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Lecturer in French in University College. Toronto, Canada. 



Copyright, 1901, 






In presenting this little manual to the teachers and stud- 
ents of French, the author is not venturing upon an untried 
innovation. The principles upon which it has been con- 
structed have been submitted to the test of experience since 
the beginning of the year 1895, when the author, in collabo- 
ration with Professor Squair of Toronto, published a similar 
work for use in the High Schools and Colleges of Canada. 
Both that manual and the present one — which is an entirely 
new work — proceed from a recognition of the fact that the 
accurate translation of connected English prose into a living 
foreign language is an exceedingly delicate operation, and 
much more difficult than the immediate expression of one's 
own thoughts through a foreign medium. There is no doubt 
that, even at a comparatively early stage in the pupil's pro- 
gress, this practice of translation, as distinguished from orig- 
inal composition, has its value, particularly in cultivating ac- 
curacy as regards grammatical form and discrimination in 
the use of terms. But the English to be translated must be 
of a decidedly simple order ; otherwise the pupil is either dis- 
couraged by the amount of assistance he requires, or allowed, 
in his happy ignorance, to produce a rendering that can not 
fail to be barbarous and uncouth. And that this is especially 
the case with a language possessing the extreme precision of 
French, no one who has seriously attempted to master that 
speech will think of denying. 

An experience extending over a number of years both as 
student and teacher, has convinced the author of the present 



book that it is worse than useless to expect of a young stud- 
ent of French anything more than a faithful rendering of the 
simplest and commonest idioms of his own language, and 
that even the wide limits of a four years' university course do 
not fit the average student for attempting indiscriminately 
extracts from standard English authors or from literary and 
scientific articles.* 

If, then, the prose given for translation must be very carefully 
chosen, it is evident that suitable material can not always be 
found ready to hand. The most elementary of the school 
reading-books, when tried, turns out too difficult. The style 
of the daily and other current journals is still more so. It 
therefore becomes necessary to prepare a collection of pieces 
which will provide variety of style without extreme difficulty 
of idiom. To furnish such a collection is the aim of the 
present manual. 

The work of selecting and adapting — and, in certain cases, 
composing — the pieces forming the collection has been per- 
formed with much care, and has occupied a good part of the 
leisure time of several years. A considerable number of the 
exercises have been tested in High School and University 
classes, and those which were still too difficult have been 
simplified. But before the test of the English exercises was 
definitely fixed, every line of them, including the imitative 
exercises of Part I, was written in French, and accompanied 
by variants and remarks for subsequent use in the notes and 
vocabularies. It is hoped that by this means the English 
text has been so constituted that it can be rendered into real 
French ; and that the assistance required by a painstaking 
student from the teacher or the text-book will not prove 
to be excessive. 

Part I consists of 50 French pieces, each followed by an 

^ This refers only to the exercise of pure translation. As for free 
or original composition, it sliould certainly receive great attention 
from the very first, and should be encouraged by every possible 
means. The pupil's interest in his work and his progress usually 
bear a close relation to the spontaneity of his effort 


exercise of an imitative character based o.i the French origi- 
nal In these English exercises, every word which has not 
its 'equivalent in the original is marked by an asterisk, and 
will be found in the English-French vocabulary. These words 
are always such as the pupil must learn sooner or later; and 
they do not add greatly to the difficulty of the exercise, while 
they allow considerable liberty in var>-ing the idioms. 

At the end of Part I is given a Questiott Formulary, show- 
ing how any of tlie exercises can be used as material for con- 
versation. These models, which present a great variety of 
questions, exemplify the striking differences between Eng- 
lish and French interrogatory forms. With these exercises 
the French models end. and the rest of the book is occupied 
by purely English materials. . , , . u 

Part //contains aphorisms, anecdotes, historical sketches, 
and several scientific paragraphs, among which are two ex- 
tracts (on pp. 78, 79). which have been left in their or.gmal 
form to show the difficulty of managing the simplest prose 
when taken tel quel Some pupils may begin with Part II 
and others may with advantage carry it on simultaneously 
with Part I The anecdotes may be used as a basis for con- 
versation or for free composition, by being read rapidly to 
the class by the teacher, and then reproduced freely in 
French without the book. 

Part III consists of somewhat heavier material, and is 
divided into three chapters, treating, respectively, of the 
resources and products of France, the city of Paris, and the 
Parisian house. These sections bring into especial promi- 
nence one of the chief objects of the book: the cultivation 
of a strong interest in French life, customs and institutions. 
The various aids provided for the pupil are divided among 
the foot-notes, the appendices and the two vocabularies ; and 
the object kept in view throughout the book is rather to 
stimulate reflecting observation than to supply ready-made 
material that can be inserted mechanically. 

The Notes and the Hints to Students will be found to con- 
tain a fund of information which, it is perhaps not too much 


to say, has not often been brought to the assistance of the 

Appendix II gives the author's translation of the celebrated 
Arrite oi Feb. 26, 1901, with an introduction and a few notes. 
It is regrettable that this important authoritative decision of 
so many vexed questions should leave so much to be desired 
in respect of definiteness and completeness ; but such as it 
is, it is well worth reproducing in full. 

The Vocabularies contain many cautions and essential dis- 
tinctions which have been thought out very carefully, and 
which might be sought for in vain in any of the dictionaries 
or grammars. These vocabularies are intended to be abso- 
lutely complete.' The first gives every French word occur- 
ring in the book (except in Appendix II), and includes all 
the separate parts of the " irregular " verbs, all the words 
in the foot-notes, and the proper names in Italics in Part 
III. The second Vocabulary contains the equivalent of 
every English word except those in Part I which are 
found in the French texts ; but even among these, all of 
the more difficult idioms and constructions are incorporated 
in the vocabulary as well, in order to make sure that the 
student should not be left in uncertainty. It has been 
thought advisable, for the same reason, to insert in both 
vocabularies the pronunciation of the words most likely to 
be mispronounced. The best notation for the purpose would 
undoubtedly have been that of the Association phonitique 
inter nationals, which is being universally adopted ; but it 
did not seem worth while to introduce it for so few words, 
and the symbols used are substantially those of the latest 
authority, the Dictionnaire gMral oi Hatzfeld, Darmesteter 
and Thomas. 

^ The French-English part contains some 1500 separate articles, 
not including the parts of verbs other than the infinitive ; and the 
English-French part reaches more than 2000; vtfhich gives, in all, a 
French vocabulary of at least some 3000 words, most of them in 
ordinary use. 


The author would gladly believe that the care he has taken 
in the reading of the proofs (which, by the way, has consid- 
erably delayed publication) may have eliminated all errors ; 
but as that would be too much to expect, he would request 
those who may use the book to be good enough to make a 
note of the mistakes which* remain, and to do him the service 
of pointing them out. A large debt of gratitude is already 
due to Professor Squair and Monsieur Saint-Elme de Champ 
of University College, for the valuable aid they have gener- 
ously rendered. 

University College, Toronto, Canada, 
September, 1901. 



Practical Directions to Teachers and Pupils xi 

Part I i 

Question Formulary 52 

Part II 55 

Part III 87 

Appendix I : Hints to Students 103 

Appendix II : The Official Simplification of the Teach- 
ing OF French Syntax 108 

Abbreviations and Signs 117 

French-English Vocabulary 119 

English-French Vocabulary 149 




1. Be content to advance slowly, that the work may 
be done thoroughly. Every new word we learn to use 
brings more command, not only in speaking and writing 
but in reading ; for we understand a language in proportion 
as we are able to express ourselves in it. 

2. The French text (i.e. la version) should be thoroughly 
mastered from first to last, before any attempt is made 
to work out the English exercise (i.e. le Ihetne), which 
should be done from memory as much as possible. The 
process of merely reading and copying is of little value. 
The text should be assimilated — even committed to 
memory, if necessary. 

3. The pupil should learn to make a free use of the 
present tense instead of the past, in narrative. This is 
exemplified in the themes of Exercises 5, 22, 23, 27, 37, 
44, 45, 46. (See also Obs. A.) 

4. While most of the French texts in the book use the 
past (or preterite) definite as the narrative tense, it should 
be remembered that this tense is practically extinct in 
conversation. It is well to acquire the habit of using it 
as a literary form, biit the exercises should frequently be 


written (and delivered orally) in the conversational tenses. 
(For which see Obs. B. ) It is, indeed, extremely desir- 
able that the subject matter of many of the lessons in 
Parts I and II should be taken as material for conversa- 
tion. To illustrate how this may be done, a few models 
are given at the end of Part I. 

5. In writing the themes, notice the uses of the quota- 
tion marks and the dash in the original, and reproduce 
these instead of the English marks. It should be noted 
that dialogue is often printed in French without any quo- 
tation marks, as on pp. 37 and 50. (For the peculiarities 
of French punctuation, see the "Hints to Students," pp. 


|^= For an explanation of the signs and abbreviations, see 

b. 117. J 


A C'est quand nous avons merits notre malheur, qui 
devient par, la notre punition, que nous le supportons le 
plus impatiemment. 

B When one 1 deserves one's ^punishment, one bears 
it patiently ^ Do you not deserve your misfortune ? Then 
bear it more patiently, for* you do not always » receive 
the punishment that* you deserve.-When one bears ones 
misfortunes, one becomes more patient. ^-Let us not de- 
serve our misfortunes, and* let us not bear them unpa- 

1 on ' son. =' Deduce the French word from the adv. in the text. 
^EA lien, or A/ors (or done aft. "bear if), ^toujours. The adv. 
usually follows the second negative (see Obs. F). 


A La richesse donne des diamants a quelques femmes, 
et celles4a sont des femmes riches; mais a toutes, meme 
aux plus pauvres, la nature a donne des larmes. 

B Tears 1 are the^ diamonds which nature has given 

to ail women\^ Some women are. rich and have real 

diamonds; all have misfortun5S.^ Do the rich women 

bear misfortune 1 more patiently^^ than* the poor women? 

lUsethedef. art. , »SeeEx. i. 


— Do the poor^ deserve* their* misfortunes more than the 
rich?^ — Are^ riches a misfortune? — Nature has not given 
riches to all ; ^ but we have all ^ some misfortunes. — Even 
the richest have misfortunes and tears. 

^See Ex. I. '^ Masc. plur. * "Riches " is generally sing, 

in Fr., as it was formerly in English also. 

A. Ce qui produit la familiarite, ce ne sont pas les 
douleurs partagees, c'est la gaiete en commun. On peut 
pleurer avec t out le mond e. on ne doit rire qu'avec ses 

B. It is not tears ^ in common that produce familiarity. 
We'-^ can share our sorrows with 'e yeryb odvv but we 
must not laugh with everybody, which ^ would produce 
too^much familiarity with those who are not our equMs. — 
Weep with those who weep, but laugh only with those who 
are your equals.^ — Mirth in common produces more ^ [of] 
familiarity than the tears that one shares. 

1 See Ex. 2. ,* On or fzous. Note the possessive adj., which corre- 
sponds to on in the text and in Ex. i, B. * "that which," as in line i 
of text. Note this insertion of the antecedent ce in French, whenever 
the real antecedent is a whole statement or clause. (Note also the 
redundant ce before eire in the second and third clauses of the text, 
and the plur. vb. after the first of these, where the sing, would be 
more colloquial, as at end of Ex. 24, A. ) 


A. Le celebre ^ philosophy grec ^ Pythagore presff-ivait reptr er tous les soirs quelques instants 
e p en^cj ^mpmesj et de se faire ces questions : Quel est 
I'e Vnplo i qne j^i fait de ma journee? Dans quels lieux 

1 Note position of adjs. for equilibrium of phrase. 


suis-je alle? Quelles personnes ai-je vues ? Qu'est-ce que 
j'ai fait? Qu'est-ce que j'ai omis? 

B. According^to * .the injunction ^ of the philosopher 
Pythagoras, w.e^ ought, every night, to examine ourselves ibr 
a few moments and ask.^ ourselves what^use we have made 
of our day; to what places we have gone; what persons we 
have met; what^' we have done and what ^ we have left 
undone. " ' 

Ask me some questions. — Don't ask me any questions. 
— Ask that person all the questions. — He [has] asked me a 
hundred* questions. — What questions have you asked her? 
— What have you done with your day ? — Tell * me what ^ you 
have done and where ' you have gone. — She asked them 
what ^ they were doing. — I ask thee where thou art going. 

''■prescription^ which corresponds to vb. of text. * Use on for "we " 
throughout; "ourselves" then = "oneself," and "our day" = 
"one's day " ^ '^ -"lander is used when the dir. obj. is an indirect 
or direct question. Compare "jfe ltd at fait une question with ye hit 
ai deinaiide oil il allait, ce qu'il faisait, ce qu'il y avait, the person 
asked being indir. obj. * Distinguish carefully between the form 
of the direct and the indirect question^ Reference to Note 4 shows 
that "what " must be " that which " in such cases. 

s." - 

A. Un mendiant a qui Jules Sandeau ^ avait donne 
deux sous, lui disait d'un ton hautain : " Que voulez-vous 
que j'^^ fasse de vos deux sous? — Gardez-les, mon ami, 
r6pondit Sandeau : vous les donnerez au premier pauvre 
qui vous demandera la charite." 

B. A beggar asks, charity of Jules Sandeau, who gives 
him two sous. But the beggar answers him in a haughty 

' A French novelist, b. 181 1, d. 1883. '^This redundant en is very 
colloquial and need not be repn)duced. 


fashion, asking what^ he wants him to do with the two 
sous. Sandeau tells him to keep them, and to give them 
to the first poor man who asks* him for ahns.* 

You have not given me ten * sous, you have only ^ given 
me two [of them ^ ]. — I shall keep them ; I shall not give'' 
them back''' to you. — Shall ^ I give them to this beggar, if 
he asks me for charity ? — No, I will not give them to him, 
if he speaks * in a haughty way. 

^ " that which " (see Ex. 4, notes 4 and 5). *Same tense as in the 
text. What would be the tense if the story were told in the past in- 
stead of the present? * See Ex. 3, end of text. ®Use en, immed. 
aft. the pron. "me." ""give back," rendre. *'Lit. "Will you 
that . . . ? " (Cf. text above.) 

A. Mon amour pour ma patrie ne m'a jamais ferme les 
yeux sur le merite des etrangers ; au contraire, plus je 
suis bon citoyen, plus je cherche a enrictiir mon pays des 
trdsors qui ne sont pas nes dans son sein. — Voltaire. 

B. A good citizen does not allow ^ his love for his 
country to close hi§^ eyes to ^ the m^rit of Yoreigh * coun- 
tries.^ The more he loves* his country, the more he 
strives to enrich it with all the treasures which it does not 
possess. * 

^ permettre (a qqn. de faire qqch.). ^ Note idiom in text. 'Oft. 
rendered by a instead of sur, especially in such phrases as : fermer 
les yeux a la vcrite, a I' evidence, a la lumiere. Cf. fermer Voreille a 
la calomnie. * etranger (which is both noun and adj.). ^ pays is the 
usual word, though contree (f.) is used also; la patrie is one's native 
country, especially regarded as the object of one's affection and devo- 
tion. E.g., Dans des contrees pauvres, dont le climat est rude, on 
voit les hommes cherir Icur patrie (Acad.). But pays may be found 
in the same sense, and may be used in the third case in the Ex. See 
also end of Ex. 38. 


My (your, thy, her, our) love does not blind me (you, 
thee, her, us). — He shuts his" eyes to ^ the misfortunes^ 
of the poor.'' — The more one has, the more one wants ^"^ 
[to have]. — The more the citizens enrich their country,^^ 
the richer they become^ themselves.'^ — The better the 
citizens [are], the richer the country [is]. — The more I 
live* in'^ foreign lands,'* the more I love my own* coun- 

6 Obser. G. ' As in text. » See Ex. i. » See Ex. 2. " See Ex. 5. 
^^fays. ''^ See Ex. 4. "See Fr. example under note 5, ^*Use 
pays, or express the whole adverbial phrase by the current equivalent, 
a Vetr anger. 

1.' • 

A. Un des rois de Perse envoya au calife Mustapha un 
tres habile medecin, qui, en arrivant, demanda quelle 
etait la maniere de vivre a cette cour. On lui repondit 
qu'on mangeait quand on avait faim, et qu'on ne satisfai- 
sait jamais entierement son appetit. " Je me retire, dit-il; 
il n'y a rien a faire ici." 

B. A king of Persia had ' a skilful physician, whom he 
sent to one of the caliphs. When he arrived ^ at the court, 
the first question^ he asked ^ was this: "What is your 
way of living here ? " To which * they replied : " We eat 
when w£ are hungry, and we never completely satisfy our 
appetites. " ^ On hearing * this answer * the physician with- 
drew, for* he saw that there was no work for him there.* 

' Impf. * '• On arriving " ; or, simply " arrived " (pt. part.). ^ See 
Ex. 4. *" Which," referring to a whole statement (or clause), and 
at the same time being the obj. of a prep., is always qiioi. Such 
phrases as sur quoi, apres quoi, en quoi, usually begin new sentences 
or clauses. (For this "which" as subj. of vb., see Ex. 3, note 3.) 
-* In such cases, when the noun is not necessarily plural (and here 
only one sort of appetite is meant), modern Fr. prefers the sing., even 


The king's physician was very skilful. — He only ^ asked 
one question. — He was satisfied^with^ the answer, for he 
withdrew, saying:^ *'I shall have nothing to do at this 
court " — One should^ eat to live and not'" live to eat. — I 
am not hungry, but they say that ' * appetite comes * by 
eating. '^ " 

although the subj. of the sent, is in the plur. E.g., lis ont perdu la 
tete. Les enfant s doivent respect a leur pere, a leur mere : (but, a 
leurs -parents.^ lis ont rempli chacun leur devoir. On leur a coupe 
la tete. ® See Ex. 3 and Ex. 5, note 5. '' content (or satisfait) de. 
8 "in saying." 'Use il faut folld. by infin. This sentence is fr. 
Moliere's ^7'«rif, III. I. ^'^ non pas. '^ "in eating." This proverb 
is usually figurative, meaning "the more one has, the more one 


A. Un seigneur de la cour de France prenait conge de 
Louis XIV, qui I'envoyait en" anibassade vers un autre 
souverain. "La principale instruction que j'ai a vous 
donner, lui dit'le roi, c'est que vous observiez ' une con- 
duite tout opposee a celle de votre predecesseur. — Sire, lui 
repond le nouvel ambassadeur, je vais faire en soil e. que 
votre Majeste nedonne ' pas une pareille mission a celui 
qui me succedera." 

B. Louis XIV. was sending an ambassador to a foreign ^ 
court. The king told him that his conduct must ^ be quite 
contrary to that of his predecessor. To which * the noble- 
man replied, that he would so act that the king should hot 
have such instructions'' to give to his successor.* Then,* 
having taken leave of his sovereign, he left '^ the court. 

I have no instructions to give you. — Your predecessor's 

^ Why the subjunctive ? ■' See Ex. 6, note 4. ' Impf. of devoir 
will serve. ■* See Ex. 7, note 4. * The plur. of the same French word 
is more usual. ' Alors or Puis. ' quitter. 


conduct was the opposite of yours. — Act so that those 
persons may soon^* take leave of you. — The "king would 
have been glad * to have ten such ^ noblemen. 

8 Obs. F. 9 Aft. the noun. 

A. Vivons en paix, adorant notre pere commun; vous 
avec vos ames savantes et hardies; nous avec nos ames 
ignorantes et timides. Nous avons un jour a vivre, pas- 
sons-le doucement, sans nous quereller pour des difficultes 
qui seront eclaircies dans la vie immortelle qui commeji- 
cera demain. — Voltaire. 

B. It is^better ^ to ^ live in peace than to ^ quarrel, for * 
we are the children * of a common father. The timid as 
well * as the bold, the ignorant as well as the learned, we 
can * all ^ adore him. We have but * a day to spend here 
below*; let us then^ spend it pleasantly, for* the difficul- 
ties of a day are nothing-* in^comparison^with* the im- 
mortal life of- to-morrow, in which ^ they will all be 

Do not quarrel, live in peace. — We have a father whom 
we can adore. — Let us live our day and let us not quarrel, 
for our difficulties will be explained to-morrow, in the life 
which will be immortal. 

1 When valoir mieux is followed by two infinitives separated by 
"than," the first takes no preposition before it, and the second takes 
de (so also aimer mieux'). Beginning a sentence, il vaiit mieiix is 
often shortened to mieux vaut. ^ May precede "we," for emphasis. 
' done (aft. vb. and obj.). * aupres de, au prix de, or en comparaison 
de. * Fern, of lequel. 


A. L'Etat est semblable a un jardin, oil les petits arbres 
ne peuvent venir s'il y en a de trop grands qui les ombra- 


gent; mais il y a cette difference, que la heaute d'un jar- 
din pent resulter d'un petit nombre de grands arbres, et 
que la prosperile d'un Etat depend toujours de la multitude 
et de I'egalite des sujets et non pas d'un petit nombre de 
riches. — Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. 

B. The trees of a garden must ^ not be too large, for * 
when they overshadow the small plants,* these '•^ cannot 
grow. It is the same ^ in the state, but with * this differ- 
ence, that what forms * the beauty of a garden does not 
always form the prosperity of a state. A garden may be 
beautiful with a small number of trees, provided * they are 
large; but a state can never* prosper* without* a multi- 
tude of subjects, who are ^ all equal. * 

That tree is not thriving," it is too much shaded by * the 
large trees. — These plants thrive better "^ in^ the shade* 
than in ^ the sun.* — If you are hungry,'' let us go and eat ^ 
in the shade. — What is i" the difference between * a garden 
and a state ? — On what ^^ does our prosperity depend ? 

^ Begin the sent, with falloir (impersonal) in pres. ^ celles-ci 
("these here," " the hitter "). Why <:^//^j-/<2 in Ex. 2 ? ^See vocab. 
for this idiom, ^faire. ^ Sbjnct. ® venir Men. ' Compar. of bien. 
^ a. 9 See Ex. 7. '""What difference is there ..." '^ Interrog. 
" what " aft. prep, is always qtioi. (Cf. Ex. 7, note 4.) 


A. Un certain evgque d'Angers, nomme Arnauld, avait 
nne telle vigilance, une telle application a tous ses devoirs, 
qu'il ne prenait aucun repos. On^vlui representait qu'il 
devait prendre un jour par semaine, ou du moins par mois, 
pour se delasser: " Je le veux bfen, r6pondit-il, pourvu 
que vous m'indiquiez un jour ou je ne sois pas evSque." 

B. A bishop has many duties. The watchfulness and 


zeal of Mgr.^ Arnauld, bishop of Angers, were such that he 
never* took any rest. Once,- a friend* said to him: 
"My lord,^ why* do you not take at least one day a 
month for relaxation ? " — To which ^ the good bishop re- 
plied : " Show me a day when I am not a bishop, and I 
am quite willing to take that day." 

It would be better* to take a little* relaxation. — The 
bishop did not take enough* rest. — Once, twice a week; 
ten times a month ; a hundred times a year.* — He said he 
was quite willing, but that he was a bishop every* day. 

^ In speaking of or to a bishop, archbishop, cardinal or prelate, 
Monseignetir (Mgr), (^corresponding to the English " my lord " and 
•'your lordship"). Plur. , in addressing them, Messeigneurs \ in 
speaking of them (in 3d person), Nosseigmnrs. * " One time," une 
fois. So also in counting. ' See Ex. 7, note 4. * See Ex. 9. 


[This text and those of Exs. 41 and 50 are examples of the usual 
manner of printing dialogue in French.] 

A. Une abeille demande une fois a un homme : " Peux- 
tu me nommer, parmi les animaux, un plus grand bien- 
faiteur de I'homme que I'abeille ? 

— Mais oui, j'en sais un plus grand. 

— Et lequel done ? 

— Le mouton. 

— Et pourquoi le mouton, je vous prie ? 

— Parce que sa laine nous est absolument n6cessaire, 
tandis que ton mi el nous est seulement agreable au gofit. 
Etveux-tu savoir encore une raison? C'est que le mouton 
nous donne sa laine sans la moindre difificulte ; mais toi, 
bien que tu me donne ton miel, tu me fais toujours craindre 
ton aiguillon." 

B. A bee asked a man if he could name his greatest 
benefactor among the animals, thinking* that he was 


going* to name the bee. But the man said that the 
greatest benefactor is ^ the sheep ; for, although the honey 
which the bees make^ is very palatable, the wool given ^ 
by the sheep is absolutely necessary. And there is another 
reason : that is, that man has not the least difficulty in * 
taking the wool from the sheep, while in taking the honey 
from the bee, he is always afraid of the sting. 

The bee is not the greatest benefactor of man. — Has 
man a greater ? ^ — The sheep does not give him honey, 
but the bee does not give him wool. — The sheep has no 
sting, but the bee has one.^ — Honey is pleasant, but the 
sting is not [so®]. — Do you"* want anymore reasons? — 
Why, no, I don't want any more ^ ; they are not absolutely 

1 r^ may be inserted bef. tlie vb. (Cf. Ex.3, ^- ^•) ^ Place aft. 
" which " and bef. the subj., in order to balance the sentence accord- 
ing to French custom. See first sents. of Exs. 25 and 28. ' This 
clause may be arranged like that just before it, or translated word 
for word. * Use a, and arrange thus : "in taking from [a) the sheep 
his wool." So also the next clause. * Remember to insert the little 
pronoun bef. the vb., as in the second sent, of text. See Ex. 5, note 6. 
* Use /e bef. the vb. '' ht or vous. Why are both used in the text 
above? ^pltis, because in neg. sent. (See also note 5.) Previous 
sent, not neg. ; therefore encore {des). 



A. L' empereur Aur^lien, 6tant arriv6 devant la ville de 
Tyane, et en ayant trouve les portes ferm^es, jura, dans 
sa colere, qu'il ne laisserait pas seulement un chien en vie 
dans cette ville rebelle. Les soldats se r^jouissaient 
d'avance, dans I'espoir de faire un grand butin. La ville 
ayant ete prise, Aurelien dit a ses troupes, qui le con- 
juraient de tenir son serment : " J'ai jure de ne pas laisser 
un chien dans cette ville : tuez done, si vous voulez, tous 


les chiens, mais je defends qu'on fasse aucun mal aux 
habitants. " 

B. The emperor Aurelian, having arrived before the 
gates of the city of Tyana and having found them shut, 
felP^into such'^a'"^ rage that he swore not to leave even 
a dog alive in that rebellious city. His soldiers, hearing * 
this oath, began * to rejoice in anticipation. 

The city was ^ taken, and the troops, in the expectation 
of gathering much plunder, entreated ^ Aurelian to keep 
his oath. He replied * that since * he had sworn that he 
would not leave a dog alive in that city, he would allow ■* 
them to kill all the dogs ; but that he forbade ^ them to 
do any harm to the inhabitants. 

^ se mettre (or entrer) dans. ' Reverse order. ' Pt. def. (the his- 
torical narrative tense). *Indir. obj. of person. (See Ex. 6, note i.) 
Or sbjnct. as with defendre, in text. ' Either sbjnct. as in text, or 
the same construction as with, permettre. 


A. Pendant une marche longue et p^nible dans un pays 
aride, I'armee d'Alexandre souffrait extrdmement de la 
soif. Quelques soldats que le roi avait envoyes a la dt- 
couverte trouverent un peu d'eau dans le creux d'un rocher, 
et I'apporterent au roi dans un casque. Alexandre montra 
cette eau a ses soldats, pour les encourager a supporter la 
soif avec patience, puisqu'elle leur annongait une source 
voisine. Alors, au lieu de la boire, il la jeta par terre 
aux yeux de toute I'armee. Quel est le soldat qui, sous 
un tel chef, se serait plaint des privations et des fatigues ? 

B. The march was long and toilsome. The country 
was arid. There was no water. Alexander and his army 


were suffering from thirst. The king sent ^ some soldiers 
to explore. They found a hollow^ rock with some water 
in^it^; they put * a little of the* water into a helmet and 
brought it to the king. Alexander took* the helmet and 
showed the water to his soldiers, in order to prove * to 
them the existence * of a spring not far off. Then, wish- 
ing* to encourage them to have patience, he threw the 
water on the ground, instead of drinking it. How,* under 
such a leader, could.„one-_have ^ complained of fatigue or 
thirst ? 

^ Note the change of tense in this and the three following sentences. 
Use the past def. (the literary and historical tense), the pres., or the 
past indef. (the colloquial tense). (See Obs. E.) "^ Creux is adj. as 
well as noun. * dedans. * Def. art. ^ Same tense as in text, or 
compound condl. oipouvoir. 


A. Philippe, roi de Mac6doine, n'aimait pas a con- 
damner ses sujets a la mort. On lui avait presente un 
jour deux scelerats que les lois y condamnaient. II se 
contenta de bannir I'un de ses etats, et de condamner 
I'autre a poursuivre le premier jusqu'a ce qu'il le ramenat 
en Mac^doine. 

B. What * king likes to condemn his subjects to death ? 
One day, two miscreants were brought ^^before Philip of 
Macedonia. The laws had condemned these men to die.* 
But the king, not wishing* to^put^them^to^death,^ said 
to one of them : " I do not wish^^you^to die. I there- 
fore* banish you from my dominions." And to the other : 
"You will pursue the first until you bring him back to 

1 Use amener {qqn.) devant {qqn.), or the construction given in the 
original. ^ "to make them die." ' See vocab. for this construction. 
* done after the vb. 


Macedonia." In^this^way* the king punished* both* 
without* putting either'' to death. 

*" neither the one nor the other." This must be placed aft. 
*' putting to death. " 

A. Le moyen le plus simple de se d^bajrasser des cou- 
sins qui peuvent se trouver dans une chambre ou Ton 
doit se coucher, et dont on aura ferme les fenetres, con- 
siste a placer au milieu de la chambre une lanterne 
allumee, dont les verres auront et6 enduits de miel a 
I'exterieur. Les insectes, attires par la lumiere, s' englueront 
et ne pourront plus se degager. 

B. You are about * to go to bed when you notice * that 
there are mosquitoes^ in your room. What^ is the 
simplest way to get rid of these insects ? Here * it is : You 
close the windows, you light a lantern, you smear its 
glass with honey on the outside, and you set the lantern in 
the centre of the room. What^ happens*? The light 
attracts the mosquitoes, who come and '' stick fast to the 
glass, from_which ^ they cannot detach themselves again. 
At least,* that is what ought® to happen, if the mosquitoes 
are of the right '^ species.* 

^ Sometimes translated motistique, m., especially for the mosquitoes 
of America and Africa. ^"What" (interrog.) in the sense of 
"which," is quel (see Ex. 7, first sent.); but it is que in the next case 
below." '"What is it that happens?" * Omit "and"; make the 
follg. vb. infin. ^dont. ® Condi, of devoir, ''"good." 

A. Si, dans une ruche, une abeille disait : Tout le 
miel qui est ici est a moi, et que la-dessus elle se mit a 
disposer comme elle I'entendrait des fruits du travail com- 
mun, que deviendraient les autres abeilles ? 


La terre est comnie une grande ruche, et les hommes 
sent comme des abeilles. 'Chaqtie abeille a droit a la 
portion de miel necessaire a sa subsistance, et si, parmi les 
hommes, il en est qui manquent de ce necessaire, c'est que 
la justice et la charite ont disparu d'au milieu d'eux. 
— Lamennais. 

B. In a hive, a bee must ^ not say that all the honey is 
hers. The honey is the fruit of the common labor of all 
the bees, and none ^ of them has the ^ right to ^ dispose of 
it as she pleases. If, by chance,* that were to happen,* we 
know * what * would become of the other bees. 

Well,* the earth is an immense hive, in which * the bees 
are represented * by * men, and the honey by the subsistence 
which they require.^ All men are entitled to subsistence; 
and as long_as^ justice and charity have not disappeared 
from among them, there will not be one^ of them who 
will lack this necessary. 

^ See Ex. lo, note l. ^ attcun. ' azwir (le) droit de bef. an infin- 
itive. Note the construction in the text, where the expression is 
foUd. by a noun, not a vb. *See Ex. 4, note 5. *Use avoir besoin, 
falloir, or etre necessaire. (All differ in construction.) * tant que, 
with follg. vb. in fut. 


A. S'il est sur la terre quelque chose de grand, c'est la 
resolution ferme d'un peuple qui marche sous I'ceil de 
Dieii, sans se lasser un moment, a la conquete des droits 
qu'il tient de lui ; qui ne compte ni ses blessures, ni les 
jours sans repos, ni les nuits sans sommeil, et qui se dit : 
" Qu'est-ce que cela ? La justice et la liberie sont dignes 
de bien d'autres travaux." — Lamennais. 

B. There is nothing * on earth greater than the resolu- 
tion of a people marching to the conquest of their rights, 


and who ^ say : * ' We are under the eye of God. Let us 
not grow weary one instant ; Jet us not count our wounds ; 
let us forget * the days without rest and the sleepless nights. 
All that is nothing.* Justice and liberty are rights which 
we hold from God, and to-^gain ^ them we are ready * to 
undergo* still harder things.^" 

1 This use of "and who," "and which," in a sentence where the 
"who "or "which" has not already occurred, is very frequent in 
good French, however severely it may l)e condemned in English, by 
certain authorities. '^pour . . . conquerir. vb. corresjxjnding to 
noun of text. *Use eprettves (=" trials "). Note this peculiar 
meaning of Men d'autres, which here has not the sense of " many 
other," but rather of "quite other," i.e., "much worse." 


A. Vous savez, n'est-ce pas, ce qu'on appelle un orage ? 
II pleut, il grele, il vente, des eclairs partent des nuages et 
sont suivis de roulements de tonnerre. Quand vous etiez 
petit, cela vous faisait grand'peur. Aujourd'hui encore, 
vous n'aimez pas le bruit du tonnerre. Et cependant ce 
n'est qu'un bruit inoflfensif ; ce qui est a craindre, c'est la 
foudre, c'est-a-dire I'eclair, le feu du ciel. 

. B. When I was* small, I was very much afraid ^ of 
storms. Sometimes it rained or it hailed, often * it blew 
at the same time,* and I saw' flashes of light which came 
out of the clouds, and which were soon * followed by the 
noise of the thunder. When I asked * what ^ it was, I was 
told* that it was a storm. I did not like storms, and 
even_now^that ^ I am grown-up,* the rumbling of the 
thunder frightens me greatly, I know quite well * that it 

> Use the impf. for all the past tenses in the exercise. ' Take 
either the idiom in the original, or th^t given imder " afraid " in the 
vocab., which is preferable here. '•See Ex. 4, note 5, and Ex. 5, 
note 3. * Obs. D. * encore (or mime) maintenant que. 


is a harmless noise, and that it is the thunderbolt which is 
to be dreaded. No matter,* I can't help * being afraid 



A. Je voyais un h§tre monter a une prodigieuse 
hauteur. Du sommet presque jusqu'au bas, il etalait 
d'enormes branches, qui couvraient la terre alentour, de 
sorte qu'elle 6tait nue ; il n'y avait pas un seul brin dherbe. 
Du pied du geant partait un chene qui, apres s'Stre 61eve 
de quelques pieds, se courbait, se tordait, puis s'^tendait 
horizontalement, puis se relevait encore et se tordait de 
nouveau; et enfin, on I'apercevait allongeant sa tSte 
maigre et depouillee sous les branches vigoureuses du 
hetre, pour chercher un peu d'air et un peu de lumiere. 

Et je pensai en moi-mgme : voila comme les petits 
croissant a I'ombre des grands. — Lamennais. 

B. A beech and an oak were growing together.* The 
beech went up to a great height. From top to bottom,^ 
its branches were enormous. They spread [themselves] 
so that they covered the ground all * about. Under this 
tree * the ground was bare. Not a single blade of grass 
could* grow there. However,* an oak had started up 
from the foot of this tall beech. It had come up a few 
feet, then, after bending ^ and twisting,^ after extending^ 
horizontally, it had straightened itself up once more. At 
last, seeing that it could not reach * the air and light be- 
low the beech, it was stretching out its starved head 
through* the robust branches of its giant^neighbor.^ . . , 

^ More usually, de haul en bas. ^ Note that apres governs the so- 
called past infinitive; E.g. apres avoir chante, apres s'en etre alle'{e) 
[or alle{e)s^. ^*' giant of neighbor." Cf. Un fripon d' enfant. Ce 
diable d'homme. 


And these two trees made* me think of* the great and 
the small among * men. 

* When intrans., penser takes a. (It is trans, in : Que pensez-vous 
de cet homttie ?) , 

A. Un ami console son ami par une lettre qui traverse 
une multitude de royaumes, circule au milieu des haines 
des nations, et vient apporter de la joie et de I'esperance 
a un seul homme : pourquoi le souverain protecteur de 
I'innocence ne peut-il venir, par quelque voie secrete, au 
secours d'une ame vertueuse qui ne met sa confiance qu'en 
lui seul ? A-t-il besoin d'employer quelque signe exterieur 
pour executer sa volonte, lui qui agit sans cesse dans tous 
ses ouvrages par un travail interieur? — Bernardin de 
Saint- Pierre. 

B. You have a friend who is far'^away. You write* 
him a letter to comfort him. Your letter, after passing ^ 
through many kingdoms, in the midst of the hatred of 
nations, reaches * your friend and brings him joy and hope. 
How • then can ^ one ^ doubt * that a virtuous soul, which 
places all its confidence in God,* can,^ without any * external 
sign, receive* aid from him? The sovereign protector of 
innocence may have secret ways to* execute his will. 
There is no'' need of an outward sign, since* he can 
always act by an internal process. 

1 See Ex. 20, note 2. ''■ May be omitted. ^ Sbjnct. The ne is usual 
after douter used negatively or interrogatively. *F(?ie(s) takes pour 
bef. an infin., vv^hile moyen{s) generally takes de. *Use nui, and 
omit " There is." 


A. Un berger breton, debout sur la cr6te d'une haute 
falaise, contemplait I'ocdan. Un touriste survient qui 
I'aborde et lui dit : " II y a une belle vue d'ici ! Vous 


voyez loin, n'est-ce pas? — Tres loin. — Vous voyez 
I'Amerique? — Je vois bien plus loin! — Oh! oh! Et 
comment cela? — Attendez que ce nuage soit passe, et je 
verrai la lune." 

B. A tourist finds * a shepherd standing on the top of a 
high cliff and gazing at the sea. Going up to him, 
the tourist asks ^ him if one can^ see far from that spot.* 
The shepherd says that one can ^ see very far. ' ' Do you 
see as-far^as ^ America ? " asks the tourist. — ' ' Much further 
than that," replies the other. — " What_do_you_mean_by * 
further than that?" — " If you wait till that cloud has' 
passed, we shall see as_far„as^ the moon." 

1 See Ex. 4, note 4. "^ May be omitted, ^jusqu'en (no art.). 
* These five words may be rendered by comment. (Pronounce the 
whole sentence with the falling inflection in French.) * Sbjnct. 


A. Un vieil avare fait venir un m6decin pour voir sa 
femme qui etait tres nialade. Le medecin, qui connaissait 
son homme, demande a s'arranger d'abord pour ses hono- 
raires. ' ' Soit 1 dit I'avare ; je vous donnerai deux 
cents francs, que vous tuiez ma femme ou que vous la 
guerissiez." Le medecin accepte ; mais, malgre ses soins, 
la femme meurt. Quelque temps apres, il vient reclamer 
son argent. "Quel argent? dit I'harpagon. Avez-vous 
gueri ma femme? — Non, je ne I'ai pas guerie. — Alors 
vous I'avez tuee ? — Tuee ! Oh ! quelle horreur ! Vous 
savez bien que non. — Eh bien, puisque vousne I'avez ni 
guerie ni tuee, que demandez-vous ? " 

B. The wife of an old miser being very ill, her husband * 



sends for the doctor. The latter,* afraid^ of losing his 
fee, asks^ the miser how^much* he is going* to give him. 
" AVhether you kill my wife or cure her," he replies, "I 
will give you two hundred francs." — "Very^well,* I ac- 
cept," says the doctor: "I will attend* your wife." 

Unfortunately,* the woman was so* ill that she died, in 
spite of all the doctor's care.^ After* some time, the 
doctor comes to^^get^ his fee.^ But the miser, instead* 
of giving it to him, asks^ him two questions.* First,* he 
asks him whether ® he has cured his wife. The doctor says 
he^has^not.''^ Then the old man asks him whether he has 
killed her, and when the doctor protests^loudly *• against * 
this horrible * idea,* the miser replies * to him that, since 
he has neither cured nor killed the woman, he can claim * 
nothing. ^ 

^ "being afraid." Use avoir peur de with infin. or craindre que 
with Tie and sbjnct. ^ See Ex. 4, note 4. ' Very rarely sing, in this 
sense. *Auboutde. '^toucher. ^ si. "^ que non. ^ se r eerier. 3" he 
has nothing to claim." 


A. Qu'y a-t-il de plus faible que le passereau, ^et de 
plus d6sarm6 que I'hirondelle ? Cependant, quand parait 
I'oiseau de proie, les hirondelles et les passereaux parvien- 
nent a le chasser, en se rassemblant autour de lui et le 
poursuivant tous ensemble. 

Prenez exemple sur le passereau et sur I'hirondelle. 
Celui qui se separe de ses freres, la crainte le suit quand il 
marche, s'^sied pres de lui quand il repose, et ne le quitte 
pas meme durant son sommeil. 

Done, si Ton vous demande : " Combien etes-vous? 
r^pondez : Nous sommes un ; car nos frdres, c'est nous, 
et nous, c'est nos frdres." — Lamennais. 


B. The sparrow is one of the^weakest^birds, ^ and the 
swallow one of the most defenceless; but together they 
are often strong * enough to ^ drive away the bird of prey. 
As soon * as he appears, the sparrows and swallows gather 
about him, pursue him and drive him far * from them. 

We should ^ take an example from these birds, and not 
separate from our brothers, if we do not wish * fear to fol- 
low us when we walk, sit down at our side ^ when we rest, 
and stay * beside us while we sleep. Let us then * reply 
to those who ask us how many there are of us: "We 
and our brothers, [we] are one ; and thus * we are strong. " 

1 "the birds the weakest." (All plur.) ''What prep, follows (as 
correlative) the advbs. assez and trop'f. 'That is, "we ought to." 
* Takes que with sbjnct. * Sing, or plur. * Here better aft. the vb. 


A. Ag6silas, roi de Lac6d6mone, I'un des plus grands 
princes qu'ait ' jamais eus la Grece, semblait oublier, dans 

^ le sein de sa famille, foute la grandeur qui I'environnait, 
pour se livrer aux aimables caresses d'un fils encore enfant; 
et la Grece voyait avec surprise ce raonafqiie, la terreur 
des ennemis de Sparte, courir a cheval sur un baton pour 
amuser I'heritier de son trone. Un plaisant fut un jour 
t^moin de cette sc6ne, ridicule aux yeux d'une ame vul- 
gaire, et s'avisa d'en rire en presence d'Agdsilas. " Mon 
ami, lui dit ce prince, taisez-vous pour le present; attendez 
que vous soyez ^ pere pour vous moquer de ceux qui le 

B. Agesilaus, although * he was one of the greatest 
kings of Greece, and the terror of the enemies of Lace- 
demon, sometimes * forgot all his greatness, when he was 

1 Why the sbjnct. ? Compare the order in the first sent, with 
Ex. 12, note 2. 


in the bosom of his family. His son being still young,* 
he \vas_fond_of ^ giving himself up to the caresses of the 
child, and of amusing him by ^ romping astride of a stick. 
A wag one day saw with surprise the king thus * amusing * 
the heir to his throne, and being a vulgar soul, he had the 
presumption to laugh at it. "My friend," said the king 
to him, ' * I see that you have no children. If you were a 
father, you would not make sport of another father. You 
would^do^better^to ^ keep silence for the present and to 
wait till you are one,® like* me." 

''^ aimer h. * en with pres. part. * " who was amusing thus." 
^ faire m ieux de. « See last words of the text and cf. Ex. 12, note 6. 


A. Charles XII, ^ roi de Suede, se promenant un jour a 
cheval pres de Leipsick, un paysan saxon vint se jeter a 
ses pieds pour lui demander justice d'un grenadier qui 
venait de lui enlever ce qui etait destine pour le diner de 
sa famille. Le roi fit venir le soldat, " Est-il vrai, dit-il 
d'un visage severe, que vous avez vol6 cet homme? — Sire, 
dit le soldat, je ne lui ai pas fait tant de mal que votre 
majeste en a fait a son maitre ; vous lui avez 6t6 un roy- 
aume, et je n'ai pris a ce manant qu'un dindon." Le roi 
donna dix ducats de sa main au paysan, et pardonna au 
soldat en faveur de la hardiesse du bon mot, en lui disant : 

^ B. in 1682. Began, when a mere youth, a wonderful career of 
conquest, in which he overcame the Danes, Russians and Saxons, 
removing (in 1704) Augustus, Elector of Saxony, from the throne of 
Poland, to which he had l)een elected in 1697 (and which he ulti- 
mately recovered after the defeat of Charles by Peter the Great at 
Pultawa in 1709, and the flight of Stanislaus I., to whom Charles had 
given the Polish crown). Charles was killed at a siege in 17 18. His 
extraordinary history has been written in a masterpiece of narration 
by Voltaire (1694-1778), 


" Souviens-toi, men ami, que, si j'ai 6t6 un royaume au 
roi Auguste, je n'en ai rien pris pour moi." — Voltaire. 

B. King Charles XII. being in Saxony,* was riding one 
day near Leipzig, when* a peasant came and threw himself 
at his feet. The king asked him what was the matter. ^ 
"Sire," he replied,^ "I demand justice. One of your 
Majesty's grenadiers has robbed me of the dinner which I 
intended-^for* my family." — "Send for this soldier," said 
the king. The soldier having arrived,* the.king, looking* 
at him with a stern countenance, asked him if it was true 
that he had robbed the peasant. The soldier replied that 
he had not done the peasant as much harm as the king 
had done to the man's * master, since * it was a greater 
wrong* to deprive a king of his kingdom than^to^ take a 
turkey from a peasant. 

The peasant received * ten ducats from the hand of the 
king, and the soldier was pardoned because of his clever 
answer; but the king commanded * him to remember that 
if Charles had taken a kingdom from Augustus, he had 
taken nothing for himself. 

^ Use;)' avoir, impers. The arrangement required will be apparent 
from a careful study of notes 4 and 5 to Ex. 4. ^ Rem. the French 
order. * destiner a (the prep, pour aft. destiner being now obsolete). 
' qtie de. 


A. Un paysan irlandais possedait une petite maison et 
une vache. Sur sa maison, il y avait un toit plat, tout 
couvert de gazon, Sa vache avait mange tons les fosses 
d'alentour. L'Irlandais se dit : "Ma vache meurt de 
faim : pourquoi ne la mettrais-je pas sur m on toit?" II 
le fit. L'y voila ! Mais si la lourde bete tombe du toit, 
elle se cassera la jambe. Que faire ? Notre homme, qui 


6tait ingenieux, lui attache une longue corde au ecu, en 
jette un bout dans la cheminee et descend rapidement. 
Aussitot dans la maison, il tourne la corde autour de sa 
taille et se dit : " Maintenant je suis tranquille." Cinq 
minutes plus tard, il avait disparu et sa bete etait a terre. 

B. An Irishman livedo a * a little house, which had a 
flat roof made* of^ turf. The Irishman's cow had noth- 
ing^left ^ to eat, for she had cropped* all the grass* in the 
ditches of the neighborhood. Then he said to himself : 
"If* my cow has nothing to eat, she will starve. There 
is no more ^ grass in the ditches, but there is still ^ some 
on the roof of my house. Suppose * 1 put her there ! " 
So * he puts the cow on the roof. Then * he says to himself 
again*: " There she is at^last.* But she might ^ fall off 
the roof, and the beast is so heavy that she would per- 
haps* break her legs. I nuist "^ tie a rope round her neck." 
He does so. He now throws the other * end of the rope 
down the chimney, and, climbing down as fast as^possible,* 
he goes * and gets ^ the end of the rope from ''' the chimney 
and winds it round his waist. At last he is at ease. But 
he had been too* ingenious; for,* a few* minutes later, 
he was in the chimney and the cow on the ground. What 
was to be done now ? 

^ en on de. '^ plus rien, with neg. vb.- 'See Ex, 12, note 8. ^ Si 
folld. by irapf. indie. * Condi, of pouvoir. ^ See Ex. lo, note i. 
^ " To get . . . from," "to take . . . from," (with object of place) when 
rendered hy prendre, requires a preposition expressing (rest) "in," 
"on," instead of the English (removal) "from." E.g., II a pris son 
chapeaii sur la table. II prend un couteau dans sa poche. Q,i. ye 
vous prendrai chez vous ("I will call for you"). "To take . . . 
from," with object of person, is rendered by the dat. of prons., and 
h with nouns. E.g., II m' a pris mon couteau. 



A. Le parfum de niille roses ne plait qu'un instant; 
mais la douleur que cause una seule de leurs Opines dure 
longtemps apres sa piqiire. Un mal au milieu des plaisirs 
est pour les riches une epine au milieu des fleurs. Pour les 
pauvres, au contraire, un plaisir au milieu des maux est 
une fleur au milieu des epines : ils en goutent vivement 
la jouissance. Tout effet augmente par son contraste. La 
nature a tout balance. Quel etat, a tout prendre, croyez- 
vous preferable, de n'avoir presque rien a esperer et tout 
a craindre, ou presque rien a craindre et tout a esperer ? Le 
premier etat est celui des riches, et le second celui des 
pauvres. Mais ces extremes sont egalement difficiles a 
supporter aux hommes, dont le bonheur consiste dans la 
mediocrite et la vertu. — Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. 

B. The perfume of roses lasts only a moment, but we 
feel * for a long time the pain caused ' by the prick of a 
single thorn. If* we are rich, we have so^many* pleasures 
that an evil is^ for us only^ a thorn among our flowers. 
If, on the contrary, we are poor, a pleasure among* all 
our evils is like a flower in the midst of thorns, and we 
appreciate keenly the enjoyment of it. It is thus* that 
nature heightens all her effects by contrasts, in^orderlto 
balance the ills and the pleasures of life.* The rich have 
scarcely anything to hope for and everything to fear, 
while* the poor have scarcely anything to fear and every- 
thing to hope for. Upon the whole, these two extremes 
seem * equally hard to be borne, for it is in virtue and a 
middle course that ^ the happiness of man consists. 

HJse the same inversion as the text. See Ex. 12, note 2. ^ tte 
bef. "is," and que after "us." 'Set the verb next to "that." 
Cp. 1. 2 of the text; also note i. 



A. Le docteur H., pique centre une certaine societe 
savante, qui avait refuse de Tadmettre au nombre de ses 
membres, s'en vengea de la mani^re suivante. II imagina 
d'adresser au secretaire de cette academie, sous le nom 
suppose d'un medecin de province, le recit d'une cure 
recente dont il se disait lauteur. ''Un matelot, ecrivait- 
il, s'etait casse la jambe. J'ai eu I'idee de rapprocher les 
deux parties et de les arroser d'eau de goudron, apres les 
avoir assujetties avec une ficelle. En tres pen de temps, le 
malade a senti I'efficacite du remede, et il n'a point tard6 
a se servir de sa jambe comme auparavant." 

B. A learned society having refused to admit to its 
membership a certain doctor, the latter* devised a way ^ of 
avenging himself by ^ addressing to the society a docu- 
ment * which he passed^off as the letter of a provincial 
physician regarding^ a cure which he had^accomplished.* 
The case* was that of a sailor who had broken his leg. 
The two parts of the leg had been ^ brought together, 
they had been ^ made fast by a cord, and then * they had 
been ^ sprinkled with tar-water. The efficacy of the 
remedy had soon manifested_itself,® and the patient was 
using his leg as well as ever. 

^ If a noun (not absol. necessary) is inserted bet. the vbs., use 
moyt-n rather than man/'erd. ''■en. ^ausujet de. * Use compd. con- 
ditional of /aire, this tense expressing the fact of hearsay, uncon- 
firmed report. It might be employed all through the story of the 
supposed "case." *Obs. D. (In the last case, "they had been " 
could be omitted aft. "then.") * "made itself felt" (see vocab. und. 


30. {Suiie.) 

A. La relation du pretendu medecin de province fut 
lue et ecoutee serieusement dans la seance publique de la 
societe, et Ton y disputa de la meilleure foi du nionde sur 
cette cure nierveilleuse. Les savants acadeniiciens se divi- 
serent, et beaucoup finirent par trouver dans I'eau de 
goudron des proprietes qui expliquaient parfaitement le 
phenomene. On allait imprimer pour et contre, lorsque 
la societe regut une seconde lettre du medecin de province, 
qui ecrivait au secretaire: "Dans nia derniere, j'ai omis 
de vous dire que la jambe cassee du matelot etait une 
jambe de bois." 

La plaisanterie ne tarda pas a se repandre et divertit 
beaucoup tout le monde aux depens de la society. 
— Adapted /rom Larousse. 

B. They listened seriously to the story of the self- 
styled provincial physician, and they disputed in good 
faith about this brilliant *^cure. Many of the academicians 
Considered ^ that tliis extraordinary phenomenon was ^ 
perfectly accounted ^ for by the properties of tar- water ; 
others maintained* a* contrary* opinion.* The society 
was,„in_the_end,_going_to ^ print its report * with the pros 
and cons, when the secretary received a second letter from 
the provincial doctor, saying that he had omitted to add * 
that the leg which the sailor had broken was a wooden 

Naturally,* the rejected* candidate lost no time in 
spreading the joke, and everybody made merry '^ at the 
expense of the learned academicians. 

^Use belie, and note that cure never means " remedy," but either 
the treatment or the cure effected by it. ^ trouver, but not in exactly 
the same sense as in the text above. ^ s'expliquer. * " the." ' aller 
Jinir par. ^ ^'■re^ivi^GA." "^ se dwertir. 



A. Si le devoir est de faire le bien, il est d'abord de ne 
pas faire le mal : e'en est le commencement et la condi- 
tion. De la deux sortes de devoirs : les uns negatifs : ils 
defendent le mal, ils commandent I'abstention : " Abstiens- 
toi, ne fais pas"; par exemple : " Ne fais pas a aiitrui ce 
que tu ne voudrais pas qui te fut fait a toi-meme "; les 
autres positifs : ils ordonnent le bien, ils commandent 
Faction: "Agis, fais a autrui ce que tu voudrais quite 
fflt fait a toi-meme." — J. E. Alaux. 

B. When we desire* to do right, we may* begin* by^ 
not doing wrong, hy abstaining from wrong, which ^ is 
the first * condition of it. Thus ^ our duties are of two 
sorts : to^begin^with,* the negative duties, by ^ which * 
wrong is forbidden, abstention commanded. These duties 
say,* for instance, that we' must® not do to others what 
we ' should not like to have done to ourselves. Next,'^ 
the positive duties, by which right is prescribed, and action 
commanded. Whence this other law * that we ' must « do 
to others what we ' should like to have done to ourselves. 

^par [with iiifin., not pr. part., in the first sentence]. *See Ex. 3, 
note 3. ' Ainsi. * d'abord. ^ on may be used; in which case "our- 
selves " will be " oneself." * Pres. indie, of devoir may be used. If 
falloir is used, say, il ne faut pas faire . . . and use on for "we." 
^ Ensuite. 

A. Joseph II, empereur d'Allemagne, parcourait sou- 
vent les rues de Vienne dans un cabriolet qu'il conduisait 
lui-m6me. Un jour, en traversant une place, il renversa 
la charrette dune marchande des quatre saisons, qui, ne le 


reconnaissant pas, lui debita mille injures, en ramassant 
ses choux et ses carottes. 

A peine I'empereur fut-il de retour au palais, qu'il en- 
voya line douzaine de ducats a cette bonne femme, en 
disant : " Je crois qu'elle aura lieu d'etre contente ; je 
repare le tort que je peux lui avoir fait, et je lui ai donn6 
tout le temps de pester a son aise centre moi." 

B. The Emperor Joseph II. was fond* of driving his 
cabriolet himself through ^ the streets of Vienna. One 
day when''' he was^driving._across^ one of the public 
squares of the city, his cabriolet overturned a coster- 
woman's cart. As * she did not recognize him, she abused * 
him as roundly as she could, while she was picking up her 
vegetables.* As^soon*^as the emperor had returned to 
his palace, he sent the coster-woman a dozen ducats, say- 
ing that the good woman would perhaps not have cause to 
be too* much dissatisfied,* since not only* was he making 
up for the injury he^had^done,^ but *^also he had given 
her time to storm at her emperor, 

^ Motion through is often expressed hy par. ^ que. ^ parcotirir or 
traverser ; to which en voiture may be added. * ' ' she abused . . . 
could " may be rendered as, " she said to liim all the insults that she 
could." * These three words can be fully supplied by using son 
before tort. Note that son tort, ses torts mean the wrong(s) done by 
him (her), never those suffered. 


A. II est ^ des hommes dont l'6goisme est si 6troit et 
le coeur si sec, que de bonne foi ils n'ont jamais cru aux 
miseres sociales. 

Parce qu'ils sont dans I'abondance, ils n'ont jamais cru 
qu'on pfit manquer du necessaire. 

^ Often used in elevated style for il y a. 


Parce qu'ils jouissent des douceurs de roisivet6, ils 
n'ont jamais pense que le travail pfit gtre penible. 

Parce qu'ils n'ont jamais rien fait pour le bien d'autrui, 
ils ne peuvent comprendre que d'autres hommes puissent, 
sans folie, s'occuper de I'amelioration du sort de leurs 
semblables ! 

B. The narrow selfishness and the dryness of heart ^ of 
certain * men prevent * them from sincerely believing in 
social distress. Living * in abundance, they do ^ not be- 
lieve that one can ^ lack the necessaries of life. The idle- 
ness of which they enjoy* the comforts prevents^* them 
from believing that work can ^ be toilsome. Never having 
concerned themselves with the welfare of others, how can ^ 
they understand that one can ^ do anything ^ for the im- 
provement of the lot of one's ^ fellow-men ? 

^ " dry heart." ' Same tense throughout, but mood varying with 
the clause. * Remember the de before the direct obj. The order of 
the first eight words is the same in French. * "anything " (rien bef. 
" do "), or *' something " {(juelque chose aft. '♦ do "). ^ Same French 
as for "his." 

A. Si chacun n'aimait que soi et ne songeait qu'a soi, 
sans venir au secours des autres, le pauvre serait oblig6 
souvent de derober ce qui est a autrui, pour vivre et faire 
vivre les siens ; le faible serait opprime par un plus fort, et 
celui-ci par un autre encore plus fort; 1' injustice regnerait 
partout. C'est done la charit6 qui conserve la liberty. 
— Lamennais. 

B. When a man loves only himself^ and thinks only of 
himself,^ he is selfish.* If no^one ' came to the aid of the 

' Soi and soi-meme are now generally used only when relating to 
an indefinite subject {on, chacun, etc.) as in the original above. Use 
lui or lui-meme here. 


poor, they would be forced to steal what is not theirs ; for,* 
although * everybody has the right'-* to live and to support 
those dependent upon him, there are many men so poor 
that they are unable ^ to do this.* And why * ? Because * 
the strong oppress the weak, and are themselves * oppressed 
by those who are still stronger. If justice prevailed every- 
where, each man would have his subsistence * and his lib- 
erty ; and all having real * charity toward '^one^another,"* 
the charity which is^bestowed " would no longer * be nec- 
essary. * 

^ See Ex. 17, note 3. ^ pouvoir with negative. * eux-metnes. 

* " the ones toward the others." * "which one gives," or donner 



A. Alphonse V, roi d'Aragon, rencontra un jour un 
paysan qui etait fort embarrasse, parce que son ane charg6 
de farine venait de s'enfoncer dans la boue. Le roi 
descendit aussitot de cheval et se dirigea vers le pauvre 
homme pour venir a son secours. Arrive a I'endroit ou 
etait lane, il se mit avec le paysan a le tirer par la tSte, 
afin de le faire sortir du bourbier. A peine eurent-ils 
reussi a retirer la bete, que les gens de la suite d' Alphonse 
arriverent, et voyant le roi tout couvert de boue, ils s'em- 
presserent de I'essuyer et de lui procurer d'autres v&te- 
ments. Le paysan, fort etonne de voir que c'etait le roi 
qui lui 6tait venu en aide, commenq:a a lui faire des ex- 
cuses et a lui demander pardon. Mais le roi le rassura 
avec bont6, et lui dit que les hommes etaient faits pour 
s'aider mutuellement. 

B. A peasant was driving * an ass loaded with flour 
when * the animal sank deep in a miry hole, from which 
his master could * not extricate him. The poor man was 


in despair* when the king, Alphonso the Fifth, who was- 
passing * that way,* dismounted from his horse and came 
at once to his aid. Setting to work together * to pull the 
ass by the head, they at^last * succeeded in getting him 
out. But they had scarcely finished* the rescue,* when 
the royal * suite arrived, and the noblemen,* astonished* at 
seeing the king all covered with mud, pressed eagerly 
about* him, to wipe off the mud and bring him other 
clothes. Then the peasant, seeing who,.^it^was^that ^ 
had come to his assistance, was beginning to make profuse * 
apologies,^ when the king, to reassure him, said to him 
kindly: ** We all, kings as* well ' as peasants, are^ intended 
to help one another." 

'Trans, word for word, using qui for "that." ■'"a thousand." 
'Note the French word ; apologie is never used in this sense, but in 
that of the formal defence or justification of a person, action, or work, 
E. %.Faire I' apologie d'tm livre. L Apologie de Socrate. ♦Place bef. 


A. " J'ai failli attendre ! " Ce mot imperieux prononc6 
par Louis XIV, ^ peint bien le caractere altier du grand roi. 
Louis XIV ^ mettait rigoureusement en pratique ce mot si 
connu d'un de ses successeurs : * ' L'exactitude est la poli- 
tesse des rois." Rarement, en effet, ce prince manqua 
d'etre exact aux rendez-vous qu'il assignait ; mais, s'il 6tait 
exact, il exigeait qu'on fttt empresse. Un jour, ses voi- 
tures n'etant arrivees qu'a I'heure precise ou il les avait 
demand^es : " J'ai failli attendre ! " dit-il en regardant sa 

B. King Louis the Fourteenth ^ of France was very 
haughty. He demanded that everybody should be not 

' No point aft. Roman numerals in French. * B. in 1638. His 
reign is famous for its length (1643-1715), its despotic policy, its 

3i freKch composition. 

merely ' punctual but beforehand. He was not the author * 
of the well-known saying: " Punctuality is the politeness 
of kings " ; but he put it into practice. He rarely missed ^ 
an appointment when he had made one,* but he wanted* 
people to arrive before* him. One day, he had ordered 
his carriages for ■' a certain * hour. They arrived exactly at 
the hour ; but the king was not pleased* and said, as he 
looked at his watch, **I have all but waited." These 
words indicate^ to us his di.sposition, which was most^ini- 

brilliant court, its military glory, and for the extraordinary number 
and eminence of its great names in literature and art. [Anotiier of 
his sayings is : L'£iae, c'est mot.'] ' manquer, transitively, as in Eng. 
* See Ex. 12, note 5. ^ pour. ^ peindre or indiqtier. ^" of the most 
imperious " (plur.). 


A. On cite beaucoup d'anecdotes sur le marechal Tu- 
renne. * En voici une qui montre bien la grandeur de sop 

Un jour qu'il se promenait seul, dans un costume fort 
simple, deux joueurs de boules lui demanderent de juger 
un coup douteux. II s'y preta volontiers, raais celui au- 
quel il donna tort se facha et commengait a I'injurier, lors- 
qu'un officier aper^ut le marechal et s'avanga respectueu- 
sement vers lui en le nommant. La colere du joueur tomba 
aussitot et il se mit a balbutier des excuses. Mais Turenne 
lui dit sans s'emouvoir: " Mon ami, vous avez tort de 
croire que je voulusse vous tromper." 

B. Turenne's greatness of character is well shown in the 
following* anecdote. Two bowlers saw* him one day 
walking alone. Not recognizing * him in his plain dress, 

> See also Pt. II, Ex. 83. 


they say to him: "We are disputing' about a stroke 
which one of us has made,* will you be kind_enough,* 
sir, to decide it?" — "Willingly," says Turenne, and he 
decides the stroke. Now,^ as^ he can * only decide^in^ 
favor_of* one of the two players, the other gets angry 
and begins to insult him. But when he sees the stranger * 
respectfully saluted * by an officer, his anger suddenly 
cools, and he begins to make apologies. ^ Turenne, see- 
ing that he is stammering painfully,* says to him calmly : 
" You are wrong, my friend. How ^ can you believe that 
I wished" to deceive you?" 

^ Or. See Ex. 42, last sent. ' " As" (=" since ") beginning a 
sent, or clause, is comme. " How ?" when interrog. or implying an 
indirect question, is always comment (Comment allez-vous ?) (see Ex. 
22, note 4, and Ex. 47'; but when exclamatory, is comme or que 
(Comme vous voila fait ! Comme il est change ! or Qu'il est change .'J 
except when isolated ( = "What!") (Comment ! vous voila?). In 
other cases comment is rather an adv. of manner (Voyons comment il 
en sortira), while comme is more specifically the adv. cf comparison, 
= '-as," "like," "in the same way as (or that)." (II en sortira 
comme il pourra, comme il y est entre, comme vous. jfe le considere 
comme mon ennemi.) * donner raison a. * See Ex. 35, note 3. ^The 
perl", (i.e. compd. pres.) sbjnct. is preferable as being more modern. 
See Obs. B. 


A. Le marechal de Turenne etait adord de ses soldats, 
qui le regardaient comme leur pere. Etant un jour en 
marche, par un froid rigoureux, il lui fallut traverser des 
montagnes escarpees et des defiles tres etroits. Pendant 
que I'armee possait im de ces defiles, le marechal, epuise 
de veilles et de fatigues, se coucha derriere un buisson 
pour dormir. Quelques soldats, voyant que la neige 
tombait en abondance, couperent aussitot des branches 
d'arbres, pour former autour de lui une hutte qu'ils 
couvrirent de leurs manteaux. 11 se reveilla pendant 


qu'ils s'empressaient ainsi a le mettre a I'abri, et leur 
denianda a quoi ils s'amusaient, au lieu de marcher. 
"Nous voulons, dirent-ils, conserver notre pere ; c'est 
notre plus grande affaire : si nous veriions a le perdre, qui 
nous ramenerait dans notre pays ? " 

B. The soldiers of Turenne idolized him and regarded 
him as their father. One day when the army, in frosty 
weather, was passing through a narrow defile, between * 
steep mountains, the marshal, who was exhausted l)y ^ loss 
of sleep and fatigue, lay down beside * a thicket and 
fell_asleep.^ Some^ of his soldiers, seeing him there* 
and wishing to protect ■* him against "* the cold and the 
snow, which was falling heavily, eagerly busied themselves 
in forming about him a hut of branches, which they 
hastened ^ to cover with their cloaks. While they were 
doing this,* the marshal awoke and said to them : " Why 
are you not marching ? What amusement is this ^ ? " — 
" We do not want to lose our father," replied the soldiers. 
" Our main business is'^ to preserve him, sOwthat* he may 
bring us back to our country. ^" 

' Use far foUd. by def. art. * s'endormir. ' Use the pron., not the 
adj. ^ garantir de, mettre a I'abri de. *Use se hater de, as s'empres- 
ser has already occurred in a slightly different sense. *Use the 
idiom in the text, beginning the question A quoi . . . ? ~ May be 
preceded by ce. See first of Ex. 3 and last of Ex. 24, A. ^ See Ex. 6, 
note 5. 


A. Zadig 1 dirigeait sa route sur les etoiles : la constel- 
lation d' Orion et le brillant astre de Sirius le guidaient 
vers le port de Canope.^ II admirait ces vastes globes de 

^ The central figure of a brilliant piece of satire under the disguise 
of an Oriental tale, published in 1747 by Voltaire (b. 1694, d. 1778). 
'^ Canopus or Canobus, an ancient seaport of Egypt, just east of 
Alexandria. (Zadig was on his way from Babylon to Egypt.) 


lumiere qui ne paraissent que de faibles etincelles a nos 
yeux, tandis que la terre, qui n'est en effet qu'un point 
imperceptible dans la nature, parait a notre cupidite 
quelque chose de si grand et de si noble. II se figurait 
alors les hommes tels (ju'ils sont en effet, des insectes se 
devorant les uns les autres sur un petit atome de boue. 
Cette image vraie semblait aneantir ses malheurs, en lui 
retragant le n^ant de son etre et de celui de Babylone. 
Son ame s'elan^ait jusque dans I'infini, et contemplait, 
detachee de ses sens, I'ordre immuable de I'univers. 
— Voltaire. 

B. It was the stars which directed the course of Zadig. 
He was guided towards Canopus by * Orion and Sirius. 
As_he_looked_at ^ the sky, he recalled * to mind that 
many * of the stars which, to our eyes, are only feeble 
sparks, are in reality vast globes of light ; while the earth, 
which our cupidity represents* to us as* something great 
and noble, is but an imperceptible point, a little atom of 
mud, upon which there are* insects which devour one 
another, imagining^ that they are men. Thus* his mis- 
fortunes seemed to be obliterated by this conception of 
the universe, which showed him the nothingness of his 
existence. And his soul detached itself from his senses, 
springing forth into infinity, to^ contemplate the im- 
mutable order of the creation.* 

' " In looking at." *See Ex. 37, note 3. *May take en bef. it 


A. On raconte que le Pere Lacordaire^, 6tant en voyage, 
se trouva un jour assis, a la table d'hote, aupres d'un com- 

* A celebrated French j^reacher (b. 1802, d. 1861); one of the most 
brilliant orators of his time. He fomided a new order of Dominicans. 


mis voyageur qui faisait 1' esprit fort. Apres avoir discut^ 
longuement centre 1' existence de Dieu, le jeune homme 
s'adressa au celebre doniinicain: "Monsieur, lui dit-il, 
c'estavous de nous eclairer sur cette grave question. . . . 
N'est-il pas absurde de croire ce que notre raison ne saurait 
comprendre? — NuUement, repond le P. Lacordaire, je 
suis d'un avis tout different. . . . Comprenez-vous com- 
ment il arrive que le feu fait fondre le beurre, tandis qu'il 
durcit les ceufs, deux effets tout contraires sortant d'une 
meme cause? — Non, repond I'athee, mais que concluez- 
vous de la? — C'est que, repliqua le religieux, cela ne vous 
empSche pas de croire aux omelettes." 

B. The distinguished orator,* Lacordaire, during one 
of his journeys, happens, one day, to be at the table d'hote, 
beside a commercial traveller. This man, who was fond * 
of posing as a free-thinker, and of arguing against the ex- 
istence of God, addresses the celebrated preacher* and 
requests ' him to enlighten him on that question, asking 
him, at the same time,* whether * it is not absurd to believe 
what we cannot understand. The reverend * father re- 
plies, that, on 2 the contrary, he is of the ^ opinion that it * 
is by no means absurd. Then he asks * the commercial 
traveller whether he understands how the same ^ cause pro 
duces two opposite effects, as * the fire which melts butter, 
while it hardens eggs. The atheist says that he does not 
understand it, but that he would_likeJ^ to know* what one 
can conclude from that. The good Dominican replies, 
that that does not prevent an atheist from believing in 

*a. -^ Def. art. ^ cela. » See the French. Note that " one and the 
same . . ." is un(e) seutfej et metne . . . 



[See remark preceding Ex. 12.] 

A. Parmi les nombreuses reparties attributes a la c6l6bre 
actrice frangaise, Madeleine Brohan/ se trouve celle-ci, 
qui est une des plus authentiques : 

C'etait le soir de la premiere du Demi-Monde,^ le 
marechal Canrobert ^ entra au foyer/ ou tous les artistes 
6taient reunis. II faisait froid ; le marechal s'approcha de 
la cheminee et, s'avan^ant pres des artistes qui se tenaient 
silencieux : 

— Vous n'gtes pas gais, fit-il ; qu'avez-vous to us? 

— Mon Dieu, monsieur le marechal, repondit Madeleine 
Brohan, c'est ce soir jour de grande bataille ! . . . 

— Eh bien ! c'est jour de victoire ! 

— Rien ne nous I'assure, quelque desir que nous en ayons, 
et quelques efforts que nous puissions faire . . . enfin 
comment vous dire . . . nous avons peur ! 

— Peur ! fit Canrobert d'un air surpris et qui semblait 
ne pas comprendre. . . . 

— Ah! c'est juste, reprit Madeleine. Pardon — et, sonnant 
I'huissier qui parut sur le seuil : 

— Picard, un dictionnaire pour M. le Marechal. 

— Adapted from Le Temps. 

^ Bom in 1833. Played at the Thiatre-Frani-ais. Retired in 1885 ; 
died in 1900. ''One of the best known of the plays of the younger 
Dumas (1824-1896). 'A French general, who distinguished himself, 
particularly in Algeria (1841-1850) and in the Crimean War, where 
for a time he had the supreme command of the French forces (b. 
l8og, d. 1895). *This is le foyer des acteurs. (Not le foyer dupublic, 
which is the gallery or hall in which the spectators promenade be- 
tween the acts, and is so called because they used to repair to it to warm 
themselves at the foyer (hearth) in the days when the principal part 
of the theatre was not heated. 


B. The actress, Madeleine Brohan, who was noted for^ 
her repartee, happened _to_be^ one evening in the green- 
room with the other artists, who were all standing near 
the fire-place. It was the first-night of the Demi- 
Monde, and they were not merry. Marshal Canrobert 
enters and advances towards them, asking what is the 
matter with them that "' they are standing so silent. Made- 
leine answers that there is^going^to^be ^ a great battle 
that evening, that the actors are not confident ^ of victory, 
whatever efforts they may make — in short, that they have 

* * Fears ! " says the great marshal, who appears not to 

"Ah! You are right," replies Madeleine. "I beg* 
your pardon, " she continues, ' ringing the bell. The usher 
appears at^once ^^ at the door and asks : ' ' Have you rung 
for me, ma'am ^^ ? " 

" Yes, Picard. A dictionary for the marshal." 

^par. * se trotever. ^ que. " alter avoir lieu. ® assure, 

^^aussitdt, ^^ " Has madam rung, etc.? " 


A. L'hommequi a le temps d'^crire un journal intime 
nous parait ne pas avoir suffisamment compris combien le 
monde est vaste. L'etendue des choses a connaitre est 
immense. L' histoire de I'humanite est a peine commencee ; 
I'etude de la nature reserve des decouvertes absolument 
impossibles a prevoir. Comment, en presence d'une si 
colossale besogne, s'arreter a se devorer soi-meme, i douter 
de la vie ? II vaut bien mieux prendre la pioche et 
travailler. Le jour ou il serait permis de s'attarder aux 
jeux d'une pens6e decouragee serait celui ou Ton com- 
mencerait a entrevoir qu'il y a une borne a la matiere du 
savoir. Or, en supposant que, dans des siecles, on 


apergoive une pareille borne pour rhistoire, on ne I'aper- 
cevra jamais pour la nature. — Ernest Renan. 

B. When one understands the extent of this vast world, 
one no longer * takes time to keep a private journal. How 
many * things ^ there are to know ! We have scarcely 
begun the history of man ; how can^we ^ foresee what * 
will be the discoveries reserved for^ the study of nature? 
The task being so colossal, how can one, face to face with 
it,* stop to have doubts about oneself and about life ? 
He ^ would do * much better who should take ® the mattock 
and break-up * the ground.* No* limit being fixed* to 
the subject-matter of knowledge, we must * not linger over 
the vain* workings of a mind which loses^courage ^ and 
consumes itself. Even^if* we^ should begin, ^ after many 
centuries, to catch glimpses of such a limit to the study 
of history, there would still* remain* the vast domain of 
nature, to which none will ever be discovered.' 

^A good arrangement is: *' How many there are of things, etc." 
* May be omitted, ^"to." *" in its presence." ^ celui-la. 'Condi. 
"^ se decourager. * on. * " one will never perceive any {en)." 

A. Le 27 aoftt 1793, les royalistes du midi de la France 
livrerent le port de Toulon aux Anglais. Pour le reprendre, 
le jeune Napoleon y fut envoye en qualite de commandant 
d'artillerie, et apres un siege reste celebre, la ville se 
rendit. Ce fut pendant le siege que Napoleon rencontra 
Junot, qui devait plus tard rendre de grands services a 
I'empire. Un jour, pendant que le jeune commandant 
d'artillerie faisait construire une batterie, il eut besoin 
d'ecrire, et demanda un sergent ou un caporal qui pOt lui 
servir de secretaire. II s'en presenta un aussitot, et 
Napoleon, le faisant s'asseoir sur le terrain mSme, lui 


dicta sa correspondance. La lettre etait a peine termin6e 
qu'uii boulet, qui tomba tout pres, la couvrit de terre. 
" Bon, dit le soldat ecrivain, je n'aurai pas besoin de 
sable." C'etait Junot, et cette preuve de courage et de 
sang-froid sufifit pour le recommander a son commandant, 
qui le poussa depuis aux premiers grades de I'armee. 

B. The English rendered great service to the French 
Royalists against* the first Republic* In the year* 1793, 
the port of Toulon in the south of France gave itself up 
to the English army. The "Tlepu^^iean *- general * sent 
Napoleon to recapture the town, and the siege began.* 
When the young officer was busy* one day arranging a 
battery, he wished^ to write a letter on the spot, and 
he asked for a secretary. A young man having pre- 
sented himself. Napoleon asked him if he could ^ act as 
his secretary. "Yes, commandant,^" said the young 
man. — "Then* sit down there," said his officer,* "and 
write what I am going * to dictate to you." The letter 
was ^ soon finished, but the secretary had scarcely written 
the last* word* when a cannon-ball, falling near them, 
covered the paper* with earth. The soldier, however,* 
instead^of * running^away,* said, with a smile,* that this 
time* he would have no need of sand to* dry* the ink. 
Napoleon was so pleased * with the coolness of his secretary 
that he afterwards helped him to reach the highest rank. 

^ Pt. def. of vouloir or desirer. ^ Condi, or impf. ' "my com- 
mandant." ^ Eh bien. * Pt. def. ^ pour. 


A. Un lynx etait couche au pied d'un arbre, ou il at- 
tendait sa proie. Dans cet etat, il epiait une taupe a moitie 
ensevelie sous un petit monceau de terre qu'elle avait 
6lev6. " Helas ! lui dit-il, que je vous plains, mon amie! 


Pauvre creature ! quel usage faites-vous de la vie? Vous 
n'y voyez goutte. Surement Jupiter en a tres mal use 
avec vous, de vous priver de la lumiere. Vous faites bien 
de vous enterrer ; car vous etes plus d'a moitie morte. — 
Je vous remercie de votre bonte, repliqua la taupe ; je suis 
trds contente de ce que Jupiter m'a accorde. Je n'ai pas, 
il est vrai, vos yeux per^ants ; mais je vois un peu, tout de 
mSme, et j'ai I'ouie extrgmement fine. Ecoutez ! J' en- 
tends un bruit qui m'avertit de me garantir d'un danger 
qui vous menace." Ayant dit cela, elle s'enfon^a en terre. 
Dans le meme instant, le javelot d'un chasseur per^a le 
coeur du lynx. — Adapted from Perrin. 

[N.B. Use the second person sing, in the dialogue.] 
B. At the foot of a tree, a lynx is waiting for his pre}''. 
Lying on the ground,' he neither^ sees nor' hears the 
hunters, for he is watching a little heap of earth thrown 
up by a mole who is half buried under '^ it. "Alas ! " says 
the lynx, "you are much^ to be pitied,* my poor friend. 
What a life ! You can * not see at all ; you make no use 
of your eyes, if you have any.* Why did Jupiter deprive 
you of the light? If I^^had^been as badly treated, I 
should do like * you. When one is more than half dead, 
one is right to bury oneself without waiting any ^ longer.'" 
— "You are very kind,'" replies the mole, "and I thank 
you for^it ^ ; but I am not dissatisfied * with what the god 
has granted me. It is true that my^eyes^are^not ^ as 
piercing as yours, but perhaps* your hearing is^ not as 
sharp as mine. You are threatened with "^ a danger which 
you do not hear; while' I" am warned of it'' by^'^ my 

^ ne . . . rd tie. * Use the adv. (not the prepos. ) and omit "it." 
' bien. * "to pity." * Omit. * Obs. D, ^ " of it" (in one word 
bef. vb.). 8 " I have not the eyes ..." ' " you have not the hear- 
ing ..." ^^ de. '' Insert moi before je. ^^ par. 


ears,* and I shall therefore ^^ get under ground to protect 

The mole had heard the approach * of the hunter, who, 
arriving * at that moment, pierced the lynx's heart with " 
his javelin. 

'^'^ par consequent ^it. "and." ^^ avec. 

[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. III. 9.] 
A. Un loup tres goulu, et qui plus est, tres affam6, 
avait aval6 gloutonnement un quartier d'agneau, et il lui 
etait demeure un os pointu dans le gosier. Ne pouvant 
pas crier au secours, il s'agite, ouvre la gueule, baisse la 
tSte, essaie de retirer I'os avec sa patte ; peine inutile ! il 
ne peut en venir a bout. Une cigogne au long cou passa 
par hasard pres de I'endroit ou maitre Loup s'agitait et se 
tourmentait. — " Qu'avez-vous ? lui demanda-t-elle. Vous 
me paraissez embarrasse ; puis-je vous etre utile ? " Le loup 
lui fit signe qu'il avait quelque chose dans la gorge qui le 
genait. Dame Cigogne se met aussitot a I'oeuvre et retire 
I'os avec son bee. L'operation etant terminee, la cigogne 
dit au loup, en lui faisant une profonde reverence : ' * Ma 
recompense, monsieur, s'il vous plait. — Votre recompense ! 
r^pliqua le loup, qui avait recouvr6 la parole. Vous plai- 
santez, madame. N'est-ce pas deja beaucoup que de vous 
avoir laisse retirer votre t6te de mon gosier? Allez,' vous 
gtes une ingrate. Je vous le pardonne, cette fois, cependant, 
a condition que vous ne paraitrez plus jamais devantmoi." 

B. A hungry wolf was swallowing very greedily^ a 
quarter of lamb, when a bone stuck in his gullet. What 

1 AUez and va when used, as here, to strengthen the affirmation, are 
not easy to render in English. Their function is interjectional. Occa- 
sionally, when following a statement, they are nearly equivalent to " I 
(can) assure you," "indeed," or the like. ^ goulCmient vsiz.y be used. 


does he do ? Does he cry for help ? No, he can not ^ 
utter* a cry.* He struggles; he tries, by opening his 
mouth and bending down his head, to extract the bone ; 
but his paw is too large,* he can not accomplish it. A 
stork who happened to be passing near that spot, seeing * 
that the wolf is in trouble, wants * to know * what ^ is the 
matter with him, and asks whether* she can be of any use 
to him. The wolf tells her by signs that^she_can,* and 
he makes-^her^understand ^ that he has something in his 
throat that torments him and prevents * him from speak- 
ing.* The stork, setting to work at once, makes him open 
his mouth, plunges * her long beak into the wolfs throat 
and pulls out the bone. Upon which ® she asks the wolf 
for her reward. — ''What reward? "says the wolf ; "it is 
not enough,* then,''' that I allow you to withdraw your 
head ? How * ungrateful you are ! However, I pardon 
you this time, but never again appear in my presence." 

' See Ex. 4, note 5, and Ex. 5, note 3. * que out. * lui fait com- 
prendre. Note the same construction below in "makes him open." 
The dative of the person is used when the vb. aft. faire has a direct 
obj. (noun, pron., or clause). * See Ex. 7, note 4. '' done bef. "not 


A. II mourut une fois un pauvre bon paysan qui vint a 
la porte du paradis. En mdme temps mourait un riche 
seigneur qui monta aussi au ciel. Saint Pierre arriva avec 
ses clefs, ouvrit la porte et fit entrer le seigneur ; mais 
sans doute il n'avait pas vu le paysan, car il le laissa de- 
hors et ferma la porte. Le paysan entendit la joyeuse 
reception que le ciel faisait au riche avec le chant et la 
musique. Quand le bruit se fut apais6, saint Pierre re- 
vint et fit entrer le pauvre homme. Celui-ci s'attendait 
qu'a son entree le chant et la musique allaient recom- 


mencer. Mais tout resta tranquille. On le regut de bon 
cceur, les anges allerent au-devant de lui ; mais personne 
ne chanta. II demanda a saint ^ Pierre pourquoi la 
musique n'allait pas pour lui comme pour le riche, et si la 
partialite regnait au ciel comme sur la terre. " Non, lui 
repondit le saint, tu nous es aussi cher qu'aucun autre, et 
tu gofiteras, tout comme celui qui vient d'entrer, les joies 
du paradis ; mais, vois-tu, des pauvres paysans comme toi, 
il en entre tous les jours ici, tandis que des riches il n'en 
vient pas un tous les cent ans." 

B. There was* once a peasant, as^ good as*^ he was 
poor. When he died, he ascended to the door of para- 
dise, at the same time as ^ a rich lord who also had just 
died. St.^ Peter, who had seen the nobleman arrive,* 
came and ^ opened the door for ® him and showed him in. 
But the poor peasant, who was expecting to'' go in with 
the rich man, was left outside, St. Peter not having seen 
him ; while the other was received very joyfully,* with 
singing and music. At length,* the peasant heard the 
noise of the reception subside, and behold^! St. Peter 
comes back with his keys and shows him in too.® People 
come to meet him, and the angels receive him heartily ; 
but for him there is neither singing ^^ nor music ^° : all is 
quiet. Then the peasant says to St. Peter, " Why doesn't 
the music strike up again for me as^it^did ^^ for the man 
who has just gone in? Is there '^ perhaps" partiality in 
heaven the^same" as on earth?" — ** Not at all,*" replies 
the saint ; " I must explain * that to you. You are no less 

^ aussi. ^ que. ' Note the French form. * Next aft. "had seen." 
* Omit, and make next word infin. * Render by dative of pronoun. 
' a. ^voila saint P. qui. * lui aussi, at the end of the sentence. 
1" Omit the article. '^^ comme (omitting " it did "). '^Conditional, 
from politeness. '^ Omit. 


dear to us than the richest man in " the universe,' and you 
shall have all the joys of paradise, just like him. But, you 
see, we get'^ poor peasants here,'^ like you, every day, 
while we don't see a rich man once * in a hundred years. 
So '^ you understand * . . . " And the peasant understood. 

^^ de. ^^ il tious vieni (arrive) id. ^^Alors or ainsi. N.B. Dis- 
criminate the five cases of " as " above, and use aussi, que, or comtne, 
according to the case. 

A. Un lion fut un jour bless6 par les comes d'un tau- 
reau. Dans sa colere, le roi des animaux bannit de son 
royaume toutes les betes a cornes : taureaux, chevres, bo- 
ilers, chevreuils,^ daims^ et cerfs ^ d^camperent aussitot. 
Le lievre, voyant 1' ombre de ses propres oreilles, en fut 
alarme, et se pre para a se sauver aussi. — "Adieu, mon 
ami, dit-il a un grillon qu'il avait rencontre, il faut que je 
parte d'ici: je crains qu'on ne prenne mes oreilles pour 
des cornes. — Comment des cornes ? me prenez-vous pour 
un imbecile? dit le grillon; ce sont des oreilles que le 
bon Dieu a faites. — N'importe, on les fera passer pour des 
cornes, r^pond I'animal craintif ; j'aurai beau dire et pro- 
tester, on ne m'ecoutera pas." 

B. A bull one^day '^ wounded the king of animals, who 
flew '^into such ' a rage that he banished from his king- 
dom bulls, goats, rams, roebucks, ^ bucks ^ and stags ^ — 
in^short,* all the horned animals. The hare was making 
ready to decamp, like * the other * animals, when ' he met 
a cricket, who asked him why*" he was running away. 

* That is, roes, fallow deer and red deer ; the smallest, medium- 
sized and largest European species. * Aft. vb. ' See Ex. 13, notes 
I and 2. * enfin, or bref. 


"Ah! my friend," says the timid animal, "I have just* 
seen the shadow of my ears. They will certainly be 
taken ^ for horns, and I fear I shall be put^ to death,* if I 
don't make my escape." — "Horns, those^!" cries* the 
cricket. "What''^ do you take me for"? It was^ the 
good God who made those * ears ; and th^y are well * 
made. You have nothing* to fear." — " But I have,® my 
friend," replies the alarmed hare. "I may say what I 
like, nobody* will listen to me ; they will make out that 
my ears are horns, and they will put me to death. Good- 
bye, I must be off." 

* Observ. D. (In the second clause "put" = mettre.) ^ May be 
rendered by: " Horns, that ! " (using partit. art. bef. noun); or by the 
expression in the text, on which see Ex. 22, note 4. '' "For 
whom ..." 8 "is." ^ Mais si. [Si is used to affirm something 
just denied or called in question in a negative form.) 


[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. IX, 4.] 

A. Un villageois se promenait dans la campagne, par 
une chaude journee d'ete. En regardant les chenes, il vit 
que ces arbres portaient le petit fruit qu'on nomme un 
gland, et qui n'est pas plus gros que le pouce. II remar- 
qua, en m6me temps, une petite plante, qui rampait a 
terre, et qui portait des citrouilles quatre fois grosses 
comme sa tgte. Get homme se dit en lui-meme: " II me 
semble que si j'avais et6 a la place du Cr^ateur, j'aurais 
mieux arrange les choses : la citrouille aurait dfl venir sur 
ce grand arbre, et le gland sur cette petite plante ram- 
pante." Pendant que notre homme raisonnait ainsi a son 
aise, le sommeil commenq:aale gagner, et ilalla se coucher 
a I'ombre sous un grand chene. Pendant qu'il dormait, 
il vint un coup de vent qui fit tomber un gland sur le 
bout de son nez, ce qui le reveilla. Portant la main aus- 


sitot au visage, il trouva le gland pris dans sa barbe. 
Alors notre sage s'ecria: " J'avoue que je ne suis qu'un 
sot, et que Dieu a raison d'avoir arrange les choses telles 
qu'elles sont. Que serais-je devenu si la citrouille avait 
6te sur le chgne? elle m'aurait 6crase la t6te en tom- 
bant ! " Et I'homme ne s'avisa plus de trouver a redire 
aux choses qui n'etaient pas arrangees selon ses faibles 

B. A villager who was strolling in the fields, noticed 
that the fruit borne ^_by the oak was quite * small, while 
the pumpkin, which was four times as big as his head, 
was growing^ on a small creeping plant. Then he said 
to^himself ^ that, if he had been in the Creator's place, 
he would have arranged things better * than they are ;* 
for* the acorn, which is no larger than one's thumb, 
ought to have grown in place of the pumpkin, and the big 
pumpkin ought to have been on the oak. Thus reasoned 
the villager for a time ; but it was very warm weather,* 
and our philosopher, feelings sleepy,^ lay down in the 
shade of* a large oak and fell^asleep. * After' some time, 
he was awakened by an acorn which fell upon his ^ nose, 
and which he found caught in his beard. " What a fool 

^ Either literally ("by " = par); or trans.: "which the oak bore," 
placing vb. bef. subj., as in Ex. 12, note 2, Ex. 25, note i, etc. ^See 
fourth sentence of French, and Ex. 10, first sent. ' The reflex, pron. 
is sufficient, without the prepositional phrase. * The English order 
here is good in French, as it keeps the adv. next to the clause 
depending on it. This clause must take ne bef. its vb. whenever (as 
here) it depends on an adv. (or adj.) expressing comparison (unless 
the prin. clause is negative). E.g. Vous ecrivez viieux que vous ne 
parlez. II est vioins riche, plus riche, qtion ne croit. Le temps est 
meilleur qu'il n'elait hier. But, Vous n' ecrivez pas niieux que vous 
parlez. (See the Appendix, however, for recent modifications.) 
^ avoir sommeil, avoir envie de dormir. * de. ' " At the end (6out) 
of." 8 Obs. G. 


I am^ ! " he cries. ** I must* confess that things are well 
arranged as they are. Goodness ^^ knows * what " would 
have become of me if^it^had^been ^^ a pumpkin that 
had ^^ fallen on my ^ nose ; I should have had my ^ head 
smashed. I will find no more ^* fault with the works * of 
the Creator ; for I see that he was right not to consult * 

8 Obs. G. » "How I am foolish!" See Ex. 37, note 3, third 
example. ^^ In French, "God knows ..." ^^ See Ex. 4, note 5. 
Rem. that here the person in Eng. becomes the subj. in French. 
^* si f'avait (or c'etU') ete. '* Auxil. etre. ^* Insert the//«/J aft. trouver. 


A. Artolo, cur6 italien, c6lebre par ses bons mots et 
ses reparties plaisantes, s'embarqua pour un voyage, et fut 
prie par plusieurs de ses amis de leur faire des emplettes 
au pays ou il allait. lis lui en donnerent des memoires ; 
mais il n'y en eut qu'un qui s'avisa d'y joindre I'argent 
necessaire pour payer la merchandise demandee. Le cure 
employa I'argent conformement au memoire, et ne songea 
pas aux commissions des autres. Quand il fut de retour 
chez lui, chacun vint s'informer s'il avait fait les emplettes. 
" Messieurs, leur dit Artolo, lorsque je fus embarque, je 
mis tous vos memoires sur le pont du navire, a dessein de 
les ranger par ordre ; mais il s'eleva un vent qui les em- 
porta tous dans la mer. N'ayant pu me rappeler ce qu'ils 
contenaient, il m'a 6t6 impossible de faire vos commis- 
sions. — Cependant, dit I'un d'eux, vous avez fait telle em- 
plette pour un tel. — C'est vrai, repliqua le cure ; mais c'est 
qu'il avait enveloppe dans son memoire I'argent qu'il fal- 
lait pour en payer le montant, et le poids a empeche que 
le memoire ne devint le jouet des vents." 


B. There was once * an. Italian cure, named Artolo, 
who was fond * of cracking ^ jokes and making witty re- 
torts. One day when ^ he was about ^_to embark for a 
distant* country, several of his friends came and* said 
to him: "When you have ^ arrived * yonder,* be kind* 
enough to make for us the purchases which we have 
noted *^down in these ^ memoranda here ^. " The cure took * 
the memoranda, saying "^ to himself: "That is all very 
fine * ; but of all these people * there is only one who has 
thought of adding to his memorandum the money that I shall 
need* in order to pay for the purchases." 

Having •* arrived at his destination,* Artolo employed the 
money which this thoughtful * friend had given him, as * 
the latter had directed,* and he paid no attention to the 
other commissions. 

On ^ his return, all came to inquire about their com- 
missions. " My dear * friends," said he, " a ^*' most dread- 
ful * misfortune * has happened * to me. While * I was ar- 
ranging your memoranda on the deck of the ship, the wind, 
which had suddenly * risen, carried them away into the 
sea ; and as * I did not know * what they contained, I was 
unable* to do your errands." — "Still," said one of the 
company,* "you have bought goods for so and so." — " If 
I have done it for him," replied the cure, " it is because the 
money which he wrapped in his memorandum, to pay the 
amount, prevented " the wind from carrying away the 

' Use dire as the verb. * que or oil (not quand), after unjoiir, le 
jour and other nouns designating point of time. E.g. " Du temps que 
les betes parlaient " (La Fontaine). Au moment que (or oil) .... Du 
moment que ... * "on the point of." * Omit; and use infin. of vb. 
as in fourth sent. * Fut. (Note the auxiliary.) ^ les . . . que void. 
^ Use en bef. vb. * May be omitted. ^ A. '•' " There has happened 
to me the most ..." '' May be followed by noun, prep, and infin., 
or by que, noun and sbjnct. (with ne). 


paper. If you had all wrapped a similar * weight in your 
memoranda, the accident would not have happened." 


[See remark preceding Ex. 12.] 

A. On avait vole un cheval a un paysan. Celui-ci se 

rendit a une foire aux chevaux qui se tenait justement a 

quelques lieues de chez lui, pour en acheter un autre. En 

parcourant le champ de foire, il reconnut son propre cheval 

. parmi ceux qui etaient en vente. 

— Ce cheval est a moi, dit-il a I'homme qui le gardait, 
on me I'a vole il y a trois jours. 

— Ce n'est pas possible, dit I'autre, il y a trois ans que 
je I'ai. 

— Trois ans? dit le paysan ; j'en doute. Puis, mettant 
subitement les mains snr les deux yeux du cheval : Voyons, 
de quel oeil est-il borgne ^ ? 

Le bruit de la dispute commen^ait a attirer I'attention 
des voisins ; il fallait repondre sans hesitation : 

— De I'ceil gauche, dit-il. 

Le paysan ote sa main de dessus cet oeil gauche qui parait 
clair et brillant. 

— Oh ! je me suis trompe, se hate de reprendre I'autre ; 
je veux dire de I'oeil droit. 

— II n'est borgne ni de I'oeil droit, ni de I'oeil gauche, 
dit le paysan, otant I'autre main. II est evident que vous 
6tes un voleur ; vous le voyez, vous autres ! continua-t-il 
en s'adressant a la foule autour de lui. 

Le voleur avait essaye de se sauver, en entendant ces 
mots. Mais il fut saisi et conduit devant le magistrat, 
tandis que le paysan reprit possession de son cheval. 

^ Note that borgne is "one-eyed," "blind in (of) one eye"; while 
aveugle is "blind" (i.e. blind in both eyes). Hence the force of the 
proverbial sayings : Da?ts le royaume des avettgles les borgnes sont 
rots. Changer son cheval borgne pour un aveugle. 


B. A horse had been stolen from a peasant. A horse- 
fair happened to be going on a few leagues away, and the 
peasant went there to catch * the thief or to buy another 
horse. While he was going through the fair-ground, look- 
ing *^at the horses which were for sale, he recognized his 
own horse among the others. He addressed the man who 
was in charge of it and said to him : * ' That horse is not 
yours. He was mine three days ago ; and he has been 
stolen from me." 

"You are mistaken," said the other, "I have had him 
three years." 

' * I doubt it very^much,^ " said the peasant. * * But 
we shall see," he continued,* quickly covering * the horse's 
eyes with his two hands. "Come now, tell me in which 
eye he is blind." 

Seeing that the dispute was attracting the notice of those 
about them, and that he must speak * without hesitating, 
the man hastened to reply that the horse was blind in the 
left eye. But when * the peasant removed his hand from 
that eye, the bystanders * saw that it was clear and bright. 

The stranger,* seeing that he had made a mistake, 
cried *_out that he meant the right eye. Upon which ^ the 
peasant took away his * other hand, saying that the horse 
was not blind in^either^eye.^ Then he said to the crowd 
around them : ** You people see now that this man is the 
thief who has stolen my horse from me." 

On hearing these words, the thief tried to run away. 
But they caught him and took him before the magistrate ; 
and in * this way ' the horse was restored ' to the peasant. 

■' Render here by fori. 'See Ex. 7, note 4. *Obs. G., and text 
above. * " neither in the one eye nor in the other." * tfe. 




[N.B. The pupil should usually repeat in the answer the material supplied by the 
question, making the changes and additions required. The advantages of doing so 
are too evident to need specifying. The questions (and answers) may be changed to 
their literary or book form (such as may be found in many French school-books), 
by using the shortest form of pronominal interrogative, and the past definite tense. 
E.g. Que fit alors U paysan ? Que dit U roi ? Quelle question posn-t-il ? Que 
devint la ville ? Le roi but-il Peau ?, etc., etc. For further examples see the 
last exercise.] 

Ex. 13. — De quoi s'agit-il dans cette histoire (dans ce recit)? — 
\Ans. II s'agit, dans cette histoire, d'un serment que. . . ] — Ou 
I'empereur etait-il arrive ? — En (Dans) quel etat avait-il trouve les por- 
tes de la ville ? — Qu'est-ce qu'il a dit ? (Qu'a-t-il dit ?) — I^s soldats 
etaient-ils contents ? — Pourquoi ?— Qu'est devenue la ville, a la fin ? — 
Qu'est-ce que les soldats ont dit h I'empereur ? — Comment a-t-il fait 
pour tenir son serment ? 

Ex. I4. — Qu'etait-ce qu' Alexandre ? — Que faisait-il (Qu'est-ce qu'il 
feisait) avec son armee ? — De quoi I'armee souffrait-elle ? — Que desire- 
t-on quand on a soif? — Oti les soldats ont-ils decouvert de I'eau ? — 
Est-ce qu'ils I'ont bue sur-le-champ ? — Dans quoi I'ont-ils apportee au 
roi? — Qu'est-ce qu'im casque? (Qu'appelle-t-on un casque?) — Qu'est- 
ce qui les encourageait h. prendre patience? — Le roi a-t-il bu I'eau 
dans [Eng. '-from"] le casque? — Est-ce qu'il avait soif comme les 
soldats ?— Peut-on mourir de soif sans se plaindre ? — Celui qui boit 
trop de vin, est-il k plaindre ? 

Ex. 16. — Qu'est-ce qu'un cousin? — De quoi se nourrit-il? — Com- 
ment s'appelle la petite blessure que fait le cousin : une morsure ou 
une piqflre ? — (Qu'est-ce) que fait le chien quand il est enrage [nia(f\ ? 
— Dites-moi ce que fait le cousin quand il a faim — Est-ce que cela 
fait mal ? (Cela vous fait-il mal ?) — Savez-vt)us un bon moyen de vous 
debarrasser des cousins qui se trouvent dans une chambre h coucher ? 
— Dites ce que vous feriez. — Est-ce lA un moyen infaillible? — Vous 
en etes-vous dejS. servi(e)? 

Ex. 23 De combien de personnes est-il question dans ce recit? — 

Quelles sont elles ?— Qu'est ce qu'un avare ? — Pourquoi I'appelle-t-on 
un harpagon ? — Comment s'appelle celui qui pratique I'art de guerir ? 


— Quand on est gravement malade, que fait-on ? — Quel est le verbe 
qui signifie " doimer des soins k" quelqu'un ? — Qu'est-ce que des 
honoraires ? — Quelles etaient les conditions [/erms] de I'engagement ? 
— Qu'est devenue la femme ? — Est-elle morte faute de soins (faute d'etre 
soignee) ? — Pourquoi le vieillard ne voulait-il pas (n'a-t-il pas voulu) 
donner les honoraires au medecin ? — Le medecin n'aurait-il pas du 
refuser les conditions de I'avare ? — Quel engagement fallait-il prendre 
avec un homme pareil ? — Un medecin n'est pas un physicien. — Quelle 
est done la difference (Quelle difference y a-t-il done) entre le physi- 
cien fran9ais et le "physician " anglais? 

Ex. 26. — Qu'etait-ce que Charles XII ? — Que faisait-il ce jour-la ? — 
Pourquoi le paysan s'est-il jete aux pieds du roi ? — Et le roi, qu'est-ce 
qu'il a fait? — Quandonveutinterroger quelqu'un qui n'est pas la, que 
fait on d'abord? — Qu'est-ce que le roi a demande au soldat?— Celui- 
ci a t-il nie le fait? — Comment a-t-il cherche a s'en excuser? — Pour- 
quoi le roi a-t-il re9u (admis) cette excuse? — Qu'appelle-t-on " bon 
mot" ? — Quelle reponse le roi a-t-il fait au grenadier? au paysan ? 

Ex. 27. — Qu'est-ce qu'un Irlandais ? — Comment etait [What 
was. . . /iieF] la maison de notre Irlandais? — Comment nomme- 
t-on " I'herbe courte et menue, qui forme sur le sol comme un tapis 
de verdure " ? — Pourquoi le paysan avait-il une vache ? (A quoi nous 
sert la vache ?) — En (Dans) quel etat etait la vache du paysan ? — 
Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait (Qu'a-t-il fait) pour empecher sa vache demourir 
de faim ? — Puis, il craignait qu'il ne lui arrive (arrivat) un malheur 
(accident); lequel? [Use sbjnct. neg. in ans.] — Que fait-il pour 
eviter ce malheur? — Qu'est-ce qui arrive (Qu'arrive-t-il) au bout de 
cinq minutes ?— Lequel des deux — c'est-^-dire, de I'homme ou de la 
vache — est le plus lourd ? — Par consequent, k mesure que I'une des- 
cend, I'autre . . . . — Comment le paysan fera-t-il pour descendre? 

Ex. 40. — Qu'etait-ce que le Pere Lacordaire ? — Que faisait-il ? — 
Ou se trouvait-il? — Comment appelle-t on, dans un hotel, la table 
commune servie a heure fixe ? — Quel nom a-t-ou donne k (Par quel 
nom designe-t-on) celui qui considere I'incredulite comme une preuve 
de force d'esprit ? — Quelle demande le jeune suffisant a-t-il fait au 
celebre religieux ? — Le P. Lacordaire etait-il du meme avis que le 
jeune homme ? — Quelle question a-t-il posee au commis voyageur ? — 
Comment celui-ci a-t-il explique les deux effets contraires produits par 
le feu? — Quelle conclusion le Iwn religieux a-t-il tire de sa reponse? 
— Pourquoi le jeune homme ne croyait-il pas en Dieu ? — Pourquoi 
croyait-il aux omelettes ? — Et vous, croyez-vous aux revenants (aux 
esprits), k la magie ?— Pourquoi pas ? (Pourquoi non ?) 


Ex. 50. — Qu'avait-on fait (Qu'est-ce qu'on avait fait) au paysan. — 
Oil est-il alle (alla-til) chercher sa bete ? — Pourquoi y est-il alle (y 
alla-t-il) ? — Qu'a-t-il trouve (Qu'est-ce qu'il a trouve, Que trouva-t-il) 
a la foire? — Ou etait son cheval ? — Qui (Qui est-ce qui) gardait le 
cheval ? — Quel mensonge cat homme a-t-il dit (dit-il) ? — Comment le 
paysan fait-il pour tromper le voleur ? — De quel oeil le cheval etait-il 
borgne ?— Que fait (Qu'est-ce que fait) le voleur quand il se volt 
demasque ? — Pourquoi n'a-t-il pas reussi (ne reussit-il pas) k se sau- 
ver ? — Qu'est-ce que les assistants ont fait de lui ? '(Que firent de lui 
les assistants ?)—Qu'est devenu (Que devint) le cheval ? — Comment 
nomme-t-on celui qui ne voit que d'un ceil ? — Qu'est-ce qu'un aveu- 
gle ? — Qu'est-ce qu'un voleur ? — Que fait-on des voleurs ? 


It is of importance that the pupil should keep in mind the Practical 
Directions wliich precede Part I, and become familiar with the Ob- 
servations given at the end of Part III, as the assistance given in the 
notes will be less abundant in Parts II and III. The Observations 
regarding the use of capitals and punctuation-marks are especially 

In cases where the pupil is apt to take too much for granted, or to 
miss an idiom, the foot-notes contain a reference to the Vocabulary. 

The exercises referred to by number in the notes are those of Part 
II, unless otherwise specified. 

Let US perform our duties generously. When one is 
afraid of doing too much, one is sure not to do enough. 

Generosity costs us less than humility: it ^ is easier to 
pardon than to ask pardon. 


Louis XIV. '^ said that whenever he appointed any one 
to a. position, he made ninety-nine malcontents and an 
in grate. 

' il, because the complement of vb. etrn has de with infinitive. 
(Colloquially, ce and cela are oft. used.) *No point aft. Roman 
numerals in French. (See Observations.) 




There are three kinds of friends : the friends who love 
you, the friends who care nothing for you, and the friends 
who hate you. 

s- ^ * 

' ' I am very fond of conversation, ^ " said the Duchess 
of Maine ^ to Madame de Stael ; "everybody listens to me 
and I listen to nobody." 


A man who was fond of playing '' the blusterer once 
said, "When I am armed, I don't dare to look at myself 
in a looking-glass; I frighten myself so^much.*" 


A gentleman was asked ^ if he could play ^ the violin. 
** I really don't know," said he, "I have never tried." 


Some one having told a woman that tallow had risen on 
account of the war, "Perhaps," said she, " the two armies 
have^been^fighting ^ by candle-light. " 


An American teacher who asked ' her pupils why the 
Puritans came^ to^ this country, received this answer: 

1 Def. art. "> See Vocab. » See Pt. I. Ex. 40, A. * tellement, bef. 
"I." *Obs. D. (impf. or pres.) ^Note that by omitting "per- 
haps " and using the compound future (fut. anterior), the sense will 
be "must have been." 'Note that in stating the circumstances of 
an occurrence the impf. is very oft. used in French. This applies 
to a great many of the anecdotes following. It is especially so in 
the case of disait, demandait, and some others, ""have come." 



"To worship in their own way and [to] make others do 
the same. " 



A king said one day to one of his courtiers, " Marquis, 
u' make puns upon everything, make one'^ on me." — 
But,^ " replied the marquis, " your Majesty is not a sub- 


Some one was saying to a certain wise man, " It* is a 
great thing to have what one desires." — "Yes," he re- 
plied, "but it is a much greater ^ to desire only what one 

12. < 

The Marquis d'Argenson used to say, "Everybody 
thinks it ^ is hard to die. I think so, like the rest. I see, 
however, that when we come^to^it,® each one gets 
through it." 


"Help! help!" cried a soldier, "I've taken a pris- 
oner." — " Bring him along," said the captain. — " I can't." 
— " Well then, leave him there." — " I should like noth- 
ing better, but he won't let me go." 


An officer said one evening to his Irish servant, " Don't 
forget to waken me to-morrow morning at five o'clock, 
for I must start at six." — " Without fail, sir. Only, you'^ 
will be kind enough to ring for me, sir." 

' "you who." Note this idiom. *See Pt. I. Ex. 12, note 5. But 
in the first case here the pron. follows the vb. because of the impera- 
tive. * '» But, Sire." * ce. » See note to Ex. 2. * en itre id. ' Use 
monsieur and put vb. in 3rd pers. 

58 frknch composition. 


The Greek philosopher Zeno, who was born nearly 400 
years B.C., used to say to his disciples, " Remember that 
nature has given us two ears, but only one mouth, to ^ teach 
us that we must listen more"^ than we speak." 



Justice and charity, our two greatest duties towards 
other ^ men, are summed up in these two rules : Do not 
do to others^ what you would^not^like ^ to be done^ to 
you ; do to others^ what you would like^ them to do'^ to 

Kepler, the great German astronomer, has left us the 
following reflection: "Blessed is^ he who studies the 
heavens : he learns to think less of what the world ad- 
mires most ; the works of God are for him above all things,^ 
and the study of them brings^ him the purest joy." 


An old miser having heard a very eloquent sermon on 
charity, said, "I am so strongly convinced of the neces- 
sity of giving to the poor, that I have a^re at m ind to turn 
beggar." •• 


A man was boasting that he could see a fly walking at 
the top of a church-steeple, when an acquaintance arrives 
who says, " My ^^ sight is not so fine as that, but my hear- 

1 pottr or (Z/fw de. * " more listen, " if infinitive is used. •'' Def. art. 
* For variety use autrui. * Condi, of vouloir. ' Obs. D. ' Use que 
with subjnct. * Omit. ^ "furnishes." ^** See Pt. I. Ex. 44, also 
note 8 to the same. 



ing is much sharper; for if I don't see your fly, I hear 
him breathe." 


fA Paris policeman stops a cab and says to the driver, 
l^ou are violating the regulations. You have no light." 
"Come now, Mr, Policeman," says the cabman, 
Achat's the use of lighting my lamps? " You see plainly 
that my horse is blind." 

A great borrower of books has tried to explain why 
people so rarely return borrowed books. In his opinio n^ 
it '^is^because it ^ is easier to keep the books than to keep 
what is in^them.^ 


Certain selfish people have this_good_point * that they 
are often too busy speaking well of themselves to have 
time to speak ill of others.^ 


A one-eyed man wagered against a man who had per- 
fect sight ^ that he could _see '' more than the latter. The 
bet is accepted. "You have lost," says the one-eyed 
man, "for I see two eyes in-your-face, ^ and you only see 
one® in mine." 


A valet, newly engaged, brought his master, one^mom- 
ing,^*' a pair of boots, one^of which ^' had the leg much 

"^c'est que. *SeeExs. 2, 11 and 12. ^dedans. * "that of good." 
'See Ex. 16. 'See Ex. 19. {\]sc bon or par/ait.) 'Omit "could" 
and use impf. * " in your face," "in mine," may be rendered by 
simply inserting the dative prons. vous, me, before the verb. 'Insert 
en after the dat. pron. (See Pt. I. Ex. 12.) >ONext to the vb. " "of 
which the one." 


longer than the other. "I say, Henry," exclaimed his 
master, "how is it that these boots are not [of] the same 
length?" — "I really don't know, sir," replied the valet; 
**but what bothers me most is that there is another pair 
down-stairs in the same state." 



We dissect flies, we measure lines, we put numbe 
together, we are agreed on two or three points which we 
understand, and we dispute about two or three thousand 
which we do not understand. — Voltaire. 


A miser had a footman who always had a ^ good appe- 
tite and ate very fast, but who took a long time to do 
errands. This^ made his master^ say, "I wish* that 
valet ate with his feet and walked with his teeth. "- 

A coach containing four members^of^the^French_par- 
liament,^ had upset on a public square. A countryman 
passing by, asked who were the unfortunates. When he 
was told® [it], he replied, "Oh! let them lie, my father 
advised me never to meddle with state affairs. " 


A Brabanter, in conversation ''' with a Swiss, charged the 
latter with always being ready to fight for money, ^ v/hile 
he himself, on the contrary, fought for honor. ^ To which 
the Swiss made this reply, " The truth is '" that each of us 
fights for what he lacks" most.^^" 

» Omit. « " Which." (Pt. I. Ex. 3, B.) » Indir. obj. (aft. faire dire.) 
* Condi. (What tense and mood shd. follow?) * May be rendered 
literally, as it refers to both houses, {Chamhre des deputes and Senat,) 
or by the single term deputes or senatetirs, according to the case. 
^Obs. D. '*' in conversing." *Partit. 'Def. art. ^° C'est. ^^ Use 
manquer; and translate, "what is lacking to him." '* "the most." 




A Frenchman had made a journey to Amsterdam ; but 
during his whole stay in that city, the rain had not ceased 
falling. Ever^after^that/ he had a habit of asking, when- 

er he met a Dutchman, whether ' ' that shower was ^ over 



"It is very wicked of^ you to beat your poor horse so 
hard," said an American to an Irish cabman. "In my 
country, they don't use whips now.*" — " So I've heard,^" 
replied the cabman good-humoredly,* " they use revolvers, 
I believe." 


Calino is not an early riser, and he often sleeps the 
whole round of the clock. One morning he opened "^ his 
eyes, looked '^ at the clock and exclaimed''' in ^ astonish- 
ment, "Who would have believed it^? I went to bed 
at eight o'clock and I have wakened ''at eight. That 
makes sixteen hours that I have slept ^'^! " 


A tradesman was pressing one of his customers for^the,,, 
payment^of^^ his bill. "Have no fear," replied the 
debtor, "I'm not going to run away." — "I don't doubt 
it, sir," returned the tradesman, "but I am.^^" 


King William the Third of England thought very short 
a sermon which a court preacher had delivered before 

1" Since that time." * Insert " not. " ^ a. *See vocabulary for 
this idiom. * " It (r^) is what one has told me." * "without getting 
angry." ' Use the present, ^eie. * "It is not credible." ^** Not in 
plur. 1^ " to pay." '* " it is I who am going to do it." 


him. *' Sire,'"' replied tlie preacher, "had' I been able 
to devote more time to it, I should have ^ made it still 
shorter. ' J 

34. ^ 

A French mother, the^ wife of one of the most cel^^V 
brated novelists, relates that she one day found her litt^V 
son rubbing busily on the wall the luminous ray from ai^ 
opening in the shutter. " What are you doing, my dear ? '' 
inquired the mother. — " Mamma," replied the child, "I 
am polishing a little sunbeam.' The little child is now 
himself a French novelist, but perhaps he still amuses 
himself sometimes in the same way. 


Plutarch quotes in his "Morals" the excellent reply 
made by an Egyptian to a person who asked him what [it 
was that]^ he was carrying wrapped up. "If it* is 
wrapped up," said he, "it^ is in order that you may not 


A gentleman was entering ^ a drawing-room where there 
was a numerous company.'^ One of the guests remarked 
to the master of the house, "There's a man who is very 
stupid, if one may judge by his face." — " His face is very 

^ Note that si (conditional), followed by the pluperfect (compound 
past tense), admits of the auxiliary being put in the impf. subjunct. 
(an old conditional tense), instead of the impf. indie. ; and that the 
same tense may be used in the accompanying principal clause : E.g. 
S'il fi'it (or etait) venu, je/'eusse (or aurais)su. This subjunctive is 
not used when there is no auxiliary verb, or when it is in the present 
tense. '■' Omit. * Insert the bracketed words; otherwise the mean- 
ing would be, "asked him for what, etc." * il. ^ ce. *Not transitive 
here in French. ^ Literally; or "many people" {monde). 


deceptive, ' replied the host, ''for he is much stupider 
than he looks. ^ " 


f. Some one having remarked that people were dining 
isry day later^and^later,^ "Upon my word," said a 
Iciety man, " it_will_end_by_our ^ not dining till the 
ext day. ' 


A very hot-tempered man was at table with a friend 
who, not wishing to provoke him, never contradicted 
him. After some time, the former flew into a rage and 
exclaimed vehemently : ' ' Zounds ! deny something, so 
that I may know there_are^two^of_us.^ " 


The host is showing his guests a number of little figures 
which he has carved out^of^ wood, when some one asks 
him from ^ what he has copied them. " From* nothing," 
he replies, " I took them all out^of^ my own head." 


One cold winter morning," a schoolmaster asked one of 
his scholars what^was^the^Latin._for ^ " cold. " The pupil 
hesitated and tried to recall the word. "Come, come," 
said the master, " you don't know that ? " — " Yes,^I^do,^ 
sir," said the boy, "for I have it at my finger ends." 

1 See Pt. I. Ex. 48, note 4, examples. ' This construction is always 
to be rendered by de plus en plus followed by the adj. in positive 
degree. ' "we shall finish by {par)." * "we are two." * Note 
that the French idiom requires "in" in both cases {en and dans, 
respective!}-, here). For this dans see Pt. I. Ex. 27, note 7. • sur 
or de. ' Adverbial phrases may be placed after the verb. ' "how 
one said ... in L." ^ See Pt. I. Ex. 47, note 9. 



A man whose wife had been ill for some days was asked ^ 
how she was getting on. " Ah! sir," said he, "the 
case is pitiful: my wife is afraid she wilP die, and I am 
afraid she won't; '^ which ^ makes a very disconsol 
house. " 



It is said that Richard II., king of England, once took 
prisoner a bishop who was fighting in the ranks of the 
enemy. When the Holy Father sent to claim the prisoner 
as the son of the church, Richard sent him the prelates 
coat of mail, accompanied by the following words, taken 
from the Bible: " This we have found; see whether it be 
thy son's coat or no.^ " 


[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. VI. 14.] 

The lion was once forced to take to his bed by a severe 
illness. The fox, wishing to find out for himself the 
condition of the tyrant, came prowling ^ about the *intrance 
of his den. But he took good care not to set foot in^^it.^ 
"For," said he, "I see many footprints going^in,' but 
not one returning.^" 

^ Make the verb active and begin the sentence with it. (Obs. D.) 

* Rem. the idiomatic use of ne and pas in these two (unlike) construc- 
tions. ^ See Pt. I. Ex. 3, note 3. * While these are not the words 
of the Authorized (English) Version, they correspond to the Vulgate : 
" Hanc invenimus : vide titruni tunica filii tui sit, an non," and are 
taken from the Douay English Version. The French Version of 
1 701, by le Maitre de Saci, has : Void une robe que nous avons 
trouvee, voyez si c est celle de z'otre Jils, ou non. * Infinitive. 

• "there." ' "which enter there." * "which return from it." 
(Note the sbjnct. used in relative clauses depending on exclusive 
statements, such as : not one, the only one, the first, the least, etc. ) 


The Duke de Choiseul, Minister of Foreign Affairs under 
Louis XV., was extremely thin. At the time of his arrival 
in London to arrange the terms of the peace, some one 

<\ked Townshend whether the French government had 
Ent the preliminaries of a treaty. " I really don't know," 
iid this wag, "but they have sent the outline of an 
mbassador. " 

Cornelia, the ^ daughter of the famous Scipio, and the * 
mother of the Gracchi, happened to be at ^ a gathering of 
Roman ladies who were showing one another ^ their pre- 
cious stones and adornments. When they ^ asked to see 
hers, she sent^for ^ her children, whom she was bringing 
up with the greatest care, and said as^she^pointed ** to 
them: " There are my jewels and my ornaments." 


Fabert, a ^ celebrated French general of the seventeenth 
century, preparing to lay siege to a town, was showing 
his officers the surroundings of the place, and was point- 
ing ' out with his finger " a spot where it was necessary to 
plant a battery. A shot carried ^ away this finger ; but he 
seemed to pay no attention to it, and indicating the same 
point with ^ another finger: " Gentlemen," he continued, 
"I was just^'^ saying that our first battery would have to 
be placed here. ^^ " 

' Omit. 2 " in." * Make the vb. reflex., and add (at option), " the 
ones to the others." * on. *"made come." *"in pointing." 
^ If montrer has already been used, take indiquer. With either vb. 
the phrase du doigt is oft. used. * Preceded by dat. of pers. pron. 
^ a I'aide de may be used to give variety. ^'^ done aft. vb. ''Next 
aft. vb. "place," xiil faudrait is used. 



/, A French workman living near the Latin Quarter^ was 
going home when he fell and injured himself severely., 
He was taken ^ to the hospital and placed under the care 
of a young medical student. When the latter asked, hj 
whether he had hurt himself near the vertebrae, 
doctor,^" he answered, "it* was near the Observatory.' 



On coming home one evening, a man found the house 
deserted and the door locked. After managing, with the 
greatest difficulty, to get in through a back window, he 
discovered on the dining-room table a note from his wife, 
thus worded : "I have gone^out; ^ you ® will find the key 
outside, under the door-mat." 


I A rich landowner, in inspecting the improvements 
Dei ng^made^by^his^ste ward, ^ noticed that a hole had 
been provided in one of the barn doors, to admit the cat. 
"I see," said he to the workmen, "that you have for- 
gotten one thing : that ^ is, to make another smaller hole, 
to let^ the kittens go ^^through. " 


Two Irish countrymen were travelling on foot in France. 
Wishing to know where they were, one of them asks a 

'See Pt. III. ch. ii. §3. (See Vocab. for spelling.) "^Prendre 
must never be used in this sense. Je vous prendrai a l' Opera, means 
" I shall call for you (get you) at the Opera." (Compare Pt. I. Ex. 
27, note 7.) The preposition always denotes the seizing in a place, 
not the taking yr^jw. 'Politely, vionsieur le . . . * ce. ^Note the 
gender. *Use the sing. ^" which his. . . was making." (Put 
verb bef. subject, as Pt. I. Ex. 12, note 2.) '•' ce. "Put both vbs, 
together before the noun. 


road-mender how far it is to the nearest town. "Thirty 
kilometres," says the man. — "Thirty kilometres!" cries 
the weary traveller. " What^awful^distances^you have' 
in this country! We can't get there to-day." — " Yes^ 
we^can,^" replies his comrade, "that only makes fifteen 
kilometres apiece." 


A man had a very lazy son, whom he wished to induce 
to get up earlier.^ With this object, he told him that 
some one, by getting up very early, ^ had found a purse full 
of gold. " That may be," replied the slothful fellow, "but 
the man * who lost it had got up still earlier.^ " — " That is 
not proved," returned the father; "it is much more 
likely that the purse had lain there since the previous 
evening, and that it had been lost by a belated traveller, 
who did not start early ^ enough." 


A French poet, who was the^most^chilly^man ^ of his 
time, once shut himself in at^the^very ^ first frosts of De- 
cember, and sent word to his friends that he was seriously 
indisposed. They hasten to him in a crowd, bringing 
several doctors. The poet is found " in front of a great 
fire, lying on a sofa, and wrapped up in four thick blank- 
ets. "What's the matter? what is your illness ? " cries 
everybody at the same time. — "Alas!" replies the sick 
man, in a feeble voice, "I have winter.^" 

1 " How enormous the distances are." For order, see Pt. I. Ex. 48, 
note 9. ^ See Ex. 40, last sentence. * Note these phrases : de (ires) 
bonne heure, d'assez bonne heure, de meilletire hei4re, matin, plus 
mntiu, tres niatitt, asses matin. The four cases in the exercise should 
l)e varied. * '-he." * "the man the most chilly." ^ Use des les, 
T Obs. D. * Def. art. • 


A certain French prelate teased a celebrated cardinal" by 
begging him to subscribe to charitable undertakings, but 
without much success. One day when ^ he was telling the 
cardinal that he had just seen his portrait, the latter said 
to him, "And did^ you ask it for a subscription?" — 
" No," was^the_reply,^ " I saw 2 at once that would be 
useless, it^was^so * like^ you." 


Tronchin was a celebrated Swiss physicianr\Among his 
patients there was, on one occasion, a man whose gloomy 
countenance indicated a melancholy disposition. "You 
need amusement, sir," said the doctor to him; "go and 
see Carlini play; he will make you laugh; and that will do 
you more good than anything^ I could prescribe for you." 
— " Alas," said the patient, " I am Carlini myself " " 


Auber, the great French musical composer, to whom 
we owe Fra Diavolo and many other operas, was one 
evening coming down the^steps_in_front^of^ the Paris 
Opera, accompanied by a friend well up in years. " Ah ! 
my dear friend, we are getting old," said the aged man. — 
" What^can^you„expect ? " " replied Auhfer, "we must 
resign ourselves to it, since that^is ^° the only way to live 
long." (Auber died in 187 1, at the age of 89.) 

^ See p. 49, note 2. (Of the two, que is best here.) * Obs. B. 

' This cannot be said literally in French. Tr. here by: "replied the 

other." * " so much (/'f7/<'w<^/) it was." *Vocab. ^"all." ^May 

precede ."Carlini." ^ Rendered by the simple words, le perron de. 

, » "What will you? '' ^^ ('est, or c'est la. 



One morning when ' the Duke of York, who afterwards 
became James II., was returning from hunting, he found 
his brother, King Charles II. , Walking ^ about alone in 
Hyde Park. The Duke expressed^his^surprise ^ that his 
Majesty should venture without attendants in so public a 
place, at a time when* there were so many disorders in 
the state. 

** My brother James," replied the king, " take care of 
yourself, and I run no risk. No one would be foolish 
enough to^ kill me to make you king.®" 

To obtain an idea of the degree of dampness in ' dwell- 
ings : Place ^ in the rooms suspected of dampness a dish 
containing a kilo of freshly -slacked lime, and then tightly 
close doors and windows. After twenty-four hours, weigh 
the lime again,® in the same scales and under ^^ the same 
conditions. If the kilo has absorbed more than " ten 
grammes of water, that is to say, more than one per cent,^'^ 
the place is unsanitary as far as dampness is concerned.^' 


In former times, in certain parish churches, the women 
sat ^* on one side and the men on the other. One Sunday 
morning, an officiating priest, hearing somebody talking *' 
loudly, stopped and looked "^^bout^for the irreverent 

1 P. 68, note i. ^ Aft. "who was." * s'^ionrurr. The Eng. con- 
struction makes doubtful French. * alt. 'See "enough" in vocab. 
• May be turned: "that you may become king." ^ "of." * May be 
tr. "One places," which construction will then be repeated all 
through. • "anew." '*• "in." " de\^{. numbers. '^ Often written: 
/ pour 100. " " from (tr. ' at ') the point of view of the dampness." 
I* Vocab. '* Make relat. clause 


persons. At this moment one of the women, anxious^for* 
the honor of her sex, rose quickly and said : " Your^rev- 
erence,^ the noise is^not ^ among us." " So much the* 
better," replied the priest, " it will be the* sooner over." 


Charles Lamb happened_to^be^sitting ^ at dinner beside 
a lady who chattered incessantly. Seeing that her neighbor 
did not attend to what she was saying, she observed* to 
him that he did not seem to be at all the * better for what 
she had been saying to him. "No,* madam," replied 
the humorist, "but this gentleman on the other side of me 
must be much the better for it, since all you have said to me 
has gone'' in at one ear and out at the other." 


A hardware merchant was offering for sale a patented 
apparatus, which, according to its inventor, would enable 
the purchaser to reduce the consumption of gas to one 
half.^ A peasant, who had just settled in the town, entered 
and asked for explanations. " Very^good,^ " he said after 
a few moments, "send me two of these affairs, for I don't 
want to burn any of their dirty gas, at all.^°" 


A horseman was riding along a^road^so^bad " that his 
horse could ^^ scarcely go on. Meeting a countryman, he 

'■"having at heart." ^ ^<? prie voire Reverence de remarquer 
que ... or simply Monsieur le cure. ' " has not been made." 
* Vocab. * " found himself" (impf.). * ^' Yes " {otii, not si) is better 
French than "no," the sense being that of c'estvrai, which could 
itself be used. ^The usual form of the saying is : Cela hii entre par 
une oreille et lui sort par l' autre. * " to diminish by half the con- 
sumption of the gas." ^ Bon here, ''•"toburn any {en) at all, of 
their, etc." For this colloquial redundancy see Pt. I. Ex. 5, note 2. 
""a so bad road." '^Not condl. 



inquired of him the way to reach a certain place. " Keep 
straight on," said the man^on^foot/ " you can't get off 
the road." — " Upon my word, I am afraid you are right," 
said the bespattered traveller, " I only wish I could. ^ " 


One may obtain soap-bubbles with holes in them, by 
setting about it as follows : Hang from the bowl of your 
pipe a silk thread ; make a small loop on this thread by 
tying the lower end of it. When you have thus got your 
loop, plunge it into the soap-suds. As.^soon..^as ^ you blow 
your bubble, the thread sticks to it ; then take a hot knit- 
ting-needle or a piece of blotting-paper and with^^it * touch 
the bubble at the spot where the loop is ; when ^ it will 
be torn throughout the portion surrounded by the thread 
and will dilate, and you will thus see a round hole form in 
the film of the bubble. y^ 


A certain king of France, — Louis XV., according to 
some — on going out to hunt, caused to be carried ® in his 
train forty bottles of wine, which he rarely tasted. One 
day, however, he became thirsty and asked for a glass of 
wine. "Sire, there is no more," was^the^reply.'^ — 
* * How^is^that ? ^ Are the forty bottles no longer car- 
ried?^" — "Yes, Sire, but they are empty." — " Well, let 
there be carried ^" in future forty-one bottles, so that there 
may be ^^ one for me." 

^ Vocab. 2 11 If only I could ! " (Insert le as obj.) ' des que. ♦ en 
aft. vb. if imperative. * Omit. * This passive is not used aft. a fac- 
titive vb. ' Not French. Tr. "replied they {on) to him." * " How 
there is no more ? " See Pt. I. Ex, 22, note 4. "Obs. D. "Use 
emporter here. " se trowver. 



Dean Swift's cook served him one day a leg of muttoin 
too much done. He sent for her and told her to take the 
leg back again and do it less. "Please, your honor," 
said she, "1 can't do it less." — "But, replied the Dean, 
"if it had not been done enough, you could surely^ have 
done it more, could you not P^ " — " To be sure, sir ; very 
easily." — "Why, then," said the Dean, "in [the] future 
when you commit ^ a fault, let it be suchs^^one^as_can * 
be mended. ' ' 


Sir Walter Scott one day met an Irish beggar on the 
street, who asked him for sixpence. As the novelist had 
not a sixpenny-piece about him, he gave the beggar a 
shilling, saying with a kind smile, " Now, remember^ you 
owe me sixpence." — "Sure enough," said the man, 
" and God grant you may live till I pay you ! " 


An eminent physician accepted an invitation to dine 
with some friends. He arrived at the house of his host 
much too early, and, to pass the time, went to take a stroll 
in a churchyard* that was near by. When dinner was 
ready, the host could not find the doctor, and asked where 
he was. One of the guests, having seen him in the church- 
yard, replied : " He is just' paying a visit to some of his 
old patients." 


Lessing, the celebrated German poet, was frequently 
very absent-minded. He had several times noticed the 

^ filen. 2 "is it not?" ' Fut. ^ susceptible de. 'Or "don't for- 
get." 'As the dead are not buried about the churches in France, 
we must use cimetiire, »*.( = "cemetery"). ^Bet. vb. and obj. 


disappearance of small sums of money, without ^ being 
able to discover the guilty person. At last he resolved to 
put 2 the honesty of his servant to^a_trial,^ and on going 
out heleft^ a handful of gold on the table. "You have 
counted it, of course," said one of his friends to him. — 
" Counted it*?" said the poet ; "well no, I forgot that." 


A Viennese lady was expressing very emphatically the 
opinion that French was spoken ^ wretchedly in London. 
Among those present was an English lord, who, feeling 
stung by this remark, replied dryly : " Very true,* mad- 
am, but we have not had the advantage of seeing the 
French army twice '^ in our capital." 


A traveller who had^ entered an inn, one cold evening,' 
to warm himself, stood'" so near the fire-place that he burnt 
his boots. A little urchin, who was sitting in the chimney- 
corner, cried out to him all at once, " Take care, sir, 
you will " burn your spurs." — " You '^ ^lean my boots, I 
suppose," said the traveller. — " No sir," replied the mis- 
chievous fellow, " they are burnt already.^'" 


[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. VI. 17.] 

A dog who was carrying a piece of meat in his mouth,' 
came to a brook across^which^there^was '* a plank. Hav- 
ing arrived at the middle of this narrow bridge, he saw 
his image reflected in the water and imagined it^to^be ^^ 

"^ sans <7M^ with sbjnct. * Take "put to a trial" all together. 
» Aft. "and." *Omit"it." * Obs. D. «"Itistrue." 'Insert after 
"seeing." * Note the auxil., and the government of the vb. 'See 
vocab. 10 Past def. (or indef.). ^^ allez. i^ Sing. >» Obs. F. ""crossed 
by." ^* " that it was." 


another dog like himself. As he was very greedy, he 
wanted ^ to have the second piece of meat, but when he 
opened his mouth to seize it, he let fall the piece he had 
carried so far, and he had ^ to go home without either^ 
the substance or * the shadow. 


An incorrigible duellist, who carried the scars of many 
combats, challenged a barrister. The next day the two 
gentlemen, accompanied by their seconds, met on the 
highway to settle their quarrel. The challenger, being ill, 
asked permission ^ to set his back ^ against a mile-stone. 
" With all my heart," replied the barrister, " on condition 
that you will ^ allow me to stand with my back ^ against 
the next'^ mile-stone." At these words the fire-eater burst 
out laughing and swore that he would ^ never fight with so 
witty an opponent. 


Pound a little coal and put it in a tobacco-pipe, which 
you then ^ stop up with a paste made of clay wetted with 
water. When the paste is dry, put the bowl of the pipe 
into the fire. After a few moments, by setting fire to the 
gas which will be set free and will escape by the stem, you 
will have a good light. When the gas has ^° ceased to 
come off, you may ^^ withdraw from the fire the bowl of 
the pipe, in which you will find tar and coke. This little 
process gives an idea of the way in which illuminating gas 
is produced," on a large scale, in the gas-works of our 

' Not impf. * The past of devoir will serve. 'Omit. * "nor." 
*Def. art. • Vocab. ^ "following," in this case, ^vouloir may be 
used. ^ ensuite, aft. "stop" (which should be made fut.). ^Tut. 
"Obs. D. 


The French Revolution broke out in 1789, and the 
disorders which marked its beginning spread even ^ into 
the theatres. One evening, at the Theatre-Fran^ais, a 
fisticuff encounter took place in the parterre between the 
patriot party ^ and the aristocratic party; and as it was 
thought ^ that the boxes were filled mainly by the aristo- 
crats, apples were thrown ^ at several. The Duchess de 
Biron, who was^struck ^^on^the^head^by^one, sent it 
the next day to Monsieur ^ de la Fayette, with these words : 
* ' Allow me, sir, to offer you the first fruits * of the Revo- 
lution which have^ reached me." 


Simple means of defending oneself against mosquitoes : 
Pour^ into a saucer a little water, and add to it a suffi- 
cient quantity of carbolic acid to form a two per cent 
solution. (Water in which a small quantity of carbolic 
acid has been dissolved ^ is called eau pheniquee.) With 
the ends of the fingers which^have^been ® dipped in this 
liquid, sprinkle both sides of the pillow, the upper part 
of the bed-clothes, and those parts of the curtains and 
wall which are near the head of the bed. You may, if you 
desire, apply ^° some of it to your face and neck, and after 
that you are sure of sleeping in peace. These formidable 
insects dare not cross your line of defence. 

' Vocab. * Note the difference of meaning between parti, m. and 
partie, f. ' Obs. D. * " received one of them on the head." ' The 
.abbreviation M. is generally used, except in direct address. Mons. 
is not used. The Marquis de la Fayette {175 7- 1834) took a very 
active part in the American Revolution, in the French Revolution of 
1789, and again in that of 1830. « Sing. '' Which mood in French ? 
• See p. 69, note 8. » Omit, i" Use reflex, pron. See Obs. G. 


An experienced traveller gives another means, which he 
has used to keep away all sorts of insects. It consists 
simply in rubbing' one's body with olive oil, from head 
to foot, just^before^ going to bed. 

A drunken soldier met a monk on a bridge. The 
soldier, wlio was not fond of the clergy, began at once to 
insult the monk. Receiving no reply, he next gave him 
a box on the ear. The patient monk obeyed the gospel 
precept and turned the other cheek, upon which he re- 
ceived a second blow. Then suddenly turning round, 
he seized the soldier round the waist, saying, "The 
Gospel tells us what we must do after the first blow, but 
it does not say what we are to do after the second." 
And without another^ word ^ he threw the fellow into the 


[Compare La Fontaine, Fables^ Bk. VIII. 9.] 

A certain rat, tired of living in solitude, resolved to 
travel. When he had walked * some miles, he cried out, 
"How large ^ the world is! Here are the Alps and 
yonder are the Pyrenees." At length he arrived at the 
sea-shore, where he saw many oysters on the beach. As 
they were closed, he thought at first that they ^ were ships. 
But he presently" found one^ open, and, being very 
hungry, he decided to taste it. He approaches, thrusts 
out his neck and touches the oyster, which, suddenly 
closing, seizes our traveller's head and for ever^ puts an 

^ Use reflex, pron. See Obs. G. * " at the moment of." ' " a word 
[of] more." * Better, "made." * Not French order. ^ ce. "Fol- 
lows "But." * Supply the pron. bef. vb. ^ Aft. vb. or vb. phrase. 


end to his peregrinations. It would have been better if 
he had stayed at home. 

[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. VIII. 15.] 

A large camel was passing through a village. A great 
number of people were admiring the animal, when a rat 
came out of his hole and thus ^ expressed his surprise: — 
' ' Those people are mad. What can they find to admire 
in that ugly beast ? His neck is'^ too long, and his ears 
too short. And then he has a big hump on his back, I 
am surprised at the stupidity of these men and women. 
Without vanity, I can boast of being better proportioned. 
My '^ head, eyes and ears correspond exactly to the size of 
my body. Indeed, I can't help thinking^that^I^am -^ a 
model of beauty." He would have said more; but a cat 
showed him in a moment that it would have been better 
for him to be a camel. 


The name sympathetic is given to* an ink which, 
though* colorless when used,* comes out clearly when the 
paper is heated * or submitted "^ to the action of a proper 
reagent. If one writes, for instance, with a weak solution 
of chloride of cobalt, the letters will appear of a handsome 
blue, as soon as the paper is presented to the fire. Let 
some * one write on rather thick white paper with oil of 
vitriol (sulphuric acid) weakened by a sufficient quantity 
of water to prevent it from too quickly eating the paper. 
This ink, when dry, cannot^be^seen ^; but let it be held * 

* After the verb. * See Pt. I. Ex. 44, notes 8 and 9. In the last 
case above, tr. '•! have . . . which correspond " or "I have . . . pro- 
portionate." '"thinking myself." *Tr. this first part by: "One 
calls sympathetic." ' Omit. * Obs. D. "^ "or that one submits it." 
The que stands for qitand or lorsque. ' Use fiit. of reflex, vb. 


a moment before the fire, and it will appear of- a brownish 
color. One may also use milk ^ or the juice of onions, 
apples, lemons, etc., which will take on a deep shade 
under the action of the heat. 


At the beginning of the last century, and for more thaii 
forty years later, quarrels were settled ^ in the British Isles 
by duel,^ as they still are^ in France. Curran, the cele- 
brated Irish barrister, having a quarrel with his friend 
Egan, went out with him. The latter was a man of 
enormous size, and when he found himself facing his 
adversary, he complained that Curran, being very small, 
had the advantage of him. — " I'll^tell^you^what,* Mr. 
Egan," replied Curran to him, pistol in hand, " I don't 
want to have any advantage. Let them ^ mark out with 
chalk, on your body, an area equal to [that of] my size, 
and then let us not count the shots which strike ® outside 
of that mark." It^is''' needless to say that, after this 
sally of wit, the duel was not mortal. The adversaries 
exchanged shots ^ without hitting each other, and then 
they shook hands and went off arm in arm. 


The first thing that men learned,^ as soon as they began 
to study nature carefully, was ^^ that some ^^ events take 
place in regular order and that some ^^ causes always give 
rise to the same effects. The sun always rises on one side 
and sets on the other side of the sky ; the changes of the 
moon follow one another in the same order and with 

* No art. here aft. se servir de. ^ Obs. D. In the second case 
above, yrt/r^ may be used. ' Def. art. * "Listen." ' on. * Fut. 
T Omit. *" bullets." *Sbjnct. compd. pres. (Why sbjnct. ?). *° In- 
sert ce and make pt. def. '^ tel. 


similar intervals; some ^ stars never sink below the horizon 
of the place in which we live; the seasons are more or less 
regular; water always flows down-hill; fire always burns; 2 
plants grow up from seed and yield seed, from which like 
plants grow^up^again ; ^ animals are born, grow, reach 
maturity and die, age^after^age,^ in the same way. Thus 
the notion of an order of ^ nature and of a fixity in the 
relation of^cause^and _ effect * between things gradually 
entered the minds of men. — Huxley, 

/ In the winter-time you often notice, on^a clear^sharp^ 
night,'' that the tops of the houses and the trees are 
covered with a white powder called hoar-frost ; and, on 
the windows of the room when^you^wake^up/ you see 
most beautiful figures, like delicate plants. Take a little 
of the hoar-frost, or scrape off some of the stuff that 
makes ^ the window look like ground glass, and you find 
that it melts in your hand and turns to water. It is, in 
fact, ice. And if you look ^'^ at the figures [which are] on 
the window-pane with ^'^ a magnifying glass, you will see 
that they are made up of bits of ice which^have *^ a definite 
shape and are^^ arranged in a regular pattern. — Huxley, 


I am going to give you an idea of what produces 
lightning. If you ^^ rub with a woollen cloth a stick of 

* /^/. * This being ambiguous in French, say, "produces burns," 
or " bums you." ' Place next to " from which " and add "in their 
turn." * Put last. * " in " (or "of the order of nature "). • "of 
(from) cause to effect." ^ " by a clear night and a keen cold " (note 
idiom). * " at your awaking," placed aft. "you see." • " makes the 
window, etc."; say, "gives to the panes the appearance of ground 
glass." 1° "with . . . glass" stands next to "look." " "having." 
12 Omit. " on. 


sealing-wax and ^ bring it near light bodies,^ such_as' 
down, fragments of paper, it attracts them. The sealing- 
wax therefore,* when ^ rubbed, acquires a property, a 
force which attracts. When there is a great deal of this 
force, it manifests itself, moreover, by a spark accom- 
panied by a slight detonation. Apparatuses have® been 
invented in which a plate of resin or glass properly rubbed 
produces sparks of^some^strength.^ Well, these sparks 
are small flashes of lightning. It is the same force, 
developed in the clouds, which produces the thunderbolt. 


Turenne, the famous general and marshal of France, 
was^born ^ in 1611 and was^ killed by a cannon-shot in 
1675. When a young man,^ he was ^ challenged to a duel 
by another officer. What was ^ his reply ? "I cannot ^" 
fight a duel," he answered,*' "for the laws forbid it. '^ 
But I know, '^ as well as you, how to face danger when 
duty allows me.'* There is a bold stroke to be made, 
very useful and honorable ^^ for us, but very dangerous : 
let us go and ask our general for permission to attempt 
it, and we shall see which '® of us two will come off with 
most honor." The officer who had proposed the duel 
considered ^ the scheme so dangerous, in fact, that he 
refused to submit his valor to such a test. 

1 After "and " insert que (to replace the si of the first clause) and 
repeat the subject. (This que requires the sbjnct.) ^ No art. if pre- 
ceded by de (aft. vb. ). ' May be omitted. No art. bef. follg. words. 
* done, after "acquires." * Omit. * Observ. D. '' " fairly strong " (lit. 
" strong enough "). * Not impf. • "In his youth." ^° Savoir m&y 
be used in condl. " Not French order. '^ Duels were so frequent in 
the early part of the seventeenth century, and cost the lives of so many 
noblemen and officers, that severe laws were passed prohibiting duel- 
ling, and several men of high rank were executed for violating these 
laws. ^' " know how to " may here be rendered by the fut. of savoir ; 
then "allows" must also be fiit. ""it me." ^^ Repeat "very." 



[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. I. 5. — The dialogue in this 
exercise should be arranged in the French way, as regards quota- 
tion-marks, dashes, etc. See Pt. I. Ex. 12, A.] 

A fat dog met a lean wolf in a wood. After bidding ^ 
each other good day, they stopped to chat, and the dog 
said to the wolf, " I am sorry to see you so lean; you are 
only skin and bone.''^ Come and live with me. I have a 
good master, a dry bed and plenty of good things to 
eat." — "I should like well to have all that," said the 
wolf, "but what shall'^I^have * to do in return.?" — 
"Nothing worth ^ mentioning," answered the dog. — 
" That would be splendid," said the wolf to himself; but 
being very suspicious, he looked once more at his com- 
panion and noticed that the hair was worn off his neck.s 
— "What has rubbed your neck.''" asked the wolf. — 
' ' Oh ! that is of no consequence, " said the dog, ' ' I wear 
a collar most of the time." — "What for.?" cried the 
wolf, who was beginning to take alarm. — " To carry a 
pretty chain that is fastened to it, "said the other. — "A 
chain?" returned the wolf. " Much obliged to you, my 
friend; but I prefer my liberty." — So saying, he took leave 
of the dog and went to prowl about the forest, more 
content than before. 


[Compare La Fontaine, Fables, Bk. IV. 22.] 

A lark had built her nest in a field of wheat, and she 
was afraid the wheat would ripen ^ before her young 
were^able ^ to fly away. Every day before going to look 

* See Pt. I. Ex. 20, note 2. ^ Vocab. ' The fut. of falloir may be 
used. * "which is worth the trouble of speaking of it." (Sbjnct. of 
valoir. Why?) *" he had the neck peeled. " «Mood? 


for food, she told them to listen attentively to what they 
heard ^ and to tell it to her when she came back.^ 

One day the little birds heard the farmer say ^ to his 
son, " This field is ripe enough; we must' send for our 
friends and neighbors to help us to cut it to-morrow.' 
The young larks were very much frightened, but the 
mother said, " Don't be uneasy. If the farmer depends 
on his friends, the wheat will not be cut to-morrow. " 

The next day, the farmer came again and said to his 
son, " Our neighbors are not coming to help us. We 
can't depend on them. Let us send for your^ uncles and 
cousins; they will doubtless come early to-morrow." 
The little birds, in great fear, repeated these words also 
to their mother. But she was not alarmed, for she knew 
that one can not trust relations any^more ^ than neigh- 

However, the next morning, when the farmer saw that 
no one was coming, he told his son that, as^they^could * 
wait no longer, they should be obliged to cut the wheat 
without assistance. " Now,'^ my children," said the lark, 
' ' we must be gone indeed, ^ for when a man sets to work 
himself, the thing is soon done." 


According to the newspapers, a French doctor has' 
successfully employed a curious means to stop hiccough. 
His^advice^is, '" to close with the ends" of one's fingers 
the external auditory passages, by exerting a certain 
pressure, and to drink at the same time, in small mouth- 
ful s, a little water or other liquid, which some one 

1 Condi. ■•' " who was saying." ' Use i\ faut followed by the infin. 

* " thy." ^ plus inserted aft. " can not," or non plus aft. "relations." 

• " not being able to." ' "This time." * bien aft. il faut. * Condi. 
(Why?) '" " He advises." " May be sing. 


presents in a glass or cup. That is all. The hiccough 
stops instantly. 

It is now known that another method, which had been 
already used for^ hiccough, renders it possible to restore 
to life those^who^have^been_drowned ^ or asphyxiated. ^ 
This means is what is called the rhythmic traction of the 
tongue, practiced at intervals of a few seconds for several 
hours. Cases are mentioned in which, by pulling the 
tongue in this way, drowned persons have^been ^ restored 
after having been three hours without showing '' any sign 
of life. This new method has proved so efficacious, that 
instructions * have been sent to the custom-house officers 
on the coasts of France, regarding * the manner of its em- 


A candidate for the French House of Representatives,' 
who was very anxious to be elected, said to the electors, 
that, in event of his being chosen, he would guarantee to 
supply them with the sort of weather which they pre- 
ferred.^ How could one refuse' one's vote to such a 
candidate ? He was elected, naturally. But he had not 
had time to take his seat ^^ in the House, when one of his 
constituents came and asked him to send some rain. 

"Well, my dear sir, "said the deputy, "why do you 
want rain ? It would spoil your hay, wouldn't it ? " 

" But," said the peasant, " it would, on the other hand, 
do much good to the wheat, and as for my hay, I have 
just got it in." 

1 "against." '^ Tr. by the pt. part. 'Passive. *" giving." 
'Make the vb. active (by using on) and place "instructions" aft. 
"France." *"upon." ' The lower house being called the Chambre 
des deputes, the phrase here is candidal a la deputation. * Condi. 
•"The means of refusing . . !?" i" " to go and sit " (but not j'ajjftJ/r). 


" But what ^ about your neighbor? Has he got his 
hay in ? I fancy that rain would do him harm." 
" Well yes, sir, rain would do him harm, for sure." 
"Ah! you see, my dear sir, there's the difficulty. I 
promised to get you the sort of weather you chose '^ to ask 
for. But in giving you rain, I should do an injury to 
your neighbor. There is only one way. If you take my 
advice, you^will^call ^ a public meeting, and come ^ to an 
agreement about the weather that you all want; and I 
promise you that you shall have it." 


The French language has, according to most gram- 
marians, ten j>arts of speech : the noun or substantive, the 
adjective, the pronoun, the verb, the participle, the 
adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjec- 
tion. — The proper noun always begins with a capital, and 
applies to a single individual, a single place, etc. ; while 
the common noun, which is spelled* with a small letter, 
applies to all the objects of the same sort. — Underline the 
masculine nouns which occur in your dictation. — So/eil is 
of the masculine gender,^ iune is of the feminine gender. 
— The plural is often formed ® by adding the letter 
s to the singular: en/an/ is in'' the singular, enfants is in 
the plural. — Put this word in ''the plural. — What is the 
plural of belail} — ^To what gender and [to what] number 
belongs (of what gender and [of what] number is) each 
of the following words .? — The article (simple, contracted 
or elided) agrees in gender and [in] number with the 
noun to which it relates (which it determines). — There 
are two great classes of adjectives: the qualificative 

^ Vocab. * Condi. * May be made imperat. * Vocab. ' Or : "of 
the masculine," or : "masculine." • Obs. D. ''<J. 


adjectives and the determinative adjectives; and the 
determinatives are of four kinds: the demonstrative 
adjectives, the possessives, the numerals, and the indefi- 
nites. — The adjective must ^ always be made to agree 
in . . . with the noun which it qualifies. — There are five 
kinds of pronouns: the pronouns personal, demonstrative, 
possessive, relative and indefinite. Je, me are pronouns 
of the first person in^ the singular. — The verb agrees in 
number and person with its subject.' The attribute is^ 
the adjective which is joined to the subject by the verb 
to be. — The complements of the verb are words which 
complete the meaning of the verb, by adding the object,* 
the means, the circumstances. The direct complement 
is called also the direct object,^ the indirect complement 
(or object) completes the meaning of the verb by aid of 
any preposition." — By'-^ what does one recognize that a 
verb is of the first conjugation } of the second ? — Conju- 
gate this verb in ^ the active, in the passive. — There are 
five moods, — In^ which mood is avoir} — It is in the 
infinitive. — There are simple tenses, such as the present 
and the preterite [of the] indicative, and compound 
tenses, such as the past indefinite. — This verb is in^ the 
future, pluperfect or past anterior, etc. — A verb may be 
active (transitive), passive, or neuter (intransitive). — 
There are also pronominal (reflexive) verbs, and imper- 
sonal (unipersonal) verbs. — Parse the word aimerais. — 
Verb, active, ist conjug., conditional mood, [in^ the] 

1 " It is necessary always to make agree the adj. in . . ." ^ a. 
'" One calls attribute. " *'but. ^regime. ^ T\iQ completn. indirect 
is not confined, as in Eng., to cases in which " to" is expressed or 
implied, but includes what is sometimes called the complement 
circonstantiel (i.e. adverbial complement or enlargement), because 
it expresses circumstances of time, place, manner, etc. Some use 
complement for a part of a proposition, instead of a particular word or 


present, ist pers. [of thej sing. — The abverb serves to 
modify the signification of . . . . — The preposition serves 
to join (unite) words by marking the relation which they 
have between them; while the conjunction generally 
serves to join two propositions. — There are also adverbial, 
prepositional^ and conjunctional* phrases. — A sentence 
is often made up of several clauses, which in turn may 
contain phrases. — Parsing is the breaking up of a sentence 
into its grammatical elements, such as the noun, article, 
pronoun, etc. [Logical] analysis is the breaking up of 
a sentence into its propositions, and ^ of a proposition 
into its terms. 

^ Vocab. * Omit at option. 





France is bounded on ^ the north-west by the North 
Sea, the Straits of Dover and the English Channel, which 
separate it from England;^ on the west by the Atlantic 
Ocean ; on the south by the river Bidassoa ^ and the 
Pyrenees (which separate it from Spain), and by the 
Mediterranean; on the east by the Alps (which separate 
it from Italy), by Lake* Geneva and the Jura range 
(which separate it from Switzerland), and by the chain of 
the Vosges as far as Mount ^ Donon, which separate it 
from Germany; on the north-east and north, by a con- 
ventional line, which separates it from Germany, from the 
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg^ and from Belgium. 

The territory of France co mprises^ in addition, a few 
small islands scattered along the coast, and a large island, 
Corsica, situated in the Mediterranean, 160'^ kilometres^ 
from the French coast. ^ 

^ h. * Throughout these exercises, the names of countries take the 
article unless there is a note to the contrary. * Use "of the " bef. this 
fem. name. ♦ " the lake of " (No cap. ). ^ Def. art. « No art. '"at 
160 . . . •" 8 The kilometre — | of a mile, roughly. " plur. 



The present area of France is about ^ 528,000 square 
kilometres,^ representing nearly the nineteenth part of the 
area of Europe, and the thousandth part of that of the 
globe. It is the only country which touches ^ at the same 
time the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and the North Sea. 
As it borders on five of the richest states of Europe, and 
is only separated from Great Britain by a strait, it was 
prepared, from the earliest times, to play a very important 
part among the nations of Europe, from * a commercial 
as well as a political point of view.* 

By^reason_of ^its geographical position, France enjoys* 
a considerable diversity of climate and soil, and conse- 
quently a great variety of products. The most wide- 
spread and important culture is thai of the cereals (about 
15 million hectares); and ai^ongtnese the first rank is 
occupied by wheat, which especially abounds in the 
regions of the north and north-west. Oats come next, 
and then, quite in the third rank, r}'e, barley and buck- 
wheat, and lastly maize and millet, which are cultivated 
in relatively small quantities.''' In the mountainous dis- 
tricts and in ^ sandy soil, where the cereals do not succeed 
well, the cultivation of the potato is a valuable resource 
and is spread " over many departments. 


Among the plants that furnish ^^ various industries with 
the raw materials which they work up,* one of the most 
important is the sugar-beet, from which is derived " a 
large part of the sugar consumed in France. Two others, 

^ "of about." ^ The sq. kilom. contains 100 hectares, or abt. 247 
acres, or 0-386 of a sq. mile. ^ Mood ? * Vocab. Put the adjs. last. 
* " Thanks to." 'Note the govt. ' " in quantities relatively small." 
Use (^ans and partit. ^ <i j^ a . . . ." * Reflex. "* Better take constr. 
fournir qqch. a qqn., which is the more usual. ^^Obs. D. 


flax and hemp, yield not only fibres for linen and ropes, 
but also oil-bearing seeds. A third very important oil- 
producing seed is the rape, since it furnishes the oil which 
is burned in lamps, and which is called burning oil; while 
mineral oil, which tends to supersede it, is known by the 
name of petroleum. The tobacco crop is important, but 
no one can cultivate this plant without the authorization 
of the State. It is the State which purchases the raw leaf, 
transforms it into snuff, cigars, etc., in immense manu- 
factories, and then takes charge of its sale, wholesale and 

The meadow lands, natural and artificial, occupy an 
extent of more than seven million hectares,^ and sustain 
great herds of cows, oxen, horses, asses, mules, sheep and 
goats. The principal herbage regions are situated on the 
central table-lands, on the coasts of Normandy ^ and 
Brittany, in the valleys of Lorraine, Franche-Comte and 
Burgundy. There are also about three million hectares 
of dry grazing lands in the mountainous regions, the arid 
plains of Provence and Gascony, and the heath tknds of 
Poitou and Brittany. 

Next to the cereals, the richest product of the soil of 
France is the vine, which occupies about two million 
hectares and produces from 30 to 60 million hectolitres^ 
of wine. It succeeds almost everywhere* except to the 
north of a line which extends from the mouth of the Loire 
to the Meuse, nearly parallel to the north-west coast. 
For some years past this crop has greatly fallen off, by 
reason of the destruction produced in the vineyards by the 

'^Million being a noun requires de aft. it. The hectare r=.;j.'47I 
acres. * Prefix prep, and def. art. to each of these 9 names of old 
provinces, and note the French spelling. ' The hectolitre = 22 impe- 
rial gallons or about 26^ wine measure. *0f all the 87 departments 
(or districts, counties) of France, only some 10 or 1 1 do not cultivate 
the vine. 


phylloxera, a ' very small insect which infests the young 
roots of the plant, and against which it is difficult to find 
any efficacious remedy. 


Among the cultivated trees of Francie, the first rank 
belongs to the mulberry ^ and the olive. ^ It is on the 
mulberry-tree that ^ the silk culture depends, the leaves of 
the white mulberry providing^the^food^of * the silk- 
worms. The mulberry region extends from the Pyrenees 
and the Mediterranean to the central table-land, and then 
northward along the Rhone ^ as far as Macon.* The city 
of Lyons, ^ situated at the confluence of the Rhone and 
the Saone,* is the great centre of the silk manufacture.— 

The olive-tree occupies, in the south of France, a 
narrower zone than the mulberry. It thrives in the 
departments which border on the Gulf of Lyons ^ and the 
Mediterranean, and extends up the Rhone valley beyond 
Avignon. The fruit which^is ^ borne by this tree, and 
which '^ is called the olive, yields the edible oil so much ' 
used in France and [in] the other southern countries of 
Europe. Great ^ quantities of olive oil of an inferior 
quality are consumed ^ in the manufacture of the different 
sorts of soap known by the name of Marseilles soaps. 
Olives are often gathered ^ while * still \green, and after 

^ Omit. ^ In French the name of the plant always differs from 
that of its fruit, and is usually formed from the latter by adding 
—ifr , as : cafeier, theier, citronnier ; but, ttoyer, pecher, orangey. 
^ Verb next.' * "serving to feed." ^Eng. and Fren. forms differ. 
(Vocab.). * Different spelling for city and gulf, which are both 
unlike the Eng. (Vocab.). 'See Pt. I. Ex. i8, note i. » Tr. "One 
makes (There is made) a great consumption of . . . " (No art. aft. 
either "of"). '" One often gathers . . ." 


having been ^ left lying for some time in brine, they are 
eaten, 2 thus pickled, as^a ^ side-dish^ 

The chestnut i^ one of the most valuable trees, on 
account of the food which it supplies * to thelnhabitants 
of the mountainous regions of the Centre of France, where 
cereals and potatoes do not succeed." One of the varieties 
of the grafted chestnut-tree produces a larger fruit, with 
a single kernel, called in French le marron, whence the 
name of this tree, le marronnier . 

Each region of France has its particular fruit-trees. 
The north and north-east h'ave their pear-trees, their 
cherry-trees and especially their apple-trees, which in 
several departments take the place of the vine; while the 
south has its ^ figs, jjeaches, apricbts, orange3 and len\ons, 
as well as its almonds, walnuts, filberts and pistachios. 

One of the most^singulaj^ 'natural products of th£ soil 
is the truffle, a'^ sort of fleshy fnusliK)om, very' savory and 
odoriferous, which has neither^ stem, leaves, flowers, nor 
roots. Truffles are found in the oak and chestnut forests, 
several ^ centimetres under the surface of the ground. To 
discover them and dig them up, peopl'e ^^ sometimes use 
dogs, and especially pigs, which Ire trained for tPis kind 
of work. As the truffle is i n great demand , it forms a 
considerable source of wealth" in several departments of 
the centre of France. * 


'^ The woods and forests of France cover nearly ten 
millions of hectares. The most important of the decidu- 

'" having left them lying . . ." *" one eats them." ^ en. * See 
p. 88, note lo. ^ Repeat in each ca se. * Place " [the] mo^t singular" 
(in plur.) _^er '*'the naturalproducts of the sojl " ; or insert "of 
the" aft. "singular." 'Omit, ^ne bef. vb. and «?' bef. each noun. 
•See p. 87, note 7. "^^on. 


ous trees are the oak, beech, elm, ash, maple, sycamore, 
chestnut, poplar and aspen; while the evergfreen trees are 
represented by the pine and the fir* The oak, which 
itself^alone,^ fills ^ half the French forests, is the most 
valuable of all the trees, for it supplies, at the same time, 
building timber, fire-wood and tan-bark.. The elm and 
beech are^met^ almost everywhere, mnd are highly 
esteemed by the jofher, the wagon-maker and the carriage- 
builder. The beech yields also excellent fire-wood, as 
well as charcoal, of which great quantities are^used,* 
especially _for cookin^ X^ 

The poplar, linden, alder, willow, birch and fir supply 
what is called in France white-wood, in contrast to the 
harder and more deeply^ colored woods like oak.® The 
fir is especially valuable as the tree of the mountain tops,' 
where it thrives up to an altitude of two thousand metres.^ 
The pine is one of the most useful trees, since it yields a 
number of products: among others, turpentine (from 
which spirits of turpentine are obtained*), resin, pitch, 
tar, lamp-black, etc. In certain regions of France where 
there are vast, barren moorlands, the'pine'is used very 
successfully to cover with forest these waste tracts; and 
it renders thg same service on the downs of the coast of 
Gascony, where it serves to stop the destructive invasion 
of the shifting sands. 

Of all the trees which remain to be enumerated,^ one 
of the most imporant is the cork-oak, which occurs only 
in the south, and the bark of which is so much used ^^ in 
the industries. ^^ We might further '^ speak of the linden, ^^ 

'(5 /ui seul, aft. vb. ''"peoples." ' Reflex*, or act. lyijth on. 
* Obs. D. * Omit. « Prefix "the wood of." ' " top (sing.) of the 
mountains." * Or, "2000 metres of altitude" (The metre = 3.281 
feet). • " which it reipains to us to name." ^^ " so employed " ; or, 
" of a so great use («jaf^). " "Sing, ''"still." " Or " lime tree. " 


the acacia, the horse-chestnut, etc. , but these are rather 
ornamental trees than forest species. 


In France people began, ^ some time since, to recognize 
the great act of folly which has been committed in 
stripping so completely the soil, and especially the moun- 
tains, of the trees which once ^ grew there. Owing^to ^ 
these ill-advised clearances, many of the springs and 
brooks have dried up, and the sides of the mountains, being 
no longer protected by the forests, have been denuded by 
the rains and melting snows, which rush down in torrents 
into the valleys, to devastate them and pass away in a few 
days, leaving ruin and barrenness behind them. In short, 
the experience * has been the same * in France as in North 
America^ and in most other countries, and people are 
endeavoring, almost everywhere, to undo the mischief. 
A good beginning has already been made ^ in France, as 
we have seen above: the mountains are gradually being 
rewooded, ^ the moving sands of the downs are being iixed ® 
by planting the pine upon them, and thus the riches of 
the country are being permanently increased.^ 

^ May be pres. if depuis is used after. * " formerly." ' " Thanks 
to." * " one has made the same experience." * Def. art. ^ Obs. D. 


§1 - V 

Paris, the capital of France, is probably, taken all in 
all, the^most^attractive^city ^ in the world. Its climate 
is comparatively moderate. Its sky is clearer than that 
of London, and its atmosphere drier, but its winter is 
more severe.'^ 

This great city, the second in Europe, is pre-eminently 
the centre of gayety and taste, of elegance and art. 
Young men from all the nations of the world go there to 
study, for, in addition to being very celebrated in history, 
it is universally regarded as the seat of the fine arts and 
one of the great centres of knowledge; and the French 
language has-been ^ considered for centuries as the lan- 
guage of cultivated society throughout the whole world. 
It* is therefore not surprising that a throng of people 
go ^ to Paris from the four^quarters ® of the globe, some 
to study, others'' to do business and many others^ to 
enjoy themselves. 

The city is built on both banks of the Seine, which are 
here connected by more than a score of bridges. Not- 
withstanding its comparatively small area, and its popula- 
tion of two millions and a half, there have been provided ^ 
immense open spaces, such as the Jardin des Tuileries, the 

' Reverse order. * Vocab. ' Pres * Ce. * Mood? * "five 
parts." ' d'autres ; {les autres, when only two groups). ^ Obs. D. 



Jardin des Plantes, the Place de la Concorde, the Champs-^ 
Elysees, the Champ de Mars, etc. 

Paris is the first city after Rome in_respect_of ^ the 
number and beauty of its public buildings. Among 
these, the first rank must be assigned to the Louvre, 
formerly a palace, and now transformed into a ^ museum 
of antiquities and a ^ picture-gallery. The most beautiful 
part of the Ttiileries, another* palace near by, which had 
been connected with the Louvre by the two Napoleons, 
was^ burned by the Commune in 1871. The Luxem- 
bourg Palace, famous for its garden and gallery of art, 
was built for Marie de Medicis; it is at present® occupied 
by the Senate of the French Republic. 

The Island of the City, which forms the real centre of 
Paris, and the nucleus of the primitive town, contains 
three very well-kno^n public buildings, namely : the 
cathedral of Notre-Dame, the Hotel de Ville, where '^ the 
municipal authority resides,^ and the Palais de la Cite, a^ 
former residence of the kings, which has " become the seat 
of the Higher Courts of Justice (whence the name of 
Palais'^ de Justice, by which it is often designated). The 
Palais de I'Lnstitut, formerly the^ Palais Mazarin, is quite 
in place in the learned quarter, for it has-been ^ ap- 
propriated, since 1795, to the five academies, or classes, 
which make up the Institute of France, and among which 
the French Academy is by far the best known. The 
Palais des Beaux-Arts contains not only a valuable 
museum, but the celebrated Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which 
attracts pupils from all parts ' of the world. 

' pour. * The occurrence of Palais here does not necessarily imply 
an allusion to the original purpose of the edifice. Cf. Palais de Fln- 
dustrie, Palais des Beaux- Arts, etc. ' Omit. * No art. * Not impf. 
• " to-day," or literally. ^ " where resides." * Pres. • Def. art. 



In the Latin Quarter,^ that is, "the quarter of the 
Schools" and of the students, are found the Sorbonne 
(the seat of the University of Paris, and of the faculties of 
Arts and of Sciences), the College de France (founded by 
Francis I. for the public and gratuitous teaching of'^ 
languages, literature, and the higher mathematical and 
physical sciences, by the most distinguished scholars_and^ 
men^of^science ^ in France), the Ecole de medecine, the 
Acole de droii diXid the. Ecole polytechnique, which have all 
a world-wide reputation. There is no country in ^ the 
world in which one can* find so much free^ instruction. 
Many of the lectures given by the foremost men in litera- 
ture, science and art, are open to all, of_whatever^ 
nationality. The rich museums and the splendid libraries- 
— among which is the Biblioiheque nationale, the largest 
in ^ the world — are all organized in the same spirit of 

Four of the theatres of Paris — the Thedtre-Fran^ais (or 
the Comedie-Fran(aise), the Odeon, the Grand-Opera and 
the Opera-Comique — are subsidized by the State; and the 
dramatic authors, the musical composers and especially 
the actors of France, are famous the world over. 



Among the churches of Paris must'' be named Notre- 
Dame de Paris, the oldest of the Gothic cathedrals in 
France, as well as one of the most magnificent; the 

* Vocab. * Use prep, and def. art. before the three nouns. ' Sa- 
vants usually includes both these classes. * Mood ? ' Not enseigru- 
inent libre, which means that given publicly by professors or schools 
not depending upon the State or the comrnune. Use gratuit instead. 
• " whatever be their ..." ' ilfaut, etc. 


Sainie-Chapelle, a* charming little two-storied church 
which exhibits the lightness of Gothic architecture in its 
perfection; the Pantheon, with its fine portico and its 
dome, formerly the church of * Sainte-Genevtete, which 
was converted by the Revolution into a secular and 
national temple, designed to receive the remains^ of the 
great men of France; the church of the Invalides, sur- 
mounted by an imposing dome, under which were laid, 
in 1840, the bones- of Napoleon I.; and lastly the 
Madeleine, which has the form of an immense Greek tem- 
ple, the^interior ^of_ which ^^ is lighted from abova. ^^ • 
There remain many other objects of interest, the mere 
enumeration of which ^ would be too long; such as, the 
Palais-Royal, the Bourse, the Hotel des Invalides, the two 
tfiumphal arches and the two monumental gates, the ruins 
of the Roman Baths,* the underground passages and the 
sewers, the catacombs, the cemetery ^ of Pere-Lachaise, 
etc. But our promenade in ^ Paris has been long enough 
for-this time, and we shall go on to something else. 

• Omit* * les restes and les cendres are the two most usual words, 
especially in dignified speech. * Reverse order. * thermes (m. pi.) 
is generally used here. * "of the." The place is named after a 
Jesuit father [le Fere La Chaise), confessor of Louis XIV., and hence 
the article must be inserted, as it always is in the case of titles. (.See 
foot of p. 35.) • dans ; not a, which would be too vagu*-. 



In the large cities of France, and especially in Paris, 
the inhabitants are not spread over so great an area as in 
the United Kingdom and North America. The houses 
are all rather high, and each house contains from ^ five to 
seven successive layers of occupants, while in the English 
and American cities, with few exceptions,'"* the house$ 
have but one layer. That is why the city of Paris, the 
second in Europe, with its two millions and a half of in- 
habitants, occupies only a_comparatively^small_space,^ 

In almost all the streets of Paris, the houses on each 
side form, by touching each other, a continuous line, in- 
terrupted only* by the cross streets. As the houses 
resemble each other very much, it is not always easy to 
distinguish them at first glance. Each of these houses, 
in the widest streets, presents a front some twenty metres 
high,^ lighted by six or seven rows of windows and sur- 
mounted by a mansard roof. The main entrance is on a 
level with the foot-pavement, and often in the centre of 
the ground-floor. Above this door is fixed a number, 
which serves as the ^ address for all the people who occupy 
the house, as well as for the shop which is sometimes 

^ May be omitted. ^ "save some exceptions," or, a qtielques ex- 
ceptions pres. ^ Reverse order. * semement. ^ "hi^h of some 
twenty ..." * Omit, 




found on the right or left of the large door, and which 
has usually a door of its own opening ^ on the street. 
Thus it is not the doors which are numbered, but rather 
the houses. 

The main outer door is very high and wide, and it often 
has two leaves. It closes the outer extremity of an arch- 
way which is wide enough to admit a cart or other vehicle, 
and of which the other end opens on the court. Hence 
the name porte cochere, that is, a door through which 
a_coc^e^^can_pass.^ This archway forms the only en- 
trance to the court, the three other sides of^wluch * are 
formed by the wings of the house, ^or by those of the 
adjoining house. The house is arr'anged in this way, so 
that all the rooms may be lighted and ventilated, the 
>yindows of some looking out upon the street, although 
those of the greater number look into the court. 

Now let us gp^through ^ the house. Immediately on 
passing ^ through the porte cochete, one must "^ speak to 
the porter, wh'o lives in a little lodge, with a glass door, 
which is situated on the right or the left in the archway. 
The porter is the guardian of the whole house, and he 
allows no stranger to^pass ^ without asldng him what he 
wants; the glass door enabling him to see all [those] who 
come in or [who] go out. He has often, besides, a pane 
of glass called a vasislas, ^ ^'\\\ch opens at pleasure, to save 
him the trouble of opening his door every time he wishes 
to speak to you.)C^As you may suppose, the porter has 

^ Vocab. ' The word is now almost as rarely used as the vehicle. 
' Put both vbs. bef. subject, ^dont, bef. "the three, etc." ' '• uisit." 
• *' As soon as one passes." ^ il faufvi'x^Xx infin. * Next to " allows " 
{laisser). • From the German : " was ist das ? " 


many duties to perform, among others that of opening the ^» 
main door as_often_as_required/ and at aiiy^ nour oi the 
night. (During^ the day it is almost always open.) But 
he does not get out of bed every time the door has^to^be * 
opened; he has only to pull a cord which hangs at the 
head of his bed, and at once the door opens of ^ itself. 
The lodger steps in, closes the door [again ^] after him, 
and in passing in front of the porter's lodge, gives his 
name. On the other hand, those who wish to go out 
during the night, or very early in the morning, have only 
to cry out, "Cord (or Door), if you please," and the 
door opens immediately. It must be added that in " the 
evening, between the time ^ of closing the door and 
[that of] going to bed, the porter makes use of another 
cord, which hangs beside the arm-chair in which he 
usually sits. '^ You see then what an important personage 
the French porter is, ^" and how necessary ^^ it is to be on 
good terms with him. So, ^"-^ when one rents rooms ^^ in the 
housej )f which he is the Cerberus, one must not omit to 
give him his gold coin (which is called in France the 
denier d Dieu ^*) as also his " Christmas-box " ^^ when New- 
year's day comes round. '^ 

^ " each time that one asks it." * " no matter what." ' May be 
omitted. * il faut with infin. * de. ' Indicate by the prefix. 
' Omit. * " moment." ^ Vocab. i". Bef. the subj., in which position 
it may be replaced by que. " Note French order. ^'^ Ausst, (which, 
when standing first, generally requires vb. bef. subject in "book" 
French.) ''^ " an apartment," i.e. a suite of rooms. "A gift of 
money made to a servant when engaging him or to a porter when 
renting rooms. The term has been retained, not very appropriately, 
from an old custom of devoting a small sum to pious objects, on the 
occasion of all transactions, etc. [Our "earnest-money" (a. different 
thing) is in Fren. /es arrhes (f. pi.), which is etymologically the 
original of the corruption, "earnest."] '* Presents are given, not at 
Christmas, but on New-year's day. i* Fut. and bef. subject 



But we must climb the stair, and we have not seen it 
yet. It is always found in the archway and beyond the 
porter's lodge; and as it serves for all the floors, it is 
always a winding stair. In the little hall at the foot of 
this stair, there lies a large mat, of which one is some- 
times requested to make use, by a notice hung on the 
balusters and ^ which bears the words: Essuyez vos pieds^ 
S. V.P. In many houses the stair has no carpet, and it 
is so well waxed and polished — like all the wooden ^ 
floors, for that matter — that one has to take precautions 
to prevent oneself from slipping. 

In climbing the stair one soon comes to the first land--^£4X 
ing, which is that of the first floor, (In many houses, 
this story is very low, and is called the entresol, so that ^ 
the succeeding stones aYe distixiguished as the first, the 
second, etc., 2!oo\^\v(^auresof/))^^XQ. we see two doors,- 
one on the right and the other on the left, and both fur- 
nished with a bell-cord. Each door leads into what is 
known by the name of an appartenient, that is, a suite of 
rooms completely isolate'd and intended to accommodate 
a household. With few exceptions,*! everybody in Paris 
lives in apartments. But there is nothing to ^ jodicate the 
name, the occupation of the tenant: neither door-plate 
nor card . , . nothirfg. The door-plate is not a^Parisian^ 

A bourgeois "* ' apartment ' is generally composed of from ^ 

* See Pt. I. Ex. 1 8, note i . " Wooden floors are always arranged 
in more or less intricate patterns and are called by the name fi arc^uetL. 
' Not expressing intention, it will be de sorte que. * See p." 98, note 2, 
second rendering, ^pour.^ ^ " in the P. customs (tnaurs)." ^ Near!)' 
the same as " middle-class." * Should be omitted to prevent the 
doubling of de; is often omitted colloquially even in other cases. E.g. 
H mefaut (rente d qnarante kilos. 


five to eight rooms. ^ There is first a small hall, which 
often communicates with the drawing-room; sometimes it 
supplies the place of a corridor, and gives access to dif- 
ferent rooms at the same time. These rooms consist 
of 2 a drawing-room, a dining-room, several bed-rooms, a 
kitchen and a pantry. With an attic room for the servant- 
maid, and a section of the immense cellar [which is] under 
the house, to store up the coals, wood and wine, the 
French household considers itself properly housed; and 
it must be confessed that this arrangement, so different to 
ours, has advantages, and ^ many of them. 

1 "pieces " is used for rooms in a suite. '' Note the French prep, 
following consister. * " and even." 



Obs. a. In short anecdotes and in graphic narration, the use of 
the present tense is very frequent in French; and as it simply re- 
places the past definite, it may occur in the same paragraph with 
the imperfect. 

Obs. B. In nort*hern France, the past (or preterite) definite is 
not much used in colloquial and informal language, its place being 
taken by the preterite (or past) indefinite, and occasionally by the 
imperfect. This should always be remembered in rendering the 
dialogue of the exercises. It should be noted, however, that the 
past definite is often used in sustained narration, which at once 
becomes more ceremonious, even when occurring in an other- 
wise informal setting. 

Similarly, the present subjunctive and the perfect (or compound 
present) are often used for the imperfect and pluperfect subjunc- 
tive, respectively; but school-books are slow to recognize the cus- 
tom, and the French Academy insists on the imperfect in a clause 
depending on a principal clause whose verb is in a compound 
tense. (See also Appendix II, Sequence of Tenses, p. 115.) 

Obs. C. In using the past tenses, take the past (or preterite) 
definite or the narrative present (and in conversation the past in- 
definite), as the narrative tense, to mark the successive steps or 
events ; reserving the imperfect for the verbs which indicate the 
setting or the attendant circumstances of the story, the action or 
condition which is regarded, for the time being, as continuing. It is 
a common error to use the imperfect to indicate action or condition 
which lasted some time (months, years, etc.); but this element of 
duration must usually be disregarded, unless expressly brought 


104 APPENDIX 1. 

into contrast with some single point of time. (Examples of the 
distinctions just stated will be found in Pt. I. Exs. 30, 38, 41, 46, 
48; and of the predominating imperfect in Exs. 20, 25, 39.) 

Obs. D. In an immense number of cases, the passive verb in 
English is best rendered by the corresponding active form with the 
indefinite subject on. E.g. He was asked = On lui demanda[-it]. 

Obs. E. When, for the sake of emphasis, a sentence begins 
with words which are virtually the object of a verb coming later, 
this verb must in French be provided with an appropriate pro- 
nominal object of its own. E.g. Tout cela,jeVai dejd fait. Ce 
qu'il voulait, il le veut encoi'e. 

Obs. F. Adverbs usually follow verbs, and in compound tenses 
stand after the auxiliary ; and after pas with negative verbs, 
except where the sense does not admit of tbis construction. Com- 
pare: 11 nevieni pas ioujours (He does not always come), with line 
ment ioujours pas (Still be does not come, i.e.. He is not here yet). 
So, II ne viendra certainement pas (He certainly won't come). 

Obs. G. Possessive pronouns and adjectives are often replaced 
by the indirect form (dative) of the personal pronoun, which re- 
quires the definite article before the noun: Je me suisfaii couper 
les cheveux. JJn gland lui tomba sur le nez. But in cases where 
the noun stands for something very intimately associated with the 
subject of the verb, the dative pronoun may be omitted when 
the sense is unambiguous: J' ai ferme les yeux. Ouvre la bouche, 
mon enfant. II a eu lajambe emportee par un boulei de canon. 

In speaking of things not forming an essential part of the per- 
son of the agent, the possessive adjective is used as in English: 
Mettez cela dans voire poche. II prend un couteau da7i8 aa poche. 
Otez voire chapeau, Elle meitaii aes boitinea. 


The following details of French punctuation require especial 

attention ; 

The comma {la virgule) is much used, and occurs oftener than 
in English to mark ofE incidental clauses and phrases, especially 
such as are adverbial or adjectival ; and a phrase of this sort be- 
ginning a sentence is almost always followed by a comma. 


Clauses connected by et, ou, or ni, take no comma before the 
conjunction, except when they are of some length, or express 

When the subject of the verb is extended by a determinative 
clause or phrase of some length, a comma is placed before the 
verb, even altbougli no other comma has preceded. 

When the real subject of the verb etre is sef>arated from it by 
the idiomatic ce, the latter is generally preceded by a comma: 
L'Eiat, c'esi moi. Le meilleur allie de Henri IV, c'etait lui-meme. 

So also when tlie real object of a clause is put by inversion 
before the verb (in which case the verb must be given a pro- 
nominal object close to it): Ce que Richelieu fit pour Varmee, il le 
fit davantage encore pour la marine. 

The semicolon {point et virgule, le point virgule) is often found 
where in English a full stop { point final) would generally be used. 

The colon {deux points, le deux points), is used: 1°. Before 
examples and quotations of all sorts (replacing the comma used in 
English, which is rarely found in French);' 2°. Before phrases 
or clauses which explain, amplify, confirm, or resume what has 
just preceded.' 

The mark of excla,ma,tion { point d' exclamation, or point exclama- 
tif) is used after most interjections, except in the case of 6 (to be 
distinguished from oh!), where it is put after the name of the 
person or object apostrophized. 

Qaotation marks {le guillemet ouvrant, le guittemet fermant) are 
much rarer than in English, and are often entirely omitted in 
sustained dialogue — the beginning of the conversation and the 
change of speaker being usually indicated by a new paragraph 
(beginning with a dash) for each speaker. Quotation marks are, 
however, almost invariably used to indicate quoted passages, or 
words other than the dialogue regularly belonging to the narra- 
tive. (For examples, see pp. 9, 37, 50.) 

The use of the full stop {point, point finaZ) after abbreviations 
is the same as in English, with a few noteworthy exceptions. 
Although used after M., MM., and many other abbreviations, it 
is omitted after if"* (or Mme), 3f"« (or Mile), Mo^ (or Mgr), and 
all similar ones ; and also after Roman numerals, as Louis XIV, 

1. For this reason the colon has been used in the English exercises, where 
ordinary usa^re would have placed a comma. 
8. An example of the excessive use of the colon is seen on p. 37. 


Charles X, Napoleon /"", le XIX' Steele, etc. It is always omitted 
(lilte otber similar marks) on tlie title-pages of books, and very 
often after the headings of chapters, sections, etc., when printed 
entirely in capitals. 

Syllabification. — In French, a single consonant between two 
vowels belongs to the second ; of two consonants, the first belongs 
to the preceding vowel and the second to the following one, ex- 
cept when the two consonants are easily pronounced together. 
The following examples show how written or printed words are 
divided — not always in accordance with pronunciation: in-di-vi- 
si-biUte, par-tie, pa-trie, pre-tre, in-hu-ma-ni-te (prn. i-nu . . . )> 
ex-a-mine {prn. eg-za . . . ), al-ler, vi-gne, ecri re, fonc-tion, 
eom-bler, des-agre-able, in egal. 


The following enumeration gives some of the most important 
cases in which capitals are not used in French, together with 
certain exceptions : 

1°. The names of the months and the days of the week. 
For instance, a letter is headed thus: Paris {mardi) {le) 1"" 
Janvier 1901; le lundi, l^juillet 1902, etc. 

2". A common noun forming part of a proper name : 11 
eat cJiez monsieur {madame, etc.) Ouizot ; le cardinal de 
Richelieu ; le due d' Orleans ; les apotres saint Pierre et saint 
Paul; la rue de la Paix y Paris, rue Jioyale, 10; la mer 
Noire ; les iles Britanniques. 

Except cases where the name forms an indivisible whole ' : 
les Champs- Ely sees, lea Mats- Unis, Terre-Neuve, les Pays- 
Bas, etc.; also in proper names which contain the word 
Saint, but which do not denote the saints themselves': {la 
ville de) Saint-Denis, la porte Saint-Martin, la Saint-Jean 
(June 24), {I'eglise de) Saint- Oermain-des-Pr\s. 

3°. An adjective forming the first part of a proper name: 
la basse Bretagne, le bas Canada. 

Except the names of French departments * : lea Baasea- 
Pyreneea, la Eaute-Marne, etc.; also a few other similar 
names' : la Nouvelle- Orleans (New Orleans), la Nouvelle- 

1. In which case the two names are connected by a hyphen, as the exam- 
ples show. 


Ecoase (Nova Scotia), le Nouveau-Brunswick, Ic Royaume- 
Uni de Orande-Bretagne et [eT] Irlande, etc. ^ 

4°. An adjective denoting nationality, except when used 
substantively for a person (though not for a language) : It 
penple frangais, I'Eglise latine, la langue rusae or le russe, 
la langue anglaise or V anglais, le quartier latin (or le 
Quartier latin), la Comedie fran^aite (or la Comedie-Fran- 

But : c^est un Francis, un Busse, une AnglaUe, une 
Beige, etc.^ 
The use of capitals in the titles of books, fables, stories, plays, 
pictures, etc., is not absolutely fixed by custom, but the usage 
indicated in the following remarks is widely followed. 

1°. In titles generally : {a) The definite article takes a 
capital only when beginning a sentence, an enumeration, 

etc. {b) The first noun usually takes a capital, but 

not the noun used as the complement of the first, unless 

itself a proper name. (c) An adjective (or a numeral) 

usually takes a capital when before a noun, but not when 

Examples*: Avez-vous lu les Travailleurs de la merf 
Je viens d'acheter VHittoire des theariea de Veducation en 
Frajice, la Dicine Comedie, les Derniers essais de critique et 
d'Jiistoire et Un beau mariage. La Bevue des Deux Mondes; 
les Deux Sceurs; Un Mariage dans le monde; le Vieux celi- 
bataire; V Annie terrible; le MaZade imaginairey Disctnirs 
et conferences; Nouveaux lundis; Histoire d'un crime; 
Beranger, ses amis et ses ennemis. 

2°. The titles of fables, stories, and plays take a capital 
for the name of each personage, etc. : Le Loup et I'Agneau; 
la Laitiere et le Pot au lait; le Meunier, son Fils et VAne; 
Lions et Benards. 

1. Note also Anglo-Saxons, Franca ScUiens, etc. 

2. It is not to be understood that these represent the only way in which 
capitals are used in titles. The examples themselves are intended to show 
some diversity of usajje in cases which seem to be practically parallel. It 
may be added that the last edition of the Dictionnaire de VAcadimie fran- 
gaise (1878) is very sparing in the use of capitals. 



By a first decree, dated July 31st, 1900, the Minister of Public 
Instruction in France (upon the recommendation of the Conseil 
superieur de Vinstruclion publique), granted to candidates at all 
the examinations under the control of the Government, some lib- 
erty in respect of certain recognized difficulties in French syntax. 
This decree was officially communicated to the French Academy, 
and the Academy appointed a commission of twelve of its mem- 
bers to pronounce upon the document. The commission, in a 
report published in December 1900, while accepting a large part 
of the decree, represented that certain of the tolerances were 
either inconsistent with others' or were in themselves extreme 
and startling. Without following each step of the discussion, it 
is sufficient to say that a new decree (dated February 26th), in 
conformity with the Academy's report, was published on March 
11th, 1901, annulling that of July 31st, and giving effect to the 
reforms agreed upon. A translation of this new decree (with a 
few notes by the translator) is given below. The circular ad- 
dressed by the Minister to the Recteurs d' Academic throughout 
France, and issued with the decree, is not translated, as it merely 
contains general directions which do not materially affect the 
decree itself, nor the appended list. While teachers are allowed 
the liberty to adhere to former usage, examiners are forbidden 
to count as errors any of the authorized reforms. The import- 
ance of the decree to all students of French is therefore quite 

Translation of the Decree op February 26, 1901. 

Art. 1. In either the ordinary or the competitive examinations 
under the control of the Department of Public Instruction, which 



admit special tests of spelling, it shall not be counted as an error 
against the candidates to have availed themselves of the options 
[tolerances] specified in the list appended to the present decree. 

This regulation applies to the valuation of the various answers 
written in the French language, at the ordinary or the competi- 
tive examinations under the control of the Department of Public 
Instruction, which do not admit a special test of spelling. 

Art. 2. The decree of July 31, 1900, is annulled. 

List appended to the Decree. 

Plural or Singular. — In all constructions in which the sense 
allows of taking the substantive complement ' equally well in the 
singular or plural, it shall be permissible* to use either number. 
E.g. des fiabiis de femme or de femmea; — des confitures de gro- 
seille or de groseilles; — des pretres en bonnet carre or en bonnets 
Carres; — Us ont ote leur chapeau or Uurs chapeaux. 


1. Aigle. — Present usage makes this substantive masculine, 
except when it denotes ensigns. E.g. les aigles romaines. 

2. Amour, orgue. — Present usage makes both these words mas- 
culine in the singular. In the plural it shall be permissible to 
make them masculine or feminine, indifferently. E.g. les grandes 
orgues; — un des plus beaux argues; — de folles amours, des 
amours tardifs. 

3. Delice and delices are, in reality, two different words. The 
first is rarely used and somewhat affectedly refined. It is useless 
to notice it in elementary teaching and in exercises. 

4. Automne, enfant. — As these two words are of both genders, it 
is useless to notice them particularly. This observation applies to 
all substantives which are of either gender, indifferently. 

1. The word complement is often used (as ' adjunct ' often is in English) 
for any word or words which complete the meaning of some other word, 
whether the latter be noun or verb. See p. 85. note 6. But note that the 
complement always follows the noun or verb, while the adjunct may not.— 

3. In most cases, the words " (it) shall be permissible" in the translation 
represent the words of the original, on tolirera, followed by the substan- 
tive corresponding to the infinitive of the translation.— (Trans.) 


5. Gens, orge. — In all constructions, the agreement of the 
adjective in the feminine witb tbe word gens shall be permissible. 
E.g. instruits or instruites par r experience, lei nieiUes gens aont 
aoupQonneux or soupQonneuses. 

It shall be permissible to use the word orge in the feminine, 
without exception : orge carree, orge mondee, orge perlee. 

6. Hymne. — There is not sufficient reason for giving this word 
two different meanings, according as it is used in the masculine 
or the feminine. Either gender shall be permissible, whether for 
national songs or for religious songs. E.g. un hel hymne or une 
belle Jiymne. 

7. Paques. — It shall be permissible to use this word in the 
feminine to denote either a date or the religious festival. E.g. d 
Paques proehain or a, Paques procJiaines. 


Plnral of proper names. — In consideration of the extreme obscu- 
rity prevailing in the rules and exceptions taught in the grammars, 
it shall be permissible, in all cases, to add the mark of the plural 
to proper names preceded by the plural article : lea Corneilles as 
well as les Oracques; — des Virgiles (copies) as well as des Vir- 
giles (editions). 

This observation shall apply to the proper names of persons 
when denoting the works of these persons. E.g. des Meissoniers. 

Plural of nouns borrowed from other languages. — When these 
words have been thoroughly incorporated in the French language, 
it shall be permissible to form their plurals according to the gen- 
eral rule. E.g. des exeats^ like des deficits. 

Compound Nouns. 

Compound nonns. — The same compound nouns are at present 

found at one time with a hyphen and at another without it. It 

is useless to fatigue children by teaching them contradictions 

which nothing can justify. The absence of the hyphen in the 

expression pomme de terre does not present it from forming in 

reality a compound word, equally with chef-d'ceuvre, for example. 

Such words shall always be allowed to be written without the 


1. This " toUrance " grives to exeat not only the ' s ' but the accMit, which 
is perhaps a greater innovation.— (Trans.) 



The article before proper names of persons. — It is the custom of 
many to use the article before certain Italian family names : le 
Tasse, le Gorrege, and sometimes, incorrectly, before first names : 
{le) Dante, {le) Guide. — Ignorance of this usage shall not be 
counted as an error. 

Great inconsistency prevails also in the mode of writing the 
article which forms a part of certain French proper names: la 
Fontaine, la Fayette or Lafayette. It is advisable, in dictated 
passages, to state, in the case of proper names containing an arti- 
cle, whether the article is to be separated from the noun or not. 

The article. — When two adjectives joined by et relate to the 
same substantive in such a way as really to denote two different 
things, the omission of the article before the second adjective shall 
be permissible. E.g. I'histoire ancienne et moderne, as well as 
VJiistoire ancienne et la moderne. 

The partitive article. — It shall be permissible to use du, de la, 
des instead of partitive de before a substantive preceded by an 
adjective. E.g. de or du ban pain, de bonne maiide or de la bonne 
vtande, de or des bans fruits. 

The article before 'plus,' 'moins,' etc. — The rule which requires 
the use of le plus, le moins, le mieux as an invariable neuter before 
an adjective denoting the highest degree of the quality possessed 
by the qualified substantive, without comparison with other 
objects, is very subtle and of little use. It is superfluous to take 
notice of it in elementary teaching and in exercises. It shall be 
permissible to use le plus, la plus, les plus, lea moins, les mieux, 
etc., in such constructions as: on a abattu les arbres le plus or les 
plus exposes d la tempete. 


The agrreement of the adjective,— In the phrase sefairefort de, 
the agreement of the adjective shall be permissible. E.g. se 
faire fort, forte, forts, fortes de. . . 

The adjective with several substantives. — When a qualificative 
adjective follows several substantives of different genders, it shall 
always be permissible to put the adjective in the masculine plural, 


no matter what may be the gender of the nearest substantive. 
E.g. appartements et cliambres meubles. 

'Nu,' 'demi,' 'feu.' — It shall be permissible to make these 
adjectives agree with the substantive which they precede. E.g. 
iiu or nus pieds, une demi or demie Jieure (without a hyphen be- 
tween the words), feu or feue la reine. 

Compound adjectives. — It shall be permissible to join the two 
component words in a single word, forming its feminine and its 
plural according to the general rule. E.g. nouveaune, nouveati- 
nee, nouveaunes, nouveaunees ; courtvetu, courtvetue, courtvetus, 
coti7'tvetues, etc. 

But the compound adjectives which denote shades of color 
having become, in consequence of an ellipsis, true invariable sub- 
star tives, are to be treated as invariable words. E.g. des robes 
bleu clair, wrt d'eau, etc., as one says des habits marron. 

Invariable past participles. — Present usage treats as invariable 
the participles approuve, attendu, ci-inclus, ci-joint, excepts, non 
compris, y compi-is, ote, passe, suppose, vu, when placed before the 
substantive to which they relate. Excepte is indeed already classed 
among the prepositions. It shall be permissible to make these 
participles agree or not, aud there shall be no insistence upon the 
application of different rules according as these words are placed 
at the beginning or in the body of the clause [propositioii]. or 
according as the substantive is determinate or not. E.g. ci joint 
or ci joinies les pieces demandees {v/it'koxiX a hyphen between ci 
and the participle); — je vou^ envoie ci joint or cijointe copie de la 

The same liberty shall be permitted for the adjective franc. 
E.g. envoyer franc de port ovfrancJie de port une lettre. 

'Avoir I'air.' — It shall be permissible to write indifferently: 
elle a I'air doux or douce, spiritual or spirituelle. There shall not 
be required of the pupil any knowledge of a subtle distinction in 
meaning according to the agreement of the adjective with the 
word air or with the word denoting the person whose appearance 
[air] is indicated. 

Numeral adjectives. — Vingt, cent. In certain cases, pronuncia- 
tion justifies the existing rule, which makes these two words 
plural when they are multiplied by another number. It shall be 
permissible to make vingt and cent plural even when these words 


are followed by another numeral adjective. Eg. quaire vingt or 
quatre vingta dix hommes ; — quatre cent or quatre cents irente 

The hyphen shall not be required between the word denoting 
the units and the word denoting the tens. E.g. dix sept. 

In denoting the millesimal number in dates [le millesime], it 
shall be permissible to use mille instead of viil, as in indicating 
other numbers. E.g. I' an mil huit cent quatre mngt dix or Van 
mille huit cents quatre vingts dix. • 



Ce. — It shall be permissible to unite the particles ci and Id with 
the pronoun preceding them, and the distinction between qu'est 
eeci, qu'est cela and quest ce ci, qu'est ce Id, shall not be insisted 
upon — It shall be permissible to omit the hyphen in these con- 

Meme. — After a substantive or pronoun in the plural, the agree- 
ment of meme in the plural shall be permissible, and no hyphen 
between meme and the pronoun shall be demanded. E.g. nous 
mimes, les dieux memes. 

Tout. — Before the name of a town the word tout shall be allowed 
to agree with the proper name, without taking account of the 
somewhat subtle distinction between constructions such as toute 
Rome and tout Rome. 

Neither shall it be counted as an error to write in either way, 
supposing a woman to be speaking, je suis toute d vous, ovje suis 
tout d vous. 

. When tout is used in the indefinite sense of chaque, it shall be 
equally permissible to use the singular or the plural of the word 
tout and of the substantive which it accompanies. E.g. des mar- 
chandises de toute sorte or de toutes sortes; — la sottise est de tout 
{tous) temps et de tout (tous) pays. 

Aucan. — With a negation, it shall be permissible to use this 
word as well in the plural as in the singular. E.g. ne faire aucun 
projet or aucuns projets. 

Chacun. — When the pronoun occurs after the verb and relates 
to a plural word, subject or object, it shall be permissible to use 
after chacun the possessive son, sa, sea, or the possessive leur. 


leurs. E.g. Us sont sortis chaeun de son cote or de lew cote;— 
remetire les Uvres chaeun d sa place or d leur place. 


Compound verbs. — It shall be permissible to omit the apos- 
trophe and the hyphen in compound verbs. E.g. entrouvrir, 

Hyphtn. — The absence of the hyphen shall be permitted be- 
tween the verb and the pronominal subject placed after the verb. 

Difference between the apparent and the real subject.— E.g. sa 
maladie sont des vapeurs. There is no need to teach rules for 
such constructions, since their use can only be studied with profit 
during the reading and explanation of texts. This is a question 
of style and not of grammar, and it must be excluded from both 
elementary exercises and examinations. 

Agreement of the verb preceded by several subjects not connected 
by the conjunction 'et.' — If the subjects are not summarized by 
an indefinite word, such as tout, rien, cJiacun, the verb shall 
always be allowed to take the plural. E.g. sa bonte, sa dov^ur le 
font admirer. 

Agreement of the verb preceded by several subjects in the singu- 
lar connected by 'ni,' 'comme,' 'avec,' 'ainsi que,' and other equiva- 
lent phrases. — The verb shall always be allowed to take the 
plural. E.g. ni la douceur ni la force n'y peuvent rien or n'y peut 
rien;— la sante comme la fortune demandent d etre menagees or 
demande a etre menagee; — le general avec quelques officiers sont 
sortis or est sorti du camp; — le chat ainsi que le tigre sont des 
carnivores or est un carnivore. 

Agreement of the verb when the subject is a collective word. — 
Whenever the collective is accompanied by an adjunct [comple- 
ment] in the plural, the verb shall be allowed to agree with the 
adjunct. E g. un pen de connaissances suffit or suffisent. 

Agreement of the verb when the subject is 'plus d'un.' — As 
present usage assigns a singular verb to the subject plus d 'un, 
it shall be permissible to make the verb singular even when plus 
d'un is followed by an adjunct [complement] in the plural. E.g. 
plus d 'un de ces Jiommes etait or etaient d plaindre. 


Agreement of the verb preceded by 'an de ceuz (une de celles) 
qui.' — In what cases must the verb of the relative clause be made 
plural, and in what cases singular? That is a refinement of 
language the introduction of which into elementary exercises or 
examinations must not be attempted. 

'C'est,' 'ce sent.' — As a great diversity of usage prevails re- 
garding the regular use of c'est and ce 8ont, and as the best 
authors have employed c'est to introduce a substantive in the 
plural or a pronoun of the third person in the plural, the use of 
c'est instead of ce sont shall be permissible in all cases. E.g. 
c'est or ce sont des montagnes et des precipices. 

Correspondence or sequence of tenses. — It shall be permissible to 
use the present subjunctive instead of the imperfect in subordi- 
nate clauses [propositions suboi'donnees] depending upon clauses 
whose verb is in the present conditional. E.g. U fatidrait qu'U 
vienne or gu'U vint. 


PrMent participle and verbal adjective. — It is advisable to ad- 
here to the general rule which distinguishes the participle from 
the adjective by the fact that the former indicates an action 
while the latter indicates a state. It is sufficient that pupils and 
candidates should give evidence of good sense in doubtful cases. 
Subtleties must be carefully avoided in the exercises. E.g. des 
sauvages vivent errant or errants dans Us hois. 

Past participle. — There is no need to change the rule which 
requires that the past participle, when used as an epithet,* shall 
agree with the word which it qualifies; and that when used as an 
attribute ^ with the verb etre or an intransitive verb, it shall agree 
with the subject of the verb. E.g. des fruits gates; — ils sont 
tombes; — elles sont tombees. 

As regards the past participle used with the auxiliary avoir: 
when the past participle is followed either by an infinitive or by 
a present or a past participle, it shall be permissible to make it 

L Following the usage of many English grammars, this would read ' as 
an attribute ' or ' attributively.'— (Trans.) 

2. This is the French use of ' attribute ' (attribut), which always indicates 
a word used in the predicate, as is shown on p. 85, 1. 9. In an English gram- 
mar, the words ' as an attribute ' would generally be replaced by the word 
' predicatively.' — (Trans.) 


invariable, whatever may be the gender and number of the ob- 
jects [complements] which precede it. E.g. les fruits que je me 
suis laissS or laisses prendre; — les sauvages que I 'on a trouve or 
trouties errant dans les bois. When the past participle is pre- 
ceded by a collective expression, the participle may be made to 
agree, as preferred, either with the collective or with its adjunct 
[complement]. E.g. lafoule d'Jiommes quej'ai vtie or vus. 


' Ne ' in subordinate clauses. — The employment of this negative 
in a great number of subordinate clauses [propositions subordon- 
nees] gives rise to complicated, difficult and fallacious rules, 
which are often in contradiction with the usage of the most 
classic writers. 

Without regard to rules which vary as the clauses to which 
they relate are affirmative, or negative, or interrogative, it shall 
be permissible to omit the negative ne in subordinate clauses 
depending upon verbs or phrases signifying: 

Empecher, defendre, eviter que, etc. E.g. defendre qu'on vienne 
or qu'on ne vienne; 

Craindre, desesperer, avoir peur, de peur que, etc. E.g. de peur 
qu'il aille or qu'il n'aille; 

Douter, contester, nier que, etc. E.g. je ne douie pas que la 
chose soit vraie or ne soil vraie; 

II tient dpeu, il ne tient pas d, il s'enfaut que, etc. E.g. »i ne 
iient pas a moi que cela sefasse or ne sefasse. 

It shall be permissible also to omit this negative after compara- 
tives and words indicating a comparison: autre, autrement que, 
etc. E.g. I'annee a ete meilleure qu'on I'esperait or qu'on ne 
Vesperait; — les resultats sont autres qu'on le croyait or qu'on ne 
le croyait. 

So also after the phrases a moins que, avant que. E.g. d mains 
qu'on aceorde le pardon or qu'on n'aecorde le pardon. 


At examinations it will be advisable not to count as serious 
errors those which do not indicate a lack of intelligence or of real 
knowledge on the part of the candidates, but which merely show 
ignorance of some nicety of usage or some grammatical subtlety. 


abbrev. abbreviation. 

abt. about. 

Acad. Dictionnaire de I'Acadi^mie 

frangaise, 7" 6dition (1878). 
ace. accusative. 
act. active. 
adj. adjective. 

ad lib. at will, optional rendering. 
adv. adverb. 
advly. adverbially. 
aft. after. 
ans. answer. 
anteced. antecedent. 
App. Appendix. 
art. article. 
auxil. auxiliary. 
6. born, 
be/, before. 
beg. beginning. 
bet. between. 
cap. capital letter. 
cf. (confer) compare. 
ch. chapter. 
colloq. colloquial. 
compar. comparative. 
compd. coinpouad. 
condl. conditional. 
constr. construction. 
coiitr. contraction. 
cp. compare. 

d. died. 

dat. dative (or indirect object). 

def. definite. 

dir. ohj. direct object. 

e. (/■ for example. 
Eng. English. 
esp. especially. 
ex. exercise. 
exclani. exclamatory. 
/., /ew. feminine. 
fam. familiar(ly). 
fig., ftgiir. figuratively. 

folld. followed. 

follg. following. 

fr. from. 

Fr. Fren. French. 

fut. future. 

genliy). generaldy). 

govt, government (of vb. or prep.) 

gram, grammatical(ly). 

'■W asp. aspirate 'h.' (See Vocab. 

p. 131 ) 
inimed. immediately. 
iinperat. imperative. 
impers. impersonal. 
impf. imperfect. 
ind., indie, indicative. 
indir. obj. indirect object. 
inf., infin. infinitive. 
interrog. interrogative. 
intr., intrans. intransitive. 
ir. irregular. 
I. line. 
lit. literally, 
m., masc. masculine. 
manuf. manufacture. 
neg. negative. 
obj. object. 

obs. observation. (See pp. 103, 104.) 
oft. often. 

opp. opposite, opposed. 
p. p. past participle. 
part, participle. 
partit. partitive (de, du, de la, de l\ 

pref. perfect. 
pera. person, personaL 
phr. phrase. 
pi., plur. plural. 
pass, possessive. 
pr. present. 

prep, preposition, prepositive. 
pres. present. 
pret. preterite. 




prn. pronounce(d), 

pron. pronoun. 

pt. past. 

Pt. Part. 

pt. def. past (or preterite) definite 
(criai, vis, fus, etc.). 

pt. indef. past (or preterite) in- 
definite (j'ai crie, je suis venu, 

qqch. ' quelque chose.' 

qqn. ' quelqu'un.' 

refl. reflexive. 

rei., relut. relative. 

rem, remember. 

sbjnct. subjunctive. 

sbst. substantive. 

sent, sentence. 

sg. soujething. 

slid, should. 

sing, singular. 

somet. sometimes. 

subj. subject. 

tr. translate, translated. 

trans, transitive. 

und. under. 

vb. verb. 

voc, vocab. vocabulary. 

IV. with. 


d open (la, part). 

d closed ( pus, pate). 

c obscure {le, ine, te). 

k open (pe/e). 

c closed {ete). 

b open (fort). 

6 closed (cote). 

eu open-^/ewr). 

eu closed (peu). 

8 unvoiced, as ia fosse (=fds). 

z voiced, as in j ose (= roz). 

y resembles Eng. y. 

w resembles Eng. w. 


"*j \ nasalized d, e, 6, eu. 

till ) 

ann ") 


inn \ nasal consonant sounded. 

onn I 



I. pres. indie. 
II. impf. indie. 

III. pret. def. indie. 

IV. fut. ifldic. 
V. condl. 

VI. imperat. 
VII. pres. subjimct. 
VIII. inipf. subjunct. 
IX. pres. part. 
X. past part. 

"I. 4 " in vocabulary definitions means " Part I, Exercise 4." 

The vocabulary treats all verbs in -oir as irregular. 

The asterisk (*) in the Themes of Fart I indicates words not occurring in 
the corresponding French text, nor in tlie foot-notes. 

When words in the text are connected by the sign (— ), the foot-note or 
asterisk applies to the whole expre.-sion so marked. 

Words in the text enclosed in brackets [ ] are to be inserted in the French 
translation. Those so enclosed in the vocabularies convey concise infor- 
mation regarding the use of the word in question, and are meant to be 
adapted to particular cases. 

In the pronunciation given in the vocabulary (which i-epresents ordinary 
speech), the vowels and consonants have their usual French values, except' 
where otherwise indicated. Little attempt is made to distinguish long 
vowels from short, but closed vowels are very often long. 



a, to, at, for, in, on; etre — , to 
l)elongto; c'est a vons de . . ., 
it is for you to . . ., you are 
the one to . . . 

abeille, /. bee. 

abondance, /. abundance, plenty, 

abord, to. approach; d' — , at 
first, first {of all). 

cborder, to approach in order to 
speak, to accost. 

abri, m. shelter; mettre a 1' — , 
to place under shelter, to pro- 

absolament, absolutely. 

abstenir (s'), to abstain, re- 

abstention, /. abstention. 

abstiens, F/ <?/ abstenir. 

absarde, absurd, nonsensical, 

academicien, to. member of an 
academy, academician. 

academie, /. academy. 

accepter, to accept, agree (to). 

accident, m. accident, mishap. 

acoorder, to grant, bestow 

acbeter, to buy, purchase. 

acteur, m. actor. 

action, /. action. 

actrice, /. of actear. 

adieu, adieu, farewell. 

admettre, ir. to admit; accept, 

admirer, to regard with wonder; 
to admire. 

admis, X fl/" admettre. 

adorer, to adore, worship, idolize. 

adresser, to address, send; s' — 
a, to address, turn to. 

affaire,/, affair, business. 

afifame, hungry. 

afin de, iii order to, so as to. 

Agesilas, to. Agesilaus, king oj 
Sparta {B.C. 399-361). 

agir, to act, operate, work; de 
quoi s'agit-il, what is the sub- 
ject (of conversation, narra- 
tion, etc.)? what is the matter? 

agiter, to shake about, toss; 
s' — , to struggle, move about. 

agneau (=: a-nyo). in. lamb. 

agreable, pleasant; agreeable, 

ah ! oh ! ah ! 

aide, f. assistance; venir en — • 
a qqn., to come to one's assist- 

aider, to help, aid; s'— , to help 
oneself, themselves, etc.; to 
help one another. 

aiguillon (= e-gui-yon), to. 

aimable, amiable, loving, win- 

aimer, to love, like, be fond of. 

ainsi, thus, so, in this way. 

air, TO. air; d'un — surpris, with 
a surprised look (expression), 
with a look of surprise. 

aise, /. ease; a son — , in com- -v 
fort, at his (her) leisure, plaus- ' . \ 

alarmer, to alarm, frighten. 

alentoar, adv. (round), about, 




around ; d' — , of the neighbor- 
liood, neighboring. 

Alexandre (= d-lek-sandr), in. 
Alexander (the Great), (5 C. 

allait, Ilofaller. 

AUemagne, /. Germany. 

aller, i?: to go; s'en — , to go 
away; Comment allez-vous'? 
how do you do? how sue you ? 
allez ! I must say, indeed (or 
vse "downright," etc.). 

al'.onger, to lengthen; to stretch 
out (arm, neck, etc.). 

allumer, to light. 

alors, then. 

Alphonse V, Alphonso V., king 
of Aragonfr. I4I6 to 1458. 

altier, proud, haughty. 

ambassade, /. embassy; en — , 
on an embassy, as an ambas- 

ambassadeur, m. ambassador. 

ame, / soul, mind. 

amelioration, f. improvement. 

Amerique, /. America. 

ami, m friend; {pp. 3, SO. S2, 3S) 
mon ami, my good fellow, my 
good man. 

amour m. love. 

an.user, to amuse, entertain; 
b'— a qqch., to trifle one's 
time away over something. 

an, m. year. 

ane, m. ass, donkey. 

aneantir, to reduce to nothing, 
annihilate, obliterate. 

anecdote,/, anecdote. 

ange, 7n. angel. 

Angers (= an-je), m. sg. Im- 
portant city near the con- 
flnence of the Maine and the 
Loire, 190 miles S. E. of 

anglais, English; un Anglais, 
an Englishman. 

animal, m. animal, beast. 

annoncer, to announce, proclaim, 

aout {= ou or aou), m. August, 
apaiser, to appease, calm; s' — , 

to calm down, subside. 
apercevait, // 0/ apercevoir. 
apei'cevoir, ir. to perceive, notice. 

appartement, m. apartments, 
(suite of) rooms, lodging (of 
several rooms). 

appeler, to call, name. 

appetit, m. appetite. 

application,/, diligence, zeal. 

apporter, to bring (by carrying), 
to carry (to). 

approcher, to bring near; to come 
near, approach; s' — de, to ap- 
proach, come near. 

apres, after (takes comp'd or 
past infin ). 

Aragon, m. A province in the N. 
E. of Spain,. 

arbre, 7«. tree. 

argent, m. money. 

aride, arid, dry, 

armee. /'. army. 

Arnauld (Henri) [= ar-no] (B. 
1597 ; (ipp'dnted bishop of An- 
gers in 1649; d. 1692.) 

arranger, 10 arrange ; s' — , to ar- 
range, make ariangements. 

arreter, to stop, arrest; s' — , to 
stop, stay. 

arrhes, /. pi. earnest-money. 

arriver, to arrive, come up ; to 
happen, come to pass, come 

arroser, to water, sprinkle. 

art, in. art ; les beaux-arts, the 
fine arts. 

artillerie {= ar-tiy-ri),f. artil- 

artiste, m. &f. artist; — [drama- 
tique], actor. 

asseoir, ir, to set; s' — , to sit 
down, take one's seat. 

assigner, to assign ^ fix. 

assis (X of asseoir), seated, sit- 



assistants, in. pi. the bystanders, 
o!) lookers, those present. 

assister, to be present, to wit- 
ness; to assist. 

assujettir, to fix, fasten, make 


assurer, to assure, insure, make 

astre, m. heavenly body, lumin- 
ary, star. 
athee (= d-te), m. atheist. 
atome {= d-tom or d-tom), m. 

atom, particle, 
attacher, to fasten, tie. 
attarder, to make late; s' — , to 

delay, linger, stay long. 
attendre, to wait; to wait for; 

— que, to wait till (?o. abjnct. 

foUg.) ; s' — que, to expect 

attention, /. attention, notice, 
attjrer, to attract, draw, 
attribuer, to attribute, ascribe, 
aucun, adj. axiy; pron. any one, 

any ; {imth negative vb.) no ; 

augmenter, to augment, increase, 

ei ha ce. 
Auguste, m. Augustus, 
rujourd'hui, to-day, at present, 
auparavant, adv. before, 
aupres, adv. close by ; — de, 

prep., near, beside, 
auquel, for a lequel. 
Aurelien, m. Aurelian, Roman 

emperor, A.D. 270-275. 
aussi, also, ioo-^bef. adj, or adv.) 

as ; {beginning sentence) so, 

aussitot, immediately; — que, as 

soon as; — dans la maison, as 

soon as he was in the house, 
auteur, m. author, 
authentique, authentic, genuine, 
autour, adt). around, about; 

prep. phr. — de, round, around, 
autre, other ; d'autres, other, 

others; I'unl'autre, each other; 

les ons les autres, one another; 

nous autres, voua autres are 
emphatic forms. 

autrui (invariable, never takes 
art., adj or pron.. and ix al- 
ways object.), another, others. 

au(x), contr. o/a -f- le(s). 

avaler, to swallow. 

avance. /. advance; d' — , before- 
hand, in anticipation. 

avancer, to advance; s' — - to 
come (go) forward, advance. 

avare, m. miser. 

avec, with. 

avertir, to warn, give notice. 

aveugle, adj. blind; sbst. blind 

avis, m. opinion. 

aviser (s'), to take it into one's 
hejid; (p, 48) to think; to pre- 
sume, venture. 

avoir, ir. to have, to get; il y a, 
there is {or are); quy a-til? 
what is there ? ce qu'il y 
avait. what was the matter; 
il y a trois jours, three days 
ago; il y a un an queje I'ai, 
I have hud him for a year 
past; qu'avez-vous, what is 
the matter with you? 

avouer, to confess, own. 


Babylone (= bd-Ulbnn), f. 
Babylon, on the Euphrates, 
capital of ancient Chaldea. 

baisser, to lower, bend down. 

balancer, to balance, equalize. 

balbutier (= bdl-bu-sye), to 

bannir, to banish. 

barbe, /. beard. 

bas, adj. low; sbst. bottom, foot. 

bataille, /. battle. 

baton, m stick, staff. 

batterie, /. battery. 

beau, bel, fine, beautiful; il 
aura — dire, he may say what 
he likes, it will be no use for 



liim to speak, lie will speak 
in vain. 

beaucoup, nmcli, many, a great 
deal or many. 

beaute,/. beauty. 

beaux-arts (= huzar), m pi. 
fine arts; I'Ecole des B-A., 
the Art School in Paris. 

bee, 77?. beak, bill. 

belier, m. ram. 

berger, in. sbepberd. 

besogne,/". wt.rk, task. 

besoin, m. need, want; avoir — 
de, to have need of or to, to 

betail {pi. bestiaux from an old 
form, bestial), m. live-stock 
in general {except poultry), 

bete,/, beast; adj., stupid. 

beurre, m. butter. 

bibliotheque, /. library; la B — 
nationale,./b?/n(i('(^ hy Francis 
I., is one of the greatest treas- 
ures of France. 

bien, well, indeed; very, much; 
vous faites — de . . . , you do 
well to ... ; je le veux — 
{see vouloir); bien d'autres tra- 
vaux, far severer toil ; — plus, 
much more. 

bien, m. good, right; faire le — , 
to do right. 

bienfaiteur, m. benefactor. 

bien que, although, {takes 

blesser, to wound, hurt. 

blessure, /. wound. 

boire, iv. to drink. 

bois, m. wood. 

bon, good, kind; {as exclama- 
tion) very good. 

bonheur, m,. happiness. 

bonte, /. kindness; avec — , 

borgne, adj. blind of one eye; 
shst. one-eyed person. 

borne, /. boundary, limit, 

boue, f. mud, mire. 

boule, /. ball [iji. general); jeu 
de — 8, the game of bowl.s. 

boulet, m. i\ cannon-ball. 

bourbier, m. slough, miry hole. 

bourgeois, m. burgess, citizen, 
commoner; {as distinguished 
from the nobility, and from the 
artisans and peasants) shop- 
keeper, retired tradesman, 

bourgeois, adj. middle-class, 
" bourgeois." 

bourse,/ purse {inform of bag); 
la Bourse, the Exchange. 

bout, m. end, extremity, point; 
en venir a — , to accomplish 
it, manage it; {of time) au — 
de, after, at the end of. 

branche,/. branch, bough. 

breton, adj. Breton, i.e. native 
of Brittany (La Bretagne). 

brillant {" II" = y), brilliant, 
shining, lustrous. 

brin, m. blade. 

bruit, m. noise, sound. 

bu, X</ boire. 

buisson, to. a clump of shrubs, 
a thicket. 

but, m. aim, object toward 
whicli something tends. 

butin, TO. booty, plunder, spoils; 
faire du — , to take plunder, 

cabriolet, to. cabriolet, cab. 

cafeier, m. coffee-plant. 

calife, TO. caliph. 

calomnie, /. calumny, slander. 

campagne, /. field(s), open 
country (about a town); coun- 
try {as opposed to town). 

candidat, to. candidate (for = 
a). ^ 

Canope (= ka-nop), f. CanOpus. 
(Seep. 35.) 

caporal, to. corporal. 

car, conj. for, because. 



caractere, m. character, dispo- 
sition, temper. 

car esse, /. cai ess. 

carotte, /. carrot. 

casque, m. helmet. 

casser, to break. 

cause, /. cause. 

causer, to cause, produce. 

ce, cat, cette. ces, adj. this, that. 

ce,pron. it; this,that; c'e8t,it(he) 
is; ce sent, it is, they are; ce 
qui (that which), what; {with 
clause for anteced.) which; ce 
que, what. 

cela, that, this. 

celebre, celebrated, famous. 

celui, celle, ceux. celles, pron. 
{must be folld. by determining 
phrase or relat. clause), that, 
(those) the one(s), he (she, 
they), him (her, them); celui 
qui, he who. 

celui-ci {see celui), pron. this 
one, tills person, man etc.; 
the latter. 

celai-la {see celui), pron. that 
one, that person, man, etc.; 
the former. 

cendre, /. ash, ashes; {in plur., 
figur.) ashes, mortal remains 
of a person. 

cent, (a) hundred. 

eependant, however, yet, never- 

cerf (= serf or ser), m. (red) 
deer, stag. 

certain, certain. 

cesse, /. rarely used except in 
sans — , without ceasing, in- 
cessantly, continually. 

ceux, see celui. 
^chacun, pron. each (one), every 

chambre, /. room; — a coucher, 
bedroom. Chambre des depu- 
tes (the lower legislative house 
in France), Chamber of Dep- 
champ, m. field; sur-le-cbamp, 

at once; — de foire, fair- 
ground. Champs-^lysees (= 
sham elize)[lit. ElysianFields], 
extensive Hardens pi'olonged 
into wide boulevards, planted 
with trees and shrubbery. 
Champde Mars ( = shan-d-mo/rss) 
\lit. Field of Mars], an open 
space of above 100 acres, orig- 
inally created for the drilling 
and reviewing of troops; has 
been temporarily occupied by 
each of the four great Exhibi- 

changer, to change. 

chant, 7«. singing. 

chanter, to sing. 

chapeau, in. hat. 

chapelle, /. chapel; la Sainte- 
Chapelle, built by Louis IX., in 
1245-6, for the sacred relics 
now at Notre-Dame. 

chaque, adj. each, every. 

charger, to load. 

charite, /. charity ; alms. 

charrette,/. cart. 

chasser, to put to flight, drive 

chasseur, m. huntsman, hunter. 

chaud, warm, hot. 

chef (= chef), m. leader, com- 

cheminee, /. chimney, fire-place, 

chene, m. oak. 

cher, dear, precious. 

chercher, to search, look for; to 
seek, try. 

cherir, to cherish, love ten- 

cheval, m. horse; a — , on horse- 
back, astride. 

chevre,/. (she-) goat. 

chevreuil, m. roebuck. 

chez, prep, at (to or in) the 
house of ... ; — lui, home, at 
home; de — lui, from where 
he lived, away. 

chien, m. dog. 

, chose, /. thing, matter, affair; 



qaelqne — {forming a sort of 
masc. hbiit.) something, any- 

ehou, m. cabbage. 

ciel, m. sky, heaven. 

cigogne, /. stork. 

cimetiere, m. cemetery. {See 
p. 72, note 6.) 

cinq, five. 

circnler, to circulate, move 

cite, /. city, esp. the oldest part 
of a large city, regarded as its 

citer, to cite, quote. 

citoyen, m. citizen. 

citronnier, m. lemon-tree. 

citrouille, /. pumpkin. 

clair, clear, bright. 

clef (= kle),f. key. 

climat, in. climate. 

coche, m. coach. 

cochere, adj. f. as in porte — , 

coBur, VI. heart; de bon — , heart- 
ily, cordially. 

eolere, /. anger, wrath. 

college, 7n. {In our day) a. sec- 
ondary school depending on 
municipal support. (Special 
case) le College de France, the 
highest educational institution 
in France. 

colossal, colossal, gigantic. 

combien, how much, how many; 
(before adj.) how; — etes- 
vous 1 how many are there of 
you ? 

comedie,/. comedy: la Comedic- 
Fran9aise {see under theatre). 

comique, comic. 

commandant, m. A title given in 
France to the chief officer of a 
battalion of infantry, oi' a 
squadron of cavalry or artil- 

commander, to command, enjoin. 

comme, as, how; like; {seep. 33). 
— il est change ! how changed 

lie is! gros — 


commencement, m. beginning. 

commencer, to begin. 

comment, how, what! — celal 
how so ? — faire ? what is 
(was) to be done? — des cor- 
nea? {Seep. 18, note 4.) 

commis, m. clerk; — voyageur, 
commercial traveller. 

commission,/, commission, mes- 
sage ; faire une — , to execute 
(do) a commission. 

commun, common, ordinary ; 
common {to several), general. 

commune, /. In France a town, 
village or collection of hamlets, 
forming the smallest terri- 
torial unit, and administered 
by a maire and council. (Spe- 
cial case : The Commune of 
1871, the revolutionary body 
which attempted to set up in- 
dependent government in Paris 
after the departure of the Qei'- 
man troops.) 

complement, m. complement, 
object. (Seep. 85, note 6.) 

comprendre, ir. to understand, 

comprenez. I ) of 

compris, III and X) comprendre. 

compter, to count. 

concluez, 7o/conclure. 

conclure, ir. to conclude, 

conclusion, /. conclusion, infer- 

Concorde, /. concord, harmony. 
Place de la C — . (See under 


terms; a 

condaire, ir. to conduct, lead, 
take ; to drive (horses, carri- 

{ = kon-dd-ne), to 


condition ; (pi.) 
que, on condition 



J •* r J A' - of conduire. 
conduit, i una A ) •' 

conduite, / conduct, bebavior. 

confiance,/. trust, reb'ance. 

conformement, in accordance 

conge, TO. leave. 

conjurer, to beseecb, implore, 

connaissait, //o/connaitre. 

connaitre, ir. to know, be ac- 
quainted witb. 

connu, (X of connaitre,) known, 

conquete, /. conquest. 

consequent, consequent ; par — , 
consequently, tberefore. 

conserver, to preserve, maintain, 
keei) safe. 

considerer, to consider, regard. 

consister, to consist. — en {bef. 
general terms), — dans (bef. 
definitely qualified terms), — a 
{bef. infinitives), to consist of, 
consist in. 

consoler, to comfort, console. 

constellation {both ' I's' are 
often sounded), f. constella- 

construire, ir. to construct, build. 

contempler, to contemplate ; to 
gaze at; to meditate upon. 

contenaient, // of contenir. 

contenir, ir. to contain. 

content, content, satisfied, 

contenter, to satisfy; se — de, to 
be satisfied witb. 

continuer, to continue, go on. 

contraire, contrary, opposite ; 
au — , on tbe contrary. 

contraste, m. contrast. 

centre, against. 

contree, /. country, region. 

corde, /. rope, line. 

corne./.born; betes a — s, borned 

correspondance, f. correspon- 

costume, m. costume, dress. 

cou, in. neck. '^ 

eoucher, to put to bed; se — , to , 

go to bed, lie down; etait 

couche, was lying. 
coup, TO. stroke, tbrow; — de 

vent, a gust of wind. 

couper, to cut, cut off. 

cour,/. court. 

courage, to. courage, bravery. 

conrber, to bend, bow. 

courir, ir. to run. 

court, sbort. 

cousin, TO. gnat, mosquito. 

couteau, to. knife. 

couvert. X ) j^. 

. r 77 >■ of couvrir. 
couvrait, JI ) •' 

couvrir, ir. to cover; — de, to 

cover witb. 

couvrirent, I r/r^r -»„„,;, 
couvrit. \ III of convriT. 

craignait, // of craindre. 
craindre, ir. to fear, dread, be 

afraid of. 
Grains, Jo/ craindre. 
crainte,/. fear. 
craintif, timid. 
createur, m,. creator, 
creature,/, creature, thing. 
Crete,/, crest, top, summit. 
creux, adj. bollow; sbst. hollow, 

crier, to cry out, call; — an 

seconrs, to cry (call) for 

croire, ir. to believe; to think; 

— ■ a, to believe in. (But — 

en Dieu.) 
orois, I and PT of croire. ■ 
croissent, / of croitre. 
croitre, ir. to grow. 
croyait, II \ 

croyez, land F/ >■ o/" croire. 
oru, X S 

cnpidite, /. cupidity, avarice, 
cure,/, cure. 
cure, TO. {the priest at the 

head of a parish), parish 





daim, m if. daine), (fallow-) 
deer, buck. 

dame,/, lady. 

danger, m. danger, peril. 

dans. In, into, to; — huit jours, 
in {i.e. at the end of) a week. 

de, of, from; \- infin.,\,o\ d'un 

ton hautain, in a haughty tone, 
faisliion; de cette maniere, 
fa^on, in that way; as a mark 
of measure, = by how much, 
is not usually trnnslated: e.g. 
s'elever de qnelques pieds , plus 
long de 3 centimetres; quelqae 
chose de bon, something good; 
cela de bon, this {or that) good 

debarrasser, to rid; se — de, to 
get rid of. 

debiter, to sell by retail; to pour 

debout, upright, standing, 

decamper, to decamp, make off. 

decourage, discouraged, despon- 
dent, which has lost courage. 

decouvert, X of decouvrir. 

decouverte, /. discovery; envoyer 
a la — , to send out to recon- 

decouvrir, ir. to discover. 

dedans, adv. inside, in the inte- 

defendre, to defend; to forbid, 
{shjnct. in subord. clause). 

defile VI. defile, pass. 

degager, to release, detach. 

dehors, adv. outside out of 

deja, already. 

delasser, to rest; se — , to rest, 
take relaxation, recreation, 

demain, to-morrow. 

demande, /. question. 

demander, to ask, ask for, de- 
mand, order {see I Ji, vote 4); 
— qqch. a qqn., to ask :?onie 
one for something. 

demasquer, fo unmask, expose, 
demeurer, to remain, stay, 
denier, m. An old French coin, 

the twelfth part of a sou ; — a 

Dieu {lit. God's pence). See p. 

dependre, to depend (de, on, 

depeus. m. pi. cost or expense. 

\liaresavc iu aux — de qqn.] 
depouiller, to strip, denude, 

make bare, 
depuis, adv. since; afterwards, 
deputation, /. deputation; the 

position of member of the 

Chambre des deputes; candidat 

a la — , candidate for election 

to that body. 
depute, m. deputy; member of 

the lower legislative body in 

dernier, last, 
derober, to steal, 
derriere, behind, 
des, contr. of t% -\- les usedpar- 

titively or otherwise. 
des, pi-ep. immediately, from a 

given moment, as in des ce 

moment, — aujourd'hui, — a 

des que, conj. (from) the moment 

that, as soon as. 
desarme, deprived of defensive 

{or offensive) arms, defence- 
desc ndre (= desandr), to de- 
scend, go or comedown; — de 

cteval, to dismount, 
designer, to designate, denote, 

desir, m. desire, wish, 
dessein {— de-sin), m. design, 

purpose: a — de, with the 

intention of. 
dessus, adv. on the top, above; 

prep, de — , from (upon), from 

over, from (off), 
destiner, to intend, 
detacher, to detacli, separate. 



deux, two. 

devant, (place) before; aller an — 
devant de qqn. , to go (coiue^ to 
meet one 

devenir, ir. to btscome; que de- 
viendraient . . . ? what would 
become of ... ? qa'est-il de 
venuT what has become of him? 

devena, X ) 

deviant, / V of devenir. 

devint. VIII ) 

devoir, m. duty. 

devoir, ir. to owe, be obliged to, 
[should, ought]; on ne doit pas 
dire . . ., one must not say . . . ; 
od Ton doit se conclier, in 
which one is to sleep; qui 
devait . . . rendre, who was 
destined to render . . . ; il au- 
rait du le dire, he ought to 
have said so. 

devorer, to devour, consume. 

diable (= dydbl or dydbl), m. 

diamant (= dyd-man), m. dia- 

dieter, to dictate. 

diclionnaire, m. dictionary. 

Dieu, 771. God; mon — , dear me! 
bless me ! well ! 

difference, /. difference. 

different, different. 

difficile, difficult, hard. 

difficulte, /. diificulty, opposi- 
tion, trouble, 

digne, worthy. 

dindon, m. turkey (-cock). 

diner, m. dinner. 

dire, ir. to say, tell; c'est-a-dire, 
that is (to say), namely. 

dirent. III of dire. 

diriger, to direct, guide; se — , 
to move, go or come ; to turn 
one's steps. 

disait,^/ I ^^;,.,„ 

disant, IX \ ^•^*'"- 

disciple, ?«. iiisciple. 

discuter, t« discuss, debate, ar- 

disparaitre, ir. to disappear. 

dispara, A" o/ disparaitre -^ 

disposer, to dispose. 

dispute,/, dispute, quarrel. 

disputer, to dispute. 

dit. /, III and X I „f.,^ 

ditea, I and VI j "/ <*"«• 

divertir, to divert, amuse. 

diviser, to divide. 

docteur, m. doctor. 

doit, /^'devoir. 

dominicain, m. Domi n ican (friar). 
Black Friar. 

done, then, therefore. {In ques- 
tions it has often no Eng. 

donner, to give. 

dont, of which, of whom, 

dormait, II of dorvtav. 

dormir, ir. to sleep. 

doucement, agreeably, kindly. 

douceur, /. sweetness; {pi.) com- 
forts, sweets. 

douleur, /. pain, sorrow, grief. 

doute, m. (ioubt. 

douter {generally intrans. and 
folld. by de), to doubt, (be in) 
doubt about. 

doutenz, doubtful, uncertain. 

douzaine, /. dozen. 

douze, twelve. 

droit, adj. straight ; right {ojyp. 

droit, in. right ; law ; avoir — a, 
to have a right to {w. shst.): 
r^cole de — , the Law-Schooi. 

du, contr. for de -}- le 

dn, Xo/ devoir. 

ducat (*<' silent), v). ducat 
{worth from 10 to 12 franca). 

durant, during. 

dureir, to harden. 

durer, to last, continue. 


eau, /. water. 

eclair, m. (flash of) lightning. 



eclaircir, to clear up, explain. 

eclairer, to give light to, en 

ecole, /. school; f! — polytech- 
nique, a celebrated Govern- 
ment school which preparcti 
young men for certain 
iyranches of the civil and mili- 
tary service. 

ecouter {trans.) to listen to; 
{intrans.) to listen. 

ecraser, to crush, smash. V 

eerier (s'), to exclaim, cry out. 

ecrire, ir. to write. 

ecrivain, m. writer, scribe. 

ecrivait, II of ecrire. 

effet, m. efEect, result; en — , 
indeed, in fact, (often con- 
firming a preceding affirma- 

efficacite, /. efficacy. 

effort, m. effort, endeavor. 

egal, equal. 

egalement, equally. 

egalite,/. equality. 

egolsme, m. selfishness. 

eh bien ! well then, well, very 

elancer (s*), to spring forward 
(forth, out, etc.). 

elever, to raise; s' — , to rise. 

elle, she, it. 

embarquer, trans, to embark; 
s' — , to go on board, embark. 

embarrasser, to embarrass, puz- 
zle, perplex ; embarrasse, in 
trouble, uncomfortable. 

emonvoir, ir. to move, excite; 
s' — , to be moved, excited. 

empecher, to prevent, hinder. 

empereur, m. emperor. 

empire, m. empire. 

emplette, /. purchase. 

emploi, m. use. 

employer, to employ, make use 
of, use. 

emporter, to carry away. 

empresse, eager, beforehand. 

empresser (s'), to hasten (eagerly). 

en, pron. and adv. of it, of 
them; by (at, from) it 07' them; 

— faire, to do with it (them), 
make of it (them); 11 y — a, 
there are some (or any); 11 y 

— avalt de beaux, there were 
some handsome ones; j'en sals 
an . . ., I know (of) a . . . one; 
en rire, to laugh at it ; j'en 
viens, I am coining from 
there. (In many cases en 
cannot he rendered; eg. en 
user mal avec qqn. ; en venir a 

en, prep, in, into, to, as, on ; 

\- pres. part., in, on, by 

{often not to be translated); fait 
(talUe) en bols, made of (carved 
in, out of) wood. 

encore, still, yet, again, even; 

— un, (yet) another, one more, 
encourager, to encourage, 
endormir, ir. to put to sleep; 

s' — , to fall asleep. 

endrolt. m. place, spot. 

enduire, ir. to coat, smear. 

enduit, Xo/ enduire. 

enfant, m. i&f. child. 

enfin, at last, in the end; in 
short, well. 

enfoncer (s'), to sink, to go down. 

engagement, m. agreement ; 
prendre un — , to make an 
agreement, engagement. 

engluer, to lime ; s' — , to be 
caught {by bird-lime, etc.), to 
stick fast. 

enlever, to take away, carry 

enneml (= enn-mi), m. enemy. 

enorme, enormous, huge. 

enrage {of dogs, etc.), mad. 

enrichir, to enrich (de, with). 

enseignement, m. teaching, in- 

ensemble, together. 

ensevelir, to bury. 

ensuite, then (after that), next. 

entendre, to intend; {p. 13) to 



choose, to please; to bear; to 

enterrer, to bury, 
entierement, entirely, complete- 
entre. between, among, 
entree,/, entrance, entry, 
entrer, intrans. to go (or come) 

in, enter, 
entresol, m. [lit. between-floor), 

a low story between the ground- 

flo'ir and first jlooi'. 
entrevoir, ir. to bave (get) a 

glimpse of, surmise, 
envelopper, to wrap up. 
environner, to surround, 
envoyer, to send, 
epier, to watcb stealthily, 
ep^ne, /. thorn, 
epaiser, to exhaust, 
escarpe. steep, precipitous, 
esperance, /. hope, 
esperer, to hope (for), 
espoir, m. hope, expectation, 
esprit, m. spirit, soul, mind; 

disembodied spirit, ghost; — 

fort, free thinker, sceptic, 
essayer, to try, attempt 
essuyer, to wipe {a person or 

thing); to wipe off {dust, mud, 

et, and. 

etaler, to spread out. 
etat, m. state, copdition. 
ete, m. summer, 
etendue, /. extent, compass, 
etincelle, /. spark, 
etoile,/. star, 
etonner, to astonish, 
etranger, adj. foreign ; sbst. 

foreigner; a I'etranger, in (to) 

foreign countries, abroad. 
Stre, ir. to be; — a, to belong 

to, etc. {see also under a); 

il est (in elevated language), 

there is, there are. 
etre, ?«. being, existence, 
etroit, narrow, 
etude,/, study. 

eux, m pi. they, them. ^ 

eux-memes, ?«. pi. themselves. 

eveque, 7n. bishop. 

evidence. /. evidence, proof. 

evident, evident, clear. 

eviter, to avoid, escape. 

exact (= eg-zdkt or eg-zd), 
prompt, punctual. 

exactitude (= ig-zdk-ti-tud), f. 
punctuality, exactness. 

excuse. /. excuse, apology. 

excuser, to excuse ; s'en — , to 
excuse himself for it. 

executor (= eg-ze-cu-te), to exe- 
cute, accomplish, fulfil. 

ezemple (= eg-znnpl), m. ex- 
ample; par — , for instance, for 
example ; prendre — de or 
sur . . ., to take an example 
from . . ., to follow the exam- 
ple of . . . 

eziger (= eg-zi-je), to exact, de- 
mand, require. 

existence (= eg-zis-tans), f. 
ence. explain, account for. 

exterieur, outward, exterior ; 
a 1 — , on the outside. 

extreme, extreme. 

extremement. extremely, exceed- 
ingly, excessively. 

facher, to make angry; se — , to 

get angry, 
faible, adj. weak, feeble ; sbst. 

le — , the weak man. 
failli. Xc/faillir. 
faillir, ir. to fail; to be on the 

point of, just miss, be very 

near, etc. 
faim. /. hunger; avoir — , to be 

hungry ; monrir de — , to 

starve, die of hunger, 
faire ir. to make ; to do ; to 

cause (to be done) ; to say ; 

faire qqch. . . . de qqch., to do 

. . . with, to make ... of ; rien 



a faire, nothing to do (w be 
done); (se) faire nne question, 
to ask (oneself) a question; 

— entrer, to show in ; faire 
venir, to send for; faire vivre, 
to support, keep alive; le faire 
sortir, to get him out; faire le 
mort, to pretend to be dead; 

— I'esprit fort, to pose as a 

free-thinker; il fait froid, it is 


fais. I and VI | ^^tnir.^ 
faisait. // \offB.iTe. 

fait, I a7id X of faire; comme 
vous voila — I what a sight 
you are ! 

fait {'t' often sounded), m. fact. 

faites, I and VI of faire. 

falaise, /. cliff. 

fallait, Zfo/falloir. 

falloir, ir. impersonal, to be 
necessary; il lui fallut . . ., he 
was obi iged to . . . ; il faut que 
je . . ., I must . . .; il fallait 
le demander, you (he, we, 
etc. ) ought to have asked for 

fallut, 777 0/ falloir. 

familiarite,/. familiarity. 

famille { = fd-miy),f. family. 

farine, /. flour. 

fasse, VII of faire. 

fatigue, /. fatigue, weariness; 

faut (il), /o/ falloir. 

faute, /. fault; — de, for lack 
(want) of. 

faveur, /. favor. 

femme, /. woman, wife. 

fenetre, /. window. 

feriez, V of faire. 

ferme, firm, fixed. 

fermer, to shut, close. 

feu, rn. fire. 

ficelle,/, packthread, twine. 

figrxirer (se), to represent to one- 
self, to imagine. 

fin, adj. fine, delicate, keen 

fin, shst.f. end. close, a la — , in 

the end, finally, 
finir, to eud; je finirai par le 

croire, I shall come at last to 

believe it. 
fit, ///o/ faire. 
fixe, fixed settled; a jour — , a 

heure — , on regular (stated) 

days, at stated times (fixed 

fleur, /. flower 
foi,/. faith; de bonne — , in good 

faith, seriously, in earnest, 
foire, /. fair, 
fois, /. time; une — , once, once 

upon a time, 
folie, /. folly, madness, 
fondre, trans, and intrans. to 

force,/, strength, force, 
former, to form, construct, 
fort, adj. strong; esprit — , free- 
fort, adv. very, much, 
fosse {— fose), m. ditch, 
foudre,/. thunderbolt, lightning, 
foule, /. crowd, 
fournir, to supply, furnish; — 

qqch. a qqn. , to supply one 

with something, 
foyer, w. hearth; {in a theatre) 

— des acteurs, green-room, 
franc, to. franc {about 20 cents). 
fran^ais, French; nn Fran9ais, u 

France, /. France, 
frere, m. brother. 
fripon, m. rogue, rascal, 
froid, m. cold, cold weather, 
fruit, m. fruit; result. 


gagner, to gain, win; to over- 
come, overtal\e, get the better 

gai ( = ghe), gay, merry, cheer- 



gaiete {also gaite) {= ghe-le),f. 
inirtb, inerriiiient. 

garantir, to protect. 

garder, to keep; to be in charge 

gauche, left (ovp of right). 

gazon, m. turf, sod. 

geant, m. giant. 

gener, to trouble, distress, make 

Genevieve (=j n-vyev), f. Gene- 
vieve; saints — , the patron 
saint of Paris, who by her 
prayers saved the city from the 
fury of Attila {about 450). 

gens, m. and f. pi. people, ser- 
vants, attendants, 

gland, 171. acorn. 

globe (= glob), m. sphere, globe, 

gloutonnement, gluttonoubly, 
greedily, voraciously. 

gorge, /. throat, gullet. 

gosier, m. gullet, throat. 

goadron, m. tar. 

goulu, gluttonous, greedy. 

goalument, greedily, glutton- 

gout, m. taste; sense of taste. 

gouter, to taste, relish, enjoy, 

goutte, /. drop; je n'y vois — , I 
can't see at all. 

grade, m. rank, grade. 

grand, large, tall, high, great; 
grand' bef. ferns, begin niny 
with a consonant sound, is a 
remnant of former invariabil- 
ity in gender; e. g. grand' mere, 
grand' tante, grand' peur. 

grandeur,/, greatness, grandeur, 

gratnit (' t ' usually silent in 
mnsc), gratuitous, free. 

grave, grave, serious, weighty, 

gravement, seriously. 

grec (/. grecque), adj. Greek. 

Grece,/'. (Jnece, 

greler, to hail. 

grenadier, m. grenadier. 

grillon (= gri-yon), m. cricket. 

gros, big, thick, etc. 

guerir, to cure, heal. 

gpieule (= gheul), f. mouth {of 

certain animals). 
guider, to guide, lead. 

[The mention ' h ' asp does not 
mean that the " h" must be sounded, 
— though it is by some — but only tliat 
a preceding vowel is not elided.] 

habile, skilful, clever. 

habitant, m. inhabitant. 

haine (= en) (' h ' asp.), f. hatred, 

hard! ('A' asp.), bold, daring, 

hardiesse (' /t ' asp.), f. boldness, 

harpagon, to. (//•. Harpagon, 
the principal character in, Mo- 
liere'splay, ' ' rAv(tre")&uuiieT, 

hasard (' 7i ' asp.), m. chance, risk; 
par — , by chance (accident). 

hater {' h' asp.), to hasten; se — 
de, to hasten to. 

haut {' h' asp.), high, lofty, 

hantain (' h ' asp.), haughty, ar- 

hauteur (' A ' asp.), f height, ele- 

hectare, m. hectare (= 100 ares, 
or 10,000 square metres — 
fbout 2.5 acres). 

hectolitre, m,. hectolitre, or 
— liter (= 100 litres, or 2. 8S8 
American bushels, or 26.418 

helas ! alas ! 

herbe, /. grass. 

heritier, m. heir. 

hesitation, /. hesitation. 

hetre {'h' asp.), in. b.'t cli (tree). 

heure, /. hour, time ; de bonne 
— , early; d'assez bonne — , 



early enough ; de meilleure — , 

hier (= i-yer), yesterday. 

hirondelle, /. swallow. 

histoire,/. history, story. 

homme, m. man, human being. 

lonoraire, m. { fee (of 
doctor, barrister, priest, etc.). 

horizontalement, horizontally, 

horreur,/. horror; horrible thing 
(i(ieii, etc.). 

hotel, m. hostelry, hotel, lodg- 
inji-house; mansion; — de 
ville, town-hall, city-hall; — 
des Invalides, a sort of pen- 
sioners' liospi'al or homa in 
Paris {see under invalide). 

huissier, m. usher, attendant. 

humanite, /. humanity, man- 

hutte (' A ' asp.), f. hut. 

ici, here. 

idee,/, idea; j'ai eu 1' — de . . ., 
it occurred to me to . . . {1 his 
phrase implies the execution of 
the plan.) 

ignorant, ignorant. 

il, he, it; (impersonally) il y a, 
theYe is (or are); il est, (»« 
elevated style) there is {^r are); 
il mourut . . . un pauvre pay- 
san, there died, etc. 

image,/, image, picture. 

imaginer, to imagine, invent; 
{/. 29), to conceive the plan 
of . . . 

imbecile, adj. imbecile ; sbst. 
idiot, fool. 

immense, immense, enormous. 

immortel, immortal, eternal. 

immaable, immutable, unchange- 

impatiemment (= im-pd-syd- 
man), impatiently. 

imperceptible, imperceptible. 

imperieux, imperious. 

importer, to be of consequence; 
n'importe, no matter, it does 
not matter. 

impossible, impossible. 

imprimer. to print. 

incredulite, /. scepticism, un- 

indiquer, to point out, show, in- 
dicate; — du doigt, to point 
out {witJi the finger). 

infaillible {ill = y), infallible, 
unfailing, sure. 

infini, adj. infinite, boundless; 
subst. m. infinity, infinitude. 

informer, to inform ; b' — de, to 
inquire about (after). 

ingenieaz, ingenious. 

ingrat, adj. ungrateful ; sbst. 
ingrate, ungrateful person 

injure,/, insult; mille — fl, a tor- 
lent of abuse. 

injurier, to insult, abuse. 

injustice,/, injustice. 

innocence (= ino-sans), /. in- 

inoffensif (= i-nb-fan-sif), harm- 

insecte, m. insect. 

instant, m. moment, instant ; 
dans le meme — , at that very 

institut, TO. institute {a body 
composed of men of letters, 
menof science, scholars, artists, 
etc.); rinstitut (de France). 
{t-'eep. 95.) 

instruction, /. instruction; edu- 

interieur, inner, interior, in- 

interroger, to question, ask ques- 
tions (of). 

intime, intimate, private. 

inutile (= i-nu-til), useless, 

invalide, m. invalid ; pensioner 
(a soldier pensioned on account 



of age or wounds). At Parv>, 
I'Hotel des — s, (tn immense 
home for pensioners, vsUh a 
large esplanade in front of it, 
and the famous church forming 
the rear. {See p. 97.) 

irlandais, adj., Irish; sbst, Irian- 
dais, Irishman. 

italien, adj. Italian. 

jamais, ever ; ne . . . jamais, 
never ; ne . . . plus jamais, 
never again. 

jambe, /. leg. 

jardin, m. garden ; J— des Tui- 
leries, the garden adjoining the 
palace of the Tnileries, and 
foi-ming a favorite public 
promenade; 3 — des Flantes, 
tlie Paris Botanic Gardens, 
established in 1626, to whicJi 
have since been added a Mu- 
seum of Natural Histoi'y and 
a Zoological Garden. 

javelot, m. javelin. 

jej'. I- 

Jeter, to throw, cast. 

jeu, m. play, game; action or 
working {of a mechanism). 

jeune. young. 

joie, /. joy, gladness, bliss. 

joindre, ir. to add, put in. 

Joseph II, Emperor of Germany 
{b. 1741; d. 1790). 

jouet(=^w^), TO. plaything, toy, 

joueur {= jweiir), to. player. 

jouir {— jwir), to enjoy. {Re- 
quires de befoi'e its object.) 

jooissance (— jm-sans), f. en- 
joyment, possession. 

jour, TO day; nn — que, one day 
when ; le — ou, the day (time) 
when; tons les — s, every day. 

journal, to. journal, diary; 

jonmee, / day {generally with 
reference either to the use 

made of the time, or to the 
Ktate of the weathei-). 

joyeux, joyful, glad. 

juger, to judge, decide. 

Junot, one of the favoHte gen- 
erals if Napoleon I., and made 
by him due d'Abrantes {1771- 

Jupiter {=ju-pi-ter), to. Jupiter, 

jurer, to swear, make an oath, or 

jusqu'a, to, as far as, down (up) 
to; jusque dans, even into, into 
the very. 

jusqu'a ce que, until. {Generally 
takes sbjnct.) 

juste, just, exact, right, true. 

justement, precisely (at that mo- 
ment). {May be sometimes 
rendered by using happen.) 

justice, /. justice; le Palais de 
J — , the Law Courts. 

kilogramme {generally abbrevi- 
ated to kilo in everyday lan- 
guage), TO. kilogramme (=: 
1000 grammes, or 2.2 lbs.). 

kilometre, m. kilometre or kilo- 
meter (= 1000 metres or 
0.62138 of a mile; a mile = 
1.609 kilometres). 

la,/, ofdef. art. and of pron. le. 

la, adv. there ; par — , thereby, 
for that reason ; de — , hence, 
thence, therefore; from that; 
en etre — , to be at that point; 
c'est — . . . , that is . , . 

Lacedemone, f. Lacedsemon or 
Sparta, a city of ancient 

la-dessus, tbereu]>on, upon that. 

Lacordaire (le Pere). A cele- 
brated pulpit orator. {See 
p. 36.) 

La Fontaine (Jean de). One of 



the greatest of French writers, 

best known by his charming 

"Fables" in verse, in twelve 

books. (1621-1695.) 
laine,,/. wool, 
laisser, to leave; ( \- infin.) to 

allow, let. 
Lamennais (Felicite de). A 

French priest who became a 

Christian Socialist (1782- 

lanterne, /. lantern, 
larme, f. tear. 
Larousse (Pierre). Compiler of a 

large French encyclopcedia 

lasser, to weary; se — , to grow 

le, la, r, les, def. art. the; ad- 

verbiallg, le plus — ment, 

(the) most — ly. 
le, la, r, les, pron. (dir. obj. of 

vb.), bim, her, it, tlieni; il le 

dit, lie says so; ceux qui le 

sent, those who are (so). 
Leip8ick(= lep-sik), m, Leipsic 

or Leipzig, 
lequel, laquelle, etc., which (of 

several), who, whom, 
lettre, /. letter. 
leur, (idj. their, 
leur, pron. (to) them, from 

liberte, /. liberty, freedom, 
libre, free. 
lieu, m. place; au — de, instead 

of; avoir — de, to have cause 

lieue, /. league. ( Usually about 

4 kilometres or 2^ miles.) 
lievre, rn. bare. 
lion, lionne (— lyon, lybnn), 

lion, lioness. 
lire, ir. to read. 

livrer, to deliver, give up, aban- 
loi. /. law. 
loin, far (away). 
long, longue, long. 

longtemps, (a) long (time). 

longniemeut, for some time, at 
some length. 

lorsque, when. 

Louis (= Iwi), Lewis or Louis. 
(For Louis XIV., see 1. 36, 
note 2.) 

loup, m. wolf. 

lourd, heavy. 

Louvre, m. one of the largest 
palaces in the world, begun 
about 1200. and completed by 
Napoleon III. 

lu, X<?/lire. 

lui, he, liim (to) him, (to) her, 
(to) it; lui-meme, himself. 

lumiere, /. liglit ; {usually in 
piur.) knowledge of things. 

lune,/. moon. 

Luxembourg (le palais du) 
(= liik-san-bour). A royalpal- 
ace in the Latin Quarter, built 
between 1615 and 1620 ; it has 
beautiful gardens about it, and 
famotis picture and sculpture 
galleries (idjoining. 

lynx ( = links), m. lynx. 


M., abbreviation for Monsieur. 

ma, see mon. 

Macedoine, /. Macedonia, Mace- 

madame, /. [abbreviation M"*); 
(in address) madam, Mrs. . . . 

Madeleine,/. Projier name cor- 
responding, to M}igdalen(e), 
Maud, etc.; [I'eglise de] la — , 
an important and richly deco- 
rated Parisian church, dedi- 
cated to St. Mary Magdalen; 
built bettceen 1764 and 1842. 

magie./. magic. 

magistrat, m. magistrate. 

maigre. lean, thin, gaunt. 

main,/, hand. 

maintenant, n"w. 

mais, but; — oui well, yes 
yes indeed; (why,) certainly. 



maison, f. house. 

maitre, m. master. 

majeste, /. majesty. 

mal, m. evil, ill. wrong, harm, 
1)11 in; falre — a, to injure, 
harm; to cause pain to, hurt; 
faire le — , to do wrong. 

mal. (idv. badly, ill. 

malade, ndj. ill ; shst. le (la) — , 
the patient. 

malgre, in spite of, notwith- 

malheur, m. misfortune, adver- 
sity, ill; accident, mishap. 

manant, tn. peasant; clown, boor. 

manger, to eat. 

maniere, /. manner, fashion, 
way; de cette — , in that way. 

manquer, to lack, want; — de 
qqch., to lack something; ce 
qui lui manque, what he (she, 
it) lacks; — de -|- infin., to 
fail to, to miss. 

mantean, m. cloak. 

marchand, m. merchant; — des 
quatre saisons, costeruionger. 

marchandise, /. merchandise, 

marche. /. march; en — , on the 

marcher, to walk, march. 

marechal, m. marshal; — de 
France, a title denoting the 
highest military rank, but no 
longer bestowed. 

marron, m. the French (or Ita- 
lian) chestnut, maroon; — d'- 
Inde, horse-chestnut. 

marronnier, m. the French {or 
Italian) chestnut - tree. (See 
marron. ) 

matelot, m. sailor, seaman. 

matiere, /. matter, subject- 

matin, m. morning; adv. early. 

Mazarin, m. An Italian cardi- 
nal, who succeeded Richelieu, 
and was chief minister of Louis 
XI 11. and Louis XIV. (1603- 

1661). Le Palais — , originally^ 
founded by Mazarin as a col- 
lege. {See p. 95.) 

me, m', me, to me; (rejl.) myself. 

medecin (= med-sin), in. physi- 
cian, doctor. 

medecine {— med-sinn), f. medi- 

mediocrite,/. mediocrity; simple 
competency (of wealth). 

meiileur, better; le — , the best. 

membre, m. member. 

meme, adj. same, self, very; 
moi — , toi — , lui — . etc., 
myself, thy (or your) self, 
himself, etc.; advly. even; 
tout de — , (colloquial in sense 
of) nevertheless. 

memoire, m. memorandum, note. 

menacer, to threaten, hang over 

mendiant, m. beggar. 

mensonge. m. falsehood, un- 
truth, lie. 

menu, fine, small, slender. 

mer, /. sea. 

mere,/, mother. 

merite, m. merit, worth, value. 

meriter, to deserve. 

merveilleuz, wonderful, marvel- 

mes. (See mon.) 

messieurs (abbrev. MM.) (= me- 
syeii), pi. of monsieur, (in 
spoken address) gentlemen. 

mesure, /. measure; a — que, 
(in proportion) as, (according) 

met, /o/mettre. 

metre, m. metre or meter, 
(= 39.37 inches). 

mettant, IX } ^^„„«.t,„ 

mettrais, V ^ ''/'"""re. 

mettre, ir. to put, set, place; 

se — a. to begin to, set about; 

se — a I'oBUTre, to set (go) to 

meurt, I of moniir. 
midi, m. mid-day, noon ; the 



south, the southern part (esp. 

of France). 
miel, m. honey, 
mieaz, better; il vaut — , it is 

milieu, m. middle; au — de, in 

the middle (centre, midst) of, 

mille, a thousand, 
million (= mil-yon), sbst. m. 

minute, f. minute, 
mis. III and Xf^/mettre. 
misere, /. misery, want, dis- 
mission,/, mission. 

mit. 111 \ n .. 

mit; VIII \ ''/niettre. 

moi, me, I; moi-meme, I or me 

moindre, adj. less; le (la) — , the 

moras, adv. less ; le — , the least; 
au — , du — , at least. 

mois, m. month 

moitie, /. half; a — fou, half 

moment, m. moment, instant; 
au — que {or ou), at the mo- 
ment when; du — que, from 
the moment when, since {in 
both senses). 

mon, ma, mes, my. 

monarque, m. monarch. 

monceau, m. heap, pile. 

monde, m. world, earth; lameil- 
leur ... du — , the best . . . 
in the world ; tout le — , 
everybody, anybody; beau- 
coup de — , a number of 

monsieur {abbreviation M.) [pro- 
nounce 'me-syeu '], {in address) 
sir; Mr. . . .; not usually 
translated when preceding 
titles, as, — le docteur, — le 

montagne, /. mountain. 

montant, m. (total) amount. 

monter, to ascend, go up; to grow 

montre,/. watch, 
montrer, to show, to point to- — 

du doigt, to point out {with the 

moquer (se), {with de bef. object) to 

deride, laugh at, make sport 

morsure, /. a bite {made by teeth), 
mort,/. death, 
mort {X <>fmourir), dead, 
mot, m, word, saying, aphorism, 

precept; bon — , witticism, 

{p. 21) clever answer, 
mourait, //o/mourir. 
mourir, ir. to die. 
mourut, 77/ 0/ mourir. 
mouton, m. {gentricterm) sheep, 
moyen, m. means, way. 
multitude, /. multitude, host, 

great many, 
musique, /. music. 
mutuellement, mutually. (In I. 

35, prevents the ambiguity of 

the reflexive verb. Tr. "to 

render one another mutual 


naitre, ir. to be born or pro- 
duced; to be native. 

Napoleon (= na-pbl-e-on), Na- 
poleon; — I", Napoleon I., 
Emperorof the French (6. 1769, 
d. 1821). 

nation,/, nation, people. 

national, adj. national. 

nature, /. nature. 

navire, m. ship, vessel. 

ne, not; ne . . . pas, not; ne . . . 
jamais, never; ne . . . que, 
only, but; ne . . . rien, noth- 
ing; ne . . . aucun, no; n'est- 
ce pas 1 {lit. is it not true ?) do 
you (we, 1) not? have you not, 
will you (he, they) not, etc. 
according to the context. 



ne, X of naitre. 

neant, in. nothingness, insigni- 
necessaire, necessary, needed, 

negatif, negative, 
neige, /". snow, 
ni, nor; ni . . . ni (with negative 

rib.), neither . . . nor. 
nez, m. nose, 
nier, to deny, 
noble, nohle, grand. 
nom, m. name; noun, 
nombre, in. number, 
nombreuz, numerous, 
nonuner, to name, call, mention, 

call by name. 
non, no; non or non pas . . ., 

not . . .; {p. IS) V0U8 savez 

que — , you know that I have 

not (done that). 
nos, see notre. 
notr0 {= nutr), noa, adj. our ; 

pron. la, le(s) n6tre(8) (= uotr), 

Notre-Dame. /. Our Lady (the 

Virgin Mary) ; [la catbedrale 

de] — , the Gothic Cathedral of 

Paris, Jounded in 1163. 
nourrir, to feed, nourish; se — 

de qqch. , to feed on something, 
noas, V e, us. 
nouveau, noavel, new; de nou- 

veau, anew, again. 
noyer, m. walnut-tree. 
nu, naked, bare. 
nnage, m. cloud, 
nuit,/. night. 
nul, adj. no ; — besoin de, there 

is no need of or to. 
nallement, by no means, in no 

wise, not at all. 

obliger, to oblige, force, compel. 

ob8erTer,(= dp-ser-ve) to observe, 
follow; — une conduite, to 
follow a line of conduct, to 
conduct oneself. 

occuper, to occupy; s' — de . . .^ 
to trouble oneself about . . . 

ocean, m. ocean, sea. 

Odeon ( — o-de-on), m. the see- 
ond French theatre, situated 
in the Latin Quarter (Named 
fram the Odeon of ancient 
Athens. ) 

(Bil(= eiiy, pi. yeii), m. eye; auz 
yenz de, before, in the eyes of 

oBuf (= eiif, plur. eu), m. egg. 

OBUvre, /. work. 

officier, m. officer. 

oisean, m. bird. 

oisivete (= wd-zit te),f, idleness. 

ombrager, to shade, overshadow. 

ombre,/, shade, shadow; a 1' — , 
in the shade. 

omelette,/, omelet. 

omettre, ir. to omit, leave un- 

omis. Ill and X of omettre. 

on, Ion, one, they (= people), 
we, etc. 

opera, m. opera; opera-liouse; le 
Grand-Opera or I'Opera, in 
Paris, the ordinary name of 
the Academie nationale de mn- 
siqne ; I'Opera-Comiqne, (the 
theatre of) the Comic Opera. 

operation, /. operation. 

oppose, opposite, contrary. 

opprimer, to oppress. 

or, conj. now, but. 

orage, m. storm, tempest. 

oranger, m. orange-tree. 

ordonner, to prescribe, order, 

ordre, m. order, arrangement ; 
par — , in their proper order. 

oreille,/. ear. 

Orion (= ur-yon), m. A very 
brilliant constellation, visible 
in the early evenings from Nov. 
to Api-il. 

08 (= OS, pi. 6), TO. bone. 

oter, to take away (with indir. 
obj. of person); to remove. 

on, conj. or. 



ou, adv. where, in which, to 
which; (time) at, in oi- on 
which, when; (7, 36) for 

oublier, to forget. 

oui (= wi), yes. 

oule (= ou-i), f. (tlie sense of) 

ouvrage, m. work. 

ouvre, /o/ouvrir. 

ouvrir, ir. to open. 

ouvrit, Jllof QVLvriT. 

paix, /. peace. 

palais, m. palace; le Palais de 
Justice, the Law-Courts ; le 
Palais-Royal, bvilt by Cardinal 
Richelieu in 1629-34, and after 
Ma death occupied by the widow 
of Louis XIII., whence the 
present name. 

Pantheon, ??i. Pantheon. InParis, 
the natio)ial temple dedicated 
to " les grands hommes," be- 
gun in 1764 as a church. 

par, by, through, by means of ; 
{of the weather) in, on; — la. 
tliereby, for that re&son, {place) 
that way; — semaine, — mois, 
a week, a month; — terre, on 
the ground, on the floor, etc.; 
— une pluie battante, in a pelt- 
ing rain; — une chaude jour- 
nee, on a warm day. 

paradis, m. paradise, heaven. 

paraissent, j 

paraissez, \l of paraitre. 

parait, ) 

paraitre, ir. to appear; to seem. 

paraitrez, /Fo/ paraitre. 

parce que, because. 

parcourir , «■. to go (pass) through 
or over. 

pardon, m. pardon; (.ej,liptically 
for) I beg your pardon. 

pardonner, to pardon, {w. indir. 
obj. of person). 

pareil, m. like, similar ; such. 

parent, — e, m. andf. relation, 
relative ; m. pi. parents, rela- 
tions, etc. 

parfaitement, nerfectly, entirely. 

parfum (= par-fun), m. per- 
fume, fragrance. 

parler, to speak. 

parmi, among(st). 

parole, /'. word ; speech. 

partager, to share, divide. 

partait, II \ 

parte, F7/ >- 0/ partir, 

partent, / ) 

parti, m. party {group of persona 
following the same line of ac- 
tion, as a political party, etc. ). 

partialite (= pir-sya-li-te), f, 
partiality, favoritism. 

partie, /. part {(f whole). 

partir, ir. to depart, set out, 
come out, go away; — de, to 

partout, everywhere. 

parut. III of paraitre. 

parvenir, ir. to reach ; — a faire 
qqch., to succeed in doing 

parviennent, / of parvenir. 

pas { — pa), sbst. m. step. 

pa8(=^a), adv. (lit. step}, no, 
not; ne . . . pas, not. 

passer (= pd-se), to pass, pass 
through; to spend; to pass by 
(away); — pour, to pass for, 
be taken for ; faire — qqch. 
pour . . ., to make out that it 
is . . . 

passereau, m. sparrow. 

patience (= pd-syans), f. pa- 
tience; prendre — , to have pa- 
tience, be patient. 

patrie, /. (native) country, 
{much less frequently used 
than pays). 

patte, /. paw. 

pauvre, adj. poor ; sbst. poor 
man (or woman); les — s, the 

payer {=pe-ye), trans, to pay, to 



pay for: ( — qqch.; — wn. ; 

— qqch. a qqn). 

pays (= pcyi), in. country, land, 

paysan i = p^-yi-zan), m. peas- 
ant, countryman. 

pecher, m. peach-tree. 

peindre, ir. to paint, represent. 

peine. /. penalty, labor, trouble, 
difficulty; a — ... que,scarcely 
. . . when, no sooner. . . than. 

peint, 1 and X of peindre. 

pendant, prep, during, for ; 

— que, conj. while {only of 

penible, difficult, laborious, toil- 

pensee, /. thought, thinking, 

penser, to think, reflect; — a 
(intrnns.), to think of. 

per^ant, piercing, keen, sharp. 

percer, to pierce. 

perdre, to lose. 

pere, m. father; as a title given 
to a priest who is a member of 
some religious order, it may he 
kept in its French form. 

permettre, ir. to permit, allow. 

permis, X <?f permettre. 

Ferse (= perss),f. Persia. 

personne,/. person; {masc. with 
negative vb.) no one, nobody. 

pester, to storm, fume. 

petit, small, little. 

pen, sbst. m. little, few ; adv. 

penple, to. people, nation. 

pear. /. fear; avoir — , to be 
afraid; faire — , to frighten, 

pent ) 

penx y I of ■povLVoir. 

peuvent ) 

phenomena, m. phenomenon. 

Philippe, m. Philip, king of 
Macedonia, father of Alexan- 
der the Great {B. C. 38S-336). 

philosophe, m. philosopher. 

physicien, m. physicist. 

pied, m. foot. 

Pierre, m. Peter. 

pioche, f. mattock. 

piquer, to prick, sting; pique cen- 
tre, provoked (annoyed) wiili. 

piqiire, /. sting, prick. 

place, /. place, (public) square; 
a la — de B., in B.'s place; la 
Place de la Concorde, an im- 
mense square in Paris, deco- 
rated with fountains and 

placer, to place, put, set. 

plaindre, ir. to pity; il est a — , 
he is to be pitied; se — , to 

plaire, ir. {withind. obj. of person) 
to please; s'il vous plait, if you 

plaisant, adj. amusing, comical. 

plaisant, m. facetious fellow, 

plaisanter, to jest, joke. 

plaisanterie, /. joke, pleasantry. 

plaisir, pleasure, delight. 

plait, /<?/■ plaire. 

plante, /. plant. 

plat, flat. 

pleurer, to weep, cry. 

pleut, /o/pleuvoir. 

pleuvoir, ir. to rain. 

plus, more; le plus, the most; le 
plus gaiement, (the) most 
cheerfully; plus on a, plus on 
veut avoir, the more we have, 
the more we want; qui — est, 
what is more; de — en — , 
more and more; ne . . . — , no 
more, no longer, not . . . 
again or now ; ne — jamais, 
never again; non plus, 
neither,- no more. Before ex- 
pressions denoting quantity or 
number, plus is followed by de 
instead of que ; e g. plus d'un, 
plus d'a moitie mort. 



plusieurs, adj. and pron. several, 
a number, many. 

poche,/. pocket. 

poids, m. weight. 

point, TO. point; ne . . . — , not, 

pointn, pointed, sharp-pointed. 

politesse,/. politeness. 

polytechnique. adj. polytechnic 
{See under ecole.) 

pont, TO. bridge; deck {of ship). 

port, TO. port, harbor. 

porte,/. door, gE,te. 

porter, to carry, bear; — la 
main a, to bring one's hand 
to . . . 

portion,/, portion, share. 

poser, to place, put ; — une 
question, to put (ask) a ques- 

positif, positive. 

posseder, to possess. 

possession (= pb-se-syon), f. pos- 

possible, possible. 

ponce, TO. thumb; inch. 

pour, for, in favor of, on account 
of, over; — -f- iifin. (in or- 
der) to; — et centre, pro and 

pourquoi, why. 


poursuivre, ir. to pursue, run 

pourvu que, provided that {takes 

pousser, to push, to help for- 

pouvant, 7X of pouvoir. 

pouvoir, ir. to be able; je peux 
{or puis). I can. 

pratique,/, practice; mettre en 
— , to put into practice, carry 
into effect. 

pratiquer, to practise, exercise. 

precis, precise, exact 

predecesseur, to. predecessor. 

preferable, preferable. 

premier, first, highest; former; 
la premiere {supply represen- 
tation), the " first night" of 
a play. 

prenait, 7/ (/prendre. 

prendre, ir. to take; to rapture, 
catcli. — {c^ee p. S3, note 7, and 
p. 66, note 2); a tout — , on 
the whole, all things consid- 

prenez, land VI l'fr,rBnAra 
prenne, VII ^^/ prendre. 

preparer, trans, to prepare; se 
— , to prepare, make ready. 

pres, adv. near ; tout — quite 
close, quite near; — de, prep, 
phr. near, beside. 

prescrire, ir. to prescribe, enjoin. 

presence, /. presence. 

present, to. present. 

presenter, to pre.sent, bring be- 

presque, almost, nearly ; ne . . . 
— rien, scarcely anything. 

pretendu, pretended, self-styled. 

preter, to lend; se — a, to com- 
ply with, accept. 

preuve,/ proof, evidence, mark. 

prevoir, ir. to foresee. 

prier, to pray, beseech, request; 
je vous prie, pray, 

prince, to. prince, sovereign. 

principal, adj. principal, chief. 

pris. III and X of prendre. 

privation, /. privation, want. 

priver, to deprive. 

procurer, to procure, get. 

prodigieux, prodigious, amazing. 

produire, ir. to produce, cause. 

produit, I and X of produire. 

profond, deep, profound. 

proie, /. prey. 

promener (se), to move about 
{for air, e.rercise or pleasure); 
— a pied, to walk, take a 
walk; — a cbeval, to go (be) 
out riding. 

prononcer, to pronounce, utter. 

propre, adj. own. 



propriete, /. property, quality, 
prosperite, /. prosperity, 
protecteur, m. protector, 
protester, to protest. 
province, /. province ; de — , 

pu, Xo/pouvoir. 
public (/. publique), public, 
puis, then (= after that), next, 
puis, 7<?f pouvoir. 
puisque, conj. since. 

puissent, ) y-jj^ypouyoir. 

puiBsions, ) •' *^ 

punition,/. punishment. 

put, K7//"of pouvoir. 

Pythagore (= pi-ta-gbr), m. 
PytLiagoras, Ch'eek philosopher 
and muthematician of the 6th 
century B. G. 


qnalite {= kd-li-te), f. quality; 
en — de, in the capacity of, 
with the rank of. 

quand. when, 

quarante, forty. 

quart, m. fourth part, quarter. 

quartier, m. quarter {of toicu, 
animal, etc.). 

quatre, four. 

que (1) rel. pron. {dir, obj.), 
which, that, whom. (2) in- 
terrog. pron. {dir. oij. or 
{predic. nom.), que faites-vous 1 
{or qu'est-ce que vous faitesi) 
what are you doing? qu'est il 
devenul what has become of 
him? qu'est-ce que cela 1 what 
is that? que fairel what is to 
be done ? 

que, coiij. and ado., that; {in 
comparisons) as, than ; {in ex- 
clamations) how ! que when 
replacing si (if), takes sbjnct.; 
c'est que .... it is that, it is 
because; {p. 36) [I conclude] 
thai; ne . . . que, only, but; at- 
tendez que . . ., wait till . . . ; 

(soit) que . . . ou {or soit) que 
{p. 19), whether . . . or; un" 
jour que, one day wlien; {ex- 
clam.) que je suis bete! how 
stupid I am! {Elliptic ally) c'est 
beaucoup que de savoir com- 

quel, adj. which, what. In I. 
14 A. tr. where ? 

quelque, adj., some, a few, any; 

— chose, something, anything 
{with de bef. adj.); quelque(8) 
. . . que -f- subjnct., what- 
ever . . . 

quereller (se), to quarrel, 
question, /. question; faire une 

— a qqn. , to ask one a ques- 
tion; de quoi est-il — 1 what 
is the question, the point ? 
what is it about ? 

qui, rel. pron. which, who, 
whom, that ; ce qui, what; 
celui (celle, etc.) qui, he (she, 
etc.), who. 

qui, interrog. pron. who? whom? 

quitter, to quit, leave. 

quoi, rel. and interrog. what. 

raconter, to relate, tell (a story). 

raison, /. reason ; avoir — de -f- 
injin. to be right in . . . 

raisonner, to reason. 

ramasser, to gather, pick up. 

ramener, to lead {or bring) back. 

rampant, creeping. 

ramper, to creep. 

ranger, to arrange. 

rapidement, rapidly, quickly. 

rappeler, to recall ; se — , to re- 
member, recollect. 

rapprocher, to bring together. 

rarement, rarely, seldom. 

rassembler, to collect ; se — , to 
meet together, to gather. 

rassurer, to reassure. 

rebelle, rebellious. 

recent, recent. 



reception, /. reception ; faire joy- 
euse — a qqn., to give oue an 
enthusiastic welcome. 

recevoir, ir. to receive. 

recit, m. relation, narrative, ac- 

reclamer, to claim, to ask for 

recommander, to recommend ; 
{p. 40) to commend. 

recommencer, to begin again, to 
do over again; {intrans.) to be 
done (liappen) over again. 

recompense,/, reward. 

reconnaissant, /Xqfreconnaitre. 

reconnaitre, ir. to recognize. 

recouvrer, to recover, regain. 

re9ut, /i/ 0/ recevoir. 

redire, to repeat; trouver a — a, 
to find fault with. 

refuser, to refuse. 

regarder, to look at; to regard, 

regime, m. regimen, object (of 
verb or preposition.) 

regner (— renye or re-nye), to 
reign, prevail. 

rejouir (se), to rejoice. 

relation, /. narrative, account, 

relever, to raise again ; se — , to 
rise up again. 

religieux, adj. religious ; sbat. 
friar, monk. 

remarquer, to notice, to take 
notice of. 

remede, m. remedy. 

remeroier, to thank, (for = de). 

remplir, to fill; to fulfil, perform. 

Benan (Ernesc), One of the most 
eminent French men of letters 
of the nineteenth century, and a 
learned Orientalist {1823-1892). 

rencontrer, to meet, find, fall in 

rendezvous, m. appointment. 

rendre, to render; to make; to 
give back; se — , to surrender, 
give up; to betake oneself, go. 

rentrer, to g© in (again); — en 
soi-meme, to turn one's 
thoughts inward, question 

renverser, to overturn, upset. 

repandre, to spread. 

reparer, to repair, make amends 

repartie, /. repartee, witty re- 

repliquer, to reply, answer, re- 

repondre, to reply, respond, an- 

reponse,/. answer, reply. 

repos, m. rest, repose. 

reposer. to rest, repose. 

reprendre, ir. to take again, take 
back, retake; to resume, con- 
tinue, reply; — possession de, 
to get back, recover. 

representer, to represent, show, 

reprit, /// 0/ reprendre. 

reserver, to reserve, have in 

resolution, /. resolution, deter- 

respect (::^ res-pi or ret-pek), m. 

respectueusement, respectfully. 

reste, m. remainder, rest ; (pi.) 
mortal remains (of a person). 

rester, to remain, keep; reste ce- 
lebre, which has become fam- 

resulter, to result, be produced. 

retirer, to pull back, pull out 
(again); se — , to withdraw, 

retour, to. return; etre de — , to 
be returned or back, to be at 
home again. 

retracer [to retrace], to set forth 
(in its true light). 

reunir, to unite; se — (pp. re- 
uni), to meet together, gather, 
reussir, to succeed. 



reveiller, to awake, waken 
{trans.); se — , to awake {in- 
trans. ). 

revenant {IX of revenir), sbst. 
ghost, spirit, spectre. 

revenir, ir. to come back, return. 

reverence,/, bow, curtsey. 

revint, ///(/revenir. 

riche, adj. rich ; sbst. rich 
man {or woman), les — s, the 

richesse, /. riches, wealth. 

ridicule, ridiculous. 

rien, anything, nothing; ne . . . 
rien, nothing; ne . . . jamais 
. . . rien, never . . . anything; 
rien . . . ne, nothing (a«*'^&;«c< 
of verb). 

rigourensement, rigorously, rig- 

rigonrenx, severe. 

rire, ir, to laugh, jest; — de 
qqch. {or qqn), to laugh 
at ... , make sport of . . . 

rocher, m. rock. 

roi, 771. king. 

rose, f. rose. 

roalement, m. rolling, rumbling. 

roate, /. road, way, course. 

royaliste, m. and /. royalist. 
{During the French Revolu- 
tion, one who sided with the 
king. ) 

royaume, m. kingdom, realm. 

ruche, /. bee-hive. 

rnde, rough, severe. 

me,/, street. 

S. V. P., abbreviation of s'ilvous 

sable, m. sand, 
sage, adj wise; sbst. wise man, 

Baint,-e, adj. holy, sacred ; sbst. 

saint; saint Pierre, St. Peter. 
Saint-Pierre (Bernardin de). A 

French writer, celebrated for 

his descriptions of nature, and 
as the author of " Paul et 
Virginie " {1737-lSU). 

sais, / of savoir. 

saisir, to seize. 

sang, m. blood. 

sang-froid, m. coolness, nerve. 

sans, without: — donte, doubt- 
less, no doubt. 

satisfaire, ir. to satisfy. 

sanrait. ( F</ savoir), nearly with 
the sense </cau. 

sauver, to save; se — , to make 
one's escape, run away. 

savant, adj. learned ; sbst. 
learned man, man of science. 

savez, /o/ savoir. 

savoir, to know; to know of (the 
existence of); je ne saurais -\- 
injin., I can not . . . 

savoir, m. knowledge, learning. 

sazon, adj. Saxon. 

scelerat, m. miscreant, scoun- 

scene,/, scene. 

se {dir. and indir. obj.), one- 
self, him- (her-, it-) self, 

seance, / sitting, session. 

sec, (/. seche), dry, arid. 

second (= se-gon, often zgon), 

seconrs, m. aid, help. 

secret, secret, invisible. 

secretaire, to. secretary, aman- 

seigneur, m. lord, nobleman. 

sein, TO. breast, bosom ; (/, 6, 
nes . . . sein, native to her 

selon, according to. 

semaine, /. week. 

semblable, (a)1ike, similar ; leurs 
— s, their fellow-creatures. 

sembler, to seem, appear. 

Senat, to. Senate, the upper legis- 
lative house in France. 

senateur. to. senator (member of 
the Senat). 



sens, VI. sense. 

sentir, ir. to feel. 

separer, to separate. 

sergent, m. sergeant. 

serieusement, seriously, gravely. 

serment, m. oath, vow. 

servi, Xo/servir. 

service, m. service. 

servir, ir. to serve ; — de, to 
serve as, for; se — de, to make 
use of, to u'-e, (e.g. on se sert 
d'huile, on se sert d'un couteau); 
a quoi sert celal what is the 
use (good) of that? what is 
that good for? of what use is 

ses. (See ion.) 

seull (= seiiy), m. threshold. 

seul, alone, solitary; single; pas 
un — . . ., not one . . ., not 
a single . . . 

seulement, only, merely; ne . . . 
pas — , not even. 

severe, severe, stern. 

si, conj. if. 

si, adv. so; si fait, si, to affirm 
what has been denied, the 
translation depending on the 

sieele, m. century ; dans des — s, 
after hundreds of years. 

siege, m. seat; {in war) siege. 

sien, his, hers, its; les — s, his 
or her (own) family, those de- 
pendent on him. 

signe, m. sign, mark; faire — , 
lo indicate by a sign, gesture. 

signifier, to mean. 

silencienz, silent. 

simple, simple, easy, plain. 

Sire, m. Sire, a title used in 
addressing kings and em- 

Sirius (final '«' sounded), m. 
The iyrightest fixed star, called 
also the Dog-star, because be- 
longing to the constellntion of 
Canis Major, {near OHon). 

social, social. 

Bociete, /. society, association. 

soi oneself, himself, herself, it- 
self. {Refers to an indefinite 

soif,/. thirst. 

soigner, to take care of; attend, 

soi-meme, oneself. 

soin, TO. care; {pi.) attention, at- 

soir, TO. evening, night. 

soit ! be it so ! very good ! 

sol, TO. ground, earth, soil. 

soldat, TO. soldier. 

sommeil, to. sleep, slumber. 

sommet, m. top, summit. 

son, sa, ses, his, her, its, one's. 

songer, to think, pay atten- 
tion. (Same government as 
penser. ) 

sonner, to sound, ring, ring for 
(some one). 

Sorbonne, /. 77ie seat of the 
University of Paris, so called 
after Robert de Sorbon {1201- 
J274), the founder of the origi- 
nal college, which was theologi- 

sort, to. fate, lot. 

sortant, ix\"^^ 

sorte, /. kind, sort; de — que, so 

that; faire en — que, to act in 

such a way that, 
sortir, ir. to go {or come) out, 

sot, to. fool, blockhead, 
sou, TO. sou, cent, half-penny, 
souffrir, ir. to suffer, tolerate; to 

suffer (pain, etc.). 
source, /. spring of water ; 

sous, under, beneath, 
souvenir (se), ir. to remember, 
sduvent. often. 

souverain, adj. sovereign, su- 
preme ; sbst. sovereign, inon> 

souviens, /o/ souvenir. 

' sortir. 



Sparte, /. Sparta <yr Lacedsemou, 
a famous ancient city of South- 
ern. Greece. 

Bu. Xo/savoir. 

subitement, suddenly. 

subsistance, /. subsistence, 

succeder, {takes indir. obj), to 
succeed {i.e. to follow). 

snccesseur, m. successor. 

Suede,/. Sweden. 

snflire, ir. to suffice, be enough, 
be sufficient. 

snffisamment, sufficiently, ade- 

saffisant (X of suflire), adj. 
sufficient ; sbst. self-sufficient 
(self-satisfied) person, prig. 

suit, /o/'suivre 

suite, /. train, attendants; what 
follows, sequel; continuation; 
{p. 26) "continued." 

suivant {IX of suivre), adj. fol- 

suivi, Xo/ suivre. 

suivre, ir. to follow. 

sujet, in. subject. 

supporter, to bear. 

suppose, supposed, pretended. 

supposer {with sijnct. or indie), 
to suppose, admit. 

sur, prep, on, upon ; regarding, 
about; (J. 6) to; {1. S4) from; 
(/. 39) diriger . . . sur, to direct 
... l)y. 

sur, adj., sure, certain. 

surement. certainly, assuredly. 

surpris, surprised. 

surprise, /. surprise. " 

survenir, ir. to come suddenly or 
unexpectedly, to come up. 

table, /. table; — d'hote, /. (See 

p. 53, ''Ex. 40") 
taille ( = tdy or tdy), f. waist, 
taire (se), ir. to be silent, keep 


taisez, I and F/o/ taire. 

tandis que {e.rpressiiig either time 
or contntxt), while, whereas. 

taut, so much, so many. 

tapis, m. carpet; — de table, 

tard, late. 

tarder, to dt-lay; cela ne tardera 
pas a arriver, that will not be 
long of happening, it won't 
be long till that happens. 

taupe, /. mole. 

taureau, m. bull. 

tel, adj. such, certain, some, such 
and such. {See p. 78, note 11); 
un tel . . . , such a . . . •,{p.4S) 
un tel, so and so, sucl^ and 
such a person. 

tenement, adv. so much, so ; 
— il vous ressemblait, he was 
so (much) like you. 

temoin, m. witness. 

temps, m. time; tout le — de . . . , 
plenty of time to ... ; en 
meme — , at the same time; 
du — que, in the days when. 

Temps (le), TJie leading moderate 
Republican newspaper in 

tenait, //o/tenir. 

tenir, ir. to hold ; {oath, word) to 
keep; se tenir, to be, stand, 
sit; to be going on. 

terminer, to terminate, end, com- 
plete, finish. 

terrain, m. ground, {considered 
as fitted for a partictdar pur- 
pose); sur le — meme, on the 
very spot. 

terre, /. earth, ground; a — , 
par — , on the ground, on the 
floor; sur la — , in the world; 
en — , into the earth. 

terreur,/. terror, dread. 

tete,/. head; mind. 

theatre, m. theatre; Le Theatre- 
Fran9ais {or Comedie-Fran- 
faise), the best theatre in 



theier, m. tea-plant. 

theme, m. theine, subject for an 
essay; a passage in one's own 
language given to be tratislated 
into a foreign language; also, 
the translation so made. 

thermes, m. pi. public baths (of 
antiquity); liot mineral springs 
{frequented by invalids). 

tient, / of tenir. 

timide, timid. 

tirer, to draw, pull; {fig.) to 
draw {a conclusion). 

toi, thou, thee, you. 

toi-meme, thyself, yourself. 

toit, in. roof. 

tomber, to fall, to subside. 

ton, ta, tes, adj., thy, your. 

ton, sbst. 111. tone, fashion, way. 

tonnerre, m. thunder. 

tordre, to twist 

tort, m. wrong, injury, harm; 
avoir — , {only of persons) to 
be wrong; donner — a qqn., to 
decide against some one, put 
him in the wrong. 

toajours, always, ever. 

Toaloa, m. An important French 
Jidrbor and naval station on 

touriste, m. tourist. 

toarmenter, to torment ; se — , to 
tumble about. 

tourner, to turn; to wind. 

tout, — e, {m. pi. tous), adj. all, 
every, any, each ; sbst. every- 
thing; toas les jours, soirs, mois. 
etc., every day, evening {oi' 
night), month, etc.; une fois 
tous les cent ans, once every 
hundred years. 

tout, adv. quite, entirely ; — 
comme . . ., just like, just the 
same as . . . 

tranqaille (= tran-kil), quiet, 
easy; je suis — , my mind is at 
ease, I have peace of mind. 

travail, m. labor, work, toil; 
process, operation. 

travailler, to work, labor. 

traverser, to cross, pass (or go) 
through {or over). 

trente, thirty. 

tres, very. 

tresor, m. treasure. 

trois, three. 

tromper, to deceive; se — , to be 
mistaken, wrong. 

trone, m. throne. 

trop, too much ; too many, 
too . . . 

troupe, /. troop; — s, troops, 

trouver, to find, discover; se — , 
to (happen to) be, to be found. 

tu, thou, you. 

tuer, to kill, slay. 

Tuileries (le palais des),/. pi. A 
splendid royal palace, begun 
in 1564, destroyed in 1871. 
{Named from the tile-works — 
" tuileries " — which formerly 
occupied the site.) 

Turenne, One of the most celebrat- 
ed French generals {1611- 
1675). {See pp. 32, S3, and 80.) 

Tyane, /. Tyana, a town in 


un, a, an ; one ; les — s, ... les 
autres, some . . . others; les 
uns les autres, one another. 

univers, m. universe, creation. 

usage, m. use. 

user, intrans. {taking de bef. ohj.) 
to make use of, to use; en — 
bien (o?- mal) avec qqn., to treat 
one well {or badly); trans, to 
use up, to wear out, to damage 
by use or wear. 

utile, useful, of use. 

vacbe,/. cow. 

vais, / (f aller. 

valoir, ir. to be worth; il vant 



mieuz -f- infin., it is better 

to . . . 

vasistas (= vd-zis-tds), m. a mov- 
able pane of (/lass in doo7' or 

vaste, vast, immense. 

vaut, /o/valoir. 

veille (= viy), f. the state of 
being awake during the night, 
hence, in plur. watching, loss 
of sleep. 

venger, to avenge, revenge ; 
se — , to take vengeance, re- 
venge oneself. 

venions, II of venir. 

venir, ir. to come; {of plants, 
fruit, etc.) to grow ; — a + 
infin., to happen to; il vient 
de partir, he has just gone; il 
viut un . . . , there came a . . . 

vent, m. wind. 

vente, /. sale; en — , on (for) sale. 

Tenter, to blow, be windy. 

verbe, m. verb. 

verdure, /. verdure, green. 

verite, /. truth. 

verrai, IV of voir. 

verre, m. glass. 

vers, toward(s), to. 

version,/, version; t7ie translation 
of a passage from a foreign 
language into one's own; also, 
the passage translated. {0pp. 
to theme.) 

vertu,/. virtue. 

vertueux, virtuous. 

vetement, m. dress, suit; pi. 

veux, I of vonloir. 

victoire, /. victory. 

vie,/, life; en — , alive. 

vieil. See vieux. 

vieillard ( = vy^-ydr), m. old 

Vienne, /. Vienna. 

vient, 1 0/ venir. 

vieux, vieil(le) (= vyeu, vyey) old. 

vigilance, /. watchfulness, vigi- 

vigoureux, vigorous, robust. 

villageois, w. villager. 

vilie, / town, city. 

vint. III of yenir. 

visage, in. face, countenance. 
. ^ III of voir. 
' [lofvivxe. 

vivement, keenly, very much. 

vivons, VI of vivre. 

vivre, ir. to live. 

voici, here is. 

voie, /. way, road; means. 

voila, {lit. see there), behold, 
that is, there is or are; I'y — !, 
there she stands! vous — !, 
there you are! — saint P. qui 
vient, here comes St. P. 

voir, ir. to see, meet; {exclain.) 
voyons, come now! 

vols, I of voir. 

voisin, adj. neighboring, near 
by; sbst. neighbor, one near by. 

voit, I of voir. 

voiture, /. carriage, coach. 

voler, to steal {a tJiing); to rob 
{a person). 

voleur. m. thief, robber. 

volonte, /. will. 

volontiers, willingly, gladly. * 

Voltaire. A very brilliant writer,^ 
of great versatility and wit, 
who exerted an immense in- 
fluence on the men of his cen- 
tury {1694-1778). 

vos, see votre. 

votre, vos (= vdtre, vo), adj. 
your; pron. la, le^s) v6tre(8) 
(= vidre) yours. 

voudrais, V) j^ , . 

voulez,/ ["/vouloir. 

vouloir, ir. to will, desire, wish, 
want; — dire, to mean (to say ) ; 
je veux que vous fassiez cela, I 
want you to do that; je le veux 
bien, I am quite willing, I have 
no objections. 

voulons, / j ^ 

voulusso, VIII S^J' 

vous, you, to you. 

' vouloir. 



voyage, m. journey, voyage; 
en — , on a journey, travelling. 
voyais, ]I '] 

voyait, // | 

voyant. IX V of -voir. 

voyez, 1 and VI | 
voyons, land VI) 
vrai, true. 
vu, X of voiT. 

vue,/. view, prospect, 
vulgaire, common, vulgar. 

y, there, here, to it; il y a, there 

is {or are). 
yeux, pi. of oeil; aux — de . . . 

in the eyes of . . . 



The French words in this vocabulary are given in their usual dictionary 
forms : — the adjectives and pronouns in the masculine singular only, and 
the verbs in the inflnitive without " to ". It is expected that the pupil will 
use the form appropriate to the case in hand. 

The dash is used immediately after the first word of each article when the 
French word which it replaces is identical in form with the English word. 

a, an, un, une ; so much a year, 
a person, a kilo, tant par aa, 
par personne, le kilo. 

able to, to be, pouvoir, gtre assez 
fort pour. 

abound, abonder. 

abont, prep, {place) autour de ; 
{in one's pocket) — you, sur 
vous ; {relative to) .sur ; {w. 
numbers) environ ; adv. tout 
autour, alentour ; — to go in, 
sur le point d'y entrer ; those 
(standing) — them, les as- 
sistants, les voisins ; set — 
(go — ) * thing, se prendre h 

above, adv. a u-dessus ; (^be- 
fore '; in book^ etc. ) -p lus baiSt ; 
(p. 97) from — , p ar eu banl'j 
prep, au-dessus^de.' 

absent-minded, absent) distrait ; 
he was . . . very — , il avait 
souvent des absences, etait 
sujet h des absences (d'esprit). 

absorb, absorber. 

abstain, s'abstenlr, [from evil, dii 
uial, de faire le mal.] 

acacia, — , m. 

academy, academie, /. / French 
A — , Academie frangaise, a 
self ■ elective body {composed of 
forty men of letters), founded 
in 1635 and charged with the 
preparation of a dictionary, 
and several otJier duties, such 
as that shown on p. 108. 

accept, accepter. 

access, acc^s, m.; give — to, 
donner acc^s h. 

accommodate, loger. 

accompany, accompagner ; — ied 
by, accompagne de. 

accomplish, {p. 25) faire ; — it, 
en venir h bout. 

according to, selon, d'aprfis, sui- 
vant. * 

account, compte, m.; on — of, ^ 

' cause de. 

account for, expliquer. 

acid, acide, m. 

acquaintance, connaissance, /. 

acquire, acquerir. 

action, — ,/. 

active, actif [adj. & sbst. w.] ; 
— voice, vols active ; in the 
— , k I'actif. 

actor, acteur, m. [ — trice,/.]. 

add, ajouter; ( — up) a,fldit ,inT]nftr! 




— to it, y ajouter; it must be 
— ed, il faut ajouter. 

addition, — , /./ in — , en outre; 
in — to being celebrated, outre 
qu'elle a une grande celebrite, 
or tr. nou seulement elle a . . . 
mais encore. 

address, adresse,/. 

adjective, adjectif, 

adjoining, attenant, contigu [/. 
— ug], a cote. 

admire, admirer. 

admit, donner (livrer) passage a, 
lalsser entrer. 

adornment, parure, /., ornement 
precieux, m. 

advantage, avantage, m.; had 
the — of him, avait I'avan- 
tage, etait ^vantage; has — s, 
a du bon, a ses avantages. 

adverb, adverbe, m. 

adverbial, — , 

adversary, adversaire, m. 

advice, conseil, m. ; if you take 
my — , si vous m'eii crovf z 
[may be f olid, by clause in fut , 
as on p. SJj.]. 

advise, conseiller, recommander, 
[both w. de -\- infin.'] 

affair, affaire, f.; (p 70) ma- 
chine, /./ Foreign A — s, see 

afraid, to be, avoir peur, crain- 
dre; I was very much — of, 
j'avais (une) grande pt^ur de. 
[For optional ne in subord. 
sbjnct. clause aft. craiudre, etc., 
seep. 116.] 

after, prep. & adv. apres. 
[Takes past infin.; see p. 16, 
note 2.] — sometime, au bout 
de (apr^s) quelque temps, de 
quelques moments (instants), 
d'un instant (moment) ; conj. 
aprds que. 

afterward(s), plus tard. 

again, encore, encore une fois, 
de noiiveau, ^ nouveau ; often. 
rendered by prefixing re- to the 

vb. — e.g. relire, revoir, remet- 
tre, reprendre, remporter. 

against, contre; de. 

age, age, m.; — after — , depuis 
des siecles, de si^cle en sificle. 

aged, age; — man, vieillard; 
— 89, a I'age de 89, 

ago, three days, il y a trois jours. 

agree, convenir; (^rrrtw.) s'accor- 
der [en genre (en nombre, 
eic.)avec]; to make — ,faireac- 
corder; we are agreed on . . ., 
nous sommes d'accord sur . . . 

agreement, accord, m.; to come 
to an — about, se mettre d'ac- 
cord sur. 

ah ! all ! lielas ! 

aid, aide,/., secours, m.; by — 
of, a I'aide de. 

alarm, aiarmer; to be — ed, avoir 
peur, s'inquieter. 

alas! Lelas ! 

alder, aune, m. 

alive, en vie, vivant. 

all, adj. tout(e), tous; — things, 
tout; pron. tout, tous, tout le 
monde; — (that) I have, tout 
ce que j'ai ; adv. — about, 
tout autour, alentour; not at 
— , pas (point) du tout, nulle- 
ment; taken — in — , a tout 

allow, permettre[p.qqc1i. ^qqn.; 
p. k qqn. de faire qqcb.J; lais- 
ser [qqn. infin. qqcb.J. 

almond, araande;/. 

almost, presque, ^ peu prfes. 

alms, aunione, /. sing., cbarite, 
/. / ask for — , demander I'au- 

alone, seul, tout seul. 

along, le long de [in sense of 
'parallel witli';] [riding] — 
a road, par un . cbemiu; to 
bring — , aniener. 

Al|»8, Alpes,/. pi. 

already, dejd. 

also, aussi, egalement; as — , 
ainsi que; but — , mais(aussi). 



althougli, bien que, quoique. 

[shj,<ct.] ^ 
altitude, elevation,/., altitude,/, 
always, tou jours. ' 
ambassador, auibassadeur, m. 
America, Amerique, /./ in 

North — , dans 1 A. du Nord. 
American, adj., aniericuin. 
among(st), parmi, entre, au iiii 

Jieii de; — otlief(s), entre au- 

Amsterdam, Amsterdam, [prn. 

all letter's]. 
amuse, amuser, divertir. 
amusement, (p. 68) distractions, 

/• P^- • 

analysis, analyse logique, /. 

and, et. 

anew, de nouveau, (in a differ-J^Tch-wa,y, voute, /. 

ent way) a nouveau 

angry, en colore, fSche; get — , 
se faclier. 

animal, animal, m , bete,/. 

another, (different) un autre, un 
second(deuxieme); {additional) 
encore un. 

answer, sbst. reponse, /. 

answer, vb. repondre, repliquer. 

anterior, auterieur, 

antiquity, antiquite, /. 

anxious, inquiet; be very — to, 
tenir beaucoup a. 

any, adj. quelque ; {no matter 
which) un(e) . . quelconque, 
n'importequel(le). . .\{w. neg.) 
aucun, nul; — one, quelqu'un; 
pron. en, quelques-un(e)s; if 
you have — , si vous en avez. 

apartments, (collectively) apparte- 
ment, m sinq^ see p. 10 J. 

apieuu, l!Lacuu. 

apology, excuse, /. See p. 31, 
note S. 

apparatus, appareil, m. 

appear, (suddenly, p. 77) appa- 
raitre; (in genl. sense) paraltre. 

appearance, apparence, /., as- 
pect (ds-pe), m. 

appetite, appetit, m. 

apple, poiiinie,/.; — tree, pom-^ 

mier, to. 
apply, trans, appliquer; — ... 

to [the face, etc.\ (s')appli- 

quer . . . sur; intr. s'appli- 

quer, convenir, [a qqn., qqch.] 
appoint, nommer. 
approach, sbst. api)roclie, /. / 

p. 42, ad lib., entendre (s')iip- 

proclier le . . . 
approach, vb. approcLer, s'ap- 

procber, [both w. de bef. «?J/.] 
appropriated, affecte. 
apricot, abricot, to. 
arch,»(i;i genl.) arc (drk), m.; 

(of bridge, viaduct, etc.) a«;be, 

/. / triumphal — , arc de 


architecture, — ,/. ['ch' soft]. 
area, etendue, /. , surface, /., 

(pp. 88, 94) superficie,/. 
argue, discuter. 
arid, aride. 

aristocrat, aristocrate, to. <&f. 
aristocratic, aristocrate. 
arm, bras, m ; — .in — , bras 

dessus bras dessous, en se 

do nnant'le bras. 
arlll, bb. armei^. * 
arm-chair, fauteuil^ TO. 
army, armee, /. 
arrange, arranger, ranger; {p. 99) 

arrangement, sys tfeme^ to. , dis^ 

p"iiit[itiiii 11^' — • " 

arrival, arrivee, /. 

arrive, arriver; — suddenly, sur- 

art, — , TO.," fine — s, beaux-arts; 
gallery of — . see gallery; (in 
university) Arts.les Xettres.e.g. 
faculte des lettres ; bacbelier, 
licencie, docteur ds lettres. 

article, article, m. 

artificial, artificiel. 

as, conj. comme, puisque, [seep. 
33, note 3\\ — (for example), 
comme; adv. — ... — , aussi 



. . . que; — also, ainsi que; — 
soon — , aussitot q ue ; — well — , 
aussi bien que; — for, quant ^. 

ash, (tree) frene, m. 

ask, demander [qqch. 3, qqn.]; 
to — a question, faire, poser 
une question [see p. 3, note 
4]; — pardon, demander par- 
don; — ed to see [hers], lui de- 
manda a voir . . . ; to — for, 

asleep, endormi; fall — , s'en- 

aspen, tremble, m. 

asphyxiate, aspbyxier. 

ass. tine, m. 

assign, donner; . , . must be — ed, 
il faut donner . . . 

assistance, — , /./ without — , 
sans aide, sans (i'ja>.sistaur,e 
de personne. 

astonish, etonner, surprendre; 
— ed at seeing, etonnes (sur- 
pris) de yoir, 

astonishment, etonnement, m. 

astronomer, astronoine, m. 

at a; (w. iieg.) — all, du tout. 

Atlantic, adj. atlaniique ; — 
Ocean, ocean Atlantique, m., 
mer At., /., or simply Atlan- 

atmosphere, atmospb&re,/. [once 
masc, as hemisphere stUl is, 
while spljere isfem.\. 

attempt, tenter. -, 

attend, soigner, donner des soins 
a; {p. 70) — to, faire atten- 
tion k. 

attendants, suite, /"., [ses] gens. 

attention, attention, /./ (p. 49) 
he paid no — to . . ., il ne 
s'occupe pas de . . .; (p. 65) 
to pay no — to it, n'y faire 
auciine attention. 

attentively, attentivement. 

attic, mansarde, f.; — room, 
cliambre sous les combles, /., 

attract, attirer. 

attractive, attrayant, seduisant. 

attribute, attribut, m. 

Auber, {prn. o-ber) b. at Caen in 

1782. Seep. 68. 
auditory, adj. auditif. 
author, auteur, rn. 
authorization, autorisation, /. 
awaking, re veil, m. 


back, sbst. dos, m.; to set his — 
against, de s'adosser a or con- 
tre, d'appuyer le dos contre ; 
stand with — against, se teuir 
(adosse) contre. 

back, adj. de derrierc; advly. 
take — again, remporter. 

bad, mauvais. 

ball, [sphere in genl.) boule, // 
{small b. for games or fire- 
arms) balle, /./ {cannon-h.) 
bonlet (de canon), m. 

balusters, {collectimly) rampe, /. 

bank, {edge) bord, m.; {' right' or 
' left ' shore, p. 94) rive, /. 

bark, ecorce, /. 

barley, orge, /. see p. 110. 

barn, grange,/. 

barren, sterile.^ 

barrenness, sterilite,/., aridite,/. 

barrister, avocat. 

bath, bain, m.; see tbermes in 
Fr. toe. 

battery, batterie, /. 

B. C, avant J.-C. [i.e. Jesus- 
Ciirist, {prn. je-zu-kri)^ avant 
notre fere. [_/.] 

be, etre, exister, se trouver; {im- 
pers.) y avoir; the verb ' to be ', 
le verl)e 'etre'; there is, are, 
see there; what I am to do, ce 
que je dois t'aire ; I am mak- 
ing, je fais; I have been mak- 
ing, j'ai fait, je viens de faire; 
I had been making,- j'avais fait, 
je venais de faire; are being 
fixed, etc., on p. 93, is tr. by 



Uw pres. of act. vb. w. on : 
6".^, on fixe, etc. 

beach) rivage, m.; {wide and 
^^pr/i*) plage,/. 

bear, porter; produire; borne by. 
p I te par. * 

beHSt, bgrb,/, 

beat, battre, fouetter. 

beautafal, beau, niagnifique, 

b auty, beaute, /. 

because, parce que, c'pst que. 

becoTie, devenir; — thirsty, sre 
thirsty; what has — of her 1 
qu'estelle devenue? {^Contrast 
w. je sais ce qu'elle est deve- 

bed, lit, m.; go to — , se coucher. 
See also take. 

bed-clothes, couvertures,/. pi. 

bedroom, cliambre h coucbtr, /. 

beech, bgtre ['/t' axp.]. m. 

beet, bettefave, f.; sugar , b. 

3. Sucre. 

before, prep, [time) avant, avant 
de; {place) dev^nt; more . . . 
than — ,- plus . . . qu'avant, 
qu'auparavant, qu'il ue I'etait 
avant; — going, avant d'aller; 
conj. avant que [w. sbjnct.]. 

beforehand, empresse, prevenant. 

beg, prier; I — your pardon, (je 
vous demande) pardon. 

beggar, mendiant, m. 

begin, comiuencer; — to -j-infin., 
se mettre &, coramencer h or 
de; to — with . . ., coramencer 
par . . ., { = firstly) d'ahord. 

beginning, commencement, m., 
debut, m. 

behind, prep., derrlere. 

bemg, pi'es. part., see be. 

belated, attarde. 

Eelgium, Belgique, /. 

believe, croire. 

bell-cord, cordon de sonnette, m. 

belong, a;ipartenir. , ^ 

below, prep, sous, {on lower level) 
au-dessv^us de ; adv. dessous; 
here — , ici-bas. 

beside, prep, an pros de, il cote de. 

besides, adv. en plus, en outre. ^ 

bespattered, eclabousse, crotte. 

best, le niieux; the — known, le 
plus connu. 

bet, gageure, \g(ijur'\f., pari, m. 

better, adj. meilleur; {p 5) the 
— , see the; adv. mieux; do — , 
faire niieux; I shd. like nothing 
— , see like; so much (all) the 
— , taut mipux ; be the — lor. 
profiter de; it wd. have been — 
if he had stayed, il aurait 
mieux fait (fait mieux) de 
Tester; it wd. h. been — for him 
to be (if he had been) . . ., il 
lui aurait mieux valu etre(s'il 
avait ete) . . . 

between, entre. 

beyond, prep, au deli de; p. 101 
I I. 2, ad lib., aprds. 

Bible, Bible,/. 

bid, commander; souliaiter; to — 
good day, saluer, dire bon jour. 
[ Bidassoa, (la riviere de) la Bidas- 
I soa. 
i bill, [account) compte, m. 

birch, bouleau, m. 

bird, oiseau, m. 

Biron. the Duchess de, la duchesse 
de B., wife of the due de B., 
icho, while commanding Re- 
publican armies in France, 
was suspected and executed in 

bishop, ev^que, m. 

bit, morceau, m., {p. 79) par- 
cel le, /. 

blanket, couverture de laine, /. 

blessed, bienbeureux. 

blind, adj. aveugle; be quite — , 
n'y voir goutte. 

blind, vb. aveugler, fermer les 
yeux [a qqn.]. 

blotting-paper, papier buvard (or 
]>. brouillard), m. 

blow, sbst. coup, m. 

blow, vb. souffler. 

bine, bleu [adj. & abst. m.]. 



blusterer, fan faron, w. , bravaclie, j 

///., rodoinont, m. 
boast, se vanter ; [to — ] that 

one can, of being . . ., de pou- 

voir, d'etre. * 

body, corps, m. 
bold, liardi [' ?i ' nsp."]; — stroke, 

cnup de main, in. 
bone, OS, m. \^prn. see Fr. voc.\ 
book, livre, in. 
boot, (long, as on p 73), botte, ' 

f. ; {digldly aboee ankle) bot- 

border on, gtre limitrophe de, , 

confint-r ^ (avec) -^ (land on ! 

water, p. 90,) border \trans.\ 
born, ne ; to be — , naitre* was — , 

est ne, naquit. 
borne, see bear, 
borrow, emprunter. 
borrower, emprunteur, m. 
both, I'un et I'autre ; (esp. of 

persons) tons les deux, (both at 

once) tons deux ; — banks, les 

deux rives. 
bother, (annoy)ex\i\\iyGV ; (puzzle) 

bottle, Ijouteille, /. 
bound, borner, [by, par], 
bowl, bol, m.; (of pipe) fourneau, 

bdx, boite, /.,• (theatre) loge,f.y 

— on the ear, soufHet, m. 
boy, giirgon,' in., enfant, m. 
Brabanter, hrabangon, m. 
break, casser, briser, rompre : 

— out, eclater ; — up the 
ground, remuer (travailler) la 
terre (le sol) ; the — ing up [of 
a sentence] into its . . ., la de- 
composition ... en ses . . . 

breathe, respirer. 

bridge, pont, m. 

brine, saumure, /. 

bring, (carry) apporter ; (con- 
duct) amener (avec soi, lui, 
etc.) ; — along, amener ; — up. 
elever ; — near [to], approclier 
[qqcb. de qqcb.]. 

Britain, Great, la Grande-Bre- 

tagne, /. 

British Isles, lies Britan- 

Brittany, Bretagne, /. 

brook, ruisseau, m. 

brother, fr6re. 

brownish, brunStre. 

bubble, bulle,/. 

buckwheat, sarrasin, m., ble 

build, batir; (nests) faire ; — itg 
timber, see timber ; {p. 9i) 
built, situe, (p. 95, ad lib.) 

building, batiment, m. ; public 
— , monument", m., edifice 
public, w> 

ballet, balle [de fusil, de pisto- 

Burgundy, Bnurgogne, /. 

burn, sbst. brfllure,/. 

burn, vb. bruler; — [a hous*, 
etc.'\, incendier. 

burning oil, buile a brfller, /. 

burst, eclater; — out laughing, 
erlater de rire. 

busily, avec application, 

business, affaires, /. pi., le com- 
merce, m.; to do — , pour 
faire des affaires. 

busy, adj. occupe, affaire; busy 
arranging, occupe a faire con- 
st luiie. 

busy oneself, s'occuper [de = at, 
in] ; — eagerly in -j- pres. 
part., s'empresser de oi' d. 

but, mais; (— only) ne . . . que, 

by, prep, par, a, sous; — taking 
. . ., en prenant . . .; (as 
measure of difference) — half, 
de moitie; — far, de beaucoup ; 
(measure of dimension) 3 feet 
— 6, 3 pieds sur 6 ; recognize 
... by , . ., reconnaitre . . . 
a ; adv. close by, near by, tout 

bystanders, assistants, m. pi. 



cab, fiacre, m. 

cabman, cocber (de fiacre), m. 

call, appeler; {meeting) convo- 
quer; is — ed . . ., s'appelle . . . 
se nomine . . , 

camel, cbaineau, m. \/ 

can, and could, are genly. ren- 
dered by pouvoir, and some- 
times by savoir; I can't, je iie 
peux (puis) pa-, impossible; 
[//i cases like I — see as far as 
. . . , one cd. see it stretching, 
{p 16 I. 10), tJte can is often 
omitted in Fren.^ 

candidate, candidat, m,. [for = 


candle, {tallow) cbandelle, /.; 
(icax, paraffine, etc.) bougie,/. 

candle-light, by, ^ la cbandelle, 
aux cbandelles, 3. la Inmiere 
des cbandelles. 

cannon-shot, coup de canon, in.; 
{bfdl) boulet de canon, m,. 

capital, {city) capitale, /./ {let- 
ter) (lettre) majuscule, /. 
(lettre) capitale./. 

captain, capitaine, m. 

carbolic acid, acide pbenique, 
m., pbenol, m. 

cardinal, — , m. 

care, sbst. {attention) soin, m.; 
(anxiety) souci, m.; with — , 
avec soin, soigneusenient ; 
take — , prenez garde; {p. 69) 
take — of yourself, prends 
garde Si, toi(-m§me), prenez 
garde k voiis(-mgme); take 
good — not to . . ., se garder 
blen de . . .; under the — of, 
sous les soins de. 

care, vb. se soucier; I — nothing 
for him, je ne me soucie pas 
de lui. 

carefully, avec soin, soigneuse- 
ment, ,avec application (atten- 

Carlini, Charles Bertinazzi, 
known in France as Carlin, 

b. at Turin in 1713, d. at 
Pans in 1783. ^ 

carpet, tapis, m,. 

carriage-builder, carrossier, m. 

carry, 'porter 4 emporter ; — 
away, emporter. 

cart, cbarrette, /./ {enclosed by 
boards, carrying sand, stone, 
etc., & tilting up) tombe- 
reau, m. 

carve, sculpter \s1cul-te\ 

case, cas, m,.; the — was that of 
a . . ., il s'agissait d'un . . ., 
le cas etait celui d'un . . . 

cat, cbat, m. 

catacomb, catacombe, /. 

catch, attraper. 

cathedral, catbedrale, /. 

cause, sbst. cause,// have cause 
to . . ., avoir lieu de . . . 

cause, tb. causer; {factitively) 
faire -|- infin., as in — d to 
be carried, faisait porter. 

cease, cesser; had not — d [fall- 
ing], n'avait (pas) cessede . . . 
or simply n'avait (pas) cesse. 

celebrated, cel^bre, renomme. 

cellar, cave, /. 

cemetery, cimeti^re, m. 

cent, per, pour cent; a 2 per cent 
solution, une solution S. df^ux 
pour cent {or & 2 pour 100). 

centimetre, centimetre, m., 
hundredth part pf mdtre. 

centre, — , m.; — [of know- 
ledge], {ad lib.) foyer de . . . 

central, — , du centre. 

century, siecle, to. / for — ies, 
depuis des si^cles. 

Cerberus, Cerbdre, m. , the mytho- 
logical three-headed dog,guard- 
ijig tTie portals of t/ie infernal 

cereal, adj. cereal ; sbst. pi. {the 
seeds) — s, les cereales, /. 

certain, — , sUr; {indeterminate) 
une certaine personne ; — 
people, certaines gens. 

chain, cbalne, /. 



chalk, cra-p,/.y with — , a la c, 

avec dt' la c. 
challenge, i)r()voquer (en duel), 

appeler en duel, 
challenger, provocateur, m. 
chance, iiasard ['A' «,9p.]; by — , 

par hasard. 
change, cliangement, m. ; (of 

moon) phaije, /., cbangement 

de June. 
Channel, the English, la Mancbe, 

/. [oft. also le detroii]. 
charcoal, charbon de bois, cbar- 

boii, tn. 
charge, — , /. ; take — of, se 

cliarger de [w. sbst. or ihfin.]. 
charge, vb. accuser, 
charitable, — , de bienfaisance. 
charity, cbarite, /, 
Charles, — . 
charming, cbarmant. 
chat, causer, 
chatter, bavarder. 
cheek, joue,/. 
cherry, cerise, /. ; — tree, ceri- 

sier, m. ' 
chestnut, cbataigne, /. / (Fren. 

or Italian) m'arron, vi. ; 

(borse-ch ) marron d'Indef ; 

— (tree), cbStaignief,' m., and 
marronnier, m. respectively.:^ 

— forest, fOrSt de cbfitai- 
gniers, ,/'. 

child, enfant, m. cfe/. 

chilly, frileux. 

chimney-corner,, in the, au coin 

du feu (de la cberainee). 
chloride, cblorure, m. 
Choiseul, Duke de, le due de C. 

choose, cboisir: which you chose 

to . . ., qu'il vous plairait 

de . . . 
Christmas, Nogl, m. ; — box, 

etrennes, /. pi., [see p. 100, 

note i5.] 
church, egl ise. /. [takes a capital 

6 except when denoting an 

edifice'] . 

church-steeple, clocher, m. 
churchyard, is rendered by cime- 

tiere, m. Seep. 72, note 6. 
cigar, cigare, m. 
circumstance, circonstance,/. 
city, ville, /. / in the — {opp- to 

country) t la ville; in [that — ], 

dans ... [As part of Paris 

& London, City is cite, /. [see 

Fr. vocab.): e.g. I'ile de la 

Cite, p. 95.} 
claim, reclanier, demander. 
class, classe, /. , categorie, /. 
clause, proposition, /. ; (somet.) 

II embre de pbrase, m. 
clay, argile, /. ; {p. 74) (terre) 

glaise, /. 
clear, clair ; (of sky, pure & 

calm), serein, 
clearly, nettement. 
clergy, clerge.m. , ecclesiastiques, 

7n. pi. 
clever, habile ; — answer, bon 

climate, climat, m. 
climb, {stair) raonter. 
clock, {in, genl.) borl oge, /. / 

(portable or ho^ise~crock) pen- 

djjle^ /. ,• ten o'clock, ^x 

heures; what o' — . . .? quelle 

lieure . . .? 
close, vb. trans, fermer; (stopvp) 

boucber [avec]; (close again) 

Cefgjmtr; i7itr. se fermer, 

(p. 76) se re fermer. 
cloth, etoffe, /. 
cloud, nuage, m. 
coach, diligence,/, 
coal.cbarbon de terre, ?w.,bouille 

coast, cote, /. [oft. plur.]; (coast 

regions collectively, as p. S9) 

littoral, m. si^ig. 
coat, bahit, m.; — of mail, cotte 

de mailles, /. 
cobalt, — [kobdW], m. 
coin, pidce, /. 
coke, — [kdk], m. 
col(^, froid [adj. & sbst. to.]. 



collar, {of shirt) col, m.; (detach- 
able do.) faux col; {of cotit, 
ete.) collet, m. ; (as decoration ; 
or of metal or leather for dogs, 
hors s) collier, m. 

color, vb. colorer^ 

colorless, incplore. 

combat, — , m. 

come, venir [ip. Stre]; — and see, 
tell, ask, find, etc., venir voir, 
dire, demander, trouver, etc.; 
when we — to it, lorsque on en 
estl^, nous en soinmes IS.; — off 
{p. 74) se degager. {p. 80) s'en 
tirer ; — in, entrer, {again) 
rentrer; — out, sortir, partir; 
(p. 77) — s out clearly, parait 
nettement; — down, descend re; 
come now ! voyons ; — back, 
revenir ; when she came back, 
3. son retour ; — again, reve- 
nir; — round, venir; {p. 101) 
— to, arriver sur. 

command, ordonner, commander: 
[ii qqn. de faire qqch.]. 

commit, commettre, faire [esp. 
on p. 93]. 

common, commun; — noun, nom 
commun, m. 

Commune, — , /. , see Fr. voc. 

communicate, communiquer 

C3mpanion, compagnon, m. 

company, societe, /'., compagnie, 
/.; there was a numerous — , il 
y avait nombreuse compagnie. 

comparatively, comparativement, 

compare, comparer. 

complain, se plaindre [que w. 
iiid. or sbjnct. accord, to mean- 
ing; de ce que w. indie]. 

complement, complement, m. 

complete, adj. complet. 

complete, cb. completer. 

completely, completeraent. 

compose, composer; to be —J of, 
se composer de. 

composer, musical, compositeur 

de musique, compositeur; tlie 
great French — , le grand (ce- 
lc''l)re) c. (de m.) fran^ais. 

compound, compose. 

comprise, comprendre, contenir. 

comrade, compagnon, m.; {more 
intimate) camarade, m. 

conception, — , / , image, /. 

condition, — , /. , etat, m.; on — 
that, si condition que [folld. 
by fut. indie., sbjnct., or 

conditional, conditionnel [adj. & 
sbst. m.] 

confess, avouer, it must be^— ed, 
il faut^^bien) avouer. 

confluence, confluent, m. 

conjugate, oonjugaer. 

conja gation, conjugaison, f. 

TSonJunction, CQn joiiction , /. 

conjunctional, conjonctif. 

connect, relier [h, with] ; are here 
— ed, y sont reliees. 

consequence, consequence, f; 
that is of no — , cela est sans 
d'aucune importance (conse- 

consequently, par consequent. 

consider, considerer, [takes com- 
me bef predicate •complement] ; 
{hold as opinion that . . .), 
trouver [que];.—* [a thing] 
dangerous, trouver . ; . daiige- 
reux; I — him a . . ., je le 
considere comrae ', . . 

considerable, considerable, assez 

consist, consister; — 8 in -|- pres. 
part., consister h + infin.; 
— of, consister en, dans; se 
composer de. 

eonstituent, sbst. {political) com- 
mettant, m. 

consult, consulter. 

consume, {destroy) conisumer ; 
(use: e.g. food, fuel, materials) 

consumption, consommation [de 



bois, d'huile, de ble, de viii, 
etc.] J. 

contain, conteriir, renfermer; (of 
a building, ^oft.) abriter, but 
not on p 98. 

content, — . ^ 

continue, continuer, ajouter. 

continuous, contimi. 

contract, contracter. 

contradict, contredire. 

contrary, contraire, oppose; on 
the — , au contraire. 

contrast, contraste, m.; in — to, 
]iar opposition a. 

conventional, de convention. 

conversation, — , /. 

converse, vb. {familiarly) causer; 

convert, convertir, transformer; 
[for ' into ' both genii/, take en 
without art. bef. sbst.]. 

convince, convaincre, persuader. 

cook, sbst. cuisinier, [/. — 6re]. 

cook, vb. intr. cuire; trans, faire 
cuire; for — ing, pour la cui- 

copy, copier. 

cord, (/•op<3)corde,/.y {of door bell 
or d'lov) cordon, m. 

cork, {material) liSge, m ; {stop- 
per) boucbon (de liSgfi), m. 

cork-oak, cbene-li6ge, m. 

Cornelia, Cornelie, /., wife of 
Sempronius Oracchus, mother 
of Tiberius and Cuius Orac- 

correspond, repondre. 

corridor, — , m. 

Corsica, Corse,/., File de Corse,/. 

cost, vh. couter \dat. of pers.]. 

CO aid, as simple narrative {indie.) 
past of can, is rendered by the 
various past tenses of pouvoir; 
in the principal clause of con- 
ditional assertions, often accom- 
panied by ' if" in the subord. 
clause, it shd. be the condl. of 
pouvoir. [Note the follg. he 
asked me if I — play the flute. 

il m'a demande si je savais 
jouer de la flute ; if I only 
could, si seulenient je le pnu- 
vais; I — see as far as, see 

count, vb, compter. 

countenance, visage, m., figure, 
/., mine./. 

country, pays, m., contree, /., 
{orie's native c, but less oft.) 
patrie, /. [see I. 6,. note]; in 
our — , dans notre pays, cbez 

countryman, campagnard, m., 
paysan, m. 

course, — , /./ of — , naturelle- 
ment, bien entendu. 

court, sbst. cour, f; adj. de la 
cour; — of justice, tribunal, 
m., see high. 

courtier, courtisan, m. [no fern. 
in this 8e7ise]. 

cousin, — , TO. 

cover, couvrir; — edwith, convert 
de; — w. forest, couvrir (gar- 
nir) d'arbres, boiser. 

cow, vacbe,/. 

credible, croyable. 

creeping, rampant. 

crop, sbst. (yielded) recolte, f.; 
{cultivated, as p. 89) culture,/. 

crop, vb. {eat) brouter. 

cross, adj. {transverse) de tra- 
verse, transversal. 

cross, vb. traverser; {limit or ob- 
stacle) francbir; — ed by, tra- 
verse par. 

crowd, foule,// in a — , en foule. 

cry, sbst. cri, m. 

cry, vb, {shout, scream, etc ) 
crier ; — (out), {s uddenly d- 
ver y loudly ). s'ecrier [w. quoted 
7'jord(s) for ofij.], but on p. lUO^ 
crier; {to weep) pleurer. 

cultivate, cultiver. 

cultivation, culture, /. [cultiva- 
tion is obsolete]. 

culture, — ,/. 

cup, tasse, /. 



cure, sbst. — , /. See p. 26, 
note 1. 

curious, singulier, bizarre. 

Curran, John Philpot, {1750- 
1S17). An eloquent Irish bar- 
rister, number of Irish House 
of Commons, and finally 

curtain, rideau, m. 

custom, coutume, /., habitude, 
// (in pi. = ' usages,') vaadVLTH, 

custom-house, douane,/./ — of- 
ficer, douanier. 

cut, couper. [O/i p. S3, I. 5, use 
moissonner, unless the preced- 
ing "field" is made bles.] 

dampness, humidite, /. 

danger, — , m. 

dangerous, dangereux, perilleux 

[U = yl 
dare, oser. 
day, jour, m., journee, /. [For 

distinction see Fr. voc.'] 
deal, a great, beaucoup, une 

(grande) quantite. 
dean, doyen, m. 
dear, cber ; ( p. 62) my — , (mon) 

cUeri, mon cber enfant, 
death, mort, /. / to put to — , 

faire mourir, mettre d mort. 
debtor, debiteur, m. 
Decembbr, decembre, m. 
deceptive, trompeur, [/. ^-euse]. 
decide, decider [in favor of, en 

fa^jeur de]; — to . . ., decider 

de, se decider ft. 
deciduous, d. feuilles cadu^ues, 

(decidues).. ' * 

deep, profond ; {of color) fence, 
defence, defense,/, 
defend, defendre ; — oneself 

against, se defendre contre, 

se garantir de. 
definite, defini ; ( p. 79) deter- 

degree, degre, m., quantite,/. 

delicate, delicat. -- 

deliver, {sermon) prononcer. 

demand, deraande, /./ in great 
— , trfis recherche. 

demonstrative, demonstratif [adj. 
& sbst. m. ] . 

den, antre, m. 

denude, denuder. 

deny, nier. 

department, departement, m. 
[France, exclusive of Corsica, 
is divided into SG depart- 
ments, whic7i correspond rough- 
ly to the counties in England ] 

depend, dependre [on, de qqn ,^ 

de qqch.]"; {p. 83, Je^fer) i,.<r»>OL,-l 
compter [sar qqn ]. 

derive, (gram.)der[veT;{mMnuf.) 
tirer, extraire, obtenir, 

deserted, deserte, abandoune. 

design, (intend) destiner [si + 

designate, designer; — by the 
name of . . ., d. par le nom 
de. . . 

desire, vb. desirer, vouloir, cher- 
cher [^ -{- infin.'\. 

despair, desespoir, in.; in — , au 

destination, — , /. 

destruction, (damage) ravages, 
m. pi. 

destructive, destructif. 

determinative, determinatif [a^. 
& sbst. m.]. 

determine, determiner. 

detonation, detonation, /. 

devastate, devaster. 

develop, developper. 

devise, imaginer, s'aviser [de]. 

devote, consacrer; — time to it, 
y niettre (consacrer) du temps. 

dictation, dictee,/. 

die, mourir \w. etrej. 

different, different [oft. bef. piur. 
sbst. to. sense of ' various ', see 
p' 103 ' I. ^]; — to, different de. 

diflicuit, difficile. 



difficulty, difficulte,/. 

dig, becber; — up {unearth), dc- 

dilate, trails, dilater; intrans. 

SH di/ater. 
diminish, diminuer. 
dine, diner. 

dining-room, salie k manger. /. 
dinner, diner, m.; at — , a table, 

a diner. 
dip, treinper. 

direct, adj. — ['ct' sounded]. 
direct, vb. diriger; (prescribe) 

rec immander. 
dirty, sale. 

disappearance, disparition, /. 
disciple, — , m... eleve, m. &f. 
disconsolate, desole, afflige, in- 
discover, decouvrir, trouver. 
dish {in genl.) vase, m.; (iii vh. 

food is served) plat. m. 
disorders, desordres, w., troubles, 

m. ' — 

disposition, liumeur, /., carac- 

tere, m. 
dispute, rb. discuter [sur = 

about], disputer [sur]. ,• 
dissatisfied, meconteiit (de, with) 
dissect, dissequer. 
dissolve, (action of liquids) dis- 

soudre; (dissolve solid in liquid) 

faire dissoudre. 
distance, — , /. 
distant, eloigne. 
distingpiish, distinguer; are — ed 

as the . . . , sent designes par 

les nonis de . . , ■*?. 
distinguished, adj- ^ distingue, 

eminent, celfibre, renomme. 
distress, mi sere,/, 
district, region, /., pays, wi., 

contree, /. 
diversity, diversite, / ; — of cli- 
mate, etc. , has no article after 

do, faire; (cook) faire cuire; what 

was to be done? q>ie faire? 

what yon wd. not like to be 

done to you, ce que vous ne 
voudriez pas qu'on vous tit a 
vous(-in6nie), or as on p. 27^ 
(of meat, etc.) well, too well 
done, bien cuii, Irop cuit; [do 
is not to be rendered when 
auxil. of negation^. 

doctor, (as geul. title) docteur; 
(if medicine) medecin, docteur. 

document, document, m. 

dog, cbien, m. 

dome; dome [rfom], m. 

Donon. Mount, leniont — , highest 
peak of tl. e Vosges. 

door, ])()rte, /. 

door-mat, paillasson, m. 

door-plate, plaque,/. 

doubt, douter [de bef. sbsts., que 
tr. rb. in sbjnct.]. 

doubtless, sans doute. 

Dover, Straits of, le Pas de Calais 

down, sbst. (of feather) duvet, m.; 
— ,8 (hilis of sand) dunes, /. 

down, adv. en bas \often not spe- 
cif rally rendered, as : — ■ the 
chimney, .(dans); come — , get 
— , climb — , (descendre)]. 

down-hill, en descendant; always 
flows — , va (coule) ton jours 
en descendant, ne coule jamais 
en niontant. 

down stairs, en bas. 

dozen, douzaine, /. [takes de bef. 

dramatic, dramatique; — author, 
tr. literally or by dramaturge, 

drawing-room, salon, m. 

dreadful, affreux, terrible. 

drink, boire. 

drive, (Tiorse, etc. ) conduire. 

driver, cocber, m. 

drown, noyer; intr. se noyer; to 
be — ed, se noyer ; the — ed, 
les noyes. 

drunken, ivre, (habitually) ivro- 

dry, adj. sec [/. s6cbe], secbe ; 
when — , see when. 



dry, vb. secher; (of water) to dry 

up, intr., se tarir, tarir \_w. 

dryly or drily, s^cliement. 
dryness, secheresse, /. 
duchess, ducbesse. [Rarely w. 

capital; seep. 106, ^.] 
duchy, duche; the Grand D — of 

L., le grand-d. de L. 
duel, — , m.; challenge to a — . 

apjieler en duel, [«e^' challenge ) ; 

to fight a — , see fight 
duellist, duelliste, in. 
duie, due; the D — of York, le 

d ic d'York [see p. 1U6, i°]. 
during, i)endant, durant ; — the 

day (time), le jour; (p. 100) 

— the night, (pendant) la nuit. 
Dutchman, liollandais [• h ' asp]. 
duty, devoir, m. 
dwelling, habitation, /., de- 

meure, y. 

each, adj. cbaque, tout ; — one, 

— man, — person, chacun ; 
pron. cliacuii ; — of us, cbacun 
(de nou.s); — of the foUg. 
words, cbacun des .inots sui- 
vauts; each other is geiily. tr. 
by making the vb. reflex., and 
adding I'un I'autre (Tune . . . 
etc.), if necessary for clenr- 

ear, oreille, /./ go in at one — , 
etc., see go. 

early, adv. de bonne beure, see 
p. 67, note 3; much too — , 
beaucaup trop tot ; adj. is an 

— riser, est niatineux (somct. 
matinal, though Acad, restricts 
to a single morning), se leve 
matin (de bonne beure) ; the 
earliest times, les temps les 
plus recules. 

easily, facilement; {p. 72) very — , 

c'est tr6s simple, 
east, est [est], m.; adj. de Test, 


easy, facile, aise [both take de -\-^ 

infln. when vsed as at p. 55 

note i]. 
eat, manger ; {destroy, p. 77) 

ronger.vmanger. corroder. 
edible, comestible, 
effect, eSet, 7n.; relation of cause 

and — , le rapport oe c. a e. 
efficacious, efficace. 
Egan, John (1750?-1810). An 

Irifh barrister and member of 

the Irish Parliament. 
Egyptian, fegyptien, m. [prn. 

"■ t' as ' s'\. 
eight, buit \'h ' asp.]. 
eighteen, dix-buit. 
eighty, quatre- vingts. For omis- 
sion of hyphen and '*' see pp. 

either, adj. <& pron. run(e) ou 

I'autre ; conj. either ... or, 

ou . . . ou (bien), soit . . . soit 

or ou. 
elect, el ire. 
elector, electeur, m. 
elegance, elegance,/, 
element, elenient, m. 
eleven, onze [prec. T. not elided^. 
elide, elider. 
elm^ orme, m. 
eloquent, eloquent. 
else : something — , autre cbose ; 

nothing — , rien (d')autre, rien 

autre cliose. 
eminent, distingue, eminent, sa- 
emphatically, bautement ['^' 

asp.], energiquement, avec 

employ, employer. 
employment, emploi, m.; the 

manner of its — , la m. de s'en 

servir, de I'employer. 
empty, vide ; {p. 71) they are — , 

ad lib., tout est bu. 
enable, donner [a qqn.] le moyen 

[de f'aire . . .]; {p. 99) enabUng 

him to, lui permettant de. 
* encounter, ireQcontre, /., combat, 



m.; fisticuff — , combat d coups 

de poings. 
end, {of stick, rope, finger, etc.) 

bout, in., ex'tremite, /./ {of 

time) fin,/., honi/m.; to put 

an — to, mettre fin a, arrSter. 
endeavor [to], cbercher [a], 

tacber [de] ; {strenumisly) 

s'efforcer [de]. 
enemy, ennemi, m. 
^gage, engager. 
England, Angleterre, /. 
English, adj. anglais, 
enjoy, jouir [deqqcb.]; — one- 
self, s'aniuser. 
enormous, enornie, immense, 
enough, asnez {bef. adj.); — ... 

to -)/^ infill., assez . . . pour ; 

kind — , see kind, 
enter, {intrans.) entrer [w.etre]; 

{trans ) enXrer dans; {p. 79) 

entrer dans, penetrer dans, 
entitled to, be, avoir droit a. 
entrance, entree, /. [p. 99, to = 

^^] '<'iP- 9S) porte d'entrce,/. 
enumeration, enumeration,/, 
equal, egal. 
errand, commission, f.y go on 

(do) — s, faire les commissions, 

les courses. 
escape sbst. fuite, /./ to make 

one's — , s ecbapnAr, se sau- 

ver, s'enfuir. ^ 
escape, vb. ecliapper; {p. ?4) 

s'ecliapper [par], 
especially, surtout. 
esteem, estimer ; highly — ed, 

trSs estime.^ ' ">• 

et cetera, et castera {et-se-te-rd), 

[ill abbrev. 'etc.**, never *&c.']. 
Europe, — , / 
even, mgme; not — , pas m6me, 

l)as seulementf -^ if, see if; — 

into, to, j usque dans," jus- 

qu'a^ _ 

evesih^, soir, m., soiree, /. [see 
/ jouinee in Fr. voc.'\; one cold 

— , ^ par une soiree ties 


event, ovenement [e-venn-man], 

TO. ; in — of his being, au cas 

oh il serait. 
ever, jamais; for — , pour tou- 

jours, d (pour) jamais. 
evergreen, a feuilles persistantes, 

a feuillage pelfeistant. 
every, cbaque, tout; — day, tons 

les jours. 
everybody, everyone, tout le 

monde [t€. sijig «6.], cbacun. 
everything, tout, n'importe 

everywhere, partout. 
exactly, piecisement, parfaite- 

ment, exactement ; at ten 

o'clock — (precisely), a dix 

beures precises. 
excellent, admirable, excellent, 
except, — ing, Fauf, excepte. 
exception, — ,/.; w. few — s, a 

quelques excej)tions prSs. 
exchange, ecbanger. 
exclaim, s'ecrier. 
exert exercer. 
exhibit, montrer, 
existence, — ,/. 
expect, attendre; he — s to go in, 

il s'attend a (y) entrer ; what 

caijpfeu — ? que voulez-vous? 
expenSi^, {outlay) depense, /., 

trais, TO. pi. Genly. depens, 

(to. pi.) in the exi'ression dit. 

and fig.) at the — of (cost of), 

aux depens de, a mes (set>, 

vos, etc.) depens. 
experience, experience,/, 
experienced, experimente. 
explain, expliquer ; se rendre 

explanation, explication,/, 
express, expriuier. 
extend, s'etendre ; to — up, re- 

niopter, trans: 
extent, etendue, /, espace, m. 
external, extern e. 
extreknely. extreijunient, exces- 

si\ tment. 
extremity, extremite, /. 



extricate, degager, retirer, faire 

eye, ceil [pi. yeux], m. 

Fabert, Abraham, {1599-1662) 
marshal of France. 

face, sbst. figure, /., visage, in., 
face, f.; p. 6J, by his — , par, 
ii, sur sa mine. 

face, vb. faire face a, 6tre en face 
(visS-vis) de; to — danger, 
a If renter le danger ; {p. 78) 
ficing, face a face avec, vis- 
a-vis de. 

f ict, fait, m.; in — , (p. 79) en effet. 

faculty, faculte, // {in univer- 
sity) faculte des lettres, des 
sciences, de droit, de inede- 
cine, de tbeologie. 

fail, 8!)St , see without. 

fall, toinber [genly. w. etre]; to 

— off {decrease), diminuer. 
famous. cel6bre, fameux, renom- 

ine, [for, par ic. all thrce\ 
fancy, imaginer, s'imaginer. 
far, loin; to see — , voir de loin; 

— away, loin (de vous), absent;. 

— off, tres loin; not — off, tout 
pr6s, seisin ; as — as Paris, 
jusqu'S P. ; as — as anybody, 
aussi loin que n'itnporte qui 
{or qui- que ce soit or ptr- 
sonne) ; how — is it 1 combien 
J a t-il ? by — , de beaucoup. 

farmer, cultivateur, (large scale) 
agriculteur. [fermier has only 
the narrow sense of tenant- 
farmer. ] 

fasten, attacher. 

fat, gias, gros et gras. 

father, p^re, to. 

fault, faute,/. 

fear, peur, f.; have no — , soyez 
tranquille ; in great — , tout 

feeble, faible. 

feed, nourrir. 

feel, sentir; had made itself felt, ^ 

s'etait fait sentir. 
fellow, drole, individu. 
feminine, adj. feminin [/. — e] ; in 

the — , (du or au) feminin. 
few, peu [de]; a — , {adj.) quel- 

ques; {pron.) quelques-un(e)s. 
fibre, filament, m. 
field, champ, m. 
fifteen, quinzn. 
fifteenth, quinzienie [except for / 

kings and days]. j 

fig, figue,/./ — tree, figuier. »n.' 
fight, vb. se Italtre; {pp. 60, 64) 

combattre; — with .... se 

battre avec [qqn.]; — a duel, 

se battre en duel, 
figure, — , /. 

filbert, noisette,/., aveline,/. 
fill, remplir. 
film, pellicule,/. 
find, trouver, {unexpectedly) sur- 

pre'idre; — oneself, se trouver; 

— out for himself, se rend re 

coinpte (a lui-m6me) de * / 

fine, fin; {of sight) i)*Ea^t; {beau- I 

tiful, etc.) beau; that is all 

very — , tout cela est bel et 

bon; — arts, beaux-arts, m. pi. 
finger, doigt, m. 
finger-ends, at one's, [je I'ai, tu 

I'as.eff.] auboutdes doigts, [je 

le sais] sur ]e bout du doigt. 
finish, finir, achever, terminer; 

! >> 31, 1. 5, ad M.) operer; we 

shall — 'bj,see finir in Fren . voc. 
fir. sapin, to. 
fire, t'eu, in.; in(to) the — , au 

feu; set — to, mettre le feu h. 
fire-eater, batteur, duelliste. 
fire-place, cheminee, /. 
fire- wood, bois 4 briiler, b de 

cbaufFage, to. 
first, adj. premier; Napoleon the 

— , genly. written Napoleon I®'; 

adv. d'abord, premidrement ; 

at — . d'abord. 
fisticuff, see encounter, 
five, cinq. 

1 64 


fix, {make firm) fixer; (p. 39, of 
limits) prescrire, mettre. 

fixity, fixitc,/. 

flash of light, of lightning, 
eclair, m. 

flax, lin, m. 

fleshy, cbarnu, 

floor, {of room) plancher, m.; in 
France oft. parquet, m., [see p. 
101, note 2}; {story) etage, m. 

flow, couler. 

flower, fleur, /. 

fly, shst. moucLe, /. 

fly, vh. voler; — away, s'envoler, 
prendre son vol; — into a 
rage, s'emporter, se fScher 
toiflt rouge. 

follow, suivre ; — one another, 
se suivre; as — s, comme 11 
suit, de la niatiiere suivante 

following, suivaiit. 

folly, folie, /.; act of — , acte de 
folie, m., sottise, /., folic,/". 

fond of, to be, aiiner fa -|- infinJ]; 
he is very — of, il aime beau- 
coup [ji + infill.]. 

food, nourriture, /. 

fool, sot, m., bgte,/., imbecile, «i. 

foolish, sot, bete, imbecile ; how 
— I am ! que (comme) je suis 

foot, pied, rn.; (of dog, cat, etc.) 
patte, /./ on — , 3, pied; the 
man on — , le pieton ; set — , 
see aet; at the — of, au p. de. 

footman, valet (de pied), m. 

foot-pavehient, trottoir, m. 

footprint, trace,/. 

for, prep, pour ; (time) pendant, 
depuis; {timefut.,8omet.) pour; 
{of remedies) contre, pour; has 
(had) been ... for two days, est 
(etait) depuis 3 jours; — some 
years past, depuis quelques 
annees; conj. car, parce que. 

forbid, defendre [see p. 11, notes 
4 <£• 5]. 

force, shst. — ,/. 

force, vb, forcer, obliger \both zo. 

a or de -}- infin.; althovgh 
obliger in the passive oftener 
takes de]. 

foreign, etranger; of — affairs, 
des affaires etrangeres, 

foremost men, les sommites [de 
I'art, etc.'],, les bommes 
les plus eminents [dans]. 

forest, forgt, /./ cover w. — , see 
cover ; adj. — trees, arbres 
forestiers, essences forestieres. 

forget, oublier. 

form, forme,/. 

form, vb. trans, former; intrans, 
se former. 

former, adj. ancien; in — times, 

former, the, le premier, celui-l^. 

Icrmerly, autrefois, (in pa^st cen- 
tviies. times) ancieunement. 

formidable, — , redoutable. 

forty quarante. 

found, fonder. 

four, quatre. 

fourteen, quatorze. 

fourteenth, quatdrzitme; (kings 
or dap of month) quatorze. 

fox. lenaid, m. 

FraDiavolo [lit. 'Brother D(V/l']. 
Italian bandit chief executed 
in 1806 ; the hero of Auber's 

-^ ope7'a of tJie tame name. 

fragment, — , m. 

France, — , /./ southern — , le 
midi de la F. 

Franche-Comte, — , /. 

Francis I, Francois I", one of 
the great kings ; established ex- 
cellent regulations, and en- 
covraged learning; reigned 
from 1515 to 1547. 

free, libre, {without cost) gratuit 
[see p. 96\ 

French, adj. fran^ais, de France; 
(sbst.) fran^ais, m.; (pi.) les 

Frenchman, Fianyais. 

freshly-slacked, nouvellement 



friend, arai(e), m. {&f.). 
frighten, faire peur A., effrayer ; 

I — myself, see myself, 
frightened, effraye; be very mach 

— , avoir grand'peur, 
from, de, d6s; {coming fr.)Y>r ove- 

nant de; — there, en, de la; 

— the [earliest times], des (de- 
puis) les . . . ; — a . . . point 
of view, an point de vue de . . . ; 

— ^0 to 60, de is oft. omitted 
here, see p. 98, note J, and 
esp. p. 101, note 8; — the Loire 
to , . ., de (depuis) la L. ^ 
(jusqu'a) . , . 

fruit, — , m.; tree, arbre f mi- 1^ 

tier, 2?i. • - " * 

full, pTeiri, rempli. 

furnish, {deliver in sufficient 
quantity) fouroir [qqch. a 
qqu.] ; {less umal," = supply 
or provide w") f. qqn. de 
qqch.; — ed with, muni de. 

future, f utur;'in (the) — , S, I'ave- 
nir ; {grcmi.) in the — , au 
futur. < 

gain, gagner, conquerir. 
gallery, galerie, /. [see picture]; 

— of art, {oft.) musee de 
peinture, m. 

garden, jardin, m. 

gas, gaz, m. 

Oascony, Gascogne, /. 

gas-works, usineagaz,/. [plur. 
on p. 74]. 

gate, porte, /. / {bars fixed in 
frame) grille, /./ {across pas- 
sage) barrifire,/. 

gather, ramasser, rassembler ; 
{fruit) cueiilir. 

gathering, reunion, /. 

gayety, gaiety, gaiety or gaite,/. 

gender, gen^re, to. 

general, shst. general, m. 

generally, generalement, {usual- 
ly) ordinaireinent. 

generosity, generosite, /. 

generously, genereusement, 

Geneva, Geneve, /./ (The) Lake 
(of) — , le lac de (i. 

gentleman, monsieur, [pi. mes- 
sieurs]; (noble) gentilhomme, 

geographical, geographique. 

German, adj. allemand. 

Germany, Allemagne, /. 

get, obtenir, (se) procurer ; {of 
those ill) — on, aller; — up, 
se lever; — in, (parvenir S,) 
eutrer; — hay, etc., in, rentrer 
les foins, etc.; — there, y ar- 
river, y parvenir; I got him 
out, je I'ai fait sortir, de- 
gage, retire; — off the road, 
s'ecarter de la (ijonne) route; 

— out of bed, se lever (sortir) 
de son lit; — through it, s'en 
tirer, en \^enira bout; lam get- 
ting old, je me fais vieux; to 

— you the sort . . ., de vous 
procurer I'espece . . . 

giant, sbst. geant; adj. gigan- 
tesque. ^ 

give, donner; {lectures) faire; ^ 
{one^s na,me)^ dire, ^ecl^rer, 
[senomraexj: — back, rend re; 
-^itself up, se Ifvrer. 

glad, cbntent, aise. 

glance, coup d'oeil, to.; at the 
first — , au premier c. d'oeil. 

verre, to./ {drinking g.) 
verre; with a — door, a porte 
vitree. * * 

globe, — , TO. 

gloomy, sombre. 

go, aller; se rend re; he is going 
to start, il va partir; — and 
see, allez voir; — i^wii., des- 
cendre; — out, hotX,\t ( 
etre), {p. 78) aHer (avec qqn. ) 
sur le terrain; has gone in at 
[one ear, etc.'\, (ni')est entre 
par . . . ; — on, avancer, 
marcher; — on to sg. else, 
passer a autre chose; — off, 



s'en aller; — through, passer; 

— up, moiiter; let one — , see 

let; we must be gone, il faut 

partir (que nous partions). 
goat, (generic term) chSvre, /./ 

{malt) bouc. 
God, Dieu. 

gold, or, m.; adjectively, d'or. 
good, adj. bon ; — things to eat, 

bons luorceaux, bonne cbere. 
good, sbst. (benefit) bien. m. 
Gospel, Evangile, m.; adjectively , 

de I'Evangile. 
Gothic, gothique. 
government, gouvernement, m. 
Gracchi, the, les Gracques, m. 
gradually, peu d peu, par de- 

gres, graduellement, progres- 

graft, grefEer. 
grammar, g-rammaire, /. 
grammarian, grainmairien, m. 
grammatical, — , [pi. aux], 
gramme, — , m. [x^Vtt <?/ ^^^^ 

15432s grains, or ^^3- of lb. 

grand, — . 
grant, accorder; God — that . . .! a Dieu que (+ sbjnct.)\ 
grass, lierbe, /. 
gratuitous, gratuit. 
graz9, paitre. 

grazing lands, pSturages, m. pi. 
great, grand ; — men, grands 

greatly, terriblement; (p. 89) 

beaucoup, de beaucoup. 
greedy, goulu, gourmand. 
Greek, adj. grec, [/. grecque], 
green, vert. 

ground, adj. (of glass) depoli. 
ground, i^bst. terre, /., sol, m.; 

on the — , k terre, par terre, 

sur \i\ terre, 
ground-floor, rez-de-cbaussee, m. 

[on the . . ., au . . .]. 
grow, croitre, pousser, venii; 

(of animal.'i) croilre; — up, 

croitre, venir; — up again. 

renaitre, revenir; grown up, 

grand, grandi, une grande 

guarantee, s'engager [a -{-infin.]. 
gua rdian , gardien, m. 
guest, invite, m.; (less of I.) ho e, 

guilty, coupable; the — person, 

le coupable. 
gulf, golfe, m. 

habit, habitude, /. , coutume, /. ; 
had a — of, avait I'babitude de. 

hair, poil, nt,.; {of human head) 
cbeveu, m. [genly. pl.\ 

half, sbst. moitie, f.; by — , de 
luoitie ; adj^ (aft. munhers + 
nouns) demi \agfeeing . ic. 
noun']: 2 beures et deniie; 
(before nouni) une denii-beure 
[bvt see p. 112]; adt (bef.adj. 
or part.) h moitie- [mort, nu, 
etc.]. *> " 

hall,. (rt< main enti^nce) vesti- 
bule, m.; (of ' am)artpment ') 
anti-cb ambre . /. . 

hand, ulUin.y."/ on the other — . 
au contraire, en revanche; (p. 
100) d' autre pari. ' 

handful, poignee,/. 

hand.some, beau. . 

hang, trans, suspendre [from, 
Ti] ; trans. & intr. pendre; 
hung on the, suspendai k la. 

happen, airiver.Vvoirlieu; — to 
be, se trouver ^tre) ; they — 
to be passing, il passent jmr 
basard; there has — ed to me 
. . ., il m'est- arrive . . . 

hard, adj. (to the touch) dur, re- 
sistant; (h. to bear) dur, pe- 
nible; (h. to do, etc.) difficile; 
adti. (strike, rain, etc.) fort. 

hardware, quincaillerie, [kin- 
kdy-ri]f ; — merchant, (mar- 
chand) quincaillier, \kin-kd- 
ye] m. 



harm, mal; do one — , faire du 

uial ^ qqn. 
hasten, trans. hSter [' fi ' asp.] ; 

iatraiis. se liater; they — to 

him, ils accourent. 
hate, hair ['A' asp.], detester. 
have, avoir, posesder; to — to 

is oft. tr. hy falloir, e.g., what 

shall I — to do, que faudra-t- 

il faire, que je fasse ? I — 

only to . . ., je n'ai qu'^ . . •; 

one has to, il faut. 
hay, foin, m. [geiily. plur. for 

the crop in the fields, as on p. 

he, ii, lui; — who, — whom, 

celui qui, celui que; — him- 
self, lui-m6ine. 
head, tgte, /./ {bed) tSte, {or less 

oft.) clievet, m.; from — to 

foot, depuis la t6te jusqu'aux 

pieds, de la t. aux pieds. 
hear, entendre, 
hearing, ouie,/. 
heart, coeur, m.; have at — , 

avoir d coeur; with all my — , 

de tout mon coeur. 
heat, shst. cbaleur, /. 
heat, vb cbaufEer. 
heath, bruyi^re, /. / — lands, 

terres h bruyfires, f. 
heaven, ciel, to./ the — s, le ciel, 

les cieux. 
hectare, to. ) See Fr. voc. and 
hectolitre, to. f p. 89. 

help, sbst. aide, /,; {cry) help ! 

au secours ! 
help, vb. aider [& faire qqcb.] ; 1 

can't — -(- pres. part., je ne 

puis (pas) m'empecber de + 

hemp, cbanvre, to. 
hence, [fr. this fact) de \h. 
her, adj. son, sa, ses. [^8ee Obs. 

her, pron. elle, la. 
herbage, — , m.; — region, pays 

d' herbages, to., herbages. 
herd, troupeau, to. 

here, ici; y {as on p. 94 1. 19); — 
is or are, voila, [unless for dis- 
tinction bet. here and there, or 
to mark some words following, 
in which cases use voici] ; — it 
is, le or la voilfi, [or voici, as 
just explained]. 

hers, pron. §, elle, le sien (la 
sienne, etc.). 

hesitate, hesiter, 

hiccough, hoquet [' h ' asp.], m. 

high, baut [' h' asp.]; eleve; 
H — er Courts of Justice, tribu- 
nauxsuperieurs; — er sciences, 
hautes sciences. 

highly, trfis. 

highway, grand chemin, to.; 
grande route, {oft. grand'- 

hill, {und. 500 metres) colline, 
/. / {low) coteau, m. ; hau- 
teur [7t' asp.], f. 

him, le, lui. 

himself, lui, lui-m6me ; se ; he 
said to — , il se dit; he — , 

his, adj. son, sa, ses. [See Obs. O.] 

his, pron. le sien. 

history, histoire, /. 

hit, f rapper; to — each other, 

hoar-frost, gelee blanche, /., 
givre, TO. 

hold, tenir. 

hole, trou, to., ouverture, /.; 
with — s in them, trouees (par 
le milieu). 

hollow, adj. creux. 

holy, saint ; the Holy Father, le 

home : at — , chez lui (elle, soi, 
vous, etc.); go — , rentrer (chez 
soi, chez lui, etc.) aller (se 
rendre) chez soi, etc. , s'en re- 
tourner chez lui, etc.; come 
— , rentrer (dans la maison) 
rentrer chez soi, etc, 

honesty, probite, /. 

honor, honneur, to. 




honorable, — . 

horizon, — , to.; below the — , 
sous I'horizon. 

horrible, — , affreux. 

horse, cbeval, m. 

horse-chestnut, (tree) marronnier 
d' inde^^m. 

horseman, cavalier, m. 

host, bote, TO. 

hot, cbaud. 

hot-tempered, vif, emporte. 

hour, lieure, /. 

house, shst . maison, /.y (family) 
menage^ TO./ at The -s- of, chez ; 
M — fir Eepresentatives,' in 
France Cbambre des deputes; 
see Fr. toe. tmd. chambre and 

house, Db. ]oger\ 

household, menage, to. 

how, comment, com me, que. 
[For distinction see ' p. S3, 
note 3]. — much, Combien ; — 
is it that . . . ?■ comment se 
fait-il que . . . ? — tall you 
are ! comme (que) vous gtes 
grand ! — necessary it is, 
combien il est necessaire 

however, cependflnt, toutefois, 

humility, liumilite, f. 

humorist, humoriste, to. 

hump, bosse, /. 

hundred, a, cent; (approximately) 
une centaine ; five — , cioq 
cents. [For cents in dates, 
etc., see pp. 112, llS.] 

hungry, affame; to be (very) — , 
avoir (bien, tres) faim. 

hunt, chasser; from — ing, de la 
c basse ; on going out to — , 
(en) allant ^ la cbasse. 

hurt, l)lesser, faire mal Sl. 

husband, mari. 

Huxley, Thomas Henry {1825- 
1S95). One of the greatest 
English biologists. 

Hyde Park, — , in the heart of 

I, je, moi. 

ice, glace,/. 

idea, idee, /.; to obtain an — of, 
pour se rendre compte de. 

if, si; even — , quand meme 
[folld. by condl.'\. 

ill, malade. 

ill-advised, mal entendu. 

illness, maladie, /. 

illuminate, eclairer; — ating gas, 
^i\z d'eclairage, to. 

image, — , /. 

imagine, imaginer, s'imaginer. 

immediately, immediatement ; 
(p. 100) aussit6t, a I'instant 

immense, — , vaste. ' 

impersonal, impersonnel. 

important, — , considerable. 

imposing, majestueux^mpofant. 

improvement, amelioration,/." 

in, en, dans, a : {bef. towns) k, 
unless = within, as 07i pp. 
97, 98; (bef dates) en ; — the 
morning, evening, le matin, 
le soir; — a week, danb 8 jonis 
[at end of], t- u 8 jours [in the 
space of]; — going, en allant; 
live in, see live ; (de ichen aft. 
superlative) the most ... in 
the world, etc., le (la, les) plus 
. . . du monde, de la ville, etc.; 
the second in Europe, la seconde 
de I'E. ; — history, dans I'h. 

Note the follg. : en Europe, — 
Afrique, — Asie, — Angleterre. 

— France. — Portugal, — Dane- 
mark, —Virginia, — Peiinsylviinie, 

— Horide ; au Canada, — Mex- 
ique, — Br6sil, — Japon ; aiix 
Paj's-Bas, — Indes, — fitats-Uni.-- ; 
dans les lies Briianniques. djiiis 
rAni6rique du Nord (du Sud), 

— la Caroline du Nord (du Sud), 

— le New York, — le Michigan, 

— le Nebraska, — la Louisiane. 

incessantly, Incessamment, sans 

incorrigible, enrage, 
increase, augmenter. 
indeed, en verite, vraiment. 




indefinite, indefini [adj. & sbst. 
m. |. 

indicate, indiquer. 

indicative, indicatif , [adj & sbst. 

indirect, — [pm. '<•<']. 

indisposed, indispose. 

individual, in^mdu, m. 

induce, decider [a + infin.]. per- 
suader [de]. 

industry, (arts & manuf.) in- 
dustrie, /. / (in, work) applica- 
tion,/., assiduite,/. [but neve)' 

inferior, inferieur. 

infest, inf ester. 

infinitive, infinitif, [adj. db sbst. 
m.]: in the — , k I'infinitif. 

ingrate, ingrat, m. 

inhabitant, habitant, m. 

injure, ble.sser. 

injury, tort, m.; to do an — to, 
faire tort ^. 

ink encre, /. 

inn, auberge./. 

inquire, deinauder [qqch.3, qqn.]. 

insect, insecte, m. 

inspect, inspecter, surveiller. 

instance, for, par exemple. 

instantly, en uu instant, instan- 

instead of. au lieu de. 

institute, institut, m. ; I — of 
France, see Fr. voc. 

instruction, — ,/., enseignemen't, 

insult, vb. iiijurier, dire des in- 
jures [ii qqn.]. 

intend avoir ['intention, compter; 
— ed to help, fait pour (deslino 
k) aider ; — 5Bd to accommodate 
. . ., destinee ^ loger . . . 

interest, interSt* m.; take an — 
in, prendre interet d, s'inte- 
resser a. 

interior, i n terie u r [adj. <fe sbst. m. ] . 

interjection, — , /. 

interrogative, interrogatif [adj. 
& sbst. m.}. 

interrupt, interrompre. 

interval, intervalle, m.; with or 
at similar — s, a des intervalles 
pareils (seuiblables); at — s of, 
a des is. de. 

into, dans, en. 

intransitive, intransitif. 

invasion, — /, , marche, /. 

invent, inventor. 

inventor, inventeur, m. 

invitation, — , /. [k bef. sbst. or 

Irish, irlandais. 

irreverent, irreverent. 

island, [ iie, /. [_for p. 95, see 

isle, \ under city]. 

isolated, a part, separedesautres. 

it, il, le, ce, cfelaj 

Italy, Italie,/. 

its, son, sa, ses; en oft. bef. tb , 
OS on p. 75, marked — begin- 
ning, en marqua le debut. 

James, Jacques. 

jewel, bijou, m. 

join, joindre [p.p. joint]. 

joiner, menuisier, m. 

journey, voyage, m. 

joy, joie, /. 

joyfully, joyeusement. 

judge, juger; if one may — by, k 

en jugerpar(^,sur),si Ton pent 

en juger par (Jl, sur). 
juice, jus ['s' sileiit], m. 
Jura, — , m. ; the — range, la 

chaine du Jura, le Jura, 
just, adj. juste; (idvi. — like, tout 

coiume; I have — seen, je 

viens (justement) de voir, 
justice, justice, /./ demand — , 

demauder justice. 

keen, (of sight) per9ant; {of cold) 

keep, (retoi« )garder ; — ajournal, 

tenir, ecrire, faire un journal; 

— straight on, allez droit de- 



vant vous, (allez) tout droit; 
— away [insects], eloi^mer, 
tenir si distance, se garantir de. 

Kepler, [prn. 'r'], (1571-1630). 
A very illustrious mathemati- 
cian and astronomer, who for- 
mulated the famous astronom- 
ical laws kn&wii by his name 

kernel, amande, /./ w. a single 
— , a une seule a. 

key, clef,/. 

kill, tuer; {murder) assassiner. 

kilo, nee kilogramme in Fr. voc. 

kilometre, liilometre, m. See 
Fr. voc. 

kind, adj. bon, aimable, com- 
plaisant; a — smile, un doux 
sourire, s. bienveillant ; will 
you be — enough to, ayez or 
voulez-vous avoir la bonte 
(I'obligeance, etc.) de . . ., 
veuillez bien . . . ; you will 
be — enough to, monsieur 
aura la bonte de, voudra bien. 

kind, sbst. sorte, /., espece, /., 
genre, m. 

king, roi; King W., le roi G. 

kingdom, see united. 

kitchen cuisine,/. 

kitten, petit cliat, m. 

knitting-needle, aiguille d. tri- 
coter, /. 

know, savoii-; {k. persons) con-y 
naltre; it is — n -that . . ., oV 
salt que . . . ; — n by the name, 
see name. 

knowledge, (tcidest sense) science, 
/., lumieres, /. pL, connais- 
sances liumaines, /. pi. ; centre 
of — , foyer des lumieres, etc. 

lack, manquer; what he — s, ce 

qui lui manque, 
lady, dame. 
La Fayette, le Marquis de [genly. 

written in Eng. La F.]. See 

p. 75, note 5. 
La Fontaine. See Fr. voc. 

lain, see lie. 

lake, lac, m,. 

Lamb. Charles, (1775-1834) Eng- 
lish humorist, essayist and 
critic, of great originality and 
fine taste. 

lamp, larape, /./ {carriage I.) 
lanterne, /. 

lamp-black, noir de fumee, m. 

land, sbst. pays, m., {piece of I.) 
terre, /. 

landing, palier, m,. 

landowner, proprietaire foncier, 

language, (speech ingenl.)-p&ro\e, 
f; (mode of expi'ession) Ian- 
gage, m.; {national speech) 
langue, /. 

large, (in volume) gros; {esp. in 
length or^ height) grand. 

lark, alouette, /• 

last, dernier; at — , ^ la fin, en- 
fin; they at — succeeded in 
. . ., ils finirent par (reussir 

a). . . 

lastly, enfin, en dernier lieu. 

late, tard; 2 years later, deux 
ans plus tard, apres, 

Latin, latin, m. See also 

latter, the, celui-ci, ce dernier. 

laugh, rire. 

law, loi,/. 

lay, poser, mettre, placer [esp. 
on p. 97 1. S] ; — siege, see siege. 

layer, couche, /.; on 'p. 98, ad 
lib. etage, m. 

lazy, paresseux. 

lead, mener, conduire; — s into, 

^~Tlonne accfis (entree) dans. 

leaf, feuille,/./ (of double door, 
or Fi'en. window) battant, m. , 
vantail [pi. -aux], m.; two- 
leaved door, porte k deux bat- 
tants, /. 

lean, maigre. 

learn, apprendre \h -|- infin.^ 

learned, adj. savant, des sa- 



least, adj. le or la moindre; adv. 
le moius; at — , au moins, du 

leave, shut , see take. 

leave, vb. ( — befiind, spare) lais- 
ser; ( — a place) quitter [with 
object], partir [^without object], 
partir de; — him there, lais- 
sez-Ie (la); — something lying 
in . . ., faire (laisser) .s6j.ourner 
dans /. . ; \p. 93) leaving, en 

lectare, {single) discours, ?«., {do. 
informal) conference, /.; {one 
of a course) legon, /.; oft. des- 
ignated by collective name, 
cours, m sing. (= coarse): 
e.g., I have a — at 9, j'ai un 
cours ^ 9 b.; take — s, suivre 
les (des) cours; give — , faire 
un cours, des cour-;. 

left [hand], adj. gauche; assbst., 
to, on the — (of), k giiucbe 
(de), du cote gauche (de). 

leg. jambe, /.; {of boot) tige, /.; 
{of mutton) gigot, m. 

lemon, citron, m., limon, m. 

length, longueur, /./ 'at — , en- 
tin, a la nn. 

less, adv. moins; {p. 72) to do it 
— , le faire moins cuit (cuire). 

Lessing, Crotthold Ephraim, Ger- 
man critic and poet {1729- 

let, laisser; {tr. by imperat.) — 
us do, faisons; {tr. by sbjnct.) 

— there be carried, que Ton 
eraporte . . . ; — some one 
write, que Ton ecrive; — them 
lie, laissons-les tranquilles ; 
to — one' go^ lacber qqrf.; he 

— fall the .... 11 laissa tom- 
ber le . . . 

letter, {in writing or printing) 
caractere. m., {p. 84) lettre, 
f; small — , (lettre) minus- 
cule,/.; {epistle) lettre. 

level, niveau; on a — with, de 
plain pied avee, au niveau de. 

liberality, liberalite, /. 

library, bibliothdque, /. -^ 

lie, etre couchc; let them — , see 
tui'l. let, and genl. remnvk 
und. stand; had lain there, 
etait restee ia; lying on . . ., 
couche sur . . . ; {p. 101) there 
— B, SB trouve, on trouve, il y 
a, est place. 

life, vie,/. 

light, ^st. lumidre, /. 

light, vb. {lamp, etc.) allumer; 
{room, place, person), eclairer. 

light, adj. leger. "^^^"^ 

lightness,' legerete. 

lightning, 6clair, m. 

like, adj. semblable; (just) — 
me, (tout) com me m oi ; what 
was he — ? comment etait-il ? 
[the portrait] was like him, 
... lui ressembiait; {p. 79) 
like . . . plants, et qui res- 
semblent a des plantes . . . 

like, vb. aiuier; I should — to 
know, je voudrais(bieii)savoir; 
I shd. — nothing better, je 
ne demande(-rais) pas mieux; 
you may say what you — , vous 
aurez beau dire. 

likely, adj. probable, vraisembla- 

lime, cliaux,/. 

linden"^U [ *'^^^^ [Hyeiiq. ni. 

line, ligne, /. 

linen, toile, /./ {made up) linge, 

lion, — , m. 

liquid, liquide, m.; {somet.) li- 
queur, /. 

listen, ecouter; I — to nobody. 
moi, je n'ecoute personne. 

literature, litterature, /. 

little adj. petit; adv. pen; a — , 
sbstly. cfe advbly. un pen. 

live, vivre, exister; {dwell) ^de- 
iiii'urer; — in . . ., babiter 
{traTis.), babiter dvis. , 

lock, vb. fermer k clef. 




lodge, loge, /. 
^lodger, locataire, m. 

logic, logique, /. 

logical, logique. 

Loire, — , /. The longest river 
ill France ; flows into the At- 

London, Londres, m. 

long, adj. long [/. longue]; adv. 
lougtemps; any longer, plus 
longtemps; no longer, ue . . . 

look, regarder; — at, regarder, 
{p. 79 1. IS, ad foft.) examiner ; — 
about for, cbercber des yeus/ 
du regard; {of window) — out 
on, donner sur, avoir vue sur 
[of hotise also~\; — into, same 
trans, as foi' precediiig; older 
than he — s, plus age qu'il 
(n') en a I'air; go to — for, 
aller cbercber, partir (aller) a 
la recbercbe de. 

looking-glass, miroir m.; {large 
& thick) glace, /. 

loop, boucle, m. 

lord, — , milord, [prn. U/r, mi-lor] . 

Lorraine, — , /. An old prov- 
ince of France on the eastern 
frontier, part of ichich was 
taken hy Germany in 1811. 

lose, perdre; he lost no time in 
. . ., il ne tarda pas. a . . . 

loss, perte, /./ — of sleep, veil- 
les,/. pZ. 

loudly, tout baut \tou o\. 

Louis, — . . 

love, «6. aimer. 

low, bas, peu eleve; — er end, 
extremite inferieure. 

luminous, lumineux. ;. 

Luxemburg, LuxembovBrg, ['5'' 
.sileiit] a neutral grand duchy 
governed in the name of the sov- 
ereign of the Netherlands; 
The — Palace, le p. du Luxem- 
bourg, see Fr. voc. 

lying, cnucbe; etendu; left — , 
see leave. 

Lyons, {city) Lyon ; Gulf of — , 
le golfe du Lion. 

Macon, Macon \indkon'], town 
on the BaOne, famous for 

mad, fou [/. folle]. 

madam, madame. 

magnificent, magnifique. 

magnify, gross! r [gro-slr]; with 
a — ing glass, k la loupe. 

mail, see coat. 

main, principal, [oft. bef. sbst.'\; 
— door, oft. porte d'entree, /. 

Maine, le Maine, an old province 
of France, now the depart- 
ments of\& Sfirtbe and la Ma- 
yenne; the Duchess of — , la 
ducbesse du Maine. 

mainly, principalement, pour la 

maintain, {an opinion) soutenir. 

maize, mais [md-is\, m. [also 
called, esp. in N. America, ble 
d'lnde, w.]. 

majesty, majeste, /./ Tour M — , 
\ otre Majeste. 

make, faire, former ; fabriquer ; 
makes me think of, me fait 
penser ^, me rappelle ; made 
of wood, (fait) en bois; [paste] 
made of [clay], formee (faite) 
de... ; — up, composer; be made 
up of, se composer de; make it- 
self felt, se faire sentir; they 
will make out that I am .... 
on me fera passer pour. ..; — 
others do. .., obliger les autres 
d faire . . . ; a . . . to be made, 
un . . . h faire, there is made 
. . ., 11 se fait . . . 

malcontent, mecontent, m. 

mamma, maman. 

man. bomme; young men. les 
jeunes gens; these men and 
women, may be tr. tout ce 
monde; — of science, savant. 



manage, parvenlr [w. auxil. etre, 
<& to. h -{- infin.], reussir [a], 
trouver moyen [de]. 

manifest, manifester, se decla- 
rer; — itself, se faire sentir, 
se mani fester. 

manner, manidre, /., fa^on, /. 

mansard roof, mansarde, /., toit 
(comble) en mansarde, m. 

manufactory, manufacture, /. y 
fabrique, /. 

manufacture, fabrication, /., see 

many, beaucoup, bien [du, de 
la, desj, un grand nombre, 
une quantite; — men, beau- 
coup d'hommes; — other(s), 
bien d'autres, beaucoup d'au- 
tres; so — , tant [de]; how — , 
combien [de]. 

maple, erable, m. 

Marie de Uedicis, [prn. me-di- 
sis\. A Florentine, queen of 
Hen. IV., mother of Louis 
XIIL; d. I642. 

mark, sfes^. marque,/., ligne, /. 

mark, vb. marquer ; — out, 
tracer, marquer. 

marquis, or marquess, marquis. 

Marseilles, Marseille \_indr-sey^ 
a most" importaM Mediter- 
ranean port; adj. deMarseillp. 

marshal, marechal. 

masculine, adj. masculin, \f. -e]; 
in the — , (du or au) masculin. 

master, maitre, m. 

mat, {at door) paillasson, m. 

material, matiSre, /. 

mathematical, mathematique. 

mathematics, matbeinatiques, /. 

matter, mati&re, /., affaire, f.; 
no — , n'imtporte, cela ue fait 
rien ; no — what, n'importe 
quel; what is the — 1 qu'est-ce 
qu'il y a? qu'y a-t-il ? de 
quoi s'agit-il ? qu'avez-vous? 
for that — , du reste. 

maturity, maturite,/. y to reach 

— , yenir (arriver, parvenlr) 3l- 
(la) maturite. 

may (except wJien a sign of the 
sbjnct.) is renderedby pouvoir; 
that — be, cela se pent (bien); 
you — begin, vous pouvez 
(pourrez) commencer; one — 
obtain, on peut avoir; she 
might fall, elle pourrait tom- 
ber ; we might speak, nous 
pourrious parler. 

me, moi, me, a moi. 

meadow, pre, m., prairie, /./ 

— lands, prairies, /. pi. 
mean, vb. vouloir dire, 
meaning, signification, /., sens, 

means, moyen, m. [very oft. sing, 
as on pp. 75, 82, etc.]; {p. 82) 

— to stop, moyen pour arreter ; 
plur. at p. 85, 1. 13; the — of 
doing, le moyen de faire; by 
no — , nuUement. 

measure, vb. mesurer. 
meat, viands,/., chair,/, 
meddle with, se m^ler de. 
medical, see student. 
Medicis, Marie de, see Marie. 
Mediterranean , M editer ranee, /. 
meet, rencontrer;- [intrans., as 

on p. 74) se rencontrer. 
meeting, reunion,/. .sfssemblee,/. 
melancholy, adj. melancolique, 

triste, {w. 'bumeur') noire, 
melt, fondre \trans. & intr.'\ ; 

melting [snows], . . . fondues, 

member, membre, m. ; — of the 

French parliament, membre 

du parlement fran^ais, [i. e. 

un depute 01' un senateurj. 
membership, nombre (m.) de ses 

mend, {things) racciqpimoder, 

reparer; {mistakes, ''etc.) re- 

mentioi^ dire, parler [de qqch.]; 

see under worth ; cases are— 'ed, 

on cite des cas. 



merchant, marchand, commer- 
9ant ; hardware — , see hard- 

mere, simple, seu\,[bothbef. 8bst.'\. 

merely, seulement. 

method, inetbode, /. , precede, m. 

metre, mdtre, m., see Fr. doc. 

Mease, — , /. A river rising in 
the If. E. of France, flowing 
through Belgium & Ilohand, 
and falling into the North Sea. 

middle, milieu, m. ; at (in) the 
— of, au milieu de, 

might, see may. 

mile, mille, m. 

mile-stone, borne (pierre) mil- 
liaire, /./ {in France genly.) 
borne kilometrique. 

milk, lait, m. 

millet, mil \miy], m., millet 
[mi-ye], m. 

million, ^— , m., [being sbst, has 
's' in plur. and always takes 
de bef. noun follg.]. 

mind, esprit, m. ; the — s of men, 
I'esprit de I'bomme (des Lom- 
mes) ; I have a great (good) — 
to, j'ai bien envie de. 

mineral, adj. mineral. 

minister, ministre. 

minute, sbst. — , /. 

mischief, mal, m. 

mischievous, malin; — fellow, 
espii^gle, petit malin. 

miser, avare, m. 

misfortune, malbeur, m. 

model, modele, m.; (p. 77) to be 
a — of beauty may be tr. 6tre 
fait comme un modele. 

moderate, tenipere. 

modify, modifier. 

moment, — , m., instant, m. 
[see further und. after] ; in a 
— . en un instant (moment); 
at the — of, au moment de. 

money, argent, m. 

monk, moine. 

monumental, — . 

mood, mode, (gram.) mode, m. 

I mi 

moon, lune, /. 

moorland, lande, /. 

morals, sbst. morale, /., moeurs, 
/. pL; Plutarch's "M — s," les 
"(Euvres morales" de Plu- 

more, plus ; {only at end ofphr.) 
davantage ; the — , see the ; 
any — books 1 encore des 
livres? not . . . any — pens, 
ne . , , plus de plumes; there 
is no — , il n'y en a plus, il 
n'en reste plus ; there is no — 
grass, il n'y a plus d'berbe; 
p. 76, a word — , un mot de 
plus; — than you think, plus 
que vous (ne) croyez, [see p. 
1161; — than 40, plus de 
oreover, en outre. 

'morning, matin, m.; matinee, 
/.; one cold — ^ par une froide 
matinee; early in th e — , de 
bon (grand) matm, trfis matin, 
de bonne heure. 

mortal, mortel. 

mosquito, cousin, w., moustique, 
m.; [see p. 13, note 1\. 

most, le plus ; — of the time, la 
plupart du temps; — gram- 
marians, la plupart des g., le 
plus grand nombre . . . ; — (of 
the) other . . ., la plupart des 
autres . . . ; {p. 79, aft. noun) 

— beautiful, de toute beaute, 
de la plus grande beaute; a 

— tiresome man, un bomme 
des plus ennuyeux, [.«ce also 
under useful] . 

mother, mSre; {p. 62) mfire (de 

mount, mont, 7n. [rare in ordi- 
nary speech except bef. proper 
name : e. g. le mont Blanc, le 
m. Donon, le m. Etna]. 

mountain, montagne, /. 

mountainous, montagueux, de 

mouth, boucbe, /.y {of dog, wolf. 



lion,ete.) gueule, /.; (of river, 
except sornet. when mouths are 
several), emboiicbure, /. 

mouthful, {of solids) boucbee, /.; 
{liquid swallowed at one effort, 
gorgee, /. ; {p. 83) in small — s, 
h petites gorgees. 

Mr., monsieur [rarely w. capital]; 

— Policeman, monsieur le ser- 
gent, . . . I'agent. 

much, beaucoup; very — , beau- 
coup; so — , tant, tellement; 

— greater, bien, beaucoup 
plus grand; — too soon, bean- 
coup trop t6t. 

mulberry, {fruit) miire, /.; — 
(tree), mUrier, m. 

mule, {generic term) mulet, m.; 
(female) mule, /. 

museum, musee, m. [m. of an- 
tiquities, m. d'antiquites]. 

mushroom, cbampignon, m. 

musical, see composer. 

mast is rendered by devoir or 
the impersonal falloir; I — 
start^ il faut que je parte; we 
(= one) must listen, 11 faut 
ecouter; what we — do, ce 
qu'il faut faire; he — be the 
better for it, il doit en avoir 
profile, a dii en profiter, 

mutton, mouton, m. 

my, mon, ma, mes. [See Obs. 

myself, moi-meme; {simple re- 
flex.) me; {p. 56, I. 9) je me 
f ais peur 3, moi-m6me. 


name, sbst. nom, m.; designated 
(known) by the — of, designe 
par (conau sous) le nom de. 

name, vb. nommer; is — *d, se 
nomme, s'appelle. 

Napoleon, Napoleon; the 2 — s, 
les deux Napoleon, but see p. 

narrow, etroit. 

nation, — , /. . -^ 

national, — . 

nationality, nationalite, /. 

natural, naturel. 

naturally, {'of course ') naturelle- 
ment, bien entendu. 

nature, — , /. 

near, prep, pr^s de, voisin de; 
{quite close) aupres de; adj. 
procbe ; — est, le (la) plus 
procbe ; — by, tout pres ; to 
bring — to, approcher . . . de. 

nearly, {about) fi. peu pres, pr6s 
de, environ. 

necessary, necessaire; the neces- 
saries of life, le necessaire; it 
is — to, 11 faut, il est neces- 
saire de; it is not — to, il 
n'est pas necessaire de, [but 
never il ne faut pas] ; how 
— , see how. 

necessity, necessite,/. 

neck, cou, m. 

need, vb. avoir besoin de; falloir 
[impers.\, which I need, qu'il 
me faut, dont j'ai besoin; you 
— . . ., il vous faut . . . 

needless, inutile [de + infin.']. 

neighbor, voisin, m. [f. — ine]. 

neighborhood, voisinage, m.; of 
the — , d'alentour. 

neither, adj. & pron. ni I'un ni 
1 'autre; conj. neither . . . nor, 
ni . . . ni [w. ne bef. vb.]. 

nest, nid, m. 

neater, neutre, [adj. & sbst. «i.]. 

never, (ne . . .) jamais. 

new, nouveau. 

newly, recemment, nouvelle- 

newspaper, journal, m. 

New Year's Day, jour de I'an, m. 

next, adj. suivant; the — day, 
le lendemain; the — morning, 
le lendemain matin; adv. en- 
suite; (rank) — to, aprfis. 

night, nuit, /. ,• last — , jjgt^ 
nuit, {earlier) hier soir. 

nine, neuf. 



nineteenth, dix-neuvifime. 
ninety, quatre-vingt-dix; five, 

quatre-vingt-quinze. [See pp. 

112, 113]. 
no, adj. aucun, mil ; (ne . . .) 

pas de; — one, see one. 
no, adv. non, non pas; — 

longer, ne . . . plus, p. 82 ad 

lib. lie . . . pas . . . plus long- 
nobleman, seigneur, gentil- 

liomme {jan-ti-ybm]. 
nobody, personne, m. [takes ne 

w. «6.]. 
noise, bruit, m. 
nor, ni; neither . . . nor, see 

Normandy, Normandie, /. 
north, nord [nor], m.; on or to 

the — , au nord; in the — , 

dans le n,;' adj. du nord, 

septentrionaF; North* Sea, mer 

du Nord, /.; N. America, see 

north-east, nord-est [^nbr-dest], 

m.; adj. du nord-est. 
northward, vers le nord. 
north-west, nm-d-ouest [wor- 

dwesi], m.; adj. du nord- 

not, ne , . . pas; — one, pas un 

(seul); could you — ? were 

you — ? etc., see ne in Fr. voc. 
note, sbst. billet [bi-y^] m., (petit) 

mot, m. 
note, vb. noter; to — down, noter. 
noted, celfebre [for = par], 
nothing, (ne . . .) rien, rien 

(. . : ne). 
notice, sbst. {placard) ecriteau, 

notice, vb. s'apercevoir [de 

qqcb.], remarquer. 
notwithstanding, malgre 
noun, nom, m., substantif, m. 
novelist, romancier, m. 
now, malntenant, k present; 

cette fois; not . . . now, ne 

. . . plus. 

nucleus, noyau, m.; {p. 95, bet- 
ter) berceau, m. 

number, {genly. & gram.) n om- 
bre, m / (of house, periodicals, 
etc.) numero . to / a — of, une 
quantite de, des . . . nom- 
breux; a ^eat — of people, 
une foule de ger " (^'^ ppT-or.n — 

number, vb. (to mark) numero- 

numeral, numeral [a<f;,]. 

numerous, nombreux; a — com- 
pany, see company. 

oak, (tree) cli^ne, m.; (wood) 
bois de cbgirej m., clifine". 

oats, avoine, /. sing. 

obey, obeir [a qqn., h qqcb.]. 

object (thing) ohjet, m.; (aim) 
objet, VI., but, m,.; (gram.) 
regime, m., complement, m.; 
with this — (in view), a ceite 
fin, a (pour) cet effet. 

oblige, obliger; much — d to 
you, (je vous suis) bien obli- 
ge; to be — d to -}- injin., 6tre 
oblige (force) de. 

observatory, observatoire, m. 

observe, (notice) observer; (moke 
the remark) faire observer or 
remarquer [3, qqn. que . . .]. 

obifein, obtenir, se procurer; 
(i^ustrially) tirer, obtenir. 

occaslNm, — ,/./ on one — , une 
feis, T;^n jour. 

occupant, babitant, m. 

occupation, (of any kind) profes- 
sion,/., etat, m. 

occupy, occuper, couvrir; (house) 
liabiter. 1 

occur, se trouyer. 

o'clock, see clock. 

odoriferous, odoriferant. 

of, de; — it, them, en. 

off : fall — the . . . , tomber du 
. . . ; be — (= set off), partir, 
se sauver. 



offer, offrir ; — for sale, mettre 

en vente. 
officer, oflBcier, m. 
officiate, officier ; — ing priest, 

(pretre) officiant, 
often, souvent. 
oil, buile,/. 
oil-bearine", ) ,. . 
oil-producing, [«leagLneux. 

old,(«p'ed) vieux[vieil hef. vowel]; 
of old buildings, etc. , ancieu ; 
(former) ancien. 

olive, (fruit) olive, /.; (tree) — 
(-tree), olivier, m.; — oil, 
huile d'olive,/. 

omit, oublier, omettre, [both w. 
de + infill.]. 

on, sHr, d, en, par; — arriving, 
en arrivant; — a v^inter nig^t, 
par une nuit d'hiver. 

once, une iois; (formerly) autre- 
fois; — more, encore une fois, 
de nouveau; at — , (immedi- 
ately) tout de suite, k I'in- 
stant, sur-le-cUamp; all at — 
(i.e. suddenly) tout d coup. 

one, numeral, un, une; — of the 
two, I'un des deux ; art. uu, 
une; till you are — , (jusqu'a 
ce) que vous le soyez; — on 
the right, the other . . ., Tune 
h droite, I'autre . . . ; pron 
on; one's day, sa journee; one 
another, les uns les autres; no 
— (= nobody), personne, m. 
[takes neg. vl).]. 

one-eyed, borgne ; a — man, un 
(ho in me) borgne. 

one's, son, sa, ses. 

oneself, soi, soi-mgme; (obj. of 
follg. vb.) se. 

onion, oignon \b-nyon], m.; 
(p. 78) — juice, jus d'oi- 
gnons, m. 

only, adj. seul; the — way, le 
seul uioyen; adv. seutement; 
ne . . . que; not — , non seule- 
ment; — one, un seul; — one 
way, ne . . . qu'un inoyen; 

you — see one, vous n'en 

voyez qu'uu (seul). 
open, adj. ouvert; (p. 94, better) 

open, vb. trans, ouvrir; intr. 

genly. s'ouvrir, except — on, 

— into ; to — ^ oh (of door) 
donner (acct's)sur, ouvrir sur, 
[p. 99, I. 8, d onner acces 
dans ]; (of vnndow) doDner sur; 
fpp. 99, 100) opens (at pifeaS" 
ure), s'ouvre (a volonte). 

opening, sbst. ouverture, /. 

opera, opera, m. 

opinion, opinion, /. / in his — , 

selon (d'apres) lui; express 

the — that . . ., may be tr. 

soutenir que. 
opponent, adversaire, m,. 
opposite, adj. contraire, oppose; 

sbst. (p. 7) the — , I'oppose, 

TO , le contraire. 
or, ou; (moi'6 empJiatic) oQ.\>\en; 

either . . . or, ou . . . ou (bien). 
orange, — , /. 
orator, orateur. 
order, sbst. ordre, m.; in regular 

— , dans un o. regulier; in — 

to, pour, afin de ; in — that, 

pour que, afin que, [both w. 

order, vb. ordonner, donner ordre; 

— something (to be brought), 
commander qqclj., demander 

organize, organiser. 

ornament, ornement, m. 

ornamental tree, arbre d'agre- 
ment, m. , * 

other, autre; others, les autres, 
d'autres [see some], autrui 
[sing.; see Fr. voc], many — , 
many — s, bien d'autres; 
among — (s). entre autre(s), 

ought is usually rendered by the 
condl. 01' pi'es. indie, of de- 
voir, or by falloir; we — to 
take, nous devrions prendre; 
he — to have seen, il aurait dt^ 



voir ; you — to have asked, il 

fallait demander. 
our, ad^. notre, nos. [See Ohs. G.'] 
ours, pron. le, la notre, lesnotres. 
out, adv. dehors ; go (come) — , 

sortir; prep. phr. — of, hors 

de; en, dans; made ( — ) of 

wood, fait en (de) bois; take 

(drink) ... — of, prendre 

(boire) . . . dans, 
outer, exterieur; main — door, 

grande p. d'entree. 
outline, esquisse,/. 
outside, dehors ; — of, en dehors 

over, prep, sur, {higher level) aii- 

dessus de; adv. au-dessus; 

{past) passe, fini ; the world ^, 

see world, 
owe, devoir. 
own, adj. propre ; a ... of his 

(her) own, un(e) . . . §. lui (3, 

ox, boeuf [prn. Uke oeuf, p. 137]. 
oyster, hultre,/. 

painfully, pcniblement. 

pair , paire, /. 

palace, palais, m. 

pane, vitre,/. , carreau (de vitre), 
7n. ; — of glass, c. de vitre. 

pantry, garde-manger, m. ; 
{large, butler's) office, /. 

paper, papier, m. 

parallel, parallSle. 

pardon, sbst. — , m. ; ask — , de- 
mander pardon. 

pardon, vb. pardonner. 

Paris, — , m. [very oft., like 
names of other cities, preceded 
by la ville de]; {adjectively) 
parisien ; {p. 68) de Paris. 

parish, sbst. paroisse, /. / adj. 

Parisian, parisien, [adj. & sbst. 

parliament, parlement, m. [de- 
notes both houses in trance\. 

parse, analyser, faire I'analyse 

grammaticale [de]. 
parsing, analyse grammaticale./. 
part, {of whole, & genly.) ))arlie, 

/.; {in a play, action) role, in.; 

— of speech, partie du dis- 
cours, f. 

parterre, — , m. [In France, the 
main floor bet. orchestra {or 
oi'chestra chairs) and rear.] 

participle, participe. m. 

particular, particulier. 

party, parti, to.*, [see parti in 
Fr. voc.}. 

pass, passer ; passing by, passant 
par 1^; — through, {moun- 
tains, defUe) passer [trans.]; 
passer par [so on pp. ^7, 99]; 

— oflf as, faire passer pour; 
p. 93, — away, s'ecouler. 

passage, — , m.; {p. 82) conduit, 
m. ; {p. 97) passage or gale- 
rie, /. 

passive, passif [adj. & sbst. m.]\ 

— voice, voix passive ; in the 
— , au passif. 

past, passe, m. ; {in naming 
tenses) passe (preterit) defini, 
p. indefini, p. anterieur; for 
some time — , depuis quelque 

paste, pfite,/. 

patent, patented, adj. brevete. 

patience, — , /. ; have — , ayez 
(de la) patience, prenez pa- 

patient, adj. — . 

patient, sbst, malade, m. <&f. 

patriot, patriote, m, ; [also used 

pattern, module, m. ; arranged 
in a regular — , dispose 
(groupe) d'une maniSre syme 

pay, payer, [see Fr.voc] ; — one's 
bill, regler (solder) son compte; 

— a visit, faire une visite, 
rendre visite, ailer visiter. 



peace, paix, /. ; in — , en paix, 
tranquillement, d'un sommeil 

peach, peclie,/. / — tree, pecher, ?re. 

pear, poire,/. ; ' — txee, poirier, m. 

peasant, pajrsau, m. 

peel, peler, 

people, sbst. gens, m. cfe /. pi. 
[adjs. immed. preening are 
genly. fern. , and all follg. are 
genly. masc. ; but see p. 110] ; 
personnes, /. pi. ; (collective) 
moude, m.; (p.- of a country, 
p. opp. to king, common herd) 
peuple, m. ; (in most gent. 
sense) on ; you — , vous autres ; 
selfish — , les egol'stes; I see 
many — there, j'y vois beau- 
coup de monde. 

people, vb. peupler. 

per cent, see cent. 

peregrination, peregrination, /. 

perfect, parfait; had — sight, 
avait la vue bonne (parfaite), 
avait bonne vue. 

perfection, — , /. 

perform, aecoinplir, remplir. 

perhaps, peut-Stre ; {beginning a 
clause) peut-Stre que. 

permanently, d'une fa9on per- 

permission, — /. ; ask for — to, 
demander la p. de. 

person, personne, /. / a — , 
quelqu'un; of, in the first*—, 
de la, a la 1*^ personne. 

personage, personnage, m. 

personal, personnel. 

petroleum, petrole, m. 

philosopher, pbilosopbe, m. 

phrase, locution,/. 

phylloxera, phylloxera or phyl- 
loxera, m. 

physical, physique. 

physician, medecin, m. 

pickle, confire, conserver. 

picture, tableau, to., peinture, 

/ ; gallery,^, de tableaux, 

de ^einture(s). - 

piece, morceau, to. 

pig, pore [prn. pbi' orpbrk], to., 
cocbop, vf^t \ 

pillow, oreiller, to. 

pine, pin, to. 

pipe, 'tuyau, to.; (tobacco-p.) 

pistachio, pistacbe. /. 

pistol, pistolet, to. / — in hand, 
le pistolet a la main. 

pitch, poix,/. 

pitiful, navrant. 

place, sbst. lieu, to., place, /.; 
(more precisely) endroit, m.; 
is quite in — , est bien ^ sa 
place, a sa place toute 
marquee ; in your — , S votre 
place ; in — of, Sl la place de ; 
— in which we live, lieu ou 
nous demeurons, , que nous 
habitons; to take — , avoir 
lieu, {p. 75) s'engager ;"to take 
the — of,. remplaceF. 

place, vb. placer, mettre. 

plain, sbst. plaine, /. 

plainly as in phr. you see — , 
vous voyez bien. 

plank, planche, /. 

plant, sbst. pi ante, /. ; (esp. in 
plur., and in vndest sense) 
vegetal, to. 

plant, vb. planter ; (p. 65) 
etablir, dresser. 

plate, (for table) assiette, /. ; 
(sheet of metal, etc.) plaque,/. 

play, vb. (genly. and at theatre) 
jouer; (an instrument) jouer 
de; to — the blusterer, faire 
le fanfaron (rodomont). 

please, plaire [aqqn.]; if you — , 
s'il vous plait ; — your honor, 
n'en deplaise ^monsieur, sauf 
votre respect. 

pleased, content (with = de). 

pleasure, plaisir, to./ at — , a 

plenty of, une abondance de. 

plunge, i/i<r. plonger; trans. 
(faire) plonger. 



pluperfect, plus-que-parfait, m. 

plural, pi Uriel, m. 

Plutarch, Plutarque, w. J. Gj'eek 
writer, A. D. 50-120, celebrated 
for his " Lives" of illustrious 
Greeks and Romans, and his 
' ' Moi'als ". 
* poet, poete, m. 

point, sbst. — , m,; {sTiwrp ex- 
tremity) pointe, /.; (place, 
spot) point, endroit, m.; on 
the — of going, snr le point 
d'aller; have this good — , ont 
cela (le bou ; from the — of 
view of, au point de vue de, 
considere par rapport 3, . , . 
commercial, political — of view, 
p. de V. commercial, politique 
(du commerce, de la politique). 

point to, to, montrer; to point 
to (out) with the finger, montrer 
(indiquer) du doigt. 

Poiton, — , m. An old province 
on E. const of France, whose 
capital was Poitiers. 

policeman, sergent de ville, 
agent de police, gardien de la 

polish, fairs reluire, polir ; (floor) 

poor, pauvre ; the — , les pauvres. 

poplar, peuplier, m. 

population. — , /. 

porter, (of house) concierg e , in. & 
f. [portier is less used than 

portico, portique, m. 

portrait, — , m. 

pose, j)b. poser; pose as a . . ., 
faire le . . . 

iposition, (place in genl.) posi- 
tion./., situation,/./ (employ- 
ment) place, /., emploi, m., 
poste, m. 

possess, posseder. 

possessive, possessif [adj. & sbst. 
tn ]. 

possihle, — ; as fast as — , aussi 
(vite, rapidement) 'que pos- 

sible, au plus vite; renders it 

— to, permet de, nous met a 

m§me de. 
potato, pomme de terre,/. 
pound, ^. piler. 
pour, verser. 
powder, poudre,/. 
practice, shst., pratique,/, 
practise, «&. pratiquer, mettre en 

preacher, predicateur. 
precaution, precaution, /./ take 

— s, prendre ses p^ 
precept, precepte, m., commande- 

ment, m. 
pre-eminently, par excellence 

[genly. aft. sbst.'\. 
prefer, preferer, aimer mieux; 

[p. S3 preferer]. 
prelate, prelat, m. 
preliminaries, articles prelimi- 

naires, m. 
prepare, (trans.) preparer; (ii- 

trans. on p. 65), se preparer 

[^ + infill.']; (p. 88) preparee 

(appelee) d . . . 
preposition, preposition,/, 
prepositional, prepositif. 
prescribe, (remedies) ordonner 

[qqcb. a qqn.]. 
presence, presence, /. / in its — , 

en sa presence, 
present, adj. present ; (p. 88) ac- 

tuel; those — , les assistants; 

sbst. (in genl. & gram.) pre- 
sent, m. 
present, vb. presenter, 
presently, bientot. 
press, presser ; — eagerly ahoat, 

s'empresser autour (auprSs) 

pressure, pyession, /. 
preterite, preterit, m. [somet. for 

pret. definij. 
pretty, joli. 
prevent, empgcher; — one from 

doing. emp6cber qqn. de faire, 

or qu'on (ne) fasse. For this 

ne see p. 116. 

V i im ii 



previoos, d'avant;tlie — evening, 

la veille au soir, le soir d'a- 

priest, prgtre ; (very oft.) abbe; 

(p. 70) cure, 
primitive, primitif. 
principal, — , [adj. & sbst. m.]. 
principle, sbst. principe, m. 
prisoner, prisonnier, m. ; to take 

(a) — , see take, 
pro and con, pour at contra ; tlie 

pros and (the) cons, le pour at 

le contra. 
probably, probablement. 
process, procede, m. 
produce, produire, faira, causer ; 

{manufacture) fabriquar; 

(yield) produire, donner. 
product, produit, m. 
promenade, — ,'/. 
promise, promettre; (p. 84, I. 10) 

pronominal, — [j)l. -aux]. 
pronoun, pronom, m. 
proper, convenabia ; {gram. ) — 

noun, nom propre, m. 
properly, convenablement. 
property, propriete, /. 
proportionate, | proportionne; be 
proportioned, ) well — ed, avoir 

le corps bien proportionne. 
propose, proposer, 
proposition, — , /. 
prosper, prosperer. 
protect, proteger. 
prove, prouver, demontrer; has 

— d so . . ., s'est montre si . . . 
Provence, — , /, An old province, 

on the Mediterranean, east of 

the Rhone; capital, Aix. 
provide, pourvo^,r; {pp. 66, 94) 

jitfvided that, pourvu que [takes 

provincial, de province, 
provoke, contrarier, irriter. 
prowl, rSder [about the forest, 

dans . . .]. 
public, public [/. -iqae]; expose. 


pull, tirer. 

pun, calembour, m., jeu de mots, 

punish, punir. 

pupil, el6ve, m. &f. 

purchase, acheter. 

purchaser, acquereur, m. 

pure, pur. 

Puritan, sbst. puritain. 

purse, porte-monnaie, m.; {p. 67) 
{old form, like a bag)honTse,f. 

put, mattra, placer ; — to death, 
see under death ; put ... to- 
gether, assembler ; — into the 
fire, raettre au feu ; put ... in 
the plural, mettaz au p. 

Pyrenees, Pyrenees, /. ^. 

qualificative, qualificatif [adj. db 
sbst. 7n.]. 

qualify, qualifier. 

quality, qualite, /. 

quantity, quantite, /. / — of 
water, quantite d'eau ; great 
— ies, de grandes quantites. 

quarrel, sbst. querelle, /., dis- 
pute,/. / have a — with, avoir 
(una) querelle avec, etre en 
querelle avec. 

quarrel, vb. se quareller. 

quarter, {fourth part) quart, m.; 
{of city) quartier, m.; the 
Latin Q — , la quartier latin or 
le Quartier latin, somet. also le 
pays latin; — s of the globe, 
see p. 94, note 6. 

question, — ,/. 

quick, vite, vif, 

quickly, vivement ; (p. 70) brus- 
quement ; {p. 77) prompte- 
ment, rapidement. 

quite, tout ; {m-ore emphatically) 
tout k fait. 

quote, citer. 

rage, — ,/./ fly into a — , see fly. 



rain, pluie, /./ {p. 93, ad lib.) 

eaux pluviales. — " 
range, chaine, /. 
rank, rang, m.y in the first — , 

au premier r. 
rape (plant), colzti, m , navette,/. 
rarely, rarement. 
rat, — , m. 
rather, plutot ; — thick, nn peu 

epais ; — high, assez haut 

raw, (uncooked) cru ; (of pro- 
ducts ) brut ; — materials, 

matieres premieres, 
ray, rayon, m. , jet, m. 
reach, atteindre, parvenir -1, 

arriver si; [the two latter w. 

ready, prgt [a], 
reagent, reactif, m., agent clii- 

mique, m. 
real, vrai, veritable, reel, 
really, reellement ; I — don't 

know, je n'en sals rien, je ne 

saurais vous le dire. 
reason, raison, /. ; hy — of, ^ 

(par) cause de, gr3,ce a. 
recall, rappeler ; — to mind, se 

rappeler [se ind. obj.'], se sou- 
venir de. 
receive, recevoir, avoir, 
recognize, reconniiitre. 
reflect, reflecliir. 
reflection, reflexion, /,, pensee,/. 
reflexive, reflechi. 
refuse, refuser. 

r^ard, considerer, regarder, [as, 
/ com me], 
/region, region, /., pays, m., 

(across a country) zone, /. ; 
y vine — , zone (region) de la 

regular, regulier. 
regulation, rSglement, m. [See 

also und, violate.] 
relate, (narrate) raconter; (refer) 

se rapporter [h qqcb.]. 
relatix)n, (bet. things) rapport m.; 

(person) parent, m. 

relative, relatif [adj. <Sk sbst. m.]. 

relatively, relativement. 

remains, sbst. restes (mortels), m. 
pi., cendres, f. pi. , depouille 
mortelle, /. 

remain, rester; there — many . . , 
il reste (encore) beaucoup . . . 
it — s to + ijifin. , il reste a. 

remark, sbst. observation, /. 

remark, vb. (notice) remarquer ; 
(sap) dire ; (call attention to a 
fact) faire remarquer. 

remedy, remade, m. 

remember, se souvenir [de bef. 
noun, que bef. clause^ se rap- 
peler [que] ; [se dat. w. rap- 
peler and ace. w. souvenir] ; 

— that. . . , somet. = n'oublitz 
pas que. 

render, rendre; see possible. 

rent, (give- or takt^) louer, jJren- 
(Ire (or donner) a loyer: 

repeat, repeter. 

reply, sbst. reponse, /., repli- 

reply, vb. repondre, repliquer, 

report, rapport, m. 

represent, representer. 

republic, republique,/. ; the First 
R — , (la premiere R. ) was pro- 
claimed on Sep. 21st, 1792. and 
replaced by the Empire on May 
18th, ISOJf. 

republican, republicain. 

request, rh. prier [qqn. de faire 
qqcli.j; p. 101 ud lib. inviter 

require, demander, etc. ; what 
you — , (tout) ce qu'il vous 
faut, ce dont vous avez besoin. 

rescue, sauvetage, m. 

resemble, ressembler ft. 

reside, sieger. 

residence, residence, /. 

resign, resigner ; (office) donner 
sa ^demission; (p. 68) we must 

— ourselves to, il faut s'y (se) 



resin, resine, /.; {fur boios) colo- 

resolve, iidr. resoudre [de], se 

dcc.der |a]. 
resource , ress( > u rce, /. 
rest. !<bst. repos, m. ; the — , 

(quantity) le reste; (number) 

l.'s autres. 
restore, rendre, restituer; — to 

life, raineiier (rappeler) a la 

vIh, rt'ssusciter. 
retail, adj. &adv., en detail, 
return, shst. retour, m.; in — , en 

ret'lur, en ecbange. 
return, vb {come back) revenir 

tw. itre]; {go back) retourner 
w. StreJ ; {give back) rendre ; 
(reply) repondre, repeter. 

reverend, reverend [precedes 

revolution, revolution,/. 

revolver, revolver [re-vol-'oer'], m. 

rewood, rebolser. 

Bhone, Rhone, to., flowing from 
Switzerland to Vie Mediterran- 

rhythmic, r(h)ythmique. 

rich, riche. 

riches, ricbesse, /. [See I. 2, 
note 4.] 

Bichard, — . 

ride. vb. aller ^ cbeval, {for 
pleasure) se promener k cbeval; 
(p. 70) aller [the '^ cbeval' 
being virtually supplied by tlie 

right, adj. bon; {opp. o/'left') 
droit ; you are — , c'est juste, 
voiis avez raison; he is — to 
go, il fait bien d'y aller. 

right, sbst. (ill justice) droit, m.; 
(opp. of 'wrong') bien, m.; 
(right hand) droite, /./ do — , 
faire, pratiquer le bien; to, on 
the — hand, .d droi^te, du cojte 
droit, [both ma\j be foUU. by de 
for of]. 

ring, vb. sonner; — for somebody, 
"sonner qqn. 

I ripe, milr. 
ripen, uiurir. 
rise to, to give, produire, faire.^ 

rise, se lever; (mi price) monter, 

augmenter, [both may take 

auxil. avoir], 
riser, see early, 
risk, risque, m., danger, to. 
road, cbeiilin, to., route,/, 
road mender, cantounier, m. 
river, (larger, into sea) lieuve, 

m.; {smaller, genly. tributary) 

rob, voler ; — a person, voler 

qqn. ; — one of a thing, voler 

qqcb. 9, qqn. 
Borne, — [prn. roro],/. 
Boman, adj. romain, [f. — e]. 
roof, toit, TO. 
room, cbambre, /. / {of suite) 

piece, /. 
root, racine, /, 

rope, corde, /./ {pi. p. 89) cor- 
dages, TO. pi. 
round, adj. rond, circulaire. 
round, sbst. tour, to.; sleeps the 

whole — , etc., see sleep, 
round, prep, autour de ; — the 

waist, see waist, 
row, sbst. (in line) rang, m. 
royal, — T^iTToi. 
rub, frotter ; [with oil, avec de 

I'buile ; with a cloth, a\'ec une 

etoffe] ; {to chafe [the skin}^), 

ruin, ruine,/. 
rule, regie,/ 
run, courir; --no risk, ne courir 

aucun danger (risque) ; — 

awa^, s'enfuir, se sauver, (p. 

61) prendre la fuite. 
rush, — down, se precipiter. 
rye, seigle, to. 


saint, — , m. {F«r use ofeapitMl, 

etc., see p. 106, II. 22, 27-30.) 
sale, vente,/.; {continuous, as p. 



89) debit, m., [or say, de le 

debitor]; for — , (genly.) a 

vendre ; to offer for — , niettre 

en vente. 
sally of wit, saillie (spirituelle), /. 
salute,' vb. saluer. 
same, mgme ; it is the — (way) 

with, in, 11 en est de ineme de ; 

to do the — , faire de mSme; — 

sort, see sort, 
sand, sable, m. [oft. in plui'.]. 
sandy, sablonneux. 
Saone,Sa6ne [^a'siient^f., rises in 

the Vosges, a7id joins the RJioiie 

at Lyons. 
saucer, soucoupe, /. 
save, 'pi'ep. sauf. 
save, vb. sauver ; — one the 

trouble, eviter (epargner) a 

qqn. la peine, 
savory, savoureux. 
Saxony, Saxe, /./ in — , en S. 
say, dire; said he, dit-il, fit-il ; I 

— , Henry, dites done, H.; it is 

said that, on raconte que, on 

dit que ; that is to — , c'est-^- 

dire ; said he to himself, se 

dit-il (^ lui-m6me). 
scale, echelle, // on a large — , 

sur une grande ecbelle. 
scales, balance, /. sg, 
scar, cicatrice, /. 
scarcely, h peine, ne , . . guSre. 
scatter, repandre, eparpiller, {p. 

87) disseminer, seiner, 
scheme, projet, m 
scholar, (of elementary school) 

ecolier, m.; {genly.) elfeve, m. 

&f. : {learned man) savant, m. 
school, ecole,/. 
schoolmaster, maitre d 'ecole, 
science, — , /., see faculty. 
Scipio {p.65) Scipion (I'Africain), 

the vanquisher of Hannibal. 
score, vingtaine, /. 
Scott, Walter, — , Famous 

Scottish novelist {1771-1832). 
scrape off, eb lever (en grattant, 

en raclaut). 

sea, mer, /., ocean, m.; North 
S— , nier du Nord. 

sealing-wax, cire a cacbeter,/. 

sea-shore, bord de la mer, m. 

season saison,/. 

seat, siege, m. 

second, adj, deuxifime, second. 
[Kichard] the S — , [R.l deux; 
— conjugation, deuxieme or 
seconde conjugaison ; p. 94, 

second, sbst. temoin, m. [second 
is obsolete in French, and be- 
longs to the days when t/te 
seconds fought together as well 
as the principals}. 

second, sbst. {of time) seconde, /. 

section, division, /., comparti- 
nient, m. ' - 

secular, seculier, [not seculaire, 
which = 100 yrs. old, or moi'e]. 

see, voir, (s')apercevoir (de); be 
seen, se voir ; as we have — n, 
comme nous I'avons vu. 

seed, graine, /. 

seem, sembler, paraitre, avoir 

Seine, — ,^||^l very important 
rivtr, flowing N.E., and emp- 
tying near Havre. 

seize, saisir, prendre. 

selfish, egoiste. 

self-styled, soi-disant, pretendu. 

sell, trans, vendre; intr. se 

Senate, Senat, m., see Fr. wc. 

send, envoyer; — for, faire venir, 
envoyer cbercber. 

sentence, {gram.) phrase,/. 

separate, separer. 

seriously, serieusement, grave- 

sermon, sermon, m. 

servant, domestique, m. & f,; 
{very oft. for genl. maid ser- 
vant) bonuQ, /. 

servant-maid, domestique, borne. 

serve, servir [qqcb, &qqn.]; — to 
-J- fnfin., servir ^; — s^to feed 



Sert a nourrir, sert de nourri- 
ttire a ; — s as the address 
for . . ., sert d'adresse i\; {p. 
lUl) — for, desservir \trans.\. 

service, — , m. 

set, mettre, placer, poser; — foot 
in it, y mettre le pied (les 
y)ieds); be — free, se degager; 
(p. 31) by setting about it, en 
s'y preuant; — to work, se 
mettre & I'ouvrage (tH'oeuvre); 

— to work together to, se 
mettre ensemble a (pour) ; 

— to work to make . . ., se 
mettre d faire . . . 

settle, trans, regler ; (quarrel) 
vider ; intrans. s'etablir, a'iu- 

seven, sept. 

seventeen, dix-sept. 

seventeenth, dix-septidme. 

seventy, s olxant.e-Hiy ; one, 

soixante-onze; — -five, soixau- 

several, adj. & pron. plusieurs; 

pron. quelques-uns. 
^severe, (of persons) severe ; {of 
climate, imnier)T\goareux[nev- 
er severe | ; (of illness) grave, 
serietix [not severe]. 

severely, gravement. 

sewer, egout, m. 

sex, sexe, m. 

shade, sbst. ombre,/./ (of color) 
nuance,/./ teinte,/./ in the — , 
^ I'ombre. 

shade, vb. ombrager. 

shadow, ombre,/., image,/. 

shake hands, se donner la 

shall, expressing mere futurity, 
is rendered by the fut.; other- 
wise, by vouloir and falloir, 
Hiough oft. by the mere fut.; 
yo» — have it, ,vous I'aurez ; 

— I begin 1 voulez-vous que 
je commence ? 

shape, forme, /. 

sharp, (of edge) tranchant, affile; 

(of point) aigu [/. aigug] ; (of 
hearing) fin. 

she, elle. 

sheep, (generic term) mouton, 
m.; (female) brebis,/. , 

shifting, mouvant. 

shilling, schelling [=: che-lin'\ m. 

ship, navire, m,. 

shop, boutique,/./ (^ar^'e) maga- 
sin. m. \is replacirig * boutique' 

short, court ; in — , bref ['/' 

shot, coup de feu, m./ also c. de 
fusil, c. de canon ; (in genl. 
sense, p. 78) coup. 

should, when mere auxil. of mood 
or tense, is rendered by tlie 
condl.; as, je le ferais si j'a- 
vais le . . . , je I'aurais (or 
I'eusses) faif, si j'avais (or 
j'eusses) eu le . . . In other 
cases, tr. as ought. 

show, montrer, faire voir, indi- 

shower, averse, /. 

shut, fermer; to — oneself in, 
s'enfermer (se renfermer) dans 
sa cbambre. 

u\i.Vi\Xei, (in solid piece) volet, m.; 
(' Venetian ',i.e. icith separated 
strips) persienne, /. 

sick, (ill) malade ; I am — , {im- 
plying nausea) j'ai mal au 
cceur; — man, malade, m. 

side, cote, m.; (of mountain) 
flanc, m.; both — s, les deux 
cotes; on one — . wTi^n cote: on 
this — f' de (^ c()T^-ci ; on the 
other — (T)tJ, de I'autre cote 
(de), on p. 70 ad lib. 3, c6te de; 
on each — , de cbaque c. 

side-dish, bors d'oeuvre, m. ['h' 

siege, si6ge, m.; to lay — to, 
mettre le si^ge devant. 

sight, vue, /. 

sign, signe, m. 

signification, — , /. 

1 86 


silk, soie, /./ — stuffs, soieries, 
/. pL; — culture, sericicul- 
ture, f.; — worm, ver Vi soie, 
m.; — manufacture, fabrica- 
tion (Industrie) des soieries, /. 

similar, semblable. 

simple, simple; a (very) — means 
of ... , un moyen (tres) sim- 
ple de . . . 

simply, simplement ; consists — 
in, consiste tout simplement 
a, 11 suffit de. 

since, prep, depuis; conj. {of 
time) depuis (que) ; {reason) 
puisque; solne time — , depuis 
quelque temps, il y a qq. 

single, seal. 

singular, adj. singulier, bizarre; 
sbst. (grain.) singulier, m. 

sink, intr. descendre [genly. w. 
Gere], disparaitre [w. avoir oi' 
6tre]; — deep, s'enfoncer. 

sir, monsieur ; [as title of knight 
or baronet, not genly. trans- 

Sire, —, m. ; see Fr. voe. 
V sit, ( — doion), s'asseoir; {be sit- 
ting) etre assis, se tenir; {of 
court, parliament, member of 
an assembly) sieger. [See gen- 
eral remark wider stand. ] 

situated, situe, [ad.lib. se trou- 
verj. ■ *" 

six, -^. 

sixpence, (pifice de) douze sous, 
(p. de) soixante centimes,/. 

sixpenny-piece, pi6cedel2 sous,/. 

sixteen, seize. 

sixty, soixante. 

size, grosseur, /. , grandeur,/./ 
{of body) taille, /. the — of my 
body, ma taille ; of enormous 
— , d'une ta,ille (grosseur) 

skin, peau, /.; to be only — and 
bone, n'avoirquela peau at (or 
sur) les OS. 

sky, ciel, m. 

fla£', [^*«'"^'"«' 

sleep, dorniir ; — the whole 

round of the clock, faire le tour 

du cadran. 
slight, leger, petit, 
slip, glisser. 

sloth^l fellow, paresseux. 
small, petit; — letter (lettre) 

smile, sourire, m. 
snow, neige, /. 
snuff, tabac jl priser (t. en 

lioudre), m., poudre de tabac, 


so, {manner), ainsi ; {inference) 
aussi, ainsi ; (degree) si, tene- 
ment ; — much, tant, telle- 
ment; — terrible a . . ., un . . . 
si aflreux ; — he puts . . ., il 
met done . . . ; — saying, d ces 
mots ; he says — , il le dit ; I 
think — , je le crois, {in 
answers) je crois que oui ; — 
that, {of a result certain, or in 
fact) de (telle) sort^ que, de 
telle manifire que, en^orteque. 
[all w. indic.\\ {of uncertain 
result, w. idea cf' purpose) afin 
que, pour que, de sorte que, de 
manifere que, en sorte que, [all 
w. sbjnct.\ 

soap, savon^w. 

soap-bubble, bulle de savon, /, 

soap-suds, eau de savon, /. 

society, societe,/.; a — man, un 
homme du monde ; cultivated \ 
— , tr. lit. or : gens cultives. ' 

sofa, canape, m. 

soil, {in genl.) soI^tw.; (jjarticU' 
lar) sol, terrain, m., terre,/. 

soldier, solffat, m. 

solitude, — , /; in — r, dans la 
solitude, solitaire. 

solution, — , /. 

s me, adj. quelque, quelques ; 
(partit.) de, du, de la, des ; 
for — time, {p. 91) quelque 
temps ; pron. quelques-uns ; 



some . . . others . . ., les uns 
... les autres [when only 2 
g7'oups\, d'autres [when jnore]; 

— of . . . (quantity) un peu 
de, (nutnber) quelques-uns de, 
plusieurs de . . . ; (p. 75) — of 
it, en, en ... an peu. 

somebody,) ,. 

someone, )^ ^ 

something, quelque chose, m.; 

— else, autre chose, 
sometimes, quelquefois, parfois, 
son, fils, m., enfant, ?«./; the — 

of the church, fils de I'Eglise. 

soon, bientot ; as — as, aussit6t 
que, des que; it will be the 
— er over, 11 n'en sera que plus 
tot fini. 

sorry, desole ; — to see, d. de 

sort, sorte, /., espfece./.y all — s 
of, toutes sortes de or toute 
sorte lie; all the^. . . of the 
same — , tous les . . . d'uue 
meme espfece. 

source, — , /. 

sout h, suji [yrn. '(?'], m., midi, 
m.,'' aaj., du sud, meridional ; 
in the — of France, Europe, 
etc. , dans le midi de la France, 
de I'Euxope, etc.; {of France 
only, very oft.) dans le 

southern, meridtDnal, du sud 

space, espace, m. 

Spain, Esjjagne,/. 

spark, etincelle, /. 

speak, parler ; — well (ill) of, dire 
du bien (du mal) de. — French 
badly, ecorcher le frangais. 

speties, espdce, /.; •sorte, /./ {of 
trees) essence, /. • 

speech, '{in genl.) parole, /. / 
(gram.) discours, rri. 

spell, lit. epeler, but rare, being 
replaced by ecrire : e. g. how 
do you — it T comment 
I'ecrivez-vous ? comment s'e- 

crit-il ? is — ed w. a 

s'ejrit avec un(e) ... ^ 

spirit, esprit, m.; {p. 92) — s, 
essence, /. sing. 

splendid, magnifique. 

spoil, gSter, {stronger and fami- 
liar) abimer. 

spot, {stain) tache, /./ {place) 
endroit, m. 

spread, trans, etendre, etc.; in- 
trans. s'etaler, s'etendre, {pp. 
75, 88) se repandre, [over, 
dans] ; p. 98, repandu sur. 

spring, {of water) source,/.; {of 
steel, etc.) ressort, m. 

sprinkle, asperger. 

spur, eperon, m. 

square, adj. carre ; sbst. a public 
— , une place. [The French 
' square ' {fr. Eng.) denotes a 
railed garde n in p ublic squa re'\. 

Stael, Mme de. A French 
author (1766-1817), famous for 
two novels and tlie very re- 
m,ark'ible work, ' ' De I'Alle- 

stair, (step) marche, /. / (flight of 
stairs) escalier, m.; (outside, 
leading to main entrance) per- 
ron, m. 

stammer, begayer, balbutier 
[t = *]. 

stand, {071 feet, base, end, etc.) se 
lenir (6tre) debout; stood near 
the . . ,, se tint (se mit) prfis 
du . . . — up, levez-vous or de- 
bout ! standing, (qui se tenait) 
debout. [Vbs. like stand, sit, 
lie, have often no equivalents in 
French, and m,ust be replaced 
by some general expression, as 
se tenir, se trouver, Stre place 
(situe), or some vb. of motion, 
as stand up, levez-vous, de- 
bout ! stand aside, rangez- 
vous, faites place]. 

star, etoile,/.y {heavenly body in 
genl.) astre, m. 

start, partir. 


starve, mourir de faim. 

state, etat, m., [w. capital E 
when meaning the body politic]; 
condition, /.; cas, m.; (as adj.) 
state affairs, les affaires de 

stay, sbst. sejour, m,. 

stay, vh. rester \w. 6tre], de- 
meurer \w. 6tre here] , se tenir. 

steal, voler [qqch. (3, qqn.)]. 

stem, {of plant) tige,/.; {of pipe) 
tuyau, m. 

step, sbst. pas, m.; {of stairs) 
marche,/., degre, m. [Butsee 
under stair. ] 

step,«6. faire un pas; — in,entrer. 

steward, regisseur, m., inten- 
dant, TO. 

stick, sbst. bSton, to. 

stick, vb. intrans. s'attacher, 
adherer, se coUer ; — fast to, 
s'engluer sur. 

still, adv. encore, toujours ; 
there is — some, il y en a 
encore ; — greater, encore plus 
grand; {notwithstanding) pour- 
tant, cependant. i 

sting, piquer ; feeling stui^ by, 
(se gientant) pique (au vif) par 
or de, blesse par. 

stone, pierre, /./ precious — s, 
{as jewels) pierreries, /. pi. 

stop, {trans.) arr^ter ; {intrans.) 
s'arreter, cesser ; — up, 

store up, faire une provision de. 

story, histoire, /. ; {division of 
house) etage, to. 

straigUt, droit ; — on, tout droit, 
droit deyant soi. 

straighten, trans. ' dresser, re- 
dresser ; — up, intrans. se 
dresser, se redresser, se re- 
lever. ^„^ 

strait, detroit,^^; see Dover. 

stranger, incJonnu, to., elranger, 


street, rue, f.; in, on the — , dans 
la rue. 

strike, f rapper ; {of shuts) porter, 

strip, depouiller. 
stroll, take a, faire un tour, 
strong, fort, puissant, 
strongly, fortement ; so — con^ 

vinced, si (tellement) con- 

student, etudiant, to. {only of 

one in a university or faculty]; 

medical — , etudiant en mede- 

cine \^So also : etudiant en 

droit, es lettres, 6s sciences.] 
study, sbst. etude, /.; the — of 

them, leur etude, 
study, vb. etudier; {in a school or 

university, as p. 94) faire ses 

(leurs, etc.) etudes, 
stuff, substance,/. - 
stupid, bgte. ' 

stupidity, sottise,/., bStise,/. 
subject, sdjet, to, 
submit, soumettre. 
subscribe, souscrire ; {foi' period- 
icals) s'abonner [a], 
subscription, souscription ,/./ (for 

periodicals) abonnement, to. 
subsidize, subventionner. 
subsistence, subsistance, /. 
substance, — ,/.; (p.74) corps, to. 
substantive, substantif, to. 
succeed, (prosper in genl.) reus- 

sir ; {(^ plants) reussir, pro- 

fiter, prosperer, vefllr bien ; 

p. 101, succeeding, suivant. 
success, succ^s, to. 
successfully, avec succSs, (p. 92, 

nd lib.) avantageusement. 
successive, (p. 9<9) superpose, 
successor, successeur. 
such,(6eteee?i art. & sbst.)\e\ ; {aft. 

art. or aft. sbst.) pareil, sem- 

blable ; — as, comme, tel que. 
suddenly, subitement, tout i 

coup, vivement, brusquement; 

arrive — , see arrive. 
sufficient, suffisant ; (p. 75) — 

to form, suffisante pour en 




sugar, Sucre, m. In Vie com- 
pounds : — -beet, — maple, — 
-cane, etc., tise . . . a sucre ; 
while beetroot — , cane — , 
maple — , are ir. sucre de bet- 
terave, de canne, d'erable. 

suite, — , /. / — of rooms, s. de 

sulphuric, sulfurique. 

sum, sbst. somme, /. 

sum up, resumer. 

sun, soleil, m. ; in the sun(shine), 
au soleil. 

sunbeam, rayon de soleil, m. 

supersede, remplacer. 

supply, fournir, [for govt, see 
fur nish] ; — t he- place of. tenir, 
Itou Ub, y'ervir^R^io^/'if. aft. 
either']. ' ' ' ' 

suppose, , supposer, imaginer, 
s'imaginer ; I — ,^sans doute ; 
as you may — , ^coiiline vous 
pensez bien._ 

sure, sur, ■ certain ; — enough, 
c'est juste, bien sur ; for — , 
(famU.) pour sfir, bien sdr ; 
to be — , mais certainement, 
sans doute, {familiarly) bien 
s(ir ; — of going (to go) s(ir 
(certain) d'aller. 

surface, — , /. 

surmounted, surraonte [de], cou- 
ronne [de].- 

surprise, — , /. ; to express — 
that . . ., s'etonner que [w. 

surprised, etonne, surpris, [at, 

surprising, etonnant, surprenant. 

surround, entourer, [by, genly. de 
withuut art., except whenfollg. 
sbst. is definitely qualified]. 

surroundings, environs, m. pi. ; 
(p. 65) les dehors. 

suspect, soup^onner [qqn. de 

suspicious, soup9onneux [sound 
' p], defiant. 

sustafn, nourrir. 

swear, jurer. 

Swift, Jonathan. B. at Dub- 
lin, 1667; d. 1745. One of the 
greatest satirists of modern 
times ; author of " Gulliver's 
Travels", "Tale of a I'ub", 

Swiss, adj. Suisse; sbst. Suisse, m. 

Switzerland, Suisse,/. 

sycamore, sycomore, m. 

sympathetic, sympatbique. 

table, — , /.; at — , t table, at- 

table-land, plateau, m. 

take, prendre : — out of, from, 
prenare «d^DS^ — (a) pris- 
oner, faire (un) prisonnier ; 
{p. 6^) tires de, cites de; 

— a long time to do, met- 
tre temps ft faire, 
gtre long ft faire; [forced] to 

— to his bed^y, de s'aliter, (de 
prendre le lit) pour cause de; 
he was — n to the hospital . . ., 
transporte -ft ... ; — back 
again, rem porter; {p. 78) — on, 
prendre'; — alarm, salarmer, 
s'inquieter; ^ leave of, prenr 
dre " nnge f^" V ^ 

talk, causer. 

tallow, suit" ['/' soundedl, m. 

tanbark, tan, m., ecorce ft tan,/. 

tar, goudron, m. 

taste, sbst. gofit, m. ; {p. 94) (bon) 

taste, vb. godter; (p. 76) — it, y 

teach, apprendre [qqch. ft qqn.]. 
teacher, maitre (maitresse) d'e- 

cole, instituteur (institutrice). 
tear, vb. dechirer; (p. 71) it will 

be torn, elle se dechirera. 
tease, toiy^ienter. 
tell, dire ; {relate) center, ra- 

conter ; told them to go, leur 

dit d'aller. 
temple, — , m. 



ten, dix. 

tenant, locataire, m. 

tend, tend re [^ -f itifin\ 

tense, »hst. temps, m. 

term, terme, m., condition, /./ 
{gram.) terme; the — s of the 
peace, la paix; to be on good 
— s with one, 6tre en bons 
termes avec qqn., dans ses 
bonnes grSces. 

territory, territoire, m. 

test, epreuve, /. 

than, que; {bef. nvmbers) de. 

thank, vb. remercier; I — you for 
it, je vous en (t'en) remercie 

thanks, remerciments {or remer- 
ciements), m. pi.; {for ' thank 
yo'a ') merci ; — to that, grtice 
a cela. 

that, (those), demonst. adj. ce, 
cet, cette, ces. 

that, (those), demonst. pron. {no 
def. unteced. ) ce, cela (9a); 
{def. a7iteced.) celui- (celle-) 1^, 
ceux- (celles-) U; — of, celui, 
(celle, etc.) de; — which, ce 
qui, ce que; those who, ceux 
qui; — is all, c'est or voil^ 
tout ; — is (to sai), c'est-^ 
dire. % 

that, rel. pi'on. qui, que. 

that, conj. que; atin que; so — , 
see so. 

the, le, la, les; the more . . . the 
more . . ., plus . . . plus . . . ; 
— better they are, plus ils sent 
bons; so mnch — better, tant 
mieux ; — sooner over, see 

theatre, tbeStrerm. ; (p. 75, bet- 
ter) spectacles, vi. pi. 

their, adj. leur, leurs. 

theirs, pi'on. a eux, le, (la) leur, 
les leurs. 

them, eux, elles ; les ; of — , 
d'eux, d'elles; {hef. vb.) en. 

themselves, eux- (elles-) mSmes ; 

then, {of time) alors ; {next in 
order) ensuite, puis, sometimes 
alors ; {consequently) done, 

there, IS,, y, dans cet endroit; — 
is, — are {pointing out) voilS, ; 
{expressing m.ere existence) il 
y a. 

therefore, done, [somet. begins a 
clause {as : je pense, done 
j'existe) where it is emphatic 
and 'c' is heard; but more 
genly . follows vb., or adv., or 

these, see this. 

they, ils, elles; on. 

thick, epais. 

thin, maigre. 

thing, cbose,/., affaire, /.; all 
— 8, tout ; it is a great — 
to, c'est un grand bien (que) 
de ; good — s, see good. 

think, croire, penser; (s')ima- 
giner; (bethink oneself) s'a viser; 
{consider as) trouver; thinks 
Ikimself a poet, se croit poete, 
croit etre un poete ; what do 
you — of her? comment la 
trouvez-vous ? — less of, faire 
moins de casde, trouver moins 
grand ; it was thought that 
. . ., on croyait que . . . 

third, troisifiine ; (of sovereigns 
and days of month) trois. 

thirsty, aitere ; to be (very) — , 
avoir (bien, tres) soif ; he be- 
came — , il eut soif. 

thirty, trente. 

this, these, adj. ce, cet, cette, ces; 
ce(s) . . . ci, ce(s) ... IS, ; — 
(one),- celui- (celle-) ci. 

this, pron. {not referring to de- 
finite antecedent) ce, ceci, cela; 
{icithdef. anteced.)ce\m- (celle-) 
ci or la ; {p. 30, I. 4) le ; by 
doing — , en faisant cela; {p. 
88) among these, parmi (entre) 
celles-ci ; these are [rather] . . . 
ceux-ci sont . . . 



those, see that. 

thou, tu. toi ; thee, (dir. & indir. 
obj.) te, toi. 

thoughtful, {cofisiderate) preve- 

thousand, iiiille [rare w. indef. 
art.]; sbst. collecUve, millier, w. 
» For rail in dateS see p. 113. 

thousandth, millii^me ; — part, 
la m. partie, le millidme. 

thread, iil, m. 

three, trois. 

thrive, prosperer, profiter, reus- 
sir, venir Bien [w. 6tre]. 

throne, t'oul'e,/.- 

through, prep. ^ travers, au 
travers de, par; [door, loindow) 
par ; get — it, see get; pass — , 
see pass. 

throughout, partout(e)le(la). . . , 
dans le . . . entier ; (p. 71) — 
the portion, par toute I'eten- 

throw, Jeter, lancer ; — at ieter 
(lancer) centre. 

thrust out, al longer. 

thunder, tonnerre, m. 

thunderbolt, foudre, /. 

thus, ainsi, de cette fagon (ma- 

thy, adj. ton, ta, tes. [See obs. G.] 

tie nouer. 

tightly, etroitement ; to close — , 
termer (boucher) bermetique- 
ment. [ This latter Fren. adv. 
is frequently thus used hyper- 
bolically, but Tuis at other times 
the Eng. sense.] 

till, prep, jiisqu'^ ; {aft. negat., 
genly.) avant ; eonj. jusqu'^ 
ce que, que, [generally w. 

timber, building — , bois de con- 
struction, m. 

time, temps, m.; {repetition) fois, 
/. ; one — , une fois; each, 
every — he . . ., cbaque fois 
qu'il . . .; for this — , pour 
cette fois ; at the — of, lors 

de, d I'epoque de; at a — when 
3, une epoqiie (dans un temps)^ 
ou; at the same — , en m6me 
temps, a la fois, {momeiit)d&ns 
le m^me moment ; at (since) 
that — , 3,(depuis) cette epoque, 
dans (depuis) ce temps ; of our 
— , de notre temps (epoque) ; 
for a long — , longtemps, pen- 
dant longtemps; for some — {p. 
91) quelque temps ; after some 
— , see after; some — since, see 
since ; have (take) — to do . . . 
avoir (prendre) le temps de 
faire ; to pass the — , pour 
passer le temps. 

tire, trans, fatiguer ; i.itr. se 
fatiguer, se lasser ; — d of, 
las de. ' "- 

to, d, en, dans, vers; (in order to) 
pour, afln de ; — it, — them, 
y; (p. 93) to devastate, pour. . . 

tobacco, tabac [Ul-bd], m.; smok- 
ing — , tabac i fumer. 

tobacco-pipe, pipe./. 

to-day, aujourd'bui ; (p. 67, w. 
neg.) d'aujourd'bui. 

together, ensemble. 

to morrow, demain. 

tongue, {lit. & fig) langue, /. 

too,' {also) aussi, egalement ; {ex- 
cessivie[ly]) trop; too busy to ... , 
trop occupe pour , . . ; — many, 
— much, trop [de] ■; — inuch 
done, trop cuit. 

tooth, dent, /. 

top, baut ['/i' asp.^m.; {pointed: 
of steeple, tree, etc.) cime, /./ 
{of house) faite, m., {roof) 
toit, m. ; {of mountain) som- 
met, ^(^^^{sharp peak) cime, 

torrent, — , m. ; iiT^, en tor- 

touch, toucher, mi p. 88, ad lib. 
toucber ^ ; to — each other, se 
toucher. .■ 

toward(s), {of motion) vers ; {of 
disposition, obligation) en vers ; 



— one another, les uns envers 
les autres. 

town, ville,/.; in the — {not in 
country) a la ville. 

tract, region,/., terrain, wi. 

traction, — ,/. 

tradesman, inarcband, fournis- 
seur, cominer9ant. 

train, sbst. suite,/.; in his — , a 
sa suite. 

train, »i. dresser [iipef. sht.or vb.\ 

transform, trauformer [en], con- 
vertir [en]. 

transitive, transitif. 

travel, voyager. 

traveller, voyageur, m. 

treat, traiter ; — well (ill), en 
user bien (mal) avec qqn. 

treaty, traite, m. 

tree, arbre, m. 

trial, epreuve, /./ to put to a — , 
inettre a 1 epreuve. 

triumphal, de triompbe. 

Tronchin, Theodore. B.atQeneva, 
1709; d. 1781 at Paris, where 
he was quite i la mode, widely 
celebrated, and very beneficent. 

trouble, peine,/, [of doing, to do, 
de faire]. Use trouble (m.) 
only of disturbance {genly. in 
pL), or of agitation of mind. 

true, vrai ; it is — , c'est vrai, il 
est vrai [que]. 

truffle, truffe, /. 

trust," se fier ft, compter sur. 

truth, verite,/. 

try, essayer, tScber, \botli genly. 
take de bef. infin.\ 

turn, sbst., tour; in (its, his, 
their, etc.) turn, ft son, (leur, 
etc.) tour [the poss. adj. being 
indispensable in Fren.]. 

turn, vb. tourner ; — round, se 
retourner ; — [beggar], se 
faire . . . ; — the cheek, pre- 
senter la joue ; — to water, 
se cbanger en eau. 

turpentine, terebentbine, /. / 
spirito of — , essence de t., /. 

twenty, vingt. 

twice, deux fois. 

two, deux, 

two-storied, ft deux etages. 

tyrant, tyran, m. 


ugly, vilain [precedes sbst.], laid 
[may precede bete, animal]. 

unable as in phr. I was — to, je 
n'ai pas pu . . ., il m'a ete im- 
possible de . . . 

umc!e, oncle. 
C$/nnder, prep, sous; {on lower level) 
au-dessous de^- adv. («= below) 
dessous, , -. -^ 

undergo, souffrir, supporter. 

underground, souterrain. 

underline, souligner. 

understand, entendre, compren- 

undertaking, entreprise, /.; cha- 
ritable — 8, ceuyres de bien- 
faisance, /., oeuvs cbaritables. 

undo, (mischief) reparer, reme- 
dier ft. • 

uneasy, inquiet ; don't be — , 
soyez tranquille(s). 

unfortunate, malbeureux ; the 
— s, les malbeureux {ad lib. 
voyageurs). -. . 

unfortunately, malheureusement. 

unipefsonal, unipersonnel. 

unite, unir. 

United Kingdom, Royaume-Uni, 
m., see p. 107, I. 1. 

United States, tltats-Un\s,m. pL; 
in the, to the U. S. , aux . . . 

universally, universellement. 

universe, univers, m. 

university, universite, /. 

unsanitary, insalubre. 

up, debout, leve; well — in years, 
avance en age, dans un Sge 
avance; — to, jusqu'ft. 

upon, sur; — it, "them, dessus, 
biit on p. 93 use y bef. vb. 

upper, superieur; — part, partie 



superieure,/., haat ['A' ay).], 

apset, (intrana.) verser. 

urchin, gamin, m. 

OS, aous. 

use, sbsi. usage, m. ; make — of, 
se servir de ; what's the — of 
taking 1 4 quoi bon prendre ? 
& quoi sert-il de prendre? 

use, tib. {make use of) employer, 
se servir de ; cOnsommer; so 
much —A' si employe ;*d'un 
usage si repandu ; I — wood, 
ropes, je me sers de bois, de 
corles ; when — d, quand on 
I'emplole ; he ^-d to say, il 
avait riiabitude de dire, il di- 

useful, utile ; one of the most — 
trees, un arbre des plus utiles, 
un des arbres les plus utiles. 

useless, inutile. 

usually, ordinairement. 

utter, vb. pousser. 

vam, — . 

valet, valet (de chambre), m. 

valley, vallee,/./ the Bhone — , 

1 1 V. du Rh6ne. 
valor, valeur, /. , bravoure, f. 
valuable, precieux. 
vanity, vaBite.'l^T'^ 
variety, variete, /. 
various, different, divers, 
vast, vaste. 

vehemently, violemment. 
vehicle, voiture, /., vehicule, m. 
ventilate, aerer, ventiler. 
venture, se risquer, se hasarder. 
verb, verbe, m. ""^ 

vertebra^ vertfibre,/. 
very, trfis, fort, bien ; — much, 

beaucoup. — 
Viennese, ad^. viennois, {/. — e]. 
view, vaef./ see also point, 
village, — , m: 
vine, vin^ne,/. 
vineyard, vignoble, m., vigne,/. 

violate, violer, contrevenir a ; 

to be — ing the regulations^^ 

etre en contravention, 
visit, sbst. visite,/. [see pay]. 
visit, vb. visiter. 
vitriol, — , m.; with oil of—, 

avec de I'huile de v. 
voice, voix, /.; in a. , . voice, 

d'une voix . . . 
Vosges, — , /. pi. A chain of 

mountains in the extreme hJ. 
I cf France. 
vote, voix,/. 


wag, plaisant, m. 

wager, vb. gager. 

wag(g)on -maker, charron, m. 

waist, taille,/./ seize round the 

— , saisir [qqn.j a bras-le-corps 

[or k bras le corps.] 
wait, attendre. 
waken, trans. eveWXer, (suddenly) 

reveiller ; intr. s'eveiller, se 

walk, marcher, aller & pied ; — 

about, se promener ; see . . . 

walking, voir . . . qui mar- 

wall, mur, m. 
walnut, noix,/./ — (tree), noyer, 

want, «6., {lack)&vo\T besoin de, 

manquerde; {desire) vouloir, 

desirer ; what I — , ce que je 

veux, desire ; {need) ce qu'il 

me faut; he wanted me to be . . . 

il voulait que je fusse . . . ; I 

don't — to . . ., je ne veux 

pas. . . 
war, guerre, /. 
warm, tb. cliauffer. 
waste, inculte. 
water, eau,/. 
wax, tb. cirer. 
way, voie, /., cbemin, m.; was 

passing that — , passait par li\; 

the — to reach P. , la route (le 



cliemin) pour arriver a P.; 
{means) moyen, m.; in this 
(that) — , de cette maniere 
(f a9on), ainsi ; in their own — , 
a leur maniere; the only — , 
le seul moyen; the — in which, 
la manifire dont. 

we, nous; on. 

weak, faible. 

weaken, affaiblir; {liquid) eten- 
dre, affaiblir. 

wealth, richesse,/". 

wear, porter. 

weary, fatigue, las. 

weather, temps, m.; it is very 
warm — , 11 fait bien (trSs) 
chaud ; in rainy — , par un 
temps de pluie; in frosty — , 
par un froid rigoureux (vif). 

weigh, peser. 

well, bien ; {begin, a sent.) eh 
bien ; very well (then), c'est 
bien, bon ! bien! {p. 57}_well 
then, eh bien-falors) ; "w^, no 
(yes), ma foi, non (oui); or mais 
non (oui) ; as — as, aussi bien 
que, (= as also) ainsi que; I 
know quite ^, je sais bien; 
speak well of, see speak. - 

well-known, connu, {p. 32) cel^.- 

west, sbst. ouest [wes^], m.; adj. 
de I'ouest, occidental. 

wet, vb. mouiller ; to — with 
water, detremper avec de I'eau. 

what, adj. quel, quelle, etc. 

what, j9ro». cequi, ceque;quoi; 
{direct interrog.) qu'est-ce qui ? 
(qu'est-ce) que ? quoi ? quel ? 
from — , de quoi ; sur quoi ; 
— was [his reply] % quSle 
fut . . . ? — is the singu^ 
(plural) of ... 1 quel est le s. 
(le p.) de . . . ? of what gender 
(number) is ... 1 de quel genre 
(nombre) est . . . ? — for 1 
pourquoi ? pour quoi faire ? 
but — about yr. neighbor ? et 
votre voibiu, done? 

whatever, adj. — (may) be . . ., 
quel(le) que soit . . ., quels 
(quelles) que soient . . . ; any 
. . . — , nn(e) . . . quelconque. 

wheat, blc, m. \jplur. oft. for 
standing crop]; {of the fine 
qualities) froment, m. 

when, lorsque, quand, que, oft; 
one day — , un jour'que ; ( p. 
77) — dr/, (lorsqu'elle est) une 
fois secbee (sficbe). 

whence, {from ut^ich fact, place) 
d'oft; {from that fact, for that 
reason) de \h. 

whenever, toutes les fois que, 

where, oii; \_when the vb. is not 
lieamer than the subject, the lat- 
ter is genly. put last, {as always 
when o\X is interi'og.): e.g. I'en- 
droit oii se trouve le boucle]. 

wherewith, de quoi. 

whether, si soit; ask — , de- 
mander si . . . 

which, qui, que; lequel; quoi (/. 
7, note Jj); (as obj. of prep.) le- 
quel and quoi; {beginning a 
clause, often) ce qui [see p. 2]; 
of which, dont, duquel ; in 
— , dans lequel, oxL; from — , 
d'oii, duquel ; to — , upon — , 
{beginning a clause), a quoi, 
sur quoi. 

while, {time) p endant que, tandis 
que ; {contrast,^~='' Whereas '), 
tandis qije. ' - • 

whipj^fouet, m'f 

white, blanc. 

white-wood, bois blanc, m. 

who, relat. qui; interrog. qui?" 
qui est-ce qui ? to, for — m % ft, 
pour qui ? 

whole, tout, entler [aft. sbst.']; 
upon the — , 3, tout prendre, 
somme toute, tout considere; 
his — stay, tout son sejour. 

wholesale, en gros. 

whom, relat. que ; {aft. prep.) 
qui, lequel; interrog. qui? 




whose, de qui, dont, d, qui; — son 
was, dont le fils etait. 

why. pourquoi; bef. neg. interrog. 
vb. often que; — , no, luais 
non; — , then, eli bleu (alors); 
tliat is — , voiia (c'est) pour- 

wicked, mechant. 


wide-spread,* repanda. 

wife, feuime. 

will, vb. vouloi r ; [as a mere 
{tense, mark of futuriti/, it is 
not separately rendered :] he 
won't be there, il n'y sera pas, 
but : he won't let me go, il ne 
veut pas me l&clier; {p. ^4) she 
won't = qu'elle ne meure pas. 

William, Gulllaume [U = y] 

willing, dispose; I am quite — , 
je veux bien. 

willow, saule, m. 

winding, (stair) tournant, en 
spirale (/.). 

window, feaStre, /.y (p. 79, = 
paie{s) ) vitre(s),/. , carreau(x), 
m.; — pane, vitre, /., carreau 
(de vitre), m. 

wine, vin, m. i 

wing, {of bird, house), aile, /. 

winter, biverj^w^'j^w./ — morn- 
ing, matinee d'hiver. 

winter-time, hiver, m.; in the — , 
en li., durant I'h. 

wipe, essayer; — off, essuyer. 

wise, sage, prudent ; — man, 
sage, m. 

wish, o&., vouloir [-\- infin.'\ , Ae- 
sirerj^+iw^ft.]; I ^ you to go, 
je desire (veux) que vous y 
alliez; I — he were . . ., je 
voudrais qu'il filt . . . 

wit, esprit, m. 

with, avec, i, {in house of) chez. 

withdraw, retirer. 

withoat, sans; — going, sans 
aller; — fail, sans faute. 

witty, spirituel, plaisant, 

wolf, loup, m. 


woman, femme. 

wood, l)ois, m. 

wooden, eu or debois, 

woollen* de laiiie. 

word, {genly. & gram.) mot, m.; 
parole, /. [very oft. in pl.y 
send — to, faire savoir a ; 
upon my — , (p. 63) ma foi, oui ; 
{p. 71) ma foi. 

word, vb. exprimer; thus — ed, 
ainsi con9u. 

work, shst. travail, m., ouvrage, 
m.; {icoi'k of art, book), ou- 
vrage; {collected works of an 
author, painter, musician, etc.) 
oeuvres,/. pL; the — s of God, 
les cBuvres de Dieu. 

work, vb. travailler; — up [ma- 
terials], mettre en oeuvre. . . 

workman, ouvrier, m,. 

world, monde, w., terre,/. ; the 

— over, dans le monde entif r. 
world-wide, universe!, 
worship, adorer; (p. 57) adorer 


worth, be, valoir ; be — mention- 
ing, va4oir la peine d'en parler. 

would, ,9^£ will and should; {p. 83) 

— it not ? n'est-ce pas ? 
wrap up, envelopper, empaque- 

wretchedly, execrablement, 

write, ecrire. 

wrong, adj. to be — , avoir tort, 
wrong, sbst., mal. m., tort, m. 

[.tee p. 28, note .5] ; to do — , 

faire le mal. 

year, {aft. cardin. number's 
and generally) an, m.; {aft. 
ordinals, 01' w. emphasis on the 
time spent, or irhat occvrs dur. 
ing it) annee, /. .• once a year, 
une fois par an ; in the ~ 1793, 
en 1793, or less oft. I'an 1793 ; 
up in — s, d'uu certain Sge. 



yes, oui, en effet, c'est vrai ; — , 

I do, — , we can (answering a 

negat.), inais si. 
jrield, produire, porter ; (jp. 89, 

supply) fournir, donner. 
yonder, l4-bas; — are, voilft . . . 

York, — , A county in England; 

also a royal house founded in 

Hie fourteenth century by tlte 

fourth son of Ed. III. 
you, vous, tu, te; [often rendered 

by onj. 

young, jeune, {p. 2J) petit ; 

(p. 81) sbst. pi. petits. 
your, adj. votre, vos ; ton, ta, 

tes. [ike Obs. O.'l 
yours, pron., le, la votre, les 

youth, jeunesse, f . 

Zeno, Zenon, m , tlie founder of 

Stoicism, d. abt. B. C. 260. 
zone, zone \o\, f. 
zounds ! morbleu 1 que diautre ! 







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/2 I /6s^^Ct-'a^^''- 



PC Cameron, John Home 

2111 The elements of French 

G33 composition