the 
Mithridates ; and when we remember how scanty 
were our data when that great work was composed. 



THE SOKKO, ETC. 575 

we may readily infer that its affinity is pretty palpable. 
It probably belongs to the most eastern division of 
the proper Mandingo class ; since it must be looked 
for in the district of the Kong Mountains, with their 
direction from west to east, and their parallelism with 
the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. Whether it lie to 
the back of the Grain Coast, where the Kru prevails, 
is uncertain. It is more likely to be found to the north 
of the Ivory Coast. At any rate Oldendorp, who took 
his information from three individuals of three tribes, 
states that their country bordered on that of the Amina 
— the Amina belonging to the Fanti class, the Fanti class 
of which the Gold Coast is the special occupancy. I 
have enlarged upon this, because the extent to which an 
undoubted Mandingo tongue comes in contact with both 
the Fanti and the Kru areas is a point in favour of the 
affiliation of the three groups. 

I now give a sketch of eleven languages which are 
conveniently taken together. They form as natural a 
group as circumstances permit ; and are as follows ; — 

1. Begharmi, the most eastern of the group. 

2. The Mandara. 

3. The Kanuri of Bornii. 

4. The Hawsa. 

5. The Sunghai. 

6. The Kouri. 

7. The Yoruba. 

8. The Tapua or Nufi. 

9. The Batta. 

10. The Fula. 

11. The Tibbu. 

Their general order is from east to west ; and the dis- 
trict to which they belong reaches from Lake Tshad to 
the Niger. It is pre-eminently an inland district. It is 
an intertropical one. It is, to a great extent, destitute 
of great rivers ; without being a desert. It is sub- 
tended by the parts below 9° N. L., or, the terra incog- 



S'je THE BEGHARMI, ETC. 

nita, for the northern half of Africa ; from which it 
follows that, whether the lano^uao*es under notice have or 
have not affinities on their southern frontiers, such affi- 
nities as may exist are unknown. This is much the 
same as saying that the further we go south, the farther 
we recede from Mahometan, and advance into Pagan, 
Africa. 

So much for its southern limit. On the north it under- 
lies the Sahara in respect to its geography, and the 
Arab and x^Lmazig areas in respect to its ethnology and 
philology — the Arab and Amazig areas both being 
Mahometan. It may be added (though the remark is 
in anticipation of what will appear as we proceed) that 
it is nearly co-extensive with the ground covered by 
the Fula conquests. 

It is a zone, or band, and, though some of its occu- 
pants have comparatively light-coloured skins, it is, as 
contrasted with the broader zone to the north, a Black 
Band. It has been called Nigritia. It has been called 
Sudania. But it is a Black Band only when contrasted 
with northern Africa. 

All the above-named languages are, in the present state 
of our knowledge, separated from each other by definite 
lines of demarcation. It may, perhaps, be added that 
they are all equi-distant from each other, i. e. the first 
on the list is (about) as like or unlike the second as the 
second is like or unlike the third. They have all miscel- 
laneous affinities ; though the special ones are less than the 
geographical relations suggest. At the same time, as far 
as they go, it is with the geographical relations that 
the affinities coincide. Tlie intrusive Fula, with its 
wide and irregular distribution, is, perhaps, an exception 
to this rule. 

To the north of Lake Tshad, along with the Tibbu of 
Kanem, the Arabic of the Beni Suliman and other tribes, 
is spoken; whilst farther to the west lies Darsaleh, Wa- 
day, or Borgho, of which notice has already been taken. 



THE BEGHARMI, ETC. 



577 



( 1 .) The Begharmi is conterminous with the Tibbu, the 
Bornui, and the Mandara on the north, west, and south, 
the details of its eastern frontier being unknown. It 
may or may not touch the Mobba and Dar-runga areas. 
It is known by vocabularies only, of which Denham's is 
the chief. 

(2.) The Mandara is the nearest approach we have to 
a language of the interior of Africa, being the only one 
spoken south of the tenth degree of latitude in any part 
of the continent equally central. Indeed, the tenth 
degree on each side of the equator bounds the terra 
incognita. Towards the eastern and western extremi- 
ties of the zone thus described, Burton, Livingstone, 
and others have explored ; but for the interior Denham 
and Barth are our only authorities. The Mandara is 
one of the languages^ given in the forthcoming list of 
the languages of Adamowa, Hamarua, and the parts 
around. (See p. 589.) 



English. 


Begharmi. 


Mandira. 


Man 


gaba 


geela 


Woman 


nee 


mugsa 






gala (cfirl) 


Head 


geujo 


erey 


Eye 


kammoo 


echey 


Teeth 


nganah 




Mouth 


tara 


okay 


Nose 


amo 


ukteray 


Feet 


njanja 




Sun 


kaja 




Fire 


heddoo 




Water 


mane 


yowah 


Wind 


belee 




Wood 


clieree 




One 


keddy 


mtague 


Two 


sub 


sandah 


Three 


mattah 


kighab 


Four 


soh 


fuddah 


Five 


mee 


elibab 


Six 


meeka 


n'quaha 


Seven 


chilly 


^ oubay 


Eight 


marta 


teesa 


Nine 


doso 


musselman 


Ten 


dokemy 


klaon. 

P P 



578 THE KANURI, ETC. 

(3.) It is a current statement that as many as thirty 
different tongues are spoken in Bornu. This we get 
from a notice by Lucas whose informant was an official 
of that country. Seetzen throws a httle light upon this ; 
his informant having been a negro of Affadeh. The first 
language enumerated by him is — 

1 . The Mana Birniby, or speech of Bornu itself. 

2. The Amszigh Mpade, a country six days' journey 
northwards. 

3. The Mszaiin onkalone Karama, or the speech of a 
country seven days east of Affadeh, called by the Arabs 
Kalphey. 

4. The Amszigh Affadeh. 

Towards our knowledge of the other twenty-six, the 
following list was obtained by Seetzen from a negro of 
Mobba, whom he met at Cairo. 

5. The Kajenjah. 6. The Upderrak 7. The Alih. 
8. The Mingon. 9. The 3faraTet. 10. The Massalit 
11. The Szongor, 12. The Kuka. 13. The Dadshu. 
14. The Bandalah. 15. The Masmajah. 16. The 
Njorga. 17. The Dembe. 18. The Malangoe. 19. The 
Mime. 20. The Koruboih. 21. The Gonuk 22. The 
Kabha. 23. The Guranguk 24. The Dshellaba. 

Of these the Amszigh Mpade may be the Amazigh, 
a language of the Sahara rather than Bornii itself. In 
like manner some of the others may belong to the Bornu 
Empire rather than to the district so-called. Of the 
Affadeh, however, we have, eo nomine^ short specimens. 
It is closely akin to the Mana Birniby, the Proper 
Bornui, or Kanuri. 

The Arabic alphabet hg^s been applied to the Kanuri ; 
the data for Norriss's Kanuri Grammar having been a 
collection of dialogues from Madame de Genlis's Manuel 
de VoyageuT, a translation of two chapters of the New 
Testament, and the draft of an agreement to be made 
with one of the petty kings of the interior of Africa. 
These were written at Tripoli, and sent to England by the 
late Mr. Richardson ; there was a similar translation into 



THE KANURI, ETC. 



the Hawsa. The author 'was an Arab. Kolle's grammar 
was framed upon conversations with a native of the pro- 
vince of Gazir whom the author found at Sierra Leone. 
Mr. Norriss, enlarging upon the extent to which the 
Kanuri differs from the other languages, compares its 
structure with that of the Turk dialects. Its roots are 
not subject to any modification ; it forms its plural by 
adding a syllable, and it has a somewhat full inflection, 
consisting wholly of postpositions. 

(Bornu dialects.) 



English. 




Bode. 


Ngodzen. 


Dodi. 


Man 




gemsenen 


gemseg 


amsey 


Woman 




game 


ama 


uma 


Head 




adatka 


ada 


ada 


Hair 




dadsin 


yat 


yad 


Nose 




iskinen 


ten 


Stan 


Eye 




dat 


da 


ida 


Ear 




gutanen 


aqut 


quat 


Tooth 




yanuanen 


yanou 


nayou 


Tongue 




muret 


marinyi 




Sun 




afan 


afa 


afa 


Fire 




akan 


aka 


aka 


Water 




amu 


am 


aam. 


Englisli. 


Kanuri. 


Munio. 


Nguru. 


Kanem. 


Man 


koa 


kangoa 


kangoa 


koa 


Woman 


kamu 


kamu 


kamu 


kamu 


Head 


kala 


kala 


kala 


kela 


Hair 


kanduli gazi 


kanduli 


kundali 


Nose 


kentsa 


kindsa 


kindsa 


kenza 


Eye 


sim 


sim 


sim 


asim 


Ear 


sumo 


sumo 


sumo 


tsumo 


Tooth 


timi 


temi 


temi 


temi 


Tongue 


telam 


telam 


tetam 


tatam 


Sun 


kau 


kau 


ka.u 


kengal 


Fire 


kanu 


kanu 


kanu 


kanu 


Water 


nki 


engi 


ngi 


ngi. 


English. 




Buduma. 


English, 


Buduma. 


Man 




hagoei 


Ear 


homogu 


Woman 




ngerem 


Tooth 


haneni 


Head 




kodagu 


Tongue 


talamdagu 


Hair 




ndsige 


Sun 


adsi 


Nose 




dsenegu 


Fire 


ou 


Eye 




yelegu 


Water 


amei. 

p p 2 



680 THE KANURL ETC. 



English. 


Logone.* 


Mobha* 


One 


teku 


tek 




ser^dia 




Two 


ksde 


bar 


Three 


gaxkir 


kungal 


Four 


gade 


asal 


Five 


sesi 


tor 


Six 


venaxkir 


settal 


Seven 


katul 


mindri 


Eight 


venyade 


Tya 


Nine 


disxien 


adoi 


Tm 


xk^n 


atuk. 



(4.) Whatever may be the areas for the (?) twenty- 
seven unknov^n languages of Bornti, they are not on any 
of the explored portions of the Hawsa frontier, inasmuch 
as the two languages meet. The Hawsa, like the 
Bornu, has been written in Arabic characters, whilst 
from Schon's grammar we learn the details of its struc- 
ture. It gives either the germ or the fragment of a pe- 
culiarity, of which more will be said when the Yoruba 
comes under notice. 

(5.) Roughly speaking, the Sunghai area is bounded 
by 1 3° N. L. and the Niger ; the line of demarcation 
being a chord and an arc. The line of latitude runs 
straight, whilst the river, which meets it at both its 
extremities, approaches N. L. 18°. Between these lies 
the great mass of the Sunghai area, though not ex- 
clusivety. On the north it is bounded by the Arabic 
and the Amazig, both encroaching languages ; on the 
west by the Serawulli (?) and the Bambarra ; on the 
East by the Fula and Hawsa ; on the south by the 
Kouri of Tombo, Mosi, and Gurma ; the line of de- 
marcation here being pre-eminently obscure. All along 
the northern frontier there is great intermixture — 
men of Sunghai blood using the Fula, Hawsa (?), 
Amazig, Arabic, Serawulli (?), and Mandingo dialects, 
and vice versa. Gogo, the ancient capital of a kingdom, 
stands in Sunghai ground. Timbuktu, more famous 

* For the explanation of these two columns see the appendix. 



TUB KOURI. 



581 



still, does the same. To the south of Timbuktti the 
Ireffenaten Tuariks have intruded far in the direction of 
the Kouri frontier ; between whom and the Niger lie 
several independent tribes ; amongst whom, it is proba- 
ble, that foreign admixture is at the 'ininimuTii. Their 
land, however, is a terra incognita. Of their language 
I only know one sample from the extreme west, and 
one from the parts about Timbuktu. 

(6.) The chief districts of the Kouri area are Gurma, 
Tombo, and Mosi. Of these, the former is less Kouri 
than the other two ; this is because Gurma is on both 
the Sunghai and the Bambarra frontiers, from each of 
which there have been pressure and encroachment. Pres- 
sure, too, and encroachment have also been effected by 
the Fulas. That Gurma is a Sunghai name, as sug- 
gested by Barth, is probable. At any rate, it is not 
native. The Gurma people call the Hawsa people 
Jongoy. The Tombo, like Gurma, has been encroached 
upon by the Fulas, so that Mosi is the district which 
is most especially Kouri. It is Pagan, and broken up 
into small principalities. The Bambarra name for the 
Mosi is Moreba. The Mosi themselves call — 



The Fulas . 

— Sunghai 

— Gurma 


Chilmigo, 
Marenga, 
Bimba, 


— Wangara 

— Hawsa 

— Ashantis 


Taurearga, 

Zangoro, 

Santi. 



Kolle calls it the North-Eastern High Soudanian, but 
the present writer, in 1855, suggested the name under 
notice on the strength of a vocabulary of Mrs. Kil- 
ham's, representing the same language with the Tembu 
of the Mithridates. In the Polyglotta Africana there 
is also a Kaure, as well as a Kiamba, Dzhamba, or 
Tem specimen. 

The members of this group, according to Kolle, are 



582 THE KOURI. 

1. Mose ; 2. Dselana ; 3. Guren ; 4. Gurma ; 5. Le- 
gba ; 6, Kaure ; 7. Kiamba ; 8. Koama ; 9. Bagba- 
lan ; 10. Yula ; 11. Kasm. Of all of these forms of 
speech KoUe gives specimens. 

To this we may add the Yngwe, and Dagwhumba 
numerals of Bowdich. 

In Clarke we get the following additions: — ^1. Yana; 

2. Brinni ; 3. Nibulu ; 4. and no less than 4 Tsham- 
bas. 

Yana is stated to be near Appa and Tshamba. It is, 
probably, a transitional dialect, with Inta, Mandingo, 
Yoruba, and I bo affinities. 

The Brinni are called a tribe of the Fula race in the 
interior, not far from Umwalum and Tshamba. Bangsa 
and Pumpluna are near to Tshamba. This statement as 
to the Fula affinity is exceptionable. They are de- 
cidedly in the same class with the Nibulu. 

Nibulu is simply said to be in the Tshamba country. 

When we look to the word Tshamba itself, we learn 
that there are three or more places of this name, 1st, 
near Igarra, on the river Odu ; 2nd, between Mandingo 
and the Kong Mountains ; 3rd, near Corisco Bay at 
Nibulu. Now as Tshamba is the word of salutation 
at this place, some confusion may have arisen, which 
future researches will explain. At any rate, the 
combination mb preceded by k, t, sh, &c., is common. 
There is the Tim6u country on the Senegambia, Kim6o, 
Tim6u-ctu, Aquim6o, Adampi. In Balbi there is a 
Tjem6u or Kassenti. The Tambu of Oldendorp is the 
TdamY>i of the Gold Coast. Whatever may be the 
explanation of all this, it is clear that the word as a 
name of the class under consideration is inconvenient. 
Whether Kouri (the term proposed by the present writer) 
be the best name is another question. It is less am- 
biguous than Tshamba ; shorter than North-Eastern High 
Sudanian. 

The watershed, marked in the map as the Mountains 



THE KOURI. 



583 



of Kong, between the rivers which empty themselves into 
the Gulf of Guinea (the Yolta, &c.) and the feeders on 
the right bank of the Niger, belongs to the Kouri country, 
which, in some parts, touches the Niger itself It lies in 
the longitude of Greenwich, and (perhaps) 8 degrees on 
each side of it, and in 1 N. L. It is certainly a broken 
and mountainous country with a pagan population. 

The question which now arises touches the accuracy 
of the boundary by Kolle, who limits the group under 
notice to the forms of speech enumerated by him. I 
would add to it, at least, two of his South African lan- 
guages, the Barba, and the Boko. The Barba he iden- 
tifies, from memory, with the Borgu of the Hawsa. 
Boko touches Busa on the Koara. 



English, head, hair. 
Barba, wiru, siru. 
Mose, zuru. 
Legba, nyoro. 
Kaure, nyoro. 
Kasm, yum. 
Aku, &c., oru. 

English, face. 
Barba, wusoa. 
Legba, esa. 
Kaure, esa. 



Kiamba, esancla. 
Aku, odsu. 
Kambali, Hsu. 

English, nose. 
Barba, nueru. 
Mose, nyore. 
Guresa, nyor. 

English, eye. 
Barba, noni. 
Mose, nini. 
Gruresa, nun. 



I English, ear. 
j Barba, so. 

Boko, zea. 

Guresa, tui. 

English, mouth. 
Barba, no. 
Legba, nolo. 
Koama, ni. 
Kasm, ni. 



That the Boko and Barba should be Kouri is only 
what we expect from their geographical situation. 

Is there any other class besides the Kouri for the un- 
explored parts between the Kong Mountains and the 
Niger ? In other words, do we, when we get the Kouri 
class, get a class that completes our ethnographic and 
philologic knowledge for these parts? We do. No 
unplaced language is likely to be discovered. This is 
inferred from the fact of the limits of the Kouri class, 
being formed, on all sides, by some known language. 
Thus: 

I. On the north, it touches, and, perhaps, graduates 
into, the Mandingo, Sunghai, and Hawsa. 



684 



THE KOUKI. 



2. On the south, it touches the Km, the Avekvom, 
the Inta, the Dahomey, and Yoruba groups of the 
Grain, Ivory, Gold, and Slave coasts. 

3. On the east it reaches the Hawsa, and 

4. On the east, and south-east, the Nufi. 
With all of which it has miscellaneous affinities. 

If the Kouri has relations to the Mandingo and the 
Nufi on one side, it has also relations to the Sunghai of 
Timbuktu on the other. Perhaps, it is the language to 
which the Sunghai of Timbuktu is most especially like. 
The pronoun of the first person singular is ai, or a in 
both the Timbuktti of Kolle, and his Yula and Kasm ; 
to say nothing of other definite glossarial likeness. 

That the so-called South-African characteristics were 
likely to be found in the Kouri is stated in the paper 
of April 27, 1855. I now add that ahalo — man. 
The name of a Kouri population is nibalu ; probably 
=2 men. Should this be shown to be the case, we have 
the Kaffir-like plurals in a fresh language. 

{Kouri dialects.) 



English. 


Koama. 


Bagbalan. 


Man 


mbal 


bala 


Woman 


hal 


hala 


Head 


nynn 


nyi 


Hair 


nyipose 


nyupun 


Nose 


mese 


misan 


Eye 


se 


sian 


Ear 


dera 


deral 


Tooth 


kele 


nila 


Tongue 


mandelem 


dendelman 


Sun 


iya 


iwia 


Fire 


nien 


nyin 


Water 


le 


uen. 


English. 


Kasm. 


Yula. 


Man 


nokio 


baro 


Woman 


kam 


kam 


Head 


yiru 


yuru 


Hair 


iye 


yua 


Nose 


moe 


mui 


Eye 


yi 


yibn 


Ewr 


ze 


zoa 





THE YORUBA. 




5 


English. 




Kasm. 






Yula. 


Tooth 




nyal 






iyele 


Tongue 




dendele 






dendele 


Sun 




iya 






we 


Fire 




men 






men 


Water 




na 






na. 


English. 


Kambali. 




English. 


Kambali. 


Man 


wale 






Ear 




atsuvu 


Woman 


waha 






Tooth 


uno 


Head 


adsin 






Tongue 


anga 


Hair 


hondsi 






Sun 




urana 


Nose 


vunu 






Fire 




ahina 


Eye 


lisn 






Water 


moni. 


English. 


Mose. 


Dzelana 




Guresa. 


Gurma. 


Man 


dawa 


do 




nedo 


odso 


Woman 


para 


pora 




pura 


wopua 


Head 


zuru 


zoh 




zu 


yuli 


Hair 


kodwdo 


zuih 




su 


tiyudi 


Nose 


nyore 


mer 




nyuara 


amiare 


Eye 


nine 


nump 




nun 


numu 


Ear 


towre 


tepar 




tui 


tuwili 


Tooth 


nyena 


nor 




nanbana nyawu 


Tongue 


zilamd 


dselenk 


gingelona lamba 


Sun 


nuende 


gmint 




wumbr 


oyenu 


Fire 


burum 


borom 




bolam 


omu 


Water 


kom 


nyam 




nylam 


nyima. 


English. 


Legba. 




Kaure. 




Keamba. 


Man 


abalo 




abalo 




ebalo 


Woman 


alo 




alo 




alo 


Head 


nyoro 




nyoro 




kudyo 


Hair 


nyos 




nyos 




nyoz 


Nose 


mire 




moro 




numbon 


Eye 


esire 




esire 




esire 


Ear 


mungbanuro 


tingbanu 


eligbamu 


Tooth 


nolo 




nor 




noa 


Tongue 


isuromule 


nsolumere 


esuromo 


SVM 


elim 




wes 




woze 


Fire 


koko 




gmin 




nimin 


Water 


lam 






lem 




lem. 



585 



(7.) The YoTuha area lies, there or thereabouts, be- 
tween 2° and G° W. L., and 6° and 10° N. L., being 
bounded by the Dahomey, the Kouri (?), the Nufi, and 
the Ibo languages and the sea. The Fula has en- 
croached upon it. It has a well-defined boundary, and the 



586 THE YORUBA. 

language is well defined also : indeed, few African lan- 
guages are better capable of being definitely limited. So 
is it geographically, so philologically. Its nearest con- 
geners are the Kouri, Nufi, and Ibo, and it has miscel- 
laneous affinities besides. Until the publication of Crow- 
ther's grammar, the author of which, himself a native 
of the country, is a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land, little was known of it beyond a few vocabulary 
specimens. It has now been studied with more than 
average attention. A paper upon it by D'Avezac in 
the Transactions of the lYench Ethnological Society 
enlarged upon the extent to which it was what was 
called a monosyllabic language. . But are not all lan- 
guages, when we get to the roots, something of the 
kind ? The real fact is this — without being more mono- 
syllabic than many other tongues, the Yoruba is more 
easily than many others reducible to its elements. The 
best analysis of it is by Bishop Vidal the editor of Crow- 
ther's second edition. He enlarges upon the extent to 
which it is deficient of inflection. This means that the 
relations of time and place are expressed by separate 
words. He takes note of the important part played by 
accents. 

He notes, too, what he calls the Vocalic Euphony. 
Let the vowels be separated into two classes, and let o, e, 
i, ^, u, and u be called open ; whilst o, e, a, and a, are 
close. Let the full forms of the pronouns be erne z=. I, 
iwo — thou, on — he, she, or it. When these precede 
verbs like ko, shi, she, shi, ku, or lu, they are mo, o, and 
6, i. e. open. Whereas if they precede verbs like ko, fe, 
la, or kco, they are close. The same is the case with the 
negative particle which is ki, ko, or kg, according to the 
vowel of the verb. He indicates either a germ or a 
fragment of a like system in the Hawsa. 

Another reniarkable phenomenon — by means of a 
regular system of prefixes we get fi'om a root like shezz 
sin, the following derivatives : — 



THE YORUBA. 587 

a. Prefix i, and the root becomes either an infinitive 
verb, or something closely akin to it, i. e. if she =. do, fe 
-zzlove, mo=:knoWy or loz=.go, ise, ife, irao, ilgzzthe act 
of doing, loving, &c. 

h. A more concrete meaning is given by substituting 
a for i. Thus, afe iz a state of loving, alozna going. 

c. Ali gives an inchoative sense ; thus atilozzthe act 
of going ; atife-zzthe act of loving, considered as not 
yet in full exercise, but about to be so. 

d. A 'w, B, negative ; hence, a-imo =. not knowing, or 
igno7^ance. 

e. A also denotes an agent; thus, from pejja=:fish, 
and konrin =. sing, we get apejja =. a fisherman, aJconrin 
zza singer. 

f Ni = have ; and, as a prefix, implies the posses- 
sion of the attribute suggested by the verb. Thus, 
idajq zz. judgment comes nidajo =. to j^ossess judgment. 
In certain cases in which the vocalic euphony plays a 
part, this n becomes I, as it is in the example of tbe 
table. 

g. Prefix, where ni is retained, o, and, in other 
cases, the initial vowel of the word which it precedes, 
and it gives a noun like onidajo — one who judges, or 
judge. 

Vocabularies headed (1) Ota, (2) Egba, (3) Idsesa, 
(4) Yagba, (5) Eki, (6) Dsumu, (7) Oworo, (8) Dsebu, 
(9) Ife, (9) Ondo, (10) Dsekiri, in addition to the 
Yoruba Proper, are all to be found in Kolle, as sub- 
dialects of the Aku : followed by one of the Igala as a 
separate dialect — falling, however, into no sub-dialects. 

(8.) The Nufl Class. — Mutatis mutandis, the criticism 
which applies to Kolle's North-Eastern High Sudanian, 
applies to his Niger-Tshadda, class. It may more con- 
veniently be called Nufi, from its chief language. 

Additions are to be made to it from the pages of the 
Polyglotta Africana itself ; viz. : — 



588 



THE NUFI. 



1. The Yala, an unclassed language, is Nufi. 

2. The Dsuku and Eregba, which Kolle makes South 
African, are Nufi. 

In the Polyglotta Africana, the Dsuku, along with 
the Eregba, forms the third section of the eighth group, 
headed Atam Languages ; whilst the first of Part 2 
contains South African Languages, distinguished by 
an initial inflection. As such, it is separated from 1. 
Nupe ; 2. Kupa ; 3. Esitako ; 4. Musu ; 5. Goali ; 6. 
Basa ; 7. Ebe ; 8. Opanda ; 9. Egbira-Hima. To 
these, however, the vocabulary connects it, at least, as 
much as to any other group. 



English. 


Appa. 


Eregba. 


Dsuku. 


One 


uniieen 


unye 


atsu 


Two 


ifa 


ifa 


apiana 


Three 


ita 


ita 


atsala 


Four 


ini 


ini 


anyera 


Five 


itun 


ithu 


tsoana 


Six 


teniieh 


itinye 


tsindse 


Seven 


tifa 


itafa 


atsumpi 


Eight 


tita 


itita 


tsuntsa 


Nine 


tini 


itini 


tsunyo 


Ten 


ubo 


ubo 


atsue. 



If we now look back upon the details of these two 
classes, we find them to run as follows : — 

1. In the Kouri, we have the Kouri of Mrs. Kilham, 
the Tembu of Oldendorp, and the Mithridates, the Hio, 
Ypgwe, and Dagumba of Bowdich, the Mose, Dselana, 
Guren, Gurma, Legba, Kauri, Kiamba, Koama, Bagba- 
lan, Barba, and Boko of Kolle ; the Yana, Brinni, 
Nibulu, and 4 Tshambas of Clarke. 

2. The Nufi contains the forms of speech illustrated 
by the following vocabularies : Nupi, Appa, Kupa, 
Esitako, Musu, Goali, Basa, Ebe, Opanda, Egbira-Hima, 
Ergeba, Dsuku, Tapua (Tappa), Biyanni, Shabbie, Ka- 
kanda, Nupaysi. 

Apparently, a language of Kolle's, called the Kambali, 
is intermediate to the Nufi and the Kouri. 



THE BATTA. 



589 



(9.) The preliminary remarks of Dr. Barth on the 
Batta lano^uage are as folloAVs : — '' The Batta-ntshi is 
spoken from Garrua, a place three days E. of Yola, in the 
district of Kokorni, as far as Batshama, three days E. of 
Hammarua. To this language belong the names of the 
two large rivers of Adamawa, Faro, ' the river/ and 
Benoe, Hhe mother of waters/ 

" The other languages are the following : — The Btima- 
ntshi, spoken by the Umbum and in Baia ; the Dama- 
ntshi, the language of Bobanjidda ; the Buta-ntshi ; the 
Tekar-tshi ; the Munda-ntshi ; the Fala-ntshi ; the 
Marga-ntshi ; the Kilba-ntshi ; the Yangur-tshi ; the 
Guda-ntshi, spoken by a very learned people, the Gudu, 
living on a plain surrounded by mountains, near Song ; 
the Tshamba-ntshi ; the Kotofa-ntshi, spoken by the 
Kotofo, whose large river, the Dewo, comes from Kout- 
sha and joins the Benue ; the Wera-ntshi ; the Dura- 
ntshi ; the Woka-ntshi ; the Toga-ntshi : the Lekam- 
tshi ; the Parpar-tshi ; the Kankam-tshi ; the Nyang- 
eyare-tshi ; the Musga-ntshi ; the Mandara-ntshi ; the 
Gizaga-ntshi ; the Ruma-ntshi ; the Gidar-ntshi : the 
Daba-ntshi ; the Hina-ntshi ; the Maturna-ntshi ; the 
Sina-ntshi ; the Momoyee-ntshi ; the Fani-ntshi ; the 
Nyega-ntshi ; and finally the Dewa-ntshi ; all these lan- 
guages being so widely different from each other, that a 
man who knows one of them does not at all understand 
the others/' 



English. 


Batta. 


English. 


Batta. 


Sun 


motslie 


Water 


be 


Heaven 


kade 


Fire 


die 


Star 


motshe kan 


People 


manope 


Wind 


koe 


Man 


mano 


Rain 


bole 


Woman 


metslie 


Dry season 


ptia 


Mother 


nogi or noi 


Rainy 


bole basi 


Father 


bagir 


Day 


motsbe 


Child, hoy 


labai 


NiyU 


motsheken 


Daughter 


jetslie 


Yesterday 


zodo 


Brother 


labenno 


To-day 


fido 


Sister 


jetsbono 


To-morrow 


tua 


Friend 


dawai 



590 


THE BATTA. 




English. 


Batta. 


English. 


Batta. 


Enemy 


kawe 


Mountain 


faratshe 


Sultan, king 


homai 


Valley 


kadembe 


Slave 


keze 


River 


be-noe, faro 


Female slave 


kezametshe 


River overfloio 


Mg be-bake 


Bead 


l)6daslii 


Garden 


wadi. 


Eye 


bashl 


Well 


btilambe 


Nose 


ikilo 


Tree 


kade? 


Ear 


kakkilo 


Grass } 
Herbage y 




Mouth 


bratshi 


tsbame 


Tooth 


nesudabtshe 


Small 


keng 


Tongue 


ateazido 


Large 


baka 


Arm 


boratshe 


Far, distant 


bong 


Heart 


teleshe 


Near 


abong 


Leg 


bora 


Good 


Izedo 


Milk 


pamde 


Bad 


azedo 


Butter 


mare 


Warm 


tenibo 


Ghussuh 


lamashe 


I hear 


hakkeli 


Ghafuli 


kakasbe 


I do not hear 


takeU 


Rice 


boiyanga 


I see 


hiUe 


Baseen 


dabtshe 


I do not see 


tale 


Honey 


moratshe 


I speak 


nabawata 


Salt 


fite 


I sleep 


bashlno 


Meat 


lue 


I eat 


nazumu 


Fruit 


nawa dokade 


Eat, imp. 


ZTiazum, zuengosso 


Shirt 


tirkute 


/ dnnh 


nasa 


Spear 


kube 


Drink, imp. 


zuabasa 


Sword 


songai 


I go 


nawado 


Bow 


rie 


Go, imp. 


joado 


Arrow 


galbai 


I come 


nabasi 


Quiver 


kossure 


Come, imp. 


sua 


Boat 


damagere 


Give, imp. 


tenigo 


Hut, home 


final 


Take, imp. 


zu^ngura 


Nat 


kaje 


/ 


hennebo 


Cooking-pot 


borashe 


Thou 


mano 


Basket 


sbilai 


One 


hido 


Horse 


dual 


Two 


pe 


Mare 


dometsbi 


Three 


makin 


Ox 


nakai 


Four 


fat 


Cow 


metsbe nakai 


Five 


tuf 


Camel, donkey 


do not exist 


Six 


tokuldaka 


Sheep 


bag^mre 


Seven 


tokulape 


Goat 


bagai 


Eight 


farfat 


Bog 


borashe 


Nine 


t^mbido 


Lion 


turum 


Ten 


bu 


Fish 


rufai 


Eleven 


bu umbidi hide 


Bird 


yaro 


Twelve 


bu 6mbidl pe 


A plain 


yolde 


Thirteen 


bu timbidi makin 





THE 


FULA. 


69 


Englisli. 


Batta. 


English. 


Batta. 


Twenty 


raanobupe 


Eighty 


manobu farfat 


Twenty-one 


manobupe hido 


Ninety 


manobu t^mbido 


Thirty 


manobumakin 


One hundred aru 


Forty 


manobufat 


One thousand debu (Hausa) 


Fifty 


manobutuf 




Forms of Salutation. 


Sixty 


manobutokuldaka 




bokuda yo 


Seventy 


maonbu tokulape 




yalabare bide. 



(10.) A few remarks may now be made upon another 
language : one of greater political and geographical im- 
portance than any of the preceding class ; a language 
hitherto uncultivated, but one which is, by no means, un- 
likely to develope itself as the medium of an imperfect 
native literature, nor yet likely to be overlooked by the 
missionary and merchant for religious and commercial 
purposes. I mean the Fula, Fulah, Felletta, Fellata, 
Fulani, Fulanie, Filani, and Filanie tongue. A native 
conqueror, scarcely a generation back, named Danfodio, 
spread the Fula conquests as far west as Bornu and the 
frontier of Waday. He carried them far into the Hawsa, 
Yoruba, Sunghai, and Kanuri countries. He was a Ma- 
hometan, and, as such, the leader of a population strongly 
contrasted with the native pagans of the true and typical 
Negro conformation. From this the Fula physiognomy 
departed, though not always to the same extent. As a 
general rule, however, the Fula skin was lighter ; so 
much so, that one section has long been known as the 
Eed Peuls or Fulas. 

The chief languages with which the Fula was at 
first compared, were those of the countries into which 
it intruded ; the Hawsa, Yoruba, Bornui, &c. It was 
not likely to show very decided affinities with these ; 
inasmuch as they lay beyond the pale of its proper and 
original situs. What this original situs, however, was 
is easily investigated. The home of the race seems to 
have been the highlands that form the watershed of the 
Senegal and Gambia ; so that the languages with which it 
originally came in the closest contact were the Woloff 
and Mandingo. But as the Mandingo itself has en- 



592 THE SERAWULLI. 

croaclied on the forms of speech in its neighbourhood, 
much displacement and obliteration of such intermediate 
forms of speech as ma}^ have originally existed has been 
effected. We do not, then, expect very decided affinities 
even here. It is tlie opinion of the present writer, how- 
ever, that, whether great or small, they are greater in 
this direction, than any other ; the Woloff being the 
nearest congener, and the nearest approach to a tran- 
sitional tongue being the SerawuUi. The very scanty 
specimens of the Mitlividates are enough to suggest this 
— these making the Serawulli partly Woloff, partly 
Mandingo, partly Fula. If so, the affinities are thus : 

Woloff Serawolli 

Felup, &c., Serere Fula 

I I 

Mandingo 

This, however, is in anticipation of the languages of 
another group. 

(11.) The Tibbu will be noticed in the Appendix. 

The jfirst language of the next class is the Sera- 
wulli or Seracolet, conterminous with the Arabic on the 
north, and the Woloff on the west, and spoken over an 
extensive, but imperfectly-explored district towards the 
Fouth-western frontier of the Sahara. Parts of Ludamar, 
Galam, Kaarta, and the Bambarra country, are Sera- 
wulli. Kolle states that there are six Serawulli tribes, 
the Gadsaga, the Gidemara, the Hanyaga, the Dzafuna, 
the Haire, and the Gangari. Their physical form is that 
of the Woloff, and Sereres ; their Mahometanism equally 
imperfect. Their energy and intelligence have been 
extolled. 

The area given to the Azeriye, Aswarek, or Swaninki, 
by Barth, is of considerable size and importance : ex- 
tending from the parts about Sangsangdi, which he par- 
ticularly says was, originally, an "Aswarek town, to Wa- 
nad, in N. L. 21°. Now this is the most northern spot 
where a Negro population is found in situ. The lan- 
guage is, of course, in contact with the Arabic and 



THE WOLOF, ETC. 593 

Amazig, or with the Arabic by which the Amazig has 
been replaced, no Negro language being at this degree of 
latitude in contact with it. On the south, it is met by 
the Wolof, the Sungai, the Fula, and the Mandingo of 
Barabarra : possibly by some of the Kouri dialects. 
The blood of many a man who speaks Arabic must be 
more or less Azeriye. 

The great centre of the Aswarek seems to have been 
El Hodh ; Baghena being the district wherein, at present, 
they are most numerous. 

The Sereres is spoken about Cape Verd, the Wolof 
being spoken all round it. It is isolated, but has 
miscellaneous affinities. We have no grammar of it and 
but few vocabularies. 

The Wolof, or Jolof, is spoken between the Senegal 
and the Gambia ; not, however, continuously. It is 
interrupted in the parts about Cape Yerd. On the 
north it is bounded by the Arabic of Ludamar. 

It is the first true Negro language of the seaside 
which is met with on the western coast of Africa. 
The States or kingdoms of Walo, Baol, and Kayor 
(this last being to the north of the Senegal), are 
Wolof. Kajaga, or Galam, is partly so. 

A grammar by Dard {Grammaire Ouloff) is our chief 
authority for its structure ; in which the peculiarity 
which has attracted most attention is the initial change 
of the article. It begins with the consonant of the noun 
to which it belongs ; whatever that consonant may be. 

Such congeners as the Wolof may have had to the 
north have been swept away by the Arabic of the 
Moors ; so that on one side, at least, it is an isolated 
language. Neither are its other affinities either very 
decided or very numerous ; but, on the contrary, few and 
miscellaneous. They are greatest, however, with the 
languages with which it is conterminous. On the west, 
it is cut off by the ocean. In the direction of Cape 
Verd it seems to have encroached. 

Q Q 



594 



PAPEL, ETC. 



Now comes a group of a miscellaneous, artificial, and 
provisional character ; consisting of certain true Negro 
languages spoken between the Wolof and Mandingo 
areas and the Ocean. 

Padsade is the name of a vocabulary in Kolle, taken 
from a native of a town called Udadsa three or four 
days' journey from the sea. 



English. 


Padsade. 


English. 


Padsade. 


Man 


usia 


Ear 


kunofe 


Woman 


udsafe 


Tooth 


manye 


Head 


pofa 


Tongue 


pulema 


Hair 


pasads 


Sun 


pudyade 


Nose 


nyasin 


Fire 


nukus 


Eye 


masa 


Water 


mambea. 



The Biafada, akin to it, is spoken on some, but not 
on all, of the islands of the Bissago group. 



English. 


Biafada. 


English. 


Biafada. 


Man 


usa 


Ear 


gunufa 


Woman 


unali 


Tooth 


akede 


Head 


buofa 


Tongue 


w'udema 


Hair 


gamboei 


Sun 


wunari 


Nose 


gandzini 


Fire 


furu 


Eye 


agiri 


Water 


mambia. 



The Pap el, a representative of a fresh class, lies to 
the south of the Cacheo and on one or more of the 
Bissaofo islands. 



English. 


Papel. 


Kanyop. 


Man 


nyient 


nent 


Wom^n 


nyas 


nat 


Head 


bene 


behen 


Hair 


oyele 


uel 


Nose 


bihl 


bies 


Eye 


pekil 


kikasi, behen 


Ear 


kebars 


kabat 


Tooth 


pinyi 


iromagi 


Tongue 


perempte 


priamd 


Sun 
Fire 


ono 
buro 


buno 


Water 


inunsop 


mleg. 



THE FELUP, ETC. 



595 



English. 


Sarar. 


Bolar. 


Man 


nyient 


nyendz 


Woman 


nyat 


nyadz 


Head 


bugou 


bukou 


Hair 


wel 


wuel 


Nose 


biz 


biz 


Eye 


pugas 


pekatz 


Ear 


kewat 


kebadz 


Tooth 


punin 


punyi 


Tongue 


pundiamont 


pndemnt 


Sun 


onuar 


onor 


Fire 


budua 


mel 


Water 


budo 


mel. 



The Bulanda, akin to the Papel, &;c., is spoken in a 
part of the Bissago archipelago and on the continent. 



English. 


Bulanda. 


English. 


Bulanda. 


Man 


nyendz 


Ear 


gelo 


Woman 


gnin 


Tooth 


ksit 


Head 


ko 


Tongue 


demadn 


Hair 


wul 


Sun 


lehn 


Nose 


pfuna 


Fire 


kledsa 


Eye 


fket 


Water 


wede. 



Three populations are named Bago ; one of which 
— that of the Kalum Bago — speaks a dialect of the 
Timmani. 



English. 


Timmani. 


Bago. 


Landoma. 


Man 
Woman 


wanduni • 
wunibom 


iriquni 
irani 


oruni 
orani 


Head 
Hair 


rabump 
rafon 


dabomp 
kofon 


dabump 
kofon 


Nose 
Eye 


asot 
rafor 


tasot 
dafor 


tasut 
dafor 


Ear 

Tooth 

Tongue 

Sun 


alens 
rasek 
ramez 
ret 


aranes 
dasek 
darner 
det 


alenas 
dasik 
da,inir 
keten 


Fire 
Water 


nant 
mant 


nants 
namun 


nents 
damun mants 



The Felups lie along the coast between the Gambia 
and the Casamanca. 

Q Q 2 



596 



English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Hair 

Nose 

Eye 



THE 


FELUP, 


ETC. 


Felup. 






English. 


aneine 






Ear 


aseh 






Tooth 


fokou 






Tongue 


wal 






Sun 


enyundo 






Fire 


gizil 






Water 



Felup. 

gano 

finin 

furcrop 

bunah 

sambul 

momel. 



Two other languages still stand over for notice ; the 
I^alu and the Bagnon, spoken on and to the south of 
the Nunez. Of the Sapi, eo nomine^ we have no 
specimens. 



English. 




Nalu. 




Bagnon. 


Man 




lamkiele 




udigen 


Woman 


lamfai 




udikam 


Head 




konki 




bigof 


Hair 




mileou 




dsegan 


Nose 




miayeni 




nyankin 


Eye 




nkiet 




kegil 


Ear 




mineau 




kinuf 


Mouth 




misole 




bure 


Tooth 




mfet 




harl 


Tongue 




milembe 




buremudz 


Sun 




miyakat 




binek 


Eire 




met 




kuade 


Water 




nual 




mundu. 


English. 


Wolof. 


Serawulli. 


Mandingo 


Bullom. 


Man 


gor 


yugo 


ke 


nopugan 


Woman 


dzhigen 


yahare 


muso 


noma 


Head 


buob 


yime 


ku 


bol 


Nose 


bokan 


norune 


nu 


umin 


Eye 


bot 


yare 


nya 


llfol 


Ear 


nop 


taro 


tulo 


nui 


Mouth 


gemei 


rake 


da 


nyen 


Tooth 


bei 


kambe 


nyi 


idsan 


Tongue 


lamei 


nene 


ne(i 


limelim 


Sim 


dzhagat 


kiu 


tele 


lepal 


Fire 


sefara 


imbe 


ta 


dyom 


Watei^ 


ndoh 


dsi 


dsi 


mem. 



The system of affinities here is complex. In the 
Mandingo class the Gbandi, Landoro, and Mendi, appear 
to lead, through the Kissi, the Timmani, and the Bullom, 
and through these to the Papel, Felup, Wolof, &;c. 



TABLE OF AFFINITIES, ETC. 



597 



The Gbese, Toma, Mano, and Gio lead (as their geo- 
graphy suggests) to the Kru forms of speech ; these 
leading to the Inta tongues of the Gold Coast, &c. 

Lastly, the Mandingo Proper points to the Wolof, 
through the Serawulli. 

If so, the classification is that of the following map, 
table, or diagram : — 



Wolof- 



Felup 



Serawulli, &c. 

Mandingo 

Susu 

I 
Mendi 



Kissi 

I I 

Timmani 

I 
Mano and Gio 

I 
Kru 

I 
Inta, &c. 



Of these the Timmani and Wolof, from the con- 
spicuous character of their initial changes, which, in the 
latter of the two languages, are well known, have gene- 
rally been treated as either isolate or South African. 



598 



THE HOTTENTOT. 



CHAPTER LXXI 



The Hottentot. 



With the Hottentots, decided philological, coincide with 
decided anatomical, differences ; though, with each, there 
has been exaggeration. In the Danimara country the 
difference between the Hottentot and the Kaffir is at 
its minimum. 



English. 


Bushman. 


Korana. 


Saldanha Bay. 


Hottentot. 


Man {homo) 


t'kui 


t'kohn 




quorque 


(vir) 


t'na 


kouh, kauh 






Woman 


t'aifi 


chaisas 


ankona 


kyviquis 


Mead 


t'naa 


minuong 




biqua 


Eye 


t'saguli 


mumh 




mu 


^ar 


t'no-eingtu 


t'naum 


nabo 


nouw 


Nose 


t'nuhntu 


t'geub 


tui, zakui 


thuke, quoi 


Tongue 


finn 


tamma 


tamme 


tamma 


Hair 


t'uki 


t'oukoa 




nuqua-an 


Hand 


t'aa 


t'koam 


onecoa 


orama 


Foot 


t'o6ah 


t'keib 


coap 


itqua, yi 


SJcy 


t'gachuh 





homma 




Earth 


t'kanguh 





bo 


kamkamma 


Hun . 


t'koara 


sorohb 


sore 


sorre 


Moon 


tkaukSruh 


t'kaam 




toba 


Fire 


t'jih 


t'aib 




ei 


Water 


t'kohaa 


fkamma 


ouata 


kam 


One 


t'koay 


t'koey 




q'kui 


Two 


t'kuh 


t'koam 




k'kam 


Three 




t'norra 




k'oune. 



The sound expressed by t' is what is generally known 
as the Hottentot click. It is said to be found in some 
of the Bichuana dialects of the Kaffir. 



r^ 



THE AFRICAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 599 

Library^ 

Of 



CHAPTER LXXII. 

On the African Languages in general. 

Like Polynesia, Africa is connected with Asia by an 
isthmus ; a fact which narrows the range of its philolo- 
gical affinities. 

Like South America, Africa is separated from its 
nearest continent not only by an isthmus but by a 
narrow pass of water besides ; a fact which gives two 
lines of migration — neither of them either implied or 
excluded by the other. 

In the way of displacement on the frontier between 
Africa and Asia, the movement has been double. 
From Arabia there has been an extension northward ; 
from Tartary and Persia an extension southwards and 
westwards. Add to this that for the whole of northern 
Africa we have little but the dialects of the Berber 
and Arabic, and the great width of the separation of 
the languages on the outcrop becomes evident ; for, 
from Nubia and Abyssinia there is little in situ 
before we reach Caucasus on the one side and the 
Brahui districts of Persia on the other. Let those, how- 
ever, who believe that any amount of displacement pro- 
duces anything like absolute isolation (i. 6. a language 
without, at least, miscellaneous affinities,) compare, en 
masse, Beke's Abyssinian and Klaproth's Caucasian vo- 
cabularies. Should they put down the coincidences to acci- 
dent, let them compare the vocabularies of either series 
with something still further apart and they will find a de- 



600 THE AFRICAN LANGUAGES 

crease. Whether few or many, coincidences are distri- 
buted regularly rather than hap-hazard. 

The African and Semitic languages are said to be cha- 
racterized by a great development of the predicate, the 
Indo-European by a great development of the copula. 
This means, so far as it means anything, that whilst 
certain modes of action, such as the inchoative, fre- 
quentative, and the like, are predicative ; others, like 
those involving the ideas of certainty, contingency, and 
time — those that give us the moods and tenses — are 
copular. As a matter of fact this is absolutely erro- 
neous : inasmuch as the copula merely denotes agree- 
ment or disagreement between the subject and the 
predicate, having nothing to do with modes of any kind. 
There are few elementary works upon logic, which fail 
to tel] us this. All, then, that can be said concerning 
the difference between a form giving a tense or mood, 
and a form giving an inchoative or a causative verb, 
is that, though they are both modes, they are modes 
belonging to different divisions of the genus ; and this 
the grammarian well knows, or, not knowing, acts upon 
it unconsciously ; making words like now and then 
adverbs, whilst he makes words like frequently, often, 
&;c., no more — the one adverbs of time, the other of 
manner. Whether he be consistent in drawing so broad 
a distinction between ^^rnood and tense (vocavi and vo- 
carem) on one side, and simple mode, &c. (yocito), on 
the other, is a different question. 

The expression, then, is exceptionable. How stands 
the fact it is meant to convey ? As far as it goes it is 
real. It is, however, anything but the fact in its integ- 
rity. The dictum applies to other languages besides the 
African : indeed, to all in an early stage of their de- 
velopment. In other words, forms like vocito, fee, origi- 
nate earlier than forms like vocavi, vocem. 

Upon the African character here given to the so- 
called Semitic languages, I should find it necessary to 



IN GENERAL. 601 

enlarge had there been any definite criticism applied to 
the question. However, what with mixing up ethno- 
logy with philology and looking out for Indo-European 
affinities in grammar because the Jews and Arabs are 
liker to Europeans than to Negroes ; what with treating 
an order consisting of a single genus as a large 
family or sub-kingdom ; what with the fanciful dicho- 
tomy between the Semitic and the Hamitic — what with 
these and similar elements of confusion, the main facts, 
(viz. those found in the actual examination of the African 
languages themselves) have been omitted ; the researches 
upon the Berber and Coptic being exceptions. Out of 
these has come the term iS^u^-semitic ; a term which tells 
its own story. More than this — philologues, like Newman 
and others, have recognized beyond the pale of the Berber 
(or Amazig) Berber (or Amazig) affinities ; the Hawsa 
and other languages being what they might (but do not) 
call Sub-amazig, or Sub-coptic ; affinities which, in- 
directly, extend the Semitic class Still, unless I read 
them wrongly, all these observations, however true, seem 
to be run one way only, i. e. they make the Hawsa, the 
Galla, and their congeners, Asiatic, rather than the 
Arabic, &c., African. 

Yet the system of initial changes with the conso- 
nants and of medial changes with the vowels — characters 
which have always been held Semitic — is far commoner 
in Africa than it is in Asia, and far more characte- 
ristic of many African languages than it is of any 
Asiatic ones. 

Something of the same kind of single-sightedneps 
appears in the criticism upon the Kaffir cliaracteri sties. 
They have been found far beyond the Kaffir area. But 
the effect has been to get the Fanti, tlie Grebo, and 
other languages, called South, rather than to get the 
Kaffir called JS^orth, African. 

The Semitic and the Kaffir (laying aside the Hot- 
tentot) are the two classes for which the lines of demar- 
cation have been the strongest. They are, also, those 



602 THE AFRICAN LANGUAGES 

which I confidently predict that further inquiry will, 
more especially, break down. Kespecting the other 
groups, it need only be added that Africa is the land 
which, above all others, requires us to classify by type 
rather than definition ; and that, where the divisions are 
the clearest, and the isolation the greatest, the evidence of 
encroachment and obliteration is, sometimes, historical 
as well as inferential. It is pre-eminently historical 
with the Fula. It is a most legitimate inference with 
the Hottentot. It is historical with the Galla. It is a 
legitimate influence with the Berber. 

On the direction in which the languages of the 
larger groups seems to have extended themselves I 
have but little to suggest. The uniformity of speech, 
primd facie evidence in favour of recent diffusion, 
seems to point in the great Galla class to the Danakil 
area as the starting-point. The Berber has, apparently, 
moved from east to west ; the Fula from the 
high regions be