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Palais de Versailles — Vue de Derriere 















It has been the purpose of the authors to provide an ele- 
mentary French grammar flexible enough to meet the needs 
of the inexperienced, as well as of the experienced teacher. 
For the benefit of the experienced teacher who desires to 
conduct classes in French almost from the first day, a large 
amount of oral work has been included. A French transla- 
tion is given for all grammatical nomenclature in the lessons, 
so that teachers so desiring may conduct grammar reviews 
entirely in French. There are also numerous dialogues, and 
songs, as well as oral questions upon the matter of the read- 
ing lessons. For the benefit of the inexperienced teacher, on 
the other hand, simple translation material — mostly con- 
nected — has been provided in every lesson. It is advised 
that all translation material be worked over orally before the 
student is permitted to write. 

To facilitate further the work of the teacher, the book is 
divided into one hundred twenty-six short lessons, including 
twenty-two review lessons. An attempt has been made to 
give always precise indications regarding the manner in 
which each part of the lesson is to be prepared by the stu- 
dent. The lessons are divided so that each one will probably 
require about the same amount of preparation. Usually only 
one grammatical principle is treated in a lesson. Several 
lessons are generally devoted to each grammatical point, 
before a new one is taken up. Unessential rules, confusing 
to the beginner, are relegated to a fairly complete gram- 
matical appendix. In this manner, the volume may serve at 
the same time as a very simple beginner^s book, and as a 
reference grammar for advanced students. College classes 
will probably be able to cover two lessons per day; high 
school classes one lesson per day. 

The following English-French translation exercises may be 
omitted by teachers who desire to lay particular stress upon 


iv Preface 

the oral side of the course: those in Lessons 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 
11, 14, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 33, 38, 39, 44, 46, 48, 
49, 52, 55, 57, 59, 61, 64, 70, 73, 75, 85, 87, 92, 95, 113, 119, 
121, as well as all of Lessons 125, 126. College teachers who 
desire a short course in grammar before beginning to read, 
and secondary school teachers who must prepare students for 
college in the briefest possible space of time, may find it 
advantageous to omit the following' lessons entirely: 28, 31, 
33, 37, 51, 53, 55, 58, 61, 63, 65, 69, 71, 76, 79, 84, 86, 91, 
96, 114, 116, 121, 122, 123, in addition to the review lessons, 
but must be careful to include Lessons 125 and 126, which 
contain essential material on the subjunctive. 

A considerable number of drill exercises will be found in 
the lessons, such as blank-filling exercises; transpositions to 
question form, to negative form, and from the perfect (past 
indefinite) to the past absolute (past definite); conjugation 
of verbs set in sentences, etc., in addition to the translation 

Believing that the problem of teaching French pronuncia- 
tion is the most serious one now confronting French teachers, 
an attempt has been made to provide a phonetic introduction 
which will be thoroughly usable, and will fit into the lessons. 
Rules for the proper position of vocal organs have been 
stated as simply as seemed consonant with scientific accuracy. 
After each rule, as well as in the early lessons, will be found 
pronunciation exercises, and cautions to beginners against 
mispronunciations commonly made by beginning students. 

An important feature of the book is the gradual but thor- 
ough introduction of French sounds into the lessons. For 
instance, the only vowels in Lessons 1 and 2 are front vowels; 
in Lessons 3 and 4, back vowels are found for the first time, 
with a few words containing front vowels for review. The 
troublesome French u and other rounded front vowels appear 
in Lessons 7 and 8; while the difficult nasal sounds are 
reserved for Lessons 10 and 11. The student is referred in 
each lesson to sections in the phonetic introduction, so that 

Preface v 

each lesson in grammar may become at the same time a 
lesson in pronunciation. A phonetic transcription of Lessons 
1-11 will be found at the end of the introduction. 

Irregularities in French pronunciation are noted as they 
occur in the lessons. See especially Lessons 1, 7, 11, 14, etc. 

Teachers who so desire may ignore the whole treatment of 
phonetics in this volume. 

The early lessons deal with objects in the classroom, parts 
of the body, articles of clothing, the time of day, etc. In 
order to obtain variety, frequent resort has been made to 
such devices as simplified selections from French authors; 
descriptions of scenes in a Paris theater, restaurant, omnibus, 
or railway station; a formal visit; letter forms; French 
etiquette; a composition of a ten-year-old French orphan; a 
tennis match; a lesson on French weights and measures; 
and lessons on the geography of France, as well as on the 
map of Paris. The vocabulary is simple, contains a large 
per cent of words having forms similar to English, and com- 
bines the utilitarian with the literary. 

Pictures and maps are always intended to illustrate directly 
the lesson in hand. This is as much true of the maps of 
France and of Paris as of the reproductions of photographs 
of scenes in France. 

In preparing the exercises, the necessity of constant review 
of the vocabulary and of grammatical constructions has been 
kept in view. 

A serious effort has been made to arrange the lessons in 
order according to the interest of the student, rather than to 
follow strictly the traditional grammatical sequence. For 
instance, numerals begin to appear in Lesson 10, while in 
Lesson 22 there are exercises in addition and multiplication. 
In Lesson 37, the student is taught to tell the time of day, 
while in Lesson 39 he learns some of the most important 
dates of French history. Other features are the early intro- 
duction of personal pronouns, and the frequent footnotes, 
intended to force the student to remember important points. 

vi Preface 

The nomenclature is that of the Joint Committee on 
Grammatical Nomenclature, but in cases where confusion 
might arise, the ordinary terms are put in parentheses. 
Thus (Conditional) is given beside Past Future. 

Indebtedness to a large number of grammars and manuals 
is freely acknowledged, particularly to the Handbook of 
French Phonetics (Henry Holt & Co.) of Nitze and Wilkins, 
which was constantly consulted in the preparation of the 
phonetic introduction. This little volume is particularly 
recommended to teachers desiring to give a more thorough 
course in French pronunciation than is provided here. In 
general, the Dictionnaire General of Hatzfeld-Darmesteter- 
Thomas has been followed in the matter of pronunciation. 

Acknowledgement is made also to Professor Christian 
Gauss, of Princeton University, editor of the Lake French 
Series, who has given to the authors assistance much exceed- 
ing that usually rendered by the general editor of a series; 
to Miss Elizabeth McPike, of the University of Chicago, 
who read the proofs and offered many valuable suggestions; to 
Professors Kenneth McKenzie, D. H. Carnahan, T. E. Oliver, 
and F. Green, of the University of Ilhnois, who have given 
the authors much practical counsel; to Aspirant Rene Guiet, 
who revised the French exercises; to Underwood & Under- 
wood, who allowed the use of all the full page insert pictures 
in this book and also of the small pictures of the Gare de 
TEst and of the Pantheon; and to Mr. George H» Roscoe, of 
Chicago, for furnishing the copy for all the other pictures in 
this volume. 



Table of Symbols xiii 

Syllabication xiv 

The Alphabet xiv 

Orthographic Signs xiv 

Stress f XV 

Vowel Quantity xv 

Front Vowels xvii 

Back Vowels xix 

Rounded Front Vowels xxi 

Nasal Vowels • xxii 

Semi-Consonants xxiv 

Consonants xxv 

Division of Syllables xxviii 

Liaison xxix 

Elision xxx 

Punctuation xxx 

Capitals xxxi 

Phonetic Transcription (Lessons 1-11) xxxi 


1. General Rule for Gender: The Definite Article: Front 

Vowels 1 

2. Gender: The Definite Article (continued) 3 

3. Le, la, V: Position of Pronouns: Back Vowels 4 

4. Questions 6 

5. Questions (continued) 8 

6. Review 10 

7. Plurals: Repetition of Article: Rounded Front Vowels. ... 11 

8. Repetition of Article (continued) 13 

9. A Few. Colors 14 

10. The Indefinite Article: Cardinal Numerals, 1-4: Nasals. ... 15 

11. The Indefinite Article (continued) 17 

12. Colors (continued) 18 

13. Review 20 

14. Present Indicative of avoir: Cardinal Numerals, 5-10 22 

15. The Body 25 

16. The Body (continued) 27 


viii Contents 


17. Present Indicative of avoir {continued): Contractions with 

de : the Partitive Construction 28 

18. Review 31 

19. Agreement of Adjective ; 32 

20. The Plural of Adjectives 34 

21. The Partitive Construction (continued) 36 

22. Present Indicative of etre: Cardinal Numerals (continued): 

The French r 38 

23. Possessive Adjectives 41 

24. Possessive Adjectives (continued) 44 

25. Review 46 

26. Present Indicative of etre: Use of il and elle: French Con- 

sonants (Continued) 48 

27. Possession: Contractions of a with Article: Demonstrative 

Adjective: French Consonants (Continued) 51 

28. Clothing 54 

29. Present Indicative of donner: Use of Pronoun en 56 

30. Review 59 

31. Une Promenade 61 

32. Second and Third Conjugations 63 

33. La Partie de Tennis 66 

34. Ce . . . -ci and ce . . . la 67 

35. Review 69 

36. Interrogative Adjective quel? Time of Day 70 

37. La Montre 72 

38. Cardinal Numerals (continued) : Addition and Multiplication 74 

39. Dates 76 

40. Review 78 

41. The Seasons: A Few Impersonal Verbs 79 

42. The Future 82 

43. Days of the Week 84 

44. Une Visite 86 

45. Review 89 

46. A Few Orthographical Rules 90 

47. The Preposition en 93 

48. The General Noim 94 

49. The Indefinite on 97 

50. Review 98 

51. Legon de Geographic 99 

52. Position of Adjectives 101 

53. Avant le Mariage 104 

54. The Perfect Tense 106 

Contents ix 


55. The Perfect Tense (continued) 108 

56. Review 109 

57. Idiomatic Use of the Present Ill 

58. En Prison 113 

59. The Partitive Construction: Words of Quantity 115 

60. Words of Quantity (continued) 117 

61. Idioms with avoir 119 

62. Review 121 

63. Le Bourgmestre 122 

64. Adverbs: Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 123 

65. Adverbs (continued) 126 

66. The Past Descriptive or Imperfect 128 

67. Review 130 

68. Past Descriptive of partir and sortir 131 

69. Past Descriptive of partir and sortir (continued) 133 

70. Verbs Conjugated with etre 134 

71. Verbs Conjugated with etre (continued) 136 

72. Review 137 

73. Reflexive Verbs 138 

74. Reflexive Verbs (continued) 140 

75. Reflexive Verbs (continued) 142 

76! Reflexive Verbs (continued) 144 

77. Conjunctive Pronouns 145 

78. Review 147 

79. Conjunctive Pronouns (continued) 148 

80. Agreement of Past Participles: Pronominal Adverb 151 

81. Agreement of Past Participles (continued) 153 

82. Position of Conjunctive Pronouns 155 

83. Review 156 

84. Position of Conjunctive Pronouns (continued) 158 

85. Conjunctive Pronouns, Recapitulation 160 

86. Conjunctive Pronouns, Recapitulation (continued) 163 

87. The Imperative 164 

88. Review 167 

89. The Imperative (continued) 168 

90. Personal Pronouns — Disjunctive Forms 171 

91. Disjunctive Pronouns (continued) 173 

92. Disjunctive Pronouns (continued) 175 

93. Review 177 

94. Disjunctive Pronouns (continued) 178 

95. The Past Future, or Conditional 181 

96. The Past Future, or Conditional (continued) 183 

X Contents 


97. Possessive Pronouns 185 

98. Possessive Pronouns (continued) 187 

99. Review 189 

100. Negatives 191 

101. Negatives {continued) 193 

102. Demonstrative Pronouns 196 

103. Demonstrative Pronouns (continued) 199 

104. Review 201 

105. Relative Pronouns 202 

106. Relative Pronouns (continued) 206 

107. Relative Pronouns (continued) 208 

108. Interrogative Pronouns 210 

109. Interrogative Pronouns (continued) 212 

110. The Subjunctive Mood 214 

111. The Subjunctive Mood (continued) 217 

112. Review 219 

113. The Infinitive 221 

114. The Infinitive (continued) 225 

115. Ordinal Numerals 226 

116. French Coins and Measures .' 228 

117. Apposition 229 

118. Review ; ... 234 

119. The Passive 236 

120. The Passive (continued) 239 

121. Past Absolute or Past Definite 240 

122. Past Absolute (continued) 243 

123. French Correspondence 244 

124. Review 246 

125. The Past Subjunctive 247 

126. The Subjunctive (continued) 250 


The Noun 255 

The Article 259 

The Adjective 260 

The Adverb 262 

The Preposition 267 

The Conjunction 270 

The Pronoun 271 

The Verb 280 


Contents xi 




French-English 335 

English-French 367 

INDEX 385 

Tolerances in Syntax 392 



Palais de Versailles — Vue de Derriere Frontispiece 

Diagram of Pronunciation xvi 

Notre Dame de Paris — la Fagade {facing) xvi 

Cafe Frangais — Sur la Terrasse {facing) 33 

Paysannes Frangaises 43 

La Rive Gauche a Vol d'Oiseau {facing) 48 

Jeanne d'Arc Revetant son Armurc {facing) 81 

Scene des Pyrenees {facing) 96 

Una Famille Paysanne 104 

L'Empereur Napoleon I {facing) 113 

La Conciergerie {facing) 128 

La Locomotive du Rapide 143 

Visite de FAmiral Beatty au Tombeau de Napoleon 1 {facing) 145 

Le Chateau d'lf . 153 

La Gare de FEst 159 

La Bourse {facing) 160 

Une Route Frangaise 169 

Le Louvre k Vol d'Oiseau {facing) 177 

Avenue du Bois (de Boulogne) {facing) 192 

Le Quartier Latin 204 

Une Scene des Halles {facing) 209 

Paris k Vol d'Oiseau ; {facing) 224 

L'Arc de Triomphe de I'Etoile 231 

La Placede I'Opera 239 

La Colonne Vend6me {facing) 241 

Une Visite du Facteur 246 

Victor Hugo {facing) 256 


"^-^^lan de Paris (M 

fjp. Carte de la France {facing) 




1. Spelling. As French sounds cannot be correctly repre- 
sented by English spelling, the phonetic symbols of the Asso- 
ciation Phonetique Internationale are adopted in this book. 
Each of these symbols represents a single sound; each sound 
is represented by a single symbol. 

2. Table of Symbols. (The phonetic transcription is put 
in parentheses. For English equivalents of symbols, cf. §§ 

I Sign of length 

a papa, brave (papa, braiv) 

a pas, passe (pa, pais) 

a temps, tempe (td, taip) 

b 6as, a66e (ba, abe) 

d dos, rideau (do, rido) 

e aine (ene) 

8 iaitj iatte (fe, feit) 

8 pm, pmce (pe, pexs) 

a \e (19) 

f fm, efffxcer (fe, efase) 

g fifarde, brigand (gard, briga) 

h je le /lais (30 la [h]e) 

i VZ6, vive (vi, viiv) 

j hzer, papier (jeir, papje) 

k coq, lac (kok, lak) 

1 Zong, pafe (15, pail) 

m madame, ami (madam, ami) 

n nul, annexe (nyl, aneks) 

ji igfnorant, oignon (ijiora, 

o 6chOj cote (eko, koit) 

oral, or (oral, oir) 

5 long, longue (15, l5ig) 

ce peuiple, peur (poepl, poeir) 

oe un, humble (oe, oeibl) 

Si&reuXy aSreuse (afr0, 


p pain, appartement (pe, 


r rare, Paris (rair, pari) 

s si, ici (si, isi) 

J* c/ieval, mac/line (/aval, 


t ^on, ache^e (t5, a/et) 

u douXy douze (du, duiz) 

y du, dur (dy, dyir) 

q lui (Iqi) 

V «;in, seryir (ve, serviir) 

w oui (wi) 

z zoney vase (zoin, vaiz) 

3 Joffre, rouge (3ofr, ruis) 

xiv The Elements of French 

3. Syllabication. In general, divide a French word so that 
each syllable will end in a vowel. 

a-ni-malf 0-pe-ra (compare with English an-i-mal, Op-er-a) 

Groups of two consonants, however, are divided: 

par-ler; mar-di 
For fuller discussion of Syllabication, see § 47. For French stress, cf . § 6. 

4. Alphabet. The following are the letters of the alphabet, 
with their French names: 















































(te) ■ 

















double ve 

(dubb ve) 











i grec 

(i grek) 







(a) When e has no accent mark, it is often named by the sound which 
it has in de, le, etc. Ex.: frere = effe — erre — e accent grave — erre — 

(6) According to some authorities, the names of all the letters are mascu- 
line; according to others, the names of the following letters are feminine: 
/, h, I, m, n, r, s. Ex.: Un r or une r 

(c) Accents. There are three accents in French: 

(1) The acute accent {accent aigu) (aksat egy). 

ete (ete); beb6 (bebe); cafe (kafe) 

(2) The grave accent {accent grave) (aksa gra: v) . Ex. : 1^ (la) ; oh (u) 

(3) The circumflex accent {accent circonflexe) (aksd sirkSfleks) . Ex.: 

age (a:3); fete (feit); depot (depo) 

5. Other Orthographic Signs. 

(a) The cedilla {cedille) (sediij) is placed under c to give it the sound of 
(s) before a, o, u, Ex.: fran^ais (frase); lefon (bs5); regxi (rasy) 

Introduction xv 

(6) The dieresis (trema) (trema) usually indicates that the vowel over 
which it is placed is separate in pronunciation from the preceding vowel, 
mais (mais); Noel (noel) 

Observe. In certain words ending in -gue the dieresis is placed on 
the e to indicate that the u is pronounced. Ex.: aigue (egjO 

(c) The apostrophe (apostrof) is used generally to show the omission of 
a vowel. 

ramie (1 ami), for la-\-amie; V enfant (1 afd), for le-\-enfant; 
Vhomme (1 om), for le-\-homme 

(d) The hyphen {trait d' union) (tre d ynjo) is used generally as in 

6. Stress. French words have weaker stress (or accent) 
than English. The beginner will do well to pronounce syl- 
lables with practically an even stress, as if he were counting 
them. A slightly increased stress, however, should be placed 
on the last syllable of a word of more than one syllable. 

Before commas, interrogation points, or slight pauses there is 
usually a rising stress; at the ends of sentences, a falUng stress. 

7. Vowel Quantity. 

(a) French vowels (including nasals) are usually short. They are 
always so at the end of a word. 

donna (dona); parte (parle); tableau (tablo); enfant (afcL) 

{h) A stressed vowel is long if followed by the sounds (j), (v), (z), (3), 
(r) final. 

pareil (pareij); brave (braiv); vase (va:z); port (poir). But parte 
(port), because the (r) is not final. Also braver (brave); invasion 
(evQzjo), because the vowel preceding (v) or (z) is no longer 

(c) A stressed nasal not followed by a consonant sound is always short; 
one followed by a consonant sound is always long. An unstressed nasal 
is always short. 

grande (graid), but grand (gra), grandeur (gradoeir); tante (tait), 
but tant (ta), tantot (tdto); tongue (l5:g), but long (15), longueur 

(d) A circumflexed vowel, followed by a consonant, is always long, 
when stressed. 

bete (beit), but embeter (abete); fete (feit), but /eier (fete) 


The Elements of French 

8. Position of Tongue and Jaws. Rounding of Lips. The 

following diagrams may help the student to place the vowel 
sounds (nasals not included here, because for them the tongue 
position is uniformly low). 




Lips Normal 




Diagram A represents three things: 

(a) Rounding or retraction of the lips. Observe that for front vowels 
the lips are retracted, i.e., drawn back. This retraction is greatest for 
(i), where the lips are drawn back as in smiling. It is less for (e), less still 
for (e), while when we come to (a) the lips are practically normal. 

For rounded vowels and for back vowels, observe that the lips are 
rounded like a circle. The rounding is greatest for (y) and for (u), where 
the lips have the position for whisthng. It is least for (a), where the Hps 
are only slightly rounded. 

(6) The elevation of the tongue is indicated by the distance of a symbol 
on the diagram from the horizontal Hne at the top. Thus for (i), (y), and 
(u) the tongue is nearest the roof of the mouth. For (e), (0), (o), it is 
next nearest, while for (a) it is farthest away. 

(c) The angle of the jaws is in inverse proportion to the elevation of 
the tongue, being greatest for (a), and least for (i), (y), and (u). 

Diagram B presents words illustrating the various sounds of diagram A. 

Notre Dame de Paris — La Facade 

{See Lesson 119) 

Introduction xvii 

9. General Distinctions. Before proceeding to the detailed 
discussion of the formation of French sounds, a few words of 
caution are necessary. Enghsh speaking students should pay 
especial attention to the fact that while English has stronger 
stress (accent) than French, on the other hand, to speak 
French, it is necessary to work the lips, tongue, and jaws more 
vigorously than in English, This principle should be applied 
particularly to the pronunciation of French vowels. Avoid 
carefully the drawling effect of Enghsh vowels, which are, as' 
a rule, really diphthongs. Notice, for instance, the glide- 
sound in English words like pane, pour, etc. In French, vowels 
should be pronounced quickly and vigorously, with no trace of 
a glide sound. 

10. Vowels. French vowels may be divided into four 
classes, according to the position of the tongue and lips, as 

Front Vowels, Back Vowels, Rounded Front Vowels, Nasal Vowels. 


For practice words, see also Lessons 1 and 2, which have no other 
vowels than Front Vowels with the exception of (u) and the neutral sound 

11. The tongue is always brought forward in the mouth, in 
the formation of Front Vowels. 

12. (^) Like i in poHce. 

Smile, with the mouth nearly closed. Keep the tip of the tongue against 
the lower teeth. Make the sound more tense than in English. 

Suggested Drill. Practice singing (i), then stopping suddenly; then 
sing (li), stopping suddenly; then practice (liivr), avoiding all glide-sound 
after the (i). 

Caution. This sound is never like i in the English word miss. That 
is why a Frenchman is apt to say *^mees'' for ^'miss." 

This sound is represented in spelling by i, i; sometimes by y 
ici (isi), il (il); fini (fini); vie (vi); tie (il); y (i) 

xviii The Elements of French 

Let the student compare the pronunciation of the following French and 
English words, always being careful to give to the French i the sound of i 
in police, not that of i in it. 

Avoid Pronunciation 


of English 

ItaHe (itaH) 


il (il) 


Mississipi (misisipi) 


If (if) 


mil (mil) 


limite (limit) 


s'il (sil) 


fini (fini) 


13. (e) Like a in patriotic, but with lips drawn back 
farther, as in smiling. The smile is less broad than for (i), 
however. Pronounced tensely. 

This is represented in spelling by 4, and e or ai in certain combinations, 
et (e); papier (papje); 6t6 (ete); de (de); gai (ge); ai (e); sait (se) 

Avoid drawling and slurring. Practice singing (e), then stopping short; 
then practice ^pee (epe), in like manner. 

Compare the following French and English words, being careful to 

cut the French (e) off sharply and quickly: 

Avoid Pronunciation 
French of English 

d4 (de) day 

n6 (ne) nay 

sait (se) say 

merite (merit) merit 

gai (ge) gay 

t^l^graphe (telegraf) telegraph 

peri (peri) perish 

14. (g) Like e in mety but with mouth wider open. Lips 
drawn back, but less so than for (e). 

It is represented in spelling by ^, ij and e, ai, at, ei in certain combi- 
nations; occasionally by a in ay. 

m^ve (els:v) ; chaise (Jeiz) ; mais (me) ; plait (pie) ; est (e) ; b^te 
(belt) ; peine (pen) ; effet (ef e) 
English-speaking students should be especially cautioned about the 
pronunciation of French er (when not final), which is like er in English 
perish, rather than like er in English herd. 


Compare the following words : 

Avoid Pronunciation 
of English 

perle (perl) 


ferle (ferl) 


fer (f8ir) 


merci (mersi) 


Serbe (serb) 


verbe (verb) 


persevere (persevere) 



15. (a) Like a in path, rather than like a in cat. Mouth 
wide open; lips slightly drawn back. Tongue flat in mouth, but 
the tip against the lower teeth. 
It is represented in spelling usually by a. 

table (tabl); a (a); avec (avek); salle (sal); madame (madam); ami 
(ami); la (la); moi (mwa); voila (vwala); void (vwasi); quoi 
This vowel must not he slurred. Say Paris (pari), not "PWee.'^ 
In the following words, be careful to give (a) always the same value: 

Avoid Pronunciation 


of English 

animal (animal) 


par (avoid sound of ah) 


dollar (avoid sound of ah) 


farce (avoid sound of ah) 


valse (avoid sound of aiv) 


vertical (vertikal) 


caramel (karamel) 


artiste (artist) 


BACK VOWELS (See also Lesson 3) 

16. In the formation of Back Vowels, the tongue is always 
drawn back in the mouth. 

17. (a) Like a in father, but with a deeper tone. Mouth 
wider open than for (a), tongue as flat in the mouth as possible, 
and not touching the lower teeth. Lips very slightly rounded. 

It is represented in spelling usually by a, or a before certain consonants. 

pas (pa); classe (klais); dme (aim) 
Note. It is important to avoid the sound of English aw in awL 

XX The Elements of French 

18. (o) Something like o in softly, but with Hps more rounded. 

It is represented in spelling usually by o; by au before r. 

note (not); porte (port); donnez (done); ecole (ekol); fort (fo:r); 
aurai (ore); Foch (foj) 

Compare the following French and English words, being careful 
to round the lips more for the French vowel than for the English: 

Avoid Pronunciation 


of English 

comme (kom) 


Somme (som) 


Rome (rom) 


note (not) 


19. (o) Like o in open, but with lips more rounded, and 
pronounced tensely. 

It is represented in spelling by d, o, au, eau. 

nos (no); vos (vo); tome (to:m); cote (kote); aussi (osi); tableau 
(tablo); beau (bo) 

Avoid drawling sound of o in English old. Practice singing (o), then 
stopping short. 

20. (u) Like oo in English boot, but with lips more rounded, 
as in whisthng. 

It is represented in spelling usually by ou, oil, oil. 

sou (su); sous (su); tour (tu:r); tout (tu); oH (u); gout (gu) 

This sound is very frequently mispronounced, even by advanced students 
in French, especially when it comes before r. Avoid always the sound of 
ou in EngHsh could. 

In practicing the following words, bear in mind two things: (a) Do not 

drawl the French vowel, but cut it off sharply; (b) Make the French (u) 


Avoid Pronunciation 
French of English 

tour (tuir) tour 

pour (pu:r) poor 

jour (3u:r) azure 

nous (nu) new 

Students are particularly cautioned not to insert a glide-sound before 
the French (u). Do not let tour rhyme with fewer. 

Introduction xxi 

(See also Lessons 7, 8) 

21. In the formation of Rounded Front Vowels, the tongue 
is drawn forward in the mouth as in the case of the Front 
Vowels already studied. 

22. (a) Like e in English ^^the man/' when the e is not 
emphasized; or like a in sofa, animal. The position of the 
tongue and jaws is as for (e), but the lips are well rounded. 
It is always short, and never stressed. In fact, it is constantly 
omitted entirely in French speech, and the pupil should prac- 
tice eliminating it wherever allowable. 

It is represented in spelling usually by e without a written accent. 
le (b) ; me (ms) ; de (da) 

Students should avoid giving to (s) the sound of e in ''lesson." Practice 
leve (love); venir {yquut) ; legon (bso), being careful to give to e the value 
of e in "the man," not that of e in ''ksson." 

Note. According to the Victor triangle, (a) should follow (0), § 24. 
It is here placed first because of its importance. 

23. (y) This sound is the same as (i), only instead of draw- 
ing back the lips to the position of a broad smile, the lips are 
puckered out as in whistling. 

It is represented in spelling by Uj U. 

du (dy); su (sy); lu (ly); vu (vy); plume (plym); sur (syir) 

Suggested Drill. Practice singing (i), then (y), changing nothing but 
the position of the lips, which are retracted for (i), and ready for whistling 
for (y). Then practice singing (y), followed by (i), moving nothing but 
the lips. Be careful to avoid a sound like that of English u in "pwre." 

Compare the following words: 

Avoid Pronunciation 


of English 




dit (di) 



lit (li) 









xxii The Elements of French 

24. (0) To produce this sound, round the Hps as for (o), 
and try to say (e). 

It is represented in spelling by eu, mu, in certain positions, usually when 
it is the final sound in a word. 

' peu (p0); deux (d0); noeud (n0); monsieur (masj0) 

Suggested Drill. Practice singing (e), then (0), moving nothing but 
the lips. Then practice (0), followed by (e). 

Caution. Avoid the sound of er in English ''her" by cutting off 
the sound sharply. 

25. (oe) Round the lips as for (o) , and try to say (e) . 

It is represented in spelling by eu, oeu, in certain positions, usually when 
it is not the final sound in a word. 

soeur (soeir) ; professeur (prof esoeir) ; leur (Iceir) ; heureux (oer0) 

Caution. Avoid the sound of er in English ''her." 

Suggested Drill. Distinguish between peu (p0) and peur (poeir); 
feu (f0) and fleur (flceir). 

NASAL VOWELS. (See Lessons 10, 11) 

26. To pronounce nasal vowels, let the breath come through 
the mouth and the nose at the same time. The tongue remains 
low in the mouth. 

Nasal vowels have no resemblance to the "nasal twang" famiUar in 
America. What is commonly called "talking through the nose" is in 
reality the exact opposite, for the nasal passages are partly or completely 

Nasality (i.e., allowing the breath to pass through the nose and the 
mouth at the same time) is indicated by the sign (~) over a symbol. 

27. How to Tell When a Vowel Is Nasal. A vowel is nasal 
when it is followed by a single m or n in the same syllable. 
However, if the m or n is doubled, or if followed by a vowel, the 
nasality usually disappears. Examples will be given in con- 
nection with the individual nasal vowels. 

Introduction xxiii 

28. (g) Say (e), partly through the nose. The sound 
resembles the sound of an in sang, but without the twang. 

This sound is represented in spelling by in, im, ain, aim, ein, eim, yn, ym. 

In the following examples note that the nasality is lost when m or n 
is followed by a vowel, or is doubled: 

fin (fs); fine (fin); sain (se); saine (sen); vain (ve); vame (ven); 
timbre (teibr); timide (timid); wn(ve); vinaigre (vineigr); syn- 
taxe (setaks); symbole (sebol) 

In ien, en has the sound (e): bien (bje); vient (vje). For the pro- 
nunciation of (j), see Semi-consonants, § 32 ff. 

Suggested Drill. Practice (e), then (e), not moving the lips. 

Caution. The tongite must not be raised in pronouncing nazals. 

29. (a) Say (a), partly through the nose. 

This sound is represented in spelling by an, am, en, em. 

In the following examples, note that the nasality is lost when m or n 
is followed by a vowel, or doubled: 

an (a), but annee (ane), anneau (ano); ample (aipl), but ami 
(ami); dans (da), danser (dase), but Danube (danyb); entente 
(atait), but ennemi (enmi); tempe (taip); dent (da) 

Exceptions. A few words, such as ennui (anqi); emmener (amne). 

Caution. Avoid any sound of n or m in pronouncing nasal vowels, 
by keeping the tongue low. The tongue mu^t not be raised in pronouncing 

Suggested Drill. Practice (a), then (a). Then try pas (pa), pan (pa); 
gant (ga); hate (ait); hante (ait); tdche (taij*); tas (ta), temps (ta); tendre 
(taidr), tante (tait); bas (ba), banc (ba). 

For Home Practice. Prolong (a); close the nasal passages, and the 
sound will change to (a). 

30. (5) Say (o), partly through the nose, allowing the 
breath to pass through the nose and the mouth at the same 
time. It resembles the vowel sound in song (without trace 
of n or ^). 

This sound is represented in spelling by on, om. 

xxiv The Elements of French 

In the following examples note that the nasality is lost whenever n or m 
is followed by a vowel, or is doubled: 

hon (bo), but bonne (bon); compris (kopri), but comme (kom); son 
(so), but Sonne (son); ton (to), but tonne (ton); ombre (o:br), but 
omelette (omlet); onze (o:z); a-t-on? (a t 5) 

Caution. Avoid any sound of n or m in pronouncing nasal vowels. 

The tongue must not be raised in pronouncing nasals. 

Suggested Drill. Say (o), then (5). Practice cote (kot), then conte 
(koit); botte (bote), then bonte (bote); dote (dote); then dompte (dote); donne 
(don), then don (do). 

31. (oe) Say (oe), partly through the nose, allowing the 
breath to pass through the nose and the mouth at the same time. 

This sound is represented in spelling by un, um, eun. 

In the following examples, note that the nasality is lost whenever 
n or m is followed by a vowel: 

un (ce), but uni (yni); humble (oeibl), but humide (ymid); 
parfum (parfoe), but parfume (parfyme); Verdun (verdoe) ; jewn 
(3oe), but dejeuner (desoene) 

Caution. Avoid any sound of n or m in pronouncing nasal vowels, by 
keeping the tongue low. 

Suggested Drill. Say (e); then say (oe), moving the lips forward, but 
moving nothing else; then say (oe), dropping the soft palate to allow the 
breath to pass through the nose, but moving nothing else. 

SEMI-CONSONANTS (See Lesson 17) 

32. Semi-consonants are like consonants, because the noise 
produced by the stoppage of the breath can be heard; they are 
like vowels, because the sound of the voice may be heard also. 

33. (j) Like y in EngHsh ^es. This sound may be produced 
by saying (^), then passing quickly to the next vowel. 

It is represented in spelling by y; sometimes by i, i7, ille. 

cahier (kaje) ; papier (psip]e) ; payer (ipG}e);fille {fii}) ; famille (famiij); 
travail (travaij); bataille (bataij); bien (bje); vient (vje); tient 
(tje); mien (mje); tien (tje); sien (sje); Italien (italje) 

Introduction xxv 

34. (q) Say (y), passing rapidly to the next vowel. 

This sound is represented in spelling by u, 

lui (Iqi) ; yuis (pqi) ; fuis (f qi) ; cuisine (kqizin) ; conduire (k5dqi:r) ; 
iraduire (tradqiir); mine (rqine); essuyer (esqije) 

Caution. Avoid the sound of w in the English word i^ood. 

Suggested Drill. Say (i), then (y), moving the lips; then practice (y), 
followed by (i), again moving only the lips. Then practice lu (ly), 
followed by lit (li); du (dy), followed by dit (di). Then lui (Iqi); conduire 

Ui (qi), is a sound combination which American students usually mis- 
pronounce throughout their French course. It is sufficiently difficult to 
call for constant drill. 

35. (w) Say (u), passing rapidly to the next vowel. 

The lips are rounded more than for the sound of w in the English word 

It is represented in speUing by ou. 

oui (wi); ouest (west); fou^t (fwe); louer (Iwe); Louis (Iwi) 

36. Observe also oz, o^, which are ordinarily pronounced 
(wa), but are pronounced (wa) after an r, 

oiseau (wazo); botte (bwait); fois (fwa); Antoine (atwan); Marie 
Antoinette (mari atwanet). But froid (frwa); roi (rwa); trois 
(trwa), because oi is preceded by an r. 

37. Observe also oin (we), which follows the regular rules 
for nasal vowels. 

mains (mwe), but moine (mwan); loin (Iwe) 


For examples of r, the most difficult French consonant for EngUsh- 
speaking students, see Lesson 22. 

38. The French r is unlike the American r, which is really 
a semi-vowel. To acquire it, instruction from a competent 
teacher is absolutely necessary, but the following directions 
may be of service. 

Remember that a good French r will do more than perhaps 
any other one thing to make one's pronunciation acceptable 
to a Frenchman. 

xxvi The Elements of French 

The French r may be formed in two ways : 

(1) The easier way for American students is to vibrate the tip of the 
tongue against the upper teeth. There is excellent authority for this r 
(so-called r linguale, or tongue r), but unfortunately for the beginner it 
is rapidly being driven out by, 

(2) the uvular r, produced by vibrating, the uvula against the tongue, 
which is drawn back in the mouth. (The uvula is the little flap hanging 
down from the roof of the mouth, which one may see in a mirror when the 
mouth is opened wide, and the back of the tongue is kept down. It is 
vibrated in the act of gargling.) 

The symbol for the lingual r is (r) ; for the uvular r it is (R). 

'pere (peir) ; mere (meir) ; frere (freir) ; soeur (soeir) ; courir (kuriir) 

Suggested Drill. Practice r, then n, then n ri ri in rapid succession; 
likewise for re re re, ra ra ra, etc. 

Then try the following words : Rue de Rome (ry do rom) ; Rue de Rivoli 
(ry da rivoU); rira (rira); ronron (r5r5). 

Practice -ir (i:r), -ere (e:r), -ure (yir), Henri (ari), etc. 

Then try servir (serviir) ; partir (partiir) ; courir (kuriir) ; m^urir (muriir) ; 
vinrent (ve:r); tinrent (teir); grain grand- gronde (gre gra gr5:d); gruyere 

39. Consonants Nearly Alike in French and in English. 

The following consonant sounds are nearly alike in French and 
in English: 

(b), (f), (g), (k), (m), (n), (p), (s), (v), (z). 

40. (d) and (t) are pronounced in French very much as in 
English. Observe, however, that in French the tip of the 
tongue is directly against the top of the upper front teeth; in 
English, on the other hand, the tip of the tongue is somewhat 
farther back. 

41. (d) is pronounced somewhat Uke (d) in English drill, 
or in deed, rather than like d in dawn. Cut the sound off 
sharply, avoiding the slight aspiration which generally follows 
it in English. Practice dit (di) ; du (dy) ; de (de) ; deux (d0) ; 
then drogue (drog); droit (drwa). Always keep the tip of the 
tongue against the top of the upper teeth in pronouncing 
the sound (d). Then try sud (syd); ode (od); barde (bard). 

Introduction xxvii 

42. (t) is pronounced with the tongue position as for (d). 
Cut the sound off sharply as in the case of (d). It is Uke t in 
Enghsh frill or in tee, rather than in iawny. Practice tic (tik) ; 
tigre (iiigr); the (te); telegraphe (telegraf); then tacher (taje); 
trois (trwa), always keeping the tip of the tongue against the 
top of the upper teeth in pronouncing (t). Then try site (sit) ; 
vite (vit) ; cette (set) ; vetement (vstma) ; soit (swat) ; boite (bwait) ; 
teinte tante tonte (teit tait toit) . 

43. (1) is a sound very similar to the English I at the begin- 
ning of a word, as in Httle, etc. The French (1) is very apt to 
be mispronounced by Enghsh-speaking students for the same 
reason that (d) and (t) are often mispronounced, namely, that 
the tip of the tongue must be kept firmly against the base of the 
upper front teeth for French (1), and not allowed to draw back, 
as often happens in English. Avoid the flabby effect of the 
English I in a word like milk, French (1), Uke (d) and (t), is 
clear and forcible. 

Let the student practice the following words, holding the tip of the 
tongue firmly against the base of the upper teeth: lit (li); lu (ly); les (le); 
lieu (lj0); lait (le); leur (loeir); la (la); loi (Iwa); long (15). Then let him 
try il (il); consul (kosyl); elle (el); veulent (voel). 

44. (ji) This sound is somewhat like that of ni in English 
omon, but it is necessary to observe the following directions: 

(a) Tip of tongue held firmly against the lower teeth; (6) middle of 
tongue arched against the hard palate. In this way (ji) is a single sound, 
not two sounds as in English ni in onion, (ji) is represented in spelling 
usually by gn. 

montagne (m5taji); digne (diji); vigne (viji); signe (siji); cognac 
(kojiak); ignorant (ijiora); magnifique (majiifik); baigner (bejie); 
craignant (krejia); joignant (3wajia); peignant (pejia); agneau 

45. (3) has approximately the sound of s in English measure. 
Pucker the lips, however. It is quite different from English 
(j) in Journal. 

garage (gara:3); camouflage (kamuflais); mirage (mirais) 

xxviii The Elements of French 

Let the student compare the following words: 

Avoid Pronunciation 
French of English 

journal (3urnal) journal 

age (ai3) age 

joie (3wa) joy 

juste (3yst) just 

jus (3y) juice 

geai (3e) jay 

46. (/) Like ch in English macMne. Pucker the lips, how- 

vache (vaj); hoche (boj); chien (Jje); chez (Je); chacun (Jakoe). 

47. Division of Syllables (see § 3). 

(a) A single consonant (other than x) between vowel-letters always 
belongs to the following vowel : 

li-mi-te (limit) 
(6) X goes with the preceding vowel-letter. 
ex-a-men (egzame) 

(c) Groups such as cA, p/i, thj gn, representing single sounds, are treated 
like single consonants. 

a-che-ter (ajte); di-gne (diji); te-le-pho-ne (telefon). 

(d) All groups of two consonants of which the second letter is Z or r 
(except II, rr, rl, Ir, that is, I or f doubled or in combination one with the 
other), belong to the following syllable. 

ta-hleau (tablo); a-pres (apre) 

(e) Other groups of consonants are divided. 

ab-be (abe); par-ler (parle); mer-cre-di (merkradi) 

(/) E without written accent at the end of a syllable (generally silent 
in prose) counts as a sound after a consonant-letter, 

car-te (kart); me-ner (mane); re-ve-nir (ravniir) 

{g) On the other hand, an unaccented e following a vowel-letter is 
never separated from that letter, in writing. 

a-che-tee (ajte); pa-trie (patri) 

Qi) Although doubled consonants have regularly only a single sound, 
they may be divided in writing. 

con-$om-me (kosome) ; el-le (el) ; en-ne-mi (enmi) 



Let the student practice 

the following list of words; 

Avoid Pronunciation 

Avoid Pronunciation 

French of English 


of English 

A-gnes Ag-nes 



a-ni-mal an-i-mal 



ci-te cit-y 



ge-ne-ral gen-er-al 



0-pe-ra Op-er-a 



pu-nir pun-ish 



ce-le-bre cel-e-brate 



i-mi-te im-i-tate 

48. Liaison (Ijezo) (Linking). The joining in pronunciation 
of a final consonant sound with a following word beginning 
with a vowel or h mute Is called liaison (linking). It occurs 
where words are closely connected grammatically, as for in- 
stance : 

(a) A noun, with its modifiers (article or adjective). 

les amis (lez ami); un homme (oen om); les champs arides 
(le J'az arid) 

(6) A participle or adjective, with its modifying adverb. 

hien ennuyeux (bjen anqij0); fort aimable (fort emabl) 

(c) A preposition followed by its object. 

dans une maison (daz yn mezo) ; devant unjardin (davat oe 3arde) 

{d) Often after avoir, etre, and other auxiliary verbs. 

il est entendu (il et atady) ; ils sont occupes (il sot okype) ; il doit 
accepter (il dwat aksepte) 

(e) In certain phrases. 

petit a petit (patit a pati) 

Observe the following points: 

(1) In liaison, final/ is sounded like v. 

final d is sounded like t. 
final g is sounded like k. 
final s or a; is sounded Hke z. 
neuf heures (noev oeir) ; un grand homme (6e grat om) ; sang impur 
(sak epyir); les enfants (lez afa); dix hommes (diz om). 

(2) Nasals ending in n tend to lose their nasality in liaison^ 

en Espagne (an or dn 8spaji) 

(3) Nasals ending in m do not permit liaison. 

le champ aride (la J*a arid) ; le camp ennemi (la ka enmi) 

XXX The Elements of French 

(4) Liaison is not permissible before an aspirated h. (By aspirated h is 
meant an h, which, though not pronounced, is nevertheless treated as a 
consonant. It occurs in a few words, mostly of Germanic origin. 

la hate (la a:t); la hache (la aj) 

(5) There is no liaison before huit (qit), onze (5:z), or oui (wi). 

(6) The t of et is never sounded. 

(7) Final r is hnked frequently in formal speech; rarely in familiar 

49. Elision. The following words ending in a or 6 drop the 
final letter before a vowel or h mute, and are written with an 
apostrophe : 

le, la, je, me, te, se, de, ne, que, (and some of its compounds) . 
Vami (1 ami) ; fai (3 e) ; qu^un (k ce) 

(a) The e of ce is eUded before a verb, but not before a noun. 

c^est (s e), but cet homme (set om) 
(6) No elision takes place when a monosyllable is connected by a 
hyphen with a preceding verb. Ex. Faites-la entrer (fet la atre) 

(c) / is elided only in the case of the word si before His). Ex. sHl (s il) 

50. Punctuation. The punctuation marks used in French 
are about the same as in English. In French they are called: 

point (pwe) 
, virgule (virgyl) 

: deux points (d0 pwe) 

; point et virgule (pwet e virgyl) 

? point d' interrogation (pwe d eterogasjS) 

! point d'exclamation (pwe d eksklamasjo) 

trait d' union (tre d ynj5) 
— tiret (tire) 

points de suspension (pwe d syspasjo) 
" " guillemets (gijme) 
( ) parenthese (parateiz) 
[ ] crochets (kroje) 

> accolade (akolad) 

* asterisque (asterisk) 

t croix (krwa) 

Observe. The tiret is used to denote a change of speaker. 
Est-ce que vous allez a Paris? — Non, je vais a Londres. 

Introduction ' xxxi 

51. Capitals. In French, capitals are used much as in 
EngUsh. They are not employed, however, in the following 

(a) For proper adjectives: 

un livre frangais a French book 

Also: r anglais English (the language) 

But: un Americain an A mencan (proper name) 

Q)) For names of the months, and the days of the week: 

septembre September 

dimanche Sunday 

(c) The pronoun I is not capitalized: 

je I 

(Lessons 1-11) 

1. 1. lasaL 2. lafaneitr. 3. lajeiz. 4. latabl. 5. la tabl e la f aneitr. 
6. la Hivr. 7. la kanif . 8. 1 eleiv. 9. la letr. 10. u e la sal? 11. uela 
faneitr? 12. uelajeiz? 13. vwasi la Jsiz. 14. u e la tabl? 15. vwala 
la tabl. 16. u e la liivr? 17. vwasi la liivr. 18. u 8 la kre? 19. vwala 
la kre. 20. u e la kanif? 21. vwasi la kanif. 22. u g 1 eleiv? 23. vwala 
1 eleiv. 24. u e la letr? 25. vwasi la letr. 26. vwala la grameir e la 
letr. 27. vwala la letr e vwasi la liivr. 28. vwasi la bwait e la kre. 
29. vwala la Jeiz e vwasi la tabl. 

3. 1. u e 1 ekol? 2. uela sal? 3. u e la port? 4. vwasi la port, la 
vwasi. 5. u e 1 eleiv? 6. la vwala. 7. u e la liivr? 8. la vwasi. 9. u e 
latabl? 10. la vwasi, osi. 11. u e la /eiz? 12. la vwala. 13. vuz ave 
la kre. 14. la vwasi. 15. vuz ave la grameir. 16. la vwala. 17. vuz 
ave la surnal. 18. la vwasi. 19. vuz ave la grameir e la 3urnal. 20. 
vwala la grameir e la 3urnal. 

4. 1. vuz ave la 3urnal. 2. vuz ave la grameir e la 3urnal. 3. vwala 
la grameir e la 3urnal. 4. done mwa la grameir, s il vu pie. 5. done 
mwa osi la 3urnal, s il vu pie. 6. la vwasi, madamwazel. 7. vwala la regl 
e la kre. 8. done mwa la regl, s il vu pie. 9. done mwa osi la kre. 
10. mersi. 11. u e la Jeiz, s il vu pie? 12. vwala la Jeiz. 

xxxii The Elements of French 

7. 1. done mwa la bwait, s il vu pie. 2. la bwait s syir la tabl. 3. 
u e la plym? 4. la plym e sy;r la tabl, e la bwait e syir la tabl, osi. 
5. le vwasi. 6. mete b port plym sy:r la tabl. 7. 39 lo me sy:r la tabl. 
8. k 8 s ka s e? 9. s e b 3urnal. 10. lo surnal e syir la tabl. 11. e s ko 
vuz ave le kanif ? 12. 30 lez e. le vwasi. 13. rogarde vu le foneitr? 14. 50 
le rogard. 15. e s ko vuz uvre le faneitr? 16. 30 lez u:vr. 17. es ko vu 
ferme la foneitr? 18. 30 le ferm. 

9. {Conversation). Za mzitr — lave vu . . . prane la plym. I eleiv. 
wi masj0. M. — mete la plym syir la tabl. E. — 3a la me syir la tabl. 
M. — u la mete vu? E. — 3a la me isi. M. — ragarde la Jeiz. E. — 3a la 
ragard. M. — u e la Jeiz? E. — la vwasi. M. — ferme la port . . . 
ka fet vu? E. — 3a ferm la port. M. — mersi. aseje vu. 

11. 1. bo3Uir, masj0. komat ale vu? 2. 3a ve bje, mersi, e v\^? 3. 3a 
ve bjen osi. 4. e s ka vuz etydje la laso? 5. wi, masj0, 3a 1 etydi. 6. e s 
ka vu koprane bje la laso? 7. wi, masj0, 3a la kopra bje metna. mersi. 
8. vuz avez yn Jeiz. el e 30111. la vwasi. 9. la tabl e 30111 osi. 10. 
vwala trwQ liivr syir la tabl. le vwala. 11. vwala oe liivra rui3. vwala 
ce liivra bl0. vwala 6e liivra 30111 osi. 12. vwala 6e 3urnal syir la tabl. 13. 
vwasi trwQ krejo e d0 plym syir la tabl. 14. le krejo so 30111. 15. la port 
plym e rui3. 16. e s ka vu truve le plym e le krejo? 17. wi, masj0, 3a le 

a Javal 

a pari, a pari, 

syir ce pati Javal gri. 

a rwa, a rwa, 

syir oe pati Javal bla. 

a kabre, a kabre, 
syir oe pati Javal be. 

a verdoe, a verdoe, 
syir oe patit Javal broe. 

o pa! o pa! o tro! o tro! 
o galo! o galo! 

LESSON 1 (PREMlfiRE LSgt)N) ' 


Study the Introduction, §§ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 22. 
Read over § 8. 


la boite (la bwait), the box la grammaire (la grameir), the gram- 
le canif (la kanif), the pen-kjiifet mar (book) ;grrammar (as a subject) 

la chaise (la Jeiz), the chair la lettre (la letr), the letter 

la craie (la krs), the chalk le livre (la liivr), the book 

Televe (1 eleiv), m., f., the pupil oti (u), where 

est (e), ist la salle (la sal), the room, large room 

et (e), and^ la table (la tabl), the table 
la fenetre (la faneitr), the window 

void (vwasi), here is, here are . 

voil^ (vwala), there is, there are . 

1. Void le livre, Here is the book, 

2. Voici la table, Here is the table, 

3. Voila la chaise et la table. There are the chair and (the) table, 

52. General Rule for Gender (Regie Generate des Genres). 
Nouns in French are either masculine or feminine. 

53. The Definite Article "the" (V Article Defini) is translated 
into French by 

le — before a masculine noun beginning with a consonant. 
la — before a feminine noun beginning with a consonant. 

* The French words in Lessons 1 and 2 contain no other vowels than Front 
Vowels, (a) and (u) excepted. The words in Lessons 3 and 4 will illustrate 
Back Vowels, with a few Front Vowels for review. In the early lessons the 
vocabularies are thus chosen with a view to presenting pronunciation and 
vocabulary together. 

t Note that final consonants in French are silent except c, r, /, I, the four 
consonants in the English word careful. 


2 The Elements of French 

1' ,:7— bef6ri5 fa masculine or a feminine noun beginning 
with ^ vowel or h mute.. 

'"'*"**'' 1.' le'livre (b liivr), ifw hook 

2. la table (la tabl), th£ table 

3. Peldve (1 eleiv), m., f., the_ p^ipil 

4. Phabit (1 abi), m., the (dress) coat 

I. Pronounce (Prononcez). lei (here)/i\ {he), fini {finished), 
lie {island), s'il {if he), Italie {Italy), ete {summer), ai {have), 
sait {knows), telegraphe {telegraph), fer {iron), perle {pearl), 
verbe {verb), chaise {chair), eleve {pupil), est (?'6"), plait {pleases), 
mais (6t^/), a (a/), madame {madam), ami {friend), animal (am- 
maZ), dollar {dollar), farce {farce), caramel {caramel), artiste 
(artist), persevere {persevered), merite {merit), sou {cent), 
sous {under), tout (aZZ), go tit {taste) leve {raised), venir 
(to come), 

II. Drill {Questionnaire). 1. Define a Front Vowel. 2. 
Give the sounds of the Front Vowels. 3. For which Front 
Vowel is the tongue pressed against the lower teeth? 4. For 
which Front Vowel is the tongue nearest the upper teeth? 
5. Is the mouth wider open for (e) than for (e)? 

III. *Read the French {Lisez le frangais) . 1. La salle. 2. 
La fenetre. 3. La chaise. 4. La table. 5. La table et la 
fenetre. 6. Le livre. 7. Le canif. 8. L^eleve. 9. La lettre. 
10. Od est la salle? 11. Ou est la fenetre? 12. 0^ est la. 
chaise? 13. Voici la chaise. 14. Oh est la table? 15. Voila 
la table. 16. Oil est le livre? 17. Voici le livre. 18. Ou est 
la craie? 19. Voil^ la craie. 20. Ou est le canif? 21. Voici le 
canif. 22. Ou est Televe? 23. Voila Televe. 24. Od est la 
lettre? 25. Voici la lettre. 26. Voila la grammaire et la 
lettre. 27. Voila la lettre et voici le livre. 28. Voici la boite 
et la craie. 29. Voila la chaise et voici la table. 

* In many classes it will be found advantageous to use the Reading Exer- 
cises for chorus work in pronunciation on the first day, the reading matter to 
be then assigned for home study. 

Lesson 2 3 

IV. Translate (Traduisez), 1. The window. 2. The table. 
3. The box. 4. The chalk. 5. The grammar. 6. The book. 
7. The pupil • and the book. 8. The chair and the table. 
9. The chalk and the box. 10. Where is the room? 11. 
Where is the pupil? 12. Where is the pen-knife? 13. 
Where is the letter? 




c'est (s g), it is la regie (la regl), the ruler 

est-ce? (e s), is it? le tableau (la tablo), the picture 

le maitre (la meitr), the teacher le tableau noir (la tablo nwair) the 

ne . . pas (na . , . pa), not blackboard 

ce n*est pas (sa n e pa), ii is not 

Ce n*est pas le maitre, It is not the teacher. 

I. Reading Exercise (Exercice de Lecture). Read again Sec- 
tion III of the preceding lesson. 

II. Oral Exercise {Exercice Oral). Let the student point to 
the objects named, using Voici for the objects nearer, and 
Voila for the objects farther from him: 1. L'eleve. 2. L'habit. 
3. La chaise. 4. La table. 5. Le livre. 6. La fenetre. 7: 
L'^leve et le livre. 8. Le livre et le canif. 9. La regie et la 
botte. 10. La chaise et la table. 11. Le livre et la lettre. 12. 
L^^leve et le canif. 13. La craie et la boite. 14. La gram- 
maire et la lettre. 15. Le tableau noir et le tableau. 16. Le 
maitre et la regie. 

Let the student answer the following questions, using C'est, 
or Ce n*est pas : 1. Est-ce la craie? 2. Est-ce la botte? 3. Est- 
ce la regie? 4. Est-ce la table? 5. Est-ce le livre? 6. Est-ce la 
grammaire? 7. Est-ce Televe? 8. Est-ce le maitre? 9. Est-ce 
la chaise? 10. Est-ce la fenetre? 11. Est-ce le tableau? 12. 
Est-ce le tableau noir? 13. Est-ce la salle? 14. Est-ce le canif? 

4 The Elements of French 

III. Translate (Traduisez), 1. Here is the room. 2. Here 
is the chair. 3. There is the table. 4. Here is the book. 5. 
There are the pupil and the book. 6. There is the window. 
7. There are the window and the table. 8. Here are the chair 
and the table. 9. There are the book and the table. 10. Here 
are the box and the chalk. 11. There are the ruler and the 


Study the Introduction, §§ 16, 17, 18, 19. 


aussi (osi), also ouvrez (uvre), open 

vous avez (vuz ave), you have j*ouvre (3 u:vr), / open 

donnez-moi (done mwa), give me la porte (la port), the door 

Pecole (1 ekol), f., the school regardez (rogarde), look (at) 

fermez (ferme), close je regarde (30 rogard), / look (at) 

je fenne (30 ferm), / close sous (su), under 
le journal (lo 3urnal), the newspaper 

The words in Lessons 3 and 4 illustrate Back Vowels, with a few 
Front Vowels for review. 

54. A Few Pronouns (Quelques Pronoms). When used as a 

le (lo) means hirriy it 
la (la) means Tier, it 
V (1) means him, her, it (before a vowel or h mute) 

55. Position of Pronouns {Position des Pronoms), A pronoun, 
when used as the object of a verb, regularly precedes it. 

1. Regardez le tableau, Look at the picture, 

2. Je le regarde, / look at iL 

Je ne le regarde pas, / do not look at it. 

3. Fermez la porte, Close the door. 

Lesson 3 5 

4. Je la f erme, / close U. 

Je ne la f erme pas, / do not close iL 

5. Ouvrez la porte, Open the door. 

6. Je Pouvre, / open iL 

Je ne Pouvre pas, / do not open iL 

7. Avez-vous le journal? Have you the newspaper? 

8. Vous Pavez, You have iL 

Vous ne Pavez pas, You do not have iL 

Note. Voici = vols, see + ici, here 
Voila = vols, see + \k^ there 
Le, la, P will therefore precede voici and voil^, which are con- 
sidered declarative verbs. 

1. Oft est le livre? Where is the hook? 

Le voici. Here U is (literally, See it here). 

2. Oft est la chaise? Where is the chair? 

La voil^. There it^is (literally, See it there). 

I. Read the French (Lisez le frangais). 1. OH est Tecole? 
2. Ou est la salle? 3. Oijl est la porte? 4. Voici la porte. La 
voici. 5. OH est Televe? 6. Le voila. 7. Oil est le livre? 
8. Le voici. 9. Oil est la table? 10. La voici, aussi. IL OH 
est la chaise? 12. La voila. 13. Vous avez la craie. 14. La 
voici. 15. Vous avez la grammaire. 16. La voil^. 17. Vous 
avez le journal. 18. Le voici. 19. Vous avez la grammaire 
et le journal. 20. Voil^ la grammaire et le journal. 

II. Pronounce (Prononcez). Pas (step), classe (class), roi 
(king), comme (as), donnez (give), ^cole (school), porte (door), 
aussi (also), tableau (picture), beau (beautiful), nos (our), sous 
(under), tout (all), oH (where), tour (turn), nous (we), pour 
(for), est (is), plait (pleases), fer (iron), ai (have), s41 (if he), 
mais (but), artiste (artist), animal (animal), ici (here). 

III. Drill (Questionnaire). 1. Define a Back Vowel. 2. 
How does a Back Vowel differ from a Front Vowel? 3, Give 
the sounds of the Back Vowels. 4. For which Back Vowel is 
the mouth widest open? 5. How does (o) differ from o in 
softly? 6. How does (u) differ from oo in boot? 7. Is the 
mouth wider open for (u) or for (y)? 


The Elements of French 

IV. Translate (Traduisez). 1. Is it the teacher? 2. It is 
not the teacher. 3. It is the pupil. 4. Close the door. 5. I 
close it. 6. Open the window. 7. I open it. 8. Open the 
book. 9. I open it. 10. Look at the book. 11. I look at it. 
12. Is it the grammar? 13. It is the grammar. 14. Read 
(lisez) the grammar. 15. Look at the blackboard. 16. I look 
at it. 17. Here is the chalk. 18. Here it is. 19. Write 



madame (madam), f., madam;. qu*est-ce que c'est? (kr. skase), 

(abbreviation Mme) what is it? 

mademoiselle (madamwazel), miss; s*il vous plait (s il vu pie), (if you) 

(abbreviation Mile) please 

merci (msrsi), thank you Donnez-moi le canif, s*il vous plait, 

que? (ka), what? Give me the 'pen-knife^ (if you) 


56. Questions (Questions). One of the ways to ask a ques- 
tion in French is to invert the order of the subject pronoun 
and the verb: 

1. Vous avez le livre. You have the hook. 

2. Avez-vous le livre? Have you the hook? 


1. Regardez-vous le journal? 

Do you look at the newspaper? 
or, Are you looking at the 

2. Ouvrez-vous le livre? 

Do you open {are you opening) 
' the hook? 

3. Fermez-vous le livre? Do you 

close {are you closing) the 


1. Je le regarde, / look at {am 

looking at) it. Or 
Je ne le regarde pas, / do not 
look at {am not looking at) it. 

2. Je I'ouvre, / open {am opening) 

it. Or 
Je ne Pouvre pas, / do not open 
{am not opening) it. 

3. Je le f erme, / close {am closing) 

it. Or 
Je ne le ferme pas, / do not 
close {am not closing) it. 

Lesson 4 7 

Another way of asking questions in French is to use Est-ce 
que (e s ka), literally, Is it that?. After Est-ce que the order 
of the subject and the verb is not inverted. 

1. Le maitre a une chaise, The teacher has a chair. 

2. Est-ce que le maitre a une chaise? Has the teacher a chair? 

3. Vous avez le livre, You have the book. 

4. Est-ce que vous avez le livre? Have you the book? 

Questions Reponses 

1. Est-ce que vous regardez la 1. Je la regarde, / look at (am 

porte? Do you look at (are looking at) it. 

you looking at) the door? 

2. Est-ce que vous f ermez la porte? 2. Je la ferme, or Je ne la ferme 


3. Est-ce que vous ouvrez la porte? 3. Je Touvre, or Je ne I'ouvre pas. 

4. Est-ce que vous ouvrez la 4. Je Pouvre, or Je ne Pouvre pas. 


5. Est-ce que vous fermez la 5* Je la ferme, or Je ne la ferme 

fenetre? pas. 

6. Est-ce que vous regardez le 6. Je le regarde, or Je ne le re- 

tableau? garde pas. 

7. Est-ce que vous regardez le 7. Je le regarde, or Je ne le re- 

journal? garde pas. 

Note the following expression: 

Qu'est-ce que c'est? (k e s ka s e) What is it? 

, 1. Qu'est-ce que c'est? What is it? 
2. Cest la plume, It is the pen. 

Le premier eleve demande : Qu'est-ce que c*est? (The first pupil asks ^ 
^'^What is it?'') et il montre les differents objets (and he points to the 
different objects) : la fenetre, la porte, la salle, etc. 

Le deuxieme 61^ve repond: (The second pupil answers) : 

1. C*est Tecole. 5. C*est la chaise. 9. C*est le canif. 

2. C'est la porte. 6. C'est la table. 10. C'est la regie. 

3. C'est la salle. 7. C'est la boite. 11. C'est le tableau. 

4. C*est la fenetre. S. C'est la craie. 12. C*est le tableau noir. 

8 The Elements of French 

I. Reading Exercise (Exercice de Lecture). 1. Vous avez le 
journal. 2. Vous avez la grammaire et le journal. 3. Voil^ la 
grammaire et le journal. 4. Donnez-moi la grammaire, s41 
vous plait. 5. Donnez-moi aussi le journal, s^il vous plait. 

6. Le voici, mademoiselle. 7. Voil^ la regie et la craie. 8. Don- 
nez-moi la regie, s41 vous plait. 9. Donnez-moi aussi la craie. 
10. Merci. 11. Oil est la chaise, s'il vous plait? 12. Yoilk 
la chaise. 

II. Translate (Traduisez), 1. What is it? It is the news- 
paper. 2. Are you looking at the newspaper? 3. I am 
looking at it. 4. Is John looking at the newspaper, also? 5. 
He is looking at it, also. 6. Give me the newspaper, please. 

7. Where is the pen-knife, please? 8. Are you opening the 
pen-knife? 9. Yes, I am opening it. 10. Give me the pen- 
knife, please. 11. There it is. 

QUESTIONS — Continued 

I. Oral Exercise (Exercice Oral). Let the student reply to 
the following, using le or la voici: 1. Oil est la grammaire? 2. 
0^ est le livre? 3. Oijl est le journal? 4. OH est Thieve (m.)? 
5. Oil est Televe (f.)? 6. Od est le mattre? 7. OH est la table? 
8. Oil est la craie? 9. OH est le canif? 10. Ou est la porte? 
11. Ou est le tableau? 12. Ou est Tecole? 13. Donnez-moi le 
journal, s^il vous plait. 14. Donnez-moi le livre, s'il vous plait. 
15. Ou est la chaise, s^il vous plait? 16. Donnez-moi la 
lettre, s'il vous plait. 17. Donnez-moi la boite, s'il vous plait. 

Let the student reply Je le (la) regarde, or Je ne le (la) 
regarde pas, in answer to the following questions: 

1. Est-ce que vous regardez la porte? 2. Est-ce que vous 
regardez la salle? 3. Est-ce que vous regardez la fenetre? 4. 
Est-ce que vous regardez la chaise? 5. Est-ce que vous re- 
gardez la table? 6. Est-ce que vous regardez le livre? 7. Est-ce 

Lesson 5 9 

que vous regardez la grammaire? 8. Est-ce que vous regardez 
le canif? 9. Est-ce que vous regardez la craie? 10. Est-ce 
que vous regardez la boite? 11. Regardez-vous le journal? 
12. Regardez-vous Televe? 13. Regardez-vous le maitre? 
14. Regardez-vous la porte? 15. Regardez-vous le tableau? 
16. Regardez-vous le tableau noir? 17. Regardez-vous la 

Use the following verb forms in similar sentences: donnez, 
fermez, ouvrez. 

In answer to the question Que f ermez-vous? let the student 
reply, Je ferme le livre, la porte, la fenetre. 

In answer to the question Que regardez-vous? let the student 
reply, Je regarde la porte, la salle, la table, le tableau, le 
journal, le livre, etc. 

II. Translate (Traduisez), 1. Have you the book and the 
newspaper? (Two ways). 2. Give me also the pen-knife, if 
you please. 3. Where is the ruler? Here it is. 4. Where 
is the chalk? 5. There it is, Miss B., and there is the box, 
also. 6. Where is the chair, if you please? 7. Here it is, 
and there is the table, also. 8. What is it? 9. It is the 
window. 10. Are you looking at it? 11. I am looking at it. 
12. Are you opening it? 13. I am closing it. Miss B. 14. 
Close the door, also, if you please. 15. Thank you. 

Suggestion. Teachers desiring more material than is provided in the 
early lessons may find the following scheme helpful: 

Est-ce que vous regardez . . . ? Regardez-vous la porte? 

Regardez-vous . . . ? La regardez-vous? 

Que regardez-vous . . . ? Qui regarde la porte? 

Que fermez-vous? Est-ce que Jean regarde la porte? 

Qu*est-ce que vous regardez? Et Marie? Et Philippe? Est-ce 

Qu'est-ce que vous fermez? qu'il regarde la porte? 

Regardez la porte. Est-ce qu'elle regarde la porte? etc. 

1. Use these questions with all nouns in preceding lessons. 

2. Substitute pronoun objects as often as a noun is used. 

3. Use negative as well as affirmative. 

4. Use in similar questions every verb found in the preceding lessons, 
with as many nouns as it can apply to. 

10 The Elements of French 


REVIEW (REVISION) JT^ l/ £<--£. . 

I. Pronounce (Prononcez). He (island) y Italie (Italy) ^ ete 
(summer) y perle (pearl) ^ dollar (dollar) y artiste (artist) y comme 
(as)y porte (door)y tout (all)y eleve (pupil) y mais (6u0, salt 
(knows) y ai (have), chaise (chair), ami (friend), plait (pleases), 
ecole (school), pas (step), roi (king), sous (under), tour (turn), 
est (zs), tableau (picture), 

II. Supply the proper forms of the definite article (Varticle 

defini) with the following words: table; tableau; 

journal; maitre; porte; chaise; canif ; 

lettre; livre; boite; salle. 

III. Oral Exercise (Exercice Oral), 

(a) In reply to the question Qu'est-ce que c'est? let the 
student reply C'est la table, la salle, la porte, la fenetre, la 
chaise, le journal, le livre, la grammaire, Pecole, la lettre, le 
tableau, etc. 

(6) In reply to the question Que regardez-vous? let the 
student reply Je regarde la table, la salle, la porte, la fenetre, 
etc., as in (a). 

(c) Let the student reply Le (la) void, in reply to the ques- 
tions Ou est la table? Ou est la salle? Ofi est la porte? etc. 

(d) Let him reply Le (la) voila, in reply to the same 

(e) 1. Est-ce que vous fermez la porte? 2. Est-ce que vous 
ouvrez la porte? 3. Est-ce que vous ouvrez la fenetre? 4. Est- 
ce que vous fermez la fenetre? 5. Que fermez-vous? 6. Est-ce 
que vous regardez le tableau? 

IV. Translate (Traduisez). 1. Here are the pen-knife and 
the grammar, also. 2. Give me the box, if you please. Thank 
you. 3. Where is the pupil? Here she is. 4. Have you the 
letter? (Two ways). There it is. 5. Give me the book and 
the chalk, also, if you please. 6. What is it? It is the table. 

Lesson 7 11 

7. What are you looking at? I am looking at the picture. 8. 
What are you closing? I am closing the door. 9. Are you 
opening the window? I am not opening it. 10. Are you 
looking at the newspaper? (Two ways). 11. Are you looking 
at the door? I am not looking at it. 

Study the Introduction, §§ 21, 22, 23. 

j*ai (3 e), / have la plvime (la plym), the pen 

ici (isi), here le porte-plume (la port plym), the 

mettez (mete), put pen-holder 

je mets (3a me), / put sur (syir), on^ upon 

57. The Plural (le Pluriel). 

(a) Nouns regularly form their plurals by adding s to the 

(6) The plural of the definite article is les (le) or (le). 

(c) The plural of the pronoun forms le, la, V is likewise les 
(le) or (le). 

Singular (Singulier) Plural (Pluriel) 

le livre (la 11: vr), the book les livres* (le liivr), the hooks 

la plume (la plym), the pen les plumes* (le plym), the pens 

Velewe (1 elezv), m., or f., the pupil les eleves* (lez elsiv), the pupils 

Exercise (Exercice), Supply articles, singular and plural, 

for the following nouns: maitre; porte; ^cole; 

lettre; fenetre; chaise; canif ; botte; 


Let the student point to the objects in the room, using 
Le (la) voici, or voila, and Les void, or voila. 

* Usually the plural of a noun is pronounced like the singular. The plural 
of the article, however, is not pronounced like the singular. 

12 The Elements of French 

58. Repetition of the Article {Repetition de V Article), 
The article is regularly repeated before each noun in French. 

1. Le livre et la plume, The hook and (the ) pen, 

2. Les chaises et les tables, The chairs and (the) tables. 

Exercise (Exercice), Supply proper forms of the article with 

the following words: eleves et — — - plumes; tableau 

et fenetres; chaise et ■ ^ table; eleve et 

livre; — — grammaire et journal; plume et 


I. Read the French {Lisez le frangais), 1. Donnez-moi la 
boite, s'il vous plait. 2. La boite est sur la table. 3. Ou est 
la plume? 4. La plume est sur la table, et la boite est sur la 
table, aussi. 5. Les voici. 6. Mettez le porte-plume sur la 
table. 7. Je le mets sur la table. 8. Qu^est-ce que c'est? 
9. C^est le journal. 10. Le journal est sur la table. 11. Est-ce 
que vous avez les canifs? 12. Je les ai. Les voici. 13. Re- 
gardez-vous les fenetres? 14. Je les regarde. 15. Est-ce que 
vous ouvrez les fenetres? 16. Je les ouvre. 17. Est-ce que 
vous fermez les fenetres? 18. Je les ferme. 

II. Pronounce (Prononcez), I (^), u (u)y si (^/), su (known), 
sire (sire), stir {sure)j dit (says), du (o/ the)j dire (say), dur 
(hard) J pire (worse), pur (pure), vous (you), vu (seen), tout 
(all), tM (you), sous (under), sur (on), classe (class), roi 
(king), pour (for), comme (as), perle (pearl), ai (have), il (he), 
mais (hut), 

III. Drill (Questionnaire), 1. Define a Rounded Front 
Vowel, and explain how it differs from other Front Vowels. 
2. How is (y) produced? 3. Is the tongue more raised for (y) 
than for (i)? 4. Is the mouth wider open for (y) than for (i)? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. The doors and windows. 2. The table 
and chair. 3. The pupils and teachers. 4. The pen-holder 
and pen. 5. Put the boxes on the table, if you please. 6. 
I put them on the table. 7. Put the ruler on the table. 

Lesson 8 13 

8. I put it, also, on the table. 9. Have you the pens? 
10. I have them; and here is the pen-holder, also. 11. Are 
you looking at the window? 12. I am not looking at it. 


Study the Introduction, §§ 24, 25. 


monsieur (m8sj0), m.,* ikfts^er, sir t professeur (profesoeir), m., pro' 

oui (wi), yes fessor, teacher 

papier (papje), m., paper il est (il e), he (it) is 

Philippe (filip), Philip elle est (el e), she {it) is 

I. Reading Exercise {Exercice de Lecture). Read again 
Section I of the preceding lesson. 

II. Let the student reply to th^ following questions, using 
Oui, monsieur (madame), je Pai . . . , or Oui, monsieur 
(madame), je les ai . . . : 

1. Avez-vous la boite? 2. Est-ce que vous avez les livres? 
3. Est-ce que vous avez les canifs? 4. Est-ce que vous avez 
les plumes? 5. Est-ce que vous avez la lettre? 6. Est-ce que 
vous avez la grammaire? 7. Avez-vous la table et la chaise? 
8. Est-ce que vous avez le journal et le livre? 9. Avez-vous 
la boite et la craie? 

Let the student reply to the following: 1. Ou est Philippe? 
2. Ou est le professeur? 3. OH est le journal? 4. Ou est le 

III. In reply to the question Qu'est-ce que c'est? (k e s 
ka s e), let the student answer 1. C'est la plume; 2. c'est 
la table; 3. c'est le canif; 4. c'est la chaise; 5. c'est la 
fenetre; 6. c'est le papier; 7. c'est le tableau; 8. c'est la 
lettre; 9. c'est la boite ; 10. c'est la porte ; 11. c'est I'ecole ; 
12. c'est la salle, etc. 

*The abbreviation m. = masculine; f. = feminine. 

t Practice Ouirn* sieu* (wim sj0), then Oui, monsieur (wi, m8SJ0). 

14 The Elements of French 

IV. Pronounce (Prononcez)^ De (thimhle), deux itwo)^ sais 
{know) J ceux (those) j pe (p), peut (can), monsieur (sir), soeur 
(sister), leur (their), heureux (happy), vie (^i/e), ici (here), fini 
(finished), livre (hook), papier (paper), 6te (been), bete (beast), 
plait (pleases), mais (bt^O> ^leve (pupil), quoi (what), moi (me), 
valse (waltz), note (note), Foch (Foch), porte (door), tout (aW), 
tu (you), ou (where), u (t*), si (2/), su (known). 

V. Traduisez. 1. Have you the paper? (Two ways). 2. 
Have you the pen? (Two ways). 3. Here they are. 4. 
Have you the books? (Two ways). 5. Yes, sir, I have them. 
6. What is it? It is the ruler, sir. 7. What is it? It is the 
picture, sir. 8. Have you the chairs and tables, madam? 
(Two ways). 9. Have you the paper and pen, Miss Martin? 
(Two ways). 10. Have you the newspaper, sir? (Two ways). 




asseyez-vous (assje vu), he seated que faites-vous? (ka fet vu), what 

bleu (bl0), blue are you doing {do you do)? 

couleur (kuloeir), f., color levez-vous (love vu), rise 

gris (gri), gray prenez (prane), take 

jaune (30:11), yellow de quelle couleur est? (da kel 

rouge (ru:3), red kuloeir e), {of what color is) what 

is the color of? 

I. Oral Exercise (Exercice Oral), Practice the following : 

1. De quelle couleur est le porte-plume? II est rouge. 

2. De quelle couleur est le papier? II est gris. 

3. De quelle couleur est le journal? II est gris, aussi. 

4. De quelle couleur est la grammaire? EUe est rouge. 

5. De quelle couleur est le livre? II est bleu. 

6. De quelle couleur est la table? EUe est jaune. 

7. De quelle couleur est le canif? II est gris. 

8. De quelle couleur est la chaise? EUe est jaune. 

Lesson 10 ' 15 

II. Conversation (Conversation) . 

Le Maitre*. — Levez-vous . . . Prenez la plume. 

L'fileve. — Oui, monsieur. 

M. — ^Mettez la plume sur la table. 

E. — Je la mets sur la table. 

M. — Oil la mettez-vous? 

E. — Je la mets ici. 

M. — Regardez la chaise. 

E. — Je la regarde. 

M. — O^ est la chaise? 

E. — La voici. 

M. — Fermez la porte . . . Que faites-vous? 

E. — Je f erme la porte. 

M. — Merci. Asseyez-vous. 

III. Traduisez. 1. Have you the pen? 2. Yes, sir, I have 
it. 3. Here it is, sir. 4. What is the color of the pen-holder? 
5. It is yellow. 6. Give me the pen, if you please. 7. There 
it is, sir, and there is the book, also. 8. What is the color 
of the book? 9. It is blue. 10. Have you the chalk? Yes, 
sir, I have it. 11. Give me the chalk and the box, please. 
12. Where is the chair, please? 13. There it is, sir. 14. Are 
you looking at the books and the newspaper? 15. I am 
looking at them. 




Study the Introduction, §§ 24, 25, 26, 27. 28, 29, 30, 31. 

59. The Indefinite Article (V Article Indefini), "a," "an,'' is 
translated into French by 

iin (oe) before a masculine noun 
une t (yn) before a feminine noun 

* Dashes (— ) are used to denote change of speaker. 

t Observe that the nasal sound is regularly lost when a vowel follows n 
or m. 

16 TKe Elements of French 

1. un crayon (6e krejo), a 'pencil 

2, une plume (yn plym), a^'pen 

Exercise (Exercice). Let the student put the proper forms of 
the definite and of the indefinite article before the following 

words: 1. crayon; 2. ecole; 3. papier; 4. 

journal; 5. plume; 6. porte; 7. tableau; 

8. table; 9. monsieur; 10. professeur; 11. 

maitre; 12. eleve (m); 13. ^leve (f.). 

Let the student use the following nouns in the plural, plac- 
ing a plural adjective of color after each noun, viz: crayons 
bleu5, tables jaunes, etc.; chaise; boite; plume; canif. 

Let the student put the proper form of the indefinite article 
before the first eight nouns in the above list, and an appro- 
priate adjective of color after the nouns, viz: un crayon bleu, 

60. A Few Cardinal Numerals {Quelques Nombres Cardi- 
naux) . 

un (oe), une (yn) one trois (trwa), three 

deux (d0), two quatre (katr) /oi/r 

I. Pronoimce (Prononcez). Mais (but), main (hand), c^est 
(it is), sain (clean), fait (does), fin (end), fini (finished), bien 
(well), vient (comes), ah (ah), an (year), ann^e (year), pas 
(step), pan (flap), dans (in), entente (agreement), ample 
(ample), ami (friend), bon (good), bonne (good), bont6 (good- 
ness), don (gift), donne (gives), onze (eleven), est (is), un 
(one), uni (united), humble (humble), heureux (happy), soeur 
(sister), ceux (those), dit (says), du (of the), de (thimble), deux 
(two), si (if), su (known), pe (p), pent (can), roi (king), 
donnez (give), ecole (school). 

II. Drill (Questionnaire), 1. What is a Nasal Vowel, and 
how does it differ from other vowels? 2. What is the position 
of the tongue for Nasal Vowels? 3. Nasalize (e), (a), (o), (ce). 
4. What consonant letters usually indicate that a vowel is 
nasalized? 5. What happens if these consonant letters are 
followed by a vowel? 

Lesson 11 17 

III. Traduisez. 1. A chair and (a) table. 2. A pencil 
and (a) pen. 3. A teacher and (a) pupil. 4. A door and 
four windows. 5. A blackboard and a picture. 6. Give me 
a red pencil, please. 7. Give me a yellow pen-holder, please. 
8. There is a gray book. 9. Here is a blue book. 



allez-vous? (ale vu), do you go? je comprends (39 kopra), / under- 

{are you going?) stand 

bien (bje), well etudiez (etydje), study 

bonjour (bSsuir), good morning, j*etudie (3etydi), /siwdi/ 

good day la lecon (la las5), the lesson 

comment (koma), how maintenant (metna), now 

comment allez-vous? (komat ale non (no), no 

vu), how do you do? sont (so), are 

vous comprenez (vu koprone), you vous trouvez (vu truve), you find 

understand; comprehend je trouve (3a truiv), I find 

comprenez-vous? (koprone vu), do je vais (38ve), /gfo;/am (of health) 

you understand? 

I. "Resid the French {Lisezlefrangais), 1. Bonjour, monsieur. 
Comment allez-vous? 2. Je vais bien, merci; et vous? 3. Je 
vais bien, aussi. 4. Est-ce que vous etudiez la legon? 5. Oui, 
monsieur, je Fetudie. 6. Est-ce que vous comprenez bien la 
legon? 7. Oui, monsieur, je la comprends bien maintenant. 
Merci. 8. Vous avez une chaise. Elle est jaune. La voici. 
9. La table est jaune, aussi. 10. Voila trois livres sur la table. 
Les voila. 11. Voila un livre rouge. Voila un livre bleu. 
Voila un livre jaune, aussi. 12. Voila un journal sur la 
table. 13. Voici trois crayons et deux plumes sur la table. 
14. Les crayons sont jaunes.* 15. Le porte-plume est rouge. 
16. Est-ce que vous trouvez les plumes et les crayons? 17. 
Oui, monsieur, je les trouve. 

♦Observe that when the noun is plural, the adjective is plural also. 

18 The Elements of French 

II. Traduisez. 1. Good morning, madam. Are you {allcz- 
vous) well? 2. Thank you, I am well, sir; and how are you? 
3. I am well, also, madam. 4. What are you doing, madam? 
5. I am looking at a picture. 6. And what are you doing, 
sir? 7. I am writing (fecris) a letter. 8. Have you a pen? 
9. No, madam, I find a pencil, but I do not find the pens. 

III. Prontmciation Exercise (to be memorized by the stu- 

A Paris, k Paris, 
Sur un petit cheval gris. 

A Rouen, k Rouen, 

Sur un petit cheval blanc* 

A Cambrai, k Cambrai, 
Sur un petit cheval bai. 

A Verdun, k Verdun, 
Sur un petit cheval brun. 

Au pas! Au pas! Au trot! Au trot! f 
Au galop! Au galop! 


COLORS — Continued 
blanc (bla), white noir (nwair), black 

comptez (kSte), count nommez (nome), name 

je compte (3a koit), / count objet (obse), m., object 

montrez-moi (motre mwa), show me veston (vesto), m., coat; sack coat 
je montre (39 moitr), / show 

I. Reading Exercise {Exercice de Lecture). Read again 
the French paragraph of the preceding lesson. 

* c is regularly silent after n. Therefore blan(c) (bid) rhymes with 
Rouen (rwa). 

t Final consonants being regularly silent, tro(t) rhymes with galo(p). 

Note. An unaccented o before a silent consonant is sounded (o) . Example : 
trop (tro). 

Lesson 12 


IL Apprenez {Learn): 


1. De quelle couleur est le livre? 

2. De quelle couleur est le crayon? 

3. De quelle couleur est la gram- 


4. De quelle couleur est Pecole? 

5. De quelle couleur est la table? 

6. De quelle couleur est le papier? 

7. De quelle couleur est le canif? 

8. De quelle couleur est le veston? 

9. De quelle couleur est la boite? 


1. C'est un livre blanc, or 

II est blanc. 

2. C*est un crayon noir, or 

U est noir. 

3. C*est une grammaire rouge, or 

Elle est rouge. 

4. C*est une ecole rouge, or 

Elle est rouge. 

5. C*est une table jaune, or 

Elle est jaune. 

6. C'est un papier gris, or 

II est gris. 

7. C*est un canif blanc, or 

II est blanc. 

8. C*est un veston bleu, or 

II est bleu. 

9. C'est une boite jaune, or 

Elle est jaune. 

10. De quelle couleur est la chaise? 10. C*est une chaise jaune, or 

Elle est jaune. 

11. De quelle couleur est le port e- 11. C*est un porte-plume noir, or 

plume? II est noir. 

III. Let the student reply to the following questions in 
French : 

1. Bonjour. AUez-vous bien maintenant? 2* Etudiez-vous 
la legon? 3. Est-ce que vous comprenez bien la legon? 4. 
Est-ce que vous avez une chaise? 5. De quelle couleur est la 
chaise? 6. Oil est la chaise? 7. De quelle couleur est la table? 
8. Comptez les livres sur la table. 9. De quelles couleurs sont 
les livres? 10. Ou est le journal? 11. Comptez les plumes et 
les crayons. 12. Trouvez-vous les plumes et les crayons? 13. 
De quelles couleurs sont les plumes? 14. De quelles couleurs 
sont les crayons? 

20 The Elements of French 

IV. Conversation. 

Le Maitre — Levez-vous.* 

L'Eleve — Bien, monsieur. 

M. — Montrez-moi une porte. 

E. — Voila une porte, monsieur. 

M. — Que faites-vous? 

E. — Je montre une porte. 

M. — Fermez la porte, s41 vous plait. 

E. — Je la ferme. 

M. — Maintenant, ouvrez la porte. 

E. — Je Pouvre. 

M. — Nommez les objets sur la table. 

E. — Les objets sur la table sont , 

M. — Comptez les objets. 

E. — Je les compte : un, deux, trois, quatre. 

M. — Asseyez-vous, s'il vous plait. 

E. — Bien, monsieur, je le fais (/ do so). 

V. Traduisez. 1. You have one table and two chairs. 
2. The table is yellow. 3. The chairs are yellow (jaunes), 
also. 4. Count the books on the table. 5. You have two 
books on the table. 6. Three books are blue (bleus), 7. 
One book is red. 8. You have a newspaper on the chair. 

9. Give me the books, and give me the newspaper, also. 

10. Count the yellowt (jaunes) pens, if you please. 11. I 
have three yellow pens. 12. I have four black (noirs) pen- 
cils, also. 13. Give me three pens and two pencils, if you 



I. Prononcez. Si (if), su (known) j dit (says), du (of the), 
soeur (sister), leur (their), heureux (happy), fin (end), bon (good), 
bonne (good), an (year), annee (year), vient (comes), bien (well), . 
fait (does), main (hand), entente (agreement), deux (two), 
pent (can). 

* Dashes are used here to denote change of speaker. 
t The adjective of color follows the noun. 

Lesson IS 21 

II. Supply the proper forms of the indefinite article with 

the following words: monsieur; plume; papier; 

crayon; legon; habit; boite; gram- 

maire; livre; ^porte; porte-plume; veston; 


III. Let the student reply to the following questions: 1. De 

quelle couleur est la grammaire? 2. le papier? 3. 

le crayon? 4. Thabit? 5. la boite? 6. — —la 

grammaire? 7. le livre? 8. la porte? 9. le porte- 

IV. 1. Comptez les portes. 2. Comptez les fenetres. 3. 
Comptez les crayons bleus. 4. Comptez les canifs blancs. 
5. Comptez les plumes jaunes. 

V. Exercice Oral. 1. Avez-vous la boite? 2. Ou est-elle? 
3. Est-elle sous la table? 4. Est-elle sur la chaise? 5. La 
trouvez-vous maintenant? 6. Avez-vous trois livres? 7. Avez- 
vous deux livres? 8. De quelle couleur est le livre? 9. Trouvez- 
vous une plume? 10. Ou la trouvez-vous? 11. De quelle 
couleur est-elle? 12. Trouvez-vous une lettre? 13. Regardez- 
vous la lettre? 14. Ouvrez-vous la lettre? 15. Donnez-moi le 
journal, s^il vous plait. 16. Donnez-moi le livre, s'il vous 
plait. 17. Oil sont le journal et le livre? 18. Les trouvez- 
vous maintenant? 

VI. Traduisez. 1. Give me the books, if you please. 
There they are. Thank you. 2. Where is the pupil? Here 
she is. 3. You have a picture. Here it is. 4. What is the color 
of the pen-holder? It is yellow. 5. Show me a pen, if you 
please. 6. There it is, sir, and there is a pencil, also. 7. Do 
you find the tables and (the) chairs? 8. Yes, sir, I find them. 
9. There they are in the room. 10. Here is a black pen- 
holder. 11. There is a red pen-holder, also. 12. Are you 
looking at the doors and (the) windows. 13. Yes, sir, I am 
looking at them. 14. There are two doors and three windows. 

22 The Elements of French 

Review the Introduction, §§ 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. 


enfant (afa), m., f., child Marie (mari), f., Mary 

homme (om), m., man nez (ne), m., nose 

Jacques (3a:k), m., James oeil (oe:j), m., eye 

Jean (3a), m., John les yeux (lez j0), the eyes 

Jeanne* (sam), f., Jane, Joan oreille (oreij), f., ear 

61. Present Indicative of avoir (le Present de VIndicatiJ 
du Verbe avoir). 

Affirmative (Affirmatif) 
j*ai (3 e), / have nous avons (nuz avo), we have 

tu as (ty a), you havef vous avez (vuz ave), you havel^ 

il a (11 a), he {it)- has ils ont (ilz 5), they (m.) have 

elle a (el a), she (it) Aos elles ont (kIz 5), they (f.) have 

Negative (NSgatif) 
je n*ai pas (39 n e pa), / have not nous n'avons pas (nu n av5 pa), we 

tu n*as pas (ty n a pa), you have have not 

no^t vous n'avez pas (vu n ave pa) ^ you 

il n'a pas (il n a pa), he (it) has not have not^ 

elle n*a pas (el n a pa), she (it) has ils n'ont pas (il n 5 pa), they (m.) 
not have not 

elles n'ont pas (el n5 pa), they (f.) 
have not 

Observe. In the exercises the student should use vous, unless tu is 
clearly called for. 

1. Vous avez le journal, n*est-ce pas, M. Lemaitre? You have the 
newspaper, have you not, Mr, Lemaitre? 

2. Jean, tu fermes la porte, n*est-ce pas? John, you are closing the 
door, are you not? 

* Note that a nasal sound is regularly lost, when n or m is doubled, or is 
followed by a vowel. 

t Vous, meaning "you," is used in polite address in French, and as the plural 
of tu. The use of tu corresponds to calling a person by his first name in English. 
Tu is especially employed among relatives, and among students and soldiers. 
It expresses either familiarity or contempt. 

Lesson I4 ^ 23 

Questions. (Answers in French to be prepared by the 
student) . 

1. M. le professeur, avez-foi/s le 6. Jeanne, est-ce que tu regardes 

livre? la lettre? 

2. Madame,trouvez-i;oi/s les cray- 7. Mme Leblanc, est-ce que vous 

ons? comptez les chaises? 

3. M. Mercier, est-ce que vous 8. Qu*est-ce que vous faites 1^,M. 

regardez la lettre? Mercier? 

4. Marie, as- ^u le livre? 9. Jacques,comptes-/i/ les chaises? 

5. Philippe, trouves-fu les cray- 10. Qu* est-ce que tu fais li, 

ons? Jacques? 

62. Apprenez. 

cinq (seik), five huit (qit), eight 

six (sis), six neuf (noef), nine 

sept (set), seven dix (dis), ten 

63. The final consonants of all these numerals are silent 
before a noun not beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

1. cinq livres (se liivr), five hooks 

2. cinq enfsLnts (sGik aia), five children 

3. cinq hommes (se:k om), five men 

I. Conjugate (Conjuguez). 1. J'ai les yeux gris, tu as les 
yeux gris, etc.; 2. j'ai la lettre, tu as la lettre, etc.; 3. j'ai un 
canif blanc, tu as un canif blanc, etc.; 4. j^ai deux oreilles, 
tu as deux oreilles, etc.; 5. je n'ai pas le journal, tu n'as 
pas le journal, etc.; 6. je n^ai pas le crayon, tu n^as pas 
le crayon, etc. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Est-ce que j^ai un crayon? 2. Est- 
ce que vous avez un crayon? 3. Est-ce que nous avons deux 
crayons? 4. Est-ce que Jean a une grammaire? 5. Est-ce 
que Philippe a une grammaire? 6. Est-ce que Jean et Phil- 
ippe ont deux grammaires? 

III. Questionnaire. 1. Give the usual spelUngs of (g); 
2. of (a); 3. of (5); 4. of (de). 5. What happens if the 
m orn is doubled? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. M. and Mme. Lemattre have two 
children. 2. Mary is a child, and James is a child. 3. Does 

24 The Elements of French 

Mary have (the) blue eyes or {ou) (the) black eyes? 4. She 
has (the) gray eyes. 5. Has John (the) gray eyes, also? 
6. No, sir, John has (the) black eyes. 7. Count the pencils, 
if you please. 8. We have six pencils. 9. Now, put the 
pencils on the table. 10. What are you doing, James? 11. 
Are you putting them on the table? 

V. Pronimciation Exercise (to be memorized by the stu- 


II 6tait une bergere, 

Et ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 

II etait une bergere. 

Qui gardait ses moutons, ron, ron, 

Qui gardait ses moutons. 

Elle fit un fromage, 

Et ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 

Elle fit un fromage, 

Du lait de ses moutons, ron, ron, 

Du lait de ses moutons. 

Le chat qui la regarde, 

Et ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 

Le chat qui la regarde, 

D'un petit air fripon, ron, ron, 

D'un petit air fripon. 

"Si tu y mets la patte, 

Et ron, ron, ron, petit patapon; 

Si tu y mets la patte, 

Tu auras du baton, ron, ron, 

Tu auras du baton." 

Lesson 15 




autre (oitr), other 

avec (avsk), with 

bouche (buj), f., mouth 

brun (broe), brown 

Charles (J"arl), Charles 

combien de (kobjs da), how much? 
how many? 

doigt (dwa), m., finger 

droit (drwa), adj., right 

vous entendez (vuz atade), you 

j'entends (3 Qta), / hear 

gauche (go:/), adj., left (as distin- 
guished from right) 

il y a (il j a), there is, there are* 

y a-t-il? (i a t il), is there? are there? 

main (me), f., hand 

vous parlez (vu parle), you speak 

je parle (39 pari), / speak 

vous pensez (vu pase), you think 

je pense (3s pais), / think 

petit (pati), small 

vous respirez (vu respire), you 

je respire (3a respiir), / breathe 
rond (r5), fem., ronde (r5:d), round 
tete (teit), f., head 
tres (trs), very 

vous voyez (vu vwaje), you see 
je vols (3a vwa), / see 
de quelle forme? (da kel form), 

{of) what shape? 

n*est-ce pas? (n e s pa), is it not so? don't you? isnH he? etc. 
Vous avez les yeux gris, n*est-ce pas? You have gray eyes, have you 

I. Reading Exercise (Exercice de Lecture). 1. Bon jour, 
Charles. 2. — Bonjour, monsieur. 3. — Comment allez- 
vous? 4. — Je vais bien, merci ; et vous? 5. — Merci, je vais 
tres bien, aussi. ... 6. Voici la tete. 7. La tete est ronde. 
8. Vous pensez avec la tete. 9. Voici un ceil. 10. C^est 
Toeil gauche. 11. Voici un autre ceil. 12. C'est Toeil droit, 
n^est-ce pas? 13. Vous avez deux yeux. 14. Vous avez les 
yeux gris. 15. Marie a les yeux bruns. 16. Charles a les 
yeux noirs. 17. Vous voyez avec les yeux, n^est-ce pas? 18. 

* Distinction between il y a and voili : 

II y a makes a simple statement of fact. VoilH points out something. 

1. II y a cinq livres sur la table, There are five books on the table. (State- 
ment of fact. 

2. Les voilil There they are! (pointing them out). 

26 The Elements of French 

Void une oreille. 19. Elle est ronde,* et petite,* aussi. 20. 
C^est Toreille gauche, n'est-ce pas? 21. Voila une autre oreille. 

22. C'est Toreille droite. 23. Vous entendez avec les oreilles. 
24. Voici le nez. 25. Sous le nez il y a la bouche. 26. Elle 
est petite. 27. Vous parlez avec la bouche. 28. Ou sont les 
mains? 29. Voici la main gauche. 30. Voila la main droite. 
31. Comptez les doigts a {on) la main droite: un, deux, trois, 
quatre, cinq. 32. Comptez les doigts k la main gauche, aussi. 
33. Cinq et cinq font {are — literally make) dix. 34. Vous 
avez dix doigts. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Ou est la tete? 2. De quelle forme 
est la tete? 3. Que faites-vous avec la tete? 4. Ou est 
Toeil gauche? 5. Ou est Toeil droit? 6. Combien d^yeux 
avez-vous? 7. De quelle couleur sont les yeux? 8. Est- 
ce que Philippe a les yeux gris ou {or) les yeux bleus? 

9. Est-ce que Charles a les yeux bruns ou les yeux noirs? 

10. Que faites-vous avec les yeux? 11. Ou sont les oreilles? 
12. Ou est Toreille droite? 13. Ou est Toreille gauche? 14. 
Que faites-vous avec les oreilles? 15. Oil est le nez? 16. Que 
faites-vous avec le nez? 17. Oil est la bouche? 18. Respirez- 
vous avec la bouche? 19. Entendez-vous avec les oreilles? 20. 
Oii est la main gauche? 21. Oil est la main droite? 22. Comp- 
tez les doigts k {on) la main droite. (Answer: II y a .) 

23. Combien de doigts avez-vous? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Rise. Breathe. 2. You are not 
breathing with your (the) nose. 3. You are breathing with 
your (the) mouth. 4. Close your mouth, if you please. 
5. Now, be seated, please. 6. Count the blue pencils. 7. 
Now, count the red pencils, if you please. 8. There are five 
blue pencils and five red pencils, are there not? 9. Five 
and five are {font) ten, are they not? 10. Take the pen 
with your hand. Write {ecrivez), 11. You are writing an 
exercise {exercice, m.), are you not? 

* Observe that an adjective in the feminine adds e, as rond, m.; ronde, f.: 
petit, m.; petite, f. However, adjectives ending in unaccented e add no e for 
the feminine, as: jaune, m.; jaune, f. 


ill in the blanks: 


J avec la main . 

Je avec le nez. 

J avec les oreilles. 

J'ai doigts k la main. 

Lesson 16 27 


THE BODY— Continued 


k (a), tOf atf on j'ecris (3 ekri), / write 

baissez (bese), lower encre (a:kr), f., ink 

je baisse (3a bes), / lower levez (bve), raise 

bras (bra), m., arm je leve (39 leiv), / raise 

cheveux (J'8v0), m., plur., hair vos (vo), plur., your 

devant (dava), prep., before (of po- mais (ms), but 

sition); in front of nom (no), m., name 

ecrivez (ekrive), write ou (u), or 

I. Exercice. Let the student 

1. La tete est . 

2. La bouche est . 

3. Le nez est . 

4. J*ai les yeux . 

5. Marie a les yeux . 

II. Conversation. 

Maitre. — Regardez les objets qui {which) sont devant vous. De 
quelle couleur est P encre? 

Eleve. — L'encre est bleue. 

M. — De quelle couleur est la plume? 

E. — La plume est noire. 

M. — Comment voyez-vous P encre et la plume? 

E. — Je les vols avec les yeux. 

M. — Maintenant levez le bras. 

E. — Je leve le bras. 

M. — Est-ce le bras gauche ou le bras droit? 

E. — C'est le bras droit. 

M. — Baissez le bras droit. Levez le bras gauche. 

E. — Je baisse le bras droit. Je leve le bras gauche. 

M. — Asseyez-vous. 

M. — (A un autre eleve) Levez-vous. . . . De quelle couleur sont 
vos yeux? 

E. — J*ai les yeux gris, n*est-ce pas? 

M. — De quelle couleur sont vos cheveux? 

E. — J*ai les cheveux bruns, monsieur. 

M. — Avez-vous les cheveux bruns aussi, M. Charles? 

E. — Non, monsieur le professeur, j*ai les cheveux noirs. 

28 The Elements of French 

M. — AUez au {to the) tableau noir. Ecrivez vos noms. . . . Avec 
quelle main ecrivez- vous, mademoiselle? 
E. — J*ecris avec la main droite. 
M. — Avec quelle main ecrivez-vous, M. Charles? 
E. — J^ecris avec la main gauche. 
M. — Asseyez-vous. 

III. Traduisez. 1. What is the color of your eyes? 2. 
They are blue. 3. John has gray eyes, has he not? 4. No 
sir, John has brown eyes. 5. Give me the names of the 
objects which are in front of you. 6. How do you breathe, 
with the nose or with the mouth? 7. What is the color of your 
hair? 8. With which (quelle) hand are you writing, with the 
left hand or with the right hand? 9. Write your names on 
the blackboard. 10. Write with the right hand. 11. Now, 
write with the left hand. 12. Do you write with two fingers 
or with three fingers? 13. How many fingers are there on 
(d) the right hand? 14. There are five fingers on (d) the right 
hand, and there are five fingers on the left hand, also. 




Study the Introduction, §§ 30, 31, 32, 33, 34. 


cafe (kafe), m., coffee prenez-vous? (prane vu), will you 

dessert (dessir), m., dessert have (take)? 

eau (o), f., water je prends (39 pra), Fll have (take) 

legume (legym), m., vegetable viande (vjaid), f., meat 

pain (pe), m., bread 

64. Present Indicative of avohy to have (le Present de 
rindicatif du Verbe avoir). 

Lesson 17 29 

Interrogative {Interrogatif) 
*est-ce que j'ai? (s s ka 3 e), have I? avons-nous? (avo nu), have we? 
as-tu? (a ty), have you? avez-vous? (ave vu), have you? 

a-t-il? (a t il), has he (it)? ont-ils? (3t il), have they (m.)? 

a-t-elle? (a t el), has she (it)? ont-elles? (5t el), have they (f.)? 

Negative-Interrogative {Negatif -Interrogatif) 

fest-ce que je n'ai pas, (e s ka 3a n'avons-nous pas? (n avo nu pa), 

n e pa), have I not? J have we not? 

n'as-tu pas? (n a ty pa), have you n'avez-vous pas? (n ave vu pa), 

not? have you not? 

n'a-t-il pas (n a t il pa), has he {it) n'ont-ils pas? (n 5t il pa), have they 

not? (m.) not? 

n'a-t-elle pas? (n a t el pa), ho^ n*ont-elles pas? (n ot el pa), have 

she {it) not? they (f.) not? 

65. Some Contractions of the Article and de {Quelques 
Contractions de V Article et de de). 

de + le = du (dy), of the, from the. 

de + la . No change. 

de + 1' — — . No change. 

de + les = des (de)'or (de), of the, from the. 

1. Le livre du professeur,t The teacher^ s hook. (Literally the hook of 
the teacher.) 

2. Les livres des professeurs, The teachers^ hooks. (Literally the 
hooks of the teacher s.)X 

3. Les doigts de la main droite, The fingers of the right hand. 

4. Les doigts des mains, The fingers of the hands. 

5. L'encre de P eleve, The pupiVs ink. (Literally the ink of the pupil.) 

6. L*encre des eleves, ThepupiWink. (Literally the ink of the pupils.) 

7. La couleur de P ceil, The color of the eye. 

8. La couleur des yeux. The color of the eyes. 

66. The Partitive Construction (le Partitif). Whenever the 
words *'some^^ or '^any'' are used before a noun in English, 
or whenever these words may be supplied without changing 
the meaning of the sentence, the ^French regularly uses de + the 
definite article. 

* Used oftener than ai-je? (e 3). 

t Used oftener than n* ai-je pas? (n e 3 pa). 

i Observe that French has no possessive case. 


The Elements of French 

1. J*ai du pain, / have (some) bread. (Literally of the bread.) 

2. A-t-il de Pencre? Has he (any) ink? (Literally of the ink?) 

3. II a des crayons, He has ( some ) pencils. (Literally of the pencils.) 



1 . Prenez-vous du pain? 

2. Prenez-vous du cafe? 

3. Prenez-vous du dessert? 

4. Prenez-vous de la viande? 

5. Prenez-vous de Peau? 

6. Prenez-vous des legumes? 

7. Avez-vous des yeux? 

8. Avez-vous des oreilles? 

9. Avez-vous des bras? 
10. Avez-vous des mains? 
IL Avez-vous des doigts? 

Oui, monsieur, je prends du pain. 
Oui, monsieur, je prends du cafe. 
Oui, monsieur, je prends du dessert. 
Oui, monsieur, je prends de la viande. 
Oui, monsieur, je prends de Peau. 
Oui, monsieur, je prends des le- 

7. Oui, monsieur, j*ai des yeux. 

8. Oui, monsieur, j*ai des oreilles. 

9. Oui, monsieur, j'ai des bras. 

10. Oui, monsieur, j'ai des mains. 

11. Oui, monsieur, j*ai des doigts. 


I. Questionnaire. 1. What is a semi-consonant? 2. How 
is it like a consonant? 3. Name the semi-consonants with 
which you are familiar. 4. How is a semi-consonant like a 
vowel? 5. Name the vowels. 6. What is the difference in 
the pronunciation of (y) and of (i)? 

II. Use the proper form of de with the following: 

pain; le cafe; le legume; les legumes; 

viande; la craie; Thabit; les habits; 

les Aleves; - 
les crayons; • 

Tecole; — 
- la lettre ; 

les ecoles; - 
— les lettres. 




le crayon; 

III. Prononcez. Papier (paper) y fille (daughter) y famille 
(family) J travail (work), bien (well), mien (mine), Italien 
(Italian), cuisine (kitchen), lui (to him), puis (then), conduire 
(conduct), oui (yes), ouest (west), Louis (Louis), pain (bread), 
omelette (omelet), main (hand), peut (can), pire (worse), pure 
(pure), si (if), su (known), perle (pearl), aussi (also), plait 
(pleases), beaucoup (much). 

IV. Traduisez. 1. The rooms • of the school. 2. The 
doors and windows of the school. 3. The tables and chairs 

Lesson 18 31 

of the room. 4. The teacher's ruler. 5. The pupil's pen and 
ink. 6. Have you (some) paper, Charles? 7. Yes, sir, 
thank you, I have (some) paper. 8. Have you (some) ink, 
also, Charles? 9. Thank you, sir, here is some ink. 10. 
What are you doing, Charles? 11. I am writing some let- 
ters. 12. You write a great many (beaucoup de) letters at 
school (d Vecole)j Charles. 13. There is some chalk. 14. 
Write some exercises on the blackboard now. 


I. Prononcez. Fin (fine)^ fine (fine), pain (bread) ^ entente 
(agreement) J ennemi (enemy), dent (tooth) y enfant (child), tas 
(heap), tendre (tender), ombre (shade), homme (man), Verdun 
(Verdun), papier (paper), fille (daughter), cuit (cooked), puis 
(then), conduire (conduct), 

II. Supply the proper forms of de+the definite article with 

the following words: legumes; pain; viande; 

cafe; dessert; ecole; salle; craie; 

eleve; habit; canifs. 

III. Conjuguez. 1. Est-ce que j'ai les yeux bleus? as-tu 
les yeux bleus? etc. 2. J'ai la tete ronde, n'est-ce pas? tu 
as la tete ronde, n'est-ce pas? etc. 3. Je n'ai pas deux 
crayons, tu n'as pas deux crayons, etc. 4. Est-ce que je n'ai 
pas la lettre? n'as-tu pas la lettre? etc. 

IV. Exercice Oral. 1. Levez la tete. 2. Baissez la tete. 
3. De quelle forme est la tete? 4. De quelle couleur sont vos 
cheveux? 5. Oil est Toeil droit? 6. Od est Toeil gauche? 7. 
Que faites-vous avec les yeux? 8. Oil est Toreille gauche? 9. 
Combien d'oreilles avez-vous? 10. Ou est le nez? 11. Ou est 
la bouche? 12. Baissez le bras droit. 13. Levez la main 
gauche. 14. Ou est la main droite? 15. Combien de doigts 
avez-vous? 16. Que faites-vous avec les doigts? 

32 The Elements of French 

V. Traduisez. 1. Charles has black eyes, but Phihp has 
gray eyes. 2. Marie has brown hair, has she not? 3. What do 
you see with your eyes? 4. You see the bhickboard, do you 
not? 5. Write your names on the blackboard. 6. You write 
with the left hand, but I write with the right hand. 7. What 
objects do you see in front of the blackboard? 8. You hear 
the teacher, do you not? 9. You have some ink and some 
pens, have you not? 10. Marie has some bread and vegetables, 
has she not? 




bon (b5), good fruit (frqi), m., fruit 

Feminine, bonne (bon) lait (le), m., milk 

couteau (kuto), m., knije omelette (omlet), f., omelet 

cult (kqi), p. part., cooked robe (rob), f., dress 
fourchette (fur/et), f ., fork 

67. Agreement of Adjectives {Accord des Adjectifs). Ad- 
jectives agree with the nouns which they modify in gender and 

(a) The feminine of adjectives is regularly formed by adding 
e to the masculine. 

1. Le petit journal, The small newspaper, 

2. La petite salle, The small room. 

3. Le crayon est noir, The pencil is block, 

4. La plume est noire, The pen is black, 

5. Le doigt est petit. The finger is small. 

6. La main est petite. The hand is small. 

7. C*est un grand couteau, It is a large knife. 

8. C'est une grande fourchette. It is a large fork. 

Note. Participles used as adjectives follow the same rule as adjectives. 
Une omelette bien cuite, A well cooked omelet. 

Lesson 19 33 

(6) Of course, when the masculine ends in an unaccented e, 
the feminine is unchanged. 

Masculine (Mascidin) Feminine (Feminin) 

rouge rouge 

jauhe jaune, etc. 

(c) Adjectives frequently follow the noun. A few very 
common adjectives precede, such as 

bon, good, mauvais, had, grand, large, tall, petit, small, jeune, young, 
and a few others.* 

68. The following adjectives are irregular in the feminine: 
Masculine Feminine 

bon (bo), good bonne (bon), good 

1. Charles est bon, Charles is good. 1. Marie est bonne, Mary is good. 

2. C*est un bon eleve. He is a good 2. C'est une bonne eleve. She is a 

pupil. good pupil. 

3. Le cafe est bon. The coffee is good. 3. L'eau est bonne. The water is good. 

4. C'est un bon fruit, It is a good 4. C'est une bonne omelette. It is 

fruit. a good omelet. 

blanc (bla), white blanche (blaif), white 

1. Le pain est blanc. The bread is 1. La craie est blanche. The chalk 

white. is white. 

2. Le lait est blanc. The milk is 2. La robe est blanche. The dress is 

white. white. 

I. Apprenez. 


Une poule sur un mur, 
Qui picotait du pain dur, 

Picoti, picota, 
Lev' la queue et puis s'en va. 

Un petit coq sur un mur, 
Qui picotait du pain dur, 

Picoti, picota. 
Lev' la patte et saute en has. 

* The position of adjectives must be learned by observation, but the rule 
as stated will be found sufficient for the present. Note, however, that adjectives 
of color usually follow the noun. 

Un crayon blanc: la maison blanche, etc. (cf. § 59). 

34 The Elements of French 

II. Traduisez. 1. What will you have, sir? 2. I'll have 
some bread, meat, and vegetables. 3. Will you have some 
black coffee, also? 4. Thank you, I'll take some water, if 
you please. 5. Or, if (si) the milk is good, I'll take some 
milk. 6. The omelet is good, also. 7. Give me an omelet, 
and some dessert. 8. Will you have some fruit, sir? 9. Yes, 
if the fruit is well cooked. 


aujourd*hui (osurdqi),* today pour (puir), for, in order to 

bouillon (bujo), m., broth puis (pqi), then 

comme (kom), as; for j*ai faim (3 e fe), / am hungry 

dejeuner (de3oene), m., lunch, or j'ai soif (3 e swaf), / am thirsty 

breakfast^ j'ai faim, n*est-ce pas? / am hun- 

gargon (garso), m., boy, waiter gry, am I not (literally is it not?) 

69. The plural of adjectives is regularly formed by adding 
s to the singular. 

1. Le petit gargon, The small boy 

2. Les petits garjons, The small boys 

3. La petite fiUe, The small girl 

4. Les petites fiUes, The small girls 

Questions Reponses 

1. Est-ce que les canifs sont 1. Oui, monsieur, les canifs sont 

blancs? blancs. 

2. Est-ce que les robes sont 2. Oui, monsieur, les robes sont 

blanches? blanches, mais il y a des 

robes bleues aussi. 

* Or, 03urdqi. 

t There are two kinds of dejeuners served in France. 

(a) Le petit dejeuner (la pati de3oene), or le premier dejeuner (b 
pramje de3oene), meaning the regular Continental breakfast of coffee, or 
chocolate, and rolls. It is frequently served in one's room. 

(b) Le dejeuner k la fourchette (la de3oene a la furfet), literally "break- 
fast with the fork," meaning a more substantial meal, which is usually served 
about twelve or one o'clock. 

Lesson 20 35 

Note. Adjectives and nouns ending in s or a; remain unchanged in 
the plural. 

Le bras, les bras, arm, arms; bas, bas, low 
Nouns ending in z are invariable. 

Le nez," les nez, nose, noses 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je n'ai pas le journal, tu n'as pas le 
journal, etc. 2. J^ai les yeux gris, tu as les yeux gris, etc. 
3. Est-ce que je n^ai pas les crayons jaunes? n^as-tu pas les 
crayons jaunes? etc. 4. Est-ce que j^ai la lettre? as-tu la 
lettre? etc. 5. Est-ce j'ai les canifs blancs? as-tu les canifs 
blancs? etc. 

II. Read the French (Lisez le frangais). 

Au Restaurant (At the Restaurant)* 

Bonjour, monsieur. 

Bonjour, gargon. 

Est-ce que vous allez bien aujourd'hui? 

Oui, mais j*ai faim et j'ai soif. Est-ce que vous avez un bon 


Oui, monsieur, nous avons de la viande et des legumes. Le 

bouillon est tres bon. 
; Tres bien, je prends le bouillon. 

Un bouillon pour un. Boum! t • • • L'omelette est bonne, aussi, 


Bien, je prends Pomelette. 

Une omelette pour un, boum! 

Bien cuitel Je prends aussi des legumes, du pain, et du cafe 


Bien, monsieur. Trois de cafe! J Boum! ... Prenez- vous du 

lait, monsieur? 


Voil^ de I'eau, monsieur. Voili un couteau et une fourchette. 

Et comme dessert, monsieur? 

Comme dessert, je prends des fruits. 

* Suggested by a scene in A. Daudet's Trente Ans de Paris. 
t Boum (bocS), bang! is an exclamation used by Parisian waiters, 
t Trois de caf6 is waiter's dialect for "three cents' worth of coffee." 
** Observe the use of Merci. Before accepting, Merci means "No, thank 
you." After accepting, Merci means "Thank you." 

36 The Elements of French 

III. Traduisez. 1. Good morning, sir. What will you 
have today? 2. 1^11 have a good lunch, if you please. 3. 
Monsieur is hungry, is he not? 4. Yes, and I am thirsty, 
too. 5. Will you have (some) broth, sir? 6. If you please. 
7. There it is, sir, and here is some water. 8. Are the vege- 
tables good today? 9. Yes, sir. 10. Give me some vege- 
tables, and some meat — well cooked. 11. Very well, sfr. 
Here are the knife and fork. 


chez (fe) at the house of je mange (39 ma:3), / eat {am eat- 

chez elle (fez el), at her house ing) 

classe (klais), f., class^ classroom pauvre (poivr), poor 

dans (da), prep., in qui? (ki), who? 

derriere (derjeir), behind riche (rif), rich 

mademoiselle (Mile*) (madmwa- tenez-vous? (tane vu), do you 

zel). Miss hold? 

mangez-vous? (mase vu), do you je tiens (39 tje), / hold 

eat? are you eating? 

70. In the partitive construction, the article is usually 
omitted after a negative verb. 

1. II a de la craie, He has (some) 1. II n'a pas de craie, He has no 

chalk. chalk, 

2. Elle a du pain, She has (some) 2. Elle n*a pas de pain, She has no 

bread. bread. 

Fill in the blanks (Remplacez les tirets). 

1. Charles a fruits. 7. Jean n*a pas fruits. 

2. Charles a legumes. 8. Jean n*a pas legumes. 

3. Charles a viande. 9. Jean n'a pas viande. 

4. Charles a omelettes. 10. Jean n'a pas omelettes. 

5. Charles a dessert. 11. Jean n'a pas dessert. 

6. Charles a cafe. 12. Jean n*a pas cafe. 

* Observe that the abbreviations Mile and Mme, in which e, the last letter 
of the word, appears, have no period, while the abbreviation M., in which r, 
the last letter of the word, does not appear, has a period. 

Lesson 21 37 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Allez-vousbien aujourd'hui? 2. Avez- 
vous faim? 3. Avez-vous soif? 4. Est-ce que vous avez un 
bon dejeuner? 5. Est-ce que vous prenez de la viande? 6. 
Est-ce que vous prenez des legumes? 7. Est-ce que le bouil- 
lon est bon? 8. Est-ce que la viande est bonne? 9. Est-ce 
que Tomelette est bonne? 10. Est-ce que les legumes sont 
bons? 11. Prenez-vous du pain? 12. Comment mangez- 
vous le pain? 13. Le mangez-vous avec une fourchette? 
14. Comment mangez-vous Tomelette? 15. Tenez-vous la 
fourchette a (m) la main droite? 16. Tenez-vous le couteau 
k la main gauche? 17. Prenez-vous du lait? 18. Prenez- 
vous des fruits? 19. Mangez-vous les fruits avec une fourr 
chette? 20. Comment les mangez-vous? 

II. Conversation. 

Maitre. Qui est-ce? 

Eleve. — — C'est M. Jacques. 

M. (^ un autre eleve) : Qui est-ce? 

E. C*est Mile Jeannette. 

M. 0& est Mme Lemaitre? 

E. EUe est chez elle. 

M. Levez-vous. 

E. Je me leve. 

M.^ — Que voyez-vous devant vous? 

E. Je vols une table devant moi. 

M. Que voyez-vous derriere vous? 

E. Je vols un tableau noir derriere moi. 

M. — — Asseyez-vous. 

III. Traduisez. 1. I'll eat (the) lunch now. 2. 1^1 take 
(the) broth today. 3. Then I'll take (some) vegetables. 4. 
No, I won't take any meat today. 5. Will you have milk 
with the dessert? 6. No, I won't take any milk. 7. No, I 
won't take any coffee with (the) lunch. 8. You'll have some 
fruit today, won't you? 9. No, thanks, I'll not take any 
fruit today. 10. I shall not take any meat, and I shall not 
take any milk. 11. Yes, give me some coffee, if you please. 
12. You are holding the fork with the left hand, and the 
knife with the right hand. 


The Elements of French 

IV. Apprenez. 


Au clair de la lune, 
Mon ami Pierrot, 
Prete-moi ta plume, 
Pour ecrire un mot. 
Ma chandelle est morte, 
Je n'ai plus de feu, 
Ouvre-moi ta porte. 
Pour Tamour de Dieu. 

Au clair de la lune, 
Pierrot repondit; 
Je n'ai pas de plume, 
Je suis dans mon lit. 
Va chez la voisine, 
Je crois qu'elle y est. 
Car, dans sa cuisine, 
On bat le briquet. 



Study the Introduction, § 38. 

71. Present Indicative of etre, to he {le Present de VIndicatif 
du Verhe Hre). 

Aflfirmative {Affirmatif) 

je suis (38 sqi), / am 
tu es (ty g), you are 
11 est (il e), he (it) is 
elle est (el e), she (it) is 

nous sommes (nu som), we are 
vous etes (vuz et), you are 
lis sont (il s5), they (m.) are 
elles sont (el so), they (f.) are 

Note. Distinguish between lis sont (il so), they are, and lis ont 
(ilz 5), they have. 

Lesson 22 39 

Negative {Negalif) 
je ne siiis pas (39 na sqi pa), / am nous ne sommes pas (nu no som pa), 

not we are not 

tu n'es pas (ty n 8 pa), you are not vous n*§tes pas (vu n et pa), you 

are not 
il n'est pas (il n e pa), he {it) is not ils ne sont pas (il na so pa), they 

(m.) are not 
elle n'est pas (el n e pa), she {it) elles ne sont pas (el na s5 pa), they 
is not (f.) are not 

Gonjuguez. 1. Je suis a Tecole, tu es a Tecole, etc. 2. Je 
suis devant la fenetre, tu es devant la fenetre, etc. 3. Je ne 
suis pas dans la classe aujourd'hui, tu n'es pas dans la classe 
aujourd'hui, etc. 4. Je ne suis pas derriere la table, tu n^es 
pas derriere la table, etc. 

72. Apprenez. 

onze (5:z), eleven vingt-trois (vet trwa), twenty-three 

douze (du:z), twelve vingt-quatre (vet katr), twenty-four 

treize (treiz), thirteen vingt-cinq (vet seik), twenty-five 

quatorze {ksitorz) , fourteen vingt-six (vet sis), twenty-six 

quinze {keiz) , fifteen vingt-sept (vet set), twenty-seven 

seize (seiz), sixteen vingt-huit (vet qit), twenty-eight 

dix-sept (dis set), seventeen vingt-neuf (vet noef), twenty-nine 

dix-huit (diz qit), eighteen trente (trait), thirty 

dix-neuf (diz noef), nineteen trente et un* (trait e oe), thirty-one 

vingt (ve), twenty trente-deux (trait d0), thirty-two 

vingt et un* (vet e oe), twenty-one quarante* {kar a:t) , forty 

vingt-deux (vet d0), twenty-two cinquante* {sekait) , fifty 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Ouetes-vous? 2. fites-vous aTecole? 
3. Est-ce que je suis a Tecole, aussi? 4. Ou sommes-nous? 
5. £ltes-vous dans une classe? 6. Est-ce que je suis dans une 
classe? 7. Est-ce que nous sommes dans une classe? 8. Ou 
est Jean? 9. Ou est Charles? 10. Ou sont Jean et Charles? 
11. Oil est Marie? 12. Est-ce que Marie est avec Jeannette? 
13. Ou sont Marie et Jeannette? 14. Est-ce que Jacques est 
derriere la table? 15. Est-ce que le livre est sur la table ou 
sous la table? 16. Est-ce que la plume est sur la table ou 
sous la table? 17. Ou sont Jacques et Philippe? 

*21,31,41,51,61, and usually 71 have et: Trente et un, quarante et un, etc. 


The Elements of French 

II. Apprenez. 

Addition (Addition) 
un et un font (fo) deux, one and 

one are two 
un et deux font trois 
un et trois font quatre 
un et quatre font cinq 
un et cinq font six 
un et six font sept 
un et sept font huit 
un et huit font neuf 
un et neuf font dix 
un et dix font onze 

III. Apprenez. 

Multiplication {Multiplication) 
trois f ois (fwa) un font trois, three 

times one are three 
trois fois deux font six 
trois fois trois font neuf 
trois fois quatre font douze 
trois fois cinq font quinze 
trois fois six font dix-huit 
trois fois sept font vingt et un 
trois fois huit font vingt-quatre 
trois fois neuf font vingt-sept 
trois fois dix font trente 


Un, deux, trois, 
J'irai dans le bois. 

Quatre, cinq, six, 
Cueillir des cerises. 

Sept, huit, neuf, 
Dans mon panier neuf. 

Dix, onze, douze, 

Elles sent toutes rouges. 

IV. Prononcez. Ri, ri, ri, re, re, re, rue de Rome {Street 
of Rome)y rue de Rivoli {Street of Rivoli), rira {will laugh), 
ronron {purr), servir {serve), partir {depart), courir {run), 
mourir {die), vinrent {came), tinrent {held), peut {can), lui 
{to him), aujourd'hui {today), cuisine {kitchen), Louis {Louis), 
pain {bread), comme {as), comprendre {comprehend), heureux 
{happy), sur {on), 

V. Questionnaire. 1. What is a lingual rf 2. Pronounce 
it. 3. What is the position of the tongue for it? 4. What 
is a uvular r? 5. Pronounce it. 6. What is the position 
of the back of the tongue for it? 7. Is the mouth wide open 
or nearly closed for it? 

Lesson 23 


VI. Traduisez. 1. I am a pupil. 2. John is a pupil, also. 
3. We are pupils. 4. John and James are tall. 5. I am very 
small. 6. We are in school today. 7. The teacher is at the 
table. 8. We are in front of the table. 9. The teacher says 
{dit)y 'Where are the books?" 10. Open the books, and 
read (lisez). 




ami (ami), m.^ friend 

amie (ami), i., friend 

s'appelle (s apel), is called] is named 

cache (kaj), hides 

choisit (J*wazi), chooses 

cousin (kuze), m., cousin 

cousine (kuzin), f., cousin 

dites (dit), tell; say (from dire) 

embrasse (abras), kisses (verb) 

enfant (afa), m. or f., child 

famille (famiij), i., family 

femme (fam), f., woman; wife 

feve (feiv), f., bean 

fille (fiij), f., daughter; girl 

fils (fis), m., son 

frere (freir), m., brother 

gateau (gato), m., cake 

joli (3oli), pretty 

joue (3u), f., cheek 

mange (ma:3), eats 

mere (meir), £., mother 

oncle (oikl), m., uncle 

pere (peir), m.^ father 

reine (rem), i., queen 

roi (rwa), m., king 

si (si), if 

soeur (soeir), £., sister 

tante (tait), f., aunt 

trouve (truiv), finds 

en famille (a famiij), at home 

chez nous, at our hou^e 

chez vous, at your house 

se met (sa me), (places himself) sits 

gateau des Rois, cake for Epiphany 

(twelve days after Christmas) 

73. Possessive Adjectives (Adjectifs Possessifs), 




Masculine and 





mon (m5) 

ma (ma) 

mes (me) 



ton (to) 

ta (ta) 

tes (te) ■ or ■ 



son (s5) 

sa (sa) 

ses (se) . 


hiSj her, its 

notre (notr) 

notre (notr) 

nos (no) 


votre (votr) 

votre (votr) 

vos (vo) 


leur (loeir) 

leur (loeir) 

leurs (loeir) 


42 The Elements of French 


Questions Reponses 

1. Est-ce que j*ai mon crayon? 1. Oui, monsieur, vous avez votre 


2. Est-ce que j*ai ma plume? 2. Oui, monsieur, vous avez votre 


3. Est-ce que j*ai mes crayons? 3. Oui, monsieur, vous avez vos 


4. Est-ce que j*ai mes plumes? 4. Oui, monsieur, vous avez vos 


5. Avez-vous vos livres? 5. Oui, monsieur, j*ai mes livres. 

6. Est-ce que Jean a son canif? 6. Oui, monsieur, il a son canif. 

7. Est-ce que Jacques a ses deux 7. Oui, monsieur, il a ses d3ux 

canifs? canifs. 

8. Est-ce que Jean et Jacques ont 8. Oui, monsieur, ils ont leurs 

leurs canifs? canifs. lis ont trois canifs. 

Make the answers negative. 

(a) Son, sa, and the other possessive adjectives agree in 
gender with the nouns which they modify, not with the pos- 
sessor as in EngUsh. 

1. son livre, Jns_or her book 

2. S£ plume, his_ or her pen 

Questions Reponses 

1. Est-ce que Philippe a son 1. Oui, monsieur, Philippe a son 

couteau? couteau. 

2. Est-ce que Jeannette a son 2. Oui, monsieur, elle a son cou- 

couteau? teau, aussi. 

3. Est-ce que Philippe a sa four- 3. Oui, monsieur, il a sa four- 

chette? chette. 

4. Est-ce que Jeannette a sa four- 4. Oui, monsieur, elle a sa four- 

chette? chette. 

5. Est-ce que Jacques mange son 5. Oui, monsieur, il mange son 

dejeuner? dejeuner. 

6. Est-ce que Marie mange son 6. Oui, monsieur, elle mange son 

dejeuner? dejeuner. 

Make the answers negative. 

Conjuguez. J'ai ma lettre, tu as ta lettre, il a sa lettre, etc. 

Lesson 23 


(6) Possessive adjectives, like the article, must be repeated 
before each noun that they modify. 

1. Ma mere et ma tante, Mji mother and (my ) aunt. 
Observe that nouns in modern French have no possessive case. 

2. Le livre de Jean, John's hook (literally the hook ^ John.) 
Observe that French nouns are not declined. 

Paysannes Frangaises 


Read the French (Lisez le frangais). Nous sommes en 
famille. Voici mon pere, ma mere, mon oncle, et ma tante. 
Mes deux freres et mes quatre cousines sont aussi chez nous. 
La famille est a table. Mon pere embrasse notre ami Gaston 
sur les deux joues. Puis il se met a table. 

La famille mange le gateau des Rois. Ma mere cache une 
f^ve dans le gateau. Si un homme trouve la feve, il est roi, 
et choisit une reine. Si une femme la trouve, elle est reine, 
et choisit un roi. 

Mon pere s'appelle Baptiste Chantal. Mon oncle s^appelle 
Frangois Chantal. II est tres grand. Un de mes freres 

* Adapted from Mile Perle, by Guy de Maupassant. 

44 The Elements of French 

s^appelle Jacques. L'autre frere s'appelle Paul. Les cousines 
sont tres jolies. EUes ont les yeux bruns et les cheveux noirs. 

II. Traduisez. 1. My father and (my) mother. 2. Your 
uncle and (your) aunt. 3. Their brothers and (their) sisters. 
4. Our cousins (m.) and (our) cousins (f.). 5. Your friend is 
named Gaston. 6. My friend (f.) is named Jeanne. 7. Our 
friends are at our house. 8. They are at (the) table. 9. 
John is not at home today. 10. He is eating his lunch at 
your house. 

III. Apprenez. 


*Fais dodo, Colas, mon petit frere, 
Fais dodo, t'auras du gateau. 
Papa en aura, 
Maman en aura, 
Et moi 3 'en aurai, 
Tout un plein panier. 


74. Ma, ta, sa change to mon, ton, son, respectively, before 
a vowel or h mute. 

1. ma plume, my pen, but mon amie (f.), my friend. 

2. taf chaise, your chair, but ton ecole (f .), your school. 

3. sa soeur, his (her) sister, but son enfant (f.), his (her) child. 

Exercice. Supply the proper forms of mon, ton, and son with : 

gateau; omelette; chaise; amie; 

enfant; encre; ecole; famille. 

I. Reading Exercise (Exercice de Lecture). Read again 
Section I of the preceding lesson. 

* Fais dodo, go to sleep. 

t The possessives like ton, ta, etc., are used to mean your only in familiar 
address. In polite address use votre. 

Lesson 24 45 

IL Questionnaire. Use the proper forms of men, ton, son, 

notre, votre, letir, with the following words: fenetre; 

tantes; pere; famille; fille; fils (sing. 

and plur.); oncle; enfant (masc. and fern.). 

III. Conjuguez. 1. Je suis sur ma chaise, tu es sur ta 
chaise, etc. 2. Est-ce que j^ai mon journal? as-tu ton 
journal? etc. 

IV. Exercice Oral. 1. Comment vous appelez-vous? 
(Answer: Je m'appelle . . .). 2. Combien de freres avez- 
vous? 3. Combien de soeurs avez-vous? 4. Est-ce que vous 
avez un pere? 5. Dites son nom, s^il vous plait. 6. Avez- 
vous une mere? 7. Dites aussi son nom, s'il vous plait. 8. 
Combien d'oncles avez-vous? 9. Dites les noms de vos 
oncles. 10. Combien de tantes avez-vous? 11. Dites leurs 
noms. 12. Avez-vous des cousins? 13. Avez-vous des cou- 
sines? 14. fites-vous en famille maintenant? 

V. Traduisez. 1. I have two brothers and three sisters. 
2. There are six children in our family. 3. There are my 
father and (my) mother, also. 4. My father and (my) mother 
have three sons and three daughters. 5. They (Us) have six 
children. 6. My father has two sisters. 7. They are our 
aunts. 8. My mother has four brothers. 9. They are our 
uncles. 10. How many sisters have you in your family? 

11. How many uncles and aunts are there in your family? 

12. Are there any brothers, and where are they now? 13. 
You have many friends at school, have you not? 

VI. Apprenez. 


Savez-vous planter des choux, 
A la mode, a la mode? 
Savez-vous planter des choux, 
A la mode de chez nous? 

46 The Elements of French 

On les plante avec le pied, 
A la mode, a la mode; 
On les plante avec le pied, 
A la mode de chez nous. 

Savez-vous planter des choux, etc. 

On les plante avec la main, 
A la mode, a la mode; 
On les plante avec la main, 
A la mode de chez nous. 

Savez-vous planter des choux, etc. 

On les plante avec le doigt, 
A la mode, a la mode; 
On les plante avec le doigt, 
A la mode de chez nous. 


I. Prononcez. pe (p), peut {can)^ des {of the), deux {two); 
si {if), su {known), vit {saw), vu {seen), mode {style), monde 
{world), met {puts), main {hand), ah {ah), an {year), ri, ri, ri, 
re, re Te, servir {serve), aujourd'hui {today), comprendre 
{understand), sur {on), mourir {die), courir {run), partir {start). 

II. Use the proper forms of blanc and noir with the fol- 
lowing nouns: crayon ; plume ; livre ; habit. 

; couteau ; fourchette ; robe . 

Use proper forms of bon with each of the nouns in the list 

III. Supply proper forms of de + the definite article in 

the following sentences: 1. J^ai pain. 2. • tu as 

viande. 3. II a bouillon. 4. EUe a fruits. 

5. Nous avons legumes. 6. Vous avez cafe. 7. 

lis ont dessert. 8. Elles ont lait. 

Make the sentences negative. 

Lesson 25 47 

IV. Conjuguez. 1. Deux fois un font deux, deux fois deux 
font quatre, etc. 2. Cinq fois un font cinq, cinq fois deux 
font dix, etc. 3. Sept fois un font sept, sept fois deux font 
quatorze. 4. Un et dix font onze, un et onze font douze, etc. 

V. 1. Touchez {touch) trois fois la chaise. 2. Fermez deux 
fois la main gauche. 3. Ouvrez trois fois la main droite. 
4. Touchez Toreille gauche avec la main droite. 5. Levez et 
baissez quatre fois la main gauche. 6. Levez et baissez cinq 
fois le bras droit. 

VI. Conjuguez. 1. J^ai mon livre, tu as ton livre, etc. 
2. Est-ce que je suis chez mon ami? es-tu chez ton ami? etc. 

VII. Exercice Oral. 1. Est-ce que le lait est noir? 2. 
Est-ce que la plume est blanche? 3. Est-ce que la fen^tre 
est petite? 4. Avez-vous de petites mains? 5. Oii mangez- 
vous aujourd'hui? 6. Mangez-vous chez vous? 7. Prenez- 
vous des repas (meals) a Fecole? 8. Prenez-vous maintenant 
votre petit dejeuner? 9. Est-ce votre dejeuner? 10. Que 
mangez-vous avec la fourchette? 11. Que mangez-vous avec 
votre couteau? 12. Comment tenez-vous votre fourchette? 
13. Comment tenez-vous votre couteau? 14. Ou est Jacques? 
15. Ou est Philippe? 16. Ou sont Jacques et Philippe? 

VIII. Traduisez. 1. We are at home, and my father sits 
down to (the) table. 2. He kisses my mother on the two 
cheeks, and (he) kisses his children also. 3. There is a 
bean in the cake. 4. My mother hides it, and my sister finds 
it. 5. She is queen; but if a boy finds the bean, he is king. 
6. My father's name is Jacques Lebrun, and my mother is 
Mme. Lebrun. 7. Our cousins are also at our house. 8. 
I'll take the broth, but Fll not take (any) vegetables. 9. 
ril take (some) meat, but Fll not take (any) dessert. 10. 
There is your coffee; you'll take some fruit also, won't you? 
11. John has his fork, and Mary has her knife. 

48 The Elements of French 


PRESENT INDICATIVE OF £>/?£ — Continued : 


Study the Introduction, §§ 39, 40, 41, 42, 43. 

75. Present Indicative of etrey to he (le Present de VIndicatif 
du Verbe etre). 

Interrogative {Interrogatif) 

est-ce que je suis?* (e s ka 39 sqi), sommes-nous? (som nu), are we? 

am I? etes-vous? (et vu), are you? 

es-tu? (e ty), are you? sont-ils? (sot il), are they (m.)? 

est-il? (et il), is he (it)? sont-elles? (sot el), are they (f.)? 
est-elle? (et el), is she {it)? 

Negative-Interrogative {Negatif -Interrogatif) 

est-ce que je ne suis pas?t (e s ko ne sommes-nous pas? (no som nu 

30 no sqi pa), am I not? pa), are we not? 

n*es-tu pas? (n e ty pa), are you n'etes-vous pas? (n et vu pa), are 

not? you not? 

n'est-il pas? (n et il pa), is he (it) ne sont-ils pas? (no sot il pa), are 

not? they (m.) not? 

n*est-elle pas? (n et el pa), is she ne sont-elles pas? (no sot el pa), are 

{it) not? they (f.) not? 

Conjuguez. 1. Est-ce que je suis chez mon frere? es-tu 
chez ton frere? etc. 2. Est-ce que je ne suis pas en famille? 
n^es-tu pas en famille? etc. 

76. Use of il and elle {Emploi d'il et d'elle). 

II, ils, may refer to any masculine noun of the third person. 

Elle, elle, may refer to any feminine noun of the third 

* More usual than suis-je? t More usual than ne suis-je pas? 

La Rive Gauche h Vol D'Oiseau 
(Vue d'une tour de Notre Dame) 

Lesson 26 49 

1. J*ai des frdres, / have (some) brother 8. 

2. Sont-ils ici? Are they here? 

3. Pai des livr^s, / have (some) hookn. 

4. Sont-ils ici? Are they here? 

5. J*ai des soeurs, / have (some) sisters. 

6. Od sont- elles ? Where are they ? 

7. J*ai des plumes, / have (some) pens. 

8. Oh sont- elles ? Where are they? 

77. Questions. It has been explained that Est-ce que? may 
be used to ask questions, whether the subject of the verb is a 
noun or a pronoun. When Est-ce que? is used, the order of 
words is the same as in a declarative sentence (cf. § 56.) 
Another way of asking a question, when the subject is a noun, 
is to use a pronoun subject after the verb, as well as a noun 
subject before the verb. 

1. Mon frere est chez nous, My brother is at our house. 

2. Mon frere est-il chez nous? Is my brother at our house? (Literally 
My brother is he at our house?), or, Est-ce que mon frere est chez nous? 

3. Votre soeur regarde le journal, Your sister is looking at the newspaper. 
' 4. Votre soeur regarde-t-elle le journal? Is your sister looking at the 
newspaper? (Literally Your sister is she looking at the newspaper?) or, 
Est-ce que votre soeur regarde le journal? 

Exercice Oral. 1. Votre pere est-il chez vous? or^ Est-ce 
que votre pere est chez vous? 2. Votre mere est-elle chez 
elle? oVy Est-ce que votre mere est chez elle? 3. Votre pere 
embrasse-t-il votre mere sur les deux joues? or, Est-ce que 
votre pere embrasse votre mere sur les deux joues? 4. Votre 
pere se met-il a table? or, Est-ce que votre pere se met a 
table? 5. Votre oncle et votre tante sont-ils a table? or, 
Est-ce que votre oncle et votre tante sont k table? 6. Vos 
deux f reres et vos quatre cousines sont-ils chez vous? or, Est-ce 
que vous deux freres et vos quatre cousines sont chez vous? 

78. Cardinal Numerals 51-100 (les Nombres Cardinaux 

cinquante etun (sekait e oe), 51 quatre-vingts (katr ve), 80 

soixante (swasait), 60 quatre-vingt-un (katr vs 6&), 81 

soixante-dix (swasait dis), 70 quatre-vingt-dix (katr ve dis), 90 

soixante et onze (swasait e 5iz), 71 cent (sa), 100 

50 The Elements of French 

Multiplication {Multiplication) 

six fois un font six neuf fois un font neuf 

six fois deux font douze, neuf fois deux font dix-huit, 

etc. etc. 

I. Exercice. Make questions, in two ways, of the follow- 
ing sentences: 


1. La salle est grande. 9. L^encre est bleue. 

2. Charles ouvre la porte. 10. Les plumes sont noires. 

3. Jacques ferme la porte. 11. La craie est blanche. 

4. Marie se met sur sa chaise. 12. La craie est dans la boite. 

5. La chaise est ici. 13. Le papier est blanc. 

6. La chaise est devant la table. 14. Les fenetres sont grandes. 

7. La table est grande. 15. Le tableau est petit. 

8. L*encre est sur la table. 


1. La famille est a table. 9. Les chaises sont petites. 

2. Mon pere est chez nous. 10. Le pain est blanc. 

3. Ma mere est aussi chez nous. 11. L'eau est bonne. 

4. Les fils sont a table. 12. Les legumes sont bons. 

5. Les fiUes sont aussi a table. 13. Le lait est blanc. 

6. Mes cousins sont chez vous. 14. La viande est rouge. 

7. La salle est petite. 15. Le cafe est noir. 

8. La table est ronde. 

II. Prononcez. Dit (says), du (of the), de (thimble), deux 
(two), droit (right), sud (south), midi (south), tigre (tiger), 
t^legraphe (telegraph), trois (three), vite (quickly), vetement 
(garment), boite (box), tante (aunt), lait (milk), leur (their), 
lu (read), lit (bed), veulent (wish), consul (consul), gargon 
(boy), conte (tale), vaine (vain), plait (pleases), lui (to him), 
famille (family), roi (king). 

III. Questionnaire. 1. Is there any difference in the posi- 
tion of the tongue for (d) and for (t)? 2. Is French (d) more 
forcible or less forcible than English (d)? 3. Where is the 
tongue held to pronounce (1)? 4. How does (1) differ from 
English (1)? 5. Is there any difference in the position of the 
tongue for (d), (t), and (1)? 

Lesson 27 51 

IV. Traduisez. 1. What is your father^s name? 2. Is 
your father named Baptiste? (Two ways). 3. What is your 
mother^s name? 4. Is your uncle named Frangois? (Two 
ways). 5. How many brothers have you? 6. Is one of your 
brothers named James? (Two ways). 7. Is another of your 
brothers named Paul? (Two ways). 8. Have you any 
cousins (f.)? 9. Are your cousins pretty? (Two ways). 10. 
Does the family sit down to (the) table? (Two ways). 11. 
Does the family eat the cake? (Two ways). 12. Does your 
mother hide a bean in the cake? (Two ways). 13. If a man 
finds it, is he king? 14. If a woman finds it, is she queen? 



Study the Introduction, §§ 44, 45, 46. 


chapeau (fapo), m., hat maison (mezo), or (mGz5), f., house 

Plural, chapeaux (fapo) qui? (ki), who? 

79. Possession (Possession). Possession may be expressed 
in French by etre a. 

1. _A qui est le livre? To^ whom does the hook belong ? 

2. II est k Jean, It belongs to John, 

80. Some Contractions (Quelques Contractions). 

k -\-\e au (o), at the^ to the 

a + la . No change 

k -^V . No change 

k + les aux (o) 

Note. Neither a nor de contracts with pronoun forms. 
Je commence a le croire, / begin to believe it. 
Nous essayons de les voir, We are trying to see them. 


The Elements of French 


1. A qui est le livre rouge? 

2. A qui est la plume jaune? 

3. A qui est le crayon bleu? 

4. A qui est le journal? 

5. A qui est le canif? 

6. A qui est la lettre? 

7. A qui est le veston gris? 


1. II est au professeur. 

2. Elle est a la jeune fiUe. 

3. II est au gargon. 

4. II est au pere. 

5. II est au fils. 

6. Elle est a la mere. 

7. n est ^ Poncle. 

Exercice. Give the proper forms of, first de, then a, + 

the definite article, with the following words: main; 

mains; oreille; oreilles; nez; ceil; 

yeux ; f enetre ; f enetres ; eleves ; bouche ; 


couteau ; 





viande ; 

fourchette; — 
- legumes. 

81. Demonstrative Adjective thiSy that {VAdjectif Demon- 
stratif) . 

ces (se), or (ss) 
ces (se), or (se) 

ces (se), or (se) 

Masculine Singular 

Before a consonant: ce (sa) 

Before a vowel or h mute: cet (set) 


Before vowels or consonants: cette (set) 

1. ce pere (sa pe:r), this (or that) father 

2. ces peres (se peir), these (or those) fathers 

3. cet ami (set ami), this (or that) friend 

4. ces amis (sez ami), these (or those) friends 

5. cette mere (set me:r), this (or that) mother 

6. ces meres (se me:r), these (or those) mothers 



1. A qui est ce chapeau gris? 

2. A qui est ce chapeau brun? 

3. A qui sont ces deux chapeaux? 

4. A qui est cette robe jaune? 


1. Ce chapeau gris est au profes- 


2. Ce chapeau brun est aussi au 


3. Ces deux chapeaux sont au pro- 


4. Cette robe jaune est a Marie. 

Lesson 27 


5. A qui est cette robe rouge? 

6. A qui sont ces deux robes? 

7. Qui est cet enfant? 

8. Qui est cette enfant? 

9. Quels sont les noms de 



5. Cette robe rouge est aussi a 


6. Ces deux robes soilt ^ Marie. 

7. Cet enfant s'appelle Jean. 

8. Cette enfant s*appelle Jeanette. 

9. Les noms de ces enfants sont 

Jean et Jeanette. 

I. Use the proper form of ce with the following words: 

enfant; ecole; ami; amis; oncle; 

oncles; fenetre; salle; salles; chapeau; 








cousin ; 


famille; - 
legume; — 
- lait; 

- families; - 
legumes; — 

— dejeuner; 

- couteau; 
viande; — 

— pain; — 

— cousme; 

• maison. 

II. Apprenez. 


Jean qui pleure et Jean qui rit, 
C'est le soleil et la pluie, 
Toujours gai, Tun rejouit, 
Toujours plaintif, Tautre ennuie. 

Ha! ha! hi! hi! 
Jean qui rit a ri; 

Hu! hu! heu! heu! 
Voila Jean qui pleure. 

III. Prononcez. Montague {mountain) , digne (worthy) y ig- 
norant (ignorant), magnifique (magnificent), baigner (bathe), 
craignons (we fear), peignant (combing), agent (agent), general 
(general), camouflage (camouflage), garage (garage), machine 
(engine) , vs(.che (cow), chien (dog), chez (at the house of), cheval 
(horse), juin (June), huit (eight), perdre (lose), veau (calf), 
ceux (those), nul (no), soeur (sister), pain (bread). 

IV. Questionnaire. 1. What English sounds does (ji) re- 
semble, and how does it differ from the English? 2. Where is 
the tip of the tongue held for (J)? 3. What English sound 

54 The Elements of French 

does (J) resemble? 4. What is the position of the lips for (3)? 
5. What Enghsh sound does (3) resemble? 6. What is the 
position of the tongue for (3)? 

V. Traduisez. 1. To whom does this red house belong? 
2. It belongs to his father. 3. To whom does that little 
table belong? 4. It belongs to your uncle. 5. To whom does 
this large picture belong? 6. It belongs to your young sister. 
7. To whom do those brown hats belong? 8. They belong to 
my friend (f.). 9. To whom does this red dress belong? 
10. It belongs to your aunt's friend (f.). 




corps (ko:r), m., body portez-vous? (porte vu), do you 

dos (dos), m., hack wear? are you wearing? 

gilet (sile), m., vest je porte (39 port), / wear {am wear- 

jambe (3a:b), f., leg ing) 

montrez-moi (motre mwa), show me qu'est-ce que? (k e s ka), what? (as 

pantalon (pdtalo), m., trousers object of verb) 

par-dessus (pardsy), prep., over Soulier (sulje), m., shoe 

pardessus (pardsy), m., overcoat vetements (vGtma),m.,plur.,cZo//ies, 

pied (pje), m..,foot clothing 
poitrine (pwatrin), f., chest 

I. Exercice de Lecture. Voici des vetements. Sur la tete 
je porte un chapeau noir. Voila le petit chapeau de Charles; 
il est gris. Ce chapeau brun est a Philippe. Sur le dos j^ai 
un veston bleu. Le veston brun est a Charles. Voila aussi 
un veston gris; il est a Jacques. Sous le veston il y a un gilet 
bleu. Je porte aussi un pardessus noir. Le pardessus de 
Jean est gris. Ce grand pardessus brun est a Philippe. Sur 
les jambes je porte un pantalon bleu. Voila un pantalon 
gris; il est a Jacques. Charles a un pantalon brun. Que 
portez-vous sur les pieds? Jacques porte des souliers jaunes; 
mes souliers sont noirs. 

Lesson 28 55 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Montrez-moi des vetements. 2. Que 
portez-vous sur la tete? 3. Est-ce que vous portez un chapeau 
noir? 4. Qu^est-ce que vous portez sur le dos? 5. De quelle 
couleur est ce veston? 6. A qui est ce veston brun? 7. A 
qui est ce veston gris? 8. Qu^est-ce que vous portez par- 
dessus le veston? 9. Votre pardessus est-il grand ou petit? 
10. De quelle couleur est le pardessus de Charles? 11. A qui 
est ce pardessus gris? 12. Montrez-moi un pardessus noir, 
s41 vous plait. 13. Comment portez-vous votre gilet? 14. 
Le portez-vous sur le dos? 15. De quelle couleur est votre 
gilet? 16. De quelle couleur est votre robe, mademoiselle? 
17. Qu^est-ce que vous portez sur les pieds? 18. De quelle 
couleur sont vos souliers? 19. Est-ce que vos souliers sont 
grands ou petits? 20. Combien de souliers avez-vous? 21. 
Combien de vestons avez-vous, monsieur? 22. Combien de 
robes avez-vous, mademoiselle? 

III. Traduisez. 1. These clothes belong to my uncle, do 
they not? 2. Here is his gray hat; he has no black hat. 
3. That black hat belongs to your cousin, does it not? 4. 
Here is a brown hat on the chair; it belongs to Philip. 5. 
Do you wear these gray trousers, or is it your brother who 
{qui) wears them? 6. Here are some black shoes; you have 
no black shoes, have you? 7. Give me that little gray hat, 
if you please. 8. Does this clothing belong to you? 9. Here 
is your hat, but those shoes belong to your cousin. 10. What 
is the color of your coat, black or blue? 11. Today you are 
wearing a black coat and vest, with gray trousers, are you not? 

IV. Apprenez. 


Fr^re Jacques, frere Jacques, 
Dormez-vous, dormez-vous? 
Sonnez les matines, sonnez les matines, 
Din, din, don, 
Din, din, don. 

56 The Elements of French 


Study the Introduction, § 45, especially section h; also § 46. 

admirer (admire), to admire entrer (dans) (atre da), to enter 

boutique (butik), f., shop feuille (foeij), f., leaf 

commander (komade), to order morceau (morso), m., piece; morsel 

complet (kopls), m., suit {of clothes) Plural, morceaux (morso) 

deja (de3a), already 

82. The Three Conjugations {les Trots Conjugaisons). 
There are three regular conjugations in French, distinguished 

by the endings of the infinitives. These endings are: 
-er (First Conjugation) 
-ir (Second Conjugation) 
-re (Third Conjugation) 

1. donner (done), (to) give First Conjugation 

2. finir (finiir), (to) finish Second Conjugation 

3. perdre (perdr), (to) lose Third Conjugation 

83. Present Indicative of donner {le Present de VIndicatif 

du Verhe donner). 

Affirmative (Affirmatif) 
je donne (3^ don), / give^ am giving. 
tu donnes (ty don), you give, are giving. 
il donne (il don), he gives, is giving. 
nous donnons (nu dono), we give, are giving. 
vous donnez (vu done), you give, are giving. 
lis* donnent (il don), they give, are giving. 

Interrogative (Interrogatif) 
est-ce que je donne ?t (e s ko 30 don), do I give? am I giving? 
donnes- tu? (don ty), do you give? are you giving? 
donne-t-il? (don t il), does he give? is he giving? 
donnons-nous? (dono nu), do we give? are we giving? 
donnez-vous? (done vu), do you give? are you giving? 
donnent-ils? (dont il), do they give? are they giving? 

* Observe that -ent is silent in the third person plural of verbs. It is 
sounded in other words, as comment (koma). 

t More common than donne-je? (done 3), which is rarely used. 

(Note that e is pronounced (e) when there is a mute e (o) in the following 

Lesson 29 57 

Negative (Negatif) 

je ne donnje pas (3a na don pa), / do not give, am not giving. 
tu ne donnes pas (ty na don pa), you do not givCy are not giving, 
il ne donn^ pas (il na don pa), he does not givey is not giving. 
nous ne don nons pas (nu na don5 pa), we do not give^ are not giving. 
vous ne donnez pas (vu na done pa), you do not give^ are not giving. 
ils ne donn ent pas (il na don pa), they do not give^ are not giving. 

Negative-Interrogative {Negatif -1 nterrogatif) 

* est-ce que je ne donne pas? (s s ka 3a na don pa), do I not give? an 
I not giving? 

ne donnes-tu pas? (na don ty pa), do you not give? are you not giving? 
ne donne-t-il-pas? (na don t il pa), does he not give? is he not giving? 
ne don nons- nous pas? (na dono nu pa), do we not give? are we not giving? 
ne donnez-vous pas? (na done vu pa), do you not give? are you not giving? 
ne donnent-ils pas? (na dont il pa), do they not give? are they not giving? 

Conjuguez. 1. Je donne du pain au gargon, tu donnes du 
pain au gargon, etc. 2. Je trouve mes souliers, tu trouves 
tes souliers, etc. 3. Je ne porte pas de pardessus, tu ne 
portes pas de pardessus, etc. 4. Est-ce que je touche la 
table? touches-tu la table? etc* 


— Je donne^ un crayon a Marie. 

Qui donn£le crayon? 
— ^Vous donnez le crayon. 
— Donnez-vous aussi un crayon a Marie? 
— Oui, monsieur, je le donne^a Marie. Nous donnons des crayons. 

Jacques donnje^ une f euille de papier k Charles. 

Jean donnje une f euille de papier a Charles. 

Jacques et Jean donnent du papier k Charles. 

84. The Pronoun en (le Pronom en). En (a) = de + a 
pronoun of the third person. Translate en by of it, of therriy 
from ity from them, by some or any when there is no noun. 

* Instead of ne dpnne-je pas? (na done 5 pa), which is rarely usedt 

58 The Elements of French 

Position. En immediately precedes the verb. 

1 . Prenez-vous du pain? — Oui, monsieur, j'en prends, s*il vous plait. 

2. Prenez-vous des legumes? — Merci, je n^en prends pas. En prenez- 

3. Prenez-vous du cafe? — Merci, monsieur, j*en aide ji. En avez-vous? 

4. Prenez-vous de la viande? — Merci, monsieur, je n'en^ prends pas 
maintenant. En prenez-vous? 

5. Mangez-vous des fruits? — Oui, monsieur, j'en mange. 

6. Portez-vous des souliers? — J'en porte. 

7. Portez-vous des chapeaux? — J'en porte un. 

I. Conjuguez. 1. J^en donne a mes cousins, tu en donnes 
a tes cousins, etc. 2. Je n'en trouve pas chez nous, tu 
n^en trouves pas chez nous, etc. 3. J^entre dans cette bouti- 
que, tu entres dans cette boutique, etc. 4. Est-ce que je 
commande un bon complet? commandes-tu un bon com- 
plet? etc. 5. Est-ce que je n^en trouve pas? n'en trouves- 
tu pas? etc. 

II. In the following sentences, substitute en for the words 
in italics, placing en immediately before the verb: 

1. Est-ce que j'ai des crayons? 2. N^avez-vous pas de 
plumes? 3. Trouvez-vous de la craie? 4. Y a-t-il des fene- 
tres? 5. Combien de plumes trouvez-vous? 6. Combien de 
portes y a-t-il? 7. Combien de tables y a-t-il? 8. Vous n^avez 
pas de papier, 9. Est-ce que vous n^avez pas de journal? 

10. Yoilk du lait, 11. Yoici du dessert, 12. Yoici de la viande. 

Let the student answer the questions in the above exercise, 
using en. Also, let him conjugate each verb, using en. 

III. Traduisez. 1. We order some. 2. You do not order 
any. 3. Do they order any? 4. I do not find any. 5. Do 
they find any? 6. We find some, do we not? 7. Will you 
have some broth? 8. I have some already, thank you. 9. 
Will you have some milk? 10. 1^11 not have any, thank you. 

11. What will you have for dessert? 12. I'll have some 
fruit, if you please. 13. Here is some. 

Lesson 30 59 

IV. Apprenez. 


Je suis un petit gargon, 

De belle figure, 
Qui aime bien les bonbons, 

Et les confitures. 
Si vous voulez bien m'en donner, 
Je saurai bien les manger. 
La bonne aventure! 

Oh! gai! 
La bonne aventure! 

Lorsque les petits gargons, 
oi Sont gentils et sages, 

On leur donne des bonbons, , . 

De jolies images. 
Mais quand ils se font gronder, 
C*est le fouet qu*il faut donner! 
La triste aventure! 

Oh! gai! 
La triste aventure! 


I. Conjuguez. 1. Est-ce que je suis dans ma maison? 
es-tu dans ta maison? etc. 2. Est-ce que je ne suis pas 
chez elle? n'es-tu pas chez elle? etc. 3. Est-ce que je le 
donne? le donnes-tu? etc. 4. Est-ce que je ne les trouve 
pas? ne les trouves-tu pas? etc. 5. J^en trouve, tu en 
trouves, etc. 6. Je n'ai pas de cafe, tu n'as pas de cafe, 

II. Use the proper form of ce, son, and bon with the follow- 
ing words: chapeaux; ecole; chaise; 

chaises; granomaire; fenetre; fenetres; 

viande; amie; ami; oncle; oncles; 

enfant (m. and f.); enfants (m. and f.); morceau; 


60 The Elements of French 

III. Supply words for the blanks: 1. Void legumes. 

prenez-vous? 2. Donnez-moi viande, s'il vous 

plait. 3. Merci, je prends pas. 4. Donnez-moi 

fruits, s^il vous plait. 5. voil^, monsieur. 6. Je prends 

aussi lait et eau. 7. Prenez-vous dessert? 

8. Merci, j ai deja. 

IV. Exercice Oral. 1. Qu'est-ce que vous portez sur la 
tete? 2. De quelle couleur est-il? 3. Qu'est-ce que vous 
portez sur le corps? 4. De quelle couleur est-il? 5. Montrez- 
moi des pardessus, s^il vous plait. 6. A qui est ce pardessus 
brun? 7. Que portez-vous sur les pieds? 8. De quelle cou- 
leur est votre robe, mademoiselle? 9. Combien de robes avez- 
vous, mademoiselle? 10. Combien de gilets avez-vous, mon- 

V. Traduisez. 1. Is this room large or small? 2. Is that 
table round? 3. Is there any broth today? 4. Are there any 
vegetables on the table? 5. Give some water to this child, if 
you please. 6. Is the meat good today? 7. Will you have 
some? Here is some, sir. 8. Thank you, I'll not take any, 
but there is some for your son. 9. Does that black hat belong 
to your son? 10. Does that white dress belong to Mary or to 
your daughter? 11. Here is your overcoat, but this sack coat 
belongs to your cousin. 12. Give me that brown vest, if you 

VI. Supplementary Exercise {Exercice Supplementaire) . 1. 
Are your father and (your) mother at home today? (Two 
ways). 2. Whose is this red pen-holder? 3. Does not this 
pen-holder belong to the pupil? 4. Whose are these white 
dresses? 5. Do not these white dresses belong to Mary's 
friend? 6. Do not these clothes belong to your uncle? 7. 
You'll have lunch now, will you not? 8. I'll not have any 
meat, but I'll have vegetables, if you please. 9. Won't you 
have some cake for dessert? 10. There is some. 11. Will 
you have some? Thank you, I'll not have any today. 

Lesson 31 61 




americain (amerike), adj., American mesure (mazyir), f., measure 

beaucoup (de) (boku), much; a great paire (pe:r), f., pair 

deal; a great many on peut (5 p0), one {we, they) can 

coupe (kup), f., cut (of clothes) promenade (promnad), f., walk 

diner (dine), m., dinner poche (poj*), f., pocket 

dit (di), says; said prix (pri), m., price 

elegant (elega), adj., elegant; stylish pourquoi (purkwa), why 

enfin (afe), adv. j finally; at last quel (kel), m., adj., what, what a 
fort (foir), adv., very Fern., quelle (kel) 

froid (frwa), m., (noun and ad- je reponds (3a repo), / reply 

jective), cold revolver (revolveir), m., revolver 

franc (fra), m., franc (French coin rue (ry), f., street 

worth about 20 cents) tailleur (tajoeir), m., tailor 

garantir (garatiir), to protect; guar- theatre (teaitr), m., theater 

antee y (i), there; at it; to it; at thern; to 
s'habiller (s abije), to dress one's them. (Precedes verb; less em- 

self phatic than la, there) 

me (ma), me (used as object of giletdefantaisie (siledafdtezi), m., 

verb) fancy vest 


Me voila dans la rue Auber, a Paris. J^ admire beaucoup 
les boutiques des tailleurs. On peut s^ habiller des pieds a 
la tete. J^entre dans une de ces boutiques. Je commande 
un veston noir, un pantalon gris, et un gilet de fantaisie. Le 
prix en est de deux cents (200) francs. C'est un complet 
fort elegant. 

Un des tailleurs prend (takes) ma mesure pour le veston. 

Quelle coupe? dit-il. 

La coupe americaine. 

Combieu de poches? 

Beaucoup, s'il vous plait. 

Et combien de poches revolver* au pantalon? 

Deux poches revolver. 

* Usually a common noun used as an adjective is invariable. 

62 The Elements of French 

' Deux poches revolver! Quel Americain! dit le tailleur. 

Je commande aussi un pardessus, pour me garantir du froid. 
Puis, je trouve une paire de souliers fort Elegants et k 
(fitting) mon pied. 
Enfin, je dine, et je vais au theatre. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Dans quelle rue etes-vous? 2. Ou 
se trouve (is) la rue Auber? 3. Est-ce qu'il y a des boutiques 
dans cette rue? 4. A qui sont les boutiques? 5. Que faites- 
vous dans les boutiques? 6. Est-ce que vous entrez dans une 
boutique? 7. Qu^est-ce que vous commandez? 8. Est-ce que 
vous commandez un veston? 9. De quelle couleur est ce 
veston? 10. De quelle coupe est ce veston? 11. Est-ce 
que c'est un grand veston? 12. Est-ce que vous commandez 
un pantalon? 13. De quelle couleur est ce pantalon? 14. 
Portez-vous aussi un gilet? 15. Est-ce un gilet de fantaisie? 
16. Qui prend votre mesure? 17. Pourquoi prend-il votre 
mesure? 18. Quelle coupe commandez-vous? 19. Combien 
de poches avez-vous? 20. Qu'est-ce que vous portez dans les 
poches? 21. Portez-vous des revolvers? 22. Montrez-moi 
une poche revolver. 23. Pourquoi portez-vous un pardessus? 
24. Commandez-vous une paire de souliers? 25. Ces souliers 
sont-ils elegants? 26. Ces souliers sont-ils a votre pied? 

III. Traduisez. 1. The Rue Auber is a large street in (of) 
Paris. 2. There are many shops in this street. 3. We admire 
them a great deal. 4. We enter (in) one of these shops to 
order some clothes. 5. In this shop there are some gray 
sack coats, and some fancy vests. 6. Thank you, I'll not 
order any today. 7. Here is a very elegant suit, but the 
price (of it) is (of) 200 francs. 8. I'll take this suit, if you 
please. 9. There are many cuts, but I'll take the American 
cut. 10. Give me some hip pockets, if you please, and three 
or four other pockets. 11. I always have (J'ai toujours) b. 
great many pockets. 12. I carry penknives, pencils, pens, 
and francs in my pockets. 13. I'll take another pair of shoes 

Lesson 32 63 

now, if you please. 14. These shoes are not stylish, and do 
not fit my feet. 15. Then Fll take some dinner; I am hungry 
already. 16. Are you going to the theater this evening? 



1 . Montrez-moi un chapeau. 

2. Touchez le chapeau avec la main gauche. 

3. Levez le chapeau. 

4. Mettez le chapeau sur une chaise. 

5. Montrez-moi votre veston, monsieur. 

6. Montrez-moi votre robe, mademoiselle. 

7. Touchez votre veston avec la main droite. 

8. Combien de poches avez-vous? 

9. Mettez la main gauche dans une poche. 

10. Mettez la main droite dans une poche revolver. 

11. Comptez vos. poches. 



balle (bal), f., hall; bullet coup (ku), m., stroke 

choisir (Jwaziir), to choose entendre (ataidr), to hear 


First Conjugation Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 

(Premiere Conjugaison) (Deuxieme Conjugaison) (Troisieme Conjiigaisori) 

Infinitive (Infinitif) 
donner (done), to give finir (finiir), to finish perdre (psrdr),'^<o Zose 

Present Participle (Participe PrSsent) 
donnant* (dona) , giving finissant * (finisa) , finishing perdant* (psrda), losing 

Past Participle {Participe PassS) 
donn6 (done), given fini (fini), finished perdu (psrdy), lost 

* Note that the present participle always ends in -ant, but in the second con- 
jugation it ends in -issant. 

64 The Elements of French 

86. The Present Indicative stem of regular verbs may always 
be obtained in the following manner: 

For the singular^ drop the ending of the infinitive. 
For the plural^ drop the -ant of the present participle. 

The stems of the model verbs donner, finfr, perdre, will 
thus be: 


donn- donn- 

fin- finiss- *^ 

perd- perd- 

The following personal endings are added to the stem : 


First Conj. Second Conj. Third Conj. All Conj. 

1. -e -is -s -ons 

2. -es -is -s -ez 

3. -e -it -t -ent 

87. The Present Indicative of donner^ finhy perdre {le 
Present de VIndicatif de donner, ftnir, perdre). 

'8 Qj (donne (don) '§ <u Cfinjs (fini) 'S o (perds (peir) 

g -3 K donnes (don) § ^ i ^}1 (^^^) § ^ i P®*"^^ (P^ir) 

o < I donne (don) © ^ ( finit (fini) ^ ^ ( perd* (peir) 

donnons (dono) finissons (finiso) perdons (psrdo) 

donnez (done) finissez (finise) perdez (perde) 

donnent (don)t finissent (finis)t perdent (pGrd)t 

Conjuguez. 1. Je finis ce coup, tu finis ce coup, etc. 2. Je 
perds la balle, tu perds la balle, etc. 3. Est-ce que je Ten- 
tends? Tentends-tu? etc. 4. Est-ce que je choisis ce complet? 
choisis-tu ce complet? etc. 

* Perd is an irregular form. Like other verbs of the third conjugation, 
whose stems end in d or t, perdre adds no t in the third singular of the present 
indicative. Compare the regular verb rompre, to break, the third singular of 
which is rompt. 

t Observe that -ent, as the third person plural ending of a verb, is silent. 

Lesson 32 



1. Voici des crayons, Est-ce que 

je choisis un crayon bleu? 

2. Quel crayon chois issez -vous? 

3. Quels crayons choisissons- 


4. Quel crayon choisit Charles? 

5. Quel crayon choish Jean? 

6. Quels crayons Charles et Jean 

chois issent -ils? 

7. Perdez-vous votre plume? 

8. Est-ce que je perds aussi ma 


9. Est-ce que nous perdqns nos 


10. Est-ce que Jacques perd sa 


11. Est-ce que Philippe perd aussi 

sa plume? 

12. Est-ce que Jacques et Philippe 

per dent leurs plumes? 


1. Vous le choisissez. 

2. Je choisis aussi un crayon bleu. 

3. Nous choisissons des crayons 


4. n choisjt xm crayon rouge. 

5. n choisjt aussi un crayon rouge. 

6. Us chois issent des crayons 


7. Je la perds. 

8. Vous la perdcz, aussi. 

9. Nous les perdons. 

10. II la perd. 

11. n la perd, aussi. 

12. lis les perdent. 

I. Questionnaire. 1. Give the interrogative, negative, and 
negative-interrogative of finir, perdre, choisir, entendre, and 

II. Conjuguez. 1. J'entends ma mere, tu entends ta mere, 
etc. 2. Je finis mon diner, tu finis ton diner, etc. 3. Est-ce 
que je perds mon pardessus? perds-tu ton pardessus? etc. 
3. Est-ce que je choisis un complet gris? choisis-tu un com- 
plet gris? etc. 4. Je ne finis pas ma legon, tu ne finis pas ta 
legon, etc. 

III. Traduisez. 1. I am losing. 2. Are you losing? 3. 
Do they lose? 4. We are finishing. 5. Does he choose? 
6. Do I finish? 7. Does the teacher hear? 8. Do the pupils 
hear? 9. Do they (f.) not choose? 10. This tailor guaran- 
tees this overcoat, does he not? 

66 The Elements of French 




attendre (ataidr), to wait^ wait for inattention (inatasjo), f., inattention 

Annette (anet), f., Annette jeu (30), m., game 
avantage (avatars), m., advantage Plural jeux (30) f 

chercher (J'srje), to look for jouer (3we), to play 

chien (Jje), m., dog maman (mama), f., mamma 

centre (koitr), against mettre (metr), irreg., to put; put on 

crier (krie), to cry passer (pase), to pass 

a deux (a d0), deu^e point (pwe), m., point; (plural) score 

delicatesse (delikates), f., delicacy profiter (profile), to profit 

distraction (distraksjo), f., distrac- queue (k0), f., tail 

Hon rapporter (raporte), to bring back 

en* (a), prep., in, into (less restric- remuer (ramqe), to stir, wag 

live than dans) saisir (seziir), to seize 

encore (akoir), yet, still, again tennis (tenis), m., tennis 

gagner (gajie), to win, gain terre (teir), f., earth, ground 

gueule (goel), f.,jaws (of an animal) toujours (tusuir), always 

va chercher, goes for. II va chercher le journal, He goes after { goes to 
get) the newspaper. 

passer contre nous, to strike (pass) against us 
en remnant {while) moving, wagging 


Annette joue au tennis avec M. Bertin. Sa mere les entend 
crier les points: quinze, trente, quarante, a deux, avantage, 

Sa mere va chercher Annette . . . Annette dit: 

Bonjour, maman, attends . . . Nous n'avons pas encore 

fini ce coup. 

Cette distraction perd la jeune fille. La balle passe contre 
elle, et touche terre. 

M. Bertin crie ''Gagne.'' 

* As a rule, the preposition en is not used before an article, 
t Note that nouns ending in -au, -eu, add -x in the plural. 
X From a scene in Fort comme la mort, by Guy d"e Maupassant. 

Lesson 34 67 

La jeune fiUe crie: '^Vous avez profite de mon inattention/' 
Julio, le chien, cherche la balle. II la saisit dans la gueule 
avec delicatesse, et la rapporte, en remnant la queue. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Qui joue au tennis? 2. Combien de 
points y a-t-il? 3. Comptez les points, s^il vous plait. 4. Qui 
va chercher Annette? 5. Que dit Annette? 6. Est-ce que 
la jeune fille perd le point? 7. Ou passe la balle? 8. Que 
touche la balle? 9. Qu'est-ce que M. Bertin crie? 10. Quelle 
est la reponse de la jeune fille? 11. Comment s'appelle le 
chien? 12. Ou va le chien? 13. Comment saisit-il la balle? 
14. Est-ce qu^il la rapporte? 15. Qu'est-ce qu'il remue? 

III. Traduisez. 1. John and James are playing (at the) 
tennis. 2. There are sixty points in (d) that game. 3. 
The following are (here are) the points: fifteen, thirty, 
forty, game. 4. John has the advantage by (de) ten points. 
5. He has forty points against thirty. 6. Then (puis) 
James wins ten points. 7. The score is now deuce (they arc 
now at deuce). 8. John wins the advantage, then the game. 
9. He cries, "IVe won for the first (premiere) timeT' 

IV. Apprenez. 


II y a un petit chien chez nous, 

Qui remue les pattes, 

Qui remue les pattes, 
II y a un petit chien chez nous, 

Qui remue les patt', tout comme vous. 


CE . . . 'CI and CE . . . -LA 

88. Ce . . . -ci and ce . . . -la. To distinguish between 
this and that, -ci and -la may be attached to the noun. 

1. ce livre, this or that hook, 

2. ce livre-ci, this book. 

3. ce livre-li, that book. 
Observe. Ce means this or that. 

68 The Elements of French 


1. Comment s'appelle cet enfant- 7. Combien de poches a ce veston 

ci? la? Answer: II en a . . • 

2. Comment s*appelle cet eleve-la? 

3. Est-ce que ces vetements-ci sont 8. De quelle couleur sont ces 

bons? crayons-ci? 

4. Est-ce que ce veston-1^ est bleu? 

_ "~ ,~ . 9- Ouvrez cette fenetre-la, s*il 

5. Est-ce que ces Soulier s-ci sont ^^^^ Dlait~~ 


6. Est-ce que ce pantalon-1^ a des 10. Fermez cette fenetre-d, s*il 

poches? vous plait. 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Jouez-vous aujourd'hui au tennis? 
2. Jouez-vous contre votre frere? 3. Est-ce que vous jouez 
contre votre oncle? 4. Jouez-vous contre cet eleve-ci? 5. Est-ce 
que vous gagnez toujours? 6. Jouez-vous avec la main gauche 
ou avec la main droite? 7. Combien de points y a-t-il dans 
un jeu? 8. Perdez-vous des balles? 9. Cherchez-vous les 
balles? 10. Ce chien-ci rapporte-t-il les balles? 11. Ou les 
saisit-il? 12. Est-ce que vous avez une gueule? 13. Com- 
ment saisissez-vous une balle? 14. Portez-vous un chapeau 
quand vous jouez au tennis? 15. Est-ce que vous mettez 
des souliers? 16. Ou sont vos souliers? 17. De quelle couleur 

II. Traduisez. 1. We are playing (at) tennis this morning 
with some boys. 2. John always wins at that game. 3. He 
is always losing (il perd toujours) the balls. 4. Our dog Julio 
goes after them. 5. He seizes them in his jaws and brings 
them back. 6. He hears us call out the score (points) and 
wags his tail. 7. My sister Annette plays (at) tennis a great 
deal, also. 8. My mother hears her call out the score: deuce, 
advantage, game. 9. My mother goes after her, and dis- 
turbs (perd) the (young) girl. 10. Annette loses, and I cry 
'^Won.^' 11. I profit by the inattention of the girl. 12. This 
morning I am losing a great many balls. 13. I am going 
to look for them today. 14. I play with my (the) right hand; 
John plays with his left hand. 

Lesson 35 69 


I. Conjuguez. 1. J^entre dans cette maison-1^, tu entres 
dans cette maison-1^, etc. 2, Je saisis cette balle-ci, tu saisis 
cette balle-ci, etc. 3. Est-ce que je perds mon chapeau? 
perds-tu ton chapeau? etc. 4. Est-ce que je ne Tentends pas? 
ne Tentends-tu pas? etc. 

II. Use the proper forms of ce . . . -ci and ce . . . Ak with 

the following nouns: coupe; coup; prix; 

promenade; revolver; tailleur; theatre; 

franc; paire; mesure; diner; rue; balle; 

chien; gueule; — = — tennis; terre; queue; 

jeu; avantage; inattention; distrac- 
tion; feuille. 

III. Fill in the blanks (Remplacez les tirets), 1. Est-ce que 

j'admir boutique-ci? 2. Est-ce que j^entr- dans c^ 

boutique-la? 3. Command vous un veston gris? 4. Com- 
mand ils gilets de fantaisie? 5. Command vous 

pantalon noir? 6. Est-ce que je prend- votre mesure? 

7. Est-ce que pardessus vous garant du froid? 8. 

Pren vous votre chapeau? 9. Chois nous un bon 

dtner? 10. Mang vous beaucoup de fruits? 11. Est-ce 

que je v au theatre? 

Let the student prepare answers in French to these questions. 

IV. Exercice Oral. 1. Dans quelle rue etes-vous? 2. Est-ce 
que vous trouvez des boutiques dans cette rue? 3. Entrez- 
vous dans une boutique? 4. Commandez-vous un complet? 
5. Ce complet est-il bon ou mauvais? 6. De quelle couleur 
est-il? 7. Combien de poches commandez-vous? 8. Oiiportez- 
vous votre revolver? 9. Jouez-vous au tennis aujourd^hui? 
10. Perdez-vous ou gagnez-vous? 11. Qui rapporte vos balles? 
12. Contre qui jouez-vous? 13. Qu' est-ce que vous portez? 

70 The Elements of French 

V. Traduisez. 1. There are many shops in this street, 
but there are not many (of them) in that street. 2. In this 
shop there are some white hats, and white trousers. 3. We 
wear some while {en) playing (at the) tennis. 4. Here 
are some elegant white trousers, but the price (of them) is 
50 francs. 5. These white shoes are very styhsh, but they do 
not fit my feet. 6. We can play tennis today; there are some 
balls. 7. Our uncle Charles hears me call out the score 
(points), 8. He goes after the balls; we lose many (of them). 
9. We wear white trousers and white shoes, but we wear no 
hats, and we wear no coats. 10. My uncle wears an overcoat, 
to protect himself {se garantir) from the cold. 


89. The Interrogative Adjective quel? (VAdjectif Inter- 
rogatif quel?). The adjectives which? what? what a! are trans- 
lated into French by 

Singulier Pluriel 

Masculin quel (kcl) quels (kel) 

Feminin quelle (kel) quelles (kel) 

1. Quel est le livre que vous avez achete? What is the book that you 

have bought? 

2. Quelle est la route de Paris? What is the road to Paris? 

3. Quel Americain! What an American! 

4. Quelle jeune fiUe! What a girl! 

5. Quels bons gar^ons! What good boys! 

6. Quelles petites maisons! What little houses! 

Exercice. Put the proper form of quel before the following 

nouns: main; chapeau; poche; • canif; 

theatre; diner; — souliers; chaises; balle; 

avantage; terres; jeux; chiens; enfant ; 

enfants; promenades; hommes; couleur. 

Lesson 36 71 

90. Time of Day {V Heure), To express the time of day, 
use il to mean it. 

1. II est deux heures, U is two o'clock. 

2. II est une heure, It is one o'clock. 

3. II est midi, U is noon. 

4. II est minuit (minqi), l£is midnight. 

5. n est une heure et demie,* It^is half past one. 

6. n est quatre heures et demie,* It is half past four. 

7. n est six heures (et) un quart, It^is a quarter after six. 

8. n est sept heures moins un quart, It^is a quarter of seven. 

9. II est midi et demi, Uis half past twelve {P.M.). 

10. n est minuit (et) un quart, his a quarter past twelve {A.M.) 

11. n est neuf heures moins cinq (minutes), his five minutes of nine. 

12. n est dix heures dix (minutes), It^is ten minutes after ten. 

13. II est onze heures vingt-cinq, l£is eleven twenty-five. 

Read in French {.Lisez en francais). 1. 9:15. 2. 10:30. 
3. 6:00. 4. 6:15. 5. 6:45. 6. 4.20. 7. 8:55. 8. 9:10. 
9. 3:15. 10. 6:30. 11. 11:30. 12. 4:05. 13. 4:55. 14. 
5:45. 15. 1:30. 16. 1:15. 17. 1:00. 

91. The following words have two forms, with different 
meanings : 

matin (mate), m., morning (time of day) 

matinee (matine), f., morning (with its happenings) 

soir (swair), m., evening (time of day) 

soiree (sware), f., evening (with its happenings) 

an (a) m., year (as a date) 

annee (ane), f., year (with its happenings) 

jour (3u:r), m., day (as a date) 

journee (surne), f., day (with its happenings) 

Note also: midi (midi), m., noon 
apres-midi (apre midi), m., f., afternoon 

* Une heure et demie means half past one, or, one and a half hours. 

Cinq heures et demie means half past five, or, five and a half hours. 

Huit heures et demie means half past eight, or, eight and a half hours. 

But Une demi-heure means a half hour. 

Demi preceding the noun is joined to it by a hyphen, and does not agree. 
It is thus treated as part of the noun. Demi(e) following the noun agrees like 
an adjective. 

72 The Elements of French 

1. II est onze heures du matin, It is eleven o^ clock A.M. (= in the 
mornin g) . * 

2. Nous passons une bonne matinee, We spend a good morning . 

3. II est neuf heures du soir, It is nine o'clock P.M.{ = in the evening; ).* 

4. II passe ses soirees au theatre, He spends his evenings at the theater. 

I. Exercise Oral ou Ecrit. Let the teacher ask Quelle 
hetire est-il? and let the student reply in French: 1. 12:15 
A.M. 2. 12:15 P.M. 3. 1:30 A.M. 4. 2:45 P.M. 5. 6:10 
A.M. 6. 7:25 P.M. 7. 8:05 A.M. 8. 12:30 P.M. 9. 12:30 
A.M. 10. 12:45 A.M. 11. 12:45 P.M. 12. 7:55 A.M. 
13. 8:45 P.M. 

(a) Observe the following expressions: 

ce matin (sa mate), this morning 

ce soir (sa swair), this evening 

lundi dernier (loedi dernje), last Monday 

hier soir (jeir swair), yesterday evening 

demain matin (dame mate), tomorrow morning 



aiguille (egqi:j) f., needle; hand (of marquer (marke), to mark; score 

a watch) minute (minyt), f., minute 

avancer (avase), to advance; he montre (moitr), f., watch 

fast remonter (ramote), to wind (of 

arriver (arive), to arrive watches) 

exact (egzakt), exact; right . retarder (ratarde), to be slow 

il faut (11 fo), it is necessary seconde (sag3:d)t, f., second 

heure (oeir), f., hour; time soixante (swasait), sixty 

indiquer (edike), to indicate k votre montre, by your watch 

* Frenchmen count time more and more from 1 to 24 hours: e.g., neuf heures 
du soir =vingt et une heures. This is always the case in time tables and not 
infrequently elsewhere. 

t Note that the c of the noun seconde, as well as of the ordinal numeral 
second(e), is pronounced (9). 

Lesson 87 73 


Voici une montre. Cette montre a deux aiguilles. La 
petite aiguille indique les heures. La grande aiguille indique les 
minutes. La petite aiguille est k neuf, mais la grande est k 
douze. II est neuf heures du matin. Est-ce que ma montre 
est exacte? Non, monsieur, elle retarde d^une heure et demie. 
II faut la remonter. Quelle heure est-il h votre montre? A* ma 
montre il est dix heures et demie. Quelle heure est-il a la 
montre de Jean? Sa montre marque onze heures moins vingt- 
cinq minutes. Elle avance de cinq minutes. 

IL Exercice Oral. 1. Quelle heure est-il a votre montre? 
2. Votre montre est-elle bonne? 3. Est-ce qu'elle retarde? 
4. Est-ce qu'elle avance? 5. Est-ce qu'il faut la remonter? 
6. Ou est la petite aiguille? 7. Ou est la grande aiguille? 8. 
Quelle aiguille indique les heures? 9. Quelle aiguille indique 
les minutes? 10. Qu' est-ce que la montre de Charles marque? 
IL A quelle heure entrez-vous dans la classe? 12. Arrivez- 
vous k rheure {on time)! 13. A quelle heure prenez-vous votre 
petit dejeuner? 14. A quelle heure prenez-vous votre dejeuner? 
15. A quelle heure finissez-vous votre dejeuner? 16. A quelle 
heure jouez^vous au tennis? 17. A quelle heure allez-vous au 
theatre? 18. Combien de minutes y a-t-il dans une heure? 
19. Combien de secondes y a-t-il dans une minute? 

III. Traduisez. 1. This watch belongs to John; that 
watch belongs to Philip. 2. Look at the large hand: itf 
marks twelve. 3. Now look at the small hand: itf marks 
ten. 4. It is ten o'clock in the morning. 5. Philip's watch is 
half an hour ahead of time. 6. John's watch is two hours and 
a half behind time. 7. Is your watch right this morning? 
8. Yes, sir, but it is necessary to wind it now. 9. At what 
time do we finish the lesson today? 10. We finish it at 10 :45^ 
do we not? 11. At noon you take lunch at (the) school. 

* The accents are usually omitted from capital letters, except E. 
t Elle. It is regularly translated into French by il or elle, according to 
whether the noun referred to is masculine or feminine. 


The Elements of French 

12. I take lunch at home, where the family is waiting for me. 

13. At what time do you take your dinner, at 6:15 or at 
6:30? 14. Our family always takes (takes always) (the) 
dinner at a quarter to seven, or at seven.* 




commencer (kamase), to begin 

dent (da), f., tooth 

on (5), one, wCy they 

par (pair), by 

poser (poze), to place; write down 

92. Cardinal Numerals 51 

Cardinaux 51-lflOOflOOfiOO). 

cinquante et un (sekait e oe), Slf 
cinquante-deux (sekait d0), 52 
soixante (swasait), 60 
soixante et un (swasdit e 6e), 61 f 
soixante-deux (swasait d0), 62 
soixante-dix (swasait dis), 70 
soixante (et)onze (swasait e 5iz),71t 
soixante-douze (swasait duiz), 72 
soixante-treize (swasait treiz), 73 
soixante-quatorze (swasait katorz), 

soixante-quinze (swasait keiz), 75 
soixante-seize (swasait seiz), 76 
soixante-dix-sept (swasait dis set), 

soixante-dix-huit (swasait diz qit), 


je retiens (3a ratje), / carry 

resultat (rezylta), m., result 

un de retenu (oe d& ratny), one 

to carry 
unite (ynite), f., unit; unity 

-1,000,000,000 {les N ombres 

soixante-dix-neuf (swasait diz ncef), 

quatre-vingts (katra ve), 80 J 
quatre-vingt-un (katra ve oe), 81 ** 
quatre-vingt-dix (katra vs dis), 90 
cent (sa), 100 
centun (sa oe), 101 ** 
deux cents (d0 sa), 200 % 
deux cent un (d0 sa ce), 201 ** 
mille (mil), 1000 
mille un (mil oe), 1001 
deux mille (d0 mil), 2000 
un million (oe miljo), 1,000,000 
un milliard (oe miljair), 


• * Seven to seven-thirty are usual dinner hours in France. 

t Et is used for the following numerals: vingt et un, trente et un, quarante 
et un, cinquante et un, soixante et un, and often soixante et onze. 

X Quatre-vingts, deux cents, etc., lose the final s before another numeral. 
Thus, quatre-vingt-deux, etc. ; deux cent deux, etc. 

** No liaison (linking). 

Lesson 38 75 

I. Exercice. 1. Neuf fois un font neuf, neuf fois deux 
font dix-huit, etc. 2. Dix fois un font dix, etc. 3. Count 
by threes from 60 to 102. 4. Count by tens from to 100. 
5. Count from 78 to 100. 6. Add aloud in French, 1, 3, 5, 

9. 7. Add aloud in French, 5, 8, 2, 10. 8. Add aloud in 
French, 2, 3, 4, 9, 5. 9. Subtract from 10, successively, 2, 
3, 4. (Example. Dix moins deux font huit, etc.). 

II. Read in French (Lisez en frangais). 1. 201. 2. 301. 
3. 110. 4. 235. 5. 475. 6. 598. 7. 666. 8. 876. 9. 859. 

10. 999. 11. 2893. 12. 4777. 13. 1,888,999. 

III. Addition. 

245 On commence a droite, par les unites. Cinq et six font 
486 onze. Je pose un et je retiens un. Huit et quatre font 
731 douze. Douze et un de retenu font treize. Je pose trois 
et je retiens un. Quatre et deux et un de retenu font 
sept. Resultat, 731. 

Exercice. Add (addiiionnez) 428 and 295. 

IV. Multiplication. 

358 Une fois trois cent cinquante-huit fait {is) trois cent 

41 cinquante-huit. Quatre fois huit font trente-deux. Je 

358 P^s^ deux et je retiens trois. Quatre fois cinq font 

1432 vingt. Vingt et trois font vingt-trois. Je pose trois 

j^gyg et je retiens deux. Quatre fois trois font douze. Douze 

et deux font quatorze. Resultat, quatorze mille six 

cent dix-huit. 

Exercice. Multiply (muUipliez) 245 by 7. 

V. Exercice Oral. Answer the questions, using J'en 
compte deux, J*en compte six, etc.; J'en ai, etc. 1. Comp- 
tez les chaises. 2. Comptez les salles de Tecole. 3. Comp- 
tez les eleves. 4. Combien de doigts avez-vous? 5. Com- 
bien de dents avez-vous? 

VI. Write in French. 1. 79. 2. 97. 3. 81. 4. 51. 5. 
101. 6. 333. 7. 1246. 8. 10,876. 9. 33,793. 10. 521,678. 

76 The Elements of French 




base (ba:z), f., base; basis premier (pramje), adj., first 

date (dat), f., date avant (ava), prep., before (of time, 

ete (ete), been or order) 

fete {iGit)f i., holiday; feast; festivity devant (dava), prep., before (of 

guerre (geir), f., war place) 

mois (mwa),* m., month 

1. II est devant la table, He is before ( = in front of) the table. 

2. II arrive avant vous, He arrives before you. 

93. The Months {les Mois).\ 

Janvier (3avje), m., January juillet (sqije), m., July 

fevrier (fevrie), m., February aofit (u), m., August 

mars (mars), m., March septembre (septaibr), m., September 

avril (avril), m., April octobre (oktobr), m., October 

mai (me), m.. May novembre (novaibr), m., November 

juin (sqs), m., June decembre (desaibr), m., December 

I. Apprenez. 

Trente jours ont septembre, 
Avril, juin, et novembre; 
Trente et un ont mars et mai, 
Aoilt, octobre, puis juillet; 
Et decembre et Janvier; 
De vingt-huit est fevrier. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Combien de mois a Tannee? 2. 
Combien de jours a ce mois-ci? 3. Combien de mois ont 
trente jours? 4. Dites les noms de ces mois, s'il vous plait. 
5. Combien de mois ont trente et un jours? 6. Dites les 
homs de ces mois, s'il vous plait. 

* Distinguish between the pronunciation of mois (mwa) , month, and of moi 
(mwa), me, etc. 

t Note that the names of the months are all masculine, and are written 
with small letters. 

Lesson 39 77 

94. A Few Idioms (Quelques Idiotismes). 

1. Quel jour du mois sommes-nous aujourd'hui? What day of the month 
is it? 

2. Quelle date sommes-nous? What day of the month is it? 

3. Nous sommes le premier mars, Today is the first of March* 

4. Nous sommes le deux mars, Today is the second of March* 

5. C*est aujourd*hui le quinze avril, Today is the fifteenth of April. 

III. Exercice de Lecture. 


1. 19 juin, 1215: Promulgation de la Grande Charte (/art) 
{Magna Charta), base des liberies de FAngleterre. 

2. 30 mai, 1431: Mort de Jeanne d^Arc, liberatrice de la 

3. 4 juillet, 1776: La declaration de I'independance des 

4. 14 juillet, 1789: La prise de la Bastille, ancienne prison 

L'anniversaire de cette date est la fete nationale de la 

5. 19 octobre, 1781: La bataille de Yorktown. George 
Washington victorieux, avec Taide des Frangais. 

6. 18 juin, 1815: La^ bataille de Waterloo. 

7. 1815: Le Retour des Bourbons, Rois de France. 

8. 1830: La Revolution de Juillet. La Monarchie selon 
la Charte. 

9. 1848: Deuxieme Repubhque. 

♦Observe that premier, first is used; for the other days of the month use 
deux, two, trois, three, quatre, four, etc., instead of second, third, fourth, etc., as 
in English. Also, in giving titles of rulers, use Henri I (Henri Premier), 
Henri II (Henri Deux), Henri III (Henri Trois), etc. 

Note. For dates between 1001 and 1999, A.D., mil is used instead of 
mille to mean 1000. 

Tan dix-neuf cent dix-neuf, the year 1919, or Tan mil neuf cent dix- 
neuf, but 

Pan mille, the year 1000; Tan deux mille, the year 2000. 

78 The Elements of French 

10. 10 mai, 1871: Le traite de Francfort; la France perd 
deux de 8es provinces, T Alsace et la Lorraine. 

11. 1871: Troisieme Republique. 

12. 5 septembre, 1914: Commencement de la Bataille de 
la Marne. 

13. 6 avril, 1917: Les fitats-Unis declarent la guerre contre 

14. 11 novembre, 1918: La signature de Tarmistice.* 

IV. Traduisez. 1. What day of the month is it? (Two 
ways). 2. It is the first of November, today. (Two ways). 
3. How many days are there in this month? 4. In this 
month there are thirty days. 5. December has thirty-one 
days, and also January, March, May, July, and October. 
6. The other months have thirty days, except (excepte) 
February. 7. February 22, 1732, is the birthday (anniver- 
sary) of George Washington. 8. July 4, 1776, is the date of 
the Declaration of Independence. 9. The anniversary of 
this date is the national holiday of the United States. 10. 
July 14, 1789, is the date of the storming of the Bastille. 


I. Place the proper form of quel before the following nouns: 

— matinee; annees; an; soirs; soiree; 

— heures; apres-midi; montre; minutes; 

seconde; aiguilles; resultat; mois; 

fete; dates. 

II. Read in French (Lisez en frangais): 1. 5:15. 2. 7:45. 
3. 9:05. 4. 3:30 A.M. 5. 12:30 P.M. 6. 12:15 A.M. 7. 4:25 
P.M. 8. 10:55 A.M. 

* Words not in the special vocabulary at the beginning of the lesson will be 
found in the general vocabulary at the end of the book. 

Lesson 4I 79 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Quelle heure est-il k votre montre? 
2. Est-elle exacte? 3. Qu^est-ce que votre montre marque? 
4. Est-ce que cette montre-ci avance? 5. Est-ce que cette 
montre-la retarde? 6. Montrez-moi la petite aiguilte. 7. Mon- 
trez-moi la grande aiguille. 8. Qu'est-ce qu^elle indique? 9. 
Faut-il remonter votre montre? 10. Quelle date sommes- 
nous aujourd'hui? 11. Quel jour du mois sommes-nous au- 
jourd'hui? 12. Combien de jours y a-t-il dans ce mois? 13. En 
avril? 14. En septembre? 15. En fevrier? 

IV. Read the following dates {Lisez les dates suivantes): 1. 
30mai, 1431. 2. 4 juillet, 1776. 3. 14 juillet, 1789. 4. 2aoat, 
1914. 5. 5 septembre, 1914. 6. 7 mai, 1915. 7. 3 avril, 1917. 
8. 11 novembre, 1919. 

V. Traduisez. 1. We arrive at nine o^clock in the morn- 
ing. 2. We arrive at (the) school on time (d V heure), 3. 
My watch is fast, but your watch is slow. 4. It is necessary 
to wind it today. 5. The little hand is at four; the large hand 
is at twelve. 6. It is now four o^clock in the afternoon. 7. At 
7:15 A.M., you take your coffee, or milk, with (some) bread. 
8. At 12:30 P.M., you take your lunch. 9. We have (the) din- 
ner at a quarter after six, or at half past six. 10. What day of 
the month is it today? 11. Today is the first of November. 




bois (bwa), m., wood parce que (pars ka), because 

champ (Ja), m., field patiner (patine), to skate 

chaque (J*ak), adj., each quand (ka), when 

glace (glas), f., ice souvent (suva), adv., often 

nager (nase), to swim surtout (syrtu), adv., especially 
neige (neis), f., snow 

80 The Elements of French 

95. The Seasons {les Saisons). 

printemps (preta), m, spring au printemps (o preta), in spring 

ete (ete), m., summer en ete (an ete), in summer 

automne (otoi>), m., autumn en automne (an oton), in autumn 

hiver (iveir), m., winter en hiver (an iveir), in winter 

Note. Observe that the names of the seasons, as well as the names of 
the months, are all masculine. The names of the months are not spelled 
with capitals, as they are in English. 


1. Allez-vous a Pecole au prin- 3. Que faites-vous en automne? 

temps? 4. Jouez-vous au tennis en hiver? 

2. Portez-vous un pardessus en 


96. A Few Impersonal Verbs (Quelques Verbes Impersonnels). 

1. II fait beau (temps) (il fe bo ta), 7. II fait du vent (il fs dy va), It 

It is fine weather. is windy. 

2. II fait mauvais (temps) (il fs 8. Quel temps fait-il? What kind 

move ta), It is bad weather. of weather is it? 

3. II fait doux (il fs du), It is mild 9. II pleut (il pl0). It rains (is 

weather. raining) . 

4. II fait noir (il fs nwair), It is 10. II neige (il nsis). It snows (is 

dark. snowing). 

5. II fait froid (il fs frwa), It is 11. II gele (il gsl), It freezes (is 

cold. freezing) . 

6. II fait chaud (il fs J*o), It is hot. 12. II tonne (11 ton). It thunders. 

97. Present Indicative of aller, to go (le Present de Vln- 
dicatif du Verhe aller), 

vais (vs) allons (alo) 

vas (va) allez (ale) 

va (va) vont (v5) 


Exercice de Lecture. L'annee a quatre saisons, le prin- 
temps, Tete, Tautomne, et Thiver. Chaque saison a trois 

Le printemps: mars, avril, mai. 

L'ete: juin, juillet, aotit. 

Jeanne D'Arc Revetant Son Armure 

Lesson 4i 81 

L'automne : septembre, octobre, novembre. 
L'hiver: d^cembre, Janvier, fevrier. 

II pleut beaucoup au printemps, surtout au mois de mars.* 
II fait chaud en ete. Souvent il tonne beaucoup. 
En automne, il fait souvent tres doux. 
II neige beaucoup en hiver. 
Au mois de mars, il fait du vent. 
S^il gelef en hiver, nous allons patiner. 
Quand il fait beau au printemps, nous allons au bois et aux 

Quand il fait chaud en 6t6y nous allons nager. 
En automne, nous jouons au football. { 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Dites les noms des saisons. 2. Dites 
les noms des mois de Thiver. 3. Du printemps. 4. De Fete. 
5. De Tautomne. 6. En quelle saison sommes-vous? 7. 
Quel mois sommes-nous? 8. Quel jour du mois sommes- 
nous? 9. Fait-il beau temps ou mauvais temps? 10. Pleut-il? 
11. Est-ce qu'il tonne beaucoup en hiver? 12. Est-ce qu^il 
neige beaucoup en hiver? 13. En quelle saison fait-il du vent? 
14. En quelle saison allons-nous nager? 15. En quelle saison 
jouons-nous au football? 16. En quelle saison allons-nous 
patiner? 17. Ou allons-nous patiner? 

III. Traduisez. 1. The four seasons of the year are: 
spring, summer, autumn, and winter. 2. In winter it is 
cold, and often it snows. 3. My young brothers often go 
skating in the months of January and February. 4. Then they 
go home, and play in the snow. 5. In the spring we often 

* In France, it is March that is considered the rainy month. Frenchmen 
speak of giboulees de mars, March showers. 

t When a sjdlable ending in unaccented e is followed by another syllable, 
ending also in unaccented e, the first e becomes (e), (usually written e), (cf, 
pere, mere, frere, etc.). 

t English words are regularly used for the games of sports, as tennis, boze, 
and even sport. 

82 The Elements of French 

go (go often) to the woods, when the weather is mild. 6, Tn 
the summer, we often go swimming. 7. In the autumn, 
we play (at the) football against the other schools. 8. We 
very often win (win very often) ; this year, we have always 
won (avons gagne toujours), 9. What kind of weather is it 
now? 10. It is raining now, is it not? 11. If it does not 
rain this afternoon, we are going to play (at the) tennis. 



attraper (atrape), to catch lui (Iqi), pron., to him, to her 

demain (dame), tomorrow plaisir (pleziir), m., pleasure 

demain matin (dame mate), tomor^ 
row morning 

98. The Future (le Futur), 

The infinitive is used as the stem of regular verbs in the future 

Observe that a final e is dropped. 

donner-, finir-, perdr-. 

Donner Finir Perdre 

donner ai (donre) finir ai (finire) perdr ai (perdre) 

donner as (donra) finir as (finira) perdr as (perdra) 

donner a (donra) finir a (finira) perdr a (perdra) 

donner ons (donrS) finir ons (finiro) perdr ons (perdro) 

donner ez (donre) finir ez (finire) perdr ez (perdre) 

donner ont (donrS) finir ont (finiro) perdr ont (perdro) 

(a) Avoir, etre, and aller have regular endings in the future, 
but irregular stems. 

Note. Although the stem of irregular verbs in the future may be irregular, 
the endings are always the same as for regular verbs. Historically the French 
future is a combination of the infinitive with the present tense of avoir, the 
av being lost in the first and second persons pluraU — ai, — as, — a; (av)ons, 
(av)ez, -ont. 

Lesson 42 83 

Avoir Etre AUer 

aur ai (ore) ser ai (sare) ir ai (ire) 

aur as (ora) ser as (sara) ir as (ira) 

aur a (ora) ser a (sara) ir a (ira) 

aur ons (oro) ser ons (soro) . ir ons (iro) 

aur ez (ore) ser ez (sore) ir ez (ire) 

aur ont (oro) ser ont (sorS) ir ont (iro) 

(6) Note also the conjugation of faire (feir), to makey to do. 

Present (Present) Future (Futur) 
fais (fe) fer ai (fore) 

fais (f s) fer as (fora) 

fait (fe) fer a (fora) 

faisons (fozS), or (fezo) fer ons (forS) 

faites (fst) fer ez (fore) 

font* (fo) fer ont (foro) 

I. Questions. 1. Arriverez-vous a I'ecole demain matin? 
2. A quelle heure arriverez-vous? 3. A quelle heure Jean 
arrivera-t-il? 4. A quelle heure Marie arrivera-t-elle? 5. 
A quelle heure Jean et Marie arriveront-ils? 6. Est-ce que 
nous finirons notre legon cet apres-midi? 7. A quelle heure 
la finirons-nous? 8. Ou irez-vous apres? 9. Ou ira Charles? 
10. Ou ira Jacques? 11. Ou iront-ils? 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je lui donnerai ce chapeau-ci, tu lui 
donneras ce chapeau-ci, etc. 2. J^attraperai la balle, tu 
attraperas la balle, etc. 3. Je ne perdrai pas ma montre, tu 
ne perdras pas ta montre, etc. 4. Est-ce que j^aurai ce 
plaisir? auras-tu ce plaisir? etc. 5. Est-ce que je serai 
demain chez elle? seras-tu demain chez elle? etc. 6. Ou 
est-ce que j'irai? ou iras-tu? etc. 

III. Exercice. Fill out the blanks, using the future 

tense of the verb: 1. En automne, il souvent doux. 2. 

II beaucoup en hiver. 3. Au mois de mars, il du 

vent. 4. En hiver, nous patiner. 5. Quand il beau 

♦Font (faire), vont (aller), sont (etre), and ont (avoir), are the only third 
persons plural which end in -ont, except in the future tense, where the ending 
is regularly -ont. 

84 The Elements of French 

au printemps, vous au bois et aux champs. 6. Quand il 

chaud en ete, ils nager. 7. En automne, ils 

au football. 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Will you find the hat? 2. They (m.) 
will finish. 3. Shall we play? 4. Will he give it (m.)? 5. 
Will she not lose it (/.)? 6. What date will it be tomorrow? 
7. How many days will there be in this month? 8. Will your 
watch be right? 10. Will your watch be fast? 11. Will it 
be slow? 12. I shall wind the watch now. 13. Will you 
arrive at school on time? 14. We shall be waiting for (shall 
wait for) you. 15. In (dans) four minutes it will be seven 
o^clock. 16. At seven o'clock, we shall dine (diner). 17. 
At half past seven in the evening we shall go to the theater, 
if the weather is fine. 




dernier (dernje), adj., last premier (pramje), adj., first 

Fern., demiere (dernjeir) Fern., premiere (pramjeir) 

diner (dine), to dine semaine (samen), f., week 

eglise (egliiz), f., church travailler (travaje), to work 

en France (a frais), in France vient (vje), comes 

99. The Days of the Week (les Jours de la Semaine). 

dimanche (dimaif), m., Sunday jeudi (30di), m., Thursday 

lundi (loedi), m., Monday vendredi (vadradi), m., Friday 

mardi (mardi), m., Tuesday samedi (samdi), m., Saturday 

merer edi (merkradi), m., Wednes- 

Observe that the names of the days of the week are written with small 
letters, and are all masculine. 

I. Traduisez. 1. Friday, December 18. 2. Saturday, 
November 1. 3. Wednesday, March 5. 4. Sunday, Jan- 
uary 12, 1919. 5. Thursday, February 21, 1918. 6. Mon- 
day, October 20, 1919. 7. Saturday, November 29, 1919. 

Lesson 43 85 

100. The Article Used Distributively (Emploi Distributif de 
V Article Defini), In French, the definite article is used dis- 
tributively with the names of the days. 

H va ^ Peglise le dimanche (or, les dimanches), He goes to church (on) 

Observe also — Je travaille le matin, / work mornings. 

Caution. In such constructions as these, never use the preposition sur. 


La semaine au lundi commence, 

Et mardi Fouvrage avance, 

Ensuite vient le mercredi, 

Le jeudi, puis le vendredi, 

Le samedi comble nos voeux, 

Et le dimanche nous prions Dieu. 

II. Questions. 1. Travaillez-vous le matin? 2. Mangez- 
vous le matin? 3. Prenez-vous votre petit dejeuner le soir? 
4. Dtnez-vous le matin? 5. Allez-vous a Feglise le dimanche? 
6. fitudiez-vous le samedi? 7. Jouez-vous au football le soir? 

III. Traduisez. 1. He comes on Wednesdays. 2. We 
skate on Tuesdays. 3. They work on Mondays. 4. We go 
to the woods on Saturdays. 

101. Idioms (Idiotismes), 

1. Quel jour de la semaine sommes-nous aujourd*hui? (kel 3u:r da la 
samen som nu 03urdqi), What day of the week is today? 

2. Quel jour est-ce aujourd^hui? (kel 3u:r e s 03urdqi), What day {of 
the week) is today? 

3. Nous sommes aujourd^hui lundi (nu somz 03urdqi loedi), Today is 

4. C*est aujourd*hui lundi (s et 03urdiii loedi), Today is Monday. 

5. (D*)aujourd*hui en huit (jours), A week from today. 

6. {D^)aLniourd*hm en qainze {jo\XTs)f Two weeks from today. 

IV. Questions. 1. Quel jour sommes-nous aujourd^hui? 
2. Quel jour serons-nous d^aujourd'hui en huit? 3. Quel jour 
serons-nous d'aujourd'hui en quinze? 4. Quel jour serons- 
nous demain? 5. Apres-demain? 6. Quel jour allez-vous a 
Teglise? 7. Quels jours allez-vous a Tecole? 8. Quels jours 

86 The Elements of French 

avez-vous des legons de frangais? 9. Quel est le premier jour 
de la semaine? 10. Quel est le dernier jour de la semaine? 
11. Combien de semaines y a-t-il dans Tannee? 12. Combien 
de lundis y a-t-il dans ce mois? 

V. Traduisez. 1. What do you do in the morning? 2. 
Do you eat a good breakfast? 3. At what time do you 
arrive at (the) school? 4. What do you do in the after- 
noon? 5. Do you play in the afternoon? 6. (At) what 
games do you play, if you please? 7. What do you do in 
the evening? 8. Do you always study (study always) in 
the evening? 9. Do you go to school Saturdays? 10. In 
France they {on) do not go to school Thursdays. 11. What 
day of the week is it? (Two ways). 12. Today is Tuesday, 
the third of November. 




affaire (afeir), f., affair] affaires, chez lui (Je Iqi), at his house 

business mot (mo), m., word (as a mere sign) 

carte (kart), f ., card ne . . . que (n9 . . . ka), only 

comiaissance (kanesais), f., ac- ouvrir (uvriir), to open* 

quaintance parler (parle), to speak 

demander (damade), to ask, ask for parole (parol), f., word (spoken) 

(not demand) remercier (ramersje), to thank 

domestique (domestik), m., servant vons recevez {v\i rQsve) , you receive 

j*espere (3 espsir), / hope (from somier (sone), to ring (the bell) 

esperer) tout (tu), ally every 

excuse (ekskyiz), f., excuse vieux (vj0), old 

fauteuil (fotoeij), m., arm chair visite (vizit), f., visit 

* Present Indicative, j'ouvre, tu ouvres, etc., not j*ouvris, etc. 

Lesson 44 87 

de la part de, on the part of; from 
en prenant la parole, beginning to speak 
au revoir (o rvwair), good-bye 
du tout, pas du tout, not at all 
encore une fois, once more 

il n'y a pas de quoi (il n j a pa da kwa), donH mention it; you 
are welcome {to it) 

102. Partir (partiir), to starts depart. 

pars (pair) partons (parts) 

pars (pair) partez (parte) 

part (pair) partent (part) 

Conjuguez. Je pars demain a huit heures, tu pars demain 

a huit heures, etc. 


1. Partez-vous aujourd^hui? 2. Partez-vous pour New- York? 
3. Partez-vous pour la France? 4. Est-ce que Jean part aussi? 
5. Ou va-t-il? 6. Est-ce que Jeannette part, aussi? 7. OCi vont- 
ils? 8. A quelle heure partent-ils? 


Lundi, nous faisons visite au commandant Dupuis. Nous 
sonnons. Un domestique ouvre. 

Nous demandons M. le commandant Dupuis est-il 

chez lui? 

Le domestique nous fait entrer. Nous lui donnons nos 
cartes. Sur les cartes nous avons ecrit, ''De la part de M. 
Sohier, de Bordeaux.^' 

Nous nous asseyons {we sit down) dans des fauteuils. Au 
bout de quelques minutes le commandant entre, nos cartes 
a la main. 

C'est bien a Messieurs* Browning et Bryant que j'ai 

rhonneur de parler? dit-il. II prononce Brovnin et Briand. 

Oui, monsieur, dis-je, en prenant la parole. Je vous 

fais mes excuses de vous deranger le lundi. On nous a averti 

* Messieurs (mesj0) (abbreviation MM.) is the plural of Monsieur (m8si0), 
(abbreviation M.), Mister, sir. 

88 The Elements of French 

que vous ne recevez que le jeudi. Mais nous partons mardi ou 
mercredi pour Lyon. 

Du tout, messieurs. Au contraire, je suis enchante de 

faire votre connaissance. *Tout ami de M. Sohier sera tou jours 
le bienvenu. 

Nous parlous affaires.* 

Je vous ecrirai un mot vendredi, dit le commandant. 

Samedi nous nous retrouverons a Paris. 

C'est impossible, dis-je. 

-- — Sinon samedi, dimanche, dit le commandant. 

Bien, monsieur, je vous remercie de votre accueil si 

cordial, dis-je. 

II n'y a pas de quoi, dit le commandant. Je suis en- 
chante de faire la connaissance des amis de M. Sohier, et je 
suis entierement a votre disposition. 

Vous etes bien aimable. Monsieur le commandant. 

Merci encore une fois, et au revoir. 

A samedi, messieurs. J'espere que j^aurai le plaisir de 

vous revoir. 

II. Traduisez. 1. At ten o'clock in the morning we start 
out to visit (the) young M. Lemaitre. 2. We arrive at his 
house at eleven. 3. We ring. The servant does not hear us, 
but M. Lemaitre opens the door. 4. He looks at our cards 
and reads {lit) the name of M. Lebrun, a friend of his (one 
of his friends). 5. He says, '^I am always delighted to make 
the acquaintance of every friend of M. Lebrun. 6. You will 
always be welcome in my house. 7. I have not (the) time 
to talk business now, but tomorrow I shall be free (libre). 
8. We shall meet each other (find each other) again tomor- 
row." 9. I reply, *We shall be in Paris only a few hours.' 
10. I shall not have the pleasure of seeing you again. 11. 
But I thank you for your cordial welcome. '^ 

* Parler affaires, talk business. 

Lesson 45 89 


I. Continue the following in the present and in the future: 
1. Je lui donne cette carte de visite, tu lui donnes cette carte 
de visite, etc. 2. Je vais a Paris, tu vas k Paris, etc. 3. Je 
le fais entrer, tu le fais entrer, etc. 4. Je ne suis pas chez lui, tu 
n'es pas chez lui, etc. 5. Est-ce que j^ai de la viande? as-tu de 
la viande? etc. 6. J'en ai, tu en as, etc. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. En quelle saison patinez-vous? 2. 
En quelle saison nagez-vous? 3. En quelle saison pleut-il beau- 
coup? 4. En quel mois fait-il du vent? 5. En quels mois fait-il 
beau? 6. En quels mois neige-t-il? 7. En quels mois pleut-il 
souvent? 8. Irez-vous k Teglise le lundi? 9. Irez-vous a 
Tecole le samedi? 10. Quels jours irez-vous a Fecole? 11. 
Quel jour de la semaine sommes-nous aujourd'hui? 12. Quel 
jour du mois sommes-nous aujourd^hui? 13. Quel jour serons- 
nous demain? 14. Jouerez-vous au football lundi? 15. Serez- 
vous demain chez vous? 16. Ou est Jean maintenant? 
17. Oil sera-t-il a six heures du soir? 18. Ou serons-nous k 
minuit? 19. Dinez-vous le matin ou le soir? 20. Quand 
prenez-vous votre dejeuner? 21. Quand partez-vous? 22. 
Partez-vous pour Boston? 23. Est-ce que votre ami part 
aussi? 24. Comment s^appelle-t-il? 

III. Traduisez. 1. In spring. 2. In summer, 3. In 
autumn. 4. In winter. 5. Thursday, August 16. 6. Tues- 
day, March 15. 7. Monday, July 4. 8. Sunday, April 1. 
9. Wednesday, June 14. 10. What time is it now by your 
watch? 11. Is your watch always right, or isn't it often fast? 
12. What day is it today, if you please? 13. How many days 
will there be in this year? 14. Tomorrow we shall play (at the) 
football against your school. 15. Today we shall go to the 
woods, if the weather is not bad. 16. What will you do this 
afternoon, if it rains? 17. What day of the month will to- 
morrow be? 18. What will you do evenings, if the weather 


The Elements of French 

is fine? 19. They start for Paris a week from today. 20. 
Today is Friday, May 30, 1919 {write date in full), 21. To- 
morrow will be Saturday, May 31, the last day of (the) spring. 
22. If the weather is fine, we shall go to your house. 23. Sun- 
days we shall have the pleasure of going {dialler) to (the) 




argent (ar3a), m., silver^ money 

ce que (sa ka), pron., what (used as 

object of verb) 
client (klia), m., customer, {doctor^ s) 

demeurer (dgmoere), to live, dwell 
desir (deziir), m., desire 
desirer (dezire), to desire 
done (doik) or (do), conj., then, so 
eh bien! (e bjs), excL, well! 
emmener (amne), to take away, lead 

il y a de quoi (il j a da kwa), there 

is enough to (for) 
s'informer (s eforme), to inquire 
tu t'informeras, you will inquire 

larme (larm), f., tear 

moi (mwa), pron., me, I (used em- 

ordre (ordr), m., order 

oublier (ublie), to forget 

Pierre (pjeir), m., Peter 

Pierrot (pjero), m., little Peter 

quelque (kelk), adj., some, some few 

secher (seje), to dry 

tout ce que (tu s ka), all that (used 
as object of verb) 

viens (vje), come (imperative) 

voudrai (vudre), shall wish (future 
of vouloir, to wish) 

voyage (vwajais), m., trip, voyage 

103. Ages {les Ages), 

Quel ige avez-vous? How old are you? 
J'ai seize ans, / am sixteen years old. 

Questions. 1. Quel age a Jean? 2. Est-ce que Jean a 
quinze ans? 3. Quel age a Charles? 4. Est-ce que Charles 
a aussi quinze ans? 5. Est-ce quails ont quinze ans? 

Lesson ^6 91 

104. A Few Orthographical Rules (Quelques Regies d'Ortho- 
graphe) . 

(a) Verbs in -oyer and -uyer must change y to i before 
mute e (9). 

emplofe, emplo/es, emploze; employons, employ ez, emploient. Also 
emploierai, etc. (from employer, to use). 

(b) Verbs in -ayer nmy change y to i before mute e (a). 

Essaie (-aye), essafes (-ayes), essaze (-aye); essayons, essay ez, 
essafent (-ayent). Also essazerai (or essay erai), etc. (from 
essayer, to try), 

(c) Verbs in -ler and -ter generally double the 1 or t before 

a mute e (a). 

1. AppeZ/e, appeWes, appeWe; appelons, appelez, appeWent. Also, 
appeZ/erai, etc., (from appeler, io caW) . 2. Jef^e, jeffes, je^^e; 
jetons, jetez, je^^ent. Also, je^^erai, etc. (from jeter, to throw). 

(d) Many verbs, however, to avoid having mute e's in suc- 
cessive syllables, change the first e to e, instead of doubling 
the consonant. 

Observe — acheter (ajte), to huy, and lever (lave), to raise. 

Present Indicative Future 

(le Present de VlndicatiJ) {le Futur) 

achete (ajet) * acheterai (ajetare) * 

achetes (a/et)* acheteras (afetara)* 

achate (ajet) * achetera (ajetara) * 

achetons (ajto) acheterons (ajetaro)* 

achetez (aJte) acheterez (a/etare) * 

achetent (ajet)* acheteront (ajetaro)* 

leve (leiv) * leverai (levare) * 

leves (leiv) * leveras (levara) * 

leva (leiv) * levera (Isvora) * 

levons (lavS) leverons (levar5)* 

levez (lave) leverez (lev are) * 

levent (leiv)* leveront (levarS)* 

Conjuguez. J ^achete ce chapeau-ci, tu achetes, etc. 

* Compare il gele. 

92 The Elements of French 

Questions. 1. Quand achetez-vous des vetements? 2. 
Achetez-vous des souliers? 3. Acheterez-vous un pardessus? 
4. Qu^est-ce que vous achetez a I'ecole? 5. Est-ce que vous 
achetez votre dejeuner? 6. Est-ce que Charles achete des 
balles? 7. Est-ce qu' Annette achete des cartes de visite? 


(Pierre, whose scapegrace father died four years ago, has 
just lost his mother. The family physician tells Pierre that 
it was the dying wish of his mother that he go to find his 
uncle, who lives in Paris. Pierre, who is only ten years of 
age, hesitates, and the doctor continues:) 

Tu feras ce que tu voudras. C'etait le desir de ta 

mere, mais ce n^etait pas un ordre. 

Je ferai tout ce qu'elle desirait, dit Pierre, en sechant 

ses larmes. 

Tres bien, Pierrot. Je t^emmene avec moi. J^ai 

parle de toi a quelques clients, et on m'a donne Targent de 
ton voyage. II y a de quoi arriver a Paris. La, tu t'in- 
formeras ou demeure maitre Pierre Delsart; il s'appelle 
comme toi, done tu n'oublieras pas son nom. As-tu compris? 

Oui, monsieur. 

Eh bien, viens. 

II. Traduisez. 1. How old are you, Charles? 2. I am 
fifteen years of age now. 3. In the month of February I 
shall be sixteen years of age. 4. My birthday (anniversary) 
will be the seventeenth of that month. 5. How old is your 
brother? 6. He will be twelve years old in the month of 
August. 7. What is your brother's name, please? 8. He is 
named James. 9. My sister is named Marguerite. 

III. Tradtiisez. 1. I enter (in) a shop and look at some 
clothes. 2. 'Will (does) Monsieur buy something today?'' 
asks the tailor. 3. ^'I shall buy a coat, if you have one (of 

* Adapted from Mairet's la Tdche du Petit Pierre. 

Lesson 1^7 93 

them) which {qui) will fit me." 4. "When will you try 
it (on), sir?" 5. "I shall try it on Tuesday* or Wednesday.*" 
6. 'We shall be entirely at your service, sir," says the 
tailor. 7. 'Thank you (very) much, sir." 8. I reply, 
"Don^t mention it." 


se trouve (sa truiv), is found; is ville (vil), f., city (not village) 

105. The Preposition en {la Preposition en). Before femi- 
nine names of countries, en is used to mean in. 

Madrid se trouve en Espagne, Madrid is in Spain. 

(a) Before mascuhne names of countries, a + the definite 
article is used to mean in. 

Aux Etats-Unis, In the United States 

Au Canada, In Canada 
Note. In general, names of countries in Europe are feminine. 

(6) Before names of cities, also, a is regularly used to 
mean in. 

A Paris, In Paris 

A Londres, In London 

Questions Reponses 

1. O^ se trouve Bordeaux? (m.) 1. II se trouve en France. 

2. Oft se trouve Lille?t (f .) 2. EUe se trouve aussi en France. 

3. Oft se trouve Londres? (m.) 3. II se trouve en Angleterre. 

4. Ot se trouve Dublin? (m.) 4. II se trouve en Irlande. 

5. 0& se trouve Rome? (f.) 5. EUe se trouve en Italie. 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Ou se trouve Paris? 2. Est-ce que 
c'est une grande ou une petite ville? 3. Combien d'habitants 
y a-t-il a Paris? 4. Ou ira Pierre? 5. Qui lui dit dialler a 

*In fixing a date, the article is usually omitted with names of days of the 
week, when the meaning is not distributive. Do not translate "on." 

t Names of cities ending in e and es are usually feminine, others are most 
often so though there are many exceptions like the above. In case of doubt 
it is always possible to say la ville de, etc. 


The Elements of French 

Paris? 6. Fera-t-il le desir de sa mere? 7. Fera-t-il tout ce 
qu'elle desire? 8. Qui lui donnera Targent de son voyage? 
9. Est-ce que le docteur est bon ou mauvais? 10. Est-ce que 
le pere de cet enfant est mort? 11. Ou son pere etait-il alle? 
12. Comment s'appelle son oncle? 13. Ou demeure-t-il? 14. 
Quel age a Pierre? 15. Quel age avez-vous? 

II. Traduisez. 1. Pierre has lost his father and (his) 
mother. 2. He is only ten years of age. 3. He has only one 
friend, the doctor. 4. His mother has told (to) the doctor 
everything that she wished for her son. 5. Pierre will do all 
that his mother wished. 6. He will go to Paris (to) see his 
uncle. 7. The doctor will take him with him (lui), 8. The 
doctor will speak to his patients tomorrow. 9. They will give 
(to) Pierre the money for (de) his trip. 10. There will be 
enough to (enable Pierre to) arrive in Paris. 11. In Paris he 
will find his uncle, Pierre Delsart. 12. He will not forget 
that name, because his uncle is also called Pierre. 13. His 
uncle will be delighted to make his acquaintance. 14. His 
nephew Pierre will always be welcome at his home. 




animal (animal), m., animal 
Plural, animaux* (animo) 

boeuf (boef), m.j ox; heef 
Plural, boeufs (b0) 

cheval (Javal), m., horse 
Plural, chevaux* (Javo) • 

fer (feir), m., iron 

fleuve (floeiv), m., river 

guerre (geir), f., war 

*hautt (o), adj., high 

*houille t (uij), f., coal 

montagne (motaji), f., mountain 
ocean (osea), m., ocean 
peche (peij*), f., peach 
poire (pwair), f., pear 
pois (pwa), m., pea 
pomme (pom), f., apple 
pomme de terre (teir), f., potato 
poulet (pule), m., chicken 
utile (ytil), adj., useful 
vache (vaj). f., cow 

* Nouns and adjectives in -al form their plurals in -aux (cf. journal, plural, 

t The rough breathing (*) is placed before h in the vocabularies to indicate 
that there is no preceding linking (liaison) or elision. (See § 48, 4.) 

Lesson 4^ 95 

Compare: boeuf (boef), plural boeufs (b0), ore, 
with oeuf (oef), plural oeufs (0), egg, 

106. The General Noun {le Suhstaniif Pris dans un Sens 
General), Nouns used in a general sense usually take the 
article in French. 

Les pommes sont rondes, Apples are round. 

1. Est-ce que les boeufs sont grands? 6. Est-ce les oeufs sont ronds? 

2. Est-ce que J[es vaches donnent 7. Est-ce que les^ fieuves sont 

du lait? utiles? 

3. Est-ce que les chevaux ont deux 8. Est-ce que les montagnes sont 

pieds? hautes? 

4. Combien de pieds ont J^ 9. Est-ce que les oceans sont pro- 

chevaux? fonds? 

5. Est-ce que les poulets sont 


(a) Nouns used in an abstract sense also take the article in 

I/unite fait la force, In union there is strength, (literally, Unity makes 


1. Est-ce que le fer est utile? 5. Est-ce quela_viande est bonne 

2. De quelle couleur est la houille? a manger? 

3. De quelle couleur est une carte 6. Est-ce que le pain est bon a 

de visite? manger? 

4. De quelle couleur est^or? 7. Est-ce que le lait est blanc? 

(6) Names of countries take the article. 

La France,* France, jyEspagne (f.), Spain. Aux Etats-Unis, In the 
United States. JL'Angleterre (f.), England. JL'Italie (f.), Italy. 

Caution. After the preposition en, the article is regularly omitted. 
Cf. § 105. 

I. Fill in the blanks (Remplacez les tirets), 1. La capitale 

de est Londres. 2. Paris est la capitale de . 

3. Madrid se trouve en . 5. Marseilles est une ville de 

— . 5. Rome se trouve — . 6. Washington 

se trouve . 

* Names of countries ending in e are usually feminine. 


The Elements of French 

107. Note the distinction between the general noun and the 
partitive noun. 

General {General) 

1 . Les pommes sont 

2. Les vaches sont 

Partitive {Partitif) 
des fruits, {All) apples are {some) fruits. 
des animaux, {All) cows are {some) animals. 


1. Est-ce que les chevaux sont des 6. 


2. Est-ce que les boeufs sont des 7. 


3. Est-ce que les vaches sont aussi 8. 

des animaux? 

4. Est-ce que J^ poulets sont des 9. 


5. Est-ce que les^ pommes sont des 


II. Exercice. Supply the proper forms of men, ton, son, 
votre, leur, ce . . . -ci, and ce . . . -la, with the following 

words: vache; poulets; poires; pomme 

de terre; peche; chevaux; bceuf; argent; 

Est-ce que J^ pommes de terre 
sont des fruits? 

Est-ce que les poires sont des 

Est-ce que les^ peches sont des 

Est-ce que les^ pois sont des le- 


III. Traduisez. 1. Coal is found in the United States 
and in England. 2. Iron is found in Germany. 3. Moun- 
tains are found in Switzerland. 4. In France there are (a 
great) many horses. 5. In Normandy (Normandie) there 
are a great many cows, oxen, and chickens. 6. Gold is 
found in America. 7. Silver is found there also. 8. 
Gentlemen will enter by this door. 9. Ladies will enter by 
that door. 10. Servants will show us in (make us enter). 
11. We shall give them (leur) cards. 12. Mr. Sohier^s friends 
will always be welcome. 

Scene des Pyrenees 

Lesson 49 97 

borner (borne), to hound nord (noir), m., noi^th 

entre (ditr), prep., between; among ouest (west), m., west 
est (est), m., east principal (presipal), adj., principal 

Jeter* (sate), to throw (away); cast Plural, principauxf (presipo) 

se Jeter, to empty (of rivers) plus (ply), adv., more 

limitrophe (limitrof), adj., neighbor^ pres de (pre da), prep., near 

ing, bordering sud (syd), m., south 

mont (mo), m., mount; mountain 

108. The Indefinite on {le Pronom Indefini on). In French 
the passive voice is used much less than in English. One of the 
most important substitutes is the use of the indefinite pro- 
noun on (5), mesLuingwe, you, they, somebody, with the active 

1. On finit la robe, The dress is being finished (literally. One is fin- 
ishing the dress). 

2. On le dit. So it is said (literally. One says it). 


1. Est-ce que Ton travaille ce matin? 2. Ou travaille-t-on? J 
3. Qu^est-ce qu^on fait le dimanche? 4. Ou va-t-on le 
dimanche? 5. Qu^est-ce que Ton** mange aujourd'hui? 7. A 
quelle heure prenez-vous vos repas? 8. Ou prenez-vous vos 
repas? 9. Qu'est-ce que Ton fait aujourd^hui? 10. Est-ce 
que Ton joue au football? 11. Est-ce que Ton patine? 12. 
Va-t-on au bois? 

I. Exercice. Translate, using on: 

Model: Lessons will begin tomorrow, On commencera demain 
les legons. 

* For conjugation of jeter, see § 104, c, 1. 

t Observe that adjectives and nouns in -al regularly form their plurals in 

t The consonant -t- is inserted before on, after a verb ending in a vowel. 

Mange-t-on ici? Do they eat here? (Compare a-t-on? with a-t-il?) 

** After que, and a few other words, V is often inserted before on for the 
sake of euphony. 

S8 The Elements of French 

I. The bell will be rung at six forty-five this evening. 2. 
Our excuses will be made tomorrow. 3. Our visiting cards will 
be asked for. 4. A few words will be spoken. 5. They will be 
thanked. 6. The coal will be bought in November. 7. The 
clothes are being bought this morning. 8. The children will 
be punished. 9. Iron is found in Lorraine. 


1. La France est bornee au nord par la Manche, et par 
la Mer du Nord; au sud, par la Mediterranee et TEspagne; 
au Nord-Est, par la Belgique et FAllemagne; h Test par 
FAllemagne, la Suisse, et ITtalie; h Touest par Tocean 
Atlantique. * 

Fleuves. Les principaux fleuves de la France sent: 

le Rhone, qui se jette dans la Mediterranee; 

la Seine, qui se jette dans la Manche; 

la Loire, et la Garonne, qui se jettent dans Toc^an Atlantique. 

Montagnes. Les montagnes limitrophes de la France sont 
les Pyrenees, entre la France et TEspagne; et les Alpes, entre 
la France et la Suisse. 

Au centre de la France se trouvent les Cevennes et les monts 
d^Auvergne. A TEst de la France se trouvent les Vosges. 

{A suivre) 


I. Conjugate acheter, negatively, present and future. 
Conjugate jeter, interrogatively, present and future. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Quel age avez-vous? 2. Quel kge a 
Jacques? 3. Achetez-vous aujourd'hui un journal? 4. Est-ce 
que vous achetez une pomme? 5. Est-ce que vous achetez 
une poire? 6. Qu'est-ce que vous achetez? 7. Qu'est-ce que 

Lesson 50 99 

Charles achete? 8. Od se trouve Lille? 9. Ou se trouve 
Londres? 10. Ou se trouve Washington? 11. Dans quel pays 
se trouve Naples? 

III. Fill in the blanks (Remplacez les tirets), 1. fer 

est utile. 2. fait des montres avec de or. 3. Ici 

achete pain. 4. La trouve legumes. 

5. fruits sont bons a . 6. chevaux ont quatre 

pieds. 7. CBufs sont bons a . 8. jette 

mauvaises ponimes. 9. n'achete pas mauvaises 


IV. Traduisez. 1. Marseilles is a large city of France. 
2. Horses and cows are raised in Normandy. ^ 3. Sheep and 
chickens are also raised (are raised also) in that country. 4. 
Watches have two hands. 5. Big hands indicate minutes. 

6. Little hands indicate hours. 7. Trains (trains) depart at 
every hour of the day. 8. Trips will be made to Paris, 
London, and Rome. 9. Money for the trips will be given by 
friends of the doctor. 10. The lessons will not be finished 
before four o'clock in the afternoon. 11. Your shoes will be 
bought tomorrow. 12. The visiting cards are being bought 
now. 13. Will you try (on) this hat, or that hat? 

celebre (selsbr), celebrated pays (pei), m., country (= political 

cultiver (kyltive), to cultivate; grow division, as United States, France, 

charbon (J'arbo), m., coal etc.) 

mine (min), f., mine vallee (vale), f., valley 

mouton (muto), m., sheep vigne (viji), f., vine; vineyard 

I. Geographie Economique. En Normandie, pays* qui se 
trouve pres de la Manche, on eleve des chevaux, des vaches, 
des boeufs, des moutons, et des poulets. 

* A noun in apposition with another noun, and not restrictive in meaning 
(i.e., expressing merely an additional fact), takes no article. 

100 The Elements of French 

En Touraine, et dans les vallees du Rhone et de la Garonne, 
on cultive beaucoup de vignes. En Champagne il y en a 
aussi qui sont celebres. 

En Flandre et en Bourgogne on trouve de la houille. 

En Lorraine se trouvent beaucoup de mines de fer. 
Villes Principales. 

Paris, capitale* de la France, situe sur la Seine; 

Marseille, ville* sur la Mediterranee ; 

Lyon, ville* qui se trouve entre Paris et Marseille; 

Bordeaux, ville* sur la Garonne, pres du Golfe de 
Gascogne ; 

Reims, ville* qui se trouve au nord-est de Paris. 

IL Exercice OraL 1. Quelle mer se trouve au nord de la 
France? 2. Quelle mer se trouve au sud de la France? 3. 
Quel pays se trouve au sud de la France? 4. Dites les noms 
des pays qui se trouvent au nord-est de la France. 5. Com- 
ment la France est-elle bornee k Test? 6. Comment la France 
est-elle bornee a Fouest? 7. Quels sont les principaux fleuves 
du pays? 8. Ou se jette le Rhone? 9. Ou se jette la Seine? 
10. Ou se jettent la Loire et la Garonne? 11. Quelles mon- 
tagnes se trouvent au sud de la France? 12. Entre quels 
pays se trouvent ces montagnes-la? 13. Ou se trouvent les 
Alpes? 14. Est-ce que les Alpes sont hautes? 15. Est-ce 
que les Pyrenees sont plus ou moins hautes que les Alpes? 

16. Quelles montagnes se trouvent au centre de la France? 

17. Ou se trouvent les Vosges? 18. Quels animaux eleve-t-on 
en France? 19. Est-ce qu^on y eleve beaucoup de chevaux? 
20. Est-ce que Ton y eleve beaucoup de moutons? 21. Ou 
eleve-t-on des poulets? 22. Ou eleve-t-on des vaches? 23. 
Dites les noms de quelques villes importantes de la France. 
24. Ou se trouve Lille? 15. Ou se trouve Reims? 26. Ou 
se trouve Lyon? 27. Ou y a-t-il de la houille? 28. Ou y 
a-t-il des mines de fer? 

* A noun in opposition with another noun, and not restrictive in meaning 
(i.e., expressing merely an additional fact), takes no article. 

Lesson 52 101 

III. Traduisez. 1. The Alps (/O iaijer'^fy, iiigh. '^S.: these 
mountains are east of France, bGt\Yeen ,that, qountry and 
Switzerland. 3. On the Alps theve \i'p.iw%T^ ^nbW, *'^iid Ifc is 
always very cold. 4. Many Americans spend (passer) the 
summer near the Alps. 5. The Pyrenees (/.) are mountains 
(which are) between France and Spain. 6. They are very 
high, but the Alps are higher. 7. In the center of France 
are the Cevennes; in the East are the Vosges. 8. France has 
also important rivers. 9. The Garonne empties into the 
Atlantic Ocean, but the Rhone empties into the Mediterranean. 




arbre (arbr), m., tree dire (diir), to say; tell 

la meme (meim) chose, the same thing 

la chose meme, the thing itself, the very thing 

109. Position of Adjectives (Position des Adjectifs). Adjec- 
tives which denote distinctive characteristics, such as color or 
shape, usually follow the noun. 

la robe rouge; la table ronde. 

The following very common adjectives regularly precede 
the noun: 

bon (bo), good grand (gra), large; tall 

mauvais (move), bad gros (gro), big 

joli (3oli), pretty petit (pati), small 

beau (bo), beautiful, fine jeune (3oen), young 

vilain (vile), ugly vieux (vj0), old 

Un bon garfon; un m auvais eleve; une jolie maison; un beau livre; 
un vilain chapeau; un g rand fleuve; un gros arbre; une petite ville; 
un jeune ami; un vieux maitre. 

Questions. 1. Avez-vous un bon crayon? 2. Avez-vous 
une mauvaise plume? 3. Est-ce que vous avez un joli cha- 


The Elements of French 

peau? ' 4. *Est-de' (|i|0*'voils avez un beau tableau? 5. Est-ce 
qu^i] f^st d^ine yilaine couleur? 6. Montrez-moi une grande 
fen^tre, -^s'il VouS* platt. 7. Montrez-moi une petite chaise, 
s'il vous plait. 8. Est-ce que vous avez un jeune frere? 9. 
Avez-vous un vieux professeur? 

110. The following adjectives have two forms in the mas- 
culine singular. (Note that the feminine forms come from 
the masculine forms ending in -I). 


Masculin beau (bo) 

bel (bel) 
Feminin belle (bel) 

Masculin vieux (vj0) 
vieil (vjeij) 
Feminin vieille (vjeij) 





beaux (bo) 

belles (bel) 
vieux (vi0) 

vieilles (vjeij) 

(a) Observe that the masculine forms have no I in the plural : 
bel, plural beaux; vieil, plural vieux. 

Use (Emploi), The masculine singular forms in 4 are used 
only before a vowel or h mute. 

1 . Le vieil ami, The old friend. 

2. Le vieil habit, The old coat. 

But 3. L*habit est vieux; le vieux livre; les vieux amis. 

Questions. 1. Voyez-vous un beau cheval? 2. Le cheval 
est-il un bel animal? 3. Combien de beaux livres voyez- 
vous? 4. Voyez-vous une belle maison? 5. Combien de 
belles couleurs voyez-vous? 6. Avez-vous un vieil oncle? 
7. Vos oncles sont-ils vieux? 8. Avez-vous une vieille tante? 
9. Vos tantes sont-elles vieilles? 

Exercice. Supply the proper form of vieux and of beau 
before each of these nouns, singular and plural. Do it in 
writing, and orally: Cheval, fleuve, chapeau, boeuf, fruit, 
repas, diner, poulet, pois, gilet, pantalon, gargon, maitre, 

Lesson 52 103 

Soulier, veston, animal, arbre, ami, oncle, Americain, ^leve, 
habit, argent, ceuf. Anglais, avis, objet, enfant, Allemand, 
ceil, tante, omelette, robe, excuse, plume, affaire, chose, plume, 
guerre, 6cole, peche, etude, vache, maison, ville. 

111. Present Indicative of dire (le Present de VIndicatif du 
Verhe dire). 

dis (di) 

disons (diz5) 

dis (di) 

dites (dit)* 

dit (di) 

disent (diiz) 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je dis la meme chose, tu dis la meme 
chose, etc. 2. Je ne le dis pas, tu ne le dis pas, etc. 3. 
Qu^est-ce que je dis? qu^est-ce que tu dis? etc. 4. J^oublie 
ce que je dis, tu oublies ce que tu dis, etc. 

II. Exercice Supplementaire. Use the following adjectives 
with the following nouns: bon, rouge, grand, blanc, joli, jaune, 

vieux, beau, chapeau; chapeaux; souUer; 

robe; veston; vetements; complet; 

gilets; pantalon; porte-plume. 

III. Traduisez. 1. The Seine is the principal river in the 
(of the) north of France. 2. Paris, the beautiful capital of 
France, is situated on that river. 3. Bordeaux, (a) large 
city in the (of the) south (midi) of France, is situated on 
the Garonne. 4. It is situated near the Atlantic Ocean. 5. 
Lyons is one of the principal cities of the north of France. 
6, Near Lille a great deal of coal is found. 7. Large iron 
mines are found in Lorraine. 8. Fine horses, cows, and 
sheep are raised in Normandy. 9. Good apples, peaches, 
and pears are cultivated also in Normandy. 10. Pretty 
vineyards are cultivated in Burgundy and in Champagne. 
11. There are a great many (of them) also in Touraine, and 
in the valleys of the Rhone and of the Garonne. 

* Dites, etes, and faites end in -es. All other verbs have -ez in the second 
plural, in every tense (except the past absolute, or preterite). 


The Elements of French 




agrement (agrema), m., delight, 

ce que (so ka), (relative), what 

(used as object of verb) 
depuis que (dapqi ka), conj., since 
fait (fe), made, done (p. participle of 

gentiment (satima), nicely 
marchand de chaussures (mar J a da 

Josyir), m., shoe dealer 
mis (mi), dressed, (p. participle of 


moi (mwa), pron., me (used as ob- 
ject of preposition) 

penser (pase), to think 

rire (riir), to laugh 

vous savez (vu save), you know 

je sais (3a se), / know 

tout a Pheure (tut a 1 ce:r), present- 
ly; just now 

vous voulez (vu vule), you wish 

vous voulez rire, you are joking 
(literally, ^'you wish to laugh' ^) 


Famille de Paysans 

Annette. — Bonsoir, monsieur Henri. 

Henri. — He! C'est vous, mademoiselle Annette; bonsoir, 
. . bonsoir! . . . Nous avons parle tout a Theure de vous. 

* Adapted from Erckmann-Chatrian's le Juif Polonais, 

Lesson 53 105 

Annette. — De moi? 

Henri. — ^Mais oui, mais oui . . .Oh! oh! comme vous voila 
riante et gentiment habillee . . . 

Annette. — Vous voulez rire, monsieur Henri? 

Henri. — Non, non, je ne ris pas; je dis ce que je pense, vous 
le savez bien. Ces bonnes joues rouges, ce joli bonnet, et 
cette petite robe bien faite, avec ces petits souliers, ne sont 
pas pour Tagrement des yeux du* vieil Henri. C^est pour 
un autre {il cligne de Vceil), c'est pour un autre, he! he! 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Quelle heure est-il? 2. Est-ce le 
matin ou I'apres-midi? 3. Est-ce que Ton dit maintenant 
bonjour ou bonsoir? 4. Dites: Bonjour (bonsoir), M. le pro- 
fesseur. 5. Dites-moi votre nom, s'il vous plait. 6. Dites- 
moi le nom de Tami de mademoiselle Annette. 7. De qui 
a-t-on parle? 8. Quand a-t-on parle d'elle? 9. Est-ce 
qu'elle rit beaucoup? 10. Est-ce qu^elle est bien mise? 11. 
Qu'est-ce qu'elle porte sur la tete? 12. Est-ce qu'elle porte 
un chapeau? 13. Qu'est-ce qu'elle porte sur le dos? 14. 
Comment est sa robe? 15. Ses souliers sont-ils grands ou 
petits? 16. De quelle couleur sont ses joues? 17. Combien 
de chapeaux avez-vous? Reponse: J^en ai . . . 18. De quelle 
couleur est votre robe, mademoiselle? 19. Portez-vous des 
souliers, monsieur? 20. Ou achetez-vous des soyliers? 21. 
Les achetez-vous chez le marchand de chaussures? 22. Vos 
souliers sont-ils grands ou petits? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Annette is wearing today a very pretty 
bonnet. 2. She is wearing also a beautifully made dress, 
which (que) she will wear this evening at (the) dinner. 3. 
Look at those small shoes, which are not for the delight of 
old* Henry. 4. They are for the gratification of young f 
John. 5. Oldf Henry's hat is very large and old. 6. His 
shoes are ugly, and do not fit his feet. 7. His coat is not 

♦The article is regularly used in French before a noun preceded by an 
adjective or title. 

t Use the definite article before the adjective. 

106 The Elements of French 

well made, and he wears an old suit. 8. But young* John 
is nicely dressed. 9. He wears a well made sack coat and a 
fancy vest. 10. He is a tall young man, who plays tennis a 
great deal. 11. He has brown hair, blue eyes, and red 
cheeks. 12. There he is now, and there is Miss Annette, his 
laughing friend. 13. Henry looks at them, and laughs also. 
14. Annette says to Henry, ^^You are joking, sir.^' 



decider (de) (deside), to decide porte-monnaie (port mone), m., 

dii (dy), p. part., owed; ought (from 'purse 

devoir). Feminine, due (dy) preter (prete), io Z6n(i 

ensemble (asaibl), adv., together pris (pri), p. part., taken (from 

faire (son, notre, etc)., second de- prendre) 

jeuner (fs:r s3 S9g5 desoene), to regu (rasy), p. part., received (from 

lunch recevoir) 

heureusement (oer0zma), adv., /or- rencontrer (rakotre), to meet 

tunately tramway (tramwe), m., street-car 

hier (jeir), adv., yesterday vu (vy), p. part., seen (from voir) 
ouvert (uveir), p. part., opened 

(from ouvrir) 

112. Past Participles (Participes Passes). 

Regular Conjugations {Conjugaisons Regulieres) 
donne (done) given fini (fini), finished perdu (perdy), lost 

Irregular Verbs {Verhes Irreguliers) 
ete (ete) been dit (di), said 

eu (y), had ecrit (ekri), written 

fait (fe), done, made 

113. The Perfect Tense {le Passe Indefini), The perfect 
tense for all transitive verbs (and for most intransitive verbs) 
is formed from the auxiliary avoir, to have, + the past 

* Use the definite article before the adjective. 

Lesson 54 


I have finished, or ^I 

j*ai fini (fini) 
tu as fini (fini) 
il a fini (fini), etc. 

/ have had, or / had 
j'ai eu (y) 
tu as eu (y) 
il a eu (y), etc. 

/ have lost, or / lost 

j'ai perdu (perdy) 
tu as perdu (perdy) 
il a perdu (psrdy), etc. 

/ have done, or / did 
yai fait (fe) 
tu as fait (f e) 
11 a fait (fe), etc. 

/ have given, or I gave 

j*ai donne (done) 
tu as donne (done) 
il a donne (done), etc. 

/ have heen, or / was 
y&i ete (ete) 
tu as ete (ete) 
il a ete (ete), etc. 

I. Exercice. 1. Conjugate the above verbs negatively in 
the perfect tense: Je n^ai pas donne, tu n^as pas donne, etc.* 
2. Conjugate in the perfect tense, affirmatively and nega- 
tively: (a) lire (p. part, ri); (6) attraper; (c) montrer; (d) 
diner; (e) travailler; (/) ouvrir; (g) punir. 

114. Uses of the Perfect Tense (Emploi du Passe Indefini). 
The perfect tense has in French two uses: 

(1) It corresponds to the English perfect tense (denotes 
what has happened). 

1. J ^ai vendu ma maison, / have sold my house. 

2. II a parle a mon cousin, He has spoken to my cousin. 

(2) In conversation and in familiar style it corresponds to 
the English past tense (denotes what happened). 

1. J ^ai travaille ce matin, / worked this morning. 

2. Nous avons trouve les joumaux, We found the newspapers. 

II. Exercice. Translate into French, using the perfect 
tense: 1. Yesterday I decided to buy a coat and hat. 2. 
Then I lost my purse. 3. Fortunately I saw my father. 4. 
He lent me some money. 5. Then I saw Charles and John. 
6. We took lunch together. 7. Then we took the street-car. 
8. We met some friends. 9. We decided to play (at the) 
tennis. 10. We played tennis at John's house. 11. We 
were there this morning also. 

* Note that the negative ne . . . pas surrounds the auxiliary in compound 
tenses: Je n] ai pas fini, je n? ai pas perdu, etc. 

108 The Elements of French 


I. Conjuguez. 1. J^ai regarde ce vieil arbre, tu as regarde 
ce vieil arbre, etc. 2. Je n'ai pas fini eette legon, tu n'as pas 
fini cette legon, etc. 3. Mon chien a perdu cette balle, ton 
chien a perdu cette balle, etc. 4. Est-ce que j'ai ete en 
Lorraine? as-tu ete en Lorraine? etc. 5. J^ai eu un beau 
chapeau, tu as eu un beau chapeau, etc. 

Do the same exercise, negatively. 

II. Exercice. In the following sentences, change the verbs 
in italics to the perfect tense: 1. Je ferai tout ce qu^elle 
desirait. 2. Je secherai mes larmes. 3. Vous m! emmenerez 
avec vous. 4. Vous parlerez de moi a vos clients. 5. lis me 
donneront T argent de mon voyage. 6. II y aura de quoi 
arriver a Paris. 7. La, on me dira ou demeure maitre 
Pierre Delsart. 8. II s'appelle comme moi, done je n^oublierai 
pas son nom. 9. Je comprendrai (p. part, compris), monsieur. 

III. Questions. 1. Ou avez-vous ete ce matin? 2. Avez- 
vous ete chez vous? 3. A quelle heure avez-vous fait votre 
petit dejeuner? 4. A , quelle heure avez-vous quitte votre 
maison? 5. A quelle heure avez-vous fait votre second de- 
jeuner? 6. Avez-vous etudie ce matin? 7. Quelles legons? 
8. Combien en avez-vous etudie? 9. Est-ce que vous avez 
prepare des exercices? 10. Ou avez-vous ecrit vos exercices? 
11. Qu^est-ce que vous avez fait hier? 12. Avez-vous perdu 
quelque chose hier? 13. L'avez-vous trouve? 14. Avez-vous 
patine hier? 15. Avez-vous joue hier au football? 

IV. Translate, using the perfect tense: 1. Monday we 
visited (the) *Professor Leblanc. 2. We found him at his 
house, near (the) *Ilue Bonaparte. 3. A servant showed us 
in (made us enter). 4. We wrote on our cards, 'Trom M. 
Meunier, of St.-Cloud.'^ 5. We made our excuses for having 

* Do not capitalize. 

Lesson 56 109 

disturbed M. Leblanc in the morning. 6. We warned him 
that we intended to (compter) start for Marseilles in (dans) 
a few hours. 7. He replied, '^I am always delighted to see 
friends of my friends.^' 8. For (pendant) half an hour, we 
talked business. 9. Then (puis) I thanked him for his 
cordial welcome. 10. He replied, '^Don^t mention it. I 
shall have the pleasure of seeing you again, shall I not?^^ 
11. Saturday we wrote (to) him a line (mot), but we have 
not seen him again (revu). 

115. II y a (il j a) is used idiomatically to mean ago. 
Example. II a trouve ce chapeau il y a une demi-heure. He 
found that hat half an hour ago, 

V. Fill in the blanks (Remplacez les tirets), 1. J'ai ete 

chez moi il y a . 2. J^ai fait mon petit dejeuner il y a 

. 3. J'ai quitte la maison il y a . 4. J^ai fait mon 

second dejeuner il y a . 5. J^ai etudie ma legon de 

frangais il y a . 6. J'ai joue au tennis il y a . 


I. Give a list of the common adjectives that regularly pre- 
cede the noun. 

II. Give all the forms of bon, beau, vieux, blanc. Use 

these adjectives with the following nouns: maison; 

chapeaux; fauteuil; montres; boeufs; 

— — chevaux; vache; poulet; pommes de 


III. Conjugate in the present indicative, interrogatively: 
dire, faire, etre, aller. 

Conjugate in the perfect tense, negatively: avoir, perdre, 
faire, ecrire. 

110 The Elements of French 

IV. Conjuguez. 1. J'ai choisi la reine, tu as choisi la 
reine, etc. 2. J^ai vendu ma maison, tu as vendu ta maison, etc. 

V. Exercice Oral. 1. Ou cultive-t-on les vignes? 2. Ou 
trouve-t-on des mines de fer? 3. Ou trouve-t-on de la houille? 
4. Oii est situee la capitale de la France? 5. Dites le nom d^une 
ville situee sur la Mediterranee. 6. Dites le nom d'une ville 
situee sur le Rhone. 7. Ou se trouve Reims? 8. Montrez-moi 
une belle rue, s^il vous plait. 9. Montrez-moi un joli fleuve, 
s^il vous plait. 10. Montrez-moi une petite porte, s'il vous 
plait. 11. Oii se trouve une grande fenetre? 12. Voyez-vous 
un bel arbre? 13. Combien de beaux arbres voyez-vous? 
14. Est-ce que vous avez une jeune cousine? 15. Avez- 
vous un vieil oncle? 16. Qu'est-ce qu' Annette porte sur 
la tete? 17. Qu^est-ce qu^elle porte sur les pieds? 18. De 
quelle couleur est sa robe? 19. Avez-vous perdu quelque 
chose ce matin? 20. Quand Tavez-vous perdu? 21. L^avez- 
vous trouv6 maintenant? 

VI. Traduisez. 1. The Alps are situated between France 
and Switzerland, but the Pyrenees are situated between 
France and Spain. 2. The Seine empties into the English 
Channel, but the Rhone empties into the Mediterranean. 
3. It rains a great deal in Brittany {Bretagne), and it snows 
a great deal in the Vosges. 4. In the South of France, the 
weather is very mild in winter and in spring. 5. Near Lille, 
one of the principal cities of the North of France, coal is 
found. 6. Lyons, the principal city situated on the Rhone, is 
in the South of France. 7. Many vineyards are cultivated in 
Touraine and in Champagne. 8. They spoke a while ago about 
Annette. 9. Annette's dress is beautifully made. 10. She will 
wear it this evening at dinner. 11. Look at that pretty bon- 
net, and those small shoes, which she is wearing today. 12. 
Old Henry's clothes are very ugly, and do not fit his body. 
13. He bought those trousers and that overcoat three years 
ago. 14. The doctor's patients gave (to) Peter the money 
for his trip several days ago. 

Lesson 67 111 




accuser (akyze), to accuse longtemps (lota), adv., a long time 

chambre (Jaibr), f., room; bedroom lui (Iqi), he, him, to him, to her 

corridor (koridoir), m., corridor malheureux (maloer0), adj., un- 
donner sur (done syir), to open on happy 

empereur (aproeir), m., emperor Fern., malheureuse (maloer0:z) 

ne . . . que (na ko), only ne . . . plus (no ply), no longer 

heureux (oer0), adj., happy prison (prizo), f., prison 

Fern., heureuse (oer0iz) profession (profesjo), f., -profession 

lie (11), f., island quoi? (kwa), What? (used as object 
ne . . . jamais (no 3ame), never* of preposition.) 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je n'en ai que deux, tu n'en as que 
deux, etc. 2. Je n'ai jamais trouve, tu n^as jamais trouve, 

116. Idiomatic Use of the Present (Emploi Idiomatique du 
Present), With depuis (dapqi), since ^ and a few other words, 
the present tense is used instead of the perfect to denote 
action beginning in the past and continuing into the present. 

Je suis ici depuis ce matin, / have been here since this morning (implying 
and continue to be here). But, J'ai ete la une heure, / was there an hour 
(implying and now am somewhere else). 

Depuis quand etes-vous chez vous? How long have you been at 
home? (implying and continue to be there). 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je suis a Tecole depuis neuf heures, tu 
es a Tecole depuis neuf heures, etc. 2. Je n^ai ce journal que 
depuis ce matin, tu n^as ce journal que depuis ce matin, etc. 
3. Je gagne beaucoup d^argent depuis quelques semaines, tu 
gagnes beaucoup d^argent depuis quelques semaines, etc. 4. 
J^essaie depuis hier de partir, tu essaies depuis hier de partir, 
etc. 5. Je Tai fait il y a longtemps, tu Fas fait, etc. 

* When the verb is omitted, the ne of a negative is omitted also. 

N*etes-vous jamais chez vous? Jamais, Are you never at home? 


112 The Elements of French 

III. Questions. 1. Depuis quand etes-vous a Fecole? 2. 
Depuis combien d'heures? 3. Depuis quand etes-vous dans 
cette classe? 4. Depuis combien de minutes? 5. Etudiez- 
vous le frangais depuis longtemps? 6. Depuis combien de 
mois? 7. Montrez-moi votre porte-plume. 8. Est-ce que 
vous Tavez depuis longtemps? 9. Depuis quand Tavez-vous? 
10. Montrez-moi votre montre, s'il vous plait. 11. Depuis 
quand Tavez-vous? 


Qui etes-vous? 

Un malheureux prisonnier. 

De quel pays? 


Votre nom? 

Edmond Dantes. 

Votre profession? 


Depuis combien de temps etes-vous ici? 

Depuis le 28 f^vrier, 1815. 

Votre crime? 

Je suis innocent. 

Mais de quoi vous accuse-t-on? 

D'avoir conspire pour le retour de Tempereur. 

Comment! pour le retour de Tempereur! Tempereur 

n^est done plus sur le trone? 

II a abdique a Fontainebleau en 1814 et a ete relegue a 

rile d^Elbe. Mais vous-meme depuis quel temps etes-vous 
done ici? 

— — Depuis 1811. 

Dantes frissonna; cet homme avait (had) quatre ans de 
prison de plus que lui. 

C'est bien. Ne creusez plus. A-t-on derange votre lit 

depuis que vous etes en prison? 


* Adapted from Dumas' le Comte de Monte Cristo. 

L'Empereur Napoleon I 

Lesson 58 113 

Sur quoi donne votre chambre? 

Sur un corridor. 

Et le corridor? 

Aboutit a la cour. 

Helas! Le defaut d'un compas m*a perdu. 

V. Traduisez. (Write dates in full.) 1. How long has 
this innocent sailor been in prison? 2. He has been there 
since the 28th of February, 1815. 3. The other prisoner, 
who is also innocent, has been in the Chateau d^If since 
1811. 4. They accused Dantes of having conspired for the 
return of Napoleon I. 5. Napoleon abdicated twice (two 
times), in 1814 and in 1815. 6. The first time he was 
exiled to the island of Elba, near Italy. 7. The last time 
England exiled him to the island of St. Helena (Sainte- 
Helene), 8. All protests on the part of the emperor were 
useless. 9. He died (est mort), (a) prisoner of war, in 1821. 
10. Dumas relates (raconte) the story of Dantes and his 
friend in *le Comte de Monte Cristo.^' 



assez (de) (ase), enough; plenty Plural, travaux* (travo) 

ne . . . rien (na rje), nothing vivre (viivr), irreg., to live 

travail (travaij), m., work Pres. part., vivant (viva) 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je suis en prison depuis quatre mois, tu 
es en prison depuis quatre mois, etc. 2. J'ai conspire il y a 
trois ans, tu as conspire il y a trois ans, etc. 

IL Exercice Oral. 1. Comment s'appelle le prisonnier? 2. 
De quel pays est-il? 3. Quelle est sa profession? Reponse: II 

* Nouns in -ail form the plural in "EUZ, like those in -al. 

114 The Elements of French 

est marin.* 4. Quel est son crime? 5. Est-il innocent? 6. De 
quoi Ta-t-on accuse? 7. Comment s^appelle Tempereur? 
Reponse: II s'appelle Napoleon I®^ (Premier), 8. En quelle 
annee Fempereur a-t-il abdique? 9. Ou a-t-il abdique? 10. 
Oil se trouve Fontainebleau? Reponse: Fontainebleau se 
trouve au sud de Paris. 11. Ou a-t-on relegue Fempereur? 
12. Ou se trouve File d^Elbe? Reponse: Elle se trouve dans 
la M^diterranee. 13. Depuis quand Fautre homme est-il 
en prison? 14. Est-ce que Fon a derange le lit de Dantes? 
15. Sur quoi donne sa chambre? 16. Sa porte est-elle ouverte 
ou fermee? 17. Ou aboutit le corridor? 18. Est-ce que Fami 
de Dantes a eu un compas? 19. Qu^est-ce qui Fa perdu? 20. 
Dites votre nom. 21. Votre profession. 22. Depuis com- 
bien de temps etes-vous ici? 23. Depuis quelle annee? 24. 
Quelle ville habitez-vous? 25. Dans quel etat demeurez- 
vous? 26. Depuis quand demeurez-vous dans cet etat? 27. 
Fait-il beau aujourd'hui? 28. Depuis quand fait-il beau? 
29. Quel temps a-t-il fait hier? 30. Quel temps a-t-il fait il 
y a un mois? 

III. Traduisez. 1. I have been a prisoner of war for sev- 
eral years. 2. They have been giving me plenty of bread 
and water, but not (pas) enough meat and vegetables. 3. 
For a long time I have had at lunch only soup, bread, a 
vegetable and some coffee which is very bad. 4. Then they 
accused me of having conspired for the death of the emperor. 
5. I am innocent of this crime. 6. For a long time I have 
been trying another thing which is surer (more sure). 7. 
But they put me in a dark little room. 8. This room opens 
on an ugly, dark corridor. 9. This corridor has been closed 

* Nouns are usually accompanied by the article. Note, however, the fol- 
lowing important exceptions : 

1. Names of cities, usually. (See §105.) 

2. After the preposition en. (See §106, b.) 

3. Nouns in apposition, not used in a restrictive sense. (See Lesson 51, 
note on page 99.) 

4. Unmodified nouns, in the predicate, denoting occupation or rank. 

Lesson 59 115 

for several years. 10. In this prison I found a friend who 
has been (a) prisoner much longer than I {moi), 11. He has 
been trying for several years to dig into that little dark cor- 
ridor. 12. Then he found that the corridor leads to nothing, 
and is very unhappy (for it=en). 13. Alas! all the work 
which he has been doing is lost. 



aimer (eme), to love; like frais (fre), adj., fresh, cool 

buvez-vous (byve vu), Do you Feminine, fraiche (freij*) 

drink? interessant (eteresa), adj., interest- 

je bois (bwa), / drink ing 

chemin (fame), m., road paille (paij), f., straw 

chemin de fer (Jame da fe:r) railroad payer (peje), to pay, pay for 
plusieurs (plyzjoeir), adj., pron., several 

117. The Partitive Construction (le Partitif), We have 
seen that in the partitive construction, de+the definite 
article is used> du lait, de la viande, de Teau, des livres, 
des hommes, etc., wherever the words some or any are 
expressed or implied before the noun. 

De alone is used (a), after a negative verb: Je n^ai pas de 
viande; tu n^as pas d'eau; il n^a pas de lait, etc.; (6), before 
an adjective, (See Appendix.) 

EUe fait du pain blanc, She makes { some) white bread. 
EUe fait de bons pains, She makes (some) good loaves,* 
II achete de la viande fraiche, He buys (some ) fresh meat, 
II achete de bonnes viandes. He buys (some) good meats. 
Ma soeur a des roses rouges. My sister has (some) red roses. 
Ma soeur a de jolies roses. My sister has {some) pretty roses. 
Observe also, De grands canifs et de^ petits, Large knives and small 

{knives, understood). 


* Pains (plural) usually means loaves of bread. 

116 The Elements of French 

I. Questions. 1. Voyez-vous des arbres? 2. Voyez-vous 
de beaux arbres? 3. Montrez-moi des chapeaux. 4. Mon- 
trez-moi de jolis chapeaux. 5. Voyez-vous des choses interes- 
santes? 6. En voyez-vous d'autres? 7. N^avez-vous pas 
d^oeufs? 8. Avez-vous de bons oeufs? 9. Prenez-vous des 
oeufs bien cuits? 10. Ne buvez-vous pas d'eau? 11. Buvez- 
vous de Teau bien fraiche? 12. Prenez-vous du cafe? 13. 
Prenez-vous de ce cafe? 

118. De is used after words of quantity, as follows: 

assez de lait, enough milk tant de choses, so many things 

beaucoup de fruits, much fruit un kilo de sucre, a kilogram of 

combien de livres? how many sugar {= about 2^ lbs.) 

books? une livre* de pommes, a pound of 

peu de pain, little bread apples 

trop de cafe, too much coffee un verre d^ eau, a glass of water 

(a) Observe, however, that bien and la plupart are followed by de + 
the definite article. 

1. Bien des hommes. Many men 

2. La plupart des femmes. Most women 

Note. La plupart, though singular in form, takes a plural verb. 

La plupart des eleves travaillent bien, Most of the pupils work well. 

(b) Observe that de never follows the adjective plusieurs, several. 

Plusieurs livres. Several books 

(c) Note also that de is used only before nouhs, not before verbs, 
adverbs, etc. 

II. Questions. 1. Avez-vous assez de pain? 2. Avez- 
vous assez mange? 3. Aimez-vous beaucoup de fruits? Les 
aimez-vous beaucoup? 5. Avez-vous beaucoup de livres? 6. 
Avez-vous plusieurs livres? 7. Jean a-t-il beaucoup de cray- 
ons? 8. Est-ce qu'il a plusieurs crayons? 

119. Note the use of de + a noun with the force of an 

Une montre d^or, A gold watch 

*Un livre = a book. 

Une livre =*a pound (i. e., half a kilogram). 

Lesson 60 117 

III. Questions. 1. Avez-vous une montre d'or? 2. Mon- 
trez-moi une montre d^argent. 3. Montrez-moi une chaise 
de bois, s'il vous plait. 4. Montrez-moi un chapeau de paille, 
s'il vous plait. 5. Oii se trouve le chemin de fer? 

120. A Few Idioms {Quelques Idioiismes). 

avoir besoin (de) (bazwe), to he in avoir raison (rezo), to he right 

need of, to need avoir faim (fe), to he hungry 

avoir chaud (Jo), to he warm* avoir soif (swaf), to he thirsty 

avoir froid (frwa), to he cold\ avoir sommeil (someij), to he sleepy 

avoir peur (poeir), to he afraid avoir tort (toir), to be wrong 

IV. Questions. 1. Avez-vous besoin de quelque chose? 
2. De quoi avez-vous besoin? 3. Avez-vous chaud? 4. Fait- 
il chaud ici? 5. Avez-vous sommeil quand il fait chaud? 
6. Quel autre eleve a aussi chaud? 7. En quelle saison avez- 
vous froid? 8. En quelle saison fait-il froid? 9. En quels 
mois? 10. Avez-vous peur? 11. De quoi avez-vous peur? 
12. Avez-vous peur des chiens, monsieur? 13. Avez-vous peur 
des vaches, mademoiselle? 14. Est-ce que Charles a peur? 
15. Qu'est-ce qu'il dit? 16. A-t-il tort? 17. A-t-il raison? 
18. A quelle heure avez-vous faim? 19. A quelle heure avez- 
vous soif? 



acier (asje), m., steel fleur (floeir), f., flower 

agneau (ajio), m., lamh fromage (fromais), m., cheese 

Plural, agneaux (apo) laine (len), f., wool 

cerise (sariiz), f., cherry laitue (lety), f., lettuce 

cidre (sidr), m., cider longtemps (lota), adv., a long time 
excellent (sksela), adj., excellent (Note. Not un longtemps) 

* Compare — II fait chaud, It is warm. 
t Compare — II fait froid, It is cold. 

(Faire is used in this sense of weather and temperature only.) 

118 The Elements of French 

I. Traduisez. 1. Here are (some) good children. 2. Here 
are (some) excellent children. 3. We buy (some) pretty 
flowers. 4. We buy (some) white flowers. 5. There are 
(some) old horses. 6. There are (some) black horses. 7. They 
look at some of these colors. 8. They are looking at some 
beautiful colors. 9. My brother has (some) large cherries. 
10. My brother has (some) red cherries. 

II. Traduisez. 1. Do you see any stores? Do you see any 
small stores? 3. Give me some cheese. 4. Give me some fresh 
cheese. 5. Do you see any interesting faces? 6. Have you 
any coal? 7. Have you received any letters? 8. Do you have 
any pears? 9. Do they have any peaches? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Enough lessons. 2. Too many apples. 
3. Many windows (Two ways). 4. So many pictures. 5. How 
many rivers? 6. Little money. 7. A little money. 8. A kilo- 
gram of fruit (Use plural). 9. A pound of paper. 10. A glass 
of cider. 11. Several evenings. 12. Most waiters. 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Have you enough red ink? 2. Have you 
written long enough? 3. Will you have some lettuce? 4. Have 
you many aunts? 5. Have you several uncles? 6. Has Charles 
many pen-holders? 7. Has he several pens? 8. Have you a 
silver knife? 9. Show me a steel knife. 10. Show me an iron 
box, if you please. 11. Show me a woolen suit, if you please. 
12. Do you need your overcoat? 13. Do you need this sack 
suit? 14. What do you need now? 15. Was it cold here yes- 
terday? 16. Are you warm enough now? 17. Is your neighbor 
warm enough, also? 

V. Fill in the blanks {Remplacez les tirets). 1. Nous 

chaud aujourd^hui. 2. Vous n' pas faim ce matin. 3. 

vous besoin de ce livre? 4. lis ont assez pain. 

VI. Use beaucoup, bien, la plupart, and trop with the 

following words: amis; couleurs; cartes; 

peches; domestiques; excuses; fauteuils. 

Lesson 61 119 




accident (aksida), m., accident doute (dut), m., doubt 

boire (bwair), irreg., to drink il faut (il fo), it is necessary 

Pres. part, buvant (byvci). loin (Iwe), adv., far 

Past part, bu (by). monde (moid), m., world 
bourgmestre (burgmestr), m., bur- reve (reiv), m., dream 

gomaster sans (sa), prep., without 

cause (koiz), f., cau^e sentir (sathr), to feel 
docteur (doktoe:r), m., doctor (Conjugated like partir) 

dormir (dormiir), to sleep verre (veir), m., glass 

(Conjugated like partir) vin (ve), m., wine 

aller chercher, to go for; go to look for 
tout le monde (tu 1 m5:d), everybody 

Present Indicative {le Present de V Indicatif) of venir, \o 

viens (vje) venons (vano) 

viens (vje) venez (vane) 

vient (vje) viennent (vjen) 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je viens de Paris, tu viens de Paris, etc. 
2. Je viens a huit heures et demi, tu viens, etc. 


Le Docteur. — Vous allez mieux, monsieur le bourgmestre? 

Mathis. — Je vais mieux. 

Le Docteur. — Vous ne sentez plus vos maux de tete? 

Mathis. — Non. 

Le Docteur. — Ni vos bourdonnements d^oreilles? 

Mathis. — Quand je vous dis que tout va bien . . . que je 
suis comme tons les jours . . . c'est assez clair, je pense! 

Catherine. — . . . Depuis longtemps il a de mauvais reves 
. . . il parle . . . il se leve pour boire de Teau fraiche. 

Mathis. — Tout le monde pent avoir soif la nuit. 

*Adapted from Erckmann-Chatrian's le Juif polonais. 

120 The Elements of French 

Le Docteur. — Sans doute . . . mais il faut vous menager. 
Vous buvez trop de vin blanc, monsieur le bourgmestre . . . 
Votre accident d'avant-hier soir vient de la . . . Vous avez 
trop bu de vin chez votre cousin . . . et puis le grand froid vous 
a saisi, parce que tout le sang a ete a la tete. 

Mathis. — J'ai eu froid aux pieds, c'est vrai; mais il ne 
faut pas aller chercher si loin; le juif polonais est cause de 

III. Continue the following, present and future tenses: 1. 
J'ai raison, tu as raison, etc. 2. Je n'ai pas froid, tu n'as pas 
froid, etc. 3. Je n^en ai pas besoin, tu n'en as pas besoin, etc. 

4. J'achete de bonne viande, tu achetes de bonne viande, etc. 

5. Je vais vendre de jolies roses, tu vas vendre de jolies roses, 
itc. 6. Depuis quelque temps, je ne dors plus bien, depuis 
quelque temps, tu ne dors plus bien, etc. 7. Je n'ai pas de 
maux de tete, tu n'as pas de maux de tete. 8. J'ai soif la nuit, 
tu as soif la nuit, etc. 

IV. Make short sentences containing the following words: 
besoin; assez; un kilo; beaucoup; bien des; combien; tant; 
plusieurs; un verre; chaud; froid; faim; soif; raison; tort; som- 
meil; trop. 

V. Traduisez. 1. For a long time M. Mathis has not slept 
well at night. 2. He is sleepy in the day, but at night he. cannot 
{ne pent pas) sleep. 3. For a long time he has had (felt) a 
buzzing in the ears. 4. Every day he has headaches. 5. The 
doctor says that everything comes from the white wine which 
he drinks (boit). 6. M. Mathis says that he will be well in 
(dans) a few days. 7. But at night he is always thirsty. 8. The 
doctor says that he must (it is necessary to) drink a great 
deal of fresh water. 9. He must not drink so much white 

VI. Exercice Supplementaire. 1. You have eaten too 
much. 2. You have eaten too much meat. 3. He is study- 
ing too long. 4. He is studying too many things. 

Lesson 62 121 


I. Conjuguez. 1. Je viens a cinq heures du matin, tu 
viens a cinq heures du matin, etc. 2. Je Tai fait il y a 
longtemps, tu Tas fait il y a longtemps, etc. 3. Je suis ici 
depuis hier, tu es ici depuis hier, etc. 4. J'irai chez lui tout 
a rheure, tu iras chez lui tout a Theure, etc. 

II. Use beaucoup, tant, plusieurs, assez, trop, combien, with 

the following words: chemin de fer; paille; 

prison; docteur; reve; verre; doute; 

accident; vin; travaux; travail; empereur; 

chambre; ile; profession. 

Use the plural form of the noun when the singular is 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Qui est Edmond Dantes? 2. Com- 
ment s^appelle Tempereur? 3. Depuis quand Dantes est-il en 
prison? 4. Depuis quand son ami est-il en prison? 5. Quel 
crime Dantes a-t-il commis {committed)'^ 6. Quelle est sa pro- 
fession? 7. Sur quoi donne sa chambre? 8. En prison a-t-on 
de grandes ou de petites chambres? 9. A-t-on de jolies ou de 
vilaines chambres? 10. Y a-t-il beaucoup de prisonniers dans 
votreville? 11. Est-ce qu^il fait chaud? 12. Fait-il froid? 13. 
Avez-vous froid? 14. Avez-vous assez dormi? 15. Avez-vous 
sommeil? 16. Vous avez faim, n^est-ce pas? 17. Est-ce que 
j^ai raison? 18. Est-ce que j'ai tort? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. We have been here for two hours and 
a half. 2. They put me in a dark little room several months 
ago. 3. For a long time they have not been giving me 
enough meat and vegetables. 4. For several weeks I have 
been eating some of these old vegetables, and some of that 
poor (mauvais) coffee. 5. I have a good many friends here 
who have been prisoners much longer than I. 6. My room 
and my friends' rooms open on long, ugly corridors. 7. They 

122 The Elements of French 

have been hungry for a long time and they have no bread. 

8. The shoe dealer has been selling some beautiful shoes. 

9. Do you do a great deal of work? 10. I do enough (of it). 
11. You have (some) young cousins, have you not? 12. There 
are too many small children in this room. 13. How many 
families are there in that house? 14. He has not so many 
brothers as (of) sisters. 15. That cake was eaten several hours 
ago. 16. John is afraid of it, is he not? 17. Is not Charles 
hungry and thirsty this morning? 18. Is Mary right, or is she 
wrong? 19. Has it been cold since yesterday? 20. Are you 
warm enough now? 21. My friend, you need sleep. 22. You 
have played enough; have you enough time now to (pour) 




mal k la tete (mal a la te:t), m., raconter (rakote), to narrate 

headache siir (syir), adj., sure 

mal ^ la gorge (mal a la gors), m., bien s^r, surely 

sore throat surtout (syrtu), adv., especially 

mal aux dents (mal o da), m., tooth- tout de suite (tu t sqit), immedi- 
ache ately 

peut-etre (poet e:tr), perhaps 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Allez-vousbienaujourd'hui? 2. AUez- 
vous mieux qu'hier? 3. Avez-vous mal a la tete? 4. Avez- 
vous mal a la gorge? 5. Avez-vous mal aux dents? 6. Est-ce 
que Philippe a mal aux oreilles? 7. Dormez-vous bien la nuit? 
8. Faites-vous de bons reves ou de mauvais reves? 9. Racon- 
tez-moi un de vos reves, s'il vous plait. 10. Buvez-vous du 
vin? 11. Le vin monte-t-il a la tete? 12. Que buvez-vous? 
13. En hiver avez-vous froid? 14. Avez-vous froid aux 
pieds en hiver? 15. Avez-vous chaud maintenant? 16. En 
quelle saison avez-vous chaud? 17. Dans quels mois avez- 
vous froid? 

Lesson 64 123 

II. Traduisez. 1. Are you too cold this morning, sir? 
2. There is your overcoat, I think. 3. Thank you, sir, 
I need it, surely. 4. I am never warm enough. 5. I am 
always too cold. 6. Do you sleep well nights, now? 7. 
Yes, I sleep well at night, but (I)* have bad dreams. 8. I 
have headaches also in the morning, especially when I try to 
work. 9. Do you talk when you are sleeping? 10. It is true, 
I often talk (talk often) when I am sleeping. 11. There is 
some good fresh water. 12. Take several glasses (of it), if you 

wish (it). 

Maitre. — Levez-vous. 
Eleve. — Je me leve. 
M. — Venez ici. 
E. — Je viens tout de suite. 
M. — Que faites-vous avant de venir? 
E. — Je me leve avant de venir. 
M. — Que faites-vous apres? 
E. — Je viens, n*est-ce pas? 
M. — Est-ce que Jacques vient aussi? 
E. — Non, monsieur, Jacques ne vient pas. 
M. — Est-ce que Marguerite vient aussi? 
E. — Non, monsieur, Marguerite ne vient pas. 
M. — • Est-ce que Jacques et Marguerite viennent? 
E. — Non, monsieur, ils ne viennent pas, ils restent. 


bas (ba), adj., low facile (fasil), adj., easy 

Feminine, basse (ba:s) facilement (fasilmcL), adv., easily 

carre (kare), adj., square long (15), adj., long 

complet (kople), adj., complete Feminine, longue (15: g) 

Feminine, complete peu (p0), adv., little 

cruel (kryel), adj., cruel repas (rapa), m., meal 

Feininine, cruelle (kryel) vite (vit), adv., quickly, rapidly 

difficile (difisil), adj., difficult 

* Subject pronouns in French are usually repeated, especially pronouns of 
the first person. 


The Elements of French 

121. Formation of Adverbs {Formation des Adverbes). Ad- 
verbs are regularly formed by adding -ment to the feminine of 
the corresponding adjective. 

Adjective (Adjectif) 

Adverb (Adverhe) 

















122. If the masculine of the adjective ends in a vowel other 
than -e, the e of the feminine is dropped before -ment. 

Adjective Adverb 

joli(e) joliment 

carre(e) carrement 

Note. A few adverbs have fixed forms, like tres, mal, bien, etc. 

123. Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs (Comparaison 
des Adjectif s et des Adverbes). Adjectives and adverbs are regu- 
larly compared by using plus (ply), morCy or moins (mwe), 
lesSj with the positive. To form the superlative, prefix the 
article to the comparative. 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

(Positif) {Comparatif) {Superlatif) 

Masc. actif 
Fem, active 

plus actif 
moins actif 

plus active 
moins active 

plus activement 
moins activement 

le plus actif 
le moins actif 

la plus active 
la moins active 

le* plus activement 
le* moins activement 

(a) Observe also aussi . . . que, as . . , aSy used for equal- 
ity before each adjective, or adverb, compared. 

II est aussi capable que Jean, He is as capable as John. 

" The definite article is invariable in the adverb. 

Lesson 64 125 

(6) After a negative, aussi is often replaced by si. 
Vous ii*etes pas si grand que moi, You are not as^ tall as I, 

Exercice. Compare vieuXy ancien, joliy heau, noivy blanc, vert, 
grand, long, bas. 

Form, and compare, adverbs from the following adjectives: 
blanc, joli, chaud, ancien, heureux, malheureux, bas, gros, cruel, 

124. The article is repeated when the superlative follows 
the noun: 

1. Le livre le plus interessant, The most interesting hook. 

2. Le jour le plus malheureux, The most unhappy day, 

3. La jeune fille la plus active, The most active girl. 

4. La maison la plus ancienne, The most ancient house. 

125. A Few Irregular Comparisons {Quelques Comparaisons 
Irregulieres) . 


bon (bo) 

meilleur (mejceir) 

le meilleur 


bien (bje) 

mieux (mj0) 

le mieux 

peu (p0) 

moins (mwe) 

le moins 

beaucoup (boku) 

plus (ply) 

le plus 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Avez-vous bien prepare la legon d'au- 
jourd'hui? 2. Est-ce que votre legon d'hier a ^te meilleure? 
3. Quelle legon a ete la meilleure? 4. AUez-vous bien aujour- 
d'hui? 5. Allez-vous mieux qu'hier? 6. En quelle saison allez- 
vous le mieux? 7. Mangez-vous beaucoup? 8. Mangez-vous 
peu? 9. Mangez-vous plus au dejeuner qu'au diner? 10. 
Mangez-vous moins? 11. A quel repas mangez-vous le plus? 
12. A quel repas mangez-vous le moins? 13. Parlez-vous 
frangais? 14. Le parlez-vous bien? 15. Parlez-vous mieux le 
frangais que Tanglais? 16. Quelle langue parlez-vous le mieux? 
17. Parlez-vous facilement? 18. Travaillez-vous activement? 

II. Traduisez. 1. We prepared the lesson for (of) today 
very easily. 2. We studied adverbs principally. 3. We learned 
{avons appris) the adverbs for prettily and for squarely, 4. The 
most difficult adverb was cruelly, 5. The most interesting 

126 The Elements of French 

adverb was lastly, 6. It was (c^etait) our best lesson. 7. 
Today I am feeling much better than a short time ago. 8. I 
am eating more and sleeping better. 9. I am also studying a 
great deal better. 10. I speak French now as well as (aussi 
hien que) English. 11. But I do not speak it so (I speak it less) 



adverbe (adverb), m., adverb immediatement (imedjatma), adv., 

avant-demier (ava dernje), adj., immediately 

next to last justement (systma), adv., just; pre- 

condition (kodisjo), f., condition cisely 

echapper (ejape), to escape gener (sene), to bother; hinder 

epouser (epuze), to marry noter (note), to note, observe 

etranger (etrase), m., stranger; for- pardon (pardo), m., pardon; I beg 

eigner pardon 

facile (fasil), adj., easy plutot (plyto), adv., rather; sooner 

fou (fu), m., madman reposer (rapoze), to rest 

fort (foir), adj., strong; clever 

aimer mieux, to prefer 

J^aime mieux les roses que les tulipes, / prefer roses to tulips (liter- 
ally, / like better the roses than the tulips), 

126. Voir (vwa:r), to see, 

vols (vwa) voyons (vwajo)* 

vols (vwa) voyez (vwaje)* 

volt (vwa) voient (vwa) 


Hector. — C^est un fou . . . surement . . . indubitablement. 

Hortense. — Crr! 

Hector. — Quoi? 

Hortense. — Indubitablement, Toujours des adverbes. 

* Observe that the i of the stem changes to y before an accented syllable, 
t Adapted from la Lettre chargee, by Labiche. 

Lesson 65 127 

Hector. — Oh! pardon! il m'a echapp^ . . . Donnez-moi cette 
lettre, j^ai justment un ami a la prefecture de police qui est 
precisement au bureau des etrangers, et il va nous renseigner 
sur abondamment . 

Hortense. — La — reposez-vous . . . Vous en avez mis trois 
sur la table! 

Hector. — Quoi! 

Hortense. — Justement . . . precisement . . . surabondamment 
. . . Ecoutez, cousin, c'est plus fort que moi . . . jamais je ne 
vous epouserai dans ces conditions-la. 

Hector. — Voyons, calmez-vous . . . c'est le dernier ou plutot 

Hortense. — Vous en avez encore un qui vous gene? 

Hector. — Oui . . . eternellement. 

Hortense. — Oh! j^aime mieux cet adverbe-1^. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Notez-vous des adverbes? 2. Les 
notez-vous precisement? 3. Quels adverbes notez-vous? 
4. Hector emploie-t-il beaucoup d' adverbes? 5. Est-ce que ses 
adverbes sont longs? 6. Sont-ils difficiles ou faciles a prononcer? 
7. Quels sont les adverbes qu'il emploie? 8. Quel adverbe est- 
ce qu^Hortense aime le mieux? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Hector is speaking of a man who {qui) 
is surely a madman. 2. That man has left a letter at the 
house. 3. Undoubtedly Hortense does not understand the 
letter. 4. Fortunately her friend Hector will go to the 
bureau des etrangers. 5. Hector has at this office a friend 
who will perhaps give them precise information (will inform 
them precisely). 6. Hector ^s adverbs bother Hortense more 
than the stranger^s letter. 7. Hector pronounces three (of 
them) which are very long and very difficult. 8. Hortense tells 
(d) Hector: ^^Rest yourself. 9. There are already enough 
adverbs. 10. I will never marry a man who uses too many 
(of them).'' 11. Hector answers, ''Here is the last (one), or 
rather, next to the last (one). 12. That adverb is eternally J^ 


The Elements of French 



127, The Past Descriptive (or Imperfect) {V Imparfait) , 

The stem of the past descriptive tense of regular verbs is 
formed by dropping the ending -ant of the present participle. 

Participles (Participes) 
donn -ant finiss -ant perd -ant 

Past Descriptive {VImparfait) 

I gave, was giving, used I finished, was finish^ I lost, was losing, used 
to give, etc. 

donn ais (done) * 
donn ais (done) * 
donn ait (done) * 
donn ions (donj5) 
donn iez (donje) 
donn aient (done) * 

ing, used to finish, 

finiss ais (finise)t 
finiss ais (finise)t 
finiss ait (finise)t 
finiss ions (finisjS) 
finiss iez (finis je) 
finiss aient (finise)t 

to lose, etc. 

perd ais (perde)t 
perd ais (perde)t 
perd ait (perde)t 
perd ions (perd jo) 
perd iez (perdje) 
perd aient (perde)t 

128. The past descriptive of the irregular verbs avoir, etre, 
and f aire is : 


av ais (ave) 
av ais (ave) 
av ait (ave) 
av ions (avjo) 
av iez (avje) 
av aient (ave) 


et ais (ete) 
et ais (ete) 
et ait (ete) 
et ions (etjo) 
et iez (etje) 
et aient (ete) 

fais ais (foze) 
fais ais (faze) 
fais ait (faze) 
fais ions (fozjo) 
fais iez (fozje) 
fais aient (faze) 

129. Use of the Past Descriptive (Emploi de V Imparfait) , 
1. The Past Descriptive is often used in descriptions. It 

then corresponds to the English was giving, was finishing, was 

losing, etc. 

La maison se trouvait au coin, The house stood (found itself) on the corner. 
Je finissais la le^on quand il a parle, / was finishing the lesson when he 

* Pronounced alike. 

t Pronounced alike; J Pronounced alike. 

La Conciergerie 
{En face, la prefecture de police) 

Lesson 66 129 

2. The past descriptive often denotes what used to happen or 
continued to happen. 

Je perdais toujours les balles, I always used to lose the halls. 

3. Distinction between the Past Descriptive and the Per- 

The Perfect frequently denotes a single act in past time. 

The Past Descriptive denotes a repeated or continued action 
or state in past time. 

1. Que faisiez -vous ce matin? What were you doing this morning? 

2. Qu'avez-vous fait ce matin? What did you do {once only) this 

3. Mangiez-vous votre petit dejeuner? Were you eating your breakfast? 
(Continued action.) 

4. Avez- vous mange votre petit dejeuner? Did you eat your breakfast? 
(Regarded as a single act.) 

5. Ecriviez- vous une lettre apres? Were you writing a letter afterwards? 

6. Avez -vous ecrit une lettre apres? Did you write a letter afterwards? 

7. Etudiiez -vous la lepon? Were you studying (or did you keep study- 
ing) the lesson? 

8. Avez- vous etudie la lejon? Did you study the lesson? 

Questions. 1. Que faisiez-vous cet ete? 2. Nagiez-vous 
souvent? 3. AUiez-vous aux bois? 4. Trouviez-vous des 
fleurs? 5. Les fleurs ^taient-elles jolies? 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je gagnais souvent, tu gagnais souvent, 
etc. 2. Je n'avais pas d'argent, tu n'avais pas d^argent, 
etc. 3. J^avais faim, tu avais faim, etc. 4. J^achetais de beaux 
chapeaux, tu achetais de beaux chapeaux, etc. 5. Je finissais 
mon travail, tu finissais ton travail, etc. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. ficriviez-vous ce matin? 2. Avec 
quoi Ecriviez-vous? 3. fieri viez-vous sur ce papier-la? 4. 
Ecriviez-vous au tableau noir? 5. Que faisiez-vous k dix 
heures? 6. Travailliez-vous? 7. fitudiiez-vous? 8. Nagiez- 

130 The Elements of French 

III. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. You were eating your din- 
ner when I entered. 2. At what time were you at his 
house? 3. I was there at a quarter after three. 4. We 
used to try to play (at the) football. 5. More often, we 
watched the others. 6. The others played, or rather worked, 
but we kept (counted) the score. 7. With whom {qui) was 
Charles playing? 8. When I saw him, he was going home with 
a stranger. 9. Were they waiting for him at home? 10. He 
was always arriving too late {tard) , you know. 


I. Form adverbs from the adjectives meaning active^ com- 
pletCj pretty y principal, fortunate^ unfortunate, cruel, warm, cold, 

II. Compare these adverbs by using plus and moins. 

III. Compare by using plus and moins, the adjectives mean- 
ing: white, low, high, big, large, good, long, red, black, old, young, 

Compare the adverbs meaning: quickly, well, little, much, 

IV. Conjuguez. 1. Je choisissais ce complet-la, tu choisis- 
sais ce complet-la, etc. 2. Je ne Tentendais pas, tu ne Fentend- 
ais pas, etc. 3. Je comptais mon argent, tu comptais ton 
argent, etc. 4. J'avais seize ans, tu avals seize ans, etc. 

V. Exercice Oral. 1. Est-ce que vous allez bien ce matin? 
2. Allez-vous mieux qu^l y a trois jours? 3. Depuis quand 
allez-vous mieux? 4. Aviez-vous mal a la tete? 5. Aviez- 
vous mal a la gorge? 6. Ou etiez-vous il y a trois mois? 7. 
Qu'est-ce que vous faisiez? 8. Est-ce que vous dormiez bien? 
9. Faisiez-vous de bons ou de mauvais reves? 10. Travailliez- 
vous activement? 11. Comprenez-vous les adverbes? 12. 

Lesson 68 131 

Quels adverbes comprenez-vous? 13. Ces adverbes-la sont-ils 
faciles ou difficiles? 14. Quels adverbes aimez-vous le mieux? 

VI. Traduisez. 1. Philip had sore throat often when he 
was a small child. 2. Mary and Annette used to have 
headaches, didn't they? 3. Were you studying at five o'clock 
this morning? 4. You used to feel the cold a great deal. 5. 
They always felt warm enough. 6. These boys used to work a 
great deal at night. 7. There was plenty of chalk in the 
box. 8. We shall have (some), if there is (any). 9. At 
that office they will easily understand it. 10. Hector was 
eternally talking of that man. 11. They always wore (wore 
always) the same hats and coats. 

VII. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. Marie and Annette were 
counting, were they not? 2. We were buying some. 3. You 
were not selling any. 4. I was seizing them. 




aeroplane (aeroplan), m., airplane ni . . . ni, neither . . . nor 

Ai or Ay (ai), town near Rheims partit (parti), started (from partir) 

allmner (alyme), to light personne* (person), pron., nobody 

bombe ((b5:b), f., bomb place (plas), f., place; square 

canon (kan5), m., cannon plein (pie), Sid'].,full 

concert (koseir), m., concert revenir (ravniir), to come back 

deg^t (dega), m., damage soldat (solda), m., soldier 

eclater (eklate), to burst traverser (traverse), to cross 

ni (ni), conj., neither hdtel de ville (otsl da vil), m., town 


* When personne is used in a sentence, ne precedes the verb, 
II n'y a personne, There is nobody. 

132 The Elements of French 

130. Past Descriptive of partir and sortir (V Imparfait de 
partir et de sortir). 

partir (partiir), to start sortir (sartiir), to go out 

partant (parta), pres. part. sortant (sorta), pres. part. 

part ais (parts) sort ais (sorts) 

part ais (parte) sort ais (sorts) 

part ait (parts) sort ait (sorts) 

part ions (part jo) sort ions (sort jo) 

part iez (partje) sort iez (sortje) 

part aient (parts) sort aient (sorts) 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je partais pour Paris, tu partais pour 
Paris, etc. 2. Je partais il y a cinq jours, tu partais il y 
a cinq jours, etc. 3. Je sors maintenant de la maison, tu sors 
maintenant de la maison, etc. 4. Je sortais de la, tu sortais 
de la, etc. 5. Quel age avais-je? quel age avais-tu? etc. 

II. From the Composition of a Ten- Year-Old French 
Orphan.* Quand papa partit a la guerre, les trains etaient 
pleins, tons les hommes etaient partis. Nous ne voyions plus les 
hommes travailler, revenir des vignes, ni le tramway arriver 
sur la place de Thotel de ville. Quand nous sortions nous ne 
voyions plus les reverberes allumes. Nous n'allions plus au 
concert; nous etions tristes. Nous attendions tou jours des 
nouvelles, nous ecrivions a papa, a tons nos parents. Je ne 
voyais plus papa, ni mon oncle, ni mes cousins, enfin plus 
personne. Nous ne j onions plus. Maintenant des regiments 
passent, les automobiles traversent Ay, nous entendons le 
canon, les aeroplanes des AUemands jettent des bombes, mais 
ne font pas de grands degats. 

III. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. Was his father starting? 
2. Were there any trains? 3. The men did not work. 4. The 
street car no longer arrived. 5. This boy used to go. 6. We 
used to go out. 7. Did he write? 8. Did you hear? 9. Did 
they go out? 10. We were starting several hours ago. 

* Adapted, with slight changes, from le Mercure de France, CXXVII, 
No. 477, p. 69. 

Lesson 69 133 



I. Exercice Oral. 1. Ot habitait ce petit gargon? 2. Quel 
&ge avait-il? 3. Oil etait son pere? 4. Comment ^taient les 
trains? 5. Oil etaient les autres hommes? 6. Qui faisait alors 
(then) le travail? 7. Oii travaillait-on? 8. Ou attendait-on 
le tramway? 9. Est-ce que le tramway arrivait toujours? 
10. Voyait-il son oncle? 11. Voyait-il ses cousins? 12. A qui 
ecrivait-il? 13. Recevait-il toujours des nouvelles? 14. Etait- 
il heureux? 15. £tait-il triste? 16. Allait-il au concert? 
17. Qu^est-ce qu'il entendait? 18. Entendait-il des bombes 
^clater? 19. Voyait-il des aeroplanes? 20. Qu ^est-ce que les 
Allemands j etaient des aeroplanes? 21. Ou jetaient-ils des 
bombes? 22. Ont-ils cause (caused) beaucoup de degats aux 
maisons? 23. Y avait-il des regiments a Ay? 24. Les 
regiments arrivaient-ils en automobiles? 

II. Tradtiisez. 1. Our little friend was ten years old. 
2. He lived in the small city of Ay, near Rheims. 3. His 
father worked in the vineyards; his mother worked at home. 
4. The child went to school. 5. Then his father departed 
for war. 6. The boy was eight years old when his father 
left the house. 7. He wrote to his father, and to all his 
relatives, but did not receive any news. 8. He was sad; the 
whole city was unhappy. 9. The street lights were no longer 
lighted. 10. The families no longer went (n^allaient plus) to 
the concert. 11. The women worked in the vineyards, because 
there were no longer any men. 12. The Germans traversed the 
city in automobiles. 13. They threw bombs from the air- 
planes on the houses. 14. Fortunately, they did not do great 
damage. 15. The trains kept arriving, but (they) were always 
full of soldiers. 16. The boys and (the) girls no longer played 
in the streets. 17. They no longer went to school. 18. Regi- 
ments were always crossing the city. 19. There were auto- 


The Elements of French 

mobiles for the soldiers, but there were no street cars for 
women and children. 20. The town hall square (square of 
the town hall) was very dismal. 



au-dessus (de) (o dsy), prep., above; 

cave (kaiv), f., cellar 
emigre (emigre), m., refugee 
falloir (falwair), irreg., to he necessary 

Past part., fallu (faly) 
loger (lose), to lodge; billet 
mari (mari), m., husband 
obus (oby), m., shell 
pendant (pada), prep., during 
pont (p5), m., bridge 
presque (preska), adv., almost 

raccommoder (rakomode), to repair 
quartier (kartje), m., quarter; ward 
sauter (sote), to jump 
siffler (sifle), to whistle 
tablier (tablie), m:, apron 
toit (twa), m., roof 
trou (tru), m., hole 
vie (vi), f., life 
voisin (vwaze), m., neighbor 
voisine (vwazin), f., neighbor 
faire sauter, to blow up 
huit jours, usually a week, not eight 

131. Verbs Conjugated with etre (Verhes Conjugues avec 
etre). A few intransitive verbs, mostly denoting motion, use 
etre instead of avoir as the auxiliary : 

Infinitive Past Participle 


Past Participle 

aller, to go 


partir, to start, set out 


arriver, to arrive 


rester, to remain 


descendre, to go down 


sortir, to go out 


entrer, to enter 


tomber, to fall 


monter, to go up 


venir, to come 


mourir, to die 


(Also compounds 



Note. Beginners may learn the rule thus : The French verbs for come, 
go; go up, go down; go in, go out; be born, die; go away, arrive; fall, remain; 
and a few others, are conjugated with etre. 

Lesson 70 135 

(a) The past participles of such verbs agree Uke adjectives 
with the subject of the sentence. 
Thus: je suis venu(e) nous sommes venu(e)s 

tu es venu(e) vous etes venu(e)(s)* 

il est venu ils sont venus 

elle est venue elles sont venues 

I. Questions. 1. A quelle heure etes-vous arrive ce matin? 
2. A quelle heure est-ce que je suis arrive? 3. Quand sommes- 
nous arrives? 4. Est-ce que Charles et Jacques sont arrives 
a la meme heure? 5. 0\1 etes-vous alle hier? 6. Qui est alle 
avec vous? 7. A quelle heure etes-vous sorti de la maison? 
8. fites-vous entre dans une boutique? 9. Quand etes-vous 

IL From the Composition of a Ten- Year-Old French 
Orphan — Continued.! La vie n^est plus la meme. Elle 
est chere, le pain est gris, mais enfin il est meilleur que le 
pain allemand. Les emigres viennent maintenant dans 
notre pays. Des soldats remplacent nos peres et nos freres. 
Quand les Allemands sont arrives, il a fallu nous cacher dans 
les caves. Les obus sifflaient au-dessus d^Ay. Nous avions 
peur. II a fallu les loger pendant huit jours. lis ont fait 
sauter les ponts. Un eclat a perce le toit de notre grenier 
et a rebondi presque sur la tete de notre voisine. Ma 
soeur est accourue, puis a ramasse Teclat dans son tablier. 
II lui a fait un trou, car il etait rouge. Quand papa est 
revenu on lui a dit de raccommoder le toit. Nous lui avons 
raconte tout ce que les Allemands avaient fait chez nous. 
Tout est change; la vie n^est plus la meme. 

III. Conjuguez. L Je suis parti il y a neuf jours, tu es 
parti il*y a neuf jours, etc. 2. Je suis arrive k Thotel de 
ville, tu es arrive a Fhotel de ville, etc. 3. Je suis revenu 
dans ce pays, tu es revenu dans ce pays, etc. 

* The participle takes the plural form when vous refers to more than one 
person; otherwise it takes the singular form. 

1. Vous etes arrive(e)s. You {more than one) have arrived, 

2. Vous etes venu(e), You (one person) have come, 
t Mercure de France. 

136 The Elements of French 


I. Exercice Oral. 1. Est-ce que la vie etait chere a Ay? 2. 
De quelle couleur etait le pain? 3. Est-ce que les Allemands 
mangeaient* de meilleur pain? 4. Est-ce que leur pain etait 
mauvais? 5. Ou les Emigres sont-ils alles? 6. 0\i les peres 
et les freres etaient-ils alles? 7. Qui les remplagaient? f 8. 
Est-ce que les Allemands sont arrives? 9. Est-ce que Ton avait 
peur des Allemands? 10. Avait-on raison? 11. Avait-on tort? 
12. Oil les habitants d^Ay se cachaient-ils? 13. Combien de 
temps a-t-il fallu loger les Allemands? 14. £tait-on heureux ou 
malheureux? 15. Qu^est-ce qui a perce le toit de la maison? 
16. Qui a ramasse Teclat d'obus? 17. De quelle couleur etait 
I'eclat? 18. Qu'est-ce que Teclat a fait? 19. Est-ce que le 
pere de famille est revenu? 20. Qu'est-ce qu'on lui a dit? 21. 
Qu'est-ce qu^on lui a raconte? 

II. Traduisez. 1. This little boy was eight years old 
when his father went to (the) war. 2. There were no longer 
any men who worked in the vineyards, or in the city. 3. 
The women worked when the men departed. 4. There were 
many others in France who were very sad. 5. For example,{ 
there were many refugees in France, who were afraid of 
the Germans. 6. The Germans used to traverse Ay in automo- 
biles. 7. They did not do very great damage to the houses. 
8. When the Germans arrived, it was necessary to hide 
in the cellars. 9. The shells pierced the roofs of the houses. 
10. Everybody heard the cannon at night. 11. Shells were 
whistling over the city, and the children were afraid. 12. 
It was necessary to billet the Germans for a week. 13. 
Everybody was very happy when the French regiments arrived 
in automobiles. 14. The soldiers were all going (going all) 
against the Germans. 

* Verbs in -ger change g to ge before a or o, to keep the soft sound of g. 
t Verbs in -cer change c to 5 before a or o, to keep the soft sound of c. 
(For model verbs, see Appendix.) 
f Par example. 

Lesson 72 137 


I. Present, past descriptive, and future of partir, sortir. 

II. Perfect of venir, entrer, sortir, aller. 

III. Present and past descriptive of manger, changer 
(change g to ge before a or o). 

IV. Present and past descriptive of commencer (change c 
to 5 before a or o). 

V. Conjuguez. 1. Je suis arrive a quatre heures, tu es 
arrive h quatre heures, etc. 2. Je partais souvent, tu partais 
souvent, etc. 3. Je sortais la nuit, tu sortais la nuit, etc. 
4. Je suis entre dans la maison, tu es entre dans la maison, etc. 

VI. Exercice Oral. 1. A quelle heure etes-vous sorti ce 
matin? 2. A quelle heure avez-vous pris le tramway? 3. 
Oil avez-vous pris le tramway? 4. Dans quelle place?* 5. A 
quelle heure etes-vous arrive a Fecole? 6. fibes-vous entre 
tout de suite dans Fecole? 7. Par quelle porte etes-vous entre? 
8. fibes-vous entre par la porte de devant? 9. fites-vous 
entre par la porte de derriere? 

10. Ou se trouve Ay? 11. Pres de quelle ville? 12. Quel 
age avait le petit gargon qui y habit ait? 13. Est-ce que les 
hommes etaient partis? 14. Est-ce que Ton avait peur des 
Allemands? 15. Ou se cachait-on? 16. Qu^est-ce que les Alle- 
mands jetaient des aeroplanes? 17. Qui a ramasse un eclat 
d'obus? 18. De quelle couleur etait cet eclat? 19. Est-ce que 
Ton voyait des soldats frangais? 20. Est-ce que ces soldats 
travaillaient? 21. Comment ces soldats arrivaient-ils? 

VII. Traduisez. 1. Living was very expensive at Ay. 2. 
The gray bread of the inhabitants was better than the 
German bread. 3. The refugees {emigres) have come; there 
are a great many of them. 4. Everybody was afraid of the 

* SqiLare. 

138 The Elements of French 

bombs which the Germans threw upon the houses. 5. Every- 
body heard the shells which whistled at night. 6. The Ger- 
mans were very fond of (hked very much) French bread. 
7. They stayed for a week, and everybody was very happy 
when they departed. 8. The French soldiers arrived in auto- 
mobiles and in trains. 9. There were many (of them) who 
were going against the Germans. 10. Fortunately the child's 
father returned, and they told him everything. 

brosser (brose), to brush se lever (sa lave), to get up 

barbe (barb), f., heard peigner (pejie), to comb 

se coucher (sa kuje), to go to bed savon (sav5), m., soap 

figure (figyir), f., /ace servir (serviir), to serve (conju- 

laver (lave), to wash gated like partir) 

lever {hve), to raise se servir (de), to make use of; help 

one's self 

132. Reflexive Verbs {Verbes Reflechis). A reflexive verb 
is one having a pronoun object referring to the same person 
as the subject. 

He (subject) washes himself (object), 

133. In French, most transitive verbs may be reflexive. 

1. Je coupe (3a kup), le pain, / cut (not reflexive) the bread. 

2. Je me coupe (3a ma kup), / cut myself (reflexive). 

(a) The reflexive forms may have also a reciprocal mean- 
ing. Example: Nous nous flattens means either We flatter 
ourselves (reflexive), or We flatter each other (reciprocal). 

134. Agreement (Accord). In compound tenses of reflexive 
verbs, the past participle agrees with the reflexive object, 
provided it is the direct object. 

1. EUe s'est coupee, She has cut herself (se is the direct object). 

2. EUe s'est coupe la main, She has cut her hand (literally: She has cut 
to herself the hand; se is the indirect object). 

Lesson 73 


135. Conjugation of se couper, to cut one^s self. {Conjugal- 
son de se couper). 

(Observe that all reflexive verbs are conjugated with the auxiliary etre, 
but the past participles agree with the preceding direct object.) 

Present {Present) 

je me coupe (39 ma kup) 

tu te coupes (ty tQ kup) 

11 se coupe (il sa kup) 

elle se coupe (el sa kup) 

nous nous coupons (nu nu kup5) 

vous vous coupez (vu vu kupe) 

lis se coupent (il sa kup) 
elles se coupent (el S9 kup) 

Perfect {PassS Indefini) 

je me suis coupe (39 ma sqi kupe) 
tu Ves coupe (ty t e kupe) 
il s*est coupe (il s e kupe) 
elle s*est coupee (el s e kupe) 
nous nous sonmies coupe (e)s (nu nu 

som kupe) 
vous vous etes coupe (e)(s) (vu vuz 

et kupe) 
ils se sont coupes (il sa so kupe) 
elles se sont coupees (el sa so kupe) 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je me cache, tu te caches, etc. 2. Je 
me trouve a Paris, tu te trouves a Paris, etc. 3. Je me 
lege chez lui, tu te leges chez lui, etc. {Plural, nous nous 
logeons, etc.) 4. Je me leve a sept heures, tu te leves a 
sept heures, etc. 

II. Questions. 1. A quelle heure vous couchez-vous? 2. 
Oii vous couchez-vous? 3. Est-ce que vous vous couchez 
dans un lit? 4. A quelle heure vous levez-vous? 5. A quelle 
heure votre voisin se leve-t-il? 6. Est-ce que vous vous 
lavez a Teau froide? 7. Vous lavez-vous a Feau chaude? 
8. Est-ce que vous vous servez de savon?* 9. Est-ce que 
Charles se sert du tramway pour arriver a Tecole? 10. Est- 
ce que vous vous servez a table? 11. Servez-vous de la* viande, 
s^il vous plait. 12. Servez-vous du poulet, s^il vous plait. 

* Observe that after idioms ending in de, such as avoir besoin de, remplir 
de, se servir de, etc., the article is omitted, when the words some or any are 
expressed or understood with the noun. 

Examples: J'ai besoin d*argent, I need (some) money. Nous nous servons 
des livres de notre ami. We use our friend's books. 

Compare assez de, trop de, etc. 

140 The Elements of French 

III. Remplacez les Tirets. 1. lis se sont serv — . 2. lis 
se sont serv — du lait. 3. Nous nous sommes lav — . 4. 
Nous nous sommes lav — les mains. 5. Elle s^est peign — . 
6. Elle s'est peign — • les cheveux. 7. Nous nous sommes 
coup — . 8. Nous nous sommes coup — les doigts. 

IV. Traduisez. 1. I went to bed at a quarter of eleven. 
2. Then I got up at half past seven this morning. 3. I washed 
with (d) cold water, because there was no warm water. 4. I 
used this white soap. 5. You used that brown soap, did you 
not? 6. I brushed my (the) hair with that brush. 7. Then I 
tried to cut my (the) beard with your razor (rasoiVj m.). 8. I 
cut myself, but I did not cut my beard very well. 9. Why did 
you use this razor? 10. Why didn't you use that razor? 



136. Instead of the possessive adjectives men, ton, son, 
the definite article is regularly used in speaking of parts of 
the body, and often of articles of clothing. Thus, the French 
use les yexix, le nez, etc., instead of mes yeux, men nez, etc. 

1. Je ferme les yeux, / close my eyes. (Not Je ferme mes yeux, 

because whose eyes but mine should I be closing?) 

2. pouvre la bouche, / open my mouth. (Not Pouvre mabouche.) 

3. Je leve^a main, / raise my hand. (Not Je leve ma main.) 

4. II baisse le bras gauche, He lowers his left arm. (Not II baisse 

son bras gauche.) 

Questions. 1. Est-ce que vous ouvrez les yeux? 2. Est-ce 
que vous fermez la bouche? 3. Est-ce que vous serrez les 
dents? 4. Touchez-vous quelque chose avec la main? 5. 
Marchez-vous avec les pieds? 6. Parlez-vous avec la langue? 

Lesson 74 141 

137. Where there is possible ambiguity as to the possessor, 
an indirect object pronoun is used also. 

1. Je vous serre la main, / shake your hand (literally, / shake to 

you the hand). 

2. Vous m'avez sauve la vie, You have saved my life (literally, 

You have saved to me the life). 

3. II s'est coupe la figure. He has cut Ms face (literally. He has 

cut to himself the face). 

Observe also: II a les cheveux gris. He has gray hair, 
EUe a les yeux bleus, She has blue eyes, 

I. Questions. 1. Est-ce que vous vous brossez les dents? 
2. Est-ce que vous vous peignez les cheveux? 3. Est-ce que 
vous vous peignez la barbe? 4. Qui est-ce qui vous coupe 
les cheveux? 5. Qui est-ce qui vous lave la figure? 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je me suis lave a Teau froide, tu t^es 
lave a Teau froide, etc. 2. Je me suis leve a sept heures, tu 
t'es leve a sept heures, etc. 3. Je me suis couche a neuf 
heures et demie, tu t^es couche a neuf heures et demie, etc. 
4. Je me suis coupe la main, tu t^es coupe la main, etc. 

Conjugate the same sentences negatively: Je ne me suis 
pas lave, etc. 

III. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. You go to bed. 2. You 
have gone to bed. 3. We have got up. 4. He gets up. 5. 
You have washed yourself. 6. She has washed her face. 7. 
You have washed your face. 8. He has brushed his (the) 
clothes. 9. They have brushed their teeth. 10. We are 
using this soap. 11. Help yourself to some potatoes. 12. 
They have helped themselves to some dessert. 13. I helped 
myself to some chicken. 14. She helped herself to some 
beef and vegetables. 

142 The Elements of French 




k temps ( a ta), on time se depecher (s8 depeje), to hurry; 
brosse (bros) , f . , brush; brosse a che- depechez-vous, hurry 

veux, hair brush; brosse a dents, peigne (peji), m., comb 

tooth brush pourboire (purbwair), m., tip 

QSL (sa), (for cela), pron., that (in- precis (presi), adj., precise 

definite) prier (prie), to pray; beg 

coiffer (kwafe), to dress the hair raser (raze), to shave 

coiffeur (kwafoeir), m., hair dresser; rasoir (razwair), m., razor 

barber retard (rotair), m., delay 

coup de peigne, m., combing serviette (servjet), f., napkin; towel 

coup de brosse, m., brushing serrer (sere), to press; squeeze 

court (kuir), adj., short siirete (syrte), f., safety 
dame (dam) f., lady 

voila votre affaire, that is just what you are looking for (literally, 

there is your affair). 
etre en retard, to be late 
je vous en prie, / beg you 
rasoir de siirete, safety razor 
ga, y est (sa j e), all right! 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je m'en sers, tu t^en sers, etc. 2. Je 
m'en servirai, tu t'en serviras, etc. 3. Je m'en suis servi, tu 
t^en es servi, etc. 4. Je me fais couper les cheveux, tu te fais 
couper les cheveux, etc. 5. Je me peigne, tu te peignes, 
etc. 6. Je me suis peign6 ce matin, tu t'es peigne ce matin, 
etc. 7. Je lui serre la main, tu lui serres la main, etc. 8. Je 
me rase la barbe, tu te rases la barbe, etc. 9. Je me brosse 
les dents, tu te brosses les dents, etc. 


M. Dupont, levez-vous! II est deja huit heures et 

demie. Le train part a dix heures tres precises. 

II sera en retard, n^est-ce pas? 

Non, monsieur, il n^est pas en retard ce matin. Mal- 

heureusement il est a Theure. Voici du savon; voila des 
rasoirs. Aimez-vous mieux un rasoir de surete? 

Lesson 75 


Non, monsieur, je ne m'en suis jamais servi. Je n^aime 

pas me raser. Est-ce qu'il y a un coiffeur pres d'ici? 

II y a la-bas un coiffeur pour hommes et un coiffeur 

pour dames, mais c^est la meme maison. Depechez-vous done; 
il ne vous reste que quelques minutes. 

Ajpres quelque temps, 

Aurai-je aussi le temps de me faire couper les che- 

veux? Un peu court par derriere, et un peu long sur le devant? 

Locomotive du Rapide (Chemin de Fer d' Orleans) 

Jamais de la vie. II faut se depecher, monsieur. Voila 

un peigne; voila une brosse a cheveux. Qsl y est! Avec un 
coup de peigne et un coup de brosse, vous etes bien — comme 9a. 

Combien f aut-il payer le coiffeur? 

Qrdinairement la barbe c'est quatre sous. II y a tou- 

jours deux sous de pourboire. Depechez-vous, monsieur, je 
vous en prie. 

Au revoir! Je vous serre la main. 

III. Traduisez. 1. We went to bed at half past eleven. 2. 
We got up at a quarter past six. 3. I used this brush. 4. You 

144 The Elements of French 

' used that brush. 5. Have you combed your hair? 6. Have 
you brushed your teeth? 7. I shaved with this safety razor. 
8. Then M. Dupont shook hands with us. 9. We hurried to 
catch (prendre) the train. 10. What must one pay for the 
tickets (billets)? 


I. Conjuguez. 1. Je me suis depeche, tu t'es depeche, etc. 

2. Je me suis leve a sept heures, tu t'es leve a sept heures, etc. 

3. Est-ce que je me lave? te laves-tu? etc. 4. Je ne me suis 
pas bien porte, tu ne t^es pas bien porte, etc. 5. Je me sens 
mieux, tu te sens mieux, etc. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Est-ce que M. Dupont se leve? 2. 
A quelle heure se leve-t-il? 3. A quelle heure part le train? 

4. Est-ce que le train est exact? 5. Est-ce que M. Dupont est 
exact? 6. Est-il en retard? 7. Avec quoi M. Dupont se lave- 
t-il? 8. Est-ce qu'il se sert de Feau? 9. Est-ce qu^il se sert du 
savon? 10. Avec quoi se rase-t-il? 11. Est-ce qu'il aime 
mieux un rasoir de surete? 12. Est-ce qu'il se sert souvent de 
ces rasoirs-la? 13. Ou se trouve un coiffeur? 14. Est-ce 
qu^il faut se depecher? 15. Combien de minutes restent encore? 
16. Aura-t-il le temps de se faire couper les cheveux? 17. Com- 
ment les fait-il couper? 18. Avec quoi se peigne-t-il? 19. 
Avec quoi se brosse-t-il les cheveux? 20. Combien de sous faut-il 
donner au coiffeur? 21. Est-ce qu'il y a un pourboire a donner? 
22. Combien faut-il donner? 23. Qu'est-ce que M. Dupont 
dit quand il part? 24. Est-ce qu^il serre la main de son ami? 

III. Traduisez. 1. This morning the train will surely 
leave at nine o'clock sharp. 2. It is often late, but this 
morning it is on time. 3. We get up at half past six, in 
order to (pour) have plenty of time. 4. Unfortunately we went 
to bed at half past one in the morning. 5. We do not like (to) 
rise. 6. Our cousin gives us a towel, some soap, and some hot 

Visite de L'Amiral Beatty au Tombeau de Napoleon 

Lesson 77 145 

water. 7. He says: ''Hurry up. You will have only (the) 
time to catch (prendre) the train. 8. Here is your overcoat. 
9. You will not have enough time to go to the tailor's. 10. He 
is (d) seven blocks (rues) from here. 11. Perhaps you will 
have time to go to the barber's. 12. Perhaps he will have time 
enough to cut your hair. Only give a tip of two cents.'' 13. 
We shake hands with each other. 14. We say good-bye to 
each other. 15. ''Write to me often this spring/' says my 
cousin. 16. "I still have (have still) the letters which you used 
to write me last winter." 




CToire {krw air), to think; believe jardin (sarde), m., garden 

ecouter (ekute), to listen (to) rendre (ra:dr), to give back; return 

138. Conjimctive Pronouns (Formes Atones), Conjunc- 
tive personal pronouns are used either as the subject or as 
the object (direct or indirect) of a verb, and immediately in 
connection with it. (Hence the name conjunctive.) 

The conjunctive pronoun objects of the third person are: 

Direct Object {Regime Direct) Indirect Object {Regime Indirect) 

le (la), him J it lui (Iqi), (to) himy (to) Aer, 

la (la), her J it (to) it 

les (le) or (le), them leur (loeir), (to) them 

139. Position of Pronouns (Position des Pronoms). All 
object pronouns precede the verb, except in the affirmative 

1. Oft est le savon? Where is the soap? 

Je le trouve, / find it. 

2. O^ est la serviette? Where is the towel? 

Je la vois, / see it. 

146 The Elements of French 

3. on sont les peignes? Where are the combs? 

4. Je les cherche, / am looking for them . 

5. Ot sont les brosses? Where are the brushes? 

6. Je les cherche, aussi, / am looking for them, also. 

7. O^ est Marie? Where is Mary? 

8. Je Im montre le jardm, / am showing her (to her) the garden. 

9. Ot est Jean? Where is John? 

10. Je lui montre aussi le jardin, / am also showing him (to him ) the 


11. O^ sont Marie et Jean? Where are Mary and John? 

12. Je leur montre le jardin, I am showing them ( to them) the garden. 

I. Questions. 1. Est-ce que vous me donnez un crayon? 
2. A qui donnez-vous un crayon? {Answer: Je vous donne 
. . .) 3. Est-ce que je donne un journal a Jean? {Answer: 
Vous lui donnez . . .) 4. Lui donnez-vous quelque chose? 
5. Lui donnez-vous son chapeau? 6. Donnez-vous aussi 
quelque chose k Marie? 7. Qu^est-ce que vous lui donnez? 
8. Donnez-vous quelque chose a Marie et a Jacques? 9. 
Qu'est-ce que vous leur donnez? 

IL Conjuguez. 1. Je lui montre la cave, tu lui montres 
la cave, etc. 2. Je leur ai montre le toit, tu leur as montre 
le toit, etc. 3. Est-ce que je lui donne un automobile? lui 
donnes-tu un automobile? etc. 4. Qu^est-ce que je leur dis? 
qu'est-ce que tu leur dis? etc. 5. Je lui raconte ma vie, tu 
lui racontes ta vie, etc. 6. Je leur parlais, tu leur parlais, 
etc. 7. Je ne leur ai pas parle, tu ne leur as pas parle, etc. 

140. Croire, to think, to believe. 

Present (Present) 
crois (krwa) croyons (krwajo)* 

crois (krwa) croyez (krwaje)* 

croit (krwa) * croient (krwa) 

III. Conjuguez. L Je le crois, tu le crois, etc. 2. Est-ce 
que je la* crois? la crois-tu? etc. 3. Je ne les crois pas, tu 
ne les crois pas, etc. 

* Observe that i changes to y before an accented syllable, as in the case of 
voir, to see. 

Lesson 78 147 

IV. Questions. 1. Est-ce que Jacques parle? 2. Qu^est-ce 
qu^il dit? 3. Le croyez-vous? 4. Est-ce que vous ne le 
croyez pas? 5. Est-ce que je dis quelque chose? 6. Est-ce 
que vous me croyez? 7. Qu'est-ce que vous croyez? 8. 
Qu'est-ce que vous ne croyez pas? 9. Montrez-moi Charles, 
s'il vous plait. 10. Est-ce que vous lui dites quelque chose? 
11. Est-ce qu^il vous croit? 12. Voyez-vous Marie et An- 
nette? 13. Leur dites-vous quelque chose? 14. Est-ce qu^el- 
les vous croient? 15. Je crois qu'il fait beau. Le croyez- 
vous? 16. Je crois qu^il neige. Le croyez-vous? 17. Je 
crois qu^il fait froid. Le croyez-vous? 18. Je crois que 
vous avez raison. Le croyez-vous? 

V. Exercise Oral ou Ecrit. 1. I give him (to him) 
something. 2. You show her (to her) the garden. 3. We 
wait for him. 4. You listen to them. 5. They (/.) speak to 
them. 6. Does he speak to her? 7. Does Charles tell him? 
8. We return it to Mary. 9. She does not return it to John. 
10. Does Philip return it to his mother? 


I. Conjugate in the present, past descriptive, future, and 
perfect: 1. Je me flatte, tu te flattes, etc. 2. Je me leve, tu 
te leves, etc. (plur. nous nous levons, etc.) 3. Je m^en sers, 
tu t^en sers, etc. 4. Je me lave la figure, tu te laves la figure, 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je me suis peigne les cheveux, tu t'es 
peigne les cheveux, etc. 2. Je lui montre ce jardin, tu lui mon- 
tres ce jardin, etc. 3. Je ne lui dis pas, tu ne lui dis pas, etc. 
4. Est-ce que je leur parlais, leur parlais-tu? etc. 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. A quelle heure est-ce que vous vous 
couchez? 2. A quelle heure fermez-vous les yeux? 3. Dormez- 
vous bien? 4. A quelle heure votre voisin se leve-t-il? 5. 

148 The Elements of French 

Comment s^appelle-t-il? 6. A quelle heure vous lavez-vous 
la figure? 7. Vous servez-vous d^une serviette? 8. Partez- 
vous? 9. A quelle heure partez-vous? 10. Faut-il se de- 
pecher? 11. Aurez-vous le temps de vous faire couper les 
cheveux? 12. Combien de pourboire faut-il donner? 13. A 
qui faut-il donner ce pourboire? 14. Qu'est-ce que vous dites 
quand vous partez? 15. Voyez-vous un ami? 16. Lui 
serrez-vous la main? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Unfortunately we did not sleep enough 
last night (cette nuit). 2. We went to bed at half past two 
in the morning. 3. I did not close my eyes all night (of the 
night). 4. John also did not rest well, because he lay in a 
poor (bad) bed. 5. But we got up at the same time. 6. 
We dressed ourselves at once, and ate very early. 7. We 
hurried in order to (pour) catch the train. 8. We did not go out 
of the house until (ne , , , que) eight o'clock. 9. Fortunately, 
the train was late; it never is on time. 10. Several friends 
came to say good-bye to us. 11. We shook hands with each 
other, and then the train started. 12. I think (that)* we 
shall often write to one another, if we have time enough. 



alors (aloir), adv., then reussir (reysiir), to succeed 

demande (damaid), f., request Pun . . . Pautre (1 oe . . 1 o:tr), each 

droit (drwa), m., right; privilege other 

lutte (lyt), f., struggle a la bonne heure (a la bon oe:r), all 

motif (motif), m., motive right 
promettre (prometr), to promise 
(irreg.). P. part., promis (promi) 

* Que, meaning that, is never omitted in French. 

Lesson 79 149 

141. Pouvoir (puvwair), to be able, can. 

Present (Present) 

puis (pqi), or, peux (p0) pouvons (puv5) 
peux (p0) pouvez (puve) 

peut (p0) peuvent (poexv) 

I. Questions. 1. Pouvez-vous toucher la chaise? 2. 
Pouvez-vous toucher cette fenetre-la? 3. Est-ce que Marie 
peut vous entendre? 4. Est-ce que Charles et Jacques peu- 
vent s^entendre? 5. Qu'est que vous pouvez faire avec les 
mains? 6. Qu^est-ce que vous pouvez faire avec les pieds? 
7. Qu'est-ce que vous pouvez faire avec la langue? 


II. (Daniel has promised to ask M. Perrichon for his con- 
sent to take Armand as a son-in-law.) 

Armand (d part). Eh bien? 

Daniel. Pauvre gargon ! 

Armand. L^avez-vous vu? 

Daniel — Oui. 

Armand. Lui avez-vous parle? 

Daniel. Je lui ai parle. 

Armand. • Alors vous avez fait ma demande? . . . 

Daniel. Non. 

Armand. ^Tiens! Pourquoi? 

Daniel. Nous nous sommes promis d'etre francs vis-a- 
vis Tun de Tautre . . .Eh bien! mon cher Armand, je ne pars 
plus, je continue la lutte. 

Armand (etonne). Ah. c'est different! . . . et peut-on 

vous demander les motifs qui ont change votre determination? 

Daniel. Les motifs . . . j'en ai un puissant . . . je crois 


Armand. Vous? 

* Adapted from le Voyage de M. Perrichon by Labiche et Martin. 

150 The Elements of French 

Daniel. Je compte prendre un autre chemin et arriver 

plus vite. 

Armand. C'est tres bien . . . vous etes dans votre 

droit . . . 

Daniel. Mais la lutte n'en continuera pas moins loyale 

et amicale? 

Armand. Oui. 

Daniel. Voila un oui un peu sec. 

Armand. Pardon . . . {Lui tendant la main.) Daniel, je 

vous le promets . . . 

Daniel. A la bonne heure. 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Comment s^appellent les deux amis? 
2. Qui est-ce que Daniel a vu? * 3. Lui a-t-il parle? 4. Est-ce 
qu'il lui a fait une demande? 5. Est-ce qu'il avait promis de 
faire une demande? 6. Pourquoi n^a-t-il pas fait cette de- 
mande? 7. Est-ce qu'Armand lui demande son motif? 8. 
Qu'est-ce que Daniel croit faire? 9. Comment croit-il reussir? 
10. Croit-il arriver plus vite ou moins vite que son ami? 11. 
Est-ce que Daniel et Armand sont toujours de bons amis? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Daniel and Armand are in love with 
(love) the same (young) girl. 2. Armand talks to Daniel, 
and tells him to (de) speak to the (young) girFs father. 3. 
Daniel says that he will do so (it). 4. He will tell him that 
Armand loves his daughter. 5. Daniel and Armand have 
promised each other to be good friends. 6. They will conceal 
nothing from each other. 7. They will tell each other every- 
thing that (tout ce qui) happens (arriver). 8. Armand expects 
to succeed, but Daniel tells him that the struggle is not yet 

V. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. Can she do it? 2. She 

can not say. 3. Can you not think? 4. Can Charles come? 
5. Can Philip and John hear? 6. How can they succeed? 

Lesson 80 151 




apporter (aporte), to bring lu (ly), p. part., read (from lire) 

enveloppe (dvlop), f., envelope payer (peje), to pay; pay for 

142. Agreement of Past Participles (Accord des Participes 
Passes), When the verb is compounded with avoir, the past 
participle agrees with the preceding direct object. If the object 
follows the verb, the past participle does not agree. 

1. J*ai trouve les joumaux, I (have) found the newspapers. (Object 

follows the verb.) But 
Je les ai trouve s, / (have) found them. (Object precedes the 

2. Les joumaux que j*ai trouves. The newspapers which I (have) 

found. (Object precedes the verb.) 

3. Quels joumaux avez-vous trouves? What newspapers did you 

find? (Object precedes the verb.) 

Note that the participle does not agree with a preceding en. 

1. Combien de lettres avez-vous ecrites? How many letters did you 


2. J^eii ai ecrit deux, / wrote two ( of them) . 

Questions. 1. Quels journaux avez-vous achetes ce matin? 
2. Combien les avez-vous payes? 3. Combien de journaux 
avez-vous lus? 4. Quelles autres choses avez-vous achetees 
ce matin? Quelles personnes avez-vous vues? 6. Avez-vous 
vu des amis? 7. Quels amis avez-vous vus? 

143. Tenir (taniir) to hold^ to keep (conjugated like venir). 

tiens (tje) tenons (tano) 

tiens (tje) tenez (tane) 

tient (tje) tiennent (tjen) 

144. The Pronominal Adverb y {le Pronom y). The pro- 
nominal adverb y (i) means therej to (at) itj to (at) them. It 
stands for a (sur, dans, etc.) + a pronoun of the third person. 

152 The Elements of French 

145. Y regularly precedes the verb and can only be sep- 
arated from it by en. 

1. Allez-vous a Bordeaux? Are you going to Bordeaux? 

2. J'y vais, / am going there. 

3. Etes-vous a Paris? Are you in Paris? 

4. J]y suis, I am there. 

5. Pensez-vous k cette lefon? Are you thinking of this lesson? 

6. J*^ pense, / am thinking of it . 

7. II n*y_en a pas, There is not any , 

I. Questions. 1. Tenez-vous quelque chose a la main? 
2. Qu'est-ce que vous y tenez? 3. Y tenez-vous un crayon? 
4. Y tenez-vous un porte-plume? 5. Est-ce que vous y 
tenez un journal? 6. Qu^est-ce que je tiens a la main? 7. 
Est-ce que j'y tiens un livre? 8. Est-ce que 'fy tiens une 
balle? 9. Levez la main droite. 10. Y tenez-vous la gram- 
maire? 11. Y tenez-vous un canif? 12. Levez la main 
gauche. 13. Y tenez-vous le porte-plume? 14. Qu'est-ce que 
Marie et Annette ont dans les mains? 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je Tai ecrite, tu Tas ecrite, etc. 2. Je 
les ai ecrites, tu les as ecrites, etc. 3. Je les ai trouvees, tu 
les as trouvees, etc. 4. Quelles tables est-ce que j^ai ache- 
tees? quelles tables as-tu achetees? etc. 5. Je ne les ai pas 
apportes, tu ne les as pas apportes, etc. 

III. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. We have seen them (/.). 
2. You have seen them (m.). 3. She has listened (to) her. 
4. We have found them (m.). 5. You have found her. 6. 
Here are some envelopes which she has paid for. 7. There 
are some letters which he has written. 8. Here are some 
apples; I (have) bought them. 9. There are some pears; 
they (have) sold them. 10. You bought some meat, but did 
you pay for it? 11. Are you thinking of it? 12. She sees a 
picture there. 

Lesson 81 153 




officiel (ofisjel), adj., official portefeuille (par tfoeij),m., pocfce/booA; 

Feminine, officielle (ofisjel) remis (rami), handed {given) hack 

ordinairement (ordinerma), adv., (from remettre) 

usually souvenir (suvniir), m., recollection; 

oublier (ublie), to forget souvenir 

Le Chateau dlf 


I. [Abbe Faria (farja) is questioning Edmond Dantes 
(dateis) regarding a mysterious letter which was in the lat- 
ter^s possession before his arrest and imprisonment in a 
dungeon of the Chateau dlf (Jato d if).] 

On vous a remis une lettre? 

Oui, le grand marechal. 

Cette lettre, qu'en avez-vous fait? 

Je Tai mise dans mon portefeuille. 

* Adapted from le Comte de Monte Crista, by Dumas. 

154 The Elements of French 
Vous aviez done votre portefeuille sur vous? Comment 

ce portefeuille poiivait-il tenir dans la poche d^un marin? 

Vous avez raison, mon portefeuille etait a bord. 

Ce n'est done qu'a bord que vous avez enferme la lettre 

dans le portefeuille? 


De Porto-Ferrajo a bord qu'avez-vous fait de cette 


Je Tai tenue a la main. 

Maintenant, eeoutez bien ; reunissez tous vos souvenirs : 

vous rappelez-vous dans quels termes etait redigee la denon- 

Oh! oui; je Tai relue trois fois, et ehaque parole en est 

restee dans ma memoire. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. A qui a-t-onremisune lettre? 2. Qui 
Fa fait? 3. Ou Dantes Ta-t-il mise? 4. Ses poches etaient- 
elles plus grandes ou moins grandes que le portefeuille? 5. Ou 
avait-il laisse son portefeuille? 6. Ou a-t-il tenu la lettre? 
7- Est-ce que Dantes avait lu la lettre? 

III. Traduisez. 1. It is already twenty minutes past nine 
o'cloek. 2. We have only (the) time to {de) write a few 
letters. 3. My cousin and I {moi) are talking to each other. 
4. '^Here is some black ink, if you need any. 5. Probably 
you do not need any red ink, do you?'^ 6. ''No, thank you. 
7. I prefer this pen-holder; I'll take that large pen, also, 
please.^' 8. ''Here are some blue envelopes. 9. If you look 
in the box, you will find there some yellow envelopes also.'' 
10. 'Thank you (very) much. This table is too small, I 
think. 11. One cannot write on it." 12. "You will find a 
better table in that room, I think. 13. Usually I put some 
blue paper and some blue envelopes there, also." 14. We are 
going to write to some friends who have been in France for 
three weeks. 15. They have written us several letters. 16. 
Here are some letters which they have written us. 17. We 
received them this morning; they are very interesting. 

Lesson 82 155 




billet (bije), m., ticket valable (valabl), adj., valid 

delivrer (delivre), to deliver voyage (vwajais), m., trij) (by land 
escorte (eskort), f., escort or by sea) 

gare (gair), f., railroad station chef de gare (/ef da ga:r), m., sta- 
guichet (gije), m., ticket window tion-master 

146. Position of Conjunctive Pronouns {Position des Formes 
Atones), In the third person the direct object pronouns le, 
la, les precede the indirect object pronouns lui and leur. In 
other words, these pronoun forms of the third person are 
arranged in alphabetical order, le, la, and les preceding lui 
and leur. (See table in Lesson 85.) 

The reflexive se always precedes other object pronouns. 

1. II sie le dit, He says it to himself . 

2. Je donne le billet k Charles, / give the ticket to Charles. 

3. Je le donne a Charles, / give it to Charles. 

4. Je le lui donne, / give it to him . 

5. Nous montrons la gare a ma cousine. We show my cousin the 


6. Nous la montrons a ma cousine, We show it to my cousin. 

7. Nous la ^ montrons, We show it to her . 

8. Hs donnent les crayons aux eleves. They give the pupils the 


9. ns les donnent aux eleves, They give them to the pupils. 
10. lis les leur donnent, They give them to them . 

I. Questions. 1. Voici une enveloppe. 2. Est-ce que je 
vous la montre? 3. Est-ce que je la montre a votre voisine? 
4. La lui montrez-vous? 5. Voila un portefeuille. 6. Est-ce 
que je le donne a Jacques? 7. Est-ce que je le lui donne? 
8. Rendez-vous leurs plumes a Charles et a PhiHppe? 9. 
Les leur rendez-vous? 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je puis la lui rendre, tu peux la lui 
rendre, etc. 2. Est-ce que je leur en donnais? leur en 
donnais-tu? etc. 3. Je vais le leur rendre, tu vas le leur rendre, 

156 The Elements of French 

etc. 4. Je ne la lui ai pas rendue, tu ne la lui as pas rendue, 
etc. 5. Je les leur ai rendues, tu les leur as rendues, etc. 
6. Je ne la leur montre pas, tu ne la leur montres pas, etc. 


III. Je desire faire un petit voyage. Comme je ne suis en 
France que depuis quelques semaines, un ami qui parle fran- 
gais me sert d'escorte. 

Ce monsieur desire un billet circulaire pour visiter la 

Touraine, dit mon ami. 

On le lui delivrera dans trois jours, repond le chef de 


Quel en est le prix? 

II y a un premier billet, valable pendant trente jours. 

On le lui vendra pour 86 francs. 

En deuxieme classe? demande mon ami. 

Non, monsieur, en premiere, repond le chef de gare. 

{A suivre.) 

IV. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. I give it (m.) to them. 
2. You return them to her. 3. We show it (/.) to her. 4. 
He delivers them to him. 5. She does not tell it to her. 
6. They (/.) do not give them to them. 



I. Conjuguez. 1. Je ne peux pas le faire, tu ne peux pas 
le faire, etc. 2. Est-ce que je peux vous la donner? peux-tu 
la lui donner? etc. 3. Est-ce que je ne peux pas la leur mon- 
trer? ne peux-tu pas la leur montrer? etc. 4. Voila les 
choses que j'ai trouvees, les choses que tu as trouvees, etc. 
5. Je le lui apporte, tu le lui apportes, etc. 

II. Remplacez les Tirets. 1. Combien de pommes avez- 
vous achet hier? 2. Voila les enveloppes que j^ai pay . 

Lesson 83 157 

3. Voici les journaux que vous avez regu — aujourd^hui. 

4. Est-ce que Jacques va a Paris? II va demain. 5. 

fites-vous a Fecole? J serai dans une heure. 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Montrez-moi vos enveloppes. Com- 
bien les avez-vous payees? 2. Ou les avez-vous achetees? 
3. Dans quelle boutique? 4. Y allez-vous souvent? 5. Est-ce 
que vous y avez achete aussi un portefeuille? 6. Combien de 
portefeuilles avez-vous achetes? 7. Combien les avez-vous 
payes? 8. Quelles autres choses avez-vous achetees? 9. 
Avez-vous regu des lettres ce matin? 10. Qui les a ecrites? 
11. De quelle couleur etaient les enveloppes? 12. Est-ce 
que votre voisin a regu des lettres aussi? 13. Les lui avez- 
vous apportees? 14. Vous avez la de Fencre bleue. Est-ce 
que vous m'en donnez? 15. Voici une belle plume. La 
donnez-vous a votre voisin? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Here are some envelopes; we have 
paid for them. 2. There are some potatoes; they have not 
eaten them. 3. You bought some knives and forks; did you 
pay for them? 4. I give this article to him; I do not return 
it to them. 5. These tickets belong to John; we are going 
to send them to him tomorrow. 6. Look at his right hand; 
what does he hold in it? 7. If you are going to school, I 
am going there also. 8. I prefer this red pen-holder to that 
black pen-holder. 9. I shall give it to you now, if you desire 
it. 10. This bed is too small; one cannot lie down in it. 11. 
That room is too cold; one cannot remain in it. 12. Probably 
you will find the red ink there. 13. If you find it, you will 
give it to her, if you please. 14. They have been talking to 
each other for a long time. 15. Here are some interesting 
letters which the sailors wrote them a week ago. 16. My 
brother Charles also received some good letters from the same 
young men. 17. This paper is too large; it does not fit {tenir) 

158 The Elements of French 




attacher (ataje), to attach wagon-lit (vag5 11), m., sleeping car 

couchette (kujet), f., couch Plur., wagons-lits 

facteur (faktceir), m., postman wagon-restaurant (vago restora), 

prochain (pro/e), adj., next m., dining car 

rapide (rapid), m., express . Plur., wagons - restaurants 

retour (ratuir), m., return 


I. II y a aussi un deuxieme billet, continue le chef de 

gare. Ce billet est valable pendant quinze jours. On le lui 
vendra pour 54 francs. 

Y a-t-il des billets dialler et retour? 

Oui, monsieur, il y en a, avec vingt-cinq pour cent de 

reduction. On pent les lui donner vendredi prochain. 

Est-ce qu'il y a un wagon-restaurant attache au rapide 

de dix heures? 

Oui, monsieur, il y a un wagon-restaurant et des wagons- 
lits, aussi. 

Monsieur desire deux couchettes au wagon-lit. Voulez- 

vous les lui donner, s'il vous plait? 

Oui, monsieur. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Desirez-vous faire un voyage? 2. 
Dans quel pays voulez-vous voyager? 3. Est-ce que vous 
etes en France depuis longtemps? 4. Qui est-ce qui vous 
accompagne a la gare? 5. Qui est-ce qui vous vend les billets? 
6. Dans combien de jours les donnera-t-on? 7. Quel en est 
le prix? 8. Pendant combien de jours le premier billet est-il 
valable? 9. Est-ce un billet de premiere ou de deuxieme classe? 
10. Est-ce qu^il y a aussi un deuxieme billet? 11. Pendant 
combien de jours est-il valable? 12. Quel en est le prix? 13. 
Quel pour cent de reduction y a-t-il sur les billets dialler et 
retour? 14. Qu^est-ce que Ton fait dans les wagons-restau- 

Lesson 84 


rants? 15. Qu'est-ce que Ton fait dans les wagons-lits? 16. 
Prenez-vous des couchettes dans le wagon-lit? 17. Prenez- 
vous un lit? 

III. Traduisez. 1. One of my friends wishes to make a 
little trip in Burgundy. 2. He asks (a) the station-master 
the price of tickets. 3. There is a first class ticket, which is 
good for fifteen days; it will be delivered to him in a week. 
4. They will sell it to him for seventy-nine francs. 5. If he 






T1--I— .• 

La Gare de I'Est 

desires a second class ticket (a ticket of second class), 
they will sell it to him for fifty-two francs. 6. Ordinarily 
there are round trip tickets also, but they will not sell them to 
him now. 7. If he buys a round trip ticket, he will have (the) 
right to a reduction of twenty-five per cent. 8. My friend 
takes two first class tickets; they will deliver them to him next 
Saturday. 9. The station-master wishes to sell (to) my friend 
a couch in the sleeping car. 10. My friend prefers a bed to a 
couch. 11. The price of the bed is (of) thirty-six francs; the 
price of the couch is eighteen francs. 12. The station-master 

160 The Elements of French 

will have the tickets in a few days. 13. Then he will deliver 
them to my friend. 14. ^^Hurry up, my friend/^ I say. 'We 
are waiting (for) you.'^ 15. '^What tickets have you bought 
and what have you paid (for) them?'' 16. He shows them; 
then we continue our way (chemin). 


147. Object Forms of Conjtmctive Pronoims. 


Singulier Pluriel 

me* (ma), me nous* (nu), us 

te* (ta), you vous* (vu), you 

le (Id), him, it les (le) or (le), them 
la (la), her, it 

se* (sa), himself; herself, itself se* (so), themselves 


me* (ma), to (for) me nous* (nu), to (for) us 

te* (ta), to (for) you vous* (vu), to (for) you 

lui (Iqi), to (for) him, her leur (loeir), to (for) them 

se* (sa), to (for) himself, herself, se* (sa), to (for) themselves 

148. Position of Conjunctive Pronouns, Recapitulation 

{Position des Formes Atones, Resume). Pronoun objects regu- 
larly precede the verb, and can be separated from it only by 
the pronominal forms y and en. 

The indirect object pronoun, except when it is of the 
third person, regularly precedes the direct object pronoun. 

* The starred forms are the same for the direct and for the indirect objects. 


La Bourse 

Lesson 85 161 

Exception. For position of se, see § 146. 

1. II ni£ donne le canif, He gives nw the penknife. 

2. II me le donne, He gives it to me . 

3. II vous donne les cartes t)ostales, He gives you the postal cards. 

4. II vous les donne, He gives them to you . 

5. II te rend la serviette, He returns the towel to you. 

6. II te la rend. He returns it to you . 

I. Conjuguez. 1. II me la montre, il te la montre, etc. 2. 
Elle ne me le rend pas, elle ne te le rend pas, etc. 3. II me 
Ta dit, il te Fa dit, etc. 4. II me les a envoyees, il te les a 
envoyees, etc. 

II. Questions. 1. Avez-vous des cartes postales? 2. Est-ce 
que le facteur vous les a apportees? 3. Quand vous les a-t-il 
apportees? 4. Voyez-vous ces cartes postales-ci? 5. Qui est- 
ce qui me les a apportees? 6. Est-ce vous? 7. Voyez-vous 
ces choses-ci? 8. Qui est-ce qui les apporte a Jean? 9. 
Voyez-vous ces livres? 10. Qui est-ce qui nous les achete? 

149. Observe that y and en follow all other pronouns, in 
the order named. They will thus regularly come inmiediately 
before the verb. 

1. Vous envoie-t-il k Paris? Does he send you to Paris? 

2. II m'3r_ envoie maintenant. He is sending me there now. 

3. II a achete des timbres et il vous en donnera. He has bought some 

stamps and will give you some . 

4. Voil^ des pommes! II y en a beaucoup cette annee. There are 

some apples; there are many (of them) this year. 

III. Conjuguez. 1. Je leur en apportais, tu leur en 
apportais, etc. 2. Je m^ reposerai, tu t'y reposeras, etc. 3. 
Je ne lui en parlerai pas, tu ne lui en parleras pas, etc. 

IV. Questions. 1. Avez-vous de Tencre? 2. M'en donnez- 
vous? 3. Est-ce que Charles vous en donne? 4. Est-ce que 
Marguerite vous en donne aussi? 5. Est-ce qu'ils vous en 
donnent? 6. Apportez-moi de la craie. 7. A qui en apportez- 
vous? 8. Est-ce qu'il y en a beaucoup? 


The Elements of French 

150. Table Showing Order of Pronoun Objects. Personal 
pronoun objects and pronominal adverbs, when preceding the 
verb, are arranged in the following order: 




























Observe. 2 before 3 before 4 before y before en. 

V. Conjuguez. 1. II me le donnera, il te le donnera, etc. 
2. Elles ne me les ont jamais payes, elles ne te les ont 
jamais payes, etc. 3. II ne me la rendait pas, il ne te la 
rendait pas, etc. 4. Est-ce qu^il me Pa racont^? te Ta-t-il 
raconte? etc. 5. Je le lui montrerai, tu le lui montreras, etc. 

VI. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. He brings them to me. 2. 
You bring them to him. 3. They do not deliver it to us. 
4. We have given them (/.) to them. 5. Who has given 
them (m.) to us? 6. They have not returned it to her. 7. 
Who has returned them to you? 8. How many (of them) 
have you given them? 9. You have not given them many 
(of them). 10. How many (of them) will there be? 11. 
There will not be many (of them). 12. I have put (mis) them 
(/.) there. 13. You have put them (m.) there. 14. She has not 
put it (/.) there, I think. 

Lesson 86 163 



— Continued 


bureau de tabac (byro da taba), m., mis (mi), p. part., put (from mettre) 

tobacco shop (where stamps, etc., preter (prete), to lend 

are on sale) rapporter (raporte), to bring back 

loin (Iwe), far; distant volontiers (volotje), adv., willingly 

Combien y a-t-il? (kobje j a t 11), How far is it? 

Combien y a-t-il de Paris k Fontainebleau? How far is it from Paris 

to Fontainebleau? 
Combien de livres y a-t-il? How many books are there ? 

151. Vouloir (vulwair), to wish, 

veux (v0) voulons (vulo) 

veux (v0) voulez (vule) 

veut (v0) veulent (voel) 

I. Questions. 1. Que voulez-vous faire? 2. Qu^est-ce 
que votre voisin veut faire? 3. Qu^est-ce que vos amis 
veulent faire? 4. Voulons-nous ecrire? 5. Voulons-nous par- 
tir? 6. Pouvez-vous etudier? 7. Voulez-vous etudier? 8. 
Pouvez-vous vous couper la main? 9. Voulez-vous vous 
couper la main? 

II. Conversation. 

Monsieur desire? 

Est-ce qu^il y a des lettres pour moi? 

Non, monsieur, il n^ en a pas. Le facteur n'est pas 

encore venu. Hier il y en avait, mais on vous les a donnees. 

Voila des cartes postales. Desirez-vous m^en donner? 

Volontiers. Et les timbres pour ma femme — est-ce 

que le gargon les lui a donnes? 

Oui, monsieur. 

Combien y a-t-il d'ici au bureau de poste? 

C^est assez loin, mais il y a un bureau de poste k cent 

metres d'ici. 

164 The Elements of French 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Le facteur est-il arrive ce matin? 
2. A quelle heure est-il arrive? 3. Est-ce qu^il vous a apporte 
des lettres? 4. Combien de lettres vous a-t-il apportees? 

5. Est-ce qu^il vous a apporte des cartes postales? 6. Combien 
de cartes postales vous a-t-il apportees? 7. En avez-vous 
regu des soldats? 8. En avez-vous regu des marins? 9. Com- 
bien y a-t-il d'ici au bureau de poste? 10. Qu'est-ce que Ton 
peut acheter au bureau de poste? 11. Combien y a-t-il d'ici 
k votre maison? 12. Voila des enveloppes. Voulez-vous 
me les donner? 13. Voici des timbres. Ou les avez-vous 
achetes? 14. Jean cherche du papier. Voulez-vous lui en 
preter? 15. Annette n'a pas de timbres. Voulez-vous aller 
lui en chercher? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Here are some books; I give them to 
him; I do not give them to you. 2. Here are some stamps; 
I shall return them to you immediately. 3. Here are some 
apples; will you give some to her? 4. Will you have ink 
enough (enough ink)? 5. I lent some to you yesterday. 

6. The postman comes every morning {tous les matins) at half 
past eight. 7. He always brings letters to the others, but he 
never brings me anything but (ne . . . que) post cards. 8. 
Everybody has forgotten me; that is (voild) why letters never 
come for me. 9. I write often to my friends, but put the 
letters in my pockets, and forget them. 10. Fortunately it 
is not far to the tobacco shop. 11. I shall take (carry) this 
letter there before forgetting it (avant de Vouhlier), 




s'en aller (s an ale), to go away papier 5. lettre (papje a letr), m., 

chocolat (.fokola), m., chocolate letter "payer 

frais (fre), fresh salle h. manger (sal a ma3e), f., 

Fem., fraiche (fre: J) dining room 

Lesson 87 



The Imperative 

{V Imperatif) , 

donner (done) 

finir (fini:r) 

perdre (perdr) 

2d sing. 

donne (don)* 

finis (fini) 

perds (peir) 

1st plur. 

donnons (don5) 

finissons (finiso) 

perdons (perdo) 

2d plur. 

donnez (done) 

finissez (finise) 

perdez (perde) 




2d sing. 

aie (e) 

sois (swa) 

va (va) 

1st plur. 

ayons (ejo) 

soyons (swajo) 

allons (alo) 

2d plur. 

ayez (eje) 

soyez (swaje) 

allez (ale) 

153. Position of Pronoun Objects. Pronoun objects follow 
the affirmative imperative, the direct object being nearest the 
verb, the indirect object being next nearest, and y and en 
last. Pronoun objects are connected by hyphens to the 
verbs which they follow, and to each other. 

1. Montrez-moi la carte, Show me the card, 

2. Montrez- la-moi, Show it to me . 

3. Montrez- moi le bureau de poste, Show ine_the post office. 

4. Montrez- le-moi, Show it to me . 

5. Montrez-nous le facteur, Show us the postman. 

6. Montrez- le-nous, Show him to ms . 

7. Montrez-leur les soldats, Show them the soldiers. 

8. Montrez- les-leur, Show them to them . 

9. Donnez-lui de la viande, Give him (or her) some meat. 

10. Donnez-lui-en, Give him (or her) some. 

11. Rendez-vous-y, Go there (betake yourseK there ). 

154. The regular rule that pronoun objects precede the 
verb applies to the negative imperative. 

1. Ne me la racontez pas, Do not narrate it to me . 

2. Ne le lui dites pas, Do not tell it to him (or to her) . 

3. Ne le leur envoyez pas, Do not send it to them. 

4. Ne nous les rendez pas. Do not return them to us . 

5. Ne le leur rapportez pas. Do not bring U back to them . 

155. Me and te change to moi and toi respectively when 
in a stressed position, as after the imperative. 

* The forms of the imperative of regular verbs, as well as of most irregular 
verbs, are the same as those of the present indicative. In the first conjuga- 
tion, however, the ending s of the second person singular is dropped. 

166 The Elements of French 

(When preceding the verb, an object pronoun is unstressed. 
When following the verb, it is stressed.) 

1. Montrez- moi la salle a manger, Show rne^ the dining-room. 

2. Sers-toi_de ce porte-plume, Use this pen-holder. 

However, me and le, even following an imperative, change 
to m' and t' before y and en. 

1. Donnez- moi du lait, Give m£ (some) milk. 

2. Donnez-m^en, Give me some . 

Observe the conjugation of the reflexive verb s'en aller 
(s an ale), to go away: va-t-en (va t a); allons-nous-en 
(al5 nuz a); allez-vous-en (ale vuz a). 

I. Exercice. Substitute pronouns for the words in italics. 
For instance, instead of ^^ Donnez-moi du papier,^ ^ write '^Don- 
nez-m'en.^' 1. T>onnez-moi dit lait, 2. Donnez-lui c/e Z'eat^. 
3. Rendez-nous le portefeuille. 4. Apportez-lui V argent, 5. 
Vendez-moi les chevaux. 6. Servez-vous de la viande. 7. 
Envoyez-moi les journaux. 8. Rapportez-leur les timbres. 
9. Vendez-lui les cartes postales. 

Make the sentences, as changed, negative. 


Bon jour, monsieur, avez-vous bien dormi? 

Tres bien, monsieur, et vous aussi, j^espere.* 

• Comme 9a. 

II est deja huit heures un quart. Descendons a la 

salle a manger. 

Gargon, apportez-nous de Feau fraiche, s^il vous plait. 

(Le gargon) — Voila, monsieur. 

Avez-vous aussi du lait frais? Apportez-nous-en, s^il 

vous plait. Voila du cafe. Donnez-m^en, s'il vous plait. 

(Le gargon) — II n^ a pas de quoi, monsieur. 

* e, like mute e (o), regularly changes to e (8), when the next syllable has a 
mute e (a). Hence esperer is conjugated j*espere, etc. 

Lesson 88 167 

III. Traduisez. 1. Let us go down there. 2. Do not go 
down there, please. 3. Bring them some fresh water. 4. 
Bring them some, at once. 5. Give them some coffee, but do 
not give me any. 6. Will you have some tea? 7. Give me 
some, if you please. 8. Do not give her any. 


L Conjuguez. I. Je le veux, tu le veux, etc. 2. Je vais 
lui ecrire, tu vas lui ecrire, etc. 

II. Give table showing order of personal pronoun objects. 

III. Traduisez. L Return it (m.) to me. 2. Show it to 
them. 3. Bring it to us. 4. Give me some. 5. Give them 
some. 6. Deliver it (/.) to her. 

Make the sentences negative. 

IV. Conjuguez. 1. II me le donne, il te le donne, etc. 

2. Elle ne me la donne pas, elle ne te la donne pas, etc. 3. II 
me Ta dit, il te Ta dit, etc. 4. lis ne me Font pas raconte, ils ne 
te Font pas raconte, etc. 5. Je le lui ai rendu, tu le lui as rendu, 
etc. 6. Je ne les leur ai pas apportes, tu ne les leur as pas 
apportes, etc. 

V. Exercice Oral. 1. Voyagez-vous? 2. Ou voyagez-vous? 

3. Oil achetez-vous les billets? 4. Qui vend les billets? 5. De 
quelle classe sont les billets? 6. Prenez-vous des billets d'aller 
et retour? 7. Quelle reduction y a-t-il? 8. Prenez-vous une 
couchette dans le wagon-lit? 9. Prenez-vous un lit? 10. 
Combien vous faut-il payer ce lit? IL Oil prenez-vous vos 
repas quand vous voyagez? 12. Qui est-ce qui vous apporte 
les lettres? 13. A quelle heure arrive-t-il le matin? 14. A 
quelle heure arrive-t-il le soir? 15. Recevez-vous beaucoup de 
lettres? 16. En recevez-vous des soldats? 17. En recevez- 
vous des marins? 18. Oil portez-vous les lettres? 19. Quel 

168 The Elements of French 

timbre faut-il mettre sur une lettre — pour la France? 20. Pour 
les fitats-Unis? 21. Pour TAngleterre? 22. Pour Tltalie? 
{Response: II faut mettre un timbre de cinq sous [cents], etc.) 
VI. Traduisez. 1. One of my friends asks (d) the station- 
master (for) a ticket (which is) vaHd for fifteen days. 2. The 
station-master delivers it to him in a week. 3. He sells it to 
him for eighty-eight francs. 4. My friend also reserves some 
couches in the sleeping car. 5. He pays thirty-five francs (for) 
them. 6. I ask him ( = to him) what tickets he has bought. 
7. He shows them to me, and we continue (on) our way. 8. 
They have some round trip tickets; I brought some to them 
yesterday. 9. Here are some envelopes; will you return them 
to us presently? 10. There are the letters which I wrote to my 
friends, and forgot. 11. Take these letters there immediately; 
do not forget them. 12. You have not lent them many of 
them. 13. Give him some; do not give them any. 14. Will 
there be enough (of them)? 15. There will not be too many (of 
them). 16. Give them to me. 17. Do not give them to her. 




aussitot (osito), adv., immediately se promener (sa promne), to take a 
bicyclette (bisiklet), f., bicycle walk, outing; se promener en au- 

parc (park), m., park tomobile, to take an automobile 

ride; se promener a bicyclette, to 
take a bicycle ride; se promener a 
cheval, to go horseback riding- 
a la campagne, in the country 

156. Lire (Hir), to read; past participle (participe passe) lu 


Present Indicative {le Present de VIndicatif) 

lis (H) lisons (Uz5) 

lis (U) lisez (lize) 

lit (li) lisent (U:z) 

Lesson 89 169 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je lis la lettre, tu lis la lettre, etc. 2. 
Je ne lis pas les journaux, tu ne lis pas les journaux, etc. 
3. Je vais me promener a cheval, tu vas te promener a 
cheval, etc. 4. J'allais me promener en automobile, tu allais 
te promener en automobile, etc. 5. J'irai me promener a 
bicyclette, tu iras te promener a bicyclette, etc. 6. Je vais 
me coucher h dix heures, tu vas te coucher k dix heures, etc. 

Une route frangaise 


II. Voici du the. Donnez-lui-en, mais ne m^en don- 

nez pas. Ou sont nos cartes postales? 

Le gar^on Les voici. Le facteur les a apportees ce 


Donnez-les-nous, s^il vous plait. A-t-on regu des jour- 
naux aujourd^hui? 

Oui, monsieur. 

■ Apportez-en k ce monsieur; apportez-m^en aussi, s^il 

vous plait. Maintenant, monsieur, allons nous promener a 
la campagne. On peut se promener a cheval ou en auto- 

170 The Elements of French 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. A quelle heure vous levez-vous? 
2. A quelle heure descendez-vous a la salle a manger? 3. Quel 
est votre premier repas? 4. Qu'est-ce que vous buvez? 5. 
Qui est-ce qui vous Tapporte? 6. Buvez-vous du cafe le matin? 

7. Buvez-vous du the le matin? 8. A quel repas ne buvez- 
vous pas de cafe? 9. Aimez-vous le lait? 10. Lisez-vous au 
premier dejeuner? 11. Qu'est-ce que vous lisez? 12. Est-ce 
que vous lisez tou jours a votre petit dejeuner? 13. Allez-vous 
vous promener? 14. Ou allez-vous vous promener? 15. Com- 
ment vous promenez-vous? 16. Aimez-vous mieux vous prom- 
ener a cheval ou a bicyclette? 17. Y a-t-il de beaux pares 
chez vous? 18. Est-ce que vous vous y promenez souvent? 

IV. Traduisez. J. I got up this morning at half past 
seven o'clock. 2. The waiter told me they* were waiting for 
me at breakfast. 3. I dressed at once, and went down stairs 
into the dining-room. 4. The waiter brought me some coffee, 
eggs, fruit, and bread. 5. Then a woman entered the hotel to 
sell newspapers. 6. ''Give some (of them) to me,'' I said to 
her. 7. ''Give one of them to my friend, also." 8. A few 
minutes afterwards the postman arrived. 9. He brought me 
several letters and postcards. 10. I read them and then put 
them in my portfolio. 

V. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. There are the stamps. 
Give them to her; do not give them to us. 2. Here are the 
newspapers. Sell some to me; do not sell any to him. 3. 
There are the balls. Return them to them; do not return 
them to me. 4. Go automobile riding. 5. Do not go 
bicycle riding. 6. Where are the letters which you brought 
to me? 7. Return them to me; do not return them to him. 

8. Where are the newspapers you* read? 9. Bring them to 
him; do not bring them to us. 

* Que and qui can never be omitted in French. 

Lesson 90 171 



abandonner (abadone), to abandon laisser (lese), to leave; let 

alors (aloir), adv., then permettre (permetr), irreg., io permz7 

cMteau (Jato), m., castle quelqu*un (kelkoe), pron., some one^ 

ensemble (asaibl), adv., together somebody 

fuir (iqiir), irreg., to flee viendrai (vjedre) (future of venir), 

gens (3a), m., f., pL, people; persons to come 

See Appendix, § 230, h. 

157. Disjunctive Forms {Formes Toniques). In general, a 
disjunctive personal pronoun is used when the verb is not 
expressed, or when the pronoun is separated from the verb. 

Observe. Conjunctive personal pronouns are used as the subject, or as 
the object (direct or indirect) of a verb. They are connected directly with 
the verb, and hence are called conjunctive. Disjunctive personal pronouns 
are used in all other cases where a personal pronoun is called for. They 
are not connected directly with a verb, and hence are called disjunctive. 

158. The following are the forms of the disjunctive pro- 
nouns : 

moi (mwa), me *nous (nu), us 

toi (twa), you *vous (vu), you 
lui (Iqi), him eiix (0), them (m.) 

elle (el), her elles (el), them (f.) 

159. Principal Uses, (a) As object of a preposition: 

1. Sans moi, Without me^ 

2. Avec lui. With him. 

3. Centre eux, Against them. 

Exercice. Use in sentences the following prepositions with 
the disjunctive pronouns: avec, pour, sans, a, centre, apres, 
avant, devant, derriere. 

* Forms that are the same as the corresponding conjunctive forms are 

172 The Elements of French 

(b) Absolutely, when a verb is understood, but not expressed: 

1. Qui a fait cela? Who did that? 

2. Moi, /. 

3. II est plus grand que moi , He is taller than L 

Conjuguez. 1. Elle est plus jeune que moi, elle est plus 
jeune que toi, etc. 2. II le fait mieux que moi, il le fait 
mieux que toi, etc. 

(c) In general, for emphasis. 
1. Moi, je le dis,_/^ say so. 

Conjuguez. 1. Je le fais, moi, tu le fais, toi, etc. 2. Je 
Tai ecrit, moi, tu Pas ecrit, toi, etc. 

160. The preposition a is used to denote limit of motion. 

1. II me donnera ces lettres, He will give these letters to me (indirect 


2. II vient k moi, He comes to me (limit of motion). 

Exercice. Practice the following: 1. Venez k moi, venez 
a lui, etc. (omitting toi and vous). 2. II va k toi, il va a lui 
(omitting moi and nous). 3. lis courent a moi, ils courent 
a toi, etc. 


(Edmond Dantes begs Abbe Faria, in the next cell, not to 
abandon him.) 

I. Mais vous ne m'abandonnerez pas, vous ne me laisserez 
pas seul, vous viendrez a moi, ou vous me permettrez dialler a 
vous? Nous fuirons ensemble, et, si nous ne pouvons* fuir, 
nous parlerons, vous des gens que vous aimez, moi des gens 
que j^aime. (A suivre.) 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Qui est-ce qui parle? 2. Comment 
s'appelle Tabbe a qui il parle? 3. A qui veut aller Edmond? 
4. Comment veut-il fuir? 5. De qui parlera Tabbe? 6. De 
qui parlera Edmond? 

*Pas is often omitted after pouvoir, to he able. 

Lesson 91 173 

III. Traduisez. 1. / shall not abandon you. 2. If you come 
to me we shall flee together. 3. I shall talk of my friends, and 
you will talk of your father and (your) mother. 4. We shall 
always be good friends, you and I. 




camarade (kamarad), m., comrade sait (se)*, knows (from savoir) 

Dieu (dj0), God seul (soel), adj., only, alone 

Mercedes (mersedeis), f., proper vivre (vi:vr), irreg., to live 
name, Mercedes 

penser a (pase a), to think of, to remember, bear in mind 

Pensez a^moi, Think of me. 
penser de, to have an opinion about 

Que pensez-vous de lui? What do you think of him? 

Conjuguez. 1. II pense a moi, il pense a toi, etc. 2. Que 
pense-t-il de moi? que pense-t-il de toi? etc. 

161. Devoir (davwair), to owe, ought, must. Devant (dava), 

pres. part. 

Present Indicative {le Present de V Indicatif) 

dois (dwa) devons (dovo) 

dois (dwa) devez (dave) 

doit (dwa) doivent (dwaiv) 

Conjuguez. 1. Je le dois, tu le dois, etc. 2. Je dois lui 
parler, tu dois lui parler, etc. 3. Je dois partir demain, tu 
dois partir demain, etc. 

I. AU CHATEAU D'lF— Suite 

Vous devez aimer quelqu^un? 

Je suis seul au monde. 

" There is also authority for (ss). 

174 The Elements of French 

Alors vous m'aimerez, moi: si vous etes jeune, je 

serai votre camarade; si vous etes vieux, je serai votre fils. 
J^ai un pere qui doit avoir soixante-dix ans, s'il vit encore; 
je n'aimais que lui et une jeune fille qu'on appelait Mercedes. 
Mon pere ne m^a pas oublie, j'en suis sur; mais elle, Dieu sait 
si elle pense encore a moi. Je vous aimer ai comme j^aimais 
mon pere. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Qui est-ce qui doit aimer quelqu^un? 
2. Qui est-ce qu'il aime? 3. Est-ce qu'il a des amis? 4. Est- 
ce qu'il est seul au monde? 5. Dantes est-il seul au monde? 
6. Quel age a son pere? 7. Son pere vit-il encore? 8. Est- 
ce que Diantes Taimait? 9. Quelle jeune fille aimait-il? 
10. Est-ce que son pere Ta oublie? 11. En est-il siir? 12. 
Est-ce que Mercedes pense encore a lui? 13. Le sait-il? 14. 
Est-ce que Dantes aimera bien Tabbe? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Edmond's father must be 76 years old 
now. 2. He and a girl named Mercedes were Edmond^s only 
friends in the world. 3. Edmond loves them very much. 
4. His father is still thinking of him, surely. 5. Perhaps 
Mercedes no longer thinks of him, but he still thinks of her. 

6. Edmond is very happy to find a comrade in the prison. 

7. He says, "You will be a father to {pour) me, and I shall 
be a son to you." 8. He does not know how old the abbe is, 
but is sure* he will love him. 

IV. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. Here is a letter the post- 
man brought me. 2. Who wrote it, he or she? 3. It is pre- 
cisely like two other letters I received three days ago. 4. 
Probably they (m.) wrote them; they (/.) are not at home 
now. 5. These letters are for your mother; give them to 
her at once. 6. Those letters are for your father; do not 
give them to him now. 7. Will you come with him or with 
me? 8. Will you come with them (jri.) or with them (/.)? 

*Do not omit que. 

Lesson 92 175 




attention (atasjo), f., attention . route (rut), f., road; route 

charmant (Jarma), adj., c/iarmmgr faites attention! (fet atasjo), look 
cigare (sigair), m., cigar out! 

garde (gard), f., guard; watch k Pinstant (a 1 esta), at once 

162. We have seen that conjunctive pronouns are used as 
the simple subject or object of a verb. Disjunctive pro- 
nouns are used as the composite subject or object of a verb. 

1. n^est venu, He_ has come. 
EUe est venue, She has come. 

2. Lui et elle (ils) sont venus, He and she have come. 

The real subject is ils; therefore lui and elle, being separate in construc- 
tion from the verb, are disjunctive. 

3. Je Pai vu, / have seen him . 
Je Pai vue, / have seen her . 

4. Je les ai vus, ltd et elle , / have seen him and her . 

The real object is les; therefore, lui and elle, being separate in construc- 
tion from the verb, are disjunctive. 

5. Vous et moi (nous) sonunes arrives. You and_I_ have arrived. 
The real subject is nous; therefore, vous and moi, being separate in con- 
struction from the verb, are disjunctive. 

Traduisez. 1. You and he have gone. 2. She and they 
have arrived. 3. My mother and I are coming. 4. Your 
father and he are going. 5. You and I say. 6. She and I 
ought. 7. He and I take. 8. You and they (/.) take. 

163. Intensive Pronouns (Formes Composees) may be formed 
by adding meme (meim) to the disjunctive personal pronoun: 

moi-meme, myself nous-memes, ourselves 

toi^meme, yourself vous-meme, yourself 

lui-meme, himself vous-memes, yourselves 

elle-meme, herself eux-memes, themselves (m.) 

elles memes, themselves (f.) 
Note. These forms are disjunctive because separate in construction 
from the verb. For instance, moi-m^me is in apposition with je, under- 
stood, or expressed. 

176 The Elements of French 


164. Intensive pronouns are used for emphasis. They are 
in apposition with the subject or the object of the verb. 

Reflexive "pronouns are used as the' object of the verb. 

1. II se rase, He shaves himself (reflexive). 

2. II le fait lui-meme, He does it himself (intensive). 

Conjuguez. 1. Je le fais moi-meme, tu le fais toi-meme, 
etc. 2. Je ne Tai pas dit moi-meme, tu ne Fas pas dit toi- 
meme, etc. 3. Je Fai ^crit moi-meme, tu Fas ecrit toi-meme, 
etc. 4. Moi, je vais le chercher, toi, tu vas le chercher, etc. 

165. Disjunctive pronouns are used as the logical subject 
after ce+etre. 

1. C*est moi, It is I. 

2. C*est toi. It is you. 

(In the above examples, ce, it, is the grammatical subject. Moi and toi 
are the logical subjects, i. e., the predicate nominative construction in 

166. Prendre (praidr), to take ; 'prensint (prana), pres. part.; 
pris (pri), p. part. 

prends (prci) prenons (prano) 

prends (pra) prenez (prane) 

prend (pra) preiment (pren) 

Conjuguez. 1. Je prends mon billet, tu prends ton billet, 
etc. 2. Je ne prends pas garde, tu ne prends pas garde, etc. 


(Armand et Daniel se rencontrent.) 

Prenez done garde ! 

Faites attention vous-meme ! 

Tiens! Cesttoi! 

Qui, c'est moi! 

Tu pars, toi ? 

Le Louvre a Vol D'Oiseau 
(Vu d'un aeroplane) 

Lesson 93 177 

A rinstant, et toi? 

— — Moi aussi! 

C^est charmant! nous ferons route ensemble! j'ai des 

cigares de premiere classe . . . et ou vas-tu?* {A suivre.) 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Est-ee que Ton doit prendre garde? 
2. Est-ce que Ton doit faire attention? 3. Quels amis se ren- 
contrent? 4. Ou vont-ils? 5. Partent-ils tout de suite? 
6. Vont-ils ensemble? 7. Ont-ils des cigares? 8. Ces cigares 
sont-ils bons ou mauvais? 

III. Traduisez. 1. His name is Edmond Dantes. 2. Her 
name is Mercedes. 3. He and she are going to be married {se 
marier), 4. They have arranged their marriage {manage) for 
tomorrow. 5. Unfortunately, he will not be there. 6. She 
will be there, and her parents will be there, also. 7. But he 
will be in prison. 



I. Use pour, avee, chez, sans, with the disjunctive personal 

II. Give the intensive personal pronouns. 

III. Conjuguez. 1. Je ne le lis pas, moi, tu ne le lis pas, 
toi, etc. 2. J'en prends moi-meme, tu en prends toi-meme, 
etc. 3. Est-ce que je vais me promener au pare? vas-tu te 
promener au pare? etc. 4. Je dois leur parler a lui et a elle, 
tu dois leur parler h lui et a elle, etc. 

IV. Exercice Oral. 1. Allez-vous vous promener le matin? 
2. Ou vous promenez-vous? 3. Comment vous promenez- 
vous? 4. Comment s'appelle Tami d' Edmond Dantes? 5. De 
quel chateau veulent-ils fuir? 6. Est-ce que les deux amis 
vont fuir ensemble? 7. Est-ce que Dantes sait si son pere vit 
encore? 8. Quel age a son pere? 9. Est-ce qu'Edmond aime 

* From le Voyage de M. Perrichon, by Labiche and Martin. 

178 The Elements of French 

une jeune fille? 10. Comment s'appelle-t-elle? 11. A qui 
est-ce qu'Edmond pense le plus souvent? 12. Qui est-ce qui 
pense encore a lui? 

V. Traduisez. 1. Here are some postcards. Give me 
some, but do not give any to him or her. 2. The postman 
brought them to us yesterday. 3. Return them to him; but 
do not return them to her or to her brother. 4. There are 
some newspapers; sell me two (of them) ; sell him one (of them), 
please. 5. Let us go automobile riding in the park. 6. I have 
several letters and postcards which the postman brought me. 
7. I shall do it myself, if you do not wish to do it. 8. You and 
he. are old friends. 9. I shall think of him, and you will think 
of them (m.). 10. They will always be good friends, he and 
John's cousin. 11. If Mercedes no longer thinks of him, he 
still thinks of her. 12. He and the abbe are already good 
friends. 13. Edmond is always thinking of his father, who 
must be seventy-six years old now. 14. What do you think of 
Edmond? 15. You are leaving, but I remain. 




bizarre (bizair), adj., strange; hi- mariage (marjais), m., marriage 

zarre monter (a) (mote), to mount; ride 

ce qui (sa ki), what (relative); that nonplus (no ply), neither] either 

which a peu pres (a p0 pre), nearly, almost 

cofiter (kute), to cost rarement (rarma), adv., rarely 

demoiselle (damwazel), f., young riche (ri J), adj., nc/i 

lady ne . . . rien (na rje), pron., nothing 

disposer (dispoze), to dispose; ar- plus tard (ply tair), adv., later 

range suivre (sqiivr), irreg., to follow 

encore (akoir), still; yet; again vraiment (vrema), adv., truly 
fumer (fyme), to smoke 

se disposer a, to prepare (to), to get ready (to) 
ma foi! (ma fwa). Upon my word! Faith! 
demander en mariage, to ask in marriage 

Lesson 94 179 

167. Observe the following forms: 

C'est moi, It is I C'est nous, It is we 

C'est toi, It is you C'est vous, It is you 

C'est lui, It is he . *Ce sont eux, It is they (m.) 
C'est elle, It is she *Ce sont elles, It is they (f.) 

Use ce sont before nouns or pronouns in the third person 

1. Ce sont eux, It is they (m.). 

2. Ce sont elles, It is they (f.). 

3. Ce sont mes freres, It is (or, they are) my brothers. 

In all other cases use c'est. 

1. C*est moi, It is I. 

2. C*est mon oncle, It is my uncle. 

Conjuguez. 1. C'est ma soeur, c^est ta soeur, etc. 2. Ce 
n'est pas mon pere, ce n^est pas ton pere, etc. 3. Est-ce 
que c^est moi? est-ce que c'est toi? etc. 4. Ce n'est pas 
moi, ce n'est pas toi, etc. 5. Ce sont mes freres, ce sont tes 
freres, etc. 

168. If c'est or ce sont is used, the noun in the predicate 
always has an article. 

1. C*est un professeur, Heis ajeacher. 

2. C'est unmarchand, Heis a^mer chant. 

3. C*est une Italienne, She is an Italian (woman). 

4. Ce sont desf Anglais, They are ( some ) Englishmen. 

If 11 est, elle est, etc., are used, the noun in the predicate takes 
an adjective form, i.e.y by dropping the article. In this con- 
struction the article is omitted especially when the noun in the 
predicate denotes profession or nationality. 

1. II est professeur. He is a teacher. 

2. II est marchand. He is a merchant. 

* C*est is tolerated, however, instead of ce sent. 

t Note that des is the plural of the indefinite article un (e). 

180 The Elements of French 

Conjuguez. 1. Moi, je suis soldat, toi, tu es soldat, etc. 
2. Je suis Americain, tu es Americain, etc. 

Note. Observe that when the predicate noun is modified, the article 
may be used. 

1. Son frere est un bon soldat, His brother is a good soldier. 

2. Sa soeur est une artiste americaine, His sister is an American 


169. Savoir (savwair), to know. 

Present Indicative {le Present de V Indicalif) 

sais (se) savons (savo) 

sais (se) savez (save) 

salt (se) or (se) savent (sa:v) 

Conjuguez. 1. Je le sais, tu le sais, etc. 2. Je n'en sais 
rien, tu n'en sais rien, etc. 

I. EN VOYAGE — Suite* 

Ma foi, mon cher ami, je n'en sais rien encore. 

Tiens! c'est bizarre! ni moi non plus! J'ai pris un 

billet jusqu'a Lyon. 

' Vraiment? moi aussi! je me dispose a suivre une de- 
moiselle charmante. 

Tiens! moi aussi. 

Mais je veux Tepouser! 

Moi, je veux la demander en mariage . . . ce qui est a 

peu pres la meme chose. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Voyagez-vous? 2. Voyagez-vous sou- 
vent ou rarement? 3. Ou allez-vous quand vous voyagez? 
4. Voyagez-vous en train ou en automobile? 5. Prenez-vous 
des billets de premiere ou de deuxieme classe? 6. Jusqu'a 
quelle ville prenez-vous des billets? 7. Quel est le prix du 
billet jusqu'a Chicago? 8. Fumez-vous quand vous voyagez? 
Fumez-vous des cigares? 10. Comment arrivez-vous a Tecole 
le matin? 11. Allez-vous en tramway? 12. Allez-vous a 

*From le Voyage de M. Perrichon. 

Lesson 95 


pied? 13. AUez-vous en automobile? 14. Combien de mi- 
nutes faut-il pour arriver en tramway? 15. En automobile? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Yesterday morning he and I went to 
Lyons. 2. It is a city of 680,000 inhabitants. 3. We took 
the first train, which leaves at 9:17 in the (di^) morning. 

4. Then he and she arrived two and a half hours later. 

5. We took second class tickets, which cost 15 francs. 6. 
They took first class tickets, which cost 21 francs. 7. We 
arrived at Lyons yesterday evening. 8. This afternoon you 
and I will go horseback riding for two or three hours. 9. 
He and she will go automobile riding in the park. 10. He 
will probably ask to marry her. 11. She is much more 
charming than he. 12. He is much richer than she. 

IV. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. It was not they (/.). 2. 
It was we. 3. It was not he. 4. It was she. 5. It was not 
I. 6. It was they (m.). 


170. Past future of donner, finir, perdre, etre, avoir, faire. 

donner ais (donre) 
donner ais (donre) 
donner ait (donre) 
donner ions (donor j 5) 
donner iez (donorje) 
donner aient (donre) 

ser ais (sre) 
ser ais (sre) 
ser ait (sre) 
ser ions (sorjo) 
ser iez (sorje) 
ser aient (sre) 

finir ais (finire) 
finir ais (finire) 
finir ait (finire) 
finir ions (finir j 5) 
finir iez (finir je) 
finir aient (finire) 


aur ais (ore) 

aur ais (ore) 

aur ait (ore) 

aur ions (or jo) 

aur iez (orje) 

aur aient (ore) 

Observe that the stem of the past future is always the same as that of 
the future. The endings of the past future are always the same as those 
of the past descriptive, or imperfect. 

perdr ais (perdre) 
perdr ais (perdre) 
perdr ait (perdre) 
perdr ions (perdrio) 
perdr iez (perdrie) 
perdr aient (perdre) 

fer ais (fore) 
f er ais (fore) 
fer ait (fore) 
fer ions (forj5) 
fer iez (forje) 
fer aient (fore) 

182 The Elements of French 

171. Use {Emploi). The past future, or conditional, is gen- 
erally used in French as in English. It is translated into 
English by should (in the first person) and by would in the 
other persons. 

1. Cela me ferait beaucoup de plaisir, That would give me (literally 

would do me) very great pleasure. 

2. Je serais tres heureux de le revoir, / should he very happy to see 

him again. 

Exercice. In the following passage, change the verbs in the 
future to the conditional: Mais vous ne m^abandonnerez 
pas, vous ne me laisserez pas seul, vous viendrez a moi, ou 
vous me permettrez dialler a vous? Nous fuirons ensemble, 
nous parlerons, vous des gens que vous aimez, moi, des gens 
que j^aime. 

172. Si, meaning z/, is never used in French with the future 
or the past future. 

Instead of the future, with si, ifj use the present. 
Instead of the past future, with si, if, use the past descrip- 

1. Si vous m'accompagnez, je serai content, If you accompany me, 

/ shall he glad. 

2. Si Teclairage et le chauflfage etaient compris, nous serions con- 

tents, // the lighting and the heaiing were included, we should 
he glad, 

I. Exercice. Substitute the past future for the future in 
the following sentences, and then make the proper change in 
the si clause. 1. Si vous etes jeune, je serai votre comarade. 
2. Si vous etes vieux, je serai votre fils. 3. Mon pere aura 
70 ans, s'il n'est pas mort. 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je le ferais, si j^avais le temps, tu le 
ferais, si tu avais le temps, etc. 2. J'ecrirais mes lettres, si 
je trouvais de Tencre, tu ecrirais tes lettres, si tu trouvais de 
Tencre, etc. 3. Je porterais mon pardessus, s'il faisait froid, 
tu porterais ton pardessus, s^l faisait froid, etc. 

Lesson 96 183 

III. Traduisez. 1. If I had it, I should give it to him. 2. 
If you bought some, would you bring me some? 3. If I had 
some paper, I should write him some letters. 4. If he wrote 
to me oftener, I should be very happy. 5. If we had enough 
money, we should give him a larger tip. 6. If the barber 
were near here, we should have (the) time to go there. 7. If 
we hurried, we could (pourrions) catch the train. 




bagage* (baga:3), m., baggage numero (nymero), m., number 

difficile (difisil), adj., difficult parfaitement (parfetma), perfectly 

disponible (disponibl), available proprietaire (proprieteir), m., pro- 
doux (du), adj., sweet; gentle prietor 

Fern., douce (dus) repondre (rep5:dr), to reply 

etage (etais), m., story (of a house) rez-de-chaussee (re da Jose), m., 
fortement (fortma), adv., vigorously; first floor 

hard voudrai (vudre), future of vouloir, 
meubler (moeble), to furnish to wish, or will. 

premier etagef (pramjer eta:3), second floor 

dans les prix doux (da le pri du), at a moderate price 


Je voudrais parler au proprietaire. 

C^est moi, monsieur. Qu^ a-t-il pour votre service? 

Je desirerais une chambre meublee. Est-ce qu'il y en 

a de** disponibles? Quelque chose dans les prix doux, s41 
vous plait. 

Parfaitement, monsieur. Nous en avons a 85 francs 

par mois, tout compris. 

* Usually used in the plural. ** Do not translate. 

t The first floor is the rez-de-chaussee (re da J*ose). The third floor is the 
deuxieme etage, etc. Premier etage may in some instances even be translated 
third floor, since some houses have what is called an entresol, or intermediate 
floor between the ground floor and premier etage. 

184 The Elements of French 

L^eclairage et le chauffage y compris, aussi? 

Naturellement. Quel etage preferez-vous? Aimez- 

vous le rez-de-chaussee? 

Non, monsieur. Est-ce qu'il y a quelque chose au 

premier etage ou au deuxieme? 

(Le proprietaire, appelant) Jean. 

{Jean arrive.) 

Montrez a Monsieur tout de suite les numeros 25 et 35. 

Nous prenons I'ascenseur, et je choisis le numero 35. Jean 
regoit un pourboire de cinq sous, en* disant, '^Merci bien, mon- 

Puis il descend pour monter mes bagages. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. A qui est-ce que je voudrais parler? 
2. Qu'est-ce qu'il repond? 3. Est-ce que je desirerais une 
chambre meublee? 4. A quel etage? 5. Qu^est-ce qu41 faut la 
payer? 6. Est-ce que tout est compris? 7. Comment s'ap- 
pelle le gargon? 8. Quel numero est-ce que je choisis? 9. 
Combien de pourboire est-ce que je donne au gargon? 10. En 
est-il content? 11. Qui est-ce qui monte mes bagages? 

III. Traduisez. 1. I ask the {au) proprietor (for) a 
furnished room. 2. If (the) number 46 were on the third 
floor, I should prefer it. 3. If the ground floor were not near 
the street, I should like it. 4. I choose (the) number 25, on 
the second floor. 5. The waiter shows me the elevator, and I 
give him a tip of ten cents. 6. He says, *Thank (you) a thou- 
sand times, sir. You are too good.^^ 7. I know it now; we 
(other) Americans always. give too much of (a) tip when we are 
in France. 8. John goes down at once to bring up my baggage, 
and breathes hard to show me how difficult it is (how much it 
is difficult) to bring up baggage. 9. He is very warm, and I 
say to him, '^Rest yourself.^' 10. I give him a tip of fifty sous, 
and he does not understand me. 

* Do not translate. 

Lesson 97 




cravate (kravat), f., necktie 
lac (lak), m., lake 

tranquille (trakil), adj., quiet 
vestibule (vestibyl), m., vestibule, 



le mien (mje) 
le tien (tje) 
le sien (sje) 
le notre (noitr) 
le votre (voitr) 
le leur (loeir) 

les miens (mjs) 
les tiens (tjg) 
les siens (sje) 
les notres (noitr) 
les v6tres (voitr) 
les leurs (loeir) 


la mienne (mjen) 
le tienne (tjen) 
la sienne (sjen) 
la notre (noitr) 
la v6tre (voitr) 
la leur (loeir) 

les miennes (mjsn) 
les tiennes (tjen) 
les siennes (sjen) 
les ndtres (noitr) 
les v6tres (voitr) 
les leurs (loeir) 




hiSj hers, its 






his, hers, its 




Note. Le mien, les ndtres, etc., contract with de and k according to 

the regular rule. 

1. II pensait a son travail et au notre, He was thinking of his work 

and of ours . 

2. II avait son argent et du mien, He had his (own) money and some 

of mine . 

174. Agreement (Accord). Possessive pronouns agree with 
the object possessed in gender and number, not with the 

Void des cravates. Les miennes sont sur la table; les vdtres 
sont la-bas. Here are some neckties. Mine are on the table: 
yours are down there. 

186 The, Elements of French 

Exercice. Fill out the blanks with proper forms of possessive 

pronouns: 1. Ce n'est pas votre grammaire. C^est la m . 

2. C'est mon argent; ce n'est pas le v . 3. Vous avez les 

yeux bleus; les sont noirs. 4. Voici deux journaux: 

Jean a le s et Marie a le s , aussi. 5. Voila deux 

montres: Charles a la s et Marguerite a la s , aussi. 

6. J^ai apporte mes bagages; Jacques a apporte les s , 

mais oil sont les v ? 

Traduisez. His mother, her father, his sister, her brother, 
his pen, her pencil, his box, her paper, his pen-holder, her 
letter. Then substitute pronouns for the possessive adjective 
and noun, thus: Sa mere = la sienne; son pere = le sien, etc. 

175. Distinction Between Possessive Adjectives and Pos- 
sessive Pronouns. The possessive adjectives mon, ton, son, 
notre, votre, leur, are used to modify nouns. 

The possessive pronouns le mien, le tien, etc., are used 
instead of nouns, never to modify nouns. 

1. Voici mon pardessus et le sien, Here is my overcoat and his (or 

hers) . 

2. Voila votre chapeau et le mien, There is your hat and mine. 

Caution. Le sien may mean his, hers, its, one's. La sienne likewise 
may mean his, hers, its, one's. 

1. II a apporte ma serviette et la sienne, He has brought my towel 

and his. 

2. EUe a trouve ses plmnes; il a trouve les siennes , She has found 

her pens; he has found his. 

I. Exercice. For the forms in italics substitute possessive 
pronouns, thus: Change, Vous avez mon porteplume to Vous 
avez le mien; EUe a son billet to EUe a le sien, etc. 

1. Nous avons pris la serviette, 2. Avez- vous le livref 3. 
Voulez-vous votre journal maintenant? 4. J'ai ferme la porte, 
5. EUe a ouvert la fenetre. 6. Ce chapeau est d nous. 7. 
Ce pantalon gris est a lui. 8. Ces souliers jaunes sont d toi. 

Lesson 98 187 

II. Conversation. 

Bonjour, Charles! Bonjour, monsieur. As- 

tu bien dormi, Charles? Oui, monsieur, et vous, aussi? 

— — Tres bien, merci. Ma chambre donne sur le lac. Ou 

donne la tienne? La mienne donne sur la rue, mais elle 

est tres tranquille. Ferme ta porte. La mienne est 

aussi ouverte ... A quelle heure sert-on le petit dejeuner? 

A huit heures tres precises, monsieur. II faut se depecher. 

(A suivre.) 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Cette chaise-la est-elle la votre ou 
la mienne? 2. Ou est la mienne? 3. Votre voisin(e) a aussi 
une chaise. Montrez-moi la sienne. 4. Dej:"riere vous il y a 
des gens qui ont aussi des chaises. Montrez-moi les leurs. 
5. De quelle couleur est votre livre? 6. De quelle couleur est 
le mien? 7. (Pointing to John) De quelle couleur est le sien? 
8. (Pointing to Mary) De quelle couleur est le sien? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Is your room on the left? Mine is on 
the right. 2. Does your room open on the street? 3. Mine 
looks out upon the lake. 4. Hers looks out upon the hall. 
5. Mine opens on it, also. 6. Here is your room; there is 
his; yonder is hers. 7. Where is theirs? There it is, sir. 




accepter (aksepte), to accept savon (savo), soap 

beurre (boeir), m., butter unique (ynik), adj., only; sole; 

long (15), adj., long unique 

Fem., longue* (l5:g) c'est dommage! (s e domaii^),it is 
parapluie (paraplqi), m., umbrella a pity! 

♦Observe that g changes to gu in the feminine to keep the hard sound 
of g (g) before e. r • 

188 The Elements of French 

176. Distinction between Use of Possessive Pronoun and 
of etre + a Disjunctive Personal Pronoun. 

Etre + a disjunctive personal pronoun is used simply to 
assert ownership of an object. 

The possessive pronouns are used to distino;uish objects 
according to their owners. 

1. Ce complet est a moi, This suit is mine (belongs to me) . 

2. Ce complet-ci est le mien; ce complet-la est le votre, This suit 

is (the one that is) mine ; thai suit is (the one that is) yours. 

Exercice. In the following sentences, use the possessive 
adjective instead of a moi, a toi, etc., and explain how this 
change affects the meaning in each case: 1. Ce billet est 
a vous. 2. Ces enveloppes sont a elle. 3. Ce parapluie est 
a lui. 4. Cette pomme est a moi. 5. Cet habit est a toi. 
6. Cette plume est a eux. 

I. Conversation. Veux-tu te servir de ce savon? 

Non merci, j^ai le mien dans cette boite-ci. Cette brosse 

a dents est la mienne. As-tu toujours la tienne? Par- 

faitement, monsieur, mais Jean n^a plus la sienne. II Ta per- 
due il y a quelques heures. C^est dommage ! Et main- 
tenant voici Tunique serviette. Cen^est ni la mienne ni la 
tienne. C^est la notre. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. De quelle couleur sont vos yeux? 
2. Votre voisin a-t-il les yeux noirs? 3. A-t-il les yeux gris? 
4. Les siens sont-ils bleus? 5. Votre complet est-il noir? 
6. {Pointing to John): De quelle couleur est le sien? 7. Est- 
ce que son veston est long? 8. Le votre est-il court? 9. Est- 
ce que la robe de cette demoiselle est rouge? 10. De quelle 
couleur est la votre, mademoiselle? IL Vos Soulier s sont-ils 
noirs? 12. De quelle couleur sont les miens? 13. Voici mon 
journal. OiJi est le votre? 14. Montrez-moi le leur, s^il vous 
plait. 15. Voil^ mon crayon. Ou est le votre? 16. Le votre 
est-il rouge ou noir? 17. De quelle couleur est le mien? 18. 

Lesson 99 189 

De quelle couleur est le leur? 19. Le mien est-il long ou 
court? 20. Est-ce que le mien est rond? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Go (and) close your door. 2. Mine is 
open, also. 3. 1^11 take breakfast at 8:25 this morning. 
You will take yours at the same hour. 4. Is mine ready 
now? 5. You will take yours at once, won^t you? 6. Hurry; 
the train leaves at 9:28. 7. Here is my hat; there is yours; 
here is his. 8. Is this coat mine? That gray vest is surely his. 
9. Is this white soap mine? That dark soap is his, if he wishes 
any. 10. There is only one towel; it is ours. 11. Your hat 
is brown, I think; his is gray; mine is black. 12. Will you wear 
your black shoes this morning? 13. Where are John's hat, coat, 
and shoes? 14. Is that long coat his? That short coat is 
yours, I am sure (of it). 15. Now let us go down to the dining- 
room. 16. Waiter, bring us some coffee with {au) milk imme- 
diately. 17. How many eggs will you take? 18. I'll take 
two (of them), please; won't you have some also, my friend? 

19. Here is some bread, but it is dry. Is yours dry, also? 

20. Here is some fresh water. Is theirs fresh, also? 



I. Conjuguez. 1. Ce sont mes amis, ce sont tes amis, etc. 

2. Est-ce moi? est-ce toi? etc. 3. Je suis marchand, tu es 
marchand, etc. 4. Est-ce que je le sais? le sais-tu, etc. 
5. Je viendrais, si j'avais le temps; tu viendrais, si tu avais 
le temps, etc. 6. Si j'avais de I'argent, je lui en donnerais; si 
tu avais de I'argent, tu lui en donnerais, etc. 

II. Substitute pronoun forms for the words in italics: 
1. Ce parapluie est a Jean. 2. Ces cigares sont d Robert. 

3. Voici voire automobile. 4. Voila leurs chevaux. 5. Nous 
avons achete nos billets. 6. lis ont vendu leur maison, 7. 
Montez ses bagageSy s'il vous plait. 8. Voici ma chambre. 

190 The Elements of French 

9. II a perdu son numero, 10. Acceptez ce pourhoire, 11. 
Passez-moi le heurre, s'il vous plait. 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Aimez-vous a voyager? 2. Vous 
promenez-vous souvent en automobile? 3. Montez-vous sou- 
vent a cheval? 4. Allez-vous souvent a pied? 5. Comment 
arrivez-vous a Tecole — en tramway? 6. Aimeriez-vous mieux 
le rez-de-chaussee ou le premier etage? 7. Voudriez-vous 
prendre Tascenseur? 8. Combien de pourboire donnerez- 
vous au gargon? 9. Qui est-ce qui montera vos bagages? 

10. Si vous etiez a Paris, a quelle heure iriez-vous vous coucher? 

11. A quelle heure vous leveriez-vous? 12. Voici mon crayon. 
Ou est le votre? 13. Est-ce que Jean a le sien? 14. Est-ce 
que Marie a aussi le sien? 15. Voici ma grammaire. Mon- 
trez-moi la votre. 16. Est-ce que votre voisin a la sienne? 
17. Est-ce que Charles a aussi la sienne? 18. Est-ce que 
Robert et Jacques ont aussi les leurs? 

Let the teacher ask Qui est-ce? and let the student reply, 
C'est moi, c'est toi, etc. 

IV. Traduisez. 1. Yesterday morning he and they went to 
Lyons, (a) city of 680,000 inhabitants. 2. Then she* and I 
arrived several hours later, by (par) the 9:17 train (the train 
of 9:17). 3. He and she will go horseback riding this after- 
noon, if the weather is fine. 4. You and I will probably 
remain at home, if the weather is bad. 5. If I were in (d) your 
place, I should accept it. 6. If you were in my place, you 
would surely prefer it. 7. You have taken up my baggage; 
will you kindly (bien) take up his and theirs, also? 8. Is this 
(Est-ce) your room or mine? 9. Mine opens on the street; 
theirs is on the left; here is yours. 10. Give me some fresh 
water, if you please. 11. This butter is theirs; that butter is 
ours. 12. Is that your train? Here is hers, now. 

Lesson 100 191 




amusant (amyza), adj., amusing tarif (tarif), m., scale (of prices) 

auteur (otoeir), m., author abonmarche (a bo marj*e), c/ieap 

colonne (kolon), f., column en location, reserved 

en face de (a fas da), opposite faire la queue (feir la k0), to stand 
location (lokasjo), f., reservation (of in line 

tickets) colonnes d*affichage (kolon 
parterre (parteir), m., pit d afi^sn'^) , columns on which theat- 

pauvre (poivr), adj., poor rical announcements are posted 

piece (pjes), f., piece; play; room fauteuil d'orchestre (fotoeij d or- 
supplement (syplema), m., supple- kestr), orchestra seat 

ment en outre (an utr), moreover 

111. To make a verb negative, place ne before it, and pas, 
jamais, rien, etc., after it. In a compound tense, the auxiliary 
counts as the verb. Therefore, to make the verb negative, put 
ne before, and pas, jamais^ rien, etc., after the auxiUary. 

1. Je ne parle pas, / do not speak. (Simple tense.) 

2. Je n_*ai pas parle, I have not spoken. (Compound tense.) 

3. II ne dit jamais. He never says, (Simple tense.) 

4. II n_'a jamais dit, He (has) never said. (Compound tense.) 

5. Us ne font rien, They do nothing. (Simple tense.) 

6. lis n^ont rien fait. They have done nothing. (Compound tense.) 

Exercice. Change the following simple tenses to compound 
tenses: 1. Elle ne cherche rien. 2. lis ne passent pas. 3. 
Nous n^arrivons jamais. 4. Vous ne sortez pas. 5. Lui 
et elle ne racontent rien. 6. Nous ne sommes jamais {ete 
p. part.). 

178. Some of the commoner negatives are 

ne . . . pas, not 

ne . . . que, only 

ne . . . point, not (at all) 

ne . . . personne, nobody 

ne . . . guere, hardly 

ne . . . rien, nothing 

ne . . . jamais, never 

ne . . . ni (. . . ni), neither 

ne . . . plus, no longer 


192 The Elements of French 

Exercice. 1. Conjugate the present tenses of vouloir, pou- 
voir, and faire with point, guere, jamais, plus, and rien. 2. 

Conjugate the perfect tense of dire (p. part, dit) with the same 

(a) Que used with a negative sense always precedes the 
word which it modifies. 

1. Nous n*en avons trouve que dix, We have found only ten (of them). 

2. II n'est heureux que quand 11 parle, He is happy only when he is 


Conjuguez. 1. Je ne viendrais que plus tard, tu ne 
viendrais que plus tard, etc. 2. Je ne suis ici que depuis 
dix heures, tu n^es ici que depuis dix heures, etc. 3. Je n'ai 
mange que tres peu, tu n^as mange que tres peu, etc. 


Quelle piece est-ce que Ton joue ce soir? 

Regardons la-bas les colonnes d'affichage. II y a fc 

Voyage de M, Perrichon, que Ton joue au Theatre Frangais. 

C^est une piece tres amusante. Allons voir s^il y a des 


Nous regardons le tarif des billets, qui se trouve devant 
le theatre. Les fauteuils d'orchestre sont a 10 francs, ou a 12 
francs en location. En outre, il y a un supplement de 10 pour 
cent pour le droit des pauvres.* 

Voyons s^il y a des places de parterre. 

Pour les avoir, il faut faire la queue. Le guichet ne 

s^ouvre qu^a sept heures et demie. 

Eh bien, mais regardons en face de nous ce bureau de 

location pour tons les theatres. C'est 1^ que Ton pent avoir 
des billets, en location. 

Nous y entrons, et nous achetons des billets de par- 
terre, k trois francs cinquante. Cela coiite un franc de plus 
que les prix ordinaires, mais nous avons Tavantage de la location. 

* Le droit des pauvres is a tax upon theater tickets for the benefit of the 
French poor. 

Avenue du Bois (de Boulogne) 

Lesson 101 193 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Quelle pi^ce est-ce que Ton joue? 
2. La piece est-elle bonne ou mauvaise? 3. A quel th^&tre 
est-ce qu'on la joue? 4. Combien faut-il payer les fauteuils 
d^orchestre? 5. Combien de droit des pauvres y a-t-il? 6. 
Qu^est-ce qu41 faut faire pour avoir les billets a bon marche? 
7. Qu'est-ce que Ton vend au bureau de location? 8. A quel 
prix est-ce que Ton y vend des billets de parterre? 9. Combien 
de supplement faut-il payer? 10. Est-ce qu^il faut faire la 
queue? 11. A quelle heure s'ouvre le guichet? 

III. Traduisez. 1. This evening they will only play le 
Voyage de M. Perrichon, 2. It is a play which I have 
never seen, but I know that Armand and Daniel are very 
amusing. 3. There is nothing which I should rather see than 
that play. 4. Unfortunately the ticket window never opens 
before a quarter of eight. 5. We can have pit tickets only by 
(en) standing in line. 6. I should scarcely like (to) wait half 
an hour or perhaps an hour. 7. The supplement for reserva- 
tion of tickets is only (of) one franc. 8. Let us pay it, in 
order to have plenty of time. 


NEGATIVES — Continued 


ajuster (asyste), to adjust loge (lo:3), f., box (at theater) 

etonner (etone), to astonish lorgnette (brnet), f., opera-glass 

se charger (de) (sa farse da), to take moyennant (mwajena), by means of, 

charge of thanks to 

commencement (komasma), m., representation (raprezatasjo), f., 

beginning performance 

controler (kotrole), to inspect rideau (rido), m., curtain 

fixer (fikse), to fix, look steadily on chapeau haut de forme, high hat 

179. Position of personne and rien. When used as the 
subject of the sentence, personne and rien regularly precede 
the verb. 

194 The Elements of French 

1. Personne n* est venu,* Nobody has come. 

2. Rien_n_*estt arrive, Nothing has happened (literally arrived), 

Conjuguez. 1. Personne ne m^a parle, personne ne t^a 
parle, etc. 2. Rien ne m^etonne, rien ne t'^tonne, etc. 

When used in the predicate, personne comes where it would 
in English. 

1. Nous n^avons ecrit a personne , We have written to nobody. 

2. II n?a trouve personne. He (has) found nobody . 

(a) Omission of ne. Ne is always used before the nega- 
tive verb. When the verb is omitted, ne is also omitted. 

1. N'a-t-il rien vu? Did he see nothing ? 

2. Rien , Nothing . 

3. Ne vient-elle jamais? Does she never come? 

4. Jamais , Never . 

180. Observe the pronominal forms: 

Sing, quelqu'un (kelk oe), m., quelqu*une (kelk yn), f., somebody, some one. 
Plur. quelques uns (kelkaz 6e), quelques unes (kelkoz yn), a few, some. 

chacun (/akoe), m., chacune (Jakyn), f., each one, 

181. Translate the idiomatic expression a friend of mine 
by xrn de mes amis, and a French friend of mine by un 
Frangais de mes amis. 

Traduisez. 1. A friend (m.) of yours. 2. A friend (/.) 
of ours. 3. A cousin of his. 4. Two friends of theirs. 

182. Conduire (kodqiir), to conduct; lead, drive, 

Le Present de Plndicatif 

conduis (kodqi) conduisons (kodqizS) 

conduis (kodqi) conduisez (kodqize) 

conduit (kodqi) conduisent (kodqiiz) 

♦Personne is masculine when used as a pronoun; otherwise it is feminine, 
t Observe that ne must be used with the verb. 

Lesson 101 195 


Le soir, a huit heures un quart, nous entrons dans le 
theatre. Un monsieur en uniforme controle nos billets, et dit: 
'Tout droit, et puis tout de suite k gauche/' 

A la porte, il y a un homme en habit. II nous vend des 
programmes et nous conduit a nos places. Nous lui donnons 
un pourboire de dix sous. 

Un de nos amis a pris une loge. Une ouvreuse lui a montr6 
sa place, et s^est chargee de son parapluie, de son pardessus et 
de son chapeau haut de forme, moyennant un pourboire — 

En avant, il y a des messieurs aux fauteuils d^orchestre. 
lis se levent, ajustent leurs lorgnettes et fixent le monde. 
Personne ne s^en etonne. 

Tout a Fheure, on frappe trois fois, et le rideau se leve. 
C'est le commencement de la representation. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. A quelle heure est-ce que nous 
entrons dans le theatre? 2. Qui est-ce qui controle nos billets? 
3. Qu'est-ce qu'il nous dit? 4. Qui nous attend a la porte? 
5. Comment est-il habille? 6. Qu'est-ce qu'il nous vend? 
7. A quel prix les vend-il? 8. Quel pourboire lui donnons- 
nous? 9. Quelle place prend un de nos amis? 10. Qui lui 
montre sa loge? 11. De quels vetements se charge-t-elle? 
12. Que font les messieurs aux fauteuils d^orchestre? 13. 
Est-ce que tout le monde s^en etonne? 14. Comment annonce- 
t-on le commencement de la representation? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Come, my friend, we shall never 

arrive at the theater on time. 2. Is the performance 

never late? Never. 3. Really, I have eaten noth- 
ing. 4. I should like to remain a few minutes longer {de plus) 

in the dining-room. 5. We hardly have time enough 

to catch the next street car. ... 6. When we arrive at 
the theater, it is only a quarter of eight. 7. I never like 
to (d) hurry so much. 8. There are many people who are 

196 The Elements of French 

standing in line near the ticket window. 9. A poorly dressed 
man says to us, ^If you desire (it), I will stand in line for you, 
in consideration of (moyennant) a tip/' 10. We reply to him, 
^'We need nobody, thank you.'' 11. Then a friend of his, also 
poorly dressed, asks him (lui), '^How much have you earned 
this evening?" 12. He rephes, ^'Little or nothing." 13. We 
enter the theater, and take our orchestra seats. 14. Near us 
are some gentlemen who stare at us with their opera glasses. 
15. Nobody has ever looked at us (from) so near. 




d'abord (d aboir), adv., in the first Metro (politain) (metro), (metropo- 

place lits), m., Metropolitain, subway 

s'arreter (s arete), to stop and elevated line 

bout (bu), m., end recommander (rakomade), to rec- 

ensuite (asqit), adv., then ommend 

fleur (floeir), f., flower station (stasjo), f., station 

fiacre (fjakr), m., cab suivant (sqiva), adj., participle, 

gant (ga), m., glove following 

imperiale (eperjal), f., top of a bus voiture (vwatyir), f., carriage 

or coach voyageur (vwaja3oe:r), m., traveler 

183. Demonstrative Pronouns (Pronoms Demonstratifs) 

Singulier VARIABLE pj^^j^j 

Masc. celui (salqi), that (one), the (one) ceux (s0), those (ones), the (ones) 
Fern, celle (sel), that (one), the (one) celles (sel), those (ones), the (ones) 

It will be recalled that -ci and -la may be used with ce to mean this and 
that. Similarly -ci and -la may be added to celui, celle, ceux, and celles. 

1. celui-ci, (m.), this one 

2. celles-la, (f.), those 

INVARIABLE See § 187. 

1. ce (sa), this, that, he, she, it, they 

2. ceci (sasi), this 

3. cela (sala), that 

Lesson 102 197 

184. Celui, celle, etc., are used 

(a) As the antecedent of que, or qui: 

1. Voici un autre officier; c'est celui que vous avez connu, This 

is another officer; it is the one that you knew. 

2. J^aime mieux ces roses-ci que celles que nous avons trouvees, 

/ prefer these roses to those that we found. 

(h) Before de : 

1. Voila mes chevaux et ceux de Robert , There are my horses and 


2. Nous allons chercher votre chapeau et celui de votre ami , We 

are going to look for your hat and your friend's (literally the one 
of your friend) . 

Questions. 1. De quelle couleur est votre veston, monsieur? 
2. Est-ce celui que^ous avez achete a Paris? 3. Et votre 
robe, mademoiselle, ou Favez-vous achetee? 4. Est-elle de 
la meme couleur que celle de votre voisine? 5. Pouvez-vous 
porter ces gants-ci, monsieur? 6. De quelle couleur sont ceux 
de Jacques? 7. De quelle couleur sont vos fleurs, mademoi- 
selle? 8. Sont-elles plus jolies que celles de Marie? 9. Voila 
deux plumes seulement: Ou sont celles que je vous ai donnees? 

185. Celui-ci, celle-ci, etc., mean this (one), etc. Celui-la, 
celle-la, etc., mean that (one), etc. 

Vous trouverez la des souliers: mettez ceux-ci , ne mettez pas 
ceux-la , You will find there some shoes; put these on, do not 
put those on. 

Note. Celui-ci, celle-ci, etc., are used also to mean the latter {i.e., that 
which is near at hand). Celui-la, celle-la, etc., are used to mean the 
former (i.e., that which is further away). 

Marie et Annette sont venues : celle-ci portait une nouvelle robe 
blanche; celle-la portait une vieille robe verte, Marie and Annette 
have come; the latter wore a new white dress, the former wore an old 
green dress. 

Questions. 1. Voici deux crayons: Aimez-vous mieux celui- 
ci ou celui-la? 2. Voila deux plumes. Aimez-vous mieux 
celle-ci ou celle-la? 

198 The Elements of French 

186. Connaitre* (koneitr), to know, he acquainted with, 

connais (kone) coimaissons (koneso) 

connais (kone) connaissez (konese) 

connait (kone) connaissent (kones) 

Connaitre = know, in the sense of he acquainted with, 
Savoir = /cnoT/;, as a fact. 

Je connais Charles, I know Charles, 

Je sais son nom, / know his name. 

Je sais o^ il demeure, / know where he lives. 

Conjuguez. 1. Je connais celui-la, tu connais celui-la, etc. 
2. Je ne le connais pas, tu ne le connais pas, etc. 


Pour bien connaitre Paris, il est recommande aux voya- 
geurs de monter en fiacre, ou a Timperiale d'un omnibus. 
Ceux qui prennent le Metro ont Tavantage d'arriver un peu 
plus vite, mais ils n^ont pas celui de bien voir. Enf attendant 
notre omnibus, nous prenons des numeros a la station. Au 
bout de quelques minutes, un omnibus s'arrete devant nous. 
Le conducteur crie: ^'Deux places a Timperiale, une place a 
rinterieur, et une place de plate-forme.^' Comme nous sommes 
ceux qui avons les premiers numeros, nous entrons dans la 
voiture. Ceux qui ont des numeros au-dessus des notres 
attendent Tomnibus suivant. {A suivre.) 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Connaissez-vous Paris? 2. Com- 
ment peut-on bien voir Paris? 3. Est-ce que Ton voit bien a 
rimperiale d'un omnibus? 4. Comment est-ce que Ton pent 
arriver plus vite? 5. Ou prend-on les numeros? 6. Combien 
de temps faut-il attendre Fomnibus? 7. Qu^est-ce que le con- 
ducteur crie? 8. Aimez-vous les places a Tinterieur ou a Tim- 
periale? 9. Que font ceux qui ont les premiers numeros? 

* Observe that this verb, as well as naitre, paraitre, and a few others, has a 
circumflex over the i whenever the i precedes a t. 
t Do not translate, or use while. 

Lesson 103 199 

III. Tradviisez. 1. Those who take the Metro do not 
always arrive first. 2. In the first place, the Metro is often 
pretty far away (ecarte). 3. Then, it does not always go per- 
fectly straight (tout droit). 4. In short, we prefer the advan- 
tages of the omnibus to those of the Metro. 5. Here we 
are at the station; let us not forget our numbers. 6. '^I'U 
take this one,'' says Charles. 7. *^I'll take that one,'' says 
PhiHp. 8. The former is (the) number 89. 9. The latter is 
(the) number 90. 10. When the omnibus stops before us, the 
conductor cries, '^Those who have numbers below 93 may 
(can) enter. Those who have numbers above 93 will wait." 




alors (aloir), adv., then echange (e/ais), m., exchange 

coin (kwe), m., corner jusqu^a (3ysk a), up to; until 

controle (kotroil), m., examination ordre (ordr), m., order 

(or taking) of tickets quant a (kat a), as for 

contrdleur (kotroloeir), m., ticket ex~ section (seksjS), f., section; zone 

aminer; inspector se fait (sa fe), is made 
dechirer (dejire), to tear 

187. Ceci and cela (familiarly contracted into ga) are used 
in a general sense, and not to refer to a definite object. 

1. J*aime mieux ceci que cela , / prefer this to tha t. 

2. Faut-il faire comme ceci ou comme cela? Must one do tins way 

or that way? 

I. Fill in the blanks with ceci or cela: 1. Qui vous a 

raconte ? 2. n'est pas vrai. 3. Quant a je 

n'en sais rien. 4. se fait sur Tordre de leurs officiers. 

5. Qu'est-ce que vous dites a ? 6. ficoutez , s'il 

vous plait. 7. va sans dire. 8. Je sais . 9. On 

pent 6tre sur de . 

Note. Ceci and cela are never used as adjectives. Instead use ce . . . 
-ci and ce . . . -li. Ex. Ce livre-ci, This hook. 

200 The Elements of French 

II. Exercice. Fill in the blanks with demonstrative pro- 
nouns. 1. Voici nos journaux et que vous avez lus. 

2. Voila vos lettres et qu'il a ecrites. 3. J'aime mieux 

cette robe que de Marie. 4. Ce complet est-il le votre ou 

de Philippe? 5. Ces vetements sont-ils les miens ou 

de notre ami? 6. Ces robes sont-elles les miennes ou 

qu'Annette a portees? 7. Ce pardessus est-il le sien ou 

de Jean? 8. Voici deux jeunes filles: s'appelle Marie, 

mais s'appelle Annette. 9. Voila deux gargons: • 

s'appelle Jean, s'appelle Charles. 


Tout a rheure le conducteur nous demande: 

Ou allez-vous, messieurs? 

A St. Germain des Pres, probablement. ^ 

Deux sections,* cela fait trois sous. Une section ne 

serait que deux sous. 

Nous le payons. lis nous donne en echange un petit billet. 

Dans quelques minutes, un controleur monte, regarde bien 
nos billets, et en dechire un coin pour montrer qu'il les a con- 
troles. C'est comme cela que se fait le controle. 

IV. Exercice Oral. 1. Qu'est-ce que le conducteur nous 
demande? 2. Quand nous le demande-t-il ? 3. Ou allons- 
nous? 4. Combien faut-il payer une section? 5. Combien 
faut-il payer deux sections? 6. Qu^est-ce qu'il nous donne en 
echange? 7. Qui est-ce qui monte dans notre voiture? 8. 
Est-ce qu'il regarde nos billets? 9. Qu 'est-ce qu'il en fait? 
10. Pourquoi le fait-il? 11. Qui fait le controle des billets? 

V. Traduisez. 1. We ask (d) the conductor, ''Does this 
street car go to St. Germain des Pres, or does that one go 
there?'^ 2. He answers (to) us, ''Take this one; do not take 
that one. 3. That one is going to the Gare d'Orleans.^' 
4. We take our places on top of the tramway. 5. Then the 

* The zone system is used for Paris tramway and bus fares. 

Lesson 10 4. 201 

conductor comes (to) sell us our tickets. 6. ^What is the 
price (of them)?'^ we ask him (lui). 7. ^^That depends/^ he 
replies (replies he). 8. ^^If you were going to St. Germain des 
Pres, that would be two sections, or three sous.^' 9. *'But we 
are only going as far as the Opera.'^ 10. ^That would be only 
one section, gentlemen, or two sous. 11. Here are your tickets. 
It is necessary to keep them for the inspector.^' 12. '^Is that 
man the inspector?'^ 13. ^'No, that one is not the inspector; 
it is this one. 14. He will look at your tickets, presently.'^ 

VI. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. Look at this one (m.). 2. 
Do not look at that one (/.). 3. This one (/.) is prettier than 
that one (/.). 4. These (m.) are larger than those (m.). 5. 
Tell me that, please. 6. I prefer this to that. 7. Here is my 
umbrella; where is Mary's? 8. My hat is smaller than John's. 
9. This coat is larger than the one which you have. 


I. Conjugate, perfect tense: 1. Je ne parle guere. 2. Est- 
ce que je ne trouve rien? 3. Je n^ai plus rien a dire. 

II. Conjuguez. 1. Je n'ai qu'a passer a gauche, tu n^as 
qu'a passer a gauche, etc. 2. Je ne connais personne, tu ne 
connais personne, etc. 3. Je ne conduis jamais, tu ne conduis 
jamais, etc. 4. Je connais mieux celui-ci que celui-la, tu con- 
nais mieux celui-ci que celui-la, etc. 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Allez-vous sou vent au theatre? 
2. Quelles places prenez-vous? 3. Quel est le prix des fauteuils 
d'orchestre? 4. Ou est-ce que Ton vend a bon marche les 
billets d'auteur? 5. Combien de supplement faut-il payer? 
6. Qui est-ce qui nous montre les loges? 7. Est-ce un homme 
ou une femme? 8. Est-ce qu'il faut lui donner un pourboire? 
9. Combien de fois est-ce que Ton frappe pour annoncer le 

202 The Elements of French 

commencement de la representation? 10. Ou prenons-nous 
des numeros? 11.' Qui controle les numeros? 12. Oil mon- 
tons-nous? 13. Qu'est-ce que le conducteur nous donne? 
14. Qui est-ce qui controle les billets? 15. Qu^en fait-il? 

IV. Traduisez. 1. We have never seen any more amus- 
ing play than le Voyage de M. Perrichon. 2. Unfortunately, 
everybody goes (to) see it, and the ticket window does 
not open until (only opens at) 8:10. 3. Therefore {par 
consequent), it is necessary to stand in line for a full (good) 
half hour. 4. A cousin of mine will wait with me, but we 
have scarcely enough time. 5. Yesterday evening we ate 
nothing. 6. Then we went to their house, and nobody was 
there. 7. I never like to (a) hurry too much. 8. Nobody 
ever looked at us as much as those gentlemen who were seated 
(assis) in front. 9. Those who take the Metro will pay five 
cents (for) their first class tickets {billets de premiere). 10. I 
like these horses better than Philip's. 11. Do you prefer 
these flowers, or those? 12. This one (m.) is mine, but that 
one (m.) is yours. 13. This one (/.) is hers, but those (/.) are 
theirs. 14. I know that, but I had never heard this. 15. Tell 
me that, if you please. 




aqueduc (akodyk), m., aqueduct etablissement (etablisma), m., es- 

avocat (avoka), m., lawyer tablishment, institution 

canal (kanal), m., canal etudiant (etydja), m., student 

Plur., canaux (kano) futur (fytyir), ad]., future 

celebre (selsbr), adj., celebrated illustre (ilystr), adj., illustrious 
cependant (sapddd), conj., however ingenieur (esenjoeir), m., engineer 

composer (kopose), to compose instruire (estrqiir), to instruct (like 

droit (drw a), m., law; right conduire); s'instruire, to he in- 

enseigner (dsejie), to teach strucied 

Lesson 105 203 

institut (estity), m., institute poly technique (politeknik), poly^ 

lycee (Use), m., high school technical 

machine a vapeur (majin a vapoeir), port (poir), m., port; harbor 

f ., steam engine j:endez-vous (rade vu), m., meeting; 

medecin (metss), m., doctor appointment 

medecine (metsin), f., medicine reunir (reyniir), to unite; se reunir, 

membre (maibr), m., member to be gathered 

mentionner (masjone), to mention savant (sava), adj., learned 

nombre (noibr), m., number scientifique (sjatifik), scientific 

188. Ou (u) means where^ in which, at which. 

La boite o^ il a mis le papier a lettre, The box in which he put the 
writing paper. 

Note also d'ou, meaning from which, etc. 

189. Dont (d5) means of which, of whom, whose, 

1. Le journal dont je vous ai parle, The newspaper of which I spoke 

to you. 

2. Les dames dont nous avons visite la maison, The ladies whose 

house we (have) visited. 

3. Voila quelque chose dont nous avons besoin, That is something 

which we need (literally of which we have need) . • 

Exercice. Remplacez les tirets par (d)'ou ou dont: 1. 

C^est quelque chose j^ai peur. 2. L'ecole nous 

etudions. 3. Ce gargon vous etes Fami. 4. Le lac 

nous trouvons des poissons. 5 La ville vous demeurez. 

6. II m^a donne ce j 'avals besoin. 7. II nous a envoye 

des fleurs, il en avait trop. 8. La boutique vous 


190. Recapitulation. Qui (ki) as relative, ivho, which, that, 
is used as the subject of a verb, and, if referring to persons, 
as the object of a preposition. 

Que (ko), whom, which, that, is used as the object of a verb. 

1. C*est Pargent qui manque, It is m/)ney which is loA^king. 

2. Voici les soldats qui sont arrives, Here are the soldiers who have 


3. Voici Phomme a qui j^ai donne mon billet. Here is the man to 

whom I have given my ticket. 

204 The Elements of French 

4. Ce sont des camarades que nous avons rencontres, They are 

(some) comrades whom we (have) met. 

5. Voila les choses que votre ami a oubliees, Those are the things 

which your friend {hsis) forgot. 


Andre et Julien se donnent rendez-vous au quartier savant 
de Paris, dont ils admirent les etablissements scientifiques. 
On y trouve FInstitut de France, ou se reunissent les cinq 

Le Quartier Latin — Le Pantheon, Vu du Boulevard St. Michel 

Academies composees des hommes les plus illustres; aussi les 
ecoles de premier ordre que la France ouvre a ses enfants; 
rficole normale superieure, d'ou sortent les professeurs qui 
enseigneront dans les lycees; Tficole polytechnique, oil s'in- 
struisent les officiers qui commanderont les regiments fran- 
cais et les futurs ingenieursf qui feront pour la France des 

* Adapted from Bruno's le Tour de la France par deux enfants. 

t Adjectives denoting distinctive qualities regularly follow the noun. 
Adjectives denoting essential qualities, or forming one idea with the noiin, 
regularly precede the noun. See Appendix, §§ 247, 249. 

Lesson 105 205 

travaux difficiles, ponts, aqueducs, canaux, ports, machines a 
vapeur. C'est encore dans ce quartier que se trouve Tficole 
de medecine ou se preparent un grand nombre des medecins 
frangais, et Tficole de droit, d'ou sortent beaucoup d^avocats. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Dites les noms des deux enfants. 

2. Ou est-ce qu'ils se donnent rendez-vous? 3. Quels ^tab- 
lissements y admirent-ils? 4. Donnez les noms de qilelques 
etablissements scientifiques qui se trouvent a Paris. 5. Com- 
bien d^ Academies y a-t-il a FInstitut de France? 6. Qui sont 
les membres de ces Academies? 7. Donnez les noms de quel- 
ques ecoles superieures qui se trouvent au quartier savant. 
8. De quelle ecole sortent beaucoup de professeurs? 9. Ou 
les professeurs enseigneront-ils? 10. Dans quelle ecole s'in- 
struisent les officiers frangais? 11. Ou s'instruisent les futurs 
ingenieurs de la France? 12. Quels travaux difficiles feront 
ces ingenieurs? 13. Ou s'instruisent les medecins de la France? 
14. D'ou sortent les avocats frangais? 

III. Traduisez. 1. There are two brothers whose names 
are Andre and Julian. 2. They arrive in the learned quar- 
ter of Paris, where there are many scientific institutions. 

3. For {par) example, there is the Institute of France, whose 
five Academies are very celebrated. 4. Most of the illus- 
trious men in {de) France are members of this Institute. 5. 
However, there have been a few illustrious Frenchmen, like 
the great Moliere, who have never been received {regu) into it. 
6. France opens to its children many first class schools, of 
which we shall mention only two or three. 7. First, there is 
the Superior Normal School, the students of which will be the 
teachers in the (of the) French high schools. 8. Then there is 
the Polytechnic School, from which come the great French 
engineers. 9. It is these engineers whose bridges, aqueducts, 
and canals are so celebrated. 10. It is also {encore) the learned 
quarter where the future doctors of France are instructed. 
11. The School of Law has many students, because in France 
there are many lawyers. 

206 The EleJiients of French 


191. The Relative Pronoun lequeL 
Singulier Pluriel 

Masc. lequel (lakel) lesquels (lekel) 

Fern, laquelle (lakel) lesquelles (lekel), which (sometimes wj/io, that) 

Lequel, laquelle, etc., are used as the object of a preposition, to refer 
to things or animals, generally, not to persons, (See, however, §192.) 

1. Void les fourchettes avec lesquelles nous avons mange, Here 

are the forks with which we have eaten. 

2. on est la table sur laquelle j^ai mis la regie? Where is the table 

on which I put the ruler? 

3. La prison dans laquelle (or ot) il etait. The prison in which he 


(a) Observe that de and a contract regularly with lequel: 

de + lequel = duquel de + lesquels = desquels 

de + lesquelles = desquelles 

a + lequel = auquel a + lesquels = auxquels 

a + lesquelles = auxquelles 

1. Voila le tableau auquel je pensais. There is the picture of which 

I was thinking. 

2. n a ecrit beaucoup de livres, au nombre desquels se range 

celui-ci, He has written many hooks, among which (in the num- 
ber of which ) this is one (is ranked) . 

192. Lequel, laquelle, etc., are sometimes used instead of 
qui or que, to avoid ambiguity. • 

1. Le fils de la dame, laquelle est en bas, The son of the lady who 

{i.e., the lady) is .down stairs. 

2. Le fils de la dame, lequel est en bas. The lady's son who {i.e., 

the son) is down stairs. 

193. Qui (ki) is used as the object of a preposition to denote 

1. Comment s'appelle Phomme a qui vous parlez? What is the 

name of the man to whom you are speaking? 

2. C*e«t le pere de qui (or dont) il est le fils, It is the father o f whom 

he is the son (or, whose son he is). (See § 190.) 

Lesson 106 207 

194. Dont can never be used to refer to a noun governed by 
a preposition. 

La femme au neveu de qui (or de laquelle) vous avez envoye ce 
cadeau, The lady to whose nephew you have sent this present. 

Exercice. Remplacez les tirets par lequel ou qui: 1. Le 

lac pres il habite. 2. Le quartier de elle est venue. 

3. L'argent de Mme Dupont est en bas. 4. M. Lemaitre 

avec vous etes arrive. 5. Mme Robert est la femme de 

vous parliez tout a Theure. 6. Les couteaux nous 

avons besoin. 

195. The relative pronoun what when used after a preposition 
is regularly translated by quoi. 

1. Voil^ a quoi je pensais, That is what I was thinking of. 

2. Voici de quoi j*ai peur, Here is what I am afraid of^ 

196. The relative pronoun what when used with a verb (as 
subject or object) is translated into French by ce + a relative. 

1. Je regrette infiniment ce qui est arrive, / regret infinitely what 

has happened. 

2. H va regarder ce que vous lui avez montre, He is going to look 

at what you have shown him. 

3. Ce dont nous avions besoin, What we needed (literally that of 

which) . 

Note. All that is translated by tout ce qui, tout ce que, etc. 

Tout ce que vous m^avez dit est tres interessant. All that you 
(have) told me is very interesting. 

I. Exercice. Remplacez les tirets par ce qui, ce que, etc. 

1. Racontez-moi il a fait. 2. Expliquez-lui est 

arrive. 3. Tout je vois d'ici m^etonne. 4. J^aime tout 

m' amuse. 

II. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. L The yellow pen with which 
you wrote. 2. The house in which you live (Two ways). 

3. The (young) girl to whose brother you were speaking. 

4. Mr. Lebrun's daughter who is waiting for them. 5. Here is 

208 The Elements of French 

the omnibus which we are going to take. 6. The chair on which 
he put his hat. 7. Tell me what he says about it, please. 
8. Do you know what has happened? 9. This is all that there 
is. 10. That is all that there will be. 




aboutir (a) (abutiir), to come to; point (pwe), m., point 

meet pore (poir), m., hog 

centaine (saten), f., (about) 100 reseau (rezo), m., system; network 

chou (Ju), m., cabbage se rappeler (sa raple), to remember 

Plur., choux (J*u) salade (salad), f., salad 

cote (kote), m., side; direction troupeau (trupo), m., herd 

empiler (apile), to pile up veau (vo), m., calf 
gibier (sibje), m., game Plur., veaux (vo) 

'halle (al), f., market-place voie (vwa), f., way 

la-bas (la ba), adv., down there volaille (volaij), f., fowl; poultry 

motte (mot), f., lump a cote de, beside 

nourrir (niiriir), to feed se rendre a, to betake one^s self ( or 
foire (fwair), f., fair go) to 

millier (milje), m., thousand servir a, to be good for, be of use for 


Quelle est cette foire que nous voyons la-bas? 

C'est ce qu'on appelle les Halles. 

Ce qui m'etonne, c'est de voir tant de monde. 

C'est que (because) tout le monde s'y rend pour acheter 

des provisions. Regardez ces montagnes de choux et de sa- 
lades, a cote desquelles se trouvent des mottes de beurre em- 
pilees par centaines et par milUers! . . . Pour nourrir Paris 
pendant un an, il faut deux cent mille boeufs ou vaches, cent 
mille veaux, un million de moutons et cent mille pores, sans 
compter la volaille, le poisson et le gibier. 

Mais ou trouve-t-on tons ces troupeaux? 

* Suggested by Bruno's le Tour de la France par deux enfants. 

Une Scene des Halles 

Lesson 107 209 

Ces troupeaux arrivent a Paris de tous les points de la 

France. Voici a quoi servent les sept chemins de fer dont 
"Paris est le point terminus. II y a aussi la navigation de la 
Seine a laquelle aboutissent les reseaux des canaux frangais. 
Ce sont les deux principales voies par lesquelles les provisions 
lui arrivent. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Qu'est-ce que c'est? 2. Est-ce bien 
une foire que Ton voit la-bas? 3. Est-ce qu'il y a beaucoup 
de monde qui va aux Halles? 4. Qu^est-ce que Ton y achete? 
5. Quels legumes y vend-on*? 6. Quelles especes de viande 
y vend-on? 7. D^ou viennent les boeufs et les moutons? 
8. De quelles parties de la France? 9. Combien de beurre y 
a-t-il aux Halles? 10. Combien de veaux faut-il pour nourrir 
Paris pendant un an? 11. Combien de pores? 12. Combien 
de chemins de fer y a-t-il a Paris? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Tell me what they call that fair, 

if you please. 2. What you see down there is called 

les Halles. 3. What astonishes me is that there are not 
more people there at this hour. 4. Ordinarily, at six o'clock 
in the morning one can count by thousands the people who 
go there to buy provisions of all sorts. 5. Look at the 
mountains of butter, cabbage, and salads, which are under a 
single roof. 6. There are also great provisions of beef and pork, 

without counting poultry and fish. 7. But how can these 

provisions be transported to Paris? 8. It is necessary 

to remember (know) that Paris is the terminal point of seven 
systems of railroads, of which the Orleans, for example, is one 
of the most important. 9. The Seine, on which Paris is sit- 
uated, is the river into which run (aboutissent) many of the 
French canals. 10. It is these two systems — the railroads 
and the canals — by which 200,000 oxen and cows, not to 
mention (without counting) 1,000,000 sheep, are transported 
to the capital every year (tous les ans), 

♦Pronounced (vat 5). 

210 The Elements of French 


197. Invariable. Variable. 

qiii? (ki), who? whom? lequel (bkel) 

que? (ka), what? laquelle (lake!) 

quoi? (kwa), what? lesquels (lekel), which? 

which one{s)f what one{s)f 
lesquelles (lekel) 
Note. Observe also the forms compounded with est-ce : 

qu*est-ce que? (k e s ka), what? 
qui est-ce qui? (ki e s ki), who? 
qui est-ce que? (ki e s ka), whom? 

198. Use of Interrogative Pronouns (Emploi des Pronoms 
Interrogatifs) . 

(a) Who? = qui (est-ce qui)? 

1. Qui est ce monsieur? Who is this gentleman? 

2. Qui est-ce qui t*a envoye a cette heure? Who (has) sent you at 

this hour? 

Note. Quel (kel) is often used with etre to mean Who? 
Quel (or qui) est ce monsieur? Who is this gentleman? 

(b) Whom? = qui? or qui est-ce que? 

1. Qui demandez-vous? Whom are you 

asking for? ^ Object of verb. 

2. Qui est-ce que vous demandez? Whom 

are you asking for? 

3. Chez qui peut-on avoir des cravates? 

At whose store can one get cravats? 

4. Chez qui est-ce que Pon pent avoir des 

cravates? At whose store can we get 

> Object of preposition. 

(c) What? = qu'est-ce qui? (subject of verb); que? or 
qu'est-ce que? (object of verb); quoi? (object of preposition, 
or separate from verb). 

Lesson 108 211 

1. Qu*est-ce qui vous interesse? What interests you? 

2. Je sais ce qui vous interesse, / know what interests you. 

3. Qu^est-ce que vous dites la? What are you saying there? 

4. Je sais ce que vous dites la, / know what you are saying there. 

5. Qu*est-ce qu^ un avion? What is an airplane? 

6. Je sais ce que c^est qu* un avion, / know what an airplane is. 

7. Que dira-t-on? What will people say? 

8. Je sais ce_qu*on dira, / know what people will say. 

Note. Observe also the phrase Qu'est-ce que c*est que? What is? 

Qu*est-ce que c'est que ce journal? What is this newspaper? 

9. A quoi pensez-vous? What are you thinking qf? 

10. Quoit Vous arrivez deja! What ! You arrive already! 

(d) The pronoun lequel? laquelle? etc. is translated which? 
(in all constructions). 

1. Lequel de ces messieurs avez-vous salue? Which one of these 

gentlemen did you how to? 

2. Duquel de ces eleves parlez-vous? Of which one of these pupils 

do you speak? 
Note. When which is an adjective, translate by quel. 

Quel billet avez-vous achete? Which ticket did you buy? 

199. Whose is translated by 

(a) a qui? to denote possession. 

A qui est ce chien? Whose dog is this? 

(b) de qui? to denote relationship. 

De qui est-elle la femme? Whose wife is she? 

Exercice. Write sentences using the following words and ex- 
pressions: 1. Qui? 2. Qui est-ce qui? 3. Quel? = Who? 4. 
Quel? = Which? 5. Quel ?= What? 6. Qui est-ce que? (Ob- 
ject of verb). 7. Qui est-ce que? (Object of preposition). 
8. Qu^est-ce qui? 9. Que? 10. Qu'est-ce que? 11. Quoi? 
12. Ce que. 13. Ce qui. 14. Qu'est-ce que c'est que? 15. 
Avec qui? 16. Avec quoi? 17. Laquelle? 18. Lesquels? 19. 
Lesquelles? 20. Quelle? 

212 The Elements of French 

I. Traduisez. 1. I know what you are looking at. 2. 
What you are looking at (it) is the market-place down there. 
3. What! It is the first time that you have seen it? 4. What 
astonishes you so much? 5. Is it the people who interest you? 
6. Yes, but that is not all. 7. Who is going to eat all those 
mountains of cabbage and salad? 8. To whom does all this 
butter belong? 9. Look! What is that? 10. There are some 
sheep that have just arrived {viennent d'arriver) by railway. 
11. Which one? The Ouest-fitat or the Nord? 




ajouter (asute), to add lourd (luir), adj., heavy 

auberge (obers), f., inn poupee (pupe), f., doll 

envoyer (avwaje), irreg., to send envoyer chercher, to send for 


Mon enfant, c'est bien lourd pour vous, ce que vous 

avez la. 

Oui, monsieur. 

Petite, quel age as-tu? 

Huit ans, monsieur. 

Comment t^appelles-tu? 


Qui est-ce qui t'a envoyee a cette heure chercher de 

Teau dans le bois? 

C^est madame Thenardier. 

Qu'est-ce qu^elle fait, ta madame Thenardier? 

Elle tient T auberge. 

Est-ce que tu es seule? 

Oui, monsieur . . .C'est a dire, il y a deux petites filles. 

— — Quelles petites filles? 

♦Adapted from Victor Hugo's les Miserables. 

Lesson 109 213 

Ponine et Zelma. 

Qu'est-ce que c^est que Ponine et Zelma? 

Ce sont les demoiselles de madame Thenardier. 

Et que font-elles, celles-la? 

Oh! elles ont de belles poupees. Elles jouent, elles 


Et toi? 

Moi, je travaille. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Comment s'appelait la petite fille? 
2. Quel age avait-elle? 3. Est-ce que c^etait lourd ce qu'elle 
portait? 4. Qui Taidait a le porter? 5. Qui est-ce qui Tavait 
envoyee chercher de Teau? 6. Ou etait-elle allee chercher de 
Teau? 7. Qu^est-ce que madame Thenardier faisait? 8. Est- 
ce qu'elle avait des enfants? 9. Combien d'enfants avait-elle? 
10. Est-ce que c'etaient des fils ou des fiUes? 11. Comment 
s'appelaient-elles? 12. Avec quoi jouaient-elles? 13. Laquelle 
des trois petites filles s'amusait le moins? 14. Laquelle des 
trois petites filles travaillait le plus? 15. Lesquelles des petites 
filles avaient des poupees? 

III. Traduisez. 1. What was the name of the little girl 
whom Jean Valjean met in the woods? 2. How old was 
she, and how old was Jean Valjean? 3. Who had sent her 
into the woods after water? 4. At what time of the night had 
Madame Thenardier sent her after water? 5. Who carried 
the water for her, and did he find it heavy? 6. Where (jusqu^ 
ou) did he carry it? 7. To whom did the inn belong? 8. 
Whose daughters were Ponine and Zelma? 9. Were the 
daughters ugly or pretty? 10. What amused them when they 
were at home? 11. What amused Cosette when she was work- 
ing? 12. Which worked more (of) Zelma and Ponine, or (of) 
Cosette? 13. Which of the three little girls amused herself 
the least? 


The Elements of French 




chasser (Jase), to drive out; hunt 
craindre (kreidr), irreg., to fear 
Dauphin (dofe) m., heir apparent 
to French throne 

devenir (davniir), to become 

(like venir) 
filer (file), to spin 
insist er (esiste), to insist 
regretter (ragrete), to regret 

200. Present Subjunctive (le Present du Suhjonctif) of don- 

ner, finir, perdre. 

donn e (don) 
donn es (don) 
donn e (don) 
donn ions (donj5) 
donn iez (donje) 
donn ent (don) 

finiss e (finis) 
finiss es (finis) 
finiss e (finis) 
finiss ions (finisjo) 
finiss iez (finis je) 
finiss ent (finis) 

perd e (psrd) 
perd es (perd) 
perd e (perd) 
perd ions (perd jo) 
perd iez (perdje) 
perd ent (perd) 

The stem of the present subjunctive of a regular verb is 
obtained by dropping the ending -ant of the present participle : 
donn ant, finiss ant, perd ant, etc. 

201. Present Subjunctive (le Present du Suhjonctif) of avoir 
(pres. part, ayant), etre (pres. part, etant), faire (pres. part, 
faisant), aller (pres. part, allant), venir (pres. part, venant) and 
its compounds. 

aie (e) 

sois (swa) 

fasse (fas) 

aille (a:j) 

aies (e) 

sois (swa) 

fasses (fas) 

ailles (a:j) 

ait (e) 

soit (swa) 

fasse (fas) 

aille (a:j) 

ayons (ejo) 

' soyons (swa jo) 

fassions (fasjo) 

alliens (aljo) 

ayez (eje) 

soyez (swaje) 

fassiez (fasje) 

alliez (alje) 

aient (e) 

soient (swa) 

fassent (fas) 

aillent (a:j) 

vienne (vjen) 

venions (von jo] 


viennes (vjen) 

veniez (vonje) 

vienne (vjen) 

viennent (vjen] 


Note. The present subjunctive of irregular verbs is troublesome, and 
should be learned as one of the principal parts. Devoir, aller, venir, 
among others are regular in the first and second plural. 

Lesson 110 215 

202. Emploi. The subjunctive is used in many clauses 
introduced by que: (a) After expressions of commanding ^ 
wishing, desiring, and approving: 

1. Je desire que vous me disiez cela, I desire that you tell me that. 

2. pinsiste que vous ouvriez la porte, / insist that you open the door. 

(b) After expressions of emotion, such as joy, sorrow, anger, 
or shame: 

1. Je suis heureux que vous restiez ici, / am happy that you are 

staying here. 

2. Je regrette que vous n'ayez pas regu ma lettre, / regret that you 

did not receive my letter. 

(c) After expressions of fearing, doubting, or denying. In 
such cases pleonastic ne is used. 

Note. The omission of pleonastic ne is tolerated. 

1. Je crains qu41s ne soient arrives, I fear that they have arrived. 

2. Je crains qu*il ne soit pas arrive, / fear that he has not arrived. 

(d) After expressions of necessity: 

II faut que je fasse ce qui m'est commande, / must do (it is neces- 
sary that I do) what is commanded me. 

(e) After expressions of uncertainty: 

II est possible qu'il vienne. It is possible that he is coming . 

(/) In clauses introduced by certain conjunctions, such as 
bien que, although, quoique, although, afin que, in order that, 
pour que, in order that, de peur que, for fear that, and several 

Quoique j^ aime mieux tester a filer pres de ma pauvre mere. 

Although I prefer to stay and spin beside my poor mother. 

Conjuguez. 1. II faudra que je de vienne Anglais, il faudra 
que tu deviennes Anglais, etc. 2. II faut que je sois chasse, 
il faut que tu sois chasse, etc. 3. Bien que j'aille, bien que 
tu allies, etc. 4. Quoique j^aime mieux rester, quoique tu 
aimes mieux rester, etc. 5. 11 veut que je le fasse, il veut 

216 The Elements of French 

que tu le fasses, etc. 6. Elle est contente que je sois arrive, 
elle est contente que tu sois arriv^, etc. 

203. In general: The subjunctive is employed after expres- 
sions of doubt or of emotion. For this reason, the subjunc- 
tive is used after croire and penser used in the interrogative, 
or in the negative, since there is doubt. Thus: 

1. Je crois qu'il est ici, I think that he is here. (The indicative 

form est is used, because no doubt is expressed.) 

2. Croyez-vous qu'il soit ici? Do you think that he is here? (The 

subjunctive form soit is used, because croyez-vous? is inter- 
rogative, and therefore expresses doubt.) 

3. Je ne crois pas qu'il soit ici, / do not believe that he is here. (The 

subjunctive form soit is used, because je ne crois pas, being 
negative, expresses doubt, or uncertainty.) 

4. J'espere qu'il viendra, / hope that he will come. 

5. Esperez-vous qu'il vienne? Do you hope that he will come? 

Note. The conjunction que, that, like the relatives qui and que, is 
never omitted in French. 

For sequence of tenses, cf. § 223.* 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Croit-il que je vienne? croit-il que tu 
viennes? etc. 2. Elle ne pense pas que je fasse cela, elle ne 
pense pas que tu fasses cela, etc. 3. II ne croit pas que 
j'aie fini, il ne croit pas que tu aies fini, etc. 

II. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. ,1. We certainly do not 
think that they are here. 2. Do they believe that we will do 
that? 3. You must go there, if they go there. 4. Their 
friends must come at once. 5. We are afraid that they have 
not received (regu) our letters. 6. I wish to do what is nec- 
essary. 7. I tell you this in order that you may lose no 
time. 8. Although you drive well, you do not drive well 
enough. 9. Although you did not give a tip, the attendant 
(ouvreuse) has taken charge of your hat. 10. I doubt whether 
you are going to be happy there. 

*For further uses of the subjunctive, see Lessons 125 and 126. 

Lesson 111 217 




ajouta (a3uta), added (from ajouter) negliger (negli3e), to neglect 

careme (kareim), m., Lent ouvrage (uvrais), m., work 

content (kota), glad; contented secours (sakuir), m., help 

del (sjsl), m., Heaven; sky seigneur (sejioeir), m., lord; master 

Plural, cieux (sj0) tel {tel), such (follows article), untel 
demanda (damada), asked (from homme, such a man 

demander) Feminine, telle (tel). 

devint (dave), became (from de- user (yze), to wear, wear away 

venir) user de, to use 

entretien (atratje), m., talk; conver- tons (les) deux (tu [le] d0), both 

sation mi-car eme (mi kareim), f ., mid-Lent 

il faudra (il fodra), it will be nee- dusse-je (dyse :5)j if I should (from 

essary (from falloir) devoir) 

genou (3anu), m., knee 

Plural, genoux (sanu) 


La mission de Jeanne devint la foi de quelques-uns et I'en- 
tretien de tons (tus). 

^ ^Negliger un tel secours du ciel, n^etait-ce pas trahir le Dau- 
phin et la France?'^ 

Un gentilhomme des environs, etant venu voir Jeanne comme 
les autres, lui dit: 

*^Eh bien, ma mie, il faudra done que le roi soit chass6 et que 
nous devenions Anglais?^' 

"Cependant/' dit-elle, '4l faudra bien qu'avant la mi-careme 
on me conduise au Dauphin, dusse-je, pour y aller, user mes 
jambes jusqu^aux genoux, car personne au monde, ni rois, 
ni dues, ni fille du roi d^ficosse, ne peuvent reprendre le roy- 
aume de France; et il n'y a pour lui d^autre secours que moi- 
meme, quoique j^aime mieux,^^ ajouta-t-elle avec tristesse, 

♦Adapted from Lamartine's Jeanne d'Arc, 

218 The Elements of French 

"rester a filer prfes de ma pauvre mere! . . . Car je sais bien que 
batailler n'est pas mon ouvrage; mais il faut que j^aille et que 
je fasse ce qui m^est commande, car mon Seigneur le veut . . /' 

On lui demanda: 

''Et qui est votre Seigneur?'' 

Elle repondit: 


II. Exercice Oral. 1. Quelle est la mission de Jeanne 
d'Arc? 2. Est-ce qu'on parle de sa mission? 3. Quels sont 
les ennemis de la France? 4. Faut-il {is it necessary) que le 
roi soit chasse par ses ennemis? 5. Faut-il que les Frangais 
deviennent Anglais? 6. Qui est-ce qui a chasse les Anglais de 
la France? 7. De qui le Dauphin est-il le fils? 8. Est-ce qu'il 
bataille bien? 9. Quel est le seul secours pour le Dauphin? 
10. Lequel aime-t-elle mieux faire, de batailler ou de Tester 
chez sa mere? 11. Qu'est-ce qu'il faut qu'elle fasse? 12. Qui 
est-ce qui lui a commande de batailler? 13. Quel est son 
Seigneur? 14. Est-ce qu'elle va au Dauphin? 15. Combien 
de temps y a-t-il que Jeanne d'Arc est morte? 

III. Tradixisez. 1. Everybody is talking about the mis- 
sion of Joan of Arc. 2. There are many who do not believe 
that she is sent by Heaven. 3. There are many others who 
do beUeve it. 4. They beUeve that the French must not 
neglect such help from Heaven. 5. They believe that they 
must not betray the Dauphin and France. 6. Though they 
prefer to remain at home, they must fight for their country. 
7. God commands Joan of Arc to go (that Joan of Arc go) to 
the Dauphin. 8. He wishes her to go there, even if it is nec- 
essary for her to wear away (that she wear away) her legs to the 
knees. 9. She does not believe that the King of England is 
going to win (take) back the kingdom of France. 10. But she 
does not believe that there is any other help for the Dauphin 
than herself. 11. Though fighting (to fight) is not her work, 
she desires to be led to the Dauphin. 12. She prefers to remain 
at her mother's house. 13. Yet she must do what her Master 

Lesson 112 219 

wishes her to do. 14. They ask her {lui) who her Master is. 
15. Immediately she repHes that he is God. 

IV. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. 1 fear that we shall not 
arrive at the theater until a quarter of nine. 2. I want you 
to show me the gentleman in uniform who inspects our 
tickets. 3. He accompanies us, as we enter (in) the theater, 
in order that he may sell us programs. 4. I doubt whether 
(that) we shall give him a tip, although our friend Albert 
always gives a ten cent tip. 5. One of our friends must have 
taken a loge, for there he is, accompanied by {de) an ouv- 
reuse. 6. Some gentlemen in the orchestra seats rise, in 
order that they may look at everybody. 7. Though they 
have knocked three times, the curtain has not yet risen. 


I. Write French sentences containing the following words: 
1. Lequel. 2. Qui? 3. Ce qui. 4. Ce que. 5. Ce dont. 
6. Qu'est-ce qui? 7. Qu'est-ce que? 8. Quoi? 

II. Remplacez les tirets par des pronoms relatifs ou inter- 

rogatifs: 1. C^est M. Albert est venu ce matin. 2. 

Voila les livres nous avons besoin. 3. Quelque chose est 

arrive j^ avals tou jours peur. 4. Dites moi vous avez 

fait hier. 5. II nous a rendu il nous fallait. 6. est 

arrive? 7. demeure dans cette maison? 8. La rue 

nous nous donnons rendez-vous. 9. L^universit^ sortent 

les professeurs. 10. Le train par il arrive toujours. 11. 

Le fils de Mme Mercier demande k nous parler. 

III. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. Do you think that there is 
enough (of it)? 2. I do not believe that there will be too 
much (of it). 3. Although they never do anything they are 
always talking. 4. They must give him back what he has 

220 The Elements of French 

lost. 5. You must come. 6. We regret that they do not 
come. 7. We are glad that you are staying. 

IV. Present Subjimctive (le Present du Subjonctif) of 1. 
etre; 2. avoir; 3. faire; 4. venir; 5. choisir; 6. vendre. 

V. Exercice Oral. 1. Qu'est-ce que Tlnstitut de France? 

2. Quelles ecoles superieures se trouvent au quartier savant? 

3. O^ s'instruisent les medecins frangais? 4. Y a-t-il beau- 
coup d'avocats en France? 5. Ou s'instruisent-ils? 6. Ou 
peut-on acheter des provisions a Paris? 7. Est-ce que beau- 
coup de monde y va? 8. Par quelles voies est-ce que les pro- 
visions arrivent a Paris? 9. Combien de boeufs faut-il pour 
nourrir Paris pendant un an? 10. Combien de moutons? 11. 
Combien de pores? 12. Comment s'appelait la petite fille qui 
cherchait de Teau? 13. Qui a-t-elle rencontre? 14. Ou tra- 
vaillait-elle? 15. Combien d^enfants avait Mme Thenardier? 
16. Est-ce que Cosette ^tait heureuse ou malheureuse? 17. 
Avait-elle des poupees? 18. Quel etait le seigneur de Jeanne 
d'Arc? 19. Est-ce qu^elle avait une niission? 20. Qu'est-ce 
qu'il faut qu^elle fasse? 

VI. Traduisez. 1. This is the learned quarter of Paris, 
of which I was speaking to you today. 2. There is the 
Institute of France, whose members are very illustrious men. 
3. Everything which we see at the Halles is very inter- 
esting. 4. There are several ways by which provisions can be 
transported to Paris. 5. The seven railroads, of which Paris 
is the terminal point, transport many provisions. 6. Then 
there is the system of canals, for which France is celebrated. 
7. Which was older (plus dgee), Cosette or Mme Thenardier^s 
daughters? 8. Which one did Mme Thenardier send to get 
water at night? 9. Joan of Arc must do all that God com- 
mands. 10. Her parents do not wish her to fight, but she 
must go to the Dauphin. 

VII. Exercice Oral ou ficrit. 1. We must go to see what 
they are playing this evening. 2. I want you to look at the 

Lesson 113 221 

columns for theatrical announcements. 3. Probably we shall 
go to see ^'le Voyage de M. Perrichon/' for fear they will 
not play it again, although two friends of ours have seen it 
already. 4. I doubt whether there are any pit seats. 5. 
We are going to pay a supplement of two francs, in order 
that we may have seats reserved. 6. I am glad you are 
coming, and hope that your brother will come, also. 
7. Do you think he has enough time? 8. I fear that 
he is too busy (occupe). 




hlesser (hlese) , to wound paraitre (pareitr), irreg., to seem, 

devoir (davwair), m., duty; school appear. 

composition retranchement (ratra/ma), m., re- 

dur (dyir), adj., hard trenchment; separation 

douceur (dusoeir), f., comfort tache (taij), f., task 

marraine (maren), f., godmother a meme de, able to 

s*occuper de (s okype da), to he de cette fagon, in this manner 

busy with de temps en temps, from time to 

rentrer (ratre), to enter again time 

Learn the present subjunctive of prendre. (See Appendix.) 

204. The infinitive is used without a preposition after the 
following verbs, among many others: aller, to go; venir, to 
come; desirer, to desire; devoir, to owe, ought; falloir, to be nec- 
essary; pouvoir, to be able, can; savoir, to know (how) ; vouloir, 
to will, wish to; entendre, to hear; voir, to see; faire, to make, 
cause; laisser, to let, to leave, 

1. Je vais chercher du pain, / a m going after some bread. 

2. Desirez-vous m*accompagner? Do you desire to accompany me? 

3. Vous devez leur repondre, You ought to reply to them. 

4. II leur faut apprendre le fran^ais, They must learn French (or, 

II faut quails apprennent le franfais). 

5. II ne veut rien entendre. He will listen to nothing. 

6. J*entends les boutiques s*ouvrir, / hear the shops opening. 

222 The Elements of French 

7. II fait venir ses amis, He sends for his friends (makes his friends 

come ). 

Note. When the infinitive has a direct object, faire requires 
an indirect personal object: 

8. II fait acheter ce livre k son ami, He makes his friand buy that 


9. II lui fait acheter ce livre, He makes him buy that book. 

Note 1. Laisser often has the same construction. Laissez-la (-lui) 
trouver Pargent, Let her find the money. 

Note 2. Observe the passive force of a dependent infinitive after 
faire. II fait faire ses habits. He has his clothes made. 

Conjuguez. 1. II faut m^y resigner, il faut t'y resigner, 
etc. 2. J^entends marcher les soldats, tu entends marcher 
les soldats, etc. 3. Je fais voir la maison a mon ami, tu 
fais voir la maison a ton ami, etc. 4. Je veux Taider, tu 
veux Taider, etc. 

205. The following are a few of the verbs which take de 
before a dependent infinitive: 

cesser, to cease; demander, to ask; dire, to say^ tell; essayer, 
to try; oublier, to forget; prier, to pray^ beg; regretter, to regret. 

1. Nous essayerons de ne pas le croire, We shall try not to believe it. 

2. II a oublie de nous ecrire. He has forgotten to write to us. 

(a) Observe also venir de, to have just. 

1. Je viens d* arriver, / have just arrived. 

2. Je venais de le faire, I had just done it. 

Note that only the present and past descriptive tenses of venir are 
used in this sense. 

(6) De is also used after etre used impersonally + an adjec- 

1. n est difficile de le croire, It is difficult to believe it.* 

* In certain expressions after adjectives de or a must be used according to 
Ihe construction. When the infinitive is the logical subject, de is used. 

II est difficile de faire cela, To do this is difficult. 

When the infinitive depends upon the adjective, a is used, as: Cela est 
difficile i faire, That is difficult to do. 

Lesson 113 223 

2. II essayait de le faire, He was trying to do it, 

3. Nous regrettons de vous dire, We regret to tell you, 

4. Je vous prie de m *excuser, / heg you to excuse me, 

Conjuguez. 1. J'essayerai de lui ^crire, tu essayeras de 
lui ecrire, etc. 2. Je lui dis de revenir, tu lui dis de revenir, 
etc. 3. J'ai oublie de leur repondre, tu as oublie de leur 
repondre, etc. 

Note. Finir par with a dependent infinitive means finally, at last. 
On finira par vous croire, People wi ll finally believe you. 

206. The following are a few of the verbs which take a 
before a dependent infinitive: 

aimer*, to love, like; apprendre, to learn; enseigner, to teach; 
inviter, to invite; reussir, to succeed, 

1. Nous aimons a nous promener en automobile, We like to go 

automobile riding . 

2. lis apprennent a parler frangais, They learn to spea k French. 

3. Elle reussit a le faire, She succeeds in doing it. 

Conjuguez. 1. Je Tinvite a venir, tu Tinvites a venir, etc. 
2. J^aime a patiner, tu aimes a patiner, etc. 3. J^apprends 
a prononcer le frangais, tu apprends, etc. 

207. The infinitive is used after all prepositions except en. 

1. Entrez sans frapp er, Enter without knocking . 

2. Je vous serais tres reconnaissant de me donner son adresse, 

/ should be very grateful to you for giving me his address. 

(a) Observe that apres is followed by the perfect infinitive. 

1. Apres avoir fini ce travail, after finishin g this work. 

2. Apres etre alle la-bas, after going down there. 

3. Apres avoir appris cela, after learning that. 

(6) En is followed by the gerund, not by the infinitive, 
and is often not to be translated. 

1. II travaille en chantant . He works (while) singing . 

2. On apprend le frangais en le parlant. We learn French (by) speak- 

ing it. 

* Aimer is often used without a preposition. 

224 The Elements of French 

208. The infinitive is really a verbal noun, and may often 
be used as the subject, etc., of a verb. 

Te quitter c^est mourir, To leave thee His to die . 

(a) The infinitive preceded by de is sometimes used for 
the past absolute (historical infinitive). 

Et le citadin de dire , And the citizen said . 

(b) The infinitive may also be used with imperative force, 
11 faut, or some similar expression, being understood. 

(II faut) toumer a gauche, Turn to the left. 


Rentre en France, le 4 mars, par un train de grands blesses 
echanges (ampute du bras gauche), je me vols plonge dans 
rinaction. C^est pourquoi je vous ecris pour vous demander 
de m^envoyer deux noms de soldats sans famille. Je tacherai 
de leur envoyer quelques douceurs de temps en temps et 
de les aider de cette fagon dans la tache glorieuse qu'ils 
accomplissent. Mes parents s'occupent de mes deux autres 
freres, je suis a meme d' aider d' autres freres de Tarmee, et je 
vous prie de me donner cette compensation, qui me fera 
paraitre moins dur mon retranchement force de la vie militaire. 

II. Traduisez. 1. We desire to return to France. 2. We 
do not wish to do nothing. 3. I pray you to send us the names 
of several wounded soldiers. 4. We desire especially to write 
to soldiers who have undergone an amputation (been ampu- 
tated). 5. We shall not forget to send them some things from 
time to time. 6. Perhaps in this way it will not be difficult 
to help them a little. 7. (By) busying ourselves with the mis- 
fortunes (malheurs) of (the) others, we shall finally forget our 
own difficulties. , *• 

* From Henriette de Vismes: Histoire des Marraines et des Filleuls de 
la Guerre. 





Lesson II4 225 


I. Exercice Oral. 1. Quel jour est-ce que ce soldat est 
rentr^ en France? 2. Par quel train est-il rentre? 3. En 
quel pays a-t-il ete prisonnier? 4. Pourquoi Ta-t-on ^change? 
5. Qu'est-ce qu'il pent faire maintenant? 6. Que veut-il 
faire? 7. Pourquoi ecrit-il une lettre? 8. Qu^est-ce qu^il veut 
faire pour les soldats frangais? 9. De qui est-ce que ses par- 
ents s'occupent? 10. Quelle compensation demande-t-il ? 11. 
Qu^est-ce qu'il voudrait faire paraitre moins dur? 

II. Traduisez. 1. We must take this train (Two ways). 
2. It is the train for those who wish to return imme- 
diately to France. 3. Several comrades are taking it, be- 
cause they have been exchanged recently. 4. I must take 
it (Two ways), because I must return at once. 5. We 
are very glad we are going back to France. 6. We are 
very glad to go back. 7. All those who have been brave 
are to (devoir) receive the war cross (croix de guerre), 
8. We must all do our duty. 9. We shall all try to send to 
the wounded soldiers as many comforts as possible. 10. Al- 
though we are wounded ourselves, we are able to help many 
comrades who are less fortunate than we. 11. That is why 
we ask you to send several names of French soldiers without 
(a) family. 12. To occupy themselves with (de) my three 
brothers is all that my parents can do. 13. Still, I should 
not wish to see myself plunged into inaction. 14. To write 
a few letters to wounded soldiers would make a life of inac- 
tion seem less hard. 15. That is why I should be happy to 
receive the addresses of French soldiers who have neither 
family nor friends. 

226 The Elements of French 


209. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., are called cardinal numerals. First, 
second, third, fourth, etc., are called ordinal numerals. 

Ordinal numerals in French are formed by adding -ieme to 
the corresponding cardinal numeral. 

Exceptions. Cinq adds -uieme to prevent q from coming 
directly before i in the same word. 

la cinquieme fois, the fifth time 

Neuf changes f to v, according to the regular rules for liaison 
(linking), (Compare li/e, litres; lea/, leaz;es, in English.) 

le neuvieme regiment, the ninth regiment 
First is translated premier (feminine premiere). 

1st premier (pramje) 11th onzieme (5zjem) 

premiere (pramjeir) 12th douzieme (duzjem) 

2nd second (sago) 13th treizieme (trezjem) 

also, 14th quatorzieme (katorzjem) 

deuxieme (d0zJGm) 15th quinzieme (kezjsm) 

3d troisieme (trwazjem) 16th seizieme (sezjem) 

4th quatrieme (katriem) 17th dix-septieme (dis set j em) 

5th cinquieme (sekjem) 18th dix-huitieme (diz qitjem) 

6th sixieme (sizjem) 19th dix-neuvieme (diz noevjem) 

7th septieme (set j em) 20th vingtieme (vet j em) 

8th huitieme (qitjem) 21st vingt et unieme (vet e ynjem) 

9th neuvieme (noevjem) 22nd vingt-deuxieme (vet d0zjem) 
10th dixieme (diz j em) 

210. Fractions (Fractions). For the numerators of fractions, 
use cardinal numerals ; for the denominators, use ordinal numer- 
als, as in English. 

1. f = cinq {cardinal) huitiemes (ordinal). 

2. ^^0 = neuf (cardinal) dixiemes (ordinal). 
Exceptions. J =Un quart (6e ka:r) (Cf. English quart), 

J =Un tiers (6e tjeir). 

Lesson 115 227 

5 =Un demi (dami), when halj is used as an adjective. 
i =La moitie (mwatje), when half is used as a noun. 

Una heure et demie, An hour and a half. 
La moitie du mois, Half (of the) month, 

Exercice. 1. Give the ordinal numerals from first to tenth. 
2. From 11th to 20th. 3. From 21st to 30th. 4. From 31st 
to 40th. 5. Say in French |; f ; f. 6. Say in French f ; ^. 
7. Read the following numerals: 228.6; 3458.67. 8. 442.498; 

211. How to Change French Systems of Coinage, Weights, 
and Measures to American. 

The following tables may be found useful: 

Un franc (fra) =20 sous (American cents), or 100 centimes. 

Cinq francs = one dollar (approximately) . 

Un kilogramme {or kilo) = 2^ pounds (nearly exact) . 

Une livre =liV pounds (nearly exact). 

Un litre (litr) = About one liquid quart. 

Un metre (mstr) =3i feet (39.37 inches) (11 metres = 12 yards). 

Un centimetre (satimetr) =0.4 inches (nearly exact). 

Un kilometre (kibmstr) = 1000 meters, or f miles (approximately) . 

To change from the Centigrade to the Fahrenheit ther- 
mometer: Multiply by |^, and add 32. 

To change from the Fahrenheit to the Centigrade ther- 
mometer: Subtract 32, then multiply by ^. 

Exercice. Give in French (francs and centimes) the equiv- 
alents of: (1) 5 cts.; 10 cts.; 15 cts. (2) 25 cts.; 35 cts. 
(3) 50 cts.; 75 cts.; $1.00. (Express in francs, and also in 
sous.) (4) $1.75; $2.25. (5) $5.00; $10.00. (6) $20.00. (7) 
$50.00; $75.00. (8) $100. (9) $265.00. 

Change the following from Centigrade to Fahrenheit: (1) 
20°. (2) 30°. (3) 50°. (4) 22°. (5) 33°. (6) 41°. 

Give in centimeters the equivalent of: (1) 5 inches. (2) 
11 inches. (3) 16 inches. 

228 The Elements of French 




banque (ba:k), f., hank pouce (pus), m., inch; thumb 

citoyen (sitwaje), m., citizen unite (ynite), f., unit; unity 

emettre, to issue (like mettre) valeur (valoeir), f., value 

en (a), prep., of; made of; also in avoir cours (kuir), to he current 

frapper (frape), to strike; coin mille anglais (mil agle), m., Eng- 

imp6t (epo), m., tax; impost lish mile 

paix (ps), f., peace 


Le franc est Tunit^ monetaire de la France. La centieme 
partie d^un franc est un centime. Le centime est en bronze, 
et on ne Temploie que pour payer les impots, et csetera. II y 
a aussi des pieces de deux centimes, qui sont aussi en bronze, 
et qui n'ont pas cours. On frappe beau coup plus de pieces de 
cinq centimes et de dix centimes. On donne souvent aux 
pieces de cinq centimes le nom de sous ou de petits sous. Les 
pieces de dix centimes s'appellent vulgairement gros sous. Le 
sou est la vingtieme partie d'un franc. C'est Tequivalent du 
"cent^^ americain. 

Le petit sou est d^un diametre de .025 metres. Le gros sou 
est d^un diametre de .030 metres. 

II y a aussi une piece de vingt-cinq centimes, qui est en 
nickel. Cette piece est Tequivalent de notre ^^nickel.^' La 
piece de cinquante centimes (dix sous) est en argent. C'est 
Tequivalent monetaire de la "dime'' americaine, qui est aussi 
en argent. Le franc a une valeur de vingt sous. II y a aussi 
la piece de deux francs, qui a une valeur de quarante sous, ou 
de deux cents centimes, et la piece de cinq francs (ou de cent 
sous) qui est T^quivalent du ''dollar'' americain. En temps 
de paix, la piece de cinq francs est en argent. Mais pendant 
la guerre, on a emis des billets de cinq francs. 

II. Exercice Oral. 1. Quelle est I'unite monetaire de la 
France? 2. Quelle partie d'un franc est un centime? 3. En 

Lesson 117 229 

quoi sont les centimes? 4. Les emploie-t-on souvent? 5. 
Comment les emploie-t-on? 6. Donnez les noms de quelques 
monnaies frangaises qui sont assez rares?* 7. Quelles monnaies 
emploie-t-on le plus souvent? 8. Quel est Tequivalent ameri- 
cain d^une piece de vingt-cinq centimes? 9. D^une piece de 
cinquante centimes? 10. D'un franc? 11. Comment appelle- 
t-on les pieces de cinq centimes? 12. Comment appelle-t-on 
les pieces de dix centimes? 13. En quoi sont les pieces de 
cinq francs? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Five francs are the equivalent of a 
United States dollar (dollar of the United States). 2. A 
franc has 100 centimes, or 20 sous. 3. How many sous are 
there in (has) a five franc piece? 4. There are 100 (of them). 

5. The one and two centime pieces are rather rare in France. 

6. However, the five centime pieces are not at all rare. 7. 
In war time, they used to have a great deal of paper money. 
8. In peace time, they coin five franc pieces of silver. 9. 
The centimeter is the hundredth part of a meter. 10. There 
are 39.37 inches in a meter. 11. There are 1000 meters or 
|- miles in a kilometer. 12. 2.5 centimeters are the equiva- 
lent of the English inch. 




entier (atje), adj., entire Fem., moyenne (mwajen) 

environ (avir5), adv., about; ap- musee (myze), m., museum 

proximately palais (pale), m., palace 

s'etendre (s etaidr), to extend relief (ralje), to unite; bind 

eventail (evataij), m., fan rive (ri:v), f., bank 

large (lar3), adj., wide (not large) vers (veir), prep., toward 

moyen (mwaje), adj., medium; av- en eventail, fan-shaped 

erage. avoir lieu (avwair lj0), to take place 

* Bronze sous almost disappeared during the war. In place of them, nickel 
5, 10, and 25 centime pieces, with a hole in the middle, were issued in many 

230 The Elements of French 

212. Nouns in apposition may be divided into two classes: 
(a) Restrictive^ or those which define, distinguish, or compare. 

(6) Non-restrictive, or those which merely add an incidental 

Appositive nouns which are restrictive take the article in 
French as in English. 

1. Louis 2© Bien-Aime, et non pas Louis le Grand, Louis the Well- 

beloved and not Louis the_ Great (distinguishes the two Louis) . 

2. New- York, Ja plus grande ville des* Etats-Unis, New York, 

the largest city in* the United States (compares New York 
with other cities). 

Appositive nouns which are non-restrictive have no article 
in French: 

Paris, capitale de la France, Paris, capital of France. (No com- 
parison with other cities.) 

Conjuguez. 1. Je connais bien Paris, la Ville-Lumiere, tu 
connais bien Paris, la Ville-Lumiere, etc. 2. Je ne connais 
pas M. Legrand, auteur de ce livre, tu ne connais pas M. Le- 
grand, auteur de ce livre, etc. 

213. Ordinarily than is translated by que. 
II est plus grand que moi. He is taller than L 

Before numerals than is translated by de. 

Plus de trente ponts relient la rive gauche a la rive droite, More 

than thirty bridges join the left bank to the right bank. 

Note. If a verb is understood, use que before numerals. 

II fait plus de travail que deux hommes. He does more work than 
two men. 

Traduisez. 1. More than 76. 2. Less than 99. 3. More 
than three and a quarter hours. 4. Less than seven and a 
half hours. 5. You study more than I. 6. You earn (gain) 
less than some of your friends. 

* Note that in is translated by de after a superlative. 

Lesson 117 


214. Dimensions {Dimensions). Observe the following ex- 
pressions : 

De quelle longueur est cette table? How long is this table? 

Cette table a trois metres de long(ueur), This table is three meters long. 

Cette table est longue de trois metres, This table is three meters long. 

(a) By, meaning relative dimensions, is translated by sur. 

Cette place a 200 metres de long(ueur) st^ 150 metres de large (ur), 
This square is 200 meters long by_ 150 meters wide, 

Traduisez. 1. It is three centimeters wide. 2. It is five 
meters long. 3. This box is two meters long by one and a 
half meters wide. 


I. Description Generale. Paris, capitale de la France, et la 
plus belle ville du monde entier, a environ 2,700,000 d'habitants. 
La Seine, qui le traverse, a une largeur moyenne d'environ 150 
metres. Plus de 30 ponts relient la rive gauche a la rive droite. 

L'Arc de Triomphe de rEtoile 


Elements of French 

Lesson 117 233 

Sur la rive droite de la Seine est situ6 le centre du commerce 
et de rindustrie de la capitale. Sur la rive gauche s^etendent 
les ^tablissements scientifiques et les hotels de la vieille aristo- 

La Rive Droite. C'est a Touest de la place de la Concorde, 
et surtout vers la place de FEtoile, qu'habite la population 
riche et oisive de Paris. De la place de Tfitoile rayonnent en 
eventail beaucoup de larges avenues. Notons d'abord Tavenue 
du bois de Boulogne, qui a 125 metres de large sur 1300 metres 
de long; et puis Tavenue des Champs-filysees, qui a environ 
1900 metres de long. De PArc de Triomphe on a une perspec- 
tive magnifique de jardins et de pares, le bois de Boulogne a 
I'ouest, les Champs-filysees et le jardin des Tuileries a Test. 
Au-dela du jardin des Tuileries se trouve le musee du Louvre. 

II. Exercice OraL 1. De quelle largeur est la Seine? 2. De 
quelle largueur est T avenue du bois de Boulogne? 3. De quelle 
longueur est-elle? 4. Quelle perspective a-t-on de TArc de 
Triomphe? 5. Ou se trouve le Louvre? 6. Ou se trouve le 
jardin des Tuileries? 7. Ou se trouve le bois de Boulogne? 
8. Ou se trouvent la plupart des etablissements scientifiques 
de Paris? 9. Ou se trouve le quartier de la population riche? 

III. Traduisez. 1. Paris, the capital of France, is its {en est) 
center of commerce and industry. 2. It has a population of 
more than 2,700,000 inhabitants, of whom there are always 
many foreigners — especially Americans. 3. It is situated 
on the Seine, a river which traverses it from east to west. 
4. The Seine is a rather deep river which empties into the 
English Channel. 5. There are more than 30 bridges which 
cross it. 6. On the right bank are situated most of the 
establishments of commerce and industry. 7. On the left 
bank are found the centers of the old aristocracy, and of the 
scientific life of the capital. 8. One of the most celebrated 
promenades in \de) Paris is the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, 
which extends from the Arch of Triumph to the Bois de Bou- 
logne. 9. It is 125 meters wide by more than a kilometer 

234 The Elements of French 

long. 10. It is one of the streets which radiate like a fan from 
the Place de I'fitoile. 11. Another of the principal promenades 
in Paris is the Avenue des Champs-Elysees, which extends 
from the Arch of Triumph through the gardens of the Champs- 
filysees. 12. It is a very wide avenue, also, which is nearly 
two kilometers long. 13. After the gardens of the Champs- 
Elysees comes the famous Place de la Concorde, beyond which 
is found the garden of the Tuileries. 



I. 1. Name five verbs which may be followed by the infini- 
tive without a preposition. 2. Name five verbs which may be 
followed by de before a dependent infinitive. 3. Name four 
verbs which may be followed by a before a dependent infinitive. 

II. What form of the verb is used after apres? 2. After en? 

III. Give the ordinal numerals: (1) from first to 15th; 
(2) from 16th to 30th; (3) from 60th to 80th. 

IV. Traduisez. (1) f ; (2) f; (3) §; (4) f ; (5) .07; (6) 2.107. 

V. Give in inches the equivalents of (1) 3|^ centimeters; 
(2) 5 centimeters. Give in miles the equivalents of (1) 79 kilo- 
meters; (2) 98 kilometers. Give in pounds the equivalents of 
(4) 85 kilos; (2) 98 kilos. Give in dollars and cents the equiv- 
alents of (1) 12 fr. 50; (2) 75 francs. 

VI. How is than translated (a) ordinarily? (6) before 
numerals, when a verb is not understood? 

VII. Traduisez. 1. New York, the largest city in {de) 
the United States. 2. Marseilles, a city on the Mediter- 
ranean. 3. Rome, the capital of Italy. 4. This box is five 
centimeters long by three centimeters wide. 5. That bed 
is three meters long by two meters wide. 6. How deep is the 

Lesson 118 235 

VIII. Exercice Oral. 1. Quels soldats ^change-t-on? 2. 
Quelle compensation peut-on donner aux soldats blesses? 
3. Quelle eroix leur donne-t-on? 4. Quel est Fequivalent d'un 
mille anglais? 5. Quel est Fequivalent d'une livre? 6. De 
quelle valeur sont les gros sous? 7. De quelle valeur sont les 
pieces de cinquante centimes? 8. Les pieces de cinq francs? 9. 
En quoi sont les pieces de vingt-cinq centimes? 10. Emploie- 
t-on beaucoup d^or en France? 11. Oii se trouve le centre du 
commerce de Paris? 12. Ou habite la population riche? 
13. Ou se trouvent les etablissements scientifiques? 14. Ou 
se trouve Tavenue du Bois de Boulogne? 15. Ou se trouve 
Favenue des Champs-filysees? 

IX. Traduisez. 1. They must start at once (Two ways). 
2. You must go to Bordeaux (Two ways). 3. Henry must 
stay at home, and I must take this train. 4. His left arm 
has been amputated. 5. We shall be very glad to be at 
home. 6. We shall try to help our wounded comrades as 
much as possible. 7. We are beginning (commengons) to send 
them letters and money. 8. Paris, the capital of France, has 
a very large population. 9. The Seine, a deep river, traverses 
it from east to west. 10. There are more than 30 bridges 
in Paris. 11. The Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, a celebrated 
promenade, is 125 meters wide by more than a kilometer long. 
12. The Champs-Elysees, a very wide avenue, is more than a 
mile long. 


The Elements of French 



bibliotheque (bibliotek), f., library 

cite (site), f., city; town* 

college (kole:3), m., college; grmn- 

mar school 
aigu (egy), acute 
artere (arteir), f., artery 
Hotel-Dieu (otel dj0), m., principal 

hospital of a town 

jusqu'^ (sysk a), up to; until 
ligne (liji), f-, line 
mode (mod), f., style 
succeder (a) (syksede), to follow 
suite (sqit), f., continuation 
tombeau (tobo), m., tomb 
tour (tuir), f., tower 

215. The Passive Voice (le Passif) in French is formed as 
in EngUsh, i.e., by using the auxihary etre + the past par- 
ticiple, the participle agreeing with the subject like a predi- 
cate adjective. 

The Present and Perfect of etre aime, to he loved. 

Present (Present) Perfect (Passe Indefini) 
je suis aime(e) (erne) j*ai ete aime(e) 

tu es aime(e) tu as ete aime(e) 

il est aime il a ete aime 

elle est aimee elle a ete aimee 

nous sommes aime(e)s 
vous etes aime(e)(s) 
ils sont aimes 
elles sont aimees 

nous avons ete aime(e)s 
vous avez ete aime(e)(s) 
ils ont ete aimes 
elles ont ete aimees 

216. Emploi. The passive voice is used less frequently than 
in English. It is often used, however, where the agent is 

(a) When the passive verb expresses a specific action, use 
par to translate by. 

Cet edifice fut construit gar Le N6tre, That building was constructed 
by Le Notre. 

* La Cite, in London and in Paris, refers to the most ancient part of the ville. 

Lesson 119 237 

(h) If the passive verb expresses habitual action, use de to 
translate hy, 

II est admire de tout le monde, He is admired bg everybody. 

Exercice. Remplacez les tirets par de ou par: 1. Elle a 

^te envoyee Madame Thenardier. 2. Ce mot etait 

ajoute le professeur. 3. Elle etait aimee ses nom- 

breux amis. 4. Ce pauvre gargon etait neglige tout le 

monde. 5. Le soldat a ete blesse un eclat d^obus. 

217. Two important substitutes for the passive are: 

(1) On + a transitive verb: 

Ici on parle franpais, French is spoken here (literally, One speaks 
French here). 
Note. The verb used with on is always third person singular, even 
though on may be translated by we, they, people, etc. 

1. On le dit. People say so. 

2. Par o^ commence- t-on? Where do we begin? 

3. On raconte des histoires, They are telling stories. 

(2) A reflexive verb : 

Cela se fait mais ne se dit pas, That is done but is not talked about. 

I. PARIS — Suite 

Prenons njiaintenant conime point de depart la ligne des 
grands boulevards. Cette grande artere conduit de la Made- 
leine a la place de la Bastille. Cependant le nom '^Grands 
Boulevards'' s'emploie particulierement pour designer la partie 
comprise entre la Madeleine et la rue de Richelieu. Le boule- 
vard de la Madeleine a 220 metres de long sur 30 metres de 
large. Le boulevard des Capucines, qui traverse la place de 
rOp6ra, succede au boulevard de la Madeleine. 

De la rayonnent cinq larges avenues, dont nous ne mention- 
nons que deux: 

(1) L'avenue de POpera, qui, faisant un angle aigu avec 
les grands boulevards, aboutit a la place du Theatre Frangais; 

(2) La rue de la Paix, qui aboutit a la place Vendome. 

238 The Elements of French 

C'est dans ce quartier que se font les modes et les creations 

Le boulevard des Italiens, qui fait suite au boulevard des 
Capucines, s^etend jusqu'^ la rue de Richelieu. C'est la rue 
de Richelieu qui passe devant la celebre Bibhotheque Nationale. 

Dans rile de la Cite se trouvent Teglise metropolitaine de 
Notre Dame, THotel de Ville, la prefecture de pohce, I'Hotel- 
Dieu, et le Palais de Justice, a cote duquel se trouve la Sainte- 

Sur la rive gauche sont situes deux boulevards importants: 

(1) Le boulevard St. Germain, qui s'etend du pont de Sully 
au pont de la Concorde, passant devant la Chambre des De- 

(2) Le boulevard St. Michel, qui traverse le Quartier Latin. 
Dans ce quartier se trouvent la Sorbonne, Tficole de Mede- 
cine, le College de France, la Bibhotheque Sainte-Genevieve 
(sGit 39nvJGiv) et le Musee de Cluny. 

Deux monuments tres celebres sont situes sur la rive gauche : 

(1) Le tombeau de Napoleon I^"", qui se trouve aux Invalides. 
II a ete construit de 1843 a 1853 par Visconti. Ce monument 
est admire de tout le monde. 

(2) La tour Eiffel, qui se trouve pres de I'ficole Mihtaire. 
Elle a ete construite par Tingenieur Eiffel. 

11. Traduisez. 1. Here are a few (quelques-uns) of the 
important monuments situated on the right bank. 2. Let us 
mention first the Arch of Triumph, which was constructed by 
Napoleon I in 1806. 3. The Church of the Madeleine was 
begun in 1806, also by Napoleon I. 4. Let us not forget the 
Opera House, which is the largest theater in (of) the entire 
world, and was planned (dessiner) by Charles Gamier. 5. 
The celebrated Theatre Frangais is the former theater of Mo- 
liere, the author of Tartufe and of many other interesting 
plays. 6. On the lie de la Cite is found the metropolitan 
church of Notre Dame, the fagade of which is admired by 
everybody. 7. Paris is a very difficult city to comprehend. 

Lesson 120 


8. At the Place de la Concorde many innocent men were killed. 

9. At the Jardin des Plantes there are many animals. 10. 
At the Comedie Frangaise they play many tragedies. 11. 
The Pont-Neuf is the oldest bridge in {de) Paris. 

La Place de TOpera 

LE PASSIF — Suite 

I. Exercice Oral. 1. Ou commence la ligne des grands 
boulevards? 2. Ou aboutit-elle? 3. De quelle longueur est 
le boulevard de la Madeleine? 4. De quelle largeur est-il? 

5. Quel boulevard fait suite au boulevard de la Madeleine? 

6. Quelle place le boulevard des Capucines traverse-t-il? 

7. Donnez les noms de deux rues qui commencent a la 
Place de TOpera. 8. Ou aboutit Tavenue de TOpera? 9. Ou 
aboutit la rue de la Paix? 10. Quel boulevard succede au 
boulevard des Capucines? 11. Jusqu'ou s^etend ce boulevard? 

240 The Elements of French 

12. Quelle bibliotheque est situee dans la rue de Richelieu? 

13. Quels monuments se trouvent dans Tile de la Cite? 14. 
Donnez les noms de deux boulevards qui sont situes sur la rive 
gauche. 15. Pres de quelle ecole se trouve la tour Eiffel? 
16. Quel boulevard passe devant la Chambre des Deputes? 

II. Traduisez. 1. The Boulevard St. Germain, which be- 
gins at the Pont de Sully, crosses the Seine near the lie de 
la Cite. 2. It extends to the Pont de la Concorde, which 
is in front of the Chamber of Deputies. 3. Beyond this 
bridge is situated the Place de la Concorde, where many 
celebrated men were killed during the French Revolution. 
4. The Boulevard St. Germain goes (passe) from east to west, 
while {tandis que) the Boulevard St. Michel goes from north 
to south. 5. It is the latter which crosses the Latin Quarter. 

6. The Sorbonne is one block (d la premiere rue) from there. 

7. These two boulevards are the principal (ones) situated on 
the left bank. 8. The highest monument situated on the left 
bank is the Eiffel Tower, which was constructed thirty years 
ago. 9. It is a magnificent tower (which is) 300 meters high. 
10. Another very interesting monument, situated on the left 
bank, is the Invalides. 11. Napoleon I, whose tomb we see 
at the Invalides, died {est mort) in 1821, on the island of St. 
Helena (Sainte-Helene). 



218. Past Absolute, or Definite (le Passe Defini). 
donner finir perdre 

donnai (done) finis (fini)* perdis (perdi)* 

donnas (dona) finis (fini) perdis (perdi) 

donna (dona) finit (fini) perdit (perdi) 

donnames (donam) finimes (finim) perdimes (perdim) 

donnates (donat) finites (finit) perdites (perdit) 

donnerent (doneir) finirent (finiir) perdirent (perdiir) 

* Observe that the endings of the past absolute are the same for the second 
and for the third conjugations. 

La Colonne Vendome, Place Vendome 

Lesson 121 





eus (y)* 

fus (fy) 

vins (ve) 

fis (fi) 

eus (y) 

fus (fy) 

vins (ve) 

fis (fi) 

eut (y) 

fut (fy) 

vint (vg) 


eftmes (ym) 

fumes (fym) 

vinmes (veim) 

fimes (fim) 

eutes (yt) 

futes (fyt) 

vintes (veit) 

fites (fit) 

eurent (yir) 

furent (fyir) 

vinrent (veir) 

firent (fi:r) 


219. Emploi. The past absolute is used to denote a single 
act in past time. For this reason it is frequently called the 
'^narrative past'^ tense. 

1. II entra dans la chambre, He entered the room, 

2. II partit pour Paris, He started for Paris. 

Note. The past absolute is used only in literary style. In conver- 
sational style never use the past absolute, but use the perfect instead. 
Thus, in speaking, one would say 11 est entre, for 11 entra; 11 est parti for 
11 partit. 

(a) Distinction between the Past Absolute and the Past 

The past absolute narrates a single act in past time. 

The past descriptive (imperfect) describes what has happened 
in the past, or denotes what was happening, or happened 

A ce moment les Anglais etaient 
encore devant Orleans, et toute la 
France avalt les yeux fixes sur la 
malheureuse ville, qui resistait avec 
courage, mais qui allait bientot 
manquer de vivres. Jeanne, a la 
tete de sa petite armee, penetra 
dans Orleans malgre les Anglais . . . 

Les courages se ranimerent. 
Alors Jeanne sortit de la ville pour 
attaquer les Anglais, f 

At that moment the English were 
still before Orleans^ and all France 
had its eyes fixed on the unfortunate 
city, which kept resisting courageous" 
ly, hut was soon going to lack pro^ 
visions. Joan, at the head of her 
little army, penetrated into (or, en- 
tered into) Orleans despite the Eng- 
lish. The courage (of the people) 
was aroused . Then Joan went forth 
from the city to attack the English. 

I. Conjuguez. 1. Je partis il y a neuf jours, tu partis 
il y a neuf jours, etc. 2. Je lui dis la meme chose, tu lui 

* In the verb avoir, eu is pronounced (y). 

t From Bruno's le Tour de la France par deux enfants. 

242 The Elements of French 

dis la meme chose, etc. 3. Je lui racontai tout ce quails 
avaient fait, tu lui racontas tout ce quails avaient fait, etc. 4. 
J^arrivai a la place de I'hotel de ville, tu arrivas a la place de 
rhotel de ville, etc. 

II. Exercice. Change the verbs in the perfect in the follow- 
ing exercise to the past absolute: 

1. Quand les Allemands sont arrives, nous nous sommes caches 
dans les caves. 2. II a fallu les loger pendant huit jours. 3. lis 
ont fait s^uter les ponts. 4. Un eclat a perce le toit de notre 
grenier et a rebondi presque sur la tete de notre voisine. 5. 
Ma soeur est accourue, puis a ramasse Feclat dans son tablier. 
6. II lui a fait un trou, car il etait rouge. 7. Quand papa est 
revenu, on lui a dit de racommoder le toit. 8. Nous lui avons 
raconte tout ce que les Allemands avaient fait chez nous. 

220. The principal parts of a verb are (1) the infinitive; 

(2) the present participle; (3) the past participle; (4) the present 
.indicative (first person singular); (5) the past absolute (first 


1. donner, donnant, donne, je donne, je donnai. 

2. finir, finissant, fini, je finis, je finis. 

3. perdre, perdant, perdu, je perds, je perdis. 

4. avoir, ayant, eu (y), j'ai, j*eus (y). 

5. etre, etant, ete, je suis, je fus. 

6. venir, venant, venu, je viens, je vins. 

7. faire, faisant (foza), fait, je fais, je fis. 

Exercice. Give principal parts of: (1) racoAter; (2) vendre; 

(3) choisir; (4) saisir; (5) descendre; (6) aimer. 

III. Traduisez. 1. Joan of Arc marched to Orleans. 2. 
Behind her was a very small French army. 3. The English 
attacked her, but she succeeded in penetrating (in) the city. 
4. Thus she saved the inhabitants, who were going to lack 
provisions. 5. When she entered the city, courage {courages) 
was revived. 6. All France fixed its eyes upon this young 
girl. 7. She now went forth from the city to attack her ene- 
mies. 8. They left Orleans, and she went to Rheims {Reims). 

Lesson 122 243 




arracher (ara/e), to tear rencontre (rakoitr), f., meeting 

battre (batr), irreg., to heat sacrer (sakre), to crown 

convert (kuveir), covered (from siege (sje:3), m., siege, seat 

couvrir) courir, courant, couru, je cours, je 

des (de), from; as early as courus, to run 
Se diriger (s8diri3e), to direct one's croire, croyant, cms, je crois, je 

self cms, to believe 

ennemi (enmi), m., enemy prendre, prenant, pris, je prends, 

fleche (flej), f., arrow je pris, to take 

fuite (fqit), f., flight suivre, suivant, suivi, je suis, je 

plaie (pie), f., sore; wound suivis, to follow 
rang (ra), m., rank; line 


Des la premiere rencontre, elle fut blessee et tomba de 
cheval. Deja le peuple, la croyant morte, prenait la fuite; 
mais elle, arrachant courageusement la fleche restee dans la 
plaie et remontant a cheval, courut vers les retranchements 
des Anglais. Elle marchait au premier rang et enflammait 
ses soldats par son intrepidite; toute Tarmee la suivit, et les 
Ajiglais furent chasses. Peu de jours apres, ils etaient forces 
de lever le siege. 

Apres Orleans, Jeanne se dirigea vers Reims, ou elle vou- 
lait faire sacrer le roi. D'Orleans a Reims la route etait longue, 
couverte d^ennemis. Jeanne les battit a chaque rencontre, et 
son armee entra victorieuse a Reims, ou le roi fut sacre dans 
la grande cathedrale. 

II. Narrate this episode in French, using the perfect instead 
of the past absolute. 

III. Traduisez. 1. The English used to be enemies of 
the French. 2. In the (au) fifteenth century (siecle)^ the 
English held a great part of France. 3. They were before 

* From Bruno's le Tour de la France par deux enfants. 

244 The Elements of French 

the important city of Orleans. 4. It was Joan of Arc who 
saved Orleans from the English. 5. She entered the city 
on horseback, at the head of a small army. 6. All the 
French began to struggle now against their enemies. 7. 
Unfortunately, when Joan of Arc went forth from the city 
to meet the English, she fell from her horse. 8. The French 
were afraid, end left her, believing her dead. 9. When they 
found that Joan was not dead, but that she remounted her 
horse, they followed her courageously. 10. With the aid of 
Joan of Arc, the French forced the English to raise the siege of 
Orleans. 11. Then Joan of Arc entered Rheims, after beating 
her enemies at every encounter. 12. It was there that (the) 
king Charles VII {sejpt) was crowned. 



adresser (adrese), to address sentiment (satimd), m., sentiment 

coUegue (koleg), m., colleague transmettre (trasmetr), to trans- 

demarche (demarj), f., step mil (like mettre) 
editeur (editceir), m., publisher 

221. (a) The Envelope (V Enveloppe) . Observe the following 
style of address: 

Messieurs Laplace, Sanchez et C^^,* 

3, Rue Seguier, 

Paris, VI^t France. 

Monsieur le Professeur Jules Lecomte, 
31, Rue Joubert, 


* Abbreviation for Compagnie. 

t The number of the arrondissement (ward) is often added. 

i Name of the department. 

Lesson 123 245 

Observe the following directions which are often used on 
envelopes : 

Aux (bons) soins de . . . , care of. 
(Priere de) faire suivre, . . . ^ please forward, 
E. v., ( =En Ville), . . . , city, 
Poste restante, . . . , general delivery. 
Urgent (or Presse), . . . urgent. 
Personnel, . . . , private. 

(h) Date. 

Toulouse, (le or ce) T^ octobre, 1919. 

Paris, (le or ce) 3 mars, 1916. 

(c) Formal Salutation (Formules Officielles). Monsieur, 
Messieurs, Madame, Mademoiselle, etc., are regularly used. 

Less formal salutations are Cher Monsieur; Mon cher 
Monsieur; Cher ami, etc. 

(For other forms, see Appendix.) 


Mon cher collegue, 

Sur la demande qui m'a ete transmise par mon ami, le 
professeur David, je vous adresse deux cartes pour la Chambre 
des deputes. Je les dois a mon ami, le depute Charles Lemaitre. 
Vous comprenez qu'il m'est particulierement agreable, en 
ce moment solennel de Thistoire des democraties (demokrasi), 
d^avoir fait cette toute petite demarche pour un Americain. 

Veuillez* croire, mon cher collegue, k mes sentiments bien 

Samuel Belmont, 

Professeur de Droit Constitutionnel. 

II. Write an original formal letter of 150 to 200 words. 

* Veuillez, (voeje), as well as voulez, may be used as the imperative, second 
plural, of vouloir. 


The Elements of French 

Une Visite du Facteur 



I. Passive (all tenses) of: 

(1) recevoir (p. part, regu)] 

(2) prendre. 

II. Translate in as many ways as possible: 1. That is not 
done here. 2. This house was constructed by my father. 
3. She never was understood. 4. That teacher was loved by 
his students. 5. The general was killed by a bursting shell. 
6. They were admired everywhere (partout). 

III. Principal parts of: (1) gagner; (2) partir; (3) sortir; 
(4) suivre; (5) prendre; (6) courir. 

IV. Conjugate, past absolute: (1) suivre; (2) prendre; 
(3) courir; (4) venir; (5) faire; (6) etre; (7) avoir. 

V. Write an original letter of about fifty words. 

Lesson 125 


VI. Traduisez. 1. That is a difficult lesson to understand. 
2. The Seine is crossed by the Boulevard St. Germain. 3. 
At the Place de la Concorde is a bridge, beyond which is 
situated the Chamber of Deputies. 4. The king and queen 
of France were killed during the French Revolution. 5. 
Here is the Latin Quarter, from which {d^ou) the Sorbonne 
is one block (distant). 6. The tomb of Napoleon is one of the 
most interesting monuments in Paris. 7. It is very much 
admired by Americans. 8. It was Joan of Arc who caused {jit) 
(the) King Charles VII to be crowned. 9. When the English 
seized her, the French were afraid to help her. 




afin que (afe ka), conj., in order that 
bruit (brqi), m., noise', rumor 
causer (koze), to cause; talk 
creance (kreais), f., credence 
desordre (dezordr), m., disorder 
destiner (destine), to destine 
Domremy (doromi), m., (village in 
region of the Vosges Mountains) 
esprit (espri), m., spirit; intelli- 
evaporer (evapore), to evaporate 
illusion (ilyzjS), f., illusion; vision 
imagination (ima3inasj5), f., imagi- 
incredulite (ekredylite), f., incre- 
jeunesse (3oen8s), f., youth 
marier (marje), to marry "^ 
meler (mele), to mix; mh 

se meler a (sa mele a), to meddle 

melancolie (melakoli), f., melan- 

merveille (merveij), f., marvel 

noyer (nwaje), to drown 

paysan (peiza), m., peasant 

pousser (puse), to push; extend 

propre (propr), own; clean 

attribuer (atribye), to attribute 

pretendre (pretaidr), to pretend; 

rudesse (rydes), f., rudeness 

sante (sate), f., health 

tentateur (tatatoe:r), m., tempter; 
also as adj., tempting 

village (vila:3), m., village 

vision (vizj5), f., vision 

voix (vwa), f., voice 

*marier, to give in marriage, as Le pere marie sa fiUe, The father marries 
(off) his daughter, 

se marier, to get married to, as II se marie avec elle, He marries her. 


The Elements of French 

222. Past Subjunctive of donner, finir, perdre, avoir, etre, 
venir, faire. 

fini sse (finis) 
fini sses (finis) 
fini t (fini) 
fini ssions (finis j 5) 
fini ssiez (finis je) 
fini ssent (finis) 


fu sse (fys) 
fu sses (fys) 
f u t (fy) 
fu ssions (fys jo) 
fu ssiez (fysje) 
fu ssent (fys) 


donna sse (donas) 
donna sses (donas) 
donna t (dona) 
donna ssions (donas j 5) 
donna ssiez (donasje) 
donna ssent (donas) 


eu sse (ys) 
eu sses (ys) 
eii t (y) 

eu ssions (ysjo) 
eu ssiez (ysje) 
eu ssent (ys) 

perdi sse (perdis) 
perdi sses (psrdis) 
perdi t (perdi) 
perdi ssions (perdis jo) 
perdi ssiez (perdisje) 
perdi ssent (perdis) 

vin sse (veis) 
vin sses (ve:s) 
vin t (ve) 
vin ssions (vesjo) 
vin ssiez (vesje) 
vin ssent (vcis) 

fi sse (fis) 
fi sses (fis) 
f i t (fi) 

fi ssions (fisjo) 
fi ssiez (fisje) 
fi ssent (fis) 

Note. To form the past subjunctive, take the second singular of the 
past absolute, and add — se. 

alias + se (aller); fis + se (faire); vins + se (venir). 

223. Sequence. The past subjunctive is almost never used 
in conversation, or in colloquial style. In formal literary 
style, the following rules for sequence apply: 

(a) After the present or future tenses in the governing clauses, 
use the present subjunctive. 

(6) After other tenses, use the past subjunctive. 

Present. Je desire que vous me racontiez cela, I desire that you tell 
me that. 

Future. Je desirerai que vous me racontiez cela, I shall desire that 
you teU me that. 

Past Descriptive. Je desirais que vous me racontassiez cela, / 
desired that you should tell me that. 

Past Absolute. Je desirai que vous me racontassiez cela, / de- 
sired that you should tell me that. 

Lesson 125 249 

Past Future, or Conditional. Je desirerais que vous me racontas- 
siez cela, / should desire that you should tell me that. 

Perfect. J'ai desire que vous me racontassiez * cela, / desired that 
you should tell me that. 

I. Conjuguez. 1. II n'etait pas content que je vinsse, 
. . . que tu vinsses, etc. 2. Mon oncle voulait que je sor- 
tisse du college, ... que tu sortisses du college, etc. 3. 
Mon pere regretterait que je me melasse aux hommes de 
guerre, . . . que tu te melasses aux hommes de guerre, etc. 4. 
II demandait que je lui donnasse de F argent, . . . que tu lui 
donnasses de Targent. 5. II desirait que je jouasse avec lui, 
... que tu jouasses avec lui, etc. 


Son pere entendit avec peine ces bruits de visions et de 
merveilles sous son toit de paysan. II attribuait ces melan- 
colies et ces illusions de sa fiUe a des desordres de sante. II 
desirait la marier, afin que les distractions de la mere de famille 
fissent evaporer ces imaginations. 

II poussa quelquefois Tincredulite jusqu^a la rudesse. II 
dit a Jeanne que, '^s'il apprenait qu'elle donnat creance k ses 
pretendus entretiens avec les esprits tentateurs et qu^elle se 
melat aux hommes de guerre, il la voudrait voir noyee par ses 
freres, ou qu'il la noierait lui-meme de ses propres mains.^' 

III. Exercice Oral. 1. Qui etait Jeanne d^Arc? 2. Quel 
village habitait-elle? 3. Qu^est-ce qu'elle entendait? 4. Avait- 
elle des melancolies? 5. Est-ce que son pere entendait 
les memes voix qu'elle? 6. Est-ce que les autres paysans 
savaient ce qu^elle entendait? 7. Son pSre etait-il content 
que les voisins le sussent? 8. Voulait-il qu^elle parttt a la 
guerre? 9. Jeanne d^Arc etait-elle mariee? 10. Son pere 

* When the auxiliary is in the present tense, the verb of the dependent 
clause is frequently put in the present tense. 

J'ai desire que vous me racontiez cela, I {have) desired that you should teU 
me that. 

fFrom Lamartine, Jeanne d'Arc, 

250 The Elements of French 

voulait-il qu'elle se mariat? 11. Son pere cherchait-il a la 
punir? 12. Comment allait-il la punir? 13. Croyez-vous 
qu'il allait la punir lui-meme? 14. Aurait-il commande que 
ses freres la noyassent? 15. Pensait-il que sa fille se portat 

IV. Traduisez. 1. The father of Joan of Arc was rather 
an old man. 2. The family inhabited Domremy, a village 
which is situated in the east of France. 3. Joan used to 
hear voices and to have visions. 4. She was sure that she 
was destined to be the liberatress of France. 5. Her father was 
a man who had no visions. 6. He did not like his daughter to 
hear voices. 7. He was not pleased that she should always 
be melancholy, and should have visions. 8. Especially, he 
did not desire the neighbors to talk about it. 9. He did not 
think that his daughter was feeling well. 10. On the contrary, 
he attributed her visions to disordered health (disorders of 
health) . 



Study the Appendix, §§ 322-326. 


appartenir (apartaniir), irreg., to repartir (rapartiir), irreg., to start 

belong again 

d*avance (d avais), in advance reporter (raporte), to take back 

bah (ba), excl., pshaw! secret (sakre), m., secret 

cardinal (kardinal), m., cardinal sourire (suriir), m., smile 

chauffeur (Jofoeir), m., chauffeur valoir (valwair), irreg., to be worth 

confier (kofje), to confide; intrust visage (vizais), m..,face 

deviner (dovine), to guess vrai (vre), adj., true 

diligence (dili3a:s), f., diligence a Pendroit de, in regard to 

s'ecrier (s ekrie), to cry out; exclaim faire diligence, to make speed 

eminence (eminais), f., eminence qui que ce soit, anybody; whoever 

milady (miledi), f., my lady soyez tranquille, rest assured 

possible (posibl), adj., possible valoir la peine, to be worth while 

probable (probabl), adj., probable vouloir dire, to mean 

Lesson 126 251 

224. The subjunctive is used in clauses introduced by ex- 
pressions meaning whoever , whatever ^ etc., used with conces- 
sive force. (See Appendix, §312, (6), note.) 

1. Je ne ferai pas cela pour qui que ce soit, / shall not do that 

for anybody -whomsoever. 

2. Quelques precautions que vous preniez, Whatever precautions 

you may take. 

225. The subjunctive is used in subject clauses after im- 
personal verbs expressing (1) approval or disapproval; (2) 
emotion; and (3) doubt or shght probability, e.g.: 

(1) il est bon, it is good il est juste, it is just 

il est important, it is important il est necessaire, it is necessary 

il est temps, it is time il vaut mieux, it is better 

(2) c'est dommage, it is a pity il est curieux, it is strange 

(3) il est impossible, it is impossible il se peut, it is possible 
il est possible, it is possible il est rare, it is rare 

(a) After many important expressions, which are usually 
followed by the indicative, the subjunctive is used when un- 
certainty is expressed (generally by a negative or an inter- 
rogative), e.g.: 

11 est certain, it is certain il me semble, it seems to me 

il est evident, it is evident il est sur, it is sure 

il est probable, it is probable 

Note. II semble is regularly followed by the subjunctive. 

II semble qu'il ait peur. It seems that he is afraid. 

However, when no doubt is implied, il semble is followed by the 

II semble que vous avez raison. It seems that you are right. (Cited, 


(Lady Clarick, known as Milady, an emissary of Cardinal Richelieu, 
and the arch-enemy of D'Artagnan and of the three musketeers, has 
taken refuge in a Carmelite convent. There she finds Mme. Bonacieux, 
with whom D'Artagnan is in love. Mme. Bonacieux has indiscreetly 
revealed to Milady the fact that D'Artagnan expects shortly to visit the 
convent. A horse's gallop is heard. Milady is much relieved to find 

*Adapted from Dumas' les Trots mousquetaires. 

252 The Elements of French 

that the rider is not D'Artagnan, but the Comte de Rochefort, another 
emissary of the Cardinal. In a private conversation, Rochefort tells 
Milady to wait at the convent until she receives further orders from the 

Aliens, dit milady, je dois attendre ici ou dans les 


Seulement, dites-moi d^avance ou vous attendrez des 

nouvelles du cardinal, que je sache toujours ou vous re- 

ficoutez, il est possible que je ne puisse rester ici. 


Oubliez-vous que mes ennemis puissent arriver d^un 

moment a T autre? 

C'est vrai; mais croyez-vous que cette petite femme 

aille echapper a son Eminence? 

Bah! dit milady avec un sourire qui n'appartenait 

qu'a elle, vous oubliez que la meilleure amie qu^elle ait au 
monde c'est moi. 

Ah! c^est vrai! je puis done dire au cardinal, a 

Fendroit de cette femme. . . 

Qu'il soit tranquille. 

Voila tout? 

II saura ce que cela veut dire. 

II le devinera. Maintenant, voyons, que dois-je faire? 

Repartir a Finstant meme ; il me semble que les 

nouvelles que vous reportez valent bien la peine que Ton 
fasse diligence. 

A peine Rochefort fut-il sorti, que madame Bonacieux 
rentra. Elle trouva milady le visage riant. 

Get homme, dit milady en baissant la voix, c'est mon 


Votre frere! s'ecria madame Bonacieux. 

Eh bien! il n'y a que vous qui sachiez ce secret, mon 

enfant; si vous le confiez a qui que ce soit au monde, je 
serai perdue, et vous aussi, peut-etre. 

Lesson 126 253 

II. Traduisez. 1. She must wait in this neighborhood 
(Two ways). 2. It is necessary for Lady Clarick to wait for 
news of the Cardinal. 3. Let the Cardinal know at all 
times what she is going to do. 4. It is not probable that 
Milady can remain a long time in the convent. 5. She does 
not forget that her enemies may find her there. 6. It is also 
important that Mme. Bonacieux, a friend of D^Artagnan, 
should not escape from the Cardinal. 7. Milady is Madame's 
worst enemy, but pretends to be the best friend that she has 
in the world. 8. Let the Cardinal rest assured: Milady will 
not permit Mme. Bonacieux to escape, for anything whatso- 
ever. 9. She tells Rochefort to go at once to see the 
Cardinal, because it seems that he has important news. 

III. Exercice Oral ou Ecrit. 1. This is the first book that 
I ever read. 2. That is the only newspaper that is worth 
reading. 3. Find me a chauffeur who is able to drive me to 
the Gare d^Orleans in ten minutes. 4. Whoever he may be, 
he is not our friend. 5. Whatever money he may have 
earned he has lost. 6. It seems that it is raining already. 
7. It is possible that they are going there; it is better that 
they remain here. 8. Let him say what he thinks. 9. Let 
them understand what has been done. 10. Is it true that 
they have spent (passed) the summer in France? 



226. The article should be learned with the noun. The following 
rules may also help the student in learning genders in French. 

The gender of a French noun is either masculine or feminine. Most 
nouns denoting males are masculine; most nouns denoting females are 

227. A Few General Rules for Determining Gender, (a) In general, 
nouns from Latin masculine or neuter nouns are masculine. 

homo (hominem) = homme (m.); ferrum = fer (m.). 

Exceptions. Numerous, particularly neuter plurals in -a, such as arma = 
arme (f.). 

(6) Nouns from Latin feminines or neuter plurals in a are regularly 

manus = niain (f.); battalia = bataille (f.). 

228. Gender Shown by Endings of Nouns, (a) The following nouns 
are generally masculine: those which end in 

1. Any vowel sound (except unaccented e), and except also ab- 

stract nouns in -te, -tie) ; 

2. Any consonant (except -son, -ion, and most abstract nouns in 

-eur) ; 

3. -acle, -age, -aire, -a&me, -erne, -ice, -ige, -isme, -iste, -tere. 

Exceptions. Helice, screw; milice, militia; image, picture; cage, cage; nage, 
swimming; plage, beach; rage, rage; paire, pair; etc. 

(fi) Feminine endings are: 

1. Unaccented e after a double consonant or a vowel; abstract 

nouns in -te, -tie; 

2. Most nouns in -son, -ion, and usually abstract nouns in -eur; 

3. Most nouns in -ace, -ade; -ale, -ance, -ane, -ence; -euse, -iere, 

-ine, -oire, -ole, -ose, -ude, -ule, -ure. 

Exercise. Apply the above rules to the following list. 

* This appendix aims to give merely additional points of French grammar 
which are important to beginning students. 



The Elements of French 




chap ell e 















matins (pi.) 

matines (pi.) 

































Note. Nouns which do not come under the rules stated usually follow 
the analogy of adjectives. 

229. Nouns Having Two Genders. Observe the following: (a) A 
few nouns are masculine or feminine according to natural gender. 
un or une enfant; un or une artiste; un or une eleve. 

(6) Certain other nouns have different meanings, according to the 

un poele, a stove, but une poele, a frying pan; un manche, a handle, 
but une manche, a sleeve; un livre, a book, but une livre, a 
pound; un page, a page (young attendant), but une page, a 
page (of a book); un critique, a critic (writer of criticisms), but 
une critique, a criticism. 

230. Forming the Feminine of Nouns, 
formed by adding e: 

(a) The feminine is sometimes 



ami, friend 
parent, relative 
president, president 
Americain, American 


(6) by adding sse to nouns ending in e or e. 



abbe, abbot 
comte, count 
hote, host; guest 
maitre, master; teacher 
tigre, tiger 
traitre, Iraitor 







(c) by changing en, on, to enne, onne. 



chien, dog 
lion, lion 


Victor Hugo 


Grammatical Appendix 257 

{d) by changing eur to euse. 

Masculine Feminine 

flaneur, loiterer flaneuse 

farceur, joker farceuse 

glaneur, gleaner glaneuse 

parleur, talker parleuse 

(e) Masculine nouns in -teur often have a feminine either in -teuse 
or -trice. 

Masculine Feminine 

acheteur, purchaser acheteuse 

porteur, hearer porteuse 

acteur, actor actrice 

fondateur, founder fondatrice 

(/) Some nouns denoting occupations usually confined to men do not 
change in the feminine. 

Masculine and Feminine Masculine and Feminine 

auteur, author partisan, partisan 

chef, chief; head cook peintre, painter 

^crivain, writer professeur, professor 

imposteur, impostor t^moin, witness 

(g) Occasionally the feminine is formed by adding -ine. 

Masculine Feminine 

heros, hero heroine 

(h) Gens (pL, m. or/.), people, persons, is treated as a masculine noun 
when a modifying adjective follows it; as a feminine noun when a modify- 
ing adjective precedes it. However, when the masculine form of the 
preceding adjective has a mute e in the last syllable, gens is masculine. 

De bonnes gens, but Tous les jeunes gens; also, Les gens heureux. 

231. Compound Nouns. They are usually masculine if composed of 
a noun and a governing verb: 

Un porte-plume, a pen-holder; un porte-monnaie, a pocketbook; un 
cure-dent, a toothpick; un casse-noix, a nutcracker; un coupe- 
file, a pass (for purchasing tickets, etc.). 
Note. There are a few exceptions, such as names of flowers or plants. 
Perce-feuille (/.), hare's ear; perce-muraille (/.), pellitory; passe- 
rose, (/.), hollyhock; perce-neige (/.), snowdrop; sauve-vie, 
(/.), wall-rue. 

(a) Other compounds regularly take the gender of the principal noun. 
Un wagon-poste, A mail coach. 

258 The Elements of French 

232. Plurals of Nouns and Adjectives. 

(o) Nouns and adjectives in -s, -x, and nouns in -z are invariable, 
les bras, the arms; les prix, the prices; les nez, the noses. 

(b) The following seven nouns in -ou take -x in the plural: 

hijouix) ^jewel{s) genou (x), /cnee(s) pou{x), louse; lice 

caillou(x), pebble(s) hibou(x), owl(s) 

chou(x), cabbage(s) joujou(x), plaything{s) 

(c) Nouns and adjectives in -al, and a few nouns in -ail, change these 
endings to -aux in the plural. 

1. animal, animaux, animal. 

2. special, speciaux, special. 

3. travail, travaux, work. 
Exception, bal(s), ballis) (meaning dancels]). 

233. Nouns Having Irregular Plurals. 
Singular Plural 

aieul, m., grandsire aieuls, grandsires 

a'ieux, ancestors 
ciel, m..,' sky ciels, skies (in painting; 

cieux, heaven; skies 
ceil, m., eye yeux, eyes 

234. In the case of compound nouns consisting of two nouns or of a 
noun and an adjective, both elements are usually pluralized. 

Singular Plural 

chou-fleur, cauliflower choux-fleurs 

coff re-fort, strongbox coflf res-forts 

wagon-lit, sleeping car wagons-lits 

(6) In the case of compound nouns joined by a preposition the object 
of the preposition does not take the plural form. 

Singular Plural 

arc-en-ciel, rainbow arcs-en-ciel 

chef-d'oeuvre, masterpiece chefs-d'oeuvre 

(c) The verbal, adverbial, and prepositional elements in compound 
words are not pluralized. 

Singular Plural 

avant-garde, vanguard avant-gardes 

arriere-pensee, m,ental reservation arriere-pensees 

passe-partout, skeleton key passe-partout 

235. Proper names usually are invariable. 

Les deux Corneille, The two Corneilles. 
Exceptions. A few historical names, like les Cesars, les Tudors, etc. 

Grammatical Appendix 259 


236. Omission of the Article in the Partitive Construction. When a 
preceding adjective is regarded as an essential part of the noun, the article 
is not omitted in the partitive construction. 

des petits pois, French (small) peas. 
Note. In conversation it is not unusual to hear du bon pain, etc. 

237. After a verb or an adjective normally followed by de, the article 
is regularly omitted. 

1. II remplit la bouteille dTeau, He fills the bottle with water, 

2. La ville est pleine de^monde, The city is full qf^people. 

238. In the Partitive Construction, the article is omitted after ni . . . 
ni, sans . . . ni, and a few other expressions. 

1. II n*a ni pain ni viande, He has neither bread nor meat. (Partitive.) 

2. Sans crainte ni faiblesse, Without fear qr_weakness. 

3. On ne tient compte ni de Phistoire ni de^ faits, They take ac- 

count neither of history nor of the facts (not partitive) . 

239. Article Used Distributively. The article is used distributively 
to take the place of the English a, of weight, number, and measure. 

1. Dix sous la piece. Ten cents apiece. 

2. Cinq francs la douzaine, Five francs a dozen. 

(a) In other cases, par is ordinarily used to express price, e.g., dix 
francs par jour, ten francs a day. Note also, une fois par mois, once a 

240. The article is omitted in many set expressions. 

k cheval, on horseback; en automobile, in an automobile; i pied, 
on foot; en ete, in summer; en voiture, in a carriage; par exemple, 
for example; sans peur et sans reproche, without fear and with- 
out reproach. 

241. With names of countries, the article is usually omitted after de, 
from, and in adjective phrases with de. 

1. un chapeau de paille, a straw hat. 

2. une piece ^* or, a gold piece. 

3. les vins ji'Espagne, the wines of Spain. 

242. The article is not usually used with the names of cities or towns, 
unless the noun is modified, or when the article is part of the name. 

la Nouvelle-Orleans, New Orleans; la Haie, The Hague; le 
Havre, Havre. 


The Elements of French 


243. Orthographical Changes of Adjectives. In the feminine, the 
following changes occur frequently in the endings of the masculine adjec- 
tive: -f > -v; -c > -ch or -qu; -g> -gu; -x>-s; -an, -en, -on double the 
final n; -el, -il, -ol double the final 1. 




















gentille (3dti:j)t 
















new (newly made) 

























244. The following five adjectives have two forms in the masculine 
singular. Note that feminine forms come from the masculine forms 
ending in -1. 

Masculine Feminine 
































* Takes e to avoid mute e's in successive syllables. 

t Doubles consonant to avoid mute e's in successive syllables. 

t 111 is regularly pronounced (i:j) except at the beginning of a word. 

1. famille {i ami:']), family: fille (fi:j), daughter. 

2. illustration (ilystrajo). 

Exceptions, mille (mil), a thousand; ville (vil), a city; tranquille (trakil), 

Grammatical Appendix 261 

245. An Adjective Modifying Nouns of Different Genders takes the 
masculine plural form. 

De Peau et du pain ezcellents, Excellent water and bread. 
Note. Demi is invariable before a noun, variable after. 

1. Une demi-heure, Half an hour. 

2. Une heure et demie, An hour and a half. 

246. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives. 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

bon, good meilleur le meilleur 

mauvals,6ad (Pf^ . (}« PJ'« 

l^plus mauvais [le plus mauvais 

/moindre, less /le moindre, least 

>lus petit, the smallest 

... jj fmoindre, less fie moir 

^ ' \plus petit, smaller \le plus 

(a) After a superlative, translate in by de. 

New- York est la plus grande ville des Etats-Unis, New York is 
the largest city in the United States. 

247. Position of Adjectives. In General. When used in a literal 
sense, to distinguish or to define, adjectives regularly follow the noun. 
When used in a figurative sense, or to denote quaUties which are considered 
as essential to the noun, adjectives regularly precede the noun. 

1. TJne vie glorieuse, non pas une vie honteuse, A glorious, not a 

shameful life (distinguishes) - 

2. Un glorieuz martyr^ A glorious martyr {denotes essential quality). 

248. Position of Adjectives. The following very common adjectives 
regularly precede the noun: 

beau grand 

bon jeune 

249. Of the adjectives used to distinguish or to define, the following 
classes are especially Ukely to follow the noun: 

1. Those denoting physical qualities, such as shape or color. 

1. La table ronde, The round table. 

2. Le crayon rouge , The red pencil. 

2. Those denoting nationaUty, religion, or derived from proper nouns. 

1. L'usage americain, American usage. 

2. Un orateur protestant , A Protestant orator. 

3. Participles employed as adjectives. 

Des paroles bien pejsees. Well weighed words. 








The Elements of French 

4. Adjectives having more syllables than the noun. 

Du vin excellent, (Some) excellent wine. 

Note. When two or more adjectives are used to modify a noun, they 
usually follow the rules given above. 

La belle maison blanche, The beautiful white house. 
Belle precedes maison because it belongs to the list of common adjectives 
which regularly precede the noun. Blanche follows the noun, because it is 
an adjective of color. 

However, when adjectives are connected by a conjunction, both either 
precede or follow. 

Un livre bon et interessant, A good and interesting book. 

250. Adjectives Having Different Meanings According to Position. 















Before Noun 


worthy • 

dear (beloved) 

last (of series) 





new (additional) 

poor (wretched) 

first (of a series) 



a poor kind of 

After Noun 



dear (expensive) 

last (most recent) 





new (newly made) 

poor (needy) 

raw (of materials) 




261. Note the following adverbs in -ement: 

Adjective Adverb 

aveugle, blind aveuglement 

commode, comfortable commodement 

conforme, in conformity (with) conformement 

' confus, confused confusement 

enorme, enormous 6normement 

immense, immense immensement 

obscur, obscure obscurement 

precis, precise precisement 

profond, deep profondement 

uniforme, uniform uniformement 

252. Adverbs from adjectives in -ant and -ent end in -amment, -em- 

Adjectives Adverbs 

616gant, elegant ^legamment 

evident, evident ^videmment 

Grammatical Appendix ' 263 

(a) Note the following: 

Adjectives Adverbs 

gentil, nice gentiment 

bref, brief brievement 

impuni, unpunished impunement, with impunity 

traltre, treacherous traltreusement, treacherously 

253. Certain Adjectives Used as Adverbs in Fixed Expressions. 

Couter cher, to cost dear; aller droit, to go straight; sentir bon, to 
smell good; tenir bon, to hold firm. 

254. Adverbial Expressions. The following are a few adverbial 
expressions : 

a bon marche, cheap en haut, above; upstairs 

k droite, to the right la-bas, yonder 

a gauche, to the left la-dessus, thereupon 

k peine, scarcely . sans doute, without doubt 

k peu pres, almost tant mieux, so much the better 

au moins, at least tant pis, so much the worse 

ga et la, here and there tout k Pheure, presently; a little while 

d'ordinaire, ordinarily ago 

d*ou, whence de bonne heure, early 

en avant, forward tout de suite, immediately 

en bas, below; downstairs tout d'un coup, suddenly 

255. Irregular Comparison of Adverbs. 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

bien, well mieux le mieux 

mA,hadly (Pj^ , (!« P'^ 

* ^ \plus mal \le plus mal 

beaucoup, much plus le plus 

peu, little moins, less le moins 

256. Position of Adverbs. As a rule, adverbs immediately follow the 

n venait tou jours a midi. He always came at noon. 

(a) Short Adverbs — Position. They come between the auxihary 
and the past participle, in compound tenses. 

1. II a mal joue. He has played badly. 

2. lis ont bien fait, They have done well. 

(6) The following adverbs must always follow the past participle in 
compound tenses: autrefois, hier, aujourd*hui, demain, tdt, tard, ici, li, 
ailleurs, partout. 

EUe est arrivSe aujourd'hui. She arrived today. 

(c) Negative Adverbs — Position. When used with an infinitive, 
they precede. 

1. II ne pent pas aller, He cannot^ go (is not able to go) . 

2. II peut ne pas aller. He is capable of not going; or, He may not go. 

3. II voudrait ne rien f aire. He would like to do nothing. 

264 * The Elements of French 

267. Negatives, (a) Non pas and point are frequently used in dis- 

II a dit ceci et non pas cela, He said this and not that. 

(6) Non plus is used in negative expressions to mean (n)either. 

Vous ne le croyez pas, ni moi non plus, You do not believe it, 
neither do I. 

(c) Non seulement . . . mais encore = not only . , ,hut also. 

258. Negatives with Verbs, {a) Position. See §256, (c). 

259. The Principal Negatives are: 

ne . . . aucun(e), not any ne • . . pas, not 

ne , . . aucunement, not at all ne . . . personne, nobody 

ne . . . guere, scarcely ne . . . plus, no longer, no more 

ne . . . jamais, never ne . • . point, nxyt at all 

ne . . , ni ( . . . ni), neither . . nor ne . . . que, only 

ne . . . nul, not any ne . . . rien, nothing 

ne . . . nullement, not at all 

260. Neither . . . nor, used with two nouns (or pronouns), or with 
two past participles = ne* . . . ni . . . ni. 

1. Vous n^avez lu argent ni amis. You have neither money nor 


2. *Ni vu ni connu. Neither seen nor known. 

3. Je ne^Pai ni^prete ni^vendu, I have neither lent it nor sold it. 

(a) Neither . . . nor, used with two verbs (simple tenses) is ne • • • ni 

EUe ne^ joue ni ne chante, She neither plays nor sings. 

261. Pas Omitted. Before an infinitive following savoir, pouvoir, 
oser, and cesser, pas is sometimes omitted. (Pas is sometimes omitted 
after savoir when no infinitive follows.) 

1. n n^ose vous repondre. He dares not reply to you. 

2. Je ne sais s'ils reviendront, / do not know whether they will 


262. Pleonastic Ne. (a) After verbs in the affirmative which express 
fearing, ne is frequently inserted in the subordinate clause. 

1. Elle craint que vous n^arriviez trop tard. She fears that you 

will arrive too late. 

2. Elle craint que vous n*arriviez pas k temps. She fears that you 

will not arrive on time. 

* Ne is always omitted when the finite verb is omitted. 

Grammatical Appendix 


(6) After comparatives, ne is also used frequently. 

1. Elle est plus grande qu*elle ne^ Petait autrefois, She is taller 

than she was formerly. 

2. II parle mieuz qu*il n^ecrit. He speaks better than he writes. 

263. "Yes" Translated, (a) Yes is translated oui to express aflirma- 
tion or assent. 

1. Y songez-vous? Are you thinking of itf 

2. Oui, monsieur, Fes, sir. 

(6) YeSy on the contrary^ is translated si. 

1. Vous ne ferez pas cela? You wiU not do thatf 

2. Si, Yes. 

264. Que frequently precedes non, oui, and si, thus; 

Je pense que oui (non), / think so (not). 


Cardinal Numerals. — Table. 

un, une, 1 
deux, 2 
trois, 3 
quatre, 4 
cinq, 5 
six, 6 
sept, 7 
huit, 8 
neuf , 9 
dix, 10 
onze, 11 
douze, 12 
treize, 13 
quatorze, 14 
quinze, 15 
seize, 16 
dix-sept, 17 • 
dix-huit, 18 
dix-neuf, 19 
vingt, 20 

vingt et un(e), 21 
vingt-deux, 22 
vingt-trois, 23 
trente, 30 

trente et un(e), 31 
quarante, 40 
quarante et un(e), 41 
cinquante, 50 
cinquante et un(e), 51 
soixante, 60 
soixante et un(e), 61 
soixante-dix, 70 
soixante et onze, 71 • 
quatre-vingts, 80 
quatre-vingt-un(e), 81 
quatre-vingt-dix, 90 
quatre-vingt-onze, 91 
cent, 100 
cent un(e), 101 
deux cents, 2(X) 
deux cent im(e), 201 
mille, 1000 
mille un(e), 1001 
deux mille, 2000 
un million, 1,000,000* 
deux millions, 2,000,000 
un milliard, 1,000,000,000* 

* De is used after the nouns million and milliard, e. g., deux millions de 
livres, two million hooks. 

266 The Elements of French 

Note 1. Compound numerals under 100 have either the hyphen or et. 
They have et in 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, and optionally in 71. 

Note 2. The final consonants of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, are silent (except in 
liaison, linking) when a noun follows. Otherwise they are pronounced. 

Note 3. Gender. Cardinal numerals are invariable, except un, une. 

Trente et une tables. Thirty-one tables. 

Note 4. Mil may be used to mean 1000 for dates between 1001 and 
1999 A. D. 

1. L'an mil neuf cent dix-neuf. The year 1919. 

2. L»an mille. The year 1000. 

3. L'an deux mille, The year 2000. 

^ Note 5. Cent is usually invariable in dates. 
L*an huit cent. The year 800. 


premier, 1st septieme, 7th 

premiere, huitieme, 8th 

second, 2d neuvieme, 9th 

deuxieme, dixieme, 10th 

troisieme, 3d onzieme, 11th 

.quatrieme, 4th vingtieme, 20th 

cinquidme, 5th vingt et unieme, 21st 

sixieme, 6th vingt-detixieme, 22d 

(a) Fractions. Ordinarily fractions in French have a cardinal as the 
numerator and an ordinal as the denominator. 

cinq neuviemes, f . 

Note, however, the following special forms: 
tiers, third. 
quart, fourth. 

demi, half (as adjective or noun), 
moitie, half (as noun). 

267. Collective Nouns. The ending -aine may be added to the stem 
of many cardinal numerals to mean about 20, about 40, about a hundred, 

1. Une dou zaine (de), a dozen. 

2. Une vingt aine (de), a score. 

3. Une quarantaine (de), about 40. 

Note also Un millier (de), about 1,000. 
Une paire (de), a pair. 

268. Nimieral Adverbs may be formed by adding -ment to ordinals. 

1. premiere ment , ytrs%,- 

2. deuxiemement, secondly, etc. 

Grammatical Appendix 267 

269. Use of Ordinals and Cardinals in Dates. Premier is used to 
indicate the first day of the month, or the first of a line of rulers; after 
that, the cardinal is used. 

1. le premier juillet, the first of July. 

2. le deux juillet, the second of July. 

3. Napoleon premier. Napoleon IL 

4. Napoleon III (Trois), Napoleon III. 

270. Position of Cardinals and Numerals. They precede the noun, 
and the cardinals precede the ordinals. 

Les cinq premieres pages, The first five pages. 


271. Prepositional Phrases. Note the following prepositional phrases: 

k cause de, because of au lieu de, instead of 

k c6te de, beside autour de, around 

k 1* exception de, except aupres de, near by 

au bout de, at the end of, after en face de, opposite 

aU'del^ de, beyond jusqu*a, up to, until 

au-dessous de, beneath, under pres de, near 

au-dessus de, over, above quant ^, as for 

272. Distinctions of Meanings of Prepositions. 

(a) k pen pres = about (nearly). 
environ = about (of quantity). 
vers = about (of time). 

1. Paris a environ (or k peu prds) 3,000,000 d*habitants, Paris 

has about 3,000,000 inhabitants. 

2. Nous arriverons vers (sur les) dix heures du matin. We shall 

arrive about ten o'clock in the morning. 

(b) Entre = between (two or more objects). ' * 
Parmi = in the midst of (several objects). 

1. Tours se trouve entre Paris et Bordeaux, Tours is situated 

between Paris and Bordeaux. 

2. Parmi (or entre) toutes les republiques dont la Grece ^tait 

composee, Athenes et Lacedemone etaient sans comparaison 
les principales. Among all the republics of which Greece was 
composed, Athens and Sparta were incomparably the principal 
ones. (Cited, Littre.) 

268 The Elements of French 

(c) avant = before (of time, or order), 
devant = before (in front of). 

1. Vous etes venu avant moi, You came before me. 

2. Vous etes devant moi, You are in front of me. 

(d) (1) Par = by, to denote agent after the passive. 

La maison fut construite par Lendtre, The house was constructed 
by Lenotre. 

(2) De = by, when a habitual act, or an emotion, is expressed. 
II est admire de tout le monde, He is admired by everybody. 

(e) Pour = for, (in order to, for the sake, of in exchange for, or to denote 
future time). 

1. II dit cela pour eviter toute discussion, He says that to^ avoid all 


2. Faites ceci pour moi, Do this for me. 

3. On pent acheter cet objet pour cinq francs, We can buy this 

object for five francs. 

(f) (1) De before a noun frequently has an adjective force. 
Une chute d^eau, A waterfall. 

A before nouns denotes purpose, use, or characteristic. 

1. Une boite aux lettres, A letter box (box for letters). 

2. Un chapeau a grands bords, A broad brimmed hat (a hat with 

broad brim). 

(2) Distinction between de and en. 

De has usually an adjective force, when used with a noun. 

En, when used with a noun, denotes the material. 

1. Une montre ^'or, A gold watch {gold regarded pimply as an 


2. Une montre en or, A gold watch (a watch made of gold, material 


*{g) Dans means in, in the sense of within, in the interior of. A means 
in before names of cities, and masculine names of countries. It is less 
restrictive in meaning than dans. En means in before feminine names 
of countries. It is seldom used before an article; it is less restrictive 
than dans. 

1. Je tiens un sou dans la main, / hold a cent in (inside of) my 


2. Je tiens une canne i^la main, / hold a cane in^ (not inside) 

m,y hand. 

Grammatical Appendix 269 

3. Livraison dans tout Paris, Delivery in all Paris (within the 

city limits) . 

4. Cela ne se fait pas k^ Paris, That is not done in (less restrictive) 


5. En France on voit beaucoup de jolies choses. Many beautiful 

things may he seen in France. 
Note. Dans and en may also be used to mean into. 

II alia dans la f oret, He went into the forest. 
Note. Observe also: 

1. II voyage de Bordeaux J. Paris, He travels from Bordeaux to 


2. II ne va pas en_ France, He is not going to France, 

(1) Distinction between dans and en (of time). 
Dans = at the end of; also, during. 
En = within (a given time). 

1. Nous travaillerons dans deux heures. We shall work ( = start 

to work) in^ two hours (from now) . 

2. Dans Tapres-midi, nous irons a Versailles, During the after- 

noon we shall go to Versailles. 

3. Nous ferons ce travail en deux heures. We shall do this work 

in two hours' time. 

(h) Sur = on, upon. 

(1) With numerals, sur often means out of. 

Neuf f ois sur dix. Nine times out of ten. 

(2) Sur les (of time) is synonomous with vers. 

Sur les (vers) dix heures, About ten o'clock. (Cf. §272, a.) 

(i) Vers = toward (in a physical sense). 
envers = toward (in a moral sense). 

1. II se dirige vers Pouest, He directs himself toward the west. 

2. II a ete cruel envers ses ennemis. He has been cruel toward 

his enemies. 

(j) Au-dessous de = under (in a more specific sense than sous). 
Au-dessus de = over, higher than. 
par-dessus = over (and above). 

1. Au-dessous de la chaise. Under the chair. 

2. Les nombres au-dessous de 89. The numbers under 89. 

3. Au-dessus du rez-de-chaussee. Above the first floor. 

270 The Elements of French 

4. Les nombres au-dessus de 89, The numbers above 89. 

-5. II porte le veston par-dessus le gilet, He wears the coat over the 

6. lis nous donne 100 francs par-dessus le marche, He gives us 

100 francs over and above the bargain ( = to boot). 

Sur = on, upon (after verbs of motion or of rest). 
(k) Par = through (after verbs of motion). 

1. L'eclat est tombe sur le toit, The splinter (of a shell) has fallen 

on the roof. 

2. n y a des livres sur la table. There are books on the table. 

3. II a saute par la f enetre, He has jumped out of ( = through) the 


(I) Pres de = near (literally). 

Aupres de = next to, also, near, in moral sense. 

1. J*habite pres de PHdtel des Invalides, / live near the Hotel des 


2. II habite aupres de I'ecole, He lives next to the school. 

3. II reste au pres de sa mere, He remains near ( = beside) his 



273. Et is often used to translate the English word both. 

Et le riche et^le pauvre, Both the rich man and the poor man. 
(a) And is not translated after aller, to go, + an infinitive. 
Go and do it, Allez le faire. 

274. Que is frequently used to avoid repetition of a conjunction. 
When it replaces si it is regularly followed by the subjunctive. 

Si vous arrivez, et que vous le trouviez, Jf you arrive and if you 
find him. 

Note. Que must not be omitted in French. 

275. Distinctions of Meanings of Conjunctions. 
(a) Quand and lorsque. 

Quand and lorsque are both used to mean when, but lorsque is not 
used in interrogative sentences. 

1. Je lui ai demande quand il allait partir, / asked him when he 

was going to leave. 

2. Quand (or lorsque) nous Tavons rencontre, When we met him. 

Grammatical Appendix 


(6) Depuis que and puisque. 
Depuis que, since (of time). 
Puisque, since (because). 

1. Depuis que je.suis ici, je m'amuse bien, Since I have been here, 

I have amused myself well. 

2. Puisqu*il me Pa dit, je Pal fait, Since (because) he told me, I 

did it. 

(c) Pendant que, while (during the time that) . 
Tandis quey while (whereas). 

1. II joue pendant qu ^elle chante, He plays while she sings. 

2. II I'a essaye, lui, tandis que vous ne Pavez pas essaye, He 

tried it, while you did not try it. 



276. (a) The conjunctive personal pronouns are: 


je, / 
tu, you 
11, he, it 
elle, she, it 
nous, we 
vous, you 
Us, they 
elles, they 

Direct Object 
me, me 

te, you 
le, him, it 
la, her, it 
nous, us 
vous, you 
les, them 
les, them 


herself se, themselves 


Indirect Object 
me, (to) me 
te, (to) you 
lui, (to) him, (to) it 
lui, (to) her, (to) it 
nous, (to) us 
vous, (to) you 
leur, (to) them 
leur, (to) them 

se, (to) themselves 

(6) The disjunctive personal pronouns are: 

Singular Plural 

moi, I, me nous, we, us 

toi, you vous, you 

lui, he, him eux, they, them 

elle, she, her elles, they, them 
soi, one's self 

277. Pronominal Adverbs. The pronominal adverbs are: 

y = ^, dans, sur + a pronoun of the third person, to (at, on) itj 
or to (at, on) them, there. 

en = de + a pronoun of the third person, of or from it, of or from 
them; some of it, or of them. 

272 The Elements of French 

278. After Verbs of Motion, a is used to mean to (when referring to 
persons) instead of the indirect object form of the personal pronoun. 

Je vais J_lui, / am going to him. 

279. Le, la, les, used in the Predicate. 

(a) The forms le, la, les, may be used in the predicate to refer to a 
specific noun. 

1 Etes-vous la malade? Are you the sick woman? 
2. Je la suis, / am (she). 

(6) When referring to an adjective, le (invariable) is used in the predi- 
cate, and is often to be translated by the English word so. 

1. Etes-vous malade? Are you ill? 

2. Je le suis, / am. 

280. Soi is regularly used only in an indefinite or general sense. 

1. Chacun pour soi, Each man for himself (indefinite). 

2. II travaille pour lui-meme , He works for himself (definite). 

281. (a) When an infinitive depends upon a verb the noun object of 
the infinitive follows the infinitive. The personal pronoun object reg- 
ularly precedes the infinitive. 

Je veux hii remettre la lettre, / wish to give him the letter, 

(6) When faire (or laisser) is followed by another infinitive, and when 
both have objects, the object of faire (or subject of the following infini- 
tive) is put in the indirect object case, and the object of the second 
infinitive goes into the direct object case, though both usually precede 
faire or laisser. 

Je veux le lui faire comprendre, / wish to make him understand it. 
Je veux faire comprendre cela k mon frere, / wish to make my 
brother understand that . 

Entendre, voir, and ouir frequently have the same construction, e. g., 
je Pai entendre dire au professeur, / heard the teacher say so. 

(c) When a verb has as a direct object any of the forms me, nous, 
te, vous, or se, the indirect object pronoun takes k and follows the verb. 

II m*a presente i^vous, He introduced me to you. 

{d) In the case of envoyer and a few other verbs + an infinitive, a 
personal pronoun object may precede or follow the finite verb. 

EUe les envoie chercher,) 

EUe envoie les chercher.r'*' '"^' ^"^ '-^Sn- 

Grammatical Appendix 


282. (a) The following are used a^ adjectives: 






Masculine and Feminine 












his, her, its 













(b) The following possessives are used pronominally : 








le mien 

la mienne 

les miens 

les miennes 


le tien 

la tienne 

les tiens 

les tiennes 


le sien 

la sienne 

les siens 

les siennes 

his, hers, its 

le ndtre 

la ndtre 

les ndtres 

les ndtres 


le v6tre 

la votre 

les votres 

les votres 


le leur 

la leur 

les leurs 

les leurs 


283. Owr)y is translated into French by propre (before the noun)t, 
or by ^ + a pronoun. 

1. C^etaient ses propres paroles, These were his own words. 

2. C*est sa maison a elle, It is her own house. 

3. C'est sa maison ft lui, It is his own house. 

Note. In the last two sentences, i + pronoun serves also to avoid am- 
biguity, as sa might mean either his or her. 

284. In formal address to a relative or to a superior officer, mon is 

1. Parfaitement, mon capitaine, Exactly, Captain. 

2. Qui, ma mere, Yes, mother. 

Note. (1) Mon is not used before the familiar forms papa and maman. 
(2) Mon and ma in monsieur, monseigneur, madame, and ma- 
demoiselle were originally "possessives like mon capitaine, etc. 

286. (a) The following forms are used as adjectives: 

Singular Plural 

ce (cet) 

cette, this, that 

Masculine and Feminine 

* Mon, ton, son are used as feminine forms before a word beginning with 
a vowel or h mute. 

t Following its noun, propre means clean. (See §250.) 

274 The Elements of French 

(b) The following forms are used as pronouns: 

Singular Plural 

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine 

celui celle ceux ^ celles 


ce, this (or these) , that (or those) , he (or she, it, they) 
ceci, this 
cela, that 

Note, -ci and Ak may be added to the forms of celui ( = celui-ci, celles-li, 
etc.) to mean this one, those ones, etc. 

When used with ce, cette, etc., -ci and -la follow the noun. 

Cet homme-li. That man. 

286. II est is used instead of c*est to mean it is, (a) before an adjective 
followed by de + an infinitive; (b) before a clause introduced by que 
when the infinitive or que clause are the logical subjects of est. 

1. C*est possible, It is possible. 

2. 11^ est possible de faire cela, Jt^ is possible to do that, 

3. jC*est evident, It^ is evident. 

4. II est evident que vous vous amusez bien, Jj_ is evident that 

you are enjoying yourself. 

(a) In cases where the infinitive depends upon the adjective it is 
preceded by ky and c*est is often used. 

C'est difficile a_ faire. It is difficult to do. 

287. Ce + etre is often used to sum up what has just been said. 

1. Te quitter, c^est mourir, To leave thee ('t)is to die (between 

infinitives) . 

2. C^est vrai ce que vous dites la, What you say is true (in inver- 

sions) . 

3. L*Etat^*est moi, / am the state (for emphasis). 

288. Ca is used colloquially as a contraction of cela. 

Qu*est-ce que c'est que cela (ga) ? What is that ? 
(a) Ca is often used with contemptuous force to refer to persons. 
Ca ne comprend rien. That (thing) does not understand anything. 

Grammatical Appendix 275 


289. (a) The following forms are used as adjectives: 

Singular Plural Meaning 

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine 

quel? quelle? quels? quelles? which? what? what a! 

(b) The following forms are used pronominally : 

Singular Plural Meaning 

Masculine Feminine Singular Plural 

lequel? laquell^? lesquels? lesquelles? which? which or 

what one{s)f 

qui? who? whom? que? what quoi? what? 

Note. The prepositions de and k contract with the forms of lequel, ac- 
cording to the regular rule for contractions with the definite article, viz. : duquel, 
desquels, desquelles; auquel, auxquels, auzquelles. 

290. Quel? is often used in the sense of who? to take the place of qui? 

Quel est ce monsieur? Who is that gentleman? 

291. De qui? and a qui? 

De qui? = whose? (denoting relationship). 
A qui? = whose? (denoting possession). 

1. De qui est-elle la femme? Whose wife is she? 

2. A qui est ce chapeau? Whose hat is that? 

292. (a) What as the subject of a verb is regularly translated by 
qu*est-ce qui? 

Qu*est-ce qui vous gene? What bothers you? 

(b) What as the object of a verb is translated que or qu*est-ce que? 

Que dites-vous, or, qu*est-ce que vous dites? What do you say? 

(c) What used apart from the verb, or as the object of a preposition, 
is translated by quoi. 

1. Quoi! c'est vous! What! It is you! 

2. Avez-vous de quoi vivre? Have you enough to live on? (literally, 

with what to live). 

(d) Quoi may also be used with infinitives instead of que for emphasis. 

Que (quoi) dire maintenant? What is to be said now? 

276 The Elements of French 

293. Que? is sometimes used in the sense of why? que de in the sense 
of how much? 

1. Que ne I'avez vous pas fait tout de suite? Why did you not do 

it at once? 

2. Que de fer? How much iron? 

294. Interrogative Phrases. 

qui est-ce qui? = qui? who? (subject of verb), 
qui est-ce o^ne? whom? (object of verb). 
qu*est-ce qui? = what (subject of verb). 
qu*est-ce que? = que? what? (object of verb), 
qu'est-ce que c' est? = qu' est-ce? what is it? 
qu*est-ce que c'est que cela? what is that? 

1. (Qui est-ce) qui vient? Who comes? 

2. Qui est-ce que vous avez rencontre? Whom did you meet? 

3. Qu* est-ce qui vous interesse? What interests you? 

4. Qu* est-ce que vous regardez? What are you looking at? 


295. qui, who, which, that; whom (following a preposition). 

C'est lui qui est arrive, It is he who has come. 

que, who7n, which, that. 

dent, of whom, of which, whose. 

oft, where, in which, at which, etc. 

quoi, what, which (after preposition, used without definite antecedent). 

ce qui, what (subject of verb). 

ce que, what, (object of verb). 

ce . . . quoi, what (object of preposition). 

1. Donnez-moi les crayons que vous avez, Give me the pencils 

which you have. 

2. Voici les livres dont je vous parlais, Here are the hooks of which 

I was speaking to you. 

3. Voila la caserne ou il vivait, There are the barracks in which he 


4. Dites-moi a quoi il pense. Tell me what he is thinking of. 

5. II le dit, ou plutdt, il ne le nie pas, ce qui est la mime chose. 

He says so, or rather, he does not deny it, which is the same thing. 

6. Dites-nous ce que vous en pensez, Tell us what you think about it. 

7. Voici ce a quoi il reflechit, This is what he is reflecting about. 

Grammatical Appendix 277 

Masc. Sing. Fern. Sing. Masc. Plur. Fern. Plur. 

lequel laquelle lesquels lesquelles,* who, which, whom, that 

296. Agreement of Relative Pronouns. Relative pronouns agree with 
their antecedents in gender, number, and person. 

C'etait vous qui aviez ecrit, It was you who had written. 

297.. Qui is sometimes used instead of celui qui, etc., to mean he who. 
Tout vient k point k qui salt attendre, All things come to him who 

298. Lequel is used of persons after entre, and parmi. 

Les hommes entre (parmi) lesquels , The men among whom . 

299. Quoi is used without definite antecedent to mean what, and 
usually follows a preposition. 

Voila de quoi il s*agit, That is the question (more literally, That is 

what it is a question of) . 

300. Ce qui, ce que, ce dont, etc., are often used to sum up what has 
just been said. 

Nous partons maintenant, ce qui est deja quelque chose, We are 

leaving now, (something) which helps matters a little (literally, 
is already something) . 


301. (a) The following forms are used as adjectives: 
certain(e)(s), (a) certain divers(es), plur., various 
chaque, each, every maint(e), mxiny a 
diff^rent(e)s, plur., various, different quelque(s), some, some (few) 

1. lis partent k certaines heures, They start at certain hours. 

2. Chaque fois il dit la meme chose, Each time he says the same 


(b) The following forms are used as pronouns: 

autrui, other people, etc quelqu*un(e), some one, etc. 

chacun(e), each (one), every (one) quelques-un(es), some (people), etc. 

on,t one, they, we, etc. quelque chose, something 

personne . . . (ne), nobody rien . . . (ne), nothing 

1. Si Ton vous ecoutait, If people should listen to you. 

2. Ne fais pas k autrui ce que tu ne voudrais pas qu'on te fit, 

Do not do to others what you would not wish others to do to you. 

3. (A) chacun son gout, Every man to his taste. 

* Used as object of a preposition to refer to things; sometimes used to refer 
to persons, especially when invariable pronoun forms would be ambiguous. 
t On becomes Pon frequently to avoid hiatus after a vowel. 

278 The Elements of French 

(c) The following forms are used either as adjectives or as pronouns: 

aucun(e)(s) . . . ne, no, nobody tel(le), such (follows article) 

autre, other tout, m., plur., tous 

meme, same (before noun) toute, f., plur., toutes, all, every 

even, very (after noun) un(e), one, a 

Sing, f nul(le) . . . ne, no; nobody 
Plur.\ nuls, m., nuUes, f. 
plusieurs, several 

302. Un(e) may be used before certain in the singular; in the plural de 
may be used. 

1. (Un) certain 6crivain, A certain writer. 

2. (De) certains ecrivains, Certain writers. 

303. Quelque = some in the sense of some little; some few. For 
some in the sense of an indefinite quantity, use the partitive construction. 

1. II a quelques francs. He has some (a few) francs. 

2. II a de I' argent, He has some money. 

(a) Quelque . . . que = however j when used before adjectives or 

Quelque bons qu*ils soient, However good they may be. 

304. Chacun(e) is used as a pronoun to mean each one; chaque is used 
as an adjective to mean each. 

1 . Chaque eleve, Each pupil. 

2. Chacun(e ) des eleves. Each (one) of the pupils. 

305. Quelqu*un(e), plur., quelques-un(es), is used as a pronoun to 
mean some one, some; quelques (s) is used as an adjective to mean some. 

1. Quelques livres. Some books. 

2. Quelques-uns des livres, Some of the books. 

306. Quelque chose is masculine, although the noun chose is feminine. 

Quelque chose est arriv^, Something has happened. 

307. Aucun(e)(s) and nul(le)(s), plural nuls, m., nuUes, f., are used as 
adjectives, followed by ne + verb, to mean no, not any. 

1. Aucunes gens (or nuUes gens), No people. 

2. Aucune faute n^a ete commise, No mistake has been committed. 

308. Autre is used to mean other in the sense of another kind of. To 
mean another of the same kind, use encore un(e). 

1. Donnez-moi une autre plume. Give me another (a different) pen. 

2. Donnez-moi encore une plume, Give me another (a similar) pen. 

Grammatical Appendix 279 

(a) Autres is frequently used idiomatically after nous and vous. 

Nous (autres) Americains, We Americans. 

(6) L'un(e) . . . Pautre, plur., les un(e)s . . . les autres, are used to 
mean each other, one another. 

lis se detestent Pun Pautre, They detest each other. 

309. Meme = same, when used before the noun. 
Meme —.very, self, when following the noun. 

1. Les memes amis, The same friends. 

2. Nos amis memes, Our very (even our) friends. 

(a) Meme, when modifying an adjective or a verb, or when placed 
after several nouns, is invariable. 

II aimait meme ses ennemis. He loved even his enemies, 

310. Tout, (m.), toute, (f.); tous, (m. pi.); toutes, (f. pi.) = all, every, 
whole, etc., in the singular; all, every, in the plural. 

1. Toute la journee, The whole day. 

2. Tout etudiant. Every student. Or, 

3. Tous les etudiants, All students; every student. 

(a) Tout is often used adverbially, in the sense of quite. 

1. Son livre est tout fait, His book is quite finished. 

2. Je Pai achete tout fait, I bought it ready made. 

(1) Tout as an adverb is given the adjective form before a feminine 
adjective beginning with a consonant (not h mute). 

1. EUe etait toute petite, She was very small. 

2. EUe etait tout agitee. She was much agitated. 

311. Un, when used as a pronoun, is often preceded by P. 

L^une de ces jeunes filles. One of these girls. 


312. (a) The following indefinite relatives are used as adjectives: 


quelconque(s), any at all 
quel(le)(s) . . . que, whatever 
quelque(s) . . . que, whatever 

280 The Elements of French 

(6) The following indefinite relatives are used as pronouns: 

quiconque, whoever 
qui que ... , whoever 
quoi que . . . , whatever 

Note. The compound forms having que as the second word are followed 
by the subjunctive. 

1. Qui que ce soit, Whoever it may he. 

2. Quoi qu Ul en dise, Whatever he may say about it. 

3. Quelques precautions que nous prenions, Whatever precautions 

we may take. 

4. Quelles que soient les precautions que nous prenons. What- 

ever be the precautions that we take. 


313. Compound tenses are formed with avoir (1) in the case of all 
transitive verbs; (2) in the case of most intransitive verbs. 

314. The following intransitive verbs, mostly denoting motion, are 
compounded with etre: 

aller, to go partir, to start 

arriver, to arrive venir, to become 

entrer, to enter rester, to remain 

mourir, to die sortir, to go out 

nattre, to be born tomber, to fall 

Also, compounds of venir, such as devenir, to become; parvenir, to attain; 
provenir, to proceed; revenir, to come back. 

(a) The following verbs are conjugated with avoir, when an act is 
expressed; with etre, when a state is expressed: 

changer, to change grandir, to grow up 

croitre, to grow monter, to go up 

descendre, to descend passer, to pass 

disparaitre, to disappear retourner, to go back 

6chapper, to escape sonner, to ring; strike 

emigrer, to emigrate vieillir, to grow old 

Note. Entrer, monter, descendre, and sortir may be used transitively, 
and then will take avoir as the auxiliary. 

1. Ilji^monte nos bagages. He has taken our baggage up. 

2. II est monte a sa chambre, He has gone up to his room. 

Grammatical Appendix 281 


315. Reflexive verbs are regularly conjugated with etre. 


je me suis trouve(e), I have found myself 

tu t*es trouve(e) 

il (elle) s*est trouve(e) 

nous nous sommes trouve(e)s 

vous vous etes trouve(e)(s) 

ils (elles) se sont trouve(e)s, etc. 

316. Reciprocal Use of Reflexive Verbs. Reflexive verbs are often 
used in a reciprocal sense. 

lis s^aiment (Pun I'autre), They love each other , or, one another. 

(a) When the reciprocal pronoun object is indirect, the past participle 
remains unchanged. 

Elles se sont parle. They spoke to each other,^ 

317. Verb Idioms. 

Note the following verb idioms: 

(a) Venir de + infinitive = to have just , . . 

Je viens de le trouver, 7 have just found him. 

(h) Savoir = to know, but also to know how to. 

Savez -vous patiner? Do you know how to skate? 

1. Savoir corresponds to the English auxiliary can wherever intelli- 
gence is required. 

Savez- vous lire? Can you read? 

318. Verbs — Agreement. The verb usually agrees with its subject 
as in English. Words of quantity, which are singular in form, but plural 
in sense, have a plural verb. 

La plupart des gens le croient, Most people believe it 


319. The Second Past Perfect, or Past Anterior (= past absolute 
auxiliary + past participle of verb) is used after quand, aussit6t que, 
a peine que, des que, and a few other conjunctions of time, to denote 
what had happened immediately before another event. 

Quand il eut dit cela, nous sommes partis, When he said that, we 

282 The Elements of French 

320. The future is generally used as in English, except that after 
quand, aussitdt que, and des que, when futurity is impHed, the future 
tense must be used in French. 

Aussitdt que vous reviendrez, dites-le-moi, As soon as you return, 
tell me. 

321. The future, future perfect, and past future (or conditional) are 
all used to denote probabihty. 

1. Quelqu*un aura ouvert une fenetre, Some one has probably 

opened a window. 

2. Serait -ce lui ? Could it be he? 

(a) Quand (meme) with the past future is often to be translated 
even if. 

Quand (meme) 11 le dirait, je le nierais, Even if he should say so, 
I should deny it. 

(For additional uses of the Subjunctive, see Lessons 110, 111, 125, 126.) 

322. The Subjunctive is used in clauses following (1) a superlative, 
or (2) seul, unique, premier, dernier. 

1. C*est le plus grand livre qui soit dans la bibliotheque, It is the 

largest book (which is) in the library. 

2. Voici le premier mendiant que j*aie rencontrg, This is the first 

beggar that I have met. 

323. The Subjunctive is also used in clauses of characteristic, provided 
certainty is not expressed. 

1. Trouvez-moi un homme qui soit capable de faire cela, Find me 

a man who is^capable of doing that. But 

2. C*est un homme qui est capable de tout, He is a man who is 

capable of everything (certainty expressed) . 

(a) Similarly after a general negation: 

II n'y a personne qui puisse faire cela, There is nobody who can 
do that. 

See also § 312, (b), note. 

324. The Subjunctive is used in adverbial clauses introduced by the 
following conjunctions: Time, avant que (ne), en attendant que, jusqu'a 
ce que; Purpose, afin que, pour que; Condition, a moins que . . . 
(ne)^ pourvu que; Concession, bien que, quoique, soit que . . . soit que; 
Negation, sans que (ne). 

Grammatical Appendix 283 

1. Attendez jusqu'i ce que je choisisse un numero, Wait till I 

choose a number. 

2. Ne faites rien sans que je vous le dise, Do nothing without my 

telling you. 

(a) The subjunctive is used after expressions and conjunctions denot- 
ing fear, such as de crainte que, and de peur que. The dependent clause 
usually takes the negative ne. 

Je porte ma lettre k la main de peur que je ne la perde, I carry 
my letter in my hand, for fear that I may lose it. 

325. The Subjunctive Used in Principal Clauses. Que + the sub- 
junctive in a principal clause is usually translated let or may. 

1. QuH ls nous laissent tranquilles, Let them leave us alone. 

2. Qu' il parte tout de suite, Let him start at once. 

(a) In certain phrases, the subjunctive is used in principal clauses 
without que. 

A Dieu ne plaise , May it not please God. 

Note. In all cases where the subjunctive is used in what is apparently 
the principal clause, an expression of desire is understood. Thus (Je desire) 
qu'ils nous laissent tranquilles, etc. 

326. The Past Perfect Subjunctive Used Instead of the Past Perfect. 

In literary style, the past perfect subjunctive is sometimes used instead 

of the past perfect, either in the if clause, or in the result clause, or in both. 

Si elle eut (or avait) repondu tout de suite, on eut (or aurait) ete 

tres content, // she had replied at once, they would have been very 



327. The following verbs take no preposition before a following infini- 
tive : , 

accourir, to hasten descendre, to come (go) down* 

aimer autant, to like as well desirer, to desire-f 

aimer mieux, to prefer devoir, ought, to be, etc. 

aller, to go dire, to sayf 

apercevoir, to perceive ecouter, to listen (to) 

avoir beau, to be (or do) in vain entendre, to hear, intend 

compter, to count'\ envoy er, to send 

courir, to run esp6rer, to hopef 

croire, to believe etre, to be 

declarer, to declare §tre cense, to be supposed 

* Sometimes followed by a. 
t Sometimes followed by de. 


The Elements of French 

faillir, to he on the point o/*t 
faire, to make, cause 
il fait, (impers.), it is 
falloir, to he necessary 
laisser, to let, allow'^-^ 
monter, to go up 
nier, to denyf 
oser, to dare 
paraitre, to appear 
penser, to think 
pouvoir, can, to he able 
preferer, to prefer 
pretendre, to assert* 

se rappeler, to recollectf 
reconnaitre, to acknowledge 
regarder, to look at 
rentrer, to go in again 
revenir, to come back 
savoir, to know how to, can 
sembler, to seem 
sentir, to feel 

valoir autant, to be as good 
valoir mieux, to he better 
venir, to come*t 
voir, to see 
vouloir, to wish, will 

328. The following verbs take de before a following infinitive: 

achever, to finish 

admirer, to wonder (at) 

affecter, to affect 

s*agir, to he a question (of) 

s*apercevoir, to perceive 

arreter, to prevent (from), determine 

avertir, to notify, warn 

s'aviser, to think (of) 

blamer, to blame (for) 

cesser, to cease 

charger, to charge 

se charger, to undertake 

choisir, to choose 

commander, to command 

commencer, to begin* 

compter, to intendX 

conclure, to conclude* 

conseiller, to advise 

consentir, to consent* 

consoler, to console 

se contenter, to be satisfied 

continuer, to continue* 

convaincre, to convict (of) 

convenir, to agree 

couter, to cost* 

craindre, to fear 

decider, to decide, resolve * 

decourager (se), discourage (from) 

def endre, to forbid 

demander, to ask* 

se depecher, to hasten 

desaccoutumer (se), to disaccustom 

desesperer, to despair (of) 

desirer, to desire J 

determiner, to resolve* 

detester, to detest 

dire, to bid* 

dissuader, to dissuade (from) 

douter, to hesitate 

se douter, to suspect 

eclater, to burst (from laughing, etc.) 

ecrire, to write 

s'efforcer, to try* 

empecher, to prevent 

s*empecher, to abstain (from) 

s*empresser, to hasten* 

s'ennuyer, to be weary (of) * 

entreprendre, to undertake 

epargner, to spare 

esperer, to hopeX 

essayer, to try 

s'etonner, to be astonished 

eviter, to avoid 

(s)'excuser, to excuse (from) 

exempter, to exempt 

faire bien, to do well 

faire mieux, to do better 

se fatiguer, to be tired (of) 

f eindre, to feign 

finir, to finish* 

forcer, to force* 

(se) garder, to keep one's self from 

gener, to incommode 

gronder, to scold 

hasarder, to venture 

se hater, to hasten 

imaginer, to imagine 

* Sometimes followed by a. 

t Sometimes followed by de. 

} Sometimes followed by direct infinitive. 

Grammatical Appendix 


imputer, to impute 

inspirer, to inspire 

interdire, to interdict (from) 

jouir, to enjoy 

juger bon, to think fit 

juger necessaire, to think necessary 

jurer, to promise (on oath) t 

ne pas laisser, not to cease *t 

se lasser, to he weary (of) * 

louer, to praise 

manquer, to be on the point of* 

se meler, to m,eddle (with) 

menacer, to threaten 

meriter, to deserve 

se moquer, to make sport (of) 

mourir, to long 

negliger, to neglect 

obliger, to oblige* 

obtenir, to obtain 

s'occuper, to be busy (with) * 

offrir, to offer 

omettre, to omit 

ordonner, to order 

oublier, to forget* 

pardonner, <o pardon 

parler, to speak 

se passer, to do without 

(se) permettre, to permit 

persuader, to persuade 

prendre garde, to take care not* 

prendre soin, to take care 

prier, to beg* 

(se) priver, to deprive (of) 

(se) promettre, to promise 

proposer, to propose 

(se) proposer, to propose 

protester, to protest 

punir, to punish 

(se) rappeler, to remember 

recommander, to recommend 

refuser, to refuse* 

regretter, to regret 

se re jouir, to rejoice 

remercier, to thank 

se repentir, to repent (of) 

(se) reprocher, to reproach (with) 

resoudre, to resolve 

(se) rire, to laugh 

risquer, to risk 

rougir, to blush 

se soucier, to care 

souffrir, to suffer* 

soupgonner, to suspect 

sourire, to smile 

se souvenir, to recollect 

suggerer, to suggest 

supplier, to beseech 

tacher, to try* 

tenter, to try* 

trembler, to tremble* 

se vanter, to boast 

venir, to have just*-f 

(se) presser, to hasten 

Note. A number of verbs take the direct infinitive when certainty is 
implied; de + infinitive when uncertainty, or an obstacle is implied. 
desirer, esperer, souhaiter, etc^ 

The foUowhig verbs take a before a following infinitive: 

(s) *abandonner, to give up 
aboutir, to end (in) 
s*accorder, to a^ree (in) t 
(s)*accoutumer, to accustom 
aider, to help 
aimer,t to like 

(s) amuser, to amuse (by, in) 
(s) *appliquer, to apply 
apprendre, to learn, teach 
(s)'appreter, to get ready 

s'arreter, to stop 

aspirer, to aspire 

astreindre, to compel 

(s) *attendre, to expect 

autoriser, to authorize 

avoir, to have, must 

avoir (de la) peine, to have difficulty 

avoir (du) plaisir, to take pleasure (in) 
se borner, to limit one's self 

* Sometimes followed by a. 

t Sometimes followed by direct infinitive. 

Aimer, in the conditional tense, is followed by the direct infinitive. 
X Sometimes followed by de. 


The Elements of French 

chercher, to seek 

commencer, to begin* 

concourir, to co-operate (in) 

(se) condamner, to condemn 

conduire, to lead 

consentir, to consent* 

consister, to consist 

(se) consumer, to wear one's self out 

continuer, to continue* 

contraindre, to constrain 

contribuer, to contribute 

colter, to cost 

decider, to induce* 

se decider, to resolve 

defier, to challenge* 

demander, to ask* 

destiner, to destine 

determiner, to induce* 

se determiner, to resolve 

(se) devouer, to devote 

(se) disposer, to dispose 

(se) divertir, to amuse 

donner, to give 

dresser, Iq train 

s'efforcer, to try* 

(s) 'employer, to employ (in) 

s'empresser, to be eager* 

encourager, to encourage 

s*enhardir, to venture* 

s*ennuyer, to be bored (at, in) * 

enseigner, to teach 

s'entendre, to know how 

essay er, to try* 

etre, to be busy (in, at) 

etre a, to be one's turn 

exceller, to excel (in) 

(s)'exercer, to exercise (in) 

exhorter, to exhort 

(s)*exposer, to expose 

se fatiguer, to tire one's self (in, at) f 

forcer, to force* 

gagner, to gain (by) 

habituer, to accustom* 

s'habituer, to accustom one's self 

ha'ir, to hateX 

se hasarder, to venture* 

hesiter, to hesitate* 

inciter, to incite 

incliner, to incline 

induire, to induce 

instruire, to instruct 

(s)*interesser, to interest (in) 

inviter, to invite 

laisser, to leave*^ 

manquer, to fail (in) * 

mettre, to put 

se mettre, to begin 

obliger, to oblige, compel* 

s'obliger, to bind one's self* 

s'obstiner, to persist (in) 

(s) *occuper, to employ (in) * 

parvenir, to succeed (in) 

passer, to spend (in) 

penser, to thinklf 

persister, to persist (in) 

se plaire, to delight (in) 

porter, to lead 

pousser, to urge 

prendre garde, to take care (in the 

sense of avoid)i 
prendre soin, to take care* 
pretendre, to claimif 
recommencer, to begin again* 
reduire, to reduce 
renoncer, to renounce 
se resigner, to resign one's self 
resoudre, to induce* 
se resoudre', to resolve 
Tester, to remain 
reussir, to succeed 
servir, to serve 
songer, to think (of) 
souffrir, to suffer* 
suffire, to suffice' 
tarder, to delay (in) 
tendre, to tend 
tenir, to insist 
travailler, to work 
trembler, to tremble (at, on) 
venir, to happen-f 
(se) vouer, to devote 

* Sometimes followed by de. 

t Sometimes followed by direct infinitive. 

X Takes k when afl&rmative infinitive, but may take de when negative. 

Grammatical Appendix 287 

(a) Distinctions of Meanings of Verbs. 

decider a, to induce laisser, to permit 

decider de, to decide laisser k, to leave one to 

determiner a, to induce laisser de, to leave off, stop 

determiner de, to determine manquer de, to come near (doing) 

dire, to say manquer a, to fail in 

dire de, to tell (a person) to (do so and prendre garde k, to take care to 

so) prendre garde de, to take care not to 

s*empresser a, to he ea^er to resoudre H, to induce 

s'empresser de, to hasten to resoudre de, to resolve 

jurer, to swear (to the truth of a venir, to come to (come and) 

statement) venir k, to happen to 

jurer de, to swear (to do so and so) venir de, to have just 


330. Principal Parts. The tenses of all regular verbs, and of most 
irregular verbs are formed in the following manner: 

1. From the Infinitive. 

(a) The Future, by adding -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont. 

(b) The Past Future, or Conditional, by adding -ais, -ais, -ait, ions, 
-iez, -aient. 

Note. For both tenses the final re of the third conjugation is changed 
to r. Thus, perdre gives perdrai, etc. 

2. From the Present Participle: the final -ant being dropped: 

(a) The plural of the Present Indicative by adding -ons, -ez, -ent. 

(5) The Past Descriptive, by adding -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient. 

(c) The plural of the Imperative, by adding -ons, -ez. 

(d) The Present Subjunctive, by adding -e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez, -ent. 

3. From the Past Participle: 

(a) The Compound Tenses, with avoir as the auxiliary for all transi- 
tive verbs and for most intransitive verbs; with etre as the auxiliary for 
all reflexive verbs, and for a few intransitive verbs (mostly denoting 

{h) The Passive, with etre as the auxiliary. 

4. From the Present Indicative stem: 

(a) The singular of the Present Indicative, the endings being -e, -es, 
-e, (first conjugation); -is, -is, -it (second conjugation); -s, -s, -t (third 

(6) The singular of the Imperative, the -s of the First Conjugation 
being dropped except when y or en follows. 

288 The Elements of French 

5. From the Past Absolute stem: 

(a) The Past Absolute, the endings being -ai, -as, -a, -^mes,- -^tes, 
-erent (first conjugation), and -is, -is, -it, -imes, ites, -irent (second and 
third conjugations). 

(6) The Past Subjunctive, the final letter of the first singular (-i or 
-s) being dropped, and the following endings added: -sse, -sses, -'^t, 
-ssions, -ssiez, -ssent. 


331. First Conjugation. (Infinitive ends in -er). 

Infinitive — donner, to give 
Present Partioiple — donnant, giving 
Past Participle — donne, given 
Present Indicative — je donne, I give 
Past Absolute — je donnai, / gave 

332. Second Conjugation (Infinitive ends in -ir). 

Infinitive — finir, to finish 
Present Participle — finissant, finishing 
Past Participle — ■ fini, finished 
Present Indicative — je finis, / finish 
Past Absolute — je finis, / finished 

333. Third Conjugation (Infinitive ends in -re) 

Infinitive — perdre, to lose 
Present Participle — perdant, losing 
Past Participle — perdu, lost 
Present Indicative — je perds, / lose 
Past Absolute — je perdis, / lost 

Indicative Mood 


I give, I am giving, I do I finish, I am finishing, I lose, I am losing, I do 

give, etc. / do finish, etc. lose, etc. 

je donn e je fin is je perd s 

tu donn es tu fin is tu perd s 

H donn e il fin it il perd* 

nous donn ons nous fin iss ons nous perd ons 

vous donn ez vous fin iss ez vous perd ez 

ils donn ent ils fin iss ent ils perd ent 

* The t of this ending is res;ularly missing after a stem ending in c, d, or t. 
In the verb rompre, to break, on the other hand, the third singular of the present 
indicative is il rompt. 

Grammatical Appendix 


Past Descriptive 

I was giving, I used to I was finishing, I used to 

give, etc. finish, etc. 

je donn ais je fin iss ais 

tu donn ais tu fin iss ais 

II donn ait il fin iss ait 
nous donn ions nous fin iss ions 
vous donn iez vous fin iss iez 
ils donn aient ils fin iss aient 

/ was losing, I used to 

lose, etc. 
je perd ais 
tu perd ais 
il perd ait 
nous perd ions 
vous perd iez 
ils perd aient 

/ gave, etc. 
je donn ai 
tu donn as 
il doDn a 
nous donn imes 
vous donn ^tes 
ils donn erent 

/ shall give, etc. 
je donner ai 
tu donner as 
il donner a 
nous donner ons 
vous donner ez 
ils donner ont 

I should give, etc. 

je donner ais 

tu donner ais 

il donner ait 

nous donner ions 

vous donner iez 

ils donner aient 

Give, etc. 
donn e* 
donn ons 
donn ez 

Past Absolute 

I finished, etc. 
je fin is 
tu fin is 
il fin it 
nous fin imes 
vous fin ites 
ils fin irent 


I shall finish, etc. 
je finir ai 
tu finir as 
il finir a 
nous finir ons 
vous finir ez 
ils finir ont 

Past Future, or Conditional 

I should finish, etc. 

je finir ais 

tu finir ais 

il finir ait 

nous finir ions 

vous finir iez 

ils finir aient 

Imperative Mood 


Finish, etc. Lose, etc. 

fin is perd s 

fin iss ons perd ons 

fin iss ez perd ez 

/ lost, etc. 
je perd is 
tu perd is 
il perd it 
nous perd imes 
vous perd ites 
ils perd irent 

/ shall lose, etc. 
je perdr ai 
tu perdr as 
il perdr a 
nous perdr ons 
vous perdr ez 
ils perdr ont 

/ should lose, etc. 
je perdr ais 
tu perdr ais 
il perdr ait 
nous perdr ions 
vous perdr iez 
ils perdr aient 

* Donne is the only imperative form of the regular conjugations which is 
not the same as the corresponding form of the present indicative, but donne 
becomes donnes before -y or -en. 


The Elements of French 

I (may) give, etc. 
je donn e 
tu donn es 
il donn e 
nous donn ions 
vous donn iez 
ils donn ent 

/ (might) give, etc. 
je donn asse 

Subjunctive Mood 


I (may) finish, etc. 

je fin iss e 

tu fin iss es 

il fin iss e 

nous fin iss ions 

vous fin iss iez 

ils fin iss ent 


/ (might) finish, etc. 
je fin iss e 

I (may) lose, etc. 
je perd e 
tu perd es 
il perd e 
nous perd ions 
vous perd iez 
ils perd ent 

I (might) lose, etc. 
je perd iss e 

tu donn asses tu 

fin iss 


tu perd iss es 

il donn at il 

fin it 

il perd it 

nous donn assions nous 

fin iss 

ions nous perd iss ions 

vous donn assiez vous 

fin iss iez 

vous perd iss iez 

ils donn assent ils 

fin iss 


ils perd iss ent 



334. Avoir. 

335. fetre. 

Infinitive — avoir, to have 

Infinitive — etre, to he 

Pres. Part. — ayant, having 

Pres. Part. — etant, being 

Past Part.— eu, had 

Past Part. — ete, been 

Pres. Ind. — ai, have 

Pres. Ind. — suis, am 

Past Absolute — eus, had 

Past Absolute — fus, was 



I have, am having, etc. 

I am, am being, etc. 

j' ai nous avons 

je suis nous sommes 

tu as vous avez 

tu es vous ^tes 

il a ils ont 

"il est ils sont 

I had, was having, etc. 

Past Descriptive 

I was, was being, etc. 

y avais 
tu avais 
il avait 

nous avions 
vous aviez 
ils avaient 

J 6tais 
tu etais 
il 6tait 

Past Absolute 

nous §tions 
vous 6tiez 
ils 6taient 

/ hadt etc. 
j' eus 
tu eus 
il eut 

nous edmes 
vous etltes 
ils eurent 

I was, etc. 
je fus 
tu fus 
il fut 

nous ftimes 
vous fdltes 
ils furent 

Grammatical Appendix 



/ 8?iall have, etc. 

/ shall he, etc. 

J aural 

nous aurons 

je serai 

nous serons 

tu auras 

vous aurez 

tu seras 

voiis serez 

il aura 

ils auront 

il sera 

ils seront 

Past Future, or Conditional 

/ should have, 


I should he. 


j' aurais 

nous aurions 

je serais 

nous serious 

tu aurais 

vous auriez 

tu serais 

vous seriez 

il aurait 

ils auraient 

il serait 

ils seraient 

Have, etc. 


Be, etc. 






I (may) have. 


/ (may) he. 


y aie 

nous ayons 

je sois 

nous soyons 

tu aies 

vous ayez 

tu sois 


vous soyez 

il ait 

ils aient 

il soit 

ils soient 


I (might) have, etc. 

I (might) he, etc. 

j eusse 
tu eusses 
il e<it 

nous eussions 
vous eussiez 
ils eussent 

je fusse 
tu fusses 
il fdt 

nous fussions 
vous fussiez 
ils fussent 


336. Most verbs in French form their compound tenses from the past 
participle and the auxiliary verb avoir. A few verbs use the auxiliary 
etre instead. 

337. Avoir donne 

To have given 
avoir donne 

Having given 
ay ant donne 

338. i^tre venu 



To have come 
§tre venu(e) (s) 

Having come 
6tant venu(e)(s) 


The Elements of French 


Present Perfect 

I have given, I gave, etc. 

j'aidonne nous avons donne 
tu as donne vous avez donne, etc. 

Past Perfect 
I had given, etc. 

j 'avals donne, etc. 

Second Past Perfect, or Past Anterior 

/ have come, I came, eta, 

je suis venu(e) 
tu es venu(e), etc. 

/ had come, etc. 
j'etais venu(e), etc. 

/ had given, etc. 
j'eus donn6, etc. 

/ shall have giveut etc. 
j*aurai donn6, etc. 

Future Perfect 

I had come, etc. 
je fus venu(e), etc. 

/ shall have come, etc. 
je serai venu(e), etc. 

Past Future (Conditional) Perfect 

I should have given, etc. 
j'aurais donn6, etc. 

/ (may) Jiave given, etc. 
j'aie donn6, etc. 

I (might) have given, etc. 
j'eusse donn6, etc. 

Present Perfect 

Past Perfect 

I should have come, etc. 
je serais venu(e), etc. 

/ (may) have come, etc. 
je soia venu(e), etc. 

/ (might) have come, etc . 
je fusse venu(e), etc. 


339. Verbs in -cer change c to 5 before a or o in an ending, so that the 
soft (s) sound of c may remain throughout. 

Placer, to place. 

Pres. Part, 


Pres. Indie. 

Past Desc. 

Past Absolute 

Past Subj. 

























Grammatical Appendix 


340. Verbs in -ger change g to ge before an ending with a or o, so 
that the soft (3) sound of g may remain throughout. 


to eat. 

Pres. Part. 

Pres. Indie. 

Past Desc. 

Past Absolute 

Past Subj. 


























341. Verbs in -yer change y to i before e mute. 

Exception. Verbs in -ayer and -eyer may retain the y. 

Employer, to use. 
Payer, to pay. 

Pres. Indie. 


Past Future 
or Conditional 

Pres. Subj. 

emploie, etc. 
paie /etc. 

emploierai, etc. 
paierai /etc. 

emploierais, etc. 
paierais /etc. 

emploie, etc 

paie / 

342. Verbs Having e or e as the Stem Vowel. 

Verbs having e or e as the stem vowel change to e when the next syl- 
lable contains a mute e. 

Mener, to leadj arid ceder, to yield. 

Pres. Indicc 

Pres. Subj. 


Past Future 
or Cond. 

























m^ne menons 

Observe, however, that in c6der the stem vowel € remains unchanged 
in the future and in the past future: 
eede, etc. cede, etc. cederai, etc. cederais, etc. 

Note 1. In mene-je, since the e of the ending is not mute, the stem- 
vowel is not changed. 

Note 2. Verbs like creer, to create, are regular: cr6e, etc. 

Exception. Most verbs in -eler, -eter double the 1 or the t instead of 
changing e mute to e. 


The Elements of French 

Pres. Indie. 







jette, etc. 


to call 


Past Future 

Pres. Subj. 



















Jeter, to throw 
jetterai, etc. jetterais, etc. jette, etc. 

343. Observe. A few verbs in -eler and in -eter are conjugated like 

acheter, to buy. 
achete, etc. acheterai, etc. acheterais, etc. 

Like acheter are conjugated the following verbs: 

achete, etc. 

becqueter, to peck 
bourreler, to goad 
demanteler, to dismantle 
e cartel er, to quarter 
epousseter, to dust* 
etiqueter, to label 

geler, to freeze 
harceler, to harass 
marteler, to hammer 
modeler, to model 
peler, to peel 
rapiecer, to piece 

344. Aller, to go (auxiliary etre). 

1. Infinitive, aller. Future, irai, iras, ira, etc. Past Future, irais, 

2. Present Participle, allant. Present Indicative, plural, allons, 
allez, vont. Past Descriptive, allais, etc. Imperative, plural, allons, allez. 
Present Subjunctive, aille, allies, aille, allions, alliez, aillent. 

3. Past Participle, alle. ' Perfect, je suis alle(e), etc. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, vais, vas, va. Imperative, singular, 
va, but vas-y. 

5. Past Absolute, allai, alias, alia, allames, allates, allerent. Past 
Subjunctive, allasse, allasses, allat, allassions, allassiez, allassent. 

Like aller: 

s'en aller, to go away. 

346. Envoyer, to send (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, envoyer. Future, enverrai, etc. Past Future, enverrais, 

* May be written epousseterai, also, in the future. 

Grammatical Appendix 295 

2. Present Participle, envoyant. Present Indicative, plural, envoyons, 
envoyez, envoient. Past Descriptive, envoyais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
envoyons, envoyez. Present Subjunctive, en vole, en voles, envoie, envoy- 
ions, envoyiez, envoient. 

3. Past Participle, envoye. Perfect, j'ai envoy^, etc. 

4. Present Indicative, envoie, envoies, envoie. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, envoyai, envoyas, envoya, envoyames, envoyates, 
envoyerent. Past Subjunctive, envoyasse, envoyasses, envoyat, envoyas- 
sions, envoyassiez, envoyassent. 

Like envoyer: 

renvoyer, to send away, dismiss, refer to. 


346. Acquerir, to acquire (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, acquerir. Future, acquerrai, acquerras, acquerra, etc. 
Past Future, acquerrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, acquerant. Present Indicative, plural, acquer- 
ons, acquerez, acquierent. Past Descriptive, acquerais, etc. Imperative, 
plural, acquerons, acquerez. Present Subjunctive, acquiere, acquieres, 
acquiere, acquerions, acqueriez, acquierent. 

3. Past Participle, acquis. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, acquiers, acquiers, acquiert. Impera- 
tive, singular, acquiers. 

5. Past Absolute, acquis, acquis, acquit, acqi:dmes, acquttes, acquirent. 
Past Subjunctive, acquisse, acquisses, acquit, acquissions, acquissiez, 

Like acquerir: 
conquerir, to conquer reconquerir, to reconquer 

s'enquerir, to inquire requerir, to require, daim 

347. Benir, to hless (auxiliary avoir). Besides the regular forms, this 
verb has also an irregular past participle, used only as an adjective: 

Pain benit, consecrated bread; eau benite, holy water, 

348. Cotirir, to run (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, courir. Future, courrai, courras, etc. Past Future, 
courrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, courant. Present Indicative, plural, courons, 
courez, courent. Past Descriptive, courais, etc. Imperative, plural, cou- 
rons, courez. Present Subjimctive, coure, coures, coure, courions, couriez, 

296 The Elements of French 

3. Past Participle, couru. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, cours, cours, court. Imperative, 
singular, cours. 

5. Past Absolute, courus, courus, courut, courumes, courutes, 
coururent. Past Subjunctive, courusse, courusses, couriit, courussions, 
courussiez, courussent. 

Like courir are its compounds: 
accourir, to run up, to hasten discourir, to discourse 

concourir, to cooperate, compete encourir, to incur 

parcourir, to run over secourir, to succor, help 

recourir, to apply, run again 

349. Cueillir, to gather, pick (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, cueillir. Future, cueillerai, etc. Past Future, cueillerais, 

2. Present Participle, cueillant. Present Indicative, plural, cueillons, 
cueillez, cueillent. Past Descriptive, cueillais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
cueillons, cueillez. Present Subjunctive, cueille, cueilles, cueille, cueillions, 
cueilliez,. cueillent. 

3. Past Participle, cueilli. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, cueille, cueilles, cueille. Imperative 
singular, cueille. 

5. Past Absolute, cueillis, cueillis, cueillit, cueillimes, cueillites, cueilli- 
rent. Past Subjunctive, cueillisse, cueillisses, cueillit, cueillissions, 
cueillissiez, cueillissent. 

Observe. This verb is conjugated like donner in the present future, and 
past future, as well as in the present and imperfect. 

Like cueillir: 
accueillir, to welcome saillir, to jut out'\' 

recueillir, to gather tressaillir, to start 

assaillir, to assail* 

350. Dormir, to sleep (auxiliary avoir). 

L Infinitive, dormir. Future, dormirai, etc. Past Future, dormirais, 

2. Present Participle, dormant. Present Indicative, plural, dormons, 
dormez, dorment. Past Descriptive, dormais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
dormons, dormez. Present Subjunctive, dorme, dormes, dorme, dormions, 
dormiez, dorment. 

3. Past Participle, dormi. 

* Regular in the future and in the past future: assaillirai, etc. 
t Saillir, meaning to gush out, rush forth, is conjugated like finir. 

Grammatical Appendix 297 

4. Present Indicative, singular, dors, dors, dort. Imperative, singular, 

• 5. Past Absolute, dormis, dormis, dormit, dormimes, dormttes, dor- 
mirent. Past Subjunctive, dormisse, dormisses, dormit, dormissions, dor- 
missiez, dormissent. 

Like dormir: 
endormir, io put to sleep se departir, to desist 

s*endormir, to fall asleep repartir, to set out again, reply 

redormir, to sleep again se repentir, to repent (Present Indica- 

rendormir, to put to sleep again live, je me repens, etc.) 

se rendormir, to go to sleep again sentir, to feel (Present Indicative, je 

bouillir, to boil (Present Indicative, sens, etc.) 

bous, bous, etc.) consentir, to consent 

Ibouillir, to boil away ressentir, to feel 

rebouillir, to boil again servir, to serve (Present Indicative, je 

mentir, to lie (Present Indicative, je sers, etc.) 

mens, etc.) se servir, to make use 

dementir, to contradict, belie desservir, to clear the table 

partir, to set out, start (Present Indica- sortir, to go out (Present Indicative, je 

tive, je pars, etc.) sors, etc.) 

departir, to distribute ressortir, to go out again 

Note. The following verbs are conjugated like finir: asservir, to enslave, 
assortir, to sort, match, ressortir, to depend (on, k) , repartir, to distribute. 

351. Faillir, to fail j (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, faillir. Future, faudrai, faudras, etc. Past Future, 
faudrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, faillant. Present Indicative, plural, faillons, 
faillez, faillent. Past Descriptive, faillais, etc. Imperative, plural, want- 
ing. Present Subjunctive, faille, failles, faille, faillions, failliez, faillent. 

3. Past Participle, failli. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, faux, faux, faut. Imperative, singu- 
lar, wanting. 

5. Past Absolute, faillis, faillis, faillit, faillimes, faillites, faillirent. 
Past Subjunctive, faillisse, faillisses, failHt, faillissions, faillissiez, faillissent. 

Like faillir: 
defaillir, to faint, fail 

Observe. Faillir, when meaning to fail in business, is regular, like finir. 

352. Fleurir, to flourish ^ etc. (auxiliary avoir). 

This verb is conjugated like finir, except that in the Present Participle 
and in the Past Descriptive there are two sets of forms: 

(a) Present Participle, fieurissant. Past Descriptive, fleurissais, 
meaning to blossom or flourish, literally, as of flowers, etc. 

if)) Present Participle, florissant. Past Descriptive, florissais, mean- 
ing to flourish in the figurative sense, as of persons. 

298 The Elements of French 

353. Fuir, to flee J fly (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, fuir. Future, fuirai, etc. Past Future, fuirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, fuyant. Present Indicative, plural, fuyons, 
fuyez, fuient. Past Descriptive, fuyais, etc. Imperative, plural, fuyons, 
fuyez. Present Subjunctive, fuie, fuies, fuie, fuyions, fuyiez, fuient. 

3. Past Participle, fui. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, fuis, fuis, fuit. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, fuis, fuis, fuit, fuimes, fuites, fuirent. Past Sub- 
junctive, fuisse, fuisses, fuit, fuissions, fuissiez, fuissent. 

Like fuir: 
s*enfuir, to flee, escape 

354. Gesir, to lie, lie buried. 

1. Infinitive, gesir. Future, wanting. Past Future, wanting. 

2. Present Participle, gisant. Present Indicative, plural, gisons, 
gisez, gisent. Past Descriptive, gisais, etc. Imperative, plural, wanting. 
Present Subjunctive, wanting. 

3. Past Participle, wanting. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, , , gtt. 

5. Past Absolute, wanting. Past Subjunctive, wanting. 

355. Hair, to hate (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, hair. Future, hairai, etc. Past Future, hairais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, haissant. Present Indicative, plural, haissons, 
haissez, haissent. Past Descriptive, haissais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
haissons, haissez. 

3. Past Participle, hai. 

4. Present Indicative,* singular, hais, hais, halt. Imperative, singu- 
lar, hais. 

5. Past Absolute, hais, hais, hait, haimes, t haites, t hairent. Past 
Subjunctive, haisse, haisses, hait, f haissions, haissiez, haissent. 

356. Mourir, to die (auxiliary etre). 

1. Infinitive, mourir. Future, mourrai, etc. Past Future, mourrais, 

2. Present Participle, mourant. Present Indicative, plural, mourons, 
mourez, meurent. Past Descriptive, mourais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
mourons, mourez, etc. Present Subjunctive, meure, meures, meure, 
mourions, mouriez, meurent. 

* These forms lose the dieresis. 

t These forms take no circumflex accent. 

Grammatical Appendix 299 

3. Past Participle, mort. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, meurs, meurs, meurt. Imperative, 
singular, meurs. 

5. Past Absolute, mourus, mourus, mourut, mourumes, mouriites, 
moururent. Past Subjunctive, mourusse, mourusses, mouriit, mounis- 
sions, inourussiez, mourussent. 

Note. The stem vowel ou regularly changes to eu when stressed. 

Like mourir: 
se mourir, to he dying (found only in the infinitive, in the present indicative, 
and in the past descriptive) . 

357. Ouvrir, to open (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, ouvrir. Future, ouvrirai, etc. Past Future, ouvrirais, 

2. Present Participle, ouvrant. Present Indicative, plural, ouvrons, 
ouvrez, ouvrent. Past Descriptive, ouvrais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
ouvrons, ouvrez. Present Subjunctive, ouvre, ouvres, ouvre, ouvrions, 
ouvriez, ouvrent. 

3. Past Participle, ouvert. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, ouvre, ouvres, ouvre. Imperative, 
singular, ouvre. 

5. Past Absolute, ouvris, ouvris, ouvrit, ouvrimes, ouviites, ouvrirent. 
Past Subjunctive, ouvrisse, ouvrisses, ouvrit, ouvrissions, ouvrissiez, 

Note. Ouvrir is conjugated like donner in the present indicative, 
present subjunctive, and in the imperative. 

Like ouvrir: 
entr'ouvrir, to open slightly recouvrir, to cover again 

rouvrir, to open again oflfrir, to offer 

couvrir, to cover souflfrir, to suffer 

decouvrir, to discover 

358. Tenir, to hold (auxiliary avoir). 

L Infinitive, tenir. Future, tiendrai, etc. Past Future, tiendrais, 

2. Present Participle, tenant. Present Indicative, plural, tenons, 
tenez, tiennent. Past Descriptive, tenais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
tenons, tenez. Present Subjunctive, tienne, tiennes, tienne, tenions, 
teniez, tiennent. 

3. Past Participle, tenu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, tiens, tiens, tient. Imperative, sin- 
gular, tiens. 

300 The Elements of French 

5. Past Absolute, tins, tins, tint, tinmes, tintes, tinrent. Past Sub- 
junctive, tinsse, tinsses, tint, tinssions, tinssiez, tinssent. 

Note 1. The characteristic vowel of the past absolute and of the past 
subjunctive is written in. 

Note 2. The stem vowel e becomes ie whenever it bears the stress. 

Like tenir are its compounds: 

s'abstenir, to abstain maintenir, to maintain 

appartenir, to belong obtenir, to obtain 

contenir, to contain retenir, to retain 

detenir, to detain soutenir, to sustain 
entretenir, to entertain 

359. Venir, to come. 

Conjugated exactly like tenir, except that the auxiHary is etre. 

1. Infinitive, venir. Future, viendrai, etc. Past Future, viendrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, venant. Present Indicative, plural, venons, 
venez, viennent. Past Descriptive, venais, etc. Imperative, plural, venons, 
venez. Present Subjunctive, vienne, viennes, vienne, venions, veniez 

3. Past Participle, venu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, viens, viens, vient. Imperative, 
singular, viens. 

5. Past Absolute, vins, vins, vint, vinmes, vintes, vinrent. Past 
Subjunctive, vinsse, vinsses, vint, vinssions, vinssiez, vinssent. 

Note 1. The characteristic vowel of the past absolute and of the past 
subjunctive is written in. 

Note 2. The stem vowel e becomes ie whenever it bears the stress. 

Like venir are its compounds: 
convenir, to agree, suit revenir, to come back, come to (of bills, 

contrevenir, to violate etc.) 

circonvenir, to circumvent redevenir, to become again 

devenir, to become se souvenir, to recollect 

intervenir, to intervene subvenir, to aid 

parvenir, to attain survenir, to occur 

prevenir, to prevent se ressouvenir, to recollect 

provenir, to proceed (from, de) 

360. Vetir, to clothe (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, v^tir. Future, vetirai, etc. Past Future, v^tirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, vetant. Present Indicative, plural, vetons, 
v^tez, vetent. Past Descriptive, vetais, etc. Imperative, plural, vetons, 
vetez. Present Subjunctive, vete, v^tes, vete, vetions, vetiez, vetent. 

3. Past Participle, vetu. 

Grammatical Appendix 301 

4. Present Indicative, singular, v^ts, v^ts, vet. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, vetis, vetis, vetit, vettmes, v^tttes, v^tirent. Past 
Subjunctive, vetisse, vetisses, vettt, vetissions, vefcissiez, vetissent. 

Like vetir : 
devetir, to divest revStir, to clothe again 

se dev6tir, to take off clothing se revetir, to put on clothing 


361. Battre, to heat (auxiliary avoir). 

Conjugated like perdre, except that it has only one t in the stem of the 
Present Indicative, singular, bats, bats, bat. Imperative, singular, bats. 

Like battre: 
abattre, to fell se debattre, to struggle 

combattre, to fight rabattre, to beat down 

debattre, to debate 

362. Boire, to drink (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, boire. Future, boirai, etc. Past Future, boirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, buvant. Present Indicative, plural, buvons, 
buvez, boivent. Past Descriptive, buvais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
buvons, buvez. Present Subjunctive, boive, boives, boive, buvions, 
buviez, boivent. 

3. Past Participle, bu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, bois, bois, boit. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, bus, bus, but, btimes, bMes, burent. Past Sub- 
junctive, busse, busses, biit, bussions, bussiez, bussent. 

Note. The stem vowel u of the present participle changes to oi when- 
ever it bears tHe stress. 

Like boire: 
reboire, to drink again 

363. Conclure, to conclude (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, conclure. Future, conclurai, etc. Past Future, con- 
clurais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, concluant. Present Indicative, plural, conclu- 
ons, concluez, concluent. Past Descriptive, concluais, etc. Imperative, 
plural, concluons, concluez. Present Subjunctive, conclue, conclues, con- 
clue, concluions, concluiez, concluent. 

3. Past Participle, conclu. 

302 The Elements of French • 

4. Present Indicative, singular, conclus, conclus, conclut. Imperative 
singular, conclus. 

5. Past Absolute, conclus, conclus, conclut, concWmes, concltites, con- 
clurent. Past Subjunctive, conclusse, conclusses, concltit, conclussions, 
conclussiez, conclussent. 

Like conclure: 
exclure, to exclude 

364. Conduire, to conduct (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, conduire. Future, conduirai, etc. Past Future, con- 
duirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, conduisant. Present Indicative, plural, con- 
duisons, conduisez, conduisent. Past Descriptive, conduisais, etc. Imper- 
ative, plural, conduisons, conduisez. Present Subjimctive, conduise, con- 
duises, conduise, conduisions, conduisiez, conduisent. 

3. Past Participle, conduit. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, conduis, conduis, conduit. Impera- 
tive, singular, conduis. 

5. Past Absolute, conduisis, conduisis, conduisit, conduistmes, con- 
duisttes, conduisirent. Past Subjunctive, conduisisse, conduisisses, con- 
duisit, conduisissions, conduisissiez, conduisissent. 

Like conduire: 

se conduire, to conduct one's self traduire, to translate 

econduire, to show out, dismiss construire, to construct 

reconduire, to lead back instraire, to instruct 

deduire, to deduct reconstruire, to reconstruct 

enduire, to coat (with plaster) detruire, to destroy 

induire, to induce cuire, to cook 

introduire, to introduce recuire, to cook again 

produire, to produce luire, to shine* 

reduire, to reduce reluire, to shine again* 

reproduire, to reproduce nuire, to injure^ 
seduire, to seduce 

365. Confire, to preserve (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, confire. Future, confirai, etc. Past Future, confirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, confisant. Present Indicative, plural, confisons, 
confisez, confisent. Past Descriptive, confisais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
confisons, confisez. Present Subjunctive, confise, confises, confise, con- 
fisions, confisiez, confisent. 

* Past participles lui and relui, respectively. Wanting in the past abso- 
lute and the past subjunctive, 
t Past participle, nui. 

Grammatical Appendix 303 

3. Past Participle, confit. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, confis, confis, confit. Imperative, sin- 
gular, confis. 

5. Past Absolute, confis, confis, confit, confimes, confttes, confirent. 
Past Subjunctive, confisse, confisses, confit, confissions, confissiez, con- 

Like confire: 
suffire (p. p. suffi), to suffice 

366. Connaitre, to know (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, connaitre. Future, connattrai, etc. Past Future, con- 
naitrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, connaissant. Present Indicative, plural, con- 
naissons, connaissez, connaissent. Past Descriptive, connaissais, etc. 
Imperative, plural, connaissons, connaissez. Present Subjunctive, con- 
naisse, connaisses, connaisse, connaissions, connaissiez, connaissent. 

3. Past Participle, connu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, connais, connais, connait. Impera- 
tive, singular, connais. 

5. Past Absolute, connus, connus, connut, conniimes, conntites, con- 
nurent. Past Subjunctive, connusse, connusses, conntat, connussions, 
connussiez, connussent. 

Note. The stem-vowel i takes the circumflex (i) everywhere before t. 

Like connaitre: 
meconnaitre, not to know disparaitre, to disappear 

reconnaitre, to recognize reparaitre, to reappear 

paraitre, to appear (seem) *paitre, to graze 
apparaitre, to appear (become visible) repaitre, to feed, feast 
comparaitre, to appear (law term) se repaitre, to feed, feast 

367. Coudre, to sew (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, coudre. Future, coudrai, etc. Past Future, coudrais, 

2. Present Participle, cousant. Present Indicative, plural, cousons, 
cousez, consent. Past Descriptive, cousais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
cousons, cousez. Present Subjunctive, couse, couses, couse, cousi- 
ons, cousiez, consent. 

3. Past Participle, cousu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, couds, couds, coud. Imperative, sin- 
gular, couds. 

* Wanting in the past participle, past absolute, imperative, and past sub- 


The Elements of French 

5. Past Absolute, cousis, cousis, cousit, cousimes, cousites, cousirent. 
Past Subjunctive, cousisse, cousisses, cousit, cousissions, cousissiez, cou- 

Like coudre: 
decoudre, to rip, unsew 

recoudre, to sew again 

368. Craindre, to fear (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, craindre. Future, craindrai, etc. Past Future, crain- 
drais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, craignant. Present Indicative, plural, craig- 
nons, craignez, craignent. Past Descriptive, craignais, etc. Imperative, 
plural, craignons, craignez. Present Subjunctive, craigne, craignes, 
craigne, craignions, craigniez, craignent. 

3. Past Participle, craint. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, crains, crains, craint. Imperative, 
singular, crains. 

5. Past Absolute, craignis, craignis, craignit, craignimes, craignites, 
craignirent. Past Subjunctive, craignisse, craignisses, craignit, craignis- 
sions, cfaignissiez, craignissent. 

Like craindre: 

in -aindre: 
contraindre, to constrain 
plaindre, to pity 
se plaindre, to complain 

in -eindre : 
astreindre, to compel 
atteindre, to attain 
ceindre, to enclose, gird, gird on (a 

sword, etc.) 
depeindre, to depict 
empreindre, to imprint 
enceindre, to gird 
enfreindre, to infringe 
eteindre, to extinguish 
f eindre, to feign 
geindre, to groan 

369. Croire, to believe (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, croire. Future, croirai, etc. Past Future, croirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, croyant. Present Indicative, plural, croyons, 
croyez, croient. Past Descriptive, croyais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
croyons, croyez. Present Subjunctive, croie, croies, croie, croyions, 
croyiez, croient. 

3. Past Participle, cru. 

peindre, to paint 
repeindre, to paint again 
restr eindre, to restrain 
teindre, to dye 
deteindre, to fade 
reteindre, to dye again 

in -eindre : 
joindre, to join 
adjoindre, to adjoin 
conjoindre, to conjoin 
disjoindre, to disjoin 
enjoindre, to enjoin 
rejoindre, to rejoin 
eindre, to anoint 

Grammatical Appendix 305 

4. Present Indicative, singular, crois, crois, croit. Imperative, singu- 
lar, crois. 

5. Past Absolute, crus, cms, crut, criimes, crutes, crurent. Past 
Subjunctive, crusse, crusses, crut, crussions, crussiez, crussent. 

Like croire : 
accroire, to believe (an untruth). Found only in faire accroire, to cause to 
believe (an untruth). 

370. Croitre, to grow (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, croitre. Future, croitrai, etc. Past Future, croitrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, croissant. Present Indicative, plural, croissons, 
croissez, croissant. Past Descriptive, croissais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
croissons, croissez. Present Subjunctive, croisse, croisses, croisse, crois- 
sions, croissiez, croissant. 

3. Past Participle, crii (feminine crue). 

4. Present Indicative, singular, crois, crois, crott. Imperative, singu- 
lar, crois. 

5. Past Absolute, crtls, crtis, criit, crtimes, criites, criirent. Past 
Subjunctive, criisse, crtlsses, crAt, crussions, crussiez, crussent. 

Note. Croitre takes the circumflex for all forms otherwise like those of 
croire, but may omit it in the past subjunctive (except in the third singular). 

Like croitre: 
accroitre, to increase* recroitre, to grow again* 

decroitre, to decrease surcroitre, to overgrow 

371. Dire, to say, tell (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, dire. Future, dirai, etc. Past Future, dirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, disant. Present Indicative, plural, disons, dites, 
disent. Past Descriptive, disais, etc. Imperative, plural, disons, dites. 
Present Subjunctive, dise, dises, dise, disions, disiez, disent. 

3. Past Participle, dit. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, dis, dis, dit. Imperative, singular, dis. 

5. Past Absolute, dis, dis, dit, dimes, dites, dirent. Past Subjunctive, 
disse, disses, dit, dissions, dissiez, dissent. 

Like dire : 
contredire, to contradict^ medire (de), to slander] 

dedire, to retract, deny] predire, to predict] 

interdire, to interdict] redire, to say again 

Note. Maudire, to curse, has maudissant, in the present participle. The 
present indicative plural, etc., are derived from the stem maudiss+. 

* No circumflex in past participle, past absolute, third singular, and third 

t The second plural present indicative and imperative is: Contredisez, 
d^disez, interdisez, medisez, predisez. 

306 The Elements of French 

372. Ecrire, to write (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, ecrire. Future, ecrirai, etc. Past Future, ecrirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, ecrivant. Present. Indicative, plural, ecrivons, 
ecrivez, ecrivent. Past Descriptive, ecrivais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
ecrivons, ecrivez. 

3. Past Participle, ecrit. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, ecris, ecris, ecrit. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, ecrivis, ecrivis, ecrivit, ecrivimes, ecrivites, ecrivi- 
rent. Past Subjunctive, ecrivisse, ecrivisses, ecrivit, ecrivissions, ecri- 
vissiez, ecrivissent. 

Like ecrire are all verbs in -(s)crire: 

circonscrire, to circumscribe proscrire, to proscribe 

decrire, to describe recrire, to rewrite 

inscrire, to inscribe souscrire, to subscribe 

prescrire, to prescribe transcrire, to transcribe 

373. Etre, to be (auxiliary avoir). See § 335. 

374. Faire, to do, make (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, faire. Future, ferai, etc. Past Future, ferais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, faisant. Present Indicative, plural, faisons, 
faites, font. Past Descriptive, faisais, etc. Imperative, plural, ffiisons, 
faites. Present Subjunctive, fasse, fasses, fasse, fassions, fassiez, fassent. 

3. Past Participle, fait. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, fais, fais, fait. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, fis, fis, fit, fimes, fites, firent. Past Subjunctive, 
fifise, fisses, fit, fissions, fissiez, fissent. 

Like faire : 

contrefaire, to imitate redefaire, to undo again 

defaire, to undo refaire, to do again 

forfaire, to forfeit satisfaire, to satisfy 

mefaire, to harm surfaire, to overcharge, over-praise 
parfaire, to complete 

375. Lire, to read (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, lire. Future, lirai, etc. Past Future, lirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, lisant. Present Indicative, plural, lisons, lisez, 
lisent. Past Descriptive, lisais, etc. Imperative, plural, lisons, lisez. 
Present Subjunctive, lise, lises, lise, lisions, lisiez, lisent. 

3. Past Participle, lu. 

Grammatical Appendix 307 

4. Present Indicative, singular, lis, lis, lit. Imperative, singular, lis. 

5. Past Absolute, lus, lus, lut, Mmes, liites, lurent. Past Subjunctive, 
lusse, lusses, liit, lussions, lussiez, lussent. 

• Like lire: ^ . ♦ 

#lire, to elect relire, to read again 

reelire, to re-elect 

376. Mettre, to place, put (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, mettre. Future, mettrai, etc. PastFuture, mettrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, mettant. Present Indicative, plural, mettons, 
mettez, mettent. Past Descriptive, mettais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
mettons, mettez. Present Subjunctive, mette, mettes, mette, mettions, 
mettiez, mettent. 

3. Past Participle, mis. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, mets, mets, met. Imperative, singu- 
lar, mets. 

5. Past Absolute, mis, mis, mit, mimes, mites, mirent. Past Sub- 
junctive, misse, misses, mit, missions, missiez, missent. 

Like mettre: 

se mettre (a), to begin omettre, to omit 

admettre, to admit permettre, to permit 

commettre, to commit promettre, to promise 

compromettre, to compromise remettre, to put hack, postpone 

demettre, to dismiss repromettre, to .promise again 

emettre, to emit soumettre, to submit 

s*entremettre, to interpose transmettre, to^ transmit 

377. Moudre, to grind (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, moudre. Future, moudrai, etc. Past Future, moudrais, 

2. Present Participle, moulant. Present Indicative, plural, moulons, 
moulez, moulent. Past Descriptive, moulais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
moulons, moulez. Present Subjunctive, moule, fnoules, moule, moulions, 
mouliez, moulent. 

3. Past Participle, moulu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, mouds, mouds, moud. Imperative, 
singular, mouds. 

5. Past Absolute, moulus, moulus, moulut, moulAmes, mouMtes, 
moulurent. Past Subjunctive, moulusse, moulusses, mouliit, moulussions, 
moulussiez, moulussent. 

Like moudre : 
emoudre, to whet remoudre, to sharpen 

remoudre, to grind a^ain 

308 The Elements of French 

378. Naitre, to be born (auxiliary etre). 

1. Infinitive, nattre. Future, naitrai, etc. Past Future, naltrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, naissant. Present Indicative, plural, naissons, 
naissez, naissent. Past Descriptive, naissais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
naissons, naissez. 

3. Past Participle, ne. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, nais, nais, nait. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, naquis, naquis, naquit, naquimes, naquttes, naqui- 
rent. Past Subjunctive, naquisse, naquisses, naquit, naquissions, naquis- 
siez, naquissent. 

Note. The stem-vowel i takes the circumflex (i) everywhere before t. 

Like naitre: 
re naitre, to revive 

379. Plaire, to please (auxiliary avoir). 

1. infinitive, plaire. Future, plairai, etc. Past Future, plairais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, plaisant. Present Indicative, plural, plaisons, 
plaisez, plaisent. Past Descriptive, plaisais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
plaisons, plaisez. Present Subjunctive, plaise, plaises, plaise, plaisions, 
plaisiez, plaisent. 

3. Past Participle, plu. 

4. Present Indicative, plais, plais, platt. Imperative, singular, plais. 

5. Past Absolute, plus, plus, plut, plilmes, pliites, plurent. Past Sub- 
junctive, plusse, plusses, pMt, plussions, plussiez, plussent. 

Like plaire: 
complaire, to humor taire*, to say nothing 

diplaire, to displease 

380. Prendre, to take (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, prendre. Future, prendrai, etc. Past Future, prendrais, 

2. Present Participle, prenant. Present Indicative, plural, prenons, 
prenez, prennent. Past Descriptive, prenais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
prenons, prenez. Present Subjunctive, prenne, prennes, prenne, prenions, 
preniez, prennent. 

3. Past Participle, pris. 

* II tait has no circumflex. 

Grammatical Appendix 309 

4. Present Indicative, singular, prends, prends, prend. Imperative, 
singular, prends. 

5. Past Absolute, pris, pris, prit, primes, prites, prirent. Past Sub- 
junctive, prisse, prisses, prit, prissions, prissiez, prissent. 

Like prendre are its compounds: 

apprendre, to learn s'eprendre(de) , to he taken (with) , to fall 
deprendre, to part in love 

desapprendre, to unlearn se meprendre, to he mistaken 

comprendre, to understand reprendre, to take hack 

entreprendre, to undertake surprendre, to surprise 

381. Resoudre, to resolve (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, resoudre. Future, resoudrai, etc. Past Future, r^soud- 
rais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, resolvant. Present Indicative, plural, resol- 
vons, resolvez, resolvent. Past Descriptive, r^solvais, etc. Imperative, 
plural, resolvons, resolvez. Present Subjunctive, resolve, resolves, resolve, 
resolvions, resolviez, resolvent. 

3. Past Participle, resolu, and r^sous. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, r6sous, resous, resout. Imperative, 
singiilar, resous. 

5. Past Absolute, resolus, resolus, resolut, resoMmes, resoWtes, r6- 
solurent. Past Subjunctive, resolusse, resolusses, resolut, resolussions, 
resolussiez, r^solussent. 

Like resoudre : 
absoudre*, to absolve dissoudre 'i', to dissolve 

382. Rire, to laugh (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, rire. Future, rirai, etc. Past Future, rirais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, riant. Present Indicative, plural, rions, riez, 
rient. Past Descriptive, rials, etc. Imperative, plural, rions, riez. Pres- 
ent Subjunctive, rie, ries, rie, riions, riiez, rient. 

3. Past Participle, ri. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, ris, ris, rit. Imperative, singular, ris. 

5. Past Absolute, ris, ris, rit, rimes, rites, rirent. Past Subjunctive, 
risse, risses, rtt, rissions, rissiez, rissent. 

Like rire : 
se rire, to make sport (of, de) sourire, to smile 

♦Past participle, absous (Fem. absoute); dissous (Fem. dissoute), respect- 
ively. Absoudre and dissoudre are wanting in the past absolute and in the 
past subjunctive. 

310 The Elements of French 

383. Suivre, to follow (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, suivre. Future, suivrai, etc. Past Future, suivrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, suivant. Present Indicative, plural, suivons, 
suivez, suivent. Past Descriptive, suivais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
suivons, suivez. Present Subjunctive, suive, suives, suive, suivions, 
suiviez, suivent. 

3. Past Participle, suivi. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, suis, suis, suit. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, suivis, suivis, suivit, suivimes, suivites, suivirent.' 
Past Subjunctive, suivisse, suivisses, suivit, suivissions, suivissiez, sui- 

Like suivre: 
s*ensuivre (impersonal), to follow poursuivre, to pursue 

384. Traire, to milk (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, traire. Future, trairai, etc. Past Future, trairais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, trayant. Present Indicative, plural, trayons, 
trayez, traient. Past Descriptive, trayais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
trayons, trayez. Present Subjunctive, traie, traies, traie, tray ions, 
trayiez, traient. 

3. Past Participle, trait. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, trais, trais, trait. Imperative, singu- 
lar, trais. 

5. Past Absolute, wanting. Past Subjunctive, wanting. 

Like traire : 
abstraire, to abstract retraire, to redeem (legal) 

distraire, to distract soustraire, to subtract 

extraire, to extract *braire, to bray 

rentraire, to darn 

385. Vaincre, to conquer (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, vaincre. Future, vaincrai, etc. Past Future, vaincrais 

2. Present Participle, vainquant. Present Indicative, plural, vain- 
quons, vainquez, vainquent. Past Descriptive, vainquais, etc. Imper- 
ative, plural, vainquons, vainquez. Present Subjunctive, yainque, vain- 
ques, vainque, vainquions, vainquiez, vainquent. 

3. Past Participle, vaincu. 

♦Usually found only in the infinitive and in the third person present 
indicative, future and past future. 

Grammatical Appendix 311 

4. Present Indicative, singular, vaincs, vaincs, vainc. Imperative, 
singular, vaincs. 

5. Past Absolute, vainquis, vainquis, vainquit, vainquimes, vainquites, 
vainquirent. Past Subjunctive, vainquisse, vainquisses, vainquit, vain- 
quissions, vainquissiez, vainqiiissent. 

Note. The c of the stem becomes qu before any vowel except u. 
Like vaincre : 
convaincre, to convince 

386. Vivre, to live (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, vivre. Future, vivrai, etc. Past Future, vivrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, vivant. Present Indicative, plural, vivons, 
vivez, vivent. Past Pescriptive, vivais, etc. Imperative, plural, vivons, 
vivez. Present Subjunctive, vive, vives, vive, vivions, viviez, vivent. 

3. Past Participle, vecu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, vis, vis, vit. Imperative, singular, vis. 

5. Past Absolute, vecus, vecus, vecut, vecumes, vecutes, v^curent. 
Past Subjunctive, vecusse, vecusses, vectit, v6cussions, vecussiez, vecus- 

Like vivre : 
revivre, to revive survivre, to survive 


See §334. 

387. Recevoir, io receive (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, recevoir. Future, recevrai, etc. Past Future, recevrais, 

2. Present Participle, recevant. ' Present Indicative, plural, recevons, 
recevez, regoivent. . Past Descriptive, recevais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
recevons, recevez. Present Subjunctive, regoive,. regoives, regoive, rece- 
vions, receviez, regoivent. 

3. Past Participle, regu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, regois, regois, regoit. Imperative, 
singular, regois. 

5. Past Absolute, regus, regus, regut, regiimes, regtites, regurent. 
Past Subjunctive, regusse, regusses, regtit, regussions, regussiez, regassent. 

Note 1. The stem vowel becomes oi whenever it bears the stress. 

Note 2. C becomes 5 before o or u, to keep the soft (s) sound of c. 

Like recevoir : 
apercevoir, to perceive decevoir, to deceive 

concevoir, to conceive percevoir, to collect taxes 

312 The Elements of French 

388. Devoir, to owe (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, devoir. Future, devrai, etc. Past Future, devrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, devant. Present Indicative, plural, devons, 
devez, doivent. Past Descriptive, devais, etc. Imperative, plural, want- 
ing. Present Subjunctive, doive, doives, doive, devions, deviez, doivent. 

3. Past Participle, d\X (Fern. due). 

4. Present Indicative, singular, dois, dois, doit. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, dus, dus, dut, dumes, diites, durent. Past Sub- 
junctive, dusse, dusses, dtlt, dussions, dussiez, dussent. 

Note. Devoir is conjugated like recevoir, except that the imperative is 

Like devoir: 
redevoir, to owe still 

389. Asseoir, to seat (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, asseoir. Future, assierai, etc. Past Future, assi^rais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, asseyant. Present Indicative, plural, asseyons, 
asseyez, asseyent. Past Descriptive, asseyais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
asseyons, asseyez. Present Subjunctive, asseye, asseyes, asseye, asseyions, 
asseyiez, asseyent. 

3. Past Participle, assis. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, assieds, assieds, assied. Imperative, 
singular, assieds. 

5. Past Absolute, assis, assis, assit, assimes, assttes, assirent. Past 
Subjunctive, assisse, assisses, assit, assissions, assissiez, assissent. 

Like asseoir: 

s'asseoir, to sit down se rasseoir, to sit down again 

• rasseoir, to reseat, calm seoir*, to he becoming 

390. Avoir, to have (auxiliary avoir). 

♦Used only in the third person of the following: Present Indicative, 
sied, sieent. Past Descriptive, seyait, seyaient. Present Subjunctive, si6e, 
si6ent. Future, siera, sieront. Past Future, si6rait, sieraient. 

Note. Besides the above forms of asseoir, the following are also found 
occasionally: assoyant (present participle); assois, assois, assoit, assoyons, 
assoyez, assoient (present indicative) ; assoyais, etc. (past descriptive) ; assoirai, 
etc., and asseyerai, etc. (future); assoirais, etc., and asseyerais, etc. (past 
future); assoie, etc. (present subjunctive); and assois, etc. (imperative). 

Grammatical Appendix 313 

391. Falloir, to be necessary, must (Impersonal. Auxiliary 

1. Infinitive, falloir. Future, il faudra. Past Future, il faudrait. 

2. Present Participle, wanting. Past Descriptive, il fallait. Present 
Subjunctive, il faille. 

3. Past Participle, fallu. 

4. Present Indicative, il faut. 

5. Past Absolute, il fallut. Past Subjunctive, il fallAt. 

Note. The imperative is wanting. 

392. Mouvoir, to move (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, mouvoir. Future, mouvrai, etc. Past Future, mouv- 
rais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, mouvant. Present Indicative, plural, mouvons, 
mouvez, meuvent. Past Descriptive, mouvais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
mouvons, mouvez. Present Subjunctive, meuve, meuves, meuve, mou- 
vions, mouviez, meuvent. 

3. Past Participle, mA (Fem. mue). 

4. Present Indicative, singular, mens, meus, meat. Imperative, 
singular, meus. 

5. Past Absolute, mus, mus, mat, mumes, mtites, murent. Past 
Subjunctive, musse, musses, miit, mussions, mussiez, mussent. 

Like mouvoir: 
gmouvoir, to arouse (no circumflex on the past participle) 

393. Pleuvoir, to rain (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, pleuvoir. Future, il pleuvra. Past Future, il pleuvrait. 

2. Present Participle, pleuvant. Past Descriptive, il pleuvait. Pres- 
ent Subjunctive, il pleuve. 

3. Past Participle, plu. 

4. Present Indicative, il pleut. 

5. Past Absolute, il plut. Past Subjunctive, il pMt. 

Note. The imperative is wanting. 

•394. Pouvoir, can, to he able (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, pouvoir. Future, pourrai, etc. Past Future, pourrais, 

314 The Elements of French 

2. Present Participle, pouvant. Present Indicative, plural, pouvons, 
pouvez, peuvent. Past Descriptive, pouvais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
wanting. Present Subjunctive, puisse, puisses, puisse, puissions, puissiez, 

3. Past Participle, pu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, peux or puis, peux, peut. Imperative, 
singular, wanting. 

5. Past Absolute, pus, pus, put, ptimes, piites, purent. Past Sub- 
junctive, pusse, pusses, ptit, pussions, pussiez, pussent. 

395. Savoir, to know, etc. (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, savoir. Future, saurai, etc. Past Future, saurais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, sachant. Present Indicative, plural, savons, 
savez, savent. Past Descriptive, savais, etc. Imperative, plural, sachons, 
sachez. Present Subjunctive, sache, saches, sache, sachions, sachiez, 

3. Past Participle, su. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, sais, sais, salt. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, sus, sus, sut, siimes, sutes, surent. Past Subjunc- 
tive, susse, susses, stit, sussions, sussiez, sussent. 

396. Valoir^ io he worth (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, valoir. Futiu"e, vaudrai, etc. Past Future, vaudrais, 

2. Present Participle, valant. Present Indicative, plural, valons, 
valez, valent. Past Descriptive, valais, etc. Imperative, plural, valons, 
valez. Present Subjunctive, vaille, vailles, vaille, valions, valiez, vaillent. 

3. Past Participle, valu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, vaux, vaux, vaut. Imperative, singu- 
lar, vaux. 

5. Past Absolute, valus, valus, valut, valiimes, valMes, valurent. 
Past Subjunctive, valusse, valusses, valut, valussions, valussiez, valussent. 

Like valoir: 
equivaloir, to he equivalent prevaloir, to prevail (present sub- 

revaloir, to pay back, return like for like junctive prevale, etc.) 

397. Voir, to see (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, voir. Future, verrai, etc. Past Future, verrais, etc. 

2. Present Participle, voyant. Present Indicative, plural, voyons, 
voyez, voient. Past Descriptive, voyais, etc. Imperative, plural, voyons, 

Grammatical Appendix 315 

voyez. Present Subjunctive, voie, voies, voie, voyions, voyiez, voient. 

3. Past Participle, vu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, vols, vois, voit. Imperative, singular, 

5. Past Absolute, vis, vis, vit, vtmes, vites, virent. Past Subjunc- 
tive, visse, visses, vit, vissions, vissiez, vissent. 

Like voir: 
entrevoir, to catch sight of pourvoir*, to provide 

revoir, to see again pre voir*, to foresee 

398. Vouloir, to wish J will (auxiliary avoir). 

1. Infinitive, vouloir. Future, voudrai, etc. Past Future voudrais, 

2. Present Participle, voulant. Present Indicative, plural, voulons, 
voulez, veulent. Past Descriptive, voulais, etc. Imperative, plural, 
voulons, voulez. t Present Subjtmctive, veuille, veuilles, veuille, voulions, 
vouliez, veuillent. 

3. Past Participle, voulu. 

4. Present Indicative, singular, veux, veux, veut. Imperative, singu- 
lar, veux. 

5. Past Absolute, voulus, voulus, voulut, voulilmes, vouliites, voulu- 
rent. Past Subjunctive, voulusse, voulusses, voulut, voulussions, voulus- 
6iez, voulussent. 

* Past absolute -vus, etc. ; past subjunctive, -vusse, etc. ; future and past 
future, -voirai(s), etc. 

t Veuillez is generally used as the second plural of the imperative. 


{The numerals refer to articles) 

abattre, 361 
absoudre, 381 
(s)'abstenir, 358 
abstraire, 384 
accourir, 348 
accroire, 369 
accroitre, 370 
accueillir, 349 
acquerir, 346 
adjoindre, 368 
admettre, 376 
aller, 344 
apercevoir, 387 
apparaitre, 366 
appartenir, 358 
apprendre, 380 
assaillir, 349 
(s)'asseoir, 389 
astreindre, 368 
atteindre, 368 
avoir, 390 

battre, 361 
b^nir, 347 
boire, 362 
bouillir, 350 
braire, 384 

ceindre, 368 
circonscrire, 372 
circonvenir, 359 
combattre, 361 
commettre, 376 
comparattre, 366 
complaire, 379 
comprendre, 380 
compromettre, 376 
concevoir, 387 

conclure, 363 
concourir, 348 
(se) conduire, 364 
confire, 365 
conjoindre, 368 
connaltre, 366 
conquerir, 346 
consentir, 350 
construire, 364 
contenir, 358 
contraindre, 368 
contredire, 371 
contrefaire, 374 
contrevenir, 359 
convaincre, 385 
convenir, 359 
coudre, 367 
courir, 348 
couvrir, 357 
craindre, 368 
croire, 369 
crottre, 370 
cueillir, 349 
cuire, 364 

(se) d^battre, 361 
d^cevoir, 387 
d^coudre, 367 
d^couvrir, 357 
d^crire, 372 
d^crottre, 370 
d^dire, 371 
d^duire, 364 
d^faillir, 351 
d^faire, 374 
dementir, 350 
demettre, 376 
(se) departir, 350 


depeindre, 368 
deplaire, 379 
d^prendre, 380 
desapprendre, 380 
desservir, 350 
deteindre, 368 
detenir, 358 
detruire, 364 
devenir, 359 
(se) dev^tir, 360 
devoir, 388 
dire, 371 
discourir, 348 
disjoindre, 368 
disparaitre, 366 
dissoudre, 381 
dormir, 350 

^bouillir, 350 
^conduire, 364 
^crire, 372 
61ire, 375 
dmettre, 376 
^inoudre, 377 
^mouvoir, 392 
empreindre, 368 
enceindre, 368 
encourir, 348 
(s)'endormir, 350 
enduire, 364 
enfreindre, 368 
(s)'enfuir, 353 
enjoindre, 368 
(s)'enqu^rir, 346 
(s)'ensuivre, 383 
(s)'entremettre, 376 
entreprendre, 380 
entretenir, 358 

Index of Irregular Verbs 


entrevoir, 397 
entr'ouvrir, 357 
envoyer, 345 
(s)'eprendre, 380 
equivaloir, 396 
etre, 373 
exclure, 363 
extraire, 384 

faillir, 351 
faire, 374 
falloir, 391 
feindre, 368 
fleurir, 352 
forfaire, 374 
fuir, 353 

geindre, 368 
g^ir, 354 

hair, 355 

induire, 364 
inscrire, 372 
instruire, 364 
interdire, 371 
intervenir, 359 
introduire, 364 

joindre, 368 

lire, 375 
luire, 364 

maintenir, 358 
maudire, 371 
m^connaitre, 366 
m^dire, 371 
m^faire, 374 
mentir, 350 
(se) meprendre, 380 
(se) mettre, 376 
moudre, 377 

(se) mourir, 356 
mouvoir, 392 

naltre, 378 
nuire, 364 

obtenir, 358 
offrir, 357 
oindre, 368 
omettre, 376 
ouvrir, 357 

pattre, 366 
parattre, 366 
parcourir, 348 
parfaire, 374 
parvenir, 359 
peindre, 368 
percevoir, 387 
permettre, 376 
(se) plaindre, 368 
plaire, 379 
pleuvoir, 393 
poursuivre, 383 
pourvoir, 397 
pouvoir, 394 
pr^dire, 371 
prendre, 380 
prescrire, 372 
pr^valoir, 396 
pr^venir, 359 
pr^voir, 397 
produire, 364 
promettre, 376 
proscrire, 372 
provenir, 359 

qu6rir, querir, 346 

rabattre, 361 
(se) rasseoir, 389 
reboire, 362 
rebouillir, 350 

recevoir, 387 
reconduire, 364 
reconnattre, 366 
reconqu^rir, 346 
reconstniire, 364 
recoudre, 367 
recourir, 348 
recouvrir, 357 
r^crire, 372 
recrottre, 370 
recueillir, 349 
recuire, 364 
reddfaire, 374 
redevenir, 359 
redevoir, 388 
redire, 371 
redormir, 350 
r^duire, 364 
r^^lire, 375 
refaire, 374 
rejoindre, 368 
relire, 375 
reluire, 364 
remettre, 376 
remoudre, r^moudre, 

renattre, 378 
(se) rendormir, 350 
rentraire, 384 
renvoyer, 345 
(se) repattre, 366 
repartir, 350 
repeindre, 368 
(se) repentir, 350 
reprendre, 380 
reproduire, 364 
repromettre, 376 
requ^rir, 346 
r^soudre, 381 
ressentir, 350 
ressortir, 350 
ressouvenir, 359 
restreindre, 368 


The Elements of French 

reteindre, 368 
retenir, 358 
retraire, 384 
revaloir, 396 
revenir, 359 
(se) revetir, 360 
revivre, 385 
revoir, 397 
(se) rire, 382 
rouvrir, 357 

saillir, 349 
satisfaire, 374 
savoir, 395 
secourir, 348 
sMuire, 364 
sentir, 350 

seoir, 389 
(se) servir, 350 
sortir, 350 
souffrir, 357 
soumettre, 376 
sourire, 382 
souscrire, 372 
soustraire, 384 
soutenir, 358 
souvenir, 859 
subvenir, 359 
suffire, 365 
suivre, 383 
surcrottre, 370 
surfaire, 374 
surprendre, 380 
survenir, 359 

survivre, 385 
taire, 379 
teindre, 368 
tenir, 358 
traduire, 364 
traire, 384 
transcrire, 372 
transmettre, 376 
tressaillir, 349 

vaincre, 386 
valoir, 396 
venir, 359 
vetir, 360 
vivre, 386 
voir, 397 
vouloir, 398 



Ch^re Madame: 

J'ai ete tres touche de I'honneur que vous me faites en m'ouvrant votre 

J'accepte avec joie votre cordiale invitation, esp^rant qu'un jour je 
pourrais compter parmi vos amis. 

Recevez, Madame, avec mes remerciements, Thommage de mon profond 

Ren6 Lebon. 

Cher Monsieur: 

Je viens de recevoir a I'instant le cadeau que vous m'avez fait pour mon 
anniversaire. Je ne sais comment vous remercier de cette nouvelle preuve 
de bonte a mon egard. 

Je vous en suis profondement reconnaissant, et ce cadeau augmerite 
encore toute la gratitude que j'ai pour vous. 

Recevez, cher Monsieur, I'expression de ma profonde reconnaissance. 

Guillaume Desbois. 

Ch^re Madame: 

Je vous remercie infiniment de votre aimable invitation, et je suis vrai- 
ment desol6 de ne pouvoir I'accepter. 

Un engagement, pris il y a quelques jours, m'empeche de me rendre k 
votre demande. 

En esp^rant, Madame, avoir Fhonneur de vous revoir, recevez I'expres- 
sion de mon profond respect. 

Frangois Lenoir. 

Cher Monsieur: .. 

Un de mes jeunes eleves, Charles Renaud, vient de finir ses etudes au 
lyc^e, et d^sirerait entrer k TUniversite. Je prends la liberte de vous le 
recommander k vous qui avez toujours fait preuve de bont^, et qui ne cessez 
de guider les jeunes gens de vos conseils eclair^s. Ce jeune Charles Renaud 
e^t un gargon d'une haute valeur intellectuelle et morale, esprit remar- 
quablement vivace et ^clair^ et qui, guide par un conseiller tel que vous fera 
son chemin dans la vie. 

Avec tons mes remerciements, recevez, monsieur, Texpression de ma 
haute consideration. 

Stanislas Durand. 

320 The Elements of French 

Cher Monsieur: 

Nous aurions, mon mari et moi, beaucoup de plaisir a vous avoir demain 
pour diner. Voulez-vous nous faire cet honneur et venir sans fagon vous 
asseoir a notre table. Mon mari et moi avons ete tres heureux de vous 
connattre et desirous vous revoir en ami. 

Meilleurs sentiments. 


Ch^re amie: 

Me voila done k Chicago! Cela vous etonnera sans doute mais m'y 
voila! Le temps est charmant mais on me dit que ceci ne dure pas et que 
le ciel de Chicago pleure plus souvent qu'il ne sourit. Mais que voulez- 
vous? Je m'attends k tout. Je suis stire que vous voulez apprendre mes 
impressions sur les Chicagoans. Eh bien! lis sont charmants et s'ils 
n'avaient pas — parait-il — Tincurable manie de macher continuellement 
une sorte de gomme, je les trouverais bien mieux que vos Parisiens. J'ad- 
mire de plus en plus les sentiments patriotiques du peuple americain; ils 
sont euperbes eur ce point! Et j'avoue que je m'^tonne de trouver tant 
d'enthoUsiasme chez des gens du nord. J'aurais bien voulu vous raconter 
bien des choses encore mais, h61as! le temps passe si vite! 


En Famille 

Napoleon P^, empereur des Frangais, se disputait un jour avec sa 
femme, I'imp^ratrice Josephine. Comme elle ne I'ecoutait pas, il finit par 
demander: *'Savez-vous, Madame, quelle difference il y a entre un miroir 
et vous? 

Non, fit-elle. 

Eh bien, ma chere, voici la difference: Un miroir reflechit sans 

parler, tandis que vous parlez sans reflechir. 

Et VOUS; monsieur, savez-vous quelle difference il y a entre un 

miroir et vous? 

Non, fit-il. 

Eh bien, mon cher^ voici la difference: C'est qu'un miroir est poli, 

et que vous ne Tetes pas. 


Deux strangers se promenaient sur le bord de I'eau; Tun d'eux etait 
accompagne d'un magnifique chien de Terre-Neuve. La conversation des 

Selections for Reading 321 

deux amis roulait sur les qualit^s instinctives qui distinguent ce quadruple, 
et le proprietaire du chien avait assez de peine a persuader k son compagnon 
que la race de Terre-Neuve n'hesitait pas un instant a se precipiter dans 
les flots pour sauver un homme en danger. 

^'Savez-vous nager?" dit-il k Fincredule. 

*'Non,'* repond Fami. 

Le proprietaire du chien pousse son compagnon et le jette dans le canal : 
le chien de se lancer a la suite et de le saisir par un des pans de son paletot. 

Mais en face, sur I'autre bord, il y avait aussi un chien de Terre-Neuve, et 
le noble animal, ay ant remarque la scene qui se passait pres de lui, se jeta 
k la nage, arriva en un instant sur le lieu du sinistre, et se saisit ^galement 
du patient par le pan oppose. 

Les deux chiens tirant egalement dans des directions contraires, il arriva 
que, conform^ment aux lois de la statique, Fhomme resta en equilibre au 
milieu de ses sauveurs. 

Toutefois un paletot, quelque bon qu'il soit, ne resist e pas longtemps 
k des attaques aussi rudes; le vetement ceda, et les deux terre-neuve s'en 
all^rent chacun vers son maitre avec un morceau de la depouille du patient. 
Mais son ami veillait sur lui. Des qu'il eut vu que les chiens avaient pris 
la partie pour le tout, il se jeta a son tour a la nage, et reussit, heureusement, 
k ramener la victime de cet essai un peu hasarde. 


A Paris on n'admet qu'un nombre fixe de voyageurs. II peut y avoir, 
par exemple, dix places a Finterieur, cinq places de plate-forme, et douze 
places a Fimperiale. Aussitot que toutes les places sont occupees, le con- 
ducteur fait apparaitre un ecfiteau qui porte le mot Complet. Complet 
signifie que Fon n'admet plus personne. Un jeune Americain, qui n'etait 
k Paris que depuis quelques semaines, demanda un jour k un ami parisien: 
"Que signifie ce mot Complet que je vois par tout sur les tramways et les 
omnibus?" II faut savoir que les Parisiens sont des blagueurs par excel- 
lence. Comment, dit-il k FAmericain, vous voyagez en France, et 

vous n'avez pas encore visite Complet. Mais c'est un endroit charmant — 
superbe! Pour rien au monde, il ne faut manquer ga, mon vieux!" Le 
pauvre Americain avait beau suivre tons les omnibus et tous les tramways 
qui portaient ce mot. II ne reussit jamais a trouver Complet. 


Et vous, madame, qu'est-ce que vous avez? demande le m^decin 

k une femme flanquee d'un enfant d'une douzaine d'annees. 

Ce n'est pas moi, monsieur, c'est mon gargon. 

Eh bien! qu'est-ce qu'il a, votre gargon? AUons, d^p^chons-nous. 

322 The Elements of French 

II est sourd, monsieur . . . Qa lui a pris, je vais vous dire . . . 

Ah! il est sourd? . . . Et de quelle oreille? 

Des deux, principalement, monsieur. 

Comment cela, principalement? 

Oui, monsieur . . . Voyons, Edouard, leve-toi quand on te parle 

. . . De quelle oreille es-tu sourd? dit-elle au gargon, en le secouant pour 
le faire se lever. 

Mais celui-ci garde un mutisme idiot. 

De quelle oreille es-tu sourd? repete la m^re en criant . . . Vous 

voyez, monsieur! c'est comme je vous dis . . . des deux principalement. 
Adapted from Jack, by Alphonse Daudet. 


Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897) 

Recit d*un Petit Alsacien 

Ce matin-1^ j'^tais tres en retard pour aller a Fecole, et j 'avals grand'- 
peur d'etre gronde, d'autant plus que M. Hamel nous avait dit qu'il nous 
interrogerait sur les participes, et je n'en savais pas le premier mot. Un 
moment I'idee me vint de manquer la classe et de prendre ma course k 
travers champs. 

Le temps 6tait si chaud, si clair! 

On entendait les merles siffier a la lisiere du bois, et dans le pre Rippeit, 
derriere la scierie, les Prussiens qui faisaient I'exercice. Tout cela me ten- 
tait bien plus que la regie des participes; mais j'eus la force de resister, et je 
courus bien vite vers I'^cole. 

En passant devant la mairie, je vis qu'il y avait du monde arrets pres 
du petit grillage aux affiches. Depuis deux ans, c'est de 1^ que nous sont 
venues toutes les mauva-ises nouvelles, les batailles perdues, les requisi- 
tions, les ordres de la commandature ; et je pensai sans m'arreter: 

Qu'est-ce qu'il y a encore? 

Alors, comme je traversais la place en courant, le forgeron Wachter, 
qui ^tait 1^ avec son apprenti en train de lire I'affiche, me cria: 

Ne te depeche pas tant, petit; tu y arriveras toujours assez tot, a 

ton ecole! 

Je crus qu'il se moquait de moi, et j'entrai tout essouffle dans la petite 
cour de M. Hamel. 

D'ordinaire, au commencement de la classe, il se faisait un grand tapage 
qu'on entendait jusque dans la rue, les pupitres ouverts, fermes, les legons 

Selections for Reading 323 

qu'on rep^tait tr^s haut tous ensemble en se bouchant les oreilles pour 
mieux apprendre, et la grosse regie du mattre qui tapait sur les tables : 

Un peu de silence! 

Je comptais sur tout ce train pour gagner mon banc sans etre vu; mais 
justement ce jour-la tout ^tait tranquille, comme un matin de dimanche. 
Par la fenetre ouverte, je voyais mes camarades deja ranges k leurs places, 
et M. Hamel, qui passait et repassait avec la terrible regie en fer sous le 
bras. II fallut ouvrir la porte et entrer au milieu de ce grand calme. Vous 
pensez si j'etais rouge et si j 'avals peur! 

Eh bien, non. M. Hamel me regarda sans colere et me dit tres douce- 

Va vite a ta place, mon petit Frantz ; nous allions commencer sans 


J'enjambai le banc et je m'assis tout de suite a mon pupitre. Alors 
seulement, un peu remis de ma frayeur, je remarquai que notre maitre 
avait sa belle redingote verte, son jabot plisse fin et la calotte de sole noire 
brodee qu'il ne mettait que les jours d'inspection ou de distribution de prix. 
Du reste, toute la classe avait quelque chose d' extraordinaire et de solennel. 
Mais ce qui me surprit le plus, ce fut de voir au fond de la salle, sur les 
bancs qui restaient vides d'habitude, des gens du village assis et silencieux 
comme nous, le vieux Hauser avec son tricorne, I'ancien maire, Tancien 
facteur, et puis d'autres personnes encore. Tout ce monde-la paraissait 
triste; et Hauser avait apporte un vieil abecedaire mang6 aux bords,qu'il 
tenait grand ouvcrt sur ses genoux, avec ses grosses lunettes posees en 
travers des pages. 

Pendant que je m'etonnais de tout cela, M. Hamel etait monte dans sa 
chaire, et de la meme voix douce et grave dont il m'avait regu, il nous dit: 

Mes enfants, c'est la derniere fois que je vous fais la classe. 

L^ordre est venu de Berlin de ne plus enseigner que Fallemand dans les 
ecoles de I'Alsace et de la Lorraine ... Le nouveau maitre arrive demain. 
Aujourd'hui c'est votre derniere legon de frangais. Je vous prie d'etre 
bien attentifs. 

Ces quelques paroles me bouleverserent. Ah! les mis^rables, voil^ ce 
qu'ils avaient affiche a la mairie. 

Ma derniere legon de frangais! . . . 

Et moi qui savais a peine ecrire! Je n'apprendrais done jamais! II 
faudrait done en rester 1^! Comme je m'en voulais maintenant du temps 
perdu, des classes manquees a courir les nids ou a faire des glissades sur la 
Saar! Mes livres que tout a Theure encore je trouvais si ennuyeux, si 
lourds a porter, ma grammaire, mon histoire sainte, me semblaient k present 
de vieux amis qui me feraient beaucoup de peine a quitter. C'est comme 
M. Hamel. L'idee qu'il allait partir, que je ne le verrais plus, me faisait 
oublier les punitions, les coups de regie. 

324 The Elements of French 

Pauvre homme! C'est en I'honneur de cette derniere classe qu'il avait 
mis ses beaux habits du dimanche, et maintenant je comprenais pourquoi 
ces vieux du village etaient venus s'asseoir au bout de la salle. Cela sem- 
blait dire qu'ils regrettaient de ne pas y etre venus plus souvent, k cette 
ecole. C'etait aussi comme une fagon de remercier notre maitre de ses 
quarante ans de bons services, et de rendre leurs devoirs h la patrie qui 
s'en allait. . . 

J'en etais 1^ de mes reflexions, quand j'entendis appeler mon nom. 
C'etait mon tour de reciter. Que n'aurais-je pas donne pour pouvoir 
dire tout au long cette f ameuse regie des participes, bien haut, bien clair, 
sans une faute; mais je m'embrouillai aux premiers mots, et je restai 
debout a me balancer dans mon banc, le coeur gros, sans oser lever la 
tete. J'entendais M. Hamel qui me parlait : 

Je ne te gronderai pas, mon petit Frantz, tu dois etre assez puni 

. . . voila ce que c'est. Tous les jours on se dit: Bah! j'ai bien le temps. 
J'apprendrai demain. Et puis tu vois ce qui arrive. Ah! g'a ete le grand 
malheur de notre Alsace de tou jours remettre son instruction k demain. 
Maintenant ces gens-la sont en droit de nous dire: Comment! Vous 
pretendiez etre Frangais, et vous ne savez ni parler ni ecrire votre langue! 
Dans tout ga, mon pauvre Frantz, ce n'est pas encore toi le plus coupable. 
Nous avons tous notre bonne part de reproches a nous faire. 

Vos parents n'ont pas assez tenu k vous voir instruits. lis aimaient 
mieux vous envoyer travailler a la terre ou aux filatures pour avoir quelques 
sous de plus. Moi-meme n'ai-je rien a me reprocher? Est-ce que je ne 
vous ai pas souvent fait arroser mon jardin au lieu de travailler? Et quand 
je voulais aller pecher des truites, est-ce que je me genais pour vous donner 

Alors, d'une chose a I'autre, M. Hamel se mit a nous parler de la langue 
frangaise, disant que c'etait la plus belle langue du monde, la plus claire, 
la plus solide; qu'il f allait la garder entre nous et ne jamais I'oubUer, parce 
que, quand un peuple tombe esclave, tant qu'il tient bien sa langue, c'est 
comme s'il tenait la clef de sa prison. Puis 11 prit une grammaire et nous 
lut notre legon. J'etais ^tonne de voir comme je comprenais. Tout ce 
qu'il disait me semblait facile, facile. Je crois aussi que je n'avais jamais 
si bien ecoute et que lui non plus n'avait jamais mis tant de patience k 
ses explications. On aurait dit qu'avant de s'en aller, le pauvre homme 
voulait nous donner tout son savoir, nous le faire entrer dans la tete d'un 
seul coup. 

La legon finie, on passa k I'ecriture. Pour ce jour-1^, M. Hamel nous 
avait prepare des exemples tout neufs, sur lesquels etait ^crit en belle 
ronde: France, Alsace, France, Alsace. Cela faisait comme des petits 
drapeaux qui flottaient tout autour de la classe pendus a la tringle de nos 
pupitres. II f allait voir comme chacun s'appliquait, et quel silence! On 

Selections for Reading 325 

n'entendait rien que le grincement des plumes sur le papier. Un moment 
des hannetons entrerent; mais personne n'y fit attention, pas m^me les 
tout petits qui s'appliquaient k tracer leurs batons, avec un coeur, une 
conscience, comme si cela encore ^tait du frangais . . . Sur la toiture de 
r^cole, des pigeons roucoulaient tout bas, et je me disais en les ^coutant: 

Est-ce qu'on ne va pas les obliger a chanter en allemand, eux 


De temps en temps, quand je levais les yeux de dessus ma page, je 
voyais M. Hamel immobile dans sa chaire et fixant les objets autour de lui, 
comme s'il avait voulu emporter dans son regard toute sa petite maison 
d'ecole . . . Pensez! depuis quarante ans, il etait la k la meme place, avec 
sa cour en face de lui et sa classe toute pareille. Seulement les bancs, les 
pupitres s'etaient polis, frottes par Tusage; les noyers de la cour avaient 
grandi, et le houblon qu'il avait plante lui-meme enguirlandait maintenant 
les fenetres jusqu'au toit. Quel creve-cceur ga. devait etre pour ce pauvre 
homme de quitter toutes ces choses et d' entendre sa soeur qui allait, venait, 
dans la chambre au-dessus, en train de fermer les malles! car ils devaient 
partir le lendemain, s'en aller du pays pour tou jours. 

Tout de m^me il eut le courage de nous faire la classe jusqu'au bout. 
Apres Tecriture, nous eiimes la legon d'histoire; ensuite les petits chanterent 
tous ensemble le BA BE BI BO BU. La-bas au fond de la salle, le vieux 
Hauser avait mis ses lunettes, et, tenant son abecedaire a deux mains, il 
^pelait les lettres avec eux. On voyait qu'il s'appliquait lui aussi; sa voix 
tremblait d'emotion, et c'etait si drole de Fentendre, que nous avions tous 
envie de rire et de pleurer. Ah! je m'en souviendrai de cette derniere classe. 

Tout k coup rhorloge de Teglise sonna midi, puis I'Angelus. Au meme 
moment, les trompettes des Prussiens qui revenaient de i^exercice ecla- 
terent sous nos fenetres. M. Hamel se leva, tout pale, dans sa chaire. 
Jamais il ne m'avait paru si grand. 

Mes amis, dit-il, mes amis, je . . . je . . . 

Mais quelque chose I'etouffait. II ne pouvait pas achever sa phraee. 

Alors il se tourna vers le tableau, prit un morceau de craie, et, en ap- 
puyant de toutes ses forces, il ^crivit aussi gros qu'il put: 


Puis il resta 1^, la tete appuyee au mur, et, sans parler, avec sa main il 
nous faisait signe: 

C'est fini . . . allez-vous-en! 

326 The Elements of French 

Malbrough S'en Va-t-en en Guerre 

Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre, 
Mironton, tonton, mirontaine, 
Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre, 
Ne sait quand reviendra, 
Ne sait quand reviendra, 
Ne sait quand reviendra. 

II reviendra z'a Pdques, 
Mironton, tonton, mirontainel 
11 reviendra z'a Paques, 
Ou a la Trinity, etc. 

La Trinite se passe, • 
Mironton, tonton, mirontaine, 
La Trinite se passe, 
Malbrough ne revient pas, etc. 

Madame a sa tour monte, 
Mironton, tonton, mirontaine, 
Madame a sa tour monte. 
Si haut qu'elle pent monter, etc. 

Elle apergoit son page, 
Mironton, tonton, mirontaine, 
Elle apergoit son page. 
Tout de noir habille, etc. 

Aux nouvelFs que j'apporte, 
Mironton, tonton, mirontaine, 
Aux nouvelFs que j'apporte, 
Vos beaux yeux vont pleurer, etc. 

Selections for Reading 327 

Le Rat de Ville et la Rat des Champs 

Jean de la Fontaine (1621-1695) 

Autrefois le rat de ville, 
Invita le rat des champs, 
D'une fagon fort civile 
A des reliefs d' ortolans. 
Sur un tapis de Turquie 
Le convert se trouva mis. 
Je laisse k penser la vie 
Que firent les deux amis. 

Le regal fut fort honnete, 
Rien ne manquait au festin; 
Mais quelqu'un troubla la fete 
Pendant qu'ils etaient en train, 
A la porte de la salle 
lis entendirent du bruit; 4 
Le rat de ville detale, 
Son camarade le suit. 

Le bruit cesse, on se retire, 
Rats en campagne aussit6t; 
Et le citadin de dire: 
Achevons tout notre rot. 
C'est assez, dit le rustique, 
Demain vous viendrez chez moi; 
Ce n'est pas que je me pique 
De tous vos festins de roi, 

Mais rien ne vient m^interrompre; 
Je mange tout k loisir. 
Adieu done. Fi du plaisir 
Que la crainte pent corrompre. 

328 The Elements of French 

La Marseillaise 
Rouget de I'Isle (1760-1836) 

AUons, enfants de la patrie, 
Le jour de gloire est arrive! 
Centre nous de la tyrannie 
L'etendard sanglant est leve. 
Entendez-vous dans les campagnes 
Mugir ces feroces soldats? 
lis vienuv^nt j usque dans nos bras, 
Egorger nos fils, nos compagnes! 

Aux armes, citoyens! formez vos bataillonsi 

Marchons, marchons! 
Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons! 

Amour sacre de la patrie, 

Conduit, soutiens nos bras vengeurs; 

Liberte, Libert^ cherie, 

Combats avec tes d^fenseurs! 

Sous nos drapeaux que la Victoire 

Accoure h tes males accents! 

Que tes ennemis expirants 

Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire! 

Aux armes, citoyens! formez vos bataillons, etc. 

Selections for Singing 
La Marseillaise 



mf Allegro marziale. 

RouGET DE Lisle 











P P t* 

Al - Ions, en - fants de la pa 


J^ JfL. J^L 




e, Le jour de 

■p- n ri 



b b ^ : 






-p ^j^ _ 

Con - tre nous de la ty - ran- 

gloire est ar - ri - vel 




t — I — I- 




^— h— ^- 




1 ^— ^=a 


ni - e L'^-ten -dard san-glant est le - \6\ L'€-ten-dard 

^•- A A ■#-. -ft -p- ^ -^- -^ .|2- #- #.. 

^=b ^=b=^B 





-^— •— »• 

b P b- 



^d — f^ 




I) ri I 

■ta-^ — ta- 


I b b b 

san - giant est le - v^I En- ten-dez-vous, dans les cam- 



L-H — P- 

-(^ — ^— »- 



330 Elements of French 

La Marseillaise — Concluded 

Selections for Singing 
La Bonne Aventure 










Je - suis un pe - tit pou - pon de bel - le fi - gu - re 

^ s 



-^7^ ^ 1 

k_ w. fs s 


1 ^^ 


y5_ 1? k. s 

"h ~h ~p '' 

A • 


• • « J 

« 1 

fvi^ h N 

I -' ij 

IJ ■ to j/ 

f 1 

^y J J^ 

to * to to 




^^ IJ 


Qui ai - me bien les bon - bons 




3n - fi - tu - 



/^>. L- 


', 1 

K^j., 1? s* 

L ^ 

§ >« 



Ivrixk Jn 


1 ^ 

Li 1 


- _J 


^ to # 

to ^ 

1 h h h 

, 1 

/ b i 1 


f m J P 


IT ^ '^ V h 

i h 'u^ i J 

i ;j n 

i • • J 


[^ w *^ ^ 


^ to ■■ 

to 1 

Si vous 

vou-lez m'en don - ner, 

Je sau 

■ rai bien les man - ger. 










ftTP 1 

K K~ 

vi r^^ 

• II 

h h P P 

m • P 

• • m J 

d •II 

(m h R 

J J m # 

A r Vi 

U i ^ 


\s\) ]' J^ 

to to • • 


J W 

^ l/* 

• 1 1 

z) to . ■ ^ 

La bon - ne aventure, oh, gai I 

m m m 

La bon - 

ne aven - tu - 



^\* h 




i • 1 1 


-to li 

-to — 

— ^ 


J — Mi 

W^ ?^: 

■ r- — 



— ^H 


Elements of French 

Frere Jacques 

^i3=rfj ^^^^ g±=^ 

rr§ - re Jac - ques, Fr6 - re Jac - ques, dor - mez- 




Fr^ - re 






-b-t^ = 




-^ — b^- 

vous? Dor - mez-vous? Son-nez les ma -ti - nes, son-nez les ma- 


Jac - ques, Fr^ - re Jac-ques, dor - mez - vous? Dor - mez- 


Fr^ - re Jac-ques, FrS - re 


-i9 #- 

Selections for Singing 


Frere Jacques— Concluded 


a - nes, Ding, din, don! Ding, din, doni Fr6 - re 




p=t^=fn=^— « .> ^= 

V0U8? Son-nez les ma - ti - nes, son-nez les ma- ti - nes. Ding, din, 



-#— ^— #- 


-b^— ^ 

Jac-ques, dor - mez - vous? Dor - mez - vous? Son-nez les ma- 





Jac-ques, Fr5 - re Jac-ques, dor - mez-vous,^ dor -mez -vous? 



donI Ding, din, don, FrS - re Jac-ques, dor- mez-vous? 


-0 0- 

^ '- > ^ j ; 

ti - nes, son-nez les ma - ti - nes. Ding, din, don! ding, din don! 


r i f r J -H ij ^ J J ij -n 



Elements of French 
Fais Dodo, Colas 








Fais do - do, Co - las, mon p'tit hh - re, Fais do- 


i J J 

^ 1 


j i i i- 






-i^ ^ i^- 

do, t'au-ras du ga-teau; pa - pa en au - ra - ma-man en aur- 

•j Ji. 

J 4 



r-f>-i H h h 

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1 — 1 1 K — I 

TT*— ^ — ip-r—f — r- 

--1 d a i w f— 

d i^ — j"-" 

fn * 1 J 

* • ' 1 b 

S» ^ d 

vMy J k* 

ij h lj k 


a, Et moi, j-en au - rai, tout un plein pa - nier. Fais do- 

^-r — F-r ^ 

r ^ — T '^- 

;* • ^ *1 

^" , • |, 

^ — ^ - 

LI — -^ J 




-^ — * — ^ 


do, Co -las, mon p'tit fre-re, fais do - do, tout un plein pa -nier. 








(Aspirated h is indicated thus : *h) 

a [a], 3d sing., pres. indie, of avoir, 
k [a], to, at; in; — la, after the man- 
ner of; — Vendroit de, in regard to; 

— V instant y at once; — temps, — 
rheure, on time; — samedi, 
Good-bye until Saturday; il reste 

— balancer, he remains balancing. 

abandonner [abadone], to abandon. 

abattre [abatr], to throw down,' 
knock down. 

abbe [abe], m., abbot. 

abdiquer [abdike], to abdicate. 

abecedaire [abesedeir], m., primer. 

abord (d') [d aboir], in the first 

aboutir [abutiir], to end in, come to. 

abreuver [abroeve], to water. 

absoudre [absuidr], to/^solve. 

abstenir [apst9ni:r], to abstain. 

Academic [akademi], f., Academy. 

accent [aksa], m., accent, stress. 

accepter [aksepte], to accept. 

accident [aksida], m., accident. 

accompagner [akopajie], to accom- 

accomplir [akopliir]; to accomplish. 

accord [akoir], m., agreement. 

accourir [akuriir], to run up to, 
come up. 

accueil [akoeij], m., welcome. 

accuser [akyze], to accuse. 

acheter [ajte], to buy. 

achever [ajve], to finish, complete. 

actif [aktif], active. 

activement [aktivma], actively. 

addition [adisjS], f., addition. 

adjectif [adsektif], m., adjective. 

admettre [admetr], to admit. 

admirer [admire], to admire, 
adresse [adres], f., address. 
adresser [adrese], to address. 
adverbe [adverb], m., adverb, 
aeroplane [aeroplan], m., airplane, 
affaire [afeir], f., affair; — s, busi- 
ness; parler — s, to talk business; 

voild votre — , that is just what 

you want. 
afiichage [afiXa:3], m., placarding; 

colonne d' — , f., column on which 

theatrical announcements are 

affiche [afij*], f., placard, poster, 
afficher [afije], to post. 
afin que [afe ka], in order that, 
age [0:3], m., age. 
agent [asa], m., agent, 
agile [asil], agile, 
agreable [agreabl], agreeable, 
agrement [agrema], m., delight. 
ah [a], ah. 
Ai or Ay [ai], Ay, a town near 

aide [eid], f., help, 
aider [ede], to help, 
aigu [sgy], acute, sharp, 
aiguille [egqiij], f., needle, hand of 

a watch or clock, 
aimable [emabl], amiable, 
aimer [eme], to love, like; — mieux, 

to prefer, — mieux que, to prefer to. 
aine [sne], m., elder brother, 
ainsi [esi], thus; so; — que, as well as. 
air [e:r], m., air, look, 
ajouter [a3Ute], to add. 
ajuster [a3yste], to adjust. 
Albert [albcir], Albert, a proper 

Allemagne [almaji], f., Germany. 



Elements of French 

allemand [alma], adj., German, 

r — , German (the language). 
aller [ale], to go; — hien, to be well; 

— chercher, to go after, go for; 

— voir, to go and see; allonsl let 
us go! come! s'en — , to go away. 

allumer [alyme], to light. 

alors [aloir], then. 

Alpes [alp], f., pL, Alps. 

Alphonse [alfSis], m., Alphonse. 

Alsace [alzas], f., Alsace, a French 

Alsacien [alzasje], m., Alsatian. 

americain [amerike], adj., American. 

Amerique [amerik], f., America. 

ami [ami], m., friend; en — , as a 
friend; un de mes — s, a friend of 
mine; un Frangais de mes — s, a 
French friend of mine. 

amical[amikal], friendly. 

amie [ami], f., friend. 

amiral [amiral], m., admiral. 

amour [amuir], m. in sing., and f. in 
plur., love; affection. 

amputer [apyte], to amputate. 

amusant [amyza], amusing. 

amuser [amyze], to amuse. 

an [a], m., year (as a date). 

ancien [asje], old; former. 

Andre [adre], Andrew. 

Angelus [aselys], m., Angelus 
(prayer in honor of the Incarna- 
tion, delivered morning, noon, and 
evening); also a bell rung for the 

anglais [agle], adj., Enghsh. 

angle [aigl], m., angle. 

Angleterre [agbteir], f., England. 

animal [animal], m., animal. 

annee [ane], f., year (a yearns time). 

Annette [anet], f., Annette. 

anniversaire [aniversGir], m., anni- 
versary, birthday. 

annoncer [anose], to announce. 

aoiit [u], m., August. 

apercevoir [apersavwair], to per- 

apparaitre [apareitr], to appear, 
appartenir [apartaniir], to belong, 
appeler [aple], to call; s' — , to be 

appliquer [aplike], to apply; s' — , to 

apply one's self, work, 
apporter [aporte], to bring. 
apprendre [apraidr], to learn, teach, 
apprenez [aprane], see apprendre. 
apprenti [aprati], m., apprentice, 
apres [apre], after, afterward; — 

-demain, day after tomorrow, 
apres-midi [apre midi], m. or f., 

appuyer [apqije], to prop, lean, 
aqueduc [akadyk], m., aqueduct, 
arbre [arbr], m., tree. 
Arc [ark], m.. Arch, Arc; — de 

Triomphe, Arch of Triumph, 
arc-boutant [arbuta], m., buttress. 
argent [arsa], m., money, silver, 
aristocratie [aristokrasi], f., aris- 
Armand [arma], m., Armand. 
arme [arm], f., arm, weapon, 
armee [arme], f., army, 
armistice [armistis], m., armistice, 
armure [armyir], f., armor, 
arracher [araje], to tear, tear out. 
arranger [ara3e], to arrange; — de 

nouveaUj to rearrange, 
arreter [arete], to stop; s' — , to 

stop (one's self). 
arriver [arive], to arrive, reach, 
arrondissement [arodisma], m., 

arroser [aroze], to sprinkle, water 

(a garden). 

D'Artagnan [d artajia], m., D'Ar- 

tagnan, a proper name. 
artere [arteir], f., artery, 
article [artikl], m., article, object, 
artiste [artist], m., f., artist. 
ascenseur [asasoeir], m., elevator. 
asseoir(s'), [s aswair], to sit down. 
asseyez [aseje], see asseoir. 

French-English Vocabulary 


assez [ase], enough, sufficiently. 
assieds (m') [m asje], see s'asseoir. 
assiette [asjet], f., plate, 
assis [asi], seated (From s*asseoir). 
atlantique [atlatik], adj., Atlantic, 
attacher [ata/e], to attach. 
attaque [atak], f., attack. 
attaquer [atake], to attack. 
attendre [ataidr], to wait, wait for; 

s' — (a), to expect, 
attentif [atatif], attentive, 
attention [atasjo], f., attention; 

faites — , look out! 
attraper [atrape], to catch. 
attribuer [atribqe], to attribute. 
au [o] = d + le. 
auberge [obersj, f., inn. 
aucun [okoe], adj., no. 
au-dela [odla], on the other side. 
au-dessous [odsy], beneath; below, 
au-dessus [odsy], above; over, 
augmenter [ogmate], to increase, 
aujourd^hui [o3urdqi], today, 
auquel [okel] = d + lequel. 
aura [ora], 3d sing., fut., of avoir. 
aussi [osi], also, too, so; — hienque, 

as well as. 
aussitot [osito], immediately; — 

que, as soon as. 
autant [ota], as many, so many, 

so much; d' — plus que, so much 

the more because, the more so. 
auteur [otceir], m., author, 
automne [oton], m., autumn, 
automobile [otomobil], m., automo- 
autour de [otuir da], prep., around. 
autre [oitr], other; Vun . . . V — , 

each other, 
autrefois [otrfwa], in former times. 
Auvergne [overji], f., Auvergne, 

ancient province of France. 
aux = d + les, 

avance (d') [d avais], in advance. 
avancer [avase], to advance, go 

too fast (of watches). 

avant [ava], before (of time) ; — de, 
before (+ infinitive). 

avantage [avatais], m., advantage. 

avant-demier [ava dernje], next to 

avant-hier [ava jeir], day before 

avec [avek], with. 

aventure [avatyir], f., adventure. 

avenue [avny], f., avenue. 

avertir [avertiir], to warn. 

Avignon [avijiS], m., Avignon, a city 
in the south of France. 

avion [avjo], m., airship. 

avocat [avoka], m., lawyer. 

avoir [avwair], to have; — heau + 
verb, to ( + verb) in vain ; — besoin, 
to need; — chaud, to be warm; 
— dix arts, to be ten years old ; 
il y a, there is, there are; il y 
aura, there will be; ily aun mois, 
a month ago; qu^avez-vous? what 
is the matter with you? 

avouer [avwe], to admit, confess. 

avril [avril], m., April. 


ba, be, bi, bo, bu [ba, be, bi, bo, by], 
a phonetic exercise. 

bagage [bagais], m., baggage (gen- 
erally used in plural) . 

bah [ba], pshaw! 

bai [be], bay (color). 

bain [be], m., bath. 

baiser [beze], to kiss. 

baisser [bese], to lower. 

balancer [baldse], to balance, swing. 

balle [bal], f., ball, bullet. 

banc [ba], m., bench, seat. 

banque [baik], f., bank. 

Baptiste [batist], a proper name. 

barbe [barb], f., beard; faire la — , 
to shave. 

bas [ba], low; en — , below, down- 

base [ba:z], f., bottom, basis. 

Bastille [bastiij], f ., Bastille. 


Elements of French 

bataille [bataij], f., battle. 
batailler [bataje], to fight. 
bataillon [batajo], m., battalion. 
baton [bats], m., stick, stroke (in 
penmanship) . 

battre [batr], to beat, defeat. 

beau [bo], bel [bel], beautiful, hand- 
some; avoir — , see avoir. 

beaucoup [boku], much, many. 

Belgique [belsik], f., Belgium. 

belle, see beau. 

bergere [berseir], f., shepherdess. 

besoin [bozwe], m., need; avoir — , 
to need. 

beta [beta],m.,coUoq., stupid person. 

beurre [bceir], m., butter. 

bibliotheque [bibhotek], f., Hbrary. 

bicyclette [bisiklet], f., bicycle. 

bien [bje], well, very; — de -\- arti- 
cle, many, much; — sHrj surely; 
avoir — le temps, to have plenty 
of time. 

bientot [bjeto], soon. 

bienvenu [bjevny], welcome. 

billet [bije], m., ticket, bill; — cir- 
culaire, circular ticket. 

bizarre [bizair], strange, bizarre. 

blagueur [blagoeir], m., joker. 

blanc [bla], white. 

blesser [blese], to wound. 

bleu [bl0], blue. 

boeuf [beef], m., ox, beef. Plural, 
bceufs, [b0]. 

boire [bwair], to drink. 

bois [bwa], m., wood; — de Bou- 
logne, a park in Paris. 

boite [bwait], f., box. 

bombe [boib], f., bomb. 

bon [bo], good; a — marche, cheap. 

Bonacieux [bonasj0], m., Bonacieux, 
a proper name. 

bonbon [bobo], m., bonbon. 

bonjour [bosuir], good morning, 
good day. 

bonnet [bone], m., bonnet. 

bonsoir [bSswair], good evening. 

bonte [bote], f ., kindness. 

bord [bo:r], m., shore, edge; a — , on 

Bordeaux [bordo], m., Bordeaux, a 
city in the south of France. 

bomer [borne], to bound. 

bouche [buj], f., mouth. 

boucher [buje], to stop, stop up. 

bouillon [buj 5], m., broth, bouillon. 

boulevard [bulvair], m., boulevard. 

bouleverser [bulverse], to over- 
throw, overturn. 

Boulogne [buloji], f., Boulogne. 

bourn [booe], bang! an exclamation 
used by Paris waiters. 

Bourbon [burbo], m., a French 
royal house. 

bourdonnement [burdonma], m., 

bourgmestre [burgmestr], m., burgo- 

Bourgogne [burgoji], f., Burgundy, 
ancient province of France. 

bourse [burs], f., purse, stock ex- 

bout [bu], m., end. 

boutique [butik], f ., shop. 

bras [bra], m., arm. 

brave [braiv], brave, worthy. 

briquet [brike], m., flint. 

broder [brode], to embroider. 

bronze [broiz], m., bronze. 

brosse [bros], f., brush; — a cheveux, 
hair brush; — d dents, toothbrush. 

brosser [brose], to brush. 

bruit [brqi], m., noise, rumor. 

brun [brce], brown. 

bu [by], see boire. 

bureau [byro], m., desk, office, 
bureau; — de poste, postoffice; 
— de tabac, tobacco shop. 

but [by], m., purpose, end. 

buvez [byve], see boire. 

QSi [sa], that (indefinite); — y est, 
that's right! there you have it! 

French-English Vocabulary 


cacher [kaj*e], to hide, conceal. 

cadeau [kado], m., gift. 

cadence [kaddis], f., cadence. 

caetera, et — [et setera], and so 
forth (Latin). 

cafe [kafe], m., coffee. 

cabne [kahn], m., stillness, calm. 

calmer [kalme], to calm. 

calotte [kabt], f., cap, skull-cap. 

camarade [kamarad], m., comrade. 

Cambrai [kabre], f., Cambrai, a 
city in France. 

campagne [kapari], f., country (as 
distinguished from city) ; a la — , 
in the country. 

Canada [kanada], m., Canada. 

canal [kanal], m., canal. 

canif [kanif], m., pen-knife. 

canon [kano], m., cannon. 

capitaine [kapitsn], m., captain. 

capitale [kapital], f., capital. 

Capucine [kapysin], f., Capuchine. 
(The Capuchines were a mendi- 
cant order of nuns.) 

car [kair], conj., for. 

cardinal [kardinal], m., cardinal. 

careme [kareim], m., Lent. 

carre [kare], adj., square. 

carriere [karjsir], f., career, race 

carte [kart], f., card, map; — de 
visite, visiting card; — postale, 
postal card. 

cas [ka], m., case. 

cathedrale [katedral], f., cathedral. 

cause [koiz], f., cause. 

causer [koze], to cause, talk. 

cave [kaiv], f., cellar. 

ce [so], cet [set], this, that; ce qui, 
ce que, what; ce , . . -ci, this (em- 
phatic) ; ce . . . Zd, that (emphatic) . 

ceci [s9si], pron., this. 

ceder [sede], to yield. 

cela [sala], pron., that. 

celebre [selebr], celebrated, famous. 

celle, see celui. 

celui [salqi], this or that one, the 
one, he, him. 

celui-ci [saliji si], this one, this man, 
the latter. 

celui-la [salqi la], that one, that 
man, the former. 

cent [sa], (a) hundred; pour — , per 

centaine [saten], f ., (about) one hun- 

centieme [satjem], hundredth. 

centime [satim], m., centime, about 
one-fifth of a cent. 

centimetre [satimetr], m., centi- 
meter, about two-fifths of an inch. 

centre [saitr], m., center. 

cependant [sapada], m., however. 

cercueil [serkoeij], m., coffin. 

cerise [sariiz], f., cherry. 

certain [serte], certain. 

ces [se], see ce. 

cesser [sese], to cease, stop. 

cette [set], see ce. 

ceux [s0], see celui. 

Cevennes [seven],, a mountain 

chacun [Jakoe], each one. 

chaire [Je:r], f., pulpit, desk (of a 
teacher) . 

chaise [Jeiz], f., chair. 

chambre [Jdibr], f., room, chamber; 
— des Deputes, Chamber of Depu- 
ties, a legislative hall. 

champ [Ja], m., field. 

Champagne [J*apaji], f.. Champaign, 
ancient province of France. 

Champs-Ely sees [J*az ehze], m., pL, 
Champs Elysees, an avenue in 
Paris (literally 'Elysian Fields'). 

chandelle [/adel], f., candle, fight. 

changer [/use], to change, exchange. 

Chantal [Jatal], m., Chantal, a 
proper name. 

chanter [/ate], to sing, chant. 

chapeau [Japo], m., hat; — haut*de 
forme, high hat. 

chapelle [/apel], f ., chapel. 


Elements of French 

chaque [Jak], each. 

charbon [/arbo], m., coal. 

charger (se) [sq Jarse], to take 

Charles [/arl], Charles, 
charmant [Jarma], charming. 
Charte [Jart], f., Charter; Grande — , 

Magna Charta. 
chasser [Jase], to drive out, hunt, 
chat [Ja], m., cat. 
chateau [Jato], m., castle. 
Chateaubriand [Jatobria], m., a 

French writer, 
chaud [Jo], warm; avoir — , to be 

warm (of persons) ; ilfait — , it is 

chauffage [Jofais], m., heating, 
chauffeur [Jofoeir], m., chauffeur. 
chaumiere [Jomjeir], f., thatched 

house, hut. 
chaussures [/osqir], f., pi., shoes. 
chef de gare [/ef do gair], m., sta- 
chemin [Jame], m., road; — de fer, 

railroad; faire son — , make his 

chene [Jem], m., oak. 
cher [Je:r], dear, expensive, 
chercher [Jerje], to look for; aller — , 

to go for; envoy er — , to send for. 
cherir [Jeriir], to cherish, 
cheval [Javal], m., horse; a — , horse- 
cheveu [J8V0], m., hair. 

Plural, cheveux [J8v0]. 
chez [Je], at the house of, at the 

place of business of, etc.; -^ vouSy 

at your house. 
Chicago [Jikago], m., Chicago. 
Chicagoan [Jikagoa], m., Chicagoan. 
chien [Jje], m., dog. 
chocolat [Jokola], m., chocolate, 
choisir [Jwaziir], to choose, 
chose [Joiz], f., thing. 
chou [Ju], m., cabbage. 
cidre [sidr], m., cider. 
Cie, see compagnie. 

ciel [sjel], m., heaven; sky. 

cigare [sigair], m., cigar. 

cinq [se:k], five. 

cinquante [sekait], fifty. 

cinquieme [sekjsm], fifth. 

circulaire [sirkyleir], circular. 

citadin [sitade], m., citizen. 

cite [site], f., city, town. {La Cite, 
in Paris, is the most ancient part 
of the ville) . 

citoyen [sitwaje], m., citizen. 

civil [sivil], adj., civil. 

clair [klsir], adj., clear. 

clair [kleir], m., light; au — de la 
lunCj in the moonlight. 

Claire [kleir], Clara. 

classe [klais], f., class, class-room; 
faire la — , conduct the class. 

clef [kle], f., key. 

client [Idia], m., customer, doctor's 

cligner [khjie], to wink. 

clos [klo], adj., part., closed. 

clos [klo], m., enclosure, field. 

Cluny [klyni], m., Cluny. (The 
museum con tarns old suits of 
armor, halberds, mysterious medi- 
eval chests, etc.). 

coeur [koeir], m., heart, courage; 
le — groSf with a heavy heart. 

coiffer [kwafe], to dress the hair. 

coiffeur [kwafoeir], m., hair-dresser, 

coin [kwe], m., corner. 

Colas [kola], m., a proper name. 

colere [koleir], f., anger. 

college [koleis], m., grammar school, 

collegue [koleg], m., colleague. 

colonne [kolon], f., column; — s 
d'affichage, columns on which are 
posted theatrical announcements. 

combattre [kobatr], to combat. 

combien [kobje], how many, how 
much; — y a-t-il? how far is it? 

combler [kSble], to heap up, com- 

French-English Vocabulary 


comedie [komecli], f., comedy; — 
Frangaise, French national the- 

commandant [komada], m., major. 

commandature [komadatyir], f., 
(mihtary) headquarters. 

commander [komade], to .order; 

comme [kom], as, for, Hke, how, as 
it were; faire — , to give the effect 

commencement [komasma], m., be- 

commencer [komase], to begin. 

comment [koma], how. 

commerce [komers], m., commerce. 

commettre [], to commit. 

compagne [kopaji], f., companion, 

compagnie [kopajii], f., company; 
CiCy abbreviation. 

compagnon [kopajiS], m., compan- 

comparaison [k5par8z5], f., compari- 

compas [kopa], m., (mariner's) com- 

compensation [kopasasjS], f., com- 

complet [kSple], adj., complete, full. 

complet [kople], m., suit (of clothes). 

composer (se) [sa kopoze], to con- 
sist, be composed. 

comprendre [kopraidr], to under- 
stand, comprise; tout compris, 
everything included. 

compris, see comprendre. 

compter [kote], to count, think, in- 
tend, keep the score. 

comte [koit], m., count. 

concert [kSseir], m., concert. 

conciergerie [kosjersari], f., porter's 

conclure [koklyxr], to conclude, fin- 

Concorde Pcokord], f.. Concord, 
name of a famous square where 
Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette 
were beheaded. 

condition [kodisjo], f., condition, 
conducteur [kodyktoeir], m., con- 

conduire [kodqiir], to conduct, lead. 

conduit, see conduire. 

confier [kofje], to confide, intrust. 

confiture [kofityir], f., jam. 

conformement [koformema], in con- 
formity with. 

conge [k53e], m., hohday, leave. 

conjuguer [kosyge], to conjugate. 

connaissance [konesais], f., ac- 

connaitre [koneitr], to know, be 
acquainted with. 

connu [kony], see connaitre. 

conscience [kosjais], f., conscience. 

conseil [koseij], m., counsel, advice. 

conseiller [koseje], m., advisor. 

conseiller [koseje], to advise. 

consequent [koseka]: par — , conse- 

consideration [kosiderasjo], f., con- 

conspirer pcospire], to conspire. 

constitutionnel [kostitysjonel], adj., 

consul [kosyl], m., consul. 

conte [koit], m., tale. 

content [kota], glad, pleased. 

conter [kote], to relate. 

continuellement [kotinqelma], con- 

continuer [kotinqe], to continue. 

contraire [kotreir], contrary; au — , 
on the contrary. 

contre [koitr], against. 

contree [kotre], f., region, country. 

controle P^otrod], m., examination 
(or checking) of tickets. 

controler [kotrole], to inspect, keep 
check on. 

controleur [kotrolceir], m., ticket 
examiner, inspector. 

conversation [koversasjS], f., con- 


Elements of French 

coq [kok], m., cock. 
cordial [kordjal], cordial. 
corps [koir], m., body. 
corridor [koridoir], m., corridor, 
corrompre [koroipr], to corrupt. 
Cosette [kozet], Cosette, a girl's 

cote [kote], m., side; direction; a — 

de, beside. 
coucher (se) [sakuje], to go to bed, 

retire, set (of the sun). 
couchette [kujet], f., couch. 
couleur [kuloeir], f., color; de quelle 

— est? what is the color of? 
couloir [kulwair], m., passageway. 
coup [ku], m., blow, stroke; — 
de hrossey brushing; — de peigne, 
combing; tout a — , all at once. 
coupable [kupabl], guilty. 
coupe [kup], f., cutting, cut (of 

couper [kupe], to cut. 
cour [kuir], f., court, yard. 
courage [kura:3], m., courage, 
courageusement [kura30zma], cour- 
courageux [kura30], brave, 
courber [kurbe], to bend, 
courir [kuriir], to run, run after. 
cours [kuir], m., course; avoir < — , 

to be current, 
course [kurs], f., course, trip, 
court [kuir], short. 
cousin [kuze], m., cousin, 
cousine [kuzin], f., cousin. . 
couteau [kuto], m., knife, 
couter [kute], to cost; — cher, to be 

couvert [kuveir], m., cover; le — est 

mis J the table is set. 
couvert [kuveir], see couvrir. 
couvrir [kuvriir], to cover, hide. 
craie [kre], f., chalk, 
craignons [krejio], see craindre. 
craindre [kreidr], to fear. 
crainte [kreit], f., fear. 

cravate [kravat], f., cravat, neck- 

crayon [krejo], m., pencil. 

creance [kreais], f., credence. 

creation [kreasjo], f., creation. 

creuser [kr0ze], to dig. 

creve-coeur [krevkoeir], m., heart- 
break, grief. 

crier [krie], to cry, call out. 

crime [krim], m., crime. 

croire [krwair], to believe, expect to. 

crois [krwa], see croire. 

croix [krwa], f., cross; — de guerre, 

err [krr], an exclamation. 

crus [kry], see croire. 

cueillir [koejiir], to pick, gather. 

cuiller [kyjeir], f., spoon. 

cuisine [kqizin], f., kitchen. 

cuit [kqi], cooked. (From cuire.) 

cultiver [kyltive], to cultivate. 

curieux [kyrj0], curious; il est — , 
it is strange. 

dame [dam], f., lady. 

danger [dase], m., danger. 

Daniel [dan j el], Daniel. 

dans [da], in, into, within. 

Dantes [dateis], Dantes, a proper 

date [dat], f., date. 

Daudet [dode], Daudet, a French 

Dauphin [dofe], m., Dauphin. (Heir 
apparent to the throne of France.) 

David [david], David. 

de [da], of, from, by, with, to (with 
infinitive), than (before numerals) ; 
le chien — se lancer, the dog rushed. 

debout [dabu], standing, upright. 

decembre [desaibr], m., December. 

dechirer [dejire], to tear. 

decider [deside], to decide. 

declaration [deklarasjo], f., decla- 

French-English Vocabulary 


declarer [deklare], to declare. 

dedans [dada], within; en — , on the 

dedommager [dedomase], to in- 
demnify, compensate. 

defaut [defo], m., lack. 

defenseur [defasoeir], m., defender. 

defini [defini], definite. 

definitivement [defini tivma], defin- 

degat [dega], m., damage. 

dehors [daoir], out of doors, outside. 

dejk [de3a], already. 

dejeuner [de3oene], m., lunch; pe- 
tit — , breakfast; faire son second 
— , to lunch, 

dejeuner [desoene], to lunch. 

dela [dala], beyond, on the other 
side; au — de, beyond. 

d^licatesse [delikates], f., dehcacy. 

delivrer [deUvre], to dehver. 

demain [dame], tomorrow; — matin, 
tomorrow morning; apres-demairif 
day after tomorrow. 

demande [damaid], f., request. 

demander [damade], to ask. 

demarche [demarj], f., step. 

demeurer [damcere], to dwell, live. 

demi [dami], adj., half. 

democratic [demokrasi], f., democ- 

demoiselle [damwazel], f., young 

denonciation [denSsjasjS], f., denun- 

dent [da], f., tooth. 

depart [depair], m., departure. 

departement [departma], , m., de- 

depecher (se) [sa depe/e], to hurry; 
depechez-vousl hurry up! 

depouille [depuij], f ., remains, spoils. 

depuis [dapqi], prep., since, for; — 
quand, conj., how long; — ■ que, 

depute [depyte], m., deputy. 

deranger [derase], to disturb. 

dernier [dernje], last, most recent, 
dernierement [dernjema], lastly, 

derriere [derjeir], behind, 
des [de] = de + les. 
descendre [desaidr], to go down, 

designer [dezijie], to designate, 
desir [deziir], m., desire, 
desirer [dezire], to desire, 
desole [dezole], very sorry, 
desordre [dezordr], m., disorder, 
des que [de ka], as soon as, since, 
desquels = de + lesquels. 
dessert [deseir], m., dessert, 
dessiner [desine], to design, 
dessus [dasy], adv., above, over; 

de — , from above, off. 
destiner (a) [destine], to destine. 
detaler [detale], to scamper, 
determination [determinasjo], f., 

deux [d0], two; a — -, deuce, 
deuxieme [d0zjem], second, 
devant [dava], before; de — , in 

devant [dava], part., see devoir, 
devenir [davniir], to become, 
deviner [davine], to guess. 
devint [dave], see devenir. 
devoir [davwair], m., duty, school 

composition; r^ndre leurs — s a, 

to pay their respects to. 
devoir [davwair], to owe, must, be 

to; devant, pres. part., owing, 

intended to. 
devoue [devwe], devoted, 
diametre [djametr], m., diameter. 
Dieu [dj0], m., God. 
difference [diferais], f., difference, 
different [difera], different, 
difficile [difisil], difficult, 
difficulte [difikylte], f., difficulty, 
digne [diji], worthy, 
diligence [dihsais], f., diligence; 

faire — , to hasten. 


Elements of French 

dimanche [dimaij], m., Sunday. 

dimension [dimasjo], f., dimension. 

din [de], word expressing sound of 
a bell. 

diner [dine], m., dinner. 

diner [dine], to dine. 

dire [di:r], to say, tell; vouloir — , to 

direction [direksjS], f., direction. 

diriger [dirise], to direct. 

disponible [disponibl], available. 

disposer [dispoze], to dispose, ar- 
range; se — ci, to prepare to. 

disposition [dispozisjS], f., disposi- 

disputer [dispyte], to dispute; se 
— avec, to dispute with. 

distinguer [distege], to distinguish. 

distraction [distraksjo], f., distrac- 

distribution [distribysjo], f., dis- 

dit, see dire. 

dix [dis], ten. 

dix-hiiit [diz qit], eighteen. 

dix-huitieme [diz qitj em], eighteenth. 

dizaine [dizen], f., some ten, about 

docteur [doktoeir], m., doctor. 

dodo [dodo], m., by-by; faire . . . ., 
to go to sleep. 

doigt [dwa], m., finger. 

doivent [dwaiv], see devoir. 

dollar [dolair], m., dollar. 

domestique [domestik], m., servant. 

dommage [domais], damage.; c^est 
— ! too bad! 

Domremy [doromi], m., Domremy, 
a village in the region of the 
Vosges Mts. 

don [do], word expressing sound of 
a bell. 

done [do, doik], then, so. 

donner [done], to give; — • sur, to 
open on, 

dont [do], whose, of which, of whom, 
with which. 

dormir [dormiir], to sleep. 

dos [do], m., back. 

doucement [dusma], gently. 

douceur [dusoeir], f ., pleasure, com- 

doute [dut], m., doubt. 

doux [du], sweet, mild; dans les 
prix — , at a moderate price. 

douzaine [duzen], f., dozen. 

douze [duiz], twelve. 

drame [dram], m., play, drama. 

drapeau [drapo], m., flag, banner. 

droit [drwa], adj., right. 

droit [drwa], m., law, right; avoir — 
a, to have a right to ; etre en — de, 
to be right in; tout — , straight 

drole [droil], comical. 

du [dy] = de + le. 

dt [dy], see devoir. 

Dublin [dyble], m., DubUn. 

due [dyk], m., duke. 

Dumas [dyma], Dumas, a French 

Dupuis [dypqi], Dupuis, a proper 

duquel = de + lequel. 

dur [dyir], hard. 

durer [dyre], to last, endure. 

dusse-je [dyseis], if I should. 
(From devoir.) 


eau [o], f., water. 

ecarte [ekarte], far away. 

echange [eja:3], m., exchange. 

echanger [ejase], to exchange. 

echapper [ejape], to escape; — a, 
escape from. 

eclairage [eklerais], m., illumina- 

eclaire [eklere], enlightened. 

eclat [ekla], m., splinter, fragment, 

eclater [eklate], to burst. 

ecole [ekol], f., school; a V — , at 

French-English Vocabulary 


£cosse [ekos], f., Scotland. 

ecouter [ekute], to listen (to). 

eerier (s*) [s ekrie], to cry, exclaim. 

ecrire [ekriir], to write. 

ecrit [ekri], see ecrire. 

ecriteau [ekrito], m., sign-board. 

ecriture [ekrityir], f., writing. 

ecrivez [ekrive], see ecrire. 

edifice [edifis], m., edifice. 

editeur [editneir], m., publisher. 

Edmond [edmo], Edmund. 

Edouard [edwair], Edward. 

effleurer [efloere], to skim the sur- 
face of. 

egalement [egalma], equally, like- 

egard [egair], m., regard; a cet — , 
in this respect; a mon — , toward 

eglise [eghiz], f., church. 

egorger [egorse], to cut the throats 

eh bien! [e bje], well! 

Eiffel [efel], m., Eiffel. (The Eiffel 
Tower is about 1000 feet high, 
and is used as wireless station.) 

Elbe [elb], f ., Elba, an island east of 

elegant [elega], elegant. 

eleve [eleiv], m., f., pupil. 

elever [elve], to raise. 

eUe [el], she. (See il.) 

elle-meme [el meim], herself (in- 

embrasser [ubrase], to kiss. 

embrouiller [abruje], to embroil, 

emettre [emetr], to issue. 

emigre [emigre], m., refugee, emi- 

eminence [eminais], f., eminence. 

emmener [amne], to lead away, 
take away. 

emotion [emosjo], f., emotion. 

empecher [apeje], to prevent. 

emperetir [aproeir], m., emperor. 

empiler [apile], to pile up. 

emploi [aplwa], m., use. 
employer [aplwaje], to use. 
emporter [aporte], to carry away, 

take away. 
en [a], prep., in, into, as, made of; 

— ami, as a friend ; — has, down- 
stairs; — familley at home; — fer, 
(made) of iron; — passanl, (while) 
passing; — train de, in the act of; 

— Ville (E.V.), City. 

en [a], pron., of it, of them, from it, 
from them, some. 

enchanter [a/ate], to enchant, de— 

encore [akoir], still, yet, again; — 
une fois, once more. 

encre [aikr], f., ink. 

endroit [adrwa], m., place; a V — 
de, in regard to. 

enfant [afa], m., f., child. 

enfermer [aferme], to enclose. 

enfin [afe], finally, at last. 

enflammer [aflame], to inflame, in- 

engagement [agasma], m., engage- 

enguirlander [agirlade], to wreathe. 

enjamber [asabe], to leap over, 

ennemi [enmi], m., enemy. 

ennuie [anqi], wearies. (See en- 

ennuyer [anqie], to weary. 

ennuyeux [anqii0], tiresome. 

enseigner [asejie], to teach. 

ensemble [asdibl], together. 

ensuite [asqit], then, next. 

entendre [ataidr], to hear. 

enthousiasme [atuzjasm], m., en- 

entier [atje], entire. 

entierement [atjsrmd], entirely 

entre [a:tr], between, among. 

entrer [atre], to enter; — dans, to 
enter; nous fait — , shows us in. 

entretien [atratje], m., talk, conver- 


Elements of French 

enveloppe [avlop], f., envelope. 

envie [avi], f., envy, desire; avoir 
- — , to want (to). 

environ [aviro], about. 

environs [avirS], m., pi., neigh- 

envoyer [avwaje], to send; — cher- 
cher, to send for. 

epeler [eple], to spell. 

epouser [epuze], to marry. 

equilibre [ekilibr], m., equilibrium. 

equivalent [ekivala], m., equivalent. 

esclave [ssclaiv], m., f., slave; 
tomher — , to fall into slavery. 

escorte [eskort], f., escort. 

Espagne [espaji], f., Spain. 

espece [sspes], f., kind. 

esperer [sspere], to hope. 

esprit- [espri], m., spirit, intelligence. 

essai [ese], m., trial, essay.. 

essayer [eseje], to try. 

essouffler [esufle], to put out of 

est [est], m., east. 

est [s], see etre; est-ce que? (used to 
introduce question); n^ est-ce pas? 
is it not so.? doesn't he? etc. 

et [e], and; — caetera (Latin), and 
so forth. 

etablissement [etabhsma], m., es- 

etage [etais], m., story (of a house) ; 
premier — , second floor. 

etait [ete]. See etre. 

etat [eta], m., state, government; 
Etats-UniSj United States. 

ete [ete], m., summer. 

ete [ete], been (See etre). 

etendard [etadair], m., standard. 

etendre [etaidr], to extend. 

etemellement [eternelma], etern- 

etoile [etwal], f ., star. 

etonner [etone], to astonish; s' — 
to be astonished. 

etouffer [etufe], to suffocate. 

etranger [etrase], m., stranger, for- 

etre [eitr], to be; — d, to belong to; 
est-ce? is it? n' est-ce pas? is it not 
so? are they not? etc. ; en — /d, to 
be at that point. 

etude [etyd], f., study. 

etudiant [etydja], m., student. 

etudier [etydje], to study. 

eu [y], see avoir. 

eus [y], see avoir. 

eux (0), they; memes, themselves. 

evaporer [evapore], evaporate. 

eventail [evataij], m., fan; en — , 

evident [evida], evident. 

exact [eg3akt], exact, right (of time- 

excellence [skselais], f., excellence; 
par — , above all. 

excellent [eksela], excellent. 

exception [eksepsjS], f., exception; 
aV — dcj with the exception of. 

excuse [ekskyiz], f., excuse. 

exemple [egzaipl], m., example; par 
— , for example. 

exercice [egzersis], m., exercise, 
drill (of soldiers) . 

expirer [ekspire], to expire. 

explication [eksplikasjo], f., expla- 

expliquer [eksplike], to explain. 

expression [Gkspr8sj5], f., expres- 

extraordinaire [ekstrordineir], ex- 

fagade [fasad], f., fagade, building 

face [fas], f ., face; en — de, opposite. 

facile [fasil], easy. 

facilement [fasilma], easily. 

fafon [faso], f., fashion; de cette — , 
in this manner; sans — , uncere- 

facteur [faktoeir], m., postman. 

French-English Vocabulary 


faim [fe], f., hunger; avoir — , to be 

faire [fe:r], to make, do, say; have 

(of dreams); be (in arithmetic); 

— atientioriy to pay attention; — 
commej to give the effect of; — la 
classe, to conduct the class; — 
plaisiry to give pleasure; — son 
petit dejeuner, to take breakfast; 

— venir, to send for; il fait beau 
{temps) y it is fine weather; se — , 
to take place, to cause himself 
(themselves) to be. 

fait [fe], see faire. 

falloir [falwa:r], to be necessary. 

fallu [faly], see falloir. 

fameux [fam0], famous. 

famille [famiij], f., family. 

fantaisie [fatezi], f., fancy. 

Faria [farja], a proper name. 

fasse [fas], see faire. 

faudra [fodra], see falloir. 

faut [fo], see falloir. 

faute [foit], f., fault, mistake. 

fauteuil [fotoeij], m., arm chair; — 

d'orchestre, orchestra seat. 
faux [fo], false. 

femme [fam], f., woman, wife. 
fenetre [faneitr], f., window. 
far [feir], m., iron; chemin de — , 

feral [fre], see faire. 
fermer [ferme], to close, 
feroce [feros], ferocious, 
festin [feste], m., feast. 
fete [fe:t], f., hoUday, feast. 
feu [f0], m., fire. 
feuiUe [foeij], f., leaf, 
feve [fe:v], f., bean, 
fevrier [fevrie], m.,. February, 
fi [fi], fie! 

fiacre [fjakr], m., cab. 
figure [figyir], f., face, 
filature [filatyir], f., spinning mill. 
fiJier [file], to spin. 
fille [fiij], f., daughter, girl; jeune — , 

(young) girl. 

fiUeul [fijoel], m., godson. 

fils [fis], m., son.. 

fin [fe], fine, deHcate. 

finir [finiir], to finish; il finit par 

demander, he finally asked. 
fit [fi], see faire. 
fixe [fiks], fixed. 

fixer [fikse], to fix, look steadily on. 
Flandre [flaidr], f., Flanders, a part 

of Belgium and northern France. 
flanquer [flake], to flank, border, 
flatter [flate], to flatter. 
fleche [fle/], f., arrow. 
fleur [floeir], f., flower. 
fleuve [floeiv], m., river, 
flot [flo], m., wave. 
flotter [flote], to float. 
foi [fwa], f., faith; ma — , upon my 

foire [fwair], f., fair. 
fois [fwa], f., time. 
fond [fo], m., bottom; au — de, at 

the back of. 
font [fo], see faire. 
Fontainebleau [fotenblo], m., Fon- 

tainebleau, a town south of Paris, 
football [futbail], m., football, 
force [fors], f., strength. 
forcer [f orse], to force. 
forgeron [forsaro], m., blacksmith, 
forme [form], f., shape. 
former [forme], to form. 
formula [formyl], f., formula; — s 

de politessey forms of etiquette; 

— s offidelleSy formal salutation. 
fort [foir], adj., strong; adv., very; 

c^est plus — que moiy that beats 

fortement [fortma], vigorously. 
fou [fu], fol [fol], adj., mad. 
fou [fu], m., madman, 
fouet [fwe], m., whip, 
fourchette [furjet], f., fork, 
foyer [fwaje], m., hearth. 
fraction [fraksjS], f., fraction, 
fraiche [frsij*], see frais.. 


Elements of French 

frais [fre], fresh. 

franc [fra], adj., frank. 

franc [fra], m., franc, about twenty 

frangais [frase], adj., French; le — , 

the French language; parlez-vous 

— ? do you speak French? 
France [frais], f., France. 
Francfort [frakfoir], m., Frankfort. 
Franfois [fraswa], m., Francis. 
Frantz [fruits], Francis. 
frapper [frape], to knock, coin, 
frayeur [frsjoeir], f., fright. 
frere [freir], m., brother, 
f ripen [fripo], adj., roguish. 
frissonner [frisone], to shiver. 
froid [frwa], adj., cold; avoir — , to 

be cold. 
froid [frwa], m., cold, 
fromage [fromais], m., cheese, 
f rotter [frote], to rub. 
fruit [frqi], m., fruit, 
fuir [fqiir], to flee, 
fuite [fqit], f., flight, 
fumer [fyme], to smoke, 
fut [fy], see etre. 
futur [fytyir], future. 

gagner [gajie], to win, gain. 

gal [ge], adj., gay. 

gai [ge], inter j., let us be merry! 

galop [galo], m., gallop; au — , at a 

gant [ga], m., glove. 

garantir [garatiir], to protect, guar- 

garfon [garso], m., boy, waiter. 

garde [gard], f., watch, guard; 
pendre — , to look out. 

garder [garde], to keep. 

gare [gair], f., railroad station; chef 
de — , station master. 

Garonne [garon], f., Garonne, a 
river in France. 

Gascogne [gaskoji], f., Gascony, 

ancient province of France; Golfe 

de —J Bay of Biscay. 
Gaston [gasto], Gaston, 
gateau [gato], m., cake; — des Rois, 

cake for Epiphany. 
gauche [go:/], left, clumsy; a—, to 

the left. 
geler [sale], to freeze, 
gener [sene], to bother, hinder; se 

— , to inconvenience one's self. 
general [seneral], adj., general, 
general [seneral], m., general, 
genou [3anu], m., knee, 
gens [3a], m., f ., pi., people, persons, 
gentil [3ati], nice, amiable. 

gentilhomme [satijom], m., gentle- 

gentiment [3atima], nicely. 

Georges [3or3], George. 

gibier [sibje], m., game. 

gilet [sile], m., vest; — defantaisie, 
fancy vest. 

glace [glas], f ., ice. 

glissade [glisad], f., slide. 

gloire [glwair], f., glory. 

glorieux [glorj0], glorious. 

golfe [golf], m., gulf, bay. 

gomme [gom], f., gum. 

gorge [gor3], f., throat. 

grammaire [grameir], f., grammar. 

grand [gra], great, tall; — ouvert, 
wide open. 

grandir [gradiir], to grow. 

gratitude [gratityd], f., gratitude. 

grave [graiv], grave, serious. 

grec [grek], Greek. 

greler [grele], to hail. 

grenier [granje], m., attic, granary. 

grillage [grijais], m., grating; — aux 
afficheSj bulletin board. 

grincement [gresma], m., grating. 

gris [gri], gray. 

gronder [grode], to scold. 

gros [gro], big, great. 

gueule [gcel], f ., jaws (of an animal). 

French-English • Vocabulary 


guere [geir], hardly; ne — , hardly. 
guerre [ge:r], f., war. 
guichet [gije], m., ticket window, 
guider [gide], to guide. 
Guillaume [gijoim], William. 


*ha [a], ha! 

habiller [abije], to dress; s' — , to be 

dressed, dress one's self. 
habit [abi], m., (dress) coat; pi., 

habitant [abita], m., inhabitant, 
habiter [abite], to inhabit, dwell in. 
habitude [abityd], f., habit; d^ — , 

habituer (s*) [s abitqe], to become 

*halle [al], f., market. 
*hanneton [anto], m., June-bug. 
*hasarder [azarde], to risk. 
*haut [o], high, loud; — de former 

tall (hat) ; en — , upstairs. 
*hautement [otma], highly. 
*he [e], ho! hey! 
Hector [ektoir]. Hector, 
helas [elais], alas! 
Helene [elen], Helen. 
Henri [ari], Henry. 
hesiter [ezite], to hesitate. 
*heu [0], an exclamation. 
heure [ce:r], f., hour, time; & la 

bonne — , all right; a V — , on time; 

de bonne — , early; il est deicx — s, 

it is two o'clock; tout a V — , 

presently; just now. 
heureusement [oer0zma], fortunate- 


heureux [oer0], happy. 
*hi [i], hee! 

hier [je:r], yesterday; — soir, yester- 
day evening. 
hirondelle [ir5d8l], f., swallow, 
histoire [istwair], f., history, story. 
hiver [iveir], m., winter, 
hommage [omais], m., homage. 

homme [om], m., man. 

honn^te [oneit], adj., honest, decent. 

honneur [onoeir], m., honor. 

horloge [orlois], f., clock. 

*hors de [o:r da], out of. 

Hortense [ortais], Hortense. 

hotel [otel], m., hotel, mansion; 
Hotel- Dieu, principal hospital of 
a town; Hotel des InvalideSj old 
soldiers* home; — de ville, town 

*houblon [ublo], m., hop, hop vine. 

'houille [u:j], f., coal. 

*hu [y], an exclamation. 

*huit [i|it], eight; — jours^ sl week 
(usually) . 

*huitieme [qitjem], eighth. 

ici [isi], here. 

idee [ide], f., idea. 

idiot [id jo], adj., foolish. 

idiotisme [idjotism], m., idiom. 

if [if], m., yew, yew-tree; Chateau 
d'Ify SL prison near Marseilles. 

ignorant [ijiora], ignorant. 

il [il], he, it; s' — vous plait, if you 

lie [il], f., island. 

illusion [ilyzjo], f., illusion, vision. 

illustre [ilystr], illustrious. 

image [imais], f., image, picture. 

imagination [ima3inasj5], f., imagi- 

immediatement [imedjatmd], im- 

immobile [imobil], motionless. 

imparfait [sparfe], imperfect, past 

imperatrice [eperatris], f., empress. 

imperiale [eperjal], f., roof (of a 

important [eporta], important. 

impossible [eposibl], impossible. 

impdt [epo], m., tax, impost. 

impression [epresjo], f., impression. 


Elements of French 

impur [epyir], impure. 

inaction [inaksj5], f., inaction. 

inattention [inatasjo], f., inatten- 

incredule [ekredyl], incredulous. 

incredulite [ekredylite], f., incre- 

incurable [ekyrabl], incurable. 

independance [edepadais], f., in- 

indiquer [edike], to indicate. 

indubitablement [edybitablma], un- 

Industrie [edystri], f ., industry. 

infiniment [sfinima], infinitely. 

informer [eforme], to inform; s' — , 
to inquire. 

ingenieur [esenjoeir], m., engineer. 

innocent [inosa], innocent. 

insister [esiste], to insist. 

inspection [espeksjo], f., inspection. 

instant [esta], m., instant; a V — , 
instantly, just now; a V — meme, 
at this very instant. 

instinctif [estektif], instinctive. 

institut [estity], m., institute. 

instruction [gstryksjS], f., instruc- 

instruire [estrijiir], to instruct. 

intellectuel [etelektqsl], intellectual. 

interessant [eteresa], interesting. 

interieur [eterjoeir], m., interior. 

interroger [etero3e], to interrogate, 

interrompre [eteroipr], to interrupt. 

intrepidite [strepidite], f ., intrepid- 

inutile [inytil], useless. 

invalide [evalid], m., invalid; Hotel 
des Invalides, old soldiers' home. 

invitation [svitasjo], f., invitation. 

inviter [evite], to invite. 

irai [ire], shall go. (See aller). 

Irlande [irlaid], f., Ireland. 

Italie [itali], f., Italy. 

italien [italje], Italian, 

jabot [sabo], m., frill (of a shirt). 

Jacques [saik], James. 

jaloux [3alu], jealous. 

jamais [same], ever; never (when 

separate from verb) ; — de la vie, 

never never; ne — , never, 
jambe [saib], f., leg. 
Janvier [savje], m., January, 
jardin [sards], m., garden, 
jaser [saze], to chatter, 
jaune [30m], yellow, 
je [38], I. 
Jean [3a], John. 
Jeanne [3am], Joan; — d' Arc, Joan 

of Arc. 
Jeannette [sanet], Janet, Jenny. 
Jeter [sate], to throw; se — , to 

empty (of rivers). 
jeu [30], m., game. 
jeudi [30di], m., Thursday, 
jeune [seen], young, 
jeunesse [scenes], f., youth, 
joie [swa], f., joy. 
joli [soli], pretty. 
joliment [solima], prettily. 
Josephine [sozefin], Josephine. 
Joubert [subeir], Joubert, a French 

joue [su], f., cheek. 
jouer [swe], to play, 
jour [su:r], m., day. 
journal [surnal], m., newspaper, 
joumee [3urne], f., day (a day's 

juif [sqif], m., Jew. 
juillet [syje], m., July, 
juin [sqe], m., June. 
Jules [syl], Julius. 
Julien [sylje], Julian. 
Julio [syljo], JuHo. 
jusqu*a [sysk a], up to, until. 
jusque [syska], even (+ dans or 

juste [syst], just. 

French-English Vocabulary 


justement [systma], justly, pre- 
justice [systis], f., justice. 

kilo [kilo], or kilogramme [kilogram], 

m., kilogram, about 2| pounds. 
kilometre Piilomstr], m., kilometer. 

V [1], see la or le. 

la [la], f., the, her, it. 

1^ [la], there. 

la-bas [la ba], down there. 

lac [lak], m., lake. 

laisser [lese], to leave, let; — a 

penseVj allow one to imagine. 
lait [le], m., milk, 
laitue [lety], f., lettuce. 
Lamartine [lamartin], Lamartine, 

a French author. 
lancer [lose], to throw; se — , to 

langue [laig], f., tongue, language. 
Laplace [laplas], Laplace, a proper 

laquelle [lakel], see lequel. 
large [lars], wide. 
larme [larm], f., tear. 
latin [late], Latin; quartier — , Latin 

laver [lave], to wash. 
le [la], m., him, it, the; vous ne Veles 

pas J you are not (so and so). 
Leblanc [labia], Leblanc, a proper 

Lecomte [bkoit], Lecomte, a proper 

legon [las5], f., lesson. 
lecture [lektyir], f., reading. 
Legrand [bgra], a proper name, 
legume [legym], m., vegetable. 
Lemaitre [bmeitr], a proper name, 
lendemain [ladme], m., next day. 
lequel [Iskel], rel. pron., which, who, 

les [le], or [le]; see le or la. 

lettre [letr], f., letter. 

leur [loeir], to them, their ;Je — , 

theirs; du — , some of theirs, 
lever [lave], to raise; se — , to get up. 
liberatrice [libera tris], f., libera- 

liberte [liberte], f., Hberty. 
libra [libr], free, 
lieu [lj0], m., place; avoir — , to take 

ligne [liji], f., line. 
Lille [hi], f., Lille, a city of northern 

limitrophe [Umitrof], adj., frontier, 
lire [U:r], to read, 
lisez [hze], see lire, 
lisiere [lizjeir], f., edge, border, 
lit [H], m., bed. 

litre [litr], m., liter, about one quart, 
livre [h:vr], m., book, 
livre [Hivr], f., pound. 
location [lokasjo], f., reservation 

(of tickets); en — , reserved, 
locomotive [lokomotiiv], f., loco- 
loge [10:3], f., box (at a theater). 
loger [lo3e], to lodge, billet. 
loi [Iwa], f., law. 
loin [Iwe], far, distant. 
Loire [Iwair], f., Loire, a river in 

loisir [Iwaziir], m., leisure. 
Pon [1 5], see on. 
Londres [loidr], m., London, 
long [13], long; tout au — •, at full 

longtemps [lota], a long time, 
longueur [logceir], f., length, 
lorgnette [lorjiet], f., opera-glass. 
Lorraine [loren], f., Lorraine, a 

province in France. 

lorsque [lorsko], when. (Never used 
in asking questions). 

louis [Iwi], m., louis, worth twenty 

lourd [lu:r], heavy. 


Elements of French 

Louvre [luivr], m., Louvre, a former 
royal palace, now converted into 
the ■ richest art museum in the 

loyal [Iwajal], loyal. 

lu [ly], see lire. 

lui [Iqi], he, him, to him, to her. 

lui-meme [Iqi meim], himself (in- 

lumiere [lymjeir], f., light. 

lundi [[loedi], m., Monday. 

lune [lyn], f., moon. 

lunettes [lynet], f. pi., spectacles. 

lut [ly], see lire. 

lutte [lyt], f., struggle. 

lycee [lise], m., high school. 

Lyon [lj5], m., Lyons, a city in 


M., abbreviation for monsieur, 
ma [ma], see men. 
m^cher [maje], to chew, 
machine [ma/in], f., machine; — d, 

vapeuVf steam engine, 
madame [madam], f ., Mrs., Madam. 
Madeleine [madalen], f., Madeleine 

(meaning Magdalene) y a temple 

in Paris. 
mademoiselle [madam wazel), f.. 

Madrid [madrid], f., Madrid, 
magnifique [majiifik], magnificent, 
mai [me], m., May. 
main [me], f., hand, 
maintenant [metna], now. 
maire [meir], m., mayor, 
mairie [meri], f., town-hall, 
mais [me], but; — oui, why yes. 
maison [mezo], f., house, 
maitre [meitr], m., teacher, Mister 

(of lawyers). 
mal [mal],s adv., badly, 
mal [mal], m., harm, hurt; — aux 

dentSf toothache. 
Malbrough [malbru], m., Marlbor- 

m^e [mail], male, strong, 
malgre [malgre], in spite of. 
malheur [maloeir], m., misfortune, 

malheureusement [malcer0zma), 

malheureux [malcer0], unhappy, 
malhonnete [maloneit], dishonest, 
malle [mal], f., trunk, 
maman [mama], f., mamma. 
manche [maij], f ., sleeve; la Manchey 

English Channel. 
manger [mase], to eat; mange aux 

bordSj dog-eared. 
manie [mani], f., mania, madness. 
manquer [make], to miss; — • la 

classe, to absent one's self from 

marchand [mar/a], m., merchant; 

— de chaussures, shoe dealer. 
marche [marj'e], m., market; a bon 

— , cheap. 
marcher [marj'e], to march, walk. 
mardi [mardi], m., Tuesday. 
marechal [marejal], m., marshal. 
Marguerite [margerit], Margaret, 
mari [mari], m., husband, 
mariage [marjais], m., marriage; 

demander en — , to propose mar- 
riage to. 
Marie [mari], f., Mary, 
marier [marje], to marry, give in 

marriage; se — , to get married. 
marin [mare], m., sailor. 
Mame [marn], f., Marne. 
marquer [marke], to mark, indicate, 
marraine [mar en], f., godmother, 
mars [mars], m., March. 
Marseillaise [marsejeiz], f., the 

French national song. 
Marseille [marseij], f., Marseilles, 
matelot [matlo], m., sailor. 
matin [mate], m., morning; demain 

— , tomorrow morning, 
matinee [matine], f., morning (with 

its happenings), 
matines [matin], f ., pi., matins. 

French-English Vocabulary 


mature [mo:r], m., Moor. 

mauvais [move], bad. 

maux [mo], see mal. 

me [ma], me; see je. 

medecin [metse], m., doctor. 

medecine [metsin], f., medicine. 

Mediterranee [mediterane], f ., Med- 
iterranean Sea. 

meilleur [mejoeir], better. (See 

melancolie [melakoli], f., melan- 

meler [mele], to mingle; se — , to 

membre [maibr], m., member. 

meme [me:m], same, even; a — de, 
able to; la — chose, the same 
thing; la chose — , the thing itself; 
tout de — , just the same; vous- 
meme, yourseK (intensive). 

memoire [memwair], f., memory. 

menager [menase], to spare; se — , 
to spare one's self. 

mentionner [masjone], to mention. 

menton [mats], m., chin. 

mer [meir], f., sea. 

Mercedes [mersedeis], Mercedes, a 
girl's name. 

merci [mersi], thank you; no, thank 

Mercier [msrsje], Mercier, a proper 

mercredi [merkradi], m., Wednes- 
day. ' 

mercure [merkyir], m., mercury 

mere [meir], f., mother. 

merle [merl], m., blackbird. 

merveille [mervsij], f., marvel. 

mes [me] or [me], see men. 

messieurs [mesi0], gentlemen. (See 

mesure [mazyir], f ., measure. 

metre [metr], m., meter, a Uttle 
more than a yard. 

Metro [metro], Metropolitain 
[metropoUte], m., the Metro- 
politan (subway and elevated 

metropolitain [metropolite], adj., 

mettre [metr], to put, put on; se — , 
to sit down; se -^ d, to begin 
to; Men mis, well dressed; le 
convert est mis, the table is set. 

meubler [mceble], to furnish. 

mi-careme [mi kareim], f., mid- 

midi [midi], m., noon, south. 

mie [mi], f., darling. 

mien [mje], mine; le — , mine. 

mieux [mj0], see bien. 

mil [mil], thousand. 

milady [miledi], f., my lady. 

milieu [milj0], m., middle. 

militaire [mihteir], military. 

mille [mil], thousand; — anglaiSy 
English mile. 

milKer [milje], m., thousand. 

million [miljo], m., million. 

mine [min], f., mine. 

minuit [minyi], m., midnight. 

minute [minyt], f., minute. 

miroir [mirwair], m., mirror. 

mirontaine [miroten], a meaning- 
less word. 

mironton, tonton [miroto, t5to], 
meaningless singing words. 

mis [mi], see mettre. 

miserable [mizerabl], miserable. 

mission [misjo], f., mission. 

Mile, abbreviation for mademoi- 

MM., abbreviation for messieurs. 

Mme, abbreviation for madame. 

mobile [mobil], mobile. 

mode [mod], f ., style; hla — de chez 
nous, as we do at home. 

moi [mwa], me, to me, I. 

moi-meme [mwa me:m], myself 

moins [mwej, less; n'en pas — , none 
the less. (See peu.) 

mois [mwa], m., month. 

moitie [mwatje], half. 


Elements of French 

Moliere [moljeir], Moliere, a French 

moment [moma], m., moment. 
mon [m5], my. 

monarchie [monarji], f., monarchy, 
monde [moid], m., world, people; 

tout le — , everybody, 
monetaire [monetsir], monetary, 
momiaie [mone], f., money, change, 
monsieur [m9sj0], m., Mr., sir, 

mont [mo], m., mountain, 
montagne [mStaji], f., mountain, 
monter [mote], to go up, bring up; 

— a chevalj to ride horseback. 

faire — nos hagages, to have our 

baggage brought up. 
montre [moitr], f ., watch; a voire — , 

by your watch, 
moritrer [motre], to show, 
monument [monyma], m., monu- 
moquer [moke], to mock; se — de, 

to make fun of. 
moral [moral], adj. y moral, 
morceau [morso], m., bit, morsel, 
mort [moir], f., death, 
mort [moir], see mourir. 
mot [mo], m., word, a short letter, 
motif [motif], m., motive, 
motte [mot], f., lump, 
mou [mu], mol [mol], soft, 
mourir [muriir], to die. 
mouton [muto], m., sheep, mutton, 
moyen [mwaje], adj., medium, 

moyen [mwajs], m., means, 
moyennant [mwajsna], by means of, 

in consideration of. 
muet [mq8], mute, dumb, 
mugir [mysiir], to roar, bellow, 
multiplication [myltiplikasjo], f., 

multiplier [multiplie], to multiply, 
mur [myir], m., wall, 
musee [myze], museum. 
mutisme [mytism], m., dumbness. 


nage [na:3], f., swimming; se jeter 
a la — , to jump into the water. 

nager [na3e], to swim. 

naissance [nesais], f., birth. 

Naples [napl], f., Naples. 

Napoleon [napoleo]. Napoleon. 

national [nasjonal], national. 

naturellement [natyrelma], natu- 

navigation [navigasj5], f., naviga- 

ne [no], no, not; ne . . ^pas, no; 
not; ne . . . ni . . . ni, neither . . . 
nor; ne . . . quej only. 

negliger [neghse], to neglect. 

neige [ne:3], f., snow. 

neiger [nese], to snow; il neige j it 
is snowing. 

n*est-ce pas? [n e s pa], see itre. 

neuf [noef], new; 

neuf [ncef], nine. 

neveu [nov0], m., nephew. 

New- York [ncB jork], f., New York. 

nez [ne], m., nose. 

ni [ni], neither, nor. 

nickel [nikel], m., nickel. 

nid [ni], m., nest. 

noble [nobl], noble. 

noir [nwair], black. 

nom [no], m., name. 

nombre [noibr], m., number. 

nombreux [nobr0], numerous. 

nommer [nome], to name. 

non [no], no; — plus^ neither. 

nord [noir], m., north. 

nord-est [nor est], m., northeast. 

normal [normal], normal. 

Normandie [normadi],f., Normandy. 

nos [no], see notre. 

noter [note], to note, observe. 

notre [notr], our; Notre Dame, the 
Virgin. (The cathedral of Notre 
Dame is a beautiful example of 
the Gothic style of architecture, 
with a famous facade. The 
edifice is the theme of a famous 
romance by Victor Hugo.) 

French-English Vocabulary 


ndtre [noitr], ours; le — , ours. 
nourrir [nuriir], to feed. 
nous [nu], we, us, to us. 
nouveau [nuvo], nouvel [nuvel], 

nouvelles [nuvel], f., news. 
novembre [novaibr], m., November. 
noyer [nwaje], m., walnut tree. 
noyer [nwaje], to drown. 
nu [ny], bare, naked. 
nuit [nqi], f., night; la — , at night. 
nul [nyl], adj., no. 
numero [nymero], m., number. 

objet [ob3s], m., object. 

obliger [obli3e], to oblige. 

obtenir [optaniir], to obtain. 

obus [oby], m., shell. 

occuper [okype], to occupy; s' — rfe, 

to be busy. 
ocean [osea], m., ocean. 
octobre [oktobr], m., October. 
ceil [oeij], m., eye. 

Plural, yeux [j0]. 
ceuf [cef], m., egg. 

Plural, ceufs [0]. 
officiel [ofisjel], official. 
officier [ofisje], m., officer. 
oh [o], oh! 

oiseau [wazo], m., bird. 
oisif [wazif ], idle, 
omelette [omlst], f., omelet. 
omnibus [omnibyis], m., omnibus. 
on [5], one; somebody. (Often 

translated "we," ''they," etc.) 
oncle [oikl], m., uncle, 
ont [5], see avoir, 
onze [3:z], eleven. 
Opera [opera], m., Opera, or Opera 

House. (The Paris Opera cost 

47,000,000 francs.) 
oppose [opoze], opposite. 
or [o:r], m., gold. 
oral [oral], oral. 

orchestre [orkestr], m., orchestra; 
fauteuil d — , orchestra seat. 

ordinaire [ordineir], ordinary; d' — , 

ordinairement [ordinerma], ordi- 

ordre [ordr], m., order. 

oreille [oreij], f., ear. 

orgueil [orgoeij], m., pride. 

Orleans [orled], m., f., Orleans, a 
city in France. 

ortolan [ortola], m., ortolan. 

oser [oze], to dare. 

ou [u], or, either. 

oft [u], where, in which. 

oublier [ublie], to forget. 

ouest [west], m., west. 

oui [wi], yes. 

outre [utr]: en — , moreover. 

ouvert [uveir], open. (See ouvrir.) 

ouvertement [uvertma], openly. 

ouvrage [uvra:3], m., work. 

ouvreuse [uvr0:z], f., woman usher. 

ouvrir [uvriir], to open. 

page [pais], ^v P^-g^ (of a book). 

page [pa:3], m., page (attendant). 

paille [pa:j], f., straw. 

pain [pe], m., bread. 

paire [pe:r], f ., pair. 

paix [pe], f., peace. 

palais [pale], m., palace. 

pile [pail], pale. 

paletot [palto], m., paletot, great- 

pan [pa], m., flap. 

panier [panje], m., basket. 

pantalon [pdtalo], m., trousers. 

Pantheon [pateo], m.. Pantheon, a 
temple which is the resting place 
of a number of distinguished 

papa [papa], m., papa. 

papier [papje], m., paper; — d let- 
treSf letter paper. 


Elements of French 

papier-monnaie [papje mone], m., 

paper money. 
Paques [pa:k], m., Easter. 
par [pair], by, through; — conse- 
quent, consequently, 
paraitre [pareitr], to appear, seem. 
parapluie [paraplqi], m., umbrella. 
pare [park], m., park, 
parce que [pars ka], because, 
par-dessus [par dasy], on, over and 

pardessus [pardasy], m., overcoat. 
pardon [pardo], m., pardon, I beg 

pareil [pareij], Uke, similar. 
parent [para], m., parent, relative, 
parfaitement [parfetma], perfectly. 
Paris [pari], m., Paris, 
parisien [parizje], adj., Parisian. 
parler [parle], to speali. 
parmi [parmi], among. 
parole [parol], f., word; en prenant 

la — , beginning to speak. 
part [pair], f., part, share; de la — 

dej on behaK of. 
partager [parta3e], to share. 
parterre [parte ir], m., pit (of 

theater) . 
participe [partisip], m., participle, 
particulier ement [par tiky 1 j erm a ] , 

partie [parti], f., part, match, 
partir [partiir], to leave, depart, 
partout [partu], everywhere. 
pas [pa], no, not; ne — , no, not; 

n'est-ce — ? are we not? do they 

not? etc.; non — , not. 
pas [pa], m., step; au — , in a walk, 
passer [pase], to pass; spend (of 

time) ; se — , to take place. 
patapon [patap5], a meaningless 

patience [pasjais], f., patience, 
patient [pasja], m., patient, culprit, 
patiner [patine], to skate. 
patrie [patri], f ., native land. 
patriotique [patriotik], patriotic. 

patte [pat], f., paw, foot. 

Paul [pol], Paul. 

pauvre [poivr], poor, wretched; 

droit des — s, tax levied for the 

benefit of the poor, 
payer [peje], to pay, pay for. 
pays [pei], m., country. 
paysan [peiza], m., peasant, 
paysanne [peizan], f., peasant 

peche [psij], f., peach. 
pecher [ps/e], to fish. 
peigne [peji], m., comb, 
peigner [pejie], to comb. 
peine [pen], f., anxiety, pain; d, — , 

hardly; valoir la — , to be worth 

pendant [pada], during; — que, 

pendre [paidr], to hang, 
penetrer [penetre], to penetrate. 
penser [pase], to think; — d, to 

think of, remember; — de, to 

have an opinion of ; vous pensez si, 

you may well imagine whether. 
percer [perse], to pierce. 
perdre [perdr], to lose, disturb, 
pere [peir], m., father, 
permettre [permetr], to permit. 
Perrichon [peri Jo], Perrichon, a 

proper name. 
personne [person], m., anybody, 

nobody; ne — , nobody, 
personnel [personel], private, 
perspective [perspektiiv], f., view, 

persuader [persqade], to persuade. 
petit [poti], adj., little. 
peu [p0], adv., little; a — pres, 

peuple [poepl], m., people, nation, 
peur [poeir], f., fear; avoir — , to be 

peut [p0], see pouvoir. 
peut-etre [poet eitr], perhaps. 
Philippe [filip], Philip. 
phrase [fraiz], f., phrase, sentence. 

French-English Vocabulary 


picota [pikota], pick, pick! 
picoter [pikote], to peck at. 
picoti [pikDti], pick, pick! 
piece [pjes], f., piece, coin, room, 

pied [pje], m., foot; a — , afoot; d 

mon — , fitting my foot. 
Pierre [pjeir], Peter. 
Pierrot [pjero], little Peter, 
pigeon [pi3o], m., pigeon. 
piquer [pike]: se. — , to pride one's 

pire [piir], see mauvais. 
place [plas], f., place, square; Place 

de VEtoile, name of a square in 

plaie [pis], f., wound, 
plaintif [pletif], m., plaintive. 
plaire [pleir], to please; sHl vous 

plait, if you please. 
plaisir [pleziir], m., pleasure. 
plan [pla], m., plan, map. 
plante [plait], f., plant; Jardin des 

Plantes, botanical garden, 
planter [plate], to plant. 
plate-forme [platform], f., platform. 
plein [pie], full. 
pleurer [plcere], to weep, 
pleut [pl0], see pleuvoir. 
pleuvoir [ploevwair], to rain. 
plisser [plise], to plait, 
plonger [plose], to plunge, 
pluie [plqi], f., rain, 
plume [plym], f., pen. 
plupart [plypair], f ... majority, great- 
er part. 
plus [ply], more; de — en plus, 

more and more; ne — , no longer. 

(See beaucoup.) 
plusieurs [plyzjoeir], several. 
plutot [plyto], rather, sooner. 
poche [poj], f., pocket; — revolver, 

hip pocket. 
poids [pwa], m., weight, 
point [pwe], m., point. 
point [pwe], not; not at all; ne — 

not at all. 

poire [pwair], f., pear. 

pois [pwa], m., pea; petits — , French 

poisson [pwaso], m., fish. 

poitrine [pwatrin], f., chest. 

poli [pali], polished, polite. 

police [polis], f., police. 

polir [poliir], to polish. 

polonais [polone], Polish. 

polytechnique [politeknik], poly- 

pomme [pom], f., apple; — de terre, 

Ponine [ponin], Ponine, a girl's 

pont [po], m., bridge. 

population [popylasjo], f., popula- 

pore [poir], m., hog. 

port [po:r], m., harbor, port. 

porte [port], f., 'door. 

portefeuille [portfoeij], m., pocket- 

porte-monnaie [port mone], m., 

porte-plume [port plym], m., pen- 

porter [porte], to carry, wear;.se — , 
to be (of health); comment vous 
porteZ'Vous? how are you? 

Porto-Ferrajo [porto ferajo], Porto- 
ferrajo, principal city of the 
island of Elba. 

poser [poze], to place, write down 
(in arithmetic) . 

position [pozisjo], f., position. 

possible [posibl], possible. 

postal [postal], postal. 

poste [post], f., post, post office; — 
restante, general delivery. 

pouce [pus], m., inch, thumb. 

poule [pul], f., hen. 

poulet [pule], m., chicken. 

poupee [pupe], f., doll. 

pour [puir], prep., for, in order to. 

pourboire [purbwair], m., tip. 

pour-cent [puir sa], m., percent. 


Elements of French 

pourquoi [purkwa], why. 

pousser [puse], to push, extend. 

poussiere [pusjeir], f., dust. 

pouvoir [puvwair], to be able, can; 
il se pent, it is possible. 

praticable [pratikabl], practicable. 

pre [pre], m., meadow. 

precaution [prekosjS], f., precaution. 

precipiter [presipite], to precipitate; 
se — , to rush, dash. 

precis [presi], precise. 

precisement [presizema], precisely. 

prefecture [prefsktyir], f., prefect's 

premier [pramje], first; — etagey 
second floor. 

premierement [pramjsrma], firstly. 

prend [pro], takes. (See prendre). 

prendre [proiidr], to take, catch; — 
garde J to take care. 

preparer [prepare], to prepare. 

pres de [pre do], near. 

present [preza], present; a — , now. 

presque [preska], almost. 

presse [prese], urgent. 

pretendre [pretaidr], to pretend, 

preter [prete], to lend. 

preuve [proeiv], f., proof. 

prier [prie], to pray; beg;^^ vous en 
prie, I beg you. 

priere [prieir], f., prayer; — defaire 
suivre, please forward. 

principal [presipal], principal. 

principalement [presipalma], prin- 

printemps [preta], m., spring. 

pris [pri], see prendre. 

prise [priiz], f., capture. 

prison [priz 5], f., prison. 

prisonnier [prizonje], m., prisoner. 

prix [pri], m., price, prize; dans les 
— douXj Sit a moderate price. 

probable [probabl], probable. 

prochain [proje], next. 

professeur [profesceir], m., profes- 
sor, teacher. 

profession [profesjo], f., profession. 

profit er [profite], to profit. 

profond [prof 5], deep. 

profondement [profodema], deeply. 

programme [program], m., program. 

promenade [promnad], f., walk. 

promener [promne], to take out, 
parade; se — , to take a walk, 
take an outing. 

promettre [prometr], to promise. 

promulgation [promylgasjo], f., pro- 

prononcer [pronose], to pronounce. 

propre [propr], own, clean. 

proprietaire [proprieteir], m., pro- 

province [prove :s], f., province. 

provision [provizj5], f., provision. 

prussien [prysje], Prussian. 

public [pyblik], pubhc. 

puis [pqi], then. 

puis [pqi], see pouvoir. 

puissant [pqisa], powerful. 

punir [pyniir], to punish. 

punition [pynisjo], f., punishment. 

pupitre [pypitr], m., desk. 

Pyrenees [pirene], f. pi., Pyrenees. 

quadrupede [kadryped], m., quad- 

qualite [kahte], f., quality. 

quand [ka], when; depuis — , how 

quant k [kat a], as for. 

quarante [karait], forty. 

quart [ka:r], m., quarter. 

quartier [kartje], m., quarter, ward; 
— savanty learned quarter. 

quatorze [katorz], fourteen. 

quatre [katr], four. 

quatre - vingt - dix [katr ve dis], 

quatre-vingts [katr ve], eighty. 

que [ka], pron., that, whom, which, 
what; qu' avez-vous? what is the 
matter with you? qu'est-ce qui? 
what? qu^est'Ce que c'est? what is it? 

French-English Vocabulary 


que [ka], conj., that, than, l^t ( + 

que [ka], adv., how, how many; ne 

— que J only, 
quel [kel], adj., what, what a, 


quelque [kelk], some, some few; — 
hon quHl soil, however good it 
may be; — chose, m., something. 

quelqu*un [kelkoe], some one. 

qu*est-ce que? [k s s ka], qu*est-ce 
qui? [k e s ki], what? 

question [kestjo], f., question. 

questionnaire [kestjoneir], m., ex- 
amination questions. 

queue [k0], f., tail; faire la — , to 
stand in line. 

qui [ki], who, which; a — ? whose 
(possession) ; de — ? whose (rela- 
tionship) ; — que ce soit, anybody, 

quiconque [kikoik], whoever. 

quinze [keiz], fifteen. 

quitter [kite], to leave. 

quoi [kwa], what; il y aura de — 
arriver a Paris, there will be 
enough to take one to Paris; il 
n'y a pas de — , don't mention it. 

quoique P^wako], although. 

racconimoder [rakomode], to repair. 
race [ras], f., race, breed, 
raconter [rakote], to narrate, 
raison [rezo], f., reason; avoir — , to 

be right. 
ramasser [ramase], to pick up. 
ramener [ranane], to bring back, 
rang [ra], m., rank, 
ranger [rase], to range, put in place, 
ranimer [ranime], to restore, arouse. 
rapide [rapid], m., express. 
rappeler (se) [so raple], to recollect. 
rapporter [raporte], to bring back, 
rare [rair]^ rare, 
rarement [rarma], rarely, 
raser [raze], to shave. 

rasoir [razwair], m., razor; — de 
sHrete, safety razor. 

rat [ra], m., rat. 

rayonner [rejone], to radiate. 

rebondir [rabodiir]; to rebound. 

recevoir [rasvwair], to receive. 

recit [resi], m., narrative. 

reciter [resite], to recite, repeat. 

reclamation [reklamasjo], f., com- 

recommandation [rakomadasjo], f., 
recommendation . 

recommander [rakomade], to rec- 

reconnaissance [rakonesais], f., 

reconnaissant [rakonesa], grateful. 

refu [rasy], see recevoir. 

rediger [redise], to draw up. 

redingote [radegot], f., frock coat. 

reduction [redyksjo], f., reduction. 

reellement [reelma], really. 

reflechir [reflejiir], to reflect. 

reflexion [refleksjo], f., reflection. 

regal [regal], m., treat. 

regard [ragair], m., look. 

regarder [ragarde], to look at. 

regiment [resima], m., regiment. 

regie [reigl], f., ruler, rule. 

regretter [ragrete], to regret. 

Reims [rsis], f., Rheims, a city in 

reine [rem], f., queen. 

rejouir [reswiir], to rejoice, delight. 

releguer [ralege], to exile. 

reliefs [raljef], m. pi., scraps. 

relier [ralje], to bind. 

relire [raUir], to read over. 

remarquablement [ramarkablma], 

remarquer [ramarke], to notice, 

remerciements [ramersima], m. 
pL, thanks. 

remercier [ramersje], to thank. 


Elements of French 

remettre [rametr], to hand back, 
put off. 

remis [rami], see remettre. 

remonter [ramote], to wind up (of 
timepieces) . 

remplacer [raplase], to replace. 

remuer [ramqe], to stir, wag. 

rencontre [rakoitr], f., meeting, en- 

rencontrer [rakotre], to meet, en- 

rendez-vous [rade vu], m., appoint- 

rendre [raidr], to give back, return; 
se — d, to betake one's self to. 

Rene [rane], a man's name. 

renfermer [rafsrme], to enclose, 

renseigner [rassjie], to inform. 

rentrer [ratre], to enter again, re- 

repartir [rapartiir], to start again. 

repas [rapa], m., meal. 

repasser [rapase], to repass, iron. 

repeter [repete], to repeat. 

repondre [rep5:dr], to reply. 

reponse [rep 5 is], f., answer. 

reporter [raporte], to take back. 

reposer [rapoze], to rest. 

reprendre [rapra:dr], to answer, 
take back. 

representation [raprezatasjo], f., 

reproche [raproj], m., reproach. 

reprocher [raproje], to reproach. 

republique [repyblik], f., repubUc, 

requisition [rekizisjo], f., requisition. 

reseau [rezo], m., system, network. 

reserver [rezerve], to reserve; faire 
— , to have reserved. 

resigner (a) [rezijie], to resign. 

resister (a) [reziste], to resist. 

respect [respe], m., respect. 

respirer [respire], to breathe. 

reste [rest], m., rest, remainder; du 
— , besides. 

rester [reste], to remain; en — la^ to 
proceed no further. 

resultal [rezylta], m., result. 

retard [ratair], m., delay; etre en — , 
to be late. 

retarder [ratarde], to be slow (of 
timepieces) . 

retenir [ratniir], to carry (in arith- 
metic) . 

retenu [ratny]: un de — , one to 
carry (in arithmetic). (See re- 

retirer [ratire], to retire; se — , to 

retour [ratuir], m., return; billet 
dialler et — , m., round trip 

retranchement [ratrajmd], m., re- 
trenchment, intrenchment. 

retrouver [ratruve], to find again. 

reunion [reynjo], f., reunion. 

reunir [reyniir], to collect. 

reussir [reysiir], to succeed. 

reve [re:v], m., dream. 

revenir [ravniir], to come back. 

reverbere [reverbeir], m., street 

revetir [ravetiir], to put on. 

revision [revizjo], f., review. 

revoir [ravwair], to see again; au — , 

revolution [revolysjS], f., revolution. 

revolver [revolveir], m., revolver; 
poche — , hip pocket. 

rez-de-chaussee [re da Jose], m., 
first floor. 

Rhone [rom], m., Rhone, a river in 
France. * 

riche [rij], rich. 

Richelieu [rijlj0], Richelieu, a French 
cardinal and statesman. 

rideau [rido], m., curtain. 

rien [rje], nothing, anything; ne — , 

rire [riir], to laugh; vous voulez — , 
you are joking. 

rit [ri], laughs. (See rire.) 

rive [riiv], f., bank. 

French-English Vocabulary 


robe [rob], f., dress. 

Robert [robeir], Robert. 

Rochefort [rojfoir], Rochefort, a 
proper name. 

roi [rwa], m., king. 

Rome [rom], f., Rome. 

ron [ro], a meaningless word. 

rond [ro], round; en — , around. 

ronde [roid], f ., round hand (in pen- 
manship) . 

rose [ro:z], f., rose. 

roseau [rozo], m., reed. 

rot [ro], m., roast, roast meat. 

roucouler [rukule], to coo. 

Rouen [rwa], f., Rouen, a city in 

rouge [ru:3], red. 

rouler [rule], to roll. 

route [rut], f., road; /aire — ensem- 
ble, to travel together. 

royaume [rwajoim], rn., kingdom. 

rude [ryd], rough. 

rudesse [rydes], f., rudeness. 

rue [ry], f., street. 

rustique ]rystik], rustic 


sa [sa], see son. 

Saar [sair], f., Saar, a river in 

sache [saj], see savoir. 

sacre [sakre], sacred, cursed. 

sacrer [sakre], to crown. 

sage [sa:3], wise, well-behaved. 

saint [se], holy. 

Saint-Germain-des-Pres [se serme 
de pre], m., St. Germain-des- 
Pr^s. (The church in this square 
was founded in 558.) 

Saint-Michel [se mi/el], m., St. 

Sainte-Chapelle [seit /apel], f., 
Sainte Chapelle, built by Saint 
Louis as a repository for the 
rehcs which he had brought back 
from the Seventh Crusade. 

Sainte-Genevieve [se:t sonovjeiv], 
St. Genevieve, patron saint of 

Paris, reputed to have saved the 

city from devastation by Attila 

the Hun. 
Sainte-Helene [seit elen], f., St. 

Helena, an island off the coast of 

Africa to which Napoleon I was 

banished in 1815. 
saisir [seziir], to seize; se — de, to 

take hold of. 
saison [sez5], f., season, 
salt [se], see savoir. 
salade [salad], f., salad, 
salle [sal], f ., room, large room; — d 

manger, dining room, 
saluer [salqe], to salute, bow to. 
samedi [samdi], m., Saturday. 
Sanchez [saje], Sanchez, a proper 

sang [sd], m., blood, 
sanglant [sagla], bleeding, 
sans [sa], without. 
sante [sate], f., health, 
saurai [sore], see savoir. 
sauter [sote], to leap; faire — , to 

blow up. 
sauver [sove], to save. 
sauveur [sovoeir], m., savior. 
savant [sava], learned; quartier — , 

Latin Quarter, 
savoir [savwair], to know, know 

savoir [savwair], m., knowledge, 
savon [savo], m., soap, 
scene [sem], f., scene, 
scientifique [sjdtifik], scientific, 
scierie [siri], f., saw-mill. 
se [so], (to) one's self; (to) himself, 

herseK, themselves. 
sec [sek], dry. 
secher [seje], to dry. 
second [sogo], num. adj., second, 
seconde [sog5:d], f., second. 
secouer [sokwe], to shake, 
secret [sokre], m., secret. 
section [seksj5], f., section, 
secours [sokuir], m., help. 
Seguier [segje], m., Seguier, a 

proper name. 


Elements of French 

seigneur [sejioeir], m., lord, master. 

Seine [sem], f., Seine. 

seize [seiz], sixteen. 

selon [sals], according to. 

semaine [somen], f ., week. 

sembler [sable], to seem. 

sens [sa:s], m., sense, direction. 

sentiment [satima], m., sentiment. 

sentir [satiir], to feel. 

s*en va-t-en [s a va t a], goes away 
to. (See s'en aller.) 

separer [separe], to separate. 

sept [sst], seven. 

septembre [septaibr], m., Septem- 

sepulcre [sepylkr], m., tomb. 

serai [sre], see etre. 

seront [sro], see etre. 

serrer [ssre], to press; — la main, to 
shake hands. 

service [servis], m., service. 

serviette [servjet], f., napkin, towel. 

servir [serviir], to serve; — a, to be 
good for; — de, to act as ; se — de, 
to make use of; servez-vouSj help 

ses [se], see son. 

seul [soel], only, alone. 

seulement [soelma], only. 

si [si], if, whether; sHl vous plait, if 
you please. 

si [si], adv., so, as, thus. 

siege [sje:3], m., siege, seat. 

sien [sje], his, hers; le — , his, hers. 

siffler [sifle], to whistle, sing (of 

signature [sijiatyir], f., signing. 

signe [siji], m., sign; faire — , to 

signifier [sijiif je], to signify. 

silence [silais], m., silence. 

silencieux [silasj0], silent. 

sillon [sijo], m., furrow. 

sinistre [sinistr], m., disaster. 

sinon [sin5], if not, unless. 

situe [sitqe], situated. 

six [sis], six. 

soeur [soeir], f., sister. 

Sohier [soje], Sohier, a proper name. 

soie [swa], f., silk. 

soif [swaf], f., thirst; avoir — , to be 

soin [swe], m., care; aux hons — s de, 

in care of. 
soir [swair], m., evening; hier — , 

yesterday evening. 
soiree [sware], f., evening (with its 

sois [swa], see etre. 
soixante [swasait], sixty, 
soixante-dix [swasait dis], seventy. 
soldat [solda], m., soldier, 
soleil [soleij], m., sun. 
solennel [solanel], solemn, 
solide [solid], soHd. 

sommeil [someij], m., sleep; avoir 
— , to be sleepy. 

sommes [som], see etre. 

son [so], his, her, its. 

sonner [sone], to ring. 

sont [so], see etre. 

Sorbonne [sorb on], f., Sorbonne. 

sorte [sort], f., sort, kind. 

sortir [sortiir], to go out. 

sou [su], m., sou, cent; gros — , ten- 
centime piece. 

Soulier [sulje], m., shoe. 

sourd [suir], deaf. 

sourire [suriir], m., smile. 

sous [su], under. 

soustraire [sustreir], to remove; se 
— , to withdraw. 

soutenir [sutniir], to sustain. 

souvenance [suvnais], f., memory. 

souvenir [suvniir], m., memory. 

souvenir (se) [so suvniir], to re- 
member; s^en —, to remember it. 

souvent [suva], often. 

soyons [swajo], see etre. 

Stanislas [stanislas], Stanislas, a 
proper name. 

station [stasj5], f., station. 

French-English Vocabulary 


statique [statik]^ f ., statics. 

subir [sybiir], to undergo. 

sublime [syblim], sublime. 

succeder [syksede], to follow. 

sud [syd], m., south. 

suis [sqi], see etre. 

Suisse [sqis], f., Switzerland. 

suit [siji], see suivre. 

suite [sqit], f., rest, continuation; ct 
la — , afterwards; faire — d, to 
follow; tout de — , immediately. 

suivre [sqiivr], to follow; d — , to be 
continued; priere de faire — , 
please forward. 

Sully [syli], French statesman under 
Henri IV. 

superbe [syperb], superb. 

superieur [syperjoeir], upper. 

supplement [syplema], m., supple- 

sur [sy:r], on, upon, by (of dimen- 

str [syir], sure; hien — , surely. 

surabondamment [syrabodama], 

siirement [syrma], surely. 

siirete [syrte], f ., safety; rasoir de — , 
safety razor. 

surprendre [syrpraidr], to surprise. 

surpris [syrpri], see surprendre. 

surtout [syrtu], especially. 

survivre [syrviivr], to survive. 

sussent [sys], see savoir. 

ta [ta], see ton. 

table [tabl], f., table. 

tableau [tablo], m., picture; — noir, 

tablier [tablie], m., apron, 
t^che [ta:/], f., task. 
tocher [ta/e], to try. 
tailleur [tajoeir], m., tailor, 
tandis que [tadi ka], while. 
tant [ta], so much, as much; — 

mieuxy so much the better; — pis, 

so much the worse; — que^ as 
long as. 

tante [ta:t], f., aunt. 

tapage [tapais], m., noise. 

taper [tape], to strike. 

tapis [tapi], m., rug, carpet. 

tard [ta:r], late; il est — -, it is late; 
il sefait — , it is getting late; plus 
— , later. 

tarder [tarde], to be late; il me 
tarde de, I long to. 

tarif [tarif], m., scale (of prices). 

t*auras [t ora], you will have. 

tel [tel], such; un — , such a; — que, 
such as. 

telegraphe [telegraf], m., telegraph. 

temps [td], m., time, weather; d — , 
on time; de — en — , from time 
to time; quel — fau-it? what kind 
of weather is it? 

tendre [taidr], to stretch out, ex- 

tenir [taniir], to hold, contain, be 
contained; — d, to desire. 

tennis [tenis], m., tennis. 

tentateur [tatatoeir], m., tempter; 
adj., tempting. 

tenter [tate], to attempt, tempt. 

terme [term], m., term. 

terminus [terminyis], m., terminus. 

terrasse [teras], f., terrace. 

terre [teir], f., ground. 

terre-neuve [te:r noeiv], m., New- 
foundland dog. 

terrible [teribl], terrible. 

tes [te] or [te], see ton. 

tete [tsit], f., head. 

the [te], m., tea. 

theatre [teaitr], m., theater; Theatre 
Frangais, the French national 
theatre (successor to Moli^re's 

Thenardier [tenardje], Th^nardier 
a proper name. 

tien [tje], yours; le — , yours. 

tiennent [tjen], see tenir. 

tiens [tje], welh (See tenir.) 


Elements of French 

tiers [tjeir], m., (one) third. 

tigre [tigr], m., tiger. 

timbre poste [teibr post], m., post- 
age stamp. 

tirer [tire], to pull, slioot. 

tiret [tirs], m., dasli. 

toi [twa], you; toi-meme, yourself. 

toit [twa], m., roof. 

toiture [twatyir], f., roofing. 

tombeau [t5bo], m., tomb. 

tomber [t5be], to fall. 

ton [to], your. 

tenner [tone], to thunder. 

tonton [tots], a meaningless singing- 

torpiller [torpije], to torpedo. 

tort [to:r], m., wrong; avoir — , to be 

tot [to], soon. 

toucher [tuje], to touch. 

tou jours [tu5u:r], always. 

Toulouse [tuluiz], f., Toulouse, a 
city in France. 

tour [tu:r], f., tower. 

tour [tu:r], m., turn, tour; /aire le — 
dcj to go around. 

Touraine [turen], f., Touraine, 
ancient province of France. 

tourner [turne], to turn. 

tout [tu], adj., all, every, whole; 
adv., quite; — a coup, suddenly; 

— d Vheure, presently; — ce que, 
all that; — de meme, all the same; 

— de suite, immediately; — d^un 
coup, suddenly; — le monde, 
everybody; tous les deux, both; 
du — , pas du — , not at all. 

toutefois [tutfwa], nevertheless. 

trace [tras], f .^ trace. 

tracer [trase], to trace. 

traduire [tradqiir], to translate. 

tragedie [trasedi], f., tragedy. 

trahir [traiir], to betray. 

train [tre], m., train, confusion; 
en — , in full swing; en — de, in 
the act of; prendre le — , to catch 
the train. 

traite [trete], m., treaty. 

tramway [tramwe],'m., street car. 
tranquille [trakil], tranquil; soyez 

— , rest assured, 
transmettre [trasmetr], to transmit, 
transporter [trasporte], to transport, 
travail [travaij], m., work, 
travailler [travaje], to work, 
travers [traveir], m., breadth; d 

— , en — de, across. 
traverser [traverse], to cross. 
treize [treiz], thirteen. 
trembler [trable], to tremble, 
trente [tra:t], thirty, 
tres [tre], very, 
tricorne [trikorn], m., three-cornered 

tringle [treigl], f., rod. 
trinite [trinite], f., trinity. 
triomphe [trioif], m., triumph, 
triste [trist], sad. 
tristesse [tristes], f., sadness. 
trois [trwa], three; — de cafe, three 

cents' worth of coffee (waiter's 

troisieme [trwazjem], third, 
trompette [tropet], f., trumpet, 
trone [trom], m., throne. 
trop [tro], too much, too. 
trot [tro], m., trot; au — , at a trot. 
trou [tru], m., hole. 
troubler [truble], to disturb, 
troupeau [trupo], m., herd, 
trouver [truve], to find; se — , to be 

situated; to be. 
truite [trqit], f., trout, 
tu [ty], you. 
tuer [tqe], to kill. 
Tuileries [tqilri], f. pL, Tuileries. 

(The palace of the Tuileries, a 

symbol of despotism, was burned 

by an infuriated populace in 

tulipe [tylip], f., tulip. 
turc [tyrk], Turkish. 
Turquie [tyrki], f., Turkey. 
tyrannie [tirani], f., tyranny. 

French-English Vocabulary 


un [6e], one, a, an. 

uni [yni], united. 

uniforme [yniform], m., uniform. 

unique [ynik], only, sole. 

unite [ynite], f., unit. 

universite [yniversite], f., univer- 

urgent [yrsa], urgent. 

usage [yza:3], m., use. 

user [yze], to wear out, wear away; 
— dcj to use. 

utile [ytil], useful. 

va [va], see aller. 

vache [vaj*], f., cow. 

vain [ve], vain. 

vais [ve], see aller. 

valable [valabl], valid. 

valeur [valoeir], f., value. 

Valjean [valsa], a proper name. 

vallee [vale], f., valley. 

valoir [valwair], to be worth; — la 
peine J to be worth while; il vaut 
mieux, it is better. 

veau [vo], m., calf. 

veiller [veje], to watch, be on guard. 

Vendome [vadoim], Vendome. 
(The Place Vendome was con- 
structed under Louis XIV.) 

vendre [vaidr], to sell. 

vendredi [vadrodi], m., Friday. 

venger [vase], to avenge. 

vengeur [vasoeir], m., avenger; 
adj., avenging. 

venir [vaniir], to come; — de, to 
have just. 

vent [va], m., wind. 

Verdun [verdoe], m., Verdun, a city 
in France. 

verre [ve:r], m., glass. 

vers [veir], toward. 

Versailles [versaij], m., Versailles, a 
suburb of Paris. 

vert [veir], green. 

vertu [verty], f., virtue, 
vestibule [vestibyl], m., vestibule, 
veston [vest 5], m., sack coat, 
vetement [vetma], m., garment; 

pi., clothing, 
veuillez [voeje], will you. (See 


viande [vjaid], f., meat. 

victime [viktim], f., victim. 

victoire [viktwair], f., victory. 

victorieux [viktorj0], victorious. 

vide [vid], empty. 

vie [vi], £., life, living. 

vieil [vJGij], see vieux. 

vieillard [vjejair], m., old man. 

viendrai [vjedre], see venir. 

vient [vjs], see venir. 

vieux [vj0], vieil [vjeij], adj., old. 

vieux [vj0], m., old fellow. 

vigne [viji], f., vine, vineyard. 

vilain [vile], ugly. 

village [vila:3], m., village. 

ville [vil], f., city, town; E.V. 
{en ville) f City. 

Villeneuve-sur-Yonne (vilnceiv sy:r 
jon], Villeneuve-sur-Yonne, a vil- 
lage in France. 

vin [ve], m., wine. 

vingt [ve], twenty. 

vingtaine [veten], f., about twenty. 

vingtieme [vetjem], twentieth. 

vinmes [veim], see venir. 

vint [ve], see venir. 

vis [vi], saw. (See voir.) 

visage [viza:3], m., face. 

vis-^-vis [viz a vi], opposite, face to 

Visconti [visk5ti], Visconti, a French 

vision [vizj5], f., vision. 

visite [vizit], f., visit. 

visiter [vizite], to visit, inspect. 

vit [vi], see vivre, and voir. 

vite [vit], quickly. 

vivace [vivas], vivacious. 


Elements of French 

vivre [viivr], to live; vive la France! 
long live France! 

vivre [viivr], m., living; — s, pro- 

vocabulaire [vokabyleir], m., vo- 

voeu [v0], m., vow, desire. 

voici [vwasi], here is, here are. 

voie [vwa], f., way. 

voila [vwala], there is, there are; 
— voire affaire, that is what you 
are looking for; comme vous — 
gentimenthahillef how nicely dress- 
ed you are! 

voir [vwair], to see. 

voisin [vwazg], m., neighbor. 

voisine [vwazin], f., neighbor. 

voiture [vwaty:r], f., carriage. 

voix [vwa], f., voice. 

vol [vol], m., flight; a — d'oiseau, 
from a bird's eye view. 

volaille [volaij], f., fowl, poultry. 

volontiers [volotje], willingly. 

vos [vo], see votre. 

Vosges [vo:3], f . pL, Vosges, a range 
of mountains. 

votre [votr], your. 

votre [voitr], yours; le — , yours. 

voudrai [vudre], see vouloir. 

vouloir [vulwair], to wish; — dire, 
to mean; en — a, to have a grudge 
against; comme je m'en voulais, 
how angry I was with myself; 
vous voulez rirCj you are joking; 
que voulez-vous? what could you 

vous [vu], you; meme, yourself 

(intensive) . 
voyage [vwajaisj, m., trip (land or 

sea); en — , on the trip, 
voyager [vwajase], to travel, 
voyageur [vwaja3oe:r], m., traveler, 
voyons [vwajo], come! (See voir.) 
vrai [vre], true, 
vraiment [vrema], truly, 
vu [vy], see voir, 
vue [vy], f., view, 
vulgairement [vylgerma]; vulgarly. 


wagon-lit [vag5 li], m., sleeping car. 

wagon-restaurant [vag5 restora], 
m., dining car. 

Washington [wojinton], Washing- 

Waterloo [vaterlo], Waterloo, a 
village in Belgium. 

y [i], in it, at it, to it, there, m them, 
at them; y a-t-il? is there? are 

yeux [j0], see ceil. 

Yonne [jon], f., Yonne, a depart- 
ment of France. 

z* [z], a sound inserted to keep 
vowels apart (popular pronun- 
ciation) . 

Zelma [zelma], Zelma, a girl's 


(Aspirated h is indicated thus : *h) 

a, an, un, m., ime, f . 

abandon, abandonner. 

abbot, abbe, m. 

abdicate, abdiquer. 

able, be — , pouvoir; — to, k meme 

about, de, environ, a peu pres, 
presque; — twelve, une douzaine; 
— it, en. 

above, au-dessus de, plus de (of 
numbers) . 

academy, academie, f. 

accept, accepter. 

accompagny, accompagner; accom- 
panied by, accompagne de. 

accomplish, accomplir. 

accuse, accuser. 

acquaintance, connaissance, f.; to 
make the — of, faire la connais- 
sance de. 

active, actif . 

add, a j outer. 

address, adresse, f . 

adjective, adjectif, m. 

admire, admirer. 

advantage, avantage, m. 

adverb, adverbe, m. 

afraid, be — , avoir peur, craindre. 

after, apres. 

afternoon, apres-midi, m. or f. 

afterward, apres. 

again, encore. 

against, contre. 

age, dge, m.; / am ten years of — , 
j'ai dix ans. 

ago, 11 y a; a little while — , il y a 
peu de temps. 

agreement, accord, m. 

ahead, en avant; — of, devant; to 
he — , avancer. 

aid, aide, f . 

airplane, aeroplane, m. 

Albert, Albert. 

all, tout; — right, k la bonne heure. 

almost, environ, k peu pres, presque. 

alone, seul. 

Alps, Alpes, f. pi. 

already, dej^. 

also, aussi, encore. 

although, quoique, bien que. 

always, tou jours. 

America, Amerique, f . 

American, americain. 

amputate, amputer. 

amputation, amputation, f . 

amuse, amuser; to he — d, s'amuser. 

amusing, amusant. 

ancient, ancien. 

and, et. 

Andrew, Andr6. 

angle, angle, m. 

animal, animal, m. 

Annette, Annette, f . 

anniversary, anniversaire, m. 

announcement, avis, m. 

another, un autre {different) ; encore 

un (similar) . 
answer, repondre. 
any, du, etc.; quelque, en; — of 

them, en. 
anything, quelque chose, rien; — 

whatsoever, quoi que ce soit. 
apostrophe, apostrophe, f . 
apple, pomme, f . 
April, avril, m. 
apron, tablier, m. 
aqueduct, aqueduc, m. 
Arch of Triumph, Arc de Triomphe, 

are, see be. 

aristocracy, aristocratic, f . 
arm, bras, m. 



Elements of French 

Armand, Armand. 

armistice, armistice, m. 

army, armee, f . 

arrange, arranger. 

arrive, arriver. 

article, article, m. 

as, comme; — for, quant a; — much 
— , autant que, tant que; — well 
— , aussi bien que. 

ask, — for, demander (a). 

assail, attaquer. 

associate with, se meler a. 

assured : to rest — , etre tranquille. 

astonish, ^tenner. 

at, a; not — all, (pas) du tout; — 
the house of, chez ; — night, la nuit. 

Atlantic, atlantique. 

attack, attaquer. 

attendant, ouvreuse, f . 

attribute, attribuer. 

August, aotlt, m. 

aunt, tante, f . 

author, auteur, m. 

automobile, automobile, m; go — 
riding, se promener en automo- 

autumn, autonme, m. 

avenue, avenue, f . 

away, absent, loin; to be a kilometer 
— from, etre a un kilometre de. 

Ay, A'i or Ay. 


back, dos, m. 

bad, mauvais. 

badly, mal. 

baggage, bagages, m. pi. 

ball, balle, f . 

banana, banane, f . 

bank (of rivers), rive, f. 

barber, coiffeur, m. 

base, base, f . 

Bastille, Bastille, f . 

be, etre; — able to, pouvoir, ^tre a 
mtoe de; — bad weather, faire 
mauvais (temps); — better ^ valoir 

mieux; se porter mieux (of health) ; 
— right, avoir raison; — slow, 
retarder; — ten years old, avoir 
dix ans; — to, devoir; — well, se 
porter bien, aller bien; is he not? 
are they not? etc., n'est-ce pas? 

bean, feve, f . 

beard, barbe, f . 

beat, battre. 

beautiful, beau. 

beautifully, gentiment. 

because, parce que. 

become, devenir. 

bed, lit, m;goto — , aller se coucher. 

beef, boeuf, m. 

before, avaht (of time) ; devant (of 
position); avant de + infinitive; 
avant que. 

beg, prier; / — you, je vous en prie. 

begin, commencer. 

behind, derriere; to be — , retarder. 

believe, croire^ 

bell : the — is rung, on sonne. 

belong to, appartenir k, etre k, 

below, au-dessous de, sous. 

beneath, au-dessous de, sous. 

beside, a cote de. 

best, adj., lemeilleur; adv., le mieux. 

betray, trahir. 

better, adj., meilleur; adv., mieux; 
it is — , il vaut mieux. 

between, entre. 

beyond, au-del^ de. 

bicycle, bicyclette, f . 

big, gros. 

bill, note, f . 

billet, loger. 

birthday, fete, f ., anniversaire, m. 

black, noir. 

blackboard, tableau noir, m. 

block, rue, f . 

blood, sang, m. 

blow up, faire sauter. 

blue, bleu. 

body, corps, m. 

bomb, bombe, f . 

English-French Vocabulary 


bonnet, bonnet, m. 

book, livre, m. 

Bordeaux, Bordeaux, m. 

both, tous les deux. 

bother, gener. 

boulevard, boulevard, m. 

box, boite, f . 

boy, gargon, m. 

brave, coiu'ageux. 

bread, pain, m. 

breakfast, petit dejeuner, m. 

breathe, respirer. 

bridge, pont, m. 

bring, apporter; — hack, rapporter; 

— upy monter. 
Brittany, Bretagne, f . 
broth, bouillon, m. 
brother, frere, m. 
brown, brun. 
brush, brosse, f.; — ing, coup de 

brosse, m. 
brush, brosser. 

burgomaster, bourgmestre, m. 
Burgundy, Bourgogne, f . 
burst, eclater. 
bursting, ^clat, m. 
business, affaires, f., pi.; to talk 

— , parler affaires. 
busy, occupe. 
busy one's self, s'occuper. 
but, mais. 
butter, beurre, m. 
buy, acheter. 

buzzing, bourdonnement, m. 
by, par, de, sur, en; — your watch, 

a votre montre. 

cabbage, chou, m. 

cake, gateau, m. 

call, appeler; be called, s'appeler; 

make a — , faire (une) visite. 
call out, annoncer, crier, 
can, pouvoir. 
canal, canal, m. 

cannon, canon, m. 

capital, capitale, f. 

card, carte, f . 

cardinal, cardinal, m. 

carry, porter. 

cat, chat, m. 

catch, attraper; — the train, prendre 

le train, 
cause, cause, f.; to — , faire, causer, 
cease, cesser, 
celebrated, celebre. 
cellar, cave, f . 
cent, sou, m. 
center, centre, m. 
centime, centime, m. 
centimeter, centimetre, m. 
century, si^cle, m. 
certainly, certainement. 
Cevennes, C^vennes, f . pi. 
chair, chaise, f . 
chalk, craie, f . 
Chamber of Deputies, Chambre des 

deputes, f . 
Champagne, Champagne, f . 
Channel: the English — , la Manche. 
charge : take — of, se charger de. 
Charles, Charles. 
charming, charmant. 
charter, charte, f . 
chauffeur, chauffeur, m. 
check: keep — on, contrdler. 
cheek, joue, f . 
cheese, fromage, m. 
cherry, cerise, f . 
chicken, poulet, m. 
child, enfant, m. or f . 
chin, menton, m. 
chocolate, chocolat, m. 
choose, choisir. 
church, ^glise, f . 
cider, cidre, m. 
cigar, cigare, m. 
city, ville, f. 
class, cleisse, f . 
close, fermer. 


Elements of French 

clothes, vetements, m. pi. 

coal, ^houille, f ,, charbon de terre,m. 

coat: dress — , habit, m.; sack — , 

veston, m. 
coffee, cafe, m.; — with cream, cafe 

au lait. 
coin, frapper. 
cold, froid, m.; to he — , avoir froid; 

to he — weather, faire froid. 
color, couleur, f. 
column, colonne, f . 
comb, peigne, m. 
comb, peigner. 

come, venir; — hack, revenir. 
comfort, douceur, f. 
command, commander, 
commerce, commerce, m. 
commit, commettre. 
complete, complet. 
comprehend, comprendre. 
comrade, camarade, m. 
conceal, cacher; we shall — nothing 

from each other, nous ne nous 

cacherons rien. 
concert, concert, m. 
conductor, conducteur, m. 
conquer, vaincre. 

consideration: in — of, moyennant. 
conspire, conspirer. 
construct, construire. 
contented, content. 
continue, continuer. 
contrary : on the — , au contrairc; 
convent, couvent, m. 
conversation, conversation, f., en- 

tretien, m. 
cooked, cuit. (See cuire.) 
cordial, cordial. 
corridor, corridor, m. 
cost, cotiter. 
couch, couchette, f . 
count, compter. 

country, campagne, f. (as dis- 
tinguished from city); pays, m. 

(political division); in the — 

k la campagne. 
courage, courage, m. 

courageously, avec courage. 

cousin, cousin, m.; cousine, f. 

cow, vache, f . 

credence, creance, f . 

crime, crime, m. 

cross, croix, f.; war — , croix de 

guerre, f. 
cross, traverser. 
crown, sacrer. 
cruel, cruel, 
cruelly, cruellement. 
cry, crier (call out); pleurer (weep). 
cuff, manchette, f . 
cultivate, cultiver. 
current: to he — , avoir cours. 
curtain, rideau, m. 
customer, chent, m. 
cut, coupe, f. (of clothes), 
cut, couper. 

damage, degat, m. 
Daniel, Daniel. 

dark, noir; it is — , il fait noir. 
date, date, f . 
daughter, fille, f . 
Dauphin, Dauphin, m. 
day, jour, m. (See §94.) 
dead, mort. 

deal : a great — , beaucoup. 
dealer : shoe — , marchand de chaus- 

sures, m. 
dear, cher. 
death, mort, f . 
December, decembre, m. 
decide, decider (de). 
declaration, declaration, f. 
deep, profond. 
defeat, battre. 
definite, defini. 
delight, agrement, m. 
deUghted, enchante, charm^. 
deliver, delivrer. 
depart, partir. 
depend, dependre. 
deputy, d6put^, m. 

English-French Vocabulary 


desire, desirer, vouloir. 

despite, malgr^. 

dessert, dessert, m. 

destine, destiner (k), 

deuce, k deux. 

die, mourir. 

difficult, difficile. 

difficulty, difficulte, f . 

dig, creuser. 

dine, diner. 

dining-room, salle a manger, f . 

dinner, diner, m. 

dishonest, malhonnete. 

dismal, triste. 

disorder, desordre, m. 

dispose, disposer. 

distant, lointain, adj . ; loin, adv. 

disturb, perdre. 

do, faire; — you? donH you? etc., 

n^est-ce pas? 
doctor, docteur, medecin, m. 
dog, chien, m. 
doll, poup^e, f . 
dollar, dollar, m. 
Domremy, Domremy, m. 
door, porte, f . 
doubt, douter (de) ; — whether y dou- 

ter si (with indicative). 
downstairs, en bas. 
down there, la-bas. 
dream, reve, m. 
dress, robe, f . 
dress, s'habiller; nicely — eJ, gen- 

timent habille. 
drink, boire. 
drive, conduire, mener. 
drown, noyer. 
dry, sec. 
dumb, muet. 
during, pendant. 
duty, devoir, m. 

each, chaque; — other ^ Tun . . . 

Tautre; they shake hands with — 

other y ils se donnent (serrent) la 


ear, oreille, f . 

early, de bonne heure; very — , de 

tres bonne heure. 
earn, gagner. 
easily, facilement. 
east, est, m.; — o/, k Test de. 
easy, facile, 
eat, manger. 
Edmund, Edmond. 
egg, oeuf, m. 

Eiffel Tower, tour Eiffel, f. 
eight, huit. 
eighteen, dix-huit. 
eighty, quatre-vingts. 
either. Tun ou Tautre; neg., ni Tun 

ni Tautre; conj., ou . . . ou. 
Elba, Elbe, f . 
elegant, ^l^gant. 
elevator, ascenseur, m. 
eleven, onze. 
embrace, embrasser. 
emigrant, ^migr^, m., f. 
emperor, empereur, m. 
empty into, se jeter dans, 
encounter, rencontre, f . 
encounter, rencontrer. 
enemy, ennemi, m. 
engineer, ing^nieur, m. 
England, Angleterre, f . 
English, anglais; — Channel^ Man- 

che, f . 
enough, assez; well — , assez bien; 

there is — to, il y a de quoi. 
enter, entrer (dans). 
entire, entier. 
entirely, entierement. 
envelope, enveloppe, f . 
equivalent, Equivalent, m. 
escape, Echapper {h). 
especially, surtout. 
establishment, Etablissement, m. 
etc., et caetera, ainsi de suite, 
eternally, Eternellement. 
even, meme; — 2/, quand (with past 



Elements of French 

evening, soir, m.; soiree, f.; yester- 
day — , hier soir. 
ever, jamais, 
every, tout, tous les. 
everybody, tout le monde. 
everything, tout; — that, tout ce 

que (qui). 
ever3rwhere, par tout. 
example, exemple, m.; for — , par 

excellent, excellent, 
except, excepte. 
excuse, excuse, f . 
excuse, excuser. 
exercise, exercice, m. 
exile, releguer. 
expect, s'attendre k] — to, compter, 

expensive, cher. 
extend, s' etendre. 
eye, ceil, m. 

fagade, fagade, f. 
face, figure, f . 
fair, foire, f . 
fall, tomber. 
family, famille, f . 
famous, c^lebre, illustre. 
fan, ^ventail, m.; — shaped, en 

fancy, fantaisie, f.; adj., de fan- 

far, loin, ^carte. 
fast, vite; to be — , avancer (of 

timepieces) . 
father, pere, m. 

fear, peur, i.;for — that, de peur que. 
fear, avoir peur, craindre. 
feast, festin, m. 
February, f^vrier, m. 
feel, sentir; — cold, avoir froid; / 

— better, je me sens mieux. 
fetch, aller chercher. 
few: a — , quelques; peu; a — , pron., 

fifteen, quinze. 

fifteenth, quinzieme. 

fifty, cinquante. 

fight, bataille, f . 

fight, bataiJler. 

finally, enfin; finir par+ infinitive. 

find, trouver; be found, se trouver. 

fine, beau. 

finger, doigt, m. 

finish, finir. 

first, premier, adj.; d'abord, adv.; 
arrive — , arriver les premiers; — 
class, de premiere classe; in the — 
place, d'abord. 

firstly, premierement. 

fish, poisson, m. 

fit, aller h; tenir; they do not — my 
foot, ils ne sont pas a mon pied. 

five, cinq. 

fix (the eyes), fixer 

flattering, flatteur. 

flee, fuir. 

floor, 6tage, m. (story) ; first — , rez- 
de-chauss^e, m.; second — , pre- 
mier etage, m. 

flower, fleur, f . 

follow, suivre. 

fond, to be — of, aimer beaucoup. 

foot, pied, m. 

football, football, m. 

for, car, conj.; pour, pendant, depuis 
(prep.); il y a; — example, par 
exemple; — the purpose of, pour. 

forbid, defendre. 

force, forcer. 

foreigner, Stranger, m. 

forget, oublier. 

fork, fourchette, f . 

former, celui-1^, ancien. 

fortunate, heureux. 

fortunately, heureusement. 

fortune, fortune, f . 

forty, quarante. 

forward! en avant! 

four, quatre. 

fourteen, quatorze. 

franc, franc, m. 

English-French Vocabulary 


France, France, f . 

free, librc. 

French, frangais. 

Frenchman, Frangais, m. 

fresh, frais. 

Friday, vendredi, m. 

friend, ami, m.; amie, f. 

from, de. 

front: in — , en avant; in — of, 

fruit, fruit, m. 
full, plein, entier. 
furnish, meubler. 
future, futur. 


gain, gagner. 

game, jeu, m. 

garden, jardin, m. 

Garonne, Garonne, f. 

gather, r^unir. 

general, general. 

gentleman, monsieur, m. 

German, allemand. 

Germany, AUemagne, f . 

get, obtenir, aller chercher {fetch)] 
send to — , envoyer chercher; — 
wp, se lever. 

girl, jeune fille, f . 

give, donner; — hack, rendre; — 
'pleasure, faire plaisir. 

glad, content; heureux. 

glass, verre, m. 

glorious, glorieux. 

glory, gloire, f . 

glove, gant, m. 

go, aller; — and see, aller voir; — 
away, s'en aller; sortir; — hack, 
retourner; rentrer; — down, des- 
cendre; — for, — after, aller 
chercher; — forth, — out of, sortir; 
— to hed, aller se coucher; — 
up, monter. 

God, Dieu, m. 
godmother, marraine, f. 
godson, filleul, m. 
gold, or, m. 

good, bon, valable( valid)', — morn- 
ing, bonjour; a — many, beaucoup 

good-bye, au revoir. 

grammar, grammaire, f . 

grateful, reconnaissant. 

gratification, agr^ment, m. 

gray, gris. 

great, grand, gros; — deal, — many, 

green, vert. 

ground, terre, f.; — floor, rez-de- 
chaussee, m. 

guarantee, garantir. 


hail, greler. 

hair, cheveux, m., pi. 

half, moitie, £.; demi, adj.; — past 

two, deux heures et demie; a — 

hour, une demi-heure; an hour 

and a — , une heure et demie. 
hall, salle, f., city — , Hotel de ville, 

hand, main; (of a watch) aiguille, f. 
handkerchief, mouchoir, m. 
happen, arriver. 
happy, heureux. 

hard, dur, adj.; fortement, adv. 
hardly, k peine, 
hat, chapeau, m. 
have, avoir; (in eating), prendre, 
he, il, lui; — is a young man, c'est 

un jeune homme. 
head, tete, f . ; — ache, mal d, la tete, 

health, sant6, f. 
hear, entendre, 
heaven, ciel, m. 
heavy, lourd. 
Helen, Helene. 
help, aide, f.; secours, m. 
help, aider; — one's self, se servir. 
Henry, Henri, 
her, son, la, lui, elle; hers, k elle; le 

sien; — self, elle-m^me {intensive) ; 


Elements of French 

se (reflexive); to (at) 
chez elle. 

here, ici; 

■ IS, 

are, voici; here! 

hers, see her. 

herself, elle-m^me; se. 

hide, cacher; — one's self, se cacher. 

high, 'haut. 

high-school, lycee, m. 

him, le; — self, lui-meme (intensive) ; 

se (reflexive) ; to — , lui. 
hip-pocket, poche revolver, f . 
his, son, le sien; a lui; at — house, 

chez lui. 
hold, tenir. 
holiday, fete, f . 
home : at — , k la maison; en famille; 

at his — , chez lui. 
hope, esperer. 

horse, cheval, m.; — back, a cheval. 
Hortense, Hortense. 
hospital, hopital, m. ; chief — in city, 

Hotel-Dieu, m. 
hot, chaud, m.; he — , avoir chaud; 

be — weather, faire chaud. 
hotel, hotel, m. 
hour, heure, f . 
house, maison; habitation, f.; to, or 

at the — of, chez. 
how, comment; — far is it, combien 

y a-t-il? — long? de quelle 

longueur? (distance); depuis 

quand? (time); — much? — 

many? combien? — old are you? 

quel age avez-vous? — ! excL, 

however, cependant. 
hundred, cent; a6ow^ a — , centaine, f. 
hungry: to be — , avoir faim. 
hurry, se dep^cher; — up! d^pechez- 

husband, mari, m. 


I, je, moi. 

idiom, idiotisme, m. 

if, si; — you please, s'il vous platt. 

illustrious, illustre. 

immediately, tout de suite. 

impolite, impoli. 

important, important. 

in, dans, en; de (after superlative), 

a; — it, y; — the day (daytime), 

le jour, 
inaction, inaction, f . 
inattention, inattention, f. 
inch, pouce, m. 
incredulity, incredulite, f. 
incurable, incurable. 
independence, independance, f. 
indicate, indiquer. 
industry, Industrie, f . 
inform, informer, renseigner. 
inhabit, habiter. 
inhabitant, habitant, m. 
ink, encre, f . 
inn, auberge, f . 
innocent, innocent, 
inspect, visiter, inspecter. 
inspector, controleur, m. 
institute, institut, m. 
institution, etablissement, m. 
instruct, instruire. 
intend, compter, esperer. 
intended to, part, adj., devant. 
interest, interet, m. 
interest, interesser. 
interesting, interessant. 
interview, entretien, m. 
into, dans, en. 
Invalides, Invalides, m. pi., or. 

Hotel des Invalides, m. sing, 
invite, inviter. 
Ireland, Irlande, f . 
iron, fer, m. 
is, see be. 
island, ile, f . 
it, le, la, il, elle, ce; of — en; to — , 

into — , y. 
Italy, Italic, f. 

Jack, Jacques. 

James, Jacques. 

English-French Vocabulary 


Jane, Jeanne. 

January, Janvier, m. 

jaws (of an animal), gueule, f. 

Joan, Jeanne. 

John, Jean. 

joking: you are — , vous voulez rire. 

Julia, Julie. 

Julian, Julien. 

Julio, Julio. ' 

July, juillet, m. 

June, juin, m. 

just: to have — , venir de; adj., juste. 

keep, tenir, garder; — busy, s'oc- 

kill, tuer. 

kilogram, kilogramme, m. 
kilometer, kilometre, m. 
kind: what — of weather? quel 

kindly, bien; will you — , voulez- 

vous bien. 
king, roi, m. 
kingdom, royaume, m. 
kiss, embrasser. 
knee, genou, m. 
knife, couteau; pen — , canif, m. 
knock, frapper. 
know, savoir, connaitre; you — , 

vous savez. 

lack, manquer; avoir besoin de. 

lady, dame, f.; lady, f. (title). 

lake, lac, m. 

large, grand. 

last, dernier; — night, cette nuit; — 

winter, Thiver pass6; at — , enfin; 

next to — , avant-dernier; the — 

time, la derniere fois. 
lastly, enfin. 
late, tard; to he — , ^tre en retard; 

later, plus tard. 
Latin, adj., latin. 
latter, celui-ci. 

laugh, rire. 

law, droit, m. (as a study); loi, f. 

lawyer, avocat, m. 

lead, mener, conduire. 

learn, apprendre; learned, savant. 

least, le moindre, adj.; le moins, 

leave, quitter, laisser, partir. 

left, adj., gauche. 

leg, jambe, f. 

lend, preter. 

Lent, careme, m.; mid — , mi- 
careme, f. 

less, moins. 

lesson, legon, f . 

lest, de peur que. 

let, laisser; — her come, qu'elle 
vienne; — us go, allons. 

letter, lettre, f . 

lettuce, laitue, f . 

liberate, liberer. 

liberator, liberateur, m. 

liberatress, lib^ratrice, f. 

liberty, liberte, f. 

library, bibliotheque, f . 

lie, etre couche. 

lie down, se coucher. 

life, vie, f. 

light, lumi^re, f.; street -^, reverbdre, 

light, ^clairer, allumer. 

like, aimer; — better, aimer mieux. 

like, comme; en; — a fan, en 6ven- 

Lille, Lille, f . 

line, mot, m. • (word) ; stand in - — , 
faire la queue. 

listen (to), ^couter. 

little, petit, adj.; peu, adv.; a — , un 

live, vivre; — in, demeurer, habiter. 

living, vie, f . 

London, Londres, m. 

long, long, adj.; — enough, assez 
longtemps; (a) — time, long- 
temps; (a) longer time, plus long- 


Elements of French 

temps; how — , de quelle lon- 
gueur (of distance) ; depuis quand 
(of time); to be ten meters — , 
avoir dix metres de long(ueur). 

longer: no — , ne . . . plus. 

look (at), regarder; — for, chercher; 
— out, faire attention; — out 
upony donner sur. 

lord, seigneur, m. 

Lorraine, Lorraine, f . 

lose, perdre. 

love, amour, m. 

love, aimer. 

low, bas. 

lower, baisser; adj., plus bas. 

lunch, dejeuner, m. 

lunch: take — , dejeuner. 

Lyons, Lyon, m. 


madam, madame, f. 

Madeleine, Madeleine, f. 

madman, fou, m. 

magnificent, magnifique. 

make, faire. 

man, homme, m. 

many, beaucoup (de); — others, 

bien d'autres; how — , combien 

march, marcher. 
March, mars, m. 
Margaret, Marguerite, 
mark, marquer (of time) . 
market, *halle, f.; — place, place du 

marche, f. 
marriage, mariage, m. 
marry, epouser; se marier avec; ask 

to — , demander en mariage; be 

married, se marier. 
Marseilles, Marseille, f. 
Mary, Marie, 
master, seigneur, m. 
May, mai, m. 
may, pouvoir. 

me, me; to — , me; moi, a moi. 
meal, repas, m. 

meat, viande, f. 

Mediterranean, Mediterranee, f. 
meet, rencontrer, aboutir a; — again, 

(se) retrouver. 
melancholy, melancolie, f.; adj., 

member, membre, m. 
mention, mentionner; don't — it, il 

n'y a pas de quoi. 
meter, metre, m. 
Metro, or Metropolitan, Metro, or 

Metropolitain, m. 
Milady, milady, f . 
mild, doux. 
mile, mille anglais, m. 
milk, lait, m. 
million, million, m. 
mine, mine, f. 
mine, le mien; a moi. 
minute, minute, f . 
misfortune, malheur, m. 
miss, mademoiselle, f . 
miss, manquer. 
mission, mission, f. 
mister, monsieur, m. 
Moliere, Moliere. 
Monday, lundi, m. 

money, argent, m.; paper-money, 

papier-monnaie, m. 
month, mois, m. 
monument, monument, m. 
more, plus. 
morning, matin, m.; good — , bon- 

jour; in the — , dans la matinee; 

nine o'clock in the — , neuf heures 

du matin. 
most, le plus, adv.; la plupart, adj. 
mother, mere, f . 
mountain, montagne, f. 
mouth, bouche, f . 
Mr., see mister. 

much, beaucoup (de); — more, 
bien plus; as — as, autant que; 
as — as possible, autant que pos- 
sible; how — , combien (de); so 
— , tant (de); too — , trop (de). 

English-French Vocabulary 


museum, musee, m. 
must, devoir, falloir; — one? faut-il? 
my, mon; — self, moi-meme {in- 
tensive)) me {reflexive). 


name, nom, m.; what is his — ? 

comment s'appelle-t-il? 
name, nommer; my father is — d, 

mon pere s'appelle. 
Napoleon, Napoleon. 
national, national. 
near, pr^s, pres de, aupres de;/rom 

50 — , de si pres. 
nearly, presque, a peu pres, environ. 
necessary, necessaire; to be — , fal- 
neck, cou, m. 
neck-tie, cravate, f. 
need, avoir besoin de. 
needy, pauvre. 
neglect, negliger. 
neighbor, voisin, m. ; voisine, f . 
neighborhood, environs, m. pi. 
neither . . . nor, ni . . . ni. 
never, jamais, ne . . . jamais. 
new, neuf, nouveau; newly made, 

neuf, nouveau. 
New York, New- York, f . 
news, nouvelles, f., pi. 
newspaper, journal, m. 
next, prochain, suivant; — to last, 

nicely, gentiment. 
nickel, nickel, m. 

night, nuit, f.; at — , nights, la nuit. 
nine, neuf. 

ninety, quatre-vingt-dix. 
no, non; he has — , il n'a pas de; — 

longer, ne . . . plus. 
nobody, personne, ne . . . personne. 
normal, normal. 
Normandy, Normandie, f. 
north, nord, m.. North Sea, Mer du 

Nord, f. 
northeast, nord-est, m. 

nose, nez, m. 

not, pas, ne . . . pas; — at all, (pas) 
du tout; — until, ne . . . que; is he 
— ? do they — ? etc., n'est-ce pas? 

nothing, rien, ne . . . rien. 

Notre Dame, Notre Dame, f . 

November, novembre, m. 

now, maintenant. 

number, num^ro, nombre, m. 

numerous, nombreux. 

object, objet, m. 

obtain, obtenir. 

occupy one*s self, s'occuper (de). 

ocean, ocean, m, 

o'clock, heure, f.; it is ten — , il est 

dix heures. 
October, octobre, m. 
of, de; — it, — them, en. 
office, bureau, m. 
often, sou vent. 
old, vieux ; how — are you? quel age 

avez-vous? to be ten years — , 

avoir dix ans. 
older, plus age. 
omelet, omelette, f. 
omnibus, omnibus, m. 
on, sur; — it, y; — time, k I'heure. 
once, une fois; at — , tout de suite; 

— more, encore une fois. 
one, un; — another, Tun . . . I'autre; 

the — who, celui qui. 
only, adj., seul; unique; adv., seule- 

ment; ne . . . que. 
open, adj., ouvert. 
open, ouvrir; — on the street, donner 

sur la rue. 
opera, opera, m.; — glass, lorgnette, 

f . ; — house, Op^ra, m. 
or, ou. 
orchestra seat, fauteuil d'orchestre, 

order, commander. 
order: in — to, pour; in — thai, 

pour que, afin que. 


Elements of French 

ordinarily, ordinairement. 

Orleans, Orleans, m., f. 

other, autre. 

ought, devoir. 

our, notre; — selves, nous-memes 
(intensive); nous (reflexive). 

ours, le notre; a nous. 

out of, hors de; — doors, dehors; — 
sight, a perte de vue. 

over, au-dessus de; plus de (of num- 
bers) . 

overcoat, pardessus, m. 

own, propre. 

ox, boeuf, m. 

pair, paire, f . 

palace, palais, m. 

paper, papier, m.; news — , journal, 

m.; — money, papier-monnaie, m. 
parent, parent, m. 
Paris, Paris, m. 
Parisian, parisien. 
park, pare, m. 
part, partie, f.; on the — of, de la 

part de. 
particularly, particuUerement. 
pass, passer, 
past, passe, m.; half — two, deux 

heures et demie. 
patient, client, m. 
Paul, Paul, 
pay (for), payer. 
pea, pois, m. 

peace, paix, f.;in — time, en temps 

de paix. 
peach, peche, f . 
pear, poire, f . 
peasant, paysan, m. 
pen, plume, f.; — holder, porte- 

plume, m. 
pencil, crayon, m. 
penetrate, penetrer (dans). 
pen-holder, porte-plume, m. 
pen-knife, canif, m. 
people, monde, m.; gens, m. or f. pi. 

perfectly, parfaitement; — straight, 

tout droit, 
performance, representation, f . 
perfume, parfum, m. 
perhaps, peut-etre. 
permit, permettre. 
Peter, Pierre. 
Philip, Philippe, 
picture, tableau, m. 
piece, piece, f.; morceau, m. 
pierce, percer. 
pit, parterre, m. 
place, place, f.; lieu, endroit, m.; to 

take — , avoir lieu; in your — , k 

votre place; in the first — , 

plan, dessiner. 
plate, assiette, f . 
play, spectacle, m.; piece, f. 
play, jouer (k). 
please, plaire (a) ; if you — , s'il vous 

plait; — forward, priere de faire 

pleased, content, 
pleasure, plaisir, m. 
plenty, assez (de). 
plunge, plonger, se jeter. 
pocket, poche, f. 
pocketbook, portefeuille, m. 
point, point, m. 
polytechnic, poly technique. 
poor, pauvre; — kind of, triste. 
poorly, mal. 

population, population, f. 
pork, pore, m. 
portfolio, portefeuille, m. 
position, position, f . 
possible, possible; it is — , il se pent. 
post-card, carte postale, f . 
postman, facteur, m. 
potato, pomme de terre, f . 
poultry, volaille, f . 
pound, livre, f . 
pray, prier. 
precise, precis, 
precisely, precisement. 

English-French Vocabulary 


prefer, pr^f^rer, aimer mieux; to — 

tOf aimer mieux que. 
prepare, preparer, 
present, present, 
presently, tout k Theure. 
pretend, pretendre. 
prettily, joliment. 
pretty, adj., joli; adv., assez. 
price, prix, m. 
principal, principal, 
principally, principal ement. 
prison, prison, f . 
prisoner, prisonnier, m. 
probable, probable, 
probably, probablement. 
professor, professeur, m. 
profit, profiter. 
program, programme, m. 
promenade, promenade, f . 
promise, promettre. 
pronounce, prononcer. 
proprietor, propri^taire, m. 
protect, garantir. 
protest, reclamation, f . 

provisions, provisions, f. pi.; vivres, 
m. pi. 

public, public. 

punish, punir. 

pupil, ^l^ve, m. or f. 

purple, pourpre. 

purse, porte-monnaie, m. 

put, mettre; — on, mettre; / — on, 

je mets. 
P3rrenees, Pyr^n^es, f. pi. 

quarter, quart, m. (a fourth part) ; 
quartier, m. (a ward, or district). 
queen, reine, f . 
quickly, vite. 


radiate, rayonner. 
railroad, chemin de fer, m. 
rain, pleuvoir; it — s, il pleut. 

raise, lever; Clever (of live stock) 

rapidly, vite. 

rare, rare. 

rather, plut6t, assez; I had — , 

j'aimerais mieux. 
razor, rasoir, m. 
read, lire; — the lesson, lisez la 

ready, servi (of meals) ; to make — , 

really, vraiment. 
rebound, rebondir. 
receive, recevoir. (P. part., regu.) 
recent, recent, nouveau; most — , 

recently, recemment. 
red, rouge. 

reduction, reduction, f. 
refugee, emigre, m. 
refuse, refuser, 
regiment, regiment, m. 
regret, regretter. 
relate, raconter. 
relative, parent, m. 
remain, rester. 

remember, se souvenir de; it is nec- 
essary to — , il faut savoir. 
remembrance, souvenir, m. 
remoxmt, remonter. 
repair, racommoder. 
reply, repondre. 
reservation, location, f. 
reserve, faire reserver; prendre en 

resist, resister. 
rest, se reposer; — assured, soyez 

return, retour, m. 
return, revenir, retourner, rentrer, 

rendre (give back) . 
revive, ranimer. 
revolution, revolution, f . 
Rheims, Reims, f. 
Rhone, Rhone, m. 
rich, riche. 


Elements of French 

ride: go for, or take, a — , aller se 
promener; go automobile riding, 
aller se promener en automobile; 
go horseback riding, aller a cheval. 

right, droit, m.; to be — , avoir 
raison; adj., droit; to be on the — , 
etre k droite; your watch is — , 
votre montre est exacte. 

ring, sonner. 

rise, se lever. 

river, fleuve, m. 

road, chemin, m. 

roof, toit, m. 

room, salle; chambre, f.; furnished 
— , chambre meubJee. 

round, rond; — trip ticket, billet 
d'aller et retour, ni. 

rule, regie, f. 

ruler,, regie, f. 

run, courir; — into, aboutir a. 

rush: to — up, accourir; to — to the 
head (of blood), etre k la tete. 

sack coat, veston, m.; sack suit, 

complet veston, m. 
sad, triste. 
safety, s<iret6, f . ; — razor, rasoir de 

s\iret6, m. 
sailor, marin; matelot, m. 
St. Cloud, Saint-Cloud, m. 
St. Helena, Sainte-Hel^ne, f. 
salad, salade, f . 
same, meme. 
Saturday, samedi, m. 
save, sauver. 
say, dire, 
scarcely, guere; ne . . . gu^re; a 

school, ^cole; at — , k Fecole. 
scientific, scientifique. 
score, points, m. pi. 
sea, mer, f . 
season, saison, f . 
seat, place, f . 
seated, assis; be — , asseyez-vous. 

second, second; deuxieme; — floor, 

premier etage, m. 
section, section, f . 
see, voir; — again, revoir. 
seem, sembler. 
seen, vu. (See voir.) 
sees, voit. (See voir.) 
Seine, Seine, f. 
seize, saisir. 

self, see himself, herself, etc. 
sell, vendre. 
send, envoyer; — after, — for, 

envoyer chercher. 
September, septembre, m. 
servant, domestique, m. 
service, service, m. 
set out, partir. 
seven, sept. 
seventeen, dix-sept. 
several, plusieurs. 
severely: — wounded, grand blesse. 
shake : — hands, serrer la main, 
shall I not? etc., n'est-ce pas? 
shape, forme, f . 
sharp, precis (of time). 
she, elle. 

sheep, mouton, m. 
shell, obus, m. 
shoe, Soulier, m.; — dealer, mar- 

chand de chaussures, m. 
shop, boutique, f . 
short, court; a — time ago, il n'y a 

pas longtemps; in — , enfin. 
should, sign of past future. 
show, montrer; — me, montrez-moi; 

— one in, faire entrer. 
side, cote, m. ; on this — , de ce cote, 
siege, siege, m. 
silver, argent, m. 
since, depuis (of time); puisque 

(because) . 
single, seul. 
sir, monsieur, m. 
sister, soeur, f. 
sit down, s'asseoir; sits down to the 

table, se met a table. 

English-French Vocabulary 


situate, situer; to he — d, se trouver. 

six, six. 

sixteen, seize. 

sixty, soixante. 

skate, patiner. 

sleep, dormir. 

sleeping-car, wagon-lit, m. 

sleepy : he — , avoir sommeil. 

slow: he — , retarder (of timepieces). 

small, petit. 

smoke, fumer. 

snow, neige, f . 

snow, neiger. 

so, ainsi, si; — much, — many, tant; 

— near, si pres. 
soap, savon, m. 
soldier, soldat, m. 
some, adj., de + definite article; 

quelque; en. 
some (one), pron., quelqu'un. 
something, quelque chose, m. 
son, fils, m. 

Sorbonne, Sorbonne, f. 
sore: — throat, mal a la gorge, m. 
sort, espece, f . 
sou, sou, m. 

soup, potage, m., soupe, f. 
south, sud, midi, m. 
Spain, Espagne, f . 
speak, parler; — a few words, pro- 

noncer quelques paroles. 
spend, passer (of time). 
spirit, esprit, m. 
spite: in — of, malgre. 
spoon, cuiller, f . 
spring, printemps, m.; in the — , au 

square, place, f . 
squarely, carrement. 
stairs, escalier, m.; go down — , 

descendre (I'escalier). 
stamp, timbre, m. 
stand, rester debout; — in line, 

faire la queue, 
standing, debout. 
stare at, fixer. 

start, partir (set out); commencer 

state, ^tat, m. 
station, station, f.; — master, chef 

de gare, m. 
stay, rester. 
steel, acier, m. 
still, cependant {however)) encore 

{yet)', toujours {always). 
stop, s'arreter; cesser, 
store, magasin, m.; boutique, f. 
storming, prise, f . 
story, histoire, f . 
straight, droit; perfectly — , tout 

stranger, stranger, m. 
street, rue, f . 

street car: line, tramway, m. 

street light, see light. 

struggle, lutte, f . 

struggle, lutter. 

student, etudiant, m. 

study, etudier. 

style, mode, f . 

stylish, a la mode; 616gant. 

succeed, r^ussir {k). 

such a, un tel. 

suit, complet, m.; sack — , complet 

veston, m. 
summer, 6t6, m.; in — , en 6t6. 
Sunday, dimanche, m. 
superior, superieur. 
supplement, supplement, m. 
sure, stir. 

surely, bien stir, stirement. 
swim, nager, 
Switzerland, Suisse, f. 
system, r^seau, m. 

table, table, f. 

tail, queue, f. 

tailor, tailleur, m. 

take, prendre; mener; — a seat, 
s'asseoir; — away, emmener; — 
back, reprendre; — care, prendre 


Elements of French 

garde; — charge of, se charger de; 

— place, avoir lieu; — up, monter 
(of baggage). 

talk, parler, causer. 

tall, grand. 

teacher, professeur, maitre, m. 

telegraph, telegraphe, m. 

tell, dire (p. part, dit) ; raconter. 

tempter, tentateur, m. 

tempting, tentateur. 

ten, dix. 

tennis, tennis, m.; play — , jouer au 

terminal point, point terminus, m. 
than, que, de (before numerals) . 
thank, remercier; — for, remercier 

thank you, merci; — very much, 

merci bien. 
that, qui, que, ce, cela, celui (-la); 

— is why, voila pourquoi; -;- one, 

the, le. 

theater, theatre, m. 

theatrical: columns for — announce- 
ments, colonnes d'affichage, f. pi. 

their, leur. 

theirs, le leur, a eux. 

them, les, eux; of — , en; to — , leur, 
a eux. 

themselves, eux-memes (intensive); 
se (reflexive). 

then, puis, alors. 

there, la; y; — is, — are, il y a; 
voila; down — , la-bas. 

therefore, par consequent. 

they, ils, elles, on; there — are, les 

thine, le tien, a toi. 

thing, chose, f.; — s, effets, m. pi. 

think, penser; — of, penser de (of 
opinion); penser a (of recollec- 
tion) . 

third floor, deuxidme 6tage, m. 

thirsty: be — , avoir soif. 

thirteen, treize. 

thirty, trente. 

this, ce, ceci, celui-ci, ce . . . -ci. 

those who, ceux qui. 

though, bien que, quoique. 

thousand, adj., mille. 

thousand, mille, millier, m. 

three, trois. 

through, par. 

throw, Jeter. 

thumb, pouce, m. 

Thursday, jeudi, m. 

thus, ainsi. 

thy, ton. 

ticket, billet, m.; — window, guichet, 

time, fois, f. (occasion); temps, m.; 

at all — s, tou jours; at the same — , 

au meme temps ;/rom — to — , de 

temps en temps; on — , a Theure; 

the first — , la premiere fois; what 

— (of day) is it? quelle heure est- 

tip, pourboire, m. 
to, a, en, pour, chez. 
tobacco, tabac, m.; — shop, bureau 

de tabac, m. 
today, aujourd'hui. 
together, ensemble. 
tomb, tombeau, m. 
tomorrow, demain. 
too, aussi; — much, — many, trop 

tooth, dent, f.; — ache, mal aux 

dents, m. 
top (of bus or street car), imp^riale, f . 
touch, toucher. 
Touraine, Touraine, f . 
towel, serviette, f . 
tower, tour, f . 
town, ville, f.; — hall, hotel de ville, 

tragedy, tragedie, f . 
train, train, m. ; catch the — , prendre 

le train, 
tramway, tramway, m. 
transport, transporter, 
traverse, traverser. 
trip, voyage, m. 

English-French Vocabulary 


triumph, triomphe, m. 

trousers, pantalon, m. 

true, vrai. 

try, essayer, tdcher; — to, essayer de. 

Tuesday, mardi, m. 

twelve, douze. 

twenty, vingt. 

twice, deux fois. 

two, deux. 

ugly, vilain. 
umbrella, parapluie, m. 
tmcle, oncle, m. 
under, sous, au-dessous de. 
undergo, subir. 
understand, comprendre. 
undoubtedly, indubitablement. 
unfortunate, malheureux. 
unfortunately, malheureusement. 
unhappy, malheureux. 
imiform, uniforme, m. 
united, uni; United States, Etats- 

Unis, m. pi. 
until, jusqu'^ ce que; not — , ne . . . 

upon, sur. 
upper, sup^rieur. 
us, nous. 

use, user de, se servu* (de). 
used to, accoutume a; he used to 

think, 11 pensait. 
useful, utile, 
useless, inutile, 
usher, huissier, m. 
usually, ordinairement. 

valid, valable. 

valley, valine, f . 

value, valeur, f . 

vegetable, legume, m. 

very, tr^s, fort, bien; — much, 

vest, gilet, m. 

vicinity, environs, m. pi. 
village, village, m. 
vineyard, vigne, f . 
vision,, vision, illusion, f. 
visit, visiter. 

visiting card, carte de visite, f . 
voice, voix, f . 
Vosges, Vosges, f . pi. 

wag, i'emuer. 
wait (for), attendre. 
waiter, gargon, m. 
want, vouloir, desirer. 
war, guerre, f.; — cross, croix de 

guerre, f . 
ward, arrondissement, m. 
warm, chaud; to he — , avoir chaud; 

to be — weather, faire chaud. 
warn, avertir. 
wash, laver, se laver. 
watch, montre, f . 
water, eau, f . 
way, chemin, m.; in this — , de cette 

we, nous. 

wear, porter; — away, user, 
weather, temps, m. ; it is fine — , 11 

fait beau. 
Wednesday, mercredl, m. 
week, semalne, f.; a — from today, 

(d)^aujourd'hul en huit. 
welcome, accuell, m.; he — , etre le 

well, blen; — enough, assez bien; as 

— as, aussl blen que; to he — , se 

porter blen; to feel — , se sentlr 

west, ouest, m. 
what, que, quoi, ce qui, ce que, quel, 

qu'est-ce que? of — shape? de 

quelle forme? — is it? qu'est-ce 

que c'est? 
whatever, quelque . . . que. 
whatsoever: anything — , quol que 

ce solt. 
when, quand. 


Elements of French 

where, oi^; jusqu'oil. 

whether, si. 

which, que, qui, ce que, ce qui, 

lequel, quel; of — , dont. 
while, tandis que, pendant que, en; 

a little — ago, il y a peu de temps; 

a — ago, il y a quelque temps, 
whistle, siffler. 
white, blanc. 
who, qui, qui est-ce que, qui est-ce 

qui; of — m, dont. 
whoever (he may be), qui que ce 

whole, entier, tout, 
whose, de qui, a qui, dont. 
why, pourquoi. 
wide, large; to he five meters — , 

avoir cinq metres de large, 
wife, femme, f . 
will, sign of the future; vouloir; — 

you not? etc., n'est-ce pas? 
willingly, volontiers. 
win, gagner; — back, reprendre. 
wind, remonter. 
window, fen^tre, f.; ticket — , gui- 

chet, m. 
wine, vin, m. 

winter, hiver, m.; in — , en hiver. 
wish, d^sirer, vouloir. 
with, avec; coffee — milk, cafe au 

within, dans; — doors, k la maison, 

chez soi, au-dedans (inside) . 
without, sans, dehors (outside), 
woman, femme, f.; — usher, ouv- 

reuse, f . 

wood, woods, hois, m. 

wool, laine, f. 

word, mot, m.; parole, f. 

work, travail, m. 

work, travailler. 

world, monde, m. 

worse, pire, pis. 

worst, le pire, le pis. 

worth :^o he ( — while), valoir lapeine; 

to he — reading, valoir la peine 

d'etre lu. 
worthy, digne. 
would, sign of past future. 
wounded, bless^; severely — , grand 

blesse, m. 
wretched, pauvre. 
write, ecrire. (P. part., ^crit.) 
wrong: to he — , avoir tort. 

year, an, m.; ann^e, f. 

yellow, jaune. 

yes, oui, si. 

yesterday, hier; — evening, hier 

soir; — morning, hier matin. 
yet, encore, cependant; not — , pas 

yonder, Ih, 1^-bas. 
you, vous, tu. 
young, jeune. 
your, votre, ton; — self, vous-meme 

(intensive) ; vous (reflexive) . 
yours, le votre, le tien, k vous, a toi; 

a friend of — , un de vos amis. 


(The numbers refer to articles, unless otherwise indicated,) 

k, with lire to denote possession, 79; 
176; no contractions with pronoun 
forms, 80; used with place names, 
105; 272; denoting limit of motion, 
160 ; 278 ; before dependent infinitive, 
208; 329; in prepositional phrases, 
271; denoting characteristic, 272, 
/, 1; with qui, 291; idiomatic with 
verbs, 329, a. 

about, 272, a. 

accents, 4, c; stress, 6. 

addition. Lessons 22; 38. 

adjectives, see demonstratives, inter- 
rogatives, possessives, etc.; agree- 
ment, 67; 245; position, 67, c; 109; 
247-250; irregular feminine, 68; in- 
terrogative, 89 ; two forms in mascu- 
line, 110; 244; with gens, 230, h; 
comparison, 123-125; article used 
for, 136; orthographical changes, 
243; 244; different meanings ac- 
cording to position, 250 ; as adverbs, 
253; plural, ste number. 

adverbs, of quantity, 118; from ad- 
jectives, 121; 122; 251-253; regular 
comparison, 123; 124; irregular 
comparison, 125; 255; adjectives as 
adverbs, 253; position, 256; nega- 
tive, 257-262; adverbial expres- 
sions, 254; numeral adverbs, 268; 
distinctions in use, 263. 

afin que + subjunctive, 202, f ; 324. 

after, 207, a. 

age, 103. 

aller, 97; + infinitive, 273, a; s*en 
aller, 155. 

alphabet, 4; names of letters, 4; pro- 
nunciation, 4. 

k moins que . . . ne, 324. 

among, 272, b. 

and, not translated, 273, a. 

apostrophe, 5, c. 

apposition, nouns in. Lesson 51, note; 

apres + infinitive, 207^ a. 

article, see definite and indefinite 
article; repetition of, 58; used dis- 
tributively, 100; 239; in general or 
abstract sense, 106; omitted, page 
114, note 168; after certain verbs 
and adjectives + de. Lesson 73, 
note; 237; with nouns in apposition, 
212; omitted in certain expressions, 

attendant, en . . . que -f- subjunc- 
tive, 324. 

au = a + le, 80. 

aucun, 307. 

au-dessous de, 272, j. 

au-dessus de, 272, j. 

aupres de, 272, 1. 

aussitdt que -\- second past perfect, 
319; + future, 320. 

autre, 301, c; 308; autres, idiomatic, 
308, a; distinguished from encore 
un, 308. 

autrui, 301, b. 

aux = a .+ les, 80. 

auxiliaries, avoir, 112; 113; 313; etre, 
131; 135; 314; 315. 

avant, distinguished from devant, 272, 
c; avant que . . . ne + subjunctive, 

avoir, 61; 64; il y a distinguished from 
voili. Lesson 15, note; denoting age, 
103; verbs compounded with, 113; 
314; = ago, 115; + besoin, chaud, 
etc., 120; denoting dimensions, 214. 


back vowels, 16-20. 

beaucoup, use, 118; comparison, 125; 

before, 272, c. 

bel, 244. 

between, 272, b. 

bien, with partitive, 118, a; compari- 
son, 125; 255; bien que -|- sub- 
junctive, 202, f; 324. 




bon, position, 109; 248; comparison, 

125; 246. 
by, of dimensions, 214; of agent, 216, 

a; 272, d. 

craindre, with ne + subjunctive, 
202, c. 

craintre, de . . . que . . . ne, + sub- 
junctive, 324, a. 

croire, 140. 

?a, 288. 

capitals, 51. 

cardinals, see numerals; 265; in dates, 

269; position, 270. 
ce . . . -ci and ce . . . -lil, 88; 285, 

ce + relative, 196; 300; + etre, 287. 
c*est and ce sont, 168; distinguished 

from il est, 168; 286; c'est a, 168, a; 

in summaries, 287. 
ceci, 187, and note. 
cedilla, 5, a. 
cela, 187, and note. 
celui + relative, 184, a; + de, 184, b; 

+ -ci or -la, 185; 285, note, 
cent, in dates, 265, note 4. 
-cer, verbs in, 339. 
certain, 302. 
cesser + infinitive, 261. 
cet for ce, 81. 
chacun, 180; 304. 
chaque, 301. 
circumflex, see accent, 
collectives, 267. 

comparison, see adjectives and ad- 
verbs; followed by ne, 262, b. 
compound tenses, see auxiliaries; for 

reflexive verbs, 315; sequence in 

subjunctive, 223, note. 
conditional, see past futixre. 
conduire, 182. 
conjugations, regular, 82, 83; 85-87; 

331-338; orthographical changes, 

339-343; irregular, 344-398. 
conjunctions, 273-275; use, 273; 274; 

que used to avoid repetition, of, 274; 

distinctions, 275. 
conjunctive pronouns, usfe, 138; posi- 
tion, 139; 146; object forms, 147; 

148-150; table showing position, 

150;list, 276, a. 
connaitre, distinguished from savoir, 

consonants, 38-46; Lessons 22-27. 
contractions, see article and relative 

correspondence, 221. 

dates, 93; 94; in letters, 221, b; use of 
mil, 265, note 4 ; of cent, 265, note 
5; of cardinals and ordinals, 269. 

days, see week; 99. 

de, contracted with le, 65 ; no contrac- 
tion with pronoun forms, 80; con- 
tracted with relatives, 191, a; in 
partitive construction, 217; meaning 
by, 218, b; with adjective force, 
119; 272, f, 1 ; distinguished from en, 
272, f, 2; meaning in after superla- 
tive, 246, a; in prepositional 
phrases, 271; de qui and i qui dis- 
tinguished, 291; venir de, 317; + 
infinitive, 328; idiomatic with verbs, 
329, a. 

decider a or de, 329, a. 

definite article, 53; use with de, 65; 
contractions with de, 66; omitted 
in partitive, 70; 236; 238; contrac- 
tions with ky 80; with general noun, 
106; with names of countries, 106, 
b; omitted after en, 106, b, caution; 
with proper names, Lesson 56, 
note; used with superlative, 123; 
124 ; used distributively , 1 00 ; 239 ; in 
place names, 241; 242; omitted 
after de = from, 241; in set expres- 
sions, 249. 

dejeuner, 69, note. 

demi, 90, note; 245, note. 

demonstrative adjectives, 81; 183- 
187; 285, a. 

demonstrative pronouns, forms, 183; 
285 ; use of celui, 184 ; of celui-ci, 
185; ce + 6tre, 287; fa, 288. 

depuis, 116; depuis que, distinguished 
from puisque, 275, b. 

des = de + les, 65. 

des que + second past perfect, 319: 
+ future, 320. 

determiner a, or de, 329, a. 

devant, distinguished from avant, 
272, c. 

devoir, 161. 



dieresis, 5, b. 

different, 301, a. 

dimensions, 214. 

dire. 111; + «l or de, 329, a. 

disjunctive pronouns, 157; 158; 276; 

use, 159-163; 165; 167; with a, 

160; as composite subject or object 

of verb, 162; after ce + etre, 167; 

. forms, 276, b. 

divers, 301, a. 

dont, 189; 194; ce dont, 300. 

du = de -f le, 65. 

e or e, as stem vowel, 342. 

either, neither, 257, b. 

-eler, verbs in, 342; 343. 

elision, 49. 

-eter, verbs in, 342; 343. 

s*empresser a, or de, 329, a. 

en, preposition, use, 105; with names 
of countries, 106, b; followed by 
gerund, 207, b; distinguished from a 
and dans, 272, g; denoting material, 
272, f, 2. 

en, pronoun, 84; following y, 145. 

encore un, 308. 

entendre + infinitive, 281, b. 

entre, 272, b; 298. 

envelope, 221, a. 

envers, 272, i. 

est-ce que, use, 56. 

et, meaning both, 273. 

etre, 71 ; 75; forming compound tenses, 
131; 314; with reflexives, 135; etre 
a denoting possession, 176; forming 
passive, 215; avoir or etre in com- 
pound tenses, 314, a. 

faire, 98 ; of weather, 96 ; passive force 
of dependent infinitive, 206, a; 
+ infinitive, construction of ob- 
ject, 281, b. 

falloir -|- infinitive, 204; + subjunc- 
tive, 202, d. 

feminine, see gender. 

fol, 244. 

for, 272, e. 

fractions, 210; 266, a. 

from, 241. 

front vowels, 11-15; Lessons 1, 2. 

future, 98; replaced by present after 
si, 172; after quand, etc., 320; de- 
noting probability, 321. 

future anterior, see future perfect. 

future perfect, denoting probability, 

gender, of nouns, 52; 226-231; of 
adjectives, 67, a, b; by endings, 228; 
double, 229; formation of feminine, 
230; of compounds, 231; ortho- 
graphical changes of adjectives, 68; 
243; 244. 

general noun, 106; distinguished from 
partitive, 107. 

-ger, verbs in, 340. 

gerund, with en, 207, b. 

grave accent, see accent. 

guere, 259. 

haut(eur), see dimensions, 
hyphen, use of, 5, d. 

il, use of , 76 ; il y a distinguished from 
voilS, Lesson, 15, note; for time of 
day, 90; U faut, 202, d; 204; with 
impersonal verbs, 225; il semble, 
225, a, and note. 

il est, 168; 286; instead of c»est, with 
adjective + de, 286, a; with que, 
286, b. 

imperative, 152-154; before en or y, 
155; retention of s in second 
singular imperative, 344, 4. 

imperfect, see past descriptive. 

impersonal verbs, for weather, 96; 
with de, 205, a; with subjunctive, 
225; with de + infinitive, 286, a; 
with que, 286, b. 

in, after superlative, 246, a; other 
cases, 272, g. 

indefinite adjectives, 301, a; use, 302- 

indefinite article, see article ; 59 ; omis- 
sion. Lesson 51, note; 212; omitted 
in set expressions, 240; used with 
certain, 302. 



indefinite pronoun, 301-311; forms, 

301, b; use, 302-311. 
indefinite relative, 312; followed by 

subjunctive, 312, b, note. 
indicative mood, see the different 

tenses; 319-321. 
indirect object, pronoun forms, 147; 

position, 147-150; with faire, etc., 

281, b. 
infinitive mood, 204-208; 327-329; 

without preposition, 204; 327; with 

de, 205; 328; with a, 206; 329; 

after prepositions except en, 207; 

after apres, 207, a; as verbal noun, 

intensive pronouns, 163 ; distinguished 

from reflexive, 164. 
interrogation, with est-ce que, 56; 

noun-verb-pronoun order, 77. 
interrogative adjectives, 89; 289. 
interrogative pronouns, 197-199; use, 

198; 289-293; forms, 289; phrases, 

intransitive verbs, with §tre, 314; con- 
jugation, 334; 335. 
irregular verbs, see verbs in -cer, -ger, 

-yer, etc.; 344-398; list, 399; in 

-er, 344; 345; in -ir, 346-360; in -re, 

361-386; in -oir, 387-398. 

jamais, position, 177; with ne, 178. 

jurer de, 329, a. 

jusqu'a ce que, with subjunctive, 324. 

laisser, with infinitive, 281, b; + ^ or 
de, 329, a. 

-la, 285, b, note. 

large (ur), see dimensions. 

le, la, les, see definite article, and per- 
sonal pronouns; predicative, 279, 
a; = so, 279, b. 

lequel, relative pronoun, 191; 192; 
interrogative, 197-199 with entre, 

letter forms, 221. 

liaison, 48. 

lip-rounding, 21-25. 

lire, 156. 

long(ueur), see dimensions. 

lorsque, distinguished from quand, 

275, a. 
run . . . I'autre, use, 308, b. 


maint, 301, a. 

mal, comparison, 255. 

manquer a, or de, 329, a. 

masculine, see gender. 

mauvais, comparison, 246. 

measures, French, 214. 

meilleur, see bon. 

meme, 309. 

mieux, see bien. 

mil(le), in dates, 265, note 4. 

mine, 173; 181. 

moi, for me, 155. 

mon, for ma, 74; in formal address, 

months, 93. 
multiplication. Lessons 22; 38. 

nasal, stressed, 7, c; nasal vowels, 26- 
31; 59-63; Lessons 10-15. 

ne(n*), with pas, point, etc., 178; 259; 
ne . . . que, 178, a; omission, 179, 
a; 260; pleonastic, 202; 262; ne . . . 
ni . . . ni, with nouns, etc., 260; 
ne . . . ni ne, with verbs, 260, a. 

near, 272, k. 

neither . . . nor, 260. 

negation, see ne, non pas, pas, etc.; 
177-179; 257-262; article omitted 
after, 238; with substantives, 260; 
with two verbs, 260, a. 

negative adverb, position, 256, c. 

non: que non, 264. 

noun, as adjective. Lesson, 31, note; 
general noun, 106; distinguished 
from partitive, 107; apposition, 212; 
gender, 226-231; plural, 232-235; 
collective, 267. 

number, general rule, 57; regular 
plural of adjectives, 69; irregular 
plural, 232; number of nouns and 
adjectives, 232-235; irregular plural 
of compound nouns, 234; plural of 
proper names, 235. 



numerals, 60; 62-63; 72; 78; 92; 211- 
213; 264-270; cardinal, 60; 78; 92; 
265; ordinal, 211; 266; time of day, 
90; dates, 93-94; 265; 269; ages, 103; 
fractions, 210; 266, a; dimensions, 
214; collective, 267; adverbs, 268. 

on (Pon), 108; as substitute for pas- 
sive, 217, a. 

on, 272, h and k. 

ordinals, see numerals. 

orthographic signs, 5. 

orthographic rules, see verbs in -cer, 
-ger, etc.; 104; 339-342. 

oser + infinitive, 261. 

ou, 188. 

oui and si, distinguished, 263; que oui, 

own, 283. 

over, 272, j. 

ouir + infinitive, 281, b, 1. 

par = by, 218, a; denoting price, 239, 

a; = through, 272, k. 
par-dessus, 272, j. 
parmi, 272, b; 298. 
participles, 85; 86; 112; as gerund, 207, 

b; as adjectives, position, 249, 3; 

position with negatives, 256, a, b; 

260; in tense formation, 330, 2 

and 3. 
partitive construction, 16; 70; 117; 

partitive noun distinguished from 

general noun, 107; exceptions to 

rule, 236; 238; distinguished from 

quelque, 303. 
pas, position with ne, 177; non pas, 

257, a; omitted, 261. 
passive voice, 215-217; formation, 

215; use, 216; substitutes, 217. 
past absolute, 218; 219; use, 219; 

distinguished from past descriptive, 

219, a. 
past anterior, see second past perfect, 
past definite, see past absolute, 
past descriptive, 127-129. 
past future, 170; use, 171; following 

si, 172; denoting probability, 321. 
past indefinite, see perfect. 

past participle, 112; agreement, 142. 
past perfect, past perfect subjunctive 

substituted, 326. 
past subjunctive, 222; sequence, 223, 
and note; used for past perfect, 326. 
peine, i . . . que, + second past per- 
fect, 319. 
pendant que, distinguished from 

tandis que, 275, c. 
perfect, see compound tenses; 113 
use, 114; reflexive, 135; subjunctive 
sequence, 139; with etre, 314; 315, 
personal pronouns, 276-281; reflexive, 
132-136; 280; 315; 316; conjunc- 
tive, 54 ; 138 ; 139 ; 276, a ; position, 55 
139-146; disjunctive, 157; 158; 159- 
163; 276; use, 159-163; after verbs 
of motion, 160; 278; intensive, 163 
164; order with faire, laisser, etc., 
+ infinitive, 281. 
personne, position, 179. 
petit, comparison, 246. 
peu, 118; comparison, 125; 255. 
peur, de . . . que . . . ne, + subjunc- 
tive, 324, a. 
la plupart, 118, a; agreement, 118, 

a, 1. 
plural, see number, 
plus, used in comparisons, 123-125; 

non plus, 257, b. 
pluperfect, see past perfect, 
plusieurs, 118, b. 

point, 177; 259; in distinctions, 257, a. 
possession, 79. 

possessive adjective, 73; 74; 282, a; 
article substituted, 136; 137; distin- 
guished from possessive pronoun, 
possessive pronouns, 173; 282-284; 
agreement, 174; distinguished from 
possessive adjectives, 175; distin- 
guished from etre i + pronoun, 176; 
use, 282-284. 
pour, 272, e. 

pour que + subjunctive, 202, f; 324. 
pouvoir, 141; pas omitted, 261. 
premier, in dates and titles, 269; + 

subjunctive, 322. 
prendre, 166. 

prendre garde ^, or de, 329, a. 
prepositions, 271; 272; phrases, 271; 

idiomatic expressions, 272. 
pres de, 272, 1; a peu pres, 272, a. 



present, of regular verbs, 83; 86; 
330, 2, a, and 4, a; idiomatic use 
of, 116. 

price, 239. 

principal parts, 220. 

pronominal adverbs, 145; 277; posi- 
tion, 145. 

pronouns, see also personal, posses- 
sive, relative, etc.; 276-312. 

pronoun objects, see conjunctive pro- 

proper nouns, use of article with, Les- 
son 56, note; plural, 235. 

propre, 283. 

puisque, distinguished from depuis 
que, 275, b. 

punctuation, 50. 

quand, distinguished from lorsque, 
275, a; with second past perfect, 
319; with, future, 320; with past 
future, 321, a. 

quand meme, 321, a. 

quantity, see adverbs; vowel quantity. 

que! 293. 

que? 197; = why? or how much? 293. 

que, relative pronoun, 190. 

que, conjunction, position, 178, a; 
preceding non, oui, or si, 264; used 
to avoid repetition of conjunction, 
274; with subjunctive, 325. 

quel? 89; 290; used with etre, 198. 

quelque, 303. 

quelque chose, gender, 306. 

quelqu'un, 180; 305. 

qu*est-ce que, 198, b, c; qu'est-ce que 
c'est, 56. 

questions, 56; 77. 

qui, relative pronoun, 190; 193; re- 
placing celui qui, etc., 297. 

qui? 197; use, 198, a, b; a qui, 199, a; 
de qui, 199, b. 

quoi? 197; 198, c. 

quoi, relative pronoun, 195; 299. 

quoique with subjunctive, 202, f ; 324. 

r, 38; Lessons 22-23. 

reflexive verbs, 132-135; agreement, 
134; 219; 315; 316; substitute for 
passive, 217, b; compound tenses, 
315; reciprocal use, 316. 

repetition of article, 58. 

relative pronouns, 188-196; 295- 
300; contractions, 191, a; agreement, 
296; use, 297-300; indefinite rela- 
tive, 311; 312. 

resoudre k, or de, 329, a. 

restrictive noun, 212. 

rien, position, 177; 179; ne omitted, 
179, a. 

rounded front vowels, 21-25; Lessons 


salutation in letters, 221, c. 

sans que + subjunctive, 324. 

savoir, 169; distinguished from con- 
naitre, 186; pas omitted, 261; = 
can, 317, 1. 

seasons, 95. 

second past perfect, 319. 

sembler: il semble, 225, a, and note. 

semi-consonants, 32-37; Lessons 17- 

s*en aller, 155. .^ 

sequence of tenses, 223, and note. 

seul -}- subjunctive, 322. 

non seulement . . . mais encore, 257, 

si, replacing aussi, 123, b; + future 
and past future, 172; replacing oui, 
263; que si, 264; replaced by que, 
274; with past subjunctive, 326. 

soi, 280. 

soit que . . . soit que, with subjunc- 
tive, 324. 

son, for sa, 74. 

spelling, 1; 104. 

stress, 6. 

subjunctive, see past subjunctive; 200- 
203; after que, 202; after expres- 
sions of doubt or emotion, 203 ; after 
impersonal verbs, 225; after who- 
ever, whatever, etc., 224; 312, b; 
after superlative, 322, 1; after 
dernier, premier, etc., 322, 2; in 
clauses of characteristic, 323; in 
adverbial clauses of time, purpose, 
condition, etc., 324; in principal 
clauses, 325. 

superlative, see comparison. 

sur, see dimiensions; use, 272, h and k. 

syllabication, 3; 47. 

symbols, table of, 2. 



tandis que, distinguished from pendant 
que, 275, c. 

tant, 118. 

tenir, 143. 

tense, see various tenses; formation 
from principal parts, 330; forma- 
tion of compound, 330, 3, a. 

than = que, 213, 91, and note; = de, 
213, b. 

time, 90; idioms, 94. 

toi, for te, 155. 

ton, for ta, 74. 

tout, 310. 

toward, 272. 

transitive verbs, see verbs. 

trop, 118. 

tu, p. 22, note 2. 

un, see cardinal numerals and indefi- 
nite article; with certain, 302. 
under, 272, j. 

unique with subjunctive, 322. 
untU, see jusqu*a ce que. 

valoir mieux, 225, 1. 
venir, p. 119; + de, 317; + a or de, 
329, a. 

verbs, see auxiliary, impersonal, re- 
flexive verbs; intransitives, 314; 
idioms, 317; agreement, 318; tenses 
and moods, 319-330; second past 
perfect, 319. 

verbs, table of irregular, 399. 

vers, 272, i. 

voili, distinguished from il y a. Les- 
son 15, note. 

voir, 126, + infin., 282, b, 1. 

vouloir, 151. 

vous, use, 61, note. 

vowel quantity, 7. 

vowels, pronunciation, 8-31; position 
of vocal organs, 8-9; classification, 


week, days of the: idioms, 101. 
weights and measures, French, 210. 
what, 196. 
whose? 199. 

y, position of, 145; y + avoir, Lesson 

15, note, 
-yer, verbs in, 341. 
yes, 263. 


By a decree adopted by the French Minister of PubHc Instruction, 
February 26, 1901, certain deviations from the usual rules for French 
syntax are tolerated. The following are some of these ^'tolerances," 
with references to the sections of this grammar which are affected thereby. 

Proper names preceded by the plural article may in all cases take the 
sign of the plural. § 235. 

The hyphen may be omitted in compound nouns. §§231, 234. 

The hyphen may be omitted between the verb and its subject pro- 
noun. §§ 56, 77. 

In compound forms of numerals, the hyphen may be omitted between 
the word designating the units and the word designating the tens. 
§§ 72, 78, 92, 265. 

In the partitive construction, the article may always be used before 
an adjective. §§ 117, 236. 

An adjective, following nouns of different genders, may agree with 
the nearest noun, or take the masculine plural form. § 245. 

Demi may agree with the noun which it precedes. P. 71, note; § 245, 

Vingt and cent, when multiplied by another number, may always take 
the plural form. P. 74, note 3; § 265, and note 5. 

Mille may be used for mil in dates. P. 77, note; § 265, note 4. 

Tout as an adverb may take the adjective form before feminine 
adjectives beginning with a vowel or h mute. § 310, 1. 

C'est may always be used for ce sent. § 167. 

In tenses compounded with avoir, the past participle may remain 
invariable when followed by an infinitive or by another participle. § 142. 

If the preceding direct object of the verb compounded with avoir is 
a collective expression, the past participle may agree either with the 
collective or with its complement. § 142. 

The particle ne may always be omitted: 

(1) after expressions of hindering, fearing, doubting, or denying. 
§§ 202, c, 262, a, 324, a; 

(2) after comparisons, or words expressing a comparison. § 262, b; 

(3) after d moins que and avant que. § 324. 





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