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Full text of "Elements of conchology : an introduction to the natural history of shells and of the animals which form them"

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WILLIAM WESl I . 
Uoofc 9f || rra ft IDit bl, 3 f,rrs. 

' Stran.!. 



ELEMENTS OF CONCHOLOGY 






THE NATURAL HISTORY OE ^HELL- 



THE A>TUALS "WHICH FORM THEM. 



LOVELL REEVE, E.L.S.. F.G.S. 

COUi> iT>l OF NaT il OF MW >.u UK1 M 

■ 



cr two VOLUMES. 

- - 

VOL. I. 




PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 

V. " \ > tfETTA STREET. CO VENT GARDEN 

1S60. 



"Beneath the waves there are many dominions yet to be visited and king- 
doms to be discovered ; and he who venturously brings up from the abyss 
enough of their inhabitants to discover the physiognomy of the country, will 
taste that cup of delight, the sweetness of whose draught those only who have 
made a discovery know." — Edward Forbes. 






2L- 



PREFACE. 



Edward Forbes, in his delightful ' Natural History of the Euro- 
pean Seas/ remarks that " in this age of volumes, a man had 
needs offer a good excuse before adding a new book, even though 
it be a small one, to the heap already accumulated. He should 
either have something fresh to say, or be able to tell that which 
is old in a new and pleasanter way." The imperfect knowledge 
which Conchologists have of the natural history of their Shells 
would seem to argue that there is yet room for something to be 
said in reference to the objects of their admiration ; and if I have 
not much to say in the following pages that is fresh, I have, at 
least, done my best to tell what is in them in a pleasant way. 

To guide the collector in arranging his specimens, I submit a 
classification, on the Lamarckian system, of the genera, each with 
its list of species ; and to lead him to meditate, whilst pondering 
over the treasures of his cabinet, upon the too little remembered 
fact of their once living existence, a description is given of the 
structural peculiarities and habits of the animals. For figures 
of shells, with the live mollusk, I have resorted chiefly to the 
zoologies of exploring expeditions, published under the auspices 
of the French Government. The figure of Spinrfa is, however, 
an original one, from a specimen captured at Port Nicholson, 
New Zealand, by Mr. Percy Earl ; and so also are those of 



vi PREFACE. 

Carinaria and Panopaa, from specimens collected by the Rev. L. 
B. Larking, during a residence at Messina. The latter powerful 
mollusk he kept alive in vigorous health in a washing-tub. For 
information on the interesting subject of geographical distri- 
bution I am mainly indebted to the retentive memory and care- 
ful notation of habitats, during fourteen years of enterprising 
personal research in both the western and eastern hemispheres, 
of Mr. Cuming. 

It is not so much for the zoologist as for the 'collector of 
shells ' that the work is written. May I venture to hope that 
it will lead him to a more thoughtful consideration of the 
life of those beautiful objects which mark — 

" The wisdom infinite 
That brought them forth, but hid their causes deep." 

L. R. 

Ihriton, Brentwood, 

November 30t7i, 1859. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 

— ♦ 

Page 

Introductory Remarks 1 

Class 1. Cephalopoda 9 

Class 2. Gasteropoda 24 

Family 1. Convoluta 31 

2. Columellata 44 

3. purpurifera 54 

4. Alata 86 

5. Canalifera 94 

6. Parasitica 127 

7. Turbinacea 129 

8. Plicacea 151 

9. Ianthinea 154 

10. Neritacea 156 

11. Peristomata 165 

12. Melaniana 172 

13. Lymn^eana 177 

14. auriculacea 181 

15. Cyclostomacea 184 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 

Family 16. Colimacea 201 

17. Limacinea 250 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Animals, Plates A. to H. 
Shells, Plates 1 to 21 ; Fig. 1 to 122. 



ELEMENTS 



CONCHOLOGY. 



Definition of the Science. 

Conchology is that science which treats of the natural history, and arrange- 
ment of Shells and their animal inhabitants : — not of Shells alone, but of 
Shells and the animals which produce them. The former are so beautiful 
and easy of preservation, the latter so unsightly and difficult of access, that 
the Conchologist has been greatly perplexed to know how to study the 
Shell and its Mollusk with equal regard to the characters of both, and with 
a proper estimation of their physiological connection. Drawings of many 
in their native condition have, however, been published by intelligent tra- 
vellers*, and a sufficient number of typical kinds have been described and 
figured in the magnificent works of those naturalists to exhibit the true 
method of arranging shells according to their zoological affinity. 

Many erroneous impressions have prevailed in regard to systematic ar- 
rangement, for want of duly considering the important relation that must ne- 
cessarily exist between the shell and its fabricator. One classifies his shells 
according to their varieties of form and external aspect, forgetting that he 
has merely a collection of skeletons before him • — the calcified portions of 
animals possessing an organization far superior to that of the Bee, and a 
thousand creatures, whose structure and sagacity of habits have so often 
excited his admiration. Another of more abstruse habits of investigation, 
competing with the incorrectness of these views, professes the study of the 
soft parts mainly, and he even needs to be reminded that the shell, on the 
other hand, is an integral portion of the animal, — an outer or exo-skeleton, 

* Lesson, ' Voyage de la Coquille ' ; Q,uoy and Gaimard, ' Voyage de l'Astrolabe ' ; D'Orbigny, 
Voyage dans l'Amerique Meridiouale ; Deshayes, ' Mollusqucs de l'Algerie'. 



which though inferior in organic development to the inner or en do- skeleton 
of the higher orders, nevertheless exhibits certain characters and impressions 
indicative of peculiar structures, and affording good subsidiary characters 
for the distinction of groups. 

The Conchologist must look upon his shells, in the absence of the living 
parts, as a portion of those imperishable " Medals of Creation"* whose his- 
tory is suggested by their structure and animal impressions. The Cowrey shell 
may be known by its highly polished porcellanous surface, to be more or less 
entirely enveloped by some appendage of the animal ; the Siphonaria shell 
offers indications of a siphon ; the Venus shell shows the form of the lobes 
of the mantle ; and who that regards the Haliotis shell with a discerning 
eye, can fail to surmise that there must be some special design in its series of 
holes, which he may learn have been perforated by the animal in its pro- 
gress of growth for the passage of the breatliing organs. To show, too, 
that the most opposite forms may yet exhibit indications of zoological affinity, 
it may be observed that the Siliquaria shell possesses a structure similarly 
adapted, and of the same nature, as that first spoken of in the Haliotis. Here 
is an unlooked for affinity ! An intimate zoological relation between shells 
exhibiting the two extremes of convoluted forms ; — the depressed spire, and 
the tubular spire. 

Comparative Rank in the Animal System. 

A brief survey should now be taken of the Animal Kingdom in order to 
show the rank and comparative importance of the Mollusca in the genera! 
range. We are encompassed by a mass of living beings, of whom we our- 
selves constitute the grand type, whose nature and properties present a 
strange complication of affinities. For the sake of studying the several 
atoms of this complicated mass, and arranging them in order for reference, 
each individual is described and named according to what is called a bino- 
mial method ; that is, a method of two names, one denoting its general or 
generic character, the other its particular or specific character. And that 
the nomenclature may be of universal application, and acknowledged by all 
tongues and countries, it is adopted in the Latin. 

The modifications of nature are of that nice and delicate character, that 
we may trace a certain gradation of affinity from man to the animalcule. 
Although objects of extremely anomalous nature occur to disturb the subtile 
reasonings of the philosopher, yet, there is a wonderful link of relationship 
between the highest animal, man, in whom the beauty of organization is 
complete, and the lowest creature, the animalcule, in which organization is 
so simple as to present nothing more than a globule multiplying with com- 

* ManteU. 



pound rapidity by the force of spontaneous fission. It was a favorite pro- 
verb with Linnaeus " Natura non facit saltum" — Nature makes no leap — and 
if the great author of the ' Systema Naturae ' felt the force of this axiom in 
a time when the knowledge of species was extremely limited, how much 
stronger may the truth of it be now demonstrated when so many of the links 
then wanting in the chain of affinity have been revealed to observation. 
Every day we are invited to the contemplation of some new form, some new 
contribution to the general harmony of the series ; and it is this inexhaus- 
tible source of novelty that imparts such a charm to the study. There is 
a modifying force in nature, that seems ever labouring to increase the par- 
ticipation of characters that were hitherto unapproachable. She delights in 
confounding the systematist ; — she does not choose to be defined. 

Linnams lived in a time when the researches into the comparative organi- 
zation of the inferior animals were not very profound. The characters dis- 
tinguished by the modern Aristotle exhibit, frequently, a violation of natural 
affinity ; whilst they are too often artificial and void of equivalency. As 
soon as the immortal Cuvier began to look into the nervous and other com- 
plicated portions of the animal frame, the results proved to be such as to 
materially affect the prevailing method of classification. The physiological 
generalizations deduced from this new field of enquiry presented sounder 
combinations of character ; and we are indebted to as great a comparative 
anatomist of our own day*, for having matured and added to the investiga- 
tions of his illustrious predecessor. 

Cuvier did not, however, enter so minutely into the discrimination of 
species, as did his contemporary Lamarck ; the first distinction which the 
great author of the ' Histoire des animaux sans vertebres ' recognised in 
the primary distribution of the Animal Kingdom, was that of the higher 
orders, which include Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes, being furnished 
with a vertebral column supporting an internal frame or skeleton, whilst 
the remainder are destitute of any ; and he divided accordingly the Vertebrate 
from the Invertebrate. " Now it will be observed ", says Professor Owen, 
" that the invertebrate animals are here grouped together by a negative cha- 
racter, and I know not any instance where such a character has been em- 
ployed in zoology in which very differeidy organized species have not been 
associated together. What indeed can be predicated in common of the 
Snail, the Bee, and the Polype, than that they are animals and have no ver- 
tebral columns, and the like negations?" f 

Although Lamarck, therefore, may be followed in the detail of classifica- 
tion, it is necessary for the primary distribution to follow the method adopted 
by Cuvier and Owen, who divide the Animal Kingdom into four- Sub-king- 
doms, the Vertebrata, the Mollusca, the Articulata, and the Eadiata ; 

* Owen. t Hunterian Lectures 1S44. 



the last three divisions of invertebrate animals occupying each an equal de- 
gree of rank with the vertebrate. 

These four primary divisions of the Animal Kingdom may be subdivided 
into classes as follows : — 

Sub-kingdom I. VERTEBBATA. 

Class 1 Mammalia Mammals. 

2. Aves Birds. 

3. Reptilia Frogs, Lizards, Tortoises, Snakes &c. 

4. Pisces Fishes. 

Sub-kingdom II. MOLLUSCA. 

Class 1. Cephalopoda Mollusks that walk with their head down- 
wards. 

2. Gasteropoda That acquire motion by the aid of a con- 

tractile and expansile disk. 

3. Pteropoda That swim by means of a pan of wing-like 

fins. 

4. Lamellibranchiata*. .That have the branchiae, or breathing or- 

gans, in thin plates. 

5. Brachiopoda That are provided with a pan of spirally 

twisted arms. 

Sub-kingdom III. AETICULATA. 

Class 1. Lepades Barnacles. 

2. Anellides Leaches, Earth-worms, &c. 

3. Crustacea Crabs, Lobsters, Shrimps &c. 

4. Arachnida Spiders, Scorpions &c. 

5. Insecta Bees, Beetles, Butterflies, Centipedes &c'. 

Sub-kingdom IV. RADIATA. 

Class 1. Badiaria Sea Eggs, Star Fishes &c. 

2. Polypi Polypes or coral insects. 

3. Entozoa Intestinal Worms. 

4. Infusoria Animalcules. 

* In order to distinguish the classes of Mollusca by an equivalency of terms throughout, I in- 
troduced in my ' Conchologia Systematica ' the word Tropiopoda in reference to this class, founded 
on the most prominent form of the foot— the narrow keel-shape ; and it was adopted by Professor 
Macgillivray of Aberdeen in his Report of the Mollusca of that coast. It has, however, been 
since demonstrated by Professor Owen, in his Hunterian Lectures, that the foot whose modifi- 
cations offer so excellent a character for the distinction of classes in the higher orders of Mol- 
lusca, is not only too variable in its formation and uses for that purpose in the Bivalves, but 
is sometimes altogether wanting. The lamellated character of the branchia?, or breathing organs, 
has been preferred, and I now readily adopt it. Although au equivalency of terms is a great assist- 
ance to the memory, Nature is so variable in her characters that it cannot be embraced to any ex- 
tent with accuracy. 



Groioth and Structure of Shells. 

It will be seen by the foregoing arrangement that the Mollusca occupy 
the second grand division of the Animal Kingdom, and, ranging next in order 
to the Eishes, are the most higldy organized of the invertebrate series. They 
are termed Mollusks, from the Latin word mollis, soft, on account of their 
fleshy unjointed nature, without bone, or, except in the Cephalopod, any 
internal cartilaginous skeleton ; and are furnished with organs of motion, 
vision, muscular contraction &c. Their chief energies are, however, de- 
voted to the formation of a shelly covering presenting great variety of form, 
colour, and sculpture. Some mollusks, as the Aplysiana, have only a ru- 
dimentary shell, whilst others, as the Eolida, are entirely naked. 

The shell is formed by the deposite of a slimy juice which exudes from 
the glands of a filmy cloak-like organ called the mantle, and thickening in 
successive layers, becomes hardened and moulded on the body, with the ad- 
dition of such ornamental structure, as the various filamentous modifications 
of the organ promote. 

This mucous exudation consists, not, as at one time supposed, of calca- 
careous particles held together by a sort of animal glue, but of a mem- 
branous tissue, consolidated by an admixture of carbonate of Hme. All 
shells are therefore composed of two distinct elements, — animal matter and 
calcareous matter. The animal matter constitutes a membranous basis 
which is either cellular or laminary ; in some cases it is formed in cells of 
membranous walls, mostly hexagonal, into which the calcareous matter is 
infused; in others it is deposited in membranous lamina?, more or less 
wrinkled like morocco leather, with the calcareous matter in alternate layers, 
the lime in both cases imparting solidity to what would otherwise be a 
flexible stratum. These elements vary in their relative proportions accord- 
ing to circumstances ; — in those shells which are of a fibrous laminary struc- 
ture such as Puma, and the whole of the margaritaceous group, there is a large 
proportion of the membranous constituent ; whilst in the solid porccllanous 
shells, such as the Olives and Cowries, the calcareous matter preponderates, 
the parts in immediate contact with the acetose juices of the mantle becoming 
vitrified, as it were, to a higldy polished state of enamel. Great importance has 
been attached to the elementary structure of shells by the recent microsco- 
pical investigations of Dr. Carpenter*; his experiments have been most 
successfully conducted by grinding down a thin layer of shell, and placing it 
in dilute acid, the result being that the calcareous matter or Hme decomposes, 
leaving a residuum of membranous tissue. On the other hand, he des- 
cribes an instance of a mass in which the animal basis, a cellular tissue, had 

* Report of the fourteenth Meeting of the British Assoeialion p. 1. pi. 1 to 20. 



decayed, and left the calcareous portion standing in basaltifomi columns, 
(casts of the cells) not in auy way held together, and separable by the touch. 

The optical irridescence of the nacreous portion of shells, commonly called 
mother-o-pearl, has been found by the same distinguished physiologist to be 
produced by the refraction of rays of light falling on the edges of the mo- 
rocco-like wrinkles of laminary membranous substance. Under a high 
magnifying power, the nacreous surface exhibits a number of irregularly 
waved lines winch Sir John Herschell has not unaptly likened to the ap- 
pearance of the woody layers on the surface of a planed deal board. The 
brightest nacre is that with which the large Avicula of the Pacific lines 
its shell ; and the round pearls so highly esteemed by ladies as articles of 
jewellery, are occasioned by its superabundant flow. Those winch are most 
highly valued are found within and around the fleshy part of the adductor 
muscle, arising from disease or irritation. The proprietors of Pearl Fish- 
eries are said to preserve these animals alive, for the sake of irritating them 
by the introduction of a stick or other sharp instrument, producing thereby 
a disorganization of the secreting gland, which causes the pearly nacre to 
accumulate in little pea-like balls in different parts of the body. 

Beproduction and Habits. 

The reproductive system of the Mollusca is in some viviparous, in others 
oviparous ; and every kind has its allotted period and uniformity of growth. 
The shell in embryo, emerging either from the parent directly or from the 
egg, increases by the gradual deposition of mucus from the mantle in such 
varieties of form as are suitable to the habits and destiny of the animal. In 
the Cephalopods, as in the Nautilus, it assumes a discoidal growth, coiling 
upon itself on a plane with the point of the spire ; in the Gastropods it 
either revolves obliquely round an axis in the form of an enlarging spiral, 
as in the Turbo , or it takes a simple conical structure of which the Patella 
and the Dentalium may be regarded as the extreme forms ; in the Pteropods 
it presents the shape of a depressed sphere, as in the Hyalaa, or of a cylin- 
der, as in the Cwviena; whilst in the Bivalves (Lamellihranchiates and 
BrachiojJOih) the testaceous matter is deposited on a flat, simply convex, 
or concave surface, as in different species of Pecten, most of which modifica- 
tions of structure are induced by some corresponding economy in the habits 
and organization of the subjects. Some shells, such as the Cj/praa, Ma- 
f/ilus, Pterocera and a few others, present different appearances at different 
stages of growth. 

The habits of the Mollusca are extremely varied and curious. In the sea 
they are found dwelling in zones of different depths, either free or attached 
to foreign substances. About the shore, and at the depth of a few fathoms, 
where they are most prolific, they are found in mud, among sand and gravel, 



on coral reefs, under stones at low water, in the crevices of rocks, adhering 
to sea-weeds and other bodies, or imbedded in wood, coral, or limestone 
rocks. In ponds and marshes they are of a dull and stagnant nature, and 
live either floating on the surface or attached to weeds. In rivers they 
float up and down with the tide, or adhere to plants growing on the banks. 
And on lulls and in forests they live upon the branches of trees, or creep 
about the roots of slirubs and amongst the decayed and fallen leaves scat- 
tered on the earth. The ITollusea, therefore, live both in and out of water ; 
they swim, dive, float, bore, leap, climb, prey upon each other, and appear 
indeed to possess habits analogous in some way or other to all that have 
been noticed in the higher orders of animals, except that of flying. 

One of the nfost remarkable features in the natural history of the Mol- 
lnsca is the solvent property of their juices. By little or no expenditure of 
muscular power they are enabled to effect great changes in their condition. 
The Covrreii, after having arrived at maturity, has still the power of dissolving 
a great portion of its shell, and renewing it. The Pholades pierce the hardest 
limestone rocks, and increase in bulk without any apparent terebrating 
force, being foimd with the most delicate carving of their shell unin- 
jured. Indentures are also produced by Snails in limestone walls, wliilst 
in a state of cpiiescence. Many naturalists still adhere to the opinion that 
the perforations of shells are due to some mechanical action, some rotatory 
or oscillatory attrition ; and Professor Owen attributes the formation of 
these cavities to the action of constant currents of water round the shells, 
produced by minute vibratile cilia or hairs, covering certain parts of the 
animal, winch are in a constant state of activity in attracting the water ne- 
cessary to its natural existence*. That there may be a constant current 
of water flowing around these imbedded mollusks for the promotion of vita- 
lity and nourishment is highly probable, but the extraordinary progress 
which is made, with so much apparent ease, into the hardest substances, 
could not be accomplished without the collateral agency of some powerful 
solvent. The Mollusca, as already shown in speaking of the Coicreg, possess 
extraordinary powers of partially dissolving their own shells ; the inner spiral 
partitions of a Cone in an early stage of growth are thick and solid, but in 
an adult specimen they are mostly absorbed to a degree of tenuity which 
would not have given sufficient support to the primitive structure. In the 
varicose genera of Gastropods, such as Mi* rex, the mollusk has the power 
of removing any portion of the varices presenting an obstacle to its revo- 
lution of growth. In the 31/ire.r cornutus, for example, tins mode of ope- 
ration may be traced, by observing, on the left side of the aperture, the 
base of a spine winch has been removed for the purpose of paving the 
boundary of the aperture with the usual coating of enamel. 

* Eleventh Report of the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 



SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT. 



Sub-kingdom MOLLUSCA. 

At the commencement of the Molluscous series we have a group of active 
voracious animals, the Cepkalqpods*, whose physiological condition is not 
much inferior to the Fishes ; and whose history is of especial interest, on 
account of their being the living representatives of a gigantic fossil race, 
the Ammonites, &c, belonging to an incalculably remote period of the 
world's history. They are all marine, inhabitants of deep water, and only 
a limited number produce a shell of any particular substance. The head 
and body have the appearance of an oblong bag, the upper portion of which 
is crowned with a number of arms or tentacles covered with suckers, and, as 
their name indicates, they walk with the head downwards. We now descend 
in the scale of organization to an extremely numerous class, the Gastropods f 
whose habits are of a more sluggish character, and whose powers of calci- 
fication are freely and multifariously exercised. They have a distinctly 
formed head and eyes, and, as their name indicates, acquire motion by the 
dilatation and contraction of an expanded gastric disc. They are marine, 
lacustral, and terrestrial ; and all are locomotive. The next group in the order 
of arrangement is that of the Pteropods J, a limited class of small twilight 
deep-water swimmers, which obtain their powers of locomotion, as their name 
indicates, by the aid of a pair of wing- like fins ; these only produce a small 
brittle glass-like shell. The next class in the descending order is that of the 
Lamellibrancldates\, an extensive tribe whose mantle is divided into two 
lobes, each of winch produces a separate piece of shell connected together by 
a horny ligament. None of this group have any head, and a large propor- 
tion of them are incapable of motion. The last of the Molluscous series, 
the Brachiopods\\ have also a shell of two distinct pieces and are destitute 
of any head. Their peculiarity consists in being furnished with a pair of 
spiral arms, and they are differently placed witliin the shell. All live attached 
to foreign bodies. 

* From Kf(f)a\r] (kephale) head, and novs (pous) foot. 
t From ya<rrr)p (gaster) belli/, and novs (pous) /oo^. 
X From nrepov (ptcron) wing, and irovs (pous) foot. 

§ From lamella, diminutive of lamina, from \dfiua (lamna) a thin plate, and fipdyxt-a 
(bragchia) gills. 

|| From fipaxlw (brachiou) arm, and novs (pous) fool. 



Class 1. CEPHALOPODA. 

Animal ; abdominal portion of the body enveloped in an ample bag- 
like mantle, at the opening of which is the head with two con- 
spicuous eyes and a pair of horny mandibles, the whole being 
crowned with arms and tentacles. Branchiae two or four in 
number. Body furnished either with fins or with a shell. 

Shell ; an involuted spire, open, or chambered. 

The C&phalopods or Head-walking mollusks, so called from their manner 
of crawling upon their arms and tentacles with the head downwards, present 
an interesting link of affinity between the vertebrate and invertebrate divi- 
sions of the Animal Kingdom, between the Fishes on one side, and the oper- 
culated Gastropods on the other. Like the former, they have an internal 
cartilaginous skeleton, and by the aid of a caudal and pair of lateral fins, are 
endowed with great powers of locomotion ; like the latter, they possess the 
faculty of secreting a testaceous mucus, and, unprovided Math fins, obtain 
their subaqueous powers of flight by thejise of a calcareous apparatus con- 
sisting of an involuted shell. 

The body presents exactly the appearance of an oblong bag crowned with 
arms and tentacles, provided with a number of suckers, with which they en- 
lace their prey ; the suckers acting like cupping-glasses. The head at the 
opening of the bag is furnished with a strong pair of horny mandibles like 
the beak of a parrot, and on each side is a large conspicuous eye endowed 
with a strong power of vision. The sexes are separate, and in one species, 
the Argonaut, the female has the faculty of secreting a light papyraceous 
shell for the preservation of her eggs. They are most formidable enemies 
of the fishes ; their hard beaked mandibles are situated at the summit of 
the body, and by rising under a fish with their arms and tentacles upper- 
most, they are enabled to enlace and seize it in a moment. The tentacles in 
some instances are of immense length, and the annual thows them out like 
a hunting-noose to entangle its prey.* 

We find mention of these remarkable animals in the earliest records of 
natural history, they were described by Aristotle, and have been the theme 

* " Those alone," says Mr. Owen, " who have witnessed the persevering activity, power, and 
velocity of motion exercised by the Octopus, when engaged in its destructive practices amongst 
a shoal of fishes, and who have seen it with its beak buried in the flesh of a victim held fast in 
the irresistible embrace of its numerous arms, in an instant simultaneously dissolve the attach- 
ment of its thousand suckers, and disengaging itself from its prey, dart like an arrow from the 
net that has been cautiously moved towards it for its capture, can form an adequate idea of the 
acuteuess of visual perception and powers of action with which this singular and unshapely 
Cephalopod is endowed." — Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. ii. 1838. 

C 



10 

of naturalists and poets in all ages. Little was, however, known of their 
immediate relation with the testaceous mollusks until the appearance, during 
the last century, of the living Nautilus ; the discovery of this well-known 
and remarkable shell with the soft parts was hailed with peculiar interest 
by the scientific world, because it opened a clue to the history of those ex- 
traordinary concamerated fossils which are found imbedded in the crust of 
our globe. The connection between this Cephalopod and its chambered 
engine, at once demonstrated that the hideous Calamary and Cuttle Fish 
are the living types of the lost race of Ammonites, Belemnites, Scaphites, 
Turrilites, and others, whose many-chambered shells remain to us, in a fossil 
state, in such abundance and variety of forms. 

Some of the naked Cephalopods afford a transition between the two kinds 
by the formation of an internal rudimentary shell ; the Cuttle Fish [Septa) 
produces an oval plate ; the Calamary (Loligo) a long horny shell like a 
quill-pen, and the Onychoteuthis a thin oblong shell like a three-edged 
sword. The more highly organized, finned, Cephalopods naturally enjoy much 
more rapid powers of locomotion than those encumbered with a shell, but 
are less adapted to dwelling in very deep water. The Sepia is less protected 
against the attacks of enemies, but it is on the other hand provided with 
an ingenious mode of self-defence winch the well-armed Nautilus does not 
possess. In the interior of the body is a small bag in which an intense 
black inky fluid is generated, and the animal has the faculty of discharging 
it under any alarm for the purpose of darkening the surrounding water. It 
is thus enabled to escape the vigilance of its pursuers by darting off in an 
opposite direction ; and it is said to baffle its enemies by changing colour 
like the chameleon. The paint Sepia, so well known to artists, derives its 
name from the Cuttle Fish (Sqna); and the celebrated Chinese painting-ink 
is entirely made from the war-fluid of the Cephalopod. It is a curious 
feature, too, in the economy of these mollusks that the Nautilus with its 
protective shell should have no ink-bag, whilst the Belemnite whose shell is 
enveloped by the mantle is provided with one ; a modification even ensues 
in the ink-bags of the shell-less kinds ; those which wander defenceless on 
the bosom of the ocean having a more powerful and intense discharge of ink 
than those of more solitary habits which seek refuge in the cavities of rocks. 

If any testimony were wanting beyond the only two living witnesses, the 
Nautilus and the Spirula, to establish the cephalopodic nature of the great 
fossil Ammonites and their multifarious congeners, we have it in the recent 
discovery of the soft parts of the Belemnite, an animal long since extinct. 
A specimen of Belemnite has been lately discovered in the Oxford-clay for- 
mation, a stratum of very ancient date, with not only the ink-bag, but the 
muscular mantle, the head, and its crown of arms, all preserved in connec- 
tion with the Beleinnitic shell* It happened to be the peculiar property 

* Owen, Iluntcrian Lectures, 1844. 



11 

of the earth in which tliis Cephalopod was imbedded to favour the preser- 
vation of the soft parts ; yet, from the very nature of the deposit in winch it 
was found, it must have become imbedded during a period of our planet's 
existence long antecedent to all human history and tradition. 

The fossil shells of the chambered Cephalopods, of which the Nautilus 
and Spirula are the solitary living remnants, are so peculiarly adapted to 
dwelling in very deep water, that they seem to tell, by their very construc- 
tion, of an age in which marine must have greatly more preponderated over 
terrestrial space than at present ; as if, indeed, they had lived with the 
gigantic Saurians in the midst of the waters, " before the progressive course 
of the world, as we now see it, took its first departure" *. 

An extensive tribe of very minute chambered bodies called the Forami- 
nifera was referred to tins class until very recently, on account of the rela- 
tion winch they were thought to exhibit with the Nautilus shell ; and the 
structure of the Spirula, on its discovery by Peron and Lesueur, was re- 
garded as an undeniable proof of their cephalopodic nature. M. D'Orbigny 
investigated their extraordinary varieties of formation with the most patient 
ingenuity ; and divided them into upwards of fifty genera. " An important 
service has been rendered to science by the discovery of the Spirula," said 
Lamarck, and M. Deshayes, amongst others, exclaimed, " it is without con- 
tradiction one of the most important facts with winch science has been 
enriched." It has, however, been fully demonstrated by M. Dujardin, on 
the shores of the Mediterranean, that these many-shaped microscopic bodies 
are nothing more than the cells of an inferior group of Zoophytes called 
RMzopods.f 

The class of Cephalopods is divided by Mr. Owen and M. Deshayes into 
two orders, according to the number of their branchiae or gills ; one group, 
in which the Argonaut and Spirula occur, having only one pan of breathing 
organs, Dibranchiata% , the other of which the Nautilus is the only living 
example having two pairs, Tetrabranchiata^ . I shall not, however, avail 
myself of this arrangement, because a diflerence in the number of the 
branchise seems scarcely of sufficient importance to warrant the association 
of the Spirula with the Argonaut, separate from the Nautilus. Lamarck 
associated the Spirula with the Nautilus, separate from the Argonaut, by 
reason of their many-chambered shells, but a subsequent investigation of 
the soft parts has shown that arrangement to be still more open to objection. 
Are not these mollusks sufficiently distinct to constitute the types of three 
respective Orders ? The Argonaut has eight arms, each having two rows of 
suckers, the shell being simply involuted and not chambered ; — the Spirula 
has eight short arms, with minute promiscuous suckers, and two tentacles 
with a club at the end, the shell being involuted, tubular, chambered, and 

* Whewell, Hist. Induct. Sci. t Deshayes, Anim. sans vert., vol. xi. p. 177. 

% Two-gilled. § Four-gilled. 

v c 2 



12 

enclosed within the lower part of the mantle ; — the Nautilus has no arms, 
but a mass of some thirty or forty sheathed tentacles, a hood or covering, 
an aditional pair of gills, and a chambered shell with the whorls involuted 
one upon the other, containing the animal in its outer porch. I proceed at 
once, therefore, to the consideration of them as genera. 

Argonauta. Spirula. Nautilus. 



Genus 1. ARGONAUTA, Linnaeus. 

Animal; body subglobose, crowned with eight long arms, each 
having two rows of suckers, the two front arms furnished with 
minute secretive vessels and developed at the extremity into an 
elastic membranous web. Two branchiae. 

Shell ; very thin, elastic and permeable to light, boat-shaped, not 
chambered, slightly convoluted into a discoid spire, which is 
double-keeled and partially immersed within the aperture; keels 
more or less tuberculated. 

The Paper Nautilus and the Pearly Nautilus Shells, though both of 
cephalopodic origin, are of very different composition and design. The 
Pearly Nautilus is a shell of rather elaborate structure, presenting a formi- 
dable protection to the soft parts, partitioned off into chambers by the aid 
of which a vacuum is produced of sufficient buoyancy to sustain the great 
pressure of water to winch the animal is exposed in its deep region of habi- 
tation. The Paper Nautilus, or Argonaut, is merely a light elastic case, 
constructed by the female of a naked Cephalopod, for the preservation of 
her eggs ; a sexual provision subservient to the generative economy. No 
Argonaut shell has been discovered with a male inhabitant, although many 
have been taken in the Mediterranean with the female, in company with 
the well-known octopod of the Neapolitan market. 

Assuming the Argonaut to be really the mate of the Octopus, I scarcely 
know a more beautiful adaptation of means to an end than is to be found in 
this lrideous-looking animal. The two front arms with its suckers are fur- 
nished with minute secretive glands and each extremity is modified into an 
expansile membranous web, endowed with a feeble power of calcification, 
similar to that in the mantle of other mollusks. They are capable of very 
considerable expansion, and deposit a thin wavy layer of shell matter form- 
ing a symmetrical boat or car, the discoid portion of which serves as a 
receptacle for the eggs. According to the observations of M. Rang, who 
relates the circumstance of his having seen several living Argonauts whilst 
rowing in a boat in the Port of Algiers, the velamentous arms are extended 



18 

to the top of the keel, so as to form a bridge * over the cavity which con- 
tains the eggs, the suckers corresponding to the tubercles, with the mem- 
branes expanded over the shell and the arms floating in a horizontal mass, 
as represented in Plate B. He describes the Argonaut as obtaining its 
progress through the element, shell foremost, not by any exertion of the 
arms, but by the successive injection and ejection of water in and out of the 
branchial cavity, the shell being firmly sustained within the embrace of 
the velameutous membranes. 

The Argonaut shell, it may be observed, is not moulded on the body, 
but is secreted from without, with little or no attachment to the animal ; 
and, on this account, it was a long time before naturalists could bring their 
minds to believe that the animal usually found in tins shell was any other 
than a parasite ; a naked octopod which took up its dwelling, like the Crabs, 
in this particular kind of shell, of which the fabricator and lawful owner 
had escaped detection. The matter has, however, been entirely set at rest 
by the observations of M. Rang, above quoted, and by the praiseworthy 
exertions of a lady, Madame Jeanette Power, resident at the port of Mes- 
sina. She captured a number of Argonauts on the coast, and, keeping them 
alive in a large cistern, performed such a course of experiments as left no 
doubt of their relationship. It was noticed, for example, that the animal, 
exactly at the moment of sexual stimulus, withdrew its body from the dis- 
coid portion of the shell which it had hitherto filled, and there deposited 
its eggs ; — that in twenty-five days after oviposition the young Argonaut 
came forth from the egg, a naked octopod : — and that in twelve days more 
the two front arms became dilated at the extremity into a pair of membra- 
nous webs, and commenced forming a thin filmy shell. 

These experiments were not, however, conducted without great perseve- 
rance on account of the difficulty of preserving the animals alive. The 
cephalopodic nature of the Argonaut has been so fully established by the 
enterprising researches of Madame Power, that it is quite unnecessary to 
repeat the numerous arguments that have been since adduced in support of 
her conclusions. The most remarkable is that recently put forth by M. 
Deshayes, and derives additional interest from the circumstance of that 
illustrious naturalist, together with M. De Blainville, having been for more 
than fifteen years a supporter of the parasitic theory. " I have found," 
says M. Deshayes, " a special system of secretion throughout the whole of 
the anterior portion of the brachial membranes," and he goes on to relate that 
the shell, upon being subject to a chemical analysis, proves to be composed 
of two distinct laminse, different from that of the Gastropods ; and that the 
calcareous portion being removed by acid, the parenchymatous residuum 

* Lapartie inferieure des deux grands bras, bien tendue, formait comme un pont sur la cavite 
laissee entrc le dos du mollusque et la portion rentrante de la spire ou flottait l'extreniite d'une 
grappe d'u;ufs." — Ran;/, Dopuments pour servir a I'hist. nat. des Cephalopodes, p. 21. 



14 

consists of a number of vesicles, such as are presented in the microscopic 
structure of the Cuttle-bone, agreeing both in size and number with the 
minute organs of secretion dispersed throughout the calcifying membranes*. 
The membranous webs are not, therefore, expanded aloft as sails to catch 
the breeze, as represented, not only by Pope f and Byron %, but by Cuvier§ ; 
I cannot, indeed, learn upon what authority the animal has ever been seen 
to uplift its membranes at all||; on the contrary, the structure of these 
pseudo-sails has been shown to be incompatible with the notion ^[. The 
Rev. L. B. Larking, a most enthusiastic lover of natural history, to whom 
my thanks are due for much valuable information on the habits and economy 
of this animal, happened to be on a visit at Messina some two or three 
years since during a tempestuous season, peculiarly favourable to the obser- 
vation of the deep-water inhabitants of the ocean. In the space of a few 
months he collected more than twelve hundred Argonaut shells of all sizes, 
many of winch with the animals preserved in spirits I have had the pleasure 
of examining. He never saw one floating on the sea ; they were thrown up 
from deep water, and such as retained the animals were brought to him 
alive in pails. The velamentous arms were not stretched over the keel of 
the shell, as described by M. Rang, but were merely expanded, from fright 
probably, through the nick on each side ; the animals protruded consider- 
ably from their shell and endeavoured to make their escape by performing a 

* Animaux sans vertebres, vol. xi. p. 354. 

f " For thus to man the voice of Nature spake, 
Go, from the creatures thy instruction take, 
Leam of the little Nautilus to sail, 
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale." 

% " The tender Nautilus who steers his prow, 

The sea-born sailor of this shell-canoe, 

The Ocean-Mab, the fairy of the sea 

Seems far more fragile, and, alas, more free ; 

He, when the lightning-winged tornadoes sweep 

The surf, is free, his post is in the deep, 

And triumphs o'er the armadas of mankind, 

Which shake the world, yet crumble in the wind." 
§ Quand la mer est calme on en voit des troupes naviguer a la surface, employant six de lcurs 
tentacules au lieu de rames, et relevant, dit-on, les deux qui sont elargis pour en faire des voiles ; si 
les vagues s'agitent ou qu'il paraisse quelqne danger, l'argonaute retire tous ses bras dans sa coquille, 
s'y concentre et redescend au fond de Feau." — Cuvier, Le Regne Animal, nouv. edit. 1830. p. 13. 
|| Ce que Ton a debite depuis Aristote, mais surtout dans ces deniers temps, sur la mancewe 
habile du poulpe de l'Argonaute voguant a l'aide de voiles et de rames a la surface de l'eau, est 
faux. Nous le declarons, nous n'avons rien vu, dans les habitudes et les manoevres de ces ani- 
maux, qui resemblat au choses qui en ont ete dites, ve'ritables fables qui n'ont e'te' conserves, chez 
quelques auteurs, que par leur amour du marveilleux.— Rang, Doc. Nat. Hist. Ceph.p. 18 and 14. 
H " These membranes have been described by naturalists and poets, from Aristotle and Calli- 
machus down to Cuvier and Byron, as serving the office of sails ; the animal being supposed to 
have the power of rigidly extending the soft fleshy arms which support the membranes, and main- 
taining the latter tensely outstretched to meet the breeze. It is scarcely necessary to observe, 
that the structure of the parts in question is incompatible with this hypothesis of the use of the 
vela in navigating the frail boat of the Argonaut. It has been ascertained, indeed, by direct 
observation, that these vela, or rather velamenta, have not only a relation of co-existence, but 
one of direct physiological import to the development of the shell, serving as the organs both of 
secreting and of retaining this part."— Owen, Observations on the Argonaut. 



15 

constant succession of muscular jerks, chiving the keel of the shell with 
great violence against the side of the pail. They rarely lived more than a 
day or two, and by shaking them out of the shell they died in a few hours. 

From the delightful intercourse and correspondence which I have enjoyed 
with my excellent friend on the subject of this vexata animalia, I should 
suppose the Argonaut to be an animal exceedingly sensitive of danger ; that 
under any alarm the velamentous arms are partially, if not altogether, with- 
drawal through the lateral nicks of the shell, and that under these circum- 
stances it has great difficulty in maintaining its attaclunent. It has, more- 
over, been established beyond the possibility of contradiction, that the ani- 
mal being disengaged from its shell has not the power of re-entering it ; 
and that being liberated, it languishes and dies in the course of a few hours. 

The geographical distribution of the Argonaut is confined, as far as we 
know at present, to the old world; the A. argo is an inhabitant chiefly of 
the Mediterranean, and the A. tuberculosa of the Cape of Good Hope, New 
Holland, and the Molluccas. I have not seen the animal of the latter 
species ; it was, however, figured more than a hundred years ago by Rum- 
phius*, and Dr. Hooker, the learned author of the 'Flora Antarctica', 
informs me that several living specimens were seen during the Antarctic 
Expedition off the Cape of Good Hope. 

Akgonauta argo. Plate A. — Yiew of the animal having relaxed its 
prehensile embrace of the shell and about to die, showing the eight 
arms with two rows of suckers on each, the two front of which are 
represented with the membranous webs contracting, to the left ; the 
mouth and horny mandibles, in the centre ; and the funnel or organ 
of secretion, to the right ; a, a sucker, enlarged. From a specimen 
taken alive at Messina by the Rev. L. B. Larking. 

Plate B. — View of the animal in full health and vigour under water, 
showing the manner in which it swims with the shell, keel foremost, 
held within the embrace of its velamentous arms. From the figure of 
a specimen observed at Algiers by M. Bang, slightly altered from ob- 
servations made by the Rev. L. B. Larking at Messina. 

Species, f 

1. argo, Linn. 3. haustrum, E. Meth. 5. raricosta, Blainv. 

2. cymbium, Linn. 4. nitida, Lam. 6. tuberculosa, Lam. 



* Thesaurus iniaginum, &c, pi. xviii. f. 1 to 3. The Hague, 1739. 

f For references to where the species throughout the work are described and figured, syno- 
nymes, &c, see ' The Concuologist's Nomenclatoe. ' by Agues Catlow. 



10 



Genus 2. SPIRULA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; body contained in an oblong mantle, entirely free at the 
opening, and terminating at the edge in three short festooned 
processes, two behind, between which the funnel protrudes, and 
one in front ; lower half of the mantle enclosing a tubular shell 
convoluting over towards the front, with the narrow portion at 
the bach ; base of the mantle furnished underneath with a dark 
leathery gland, having a round cavity or orifice in the centre 
and a short semicircular fin on either side ; head prominently 
rising out of the opening of the mantle, entirely free from it, 
crowned with eight short acuminated arms and two rather long 
tentacles; arms promiscuously furnished on the inner surface 
icitli minute granular suckers; tentacles terminated by a small 
rounded indented club. 

Shell ; a thin transparent diminishing tube convoluted into a dis- 
coid spire of which the lohorls are not contiguous, and partitioned 
into chambers by concave septa, with a continuous siphon passing 
through the inner side. 

The history of the Spirilla is one of especial interest from the circum- 
stance of its shell, as in the case of the Nautilus, having been collected 
in great abundance long antecedent to any discovery of the soft parts. 
The shell was figured during the latter part of the seventeenth century by 
our countryman Lister, but we find no vestiges of the animal until the 
appearance in Paris of a somewhat mutilated specimen, collected by an 
eminent French voyager, M. Peron. In M. Peron's example of the Spirula 
the tentacles were broken off to about the length of the surrounding arms, 
but it was sufficiently perfect in other respects to assist Lamarck in estab- 
lishing the ceplialopodic relation which the chambered construction of its 
shell had suggested with the Nautilus. An important difference, however, 
presented itself in the relative position of the animal and its shell as com- 
pared with the Nautilus. Instead of the lower portion of the body being 
capable of fitting into an aperture or outer chamber, as Rumphius' figure 
of the Nautilus indicated by its size and the appearance of a ligament 
fitting to the siphonic tube, it was found to contain the shell, or chief 
portion of it, within, — a decapodous Cephalopod having the well-known 
little spiral shell enflanked within the lower part of the mantle. No other 
example of the Spirula presented itself for upwards of thirty years, when a 



17 

decapitated specimen was brought to Paris by M. M. Eobert and Leclan- 
cher, which enabled M. De Blainville to declare, in addition to the observa- 
tions of Lamarck, that the animal has a pair of terminal fins, and that the 
branchial cavity contains only one pair of gills.* Another specimen was 
brought home by Mr. Cranch, in the Congo Expedition, still more muti- 
lated ; indeed, Mr. Gray informs us that it had only a fragment of the 
mantle remaining attached to the shell, but sufficient to show that the micro- 
scopic structure of the skin is similar to that of the Cuttle-fish. Nothing is 
added to the foregoing account in the eleventh volume of M. Deshayes' edi- 
tion of the ' Animaux sans vertebres ', recently published in Paris ; and it is, 
therefore, with peculiar satisfaction that I am enabled, through the kindness 
of Mr. Cuming, to present my readers with the description of a magnificent 
specimen, now before me, perfect in all its parts except in the termination 
of one of the tentacles ; and considerably larger than that found floating on 
the sea by M. Peron, represented in the Encyclopedie Methodicuie. Mr. 
Cuming's specimen, figured in plate A, was obtained about a twelvemonth 
since in New Zealand by an intelligent traveller and lover of natural his- 
tory, Mr. Percy Earl; he was standing one day on the beach at Port 
Nicholson when the animal was washed ashore in Iris presence, and he im- 
mediately secured it and put it in spirits. A notice of it was published 
on its arrival by Mr. Gray in the ' Annals of Natural History", for April, 
1845. 

This interesting little Cephalopod partakes in very slight degree of the 
character of the proximate genera. It has the same number of arms as the 
Argonaut, but there are two tentacles in addition as in the Cuttle-fish, about 
five or six times the length of the arms, and terminated by a small rounded 
indented club. The suckers are not arranged in a double row, as in the 
Argonaut, but are sprinkled in a somewhat irregular manner over the 
inner surface of the arms ; they are, moreover, exceedingly small, and have 
more the appearance of a sprinkling of course sand. Like the Nautilus the 
Spirula has a chambered siphonated shell, but instead of it being external 
and serving as a protective shield to the soft parts, it is internal, imbedded 
within the lower part of the mantle, and the siphon instead of passing 
through the centre of the chambers, is on the inner side. It is somewhat 
difficult, under these circumstances, to account for the shell being found 
in such abundancet, whilst the animal has so long evaded the pursuit of 
naturalists. The shell is not dependent on the attachment of a muscle as in 
the Nautilus, nor on the prehensile embrace of a pair of arms as in the Argo- 
naut ; the soft parts must apparently decompose before the shell can be 

* Annates francaises et etrangeres d'Anatomie et de Physiologie pomTaunee 1837, vol.1. p. 369. 

t Dr. Hooker, the enterprising Botanist of the Antarctic Expedition, informs me that at Paroah 
Bay, New Zealand, he saw thousands of the Spirula shell scattered ou the shore; and M. Mmki: 
describes it as being frequent on the coast of New Holland. 



18 

released. In the specimen before me, the shell is exposed to view on each 
side as represented in the plate j but I quite agree with Mr. Gray, in believing 
that it is entirely concealed during the life of the animal ; from the ragged 
edges of the skin it has all the appearance of having contracted and burst, 
either in drying, or from its contact with the spirits in winch it was plunged. 

In perusing the Memoirs above alluded to of M. De Blainville, in 1837, 
and Mr. Gray, in 1845, it may be observed that the second proposition 
established by the former in reference to the Spirula, is, that it has a pair 
of terminal lateral fins " 2° il a une paire de nageoires laterales et tout-a- 
fait terminales "; whilst the latter author affirms on the other hand " it 
differs from the Cuttle-fish in being entirely destitute of any fins." The 
terminal fins are so much contracted in this specimen that Mr. Gray appears 
to have overlooked them ; they are clearly definable, one at each lateral ex- 
tremity, on either side of the terminal gland, so that I am fully able to con- 
firm the observation made by M. De Blainville. 

The use and connection between the shell of Spirula and the soft parts 
still remain to be explained*; a curious vignette is given by Martini, Conch. 
Cab. vol. i. p. 260, representing a fossil slab, in winch the shell is elongated 
into a straight tube, but nothing certain can be ascertained until the animal 
is fairly dissected. At present Mr. Cuming is desirous of preserving the 
specimen under consideration entire, fully anticipating that with the in- 
structions forwarded to some gentlemen in New Zealand, it will not be long 
before others are obtained. 



Spirula Peronii. Plate A. — Pig. a, Back view of the animal showing the 
funnel protruding from the upper part of the mantle, the narrow end 
of the shell, with the terminal fins very much contracted, h. Side view 
showing the eye, rather obscured, and the lateral extent of the shell. 
c. Pront view showing the broad end of the shell the terminal fins at 
the base, &c. d. Under view of the basal gland, e. Back view of the 
shell, showing the siphon in the outer chamber, f. Lateral view of 
the shell. From a specimen in the possession of Mr. Cuming, collected 
by Mr. Percy Earl at Port Nicholson, New Zealand. 

No other species known at present. 



* Mr. Gra) says on this head,. in his Memoir in the ' Annals Nat. Hist.', " I am informed by 
M . Clausen that he had several specimens of this animal alive, and kept them some time in a \ esse] 
Blled with sea-water, and that they had the power of ascending and descendingat pleasure." This 
assertion, though highly prohable, should, however, be received with caution; it seems difficult 
to imagine how any one with the observation displayed by M.Clausen, in keeping several of the 
Spirula- alive in sea-walrr, could have failed to communicate specimens accompanied with that 
Jul. lligcnce Of their structure and habits which naturalists have so long desired to receive. 



19 



Genus 3. NAUTILUS, Aristotle. 

Animal ; body forming an oblong mass a little compressed at the 
sides, the upper half enclosing the head and muscular portion, 
the lower half the soft and visceral portion, contained in a 
thin bag-like mantle, rounded at the base in a manner adapted 
to the cavity of the shell, encircled by a horny girdle by 
which it is attached to the inner wall of the shell, and ter- 
minating with a central tubular membranous process or artery 
which passes throughout the siphon of the shell to the nucleus 
of the innermost chamber. Head at the upper opening of the 
mantle furnished {according to Oiueu*) with ninety tentacles, 
thirty-eight digital, four opthalmic, and forty-eight labial. 
No arms or suckers. Back of the mantle extending into a 
broad fold, falling back on the black involuted convexity of the 
shell. Front of the mantle with an opening through which 
passes the funnel or vent-tube consisting of a thin fleshy sub- 
stance the lateral edges of which overlap one another. Back 
of the head surmounted by a dense leathery lid or hood, which 
being holloio behind appears to fall backwards on the shell, 
and forwards over the head, closing in the tentacles and all 
the delicate structures after the manner of the operculum in 
the Gastropods. Four branchiae. No ink-bladder. 

Shell ; orbicular, consisting of a compressed cone, convoluted, in 
symmetrical order, in close spiral whorls one over the other 
upon the same plane ; more or less umbilicated externally at 
the axis of convolution. Three-fourths of the shell partitioned 
into chambers, about thirty-five to thirty-eight in number, by 
thin internally convex septa, in the centre of each of which, 
is a short siphon or spouted appendage. Inner surface of 
the shell pearly, outer surface dull white, the involuted portion 
being painted with conspicuous chesnut-broion fames striking 
out of the umbilicus, which is sometimes overlaid with matter 
deposited by the hind fold of the mantle. 

The Pearly Nautilus, as observed in treating of the Cephalapods generally, 
is an object of especial interest to the Conchologist, on account of it being 

* Iluuterian Lectures, 1843. 



20 

the chief living remnant of a vast tribe of mollusks which must have existed 
at a very early period of the world's history ; and whose shells exhibit a struc- 
ture peculiarly indicative of their being inhabitants of very deep water. The 
architype of this fossil race is itself an animal of comparatively ancient date, 
for it is mentioned with brief but marvellous accuracy in the oldest record 
extant on the subject of Natural History. The first scientific Expedition of 
which wc have any account, is one in which the philosopher Aristotle was 
sent by Alexander the Great, more than three hundred years before Christ, 
for the purpose of collecting subjects for a History of Animals. In this 
enterprise he appears to have met with both the Paper and the Pearly 
Nautili; for in Scaliger's translation of the 'Historia Animahum', he says, 
after describing the different forms of naked Cephalopods which no doubt 
abounded in the Asiatic seas, " there are also two other kinds of Polypes 
which are in shells, the one (meaning the Paper Nautilus) has a shell 
which is not naturally adherent to it, it feeds very frequently near the land, 
and being cast by the waves on the sand, the shell slips, and it dies ; but the 
other (the Pearly Nautilus) is in a shell in which it exists after the manner 
of a Snail, and outwardly extends its arms."* Nothing was added to this 
account during the dark ages that succeeded Aristotle, nor till some time 
after the revival of letters. No further information respecting the Nautilus 
was obtained until the discovery of a living specimen about the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth century, by a Dutch merchant and naturalist, re- 
sident at Amboyna, of the name of Rumphius. His drawing of the soft 
parts separated from the shellf was greatly valued ; for more than a century 
elapsed before another specimen was found, although the shells were cast 
ashore in comparative abundance. This specimen, which was transmitted to 
Professor Owen of the Royal College of Surgeons, formed the subject of an 
elaborate Memoir J, and may be said to have been the first to confirm the 
history of this remarkable animal given more than 2000 years before by 
Aristotle. 

The great Cuvier, who achieved so much for the natural history of the 
Animal Kingdom, looked with anxious solicitude, no doubt, for the soft and 
living portion of the Nautilus, but the dessection was reserved, for a no less 
skilful operator of the present day. A female Nautilus was captured in 
1828 by Mr. George Bennett in Marekini Bay, at the Island of Erromanga, 
New Hebrides ; it was seen floating alive on the surface of the water, and 
was just about to sink when a sailor caught hold of it with a boat-hook. 
The right eye was almost shattered in the struggle to secure it, and the shell 
being much broken it was injudiciously removed. Two years unfortunately 

* Aristot. dc Animal, Scaliger, 1619. 

t Thesaurus imaginum, &c, PL xvii. f. B.; The Hague, 1739. Reproduced by Martini, 
Conch. Cab. vol. 1. p. 222. vigil, ; Nurnbcrg, 1769. 

X Owen, Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus, 1832. 



21 

elapsed before the soft parts, preserved in spirits, reached England; they 
were presented to Professor Owen ; and although a minute portion of shell 
adhering to one of the lateral expansions of the belt was all that remained 
of the original framework, he succeeded by a train of analogy to establish 
the relation of the whole. His celebrated ' Memoir', which was the result 
of this investigation, appeared in 1832, and to the severe disappointment of 
the author, the illustrious Cuvier, who would have hailed the discovery with 
so much real delight, died only a few days before it issued from the press. 

The soft parts of the Nautilus, of which, as in the case of the Argonaut, 
no male has been found, form a kind of oblong mass such as may be sup- 
posed capable, of fitting into the porch or aperture of the well-known shell. 
The outer portion encloses a well-developed head furnished with a pair of 
strong horny mandibles, a number of sheathed tentacles, a pair of large eyes, 
and a number of delicate structures including the organs of hearing, smel- 
ling, &c, and over all there is a capacious leathery hood winch has been 
likened by Professor Owen to the operculum in the Gastropods. The lower 
portion of the body contains the viscera from which proceed a funnel or vent- 
tube beneath the tentacles. The back part of the mantle is produced into a 
fold which overlaps the convexity of the shell, and at the lower extremity of 
the body is a central tubular membrane which passes into the siphonic aper- 
ture. The animal is attached to the shell by this flexible membrane which 
[>asses through all the whorls to the iuner wall of the first-formed chamber, 
and by a broad muscular belt around the circumference of the abdominal 
sack. At the back of the hood is a concavity fitting to the convexity of the 
shell, so that it appears to have a hinge-like movement like the lid of a box, 
and is adapted to close over the tentacles and all the delicate parts of the 
head. There is no ink-bag in the Nautilus*. The growth of the shell may 
be supposed as follows : — the animal in embryo constructs a simple hollow 

* In mentioning the circumstance (p. 15) of the paint Sepia, so well known to artists, having 
derived its name from the Cuttle-fish {Sepia officinalis), I most incautiously gave currency to 
a popidar error that the celebrated Chinese ink is manufactured from the ink-fluid of the 
Cephalopod. I am enabled, however, thus early, to correct this absurd notion, through the 
kindness of a most zealous patron of the natural sciences, John Reeves, Esq., F.R.S., &c; a 
gentleman whose life and energies have been so intimately associated with all that concerns 
the physical history of China, that I am sure the following extract from his communication 
will be read with much interest. 

" With whom the idea originated that the China ink was made from the liquor of a Loligo 
I do not know, it has been handed down from book to book for a very long time ; but I am sure 
you would not intentionally continue the error, especially in such a work as you have commenced. 

"The Jesuits, who were permitted free access in China during the reign of the Emperor Kang 
He, and who then made many proselytes, had opportunities which none other had of acquiring 
an insight into the various manufactures ; and the result of their enquiries is given in Du Halde's 
'History of China,' fol., Paris, 1735. 

" The English folio edition of this was published in two volumes, London, 1738 ; and, in the 
first volume, p. 370-2, you will find a full account of the manufacture of ink. I have the means 
of knowing from the manufacturers themselves that his account is correct ; — that the basis is the 
soot from the smoke of oil-lamps, a sample of which I brought from China, and of which I send 
you a specimen. << j jj_ 

" Clapham, 
March 2nd, 1846." 



2£ 

shell, forming the nucleus of a spiral coil, in which it produces a vacuum by 
the secretion of a transverse septum, in order to meet the increasing pressure 
of the surrounding element consequent on its increase of bulk. This operation 
is repeated between thirty and forty times during the growth of the animal 
by a periodical slipping of the muscular girdle from the shell, precaution 
havino- been first taken to secure itself to the first-formed chamber by the 
flexible tubular membrane which passes through a short spouted pipe or 
siphon in the centre of each. The marks of attachment of the girdle may 
be seen in every chamber. The Nautilus thus chambers in the vacated 
portion of the shell in order to assist its specific gravity under the different 
variations of pressure to which it is liable in its passage through the ocean. 
The natural position of the animal when crawling at the bottom of the ocean 
being, as in other Cephalopods, with the head downwards, the shell is up- 
permost and buoys it up, and the periodical slip of the muscle of attachment 
most probably takes place when in tins supine position. With every relaxa- 
tion of the membrane and muscle the shell must naturally rise and coil upon 
itself; and I think the use which I here venture to assign to the membrane, 
the remains of which may be found in shells, extending throughout the 
entire length of the siphon, admits of very reasonable construction. 

Little is known of the habits of the Nautilus beyond the circumstance of 
Mr. Bennett's specimen having been seen floating alive on the water and 
preparing on alarm to descend, and that contained in the curious narrative 
of Rumpliius quoted by Owen*. The accounts are, however, considered by 

The following extracts relating to the manufacture of China Ink are from the work alluded to. 

"The ink the Chinese use is made of lampblack, which they get by burning several sorts of 
matter, but chiefly pine-wood or oil. They mix perfumes with it, to correct the stroug and 
disagreeable smell of the oil. They incorporate together these ingredients till they come to the 
consistence of a paste, which they put into divers wooden moulds. These moulds are well and 
variously wrought in order to print upon the paste what figures they please. The usual impres- 
sions are of men, dragons, birds, trees, flowers, and the like. 

" The best ink is made at Whey chew, a town in the province Kyang nan. There are many 
things to be observed in the making of it, and it has several degrees of goodness ; according to 
which it is dearer or cheaper. 

" They put five or six lighted wicks in a vessel full of oil, and lay upon this vessel an iron cover 
made in the shape of a funnel, which must be set at a certain distance so as to receive all the 
smoke. When it has received enough they take it oiF, and with a goose's feather gently brush 
the bottom, letting the soot fall upon a dry sheet of strong paper ; it is this which makes their 
fine and shining ink. When they have in this manner taken off the lampblack, they beat it in a 
mortar and mix with it some odoriferous water, with a thin size to unite the particles. 

" We are assured that in the city of Whey cheiv, where the iuk is made which is most esteemed, 
the merchants have great numbers of little rooms, where they keep lighted lamps all day ; and 
that every room is distinguished by the oil which is burnt in it, and consequently by the ink 
w hicli is made therein."— Du Halde, History of China, fol. ed. 1738, vol. i. p. 370-1 

* "When he thus floats on the water, he puts out his head and all his barbs (tentacles), and 
spreads (hcin upon the water, with the poop (of the shell) above water ; but at the bottom he 
creeps i:i I lie reverse position, with his boat above him, and with his head and barbs upon the 
ground, making ; , tolerably quick progress. He keeps himself chiefly upon the ground, creeping 
sometimes also into the nets of t he fishermen, but after a storm, as the weather becomes calm, they 
are een in troops floating on the water, being driven up by the agitation of the waves. Whence 
one may infer, that they congregate in troops at Hie bottom. This sailing, however, is not of 
long continuance ; for having taken in all their tentacles, they upset their hoat and so return to 
(lie bottom." — If Amboinische Uariteit-kamer, \>. 91. fob Amsterdam, 1741. 



23 

the same author sufficient to state that the animal " makes his way along 
the sand with a moderate degree of rapidity, with his house above him; and 
though in general dwelling in the deep, has the power of rising and floating 
on the surface."* And M. Valenciennes considers that its motion in swim- 
ming may be attributed to the same force as that ascribed by M. Rang to 
the Argonaut ; namely the injection and ejection of water in and out of the 
branchial cavity.f It now only remains to be ascertained whether the dif- 
ferent mutations of pressure which the Nautilus must have to sustain in its 
passage through the element, are not counteracted by the alternate production 
of vacua and introduction of water in the chambers of the shell. Certain 
it is that the Nautilus in its floating position has neither arms capable of 
rowing nor membranes adapted for sailing, as so prettily described by a 
poetical philosopher of the present day. J 



Nautilus Pompilius. Plate C. — Lower figure, lateral view of the shell. 
Upper figure, lateral section of the shell showing the chambers, siphon, 
and full extent of the animal ; a, the funnel ; b, the tentacles ; c, the 
hood ; d, the hind fold of the mantle. Reduced from Professor Owen's 
figure of the specimen captured by Mr. Bennett in Marekini Bay. 



Species. 
1. Pompilius, Linn. 2. scrobiculator, Grray. 2. umbilicatus, Linn. 



* " In whatever degree the shell is developed in the Cephalopodous Mollusks, we find it in- 
variably characterized by the symmetry so peculiar to the disposition aud general form of their 
soft parts : but the extent to which the Pearly Nautilus is covered by its shell, and its close 
attachment to it, indicated the affinity to the Gasteropods in too strong a manner to escape the 
penetration of Aristotle, who directly compares it in this respect to a snail ; and the general 
resemblance must be sufficiently striking when, with his house above him and in the supine 
position, he makes his way along the sand with a moderate degree of rapidity." 

" Respecting the economy of the fossil genera, we may infer from Nautilus that they were chiefly 
confined by the limitation of their locomotive faculties to creeping at the bottom of the sea, and 
that one of the offices assigned to them in the scheme of nature was to restrain within due limits 
the crustaceous and testaceous tribes around them. Granting them, indeed, the power of rising 
and floating on the surface, yet their navigation was in all probability of a passive kind, or influ- 
enced only by the re-action of the respiratory currents when expelled by the funnel upon the 
surrounding medium ; aud at all events it cau no longer be supposed to have been aided by the 
fabled sails and oars of the Argonaut." — Owen, Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus, p. 52-3. 

f II nage avec facilite dans le sein des eaux en faisant sortir avec force la grand quantite d'eau 
contenue dans sa cavite branchiale. — Valenciennes, Archives du Museum d'Hist. Nat., 1839. 

% " The Nautilus and the Ammonite And each could swim on the ocean's brim, 

Were launched in storm and strife ; And auon, its sails could furl ; 

Each sent to float, in its tiny boat, And sink to sleep in the great sea deep, 

On the wild, wild sea of life. In a palace all of pearl." 

Kichakdson ; Sketches in Prose and Verse. 

Erratum. In speaking of the geographical distribution of the Argonaut at p. 15, it is described as being confined, as far as 
we know at present, to the old world. Mr. Cuming has since informed me that he has received specimens of that genus from 
Valparaiso, Bahia, and Panama, as well as from Curacao, one of the Caribbean Islands. 



24 



Class 2. GASTEROPODA. 

Animal ; body elongated, anterior extremity furnished with a more 
or less" prominent head, posterior extremity mostly developed 
into an attenuating spiral, invested with a lubricous mantle, 
producing a shell of varied structure and solidity ; head mostly 
furnished with tentacles, varying from two to six in number, 
with a pair of eyes situated at different parts of the tentacles ; 
mouth furnished with hard parts, or with a flexible retractile 
trunk of various length, armed at the extremity with small teeth. 
Branchia respiring air or water, either concealed or exposed. 

Shell ; calcareous, in some instances horny, either simply conical, 
or convoluted into an enlarging spire, mostly enclosing the ani- 
mal, but sometimes internal, or covering only a limited portion 
of it. 

The Gastropods comprise that extensive series of mollusks which acquire 
motion by the alternate dilatation and contraction of a gastric or ventral 
disc. Their typical structure is that of a long drawn out conical mass, of 
winch the attenuated portion, contained in an enlarging spiral shell, is oc- 
cupied by the soft and visceral parts, whilst the broad extremity, protruding 
from the aperture of the shell, comprises the head, mantle, nerves, muscles, 
gills, &c, and also a broad fleshy muscular expansile disc, mostly attached 
to the neck, called the foot, by winch they acquire motion. 

By far the greater portion of the class are of this structure ; those inha- 
biting a spiral shell are, indeed, necessarily so. In the spiral Gastropods, 
the abdominal portion of the mollusk is contained within the shell, whilst 
the fleshy disk, attached to the neck, is exserted for the purpose of locomo- 
tion ; but in the non-spiral Gastropods, such as the Chitons, Limpets, and 
Slugs, the abdominal parts are all of a mass, and not separated from the 
disk. Lamarck confined the term Gasteropoda to the latter division ; the 
former section he distinguished by the title of Trachrtipoda* or neck- 
moving Mollusks, but the affinity between the Snail [Helix) and the Slug 
[Li?nax) is of too intimate a character to allow of so important a separation. 

The Gastropods are extremely numerous in species, and of considerable 
interest, both on account of their extraordinary varieties of form, colour, 
•and sculpture, and of their curious diversity of habit. Most of them are 
marine, some are fluviatile, some dwell in lakes and stagnant pools, whilst 
<i large proportion are terrestial, or arboreal ; and as their breathing appa- 

liuiu rpux'/Xov (trachelos) neck. wad novs (iious) foot. 



25 

ratus is necessarily adapted to the different media they inhabit, the corres- 
ponding conditions of the respiratory organs, together with certain modifica- 
tions in their arrangement, have been selected as characters for the primary 
distribution of the class into Orders ; before speaking, however, of the sys- 
tematic arrangement of the Gastropods, a brief account should be given of 
their structure and general economy. 

The Jiead, as in the higher orders of animals, forms the anterior extremity 
of the body, and is mostly rounded and prominent. It is furnished with 
from two to six tentacles, or feelers, and the eyes, never exceeding two in 
number, are situated sometimes at the base of the tentacles, in some in- 
stances at the summit, and often at some intermediate part. The tentacles 
are rather sensitive to the touch, and in some genera the mollusk pos- 
sesses the faculty of withdrawing them by inversion, an action which 
Lamarck describes as being accomplished by the aid of a nerve reaching 
internally to the summit. 

The nervous system of the Gastropods is represented by three ranges of 
cords or ganglions, termed the cerebral, as relating to the head, the pallial, 
as relating to the mantle, and the branchial, as relating to the gills ; the 
principal of these, the cerebral ganglions, seated in the head and vicinity of 
the oesophagus, or gullet, and called on that account by M. Deshayes the 
oesophageal circle, was termed by Lamarck the brain ; but their relation 
with that organ in the vertebrate animals is one of very remote analogy. 

The respiratory apparatus of the class consists, in the water-breathing 
kinds, of two or more branchiae or gills, sometimes exposed, but mostly con- 
cealed ; in the air-breathing kinds it consists of a net-bag or lung; and in 
those which are amphibious it presents a modification of both. 

As the breathing organs of the Gastropods are necessarily modified to 
the different media they respire, so are the mouth and alimentary organs 
adapted to the diversified nature of the food they devour. Most of the terres- 
trial kinds are herbivorous, feeding upon leaves ; of the large proportion of 
marine species some few are fucivorous, feeding upon seed-weed, whilst the 
rest are carnivorous, devouring many of their own nature and other living 
organized matter, besides offal in all stages of putrifaction. The mouth 
of the herbivorous kind is furnished with a horny armature on the upper 
lip only ; in the carnivorous species, the mouth is furnished with a rasping 
plate or tongue, or a pair of dentated jaws, or a flexible retractile trunk, 
susceptible of elongation or concealment within the body, the extremity of 
which is cleft and supplied with numerous small recurved teeth capable of 
considerable execution. The common Whelk of our market has a retractile 
trunk ; and the circular hole which is sometimes found drilled in bivalve 
shells is supposed to be due to the agency of this destructive organ. 

Of the muscles it is only necessary for the present purpose to speak of 
such as serve for the attachment of the shell. In the simple univalves, the 



26 

muscle of adhesion sometimes encircles the back in the form of a horse-shoe, 
as in Sipltonaria, whilst in the cup-and-saucer Limpets (Calyptrad) it is 
attached to the cup-shaped appendage by winch that group is characterized. 
In the spiral Gastropods the shell is connected by a thin riband-like muscle 
which has its point of attachment on the axial pillar or columella ; and it 
is by the elasticity of this muscle that the animal advances its head and 
foot and again retires within the last whorl. There are, however, instances 
in winch the spiral Gastropod, desirous of evacuating a portion of its shell, 
has the power of sliding the attachment of the columellar muscle, without 
relaxing it, independent of the requirements of its increase of growth, in a 
manner similar to the periodical slipping of the muscular girdle in the 
growing Nautilus. In the Helix decollatus and many species of Pupa, the 
early portion of the shell is allowed to fall away, and the whorls of occupation 
are roofed in by a new concentric layer ; in many species of Melania, and 
other inhabitants of fresh and stagnant water, the apical extremity of the 
shell becomes eroded and consumed ; whilst that singular tenant of the 
coral rock, the Magilus, fills up the evacuated portion of its shell, to a consi- 
derable extent, with solid testaceous matter ; an operation winch would pro- 
duce an incumbrance incompatible with the locomotive faculties of a free 
agent. There is also an additional muscle in those species which are oper- 
culated for the purpose of drawing the operculum within the aperture. 

The operculum is a shelly or horny plate adapted in most species to close 
over the soft parts when retracted within the shell ; it is, however, often re- 
presented by merely a small thin horny plate, in no wise fitting the aperture 
of the shell, and not apparently answering any purpose in the life and eco- 
nomy of the mollusk. The variations in the growth and substance of the 
operculum, moreover, afford characters of very secondary importance ; as we 
find it sometimes shelly, and sometimes horny, in the same natural group. 
The genus Trochus, for example, offers some species with the former, some 
with the latter ; and among the Cones and Volutes the operculum, though a 
rudimentary one, is present in some species and not in others. 

The Gastropods evince a very low degree of sensibility ; in many species 
the tentacles, and with the tentacles the eyes, and even some parts of the 
head are reproduced after amputation, provided there is no displacement of 
the cerebral ganglions.* Some are also capable of suspending all signs of 
vitality for a very considerable period. I remember an instance of some 
Helices having been received from a distant locality and kept in a dry 
lumber box for two years in a state of torpor, from which they were fully 
released upon being placed on a moist fresh leaf. All the Gastropods ex- 
hibit great skill in the repair of any injuries done to their shell, and consi- 
derable economy is exercised in absorbing or smoothing down any spines or 

* Baron Ferussac states that he has seen the terrestrial Gastropods or Slugs allow their skins 
to be eaten by others, and in spite of large wounds thus produced show no sign of pain. — Owen. 



27 

irregularities that obstruct their progress of growth ; they are, however, 
constantly liable to distortion, disease of the calcifying glands, and all " the 
numerous ills that flesh is heir to." 

The sexes in the highest order of Gastropods, (Pectinibranchiata) are 
separate, male and female ; the remainder are hermaphrodite, both sexes 
combined in the same individual. The oviparous species have various modes 
of producing their young. The Whelk {Buccinum undatmri) deposits her 
eggs in masses of thin bladder-like capsules ; the Turbinella in a long cham- 
bered nidus, in each compartment of winch are from twenty to thirty em- 
bryos completely calcified ; and the Ianthina encloses her ova in a delicate 
film of albumen attached to her curious float.* In the early development 
of the Aplj/sia the shell is of a distinctly turbinated form, containing the 
embryo closed in by an operculum ; a curious metamorphosis then ensues ; 
the shell assumes an entirely internal position, winch in the adult forms 
little more than a protective shield over the branchiae, a flattened or slightly 
convex horny plate, with only the remotest trace of its primitive nucleus. 
A somewhat similar phenomenon has also been noticed in the Tritonia and 
Doris, which, though destitute of any horny or testaceous parts, either ex- 
ternal or internal, in the adult state, are provided in an early stage of their 
development with a delicate little horny nautiloid shell. The eggs of the 
fresh-water species mostly consist of a transparent mucusf; and of the ter- 
restrial species, the Helices deposit their eggs in the earth, whilst the arbo- 
real Bulimi cement together a little nest of leaves for their beautifully 
white eggs, which are sometimes nearly as large as those of a pigeon. 

In taking a general review of the habits of the Gastropods, many inte- 
resting phenomena present themselves to our contemplation. The greater 
portion of them live attached to masses of stone, in concealed situations, 
such as the under surfaces, and in cavities and crevices ; also in coral sand 
and mud, not, however, imbedded in such a state of torpor generally as the 
acephalous or head-less tribes (the Bivalves), unless in the curious instance 
of the Magilus. It is the peculiar property of this mollusk to become the 

* To this float the parent Ianthina commits her little progeny, and having securely fastened 
their several cradles or nursery cells, she detaches the float, which bears the ova to the surface, 
and sustains them where they may best receive the full influence of solar light and heat. — Owen. 

f In relating some experiments made by M. Jacquemin on the development of the Planorbis, 
Professor Owen continues, " The rudiments of the head and foot are sufficiently obvious on the sixth 
day ; the respiratory organs are formed on the sixth or eight day, according to the warmth of the 
weather. Ou the eighth day the characteristic tentacles begin to sprout from the rudimental head. 
On the tenth day all that part of the vitellus or embryo which is not occupied by the head, the 
foot, and the breathing organ, is covered by a thin and transparent pellicle, which is the rudiment 
of the shell. On the eleventh day one of the large central globules of the yolk begins to distin- 
guish itself from the alimentary mass by feeble contractions and dilatations, of which about sixty 
may be counted in a minute ; this is the heart. The mouth can now be discerned, and the small 
eye-specks appear like black granules at the base of the tentacula. On the twelfth day the 
embryo moves by its own contractions independently of the rotation produced by the cilia. On 
the thirteenth day acts of deglutition are discernible ; the embryo swallows the remaining albu- 
men, the anus is completed, and the genital organs begin to be formed. On the fourteenth day 
the young Planorbis ruptures by more violent contractions the chorion, and escapes into the 
water, protected by its own flexible shell." — Hunterian Lectures, 1844. 

E 2 



28 

fixed tenant of growing masses of white coral, but requiring at the same 
time to be in relation with the surrounding element, it alters its spiral plan 
of growth upon the increase of the coral, and pursues a nearly straight 
course, in order to keep pace with the advancing surface of its rocky bed. 
The Ianthina or Sea-Snail, is also an animal of peculiar habits, floating on 
the bosom of the ocean by means of a number of albuminous air-bladders 
attached to the foot, after the manner of a float ; and the parasitic habit of 
the Stylifer, living on the juices of the Star-Fish, is curious. 

The shell of the Gastropods is either of a spiral, or of a simple conical 
structure ; the spiral series is by far the more numerous in species, but it 
does not include any of such weight or dimensions as the Giant Clam (Tri- 
dacna gigas) among the Bivalves. Neither among the fossil shells of the 
extinct species are there any so large as in the preceding class. The form 
of the non-spiral gastropods varies from the depressly flattened cone of the 
Umbrella to the extreme conical elevation of Denlalhim ; in one genus, 
Chiton, the shell consists of eight distinct pieces moving upon each other 
within a cartilaginous frame, like plate armour ; and in other genera, such as 
Aplysia, the shell is merely represented by a concealed horny plate, depo- 
sited by an internal fold of the mantle. In tins group is also contained an 
interesting series called Nuclibranchiata, or naked-gilled mollusks, in winch 
the gills are exposed in the most beautiful varieties of tufted and ramified 
structure along the back : these have no shell.* The Limpet tribe afford 
a curious phenomenon in the peculiarity of two of the genera, Litheda/phiis 
and Hipponyx, depositing a shelly plate at their base of attachment. 

In treating of the parts of the spiral univalve shell it may be observed, 
in the first place, that the typical structure, of which all the different 
generic forms are modifications, is that of an enlarging conical tube, winding 
obliquely from left to right (viewing the mollusk as moving forward from 
the observer) by reason, probably, of some peculiar winding tendency in 
the vital organs of the animal. The axis upon which the tube winds, is 
called the axial pillar or columella ; every turn around tins axis is called a 
whorl ; and when the columella is hollow, it is said to be umbilicated. 
Among the terrestrial Gastropods the most simple plan of convolution is 
exhibited in the Cyclostoma g'igantewm ; for an elongated modification of 
tins, the Pupa Ruschenbergiana may be quoted as a remarkable example, 
the diameter of the tube in tins shell is very small, and the volutions are per- 
formed witlun a very limited area ; and there being as many as five and twenty 
whorls the shell assumes the form of a peculiarly attenuated cylinder. Tor 
a depressed modification of the univalve, the Caracolla parmula may be re- 
garded as a most characteristic example ; in this shell the spiral tube is so 
depressly flattened as to present the form of a slightly convex lens. In the 

* Although the Nudlbranchial Mollusks furnish no ornaments for the cabinet and do not 
enter, therefore, into the category of animals treated of in this work, I cannot refrain from 
noticing Alder and Hancock's beautiful figures of them recently published by the Ray Society. 



29 

marine tribes, the Turbo variabilis might be selected as a specimen of 
simple convolution, the elongated modification being represented by the 
Turritella or Terebra, and the depressed by Solarium or Kotella. The land 
species offer the most extreme modifications of depressed growth, because 
the visceral parts of the herbivorous tribes may very possibly be restrained 
within a more limited area than the carnivorous kinds ; they have no occa- 
sion for the armature of teeth and rasped plates required for the assimilation 
of animal food, nor is the digestive apparatus of so complicated a character. 

The carnivorous tribes have no such limitation of growth as is found in 
the Caracolla, their range of habits furnishes them with more vigour, and 
their calcifying energies are exercised in many instances to an excess winch 
is truly astonishing. A ponderous massive shell is often found to be the 
production of an animal occupying but a very limited portion of it. The 
shells of the terrestrial species have no external ramifications and very little 
variety of sculpture, whilst those of the marine kinds are ornamented with 
ribs, tubercles, laminae, spines, and fronds. The first departure from the 
fluted LentaUum, or the smooth tube of Turritella, is presented in the Sca- 
laria, where the lip of the aperture is reflexed in its earliest stage of deve- 
lopment ; the course of the tube proceeds with the reflexed margin remaining 
on its circumference ; and tins operation is continued at intervals until the 
shell and its inhabitant arrive at maturity. This is the simple plan upon 
winch the ornamental structure of all shells is developed. To take a more 
complicated example, let us examine the growth of the Murex. Not only 
is there a periodical reflexion and thickening of the edge of the tube, which 
in this genus has an ovate or pyriform area, but certain calcifying filaments 
or processes are exserted from the edge of the mantle, capable of produc- 
ing most elegantly formed spines and fronds. As soon as this architectural 
border is finished the filaments are withdrawn, and the tube pursues its 
regular growth until they are again exserted for a similar purpose. These 
borders, technically called varices, thus encircle the tube at intervals, and 
are supposed to indicate seasons of rest ; the lip of the shell being probably 
thickened in tins manner for protection during a period of relaxation. The 
varices are formed at various intervals ; in Triton only two or three occur 
during the entire growth of the shell, in Uanella one is deposited on every 
half whorl, in such a manner as to range obliquely one under the other, 
and in Murex they occur tliree or more times on every whorl. In Harpa 
and other genera of the family Purpurifera, the entire shell is formed of a 
close succession of marginal borders like the varices of the Canalifera. 

There are many varieties in the tubular growth of the shell besides those 
above enumerated ; in the Cone, for example, the tube is of a longitudinally 
compressed form, winding upon itself almost on the same vertical plane, 
but as the different modifications of form and sculpture will be treated of 
under the different genera, it only remains to notice the varieties of the res- 



30 

piratory organs selected to characterize the subdivision of the class into seven 
Orders, as follows : — the first group, PectlnibrancJiiata, have a pair of pecti- 
nated gills of the shape of a comb ; the second, Pulmobranchiata, winch 
includes the terrestrial and lacustral species perform the functions of respira- 
tion by a puhnoniferous net-bag ; the third, Pleurobranchiata, are distin- 
guished by the gills being situated on the right side only ; the fourth, Cervico- 
brancHata, have their gills situated in a special cavity in the neck ; in the 
fifth, Cyclobranchiata, the gills are placed in a circle round the edge of the 
body ; in the sixth they are cirrous or hair-like ; and in the Nucleobranchiata, 
which are the most aberrant form of the class and afford a link to that 
of the Pteropods, the branchiae, together with the visceral mass, are con- 
centrated within a nucleus protruding from the ventral part of the body 
which is almost wholly gelatinous. Numerous modifications of the breathing 
organs of minor importance have been selected for the distinction of orders ; 
those which have the gills ranged around the lower part of the body, 
between the disc and the mantle, have been associated under the term 
Ivferobraiichiata, those in winch the gills and entire body are contained 
in a strictly tubular shell, Tubulibranchiaia, and those in which they are 
protected by a shield-like shell under that of Scatibranchiata ; all these are, 
however, comprehended in the seven Orders here adopted. 



Order 1. PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae; pectinated, contained within a cavity in the upper part 
of the neck, into lohich the water is sometimes conveyed by a 
siphon or siphonal apperidage. 

Having already spoken of the nature and habits of the pectinibranchial 
Gastropods in treating of the class, I have only to remark under tins head 
that the branchise or gills of the present order, which includes a very 
numerous series, are arranged for the most part in parallel laminse, like the 
teeth of a comb, and are contained within a cavity in the upper part of the 
neck. Some of the pectinibranchial tribe are carnivorous, and some are 
herbivorous ; and the former are distinguished from the latter by a siphon 
or siphonal appendage passing out at the basal channel of the shell, for the 
purpose of conveying the water to the branchial cavity. 



Carnivora. Herbivora. 

Convoluta Alata Turbinacea Neritacea 

COLUMELLATA CaNALIFERA PlICACEA PERISTOMAL 

PuRPURIFERA PARASITICA Ia^THINEA MeLANIANA 



31 
Family 1. CONVOLUTA. 

Shell ; with the whorls convoluted upon nearly a vertical pilane. 

In this family -'s associated an interesting series in which the whorls of 
the shell are convoluted one over the other, without obliquely descending, 
so that the sutural extremity remains almost upon a plane with the top of 
the spire. It is grouped upon rather an artificial basis, because the Olives 
which exhibit a nearly similar arrangement of the whorls are referred by 
their affinities to the family Purpurifera. The Cones have likewise been 
removed to various situations in the natural order, Mr. Gray places them 
next to Pleurotoma, M. De Blainville in the immediate vicinity of Stromhus, 
and M. Deshayes refers them to his family of Bucciniclce. The Cowrey 
with its enveloping mantle, is certainly very different in appearance from 
the Cone, in which the mantle is of very limited proportions ; but the Ovu- 
lum and the Cowrey are very closely allied. The following are the genera 
referred to tins family : — 

Conus. Teeebellum. „ Ovulum. 

Cypilea. Erato. 

Genus 1. CONUS. 

Animal ; disc oblong, rather thin, double-edged, oval behind, 
abruptly truncated in front ; head obtusely cylindrical, with a 
rather short trunk ; tentacles short and stout, with the eyes 
placed upon them at a distance of about one fourth of their 
length from the summit. Operculum very small, horny, some- 
times wanting. 

Shell ; conical, slightly emarginated at the base, spire sometimes 
fat and obtuse, sometimes sharply acuminated ; aperture longi- 
tudinal, mostly narrow ; lip simple. 

The Cones constitute one of the most natural and best defined generic 
groups tliroughout the class ; they present a great similarity of structure, 
and the species are remarkable for the elaborate design and brilliancy of 
their colours. The differences of form consist chiefly in the depression or 
elevation of the spire, the attenuation or inflation of the whorls, and in 
their spiral edges being plain or coronated; there are, however, many 
striking variations, which though apparently of marked specific importance 
are yet common to different individuals of the same species. Some, for 
example, are found with the spire at one time plain, at another coronated ; 



12 

and many, in like manner, have the surface sometimes smooth and some- 
times granulated, but never punctured. Granulated specimens are invari- 
ably of smaller size than smooth examples of the same species ; the same ob- 
servation does not, however, hold good in reference to those which are coro- 
nated. The beautiful Admiral Cone (C. ammiralis) is found either smooth, 
or granulated, or coronated; and there are many species whose specific 
character is almost solely maintained, through different modifications of 
form, by the general affinity of their colour and markings. The C. magus, 
on the contrary, is mostly variable in colour, yet its specific integrity is 
preserved throughout by the unity of design in its markings. 

The Cones are mostly inhabitants of deep water, and nearly all are tropi- 
cal; one or two are found as far north as the Mediterranean, but they 
essentially require a warmer region. Like all tropical fauna they present a 
most vivid display of colours, and the mechanism of their calcifying fila- 
ments must be of very exquisite workmanship. In order to produce the 
wondrous detail of pattern portrayed in the C. gloria-marts, or in the banded 
net-work of the C. ammiralis, which is scarcely discernible without the 
aid of a lens, the mollusk must be endowed with an astonishing ingenuity 
of design ; and for the simultaneous production of so many colours as are 
exhibited in the C. aurisiacus or imperialis, its molecular fluid must have 
many more sources of colouring matter than a weaver at his loom. Where, 
indeed, do we find so rich a brocade of gold as in the C. textile, or a web 
of such elaborate meshes as in the C. abbas or Victoria ? 

The genus Conus is very numerous in species, and many of them, parti- 
cularly the C. magus, omaria, venulatus, jprinceps, thalassiarchus, cedo-nulli, 
spectrum Mocambicus, Guinaicus, and one or two others, are extremely 
variable, both in form and colour; they may, nevertheless, be readily dis- 
criminated by attentive study. 



1. abbas, Hwass. 

2. abbreviatus, Nuttall. 

3. achatinus, Chemn. 

4. aculeiformis, Reeve. 

5. acuminatus, Hicass. 

6. acutangulus, Chemn. 

7. Adamsoni, Gray. 

8. Adansoni, Lam. 

9. semulus, Reeve. 

10. albimaculatus, Sow. 

11. Algoensis, Sow. 

12. amabilis, Lam. 

13. Amadis, Martini. 



Species. 

14. ambiguus, Reeve. 

15. ammiralis, Linn. 

16. anemone, Lam. 

17. aplustre, Reeve. 

18. araneosus, Hwass. 

19. archiepiscopns, Hw. 

20. archon, Brocl. 

21. arcuatus, Brod. 

22. arenatus, Hwass. 

23. artoptus, Sow. 

24. attenuatus, Reeve. 

25. augur, ILicass. 

26. aulicus, Linn. 



27. aurantius, Hwass. 

28. auratus, Lam. 

29. aureus, Hwass. 

30. aurisiacus, Linn. 

31. aurora, Lam. 

32. australis, Chemn. 

33. baeticus, Reeve. 

34. balteatus, Soto. 

35. Bandauus, Hwass. 

36. Barbadensis, Hio. 

37. betulinus, Linn. 

38. Broderipii, Reeve. 

39. brunneus, Wood. 



33 



40. bullnis, Reeve. 

41. bullatus, Linn. 

42. buxeus, Reeve. 

43. Caledonicns, Hwass. 

44. Californicus, Hinds. 

45. cancellatus, Lam. 

46. canonicus, Hwass. 

47. capitaneus, Linn. 

48. cardinalis, LLtoass. 

49. carinatus, Swain. 

50. *castrensis, Gould. 

51. castus, Reeve. 

52. catus, Hwass. 

53. cedo-nulli, Klein. 

54. centurio, Rom. 

55. cervus, Z««.. 

56. Ceylanensis, Hwass. 

57. characteristicus, C!&. 

58. cinereus, Hwass. 

59. cingulatus, Za»7. 

60. classiarius, Hwass. 

61. clavus, Zi/m. 

62. Clerii, Reeve. 

63. cocceus, Reeve. 

64. colubrinus, Zam. 

65. columba, Hwass. 

66. concinnus, ZY0(?. 

67. concolor, /Sow. 

68. consors, $»0. 

69. conspersus, Reeve. 

70. crepusculum, ifewe. 

71. crocatus, Lam. 

72. cuneolus, Ztew. 

73. cylindraceus, Brod. 

74. daucus, Hwass. 

75. Delessertianus, ifecZ. 

76. Deshayesii, Reeve. 

77. *discrepans, /Sow. 

78. *dispar, Sow. 

79. distans, Hwass. 

80. dux, Hwass. 

81. eburneus, Hwass. 

82. elougatus, Reeve. 

83. emarginatus, Reeve. 

84. episcopus, Za»&. 

85. epistomium, Reeve. 

86. *eques, Z«m. 

87. erythrseensis, Zec£. 



88. exaratus, Reeve. 

89. fabula, $970. 

90. figulinus, Z«?m. 

91. flavesceus, Gray. 

92. flavidus, Za?re. 

93. floccatus, Sow. 

94. Franciscstnus, Hw. 

95. *fulgunms, Zara. 

96. fulmen, Reeve. 

97. fumigatns, LLwass. 

98. furvus, Reeve. 

99. fuscatus, Zor«. 

100. *fusiformisj Z«»re. 

101. geueralis, Linn. 

102. genuanus, Z»m. 

103. geographus, Linn. 

104. gladiator, Brod. 

105. glans, LLwass. 

106. glaucus, Z£«w. 

107. gloria-maris, Cliemn. 

108. gradatus, Gray. 

109. grauulatus, Linn. 

110. Grayi, Reeve. 

111. Gruneri, Reeve. 

112. gubernator, Hwass. 

113. Guinaicus, Hwass. 

114. Hebrasus, Zmra. 

115. hieroglypbicus, Z>#c£. 

116. imperiabs, Zwm. 

117. incarnatus, Reeve. 

118. *inflatus, /Sow. 

119. iuformis, Hwass. 

120. inseriptus, Reeve. 

121. intermedins, Reeve. 

122. interruptus, Zro^. 

123. iodostoma, Reeve. 

124. Janus, Hwass. 

125. *Japonicus, Z«/«. 

126. lacteus, Z»?m. 

127. *lamellosus, Zaw. 

128. lautus, Reeve. 

129. legatns, Lam. 

130. lentiginosus, Reeve. 

131. leoninus, Hwass. 

132. lignarius, Reeve. 

133. lineatus, Cliemn. 

1 34. liratus, Reeve. 

135. litcratus, Zj/m. 



136. litboglyhus, Meusch. 

137. lividus, LLwass. 

138. Lorenzianus, C/temn. 

139. luteus, M 

140. *Luzonicus, Zam. 

141. maculiferus, /Sow. 

142. Madurensis, Hwass. 

143. magnificus, Reeve. 

144. magus, Z/w«. 

145. mabogaui, Reeve. 

146. Malaccanus, LLwass. 

147. Maldivus, Zfc/.ss. 

148. Marcliionatus, Hinds. 

149. marmoreus, Zwm. 

150. Martinianus, Reeve. 

. 151. *Mauritianus, Hwass. 

152. *maurus, (?r«y. 

153. Mediterraneus, ZTw. 

154. melanchclicus, Zaw. 

155. mercator, Linn. 

156. Metcalfii, Reeve. 

157. miles, Zwm. 

158. mibaris, Hwass. 

159. millepunctatus, Z«?». 

160. Mindanus, Hwass. 

161. minimus, Zmw. 

162. minutus, Reeve. 

163. mitratus, LLwass. 

164. monachus, Zm». 

165. monile, LLwass. 

166. monilifer, Z/W. 

167. Mozambieus, Hwass. 

168. mucronatus, Reeve. 

169. muricnlatus, /Sow. 

170. mus, LLtoass. 

171. musicus, Hwass. 

172. inustelinus, LLwass. 

173. mutabilis, Cliemn. 

174. nanus, 2?ra?. 

175. Narcissus, Za/«. 

176. nebulosus, Soland. 

177. Nemocanus, LLwass. 

178. Neptunus, Reeve. 

179. Nicobaricus, LLwass. 

180. nimbosus, Hwass. 

181. nitidus, Reeve. 

182. nobibs, Zzww. 

183. nocturnus, LLwass. 

F 



184. Nussatella, Linn. 

185. mix, Brod. 

186. obesus, Hicass. 

187. obscurus, Humph. 

188. Omaicus, Hwass. 

189. omaria, Hwass. 

190. Orbignyi, Ardouin. 

191. orbitatus, i?ft>w. 

192. Orion, Brod. 

193. panni cuius, Z«to. 

194. papilionaceus, Hwass. 

195. Parius, Reeve. 

196. pastinaca, Zam. 

197. patricius, Hinds. 

198. pauperculus, /So?<\ 

199. pertusus, Hwass. 

200. pictus, Reeve. 

201. piperatus, iteew. 

202. plumbeus, Reeve. 

203. pontifioalis, Z«?». 

204. Porto-Ricanus, Hw. 

205. praefectus, Hwass. 

206. prselatus, Hwass. 

207. princeps, Zwm. 

208. Prometlieus, Hwass. 

209. Proteus, Hwass. 

210. pulchellus, Swain. 

211. pulicarius, Hwass. 

212. punctatus, Cliemn. 

213. puncticulatus,7/?ca«3, 

214. puncturatus, Hwass. 

215. purpurascens, Zro<7. 

216. pusillus, Cliemn. 



34 

217. pygmseus, Tfoew. 

218. *pyramidalis, Zam. 

219. pyriformis, 2?eew. 

220. quercinus, Hwass. 

221. regalitatis, ^o?o. 

222. regularis, Sow. 

223. reticulatus, <SW. 

224. roseus, Lam. 

225. rutilus, Menke. 

226. scalptus, iteew. 

227. Senator, Linn. 

228. Sianiensis, Hwass. 

229. sindon, Reeve. 

230. *Sinensis, Clienu. 

231. Sinensis, £om>. 

232. Solandri, ZroJ. 

233. solidus, /Stop. 

234. spectrum, Linn. 

235. spbacelatus, Sow. 

236. splendidulus, /SW. 

237. sponsabs, Cliemn. 

238. Staiiifortbii, iteew. 

239. stercus-muscarum, L. 

240. stramineus, Lam. 

241. striatus, Z«w/z. 

242. strigatus, Lam. 

243. sugillatus. Reeve. 

244. sulcatus, Hwass. 

245. Sumatrensis, Zam. 

246. Suratensis, Hwass. 

247. suturatus, Reeve. 

248. tabidus, Z^ere. 

249. tseniatiis, Hwass. 



250. Taheitensis, Hwass. 

251. tendineus, Hwass. 

252. terebellum, jlfartf. 

253. terminus, Z#?ra. 

254. tessellatus, ^orw. 

255. testudinarius, \Mart. 

256. textile, Ziww. 

257. thalassiarclms, Gray. 

258. Timorensis, Hwass. 

259. Tinianus, Hwass. 

260. tornatus, ^-o^. 

261. tristis, Reeve. 

262. trochulus, Reeve. 

263. tulipa, Zcrw.. 

264. *unicolor, tfozp. 

265. ustulatus, Reeve. 

266. varius, Z«m. 

267. venulatus, Hwass. 

268. verriculmn, ifewe. 

269. verrucosus, Lam. 

270. vexillum, Mart. 

271. vicarius, Zara. 

272. victor, Brod. 

273. Victoria?, Reeve. 

274. vidua, Reeve. 

275. violaceus, Reeve. 

276. virgo, Zi««. 

277. viridulus, Zam. 

278. vittatus, Zara. 

279. vitulinus, Hwass. 

280. voluminalis, LLinds. 

281. zebra, Zawj. 

282. zonatus, Hwass. 



%* The species marked thus (*) are unknown to me, and may be considered doubtful, if not 
synonymous with others ; for figiu-es and a critical examination of the remainder see Monograph 
of the Genus in Conchologia Iconica. 



Figures. 

Conus textile. Plate E. Fig. 4. — Shell with the animal, showing its 
mottled disc, branchial siphon, head, tentacles and eyes. From the 
Zoology of the Voyage de l' Astrolabe. 

Conus Victori/e. Plate 3. Fig. 14. — Shell. From the collection of Dr. 

Kinijiji. 



35 



Genus 2. TEREBELLUM, Lamarck. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; cylindrically elongated, spire acuminated, last whorl slightly 
inflated towards the base, where it is abruptly curtailed and 
emarginated; columella smooth, produced at the base; lip simple. 

Although the Terebellum shell was known to Klein, Lister, and one or 
two other writers antecedent to Lhmseus, and is not unfrequently collected 
on the shores of the eastern seas, no specimen has yet been found with its 
molluscous inhabitant. It is of a very isolated form, intermediate, in a man- 
ner, between Conus and Bulla, to both of which genera Linnajus at different 
times referred it in ' Systema Naturae/ Sowerby in his ' Genera of Shells ' 
considers the Terebellum most nearly allied to St ro ml us, I do not think, 
however, that will prove to be the case ; there are certainly one or two species 
of the latter in which the shell bears a striking resemblance to the former, 
but there is a peculiarity in its light Bulla-like convolution which inchoates 
the presence of a very different animal from that of Strombus • though 
probably one of equally remote affinity with either Conus or Ovidum. 

Terebellum subulatum. Plate 1. Fig.6. From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 3. OVULUM, Bruguiere. 

Animal; disc ample, oblong-ovate, somewhat acuminated at the 
ends, in slight folds ; head somewhat obscure, with the siphonal 
appendage produced into a broad wrinkled fold ; tentacles long 
and stout, eyes situated ujjon a prominent subramose thickening 
at about the middle ; mantle extended on each side into a lobe, 
sprinkled 'with short spinous processes, envelopi?ig the shell. 

Shell; oval or oblong, smooth, more or less produced at the extre- 
mities ; spire concealed; aperture longitudinal, columella smooth, 
lip mostly thickened and inflexed, sometimes wrinkled ; pure 
white, sometimes pink or violet tinged. 

There is so close an affinity between the animals of Ovulum and Cypraa, 
especially between the 0. ovum and the C. Mauritiana, that it would lie im- 
possible to refer them to separate genera were it not for the marked dif- 
ference in the shells. M. De Blainville proposed, in conformity with this 
resemblance of the soft parts, to regard the Ovuli as merely a section of 
the genus Cypraa ; it is certain, however, that animals producing two such 

f2 



36 

obvious and characteristic assemblages of shells as refer to the genera in 
question, though differing in no other respect, are equally entitled to generic 
distinction. A system of arrangement based upon the characters of the 
soft parts of the mollusk alone, without reference to the shell or hard parts, 
is scarcely less objectionable than one founded upon the shell alone, without 
reference to the organic structure of the animal. 

The shell of Ovulum differs from that of Cypma in having the extremities 
more or less prolonged, and in the lip and columella being destitute of the 
prominent rows of teeth with which that genus is so remarkably charac- 
terized ; the outer lip, as in the 0. ovum and imperialis is in one or two in- 
stances a little wrinkled, but never toothed. Another distinction consists in 
the Ovulum not being provided with any pattern or design of colour, nor with 
colour in any form beyond a faint tinge of pink, violet, or yellow. 

The genus Ovulum is somewhat limited in species, and they are mostly 
small ; the 0. ovum is the only one of large size, and the 0. imperialis the 
only species of intermediate size ; the well-known Chinese species, the 0. 
volva, presents a remarkable example of prolongation of the extremities, and 
the 0. verrucosa, the nearest approach to Cypnea, is characterized by the 
presence of two small wart-like callosities like those of the C. bicallosa. 



1. aciculare, Sow. 

2. Adriaticum, Sow. 

3. aequale, Sow. 

4. album, Dufo. 

5. avena, Sow. 

6. birostre, Lam. 

7. breve, Sow. 

8. cameum, Lam. 

9. corrugatum, Hinds. 

10. dorsuosum, Hinds. 

11. emarginatum, Sow. 

12. formicarium, Sow. 



Species. 

13. frumentum, Soto. 

14. galhnaceum. Hinds. 

15. gibbosum, Lam. 

16. hordeaceum, Lam. 

17. inflexum, Soiv. 

18. intermedium, Sow. 

19. lacteum, Lam. 

20. longirostratum, Sow. 

21. margarita, Sow. 

22. marginatum, Sow. 

23. nigerinum, Dufo. 

24. obtusum, Sow. 

Figures. 



25. ovum, Soto. 

26. patulum, Sow. 

27. pyriforme, Sow. 

28. rufum, Sow. 

29. secale, Sow. 

30. seminulum, Sow. 

31. spelta, Lam. 

32. striatulum, Sow. 

33. tortile, Des. 

34. triticeum, Lam. 

35. verrucosa, Sow. 

36. volva, Lam. 



Ovulum ovum. Plate F— Fig. 3. Shell with animal, showing the ex- 
panded disc, in slight folds ; the right lobe of the mantle with its 
spinous processes partially extended ; the broad wrinkled siphonal ap- 
pendage; the tentacles proceeding from the concealed head; and the 
eyes on the thickened part of the tentacles. From the Zoology of the 
I <>//age de I' Astrolabe. 

< >vulum volva. Plate 1. Fig. 5.— Shell. From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



37 



Genus 4. CYPRiEA, Linnaeus. 

Animal ; disc oblong-ovate, in ample folds, more or less acuminated 
at the extremities, front extremity sometimes truncated ; head 
obtuse, cylindrical, siphoned appendage broad, short, sometimes 
fringed at the edge, and disposed in the form of a fan ; tentacles 
long, stout, eyes situated on a subramose thickening at about one 
third distance from the base ; mantle produced into two lobes, 
capable of enveloping the shell, furnished with warts, spinous 
processes, forked tufted or ramified filaments, or tubular papillae. 

Shell; ovate or oblong-ovate, ventricose, polished, sometimes nodi- 
ferous or ribbed, ivith the extremities emarginated ; spire very 
short, partially or entirely concealed; aperture nearly central, 
longitudinal, narrow ; lip and columella toothed. 

There is probably no group throughout the series which offers matter of 
so much beauty and interest as the genus Cypraa, whether we regard the 
animal or the shell. The Cowrey presents the most striking example of a 
mollusk forming its shell by the outward application of a number of suc- 
cessive layers of highly vitrified enamel, constituting a superb arch of as 
many strata, of different colours and design. The changes both of form 
and colour which the Cypraa shells exhibit at different periods of growth 
are so dissimilar, that writers of the last century have referred the same 
species, in different states, to genera widely separated in the system ; and 
there are instances of three and four species having been founded upon one 
under different phases of colour. It is, therefore, highly necessary that the 
collector should assemble specimens of each species of Cowrey characteristic 
of its different stages of growth, and observe the gradual variations of form 
and colour that present themselves between the embryo and the adidt. 

The first stage of advancement produces a simple convolution of shell 
around the columella axis in the form of a long drawn out Bulla, the colu- 
mella being smooth, the outer lip thin, and the colour usually diffused in 
bands of waves. In the second epoch of growth the shell solidifies, the lip 
and columella begin to thicken, and present gradual indications of teeth, 
the teeth become more and more perfectly developed, and the dorsal surface 
is overlaid with a strong coat of livid colouring matter, also diffused in 
obscure bands or waves. The calcifying energies of the mantle, winch, ex- 
tending in two unequal lobes, one from either side of the shell's aperture, 
have been chiefly exercised during the second epoch of growth upon the 
back, or dorsal surface, are now more particularly directed to the base and 
-sides. The teeth are strengthened, the sides become thickened with a rich 



38 

coating of enamel, and the growth of the shell is completed by a light 
fabric of colouring matter deposed in lines, blotches, waves, or reticulations, 
of various hues and patterns. These are not, however, the only physiolo- 
gical changes that take place in the Cowrey. From observations made by 
a gentleman who worthily employs the opportunities afforded him, as a 
Naval officer, in the pursuit of science, I have strong reasons for believing 
that there is some truth in the argument set forth many years since by 
Bruguiere and Lamarck, relative to the Cypraa possessing the faculty of 
partially dissolving and renewing its shell after having arrived at maturity* 

Lamarck says in reference to the re-calcification of the Cypraa shell, " I 
possess observations which tend to prove that the Cowrey, arrived at the 
power of forming a complete shell, has still the faculty of enlarging its 
habitation, and is then obliged to quit the shell in order to form a new one. 
It results from tins that the same individual has the power of forming a 
successive number of shells during both the second and third stages of 
growth ; and which accounts for our often meeting with so many different 
sizes in the same species " ! 

M. Deshayes argues against the possibility of an entire re-modelling of 
the shell, and justly regards the statement of Lamarck as a theory opposed 
to the common laws of organization. To the supposition of Bruguiere 
that the Cowries cast their shells after the manner of Crabs, M. Des- 
hayes very properly replies that there can be no analogy between them. 
The new shell of the Crustacea is formed by a secretion of equal consistency 
from all parts of the body, whereas the Mottasca have a muscular attach- 
ment to the columella, and increase the growth of their shell by an exuda- 
tion, not from the whole body, but from a particular organ ; the mantle 
being the sole agent charged with that faculty. It is further argued by the 
same distinguished naturalist that the Cowrey must lose the power of form- 
ing the inner chambers of the columella anew, after having once passed 
that early process of development winch induces their formation. " How 
is it possible/' asks M. Deshayes, " that the animal can, under the circum- 

* Lieut. J". B. Hankey, R.N., to Lovell Reeve. 

Will you allow me to offer you a few remarks on the habits of the Cyprsea as regards the fact 
of its making a new shell, at an advanced age, of which process I have been myself in more than 
one instance an eye-witness. I have seen the Cowrey crawl into some hollow or sheltered place, 
evidently for some predetermined purpose, The growth of the animal appeal's to increase too 
large for its cell ; it gradually swells and cracks the shell, and I flunk that some powerful solvent 
or decomposing fluid is distributed over the outer surface by the mantle of the tish, for it gets 
thinner in substance, and the colours duller in appearance. The shell then entirely disappears, 
the Cowrey becomes, to all appearance, a naked mollusk, with no other covering than its mem- 
branous mantle, and in a short time secretes a thin layer of glutinous matter which in a few days 
obtains the fragile consistency of shell-lac. From this step its growth is more rapid, and it 
becomes more aud more consolidated iuto the adult shell. When iu the first stage of renewal it 
lias the appearance of shell-lac it is always of the Cymba form, but I have never succeeded in 
preserving any specimens in this state on account of their extreme fragility. 

H.M.S. Colliugwood, August 6th, 1844. J.B. H. 

Conchologia Iconica, Cyf&sa Plate I. 



39 

stances of its nature, secrete a new shell from all parts of the body at once, 
and with all the different phases of colour exhibited in early growth, when 
it has reached to an advanced condition of its existence ? " 

The animal does not appear to quit the shell, as Lamarck supposed, but 
dissolves the outer portion with its acetose juices. All visible trace of the 
shell maybe thus removed without weakening M. Deshayes' proposition 
founded on the circumstance of the mantle being the only organ charged 
with the secretive fluid. The mantle is always capable of extension over 
the shell; and the same powder which furnishes the adult with its last 
coating of enamel can be exerted to the formation of as many superincum- 
bent layers as may be necessary to replace all that has been decomposed. 
That a dissolution takes place there can be no doubt : — " the shell gra- 
dually swells," says Lieut. Hankey, "and cracks, becomes thinner, and 
duller in colour, and finally disappears;" a circumstance which maybe 
easily credited when it is remembered that the Murex possesses the faculty 
of removing spines or any similar obstacles to its advancement of growth, 
and that the P/iolades, and other terebrating mollusks, exercise a power of 
absorbing which enables them to penetrate the hardest limestone rock. 
The microscopical structure of the Cowrey shell is, moreover, of a nature 
peculiarly tenacious of absorption ; it is composed of a large quantity of 
carbonate of lime in proportion to the amount of membranous substance ; 
and this accounts for its surface becoming vitrified to so highly a polished 
state of enamel, when in contact with the acidity of the soft parts. 

There is another circumstance in Lieut. Hankey's narrative to which 
attention should be given, respecting the formation of a new shell : — the 
glutinous matter which has the appearance of shell-lac, and is so fragile 
that it yields to the touch, does not assume the narrow cylindrical Bulla 
form, but is of the wide, ventricose shape of a Cgrnba, and rapidly consoli- 
dates into the adult shell. 

With these generalizations I think it may be assumed that the Cowrey 
possesses, upon an emergency, the faculty of decomposing, during one or 
more periods of its existence, any portion of the shell that is liable to 
resist its advancement of growth ; that the renewal of the shell is accom- 
plished within a comparatively short space of time ; and that the columella 
with its internal spiral partitions remains undisturbed. It may, however, 
be inferred that it is an operation of extremely rare occurrence, and one 
winch only happens under peculiar conditions. 

In most species of Cypraa three separate phases of colour may be defined 
at different periods of growth. In the C. Mauritiana, for example, the 
colour of its first state, or Bulla form, is a pale yellow, over which the ful- 
vous brown spreads in bands of waves ; in an intermediate state the waves 
become agglomerated, and leave the yellow in triangular flame-like spots ; 
and when the teeth are fully developed, the sides become thickened with a 



40 

rich dark blackish-brown coating which is thinly spread over the dorsal 
surface, opening' into irregular reticulations just as if its flow had been dis- 
turbed by the intermixture of some oily liquid. In the C. Scottii the first 
growth is a clear milky orange colour (Conch. Icon. Cypraa, PI. XXVII. 
Fi°\ 10.), it then assumes a blueish tinge disposed inobscure bands, and 
be°ins to show a few bright tortoise-shell-brown blotches, which rapidly 
accumulate, as exhibited in the adult, long before there is any indication of 
teeth. This is an arrangement different to that of most Cowries, in which 
the teeth are chiefly developed before the last layer of colouring matter is 
deposited. The sides and base then become thickened with an extremely 
rich pitchy-brown coating of enamel, and the extremities compressed and 
turned upwards. The most striking change, however, takes place in the 
shell of C. tigris : first it is an uniform chesnut bay., the colour then breaks 
up, as it were, into bands of close-set waved blotches of a richer hue, a 
coating of white is then superimposed, and upon that is deposited a series 
of rather distant zigzag flames upon a white ground ; the teeth are forming 
in the mean time, and a few spots of colour make their appearance round 
the outer side. In the next state of the shell, a second layer of white 
enamel is superimposed, a thinner and more delicate stratum than the pre- 
ceding, through which the zigzag flames may be seen of a milky hue ; and, 
upon this surface a number of dark spots are deposited. These are again 
overspread by a third white coating, intermixed with numerous rich black 
and brown spots, showing, for the first time, a narrow dorsal hiatus, mostly 
edged with reddish brown, with the first deposit of dark spots, thus over- 
spread, of a milky hue.* 

The ornamental character with which the dorsal surface of the Cowries 
is mostly painted, appears to be the last effort in the formation of the shell. 
The previous infusions of colour rarely exhibit anything more than a dull 
confusion of waves, clouds, or bands ; no ornamental device appears until 
the shell is on the eve of maturity : the most richly variegated layers of 
enamel are reserved for the final decoration. The C. mappa presents, how- 
ever, a curious exception to this order of arrangement ; a layer of pale liiero- 
glyphical painting, greatly resembling, except in colour, that of the C. 
Arabica, is deposited by the animal on the left side chiefly, while yet in a 

* " Mr. Samuel Stutchbury, who had an opportunity of examining many individuals of C. 
tigris at the Pearl Islands, informed me that these Cowries lived there in very shallow water, and 
always under rolled masses of Madrepore. They never were to be seen exposed to the sun's 
rays. On lifting one of these masses, a Tiger Cowrey was generally observed with its shell en- 
tirely covered by the large mantle which was mottled with dark colours, the intensity of which 
the animal seemed to have tbe power of changing ; for the colour varied in the same light and in 
the same medium, after the manner of the spots on the Cephalopodous Mollusca, or, to use a 
more familiar instance, somewhat in the manner that the hues of a turkey-cock's wattle vary. On 
touching the mantle, it was immediately withdrawn within the shell, which became exposed in 
all its brilliancy. So firmly did the soft parts adhere to the shell, that, in no instance, (and the 
experiment was often made) did Mr. Stutchbury succeed in extracting them by force, either 
during life, or before decomposition took place. He was obliged to let the animal die, and suffer 
i lie soft parts to decay, in order to remove them."— Bhodkiup, Zool. Journal, vol. iv. p. 153. 



41 

very immature state of growth, and ou arriving at maturity, another and 
richer layer of the same pattern is superimposed upon the former, which in 
most specimens may be faintly seen beneath it. Another exception occurs 
in the C. carneola, ventriculus, arenosa, sulcidentata, and one or two others ; 
in these species the dorsal surface has no ornamental layer of pattern on 
arriving at maturity ; the calcifying energies of the mantle, at an advanced 
stage of growth, are directed exclusively, and with more than usual force, 
to the thickening of the sides of the shell, and it is mostly accompanied 
with a dull deposit of sand-like dots or striae. 

The Cypraa present two very distinct groups; the larger species in 
winch the surface of the shell is highly enamelled, and the smaller species in 
which it is disposed in grooves and ridges, of a more opake character and 
more delicate texture. They offer little variety of form, but a diversity of 
colouring; and among them are several very distinct and characteristic 
species of unusual rarity, which our country can alone boast of possessing. 
Of these the Cypmm princeps and leucodon, in our national collection, are 
perfectly unique ; it seems curious that nature should not have exercised 
her accustomed prodigality in the perpetuation of these species, for instead 
of being the remnants of an extinct group, they appear to be the solitary 
instances of a creation possessing an exuberance of character quite unap- 
proached by any other species. They are both in the finest possible condi- 
tion, and may certainly be regarded as the most valuable shells yet dis- 
covered. The next in value are the C. Broderipii and guttata; of the 
former, three specimens are known, two of which are in tins country ; of the 
latter, five, of which we possess four. Of distinguished rarities of smaller 
size may be mentioned C. Cumingii, Saula, xanthodon, similis, contaminata 
and fusco-dentata, all in our collections. 

There is little to be said on the geographical distribution of the Cowries 
except that they are mostly tropical. Only one or two very small grooved 
species are found on our own coast, and none larger than C. lurida in the 
Mediterranean. The C. Scottii may be quoted as a fine example of the 
New Holland region, and the C. aurantium (the orange Cowrey), of the 
Pacific. The C. pantherina is brought in great abundance from the Eed 
Sea, but the greater portion of the species are from Mauritius, Ceylon, and 
other parts of the eastern world. 



Species. 

1. Adamsoni, Gray. 5. annulata, Gray. 9. arenosa, Gray. 

2. albuginosa, Mawe. 6. annulus, Linn. 10. Argus, Linn. 

3. Algoensis, Gray. 7. Arabica, Linn. 11. asellus, Linn. 

■i. angustata,' Gray. 8. Arabicula, Lam. 12. aurantium, Mart. 



42 



13. australis, Lam. 

14. Beckii, Gaskoin. 

15. bicallosa, Gray. 

16. Broderipii, Gray. 

17. Californica, Gray. 

18. candidula, Gaskoin. 

19. Capensis, Gray. 

20. caput-serpentis, Linn, 

21. carneola, Linn. 

22. caurica, Linn. 

23. cervus, Ziww. 

24. Childreni, Gray. 

25. cicercula, Zw«. 

26. cinerea, Gmelin. 

27. citrina, Gray. 

28. clandestina, Zm». 

29. contaminata, Gray. 

30. costata, Gmelin. 

31. cribraria, Z*m«. 

32. cruenta, Gmelin. 

33. Cumingii, Gray. 

34. cylindrica, 5or». 

35. depauperata, /So?/?. 

36. diluculum, Reeve. 

37. eburna, Barnes. 

38. edentula, /So?*. 

39. erosa, Linn. 

40. errones, Zm». 

41. erytkrseensis, Leek. 

42. esontropia, Duclos. 

43. Europsea, ilfowtf. 

44. exanthema, Linn. 

45. exusta, /Sow. 

46. felina, Gray. 

47. fimbriata, Gmelin. 

48. flaveola, Zwra. 

49. formosa, Gaskoin. 

50. fusca, G'/v/y. 

51. fusco-dentata, Gray. 

52. gangrenosa, Soland. 

53. Gaskoinii, Reeve. 

54. globosa, GViTy. 

55. globulus, Zi««. 

56. Goodalli, Gray. 

57. guttata, Gray. 

58. helvola, Zwm. 

59. hiruudo, Linn. 

60. interrupta, G/vy. 



61. nrorata, Soland. 

62. isabella, Zwm. 

63. labiosa, Gaskoin. 

64. Lamarckii, Gray. 

65. lentiginosa, Gray. 

66. leucodon, Brod. 

67. leucostonia, Gaskoin. 

68. Listeri, Gray. 

69. lurida, Linn. 

70. lutea, Gronov. 

71. lynx, Zwm. 

72. Madagascariensis, G/« 

73. mappa, Zmrc. 

74. margarita, Soland. 

75. Maugerise, Gray. 

76. Mauritiana, Linn. 

77. melanostoma, Leath. 

78. microdon, Gray. 

79. iniliaris, Gmelin. 

80. moneta, Zi?m. 

81. mus, Linn. 

82. napolina, Duclos. 

83. neglecta, £cw. 

84. nigropunctata, Gray. 

85. nivea, Gray. 

86. nivosa, Brod. 

87. nucleus, Linn. 

88. obvallata, Za»i. 

89. ocellata, Linn. 

90. oniscus, Za;«. 

91. onyx, Linn. 

92. oryza, Lam. 

93. ovida, Zam. 

94. Pacifica, Gray. 

95. palbda, Gray. 

96. pantherina, Soland. 

97. pediculus, Linn. 

98. pellucidula, Gaskoin. 

99. physis, Broccld. 

100. picta, Gray. 

101. piperata, Soland. 

102. pisum, Gaskoin. 

103. poraria, Ziww. 

104. princeps, Gray. 

105. producta," Gaskoin. 

106. pulcbclla, Swain. 

107. pidchra, Gray. 



108. pulex, Soland. 

109. pulicaria, Z!m;£. 

110. pulla, Gaskoin. 

111. punctata, Zmw. 

112. punctulata, Gray. 

113. pustulata, Zara. 

114. pyriformis, Gray. 

115. pyrum, Gmelin. 

116. quadrimaculata, Gray. 

117. quadripunctata, Gray. 

118. radians, Zam. 

119. Reevei, Gray. 

120. reticulata, Jiar^. 

121. rubescens, Gray. 

122. rubinicolor, Gaskoin. 

123. sanguinea, Gray. 

124. sanguinolenta, Gmel. 

125. Saulae, Gaskoin. 

126. Scottii, ZVooT. 

127. sciuTa, Chemn. 

128. similis, Gray. 

129. Solandri, Gray. 

130. Sovverbyi, Kiener. 

131. spadicea, Swain. 

132. spnrca, ZzVrn. 

133. stapkyleea, Zm». 

134. stercoraria, Linn. 

135. stolida, Z?»w. 

136. subrostrata, Gray. 

137. subviridis, Reeve. 

138. suffusa, Gray. 

139. sulcidentata, Gray. 

140. tabesceus, Soland. 

141. talpa, ZzVm. 

142. teres, Gmelin. 

143. tessellata, Sica'm. 

144. testudinaria, Ziww. 

145. tigris, Z/vm. 

146. tremeza, Duclos. 

147. turdus, Lam. 

148. ventriculus, Za^. 

149. vesicularis, Gaskoin. 

150. vitellus, Zm». 

151. Walkeri, Gray. 

152. xantbodon, Gray. 

153. zizac, X««. 

154. zonata, Chemn. 



43 



Figures. 

Cype^a tigeis. Plate D. Fig. 3. — Shell with the animal, showing its ex- 
panded green-spotted disk, cylindrical head surmounted by the fringed 
fan-shaped siphonal appendage, tentacles and prominent eyes, and left 
lobe of the mantle with its forked processes, partially expanded over 
the shell. From the Zoology of the Voyage de I' Astrolabe. 

Cype^ea leucostoma. Plate. 2. Fig. 9, a and b. — Shell, showing, a, 
the dorsal, b, the under surface. From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 5. ERATO, Bisso. 

Animal ; similar to the Cypraa, with the lobes of the mantle very 
thin and speckled. 

Shell ; small, ovately oblong, smooth, emarginated at the base, 
spire rather prominent, last whorl a little inflated ; aperture 
narrow, lip and columella more or less finely denticulated, lip 
thickened, generally swollen towards the middle. 

The genus Erato was originally founded by M. Bisso, a distinguished 
conchologist of Nice, with a small shell, chiefly inhabiting the Mediterranean, 
intermediate in its characters between Cyprma and Marginella, and 
forming a striking link between the families Columellata and Convoluta. 
It has the form and general aspect of Marginella, but the most important 
distinguishing character of that genus, the row of plaits winch twine 
around the columella through the entire growth of the shell, is replaced by 
a minute series of denticulations, which only make then appearance on its 
arriving at maturity ; and it is not surprising, therefore, under these cir- 
cumstances, that one Linnaean author, Montagu, should have regarded the 
F. Icevis as a Voluta, whilst another, Donovan, should have referred it to 
the genus Cypraa. Seven other interesting species have since been added. 

Species. 

1. angistoma, Sow. 4. laevis, Gray. 7. sulcifera, Gray. 

2. guttata, Sow. 5. Maugerise, Gray. 8. vitellinum, Hinds. 

3. lackryma, Gray. 6. scabriuscula, Gray. 

Figure. 
Eeatol^vis. Plate 1. Fig. 3. (magnified). From Mr. Cuming's collection. 

G 2 



44 



Family 2. COLUMELLATA. 

Shell ; emarginated at the base, with the columella strongly ob- 
liquely plaited. 

The genera of pectinibranchial gastropods constituting the family Colu- 
mellata, all included by Linnaeus under the head of Voluta, are mainly 
characterized by the presence of four or five conspicuous plaits winding 
obliquely round the columella, with a notch at the base, or rather front edge 
of the shell, viewing it in its natural position upon the animal, for the 
passage of the respiratory siphon. A modification of this structure appears 
also in some genera of Canahfera, as in Turbinella, and Cancellaria ; not 
only, however, are the plaits in that family more limited in number and 
more feebly developed, but the genera are allied by other characters of 
greater importance. The Auricula shells are, in like manner, characterized 
by a plaited columella, but they again are the production of animals dwelling 
in fresh and stagnant water, whose physical condition is necessarily adapted 
to the different medium they inhabit*. 

In reviewing the soft parts of the Columellata it may be observed that 
they are very much larger and more expansile in some species than in 
others ; the Marginella, have the mantle expanded entirely over the shell, 
as in Cypraa ; in Cpnbium the disc is very large and muscular, the shell 
light and ventricose, whilst the mantle of that genus, as well as of Voluta, 
is in some instances partially expanded over the shell. The animal of 
Mitra, on the other hand, is small, the shell often solid and ponderous, 
with a thick fibrous epidermis, and there is no outward expansion of the 
mantle, whilst the proboscis is capable of extraordinary elongation. 

The genera of tins family are extremely rich in species, but of those 
referred to it by Lamarck and Deshayes, I remove Columbella to the family 
Purpurifera : first, on account of the absence of plaits on the columella, 
and, secondly, because of its nearer affinity with Purpura and Ricinula ; 
in place of this a new and interesting genus has to be inserted after Mar- 
ginetta, founded by M. Deshayes upon a little inhabitant of the Mediter- 
ranean, under the name of Ringicula. 

Cymbium. Mitra. Eingicula. 

Voluta. Marginella. 



* Mr. Swainson had a notion that every character in Zoology, however unimportant, is repre- 
sented in complete analogy throughout the different classes of animals, within very prescribed 
limits ; he conceived, for example, that the Volutes and Mitres represent the Basorial type 
among Birds, the Ungulata among Quadrupeds, and the Thysanura among Insects. These nights 
of analogy he proposed to exhibit in circles ; and they revolved in his imagination in such mys- 
tical order as to reveal the most incomprehensible affinities. 






45 



Genus 1. CYMBIUM, Be Montford. 

Animal ; disc large and muscular capable of considerable expansion, 
head furnished with an obtuse trunk, tetitacles short, broad, 
dilated at the base into two lobes ; respiratory siphon short, stout. 

Shell ; oblong-ovate, very large, thin and ventricose, whorls elevated 
around the spire, which is papillary and sunken, with the summit 
sometimes coronated, sometimes concavely flattened ; plaits of 
the columella strongly developed, the lotoer being the larger. 

The present genus was founded by De Montford, under the name of 
Cymbium, for the reception of that portion of the Volutes commonly known 
to collectors by the term ' Melons ', and which Lamarck distinguished as a 
particular section of his genus Voluta, under the sub-title of 'Les Gon- 
doheres/ The generic arrangement of this group has, however, been a 
matter of some difference of opinion; for whilst M. Deshayes considers 
the adoption of Cymbium , as a genus of the same rank with the Voluta 
proper, quite uncalled for, on account of the similarity of the animals ; 
Mr. Broderip and Mr. Sowerby have still further divided it into Cymba 
and Melo, for the sake of observing a generic distinction between the 
coronated and the flattened species. After weighing the merits of these 
opinions, I propose to take the middle course, and return to the method 
originally introduced by De Montford, of including both varieties of 
' Melons ' under the same head. 

The animal of Cymbium varies to a certain extent from that of Voluta in 
the size and extensive muscular expansion of the disk ; the shells are, more- 
over, distinguished by their light inflated growth, and sunken papillary spire, 
around which the whorls are elevated, with their summit sometimes con- 
cavely flattened, sometimes coronated with a diadem of vaulted scales. 

One or two species of Cymbium are found in Australia, but the chief portion 
are from the coast of Africa ; they burrow in the sand at low water, and 
live mostly concealed from view. 



Species. 

1. iEtlriopicum, Brod. 7. Indicum {Vol.), Gmel. 13. patulum, Brod. 

2. armatum {Vol.), Lam. 8. LinnEei, Reeve. 14. porcina {Vol.), Lam. 

3. Broderipii, Gray. 9. Miltonis {Vol.), Men. 15. proboscidale {Vol.), L. 

4. diadema {Vol.), Lam. 10. nauticum {Vol.), Lam. 16. rubiginosum {Vol.), S. 

5. ducale {Vol.), Lam. 11. Neptuni {Vol.), Lam. 17. tessellatum, Brod. 

6. gracile, Brod. 12. olla {Vol.), Linn. 18. Tritonis, Brod. 



46 



Figures. 

Cymbium Linnjei. (Voluta cymbiuni, Linn). Plate 2. Fig. 8. — Shell, 
showing the papillary spire, and the summit of the whorls flattened. 

Cymbium Broderipii. Plate 2. Pig. 10. — Shell, showing the papillary 
spire, and the summit of the whorls coronated with vaulted scales. 



Genus 2. VOLUTA, Linnceus. 

Animal ; disc oval or oblong, head obtuse or rounded, tentacles 
short, eyes a little removed from the tentacles; respiratory 
siphon stout, auriform, dilated at the base into two lobes. 

Shell ; ovate or oblong, emarginated at the base, spire short and 
mostly papillary at the apex; tohorls smooth or ribbed, some- 
times tuber culated at the summit ; aperture oblong, columella 
callous, lower plaits the larger ; lip but slightly thickened. 

Linnaeus included under the head of Voluta all shells having a row of 
plaits winding round the columella, without considering the nature or 
habits of their animal occupants ; the Tornatellce, whose shells are entire 
at the base, the Auricula, which inhabit the banks of stagnant waters and 
are amphibious, the Turbmella, which are canaliculated, and the Margi- 
nella, in which the shell is entirely enveloped by the animal, were all asso- 
ciated in the ' Systema Naturae ' under the same generic type. This hete- 
rogeneous group has, however, been gradually dismembered, until only 
those species remain which present the characters strictly typified in the 
well-known V. scapha, musica, or vespertilio. The ancient genus Voluta 
is, therefore, circumscribed within very narrow limits, and some of the 
species are of such rare occurrence, that only a few individuals of the shells 
of each have yet been discovered; the V. Junonia, aulica, reticidata, 
megaspira, papillosa, Mitrqformis, pidchra, and marmorata are examples. 

The animal of Voluta scarcely differs from that of Cymbium except in being 
smaller, less expansile, and more brilliantly coloured ; it presents the same 
peculiar lobed dilation of the respiratory siphon, and the eyes, as in that 
genus, are quite removed from the tentacles. The species hitherto dis- 
covered in a living state, exhibit as brilliant a variation of colour in the soft 
parts as in the shell. The V. vespertilio is characterized by a bright yellow 
disc, marked with longitudinal interrupted black lines, the V. angulata, by 
a rusty orange tint, marked throughout with dark leopard spots, the V. 
nivosa, purple, marked with unequal black spots with white edges, and the 



47 

V. angulata with netted waved red-brown lines. The colours and mark- 
ings of molluscous animals never correspond with those of their shells. 

The Voluta are strictly tropical, none inhabit the European seas, and 
not a single species has been found in any part of the Mediterranean, the 
richest, and most highly esteemed, are from Australia, New Guinea and New 
Zealand ; there are one or two species from Brazil, and some from Ceylon, 
Timor, and Western Africa, but the well-known V. musica, of which the 
V. Icevigata, carneolata, Guinaica and thiarella of Lamarck are varieties, 
is principally found in the West Indies. 

The Volutes rarely inhabit localities where Mitres abound ; at the Philip- 
pine Islands, for example, Mr. Cuming collected between two and three 
hundred species of that genus, whilst scarcely a Volute presented itself. 



1. ancilla Soland. 22. 

2. angulata, Soland. 23. 

3. aiilica, Soland. 24. 

4. Beckii, Brod. 25. 

5. Brasiliana, Soland. 26. 

6. bullata, Swain. 27. 

7. chlorosina, Lam. 28. 

8. conoinna, Brod. 29. 

9. costata, Swain. 30. 

10. Cumingii, Brod. 31. 

11. Cyllemformis, Sow. 32. 

12. cyinbiola, Chemn. 33. 

13. Delessertiana, Petit. 31. 

14. dubia, Brod. 35. 

15. elongata, Swain. 36. 

16. Ferussacii, Bonov. 37. 

17. festiva, Lam. 38. 

18. fulgetrum, Sow. 39. 

19. fusiformis, Swain. 40. 

20. gracilis, Swain. 41. 

21. Guildingii, Sow. 42. 



Species. 

harpa, Barnes. 43. 

Hebrsea, Linn. 44. 

imperiahs, Lam. 45. 

Junonia, Chemn. 46. 

Lappoiiica, Linn. 47. 
Largilliertiana, I)' Orb. 48. 

luteostoma, Chemn. 49. 
lyraeformis (Mitra),Sw.B0. 

maculata, Swain. 51 

Magellanica, Chemn. 52 

magnifica, Chemn. 53 

mamilla, Gray. 54. 

marmorata, Swain. 55, 

megaspira, Sow. 56. 

Mitraformis, Sow. 57 

musica, Linn. 58 

nivosa, Lam. 59 

nodulosa, Lam. 60, 

Norrisii, Sow. 61. 

nucleus, Lam. 62 
Pacifica, Soland. 



palbda, Gray. 
papulosa, Swain. 
piperita, Sow. 
polyzonahs, Lam. 
pulchra, Sow. 
punctata, Sioain. 
pusio, Swain. 
reticulata, Reeve. 
rupestris Gmel. 
rutila, Brod. 
scaplia, Gmel. 
subnodosa, Leach. 
sulcata, Lam. 
tuberculata, Swain. 
Turneri, Gray. 
undulata, Lam. 
vespertibo, Linn. 
vexillum, Chemn. 
volvacea, Lam. 
zebra, Leach. 



Figures. 

Voluta angulata. Plate D. — Shell with animal, showing its rounded 
head, short tentacles, remote eyes, auriform respiratory siphon, and 
mantle expanded over the left side of the shell. From IfOrbignifs 
Voyage dans VAmerique Meridionale. 

Voluta volvacea. Plate 1. Fig. 7. — Shell, showing the winding plaits. 



48 



Genus 3. MITRA, Lamarck. 

Animal; disc small, oblong, oval behind, squarely truncated in 
front; head and tentacles small, eyes situated sometimes towards 
the middle of the tentacles, sometimes pedunculated and towards 
the base; respiratory siphon thin; trunk susceptible of very 
considerable elongation. 

Shell ; turreted or fusiform, emarginated at the base, spire mostly 
sharply acuminated, apex narrow, varying in length ; columella 
a little recurved at the base, lower plaits the smaller. 

The Mitres constitute a numerous division of the family Columellata, 
distinguished from the Volutes by a very important association of cha- 
racter ; their shells are long and turriculated, and there is a marked change 
in the arrangement of the columellar plaits, winch, instead of increasing, 
diminish in size as they descend ; the animal is very small ; the head is of 
the form of a triangle, at the basal corners of winch are the tentacles, with 
the eyes situated sometimes towards the middle, sometimes towards the 
base, upon short peduncles ; the respiratory siphon is small and not dilated 
into lobes at the base, and the trunk is capable of remarkable elongation ; 
lastly, their habits vary, and they differ in their geographical limits. 

It is easy to conceive that a small mollusk, producing a ponderous tur- 
riculated shell like the ' Bishop's Mitre ', (31. episcopalis) would naturally 
be of a much more sluggish disposition than one whose shell is sup- 
ported by an ample muscular disc like the ' Bat Volute ' (V. vespertilio) ; 
and the Mitre is accordingly described by M. Quoy and Gaimard as an 
"animale apathique", a creature of limited sensibility, whose activity is 
necessarily restrained by the over-balancing proportions of its shell. It 
is related by these illustrious circumnavigators, who were the first to 
discover the Mitre in a living state, that they kept several healthy indivi- 
duals for some time without observing any decided movement ; they are, 
however, provided in this comatose state with the faculty of elongating their 
trunk to an extent not enjoyed by any other genus ; the extremity of it is 
furnished with a kind of dentated chewing apparatus, and the animal is 
enabled to exert this destructive organ in all directions for the capture of 
food, with little apparent effort, and without altering its position. 

The peculiarity alluded to in the geographical distribution of the Mitres, 
is, that they are rarely found in places inhabited by Volutes j the Philippine 
Islands, for example, are probably the richest spot in the world for Mitres ; 
during Mr. Cuming's four years sojourn in that locality, he collected be- 
tween two or three hundred species, yet scarcely a Volute presented itself; 



49 

and on the western coasts of Africa and New Holland, where the Melons 
and Volutes abound, very few Mitres have made their appearance. 

In a monograph of this genus recently published in the ' Conchologia 
Iconica', I have described upwards of three hundred and thirty species, 
as follows : — 



Species 



1. 


abbatis, Chemn. 


39. 


cselata, Reeve. 


77. 


corallina, Reeve. 


2. 


acuminata, Swain. 


40. 


cseligena, id. 


78. 


coriacea, id. 


3. 


acupicta, Reeve. 


41. 


cserulea, id. 


79. 


cornicula, Desk. 


4. 


Adamsoni, Gray. 


42. 


caffra, Lam. 


80. 


coroiiata, Lam. 


5. 


adusta, Lam. 


43. 


caliginosa, Reeve. 


81. 


comigata, id. 


6. 


aegra, Reeve. 


44. 


callosa, id. 


82. 


eostellaris, id. 


7. 


vEtkiops, id. 


45. 


cancellata, Swain. 


83. 


crassa, Swain. 


8. 


affinis, id. 


46. 


Candida, Reeve. 


84. 


crebrilirata, Reeve. 


9. 


alveolus, id. 


47. 


Capeusis, Bunker. 


85. 


cremans, id. 


10. 


amabilis, id. 


48. 


carbonacea, Reeve. 


86. 


crenata, id. 


11. 


amanda, id. 


49. 


cardinalis, Gronov. 


87. 


creuifera, Lam. 


12. 


ambigua, Swain. 


50. 


cariiiata, Swain. 


88. 


crenulata, id. 


13. 


amphorella, Lam. 


51. 


camicolor, Reeve 


89. 


crocata, id. 


14. 


analogica, Reeve. 


52. 


casta, Lam. 


90. 


crocea, Reeve 


15. 


Ancillides, Swain. 


53. 


cateuata, Reeve. 


91. 


cruentata, id. 


16. 


angulosa, Kiister. 


54. 


cavea id. 


92. 


cucunieriiia, Lam. 


17. 


annulata, Reeve. 


55. 


chalybeia, id. 


93. 


Cumingii, Reeve. 


18. 


anthrachia, id. 


56. 


chelonia, id. 


94. 


cykudracea, id. 


19. 


arenosa, Lam. 


57. 


Chinenbis, Gray. 


95. 


dactylus, Lam. 


20. 


armiger, Reeve. 


58. 


clioava, Reeve. 


96. 


dsedala, Reeve. 


21. 


arinillata, id. 


59. 


clu-ysalis, id. 


97. 


decbvis, id. 


22. 


articulata, id. 


60. 


chrysostorna, Swain. 


98. 


decora, id. 


23. 


astricta, id. 


61. 


cimelium, Reeve. 


99. 


decurtata, id. 


24. 


attenuata, id. 


62. 


cinctella, Lam. 


100. 


Defrancii, Payr. 


25. 


aurantia, Desk. 


63. 


cineracea, Reeve. 


101. 


Dennisoni, Reeve. 


26. 


aureolata, Reeve. 


64. 


circulata, Kiener. 


102. 


dermestina, Lam. 


27. 


Auriculoides, id. 


65. 


cithara, Reeve. 


103. 


Desliayesii, Reeve. 


28. 


australis, Swain. 


66. 


citrina, id. 


104. 


digitalis, id. 


29. 


avenacea, Reeve. 


67. 


clandestina, id. 


105. 


discoloria, id. 


30. 


bacillum, Lam. 


68. 


clathrata, id. 


106. 


diiplilirata, id. 


31. 


badia, Reeve. 


69. 


coarctata, Swain. 


107. 


ebenus, Lam. 


32. 


balteolata, id. 


70. 


coccinea, Reeve. 


108. 


effusa, Stoain. 


33. 


Belcheri, Hinds. 


71. 


Columbellseformis, Kie. 109. 


elegans, Reeve. 


34. 


bilineata Reeve. 


72. 


concentrica, Reeve. 


110. 


episcopahs, Argen 


35. 


Bovei, Kiener. 


73. 


concinna, id. 


111. 


exasperata, Desk. 


36. 


brumalis, Reeve. 


74. 


conica, Desk. 


112. 


exilis, Reeve. 


37. 


BuUmoides, id. 


75. 


consanguineus, Reeve. 


113. 


fastigium, id. 


38. 


cadaverosa, id. 


76. 


Conus, id. 


114. 


fenestrata, Lam. 
li 



50 



115. ferruginea, Lam. 

116. testa, Reeve. 

117. ficulina, Lam. 

118. filosa, id. 

119. filum, Reeve. 

120. fissurata, Lam. 

121. flammea, Quoy. 

122. flammigera, iteeae. 

123. flavescens, id. 
12-1. floccata, id. 

125. forticostata, id 

126. fulgetrum, id. 

127. fulgui'ita, id 

128. fulva, Swain. 

129. t'ulvescens, Reeve. 

130. tuner e a, i^. 

131. funiculata, id. 

132. fusca, Reeve. 

133. fusiforinis, Kiener. 

134. gausapata, Reeve. 

135. gigantea, Swain. 

136. glabra, Swain. 

137. glandiformis, iteewe. 

138. glans, ^c?. 

139. gracilis, z¥. 

140. Graja, z'c?. 

141. granata, id. 

142. granulosa, Zam. 

143. granum, Forbes. 

144. gratiosa, Reeve. 

145. Grcenlandica, Gray. 

146. Gruneri, Reeve. 

147. guttata, Swam. 

148. hebes, Reeve. 

149. Hindsii, «?. 

150. histrio, i(?. 

151. ignobilis, id. 

152. impressa, Anton. 

153. incarnata, Reeve. 

154. inermis z^. 

155. infausta, ic?. 

156. iufecta, id. 

157. inquinata, irf. 

158. mterlirata, id. 

159. intermedia, Kiener. 
L60. Isabella, Reeve. 

161. lachryma, id 

162. lactea, Earn. 



163. lacunosa, Reeve. 

164. Lamarckii. Desk. 

165. latruncidaria, &w. 

166. lauta, id. 

167. lens, id 

168. leucodesma, id. 

169. lignaria, id. 

170. limata, id 

171. limbifera, Lam. 

172. lineata, Reeve, 

173. literata, Zgwm. 

174. littoralis, Forbes. 

175. livida, Reeve. 

176. loricata, zrf. 

177. lota, i^. 

178. lubens, id. 

179. lucida, id. 

180. luculenta, /</. 

181. lugubris, Swain. 

182. lyrata, Z<m. 

183. maculosa, Reeve. 

184. maesta, id. 

185. melongena, Z<m«. 

186. mica, Reeve. 

187. micans, i«?. 

18S. microzonias, Lam. 

189. militaris, Reeve. 

190. milium, id 

191. millecostata, id. 

192. mirifica, jrf. 

193. modesta, id. 

194. mncronata, id. 

195. multicostata, i<f. 

196. muricata, id. 

197. muriculata, Za»*. 

198. mutabilis, Reeve. 

199. nanus, id. 

200. nebidosa, Swain. 

201. nigra, Reeve. 

202. nivea, zc?. 

203. nodosa, id. 

204. Norrisii, id. 

205. nucea, «'(/. 

206. nucleola, Lam. 

207. nympha, item? 

208. obeliscns, id. 

209. obesa, id. 

210. ocellata, #«;«?«. 



211. oleacea, Reeve. 

212. Olivseformis, «'</. 

213. orientalis, Gray. 

214. ossea, Reeve. 

215. Pacitica, irf. 

216. papalis, Lam. 

217. pardalis, Kiister. 

218. patriarcbalis, Z«///. 

219. patula, Reeve. 

220. paupercula, Z«w. 

221. peculiaris, Reeve. 

222. pediculns, Zara. 

223. pellis-serpentis,ifcw 

224. peregra, id. 

225. Phillippiana, Forbes. 

226. pica, Reeve. 

227. picta, it?. 

228. pinguis, id. 

229. planilirata, «?. 

230. pbcata. Lam. 

231. plumbea, id. 

232. pobta, Reeve. 

233. pontificalis, Z«m. 

234. porcata, Humph. 

235. porphyretica, Reeve. 

236. pretiosa, zc?. 

237. proscissa, id 

238. pruinosa, id. 

239. puella, i</. 

240. pulchella, id. 

241. pullata, id. 

242. punctata, Swain. 

243. puncticulata, Z«w. 

244. purpurata, Reeve. 

245. pyramidalis, w?. 

246. Quoyi, Desk. 

247. radius, Reeve. 

248. recurva, id 

249. regina, &W. 

250. retusa, Lam. 

251. rhodia, Reeve. 

252. rigida, Swain. 

253. roborea, Reeve. 

254. robusta, id 

255. rosacea, id 

256. rosea, id. 

257. Rossise, id 

258. rotundilirata, id. 



259. 
260. 
261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 
265. 
266. 
267. 
26S. 
269. 
270. 
271. 
272. 
273. 
274. 
275. 
276. 
277. 
278. 
279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 



rubiginosa, Reeve. 284. 

rubra, id. 285. 

rubricata, id. 2S6. 

rubritincta, id. 287. 

rugosa, Soto. 288. 

rupicolor, Reeve. 289. 

Riippellii, id. 290. 

rustica, id. 291. 

sanguisuga, Lam. 292. 

Savignii, Payr. 293. 

scabriuscula, Gray. 294. 

Schroeteri, I)esh. 295. 

sculptiiis, Reeve. 296. 

scutulata, Lam. 297. 

semen, Reeve. 298. 

semicostata, Lam. 299. 

semifasciata, id. 300. 
semiferruginea, Jonas. 301. 

Senegalensis, Reeve. 302. 



serpentina, Lam. 
Sinensis, Reeve. 
Solandri, id. 
solida, id. 
solidula, id. 
speciosa, id. 



303. 
304. 
305. 
306. 
307. 



51 

sphserulata, Martyn. 
spicata, Reeve, 
Stainforthii, id. 
stigmataria, Lam. 
striatula, id. 
strigata, Swain. 
subulata, Lam. 
sulcata, Kiener. 
suturata, Reeve. 
Swainsoni, Brod. 
tabanula, Lam. 
taeniata, id. 
telescopium, Reeve, 
terebralis, Lam. 
tessellata, Martyn. 
testacea, Swain. 
texturata, Lam. 
Ticaomca, Reeve. 
tornata, id. 
Tornatelloides, id. 
tristis, Swain. 
tuberosa, Reeve. 
tumida, id. 
turben, id. 



308. tm-gida, Reeve. 

309. turriger, id. 

310. tusa, id. 

311. typba, id. 

312. undulosa, id. 

313. ustulata, id. 

314. Vanikorensis, Quoy. 

315. variabilis, Reeve. 

316. variata, id. 

317. variegata, id. 

318. venustida, id. 

319. versicolor, Martyn. 

320. verrucosa, Reeve. 

321. vexillum, id. 

322. virgata, id. 

323. virgo, id. 

324. vittata, Swain. 

325. vulpecula, Lam. 

326. vultuosa, Reeve. 

327. Woldemarii, Kiener. 

328. Zebuensis, Reeve. 

329. zelotypa, id. 

330. Ziervogeliana, Kiener 

331. zonata, Marry att. 



Figure. 

Mitra Staixforthii. Plate 3. Fig. 13. — An extremely rare species from, 
the collection of Thomas Norris, Esq. 



Genus 4. MARGINELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc large, thin, widely expanded behind ; mantle ex- 
tending over the shell in two lobes, by which it is nearly enveloped, 
sometimes furnished with filaments ; head fiat, small, with a 
pair of short tentacles, behind which are the eyes ; respiratory 
siphon cylindrical, very short. 

Shell; ovately oblong or pyriform, emarginated at the base, spire 
short, more or less depressed; aperture oblong, often equalling 
the length of the shell ; columella plaited nearly equally ; outer 
lip rolled back and solidified. 

Regarding the general aspect of the Marginella;, it is not surprising that 
Linnseus should have referred them to the genus Volwta ; the shell differs,, 

h2 



5 2 

however, from the type of that group in being uniformly smaller, in the 
occasional Cowrey-like extension of the aperture to the summit of the 
spire, and in the outer surface being of the same highly polished enamel, 
as the Cf/praa and Oliva. We learn from the last of these characters, 
that the shell is enveloped by the mantle of its animal inhabitant ; a 
description of which was published by M. Adanson towards the close of 
the last century, in his ' Voyage en Sene'gal ', and it has been recently 
confirmed with greater accuracy by the observations of M. Deshayes on 
the shores of the Mediterranean ; he describes it as having a thin capa- 
cious disc reflected over the edge of the shell, with the mantle extended 
on either side, as in the Cowrey, into a thin lobe, closing together chiefly 
behind, so as to leave a narrow opening on the back. 

The soft parts of the Marginella, like the Cowries, exhibit a brilliant 
variety of colouring ; the shells are also similarly characterized ; they are 
tolerably numerous in species, and are mostly found within the Tropics. 



Species. 



1. 


Adansoni, Kiener. 


27. 


cylindrica, Brown . 


2. 


affinis, Beck. 


28. 


Cyprseola, Sow. 


3. 


amygdala, Kiener. 


29. 


dactylus, Lam. 


4. 


apicina, Menke. 


30. 


Delessertiana. Recluz. 


5. 


aurantia, Lam. 


81. 


diaphana, Kiener. 


6. 


auriculata, Menard. 


32. 


elegans, Kiener. 


7. 


avellana, Lam. 


33. 


evanida, Sow. 


8. 


avenacea, Valen. 


34. 


faba, Lam. 


9. 


Belangeri, Kiener. 


35. 


festiva, Kiener. 


10. 


Belcheri, Hinds. 


36. 


formicula, Lam. 


11. 


Bellii, Soiv. 


37. 


frumentum, Sow. 


12. 


bifasciata, Lam. 


38, 


fulminata, Kiener. 


13. 


bivaricosa, id. 


39. 


fusiformis, Hinds. 


14. 


blanda, Hinds. 


40. 


glabella, Lam. 


15. 


bullata, Lam. 


41. 


Goodalli, Sow. 


16. 


caerulescens, id. 


42. 


guttata, Swains. 


17. 


callosa, Sow. 


43. 


helrnatina, Rang. 


18. 


catenata, Sow. 


44. 


inconspicua, Sow. 


19. 


cincta, Kiener. 


45. 


interrupta, Lam. 


20. 


cingulata, Swainson. 


46. 


irrorata, Menke. 


21. 


clandestina, Brong. 


47. 


Kieneriana, Petit. 


22. 


Cleryi, Petit. 


48. 


labiata, Valen. 


23. 


conoidalis, Kiener. 


49. 


lactea, Kiener. 


24. 


cornea, Lam. 


50. 


Largillieri, Kiener. 


25. 


Cumingiana, Petit. 


51. 


limbata, Lam. 


26. 


curta, Sow. 


52. 


lineata, id. 



53. liturata, Menke. 

54. longivaricosa, Lam. 

55. maculosa, Kiener. 

56. margarita, Kiener. 

57. marginata, Sow. 

58. miliacea (Volv.), kdan. 

59. monilis, Sow. 

60. muscaria, Lam. 

61. musica, Hinds. 

62. neglecta, Sow. 

63. nodata, Hinds. 

64. nubeculata, Lam. 

65. oblonga, Swainson. 

66. Olivseformis, Kiener. 

67. oryza {Volv.), Lam. 

68. pallida, Sow. 

69. persicula, Lam. 

70. Petitii, Duval. 

71. prunum, Swainson. 

72. pseudo-faba, Sow. 

73. pulchella, Kiener. 

74. pulchra, Gray. 

75. punctulata, Petit. 

76. quinqueplicata, Lam.. 

77. retusa, id. 

78. rosea, id. 



53 



79. sapotilla, Hinds. 

80. sarda, Kiener. 

81. Saulise, Sow. 

82. scripta, Hinds. 

83. splendens, Humph. 



84. strigata, Ckemn. 

85. treniata, (Sow. 

86. tessellata, Za»«. 

87. tricincta, Hinds 

88. triticea, Sow. 



89. undulata(Fo2«fo),Ch. 

90. varia, Sow. 

91. vitrea, Hinds. 

92. zonata, Kiener. 



Marginella nubeculata. 
J7. Cuming. Esq. 



Figure. 
Plate 1. Pig. 1. — From the collection of 



Genus 5. RINGICULA, Deshayes, 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; swtf//, globose, very solid, sinuated at the base, spire short, 
sharply acuminated, columella short, with a plait-like callosity 
at the upper part, and two strong plaits beneath ; aperture 
small ; lip remarkably thickened. 

The genus Ringicula was instituted hy M. Deshayes for the reception of 
a solid marine shell, about the size of a small pea, the fossil analogue of 
which had been erroneously placed by Lamarck among the fresh-water, 
or rather amphibious, Auriculae. It was first discovered in a living state 
by M. Menard de la Grove in the gulf of Tarentum, and, upon noticing its 
affinity with the fossil Auricula ringens of Lamarck, he at once observed 
that from its marine nature and sinuated aperture, the fossil species to 
which it was related had been referred to the wrong genus. The characters 
which his shell exhibited were more intimately allied to Marginella, and he 
named it accordingly Marginella auricidata. M. Deshayes, however, has 
justly observed that its general form, and the disposition of the plaits, are 
not like those of Marginella, though closely allied to them, and I fully 
concur in the course he has adopted. It is a small white porcellanous 
shell, of very solid growth, the spire of which, though short, is sharply 
acuminated ; the columella is peculiarly characterized by a rude plait -like 
callosity round the upper part, and two very prominent winding plaits 
beneath ; there is a broad sinus at the base of the shell, and the lip is very 
considerably thickened. The following is the only recent species at present 
known. 

Figure. 

Ringicula auriculata. Plate 1. Pig. 2. (Magnified). — From the collec- 
tion of II. Cuming, Esq. 



54 



Family 3. PURPURIFERA. 

Shell ; terminating at the base, either with a short slightly ascend- 
ing canal, or with a deep sinus. 

The genera enumerated under the head of Purjmrifera, are grouped 
together upon a very artificial basis; the animal is characterized by a 
variation of form winch it is difficult to reconcile with the propriety of 
their being associated in the same natural family, and the shell is scarcely 
less dissimilar in its general aspect. In Terebra the shell is of a smooth 
elongated lanceolate growth, whilst in Harpa it is of an ovate ventricose 
structure, thickly studded with varices ; the only distinguishing character 
of the family, therefore, as constituted by Lamarck, resides in the basal 
sinus, that posterior portion of the shell winch is fitted to the passage of 
the respiratory siphon, conveying water to the branchial cavity. 

The soft parts of the Purpurifera, as in most of the molluscous tribe, 
display a striking contrast of colouring compared with the shell, and the 
relation of form is equally remote; in Bol'tum, the animal is green or 
mottled-blue, colours of which there is not the slightest approximating 
tinge in the shell ; it is also characterized by an ample muscular disc, and 
a remarkable elongation of the proboscis, terminating in the JD.perdix with 
a flattened funnel-like rosette, whilst the shell is chiefly distinguished for 
its comparative tenuity. The animal of Harpa has a beautifully coloured 
ocellated disc, extending in a remarkable degree beyond the posterior ex- 
tremity of the shell to nearly a peak. In some of the Buccina the disc is 
expanded on either side of the aperture, and truncated behind forming 
a flat square ; in Oliva and Ancillaria we have a modification of the ventral 
disc somewhat analogous to the lobate structure of the Cowrey, which being 
reflected into an ample fold, though generally partially retracted, is suffi- 
ciently capacious to envelope the shell ; in Magilus, on the other hand, 
the locomotive and calcifying organs are extremely limited in their dimen- 
sions, owing to the confined nature of its habitation, although the latter is 
exercised with a degree of energy which is truly wonderful. 

The genera at present referred to this family are as follows : — 



Terebra. 


POLLIA. 


CONCHOLEPAS. 


Oliva. 


Phos. 


Monoceros. 


Ancillaria. 


BUCCLNUM. 


Purpura. 


Eburna. 


Leptoconchus. 


COLUMBELLA. 


Planaxis. 


Magilus. 


RlCINULA. 


Quoyia. 


Trichotropis. 


Cassis. 


Nassa. 


DoLIUM. 


Oniscia. 


Cyllene. 


Harpa. 


Cassidaria. 



55 



Genus 1. TEREBRA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; disc short, very thick and muscular ; head proboscis- 
shaped, cylindrical, tentacles short and conical with an eye 
situated on the outer side of each at the base; respiratory 
siphon cylindrical, rather prolonged. 

Shell; elongated, turriculated, sinuated at the base ; whorls very 
numerous, but slightly convex, apex very sharp and elevated ; 
aperture small ; columella swollen, contorted, terminating in a 
point ; lip simple. Operculum horny, imbricated. 

The genus Terebra is one of those well-defined groups winch cannot 
easily be confounded with any other ; it is distinguished by a long subulate 
shell, composed of a number of small whorls tapering gradually to a point, 
as sharp as a needle, and the base of the aperture is invariably sinuated. 
The shell of Turritella has very much the form of Terebra, but the aperture 
is rounded and entire ; so that Terebra may be likened to a very long 
drawn-out Buccinum, and Turritella to a similarly elongated Turbo. The 
shells of these genera may, however, be readily distinguished from each 
other without referring to the generic peculiarities of the aperture. The 
calcifying function of the animal is much the more vigorously exercised 
in the genus under consideration, the shell is more solid, it exhibits a 
greater variety of structural embellishment, and whilst the colours are vivid 
and less obscure, they display a more pleasing variety of pattern and design. 

The soft parts of Terebra are naturally very limited, the head and tenta- 
cles are small, and the entire mass when fully exserted, rarely extends 
beyond a tenth of the shell. But although the animal is cumbered with a 
shell ten times the length of its exserted body, it is not of the sluggish 
character of the Mitre ; the shell of Terebra, though longer, is not of such 
overbalancing proportions, it is more truly acuminated, the weight is chiefly 
at the base, and the animal obtains a comparative facility of locomotion by 
the force with which it is able to secure its muscular disc to the place 
of attachment. 

The Terebra chiefly inhabit the eastern world, and are confined to warm 
temperatures ; one small species, only, reaching so far north as the Medi- 
terranean. The well-known T. maculata of Ceylon is the largest of the 
genus, the greater number of species vary from three to four inches in 
length, and are characterized by an interesting variety of sculpture and 
design. The most elongated and remarkable species is the T.pretiosa, 
which I have selected as an example on account of its rarity ; only two or 
three specimens have yet been seen. 



56 



1. aciculata, Gray 

2. affinis, id. 

3. alba, id. 

4. albida, id. 

5. albula, Menke. 

6. alveolata, Hinds. 

7. amanda, id. 

8. anomala, Gray. 

9. argus, Hinds. 

10. armillata, id. 

11. asp era, z'a 7 . 

12. Babylonia, Lam. 

13. bicincta, Hinds. 

14. bifrons, io 7 . 

15. caerulescens, Lam. 

16. cancellata, Q?«?y. 

17. casta, Hinds. 

18. castanea, Kiener. 

19. ceritkina, iam. 

20. cinerea, Basterot. 

21. chlorata, Z«w. 

22. cingiila, Kiener. 

23. cingulifera,, Zam. 

24. columellaris, Hinds. 

25. commaculata, Pfeiff. 

26. consors, Hinds. 

27. conspersa, «?. 

28. copula, z'ol 

29. corrugata, Lam. 

30. Cosentini, Philippi. 

31. crenulata, iaw. 

32. cuspidata, Hinds. 

33. dimidiata, ia?w. 

34. dupbcata, id. 

35. Dussumierii, Kiener. 

36. eburnea, Hinds. 

37. elata, zo 7 . 



Species. 

38. fatua, Hinds. 

39. fenestrata, irf. 

40. fictilis, zo 7 . 

41. flammea, Zawj. 

42. flava, Gray. 

43. frigida, Hinds. 

44. funiculata, /ff 7 . 

45. granulata, Kiener. 

46. glauca, Hinds. 

47. hastata, Kiener. 

48. inconstans, Hinds. 

49. intertincta, zo 7 . 

50. laevigata, <?ray. 

51. lanceata, Za;«. 

52. larvseformis, Hinds. 

53. laurina. id. 

54. lepida, irf. 

55. ligata, id. 

56. lingualis, z'e 7 . 

57. luctuosa, id. 

58. maculata, Lam. 

59. mera, Hinds. 

60. raicans, z'tf 7 . 

61. mondis, Q«oy. 

62. muscaria, Lam. 

63. Nassoides, Hinds. 

64. nebulosa, /Sow. 

65. nimbosa, Hinds. 

66. nitida, «?. 

67. nubeculata, Sow. 

68. obesa, Hinds. 

69. oculata, Z«?». 

70. oruata, Gray. 

71. Patagonica, D'Ora. 

72. penicillata, Hinds. 

73. pertusa, Basterot. 



74. picta, Hinds. 

75. plicata, Gray. 

76. plombea, Dw/b. 

77. plumbea, Quoy. 

78. pretiosa, Reeve. 

79. pulchra, Hinds. 

80. pygrnsea, w?. 

81. radula, z'a 7 . 

82. raphanula, Lam. 

83. robusta, Hinds. 

84. rudis, Gray. 

85. rustica, Hinds. 

86. Sandwizensis, /Sow. 

87. Senegalensis, Lam. 

88. specillata, Hinds. 

89. spectabilis, ie 7 . 

90. stranrinea, Gray. 

91. strigata, /Sow. 

92. strigilata, Lam. 

93. stylata, Hinds. 

94. subulata, Z<m. 

95. succinea, Hinds. 

96. tenera, zo 7 . 

97. tessellata, Gray. 

98. textilis, Hinds. 

99. tigrina, Grffly. 

100. tricolor, Soto. 

101. triseriata, Gray. 

102. tuberculosa. Hinds. 

103. tuberosa, id. 

104. undulata, Gray. 

105. varicosa, Hinds. 

106. variegata, Gray. 

107. venosa, Hinds. 

108. violascens, id. 

109. vittata, Zara. 



Terebra pretiosa. Plate 3. Fig. 15. An extremely rare species, in the 
collection of E. G. L. Grimer, Esq., of Bremen. 



57 



Genus 2. OLIVA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; disc widely expanded, reflected on either side over the 
anterior portion of the shell, forming a capacious fold, some- 
times rounded, sometimes acuminated behind, front extremity 
furnished with a pair of icing-like lobes, anterior to the head; 
head very small, tentacles thickened about half-way, at the 
summit of which thickened portion is the eye : mantle small, 
hind extremity furnished with a filament or cord ivhich passes 
into a groove in the spire of the shell, front portion forming an 
ample siphon for conveying the water to the branchial cavity, 
with a flowing triangularly pointed appendage behind it. 

Shell; polished, more or less cylindrical, emarginated at the base ; 
spire short, sharp at the apex ; whorls closely convoluted, ivith 
a deep narrow channel round the spire, in the place of the 
suture; aperture narrow, extending nearly the length of the 
shell; columella obliquely grooved, terminating ivith a callosity, 
lip simple. 

The Olives were arranged by Lamarck in the same family with the 
Cowries on account of their polished exterior ; they have been removed to 
the Pnrpurifera, because of their affinity with Ancittaria and Eburna. 
The whorls of the shell are convoluted on nearly the same vertical plane 
with the spire, and the columella is obliquely grooved, as if it had been 
bound, as it were, with cords, sufficient to swell the base into a callosity ; 
the most striking character, however, is the presence of a deep narrow 
groove, encircling the spire in the place of the suture, the use of winch I 
have now to explain. 

The enamelled exterior of the Olive-shell indicates that it is more or less 
enveloped, like the Cowrey, with a portion of the animal ; but it is not 
covered by the mantle, it is protected by a modification of the disc ; the 
calcifying organ of these mollusks differs both in structure and function. 
In the Cowrey, the office of calcification is performed by a lobate extension 
of the mantle from either side of the aperture, sufficient to cover the shell, 
and only retracted under a state of alarm. In Oliva the mantle is limited 
to the interior and aperture of the shell ; it appears to be furled over the 
edge of the lip, and is held, as it were, in a state of tension by a cord or 
filament passing from the posterior extremity into a deep narrow channel, 
which is excavated round the spire of the shell in place of the suture. The 
result of this difference in the condition of the calcifying organ, is, that in 

1 



58 

the Cowrey the testaceous fluid is deposited from the outside, in layers at 
different intervals, whilst in the Olive it is secreted in layers simultaneously 
at the lip, and the porcellanous surface of the shell is preserved in its course 
of retrovolution, as well as after maturity, by a reflexion of the ventral disc, 
in a manner somewhat analogous to the reflected mantle of the Cowrey ; 
bearing no part in the formation of the shell, however it may minister to 
its preservation by the tendency of its viscid humour. 

It now remains to ascertain whether the distinction here assigned to the 
calcifying functions of these mollusks, is borne out by the physical condition 
of their shells at different stages of growth. Each period in the life of 
the Cowrey (as described at page 40) is illustrated by a different design of 
colouring ; the shell ceases its course of retrovolution long before arriving 
at the adult state, and increases in substance and variety of colouring by 
the outward expansion of the mantle. It is not so in the case of the Olive ; 
the shell of this mollusk exhibits the same appearance at all stages of 
growth, the different layers of colouring matter must of necessity be depo- 
sited simultaneously, because the organ of calcification reaches only to the 
lip, from which the shell gradually recedes in its progress of growth. The 
Olive-shell has no periodical change of colour to mark its advancement, 
yet it will be found on removing the outer coat by chemical agency, that 
there is a superincumbent layer of different colour and design. The exter- 
nal coating of the Oliva virlculus is of an obscure milky blue colour, but 
the removal of this layer by the application of an acid, reveals a dark ashy 
ground, sprinkled with numerous triangular opal-like dashes ; the removal 
of the outer layer of the Oliva Brasiliensis exhibits a longitudinally striped 
pattern, and other varieties of design may be found in different species. 

The Olives are confined exclusively to the tropical regions, we have none 
on our own coast, nor is there a single species in any part of the Medi- 
terranean. They are described by M. Quoy, in the ' Voyage de 1' Astrolabe ', 
as possessing an unusual degree of activity, and able to regain their position 
when placed upon their backs ; and Mr. Gray observes in Beechey's Voyage, 
that they live partially buried in the sand, though easily taken by lines 
baited with flesh. 



Species *. 

1. acuminata, Chemn. 5. aniomina, Duclos. 9. australis, Duclos. 

2. alectona, Duclos. G. araneosa, Lam. 10. avellana, Lam. 

3. anaxora, id. 7. atelina, Duclos. 11. bicincta, id. 

4. angulata, Chemn. 8. auricularia, Lam. 12. biplicata, Sow. 

* The species of Oliva have been so inefficiently described, and so many nonsensical names 
have been introduced by M. Duclos, that a complete monograph of the genus with a change of 
nomenclature, would, I think, be an admissible and most acceptable contribution 



59 



13. Braziliana, Chemn. 

14. caldania, Duclos. 

15. canalifera, id. 

16. Candida, Lam. 

17. carneola, id. 

18. columba, Duclos. 

19. columellaris, Sow. 

20. conoidalis, Lam. 

21. dama, Duclos. 

22. eburnea, Lam. 

23. elegans, io 7 . 

24. episcopalis, id. 

25. erytkrostoma, io\ 

26. esmilota, Duclos. 

27. Esther, id. 

28. fabagina, Za»a. 

29. fallotina, Duclos. 

30. flammulata, Z«m. 

31. flaveola, Duclos. 

32. funebralis, Lam. 

33. fusifera, _D«/b. 

34. fusiformis, Lam. 

35. glandif oralis, io 7 . 

36. gracilis, Brod. 

37. granitella, Lam. 

38. guttata, io 7 . 

39. harpularia, id. 

40. hepatica, ia 7 . 

41. hiatula, id. 

42. inflata, Chemn. 

43. msans, Zara. 

44. ispidula, Linn. 

45. kaleotina, Duclos. 

46. Laumontiana, fa 7 . 

47. lepida, Dufo. 



48. lepta, Duclos. 

49. leucophaea, ia/». 

50. leucostoma, D«/b. 

51. leucozonias, Gray. 

52. lineolata, id. 

53. Hterata, Zaw. 

54. lugubris, id. 

55. luteola, io 7 . 

56. mandarina, Duclos. 

57. Marminii, id. 

58. maura, Za»t. 

59. mica, Duclos. 

60. miriadina, Duclos. 

61. mitreola, zo 7 . 

62. mustelina, Lam. 

63. mutica, /Say. 

64. nana, Lam. 

65. nebulosa, «?. 

66. nedulina, Dados. 

67. nitelina, .id. 

68. nitidula, fa 7 . 

69. obtusa, Lam. 

70. olorinella, Duclos. 

71. oriola, Zaw?. 

72. oryza, id. 

73. ozodona, Duclos. 

74. panniculata, io 7 . 

75. Peruviana, ia;«. 

76. pica, id. 

77. polpasta, Duclos. 

78. porphyria, Zam. 

79. puelcha, Duclos. 

80. puelchana, D'Orb. 

81. pulchella, Duclos. 

82. puersolina, e'o 7 . 



83. razamola, m£. 

84. reticularis, Lam. 

85. rosolina, Duclos. 

86. sanguinolenta, Za/». 

87. scripta, id. 

88. selasia, Duclos. 

89. semistriata, Gray. 

90. Senegalensis, Za?». 

91. sepulturalis, Lam. 

92. splendidula, Sow. 

93. stellata, Duclos. 

94. subulata, Za?#. 

95. tehuelchana, D'Orb. 

96. tergina, Duclos. 

97. tessellata, Zam. 

98. testacea, io 7 . 

99. textilina, Lam. 

100. tigridella, Duclos. 

101. tigrina, Za>». 

102. tricolor, Chemn. 

103. tringa, Duclos. 

104. triticea, fa 7 . 

105. tunquina, to 7 . 

106. undata, Lam. 

107. undatella, id. 

108. ustulata, fa 7 . 

109. utriculus, id. 

110. ventricosa, Duclos. 

111. venulata, Chemn. 

112. volutella, Xaw. 

113. zanoeta, Duclos. 

114. zenopira, z'o 7 . 

115. Zeylanica, Za?». 

116. zigzag, Duclos. 

117. zonalis, Lam. 



Figu 



re. 



Oliva maura. Plate F. — Shell with animal, showing its ample reflected 
disc, the broad lobes in front, the tentacles and eyes, the respiratory 
siphon, and floating appendage, and the filamentary cord proceeding 
from the posterior extremity of the concealed mantle and passing into 
the groove of the spire. From the Zoology of the Voyage de l' Astrolabe. 

Oliva angtjlata. Plate 1. Fig. 4. Shell, showing the grooved columella 
and basal sinus. 



h 2 



60 



Genus 3. ANCILLARIA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; disc oblong, bifurcated behind, triangularly lobed in front, 
partially reflected over the shell, under surf ace furnished beneath 
the head with an orifice ; head and tentacles small, with a 
cylindrical trunk ; respiratory siphon rather prominent. 

Shell ; oblong, cylindrical, widely emarginated at the base ; spire 
rather short, suture obtuse ; columella obliquely grooved, some- 
times umbilicated, slightly hoisted ; operculum small, horny. 

The Ancillarim are a limited group of mollusks allied to the Olives, yet 
possessing characters very much opposed to those recorded in that peculiar 
genus. According to M. Quoy's figure of the A. albisulcata, the shell is 
partially imbedded in the substance of the disc, somewhat after the manner 
of Natica, the middle portion of it being reflected over the shell, not the 
outer edge as in the Olive. There is, moreover, no filamentary cord passing 
from the extremity of the mantle around the spire ; the spire of Aiicillaria 
being distinguished, on the contrary, by a callous deposit of enamel, a 
condition the very reverse of that indicated by the deeply excavated groove 
in the Olive. The hinder extremity of the disc is peculiarly bifurcated ; 
the front exhibits a similar lobed appearance, and the head and tentacles 
are small, concealed within the fold of the disc, probably from the animal's 
habit of burrowing in the sand. 

The shell of Aiicillaria differs equally in its lesser detail from that of the 
Olive ; it exhibits no pattern or design, and is mainly characterized by an 
uniform bright golden yellow, passing into a bright cinnamon red. 

The rarest species are from New Holland. 



1. albifasciata, Swains. 

2. albisulcata, Soto. 

3. aperta, id. 

4. australis, id. 

5. Candida, Lam. 

6. castanea, Sow. 

7. cingulata, id. 

8. cinnamomea, Lam. 



Species 

9. eburnea, Deshayes. 

10. eifusa, Swainson. 

11. exigua, Sow. 

12. fulva, Swainson. 

13. glabrata, id. 

14. mamillata, Hinds. 

15. marginata, Lam. 
1G. Mauritiana, Sow. 



Figure. 

Ancillaria Mauritiana. Plate 4. Kg. 21, 
white twisted columella. 



17. mucronata, Sow. 

18. nivea, Swainson. 

19. oblonga, Sow. 

20. obtusa, Swainson. 

21. rubiginosa, id. 

22. Tankervillii, id. 

23. ventricosa, Lam. 



Showing the aperture and 



61 



» Genus 4. EBURNA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc stout and thick, oval in front, pointed behind, 
carrying a horny operculum at the posterior extremity which 
jits exactly to the aperture of the shell ; head large, bifurcated 
in front into two elongated tentacles, at the outer base of which 
are the eyes ; mouth armed with a cylindrical trunk ; respira- 
tory siphon rather long. 

Shell ; oblong-ovate, spire acuminated, with the sutures more or 
less deeply channelled ; whorls forming a deep umbilicus which 
is rarely filled up ; colour ivory white, tessellated and spotted 
with orange-brown. 

The genus Eburna includes a natural, though extremely limited group 
of species, but M. Deshayes questions whether it is entitled to rank higher 
than as a section of Buccinum ; from Ins description of the animal, above 
recorded, we learn that it has a strong natural affinity with that genus, yet 
there is a curious peculiarity of design in the structure and colour of the 
shells. It is not usual to regard colour as an element in the character of 
a genus, but in the case before us it constitutes a feature which cannot be 
overlooked. Divested of the E. glabra ta, plumbea, and spirata, which have 
been erroneously referred to this genus, the species are each distinguished 
by a blotched and tessellated painting of orange brown upon a white 
ground, which is very characteristic ; the apex throughout is black, and 
the columella and interior of the aperture white. 

The E. spirata and Zeylamca are found in Ceylon in great abundance ; 
the species selected for illustration are from Japan, and of great rarity. 



Species. 

1. ambulacrum, Sow. 4. Japouica, Reeve. 7. Valentiana, Swainson. 

2. areolata, Lam. 5. lutosa, Lam. 8. Zeylamca, Lam. 

3. australis, Soto. 6. papillaris, Sow. 



Figures. 

Eburna papillaris. Plate 4. Fig. 19 a. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 
Eburna Japonica. Plate 1. Eig. 19 b. From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



62 



Genus 5. PLAN AXIS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc short, thick, furnished at its posterior extremity 
with a horny operculum ; head proboscidiform, with two elon- 
gated tentacles, each having an eye on the outer side of the 
base, edge of the mantle simple, not canaliculated, open in front 
to give access to the branchial cavity. 

Shell ; solid, ovately conical, terminating at the base with a narrow 
sinus; columella depressly concave, with a callosity at the 
upper part; interior of the aperture grooved. 

I cannot agree with M. Deshayes in transferring the little group of 
mollusks, associated under the title of Planaxis, to a place among the 
vegetable-feeders, Littorina, Melania, and Paludina. The shell is not 
much unlike that of Nassa, nor is there sufficient variation in the soft parts 
to influence the propriety of their being arranged in the same family with 
the Purpura. The animal is distinguished by its ringed proboscis-shaped 
head ; and the free opening of the mantle communicating with the branchial 
cavity, and the shell exhibits that peculiar solidity of structure which is so 
characteristic a type of carnivorous habits ; it has a prominent callosity on 
the upper part of the columella, and the interior of the aperture is more or 
less strongly grooved. 

MM. Quoy and Gaimard have figured a shell with its molluscous inhabi- 
tant, in the Zoology of the 'Voyage de 1' Astrolabe', under the title of 
Planaxis decollates, winch has been elevated to the rank of a new genus, 
with the name of Quoyia ; the characters of this shell are very similar to 
those of the genus under consideration, but its subulate form and grooved 
columella are peculiar and characteristic. 

Very few Planaxes have been collected; they are not, however, un- 
common. 

Species. 



1. 


areolata, Lesson. 


5. Buccinoides, Desk. 


9. 


semisulcata, id. 


2. 


atropurpurea, Recluz. 


6. circinata, Lesson. 


10. 


undulata, Lam. 


3. 


Brasiliana, Deshayes. 


7. niger, id. 


11. 


sulcata, Lam. 


4. 


brevis, Quoy. 


8. planicostata, Sow. 







Figure. 
Planaxis planicostata. Plate 3. Pig. 17. 



-From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



63 



Genus 6. QUOYIA, Gray. 

Animal ; disc small, ovate, folded across and crumpled in front, 
hind part furnished with a semi-ovate operculum, side of the 
body simple; proboscis short and ringed; tentacles slender, 
conical, far apart at the base ; eyes placed on short tubercles 
at their outer base ; mantle simple, with a groove on the left 
angle. 

Shell ; subelongated, aperture short, slightly sinuated at the base, 
columella peculiarly cut away at the top, interior finely grooved. 

The shell of this mollusk, figured by MM. Quoy and Gaimard in the 
' Voyage de 1' Astrolabe ', has very much the appearance of an elongated 
Flanaxis, and we learn from the characters of the soft parts above recited, 
from Mr. Gray's f Zoology of Beechey's Voyage ', that the animals of these 
genera are in reality very closely allied. There is, however, a great dis- 
similarity in the form of the shell, and the upper portion of the columella 
is characterized by a curious broad groove or cutting away of the white 
enamelled surface in place of any callosity ; from whence, I think, with 
Mr. Gray, that it may be entitled to rank as a separate genus. 

Figure. 
Quoyia decollata. Plate 3. Fig. 18. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 7. NASSA, Lamarck. 

Animal; disc large and thin, nearly semicircular in front, termi- 
nated on each side by a short ear-shaped appendage, hind ex- 
tremity bifurcated ; head flattened, very large, with a conical 
tentacle on each side, swollen at the outer side of the base and 
having the eye situated at the top of the swollen portion. 

Shell ; ovate, slightly turreted, terminating at the base with a 
deep sinus or very short canal ; aperture orbicular, angulated 
at the upper part ; columella smooth, sometimes broadly effused, 
ivith a tooth or callosity at the upper part ; lip toothed, some- 
times crenulated within. Operculum very small, horny. 

The Nassce are an interesting group, distinguished alike from the Buc- 
cina, with which they were formerly associated, both in respect to the 



04 

animal and the shell. The description above quoted, from the observations 
of M. Deshayes, informs us that there is a peculiarity in the structure of 
the disc, beautifully illustrated by M. Quoy in the ' Voyage de T Astrolabe ', 
in having the front extremity furnished with two ear-shaped appendages, 
and the hind part bifurcated, the corners presenting a tentacle-like ap- 
pearance. 

There is a singular uniformity in the form and colour of the shells of 
Nassa ; they are all small, and mostly distinguished by a remarkably thick- 
ened deposit of enamel in the vicinity of the aperture. 

Some time after Lamarck introduced the genus Nassa, he abandoned it 
except as a sectional division of the Buccina ; the generic peculiarities of 
this comparatively extensive group were, however, too obvious to escape 
attention. 

They are confined to the southern and tropical regions. 



1. abbreviata, Desk. 

2. acliatina, id. 

3. acuta, Say. 

4. ampullacea, Desk. 

5. annulata, id. 

6. arcularia, Lam. 

7. Ascanias, Desk. 

8. attenuata, Gray. 

9. Belangeri, Desk. 

10. callosa, Gray. 

11. canaliculata, Desk. 

12. can dens, Hinds. 

13. coccinella, Desk. 

14. complanata, Powis. 

15. concinna, id. 

16. conoidalis, Desk. 

17. coronata, Lam. 

18. crenata, Hinds. 

19. crcnnlata, Desk. 

20. dentifera, Powis. 

21. exilis, id. 

22. fasciata, Desk. 

23. fasciolata, id. 



Species. 

24. festiva, Powis. 

25. gandiosa, Hinds. 

26. gemmulata, Desk. 

27. gibbosnla, Lam. 

28. glans, Desk. 

29. globosa, id. 

30. grana, id. 

31. granifera, id. 

32. Grayi, id. 

33. inflata, id. 

34. limata, id. 

35. luteostema,ifr. §-Sow. 

36. marginulata, Lam. 

37. maesta, Hinds. 

38. Melanoides, Desk. 

39. miga, id. 

40. muricata, Quoy. 

41. mutabilis, Desk. 

42. myristicata, Hinds. 

43. neritea, Lam. 

44. nodata, Hinds. 

45. nodifera, Powis. 

46. obsoleta, Say. 



47. olivacea, Desk. 

48. Olivarformis, id. 

49. pallida, Powis. 

50. papulosa, Sow. 

51. pauperata, Lam. 

52. perpinguis, Hinds. 

53. polita, Desk. 

54. polygonata, Lam. 

55. pulla, id. 

56. reticulata, Desk. 

57. retusa, id. 

58. Eoissyi, id. 

59. scabriuscula, Powis. 

60. stolata, Desk. 

61. subspinosa, id. 

62. sutiualis, id. 

63. texta, id. 

64. Thesites, Lam. 

65. tricarinata, Desk. 

66. trivittata, Say. 

67. unicincta, id. 

68. vibex. id. 



Nassa luteostoma. 



Figure. 
Plate 3. Fig. 11. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



65 



Genus 8. CYLLENE, Gray. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell; small, ovate, swollen, truncate, and a little recurved at 
the base, spire rather short, acute, with the sutures minutely 
channelled, columella concave, smooth or finely grooved ; lip 
slightly notched near the base, emarginated at the summit; 
interior finely radiately grooved. 

The genus Cgttene was introduced by Mr. Gray in his ' Synopsis ' of our 
national collection, for the sake of distinguishing a few small shells exhi- 
biting an association of character of remarkable peculiarity, and of winch 
the Buecimtm lyratum of Lamarck, figured by M. Kiener in his illustration 
of that genus, (PL 22. Fig. 38.) may be regarded as the type. It may be 
observed on reference to our figure, that the shell is of a small Voluta-like 
structure, without plaits, however, on the columella, which is a little 
excavated, and slightly grooved, the spire being short though sharply 
acuminated ; the lip is very characteristic ; at its junction with the body 
whorl, it is emarginated in a manner similar to that of Oliva, and near the 
base, it is distinguished by a small notch, like that which constitutes one of 
the principal generic features in Phos; the interior is deeply radiately 
grooved, as in many of the Purpura. I am not aware that the two or 
three species referable to this type, have been yet described ; it therefore 
only remains to record the one included under Buccinum by Lamarck, and 
that selected for illustration which I dedicate to the founder of the genus. 

Species. 
1. Grayi, Reeve. 2. lyratum, (Buc.) Lamarck. 

Figures. 

Cyllene Grayi. Plate 3. Fig 12. — Showing the front portion of the 
shell. From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 9. BULLIA, Gray. 

Animal .- disc very large, thin, flatly expanded, head flattened, 
loith the tentacles long, subulate, and rather distant ; no eyes. 

Shell ; ovate, turreted, spire more or less subulately acuminated, 
sutures frequently callous ; columella callous towards the upper 
part, excavated ; aperture emarginated above and below. 



66 

The shells assembled under the title of Bullia by Mr. Gray, are deserv- 
iiig of generic distinction, not only on account of their peculiar affinity of 
form and colour, but because of the curious expanded structure of the 
animal-disc, as represented by M. M. Quoy and Gaimard in their figure of 
the Buccinum lavissimum of Lamarck.* The Buccinum cochlidium of 
Chemnitz is the largest and most conspicuous of the group, whilst the 
B. annulatum of Lamarck, is characteristic of the Terebra-like portion of 
the species. 

Mr. Gray notices in his observations on this genusf, that the Bullia "are 
found crawling on the sand in bays ; they generally remain at the bottom 
of the water, and are easily caught alive with a bit of meat tied at the end 
of a string, as they immediately attach themselves to it. " 

In confirmation of the importance of this genus, it only remains to notice 
that M. Deshayes proposes to remove those species hitherto arranged under 
the head of Buccinum, to a place amongst the Nassee, to winch they are 
apparently still more remotely allied. 



1. achatina. 

2. annulata. 

3. armata. 

4. cochlidium. 

5. globulosa. 

6. granulosa. 



Species\. 



7. hastata. 

8. laevigata. 

9. lsevis. 

10. lsevissima. 

11. lineolata. 

12. Mauri tiana. 



13. Pay tense. 

14. polita. 

15. semiplicata. 

16. terebralis. 

17. turrita. 

18. vittata. 



Genus 10. PHOS, De Montford. 

Animal; disc oblong, expanded, carrying a small horny oper- 

cidum, head small, tentacles high up, very long, slender, eyes 

situated at the tips of the tentacles. 
Shell ; oblong, mostly acuminated, and longitudinally ribbed, outer 

lip notched toioards the base; columella somewhat obsoletely 

one-plaited. 

The Buccinum senticosum Linnseus, Cancettaria senticosa Lamarck, was 
figured by De Montford in his ' Conchy liologie Systematique ' as the type of 
a new genus, under the laconic title of Phos ; and it is one of the few 
genera introduced by that author, the propriety of which has been con- 
firmed by subsequent discoveries. The species above referred to, is not, 

* Voyage de 1' Astrolabe. f Zoology of Beechey's Voyage. 

J A monograph of this genus will shortly appear in the ' Conchologia Iconica '; I can give 
but an undigested list of species at present, and refrain from attaching any authorities. 



67 

however, the most characteristic of the group ; in the exhaustless stores of 
Hugh Cuming, Esq. are thirty or more distinct kinds, collected by that 
indefatigable traveller in the course of his prolific researches, nearly the 
whole of which remain to be described. Suffice it to say, that the chief 
peculiarity consists in the notch near the base of the lip, though indepen- 
dent of tins, the species are characterized throughout by a marked degree 
of generic affinity. 



Species 



* 



1. articulatus, Hinds. 

2. crassus, Hinds. 

3. Cumingii, Reeve. 

4. gaudens, Hinds. 



5. pyrostoma, Reeve. 

6. reticosus, Hinds. 

7. roseatus, Hinds. 



8. senticosus, Mont/. 

9. Veragueusis, Hinds. 
10. virgatus, Hinds. 



Figure. 
Phos Cumingii. PI. 3. Fig. 16. Showing the front portion of the shell. 



Genus 11. BUCCINUM, Linnaus. 

Animal; disc oval, sometimes elongated in front ; head narrow, 
flattened, with two cylindrical tentacles, at the base of which 
are two slightly pedunculated eyes ; trunk cylindrical, more or 
less elongated. 

Shell ; ovate or oblong, emarginated and sometimes a little chan- 
nelled at the base, columella for the most part smooth ; aperture 
oblong-ovate, sometimes furnished on each side at the upper 
part with a callosity or denticles; lip very slightly, if at all, 
thickened, serrated or crenated. 

The Latin word Buccinum, a trumpet, was applied indiscriminately by 
the ancients, to almost any sort of spiral univalve shell ; Linnaeus made 
a more restricted application of the word, but his genus still included 
species of very anomalous character. Lamarck, the great reformer of the 
Linnsean system of classification, divided the Buccina of that author, into 
several excellent acknowledged genera, including nearly the whole of those 
enumerated under the present family, reserving the Buccinum undatum, 
(the common Whelk of our market) for the type of his genus. This has 
been since dismembered of the groups Nassa, Buttia, Cyllene, and Phos, 
and M. Deshayes further distinguishes the Whelk, and its congeners, by the 

* The species above referred to in Mr. Cuming's collection, will shortly be described and 
illustrated in the ' Conchologia Iconica. ' 

k2 



68 

title of Xritonkim, once assigned to them by Muller. These latter, however, 
I propose to retain in the present genus, together with all those species of 
which the upper part of the aperture is distinguished by the presence of a 
callosity or denticles, such as the B. undosum and others, added to which I 
include the Purpura sertum, Francolina, and lageuaria of Lamarck, as well 
as the Fusus articulatus of the same author. * 



1. aciculatum, Lam. 29 

2. acuminatum, Menke. 30 

3. affinis, Less. 31 

4. alveolatum, Kiener. 32 

5. ambiguum, Mont. 33 

6. Anglicanum, Lam. 34 

7. angulosum, Gray. 35 

8. articulatum (Fus.), L. 36 

9. aurantium, Lam. 37 

10. Australe, Chemn. 38 

11. boreale, Brod. 39 

12. Boysii, Nuttall. 40 

13. breve, Adams. 41 

14. catenatum, Powis. 42 

15. cinctum, Quoy. 43, 

16. clavula, Menke. 44, 

17. Coromandelianum, L. 45. 

18. costatum, Quoy. 46. 

19. Cuvierii, Payr. 47. 

20. Delalandi, Kiener. 48. 

21. distortum, Gray. 49. 

22. D'Orbignii, Payr. 50. 

23. elegans, Reeve. 51. 

24. Franeolinum(.p2<rp.)Z. 52, 

25. fasciculare, Menke. 53. 

26. Floridanum, Less. 54. 

27. fuscatum, Lam. 55. 

28. Genetta, Less. 



Species 

Gervilii, Kiener. 
glaciale, Lam. 
gradatum, Desk. 
graniferum, Kiener. 
Gualterianum, Kimer. 
hepaticum, Mont. 
hirtum, Kiener. 
Humphreysianum, B>t. 
Jacksonianum, Kiener, 
lagenariuni (Pui-p.),L. 
lineatum, Sow. 
lineolatum, Lam. 
lutestoma, Kiener. 
macula, Mont. 
maculatum, Martyn. 
maculosum, Lam. 
melanostoma, Lam. 
melo, Less. 
metula, Hinds. 
modestum, Potcis. 
mouiliferum, Valen. 
obsoletum, Say. 
ornatum, Say. 
ovum, Turton. 
papyraceum. Lam. 
pediculare, Lam. 
phalama, Lesson. 



56. plicatulum, Nuttall. 

57. polaris, Gray. 

58. porcatum, Gmel. 

59. Poulsoni, Nuttall. 

60. pulicaris, Lesson. 

61. rufulum, Kiener 

62. scaralinum, Soto. 

63. Scbroeteri, Beck. 

64. Sechellarum, Bufo. 

65. sertum (Purp.), L. 

66. sepimentum, Rang. 

67. serratum, Bufrcsne. 

68. succintum, Powis. 

69. tenue, Gray. 

70. tenuiplicatum, Lam. 

71. testudincum, Chemn. 

72. tigrinum, Kiener. 

73. Tranquebaricum, Lam. 

74. Triton, Less. 

75. tulipa, Less. 

76. undatum, Lam. 

77. undosum, Quoy. 

78. varicosum, Chemn. 

79. vinosum, Lam. 

80. viverratum, Kiener. 

81. vittatum, Linn. 

82. zebra, Lam. 



Figure. 

Buccinum melanostoma. PI. 4. Fig. 22. Showing the front portion of 
the shell with its black-enamelled columella. 



* These and several new allied species, arranged in part by Mr. Gray, in the British Museum, 
under the head of Pollia, will appear shortly in a Monograph of Buccinum in the ' Conchologia 
Tconica' ; the list of species given herewith is necessarily incomplete. 



G9 



Genus 12. LEPTOCONCHUS, Bwppell. 

Animal; proboscis elongated, retractile; tentacles two, smooth, 

triangular, jointed internally at the base, and bearing the eyes 

externally i?i the middle ; disc middling, no operculum ; mantle 

circular at the edge, without any siphonal appendage, a little 

produced on the left side ; branchial orifice rather large. 

Shell ; thin, pellucid, nearly globose, spire depressed, rather ob- 
solete ; aperture large, suboval, extremities turned contrariwise, 
margins disjointed, right margin thin, a little expanded ante- 
riorly ; umbilicus none, truncated anteriorly, contorted. 

Such are the descriptions of Leptoconchus recorded by Dr. Riippell, in his 
communication to the Zoological Society of London in September, 1834- 
It is allied to the Magilus, with this difference, the margins of the aperture 
are not united, and by reason of its dwelling in exposed cavities of madre- 
pore, forms no extended tubular growth. 

"The colour of the shell," says the learned traveller, "which constitutes 
the type of this new genus, is constantly a slightly sordid milk-white. It 
is sulcated externally by numerous longitudinal undulated closely-set lines, 
the outer whorls encroaching on the spire of the earlier ones so as almost 
to obliterate it. Individuals of all ages have the shell thin and fragile, and 
constantly occur imbedded in the calcareous mass of polypes, having a com- 
munication with the sea by only a moderate opening. The animals of 
Magilus and Leptoconchus are distinguished by the presence and absence of 
an operculum, and by the difference in the proboscis ; the siphon of the 
former, moreover, does not occur in the latter."* 

Dr. Riippell suggests that Leptoconchus might be arranged in the vicinity 
of Tanthina, I cannot, however, subscribe to tins opinion, the habits and 
structure of these mollusks being so totally dissimilar. 



Figure. 

Leptoconchus striatus. PI. 4. Fig. 20. Showing, a and b, back and 
front view of the shell ; c, as it appears imbedded in a mass of coral. — 
From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Pro Zool. Soc. 1834. p. 105. 



70 



Genus 13. MAGILUS, Be Montford. 

Animal; disc muscular, furnished posteriorly with a small oblong 
elliptic horny opercidum ; head small, somewhat obscure, pro- 
longed on each side into two short tentacles, on the outer side, 
at the base, of which are the eyes ; proboscis obtuse. 

Shell ; ovate, spiral for three or four whorls*, then continued in a 
straight or flexuous directio?i to a considerable extent, the tube 
forming a keel on the lower side and a corresponding siphon at 
the aperture. 

The Magilus affords a striking example of the fallacy of arranging shells 
according to their external form and aspect, without reference to the nature 
and habits of their animal inhabitants ; it presents also a remarkable in- 
stance of intelligent economy. Lamarck concluded from the vermiform 
structure of tins shell, that it must be formed by an Annelide, after the 
manner of a Serpula, upon some foreign body, and he arranged it ac- 
cordingly in the same natural group with the Testaceous Worms, the Earth 
Worms, Leeches, &c. It was, however, discovered by Dr. Biippell, during 
his researches on the coast of Abyssinia, that the animal in question is a 
true pectinibranchiate mollusk, inhabiting masses of Madrepore; the 
vermiform structure of whose shell is induced by its confined situation of 
growth. The formation of the shell originates in the same spiral plan of 
volution as that of other pectinibranchiate mollusks, but the animal 
finding it necessary to be in immediate communication with the sur- 
rounding fluid, is obliged to leave its spiral plan of growth in order to 
follow the enlarging surface of the coral. To accomplish this, it pursues 
a straight, or flexuous growth, solidifying the posterior portion of the shell 
in its progress, to enable it to reside within the vicinity of the aper- 
ture*; the soft parts of this mollusk scarcely exceed two inches in length, 
although its shell is prolonged to the extent of from twelve to fifteen 
inches, by a gradual slipping of the muscle of attachment along the colu- 

* Peu a peu la partie du corps de l'animal qui repose sur la colunielle secrete en abondance 
de la matiere calcaire qui remplit non-seulement tout l'interieur des premiers tours de spire, 
niais qui force meine, par sa surabondance, l'animal a douucr une autre direction aux nouveaux 
tours de sa coquille, de maniere que celle-ci, qui jusqu'au quatrieme tour de spire est heliciforme, 
preud au-dela un accroisssement obsolument irregulier : tautot les nouveaux tours se contournent 
en tire-bouchou, et tantot la coquille se continue en ligne presque droite ou coudee. On recon- 
nait cependaut toujours la cause de cet accroissement irregulier, qui est la copieuse secretion 
de substance calcaire faite par le rebord gauche du manteau. II se forme par la une arete 
enioussee le long de la gouttiere de Pouverture, et la partie des nouveaux tours qui reposerait sur 
la columcllc prend tantot une surface lisse, et tantot elle preseute des lames irregulieres. Pendant 
que la coquille s'alonge aiusi par son accroissement, la cavite des premiers tours se remplit pro- 
grcssivenient de maniere que la cavite de la coquille de'passe rarcment deux pouccs de profoudeur, 
quoique le tube cutier ait souvent douze a quinzc pouccs." — Rupfell, Mem. 1832. 



71 

mella, accompanied by a copious secretion of calcareous matter from the 
mantle. 

It may be observed that the growth of the Magilus presents a sort of 
negative analogy with that of the Nautilus ; the animal of each advancing 
in the outer porch of its shell by the aid of a relaxing muscle ; and their 
mode of operation is curiously adapted to the difference in their circumstances 
of habitation. The former, in order to sustain the increasing pressure 
of the coral, fills up the vacated portion of its shell with solid matter, the 
latter, having a different medium to contend with, chambers in its shell 
by a succession of light partitions to give it buoyancy ; if the Magilus pur- 
sued its course by the deposit of light transverse partitions, after the manner 
of the Nautilus, the increasing growth of the coral would probably crush it 
(unless the effect be nullified, as in the case of the Pholades, by a circu- 
lating current of solvents), and if the Nautilus advanced in its shell by 
solidifying the vacated portion, after the manner of the Magilus, it would 
produce an incumbrance incompatible with its locomotive faculties. 

Like all mollusks inhabiting coral, the Magilus is almost devoid of 
colouring matter ; the shell is of a transparent alabaster white, whilst the 
edge of the mantle of the animal is tinged with violet. I am not aware 
that this mollusk has been found in any other locality than the shores of 
the Red Sea, or in any other species of coral than the Meandrina phrygia. 



Figure. 

Magilus antiquus. PI. 6. Tig. 25. Showing its vermiform structure, 
keel, and siphonated aperture. — From the cabinet of H. Cuming 
Esq ; collected by Dr. Ruppell, at the Red Sea. 



Genus 14. TRICHOTROPIS, Broderip. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; thin, turbinated, wnhlicated, and slightly canalicidated at 
the base, covered with a strong horny epidermis, sometimes fur- 
nished with spiral rows of fine bristles, spire angularly turreted; 
aperture triangularly ovate ; operculum thin, laminated. 

Although a specimen of this remarkable shell was collected with the soft 
parts by Captain Belcher, I am not aware that the animal has ever been 
described ; its true relation in the molluscous system still remains to be 



72 

determined. Of the species at present known, the T. bicarinata, is the 
only one at all remarkable for its size and bristly appearance ; it is of a 
fragile texture, and unlike the shell of any other genus. 

The species above alluded to is from Icy Cape; those collected by 
Mr. Hinds, are from a much warmer region. 



1. acuminata, Jeffreys. 

2. Atlantica, Mutter. 

3. bicarinata, Broderip. 



Species 

4. borealis, Broderip. 

5. cancellata, Hinds. 

6. costellata, Courth. 



7. flavida, Hinds. 

8. inermis, Hinds. 

9. umbilicata, Magill. 



Trichotropis bicarinata. 
bristly epidermis. 



Figure. 
PI. 7. Pig. 33. Showing the aperture and 



Genus 15. DOLIUM, Lamarck. 

Animal; disc ovately oblong, large, very thick and muscular, 
subauriculated on each side in front ; head large and rather 
flattened, with an unusually long conical tentacle on each side, 
at the base of which are the eyes, fixed upon short peduncles ; 
trunk capable of considerable elongation, branchial siphon ample, 
reflexed. 

Shell ; thin, rotundately swollen, light and ventricose, ribbed 
transversely, but not longitudinally ; columellar lip thin, widely 
expanded, outer lip fimbriated or crenated. 

The Dolia constitute a limited, but very characteristic group, distinguised 
by their size and muscular strength, and by the voracity and comparative 
activity of their habits. The head is furnished with a long retractile 
trunk, which they have the capacity of rapidly protruding and withdrawing ; 
they have also an ample disc, and " when the animal desires to swim/' 
says M. Deshayes, who had an opportunity of observing the Bolium on the 
shores of the Mediterranean, in the course of Ins expedition to Algeria, ' ' he 
swells it out with an enormous quantity of water, which is imbibed through 
certain pores". I have given representations of three different species of 
this genus with the soft parts, in order to show how much greater variety 
and brightness of colour is exhibited in the animal, than in the shell; in 
the B. perdix, we find a bright blue-striped animal with a dull brown shell, 
and the B. olearium and pomum, with pale sallow yellowish shells, have 



73 

one an animal of a bright blue colour, the other of a rich coppery green ; 
in the first of these, the proboscis appears to be furnished with a sort of 
grappling rosette, analogous to the dentatecl extremity of the trunk in 
Mitra, the animal has not, however, the sluggish habits of that genus, by 
reason of the light and portable structure of its shell. 

The Dolium shell is, for its size, the lightest of spiral univalves, ap- 
proaching somewhat in form to that of Cassis, but fully distinguished by 
its tenuity and want of varices, as well as by the absence of any recurvature 
at the base. 



Species. 

1. Chinense, Desk. 5. galea, Lam. 9. perdix, Lam. 

2. costatum, Desk. 6. maculatum, Lam. 10. pomum, Lam. 

3. fasciatum, Lam. 7. melanostoma, Jay. 11. variegatuni, Lam. 

4. fimbriatum, Soto. 8. olearium, Lam. 



Figures. 

Dolium perdix. Plate E. Shell with animal, showing its expanded blue- 
striped disk, with the auriculated structure in front, the conspicuous 
head and tentacles, with the eyes on short peduncles at the base, the 
respiratory siphon for conveying water to the branchial cavity, re- 
clining back upon the shell, and the extended trunk with its dilated 
rosette-like extremity. 

Dolium pomum. Plate G. Shell with animal, showing its blue-striped 
disk, the proboscis only partially exserted, tentacles, eyes, siphon, &c. 

Dolium olearium. Plate G. Shell with animal, showing its coppery 
green disk, tentacles, eyes, siphon &c, the trunk being wholly with- 
drawn. — All from the ' Voyage de V Astrolabe' . 

Dolium fimbriatum. Plate 5. Pig. 24. Shell, showing the aperture and 
excavated columella. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 16. HARPA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc very large, elongated, semicircular in front, termi- 
nating posteriorly in a point ; head flattened, auriculated on 
either side, tentacles not very long, with the eyes situated on 
the outer side towards the base ; respiratory siphon very long. 

Shell ; ovate, ventricose, spire short, with the apex elevated and 
acute ; whorls longitudinal/// varicose or ribbed ; columella 
smooth, highly enamelled ; aperture large. 

L 



74 

The " Many-ridged Harp " the " Rose Harp " the " David's Harp " and 
others, are shells of such familiar occurrence, that it will be interesting to 
form some acquaintance with the animal from which they derive their 
existence. It will be seen on reference to plate E that the soft parts of 
HarjM are of unusually large size, the disk being elongated posteriorly to a 
point, and widely auriculated in front ; indeed, it is described as being so 
large and muscular as to be scarcely susceptible of being contracted within 
the aperture of the shell. The animal of the ' Harps ', like that of the 
' Tuns ', appears to exhibit a rather more than ordinary degree of activity ; 
it is related both by M. Reynaud and M. Quoy, to have the faculty of 
spontaneously divesting itself of a portion of the disk, under irritation or 
emergency, after the manner of the Annelides, which it is well known often 
separate in pieces from violent contraction. The colours of the animal are 
scarcely less vivid than those of the shell, being of yellowish-green and rose, 
curiously ocellated throughout, whilst the respiratory siphon is striped 
across. 

The shells of this beautiful and very limited genus are too well known to 
require mention ; it may be added, however, that the prominent longitudinal 
ribs, which impart the harp-like symmetry of structure to the shell are 
regarded as so many varices ; analogous in structure to the varices in the 
shell of Murex, each forms in its turn the margin of the aperture, and the 
intervals between them are probably of rapid growth. 

The Harpce mostly inhabit the shores of Ceylon, the Mauritius, and the 
Philippine Islands ; one species, the //. crenata, is from Mexico. They 
are all extremely rich in colour, and are not less remarkable for the bright 
enamelling of the body-whorl, in the immediate vicinity of the aperture. 



Species. 

1. articularis, Lam. 4. gracilis, Brod. 7. nobilis, Humph. 

2. couoidalis, Lam. 5. imperialis, Chemn. 8. rosea, Lam. 

'6. crenata, Swain. (j. minor, Rumph. 9. ventricosa, Lain. 



Figures. 

Hakpa ventricosa. Plate E. Shell with animal, showing its large, elon- 
gated disc, auricular appendage in front, tentacles, eyes, and erect 
branchial siphon. — From the ' Voyage de V Astrolabe' . 

Harpa imperialis. Plate 5. Pig. 20. Shell, showing its many-ridged 
structure, arising from the rapid succession of varices. 



75 



Genus 17. CONCHOLEPAS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc oval, large, furnished posteriorly with an operculum ; 
head fattened, prolonged on each side into two tentacles, the 
loiver portion of which is thickened and truncated ; eyes situated 
at the summit of the truncated portion; proboscis obtuse; 
respiratory siphon rather small. 

Shell ; ovate, spire very short, minute, apex sharp ; whorls ribbed 
and imbricated ; aperture very large and inflated, Up furnished 
at the base with two or three projecting teeth. 

The term Concho-Lepas, applied to this shell in a generic sense by 
Lamarck, seems to have emanated from the difficulty which our concho- 
logical ancestors found in determining whether it was of a spiral or non- 
spiral structure ; shells of the former growth, being designated by the title 
of Cochlea or Conclis, of the latter, meaning the Limpets, by that of Lepas 
or rock shells. The spire is extremely minute, and the shell has all the 
appearance of a compressed cornucopia, with the margin of the aperture 
reflected outwards like the mouth of a trumpet. 

The animal appears to differ in no respect from that of Purpura, and our 
continental neighbours are unwilling that it should occupy any higher rank 
than as a section of that genus ; the characteristic variation in the growth 
of the shell is sufficient, however, to warrant its separate arrangement, 
according to the method originally adopted by Lamarck. 

The genus is only represented by the following species, found at Peru. 

Figure. 

Concholepas Peuuvianus. Plate 5. Pig. 27. Shell, showing its widely 
inflated, Limpet-like, aperture. 



Genus 18. MONOCEROS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Purpura. 

Shell ; ovate, spire sometimes elevated, sometimes rather depressed, 
columella wide and flatfish, sometimes indistinctly plaited, lip 
armed near the base with a sharp prominent recurved tooth. 
Operculum horny. 

The genus Monoceros of Lamarck, introduced almost simultaneously by 
De Montford under the title of Unieomus, is characterized solely by the 

l2 



76 

very conspicuous tooth which becomes developed at the lower portion of the 
lip ; the distinction is not, however, universally admitted, as several of the 
Purpura exhibit indications of a tooth, and the animals of the two genera, 
are identical. 



1. acuminatum, Sow. 

2. brevidens, Conrad. 

3. calcar, Desk. 

4. cingulatum, Lam. 

5. crassilabrum, Lam. 



Species 

6. cymatum (fine), Sol. 11. maculatum, Gray. 



7. giganteum, Less. 

8. glabratum, Lam. 

9. grande, Gray. 
10. imbricatum, Lam. 



12. punctatum, Gray. 

13. truncatum, Reeve. 
11. tuberculatum, Gray. 
15. unicarinatum, Sow. 



Figure. 

Monocekos grande. Plate 6. Fig. 29. Shell, showing the aperture and 
prominent tooth. 



Genus 19. PURPURA, Lamarck. 

Animal; disc large, slightly acuminated in front, acuminately 
rounded behind, carrying at the extremity a thin horny semi- 
lunar operculum ; head rather small and fattened, prolonged at 
each extremity into two pedunculated tentacles, at the summit of 
the thickened portion of which, extending to one half or two 
thirds of the length, are the eyes ; respiratory siphon of mode- 
rate length ; proboscis small. 

Shell; ovate, or oblong-ovate, generally noduled or tuberculated, 
spire short ; last tohorl swollen, more or less widely inflated, 
with the aperture dilated and mostly grooved ; base emarginated ; 
columella more or less depressly flattened ; lip generally denti- 
culated. 

The terms Krfpvg, Murex, and Hopcpvpa, Purpura, were used indiscrimately 
by ancient Greek writers in reference to all mollusks yielding a purple 
juice, and they became objects of especial interest in that remote age, 
on account of the limited sources then known of obtaining colour. Who 
has not heard of the purple dye, produced by the ' Tyrius murex ' of Ovid, 
(Murex trunculus Linn.), which no doubt abounded on the shores of the 
ancient Phoenician city of Tyros. 

The purple juice of the mollusk affords, however, no assistance to the 
systematist ; it abounds alike in animals of very dissimilar character ; in 



77 

Scalaria and lanthina, as well as in Murex and Purpura; hence the 
term Purpura was adopted by Lamarck to distinguish the genus under 
consideration, regardless of any property with which the animal might be 
endowed of secreting a purple juice. The most striking feature in the 
soft parts of Purpura is that of the head being a little flattened, and pro- 
longed at each extremity into the tentacles, without any prominence in the 
centre; approximating in this respect to Buccinum. The tentacles are 
pedunculated to generally two thirds of their extent, and at the summit of 
the pedunculated portion are the eyes. The operculum which the animal 
carries on the hind extremity of its disk, is invariably horny, and fits 
closely to the aperture of the shell. 

The shell of Purpura is mainly distinguished by an ovate dilated growth, 
emarginated at the base, with a more or less flattened columella, the spire 
being sometimes extremely short, sometimes a little acuminated. There are 
three closely allied genera, Concholepas, Monoceros, and Bicinula, which 
the French authors propose to fuse into the present ; I have not considered 
it prudent, however, to follow this course, as they afford good typical dis- 
tinctions, and their amalgamation under the head of Purpura would only 
tend to confusion by involving a change of names.* 

The Purpura vary exceedingly in their detail of sculpture, but are some- 
what constant in colour ; the well-known P. lapillus of Europe varies in 
both respects to an almost inconceivable degree ; indeed, no one who has 
not thorouglily examined a numerous series of specimens can form an 
adequate idea of its Protean character. 

Species. 



1. 


segrota Reeve. 


15. 


Callaoensis, Gray. 


29. 


eniarginata, Besh. 


2. 


affinis, id. 


16. 


carinifera, Lam. 


30. 


fasciata, Reeve. 


3. 


alveolata, id. 


17. 


Carolensis, Reeve. 


31. 


Floridana, Conrad. 


4. 


anaxares, Duclos. 


18. 


cataracta, (Buc.) Ch. 


32. 


Freycinetii, Besh. 


5. 


aperta, Be Blainv. 


19. 


chocolatum, Buclos. 


33. 


galea, Reeve. 


6. 


armigera, Lam. 


20. 


columcllaris, Lam. 


34. 


gibbosa, id. 


7. 


Ascensionis, Quoy. 


21. 


consul, Lam. 


35. 


gigantea, id. 


8. 


attenuata Reeve. 


22. 


coronata, Lam. 


36. 


hsemastoma, Lam. 


9. 


bicostalis, Lam. 


23. 


costularis {Murex.), . 


£.37. 


haustrum, Quoy. 


10. 


biserialis, Be. Blainv. 


24. 


deltoidea, Lam. 


38. 


hippocastanum, Lam. 


11. 


bitubercularis, Lam. 


25. 


diadema, Lam. 


39. 


hystrix, id. 


12. 


Blainvillii, Besh. 


26. 


D'Orbignii, Reeve. 


40. 


imperialis, Be Blainv. 


13. 


buccinea, id. 


27. 


echinata, Be. Blainv. 


41. 


inerma, Reeve. 


14. 


bufo, Lam. 


28. 


echinulata, Lam. 


42. 


intermedia, Kiener. 



* In the monographs of Purpura and Rlcinula just published in the 'Conchologia Iconica ', I 
have added to the importance of the latter genus by the introduction of some small species inter- 
mediate between Purpura and Columbella, the greater portion of which were not previously 
described. 



78 



43. Janellii, Kiener. 

44. kiosquiformis, Buclos. 

45. lapillus, Lam. 

46. lineata, id. 

47. luteostoma, Desk. 

48. Madreporarum, Sow. 

49. mancinella, Lam. 

50. melones, D/iclos. 

51. muricina. Be Blainv. 

52. inusiva, Kiener. 

53. Neritoidea, Des/«. 

54. nux, Reeve. 

55. patula, Lam. 



56. persica, /^/w. 

57. pica, Be. Blainv, 

58. planospira, Lam. 

59. pupillata, #eei?£. 

60. Qiioyi, id. 

61. Eudolphi, Zow. 

62. rustica, id. 

63. sacellum (Murex), Ck. 

64. Scalariformis, iara. 

65. scobina, Quay. 

66. septentrionalis, Reeve. 

67. speciosa, Valenc. 

68. spiralis, Reeve. 



69. squamosa, Xow. 

70. squamulosa, Reeve. 

71. succincta, Zffim. 

72. textilosa, z'c?. 

73. thiarella, id. 

74. trigona, Reeve. 

75. trochlea, Za»z. 

76. tiimulosa, Reeve. 

77. undata, Zaw. 

78. unifascialis Lam. 

79. violacea, Kiener. 

80. xanthostoma, i?m/. 



Figure. 

Purpura aperta. Plate. 6. Fig. 30. Shell showing its depressed spire, 
dilated aperture, and flattened columella. 



Genus 20. COLUMBELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc elongated and narrow, truncated and a little dilated 
in front, hind extremity furnished with a small horn?/ oper- 
culum, head small, flattened, triangular, prolonged into two 
conical cylindrical tentacles, pedunculated to about a third of 
their extent, at the summit of which portion are the eyes ; trunk 
rather long. 

Shell ; small, ovately oblong or triangular, sometimes fusiform, 
columella arched and denticulated, rarely smooth ; outer lip 
thickened, swollen^ gibbous and most frequently denticulated in 
the middle. 

The genus Columbella includes a very numerous series whose shells are 
uniformly small, and distinguished by a greater or less number of plait-like 
denticles on the lip and columella after the manner of Bicinula. Prom the 
circumstance of Lamarck having confounded a few of the small Mitres 
with the Columbella, he was induced to refer the genus to the family Colu- 
■mellata, assuming the existence of a plaited columella ; the plaits by which 
the genera of that family are characterized are, however, of very different 
structure, from the protuberances which are here designated plait-like 
denticles ; the first being developed on the columella throughout its entire 
growth so as to form a continuous winding of spiral plaits around the 
columella axis, whilst the last are merely developed along the inner side of 
the columella, on arriving at maturity. 



79 

M. Deshayes affirms that notwithstanding this error, Lamarck " has dis- 
cerned with the greatest sagacity the place which this genus should occupy 
in the system ", and goes on to demonstrate that its affinity with the Mitres 
is incontestible. 

I certainly cannot compete with M. Deshayes on the advantages he has 
had of examining the Columbella alive on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
but I tliink his opinion of their possessing a more intimate relation with 
the Mitrce than with the Ricinula, or Bicinuloid Purpura, is not borne out 
by his description of the animal. Like the soft parts of the latter, the head 
of the Columbella is flattened and prolonged at each extremity into the 
tentacles, the proboscis is, moreover, of moderate dimension, for though 
said to be " very long ", it is only described as " often exceeding the length 
of the aperture of the shell "; and the disk is furnished with a small oper- 
culum. The proboscis of the Mitre, as already mentioned at p. 48, is 
susceptible of very considerable elongation, many times the length of the 
shell's aperture, and it cannot be supposed that the Purpura have not the 
faculty of elongating their proboscis to any greater extent than is repre- 
sented in the few drawings hitherto obtained of them in a living condition, 
in some of wliich it is most probably only partially extended, whilst in 
others it is altogether retracted. 

The following species are chiefly described in a recently published mono- 
graph in Mr. Sowerby's ' Thesaurus Conchy liorum '; and it only remains to 
refer to the admirable figures of that work for illustration. 



1. acbatina, Sow. 

2. acleonta, Duclos. 

3. acuminata, Nuttall. 

4. adiastina, Duclos. 

5. albina, Kiener. 

6. ainbigua, id. 

7. ampla, Less. 

8. anacteola, Duclos. 

9. angidaris, Sow. 

10. apthsegera, Less. 

11. araneosa, Kiener. 

12. aspersa, Sow. 

13. athadona, Duclos. 

14. atomella, id. 

15. atramentaria, Sow. 

16. aurantia, Duclos. 

17. avara, Say. 

18. azora, Duclos. 



Species. 

19. bicanaliculata, Duclos. 

20. bicanaltfera, Sow. 

21. bicolor, Kiener. 

22. bidentata, Menke. 

23. blanda, Sow. 

24. Boivinii, Kiener. 

25. Broderipii, Sow. 

26. Buccinoides, id. 

27. castanea, id. 

28. catenata, id. 

29. chlorostoma, id. 

30. Chrisopsis, Duclos. 

31. clathra, Less. 

32. concinna, Soto. 

33. cornea, Kiener. 

34. corniculata, Sow. 

35. corniformis, Sow. 

36. coronata, Soto. 



37. costata, Duclos. 

38. costellata, Sow. 

39. cribraria, id. 

40. daliola, Duclos. 

41. decussata, Sow. 

42. denticulata, Duclos. 

43. dermestoides, Sow. 

44. dichroa, id. 

45. digitata, Lesson. 

46. dormitor, Soto. 

47. dorsata, id. 

48. Duclosiana, id. 

49. electona, Duclos. 

50. elegans, Sow, 

51. fabula, id. 

52. falconta, Duclos. 

53. fasciata, <S<9«;. 

54. festiva, Kiener. 



80 



55. flavida, Lam. 

56. flexuosa, Duclos. 

57. fluctuata, Sow. 

58. fulgurans, Lam. 

59. fulva, Sow. 

60. fuscata, id. 

61. fusiformis, Nuttall. 

62. fusiformis, Hinds. 

63. fustigata, Kiener. 

64. gibberula, /Sow. 

65. gibbosa, Duclos. 

66. gibbosula, Zrof/. 

67. Guildingii, aSo^. 

68. guttata, id. 

69. gutturosa, Duclos. 

70. hsemastoma, *So?^. 

71. harpseformis, Sow. 

72. idabna, Duclos. 

73. iduka, «V£. 

74. ionida, id. 

75. iphis, zW. 

76. isomella, id. 

77. jaspidea, -Sow. 

78. kirostra, Duclos. 

79. Kraussii, Soto. 

80. labiosa, £<#. 

81. lactea, Duclos. 

82. laevigata, m?. 

83. lanceolata, Kiener. 

84. lentiginosa, Hinds. 

85. lepida, Duclos. 

86. ligula, z'd 

87. lineolata, Kiener. 

88. livida, -Sow. 

89. lugubris, Kiener. 

90. lunata, -Sow. 

91. lutea, Quo?/. 

92. luteola, Kiener. 

93. lyrata, -Sow. 

94. maculosa, id. 

95. major, z'rf. 

96. marmorata, Gray. 

97. maura, -Sow. 

98. meleagris, Duclos. 

99. mercatoria, id. 
100. miser, &>?<?. 

Mil. Mitrailbrmis, King. 



102. modesta, Kiener. 

103. moleculina, Duclos. 

104. moudifera, -So?0. 

105. nana, Michaud. 

106. nasioletta, Duclos. 

107. naxia, «<?. 

108. nigricans, -Sow. 

109. nigropunctata, id. 

110. nisitella, Duclos. 

111. nitida, iam. 

112. nivea, -So?<?. 

113. nodubna, Duclos. 

114. nodulosa, Nuttall. 

115. nucleus, Kiener. 

116. nymplia, i<#. 

117. obscura, -Sow. 

118. obtusa, id. 

119. oselmonta, Dnclos. 

120. ovulata, iam. 

121. psecila, Sow. 

122. pandonosta, Duclos. 

123. pardalina, Zam. 

124. pariolida, Duclos. 

125. parva, -Sow. 

126. pavonina, Hinds. 

127. PaytaHda, Duclos. 

128. Peleei, Kiener. 

129. pelotina, Duclos. 

130. pliasinola, Duclos. 

131. Philippinarum, ifetw 

132. procera, -Sow. 

133. puella, &<#. 

134. pulcbella, id. 

135. pidcberrima, «'rf. 

136. pulicaris, Less. 

137. punctata, Zam. 

138. pusilla, Soto. 

139. pygmea, id. 

140. pyrostoma, io 7 . 

141. rasolia, Dnclos. 

142. recur va, -Sow. 

143. reticulata, Lam. 

144. rubicund ula, Quoy. 

145. rugosa, -Sow. 

146. rugulosa, id. 

147. rustica, Zam. 



148. sbina, Kiener. 

149. scalarina, Sow. 

150. scripta, Zam. 

151. semiconvexa, Sow. 

152. semipunctata, Z<z?w. 

153. sertularianum,Z)'06. 

154. sordida, id. 

155. splendidula, Sow. 

156. spongiarum, Duclos. 

157. strenella, z'rf. 

158. striata, id. 

159. Strombiformis, Z«?«. 

160. subulata, Duclos. 

161. subulata, Sow. 

162. suffusa, <c/. 

163. sulcata, Duclos. 

164. sulcosa, /Sow. 

165. suturalis, Gray. 

166. Tamelana, Duclos. 

167. Terpsichore, Leathes. 

168. testina, Duclos. 

169. Ticaonis, -Sow. 

170. tigrina, Duclos. 

171. triga, .«#. 

172. triumpbalis, irf. 
] 73. tumida, id 

174. turbida, «'«?. 

175. turrita, Sow. 

176. turturina Lam. 

177. Tyleri, Gn/y. 

178. uncinata, Sow 

179. undata, Duclos 

180. unicolor, /Sow. 

181. unifasciabs, Lam. 

182. unizonabs, OVwy. 

183. uvania, Duclos. 

184. valveta, if/. 

185. varia, Sow. 

186. varians, id. 

187. virginea, Duclos. 

188. vulpecula, -Sow. 

189. xiphitella, Ztfc/os. 

190. Yoldina, id. 

192. zebra, Gray. 

191. zelina, Duclos. 

193. zonahs, Z«w. 



81 



Genus 21. RICINULA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Purpura. 

Shell ; orbicularly or fusiformly ovate, most frequently tuberculated 
or spined, spire sometimes very short and depressed, sometimes 
acuminated ; aperture rather narrow, columella a little exca- 
vated, sometimes wrinkled or toothed, lip toothed within, teeth 
nodulous or plait-like, edye of the lip sometimes but rarely digi- 
tated. 

In adopting the genus Bieinula, winch has been abandoned by several 
continental authors, I propose to include a much wider range of species 
than has been hitherto referred to it ; namely, that fusiform series distin- 
guished from the true Buccinum and Purpura by the inner nodulous den- 
tition of the lip, arranged by M. Kiener as a section of the latter genus 
under the significant title of " Les Pourpres serni-ricinules", and of which 
the P. fiscellum of authors may be regarded as the type. It cannot be dis- 
puted that there are species in the genera Ricinula, in its limited acceptation, 
and Purpura, in which it is not easy to define any generic difference, as 
for example, between the P. hystrix and the R. arachnoides, or between the 
P. aperta and certain varieties of the R. clatlirata, but the alteration of 
names in familiar usage should as far as possible be avoided. A large pro- 
portion of the species recently characterized by me as Ricinula were not 
hitherto named, and their connection with the Purpura, proper is so appa- 
rently remote, that I have preferred elevating the genus under consi- 
deration into one of more importance, to the creation of a new genus, or to 
the fusion of the whole into one after the manner of the French naturalists. 

The animal of Ricinula is similar in most respects to that of Purpura, 
already described, the head being flattened and prolonged at each corner 
into the tentacles, and bearing a small elliptical operculum at the posterior 
extremity of the disk. 



Species. 

1. acuminata, Reeve. 8. bicatenata, Reeve. 15. concinna, Reeve. 

2. alveolata,(P«/y;.)Kien. 9 carbonaria, id. 16. contracta, id. 

3. arachnoides, Lamarck. 10. cavernosa, id. 17. crocostoma, id. 

4. armillata, Reeve. 11. chaidea, (Purp.) Duel. 18. dealbata, id. 

5. aspera, Lamarck. 3 2. chrysostoma, Deshayes. 19. deformis, id. 

6. astricta, Reeve. 13. clathrata, Lam. 20. digitata, Lamarck. 

7. bella, id. 14. concatenata (Mur.),h. 21. echinata, Reeve. 

M 



82 



22. 


elata (Purp.),T)e Blain. 33. 


iodostoma, Lesson. 


44. 


porphyrostoma, eeve. 


23. 


elegans, Broderip. 34. 


iostoma, Reeve. 


45. 


pulchra, id. 


24. 


elongata(P?«j».)DeBl. 35. 


lauta, it?. 


46. 


recurva, id. 


25. 


eximia, Reeve. 36. 


lineata, it?. 


47. 


rosea, id. 


26. 


ferruginosa, id. 37. 


mendicaria(OW.) Lam. 48. 


rutila, id, 


27. 


fiscellum (Murex.) Ch. 38. 


morus, Lamarck. 


49. 


siderea, id. 


28. 


forticostata, Reeve. 39. 


muricata, Reeve. 


50. 


spectrum, id. 


29. 


funiculata, it?, 40. 


mutica, Lamarck. 


51. 


trifasciata, id. 


30. 


heptagonalis, zrf. 41. 


ocellata, Reeve. 


52. 


tuberculata, Be Blaitr. 


31. 


histrio, id. 42. 


ochrostoma, id. 


53. 


turbmella(Pttr/?.)Kien, 


32. 


horrida, Lamarck. 43. 


parva, it?. 


54. 


zonata, Reeve. 



Figure. 

Ricinula iodostoma. PL 7. Fig. 32. Front view of the shell, showing 
the aperture and plait-like denticles of the columella and inner lip. 



Genus 22. CASSIS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc oval, rather thin, flattened, carrying a small crescent- 
shaped operculum at the posterior end; head stout, obtuse, pro- 
longed into two slender tentacles, with the eyes on the outer side 
near the base ; respiratory siphon large and elongated, pro- 
boscis short, cylindrical. 
Shell ; ovate or triangularly ovate, terminating at the base with a 
short peculiarly recurved and ascending canal; spire short, and 
often crossed at intervals with varices ; last whorl of the shell 
inflated, sometimes remotely strengthened with varices ; aperture 
large, though often narrow ; columellar lip frequently wrinkled 
or granulated, outer lip thickened, reflected and more or less 
toothed. 

The Cassides or Helmets are a strong, muscular, but inactive group of 
mollusks, whose shell is mainly distinguished by its solid or inflated growth 
and short spire, and by the abrupt ascending recurvature of the canal, 
through which the siphon for conveying the water to the breathing organs 
passes, and is of more than ordinary dimensions. The head is stout and 
fleshy, and prolonged into the tentacles after the manner of Purpura or 
Buccinum, the eyes being situated on the outer surface near the base ; it 
appears, however, from the observations of M. Deshayes, that in the Cassis 
sulcosa they are surmounted on a short pedicle. The calcifying properties 
of this genus are somewhat vigorously exercised, the mantle which lines the 



83 

interior of the shell extends in ample folds about the aperture, and secretes 
that rich display of enamel which affords so beautiful a material for the 
engraving of Cameos. The C. tuberosa from the West Indies, is the species 
commonly used for tins purpose from its delicate purity of colour ; the well- 
know Bull's Mouth, Cassis rufa, is a familiar example of the great power 
which this genus exhibits in the formation of shell, but the enamel is not 
so suitable for gem -engraving on account of its deep blood-red colour. 

M. Deshayes informs us, from his observations of the Cassis sulcosa on 
the shores of the Mediterranean, that it is very probable the animal lives 
upon the juices of different Bivalve Mollusks, whose shells it pierces with 
its probosis after the manner of the Murices, being found dwelling in the 
sand, and just in those places where Bivalves abound ; he describes the 
Cassis, however, as not possessing much activity. The operculum, which 
is rarely obtained with the shell, is horny and of a peculiar crescent shape, 
crenulated at the edge and rayed with deep striae. 

The Cassides are not very numerous, they inhabit chiefly the Mauritius, 
Ceylon, the Philippines and West Indies ; two species are found in the 
Mediterranean, but none on our own coast. 

Species. 



1. 


abbreviata, Lam. 


13. 


fimbriata, Quoy. 


24. 


ringens, Sivaiu. 


2. 


ackatina, id. 


14. 


flammea, Lam. 


25. 


rufa, Lam. 


3. 


areola, id. 


15. 


glauca, id. 


26. 


saburon, id. 


4. 


canaliculata, id. 


16. 


granulosa, Bruguiere. 


27. 


seruigranosum, id. 


5. 


cicatricosa, Desh. 


17. 


lactea, Kiener. 


28. 


sulcosa, id. 


6. 


coarctata, Sow. 


18. 


Madagascariensis,Za»j. 29. 


tenuis, Gray, 


7. 


cornuta, Lam. 


19. 


Masseuse, Kiener. 


30. 


testiculus, Lam. 


8. 


coronulata, Sow. 


20. 


paucirugis, MenJce. 


31. 


tuberosa, id. 


9. 


crurnena, Lam. 


21. 


pennata, Lam. 


32. 


vibex, id. 


10. 


decussata, id. 


22. 


plicaria, id. 


33. 


zebra, id. 


11. 


erinaceus, id. 


23. 


pyruin, id. 


34. 


Zelanica, id. 


12. 


fasciata, id. 











Figures. 

Cassis glauca. PL D. Shell with animal, showing the thin flattened disk 
with its crescent-shaped radiated operculum, head and tentacles with 
sessile eyes, proboscis partially withdrawn, and prominently developed 
respiratory siphon proceeding from a fold in the front edge of the 
mantle, and passing through the recurved ascending canal of the shell. — 
From the 'Voyage de I' Astrolabe.' 

Cassis aeeola. PL 6. Fig. 28. Shell, showing the aperture, varices, and 
wrinkled structure of the outer and columellar lips. 



84 
Genus 23. ONISCIA, Sowerby. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; oblong, somewhat cylindrical, or conical, spire short and 
depressed, base emarginated and a little recurved j aperture 
narrow, extending nearly to the apex ; columellar lip displayed 
over the body whorl, more or less profusely covered with small 
gra?udar pimples ; outer lip irregularly denticulated, thickened, 
sometimes a little contracted in the middle. 

This is one of the few genera established by modern authors winch it 
is desirable to maintain ; though unacquainted with the soft parts, the shell 
sufficiently indicates the presence of some concurrent peculiarities worthy 
of distinction, and I am glad to observe that the scruples formerly enter- 
tained by M. Deshayes to the adoption of tins genus, noticed by me in the 
'Conchologia Systematica', have been removed in the 'Anim. sans vert/ 
by Ins unqualified acceptation of it. Even Linnaeus referred the typical 
species of this group to a different genus from that in winch he included 
the Helmets * and Lamarck in placing it with the Cassidaria, describes it 
as being a "very singular" shellf; Mr. Sower by first separated it under 
the above title and it is now universally adopted. 

The Oniscia are very limited in number; they are most elaborately 
sculptured, and distinguished chiefly by the profusely granulated character 
of the columella, which in the species figured, 0. Bennisoni, is of a remark- 
ably deep scarled-red colour. 

Species. 

1. cancellata, Sow. 3. oniscus, Soto. 5. tubercidosa, Sow. 

2. Dennisoni, Reeve, 4. Strombiformis, Reeve. 

Figures. 
Oniscia Dennisoni. PL 7. Pig. 35. Shell, a, front view, showing the 
aperture and granulated columella ; b, back view, showing the rich 
latticed sculpture. 



* M. Deshayes has somewhat incautiously affirmed, that the shell selected for the type of 
this genus is not the Strombus oniscus of Linnseus, hut one differing even generically from it. 
"There are two species" says the learned editor of the 'Anim. sans vert.' one of which he re- 
tains in Cassidaria, whilst he refers the other to Oniscia with a complimentary dedication to 
Lamarck, " closely approximating, which may be easily distinguished by the denticulations of the 
outer lip and a difference of colour, for whilst Linnaeus characterized the aperture of his species 
as being white, Lamarck says it is red." These modifications cannot, I think, be accounted of 
specific, much more of generic value ; and I see nothing in the figures of Gualter or Seba to in- 
dicate otherwise. 

f " Petite coquille assez commune, mais tres singuliere ; car, quoique son ouverture soit 
celle des Casques, sa queue n'est point brusqucment rctroussee comnie dans ce dernier genre ". 



85 



Genus 24. CASSIDARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc large, oval, slightly truncated in front, with a small 
oblong horny operculum near the posterior part ; head large 
and thick, prolonged into a pair of elongated tentacles, at the 
base of ivhich are the eyes ; proboscis cylindrical, rather long ; 
respiratory siphon of only moderate length. 

Shell ; oval, ventricose, contracted towards the base and attenuated 
into a curved canal which is reflexed posteriorly ; columella 
lip smooth and expanded over the body whorl; outer lip 
reflected, sometimes crenated. 

The Cassidarice, distinguished originally by De Montford under the 
title of Morio, and which name according to the strict rules of priority 
should have been adopted, differ principally from the Cassides in the light 
inflated growth of the shell, with its contracted, attenuated structure 
towards the base, and recurved folding canal ; they approximate in tins 
respect to Cassis, partaking somewhat of the character of Bolium, for not 
only is the shell distinguished by the same tenuity as the latter genus, but 
there is some affinity in the soft parts, to judge by the ample growth of the 
disk, and length of the proboscis. 

The Oniscia were referred to the genus Cassidaria by Lamarck, but 
their shell is uniformly of smaller size, and of more solid growth, indepen- 
dently of its granulated columella and other characters just observed under 
that head ; it is likewise highly probable that a difference will be found in 
the animal of Oniscia of sufficient generic importance to confirm the pro- 
priety of its beiug adopted. 

Of the following half dozen species hitherto recorded I am only ac- 
quainted with three, and of these, C. striata, Tyrrhena, and ec/iinophora, 
the last two are regarded by some authors as varieties ; I have no doubt, 
however, myself, of their specific difference. 

Species. 

1. acuta, Gray. 3. Deshayesii, Duval. 5. striata, Lam. 

2. cingulata, Lam. 4. echinophora Lam. 6. Tyrrhena, Lam, 

Figure. 

Cassidaria Tyrrhena. PI. 6. Fig. 31. Shell, showing the aperture, re- 
curved folding canal, and expanded columellar lip. 



Family 4. ALATA. 

Shell ; emarginated or channelled at the base, outer lip expanded 
or digitated at maturity, and more or less sinuated near the 
base for the passage of the animal '$ proboscis-like head. 

The family Alata was instituted by Lamarck for the purpose of asso- 
ciating in one natural group, the three genera Rostellaria, Pterocera, and 
Strombus, dismembered from the Linnsean genus Strombus, and distin- 
guished by that marked peculiarity of growth, which the shell of each 
exhibits in the wing-like expansion of the outer lip, on arriving at maturity. 
The researches, of subsequent naturalists, aided by much increased zeal and 
opportunities of studying the animal, have, however, discovered an affinity 
with the above-named genera, in species arranged hitherto in a more remote 
part of the system. The Ajjorrhais pes-Pelicani has long been generically 
distinguished, and a difference has been recently observed in the soft parts 
approximating to Struthiolaria, a genus necessarily transported to this family 
by M. Deshayes upon the discovery of the animal by M. M. Quoy and 
Gaimard, and I now feel it expedient, as indicating a link between Struthio- 
laria and the Purpurifera, to introduce an important genus founded by 
Dr. Beck, a distinguished naturalist of Copenhagen, under the name of 
Priamus, upon a shell regarded by Lamarck and others as an inhabitant of 
the land or marshes,* but now strongly suspected, if not ascertained, to 
be living in the seas of Spain and Portugal. Were it not for the transition 
afforded by the Aporrhais occidentalis, between Struthiolaria and the 
Lamarkican Alata, I should have ventured to propose a new family for the 
reception of that genus with Priamus ; but as the animal of the latter is 
still unknown, the grounds for tin's separation are insufficient. 

The genera referable to tins family are as follows : — 

Priamus. Aporrhais. Pterocera. 

Struthiolaria. Bostellaria. Strombus. 



Genus 1. PRIAMUS, Beck. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell; oblong-ovate, ventricose, rather thin, diaphonous, some- 
what horny or porcellanous, spire exserted, apex obtuse, a little 
depressed, as if mamillary ; columella curved, truncated; outer 
lip simple, effused, slightly sinuated towards the base. 

* BuUmus Priamus Bruguure, Achaiina Priamvs Lamarck, Helix Priamus Ferussac. 



87 

The shell on which this genus is founded, though long known to Concho- 
logists, is one of very rare occurrence ; having been described nearly a cen- 
tury since by Meuschen and Gronovius as a Helix, in the unlimited sense 
of that period, its peculiarities were strikingly noticed by the latter in his 
interrogatory as to its being a river shell*; Favanne mentions it in his 
Catalogue as a rare Buccinum called ' La Chiure de Puce/ and Chemnitz 
published a formal description of it in the ' Conchylien Cabinet ; under the 
name of Buccinum stercus-pulicum. It does not appear to have been 
known to Linnaeus, the last edition of whose ' Systema Naturae ' appeared 
simultaneously with the ' Zoophylacium ' of Gronovius, but Dillwyn re- 
ferred the shell under consideration, in his Linnsean arrangement of shells, 
to the genus Bulla ; Bruguiere consigned it to Bulbmts, and Lamarck, De 
Ferussac, and others, adopted the same view, by retaining it with those 
species subsequently distinguished as Achatina, on account of the trun- 
cature of their columella, and especially with that portion more recently 
separated under the titles of Polyphemus and Glandina. The name Buccinum 
used by the original describers of this shell, was thus more in conformity 
with its present assumed marine character, than that employed by modern 
writers, the situation to which it has been assigned in the system as the 
representative of a pulmoniferous air-breathing mollusk, being incompatible 
with the nature anticipated, on the authority of Dr. Beck, of its being an 
inhabitant of the seas of Spain and Portugal, f 

Prom the light horny semi-porcellanous character of this shell, the 
absence of epidermis, and the wide-spread stain which exhibits its contact 
with the soft parts, I think it may be anticipated that the animal is of large 
size, and able to envelope its shell to some considerable extent, it is pro- 
bably an inhabitant of deep water, and an examination of the microscopic 
structure of the shell would no doubt detect a larger proportion of membra- 
nous tissue and less of calcareous matter than is usually secreted by 
mollusks of the order to which it is referred. It only remains to urge 
upon the attention of all who may have an opportunity of dredging the 
shores of those countries upon which it is supposed to exist, that in the 
event of their researches after Priamus meeting with success, they should 
be careful to preserve the animal. 



Figure. 

Priamus stercus-pulicum. PL 8. Pig. 39. Shell, showing its curved 
and truncated columella, and slightly sinuated lip, as in Strutkiolaria. 



* " An fluviatilis ? " Gronovius, Zoophylacium, Ease. 3. No. 146 
f Deshayes, Auim. sans vert. vol. viii. p. 299, note. 



Genus 2. STRUTHIOLARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc large, thick, carrying a small horny rudimentary 
operculum behind, supported in the centre by a stout pedicle 
which passes into the shell, and serves to support the head; 
head rather large, prolonged into a cylindrical trunk enclosing 
the mouth, at the base of which on either side are two long 
pointed tentacles with eyes at the lower outer side ; no respi- 
ratory siphon. 

Shell ; oblong-oval, spire exserted, rather obtuse at the apex ; 
columella curved, truncated at the base, outer lip thickened, 
slightly sinuatcd towards the lower part. 

A limited genus of mollnsks, inhabiting the shores of New Holland, for 
a description and figure of whose soft parts we are indebted to the 
researches of M. M. Quoy and Gaimard. Their chief peculiarity consists 
in the disk being supported on a stout pedicle which passes into the shell, 
in the truncated proboscidiform prolongation of the head, indicative of the 
relation of this mollusk with Aporrliais, and in the absence of any respi- 
ratory siphon, winch is so conspicuous a feature in the Parjmrifera, and is 
formed, as observed in treating of that family, by an elongated fold of the 
mantle, protuding in an erect position through the basal notch of the shell, 
for the purpose of supplying water to the breathing organs. 

From the circumstance of the outer lip of the shell of Struthiolaria 
being unusually thickened and rolled back, whilst a corresponding 
thickness is displayed in the superincumbent deposit of enamel on the 
opposite side, described as the columellar lip, the genus was referred by 
Lamarck to the immediate vicinity of the Tritons and Ranella, regarding, 
tins structure as an analogue of the varices by which those genera are 
characterized ; Mr. Gray and M. Deshayes, however, observing the marked 
resemblance which the shell of Stmtkiolarial^Teseuts to that of Aporrlia'is 
in the sinuated lip and truncature of the columella, removed the genus 
under consideration, almost simultaneously, to the family Alata, and their 
anticipations of its true character have been confirmed in a striking manner 
by the observations of Philippi and M. M. Quoy and Gaimard. 

Species. 

1. crenulata Lam. 3. papulosa (Buc.) Mart. 5. straminea (Murex.) Gm. 

2. microscopia, Gray. 4. scutulata (2?wc.) Mart. 

Figure. 
Struthiolaiiia straminea. PI 8. Fig. 38. Shell, showing the thickened 
outer and columellar lips and truncature of the columella. 



89 



Genus 3. APORRHAIS, Be Montford* 

Animal ; disc truncated in front, acuminated behind, carrying at 
the extremity a small oblony horny operculum, head very large, 
proboscidiform, somewhat cylindrical, obliquely truncated ; 
mouth longitudinal, occupying the length of the truncated por- 
tion of the head; tentacles very long and pointed, pedunculated 
at the base, at the summit of which pedunculated portion is the 
eye ; mantle thin, simple, or lobed. 

Shell ; elongated, fusiform, slightly canaliciilated at the base ; 
columella straight, rather callous ; outer lip dilated and thick- 
ened, detached from the spire at the upper part, and either 
simple or expanded into claws, or digitations. 

The Strombus pes-Pelicani was set apart as the type of a new genus by 
De Montford, under the name of Aporrhais, by which it had been distin- 
guished in the earliest records of Natural History ; and Lamarck, uniting 
it with the Linnsean Strombus fastis and its congeners, proposed a new 
genus for their reception, under the name of Rostellaria ; the researches 
of M. M. Ehrenberg, Quoy and Gaimard, Poli, Deshayes, and Philippi, 
have, however, demonstrated not only that there is an important generic 
difference between the animals of the Lamarckian Rostellaria rectirostrum- 
{Strombus fusus, Linn.), and pes-Pelicani, but that whilst the former is 
characterized by the same peculiarity of structure as the true Strombus, 
the latter is wanting in that peculiarity and presents an unexpected affinity 
with Struthiolaria, in having a large proboscidiform head and ample mouth, 
without the bifurcated tentacles and divided disc, which is to be found in 
Rostellaria, Pterocera, and Strombus. 

The mantle of the Aporrha'ules, as in the remaining genera of Alata, is 

* The Aristotelian title of Aporrhais, adopted by Sowerby after the example of De Mont- 
ford, has been objected to by Philippi, substituting that of Chenopus, on the grounds'of its more 
especial reference to the Pterocera. It is true that Rondelet, one of the earliest writers on 
Natural History after the revival of letters, has figured a P. lambis for Aporrhais ; but it seems 
evident, upon his own testimony, that the name, derived from 'Airoppeco to flow out in drops, 
was suggested to the Athenian philosopher by the spouted A. pes-Pelicani of the Mediterranean, 
from whence the materials for the ' Historia Animalium ' of antiquity, were mainly derived : — 
" Dicam praeterea quod suspicionibus et conjecturis tantum inductis de 'A7roppai.*8eo- sentio ; 
nimirum Muricum generis sunt qute vocant Grseci Colycia, turbiuata a?que sed minora multo ". 
I consider, therefore, that the word Aporrhais may be maintained without prejudice, for the 
group under consideration, the type of which was, no doubt, the particular shell referred to by 
the great father of zoology. It should perhaps be added, that the word " Muricum " just cited, 
is not used in the sense in which we understand it ; in Gaza's translation of Aristotle, quoted by 
Rondelet, the ' ' Kivoppaibecr are rendered Murices, and the Krjpvxa Buccina, including the 
Tritons ; while the Murices of our own day were the Uopcpvpa or Purpura of the ancients, 
from the circumstance of their obtaining the Tyrian purple from that genus. 



90 

expanded at maturity into a lobe ; in one of the three only recent species 
known, A. occidentalis, from the northern shores of Western America, the 
lobe is simple, in the remaining two A. pes-Pelicani, and pes-Carbonis of 
the Mediterranean, it is digitated, the shell being of a corresponding- 
structure. 

Species. 

1. occidentalis, Beck. 2. pes-Carbonis, Broiuj. 3. pes-Pelicani(ii!0.^.)Lam. 



Genus 4. ROSTELLARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; elongated, disc divided into two parts, the posterior 
cylindrical, obliquely truncated, and carrying a horny unguiform 
operculum upon the truncature, the anterior flattened and 
rounded, serving the animal to attach itself to solid bodies ; 
head large and thick, prolonged into a proboscis-shaped muzzle, 
slit in front ; tentacles diverging, cylindrical, two forked, the 
inner branch being slim and pointed, the outer truncated at the 
summit, with the eye situated upon the truncature. 

Shell ; fusiform, prolonged at the base into a canal which is some- 
times very long and slender ; whorls slightly convex, sometimes 
furnished here and there with a varix ; lip toothed, or digitated. 

It appears from Ehrenberg's characters of the animal above noticed, that 
the Rostellarice whose graceful fusiform shells are so much admired by the 
collector, and are the pride of his cabinet, have a much closer affinity with 
the Pterocerce and Strombi, than with the Aporrliaides which have been 
hitherto associated with them, or the Fusi, to winch they were approximated 
by Eerussac and De Blainville. The disc presents the same peculiar modi- 
fication of structure as in Pterocera and S trombus; divided into two parts, 
the animal is said to acquire motion by executing a succession of leaps, 
instead of the ordinary mode of progressing by dilatation and contraction. 

The Rostellarice may be easily recognized by the elegant fusiform growth 
of the shell, with its peculiarly dentated, or finely digitated lip ; they are 
very limited in species, and are principally from China and the Moluccas. 

Species. 

1. curta. Sow. 3. fissa, Desk. 5. Powisii, Petit. 

2. curvirostrum, Lam. 4. fusus (Stromb.), Linn. 



1)1 



Figure. 

Rostellaria fusus. Plate 7. Fig. 36. Shell, showing its graceful 
fusiform growth, and digitated lip. — From ike collection of Br. Knapp, 
of Edinburgh. 



Genus 5. PTEROCERA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Rostellaria. 

Shell ; ovately oblong and ventricose, the last whorl being conside- 
rably inflated, and ending in an elongated canal of a structure 
similar to the digitations of the lip ; columella and aperture 
peculiarly ridged ; outer lip developed at maturity into a con- 
spicuously clawed or digitated wing, and sinuated towards the 
lower part. 

The soft parts of Rostellaria, Pterocera, and Sirombus, are so exactly 
similar in character, that M. Deshayes almost doubts the propriety of their 
being divided into separate genera, and more especially as they are distin- 
guished in a notable manner from the proximate kinds by a modification of 
structure, of which there is no analogy in any other genus of the class. The 
disc is divided in a manner which obliges the animal to leap*, as it were, 
instead of to crawl, and the tentacles are curiously two-forked, the stouter 
branch, a modification of that portion which is commonly pedunculated, 
being destined for the support of an eye of unusually large proportions. 

The eye of these genera appears to be more highly developed than in 
any other of the Gastropods ; it is described as covering the summit of this 
stout, truncated, tentacular branch, and composed of a transparent homy 
material containing an iris, differing in colour according to species, for the 
transmission of rays of light into an inner chamber ; an organism plainly 
adapted for seeing. 

The distinguishing peculiarity of this family, as regards the shell, the 
wing-like expansion of the mature lip, presents itself under such different 
phases in the genera just spoken of in reference to the animal, that it can- 
not but be regarded as a feature calling for generic notice, notwithstanding 
the similarity of the soft parts. In the genus under consideration, the 

* With regard to their habits of locomotion, it must not be imagined that the gigantic 
Strombs and Fountain Shells, with their attendant Spiders and Scorpions, are iu the habit of 
leaping about the shore ; they are not remarkable, I conceive, for any such activity ; the word 
"leap" must be understood in a very restricted sense, and only so far as may be necessary to 
explain a mode of progression differing, to a limited extent, from the ordinary inert method of 
contraction and dilatation. 

n2 



92 

mantle when about to suspend its function of calcification, expands itself 
into several dictations, of considerable length in some species, each secre- 
ting a massive claw, winch it ultimately fills with calcareous matter, the 
hinder one being thrown over the spire so as almost to conceal the primitive 
growth of the shell from the observer ; the mantle then withdraws, and 
subsiding in wrinkles, deposits that richly coloured layer of corresponding- 
wrinkled enamel with which the columella and aperture are always adorned 
at maturity. 

The Pterocera, or ' Spider Shells ', are few in number, but well charac- 
terized by their distinctions of colour, and the number and growth of their 
claws ; they are all inhabitants of the tropical seas. 



1. aurantia, Lam. 

2. chiragra, id. 

3. elongata,* Swain. 

4. lambis, Lam. 



Species. 

5. millepeda, Lam. 

6. multipes, DesJi. 

7. pseudo-scorpio, Lam. 



8. rugosa, Sotc. 

9. scorpio, Lam. 
10. truncata, id. 



Figure. 

Pteroceea multipes. PI. 8. Fig. 40. Shell, showing the digitated ex- 
pansion of the lip, and wrinkled surface of the aperture. 



Genus 6. STROMBUS, Linn&us. 

Animal ; similar to that of Rostellaria, and Pterocera. 

Shell ; oblong-ovate, emarginated and recurved at the base ; spire 
conical, somewhat turreted ; lip expanded, not digitated, and 
sinuated toioards the base ; aperture oblong, rather narroiv, 
slightly emarginated at the upper part. 

Eegarding the soft parts, the Stromli are identical with the Rostellaria 
and Pterocera already described, and the peculiarities of which it is un- 
necessary here to repeat ; but the shell presents an uniformity of character 
sufficiently distinct from either to merit attention. The base is not pro- 



* I cannot .agree with M. Deshayes in the propriety of naming this shell "Pterocera novem. 
dacfylis "; the noim-abhitive is ungrammatical in the sense required by the binomial form of 
nomenclature. Chemnitz was undoubtedly the tirst describer of the species, and a very charac- 
teristic figure is it accompanied with ; but, as was almost invariably the case with his precursor 
Martini, he omitted to distinguish it by any specific name. The words above quoted, form part 
of Chemnitz's description, — " Sfrombvs novem daetylis instructus", &c. , and Swainson is 
therefore justly entitled to the priority of having named the species. 



93 

longed into a slender channel or claw, but is short, and suddenly curved 
back, whilst the winged expansion of the lip is simple, though developed in 
a variety of ways in different species. Even the early Greek fathers of 
zoology distinguished the Strombi from the Pterocerce, separating the latter 
as Aporraides, so called in recent times by Lister, Gualter, and Aldrovandi, 
notwithstanding the A.pes-Pelicani must have been alone the subject to 
which Aristotle originally applied the term 'A-rroppata-.* Lamarck is clearly 
the first author who may be said to have published the genus Strombus in 
its integrity; Linnseus, as M. Deshayes observes, included several shells 
under this head, independent of the Aporrh aides of antiquity, which have 
proved to belong to mollusks of different organization and habits ; such, for 
example, as a Melanopsis which had, nevertheless, been noted as a fresh- 
water Buccinum ; a Pleurotoma is also to be found among the Linnaean 
Strombi, an Oniscia, a Volute, and several Cerithia; whilst not one of 
those enumerated by Lamarck has evoked a claim to any better arrangement. 
The Strombi are pretty generally distributed throughout the globe ; the 
largest species, the well-known S. gigas, is from the West Indies, and several 
others abound in the same locality ; they are also tolerably abundant in 
the Eastern world, China, Ceylon, the Moluccas, &c. ; and we have species 
from Australia, New Zealand, Peru, California, Sandwich Islands, the Bed 
Sea, and other places equally widely separated. They have been beautifully 
illustrated by Mr. Sowerby in his ' Thesaurus Conchyliorurn'; the figures 
of which, though much diminished in size, are not the less effective to one 
familiar with the genus. 



1. accipitrinus, Lam. 

2. alatus, Gm. 

3. auris-Dianse, Linn. 

4. australis, Sow. 

5. bituberculatus, Lean. 

6. bubouius, id. 

7. bulbulus, Sow. 

8. Campbelli, Gray. 

9. canarium, Linn. 

10. cancellatus, Lam. 

11. columba, id. 

12. coniformis, Sow. 

13. crenatus, id. 

14. crispatus, id. 

15. deformis, Gray. 

16. dentatus, Linn. 



Species. 

17. dilatatus, Lam. 

18. dubius, Sow. 

19. elegans, id. 

20. epidromis, Linn. 

21. fasciatus, Gm. 

22. fissurella, Linn. 

23. floridus, Lam. 

24. fusiformis, Sow. 

25. galeatus, ITood. 

26. gallus, Linn. 

27. gibberulus, id. 

28. gigas, id. 

29. glabratus, Sow. 

30. Goliath, C/iemn. 

31. gracilior, Wood. 

32. granulatus, id. 



33. hemastoma, Sow. 

34. inermis, id. 

35. Isabella, Lam. 

36. labiosus. Wood. 

37. laciniatus, Chemn. 

38. Lamarckii, Gray. 

39. latissimus, Linn. 

40. lentiginosis, id. 

41. lineatus, Lam. 

42. Luhuanus, Linn. 

43. maculatus, Nutt. 

44. marginatus, Linn. 

45. Mauritianus, Lam. 

46. melanostoma, Swain. 

47. Novae Zelandia?, Chemn. 

48. papilio, id. 



See note p. 89. 



94 



49. Peruviaivus, Swain. 

50. plicatus, Lam. 

51. ponderosus, Phil. 

52. pugilis, Linn. 

53. rugosus, Sow. 

54. Scalariformis, Duel. 



55. Sibbaldii, Sow. 

56. succinctus, Z/m». 

57. terebellatus, Sow. 

58. Thersites, Gray. 

59. tricornis, Z«?«. 

60. tridentatus, id. 



61. troglodytes, 2V/. 

62. turritus, irf. 

63. urceus, Zm???.. 

64. Vanikorensis, Q«oy. 

65. variabilis, Swain. 

66. vittatus, Zw». 



Figure. 



Stkombus Nov^e Zelandi^e. PL 8. Fig. 37. Shell, showing its ex- 
panded wing-like lip, wrinkled aperture, and sinus. 



Family 5. CANALIFERA. 

Shell ; canaliculated, canal sometimes very long, sometimes very 
short ; lip not changing with age. 

The family Canalifera comprises an extensive range of mollusks whose 
shells exhibit great diversity of structure, but are all more or less chan- 
nelled at the base ; this channel is, however, extremely variable ; in some 
Marices, for example, it almost rivals that of the Rostellaria fusus in length 
and tenuity, whilst in most of the Ranella and Cancellaria it is com- 
paratively obsolete. There are other characters of no less importance dis- 
tinctive of groups; the genera Fasciolaria, Cancellaria and Turbinella 
are characterized by a row of oblique plaits on the columella somewhat 
alter the manner of the Volutes and Mitres; and the Tritons, Murices 
and Ranella, are distinguished by a system of varicose growth, developed 
with a regularity which is not to be found in any other genus. 

The animals of the different genera referred to this family, so far as they 
are at present known, are, with certain modifications, the same throughout ; 
characterized by a short stout disk, truncated head, and fine pointed tenta- 
cles, such as are represented in the Triton tuber osus (Plate G.), the chief 
variation consists in the developement of the mantle, which in some genera, 
and even species, is simple, whilst in others, it is furnished with that variety 
of filamentary processes which secrete the fronds, spines and tubercles. 

It has been remarked by M. Deshayes, that the Cerithia and Cancellaria 
should not be included in the present family, because they do not strictly 
come within the category of the flesh-eating tribe ; the former have been 
described to be of phytiphagous habit, and of the latter M. Deshayes ob- 
serves, that a species inhabiting the shores of the Mediterranean is inva- 
riably attached to plants j has it been demonstrated, however, that they are 
not carnivorous ? This is a question that remains open to future observers, 



95 

though not very likely, when determined, to evoke, any change in the classi- 
fication ; the alimentary system not being so much influenced by the diffe- 
rence between digesting animal and vegetable matter, as is the respiratory 
system by the difference of inhaling air and water. 

Sixteen genera may now be referred to this family, including one which I 
have found it necessary to propose under the name of Fastigiella. 



Triton. 


Cancellaria. 


TURBINELLA. 


Ranella. 


Pleurotoma. 


Fastigiella, 


Murex. 


Mangelia. 


Cerithium. 


Typhis. 


Fusus. 


Cyrtulus. 


Pyrula. 


Fasciolaria. 


Triphoris. 


Ficus. 







Genus 1. TRITON, Be Montford. 

Vnimal ; disc oval, short, thick, carrying a smooth oblong oper- 
culum, mostly fitting the aperture of the shell ; head stout and 
rather prominent, somewhat square, with a pair of long slender 
pointed tentacles, protruding from the front corners, having the 
eye placed upon the outer side near the base ; at the under part 
of the head is a small slit, through ivhich a proboscis is eccserted 
for the capture of prey ; respiratory siphon varyiny in length 
according to species. 

Shell ; oblong or rounded, with the canal sometimes very short, 
sometimes long, and a little recurved, covered in some instances 
with a strong bristly, hairy epidermis j whorls crossed with a 
single solitary varix on each, but very irregularly, and it is 
occasionally wanting ; Up thickened and crenulated, sometimes 
channelled at the upper part. 

The genus Triton includes a considerable portion of that extensive and 
much-admired series of CanaUfera, whose shells exhibit a peculiarity in 
their mode of formation which is supposed to indicate periods of rest in the 
calcifying functions of their animal inhabitant. It consists of the deposit 
of a marginal ridge, with all its varieties of structural embellishment, at 
intervals, as highly finished, and in as perfect condition, as Nature, in the 
beauty and harmony of her operations, would lead us to anticipate only at 
maturity. These varices of fronds, spines, laminae, or tubercles are secreted 
by certain filamentary processes, which are exserted, it is assumed, along 
the edge of the mantle, anterior to a season of rest ; that is, the animal has 



00 

the faculty of suspending the function of its calcifying organ at different 
intervals in the course of its growth, at the same particular periods in each 
species, in a manner exactly similar to that which induces the formation of 
claws just described in the mature Pterocera. In that genus there is no 
appearance of this defensive architectural border until the animal is engaged 
in the completion of its edifice, a natural effort for the attainment of that 
symmetry and finish by which the works of the Invisible are characterized ; 
but in the Tritons, Pattella, and Murices, it occurs at a very early stage of 
growth, the even tenour of the shell is renewed, and the varix is repeated 
at successive intervals. In Mwrex there are three or more in every whorl ; 
in Panella, one in every half-whorl ; whilst in Triton, the periodical deve- 
lopemeut of a varix occurs less than twice in a whorl, the genus in- 
cluding, not only those having a varix in every whorl, but those in which 
a varix occurs on the last whorl only. Some species are found occasionally 
\\ ithout any varix at all, but this is merely a fortuitous variation of growth. 

Such is the arrangement of the varicose Canalifera in popular use; 
several genera have been proposed for further subdividing them, the most 
plausible of which is the genus Persona of De Montford, for the Tri tones 
amis, mulus, &c; whilst Dr. Pfeiffer, on the other hand, unites the Panella- 
and Tritons into one. All were included by Linnaeus under the head of 
Murex, and there is little or no difference of generic value in the soft parts ; 
it has been observed, however, by M. Deshayes, that the animals of the 
different species of Triton, excepting the great Trumpet shell * {Triton 
variegatus), and one or two large allied species, are distinguished by an 
occellated pattern of colouring as in the T tnherosus here figured. 

The Tritons have shells of more solid structure than the Murices or 
Panella, and of more simple growth. They are not furnished with fronds 
or spines, nor have they any ramified branches like the Murices ; the rude 
manner in which the whorls are convoluted seems rather to indicate that 
their animal inhabitant, though possessing abundant power of calcification, 
is of somewhat sluggish growth. The epidermis of the Tritons is often 
remarkably thick, hairy, and bristly, and is sometimes accompanied with 
bristles in small tufts. Another curious peculiarity in these shells is the 
structure of the apex ; it appears in numerous instances to be formed of 
a horny substance, thinly plated with shelly matter, and it is not an uncommon 
thing to find examples in which the calcareous plating is broken off so as to 
expose the horny cast underneath. The columella of the Tritons is gene- 

* In the early ages of Greece, it was customary for the Krjpvtj, or common crier, to introduce 
himself to the notice of the people by lustily blowing through a shell. We learn from tradition, 
as well as history, that the Triton variegatus or Trumpet-Shell {Murex Tritonis, Linu.) was the 
one commonly selected for that purpose ; but it is more probable that the shells of many other 
Canalifera were used. Be that as it may, it is certain that the word Keri.r was applied by 
Aristotle from that circumstance to all the canaliculated shells with which he was acquainted, and 
it appears to have passed by a strange process of corruption, into that of Murex. — Conch. Syst. 
vol. ii. p. 191. 



97 

rally covered with a bright coat of wrinkled enamel, and the outer lip be- 
comes thickened in a manner somewhat curious ; upon arriving" at maturity 
the lip curls under so as to form a deep broad channel or gutter, which 
is then filled up to form the thickened lip. The varices are all constructed 
in the same manner, each forming for a time the margin of the aperture, 
and destined, it is conjectured, to protect the lip during a season of rest 
in the manner already described ; as a question for the curious it would be 
interesting to know what length of time ordinarily elapses between the for- 
mation or deposit of a varix, and the renewal of growth. The elegant margin 
of the T.femorale is celebrated as having furnished the original model of 
the gadroon border so frequently used by the silversmith in the decoration 
of plate ; and the common Trumpet of the Mediterranean, T. nodiferus, may 
be noticed as affording an occasional meal for the Neapolitan fisherman, 
which, in the absence of more delicate food, is said to be much relished. 

The Tritons appear to be widely distributed over the globe : of a hundred 
species recently illustrated in the 'Conchologia Iconica', the chief portion are 
from the Molucca and Plulippine Islands ; some few are from the western 
coast of America, some from China, several from New Holland, Ceylon, 
and Mozambique ; and there are also one or two from the Mediterranean, 
the Cape of Good Hope, the West Indies, and the United States. 



Species. 



1. acuminata, Reeve. 

2. segrotus, id. 

3. amictus, id. 

4. angulatus, id. 

5. anomalus, Hinds. 

6. antiquatus, id. 

7. anus, Lam. 

8. aquatilis, Reeve. 

9. australis, Lam. 

10. bacillum, Reeve, 

11. bracteatus, Hinds. 

12. canaliferus, Lam. 

13. cancelhnus, Desk. 

14. carduus, Reeve. 

15. Ceylouensis, Sow. 

16. Chemnitzii, Gray. 

17. chlorostoma, Lam. 

18. cingulatus, Pfeiffer. 

19. clandestine, Lam. 

20. clathratus, Sow. 

21. clavator, Lam. 



22. 


concinnus, Reeve. 


43. 


ficoides, Reeve. 


23. 


constrictus, Brod. 


44. 


fictilis, Hinds. 


24. 


convolutus, id. 


45. 


fusiformis, Kiener. 


25. 


corrugatus, Lam. 


46. 


gahinago, Reeve. 


26. 


crispus, Reeve. 


47. 


gemmatus, id. 


27. 


cutaceus, Lam. 


48. 


gibbosa, Brod. 


28. 


cynocephalus, Lam. 


49. 


gracilis, Reeve. 


29. 


decapitatus, Reeve. 


50. 


grandimaculatus, id. 


30. 


decollatus, Sow. 


51. 


labiosus, id. 


31. 


decipiens, Reeve. 


52. 


lampas, Lain. 


32. 


digitale, id. 


53. 


lanceolatus, Kiener. 


33. 


distortus, Sch. & Wag 


.54. 


lativaricosus, Reeve. 


34. 


doliarius, Lam. 


55. 


lignarius, Brod. 


35. 


ebumeus, Reeve. 


56. 


lineatus, Brod. 


36. 


egregius, id. 


57. 


lotorium, Lam. 


37. 


elongatus, id. 


58. 


maculosus, id. 


38. 


encausticus, id. 


59. 


Mediterraneus, Sow. 


39. 


exaratus, id. 


60. 


moritinctus, Reeve. 


40. 


exilis, id. 


61. 


Nassoides, id. 


41. 


eximius, id. 


62. 


nitidulus, Sow. 


42. 


fe morale, Lam. 


63. 


niveus, Pfeiffer. 





64. nodiferus, Lam. 

65. obscurus, Reeve. 

66. olearium, Desk. 

67. pagodas, Reeve. 

68. Pfeifferianus, id. 

69. pictus, id. 

70. pilearis, Lam. 

71. pygmseus, Pfeiffer. 

72. pyrum, Za?w. 

73. Quoyi, ife«?e. 

74. Banelloides, z'rf. 

75. reticulatus, Blain. 

76. retusus, Zaw. 

77. ridens, Reeve. 



98 

78. nubecula, Lam. 

79. rudis, ZVof?. 

80. sarcostoma, Reeve. 

81. Sauliae, &<?. 

82. scabra, A7»#. 

83. Scalariformis, Brod. 

84. scrobiculator, Za;«. 

85. sculp tills, id. 

86. Sinensis, id. 

87. sipbonatus, irf. 

88. Soverbii, id. . 

89. Spengleri, Lam. 

90. subdistortus, z^. 



91. tessellatus, Reeve. 

92. Thersites, i^. 

93. triginus, Brod. 

94. tortuosus, Reeve. 

95. Tranquebaricus, Za?». 

96. trilineatus, Reeve. 

97. tripus, Za»«. 

98. truncatus, Hinds. 

99. tuberosus, Zam. 

100. variegatus, id. 

101. verrucosus, Reeve. 

102. vespaceus, Zam. 

103. vestitus, Hinds. 



Figures. 

Triton tuberosus. PL G. — Shell with animal, showing its short disc, 
truncated head, pointed tentacles and ocellated painting. — From the 
* Voyage de I' Astrolabe.' 

Triton tigrinus. PI. 9. Fig. 43. Shell (diminished two-thirds), showing 
a strong varix on the left side. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 2. RANELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Triton. 

Shell ; ovate or oblong-ovate, with the spire more or less acumi- 
nated ; varices mostly oblique, deposited one on every half- 
whorl, forming a longitudinal row on each side ; canal some- 
times very short, sometimes rather long ; aperture ovate, gene- 
rally canaliculated at both ends. 

The genus Ranella was founded by Lamarck upon a peculiarity mani- 
fested in the arrangement of the varices, by which the shell acquires a de- 
pressed two-edged structure. The animal varies in no respect from Triton, 
except in the mode in which it forms its shell ; the varices or marginal 
borders, resulting from a periodical function of the mantle, are deposited 
exactly one on every half-volution, ranging therefore on either side of the 
shell, like a continuous wing-like appendage from the apex to nearly the base. 

Having treated of the mode in which this function is exercised, under 
the head of Triton, it may here be noticed that De Blainville assumed them 
to indicate periods of gestation ; but M. Deshayes observes, in reply to this, 
that, " the varices being deposited from the earliest formation of the shell, it 
is quite unnatural to suppose, that the animal has the faculty of employing 



99 

that function so soon after its ejection from the ovary ". It has been ima- 
gined also, that the periodical development of varices indicates the changes 
of the seasons ; but, repeats M. Deshayes, " the canaliferous tribes dwell in 
a climate where there is scarcely any variation of season, and the tempera- 
ture of the waters the same all the year round". 

Although the genus Banella has no very high claim to distinction, there 
is no group in the series whose generic aspect appears more acurately denned 
to the eye of the common observer ; the lateral continuity of the varices 
imparts a peculiarity to the shell not easily confounded with any other. 
The species assimilate very much in sculpture ; the rarest and most ex- 
quisite in form is the well-known ' Finned Frog ' Ranellapulchra. 

The monograph of this genus published in the ' Conchologia Iconica ' 
includes fifty species; the greater portion inhabit the eastern seas, the 
Philippine and Molucca Islands, some are from California and the West Coast 
of South America, but the largest, singularly enough, exists at the northern 
limit of the genus, in the Mediterranean. 



1. affinis, Brod. 

2. albifasciata, Sow. 

3. albivaricosa, Reeve. 

4. anceps, Lam. 

5. argus, id. 

6. bitubercularis, id. 

7. bufonia, id. 

8. cselata, Brod. 

9. Californica, Hinds. 

10. candisata, Lam. 

11. caudata, Say. 

12. coriacea, Reeve. 

13. crassa, Desk. 

14. cruentata, Sow. 

15. crumena, Lam. 

16. cuspidata, Reeve. 

17. elegans, Beck. 

18. foliate, Brod. 



Species. 

19. gigantea, Lam. 

20. granifera, id. 

21. gyrinus, Desk. 

22. hastula, Reeve. 

23. leucostoma, id. 

24. livida, Reeve. 

25. laevigata, Lam. 

26. margaritula, Desk. 

27. Muriciformis, Brod. 

28. nana, Sow. 

29. neglecta, id. 

30. nitida, Brod. 

31. nobilis, Reeve. 

32. pectinate, Hinds. 

33. plicate, Reeve. 

34. ponderosa, id. 

35. pulchra, Gray. 



36. pusilla, Brod. 

37. pustulosa, Reeve. 

38. pyramidalis, Brod. 

39. rhodostoma, Beck. 

40. rosea, Reeve. 

41. rugosa, Sow. 

42. semigranosa, Lam. 

43. siphonata, Reeve. 

44. spinosa, Lam. 

45. subgranosa, Beck. 

46. triquetra, Reeve. 

47. tuberculata, Brod. 

48. tuberosissima, Reeve. 

49. ventricosa, Brod. 

50. venustula, Reeve. 

51. verrucosa, Sow. 

52. vexillum, id. 



Figure. 

Ranella foliata. Plate 9. Fig. 44.— Shell showing the continuous 
arrangement of the varices from the apex downwards on either side. — 
From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



B o 



100 



Genus 3. MUREX, Linnaeus. 

Animal; similar to that of Triton. 

Shell ; ovate or oblong, generally piriform, or more or less fusi- 
form, spire somewhat angularly turreted; whorls slightly ven- 
tricose, varicose, varices three or more on a whorl, variously 
ornamented with branched foliated or spinous fronds ; colu- 
mella smooth, arched, ending in a canal which is sometimes 
very short and recurved, sometimes very long and tubulous ; 
aperture nearly orbicular, outer lip generally denticulated or 
crenated, and sometimes armed with an erect prominent tooth. 
Operculum horny. 

Though somewhat numerous in species, the genus Murex, in its present 
limited acceptation, retains few originally referred to it by its founder. After 
being freely dismembered by Bruguiere and Lamarck for the genera Ceri- 
thium, Turbinetta, Fusus, Fasciolaria, Pleurotoma, Cancettaria and Fyrula, 
there yet remained an extensive series to be distinguished according to their 
varieties of varicose growth in the manner described under the genera Triton 
and Ranella, and of these the largest proportion of species falls to the 
present genus, because it includes all those whose shell is characterized 
by the presence of more than two varices on a whorl. 

The number of varices displayed, by what may be termed the typical 
species of the genus is three, imparting a triangular structure to the shell, 
winch has been likened to the calthrop of the ancients ; an instrument of 
war which was scattered on the field of battle for the purpose of wounding 
the enemies' horse*. 

Beyond the number of three, the varices are irregular, following each 
other in such rapid succession as almost to lose their distinctive character ; 
the genus now merges into Fusus, and it is at this point of contact that 
many synonymes have arisen, on account of the differences of opinion as to 
which of the two genera, a species should be referred. 

The Murices are greatly distinguished by the beautiful varieties of struc- 
ture which are developed on the varices, presenting in some species most 
elaborate leaf-like fronds, in others a succession of fimbriated laminae, in 
others a row of long tubular spines : these variations of ornamental growth 
serve as characters for the subdivision of the genus. The profuse ena- 
melling of the aperture is also striking, exhibiting colours in that purity 
and brightness which no effort of the pencil can imitate. 

* The calthrop was a small three-sided weapon with a row of sharp spikes down each angle, 
such as is represented in the structure of the three-varicose Murex; discharged over the 
enemy's quarters, upon whatever side it fell, a row of spikes would be uppermost. 



101 

It is stated in a former page of this work, that the Romans obtained 
their celebrated dye, from the expressed juice of the Murex trunculus, inha- 
biting the Mediterranean and shores of Tyre ; the Murex brandaris seems 
also to have been called into requisition for this purpose, and M. Deshayes 
attempts to show that remains of this species, in consolidated heaps, are 
still to be found on the coast, denoting ancient stations for the extraction 
of purple.* 

The genus Murex includes many species of more or less rarity ; of these 
the M. bipinnatus and clavus are distinguished by an elongated peculiarity 
of growth different from that of any other kind ; the M. spinicostata is a 
species of rare occurrence in fine condition ; the M. monodon remarkable on 
account of the elegantly prolonged curvature of the fronds. The M. alabaster 
of winch only a single specimen has been seen, is a huge curiosity of its 
kind and forms a striking contrast, in comparison with the refined dispo- 
sition of sculpture in the M.fenestratus ; the M. Stainforthii must not be 
omitted in this category of rarities, nor the M. crispatus, both of which 
species are equally distinguished for the peculiar and manifold beauty of 
the fronds. Among the canaliculated species the M. trigomdus, elegans and 
motacilla are worthy of notice ; the M. Zelandicus, Jlorifer, rubridentatus, 
territus and eurypteron are of diversified beauty and interest ; whilst among 
the smaller gems of the genus may be enumerated the M. hexagonus, ma- 
cwpteron, Norrisii, gravidtis, octogonns, cirrosus, and a few others. 

The Murices are very generally distributed throughout the regions of 
animal life ; they are represented on our own shores by the M. erinaceus 
and in the Mediterranean by one or two small species in addition to those 
just spoken of; in California by the magnificent M. erythrostoma, and in 
Panama by the M. regius whose meretricious glow of colours and elaborate 
structure have long rendered it an object of attraction to the amateur. In 
the Eastern Seas we find the noble M. ramosus and saxatilis in abundance, 
with numerous other species, among which the well-known ' Venus' s comb ' 
M. temdspina, in winch all deficiency of beauty in colour is so fully com- 
pensated by the delicacy and extraordinary character of its structure. 

The following list of species are described and illustrated in the ' Con- 
ch ologia Iconica '. 



* " Numerous dissertations upon the Purple of the ancients have served to show that the colour 
the most esteemed was obtained from the Murex brandaris. Rondelet was the first to hold this 
opinion, and it has been singularly confirmed in recent times by the researches of our learned 
friend M. Boblaye. Forming part of the scientific expedition to the Morea, he was astonished to 
find, in places not very remote from the sea, considerable heaps of the remains of this single 
species, Murex brandaris ; he at first regarded them as evidences of some geological phenome- 
non, but upon a careful examination of the places and accompanying circumstances, he disco- 
vered that these depots of fragments of shell were always situated in the vicinity of some ancient 
ruins, among which sufficient vestiges were to be found of their having been formerly stations 
for the manufacture of Purple". — Anim. sans, vert. v. ix. p. 550. 



102 



Species. 



1. acanthopterus, Lam. 47. 

2. aculeatus, id. 48, 

3. adunco-spinosus, Beck. 49, 

4. adustus, Lam. 50, 

5. affinis, Reeve. 51, 

6. alabaster, Reeve. 52, 

7. alveatus, Kiener. 53, 

8. ambiguus, Reeve. 54, 

9. angularis, Z#m. 55, 

10. anguliferus, id. 56, 

11. axicornis, «7?. 57, 

1 2 . badius, Reeve. 5 8 , 

13. bseticus, id. 59. 

14. balteatus, Beck. 60, 

15. Banksii, #020. 61. 

16. bellus, Reeve. 62. 

17. bicolor, Valen. 63. 

18. bipinnatus, Reeve. 64. 

19. Blainvillii, Payraud. 65. 

20. borealis, Reeve. 66. 

21. brandaris, Zi»«. 67. 

22. brassica, Lam. 68. 

23. brevispina, Lam. 69, 

24. buxeus, Brod. 70, 

25. calcar, Kiener. 71. 

26. calcitrapa, Za#z. 72. 

27. Calif ornicus, Hinds. 73. 

28. caliginosus, Reeve. 74. 

29. cancellatus, Sow. 75. 

30. Capensis, i^. 76. 

31. Capucinus, Chemn. 77. 

32. carduus, Brod. 78. 

33. cariniferus (Fusus), So. 79. 

34. centrifuga, Hinds. 80. 

35. cervicornis, Lam. 81. 

36. cbrysostoma, G^ay. 82. 

37. cirrosus, Hinds. 83, 

38. clathratus, Reeve. 84 

39. clavus, Kiener. 85 

40. concinnus, Reeve. 86 

4 1 . eornutus, Linn. 8 7 

42. corrugatus, Sow. 88. 

43. crassilabrum, Gray. 89, 

44. crassivaricosa, iteewe. 90, 

45. crispus, Brod. 91. 

46. cristatus, Brocchi. 92, 



crocatus, Reeve. 
cyclostoma, Sow. 
decussatus, Reeve. 
digitatus, Sow. 
dipsacus, Brod. 
distinctus, Christ. 
dubius, Sow. 
Edwardsii, Menke. 
elegans, Beck. 
elongatus, Lam. 
emarginatus, Sow. 
endivia. Lam. 
erinaceus, Linn. 
erosus, Brod. 
eurypteron, Reeve. 
falcatus, Sow. 
fasciatus, id. 
fenestratus, Chemn. 
festivus, Hinds. 
fiscellum, Chemn. 
florifer, Reeve. 
foliatus, Chnelin. 
foveolatus, Hinds. 
fimiculatus, Reeve. 
Gambiensis, id. 
gravidus, Hinds. 
gyratus (Trophon), H. 
bamatus, Hinds. 
haustellum, Linn. 
hemitripterus, Lam. 
hexagonus, id. 
horridus, Brod. 
bumibs, id. 
imperiabs, Swain. 
incisus, Brod. 
inconspicuus, Sow. 
inermis, id. 
Kieneri, Reeve. 
laciniatus, Sow. 
laminiferus, Reeve. 
lappa, Brod. 
laqueatus, Sow. 
lepidus, Reeve. 
bngua-vcrvecina, Ch. 
luculentus, Reeve. 
lugubris, Brod. 



93. macropteron, Desh. 

94. maculatus, Reeve. 

95. margariticola, Brod. 

96. Martinianus, Reeve. 

97. maurus, Brod. 

98. megacerus, Sow. 

99. melanomathos, Gme. 

100. messorius, Sow. 

101. microphyllus, Lam. 

102. Mindanensis, Sow. 

103. Monoceros, Sow. 

104. monodon, Sow. 

105. motacilla, Chemn. H. 

106. mundus, Reeve. 

107. muricatus (Trop.). 

108. nigrescens, Sow. 

109. nigrispinosus, Reeve. 

110. nigritus, Phil. 

111. nitidus, Brod. 

112. nodatus, Reeve. 

113. noduliferus, Sow. 

114. Norrisii, Reeve. 

115. nucula, id. 

116. nux, id. 

117. occa, Sow. 

118. octogonus, Quoy. 

119. oculatus, Reeve. 

120. osseus, id. 

121. oxyacantha, Brod. 

122. pabna-rosae, Lam. 

123. pabniferus, Sow. 

124. pellucidus, Reeve. 

125. peritus, Hinds. 

126. pbyllopterus, Lam. 

127. pinnatus, Wood. 

128. pinniger, Brod. 

129. pistacia, Reeve. 

130. planiliratus, id. 

131. Pleurotomoides, i</. 

132. pUciferus, Sow. 

133. polygonulus, Lam. 

134. pomum, Gmelin. 

135. princeps, Z'ro^. 

136. pudicus, 7fee»e. 

137. pudoricolor, id. 

138. Purpura, Chemn. 



103 



139. purpuratus, Reeve. 

140. Purpuroides, Dunk. 

141. radicatus, Hinds. 

142. radix, Gmelin. 

143. ramosus, Linn. 

144. rarispina, Lam. 

145. rectirostris, Sow. 

146. recurvirostris, Brod. 

147. regius, Wood. 

148. rosarium, Cliemn. 

149. rota, >Scw. 

150. rubescens, Brod. 

151. rubiginosus, Reeve. 

152. rubridentatus, m?. 

153. rufus, Lam. 

154. rusticus, ifeew. 

155. salebrosus, King. 



156. Sauliae, /Sbw. 173. 

157. saxatilis, Linn. 174. 

158. scolopax, Dillwyn. 175. 

159. scorpio, Linn. 176. 

160. secimdus, Z«»z. 177. 

161. Senegalensis, Gmelin.Yl^. 

162. similis, Sow. 179. 

163. Sinensis, Reeve. 180. 

164. spectrum, ifcewe. 181. 

165. spinicostata, Valen. 182. 

166. scaiamulosus,(-F«,sMS.) 183. 

167. Stainfortliii, Reeve. 184. 

168. Steerite, id. 185. 

169. tenuispina, Lam . 186. 

170. ternispina, id. 187. 

171. territus, Reeve. 188. 

172. tetragonus, Brod. 189. 



torosus, Zam. 
torrefactus, Sow. 
tribulus, Linn. 
triformis, Reeve. 
trigonulus, Lam. 
trilineatus, Reeve 
tripterus, Bom. 
triqueter, id. 
trunculus, Linn. 
tumulosus, Sow. 
turbinatus, Lam. 
uncinarius, Lam. 
varicosus, Sow. 
varius, Sow. 
vibex, Brod. 
vittatus, id. 
Zelandicus, Quoy. 



Figure. 

Murex florifer. Plate 9. Fig. 42. — A new species, recently collected on 
the shores of Honduras by Mr. Dyson, in which the varices present a 
characteristic row of leaf -like fronds. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 4. TYPHIS, Be Montford. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell; small, Murex-shaped, mostly trivaricose, with a hollow 
spouted tube protruding from the upper part of the whorl, in 
the centre of the area between the varices; spire rather 
short, sometimes elongated ; columella smooth, aperture small, 
rounded. Operculum horny. 

When treating of tins singular group in the ' Conchologia Systematica ' 
I inclined to believe with M. Deshayes that it was sufficient to regard it as 
a sectional division of the preceding genus ; I now, however, appreciate 
the character by which the Typhides are distinguished, as one peculiarly 
generic, inasmuch as it is not the modification of a spine, nor has it an 
analogous representative in any other genus. 

The shell of Typhis is similar in form and general aspect to that of 
Mtirex, but uniformly small ; its peculiarity consists in having a more or 
less elongated spouted tube, in the centre of the area between the varices, in 



104 

place of the usual nodule or tubercle. This tube, it will be observed, is 
not the analogue of a spine ; the spines winch adorn the varices, so conspi- 
cuously developed in the Murex tenuispina, and others, being always 
open on one side, are no other than extreme modifications of scales or fronds, 
but the tube of Typhis, is always closed — the wall of it is entire — and it 
seems destined for some other purpose than that of ornament. It is a per- 
fectly unique structure ; in no other turbinated genus is the least analogy 
to be found, nor can I trace the gradation winch M. Deshayes notices to 
exist between the tube of the Typhis and the spine of the Murex. 

The genus Typhis was founded on a fossil species {Murex tetrapterus, 
Bronn. ; M. fistulosus, Brocc. ; M. pungens, Band.) subsequently found 
living in the Mediterranean, described together with four other recent 
species by Mr. Broderip in 1832 *, of which two were collected by Mr. 
Cuming at Salango, West Columbia and the Bay of Caraccas, and one by 
Capt. Sir Edward Belcher at Cape Blanco, West Africa. Three species 
were then added to the genus, collected by the same illustrious traveller 
during the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur, in localities very remote from each 
other ; one was found in from seven to eighteen fathoms water in the Gulf 
of Nicoya and Bay of Guayaquil, the second was dredged on the l'Agulhas 
Bank, Cape of Good Hope, at a depth of upwards of fifty fathoms, and the 
third, the smallest of the series, was found among gravel and coral, in 
eighteen fathoms water at the straits of Macassar, Indian Archipelago. 



Species. 

1. arcuatus, Hinds. 4. Cumingii, Brod. 7. pinnatus, Brod. 

2. Belcheri, Brod. 5. Sowerbii, Brod. 8. quadratus, Hinds. 

3. coronatus, Brod. 6. nitens, Hinds. 

Figure. 

Typhis Sowerbii. Plate 12. Fig. 54. — Shell showing the spout-like 
tubes issuing from between the varices. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



* " De Montfort, after referring to Murex pungens, Bander, as the type of this genus, adds 
'La coquille qui nous sert de type pour l'etablissement de ce genre n'est encore bien connue qu'a. 
l'etat fossile ; quoique Bruguiere dlse tres positivement que son analogue marin existoit a, Londres 
dans le cabinet du Docteur Huuter, fait que malheureusement nous ne pouvons point verifier, 
mais qui cependant nous devons adopter d'apres les profondes connoissances et la perspicacite qui 
distinguerent si eminemment ce couchyliologue francois'. In the Bictionnaire des Sciences 
Naturelles the statement of Bruguiere is noticed ; but M. Blainville observes, that he was not 
fortunate enough to find the shell. I have examined the Hunterian Collection in London, with 
the assistance of Mr. Clift and Prof. Owen, with no better success. It may, perhaps, have been 
in the cabinet of Dr. "William Hunter, now at Glasgow ; but on consulting Captain Laskey's 
c General Account of the Hunterian Museum ' there, I find no mention of the shell ". — W. J. B. 



105 



Genus 5. PYRULA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Triton and Murex. 

Shell ; somewhat piriform, spire sometimes exserted, sometimes 

flatly depressed ' ; columella smooth, caned more or less 

elongated; lip simple, interior of the aperture sometimes 

smooth, sometimes radiately ridged or striated. Operculum. 

horny. 

The Pyrula were separated from the genus Fusus of Bruguiere, with 
little to distinguish them beyond their pear-shaped peculiarity of form, 
which is certainly characteristic in the typical species ; there are, however, 
many inseparable from these which lead to the confines of the group, and 
so to Fusus by a continuity of character almost imperceptible. The P.pugi- 
lina and cochlidlum so nearly allied, even in respect to species, were referred 
by Lamarck, one to Pyrida the other to Fusus; the P. carica, canaliciihifti 
and spirata, on the other hand, are very peculiar in form, and ought, without 
doubt, to be distinguished from any of the proximate genera ; wlulst the 
P.papyracea and Maivce form a division of the group allied to Purpura 
by their very close relation witli the P. galea and Scalar iformis. 

One division of the Lamarckian Pyrula, commonly known as the ' Figs ', 
has been distinguished as a genus by Swainson under the name of Ficula, 
and the propriety of tins change has been recently confirmed by the 
discovery of the living animal, which proves to be allied rather to Harpa 
and Dolium, and ought properly to have been included in the same family. 

The Pyrulre thus restricted are somewhat limited in number; they 
inhabit chiefly the Eastern Seas, with one or two from Mexico, the West 
Indies, California and the United States. 



Species. 

1. anomala, Reeve. 11. corona {Murex), Gmel. 21. patula, Brod. and Sou-. 

2. arauna {Murex), Linn. 12. elongata, Lamarck. 22. perversa, Lamarck. 

3. Belcheri(iHf«?-.), Hinds. 13. galeodes, Lamarck. 23. pugilina(J!/Kmi'),Bni. 

4. bezoar {Buc.), Linn. 14. lactea, Reeve. 24. spirata, Lamarck. 

5. bispinosa, Pliilippi. 15. lignaria, Reeve. 25. spirillus {Murex), Lin. 

6. bucephala, Lamarck. 16. lineata, Lam. 26. rapa, {Bulla), Linn. 

7. bulbosa(Jf?<mp), Solan. 17. Mawae, Gray. 27. subrostrata, Gray. 

8. canaliculata(l/M?-^),Z. 18. nielongena {Murex), L. 28. Ternatana {Murex)Gm. 

9. clavella, Reeve. 19. mono (Murex), Linn. 29. tuba {Murex), Gmelin. 
10. cochlidi \\m{Murex), L. 20. Paradisiaca, Reeve. 



106 

Figure. 

Pyrula Maw,e. PL 9. Fig. 41. Shell showing the aperture, smooth 
columella, and large umbilicus. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 6. FICULA, Sivainson. 

Animal ; disk oblong, attenuated posteriorly, rounded in front, 
with a small acuminated lode on each side ; no operculum ; 
head small, with two small cylindrical tentacles more or less 
exserted, beneath the base of which on each side is situated 
the eye, sessile ; proboscis capable of considerable elongation; 
mantle much dilated, expanded throughout the canal, and 
over all that portion of the body ivhorl of the shell forming 
the boundary of the aperture. 

Shell ; pyriform or fig-shaped, light and ventricose, roidely chan- 
nelled at the base, channel more or less prolonged, spire very 
short ; columella slight ,• aperture large, extending posteriorly 
to the spire ; lip thin, entire. 

The Lamarckian species of Pyrula, commonly known as 'The Figs', were 
first distinguished as a genus by Mr. Swainson in lus 'Malacology', a 
volume of 'Lardner's Cyclopedia'; founded, not, however, upon any 
knowledge of the soft parts, but upon the uniform generic affinity of the 
shells. Only four species are known, and three have been lately taken 
alive; the F. Jicoides and gracilis, were collected by M. Rousseau, a 
zealous naturalist attached to the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, during a voyage 
to Madagascar and the Seychelle Islands, and the F. lavigala, was dredged 
together with the F. jicoides, by Mr. Arthur Adams, Assistant Surgeon, R.N., 
in the Sooloo Seas, during the recent voyage of H.M.S., Samarang. 

The generic importance which Mr. Swainson attached to this limited 
group has been fully confirmed by the peculiarities of the animal ; although 
a canaliculated shell, and so closely allied in form to the Pgrida car i en, 
spirata and others, as to induce Martini to distinguish them as subdivisions 
of a particular group, under the titles of the Light Figs, ' Fici tenues ', 
and the Heavy Figs, ' Fici ponderosi ', the animal approaches rather to 
Dolium and Harpa, having an elongated proboscis and the same rounded 
lobate structure of the front portion of the disc. 

The F. gracilis and Jicoides have been beautifully illustrated by M. 
Rousseau under the new generic name Ficus, in M. Chenu's handsome 
publication, 'Illustrations Conchyliologiques ' ; the tentacles are partially 



107 

withdrawn, and the disc and mantle somewhat contracted, but the species 
are represented in an excellent manner *. Mr. Adams possesses a drawing 
of the F. laevigata, taken from the living animal, which will probably ap- 
pear in the f Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S., Sarnarang'; in the mean 
time he has kindly furnished me with the following from his note-book : — 

" The Ficula is a very lively animal when observed in its native element, 
crawling along with considerable velocity, owing probably to the lightness 
of its shell, and able to ascend the sides of a glass vessel with facility. The 
disc is very extensive and not provided with an operculum ; it is broad 
and rounded in front, and acuminated behind, the mantle is thin and 
expands into two lateral lobes covering a great portion of the sides of the 
shell, and much more, in the water, than is represented in the handsome 
figures of M. Rousseau. The proboscis is rarely exserted when the animal 
is in motion, but the long tapering tentacles are stretched out to their full 
extent ; the eyes are rather large and black. 

" In the species I observed [Ficula laevigata, Reeve,) the mantle was 
bright pink, mottled with white and lighter pink ; the under surface of the 
disc was of a dark chocolate colour with yellow scattered spots ; the head 
and neck were pink, and also covered with yellow spots. The specimen 
was dredged from thirty-five fathoms in the Sooloo Sea." 

For figures and a critical analysis of the species, I must refer the reader 
to the Monograph Ficula, in the 'Conchologia Iconica\ 



Species. 

1. decussata (Bulla.), Wood. 3. gracilis (Pyrula.J, Sowerby. 

2. ficoides (Pyrula.J, Lamarck. 4. laevigata, Reeve. 



Genus 7. CANCELLARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc oblong, thin, flattened, slightly truncated anteriorly 
and extending a little beyond the head ; head very large and 
flat forming the segment of a circle at each corner of the 
extremity of which rises a slim elongated conical tentacle ; 
eyes situated on the outer side of these at the base where they 
are a little exserted ; proboscis none ? Operculum ?ione. 



* The term Ficus was used by Martini as a common appellative, not in accordance with the 
prescribed form of nomenclature ; it is moreover open to objection in consequence of its being 
pre-occupied in Botany to distinguish the genus of Figs. 

p2 



108 

Shell ; oval, diversely ribbed and reticulated on the outside, the 
last whorl being somewhat ventricose and often forming a 
large umbilicus ; columella more or less strongly plaited, 
ending in a short, sometimes posteriorly recurved canal ; 
aperture ovate or oblong, with the lip a little expanded and 
often reticulated. 

This interesting genus so much appreciated by conchologists on account 
of the many interesting species added to it within the last few years, has 
elicited a variety of opinion in the determination of its character, and, con- 
sequently, the place which it should occupy in the system. The shell is 
mainly distinguished by its having the columella strongly plaited and in 
never being more than slightly channelled at the base. Linnaeus, and even 
Cuvier, arranged the Cancellaria on tins account with the Volutes and 
Mitres ; M. Desliayes, on the other hand, inclines to the opinion that they 
belong to the family Plicacea, consisting of the genera Pi/ramidella and 
Tornatella. To the former of these views it is impossible to assent, 
because the soft parts differ, whilst the plaited columella less strongly de- 
veloped, appears throughout, to be rather a modification of the same cha- 
racter in Twrb'mella ; in the latter, it is difficult to understand how such an 
affinity can exist between animals, whose shells afford so great a contrast in 
substance and structure as those of Pyramiclella and Cancettaria, the one 
vitreous and polished, the other distinguished by great variety of highly 
relieved sculpture, and which seems to indicate the same carnivorous habits 
as the rest of the Canalifera. The greatest anomaly in the history of the 
Cancellaria, is that observed by M. Deshayes, of the C. cancellata being a 
vegetable feeder, and it only remains to be seen whether this is the habit of 
the genus *. 

The shell referred to this genus by Lamarck, under the name C. 
citharella, has no plaits on the columella, and will be found to belong to 
the little group Mangelia, following next in order after Pleurotoma. 

The Cancellarice are not of very common occurrence, and inhabit rather 
a wide range, they are found at Panama, Peru, China, Eastern Archipelago, 
&c, and their northern limit is in the Mediterranean. 

* In order to determine the relation of this genus, it is necessary to become further acquainted 
with the animal ; M. M. Quoy and Gaimard have given a figure of one species, and I have myself 
had the opportunity of observing another, that which is so abundantly distributed throughout the 
shores of the Mediterranean. This species differs in some respects from that described by the 
Zoologists of the ' Astrolabe ', but we are unanimous on the subject of there being no operculum. 
The animal of C. cancellata crawls upon a disc almost as long as the shell, thin and flattened 
with the edge slightly truncated and passing a little beyond the head. The head is very large, 
flat, thin and sharp, forming the segment of a circle at each corner of the extremity of which 
rises a slim elongated conical tentacle ; the eyes being situated on the outer side of these at the 
base, where they are slightly projected. I never observed the animal put forth any trunk ; and, 
having found it invariably on marine plants, am disposed to think it nourishes itself by bruising 
them with a pair of horny jaws similar to those of other vegetable-feeding mollusks. It is very 



109 



1. acuminata, Sow. 

2. albida, Hinds. 

3. antiquata, id. 

4. articularis, Sow. 

5. asperella, Lam. 

6. asperula, Desk. 

7. australis, Sow. 

8. bicolor, Hinds. 

9. bifasciata, Desk. 

10. brevis, Sow. 

11. Buccinoides, «/. 

12. bulbulus, id. 

13. bullata, %?. 

14. cancellata, Lam. 

15. Candida, Sow. 

16. Cassidiformis, k£. 

17. chrysostoma, id. 

18. clavatula, e'^. 

19. contabulata, id. 

20. corrugata, Hinds. 

21. costata, Gray. 

22. costifera, Sow. 

23. Conrtbouyi, Jfty. 

24. crenata, Hinds. 



Species. 

25. crenifera, Sow. 

26. crispa, «¥. 

27. decussata, Soto. 

28. elata, Hinds. 

29. funiculata, z'c?. 

30. gernmulata, Sow. 

31. goniostoma, z¥. 

32. granosa, id. 

33. liemastoma, id. 

34. imperialis, ilfj'c//. 

35. indentata, Sow. 

36. lactea, DesA. 

37. lamellosa, Hinds. 

38. laevigata, Sow. 

39. Littorinseforrais, z^. 

40. Mitraeformis, id. 

41. multiplicata, ifss. 

42. nassa, Roissy. 

43. noduhfera, Soto. 

44. nodulosa, Z«w. 

45. obesa, Sow. 

46. obliquata, ia?w. 

47. obtusa, Desh. 

48. ovata, Sow. 



49. piscatoria, «?. 

50. pulchra, id. 

51. Purpuraeformis, FbZew. 

52. pusilla, Sow. 

53. reticulata, Lam. 

54. rigida, /Sow. 

55. rugosa, Lam,. 

56. Scalariforinis, ic/. 

57. scalarina, id. 

58. scalata, Sow. 

59. similis, «?. 

60. sclida, id. 

61. Splengleriana, Ztes^. 

62. spirata, Lam. 

63. tessellata, Sow. 

64. textilis, Kiener. 

65. trigonostoma, Des/j. 

66. Tritonis, -Sow. 

67. tuberculosa, id. 

68. unipUcata, id. 

69. urceolaria, Hinds. 

70. ventricosa, i</. 

71. Verreauxii, Kiener. 



Figure. 

Cancellaria Tritonis. PI. 10. Fig. 47. Shell showing the aperture 
and strongly plaited columella. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



timid, and, retiring into its shell upon the least movement, re-appears cautiously : differing ma- 
terially in its mode of progression from the Buccina, which exhibit more activity. With these 
characters the genus Cancellaria cannot be allowed to remain in the vicinity of the Volutes and 
Mitres ; it is known that these are extremely voracious, being provided with a long trunk by the 
aid of which they attack and suck the juices of the animal selected for prey. Although the 
absence of an operculum is a negative character of some value, it is not one to be relied on ; 
the Tuns and Harps, for example, are not provided with any operculum, whilst the Helmets and 
Buccina, to which they are intimately allied, are in no instance without one. Notwitstandiug 
our knowledge of the animal of Cancellaria, therefore, the place which it shoidd occupy in the 
system is still uncertain, nor can it be determined until we are more fully acquainted with its 
internal structure, its respiratory and organs of circulation ; until, in short, a full comparison of 
its organization has been instituted. If, as I believe, the Cancellaria feed only ou vegetable 
matter, it is evident they can no longer be arranged with the Fusi and Turbinellce ; and it is not 
improbable that the opinion which I deliverd some time since in the ' Encyclopedic ' — that the 
Cancellaria approximate rather) to Lamarck's family ' Les Plicaces ', will be found nearer the 
truth than any which has been adopted. — Deshayes, Anim. sans vert. vol. ix. p. 399, 400. 



no 

Genus 8. PLEUROTOMA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; " disc short, oval, thin at the margin, at the posterior 
extremity of which is placed a rather thick horny operculum, 
similar in most respects to that of Buccinum, and conse- 
quently not spiral, but terminating behind in a sharp point ; 
head flattened, and from the angles protude two conical 
pointed tentacles at the base and outer side of which are two 
eyes ; mantle similar to that of Fusus, excepting that it has 
an incision at the side corresponding to the slit in the shell."* 

Shell; turreted, fusiform, spire acuminated; columella smooth, 
ending in a canal, which is sometimes straight and elongated, 
sometimes short and a little recurved ; aperture small, lip 
simple, emarginated at or below its junction with the body 
whorl, with a sinus or deep fissure. Operculum homy, acumi- 
nated at the lower end. 

The genus Pleurotoma includes a very extensive group of mollusks, 
mostly small, in which the mantle is slit at the side in such a manner as to 
impart a corresponding character to the sheD, and which may be said to be 
analogous to the slit in Siliquarla, the sinus in Emarginula, the foramen 
in Haliotis, &c. It is scarcely necessary to observe that the animal of 
Pleurotoma has no affinity with these genera, but is, on the other hand, 
closely allied to Fusus and other Canalifera, in which no indication of this 
character is to be found. The incision in the mantle, which occurs also 
in Conus and in some species of Melania, does not therefore seem to be a 
character of so much generic importance in Pleurotoma, as the turreted 
fusiform growth of the shell, by which it is allied to the proximate genera. 

The shells of Pleurotoma, like those of Turbmella, have the canal some- 
times straight and elongated, sometimes short and recurved, and the species 
exhibit great variety of sculpture. They are very numerous, widely dis- 
tributed both in the eastern and western hemispheres, and dwell in com- 
paratively deep water. 

Species. 

1. abbreviata, Reeve. 5. aeruginosa, id. 9. albicans (Clav.), Hinds. 

2. abyssicola, Forbes. 6. affinis, Gray. 10. albicostata, Soto. 

3. iEgeensis, id. 7. alabaster, Reeve. 11. albifuniculata, Reeve. 

4. segrota, Reeve. 8. albibalteata, id. 12. albina, Lam. 

* Deshayes, Anim. sans vert. vol. ix. p. 344. 



Ill 



13. albinodata, Reeve. 61, 

14. amabilis (Clav), Hinds. 62, 

15. angicostata, Reeve. 63. 

16. angulifera, id. 64. 

17. annulata, id. 65. 

18. apicata, Gray. 66. 

19. aquatihs, Reeve. 67, 

20. arata, id. 68, 

21. arctata, id. 69. 

22. arcuata, id. 70, 

23. argillacea (Clav.), Hds. 71. 

24. armillata, Reeve. 72. 

25. aspera (Clav.), Hinds. 73. 

26. astricta, Reeve. 74. 

27. aterrima, Sow. 75. 
2 8 . attenuata (Miirex), Mo . 76. 

29. aureola, Reeve. 77. 

30. auriculifera, Lam. 78. 

31. australis (Murex), Ch. 79. 

32. axis, Reeve. 80. 

33. Babylonia, (Murex), L. 81. 

34. bretica, Reeve. 82. 

35. Beckii, «?. 83. 

36. bella (Clav.), Hinds. 84. 

37. bicanalifera, Sow. 85. 

38. bicolor, id. 86. 

39. bijnbata, Reeve. 87. 

40. bilineata, id. 88. 

41. bimargiuata, i«m. 89. 

42. Boholensis, Reeve. 90. 

43. borealis, id. 91. 

44. brevicaudata, id. 92. 

45. Buccinoides, Lam. 93. 

46. cselata (CZae.), Hinds. 94. 

47. Cagayanensis, Reeve. 95. 

48. callosa, Valenc. 96. 

49. canaliculata, Reeve. 97. 

50. cancellata, Gray. 98. 

51. Candida (Clav.), Hinds. 99. 

52. candidula, Reeve. 100. 

53. cantharis, id. 101. 

54. carbonaria, id. 102. 

55. cardinahs, id. 103. 

56. carinata, Gray, 104. 

57. casta (Daplm.), Hinds- 105. 

58. castanea, Reeve. 106. 

59. catena, id. 107. 

60. cavernosa, id. 108. 



cedo-nulli, Reeve. 109. 

cincta, i«w. 110. 

cinerea (Clav.), H. 111. 

cingulifera, Lam. 112. 

clara, Reeve. 113. 

clathrata, «£. 114. 

clavata, #o«?. 115. 

clavulus, id. 116. 

coccinata, Reeve. 117. 

collaris, -SW. 118. 

compta, Reeve. 119. 

concentricostata, «?. 120. 

conica, Enc. Meth. 121. 

contracta, Reeve. 122. 

cornea, io 7 . 123. 

corusca, id. 124. 

costata, Gray. 125. 

crassilabrum, Reeve. 126. 

crebripHcata, jrf. 127. 

crenularis, Z«?m. 128. 

crispa, id. 129. 

crispata, Cristof. 130. 

crocata, ifoew. 131. 

cryptorraphe, Sow. 132. 
Cumingii(i?«c.),Pow. 133. 

cuprea, Reeve. 134. 

Cycladensis, Forbes. 135. 

dsedala, Reeve. 136. 

Daphnelloides, w?. 137. 

debilis (CZo».), Hin. 138. 

decussata, Macgil. 139. 

deUcata, Reeve. 140. 

Delosensis, za 1 . 141. 

dentifera (Clav.), H. 142. 

Deshayesii, Doumet. 143. 

diadema, Kiener. 144. 

digitale, Reeve. 145. 

discors, #o?0. 146. 
donata(C7«w.), Hinds. 147. 

D'Orbignii, Reeve. 148. 

Dorvillias, Gray. 149. 

dupbcata, Sow. 150. 

Dysoni, ifcew. 151. 

ebur, id. 152. 

ecliinata, Lam. 153. 

efficta, Reeve. 154. 

ericea (Clav.), Hinds. 155. 

exal'ata, Reeve. 156. 



exasperata, i?cepe. 
excentrica, Sow. 
eximia, Reeve. 
fascialis, Lam. 
febna, Hinds. 
fenestrata, Reeve. 
fimbriata (Clav.), H. 
flammea (Clav.), id. 
flavescens, Reeve. 
flavida, Lam. 
Forbesii, Reeve. 
foraniinata, id. 
fonnicaria, Sow. 
formosa, Reeve. 
Forthiensis, id. 
fortis, Forbes. 
foveolata, Reeve. 
fragilis, id. 
fucata, id. 
fulminata, Kiener. 
fulva (Clav.), Hinds, 
funiculata, Valen. 
fuscescens, Gray. 
Fusoides, Reeve. 
Garnonsii, id. 
gemmata, Hinds. 
gibbosa (Murex), Ch. 
glumacea (Clav.), H. 
gracilenta, Reeve. 
grandis, Gray. 
granicostata, Reeve. 
granulosa, Sotv . 
Grayi, Reeve. 
gravis, Hinds. 
Greenlandica, Reeve. 
Griffithii, Gray. 
Guildingii, Reeve. 
Harfordiana, id. 
harpidaria, D. Moid. 
hastula, Reeve. 
hexagona, Sow. 
bexagonalis, Reeve. 
Hindsii, id. 
Hondurasensis, id. 
hyalina, id. 
igniflua, id. 
imperiabs, Lam. 
implicata, Reeve. 



112 

157. irapressa (Clav.), H. 205. nebula (Murex), Mo. 253. pseudo-carinata, Ree. 

158. incisa, Reeve. 206. neglecta (Clav.), H. 254. pudica (Clav.), Hind. 

159. incrassata, Sow. 207. nexa, Reeve. 255. pulchella, Reeve. 

160. Indica, Desk. 20S. nigerrima, Sow. 256. pulchra, Gray. 

161. inermis, iftwds. 209. nigrescens, Gray. 257. punctata, iteepe. 

162. inquinata, Reeve. 210. nitens (Clav.), Hinds. 258. puncticincta, id. 

163. interrupts. Lam,. 211. nitida, Kiener. 259. purpurea, _Z)e Blain. 

164. Javana (Murex), Lin. 212. nodifera, Lam. 260. putillus, Reeve. 

165. jubata, Hinds. 213. Novas Zelandiae, Ree. 261. pyramidata, Fafew. 

166. lactea, item?. 214. nux, i«?. 262. pyramidula, Reeve. 

167. lanceolata, id. 215. obeliscus, m?. 263. pyramis (Clav.), H. 

168. languida, id. 216. obesa, i</. 264. quadrata, Reeve. 

169. laqueata, zrf. 217. obesicostata, id. 265. quadrifasciata, Gray. 

170. leeta (Clav.), Hinds. 218. obliquicostata, id. 266. quisqualis (Clav.), H. 

171. laevigata, Pldlippi. 219. obtusa, «'<?. 267. Quoyi, Des Moulins. 

172. leucostoma, iteew. 220. occata (Clav.), Hind. 268. radula, Hinds. 

173. Leufroyi, Michaud. 221. occidentalis, Reeve. 269. rava (Clav.), Hinds. 

174. bnearis (Murex), M. 222. obvacea, Sow. 270. reflexa, Reeve. 

175. lineata, Zaw. 223. olyra, Reeve. 271. regia, itec£. 

176. lineolata, Gray. 224. ornata (Daphn,), H. 272. regularis, iteewe. 

177. lirata, Reeve. 225. Owenii, Gray. 273. reticulata, Bronn. 

178. livida, (i),?/hw.),M6.226. opalis, 22cew. 274. retusa (Clav.), Hind. 

179. Loeviana, Forbes. 227. oxytropis, &?w. 275. rigida (Clav.), id. 

180. luctuosa (Clav.), Hin. 228. pagodus, iteew. 276. Rissoides, Reeve. 

181. luteo-fasciata, Reeve. 229. paUiata, w?. 277. robusta (Clav.), H. 

182. lutescens, id. 230. palbda, $wo. 278. rosacea, Reeve. 

183. Lyciaca, Forbes. 231. papabs, ifeeve. 279. rosaria, ««?. 

184. Lymnaeaaformis, A"«>. 232. papillaris (Clav.), H.280. rosea, Sow. 

185. macrostoma, Reeve. 233. Paria, Reeve. 281. rubida (Clav.), II. 

186. maculosa, /Sow. 234. pardalis (Clav.), Hi. 282. rubiginosa(CTa».), ?rf. 

187. major, Gray. 235. partita (Conopl.), id. 283. rubinicolor, item*. 

188. margaritifera, id. 236. patula, ifeetfe. 284. rubricata, id. 

189. marmorata, Lam. 237. parvula, w?. 285. rubrifasciata, id,. 

190. maura, Sow. 238. paxillus, id. 286. rudis, Sow. 

191. merita (Clav.), Hind. 239. pentagonabs, Gray. 287. rugifera, m?. 

192. Metcalfiana, Reeve. 240. pessulata, Reeve. 288. rugulatus (2)^/1), Mo. 

193. metula (Clav.), Hind. 241. pellis-phocae, id, 289. rustica, Sow. 

194. micans (Clav.), id. 242. Perronii (Murex), Ch. 290. sacerdos, Reeve. 

195. mibtaris (Clav.), id. 243. Philberti, Michaud. 291. sacra, ^. 

196. minuta, Forbes. 244. Phibppinensis, ifeew. 292. saturata, zV/. 

197. Mitrasformis (Jf.),W. 245. pica, id. 293. scalaris (CZa».), H. 

198. Molleri, Reeve. 246. picta, Beck. 294. scalpta, ifoew. 

199. monile, Valen. 247. planilabrum, ifee»e. 295. scarabaeus, id. 

200. mucronata, Reeve. 248. plumbea (Clav.), H. 296. sculpta (Clav.), II. 

201. multipbcata, id. 249. pluricarinata, iZewe. 297. semen, Reeve. 

202. muricata, Lam. 250. pluteata, zY/. 298. semicostata, Kiener. 

203. mystica, ite#we. 251. polita (Clav.), Hinds. 299. semigranosa, Reeve. 

204. Nassoides, Gray. 252. Polynesiensis, Reeve. 300. septangularis(l/.),M. 



113 



301. sigillata, Reeve. 322. 

302. Sinensis (Clac), H. 323. 

303. sinistrals, Petit. 324. 

304. sinuosa, Gray. 325. 

305. sordida, Reeve. 226. 

306. speciosa, id. 327. 

307. spectabilis, id. 328. 

308. spectrum, id. 329. 

309. spicata (Clav.), Hin. 330. 

310. spirata, Lam. 331. 

311. splendidula, Sow. 332. 

312. spurca {Clav.), Hin. 333. 

313. stolida, Hinds. 334. 

314. striata, Kiener. 335. 

315. striolata, Scacchi. 336. 

316. Stromboides, Sow. 337. 
317.subula, /teew?. 338. 

318. suturalis, Bronn. 339. 

319. symmetrica, Reeve. 340. 

320. taxus {Murex), Chem. 341 . 

321. Tayloriana, Reeve. 342. 



teres, Forbes. 343. 

tessellata (CZ«w.), Hi. 344. 
Ticaonica, Reeve. 345. 
tigrina, Lam. 346. 

tincta, Reeve. 347. 

tricarinata, Valen. 348. 
trifasciata, Gray. 349. 
triticea, Kiener. 350. 

Tritonoides, Reeve. 351. 
tuberculata, Gray. 352. 
tuberculifera, Brod. 353. 
Turbinelloides, Reeve. 354. 
turgid a, Forbes. 355. 

turricula (Murex), G. 356. 
turns, -Sewe. 357. 

umbibcata (Dril.), M. 358. 
undaticostata, Reeve. 359. 
undosa, i«/#. 360. 

unedo, Valen. 361. 

unicolor, £o«\ 362. 

unimaculata, Sow. 363. 



unizonalis, Lam. 
urnula, Reeve. 
ustulata, id. 
Vahlii (Defr.), Mol. 
varicosa, Reeve. 
variculosa, /Sow. 
variegata, Kiener. 
Vauquelini, Payrau. 
vexillum, Reeve, 
venusta, id. 
vidua, id. 
violacea, LLinds. 
virginea, Beck. 
virgo, Lam. 
viridula (Defr.), Mol. 
vitrea, Reeve. 
vittata, id, 
vultuosa, id. 
zebra (Buc), Lam. 
zonata, Gray. 
zonulata, Reeve. 



Figure. 

Pleurotoma cryptorrhaphe. PI. 11. Fig. 50. Shell showing the 
aperture and fissure in the lip. — From Mr. Norris's collection. 



Genus 9. MANGELIA, Leach. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; Marginella-shaped or fusiform, mostly longitudinally 
ribbed, spire sometimes short, sometimes acuminately tur- 
reted ; lip and columella very finely rugosely denticulated, 
lip thickened, slightly sinuated at the upper part ; canal very 
short, more or less truncated. 

M. Deshayes passes a severe and somewhat merited reprimand upon M. 
Kiener, for having, in genus Cancellaria of his ' Iconographie/ winch pro- 
fesses to illustrate the shells contained in the Lamarckian collection, omitted 
mention of the C. citJiarella of that illustrious author, notwithstanding the 

Q 



114 

•authority " mon cabinet " attached to that species in the ' Animaux sans 
vertebres/ * It would certainly have been desirable if M. Kiener had 
published his reasons for this omission, for they were probably founded on 
the discovery that the shell in question is not only no Cancellaria at all, 
but that it is not referable to any genus hitherto established. Mr. 
Sowerby had already intimated that this shell belongs to another genus ; 
and M. Deshayes erroneously thinks, from Martini's figure, that it may 
be the young of Strombus plicatus. 

This " Fusus ad formam cithara compositus " of Martini, Cancellaria 
citharella of Lamarck, has been collected in various states by Mr. Cuming, 
at the Philippine Islands, together with upwards of fifty other closely allied 
species, the whole of which are new, and display a very striking association 
of character. In addition to these I have a new one from Australia, one 
from Sicily, some from the West Indies, collected by the Rev. Lansdowne 
Guilding, and five collected by Sir. E. Belcher, during the surveying expe- 
dition of the ' Sulphur/ described and figured by Mr. Hinds in the Zoology 
of that voyage; all of which have been published in the 'Conchologia 
Iconica/ under the head of MangeUa, a genus proposed some years since, 
in manuscript, by the late Dr. Leach of the British Museum, of which I 
find no published record. 

The MangeUa are nearest allied to those aberrant species of Plenrotoma 
in which the predominant character of that genus, the fissure in the upper 
extremity of the lip, becomes modified into a somewhat obscure sinus. 
Their general aspect is that of a more or less fusiform MargineUa without 
plaits or polished exterior ; distinguished, on the other hand, by a row of 
faint wrinkle-like denticulations on the inner surface of the lip and colu- 
mella, and a gutter-like sinus in the lip, at its junction with the body- whorl, 
in a manner similar to that of the Plenrotoma above referred to. 

It is rarely an author has the pleasure of introducing a whole genus of 
seventy new species, but such is the opportunity which the indefatigable 
exertions of Mr. Cuming have afforded me, with the exception of the one 
included by Lamarck with the Cancellaria, and the five published by Mr. 

* " II y a line autre coquille, la Cancellaria citharella de Lamarck, et dont M. Kiener ne 
parle pas dans sa Monographie. Une telle lacune est i'aebeuse dans un ouvrage aussi specialement 
consacre a l'illustration de la partie coucliyliologique des animaux sans vertebres. M. Sowerby 
suppose que cette coquille appartient a un autre genre, et si Ton s'eu rapporte a la figure cite'e de 
Martini, elle ne serait en eii'etqu'un jeune Strombe. II appartenait done a M. Kiener d'eclairer la 
science a ce sujet." 

And again, "M. Kiener nous laisse dans l'ignorance la plus complete a 1'e'gard de cette espece 
de Lamarck. Nous avons toujours ciu que l'un des buts que se proposait l'auteur du Species des 
coquilles, etait de donner des renseigmncuts positifs sur les especes de Lamarck, mises a sa dispo- 
sition. En s'abstenaut, M. Kiener ote gratuiteinent a son ouvrage ce qui lui aurait donne le plus 
d'interet, non-seulement aux yeux des simples amateurs, qui tous consultant les travaux de 
Lamarck, mais aussi a ccux des personnes qui font de bi science d'une maniere serieuse et qui 
recbercbent avec avidite tout ce qui pout les eclairer sur les especes de Lamarck. Cette Cancel- 
laria citharella, d'apres la figure de Martini, nous semble une jeune Strombus plicatus de 
Lamarck." — Deshayes, Animaux mux vertebres, vol. ix. p. 401 and 407. 



115 

Hinds in the ' Zoology of the Sulphur/ They were found by that eminent 
traveller under various circumstances, some on the reefs, some in concealed 
situations under stones, and some at depths varying from three to twenty- 
five fathoms. 

Species. 



1. abyssicola, Reeve. 


25. Dysoni, Reeve. 


48. obesa, Reeve. 


2. angulata, id. 


26. elegans, id. 


49. oryza, Hinds. 


3. Aniillaruni, id. 


27. fasciata, z'c?. 


50. pallida, Reeve. 


4. astricta, id. 


28. funebris, id. 


5 1 . pellucida, z77. 


5. badia, id. 


29. funiculata, i^. 


52. pessulata, z't?. 


6. balteata, id. 


30. fusiformis, id. 


53. planilabrum, id. 


7. Bertrandi (Pletir.), '. 


Pa. 31. gibbosa, id. 


54. ponderosa, id. 


8. bicolor, Reeve. 


32. Goodallii, Gray. 


5 5 . pulcbella, id. 


9. capillacea, id. 


33. gracilis, Reeve. 


56. pura, w?. 


10. casta, id. 


34. Ginnannia, Risso. 


57. pusilla, id. 


11. castanea, id. 


35. Hornbeckii, Reeve. 


58. pyramidalis, irf. 


12. cavernosa, id. 


36. interrupta, zrf. 


59. reticulata, id. 


13. Celebensis, Hinds. 


37. lineata, «?. 


60. rigida, id. 


14. cincta, Reeve. 


38. lamellata, id. 


61. Sicula, z¥. 


15. ciimamomea, Hinds. 


39. livida, «?. 


62. sobda, z¥. 


16. citharella {Cancel.), 


L. 40. lyra, id. 


63. Stromboides, ^. 


17. Columbelloides, Reeve. 41. lyrica, id. 


64. tseniata, id. 


18. Coniformis, Gray. 


42. maculata, id. 


65. tenebrosa, id. 


19. Conokehcoides, Reeve. 43. Marginelloides, id. 


66. timicula, z<?. 


20. coronata, Hinds. 


44. marmorosa, irf. 


67. vittata, Hinds. 


21. crassilabrum, Reeve. 


45. nana, id. 


68. vexillum, Reeve. 


22. cylindracea, ie?. 


46. NovEe-Hollandise, «?. 


69. Zebuensis, ^<5?. 


23. derelicta, id. 


47. obebscus, id. 


70. zonata, id. 


24. digitale, irf. 







Figure. 



Mangelia Marginelloides. PI. 11. Fig. 52. Shell showing both 
back and front views. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Q 2 



116 



Genus 10. FUSUS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk somewhat square and comparatively small, usually 

furnished with a, horny operculum acuminated towards the 

head; head very small, ivith tioo tentacles of moderate length 

in which the eyes are placed, sometimes at the base, sometimes 

toioards the middle. 

Shell ; ovately or elongately fusiform, nerves varicose, canalicu- 
lated at the base, canal sometimes very short ; columella smooth ; 
lip of the aperture generally denticulated. 

It is a feature in the canaliferous tribe of mollusks that a much greater 
variety of character for the formation of genera is presented in the shell 
than in the animal, and the same may be observed in regard to species. 
The soft parts of Fusus differ in no material degree from those of Murex, 
Triton, or Fleurotoma, the disk, head, and tentacles having the same general 
proportions, whilst the operculum of each is acuminated anteriorly in like 
manner ; and in the present genus, though one species may have a long 
turriculated shell, as in the F. longissimus, and another an ovate abbreviated 
shell, like that of F. despecim, there is no particular variation in the animal 
except in regard to bulk.* 

The genus Fusus has, on this account, been considered of somewhat 
doubtful importance ; the knowledge of this similitude in the animal has 
even elicited a sort of negative argument in favour of its abandonment, 
that might be applied with equal force to any group in the series. 
" Take away the columellar plaits from the greater portion of the Turbinetla," 
says M. Deshayes in the work quoted below, " and you make Fusi of them ; 
deprive the Tritons of their varices, and they become Fusi " it must, how- 
ever, be remembered, that the genera of this class, though systematic;) liy 
characterised by the presence or arrangement of the columellar plaits, are 
further distinguished, each by a distinct association of peculiarities. It needs 
no examination of the varices to distinguish a Murex from a Triton, or 
Ranetta, and still less of the columellar plaits, to discriminate between 
the solid tuberculated Turlriietlus and the comparatively delicately nodulous 
Fusus. The typical difference in the shells of Turbmellus and Fusus, apart 
from any consideration of the soft parts, must strike every observer ; and it 

* M. Deshayes inclines to think, from observations he lias had an opportunity of making on 
the living Fusus, that there is a difference in the position of the eyes corresponding to these 
divisions. " If the animals of a larger number of species were known," says that acute observer, 
"it is probable that the situation of the eyes would afford a character for the distinction of two 
natural groups, for it may be remarked that in those species which have a narrow elongated 
canal the eyes are at the base of the tentacles, but in the ovate short-canal species they arc 
upon the middle." — Anim. sans. vert. vol. ix. p. 442. 



117 

seems natural to conclude that the animal of the former must be of a much 
more sluggish habit and muscular growth than that of the latter. The 
Fasciolaria, again, are peculiar in their size and appearance, and may be 
identified by their style of painting, the striae of the aperture for example, 
as if there were some curious concordance in the distribution of the colouring 
matter from the calcifying glands of the mantle. 

If any subdivision of the genus Fusus be admitted, it may be made in 
favour of that group which includes the F. despectus, antiqmcs, and forni- 
catus ; these do not, however, appear to have that close affinity with the 
common Whelk of our shores, Buccinum undatwn, as observed by Muller, 
who has brought them together into his genus Tritonium. The F. Nifat, 
huec'matus, and aculeiformis have also a character peculiar to them. 

The long Spindle-shaped Fust are of an exceedingly graceful and delicate 
structure, and this, it may be presumed, the great Author of their existence 
intended should compensate for the absence of bright colours or variety of 
sculpture; all being merely more or less tinged with rust-brown, and 
strongly or faintly keeled and nodulous. One Spindle-shaped species is 
nevertheless distinguished as an exception by the pre-eminent beauty of 
its structure, in having each whorl surmounted by a diadem of erect, com- 
pressed scales.* 

The elongated Fusi are principally from the Eastern Seas, China, and 
New Holland ; the ovate species are from a colder region, and mostly 
European. 



1. acus, Adams fy Reeve. 

2. Afer, Lam. 

3. alternatus, Phil. 

4. angulatus, Grray. 

5. antiquus, Lam. 

6. aureus, Reeve. 

7. australis, Quoy. 

8. Bamffius, Brown. 

9. Beckii, Reeve. 

10. Blaiuvillii, Marav. 

11. Blosvillei, Deslt. 

12. brevicaudata, id. 

13. buxeus, Reeve. 

14. cselatus, id. 

15. Cancellarioides, id. 

16. cancellatus, id. 



Species. 

17. candelabrum, A. fy R. 

18. cinereus, Say. 

19. cinnamomeus, Reeve. 

20. clathratus, id. 

21. clausicaudatus, Hinds. 

22. colosseus, Lam. 

23. colus, id. 

24. contrarius, id. 

25. corallinus (Mur.) Scac. 

26. corneus, Desk. 

27. costatus, Pennant. 

28. craticulatus, DeBlain. 

29. crebricostatus, Lam. 

30. crebriliratus, Reeve. 

31. cretaceus, id. 

32. Cumingii, Jonas. 



33. deformis, Reeve. 

34. despectus, Lam. 

35. dilatatus, Quoy 8f Gain/.. 

36. distans, Lam. 

37. Dupetit-Thouarsii, Kie. 

38. exilis, Menke. 

39. ficula, Reeve. 

40. Fontainei, D'Orb. 

41. fornicatus, Gray. 

42. fragosus, Reeve. 

43. funiculatus, Lesson. 

44. Geversianus, Desk. 

45. gradatus, Reeve. 

46. gracillimus, A. $• R. 

47. keptagonalis, Reeve. 

48. incrassatus, Lam. 



* Fusus pagodus, Lesson, of which a magnificent specimen, collected by Captain Sir Edward 
Belcher during the voyage of H M.S. Samarang, in the Straits of Korea, is figured in 'Conch. 
Iconica,' Fusus, pi. viii. f. 32. 



118 



49. Japonicus, Gray. 

50. laciniatus, Desk. 

51. lanceola, Reeve. 

52. laticostatus, Desk. 

53. lignarius, Lam. 

54. lineatus, Quoy. 

55. lineolatus, Costa. 

56. longicauda, Zory. 

57. longissimus, Lam. 

58. lyratus, Desh. 

59. Mandarinus, Zwc£. 

60. marrnoratus, Phil. 

61. Mexicanus, Reeve. 

62. inirratus, Zes^. 

63. multicarinatns, Lam. 

64. multicostatus, Gray. 

65. myristicus, Reeve. 

66. Nicobaricus, Z«w?<. 

67. Nifat, id. 



68. nobilis, Reeve. 

69. nodosus, Zes/j. 

70. Norvegicus, Reeve. 

71. Novfe-Hollandiae, /'«?. 

72. oblitus, id. 

73. ocellifems, Bory. 

74. Oregonensis, Reeve. 

75. pagoda, Lesson. 

76. pallidus, #raf/. 

77. pastinaca, Reeve. 

78. Pleurotornarius, Co?i!?7. 

79. polygonoides, Zam. 

80. proboscidiferus, id. 

81. pulcbellus, P/«7. 

82. Purpuroides, LfOrb. 

83. pyrulatus, Reeve. 

84. rubens, Zam. 

85. rufiiSj Reeve. 



86. Sabini, Gray. 

87. sinistralis, Z«w. 

88. spectrum, J. fy R. 

89. Syracusanus, Lam. 

90. tessellatns, &$. ^ W. 

91. toreurna, Z<m. 

92. torulosus, id. 

93. tuberculatus, irf. 

94. tuberosus, Reeve. 

95. Tiirbinelloides, id. 

96. tumcula, Kiener. 

97. undatus, Zes^. 

98. ustulatus, Reeve. 

99. vaginatus, Z^s/i. 

100. ventricosus, Gray. 

101. virga, Gray. 

102. vittatus, Quoy. 

103. vulpinus {Mur.), Bor. 



Figure. 

Fusus Nicobaeicus. PI. 11. Fig. 53. Shell stowing the aperture, 
smooth columella, and elongate spindle-like canal. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 11. FASCIOLARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk oval, truncated in front, and provided at its poste- 
rior extremity toitli a horny acuminated operculum; head 
rather large, prolonged into a pair of tentacles, at the outer 
base of which are situated the eyes. 

Shell ; fusiform, or pear-shaped, sometimes of very large size, 
more or less channelled at the base, whorls most frequently 
tuberculated, never varicose ; columella more or less plaited at 
the base, lower plaits the larger, interior of the aperture very 
closely rayed with prominent elevated stria. 

The Fasciolaria, as observed in treating of Fusus, are closely allied to 
that genus in their character and habits, and may be scarcely said to differ, 
except in being of larger size, and in having a more solid fleshy disk, pro- 
portioned to the weight and substance of the shell. Though limited in 



119 

species they appear to constitute a very natural genus, distinguished by 
their large tubercular growth and brilliant display of colours ; there is also 
a character in the style of marking which obtains some importance from 
the circumstance of its being generally accompanied by numerous transverse 
lines in a manner peculiar to the genus, whilst the aperture is usually 
closely radiated with elevated lines. The columella of the shell is in this 
genus distinguished by oue or two plaits ranging obliquely at the base. 

The Fasciolar'm are pretty generally distributed, being found in Ceylon 
and the Philippine Islands, Australia, Western Africa, Panama, Mexico, 
and West Columbia, Honduras and the West Indies, the Mediterranean, 
Cape de Verd Islands, &c. 



Species. 

1. aurantiaca, Lam. 7. granosa, Brod. 12. porphyrostoma,^.t^.S. 

2. coronata, id. 8. lignaria (Mur.), Linn. 13. princeps, Sow. 

3. distans, id. 9. luguhris, A. Sf R. 14. salmo, Gray. 

4. filamentosa (Fus.), Mart. 10. papillosa, Sow. 15. trapezium (Mur.), Lin. 

5. fusiformis, Valenc. 11. Persica, Reeve. 16. tulipa, Lam. 

6. gigantea, Kiener. 



Figure. 

Persica. PI. 10. 
obliquely descenc 
Cuming. 



Fasciolaria Persica. PI. 10. Fig. 45. Shell showing the columella 
with its obliquely descending plaits. — From the collection of Mr. 



Genus 12. TURBINELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk rather short, thick, muscular, provided with a small 
horny acuminated operculum ; head fattened, terminating with 
two conical tentacles, which are rather stout at the base, and 
have the eyes situated at about two-thirds of their length ; at 
the lower part of the head is a slit, through ivhich passes a 
retractile trunk. The mantle, ivhich lines the interior of the 
shell in the usual manner, is prolonged into a fleshy siphon, 
ivhich passes through the sinus at the base of the shell. 

Shell; ovate or fusiform, rather solid, often ponderous, spire 
sometimes short, sometimes elongated, canal now very short and 



120 

recurved, now elongated and straight ; whorls generally ridged 
and tubercled, rarely smooth ; columella plaited, plaits com- 
pressed, one to Jive inches in number ; epidermis horny or 
fibrous. 

Apart from any consideration of the animal, the Turbinellm appear 
at first sight to be a compound of Voluta and Murex, the shell having the 
columella plaited in a manner resembling the former genus, whilst in 
general aspect it approaches rather to the latter. Linnseus referred some 
species to one group, some to the other ; but a comparison of the shells 
with those of Fusus and Fasciolaria will show a remarkable affinity passing 
into Murex, which is fully confirmed by the similarity in the animals of 
these genera. 

Though comparatively limited in species, the Turbinella are widely dis- 
similar in general appearance ; some are short and pear-shaped, and others 
elongated and fusiform ; all are characterised by a heavy, solid growth, 
with considerable depth of colour, and are divisible into five well-defined 
sections, of which the T. pi/rum, cornigera^ hifundibulum, polygona, and 
nassatula, may be regarded as types. The columellar plaits are irregular 
both in number and development, varying from a transverse to the oblique 
growth noticed in Fasciolaria. 

As a rare species of the first group above mentioned, the T. fusus in the 
British Museum is worthy of notice; of the second, the T. muricata, 
castus, and cassidiformis are fine examples ; of the third, the T. lanceolata 
is an elegant and rare instance ; and among the rarities verging upon the 
fourth and fifth groups may be noticed the T. vexittum and vexittidum, the 
T. Australiensis, the beautiful T. prismatica, which on being immersed in 
water throws out a delicate iridescent lustre, and two beautifully painted 
species, collected by Sir Edward Belcher, during the recent voyage of 
H. M.S. Samarang, T.picta and Belcheri.~\ 

The Tiirbinella are pretty widely distributed, but only in very warm 
climates ; none inhabit our own shores, nor do they approach the Mediter- 
ranean. The principal localities are the Philippine Islands, the Gallapagos, 
and other islands of the Pacific, Mauritius, Zanzibar, Panama, Ceylon, 
Acapulco, Rio Janeiro, and the West Indies. 



* The animal of Turbinella cornigera is of a deep purple, finely marbled with white, the 
colours being fainter towards the margin of the foot. The eye is distinct, and well-formed, 
having a black pupil and iris of a light yellow colour. It crawls with deliberation and apparent 
difficulty, seeming to labour under the weight of its heavy shell, as a tortoise does under that of 
its carapace. It is, moreover, of a very timid disposition, shrinking, also, like the tortoise, 
quickly within its shell on the slightest alarm. The specimen from which the foregoing obser- 
vations were taken, was procured in about a fathom water from a weedy bottom on the shores of 
Billitou, an island in the Java Sea, between Borneo and Sumatra.— Adams, Moll. Voy. Samarang. 

t All described and figured in the ' Conchologia Iconica.' 



121 



Species. 



1. acuminata, Kiewer. 


25. fastigium, .ff^ve. 


2. angularis, Reeve. 


26. filosa, Schubert. 


3. aplustre {Buc), Mart 


. 27. fusus, >Sb?^. 


4. arm at a, I?>W. 


28. gemmata, Reeve. 


5 . attenuata, Reeve. 


29. gibbula (J/w\), Gm. 


6. Australiensis, zW. 


30. globulus (Fo/.), Chem, 


7 . Barclayi, z'c?. 


31. gracilis, Reeve. 


8. Belclieri, £<#. 


32. imperialis, id. 


9. brevicaudata, id. 


33. incarnata, _D<?s/z. 


10. csestus, J5>'o^. 


34. infundibulum(i)/«/-.),G, 


11. candelabrum, Reeve. 


35. Knorrii, Desk. 


12. capitellum {Vol.), Lin. 36. lanceolata, Reeve. 


13. carinifera, Z«w. 


37. lauta, id. 


14. Cassidiformis, Valen. 


38. leucozonabs, Lam. 


] 5. castanea, Reeve. 


39. lyrata, Reeve. 


16. Ceramiea(7 o/.), Lin. 


40. macidata, w?. 


17. cerata, 6?ray. 


41. muricata {Vol.), Born. 


1 8 . cinerea, Reeve. 


42. nana, Reeve. 


19. cingulifera, Z«w. 


43. nassatula, Zara. 


20. concentrica, Reeve. 


44. Nassoides, Reeve. 


21. cornigera, Zjwm. 


45. nodata (Hue.), Mart. 


22. craticulata {Mur.), L. 


46. ocellata, Zam. 


23. cremdata, Kiener. 


47. ovoidea, Kiener. 


24. crocea, (r/wy. 


48. Philberti, i&Wtf.-. 



49. picta, Reeve. 

50. polygona {Mur.), Gm. 

51. prismatica {Bttc.), M. 

52. pulchella, Reeve. 

53. pyrum {Vol.), Linn. 
51. rapa, Zam. 

55. recurvirostris, ScJiub. 

56. rhinoceros, Z«?w. 

57. rudis, Reeve. 

58. sanguiflua, ?<?. 

59. scabrosa, zW. 

60. scolymos {Mur.), Gm. 

61. smaragdulus {Buc), L 

62. spadicea, Reeve. 

63. spinosa {Buc.), Mart. 

64. tectum {Buc), Gray. 

65. Tliersites, Reeve. 

66. triserialis, Zawa. 

67. tuberculata, J>Vor/. 

68. turrita {Vol.), Gm. 

69. ustulata, Reeve. 

70. varicosa, «?. 

71. vexillulum, w/. 

72. violacea, /f/. 



Figure. 

Turbinella imperialis. PI. 10. Tig. 48. Shell showing its tubercular 
structure, and columella distinguished by the transverse arrangement 
and irregularity of the plaits. — From, Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 13. CYRTULUS, Hinds. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; stoutly fusiform, solid and ponderous, with the spire acumi- 
nated and plicately noduled, last whorl smooth and remarkable 
for its elevated sivollen groioth around the tipper part , contracted 
tovjards the Joioer, the columella being excavated in a manner to 
correspond; base emarginated, slightly umbilicafed ; aperture 
linear, reaching nearly to the base of the spire. 



122 

The rude mis-shapen object for which the present genus was established, 
partakes of the character of Fusus, with a certain degree of resemblance 
to the Turbinella pyrum and its congeners, divested of their columellar 
plaits. It was collected by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher during the Yoyage 
of H.M.S. Sulphur, at Port Anna Maria, Nukuhiva, Marquesas, dredged 
at a depth of about nine fathoms, and upon its first appearance seemed 
rather to be a distorted individual of some unknown species of a more 
symmetrical plan of convolution; it was, however, described as a new 
genus by Mr. Hinds, Assistant-Surgeon of that Expedition, and, I believe, 
with correct judgment. Since that period two or three other specimens 
have presented themselves, each distinguished by the same peculiarity of 
growth. 

It will be observed that the spire of Cyrtidiis is characterized by a neat 
display of sculpture, and suddenly acuminated in the same curiously erect 
manner as in the Strombus Thersites ; the last whorl then assumes a rude 
swollen growth ; almost belonging, as it were, to another species, smooth, 
very thick, and ponderous, and rising in such a manner around the base of 
the spire as to give it a sunken half-buried appearance ; as if the calcifying 
organ of the animal wduch had elaborated the shell with so much beauty 
and symmetry in its pubescent state, had suddenly been charged to over- 
flowing, and its architectural faculties, so to speak, become nullified. An 
indication of tins sluggish obesity of growth may be often remarked in 
specimens of the Buccinum distortum. 

The specimens hitherto seen are all of one species. 



Figure. 

Cyrtulus serotinus. PL 11. Eig. 49. Shell showing its sharply acumi- 
nated sunken spire, and the ponderous obese growth of the last 
whorl. — From Sir Edward Belcher's collection. 



Genus 14. FASTIGIELLA, Reeve. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; elongately turreted, contracted and umbilicated at the 

base, aperture small, canalicidated, canal very short, somewhat 

twisted. 

This shell, for the reception of which I have found it necessary to institute 
the present genus, is of an entirely new form, differing generically, as well 



123 

as specifically, from any of the class to which it belongs. It is of an 
elongated, turreted growth, and may be said to partake in almost equal 
proportions of the characters of two genera somewhat removed from each 
other in the system, Turritella and Cerithium. As in TurriteUa, the shell 
is of a solid, spirally-ribbed structure, without any indication of varices, a 
condition not to be found in Cerithium, whilst it possesses a character 
which, excludes it from the family Turbinacea in having a short, umbilicated, 
twisted canal, different from that of the Cerithium,, for the passage of an 
elevated fold of the mantle. At the base the shell is not much unlike 
some species of Baccinum, but it is remarkable for its elongated Turritella- 
like growth. It is, moreover, to all appearance the production of a carnivo- 
rous gasteropod, and more strictly referable to the Canaliferous tribe than 
the Cerithia, which, according to Deshayes, are vegetable-feeders, and 
partake in many instances of the fresh-water habits of the Melania. 

Unfortunately Mr. Cuming is not in possession of any information re- 
specting the shell, either touching the aminal or its place of habitation, 
and it only remains to observe that I have not as yet found a second 
species. 

Figure. 

Fastigiella carinata. PL 10. Fig. 46. Shell showing its umbilicus, 
short twisted canal and elongated turreted growth. 



Genus 15. CERITHIUM, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; disk small, nearly orbicular ; head truncated beneath, 
bordered with a fringe, and furnished with two pointed tentacles 
bearing the eyes upon a swollen portion of their outer base. 

Shell ; turreted, prominently channelled at the base, mostly rough 
or tuberculated, composed of numerous whorls forming a regu- 
spire, often exhibiting an occasional varix, and in fresh- 
water species, frequently eroded or decollated at the apex ; 
columella arched with sometimes a reflected fold, constituting 
the edge of the recurved canal. 

The genus Cerithium is one of rather anomalous character, from the cir- 
cumstance of some of the species being of marine habit, others of fluviatile; 

i; i 



124 

those which dwell in the sea, constituting the more numerous portion, are 
of a heavy solid growth, exhibiting a certain delicacy of colour and 
marking, and are, probably carnivorous ; but those which inhabit fresh or 
brackish water at the mouths of estuaries, or live in swamps among the 
roots of trees, are of a lighter growth and mostly of a uniform, dull brown 
colour, covered with a horny epidermis. These are herbivorous, and may 
often be found suspended from the branches of trees by a mass of silken 
threads, which the animal has the faculty of depositing as a means of attach- 
ment. Tins peculiarity in the habits of Cerithmm Avas first observed 
some time since in the West Indies, by the Eev. Lansdowne Guilding ; 
it has also been described by Dr. Trail in a Natural History Journal 
recently published at Singapore, and by Mr. Adams during his visit to 
Borneo in the Saniarang.* 

The shell of the CeritJiia is of an elongated lanceolate form, not 
symmetrically fluted and turbinated like Turritella, but of rather rude 
growth, frequently presenting here and there a varix, and mostly coronated 
with tubercles or other coarse sculpture; the chief peculiarity in its 
structure is the strong twisted, recurved growth of the canal. The species 
are very numerous, and inhabit all climates within the mean temperature 
of the Mediterranean ; in a fossil state they are still more abundant, and 
afford much research for the geologist. 

The magnificent example selected for illustration is of very large size for 
a marine species ; it is extremely rare, and I cannot learn that it has been 
named or described. 



* The characters of the animal recited at the head of this genus are those of Lamarck, the 
following are of more recent date, and the residt of local observation : — 

The animal of Cerithmm truncatum has a broad, suborbieular, and expanded foot, and an 
elongated, subcylindrical, aunulated trunk of a light brown colour, with three rather broad, well- 
defined, opaque yellow lines extending along its upper, surface, the central one of which reaches 
from the head to very near the extremity of the proboscis, where it is bifid, the two forks 
diverging. The two lateral lines are shorter, not bifid at their extremities, and extend forward 
on the head to within a little distance of the origin of the tentacles. The tentacles are very 
short, aunulated with the eyes, which are small, though with a distinct iris and pupil situated at 
their tip ; whereas in all other Cmthia that have come under my observation, they are placed 
ou tubercles situated on the outer side of the base of the tentacles, or on the tentacles themselves 
at a little distance from their origin. The foot is of a light pinky brown ou its upper surface, 
mottled with a deep rich brown, and on the under surface is lilac. It is found generally in 
brackish water in Mangrove swamps, and the mouths of rivers in Singapore and Borneo. Some- 
times they crawl on the stones and leaves in the neighbourhood, and sometimes they are found 
suspended by glutinous threads to boughs and the roots of the Mangroves. The operculum is 
round, horny, with a central nucleus and concentric elements; it is semi-transparent, and borne 
upon the posterior part of the foot at its extreme end. When the animal hybernates, it retracts 
itself into the shell and brings its operculum to fit closely into the aperture, after having 
previously affixed sixty or seventy glassy, transparent, glutinous threads to the place of attach- 
ment, where they occupy the outer or right lip, and extend half-way around the operculum. 

There is another very handsome species, closely allied to the foregoing, which I have frequently 
found crawling languidly on the leaves of the Fontedera and sedges in the fluviatile marshes on 
the banks of rivers in several parts of Borneo, and many miles in the interior, where the water 
is perfectly fresh, which has the eyes likewise terminal, and the proboscis marked with crimson 
and yellow. The foot is very dark brown, and has n vivid scarlet line extending round the lower 
margin. Adams, Moll. I'm/. Samarang. 



125 



1. Adansoni, Brug. 

2. adustum, Kiener. 

3. adversum, Brown. 

4. aluco, Brug. 

5. asperum, id. 

6. atratum, id. 

7. australe, Q/wg. 

8. breve, id. 

9. breviculum, Sow. 

10. Cailliaudi, Pot.fyMic. 

11. clava, .Srwy. 

12. columna, Sow. 

13. conicum, Blain. 

14. corallinum, Kiener. 

15. crassum, Zow. 

16. decollatum, ifrwy. 

17. Diemenense, Quog. 

18. dislocatum, #ay. 

19. ebeninum, Brug. 

20. eburneum, id. 

21. echinatum, Z«»2. 

22. elegans, Blain. 

23. Emersonii, Adams. 

24. erythraeoneuse, Z«»2. 

25. fasciatum, Brug. 

26. i'eiTugi ueum, #ay. 

27. fluviatile, Po^. #■ McA. 

28. giganteum, Lam. 

29. sranarium, Kiener. 



Species. 

30. granulatum, Kiener. 

31. Guariaimm, IP Orb. 

32. heteroclites, Z«w. 

33. inflation, Qwoy. 

34. laeve, id. 

35. Lafondi, Michaud. 

36. lernniscatum, Qwoy. 

37. Lima, Brug. 

38. Lmeatum, Zot«. 

39. literatum, Brug. 

40. lutulentum, Kiener. 

4 1 . maculosum, &?. 

42. Madagascariense, Bl. 

43. Mediterraneum, Desli. 

44. microptera, Kiener. 

45. minutum, Nuttall. 

46. nioniliferum, Kiener. 
47.Montagnei, D'OrS. 

48. moras, Zaw. 

49. muricatum, Brug. 

50. muscarum, Sag. 

51. mutatum, /Sow. 

52. nobile, Reeve. 

53. nerinea, Blain. 

54. nodulosa, jSw/^. 

55. obeliscus, Brug. 

56. obtusum, Zam. 

57. ocellatum, Brug. 

58. Pacificum, /Sow;. 



59. palustre, Brug. 

60. perversum, Lam. 

61. Peruvianum, J)' Orb. 

62. pictum (Mur.), Wood. 

63. punctatum, Brug. 

64. pusillum, Nuttall. 

65. radix, ZV/o. 

66. radida, ZV«y. 

67. reticulatum, Totten. 

68. rub us, Desk. 

69. rugosum, Kiener. 

70. semiferrugiueum, Z#?«. 

71. semigranosum, /a 7 . 

72. septemstriatum, Sag. 

73. Sowerbyi, Kiener. 

74. subulatum, Z«?«. 

75. sulcatum, Brug. 

76. telescopium, /a 7 . 

77. tamiaturu, Quog. 

78. torulosum, Brug. 

79. tristoma, Blain. 

80. tuberculatum, Z«?m. 

81. turritella, Q«oy. 

82. uncinatum, Desk. 

83. varicosum, Sow. 

84. variegatum, Qwoy. 

85. vertagus, Brug. 

86. vulgatum, itf 7 . 

87. zouale, id. 



Figure. 



Cerithium nobile. PL 12. Pig. 59. Shell showing its elongated 
growth, small aperture, and spouted canal. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 16. TRIPHORIS, Deshayes. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell; small, sometimes cylindrically, sometimes pyramidally elon- 
gated, sinistral, terminating at the base in a tubular spouted 
canal, recurved backward*, aperture small and round. 



126 

The genus Triphoris was instituted by M. Deshayes for the reception of 
a small fossil Cerithium, of winch the C. perversum of the Mediterranean 
appears to have been the first-described recent species ; it is, however, to 
the zeal of Capt. Sir Edward Belcher and the ability of Ins assistant, 
Mr. Hinds, during the voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur, that we are maiuly 
indebted for bringing this interesting group into notice. On the occasion 
of that Expedition visiting the Straits of Malacca, New Guinea, and New 
Ireland, several important species were obtained, all distinctly characterised 
in manner following. - * 

The Triphores are small spirally attenuated shells, the species figured 
being magnified and one of very large size, and nearly all are reversed ; 
coupled with this peculiarity is that of the canal being prolonged back- 
wards, in the form of a spouted tube, whilst the aperture is extremely 
small, and closes near the body-whorl in such a manner as to form another 
minute tube or the rudiment of one. This third aperture, whence the 
name Triphoris, is rarely more than indicated by a sinus or slight fold, 
and it is probably in consequence of the living species of the Mediterranean 
and the fossil type of the genus representing the extremes of this character, 
that M. Deshayes has considered the Lamarckian Cerithium perversum 
inadmissible. The species are distinguished by a remarkable variety of 
sculpture, developed in most of them with peculiar force and neatness. 

In addition to the localities mentioned above, two or three species were 
collected in the West Indies by the Eev. Lansdowne Guilding ; " on the 
west of America," says Mr. Hinds, " though much attention was bestowed 
on small shells during the voyage of the Sulphur, not a single specimen 
was found." 



1. adversus, Deshayes. 

2. semulans, Hinds. 

3. affinis, id. 

4. asperrimus, id. 

5. bilix, id. 

6. cancellatus, id. 

7. candidus, id. 

8. Carteretensis, id. 

9. castus, id. 

10. clemcns, id. 

11. ccelebs, id. 



Species. 

12. concmnus, Hinds. 

13. concors, id. 

14. corrugatus, id. 

15. elegans, id. 

16. gigas, id. 

17. Grayii, id. 

18. lrilaris, id. 

19. rnarmoratus, id. 

20. rnaxillaris, id. 

21. Metcalfei, id. 



22. micans, Hinds. 

23. monilifer, id. 

24. perversus, Deshayt 

25. roseus, Hinds. 

26. ruber, id. 

27. sculptus, id. 

28. tristis, id. 

29. vitreus, id. 

30. vittatus, id. 

31. vulpinus, id. 



* A few species will be described by Mr. Adams and myself, in addition to these, in the 
forthcoming 'Mollusea of the Voyage of ll.M S. Samarang.' 



127 



Figure. 

Triphoris grandis. PL 12. Pig. 55. Shell magnified to twice the natural 
size, showing its reversed growth, rounded aperture, and recurved 
tubular canal. 



Family 6. PARASITICA. 

Animal ; marine, parasitic, living imbedded in the soft parts of 
the Star Fish, and producing a thin hyaline turbinated shell. 

The family Parasitica is one which I had occasion to propose about 
five years since, in my ' Conchologia Systematica/ for the introduction 
of a genus, well known to English conchologists but ill-understood on 
the continent, named Stilifer, representing a small pectinibranchiate mol- 
lusk, so peculiar in its habits that it could not be referred with propriety 
to any of the existing groups. Mr. Gray includes the genus in his familv 
Natieidce, but as the shell is very different in its structure and turbinate 
growth from any of the Natica tribe, and the character and affinities of the 
animal do not appear to be fully comprehended, I shall not at present 
venture upon any removal. 

Of the species known, all appear to belong to one genus though mate- 
rially differing in the form of the shell, and they are remarkably distin- 
guished by their parasitic habit of growth, living imbedded in the soft 
parts of the Star Pish, from the juices of which it is believed they obtain 
nourishment. 



Genus 1. STILIFER, Broderip. 

Animal; disk narrow, slender, very much produced beyond the 
head in front and but little extended behind ; head small, 
rounded, with two elongate subulate tentacles having the eyes 
on the outer side of their base ; mantle wholly contained ivithin 
the shell. 

Shell; extremely thin, hyaline, transparent, either globose con- 
sisting of few whorls, or elongated composed of many ; apex 
elevated, obtuse, and mostly bent or rudely twisted; aperture 
entire below, slightly sinuated at the upper part with the lip 
extremely thin and delicate. 

The interesting little parasite which forms the subject of this genus was 



128 

collected by Mr. Cuming at Lord Hood's Island, one of the Gallapagos, 
imbedded in the soft parts of a Star Fish, and a species has been recently 
obtained by Mr. Adams, under precisely similar circumstances, on the 
coast of Borneo. The Stilifer, though known for more than half a century 
by a figure of Chemnitz,* was not described by Lamarck, nor is it men- 
tioned by M. Deshayes in his new edition of that author ; it was, however, 
known by the name of Phasianella stylifera to Turton, who found a dozen 
attached to the spines of an Echinus in Torbay ; and Fleming describes it 
under the head of Velutina, whilst recording his opinion that it might be 
elevated to the rank of a genus with the appellation of Stylina. Tins 
name being already in use for a genus of polyps, Mr. Broderip, to whose 
skilful care Mr. Cuming intrusted the Star Fish collected by him with the 
mollusk in situ, adopted the title of Stilifer. The description of the 
animal given by tins accomplished naturalist from the dissections of 
Professor Owen,t varies materially from that of Mr. Adams published in 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; the former describes the mantle 
as being thick, fleshy, and cup-shaped, completely enveloping the last two 
or three who'rls of the shell ; % tlie latter conceives tins external organ to be 
the foot, and the mantle to be very small, concealed within the shell, as 
described at the head of this genus in his own words. || 

As a solitary instance of a mollusk dwelling and propagating within the 
fleshy substance of another animal, the Stilifer is an object of great 
interest ;§ the shell is as delicate and transparent as a glass bubble, and 
it is curious that whilst one species, S. Astericola, should be almost as 



* Helix corallina, Chemn. Conch. Cab. vol.xi. p. 286. pi. 210. f. 1284-5. 

t Conch. Syst. vol. ii. p. 175. pi. 225. f. 8 to 12. 

X This mantle (which ia Stil. Astericola is of a green hue,) is thick, fleshy, and cup-shaped, 
with a small aperture at its base and a free posterior margin, enveloping the soft parts and the 
last whorls of the shell, which has thus somewhat the appearance of a small acorn set in its cup. 
On the ventral aspect of this mantle is the rudiment of a foot ; and from the small basal aperture 
a retractile proboscis (which when exserted is as long as the whole animal) is protruded. At 
the base of this proboscis are two thick, round, somewhat pointed tentacula ; and at the base 
of them are the eyes or rather ocular specks without pedicles. The branchia is placed on a 
single stem. At the base of the proboscis is a spherical muscular stomach, and the intestine 
ascends into the spire of the shell, where it becomes attached to the liver, which, in the present 
species, is of an orange colour. — Pro. Zool. Soc. 

|| Mr. Gray noticed in his ' Synopsis ' that " what has been called the enlarged mantle appears 
like the foot," and as Mr. Adams' observations are drawn from the living individual, whilst 
Mr. Broderip's were from a contracted specimen in spirits, it is highly probable that he is right. 

§ Mr. Cuming fouud this elegant little parasite burrowed in different parts of the rays of the 
oral disk of Asterias Solaris, Gray, where it is almost hidden from sight, so deeply does the 
animal penetrate into the substance of the Star Fish, in which it makes a comfortable cyst for 
itself, wherein it most probably turns by the aid of its rudimentary foot. All the specimens 
infested with Sliliferi appeared to be in the best health, though there is reason to believe that 
these Mollusca feed upon the juices of the Star Fish. With that instinct of self-preservation 
imparted to all parasites whose existence depends upon that of their nidus, the Stilifer, like the 
Ichneumon among insects, appears to avoid the vital parts ; for, in no instance did Mr. Cuming 
find it imbedded anywhere save in the rays, though some had penetrated at their base and very 
near the pelvis. When extracted, the older shells have much the appearance of a milky-clouded 
glass bubble : the younger shells are of an unclouded transparency. — Pro. Zool. Soc. 1S32. 



129 

round as a pea, another, S. stihulata, should be long and tuberculated ; 
both forms, however, exhibit the peculiar elevation of the apex after the 
manner of a rude mammillary style or column. 



Species. 

1. Astericola, Broderip. 3. pyramidalis, Reeve. 

2. corallina {Helix), Chemn. 4. subulata, Sowerby. 

5. stylifera (Phasianella), Turton. 



Figure. 

Styliper pyramidalis. PI. 12. Fig. 56. Shell, showing the aperture 
and transparent glassy structure. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Family 7. TURBINACEA. 

Shell ; tuberculated, either conical or elongately turriculated, some- 
times closely sometimes loosely convoluted ; aperture entire at 
the base, with no indication of any sinus. 

We now pass to a division of the pectinibranchiate order of Gastropods 
distinguished by their less voracious habits, and the more tubularly convo- 
luted structure, of their shell. They are rarely provided with any proboscis 
like the carnivorous tribes of this order, and exist chiefly, if not altogether, 
on vegetable matter ; hence, as a general rule, their shell is less solid, 
though rarely fragile. 

The genera of this family, amounting to twenty in number, correspond 
in a manner to the Linnsean Troches and Turbo, and the shell is mostly 
lined with an iridescent pearly nacre. The varieties of coloured beaded 
sculpture are most diversified in Trochus, whilst in Phasianella and Ban- 
kivia a bright array of colours is exhibited on a plane surface, without 
the aid of sculpture. The resources of architectural ornament are perhaps 
nowhere more beautifully represented than in Lelphinula, in one species 
of which genus the tubercles are prolonged into a lofty diadem of vaulted 
spines. In Scalaria a singular effect is produced by a periodical deposit 
of the reflected margin of the aperture, leaving the whorl encircled by so 
many rings. In Phorus the annual exercises the remarkable property of 
agglutinating to the surface' of its shell the various debris of corals, shells, 
or stones it may be in contact with ; and each species shows a different 
modification of tlus habit. 

By far the larger portion of the Turbinacea are inhabitants of the Eastern 
World. 



130 



The following is a list of the genera, to which all the species of Turbi- 
nacea at present known may be referred : — 



turritella. 
Phasianella. 
Elenchus. 
Bankivia. 

LlTTOItlNA. 

Margarita. 
Turbo. 



Trochus. 
Trochiscus. 
monodonta. 
morultjs. 

EOTELLA. 
PllORUS. 

Solarium. 



Delphinula. 

scalaria. 

monoptigma. 

EULIMA. 

Bonellia. 

lllSSOA. 



Genus 1. TURRITELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk short, oval, surmounted by a stout pedicle which 
serves as a support for the head and enters the shell ; head 
prolonged into a cylindrical rather flattened trunk, broad at the 
base and cleft at its anterior extremity ; tentacles elongated, 
with the eyes at the outer base ; mantle forming a fringed ring 
or collar, variously ornamented according to the species, through 
which the head passes in and out of the shell. Operculum 
horny, multispiral. 

Shell; very long, narrow, lurreted ; ivhorls numerous, generally 
transversely, never longitudinally, ribbed, devoid of spines or 
tubercles, convoluted into a spiral screiv ; aperture small, some- 
what round, loith the margins disjoined, lip sharp, never re- 
flected, broadly sinuated toivards the upper part. 

In speaking of the genus Terehra (ante p. 55), I observed that " the 
shell of Turritella has very much the form of Terehra, but the aperture is 
round and entire ; so that Terehra may be likened to a very long drawn-out 
Buccimm, and Turritella to a similarly elongated Turbo." The comparison 
cannot, however, be continued with the same force, for the shell of Turbo is 
of a solid pearly composition, whilst that of Turritella is not, and the animals 
are somewhat dissimilar,, though the shell of both is alike distinguished by 
its rounded aperture and by the absence of any basal canal or sinus. It 
is, indeed, a matter of doubt whether so much importance can be attached, 
as hitherto, to the canaliculated structure of shells. According to the 
observations of M. Deshayes and MM. Quoy and Gaimard, there must be 
a closer relationship than has been yet 'acknowledged between the Turri- 
tella and the Cerithia and Melanice, although the shell of one genus is 



131 

simple and entire, whilst that of the other is characterized by a strongly 
recurved canal.* 

The Turritella, are apparently a strong muscular group of mollusks, the 
disk being surmounted by a stout pedicle, by the strength of which the 
shell is borne up at an angle, and not allowed to trail upon the ground, 
as in the Cerithia and other elongated forms. MM. Quoy and Gaimard 
also notice a peculiarity in the mantle, which is prolonged into a fringed 
ring or collar, through which the head passes in and out of the shell. 

The genus is somewhat limited in species compared with Cerithium or 
Terehra, and the shells exhibit little variation of colour. They are all of a 
more or less sombre hue, though none are very dark, but may be admired 
on account of the beautiful symmetry of their graduated screw-like pro- 
portions. 

The Turritellre inhabit both the East and West Indies, and one or two 
species occur on the coast of Senegal and New Holland. 



1. acutangula, Beskayes. 

2. alternata, Say. 

8. australis, Lamarck. 

4. bicingulata, Lamarck. 

5. bisuturalis, Say. 

6. brevialis, Lamarck. 

7. Broderipiana, Li 1 Orb. 

8. carinifera, Lamarck. 

9. cingulata, Sowerby. 
10. cornea, Lamarck. 



Species. 

11. duplicata, Lamarck. 

12. erosa, Courthouy. 

13. exoleta, Lamarck. 

14. fuscata, Lamarck. 

15. granosa, Quoy. 

16. imbricata, Lamarck. 

17. impressa, Say. 

18. ligar, Beskayes. 

19. mesal, Beskayes. 



20. nodulosa, King. 

21. replicata, Lamarck. 

22. rosea, Quoy. 

23. spirata, Sowerby. 

24. terebra, Lamarck. 

25. tricarinata, King. 

26. trisulcata, Lamarck. 

27. ungulina, Beskayes. 

28. virginiana, Lamarck. 



Figure. 

Turritella picta. Plate 11. Fig. 51. Shell, showing the symmetrical 
screw-like convolution of the whorls and rounded aperture, with its 
margin entire. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



* If we make an actual comparison of the animal of Turritella with that of Turbo and 
Trochus, we find the differences between them to be too great to allow of their being any longer 
maintained in the same family. By extending the comparison to the Cerithia, we immediately 
recognise a much closer analogy between Turritella and that genus, than coidd be at first 
imagined. The Cerithia are not zoophagous, as Lamarck believed ; their mode of living and 
organization prove it. The comparison may be further extended to the Melanice and Melanop- 
sicles which inhabit fresh water. I have already indicated (Encyclopedic Methodique) the 
relation which may be traced between the Melanice and the Turritella and Cerithia, and the 
observations of MM. Quoy and Gaimard are confirmative of this opinion. To explain in a word 
what I mean by a comparison, which is not, however, altogether exact, I may say that the 
Melanice are to the Turritella what the Neritiiice are to the Neritce, and the Melauopsides to 
the Cerithia. — Deshayes, Anim. sans vert, vol ix. p. 250. 

s2 



132 



Genus 2. PHASIANELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk narrow, head somewhat prolonged, tentacles long 
and narrow, with the eyes situated on pedicles at the outer 
base; mantle ornamented with three pairs of digitated pro- 
cesses, and produced above the head into a conspicuous fringed 
collar. Operculum calcareous, ear-shaped. 

Shell ; ovately oblong, smooth, polished, spire regular, columella 
roimded, aperture oval, lip entire, acute, never reflected. 

The genus Phasianetta includes a small group of mollusks, comprising 
a few species only, mainly characterized by the peculiar texture and aspect 
of their shell. The soft parts are not unlike those of the preceding genus 
of Turbinacea, excepting that the distinguishing features of the family are 
more prominently developed. The fringed collar, described in Turritella, 
forms a striking object in the annual of Phasianella, and its narrowed 
disk is further distinguished by three pairs of digitated processes. The 
shell is of a very different structure, and has long excited the admiration 
of collectors, by its highly polished porcelain surface and beautifully varie- 
gated painting. The operculum is moreover ear-shaped and calcareous. 

The Phasianellce live most abundantly in the situations they inhabit, 
and all the larger species with which we are familiar are from the continent 
of New Holland ; there is a small species, P. pidla, found on our own 
coast, one, I believe, in the West Indies, and one in the Mediterranean. 



1. ambigua, Nuttall. 

2. angulifera, Lister. 

3. brevis, Menke. 

4. clegans, Lamarck. 

5. inflexa, Blainville. 

6. Lehmanni, Menke. 

7. lineata, Lamarck. 

8. marmorata, Ditfo. 



Species. 

9. Mauritiana, Lamarck. 

10. nebulosa, Lamarck. 

11. perdix, Gray. 

12. Preissii, Menke. 

13. pulchella, Recluz. 

14. pulla, Sowerby. 

15. rubens, Lamarck. 

16. solida, Deshayes. 



17. sulcosa, Mighels. 

18. tenuis, Michattd. 

19. varia, Sowerby. 

20. variegata, Lamarck. 

21. venusta, Reeve. 

22. Vieuxii, Payrwudeau. 

23. vinctus, Brown. 



Figure. 

Phasianella venusta. Plate 12. Fig. 58. Shell, showing the aperture 
and variegated porcelain surface. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



133 

Genus 3. ELENCHUS, Humphrey. 

Animal ; ? 

Shell ; conical, pyramidal, but not flattened at the base, whorls 
convex, margins disjoined. Substance of the shell a stout 
horny periostracum, lifted with a thin bright iridescent nacre. 

The term Elenchus has been applied for some years past to a group of 
shells somewhat limited in number, but very deserving of generic honour. 
Though uniform in shape, the species are perhaps most distinguished for 
the peculiarity of their composition, being little calcareous and richly 
iridescent. The typical character of the genus may be recognised in the 
well-known Trochus iris, so remarkable for the brilliant iridescence of its 
pearly nacre ; the species here selected for illustration is another equally 
distinguished in this respect, and there are several interesting small species, 
composing Mr. Gray's genus Thalotia, from New Holland. 



For list of species of tins and other imperfectly named genera, which the 
author proposes to work out in the Conchologia Iconica, see Appendix. 



Figure. 

Elenchus circulatus. PL 12. Pig. 57. Shell, showing its pyramidally 

ovate form and iridescent interior. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 4. BAN KI VI A, Deshayes. 

Animal; ? 

Shell ; elongated, subulate, with the surface polished, somewhat 

porcellanous, columella thickened, rolled over, twisted, truncated 

at the base ; aperture rather small, lip thin. 

Such is the generic description of a shell of winch there are several 
differently coloured varieties, but only one species, which has been mixed 
up along with the Troclins iris in the genus Elenchus. It appears to have 
been first distinguished by M. Deshayes in PL 70. Fig. 8, of his 'Traite 
Elementaire de Conchyliologie ' and, as I learn, was intended as the type 



134 

of a new genus, for which he proposed the name Bankivia. To the great 
loss of Conchology that important work remains still incomplete, the text 
never reached so far as to include the present genus, and I am not aware 
that any publicity has yet been given to it. 

The shell of Bankivia, it will be observed, has few characters in common 
with Elenchiis ; it has apparently no epidermis, and is of the same por- 
cellanous structure as PhasianeMa, sometimes banded with deep red and 
purple, sometimes, as in the variety selected for illustration, painted with 
fine zigzag lines. The columella presents, however, the most important 
generic feature, in being thickly rolled and twisted, truncated at its junc- 
tion with the lip, which is thin and not reflected. The interior of the shell 
is faintly iridescent. 



Figure. 

Bankivia purpurascens. PI. 2. Fig. 61. Shell, showing the truncated 
columella. 



Genus 5. LITTORINA, Ferussac. 

Animal ; disk small, thin at the edge and nearly circular, almost 
concealed by the shell, furnished behind with a horny blackish 
operculum ; head somewhat thickened, prolonged into a conical 
snout, which is transversely wrinkled and cleft at the extremity 
by the mouth ; tentacles conical, broad at the base, at the outer 
sides of which are situated the eyes. 

Shell ; turbinated, not pearly, small, mostly rather solid, columella 
somewhat flattened, arched ; aperture rotundately ovate, margins 
disjoined, lip sharp, sometimes slightly expanded. 

The common Periwinkle of our shores, LiUorina vulgaris, may be 
referred to as a familiar type of this very natural group, including a multi- 
tude of species of which many remain to be described. Lamarck con- 
founded some with the Turbines, some with the PhasianeMa, and even 
De Ferussac, after founding the genus, left it not a little confused through 
the introduction of several Paludina, which have for the most part thinner 
shells, and are not of the same marine habits. 

The general aspect and composition of the shells of the Littorina seem 
to indicate sufficiently that they belong to an animal dissimilar from 
PhasianeMa, and so it proves to be; it is comparatively smaller, with a 



135 

more proboscis-like head, and has no fringed collar or digitated processes. 
The shell differs from Phasianetta in not possessing the same beautiful 
porcelain surface, but on the contrary numerous varieties of sculpture, 
and from Turbo in being of uniformly smaller size, and never pearly. 

The Littorina appear to be very generally distributed in both hemi- 
spheres, but it will not be possible to notify their localities, or form an 
estimate of their number, until the species have been collected and named. 
"They dwell," says M. Deshayes, "as their title indicates, on the rocks 
along shore, and are almost always out of the water, placing themselves 
within reach of the spray." 

The miscellaneous assemblage of genera comprehended in the family 
Littorinidce of Mr. Gray's Synopsis, have but a remote affinity with the 
group represented by the present genus. 



For List of Species see Appendix. 



Figure. 

Littorina pulchra. PI. 12. Fig. 60. Shell, showing its rounded-ovate 
aperture and slightly expanded lip. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 6. MARGARITA, Leach. 

Animal ; similar to that of Trochus.* 

Shell ; turbinated, sometimes rather depressed, sometimes large!// 
umbilicated, outer surface smooth, /polished, with, in many in- 
stances, a shining horny epidermis, inner surface delicately 
pearly, iridescent ; margins disjoined, lip simple, acute. Oper- 
culum horny, spiral. 

The animal of this genus, according to the testimony of M. Deshayes, 
differs in no respect from that of Trochus, yet the shell presents a singular 
peculiarity of character, constant alike in all the species. They are, how- 
ever, susceptible of being divided into two very distinct groups, one of 
rather light spiral structure, largely umbilicated, of very much the form of 
Cyclostoma, the other, to winch the species selected for illustration belongs, 

* Fide Deshayes. " Grace a 1' extreme obligeaucc de M. Janclle, nous avons de Spitzberg 
T animal d' ime espece qui pourrait eutrer dans le genre Margarita, et cet animal ue dillere en 
rien de eelui de Trochus." — Anim. sans vert, vol ix. p. 185. 



136 

of more solid growth, having a porcellanous surface with the umbilicus 
filled up by a callous deposit. The first of these affect a northern latitude, 
and are amongst the most conspicuous of the molluscous fauna of Green- 
land and Spitzbergen ; they exhibit little variety of colouring and no 
pattern, being mostly of a uniform yellowish olive or pale brown. The 
last are apparently inhabitants of a warmer region, of more striking colours 
and prettily striped ; the M. tceniata, for example, is encircled by fillets of 
bright red, and the M. pulchella by alternate bands and lines of dark 
violet blue. 



1. acuminata, Soioerby. 

2. arctica, Leach. 

3. carnea, Soioerby. 

4. costellata, id. 

5. expansa, id. 

6. Grcenlandica, Beck. 



Species. 
7. minutissima, Mighels. 13. tseniata, Soiverby. 



8. pulchella, Reeve. 

9. sigaretina, Soioerby. 

10. Solariiformis, id. 

11. striata, Brod. & Sow. 

12. sulcata, Soioerby. 



14. umbilicalis, Br. & Sow. 

15. undulata, Sowerby.- 

16. violacea, King. 

17. vulgaris. Leach. 



Figure. 

Margarita pulchella. PL 14. Fig. 69 and 
base and callous deposit at the umbilicus.- 
lection. 



70. Shell, showing the 
-From Mr. Cuming's col- 



Genus 7. TURBO, Linnceus. 

Animal ; disk short, thick, bearing at its hinder extremity some- 
times a horny, mostly a calcareous operculum ; head cylindra- 
ceous, proboscis-shaped and truncated in front, tentacles situated 
a little in arrear, with the eyes elevated on short pedicles at 
the outer base. 

Shell ; turbinated, rather thick, sometimes umbilicated, interior 
silver-, rarely golden-, pearly, whorls more or less rounded, 
rough or smooth, mostly spirally ribbed, with the margins dis- 
joined. 

The animals of Turbo. Trochits, Delphinida, Margarita, and Monodonta 
are so nearly similar that much difference of opinion has prevailed amongst 
authors as to the propriety of separating them. The head has a blunt pro- 
boscis-like form, with the tentacles a little behind, bearing the eyes on 



137 

short pedicles at the outer base, and the disk is short and thick, with 
mostly a calcareous, sometimes a horny operculum. The number of species 
is, however, very extensive, and the shells of these genera afford sufficient 
characters to entitle them to be generically distinguished in the manner 
commonly adopted. Much undue value has been set upon the composition 
of the operculum, and a new division of the Lamarckian Trochi and Tur- 
bines has been attempted, by throwing the species of these genera together, 
and re-arranging them according to the operculum, referring those in 
winch it is horny to Trochus, and those in which it is calcareous to Turbo. 
Observation tends, however, to show that the operculum is a very subordi- 
nate part of the species, and that in Trochus and Turbo, as in Natica, it 
is sometimes horny, sometimes calcareous, without any corresponding differ- 
ences in the shell or its animal inhabitant, to support the notion of its 
indicating a difference of genus. 

The opercula of the Turbinacea furnish no characters for generic arrange- 
ment, but are well worth observing on account of their variation in different 
species. It is mostly of a solid testaceous substance, sometimes smooth, 
sometimes granulous ; in some species it is deeply circularly grooved, the 
ridges being granulated or serrated, whilst in others it is composed of a 
crowded tuft of club-shaped particles. In all these, the inner surface is 
coated with a horny layer, and in the T. pica and one or two other species 
the operculum consists of a horny lamina only, without any calcareous 
deposit. Considerable variation will thus be found to occur in the oper- 
cula of shells without any corresponding variation in the shell, and shells 
of very different character have very often the same operculum ; the same 
heavy, stony operculum which is common to Turbo is frequent in Trochus, 
and the horny operculum of Trochus is to be met with in Turbo. 

It results from these observations that there can be no true generic 
distinction between the genera of which we have been treating ; the Trochi 
are to the Turbines among marine shells, what the Carocolla are to the 
Helices among land shells, the animal in neither case presenting any 
apparent difference ; but for the convenience of reference, and in order not 
to subvert the names by which the species of this group have been so long 
familiarly known, the Lamarckian genera may be adopted without prejudice 
to the laws of classification. 

The Turbines are sometimes smooth, almost porcellanous, but mostly 
spirally ribbed or grooved, ornamented with scales or laminse. The inte- 
rior layer and chief substance of the shell consists of mother of pearl, often 
very iridescent and sometimes of a golden hue. The shells are remarkable 
for their symmetry of form and vivid admixture of colours, they are distin- 
guished by their bold tubular growth, and will not stand pyramidally on 
their base like the Trochi. A complete monograph of the genus published 
in the 'Conchologia Iconica' comprises sixty species, and shows their 

T 



138 

range of habitation to be limited to warm climates, chiefly the islands 
of the Eastern Archipelago, Australia, and New Zealand, two species being 
found in the Mediterranean, and one or two in the West Indies, Mexico, 
and California. 



1. argyrostoma, Linn. 

2. articulatus, Reeve. 

3. canaliculatus, Gmel. 

4. Clieranitzianus, Reeve. 

5. chrysostoma, Linn. 

6. cidaris, Gmel. 

7. circularis, Reeve. 

8. corallinus, id, 

9. cornutus, Gmel. 

10. coronatus, id. 

11. crassus, Gray. 

12. crenulatus, Gmel. 

13. fluctuatus, Reeve. 

14. gemmatus, id. 

15. histrio, id. 

16. imperialis, Gmel. 

1 7. Japonicus, Reeve. 

18. Jourclani, Kiener. 

1 9 . Lajonkairii( Belph .),D . 

20. laminiferus, Reeve. 



Species. 

21. lugubris, Reeve. 

22. magnificus, Jonas. 

23. rnargaritaceus, Linn. 

24. marginatus, Nuttal. 

25. marmoratus, Linn. 

26. militaris, Reeve. 

27. rnurreus, id. 

28. Natalensis, id. 

29. Nicobaricus, Gmel. 

30. niger, Gray. 

31. nivosus, Reeve. 

32. petholatus, Linn. 

33. pica, w?. 

34. porcatus, Reeve. 

35. porphyrites, 67;we/. 

36. pulcher, Reeve. 

37. pustulatus, id. 

38. pyropus, i«?. 

39. radiatus, Gmel. 

40. rubicundus, Reeve. 



41. rugosus, Zm#. 

42. sanguineus, id. 

43. sarmaticus, id?. 

44. saxosus, Reeve. 

45. setosus, GWJ. 

46. smaragdus, id. 

47. sparverius, id. 

48. speciosus, ifoew. 

49. Spenglerianus, Ghnel. 

50. spinosus, jReew. 

51. squamiger, id. 

52. tessellatus, Kiener. 

53. Ticaonicus, Reeve. 

54. torquatus, 6rmeZ. 

55. Trochoides, Reeve. 

56. Tursicus, m?. 

57. undidatus, Chemn. 

58. variabilis, Reeve. 

59. versicolor, iJ. 



Turbo petholatus. PL 13 

structure and rounded aperture 



Figure. 
Fig. 65. Shell, showing its bold tubular 



Genus 8. TROCHUS, Linnceus. 

Animal ; similar to that of Turbo. 

Shell ; conical, pyramidal, more or less flattened beneath ; whorls 

rather depressed, mostly angled at the periphery ; columella 

arched, margins disjoined, lip simple. 

Having spoken freely of this genus and its affinities under the head of 
Turbo, it only remains to notice the great variety and detail of sculpture 



139 

developed in the different species. The shell of Troches seems' to exhibit 
an exuberance of design in this respect, winch accompanies its pyramidal 
form, and offers a generality of character by winch to distinguish it from 
Turbo. In every species of Turbo, which is not absolutely smooth, the 
sculpture, be it ribs, or tubercles, or scales, is arranged transversely, but 
in Trochus it is mostly carved longitudinally or obliquely, in patterns more 
varied and more fanciful. In T. calcar the whorls are armed with promi- 
nent tufted tubercles, in T. miff ids with vaulted scales, in T. nndosus they 
are bordered with a waving rib, like a twisted cable, in T. olivacens carved 
with oblique slightly waved ridges, wliilst the T. gemmosus, anmdatus, and 
others, are studded with various designs of beading. 

The Troclii are numerous in species, and widely and abundantly distri- 
buted; they occur on our own coast, also in the Mediterranean, and in 
all tropical latitudes. 

For List of Species see Appendix. 

Figure. 

Trochus modestus. PI. 13. Fig. 67. Shell, showing its pyramidal 
form. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 9. TROCHISCUS, Sowerby. 

Animal ; ? 

Shell ; depressly orbicular, somewhat discoid, largely and deeply 
umbilicated, rather solid, smooth, pearly within, margins dis- 
joined, lip simple. Operculum horny, internally very smooth 
and shining, externally set with circular rows of fibrous flakes 
curled over toioards the centre. 

The solitary species which has been erected into a genus under the name 
of Trochiscus is certainly a shell of very anomalous character. It may be 
described as a compound of Turbo, Trochus, Solarium, and Rotella, par- 
takin 0, most of the typical structure of the first of these genera, but scarcely 
comprehended within the limits assigned to it by Lamarck. The shell is of 
a heavy Hofella-like substance, smooth on the outer surface, and, as in 
Solarium, the umbilicus penetrates inwardly to the apex. The operculum, 
on the other hand, is more like that of Delphimda, with the addition of 
the prominent circular rows of curled flakes noticed above. 

It is a native of New Holland. 

t2 



140 

Figure. 

Trochiscus Norrisii. PI. 14. Fig. 68. Shell, showing its smooth solid 
growth, large deep umbilicus and operculum. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 10. MONODONTA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Turbo. 

Shell ; rather small, ovate or conoidal, rather solid, columella 

excavated, truncated and toothed at the base, lip sometimes 

den lately ridged within, margins disjoined. 

The genus Monodonta was introduced by Lamarck for the sake of dis- 
tinguishing a numerous group of Troc/d, from the typical forms of that 
genus, on account of the columella being suddenly truncated in a manner 
so as to present a tooth. It has not, however, been generally adopted on 
account of the gradual development of this peculiarity commencing in 
Trochus, and rendering it difficult to say exactly where the genus under 
consideration should commence. In treating of the Turbinacea generically 
in a former work, I came to the same conclusion as M. Deshayes, that the 
genus Monodonta is unnecessary ; but upon coming to an examination of 
the species, so extensive and characteristic a series being conveniently sepa- 
rated under this head, I have not hesitated to follow Lamarck's arrange- 
ment of the series for facility of reference. 

For List of Species see Appendix. 

Figure. 

Monodonta labeo. PI. 13. Fig. 64. Shell, showing a characteristic 
development of the tooth upon the columella. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 11. MORULUS. 

Animal -, ? 

Shell ; extremely variable in form, sometimes ovately turbinated 
with the apex depressed, sometimes Trochi-form, raised towards 
the apex into a sharp pyramid, of a peculiar opake white sub- 
stance more or less stained with brown ; columella distinguished 
by a depressed lamettiform tooth. 



141 

It is rarely that colour presents any character of sufficient constancy to 
be recorded as one of the distinguishing features of a genus. In the 
present instance the shell is most inconstant in form, for whilst in one 
instance it is of an ovately turbinated growth like a Nerita or Delpkinula, 
in another it is of a sharp pyramidal form according to the true type of 
Trochus. In all cases the shell is of a peculiar opake cream-white sub- 
stance, more or less stained with dark brown, and it is a permanent 
character of the columella to be furnished with a sharp lamelliform or 
shelf-like tooth. One of these forms was collected by Mr. Cuming at the 
Philippine Islands, the other at Panama. 



For List of Species see Appendix. 

Figure. 

Morulxjs cidaris, PI. 13. Fig. 63. Shell, showing its dull opake sub- 
stance and lamellated tooth upon the columella. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 12. ROTELLA, Lamar ch. 

Animal ; ? 

Shell ; orbicular, smooth, polished, spire very short, base callous, 
about equally convex with the spire, aperture semicircular. 

The Rotella form another interesting section of the Trochus tribe, of 
small size, and easily recognised by their lenticular shape and polished 
surface. The species selected for illustration is one of extreme rarity and 
extraordinary large size ; few exceeding a half to three quarters of an inch in 
diameter. It is curious to observe that the Rotetta, with their polished 
exterior, are never found with any foreign matter attached to them, and 
M. Deshayes thinks that this indicates a peculiar organization of the 
animal, in which the mantle is extended over the shell. 



Species. 

1. costata, Valenciennes. 4. gigantea, Lesson. 7. rosea, Lamarck. 

2. elegans, Beck. 5. Javanica, Lamarck. 8. suturalis, id. 

3. Guainensis, Quoy. 6. monilifera, id. 9. vestiaria, Sowerby. 



142 

Genus 13. PHORUS, Be Montford. 

Animal ; ? 

Shell; orbicular, rather conical, sometimes largely umbilicated, 
spire short, obtuse, whorls regular, more or less covered with 
agglutinated fragments of stones, shells, Sfc, sometimes fur- 
nished at the periphery with spouted tubes ; under surface 
rather concave, granular, striated or lamellated ; aperture 
somewhat depressed, not pearly, margins disjoined, lip simple 
and acute. Operculum thin, horny, oval. 

The Carrier Trochus shell has always been an object of interest on 
account of the singular manner in winch it is loaded with fragments of 
stones, shells, corals, or any marine debris with which it may chance to 
have been in contact. It would appear as though its animal occupant 
were furnished with a powerful kind of cement, which it exudes during 
the formation of the shell in such a manner that whatever immediate 
substances it is able to remove, become firmly agglutinated to it, and 
cannot afterwards be dislodged without violence ; the mollusk seems more- 
over to mould its shell in a manner to receive them. 

For the purpose of distinguishing the Lamarckian Trochus agglutinans, 
long known to amateurs by its soubriquets of ' Mineralogist ' and ' Con- 
chologist/ according to whether its burden was composed of stones or 
shells, De Montford proposed the name of Phoriis, and several species are 
now known, in each of winch the agglutinating property is differently 
exercised. The shell varies materially from the Trochus type, being almost 
colourless, not pearly, and of a more fragile texture ; one or two species 
present a somewhat Calj/ptraa-\ike aspect, but they belong evidently to an 
animal of locomotive habits, and the whorls are more completely convo- 
luted than in that genus. 

The distinction of species, independent of the usual characters of sculp- 
ture, &c, is represented in the method of agglutinating as follows : — In 
the P. onustus (T. agglutinans, Lamarck) the entire surface is covered 
indiscriminately with stones, shells, or corals ; in the P. calculiferus the 
agglutinating property is limited to the outer edge of the whorls, collecting 
only very small stones, intermixed with shells, generally valves of Nucula 
or Pectunculus. The P. corrugatus attaches flat fragments of shell, the 
P. Indicus and Solaris small pebbles on the first one or two whorls only, 
and in the P. exutns rarely more than the mark of some pebbles having 
been at one time agglutinated is discernible. 

The P. onustus is an inhabitant of the West Indies, but all the other 
species are from the eastern world, Japan, China, and the Philippines. 



143 

The beautiful spouted-tubed P. Solaris, known to Linnaeus, but still of 
great rarity in line condition, is from Malacca. 



Species. 

1. calculifevus, Reeve. -t. exutus, Reeve. 1. pallidums, Reeve. 

2. cereus, id. 5. Indicus (Trochus),~W '■ 8. Solaris (TrocJius), Linn. 

3. corrugatus, id. 6. onustus, Reeve. 9. Solarioides, Reeve. 



Figure. 

Photius onustus. PL 14. Fig. 71. Shell, showing the aperture, with 
three valves of Cardium, one of Pectunculus, one of Area, and a piece 
of coral agglutinated to the periphery of the last whorl, which in each 
instance is moulded to receive them. 



Genus 14. SOLARIUM, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk small, oval, elevated on a short pedicle, and fur- 
nished at its hinder extremity with a small horny spiral 
operculum, head fattened, and prolonged into tico tentacles, 
at the base of each of which is a short pedicle, supporting 
the eyes; the mantle is reflected into a collar around the 
aperture. 

Shell ; circular, depressely conoid, consisting of a number of 
whorls closely convoluted together, but in such an annidar 
arrangement as to form a wide perspective umbilicus, outer 
edge of the whorls sharply angled, imparting a trapeziform 
shape to the aperture, of ivhich the lip is simple and acute. 

The Stair-case Trochus, another shell equally well known to collectors 
with the last, also constitutes the type of a genus to which several in- 
teresting species may be referred, and the importance of winch has been 
confirmed by observations on the animal made by MM. Quoy and Gaimard, 
the eminent naturalists of the Voyage de Y Astrolabe. Elevated on a 
short pedicle, like the Turbines and Trochi, and bearing a modified resem- 
blance to those genera in the reflected collar of the mantle, the head is not 
shaped like a proboscis, but prolonged, somewhat after the manner of 
Buccinum and Purpura, into two elongated tentacles. 



144 



1. areola, Deshayes. 

2. asperum, Hinds. 

3. caelatum, id. 

4. Ckemnitzii, Kiener. 

5. cingulura, id. 

6. cylindraceum.Dtfs^fflyes. 

7. dealbatum, Hinds. 

8. fenestraturn, m£. 



Species. 

9. fragile, Hinds. 

10. fulvum, «^. 

11. granulatum, Lamarck. 

12. liybriclum, &?. 

13. quadriceps, Hinds. 

14. lrevigatum, Lamarck. 

15. luteum, «c?. 

16. maculatum, ifeew. 

17. magnum, Lesueur. 



18. perdix, Hinds. 

19. perspectivum, Z«?«. 

20. placentale, Hinds. 

21. purpuratum, z77. 

22. stramineum, Lamarck. 

23. Trochoides, Deshayes. 

24. variegatum, Lamarck. 

25. virgatum, ILinds. 



Figure. 

Solarium maculatum. PL 13. Fig. 62. Shell, showing its very de- 
pressed lenticular convolution. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 15. DELPHINULA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Turbo. 

Shell ; turbinated, almost discoid, tubular and somewhat loosely 
convoluted, mostly ornamented lotth scales, spines, or tubercles, 
frequently largely umbilicated ; aperture rounded, margins con- 
tinuous, mterior pearly, lip sometimes frilled. 

The Belphinula, first distinguished as a genus by Lamarck, are chiefly 
remarkable on account of their loosely convoluted growth and, so far as 
regards the typical species, their luxuriant display of scales and tubercles 
or spines. The shell has consequently a rounded aperture, with no colu- 
mellar axis, and bears much the same relation to Turbo as Cyclostoma does 
to Helix, the animal being in either case, with trifling modification, the 
same. There are, however, two very distinct sections of the genus, one 
above referred to as comprising the typical species, in which the shell is of 
larger size, richer in colour, and of more luxuriant growth ; and the other 
in which the shells, extremely delicate and curious in their detail of sculp- 
ture, are somewhat stout, whilst others are of comparatively thin texture, and 
in some of which the interior is not pearly. Allied to these are one or two 
rather fragile species, partaking in their general aspect of the character of 
Cyclostoma and Siyaretus, and belonging probably to a different generic 
type of which our knowledge is at present insufficient.' 55 ' 

* An interesting example of this group has just been sent me by Mr. Robert Swift, of 
St. Thomas's, West Indies, described as having been picked up on the sea-beach by the Pastor of 
the Dutch Reformed Church of that place. 



145 



All the Belphinula, excepting those just spoken of, are inhabitants of 
the eastern world, principally in the vicinity of the Philippine Islands, 
China, and Malacca; the I). Tj/ria, incisa, and Peronii, three most 
characteristic species, are from New Holland.' 55 ' 



1. aculeata, Reeve. 

2. atrata, id. 

3. australis, Kiener. 

4. cancellata, id. 

5. cidaris, Reeve. 

6. clathrata, id. 

7. Cobijensis, id. 

8. crenata, Kiener. 

9. depressa, id. 



Species. 

10. discoidea, Kiener. 

1 1 . distorta ( Turbo) , Linn . 

12. evoluta, Reeve. 

13. formosa, id. 

14. imperialis, id. 

15. incisa, id. 

16. laciniata (Turbo), L. 

17. nmricata, Reeve. 

18. nivea (Turbo), Chemn. 



19. nodosa, Reeve. 

20. Peronii, Kiener. 

21. radiata, id. 

22. Eeeviana, Hinds. 

23. Scalarioides, Reeve. 

24. spkserula, Kiener. 

25. syderea, Reeve. 

26. Tyria, id. 

27. varicosa, «?. 



Figure. 

Delphinul a imperialis. PL 15. Pig. 77. Shell, showing its rounded 
aperture, loosely convoluted tubular structure and luxuriant ramified 
growth. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 16. SCALARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal; cylindrical, disk short and nearly square ; head short, 
obtuse, flattened, with a pair of small sessile eyes, situated at 
the outer base of the tentacles. Operculum horny, spiral. 

Shell ; tubularly turreted, the lohorls being rarely contiguous and 
encircled throughout with a greater or less number of elevated 
ribs ; aperture round, margin continuous and reflected. 

There are few mollusks which produce a more delicate and beautifully 
symmetrical shell than the Scalaria ; no shell has been more highly prized 
by the amateur than the Wentle-Trap, and none in which the absence of 
colour is so lavishly compensated by delicacy and variety of sculpture. 
Although a species inhabits the seas of Europe in tolerable abundance, 
the soft parts have not been very fully described ; sufficient is known of 
the animal to show that it is closely allied to Delpltimda, and, as in most 



* The small white Delphinulee are so far removed from the typical species of the genus, that 
it would be as well to adopt the genus Liotia under which they have been separated by Mr. Gray. 



146 

of the genera of this extensive series of vegetable feeders, the foot is limited 
in size and its operculum is horny. 

It is somewhat curious that in a genus numbering nearly a hundred 
species, of which most are inhabitants of equatorial seas, there is so little 
indication of colour. Where such exists it is extremely effective, the ground 
colouring of the whorl being of a rich semitransparent brown, whilst the 
rings are white, as in the S. Pallasii; and it is equally worthy of remark 
that the most highly coloured species, the 8. communis of our own shores, is 
that winch inhabits the coldest region. 

The species are chiefly characterized by the difference in the number and 
developement of the rings, which it may be remarked are formed at 
intervals by the reflected margin of the aperture, and are always alike in 
individuals of the same. Unlike other shells of this family in which the 
lip is rarely reflected until the animal arrives at maturity, the formation of 
rings commences after tins manner from a very early period of growth, and 
these, less complicated in structure, are analogous to the varices of the 
canaliferous tribes. In the well-known Scalaria pretiosa of the China Seas, 
the rings or varices are situated at moderate intervals, increasing in area in 
exact geometrical proportion with the size of the shell ; in 8. imperialis 
they are of the same comparative substance, but developed at much more 
frequent intervals ; in 8. lyra they are extremely fine, having almost the 
appearance of silken threads ; in 8. raricostata they are only deposited at 
remote intervals, and with considerable irregularity ; and in S. alata they 
are characterized at the upper part by the addition of a curious wing-like 
process, of winch there are various indications more or less strongly exhi- 
bited in many species. The most aberrant form of the genus is the 
8. magnified, in which the whorls are contiguous, and the typical pecu- 
liarity of the genus seems scarcely to enter into its plan of growth, there 
being only a few slight rings at irregular intervals on the last two whorls. 
In composition and texture this shell is, nevertheless, a Scalaria, and 
affords an important link with Turritetta. 

Among the localities noted by Mr. Sowerby in his beautiful monograph 
of this genus lately published in the ' Thesaurus Conchyliorum/ are the 
following : — Eastern Seas principally, West Indies, Pacific Islands, Califor- 
nia, and New Holland. 



Species. 

1. aciculina, Hinds. 5. albilineata, Sow. 9. bicarinata, Sow. 

2. aculeata, Sow. 6. angulata, Say. 10. bulbulus, id. 

3. acuminata, id. 7. aurita, Soto. 11. bullata, id. 

4. alata, id. 8. australis, Lam. 12. Catanauanensis, 



147 



13. clathratwhis, Montagu. 

14. clathrus, Kiener. 

15. cochlea, Sow. 

16. communis, Lam. 

17. concinna, Sow. 

18. connexa, id. 

19. coronata, Lam. 

20. crassa, Sow. 

21. crassicostata, id. 

22. crassilabrum, «W. 

23. creberrima, Hinds. 

24. crenata, Linn. 

25. curvilineata, /Sow. 

26. decussata, Lam. 

27. denticulata, /Sow>. 

28. diadema, id. 

29. Dianas, Hinds. 

30. dubia, /Sow.. 

31. Elenensis. id. 

32. fasciata, /Sow. 

33. fragilis, Hanley. 

34. friabilis, Soio. 

35. fusca, w?. 

36. Georgettina, Kiener. 

37. glabrata, Hinds. 

38. gracilis, <SW. 

39. gradata, Hinds. 



40. granulosa, Q. ^ G. 

41. Grcenlandica, Kiener. 

42. hexagona, /Sow. 

43. byalina, «?. 

44. immaculata, id. 

45. imperialis, id. 

46. inconspicua, zW. 

47. indistincta, id. 

48. irregidaris, i<£ 

49. laxata, id. 

50. lineata, Say. 

51. Uneolata, Kiener. 

52. lyra, /Sow. 

53. magnifica, wf. 

54. marmorata, id. 

55. Martinii, Wood. 

56. Mindoroensis, -Sow. 

57. Mitrsefomris, id. 

58. multicostata, -«/. 

59. muricata, Kiener. 

60. Novanghae, CourtJwuy. 

61. obesa, /Sow. 

62. obliqua, id. 

63. obtusa, &'c?. 

64. ovalis, id. 

65. Pallasii, Kiener. 

66. Philippinarum, /Sow. 



67. pohta, id. 

68. poiTecta, Hinds. 

69. pretiosa, Z«m. 

70. principalis, Pallas. 

71. pulcherrima, #ow. 

72. pyramidalis, Sow. 

73. raricostata, iara. 

74. replicata, Sow. 

75. rubro lineata, id. 

76. similis, «W. 

77. statuminata, id. 

78. subtihs, irf. 

79. sulcata, id. 

80. suturabs, Hinds. 

81. tenuicostata, /Sow. 

82. tenuis, id. 

83. Trevelyana, Leach. 

84. trifasciata, /Sow. 

85. turricula, id. 

86. Turtonis, i<#. 

87. undulata, id. 

88. unifasciata, i^. 

89. varicosa, Lam. 

90. venosa, Sow. 

91. vestalis, Hinds. 

92. vulpina, w?. 



Figure. 



Scalaria imperialis. PL 15. Fig. 74. Shell, exhibiting its tubular 
structure and periodical deposit of annular varices. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 17. MONOPTYGMA, Lea. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; subfusiform or elongately subulate, rounded and imperfo- 
rated at the base, columella distinguished by an obscure 
winding plait, aperture small, entire. 

For this genus we are indebted to Mr. Lea of Philadelphia, by whom it 
was founded, upon a fossil species, in his 'Contributions to Geology/ 

u 2 



148 

p. 185. It has a small oblong aperture, no umbilicus, and the columella 
is furnished at the upper part with a small winding plait, more or less 
obscurely developed. 

Although Mr. Lea notices a recent species, which he proposes to call 
Monoptygma Melanoides, he does not accompany the name with any de- 
scription. The species here figured, is a sharp subulate shell, rounded at 
the base, composed of about ten whorls of a convexly flattened growth, each 
encircled by six fine equidistant linear grooves. The sutures are somewhat 
deeply impressed, and there is no indication of any umbilicus. It is of 
rather solid structure and evidently of marine habits. 

Figure. 

Monoptygma cinerea. PI. 15. Sp. 76. Shell, showing its small entire 
aperture. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 18. EULIMA, Risso. 

Animal ; unknoion. 

Shell ; subulate, frequently very peculiarly obliquely distorted, 
not umbilicated, polished ivory white, shining, whorls gene- 
rally distinguished by a flattened or channelled varix ; colu- 
mella arched, aperture small, entire, lip) simple, obtuse. 

The genus Eidima, established by Bisso, includes a limited, but extremely 
natural group of small subulate shells, distinguished by their solid structure 
and white enamelled surface, shining like porcelain. Many of the species 
have likewise a curious distorted obliquity of growth, occasioned in some 
measure by the formation of a row of channelled varices, consisting of one 
in each whorl deposited a little in advance of that which precedes it. 

The typical species of this genus is the Turbo politus of Linnaeus, 
Dillwyn, and Montagu; Turho suhdatus of Donovan and Dillwyn is also one 
of the group, and M. Deshayes refers Melania nitida of Lamarck to Euli- 
ma. Of the species figured under this head in Sowerby's ( Conchological 
Illustrations/ a portion of them have been separated by M. Deshayes for 
ample reasons under the title of Boncllia, properly Niso. 

The Eulimee are very distinct in their generic character, having little 
affinity with Scalaria and less with Melania ; there are one or two species 
on the southern shores of Europe, one from New Holland, and two or 
three species inhabit the Pacific Islands. 



149 



Species. 

1. articulata, Sowerby. 5. labiosa, Sowerby. 8. pusilla, Sowerby. 

2. brevis, id. 6. major, id. 9. subangulata, id. 

3. distorta, Deshayes. 7. polita {Turbo), Linn. 10. subulata {Turbo), Don. 

4. hastata, Sowerby. 



Fiyure. 

Eulima major. PL 15. Fig. 78. Shell, of polished porcelain white, 
showing the aperture and oblique distortion of the spire. — From Mr. 

Cuming's collection. 



Genus 19. NISO, Risso. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell; turriculated, rather solid, polished, apex rather sharply 
acuminated, whorls turned upon a more or less wide axis, 
producing a deep umbilicus, columella simple, aperture rather 
small, angular and slightly channelled at the base ; variously 
painted. 

The genus Niso was founded by M. Risso in his ' Histoire Naturelle de 
TEurope Meridionale/ p. 218, for the purpose of distinguishing a fossil 
shell agreeing in general character with Lamarck's Bulimus terebellatus, 
allied to the genus Eulima, but differing in having a deep umbilicus, occa- 
sioned by the broad axis of volution of the whorls, penetrating nearly to 
the apex. 

Among the shells collected by Mr. Cuming on the shores of Western 
America, and figured by Mr. Sowerby in his ' Conchological Illustrations/ 
are three, referred to the genus Eulima, which present the same remarkable 
character as that above noted, accompanied by a variegated style of painting 
and a sinuated inclination of the aperture. M. Deshayes, perceiving the 
character by which these are distinguished from Eulima to be of import- 
ance, arranged them in his edition of Lamarck, together with the fossil B. 
terebellatus, as a new genus under the title of Bonellia. Had the genus, 
however, not been anticipated by M. Risso, the name Bonellia could not 
have been maintained, it being already given to a genus of Echinoderms 
by M. Rolando, and published in the same work, vol. iii. p. 470. 

No observations have been made on the animal of this genus. Of the 
species collected by Mr. Cuming, the N. splendidula and imbricata were 



150 



obtained at St. Elena, West Columbia, and the N. interrupta was dredged 
in the Gulf of Nicoiya. The N. brunnea is reported to be from China. 



Species. 

1. brunnea (Eul.), Sow. 2. imbricata, Sow. 3. interrupta (Eul.), Sow. 

4. marmorata, Soto. 5. splendidula (Eul.), Sow. 



Figure. 

Niso splendidula. PI. 15. Pig. 79. Shell, showing its sinuated aperture 
and very deep umbilicus. — From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Genus 20. RISSOA, Freminville. 

Animal ; disk elongated, somewhat triangular, truncated in front, 
pointed behind, and furnished with a horny operculum ; head 
cylindrical and proboscis-shaped, having a long pointed ten- 
tacle on each side, at the outer base of which are situated the 
eyes. 

Shell ; turriculated, enlarged at the base, rarely umbilicated ; 
sometimes short ; aperture oval, semilunar, slightly chan- 
nelled, Up generally thickened and more or less produced. 

The species composing this genus being for the most part extremely 
small, they have been much neglected by conchologists. M. Risso appears 
to have been the first to observe their claim to rank as a particular genus, 
when M. Freminville paid him the compliment of associating them under a 
new generic type with his name. Lamarck included the few species known 
to him under the head of Melania, but various species have been described 
since that period by MM. Desmarest, Michaud, and Philippi, including the 
animal as above described. 

Several of these inhabit the Mediterranean, between twenty and thirty 
have been now observed on the shores of the British Isles, and it is not 
impossible that the number will be greatly increased, as the same powers 
of observation become extended to more distant localities. 

The shell may be chiefly recognised from its being enlarged at the base, 
whilst the upper part of the aperture is slightly channelled ; the lip is 
mostly thickened and more or less produced or expanded. The following 



151 



list of the species is from the last edition of Lamarck. A monograph of 
the genus is much needed. 



1. acicula, Sow. 

2. acuta, Desm. 

3. alba, Forbes. 

4. arata, Recluz. 

5. Bruguierei, Payraud. 

6. Bryerea, Macgill. 

7. Buccinoides, Desk. 

8. cancellata, Recluz. 

9. Chesnetii, Michaud. 

10. cingillata, Macgill. 

11. cingulus, Michaud. 

12. costata, Recluz. 

13. crenulata, Michaud. 

14. cyclostoinata, Recluz. 

15. deformis, Sow. 

16. Deshayesiana, Recluz. 

17. Desmarestii, id. 

18. elongata, P/m7. 

19. excavata, id. 

20. fragilis, Michaud. 

21. fulva, w?. 

22. Gougeti, id. 



Species. 

23. gracilis, Macgill. 

24. grossa, Michaud. 

25. Guerinii, Recluz. 

26. hyalina, Desm. 

27. Inca(Pmom«),D'Or. 

28. interrupta, Johnston. 

29. labiata, PM 

30. lactea, Michaud. 

31. lilacina, Recluz. 

32. lineolata, Michaud. 

33. marginata, z'^. 

34. Matoniana, Recluz. 

35. niinutissinia, .M-m;^. 

36. monodonta, P/«7. 

37. Montagui, Payraud. 

38. muriatica, Macgill. 

39. oblonga, Desm. 

40. parva, Recluz. 

41. praeusta, zV?. 

42. pidcbella, PM 

43. punctulum, «J. 

44. puncturata, Macgill. 



45. pusilla, Ztes/*. 

46. pygmsea, Michaud. 

47. radiata, P/m7. 

48. reticulata, -Sow. 

49. rubra, Macgill. 

50. scalaris, Michaud. 

51. semistriata, Johnston. 

52. spirata, #020. 

53. Souleyetana, Recluz. 

54. striata, Q«oy. 

55. striata, Macgill. 

56. striatula, Recluz. 

57. subumbilicata, iiae. 

58. tridentata, Michaud. 

59. tristriata, Thompson. 

60. tnmcata, Macgill. 

61. ulvae, zrf. 

62. uuifasciata, Recluz. 

63. ventricosa, Desm. 

64. ventricosa, Macgill. 

65. violacea, Desm. 

66. vittata, Recluz. 



Figure. 

Rissoa Cumingii. PI. 15. Fig. 75. Shell, showing the aperture with 
its thickened lip and sinuated formation at the upper part. 



Family 8. PLICACEA. 

Shell ; distinguished by having the columella strongly plaited and 
the base entire without indication of any sinus, the animal 
being of marine habits, and furnished with a horny operculum. 

Little is known of the soft parts of this family beyond the external form 
of Pgramidella described by M. Quoy in the ' Voyage de 1' Astrolabe*. ' 

* Comme on le voit, rien n'est encore connu sur l'organisation interieure des PyramideJles ; 



152 

The observations of this eminent naturalist are sufficient to show that the 
animal of that genus is the type of a distinct group, and there is little 
doubt, from the corresponding structure of the shell, of the immediate 
affinity of the Tornatella. Prior to the introduction of the family Plicacea 
by Lamarck, the species of which it is composed were referred to the 
genera Voluta, Bulimus, and Auricula ; the shell will, however, be found 
to differ in an important degree from the first of these, in wanting the 
notch at the base which indicates the passage of an uplifted fold of the 
mantle, used for the conveyance of water to the breathing organs, and 
from the last by its inhabiting the sea ; and even were we unacquainted 
with the marine habits of the Plicacea, it might be presumed from the 
hard porcelain texture of the shells, that their fabricators are not deni- 
zens of the air or of fresh- water. 

The genera above mentioned, both very limited in species, are all that 
can at present be referred to this family ; M. Deshayes proposes to include 
his marine genus Bonellia {Niso, ante p. 149) with them, but the remarkable 
umbilicated growth of that shell, and absence of plaits on the columella, 
are characters of too much importance to be lightly regarded. 

Pyeamidella. Tornatella. 



Genus 1. PYRAMIDELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk short, thick, triangular, furnished at the hinder 
extremity with a small operculum ; head triangular, rather 
deeply bilobed, bearing at the two lateral points of the angle a 
rather long tentacle, similar to that of Aplysia ; eyes small, 
situated at the inner base of the tentacles. 

Shell ; pyramidally turreted, composed of numerous whorls forming 
a sharply acuminated spire; columella mostly three-plaited, 
sometimes with only two plaits ; aperture rather small, rounded 
at the base, lip slightly expanded. 

The genus Pyramidella contains those Plicacea whose shells are pyra- 
midally turreted, composed of many whorls, forming an acuminated spire, 
and having a small semi-rounded aperture with the plaits of the columella 
more than usually transverse. The branchial cavity of this mollusk 

il faut encore rechercher si ce genre, ainsi qne les Tornatelles, appartient aux mollusques dioiques, 
ou s'il est monoique comme la plupart de ceux qui ont l'ouverture entiere. — Deshayes, Anim. 
sans vert. vol. ix. p. 54. 



153 



according to the observations of M. Quoy, is widely open in front ; no 
basal notcli or channel is therefore needed in the shell for the passage of 
that organ, which leads in most of the carnivorous tribes to the respiratory 
cavity in a more concealed situation. 

Among the few species known of this genus, the P. maculosa is the largest 
and most elongated ; the P. dolabrata is common in the Eastern Seas ; 
the P.ventricosa is a fine species from New Holland, and the P.plicata, 
chiefly remarkable for its longitudinally plicated ribs, of which there is no 
indication in the before-mentioned species, is, according to Lamarck, from 
Mauritius. 



1. cincta, Reeve. 

2. corrugata, Lam. 

3. dolabrata, id. 

4. glans, Reeve. 



Species. 

5. gracilis, Brocchi. 

6. maculosa, Lam. 

7. plicata, id. 

8. solida, Sow. 



9. sulcata, Nutt. 

10. terebellum, Lam,. 

11. ventricosa, Guerin. 



Figure. 

Pyramidella maculosa. PL 14. Pig. 73. Shell, showing its elongately 
pyramidal growth, plaited columella, and small aperture. 



Genus 2. TORNATELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal; unknown. 

Shell ; cylindrically oval, with a very short spire, mostly trans- 
versely striated, never ribbed, columella strongly two-plaited, 
sometimes with one plait only, aperture oblong, reaching nearly 
to the top of the body-whorl. 

Although shells of this genus are by no means of rare occurrence, it 
does not appear that the animal has been yet described. Their typical 
form is the reverse of that of Pyramidella ; instead of having a small 
aperture and long drawn out spire, the shell is of an oval Bulla form, has 
a very short spire, and an oblong aperture reaching nearly to the summit 
of the body whorl. The plait or plaits of the columella range obliquely, and 
are strongly developed. 

Linnaeus placed the Tornatellce among his Volutes ; Bruguiere observing 
the absence of any notch at the base, transferred them to the genus Bidi- 
mus, where they became associated with a numerous tribe of uncongenial 
habits, which the sagacity of Lamarck readily detected. They constitute 



154 



a very natural family with the Pgramidellce, and, so far as the shell is 
concerned, agree in character, though differing materially in their plan of 
convolution. Among the few species known, the T. coccinata of the Phi- 
lippine Islands is the rarest and at the same time the prettiest ; the T.flam- 
mea, solidula, virgata, glabra, nitidula, insculpta and oryza are all from 
the same locality. To these may be added T. Siebaldii from Japan, T. ve- 
nusta from Peru, T. tessellata from the Red Sea, and the T.fasciata of 
our own southern shores. 



1. auricula, Lam. 

2. bullata, Kiener. 

3. coccinata, Reeve. 

4. fasciata, Lam. 

5. fiammea, id. 

6. glabra, Reeve. 



Species. 

7. insculpta, Reeve. 

8. nitidula, Lam. 

9. oryza, Reeve. 

10. pedipes, Lam. 

11. punctata, Fe'russac. 



12. Siebaldii, Reeve. 

13. solidula, Lam. 

14. tessellata, Reeve. 

15. venusta, LfOrbigny. 

16. virgata, Reeve. 



Figure. 

Tornatella coccinata. PI. 14. Pig. 72. Shell, showing its compressly 
convoluted growth, strongly plaited columella, and oblong aperture. — 
From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



Family 9. IANTHINEA. 
Genus IANTHINA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; head large, prolonged into a short swollen proboscis, 
having a perpendicular mouth, the lips of which are thickened 
and furnished with prickly hooks or plates ; above the neck 
on each side is a pair of tentacles of unequal length, the front 
one being the shorter, at the outer base of which is situated 
a very small indistinct eye ; foot short, having attached to 
its under surface a broad fin-like appendage with a float of 
vesicles. 

Shell ; globose, turbiniform, thin and brittle, with the whorls 
either rounded or inclined to angular at the periphery ; colu- 
mella long and straight, margin of the aperture thin, never 
refected. 

The lanthina or Sea-Snail constitutes a type of which there is little 
approximation in any of the pectinibranchiate genera, though possessing 
the essential characters of the order. It might be treated rather as the 



155 

analogue of an arboreal snail, whose organs and functions are fitted, by an 
extreme modification of nature, to inhabit the sea. The beautifully reti- 
culated lung of the air-breathing mollusk is transformed into a pectinate 
gill for the respiration of water, the mouth is furnished with an armature 
for the comminution of hard flesh-food of marine origin, less easily digested, 
and to the foot is attached a broad dilated fin and vesicular float, contrived 
for the purpose of sustaining the animal on the surface of the water. The 
shell presents also the change that might be expected to result from its 
difference of habit, being of a thin brittle calcined substance, and not en- 
veloped by any of those hairy, or horny, or hydrophanous kinds of epidermis 
which are peculiar to the plant-eating snail. 

The float of bubbles or vesicles, by which the Ianthince are more parti- 
cularly distinguished, has been said to serve a mechanical purpose, by 
which the animal is enabled to sink or swim at pleasure ; there does not, 
however, appear to be any sufficient testimony to this effect, and it is diffi- 
cult to imagine that such a use could be made of them ; but it has been 
noticed that the Ianthince are rarely seen except in calm weather. According 
to the observations of the eminent naturalists of the ' Voyage de T Astro- 
labe/ the Ianthina deposit their ovaries, filled with minute eggs, in great 
plenty about the vesicles, which the animal has the faculty of detaching. 
Notwithstanding that few species are known, they are extremely prolific in 
the equatorial seas, and, without doubt, as in the case of the surface-swim- 
ming Pteropods, the predacious inhabiters of the deep allow them but a 
limited existence. 

One remarkable peculiarity in Ianthina is, that in all the species, and 
I believe six or eight will be found when they come to be examined, the 
shell is of a uniform colour, a clear intense violet, and it is distinguished 
more strongly, according to the species, by a close succession of extremely 
delicate concentric lines of growth. The animal has been observed to 
eject a violet fluid when alarmed or irritated. 

A considerable number of Ianthina were collected by Capt. Sir Edward 
Belcher in the South Atlantic Ocean during the voyage of the Samarang,* 

* Mr. Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S., Assistant-Surgeon of the Samarang, has kindly favoured 
Die with the following interesting observations made by him on this occasion. 

" In our passage from the Cape to St. Helena we experienced several days calm, the surface of 
the South Atlantic being like a sheet of glass, and covered over with innumerable Ianthince, 
Physalia, and Velella, with parties of Flying-fish and solitary Skip-jacks, emerging suddenly from 
its depths and disturbing the stillness by their flights and splashings. In the act of swimming, 
the dilated natatory appendages of Ianthina, are kept fully extended, while the vesicular float 
precedes the shell, and keeps it in a reversed position on the surface" of the water. The female 
evidently has the power of voluntarily detaching certain portions of the float to which any nidi- 
mental sacks are fixed, for among the thousands obtained in the trawls, were several specimens 
with hardly a remnant left, while isolated floats were also numerous. The high seas appear to 
be the natural home of these beautiful mollusks, and I have seen a fleet of many hundreds 
wrecked on the coral reefs of the Meia-co-shima Islands, making the shore quite blue at the water- 
line. I have taken them up adhering in masses by means of the sucker-like fore-part of the 
foot ; for although alive and uninjured, I never observed them make the slightest effort to crawl, 
which mode of progression appears to be denied them. They have a habit, when nearly dead, of 

x 2 



156 

some of large size and very deeply coloured, others of smaller size, having 
a delicate silken appearance from the prominent and very neat succession 
of concentric strise. 



Species. 

1. bifida, Nutt. 3. fragilis, Bory. 5. prolongata, Blain. 

2. exigua, Lam. 4. globosa, Sicainson. 6. umbilicata, D'Orbigny. 



Figure. 

Lanthina globosa. PI. 15. Fig. 80. Shell, showing its light inflated 
form and violet colour. 



Family 10. NERITACEA. 

Shell ; abruptly transversely convoluted and more or less globose, 
with the spire short and the last whorl much enlarged. 

The Neritacea present two very distinct groups, which, but for the 
similarity in the typical structure of their shells, exhibiting a peculiar 
transverse form of convolution, might be regarded as separate families. 
The first, comprising the genera Navicetta, Neritina, and Nerita, is an 
extensive series, not varying materially in size, inhabiting seas and rivers, 
of which the animal is small, and the shell remarkable for its beautiful 
varieties of painting. The second group, consisting of the genera Natlca 
and Sigaretus, the latter of which was until lately associated with Haliotis, 
is characterized by an animal of much larger proportions, generally more 
or less enveloping the shell by a thickened ridge and dilated extension of 
the foot. All the species of this division are of marine habits.* 

Navicella. Nerita. 

Neritina. Natica. 

Sigaretus. 



exserting the end of the long proboscis, which is then seen to be armed with numerous curved 
hooks ; their eyes are very small and indistinct, and are placed on a short peduncle on the 
outside of the conical tentacles. If injui'ed or irritated in the water, they eject a very pretty 
violet-coloured fluid, which appears to be evanescent like iodine. These " schools of sea-snails " 
comprised about four distinct species sailing among themselves in an indiscriminate manner, be- 
coming more numerous towards the evening, and entirely disappearing when the breeze sprang 
up and ruffled the surface of the sea." 

* The genus Neritopsis, hitherto referred to this family, is removed, together with the genus 
Narica, to the family of the Velutimdae. 



157 



Genus 1. NAVICELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; ovately oblong, rather slight, the disk occupying the wide 
aperture of the shell, with a peculiar quadrangular slightly 
radiated operculum, insinuated between it and the visceral 
mass ; head flattened and auriculated, with two large subulate 
tentacles, at the outer base of which are two other short trun- 
cated tentacles, bearing the eyes. 

Shell ; transversely elliptic or oblong, Limpet-shaped, spire very 
short, columella depressly flattened, forming a transverse shelf 
last whorl extremely patent, and marked with two muscidar 
impressions. 

A small genus of fresh-water mollusks, whose shells are remarkably 
depressly convoluted, and very similar in appearance to those of the Crepi- 
dulce or Slipper-Limpet, the columella being transformed into a flattened 
septum, forming a shelf, as it were, across one side of the aperture. The 
NavicettcB are, however, very distinct from the Crepidula, and have little 
affinity with any of the Limpet tribe ; they are not of the same parasitical 
habits, and live free in flowing streams. Their shells are of regular symme- 
trical formation, and not subject to the distorted irregularities of growth 
which is the common lot of those living attached to the rough-hewn 
surface of the rocks. 

The painting of the Navicetta shells is generally of a mottled character, 
in lines or sab triangular patches radiating from the apex, covered with a 
thin fibrous olive epidermis, and the interior is mostly of a bluish tinge. 
The operculum is composed of two parts, one of which is internal, imbedded 
between the middle of the disk and the viscera, occupying the spiral 
chamber of the shell, the other is of stouter substance and appears to radiate 
at a right angle with the former. 

The Navicetta are unknown to Europe and the western Hemisphere ; 
they inhabit the streams of the Philippine and Feejee Islands, and are 
found in New Guinea, New Ireland, New Holland, and in Mauritius and 
the neighbouring Isles, where they are said to be eaten by the poorer 
natives for food. The largest species, selected for illustration, is prettily 
variegated with yellow upon a dark olive-black ground ; for delicacy of 
form and colouring the N. lineata and Recluzii are perhaps the most 
interesting species. These two last mentioned are of a compressly oblong 
form, resembling a fragile boat, of which the septum forms the poop. 



1. apiata, Guillou. 

2. atra, Reeve. 

3. Bourgainvillei, Recluz. 

4. depressa, Lesson. 

5. D'Urvillei, Recluz. 



158 
Species. 

7. Freycineti, Recluz. 

8. Janelli, id. 

9. La Perousei, id. 

10. lineata, Lam. 

11. Luzonica, Soul. 



13. porcellana, Desk. 

14. radiata, Reeve. 

15. Recluzii, irf. 

16. suborbiculata, $M0. 

17. Suffreni, Recluz. 



6. Entrecastauxi, id. 12. macrocephala, G^«7^. 18. tessellata, Lam. 



Figures. 

Navicella poecellana. PL 16. Fig. 82. Shell, showing at Fig. a its 
widely dilated aperture, lateral muscular impressions, transverse 
septum and inconspicuous spire, and at Fig. b its external variegated 
painting covered with a dark olive epidermis. — From Mr. Cuming's 
collection. 



Genus 2. NERITINA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disk triangularly ovate, truncated and thicker towards 
the front, bearing about the middle a peculiar semilunar calca- 
reous operculum ; head large, but little projected, furnished 
with a dilated labial appendage and having four tentacles, two 
long and subulate, two short and truncated, on which are situ- 
ated the eyes. 

Shell ; ovately globose, with the spire very short and indistinct, 
and the whorls sometimes armed with hollow spines ; columella 
depressly flattened into a transverse septum, aperture semicir- 
cular, lip simple, sometimes dilated on either side; outer 
surface mostly covered with a dark epidermis. 

The Neritina or Fresh- water Nerites are more stoutly convoluted than 
the NavicellcB, and form an interesting link between them and the Nerita 
of still more solid growth, inhabiting the sea. There is little difference in 
the animal beyond that resulting from their different circumstances of 
habitation. The Neritince dwell principally on the banks of rivers, and 
are not unfrequently found upon palms and other nuviatile plants. 

Few species of this extensive genus present any variation of sculpture 
beyond a slightly plicated or granulated surface, with the exception of 
some which are coronated with a row of hollow spouted spines, short as in 



159 



JV. brevispinosa, or remarkably long as in JV. corona. Some of the species 
are curiously winged on each side, as in the JV. dilatata and latissima. 

There is scarcely any limit to the geographical distribution of the Neri- 
tina, save in the frigid and cold temperate zones. The genus is repre- 
sented in an humble, but very prettily painted condition on our own coast, 
it is plentiful in the West Indies, and is found throughout the great con- 
tinent of North, South, and Central America. It is not less abundant in 
the Eastern world. Magnificent specimens were collected by Mr. Cuming 
in the Philippines, among which the JV". labiosa, selected for illustration is 
perhaps the largest. In Sumatra and other Islands of the Oriental Archi- 
pelago, in India, and in South Africa, the Neritina are also more or less 
plentiful. 



11 afra, Sow. 

2. alata, Brod 8f Sow. 

3. atra, Nutt. 

4. auriculata, Lam. 

5. baetica, id. 

6. brevispina, id. 

7. caffra, Gray. 

8. callosa, Desk. 

9. canalis, Sow. 

10. cariosa, Gray. 

11. cassiculum, Sow. 

12. chlorostoma, id. 

13. convexa, Nutt. 

14. Coromandeliana, Sow. 

15. corona, Lam. 

16. crepidularia, id. 

17. Dalrnatica, Partsch. 

18. Danubialis, Ziegler. 

19. dilatata, Brod. 

20. Domingensis, Lam. 

21. dubia, id. 

22. faba, Sow. 

23. fasciata, Lam. 

24. fluviatilis, id. 

25. gagates, id. 

26. granosa, Sow. 



Species. 

27. intermedia, Sow. 

28. Jordani, Butler. 

29. labiosa, Sow. 

30. Lamarckii, Desk. 

31. latissima, Brod. 

32. lineolata, Lam. 

33. lugubris, id. 

34. lutescens, Muhlfeld. 

35. meleagris, Lam. 

36. microptera, Nutt. 

37. Mittreana, Recluz. 

38. morio, Sow. 

39. mix, Brod. 

40. obtusa, Benson. 

41. Oweniana, Gray. 

42. perversa, Lam. 

43. Philippinarum, Soto. 

44. picta, id. 

45. piperina (Nerita), Ch. 

46. pisiformis, Recluz. 

47. Prevostiana, Fe'r. 

48. pulchra, Sow. 

49. pulligera, Lam. 

50. punctulata, id. 

51. pupa, id. 



52. rara, Dufo. 

53. reclivata, Say. 

54. reticularis, Soto. 

55. reticulata, id. 

56. rivalis, Parreys. 

57. Sandwichensis, Desk. 

58. semiconica, Lam. 

59. serratilinea, Ziegler. 

60. Smithii, Gray. 

61. spinosa, Sow. 

62. strangulata, Mulilf. 

63. strigilata, Lam. 

64. subgranosa, Sow. 

65. subsulcata, ^ow. 

66. Sumatrensis, id. 

67. tranversalis, Ziegler. 

68. triserialis, #020. 

69. venosa, MenJce. 

70. vespertina, JVw#. 

71. violacea, Lam. 

72. virginea, id. 

73. viridis, ee?. 

74. Waigion, Less. 

75. zebra, Za?«. 

76. ziczac, id. 



Figure. 

Neritina labiosa. PI. 16. Pig. 83. Shell, showing its solid dilated 
growth, and curious operculum. From Mr. Cuming's collection. 



160 
Genus 3. NERITA, Linnceus. 

Animal ; very similar to that of Neritina, the disk being rather 
stouter. 

Shell ; semiglobose, solid, smooth, sometimes ribbed, spire small and 
indistinct, columella transversely flattened, sometimes crenulated 
or toothed, aperture semicircular, frequently grooved within, 

The animal of Nerita differs so little from Neritina, that naturalists have 
been somewhat divided as to the propriety of separating these genera. The 
genus Cerit/dum presents an instance in which the changes are considerable 
in the composition and substance of the shell, arising out of differences of 
habit, some being marine, others dwelling in estuaries and situations where 
the water is only brackish, and others again living in the vicinity of springs 
or stagnant marshes, quite beyond the influence of the tide. So it is with 
the Nerita and Neritina, and were it not that collectors are in the habit of 
distinguishing them, agreeably with the views of Lamarck, since whose time 
no new facts have been elicited in their natural history, they would have 
been here fused into one. 

The Sea-Nerites construct shells of very solid growth, and paint them 
with extremely vivid colours ; the colours are, moreover, so variable in the 
same species that it is only by a close observation of form and general 
design, that their specific relation is understood. With this robust struc- 
ture and display of colour, the shells of this genus are also characterized by 
variations of sculpture which are not found in the fresh-water genus. 
Many of the species are strongly ribbed, the interior of the shell being 
marked with corresponding grooves, and the edge of the lip more or less 
strongly crenulated, others have the flat columellar septum granulated, and 
in some species, such as in that selected for illustration, N. ornata, and the 
well-known Bleeding-tooth, Npeloronta, it is dentated. 

The Nerita, like the Neritina, are very generally distributed throughout 
the globe ; but are rather more confined to the equatorial regions. Few 
species, if any, remain undescribed ; the entire family of the Neritacea has 
been investigated with minute accuracy by M. Recluz of Paris, to whom 
Mr. Cuming, with a proper international spirit, forwarded the new species 
resulting from his researches in the Philippine Islands. 



Species. 

1. Adansonia, Recluz. 4>. Antillarum, Gmelin. 7. argus, Recluz. 

2. albicella, Linn. 5. antiquata, Recluz. 8. atrata, Chemn. 

3. Anatolica, Recluz. 6. apiata, id. 9. atropurpurea, Recluz. 



161 



10. aurantia, Recluz. 

11. balteata, Reeve. 

12. Beaniana, Recluz. 

13. Bernhardi, id. 

14. bisecta, Reeve. 

15. bullula, id. 

16. chlorostoraa, LamJc. 

17. chrysostoma, Recluz. 

18. comma-notata, Reeve. 

19. costata, Chemnitz. 

20. Deshayesii, Recluz. 

21. Douibeyi, «'<?. 

22. electrina, Reeve. 

23. erubescens, iof. 

24. Essingtoni, Recluz. 

25. exuvia, Linnaeus. 

26. filosa, Reeve. 

27. fragum, z'^. 

28. fulgurans, G-melin. 

29. fuliginata, Reeve. 

30. funiculata, zrf. 

31. geramulata, «^. 

32. genuana, ^. 

33. Georgina, Recluz. 



34. granulata, Reeve. 

35. Grayana, Recluz. 

36. grisea, Reeve. 

37. grossa, Linnaeus. 

38. haustrum, Reeve. 

39. Helicinoides, iteewe. 

40. Hindsii, Recluz. 

41. histrio, Linnaeus. 

42. Le Guillo liana, 5ec^. 

43. lineata, Cliernnitz. 

44. Listeri, Recluz. 

45. Longii, e^. 

46. marmorata, Reeve. 

47. Maura, Recluz. 

48. maxima, Chemnitz. 

49. Neritinoides, Reeve. 

50. Neritopsoides, z'<#. 

51. nigerrima, Chemnitz. 

52. nivosa, Reeve. 

53. Novae-Guineas, Zesa. 

54. oleagina, Reeve. 

55. Orbignyana, Recluz. 

56. ornata, Sowerly. 

57. oryzarum, Recluz. 



58. patula, Recluz. 

59. pellis-serpentis, Reeve. 

60. peloronta, Linnaeus. 

61. picea, Recluz. 

62. plexa, Chemnitz. 

63. plicata, Linnaeus. 

64. polita, z'e?. 

65. prsecognita, C. 5. ^s. 

66. quadricolor, Gmelin. 

67. ringens, Reeve. 

68. Rumphii, Recluz. 

69. Savieana, i'c?. 

70. scalpta, Reeve. 

71. semirugosa, Recluz. 

72. Senegalensis, Gmelin. 

73. signata, Macleay. 

74. Spengleriana, Recluz. 

7 5 . squamulata, Ze Guillou. 

76. stella, Chemnitz. 

77. tessellata, Gmelin. 

78. versicolor, Lamarck. 

79. vexillum, Reeve. 

80. Yoldii, ifec/os. 



Nerita costata. PI. 16. Pig. 86. Shell, showing its solid, globose 
growth, and toothed columella. 



Genus 4. NATICA, Adanson. 

Animal ; owz/, wry /«?ye #?£</ expanded, rounded at each end ; 
mantle largely developed, enclosing a thick circular ridge, hold- 
ing the shell. Head furnished with a long trunk and sur- 
rounded by a tentacular veil, from which are exserted two 
widely separated lanceolate tentacles. Hind lobe of the disk 
carrying the operculum partially spread over the shell. 

Shell; globose or Neritoid, sometimes openly inflated; spire short, 
very often scarcely exserted ; ivhorls few, forming a large um- 
bilicus, which is sometimes filed tvith a dense callosity, some- 
times with a columnar callosity entering spirally ; aperture 



162 

generally more or less lunar. Operculum sometimes testaceous, 
generally homy, spiral. 

The comparatively recent discovery that the soft parts of Natica are 
similar to those of Sigaretm, required that these genera, which in 
Lamarck's time were arranged at some distance from each other in the 
system, should be brought into more immediate relationship. By mala- 
cologists, indifferent to the characters of the shell, the Natica have been 
removed to the Sigaretm family ; but conchologists, unwilling to lose 
sight of their obvious and long-acknowledged affinity in this respect with 
the Nerites, have caused the Sigareti to be removed to this family. It was 
by the Trench navigators, MM. Quoy and Gaimard, during the voyage of 
the ' Astrolabe/ that the animal portion of Natica was first fully observed, 
though figured a century before by Adanson. Differing essentially from 
that of Nerita, it proved to be of very much larger dimensious in pro- 
portion to the size of the shell, distinguished by a broad mantle-like ex- 
pansion of the foot, and characterized by a more or less thickened circular 
ridge, holding the shell, and sometimes almost concealing it from view. 
The Natica has, moreover, a retractile proboscis, which the Nerite has 
not, and it is of more predaceous habits. The lobe which carries the 
operculum is also largely developed and reflected over the shell. The 
animal of Sigaretm is of similar structure ; and looking only to the dis- 
tinctive features of organization of the soft parts, there is little family re- 
lationship between it and the Nerites. 

The shells of Natica are not particularly variable in form. They are 
nearly all of the same peculiar semiglobose, lunar-apertured plan of con- 
volution, which is characteristic of the Nerites, more largely umbilicated, 
but having the umbilicus sometimes filled up with callous enamel, and 
sometimes partially filled with a peculiar spiral columnar callosity. Little, 
however, as this variation is, the Natica have been divided into seven 
genera: — Natica proper (N canrena), Zunatia, Lamarck (N. mouilifera), 
Neverita, Risso (N. albumen), Ampullina, Lamarck (N fiuctuatd), Ruma, 
Chemnitz (N Maura), Mamma, Klein (N mamilla), and Naticina, Gray 
(N. papilla). The chief conchological distinction between the genera 
Nerita and Natica is, that whilst the Nerites are mostly strongly grooved 
and otherwise sculptured, and richly painted, the Natica are smooth and 
polished, as is almost invariably the case with shells more or less en- 
veloped by the soft parts of the animal, and are painted, generally with 
light colours. 

The Natica live mostly in sandy and muddy beaches, at about low- 
water mark, and are strictly carnivorous.* 

* Speaking of a large species, N. heros, inhabiting the shores of Massachusetts, Dr. Gould 
says, in his history of the Invertebrata of that State : — "This, in common with other species 
of Natica, is very voracious, and plays a conspicuous part iu devouring the dead lish and other 



103 



1. Adansoni, Reeve. 35. 

2. albula, Recluz. 36. 

3. albumen, Lamarck. 37. 

4. ala-papilionis, Chemn. 38. 

5. asellus, Reeve. 39. 

6. aurautia, Lamarck. 40. 

7. Baconi, Reeve. 41. 

8. bifasciata, Gray. 42. 

9. borealis, Soioerby. 43. 

10. Broderipiana, Recluz. 44. 

11. bulbosa, Reeve. 45. 

12. Buriasensis, Recluz. 46. 

13. Campeachieiisis, io?. 47. 

14. caudidissima, Le GuillAS. 

15. canrena, Linnceus. 49. 

16. Caribbaea, Philippi. 50. 

17. eaten ata, it/. 51. 

18. Cheninitzii, Recluz. 52. 

19. Cliinensis, Lamarck. 53. 

20. clausa, ifrot/. and Sow. 54. 

21. collaria, Lamarck. 55. 

22. Colliei, i&c^z. 56. 

23. colunmaris, id. 57. 

24. conica, Lamarck. 58. 

25. cornea, Mailer. 59. 

26. cora, Lf Orhigny . 60. 

27. Cumingiana, Recluz. 61. 

28. deiodosa, .Keeue. 62. 

29. Draparnaudi, Recluz. 63. 

30. dubia, id. 64. 

31. duplicata, >S'ffy. 65. 

32. efl'usa, Swainson. 66. 

33. Eleme, Recluz. 67. 

34. fibula, Reeve. 68. 



Species. 

filosa, Soioerby. 69. 

flava, Go?^. 70. 

Plemingiana, Recluz. 71. 

florida, Reeve. 72. 

fluctuata, Soioerby. 73. 

forata, i?e<?»tf. 74. 

Porskalii, Chemnitz. 75. 

Fortunei, Reeve. 76. 

fulguraus, Recluz. 11. 

fulminea, Gmelin. 78. 

Gallapagosa, Recluz. 79. 

Gambia?, «W. 80. 

genuanus, Reeve. 81. 

glabella, ic?. 82. 

glauca, LLumboldt. 83. 

glaucina, Lamarck. 84. 

globosa, Chemnitz. 85. 

Grcenlandica, ^ecA - . 86. 

Gualteriana, Pe^Y. 87. 

Helicoides, Johnston. 88. 

heros, #tfy. 89. 

ianthostoma, 2)es/j. 90. 

immaculata, Totten. 91. 
imperforata, Sowerby. 92. 

Iucii, Philippi. 93. 

intemerata, it/. 94. 

intricata, Donovan. 95. 
Jamaicensis, C. 5. ^. 96. 

Jukesii, Reeve. 97. 
Lamarckiana, Recluz. 98. 

leucophtca, Reeve. 99. 
lineata, Lamarck. 100. 
locellus, Reeve. 101. 
macilenta, Philippi. 102. 



maculata, Deshaycs. 
maculosa, Lamarck. 
Maheense, Recluz. 
mamilla, Lamarck. 
mamillaris, i</. 
Marochiensis, it/. 
Maura, Briujuiere. 
melanostoma, Lamarck. 
melanostomoides, Quay. 
melastoma, Swainson. 
millepunctata, Lam. 
monilifera, id. 
Montagui, Forbes. 
uiticia, Donovan. 
nucula, Reeve. 
orientalis, Gmelin. 
Panamaensis, Recluz. 
paviraentum, id. 
pellis-tigrina, Chemnitz. 
perspicua, Recluz. 
Petiveriana, id. 
Philippiaua, id. 
phytelephas, Reeve. 
picta, Recluz. 
pisiform is, id. 
plicatula, Nuttall. 
plumbea, Lamarck. 
porcellanea, D'Orbigny. 
Powisiaua, Recluz. 
Priamus, id. 
problematica, Reeve. 
proxiraa,C. B. Adams. 
pulicaris, Philippi. 
pusilla, Say. 



animals which are thrown up by the tide. Many of the shells thrown upon the shore are found 
to be perforated with a small round hole : this is done principally by the different species of 
Natica. They have the power of perforating shells, it is generally supposed, by discharging an 
acid which decomposes the shell, and through the aperture they extract the juices, and destroy 
tht lives of the otherwise' secure inhabitants. Their foot is very large, so as to completely 
envelope the objects on which they prey. In moving, they burrow in the sand, so as to be 
almost entirely concealed by it, and their place is generally indicated by a small heap of sand. 
The singular nidus in which the animal of Natica deposits its eggs has been an object of much 
curiosity and speculation. It is a mass of saud glued together into the shape of a broad bowl, 
open at the bottom, and broken at one side. Its thickness is about that of an orange-peel, 
easily bent without breaking when damp, and when held up to the light will be found to be 
tilled with little cells, arranged in quincunx order. Each of these cells contains a gelatinous 
egg, having a yellow nucleus, which is the embryo shell." 

Y 2 



164 



103. pyramis, Reeve. 115. 

104. pyriforruis, Recluz. 116. 

105. rapulum, Reeve. 117. 

106. ravida, Souleyet. 118. 

107. Raynaudiana, Recluz. 119. 

108. Eecluziana, Desk. 120. 

109. rufa, Rom. 121. 

110. rufilabris, Reeve. 122. 

111. Sagraina, D'Orbigny.WS. 

112. Seba?, Souleyet. 124. 

113. semisulcata, Gray. 125. 

114. Simise, Chemnitz. 126. 



septentrionalis, Reck. 127 

solida, Rlainville. 128. 

spadicea, Gmelin. 129. 

Strangei, Reeve. 130, 

Succinioides, *g?. 131, 

suifusa, «W. 132, 

sulcata, Rom. 133, 

textilis, Reeve. 134, 

Traillii, w*. 135, 

triseriata, Say. 136, 

uber, Valenciennes. 137 
umbilicata, Qwoy. 



unifasciata, Lamarck. 
unimaculata, Reeve. 
variabilis, Recluz. 
Vavaosi, Le Guillou. 
venustula, Philippi. 
vestalis, id. 
violacea, Sowerhy. 
vitellus, Lamarck. 
Zanzibarica, Recluz. 
zebra, Lamarck. 
Zelandica, Quoy. 



Figure. 

Natica Cumingiana. PI. 16. Pig. 84. Shell, showing its solid, polished, 
sculptureless surface, and large, open umbilicus, with in-growing 
callosity. 



Genus 5. SIGARETUS, Adanson. 

Animal ; oval-oblong, acuminated in front, rounded behind, fur- 
nished at both ends with a capacious lobe which envelopes a 
large portion of the shell; head very large, depressed, furnished 
with two long conical tentacles ; operculum small, oblong, horny, 
concealed within a fold of the posterior lobe. 

Shell; suborbicular , somewhat ear-shaped, globose or depressly 
globose, striated, never umbilicated ; spire short, but little 
raised ; aperture dilated, disjoined, lip simple. 

The soft parts of Sigaretus, though closely allied to Natica, are larger, 
and they are furnished with more capacious lobes, both in front and 
behind more largely enveloping the shell. In most of the Naticce the 
animal is able to draw itself entirely within the shell and cover itself in 
by a tight-fitting operculum, mostly calcareous. In Sigaretus the animal 
is more bulky than can be contained in the shell, and the operculum is 
merely rudimentary, a small, useless, horny appendage concealed within a 
fold of the hind lobe. 

The shell is of a brownish-white, fawn, or sand colour, never highly 
painted or marked with any pattern. The outer surface is striated and 
mostly linearly grooved, the spire small, the aperture large and shining. 
The Sigareti are not very numerous. They inhabit the western coast 



165 

of South America, West Indies, India, and China, and are of sluggish 
habits, crawling and burrowing into beds of wet sand and mud. 



1. agriensis, Recluz. 12. 

2. Antillarum, id. 13. 

3. apertus, Anton. 14. 

4. bifasciatus, Recluz. 15. 

5. Carolius, Chenu. 16. 

6. clathratus, Bosc. 17. 

7. concavus, Lam. 18. 

8. Cuvierianus, Recluz. 19. 

9. Delessertii, Chenu. 20. 

10. depressus, Phil. 21. 

11. Deshayesianus, Recluz. 



Species. 

haliotoideus, Linn. 22, 

insculptus, Ad. $f Rv. 23 

Italicus, Chenu. 24 

Javanicus, id. 25, 

lacteus, Klein. 26 

lasvigatus, Lam. 27 
latifasciatus, Ad.^-Rv. 28 

Leacliii, Blainville. 29. 

Levesquei, Recluz. 30 

Listeri, Recluz. 31 



maculatus, Say. 
neritoideus, Linn. 
perspectivus, Say. 
Petitianus, Recluz. 
planulatus, Chenu. 
sinuatus, Recluz. 
striatellus, id. 
striatus, Be Serr. 
Tuvonicus, Recluz. 
zonalis, Quoy. 



Figure. 

Sigauetus concavus. PL 1. Shell, with animal, showing its capacious 
hooded hinder lobe, and acuminately folded front lobe, from which 
protrudes one of the tentacles belonging to the head concealed be- 
neath. — From M. aVOrbigny's ' Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale.' 

Sigaretus concavus. PI. 23. Pig. 137. Shell of the same species divested of 
the soft parts, showing its thin, arched columella and inflated aperture. 



Family 1 1 . PERISTOM ATA. 

Shell ; globose or turbinated, sometimes discoid, with little sculp- 
ture beyond a malleated or indented surface or an occasional 
keel, mostly of a sombre olive or greenish colour. 

This small family includes the freshwater pectinate-gilled gastropods, 
in which the shell is mostly of a round or roundly-turbinated snail-like 
form. The largest are the Ampullarice, whose shells are stoutly globose 
and inflated. They inhabit chiefly the banks of rivers, in parts liable to 
be dried up for a season, and to meet the exigences of this change of 
condition are furnished with a double system of respiration, a water- 
breathing and an air-breathing apparatus. The next group in the family 
are the Paludina, which are smaller and more numerous, but still of the 
same dark, sombre character, enveloped in a horny epidermis. Lastly 



166 



come the Valvata, few in species and minute, with shells of elegantly 
spiral or discoid growth. 

Ampullaria. Paludina. Valvata. 



Genus 1. AMPULLARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; globular or subdiscoid, with the dish mostly large and 
thin, oblong-square or triangular, broadly truncated in front. 
Head flattened, terminating with a pair of tentacles, below 
which is another pair longer and more slender, and below these 
a pair of eyes sometimes sessile, sometimes mounted on pedicles. 
On the left side of the body is a conspicuous respiratory canal, 
formed by a fold of the mantle, leading to a pair of pectinate 
gills ; in front is an open pulmonary cavity. 

Shell ; globose or ovate, more or less umbilicated, rarely imper- 
forated, covered with a rather thick olive epidermis ; suture of 
the spire sometimes simple, sometimes channelled ; whorls more 
or less ventricose, smooth ; aperture rather large, lip simple. 
Operculum sometimes horny, sometimes calcareous, closing the 
aperture. 

The sombre hue and obvious similarity of form, destitute of any indi- 
cation of sculpture, of the shells of Ampullaria, have led to this genus 
being very much neglected by the collector ; and their unattractive range 
of habitation, in swampy marshes, ponds, and rivers, has not been very 
inviting to the traveller. A few ardent naturalists, including among the 
foremost M. d'Orbigny and Mr. Bridges on the banks of the great rivers 
of Bolivia, Dr. Spix . in Brazil, M. Caillaud in Africa, Mr. Yates and Mr. 
Wallace at the rivers Marailon and Amazon, MM. Salle and Ghiesbrecht 
in Mexico, Mr. Dyson in Honduras, Mr. Benson in India, and Mr. 
Layard and Mr. Templeman in Ceylon, have directed their energies since 
Lamarck's time to Ampullaria-hxmtmg ; and the result of their labours 
enabled me to describe in the ' Conchologia Iconica' a hundred and thirty 
species, of which scarcely a dozen were known to Lamarck. 

The species of Ampullaria are exceedingly well defined, though bearing 
great general resemblance, and, what is not usual with mollusks affecting 
such habitats, many of them are stained at the aperture with brilliant 
colour. The animal is of an amphibious nature, possessing a double 
system of respiration, which adapts it to breathe either air or water, ac- 
cording to the requirements of the place of its habitation, which may be 



167 

at one time flooded and at another dry. In addition to a pair of pectinate 
gills to which the water passes through a lateral tubular fold of the 
mantle, there is also a pulmonary sac or lung for breathing air. This 
peculiarity, observed originally by Mr. Guilding at the Caribbee Islands, 
was noticed first in detail by M. Caillaud on his return from his expedi- 
tion to the Nile. It is related by him, that when unpacking in Paris a 
box of Ampullarice, which he had collected four months before in one of 
the tributaries of the Nile, he threw the specimens into a basin of water 
to get rid of their offensive smell ; when great was his surprise to see some 
of them crawl forth alive. The Ampullarice are, however, water-animals 
rather than land, the power of respiring through a lung being only a 
temporary faculty sufficient for the mollusk to survive the occasional 
drying-up of its more natural element. In 1827, when M. d'Orbigny 
had collected together at Buenos Ayres some Ampullarice found near the 
mouth of the river Plata, he tried an experiment with the view of testing 
the observations which had been made on this subject some few years 
before in the West Indies by Mr. Guilding. Some of the specimens 
which he kept alive out of water lived eight months and others thirteen 
months. Many of the Ampullarice inhabit rivers, but not in parts where 
there is any rapid flow. Although the shells are mostly of a sombre 
olive-green colour, the soft parts are often prettily striped and dotted. 

The genus furnishes half-a-dozen well-marked subdivisions : A. fasciata 
[Ampullaria proper) ; A. scalaris (Potmis, Humphrey) ; A. cornu-arietis 
[Ceratodes, Guilding) ; A. megastoma [Pomella, Gray) ; A. Botteniana 
[Lanistes, De Moutford) ; A. Plata {Ampulloidea, D'Orbigny), the last 
not having the respiratory tube. 

So many new species of Ampullaria have been collected by recent tra- 
vellers in comparatively few localities, that it is more than probable the 
genus abounds to a much larger extent than we have at present any idea 
of. It does not, however, exist in the great rivers of North America or of 
north-temperate Europe, and is peculiar to warm and tropical latitudes. 



Species. 

1. adusta, Reeve. 10. Bridgesii, Reeve. 19. Columbiensis, Sowerhj. 

2. Araazonica, id. 11. buxea, id. 20. compacta, Reeve. 
3.ampullacea(i?e/u , )Lin.l2. caliginosa, id. 21. complicata, id. 

4. aperta, Philippi. 13. canaliculata, Lamarck. 22. conica, TFood. 

5. auriformis, Reeve. 14. carinata, Swaiuson. 23. cornucopia, Reeve. 

6. aurostoma, Lea. 15. Cassidiformis, Reeve. 24. crassa, Swaiuson. 

7. balanoidea, Gould. 16. cerasura, Hanley. 25. Cubensis, Reeve. 

8. bilineata, Reeve. 17. cinerea, Reeve. 26. Cumingii, King. 

9. bulla, id. 18. citreum, id. 27. cuprina, Reeve. 



168 



28. 


decussata, Moricand. 


59, 


29. 


depressa, Say. 


60, 


30. 


dira, Reeve. 


61. 


81. 


Dolioides, id. 


62, 


32. 


Bysoni, Hanley. 


63, 


33. 


electrina, Reeve. 


64 


34. 


elegans, HOrbigny. 


65. 


35. 


encaustica, Reeve. 


66 


36. 


erythrostoma, id. 


67, 


37. 


fasoiata, id. 


68, 


38. 


figulina, Spix. 


69, 


39. 


filosa, Reeve. 


70 


40. 


flatilis, id. 


71 


41. 


fuuiata, id. 


72. 


42. 


Ghiesbrechtii, id. 


73, 


43. 


gigas, Spix. 


74. 


44. 


glauca (Helix), Linn. 


75, 


45. 


globosa, Swainson. 


76. 


46. 


Gossei, Reeve. 


77, 


47. 


hremastoma, id. 


78, 


48. 


Hanleyi, id. 


79. 


49. 


hanstrum, id. 


80, 


50. 


hepataria, id. 


81, 


51. 


Hondurasensis, id. 


82 


52. 


Hopetonensis, Lea. 


83 


53. 


immersa, Reeve. 


84. 


54. 


insuiarum, D'Orbigny 


, 85. 


55. 


intropicta, Reeve. 


86 


56. 


Javanica, id. 


87. 


57. 


labiosa, Koch. 


88, 


58. 


Largillierti, Pliilippi. 


89, 



Lattrei, Reeve. 90. 

Layardi, id. 91. 

Linnei, Pkilippi. 92. 

livescens, Reeve. 93. 

lubrica, id. 94. 

luteostoma, Stvainson. 95. 

Luzonica, Reeve. 96. 

Lymnsepeibrmis, id. 97. 

mcesta, id. 98. 

Malabarica, Pliilippi. 99. 

malleata, Jonas. 100. 

raaura, Reeve. 101. 

megastoma, Sowerby. 102. 

melanocheila, Reeve. 103. 

Metcalfei, id. 104. 

miltocheilus, id. 105. 

nobilis, id. 106. 

notabilis, id. 107. 

nubila, id. 108. 

nux, id. 109. 

oblonga, Swainson. 110. 

olea, Reeve. 111. 

olivacea, Spix. 112. 

Oronocensis, Ziegler. 113. 

ovata, Olivier. 114. 
Palndinoides, Christof. 115. 

papyracea, Spix. 116. 

patula, Reeve. 117. 

Pernambucensis, id. 118. 

Physoides, id. 119. 

picta, id. 120. 



pilula, Reeve. 
planorbula, Pliilippi. 
Platse (Helix), Maton. 
polita, Ues/tayes. 
porphyrostoma, Reeve. 
producta, id. 
prunulum, id. 
puncticulata, Swains. 
reflexa, id. 
Koissyi, D'Orbigny. 
rufilineata, Reeve. 
saxea, id. 

scalaris, D'Orbigny. 
simplex, Reeve. 
sordida, Swainson. 
speciosa, Pliilippi. 
Spixii, VOrbigny. 
Spmcei, Reeve. 
Swainsoni, Pliilippi. 
teres, id. 

testudinea, Reeve. 
trochulus, id. 
Turbinoides, id. 
urceus (Nerita), Miill. 
venetus, Reeve. 
vermiformis, id. 
vexillum, id. 
vittata, id. 
vitrea (Helix), Born. 
Yatesii, Reeve. 
zonata, Spix. 



Figure. 

Ampullar! a Oiionocensis. PL 17. Fig. 90. Shell, showing its globose 
form, and sombre, olive, horny covering, tinged with blood-red about 
the aperture. 



Genus 2. PALUDINA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; with a large mantle and oblong triangular disk, having 
a horny operculum, sometimes spiral, sometimes concentric, on 
a rounded posterior lobe. Head produced into a lengthened 



169 



muzzle, at the base of which are two slender tentacles, with the 
eyes sometimes sessile, sometimes on short pedicles. 
Shell ; ovate or conoidal, covered ivith a sombre-olive epidermis ; 
spire somewhat turreted, often eroded ; whorls round, smooth or 
heeled ; aperture round or ovate, the margin being mostly con- 
tinuous, and the lip simple. 

The Paludinm are smaller and more numerous than the Ampullarice, 
and more decidedly aquatic. There are few fresh-water streams in any 
part of the world without them, and in the great river countries of India 
and America they are especially abundant. The shells are of a similar 
dull-greenish hue, and the soft parts, presenting the same contrast of 
colour and pattern as in the preceding genus, are variously spotted on a 
coppery or golden ground, while a few are dark blue-black, encircled by a 
white line. 

Some of the Paludina are viviparous, and some are oviparous, and the 
shells of the young fry are covered more or less with bands of hairs. A 
small oviparous species, inhabiting our own ditches and canals, was made 
a genus by Dr. Leach, with the name of Bythinia, and an interesting 
group dwelling in the brooks and rivers of South America, having their 
eyes sessile and operculum formed in a spiral, have been arranged in a 
separate genus by D'Orbigny, under the title of Palndestrina. 



1. abbreviata, Michaud. 19. 

2. achatina, Lamarck. 20. 

3. acuta, Deshayes. 21. 

4. altalis, Raveual. 22. 

5. anatinum, Desh. 23. 

6. andecola, D'Orbigny. 24. 

7. angularis, Midler. 25. 

8. angulata, Lea. 26. 

9. atra, Villa. 27. 

10. australis, D'Orbigny. 28. 

11. Bengalensis, Bowdich. 29. 

12. bicarinata, Desm. 30. 

13. bicolor, Sowb. 31. 

14. Boissieri, Charpen. 32. 

15. brevis, Michaud. 33. 

16. Bulimoidea, id. 34. 

17. Bulimoides, Lamarck. 35. 

18. charrana, D'Orbigny. 36. 



Species. 

contorta, Shuttleworth. 3 7 . 

Coosaensis, Lea. 38. 

costata, Quoy. 39. 

crassa, Nuttall. 40. 

Cumingii, D'Orbigny. 41. 

culminea, id. 42. 

Cyclostomatiformis. 43. 

cylindrica, Parreys. 44. 

decisa, Say. 45. 

decollata, Sewasc/t. 46. 

diaphana, Michaud. 47. 

dissirailis, Say. 48. 

doliaris, Gould. 49. 

erosa, Ziegler. 50. 

Ferussacina, Desm. 51. 

fontinalis, Philippi. 52. 

fusca, D'Orbigny. 53. 

genicula, Conrad. 54. 



Georgiana, Lea. 
gibba, Michaud. 
gigantea, Busch. 
gigas, Lesson. 
grana, Say. 
granum, Menke. 
Haleiana, Lea. 
Hamiltoni, Metcalfe. 
imperialis, Lea. 
impura, Lamarck. 
incrassata, Lea. 
inflata, Benson. 
Integra, Say. 
intertexta, id. 
Isabelliana, D'Orb. 
Javanica, Busch. 
lacustris. Beck. 
lapidum, D'Orbigny. 
z 



170 



55. lecythoides, Benson. 

56. limosa, Say. 

57. lustrica, id. 

58. magnifies, Conrad. 

59. marginata, Michaud. 

60. rnelanostoma, Benson. 

61. miliaris, Parreys. 

62. multicarinata, CiarcW. 

63. Naticoides, Fe'russac. 

64. nigra, D'Orbigny. 

65. nucleus, Thompson. 

66. obesa, Philippi. 

67. obtusa, Troschel. 

68. olivacea, Sotcerby. 

69. Parchappii, B-'Orb. 



70. Parreyssii, Pfeiffer. 

71. parvula, Gailding. 

72. patula, Brumati. 

73. peristomata, If Orb. 

74. Petitiana, «?. 

75. petrosa, Gould. 

76. ponderosa, #«?/. 

77. piscium, D'Orbigny. 

78. porata, -Say. 

79. pulchella, Benson. 

80. pyramidata, Bnscli. 

81. radiata, Benson. 

82. Kemossii, w?. 

83. rubens, Menke. 

84. scalaris, Jay. 



85. similis, Michaud. 

86. semistriata, D'Orb. 

87. striata, it?. 

88. subcarinata, #«y. 

89. subpurpurea, i«?. 

90. Swainsoni, Morc/t. 

91. thermalis, Draparn. 

92. tricarinata, Anton. 

93. Troostiana, im. 

94. unicarinata, Sowerby. 

95. unicolor, Lamarck. 

96. viridis, m/. 

97. vivipara, i<#. 

98. Warreni, Shuttleworth. 



Figure. 

Paludina oxytropis. PI. 17. Tig. 93. Shell, a fine keeled species, 
covered with a dark horny epidermis. 



Genus 3. VALVATA, Mutter. 

Animal ; toith a short disk, bilobed or forked in front. Head 
with long slender tentacles, at the outer base of which are situ- 
ated the eyes, sessile ; gill long, plumose, pectinated, partially 
eocserted. 

Shell ; discoid or turbinated, umbilicated, rather thin ; whorls 
symmetrically tubular, sometimes smooth, sometimes keeled or 
striated ; aperture circular, with the margin continuous. 

In this genus is comprehended a small group of fresh-water mollusks, 
living on aquatic plants or under stones, in gentle rivers, lakes, and ditches, 
comparatively minute in size, and having a spiral cyclostomoid shell. Only 
eleven species are known, and they are all inhabitants of the temperate and 
north temperate regions of the globe, — chiefly in Europe, and in North 
America. The animal, of a dusky-grey colour, is not much unlike that of 
Paludina, except that its eyes are not raised on pedicles, and the shell, 
without sculpture, is of the same sombre greenish hue, sometimes inclining 
to yellow. 



171 

Species. 

1. alpestris, Shuttleworth. 5. obtusa, Pfeiffer. 9. spirorbis, Draparnaud. 

2. cristata, Alder. 6. Pupoidea, Gould. 10. tricarinata, -Say. 

3. Cumingii, Reeve. 7. pygmea, C. i?. Adams. 11. trochlea, Bunker. 

4. depressa, C Pfeiffer. 8. sincera, #0^. 



Figure. 

Valvata Cumingii. PI. 17. Fig. 88. Shell, showing a rather more de- 
pressed form than is usual in this genus. 



Genus 4. LACUNA, Turton. 

Animal ; having a muzzle-shaped head, with two long tentacida, 
bearing eyes or bulgings at the external bases. No neck-lobes ; 
operculigerous lobe expanded or winged laterally, and furnished 
behind ivith two filamentary processes, more or less developed, 
but sometimes nearly obsolete. Foot rounded at both extremi- 
ties, contracted at the sides, centrally grooved. Branchial plume 
single. — Forbes. 

Shell; subglobosely or elongately turbinated ; spire sometimes very 
short, sometimes prolonged, smooth, covered ivith an epidermis; 
columella peculiarly grooved and umbilicated. Operculum 
semicircular, horny, spiral. 

Under this head is comprised a small genus of mollusks, well repre- 
sented on our own shores, where they live attached to seaweed. The spe- 
cies are few in number, but extremely variable in form ; they are however 
always characterized by the presence of a peculiar grooved umbilicus. In 
Lacunce pallidula and puteolus the shell is of a globose, wide-mouthed 
form, with a very small spire, whilst in L. crassior and vincta it is oblong 
and turbinated. The peculiarities of the animal, first noted by Philippi, 
have been more fully observed and described by the Swedish conchologist 
Loveu, and by Edward Forbes. The above-named four species, having 
various synonyms, inhabit the European coasts, and Dr. Gould describes 
one as being peculiar to Massachusetts at Chelsea Beach. 



z a 



1. albella, Loven. 

2. carinata, Adams. 

3. crassior, Montagu. 

4. fragilis, Menke. 



172 



Species. 



5. labiosa, Loven. 

6. neritoidea, Gould. 

7. pallidula, Da Costa. 



8. puteolus, Turton. 

9. uuifasciata, Carpenter. 
10. vincta, Montagu. 



Figure. 

Lacuna pallidula. PL 17. Fig. 89. Shell, of the subglobose form of 
the genus, showing the characteristic umbilical groove. 



Family 12. MELANIANA. 

Shell ; turriculated or globose, covered ivith an olive or black epi- 
dermis, variously sculptured. Aperture sometimes entire, some- 
times notched at the base. Animal flwoiatile, furnished with a 
horny epidermis. 

Univalve river mollusks, affecting rapid streams in contiguity with the 
sea, are numerous in species, but all may be included under this family 
in three genera. Their shells are for the most part of solid structure, 
covered with an olive or black horny epidermis, differing essentially in this 
respect from those of the family Lymnceana, which inhabit more stagnant 
water ; and they have frequent indications of rough usage in being more 
or less eroded or decollated. 



Genus 1. MELANOPSIS, Ferussac. 

Animal ; similar to that of Melania. 

Shell ; fusiform or conically cylindrical, generally covered with a 
black homy epidermis; apex sharp, but often decorticated; 
columella smooth, often callous at the upper part, and more or 
less truncated at the lower ; aperture rather small, sometimes 
notched above, conspicuously notched below; lip scarcely re- 
flected. Operculum horny, spiral, small. 

The shells collected under the head of Melanqpsis are distinguished from 
the Melania proper by much the same character as Achatina among land 
shells is distinguished from Bu limns, namely, in being notched at the base, 



173 



and having the columella truncated. The columella is moreover overlaid 
with enamel, forming a callosity at the upper part. Those species which, 
like our figured example M. atra, have the aperture notched above as well 
as below, were separated by Lamarck to form his genus Pirena, but the 
difference is not material. 

The animal of Melanopsis, according to the observations of M. Quoy, 
is the same externally as that of Melania, and not very far removed from 
its marine analogue Cerithium. 



1. atra, Ferussac. 

2. acicularis, id. 

3. Brasiliensis, Moric. 

4. Buccinoides, Ferussac. 

5. cariosa, Deshayes. 

6. cornea, Ferussac. 

7. costata, id. 



Species. 

8. Dufourii, Ferussac. 15. 

9. erosa, Both. 16. 

10. Esperi, Ferussac. 17. 

11. Ferussacii, Roth. 19. 

12. fusiformis, Soiverby. 19. 

13. granulosa (Pirena),Jjk. 20. 

14. Jordanica, Roth. 



labiata, Sowerby. 
Neritaeformis, Desh. 
nodosa, Ferussac. 
semigranulosa, Desh. 
spinosa, Deshayes. 
Wagneri, Roth. 



Figure. 

Melanopsis atra. PI. 18. Fig. 99. Shell of a remarkably lengthened 
acicular species, of the Pirena section, showing a notch at the upper 
part of the aperture as well as at the lower. 



Genus 2. MELANIA, Lamar eh. 

Animal; dish short and slight ; head proboscis-shaped, subcorneal, 
truncated, with the tentacles distant and subulate, having the 
eyes on the outer side sometimes at the base, sometimes more 
advanced ; mantle fringed. Operculum horny. 

Shell ; more or less turreted, generally wrinkled or nodulous, mostly 
covered with a black or olive epidermis ; spire elongated, gene- 
rally more or less eroded towards the apex ; columella smooth, 
arched ; aperture ovate, entire, sometimes attcnuately chan- 
nelled at the base ; lip simple. 

In this genus are brought together the very numerous series of elon- 
gately convoluted univalve shells which inhabit the great tropical rivers, 
chiefly of India, of the islands of the Eastern seas, and of the southern 
States of North America. Although of that uniform dull olive-colour 



174 

throughout, which is characteristic of their habits, they present a great 
variety of form and sculpture. Some, as in M. mhulata, are merely spirally 
striated, and very sharply acicular ; others, like M. amarula, are conspi- 
cuously coronated, and the modifications of growth between these extremes 
are exceedingly numerous and well-defined. Two sections may be noticed 
as having a stronger title to be distinguished as subgenera than the rest. 
Those of a dwarfed, solid, globose form {Anculotus, Say), and those in 
which the aperture is attenuated into a short canal (lo, Lea), as repre- 
sented at Fig. 98. 

As this genus has never been monographed, the list of species which 
follows is unavoidably very far from complete. Many more are known 
than have been as yet described. 



1. acutocarinata, Lea. 

2. altilis, id. 

3. amarula, Lamarck. 

4. annulifera, Conrad. 

5. armigera, Say. 

6. asperata, Lamarck. 

7. aspirans, Hinds. 

8. aurita, Rang. 

9. Babylonica, Lea. 

10. batana, Gould. 

11. bellicosa, Hinds. 

12. blanda, Lea. 

13. Boykiniana, id. 

14. caliginosa, id. 

15. canaliculata, Say. 

16. carinifera, Lamarck. 

17. castanea, Lea. 

18. catenaria, Say. 

19. catenoidea, Lea. 

20. Celebensis, Quoy. 

21. Cmcinnatiensis, Lea. 

22. circinata, id. 

23. clavaeformis, id. 

24. coarctata, Lamarck. 

25. columella, Lea. 

26. comma, Conrad. 

27. concinna, Lea. 

28. conica, Say. 

29. coronata, Philippi. 



Species. 

30. corrugata, Lamarck. 

31. costata, Quoy. 

32. costulata, Lea. 

33. crassa, Philippi. 

34. crebristriata, Lea. 

35. crenulata, Deshayes. 

36. Curreyana, Lea. 

37. decollata, Lamarck. 

38. decora, Lea. 

39. depygis, Say. 

40. dubiosa, Lea. 

41. Duttoniana, id. 

42. ebenum, id. 

43. Edgariana, id. 

44. elevata, Say. 

45. erythrostoma, Quoy. 

46. exarata, Lea. 

47. fasciolata, Olivier. 

48. figurata, Hinds. 

49. flammulata, Philippi. 

50. florata, Hinds. 

51. Florentiana, Lea. 

52. fulgurans, Hinds. 

53. fuliginosa, Lea. 

54. fumosa, Hinds. 

55. funiculus, Qwoy. 

56. fuscata, Desliayes. 

57. fusiformis, iea. 

58. gaudiosa, Hinds. 



59. glaus, Philippi. 

60. globula, Zea. 

61. gracilis, id. 

62. granifera, Lamarck. 

63. granum, Philippi. 

64. Helvetica, Michaud. 

65. Hildrethiana, Ze«. 

66. Holstonia, zc?. 

67. Hydii, Conrad. 

68. inermis, Sowerby. 

69. inquinata, Def ranee. 

70. isogonia, /Say. 

71. Kirtlandiana, Zea. 

72. Ia3ta, Zay. 

73. laevigata, Lea. 

74. Isevissima, Soicerby. 

75. laqueata, /&?y. 

76. latebrosa, Hinds. 

77. Lecontiana, im. 

78. lima, Conrad. 

79. lineata, Say. 

80. lirata, Menke. 

81. luctuosa, Hinds. 

82. moesta, w?. 

83. mitra {Helix), Meusch. 

84. Moluccensis, Quoy. 

85. monozonalis, Zm. 

86. multilineata, Say. 

87. mutilata, id. 



175 



88. nassula, Conrad. 

89. Niagarensis, Lea. 

90. Nickliniana, id. 

91. nitens, id. 

92. nodulosa, id. 

93. obovata, Say. 

94. obtusa, Lea. 

95. occata, Hinds. 

96. occidentalis, Lea. 

97. Ocooensis, id. 

98. ohvata, Conrad. 

99. ornata, Philippi. 

100. Papuensis, Q?<oy. 

101. perpiuguis, Hinds. 

102. picta, Hinds. 

103. pilula, Zea. 

104. plicatula, ^a 7 . 

105. Plutonis, Hinds. 

106. Potosiensis, Zea. 

107. prasinata, Conrad. 

108. prserosa, /Say. 

109. pugibs, Hinds. 

110. pyramidata, «?. 

111. Kangii, Deshayes. 



112. regularis, Lea. 

113. rufa, ia*. 

114. rugosa, id. 

115. salebrosa, Conrad. 

116. Sayii, Desliayes. 

117. scabra, Ferussac. 

118. scalaris, Wagner. 

119. seruicarinata, £ay. 

120. semigranosa, P/m7. 

121. setosa, Swainson. 

122. sordida, Zea. 

123. spinosa, z'a*. 

124. striatula, id. 

125. strigosa, z'a*. 

126. subcylindracea, id. 

127. subglobosa, Say. 

128. subsolida, Zea. 

129. subulata, Deshayes. 

130. sulcosa, Zee. 

131. Taitiana, id. 

132. tenebrosa, id. 

133. terebra, Philippi. 

134. terebralis, Zea. 

135. teres, w?. 



136. testudinaria, Phil. 

137. tirouri, Ferussac. 

138. torquata, Philippi. 

139. trilineata, /Say. 

140. Troostiana, Ze«. 

141. truncata, Lamarck. 

142. truncatula, id. 

143. tubereulata, Wagner. 

144. tubereulata, Zm. 

145. tympanorum, Zes/«. 

146. undulata, Say. 

147. uniformis, Quoy. 

148. variabilis, Benson. 

149. varicosa, Ward. 

150. veuusta, Zw. 

151. verrucosa, Hinds. 

152. vngata, Zea. 

153. Virginica, /Say. 

154. virgulata, Ferussac. 

155. viridis, Zea. 

156. Warderiana, id. 

157. Winterii, Philippi. 

158. zouata, /a*. 



Figures. 

Melania asperata. PI. 18. Pig. 97. Shell, illustrating the typical 
form of the genus, with aperture entire. 

Melania spinosa. PI. 18. Pig. 98. Shell, illustrative of the Io sec- 
tion of the genus, in which the aperture is attenuated at the base 
into a canal. 



Genus 3. PALUDOMUS, Swainson. 

Animal ; similar to that of Melania. 

Shell ; ovate, somewhat ventricose ; spire short, sometimes de- 
pressed, sometimes exserted ; columella a little excavated, ra- 
ther broad, flat, entire at the base, rounded ; aperture large, 
somewhat semicircular, slightly channelled at the upper part ; 
lip simple. Epidermis olive, brown, or black. 



176 

The genus Paludomus was founded by Mr. Swainson in his ' Treatise of 
Malacology/ forming vol. 123 of Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, for the 
sake of distinguishing an ovate-oblong form of Melania brought from 
Ceylon by Dr. Sibbald, and of which three species were figured by Mr. 
Griffith in his edition of Cuvier's 'Animal Kingdom/ The genus has 
however remained in comparative obscurity from the want of any species 
being known of sufficiently typical character to make it appreciated. That 
desideratum has been now supplied by the zeal of Mr. George Gardner 
(now unfortunately deceased), of the Royal Botanic Gardens of Ceylon, a 
gentleman much attached to Natural History, and already known to the 
scientific world by his interesting botanical researches and ' Travels in the 
Interior of Brazil/ 

As only one or two species approaching Melania were known, it has 
been satisfactory to receive such an important typical addition to the group 
as that afforded by the present series, more especially by the P. loricatus, 
Gardneri, Tenantii, undatus, pictus, and funiculatus, all of which are 
characterized by an oval Nerite-like form, which fully entitles them to 
the generic distinction less significantly awarded by Mr. Swainson to the 
Melania-like species. 

Like all fresh-water shells, the Paludomi are of a dark sombre colour, 
always more or less eroded at the apex ; the Nerite-shaped species exhibit 
however a very characteristic waved pattern interiorly in an incipient stage of 
growth, which in a more advanced state is entirely overlaid by a deposit of 
colourless matter, when they are further distinguished by a rich chocolate- 
brown tint of colouring on the columella and edge of the aperture. The 
animal is probably little more than a modified condition of the Melania, 
being similar in habit, and having the same black horny operculum of a 
more triangular form. 

Of the following species, thirteen are from Ceylon, two from the Hima- 
layan district of India, and one from Point Palmas, Sumatra. 

I am not aware that the genus exists in any of the streams of North 
America, but it may be said to be represented by Mr. Say's Anculotus, 
which appears to be as peculiar to the Transatlantic district as Paludomus 
is to the Ceylonese. 

Species. 

1. Chilinoides, Reeve. 6. loricatus, Reeve. 11. spiralis, Reeve. 

2. conicus {Mel), Gray. 7. Neritoides, id. 12. Stephanus {Mel), Ben. 

3. funiculatus, Reeve. 8. nigricans, id. 13. sulcatus, Reeve. 

4. Gardneri, id. 9. olivaceus, id. 14. Tennentii, id. 

5. globulosus {Mel), Gr. 10. pictus, id. 15. undatus, id. 



177 

Figure. 

Paludomus undatus. PL 18. Fig. 100. Shell, showing its globose 
Natica-like form. 



Family 13. LYMN^EANA. 

Shell ; thin, mostly transparent, smooth ; aperture sometimes very 
large, sometimes very small, with the lip simple. 

The well-known pond and ditch Snails which constitute this family dwell 
in fresh-water as their proper element, but have the capacity of breathing 
air, to provide against the emergency of their places of habitation becoming 
dried up. They are accustomed to rise to the surface of the water to 
breathe and to take in a supply of air, and are furnished with the means of 
retaining it for some considerable time.* 

In aquaria they have been observed to lower themselves from plants at 
the water level, by a mucous thread, and to re-ascend by it. The genera 
are: — 

ANCYLUS. LYMNiEA. PhYSA. PlANORBIS. 



Genus 1. ANCYLUS, Geoff roy. 

Animal ; with a broad head, tentacles triangular, with eyes at 

their base ; mantle simple ; disk ovate, large. 
Shell ; thin, Limpet-shaped, with the vertex rather sharp, incurved 

posteriorly ; aperture oval, very large, simple at the margin. 

The Limpet form of the little Ancylus led to many errors among concho- 
logists before the discovery of its true place in the system. So unlike Lymnaa 
and Planorbis in the absence of convoluted whorls, no one could have sup- 
posed the shell to have any immediate relationship with those genera. But 
the animal, observed by Guilding and De Ferussac, was found, notwithstand- 
ing the difference of its conchological characters, to be nearly the same, 
and to be affected by the same peculiarities as regards its habits and mode 

* Professor Edward Forbes describes that when ascending in sunny weather, the Lymnfeantc 
creep, as it were, reversed on the surface, as if the film of water in immediate contact with the 
air was in a different condition from the fluid beneath, and served as a floor or ceiling on which 
these mollusks progress. They lay their eggs, he continues, in consistent, transparent, gelatinous 
masses, on the leaves and stems of water-plants or on stones. 

2 A 



178 

of breathing. Of our two British species one has been separated as a new 
genus, Velletia, on account of some minute difference in the tongue- 
teeth. 



1. capuloides, Jan. 

2. concentricus, D'Orb. 

3. culicoides, id. 

4. fluviatilis, Mutter. 

5. Gayanus, D'Orbiyuy. 



Species. 

6. irroratus, Lamarck. 10. oblongus, Lightfoot. 

7. lacustris, Midler. 11. radiatus, Lamarck. 

8. Moricandi, D'Orbigny, 12. rivularis, Say. 

9. obliquus, Broderip. 13. spina-rosa, Drapnd. 



Figure. 

Ancylus fluviatilis. PI. 18. Fig. 94. Shell, showing its open, Limpet- 
like form, and sharply incurved top. 



Genus 2. LYMNiEA, Braparnaud. 

Animal ; having a broad head, the tentacles being also broad, with 
the eyes placed at their inner bases ; mantle sometimes reflected 
over the shell, foot broad, often oblong. 

Shell ; oblong or ovate, sometimes turriculated, smooth, horny, 
spire sharp, aperture mostly large, lip simple. 

In this genus are included two very fairly defined groups, known re- 
spectively as Lyvincea proper, and Jmphipeplea. Of the first, our common 
British L. stagnalis is a good typical species, the shells being mostly light 
and largely inflated, though some have a narrow turriculated growth, and 
are thicker in substance. The second group, of which there are many 
foreign species not as yet described, is distinguished by an inflated shell of 
a shorter Bulla-like form, over which the animal, as in that genus, more or 
less reflects the mantle. 

The Lymncea inhabit ponds, lakes, and cpaiet streams, in all parts of the 
world, being of a dull uniform horny substance, with little or no variation 
of colour. 



1. acuminata, Lamarck. 

2. ampla, Mighels. 

3. arapullacea,i?os<s'w.. 

4. appressa, Say. 



Species. 

6. Burnettii, Alder. 

7. catascopium, Say. 

8. columellus, id. 

9. desidiosa, id. 



5. aurioularia, Drapnd. 10. elodes, id. 



11. elongata, id. 

12. emarginata, id. 

13. fragilis, Pulteney. 

14. fusca, Pfeiffer. 

15. gingivata, Goupil. 



179 



16. glaber, Midler. 

17. glutinosa, id. 

18. gracilis, Jay. 

19. humilis, Say. 

2 . intermedia, Terussac. 

21. involuta, Harvey. 

22. Lessoni, Deshayes. 

23. luteola, Lamarck. 

24. macrostoma, Say. 

25. marginata, Michaud. 

26. megastoma, Say. 

27. membranacea, Porro. 



28. minuta, Drapnd. 

29. Moravica, Parreys. 

30. ovalis, ©my. 

31. ovata, P/rapnd. 

32. palustris, z'a?. 

33. papyracea, jS^iar. 

34. peregra, Draparnaud. 

35. reflexa, #fly. 

36. rufescens, Gray. 

37. rugata, Ziegler. 

38. Sicula, Parreys. 



39. stagnalis, Draparnaud . 

40. strigata, Parreys. 

41. subglobosa, Sowerby. 

42. succinea, Deshayes. 

43. Tknorensis, Sowerby. 

44. trancatula, Midler. 

45. turrita, «/. 

46. umbrosa, /Say. 

47. Virgmiana, Lamarck. 

48. viridis, Q?foy. 

49. Ziegleri, Pfeiffer. 



Figure. 

Lymn^a stagnalis. PI. 17. Fig. 92. Shell, showing its light horny 
substance and inflated growth. 



Genus 3. PHYSA, Draparnaud. 

Animal ; having a broad head, with the tentacles subidate or seta- 
ceous, with the eyes placed at their inner bases ; foot lanceo- 
late ; mantle lobed or simple. 

Shell ; oblong or ovate, mostly sinistral and polished ; sjnre 
sharp ; aperture frequently oblong-triangular, lip simple. 

The animal of Phgsa varies from the typical form of that of Lymnaa, in 
having the foot lanceolate and the tentacles more slender. The shell may 
be best distinguished by its being mostly sinistral, and in having a polished 
porcellanous surface. The species are of a darker horn-like colour, and 
affect the same habitats. 

A British species, in which the mantle of the animal js not lobed, has 
been made genus Aplexus, and a few in which there is an inclination in 
the columella of the shell to be truncated, after the manner of Achatina, 
have been separated under the generic title of Physopsis. 

Speaking of the Physa fontinalis, Professor Porbes says : — " The animal 
is of a pale yellowish-grey, darkening in individuals to a deep-fuscous hue. 
Its tentacles are long and slender, with conspicuous black eyes at their 
inner basis. The mantle is highly contractile, and, when expanded, enve- 
lopes a great part of the shell (indicated by its polished surface), and is 
divided at the edge into finger-like processes. It is hi lobed, th ceolu- 

2 a 2 



180 

mellar division having more digitations, usually five, than that which is 
projected over the spire. The foot is obtusely angled in front and pointed 
behind. It does not appear that there are any essential differences dis- 
tinguishing the animals of the different varieties. They all advance with a 
jerking motion." 



1. acuta, Draparnaud. 

2. alba, Turton. 

3. aurea, Lea. 

4. castanea, Lamarck. 

5. coutorta, Midland. 

6. elliptica, Lea. 

7. elongata, Say. 



Species. 

8. fontinalis, Drapnd. 

9. Georgiana, Quoy. 

10. Guerinii, Mittre. 

11. gyrina, Say. 

12. beterostropha, id. 

13. hvpnorum, Linneevs. 

14. Ludoviciana, Mittre. 



15. Mangerise, Gray. 

16. Novse-Hollandise, Blvl. 

17. Peruviana, Gray. 

18. rivalis, Sowerhy. 

19. subopaca, Lamarck. 

20. Tongana, Quoy. 

21. truncata, Fe'russac. 



Figure. 

Physa Mangeri,e. PL 17. Fig. 91. Shell, showing its triangularly 
ovate form, and dark porcellanous shining surface. 



Genus 4. PLANORBIS, Guettard. 

Animal ; having a stout broad proboscis-like head, with two slender 
tentacles, with eyes at their inner bases ; foot short and obtuse. 

Shell ; discoid, with a depressed spire, with the apex more or 
less sunk in a concavity ; whorls rounded, sometimes keeled, 
with the aperture mostly semilunar ; lip simple. 

We have seen how puzzled conchologists were as to the affinities of 
Ancylus, owing to the Limpet-like form of its shell. Similar difficulty 
occurred originally with Planorlns ; the shell being distinguished by the 
same peculiarity of the whorls coiling upon each other in a discoidal plane 
as in the fossil Ammonites. Cuvier was the first to determine anatomically 
the affinity of Planorbis with Lymncea and Physa, as suggested by their 
similarity of habit ; and so uniform in character are its numerous species, 
that no subgenus has been proposed worth recording. 

The animal of Planorbis is rather variable in colour, black or slate, or 
chestnut or yellowish, or yellow dotted on a dark-fuscous ground. The 
shell is mostly of a livid-slate or greenish-horny colour, inclining to yellow. 



181 

It dwells abundantly in the rivulets and pools of Europe and North and 
South America, and also of China and Hindostan. 



1. 


albus, Milller. 


18. 


2. 


Alexandrinus, Ehrenb 


. 19. 


3. 


anatinus, D'Orbigny. 


20. 


4. 


Andecolus, id. 


21. 


5. 


annigerus, Say. 


22. 


6. 


bicarinatus, id. 


23. 


7. 


campanulatus, id. 


24. 


8. 


carinatus, Miiller. 


25. 


9. 


complanatus, Lam. 


26. 


10. 


contortus, Miiller. 


27. 


11. 


coretus, Adanson. 


28. 


12. 


corneus, Braparnand. 


29. 


13. 


cristatus, id. 


30. 


14. 


deflectus, Say. 


31. 


15. 


deformis, Lamarck. 


32. 


16. 


devians, Porro. 


33. 


17. 


dilatatus, Pfeiffer. 


34. 



Species. 

elevatus, Adams. '35. 

exacutus, Say. 36. 

exustus, Beshayes. 37. 

ferrugineus, Spix. 38. 

glaber, Jeffreys. 39. 

Gruadaloupensis, Soio. 40. 

heliciformis, Roth. 41. 

heloicus, B'Orbigny. 42. 

heliophilus, id. 43. 

hirsutus, Gould. 44. 
hispidus, Braparnand. 45. 

imbricatus, Miiller. 46. 

Kermatoides, B'Orb. 47. 

lacustris, Liglttfoot. 48. 

lentus, Say. 49. 

leucostoma, Millet. 50. 

lugubris, Wagner. 51. 



lutescens, Lamarck. 
marginatus, Brapnd. 
marmoratus, Michaud. 
montanus, B'Orbigny. 
nitidus, Miiller. 
olivaceus, Wagner. 
orientalis, Lamarck. 
parallelus, Say. 
paropseides, B'Orb. 
parvus, Say. 
peregrinus, B'Orb. 
Peruvianus, Broderip. 
spirorbis, Miiller. 
tenagophilus, B'Orb. 
Tondanensis, Quoy. 
trivolvis, Say. 
vortex, Miiller. 



Figure. 

Planorbis corneus. PL 17. Fig. 87. Shell, showing its horny sub- 
stance, discoid convolution of the whorls, and semilunar aperture. 



Family 14. AURICULACEA. 

Shell; ovate, with the columella toothed or strongly plaited ; aper- 
ture oval, with the lip mostly thickened and toothed or warted 
within. 

The Auriculacea, like the family Lymnceana, live in stagnant water and 
yet breathe air, but they live much more out of water, in damp and moist 
places, in swampy vegetation, among the roots of marsh trees ; and they 
mostly affect places bordering on the sea and within range of brackish 
water. Their shells are consequently of more solid growth, and present 
more brightness and variety of colour. The genera are 

Chilina. Scarabus. Auricula. 



182 



Genus 1. CHILINA, Gray. 

Animal; rather large, depressed; head flattened, zoith two angu- 
lar tentacles, having the eyes situated about the middle ; foot 
broad, with a fold of the mantle projecting beyond it. 

Shell; ovate, inflated, with the spire sometimes turricidated ; colu- 
mella sharply plaited ; aperture entire at the base, lip thin. 

The ChilineB are a group of mollusks peculiar to South America, dwell- 
ing, not in stagnant water, but in running, limpid streams, not attached 
to plants, but to fragments of rock and stones below the surface. They 
present an interesting link between the Auricula and Lymncea, and are 
regarded by some authors as merely a subgenus of the latter. Both shell 
and animal are, however, peculiar. The shells are of a uniform greenish- 
olive colour, with bands of markings, having the columella sharply plaited ; 
and the animal presents a difference in the tentacles and in the develop- 
ment of the mantle. 



1. ampullacea, Soioerby. 

2. bulloides, IfOrbigny. 

3. Dombeyana, Sowerby. 

4. fluctuosa, Gray. 

5. fluminea, id. 



Species. 

6. fluviatilis, Gray. 

7. gibbosa, Sowerby. 

8. major, id. 

9. ovalis, id. 
10. Parchappii, D' Orbigny . 



11. Puelcha, D' Orbigny. 

12. robustior, Sowerby. 

13. Tehuelcha, D' Orbigny. 

14. tenuis, Gray. 



Figure. 

Chilina ampullacea. PI. 19. Fig. 105. Shell, with olive-green-spotted 
epidermis, showing its thin columellar plait. 



Genus 2. SCARABUS, Be Montford. 

Animal; similar to Auricula. 

Shell ; ovate, with the spire obtusely pyramidal, and the whorls 
peculiarly depressed, each forming a varix on either side, and 
the last being sometimes abruptly turned at the base to form 
an angle ; aperture oval, expanded, prominently wart-toothed 
on both sides. 



is; 



De Montford, tliough a bit of a charlatan in the literature of concho- 
logy, founded some very excellent genera, with this among the number. 
The Scarabi, of which many more species are known than are named, are 
all of the same pyramidally ovate solid growth, and agree to a considerable 
extent in painting, but the character which entitles them chiefly to rank 
as a genus, is the presence of a row of varices on either side, coupled with 
a striking uniformity in the construction and dentition of the aperture. 

According to the observations of Mr. Arthur Adams in Borneo and 
Celebes during the voyage of the ' Samarang/ the Scarabi are wholly ter- 
restrial, inhabiting moist spots in woods, and feeding on decayed vegetable 
matter among the tree-roots or under dry stones. 



1. castaneus, Lesson. 

2. Cumingianus, Petit. 

3. irabrium, Montford. 

4. lekithostoma, Reeve. 



Species. 

5. Lessoni, Blainville. 

6. Petiverianus, Ferussac. 

7. plicatus, id. 

8. pyramidatus, Reeve. 



9. striatus, Reeve. 

10. trigonus, Troshel. 

11. undatus, Lesson. 



Figure. 

Scarabus imbrium. PI. 19. Fig. 104. Shell, showing its solid ob- 
tusely pyramidal growth, with the lateral varices, and peculiar wart- 
toothed aperture. 



Genus 3. AURICULA. 

Animal ; head broad and short, having two tentacles, with eyes at 
their inner bases ; mantle thickened at the edge ; foot oblong. 

Shell ; ovate, or ovate-oblong , rather solid, covered with a brown 
epidermis ; columella either toothed or strongly plaited ; aper- 
ture longitudinally ovate, rounded and entire at the base, with 
the lip sometimes simple, sometimes thickly reflected. 

The Auricula, which have been long known to naturalists by the only 
two species even now discovered of any material size, the Midas' and 
Judas' Ears, may be said to be the land or marsh representatives of the 
marine Volutes. They comprise the few shells among the pulmo-branchiate, 
or air-breathing mollusks, that have strong plaits winding round the colu- 
mella, and they are never channelled at the base, as is the case with the 



184 

genera'of carnivorous proboscis-armed sea mollusks in which the colu- 
mella is plaited. 

Externally the "shell of Auricula is usually dark chestnut-brown, occa- 
sionally banded, and often wrinkled ; internally the teeth and plaits, which 
are essentially conspicuous, are sometimes, brightly coloured. 

The Auricula abound chiefly in the swampy islands of the Eastern seas. 
Only two small species have been found in England. 

The best-established subgenera of the group are Melampus, Pedipes, 
and Carychium. 



1. acuta, B'Orbigny. 

2. alba, Gray. 

3. angulifera, Petit. 

4. angistonia, Beshayes. 

5. auricella, Ferussac. 

6. australis, Quoy. 

7. avena, Guillou. 

8. bidentata, Montagu. 

9. biplicata, Beshayes. 

10. borealis, Conrad. 

11. coniforrais, Lamarck. 

12. cornea, Beshayes. 

13. costata, Quoy. 

14. denticulata, Montagu. 

15. fasciata, Beshayes. 



Species. 

16. felis, Lamarck. 

17. Firmini, Payraudeau. 

18. fruraentum, Guillou. 

19. fuscagula, Lea. 

20. globulus, B'Orbigny. 

21. Judge, Lamarck. 

22. labrella, Beshayes. 

23. lineata, Brapamaud. 

24. livida, Beshayes. 

25. lutea, Quoy. 

26. Malchi, Miiller. 

27. marginata, Deshayes. 

28. Micheli, Mitt re. 

29. Midse, Lamarck. 

30. minima, Brapamaud. 



31. monile, Lamarck. 

32. mustelina, Beshayes. 

33. myosotis, Brapamaud. 

34. myotis, Nuttall. 

35. nitens, Lamarck. 

36. nucleus, Ferussac. 

37. pallida, (?ray. 

38. Pepita, P/e#^. 

39. personata, Michaud. 

40. reflexilabris, B'Orb. 

41. rugata, Menke. 

42. Sileni, Lamarck. 

43. stagnalis, B'Orbigny. 

44. subula, Qwoy. 

45. uniplicata, Mittre. 



Figure. 

Auricula Mid,e. PI. 19. Fig. 103. Shell, with its solid growth and 
chestnut-brown epidermis, showing the strongly plaited columella and 
rounded base. 



Shell 



Family 15. CYCLOSTOMACEA. 

depressed, globose, turreted, smooth, with the lip mostly re- 



flected, sometimes notched or figured at the margin ; operculum 
horny or calcareous. 



185 

In the families Cyclostomacea and Colimacea are included the extensive 
series of Laud Snails, which, since Lamarck's time, has increased from 
about two hundred and fifty species to upwards of five thousand. The 
conchologists of Germany, more especially Dr. Pfeiffer of Cassel, owing 
perhaps to their inland position, have worked almost exclusively during 
the past ten years upon land shells ; and encouragement has been given 
far and wide to travellers, particularly to plant-collectors, in all countries 
to look well after Snails. The researches of Mr. Cuming, both in the arid 
plains of Chili and in the rich woods of the Philippine Islands, have added 
to our stores of land shells to an extent almost unprecedented in any 
branch of natural history ; and many scarcely less zealous collectors have 
contributed to enrich our cabinets from the vast territories of Brazil, 
Bolivia, and Venezuela, and from India, Australia, and the Western Isles. 
It may seem strange that natural history should have occupied, more or 
less, the attention of men's minds since the time of Aristotle, and that the 
land snails, the most readily accessible of all shells, should have so long 
dwelt in obscurity ; but the philosopher might ask, with nearly as much 
show of reason, how comes it to pass that the world has existed for more 
than six thousand years, — according to Baron Bunsen, twenty thousand, — 
and it is only now that we have discovered the use of steam-engines, elec- 
tric telegraphs, and lucifer matches. Snails, of one sort or another, in- 
habit all lands, and being of sluggish habit the types of form are very 
local. Who then shall say that even the number of species known up to 
the present time is not very far short of the actual existence of mollusks 
on land, seeing that they scarcely amount to the average proportion of 
a single species to every area of 2000 square miles ? 

The Cyclostomacea, numbering, according to the latest conchological 
census, about 1150 species, differ from the great bulk of the land shells 
included under the head of Colimacea, in being operculated and inclining 
to amphibious habits. They affect damper situations, and some live par- 
tially in water. Dr. Pfeiffer distributes the Cyclostomacea into forty-three 
genera, indicated in our lists of species as subgeneric divisions of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Helicina. Cyclostoma. Teuncatella. 

Stoastoma. Plpina. Geomrlania. 



Genus 1. HELICINA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Cyclostoma. 

Shell ; depressly globose, with the spire mostly rather sharp, gene- 
rally smooth; aperture semiorbicidar ; lip reflected, sometimes 



2 B 



186 

indented with a slit or fissure near the columella, which is 
callous at the base ; operculum horny, sometimes a little cal- 
careous, not spiral. 

A series of prettily painted, bright- coloured little shells, including, be- 
sides Helicina proper, the subgenera Alcadia, Schasicheila, Lucidella, and 
Trochatella of authors, are classed under this head. Only four species 
were known to Lamarck. Now we have more than 270. By far the 
greater number are inhabitants of the West Indies and Central America ; 
a few are from the Pacific, Feejee, and Philippine Islands. 

A character to be noted in this genus is that the operculum is never 
spiral. It is mostly horny, sometimes a little calcareous. A few of the 
Helicina; are characterized by a slit in the margin, which, as in Pupina, is 
not unfrequently filled up with enamel. 



1. acuminata, Velasq. 

2. acuta, Pfr. 

3. acutissima, Sow. 

4. Adamsiana, Pfr. 

5. adspersa, id. 

6. agglutinans, Sow. 

7. albocincta, Jacq. 

8. albolabris, id. 

9. amcena, Pfr. 

10. ampliata, Ad. 

11. angulata, Sow. 

12. Antillarum, id. 

13. Antoni, Pfr. 

14. arenicola, Mor. 

15. articulata, Pfr. 

16. aurantia, Gray. 

17. Barbadensis, Pfr. 

18. Bastidana, Poey. 

19. Bayamensis, id. 

20. beryllina, Goidd. 

21. Besckei, Pfr. 

22. biangulata, id. 

23. bicolor, id. 



Species* 

24. Blandiana, Gundl. 

25. Brasiliensis, Gray. 

26. brevilabris, Pfr. 

27. Briarea, Poey. 

28. bulla, Pfr. 

29. Candeana, D'Orb. 

30. caracolla, Moric. 

31. carinata, D'Orb. 

32. Catalinensis, Pfr. 

33. Chiapensis, id. 

34. chrysochasma, Poey. 

35. chrysockeila, Binn. 

36. ckrysocheila, Shutt. 

37. ciliata, Poey. 

38. cinctella, Shutt. 

39. cingulata, Pfr. 

40. citrina, Grat. 

41. Columbiana, Phil. 

42. columellaris, Gundl. 

43. concentrica, Pfr. 

44. concirma, Gundl. 

45. conoidea, Pfr. 

46. convexa, id. 



47. Cordillerse, Salle. 

48. cornea, Sow. 

49. costata, Gray. 

50. crassilibris, Phil. 

51. Curaingiana, Pfr. 

52. delicatula, Shutt. 

53. denticulata, Pfr. 

54. depressa, Gray. 

55. diapliana, Pfr. 

56. Dominicensis, id. 

57. Draytonensis, id. 

58. Dysoni, id. 

59. egregia, id. 

60. elata, £/«<«. 

61. elongata, If Orb. 

62. exigua, -P/>\ 

63. exigua, Jacq. 

64. fasciata, Lam. 

65. festiva, /Sew. 

66. flaramea, Quoy. 

67. flavida, Menke. 

68. foveata, P^r. 

69. fragilis, Mor. 



* The Land Shells having been recently described by Dr. Pfciffer, it is intended to give the 
list of species from his monographs, regarding his genera as subgenera. 



187 



70. fulgora, Gould. 116. 

71. fulva, D'Orb. 117. 

72. Funcki, Pfr. 118. 

73. Ghiesbregliti, id. 119. 

74. glabra, Gould. 120. 

75. globosa, Gray. 121. 

76. globulosa, If Orb. 122. 

77. gonio stoma, Sow. 123. 

78. gonochila, Pfr. 124. 

79. Gouldiana, Forb. 125. 

80. granurn, P/v\ 126. 

81. gratiosa, id. 127. 

82. Guadaloupensis, Sow.l2S. 

83. haemastorna, Moric. 199. 

84. Hanleyana, Pfr. 130. 

85. Heatei, id. 131. 

86. Heloisje, Salle. 132. 

87. Hjalmarsoni, Pfr. 133. 

88. hunrilis, Jacq. 134. 

89. Ida3, P/r. 135. 

90. inconspicua, id. 136. 

91. intusplicata, id. 137. 

92. Jamaicensis, Sow. 138. 

93. jugulata, Poey. 139. 

94. Kieneri, P/h 140. 

95. Kiisteriana, id. 141. 

96. laciniosa, Migh. 142. 

97. Lazarus, Sow. 143. 

98. Lambeyana, Poey. 144. 

99. lens, Pea. 145. 

100. lenticularis, Sow. 146. 

101. Lindeni, Pfr. 147. 

102. lineata, Ad. 148. 

103. lirata, Pfr. 149. 

104. livida, Pac. 150. 

105. Louisiadensis, Forb. 151. 

106. Lundi, Beck. 152. 

107. lutea, Less. 153. 

108. MacgiUivrayi, Pfr. 154. 

109. maculata, <Sb?0. 155. 

110. margaritacea, Less. 156. 

111. Mangerise, Gray. 157. 

112. maxima, Sow. 158. 

113. Mayarina, Poey. 159. 

114. merdigera, Shutt. 160. 

115. Merguiensis, P/h 161. 



microdina, Mor. 
miniata, Less. 
minuta, Soto. 
modesta, Pfr. 
Moquiniana, Reel. 
Moreletiana, Pfr. 
multicolor, Gould. 
musiva, id. 
neritella, Lam. 
Nicobarica, Phil. 
nitida, Pfr. 
nobihs, Ad. 
Norfolkensis, Pfr. 
notata, Salle. 
occidentalis, Guild. 
oculata, Say. 
oleosa, Pfr. 
orbiculata, Say. 
Orbignii, Pfr. 
oresigena, D'Orb. 
Oweniana, Pfr. 
oxytropis, Gray. 
pallida, Gould. 
parva, Sow. 
pellucida, id. 
phasianella, id. 
pictella, Pfr. 
pisum, Phil. 
pisum, Jacq. 
platychila, Mtihlf. 
plicatula, Pfr. 
pulcherrima, Lea. 
pygrnaea, Pot. 
pyramidalis, Sow. 
Reeveana, Pfr. 
repanda, id. 
retracta, Poey. 
rhodostoma, Gray. 
riparia, Pfr. 
Rohri, id. 
rostrata, Mor. 
rotella, Sow. 
rotelloidca, Migh. 
rotundata, D'Orb 
rubromarginata, Gdl 
rudis, Pfr. 



162. rufa, Pfr. 

163. ragosa, id. 

164. rustica, id. 

165. Sagraiana, D'Orb. 

166. Salleana, Pfr. 

167. Sandozi, Shuit. 

168. Sandwicliiensis, Sowb. 

169. sanguinea, Pfr. 

170. scopulorum, Mor. 

171. Shanghaiensis, Pfr. 

172. silacea, Mor. 

173. simibs, Sow. 

174. sinuosa, Pfr. 

175. solidula, Gray. 

176. sordida, King. 

177. Sowerbyana, Pfr. 

178. sphaeroidea, id. 

179. spinifera, id. 

180. t^prucei, id. 

181. Stanleyi, Forb. 

182. straminea, Mor. 

183. striata, Lan. 

184. striatula, Pot. 

185. striatula, Sow. 

186. suavis, Pfr. 

187. subdepressa, Poey. 

188. subfusca, Menke. 

189. subglobulosa, Poey. 

190. sublaevigata, Pfr. 

191. submarginata, Gray. 

192. substriata, id. 

193. sylvatica, D'Orb. 

194. tamiata, Quoy. 

195. Tamsiana, Pfr. 

196. tenuis, id. 

197. Tilei, id. 

198. Titanica, Poey. 

199. trochiformis, Sow. 

200. trochlea, Gould. 

201. trochulina, D'Orb. 

202. tropica, Jan. 

203. turbinata, Wieg. 

204. turbinella, Pfr. 

205. uberta, Gould. 
206.^umbonata, Shutt. 
207. unidentata, P/)-. 

2 b 2 



188 



208, 
209 
210. 
211. 

220. 
221. 
222. 
22b. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
227. 



unifasciata, Gray. 
variabilis, Hag. 
vemalis, Mor. 
versicolor, Pfr. 

Brownei, Gray. 
capax, Gundl. 
citrino-labris, Ad. 
consanguinea, id. 
dissimulans, Poey 
dubiosa, Ad. 
Grossei, Pfr. 
Gundlachi, id. 



212. vestita, Guild. 

213. velosa, Ant. 

214. vinosa, Shutt. 

215. virens, Pfr. 

Subgenus Alcadia, Gray. 



216. viridis, Lam. 

217. zebriolata, Pfr. 

218. zepbyrina, Duel. 

219. zonata, Less. 



243. aureola, Feruss. 



228. hirsuta, Ad. 

229. hispida, Pfr. 

230. Hollandi, Ad. 

231. maeilenta, id. 

232. major, Gray. 

233. megastoma, Ad. 

234. rnicrastoma, id. 

235. minima, D'Orb. 

Subgenus Lucidella, Swainson 
244. nana, Pfr. 



236. palliata, Ad. 

237. pusilla, id. 

238. rhamphostyla, Pfr, 

239. rubella, id. 

240. sobtaria, Ad. 

241. succinea, Pfr. 

242. velutina, Poey. 



Subgenus Schasicheila, Shuttleworth. 



245. alata, Meiike. 



246. Nicoleti, Shutt. 247. paunucea, jl/br. 

Subgenus Trochatella, Swainson. 



248. callosa, Poey. 

249. capillacea, P/r. 

250. Chittyana, id. 

251. clirysostoma, Shutt. 

252. conica, P/h 

253. constellata, Mor. 

254. dilatata, Po^//. 

255. elegantula, Pfr. 

256. excavata, tic?. 

257. Gouldiana, id. 



258. Grayana, id. 

259. bians, Poey. 

260. Josepbina?, Ad. 

261. luteo-apicata, Poey. 

262. opima, Shutt. 

263. Petitiana, D'Orb. 

264. petrosa, Gundl. 

265. pobtula, Poey. 

266. pulchella, (r;v/y. 

267. regina, Mor. 



268. rubicunda, Gundl. 

269. rupestris, P//\ 

270. semilirata, id. 

271. Sloanei, D'Oro. 

272. stellata, Vet. 

273. subunguiculata, Poey. 

274. Tankervillei, Gray. 

275. tenuis, Ad. 

276. virginea, Zee. 



Figure* 

Helicina agglutinans. PI. 19. Fig. 101 a, b. Shell, showing at Fig. 
101 b a peculiarity in the animal of agglutinating small pebbles to the 
periphery of the whorls after the manner of the Carrier Trochus. 
Fig. 101 a. Shell, denuded of the pebbles, showing the form of the 
aperture. 



Genus 2. STOASTOMA, C. B. Mams. 

Animal ; disc oblong, rather acuminaiely produced at the hinder 
extremity ; head forming a truncated snout, and furnished with 



- 189 

two small tentacles ; colour dark bottle-green, inclining to black. 
Shell ; globose or conic, sometimes a little depressed, spirally 
variously sculptured, the whorls being mostly rounded, in a few 
instances slightly angled, last whorl sometimes very much pro- 
duced ; umbilicus sometimes concealed ; aperture small, some- 
what semicircular. 

The genus Stoastoma was founded by the late Professor C. B. Adams, 
about ten years since, for the reception of a few exceedingly minute shells 
inhabiting Jamaica, Porto Bico, and probably some other of the West 
India Islands. As the name of the first discovered type, Stoastoma jnsum, 
implies, they are like microscopic peas, globose and subdiscoidal in form, 
with a small semicircular aperture, presenting good subgeneric differences, 
and some marvellous varieties of sculpture. About twenty species, named 
in honour of various conchological friends, were defined by Professor 
Adams, but that number has been increased to eighty by Mr. Edward 
Chitty, formerly of Jamaica, who has described his specimens in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society, and liberally deposited them, together 
with the rest of his West Indian collection, in the British Museum. Mr. 
Chitty's attention being specially called to the little Stoastoma Wilkin- 
sonianum, by Professor Adams, whilst on a visit to Jamaica, he found 
it to agree with a minute shell picked up by him in his garden some 
time previously, and determined to search for more. " I ransacked my 
garden," says Mr. Chitty, " and all round in vain ; for, as I now conclude, 
it had been brought there accidentally, perhaps by a bird ; till at last I 
crossed a deep ravine, a streamlet at the bottom of it, and got to one side 
of what we call f Little Yallahs Hill/ which stands a good half-mile crow- 
fly from my garden. There 1 found a spot, a slope on the hillside, with 
crumbling fine dirt running, or sifting as it were, down it." In this dirt, 
he goes on to relate that he found plenty of S. Willcinsonianum and other 
new species, and continues: — "The formation of Jamaica being mostly 
tertiary limestone, out of about a quart of such dirt as this I have taken 
dozens and dozens of minute specimens of no less than thirty-one species, 
besides larger ones which the naked eye could well see, — probably upwards 
of fifty species from one quart of dirt altogether ! " 

Mr. Chitty means, doubtless, a quart of dirt made up from different 
localities ; for in describing the geographical distribution of the Stoasto- 
mata, he states that five or six species may be found to inhabit a certain 
spot, and that you may search in vain for them outside a circumference of 
about three-fourths of a mile. 

We give the species grouped according to Mr. Chitty, adopting his 
genera as subgenera. 



190 



1. Livesayanum, Ch. 

2. Pfeifferianum, Ad. 



5. Bairdianum, Ch. 

6. Blandianum, id. 

7. Hillianum, id. 



Species. 
3. pisum, Ad. 



4. succineuin, Sow. 



Subgenus Blandia, Chitty. 

8. JefFreysianum, C%. 11. Macgillivrayi, Ch. 

9. Loweanum, irf. 12. Traillianum, id. 



10. Lukisianum, id. 



13. Troschelianum, £<?. 



Subgenus Padyenia, Chitty. 
14. Bowerbankianum. C%. 15. Padyenianum, Ad. 16. Grayanum, Ch. 

Subgenus Lewisia, Chitty. 

17. Agassizianura, Ch. 19. Pbilippianum, ^</. 20. Woodwardianum, Ch. 

18. Macandrewianum, id. 



21. Albersianum, C%. 

22. Alderianum, id. 

23. Artkurianum, £*?. 

24. Boisserianum, id. 

25. Bridgesianum, id. 

26. Dennisoniauum, z'<#. 

27. Piseherianum, id. 

28. Gaskoinianum, ic?. 

29. Gutierezianum, id. 



46. Bacquieanum, Ch. 

47. Chittyanum, zV/. 

48. Dorhnianum, id. 

49. Layardianum, it?. 



57. Adamsianum, Ch. 

58. Anthonianura, id. 

59. Barronianum, tt?. 



Subgenus Lindleya, Chitty. 

30. Henryanum, C&. 38. 

31. Jayanum, Ad. 39. 

32. Leanum, id. 40. 

33. Lindleyanum, id. 41. 

34. Moricandianum, id. 42. 

35. Newcombiauuin, C%. 43. 

36. Oweniauum, id. 44. 

37. Pickeringianum, id. 45. 



Poeyanum, Ch. 
Polyblankianum, id. 
Kedfieldianura, Ad. 
Beeveanum, Ch. 
Kuesseanum, id. 
Salleanum, id. 
Shuttleworthianum, id. 
Wollastonianum, id. 



Subgenus Metcalfeia, Chitty. 



50. Metcalfeianuin, Ch. 

51. Mitchellianum, id. 

52. Morchianum, id. 

53. Sinclairianum, id. 



54. Sutlierlandianum, Ch. 

55. Swiftianum, id. 

56. Verreauxianum, id. 



Subgenus Petitia, Chitty. 

61. Cumingianum, Ad. 65. Stevensianum, Ch. 

62. Portuneanum, Ch. 66. Stokesianum, &?.. 

63. Grevilleanum, id. 67. Stricklandianum, lief. 



60. Carpenterianum, id. 64. Petitianum, Ad. 



68. Taylorianum, ic?. 



69. Abbottianum, Ch. 

70. Bensonianum, iJ. 

71. Dysonianum, id. 

72. Gouldianum, Ad. 



Subgenus Wilkinsons a, Chitty. 

74. Hanleyanum, Ch. 78. Moussonianuni, C%. 

75. Hollandianum, Ad. 79. Scbomburgkiauum, id. 

76. Jardineianum, C%. 80. Tappauianum, Ad. 

77. Laidlawianum, m#. 81. Wilkinsonianum, id. 



73. Greenwoodiauiun, Ch. 



191 

Figure. 

For an illustration of this genus see woodcut in Mr. Chitty's paper in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1857, p. 166.* 



Genus 3. CYCLOSTOMA, Lamarck 

Animal ; with a proboscis-shaped muzzle, and two subulate ten- 
tacles, with the eyes at their external bases ; foot ovate, fur- 
nished with an operculum sometimes horny, sometimes calcareous, 
fitting close to the aperture, in some insta?ices formed of several 
whorls. 

Shell ; globosely turbinated, sometimes cylindrically turreled, form- 
ing, not unfrequently, an open perspective umbilicus ; whorls 
round, mostly spirally sculptured, with the lip expanded and re- 
flected, rarely simple. 

Of all the genera of land shells this is the most comprehensive in respect 
ofform and variety of structure. It contains shells globose and widely 
umbilicated, and shells cylindrical convoluted so closely as to show scarcely 
a trace of an umbilicus ; and there are peculiarities of character attaching 
to the lip in many of the species which present good distinguishing cha- 
racters for subgeneric division. The species known to this date are 720 
in number, distributed into as many as forty natural groups ; and we only 
regret that the limits of this elementary work will not admit of their being 
separately characterized. All are operculated, and in some species the 
operculum consists of several distinct whorls. 

Owing to the roundly turbinated form of the shell, and to the presence 
of an operculum, the Cgclostomata known to Linuseus were not placed by 
him in his genus Helix, but in Turbo ; and notwithstanding the difference 
of habits, the animal has an evident relationship, not yet fully understood, 
with Littorina, and some other of the pectinate-gilled mollusks. Their 
geographical range is mainly tropical, only one small species being found 
in Britain. 

* The gushing enthusiasm with which Mr. Chitty has complimented his " bosom friends " in 
the foregoing harlequinade of proper names, identifying their memory not only with the titles 
of species but of genera, renders tbe list of Stoastomata rather grotesque. However much Mr9. 
Metcalfe may be delighted at hearing Mr. Metcalfe dilate upou the beauty of his Metcalfeia Met- 
ca/feiana, we can fancy the astonishment of Mr. Wilkinson at being presented by Mrs. Wilkin- 
son with two lovely Wil kinsonaa Wilkinsoniana ; and the familiarity with which Mrs. Wilkinson 
is brought into generic association with Sir Robert Schomburgk, Dr. Gould, and Mr. Hanley in 
the names Wilkinsoiuea Schomburgkiana, Gouldiana, and Hanleyana, is suggestive of flirtations 
that can scarcely be tolerated with propriety in the conchological nomenclature. 



192 



1. Abeillei, Grat. 

2. album, Soto. 

3. articulatum, Gray. 

4. asperum, Potiez. 

5. Banksianum, Sow. 

6. Barclayanum, Pfr. 

7. Belairi, Petit. 

8. bicarinatum, /Sow. 

9. Boivini, Pfr. 

10. Bronni, Ad. 

11. buccinulum, _Z?oZZ. 

12. calcaveum, Pfr. 

13. campanulatum, «?. 

14. carinatum, Born. 

15. cariniferum, Sow. 

16. Carolinense, P/h 

17. castaneuin, id. 

18. castum, ?rt\ 

19. Chevalieri, Ad. 

20. chloroticum, Pfr. 

21. concinnum, /Slow. 

22. citrinum, Ad. 

23. costulatum, ifov/Z. 

24. crenulosiuii, Ad. 

25. Creplini, Bunk. 

26. Cuvierianum, Pe^Y. 

27. deliciosimi, Feruss. 

28. Deshayesiauum, PeZ/Z. 62. multifasciatum, id. 



Species. 

35. fulvescente, Sow. 68. 

36. fasculum, Pfr. 69. 

37. glaucum, /Sow. 70. 

38. Goudotianurn, id. 71. 

39. gradatum, Pfr. 72. 

40. gratum, Petit. 73. 

41. griseiim, Pfr. 74. 

42. hespericum, J/or. 75. 

43. Humphreyanmn, Pfr. 76. 

44. ictericum, Sow. 77. 

45. insukre, Pfr. 78. 

46. Jayanum, Ad. 79. 

47. Kieneri, P/>\ 80. 

48. Kraussianum, id. 81. 

49. kevigatum, Webb. 82. 

50. lamellosum, Ad. 83. 

51. laeve, Pfr. 84. 

52. ligatulum, GVaY. 85. 

53. ligatum, Mall. 86. 

54. lineatum, Pfr. 87. 

55. liratum, id. 88. 

56. Macareae, Petit. 89. 

57. Madagascariense, G'/r/y. 90. 

58. Michaudi, Grat. 

59. microchasma, Pfr. 

60. modestiun, Pe^'Z. 

61. Moulinsi, Grat. 



29. dissectum, Soto. 

30. elegans, IfwZ/. 

31. enchilus, Pfr. 

32. fallax, w£ 

33. fascicularis, id. 

34. formosuiu, Sow. 



63. Novae-Hibernise, Q»oy 

64. obsoletutn, Lam. 

65. occlusuin, Morc/i. 

66. Olivieri, <So?c. 

67. parvipirum, Pfr. 



91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 
98. 
99. 
100. 



pulchellum, Sow. 
pulchrum, Gray. 
pyrostoma, Sow. 
Rangelinum, Poey. 
Redfieldianum, Ad. 
reticidatum, Ad. fyR. 
retrorsum, Ad. 
rugosum, Lam. 
saccatum, Pfr. 
sarcodes, id. 
sericinum, Ad. 
sinuatum, Pfr. 
solidum, Menke. 
Sowerbyi, Pfr. 
striatulum, id. 
subliratum, id. 
sulcatum, Lam. 
tectilabris, Ad. 
tenue, Soto. 
thysanoraphe, Sow. 
tricarinatum, Mull. 
trocldea, Bens. 
undulatum, Sow. 
unicarmatum, Lam. 
unicolore, Pfr. 
virgatum, Sow. 
virgo, Pfr. 
vit latum, Sow. 
xanthochilum, id. 
Yallahense, Ad. 
Zanguebarium, Petit. 
zonatum, id. 
zonulatum, Feruss. 



Subgenus Adamsiella, Pfeiffer. 

Ill 



101. chlorostoma, Sow. 106. mirabile, Wood. 

102. cimiamomeum, Pfr. 107. mirandum, Ad. 



103. Grayanum, id. 

104. ignilabris, Ad. 

105. intermedium, id. 



115. amphora, Bens. 

116. armillatum, id. 



112. 
113. 
114, 



108. monstrosum, id. 

109. moribundum, id. 

110. Pearmaneanum, Ch. 

Subgenus Alyc^eus, Gray. 

117. constrictum, id. 119 

118. distortum, Haiti. 120 



pingue, Pfr. 
pulcbrior, Ad. 
variabile, id. 
xantbostoma, Sow. 



gibbum, Feruss. 
hebes, Bens. 



193 



121. 
122. 
123. 

129. 
130. 



prosectiun, Bens. 
pyramidale, id. 

sculptile, id. 

grancle, Pfr. 
belicinum, Ch. 



124. spiracellum,^.^*jR. 127. unibonale, Bens. 

125. strangulation, Hutt. 128. urnula, id. 

126. sty lifer, Bens. 

Subgenus Aulopoma, Troschel. 
131. Itieri, Guerin. 132. spbaeroideum, Dshrn. 



Subgenus Bourciera, Pfeiffer. 



133. helicinasforme, Pfr. 



134 
135. 
136. 
137. 
188. 

147. 
148. 
149. 
150. 
151. 
152. 
153. 
154. 
155. 
156! 



175 
176 

177, 
178 
179 
180. 
181 
182, 
183 
184, 
185, 
186 
187, 
188, 
189 
190 
191 
192 



aureum, Pfr. 
Austenianum, Bens. 
Curaingii, Pfr. 
decorum, Bern. 
dupbcatum, Pfr. 



Subgenus Cataulus, Pfeiffer. 

139. eurytrema, Pfr. 143. 

140. hsemastoma, id. 144. 

141. Layardi, Gray. 145. 

142. marginatum, Pfr. 146. 



Subgenus Choanopoma, Pfeiffer. 



Adolfi, Pfr. 
alatum, id. 
anomalum, Ad. 
Arangianum, Gundl. 
bilabiatum, Gray. 
Chittyi, Ad. 
decussatum, Lam. 
evolutum, Ad. 
fimbriatulum, Sow. 



157. Hillianum, Ad. 166. 

158. interruptum, Lam. 167. 

159. labeo, Ad. 168. 

160. lima, id. 169. 

161. lincina, Linn. 170. 

162. lincinellum, Lam. 171. 

163. majusculum, Mor. 172. 

164. mite, Pfr. 173. 

165. perplicatum, Gundl. 174. 



pyramidatum, Pfr. 
Templemani, id. 
Tbwaitesi, id. 
tortuosum, Ch. 



Pretrei, D'Orb. 
pudicum, id. 
pulchrum, Wood. 
scabriculum, Sow. 
scuticosum, Shutt. 
solutum, Rich. 
spinulosum, Ad. 
sulculosum, Feruss. 
tentorium, Pfr. 



granosum, Ad. 

Subgenus Chondropoma, Pfeiffer. 



angustatum, Pfr. 
argutum, id. 
blandum, id. 
Blauneri, Shutt. 
Candeanum, B'Orb. 
claudicans, Poey. 
Cordovanum, Pfr. 
crenulatum, Feruss. 
Cumanense, Pfr. 
decurrens, Poey. 



193. hemiotum, Pfr. 211. 

194. integrum, id. 212. 

195. irradians, Shutt. 213. 

196. jucimdum, Pfr. 214. 

197. betuni, Guttier. 215. 

198. latilabre, D'Orh. 216. 
199: litturatum, Pfr. 217. 

200. Loweanum, id. 218. 

201. magnificum, Salle. 219. 

202. moestum, Shutt. 220. 



Delatreanum, B"Orb. 203. Newcombianum, Ad. 221. 



dentatum, Say. 
diaphanum, Pfr. 
dissolution, id. 
egregiiun, Gundl. 
elongatum, Pfr. 
eusarcum, id. 
harpa, id. 



204. Newtoni, Shutt. 222. 

205. obesum, Menke. 223. 

206. Ottonis, Pfr. 224. 

207. perlatum, Gundl. 225. 

208. Petitianum, Pfr. 226. 

209. Pfeifferianum, Poey. 227. 

210. pictum, Pfr. 22S. 



plicatulum, Pfr. 
Poeyanum, D'Orb. 
puncticulatum, Pfr, 
revinctum, Poey. 
revocatum, Gundl. 
rubicundum, Mor. 
Sagebieni, Poey. 
Salleanum, Pfr. 
Santacrusense, id. 
semicanum, Mor. 
semilabre, Lam. 
sericatum, Mor. 
Shuttleworthi, Pfr. 
simplex, id. 
Swifti, Shutt. 
tencbrosum, Mor. 
tenuiliratum, Pfr. 
Tortoleitsc. id. 
•Z c 



194 



229. truncatum, Wigrn, 

230. turritum, Pfr. 

233. acerbtilum, Mor. 

234. Agassizi, Clip. 

235. ainbiguum, Lam. 

236. Antiguense, Shalt. 

237. catenation, Gould. 

238. cinclidodes, Pfr. 

239. confusura, id. 

240. dislocatum, Baird. 

241. Grateloupi, P//\ 

242. Gruneri, id. 

243. illustre, Poey. 

244. incultum, id. 



231. vespertinum, Mor. 232. violaceum, P/r. 



Subgenus Cistula, Gr 

245. Kiisteri, P//\ 

246. Largillierti, id. 

247. lineolatum, Lam. 

248. lugubre, P/>. 

249. mordax, Ad. 

250. pallidum, P//\ 

251. platychilum, id. 

252. pleurophorum, id. 

253. procax, Po6y. 

254. radiosuro, Mor. 

255. radula, P//\ 



Subgenus Cbaspedopoma, 
267. costatum, Shittt. 268. lucidum, Lowe. 



ay. 

256. rigidulum, Mor. 

257. Riisei, P//\ 

258. rostraturn, id. 

259. rufilabre, Beck. 

260. sagittiferum, ^^. 

261. Saulia?, Sow. 

262. scabrosum, Humphr. 

263. Shephardianum, ^/. 
264.'Tamsianum, P/r. 

265. Thoreyanum, Phil. 

266. trochleare, P/r. 

Pfeiffer. 

269. Lyonnetianum, Zokj& 



Subgenus Ctenopoma, SJmltleworth. 
270. bilabiatura, P'Oro. 275. echinatum, Gundl. 280. rugulosum, Pfr. 



271. Campbelli, ^/. 

272. coronatum, Poey. 

273. dericiens, Gundl. 

274. Dominiceuse, P//\ 



276. honestum, Poey. 

277. immersum, Gundl. 

278. pisum, Ad. 

279. rotuudatura, Po<?y. 



281. sculptum, Gundl. 

282. sordidum, ?'J. 

283. torquatuin, Guttiei 

284. Wilkinsoni, Ad. 



Subgenus Cyclophorus, Monfford. 



285. 
286. 
287. 
288. 
289. 
290. 
291. 
292. 
293. 
294. 
295. 
296. 
297. 
29S. 
299. 
300. 
301. 
302. 
303. 



sequivocum, Pfr. 
alabastrinum, id. 

albidum, Jacq. 
alternans, Pfr. 
altivagum, Benson. 
Amboinense, Pfr. 
arncenum, id. 
annulatum, Troscli. 
Apise, Recluz. 



304. Boucardi, Salle. 

305. Bourcieri, Pfr. 

306. breve, Mart. 

307. calyx, Benson. 

308. canaliferum, Sow. 

309. Cantori, Benson. 

310. Cayennense, ShutL 

311. cereum, Pfr. 

312. Ceylanicum, id. 



323. 
324. 
325. 
326. 
327. 
328. 
329. 
330. 
331. 
appendiculatum, Pfr. 313. Charpentieri, Mouss. 332. 



aquila, Sow. 
atramentarium, id. 

aurantiacum, Schum. 
Aurora, Benson. 
Bairdi, Pfr. 
balteatum, Benson. 
Beauianum, Pet. 
Bensoni, Pfr. 



314. cceloconus, Benson. 333. 

315. convexiusculum, Pfr. 334. 

316. cornu-venatoriunvS/p. 335. 

317. C<mderti,M8.et Bern. 336. 

318. cratera, Benson. 337. 

319. ciyptomphalum, id. 338. 

320. cucullatum, Gould. 339. 

321. Cuimngii, Sow. 340. 



Borneense, Mevlcilfe. 322. cuspidatum, Benson. 341. 



Cytora, Gray. 
denselineaturn, Pfr, 
deplanatum, id. 
disculus, id. 
euomphalum, Phil. 
exaltatum, Pfr. 
excellens, id. 
eximium, Mouss. 
expansum, Pfr. 
exul, Benson. 
flavuin, Brod. 
floridurn, Pfr. 
Forbesiamvm, id. 
fornicatum, id. 
fulguratum, id. 
Gayi, Hupe. 
Guayaquilense, Pfr. 
Guimarasense, Sow. 
guttatum, Pfr. 



195 



342. Himalayense, Pfr. 368. 

343. Ibyatense, id. 369. 

344. incisum, Jacq. 370. 

345. Indicum, Desk. 371. 

346. involvulum, Mull. 372. 

347. Jerdoni, Benson. 373. 
343. labiosum, Pfr. 374. 

349. leucostomum, id. 375. 

350. bgnariurn, id. 376. 

351. linguiferum, Sow. 377. 

352. lingulatum, id. 378. 

353. liricinctum, Benson. 379. 

354. loxostomurn, Pfr. 380. 

355. lmidnm, «?. 381. 

356. lutescens, id. 382. 

357. rnaculosum, Sow. 383. 

358. Malayanum, Benson. 384. 

359. margarita, Pfr. 385. 

360. marmoratum, Per. 386. 

361. Menkeanum, Phil. 387. 

362. Mexicanum, Menhe. 388. 

363. Moricandi, Pfr. 389. 

364. Nilagirieurn, Benson. 390. 

365. obligation, GW^. 391. 

366. oculus-capri, Wood. 392. 

367. orbiculaturn, Benson. 



Parapse, Benson. 
parma, id. 
parvum, So?v. 
Pearsoni, Benson. 
perdix, Brod. et Sow. 
Phaenotopicum, Bens, 
Philippinarum, Sow. 
picturaturn, Pfr. 
pinnulifer, Benson. 
polynema, Pfr. 
ponderosum, id. 
porpbyriticum, Bens. 
psilomitum, Pfr. 
punctatum, Grat. 
pururn, Ford. 
pyrotreraa, Benson. 
ravidum, id. 
rufescens, Sow. 
Schrammi, Shitt. 
scissirnargo, Benson. 
scurra, Benson. 
semisulcatum, Sow. 
Shiplayi, Pfr. 
Sianiense, Soto. 
speciosum, Phil. 



393. spironema, Pfr. 

394. stenomphalum, id. 

395. stenostoma, Sow. 

396. strigatum, Gould. 

397. tseniatum, Pfr. 

398. texturatum, Sow. 

399. Theobaldianum, Bens. 

400. Thersites, Shutt. 

401. Thwaitesi, Pfr. 

402. tiara, Gould. 

403. tigrinum, Soto. 

404. tomotrema, Benson. 

405. trochoides, Morch. 

406. Tryblium, Benson. 

407. tuba, Sow. 
408. ' turbinatum, Pfr. 

409. turbo, Ckem. 

410. turgidum, Pfr. 

411. validurn, Sow. 

412. volvulum, Mull. 

413. Walilbergi, Benson. 

414. Woodianuin, Zra. 

415. Zebra, Grat. 

416. Zebrinum, Benson. 

417. Zollingeri, Mouss. 



418. 

419. 
420. 
421. 
422. 
423. 
424. 
425. 
426. 
427. 
428. 
429. 
430. 
431. 
432. 
433. 
434. 
435. 



asperulum, Sow. 
Bogotense, Pfr. 
Chinense, id. 
cingulatum, Sow. 
conoideum, Pfr. 
corniculum, Mouss, 
corrvtgatum, Sow. 
crassum, Ad. 
daucinum, Pfr. 
diatretum, Gould.. 
discoideum, Sow. 
distinctum, id. 
distomella, id. 
dubiosurn, Ad. 
Duffianurn, id. 
Dunkeri, Pfr. 
Dysoni, id. 
exigimni, Sow. 



Subgenus Cyclotus, Guilding. 

436. filocinctum, Benson. 454. 

437. floccosum, Shutt. 455. 

438. Fortunei, P/>. 456. 

439. giganteum, Gray . 457. 

440. glaucostoma, Pfr. 458. 

441. Granadense, Shutt. 459. 

442. Hebraicum, Less. 460. 

443. Inca, D'Orb. 461. 

444. incornpturn, Sow. 462. 

445. irregulare, Pfr. 463. 

446. Jarnaicense, Chemn. 464. 

447. jugosurn, Ad. 465. 

448. laxatum, Sow. 466. 

449. Lindstedti, Pfr. 467. 

450. Macgillivrayi, id. 468. 

451. Martinicense, Shutt. 469. 

452. montanum, Pfr. 470. 

453. ruucronatum, Sow. 471. 



opalinum, Mouss. 
orbellus, Lam. 
pallescens, Ad. 
perpallidum, id. 
planorbulus, Lam. 
plebejum, Sow. 
Popayanum, Lea. 
promimduui, Per. 
pusillum, Sow. 
Quitense, Pfr. 
Eecluzianum, id. 
scalare, id. 
semistriatum, Sow. 
sorcbdurn, Pfr. 
spurcum, Grat. 
stramineuin, Peeve. 
subdiscoideuui, Sow. 
subrugosum, id. 
2 c 2 



196 



472. substriatum, Sow. 

473. suturaie, id. 

474. Tourannense, Soul. 



475. translucidum, Sow. 478. variegatuni, Sions. 

476. tribratum, Pfr. 479. volvuloides, Sow. 

477. varians, Ad. 



Subgenus Dermatocera, Adams. 
480. inaculosum, Soul. 481. vitreum, X^ss. 



Subgenus Diplommatina, Benson. 

482. Australia?, Benson. 487. costulaturu, i7«^. 492. minor, A. Adams. 

488. diploclieilus, Benson. 493. pachycbeilus, Benson. 

489. folliculus, P/V. 494. polypleuris, ic?. 

490. Huttoni, id. 495. Sowerbyi, P/r. 

491. Macgillivrayi, id. 



483. Bensoni, Adams. 

484. Cantori, P//\ 

485. capillaceuin, id. 

486. ehordatum, />/. 



496. acutiliratum, Pfr. 

497. albescens, id. 

498. Annatonense, z</. 

499. aurantiacum, Desli. 

500. breviculum, P/h 

501. Bridgesi, id. 

502. bubmoides, Jacq. 

503. Cattaroense, P/r. 

504. cereum, id. 

505. Chinense, ?rf. 

506. corneum, id. 

507. dubiura, id. 

508. erosuin, Q«oy. 

509. exiguum, Jacq. 

510. expansilabre, P//\ 

511. exquisitum, id. 



Subgenus Hydhocena, Parreys. 

512. exsertum, Pfr. 528 

513. glabratum, id. 529, 

514. globosum, Benson. 530. 

515. graniun, Pfr. 531. 

516. Guamense, P/>\ 532. 

517. gutta, Shntt. 533. 

518. bieroglyphicum, Per. 534, 

519. Huaheinense, Pfr. 535 

520. illex, Pe«s. 536, 
,521. malleatum, Pfr. 537, 

522. mibum, Bens. 538 

523. minutissimum, #o«p. 539, 

524. nmltibratum, Pfr. 540 

525. jSavigatorum, id. 541 

526. noticolum, Benson. 542 

527. oblongum, Pfr. 543 



obtusum, P/r. 
oceanicum, Jacq. 
plicosura, Pfr. 
pupoides, Ant. 
pyrami, Pfr. 
Pyxis, Benson. 
radiatum, Pfr. 
roseurn, Gould. 
rubeum, Quoy. 
sarritum, Benson. 
seitulum, Gould. 
soliduluni, Pfr. 
terebrale, Goidd. 
tersum, Benson. 
vallatum, Gould. 
vestitum, Pfr. 



Subgenus Jamaicia, C. B. Adams. 
541. anomalum, Ad. 545. Moussonianum, Ad. 



Subgenus Leon i a, Gray. 



546. raammillare, Lam. 



547. acuminatum, Sow 

548. acutimarginatum, 

549. apicatum, Benson 

550. aspirans, id. 

551. atricapillum, Sow 

552. barbatum, Pfr. 

553. bicolor, id. 

554. Birmanum, id. 

555. ciliatum, Sow. 



Subgenus Leptopoma, Pfeiffer. 

556. ciligerum, Mouss. 565. 

id. 557. conulus, Pfr. 566. 

558. Cybeus, Benson. 567. 

559. duplicatum, Pfr. 568 

560. elatum, id. 569. 

561. fibula, Sow. 570, 

562. flammeum, Pfr. 571. 

563. Garreb, Soul. 572, 
564-. goniostomum, Sotv. 573, 



halophilum, Benson. 
Hanleyanum, Pfr. 
lieloicoides, Grat. 
ignescens, Pfr. 
immaculatum, CJi. 
insigne, Sow. 
Jacquiuoti, Pfr. 
latelimbatum, id. 
Lowi, id. 



197 



574. luteostomum, Soto. 580. perplexum, Sow. 

575. Masseuse, Less. 581. pileus, Sow. 

576. melanostomura, Pet. 582. pcecilum, Pfr. 

577. oraphilurn, Benson. 583. regulare, id. 

578. Panagense, Soto. 584. Sechellarma, Pfr. 

579. pellucidum, (?ra£. 585. semiclausurn, id. 



586. sericatum, P/r. 

587. signatum, id. 

588. tenebricosum,^/.^P. 

589. undatum, Metcalfe. 

590. Wallacei, Pfr. 



591. dubium, £m. 

592. evolutum, Reeve. 

595. depressum, £o«?. 

596. desciscens, Pfr. 



Subgenus Licina, Gray. 
593. labeo, ifw«. 594. Beeveanum, Pfr. 

Subgenus Lithidion, Gray. 

597. niveum, Pet. 599. sulcatum, Gray. 

598. Souleyetianum, Pe^. 



Subgenus Megalomastoma, Guilding. 



600. altum, #om\ 

601. alutaceum, MenJce. 

602. Anostoma, Bens. 

603. Antillarmn, $w. 

604. apertum, Poey. 

605. auriculatum, Pi 1 Orb. 

606. bifasciatum, <SW. 

607. bituberculatum, irf. 

608. complanatum, id. 

609. croceuin, Sow. 



610. cylindraceuni, CJiemn. 620. 

611. digitale, 6tott0. 621. 

612. funiculatum, Bens. 622. 

613. graviduui, Bens. 623. 

614. Guatemalense, P/r. 624. 

615. Guildingianum, id. 625. 

616. Gundlacbi, id. 626. 

617. leoninum, Pfr. 627. 

618. Mani, Poey. 628. 

619. Myersi, Haines. 629. 



Orbignyi, P//\ 
pauperculum, &w. 
procer, Poey. 
sectilabrum, Goidd. 
seminuduin, Poey. 
simulacrum, Mor. 
tortum, Wood. 
ungula, Poey. 
ventricosum, Pi Orb. 
verruculosuni, Shutt. 



Subgenus Opisthoporus, Benson. 

630. biciliatum, Moms. 633. euryompbaluin, Pfr. 635. rostellatum, Pfr. 

631. birostre, Pfr. 634. pterocycloides, id. 636. tubuliferum, id. 

632. Cocbincbinense, Pfr. 



637. albicans, Sow. 

638. auriculare, Gray. 

639. blumus, Pews. 

640. clatbratulum, Reel. 

641. clausum, #0?0. 

642. Coniorense, Pfr. 



Subgenus Otopoma, Gray. 

643. Coquandianum, Pot. 649. 

644. Guillaini, id. 650. 

645. luemastoma, Ant. 651. 

646. Listen, Gray. 652. 

647. multilinea hun, Jay . 653. 

648. naticoides, Reel. 



Philippianum, Pfr 
politum, Sow. 
pygmseurn, id. 
unifasciatum, id. 
vitellinum, Pfr. 



Subgenus Pomatias, Studer. 

654. auritum, Zieg. 659. gracile, Kiist. 664. patulum, Dunk. 

655. Bartbelemianum, Shu. 6(j0. maculatuni, Dunk. 665. Porno, Strob. 

656. Cartbusianum, Dup. 661. Nouleti, Dupuy. 666. scalarinum, Pi'^a. 

657. cinerascens, Rm. 662. obscurum, Dunk. 667. striolatum, Porro. 

658. crassilabrum, P»^;. 663. Pavtioti, Moquin. G6S. tessellatum, Wiegm. 



198 



Subgenus Pterocyclos, Benson. 



669. Albersi, Pfr. 

670. anguliferum, Soul. 

671. bifrons, Pfr. 

672. bilabiatuin, Bens. 

673. Blandi, id. 

674. cetra, id. 



686. Egea, Gray. 

687. rubellum, Pfr. 

690. Adarasi, Pfr. 

691. armatum, y^c?. 

692. Augustas, id. 

693. a vena, iJ. 

694. Barclayanum, Ch. 

695. canescens, Pfr. 

696. Chemnitzii, /Tooe?. 

697. columna, id. 

698. costatum, Menke. 



675. Cingalense, itews. 

676. Cumingii, Pfr. 

677. hispiduin, Pears. 

678. Hansei, Haines. 

679. nanum, _Zte«s. 

680. parvuni, Pears. 



681. pullatum, Ztews. 

682. rupestre, w£. 

683. tenerum, Menke. 

684. tenuilabiatum, JWefc. 

685. Troscheli, Bens. 



Subgenus Realia, Gray. 
688. turriculatum, Pfr. 689. veutricosum, Jacq. 



Subgenus Tudora, Gray. 

699. fascia, Wood. 

700. fcecundum, Ad. 

701. ferrugineum, Za»i. 

702. Ghriffithianum, Ad. 

703. maritimuin, ^c?. 

704. megachila, Pot. 

705. Moreletianuni, Pet. 

706. muticum, ^rf. 

707. uobile, Pfr. 



708. papyraceum, ^</. 

709. pauperatum, id. 

710. planospira, Pfr. 

711. puppeformis, &w. 

712. pupoides, Mor. 

713. quaternatum, ia?». 

714. simulans, Ad. 

715. Tappianum, id. 

716. versicolor, P/h 



Genus 4. PUPINA, F«>mrc£ 

Animal ; partaking of the characters of Cyclostoma and Helicina. 

Shell; cylindrical, mostly polished ; spire more or less obtuse at 
the apex ; last whorl rather contracted ; aperture circular, with 
the lip thickened, sometimes duplex, frequently cut near the 
columella with a small funnel-shaped canal or fissure. Some- 
times a distinct tube is formed against the body -whorl. Oper- 
cidum horny. 

The twenty-seven species associated under this head, though affording 
good generic distinctions, partake much of the characters of Cyclostoma 
and Helicina. The very characteristic division of the former, known as 
Cataulus, presents an indication of the tubular appendage of the lip so 
curiously developed in the Pupince, subgenus Raphanlus ; and the more 
polished and gaily-painted Pupince, with a simple fissure in the lip, ex- 
hibit a link with the Helicina. 

No Pupina has been found in the Western Hemisphere. The habitats 
of the species are well known, and range chiefly among the Philippine and 
North Australian groups of islands. 



1. artata, Bens. 

2. Arula, id. 

3. aurea, Hind. 

4. bicanaliculata, Sow. 

5. bilinguis, Pfr. 

15. lubrica, Sow. 

16. pupiniformis, Sow. 

17. Cumingiana, Pfr. 

18. exigua, Sow. 

19. fusca, Gr«y. 

24. borubycina, P//\ 
27. Blandfordi, Bens. 



199 
Species. 

6. grandis, Pori. 

7. humilis, Paci?. 

8. imbricifera, Bens. 

9. Kevandreni, P^». 
10. Mmdorensis, Ad. 

Subgenus Callia, Gray. 



11. Moubnsiana, -Fwc^. 

12. Strangei, P/?\ 

13. superba, ^c?. 

14. Thomsoni, Fori). 



Subgenus Pupinella, Gray. 

Subgenus Eegistoma, Hasselt. 

20. grandis, Gray. 23. sirailis, Sow. 

21. Nicobarica, Pfr. 

22. pellucida, Sow. 

Subgenus Phaphanlus, Pfeiffer. 

25. chrysalis, Pfr. 26. Lorraini, P/h 

Subgenus Streptaulus, Benson. 



Figure. 

Pupina (Registoma) grandis. PL 20. Pig. 109. Shell, showing the 
funnel-shaped fissure in the lip. 



Genus 5. TRUNCATELLA, Risso. 

Animal ; Foot short, rounded at both ends ; head bilobed, more 
or less muzzle-shaped ; tentacida short, triangular, diverging, 
with the eyes placed centrally at their upper bases. 

Shell ; cylindrically turreted, decollated or obtusely truncated at 
the apex ; tohorls rather narrow, sometimes smooth, sometimes 
transversely finely-ribbed ; aperture ovate; lip simple, conti- 
nuous. Operculum horny, simple. 

The little shells which constitute this genus are rather isolated from the 
rest of the family. The animal has the faculty of looping itself like the 
geometric caterpillar, so as to acquire a leap, and when found in numbers 
on the sea-shore, which is its natural habitat, the sand appears alive in 



200 

a manner with the skippings of the Truncatellidce. Although, strictly 
speaking, a water mollusk, for which reason it is placed by many au- 
thors with the Rissoa, the Truncatella is able to subsist for a long time 
on land. Mr. Lowe relates having preserved specimens taken on the 
shores of Madeira for five weeks in a dry box, which, on being placed in 
a glass of sea-water, crawled forth alive. 

Only one species, T. Montagui, has been found in Britain. The re- 
mainder are from the Mediterranean, West Indies, California, Madeira, 
and Teneriffe, Philippine Islands, Mauritius, Australia, Pacific Islands, 
Bio Janeiro, etc. 



1. Adamsi, Pfr. 

2. aurantia, Gould. 

3. Bairdiana, Ad. 

4. Barbadensis, Pfr. 

5. bilabiata, id. 

6. Calif ornica, id. 

7. Caribbasensis, Soto. 

8. Ceylanica, Pfr. 

9. clathrus, Lowe. 



Species. 

10. elongata, Poey. 

11. Guerini, Villa. 

12. lirata, Poey. 

13. Lowei, S/t/'/f. 

14. marginata, Kust. 

15. modesta, Ad. 

16. Montagui, Lowe. 

17. povrecta, Gould. 

18. pulchella, Pfr. 



19. rostrata, Gould. 

20. scalariformis, Reeve. 

21. scalaris, Mich. 

22. striatula, Menke. 

23. subcylindrica, Gray. 

24. teres, Pfr. 

25. truncatula, Bunk. 

26. valida, Pfr. 

27. Vitiana, Gould. 



Figure. 

Truncatella CAUiBBiEENSis. PL 20. Pig. 107. Shell, considerably 
magnified, showing the peculiarity of the truncated apex. 



Genus 6. GEOMELANIA, Pfeiffer. 

Animal ; similar to Truncatella. 

Shell ; imperforated, turreted, whitish, often gloss?/, densely scidp- 
turea I with longitudinal ribs; apex truncated; aperture some- 
what squarely ovate, effused, produced at the base into a 
tongue-like appendage ; lip mostly thickened and reflected. 

Allied to the Truncatella:, with the apex similarly truncated, and with 
an animal in no respect differing,* are the Geomelanice, a group of shells 
almost as numerous in species, of more slender form, in which the 
aperture is curiously effused at the base into a sort of tongue-like appen- 



* Arthur Adams, Pro. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 169. 



201 

dage. They are rather sharply ribbed longitudinally, and are mostly of 
glossy whiteness. 

So far as is at present known, the genus is peculiar to the Island of 
Jamaica. 



1. affinis, C. B. Adams. 

2. Beardsleana, id. 

3. conica, id. 

4. costulosa, id. 

5. elegans, id. 

6. exilis, id. 

7. expansa, id. 

8. fort is, id. 



Species. 

9. gracilis, C. B. Adams. 17. pauperata, C. B. Adams. 

10. Hilliana, id. 18. procera, id. 

11. inornata, Cliitty. 19. pygmaea, id. 

12. Jamaicensis, Pfr. 20. pyramidata, id. 

13. magna, C. B. Adams. 21. sinuosa, Cliitty. 

14. media, id. 22. striosa, C. B. Adams. 

15. minor, id. 23. typica, id. 

16. parva, Cliitty. 24. vicina, irf. 



Geomelania Jamaicensis. PI. 18. Pig. 95. Shell of white, glassy 
substance, showing its fine longitudinal ribs, and tongue-like pro- 
duction of the aperture. 



Family 16. COLIMACEA. 

Shell ; multiform, not tubercled, nor spined, nor varicose, rarely 
ribbed ; aperture occasionally toothed; lip sometimes simple, 
mostly reflected. No operculum. 

In the great family of land shells included under this head, the animal 
is more of the slug type, and has no operculum. The shell is mostly of 
light structure, varying in substance and colour according to temperature 
and to the nature of the vegetation on which its inhabitant feeds. As 
there is no country without its snail, its geographical range is universal. 
Some forms, such as Helix and Bulimus, have the widest possible distri- 
bution, but others, such as Auostoma, Achatina, and Achatinella, are 
extremely local. The species, numbering upwards of four thousand, are 
divided into twelve genera, as follow : — 

Clausilia. Achatinella. Anostoma. 

Cylindrella. Partula. Proserpina. 

Pupa. Bulimus. Succinea. 

Achatina. Helix. Vitkina. 



202 

Genus 1. CLAUSILIA, Braparnaud. 

Animal ; short, usually broad, obtuse behind, with stout clavate 
upper tentacida, and very small lower ones. — Forbes. 

Shell ; elongately turreted, sinistral, contracted at the last whorl, 
aperture pyriformly ovate, furnished with tooth-like plaits, and 
a small elastic shelly bone attached to the columella. 

The Clausilia are a numerous tribe, of limited range, inhabiting old 
walls and trunks of trees, or under stones among dead leaves, chiefly in 
the south-eastern parts of Europe, and all producing a horny, turriculated 
shell, some of whch are finely ribbed throughout. The chief peculiarity 
of the genus, as its name denotes, consists in the animal having the fa- 
culty of closing itself in the shell by means of an elastic bony appendage 
attached to the columella, and this appendage is not present, like an oper- 
culum, during the growth of the animal, but is formed only at maturity. 
Another peculiarity is that the shells are reversed, the whorls being convo- 
luted to the left, and a little contracted towards the aperture. The margin 
of the aperture is continuous, and often conspicuously reflected, and within, 
on the columella side, are usually two tooth-like plaits with often smaller 
internal ones. 

In the list of species which follows are included thirteen, supposed to 
be destitute of the bony appendage, and separated, for this reason, under 
the name of BaJea. 



1. abrupta, Kiist. 

2. acridula, Zieg. 

3. aculus, Benson. 

4. aguata, Partsck. 

5. albescens, Menke. 

6. albida, Parr. 

7. albocineta, Pfr. 

8. alboguttulata, Wagn. 

9. Almissana, Kiist. 

10. Anatolica, Roth. 

11. Antigua, Schiibl. 

12. aquila, Parr. 

13. arinata, Kutsch. 

14. australis, Forbes. 

15. badia, Zieg. 

16. Balsamoi, Strob. 

17. Belcheri, Pfr. 



Species. 

18. Bergeri, Mayer. 

19. bicarinata, Zieg. 

20. bicolor, Pfr. 

21. bicristata, Friv. 

22. bidens, I Ann. 

23. Bielzii, Parr. 

24. bigibbosa, Clip. 

25. bilabiata, Wagn. 

26. binotata, Zieg. 

27. biplicata, Mont. 

28. blanda, Zieg. 

29. Boissieri, Chp. 

30. Bourcieri, Pfr. 

31. Brauni, Clip. 

32. Brembina, Strob. 

33. brevicollis, Pfr. 
.34. brunnea, Zieg. 



35. bulimoides, Br aim. 

36. Buschii, Kiist. 

37. cserulea, Fir. 

38. CalcavtB, Phil. 

39. Campanica, Mich. 

40. canaliculata, Pfr. 

41. canalifera, Rossm. 

42. Candida, Pfr. 

43. candidescens, Zieg. 

44. Cantrainei, Desh. 

45. capillacea, Rossm. 

46. carissiraa, Zieg. 

47. Cattaroensis, id. 

48. Cecillei, Phil. 

49. Charpentieri, Pfr. 

50. Chinensis, id. 

51. chondriformis, Jan. 



203 



52. cincta, Brum. 98. 

53. cinerascens, Kilst. 99. 

54. cinerea, Phil. 100. 

55. circumdata, Friv. 101. 

56. claviformis, P/>*. 102. 

57. Cochmchinensis, id. 103. 

58. Comensis, Shut. 104. 

59. commutata, Rm. 105. 

60. compressa, Pfr. 106. 

61. consocia, ZiVy. 107. 

62. conspersa, Parr. 108. 

63. conspurcata, Jan. 109. 

64. contaminata, Zieg. 110. 

65. cornea, Phil. 111. 

66. corpulenta, Pm. 112. 

67. corrugata, Ch. 113. 

68. corticina, V. d. Busch. 114. 

69. corynodes, Held. 115. 

70. costata, Ziey. 116. 

71. costulata, Jan. 117. 

72. crenulata, Riss. 118. 

73. Cretensis, Ji/7/^/". 119. 

74. crispa, Loice. 120. 

75. Cumin" iana, Pfr. 121. 

76. curta, Rossm. 122. 

77. cyclostoma, Pfr. 123. 

78. cylindrica, Gray. 124. 

79. Dacica, Friv. 125. 

80. Dalmatina, Ptsch. 126. 

81. Deenia, Cantr. 127. 

82. deltostoma, Lowe. 128. 

83. densistriata, iftVy. 129. 

84. denticulata, Olio. 130. 

85. Deshayesii, P. et M. 131. 

86. detersa, Zieg. 132. 

87. dimimita, Parr. 133. 

88. diodon, Stud. 134. 

89. discolor, Pfr. 135. 

90. Dominicensis, it?. 136. 

91. Draparnaudi, Beck. 137. 

92. Dunkeri, Pfr. 138. 

93. Eichwaldi, Siem. 139. 

94. elata, Gould. 140. 

95. elata, ^r. 141. 

96. elatior, Spix. 142. 

97. elegans, Bielz. 113. 



elongata, Cantr. 144. 

epistomium, A'««^. 145. 

exarata, Zieg. 146. 

exigua, Zo?£i?. 147. 

fallax, Rossm. 148. 

filograna, Zieg. 149. 

fimbriata, Jf///;//. 150. 

flammulata, Pfr. 151. 

Forbesiana, «/. 152. 

formosa, Zieg. 153. 

Fortunei, Pfr. 154. 

frondigera, Parr. 1.55. 

Freyeri, Kilst. 156. 

fritillaria, PWw. 157. 
Frivaldszkyana, Rssm.15 8 . 

fulcrata, Zieg. 159. 

Funcki, P/r. 160. 

fusca, Be Bella. 161. 

Fussiana, Bielz. 162. 

galeata, Parr. 163. 

gastrolepta, Zieg. 164. 

gibbula, id. 165. 

gloriiica, P«m 166. 

gracibcosta, id. 167. 

gracilis, Rossm. 168. 

Grfeca, P/>\ 169. 

grandis, Klein. 170. 

Grayana, P/>\ 171. 

Cxrinimeri, Parr. 172. 

grisea, 2)e«A. 173. 
Grrohmanniana, Part. 174. 

Hanleyana, P/h 175. 

Hedenborgi, id. 176. 

Hellenica, Kiist. 177. 

hetrera, JWo. 178. 
heterostropha, Riss. 179. 

homalorhaphe, P/>\ 180. 

Hiibneri, Rossm. 181. 

Idaea, Pfr. 182. 

inrlata, O&w. 183. 

inserta, Porro. 184. 

insignis, Gould. 185. 
intermedia, P. Schvi. 186. 

internipta, Zieg. 187. 

invalida, P/r. 188. 

inuncta, Parr. 189. 



isabellina, Pfr. 
Itala, Jfflr<. 
Javana, P/K 
Jos,' Benson. 
Jungliuhnii, Phil. 
Kolenatii, Siem. 
Kiisteri, Rossm. 
Kutscliigii, Kiist. 
labiata, Mont. 
lactea, Zieg. 
laevissima, id. 
lamellata, id. 
lamellosa, Wagn. 
laminata, Mont. 
latilabris, Wagn. 
Leccoensis, Villa. 
Lerosiensis, Fir. 
Lesinensis, Kutsch. 
leucostigma, Zieg. 
leucostoma, Kiist. 
lineolata, Held. 
livida, Menhe. 
Lopedusae, Calc. 
Lowei, Mb. 
loxostoma, Benson. 
lunellaris, Pfr. 
Macarana, Zieg. 
Macedonica, Rossm. 
macilenta, id. 
Macluriana, Risso. 
maculata, Zieg. 
maculosa, Besh. 
moesta, Fer. 
Marcelia, Risso. 
marginata, Zieg. 
Massena3,P.e^Ji/c//. 
Meisneriana, Sh. 
Michaudiana, Pfr. 
microstoma, Kiist. 
Milleri, Pfr. 
Moniziana, Lowe. 
montana, Steutz. 
Moutenegrina, Kiist 
Moritzii, Mouss. 
Moussoni, Clip. 
munda, Zieg. 
2 d 2 



204 



190. msvosa, Fer. 228. 

191. nectarina, Friv. 229. 

192. Negropontina, Pfr. 230. 

193. Neumeyeri, Kiist. 231. 

194. Newcombi, Pfr. 232. 

195. nigricans, Pult. 233. 

196. nobilis, Pfr. 234. 

197. oleata, Rossm. 235. 

198. olivacea, Cantr. 236. 

199. Olivieri, Both. 237. 

200. Olympica, Friv. 238. 

201. orientalis, V.d.Busc. 239. 

202. orthostoma, Mke. 240. 

203. oxystoma, Rossm. 241. 

204. paehygastris, Ptsch. 242. 

205. pachystoma, Kiist. 243. 

206. Psestana, Phil. 244. 

207. pagana, Zieg. 245. 

208. Parreyssi, id. 246. 

209. parvula, Sfr«f. 247- 

210. patula, Clip. 24 S. 

211. pellucida, Pfr. 249. 

212. peregrina, Go aid. 250. 

213. Peruana, Trosch. 251. 

214. perversa, Zi«». 252. 

215. petrosa, Parr. 253. 

216. Pfeifferi, Kiist. 254. 

217. Philippiana, Pfr. 255. 

218. piceata, Zieg. 256. 

219. pieta, P/V. 257. 

220. plicata, Drop. 258. 

221. plicatula, id. 259. 

222. plumbea, Rossm. 260. 

223. pluviatilis, Benson. 261. 

224. Porroi, P//\ 262. 

225. proboscidea, Kiist. 263. 

226. puella, Pfr. 264. 

227. pulchella, id. 265. 



pumila, Z^Vy. 266. 

punctulata, Kiist. 267. 

Keeveana, Pfr. 268. 

retusa, Oftv. 269. 

robusta, Kiist. 270. 

Possmassleri, P//\ 271. 

rubicunda, Kiist. 272. 

nigicollis, Zieg. 273. 

rugosa, Drop. 274. 

Sandrii, A7/.s7. 275. 

Sarda, Fz7fo. 276. 

Sarsi, Phil. 277. 

satura, Zieg. 278. 

saxatilis, P«;r. 279. 

saxicolor, id. 280. 

sealaris, P//\ 281. 

Schmidti, id. 282. 

Tchuclii, Voith. 283. 
semidenticulata, P/h 284. 

semirugata, Zieg. 285. 

senilis, «¥. 286. 

septemplicata, Phil. 287. 

sericata, Pfr. 288. 
serrulata, Mus.Petrp, 289. 

Sbanghiensis, P/>. 290. 

Sieboldti, ?>/. 291. 

socialis, Friv. 292. 

Somchetica, Pfr. 293. 

Sowerbyana, irf. 294. 

Spratti„«*. 295. 

Stabilei, Clip. 296. 

stabilis, Zieg. 297. 

Stent zii, Rossm. 298. 

stigmatica, Zicy. 299. 

strangulata, Fer. 300. 

striata, P/r. 301. 

strigata, id. 302. 

strigillata, ifw/^/. 303. 



Strobeli, Porro. 
strumosa, Friv. 
Sturmi, Kiist. 
subcristata, id. 
subcylindrica, Zieg. 
subidata, Pfr. 
succineata, Zieg. 
sulcosa, Wagn. 
Syracusana, Phil. 
Taurica, Kryn. 
tenuilabris, Rossin. 
teres, Oliv. 
tetragonostoma, Pfr. 
Tettelbacbiana, Rssm. 
Thermopylarum, Pfr. 
Thessalonica, Friv. 
Thomasiana, Clip. 
torquata, Held. ' 
torticollis, Ol. 
translucida, Zieg. 
tridens, Chemn. 
Tristensis, Leach. 
tuba-paradisi, Ehr. 
turgida, Zieg. 
turrita, Pfr. 
valida, id. 
varians, Zieg. 
Varnensis, Pfr. 
ventricosa, Drap. 
ventricosa, Leach. 
vetusta, Zieg. 
vibex, Rossm. 
Vidovichii, Parr. 
virginea, Pfr. 
viridana, Zeig. 
Voithii, Rossm. 
Whateliana, Clip. 
Ziegleri, Kiist. 



Figure. 

Clausilia invalida. A new species from Shanghai, showing the internal 
tooth-like plaits. 



205 



Genus 2. CYLINDRELLA, Pfeiffer. 

Animal ; similar to that of Clausilia. 

Shell ; elongately cylindrical, many-iohorled, sometimes truncated 
at the apex ; last whorl frequently unrolled and curiously 
protruding ; aperture small, rounded, with the lip generally 
continuous and expanding. 

The genus Cylindrella was founded by Guilding under the name of 
Siphonostoma,* for the reception of one or two peculiarly many-whorled 
cylindrical land shells, then known as Ptqoce, which have been remarkably 
added to within the last few years. Upwards of a hundred species, of the 
most exquisite variety of form and sculpture, have been discovered, and 
all, so far as their habitats are known, are, with one single exception (C. 
Ctimlngiana, from the Philippine Islands), inhabitants of the West Indies 
or Central America. 

Of all land shells the Cylindrella are the most rapidly convoluted, many 
of the species turning twenty whorls and more before reaching maturity ; 
and some of them, such as C. semimida, are quite fantastic in their form 
and sculpture. The most striking feature in the genus is a certain ten- 
dency, in many species, of the last whorl to strike off from its axis of con- 
volution and end like a jutting spout. 



1. abbreviata, Desk. 

2. acus, Pfr. 

3. Adamsiana, id. 

4. Agnesiana, Ad. 

5. alabastrina, Pfr. 

6. alba, Ad. 

7. aspersa, id. 

8. Augusta?, id. 

9. Blandiana, Pfr. 

10. brevis, id. 

11. carinata, id. 

12. cinerea, id. 

13. collaris, Per. 

14. columna, Ad. 

15. costata, Guild. 

16. costulata, Ad. 

17. crispula, Pfr. 

* The name Siphonostoma h 
by Dr. Pfeiffer to Cylindrella. 



Species. 

18. Cumingiana, id. 

19. cylindrus, Chemn. 

20. decollata, Nyd. 

21. denticulata, Pfr. 

22. Dominicensis, id. 

23. Dunkei'iana, id. 

24. elatior, Ad. 

25. elegans, Pfr. 

26. elougata, Chemn. 

27. fasciata, id. 

28. tilicosta, Sludt. 

29. fistularis, Mor. 
30'. flammulata, Pfr. 

31. Goldfussi, Mke. 

32. Gossei, Pfr. 

33. Gouldiana, id. 

34. gracilicollis, Per. 

wing been already used in 



35. gracilis, Wood. 

36. gracillima, Poey. 

37. Gravesii, Adams. 

38. Greyana, id. 

39. Gruneri, Dunk. 

40. Hanleyana, Pfr. 

41. Hollandi, Adams. 

42. Humboldtiana, Pfr. 

43. huniihs, Adams. 

44. hyalina, Pfr. 

45. inornata, Adams. 

46. jejuna, Gould. 

47. lata, Adams. 

48. Laterradei, Grat. 

49. Lavalleana, Orb. 

50. leucopleura, Mice. 

51. Liebinanni, Pfr. 

zoology by Ottj, was changed iu 1840 



206 



52. malleata, Pfr. 

53. marmorata, Shutt. 

54. Maugeri, Gray. 

55. Menkeana, Pfr. 

56. monilifera, id. 

57. Moreleti, id. 

58. Morini, Mor. 

59. nobilior, Adams. 

60. ovata, Desk. 

61. Oviedoiana, Orb. 

62. pallida, Guild. 

63. perplicata, Per. 

64. Petiveriana, «'</. 

65. Pfeifferi, M&e. 

66. Philippiana, Pfr. 

67. Pilocerii, £e?. 

68. Poeyana, Orb. 



69. porrecta, Gould. 

70. Portoriceusis, P/h 

71. princeps, Adams. 

72. pruinosa, 3/or. 

73. puncturata, Pfr. 

74. pupseformis, Adams. 

75. pusilla, «rf. 

76. recticosta, Pfr. 

77. ftiisei, irf. 

78. Kobertsi, Adams. 

79. Ecemeri, P//\ 

80. rosea, id. 

81. Kugeli, Shult. 

82. Sagraiana, P//\ 

83. Salleana, id. 

84. sanguinea, iG?. 

85. scalarina, Shalt. 



86. seminuda, Adams. 

87. sericea, P//\ 

88. similis, Adams. 

89. simplex, i<£ 

90. Sowerbyana, Pfr. 

91. speluncse, id. 

92. subtilis, i/or. 

93. subula, Mr. 

94. tenella, Adams. 

95. teres, JW7«?. 

96. tomacella, Mor. 

97. torquata, M?. 

98. tricolor, Pfr. 

99. variegata, irf. 

100. volubilis, Mor. 

101. zebrina, Pfr. 

102. zonata, Adams. 



Genus 3. PUPA, Braparnaud. 

Animal ; short, stout, acute behind, its upper te?ttacles developed, 

its lower ones short, or almost obsolete. 
Shell ; oblong-cylindrical, many-whorled, often rather thick, mostly 

ribbed, sometimes deeply umbilicated, generally rather obtuse at 

the apex ; aperture somewhat squarely ovate, generally more or 

less toothed ; lip thickly refected. 

The Pupa are a cylindrical form of land shell, composed of numerous 
whorls, the species very much resembling each other in substance and 
colour, and characterized generally by a very similar plan of sculpture. They 
are mostly fawn-white or brownish, sometimes covered with an olive epi- 
dermis, and generally densely striated or ribbed in an oblique direction, 
with the margin of the aperture thickly reflected. 

The genus is largely represented in southern Europe and in the islands 
of the Mediterranean, and also in the Mauritius, and in the West Indies 
and North America. 



1. admodesta, Migh. 

2. affinis, Arad. 

3. alpicola, CJiem. 

4. alvearia, Dilltc. 



Species. 

5. anconostoma, Lowe. 

6. Anglica, Per. 

7. angustior, Jeffr. 

8. antiquissima, Eichw. 



9. anti vertigo, Br up. 

10. Antonii, Ki'ist. 

11. Apennina, Clip. 

12. aridula, Held. 



207 



13. 


armifera, Say. 


59. 


14. 


Ascaniensis, A. Schn. 


60. 


15. 


atomus, Shutt. 


61. 


Iff. 


avenacea, Brug. 


62. 


17. 


Barbadensis, Pfr. 


63. 


18. 


Bergomensis, Clip. 


64. 


19. 


bicolor, Hutt. 


65. 


20. 


bigranata, Rm. 


66. 


21. 


biplicata, Mich. 


67. 


22. 


Boileausiana, Clip. 


68. 


23. 


Brauni, Rm. 


69. 


21. 


brevicostis, Bens. 


70. 


25. 


Biittneri, Siem. 


71 


26. 


calathiscus, Lowe. 


72. 


27. 


calcarea, Pfr. 


73. 


28. 


Callicratis, Scacchi. 


74. 


29. 


Capensis, Kurr. 


75. 


30. 


capitata, Gould. 


76. 


81. 


carinata, id. 


77. 


32. 


cassida, Lowe. 


78. 


33. 


cassidula, id. 


79. 


34. 


castanea, Schult. 


80. 


35. 


cerea, Dunk. 


81. 


36. 


cereana, Miihlf. 


82. 


37. 


Charpentieri, Shutt. 


83. 


38. 


cheilogona, Lowe. 


84. 


39. 


clausilioides, Boub. 


85. 


40. 


clavulata, Lam. 


86. 


41. 


columella, Benz. 


87. 


42. 


concinna, Lowe. 


88. 


43. 


conica, Rm. 


89. 


44. 


conoidea, Newc. 


90. 


45. 


contorta, Calc. 


91. 


46. 


contracta, Say. 


92. 


47. 


corticaria, id. 


93. 


48. 


costulata, Nilss. 


94. 


49. 


crystallum, Mor. 


95, 


50. 


Cumingiana, Pfr. 


96 


51. 


cupa, Jan. 


97 


52. 


curta, Ant. 


98, 


53. 


cyclostoma, Kiist. 


99. 


54. 


cylindracea, Zieg. 


100. 


55. 


cylindrica, Mich. 


101 


56. 


dealbata, Webb. 


102 


57. 


decora, Gould. 


103. 


58. 


decumana, Per. 


104 



dilucida, Zieg. 105. 

dimidiata, Pfr. 106. 

doliolum, Brug. 107. 

dolium, Drap. 108. 

duplicata, Kiist. 109. 

ede.ntula, Drap. 110. 

elegantula, Pfr. 111. 

exdis, Adams. 112. 

fallax, Say. 113. 

Farmesii, Desm. 114. 

farinosa, Trosch. 115. 

Ferrari, Porro. 116. 

ferraria, Lowe. 117. 

fontana, Krauss. 118. 

Freyeri, P. Schn. 119. 

frumentum, Drap. 120. 

funicula, Vol. 121. 

fusca, Lowe. 122. 

fusiformis, Kiist. 123. 

fusulus, Mull. 124. 

fusus, Lam. 125. 

gibba, Lowe. 126. 

glans, Kiist. 127. 

gorriostoma, id. 128. 

Gouldi, Binn. 129. 

granum, Drap. 130. 

Gruneri, Pfr. 131. 

gularis, Rm. 132. 

Gundlachi, Pfr. 133. 

Hassiaca, id. 134. 

heptodonta, Risso. 135. 

hexodon, Adams. 136. 

Hoppii, Moll. 137. 

Huttoniana, Bens. 138. 
infundibuliformis, Ob. 139. 

inornata, Mich. 140. 

intermedia, Mor. 141. 

irrigua, Lowe. 142. 

jamaicensis, Ad. 143. 
Jumillensis, Guirao. 144. 

Kokeilii, Rm. 145. 

Kusteri, Pfr. 146. 

Kurri, Krauss. 147. 

laevigata, Lowe. 148. 

Lamarckii, And. 149. 

lamellosa, Lowe. 150. 



lapidaria, Hutt. 
lata, Adams. 
laurinea, Lowe. 
leucodon, Mol. 
Lymnaeana, Lowe. 
lucida, Jan. 
Lusitanica, Rossm. 
lyrata, Gould. 
maculosa, Lam. 
marginalba, Pfr. 
maritima, id. 
marmorata, id. 
Martiniana, Kiist. 
megacheilos, Jan. 
mellita, Gould. 
Menkeana, Pfr. 
Michaudi, Terv. 
Micheli, id. 
microspora, Lowe. 
miliola, Orb. 
milium, Gould. 
millegrana, Lowe. 
minor, Mor. 
minuta, Say. 
minutissima, Hartm. 
modica, Gould. 
modiolus, Fe'russ. 
monodon, Held. 
monticola, Lowe. 
Moquiniana, Kiist. 
Miihlfeldtii, id. 
multicostata, id. 
multidentata, Risso. 
mumia, Brug. 
mumiola, Pfr. 
muscorum, Linn. 
nana, Mich. 
Neumeyeri, Kiist. 
Newcombi, Pfr. 
nitida, Anton. 
nodosaria, Orb. 
Novoseelandica, Pfr. 
obliterata, Char p. 
oblonga, Pfr. 
occulta, Parr. 
ovata, Say. 



208 



151. ovularis, Oliv. 177. 

152. pachygastra, Zleg. 178. 

153. pacifica, Pfr. 179. 
154-. pagoda, Fe'russ. 180. 

155. pagodula, Desm. 181. 

156. pallida, Phil. 182. 

157. Paredesii, Orb. 183. 

158. Parreyssii, Frir. 184. 

159. Partioti, Moq. 185. 

160. pediculus, Shutt. 186. 

161. pellucida, Pfr. 187. 

162. pentodon, Say. 188. 

163. Pfeifferi, Krauss. 189. 

164. Philippii, Cantr. 190. 

165. pleurophora, Shutt. 191. 

166. plicidens, .&«*. 192. 

167. polyodon, Bunker. 193. 

168. Pottebergensis, Krau. 194. 

169. pumilio, Gould. 195. 

170. pusilla, Jf»Jfe/\ 196. 

171. putilla, Shutt. 197. 

172. pygmsea, Bunker. 198. 

173. Pyrensearia, Mich. 199. 

1 74. quinquedentata, Born .200. 

175. quinquelainellata, Ris. 201. 

176. recta, Zow><?. 202. 



regia, Bens. 203. 

Ehodia, .flotf*. 204. 

Puisei, Pfr. 205. 

ringens, Mich. 206. 

Rossmassleri, Schm. 207. 

rupestris, P/«7. 208. 

rupicola, /Scry. 209. 

Sagraiana, Pfr. 210. 

Sardoa, Cantr. 211. 

saxicola, Zo«;e. 212. 

Schmidti, Kust. 213. 

Schultzi, PM. 214. 

scyphus, Friv. 215. 

secale, Bunker. 216. 

seminulum, Zo«-?. 217. 

Sempronii, Charp. 218. 

Senegalensis, Jt/or. 219. 
septemdentata, Risso. 220. 

servilis, Gould. 221. 
Shuttleworthiana, Clip. 222. 

simplex, Gould. 223. 

sorghum, J/or. 224. 
sphinctostoma, Loire. 225. 

squalina, Rossm. 226. 

Sterrii, Pbftil. 227. 

Strangei, Pfr. 228. 



striatella, Fe'russ. 
Sturmii, Kust. 
substriata, Jeffr. 
subulata, Bivon. 
sulcata, Miill. 
sulculata, Risso. 
taeniata, Shutt. 
tautilla, Gould. 
teuuidens, Adams. 
trilamellata, Risso. 
triplicata, Studer. 
Truncatella, Pfr. 
tumidula, Besh. 
tutula, Bens. 
umbilicata, Bunker. 
umbilicus, Roth. 
utriculus, Menke. 
uva, Linn. 
variabilis, Bunker. 
variolosa, Gould. 
Vergniesiana, Charp. 
versipolis, Fe'russ. 
Villse, Charp. 
vincta, Lowe. 
vulcanica, Kust. 
Wablbergi, Krauss. 



figure. 

Pupa maritima. PI. 21. Fig. 118. Shell of solid, chalky substance, 
showing its pupa or chrysalis form, and the oblique sculpture and 
light-grey colouring characteristic of the genus. 



Genus 4. ACHATINA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Bulimus. 

Shell ; ovate or fmiformly oblong, sometimes polished, sometimes 

covered with an epidermis ; ivhorls mostly striated or grained ; 

columella rolled imoards, conspicuously truncated at the base ; 

lip of the aperture simple, never thickened or reflected. No 

operculum. 



209 

It will be seen on reference to Plate //. that the animal of Achatina is 
similar in all respects to that of Bidimus. M. Deshayes says, such is the 
resemblance, that for him Achatina is an artificial genus. The generic 
characters of the shells run also successively into one another, but they are 
divisible into more distinctly typical groups. The animals oiBulimus oblongus 
and Achatina regina are very like, but the shells of these two species are 
essentially different. One is characterized by a massive, callous columella, 
and thickened, reflected lip; whilst in the other the lip is not reflected, and 
the columella is thinly rolled over, and truncated at the end. And so many 
species partake respectively of these particular characters, in connection 
with others, extending even to features of geographical distribution, that 
the shell in this instance is a more important aid to classification than the 
animal ; or, to speak correctly, there are better distinguishing characteris- 
tics in the hard parts of the animal, than in the soft. 

The Achatina are not of the same arboreal habits as the Bulimi, but 
dwell in places where there is more moisture, in swamps or in the vicinity 
of lakes and rivers. They are divided by Pfeiffer into five sections, the 
first, Achatina proper, being by far the most numerous, including the fine 
series represented by the large A. variegata, zebra, and others, which are pecu- 
liar to West Africa, and take the place of the Bulimi in that district. 

Another subgenus is that named Sjoiraxis, in which the shell is small, and 
of a highly polished, horny texture. It includes many extremely beautiful 
and delicate forms, chiefly inhabitants of the Central American continent and 
archipelago. A group of still smaller species, distinguished by the subge- 
neric name of Tornatellina, have the columella twisted ; and there remain 
two other very distinct types, one represented by the well-known British 
Azeca tridens, and the other by the large and singularly long-convoluted 
shell, A. columna (Columna jiammeaj . 



1. accincta, Miglt. 

2. acicula, Mull. 

3. aciculoides, Jan. 

4. acuminata, Pfr. 

5. acuta, Lam. 

6. alabastra, Rang. 

7. albicans, Pfr. 

8. algira, Brag. 

9. allica, Reeve. 

10. amentum, id. 

11. angiostoma, Ad. 

12. Antoniana, Pfr. 



Species. 

13. aperta, Guild. 

14. arcuata, Pfr. 

15. assinrilis, Reeve. 

16. attenuata, Pfr. 

17. auvata, Mor. 

18. Azorica, Alb. 

19. bacilliformis, Jonas. 

20. balanus, Bens. 

21. balteata, Reeve. 

22. Bensouiana, Pfr. 

23. bicolor, Jay. 

24. Blainiana, Poey. 



25. Blandiana, Ad. 

26. bullata, Gould. 

27. Californica, Pfr. 

28. Candida, Shutt. 

29. carinata, Pfr. 

30. Canninensis, Mor. 

31. carnea, Pfr. 

32. Cassiaca, Bens. 

33. cerea, Pfr. 

34. Ceylanica, id. 

35. clavata, Gray. 

36. clavus, Pfr. 

2 E 



210 



37. cochlea, Reeve. 

38. confusa, Pfr. 

39. conifera, Reeve. 

40. consobrina, Orb. 

41. conspersa, Pfr. 

42. coronata, id. 

43. corusca, Reeve. 

44. costulata, Ad. 

45. costulosa, id. 

46. crassilabris, Bens. 

47. crassula, zc?. 

48. crenulata, Ant. 

49. Cumingii, Shutt. 

50. curvilabris, P//\ 

51. cyanostoma, Rupp. 

52. cylindrella, iJ/or. 

53. Daudebarti, Desk. 

54. decussata, wf. 

55. delibuta, Mor. 

56. delicatula, Shutt. 

57. Dennisoni, Reeve. 

58. Deshayesi, P/>\ 

59. diaphana, A'iwy. 

60. dilatata, Zieg. 

61. Dominicensis, (??». 

62. Donelli, A7//y. 

63. Dunkeri, Pfr. 

64. emarginata, #«?. 

65. erecta, Bens. 

66. exilis, Pfr. 

67. fasciata, il//7//. 

68. flainmigera, Per. 

69. follicularis, A/or. 

70. folliculis, Gron. 

71. fulgurata, Pfr. 

72. Mica, Per. 

73. fuligiuea, Pfr. 

74. fulminea, PeV. 

75. fulva, Brug. 

76. fusca, Pfr. 

77. fusiformis, ft/. 

78. Gayana, Ad. 

79. gemma, ^cws. 

80. glabra, Pfr. 

81. glutinosa, id. 

82. Gossei, "it/. 



83. Gouldii, Reeve. 

84. gracilior, ^t/. 

85. gracilis, Lowe. 

86. granulata, Pfr. 

87. Griffithsi, ^. 

88. Gundlachi, Pfr. 

89. Holienwarti, Rossni. 

90. Hugeli, P/7-. 

91. hyalina, Rang. 

92. immaculata, Za/w. 

93. impressa, Pfr. 

94. incerta, Reeve. 

95. indotata, id. 

96. Ingallsiana, Ad. 

97. inomata, P/>. 

98. interstincta, Gould. 

99. involuta, it/. 

100. iostoma, Pfr. 

101. iota, Ad. 

102. isabellina, P/r. 

103. Jamaicensis, id. 

104. Javanica, Reeve. 

105. Jerdoni, Pe«s. 

106. Kercadonis, Grab. 

107. Knorri, Ptw. 

108. Kraussi, Reeve. 

109. labida, Jfor. 

110. lactea, Reeve. 

111. Lamarckiana, Pfr. 

112. Largillierta, it/. 

113. Leacociana, Lowe. 

114. leucozonias, W^alch. 

115. levis, y/t/. 

116. Liebmamii, Pfr. 

117. ligata, ^t/. 

118. bgnaria, Reeve. 

119. Lindoni, P/r. 

120. lirifera, Mor. 

121. longispira, Ad. 

122. lotophaga, 3/or. 

123. lubrica, Mull. 

124. Maderensis, Loive. 

125. magnifica, P//\ 

126. Malaguettana, Pa^y. 

127. marginata, Swain. 

128. Marminii, ZtesA. 



129. marmorea, Reeve. 

130. melampoides, Powe. 

131. micans, ^/t/. 

132. miliaris, Jon. 

133. minima, Siem. 

134. monilifera, P/r. 

135. Moreletiana, PJes/i. 

136. mucida, Reeve. 

137. nana, Shutt. 

138. nemorensis, ^/t/. 

139. nitens, Gray. 

140. nitida, Ad. 

141. nitidissima, Pori. 

142. obtusa, Pfr. 

143. octona, Ch. 

144. oleacea, Per. 

145. ony china, Mor. 

146. Oreas, Pf«s. 

147. ornata, Pfr. 

148. oryza, Lowe. 

149. osculans, ^t/. 

150. Ottonis, Pfr. 

151. panthera, Per. 

152. papyracea, Pfr. 

153. paritura, Gould. 

154. paxilus, Reeve. 

155. pellucens, ^t/. 

156. perplexa, it/. 

157. Perrotteti, Pfr. 

158. Peruviana, Lam. 

159. Petiti, DesA. 

160. Pfeitferi, Dkr. 

161. Philippiana, P/>. 

162. Phillipsii, Ad. 

163. picta, Reeve. 

164. plicatula, P/r. 

165. porphyrostoma, Shtt. 

166. Portoricensis, P/r. 

167. procera, Ad. 

168. procerula, Mor. 

169. producta, Po«t?e. 

170. propinqua, Ad. 

171. proxima, /t/. 

172. puella, id. 

173. Punctogallana, Pfr. 

174. purpurea, Chem. 






211 



175. pusilla, Pfr. 

176. pygmaea, id. 

177. Rangiana, id. 

178. Reeveana, id. 

179. regina, Per. 

180. reticulata, Pfr. 
131. rliodostoma, Phil. 

182. Riisei, P/h 

183. Rodatzi, Dkr. 

184. rosea, Per. 

185. rubella, J/o>-. 

186. Sauleydi, Joann. 

187. Sayea, Pm. 

188. Sellovii, King. 

189. semidecussata, Mice. 

190. semisculpta, P//-. 

191. semisulcata, Desk. 

192. semitarum, Rang. 

193. sericina, /o«. 

194. sicilis, Mor. 

195. siderata, Reeve. 

196. similis, ^. 



197. simpularia, 3sfor. 

198. siiustrosa, Chem. 

199. solidula, Pfr. 

200. solitaria, ^</. 

201. sordida, King. 

202. Sowerbyana, P//\ 

203. stigrnatica, Shutt. 
201- . straminea, Desk. 

205. striata, Pea. 

206. striata, Mull. 

207. striatella, Rang. 

208. strigata, A7«^. 

209. striosa, Ad. 

210. subeinarginata, P/es/i. 

211. subulata, Pfr. 

212. subulatoides, Ora. 

213. sulcata, Gray. 

214. suturalis, Pfr. 

215. Tandoniana, Shutt. 

216. tenera, ^. 

217. tenuis, Gray. 

218. tenuispira, Bens. 



219. terebella, Lowe.. 

220. tincta, Reeve. 

221. Tortillaua, P/?\ 

222. trochlea, P//\ 

223. truncata, Gmelin. 

224. turris, id. 

225. turritellata, P/^sA. 

226. undulata, Guild. 

227. unicolor, ^rf. 

228. unizonata, Jan. 

229. ustulata, Lam. 

230. Vauuxemensis, Zw. 

231. variegata, Col. 

232. venusta, P^-. 

233. vicina, Ad. 

234. virginea, Linn. 

235. vitrea, TFe/W etf Berth. 

236. vivipara, <Sbw\ 

237. voluta, Ghent. 

238. Yucatauensis, P/r. 

239. Zebra, Chem. 



Subgenus Columna, Perry. 



240. flammea, Martyn. 



241 
242, 
243 
244, 
245 
246, 
247, 
248. 
249 
250, 
251 
252, 



277 
278 



283 

284 



aberrans, Shutt. 
acus, id. 

Adamsiana, Pfr. 
anomala, id. 
brevis, Ad. 
bulimoides, Pfr. 
coniforrnis, Shutt. 
consiinilis, Reeve. 
costulosa, Ad. 
Cubaniana, D'Orb. 
cylindracea, Pfr. 
Dysoni, id. 



Subgenus Spiraxis, C. B. Adams. 

253. episcopalis, Mor. 265. 

254. eximia, Shutt. 266. 

255. flavescens, id. 267. 

256. inusitata, Ad. 268. 

257. irrigua, Shutt. 269. 

258. Lattrei, Pfr. 270. 

259. ligulata, Mor. 271. 

260. lurida, Shutt. 272. 

261. lymneiformis, id. 273. 

262. Meridana, Mor. 274. 

263. rnirabiKs, Ad. 275. 

264. niitrseformis, Shutt. 276. 



mitrseforrais, Lowe. 
pupseformis, Cantr. 



Subgenus Azeca, Leach. 

279. tridens, Pull. 281. 

280. triticea, Lowe. 282. 

Subgenus Tornatellina, Beck. 

acliatinoides, Pfr. 285. castanea, Pfr. 287. 

bilamellata, Ant. 286. Cornica, Bens. 288. 



Newcombi, Pfr. 
Nieoleti, Shutt. 
nigricans, Pfr. 
obeliscus, Reeve. 
paludinoides, D'Orb. 
physodes, Shutt. 
Eichardi, Pfr. 
Salleana, id. 
splendida, Ant. 
streptostyla, Pfr. 
turricula, Migh. 
ventricosula, Mor. 



tornatellina, id. 
tuberculata, id. 



Cubensis, Pfr. 
Cumingiana, id. 
9 v o 



212 

289. Ferussaci, Pfr. 296. niinuta, Ant. 303. Philippii, Pfr. 

290. Fraseri, Bens. 297. Novoseelandica, Pfr. 304. Keclusiana, Pet. 

291. Funcki, Pfr. 298. ovata, Ant. 305. siaistrorsa, Cham. 

292. globosa, Pet. 299. ovuliforuiis, Zozue. 306. trochiformis, Beck. 

293. lamellata, Po/. el M. 300. Paroliana, /TeW. 307. trochlearis, id. 

294. lamellifera, Mar. 301. pepoiium, Gould. 308. turrita, ^m£. 

295. lamellosa, ifeeoe. 302. Petitiana, Pfr. 



Figure*. 

Achatina regina. PI. H. Fig. 3. Showing the resemblance of its ani- 
mal to that of Bulimus oblongus figured above, notwithstanding the 
generic difference in the shells. 

Achatina zebra. PI. 20. Pig. 110. A small example of the West 
African type of the genus, showing the truncated columella of the 
shell, and thin, unreflected lip. 

Achatina (Spiraxis) nigricans. PL 20. Fig. 111. Shell illustrative 
of the section of polished horny texture, chiefly inhabiting Central 
America. 



Genus 5. ACHATINELLA, Swainson. 

Animal ; with four tentacles, the upper ones clubbed at the end, 
elongated and eyed, the lower ones short and slightly clavate ; 
surface of the body covered with numerous granulations ; foot 
long, narrow, tapering behind. (Newcomb.) 

Shell ; rather small, conical, sometimes turreted, dextral or sinis- 
tral, imperforate, or only very slightly umbilicated ; whorls six 
to seven in number, very rarely sculptured ; columella short, 
mostly callously twisted ; lip rather thickened, rarely refected. 

The numerous series of gaily painted shells, which constitute this genus, 
are rather similar in character, and they are mostly of an uniform small 
size. The most striking feature of the group is their very restricted range 
of habitation. The whole are natives of one isolated locality, the Sandwich 
Islands, where they take the place of the Bidimi and Achatina of the 
Continent. None of the Achatinellce appear in the ' Systema Naturse/ The 
same year in which Capt. Cook discovered the Sandwich Islands, Linnaeus 
died. Twenty years afterwards, a straggler found its way into the last 
plate of Chemnitz's ' Conchylien Cabinet/ but where it came from, nobody 
knew, and it was described as a sea shell, — Turbo lugnbris sinistrorsus. 



213 



Nearly half a century passed away, and M. Deshayes's edition of Lamarck's 
great work appeared without any tidings of this abundant Sandwich Island 
Snail. Some species had, in the meantime, reached M. de Ferussac in 
France, Mr. Swainson in England, and Professor Green in the United States. 
So recently as 1850, I felt proud of a monograph of five-and-forty species, 
fifteen of which were new ; but the especial researches, amid the haunts of 
the Achatinellce, of Mr. Frick and Dr. Newcomb, have since then increased 
the number to nearly two hundred. 



1. abbreviata, Reeve. 

2. acuta, Newc. 

3. Adansoni, id. 

4. adusta, Reeve. 

5. affinis, Newc. 

6. albida, Pfr. 

7. albolabris, N&iop. 

8. aincena, Pfr. 

9. ampla, Newc. 

10. apicata, id. 

11. aplustre, id. 

12. aptvcha, Pfr. 

13. assimilis, Newc. 

14. attenuata, Pfr. 

15. bacca, Reeve. 

16. Baldwinii, Newc. 

17. bella, Reeve. 

18. bilineata, id. 

19. Buddii, Newc. 

20. bulimoides, Swain. 

21. Candida, Pfr. 

22. castanea, Reeve. 

23. cerea, Pfr. 

24. cestus, Newc. 

25. Chamissoi, Pfr. 

26. chlorotica, id. 

27. cinnamoraia, id. 

28. cinerosa, id. 

29. citrina, Migh. 

30. clara, Pfr. 

31. Clementina, id. 

32. colorata, Reeve. 

33. concinna, Newc. 



Species. 

34. conspersa, Pfr. 

35. cornea, Newc. 

36. corneola, Pfr. 

37. crassa, Newc. 

38. crassidentata, Pfr. 

39. crassilabrura, Newc. 

40. Cumingii, Neicc. 

41. cuneus, Pfr. 

42. curta, Newc. 

43. cylindrica, id. 

44. deci|)iens, id. 

45. decora, Feruss. 

46. dentata, Pfr. 

47. dimidiata, id. 

48. dolium, id. 

49. dubia, Newc. 

50. Dunkeri, Cum. 

51. duplicata, Newc. 

52. Dwighti, if/. 

53. elegans, id. 

54. elevata, id. 

55. Emmersonii, ir/. 

56. extincta, Pfr. 

57. Ferussaci, it/. 

58. flavescens, Newc. 

59. Forbesiana, Pfr. 

60. Fricki, i& 

61. fulgens, Newc. 

62. fulva, if/. 

63. fumosa, id. 

64. fusca, id. 

65. fusiformis, P/r. 

66. gemma, id. 



67. Germana, Netvc. 

68. gigantea, irf. 

69. glabea, id. 

70. globosa, P//-. 

71. glutinosa, Pfr. 

72. goniostoma, i^. 

73. Gouldi, Newc. 

74. gracilis, Pfr. 

75. grana, iV<??<?c. 

76. Grayana, Pfr. 

77. grisea, Newc. 

78. glossa, P/>\ 

79. Hanleyana, id. 

80. Helena, Newc. 

81. humilis, ?V7. 

82. hybrida, if/. 

83. inflata, Pfr. 

84. intermedia, Netvc. 

85. irregularis, P/r. 

86. Johnsonii, Newc. 

87. labiata, irf. 

88. lanceolata, id. 

89. lorata, Feruss. 

90. luctuosa, P//\ 

91. lugubris, Chemn. 
9:2. hnida, P//-. 

93. macrostoma, id. 

94. Maniensis, Netvc. 

95. Mastersi, /c/. 

96. margarita, Pfr. 

97. melanostoma, Newc. 

98. melanotis, if/. 

99. Migbelsiana, Pfr. 



214 



100. minuscula, id. 

101. moesta, Newc. 

102. monacha, Pfr. 

103. rnucronata, Neicc. 
101. multicolor, Pfr. 

105. multilineata, Newc, 

106. musteUna, Migh. 

107. napus, P/>\ 

108. nigra, Newc. 

109. nitida, id. 

110. nivosa, «W. 

111. nobilis, Pfr. 

112. nubilosa, -M///7*. 

113. nucleola, Gould. 

114. obclavata, Pfr. 

115. obeliscus, m?. 

116. obesa, Newc. 

117. obscura, u7. 

118. obtusa, id. 

119. olivacea, Reeve. 

120. ornata, Newc. 

121. oryza, P/r. 

122. ovata, iVewc. 

123. oviformis, id. 

124. pallida, Nutt. 

125. perdix, Reeve. 

126. perversa, Swain. 

127. petricola, iVewc. 

128. Pfeifferi, ii. 

129. physa, id. 

130. picta, i%A. 

131. planospira, Pfr. 

132. plicata, J%/;. 



133. polita, Neicc. 

134. porcellana, id. 

135. porphyrea, irf. 

136. prasinus, Reeve. 

137. producta, «?. 

138. pulchella, Pfr. 

139. pulcherrima, Swain. 

140. pulla, Newc. 

141. pupoidea, i<#. 

142. pyramis, P//\ 

143. radiatus, Pfr. 

144. recta, Newc. 

145. Redfieldi, «/. 

146. Eemyi, id. 

147. reticulata, z'^. 

148. rosea, Swain. 

149. rubens, Gould. 

150. rubiginosa, Newc. 

151. rudis, P/r. 

152. rufa, Newc. 

153. rugosa, ie?. 

154. rutila, id. 

155. sanguinea, z'^. 

156. semicaririata, id. 

157. semicostata, P/r. 

158. simulans, Reeve. 

159. solitaria, Neicc. 

160. sordida, irf. 

161. soror, id. 

162. Sowerbyana, P/)\ 

163. spirizona, Feruss. 

164. splendida, Newc. 

165. Stewarti, Green. 



166. straminea, Reeve. 

167. subvirens, Newc. 

168. succincta, P//\ 

169. suffusa, Reeve. 

170. sulcuta, P/r. 

171. Swainson, z't?. 

172. Swiftii, iVewc. 

173. tamiolata, Pfr. 

174. terebra, Newc. 

175. teres, P/h 

176. tessellata, Newc. 

177. Tetrao, /rf. 

178. transversalis, Pfr. 

179. tristis, Perms. 

180. turgida, iVi??0c. 

181. turritella, Feruss. 

182. urabilicata, P//\ 

183. undulata, Newc. 

184. valida, P^. 

185. variabilis, Newc. 

186. ventulus, Feruss. 

187. ventrosa, P//\ 

188. venulata, Newc. 

189. venusta, Migh. 

190. vidua, P/r. 

191. violacea, Newc. 

192. virgulata, Migh. 

193. viridans, irf. 

194. vitrea, Newc. 

195. vittata, Reeve. 

196. vulpina, Fe'russ. 

197. Zebrina, P/h 



Mgwe. 

Achatinella decora. PI. 20. Fig. 113. A reversed species ; a strong, 
callously twisted columella, and thickened, but not reflected, lip. 



Genus 6. PARTULA, Ferussac. 

Animal ; similar to that of Bulimus. 

Shell ; acuminately ovate or oblong, generally obliquely produced 



215 

towards the base, dextral or sinistral, but little umbUicated ; 
whorls five to six, more or less smooth or minutely line-engraved ; 
columella thickened, flatly oppressed ; aperture someiohat squarely 
ovate ; lip broadly flatly reflected, sometimes callous. 

Partula is another genus peculiar to Polynesia, but not restricted, like 
Achat'mella, to a particular group of islands. It inhabits equally the Sand- 
wich Islands, the Society Islands, the Friendly Islands, the Navigators', 
and the Ladrones. It is a dwarf representative of the Continental genus 
Bultmus, and follows in this respect the general law of geographical dis- 
tribution affecting the animals and plants of islands of comparatively 
recent submergence remote from the mainland. 

The species are not so numerous as those of the preceding genus, but 
are tolerably abundant, and form an equally natural group. They are 
much alike in form and substance, and are all more or less conspicuously 
engraved with fine spirally impressed lines ; whilst the aperture is peculiar 
in being produced somewhat obliquely, and in having mostly an ear-like 
aspect, owing to the callous thickening of the lip being invariably broadly 
flatly reflected. 



1. amabilis, Less. 

2. auricula, Fe'russ. 

3. brumalis, Reeve. 

4. Carteretensis, Quoy. 

5. compressa, Pfr. 

6. decussatula, id. 

7. denselineata, Reeve. 

8. dentifera, Pfr. 

9. faba, Martyn. 

10. filosa, Pfr. 

11. Ganymedes, Pfr. 

12. gibba, Quoy. 

13. glutinosa, Pfr. 

14. gonocheila, id. 



Species. 

15. Guamensis, id. 

16. Hebe, id. 

17. hyalina, Brod. 

18. inflata, Reeve. 

19. Isabelina, Pfr. 

20. lineata, Less. 
21.Macgillivrayi, Pfr, 

22. micaus, id. 

23. Mastersi, id. 

24. mucida, id. 

25. Navigatoria, id. 

26. nitens, id. 

27. nodosa, id. 



28. Otaheitaua, Pfr. 

29. Pacifica, id. 

30. radiolata, id. 

31. repanda, id. 

32. Reeveana, id. 

33. rosea, Brod. 

34. rubescens, Reeve. 

35. Salomonis, Pfr. 

36. solidula, Reeve. 

37. spadicea, id. 

38. stenostouia, Pfr. 

39. suturalis, id. 

40. varia, Brod. 



Figure. 

Pautula. faba. PL 21. Fig. 115. Shell, showing the square, ear-like 
aperture, with its flattened, broadly reflected lip. 



216 



Genus 7. BULIMUS, Scqpoli. 

Animal ; moderately large, having a ivell-developed head, furnished 
with four cylindrical retractile tentacles, of which the two upper 
ones are the more 'prominent, bearing the eyes at their extre- 
mities; shin mostly granulated ; mantle not reflected on the 
shell ; dish large, lanceolate behind. 

Shell ; ovate, oblong, or turreted, whorls sometimes few and ven- 
tricose, sometimes numerous and contracted, fragile, and often 
transparent ; mostly firm, covered not unfreauently with a 
double hydrophanous epidermis ; columella straight, sometimes 
one-plaited, never truncated at the end ; aperture with the 
margins disjoined ; lip either simple or refected. 

Under the head of Bulimus are included all the oblong and elongated 
forms of Snails, distributed almost universally throughout the mainland and 
adjacent islands of both hemispheres, of which the rounded and more nu- 
merous forms belong to Helix. The Achalina being separated, as we have 
seen, from the Bul'imi by reason of the truncature of the columella ; the 
number of Bulimi proper, compared with the Helices, are as one to two. 
In both these genera the number of species known was comparatively 
limited, until an expedition was made some thirty years ago by Mr. Cuming 
to western South America, and another subsequently to the Philippine 
Islands. "It was in 1S3G," relates Mr. Broderip, "that Mr. Cuming 
proceeded to the Philippine Islands, by permission of the Queen Regent 
of Spain, and aided by powerful recommendations from her government, 
which opened to him the interior of the islands, and caused him to be re- 
ceived with a noble hospitality, equalled only by the warm interest which 
facilitated his pursuits wherever he arrived and made himself known." 
Species of which we had but an imperfect knowledge, owing to the imper- 
fect condition in which a stray specimen chanced to reach the cabinet of 
the connoisseur, were found in luxuriant plenty, and many new species 
were discovered in their airy solitude on the tree branches, or concealed 
among the fallen leaves, in equal abundance. Other travellers were stimu- 
lated to the same degree of enthusiasm, and the richly-wooded forests of 
Bolivia and Venezuela, combining the snail-producing elements of food and 
temperature in similar luxuriance in the opposite hemisphere, have been 
ransacked, chiefly by plant-collectors, with similar success. 

Upon the completion of my monograph of this genus in the 'Conchologia 
Iconica/ I was tempted to draw up a summary of the views which had 
presented themselves to me on the general geographical distribution of the 



. 217 

Bulimi, and on the modification of their shell to the local physical condi- 
tions in which the species live.* It ran as follows : — 

The Bulimi are distributed over the equatorial, tropical, and warm tem- 
perate regions of the globe in assemblages of species, limited in their 
range, and of very distinct typical character; and being of sluggish habits 
with few means of transport, little migration occurs even where there are 
no such natural boundaries as seas, deserts, or mountain chains. Of the 
Bulimi known from all parts of the world, the localities of nearly 600 
species are now well authenticated. Their area of geographical distribu- 
tion lies between 40° S. and 35° N. in the new world, and between 42° S. 
and 52° to 55° N. in the old world ; — that is, between the southern bor- 
ders of Chili and Texas in the former, and between Van Diemen's Land 
and Germany, if not Sweden, in the latter. And there is no country 
within this area of which the genus of snails under consideration does not 
form part of the zoology. There is one abnormal species, B. lubricus, re- 
moved from the genus by British authors [Zua lubrica), which obtains a 
more northerly range and a greater elevation in both hemispheres. 

Regarding the differences of form, composition, and disposition of colour 
in the shell, the Bulimi are distributed over this area in seven provinces, 
comprising about forty typical assemblages of species. Of these three- 
fifths inhabit the western hemisphere, principally Central America, and 
two-fifths have a wider range and greater local variety of character, in con- 
formity with the more varied arrangement of the land, in the eastern. 
Taking the size and substance of the shell at different elevations and in 
different degrees of temperature, it may be remarked that the calcifying 
energies of the Bulimi are most strongly exerted in thickly wooded dis- 
tricts, in the midst of plenty of decaying vegetable matter, close and 
humid, with a mean heat of from 80° to 85°, among shady thickets or in 
ravines. Near the sea-level in thin calcareous soil, and in sandy plains, 
where the vegetation is scanty and parched, and in grassy savannahs, the 
shell is thin and often vividly coloured. In those species whose habit it 
is to burrow in the ground, the shell is mostly small, patternless, and of 
glassy tenuity, even in localities remote from each other and differing ma- 
terially in physical character. 

The Western Hemisphere comprises four grand provinces of distri- 
bution, the Venezuelan, the Brazilian, the Chilian, and the Bolivian, and 
from these may be further distinguished the districts of the Galapagos 
Islands and of the Great Antilles. The first province includes the coun- 
tries of New Granada and Venezuela ; the second comprises the empire of 
Brazil and Buenos Ayres ; the third comprises Chili and West Peru ; and 
the fourth province includes Bolivia and the Argentine Republic. About 
three hundred and fifty species have been described from this hemisphere. 
* Read before the Royal Society in 1851. 

2 P 



218 

1. The Venezuelan Province. 

The highest condition of the genus is in intertropical America, which 
yields nearly one-half of the number of species known from all parts of the 
world. In the luxuriant districts of New Granada and Venezuela, watered 
by the tributaries of the Magdalena and Orinoco rivers, with a tempera- 
ture varying from 70° to 100° in the shade, about sixty species have been 
collected at different altitudes. On the mountain-sides near the sea, away 
from the land breezes, with little vegetation, where the thermometer never 
falls below 80°, are a few species, B. erectus, Cacticolus, etc., of which the 
shell is extremely thin and sombre from the want of moisture for the ani- 
mal, which is curiously spotted and painted, and attaches in clusters to the 
parched Cacti, eating into their fleshy substance. The animals of the 
beautifully variegated shells of the Philippine Bulimi are of a uniform dull 
grey colour. These contrasts between animal and shell are worth noting. 
Higher up on the mountains of Venezuela for the space of about 2,000 
feet, the country being still of a sandy and stony nature, with little vege- 
tation except Cacti and other dry prickly plants, and a few trees in the 
ravines, the Bulimi are still comparatively small, but the shell is more 
brilliant in colour. B. Curianensis, Knorri, and Studeri are beautiful ex- 
amples of this type, of which the darker varieties inhabit the higher and 
woodier situations. They are rarely found at a greater elevation, or in a 
lower temperature than about 76° within doors. Proceeding upwards on 
the mountains of Venezuela, the plants become thicker, and give place to 
large trees, with underwood of broad green leaves, enveloped in clouds and 
mists which occasion considerable humidity. In these situations at an 
elevation of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet are the richly-coloured B.fulminans 
and Blaiavilleanus, and at a still greater altitude reaching to 8,000 feet, with 
a proportionately lower temperature of from 65° to 70°, under decayed 
leaves in thick moist woods, in ravines and in crevices of the mountains, 
are the large stout dark-painted B. Moritzianus, astrapoides, pardalis, 
Funchii, etc., representing the most highly calcified condition of the genus 
hitherto discovered. 

2. The Brazilian Province. 

Passing in a south-easterly direction into the great territory of Brazil, 
we have no information of the presence of any typical assemblages of 
Bulimi until reaching the countries of Bahia and Minas Geraes. It can 
hardly be doubted, however, that in Guayana, Para, and all that country 
constituting the great basin of the Amazon, many fine species occur, in 
addition to B. Bensoni, which belongs to the widely spread B. zebra type, 
as well as in Piauhy, Goyaz, and the more sterile parts of Pernambuco. 
Prom Bahia southwards to Rio Janeiro, the genus is represented by about 
sixty species, in six characteristic typical groups, extremely local, and of 



219 

which the shell differs remarkably in its plan of convolution. In no part 
of the American continent is the theory of specific centres of creation, ad- 
vocated by Professor E. Forbes, so distinctly recognized as in this area of 
ten degrees. On the Corcovado and other lofty mountains in the vicinity 
of Rio, in dense woods at an elevation of 1,000 to 1,500 feet, is a singular 
group, B. Pantagruelinus, exesus, odontostoma, Pupoides, etc., of which 
the shell differs from all other types of the New World, in having a num- 
ber of tooth-like processes developed within the aperture of the last whorl 
on arriving at maturity. The only country in which this character again 
appears is in the centre of the Old World, among the smaller and more 
temperate species of Syria and Hindoostan. In this part of Brazil we 
have also another type, peculiar to the locality, in which the last whorl is 
produced in front into a longitudinally angled channel, as in B. goniostoma, 
egregius, angulatus, fusiformis, etc. Upon the leaves of damp underwood, 
at an elevation of about 2,000 feet, is another distinct and brilliantly co- 
loured group, B. multicolor, Miersii, and the large B. ovatus, which in- 
habits also the neighbouring island of St. Catharina. In the lower grounds 
upon orange-trees and in the coffee plantations about Tejuca at 1,000 feet 
above the sea-level, the Bullml, as in the lower parts of Venezuela, have 
their shells characteristic of less moisture and fewer opportunities of re- 
tirement. B. papyraceus may be quoted as an example. The more lofty 
and thickly wooded parts of Minas Geraes produce a type with shells of 
solid growth and intertropical brilliancy of colour, represented by B. Mil- 
leri, bilabiatus, planidens, melanostoma, etc. In the vicinity of Bahia is a 
group with shells of totally different construction and of lighter substance, 
B. navicula, auris-leporis, etc., in which the last whorl is convoluted trans- 
versely, at a right angle with the axis of the spire. Lastly, at Caravelhas, 
below Bahia, and at the little island of Coxaprego, at the mouth of the 
Iguaripe river, is a remarkable type, represented by B. calcareus, obeliscus, 
sylvaticus, etc., of which the shell, presenting a singular contrast with the 
preceding group, is composed of a large number of whorls, drawn out into 
the elongated form of a Turritella. This partial grouping of opposite 
forms, within a comparatively limited area having few natural boundaries, 
will doubtless become broken up to a certain extent with the spread of 
human population. Already have the climate and natural vegetation of 
Rio been modified by the clearing away of the neighbouring forests of the 
Corcovado range of hills, which tends to reduce the humidity and other 
circumstances that combine to favour the growth and calcification of the 
terrestrial mollusca. 

Owing probably to the recent geological disturbances that are supposed 
by Lyell, Darwin, and others to have taken place in the southern extre- 
mity of the American continent, there are no typical provinces of Bulimi 
below Rio. The genus is represented by one or two scattered species in 

2 v 2 



220 

Buenos Ayres, extending in the widely-distributed B. sporadic/is to the 
banks of the Rio Negro, but none are recorded from the sterile, riverless 
plains of Patagonia. That the genus should be suddenly arrested at this 
point in a tropical condition, without any of the graduated forms which 
abound in the north temperate countries of both hemispheres, is doubtless 
owing to the upraising of the land in this part of South America, which 
Mr. Darwin considers to have occurred within the period of the now-exist- 
ing sea-shells. Mr. Cuming collected worn shells of Valuta Brasiliana (a 
species living on the shores of Buenos Ayres) in a bank of other dead 
sea-shells fifty miles inland. The climate is many degrees warmer in Pata- 
gonia and Tierra del Puego than in the same latitude of the northern hemi- 
sphere. " Evergreen trees," says Mr. Darwin, f< flourish luxuriantly under 
it, humming-birds may be seen sucking the flowers, and parrots feeding on 
the seeds." Snails being of less fugitive character than birds, and having 
fewer means of transport than plants, appear not to have migrated thither. 
The sea which washes the shores of Patagonia is peopled with a fauna of 
more tropical character than the land, owing to the warmth of the great 
equatorial current, which flows southward along the eastern coast of South 
America, and causes a bend in the system of isothermal lines laid down by 
Humboldt of nearly ten degrees. A fine large richly painted Volute, V. 
Magellanica, in common use among the Patagonians as a. drinking-cup, 
inhabits their shore abundantly. Yet the northern limit of this genus 
does not approach the Mediterranean nor any part of Europe. It is right 
however to add, that a species of Cymba, to which genus V. Mag elidible a 
is the nearest allied form of Volute, has been very recently dredged off 
Lisbon by Mr. M'Andrew. 

3. The Chilian Province. 

Crossing to the west side of the American continent and returning 
northward, we are impressed with the marked difference between the 
Bull ml on the west and those on the east side of the chain of the Andes. 
In the sandy plains of Chili, where there is little moisture beyond that 
arising from the dews, the Bullmi, about thirty-five in number, are mostly 
small, with thin, often transparent shells, having little of colour or mark- 
ing. Towards the mountains at the roots of shrubs, on dead trunks of 
trees or under Cacti, are several species distributed somewhat miscellane- 
ously in respect of form, as B. granulosus, ergthrostoma, Piriformis, etc., 
Near the sea-shore they assume a more distinct typical character, of which 
the shell, Succiuea-like, is widely inflated, and owing to the dry calcareous 
nature of the soil and absence of vegetation is extremely thin, brittle, and 
simply dark-speckled. The B. Broclerijni, punctullfer, rupicolus, and 
refiexus are characteristic examples. Surrounded with few of the condi- 
tions which serve for the formation of shell, the calcifying functions of 



221 

this group are but feebly exercised. They exist for many months together 
in the crevices of rocks in a state of torpidity, and are only roused during 
the excessive clews. " Wait till the dews come/' said a Chilian one day 
to Mr. Cuming, " and they will all come to life again." 

In the warmer, but still comparatively rainless district of Peru, the 
Bulimi have more brightly-coloured shells, with more variety of pattern. 
They are about as numerous in species as those of Chili, under as many 
types. In the more arid parts of Peru, upon the mountains, the shell is 
thin, as in B. varians, tlgris, lemniscatus, and tumid iilus, compared with 
those inhabiting more woody districts on the eastern side of the Andes. 
They have, moreover, a colder aspect than those, of the same latitude in 
Brazil, on account of the more scanty nature of the vegetation, the lesser 
humidity of the atmosphere, and the cold precipitated from the ant- 
arctic drift current which flows in a northerly direction along the western 
shores of South America nearly to the equator. The effect of moisture 
and consequent amount of decaying vegetable matter in promoting the 
formation of shell is curiously illustrated by the presence of a stout 
richly-coloured species of large size, B. p/iasianellus, on the rainy border 
of Peru, where they crawl up the stripped trees in great abundance ; and 
by the B. Tupacii, dwelling on bushes and garden walls on the Bolivian 
side of the Andes at an elevation of 9,000 feet, which has a robust dark- 
painted shell similar to those of the equally lofty Venezuelan type. B. ro- 
saceus, which inhabits a wide range of country, extending from the environs 
of Valparaiso, near the sea, to Cocapata in Bolivia, crouches under stones in 
the sand in the first-named locality, and has a pale, smooth, calcareous shell. 
But in the woods of Cocapata, where it lives in more humid situations 
among the trunks of trees, the shell is larger, stouter, more richly coloured, 
and with more of epidermis. Thus we have the change which charac- 
terizes different species, presented in the same species under different con- 
ditions. Another remarkable instance is presented in B. zebra. This 
species inhabits an area of Central America enclosing Honduras, Nicaragua, 
the West Indies, and Pernambuco, reaching to the shores of Peru, and 
produces a shell varying so much in character according to the physical 
conditions under which it is formed, that it has been described as several 
species. The same thing has occurred with B. rtgina, which in its range 
from New Granada and Guayaua to Bolivia and the interior of Peru, 
affects a condition partaking in each instance of the local conchological 
character of the country. 

4. The Bolivian Province. 

Prom Bolivia and the Argentine Republic about forty Bulimi are de- 
scribed, illustrative of six types. The large Brazilian B. ovatus, living near 
the coast, is here represented in the heart of the continent, at Santa Cruz, 



222 

by the gigantic B. maximns and Valenciennesii inhabiting the dense forests 
of the Cordilleras with B. lacunosus and a few other allied forms. Another 
type with shells of stout growth is represented by B. Tupacii, thamnoicus, 
and inca ; and an extremely interesting form is presented in B. onea, found 
by M. D'Orbigny at the bottom of a deep ravine near Tutulima. A few 
species with delicately painted shells, constituting another group, inhabit 
the woods in the vicinity of Cochabamba, B. linostoma, xanthostoma, 
fusoides, etc. ; and a characteristic group with shells of light structure, 
freely marked but not highly coloured, is typified by B. poscilus, hygro- 
hylmts, marmarinas, oreades, etc. The ground-burrowing species, with ex- 
tremely thin shells devoid of colour or pattern, consist of B. bacterionides, 
lichnorum, turritella, etc. Two or three species have been collected on 
the mountains surrounding the Lake of Titicaca, which is itself 14,000 
feet above the level of the sea. Of these B. Pentlandi and Hamilloni 
may be quoted as examples. In the high lands of the Cordillera range, 
commencing at the Lake of Titicaca, passing along the region of medi- 
cinal barks, as laid down by Weddell, to Cuzco, Chachapoyas, and the 
Andes of Caxamarca, and extending across the equator by Quito, Bogota, 
and Merida, nearly to Caraccas, many fine species have been collected, but 
of too miscellaneous a variety of form to show any typical assemblages. 
From this extensive and little-explored region we have B. labeo, Adamsoui, 
T/wmj)soni, rhodolarynx, Hartwegii, Alto-Peruvianus, alutaceus, Tayloria- 
nus, murrinus, LoWri, Clausilioides, and columellaris, singularly different 
from each other, and differing altogether from the Bulimi of Bolivia and 
La Plata. There is, however, one well-defined group inhabiting the 
southern extremity of the Cordillera range at Merida and Bogota, of which 
B. Cathcartia, Yeranyi, Succinoides, and quadricolor are characteristic 
examples. They have peculiarly inflated richly coloured shells, and are 
covered w r ith a delicate hydrophanous epidermis disposed in hieroglyphic 
patterns after the manner of the Philippine Bulimi. 

5. Central America. 
Of the remaining Bulimi of the American continent, about ten species 
inhabit the central neck of land which comprises the countries Veragua, 
Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Guatemala. Fourteen species 
have been collected in the hilly parts of Mexico ; and two or three species 
scattered in California, Texas, and Alabama, constitute the northern limit 
of the genus in the new world. The Bulimi of Central America are very 
distinct from those of which we have been speaking hitherto. B. Pana- 
mensis, vexillum, translucens, and unicolor from Panama, B. comeus from 
Real Llejo, B. discrepans from Conchagua, and B. Hondurasanus, and 
Dysoni from Honduras, are all characterized by a thin transparent horny 
shell of the same type. They have little pattern or variety of colour, and 



223 

live upon the trunks of trees or under fallen leaves. None of the South 
American types have any representatives in Central America. There is, 
however, a single species in Honduras, B. Kieneri, belonging to a singular 
Cyclostoma -like type, which belongs evidently to Jamaica, where it is re- 
presented by B. Gossei, turricula, vmcannatus, cylindricus, and Guildingii. 
In Mexico the Bull mi are more varied. Eive species, B. Mexicanus, 
serperastrus, livescens, Humboldtii, and nitelinus, in which the shell is of 
a light, brittle structure, oblong form, and simply dark-banded, belong to 
a type quite peculiar to this locality, extending in B. Californicus to the 
opposite peninsula. At Vera Cruz, on the eastern side of Mexico, a 
Bolivian type appears in B. Lattrei, Jonasi, and fenestratus. A very re- 
markable type is presented in the Mexican B. Domheyanus, which is at 
present unique. B. labiatus and Schiedianus, which are almost colourless, 
partake of the typical character of B. confinis and liquabiUs inhabiting 
Texas, and of B. dealbatus inhabiting Alabama, which is the most northern 
species of the genus in this hemisphere. 

6. Islands of the Western Hemisphere. 

The terrestrial conchology of the islands of the western hemisphere is 
for the most part typically distinct from that of the continent, and the 
more so in each particular group of islands in proportion to their distance 
from the main-land. This receding gradation of types is distinctly shown 
in the Bulimi of the Great and Little Antilles. In the first group of 
islands this genus has but a meagre share in the conchology, which com- 
prises more of Cyclostomata. In the latter group the Bulimi, passing 
southward, are gradually larger and more painted, and exhibit a relation- 
ship with those of the neighbouring continent. Jamaica, Cuba, and Tor- 
tola yield a few species of the Cyclostoma type, B. Gossei, turricula, etc., 
just spoken of as appearing at Honduras in B. Kieneri; but there are 
more of the ground-burrowing glassy type, such as B. subnla, octonoides, 
Goodhalli, and pauperculus inhabiting the savannahs. B. immaculatus is 
a rather large species, and B. mirabilis, remarkable for its squamate growth, 
is quite unique as a type. In Guadaloupe and Martinique, connecting 
the leeward and windward of the West India Islands, a' few species 
occur with shells of darker and more solid growth, as B. Guadaloupensis, 
Martinicensis, and chrysalis. In the principal islands of the Little An- 
tilles approximating to the South American continent, the Bulimi increase 
in size and colouring, gliding distinctly into the types of the Venezuelan 
province. The richly painted B.fulminans and Blainvilleanus of Merida 
are represented in the island of St. Vincent by B. auris-Sileni ; the deli- 
cate B. rosealus and xauthostoma of Bogota by B. stramineus and Vincen- 
tinus in the same island ; and B. glaber, a robust species of Trinidad, is re- 
presented in the nearest main-land of Venezuela by B. distortus and eury- 
omphalus, and in New Granada by B.perdix. 



224. 

The Galapagos Islands contribute about ten species of Bulimus, small 
in size and of a dusky hue, agreeing in this respect with what has been 
observed by Mr. Darwin in reference to the dusky colour of the birds and 
insects. B. eschariferus and rugulosus from Chatham Island, B. ustulatus, 
mix, and tmifascialus from Charles Island, B. Jacobi and mgifenis from 
Jacob Island, B. calvus from James Island, and B. Darwinii and sculp- 
turatus, of which the particular island has not been noted, are all typically 
distinct from the Bulimi of the neighbouring continent. A species has 
however been very recently discovered, B. achatellinus, partaking of the 
character of Achatinella, an allied genus of snails singularly confined to 
the Sandwich Islands. The Bulimi of the Galapagos Inlands seem, never- 
theless, to be purely aboriginal, living among dried tufts of grass, upon 
comparatively leafless bushes, or under detached pieces of lava, and pre- 
senting obvious indications of the volcanic nature of the soil and desert 
character of the vegetation. 

The Polynesian Islands have no Bulimi except one or two small trans- 
parent ground-burrowing species, B. Anloni and Oparanus from the island 
of Opara, B. Tuckeri from Hardy's Island, and B. Sandwicensis from the 
Sandwich Islands. Their absence is, however, compensated by the pre- 
sence of two other genera of land-snails which are not found anywhere 
else. In the Society, Marquesas, Friendly, and Navigators' Islands the 
Bulimi are represented by the Partulce ; in the Sandwich Islands by the 
Achalinellee. 

The Bulimi of the Eastern Hemisphere are more partial in their cha- 
racter and distribution than those of the western, owing to there being less 
explored land within the parallels of latitude enclosing the conditions most 
favourable to their existence. In West Africa they are replaced by a tribe 
of large AcAatinee. But in the localities which they inhabit within this 
intertropical area, comprising chiefly the islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
they are more numerous in species in proportion to the extent of land. 
The Bulimi of the old world have a wider range in the warm temperate 
regions, and the geographical position of the genus is more insular than 
continental. As many species have been collected in the Philippine 
Islands alone as in the whole extent of continent between Sweden and 
Cochin China. The eastern Bulimi, comprising about two hundred and 
fifty species, present three grand typical provinces of distribution, which 
may be termed the Caucasian, the Malayan, and the African. The limits 
of these provinces are well marked, and they possess no species in com- 
mon. The species are all distinct from those of the western hemisphere. 

7. The Caucasian Province. 

The Caucasian province has its centre in Asia Minor, and occupies an 
area extending west and east over the southern countries of Europe and 



225 

Asia to the opposite shores of North Africa. At the eastern limit of this 
province in the British Isles and at the western limit, in the Meia-co-shiinah 
Isles, the shell is of the same form, substance, and colour. The shell of 
the Caucasian Bulimics is small, mostly white or dusky brown, sometimes 
convoluted sinistrally, and partakes very much of the character of Pupa, 
which is the predominant genus of this district. At the north-western ex- 
tremity of the Caucasian province the genus is represented in the British 
Isles, Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal by the small B. obscurus, 
montanus, and acutus. The first of these extends to South Sweden, fifteen 
to twenty degrees nearer the Arctic Circle than in the new world, agree- 
ably with the curve of Humboldt's isothermal lines in that direction, illus- 
trative of the warmer comparative temperature of this portion of the eastern 
hemisphere. In B. ventrosus and decollatus the genus obtains a more 
southern range, extending into Sicily and the Canary Islands. The Bulimi 
of the Canary Islands are, however, for the most part indigenous. Of the 
following species inhabiting this group, B. variatus, Moquinianus, obesatus, 
bceticatus, Bertheloti, subdiaphanus, only the last is found in any other lo- 
cality, the Cape de Verd Islands. No Canary Island Bulimus has been 
collected in Portugal, Spain, or Sicily, but a species has been found to 
range along with B. barbarus, rupestris, and Bergeri over Greece and the 
eastern islands of the Mediterranean to Algeria and the borders of Egypt. 
B. detritus, subtilis, and quinquedentatus may be noted as belonging more 
especially to Austria and Central Europe, and B. Farnensis, Frivaldskyi, 
and C/iersonesicus to Turkey and the Crimea. Towards the vicinity of the 
Caucasus the Bulimi are more numerous, of larger and more solid growth, 
and more divided into groups. Owing to the dry juiceless thorny cha- 
racter of the vegetation, their habits differ from those of the humid and 
woody countries of intertropical America. Their shells are comparatively 
small, with little colouring matter or epidermis, and they live under stones 
or blocks of wood, or suspended for a long season in a state of torpidity 
from the shrubs. The difference between the shell of the Caucasian and 
that of the Malayan or Venezuelan Bulimi is very characteristic of the 
physical conditions with which the animal is surrounded in each instance. 
B. labrosus, labiosus, Alepi, Sgriacus, and Ehrenbergi are true Caucasian 
types. In B. Sprattii and Lycicus the shell has a light and ventricose 
growth, but in B. spoliatus, zebriolus, and Toumefortianus it has an elon- 
gated Pttpa-\ike form. 

Passing the south-western countries of Asia we find no species of Buli- 
mus recorded from any locality between Syria and Afghanistan. Of the 
terrestrial conchology of Persia, Tartary, and Beloochistan, nothing is at 
present known, and very little of that of China. South of Syria a natural 
boundary is imposed to the range of the genus in that direction by the 
rainless and riverless deserts of Arabia. A few species make their appear- 

2 G 



226 

auce in the more fertile parts near the Gulf of Bab-el-mandeb and the 
Indian Ocean. B. latireflexus, a fine species inhabiting the vicinity of 
Muskat on the Gulf of Oman, has a polished shell of solid, stony compo- 
sition, without colour or marking, of precisely the same type as B. labiosus 
and labrosus of Asia Minor. B.fragosns and Forslcalii inhabiting Yemen, 
also patternless, assimilate to the tumid tribe of Pupa of Asia Minor. 
Abyssinia and the neighbouring island of Socotra, marking the eastern 
boundary of the Caucasian province, contribute two species from each 
locality, one of which species in both instances belongs to an Indian type, 
the other being remote from it. B. Olivieri of Abyssinia has an inflated 
shell, with a dark fibrous epidermis very distinct in character from any 
Asiatic or European species, while B. Abgssiuicus from the same locality 
has been collected also in Central India, north of the river Nerbudda. It 
is allied in form with B. Jerdoni from the hilly districts of the Deccan 
peninsula, and both species agree in typical character with B.fragosns of 
Arabia. B. Socotrensis, inhabiting the island of Socotra, off Cape Guar- 
dafui, has a peculiar little solid pea-shaped shell unique as a type; but 
dated with it in the same locality is an oblong cylindrical form, B. 
contiguuSj belonging to a type of Hindoostan, represented by B. pullus, 
inhabiting the environs of Delhi and Bundelkhund and extending into the 
Gangetic plains. 

In the south-western countries of Asia the genus is very meagrely re- 
presented, but the species are peculiar in their circumstances of habita- 
tion. Two of comparatively large size occur on the hills of Afghanistan, 
B. Griffithsii and eremita, with opaque colourless shells partaking of the 
Syrian type. From the whole of Hindoostan, including the Himalaya 
range, the Punjab, Scinde, Nepaul, Bhotan, Assam, the Deccan, and 
Carnatic, only five-and-twenty species have been collected, limited appa- 
rently in number of individuals. In the plains watered by the numerous 
branches of the Ganges, with a temperature varying in the season of the 
hot winds from 85° to 90° at night, to 130° or 140° in the sun, the 
Bnlimi are scattered and of miscellaneous character. On the wooded 
hills rising into a moist and cooler atmosphere they are more abundant. 
B. rujktrigatus at an elevation of 4,000 feet has a fulvous, horny, oblong 
shell. B. cosnqpicttts and tutulns, inhabiting a lower level, are minute 
delicate brown species, the latter being convoluted in the form of a rounded 
Cgclostoma. B. pullus is a light cylindrical form, B. cereus and gracilis 
are thin, horny species, and B. punctatus, Bontice, and Bengalensis have 
light inflated shells of a type altogether different. The most characteristic 
Bulimi inhabiting this part of Asia are those of the Himalaya range, B. Ku- 
uavurensis, pretiosus, vibex, nivicola, calebs, and arcuatus. Their shells are 
of a fulvous brown colour, mostly streaked with opaque white marks, all 
of one type, distinct from the Syrian, but sufficiently allied to come into 






227 

the same province of distribution. Occupying a loftier situation than the 
species before mentioned, they have, as in Venezuela, stouter shells, but 
are still comparatively small and sombre. On the mountain slopes, where 
the Flora, represented by the rhododendron and juniper, is of a subarctic 
character, the genus inhabits a much colder temperature in elevation than 
it reaches in either hemisphere in latitude. Two species, B. arcuatus and 
nivicola, are found in the Liti Pass at an elevation of 14,000 feet on ju- 
niper bushes among patches of snow at the hottest period of the year. 
This is the only locality in which the genus approaches the snow-line. 
The physical conditions of India below the Emodic or Alpine region of 
vegetation are not calculated to favour the growth of Bidimi. In the plains 
there is a scarcity of wood and forest, such as we have noticed to serve so 
materially for the, production of these snails in South America ; and the 
burning of the thickets in the hill countries for the pasturage of cattle, 
offers the same obstacles to their growth and increase as the clearing away 
of the virgin forests in Brazil. 

8. The Malayan Province. 

The Malayan province of the genus, which comprises the islands of the 
Indian Archipelago, commences on the south-western corner of the Asiatic 
continent, where it is represented at Burmah by B. Sylheticus and in Siam 
by B. atrieallosus. These species are of a totally different type from any 
of the Bidimi of Hindoostan, and agree precisely with that characteristic 
Malayan type which appears at Java, Timor, Celebes, and Amboyna in B. 
citrinus, Icevus, contusus, cldoris, and sinistralis, at Borneo in B. Adamsii, 
at Ceylon in B. Ceylanicus, and at Mindanao, the most southern of the 
Philippine Islands, in B. maculiferus. B.fulguratus and malleatus, hav- 
ing an inflated shell with a winding plait upon the columella, represent a 
type peculiar to the Peejee Islands. B. miltocheilus, with a wax-like fusi- 
form shell and brilliant vermilion lip, from Christoval Island, one of the 
Solomon's Group, is unique as a type. B. fibratus and Caledonicus, with 
large robust shells of dark chestnut-brown colour, red internally, represent 
another very distinct type in the island of New Caledonia, but this appears 
again twelve degrees further south at Auckland, North Island of New 
Zealand, in the only species inhabiting that group, B. Shongii. It is 
worthy of notice, that this large, stout, tropical-looking Bulimus is under 
the same latitude of the eastern hemisphere, which is characterized in the 
western hemisphere by the delicate species of the dry, sandy countries of 
Chili and Buenos Ayres. 

The Bulimi of the Philippine Islands, which are very numerous and of 
large size, belong chiefly to one type, represented by B. pybhogaster, bi- 
coloratus, lignarias, fidgetrum, uimbosus, and others. The shell of this 
type is not so much distinguished by colour, as by the presence of a double 



228 

membranous epidermis, to which the different species are indebted for 
their characteristic patterns. B. Cumingii, Leaii, and a few others, belong 
to another type of which the shell is inflated, and mostly shining white, 
with only a very slight single epidermis. About eighty species of Bulimus 
have been collected in the twenty-two islands of the Philippine group, all 
extremely local in their range of habitation. With the exception of about 
half-a-dozen of the eighty, each species is confined to its particular island. 
The equable climate of these islands, the excessive rains, and woody cha- 
racter of the vegetation, combine materially to favour the growth of snails. 
They live some on the branches of the trees and in shady recesses, and 
others among light thickets on the outskirts of the woods. The large 
species are strictly arboreal, and deposit their eggs standing on end in 
parallel rows upon a leaf. The transparent, horny, ground-burrowing type 
which appears at Hindoostan in B. cereas and gracilis, and at Java in B. 
Achatinaceus, is here represented by B. elongatulus and Panayensis. 

The only species collected in China are B. decorticatus, belonging to the 
ground type, which is universal, and B. Cant&ri, from the environs of 
Nanking. They belong to the Caucasian type, which reaches the islands 
of Ty-pin-san and Koo-kien-san of the Meia-co-shimah group of the 
Yellow Sea in B. Anglicoides found under decayed leaves among the loose 
stones which surround the tombs. 

Of the Bulimi of Australia little is at present known. One species, B. 
atomatus, with a large, dark-coloured inflated shell, has been collected at 
Port Macquarrie, one small species, B. trilineatus, at Port King George, 
and two, B. Kingii and injlatus, of which the precise locality is unknown. 
Two species with thin, dusky shells, B. melo and Dufresnii, inhabiting 
Van Diemen's Land, constitute the southern limit of the genus in the 
eastern hemisphere. 

9. The African Province. 

The African province includes all that explored portion of the continent 
below Senegal on the west side, and Zanzibar, including the islands of 
Mauritius and Madagascar, on the east. In the intertropical area along 
the west coast of Africa, extending from latitude 15° S. to 15° N., the 
Bulimi are replaced in great measure by a group of large Achatina, which 
inhabit principally the hot and swampy districts on the banks of the Gambia, 
Nun, Gaboon, and Niger rivers, and reach in a modified form to the sandy 
plains of Loanda. The shells are large, inflated, and richly dark-painted, 
and the shells of the few Bulimi that are associated with them belong to 
the same characteristic type. The two genera meet at this point. Bulimus 
lorridus of Liberia and Achatina Saulc>/di belong to the same natural type, 
notwithstanding that they are referred to different genera. B. Adansoni, 
Africanus, tenebricus, turbinatus, flammeus, Numidicus, and interstinctus 



229 

belong also to the Jckalina type. B. neuriciis, Guineensis, and vivipara 
are three fragile species of different habits from the same country, and an- 
other type is presented in B. lumefactus and pemphigodes with peculiarly 
globose inflated shells. As an instance of the mingling of types on the 
confines of the great provinces of distribution which meet in North Africa, 
it may be remarked that B. Ruppellianus inhabiting the eastern confines 
belongs to this Ac/ialina type, and B. reticulatus inhabiting the western 
belongs to the Syrian Bulimus type, which is exactly the reverse of the 
general typical character of the Bulimi in these localities. B. Downsii, 
found abundantly at Princes Island off the coast of Guinea, inhabits also 
the nearest mainland. At St. Helena a small brown species is found, B. 
Helena ; and in the more elevated parts of the island, in an apparently 
semifossil state, the remains of an extinct type, B. auris-vulpina, are found. 
Mr. Darwin, who observed this well-known species at St. Helena imbedded 
in the soil, attributes the extinction of it to some recent geological dis- 
turbances, which caused the entire destruction of the woods and conse- 
quent loss of food and shelter to the snails. 

Nothing is known of the Bulimi of Africa, south of the tropics, except- 
ing those described by Dr. Krauss from the neighbourhood of Natal. 
Eight species collected in this part are of very miscellaneous character, 
but typically distinct from those of the west coast. B. Natalensis, conulus, 
and spadiceus are thin and globosely convoluted, B. Burchellii and meri- 
dionalis are of light ovate form, and B. linearis and turratformis are elon- 
gated. They are all small. A very remarkable species has, however, been 
discovered in this locality, B. Kraussii, nearly equal in size to the largest 
Bulimus of tropical America, and as brilliant in colour. Prom Mozam- 
bique we have but one small light species, B. Mozambicensis. In Mada- 
gascar are two species of large size and elongated form, B. clavator and 
obtusatus, differing essentially from any of the continental types ; and in 
the Seychelle Islands are two, B.fulvicans and velutinus, partaking in 
some measure of the smaller Natal species. In Mauritius there is only 
one small ground species, B. clavulinus. 



1. Abyssinicus, Hupp. 

2. abyssoruni, D'Orb. 

3. Ackatinaceus, Pfr. 

4. acuminatus, Sow. 

5. acutus, Miill. 

6. Adamsii, Reeve. 

7. Adamsoni, Gray. 

8. Adansoni, Pfr. 



Species. 

9. adoptus, Reeve. 

10. iEgle, Brod. 

11. affinis, id. 

12. Africanus, Reeve. 

13. albatus, Per. 

14. albicans, Brod. 

15. albizonatus, Reeve. 

16. Alepi, Per. 



17. Alto- Peruvianus, Rve. 

18. alternans, Beck. 

19. alutaceus, Reeve. 

20. ambustus, id. 

21. Andicola, Pfr. 

22. angiostoma, Wagner. 

23. angulatus, id. 

24. Antoni, Pfr. 



230 



25. aplomorphus, Jonas. 71. 

26. apodemetes, If Orb. 72. 

27. aquilus, Reeve. 73. 

28. arcuatus, Pfr. 74. 

29. astrapoides, Jonas. 75. 

30. atomatus, Gray. 76. 

31. atricallosus, Gould. 77. 

32. auratus, Pfr. 78. 
3 3 . auripigmentum, Reeve. 7 9 . 

34. auris-bovina, Lam. 80. 

35. auris-leporis, id. 81. 

36. auris-Midae, Chemn. 82. 

37. auris muris, Mor. 83. 

38. auris-Sileiii, Born. 84. 

39. auris-vulpina, Chemn. 85. 

40. bacterionides, J)' Orb. 86. 

41. badiosa, Fer. 87. 

42. badius, Soto. 88. 

43. baeticatus, Fer. 

44. Baliiensis, Moric. 

45. Bairdii, Reeve. 

46. balanoides, Jonas. 

47. barbarus, Zm«. 

48. Bengalensis, Lam. 

49. Benguelensis, P/>* 

50. Bensoiii, Reeve. 

51. Bergeri, P/}\ 

52. Bertkeloti, id. 

53. bicolor, Sow. 

54. bidenSj Krynicki. 

55. bicoloratus, Zea. 

56. bilabiatus,P/W.^&w. 102 

57. bifulguratus, Reeve. 103 

58. bilineatus, Sow. 

59. bivittatus, zV/. 

60. Blainvilleanus, Pfr 

61. Boholensis, Brod. 

62. Boissieri, Moric. 

63. Bolivianus, P/r. 

64. Boliviauus, zg?. 

65. Bontias, Chemn. 

66. Boysianus, Benson. 

67. breviculus, P/h 
6S. Bridgesii, id. 

69. Broderipii, /SW>. 

70. bullula, Brod. 



89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 



104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 



Burchellii, Gray. 117. 

Cacticolus, Reeve. 118. 

calcareus, Born. 119. 

Caledonicus, Petit. 120. 

Californicus, Reeve. 121. 

caliginosus, id. 122. 

Calista, Brod. 123. 

calvus, Sow. 124. 

Calypso, Brod. 125. 

camel opardalis, id. 126. 

cnnaliculatus, Pfr. 127. 

candelarisj id. 128. 

cantatus, Reeve. 129. 

Cantorii, Philippi. 130. 
Caraccasensis, Reeve. 131. 

carneus, P//\ 132. 

castaneus, w?. 133. 

castrensis, id. 134. 

castus, id. 135. 

ceratinus, Benson. 136. 

cereus, Reeve. 137. 

cerussatus, ^e?. 138. 

Ceylanicus, P/h 139. 

Chersonesicus, Soto. 140. 

Chilensis, Lesson. 141. 
Chimborasensis, Pre. 142. 

cliloris, w£. 143. 
chiysalidifonnis, Sow.l4>4s. 

chrysalis, Pfr. 145. 

cincinniformis, Sow. 146. 

cincinnus, ic?. 147. 

cinereus, Reeve. 148. 
cinnamomeo-liiieatus, 149. 
citrino-vitreus, Moric. 150. 

citrinus, Brug. 151. 

Clausilioides, Reeve. 152. 

clava, w?. 153. 

clavator, Pe^Y. 154. 

clavulinus, Potiez. 155. 

coagulatus, Reeve. 156. 

coarctatus, P//\ 157. 

cochleades, id. 158. 

ccelebs, Benson. 159. 

ccenopictus, Mutton. 160. 

coloratus, iV^s^. 161. 

columella, Philippi. 162. 



columellaris, Reeve. 
compactus, Pn'w. 
concentricus, Reeve. 
concinuus, Sow. 
confinis, Reeve. 
confusus, id. 
coiiiformis, Pfr. 
connivens, Reeve. 
conspersus, Sow. 
constrictus, Pfr. 
contiguus, Reeve. 
contortuplicatus, id. 
conulus, id. 
Coquimbensis, Sow. 
corneus, id. 
corouatus, Pfr. 
Cosensis, Reeve. 
costatus, Pfr. 
coturnix, Sow. 
crassilabris, Gray. 
crepundia, J? Orb. 
Cretensis, Pfr. 
Criclitoni, Brod. 
crystallinus, Reeve. 
culmineus, JfOrb. 
Cumingii, Pfr. 
cuncator, Reeve. 
Curianensis, id. 
Cuyoensis, Pfr. 
Cuzcoensis, Reeve. 
cyclostoma, id. 
cylindricus, Gray. 
cymatilis, Reeve. 
dactylus, Brod. 
Daplmis, id. 
Dardanus, Friv. 
Darwinii, Pfr. 
dealbatus, Say. 
deceptus, Reeve. 
decollatus, Linn. 
decoloratus, Sow. 
decorticatus, Reeve. 
decussatus, id. 
delumbis, id. 
demotus, id. 
Denisoni, id. 



231 



163. dentatus, King. 

164. depstus, Reeve. 

165. depictus, id. 

166. derelictus, Brocl. 

167. Deskayesii, Pfr. 

168. detritus, Miill. 

169. Diana, Brod. 

170. digitale, Reeve. 

171. dilatatus, P/r. 

172. discrepans, #cw. 

173. distortus, Pray. 

174. Doinbeyanus, Per. 

175. Dominicus, Reeve. 

176. Downesii, Gray. 

177. Draparnaudi, Pfr. 

178. Dryas, Pra^. 

179. Dufresnii, Leach. 

180. Dunkeri, P/r. 

181. durus, Spix. 

182. Dussumieri, ? 

183. Dysoni, Pfr. 

184. eburneus, id. 

185. effeminatus, Reeve. 

186. effusus, P//\ 

187. egregius, id. 

188. Ehrenbergi, ?<?. 

189. electricus, Reeve. 

190. electrum, id. 

191. elegans, P/r. 

192. elongatulus, id. 

193. eous, Reeve. 

194. erectus, «'<?. 

195. eremita, Benson. 

196. erosus, Prac?. 

197. erubescens, Pfr. 

198. erythrostotna, #o#?. 

199. eschariferus, id. 
190. Euboicus, Reeve. 

201. euiyomphalus, Jcwcis 

202. evanescens, Brod. 

203. exesus, ^o?>. 

204. exiguus, Reeve. 

205. exilis, Gmelin. 

206. exomatus, Reeve. 

207. fabrifactus, «'<#. 

208. fasciolatus, 0&>. 



209. Faunus, Brod. 

210. Favanii, Z«w. 

211. fenestratus, Pfr. 

212. feriatus, Reeve. 

213. ferrugineus, iflf. 

214. Ferussaci, Bunker. 

215. fictilis, Pra^. 

216. fidustus, Reeve. 

217. flammeus, Miill. 

218. folliculus, P//\ 

219. formosus, Gray. 

220. Forskalii, Pec&. 

221. foveolatus, Reeve. 

222. fragosus, Per. 

223. frater, tf. 

224. fraterculus, id. 

225. Frivaldskyi, P/r. 

226. fucatus, Reeve. 

227. fulgetrum, Brod. 

228. fulguratus, Jffy. 

229. fuhninans, Nyst. 

230. fulvicans, P//\ 
■231. Funckii, Nyst. 

232. fuscagula, Br Orb. 

233. fusiformis, Rang. 

234. fusoides, P'Ora. 

235. gallina-sultana, Pm 

236. gas tram, Ehrenberg. 

237. gelidus, Reeve. 

238. geometricus, P/>. 

239. gibber, Krynicki. 

240. Gibbonius, Zm. 

241. gilvus, Soto. 

242. glaber, Gmelin. 

243. glandiformis, P#z. 

244. glonieratus, Reeve. 

245. goniostoma, Per. 

246. Goodallii, Miller. 

247. Gossei, Pfr. 

248. Goudoti, Prf#. 

249. gracilis, Hutton. 

250. gracillimus, P/r. 

251. Granadensis, id. 

252. granulosus, Rang. 

253. Grateloupi, P/>\ 

254. Grayanus, id. 



255. gregarius, Adms. Sf R. 

256. Griffithsii, Benson. 

257. Gruneri, P/h 

258. Guadaloupensis,Pray. 

259. Guerini, Pfr. 

260. Guildingii, id. 

261. Guimarasensis, Prac?. 

262. Guineensis, Jonas. 

263. guttatus, Prat?. 

264. Hachensis, Reeve. 

265. Hamiltoni, «'<#. 

266. Hanleyi, Pfr. 

267. harpa, id. 

268. harpa, ic?. 

269. Harrisii, Reeve. 

270. Hartwegii, P//\ 

271. Hegewischi, id. 

272. Helena, Quoy. 

273. Hennalii, Gray. 

274. heterotriclius, Mor. 

275. Hindsii, P/r. 

276. Hohenackeri, Kryn. 

277. holostoma, Pfr. 

278. Hondurasanus, z'<5?. 

279. Huascensis, Reeve. 

280. Humboldtii, i& 

281. hygrokylseus, D'Orb. 

282. ignavus, Reeve. 

283. immaculatus, Adams. 

284. imperator, P/r. 

285. impressus, Reeve. 

286. Inca, D'Ora. 

287. incoinptus, Sow. 

288. inliatus, Lamarck. 

289. inglorius, Reeve. 

290. interstinctus, Gould. 

291. inutilis, Reeve. 

292. irregidaris, P/r. 

293. irroratus, Reeve. 

294. Jacobi, £ow. 

295. Jamaicensis, Reeve. 

296. Janeirensis, &w. 

297. Jayanus, Ze«. 

298. Jerdoni, Benson. 

299. Jonasi, P/>. 

300. juglans, u£ 



232 



301. 
302. 
303. 
304. 
305. 
306. 
307. 
308. 
309. 
310. 
311. 
312. 
313. 
314. 
315. 
316. 
317. 
318. 
319. 
320. 
321. 
322. 
323. 
324. 
325. 
326. 
327. 
328. 
329. 
330. 
331. 
332. 
333. 
334. 
335. 
336. 
337. 
338. 
339. 
340. 
341. 
342. 
343. 
344. 
345. 
346. 



Jussieui, Val. 
Kellettii, Reeve. 
Kieneri, Pfr. 
Kingii, Gray. 
Knorri, Pfr. 
Kraussi, id. 



347. 
348. 
349. 

350. 
351. 
352. 



Kunawurensis, Hutt. 353. 

labeo, Brod. 354. 

labiosus, Mull. 355. 

labrosus, Oliv. 356. 

lactarius, Menke. 357. 

lacunosus, B'Orb. 358. 

laetus, Reeve. 359. 

laevus, Mull. 360. 

Laniarekianus, Pfr. 361. 
Largi Uiertii, Pk ilippi. 362. 

latcbricola, Ben-son.. 363. 

latireflexus, Reeve. 364. 

Lattrei, Pfr. 365. 

Laurentii, Sow. 366. 

Leai, Pfr. 367. 

lemniscatus, Desk. 368. 

leopardus, Pfr. 369. 

leucodon, id. 370. 

leucophaeus, Soto. 371. 

Liberianus, Reeve. 372. 

lichenorum, !)' Orb. 373. 

ligaarius, Pfr. 374. 

lilacinus, Reeve. 375. 

liliaceus, Guilding. 376. 

Limensis, Reeve. 377. 

limonoicus, J)' Orb. 378. 

linearis, Krauss. 379. 

lineatus, Spix. 380. 

linostoma, B'Orb. 381. 

liquabilis, Reeve. 382. 

lithoicus, B'Orb. 383. 

litus, Per. ' 384. 

livescens, Br. 385. 

lividus, Reeve. 386. 

Lobbii, id. 387. 

Loewii, PJiiUppi. 388. 

Loxensis, P/r. 389. 

lucidus, Reeve. 390. 

lubricus, Jfw'W. 391. 

Luzonicus, Sow. 392. 



Lycicus, P//\ 393. 

Lynmoides, Lamarck. 39 4. 
Lyonnetianus, P«//«s.395. 
inacilentus, Reeve. 396. 
macrostoma, P/>*. 397. 
maculatus, Xm. 398. 

maculiferus, Brod. 399. 
malleatus, Jay. 400. 

Manoelii, lfo?\ 401. 

manupictus, Reeve. 402. 
marmarinus, B'Orb. 403. 
Martinicensis, P/>\ 404. 
mavortius, Reeve. 405. 
maximus, /Sow. 406. 

Meiacoshiniensis, Ad- 407. 
melanocheilus, i\fys£. 408. 
melanostoma, Swain. 409. 
melo, Quoy. 410. 

membranaceus, P/«7. 411. 
Merduenianus, Kryn. 412. 
Meridanus, P//\ 413. 
ineridionalis, id. 414. 

Mexicanus, Lam. 415. 
mirra, B'Orb. 416. 

micra, «W. 417. 

Miersii, /Sew. 418. 

Milleri, id. 419. 

miltocheilus, Reeve. 420. 
Mimosarum, Bi'Orb. 421. 
Mindoroensis, ^ro<^. 422. 
minimus, Adams. 423. 
mirabilis, w£ 424. 

modestus, Brod. 425. 
mollicellus, Reeve. 426. 
monilifer, P/>. 427. 

moniliferus, Gould. 428. 
monozonus, P/r. 429. 
Montagnei, B'Orb. 430. 
montanus, Brap. 431. 
Monte-Vidensis, P/K432. 
montivagus, B'Orb. 433. 
Moricandi, P/h 434. 

Moriizianus, «V. 435. 

Mozambicensis, id. 436. 
muliebris, Reeve. 437. 
multicolor, ifawy. 438. 



multifasciatus, Lam. 
murrinus, Reeve. 
mus, Brod. 
mutilatus, Reeve. 
myristicus, id. 
nanus, id. 
Natalensis, Krauss. 
navicula, Wagn. 
neglectus, Pfr. 
neuricus, Reeve. 
nigrofasciatus, Pfr. 
nigropileatus, Reeve. 
, nigrilineatus, id. 
Nilagaricus, Pfr. 
nimbosus, Brod. 
nitelinus, Reeve. 
nitidulus, Pfr. 
nitidus, Brod. 
nivicola, Benson. 
nobilis, Reeve. 
nucinus, id. 
nucleus, Sow. 
Numidicus, Reeve. 
nux, Brod. 
Nympha, Pfr. 
obeliscus, Mor. 
obesatus, Per. 
obliquus, Reeve. 
oblongus, Midi. 
obscurus, id. 
obtusatus, Gmel. 
obtusus, Brap. 
occultus, Reeve. 
octonoides, Adams. 
odontostoma, Gray. 
olivaceus, Pfr. 
Olivieri, id. 
onager, Beck. 
onca, B'Orb. 
opalinus, Sow. 
Oparanus, Pfr. 
Orbignii, id. 
Oreades, B'Orb. 
oiyza, Bmg. 
ovatus, Midi. 
ovoideus, Britg. 



233 



439. ovulum, Reeve. 485. 

440. pallens, Jonas. 486. 

441. pallidior, Sow. 487. 

442. Panamensis, Brod. 488. 

443. Panayensis, Pfr. 489. 

444. Pantagruelinus, Mor. 490. 

445. papyraceus, Mawe. 491. 

446. partialis, Fer. 492. 

447. Partuloides, Brod. 493. 

448. patricius, Reeve. 494, 

449. pauperculus, Adams. 495. 

450. Pazianus, B'Orb. 496. 

451. pellucidus, Pfr. 497. 

452. penipliigodes, Jonas. 498. 

453. Pentlandi, Reeve. 499. 

454. perdix, Pfr. 500. 

455. perspective, Pfr. 501. 

456. Peruvianus, Brug. 502. 

457. pessulatus, Reeve. 503. 

458. Petiti, P/h 504. 

459. Pfeifferianus, Reeve. 505. 

460. phasianellus, Vol. 506. 

461. Philippinensis, Pfr. 507. 

462. Philippii, Pfr. 508. 

463. pictor, P/W. 509. 

464. Physoides, Menke. 510. 

465. pintadinus, If Orb. 511. 

466. piperatus, Sow. 512. 

467. planideris, Mich. 513. 

468. plectostylus, P/a 414. 

469. pcecilus, D'Orb. 515. 

470. politus, Reeve. 516. 

471. polygyratus, id. 517. 

472. Popelairianus, Nyst. 518. 

473. porphyrias, P//\ 519. 

474. Powisianus, Petit. 520. 

475. prsetextus, Reeve. 521. 

476. pretiosus, Cantor. 522. 

477. primula, Reeve. 523. 

478. primularis, it?. 524. 

479. proximus, Sow. 525. 

480. pruinosus, id. 526. 

481. p seudo-Succmea,ilfor . 527. 

482. pubescens, Mor. 528. 

483. pudicus, Linn. 529. 
1S4. puellaris, Reeve. 530. 



pulicarius, Reeve. 531 

pullus, Crmy. 582 

pulverulentus, P/h 533 

punctatus, Anton. 534 
puiictulatissimus,Zess. 5 3 5 

puuctulifer, Soto. 536 

pupa, I«. 537 

Pupiformis, Brod. 538 

Pupoides, ^a?. 539. 

purpuratus, Reeve. 540. 

pustulosus, Brod. 541. 

pyramidalis, -SW. 542. 

pytliogaster, Per. 543. 

quadricolor, P// - . 544. 

quadrideus, Midi. 545. 
quinquedentatus, P/r. 54 6. 

Quitensis, id. 547. 

Eecluzianus, id. 548. 

recouditus, Reeve. 549. 

rcdditus, i^. 550. 

Reevii, Pra(/. 551. 

reflexus, Pfr. 552. 

regiua, F&. 553. 

reticulatus, Reeve. 554. 

rhodacme, P/>'. 555. 

rliodocheilus, Reeve. 556. 

rhodolarynx, ic?. 557. 

rhodostoma, Gray. 558. 

rimatus, P/r. 559. 

ringens, Bunker. 560. 

Rivasii, D'Or5. 561. 

Pornblonensis, Pfr. 562. 

rosaceus, King. 563. 

roseatus, Reeve. 564. 

Rossmassleri, P/r. 565. 

rubrifasciatus, Peeve. 566. 

rudis, Anton. 567. 

rufistrigatus, Benson. 568. 

rufogaster, Lesson. 569. 

rufo-niger, Per. 570. 

rugatus, Reeve. 571. 

rugiferus, $cw. 572. 

rugulosus, id. 573. 

rupestris, PAz7. 574. 

rupicolus, Reeve. 575. 

Euppellianus, P/r. 576. 



rusticus, Mousson. 
Salleanus, Reeve. 
Sandwicensis, Pfr. 
sarcodes, Pfr. 
Satyms, Brod. 
Sayi, Pfr. 
scabiosus, Sow. 
. Scalariforniis, Brod. 
Scalarioides, Reeve. 
Schiedeanus, Pfr. 
scitidus, Reeve. 
sculpturatus, Pfr. 
scutulatus, Brod. 
seductilis, Pfr. 
segregatus, Benson. 
serperastrus, Sag. 
sex-dentatus, Spix. 
Shongi, Lesson. 
Sidouiensis, Fer. 
signatus, Wagn. 
signatus, Sow. 
Sikkirnensis, Reeve. 
simplex, Jonas. 
Sindicus, Benson. 
sinistralis, Reeve. 
Siquijorensis, Pfr. 
smaragdinus, Reeve. 
Socotrensis, Pfr. 
solidus, id. 
solitarius, Poiret. 
sohvagus, Reeve. 
solutus, Troschel. 
sordidus, Lesson. 
sordidus, id. 
Sowerbyi, Pfr. 
spadiceus, Menke. 
spectatus, Reeve. 
spectralis, id. 
Spixii, Wagn. 
spoliatus, Parreyss. 
sporadicus, D'Orb. 
Sprattii, Pfr. 
spretus, Reeve. 
stabilis, Sow. 
stramineus, Guild. 
striatus. King. 
2 ii 



234 



577. strigatus, Sow. 607. 

578. Studeri, Pfr. 608. 

579. subcarinatus, id. 609. 

580. subdiapkanus King . 610. 

581. subsemiclausus, Pet. 611. 

582. subtilis, Rossmassler. 612. 

583. subula, Pfr. G13. 

584. subulifonnis, Movie. 614. 

585. succinctus, Reeve. 615. 

586. Succinoides, Petit. 616. 

587. suffusus, Reeve. 617. 

588. sulcosus, Pfr. 618. 

589. Sylheticus, Reeve. 619. 

590. Sylvanus, Brod. 620. 

591. sylvaticus, Wagner. 621. 

592. Syriacus, Pfr. 622. 

593. tfeniolus, Nyst. 623. 

594. Taunaysii, Per. 624. 

595. Tauricus, Lang. 625. 

596. Taylorianus, Reeve. 626. 

597. tenebricus, /V/. 627. 

598. tenuissimus, Per. 628. 

599. tepidulus, Reeve. 629. 

600. terebella, Adams. 630. 

601. terebrans, Pfr. 631. 

602. terebraster, iVr. 632. 

603. thanmoicus, D'Orb. 633. 

604. Tbompsoni, Pfr. 634. 

605. Ticabnicus, Brod. 635. 

606. tigris, Brod. 636. 



torridus, Gould. 637. 
Touniefortianus, .FeT. 638. 

translucens, 2??ym7. 639. 

transparens, Reeve. 640. 

tribalteatus, Reeve. 641. 

trichodes, Z)'0>-6. 642. 

tricinctus, Reeve. 643. 

tridens, I?rM^. 644. 

trifasciatus, Chemn. 645. 

trilineatus, Qmoj/. 646. 

trilineatus, id. 647. 

truncatus, Pfr. 648. 

Tuckeri, F/X 649. 

tumefactus, Reeve. 650. 

tumid ulus, Pfr. 651. 

Tunetanus, Reeve. 652. 

Tupacii, D'CM. 653. 

turbinatus, Zm, 654. 

turricula, Pfr. 655. 

turriformisj Krauss. 656. 

turritella, D'CM. (557. 

turritus, Brod. 658. 

tutulus, Benson.. 659. 

uber, P/)\ 660. 

umbilicaris, Soul. 661. 

umbraticus, Reeve. 662. 

undulatus, Guild. 6C3. 

unicarinatus, Z«;m. 664. 

uni color, /SW. 665. 

unidentatus, id. 666. 



unifasciatus, $w. 
ustulatus, id. 
vaviatus, Webb 8f Ber. 
varians, Brod. 
Varnensis, Friv. 
velatus, Brod. 
velutinus, Pfr. 
venosus, Reeve. 
ventricosus, Drap. 
ventrosus, Per. 
Veranyi, Pfr. 
verecundus, Reeve. 
versicolor, Brod. 
vibex, Hutton. 
viniineus, Mor. 
Vincentinus, Pfr. 
virens, id. 
virgulatus, Per. 
vittatus, Spix. 
Voithianus, Pfr. 
Wagneri, id. 
Woodianus, Lea. 
xantliostoma, D'Orb. 
Yungasensis, id. 
zebra, Mull. 
zebriolus, Per. 
Ziebmanni, PJr. 
Ziegleri, id. 
zonulatus, id. 
zoographicus, D'Orb. 



Figures. 

Bulimus kosaceus. PL H. Fig. 1 . Shell, with animal, showing its spe- 
cific characteristic of red granulations, and two pairs of tentacles, the 
lower being always the shorter. 

Bulimus oblongus. PL H. Fig. 2. Shell, with animal, showing the 
skin to be still granulated, but of the same uniform colour. 

Bulimus onca.. PL 21. Pig. 116. A fine Bolivian species, discovered 
by M. D'Orbigny in a deep ravine near Tutulima, on the north-east 
side of the Eastern Cordilleras. 



235 



Genus 8. HELIX, Linnceus. 

Animal ; similar to that of Bulimus. 

Shell ; globose or orbicularly depressed, mostly smooth, generally 

covered with an epidermis ; spire rather obtuse, but little raised ; 

aperture transverse ; lip mostly reflected. 

Little can be said of this genus that has not been said already in speak- 
ing of Bulimus. The animal is the same. The form of shell which it 
includes, namely, all that are globose or orbicularly depressed, embraces 
about twice as many species in number, but a much larger proportion that 
are small. Dr. PfeifFer enumerates 1,674 species, including thirty-one of 
the type Streptaxis and four of Tomigerus, and some additions have since 
been made to this number in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 
But his list comprises many that have not been verified by observation, 
and I shall therefore content myself by quoting the 1,500 species which I 
have examined, described, and figured in the f Conchologia Tconica.' 

The remarks on the geographical distribution of the Bulimi apply very 
generally to the Helices, except that they have a more extended range to 
the north. The proportion of Helices to Bulimi in the United States and 
adjacent territories of North America is as 79 to 11, while in the particular 
State of Massachusetts, whose isothermal parallel of temperature is that of 
Scotland, there are sixteen Helices and no Bulimus but the B. lubricus, 
which is an abnormal form of the genus, separated, with reason, by British 
authors under the name of Zua. 



1. abjecta, Lowe. 

2. abnormis, Pfr. 

3. acies, Parts. 

4. actinophora, Lowe. 

5. acuducta, Bei/s. 

6. aculeata, Mull. 

7. acuminata, Pfr. 

8. acuta, Lam. 

9. acutimargo, Pfr. 

10. Adansoni, Webb. 

11. adusta, Soto. 

12. adusta, Hinds. 

13. ad vena, Webb. 

14. aegrotus, Reeve. 

15. eemula, Rossm. 

16. senea, Krauss. 



Species. 

17. aeruginosa, Pfr. 

18. afficta, Per. 

19. Af'ricana, Pfr. 

20. Aglaja, id. 

21. agreabilis, Zieg. 

22. alabastrites, Mich. 

23. alauda, Per. 

24. Albaiensis, Sow. 

25. Albanica, Zirg. 

26. Albersi, Pfr. 

27. albicans, id. 

28. albidens, Bens. 

29. albolabris, Say. 

30. Alexandri, Gray. 

31. algira, Linn. 

32. alliaria, Mill. 



33. alligans, Adams. 

34. Alonensis, Per. 

35. alpina, Bign. 

36. alternata, Say. 

37. alveus, Adams. 

38. Amazonica, Pfr. 

39. anibigua, Adams. 

40. amicta, Reeve. 

41. ammoniformis, J)' Orb. 

42. Ammonitoides, Reeve. 

43. ammonoceras, Pfr. 

44. ampulla, Bens. 

45. ampullarioides, Reeve. 

46. anaglyptica, id. 

47. anceps, Gould. 

48. Andicola, Pfr. 

2h2 



236 



49. 


angigyra, Ziey. 


95. 


50. 


angistoma, Fer. 


96. 


51. 


anguiculus, Reeve. 


97. 


52. 


angulata, Fer. 


98. 


53. 


angustata, id. 


99. 


54. 


angustispira, Adams. 


100. 


55. 


Annatonensis, Pfr. 


101. 


56. 


annulata, Soto. 


102. 


57. 


annulifera, Pfr. 


103. 


58. 


anomala, Adams. 


104. 


59. 


Antkouiana, id. 


105. 


60. 


antiqua, Ad. and live. 


106. 


61. 


antiquorum, Leach. 


107. 


62. 


aperta, Born. 


108. 


63. 


apex, Adams. 


109. 


64. 


apia, Homb. 


110. 


65. 


appendiculata, Pfr. 


111. 


66. 


appressa, Say. 


112. 


67. 


apicina, Lam. 


113. 


68. 


approximata, Le Guill 


.114. 


69. 


apnea, Krauss. 


115. 


70. 


Arabica, Terv. 


116. 


71. 


arata, Sow. 


117. 


72. 


arboreoides, Adams. 


118. 


73. 


arborea, Say. 


119. 


74. 


arbustorum, Linn. 


120. 


75. 


arcta, Lowe. 


121. 


76. 


arctispira, Pfr. 


122. 


77. 


arcuata, id. 


123. 


78. 


areolata, Sow. 


124. 


79. 


argentea, Reeve. 


125. 


80. 


argillacea, Fer. 


126. 


81. 


argonautula, Webb. 


127. 


82. 


arietina, Rossm. 


128. 


83. 


Armeniaca, Pfr. 


129. 


84. 


Armida, id. 


130. 


85. 


armillata, Lowe. 


131. 


86. 


Armitageana, Lowe. 


132. 


87. 


arridens, Loioe. 


133. 


88. 


aspera, Fer. 


134. 


89. 


asperella, Pfr. 


135. 


90. 


aspersa, Mull. 


136. 


91. 


atrata, Pfr. 


137. 


92. 


atrolabiata, Kryn. 


138. 


93. 


Atropos, Fer. 


139. 


94. 


attrita, Lowe. 


140. 



Auberi, Pi Orb. 141. 

Audebardi, Pfr. 142. 

Audouinii, Pi Orb. 143. 

aulacospira, Pfr. 144. 

aulica, id. 145. 

aurata, Sow. 146. 

auricoma, Fer. 147. 

auriculata, Say. 148. 

auriculina, Petit. 149. 

auridens, Rang. 150. 

auris, Pfr. 151. 

australis, Menke. 152. 

a vara, Say. 153. 

avellana, Fer. 154. 

avus, Pfr. 155. 

Baconi, Bens. 156. 

Bactriana, Hutt. 157. 
badia, Fer. . 158. 

Bahamensis, Pfr. 159. 

Bainbridgii, id. 160. 

Bajadera, id. 161. 

Balmei, Potiez. 162. 

baltcata, Sow. 163. 

Banatica, Parts. 164. 

barbatula, Reeve. 165. 

barbula, Charp. 166. 
Barrakporensis, Pfr. 167. 

Baskervillei, id. 168. 

Bataviana, Busch. 169. 

Beckiana, Pfr. 170. 

Belangeri, Desk. 171. 

Belcberi, Pfr. 172. 

bella, id. 173. 
Berlanderiana, Mor. 174. 

Bermudensis, Pfr. 175. 

Berytensis, Fer. 176. 

Besckei, Bunk. 177. 
Bethencourtiana, SM.11S. 

biangulata, Pfr. 179. 

bicallosa, Friv. 180. 

bicarmata, Soto. 181. 

biconcava, Pfr. 182. 

bicostata, id. 183. 

bidens, Chemn. 184. 
bidenticulata, Bens. 185. 

bifasciata, Burr. 186. 



bifrons, Lowe. 
bifuvcata, Desli. 
bigonia, Fer. 
bilamellata, Pfr. 
bilineata, id. 
Birmeyana, id. 
bipartita, Fer. 
bisculpta, Bens. 
bistrialis, Beck. 
bisulcata, Pfr. 
bituberculata, id. 
Blandiana, Adams. 
Bogotensis, Pfr. 
Boliolensis, id. 
Boissieri, Charp. 
Boivini, Petit. 
Bombayana, Grat. 
bombycina, Pfr. 
Boiqilandi, Lam. 
Bootbiana, Pfr. 
Borneensis, id. 
Bornii, Chemn. 
Bourcieri, Pfr. 
bracliyodon, Sow. 
Brardiana, Pfr. 
Brasiliana, Desh. 
brevidens, Sow. 
brevior, Adams. 
brevipila, Pfr. 
brevis, Adams. 
Bridwilli, Pfr. 
Broderipii, id. 
Bronni, id. 
Brookei, Ad. $f Rve. 
Bruguieriana, Pfr. 
Briuneriensis, Forbes. 
brunnea, Anton. 
buccinella, Pfr. 
Bucbi, Bubois. 
Buddiana, Adams. 
BuiFoniana, Pfr. 
bulla, id. 
bullacea, id. 
bidlula, Hutton. 
Bulweriana, Lowe. 
buonoba3iia, Pi Orb. 



237 



187. biirsatella, Gould. 

188. Busbyi, Gray. 

189. Buschi, Pfr. 

190. Butleri, id. 

191. cacuminifera, Bens. 

192. caduca, Pfr. 

193. caducior, Reeve. 

194. casrulans, Miililf. 

195. cadatura, PeV. 

196. Caffra, id. 

197. Cailliaudi, Pes/;. 

198. calamecliroa, Jonas. 

199. calcarea, P/r. 

200. calculus, id. 

201. Califoruiensis, Lea. 

202. caliginosa, /^J. $* R. 

203. caUifera, P/a 

204. calva, Lowe. 

205. campanula, P/) - . 

206. Campbelli, Gray. 

207. campecina, E:q. 

208. Candaliarica, P/h 

209. candicans, Zieg. 

210. candidissima, Drap. 

211. candidula, #£?«^. 

212. canescens, Ad. fy R. 

213. Cantiana, Mont. 

214. Capensis, P//\ 

215. caperata, Mont. 

216. capitanea, P/)\ 

217. capitium, Bens. 

218. caput-spinulse, Reeve. 

219. cava, Adams. 

220. Carascalensis, Per. 

221. carbonaria, /So?/?. 

222. Carica, Roth. 

223. cariosa, Ottv. 

224. cariosula, i^'c^. 

225. Carmelita, Fir. 

226. carneola, P/r. 

227. camicolor, Fer. 

228. carocolla, Linn. 

229. Caroni, Pes£. 

230. Carseolana, Fer. 

231. Cartlmsiana, Mm??. 

232. Cassiquiensis, Newc. 



233. casta, Pfr. 

234. castra, Benson. 

235. catenifera, P/>. 

236. Catlicartse, Reeve. 

237. Cayenneusis, P//\ 

238. Cecillea, Phil. 

239. Celinde, Gray. 

240. cellaria, Mutter. 

241. cepa, i<#. 

242. cepoides, Lea. 

243. ceraria, Benson. 

244. ceratodes, P/r. 

245. cereolus, Miihl. 

246. Ceres, P/V. 

247. ceroides, id. 

248. cespitum, Drap. 

249. cestus, Benson. 

250. Ceylanica, P/h 

251. chalieoplnla, D'Orb. 

252. Charpentieri, P/r. 

253. Chastellii, Fer. 

254. cheiranthicola, Pozoe. 

255. Chemnitziana, Pfr. 

256. Chenui, ze?. 

257. Chiliensis, Miihl. 

258. Chinensis, Phil. 

259. Chiron, Gray. 

260. Chittyana, Adams. 

261. chlorochroa, £cw. 

262. chlorotica, Pfr. 

263. chlorozona, Grat. 

264. chrysoclieila, -Sb?y. 

265. chrysomela, Pfr. 

266. cicatricosa, lf«??. 

267. cidaris, Lam. 

268. ciliata, Venetz. 

269. cirnex, P/>. 

270. cincinnus, Sow. 

271. cinctella, Dray. 

272. cinerascens, Pfr. 

273. cingulata, Stud. 

274. cingulella, Z/ey. 

275. cinnamomea, Valenc. 

276. Circe, P/r. 

277. circulus, id. 

278. eircumdata, Fer. 



279. circumfirmata, Pee?. 

280. circumlineata, Kust. 

281. circumornata, Per. 

282. circumsessa, Shuttl. 

283. citrina, Linn. 

284. Clairvilba, Per. 

285. clathratula, Pfr. 

286. clausa, Rafin. 

287. Cleryi, Pec?. 

288. climacterica, Bens. 

289. Clymeue, /S7«tf«. 

290. coactiliata, Fer. 

291. Cobresiana, ^e». 

292. codonodes, Pfr. 

293. Codringtoni, Gray. 

294. cognata, Per. 

295. collodes, Sow. 

296. collyrula, Reeve. 

297. coluber, Pec&. 

298. columbaria, Sow. 

299. Columbiana, Pra. 

300. columellata, Adams. 

301. coma, Gray. 

302. compacta, Lowe. 

303. compar, id. 

304. complanata, Pes/z. 

305. compressa, Zieg. 

306. compressivoluta, P»e. 

307. concavospira, Pfr. 

308. concisa, Fer. 

309. concolor, zY?. 

310. conformis, id. 

311. conicoides, JPe?e. 

312. coniformis, Fer. 

313. connectens, Adams. 

314. connivens, P/h 

315. conoidalis, Ad. 8f R. 

316. conomphala, Pfr. 

317. consanguinea, ^. 

318. consobrina, Fer. 

319. consona, Zieg. 

320. consors, iowe. 

321. conspersula, Pfr. 

322. conspurcata, Prajs. 

323. Constantina, Forbes. 

324. constricta, Pfr. 



238 



325. consul, Pfr. 371. 

326. contermina, Shattl. 372. 

327. continua, Pfr. 373. 

328. contorta, Fer. 374. 

329. conus, Phil. 375. 

330. convexa, Rafin. 376. 

331. Cookiana, Gmel. 377. 

332. Corcyrensis, Part. 378. 

333. Coreanica, Ad. ^ R. 379. 

334. Coresia, Gray. 380. 

335. coriaria, Pfr. 381. 

336. cornea, Drap. 382. 

337. corneo-virens, Pfr. 383. 

338. cornicidum, id. 384. 

339. cornu-gigantcum, C%. 3S5. 

340. cornu-militaris, Linn. 386. 

341. coronata, Desk. 387. 

342. corylus, Reeve. 3S8. 
443. cosmia, P/>\ 389. 

344. costata, Mull. 390. 

345. costellata, D'Orb. 391. 

346. costulata, Zieg. 392. 

347. costulifera, Pfr. 393. 

348. cotyledonis, P<?«s. 394. 

349. crassicostata, id. 395. 

350. crassidens, Pfr. 396. 

351. crassilabris, id. 397. 

352. crebriflamrnea, id. 398. 

353. cretata, P/-o^. 399. 

354. Cretica, Fer. 400. 

355. crinigera, Bens. 401. 

356. crispata, Per. 402. 

357. Croatica, Part. 403. 

358. cromyodes, P//\ 404. 

359. cruentata, Guild. 405. 

360. cryptica, Brod. 406. 

361. Cubensis, Pfr. 407. 

362. Cumberlandiana, LeaA08. 

363. Cumingii, P//\ 409. 

364. cumulus, id. 410. 

365. Cunninghami, Gray. 411. 

366. curta, Sow. 412. 

367. curvidens, P/r. 413. 

368. curvilabrum, Ad. 8f R. 414, 

369. cuticula, Shattl. 415, 

370. Cuvieriana, Lea. 416. 



cyathellus, Pfr. 
cyathus, id. 
cyclodon, Webb. 
cyclopax, Bens. 
cygnea, id. 
Cyparissias, Parr. 
Cypria, Pfr. 
cysis, Bens. 
dealbata, Lowe. 
decipiens, Sow. 
decora, Ad. and Rve. 
decorata, Pfr. 
dccussata, Bens. 
Delvnei, Rossm. 
deflexa, Pfr. 
delibrata, Gould. 
delphinula, Lowe. 
demissa, Binn. 
Dennisoni, Pfr. 
densa, Ad. and R. 
dentiens, Fe'r. 
denudata, Rossm. 
depauperata, Lowe. 
depilata, C. Pfr. 
depressula, Parr. 
dermatina, Slmttl. 
desertorum, Forsk. 
despecta, Gray. 
Despreauxii, D'Orb. 
destituta, Charp. 
detecta, Fer. 
diaphana, Lam. 
dichroa, Pfr. 
dictyodes, id. 
difficibs, id. 
dilatata, id. 
Dillwyniana, id. 
diluta, Pfr. 
dimera, Jonas. 
diminuta, Adams. 
dimorpha, Pfr. 
diodonta, Miililf. 
dioscoricola, Ad. 
discina, Lowe. 
discolor, Fer. 
dissimilis, D'Orb. 



417. distincta, Pfr. 

418. divisa, Forbes. 

419. doliolmn, Pfr. 

420. Dominicensis, id. 

421. Dorfeuilliana, Lea. 

422. Dringi, Pfr. 

423. Dryope, Brod. 

424. dubiosa, Pfr. 

425. Duclosiana, Fer. 

426. dumcticola, Bens. 

427. Dumonti, Pfr. 

428. Dunkeri, id. 

429. Dunkiensis, Forbes. 

430. Dunnise, Gray. 

4 3 1 . D upetithouarsii, Desk. 

432. Dupotetiana, Terv. 

433. Dupuyana, Pfr. 

434. Duvalii, Petit. 

435. ecliinulata, Lowe. 

436. Eddystonensis, Rve. 

437. Edgariana, Lea. 

438. egena, Say. 

439. egenula, Mor. 

440. Egesta, Gray. 

441. Ehrenbergi, Roth. 

442. Eichwaldi, Pfr. 

443. elata, Biyn. 

444. elegantissima, Pfr. 

445. elevata, Say. 

446. ellipsostoma, Pfr. 

447. Emiliana, id. 

448. engonata, Slmttl. 

449. epidermia, Anton. 

450. epistybulum, Adams. 

451. epistylium, Mull. 

452. epistyloides, Fer. 

453. epixantha, Pfr. 

454. eremopbila, Boiss. 

455. ericetorum, JjT«^. 

456. Erigone, Gray. 

457. eiTonea, P/r. 

458. erubescens, Lotoe. 

459. Estella, D'Orb. 

460. Eucbaris, P/e5A. 

461. euchroes, Pfr. 

462. euclasta, Slmttl. 



239 



463. euryomphala, Pfr. 

464. euspira, id. 

465. Eva, id. 

466. exgequata, Gould. 

467. excavata, Bean. 

468. excellens, Pfr. 

469. excentvica, id. 

470. exceptiuncula, Per. 

471. excisa, Pfr. 

472. exclusa, Per. 

473. exilis, Jf«7/. 

474. eximia, Pfr. 

475. explanata, Mt^. 

476. extensa, id. 

477. Fabricii, Beck. 

478. Falconari, Peeve. 

479. fallaciosa, .FfeV. 

480. fallax, <%. 

481. fastigiata, Hutt. 

482. fausta, Loice. 

483. faustina, Zie^. 

484. fenestrata, Sow. 

485. festiva, Ponov. 

486. fibula, Prod. 

487. fictilis, Lowe. 

488. ficlelis, Gfay. 

489. figulina, Parr. 

490. filaris, Valenc. 

491. filicina, Schmidt. 

492. fUicosta, P/>\ 

493. filimargo, ZiVy. 

494. filocincta, Pfr. 

495. flavida, Zi«y. 

496. Flora, Pfr. 

497. floridus, Sow. 

498. florulifera, P/r. 

499. fodiens, id. 

500. foetens, #^d. 

501. Fontinelli, Mich. 

502. Foremaniana, Ad. 

503. formosa, P(/r. 

504. Forsteriana, Pfr. 

505. fortis, Adams. 

506. fortunata, Shiittl. 

507. Fortunei, P//\ 

508. foveata, «d. 



509. fragilis, Pfr. 

510. Fraseri, Gray. 

511. fricata, Gould. 

512. fruticola, Kryn. 

513. fruticum, Jf«2Z. 

514. fucata, Pfr. 

515. fidgens, #o?c. 

516. fulgurata, id. 

517. fuliginosa, Griff. 

518. fulva, MZ. 

519. fulvida, Pfr. 

520. funiculata, i<#. 

521. furva, Lotce. 

522. fusca, Mont. 

523. fusco-cincta, Adams. 

524. fuscosa, Z/ty. 

525. fiiscula, Adams. 

526. gabata, Gould. 

527. Gaberti, Zm. 

528. Gaertneriana, P/h 

529. galactostoma, id. 

530. gallinula, if?. 

531. gallo-pavemis, Vol. 

532. ganoma, Pfr. 

533. Gardneri, P//\ 

534. Gaskoiui, id. 

535. Gaudryi, D'CM. 

536. gemma, Busch. 

537. gemma, Pfr. 

538. Gemonensis, Per. 

539. generalis, Pfr. 

540. germanus, Reeve. 

541. Gliiesbrigliti, .Afysif. 

542. Gibbom, Pfr. 

543. gilva, P<?V. 

544. glabella, Drap. 

545. glaberrima, P/r. 

546. glabriuscula, id. 

547. glaeialis, Thomas. 

548. glaphyra, Jay. 

549. glauca, Benson. 

550. globularis, ^Vy. 

551. globuloidea, Terv. 

552. globulus, Miill. 

553. glutinosa, Jiefc. 

554. Gmeliniana, Pfr. 



555. goniomphala, it?. 

556. Gossei, id. 

557. Goudotiana, Per. 

558. Gouldi, P//\ 

559. gradata, id. 

560. Grsellsiana, «?. 

561. gramiuicola, Adams. 

562. grandis, Pfr. 

563. granifera, Gray. 

564. granulata, Qnoy. 

565. grata, Jf/cA. 

566. Grayi, Pfr. 

567. Greenwoodii, Gray. 

568. Griffithi, P/h 

569. grisea, Linn. 

570. griseola, P/r. 

571. Grohmanni, Phil. 

572. Gruneri, Pfr. 

573. Gualteriana, Zwm. 

574. Guayaquilensis, Pfr. 

575. Guerini, e'o 7 . 

576. Gueriniana, Lowe. 

577. Guillarmadi, ShuttL 

578. gularis, -Say. 

579. gummata, Sow. 

580. Gundlachi, P/h 

581. Gussoniana, Shuttl. 

582. guttata, OUv. 

583. guttula, P/>. 

584. gyria, Roth. 

585. gyrostoma, P</r. 

586. hamaastoma, Linn. 

587. balata, Mousson. 

588. Harfordii, P/W. 

589. Hartmaimi, Pfr. 

590. Hartungi, Albers. 

591. Hartweigi, P/r. 

592. Helenensis, Forbes. 

593. heliaca, Z>'06\ 

594. Helicinoides, Homb. 

595. Helicoides, P/r. 

596. helicopliautoides, id. 

597. belicycloides, D'Orb. 

598. heligmoidea, id. 

599. hepatica, Reeve. 

600. Mans, P/>-. 



240 



601. hieroglyphicula, Mch. 647. 

602. Himalayana, Lea. 648. 

603. Hindsii, Pfr. 649. 

604. hippocrepis, id. 650. 

605. hirsuta, Say. 651. 

606. hirta, Menke. 652. 

607. Hispana, Linn. 653. 

608. Hispanica, Part. 654. 

609. hispida, Linn. 655. 

610. hispidula, Lam. 656. 

611. Hoffmanni, Part. 657. 

612. Hollandi, Adams. 658. 

613. holoserica, Stud. 659. 

614. Hondana, Pfr. 660. 

615. honesta, Gould. 661. 

616. Hookeri, Reeve. 662. 

617. Hopetonensis, Shuttl. 663. 

618. horiompliala, Pfr. 664. 

619. horizontalis, id. 665. 

620. Huaheinensis, «£?. 666. 

621. Hugeli, id. 667. 

622. Humboldtiana, Vol. 668. 

623. humilis, Hutton. 669. 

624. Humphrey siaua, Lea. 670. 

625. Huttoni, Pfr. 671. 

626. hyalina, JRfr. 672. 

627. hydatina, Eossm. 673. 

628. hydrophana, Sow. 674. 

629. hylepliila, D'Orb. 675. 

630. hyphasma, Pfr. 676. 

631. hypopolea, id. 677. 

632. hystrix, Migh. 678. 

633. Ibuensis, Pfr. 679. 

634. Ide, Gray. 680. 

635. igniflua, Reeve. 681. 

636. ignobilis, Sow. 682. 

637. Uoconensis, id. 683. 

638. immaculata, Ad. 8r R. 684. 

639. irnmunda, Adams. 685. 

640. imperator, Be Montf. 686. 

641. impexa, Reeve. 687. 

642. iiuequalis, Pfr. 688. 

643. Incei, id. 689. 

644. inoarnata, 1T«^. 690. 

645. incerta, Drop. 691. 

646. inchoata, Mor. 692. 



inconspicua, Adams. 
incrassata, Poey. 
indentata, Say. 
Indica, Pfr. 
indistincta, Per. 
induta, Pfr. 
infans, id. 
infecta, Reeve. 
infrendens, Gould. 
infula, Bens. 
ingens, Adams. 
inornata, Say. 
inquinata, Busch. 
insculpta, Pfr. 
insigiiis, B'Orb. 
insolida, Zieg. 
instabilis, id. 
intermedia, Fer. 
interna, Say. 
interrupta, B»nson. 
intertexta, Binn. 
intorta, Sow. 
invalida, Adams. 
inversicolor, Fer. 
Isabella, Fer. 
Isabellina, Pfr. 
isodon, id. 
Jacksoniensis, Gray. 
Jacquinoti, Pfr. 
Jamaicensis, Chemn. 
Janus, id. 
Japonica, Pfr. 
Javauica, Lam. 
JefFreysiana, Pfr. 
Jenynsi, id. 
Jervisensis, Quoy. 
Jonasi, Pfr. 
Josephinas, Fer. 
Juilleti, Terver. 
JuUana, Gray. 
juloidea, id. 
Juno, Pfr. 
Kawaiensis, id. 
Kellettii, Forbes. 
Keppelli, Pfr. 
Kivi, Gray. 



693. Knysnaensis, Pfr. 

694. Kochi, id. 

695. Krausi, id. 

696. Krynickii, Andr. 

697. Kuni, Pfr. 

698. Kusteri, id. 

699. labiata, id. 

700. labium, Ferussac. 
70 L. labyriuthica, Say. 

702. labyrinthus, Chemn. 

703. lacera, Pfr. 

704. laciniosa, Lotce. 

705. lactea, Mull. 

706. lsesa, Reeve. 

707. liEta, Pfr. 

708. laevigata, Rafin. 

709. lsevipes, Mull. 

710. Lais, Pfr. 

711. Lamarckiana, Lea. 

712. lamellata, Jeffr. 

713. lameUifera, Adams. 

714. lamellosa, Fer. 

715. lampas, Mull. 

716. lampra, Pfr. 

717. Lancerottensis, Webb. 

718. lancula, Fer. 

719. languida, Pfr. 

720. lanuginosa, Boiss. 

721. lanx, Fer. 

722. lapicida, Linn. 

723. Lasallii, Eyd. 

724. latens, Lowe. 

725. latitans, Brod. 

726. Launcestonensis, Rve. 

727. lauta, Lowe. 

728. laxata, Fer. 

729. Layardi, Pfr. 

730. Leacliii, Jer. 

731. lecta, id. 

732. lecytliis, 5^s. 

733. Lefebriana, Fer. 

734. Leimonias, Gray. 

735. lemniscata, 7Fi?W. 

736. lenis, Shuttl. 

737. leus, ISfr. 

738. lenticida, id. 



241 



739. lentiginosa, Lowe. 785. 

740. leporina, Gould. 786. 

741. Leprieurii, Petit. 787. 

742. leptogramma, Pfr. 788. 

743. leptosticta, Lowe. 789. 

744. Lessoni, Pfr. 790. 

745. leucodon, id. 791. 

746. leucoraphe, id. 792. 

747. leucostoma, Jd. ^ 72.793. 

748. leucozona, Zieg. 794. 

749. levis, Pfr. 795. 

750. Leytensis, id. 796. 

751. libata, Reeve. 797. 

752. Liebetruli, Alters. 798. 

753. ligata, Mull. 799. 

754. ligera, /%. 800. 

755. Lightfooti, Pfr. 801. 

756. lignaria, id. 802. 

757. ligulata, Per. 803. 

758. lima, id. 804. 

759. limbata, D/ap. 805. 

760. Lindeni, Pfr. 806. 

761. liueata, Say. 807. 

762. lingulata, Desk. 808. 

763. Linnaeana, Pfr. 809. 

764. litturata, w*. 810. 

765. lituus, Less. 811. 

766. livida, (MZ. 812. 

767. Louisiadensis, Forbes.813. 

768. Loveiii, Krauss. 814. 
.769. Lowii, Pe>. 815. 

770. loxotropis, Pfr. 816. 

771. loxodon, id. 817. 

772. lubrica, Bens. 818. 

773. lucana, ifwW. 819. 

774. lucerna, id. 820. 

775. lucida, Drop. 821. 

776. lucidella, P/a 822. 

777. lucorum, Linn. 823. 

778. luctuosa, Pec£. 824. 

779. Ludovici, Albers. 825. 

780. Liikuana, Sow. 826. 

781. Luquillensis, Shuttl. 827. 

782. lurida, Lowe. 828. 

783. Lusitanica, P/h 829. 

784. luteo-cornea, id. 830. 



lutescens, Zieg. 831. 

Luzonica, -Sow. 832. 

lychnia, Bens. 833. 

lychnuckus, Mull. 834. 

Lyelliana, Zowe. 835. 

Macandrewiana, Pfr. 836. 

Macgillivrai, Po>-6es. 837. 

Mackensii, Valenc. 838. 

Macmurrayi, Adams. 839. 

Macnabiana, Chitty. 840. 

macrostoma, Miihlf 841. 
Madagascariensis, Pot. 842. 

Maderensis, Wood. 843. 
Madevaspatana, Gray. 844. 

magister, P/r. 845. 

magnifica, P<//\ 846. 

Malaccanus, Pfr. 847. 

malleata, Per. 848. 

mamilla, «c?. 849. 

mandarina, Gray. 850. 

mansneta, P/r. 851. 

marginata, Mull. 852. 

maritima, Drap. 853. 

Maria?, Gray. 854. 

Marmatensis, Pfr. 855. 

niarmorata, Per. 856. 

marmorella, Pfr. 857. 

Martini, id. 858. 

matruelis, -Sow. 859. 

Mauritiana, Pfr. 860. 

maxima, ze?. 861. 

Mazzullii, Jan. 862. 

Meda, Porro. 863. 

mediocris, P//\ 864. 
melanocheila, Valenc. 865. 

melanostoma, Pra/?. 866. 

melanotragus, Born. 867. 

Mebtensis, Per. 868. 

membranacea, Zo?w. 869. 

membranicosta, Pfr. 870. 

Menkeana, i^. 871. 

mera, Reeve. 872. 

mercatoria, Gray. 873. 

Merguiensis, P/«7. 874. 

Merziana, Pfr. 875. 

metaformis, P</>\ 876. 



Metcalfei, Pfr. 
micans, id. 
Michaudi, Lowe. 
microdonta, Desk. 
micromphala, Lowe. 
microspira, Pfr. 
Mighelsiana, id. 
mina, id. 

MindanaensiSj Sow. 
Minerva, Pfr. 
Minoricensis, Mittre. 
minuscula, Binn. 
mirabilis, Per. 
misella, id. 
modesta, id. 
monile, Brod. 
monilifera, Webb. 
monocbroa, Sow. 
monodonta, Lea. 
mononema, Bens. 
Montfortiana, Pfr. 
monticola, Sow. 
monozonalis, Lam. 
morbida, Mor. 
Moretonensis, Pfr. 
Moricandi, Sow. 
Moussoni, Pfr. 
mucronata, id. 
MiiUeri, Pfr. 
multidentata, Gould. 
multilineata, Say. 
multistriata, Pes. 
munda, Adams. 
muralis, Milller. 
mascarum, Lea. 
mustelina, Lowe. 
musicola, Shuttl. 
Najas, Pfr. 
Naninoides, Bens. 
nasuta, Mete. 
Natalensis, Pfr. 
Navigatorum, id. 
Nautiliformis, Cantr. 
Naxiana, Per. 
neglecta, Drap. 
ncmatophora, Pfr. 
2 i 



242 



877. nemoralina, Petit. 923. 

878. nemoralis, Linn. 924. 

879. nemoraloides, Adaws.925. 

880. nemorensis, Mull. 926. 

881. Neogranadensis, Pfr. 927. 

882. Newcombi, id. 928. 

883. Niciensis, Mr. 929. 

884. Nicobarica, Chemn. 930. 

885. nigrescens, Wood. 931. 

886. nigritella, Phil. 932. 

887. Nilagirica, Pfr. 933. 
8S8. nitons, Mich. 934. 

889. nitida, Midi. 935. 

890. nitidiuscula, Sow. 936. 

891. nitidula, Drop. 937. 

892. Nivariensis, Shutll. 938. 

893. nivosa, Soto. 939. 

894. nobilis, Pfr. 940. 

896. Norrisii, ^o?^. 941. 

895. Nouleti, Le Guill. 942. 

897. Novse-HibemiaB, Qy. 943. 

898. noverca, Friv. 944. 

899. novella, Pfr. 945. 

900. nucleola, Banff. 946. 

901. inula, P/h 947. 

902. nummus, Ehrenb. 948. 

903. nympha, Pfr. 949. 

904. obesa, Beck. 950. 

905. obliquata, Beeve. 951. 

906. obbta, P/r. 952. 

907. obliterate Per. 953. 

908. oblonga, Soto. 954. 

909. obnubila, Beeve. 955. 

910. obscurata, Porro. 956. 

911. obserata, Zowe. 957. 

912. obstricta, Say. 958. 

913. obtecta, Lowe. 959. 

914. obtusa, Pfr. 960. 

915. obvoluta, Mull. 961. 

916. oecidentalis, PecZ. 962. 

917. ochroleuca, Per. 963. 

918. Okeniana, Pfr. 964. 

919. oleacea, Slmttl. 965. 

920. oleosa, Pfr. 966. 

921. olivetorum, Gmelin. 967. 

922. Olivieri, Per. 968. 



omalomorpha, PS Orb. 969. 


Paraguayana, Pfr. 


ompbalodes, P/r. 


970. 


parilis, Per. 


oomorpha, Sow. 


971. 


Parlatoris, Bivon. 


opalina, id. 


972. 


parmula, Brod. 


Oparica, Anton. 


973. 


Parraiana, B'Orb. 


Ophelia, Pfr. 


974. 


partita, Pfr. 


orbicula, B'Orb. 


975. 


parva, Parr. 


orbiculata, Ft : r. 


976. 


patina, Adams. 


Orbignii, Webb. 


977. 


paupercula, Loioe. 


orbis, Beck. 


978. 


pellis-laeerti, Beeve. 


orbitula, Sow. 


979. 


pellis-serpentis, Chm. 


Oreas, Koch. 


980. 


pellita, Per. 


orcula, Benson. 


981. 


pellucens, Shiittl. 


orient alis, Gray 


982. 


pellucida, Gould. 


ornatella, Pfr. 


983. 


, pempliigodes, Pfr. 


orobia, Bens. 


984. 


Pennantiana, id. 


Orsinii, Porro. 


985. 


Pennsylvanica, Grn. 


orthostoma, Pfr. 


986. 


pcracutissima. Ad. 


osculans, Adams. 


987. 


peraffinis, id. 


otostoma, Pfr. 


988. 


perdepressa, id. 


Otthiana, Forbes. 


989. 


perdita, Beeve. 


ovifonnis, Grat. 


990. 


perplicata, Bens. 


ovi-vitellus, Beeve. 


991. 


Perotteti, Pfr. 


ovum, Valen. 


992. 


personata, Lam. 


ovum-reguli, Lea. 


993. 


persirnilis, Shiittl. 


Owenii, Pfr. 


994. 


perspectiva, Say. 


oxytes, Bens. 


995. 


petrobia, Bens. 


oxytropis, Lowe. 


996. 


Petronella, Charp. 


paclrygastra, Gray. 


997. 


Pfeifferi, Phil. 


pachystyla, Pfr. 


998. 


Phaedra, Pfr. 


Pacifica, id. 


999. 


pha30gramma, id. 


Paciniana, Phil. 


1000. 


Phillipi, Gray. 


paleata, Beeve. 


1001. 


phlogophora, Pfr. 


Pallasiana, Pfr. 


1002. 


phloides, id. 


palliata, Say. 


1003. 


joicta, Born. 


pallidula, Pfr. 


1004. 


picturata, Adams. 


paludicola, Bens. 


1005. 


pila, id. 


paludosa, Bfr. 


1006. 


pileiformis, Moric. 


Pan, Brod. 


1007. 


pileus, Miill. 


Pandora?, Forbes. 


1008. 


pilula, Beeve. 


pagodula, Pfr. 


1009. 


pinguis, Kranss. 


papilio, Lowe. 


1010. 


Pinicola, Pfr. 


papilla, Miill. 


1011. 


Pirrieana, id. 


papillata, Pfr. 


1012. 


Pisana, Miill. 


papyracea, Brod. 


1013. 


pisiformis, Besh. 


paradoxa, Bfr. 


1014. 


Pityonesica, Pfr. 



248 



1017. placida, Shuttl. 1061. 

1016. plaguptycha, id. 1062. 

1017. planata, Chemn. 1063. 

1018. Planorboides, Per. 1064. 

1019. Planti, Pfr. 1065. 

1020. platychela, Menke. 1066. 

1021. platyodon, Pfr. 1067. 

1022. platystypla, id. 1068. 

1023. plectilis, Bens. 1069. 

1024. plectostoma, id. 1070. 

1025. plicaria, Lam. 1071. 

1026. plicata, Born. 1072. 

1027. plurizonata,^.^- 22.1073. 

1028. poecilosticta, Pfr. 1074. 

1029. Poeyi, Petit. 1075. 

1030. Poiretiana, Pfr. 1076. 

1031. politissima, id. 1077. 

1032. pollodonta, B'Orb. 1078. 

1033. polyehroa, Sow. 1079. 

1034. polygyrata, Born. 1080. 

1035. polyrnorpha, Lowe. 1081. 

1036. pomatia, Linn. 1082. 

1037. Pompylia, £Ak«Z. 1083. 

1038. pomum, Pfr. 1084. 

1039. ponderosa, id. 1085. 

1040. Pondicherriensis, wf.1086. 

1041. porphyria, id. 1087. 

1042. Portia, Gray. 1088. 

1043. Porto-Sanctana,-S , o«7.1089. 

1044. Powisiana, Pfr. 1090. 

1045. prasstans, id. 1091. 

1046. pratensis, id. 1092. 

1047. princeps, Reeve. 1093. 

1048. problematica, Pfr. 1094. 
1059. procera, irf. 1095. 

1050. profunda, Say. 1096. 

1051. Proserpinula, Pfr. 1097. 

1052. protea, Zieg. 1098. 

1053. proxima, Per. 1099. 

1054. pruinosa, P/r. 1100. 

1055. prunum, Per. 1101. 

1056. ptychodes, P/r. 1102. 

1057. ptychomphala, id. 1103. 

1058. pubescens, id. 1104. 
1069. puella, Prorf. 1105. 
1060s pulchella, Mull. 1106. 



pulcherrima, Sow. 1107. 

punctata, Porw. Il08. 

punctulata, Sow. 1109. 

Punica, Mor. 1110. 

pura, Alder. 1111. 

purpurascens, P/h 1112. 

pustula, P?r. 1113. 

puteolus, Pews. 1114. 

pygmsea, Drap. 1115. 

pyramidata, i</. 1116. 

Pyrenaica, id. 1117. 

pyrostoma, PJ>. 1118. 

pyrrozona, Phil. 1119. 

pyxis, Hinds. 1120. 

quadrata, PeV. 1121. 
quadridentata, Brod.1122. 

qusesita, Desk. 1123. 

quieta, Peeve. 1124. 

Quimperiana, Per. 1125. 

Quitensis, Pfr. 1126. 

radians, id. 1127. 

radiaria, m£. 1128. 

radicicola, Bens. 1129. 

radiella, P//-. 1130. 

radula, id. 1131. 

Kangiana, Per. 1132. 

rapa, jJMZ. 1133. 

rapida, Pfr. 1134. 

rariplicata, Pews 1135. 

rariguttata, Mouss. 1136. 

Easpaillii, Payr. 1137. 

Eavergiensis, Per. 1138. 

ravida, Bens. 1139. 

Kawsonis, P/r. 1140. 

recedens, id. 1141. 

rectangula, id. 1142. 

Redfieldii, id. 1143. 

refuga, Gould. 1144. 

regalis, Pews. 1145. 

Beginse, Brod. 1146. 

regularis, Pfr. 1147. 

Eehbeini, «W. 1148. 

Reinga, Gray. 1149. 

remota, Pew*. 1150. 

resplendens, Phil. 1151. 

retifera, P/r. 1152. 



retrorsa, Gould. 
retusa, Pfr. 
revelata, Per. 
rhombostoma, P/r. 
Eicbmondiana, id. 
Eissoana, id. 
Eivolii, Desk. 
Eoemeri, Pfr. 
Eoissyana, Per. 
rosarium, Pfr. 
Eoseti, Mich. 
rota, Brod. 
rotabilis, Reeve. 
Eothi, Pfr. 
rotula, Lowe. 
rotundata, Mull. 
ruderata, Stud. 
rudiuscula, Pfr. 
rufa, Lesson. 
rufescens, Pennant. 
rufula, Pfr. 
ruginosa, Per. 
rugosiuscula, Mich. 
rugosa, Chemn. 
Eumphii, Busch. 
sabuletorum, Bens. 
saccharata, Lowe. 
saccata, Pfr. 
Sadleriana, Zieg. 
sagemon, Beck. 
sagittifera, Pfr. 
Sagraiana, B'Orb. 
Salleana, Pfr. 
Sandvicensis, id. 
sannio, id. 
Santanaensis, id. 
sarcinosa, Per. 
sarcodes, Pfr. 
sarcostoma, Webb. 
Saulcyi, D'Orb. 
Sauliae, Pfr. 
saxicola, id. 
Sayi, Binn. 
scabriuscula, De h. 
scelerostoma, Pfr. 
scepasma, id. 
2 i2 



244 



1153. Schmidtii, Zieg. 

1154. Schombrii, Scac. 

1155. Schroeteriana, Pfr. 

1156. Schrenkii, Midd. 

1157. Schuroacheriana, P/r 

1158. scrobiculata, id. 

1159. sculpturata, Gray. 

1160. scytodes, Pfr. 

1161. Seetzeni, Koch. 

1162. segestana, P/«7. 

1163. selenina, Gould. 

1164. semen-lini, Moric. 

1165. semicastanea, P//\ 

1166. seiniconvexa, id. 

1167. seinicostulata, Pw&. 

1168. semidecussata, Pfr. 

1169. semiglobosa, io?. 

1170. seniigranosa, Soto. 

1171. semirugata, Beck. 

1172. sepulchralis, Per. 

1173. sericatula, Pfr. 

1174. sericea, Drop. 

1175. serpens, Spix. 

1 L76. serpentina, Fer. 

1177. serrula, Benson. 

1178. serrulata, Pec&. 

1179. servilis, 8fat#Z. 

1180. setigera, Sow. 

1181. setipila, Zieg. 

1182. setosa, ie?. 

11 S3. Setubalensis, Pfr. 

1184. sexlamellata, ic?. 

1185. Skaughaieusis, id. 

1186. Shuttleworthi, id. 

1187. Sicana, 2R&\ 

1188. Sieboldiana, Pfr. 

1189. similaris, P<//\ 

1190. similis, Adams. 

1191. simpKcula, Afor. 

1192. simulans, Adams. 

1193. simulata, -Fez*. 

1194. Sinaitensis, P//\ 

1195. sincera, Adams. 

1196. Sinclairi, Gray. 

1197. singularis, P/>-. 

1198. sinuata, Mutt. 



1199. Siquijorensis, P?W. 1245. 

1200. Sirena, Beck. 1246. 

1201. skiaphila, J)' Orb. 1247. 

1202. Skinneri, Reeve. 1248. 

1203. Smyraensis, Roth. 1249. 

1204. sobrina, JRfr. 1250. 

1205. solaria, Menke. 1251. 

1206. Solarioides, Reeve. 1252. 

1207. Solarium, Quoy. 1253. 

1208. solata, Bens. 1254. 

1209. solidula, P/r. 1255. 

1210. solitaria, Jay. 1256. 

1211. soluta, Zieg. 1257. 

1212. Sophias, Gask. 1258. 

1213. soror, Fer. 1259. 

1214. Souleyetana, Pe^7. 1260. 

1215. Sowerbyana, Pfr. 1261. 

1216. speciosa, Jay. 1262. 

1217. spectabilis, Pfr. 1263. 

1218. spectrum, Reeve. 1264. 

1219. Spengleriana, P/r. 1265. 

1220. sphserica, Sow. 1266. 

1221. spkaerion, id. 1267. 

1222. sphaeroidea,Zfi Gw*7.1268. 

1223. spinosa, Pea. 1269. 

1224. spiralis, Le Guill. 1270. 

1225. spiriplana, Oliv. 1271. 

1226. spirulata, Pfr. 1272. 

1227. splendida, Drap. 1273. 

1228. splendidula, Pfr. 1274. 

1229. Spratti, ii. 1275. 

1230. spreta, Adams. 1276. 

1231. scpialida, Lowe. 1277. 

1232. squalus, Hinds. 1278. 

1233. squamosa, Fer. 1279. 

1234. stellaris, Pom*. 1280. 

1235. stenomphala, Mke. 1281. 

1236. stenostoma, Pfr. 1282. 

1237. stephanophora, Des. 1283. 

1238. stigmatica, Pfr. 1284. 

1239. Stimpsoni, w£ 1285. 

1240. stipulata, Reeve. 1286. 

1241. Stoddarti, Gray. 1287. 

1242. stolephora, Valenc. 1288. 

1243. Strangei, Pfr. 1289. 

1244. strangulata, Adams. 1290. 



streptaxon, P/> f . 
striatella, ^///^. 
strigata, Mull. 
strigella, Drap. 
strigilis, Pfr. 
strobilis Fer. 
strongy lodes, Pfr. 
strumosa, id. 
Stuartias, Sow. 
Studeriana, Fer. 
Sturmiana, Pfr. 
stylodon, id. 
subangulata, id. 
subaquila, SJndt. 
subcallifera, Lowe. 
subcastanea, Pfr. 
subconica, Adams. 
subcouoidea, Pfr. 
subfusca, id. 
subjecta, Bens. 
subopaca, Pfr. 
subplicata, Sow. 
subrostrata, Fer. 
subrudis, Pfr. 
subrugata, id. 
subtesta, Bens. 
subtilis, Anton. 
subvitrea, Pfr. 
suecinea, id. 
Sudensis, id. 
suffulta, Bens. 
sulcosa, Pfr. 
sulphurea, Reeve. 
sulphurosa, Morel. 
superba, Pfr. 
supertexta, id. 
suppressa, Say. 
suturalis, Pfr. 
Swainsoni, id. 
sylvatica, Drap. 
Syrensis, Pfr. 
Syriaca, Ehrenb. 
systroplia, Albers. 
tabellata, Lowe. 
tseniata, Webb. 
Tamsiana, Dank. 



245 



1291. tapeina, Bens. 1337. 

1292. Taranaki, Gray.. 1338. 

1293. Taurica, Kryn. 1339. 

1294. Tayloriana,^.^ 22.1340. 

1295. tectiformis, Sow. 1341. 

1296. tenera, id. 1342. 

1297. tenerrima, Adams. 1343. 

1298. tenuicostata, Bunk. 1344. 

1299. tenuis, Pfr. 1345. 

1300. tephrodes, id. 1346. 

1301. terrestris, Chemn. 1347. 

1302. tescorum, Bens. 1348. 

1303. tessellata, Miihlf. 1349. 

1304. Testae, Phil. 1350. 

1305. Texasiana, Moric. 1351. 

1306. textilis, Shuttl. 1352. 

1307. Thais, Jacq. 1353. 

1308. Theodori, Phil. 1354. 

1309. Thersites, Brod. 1355. 

1310. tkiarella, Webb. 1356. 

1311. Thomasi, Pfr. 1357. 

1312. Thwaitesii, id. 135 S. 

1313. thyreus, Pews. 1359. 

1314. tliyroides, Say. 1360. 

1315. tiara, Mighels. 1361. 

1316. tickostoma, Pfr. 1362. 

1317. tigrina, Crist. 1363. 

1318. tomentosa, P/r. 1364. 

1319. Tongana, Quoy. 1365. 

1320. torrefacta, Adams. 1366. 

1321. tortilabia, Less. 1367. 

1322. Tourannensis, Soul. 1368. 

1323. Tovvnsendiana, Pe«. 1369. 

1324. tradita, Reeve. 1370. 

1325. Tranquebarica, Fab. 1371. 

1326. Trenquelleonis, Gra.UVi. 

1327. triaria, Fro. 1373. 

1328. trichotropis, Pfr. 1374. 

1329. tricolor, id. 1375. 

1330. tridentata, Say. 1376. 

1331. tridentina, PeV. 1377. 

1332. trigonostoina, Pfr. 1378. 

1333. trigrarnmepliora, O. 1379. 

1334. triodonta, B'Orb. 1380. 

1335. tristis, Pfr. 1381. 

1336. triuinphalis, 22ee«;e. 1382. 



trizona, Zieg. 1383. 

trizonalis, Grat. 1384. 

Trochiformis, P/>\ 1385. 
trocliilioneides,P/'0. 1386. 

trochoides, Poiret. 1387. 

trochus, Mull. 1388. 

troglodytes, ilfbre^. 1389. 

Troilus, Gould. 1390. 

Troostiana, Lea. 1391. 

tropidophora, y/e?. 1392. 

Trosckeli, Pfr. 1393. 

Trotteriana, Pews. 1394. 

Tuckeri, Pfr. 1395. 

tuguriuro, Bens. 1396. 

Tullia, Gray. 1397. 

tumens, Beshayes. 1398. 

tumida, P/>-. 1399. 
tumulorum, TP.^P.1400. 

Tunetana, P/h 1401. 

turbinata, Jan. 1402. 

turbiniformis, Pfr. 1403. 

turbinoides, Pros?. 1404. 

turbo, Pfr. 1405. 

turricula, Zozce. 1406. 

turriplana, Morel. 1407. 
Typinsana, Ad. ^22.1408. 
Uitenhagensis, Kra. 1409. 

urnbilicata, Mont. 1410. 

umbrina, P//\ 1411. 

umbrosa, Part. 1412. 

uncigera, Petit. 1413. 

undata, Powe. 1414. 

undulata, Per. 1415. 

unica, P//\ 1416. 

unicolor, id. 1417. 

unidentata, Chemn. 1418. 

unguicula, Per. 1419. 

ungulina, Linn. 1420. 

uruula, P//\ 1421. 
Valenciennesii, By d. 1422. 

valida, Adams. 1423. 

vallicola, Pfr. 1424. 
Vancouvercnsis, Lea .1425. 

varicosa, Pfr. 1426. 

variolosa, id. 1427. 

vellicata, Forbes. 1428, 



velutina, P«?w. 
ventrosula, 2yh 
vermiculata, Mull. 
vermis, Reeve. 
vemicosa, Krauss. 
Veronica, Pfr. 
verrucula, id. 
versicolor, Born. 
verticillus, Per. 
vesicula, Bens. 
vestalis, Parr. 
vilis, Pfr. 
Villiersii, B'Orb. 
villaris, Pfr. 
villosa, Brap. 
vincta, Valenc. 
Vindobonensis, Per. 
virgata, Mont. 
vaginalis, Jan. 
virgo, Brod. 
virgulata, Sow. 
viridis, Besh. 
vitellina, Pfr. 
Vitrina, Wagn. 
Vitrinoides, Besh. 
vittata, Mull. 
vittosa, Brap. 
volubilis, Reeve. 
volvoxis, Parr. 
vortex, Pf. 
vorticialis, Bens. 
Vulcania, Lowe. 
vultuosa, Gould. 
Waltoni, Reeve. 
Webbiana, Lowe. 
Winteriana, Pfr. 
Wollastoni, Loioe. 
Woodiana, Pfr. 
xanthodon, Anton. 
xanthotricha, Pfr. 
Xystera, Valenc. 
Yorkensis, Pfr. 
Yulei, Forbes. 
zaleta, Say. 
zebra, Pfr. 
Zebuensis. Brod. 



246 

1429. Zelandiae, Gray. 1434. Zollingeri, Pfr. 

1430. Zelobori, Pfr. 1435. zonalis, Per. 

1431. Zeus, Jonas. 1436. zonaria, Linn. 

1432. Ziegleii, Schmidt. 1437. zonata, Studer. 

1433. zodiaca, Mr. 



1438. zonifera, Sow. 

1439. Zonites, P/r. 

1440. zonulata, Mr. 

1441. zosterophora, Pfr. 



Figures. 

Helix Listeri. PI. 21. Pig. 119. Shell, showing the orbicularly de- 
pressed form, separated by Lamarck as Carocolla. 

Helix Luzonica. PI. 21. Kg. 122. Shell, showing its globose form 
and reflected lip. 



Genus 9. ANASTOMA, Fischer. 

Animal ; similar to that of Helix. 

Shell; orbicular, globosclg lens-shaped ; the last whorl suddenly 
turned upwards on a plane with the spire ; aperture semicir- 
cular, furnished with Jive strong plait-like teeth, of which two 
are on the body whorl ; outer lip thickened and reflected. 

In Brazil there exists a curious form of snail, of which two species ap- 
peared fifty years ago in the works of Perussac and Lamarck, one being 
already known to Linnseus ; yet, notwithstanding the researches of recent 
travellers, no other species has been discovered. The peculiarity of this 
form consists in the singular manner in which the latter half of the last 
whorl is suddenly turned upwards, so as to bring the aperture on a plane 
with the spire. Up to this period, the position of the shell on the living 
snail would be, as in all other genera, with the apex uppermost ; but in 
Anostoma the animal, on approaching maturity, so abruptly alters the coil 
of the last whorl, as to turn the shell completely over, with the apex down- 
wards. Both species are constant in their manner of growth, and are not 
uncommon. 



Species. 
1. ringens (Helix), Linn. 2. globulosum, Linn. 



J Figure. 

Anastoma ringens. PI. 21. Pig. 117. Shell, showing its semilunar 



247 

aperture, turned up on a plane with the spire, by which it may be 
seen that the living animal protruding from it would crawl with the 
apex downwards. 



Genus 10. PROSERPINA, Gray. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; depressly orbicular, polished, shining ; aperture furnished 

071 either side ivith strong, winding, tooth-like plaits ; lip simple, 

never reflected. 

The few species that have been associated under this head differ from 
the ordinary Helix type in being of a polished, shining substance, generally 
bright-yellow or greenish, characterized by having the interior furnished 
on either side with strongly-developed winding plaits. The shell is never 
umbilicated, nor is the lip ever reflected. It does not appear that the 
animal has been observed. 

One species, P. eolina, is from Mexico ; the remainder are from Jamaica 
and Cuba. 



Species. 

1. bidentata, Ad. 4. globulosa, Orb. 7. opalina, Ad. 

2. depressa, Orb. 5. linguifera, Jonas. 8. pisum, id. 

3. eolina, Dud. 6. nitida, Gray. 



Figure. 

Proserpina nitida. PI. 21. Pig. 121. Shell, showing the aperture with 
its tooth-like plaits and simple lip. 



Genus 11. SUCCINEA, Draparnaud. 

Animal ; of large subgelatinous bulk ; head with four stout inflated 
tentacles, of which the lower pair are very short. 

Shell; ovate, thin, fragile ; spire small; aperture large, with the 
margins disjoined; columella narroio and thinly edged; lip 
simple. 

The well-known transparent Amber snail, Succinea putris, of our mud- 
banks and damp meadows, gives but an inadequate notion of the genus in 



248 

its more tropical range. Among the foreign species are several, like our 
figured specimen S. patula, which better illustrate the character of the 
animal, and show it to be more nearly allied to Bulimus and Helix than 
to the Limneee, near which the Succinea mostly dwell. But though dwell- 
ing in the vicinity of rivers, ponds, and marshes, and being to some extent 
amphibious, their habit is to live on land. The faculty of living under 
water is only extended apparently in instances of rare occurrence, to pro- 
vide for the chances of occasional submergence by tides and floods. The 
Succinea; are widely distributed in both hemispheres, including especially 
the oceanic islands of the Pacific. 



1. abbreviate, Mor. 

2. acuta, Pfr. 

3. iEgyptiaca, Ehr. 

4. eequinoxialis, Orb. 

5. angustior, Ad. 

6. aperta, Lea. 

7. appendiculata, Pfr. 

8. arcuaria, Busck. 

9. aurea, Lea. 

10. australis, Per. 

11. a vara, Say. 

12. Barbadensis, Guild. 

13. Bensoni, Pfr. 
11. Borneensis, id. 

15. brevis, Dunk. 

16. bullina, Per. 

17. caduca, Miff It. 

18. campestris, Say. 

19. Candeana, Lea. 

20. cancella, Gould. 

21. cepulla, id. 

22. Chiloensis, Phil. 

23. cingulata, Forbes. 

24. concisa, Mor. 

25. concordialis, Gould. 

26. contorta, Ad. 

27. crassiuscula, Bens. 

28. crocata, Gould. 

29. Cumingii, Pfr. 

30. Cuvieri, Guild. 

31. Delalandei, Pfr. 



Species. 

32. depressa, Rang. 

33. Dominicensis, Pfr. 

34. Donnetti, id. 

35. effusa, S/iuttl. 

36. exarata, Xrauss. 

37. explanata, Gould. 

38. fragilis, King. 

39. Gayana, Orb. 

40. Gouldiana, Pfr. 

41. gracilis, Lea. 

42. Groenlandica, Beck. 

43. Guatemalensis, Mor. 

44. Gundlachi, Pfr. 

45. haliotidea, Mitt. 

46. helicoidea, Gould. 

47. kortulana, Mor. 

48. humerosa, Gould. 

49. Indica, Pfr. 

50. inflata, Lea. 

51. infundibuliformis, Gd. 

52. latior, Ad. 

53. longiscata, .Mb?*. 

54. lumbalis, Gould. 

55. luteola, id. 

56. Magellanica, z'c?. 

57. mamillata, Beck. 

58. Mannana, Gould. 

59. margarita, P/h 

60. Menkeana, id. 

61. modesta, Gould. 

62. Nuttalliana, Zm. 



63. obliqua, £ay. 

64. oblonga, Dunk. 

65. ocliracea, Betta. 

66. Oregonensis, Zea. 

67. orientalis, Bens. 

68. ovalis, -Say. 

69. pallida, Pfr. 

70. papillata, id. 

71. patentissima, iJZfe. 

72. patula, Bens. 

73. Pfeifferi, Rossm. 

74. picta, P//\ 

75. pinguis, id. 

76. procera, Gould. 

77. pudorina, i^. 

78. pusiUa, P/r. 

79. putamen, Gould. 

80. putris, Linn. 

81. recisa, i/or. 

82. retusa, Lea. 

83. Biisei, P/>-. 

84. rotundata, Gould. 

85. rubescens, Desk. 

86. rubicunda, P// - . 

87. rugosa, id. 

88. lmsticana, Goidd. 

89. Sagra, 0/-5. 

90. Salleana, Pfr. 

91. St.-Helena3, Ze««. 

92. semiglobosa, Pfr. 

93. semiserica, P/r. 



249 



94. solidula, Pfr. 

95. spurca, Gould. 

96. striata, Krauss. 

97. subgrancsa, Pfr. 

98. subrugata, id. 

99. Tahitensis, id. 



100. Tamsiana, Pfr. 

101. Taylori, irf. 

102. Texasiana, id. 

103. tigrina, Less. 

104. Totteniana, Ze#. 

105. undulata, Say. 



106. unguis, j?er. 

107. venusta, Gotdd. 

108. vesicalis, id. 

109. virescens, illbr. 

110. Wardiana, Lea. 



Figure. 

Succinea patula. PL 20. Fig. 112. Shell, showing its inflated, fragile 
substance and broad aperture. 



Genus 12. VITRINA, Draparnaud. 

Animal; bulky, large for the shell ; lanceolate ; head toith four 
tentacles, the lower pair short ; mantle ample, thick, reflected 
upon the shell ; furnished with a lobe on the right side under 
the spire ; tail obliquely truncated; edge-teeth of tongue acu- 
leate. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; rotundaiely ovate, sometimes depressed, imperforate, thin, 
vesicular, glassy or horny green ; spire short ; last whorl large 
and inflated ; lip and columella simple. 

The extensive family of the Colimacea is brought to a close with a genus 
of which the shell is of a slight, vesicular, horny or greenish-glassy sub- 
stance, coiled into no more than three whorls, and offering a transition to 
the family of the Limacinea, in which the shell ceases to be convoluted. 
The appearance of Vitrina when in motion is that of a Limax, with a 
Helix shell upon its back. The mantle is prolonged into a lobe, such as 
in Limax is developed for the protection of the gills, but here the shell 
intervenes for their protection. As many as eighty species are known. 
Twelve, including three abnormal forms described by Hartmann as a 
separate genus, Daudebardia, inhabit Europe, but only one, V. pellucida, 
has been found in Britain, common in all parts of the country, chiefly 
among moss and under stones. The remainder, with two exceptions, are 
about evenly distributed over the islands and continents of the Old World, 
as far south as New Holland, from whence several very interesting species 
have been received. The only species known to the western hemisphere is 
one inhabiting the vicinity of Portland and eastern part of Maine, in the 
United States, V. Americana,* and one inhabiting Greenland, V. Angelica. 



Dr. Binuey remarks on this species, that " when kept in confinement the animal has been 

2 K 



250 



1. Abyssinica, Rupp. 

2. Americana, Pfr. 

3. Angelicas, Beck. 

4. annularis, Fer. 

5. annularis, Stud. 

6. aperta, Beck. 

7. atrovirens, Moric. 
8* baccata, Hutt. 

9. Beckiana, Pfr. 

10. Bensoni, id. 

11. bicolor, ^(?c^-. 

12. Birmanica, PA*7. 

13. Blauneri, Shuttl. 

14. brevipes, Pra/?. 

15. caperata, Gould. 

16. cassida, //«//. 

17. castanea, Pfr. 

I v < rvlaiiiea, Pec£. 

19. cornea, Pfr. 

20. crenularis, Beck. 

21. Cumingii, «'<#. 

22. Cuvieri, Fer. 

23. diapliana, P/yy?. 

24. dimidiate, Pfr. 

25. Draparnaldi, Cuv. 

26. elongata, P««£. 

27. fasciolata, Fer. 



Species. 

28. Freycineti, Fer. 

29. fumosa, P/h 

30. fusco-succinea, Beck. 

31. gigas, Pews. 

32. glacialis, Forbes. 

33. grandis, .5^. 

34. Grnneri, P/;\ 

35. Guhnarasensis, id. 

36. gutta, 2c?. 

37. hians, Rupp. 

38. irradians, Pfr. 

39. Keppellii, zW. 

40. Lamarckii, Fer. 

41. Langi, P/>. 

42. Leytensis, Pec£. 

43. Luzonica, Pfr. 

44. Maravignse, Mandr. 

45. marcida, Gould. 

46. margarita, PecA. 

47. Milligani, P/h 

48. monticola, Pews. 

49. Musignani, Mandr. 

50. NatelensiSj Krauss. 

51. nigra, Q«oj/. 

52. nitida, Gould. 

53. obtusa, &w. 

54. papillate, P/>\ 



55. pellicula, Fer. 

56. pellucida, Jlfw'W. 

57. planospira, Pfr. 

58. planulata, id. 

59. Pceppigii, J/fo. 

60. politissima, Beck. 

61. prsestans, Gould. 

62. progastor, 0£. 

63. Pyrenaica, Pen 

64. resilicus, Pec&. 

65. robusta, Goidd. 

66. Biippelliana, P/r. 

67. rufa, Brap. 

68. rafescens, id. 

69. rufo-virens, Moric. 

70. Buivensis, Couth. 

71. Salomonia, P/>\ 

72. sigaretina, Pe^. 

73. smaragdulus, Beck. 

74. Sowerbyana, P/)-. 

75. Strangei, id. 

76. sulculosa, P/r. 

77. ieiiclla, Gould. 

78. Verreauxii, Pfr. 

79. vircus, wf. 

80. zebra, Guill. 



Figure. 

Vitrina monticola. PL 21. Fig. 120. Shell, inhabiting the neighbour- 
hood of Calcutta, showing its inflated, few-whorled form, and thin, 
vesicular substance. 



Family 17. LIMACINEA. 

Shell ; small, not convoluted beyond a small spiral nucleus, some- 
times external, sometimes internal. 

noticed to feed upon vegetable matter placed within its reach, and it has been detected, in se- 
veral instances, preyiug upon dead and even living earth-worms. It is hence inferred, with 
some probability, that its habits are carnivorous." 

Edward Forbes remarks of the Li mux tribe, that they " are herbivorous by preference, but 
carnivorous when taste or necessity prompts them." 



- 251 

The mollusks which come under the common appellation of Slugs have no 
shell beyond a small ear-shaped shield, commencing in its development from 
an obtuse subspiral nucleus) serving for the protection of the pulmonary 
cavity of the animal, which is situated sometimes, as in Limax, near the 
head, sometimes, as in Parmacella, in the middle, and sometimes, as in 
Testacetta, near the tail ; and it is only in th,e last instance that the shell 
is external and exposed to view. In addition to these, there are one or 
two genera having either no shell at all, or the merest rudimentary frag- 
ment in the shape of a few calcareous grains. The Limacinea, so far as 
they have been observed, inhabit chiefly the temperate regions, and are 
more carnivorous than vegetable feeders. Divested of any shelly encum- 
brance, or having it only moderately developed on the tail, they are able 
to burrow into the ground to the depth of nearly two feet ; sometimes, 
however, they suspend themselves from trees by means of a gelatinous 
thread.* The shell-secreting genera are — 

Testacella. Limax. Parmacella. 



Genus 1. TESTACELLA 

Animal ; elongated, semicylindrical ; disc covering and combined 
with the entire upper surface of the body, which bears an ex- 
ternal shell at the hinder extremity of the back ; head toith four 
tentacles, the upper ones bearing the eyes. CForbes.J 

Shell ; ear-shaped, rather compressed, covered with a brownish 
epidermis ; spire very small, obtuse. 

The Testacella is a small carnivorous slug, feeding chiefly on worms, and 
having the habit during the winter of burrowing in the ground to the 
depth of one to two feet. As if for providing, under these circumstances, 
a place of security for the more delicate organs, the pulmonary cavity of 
the animal is situated in the rear under the protection of a rather strong, 
compressly auriform shell. The whole of the shell is exposed, and its 
spiral nucleus is a little beaked and reaches nearly to the posterior edge 

* "All the species," says Dr. Binney, of the United States, "that have come under my 
notice possess the power of suspending themselves in the air by a gelatinous thread. This they 
effect by accumulating a quantity of tenacious mucus at the posterior extremity of the foot, 
which they attach to the object from which they are to commence their descent ; then, loosing 
their own hold, they hang suspended by this point. Continuing the secretion, their own weight 
attenuates the mucous attachment, and draws it out into a thread. As this dries and hardens a 
fresh supply is afforded, the thread is lengthened, and the animal lets itself down any desirable 
distance. At this time also the margin of the foot pours out mucous freely, and during the 
whole operation the locomotive disc is in active undulatory motion." Terr. Moll. U. S. v. 2, p. 4. 



252 



or tail of the soft parts. Only two species are known, one inhabiting 
Britain and the Channel Islands,* and the other the Canary Islands. 



Species. 
1. haliotoidea, Draparnaud. 2. Maugei, Be Ferussac. 



Genus 2. LIMAX. 

Animal ; elongated or oblong, semicylindrical, rounded or cari- 
nated posteriorly, anteriorly furnished with an oblong disc, in 
which is imbedded an ungmforni shell ; head with four tentacles, 
the two upper ones furnished with eyes. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; subquadrate, irregidar, subcrystalline, with an umbonal 
nucleus, covered with an epidermis more or less reflected over 
the sides. 

Most of the known species of slugs are of this genus. The small, vo- 
racious Limax agrestis, the pest of our gardens, or the larger L. cinereus, 
taken as types, may be observed to have a kind of fleshy shield over the 
back of the neck, and in this is concealed a small crystalline shell of 
oblong-square form, not convoluted, but secreted in concentric layers from 
a kind of umbonal nucleus. So little attention has been paid to these al- 
most shell-less mollusks, that few observations have been made of their ex- 
istence in foreign lands. Lamarck only described four species of his own 
country. M. Deshayes, in his edition of Lamarck's work, increased the 
number to nineteen, including four from New Zealand, Ascension Island, 
and Mauritius, observed by MM. Quoy and Gaimard, and one or two from 
Carolina, Madeira, and Teneriffe. We have in Britain eight species, two 
of which are found in the Eastern United States, near the sea, probably 
transported thither. Two aboriginal species, distinct from the British, 
have been described from the Western States. 



Species. 

1. agrestis, Linn. 3. Alpinus, Lam. 5. Ascensionis, Quoy. 

2. albus, id. 4. arborum. Bonch. 6. bitentaculatus, id. 

* Testacella haliotoidea has been collected in the neighbourhood west of London ; Mr. 
Sowerby found it in a garden at Lambeth, and I once captured a specimen crawling into a con- 
servatory at Waudsworth. 



7. campestris, Binney. 

8. Caroliniensis, Bosc. 

9. cinereus, Mutter. 

10. fuscatus, Ferussac. 

11. flavus, Lam. 

12. gagates, Drop. 



353 

13. hortensis, Fer. 

14. nebulosus, Blainv. 

15. noctilucus, Fer. 

16. oxyurus, Blainv. 

17. perlucidus, Q«oy. 



18. rufus, Linn. 

19. Sowerbyi, jR/r. 

20. subfuscus, Bra]). 

21. sylvaticus, id. 

22. tenellus, Miiller. 



Genus 3. PARMACELLA, CWer. 

Animal ; oblong, with a somewhat gibbous, fleshy shield on the 
middle of the bach, enclosing a shell ; head, with four tentacles, 
of which the upper pair are the larger. 

Shell ; rudely ear-shaped, covered with a horny epidermis ; spire 
short, sometimes irregularly papillary. 

In this genus the pulmonary cavity and fleshy shield, enclosing a 
shell for its protection, is situated about the middle of the animal. The 
shell is of much more uncouth growth than that of Testacella, the spire 
being irregular and rudely papillary. We have no Parmacella in Britain, 
nor is it — nor is Testacella — known in North America. The first specimen, 
P. Olivieri, was discovered by M. Olivier in Mesopotamia ; another spe- 
cies, P. palliolum, was received from Brazil ; a third, P. cali/culata, was 
discovered by MM. "Webb and Berthelot in the Canary Islands, and Cuvier 
speaks of " some others from India." We only know of the following. 



1. calyculata, Soto. 

2. Olivieri, Cuvier. 



Species. 
3. palliolum, Fer us. 



4. Taunaisii, Ferns. 



END OF VOL. I. 



255 



INDEX TO PLATES OF SHELLS. 



Pig. Page 

1. Marginella nubeculata .... 53 

2. Ringicula auriculata 53 

3. Erato Levis 43 

4. Oliva angulata 59 

5. Ovulum volva 36 

6. Terebellum subiilatum .... 35 

7. Voluta volvacea 47 

8. Cymbium Linneei 46 

9. Cymbium Broderipii 46 

10. Cypraea leucostoma 43 

11. Nassa luteostoma 64 

12. Cyllene Grayi 65 

13. Mitra Stainforthii 51 

14. Conus Victoria? 34 

15. Terebra pretiosa 56 

16. Phos Cumingii 67 

17. Planaxis planicostatus .... 62 

18. Quoyia decollata 63 

19 a. Ebuma papillaris 61 

19 b. Ebuma Japonica 61 

20. Leptoconchus striatus .... 69 

21. Ancillaria Mauritiana 60 

22. Buccimun melauostoma .... 68 

23. Fossarus clathratus app. 

24. Dolium fimbriatum 73 

25. Magilus antiquus 71 

26. Harpa imperialis 74 

27. Concbolepas Peruvianus. ... 75 

28. Cassis areola 83 

29. Monoceros grande 76 

30. Purpura aperta 78 

31. Cassidaria Tyrrhena 85 

32. Pticiuula iodostoma 82 



Pig. Page 

33. Trichotropis bicarinata .... 72 

34 a. Columbella hsemastoma . . 80 

34 b. Columbella elegans 80 

35. Oniscia Dennisoni 84 

36. Eostellaria fusus 91 

37. Strombus Novae-Zelandise . . 94 

38. Struthiolaria straminea .... 88 

39. Priamus stercus-pulicivm . . 87 

40. Pterocera multipes 92 

41. Pyrula Mawa? 106 

42. Murex florifer 103 

43. Triton tigrinus 98 

44. Eanella foliata 99 

45. Fasciolaria Persica 119 

46. Fastigiella cariuata 123 

47. Cancellaria Tritonis 109 

48. Turbinella imperialis 121 

49. Cyrtulus serotinus 122 

50. Pleurotoma cryptorrbaphe . . 113 

51. Turritella picta 131 

52. Mangeba Marginelloides . . 115 

53. Fusus Nicobaricus 118 

54. Typhis Sowerbii 104 

55. Triphoris grandis 127 

56. StyUfer pyramidabs 129 

57. Elenchus circulatus 133 

58. Phasianella venusta 132 

59. Cerithiurn nobile *. 125 

60. Littorina pulchra 135 

61. Bankivia purpurascens .... 134 

62. Solarium maculatum 144 

63. Morulus cidaris 141 

64. Monodonta labeo 140 



256 



INDEX TO PLATES. 



Fig. 

65. 

66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 

70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 



Turbo petholatus 138 

Eotella gigantea 141 

Trochus modestus 139 

Trochiscus Norrisii 140 

[•Margarita pulchella 136 

Phorus onustus 143 

Tornatella coccinata 154 

Pyramid ella maculosa 153 

Scalaria imperialis 147 

Rissoa Cumingii 151 

Monoptygma cinerea 148 

Delphiuula imperialis 145 

Eulima major 149 

Niso splendidula 150 

Ianthina globosa 156 

Narica cancellata (see vol. 2.) 

Navicella porcellana 158 

Neritina labiosa 159 

Natica Cumingiana 164 

Neritopsis radula (see vol. 2.) 

Nerita costata 161 

Planorbis corneus 181 

Valvaia Cumingii 171 

Lacuna pallidula 172 

Ampullaria Oronocensis . . 168 

Physa Maugeriae 180 

Lymnaea stagnalis 179 

Paludina oxytropis 170 



Fig. Page 

94. Ancylus fluviatilis 178 

95. Geomelania Jamaicensis . . 201 

96. Assiminea app. 

97. Melania asperata 175 

98. Melania (Io) spinosa .... 175 

99. Melanopsis atra 173 

100. Paludomus undatus 177 

101. Helicina agglutinans .... 188 

102. Separitista Chenmitzii .... app. 

103. Auricula Midas 184 

104. Scarabus imbrium 183 

105. Chilina ampullacea 182 

106. Cyclostoma volvulum .... 198 

107. Truncatella Caribbaeensis . . 200 

108. Nematura Deltas app. 

109. Pupina grandis 199 

110. Achatina zebra 212 

111. Achatina (Spiraxis) nigricans 212 

112. Succinea patida 249 

113. Achatinella decora 214 

114. Clausilia invalida 204 

115. Partulafaba 2] 5 

116. Bulimus onca 232 

117. Anastoma ringens 246 

118. Pupa maritima 208 

119. Helix Listen 246 

120. Yitrina monticola 250 

121. Proserpina nitida 247 

122. Helix Luzonica 246 




PRINTED BY J. E. TAYLOR, LITTLE QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN S INN FIELDS. 



257 



INDEX TO PLATES OF ANIMALS. 

VOL. I. 



Plate Page 

A. 1. Spirilla Peronii IS 

2. Argonauta Argo 15 

B. Argonauta Argo ib. 

C. Nautilus Porupilius .... 23 

D. 1. Voluta angulata 47 

2. Cassis glauca 83 

3. Cyprsea tigris 43 

E. 1. Dolium. perdix 73 

2. Harpa ventricosa 74 



Plate Page 

F. 1. Oliva maura 59 

2. Ovidum ovum 36 

3. Conus textile 34 

G. 1. Dolium pomum 73 

2. Dolium olearium ib. 

3. Triton tuberosum 98 

H. 1. Bulimus rosaceus 234 

2. Bulimus oblongus .... 234 

3. Achatina regina 212 



VOL. i. 



2l 



259 



INDEX TO VOL. I. 



Page 

Achatina 208 

Achatinella 212 

Adamsiella 192 

Alata 86 

Alcadia . . 186 

Alycceus 192 

Amphipeplea .... 178 

Ampullaria 166 

Ampidlina 162 

Ampidloidea 167 

Ancillaria 60 

Anculotus 174 

Ancylus 177 

Anastoma 246 

Aplexus 179 

Aporrhais 89 

Argonauta 12 

Aulopoma 193 

Auricula 183 

Auriculacea 181 

Azeca 209 

Balea 202 

Bankivia 133 

Bltliynia 169 

Blandia 190 

Bonellia 149 

Bourciera 193 

Buccinum 67 

Bulimus 216 

Bullia 65 

Callia 199 

Canalifera 94 

Cancellaria 107 



Page 

Carychium 184 

Cassidaria 85 

Cassis 82 

Cataulus 193 

Cephalopoda .... 9 

Ceratodes 167 

Cerithium 123 

Chenopus 89 

Chilina 182 

Choanopoma .... 193 

Chondropoma .... 193 

Vistula 194 

Clausilia 202 

Colimacea 200 

Columbella .... 78 

Columella ta .... 44 

Columna 209 

Coucliolepas .... 75 

Conus 31 

Couvoluta 31 

Craspedopoma . ... 194 

Clenopoma 194 

Cyclop/torus .... 194 

Cyclostoraa .... 191 

Cyclostomacea . . 184 

Cyclolus 195 

Cylindrella 205 

Cyllene 65 

Cymba 45 

Cymbium 45 

Cyprsea 37 

Cyrtulus 121 

Baudebardia .... 249 



Page 

Delphinula 144 

Bermatocera .... 196 

Biplomatina 196 

Dolium 72 

Eburna 61 

Elenchus 133 

Erato 43 

Eulima 148 

Fadyenia 190 

Fasciolaria 118 

Fastigiella 122 

Ficula 106 

Eusus 116 

Gasteropoda 24 

Geomelania 200 

Harpa 73 

Helicina 1S5 

Helix 235 

Hydrocena 196 

Ianthina 154 

Io 174 

Jamaicia 196 

Lacuna 171 

Lanistes 167 

Leonia 196 

Leptoconchus .... 69 

Leptopoma 196 

Lewisea 190 

Licit/a 197 

Limacinea 250 

Limax 252 

Lindleya 190 

Liotia 145 



260 



INDEX. 



Lithidion 197 

Littorina 134 

Lucidella 186 

I/uuatia 162 

Lymiuea 178 

Lymnaeana 177 

Magilus 70 

Mamma 162 

Mangelia 113 

Margarita 135 

Marginella 51 

Megalomastoma .. 197 

Melampus 184 

Melania 173 

Melaniana 172 

Melanopsis 172 

Melo 45 

Metcalfeia 190 

Mitra 48 

Monoceros 75 

Monodonta 140 

Monoptigma .... 147 

Morulus 140 

Murex 100 

Nassa 63 

Natica 161 

Naticina 162 

Navicella 157 

Nautilus 19 

Nerita 160 

Neritacea 156 

Neritina 158 

Neverita 162 

Niso 149 

Oliva 57 

Ouiscia 84 

Opisthoporus .... 197 

Otopoma 197 

Ovidum 35 

Paludestrina .... 169 

Paludina 168 

Paludomus 175 

Parasitica 127 



Parmacella 253 

Partula 214 

Pectinibrauchiata . 30 

Pedipes 184 

Peristomata .... 165 

Persona 96 

Petitia 190 

Phasianella 132 

Phorus 142 

Phos 66 

Physa 179 

Physopsis 179 

Pirena 173 

Planaxis 62 

Planorbis 180 

Pleurotoina 110 

Plicacia 151 

Pollia OS 

Pomatias 197 

Pomella 167 

Pomus 167 

Priamus 86 

Proserpina 247 

Pterocera 91 

Pterocyclos 198 

Pupa 206 

Pupina 198 

Pupinella 199 

Purpura 76 

Purpurifera 54 

Pyramidella .... 152 

Pyrula 105 

Quoyia 63 

Kanella 98 

Raphaulus 199 

Realm 198 

Registoma 199 

Kicinula 81 

Kingicula ..... 53 

Eissoa 150 

Eostellaria 90 

Rotella 141 



Page 

Ruma 162 

Scalaria 145 

Scarabus 182 

Scliasicheila 186 

Sigaretus 164 

Siphonostoma .... 205 

Solarium 143 

Spiraxis 209 

Spirilla 16 

Stilifer 127 

Stoastoma 188 

Streptaulus 199 

Streptaxis 235 

Strombus 92 

Struthiolaria .... 88 

Succinea 247 

Terebellurn 35 

Thalotia 133 

Terebra 55 

Testacella 251 

Tomofferus 235 

Tornatella 153 

Tornatellina 209 

Tricliotropis .... 71 

Triphoris 125 

Triton 95 

Tritonium 68 

Trochatella 186 

Trocbiscus 139 

Troclms 138 

Tmncatella 199 

Turbo. 136 

Turbinacea 129 

Turbinella 119 

Tudora 198 

Turritella 130 

Typhis 103 

Valvata 170 

Vitrina 249 

Voluta 46 

IFilkinsoutea .... 190 

Zua 235 



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ELEMENTS OF CONCHOLOGY; 



AN INTIiODrcTION TO 



THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SHELLS 



THE ANIMALS WHICH FORM THEM. 



LOVELL REEVE, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK AND OF 
THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF WURTEMBERG. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. II. 




PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOK, 
LONDON; 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 

1860. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Page 

Order 3. Pleurobranchiata 1 

Family 1. Bullacea id. 

2. Aplysiana 3 

3. Semiphyllidiana 6 

Order 4. Cervicobranchiata 8 

Family 1. Tubispiracea id. 

2. Macrostomata 10 

3. Capulacea 17 

4. Fissuracea 23 

Order 5. Cyclobranchiata 31 

Family 1. Patellacea 32 

2. Chitonacea 35 

Order 6. Cirrhobranchiata 40 

7. Nucleobranchiata 42 

Class 3. Pteropoda . . . • 43 

4. Lamellibranchiata 44 

Order 1. Unimusculosa 46 

Family 1. Ostracea ib. 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Family 2. Pectinacea 52 

3. Aviculacea 62 

4. Mytilacea 67 

5. Tridacnacea 74 

OltDER 2. BlMUSCULOSA 76 

Family 1. Chamacea lb. 

2. Naiades 79 

3. Trigonacea 90 

4. Arcacea 91 

5. Cardiacea 98 

6. conchacea 105 

7. Nymphacea 118 

8. LlTHOPHAGA 133 

9. Mactracea 136 

10. Myaria 146 

11. solenacea 162 

12. Pholadaria 167 

13. Tubicola 171 

Class 5. Brachiopoda 180 

ILLUSTKATIONS. 

Animals, Plates / to Q. 
Shells, Plates 22 to 46 ; Fig. 123 to 24S. 



ELEMENTS 



CONCHOLOGY. 



Order 3. PLEUROBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae ; placed on the right side of the animal, either beneath 
the edge of the mantle or in a special cavity. 

In the Order of Pleurobranchiata, or right-gilled Gastropods, the shell 
is more subordinate in value to the soft parts than iu either of the preced- 
ing orders. It includes a number of complicated, curiously formed, and 
brilliantly coloured, but, alas ! horribly smelling, mollusks, which have no 
shell whatever ; some have only a rudimentary or membranaceous shell, and 
in none is the shell absolutely external or of solid structure. The families 
are : — 

BULLACEA. APLYSIANA. SeMIPIIYLLIDIANA. 



Family 1. BULLACEA. 

Genus 1. BULLA, Klein. 

Animal; head generally broad and truncated, with the eyes indis- 
tinct or loanting ; disc large and bulky, furnished with ample 
lobes which serve as swimming -organs, and are used for more 
or less investing the shell ; tentacles sometimes modified into an 
anterior reflected lobe, mostly furnished with a gizzard. 

Shell ; horny or shelly, lightly convoluted, more or less enveloped 
by the animal. 

Bulla shells, of which as many as a hundred and fifty species are known, 
from different parts of the world, are of light inflatcdly-convoluted growth, 

VOL. II. u 



belonging to mollusks having their fleshy parts much developed in folds. 
The foot is lobed behind and reflected over the spire of the shell ; the sides 
are lobed in a manner sufficient to envelope doubly the shell, the lobes 
acting sometimes as fins, and in some instances even the tentacles are 
modified into an anteriorly-reflected lobe, the eyes being either indistinct 
or wanting.* All these variations afford good distinctive characters for 
the determination of groups. For the conchologist it will suffice to follow 
the Lamarckian plan of including them in a single family and genus. 

The Bulla dwell mostly in depths of from one to thirty fathoms, seldom 
appearing above low water-mark, and a few, such as B. hyclatis, live in 
brackish water. Their shells are mostly of a delicate hyaline substance ; 
but some of the larger and firmer species, frequenting our own shores, and 
a few among the exotic forms, are brilliantly painted. 

Forbes and Hanley include the operculated genus Tornatella in this 
family ; but a consideration of the foreign species of that genus would 
seem to argue that the alleged affinity is more fanciful than real. 



1. acuminata, Bing. 

2. alba, Brown. 

.'!. albocincta, Iloev. 

4. Algivsc, Adams. 

5. alicula, Ehren. 

6. Adansoni, Phil. 

7. ambigua, Adams. 

8. ampulla, Linn. 

9. amygdalus, List. 
f 0. arachis, Quo?/. 

11. aspersa, Adams. 

12. angustata, id. 

13. australis, Quoy. 

14. bicincta, id. 

15. biplex, Adams. 

16. biplicata, id. 

17. bizonia, id. 

18. Borneensis, id. 

19. brevissima, id. 



Species. 

20. brevis, Quoy. 

21. Bruguieri, Adams. 

22. bullata, Mull. 

23. canaliculata, Say. 

24. castanea, Adams. 

25. catena, Moid. 

26. Cecillii, Phil. 

27. cinctella, Adams. 

28. coarctata, id. 

29. concinna, id. 

30. concentrica, id. 

31. constricta, id. 

32. Coreanica, id. 

33. corticata, Mull. 

34. Cranchii, Leach. 

35. cruentata, Adams. 

36. Cumingii. id. 

37. curta, id. 

38. cylindracea, Tenn. 



39. cylindrica, Hell. 

40. cymbalum, Quoy. 

41. debilis, Gould. 

42. decussata, Adams. 

43. dentifera, id. 

44. ebumea, id. 

45. elegans, Gray. 

46. elongata, Adams. 

47. exigua, id. 

48. ferruginosa, Chemn. 

49. flavescens, Adams. 

50. fusca, id. 

5J. fusiform is, id. 

52. glabra, id. 

53. glauca, Quoy. 

54. Gouklii, Courlh. 

55. gracilis, Adams. 

56. Guildingii, Swains. 

57. Hanleyi, Adams. 



* Mr. Arthur Adams, speaking of the Bulla Coreanica, says, " There are no visible eyes or 
tentacles, and its elongated head probes with its extremity the mud-ilats on whieh the species 
abounds, for the small bivalves which constitute its food. Some of the large mud-flats among 
the C'orean Islands were covered with these shapeless mollusks, and afford tempting morsels to 
the grallatorial birds seen striding over the mud. The Bulla soluta appears to be blind, while 
I lie head is very elongated, and the side lobes of the foot well developed for swimming, which 
faculty this form enjoys in great perfection." — Moll. Jo//. Samarang, p. 65. 



58. hiemalis, Courth. 

59. hirundanina, Quog. 

60. hordacea, Adams. 

61. hydatis, Linn. 

62. insculpta, Totten. 

63. involuta, Adams. 

64. lignaria, Linn. 

65. lineata. Wood. 

66. lineolata, Courth. 

67. lutea, Q«oy. 

68. mamillata, i7/*7. 

69. marmorata, Ad. 

70. media, i7«7. 

71. minor, Adams. 

72. monodonta, n't?. 

73. Natalensis, Krauss. 

74. naucum, Linn. 

75. nebulosa, Gould. 

76. nitida, Adams. 

77. nitidula, Zis^. 

78. nonseripta, ^A/. 

79. oblonga, id. 

80. obstructa, Gould. 

81. obtusa, Turton. 

82. occidentalis, ,4<7. 
S3, occulta, Migh. 

84. olivacca, Ehreii. 

85. olivula, Adams. 

86. oryza, To^. 



87. ovoidea, Q«oy. 115. 

88. ovulata, Proc/*. 116. 

89. papyrus, Adams. 117. 

90. parvula, id. 118. 

91. pectinata, Mull. 119. 

92. pellucida, Brown. 120. 

93. pemphis, I7m7. 121. 

94. pertenuis, MigTi. 122. 

95. Philippii, Krohn. 123. 

96. physis, Linn. 124. 

97. plauospira, .^?. 125. 

98. polita, id. 126. 

99. pruinosa, Clark. 127. 

100. punctulata, Ad. 12S. 

101. punctata, id. 129. 

102. puncto-striata, lf/j/#. 130. 

103. pusilla, Pfeiff. 131. 

104. pyginsea, Adams. 132. 

105. pyramidata, id. 133. 

106. pyriformis, id. 134. 

107. quadripartita, y/sc. 135. 

108. Quoyii, Gray. 136. 

109. rostrata, Adams. 137. 

110. rotundata, id. 138. 

111. rufolabris, id. 139. 

112. Sarsii, PA& 140. 

113. scabra, Chemn. 141. 

114. Schrceteri, Phil. 142. 



scutulum, Loven. 
simplex, Adams. 
Sinensis, id. 
solida, B'aiff. 
soluta, Che i, ,11. 
speciosa, Adam*. 
striatella, id. 
shigella, Love a. 
subangulata, Mull. 
succinea, Conrad. 
succisa, Ehren. 
teuella, Adams. 
tenera, id. 
tenuis, id. 
thalassiarchi, Mart. 
tortuosa, Ad. 
triticea, Courth. 
truncata, Ad. 
truncatula, Brut/. 
tmuida, Adams. 
turrita, Mull. 
umbibcata, Mont. 
vestita, Phil. 
vexillum, Chemn. 
virescens, Sow. 
viridis, Rang. 
vitrsea, Adams. 
volnta, Quog. 



Figures. 

Bulla physis. PL M. Fig. 3. Animal, showing the shell partially in- 
vested by the lateral lobes proceeding from the very ample disc. 
From the Voyage de l' Astrolabe. 

Bulla albocincta. PL 22. Fig. 123. Shell of a large tropical species 
of richly banded inflated growth. 



Family 2. APLYSIANA. 

Shell ; horny or shelly, not convoluted, internal. 

In this family the branchiae or gills are contained within a cavity, and 
the only development of shell proceeding from the animal, which is of 



comparatively large size, is an irregularly concave shield, mostly of rather 
horny substance, secreted for their protection. The animal presents a 
singular variety of form and colour, and there are many species without 
any trace of a shell ; they have, however, always a distinct head and ten- 
tacles, and may be at once distinguished in this respect from the Bulla. 
The shelled genera are — 

Aplysia. Do lab ELLA. 



Genus 1. APLYSIA, Linnceus. 

Animal; head distinct, having four well-developed tentacles, with 
two small sessile eyes at the lateral basis of the upper ones ; 
branchial cavity closed by an opercular lobe, containing in some 
instances a horny shell ; mantle variously extended into over- 
lapping lobes. 

Shell ; rather convene, thin, horny, a little acuminated and beaked 
inward behind, rounded in front. 

Among the few mollusks described by the writers of ancient Greece, the 
Aplysia occupies no inconspicuous place. The front pair of tentacles in 
this genus are mostly largely developed, partaking of the same disposition 
to amplitude and folding as other parts of the animal, and from the fancied 
resemblance of the Mediterranean A. depilans, with its ear-like tentacles, 
to a crouching hare, the Greeks named it Aayoos 6a\aTTio<i. Nicander, 
Dioscorides, and Pliny speak of superstitious and of poisonous qualities 
attaching to it, and the Sea-hares are not regarded with affection even by 
fishermen of the present day.* 

The Aplysia are very generally distributed, and exhibit many fantastic 

* " Few mollusks have had greater popular fame, or a worse character than the Aplysia. 
From very ancient times they have been regarded with horror and suspicion, and many writers 
on Natural History, conversant with them only through the silly stories of ignorant fishermen, 
have combined, in ancient and modern times, to hold them up to censure for their poisonous 
qualities. To touch them, according to Europeans, was sufficient to generate disease in the fool- 
hardy experimenter ; whilst Asiatics, reversing the consequences, maintained that they met with 
instantaneous death when handled by man. Physicians wrote treatises on the effects of their 
poison, and discussed the remedies best adapted to neutralize it. Conspirators brewed nau- 
si 'mis beverages from their slimy bodies, and administered the potion, confident of its deadly 
powers. Every nation in the world, on whose shores the poor Sea-hares crawled, accorded to 
them the attribute of ferocity and danger. Yet, strange to say, there does not appear to have 
been the slightest foundation for a belief in their crimes. The Aplysia is a perfectly harmless, 
gentle, timid, and, if observed in its native element, beautiful animal. Its odour is sometimes, 
it is true, not over pleasant, and when irritated, it ejects a fluid, the vivid purple hue of which 
may have excited alarm. Its shape, in which it resembles more than most mollusks the body of 
some little quadruped, attracted the attention of the curious ; but why it should have excited 
their fears, and filled with terror the muscular hearts of sturdy fishermen, is a problem to be solved 
only when the predisposing causes of groundless superstitions shall have been sifted and traced to 
their minutest roots." — Forbes and Hanley, Hist. Brit. Moll., vol. iii. p. 553. 



varieties of form and colour. The shell, where it exists, is a horny, slightly 
concave shield, attenuated and a little beaked at the hinder extremity. 
In colour it is mostly of a reddish-fawn, passing into brown. In the fol- 
lowing list of species there are probably many in which there is no rudi- 
ment of a shell, but I have not sufficient data for separating them. 



1. alba, Cuv. 

2. Brasiliana, Rang. 

3. Brongniarti, Bl. 

4. Brugnatelli, Vaub. 

5. camelus, Cuv. 

6. concava, Sow. 

7. dactylomella, Rang. 

8. depilans, Linn. 

9. fasciata, Poir. 

10. Ferussaci, Rang. 

11. fimbriata, Ad. 

12. fusca, Til. 

13. gelatinosa, Rang. 

14. Inca, D'Orb. 



Species. 

15. Keraudrenii, Rang. 

16. Lessonii, id. 

17. lineolata, Ad. 

18. livida, D'Orb. 

19. longicornis, Rang. 

20. maculata, id. 

21. marginata, Bl. 

22. marmorata, id. 

23. Neapolitan a, Ch. 

24. nigra, D'Orb. 

25. nodifera, Ad. 

26. oculifera, id. 

27. Petersoni, Sow. 



28. Poliana, Ch. 

29. protea, Rang. 

30. punctata, Cuv. 

31. quadrata, Sow. 

32. Kangiana, D'Orb. 

33. rosea, Rathke. 

34. sorex, Rang. 

35. tigvina, id. 

36. unicolor, Bl. 

37. virescens, Risso. 

38. viridis, Bosc. 

39. vulgaris, i?£. 

40. Webbh, Vaub. 



Genus 2. DOLABELLA. 

Animal; similar to that of Aplysia, with the branchial cavity 

more in the rear. 
Shell ; calcareous or inclined to horny, hatchet-shaped, posteriorly 

somewhat thicker and a little reflected at the edye. 

The Bolabella is very like Aplysia in general aspect, and has its fore- 
most tentacles developed in a similar manner, like expanded ears ; the 
branchial cavity is, however, situated more towards the hinder part of the 
animal, and the shell is larger, stouter, and more calcareous. 

The drawing of D. Rumphii, with its numerous filamentary processes, 
given in our Plate L, was made by Mr. Arthur Adams from a number 
which he observed at the Mauritius, feeding in groups of eight or nine in 
a small muddy inlet of the sea. 



1. ascifera, Fir 



Species. 
2. dolabrifera, Cuv. 



3. ecaudata, Rang. 



6 

4. fragilis, Lam. 7. petalifera, Rang. 10. truncata, Rang. 

5. gigas, Rang. 8. Rumphii, Guv. 11. unguifera, iJ. 
G. Hassettii, id. 9. Teremidi, 7t««^/. 



Figures. 

Plate 2/. Animal, showing its front ear-like pair of tentacles and its 
structure of overlapping folds, concealing the branchial lid which 
contains the shell. 

PL 22. Pig. 127. Shell, showing the thickened incurved margin of the 
hinder extremity. 



Family 3. SEMIPHYLLIDIANA. 

Shell ; horny or shelly, more or less imbedded in the upper mr- 
face of the animal for the protection of the viscera. 

The genera embraced in this family are not very closely allied, but they 
agree in having an internal shell secreted, not over a branchial cavity, for 
the branchiae are free, but over the viscera. 

Pleurobranchus. Umbrella. 



Genus 1. PLEUROBRANCHUS, Cuvier. 

Animal; head with two grooved tentacles, the eyes at their ex- 
ternal bases ; mouth covered with a more or less broad veil ; 
body equally overlapped by the mantle and by the foot ; mantle 
sometimes enclosing a delicate membranaceous shell ; branchiae 
feather-like, free. 

Shell ; an internal, flexible, membranaceous shield, oblong-scpiare, 
rather convex towards the margin, where a kind of subspiral 
apex is formed. 

Pleurobranchus is only known to the conchologist by a thin membra- 
naceous concavely-flattened shield, secreted within the hinder portion of the 
mantle. The mollusk from which this is extracted is a broadly-ovate, 
fleshy mass, presenting great variety of character in different species, but 
having the branchiae projecting from the right side in the form of an 
elaborately-branched plume. Of the following species, two, P. plumula 
and membranaceus, are found at low water on our own shores. 



1. citrinus, Rupp. 

2. comutus, Quo?/. 

3. Forskalii, I). Ch. 

4. luniceps, Ad. 8p R. 



Species. 

5. mamillatus, Quoy. 

6. membranaceus, Mont. 

7. Patagonicus, Orb. 

8. Peronii, Cuv. 



9. plumula, Mont. 

10. punctatus, Quoy. 

11. reticulatus, Rang. 

12. tuberculatus, Z>. Ch. 



Figure. 

Pleurobranchus membranaceus. PL 22. Pig. 129. Shell, of thin semi- 
transparent membranaceous substance, with its slight marginal apex. 



UMBRELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; disc very large and swollen ; tentacles ear-shaped, hav- 
ing a pair of small sessile eyes between them ; mouth covered 
with a small, lobed veil ; mantle more or less enclosing a capa- 
cious, oval, fiat, shelly shield. 

Shell ; orbicular , flat , rather convex at the upper part, with a very 
small nearly central vertex, rather concave beneath, impressed 
with a central, callous, yelloio deposit, being surrounded by a 
regular continuous muscular impression. 

Umbrella is very unlike Pleurobranchus, whether as regards animal or 
shell ; but in both the branchiae take the form of a plume or row of plumes 
attached to the right side, while the head is furnished with a veil, and the 
shell in both genera is invested, or partially invested, by the mantle. Here 
the resemblance ends. Umbrella is a stout, swollen, warty mollusk, hav- 
ing a large shell, often of rather solid, calcareous substance, planted flat 
upon the back, and the inner surface is characterized by a callous deposit 
of a peculiar yolk-yellow colour. It was known to the older naturalists by 
the name of ' The Chinese Parasol/ 

Three species are known, varying so little in specific character, so far as 
the shell is concerned, as to be scarcely distinguishable, but from widely 
distant localities. One is a native of the tropical Eastern seas, another 
of the Mediterranean, and the third of the Bay of Panama. 



1. Indica. Lam. 



Species. 
2. Mediterranea, Lam. 



3. ovalis, Carp. 



8 

Figure. 

Umbrella Indica. PL 22. Fig. 126. Shell, showing the callous de- 
posit of the inner surface. 



Order 4. CERVICOBRANCHIATA. 
Branchiae ; placed within a cavity in the neck. 

The neck-gilled Gastropods present a remarkable contrast of form, but 
are allied by obvious zoological characters. No two mollusks of a class 
are more unlike each other in external appearance, whether as regards the 
animal or the shell, than Siliquaria and Haliotis ; yet it will be seen that 
the affinity between them is curious, and the transition of structure easy 
and natural. The Slipper and Cup-and-Saucer Limpets come into this 
order, but they are physiologically distinct from the Patella, or Limpets 
proper, whose relationship is with the Chitons. The families into which 
the Gasteropoda Cervicobranchiata are divided are — 

Tubispiracea. Macrostomata. Capulacea. 



Family 1. TUBISPIRACEA. 

Shell ; an irregular loosely convoluted spiral tube, with the whorls 
detached. 

The shell of this family, though of spiral growth, resembles that of Ser- 
pula, a genus of Annelides. It is, however, convoluted like the rest of the 
spiral gastropods, but with this difference, the whorls are wholly detached, 
and they are drawn out into a winding tube, like a corkscrew, without 
forming any columellar axis. Every spiral univalve, it may be here re- 
marked, is a modification of an enlarging tube. It is not difficult to con- 
ceive that a plastic enlarging tube might be moulded into any kind of 
spiral univalve, with all the appliances necessary for expansion or dilata- 
tion and for the addition of external ornament in the form of such devices 
as varices, tubercles, spines, scales, rings, etc. The two genera of this 
family represent the first stage in this ideal plan of conchological architec- 
ture. The genera, one of which is characterized by having a branchial 
fissure throughout, are — 

Vermetus. Siliquaria. 



Genus 1. VERMETUS, Adanson. 

Animal ; allied to that of Scalaria. 

Shell ; tubular, irregularly convoluted into a loose spire, divided 
internally at irregular intervals by septa ; operculum horny. 

The history of this genus presents an instructive example of the value 
of original observation. Naturalists living at home at ease are very apt 
to perpetuate error; and even Linnseus, while luxuriating in his profes- 
sorial chair at Upsal, fell into the belief that the Vermetus shell belonged 
to the same natural order as the Serpulce. Adanson, a veteran member 
of the Academy of Sciences of Paris and contemporary of Linnseus, inves- 
tigated with much original research the zoology of the coast of Senegal, 
and discovered, amongst other equally interesting facts, that the animal of 
Vermetus was no annelide, but a mollusk. It is, in fact, a kind of un- 
rolled Scalaria or DelphimUa, and, like them, is furnished with a horny 
operculum. Owing to their loose manner of convolution, several speci- 
mens often become twisted among each other. 

We have no Vermetus on our own shores. Its southern limit is in the 
Lusitanian portion of the Mediterranean, and it reaches to Australia, but 
of its geographical range little is at present known. D'Orbigny describes 
a species from South America; and Dr. Gould includes the Senegal V. 
lumbricalis among the molluscan fauna of Massachusetts.* 



1. amvulus, Rous. 

2. arenarius, Quoy. 

3. bicai*inatus, Desk. 

4. dentifera, Quoy. 

5. eburneus, Reeve. 

6. gigas, Bivon. 



Species. 

7. glomeratus, Bivon. 13. subcancellatus, Biv. 

8. Knorri, Besh. 14. tenuis, Rous. 

9. lumbricalis, Lam. 15. triqueter, Biv. 

10. Nova3-Hollandia3j.KoMS.16. tulipa, Rous. 

11. pellucidus, Brod. 17. varians, B'Orb. 

12. semisurrectus, Biv. 



Figure. 



Vermetus eburneus. PI. 22. Pig. 130. Shell, showing its loose, de- 
tached mode of convolution. 



* " A very fine group was hooked up by a friend in New Bedford Harbour, containing not less 
than fifty individuals inseparably intertwined. The living animals then occupied them." — Invert. 
Mass., p. 247. 



VOL. II. 



10 



Genus 2. SILIQUARIA. 

Animal ; head distinct, having two small tentacles with eyes at 
their bases ; branchice consisting of simple filaments placed be- 
neath the left lobe of the mantle, which is slit throughout. 

Shell ; tubular, irregularly loosely convoluted, having a slit through- 
out, which is sometimes a little articulated. 

It was some time after the discovery of the molluscan character of Ver- 
metus that the Lamarckian SiUquaria (Serpula anguina, Linn., and Ser- 
pula muricata, Born) were found to be similarly organized. The shell of 
SiUquaria, especially S. muricata, as may be seen by our figure, is of more 
irregular, Serpula-like growth ; yet it has the molluscan type of a prede- 
termined maturity, and the slit, which constitutes its principal generic 
feature, as distinguished from Vermetus, is the homologue of the slit in 
Fissurella and Emargimda and of the row of holes in Haliotis. It in 
fact covers a corresponding fissure in the left lobe of the mantle, adapted 
to the passage of the branchise, which in this mollusk take the form of 
protruding filaments. 

SiUquaria ranges with Vermetus in the eastern hemisphere, but is more 
limited in species. None have as yet been found on the American shores. 



Species. 

1 . anguina, Lamarck. 4. laevigata, Lam. 6. papillosa, Rees. 

2. australis, Qi/oi/. 5. muricata, Bing. 7. squamata, Blainv. 

3. lactea, Lam. 



Figure. 

Siliquaria muricata. PI. 23. Fig. 136. Shell, showing the slit, which 
passes through its entire length, and may be observed towards the 
apex to be partially articulated. 



Family 2. MACROSTOMATA. 

Shell ; only slightly convoluted, sometimes perforated with a row 
of holes. 

The Lamarckian system of classification does not apply with accuracy to 
this part of the series. The family Macrostomata, even with the changes 



11 

we have felt necessary to make, not only includes genera differing so ma- 
terially from each other that they might be regarded as types of separate 
families, but species which should constitute separate genera. Neither 
Dr. Gray, Professor Forbes, nor the Messrs. Adams agree as to the natural 
affinities of the Lamarckian Macrostomata, and the discrepancy of these 
authors' views leads me to the conviction that the time is not yet ripe for 
deciding their exact place in the system. The genera are — 

Haliotis. Neeitopsis. Velutina. 

Stomatella. Narica. 



Genus 1. HALIOTIS, Linnceus. 

Animal ; shaped like the shell, its head terminating in a short 
muzzle, and bearing two subulate tentacles and two stout eye 
peduncles at their external bases ; a fimbriated lobe between 
the tentacles, apparently continuous with the fimbriated and 
cirrhated lateral lobes of the body ; lateral cirrhi numerous ; 
foot very large, oblong, rounded at the extremities, bearing on 
its upper extremity a rudimentary operculigerous lobe, but no 
operculum; branchial plumes, two. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; ovate, ear-shaped, flat, with a small, lateral, depressed 
spire, pearly and richly prismatic within, roughly ribbed or 
wrinkled without, rarely smooth ; left side more or less angu- 
lated, perforated along the angle by a row of holes ; left lip 
inflexed, flattened ; right lip simple ; aperture very large, wide 
open. 

Haliotis is curiously intermediate in its characters between the Tarli- 
nacea, or Troclms family, and the tribe of fissured Limpets. On referring 
to our figure of //. tuberculata in Plate 7, it will be seen that the animal 
is encompassed by a cirrhated lobe, and it also possesses, as in Troclms, 
a head-veil ; but on the other hand, the branchiae are as plumes in con- 
nection with filaments passing through a slit in the mantle, over which the 
shell is slit as in Fissurella and Emarginula, and, as we have just seen, in 
S'diquaria. The number of pallial filaments being alike in any individual 
of the same species through all its stages of growth, the shell has only so 
many of its holes open at one time ; as the filaments advance with the 
growth of the animal, new holes are formed in the additions made to the 
shell, and the old ones are filled up. 

The interior of the ' Ear Shells ' is lined with a pearly nacre of peculiar 



12 

brilliancy and iridescence, glowing with all the colours of the rainbow. 
Attention must, however, be given to the outer crust of the shell for the 
discrimination of species. The varieties of situation and tubular excres- 
cence are often very characteristic. The number of perforations varies in 
different species, but, as we have just stated, they are alike in individuals 
of the same species; where an exception occurs, it is that there are some- 
times one, or at most two, less in the adult than in the young shell. When 
the animal is growing it has one or two holes open in arrear of the number 
required, and on reaching maturity the holes are filled up. 

It is a curious circumstance in the geographical description of the Ha- 
liotides, that few, if any, are to be found where Chitons abound, as if they 
exchange places to a certain extent in the two hemispheres. There are a 
few species of Haliolis in California ; but along the western coast of South 
America, where Chitons are most abundant, not a single species has been 
observed; and only one small species, H. pulcherrima, has been collected 
at any of the islands of the Pacific. They inhabit the shores cf China, 
Japan, Ceylon, Mozambique, the Cape Colony, Borneo, and the Philippine 
Islands ; but the greater number, and most striking, of the species are 
from New Zealand and Australia, displaying all that speciality and strange- 
ness of design which is so characteristic of the general natural history of 
those colonies. The nearest approach of the genus to our own shores is 
in the H. tuberculata of Guernsey, which is sold in the fish-market as an 
article of food.* They are found at low water attached to the under-sur- 
face of fragments of rock, and on the least alarm they fix themselves by 
suction with the force of a Limpet. 



1. albicans, Quoy. 

2. ancile, Reeve. 

3. aquatilis, id. 

4. asinina, Lin. 

5. astricta, Reeve. 

6. bistriata, Gmel. 

7. Californiensis, Swain. 

8. clathatra, Reeve. 

9. coccinea, id. 

10. coccoradiata, id. 

11. concinna, id. 



Species. 

12. corrugata, Gray. 

13. Cracherodii, Leach. 

14. cruenta, Reeve. 

15. Cunninghami, Gray. 

16. discus, Reeve. 

17. diversicolor, id. 

18. Dringii, id. 

19. elegans, Koch. 

20. Emmse, Gray. 

21. excavata, Lam. 

22. funebris, Reeve. 



23. gemma, Reeve. 

24. gibba, Phil. 

25. gigantea, Che in. 

26. glabra, id. 

27. incisa, Reeve. 

28. iris, Gmel. 

29. Jacnensis, Reeve. 

30. Janus, id. 

31. Japonica, id. 

32. Kamtschatkana, Jonas. 

33. lamellosa, Lam. 



* While dining one day with a well-known naturalist and antiquary of Guernsey, Mr. F. C. 
Lukis, an entremet of Haiiotis tuberculata was served. I had understood they possessed the 
delicacy of a veal cutlet, but on endeavouring vainly to masticate one, they reminded me more of 
what might be the taste of a dish of little duodecimo Latin grammars. 



13 



34. lauta, Reeve. 

35. Maria?, Gray. 

36. marmorata, id. 

37. Midse, Lin. 

38. multiperforata, Reeve. 

39. naevosa, Martyn. 

40. nebulata, Reeve. 

41. ovina, C%«?a. 

42. papulata, Reeve. 

43. parva, im. 

44. pertusa, Reeve. 

45. planilirata, e^. 

46. pxdcherrima, Martyn. 

47. pustulata, Reeve. 



48. reticulata, Reeve. 

49. Roei, Gray. 

50. rosacea, Reeve. 

51. rubicunda, Gray. 

52. rubiginosa, Reeve. 

53. rufescens, Swain. 

54. rugosa, Reeve. 

55. rugoso-plicata, C%m. 

56. sanguinea, i/c/«/. 

57. scutidum, Reeve. 

58. semistriata, z^. 

59. sepiculata, «¥. 

60. Sieboldii, id. 



61. speciosa, Reeve. 

62. splendens, i^. 

63. squamata, id. 

64. squamosa, GVay. 

65. Stomatiseformis, Reeve. 

66. striata, Zz». 

67. Tayloriana, Reeve. 

68. tubercidata, Lin. 

69. varia, irf. 

70. virginea, Ckem. 

71. viridis, Reeve. 

72. Zelandica, i<?. 

73. ziczac, id. 



Figures. 

Haliotis tuberctjlata. PI. I. Fig. 4. Animal, showing its encircling 
cirrhated lobe and tentacles. 

Haliotis EmmyE. PL 23. Fig. 131. Shell, of a species from Australia, 
named by Dr. Gray after his accomplished lady, showing the irides- 
cent pearly lining of the interior. 



Genus 2. STOMATELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; head broad, proboscidiform ; tentacles subulate, with a 

fimbriated lobe at their inner bases ; eyes on peduncles at the 

outer bases of the tentacles ; mantle with the front edge entire ; 

muscle of attachment crescentic, open in front ; foot, with a 

fringed lateral membrane. (Adams.) 

Shell ; more or less ear-shaped, imperforate, externally smooth or 
sculptured, and mostly bright-coloured, internally pearly ; aper- 
ture very large, wide open. 

A brilliantly-coloured group of small species, partaking of the character 
of Trochus and Haliotis, but considerably removed from the typical form 
of either genus. The animal resembles that of Trochus in having a fim- 
briated lobe or veil in front, while the shell is that of Haliotis without the 
holes, the mantle of the animal not being slit in front. Some of the 
species are operculated and some not. Those without an operculum con- 
stitute Dr. Gray's genus Gena. The species separated by Lamarck under 
the name Stomatia present no apparent difference beyond a wrinkling of 



14 



the shell. Australia and the Philippine Islands are the chief recorded 
habitats.* 



1. acuminata, Ad. 

2. angulata, id. 

3. Arabica, id. 

4. articulata, id. 

5. asperulata, id. 

6. Baconi, id. 

7. bicarinata, id. 

8. bifurcata, id. 

9. calliostoma, id. 

10. cancellata, Krauss. 

11. Candida, Ad. 

12. concinna, Gould. 
12. coccinea, Ad. 

14. Cumingii, id. 

15. decussata, id. 

16. duplicata, Sowb. 

17. fulgurans, ^rf. 



Species. 

18. haliotoidea, /Sb^. 

19. imbricata, Lam. 

20. Japonica, ^J. 

21. liueata, id. 

22. lintricula, «/. 

23. lirata, id. 

24. lutea, Linn. 

25. maculata, Zr?^. 

26. Malukana, Ad. 

27. margaritana, zV. 

28. nionilifera, id. 

29. nebulosa, id. 

30. nigra, Q«oy. 

31. notata, Ad. 

32. orbiculata, «¥. 

33. ornata, id. 



34. pallida, Ad. 

35. papyracea, CA#». 

36. phymotis, Helblin. 

37. planulata, Zam. 

38. pluinbea, Adm. 

39. pulchella, id. 

40. rubra, £«/«.. 

41. sanguinea, Ad. 

42. speciosa, £<Z 

43. splendida, id. 

44. stria tula, id. 

45. strigosa, z'^. 

46. sulcifera, Lam. 

47. tigrina, ^/. 

48. tuberculata, id. 

49. varia, id. 



Figure. 

Stomatella (Stomatia) phymotis. PL 22. Fig. 125. Shell, showing 
its imperforate ear-shape and pearly interior. 



Genus 3. NERITOPSIS, Sowerby. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; Nerite-shaped, toith the columella curiously broadly notched 
near the middle, white ; operculum thin, horny. 

The animal of this genus is not as yet known; but naturalists are 
pretty well agreed on the place it should occupy in the system. Formerly 
it was regarded as a member of the Nerite family, but now it is pronounced 
to be intermediate between Stomatella and Narica. The old Nerita 
radula of Linnaeus is still the only recent species. The most striking 

* " In their habits these mollusks are littoral, living on coral reefs and among stones between 
tide-marks ; the finest species prefer coral reefs exposed to the action of the waves. Some of 
the genera, as Gena and Stomatia, have considerable locomotive powers and glide (especially 
Gena) with some degree of celerity. The latter genus and Stomatia possess the faculty, common 
to some other kinds of mollusca, of spontaneously detaching a considerable portion of the hind 
part of the foot when disturbed or irritated." — A. Adams, in T/ies. Conch., part xv. p. 828. 



15 

peculiarity of the shell is a broad notch in the columella, which has all the 
appearance of being broken. 

Mr. Cuming collected several of the only species known {Nerita radula, 
Linnaeus) at the Philippine Islands, but never met with any but dead 
specimens. 



Figure. 

Neritopsis kadula. PI. 16. Pig. 85. Shell, showing its granuled sculp- 
ture and peculiar notch in the columella. 



Genus 4. NARICA, Becluz. 

Animal ; head with the tentacles subulate, having eyes sessile on 
their outer bases ; foot small, circular, with a dilated iving-like 
expansion on each side, produced in front into a lobe. 

Shell ; subglobose, slightly umbilicated, white ; spire short ; last 
whorl rather inflated ; aperture rounded ; lip simple, with the 
margins nearly entire. 

The original type of this genus is a shell figured by Chemnitz with the 
name Nerita cancellata. Lamarck, observing it to be of light, latticed, 
chalk-white substance, slightly umbilicated, included it in Sigaretus. MM. 
Quoy and Gaimard met with living specimens during the voyage of the 
' Astrolabe/ and referred it to Velutina. They, however, expressed their 
opinion that it might be set apart for the formation of a new genus, and 
suggested Yanihoro, the name of one of the islands of the Pacific. The 
rules of our nomenclature will not allow of the use of this term, — as well 
might a genus be named Great Britain or Ireland, — and I therefore adopt 
the name of Narica, subsequently proposed for it by M. Recluz. In the 
'Revue de la Societe Cuvierienne ' for 1844, that naturalist, who has paid 
particular attention to the families of the Nerita, Sigareti, and their allies, 
published a monograph of the Narica, and we have now a very natural 
assemblage of twenty-six species. 



Species. 

1. acuta, Recluz. 4. cidaris, Recluz. 7. Cuvieriana, Recluz. 

2. Blainvilleana, id. 5. clathrata, id. 8. Deshayesiana, id. 

3. cancellata, Chemn. 6. Cumingiana, id. 9. distans, id. 



16 



10. Gaimardi, Adams. 

11. granulosa, Rectus. 

12. Gueriniana, id. 

13. helicoidea, Le Guill. 
1-i. lamellosa, If Orb. 

15 . ligata, Recluz. 



16. Mauritiana, Recluz. 

17. Orbignyana, id. 

18. Petitiana, zV?. 

19. plicata, id. 

20. Quoyi, id. 

21. rosea, e'c?. 



22. rugata, Adams. 

23. Sigaretiformis, Po£. 

24. Souleyetiana, Recluz. 

25. striata, B'Orb. 

26. sulcata, i<#. 



Figure, 

Narica cancellata. PL 16. Fig. 81. Shell, showing its white, can- 
cellated substance and light umbilicated growth. 



Genus 5. VELUTINA, Fleming. 

Animal ; bulky ; head short, broad, bearing two rather obtuse, 
subulate tentacles, separated at their bases by the breadth of 
the head ; on bulgings at their origins externally are the eyes ; 
proboscis retractile ; mantle ample, thick, more or less reflected 
on the shell all round ; foot large, obtusely quadrate in front, 
rounded behind ; branchial plumes two. (Forbes.) 

Shell; subglobose, thin, more or less coriaceous, slightly umbili- 
cated, covered with a thin epidermis ; whorls few ; spire short; 
last whorl ventricose ; aperture large, rounded, entire ; lip 
simple. 

A genus of light, inflated, rosy-mouth shells, of northern habitation, 
dwelling at low-water mark, and often far out at sea at considerable depth, 
chiefly in the Arctic and boreal provinces of Europe and North America. 
Linnajus, uninformed of the strictly marine nature of this mollusk, in- 
cluded the species known to him in his genus Helix ; but his contem- 
porary, Miiller, referred it, more naturally, to Bulla. The shell is of rather 
fragile substance, with mostly only a very slight secretion of calcareous 
matter beneath the epidermis. We include two nearly allied forms de- 
scribed by British authors in the genera Lamellaria and Otina. 



1. antarctica, Couth. 

2. capuloidea, Blainv. 



Species. 

3. Caspiensis, Adams. 

4. conacea, Pallas. 



5. cryptospira, Midd. 

6. glacialis, Couth. 



17 

7. laevigata, Linn. 10. praetenuis, Couth. 12. tuberculosa, Adams. 

8. perspicua, id. 11. Sitkensis, Adams. 13. zonata, Gould. 

9. plicatilis, Milll. 



Figure. 

Velutina laevigata. PL 22. Fig. 124. Shell, showing its light, in- 
flated, coriaceous structure. 



Family 3. CAPULACEA. 

Shell ; conoid or cap-shaped, sometimes resting on a shelly plate, 
and mostly furnished with an internal shelly appendage. 

Two very natural groups of Limpets are associated in this family, con- 
nected, nevertheless, by a character in the animal of secreting from the 
foot a shelly basal plate in its place of attachment. The first comprehends 
two genera, Pileopsis and Hipponyx, whose shells have more the form of a 
cap. They have no internal appendage, and are mostly parasites upon 
other shells. The second group, which comprehends the interesting series 
of Cup-and-Saucer and Slipper Limpets, known as the Calyptraidae, have 
all an internal shelly appendage, varying from a slender half-funnel, and 
largely developed cup, to a laterally compressed fold, and spirally cham- 
bered trochiform septum, or a cross deck. The genera are — 

Pileopsis. Calyptilea. Trochita. 

Hipponyx. Crucibulum. Crepidula.. 



Genus 1. PILEOPSIS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; ivith a head produced into a, proboscidiform muzzle ; 

tentacles two, long, subulate, unconnected, with the eyes or 

bulgings at their external bases ; mantle fringed at the margin; 

branchial plume single ; foot strong, suborbicular, its sides 

plain. 
Shell ; cap-shaped , obliquely conical, covered with a soft velvety 

epidermis, with the vertex incurved ; aperture largely dilated. 

The well-known Hungarian Cap Limpet, which is an inhabitant of our 
shores, and ranges throughout the European seas from Norway to the 
Mediterranean, represents a genus numbering many foreign species which 

VOL. II. D 



18 

have not yet been described. They are distinguished by their conical form 
rising into an incurved apex, and by the first indication of a faculty pos- 
sessed by some of this family of secreting a shelly plate or filmy approxi- 
mation to one on their place of attachment. Of this we shall find a full 
development in Hippony.r, and a still more perfect one in Calyplraa. The 
British Pileopsis is mostly found attached to Oysters and Scallops. 



Species. 

1. astericola, Ad. fy R. 4. paleaceus, Meuke. 7. sagittiferus, Gould. 

2. crystallmus, Gould. 5. pilosus, Desk. 8. Ungaricus, Linn. 

3. militaris, Linn. 6. radiatus, Sars. 



Figure. 

Pileopsis Ungaricus. PI. 23. Pig. 138. Shell, showing its widely, 
conical, cap-like form rising into an oblique incurved apex. 



Genus 2. HIPPONYX. 

Animal ; similar to that of Pileopsis. 

Shell ; obliquely cap-shaped, mostly supported on a shelly plate, 
shell and plate both exhibiting horse-shoe muscular impressions. 

To any one accustomed to examine dead and broken shells for the sake 
of the parasites to be found on them, Hipponyx will be a familiar genus. 
The species both from the Eastern and Western seas of the tropical and 
subtropical zones are numerous, but few of them have been described, and 
the genus is much in want of the services of a monographer. There are 
none in the European seas, and so little is the apparent zoological differ- 
ence between this and the preceding group, so far as their characters are 
known, that Hipponyx might fairly be merged into Pileopsis. The shells 
are smaller, and mainly distinguished by the presence of a strong horse- 
shoe muscular impression, which is repeated on the surface of the basal 
plate* 

* " Of this remarkable genus Mr. Cuming brought home three species, in such perfect condition 
ns respects the shell, as to possess both valves in situ. The two specimens which exhibit these 
three species appear to me so interesting that I shall venture upon a particular description of 
them. The first, of the species which I have named Hijip. Mitrula, is a group of about twenty 
individuals, of various sizes, from ■£$ to i an inch in diameter, adhering by their lower or fiat 
valves to an irregular piece of stone ; the attached valves, as usual, are conformed to the irregu- 
larities of the surface of the stone, and when they have been at first attached to a cavity, they 



19 



1. acuta, Qaoy. 

2. antiquata, Linn. 

3. ausiralis, Q/ioy. 

4. barbata, Soto. 

5. conica, Schum. 



Species. 

6. foliacea, Quoy. 

7. granulosa, Adams. 

8. imbricata, Gould. 

9. Mitrula, Sow. 
10. orientalis, Dufo. 



11. Panamensis, C. 5. ^. 

12. radiata, Q«oy. 

13. subrufa, Mart. 

14. Ticaonica, Sow. 

15. trigona, Crme£. 



Genus 3. CALYPTRJEA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; with a broad and slightly produced muzzle ; tentacles 
two, rather short, lanceolate, unconnected, with the eyes on 
bulgings at their external bases ; mantle with a simple edge ; 
branchial plume single; foot suborbicular, slightly angled in 
front ; its sides plain, sometimes secreting a basal plate. 

Shell ; globosely conical, thin, irregular, generally beaked at the 
top, transparent-white, radial ely densely very minutely striated, 
with an internal, oblique, semifunnel-shaped apjjendage. 

The Cup-and-Saucer Limpets associated by Lamarck under this head 
require to be separated into three genera. Calyptraa, in its restricted 
sense, includes thirty-three species, all having a shell of peculiarly fine, 
semitransparent, thread-like tissue, with a slender, erect internal appen- 
dage, like the half-section of a funnel, and some of the species secrete a 
well-formed basal plate. The larger Lamarckian Calyjdrcece, having an in- 
ternal appendage in the form of a distinct cup, are included under genus 
Crucibulum ; and those in which the internal appendage forms a trochoid 
septum, under genus Trochita. 

The circumstances which led to the necessity of making this change are 

are hollow : the upper valves are also somewhat modified in form by the same cause, so as to be 
more or less regular according as the lower valve has adhered to a more or less smooth and even 
part of the stone. The attached valves have not attained a great degree of thickness, conse- 
quently I do not suppose any one of the individuals to be of advanced age ; there are, however, 
several which can only just have occupied their positions on the stone : these are not above 
-£s part of an inch in diameter, and they show the perfect point of the upper valve, somewhat 
convoluted aud inclined toward the anterior edge. Other individuals, which are placed in a 
cavity of the stoue, are very regular in shape, but have their ridges slightly curved upwards 
in conformity with the nearly regular vesicular shape of the cavity The edges of the lamella 
near the outer margin in most of the specimens are furnished with a thin fringe of epidermis, 
but the very young shells are destitute of this. An individual of Hipp, subrufa is observable 
among the group of Hipp. Mitrula : its apex is distinctly spiral and its epidermis hairy. 

" The second specimen belongs to the species which I have named Hipp, barbata. This is 
a very complete specimen, and reminds me of the beautiful fossil species Hipp. Cornucopia ; 
it is a small individual, having its attached valve very much thickened and adhering to a much 
larger one of the same species ; its edge is much elevated, and it is deeply concave ; the free 
valve is rather smaller, and conical, and its edge is surrounded by the elevated edge of the 
attached valve." — -Sowerby, Pro. Zool. Soc, 1835, p. 4. 



20 



of interest. When Mr. Cuming visited the Island of Zebu, one of the 
Philippine group, about twenty years since, he observed on some coral 
reefs a number of dead shells of Calyptrcea equestris. Supposing that 
living specimens could not be far off, he was induced, after much search, 
to turn over a mass of coral that lay sunk about two feet in the sand just 
below low-water mark. To his surprise he found the living C. equestris 
attached by the foot to a separate calcareous plate. Upon further search 
he discovered specimens of other species similarly attached, and some also 
at the Island of Bohol ; and having secured the animal, he submitted it to 
Professor Owen for dissection. The phenomenon was observed about the 
same time at Mahe, one of the Seychelle Islands, by a distinguished French 
conchologist, M. Dufo ; but no dissection appears to have been made by 
him of the animal. Professor Owen found it to differ from other forms of 
Calyptraidce " in the smaller development of its locomotive and respiratory 
organs, and the greater development of the organs for the prehension and 
assimilation of food." "The foot," continues the Professor, "may well 
offer diminished proportions when the animal has chosen a site for the de- 
position of its ventral plate and has taken up a fixed abode. Muscular 
action being thenceforward much restricted, the necessity for extensive 
respiration is in the same degree abolished." 



1. aculeata, Reeve. 

2. Adamsii, id. 

3. alveolata, A. Ad. 

4. Balanoides, Reeve. 

5. bulla, id. 

6. cancellata, Ad. fy R. 

7. cepacea, Brod. 

8. cicatricosa, Reeve. 

9. cornea, Brod. 

10. corragata, id. 

11. cyathella, Reeve. 



Species. 

12. diaphana, Reeve. 

13. donnitoria, id. 

14. equestris, Linn. 

15. fibulata, Reeve. 

16. Hipponicifonnis, id. 

17. Layardi, id. 

18. Martiniana, id. 

19. ossea, id. 

20. papyracea, A. Ad. 

21. porosa, Reeve. 

22. Roissyi, Dufo. 



23. sacchari-meta, Reeve. 

24. scabris, id. 

25. scutulum, id. 

26. stella, id. 

27. stultorum, id. 

28. tectum- Sinense, Ch. 

29. tortilis, Reeve. 

30. umbo, id. 

31. uncinata, id. 

32. Vanikorensis, Quo//. 

33. varia, Brod. 



Figure. 

CALYPTRiEA equestris. PI. 24. Fig. 139. Shell, in its place of attach- 
ment on the rock, lifted to show the basal plate. — From Mr. Cuming's 
Collection. 



21 



Genus 4. CRUCIBULUM, Schumacher. 

Animal ; similar to that of Calyptrsea, but with the foot larger 

and rounded. 
Shell ; ovate or orbicular, sometimes depressed, sometimes conoid, 

radiately ribbed or ridge-striated, sometimes spined, with the 

top mostly near the centre ; internal appendage cup-shaped, 

sometimes laterally compressed. 

This genus, founded in 1817 by the eminent astronomer and naturalist 
Schumacher, is retained for that section of the Lamarckian Calyptraa in 
which the internal appendage takes the form of a cup ; and it is sometimes 
free and sometimes laterally compressed and attached. Concomitant with 
this there is a marked generic difference in the shell compared with the 
Calyptrcece proper, being of more solid growth, and having no trace of 
transparent thread-like tissue. It differs, nevertheless, remarkably accord- 
ing to locality, mode of attachment, and situation of habitat. A few of 
the species have been described several times over, especially C. spinosum. 
Sometimes the shell of this species is largely spined, sometimes only fur- 
nished with fine prickles ; sometimes it is stout and convex, sometimes 
almost flat, and the colour is equally variable. Without an extended series 
of individuals from all parts of its geographical range it is impossible to 
determine the limits of such a species satisfactorily. 

The Crucibula eminently belong to the New World. One or two small 
species have been collected in the Eastern seas, but all those of mark are 
from California and the western shores of South and Central America. 









Species. 






1. 


auriculatum, Chem. 


9. 


morbidum, Reeve. 


17. 


spinosum, Sow. 


2. 


auritum, Reeve. 


10. 


pectinatum, Carp. 


18. 


striatum, Say. 


3. 


concameratum, id. 


11. 


radiatum, Brod. 


19. 


tenue, Brod. 


4. 


corrugatum, Carp. 


12. 


rugosum, Desk. 


20. 


trigouale, Ad. 8f R. 


5. 


extinctorum, Lam. 


13. 


scutellatuni, Gray. 


21. 


umbrella, Desk. 


6. 


ferrugineum, Reeve. 


14. 


serratum, Brod. 


22. 


verrucosum, Reeve. 


7. 


imbricatum, Brod. 


15. 


sordidum, id. 


23. 


violaceum, Carp. 


8. 


lividum, Reeve. 


16. 


spectrum, Reeve. 







Figure. 

Grucibulum rugosum. PI. 23. Fig. 134. Shell of an unusually deep 
bonnet-shaped species, showing a large, well-defined, internal cup. 



22 



Genus 5. TROCHITA, Schumacher. 

Animal ; similar to that of Calyptraea. 

Shell ; conical, sometimes inclining to spiral ; internal appendage 

somewhat lateral and effused, sometimes trochoid, reaching to 

the margin. 

In this genus the internal appendage takes the form of a spiral septum 
of trochoid growth. In some species, as in T. radians, spirata, and cly- 
peolum the appendage reaches to the margin ; in others, as in T. conica, 
subreflexa, and Sinensis, the appendage is comparatively small, lateral, and 
effused. The last constitute Dr. Gray's genus Galerus. 

The western coasts of South and Central America and Australia are the 
principal habitats of this genus. One species, T. Sinensis, is found in 
Britain, but only as a straggler on the southern shores. 



1. aspersa, C. B. Adams. 

2. Calyptraeformisj Lam. 

3. clypeolum, Reeve. 

4. conica, Brod. 

5. corrugata, Reeve. 



Species, 

6. lichen, Brod. 

7. macnlata, Q"o>/. 

8. inainillaris, Brod. 

9. pellucida, Reeve. 
10. poculuin, id. 



11. radians, Lam. 

12. Sinensis, Linn. 

13. solida, Reeve. 

14. spirata, Forbes. 

15. subreflexa, Carp. 



Genus 6. CREPIDULUM, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Calyptraea. 

Shell ; ovate or oblong, gradually oblique, smooth exteriorly, rarely 
ribbed, with the apex mostly marginal and more or less beaked, 
interiorly holloio, with a horizontal deck-like lamina, sometimes 
notched at the side. 

The Slipper Limpets are of a more oblong form than the Cup-and-Saucer 
Limpets, and the internal appendage takes the form of a transverse deck. 
The species are prettily marked, and mostly smooth, but there are one or 
two very beautiful exceptions ; C. costata and aculeata are ribbed and 
densely beset with prickles, whilst in C. Lessonii the shell is disposed in a 
series of delicately fringed laininae. 

They are chiefly inhabitants of the New World. 



23 



1. aculeata, Gmel. 

2. adunca, Soto. 

3. Ajilysioides, Reeve. 

4. arcuata, Brod. 

5. bilobata, Gray. 

6. convexa, Say. 

7. costata, Desk. 

8. dilatata, Lam. 

9. excavata, Brod. 
10. exuviata, Nutt. 



Species. 

11. fimbriata, Reeve. 

12. foliacea, Tfrot?. 

13. fornicata, Linn. 

14. glauca, /Say. 

15. hepatica, Desk. 

16. incurva, 5roJ. 

17. Lessonii, id. 

18. lirata, Reeve. 

19. marginalia, _Z?ro^. 

20. Nautiloides, Less. 



21. onyx, /Sow. 

22. pallida, Brod. 

23. porcellana, Linn. 

24. rostrata, C. i?. Adams. 

25. rugosa, iV?^. 

26. scabies, Reeve. 

27. squama, Z?/*o^. 

28. unguiformis, Lam. 

29. Walshi, Herm. 



Figures. 

Crepidula costata. PL 23. Fig. 135. Shell of a finely-developed ribbed 
species, showing the internal appendage modified into a cross deck. 



Family 4. FISSURACEA. 

Shell ; dish-shaped or conical, not spiral, perforated or notched 
or siphonated. 

In dividing the class of Gastropods into Orders according to the struc- 
ture and position of the branchiae, the arrangement up to this point is na- 
tural enough ; but now the systematist finds himself a little perplexed. 
" It would seem/' says Prof. Forbes, " to be a law, in both animal and 
vegetable kingdoms, that no character, whether of structure or form, pre- 
serves an equal value in every tribe, but varies in its importance ; in one 
group characterizing a class, in another scarcely determining a species." 
The several kinds of Limpets which come into our present Order, Cervico- 
hranchiata, on account of the branchiae being contained within a cavity of 
the neck, include a somewhat miscellaneous assemblage of genera, as much 
distinguished from one another in many important particulars as they are 
from the Patellce, or true Limpets, which are included, after the method of 
Cuvier, in a separate Order along with the Chitons, on account of the 
branchiae being placed around the body beneath the edge of the mantle. 

The Fissuracea, so named after the principal characteristic of the group, 
have their shells either perforated at the apex or in front, or at the front 
margin ; and to the fissured Limpets must be temporarily referred the 
genus Siphonaria, of which the shells exhibit the mark of a siphon, as well 
as Acmaa and Gadinia, of which the shells cannot well be distinguished 



24 

from Patella without a knowledge of the soft parts of each individual 
species. The fissure mainly answers the purpose of a vent ; but it is stated 
by some writers to aid also in the conveyance of water to the branchial 
cavity. 

The genera are — 

PlSSURELLA. PaRMOPHORUS. ACMiEA. 

Emarginula. Siphonaria. Gadinia. 



Genus 1. FISSURELLA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; with a short muzzle terminating a tumid head, bearing 
two subulate tentacles, at the external bases of which are the 
eyes placed on rudimentary pedicles ; a range of numerous cirrhi 
around the sides at the base of the very large foot ; mantle pro- 
duced i?i front, with a fringe of cirrhi above its margin; anal 
siphon in the form of a short, truncated, membranous canal, 
projecting from the apical aperture of the shell : branchial 
plumes two. 

Shell ; depressly conical, ovate or oblong-ovate, shield-shaped, ge- 
nerally attenuated anteriorly, radiately striated or ribbed, per- 
forated at the summit ; orifice oblong or nearly orbicular, some- 
times contracted, sometimes excavated at the sides, most fre- 
quently inclined anteriorly. 

The Fissurella, or Key-Hole Limpets, form a very attractive group for 
the conchologist. Their shells are for the most part large and gaily painted, 
and in the smaller species the deficiency of painting is often compensated 
by an elaborate lattice of sculpture. The orifice at the summit of the 
shell, which inclines more or less towards the front, and has a fold pass- 
ing out of it in connection with the vent of the animal, varies materi- 
ally in form in different species, but is always the same in the different 
individuals of a species. It is mostly oblong, sometimes a little excavated 
at the sides, but more frequently contracted in the middle in such a man- 
ner as to give a somewhat toothed character to the margin. 

On reference to our figures in Plate I. of F. maxima and megatrema, it 
will be seen that the comparative size between the animal and its shell is 
variable in the extreme. The shell in most cases forms a complete cover- 
ing to the animal, and while the disk is furnished with warts and papillse, 
the mantle is more or less elaborately fringed at the edge. Whereas in 
M. D'Orbigny's subgenus Fissurellidea, the soft parts are immensely en- 



25 

larged, the shell, imbedded in the thickened mantle, has quite a rudimen- 
tary appearance. The orifice of the shell is in such instances enlarged 
according to the proportions of the animal. In another form of Fissurella, 
allied to this, genus MacrocJdsma of Swainson, the fecal orifice is stretched, 
so to speak, nearly to the anterior basal margin. Some of the Fissurella, 
more especially those of conical form, have the vertex subspiral and a little 
inflected, and in all there is an indication of this structure in an early 
stage of growth. With the advance of growth the orifice becomes enlarged, 
and the subspiral vertex disappears. 

The geographical range of the Fissurella is considerable, but the genus, 
commencing with a single species on our own shores, F. reticulata, is but 
poorly represented in the eastern hemisphere. The large gaily-painted 
species inhabit the western coast of South America, and are found in com- 
parative abundance from California down to Patagonia and the Falkland 
Isles. 



Species. 



1. aculeata, Reeve. 

2. iEgis, id. 

3. sequalis, Sow. 

4. alabastrites, Reeve. 

5. alternata, Soy. 

6. aperta, Soio. 

7. aspera, id. 

8. asperella, id. 

9. atrata, Reeve. 

10. australis, Krauss. 

11. Balanoides, Reeve. 

12. Barbadensis, Sol. 

13. Candida, Sow. 

14. catillus, Reeve. 

15. Cayennensis, Lam. 

16. Ckemnitzii, Sow. 

17. clathrata. Reeve. 

18. ciypeus, Sow. 

19. coarctata, King. 

20. corapressa, Reeve. 

21. concinna, Phil. 

22. Conoides, Reeve. 

23. costata, Less. 

24. crassa, Lam. 

25. crenigera, Sow. 

26. crenulata, id. 
VOL. II. 



27. 


cruciata, Krauss. 


53. 


inaequalis, Sow. 


28. 


Cumingii, Reeve. 


54. 


Iucii, Reeve. 


29. 


cyathulum, id. 


55. 


Indusica, id. 


30. 


dactylosa, id. 


56. 


Jukesii, id. 


31. 


Darwinii, id. 


57. 


larva, id. 


32. 


densiclathrata, id. 


58. 


lata, Soto. 


33. 


digitale, id. 


59. 


lati-marginata, id. 


34. 


d ubia, id. 


60. 


leutiginosa, Reeve. 


35. 


Dysoni, id. 


61. 


limatula, id. 


36. 


edititia, id. 


62. 


limbata, Soto. 


37. 


elongata, Phil. 


63. 


Lincolni, Gray. 


38. 


excelsa, Reeve. 


64. 


Listen, LP Orb. 


39. 


exquisita, id. 


65. 


macrotrema, Sow. 


40. 


fascicularis, Lam. 


66. 


maxima, id. 


41. 


fimbriata, Reeve. 


67. 


Metcalfii, Reeve. 


42. 


fulvescens, Sow. 


68. 


Mexicana, Sow. 


43. 


fumata, Reeve. 


69. 


microtrerna, id. 


44. 


niniculata, id. 


70. 


muricata, Reeve. 


45. 


galericulum, id. 


71. 


mutabilis, Sow. 


46. 


gemmulata, id. 


72. 


mus, Reeve. 


47. 


gibberula, Lam. 


73. 


Natalensis, Krauss. 


48. 


glaucopis, Reeve. 


74. 


neglecta, Desk. 


49. 


grisea, id. 


75. 


nigra, Less. 


50. 


hiantula, Lam. 


76. 


nigriradiata, Reeve. 


51 


. Honduraseusis, Reeve 


. 77, 


. nigrita, Sow. 


52. 


Humphreyi, id. 


78. 


nigro-ocellata, Reeve. 
E 



26 



79. nigro-pimctata, Sow. 

80. nimbosa, Lin. 

81. nodosa, Born. 

82. obscura, Sow. 

83. obtusa, id. 

84. octagona, Reeve. 

85. olivacea, Gray. 

86. oriens, Soto. 

87. ostrina, Reeve. 

88. Panamensis, Sow. 

89. Peruviana, Zffra. 

90. Pbilippiana, Reeve. 



91. pica, £070 . 

92. picta, Gmel. 

93. Pileopsoides, Reeve. 

94. pulcbra, *S'o?p. 

95. pustula, Lin. 

96. quadriradiata, Reeve. 

97. reticulata, Dow. 

98. rota, Reeve. 

99. rugosa, £o?<?. 

100. Kupellii, id. 

101. sagittata, Reeve. 

102. salebrosa, zV7. 



103. scutella, Gray. 

104. Sieboldii, Reeve. 

105. Singaporensis, it/. 

106. stellata, it/. 

107. sufrusa, id. 

108. tegula, id. 

109. Ticaonica, it/. 

110. venusta, id. 

111. viminea, it/. 

112. virescens, Sow. 

113. viridula, Lam. 

114. volcano, Reeve. 



Figures. 

Fissurella maxima. PI. /. Fig. 1. Shell, with animal, showing the 
warts and papillse of the basal disc or foot, and fringed border of the 
margin extending over the shell's edge. — From the ' Voyage de l' As- 
trolabe.' 

Fissurella (Fissurellidea) megatrema. PI. /. Fig. 2. Animal of 
very enlarged proportions, with the shell of small size imbedded in 
the mantle. — From the ' Voyage dans VAmer. Merid.' 

Fissurella Bridgesii. PI. 24. Fig. 145. Shell, showing from the in- 
terior its dish-like form and key-hole orifice. 



Genus 2. EMARGINULA. 

Animal ; tvith a short muzzle, terminating a tumid head bearing 
two subulate tentacles, with subpeduncidated eyes at their exter- 
nal bases ; a range of cirrhi around the sides at the base of the 
foot ; mantle simple-edged : anal siphon with its angulated 
membranous sides projecting from the edges of the fissure ; 
branchial plumes two. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; conical or depressly conical, rayed or latticed without ; 
vertex incurved posteriorly ; front side or margin fissured. 

Under this head may be included all the fissured Limpets not referable 
to the preceding genus. We have seen that in Fissurella the orifice of 
the shell is central, and that, in its enlargement, the subspiral nucleus of 
the vertex becomes absorbed. In Emargimda the incurved vertex is pre- 
served, and the orifice is at the front basal edge of the shell, and takes the 



27 



form of a marginal slit, or of a mere sinus j the shells, too, are uniformly 
smaller. Two very small forms may be added, possessing good distinctive 
characters, Cemorla {Patella Noachiua, Linn.), with an inner shelly cham- 
ber, inhabiting our northern seas, in which the slit is diamond-shaped, and 
situated, as it were, in the neck of the subspiral vertex ; and Rimula, in- 
habiting the seas of the Philippine islands, in which the slit is situated 
midway between the vertex and the margin. Both were known to geolo- 
gists in a fossil state before living specimens were collected. 

The coloured Emarginulce are chiefly from Australia and the Philippine 
Islands. On our own shore the genus is well represented, in addition to 
the Cemoria* by three elaborately cancellated species conspicuously fissured 
at the margin. 



1. acuminata, Adams. 

2. alveolata, id. 

3. annulata, id. 

4. Arabica, id. 

5. aspera, Gould. 

6. Blainvillei, Befr. 

7. cancellata, Phil. 

8. Candida, Adams. 

9. carinata, id. 

10. catillus, id. 

11. clathrata, Ad. 8f R. 

12. cognata, Gould. 

13. conica, D'Orb. 

14. crassa, Sow. 

15. crassilabrum, Ad. 

16. cratitia, id. 

17. cucullata, Gould. 



Species. 

18. cuvirostris, Desh. 

19. denticulata, Ad. 

20. depressa, Blainv. 

21. exquisita, Ad. 

22. fastigiata, id. 

23. fissura, Linn. 

24. fissurata, Chemn. 

25. fungina, Gould. 

26. galeata, Adams. 

27. galeata, Gould. 

28. Huzardii, Payr. 

29. imbricata, Ad. 

30. lata, Quoy. 

31. Noachina, Linn. 

32. nodulosa, Adams. 

33. notata, Linn. 

34. octoradiata, Gmel. 



35. parmophoroidea, Quoy. 

36. polygonalis, Ad. 

37. princeps, Gould. 

38. propinqua, Ad. 

39. pumila, id. 

40. reticulata, Chemn. 

41. rosea, Bell. 

42. rubra, Lam. 

43. rudis, Adams. 

44. sculptilis, id. 

45. scutellaris, id. 

46. stella ta, id. 

47. striatula, Quoy. 

48. sulcifeva, Adams. 

49. tricarinata, Bom. 

50. Vanicorensis, Quoy. 



* " This very curious shell was first observed as a fossil by Linnaeus himself, in tbe pleistocene 
beds of Sweden. Not until of late years has it been taken alive, and British cabinets were for 
a long time supplied with specimens froni the pleistocene beds of the Clyde. Mr. Smith, of 
Jordan Hill, was the first to maintain its existence in the living state in the British seas. Ex- 
cept on the Northumberland coast, where it has been taken at Cullercoats by Mr. Alder, and in 
fifty fathoms sixty miles to the east of the north coast of Durham by Mr. King, its localities are 
all Scottish. It ranges in depth from twenty to one hundred fathoms, and occurs at intervals 
throughout the Hebrides and off the coast of Zetland. It is a species essentially of northern 
origin, and has now its chief habitats in arctic aud boreal seas, exteuding along the coast of 
Greenland, and down those of boreal America to Cape Cod. It dates its origin from the plei- 
stocene epoch, and can only be regarded as a lingerer in our existing seas." — Forbes and Man- 
fey, Brit. Moll., vol. ii. p. 476. 



28 



Figures 

Emarginula fissurata. PI. 23. Pig. 132. Shell, showing externally a 

small fissure at the upper front margin. 
Emarginula (Cemoria) Noaciiina. PL 23. Pig. 133. Shell, showing 

the diamond-shaped fissure behind the incurved vertex. 



Genus S. PARMOPHORUS, Be Blainville. 

Animal ; body thick and fleshy, having a white oblong shield-like 

shell upon its back, partially covered by a fold of the mantle ; 

head ivilh an elongated muzzle, and a pair of thick prominent 

tentacles, with eyes at their outer bases. 
Shell ; oblong, convexly depressed, shield-like, faintly cmarginaied 

in front, white, vertex minutely recurved. 

Parmophorus, both animal and shell, though much larger, is closely allied 
to Emarginula, but the soft parts are more fleshy in comparison, and the 
shell is partially covered in by a fold of the mantle. All the Parmophorus 
shells are of an oblong shield shape, and of a peculiar white composition. 
As in Emarginula, they are sinuated at the front edge, but the sinus is very 
superficial ; it never amounts to a fissure, and in some specimens is 
scarcely discernible. The animal, so far as may be gathered by MM. 
Quoy and Gaimard's figure of P. australis, is jet-black, presenting a strik- 
ing contrast with the shell. It inhabits shallow water where collected by 
Mr. Cuming at the Philippine Islands, and is found also on the shores of 
Australia and New Zealand. 



1. angustatus, Adams. 

2. Australis, Blainv. 

3. carinatus, Adams. 

4. cicatrieosus, id. 

5. cinereus, Gould. 

6. comiffatus, Reeve. 



Species. 

7. decussatus, Adams. 

8. elegans, Gray. 

9. elongatus, Lam. 
10. granulatus, Blainv. 



12. intermedins, Reeve. 

13. osseus, Gould. 

14. radiatus, Adams. 

15. tumidus, Quoy. 



11. imbricatus, Quoy. 16. unguis, Linn. 



Figures. 

Parmophorus Australis. PL M. Pig. 2. Animal, with the shell en- 
closed within a fold of the mantle. — From the ' Voyage de I' Astrolabe.' 



29 

Parmophorus granulatus. PL 25. Fig. 150. Shell, showing its mi- 
nutely recurved vertex and faint marginal sinus. 



Genus 4. SIPHONARIA, Sowerby. 

Animal; body oval, rather depressed; head subdivided into two 
equal lobes without tentacles or apparent eyes ; edges of the 
mantle crenulated ; branchiae in the form of a square membrane 
in the sinus formed on the right, between the foot and the mantle. 

Shell ; ovate, sometimes elevatehj conical, uncinate at the top, 
sometimes depressed, radiately ribbed or striated, denticulated 
at the margin ; interior exhibiting a siphonal impression. 

A very natural group of Limpets, in which the special characteristic of 
the animal, a branchial sinus on the right side, between the foot and the 
mantle, is accompanied by a corresponding siphonal impression on the 
inner surface of the shell. The conchologist, therefore, is enabled readily 
to distinguish them, and the species exhibit peculiarities of form and ge- 
neral aspect which strike the eye, independently of their leading generic 
character. The genus, of which nearly forty species have been described, 
is very generally distributed within the tropical and subtropical zones of 
both hemispheres. 

Species. 



1. 


sequilorata, Reeve. 


13. 


denticulata, Quoy. 


25. 


mora, Sow. 


2. 


amara, Nuttall. 


14. 


Diernensis, id. 


26. 


obliquata, id. 


3. 


atra, Quoy. 


15. 


ferruginea, Reeve. 


27. 


palpebnim, Reeve. 


4. 


Baconi, Reeve. 


16. 


fuliginata, id. 


28. 


pica, Soto. 


5. 


bifurcata, id. 


17. 


funiculata, id. 


29. 


redimiculum, Reeve. 


6. 


Brasiliana, id. 


18. 


lirata, id. 


30. 


scabra, id. 


7. 


cancer, id. 


19. 


gigas, Sow. 


31. 


siplio, Sow. 


8. 


characteristica, id. 


20. 


Kurracheensis, Reeve. 


32. 


Siquijorensis, Reeve, 


9. 


cochleariformis, id. 


21. 


lseviuscula, Blainv. 


33. 


spinosa, id. 


10. 


concinna, Soto. 


22. 


lineolata, Sow. 


34. 


Tristensis, Sow. 


1L. 


corrugata, Reeve. 


23. 


Luzoiiica, Reeve. 


35. 


venosa, Reeve. 


12. 


costata, Sow. 


24. 


Macgillivrayi, id. 


36. 


zebra, id. 



Figure. 

Siphonaria sipho. PL 24. Pig. 144. Shell, showing on the left side 
the internal siphonal impression. 



30 



Genus 5. ACjVLEA, Eschscholtz. 

Animal ; with two subulate tentacles bearing eyes on the outer 
sides of their swollen bases ; mantle-margins fringed ; branchia 
forming a pectinated plume, lodged in a cervical cavity ; foot 
large, ovate, ivith plain sides. fForbes.J 

Shell ; ovate, depressly conoid ; apex approaching the anterior 
margin, smooth or radiatety striated. 

The shells oiAcmtBa (Tectum, Audouin; Patelloidea, Quoy and Gaimard; 
Lottia, Gray) are so like those of Patella, that it is not possible to separate 
them entirely without an examination of the animal. A few of the typical 
forms of the genus are known, but it is not improbable that the list of 
Patella includes many species belonging to the genus Acmaa. The only 
point in which the animals differ is the arrangement of the branchise. In 
Patella they form an encircling cord of minute close-set plates, whilst in 
Acmaa they form a plume lodged in a cavity of the neck. 

The Acmaa inhabit Australia and the western coast of South America, 
and two species, A. testudinalis and virginea, frequent our own shores and 
the seas of northern Europe, to which may be added two small British 
species, described as genera by Forbes and Hanley, Pilidium and Propi- 
lidium, of which the animals are without eyes, and their shells have more 
the appearance of minute Emargimda, without the slit. 



1. aeruginosa, Midd. 

2. alveus, Couth. 

3. Ancyloides, Forbe 

4. ancylus, Esch. 

5. araneosa, Gould. 

6. Asmi, Midd. 

7. cassis, Esch. 

8. conica, Gould. 

9. conoidea, Quoy. 

10. conspicua, Phil. 

11. cymbiola, Gould. 

12. digitalis, Esch. 

13. discors, Phil. 

14. elongata, Quoy. 

15. flammea, id. 



Species. 

16. fragilis, Quoy. 

17. fulva, Midler. 

18. fungus, Meusch. 

19. leucopleura, Gmel. 

20. limbata, Phil. 

21. melanoleuca, Gmel. 

22. melanosticta, id. 

23. mitella, Menke. 

24. orbicularis, Quoy. 

25. parasitica, D'Orb. 

26. patina, Esch. 

27. persona, id. 

28. personoides, Midd. 

29. pileolus, id. 

30. pileopsis, Quoy. 



31. pintadina, Gmel. 

32. pustula, Helb. 

33. rugosa, Quoy. 

34. scabra, Gould. 

35. scurra, Lesson. 

36. septiformis, Quoy. 

37. squamosa, id. 

38. stellaris, id. 

39. striata, id. 

40. subrugosa, D'Orb. 

41. testudinalis, Mull. 

42. textilis, Gould. 

43. variabilis, Sow. 

44. virginea, Miill. 

45. viridula, Lam. 



31 

Figure. 

AcMyEA gigantea. PL 24. Fig. 142. Shell, showing the interior of an 
unusually large species. 



Genus 6. GADINIA, Gray. 

Animal ; head distinct, flattened ; tentacles expanded, funnel- 
shaped ; eyes sessile ; foot flat, thin, simple, f Adams J 

Shell ; rotundately conical, smooth or rayed, sometimes rather 
solid, whitish. 

This genus, more generally known to collectors by Mr. Sowerby's name 
Mouretia, has a peculiar whitish roundly conical shell, while the animal 
differs from that of Acmcea in having the tentacles expanded and funnel- 
shaped. The species are as yet but imperfectly known, and only the fol- 
lowing have been described. 



Species. 

1. Afra, Gray. 3. Garnotii, Payr. 5. reticulata, Sow. 

2. costata, Krauss. 4. Peruviana, Sow. 6. stellata, id. 



Figure. 

Gadinia Peruviana. PI. 24. Fig. 143. Shell of a solid, broadly conical 
form, showing the interior, with its horse-shoe muscular impression. 



Order 5. CYCLOBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae ; placed round the body in a circle, between the mantle 
and the fool or disc. 

In this Order are brought together, after the method of Cuvier, two 
families possessing very differing kinds of shell, but in the animal of each 
there is a similarity in the arrangement of the branchiae. The branchial 
plume, which in the preceding family is lodged within a cavity of the 
neck, is in the Patellacea modified into an elongated cord of plates ex- 
tending round the body between the mantle and the foot ; and the same 
arrangement obtains in the Chitonacea. There is, however, something 



32 

problematical about the relationship, which further researches are needed 
to elucidate. 

Patellacea. Chitonacea. 



Family 1. PATELLACEA. 

Shell; dish-shaped, of one more or less depressly conoid piece ; 
margin entire. 

In addition to the genus of true Limpets, Patella, we include in this 
family a group of which Mr. Cuming possesses an interesting series of 
species, but of which few are as yet described, Scntella. The shells have 
rather the appearance of Emarginulce without the slit. 

Patella. Scutella. 



Genus 1. PATELLA, Linnceus. 

Animal ; with two subulate tentacles, bearing eyes on the outer 
sides of their sivollen bases; mantle-margin fringed ; bra?ichial 
plume forming a fixed cordon of minute close-set plates, placed 
betioeen the mantle and base of foot, and ranging nearly round 
the body ; foot a large ovate or round disc, with plain sides. 
(Forbes.) 

Shell ; ovate or rounded, more or less convex, dish-shaped, not 
spiral ; apex sometimes central, generally more or less inclined 
anteriorly, mostly radiately ribbed or ridged, sometimes scaled, 
generally crenulated at the margin. 

The Patella are so named from a resemblance in the form of their shell 
to the patella, or dish, formerly used by the Latins for carrying meat in 
their sacrifices. In structure it is the most simple of shells, being a plain, 
un convoluted shield, without perforation or notch, more or less raised in 
convexity, inclining to an apex, rarely more than superficially developed, 
sometimes bent anteriorly into an incurved hook. From this apex, radiate 
ridges or ribs which are sometimes scaled, and have the interstices not un- 
frequently wrought into lattice-work by concentric ridges. The radiating 
sculpture is, however, mostly smooth, though presenting most diversified 
patterns in detail. The painting of the Patella is also much varied ; rays 
of different colour mostly predominate, and they are so modified by exter- 
nal causes in different individuals of the same species, that many have been 
described several times over. 



33 



The Patella inhabit all seas, and are most abundant in individuals. 
Some of the finest are from the shores of the Cape Colony. We have 
three species in Britain, P. vulgata,* athletica, and pellucida ; the first 
two of these are rock-dwelling species, the last inhabits seaweeds and is 
the type of a separate genus, Patina. 



1. achates, Reeve. 

2. aculeata, id. 

3. affinis, id. 

4. senea, Marty u. 

5. albicostata, C. B. Ad. 

6. amussitata, Reeve. 

7. araneosa, id. 

8. Araucana, If Orb. 

9. argentata, Sow. 

10. Argenvillei, Krauss. 

11. articulata, Reeve. 

12. aspera, Lam. 

13. aster, Reeve. 

14. atranientosa, id. 

15. Balanoides, id. 

16. biradiata, id. 

17. Bonnardi, Payr. 

18. Borneensis, Reeve. 

19. cserulea, Lam. 

20. Candei, D'Orb. 

21. canescens, Reeve. 

22. cantharus, id. 

23. Chiloensis, id. 

24. Chitonoides, id. 

25. cimeliata, id. 

26. cinis, id. 

27. clathvatula, zW. 

28. clypeater, Less. 



Species. 

29. cochlear, Gmel. 

30. coffea, Reeve. 

31. compressa, Zwm. 

32. corrugata, Reeve. 

33. costoso-plicata, ilfffr£ 

34. cretacea, Reeve. 

35. Cubensis, «)?. 

36. Cumingii, id. 

37. decora, Phil. 

38. depsta, Reeve. 

39. diaphana, 2V##. 

40. dira, Reeve. 

41. Dunkeri, PJKZ. 

42. Eariii, Reeve. 

43. elect rina, i<£. 

44. elegans, Phil. 

45. enneagona, Reeve. 

46. exarata, 2V«& 

47. exusta, Reeve. 

48. fenestrata, JVw^. 

49. ferruginea, Sotc. 

50. floccata, Reeve. 

51. Fuegiensis, u£ 

52. funebris, id. 

53. granatina, Zm». 

54. grano-striata, Reeve. 

55. granulans, Z«;««. 

56. guttata, I)' Orb. 



57. imbricata, Reeve. 

58. inradiata, irf. 

59. Jacksoniensis, id. 

60. laciniata, zW. 

61. lacunosa, id. 

62. lanx, id. 

63. lentiginosa, «'</. 

64. leucophaea, Nutt. 

65. leucopleura, Gmel. 

66. lima, Reeve. 

67. lineata (Lottia), Gray. 

68. livescens, Reeve. 

69. longicosta, Za»;. 

70. lugubris, Dunk. 

71. Luzonica, Reeve. 

72. Magellanica, ilf«w£. 

73. mamillata, JV//^. 

74. margaritaria, C$ew«. 

7 5 . Mexicana, Prod, fy Sow. 

76. mixta, Reeve. 

77. morbida, id. 

78. navicula, zc?. 

79. nigrisquamata, id. 

80. nigro-lineata, z'rf. 

81. nigro-punctata, id. 

82. nigro-sulcata, id. 

83. nimbus, irf. 

84. Nuttalliana, id. 



* " The common Limpet is universally distributed around our coasts, living on the surface of 
rocks and stones between tide-marks. Although capable of moving about with facility, when 
well-grown it appears to become lazy and sedentary, often living in crevices, where, having once 
lodged, it remains till it becomes too large to come out. "When it moves about, it makes upon the 
rock a curious fucoid-like track of some breadtb, probably caused by the edges of the shell. On 
calcareous rocks, and especially upon chalk, it frequently, as it were, excavates a cavity for it- 
self, apparently by the action of the carbonic acid set free during respiration, since the marks 
of the action of the ciliary currents from the gills are distinctly visible. This animal is some- 
times used for food, though much too leathery to become a delicacy." — Forbes and ' Hanley ; Bril. 
31oll., vol. ii. p. 425. 

VOL. II. F 



34 



85. occidentalis, Reeve. 

86. oculus, Born. 

87. opea, Nidt. 

88. Oregona, id. 

89. pencillata, Reeve. 

90. pentagona, Born. 

91. petulata, Reeve. 

92. pica, iJ. 

93. plana, Phil. 

94. plicata, Born. 

95. pluinbea, Zaw. 

96. pruinosa, Krauss. 

97. puncturata, Zawa. 

98. radians, Gmel. 

99. rota, Chem, 



100. rustica, Zwm. 

101. saccharina, id. 

102. sanguinalis, Reeve. 

103. sanguinans, is?. 

104. scabra, Nutt. 

105. scalata, Reeve. 

106. scutellaris, Zawz. 

107. spectrum, iVw#. 

108. squamifera, Reeve. 

109. stellularia, Qtwy. 

110. stipulata, Reeve. 

111. tenera, ^rf. 

112. testudinaria, Zi«». 

113. toreuma, Reeve. 

114. traraoserica, Martyn 



115. umbella, GW/. 

116. urabonata, Nutt. 

117. uncinata, Reeve. 

118. undato-lirata, «?. 

119. ustulata, id. 

120. variabilis, /Sow. 

121. varicosa, Reeve. 

122. variegata, ic/. 

123. venosa, id. 

124. verriculata, id. 

125. vespertina, M?. 

126. vidua, id. 

127. vulgata, Z««». 

128. zebra, Reeve. 

129. zebrina, Less. 



Figure. 

Patella longicosta. PI. 25. Pig. 146. Shell of a strongly-ribbed spe- 
cies, in which the ribs extend more than usually beyond the margin. 



Genus 2. SCUTELLA, Broderip* 

Animal ; like that of Patella. 

Shell ; ovate, more or less depressly conoid, mostly cancellated 
by the crossing of concentric and radiating ribs or stria. 

In the Cumingian collection is a series of shells chiefly from Central 
America and the Philippine Islands, only a few of which have been de- 
scribed, offering good distinguishing characteristics apart from Patella. 
They are uniformly smaller and more delicate, and are mostly finely sculp- 
tured. When fully monographed, their generic features will be better 
understood and explained. 



1. Arabica, Riipp. 

2. asperulata, Adams. 

3. cinnamomea, Gould. 

4. costata, Adams. 



Species. 

5. crennlata, Brod. 

6. elongata, Adams. 

7. ferruginea, id. 



8. Galathea, Lam. 

9. granulosa, Adams. 
10. lsevicostalis, id. 



* The word Scidella is also used for a genus of Radiata, but there is not much chance of 
confounding a Limpet with a Sea-Egg. 



35 

Figure. 

Scutella crenulata. PI. 24. Fig. 140 and 141. Shell, showing its ex- 
ternal cancellated sculpture and internal muscular impression. 



Family 2. CHITONACEA. 

Shell ; oblong-dish-shaped, of eight separate pieces, either set in a 
cartilaginous frame, or in the mantle separately. 

Of all mollusks the Chitons are they which naturalists have been most 
puzzled to know what to do with. Milne-Edwards doubted if they were 
Mollusca at all; and De Blainville showed that he was much of the same 
opinion by classing them, like Linnaeus, with the Barnacles. Cuvier 
brought them into relationship with the Patella, after the manner of 
Adanson, on account of the similarity of the breathing-system, and na- 
turalists are now pretty well agreed upon this arrangement. The genera 
are — 

Chiton. Chitonellus. 



Genus 1. CHITON, Linnceus. 

Animal ; head obscurely defined, formed of a proboscis covered by a 
fleshy semicircular hood ; no tentacles nor eyes; branchia form- 
ing a series of lamellae between the mantle and foot on each 
side ; foot an oblong dish, rounded at each extremity. 

Shell ; oblong or elongately ovate, eight-valoed, valves moving one 
upon another, convex, umbonated in the middle, someiohat 
ivinged on each side, fixed in a cartilaginous frame, which is 
either smooth, squamate, hairy, spinous, or fasciculate, some- 
times ividely expanded, sometimes covering the valves entirely. 

Unlike Patella, the animal of Chiton is a blind oblong mass, without 
tentacles, and with scarcely a definable head, yet the branchiee are similar, 
and the shell may be likened ideally to a Limpet divided into eight pieces. 
Dr. Gray considers the posterior terminal valve to be the homologue of 
the shell of Patella. The eight separate pieces, or valves, are sustained 
in their place by a cartilaginous frame, a horny extension of the mantle, 
and they move one upon another, like plate-armour, by the aid of three 
flexible muscles, attaching crosswise to each valve. This horny frame or 
ligament is distinguished by the following varieties of character. In 



36 

C. elegans it appears in its simplest form, thin and transparent; in C. 
alatus it is covered with a rough sandy deposit, in C. Blainvillei with a 
few scattered bristles, in C. Peruvianas with a dense growth of hair, in C. 
seliger with straggling bristle-like hairs, in C. Coquimbensis with oblong 
beads, in C. aculeatus with short cylindrical spines, in C. spinosus with 
sharp curved spines, in C. magnificus with close-set calcareous grains, in 
C. squamosus with close-set scales, in C. fascicular is with tufts of little 
bristly spiculse, and in C. Sitkensis, in which the mantle entirely covers 
the valves, with minute stars of glassy spicule. 

The imbedded portion of each valve is more or less produced posteriorly 
into two processes, according to the oblong tendency of their structure, and 
the comparative force necessary to keep them in order. In most species 
where the valves are narrow across, these processes, termed apophyses, from 
their analogy with the apophysis of the vertebrate skeleton, are but slightly 
developed, and the sinus between them is finely serried. In valves of a 
more oblong form, as in C. incisus, the apophyses become more prominent, 
until in Chitonellus, where the valves are longer than wide, and isolated 
from each other, the apophyses are developed to an extent that enables the 
valves to be sustained each by itself in the substance of the mantle. The 
exposed portion of each valve, the only part that is characterized by any 
sculpture or design of colouring, has the appearance of a convex shield, 
supported on either side by a raised, triangular, winged growth, forming, as 
it were, the radii of a circular plate, which meet together in the anterior 
terminal valve ; so that the sculpture and colouring of the front valve is 
almost invariably the same as in the lateral areas of the rest ; and the 
sculpture and colouring of the central areas of the valves is as invariably 
different. 

The Chitons live attached to stones and fragments of shells in deep 
water, sometimes on exposed rocks, but most frequently under stones at 
about low-water mark. They exist in abundance on the shores of south- 
western America, of Australia, and New Zealand, the Eastern Archipelago, 
the Pacific Islands, Cape of Good Hope, West Indies, Sitka, and the 
shores of Europe and Asia, six species inhabiting our own shores. 

The genus has been subdivided chiefly according to characters of the 
encircling cuticle. 



Species. 

1. aculeatus, Linn. 6. alatus, Sow. 11. arbutum, Reeve. 

2. acutiliratus, Reeve. 7. albilineatus, id. 12. articulatus, Sow. 

3. acutirostratus, Ad. Rve. 8. amiculatus, Pallas. 13. assimilis, Reeve. 

4. Adelaidensis, Reeve. '.). antiquus, Reeve. 14. astriger, id. 
a. aereus, id. 10. aquatilis, id. 15. atratus, Sow. 



37 



16. australis, Soto. 

17. Bamesii, Gray. 

18. Blainvdlii, Brod. 

19. Bowenii, King. 

20. brevispinosus, Sow. 

21. caelatus, Reeve. 

22. Cajetanus, Poll. 

23. Cahfornicus, Nutt. 

24. caliginosus, Reeve. 

25. cancellatus, Leach. 

26. Capensis, Gray. 

27. carinulatus, Reeve. 

28. castaneus, Wood. 

29. castus, Reeve. 

30. catenulatus, *SW. 

31. catillus, Reeve. 

32. cerasinus, C%m. 

33. Chilensis, Trembly. 

34. Chiloensis, Sow. 

35. chlamys, Reeve. 

36. ciliatus, /S'ow. 

37. cimolius, Reeve. 

38. ciuereus, Zi'w«. 

39. cingillatus, Reeve. 

40. circellatus, Ad. 8f Rve. 

41. circumvallatus, Reeve. 
42'. clathratus, ia 7 . 

43. coarctatus, Sow. 

44. Colliei, Gray. 

45. colubrifer, Reeve. 

46. Columbiensis, Sow. 

47. concentricus, Reeve. 
4S. contractus, zc?. 

49. Coreanicus, ^a 7 . $• Rve. 

50. corrugatus, Reeve. 

51. Coquimbensis,.Fr««o 7 y. 

52. crenulatus, _Z?>W. 

53. crinitus, Pen. 

54. crispus, Reeve. 

55. crocinus, zV/. 

56. Cumingii, Trembly. 

57. Cunninghamii, Reeve. 

58. decussatus, «W. 

59. Dieffenbachii, Reeve. 

60. disjunctas, Fremb. 

61. dissimiUsj Reeve. 



62. dispar, ^o?<?. 


108. Luzonicus, Sow. 


63. divergens, Reeve. 


109. Lyellii, id. 


64. elegans, Fremb. 


110. lyratus, id. 


65. elongatus, Reeve. 


111. Magdalenensis,j?7i/«/s. 


66. Emersonianus, CbK#j.ll2. magnificus, ZtesA. 


67. exiguus, Sow. 


113. marginatus, Pen. 


68. fascicularis, im. 


114. marmoratus, Gme/. 


69. fastigiatus, Gray. 


115. marmoreus, CItem. 


70. floccatus, Sow. 


116. Mediterraneus, Gray. 


71. fortiliratus, Reeve. 


117. metallicus, Reeve. 


72. formosus, ^6?. $- ^ye.118. Milleri, Gray. 


73. foveolatus, &w. 


119. monticularis, Quoy. 


74. fulgetrum, Reeve. 


120. muscarius, Reeve. 


75. fuliginatus, ^J. Sf R. 121. nobdis, Gz-fly. 


76. fulvus, Wood. 


122. Novse-Hollandise, -/«?. 


77. gigas, Chemn. 


123. occidentalis, Reeve. 


78. Goodallii, AW. 


124. pallidulus, fa 7 . 


79. granatus, Reeve. 


125. palbdus, id. 


80. graniferus, a^o??. 


126. patulus, So?/?. 


81. granosus, Fremb. 


127. pectinatus, id. 


82. Grayi, Sow. 


128. pellis-serpentis, Q?<oy. 


83. Guildingii, Reeve. 


129. pertusus, Reeve. 


84. Hardeyi, A«». 


130. Peruvianus, Lam. 


85. hastatus, Sow. 


131. petasus, ^t 7 . <£* Reeve. 


86. Hennahii, Gr«y. 


132. petholatus, Sow. 


87. Hindsii, Sow. 


133. piceus, G»zsZ. 


88. hirundiniformisj ie?. 


134. pictus, Reeve. 


89. illuminatus, Reeve. 


135. picus, z'o 7 . 


90. incarnatus, eW. 


136. porphyreticus, id. 


91. Iucii, id. 


137. productus, /rf. 


92. incisus, Sow. 


138. proprius, id. 


93. inquinatus, Reeve. 


139. Proteus, /a 7 . 


94. insignis, ia 7 . 


140. pulchellus, Gray. 


95. Janeireusis, Gray. 


141. pulcherrimus, Sow. 


96. labeculatus, Reeve. 


142. puncticulatus, Reeve. 


97. Uevigatus, _?Ym. 


143. punctulatissiinus,So«\ 


98. lsevigatus, So?^. 


144. pusillus, za 7 . 


99. lsevis, Pen. 


145. Quoyii, Desk. 


100. laqueatus. Reeve. 


146. reticulatus, Reeve. 


101. lentiginosus, Sow. 


147. retusus, Sow. 


102. Hmaciformis, id. 


148. roseus, id. 


103. lineatus, ^oorf. 


149. ruber, Zowe. 


104. lineolatus, Fremb. 


150. rugosus, Gray. 


105. linter, £/*««. 


151. rugulatus, Sow. 


106. longicymba,Zte.5/ffi«.152. sanguineus, Reeve. 


107. luriduSj Sow. 


153. scaber, tV/. 



38 



154. scabriculus, Soio. 166. 

155. scarabeus, Reeve. 167. 

156. sculptus, Sow. 168. 

157. scutiger, Ad. $- Reeve. 169. 

158. segmentates, Reeve. 170. 

159. setiger, King. 171. 

160. setosus, Sow. 172. 

161. Siculus, Gray. 173. 

162. Sinclairi, id. 174. 

163. Sitkensis, Reeve. 175. 

164. Sowerbyanus. 176. 

165. spiculosa. 177. 



spiniger, Sow. 
spinosus, Brug. 
spiuulosus, Sow. 
squamosus, Linn. 
Stangeri, Reeve. 
Stokesii, Brod. 
striatus, Barnes. 
striolatus, Gray. 
Sueziensis, Reeve. 
sulcatus, Wood. 
Swainsoui, Sow. 
textilis, Gray. 



178. truncatus, Sow. 

179. tulipa, Quog. 

180. tunicatus, Wood. 

181. undulatus, Q/iog. 

182. ustulatus, Reeve. 

183. violaceus, Quog. 

184. virescens, Reeve. 

185. virgatus, irf. 

186. virgulatus, &>«<?. 

187. vol vox, Reeve. 

188. Watsoni, Sow. 

189. Zelandicus, Qwoy. 



fflgure. 

Chiton spiniger. PI. 25. Fig. 147. Shell, showing the eight valves 
in a broad cartilaginous frame beset with calcareous bristles. 



Genus 2. CHITONELLUS. 

Animal ; similar to that of Chiton. 

Shell ; of eight isolated pieces, longitudinally oblong valves, of 
which the apophyses are much produced, partially imbedded in 
the substance of the mantle, which is thick and elongated ; valves 
approximating towards the head. 

The Chitonelli resemble the Chitons in their internal organization, but 
in connection with a difference in the condition of the mantle and its shell, 
there is a marked difference in their habits and geographical distribution. 
The mantle is very thick and fleshy, peculiarly elongated, sometimes covered 
with a harsh down, but mostly tough and leathery ; it is invariably desti- 
tute of any horny, cartilaginous part, and is never furnished with spines, 
bristles, or any sort of calcareous armature. The valves of the shell are of a 
longitudinally oblong form, with the inner posteriorly projecting plates or 
apophyses very much produced and firmly imbedded in the substance of 
the mantle. Sustained by the apophyses alone, the valves are perfectly 
isolated from one another, far removed, in the more typical species, pos- 
teriorly, but approximating towards the head, where they are sometimes 
much worn by the friction arising from the animal's propensity of thrust- 
ing itself into holes and crevices of rocks. 

The Chitonelli are not found in company with Chitons. On the south- 



39 

western shores of America, where the Chitons, some fifty or sixty specie?, 
are more abundant than in any other part of the world, not a single Chi- 
tonellns has been taken. At the Philippine Islands, on the other hand, 
where Chitons are scarce, the largest species of Chitonellus known was 
found by Mr. Cuming in plenty, and of extraordinary dimensions. They 
were found dwelling in holes and cavities, either of natural formation or 
bored by other mollusks, into which they force themselves by attenuating 
their bodies in a manner truly surprising. At the Island of Zebu, where 
Mr. Cuming met with a number of C. fasciatus, he found them partially 
or entirely imbedded in holes and circuitous crevices of the coral reefs, 
sometimes turned completely at a right angle, and at an angle again. 
Many that were only partially imbedded, from having thrust themselves 
into holes not deep enough to contain them, hung down with the posterior 
end of the body fat and swollen, and whenever any force was used to with- 
draw them, it invariably broke off. Mr. Cuming did not find the Chito- 
nellus fasciatus under any other circumstances, and could only obtain spe- 
cimens entire by splitting the coral and taking them from their hiding 
places, in which they would be attenuated to the length of a foot and more. 
Higher up among the islands of the Corean Archipelago, C. fasciatus was 
found by Sir E. Belcher and Mr. Adams under stones; and, unlike the 
Chiton, it would crawl away, on turning up the stone, at about the pace of 
our common garden snail. Some interesting species have been collected 
in Australia of smaller size, with the valves less isolated. 

The Australian and Tasmanian species are smaller, and the valves, cha- 
racterized by a more elaborate variety of sculpture and colour, are broader 
and less removed from each other. 



Species. 

1. fasciatus, Quoy. 4. larviformis, Blainv. 6. rostratus, Reeve. 

2. Gunnii, Reeve. 5. oculatus, Quoy. 7. striatus, Lam. 

3. laevis, Lam. 

Figure. 

Chitonellus fasciatus. PI. 25. Pig. 149. Animal, much contracted 
from being dried, head downwards, showing the shell imbedded in 
the substance of the mantle ; the valves isolated from one another, 
approximate towards the head, and are become worn from the friction 
arising from the habit of the mollusk of thrusting itself into holes 
and crevices of rocks. 



40 



Order 6. CIRRHOBRANCHIATA. 

Branchias ; two equal tufts of soft, flexible, club-shaped cirrki. 

According to the observations of two most eminent French naturalists, 
M. De Blainville and M. Deshayes, the branchiae of a very anomalous 
genus of mollusks known as the Dentaliadce, or Tooth- shells, are a couple 
of tufts of soft, flexible, club-shaped, cirrhus-like filaments, one on each 
side of the animal's head. An English naturalist, Mr. Clark, who has de- 
voted a life to the anatomy of the mollusca of our southern shores, has 
declared that these tufts are not branchise, but salivary glands, and that 
what M. Deshayes calls the lobes of the liver are the branchias. Should 
this observation be confirmed, the name of our Order must be changed. 
We have only one genus to record — - 

Dentalium. 



Genus 1. DENTALIUM, Linnceus. 

Animal ; elongated, attached to the shell near its hinder extremity ; 
head rudimentary, eyeless and without tentacles, cirrhated on 
the lip ; mantle circular, thick and fleshy in front, thin pos- 
teriorly, capable of investing the entire frontal part of the body ; 
foot placed centrally and anteriorly, consisting of a pointed cone, 
flanked by two symmetrical side-lobes mounted on a long pedicle. 
(Forbes.) 

Shell ; tubular, regular and symmetrical, smooth or fluted, and 
more or less curved, attenuated posteriorly, open at both ends, 
anterior aperture, which is tJte larger, simple and generally 
oblique; posterior also simple, sometimes slit on the convex 
side. 

The Dentalium embraces a curious compound of affinities. It is a gas- 
tropod partaking of the characters of the Limpet ; its shell may be likened 
to that of a smooth or fluted Fissurella pushed out, by a stretch of the 
imagination, telescope-fashion, into a curved tube. It has the conical foot 
of some of the bivalves ; and as if presenting a passage to those headless 
mollusks, the head of Dentalium exists only in a rudimentary form, with- 
out tentacles or eyes. Again, there are traces of affinity with the Anne- 
tides. Apart from the consideration of the tubular form of the shell, 
which induced both Cuvier and Lamarck to class Dentalium with the 



41 



shell-worms, the animal, like them, is of worm-like configuration, and red- 
blooded. 

The Dentalium shells are mostly white, but there are some brilliant ex- 
ceptions from the Eastern Seas in D. elephantinum, aprinum, and formosum. 
The last, collected by Sir Edward Belcher outside a coral reef, near the 
city of Sooloo, at a depth of sixteen to twenty fathoms, is especially beau- 
tiful in colour. It is of large fluted growth, richly variegated with rose 
and olive-green. 

We have two Bentalia in the British Seas, one D. entails, a northern 
species, the other, D. Tarentinum, a southern species passing into the 
Mediterranean. 



1. abbreviatum, Desk. 

2. acuminatum, id. 

3. anibiguum, Chemn. 

4. aprinum, Linn. 

5. arcuatum, id. 

6. bicarinatum, Desk. 

7. dentalis, Linn. 

8. eburneum, id. 

9. elephantinum, id. 

10. ensiforme, Chemn. 

11. entalis, Linn. 

12. fissura, Lam. 



Species. 

13. formosum, Ad. 8f R. 

14. Indicum, Chemn. 

15. inversum, Desli. 

16. lacteum, id. 

17. Lessoni, id. 

18. longitrorsum, Reeve. 

19. nebulosum, Linn. 

20. novem-costatum, Lam. 

21. octogonum, id. 

22. perpusillurn, Sow. 

23. politum, Linn. 



24. pseudo-sexagonum, De. 

25. quadrangulare, Sow. 

26. rubescens, Desh. 

27. sectum, id. 

28. splendidum, Sow. 

29. strangulatum, Desk. 

30. striatum, Lam. 

31. subulatum, Desh. 

32. tesseragonum, Sow. 

33. translucidum, Desh. 

34. variabile, id. 



Figure. 

Dentalium elephantinum. PI. 25. Eig. 148. Shell of an exotic fluted 
species, the largest of the genus, showing that it is open at the apex, 
as well as at the base.* 



* Since the publication, in 1852, of the Family Ti/rhinacea, attention has been given to a 
group of minute mollusks, the Cacidce, with tooth-like shells, classed hitherto under Deutalii<m, 
but shown, through the anatomical researches of Mr. Clark, to have the nearest relationship with 
Turritella. Prior to the elucidation, by Forbes and Hauley, of the two British species of 
Caaim, embodying the results of Mr. Clark's dissection, the phenomenon of an unconvoluted 
Gastropod, without any indication of the spiral which commences in Vermetus, was a kind of zoolo- 
gical puzzle to naturalists ; one referred it to the Cephalopods, another to the Petropods, and 
another to the Aunelides. Among the shells from Mazatlan, described by Mr. Philip Carpen- 
ter, and deposited in the British Museum, a great many Geeca were found, and in a monograph 
of the genus published in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society ' for 1858, he gives cha- 
racters of as many as forty-three species. 

VOL. II. G 



42 



Order 7. NUCLEOBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae; plumose, forming, in connection with the visceral or- 
gans, an external nucleus, capped ivith a delicate glassy shell. 

The gelatinous swimmer, represented in Plate K, appears to have little 
of the character typical of the class Gasteropoda, but the natatory fin of 
Carinaria is supposed to be the equivalent or homologue of the Snail's 
locomotive disc. The branchiae form part of a nucleus which, it may be 
observed, is quite external to the body, and they communicate with the 
head and mouth by means of a long connecting gut. 

Carinaria. 



Genus 1. CARINARIA, Laniard: 

Animal ; body gelatinous, swollen, prickly, a little compressed at 
the sides, attenuately acuminated posteriorly ; head prolonged 
into a trunk armed icith symmetrical horny processes ; tentacles 
two, having at the base of each a conspicuous eye ; visceral 
mass and branchiae contained in an outer nucleus communicating 
by a gut with the mouth ; covered by a transparent glassy shell ; 
below the body is a vertical fin. 

Shell ; cap-shaped, very thin, hyaline, corrugate, attenuated into 
a hooked vertex, furnished along the back with a keel, which is 
either simple or toothed. 

The f Glassy Nautilus/ as the delicate transparent shell of Carinaria has 
been long erroneously called, is, perhaps, the most remarkable production 
in the whole conchological series. The Carinaria is a swollen transparent 
mass of gelatine, having a well-developed head, with tentacles and eyes 
and a powerfully-armed proboscis for the seizure and elimination of food ; 
but the viscera and branchiae are gathered into a nucleus outside the upper 
dorsal part of the body, communicating with the proboscis by a long at- 
tenuated kind of gut ; and attached to this nucleus, like a cap, is the well- 
known delicate little glassy shell. Beneath the gelatinous body is a ver- 
tical natatory fin, and the animals congregate and swim about rapidly at 
night, with Firola and other shell-less mollusks of similar character, rest- 
ing occasionally by the aid of a sucker, which may be observed on the 
hinder part of the fin.* 

* " The Carinaria tribe," writes Dr. Johnston, in his own delightful style, " need occasional 
repose and cessation from activity — and how admirably is the foreseen want provided against ! 



43 

The largest species, C. vitrea (C. gracilis, mihi), has been captured in 
the vicinity of the Moluccas, and a small species, C. Atlantica, was taken 
by Sir Edward Belcher at twilight, in the trawl, in the North Atlantic 
Ocean. M. D'Orbigny describes a third species in his South American 
Voyage, and there is the well-known species, C. fragilis, of the Mediter- 
ranean. 



Species. 

1. Atlantica, Ad. Sf R. 3. punctata, D'Orb. 4. vitrea, Lam. 

2. fragilis, Bory. 

Figure. 

Carinaria fragilis. PI. K. Animal, showing its thick gelatinous sub- 
stance ; head with eyes and tentacles ; proboscis and narrow gut 
leading to the dorsal nucleus covered by the shell, from which extend 
in feathery plumes the branchiae. Beneath the body is the natatory 
fin. From a specimen in my possession, cast ashore after a storm at 
Messina, and brought from thence by the Rev. L. B. Larking. 



Class 3. PTEROPODA. 

Animal ; pelagic, subgelatinous ; abdominal portion of the body 
sometimes enclosed within a shell ; head, wliere there is a shell, 
indistinct, toith or without tentacles ; mantle large and thin, 
attached on either side like a winged membrane ; natatory disk 
also wing-like ; branchiae pectinate, lodged in a cavity. 

Shell ; thin, horny or glassy, sometimes cartilaginous, variously 
shaped, globose, triangular, cylindrical or needle-like, some- 
times cuspidate or sharply long-spined. 

The Pteropods are a class of oceanic swimmers allied zoologically and iu 
habit to Carinaria. They are very small, limited in kind, but abundantly 
prolific in individuals, and obtain motion by the aid of a pair of wing-like 
natatory fins. Only part of them are furnished with a shell, which is ex- 
tremely thin and glassy. " In warmer seas than those which encircle our 

where are they to rest — where fix their anchor in the world of unstable water around them ? 
They are created to live aiid are born amidst the fields of seaweed which voyagers describe with 
amazement as covering leagues of sea within the Tropics ; and to enable them to attach them- 
selves to the narrow leaves of the sargassum, they are furnished by their Creator with a small 
sucker, which like a cupping-glass applied against the surface of the leaf, suspends them there 
without exertion." — Introduction to Gonchology, p. ll'J. 



44 

islands/' writes Professor Edward Forbes,* who had frequent opportunities 
of observing the Pteropods of the Mediterranean and ^Egean Seas, " the 
surface of the water, when the weather is calm and the sun is shining, 
glistens with glassy needles or shelly bubbles. These, upon closer exami- 
nation, prove to belong to curious mollusks, which instead of creeping 
over submarine rocks and weeds, or burying in the soft mud and sand of 
the sea-bed, aspire to a gayer and more sportive life, and play the part of 
Neptune's bees and butterflies.'" According to the observations of M. 
IVOrbiguy, the Pteropods begin to appear at twilight, and particular spe- 
cies rise to the surface at successive hours of the night. He considers 
that they inhabit particular zones at different depths, and occupy as many 
periods of time in making their way to the surface, disappearing again at 
the approach of day. It would appear from the remarks of Edward Forbes 
and D'Orbigny that their observations are at variance ; but it is more than 
probable there are day Pteropods as well as night Pteropods, and that, 
like the travellers who differed on the colour of the chameleon, both are 
equally right. t 

The Pteropods are only known to the conchologist by a few little glassy 
shells, of which it is scarcely necessary to particularize the species. The 
largest are those of Hyalcea and Cleodora, with shells of a globose form, 
armed with cusps or elongated spines. Cuvieria has a small cylindrical 
shell; in Creseis it is needle-like; and in Atlanta it has the discoidal form 
of a Nautilus. 



Class 4. LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

Animal ; body a mass of viscera furnished on each side with two 
lamella-like bronchia, and enveloped by a sac or mantle, which 
secretes on either side a shelly valve, connected at the dorsal 
margin by an clastic horny ligament; no distinct head or eyes ; 
month represented by a simple opening in the front part of the 
mantle ; hind part of the mantle opened, with the edges some- 

* Brit. Moll. vol. ii. p. 377. 

f Dr. Johnston gives a most picturesque account of the upward flight of the Cleodores, "when 
the garish eye of day begins to dawn," and of the gradual appearance of the Ilyahs, "who do 
not leave the abyss and mingle in the crowd until night lends them her friendly veil."' Mr. 
Godwin-Austen's humour is of a rougher kind. In his continuation of Forbes' ' Natural History 
of the European Seas,' the Pteropods are described as leading a life of dissipation. The sun- 
delighting bees and butterflies of the iEgeau, whose characters have been hitherto irreproachable, 
are likened to gnats and moths who " shim the light, aud if the sun is bright you may look in 
vain for them during the live-long day. HyaUea tridentata, though it does not venture out till 
dusk, retires early, whilst some spe. ies. such as Cleodora pyramidata, are to be met with only 
during the midnight hours and the darkest nights. This tribe, like a higher one, has its few 
irregular spirits who manage to keep it up the whole night through. All, however, are hack to 
their homes before dawn surprises them."' 



45 

times prolonged into two tubes, from one of whieh water is in- 
haled, through the other ejected ; internal muscles adhering to the 
shells, sometimes two to each valve, sometimes only one ; a mus- 
cular organ or foot developed on the ventral side of the viscera 
in some of the tivo-muscled kinds, and more or less exserted. 
Shell ; always bivalve, the valves hinging together by the aid of 
an elastic ligament, and by interlocking teeth. 

In descending the series of univalve mollusks through the classes of 
Cephalopods, Gastropods, and Pteropods, Ave have advanced by tolerably 
natural gradations, designating the respective groups by the peculiarities 
of the organ of locomotion. In the bivalve mollusks the foot is at first 
absent, or only rudimentary, and the animal is of widely different organi- 
zation, and of widely different habits. Lamarck distinguished them as 
a separate class of invertebrate animals, adopting the name Conchifera, to 
signify that all are shell-bearing ; Cuvier introduced the negative appella- 
tion of Acephafa, or headless, because they have either no head, or only a 
very indistinct representative of one. De Blainville, and subsequently 
Owen, selecting a character which is present, and at the same time pecu- 
liar, throughout, the lamellar structure of the branchiae, designated the 
class Lamellibranchiata. 

The Lamellibranchiate Mollusca are then, as any one about to partake 
of an oyster may observe, a mass of viscera lying in the bed of a pair of 
shells, furnished on each side with two elaborate gills in the form of vas- 
cular lamellae, commonly known as the beard, and over these is a sac or 
mantle, in two lobes, the calcifying organs of the animal, each secreting a 
shell. The shells, or valves, are joined at the dorsal margin by interlock- 
ing teeth, and by the aid of an elastic ligament, which has a tendency to 
open the shell, in opposition to the action of a pair of internal muscles, or 
of two pairs, by which the animal closes it. The Lamellibranchiates, or 
Bivalves, as they are more commonly called, are all water animals, and 
have for the most part a sort of tadpole existence in early life. All are 
oviparous, and when escaped from the egg, commence life with a more or 
less perfect metamorphosis. Many swim freely about by the help of vibra- 
tile cilia, and are provided with eyes which become obsolete when no longer 
needed. The mouth is simply an opening in the front part of the animal 
leading to the stomach. It has none of the characteristics of the mouth 
in the higher mollusks, but is nevertheless furnished with a pair of delicate 
labial palps, which are supposed to be organs of taste. The fool, uidike 
that of the higher mollusks, is narrow and keel-like, and is not so much 
an organ of locomotion as an organ of general usefulness ; its chief em- 
ployment is digging and burrowing in the sand. The mantle consists 
sometimes of two disconnected lobes ; generally the lobes are united, 



46 

having a ventral opening for the passage of the foot, and a double opening 
behind for the purposes of inhaling and excretion, of which the margins 
are in many genera prolonged into siphons. 

The shells of the Lamellibranchiates, present forms and varieties of the 
highest interest to the conchologist, and, as in other genera of mollusks, 
there are often curious differences of sculpture and colour where there is 
little apparent specific difference in the animal. The most striking modi- 
fications of character are those of the ligament and the hinge. Changes 
in the development of these are for the most part accompanied by corre- 
sponding changes in the objects generally, and they have been universally 
selected for the determination of genera. The class may be divided into 
orders according to the number of the internal adductor muscles : — 

Unimusculosa. Bimuscclosa. 



Order 1. UNIMUSCULOSA. 

Shell ; attached to the animal by a single central muscle. 

In this division, comprising the Oysters, Scallops, Mussels, and Clams, 
the shell is attached to the animal by a strong central muscle, accompanied 
in some instances by one or more small collateral muscles. Any one who 
has watched the oyster-vendor at his stall may have observed the force 
which is required to detach the animal from its shell, when cutting at the 
muscle. Many a Lamellibranchiate of small size and of comparatively 
frail texture possesses a massive shell, and nothing short of great strength 
in the adductor muscle would serve for closing it. The Order includes 
five families, as follows : — 

ostracea. mytilacea. aviculacea. 

Pectinacea. Tridacnacea. 



Family 1. OSTRACEA. 

Shell ; mostly attached to foreign substances, irregular, foliated 
or laminated; right valve generally larger than the left valve. 

In this family the shells are of an irregular growth, with only a faintly- 
developed hinge, and the species are not very readdy definable. There is 
considerable apparent difference in the extreme forms of the group, the 
Anomia and the Ostrea, but they are connected by two intermediate links', 
Plamnanomia and Placiina, in which their peculiarities are very naturally 
blended. The shell of Anomia is toothless, and the animal attaches itself 



47 

to foreign bodies by a bony plug which passes through the substance of 
the lower or left valve. In Placunanomia the animal attaches itself also 
by a bony plug, but the orifice through which it passes is protected by a 
rude divaricate tooth, or rather double-tooth, which appears in a more 
symmetrical form in Placuna, where the orifice and plug of adhesion are 
wanting. Ostrea has neither plug nor hinge. 

Anomia. Placunanomta. Placuna. Ostrea. 



Genus 1. ANOMIA, Linnaeus. 

Animal ; body massive, shaped like the shell, with the mantle 
freely open, having pendent margins bearing a double fringe of 
short cirrhi ; no siphonal tabes ; foot very small, often nearly 
obsolete ; adductor muscle divided into three portions, the long- 
est of which attached to a shelly plug passes through an orifice 
in the lower valve; branchial leaflets doubled on themselves; 
mouth surrounded by membranous borders and two pairs of 
long labial tentacles ; sexes distinct. 
Shell ; generally orbicular, inequivalve, irregular, affixed, some- 
times rather solid, mostly very thin, hyaline • lower valve flat, 
orbicularly perforated and notched near the hinge, perforation 
filled with a subcalcareous plug of adhesion ; upper valve con- 
vex, sauamately laminated, striated or ribbed, with three sub- 
central muscidar impressions ; hinge toothless, with the ligament 
short, attached to a callosity. 

The Anomia are chiefly remarkable for the manner in which they affix 
themselves to foreign bodies. The adductor muscle divides into three 
portions, and the central portion passes out through an orifice in the sub- 
stance of the shell for the purpose of anchorage, and secretes a bony plug, 
which serves as an operculum. As in all mollusks of parasitic habits, the 
shell varies exceedingly in the same species, becoming more or less shaped 
to the irregularities of its place of attachment. If growing upon a ribbed 
surface, the shell assumes a ribbed structure; but the ribs formed under 
these circumstances are not characterized by the definition which belongs 
to a species that has a natural ribbing of its own. 

There is, perhaps, more difficulty in discriminating between the different 
states of a species incident to age and habitat. The well-known A. ep/iip- 
pium of the European Seas has been described twenty times over. Even 
of the nine recent Anomics described by Lamarck, eight are supposed to 



48 

be different states of A. ephippiwm. Suppressing all these, the genus is 
now rich in species of fine size and brilliant colour from Australia, Cali- 
fornia, Peru, and the Galapagos, Sandwich, and Philippine Islands.' 55 ' The 
following have been recently described and figured in the ' Conchologia.' 



1. Achreus, Gray. 

2. Acontes, id. 

3. aculeata, Midi. 

4. adamas, Gray. 

5. aenigmatica, Ch. 

6. Alectus, Gray. 

7. amabaeus, id. 

8. argyritis, Reeve. 

9. caelata, id. 

10. costata, id. 

11. cytaeum, Gray. 



Species. 

12. Dryas, id. 

13. elyros, id. 

14. ephippium, Linn. 

15. fidenas, Gray. 

16. hamillus, id. 

17. Humphreysiana, R. 

18. lampe, Gray. 

19. laqueata, Reeve. 

20. larbas, Gray. 
2L. lucerna, Reeve. 
22. malleata, id. 



23. metallica, Reeve. 

24. nobilis, id. 

25. pacilus, Gray. 

26. placentella, Reeve. 

27. plenilunium, id. 

28. ramosa, id. 

29. scabra, id. 

30. sol, id. 

31. spinosa, id. 

32. strigilis, id. 

33. Tyria, id. 



Figure. 

Anomia adamas. PI. 26. Pig. 156. Shell, showing the perforated under 
valve of a bright transparent reddish-orange species, found by Mr. 
Cuming at Lord Hood's Island in the Pacific, affixed to a shell of the 
large Avicula margaritifera. 



Genus 2. PLACUNANOMIA, Broderip. 

Animal ; similar to that of Anomia. 

Shell ; nearly equivalve, irregular, thin, sometimes rather solid, 
generally smooth ; hinge internal, composed in the lower valve 
oftioo converging teeth, in the upper oftivo ligamentary grooves ; 
lower valve fissured, or triangularly perforated near the hinge, 
perforation descending from the hinge, admitting a partially 
bony muscle of adhesion which sometimes insinuates itself be- 
tween the lamina of the shell. 
In this genus, as in Anomia, a portion of the adductor muscle passes 



* The Anomia cenigmatica was found abundantly by Mr. Cuming at the Philippine Islands 
attached to Mango-trees and Nipa Palms, growing between tides on the sea-shore. 



49 

out for the purpose of anchorage, through a perforation in the lower valve, 
but the orifice, instead of being open to the hinge, is soldered across the 
top by a rude triangular ridge, or pair of converging teeth, of which a more 
symmetrical development appears in the hinge of P lacuna. In the curious 
species from central America, Placunanomia Cumingii, upon which the 
genus is founded, the orifice is very contracted, and the calcifying muscle 
insinuates itself between the laminse of the shell depositing a plate there ; 
but this is only a peculiarity of the species. Taking the soldering tri- 
angular ridge as the distinguishing characteristic of the genus, a series of 
fourteen species become associated together, all of which may be recog- 
nized at a glance from the true Anomia. 

The greater part of the Placunanomia are from the Central American 
continent and the West Indies, but there are some fine species from Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, and the old Linnsean Anomia patelliformis of our 
own shores comes into the group. 



1. abnormalis, Gray. 

2. alope, id. 

3. Australica, Reeve. 

4. cepio, Gray. 

5. Cumingii, Brod. 



Species. 

6. echinata, Brod. 

7. foliata, id. 

8. Gouldi, Reeve. 

9. Harfordi, id. 
10. ione, Gray. 



11. macrochisms, Desk. 

12. patelliformis, Linn. 

13. rudis, Brod. 

14. Zealandica, Gray. 



Figure. 

Placunanomia ione. PI. 26. Fig. 157. Shell, turned over to show 
that the orifice compared with that of Anomia, in the adjoining figure, 
is soldered across the top. The orifice is partially filled up by the 
plug of adhesion. The converging hinge-teeth being internal, are not 
seen in the figure, but some idea of them may be gathered from the 
tooth of Placuna shown in Pig. 158. 



Genus 3. PLACUNA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell; nearly equivalve, thin, semitransparent but firm, compara- 
tively smooth; hinge consisting of two slender ridges in the 
lower valve, converging at the ligamentary margin. 

In this genus are comprised the few large semitransparent shells com- 



VOL. II. 



50 

monly known as Saddle Oysters, from their peculiar saddle-shaped bend, 
and Chinese Window Oysters, from the circumstance of their being used by 
the poorer inhabitants of the Celestial Empire for glazing windows. The 
valves press so closely one upon the other that it would seem scarcely pos- 
sible for the animal to be able to close its shell, and until a living speci- 
men falls into the hands of a malacologist skilful enough to observe it, the 
habits of Placuna in this respect must remain a mystery. 

The converging tooth-like ridges of the hinge are a conspicuous feature 
of the genus ; and the ligament rests partly on these and partly along the 
hinge margin on either side of the umboes. 



Species. 

1. Lincolnii, Gray. 3. placenta, Linn. 4. sella, Gmelin. 

2. papyracea, Lam. 



Figure. 

Placuna placenta. PI. 27. Pig. 158. Shell, of a small specimen, with 
the upper valve removed, to show the converging ridges of the hinge. 



Genus 4. OSTREA, Linn mis. 

Animal ; edges of the mantle dot/Me, and each bordered by short 
tentacular fringes ; branchial leaflets not doubled on themselves ; 
labial appendages triangular, connected around the mouth by a 
plain membrane ; no foot. 

Shell ; affixed, inequivalve, irregular, with the umboes mostly very 
unequal and divaricate, receding from each other with the 
growth of the shell ; lower valve the larger, convex ; upper 
valve generally rather flat ; hinge toothless, with the ligament, 
either internal or semi-internal, attached to the umbonal area. 

The renowned mollusks of this genus produce shells of such irregular 
growth that nothing short of a baronetcy, it has been said, will ever in- 
duce a conchological commoner to monograph them. Their habit of getting 
into nooks and crevices when young, though in their metamorphic destiny 
denied the power of escape, obliges them to build their shell in all sorts of 
improbable places, and the result is a dislocation of forms and characters 



51 

which make the species extremely difficult to recognize. If they cannot 
" add colours to the chameleon/' they can, at least, " change shapes with 
Proteus." They cluster one upon another, vary the development of the 
shell according to the situation of their place of attachment, and when 
affixed to sticks and stems, throw out shelly protuberances to cling by. 
As if to compensate, however, for these deformities, there is a species dear 
to Europeans, the only one inhabiting Britain, which has been cultivated 
from the earliest dawn of epicureanism for its delicacy of taste, and it is 
not improbable that some of the exotic species may be equally delicious.* 

Among the more constant specific forms of Ostrea may be mentioned 
0. carinata and crista-galli, iu which the margins interlock in deep zigzag 
undulations, and a Philippine species, regarded as the living representative 
of Lamarck's fossil genus Gryphaa. In this the umbonal area of the 
lower valve, which in most species more or less recedes by successive 
layers of growth from the umbo of the upper valve, curves over, like an 
inverted Eoman lamp. 



1. Adriatica, Lam. 

2. bicolor, Hartley. 

3. borealis, Lam. 

4. callochroa, Hauley. 

5. Chenmitzii, id. 

6. circumsuta, Gould. 

7. cochlear, Poll. 

8. Columbiensis, Hanley. 

9. conchaphila, Carp. 



Species. 

10. cornucopia?, Lam. 

11. crista-galli, Linn. 

12. cristata, Bom. 

13. cucullata, id. 

14. Cumingiana, Dunk. 

15. Cyrnusii, Payr. 

16. deformis, Lam. 

17. denticulata, Bom. 

18. discoidea, Gould. 



19. edulis, Linn. 

20. elliptica, Lam. 

21. excavata, Zid. 

22. frons, Linn. 

23. fucorum, Lam. 

24. gallina, id. 

25. gibbosa, id. 

26. glomerata, Gould. 

27. guineensis, Dunk. 



* " The Ostrea edulis may be said to have its capital in Britain, for though found elsewhere 
on the coasts of Europe, both northwards and southwards, in no part of them does it attain such 
perfection as in our seas, through which it is generally distributed, sparingly in some places, 
abundantly and in gregarious assemblages in others, chiefly inhabiting the laminarian and coral- 
line zones. The ancient Romans valued our native oysters even as we do now, and must have 
held them in higher estimation than those of Italian shores, or they would not have brought 
them so far for their luxurious feasts. Juvenal records the exquisite taste of the epicure : — 

" < Who 
At the first bite each oyster's birth-place knew ; 
Whether a Lucrine or Circsean he 'd bitten, 
Or one from Rutupinian deeps in Britain.' " 

Although Juvenal sang the praises of the British oyster in the foregoing passage, (Satires iv. 
140,) so wittily trauslated by Professor Forbes (History of the British Mollusca and their Shells, 
vol. ii. p. 310), it has often excited the wonder of philosophers how any one should have had 
courage to make the first gulp of so repulsive an object. Byron, we believe, among others, 
says :— 

" That man had sure a palate covered o'er 
With brass or steel, that, on the rocky shore, 
First broke the oozy oyster's coat, 
And risked the living morsel down his throat." 



52 



28. haliotidea, Lam. 

29. hippopus, id. 

30. hyotis, C/iemn. 

31. imbricata, Lam. 

32. iridescens, Gray. 

33. labrella, Z«»i. 

34. lacerata, Hartley. 

35. margaritacea, Zff>». 

36. megadou, Hartley. 

37. Mytiloides, Law. 

38. mordax, Gould. 



39. multistriata, Hartley. 

40. numisma, Z«»». 

41. pes-tigris, Hartley. 

42. plicata, Chemn. 

43. pyxidata, ^rf. $• i£. 

44. rosacea, ZtesA. 

45. rostralis, Lam. 

46. ruscuriana, «<5?. 

47. sea bra, w£. 

48. Senegalensis, Gmel. 



49. Sinensis, GWZ. 

50. siimata, Lam. 

51. spathulata, zV?. 

52. spinosa, Quoy. 

53. stentina, Payr. 

54. trapezina, Zam. 

55. tuberculata, id. 

56. turbinata, ic?. 

57. Virginica, Gmel. 

58. Webbii, Recluz. 



Figure. 

Ostrea bicolor. PI. 26. Tig. 159. Shell, with the upper valve lifted 
on one side to show the hinge. 



Family 2. PECTINACEA. 

Shell ; either free or affixed, mostly inequivalve, generally auricu- 
lated on either side of the umbo; ligament internal or semi- 
internal, within a central triangular pit. 

The Pectinacea are numerous in species, and have shells remarkable for 
their elaborate sculpture and brilliant varieties of painting. The Sportdt/U, 
in which the umbonal area noticed in Ostrea has its maximum deve- 
lopment, throws out spines and fronds more profuse and sharply attenu- 
ated than in any other genus of lamellibranchiates ; and the Pectens, dis- 
tinguished by a beautiful regularity of growth and vivid colouring, present 
the first indication of the byssus which is so conspicuous a characteristic 
in the two succeeding families Aviculacea and Mytilacea. Linked with 
these are two or three rather abnormal though intermediate forms of striking 
interest. The sen era are — 



Spondylus. 
Plicatula. 



HlNNITES. 

Pecten. 



Hemipecten. 
Lima. 



Pedum. 



Genus 1. SPONDYLUS, Linnaus. 

Animal ; oval or oblong ; edges of the mantle disunited, thick, 
furnished with numerous rows of tentacular cirrhi, of which 



53 

several are truncated, terminated by a smooth convex surface ; 
mouth oval, furnished ivith large divided lips, having on each 
side a pair of oblong-pointed labial palps ; branchite doubled 
over, formed of detached f laments ; foot rudimentary, with a 
club-like pedicle at its disc. (Deshayes.) 
Shell ; affixed, inequivalve, irregular, more or less auriculated, 
radiately striated and ridged, rarely ribbed, variously prickled 
and spined ; umboes equal, separated by a very large flat area, 
more and more produced with age ; hinge, with two solid re- 
curved teeth in each valve, strongly interlocking and receiving 
the ligament between them. 

One of the first shells that attracted the attention of the Father of Na- 
tural History on the shores of the Mediterranean was the beautifully spined 
Thorny Oyster, Spondylus gadaropus. There it still lives in all its royal 
panoply of purple and white ; and the name which Aristotle gave to it 
more than two thousand years ago remains to this day. Nearly seventy 
species from different parts of the globe are now associated with it in the 
genus, and all have their peculiar type of form and sculpture. The growth 
of the Spondyli varies, like that of the Ostrea, according to the irregu- 
larities of their place of attachment, but the shell is of firmer substance, 
and the larger concave valve being the lower, the upper valve is left free 
for the development of the variously ramified fronds, spines, and prickly 
scales by which the species are so profusely ornamented. 

It is curious to observe how in many Spondyli the upper valve advances 
with the animal in its progress of growth without change, while the lower 
valve, being affixed, is added to by successive layers upon layers. An um- 
bonal area is often thus formed of very considerable extent, the hinge and 
ligamentary pit being pushed forward with the advancing growth ; and 
water sometimes becomes hermetically sealed between the layers, moving as 
freely between them as in a spirit-level. The following is a list of the 
Spondyli described and figured in the ' Conchologia/ 



1. aculeatus, Chemn. 

2. affinis, Reeve. 

3. albibarbatus, id. 

4. Americanus, Lam. 

5. asperriruus, Soto. 

6. aurantius, Lam. 



Species. 

7. barbatus, Reeve. 

8. basilicus, id. 

9. Butleri, id. 

10. camurus, id. 

11. candidus, Lam. 

12. castus, Reeve. 



13. ciliatus, Brod. 

14. coccineus, Lam. 

15. croceus, Chemn. 

16. Cumingii, Sow. 

17. cuneus, Reeve. 

18. digitatus, Sow. 



54 



19. ducalis, Chemn. 

20. electrum, Reeve. 

21. erinaceus, id. 

22. flabelluin, id. 

23. foliaceus, Chemn. 
21. fragilis, Sow. 

25. fragum, Reeve. 

26. gilvus, irf. 

27. Gussoni, Cosfa. 

28. gsedaropus, Linn. 

29. histrix, Reeve. 

30. ictevicus, zrf. 

31. imbutus, z'rf. 

32. imperialis, Chemn. 

33. Lamarckii, id. 

34. Layardi, Reeve. 

35. leucacantha, ifrorf. 



36. limbatus, -So?o. 

37. lingua-felis, zrf. 

38. lougitudinalis, Lam. 

39. microlepos, irf. 

40. multimuricatus, R. 

41. multisetosus, z'rf. 

42. mus, Chemn. 

43. Nicobaricus, id. 

44. uudus, «/. 

45. nux, Reeve. 

46. ocellatus, erf. 

47. Pacificus, id. 

48. pictorum, Chemn. 

49. plurispinosus, jR. 

50. princeps, Brod. 

51. radula, Reeve. 

52. ramosus, irf. 



53. regius, Linn. 

54. rubicundus, .#. 

55. setiger, id. 

56. Sinensis, £o?#. 

57. spectrum, Reeve. 

58. tenebrosus, id. 

59. tenellus, z'rf. 

60. tenuispiuosus, Sow. 

61. unicolor, z'rf. 

62. ustulatus, Reeve. 

63. varians, £o?p. 

64. variegatus, Chemn. 

65. vexillum, Reeve. 

66. violaceus, z'rf. 

67. virgineus, z'rf. 

68. zonalis, Chemn. 



Figure. 



Spondylus croceus. PI. 27. Fig. 160. Shell, illustrative of the vivid 
colouring and branching sculpture of the genus, but showing only a 
small development of the umbonal area. 



Genus 2. PLICATULA. 

Animal ; supposed to be similar to that of Spondylus. 

Shell ; affixed, irregular, inequivalve, attenuated toivards the hinge, 
not auriculated ; margins mostly plicated ; umboes unequal ; no 
umbonal area ; hinge composed of two strong teeth in each valve 
closely interlocking. 

The genus Plicatula comprises only a few recent species, but it holds 
an important place in fossil conchology, and the species are distinguished 
by a marked uniformity of character. Like Spondylus, the hinge consists 
of two pairs of closely-interlocking teeth ; no umbonal area is, however, 
formed as in that genus, and the shells are uniformly small, characterized 
by a speciality both of sculpture and colour. There is no indication of 
fronds or prolonged spines, and the shell is always of a dull reddish-brown, 
unrelieved by any variety of painting. 

The species are from Western America, Australia, and the Philippine 
Islands. 



55 

Species. 

1. australis, Lam. 4. depressa, Lam. 7. plicata, Forsk. 

2. cristate, id. 5. lineata, Recluz. 8. regularis, P/til. 

3. deltoidea, Dunk. 6. penicillata, Carp. 9. reniformis, Za;w. 



Figwe. 

Plicatula Philippinarum. PL 27. Pig. 161. Shell, with the upper 
valve dropped to show the strongly-toothed hinge, and the absence of 
umbonal area. 



Genus 3. HINNITES, Befrance. 

Animal ; supposed to be similar to that of Spondylus. 

Shell ; affixed, inequivalve, thick, ponderous, slightly auriculated ; 
hinge and umbonal area in both valves broad and toothless, 
with a central, rather deep, oblong -triangular pit containing the 
ligament. 

We have seen that Plicatula has the teeth of the Spondylus, but no 
umbonal area. Rhinites has the umbonal area of that genus, but no teeth ; 
it moreover resembles Spondylus in the size and massiveness of its growth. 
The genus was founded originally from two fossil species. The two recent 
species referred to it are shells of great rarity in the collection of the 
British Museum, — one described by Dr. Gray, in the ' Annals of Philo- 
sophy/ the other by Mr. Sowerby, in the ' Zoological Journal.' Both are 
figured in vol. viii. of the ' Conchologia/ An attaching species of Pecten 
(Ostrea pusio, Linn.) has been referred to this genus, but it has little or 
no participation in its characters. 



Species. 

1. corallinus, Sow. 2. giganteus, Gray. 



Genus 4. PECTEN, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; shaped as the shell ; mantle freely open, with pendent 
margins, bearing, usually two, fringes of tentacular filaments, 
the one series at their fixed, the other at their free border. 



56 

Among the former are ranged globular, shining ocelli ; no si- 
phonal tubes ; foot small, cylindrical, with a byssal groove from 
which a weak byssus is spun, mostly when the animal is young ; 
mouth surrounded by folia ceo us leaflets and two pairs of labial 
tentacles, which are smooth externally, pectinated internally ; 
branchial leaflets equal, each pair partially doubled on itself. 
(Forbes.) 
Shell ; rarely affixed, more or less orbicular, regular, inequivalve, 
nearly equilateral, unequally auriculated on either side of the 
hinge, sometimes a little gaping, mostly symmetrically rayed 
with ribs or ridges ; umboes approximated, without any inter- 
vening area ; hinge toothless, with a marginal ligament, and a 
ce7itral internal solid ligament in a deep triangular pit ; a more 
or less distinct byssal sinus in one valve. 

In all collections of British shells the Pectens occupy a conspicuous 
place as the most gaily painted of bivalves ; but the British species, with 
their attractive varieties of colour and pattern, are but as the bramble 
beside the rose when compared with the Harlequins, Ducal Mantles, and 
other elaborately scaled and intensely brilliant species of exotic climes. 
Lamarck, while enumerating as many as fifty-nine species of Pecten, de- 
scribed it, in the plenitude of his enthusiasm, as " le beau et immense 
genre." Now we have even finer species, and three times as many ; and 
so nicely balanced are the general affinities between them, that concho- 
logists have failed to establish more than two received subdivisions, — the 
sections Vola and Amusium. 

The Pectens live at various depths, and move, either alone or in groups, 
with a jerking motion by the rapid opening and shutting of their valves.* 
When at rest they spin a slight byssus from the foot. The shell, which is 
of lighter substance than in the preceding genera, is developed in radia- 
tions, like a pleated fan, with the utmost symmetry and order, and the 
painting of the lower valve is oftentimes little less brilliant than that of 
the upper. By the older writers Pectens were called indifferently Scallops, 
and sometimes Cockles ; and the Pecten Jacobceus, named in honour of St. 
James, was worn as an emblem by the pilgrim journeying to the Holy 

* Dr. Landsborough, the well-known Scottish naturalist, writes : — " We observed on a sunny 
September day in a pool of sea-water, left on Stevenston Strand by the ebbing tide, what we at 
first thought some of the scaly brood at play. On close investigation, however, we found that 
it was the fry of Pecten opercularis skipping quite nimbly through the pool. Their motion was 
rapid and zigzag, very like ducks in a sunny blink rejoicing in the prospect of rain. They 
seemed, by the sudden closing and opening of their valves, to have the power of darting like an 
arrow through the water. One jerk carried them some yards, and then by another sudden jerk 
they were off in a moment in a (Liferent tack." — Scottish Christian Herald, vol. ii. p. 165. 






57 

City, and is still conspicuous in the heraldry of those whose ancestors 
are said to have been pilgrims.* 









Species. 






1. 


albo-lineatus, Soto. 


35. 


distans, Lam. 


69. 


larvatus, Reeve. 


2. 


altus, Reeve. 


36. 


Dringi, Reeve. 


70. 


latiauritus, Conrad. 


3. 


argenteus, id. 


37. 


effulgens, id. 


71. 


Laurentii, Gmel. 


4. 


asper, Sow. 


38. 


erubescens, id. 


72. 


Layardi, Reeve. 


5. 


asperrimus, Lam. 


39. 


exasperatus, Sow. 


73. 


lemniscatus, id. 


6. 


asperulatus, Ad. 8f R 


40. 


Eabricii, Phil. 


74. 


lentiginosus, id. 


7. 


aurantiacus, id. 


41. 


fasciculatus, Reeve. 


75. 


leopardus, id. 


8. 


Australis, Sow. 


42. 


filosus, id. 


76. 


leucopbaeus, id. 


9. 


artkriticus, Reeve. 


43. 


flabelloides, id. 


77. 


limatula, id. 


10. 


bifrons, Lam. 


44. 


flexuosus, Poll. 


78. 


lividus, Lam. 


11. 


blandus, Reeve. 


45. 


floridus, Hinds. 


79. 


luculenta, Reeve. 


12. 


Bruei, Payr. 


46. 


Meatus, Reeve. 


80. 


Madreporarmn, Petit 


13. 


circularis, Sow. 


47. 


fucatus, id. 


81. 


Magellanicus, Gmel. 


14. 


clavatus, Poll. 


48. 


fulvicostatus, Ad. fy 


R. 82. 


magnificus, Soto. 


15. 


cloacatus, Reeve. 


49. 


funebris, Reeve. 


83. 


maximus, Lin. 


16. 


concinnus, id. 


50. 


fumatus, id. 


84. 


medius, Lam. 


17. 


corallinoides, J)' Orb. 


51. 


fuscus, Klein. 


85 


miles, Reeve. 


18. 


corneus, Sow. 


52. 


gemmeus, Reeve. 


86. 


ininiaceus, Lam. 


19. 


coruscans, Hind. 


53. 


gemmulatus, id. 


87. 


mirificus, Reeve. 


20. 


crassicostatus, Sow. 


54. 


gibbus, Lin. 


88. 


modestus, id. 


21. 


cretatus, Reeve. 


55. 


glaber, id. 


89. 


mollitus, id. 


22. 


cristularis, Ad. 8f R. 


56. 


gloriosus, Reeve. 


90. 


multicostatus, id. 


23. 


crotilus, Reeve. 


57. 


bastatus, Sow. 


91. 


mundus, id. 


24. 


cruentatus, id. 


58. 


bistrionicus, Gmel. 


92. 


muscosus, Wood. 


25. 


cuneatus, id. 


59. 


hyalina, Poll. 


93. 


nasans, Phil. 


26. 


cuneolus, id. 


60. 


Ida3us, Reeve. 


94. 


nobibs, Reeve. 


27. 


Cumingii, id. 


61. 


imbricatus, Gmel. 


95. 


nodosus, Lin. 


28. 


daucus, id. 


62. 


inKequivalvis, Sow. 


96. 


Novae-Zelandise, Rve. 


29. 


Danicus, Chemn. 


63. 


irradians, Lam. 


97- 


nucleus, Born. 


30. 


Darwinii, Reeve. 


64. 


irregularis, Sow. 


98. 


nux, Reeve. 


31. 


denticulatus, Ad. 8p R 


65 


Islaudicus, Mull. 


99 


obliteratus, Lin. 


32. 


dentatus, Sow. 


66 


Jacobseus, Lin. 


100. 


opercularis, id. 


33. 


Dieffenbachi, Gray. 


67 


Japonicus, Gmel. 


101. 


omatus, Lam. 


34 


digitatus, Reeve. 


68. 


laqueatus, Soto. 


102. 


pallium, Lin. 



* Ophelia sings : — 

" How should I your true love know 
From another one ? 
By his cockle -hat and staff, 
And his sandal shoon." 
And Scott, describing the Palmer in Marmion, — 

" The scallop shell his hat did deck." 
VOL. II. 



58 



103. parvus, Sow. 126. 

104. Patagonicus, King. 127. 

105. pes-anatis, Reeve. 128. 

106. pes-felis, Lin. 129. 

107. pica, Reeve. 130. 

108. pictus, Sow. 131. 

109. pleuronectes, Lin. 132. 

110. plica, id. 133. 

111. proteus, Solander. 134. 

112. prunum, iteeytf. 135. 

113. pseudamusium, Klein .136. 

114. pseudo-lima, Sow. 137. 

115. pulchella, Reeve. 138. 

116. purpuratus, Lam. 139. 

117. pusio, ////. 140. 

118. pyxidatus, Rom. 141. 

119. radula, Z?«. 142. 

120. Eeevei, Adams. 143. 

121. reticulatus, Reeve. 111. 

122. roseo-punctatus, «W. 145. 

123. rabidus, Hinds. 146. 

124. rufiradiatus, Reeve. 147. 

125. rugosus, £o?0. 148. 



russatus, Reeve. • 149. 
sangiiinolentus,6r;??eZ. 150. 



saniosus, Reeve. 
senatorius, Gmel. 
sentio, Reeve. 
sericeus, Hinds. 
serratus, >SW. 
Sinensis, ?c?. 
Singaporinus, id. 
solans, Rom. 
solidulus, Reeve. 
Sowerbyi, id. 
speciosus, id. 
spectabilis, id. 
spectrum, id. 
spiniferus, Sow. 
splendidulus, id. 
squamatus, Gmel. 
squamosus, id. 
stellatus, Reeve. 
Strangei, id. 
subnosus, Sow. 
subplicatus, id. 



151. 

152. 
153. 
154. 
155. 
156. 
157. 
158. 
159. 
160. 
161. 
162. 
163. 
164. 
165. 
166. 
167. 
168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 



subrufus, Turton. 
sugillatus, Reeve. 
sulcatus, Rom. 
superbus. Sow. 
tegula, Wood. 
tenellus, Reeve. 
tenuigranosus, id. 
testudineus, id. 
textilis, id. 
tigrinus, Mull. 
tigris, Lam. 
tinctus, Reeve. 
Tranquebaricus, Gmel. 
triradiatus, Reeve. 
undulatus, Sow. 
unicolor, Lam. 
ustidatus, Reeve. 
varius, Lin. 
vclntinus, Sow. 
ventricosus, id. 
vestalis, Reeve. 
vexillum, id. 
ziczac, Lin. 



Figure. 

Pecten bifrons. PL 27. Fig. 1G2. Shell, of an exotic species, showing 
its auriculated hinge and symmetrically rayed growth. 



Genus 5. HEMIPECTEN, Adams and Reeve. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; orbicular, very thin, hyaline, concentrically lineated ; loioer 
valve flat, auriculated posteriorly, with a deep byssal sinus, hav- 
ing the opposite margin finely denticled ; upper valve convex, 
scarcely auriculated ; hinge toothless, with a marginal ligament, 
and a small central internal ligament in a somewhat superficial 
pit. 

During the cruise of the 'Samarang' among the islands of the Eastern Ar- 
chipelagoes in 1843-6, under the command of Capt. Sir Edward Belcher, 
two semitransparent hyaline shells, about an inch and a quarter in dia- 
meter, were dredged off the Island of Sooloo, partaking curiously of the 



59 

characters of two genera not hitherto reckoned very closely allied, Pecten 
and Anomia. They appeared to be varieties of one and the same species, 
although on being submitted to Dr. Carpenter for microscopic examina- 
tion, he detected a rudimental sculpturing over the whole of the visible 
external surface of one of them which is wanting in the other. In form 
and general outline, and in the structure of the hinge, Hemipecten, as the 
name given to this shell denotes, resembles the preceding genus ; but in 
substance, and in its habit of being affixed to its place of attachment by the 
flat valve, it resembles Anomia ; and a consideration of this affinity has led 
to the observance by Professor Forbes of relations of more physiological 
import.* From the circumstance of the lower valve being perforated by a 
deep sinus, of which there is no corresponding growth in the upper, it 
might be compared with Pedum; but in that genus, which lives imbedded 
in madrepore, the habits of the animal are different, and the shell has an 
umbonal area, like that of Spondylus. 

The two specimens (now in the collection of T. Lombe Taylor, Esq.) 
were obtained from a coral and stony bottom at the depth of about four- 
teen fathoms. The under valve of each is smooth, showing it to have been 
affixed, the upper valve, covered, in part, in both specimens with particles 
of coral and parasitic shells, is in one smooth and colourless, in the other 
decussately wrinkled and delicately rayed with orange-red. 



Species. 
1. Forbesianus, Adams 8f Reeve. 

(Figured in the Mollusca of the Voyage of the Samarang, PI. 20.) 



Genus 6. LIMA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; oval ; mantle freely open, its margins pendent and 
fringed ivith long tentacular filaments ; ocelli absent or incon- 
spicuous ; no siphons ; body produced, in part linguiform ; foot 
small, Ungulate, furnished toith a byssal groove ; labial palps 
subtriangular , small, pectinated ; mouth surrounded by tenta- 

* "Anomia has really very close relations with Pecten, and is connected to the latter by the 
curious genus Hemipecten of Reeve. The perforation iu one of the valves of Anomia is chiefly 
a greater extension of the auricular sinus in Pecten, and when the young fry of this genus shall 
have been carefully observed, we believe they will be found spinning a byssus which, passing 
through this sinus, fixes the shell in the first instance, before a portion of it becoming attached, 
eventually becomes detached with a part of the adductor muscle, and forms the opercular pro- 
cess." — Forbes and Eanley, Brit. Moll., vol. ii. p. 323. 



60 

cular filaments ; anal tube cylindric, externally visible ; bran- 
chial leaflets equal on each side. (Forbes.) 
Shell ; nearly equivalve, inequilateral, auriculated, gaping on one 
side ; umboes divaricate, their internal areas being inclined 
outwards ; hinge toothless, but sometimes indistinctly crenulated 
on either side ; ligament partially external, contained in a cen- 
tral triangular pit. 

One of the most obvious peculiarities of the Lima is that their shell is 
of a pure transparent-white substance, sometimes, however, covered with 
a brown epidermis ; and the animal is peculiar in having the mantle fringed 
with a multitude of long tentacular filaments, which are sometimes of a 
beautiful scarlet-tinged orange-colour. In form the shell has a close re- 
semblance to Pecten, but the umboes have a tendency to project outwards, 
and to form, in both valves, an inner area. The species are mostly cha- 
racterized by a scaly sculpture, and gape, more or less, on the anterior side 
for the passage of a byssus, by the aid of which it weaves together frag- 
ments of coral, and builds a kind of nest for itself.* Three species are 
British. 



1. angulata, Sow. 

2. arcuata, id. 

3. Basilanica, Ad. 8f R. 

4. bullata, Bom. 

5. Caribbasa, D'Orb. 

6. Curningii, Sow. 

7. dentata, id. 

8. excavata, Chemn. 



Species. 

9. fasciata, Linn. 

10. fragilis, Chemn. 

11. hians, Gmel. 

12. inflata, Chemn. 

13. Loacombii, Leach. 

14. inulticostata, Soto. 

15. orientalis, Ad. $r R. 

16. paucicostata, Soto. 



17. rotundata, id. 

18. Sarsii, Loven. 

19. scabra, Born. 

20. squamosa, Lam. 

21. subauriculata, Mont. 

22. tenera, Chemn. 

23. ventricosa, Soto. 

24. vulgaris, Link. 



* Speaking of the Lima hians, Dr. Landsborough says : — " The coral nest is curiously con- 
structed, and remarkably well fitted to be a sate residence for this beautiful animal. The fragile 
shell does uot nearly cover the mollusk, the most delicate part of it, a beautiful orange friuge- 
work, beiug altogether outside of the shell. It is not contented with hiding itself among the 
loose coral, for the first rude wave might lay it naked and bare. It becomes a marine mason, 
and builds a house or nest. It chooses to dwell in a coral grotto ; but in constructing this grotto 
it shows that it is not only a mason but a rope-spinner, and a tapestry-weaver, and a plasterer. 
Wheu the Lima is taken out of its nest, and put iuto a jar of sea- water, it is one of the most beau- 
tiful marine animals you can look upon. The shell is beautiful ; the body of the animal within 
is beautiful ; and the orange fringe-work outside the shell is highly ornamental. Instead of 
being sluggish, it swims about with great vigour. Its mode of swimming is the same as that of 
the scallop. It opens its valve, and suddenly shutting them expels the water, so that it is im- 
pelled onwards or upwards ; and when the impulse thus given is spent, it repeats the operation, 
and thus moves on by a succession of jumps. When moving through the water in this way the 
reddish fringe-work is like the tail of a fiery comet." — Excursions to Arran, p. 319. 



61 

Figures. 

Lima inflata. PI. N. Pig. 1. Shell, containing the animal with its ten- 
tacular fringe and byssus-spinning foot. 

Lima squamosa. PL 28. Pig. 163. Shell, showing its white substance and 
scaly sculpture, with the byssus protruding from the anterior gape. 



Genus 7. PEDUM, Bruguiere. 

Animal; oval-oblong, fat, lobes of the mantle free, thickened at 
the edge, and furnished with several rows of tentacular cirrhi 
and equidistant smooth tubercles; a pair of large branchice de- 
scending on each side ; foot worm-shaped, furnished tvilh a large 
silky byssus ; mouth oval, having on each side a pair of labial 
palps. CQuoy and Gaimard.J 

Shell ; inequivalve, thin, compressed, slightly auriculated, loiver 
valve rather convex, refected at the sides, deeply sinuated near 
the hinge, lower valve flat ; hinge toothless, with the ligament 
partially external, contained ivithin a channelled pit running 
across a produced umbonal area of the loiver valve. 

The earliest publication of the very remarkable shell which constitutes 
this genus was the mention of " a rare oyster from the Indies " more than 
a century ago in the ' Catalogue Raisonne ' of Davila ; and no other spe- 
cies has been met with. Prom having a largely-developed umbonal area, 
it was then called the ' Spondylus-like Oyster/ but, unlike that genus, it 
has a very conspicuous sinus for the passage of a stout silken byssus, and 
according to the observations of MM. Quoy and Gaimard, partakes much 
of the character of the Pectens. 

Until lately the Pedum, reported to be an inhabitant of the Mauritius, 
has been a shell of great rarity ; but it has been found in comparative 
abundance in the Eed Sea imbedded chiefly in masses of madrepore, and 
the accomplished naturalists of the Astrolabe have gone so far as to ex- 
press their belief that the animal has the power of boring and enlarging its 
place of habitation. 

Figure. 

Pedum Spondyloideum. PI. 28. Pig. 164. Shell, showing its reflected 
sides and umbonal area. PI. N. Pig. 3 : showing a mass of madre- 
pore with four specimens imbedded therein. 



62 



Family 3. AVICULACEA. 

Shell ; irregular, rather thin, fibro-laminar ; hinge toothless ; liga- 
ment marginal, either linear or enclosed in pits or grooves ; 
lower valve notched or si nuated for the passage of a byssus. 

The Avictdacea, of which the large Pearl Oyster is the type, have shells 
of a fibrous laminar structure, partaking of the foliated structure of the 
Oysters proper; but the animal has a well-developed foot, such as appears 
only occasionally in the preceding family in a rudimentary form, and it is 
furnished with a gland which secretes a byssus of considerable strength. 
Bivalves that are provided with the means of mooring themselves to foreign 
bodies, have no interlocking teeth, except in the ponderous Clams. The 
hinge of the Avicidacea is only a ligament hinge, the ligament being more 
than usually developed, and either linear or contained in variously arranged 
pits or grooves according to the genus. 

The shells of this family have, of all bivalves, the least proportion of 
lime in their composition, and the largest, therefore, of membranous tissue ; 
and the testaceous fluid used for the internal lining is that beautifully iri- 
descent silvery substance called nacre, or mother-o'-pearl. The genera are — 

Avicula. Vulsella. Malleus. 

Perna. Crenatula. 



Genus 1. AVICULA, Klein. 

Animal ; oval, flattened, with the lobes of the mantle free through- 
out, frilled at their edges ; foot sometimes small, sometimes 
rather long, furnished with a byssal groove ; mouth and labial 
palps rather large, obliquely truncated, adductor muscle strength- 
ened by smaller auxiliary muscles. 

Shell ; inequivalve, sometimes orbicular, sometimes obliquely tri- 
angular, ivith the anterior side more or less elongatcly winged ; 
hinge toothless, but furnished in most instances, beneath the 
umboes, with an obscure tubercle ; ligament linear, more or less 
dilated in the middle. 

The obliquely triangular winged Avicula, or Swallows, and the round 
Avicula, or Pearl Oysters (the Meleagrina of Lamarck), are associated to- 
gether in this genus. Though differing materially in shape, the animal is 
the same, and even the roundest form of Meleagnna possesses in a rudi- 
mentary shape the winged process which is developed in so extraordinary 



63 

a manner in some of the Aviculce proper. The orbicular species are re- 
markable also for their very elaborately scaled or foliated structure, those 
that are least winged being generally the most scaled ; and the colours are 
in some few kinds as brilliant as can well be imagined. Both varieties of 
Avicula produce pearls, but it is to the large round A. margaritifera of the 
tropical and subtropical seas in both hemispheres that we are indebted for 
the pearls of commerce. The choicest pearls are formed within the fleshy 
part of the mantle, owing to some disorganization of the secreting gland 
which causes the pearly nacre, used for the lining of the shell, to accu- 
mulate in little pea-like balls ; and great is the eagerness with which they 
have been procured in all ages for ornamenting the person.* 

The Avicula are abundant in the tropical and subtropical seas, and are 
handsomely, but with rarity, represented on our own shores by the A. Ta- 
rentina, whose home is in the Mediterranean. The smaller species, some 
of which are extremely fragile, attach themselves chiefly to bunches of 
zoophytes. 



1. serata, Reeve. 

2. ala-corvi, Chemn. 

3. ala-perdicis, Reeve. 

4. Anomioides, id. 

5. aquatilis, id. 

6. argentea, id. 

7. assula, id. 

8. Atlantica, Lam. 

9. barbata, Reeve. 

10. castanea, id. 

11. cetra, id. 

12. Charnoides, id. 

13. cornea, id. 

14. crocea, Chemn. 



Species. 

15. Cumingii, Reeve. 

16. electrina, id. 

17. exiniia, id. 

18. fibrosa, id. 

19. fimbriata, id. 

20. flabellum, id. 

21. flammata, id. 

22. flexuosa, id. 

23. formosa, id. 

24. fucata, Gould. 

25. gregata, Reeve. 

26. heteroptera, Lam. 

27. hystrix, Reeve. 

28. imbricata, id. 



29. inquinata, Reeve. 

30. iridescens, id. 

31. irradians, id. 

32. irrasa, id. 

33. lacunata, id. 

34. lata, Gray. 

35. lentiginosa, Reeve. 

36. libella, id. 

37- lotorium, Lam. 

38. macroptera, id. 

39. Malleoides, Reeve. 

40. marmorata, id. 

41. maura, id. 

42. muricata, id. 



* " During the continuance of the pearl-fishery, there is no spectacle which Ceylon affords 
more striking to the European than the Bay of Condeatchy. ' This desert and barren spot is at 
that time,' says an eye-witness, ' converted into a scene which exceeds in novelty and variety al- 
most anything I ever witnessed. Several thousands of people, of different colours, countries, 
castes, and occupations, continually passing and repassing in a busy crowd ; the vast numbers 
of small tents and huts erected on the. shore, with the bazaar or market-place before each ; the 
multitude of boats returning in the afternoon from the pearl-banks, some of them laden with 
riches ; the anxious expecting countenances of the boat-owners, while the boats are approaching 
the shore, and the eagerness and avidity with which they run to them when arrived, in hopes of 
a rich cargo ; the vast numbers of jewellers, brokers, merchants, of all colours and all descrip- 
tions, both natives and foreigners, who are occupied in some way or other with the pearls, some 
separating and assorting them, others weighing and ascertaining their number and value, while 
others are hawking them about, or drilling aud boring them for future use ; — all these circum- 
stances tend to impress the mind with the value and importance of that object which can of 
itself create this scene.' " — Johnston, Introcl., p. 53. 



64 



43. nebulosa, Conrad. 

44. occa, Reeve. 

45. perviridis, id. 

46. Pernoides, id. 

47. Peruviana, id. 

48. pica, Gould. 

49. Placunoides, Reeve. 

50. prretexta, id. 

51. producta, i^. 

52. pulchella, id. 



53. punctulata, itetfre. 

54. radida, id. 

55. reticulata, zW. 

56. rutila, id. 

57. Savignyi, Desk. 

58. scabriuscula, Reeve. 

59. scalpta, zW. 

60. semisagitta, Za?». 

61. signata, Reeve. 



62. smaragdina, id. 

63. spectrum, w?. 

64. sugiilata, id. 

65. Tarentina, iara. 

66. tegulata, Reeve. 

67. trocliilus, id. 

68. vexillum, z'<#. 

69. vitrea, id. 

70. zebra, w?. 



Figure. 

Avicula lata. PI. 28. Fig. 165. Shell, of a species intermediate in 
form between the two Lamarckian divisions, Avicula and Meleagrina, 
showing the linear position of the ligament. 



Genus 2. VULSELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; longitudinal, equivalve, somewhat irregular, umboes equal ; 
hinge-callosity in each valve prominent, depressed at the upper 
part, and havitig an obliquely arched conical pit containing the 
ligament. 

The Yidsella, of which the soft parts have not yet been observed, have 
an extended tongue-like shell, like the lobeless Mallei, and they have a 
similar hinge, the ligament being contained in a central spoon-shaped pit. 
The umboes are, however, attenuated, and recede from each other so as to 
form a kind of hooked area. Of sixteen species at present known the 
shells present a great similarity of sculpture, all being more or less beset 
with lamina? of minute crenulated scales. There is very little indication of 
a byssus, and, like Crenatula, their habit is to live imbedded in sponge. 
They chiefly inhabit the Red Sea. 



1. attenuata, Reeve. 

2. corollata, id. 

3. crenulata, Lam. 

4. hians, id. 



Species. 

5. Isocardia, Reeve. 

6. Limseforrnis, id. 

7. lingua-felis, id. 

8. lingulata, Lam. 



9. Mytiliua, Lam. 

10. phasianoptera, id. 

11. Pholadiformis, id. 

12. rudis, id. 



13. rugosa, Lam. 

14. spoiigiarum, id. 



65 



15. Tasmanica, Lam. 16. trita. 



Figure. 

Vulsella attenuata. PL 28. Fig. 166. Shell, showing its elongated 
tongue-like growth. 



Genus 3. MALLEUS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; irregular, nearly equivalve, elongated, sometimes lobed on 
each side ; umboes divaricate ; hinge toothless, with the liga- 
ment partly external, on a sloping area, partly internal within 
a central pit, ivilh a small passage for the byssus. 

The genus Malleus was founded for the reception of two oyster-like 
shells of very remarkable longitudinal growth, of which the hinge portion 
is prolonged on either side, at a right angle, into an extended narrow lobe. 
The term malleus, a mallet or hammer, aptly designates this form. But 
in none of the species since discovered, with the same natural affinities, is 
the hinge portion lobed. The Hammer Oysters have as many as eleven 
species associated with them in this genus in which there is no hammer 
structure, and in at least half of them, which are very small, the laminated 
growth soon terminates, forming a kind of nucleus, and the remaining por- 
tion of the shell is an independent transparent deposit of brittle calcareous 
matter, characterized in most instances apart from the body of the shell by 
a different speciality of colouring. 

The large Mallei are from the islands of the Eastern Seas, the small 
brittle species are from West Columbia and the islands of the Pacific. 



1. albus, Lam. 

2. anatinus, id. 

3. aquatiiis, Reeve. 

4. dsemoniacus, id. 

5. decurtatus, Lam. 



Species. 



6. legumen, Reeve. 

7. maculosus, id. 

8. rea-ula, Forsk. 



10. solitarius, Reeve. 

11. tigrinus, id. 

12. vesiculatus, id. 



9. rufipunctatus, Reeve. 13. vulgaris, Lam. 



Malleus anatinus. 
vol. II. 



Figure. 
PL 28. Fig. 167. Shell, showing the hinge h'ga- 



66 



mentary pit, and the utmost inclination that any species has to be- 
come lobed, excepting the two well-known cross-lobed species known 
as the Hammer Oysters. 



Genus 4. PERNA, Lamarck. 

Animal; mantle prolonged behind, with the lobes free throughout ; 

foot conical, carrying at its base a rough large byssus. fDes- 

hayes.J 
Shell ; fat, nearly eauivalve ; umboes small, often terminal and 

hooked ; hinge broad, marginal, deeply cut with parallel grooves 

contai7iing the ligament ; posterior opening for the passage 

of the byssus conspicuous. 

The Perna are variously shaped, round, pectinate, or winged, but the 
genus may be at once recognized by the peculiarities of the hinge. It 
takes the form of a broad marginal plate cut across with great regularity 
by parallel grooves, and the intermediate ridges of the valves do not inter- 
lock with each other, like teeth, but press in contact, leaving the cavities 
between them for the reception of the ligament. 

The shells of Perna have a strong affinity with those of Malleus in re- 
spect of growth, but the hinge is of quite a different structure. They are 
chiefly from the Eastern Seas. A few are from the West Indies and from 
the Islands of the Pacific. 



1. Anomioides, Reeve. 

2. attenuata, id. 

3. Australica, id. 

4. Californica, Conrad. 

5. caudata, Reeve. 

6. costellata, Conrad. 

7. Curningii, Reeve. 

8. eplrippium, Linn. 

9. fiinbriata, Reeve. 
10. imbricata, id. 



Species. 

11. isognomum, Linn. 

12. laticostata, Reeve. 

13. legumen, Gmel. 

14. lentiginosa, Reeve. 

15. Limoides, id. 

16. lingiiiformis, id. 

17. lobata, id. 

18. marsupium, Lam. 

19. nucleus. Lam. 

20. patibulum, Reeve. 



21. pectinata, Reeve. 

22. quadrangularis, id. 

23. rudis, id. 

24. semiuuda, Lam. 

25. serratula, Reeve. 

26. spatliulata, id. 

27. vespertilio, id. 

28. vitrea, id. 

29. Vulsella, Lam. 



Figure. 
Perna Australica. PI. 29. Pig. 168. Shell, with the upper valve 



67 

dropped to show the hinge of parallel grooves containing the liga- 
ment. 



Genus 5. CRENATULA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; thirty nearly equivalve, smooth, mostly concentrically striated, 
oblique ; hinge lateral, linear, crenulated, crenules set in a row 
along the margin, callous, rather hollow, receiving the ligament. 

The Crenatida, of which eight species are now known, are distinguished 
by a marked speciality of character. They cannot be said to run into any 
of the proximate genera. Their shells are of a delicate horny substance, 
and of a curiously oblique-quadrate or obliquely-ovate growth, the hinge 
being set on a prolonged lateral margin in a row of jutting hollow crenules. 
All the species are from the Red Sea, excepting one of very distinct typical 
character, C. flammea, from New California. Like the Vulsella, they live 
imbedded in sponge. 



Species. 

1. avicularis, Lam. 4. folium, Gray. 7. picta, Gmel. 

2. bicostalis, id. 5. Mytiloides, Lam. 8. viridis, Lam. 

3. flammea, Reeve. 6. nigrina, id. 



Figure. 

Crenatula avicularis. PL 29. Tig. 169. Shell, with the upper valve 
dropped to show the jutting ligamentary crenules. 



Family 4. MYTILACEA. 

Shell ; more or less narrowly elongated, equivalve, but very un- 
equal-sided, of horny Jibro-laminar substance, sometimes smooth, 
sometimes prickly scaled ; animal ajjixed by a byssus. 

The byssus-spinning Mussels are distinguished from the byssus-spinning 
Oysters by having a narrower more elongated shell, of lighter more horny 
substance ; and the animal commences to show the lobes of its mantle 
united, with a development of siphonal orifices in front for the transmission 



68 

of water to and from the branchiae. They include the gigantic Pinna of 
the Mediterranean, and more than fifty others of more exotic range, most 
of them elaborately scaled and some brilliantly coloured ; the beautiful as- 
semblage of winch the edible and tulip Mussels are the types ; and a group 
of borers which, notwithstanding their confined habits, have shells with a 
most delicately sculptured and silken surface. With a few very limited ex- 
ceptions, they are inhabitants of the sea. The genera are — 

Pinna. Mytilus. Modiola. Lithodomus. 



Genus 1. PINNA,.Z««»##s. 

Animal ; triangular ; mantle freely open ; no siphons ; mantle 
margins with serrated edges ; month with foliaceous lips and 
short palps ; arms furnished with a long ligulate valve ; foot 
small, with a byssal groove ; adductor muscles very unequal. 
(Forbes.) 

Shell; equivalve, oblique, longitudinally wedge-shaped, fibro-lami- 
nar, generally scaled ; hinge lateral, toothless, with the ligament 
rather internal, continued throughout its whole length. 

Authors are somewhat divided as to whether the genus Pinna should 
be included in this or in the preceding family. Like the Aviculacea, the 
animal has its mantle-lobes disunited, and there are no siphons ; but in 
the structure of its shell and in habitat, it partakes more of the character 
of the true Mussels, in which the lobes of the mantle begin to be united 
and to form siphons in front. The single species inhabiting our own south- 
western shores, P. pectinata, is the largest of British mollusks ; and the 
P. rotundata, inhabiting the Mediterranean, is the largest of the genus. 
The name given to this shell by Aristotle has survived to this day. Lin- 
nreus adopted it to designate the genus, and no attempt to divide so na- 
tural a group into further genera has found favour. 

Among the foreign species, four-fifths of which are inhabitants of the 
Old World, and one-fifth only of the New, there are most interesting 
varieties of sculpture. In P. serrata the scales are minute, copious, and 
sharp ; in P. alia and Cumivgii they are curiously tubular and erectly re- 
curved : in P. nobilis and rugosa they are promiscuously distorted ; while 
in many species, as in P.fumata, bicolor, and Philippinensis, the shell is 
smooth. In examining the Pinna it is, however, important to observe the 
species in different stages of growth and from different habitats. Indivi- 
duals which in a young state are characterized by a profusion of scales, 
often become roughly laminated and even denuded of sculpture; and the 



69 

self-same species, our British P. pectinata for example, is found scaled in 
one habitat and smooth in another. All are of a fibrous brittle texture, 
often brilliant in colour, though a dull horny olive greatly predominates. 



1 . alta, Sow. 

2. angustana, Lam. 

3. assimilis, Haul. 

4. atro-purpurea, Sow. 

5. attenuata, Reeve. 

6. bicolor, Chemn. 

7. bullata, Swain. 

8. Carolinensis, Hani. 

9. Chemnitzii, id. 

10. Cumingii, id. 

11. deltodes, Menke. 

12. D'Orbiguyi, Hani. 

13. electrina, Reeve. 

14. euglypta, Haul. 

15. fimbriatula, Reeve. 

16. flabellum, Lam. 

17. funiata, Haul. 

18. Gouldii, id. 

19. Hanleyi, Reeve. 

20. hystrix, 27a»Z. 

21. incurvata, Chemn. 



Species. 

22. inflata, Chemn. 

23. Japonica, ZTawZ. 

24. lanceolata, Sow. 

25. lurida, Reeve. 

26. madida, u?. 

27. Maura, -Sow. 

28. Menkii, Hani. 

29. muricata, Linn. 

30. mutica, Reeve. 

31. nobilis, Zz»». 

32. nigra, Chemn. 

33. papyracea, j¥. 

34. pectinata, Linn. 

35. pernula, Chemn. 

36. Philippinensis, Zfa/^. 

37. penna, Reeve. 

38. ramulosa, «?. 

39. regia, Hani. 

40. rigida, Dil/w. 

41. rotmidata, Zm». 



42. rudis, Zwm. 

43. rugosa, Sow. 

44. Kumphii, Hani. 

45. saccata, ZzYm. 

46. sanguinolenta, Reeve. 

47. seminuda, Zr/wz. 

48. seniicostata, Conrad. 

49. serra, Reeve. 

50. serrata, £c£. 

51. squamifera, Soio. 

52. Strangei, TZw^. 

53. Stutchburii, Reeve. 

54. snbviridis, id. 

55. truncata, P/«7. 

56. tuberculosa, Sow. 

57. vespertina, Reeve. 

58. vexillum, Ztorw. 

59. virgata, Menke. 

60. Zebuensis, Reeve. 

61. Zelanica, Gmy. 



Figure. 

Pinna semicostata. PL 29. Fig. 170. Shell of a semitransparent horny 
substance, copiously scaled throughout. 



Genus 2. MYTILUS. 

Animal; oblong ; mantle sometimes freely open, sometimes closed, 
loiilt two siphoned orifices and a?i opening for the fool; man- 
tle margin pin nately fringed in front, simple below; adductor 
muscles unequal ; foot narrow, ligulate, loitli a bgssal groove. 

Shell; equivalve, obliquely fan-shaped, more or less triangular; 
umboes sharp, nearly straight, terminal ; anterior side often 



70 

compressly expanded, posterior somewhat contracted; epidermis 
generally horny, sometimes hairy ; hinge toothless, sometimes 
slightly crenulated, with the ligament marginal and partially 
internal. 

Two very characteristic groups of Mussels are included in this genus, 
the Mt/tili proper, numbering upwards of fifty species, and the Dreissena, 
of which there are some eight or ten. In the first, which are inhabitants 
of the sea, ranging widely over both hemispheres, the lobes of the mantle 
are freely open ; but in the last, which inhabit brackish and fresh water, 
the mantle-lobes are united, except for the passage of the byssus-spiuning 
foot, and where two siphonal openings are formed for inhaling water and 
for ejection. In this peculiarity we have an indication of a character 
which prevails under various modifications in all the lower acephala. The 
simple orifice is first fringed, then tubed, until in My a and Panoprea it be- 
comes a huge proboscis, formed of the tubes enclosed together in a sheath. 

The My till are characterized by an elongately fan -shaped growth, more 
or less beaked towards the umboes, having the anterior side for the most 
part compressly expanded and the posterior arcuately contracted. Two 
species, M. ungulatus and Calif ornianus, attain a large size. M. tortus 
and kirsutus are chiefly remarkable for the densely-fringed epidermis with 
which the animal invests them. As examples of smooth, brilliantly coloured, 
horny epidermis over a ground of pearly nacre, M. piclus and smaragdi- 
nus may be quoted. All have a well-developed byssus spun from a groove 
in the animal's foot.* 

The Mytili are used largely by fishermen for bait, and some amusing 
statistical reports are given of the number of millions of individuals con- 
sumed in this manner in the course of a season. The consumption of 
mussels as an entremet or general article of food is more limited, many 
having taken alarm at the stories that are told, and which, for aught we 
know, may be true, of their unwholesomeness and deleterious qualities. 
M. crassus, with a small Orepidula-like deck within the umbonal extremity 
of the valve, has been selected for the type of a new genus, with the name 
Sept if er. 

Species. 

1. Adamsianus, Dunk. 3. Africanus, Fan Ben. 5. atropurpureus, Dunk. 

2. Afer, Gmel. 4. Americanus, Reel. 6. angnstus, Phil. 

* "The byssus consists of a bundle of horny fibres or threads connected to the animal within 
the shell on the one hand, and to the rock on the other. How this connection is effected was first 
discovered and explained, in his usual copious and clear manner, by Reaumur. By placing mussels, 
Mytilus edulis, in vases of sea-water, he found the following to be their manner of proceeding : 
— Opening their valves the foot was first protruded, and, with various strains and stretches, gra- 



71 



7. bifurcatus, Conr. 

8. borealis, Lam. 

9. Califomianus, Conr. 

10. Charpentieri, Dunk. 

11. Cliiloensis, Phil. 

12. cochleatus, Kickx. 

13. compressus, P/«7. 

14. crassus, Bunk. 

15. cubitus, #tfy. 

16. Cumingianus, RecL 

17. cruciformis, Reeve. 

18. curvatus, Dunk. 

19. Domingensis, ^ec^. 

20. Dunkeri, Reeve. 

21. edulis, ZzVm. 

22. excisus, TFi'ey. 

23. exustus, Lam. 



24. Galloprovincialis, Zaw. 41. 

25. glomeratus, Gould. 42. 

26. gracilis, Reeve. 43. 

27. granulatus, ZZaftZ. 44. 

28. Grunerianus, Dunk. 45. 

29. hamatus, Sffy. 46. 

30. hirsutus, Lam. 47. 

31. horridus, Dunk. 48. 

32. latus, Lam. 49. 

33. Lavalleanus, D'Orb. 50. 

34. Magellanicus, Chemn. 51. 

35. Menkeanus, PM. 52. 

36. minimus, PoZi. 53. 

37. Morchianus, Reel. 54. 

38. Morrisij Dunk. 55. 

39. Nicobaricus, Chemn. 56. 

40. obesus, Dunk. 



obscurus, Dunk. 
ovalis, Lam. 
pallio-punctatus, Dunk. 
Pema, Linn. 
pilosus, Recluz. 
polymorplius, Pallas. 
Kossmasleri, Reel. 
rostratus, Dunk. 
Sallei, Reel. 
sinuatus, Dunk. 
smaragdinus, Chemn. 
tenebrosus, Reeve. 
tenuistriatus, Dunk. 
tortus, id. 
ungulatus, Linn. 
ustulatus, Lam. 



Figure. 

Mytilus horridus. PI. 29. Fig. 171. Shell, showing its elongated fan- 
shaped growth, and hairy fringe-like epidermis. 



Genus 3. MODIOLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; oblong ; mantle marc/ins closed anteriorly, open behind, 
sometimes forming puckered branchial lips and a produced anal 
tube ; foot narrow, ligulate ; byssal gland more or less cylin- 
drical. 

Shell ; oblong, equivalve, more or less ventricose ; wnboes small, 
rather swollen, not terminal, anterior side often expanded, pos- 
terior arched, contracted ; hinge linear, with the ligament mar- 
ginal and partially internal. 

Naturalists are not all agreed upon the propriety of separating Modiola 

dually thrust out, until at length the elongation was earned to the desired extent, sometimes 
to fully two inches. It was now employed in feeling or testing all the objects within reach, directed 
to the right or to the left, backwards or forwards. After all this prelude, to ascertain apparently 
the security of the intended holdings, the point of the foot is settled and retained for a short 
time on the chosen spot, when it is again suddenly removed and immediately withdrawn entirely 
within the shell, leaving behind a thread that reaches from the spot to the base of the foot. By 
many repetitions of this operation, carried on patiently clay after day (for not above four or five 
threads are spun in the twenty-four hours), and by attaching the disk-like extremities of the 
threads to different places, the mussel at last completes its cable and secures a safe anchorage." 
— Johnston, Introd. Conch, p. 143. 



72 

from Mi/tilus, yet there are differences in both the animal and shell which 
claim attention. The animal of Modiola, so far as it has been examined, 
has the mantle lobes closed in front, with puckered or pouting orifices, 
like rudimentary siphons leading to the branchiae. This peculiarity, how- 
ever, though not in Mytilus proper, exists in the Dreissena section of that 
genus. The shell of Modiola presents the most obvious difference, being 
oblong-ventricose and round-shouldered, as it were, instead of elongately 
fan-shaped, and it is of lighter substance. The animal has, also, the faculty 
of constructing a sort of entangling nest for itself out of its byssus-ma- 
terial, w"hich has not been observed in Mi/tilus. 

The Modiola are more numerous in species than the preceding genus, 
and are equally widely distributed. The genera Crcndla and Modiolarca 
express the best-marked subdivisions. 



1. albicosta, Lam. 

2. arata, Dunk. 

3. arcuatula, Hard. 

4. arborescens, Chemn. 

5. Australis, Gray. 

6. bavbata, Lam. 

7. Brasiliensis, Chemn. 

8. bulla, Dunk. 

9. capax, Conrad. 

10. cicercnla, Moller. 

11. costulata, Risso. 

12. Cuiningiana, Dunk. 

13. discors, Linn. 

14. elegans, Gray. 

15. elongata, Swain. 

16. einarginatus, Bens. 

17. faba, lair. 

18. flavida, Dunk. 

19. Fortunei, id. 

20. glaberrinia, id. 

21. glandula, Totten. 



Species. 

22. gubemaculum, Dunk. 

23. impacta, Herm. 

24. Japonica, Dunk. 

25. laevigata, Gray. 

26. lignea, Reeve. 

27. Magellanica, Dunk. 

28. mannorata, Forbes. 

29. Metcalfei, Hani. 
20. modiolus, Linn. 

31. nana, Dunk. 

32. nexa, Gould. 

33. nigra, Gray. 

34. nitens, Carp. 

35. nitida, Hani. 

36. opifex, Say. 

37. pectinula, Gould. 

38. perfragilis, Dunk. 

39. Petagnae, Scacchi. 

40. phaseolina, Phil. 

41. Philippinarum, Hani. 

42. plicata, Gmel. 



43. plicatula, Lam. 

44. recta, Conrad. 

45. rhombea, Berk. 

46. rhomboidea, Hani. 

47. Senhausii, Reeve. 

48. setigera, Dunk. 

49. speciosa, id. 

50. splendens, id. 

51. striatula, Hani. 

52. strigata, id. 

53. subpurpurea, Dunk. 

54. subramosa, Hani. 

55. subsulcata, Dunk. 

56. subtorta, id. 

57. sulcata, Lam. 

58. Trailii, Reeve. 

59. tristis, Dunk. 

60. tulipa, Lam. 

61. undulata, Dunk. 

62. vagina, Zam. 

63. vexillum, Reeve. 



Figure 

Modiola elongata. PI. 29. Fig. 172. 

round-shouldered form, and light texture 



Shell illustrative of the oblong, 



Modiola (Crenella) nexa. 
short arcuated group. 



73 



PL 29. Fie. 173. Shell illustrative of the 



Genus 4. LITHODOMUS, Gurnet. 

Animal ; similar to that of Modiola. 

Shell ; cylindrically oblong, equivalve, covered ivith a reddish 
chestnut epidermis, sometimes incrusted ivith chalk ; extremities 
rounded ; posterior side very short ; umboes small, incurved ; 
hinge linear, ivith the ligament marginal. 

The Sea Dates of the Mediterranean seem to have been better known to 
the epicure than to the naturalist. Long after Cuvier distinguished the 
Lithodomi as a genus, Lamarck included them with the Modiola, and the 
animal was not described in detail by either. With the additions made to 
them by Mr. Cuming, we have a group of some thirty species, presenting 
a very expressive association of characters. The shell is always of a pecu- 
liarly oblong-cylindrical or wedge-shaped form, and of a peculiar substance. 
The animal, unlike the rest of the family, is a borer, and is found imbedded 
in stone, chalk, coral, and in the valves of Spondylus shells, though often 
extremely delicate in structure. There is scarcely a species which is not 
beautifully striated, and there are several curiously sculptured with feathery 
wrinkles or furrows. Another peculiarity consists in the shell being fre- 
quently incrusted with a deposit of chalky matter, which is sometimes 
sculptured, and in some few instances is produced beyond the extremity of 
the valves. Among the small species a few are bearded with bristles. 

The geographical range of the Lithodomi is wide-spread, but partial. 
There are more species in the West Indies than in any other locality, but 
the genus is known to inhabit the Philippine Islands, New Zealand, Chili, 
Mazatlan, and the Galapagos Islands. The edible Sea Date of the Mediter- 
ranean, L. lithophagus, was described by the older naturalists as a P/wlas. 
It is to the boring of this mollusk that the celebrated perforations in the 
columns of the Temple of Jupiter Serapis are due. 



1. Antillarum, Phil. 

2. appendiculatus, id. 

3. argenteus, Reeve. 

4. attenuates, Desh. 

5. barbatus, Reeve. 
VOL. II. 



/Species. 

6. bi-excavatus, Reeve. 

7. canaliferus, Hani. 

8. castaneus, Dunk. 

9. caudigeras, Lam. 
10. cinnamominus, Chemn.lh. Gossei, Reeve. 

L 



11. coarctatus, Dunk. 

12. qorrugatus, Phil. 

13. Gumingianus, Bunk. 

14. divaricatus, Phil. 



74 



16. gracilis, Phil. 

17. Gruneri, id. 

18. Hanleyanus, Bunk. 

19. laniger, id. 

20. lithophagus, Linn. 

21. Malaccanus, Reeve. 



22. Malayanus, Phil. 

23. nasutus 3 erf. 

24. obesus, id. 

25. pessulatus, Reeve. 

26. plumula, ZTawZ. 

27. rugiferus, Bunk. 



28. semigranatus, Reeve. 

29. splendidus, Bunk. 

30. stramineus, «?. 

31. subula, Reeve. 

32. teres, PM. 

33. truncata, Gray. 



Figure. 

LlTHODOMUS LITHOPHAGUS. PI. 31. Fig. 181. 

Sea Date. 



Shell of the Mediterranean 



Family 5. TRIDACNACEA. 

Shell ; either free or affixed, regular, equivalve, inequilateral, with 
the lunule sometimes largely gaping ; hinge composed of two 
compressed unequal teeth in each valve, of which the anterior 
interlock ; muscular impression bipartite. 

The well-known Horse-foot and Giant Clams which constitute this fa- 
mily are purely tropical mollusks. They have no representative on our 
own shores, nor even in the Mediterranean, but dwell imbedded among the 
coral reefs of the Indian and Pacific seas. From the observations of MM. 
Quoy and Gaimard, whose interesting figure of the living Tridacna squa- 
mosa we give at Plate N, it would appear that the animal's position in the 
shell is the reverse of that in other bivalves, the foot of the Tridacna 
being next the lunule of the shell, instead of in front. The hinge, composed 
of two compressed unequal teeth in each valve, of which the front ones 
interlock, is the same in both the genera, Tridacna and Hippopus ; but in 
Hippopus the lunule does not gape, neither is there a byssus. 

Tridacna. Hippopds. 



Genus 1. TRIDACNA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; oval, heart-shaped, having the lobes of the mantle united 
almost throughout, three openings, two posterior and inferior for 
evacuation and respiration, one anterior corresponding to the 
opening of the lunule, giving passage to a stout cylindrical 
byssus- spinning foot. 

Shell ; ovate, or oblong-ovate, gaping at the lunule, disposed in 



75 

diverging arched ribs, more or less densely furbelowed with erect 
high-vaulted scales. 

The furbelowed Clams, one of which, T. gigas, from its being the largest 
of all mollusks, is called the Giant Clam, are a tribe of sluggish animals 
living in beds of many specimens together among the coral reefs of the 
Indian and Pacific Seas. It is recorded that the animals are extremely 
brilliant in colour, whilst the shells are mostly colourless and thickly in- 
crusted with dirt, and that to look down upon a bed of them, through the 
clear blue water, when the valves are open, is really a sight to see. M. Quoy 
describes with much enthusiasm the beautiful iridescent glare of blue and 
violet and yellow, variegated with fantastic markings that is presented by 
these submarine parterres. None of the shells have any marking, but 
some are elegantly toned with a hue of saffron or pink. All are charac- 
terized by a broad opening at the lunule, through which passes a foot ca- 
pable of spinning a powerful tendinous byssus. The species differ from 
one another in form, but mostly in the character of the scales ; some are 
furbelowed with distant high-vaulted scales, and some are furbelowed with 
a profusion of small scales ; in the Giant Clam, Tridacna gigas, the scales 
are mostly obsolete from its thickened and continuous growth.* 



1. elongata, Lam. 

2. gigas, Linn. 

3. mutica, Lam. 



Species. 

4. scapha, Meusch. 

5. scutrum, id. 



6. serrifera, Lam. 

7. squamosa, id. 



Figure. 

Tridacna squamosa.. Plate N. Shell, with the valves open to expose 
the animal. The upper orifice is the mouth, with its labial palps. 
The orifice, through which the foot and byssus passes to the gaping 
lunule of the shell, is concealed from view. 



* The French conchologists call the shells of this species ' Benitiers,' from their having been 
used at the doors of churches as vessels for holy water. Much has been said about the Benitiers 
of St. Sulpice in Paris, presented by the Venetians to Francis I., but I doubt if they are so large 
as a pair of Benitiers in the window of an oyster shop, the favourite resort of actors and literary 
men, in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden. Often when indulging in a luncheon of Ostrea edulis, 
fresh-murdered, with the gills spread neatly round the nice plump visceral mass, a bonne douche 
for an emperor, have I looked upon the giant clam which tills the entire background of the 
oyster- vendor's window, and longed to get a w-aggon and horses to carry them off; but Mr. 
Rule, like a true naturalist, will not be tempted to part with them. The windows of his little 
back parlour are filled with Wardian cases of healthy growing ferns, and on the wall mny be seen 
portraits of some of our literati, presented by the sitter. 



76 



Genus 2. HIPPOPUS, Meuschen. 

Animal; similar to that of Tridacna, but wanting a byssus. 
Shell ; trapeziform, many-ribbed, fmbriately imbricated through- 
out, and richly coloured ; lunule almost obsolete. 

Of the Hippoptis, or Horse-foot Clam, only a single species is known. 
The animal is like that of Tridacna, except that it has no byssus, or only 
the rudiment of a byssus, whilst the lunule of the shell is closed, or nearly 
so. The shell, which is a common ornament in every house where shells 
are collected or admired, is alike conspicuous for the beautiful symmetry 
of its growth, the elegance of its sharply imbricated frilled sculpture, and 
the richness of its colouring of crimson spots upon a yellow ground. 



Figure. 

Hippopus MACULATUS. PI. 30. Fig. 176. Shell, with one valve dropped 
to show on one side the marginal ligament, on the other the hollow 
serrated luuule. 



Order 2. BIMUSCULOSA. 

Shell ; attached to the animal by two distant lateral muscles. 

The remainder of the headless mollusks are for the most part of a more 
oblong and even elongated growth, and the shells are attached to the ani- 
mal by two adductor muscles, one at each end. The hinge is of a more 
complicated structure, composed of teeth more strongly interlocking with 
each other, and they have little of the fibrous laminar texture of so many 
of the unimuscular order. 



Chamacea. 
Naiades. 
Trigonacea. 
Arcacea. 



Cardiacea. 

CoNCHACEA. 

Nymphacea. 

LlTHOPHAGA. 

Mactracea. 



Myaria. 

Solenacea. 

Pholadaria. 

tubicola. 



Family 1. CHAMACEA. 

Shell ; irregular, inequivalve, affixed, with a single thick oblique 
tooth in each valve, which is sometimes obsolete. 



77 

The two genera associated under this head have little real affinity, and 
ought rather to be taken as the types of distinct families. Chama is a 
vigorous growing, profusely ornamented sea mollusk ; Etheria is a dull 
freshwater bivalve, inhabiting the rivers of North Africa and the Amazon. 
The hinge is of very rude structure, consisting of no more than a blunt 
oblique tooth, which is sometimes obsolete. 



Genus 1. CHAMA, Linnceus. 

Animal ; with the mantle closed, the margins being united by a 
filamentary fringe, except at the siphoned orifices, which are 
small and distant ; foot cylindrical, bent. 

Shell ; orbicular, ovate, or oblong-ovate, irregular, profusely orna- 
mented with spines, scales, or lamella, loioer valve more or less 
deeply convex, upper valve fatter ; umboes unequal, distant, in- 
voluted sometimes to the right, sometimes to the left, in the same 
species. N 

Excepting the Oysters, there is no genus of bivalves whose shells are 
liable to so much variation of form and general aspect, according to cir- 
cumstances of habitation, as Chama. Being strictly of parasitical habit, and 
inhabiting the most confined situations in crevices of rock and fissures of 
madrepore, without the power, possessed by terebrating mollusks, of re- 
moving the obstacles to their growth, the shells are mostly more or less 
distorted, according to their place of attachment. Yet notwithstanding 
this, they are characterized by vivid colouring and a most luxuriant growth, 
developed in all sorts of varieties of spines, scales, and fronds. The spe- 
cies are difficult of definition, and the difficulty increases when it is found 
that the same species varies materially in growth in different habitats. 
When allowed to develope its foliations in placid water, surrounded by 
food most favourable for the secretion of colour, the shell is hardly to be 
recognized as the same stunted form that has had to contend with the buf- 
feting of the storm. 

Above fifty species are known from Central America, Australia, and the 
Pacific and Eastern Seas; and some are found to be reversed. The same 
species may be observed with its umboes involuted sometimes to the right, 
sometimes to the left. 

Species. 

1. appressa, Reeve. 3. aspersa, Reeve. 5. Broderipii, Reeve. 

2. arcinella, Linn. 4. brassica, id. 6. Carditseformis, id. 



78 



7. 


cistula, Reeve. 


23. 


gryphina, Lam. 


39. 


planata, Reeve. 


8. 


coralloides, id. 


24. 


imbricata, Brod. 


40. 


praetexta, id. 


9. 


cornucopia, id. 


25. 


iostoma, Conrad. 


41. 


pulchella, id. 


10. 


corrugata, Brod. 


26. 


Janus, Reeve. 


42. 


radians, Lam,. 


11. 


cristella, Lam. 


27. 


Jukesii, id. 


43. 


reflexa, Reeve. 


12. 


divaricata, Reeve. 


28. 


lazarus, Linn. 


44. 


rubea, id. 


13. 


echinata, Brod. 


29. 


lingua-felis, Reeve. 


45. 


Ruppellii, id. 


14. 


exigua, Reeve. 


30. 


lobata, Brod. 


46. 


sarda, id. 


15. 


exogyra, Conrad. 


31. 


macrophylla, Chemn. 


47. 


Senegalensis, id. 


16. 


ferruginea, Reeve. 


32. 


multisquamosa, Reeve 


.48. 


sinuosa, Brod. 


17. 


fibula, id. 


33. 


nivalis, id. 


49. 


sordida, id. 


18. 


finibriata, id. 


34. 


obliquata, id. 


50. 


spinosa, id. 


19. 


florida, Lam. 


35. 


Pacifica, Brod. 


51. 


sulphurea, id. 


20. 


foliacea, Quoy. 


36. 


Panamensis, Reeve. 


52. 


tumulosa, id. 


21. 


fragum, Reeve. 


37. 


pellis-})hoca3, id. 


53. 


variegata, id. 


22. 


frondosa, Brod. 


38. 


pellucida, Brod. 


54. 


venosa, id. 



Figure. 

Chama lazarus. PL 30. Tig. 174. Shell of a young specimen, rather 
highly coloured. 



Genus 2. ETHERIA, Lamarck. 

Animal; oblong, thick, with the mantle lobes freely open ; labial 

palps large, no foot. 
Shell ; irregular, affixed, of a glaucous green colour, somewhat 

pearly within, the nacre being mostly blistered ; teeth obsolete. 

The fresh-water Oysters of the Nile, as the traveller Bruce called them, 
collected abundantly by another eminent traveller in the same locality, M. 
Cailliaud, differ from the rest of the freshwater bivalves in their Chama- 
like character of adhering to foreign bodies, and even attaching themselves 
one upon another in masses. M. Cailliaud collected them in Upper Nubia 
as high up as the cataracts of Robatas, where he found that the animal 
was eaten by the natives as a common article of food, and the shells col- 
lected by them for decorating their tombs. Lately the genus has been 
found in the river Amazon. The shell is of a peculiar livid, glaucous 
green colour, the interior being lined with a nacre, which is in most spe- 
cimens raised into blisters, and the outer surface is sometimes rudely tubu- 
larly scaled. 



79 

Species. 

1. Cailliaudi, Fe'russ. 3. semilunata, Lam. 4. Stefanensis, Moric. 

2. elliptica, Lam. 

Figure. 

Etheria Caillaudi. PI. 30. Fig. 175. Shell of glaucous green, show- 
ing its external tubular structure, and blistering of the internal nacre. 



Family 2. NAIADES. 

Shell ; equivalve, more or less inequilateral, pearly ', covered with a 
thick olive-green epidermis ; hinge extremely variable, generally 
two or more solid cardinal teeth, with or without lateral teeth, 
sometimes toothless. 

The freshwater Mussels, which according to the latest census* number 
539 species, form an extremely natural group, but vary remarkably among 
themselves. The most noticeable characteristic of the animal is an un- 
usually large development of the foot. The shell is of pearly substance, 
covered with an olive-green epidermis ; sometimes it is thin and toothless, 
generally it is thick and very strongly toothed. The principal home of the 
N aides is in the great rivers of North America, but they exist in the prin- 
cipal rivers of both the Eastern and Western hemispheres. Our own island 
has four species. 

Mr. Lea divides the family into two genera, to which he gives the names 
of Margaron and Platiris ; and these he divides into nine subgenera. Under 
Margaron he has Triquetra (which answer to Hyria and Prisodon), Unio, 
Margaritana, Honocondylaa, and Dipsas, which five subgenera constitute 
our Unio ; and he has Anodonta. Platyris comprises Iridina and Spatha, 
which we include in one, and Mycetopus. Our genera will therefore stand 
thus : — 

Unio. Hyria. Anodonta. 

Iridina. Mycetopus. 



Genus 1. UNIO, Retzius. 

Animal ; thick and fleshy, with the mantle freely open ; foot large 
and broadly compressed. 

* Lea, Synopsis. 



80 

Shell ; generally thick and solid, with the hinge variously composed 
of more or less solid cardinal and lateral teeth, sometimes groove- 
striated, either of which may be wanting ; outer surface of the 
shell frequently tubercled or torinhled, sometimes, but very rarely, 
spined ; inner surface silver-pearly, sometimes purple or pink ; 
ligament external. 

In some of the canals and rivers of England are found, somewhat spa- 
ringly, three kinds of toothed bivalves, called respectively the Painter's 
Mussel, Unio pictorum, the Pearl Mussel, Unio margaritifera* and the 
Swollen Mussel, Unio tumidus; but these are merely stragglers of a type 
whose centre of creation is in the great rivers of North America. The 
Ohio, Mississippi, and other rapids of the States, swarm with individuals of 
upwards of 330 species ; in South America some fifty species have been 
collected, and the genus is represented in Asia, chiefly in India and Siam, 
by about the same number; Europe, including Britain, has only ten spe- 
cies, Africa eight, and New Holland three. 

The animal of Unio, and, indeed, of the family generally, presents a 
structure intermediate between that of the Oysters in which the mantle- 
lobes are entirely free, and that of the Myas in which the lobes are united, 
and have two tubular orifices behind for imbibing and rejecting. The 
mantle-lobes of Unio, Anodonta, and the rest of the Naiades, are open in 
front, and have a broad tongue-like foot exserted between them, and closed 
behind, forming orifices which are, as it were, the rudiments of siphons, 
the upper one being small and simple, whilst the lower is larger and 
fringed with a beard of short jagged cirrhi. 

The shells of Unio have been imported from North America in such 
quantities, packed frequently in casks, that the collector sometimes tires of 
the genus ; but they are of the highest interest, often beautifully sculptured 
without, and richly iridescent with purple or silvery pearl within. The 
pearl-producing Unios are chiefly those which inhabit rocky and turbulent 
streams. In Britain it is from the Unio margaritifera of North Wales 
that pearls are mostly extracted. It is in the roaring Conway, which flows 
from the mountainous districts of the Principality, and is met in its rugged 
course at every turn with boulders and splinters of rock, that the Unio 
margaritifera is most disturbed in its calcifying operations, and sputters its 
nacre in clumsy heaps of nodules, or in the superfluous pea-like balls 
which go to decorate the necklace or tiara. In the rapids of Cumberland, 

* " The shells of this genus have frequently been used by painters for containing their colours, 
and some of the species furnish pearls. The animals are not eaten in our country, but in the 
south of Europe — where everything in the shape of shell-fish is devoured with an avidity which 
defies starvation as long as rivers and seas yield mollusca in their present abundance — they are 
cooked for food, either roasted in their shells, and drenched with oil, or covered with bread 
crumbs and scalloped." — Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., vol. ii. p. 139. 



81 



Westmoreland, and Northumberland, the Unio margaritiferus is also found 
with pearls. Before the pearls of Britain were discarded for those of more 
attractive lustre of exotic climes, the fishing for them might repay the lucky 
finder of a gem. But it was no slight labour. One Unio in a hundred 
might contain a pearl, and about one in a hundred of the pearls was toler- 
ably clear. Sir Robert Redding, speaking of the pearl fisheries of bygone 
times in some of the rivers of Ireland, in a paper contributed to the Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Eoyal Society in 1693, describes how the poor 
people fished them in the warm months before harvest-time, when the 
rivers were low. They took them with their toes or wooden thongs, or by 
thrusting a stick into the shells which they caught sight of among the 
stones as they lay in part opened, with the white foot protruded like a 
tongue out of the mouth. " Some gentlemen of the country," continues 
Sir Robert, " made good advantage thereof, and I myself whilst there, saw 
one pearl bought for fifty shillings that weighed thirty-six carats, and was 
valued at forty pounds." Pennant affirms that the British Crown still 
contains a pearl of great price obtained from a Unio in the Conway in the 
time of Charles II., and presented to Catherine his Queen by her chamber- 
lain, Sir Richard Wynne, of Gwydir.* The pearls of the large American 
Unios are rather opake and stony, but there are, doubtless, some clear and 
lustrous. 



1. abacus, Hald. 

2. abbreviatus, Gold. 

3. abductus, Fhill. 

4. Aberti, Con. 

5. acquilina, Sow. 

6. acutus, id. 

7. acutissimus, Lea. 

8. aduncus, Soto. 

9. seruginosus, More. 

10. iEsopus, Green. 

11. affinis, Lea. 

12. aheneus, id. 



Species. 

13. Alabamensis, Con. 

14. alatus, Say. 

15. altilis, Con. 

16. ambiguus, Sow. 

17. amoenus, Lea. 

18. arnygdalum, id. 

19. angusta, Klein. 

20. angustatus, Lea. 

21. angustus, Lam. 

22. anodontoides, Lea. 

23. Ansticei, Soto. 

24. antiquior, Stride. 



25. antiquus, Sow. 

26. apiculatus, Say. 

27. approximus, Lea. 

28. aratus, Lea. 

29. arcaformis, id. 

30. arctatus, Con. 

31. arctior, Lea. 

32. arcula, id. 

33. arcus, Con. 

34. argens, Kiist. 

35. argenteus, Lea. 

36. asper, id. 



* "In Wales the Conway has been long celebrated for pearls, and the fishery still exists, though, 
according to Dr. Macculloch, it is the source of anything but good — ' a lottery which pro- 
duces universal poverty among the people who pursue it.' A recent account (Mag. Nat. Hist, 
vol. ii. p. 132) represents the case more favourably, aud informs us that there are a number of 
persons who live by this alone ; and where there is a small family to gather the shells and pick 
out the fish, it is preferable to any other daily labour. The pearls are disposed of to an overseer, 
who pays for them by the ounce, the price varying from Is. 6d. to 4>s. What is doue with them 
seems to be involved in mystery ; they are, with few exceptions, useless as ornaments, and the 
exceptions seem scarcely sufficient to support any profitable speculations." — Johnston, Introd. 
Conch,, p. 56. 



VOL. II. 



M 



82 



37. asperrimus, Lea. 83. 

38. asterianus, Dup. 84. 

39. atratus, Lea. 85. 

40. atratus, Gold. 86. 

41. atro-costatus, Lea. 87. 

42. atro-marginatus, id. 88. 

43. auratus, id. 89. 

44. Australis, Lam. 90. 

45. Aztecorum, Phil. 91. 

46. Baudinii, Kiist. 92. 

47. Barnesianus, Lea. 93. 

48. Barratii, id. 94. 

49. Batavus, Lam. 95. 

50. Bengalensis, Lea. 96. 

51. Beskeanus, Bunk. 97. 

52. biangulatus, Zea. 98. 

53. Bigbyensis, id. 99. 

54. Biggorensis, Millet. 100. 

55. bil meatus, Lea. 101. 

56. Binneyi, u?. 102. 

57. Blandingianus, «7. 103. 

58. Bonellii, id. 104. 

59. Bonneaudii, Eyd. 105. 

60. Bournianus, Lea. 106. 

61. Boscianus, Dunk. 107. 

62. Boydianus, Zea. 108. 

63. Boykinianus, id. 109. 

64. brevidens, id. 110. 

65. Brownii, id. 111. 

66. Brumbyanus, i«T. 112. 

67. Buckleyi, zo 7 . 113. 

68. Buddianus, id. 114. 

69. Burroughianus, id. 115. 

70. Buscliianus, id. 116. 

71. buxeus, «?. ]17. 

72. cselatus, Con. 118. 

73. cseruleus, Lea. 119. 

74. Caffer, Krauss. 120. 

75. Caillaudii, Fez: 121. 

76. calceolus, Zra. 122. 

77. cabginosus, id. 123. 

78. calimatorum, More. 124. 

79. callosus, Lea. 125. 

80. Cambodiensis, id. 126. 

81. camelus, s'a 7 . 127. 

82. camptodon, Say. 128. 



capax, Green. 129. 

caperatus, Zeo. 130. 

capsreformis, ic?. 131. 

carbonarius, id. 132. 

carbonarius, Bronn. 133. 

cariosus, /Say. 134. 

Carniolicus, Zi?/aZ 135 

Casablanca?, PJdli. 136. 

castaneus, Lea. 137. 

centralis, &w. 138. 

Charraanus, D'Orb. 139. 

Childreni, Gray. 140. 
Cincinnatiensis, Lea. 141. 

circulus, id. 142. 

Claibornensis, ?'aJ. 143. 

Clarbrianus, id. 144. 

clavus, Zflw. 145. 

coccineus, Lea. 146. 

collhius, Con. 147. 

Coloradoensis, Zea. 148. 

cornplanatus, id. 149. 

compressus, /Sow. 150. 
compressissimus, Zea.151. 

concavus, id. 152. 

concinnus, Soio. 153. 

confertus, Lea. 154. 

confragosus, /a 7 . 155. 

Congarreus, id. 156. 

Convadicus, z'a 7 . 157. 

constrictus, Con. 158. 

contradens, Lea. 159. 

Cooperianus, «'«?. 160. 

cor, Con. 161. 

cordiformis, #om\ 162. 

coriaceus, Dunk. 163. 

cornutus, Bar. 164. 

Corrianus, Zea. 165. 
Corrientesensis,Z' Or. 166. 

corrugatus, Ze£. 167. 

crassidens, Lam. 168. 

crassissimus, Soto. 169. 

crassiusculus, z'tf 7 . 170. 

crassus, Retz. 171. 

creperus, Zea. 172. 

crocatus, id. 173. 

crocodilorum, More. 174. 



cucumoides, Zea. 

cultelliformis, Con. 

CumberlandianiiSjZtfa . 
. Cumingii, id. 
, cuneolus, id. 
. cuprinus, id. 
. Curryanus, id. 
. Cuvierianus, id. 
. cylindricus, Say. 
. cyrenoides, Phil. 
. dactylus, Lea. 
. Damnoica, D'Orb. 
. Dariensis, Lea. 
. decissus, id. 

declivis, Say. 

decoratus, Lea. 

debiseens, id. 

dehiscens, Say. 

delodontus, Lam. 

delplnnus, Grun. 

delphinulus, More. 

deltoideus, Lea. 

delumbis, Con. 

depressus, Lam. 

depressus, Sow. 

destructilis, Fill. 

digitatus, More. 

diluvii, D'Orb. 

discoideus, Lea. 

discus, id. 

distortus, Bean. 

divaricatus, Lea. 

divergens, Bens. 

dolabraformis, Lea. 

dolabelloides, id. 

dolobratus, Sow. 

donaciforrais, Lea. 

Dorfeuillianus, id. 

Duprei, Reel. 

dorsuosus, Gould. 

dromas, Lea. 

Drouetii, Dup. 

Dankerianus, Lea. 

Durieui, Desh. 
Duttonianus, Lea. 
ebenus, id. 



83 



175. Edgarianus, Lea. 221. 

176. effulgens, id. 222. 

177. Egyptiacus, Caill. 223. 
173. elegans, Lea. 22-1. 

179. ellipsis, id. 225. 

180. ellipticus, id. 226. 

181. elongatus, Pfeif. 227. 

182. emarginatus, Lea. 228. 

183. errosus, Say. 229. 

184. Estabrookianus, Zm. 230. 

185. Etowaensis, Con. 231. 

186. evanescens, Mous. 232. 

187. exiguus, Lea. 233. 

188. exilis, Bunk. 234. 

189. eximius, Zm, 235. 

190. exolescens, Gould. 236. 

191. explicatus, More. 237. 

192. faba, B'Orb. 238. 

193. fabalis, Lea. 239. 

194. fabula, i& 240. 

195. famelicus, Gould. 241. 

196. fatuus, Lea. 242. 

197. favidens, Bens. 243. 

198. Fellmani, Besh. 244. 

199. Eisherianus, Zra. 245. 

200. flavescens, id. 246. 

201. Floridensis, id. 247. 

202. foliaceus, Gould. 248. 

203. foliatus, Hild. 249. 

204. folliculatus, Ze«. 250. 

205. Fontainiana, B'Orb. 251. 

206. Forbeseanus, Lea. 252. 

207. Formanianus, id. 253. 

208. fosseiculiferus, D'O^.254. 

209. fragosus, Con. 255. 

210. Franciscanus, Mor. 256. 

211. fraternus, Lea. 257. 

212. fuliginosus, id. 258. 

213. fulgidus, ic?. 259. 

214. fulvus, id. 260. 

215. furvus, Con. 261. 

216. fuscatus, Lea, 262. 

217. gangrenosus, Sch. 263. 
213. Gaudickaudii, Zyrf. 264. 

219. Geddingsianus, Lea. 265. 

220. generosus, Gould. 266. 



Georgianus, Lea. 
gibber, id. 
gibbus, Zeigl. 
Gibbesianus, Lea. 
gibbosus, Bar. 
gigas, Lea. 
glaber, id. 
glabrata, Lam. 
glans, Lea. 
glaucinus, Zeigl. 
Gouldii, Lea. 
gracilis, Barnes. 
graniferus, Lea. 
granosus, Brug. 
granulifera, Bunk. 
gravidus, Lea. 
Grayamis, id. 
Greenii, Con. 
Griffithianus, Lea. 



267. 
268. 

269. 
270. 
271. 

272. 
273. 
274. 
275. 
276. 
277. 
278. 
279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 
284. 
285. 



Grcenlandicus, Schrot. 286. 

Gualterii, Fit. 287. 

Guarayanus, Moric. 288. 

Hainesianus, Lea. 289. 

Haleianus, id. 290. 

Hanleyanus, id, 291. 

Haysianus, id. 292. 

hebes, id. 293. 

Hembeli, Con, 294. 

heterodon, Lea. 295. 

hippopaeus, id. 296. 

Hildretkianus, id. 297. 

Holstonensis, id. 298. 

Holstonius, id. 299. 

Holtonis, id, 300. 

Hopetonensis, id. 301. 

Housei, id. 302. 

liumilis, id. 303. 

hyalinus, id. 304. 

hybridus, Soto. 305. 

Hydianus, Lea. 306. 

hylaaus, B'Orb. 307. 

iacrassatus, Lea. 308. 

ineptus, id. 309. 

intlatus, eV. 310. 

infucatus, Con. 311. 

Iugallsiauus, Lea, 312. 



inornatus, Zea. 
intermedius, Con. 
interruptus, Lea. 
iris, i^. 
irroratus, id. 
isocardioides, id. 
Jacrpieminii, Bup. 
Javanus, Lea. 
Jayensis, id. 
jej unus, id. 
Juliana, Rang. 
Katherinse, Lea. 
Keinerianus, id. 
Keraudreni, Eyd. 
Kirtlandianus, Lea. 
Kleinianus, id, 
lacrymosus, id. 
Laraarckianus, id. 
lamellatus, id. 
lanceolatus, id. 
Largillierti, Phil. 
latecostatus, Lea. 
Lazarus, id. 
Leaii, Gray. 
Lecontianus, Lea. 
lenior, id, 
lens, id. 

Lesueurianus, id. 
liasinus, Sow. 
lienosus, Con. 
ligula, Mouss. 
ligauientinus, Lam. 
limatulus, Con. 
limosus, Nilss. 
lineatus, Lea. 
Listeri, Sow. 
litoralis, Brap. 
longirostris, Ziegl. 
lugubris, Lea. 
luridus, id. 
luteolus, Lam. 
luteus, Lea. 
lutulentus, Gould. 
macropterus, Bunk. 
maculatus, Con, 
Mantellii, ML 



84 



313. margaritiferus, Linn. 


359. nigerrimus, i«s. 


405. Paraguayanus, Moric. 


314. marginalis, Lam. 


360. nigricans, Menke. 


406. parallelopipedon, Zm. 


315. marginatus, Lea. 


361. nigricus, Zea. 


407. parallelus, Co??. 


316. Martmii, Fit. 


362. Niloticus, F4r. 


408. parallelus, Sow. 


317. Masoni, Con. 


363. Nilssoni, Koch. 


409. Paranensis, Zea. 


318. Medellinus, Lea. 


364. nitens, Ze«. 


410. Parcbappii, B'Orb. 


319. melinus, Con. 


365. nitidens, Fer. 


411. Parreyssi, V.d.Busc. 


320. membranaceus, Lea. 


366. nucleus, Z<?a. 


412. parvus, ./3a?*. 


321. Menkei, Koch. 


367. nodulosus, id. 


413. Patagonicus, B'Orb. 


322. Menkianus, Lea. 


368. notatus, id. 


414. patulus, Zea. 


323. merus, irf. 


369. Novas-Hollandise, C?/.415. paulus, id. 


324. metastriatus, Con. 


370. Novi-Eboraci, Zm. 


416. pellucidus, id. 


325. metanevrus, 72a/. 


371. nuciformis, Hibb. 


417. penitus, Con. 


326. Mexicanus, Phil. 


372. nucleopsis, Cb«. 


418. Pequottinus, Linsley. 


327. minor, Lea. 


373. nuculinus, Phil. 


419. perdix, Zea. 


328. minuanus, D'06. 


374. nuperus, Zeig. 


420.. peregrinus, P/«7. 


329. Mississippiensis, Co??. 375. Nuttalliauus, Lea. 


421. pernodosus, Lea. 


330. modestus, Fer. 


376. nux, «/. 


422. perovalis, Con. 


331. modiolaris, £o?0. 


377. nux-persica, Bunk. 


423. perovatus, it/. 


332. modioliforrais, Lea. 


378. obesus, Im. 


424. perplexus, Lea. 


333. moestus, id. 


379. obliquus, Lam. 


425. perplicatus, Cow. 


334. monodontus, /S?y. 


3S0. obscurus, Lea. 


426. personatus, Say. 


335. Monroensis, Lea. 


381. obtusus, Potiez. 


427. perstriatus, Lea. 


336. Moravicus, Jay. 


382. obtusus, Z«a.. 


428. petrosus, J/ortf. 


337. Moussonianus, Lea. 


383. obtusus, Z</>\ 


429. Petrovicbii, Kiist. 


338. Moreleti, Desk. 


384. occidens, Lea. 


430. Petterianus, ?'c?. 


339. Morini, J/o?-e. 


385. occidentalis, Con. 


431. Pfeifferi, Bunk. 


340. mucronatus, Bar. 


386. occultus, iea. 


432. pbaselus, Lea. 


341. Mublfeldianus, Zea. 


387. ochraceus, Say. 


433. phaseolus, ZT«7«?. 


342. multidentatus, Phil. 


388. olivarus, Zea. 


434. pbaseolus, Sow. 


343. multiplicatus, Lea. 


3S9. orbiculatus, Mild. 


435. Phillipsii, Co??. 


344. multiradiatus, &?. 


390. Orbigni,2tewJfe#«.H'.436. Pbilippii, Bup. 


345. multistriatus, id. 


391. Oregonensis, Zea. 


437. pictorum, Retz. 


346. Murcbisonianus, ic?. 


392. orientalis, id. 


438. pictorum, Lam. 


347. musivus, Sjieng. 


393. orientabs, Fir. 


439. pictus, Zea. 


348. mutatus, Mouss. 


394. ortbonotus, Cow. 


440. pilaris, id. 


349. Myersianus, Im. 


395. Osbeckii, Phil. 


441. pileus, zo 7 . 


350. mytiloides, Raf. 


396. ostreatus, J/bre. 


442. placitus, id. 


351. mytiloides, 7>s/?. 


397. ovalis, Turt. 


443. platyrhyncus, Rossm. 


352. Napeanensis, Con. 


398. ovatus, Say. 


444. platyrbyncboideus, i). 


353. NasbviUianus, Lea. 


399. ovifonnis, Cb». 


445. plectopborus, Con. 


354. nasutus, &iy. 


400. paliatus, Ravenal. 


446. plenus, Xea. 


355. Newcombianus, Lea 


\. 401. pallescens, Lea. 


447. plexus, Con. 


356. neglectus, &?. 


402. paludicolus, Gould. 


448. plicatus, Leach. 


357. Nicklinianus, id. 


403. paludosus, More. 


449. plicatus, Lesueur. 


358. nigellus, id. 


404. papyraceus, Gould. 


450. pliciferus, Ze«. 



85 



451. plombarius, Villa. 

452. Poeyanus, Lea. 

453. politus, Mouss. 

454. ponderosus, Lea. 

455. porrectus, Sow. 

456. Powellii, Lea. 

457. prasinus, Con. 

458. preciosus, Fer. 

459. pressus, Lea. 

460. Prevostianus, id. 

461. primigenius, Cow. 

462. profugus, Lea. 

463. productior, z<Z 

464. productus, Con. 

465. productus, Mouss. 

466. pruinosus, Schmdt. 

467. pruneosus, Ze^. 

468. proximus, Zea. 

469. psammoicus, D'Orb. 

470. psoricus, More. 

471. pulcher, Zea. 

472. pullus, Con. 

473. pulcliellus, ZV/\ 

474. pulvinulus, Lea. 

475. pumilis, id. 

476. puniceus, Hald. 

477. purpuratus, Za?ra. 

478. purpuriatus, $ay. 

479. pusillus, Lea. 

480. pustidatus, id. 

481. pustulosus, w£. 

482. pygmseus, id. 

483. pyrainidatus, «^. 

484. quadrulus, Say. 

485. radiatus, Lam. 

486. radiatus, Zea. 

487. Rajahensis, id. 

488. Rangianus, z<£. 

489. raristellus, More. 

490. Pavenelianus, Lea. 

491. rectus, Zam. 

492. Reeveianus, Lea. 

493. regularis, ^. 

494. Petzii, Kiist. 

495. retusus, Lam. 

496. rhombeus, /fiar^. 



497. rhomboideus, Ward. 

498. robustus, Sow. 

499. Poanokensis, Lea. 

500. Poisii, Mich. 

501. rotundatus, Zaw. 

502. Pousii, Dttp. 

503. rubellus, Cow. 

504. rubiginosus, Lea. 

505. rufuscidus, id. 

506. rugosus, z'<Z 

507. Pumphianus, id. 

508. rusticus, eW. 

509. Sagittarius, id. 

510. sagittiformis, id. 

511. Sapotalensis, «V?. 

512. satur, id. 

513. saxeus, Co?z. 

514. saxulum, Mort. 

515. Scamnatus, More. 

516. Schoolcraftensis, Zea. 

517. scobinatus, id. 

518. scutulatus, More. 

519. securis, Ze#. 

520. semiplicatus, Trosch. 

521. Shepardianus, Ze«. 

522. Shurtleffianus, id. 

523. Shuttleworthii, u?. 

524. simus,'ifi?. 

525. simplex, id. 

526. Sloatianus, id. 

527. Smithii, Gray. 

528. Solandri, flow. 

529. solidus, Lea. 

530. sordidus, zc?. 

531. Sowerbianus, id. 

532. sparsus, id. 

533. spatulatus, z'c?. 

534. spheniopsis, More. 

535. spinosus, Ze«. 

536. Spinelli, Villa. 

537. splendidus, Lea. 

538. Staffenensis, Forbes. 

539. stapes, Zea. 

540. stagnaHs, Cora. 

541. stegarius, id. 

542. Stevenianus, Kryn. 



543. Stewardsonii, Zea. 

544. Stonensis, id. 

545. stramineus, Cow. 

546. striatus, Lea. 

547. strigosus, id. 

548. suavidicus, z77. 

549. subangulatus, id. 

550. subconstrictus, /Sow. 

551. subovatus, Lea. 

552. subplanus, Con. 

553. subsinuatus, Z^oc/i. 

554. subrotundus, Lea. 

555. substriatus, «a?. 

556. subtentus, Say. 

557. subtruncatus, Fit. 

558. succissus, Zm. 

559. sulcatus, id. 

560. superbus, ?^. 

561. symmetricus, id. 

562. Taitianus, id. 

563. Tampicoensis, e'«?. 

564. Tappaniauus, id. 

565. Teconiatensis, z<Z 

566. tellinarius, Gold/. 

567. tener, Lea. 

568. tenerus, Z«i\ 

569. Tennesseensis, Lea. 

570. tenuis, Cray. 

571. testudineus, More. 

572. teretiusculus, Phil. 

573. terrenus, ilZo;-^. 

574. tetralasmus, Say. 

575. Tigris, ZVr. 

576. tortivus, Lea. 

577. trapezoides, e'c?. 

578. triangularis, Bar. 

579. trigonus, Lea. 

580. trigonus, Zom*. 

581. Tripolitanus, Fer. 

582. Troostensis, Zea. 
5 S3. Troschelianus, id. 

584. trossulus, id. 

585. truncatus, Schum. 

586. truncatus, Speny. 

587. truncatus, Swain. 

588. truncatoaus, Potiez. 



589. truncatosa, Mich. 

590. tuberculatus, Bar. 

591. tuberculatus, Fir. 

592. tuberculosa, Valen. 

593. tuberosus, Lea. 

594. tumescens, id. 

595. tumidus, Retz. 

596. turnidulus, Lea. 

597. tumulatus, Mori. 

598. turgidus, iea. 

599. Turtonii, Fayr. 

600. Tuomeyi, Lea. 

601. umbrosus, zW. 



602. undulatus, Bar. 

603. undulatus, Ze«. 

604. unicolor, ^rf. 

605. uniformis, Sow. 

606. Urii, Z7m. 

607. utriculus, Lea. 

608. Valdensis, Himrf. 

609. Vanuxemensis, Lea. 

610. variabilis, id. 

611. varicosus, «/. 

612. Vaughanianus, id. 

613. ventricosus, Z^ar. 

614. venustus, ira. 



615. Verreauxianus, id. 

616. verrucosus, J?«r. 

617. vibex, Con. 

618. viudiflavus, A"«s£. 

619. Yoltzii, Koch. 

620. Watereensis, Lea. 

621. Wheatleyanus, z'e?. 

622. Whiteianus, id. 

623. Woolwichii, JZore. 

624. Zeiglerianus, Lea. 

625. Zeyheri, Menke. 

626. zigzag, Zm. 

627. Zimerrnani, Steutz. 



Figure. 

Unio tuberculatus. PI. 33. Pig. 183. Shell, showing strongly de- 
veloped lateral and cardinal teeth, the latter of which is striately 
grooved. 



Genus 2. HYRIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Unio, but with the posterior orifices 
prolonged into siphons. 

Shell ; obliquely triangularly auriculated on each side ; hinge 
composed of two lateral teeth, the anterior in each value, elon- 
gated, the posterior multipartite, approaching the form of a 
cardinal tooth. 

The genus Hyria, which corresponds to Mr. Lea's subgenus Triquetra, 
has been limited until lately to three species, natives of South America, in 
which the animal has its posterior orifices, according to Dr. Gray, pro- 
longed into siphons, whilst the shell is characterized by a peculiar obliquely 
triangular form, eared on each side, with a hinge of two lateral teeth, of 
which the anterior is much elongated, whilst the posterior is much shorter 
and has more the form of a cardinal tooth. In 1857 Mr. Lea referred to 
this genus a curiously twisted elongated Naiad from China, H. contorta, 
but this shell appears to me to be very far removed from the South Ame- 
rican type. 



87 

Species. 
1. Browniana. 2. contorta. 3. corrugata. 4. subviridis. 



Figure. 

Hyria corrtjgata. PI. 31. Pig. 179. Shell, showing its obliquely tri- 
angular form, and symphynote- eared growth, with the elongated lateral 
tooth of the hincce. 



Genus 3. ANODONTA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; similar to that of Unio. 

Shell ; somewhat obliquely transverse, thin ; hinge without teeth, 
working only by a prolonged marginal ligament. 

The Anodons are a tribe of Naiads, thin-shelled and toothless, affecting 
still, muddy waters. The animal is in all respects like that of Unio, the 
mantle-margins are open in front, giving passage to a large tongue-like 
foot, and closed behind with two pouting siphonal orifices, the lower of 
which is invested with a jagged fringe. They are much more numerous 
in individuals in Britain than the Unios ; but we have only one species. 
All the Anodons of Europe are, indeed, pronounced to belong to the single 
species A. cygnea, although it has been described under different phases 
more than twenty times over. The shell varies interminably, according to 
the conditions of food, race, and circumstances of habitation, and none of 
the varieties appear to have any definite limit.* The proportion of Ano- 
dons to Unios in North America, in respect of species, is about one to 
eight ; in South America they are nearly equal in number to the Unios ; 
from Asia we have only eight Anodons as yet, whilst of Unios from that 
district between forty and fifty have been described ; two Anodons are re- 
corded from Africa, and one from Australia. 



* " After a wearisome examination of a multitude of forms, both native and foreign, not only 
must we dissent from the division of this polymorphous bivalve into those numerous species into 
which it has been separated by the continental writers, but even demur to the possibility of ar- 
ranging the diversities of shape and colouring into strictly defined varieties, so imperceptibly does 
one form glide into another, scarcely indicating by any preponderance of peculiarities under which 
heading it should be ranked." — Forbes and Han/ey, Brit. Moll., vol. ii. p. 156. "The Anodons 
live in lakes, ponds, marshes, and muddy rivers, crawling slowly on the mud, and leaving a more 
or less marked groove after them. In the winter, and especially in the summer when the water 
dries up, they bury themselves in the mud. They feed on decomposed animal and vegetable sub- 
stances, and the size and solidity of the shell depends on the abundance of the food and the state 
of quietness or motion and of calcareous matter in the water in which they happen to reside." — 
Gray, Turton's Man., p. 273. 



1. Abyssina, More. 

2. angulata, Lea. 

3. anserina, Spix. 

4. antiqua, D'Orb. 

5. arenata, Fer. 

6. arcuata, Caill. 

7. argentea, Lea. 

8. Arkansensis, id. 

9. atrovirens, Phil. 

10. aurata, JOs£. 

11. Bambousearum, More. 

12. Benacensis, Villa. 

13. Benedictensis, Zea. 

14. Blainvilliana, id. 

15. Buchanensis, irf. 

16. Burrougbiana, Chemn. 

17. Californiensis, Lea. 

18. Cbaiziana, 7?aw^r. 

19. Charpentierii, Kiist. 

20. Chinensis, i^V. 

21. ciconia, Gould. 

22. cimbulia, Villa. 

23. Cordieri, Z>'06. 

24. cornea, Phil. 

25. crassa, Swain. 

26. crassa, Menke. 

27. crepera, Zra. 

28. crispata, Zara. 

29. Cumingii, Lea. 

30. curvata, Zkr. 

31. cylindracea, Lea. 

32. cygnea, Lam. 

33. decora, Zm. 

34. denigrata, id. 

35. Dunlopiana, i^. 

36. edentula, id. 

37. elongata, Swain. 

38. ensiformis, >S^iar. 

39. esula, Jan. 

40. exilis, Zm. 

41. ferruginea, id. 

42. Ferrusaciana, i(Z. 

43. fluviatilis, id. 

44. fobum, Fer. 





Species. 






45 


Footiana, Lea. 


88 


Patagonica, Lam. 


46 


fragilis, Lam. 


89 


pavonia, Lea. 


47. 


fragilis, Menke. 


90 


Pepiniana, id. 


48. 


Georginre, Gray. 


91 


picta, Swain. 


49. 


gibbosa, Say. 


92 


plana, Lea. 


50. 


gibba, Bens. 


93 


placita, Hald. 


51. 


gigantea, Lea. 


94 


polita, Moiiss. 


52. 


gigantea, Midd. 


95 


porcifer, Gray. 


53. 


glabra, Zeigl. 


96 


puelcbana, D'Orb. 


54. 


glauca, Valen. 


97. 


purpurea, Valen. 


55. 


globosa, Lea. 


98. 


Saliveniana, Gould. 


56. 


gracilis, id. 


99. 


salmonia, Lea. 


57. 


grandis, Say. 


100. 


Scbaefferiana, id. 


58. 


G milliard, Reclnz. 


101. 


Scliroteriana, id. 


59. 


Harpethensis, Lea. 


102. 


Sedacowii, Siemasko. 


60. 


lleldii, Kiist. 


103. 


siliquosa, Spix. 


61. 


Housatonica, Linsl. 


104. 


sinuosa, Lam. 


62. 


imbecilis, Say. 


105. 


sinuosa, Swain. 


63. 


implicata, id. 


106. 


sirionos, D'Orb. 


64. 


impura, id. 


107. 


soleniformis, Ben. 


65. 


inoscularis, Goidd. 


108. 


soleniformis, D'Orb. 


66. 


Jobse, Dupuy. 


109. 


solid ula, Dev. fy Hup 


67. 


lato-marginata, Lea. 


110. 


Spixii, D'Orb. 


68. 


leprosa, Parr. 


111. 


Stewartiana, Lea. 


69. 


Linnaeana, Lea. 


112. 


subcrapa, id. 


70. 


longina, Spix. 


113. 


subcylindrica, id. 


71. 


lucida, D'Orb. 


114. 


suborbiculata, Say. 


72. 


lugubris, Say. 


115. 


subvexa, Con. 


73. 


lurulenta, More. 


116. 


Tawaii, Rang. 


74. 


magnifica, Lea. 


117. 


tenebricosa, Lea. 


75. 


Margattana, id. 


118. 


tenuis, id. 


76. 


Montezuma, id. 


119. 


tetragona, id. 


77. 


Moulinsiana, Dup. 


120. 


tortilis, id. 


78. 


Mortoniana, Lea. 


121. 


trapezialis, Lam. 


79. 


Nilssoni, Kiist. 


122. 


trigona, Spix. 


80. 


Nuttabana, Lea. 


123. 


Troutwiniana, Lea. 


81. 


oblita, id. 


124. 


undulata, Say. 


82. 


obtusa, Spix. 


125. 


uniopsis, Lam. 


83. 


Onowensis, Lea. 


126. 


virens, Lea. 


84. 


Oregonensis, id. 


127. 


Wablamatensis, id. 


85. 


opaca, id. 


128. 


Wardiana, id. 


86. 


ovata, id. 


129. 


Wbeatleyi, id. 


87. 


Parishii, Gray. 


130. 


Woodiana, id. 



89 



Figures. 

Anodonta cygnea. PI. P. Shell, with animal, showing the fringed si- 
phonal orifices and protruded tongue-like foot. 

Anodonta angulata. PI. 31. Pig. 180. Shell of a peculiar trapeziform 
shape, showing the toothless ligamentary hinge. 



Genus 4. IRIDINA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Unio, with the posterior orifices pro- 
longed into two short unequal siphonal tubes. 

Shell ; ovate or elongated, with the hinge toothless, but crenately 
tubercled. 

As in Hyria, the posterior orifices of the animal of Iridina are prolonged 
into two short unequal siphons. The shell is not so thin as in Anodonta, 
but it is never massive as in Unio ; the hinge is, nevertheless, toothless. 
In the place of teeth a number of crenated tubercles are formed along 
the hinge margin, and in the species we have selected for illustration they 
are developed very largely and wrinkle-like. 

The Iridina do not consort either with the Unios or Anodons. They are 
all natives of Africa, living abundantly in the Nile along with another genus 
peculiar to that habitat, Galathcea radiata. The shells are used, says the 
African traveller M. Cailliaud, by the natives of Lower Egypt in preparing 
flax, and also as spoons for measuring oil, butter, and different kinds of 
provisions. The latest discovered species, /. Spekii, was collected by 
Captain Speke in the great freshwater Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa. 
It is of the same type as I. ovata, selected by Conrad as the type of a 
genus with the name of Pleiodon. 



1. cselestis, Lea. 

2. dubia, id. 

3. exotica, Lam. 



Species. 

4. Leaii, Sow. 

5. ovata, Swain. 

6. rubens, Lam. 



7. Spekii, Woodw. 

8. valens, Parr. 

9. Walbergi, Krauss. 



Figure. 

Iridina ovata. PI. 33. Pig. 184. Shell, with a valve dropped to show 
the crenately tubercled hinge. 



VOL. II. 



90 



Genus 5. MYCETOPUS, HOrbigny. 

Animal; with the mantle-lobes disunited; siphoned tubes none; 
foot very long, cylindrical, produced and inflated into a knob at 
the extremity. 

Shell ; thin, much elongated, cylindrical, gaping at each end, par- 
ticularly at the anterior end ; umboes central ; hinge linear, 
toothless ; ligament marginal. 

A Naiad of very distinct typical character from the rest of the family, of 
which three species were discovered in the Bolivian Republic of South 
America by M. D'Orbigny, and a fourth has been found there since. The 
peculiarities of the animal are that it has no siphonal tubes or orifices, the 
mantle-margins being entirely free, and it has an elongated club-like foot, 
which does not appear to be drawn within the shell. This supposition is 
moreover favoured by the, conspicuous gaping of the shell at its front ex- 
tremity. 

Species. 

1. siliqnosus, D'Orb. 3. ventricosus, D'Orb. 4. Weddellii, Poey. 

2. Soleniformis, D'Orb. 

Figure. 

Mycetopus Soleniformis. PI. 32. Shell, showing the lateral and ven- 
tral sinus with gaping extremities. 



Family 3. TRIGONACEA. 

Genus 1. TRIGONIA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; shaped like the shell, with the mantle-lobes disunited 
about three-fourths of their extent, and rather thickened and 
crimped at the edge ; foot long, and sharply angled, bordered 
by two crenulated ridges. 

Shell ; equivalve, obliquely triangularly ovate, lined internally with 
lustrous iridescent nacre ; hinge composed of two oblong divari- 
cate lamelliform teeth in one valve, regularly striately grooved 
on both sides, interlocking with three to four teeth in the other 
valve, grooved on one side only ; ligament external, marginal. 



91 

Of all bivalve shells the single genus Trigo/iia, constituting a family of 
itself, is the most remarkable, on account of the lustre and brilliant iri- 
descence of its internal nacre. It has, too, of all bivalves, the most closely 
interlocking hinge. The amateur prides himself on the display which the 
pearly lining of the Trigonia valves, exquisitely rose or orange-tinted, makes 
in his cabinet; and when separated, it requires no little ingenuity and 
neatness of handling to close them again. The animal has a sharply an- 
gled crenated-edged foot, and it would appear to possess considerable mus- 
cular action; for Mr. Samuel Stutchbury, while collecting Trigonia in 
Sydney Harbour, placed one on the gunwale of his boat, which leaped 
overboard, clearing a ledge of four inches. They are confined to the Aus- 
tralian Seas. 



Species. 

1. Lamarckii, Gray. 3. nobilis, Adams. 5. uniophora, Gray. 

2. margaritacea, Lam. 4. Strangei, id. 



Figure. 

Trigonia margaritacea. PI. 31. Fig. 177. Shell, with one valve 
dropped to show its striately grooved hinge and rose-pearly interior. 



Family 4. ARCACEA. 

Shell ; generally equivalve, with the hinge composed with numerous 
small teeth set either in a straight or a curved line. 

The shells of this family are characterized by a peculiarly distinct form 
of hinge. The interlocking teeth are very numerous, fine, and irregular, 
varying strikingly in detail in different species, and they are set either 
comb-like in a straight line or in a curve. The ligament is external in 
some genera, internal in others ; and the shell is in some forms of Arcacea 
unusually stony and ponderous, while in others it has the lightness and 
transparency of horn. The animals have the mantle-lobes freely open, 
not formed into siphons, and they have mostly a deeply grooved byssus- 
spinning foot. The genera are — 

Arca. CuculLjEa. Pectunculus. 

NUCULA. So-LENELLA. 



92 



Genus 1. ARCA, Linnams. 

Animal ; oblong ; mantle freely open, simple or fringed, no siphons ; 
foot large, oblong, bent, grooved throughout its length so as to 
form a disk, with plain or slightly crimped margins, a byssal 
gland at its base, byssus compact ; mouth surrounded by labia 
formed out of the extremities of the branchiae, no true palps. 
fForbes.J 
Shell ; sometimes equivalve, sometimes inequivalve, ventricose, 
mostly radiately ribbed, covered with a horny or fibrous hairy 
epidermis; umbocs prominent, more or less distant from each 
other, according to the width of the ligament area ; hinge linear, 
straight or slightly arched, with the teeth small and very nu- 
merous ; ligament external, attached superficially to the area 
between the umboes. 

The Arks or boat-shells comprehend two sections of very distinct com- 
position and sculpture, arising out of a difference in the habit of the ani- 
mal. The Area proper have a strongly ribbed shell of marble-white sub- 
stance, enveloped by a horny or fibrous epidermis, and its mollusk is said 
to acquire motion by the contraction and expansion of its foot, after the 
manner of a snail. They live consequently free, and in some instances 
have shells remarkably solid and ponderous. Another feature of this group 
is that the right valve of the shell is frequently smaller than the left, drop- 
ping a little way into it, and it is always less elaborately sculptured, as if 
the right mantle-lobe of the animal were weaker in its functions than the 
left. The section of Bgssoarcce, as the name denotes, live attached to rocks 
by a byssus, which passes from the animal's foot through a rude gaping of 
the shell; and the shells of this group are of much lighter substance, and 
the hinge is more simple, the teeth are smaller, and the ligament is pro- 
portionally weaker. In all the species of this genus the hinge is composed 
of a somewhat irregular set of plaits, but the valves very closely interlock 
with them. 

The Arks are of world-wide distribution, but the greater number are 
inhabitants of the western shores of South and Central America. The 
British fauna includes three species. 



Species. 

1. alternata, Reeve. 3. Americana, Gray. 5. angulata, King. 

2. ambig.ua, id. 4. angicostata, Reeve. 6. anomala, Reeve. 



93 



7. antiquata, Linn. 

8. auriculata, Lam. 

9. Aviculoides, Reeve. 

10. barbata, Linn. 

11. Brasiliana, Lam. 

12. brevifrons, Soic. 

13. bullata, Reeve. 

14. cselata, ic?. 

15. cepoides, id. 

16. chalcanthum, id. 

17. cistula, ic?. 

18. clathrata, id. 

19. cometa, £</. 

20. compacta, id. 

21. concinna, Sow. 

22. contraria, Reeve. 

23. cornea, ic?. 

24. crebricostata, ioJ. 

25. cunealis, ic?. 

26. cuneata, id. 

27. crenata, iV?. 

28. cymbaeformis, id. 

29. decussata, z'<f. 

30. Deshayesii, LLanley. 

31. disparilis, Reeve. 

32. divaricata, z'^. 

33. Donaciforrnis, ioJ. 

34. emarginata, /Sow. 

35. fasciata, Reeve. 

36. ferruginea, id. 

37. formosa, /Sow. 

38. fiisca, Brug. 

39. Gambiensis, Reeve. 

40. gibbosa, «'<#. 

41. globosa, id. 

42. gradata, .Brae?. 

43. grandis, id. 

44. granosa, Zi?m. 



45. gubernaculura, Reeve. 

46. Hankeyana, id. 

47. Helblingii, Zray. 

48. hians, Reeve. 

49. lioloserica, id. 

50. illota, id. 

51. imbricata, Brug. 

52. inrequivalvis, id. 

53. incongrua, Say. 
34. Indica, GW£. 

55. inflata, Reeve. 

56. Japonica, id. 

57. labiata, /Sow. 

58. labiosa, id. 

59. lacerata, Zm«. 

60. lactea, id. 

61. lateralis. Reeve. 

62. lima, id. 

63. Lithodomus, id. 

64. loricata, id. 

65. lurida, id. 

66. Luzonica, id. 

67. maculata, i^. 

68. maculosa, id. 

69. minuta, z«?. 

70. multicostata, Sow. 

71. mutabilis, Reeve. 

72. myristica, z'<f. 

73. navicella, id. 

74. navicularis, _Z?ray. 

75. nivea, Chemn. 

76. Noa3, Linn. 

77. mix, /Sow. 

78. obesa, id. 

79. obliqua, Reeve. 

80. obliquata, Gray. 

81. obtusa, Reeve. 

82. occlusa, £J. 



83. ocellata, Reeve. 

84. olivacea, zoJ. 

85. ovata, id. 

86. Pacifica, id. 

87. parva, i<f. 

88. pertusa, id. 

89. pexata, /Say. 

90. pilula, Reeve. 

91. pulchella, id. 

92. radiata, «<?. 

93. reversa, Gray. 

94. rbombea, Z?om. 

95. rotundicostata, Reeve. 

96. rufescens, id. 

97. scapha, Chemn. 

98. sculptilis, Reeve. 

99. secticostata, z*c?. 

100. semitorta, Za»e. 

101. senilis, Linn. 

102. setigera, ifeepe. 

103. solida, id. 

104. striata, i^. 

105. symmetrica, id. 

106. tenebrica, id. 

107. tenella, z'c?. 

108. tetragona, Poli. 

109. tortuosa, Zi?m. 

110. transversa, Say. 

111. trapezia, Desk. 

112. trapezina, Zam. 

113. truncata, Reeve. 

114. tuberculosa, /Sow. 

115. velata, Reeve. 

116. vellicata, id. 

117. virescens, i^. 

118. volucris, id. 

119. zebra, i<?. 

120. Zebuensis, id. 



Figure. 

Auca Brasiliana. PI. 34. Pig. 188. Shell, exhibiting the broad black 
ligament area, and row of teeth set in a slight curve. 



94 



Genus 2. CUCULL^EA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; similar to that of Area. 

Shell ; rather inequilateral, trapeziform, ventricose ; hinge linear, 
straight, narrow, very slightly toothed ; teeth at the extremities, 
prolonged ; place of adhesion of the posterior muscle in each 
valve chambered. 

This genus is founded upon a character which many conchologists think 
is not worthy of causing a dismemberment of the species from those of 
Area. In many species of Area the place of attachment of the posterior 
muscle in each valve is bounded by a gentle ridge. In Cucullaa the ridge 
is so far developed as to form a chamber ; and there is a general pecu- 
liarity about the shell in all its details. The hinge is quite marginal, with 
the teeth almost obsolete, yet at the extremities of the hiuge the teeth are 
prolonged obliquely almost into ribs. Two species have been described, 
inhabiting China, Nicobar, and the Mauritius, but it is more than probable 
that they are varieties of the same, originally described by Martini. 



Species. 
1. concamerata, Mart. 2. granulosa, Jonas. 



Figure. 

Cuculuea concamerata. PI. 34. Pig. 187. Shell, with the left valve 
dropped to show the posterior chambered ridge and narrow linear 
hinge. 



Genus 3. PECTUNCULUS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; orbicular, its mantle freely open with simple margins, 
which are someivhat enlarged in the branchial and anal regions ; 
foot large, semilunar, deeply grooved so as to form a disk with 
undulated edges ; no byssus ; lips formed of a linear prolonga- 
tion of the branchial lamince. (Forbes.J 

Shell ; orbicular, lenticular, equivalve, slightly inequilateral, mostly 
covered with a hairy epidermis ; umboes but little separated 
from each other, the intervening ligament area being small ; 
teeth set in a curve, the middle ones being generally more or less 
obsolete. 



95 

Compared with the Arks the Pectunculi have a rounder lens-shaped 
shell, with the hinge teeth set in a curve. The shell is moreover charac- 
terized by a richer display of colour, varying from a dark brown to a rich 
purple and rose, and even brilliant orange ; and the ligament area between 
the umboes is narrower and more deeply excavated. The animal exhibits 
strongly the peculiarity noticed in this and the preceding family of the foot 
being crimped round the edge, and it has no byssus. 

The genus is very widely distributed, chiefly about Central America and 
the AVest Indies. There is only one British species. 



1. angulatus, Lam. 

2. assimilis, Sow. 

3. aurifluus, Reeve. 

4. bicolor, id. 

5. cancellatus, id. 

6. castaneus, Lam, • 

7. Delessertii, Reeve. 

8. flammeus, id. 

9. fonnosus, id. 

10. giganteus, id. 

11. glycimeris, Turton. 

12. holosericus, Reeve. 

13. inaequalis, Sow. 

14. intermedins, Brod. 

15. latieostatus, Quoy. 

16. lineatus, Reeve. 

17. longior, Sow. 
IS. rnaculatus, Brod. 



Species. 

19. marmoratns, Cliemn. 

20. morum, Reeve. 

21. inulticostatus, Sow. 

22. multistriatus, Desk. 

23. nodosus, Reeve. 

24. obliquus, id. 

25. oculatus, id. 

26. o vat us, Brod. 

27. pallium, Reeve. 

28. parcipictus, id. 

29. Pectenoides, Desk. 

30. pectinatus, Lam. 

31. Pectiniformis, id. 

32. pennaceus, id. 

33. perdix, Reeve. 

34. pertusus, id. 

35. pilosus, Lam. 



36. radians, id. 

37. roseus, Reeve. 

38. rubeus, Lam. 

39. scriptus, id. 

40. sericatus, Reeve. 

41. Siculus, id. 

42. spadiceus, id. 

43. spurcus, id. 
,44. stella tus, Lam. 

45. striatnlaris, id. 

46. strigilatus, Soto. 

47. Tellinseformis, Reeve. 

48. tenuicostatus, id. 

49. tessellatus, Sow. 

50. undulatus, Lam. 

51. violaseens, id. 

52. vitreus, id. 



Figure. 

Pectunculus aurifluus. PL 34. Fig. 185. Shell, showing its rounded 
form and variegated colour, with the teeth set in a curve. 



Genus 4. NUCULA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; snbtrigonal, its mantle freely open, icitlt or without si- 
phonal tubes and with plain edges ; foot deeply grooved and 
forming an ovate pedunculated disk, with a serrated edge. 



96 

Shell; equivalve, sometimes thin, sometimes rather solid, often 
pearly within, covered externally with a brownish, or shining 
olive, horny epidermis ; umboes contiguous, the ligament being 
contained in a central internal pit, on either side of which the 
teeth are numerous and comb-like. 

An interesting and rather extensive series of bivalves, mostly small, are 
included under this head, comprising two well-marked divisions. In the 
first, the Nucules proper, the mantle-lobes of the animal are freely open, 
without siphonal tubes. In the second division, which, further subdivided, 
form the genera Leda and Yoldia of authors, there is a pair of small si- 
phonal tubes. The shell is characterized throughout by a row of fine 
comb-like teeth, and the ligament, instead of being external, is contained 
within a central internal pit. The substance of the shell is thin, covered 
mostly by a shining horny epidermis, and the inner surface is generally 
pearly. 

The Nuculce are deep-dwelling mollusks, inhabitants chiefly of the boreal 
and arctic seas. 



1. arctica, Gray. 

2. Belcheri, Hinds. 

3. Bellotii, Adams. 

4. bellula, id. 

5. buccata, St imp. 

6. cselata, Hinds. 

7. Cascoensis, Migh. 

8. castanea, Adams. 

9. castrensis, Hinds. 

10. Chuva, Gray. 

11. complanata, Moll. 

12. concinna, Adams. 

13. convexa, Sow. 

14. costellata, id. 

15. crassa, Hinds. 

16. crenifera, Sow. 

17. crispa, Hinds. 

18. Cumingii, id. 

19. cuneata, Soto. 

20. curvirostrata, id. 

21. decens, Adams. 

22. declivis, Hinds. 

23. decora, Adams. 



Species. 

24. decussata, Sow. 

25. delectabilis, Adams. 

26. delphinodonta, High. 

27. divaricata, Hinds. 

28. eburnea, Sow. 

29. electa, Adams. 

30. Elenensis, Sow. 

31. elongata, id. 

32. emarginata, Lam. 

33. excavata, Hinds. 

34. exigua, Sow. 

35. fabula, id. 

36. fastidiosa, Adams. 

37. fulgida, id. 

38. gibba, id. 

39. gibbosa, Sow. 

40. glacialis, Gray. 

41. gloriosa, Adams. 

42. hyperborea, Love'n. 

43. inconspicua, Adams. 

44. inornata, id. 

45. Jamaicensis, D'Orb. 

46. Japonica, Adams. 



47. laevigata, Spengl. 

48. lanceolata, Lam. 

49. lata, Hinds. 

50. Layardii, Adams. 

51. lepida, id. 

52. lepidula, id. 

53. lhnatula, Say. 

54. lucida, Gould. 

55. lucida, Loven. 

56. lugubris, Adams. 

57. lyrata, Hinds. 

58. margaritacea, Ad. 

59. marmorea, Hinds. 

60. micans, Adams. 

61. minuta, Mull. 

62. mirabilis, Adams. 

63. mitralis, Hinds. 

64. Mulleri, Gray. 

65. myalis, Couth. 

66. nana, Hinds. 

67. nasuta, Sow. 

68. navicularis, Couth. 

69. Nicobarica, Za?«. 



97 



70. nitida, Sow. 

71. nitidula, Adams. 

72. obesa, St imp. 

73. obliqua, Lam. 

74. ornata, If Orb. 

75. Patagonica, id. 

76. paulula, Adams. 

77. Paytensis, id. 

78. pella, Linn. 

79. pernula, Mull. 
SO. pisum, #o?0. 

81. plicifera, Adams. 

82. Polii, PA*7. 

83. polita, Sow. 

84. Portlandica, Hitch. 



85. proxima, #«y. 

86. puellata. Hinds. 

87. pulchra, i«?. 

88. pygmsea, Munst. 

89. radiata, Hartley. 

90. recta, Hinds. 

91. recurva, Conrad. 

92. retusa, Hinds. 

93. rugulosa, #o#?. 

94. sapotilla, Gould. 

95. semisulcata, ^c?. 

96. serotina, Hinds. 

97. siliqua, Reeve. 

98. simplex, Adams. 

99. Sowerbyana, If Orb. 



100. splendida, _P/«7. 

101. Strangei, Adams. 

102. striata, &>?#. 

103. striolata, Adams. 

104. sulcata, w?. 

105. sulculata, Gould. 

106. Taylori, Ifcrafey. 

107. Tellinoides, JFoo^. 

108. tenella, Hinds. 

109. tenuis, .Sfowtf. 
1-10. tenuisulcata, Couth. 

111. Thracifleformis, Storer. 

112. turaida, Hinds. 

113. ventricosa, zW. 

114. vitrea, Z>'Od. 



Figure. 

Nucula crassa. PL 31. Fig. 178. Shell, with the left valve dropped 
to show the comb-like teeth on either side of a central pit containing 
the ligament. 



Genus 5. SOLENELLA, Soiverby. 

Animal ; mantle margins slightly fringed, a pair of long and slen- 
der united siphonal tubes ; foot deeply grooved, forming an oval 
disk. 

Shell; thin, longitudinally oval, equivalve ; hinge composed of 
three or four small teeth anteriorly, and a row of numerous 
small comb-like teeth posteriorly ; ligament elongated, external. 

A very characteristic genus, intermediate between Solen and Nucula, 
founded on a single species collected many years since by Mr. Cuming at 
Valparaiso. It is very thin in substance and is covered with a shining olive 
horny epidermis. The hinge is composed of a comb-like row of teeth like 
those of Nucula, but only in the posterior side, and the ligament is quite 
external. The animal resembles that of the Leda division of Nucula, hav- 
ing a pair of siphons. 



Figure. 

Solenella Norrisii. PI. 43. Fig. 231. Shell, with one valve dropped 
to show the posterior comb-like teeth and external ligament. 



VOL. II. 



98 



Family 5. CARDIACEA. 

Shell ; equivalve, mostly ventricose and heart-shaped, and, with 
rare exception, radiatcly ribbed ; hinge composed of two strong 
cardinal teeth in each valve ; lateral teeth variable ; ligament 
external. 

The family Cardiacea is constituted of the well-known genus of Cockles, 
Cardium, added to on the one side by two exotic genera, Cypricardia and 
Cardita, which show affinities with Chama ; and by the Heart Cockles, Iso- 
cardia, on the other, which are more allied to Cyprina. The hinge of the 
shell is composed of rather strongly-developed cardinal teeth, with, fre- 
quently, an elongated lateral tooth on one or both sides. The animal of 
this family varies in a manner which renders the association of these genera 
less satisfactory. In Cardium the mantle-lobes are freely open in front for 
the passage of a large and active foot, and closed behind with a pair of 
short siphons ; in Cypricardia, according to Mr. Woodward's description 
of C. Solenoides, the lobes are united, with only moderate openings for the 
foot and siphonal orifices, while in Cardita the lobes are described by M. 
Deshayes as being entirely disunited and having consequently no siphonal 
tubes. The probability is that the animal varies in these respects even in 
the same genus, according to the nature of its habitat, the species living in 
stone-borings having a less-developed foot and a more closed-up mantle 
than the free-living species. 

Cypricardia. Cardita. Cardium. Isocardia. 



Genus 1. CYPRICARDIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; {of C. Solenoides) ivith mantle-lobes united, cirrated be- 
hind ; pedal opening moderate ; foot small, compressed, with a 
large byssalpore near the heel ; siphons short, conical, unequal, 
cirrated externally ; orifices fringed. (Woodward.) 

Shell ; equivalve, very inequilateral, elongately ovate, never ribbed, 
anterior side very short, posterior mostly angled ; hinge com- 
posed of three short teeth beneath the umbo of each valve, and 
a single elongated, rather remote, lateral tooth, which is some- 
times nearly obsolete. 

The Cypricardia produce an oblong, smooth or concentrically fimbriated, 
shell of a peculiar opake white substance, delicately and variously tinted 
with purple, rose, or orange ; and the animal of C. Guinaica, collected by 



99 

Mr. Cuming in coral sand on the reefs at Lord Hood's Island, was found 
to yield a rich violet juice. Many of the species are either borers or crawl 
into the borings in shells and rocks of other mollusks ; and the foot of 
these species, according to Mr. Woodward, is only feebly developed, whilst 
the mantle-lobes are united, except for the passage of the small foot, and 
for the siphonal orifices. The free-living species have, probably, a larger 
foot, with more freedom of action. 

C. oblonga, the largest and most beautifully coloured species of the 
genus, has been collected both at Australia and the Philippine Islands. 



1. angulata, Lam. 

2. coralliophaga, id. 

3. decussata, Reeve. 

4. Gruinaica, Lam. 

5. incaraata, Reeve. 



Species. 



6. laminata, Reeve. 

7. lirata, id. 

8. obesa, id. 

9. oblonga, Sow. 



10. rostrata, Lam. 

11. serrata, Reeve. 

12. Solenoides, id. 

13. vellicata, id. 



Figure. 

Cypricardia Guinaica. PL 35. Fig. 192. Shell, showing its opake 
white pink-tinged substauce, with the cardinal teeth and remote shelf- 
like lateral tooth. 



Genus 2. CARDITA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; with the mantle-lobes free, except between the siphonal 
orifices; branchial margin with conspicuous cirri; foot rounded 
and grooved, spinning a byssus. (Woodward.J 

Shell ; equivalve, very inequilateral, sometimes elongately oblong, 
sometimes orbicular, strongly radiately ribbed ; hinge composed 
of two oblique teeth in one valve, one of which is more or less 
elongated according to the shape of the shell, interlocking with 
a single corresponding tooth in the other. 

The animal of Cardita has been an object of as much contradictory cri- 
ticism among malacologists as the Chameleon among travellers. M. Des- 
hayes, following the observations of Poli and De Blainville, declares that 
the mantle-lobes are disunited throughout their whole extent, and cannot 
therefore have any siphonal perforations ; while Mr. Woodward, whose de- 
scription, as being the more detailed, we have adopted above, asserts, that 



100 

the mantle-lobes are united behind between siphonal orifices. M. Des- 
hayes thinks moreover, that Lamarck's suspicion of Cardita having a byssus 
is without foundation; Mr. Woodward especially describes the foot to be 
grooved, spinning a byssus. The question as to the presence or absence of 
siphonal orifices in different species remains to be determined. A list of 
fifteen species, presumed to have the habit of spinning a byssus, are set 
apart by the Messrs. Adams under the title originally proposed for them 
by De Blainville, of Myt'dicardia. 

The shells of the byssus-spinning Cardita, as in the genus Area, are of 
lighter structure than those in which there is no byssus, and in which the 
shell is often massive, with the valves heavily and closely interlocking 
round the ventral margin. Many of the shells are very richly variegated 
with colour, and some are ornamented with a profusion of vaulted scales. 

The genus is widely distributed in both hemispheres, but does not reach 
so far north as the British shores. 



1. abyssicola, Hinds. 

2. aculeata, Phil. 

3. ajar, Adams. 

4. amabilis, Desk. 

5. angisulcata, Reeve. 

6. antiquata, Linn. 

7. australis, Quoy. 

8. Belcheri, Desk. 

9. bimaculata, id. 

10. bovealis, Conr. 

11. calyculata, Brug. 

12. canaliculata, Reeve. 

13. Cardioides, id. 

14. castoruca, Desk. 

15. eompressa, Reeve. 

16. Conradi, Shutt. 

17. corbis, Phil. 

18. crassicostata, Lam. 

19. crassa, Gray. 

20. crenulata, Desh. 

21. Cumingiij id. 

22. Cuvieri, Brod. 

23. difficilis, Desh. 



Species. 

21. distorta, Reeve. 

25. elegantulus, Desh. 

26. Essingtonensis, id. 

27. excavata, id. 

28. excisa, Phil. 

29. fabula, Reeve. 

30. ferruginosa, Adams. 

31. fiabellum, Reeve. 

32. flammea, Mich. 

33. gibbosa, Reeve. 

34. Gunnii, Desh. 

35. incrassata, Sow. 

36. Jukesii, Desh. 

37. Koreensis, id. 

38. lacunosa, Reeve. 

39. laticostata, id. 

40. marmorea, id. 

41. megastropha, Gray. 

42. nmricata, Sow. 

43. nitida, Reeve. 

44. nodulosa, id. 

45. ovalis, id. 

46. pica, id. 



47. Preissii, Menhe. 

48. procera, Gould. 

49. purpurata, Desh. 

50. radula, Reeve. 

51. rostrata, Gmel. 

52. rufescens, Reeve. 

53. semen, id. 

54. Sowerbyi, Desh. 

55. spurca, Sow. 

56. squamifer, Desh. 

57. sulcata, Lam. 

58. tegidata, Reeve. 

59. teretiuscula, Phil. 

60. tricolor, Sow. 

61. tridentata, Say. 

62. tumida, Brod. 

63. umbilicata, Desh. 

64. variegata, Brug. 

65. varia, Brod. 

66. ventricosa, Gould. 

67. vestita, Desh. 

68. Zelandica, id. 



101 



Figure. 

Cahdita laticostata. PL 35. Fig. 191. Shell of a richly varicoloured 
species, with the left valve dropped to show the strong teeth of the 



hinge. 



Genus 3. CARDIUM, Linnceus. 

Animal ; suborbicular , tumid, its mantle freely open in front, with 
plain or, less frequently, fringed edges, conspicuously fimbriated 
in the neighbourhood of two very short, slightly -separated si- 
phons, the branchial one of which is always fringed at the ori- 
fice ; foot very large, cylindrical, geniculate. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; equivalve, rather inequilateral, mostly globosely ventricose, 
heart-shaped, sometimes gaping behind, generally strongly ribbed, 
the ribs being armed with scales or spines ; hinge composed of 
two strong cardinal teeth in each valve interlocking crosswise, 
and two distant lateral teeth, all of which, in some few species, 
become partially or wholly obsolete. 

A genus abounding in shells of such exquisite varieties of form, colour, 
and prickly sculpture as Cardium, is naturally one of great interest to 
the collector ; even the British species, of which there are nine or ten, in- 
clude two of large size and of very elaborate sculpture ; and among the 
multitude of exotic forms the shells are truly beautiful. The animal has 
a largely-developed foot, apt at burrowing or leaping, with a pair of short 
fringed siphonal tubes pouting from the posterior united portion of the 
mantle-lobes ; and, to judge from what passes on our own shores, is not 
lightly esteemed as an article of food.* 

The foreign species of Cardium, numbering about a hundred and fifty, 
have been drafted into sixteen genera and subgenera, of which the 
following may be regarded as types : — C. costatum [Cardium proper), C. 
Belcheri [Bucardiwm, Gray), L. Panamense [Trachy cardium, Morch.), C. 
aculeatum [Acanthocardia, Gray), C. edule [Cerostoderma, Poli.), C. Grcen- 
landicum [Serripes, Beck.), C. ringieulum [fapijridea, Swainson), C. bul- 
lata [Fidvia, Gray), C. lavigatum (Lavicardhtm, Swainson), C. cardissa 

* Cardium edule, the edible Cockle of the London market, gives place as an article of food 
to the larger C. echinatum in some parts of the country. Turton describes this latter species as 
being collected in great abundance on the Paignton Sands in Torbay, " where at low spring-tides 
they may be observed with the fringed tubes appearing just above the surface. The neighbour- 
ing cottagers gather them in baskets and panniers, and after cleansing them a few hours in cold 
spring water, fry the fish in a batter made of crumbs of bread, producing a wholesome and sa- 
voury dish. The inhabitants call them red-noses." — Conch. I)ilh. Lis. Brit., p. 1S3. 



102 

(Hemicardium, Cuvier), C. fragum (Fragum, Bolten), C. hystrix, [Cteno- 
cardia, Adams), C. retusum [Lumdicardla, Gray), C. edentula, [Adacna, 
Eichwald), C. pseudocardia [Monodacna, Eichvvald), and C. Bonaciformis 
[Didacna, Eichwald). 

The Cardia have an unusually wide distribution both in depth and space. 
In depth their place of habitation varies from tide-mark to a hundred 
fathoms and more ; and in space their range extends from Greenland and 
the Falkland Islands to the equator.* 



1. aculeatum, Linn. 

2. Adainsii, Reeve. 

3. alteruatum, Sow. 

4. angulatum, Lam. 

5. arcuatura, Mont. 

6. arenicolurn, Reeve. 

7. Asiaticuni, Brug. 

8. assimile, Reeve. 

9. attenuatum, Sow. 

10. aurantiacuin, Adams. 

11. auricula, Forsk. 

12. Australe, Sow. 

13. Australiensis, Reeve. 

14. Beechei, Adams. 

15. Belcheri, Brod. 

16. Belticum, Beck. 
17- biangulatum, Sow. 

18. biradiatum, Brug. 

19. blandum, Gould. 

20. boreale, Reeve. 

21. Brasilianum, Lam. 

22. bullatum, id. 

23. Calif ornianum, Conr. 

24. Californiense, Desk. 

25. cardissa, Linn. 

26. Carditaeformis, Reeve. 



Species. 

27. Caspium, Eich. 

28. ciliare, Linn. 

29. colorata, Eick. 

30. consors, Sow. 

31. coronatum, Speng. 

32. costatum, Linn. 

33. crenulatum, Lam. 

34. Cuiningii, Brod. 

35. Deshayesii, Payr. 

36. Dionseuin, Sow. 

37. Donaciforme, Sckr. 

38. Dupuchense, Reeve. 

39. echinatum, Linn. 

40. edule, id. 

41. Eichwaldii, Reeve. 

42. elatum, &??£. 

43. elegantulum, Beck. 

44. Elenense, $>«?. 

45. elongatum, Brug. 

46. enode, Sow. 

47. erinaceum, Zara. 

48. exiguum, Gmel. 

49. fasciatura, Mont. 

50. femiginosnm, Reeve. 

51. fimbriatum, Wood. 

52. fornicatum, ^ow. 



53. foveolatum, flow. 

54. fragile, Reeve. 

55. fragum, Zz'wra. 

56. Grcenlandicum, Ck. 

57. graniferum, 5ro^. 

58. hemicardium, Linn. 

59. hians, Z?/*oc. 

60. hiulcum, Reeve'. 

61. hystrix, £rf. 

62. Icelandicum, C%m. 

63. imbricatum, Sow. 

64. impolitum, i<£ 

65. incamatum, Reeve. 

66. isocardia, Linn. 

67. Kalamantinum, Adams. 

68. lacunosura, Reeve. 

69. leevigatum, Zwm. 

70. lseviuscula, _Efo/i. 

71. Lamarckii, Reeve. 

72. latum, itom. 

73. leucostoma, id. 

74. lima, Reeve. 

75. lyratum, #02#. 

76. maculatum, id. 

77. maculosum, Wood. 

78. magnum, Born. 



* " We find the great central assemblage of Cockles in the Indian Ocean, a region where about 
a third of the species are congregated. Around this centre tbe number of specific forms dimi- 
nishes, though found in every sea. They are most plentiful everywhere within the tropics, and 
diminish as we proceed northwards and southwards ; but some of the forms most prolific in in- 
dividuals, and most gregarious in habit, are present in cold climates, and make up by abundance 
for the absence of variety. The genus contains several remarkable abnormal forms ; some of the 
most singular are to be found in the Caspian and other relics of the great Aralo-Caspian Sea, — 
the demonstration of which mighty inland ocean is among (he finest discoveries of Sir Roderick 
Murckisou." — Forbes and Hartley, Brit. Moll., vol. ii. p. 3. 



103 



79. medium, Linn. 103. 

80. Mindanense, Reeve. 104. 

81. rnodestum, Adams. 105. 

82. Mortoni, Conr. 106. 

83. multipunctatum, Sow. 10 7. 

84. multispinosum, id. 108. 

85. mundum, Reeve. 109. 

86. muricatum, Linn. 110. 

87. muticum, Reeve. 111. 

88. nebulosum, id. 112. 

89. nivale, id. 113. 

90. nodosum, Mont. 114. 

91. Nuttallii, Conr. 115. 

92. oblongum, Z/wm. 116. 

93. obovale, Sow. 117. 

94. orbita, id. 118. 

95. ovale, id. 119. 

96. oviputamen, Reeve. 120. 

97. ovuloides, m?. 121. 

98. oxygonum, Sow. 122. 

99. pallidum, Reeve. 123. 

100. papillosum, Poll. 124. 

101. paucicostatum, Sow. 125. 

102. Panamense, irf. 126. 



papyraeeum, Chemn. 
pectinatum, TAnn. 
Pennantii, Beck. 
pinnulatum, Conr. 
planicostatum, Sow. 
plicata, Eich. 
procerum, id. 
pseudocardia, Desh. 
pseudo-fossile, Reeve. 
pseudo-lima, Lam. 
pulchellum, Reeve. 
pulclmvm, id. 
pubcarium, id. 
quadrarium, id. 
radiatum, id. 
retusum, Linn. 
rigidum, Wood. 
ringens, Cliem. 
ringiculum, Sow. 
rubicimdum, Reeve. 
rubrum, Mont. 
rugatura, Gron. 
rugosum, Lam. 
rusticum, Linn. 



127. senticosum, Sow. 

128. sen'atum, Linn. 

129. setosum, Red/. 

130. Sinense, Sow. 

131. speciosa, Adams. 

132. stellatum, Reeve. 

133. striatulum, Soio. 

134. subelongatum, id. 

135. sub retusum, id. 

136. subrugosum, id. 

137. substriatum, Conr. 

138. Suedieuse, Reeve* 

139. sulcatum, Cmel. 

140. tenuicostatum, Lam. 

141. trigonoides, Pall. 

142. tumoriferum, Lam. 

143. unedo, Linn. 

144. unicolor, Sow. 

145. miimaculatum, id. 

146. variegatum, id. 

147. vertebratum, Jonas. 

148. virgo, Reeve. 

149. vitrea, Fieh. 

150. vitellinum, id. 



Figure. 

Cardium echinatum. PI. P. Shell, with animal, showing the large 
geniculate foot and short pouting siphonal orifices. 

Cardium Asiaticum. PI. 36. Pig. 194. Shell, illustrative of the glo- 
bose ribbed form of the genus, showing the cardinal and wide-spread 
lateral teeth. 



Genus 4. ISOCARDIA, Lamarck. 

Animal; globose, rather small compared with the shell, open in 
front for the passage of a compressed triangularly pointed foot, 
and behind for two sessile orifices edged with a ciliary fringe. 

* Having been the first to describe this species, which forms part of our British Fauna, I re- 
gret that Professor Loven, followed by Forbes and Hanley and by the Messrs. Adams, have con- 
sidered it necessary to alter my name of Suediense to Suecicum. If they had turned to their 
Ainsworth they would have found that Suedia is as good Latin for Sweden as Suecia, and Sue- 
diense, therefore, as Suecicum. 



104 

Shell; heart-shaped, globose, ventricose, very inequilateral, concen- 
trically ridged or striated, with the umboes distant and divari- 
cately involuted ; hinge composed of two small 'cardinal teeth 
interlocking, and one elongated lateral tooth ; ligament external, 
drawn by the divaricating of the umboes into a bifurcation. 

In the Irish Channel and the surrounding ocean, ranging from Falmouth 
to the Hebrides, and in the Mediterranean, dwells a bivalve mollusk par- 
taking of the characters of Chama, Cardium, and Q/prina, and producing a 
shell of comparatively large size, unique in these latitudes both in genus 
and in species. Its chief peculiarity consists in the umboes divaricating 
from one another, and turning symmetrically inwards. In the Chinese, 
Japanese, and Philippine seas this very remarkable and beautiful type 
again appears, not, however, in a large shell of inflated growth, covered 
with a dingy olive epidermis, but in one of small dimensions, of which 
there are four different specific forms elegantly concentrically ridged, de- 
void of epidermis, and with a surface like carved and polished ivory. 

The animal of Isocardia is known only by observations made on the 
large species, /. cor, by Poli, on Mediterranean specimens, and by the Rev. 
James Bulwer, chiefly, on Irish specimens. The mantle is described as 
completely lining the shell, the siphonal tubes being short, ciliated at 
their orifices, and the foot muscular, triangular, and pointed.*" 

"It is capable, with the assistance of its foot, of fixing itself firmly in the 
sand, generally choosing to have the umboes covered by it, and the orifices 
of the tubes of the mantle nearly perpendicular. Resting in this position 
on the margin of a sandbank, of which the surrounding soil is mud, at too 
great a depth to be disturbed by storms, the Isocardia of our Irish Sea 
patiently collects its food from the surrounding element ; assisted in its 
choice by the current it is capable of creating by the alternate opening 
and closing of its valves/' 



Species. 

1. cor, Linn. 3. Moltkiana, Chem. 5. vulgaris, Reeve. 

2. Lamarckii, Sow. 4. tetragona, Adams. 

* " On being placed in a vessel of sea-water the valves of the Isocardia gradually opened ; 
and the feelers or ciliated fringe of the upper orifice of the mantle moved slowly as if in search 
of animalcules. Having remained in this situation about ten minutes, water was ejected with 
considerable force from the lower orifice, which till now had remained motionless. The expul- 
sion of the water appeared to be affected by a sudden contraction of the muscles, because this 
was never done without the valves nearly closing at the same instant. The animal appears to be 
insensible both to sound and light, as the presence or absence of either did not at all interrupt its 
movements : but its sense of feeling appeared to be very delicate. Minute substances dropped into 
the orifices of the mantle instantly excited the animal, and a column of water strongly ejected 
expelled them from the shell." — Bulwer in Zool. Journ., vol. ii. 



105 

Isocardia vulgaris. PI. 36. Fig. 196. Shell, of the China type, show- 
ing its concentrically ridged ivory-like texture, and delicately invo- 
luted umbo. 



Family 6. CONCHACEA. 

Shell ; mostly orbicular or obliquely orbicular ; hinge composed of 
three strong teeth, more or less, in each valve ; lateral teeth 
sometimes wanting ; ligament external. 

In this family there is more variety and character in the shell than in 
the animal. The animal is characterized throughout by a well-developed 
foot, and by a pair of siphons which, according to the genus, are either 
separated or united, with the margins sometimes plain, sometimes frilled. 
The shell is mostly of solid porcellanous substance extremely rich in colour^ 
decorated with strange fantastic patterns, and often beautifully sculptured 
with spines, foliations, scales, and very elaborate lattice-work. The hinge 
is composed of rather strongly developed teeth, and the ligament is ex- 
ternal. The Conchacea are part marine and part fiuviatile ; the fluviatile 
genera are limited in species, of sombre exterior, very little sculptured, and 
there are rather strongly marked differences in the animal. 

Marine. 
Tapes. CytherjEa. Venus. Artemis. 

LUCINOPSIS. ASTARTE. CyPRINA. 

Fluviatile. 
Galath^a. Cyrena. Cyclas. 



Genus 1. TAPES, Megerle. 

Animal ; shaped as the shell, rather thick, having the mantle freely 
open in front, its margins either plain or partially plain, or 
if fringed, bordered by fine filaments ; siphons moderately long, 
more or less separated, both branchial and anal orifices bor- 
dered by cirrhi, those of the former ciliated ; foot lanceolate, 
thick, with a byssal groove. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; equivalve, inequilateral, transversely oblong, sometimes ob- 
liquely triangular, anterior side generally much the shorter ; 
hinge composed of three contiguous teeth in each valve, of which 
two are usually bifid ; no lateral teeth. 

VOL. II. p 



10G 

The chief peculiarity of the animal of Tapes (PulZastra, Sow.), as distin- 
guished from the rest of the Conchacea, is the presence of a byssal groove 
in the foot. The shell — and there are upwards of eighty species — is 
characterized throughout by an oblorjg or obliquely oblong growth, densely 
concentrically groove-striated, and of a uniform dull or rusty buff colour, 
sometimes passing into pink, most frequently painted with sharply angled 
hieroglyphic marks. 

Not more than about a tenth of the Tapes have been collected in the 
Western Hemisphere. Throughout the Eastern Hemisphere they are 
abundant, ranging from Australia to Northern Europe, four very charac- 
teristic and good-sized species inhabiting Britain. Of these one, T. vir- 
ginea, well illustrates the buff colour, passing into a delicate pink. 



1. acuminata, Sow. 

2. Adenensis, Phil. 

3. amabilis, id. 

4. anatina, Soto. 

5. arenosa, Phil. 

6. aspersa, Lam. 

7. aurea, Gmel. 

8. Belcheri, So?o. 

9. Bruguieri, Hani. 

10. catenifera, Lam. 

11. Ceylonensis, Soto. 

12. Chilensis, id. 

13. corrugata, Gmel. 

14. crassicosta, Quoy. 

15. Cumingii, Soto. 

16. dactyloides, id. 

17. declivis, id. 

18. decussata, Linn. 

19. denticulata, Sow. 

20. Deshayesii, Hani. 

21. discors, Sow. 

22. disrupta, id. 

23. diversa, id. 

24. Dombeyi, Lam. 

25. edulis, Gmel. 

26. euglypta, Phil. 

27. exarata, id. 

28. expallescens, id. 



Species. 

29. florida, Lam. 

30. floridella, id. 

31. fluctuosa, Gmel. 

32. fluctuosa, Gould. 

33. fuscolineata, Sow. 

34. galactites, Lam. 

35. geographica, Chemn. 

36. grata, Say. 

37. Hanleyi, Soto. 

38. hiantina, Lam. 

39. incerta, Sow. 

40. Indica, Hani. 

41. inaequalis, Sow. 

42. intermedia, Quoy. 

43. Lajonkarii, Payr. 

44. laterisulca, Lam. 

45. linia, Sow. 

46. lirata, Phil. 

47. lithoidea, Jonas. 

48. litterata, Chemn. 

49. Luzonica, Sow. 

50. Malabarica, Chemn. 

51. maxima, Phil. 

52. Meroseforniis, Sow. 

53. nebulosa, Pult. 

54. opaca, Sow. 

55. papilionacea, Lam. 

56. perplexa, Sow. 



57. petalina, Lam. 

58. Philippinarum, ^. 

59. pinguis, Chemn. 

60. polita, *Sbw. 

61. pullastra, Wood. 

62. purpurata, Sow. 

63. radiata, Chemn. 

64. rariflamma, Zow/.. 

65. recens, Chemn. 

66. rimosa, P7«7. 

67. rimularis, Lam. 

68. semirugata, P/«7. 

69. sinuosa, Lam. 

70. straminea, Cow. 

71. subquadrata, Sow. 

72. substriata, Mont. 

73. sulcaria, Za?ra. 

74. sulcosa, Phil. 

75. tenuistriata, /Sow. 

76. tessellata, Ad. 

77. textile, Gmel. 

78. texturata, Zaw. 

79. tricolor, Sow. 

80. tumida, eoJ. 

81. turgida, Lam. 

82. variabilis, Born. 

83. variegata, Zfa»?. 

84. virginea, Linn. 



107 

Figure. 

Tapes textilis. PL 35. Fig. 193. Shell of an usually smooth species, 
showing the hinge of three close cardinal teeth, destitute of lateral 
teeth. 



Genus 2. CYTHEILEA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; oblong, with its mantle freely open, and plain at the 
margins ; foot large, linguiform, not furnished with a byssal 
groove ; siphons united nearly to their extremities ; orifices of 
both with simple cirrhi. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; obliquely subtriangularly orbicular, mostly smooth and por- 
cellanous, sometimes concentrically lamellatehj striated, very 
rarely spined around the posterior ; hinge composed of three di- 
varicate cardinal teeth in one valve, interlocking with four in 
the other, the outer one of which diverges more or less into the 
form of a lateral tooth. 

Of this genus we have a grand typical example on our own shores in C. 
Chione, and it is the only Cythercea, out of a hundred and sixty-four, that 
inhabits Britain, excepting a small one of the subdivision Circe. The ani- 
mal has no byssal groove in the foot, as in Tapes, and the cirrhi of both 
orifices of the siphons are simple. Three well-marked groups are indicated 
by the following : — C. Chione, of which type the species are far the most 
numerous, is the representative of a series with shells of large size and 
porcellanous surface, sometimes concentrically grooved, but not otherwise 
sculptured, richly banded, rayed, or spotted with brown, rust-brown, and 
purple-brown, and sometimes blue. C. Blone represents a type much more 
limited in species, of which the shell is smaller and densely concentrically 
lamellately ridged. The spines which are so remarkable a feature in C. 
Blone do not belong to the group, but only to two other species, C. Uri- 
naria and multisplnosa, and it is even doubtful whether all three are not 
varieties of one and the same species. C. scrlpta (Bonax scrlpta, Lamarck), 
with a flat wedge-shaped shell, represents another group, of which there 
are only seven species ; and fifteen species have been separated under the 
name of Circe, with a stout squarely orbicular pinched shell, whose animal 
varies in having the margins of the siphonal orifices fringed, and is more 
allied in this respect to Cyprlna. 



108 



Species. 



1. 


abbreviata, Lain. 


45. 


erycina, Linn. 


89. 


meretrix, Linn. 


2. 


acuminata, Sow. 


46. 


erycinella, Lam. 


90. 


minima, Mont. 


3. 


Bequivoca, Ckemn. 


47. 


erythrsea, Jonas. 


91. 


modesta, Sow. 


4. 


affinis, Broil. 


48. 


excavata, Hani 


92. 


morphina, Lam. 


5. 


albina, Lam. 


49. 


fastigiata, Sow. 


93. 


multiradiata, Sow. 


6. 


albo-ciucta, Soto. 


50. 


festiva, Paris Mas. 


94. 


multispinosa, id. 


7. 


albo-dorsata, id. 


51. 


floiida, Lam. 


95. 


multistriata, id. 


8. 


angukfera, id. 


52. 


fluctuata, Sow. 


96. 


nitidula, Lam-. 


9. 


apicalis, Phil. 


53. 


formosa, id. 


97. 


nobilis, Reeve. 


10. 


Arabica, Ckemn. 


54. 


fulniinata, Valen. 


98. 


numraulina, Lain. 


11. 


argentina, Sow. 


55. 


gibbia, Lam. 


99. 


obesa, Sow. 


12. 


aurantia, Hani. 


56. 


gigantea, Linn. 


100. 


oblonga, Gray. 


13. 


australis, dr. 


57. 


gracilior, Sow. 


101. 


oculata, Say. 


14. 


Belcheri, Sow. 


58. 


grata, Desk. 


102. 


ovum, Haul. 


15. 


bicolor, Gray. 


59. 


Ilanleyani, Sow. 


103. 


pacifica, Dillw. 


16. 


Birmanica. 


60. 


Hebraea, Lam. 


104. 


pallescens, Sow. 


17. 


brevispinosa, Sow. 


6L 


hieroglyphica, Conr. 


105. 


pannosa, id. 


18. 


bullata, id. 


62. 


Hindsii, Hani. 


106. 


pectinata, Linn. 


19. 


calypiga, Born. 


63. 


incerta, Sow. 


107. 


pectoralis, Lam. 


20. 


casta, Gmel. 


64. 


inconspicua, id. 


108. 


pellucida, id. 


21. 


castrensis, Linn, 


65. 


indecora, Pkil. 


109. 


petecldalis, id. 


22. 


Chione, id. 


66. 


inflata, Soto. 


110. 


Pfeiiferi, Pkil. 


23. 


circinata, Bom. 


67. 


impar, Lam. 


111. 


Philippinarum, Haul. 


24. 


citrina, Lam. 


68. 


impudica, Ckemn. 


112. 


picta, Sckum. 


25. 


compressa, Soic. 


69. 


innocens, Sow. 


113. 


■piperita, Sow. 


26. 


concinna, id. 


70. 


intermedia, id. 


114. 


planulata, Brod. 


27. 


consanguinea, C.B.Ad.ll. 


interrupta, Lam. 


115. 


plebeja, Hani. 


28. 


convexa, Say. 


72. 


iridescens, Soto. 


116. 


plicatina, Lam. 


29. 


corbicula, Lam. 


73. 


Kingii, Gray. 


117. 


polita, Sow. 


30. 


costata, Ckemn. 


74. 


laeta, Linn. 


118. 


pulchra, Gray. 


31. 


Crassatelloides, Conrad. 7 5 . 


lentiginosa, Ckemn. 


119, 


punctata, Lam. 


32. 


crocea, Gray. 


76. 


lepida, id. 


120. 


purpurata, id. 


33. 


cygnaeus, Lam. 


77. 


ligula, Anton. 


121, 


. Quoyi, Hani. 


34. 


Cyrelli, Pkil. 


78. 


Hlacina, Lam. 


122. 


radiata, Sow. 


35. 


, damaoides, Gray. 


79, 


, limatula, Sow. 


123 


. rivularis, Menke. 


36, 


. Dione, Linn. 


80, 


lineata, id. 


124, 


, rosea, Brod. 


37 


. dispar, Ckemn. 


81 


. lineolata, id. 


125, 


. rostrata, Kock. 


38. 


. disrupta, Sow. 


82, 


, lupinaria, Less. 


126. 


ragifera, Lam. 


39 


. divaricata, Gmel. 


83 


. lusoria, Lam. 


127 


. rugosa, id. 


40 


. Dolabella, Sow. 


84 


. lyrata, Sow. 


128 


. rutila, Sow. 


41 


. dubia, id. 


85, 


. mactroides, Dillw. 


129 


. scripta, Linn. 


42 


. eflbssa, Haul. 


86 


, maculata, Linn. 


130 


. scripta, id. 


43 


. clegans, Koch. 


87, 


. Manillas, Sow. 


131 


. semilamellosa, CMnu. 


44 


. elliptica, Sow. 


88, 


. menstrualis, Menke. 


132 


. seminuda, Phil. 



109 



133. semisulcata, Sow. 

134. simplex, id. 

135. Sinensis, Chemn. 

136. Solandii, Gray. 

137. spathulata, Soto. 

138. splendens, id. 

139. squalida, id. 

140. striata, Gray ? 

141. subelliptica, Sow. 

142. subinflata, id. 

143. subquadrata, zrf. 



144. subpellucida, Sow. 

145. sulcatina, Lam. 

146. Tellinoidea, Sow?. 

147. tigerina, Lam. 

148. tigrina, Reeve. 

149. tortuosa, ^rorf. 

150. trigonella, Lam. 

151. trimaculata, m?. 

152. tripla, i?«w. 

153. tnmefacta, -Sow. 

154. umbonella, Lam. 



155. undatina, Lam. 

156. undulata, £o?0. 

157. unicolor, id. 

158. vaginalis, Menke. 

159. varians, Hani. 

160. Yenetiana, Zavw. 

161. ventricosa, 5;-^. Jfws. 

162. virginea, Adams. 

163. vulnerata, Brod. 

164. zonaria, Zam. 



Cytheilea lupinaria. PL 35. Fig. 189. Shell illustrative of the small 
group, distinguished by a profusion of long spines set around the 
posterior. 



Genus 3. VENUS, Linnceus. 

Animal ; ovate or suborbicular, thick, its mantle open throughout, 
and fringed or furbeloioed at the margins ; siphons separate, 
and diverging, or partially, or even entirely united to their ex- 
tremities, where the orifices are surrounded by fringes of cirrhi ; 
foot linguiform, apiculate, not furnished with a byssal groove. 
(Forbes.) 

Shell ; ovate or triangularly orbicular, generally elaborately sculp- 
tured ; hinge composed mostly of thick, interlocking, diverging, 
cardinal teeth in each valve ; Innule conspicuous. 

The Goddess of beauty is not unfitly represented by the series of shells 
associated in this genus. Not only do they display an almost endless 
variety of colour and marking, but an exquisite variation of sculpture. Of 
a hundred and thirty species, chiefly tropical and subtropical, the majority 
are frilled in concentric order, with most curious varieties of lamellar 
ridges, daintily rayed and tinted, and the range of habitation, even in the 
same species, varies from the water-edge to considerable oceanic depths.* 

* " Venus striatula and Venus ovata live indifferently at the margin of the sea, and beneath 
a depth of more than one hundred fathoms. Such capacities for enduring great differences of 
pressure warn us not to lay too great stress on that iufluence as a regulator of distribution, the 
more so as examples of these mollusks drawn suddenly up from very great depths appear to ex- 
perience no inconvenience from the rapid change of conditions, and display their siphons and 
other organs as readily in a basin of sea-water as they could ever have done in the profound re- 
cesses of their birth." — Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll, vol. i. p. 400. 



110 

The animal, according to the observations of Professor Forbes, presents 
differences in different species, which in some families have been regarded 
of sufficient importance for the distinction of genera. The siphons are 
described as being either separate and diverging, or partially or even en. 
tirely divided. 



1. Africana, MiihJf. 

2. affiais, Sow. 

3. agrestis, Phil. 

4. albina, Sow. 

5. albo-radiata, id. 

6. alta, id. 

7. Amathusia, Phil. 

8. aphrodina, Lam. 

9. asperrima, Sow. 

10. Astartoides, Phil. ? 

11. australis, Sow. 

12. Berryi, Gray. 

13. Californiensis, Brod. 

14. callosa, Conrad. 

15. calophyla, Hani. 

16. cancellata, Linn. 

17. Cardioides, Lam. 

18. casina, Linn. 

19. Chernnitzii, Hani. 

20. cincta, Chemn. 

21. cingulata, Lam. 

22. cingulina, ? 

23. Cochinensis, Thorpe. 

24. Columbiensis, Sow. 

25. compta, Brod. 

26. corbis, Lam. 

27. cor, Soto. 

28. costellata, id. 

29. costellifera, Ad. 

30. crebrisulca, Lam. 

31. crenifera, Sow. 

32. crenulata, Chemn. 

33. Cumingii, Sow. 

34. Cypria, id. 

35. decipiens, Zr«tt£. 

36. declivis, Sow. 

37. decorata, ifroc/. 



Species. 

38. discina, Za#i. 

39. discrepans, Sow. 

40. donacina, Chemn. 

41. dysera, i(/. 

42. elegans, Ad. 

43. encausta, ? 

44. exalbida, Chemn. 

45. fasciata, Bon. 

46. flexuosa, Z«««. 

47. fluctifraga, Sow. 

48. foliacea, P/«7. 

49. foveolata, Sow. 

50. fumigata, id. 

51. gallina, Zzm». 

52. gallinula, Lam. 

53. gemma, Tolten. 

54. Gnidia, 5?-oc?. ^ /Sow. 

55. grauulata, Gmel. 

56. granulifera, Sow. 

57. gravesceus, Menke. 

58. histvionica, &>«?. 

59. incompta, P/«7. 

60. imbricata, Sow. 

61. inter secta, id. 

62. Kellettii, iKwfe. 

63. Kochii, Phil. 

64. Labuana, -4c??ra. 

65. lacerata, Hani. 

66. laevigata, Sow. 

67. Lamarckii, Gra^. 

68. lamellata, Lam. 

69. laqueata, 5ow. 

70. Lemannii, Payr. 

71. lenticularis, Sow. 

72. Listeri, Cr/vry. 

73. lyra, Hani. 

74. macrodon, Z«?«. 



75. magnifica, Sow. 

76. marica, Linn. 

77. mercenaria, ie?. 

78. minuta, Koch. 

79. monilifera, £020. 

80. multicostata, id. 

81. nodulosa, id. 

82. oblonga, Gray. 

83. ornatissima, Brod. 

84. ovata, Pewrc. 

85. Paphia, Linn. 

86. parva, Sow. 

87. paupercula, Chemn. 

88. pectmula, Z«?«. 

89. pectorina, irf. 

90. Pevonii, id. 

91. Peruviana, Sow. 

92. plicata, 6r»^. 

93. polita, Quoy. 

94. praeparea, <SV/y. 

95. puerpura, Linn. 

96. punctifera, Gray. 

97. pygmea, Za?ra. 

98. quadrangularis, Ad. 

99. radiata, PM. 

100. resticulata, Sow. 

101. reticulata, Linn. 

102. rigida, Billw. 

103. roborata, ZTaw/. 

104. rosabna, Rang. 

105. rostrata, >&w. 

106. rugosa, Gmel. 

107. scabra, Hani. 

108. scalarina, Za;w. 

109. simillima, $w. 

110. sinuata, Turt. 

111. spkserisulca, Deah. 






Ill 



112. spissa, Quoy. 

113. spurca, Sow. 

114. squamosa, Linn. 

115. striata, Chemn. 

116. striatula, Costa. 

117. striatissima, Sow. 

118. strigosa, Lam. 

119. Stultzii, Dovan. 



120. Stuchburii, Gray. 

121. subimbricata, Sow. 

122. subrostrata, Reeve. 

123. subrostrata, Z«>». 

124. subrugosa, #o?p. 

125. tenuilamellata, id. 

126. thiara, Dillw. 

127. truncata, Zawz. 



128. undatella, Sow. 

129. undulosa, Zam. 

130. variabilis, Linn. 

131. varicosa, Sow. 

132. verrucosa, Xmra. 

133. Yatei, Gray. 

134. ziczac, Zm#. 



Figure. 

Venus Gnidia. PL 36. Eig. 195. Shell sculptured throughout with con- 
centric lamellae of festooned erect scales. 



Genus 4. ARTEMIS, Poll 

Animal ; sub orbicular, its mantle freely open, the margins entire 
or only partially serrated ; siphonal tubes long, united to their 
extremities, margins of their orifices fimbriated ; foot semilunar. 
(Forbes.) 

Shell ; orbicular, concentrically striated or ridged ; ridges some- 
times laminated at the sides, especially at the posterior side, 
area of the ligament generally excavated; lunule mostly well 
defined ; hinge composed of three strong divergent teeth in one 
valve and four in the other ; impression of the sinus of the 
mantle lanceolately triangular. 

Artemis differs from the preceding genera of this family in the form of 
the foot, in the siphons being united to their extremities, and in the mantle 
having a triangularly lanceolate sinus, which is conspicuously impressed on 
the shell. The peculiarities observable in the shell, in addition to that of 
the pallial sinus, are its orbicular compressed form, its very uniform con- 
centric sculpture and the general absence of colour and pattern, although 
A. scalaris, ruf a, juvenilis, Chinensis, and a few others, including even our 
British A. exoleta, are sometimes very expressively rayed with colour. The 
shell has not the polished smoothness of Cythercea or the sculptural orna- 
mentation of Venus, but the species are well distinguished from each other 
in detail. 

As in the case of Tapes not more than a tenth of the species are found 
in the Western Hemisphere; the remainder are natives of the Eastern 



112 



Hemisphere, ranging from Australia to our own shores, on which the 
genus has its northern limit in T. lincta and exoleta. Three light inflated 
species, without a lunule, are referred to genus Lucinopsis. 



1. Adansoni, Phil. 

2. Africana, Gray. 

3. alata, Reeve. 

4. Amphidesuioides, id. 

5. angulosa, Phil. 

6. anus, id. 

7. aspera, Reeve. 

8. bilunata, Gray. 

9. biscocta, Reeve. 

10. cserulea, id. 

11. calcalus, id. 

12. canaliculata, Soiv. 

13. Chinensis, Chemn. 

14. compta, Loven. 

15. concentrica, Gmel. 

16. concinna, Sow. 

17. contusa, Reeve. 

18. corrugata, w?. 

19. cretacea, id. 

20. Cuuiiugii, /rf. 

21. discus, id. 

22. distans, ? 

23. Dunkeri, P/«7. 

24. duplicata, Reeve. 

25. exasperata, P/W7. 



Species. 

26. excisa, Chemn. 

27. exoleta, Z»«. 

28. ferrugiiiea, Reeve. 

29. fibula, & 

30. glauca, id. 

31. Graneri, P^7. 

32. hepatica, id. 

33. incisa, Reeve. 

34. Isocardia, Dunk. 

35. Japonica, Reeve. 

36. juvenilis, GW/. 

37. juvenis, Chemn. 

38. lamellata, Reeve. 

39. laminata, /i7. 

40. lenticularis, $?«?. 

41. lincta, P«^. 

42. Urata, Soto. 

43. livida, PM 

44. Lucinoides, Reeve. 

45. luuaris, Lam. 

46. modesta, Reeve. 

47. nanus, zW. 

48. nitens, «c?. 

49. Orbignii, Dunk. 

50. orientalis-, Sow. 



51. Patagonica, P/W7. 

52. penicillata, Reeve. 

53. plana, i^. 

54. ponderosa, Crray. 

55. prostrata, Linn. 

56. pubescens, P/W7. 

57. radiata, Reeve. 

58. rubicund a, P/h7. 

59. rufa, Lam. 

60. scabriuscula, Phil. 

61. scalaris, Menke. 

62. sculp ta, Reeve. 

63. sericea, «¥. 

64. Sieboldii, zW. 

65. simplex, Hani. 

66. sinuata, 2Yr£. 

67. solidula, Sow. 

68. striatissima, ie?. 

69. subrosea, Gray. 

70. subtrigona, Sow. 

71. tenuilamellata, a?. 

72. tenuis, id. 

73. torrida, Reeve. 

74. trigona, &'«?. 

75. variegata, Gray. 



Genus 5. LUCINOPSIS, /We* and Hartley. 

Animal ; suborbicular, its mantle freely open, the margins entire ; 
siphonal tubes short, diverging, separate, the branchial siphon 
with its orifice fringed, the anal simple ; foot lanceolate. 
(Forbes.) 

Shell ; thin, rather inflated, squarely orbicular, slightly flexuous, 
dull white tinged with rust, surface finely, but irregularly, con- 
centrically striated ; hinge composed of two diverging teeth, — 



113 

one of which is bifid, — in one valve, interlocking with three — 
the centre of which is bifid — in the other. 

This genus was instituted for the reception of a solitary type of bivalve, 
plentifully distributed round the British coast in depths varying from a 
few to eighty fathoms ; but it has a fine representative, amongst others, in 
West Columbia in Zucinopsis (Artemis) subquadrata. The foot, mantle, 
and siphons are all different in detail from those of Venus and Artemis, 
while the shell is of light substance, and, among other equally important 
differences, has no lunule. 



Species. 

1. decussata, Phil. 5. macilenta, Reeve. 8. substriata, Mont. 

2. gibbosa, Gmel. 6. saccata, Gould. 9. tenuis, Reel. 

3. inflata, Sow. 7. subquadrata, Hanley. 10. undata, Penn. 

4. Kroyeri, Phil. 



Genus 6. ASTARTE, Sowerby. 

Animal ; of the shape of the shell and never exceeding it, its man- 
tle freely open, with plain margins, slightly united posteriorly 
at two points so as to form two siphonal orifices, both with 
simple edges ; foot linguiform, strong, but not large. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; nearly orbicular, generally concentrically strongly ridged 
and grooved, sometimes smooth, covered by a thick fulvous-chest- 
nut epidermis ; hinge of two diverging teeth in each valve. 

The genera Astarte and Cyprina possess characters in common which 
render them somewhat removed from the preceding genera of Conchacea. 
The animal has no siphons, but simply siphonal orifices, the shell is in- 
vested in both genera with a stout sombre epidermis, and, with one excep- 
tion, they are confined to the boreal and arctic seas of Europe and America. 
A single species of Astarte reaches southwards to the Mediterranean, but 
Cyprina is not found living in that sea. 

The shells of Astarte are of a uniform dark fulvous-chestnut colour, 
some are deeply concentrically ridged and furrowed, and some are smooth. 
They are all of comparatively small size. 



VOL. II. 



114 



1. Arctica, Gray. 

2. Banksii, Leach. 

3. castanea, Say. 

4. cornpressa, Mont. 

5. crebricostata, Forbes. 

6. elliptica, Brown. 



Species. 

7. fusca, Poll. 

8. intermedia, Sow. 

9. lactea, Brod. 

10. oblonga, Sow. 

11. quadrans, Gould. 



12. semisulcata, Leach. 

13. subsequilatera, Sow. 

14. sulcata, D# Costa. 

15. triangularis, Mont. 

16. undata, Gould. 



Figure. 

Astarte sulcata. PI. 34. Pig. 186. Shell, showing the divergent 
toothed hinge and dark fulvous epidermis. 



Genus 7. CYPRINA, Lamarck. 

Animal; with its mantle freely open, the edges being either plain 
or serrated ; siphons projecting a little, icith the margins of 
their orifices fringed ; foot large, linguiform. 

Shell ; obliquely cordate, convexly depressed, no lunule, covered 
with a glossy, fibrous epidermis ; hinge of tico to three divergent 
cardinal teeth and a remote lateral tooth in each valve. 

Of this genus only a single species is known, of large size, measuring 
sometimes upwards of four inches in diameter. As its specific name de- 
notes, the Cyprhia is purely a boreal moHusk, dwelling abundantly in the 
North Atlantic seas, and ranging throughout the shores of Britain and 
Ireland. Like Astarte the animal has no siphons, but the orifices project 
more. The shell is of rather an opake white substance, covered with a very 
decided glossy fibrous epidermis, of an olive or fulvous-brown colour. 



Figure. 

Cyprina Islandica. PI. 35. Pig. 190. 
its remote lateral tooth. 



Shell, showing the hinge with 



Genus 8. GALATILEA, Bruguiere. 

Animal ; with the mantle freely open, margins simple ; siphons 
elongated, separate ; foot large, oblong, compressed, slightly 
angulated in front. 



115 

Shell; triangular or oblong ovate, very thick and solid, covered 
with a glabrous horny epidermis ; hinge composed of two to 
three triangularly disposed cardinal teeth in each valve, ivhich 
are sometimes indistinct or 'partially obsolete. 

The freshwater Conchacea begin with Galathcea, a siphoned bivalve of 
comparatively large size, whose habitat is restricted to the Nile and the 
rivers of Western Africa. The shell is quite unique in its composition, 
being of a peculiar marble-like substance, more or less delicately rayed or 
tinted with rose-purple or blue ; and it is covered with a strong epidermis, 
not of a fibrous texture like that of Ci/prina, but hard, glabrous, and horny, 
of a rich olive or olive-green colour. Twelve species have been described. 



1. Bengoensis, Dhr. 

2. Cailliaudi, Bern. 

3. concamerata, Duv. 

4. Cuiningii, Dkr.. 



Species. 

5. Heukelomi, Bern. 

6. Kochii, id. 

7. laeta, Phil. 

8. Lubakii, Bern. 



9. paradoxa, Born. 

10. mbicunda, Phil. 

11. tenuicula, Phil. 

12. versicolor, Morel. 



Figure. 

GALATHiEA paradoxa. PI. 30. Fig. 197. A very characteristic illustra- 
tion of the original species, showing its dense hinge structure. 



Genus 9. CYRENA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; mantle-lobes united in their posterior third; siphons se- 
parated to their base. fDeshayes.J 

Shell ; mostly solid, sometimes concentrically ridged, covered with 
an olive or blackish epidermis ; hinge composed of three cardi- 
nal teeth in one valve and two in the other, and two, often con- 
spicuous, lateral teeth in each valve. 

A characteristic and somewhat variable series of freshwater bivalves, 
some of which are of large size, richly violet-stained in the interior, some 
roughly formed and more or less eroded, some strongly ploughed across 
with ridges and furrows. The animal partakes of the characters of Venus 
and Cyclas, simulating the latter genus more particularly in having the 



116 

siphons separated to their base. They inhabit rivers and estuaries in the 
tropical countries of both hemispheres, but are most abundant in the penin- 
sulas and islands of the eastern seas, where they live imbedded in the mud 
of mangrove-swamps. In Europe the genus is represented by Cyclas. 



1. sequilateralis, Desk. 

2. affinis, id. 

3. Africana, Krauss. 

4. ambigua, Desk. 

5. angulata, id. 

6. anomaln, id. 

7. arctata, id. 

8. atrata, id. 

9. australis, id. 

10. Bengalensis, id. 

11. Bensoni, id. 

1 2. Brasiliana, id. 

13. Buschii, Phil. 
11. Caroliniana, Base. 

15. Cashmiriensis, Desk. 

16. Ceylamca, Cliem. 

17. Charpentieriana, B. 

18. Childrenae, Gray. 

19. compressa, Mouss. 

20. coinpta, Desk. 

21. consobrina, Caill. 

22. corbuloides, Desk 

23. convexa, id. 

24. cor, Lamarck. 

25. cordiforrnis, Reel. 

26. Cumingii, Desk. 

27. cuneata, Jonas. 

28. cyclostoraa, Bourg. 

29. cyprinoides, Quoy. 

30. decipiens, Ztes/i. 

31. Deshayesiana, B. 

32. divaricata, Desk. 

33. dura, ic?. 

34. eximia, Bunk. 

35. Essingtonensis, Ztes/fc. 

36. expansa, Mouss. 

37. fallax, Des7i. 



Species. 

38. Floridana, C'owr. 

39. Fontainei, D'Orb. 

40. flurninalis, Mull. 

41. flurninea, i^. 

42. fluviatilis, id. 

43. Galatliea3, Morch. 

44. Gauritziaua, Krauss. 

45. grandis, ZtesA. 

46. liumerosa, ic?. 

47. impvessa, id. 

48. incerta, ie?. 

49. incrassata, id. 

50. inflata, id. 

51. inquinata, i<?. 

52. insignis, id. 

53. Isocardioides, it?. 

54. Jayensis, Lea. 

55. Jukesii, Desk. 

56. Keraudrenia, Ze*s. 

57. Largillierti, Phil. 

58. lauta, ZV«//. 

59. lenticularis, id. 

60. limosa, Maton. 

61. Mactroides, ZtesA. 

62. maritima, Adams. 

63. megadesma, ZW<. 

64. Moquiniana, Bourg. 

65. Moussoni, Desk. 

66. Nepeanensis, Zm. 

67. nitens, Phil. 

68. nitida, ZtesA. 

69. nitidula, id. 

70. notabilis, id. 

71. obesa, Hinds. 

72. oblonga, Qwoy. 

73. obscura, Dm//. 

74. obsoleta, *V. 



75. occidens, Bens. 

76. orientalis, Zaw. 

77. ovalina, DesJi. 

78. pallida, w?. 

79. Panormitana, Bio. 

80. Papua, Less. 

81. Paranensis, J)' Orb. 

82. placens, 2Ta«^. 

83. placida, ZW*. 

84. producta, id. 

85. pulchella, Mouss. 

86. pullata, PAfl. 

87. pusilla, id. 

88. radiata, iTa«^. 

89. radiata, Phil. 

90. Raymondi, B. 

91. recurvata, Z?y^. 

92. rivalis, Busch. 

93. rotundata, Ze«. 

94. salmacida, -2£b/\ 

95. semisulcata, Desk. 

96. similis, e'c?. 

97. similis, Gray. 

98. sinuosa, Ztes/j. 

99. solida, Phil. 

100. sordida, Hanley. 

101. squalida, ZtesA. 

102. striatella, id. 

103. sublobata, z'<f. 

104. suborbicularis, Phil. 

105. subquadrata, Desh. 

106. sulcatina, io?. 

107. Surnatrensis, Sow. 

108. tenebrosa, Hinds. 

109. triangula, ZV«7. 

110. triangularis, Desk. 

111. triangularis, Jie/c. 



117 



112. trigona, Desk. 

113. triquetra, id. 

114. tuniida, Desk. 



115. turgicla, Lea. 118. ventricosa, Desk. 

116. Vanikorensis, Quoy. 119. violacea, Lam. 

117. variegata, D'Orb. 120. Woodiana, Lea. 



Figure. 

Cyrena fluminea. PI. 37. Fig. 198. Shell illustrative of a concentri- 
cally ridged species, showing the two' extended lateral teeth. 



Genus 10. CYCLAS, Bruguiere. 

Animal; suborbicular, its mantle freely open in front and anteally 
united posteriorly, to form a produced sip/ion, loliich is some- 
times divided into two nearly equal tubes, edges of the mantle 
and of the siphonal tubes not fringed. 

Shell; ovately globose, thin, covered with a slight olivaceous epi- 
dermis; hinge composed of two small cardinal teeth, one of 
which is bifid, in one valve, and one in the other, two rather 
remote lateral teeth in each valve. 

The Cyrena, of the Tropics are represented in the boreal and subtem- 
perate zones by a tribe of closely allied animals of very much smaller size, 
some even minute, with thin, olive, horny shells. They include two sec- 
tions, named respectively Cyclas and Pisidium. In the first the siphons are 
separated ; in the second they are united in a sheath and the species are 
smaller. In both the edges of the mantle and siphonal orifices are plain. 
They live buried in mud in ditches and pools, or in gentle streams, 
drains, etc. 



1. abdita, Hold. 

2. abrupta, id. 

3. acuminata, Pr. 

4. albula, id. 

5. altilis, id. 

6. amnica, Mull. 

7. argentina, D'Orb. 

8. auvea, Prime. 

9. australis, Phil. 
10. Bahiensis, Spix. 



Species. 

11. bulbosa, Anth. 

12. cserulea, Prime. 

13. Canariensis, Shut. 

14. Capensis, Krauss. 

15. cardissa, Prime. 

16. casertana, Poli. 

17. castanea, Prime. 

18. Chilensis, D'Orb. 

19. cicer, Prime. 

20. compressa, id. 



21. consobrina, Feruss. 

22. constricta, Anth. 

23. contorta, Prime. 

24. cornea, Linn. 

25. Creplinii, Dkr. 

26. dentata, Hold. 

27. detrnncata, Pr. 

28. distorta, id. 

29. dubia, Say. 

30. duplicata, Pfeif. 



118 



31. 


eburnea, Anth. 


55. 


modesta, Pr. 


79. 


rosacea, Prime. 


32. 


edentula, Say. 


56. 


Modioliformis, Ant. 


80. 


rosea, Scholtz. 


33. 


egregia, id. 


57. 


nitida, Jen. 


81. 


rotundata, Pr. 


34. 


elegans, Adams. 


58. 


uitida, Migh. 


82. 


rubella, id. 


35. 


elevata, Hold. 


59. 


Noveboracensis, Pr. 


83. 


Byckkolti, Norm. 


36. 


emarginata, Pr. 


60. 


Novae-Zelandise, Desl 


i. 84. 


semen, Menke. 


37. 


fabalis, id. 


61. 


obscura, Prime. 


85. 


sphseria, Anth. 


38. 


ferruginea, Krauss. 


62. 


obtusalis, Pfeif. 


86. 


straminea, Conr. 


39. 


flava, Prime. 


63. 


orbicularia, Barr. 


87. 


Steenbucliii, Moll. 


40. 


furcata, Rafin. 


64. 


ovalis, Stimp. 


88. 


Steinii, Schmidt. 


41. 


gigantea, Pr. 


65. 


pallida, Gray. 


89. 


supina, id. 


42. 


gracilis, id. 


66. 


parasitica, Parr. 


90. 


tenebrosa, Costa. 


43. 


Henslowiana, Sh. 


67. 


patella, Gould. 


91. 


tenuis, Prime. 


44. 


Indica, Desk. 


68. 


partumeia, Say. 


92. 


tenuistriata, id. 


45. 


inomata, Pr. 


69. 


pellucida, Prime. 


93. 


Terveriana, Bup. 


46. 


Jayense, id. 


70. 


pisidioides, Gray. 


94. 


transversa, Say. 


47. 


Kurtzii, id. 


71. 


ponderosa, Pr. 


95. 


truncata, Linsl. 


48. 


lacustris, Mull. 


72. 


proxima, Alder. 


96. 


variabilis, Pr. 


49. 


lenticularis, Norm. 


73. 


pulchella, B'Orb. 


97. 


ventricosa, id. 


50. 


Lumsteniana, Forbes. 


74. 


pusilla, Gmel. 


98. 


Virginicaj Gmel. 


51. 


maculata, Ant. 


75. 


pygmaea, Adams. 


99. 


vitrea, Risso. 


52. 


maculata, Mor. 


76. 


Kecluziana, Bourg. 


100. 


Wheatleyi, Adams. 


53. 


minor, Migh. 


77. 


rhomboidea, Say. 


101. 


zonata, Prime. 


54. 


mirabilis, Pr. 


78. 


rivicola, Leach. 







Figure. 

Cyclas counea. PI. 37. Fig. 199. Shell, showing its small cardinal 
and rather remote lateral teeth. 



Family 7. NYMPHACEA. 

Shell; either transverse or orbicular, sometimes gaping at the 

sides, posterior side always rounded, anterior mostly attenuated 

hy a depression radiating from the umboes, which is sometimes 

Jlexuous ; hinge composed mostly of small central cardinal teeth, 

with sometimes a callosity on the margin. 

The Lamarckian family of Nymjohacea is not well constituted. The Do- 
nax and Tellen have long widely separated siphons, while the Lucina 
and Corbis have none, the siphonal orifices being sessile ; and Galeomma 
differs more than all in having the mantle closed, like Tridacna, with only 



119 

a small opening for the passage of the foot. Why then, it may be asked, 
have we not reconstructed the subdivision of this Order into families? 
Many changes will have to be made in the method of classification adopted 
in this work as the animals become known. At present little is known of 
the malacological characters of the genera of this family except by their 
British representatives, and the proportion of these to the foreign species, 
known only by their shells, is small indeed. The strongest conchological 
characteristic of the genera consists in the posterior or siphonal end of the 
shell being more or less attenuated by an angular depression which radiates 
from the umbo and is sometimes flexuous. 

Donax. Tellina. Capsa. 

Iphigenia. Galeomma. Capsella. 

lucina. psammobia. soletellina. 

CORBIS. PSAMMOTELLA. SaNGUINOLARIA. 



Genus 1. DONAX, Linnceus. 

Animal ; oblong, its mantle f reel?/ open in front, with fringed, or 
partially fringed, margins ; siphons comparatively short, diver- 
gent, the branchial siphon with pinnated cirrhi around its ori- 
fice, the anal with simple denticulations ; foot large, apiculated, 
sharp edged. 

Shell ; triangularly ovate or oblong, more or less wedge-shaped, 
sometimes flexuous, equivalve ; hinge composed of two cardinal 
teeth in one valve, and one in the other ; bifid at the upper part, 
two, or one, more or less distant lateral teeth in each valve. 

There is scarcely any assemblage of bivalves so distinct in their generic 
character as those which have been associated without change since the 
time of Linneeus under the head of Donax. As in most of the Nymphacea 
the animal has its siphons separated to the base ; but in Donax they are 
rather short, and there is a peculiarity in the margins of the orifices, one 
being pinnately cirrhated, the other simply denticulated. In Tellina the 
margins of the siphonal orifices are plain, or, at least, very indistinctly 
denticulated. There are more characteristic distinctions in the shell of 
these mollusks than in the soft parts ; in Donax the shell is typically of a 
triangular wedge-shape, the anterior side being long and rounded, the 
posterior very short and abruptly truncated, and of rather solid growth. 
They have, with rare exception, little sculpture, and they present a strong 
uniformity of colour, a fulvous or dull grey, frequently tinted with rays. 



120 

The Bonaces are distributed somewhat promiscuously throughout the tem- 
perate and tropical seas. There are three British species. 



1. acuminata, Desk. 24. 

2. acutangula, id. 25. 

3. senea, Morch. 26. 

4. affinis, Desk. 27. 

5. anatinus, Lam. 28. 

6. asper, Haul. 29. 

7. bella, Desk. 30. 

8. bicolor, Lam. 31. 
9..bitincta, Reeve. 32. 

10. Californica, Conr. 33. 

11. carinata, Hani. 34. 

12. Cayennensis, Za»a. 35. 

13. clathrata, Desk. 36. 

14. columbella, Lam. 37. 

15. compressa, id. 38. 

16. Conradi, Desk. 39. 

17. contusa, ifceȣ. 40. 

18. culter, Hani. 41. 

19. cuneata, Linn. 42. 

20. deltoides, Lam. 43. 

21. denticulata, Linn. 44. 

22. dentifera, Ifa;^. 45. 

23. Dysoni, Desk. 46. 



Species. 

gracilis, Hani. 47. 

granifera, Desli. 48. 

Hanleyana, i7«7. 49, 

incarnata, Chemn. 50. 
incerata, Reeve. 51. 

intervupta, Ztes//. 52. 

introradiata, Reeve. 53 
Lamarckii, Ztes#. 54. 

laevigata, «V/. 55 

lubrica, ZTaw^. 56, 

lunularis, Phil. 57 

Madagascariensis, JFd.BS 
meta, Reeve. 
navicula, ZTaraZ. 
nitida, Desk. 
Nuculoides, Reeve. 
obesa, D'Orb. 
obesula, Desk. 
obscura, Reeve. 
ovalina, Des7t. 
Owenii, Gray. 
paxillus, Reeve. 
Peiiiviana, Desk. 



59, 
60, 
61. 
62, 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66, 
67 
68 
69, 



petallina, Desk. 
pobta, Poli. 
pulchella, Hani. 
punctato-striata, id. 
radians, Lam. 
rugosa, Linn. 
saxulum, Reeve. 
scapellum, Gray. 
scortum, Linn. 
semistriata, Poli. 
semisulcata, Hani. 
serra, Chemn. 
sordida, Reeve. 
spicnlum, id. 
striatella, Desk. 
Ticaonica, Hani. 
transversa, Soto. 
trifasciata, Reeve. 
trunculus, Linn. 
variabilis, Say. 
variegata, Reeve. 
vellicata, id. 
venusta, Poli. 



Figure. 

Don ax deltoides. PI. 37. Tig. 203. Shell of triangular wedge- shape 
form, with left valve dropped to show the hinge. 



Genus 2. IPHIGENIA, Schumacher. 

Animal ; presumed to be nearly allied to Donax. 

Shell; triangularly ovate, nearly equilateral; hinge composed of 

two cardinal teeth in the right valve, and one cardinal and two 

nearly obsolete lateral teeth in the other. 



121 

The genus Iphigenia, Schumacher, is substituted for the genus C'apsa, 
Lamarck, a name preoccupied by Bruguiere to distinguish the Linnsean 
Venus deJJorata, which is Lamarck's Sanguinolaria rvgosa. The animal 
has not been described, and the genus has been separated from Donax 
more on account of its peculiarity of habit than upon conchological grounds. 
The Iphigenia are confined to brackish waters, inhabiting, so far as has 
been observed, the estuaries of Senegal, Brazil, and Central America. The 
hinge of the shell varies a little from that of Donax in having lateral teeth 
onlv in one valve, and those often somewhat obsolete. 



Species. 

1. altior, Sow. 3. laevigata, Gmel. 5. ventricosa, Phil. 

2. Brasiliensis, Lam. 4. media, Shutt. 



Figure. 

Iphigenia laevigata. PI. 37. Tig. 202. Shell, exhibiting the inferior 
of the left valve, with the lateral teeth almost obsolete. 



Genus 3. LUCINA, Bri/guiere. 

Animal ; orbicular, its mantle freely open in front, with the edges 
plain or fimbriated ; sipko?ial orifices sessile; foot very long, 
tubular ; branchial leaflets of each side united into one. 

Shell; mostly orbicular, sometimes fiat, sometimes rather gibbous, 
generally equivalve, moderately inequilateral ; hinge typically 
composed of two divergent cardinal teeth, and two somewhat 
distant lateral teeth, noio elongated, now short and produced, in 
each valve, all of which are sometimes obsolete. 

Under Lucina we have a most variable assemblage of species connected 
nevertheless by a uniformity of type which renders the genus easy of recog- 
nition. The shells are all orbicularly lens-shaped in form, and, beyond an 
occasional tinge of yellow or fulvous rust, they are characteristically de- 
void of colour. The animal, so far as it has been observed by M. Valen- 
ciennes and Professor Forbes, differs materially from either Donax or Tel- 
Una. It has no protruding siphons, the siphonal orifices being sessile, and 
the foot is peculiar in being much elongated and tubular. The branchiae 
are also distinguished by the pair of leaflets being united on each side into 

VOL. II. R 



122 

one. The species may be grouped under at least a dozen different sections. 
In the type represented by the large L. tigerina and exasperata, including 
L. punctata (Codakia, Scopoli), the shell is strongly radiately furrowed or 
sculptured with scaly decussating ridges, and the inner margin is mostly 
stained with a deep rose-pink ; in L. Jamaicensis (Phacoides, De Blain- 
ville) the shell is only sculptured concentrically, and a curious allied type 
is presented in L. Pennsylvania, in which the shell is invested with a 
brittle transparent horny epidermis, that turns back from the ridges in 
particles, which become solidified like little hailstones ; in the remarkable 
L. Childreni (Miltha, Adams) one valve is flat and smaller than the other ; 
in L. gibba and divaricata and a few others (Shigella, Turton), the shell 
is sculptured with obliquely waved divaricating lines ; in L. leucoma (Lo- 
ripes, Turton) the ligament has an unusually deep-seated position ; L. 
spinifera (Myrlea, Turton) partakes rather of the character of Artemis in 
respect of sculpture; L. borealis (Triodonta, Schumacher) is a solid densely 
striated shell, and L. rotundata (D/plodouta, Brown) is characterized by 
an erect bifid tooth ; while in L. Philippinarum, whose habit is to bury in 
sandy mud at the roots of Mango-trees, we have a type more distinct than 
all, in which the shell is thin, almost toothless, and the hinge is strength- 
ened in the absence of teeth by a different position of the ligament, which 
forms a broad strap, as it were, across the dorsal margins of the valves.* 

A feature not to be overlooked in the shell of Lucina is the position of 
the lunule, which bears more on one valve than the other; the shell, in- 
stead of opening, as in Artemis, through the centre of the lunule, opens, 
in most species, on one side of it. The Lucina are variously distributed 
in the European, Eastern, Australian, and Central American Seas, seven 
species (including JJiplodonta) being inhabitants of our own shores. 



1. Anatellinoides, Reeve. 

2. annulata, id. 

3. Antiilarum, id. 

4. arcuata, Mont. 

5. argentea, Reeve. 

6. aurantia, Desk. 

7. barbata, Reeve. 



Species. 

8. bicornis, id. 

9. borealis, Linn. 

10. bullula, Reeve. 

11. cselata, id. 

12. calculus, id. 

13. Childreni, Gray. 

14. columbella, Lam. 



15. cornea, Reeve. 

16. dentifera, Jonas. 

17. digitalis, Lam. 

18. divaricata, Linn. 

19. eburnea, Reeve. 

20. edentula, C/temn. 

21. exasperata, Reeve. 



* The school of genus-makers represented formerly hy De Montford and Schumacher, then 
hy Swainson, and now by Dr. Gray and the Messrs. Adams, is thus severely admonished by Messrs. 
Forbes aud Hanley in their observations on the genus Lucina : — " Until our knowledge of the 
tribe becomes much more minute and accurate than it now is, conchologists had better content 
themselves with using a single generic term, than, through a false ambition of becoming the 
parents of names, thrust worthless and embarrassing synonyms on a science already considerably 
encumbered with rubbish." — Brit. Moll., vol. ii. p. 44. 



123 



22, 


, fabula, Reeve. 


38 


. malum, Reeve. 


54 


. punctata, Linn. 


23. 


femiginosa, Forbes $"LL.39 . 


, muricata, Chemn. 


55 


. rotundata, Turt. 


24. 


fibula, Reeve. 


40. 


niteus, Reeve. 


56. 


rugifera, Reeve. 


25. 


flexuosa, Don. 


41. 


Novo-Zelaudica, id. 


57. 


Sarsii, Loeven. 


26. 


friabilis, Reeve. 


42. 


obliqua, id. 


58. 


scabra, Lam. 


27. 


funiculata, id. 


43. 


occidentalis, id. 


59. 


Senegalensis, Reeve. 


28. 


gemma, id. 


44. 


ochracea, id. 


60. 


sericata, id. 


29. 


gibba, Gray. 


45. 


oniata, id. 


61. 


simplex, id. 


30. 


globularis, Lam. 


46. 


ovulum, id. 


62. 


speciosa, id. 


31. 


icterica, Reeve. 


47. 


ovum, id. 


63. 


spinifera, Mont. 


32. 


interrupta, Lam. 


48. 


pecten, Lam. 


64. 


sulcata, Reeve. 


33. 


Jamaicensis, Chemn. 


49. 


Pennsylvania, Linn. 


65. 


Tellinoides, id. 


34, 


Janeirensis, Reeve. 


50. 


Philippiana, Reeve. 


66. 


tigerina, Linn. 


35. 


lenticula, id. 


51. 


Philippinarum, Hani. 


67. 


tumida, Reeve. 


36. 


leucoma, Turt. 


52. 


pila, Reeve. 


68. 


venusta, Phil. 


37. 


leucophaBta, Reeve. 


53. 


pisum, id. 


69. 


virgo, Reeve. 



Figures. 

Lucina borealis. Plate Q. Shell, with animal showing the long tubu- 
lar foot and absence of siphonal tubes. From Forbes and Hartley, 
Hist. Brit. Moll. 

Lucina punctata. PL 37. Pig. 204. Shell, with the left valve dropped 
to show the hinge and rose-pink, marginal colouring. 



Genus 4. CORBIS, Cuvier. 

Animal; mantle open below, with the margin doubly fringed ; 
siphonal orifice single, with a long retractile tubular valve. 
(Adams.) 

Shell ; transverse, equivalve, nearly equilateral, stout, outer sur- 
face elaborately latticed ; hinge composed of two cardinal and 
tioo lateral teeth in each valve, one of which is situated near 
the cardinal teeth, the other is remote from it. 

A limited group, allied to Lucina in the animal having no protruding 
siphons, and possessed of shells of solid growth and of most exquisitely 
latticed sculpture, resembling in general typical character some of the con- 
centrically ridged forms of that genus. Pive species have been described, 
but the best known are the C.Jimbriala and SowerlAi from the Moluccas. 
The latter M. Deshayes identifies with a Grignon fossil found in the 



124 

neighbourhood of Versailles, C. lamettosa, but in this we think he is mis- 
taken. 



Species. 

1. cselata, Adams. 3. fimbriata, Lam. 5. Sowerbii, Reeve. 

2. elegans. Desk. 4. scitula, Adams. 



Figure. 

Corbis Sowerbii. PI. 37. Fig. 201. Shell, with the left valve showing 
the elaborately latticed external sculpture, the right valve the show- 
ing the hinge. 



Genus 5. TELLINA. 

Animal; ovate, compressed, mantle entirely open in front, its mar- 
gin fimbriated ; siphons long, separate throughout, usually nearly 
equal, thin, orifices plain or very indistinctly toothed ; foot large, 
triangular, compressed, apiculate. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; transverse or orbicular, nearly equivalve, moderately in- 
equilateral, posterior side mostly flexuously beaked, ventral 
margin often irregularly fiemwus ; hinge composed of generally 
two card*ncf teeth in each valve, and two lateral teeth, often 
remote and sometimes icanting. 

There are few mollusks so generally distributed over the globe as the 
Tellens. The species are numerous, and from the arctic to the equatorial 
seas the genus is represented in one form or another according to latitude 
and depth of habitat. The animal is distinguished by a longer and more 
widely separated pair of siphons than we have yet met with in the bivalves, 
and one is generally longer than the other. The foot, as in Donas, is well- 
developed, bent, and apiculated.* The shells do not vary very materially 
in form, their general characteristic is to have the posterior side, that is, 

* " When the bend in the foot of a bivalve is considerable, forming a sort of elbow, the ani- 
mal is projected forwards by a succession of short leaps. Such a structure characterizes the 
Tellince and Donacida. When it is about to make a spring, it firstly, by appropriate motions 
of the foot, puts the shell on the point or summit, as if aware that this is the position most fa- 
vourable of any to avoid the resistauce which the sand opposes to the motion. It then stretches 
out the leg as far as possible, makes it embrace a portion of the shell, and, by a sudden move- 
ment similar to that of a spring let loose, it strikes the earth with its leg, and effects the leap." 
— Johnston, fide Reaumur and Smellie, Introd., p. 136. 



125 

the ligament side, on which the siphons protrude, flexuously angled or 
beaked. Some species are a little sculptured or rasped, but the generality 
are smooth, intensely coloured with various shades of rose and purple and 
yellow, and often delicately rayed. 



Species. 



1. 


acuminata, Hani. 


38. 


Gumana, Costa. 


75. 


grandis, Hani. 


2. 


ala, id. 


39. 


Cumingii, Hani. 


76. 


gubemaculum, id. 


3. 


alba, Qnoy. 


40. 


cuspis, id. 


77. 


Guildingii, id. 


4. 


albinella, Lam. 


41. 


Cycladiformis, id. 


78. 


Guinaica, Chemn. 


5. 


alta, Conr. 


42. 


cygnus, id. 


79. 


Hiberna, Hani. 


6. 


alternata, Say. 


43. 


Cyrenoidea, id. 


80. 


hilaria, id. 


7. 


ampullacea, Phil. 


44. 


decora, Say. 


81. 


hyalina, Gmel. 


8. 


ancilla, Hani. 


45. 


decussata, Lam. 


82. 


imbellis, Hani. 


9. 


angulata, Chemn. 


46. 


deltoidalis, id. 


83. 


ingequalis, id. 


10. 


Antonii, Phil. 


47. 


Deshayesii, Hani. 


84. 


insequistriata, Donov. 


11. 


assimilis, Hani. 


48. 


discus, id. 


85. 


incarnata, Linn. 


12. 


asperrima, id. 


49. 


dispar, Qonrad. 


86. 


inconspicua, Drod.ty'S. 


13. 


aurora, id. 


50. 


distorta, Poll. 


87. 


inornata, Hani. 


14. 


balaustina, Linn. 


51. 


Doinbei, Hani. 


88. 


insculpta, id. 


15. 


Balthica, id. 


52. 


donacina, Linn. 


89. 


interrupta, Wood. 


16. 


bimoculata, id. 


53. 


eburnea, Hani. 


90. 


iridescens, Pens. 


17. 


Bodegensis, Hinds. 


54. 


edentula, Prod. Sf 


Soto. 91. 


iris, Say. 


18. 


Brasiliana, Speng. 


55. 


elegans, Gray. 


92. 


irus, Hani. 


19. 


Bruguieri, Hani. 


56. 


elongata, Hani. 


93. 


jubar, id. 


20. 


Burneti, Prod. 8f Sow 


. 57. 


eraarginata, Sow. 


94. 


juvenilis, id. 


21. 


calcarea, Chemn. 


58. 


ephippium, Speng. 


95. 


laceridens, id. 


22. 


Candida, Lam. 


59. 


exilis, Lam. 


96. 


lacunosa, Chemn. 


23. 


capsoides, id. 


60. 


Fabricii, Hani. 


97. 


laevigata, Linn. 


24. 


carnea, Linn. 


61. 


fabula, Gmel. 


98. 


lanceolata, Chemn. 


25. 


carnicolor, Hani. 


62. 


fausta, Donov. 


99. 


lata, Quoy. 8f Gaim. 


26 


casta, id. 


63. 


felix, Hani. 


100. 


lilium, Hani. 


27. 


Cayennensis, Lam. 


64. 


fimbriata, id. 


101. 


lingua-felis, Linn. 


28 


Chinensis, Hani. 


65. 


flexuosa, Say. 


102 


lineata, Turt. 


29 


cliloroleuca, Lam. 


66. 


foliacea, Linn. 


103 


Listen, Hani. 


30 


coccinea, Chemn. 


67 


formosa, Hani. 


104. 


lucema, id. 


31 


Columbiensis, Hani. 


68. 


fragilis, Linn. 


105. 


Lucinoides, id. 


32 


conspicua, id. 


69. 


frigida, Hani. 


106 


lutea, Gray. 


33 


Corbuloides, id. 


70 


fusca, Say. 


107 


lux, Haul. 


34 


crassa, Pen. 


71 


Galatheea, Lam. 


108 


lyra, id. 


35 


crucigera, Lam. 


72. 


gargadia, Linn. 


109 


Madagascariensis, Gm 


36 


crystallina, Chemn. 


73 


gehda, Hani. 


110 


magna, Speng. 


37 


culter, Hani. 


74 


Gouldii, id. 


111 


margaritina, Lam. 



126 



112. marginalis, Dlllio. 

113. Mars, Hani. 

114. mera, Say. 

115. micans, Hani. 

116. miles, id. 

117. nasuta, Con. 

118. nitida, Poll 

119. nobilis, Hani. 

120. nux, id. 

121. nyraphalis, Lam. 

122. obliquilineata, Cim. 

123. ostracea, Lam. 

124. Oudardi, Pffy. 

125. ovalis, Sow. 

126. Owenii, Hani. 

127. pellucida, PA»7. 

128. perna, Speng. 

129. perplexa, //««£. 

130. petalum, Vol. 

131. Pbaraonius, Hani. 

132. Philippinarum, irf. 

133. pinguis, id. 

134. pisiformis, Z»m. 

135. planata, id. 

136. planissima, Anion. 

137. plebeia, Z7a«£. 
13 S. plectrum, id. 

139. plicata, Val. 

140. polita, &7y. 

141. polygona, Chemn. 

142. princeps, /Z"««Z. 

143. pristis, Lam. 

144. prora, Hani. 



145. proxima, Brown. 

146. Psammotella, Za»«. 

147. pudica, Z7aw£. 

148. pulchella, Lam. 

149. pulcherrima, Soto. 

150. pumila, ZTa«£. 

151. punicea, Born. 

152. purpurascens, Zo; - rf. 

153. radiata, Linn. 

154. rastellum, Hani. 

155. regia, erf. 

156. remies, Linn. 

157. rhodon, Zfa>^. 

158. rhodora, Hinds. 

159. rhomboides, Quoy. 

160. robusta, //««£. 

161. rosea, Speng. 

162. rostrata, Zi»». 

163. rubescens, Hani. 

164. rubicunda, Gould. 

165. rufescens, Chemn. 

166. rugosa, Bom. 

167. scalpellum, Zfara£. 

168. scobinata, Zz'tttt. 

169. secta, Con. 

170. semen, Zf<m£. 

171. Senegalensis, id. 

172. seiTata, Costa. 

173. similis, Sow. 

174. sincera, Hani. 

175. siuuata, Speng. 

176. sol, ZfattZ. 



177. solidula, P««. 

178. Souleyeti, Hani. 

179. Sowerbii, id. 

180. spectabilis, irf. 

181. spinosa, id. 

182. splendida, Anion. 

183. staurella, Z«m. 

184. striata, Chemn. 

185. striatula, Zaw. 

186. strigosa, Gmel. 

187. subrosea, Hani. 

188. subtruncata, irf. 

189. sulcata, Wood. 

190. tenera, tfa^. 

191. tenta, id. 

192. tenuis, Z)# Cost. 

193. Timorensis, Z«/w. 

194. Tongana, Quoy. 

195. triangularis, Chemn. 

196. truncata, Jonas. 

197. truncatula, -SW. 

198. tulipa, Hani. 

199. umbonella, Z#m. 

200. undulata, Hani. 

201. Valtonis, erf. 

202. vernalis, id. 

203. verrucosa, irf. 

204. vestalis, id. 

205. virgata, Zz»#. 

206. virgo, Hani. 

207. virgulata, id. 

208. vulsella, Chemn. 



Figure. 

Tellina foliacea. PI. 38. Fig. 208. Shell of an Eastern Tellen, show- 
ing the posterior flexuous angularity. 



Genus 6. GALEOMMA, Turton. 

Animal ; oval, mantle very large, double-margined, tuberculifer- 
ous, closed in front ; sip/ional openings posterior, two ; foot 



127 

long, ligulate, byssiferous, perforate, projecting from an anterior 
opening in the mantle. (Forbes.) 
Shell ; small, thin, oblong-oval, equivalce, moderately inequilateral ; 
a sinale cardinal tooth in each valve, and these sometimes want- 
ing ; ligament part internal, part external. 

The little transparent bivalves known as Galeommce, and of which we 
have an interesting example in G. Turtoni of the Channel Islands and the 
western Mediterranean, do not properly belong to the family of the Nym* 
pliacea, but until something more is known of their characters than at pre- 
sent, the genus cannot be appropriated with any certainty. Messrs. Forbes 
and Hanley consider it to be the nearest allied to Area, Dr. Gray to Solemya 
and Pandora, M. Mittre to Tridacna, Costa to Gastrochcena, and amid 
these conflicting opinions formed on the investigation of the same species 
it would be better to wait until the animals of some of the foreign species 
have been examined. 

Galeomma differs from Tellina very conspicuously in having the mantle- 
margins closed, with only an opening for the passage of the foot, and in 
the foot being byssiferous ; the siphonal orifices are not tubular ; and the 
shell which gapes at the ventral margin is almost, if not altogether tooth- 
less, the valves being connected by a ligament, which is partially if not al- 
together internal. The shell is moreover covered with a transparent horny 
skin, which Mr. Alder describes as being composed of two layers, the lower 
of which is slightly muscular, whilst the outer is granular and covered with 
tubercles, which possibly, when the animal is alive, may rise into papillae. 

The Lamarckian Psammobia aurantia, a native of the Mauritius, is con- 
sidered to belong to the genus, and a few other species have been added. 



1. ainbigtta, Desk. 

2. angusta, id. 

3. argentea, id. 

4. aurantia, Lam. 

5. cliloroleuca, Desk. 



Species. 

6. formosa, Desk. 

7. iiulecora, id. 

8. inflata, id. 

9. Layardi, id. 

10. macrochisma, id. 



11. paucistriata, Desk. 

12. polita, id. 

13. splendida, id. 
H. Turtoni, Sow. 



Figures. 

Galeomma Turtoni. Plate P. Shell enlarged and widely opened, as in 
our figure of Tridacna, to show the animal with the mantle closed, 
and having an opening for the passage of the foot. 



128 

Galeomma Turtoni. PI. 37. Fig. 200. Shell, with the valves closed to 
show the gaping at the ventral margin. 



Genus 7. PSAMMOBIA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; oblong, compressed, its mantle open throughout and bor- 
dered by a fringe of fine silken filaments ; siphons very long, 
slender, and delicate, marked with longitudinal ciliated lines, 
which terminate in more or less conspicuous cirrhi, few (six or 
eight in number) surrounding their orifices. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; transversely oblong, moderately inequilateral, a little gaping 
at the side, the posterior mostly fiexuously angled ; hinge com- 
posed of two teeth in one valve, generally bifid, and one in the 
other. 

To genus Psammobia is referred a series of sixty exquisitely beautiful 
bivalves, confined, with one or two abnormal exceptions, to the Eastern 
Hemisphere, ranging, but with comparative scarcity, from the Hebrides 
to Tasmania, and represented on our own shores by the elegant P. vesper- 
tina, Ferroensis, tellinella, and costulata. The animal, like Tellina, has 
its siphonal tubes of unequal length, widely separated and extended, but 
they are curiously fluted, so far as regards the British P. tellinella, with 
six or eight ciliated lines, terminating at the margins of the orifices in 
cirrhi. The shell presents more dainty varieties of radiated painting, simu- 
lating the rays of the setting sun, than in any other genus of Nymphacea, 
and there are more varieties of concentric striation. In many species the 
raised striae are not parallel with the lines of growth, but cross them ob- 
liquely, waving fiexuously on to the posterior beaked angle ; and in a few 
of the smaller species the angle is carved with elaborately scaled ridges. 
The Psammobia dwell in sand or gravelly mud, but are not of sluggish 
habits. 



1. abrupta, Besh. 

2. affinis, Reeve. 

3. amethystus, Wood. 

4. amcena, Besh. 

5. angusta, id. 

6. anornala, id. 

7. bicarinata, id. 



Species. 

8. cserulescens, Lam. 

9. candidula, Besh. 

10. casta, Reeve. 

11. castrensis, Chemn. 

12. compta, Besh. 

13. convexa, Reeve. 

14. corrugata, Besh. 



15. costulata, Turt. 

16. denticulata, Ad. 8f R. 

17. dispar, Besh. 

18. eburnea, Reeve. 

19. elegans, Besh. 

20. Ferroensis, Chemn. 

21. grata, Besh. 



129 



22. insignis, Desk. 

23. lata, id. 

24. Layardi, id. 

25. Lessoni, Be Main. 

26. lineolata, Gray. 

27. Malaccana, Reeve. 

28. marmorea, Desk. 

29. maxima, id. 

30. Menkeana, Reeve. 

31. modesta, Ztes#. 

32. nivosa, irf. 

33. occidens, Cliemn. 

34. oriens, ZWA. 



35. ornata, -Des/^. 

36. palmata, id. 

37. parvula, Reeve. 

38. pennata, Ztes/j. 

39. petalina, id. 

40. prsestans, ^. 

41. puella, id. 

42. pidcliella, Zom. 

43. pulcherrima, Desk. 

44. rubicunda, id. 

45. mgulosa, y&?. $* Rv. 

46. solida, P/«7. 



47. squamosa, Lam. 

48. Stangeri, Gray. 

49. suffusa, Reeve. 

50. Tellinseformis, Desk. 

51. Tellinella, Z«/». 

52. tenuis, Desli. 

53. togata, i^. 

54. tripartita, id. 

55. tristis, id. 

56. vaginoides, Reeve. 

57. vespertina, GWZ. 

58. zonalis, Zam. 



Figures. 

Psammobia Tellinella. Plate Q. Shell, with the animal, showing, on 
the anterior side, the foot, and, on the posterior side, the widely se- 
parate siphons of unequal length, each passing out between the 
fringe-edged lobes of the mantle. 

Psammobia vespertina. PI. 38. Pig. 206. Shell of a British species, 
showing the delicate violet-rayed painting. 



Genus 8. PSAMMOTELLA, Beshayes. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; transversely ovate, equilateral, gaping at both ends, trun- 
cated and slightly beaked at the posterior, mostly violet-coloured, 
covered with an olive epidermis ; hinge composed of two small 
erect cardinal teeth in one valve and one in the other, and of 
an oblong callosity or fulcrum in each valve. 

A genus lately founded by M. Deshayes for the reception of seven shells 
from the Philippine Islands, Malacca, and the Red Sea, intermediate be- 
tween Psammobia and Soletellina. The animal is not known, but the ob- 
long callosity of each valve would seem to indicate that the genus has an 
affinity with the genus Soletellina founded on the Linnean Solen dip/ios. 



1. ambigua, Desh. 

2. Malaccensis, id. 

3. oblonga, id. 

VOL. II. 



Species. 

4. Philippinensis, Desh. 

5. Euppelliana, Reeve. 



6. Skinneri, Reeve. 

7. subradiata, id. 



130 

Figure. 

Psammotella Ruppelliana. PI. 38. Pig. 205. Shell of violet colour 
beneath an olive epidermis, with right valve dropped to show the ob- 
long callosity. 



Genus 9. CAPSA, Brtcguiere. 

Animal; undescribed. 

Shell ; transversely oblong, somewhat square, a little gaping at the 

ends, inequilateral ; hinge composed of two central teeth in 

each valve. 

This genus contains only the Linnean Venus deflorata, a native of the 
Eastern Seas, well known in collections, and another very closely allied 
species from Tahiti. In both species the shell has a densely rasped crenated 
surface. It is not the genus Capsa of Lamarck ; for that, the name Iphi- 
genia, Schumacher, has been revived. 



Species. 
1. deflorata, Linn. 2. Taheitensis, Bernardi. 



Figure. 

Capsa deflorata. PI. 38. Fig. 211. Shell, with left valve dropped, 
showing its densely rasped crenated exterior and lunge. 



Genus 10. CAPSELLA, Beshayes. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; transversely oblong, nearly equilateral, with the posterior 
side somewhat squarely truncated ; hinge composed of one tooth 
in the left valve and tivo in the right valve, bifurcated, with a 
slight oblong callosity in each supporting the ligament. 

Another genus established lately by M. Deshayes while investigating the 
Cumingian collection of Nymphacece. It includes sixteen species, all from 
the Eastern Seas, intermediate in character between Capsa and Soletellina, 



181 

and of which only one species, C. elongata, referred by Lamarck to Psam- 
mobia, had been previously described. The hinge scarcely differs from 
that of Soletettina, except in the teeth being more developed, and in the 
oblong callosity or fulcrum being less prominent ; but the species present 
a very natural assimilation of external characters. They are all of a uni- 
form transversely oblong growth, with the posterior side simply truncated 
into a faintly obtuse angle. 



1. Candida, Reeve. 

2. Chinensis, Des/i. 

3. crassula, id. 

4. difficilis, id. 

5. elongata, Lam. 

6. Layardi, Desk. 



Species. 

7. lunulata, Desk. 

8. minor, id. 

9. radiata, id. 

10. rosacea, id. 

11. rufa, id. 



12. solenella, Desk. 

13. solida, Reeve. 

14. tenuis, Desk. 

15. virescens, id. 

16. violacea, Reeve. 



Figure. 

Capsella radiata. PI. 38. Fig. £07. Shell, showing the transversely 
oblong form and faint posterior angulation. 



Genus 11. SOLETELLINA, Be Blainville. 

Animal; undescribed. 

Shell ; transversely oblong, compressed, mostly equivalve, nearly 
equilateral, covered with a horny epidermis, gaping a little at 
the sides, the posterior sometimes acuminated, sometimes shortly 
truncated ; hinge composed of a single erect tooth in the left 
valve and two in the right valve, sometimes bifurcated, with a 
conspicuous fulcrum in each supporting the ligament. 

Pounded by Blainville on the Linnean Solen diphos, and remodelled 
with excellent discrimination by M. Deshayes, the shells partaking rather 
more of the characters of the Solenacea than the preceding genus. The 
typical forms are elongately oblong and depressed, with the posterior side 
sometimes acuminated, and they are of a peculiarly sombre leaden-violet 
colour, covered with an olive horny epidermis. Another type, represented by 
8. Nuttallii, is of an obliquely orbicular form. The first of these types in- 
habits the Eastern Seas, the second inhabits California. S. orbiculata 



132 

(genus Elizia, Gray) is another orbicular form from Sumatra, and an in- 
termediate form is presented in S. nitida from New Zealand. In all these 
the fulcrum callosity of the hinge is more or less conspicuously developed. 
Another peculiarity of the genus not unworthy of note is that the pos- 
terior side is generally painted with two faint rays. 



1. acuminata, Desk. 

2. Adainsii, id. 

3. atrata, id. 

4. biradiata, Wood. 

5. consobrina, Desk. 

6. Cumingiana, id. 

7. diphos, linn. 



Species. 

8. Donacioides, Reeve. 15. 

9. epidermia, Desk. 16. 

10. incerta, id. 17. 

11. Japonica, id. 18. 

12. nitida, Gray. 19. 

13. Nuttallii, Conr. 20. 

14. nymphalis, Desk. 21. 



orbiculata, Wood. 
obscurata, Desk. 
planulata, Reeve. 
reversa, id. 
siliqua, id. 
truncata, id. 
tumens, id. 



Figure. 
(For figure, see Conch. Icon. vol. x.) 



Genus 12. SANGUINOLARIA, Lamarck. 

Animal; mantle freely open and fringed at the edges; siphons 

long and widely separated ; foot compressly linguiform. 
Shell ; transversely ovate, rather convex, thin, subtransparent, 
moderately inequilateral, finely concentrically striated, more or 
less tinged with blood-rose, anterior side rounded, posterior 
attenuated ; hinge composed of two small approximating erect 
bifid teeth in each valve. 

The Lamarckian genus Sanguinolaria has been dismembered of all its 
species excepting the beautiful and very delicate Tellen form, known as S. 
sanguinolenta (S. rosea, Lam., Solen sanguinolentus, Gmelin). To this 
type have been added four newly-described species of similar character, and 
a very natural group is the result. The shell is of transparent delicacy, 
finely concentrically striated, sometimes white, but mostly tinged more or 
less with deep blood-rose. On the anterior side it is rounded, on the pos- 
terior attenuated, with a faint depression radiating from the umbo. The 
hinge, in addition to the small cardinal teeth which characterize the Tellens 
generally, has still the fulcrum callosity of Soletellina in a rudimentary form. 



133 

The habitats are only known of three of the species : S. ovalis is from Central 
America, S. Tellinoides from California, and S. sanguinolenta from Ceylon. 



Species. 

1. ovalis, Reeve. 3. sanguinolenta, Gmel. 5. nitrea, Desk. 

2. purpurea, Desk. 4. Telliuoides, Adams. 

Figure. 

Sanguinolaria Tellinoides. PI. 38. Fig. 209. Shell of delicate trans- 
parent rose-colour. 



Family 8. LITHOPHAGA. 

Shell; very inequilateral, irregular, more or less gaping in front ; 
ligament external. 

The genera associated in this family are borers, and, like all borers, are 
of very irregular growth ; they differ moreover so much at different periods 
of their growth, that extensive series of specimens are requisite to observe 
their specific relation. The animal resembles that of the Gastrochcena form 
of Tubicola, in having the mantle united in front; but no tubular sheath is 
formed, nor is it at all certain that the habit of boring is a constant habit. 
The genera are — 

Venerupis. Petricola. Saxicava. 



Genus 1. VENERUPIS, Lamarck. 

Animal ; oblong, thick ; mantle closed in front with an opening for 
the passage of a compressed lanceolate foot ; siphons united for 
about half their length, their orifice fringed with a double series 
of cirrhi, the longer ones pectinated. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; oblong, rather compressed, sculptured for the most part 
with concentric lamina, ichich in many species are finely ser- 
rated; hinge composed of two cardinal teeth in one valve and 
three in the other, or with three cardinal teeth in both valves, 
of which the central is bifid. 

Of the three genera composing the family of Lithophaga, the Venerupes 



134 

are those nearest allied to the family of Conchacea. So nearly do the shells 
of some species assimilate with those of Tapes, that it is difficult, concho- 
logically, to separate them. The animal, according to the well-marked 
typical V. Irus of our own shores, has, however, its mantle closed like 
Gastroc/iana. Twenty-eight species were brought together a few years 
since by Mr. Sowerby in his ' Thesaurus Conchyliorum/ and the shells are 
characterized by a remarkable uniformity of detail. They are very unequal- 
sided, the anterior side being particularly short, and their boring habit is 
pretty well indicated by their irregularity of growth. They are all of a dull 
white or stone-colour, tinged with yellow or rust, and some are richly 
purple-stained in the interior. The sculpture is very uniform throughout, 
the surface being more or less densely frilled with lamellae, which are some- 
times serrated at the edge, sometimes a little festooned. The principal 
habitats of the species are New Holland, New Zealand, the Philippine Is- 
lands, and especially California. 



1. Carditoides, Lam. 

2. Ckinensis, Desk. 

3. Cordieri, id. 

4. crenata, Lam. 

5. Cumingii, Desk. 

6. cylindracea, id. 

7. derelicta, id. 

8. Diemenensis, Quoy. 

9. exotica, Hani. 
10. fimbriata, Sow. 



Species. 

11. foliacea, Desk. 

12. insignis, id. 

13. interjecta, id. 

14. interstriata, Sow. 

15. Irus, Linn. 

16. macrophylla, Desk. 

17. niirabilis, id. 

18. mitis, id. 

19. rnonstrosa, id. 



20. Nuttallii, Com. 

21. obesa, Desk. 

22. oblonga, Sow. 

23. paupercula, Desk. 

24. planicostata, id. 

25. pulcherrima, id. 

26. rugosa, id. 

27. siliqua, id. 

28. tuuiida, Sow. 



Genus 2. PETRICOLA, Lamarck. 

Animal; oval ; mantle closed in front, except a small opening for 
a lanceolate pointed foot ; siphons united for nearly half their 
length, their orifices fringed with a double series of cirrhi, the 
longer ones pinnated on one side. 

Shell ; triangular or narrowly oblong, the anterior side rounded, 
the posterior more or less attenuated ; hinge composed of two 
cardinal teeth in each valve. 

The Petricolce differ from the Venerupes only in having a shell of lighter 
substance, attenuated obliquely instead of being subquadrate on the poste- 
rior side, and in having a less lamellated sculpture. The sculpture, instead 



135 



of being concentric, in the majority of the species inclines more to radiation, 
and in some species the radiating ribs are profusely scaled after the manner 
of Pholas. Though few in number, the Petricola are very generally dis- 
tributed, one species inhabiting Britain. 



1. amygdalina, Sow. 

2. bicolor, id. . 

3. bidentata, Gray. 

4. bipartita, Desk. 

5. Chinensis, id. 

6. concinna, Sow. 

7. costellata, Lam. 

8. cultellus, Desk. 

9. dactylus, Sow. 



Species. 

10. denticulata, Sow. 

11. discors, id. 

12. divaricata, Chemn. 

13. elegans, Desk. 

14. elliptica, Sow. 

15. flabagella, Lam. 

16. gracilis, Desk. 

17. lapicida, Chemn. 



18. lithophaga, Retz. 

19. nivea, id. 

20. Pholadiformis, Lam. 

21. robusta, Sow. 

22. semilarnellata, Lam. 

23. serrata, Desk. 

24. solida, Sow. 

25. typica, Jonas. 



Figure. 

Petricola Pholadiformis. PI. 39. Pig. 212. Shell showing its atte- 
nuated form and scaled radiations of sculpture. 



Genus 3. SAXICAVA, Be Bellevue. 

Animal ; oblong or claviform ; mantle closed in front except for 
the passage of a digitiform foot, which is furnished with a 
byssal groove ; siphons united nearly to the extremity, orifices 
large, margined with a fringe of cirrhi. (Forbes.) 

Shell ; generally oblong, irregular, gaping, hinge furnished in some 
stages of growth with two cardinal teeth, mostly toothless. 

Saxicava curiously resembles Gaslrochana in having the mantle closed 
in front, except for the passage of a narrow finger- like foot, but its shell 
is of a more solid Fenerupis-like growth, and the animal does not form a 
tubular sheath. The Saxicava are borers, but not always. If there be a 
crevice, it has been observed by Porbes and Hanley, in rock, shell, coral, 
or seaweed, into which they can thrust themselves, they do so ; and if near 
a limestone rock, they perforate it, and form crypts in which to live.* 

* " Mr. Osier states that when young they are very active animals, and soon commence to per- 
forate. Both that gentleman and Mr. Garner have noticed that their excavations are not round, 
nor the sides smoothed off, like those of the holes made hy Pholas. As for us, we only know of 
their boring into calcareous rocks ; but Mr. Clark has noticed an instance of their perforating 



136 

Fifteen species have been described, but the genus was not examined by 
Mr. Sowerby when figuring Venerupis and Petricola in his ' Thesaurus/ 
and needs to be monographed. Two species are British, the Linnean 
S. rugosa and Arctica {Hiatella, Turton) ; others are Californian, Peru- 
vian, and Australian. 



1. Arctica, Linn. 

2. austral is, Lam. 

3. Californica, Conr. 

4. Carditoidcs, id. 

5. distorta, Say. 



Species. 

6. Guerinii, Desk. 

7. legumen, id. 

8. Pholadis, Lam. 

9. purpurascens, Sow. 



10. rugosa, Lam. 

11. solida, Sow. 

12. tenuis, id. 

13. Veneriformis, Lam. 



Saxicava Arctica. 
growth. 



Figure. 



PI. 39. Pig. 



214. Shell of a peculiar rhomboid 



Family 9. MACTRACEA. 

Shell ; mostly inequilateral, sometimes a little gaping at the sides ; 
ligament partially or wholly internal. 

After assorting into families the forms of bivalves represented on one 
side by Tellina and on the other by Mya, there remain a group of genera 
partaking variously of both types, but yet distinguished in having the liga- 
ment wholly or partially internal : these are the Mactracece. In the true 
Mactra we have a form which differs in a manner clearly enough removed 
from the neighbouring groups, but in AmpMdesma we have a Tellen-Mactra 
and in Lutraria a Mya-Mactra ; and yet there is no sufficient difference 
in the animals to render their association unnatural. The genera are — 



Ccmingia. 

Amphidesma. 

Ungulina. 



Mesodesma. 

Crassatella. 

Gnathodon. 



Mactra. 
Lutraria. 



triassic sandstone at Exmouth. Wherever we have a seacoast of mountain limestone, the surface 
of the rocks is almost invariably riddled by Saxicava. The whole front of the Plymouth break- 
water has been attacked by it, and much alarm for its safety excited." — Forbes and Hartley, 
Brit. Moll., vol. i. p. 138. 



137 



Genus 1. CUMIN GI A, Sowerby. 

Animal ; unknown. 

Shell ; equivahe, inequilateral, anterior side rounded, posterior 
more or less acuminated and a little gaping ; hinge composed of 
a small anterior tooth in each valve, with two strong lateral 
teeth in one valve only, the ligament being within an inioardly 
projecting spoon-shaped cavity. 

At the head of the Mactracea we have a genus of which the shell is 
found in sponges and in fissures of rocks, like the shells of the preceding 
family, but of which the hinge-ligament is contained within an inwardly 
projecting spoon-shaped cavity. It was founded in 1833 on some speci- 
mens collected by Mr. Cuming on the western coast of South America, 
presenting, in addition to these characters, the somewhat anomalous one of 
having two well-developed lateral teeth in one valve and none in the other. 
Four species were defined on its discovery by Mr. Sowerby ; six, from the 
same locality and the West Indies, were described seventeen years later by 
Mr. Arthur Adams ; and D'Orbigny and Conrad described four species. 
They are rather slight and colourless, mostly rudely lamellated, and all of 
them gape a little posteriorly. They seem to be allied to Amphidesma, 
but their place in the system cannot be satisfactorily determined until the 
animal is known. 



1. Antillarum, D'Orb. 

2. Califomica, Conr. 

3. Clerii, Adams. 

4. coarctata, Sow. 

5. fragilis, Adams. 



Species. 



6. lamellosa, Sow. 

7. rnutica, Sow. 

8. Petitiana, D'Orb. 

9. similis, Adams. 
10. sinuosa, id. 



11. striata, Adams. 

12. Tellinoides, Conr. 

13. tenuis, Adams. 

14. trigonularis, Soto. 



Figure. 

Cumingia mtjtica. PI. 39. Fig. 213. Shell, with one valve dropped to 
show the inwardly projecting spoon- shaped cavity containing the 
ligament. 



VOL. II. 



138 



Genus 2. AMPHIDESMA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; undescribed. 

Shell ; equivalve, inequilateral, oblong-oval or rounded, posterior 
side generally more or less flexuous ; hinge composed of one or 
two teeth in each valve, with an obliquely elongated pit lying 
betioeen them containing the ligament ; there is also a thin ex- 
ternal ligament. 

The genus Amphidesma shows rather a want of scientific spirit among 
naturalists residing and collecting abroad. Had any one of the sixty beau- 
tiful species at present known been a native of the shores of Europe or of 
North America, its animal would have been described long ago ; but half 
a century, nearly, lias elapsed since Lamarck drew attention to the pecu- 
liarities of the shell of Amphidesma, and abundance of specimens, of bold 
dimensions and attractive colouring, have been brought from the western 
coast of South and Central America, from Australia, from the Philippine 
Islands, yet no one has preserved the animal, and authors are altogether 
silent on the matter. 

Amphidesma has a particularly characteristic hinge. It has two liga- 
ments, one internal, solid, and conspicuous, contained within a pit running 
obliquely on the posterior side ; the other thin and external. The shell is 
mostly of an oblong-circular or oval form, with the posterior or hinge side 
more or less truncated and flexuous. The sculpture consists chiefly of 
irregular conceutric ridges, often in densely packed lamellae, neatly frilled, 
with the interstices profusely cancellated. The species have all a light 
and delicate aspect, though in several instances they are rather solid ; some 
are white, some are painted with rose and pale yellow. 



, 1. amabilis, Adams. 

2. amoena, id. 

3. australis, Sow. 

4. bicolov, C. B. Adams. 

5. Calif ornica, Adams. 

6. cancellata, Sow. 

7. cornicolor, Hani. 
3. casta, Adams. 

9. compta, id. 

10. cordiformis, Chemn. 

11. corrugata, Sow. 



Species. 

12. crenulata, id. 

13. crocea, Gould. 
1-i. decisa, Conr. 

15. decora, Adams. 

16. decussata, Wood. 

17. deformis, Phil. 

18. duplicata, Sow. 

19. elliptica, id. 

20. exarata, Ad. ^' Reeve. 

21. formosa, Sow. 

22. Gruneri, Adams. 



23. icterica, Reeve. 

24. Jovis, Adams. 

25. jucunda, id. 

26. Jukesii, id. 

27. lseta, id. 

28. lsevis, Soto. 

29. lamellosa, id. 

30. lenticularis, id. 

31. luteola, id. 

32. Martinii, id. 

33. modesta, id. 



139 



34. obliqua, Wood. 

35. orbiculata, Say. 

36. pallida, Sow. 

37. proxima, C. B. Ad. 

38. pulchella, Adams. 

39. pulchra, Sow. 

40. punctata,, id. 

41. purpurascens, Soto. 

42. radiata, Riipjp. 



43. reticulata, Sow. 52. 

44. rosea, id. 53. 

45. rubro-lineata, Conr. 54. 

46. rupium, tfow. 55. 

47. scabra, i/«M?. 56. 
4 8 . simplex, Ad. 8f Reeve. 5 7 . 

49. Sinensis, Adams. 58. 

50. solida, Gray. 59. 

51. sponsa, Adams. 



striata, Riipp. 
subtrancata, Sow. 
tortuosa, C. B. Adams. 
ventricosa, id. 
venusta, Adams. 
vestal is, id. 
virgin ea, id. 
Zebuensis, Hani. 



Figure. 

Amphidesma obliqua. PI. 39. Fig. 216. Shell with one valve dropped 
to show the oblique posterior pit containing the ligament. 



Genus 3. UNGULINA, Baudin. 

Animal ; with the mantle open beloio, fringed ; siphoned orifice 
single ; foot vermiform, thickened at the end and perforated, 
projecting from the base of the shell, or folded up between the 
gills. (Woodward.J 

Shell ; suborbicular, equivalve, nearly equilateral, covered with 
a thick brown epidermis ; hinge composed of a short central 
bifid tooth in each valve, ivilh an additional small one in one 
valve only ; no lateral teeth ; ligament in a narrow oblique 
marginal pit. 

Ungulina is a mollusc of very peculiar habits, producing a very peculiar 
shell. Three species only are known, and they are found on the shores of 
the Mediterranean and Red Seas, either buried in sand or mud, or excava- 
ting winding galleries in coral. The shell is covered externally by a dark 
chestnut-brown horny epidermis; internally it is sometimes tiuged with 
patches of blood-red. The hinge so far resembles the hinge of Amphi- 
desma, that it has an oblique narrow pit containing the ligament, and it 
has the central bifid tooth in an obtuse .somewhat undefined form. The 
general outline of the shell varies in being oblong or transverse according 
to the nature of its place of habitation. 



140 



1. alba, Rang. 



Species. 
2. transversa. Lam. 



3. rubra, Roissy. 



Figure. 

Ungulina transversa. PL 39. Fig. 217. Shell with one valve dropped 
to show the central bifid tooth and ligamentary pit. 



Genus 4. MESODESMA, Deshayes. 

Animal ; with the lobes of the mantle united about two-thirds of 
their length, open posteriorly for the passage of two short si- 
phons ; foot flat, triangular, partially concealed by the branchiae. 

Shell ; ovate, transverse, or triangular, equivalve, rather thick, 
compressed ; hinge composed of two lateral teeth in each valve, 
between which is a deep triangular cavity containing the liga- 
ment. 

Under Mesodesma we have a somewhat promiscuous series of shells of 
rather solid pallid substance, distinguished by a hinge of corresponding 
solidity. The ligament is contained in a conspicuous triangular cavity, 
not obliquely curved, as in the two preceding genera, but perpendicular, 
and the valves interlock on either side by strong lateral teeth. Some of 
the species from New Zealand inhabit the sands of estuaries. 



1. arctatum, Gould. 

2. Chemnitzii, Desk. 

3. corneum, id. 

4. cuneatum, id. 

5. cycladum, id. 

6. deauratum, Hani. 



Species. 

7. donacillum, Desk. 

8. donacium, id. 

9. erycina, id. 

10. glabellum, id. 

11. glabratum, id. 

12. Jauresii, Joannis. 



13. planum, Hani. 

14. Quoyi, Desk. 

15. Solenoides, King. 

16. striatum, Desk. 

17. trigonum, id. 

18. triquetrum, Hani. 



Figure. 



Mesodesma NovjE-ZelandijE. 
hinsce. 



PL 43. Fig. 233. 



Shell, showing the 



141 



Genus 5. CRASSATELLA, Lamarck. 

Animal ; mantle-lobes united only by the branchial septum ; inha- 
lent margins cirrhated ; foot moderate, compressed, triangular, 
grooved ; gills smooth, unequal. (Woodward.) 

Shell; equivalve, everywhere closed ; hinge composed of two central 
teeth in one valve and one in the" other, and a deep central 
pit containing the ligament ; an obscure lateral tooth in each 
valve. 

A beautiful genus, having shells of solid growth covered by a very cha- 
racteristic chestnut-brown epidermis, often richly toned and rayed, and 
sometimes developed in elegant concentric furrows. The ligament is 
strong, contained in a conspicuous central pit, as in Mesodesma, but not 
so perpendicularly produced. The animal differs in not having the lobes 
of the mantle united. Most of the Crassatella are Australian, but the 
genus is well represented in the Eastern Seas, as well as on the western 
coast of South America and in the West Indies. 



1. Antillarum, Reeve. 

2. bellula, Adams. 

3. castanea, Reeve. 

4. compressa, Ad. fy Rv. 

5. compta, Adams. 

6. concinna, id. 

7. Corbuloides, Reeve. 

8. corrugata, Ad. 8f Rv. 

9. Cumingh, Adams. 

10. decipi