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Assistant Surgeon to the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards. 









General Anatomy, in connexion with that 
portion of physiological science which treats of the 
evolution of animals, has not only made signal pro- 
gress in recent times, but in the interesting shape 
in which it now presents itself, has acquired new 
claims to our attention : more than this, it is found 
daily to gain in importance in its relations to 
natural science at large, and to scientific medicine 
in particular. 

General Anatomy, indeed, Is now seen to form 
the indispensable basis not only of descriptive 
anatomy, but of physiology and the science of evo- 
lution, and farther of morbid anatomy, and there- 
fore of pathology. The changes that take place in 
the constitution of our organs, and that give form 
and character to a large proportion of the more 
formidable diseases to which we are obnoxious, 
occur in the elementary and constituent atoms of 
these organs ; we can no longer sit down contented 
with such general affirmations of morbid states as 


satisfied our immediate predecessors, — indurated, 
softened, enlarged, altered in appearance, &c. &c. 
are expressions that cannot now be received; we 
would be informed of the changes that have taken 
place in the intimate structure of parts, and that 
have led to the induration, the softening, the 
enlargement, the alteration in appearance, &c. 

The microscope, now recognised as indispens- 
able in general and pathological anatomy, ought 
also to take its place among the implements most 
needful to the practical physician. It seems im- 
possible, indeed, to over-estimate the extent to 
which the science and art of medicine would be 
advantaged were every well-informed and zealous 
practitioner carefully to examine each morbid pro- 
duct he encountered, and to communicate the 
results of his inquiries along with a compendious 
history of the case. 


Bern, 1840. 


To Dr. Craigie belongs the merit of having written 
the first distinct and comprehensive English v(rork on 
General Anatomy ; Mr. Grainger's Treatise on the same 
subject appeared almost immediately afterwards, and 
the translation of Beclard's book, by Dr. Knox, soon 

All these works are valuable, and each has undoubt- 
edly been of essential service in advancing the knowledge 
of Minute Anatomy in this country. But the progress 
of this branch of science has of late years been so 
rapid that, to give a tolerably accurate account of its 
present state, an entirely new publication has become 
necessary. The work of Gerber has been commended 
by Rudolph Wagner, " as the latest and best" on the 
subject of which it treats. That all we should like to 
see in such a treatise is accomplished, it would, I con- 
ceive, be vain to assert ; but the work appears to me 
to be generally highly interesting, and I believe that 
it cannot fail to prove serviceable to English anatomists. 


Improvement in science, with a few brilliant excep- 
tions, is gradual ; it results from the united toil of 
many observers ; and if every careful and laborious 
effort be the means by which a step is gained, the 
present publication, like its predecessors, will certainly 
be useful. 

The sheets of the English version of Mr. Gerber's 
work were submitted to me with the request that I 
would add some notes to the text. Hence the Appendix 
and the Notes marked " G. G.," which comprehend all 
that I have done on the occasion. The engravings 
illustrative of my observations are after drawings by 
Mr. Siddall, a zealous micrographer and the worthy 
veterinary surgeon of the Blues. I am also indebted 
to Dr. Boyd, the excellent resident physician of the 
St. Marylebone Infirmary, for his friendly assistance 
on various occasions. 


Windsor, November 1841. 







Review of the chemical constituents of the 

animal body ....... 5 

Simple Chemical Constituents .... 9 

Compound Chemical Constituents . . . .JO 

Of the interchanges and general transforma- 
tions OF ORGANIC MATTER .... 11 

Formation of Solids from Fluids . . . .12 

Of the forms in which the constituent elements 

OF animal bodies present themselves . . 14 

Of the Fluids 15 

Elastic Fluids, Gases ..... 15 

Inelastic Fluids, Liquids ..... 16 
Serous or Watery Fluids ..... 18 

Oily Fluids, or Animal Oils . . . .19 

Of the Solids 20 

I. Unorganised Solids ...... 20 

IL Imperfectly organised Solids : 

Amorphous Solids — Hyaline or Vitreous Sub- x 

stance ....... 27 

III. More highly organised Solids . . . .28 

Morphic Solids or Organic Elements : 

Fibrine 28 

Organic Granules ..... 37 



IV. Completely organised Solids ; parts endowed 
with inherent life and capable of peculiar 
evolution : 

Cell-germs or Cytoblasts . . . . 40 

Cells 45 

Chyle and Lymph ..... 49 

Chyle 65 

Lymph ....... 60 

Blood ........ 61 

Origin, evolution, and ultimate structure of the 



Motions and Changes of Place of the Fluids . . 72 

Gravitation of Fluids ...... 73 

Hydrostatic or Passive Congestion . . . .74 

Active Congestion .,..., 75 

Normal escape of the fluids from the vessels: 

General Endosmotie Transudation . . . .75 
Morbid escape of fluids, particularly of the 

BLOOD from the VESSELS: 

Extravasation . . . . . . . 77 

Exudation . . . - . , . . .77 

Morbid Exudation in consequence of Inflammation 78 

Morbid Exudation of Blood (Hemorrhage) . . 78 

Serous Exudation ...... 79 

Plastic Exudation ...... 79 

Exudation-corpuscles ..... 83 

Formation of pus: reproductive organisation in 


Pus ......... 90 

False Pus . . . . . , . ,101 

Fluid of Bullae, Phlyctense ..... 104 

Fluid of Ulcers (Ichor) . . . . . . 105 

Contents of Cysts, or Morbid closed Cavities . 107 

Organisation of the exudation in suppurating 

WOUNDS (granulation, CICATRIZATION) . . 110 

Granulation . . . . . . .114 

Cicatrization , . . . . . . . 116 



Of the primary organising process in the impreg- 
nated OVUM ....... 116 

The Fcetal Ovum 117 

The Unimpregnated Ovum in the Adult . . 118 
Origin of the Ovum . . . . . .120 

Earliest Period of Developement in the Fecundated 
Ovum, and Origin of the Embryo in the Incu- 
bated Egg 121 

Of the formation of the various compound parts 

AND tissues from CELLS .... 124 

Of the Different Constitutions of Cells . . .127 

Pigment, Pigmentary Cells ..... 131 

Fat CELLS ........ 133 

Horn cells and horny tissues . . . . 135 

External Horny Indusise. — Epidermis, Epithelium, 

and Structures connected with them . . . 136 

The Sebaceous Glands, the Sweat Glands . . 138 

Sebaceous Glands ...... 138 

Sudoriparous Glands ..... 143 

Hair 144 

Tactile Hairs ....... 147 

Wool 148 

Bristles ........ 148 

Horny Defences . . . . . . . 148 

Implanted, Flat Horny Structures : 

Nails 149 

Claws . . . . . . . . .151 

Horny Capsules . ...... 151 

Hoofs of the Hog . . . . . . 153 

Hoofs of the Horse ...... 153 

Horns of the Ox, Sheep, &c. .... 155 

Coverings of the Internal Surfaces of the Body — 

Epithelia ....... 156 

Tessellate Epithelium ...... 157 

. of the Lymphatic and Sanguiferous Systems 158 

- — — - of the Serous and Synovial Sacs . . 159 

— of Mucous Membranes .... 160 



Ciliary Tessellate Epithelium . . . . i6i 

Cylinder Epithelium ..... 162 

Ciliary Cylinder Epithelium .... 163 

Inversions of the Mucous Epithelia . . , iqq 

Epithelial Glands ...... 166 

Mucous Crypts and Follicles . . . 167 

Mucous Glands ...... 167 

Arrangements of the Glands in General . . i69 


Permanent Cellular Cartilage .... 171 

Ossific Cellular Cartilage ..... 174 

Reticular Cartilage ...... 175 

Fibrous or Fibro- cartilage ..... 176 

Osseous Cartilage ...... 176 

Normal Ossification of Cartilage . . . . 177 

Ossification of the Costal Cartilages . . . 178 

Bone : 

Formation of Bone in the Foetus .... 185 

Ossific Points, Bone Nuclei ..... 185 

Microscopic Analysis of Bone ..... I86 

Chemical Analysis of Bone .... I88 

Elevations or Processes of Bone .... 190 

Depressions of Bone ...... 191 

Articulations between Bones ..... 192 

Teeth . . 

Enamel, Vitreous Substance .... 

Proper Substance, Tubular Substance, or Ivory 
Bone, Cement, or Crusta Petrosa 
External Forms of Teeth and their Relations to the 
Jaws ........ 

Formation of the Teeth in the Foetus 

Of the tissues 

Elastic Tissue ; Intercellular Rete 

Proper Fibrous Tissues ..... 

Cellular Substance ...... 

Investing Cellular Substance 




Entering into the Composition of other Tissues 215 



Fibres of Cellular Substance .... 216 

Membranes of Cellular Substance . . . 216 
Serous Membranes . . . . . .217 

Synovial Membranes ..... 217 

Tendon — Tendinous Fibre . . . . .221 

Tendinous Tissue - . . . . . . 223 

Long Tendons, Sinews ...... 223 

Tendinous Expansions ; Aponeuroses ; Fasciae . 224 

Intermuscular Tendinous Septa .... 224 

Tendinous Muscular Sheaths .... 225 

Tendinous Membranes strengthening the Serous and 

Synovial Membranes ..... 226 

Peculiar Fibi'ous Membranes ..... 226 

Fibrous Bands ; Ligaments .... 227 

Fibro- cartilage ....... 229 

Contractile FIBRE ; contractile tissue . . 229 

Muscle ; Muscular Fibre ; Muscular Tissue . . 231 

Organic or Involuntary Muscular Fibre . . 232 

Passage of Organic into Animal Muscle . . 235 

Animal or Voluntary Muscular Fibre . . 238 
Origin and Evolution of the Animal Muscles in the 

Embryo ........ 243 

Microscopic Examination of the Living Muscle of 

Animal Life 246 

Chemical Constituents of Muscle .... 248 
Sensibility, &c. of Muscles . . . . 248 

Tubular or hollow produced or filamentous 

TISSUES ........ 251 

Nerves ; Nervous System ..... 252 

Microscopic Analysis of Nerves .... 256 

Peripheral Terminations of Nerves . . . 261 

Organic or Ganglionic Nerves .... 264 

Ganglionic Globules or Cells ; Grey Nervous Sub- 
stance ; Ganglia . ..... 265 

Origin and Evolution of Nerve in the Embryo . 267 

Chemical Composition of Nervous Matter . . 269 



Vessels ...... 

Absorbent Vessels .... 
Lacteals and their Glands . . . 
Lymphatics and their Glands 
Blood-vessels — the Sanguiferous System 

The Heart ..... 

The Arteries . . 

The Veins ..... 

Erectile Vessels and Erectile Organs 

Erectile Vessels . . . . 
Organs .... 







Of certain effects of the deranged action of 
the capillary vessels, as proclaimed in the 
formation of tubercle . . . . . 302 

Albuminous or Unorganised Tubercle 
Fibrinous Tubercle . . . . . 
Hyaline Tubercle ..... 
Cytoblast Tubercle ..... 
Cell and Cellulo-iibrous Tubercle 
Filamentous or Cicatricular Tubercle 

Origin of the Blood-vessels .... 

Secreting Vessels and Apparatus 

Evolution of Mucous Cavities and Canals in the 

bryo ..... 

Evolution of Glands 
Of the Skin and Mucous Membranes 
Valves of Excretory Vessels or Canals 
Division of Glands 
Proper Secreting Glands 
Simple Secreting Glands 

Mucous Follicles 

Sebaceous Follicles 
Compound Secreting Glands 

Aggregated Glands 

Vesicular Glands 

Lachrymal Glands and Fluid 








Salivary Glands and Fluid .... 330 

Pancreas and Fluid . . . . . 332 

Liver and its Fluid 332 

Mammary Gland and Fluid . . . 332 

Tubular Glands 333 

The Kidney and its Fluid .... 333 

The Testis and its Fluid ..... 335 

Organ, Apparatus, System .... 337 

Literature of the general anatomy . . 339-390 



Observations on the blood-corpuscles of mam- 

miferous animals ...... 1 

I. Size of the Corpuscles in General ... i 

in different Mammals ... 5 

IL Form of the Corpuscles .... 9 

in. Changes of Form of the Corpuscles . . .11 

IV. Structure of the Corpuscles .... 12 

V. Microscopic Corpuscles of the Blood unlike the 

Common Discs ....... 14 

VI. Formation and Use of the Corpuscles . . 23 

On the blood-corpuscles of birds . . . 23 

I. Size of the Corpuscles ..... 25 

II. Form of the Corpuscles ..... 29 

III. Structure of the Corpuscles . . . . 30 

Tables of Measurements of the Blood-discs of Mammalia 31 

Tables of Measurements of the Blood-discs of Birds . 55 

Observations on Tubercle ...... 84 



Observations on the Chyle, and on the Fluid of the 

Thymus, and of the Lymphatic Glands . . 88 
I. Chyle . •, .. . , ... . .88 
II. Fluid of the TThynaus, and -of tjie Lymphatic 

Glands . v . ... 95 

On the Corpuscles of the Liver ..... 101 

On the Corpuscles of the Spleen ... . • 102 

On the Supra-renal Glands ..... 103 



Anatomy is that branch of natural science which 
treats of the structure of organic bodies, — which 
investigates the connexions, forms, external and 
internal relations, and intimate constitution of all 
that is organised. Anatomy is, therefore, a generic 
term, including the consideration of the structure of 
man — human anatomy, or anthropotomy ; of ani- 
mals — comparative anatomy, or zootomy ; and 


Anatomy is further necessarily distinguished, ac- 
cording as the healthy and natural structure is its 
object, NORMAL ANATOMY ; or, as the diseased or 
abnormal structure engages attention, abnormal 
ANATOMY. Abnormal anatomy is itself subdivided 
according as changes wrought by disease in the 
organs, originally of healthy constitution, are the 
object of contemplation, when it is entitled morbid 
or PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY ; or, as original and 
congenital deficiencies, superfluities, or imperfec- 
tions are the subjects of study, when it is entitled 


TOMY. When anatomy is cultivated merely as a 
science, and in books, it is spoken of as theo- 
retical ANATOMY ; when researches are under- 
taken in the bodies of men, animals, &c. it is known 
as practical anatomy, or the art of dissection. 
The art of dissection is systematically pursued when 
the various, especially similar, parts of the subject 
are exposed in their sequence or connexions. When 
the several parts, again, especially of dissimilar 
nature, which enter into the constitution of each 
particular district of the body are exhibited in their 
several situations, and in their mutual mechanical 
relations, the study acquires the name of sur- 
gical or regional anatomy. Finally, anatomy 
is divided into general and special. The busi- 
ness of the general anatomy is to take cogni- 
sance of the most simple and minute, or elementary 
parts of organic bodies, and of the union of these 
in the composition of particular organs^ such as 
the brain, the lungs, the liver, &c., and of certain 
systems into which they are found susceptible of 
arrangement, such as the fibrous, the muscular, the 
glandular, the nervous, &c. General Anatomy, 
further, under the name of Histology, studies the 
texture and mode of formation of the different com- 
pound organs, and indicates the reasons for the 
diversities they present. Special or descriptive 
anatomy, again, considers the forms, situations, 
relations, connexions, and modes of distribution of 
the several organs or systems which make up the 


Anatomy, then, has the structure of organic 
bemgs for its object. But we do not limit our- 
selves to the study of the structure alone ; we 
have ever an eye to something beyond this — to 
the uses or functions, namely, of the organs we 
discover. A new science is therefore engrafted 
upon anatomy, — a science which treats of the 
functions of organised beings, and this is entitled 
Physiology. Like anatomy, physiology is sub- 
divided variously, and is appropriately designated 
according to the direction in which it is studied. 
We do not, however, speak of a morbid physiology 
as we do of a morbid anatomy, when we consider 
the functions of an organism in a state of disease. 
Pathology is the term which is here employed ; so 
that pathology is to be understood as having the 
same relation to physiology which morbid anatomy 
has to normal anatomy. Anatomy and physiology, 
however, ought never to be viewed as sciences 
altogether disjoined and different ; they are, indeed, 
so closely linked together, that they are all but 
one and the same : in anatomy, we study the 
organs in repose^ in physiology, we study them 
in action. 

It is now universally allowed that an adequate 
knowledge of the structure and functions of the 
human body is the only foundation of all medical 
science. Without this essential preliminary, it is 
just as impossible to distinguish disease, and to 
treat it rationally, as it is for a tree without roots 
to put forth blossoms and to bring fruit to matu- 
rity. Nor are the researches of the anatomist and 


physiologist confined in the present day to the 
structure and functions of the body of man alone. 
It is customary now to embrace all that has life, — 
to contemplate organisation in the linked chain 
which it forms, and to connect structures and func- 
tions of the first simplicity with structures and func- 
tions of the last complexity. It is, in fact, only 
since comparative anatomy and general physiology 
began to be seen as integral parts of a liberal pro- 
fessional education, that scientific, and then prac- 
tical, medicine and surgery have made any thing 
like vigorous or assured strides in advance. If we 
be made but a little lower than the angels, we are 
also very certainly made but a little higher than the 
more perfect among the animals ; and in studying 
the structure and functions of these especially, we 
find the most important aids to a right understand- 
ing of the mechanism by which we ourselves " live, 
and move, and have our being," and thence, under 
the guidance of reason and experience, of the 
means by which we may hope to ward off or to 
remedy the ills in the shape of infirmity and disease 
to which we are made obnoxious. 


§ 1. The object of the anatomist is to exhibit, 
in systematic arrangement, the organic constituents 


of the body, by investigating and separating the 
various organs of which it consists, indicating their 
similarities and their differences, discovering their 
mutual connexions, unravelling the tissues, laying 
the hidden open, and distinguishing the ultimate 
forms of organic matter with the aid of the mao- 
nifier and the microscope. The object of the 
CHEMIST, again, is to separate mingled elements 
without paying any regard to their form, texture, 
or arrangement. 

§ 2. The organic constituents of the animal 
body are, like chemical elements generally, divi- 
sible into proximate or compound, and remote or 
simple : for example, the blood corpuscules form a 
proximate or compound organic element of the 
blood, the outer coverings and the nuclei of these 
bodies a remote or simple organic element of the 
same fluid ; hydrogen and oxygen are simple, water 
and fibrine compound, chemical elements of the 



§ 3. In inorganic bodies the chemical elements 
are always associated in twos, or they form binary 
combinations : for example, oxygen and iron, in cer- 
tain proportions, form oxide of iron ; oxygen and 
sulphur, in certain proportions, form sulphuric acid ; 


protoxide of iron and sulphuric acid form sulphate 
of the protoxide of iron, 

Oxygen \ 

T f Protoxide of Iron~i o i i ^ o ,-, 

Iron J I Sulphate of the 

Oxysen 1 ^ i i • a -a ( P»'otoxide of Iron. 

■' ® > Sulphuric Acid J 
Sulphur J 

This hinary combination prevails universally 
throughout the entire domain of inorganic nature, 
and is essential to quiescence or chemical equi- 
poise : any other combination of chemical elements 
is incompatible with chemical quiescence, and is by 
so much the more vigorously opposed by surround- 
ing media and influences, — air, water, caloric, 
electricity, light, &c., in order to reduce them to 
binary combinations, the more the kind of combi- 
nation attempted is remote from the binary ; the 
vital force alone, assisted by ceaseless changes of 
matter, proves adequate to produce and to support 
for a limited period the ternary and quaternary 
compounds which we encounter in the bodies of 
living plants and animals. 

§ 4. In consequence of the prevalence of ternary 
combinations in plants. 

Oxygen "^ 

TT J Vegetable compounds, 

Hydrogen > r ? 

Carbon J Vegetable matter, 

when they die they are obnoxious to decomposition ; 
under the requisite conditions (access of air, the 
presence of moisture, and a certain degree of tem- 
perature) their constituents immediately begin to 
fall into the binary combinations of the inorganic 
world. This resolution of the vegetable elements 
takes place by three different but consequent pro- 


cesses of decomposition, — the vinous, the acetic, 
the p utref active fermentations. * 

§ 5. The empire of the universal chemical laws 
is asserted in, if possible, a still more striking man- 
ner upon the matter of the dead animal body, with 
its elements made up of quaternary compounds, 
azote being added to the three principles already 
noted in vegetables. 

Oxygen ^j 

Hydrogen I Animal matter, 
Carbon / Animal combinations. 
Azote j 

The two first forms of fermentation, if they be 
not entirely absent, are here so quickly accomplished, 
that, in general, they are not observed ; and the 
putrefactive fermentation, which is due to the pre- 
sence of the nitrogen, under favourable conditions, 
leads rapidly to the decomposition and change 
into binary compounds of all even the most solid of 
the highly animalised tissues. The reason of the 
slighter tendency to decomposition manifested by 
the less highly organised parts of the animal body, 
which are usually binary and ternary compounds, 
such as fat, the earthy portion of the bones (phos- 
phate and carbonate of lime), and the horny tissues 
(in which azote is almost wanting), is obvious from 
what has already been said (§ 3.). On the same 

* In the herbivorous animals we observe three correspond- 
ing and distinct digestive processes, — ventricular digestion, with 
the vinous or, rather, a stage preliminary to this, the saccharine 
fermentation ; small intestinal digestion, with acid fermentation ; 
and great intestinal digestion, with more or less of the putre- 
factive fermentation. 


principles, it is easy to explain the more ready- 
digestibility and more nutritive qualities of animal 
food, i. e. of quaternary organic compounds, than of 
articles taken from the vegetable kingdom, or ter- 
nary combinations. In the one case, a quaternary 
compound, viewing the animal body as an unit, is 
at work upon matter already akin to it ; in the 
second, it is dealing with ternary combinations, 
which must have a fourth element added to them, 
and so be raised in the scale of organic compounds, 
before they can be assimilated and made fit to 
become a part of itself. In direct contrast to the 
horny and bony structures, stand the brain and 
nervous centres, which, as the softest, at once, and 
most highly animalised of all the organic struc- 
tures, fall the most rapidly into putrefaction. 

With the chemical decompounding processes, 
especially as they affect the animal body, softening 
and liquefaction are generally associated ; in these 
respects, therefore, they stand in opposition to the 
formative powers of the organism, to the solidifica- 
tion of the elementary tissues out of fluids — out of 
the blood, for instance. Coagulation, as this so- 
lidification in its earliest stage is entitled, is ex- 
hibited in the formation of the crassamentum, as 
a kind of final manifestation of vitality by the 
blood ; with the commencement of the chemical 
decomposition which ensues, the coagulated blood 
is resolved, it again becomes a fluid. Even so in 
the living animal body do we observe the same 
opposed tendencies : predominating plasticity, or 
disposition to coagulation and induration along 
with an excess, and coUiquation or a tendency 


towards resolution and liquefaction along with a 
lack, of vital power.* 

§ 6. The inorganic or binary, as well as the 
organic, combinations which are encountered in 
animal bodies, and produced under the influence of 
the vital power, present themselves in a variety of 
forms : amorphous, as gases, vapours, liquids ; and 
with determinate forms, as solids. 

Simple Chemical Constituents. 

§ 7« Of the universally difi"used simple ele- 
mentary substances, the following have been found 
as constituents of animal bodies : — oxygen, hydro- 
gen, carbon, azote, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, 
fluorine, scilica, potash, soda, lime, magnesia, iron, 
manganese. The carbon, sulphur, azote, and phos- 
phorus, belong particularly to the organic kingdom of 
nature ; the two latter, to the animal division of it.t 

* In this consolidation of the plastic fibrine in the organic 
separation of the blood, and this resolution or liquefaction of the 
same element in its chemical decompositions, aided by the nor- 
mal transudations, or endosmoses and exosmoses, lie the true 
conditions to nutrition and reproduction in general, viz. the 
animalisation or change of fluid blood into solid organised ani- 
mal matter, and the c^^'sanimalisation and reliquefaction of the 
same matter, vanquished by the chemical affinities, to admit of 
its being resorbed and then removed from the economy. 

t Perhaps it would be more correct to say that the carbon 
and sulphur are encountered in like abundance in the inor- 
ganic and in the organic kingdoms ; that azote is an essential 
and most abundant ingredient of the atmosphere, as well as of 
most animal (fat, oil, spermaceti, cholesterine contain no azote) 
and many vegetable bodies ; and that phosphorus is principally 
known as an element of the organic kingdom, particularly of 
its animal subdivision. 


Compound Chemical Constituents. 

(A) Inorganic (binary) Combinations. 

§ 8. Water, carbonic acid, hydrochloric acid, 
sulphate of potash, chloride of potassium, sulpo- 
cyanide of potassium, sulphate of soda, carbonate 
of soda, chloride of sodium, carbonate and bicar- 
bonate of ammonia, hydro-chlorate of ammonia, 
phosphate of lime, carbonate of lime, sulphate of 
lime, chloride of calcium, fluoride of calcium, car- 
bonate of magnesia, phosphate of magnesia, scilica, 
oxide of iron, phosphate of iron, oxide of manganese. 

(B) Sitnple Substances in particular Combination 

with Animal Matters. 

Sulphur, phosphorus, iron. 

( C) Salts with Inorganic Bases and Organic or 

Animal Acids. 

§ 9- Lactate of potash, lactate of soda, lactate 
of ammonia, lactate of lime, lactate of magnesia, 
urate of soda, urate of ammonia, urobenzoate of 
soda, chelate of soda, sebate of soda, margarate 
of soda. 

(Z>) Animal Combinations. 

{a) Quaternary. 

§ 10. Fibrine, albumen, gelatine, mucus, ani- 
mal extractive soluble in alcohol (osmazome) ; 
animal extractive taken up by water (of flesh, of 
the tears, of saliva, of the crystalline lens, of the 
seminal fluid — spermatine) ; farther, urea, caseine, 
picromel, resin of the bile, lactic acid, uric acid. 


pigmentary matters — as of the blood, of the choroid 
coat of the eye, of the rete mucosum or epidermis, 
of the horny tissues, &c. 

(b) Ternary {Azote being absent). 

vSiigar of milk, acetic acid, horny substance, and 
fat, which is a mixture of stearine and elaine. 


§ 11. Three of the compound animal matters, 
— albumen, fibrin, and gelatin, in combination 
with water, play the most important parts in animal 
bodies ; although in a state of purity, they possess 
peculiar properties, and, during life, have undoubt- 
edly different imports, they are still so closely allied, 
that under the influence of the vital force, the one 
is readily changed into the other.* Fibrin seems to 
stand in the middle between albumen and gelatin, 
and to form a kind of transition step from the one 
to the other ; it is consequently met with in the 
general or all-pervading fluids — ■■ the blood and the 
lymph — as a principal ingredient. As food, these 
three matters are also the most nutritious, and in 
the fluid state the most digestible. 

* So are the}^, it would appear, readily convertible out of 
the body by means of certain chemical agents. M. Denis 
("Essai sur 1' Application de la Chimie a I'Etude Physiologique 
du Sang de I'Homme," 8vo. Paris, 1840) found that an arti- 
ficial albumen could readily be produced by digesting coagu- 
lated fibrine in dilute solutions of many of the neutral salts, 
especially the chloride of sodium and the carbonates of the 


§ 12. Animal matters, in general, as also the 
various excretions of animal bodies, — the carbonic 
acid of the lungs and skin, the excrements, the 
urine, the mucus, &c. are appropriated by plants 
as nourishment, and in their systems undergo trans- 
formation into the various forms of vegetable mat- 
ter we encounter ; and plants, again, consumed by 
herbivorous animals, suffer transformation into new 
shapes, and become fitted to form constituent ele- 
ments of their bodies. Here they remain for a 
time ; but, decomposed at length, they are expelled, 
and again become a portion of the vegetable world ; 
or, before decomposition, they are seized upon as 
food by some carnivorous creature, — man, quad- 
ruped, or worm, and made to serve for its subsist- 
ence. Organic matter, therefore, is in a perpetual 
round, passing from plants to animals, from animals 
to plants, and ever assuming new and appropriate 
forms. Vegetable matter, by the higher assimilat- 
ing powers of animals, becomes animal matter, soon 
again to fall back and suffer degradation to the 
simpler shape of vegetable matter. 

Formation of Solids from Fluids. 

§ 13. Out of the fluid comes the solid, the 
shapen ; all the parts of an animal body were once 
fluid, — they have all been formed from the blood ; 
and after death they will revert to the fluid state 
again. Organic matter, itself engendered and de- 
veloped under the influence of the vital force, forms 
with water a vivifying fluid of different kinds, either 
homogeneous and more or less consistent, or having 
numbers of extremely minute and regularly organ- 


ised molecules mixed with it. This vivifying fluid 
has the faculty, according to the circumstances in 
which it is placed, of coagulating or solidifying in 
different ways. The organic matter that is the most 
highly endowed with vitality separates in a state 
more or less highly organised, appropriately fash- 
ioned and susceptible of life, ever in conformity with 
the vitality and character of that which is around 
it, and with or without the solid elementary par- 
ticles with which it is mingled ; it then gradually 
acquires distinct and individual forms, which always 
hear appropriate relationship to the structures 
amidst which the separation takes place.* In the 
same measure and degree as the plastic and living, 
hut in itself, and as regards particular form, 
indifferent blastema (§31) is consolidated on the 
one hand, the medium of solution passes off or 
quits it on the other, until at length the organised 
matter and the water come to stand in mutual oppo- 

* To this rule there are some remarkable exceptions. Be- 
sides the cartilaginiform, osseous, or earthy deposits, Avhich are 
found in the fibrous parts, as age advances, many injuries are 
permanently repaired by a tissue, differing essentially from the 
one injured ; and, in the course of the reparative process, tem- 
porary deposits often take place quite distinct in character from 
the structures in which they are formed. Numerous examples 
of both kinds might be cited. Fractures of the costal cartilages 
are commonly reunited by osseous matter. In fractures of the 
bones, whether of man or of the lower animals, if there be much 
displacement of the fragments, bony matter will be generally 
found deposited in the neighbouring soft parts, although this 
irregular deposit is not to be expected when the fragments have 
been properly adjusted, — a fact which may help to explain the 
discordant results obtained by different observers. According 
to my experience, when the broken portions of bone form an 


sition. Such vital fluids, in reference to animal 
bodies, are the blood and the lymph, the most 
universally distributed of all the fluids. From these 
all the solid parts of the animal body have been 
produced, by these they are maintained. It seems, 
therefore, essential that these primary, genetic fluids 
be particularly studied if we would hope to under- 
stand the mode of formation from them of the various 
animal fluids and solids, 


§ 14. The human and animal body, and indeed 
organised bodies generally, consist of fluid and 
SOLID parts. The fluid constituents are divided 
into elastic, and inelastic or liquid ; the elastic 
fluids, again, are arranged into permanently elastic, 
or gases, and condensible fluids, or vapours. The 
solid constituents, in like manner, fall into two 

angle, there is quite a distinct centre of ossification commencing 
in the soft parts that lie between the sides of that angle. This new 
bone being a provision to meet the exigences of an irregular case, I 
have ventured to term the accidental callus. It is, in fact, a sepa- 
rate point of ossification set up opposite to the broken ends of the 
bone, but at a distance from them, so as to facilitate the form- 
ation of a support between the fragments exactly in the most 
advantageous situation. The accidental callus, though for some 
time quite unconnected with the old bone, soon becomes united 
to the regular callus, the formation of the latter commencing 
between the periosteum and bone at a distance from the fractured 
extremities. For a figure of the accidental callus, see Drawings 
from the Anatomical Museum at Fort Pitt, fas. 3. pi. 9. fig. 6. 
and a notice in the " Edin. Med. and Surg. Journ." No. 129. 


grand divisions, according to their degree of con- 
sistency, and are spoken of as soft solids, or as hard 
solids ; they are, also, sometimes classed in accord- 
ance with the degree of their organisation, and the 
peculiar forms they present, into simply solid con- 
stituents and solid fashioned constituents. 

Of the Fluids. 

§ 15. Elastic Fluids. In the healthy state 
gases are only met with in certain of the cavities 
and passages which are lined with a, mucous mem- 
brane, in the windpipe and its subdivisions, and in 
the intestines. They always consist of different 
species mingled together, and, both as regards qua- 
lity and quantity, are subject to perpetual variations, 
those in the lungs changing periodically and regu- 
larly, those in the intestines varying more accident- 
ally and irregularly. The air of the atmosphere, 
which is taken into the lungs, consists, as is well 
known, of 79 parts of azotic gas, and of 21 parts of 
oxygen gas, with certain slight admixtures, par- 
ticularly carbonic acid gas, vapours, dust, &c. 
which, with the exception of the carbonic acid, 
may all be regarded as more or less accidental. 
The carbonic acid, on the contrary, appears to be 
an essential ingredient in the atmosphere, — to be as 
necessary to vegetable as oxygen is to animal life. 
The gases and vapours of the intestines of animals 
generally consist of atmospheric air, with variable 
admixtures of carbonic acid gas, sulphuretted hy- 
drogen gas, &c. Many of the fluids, and per- 
chance even of the solids, contain combined gases 


in small quantity ; * the blood always contains a 
small proportion of combined air, consisting prin- 
cipally of carbonic acid gas. 

Watery vapours mingled with gases only occur 
in the respiratory passages and alimentary canal, 
and upon the outer surface of the body. Their 
quantity generally bears a direct relation to the 
quantity and temperature of the gases with which 
they are mingled ; still they vary considerably, and 
are always in smaller proportion under stronger than 
under weaker pressures ; the air of the bowels in 
flatulence or tympanites, for instance, contains less 
watery vapour than the air of the lungs in ordi- 
nary respiration. 

§ 16. Liquids, Inelastic Fluids. These consti- 

* Dr. Davy made an interesting series of experiments with 
the view of ascertaining whether any gases could be obtained 
from various parts of the body. His general conclusion was, 
that the solids, excepting those — the lungs especially — which 
are designed to be its recipient, contain no air capable of being 
removed by the air-pump. M. Proust, M. Vogel, and Mr. 
Brande, have maintained, at different times, that carbonic acid is 
contained in the urine. From this fluid, however, in the state 
of health, Dr. Davy could obtain no air ; and his numerous 
trials, with many of the secretions, gave the same result, with the 
exception of a single instance, in which a few minute spherules 
were procured from synovia, giving the idea of adventitious air 
entangled in the viscid fluid during the manipulation. As the 
results were perfectly negative in all his other experiments with 
synovia, as well as in those in which he opened the sheaths of 
tendons and the joints, with the requisite precautions, the state- 
ment of Laennec, that a small quantity of air is not uncommon 
in the synovial capsules, must be considered as requiring con- 
firmation. — "Researches, Anatomical and Physiological," vol. ii. 
pp. 214-236.— G. G. 


tute the humours or fluids of the body, properly 
so called, and both as regards the space they oc- 
cupy and their weight, they exist in vastly larger 
proportion than the solids. The animal body 
always loses something like three-fourths of its 
weight by drying.* The fluids of animal bodies 
are always heterogeneous in their constitution. 
Their colour, the degree of fluidity they possess, 
and their other physical qualities, are as various 
as their chemical composition. The fluids, pro- 
bably condensed in different degrees, form an 
essential element in all the solid parts of the body ; 
or, otherwise, they are contained in particular re- 
servoirs and vessels, through which they are car- 
ried in a circle to every part of the body for its 
growth and maintenance, and for the accomplish- 
ment of each and all of the important vital pro- 
cesses ; or in which they are stored up till wanted 
for some particular purpose ; or by which they 
are thrown out of the system as useless. 

Among the humours or fluids of the body we 
distinguish, 1. Watery or serous fluids, in which 
variable quantities of organic and inorganic matters 
are held dissolved ; 2. Oily fluids, — animal oils ; 
and 3. Fluids of a mixed character, they being 
made up of the two former in different proportions. 

* The entire dried body of an old woman, probably of 
seventy years of age, 5 feet 3 inches in height, preserved in 
one of the London mviseums, weighs no more than seven 
POUNDS; it must have lost seven or eight tenths of its original 
weight by desiccation. Where there is the largest proportion 
of fat, the loss by drying is least ; where there is little or no 
fat, as in the subject alluded to, there the loss is gi'eatest. 



§ 17. The Serous, or Watery Fluids, consist of 
water in which more or less of albumen and animal 
extractive, and various salts are dissolved. These 
fluids are dilSPused through the whole body ; they 
enter as constituents into every one of the tissues, 
to which, in the main, they give volume, cohesion, 
softness, elasticity, colour, to a certain extent, and 
moistness, of course. They form, moreover, a very 
principal part of the general circulating fluids, — 
of the lymph and the blood, as the liquor lymphce 
et sanguinis, the liquid element of the lymph and 
of the blood, and of all glandular secretions ; they 
exist farther, in the transudations of all the serous 
cavities, in the interspaces of the cellular tissue, 
in the intestinal canal as the gastric juice and fluid 
of the intestines, and, with a larger proportion than 
usual of albumen, in all synovial cavities, sheaths 
of tendons, bursse, &c., as synovia ; finally they 
occur in the cavities of certain among the organs 
of sense, as in the watery fluid of the anterior and 
posterior chambers, and of the vitreous humour 
of the eye, in the labyrinth of the ear, as the aqua 
labyrinthi, and, lastly, in the foetal envelopes, as 
the liquor amnii. The specific gravity of these 
serous fluids is always somewhat higher than that 
of distilled water, and varies, in proportion to the 
quantity of the solid matter held in solution, be- 
tween I'Ol and 1*08. The watery fluids secreted 
by the glands, like the general circulating fluid, 
usually contain minute organised particles mingled 
with them ; and, more than this, as in the sper- 
matic fluid of the male, occasionally independent 
living animalcules, as essential elements. 


§ 18. The Oih/ Fluids, or Animal Oils, are gene- 
rally slug-gislily fluent, and occur more isolatedly 
throughout the body. Their colour varies gene- 
rally from a clear yellow to a green or a brown ; 
occasionally they appear gray. Their degrees of 
transparency are very different ; their specific 
gravities are not less so, varying between 0*8, and 
0'94. In point of chemical composition they contain 
almost no oxygen, and but little azote. Their proxi- 
mate elements, which are often separable by simple 
mechanical means, are fluid elaine, and solid stear- 
ine ; the amount of the latter determines the degree 
of consistency possessed by fat. Oily fluid, or fat, 
is prepared and stored up for different ends : in 
the cellular tissue, where it is secreted by par- 
ticular glands, it probably remains for the gene- 
ral uses of the economy, under peculiar circum- 
tances ; poured out upon the skin in the shape 
of sebaceous matter, it gives suppleness and softness 
to the common integument ; shed upon the edges of 
the eyelids, and into the cavity of the external ear, 
it fulfils obvious and most useful purposes. Some- 
times, again, we observe oily particles mechanically 
suspended in the fluids, as in the chyle, in milk, and 
now and then in the serum of the blood itself ; or 
otherwise, we find it chemically combined with an 
alkali, as in the bile, or with one or other of the 
simple substances, sulphur, phosphorus, &c. 

§ 19. A mixture of a watery fluid with fat, and 
other matters, forms the bile. 

§ 20. Animal oil, mixed with watery fluid is 
found in chyle, in milk, in the yolk of the egg, 
in the blood, &c. 


We shall by and by treat of the blood, the 
lymph, and the different fluids secreted by the 
glands, under particular and separate heads. 

Of the Solids. 

§ SI. The solid parts of the animal body are of 
various forms and composition. The elements of 
the solids, or simple textures of which they con- 
sist, by reason of their minuteness are only to be 
distinctly seen with the aid of optical instru- 
ments, — the single and double microscope. The 
form of the elementary solids depends either on 
physical and chemical forces, and then it is more 
or less accidental with reference to the body ; or 
being highly organised, their form is then deter- 
mined by the plastic powers of life, and is in har- 
mony as well with the parts around them, as with 
the entire body of which they form constituents. 


§ 22. Drops Fig. 164-169- Fluids of dif- 

ferent kinds when mixed together and left at 
rest, when no chemical afiinity influences them, 
arrange themselves according to their specific gra- 
vity into superimposed layers. Agitation effects 
in the one or other of these fluids (generally 
in that which is the specifically lighter and 
smaller in quantity), a mechanical separation into 
small portions, which, in virtue of the force of 
cohesion, collect into globular drops. These drops 
are readily distinguishable scattered through the 


suiToimding fluid, when their refractive power 
differs, as it very generally does difi"er, from that 
of the fluid. Glohules of air in water or oil, of 
oil in water, &c., are perceived in virtue of the 
difi*erent refi-active powers which they severally pos- 
sess ; and are distinguished from organic corpus- 
cles suspended in fluids, such as granules, gloh- 
ules, discs and vesicles, first, by the great diver-, 
sity they present in point of size, and secondly, by 
their complete transparency. If the fluid with 
which bubbles or drops are mingled, have a little 
mucilage, albumen, sugar, or any thing that 
will give it consistency, dissolved in it, the drops 
then remain distinct for a longer or shorter 
space of time ; in the contrary case, should the 
suspending fluid be perfectly limpid, if left at rest, 
they speedily coalesce. In several of the animal 
fluids, other fluids are included in the form of 
drops — air in saliva, oil in milk (^fig- 22) and in 
chyle (/^. 23), 

§ 23. Solid Precipitates. Fig. I7O-I79.— All 
animal fluids contain several substances in a state of 
solution, as well organic and inorganic salts, as free 
alkalies and acids, and certain peculiar organic 
compounds, which occasionally separate as precipi- 
tates ; at one time in virtue of purely chemical 
laws, at another, through the agency of others less 
known, of an organic or vital nature. 
Inorganic precipitates take place : — 
1. In consequence of an- absolute diminution 
in the quantity of the solvent medium (which is 
generally water), and this may be brought about by 
(a) evaporation ; by (h') penetration of other neigh- 


bouring less fluid parts (imbibition and infiltration) ; 
(c) by absorption through the lymphatics and veins ; 
or, (rf) as a consequence of secretion, when the fluid 
separated contains a smaller quantity of matter 
dissolved than the fluid from which it was elabo- 

2. In consequence of Changes produced hy 
Admixture^ {a) as when in consequence of a change 
efifected in the solvent by a new substance, it be- 
comes incapable of holding one of its old ingre- 
dients in solution ; {Jb) when under the same cir- 
cumstances a new product is formed which is in- 
soluble ; (c) and when the products of double elect- 
ive affinities, though not insoluble, require more 
fluid to dissolve them than is present ; in this case 
a portion of the least soluble necessarily separates 
in the solid form. 

§ 24. Inorganic deposits occurring in the animal 
body frequently contain organic matters mingled 
with them : gall-stones contain cholesterine, urin- 
ary calculi and gouty concretions contain uric acid, 
mucus, &c. Organic matters occurring under such 
circumstances, however, never present any of the 
appropriate forms or particular characters of organ- 
isation ; on the contrary, they are either crys- 
talline, or have their forms impressed upon them by 
mechanical contact or attrition. They may be 
aptly divided according to their forms, into 1. crys- 
tals ; 2. rolled gravel ; 3. granular gravel ; and 
4. accidentally fashioned larger concretions. 

§ 25. Crystals {fig. I7O-I76.) These are 
bounded by determinate planes, angles, and edges. 
Crystals are encountered by no means unfrequently 


in the bodies of men and animals, but only very 
rarely as normal constituents ; crystals, however, 
do occur in the labyrinth of the ear. They are 
much more common in the fluids of the different 
secretions, as in the liquor amnii {fg. 30, B.) ; 
in the various forms of morbid fluid deposits 
especially, and occasionally also in the intimate 
tissues of parts, as in the plexus choroides of the 
lateral ventricles, the pineal gland, &c. (^fig. 30, 
A.) The forms of crystals are often indifferently 
characterised, and then they pass by insensible de- 
grees into calculi or gravel ; this is the case as 
regards the sandy particles of the pineal gland and 
choroid plexus, and the crystals of stearine (^Jig. 
31, D.) 

Crystals arise in the animal body under the 
same circumstances, and in obedience to the same 
laws, as they do out of it, viz,, by the gradual ab- 
straction of the conditions under which the crys- 
tallisable matter is rendered soluble, or is held 
dissolved ; they are, in fact, always either salts, or 
compound bodies analogous to salts, never simple 
substances, acids, oxides, or bases. Lamelliform 
and foliaceous crystals are easily distinguishable 
from organised squamse and lamellae, in their total 
want of every indication of organic formation. 

§ 26. Rolled Gravel {figs. 29 and I77.) I 
thus entitle those small, globular, hard, inorganic 
deposits which owe their form, like the gravel of 
the beds of rivers, to their motion and mutual 
attrition. The globular gravel voided from the 
bladder [and renal pelvis?] by the solidungula and 


man, and the rounded concretions so often met 
with in the gall-bladder, may serve as examples of 
this form of deposit. It may have been originally 
crystalline, or it may, and frequently does, contain a 
crystalline nucleus ; I have only encountered this 
rolled gravel in mucous cavities, and in the larger 
excretory ducts. Similar formations, which receive 
their shape from the minute cavities in which they 
are produced without rolling or rubbing, for ex- 
ample, the concretions from mucous crypts, do not 
belong to the present category, but might be de- 
scribed apart, under the title of concrete gravel. 

§ 27. Granular Gravel, Grit, or Sand (Jig. 178)' 
This occurs in the shape of small, hard, irregularly 
rounded, inorganic masses, of a reddish, grayish, or 
whitish colour, which still bear traces of their 
original forms, as irregular or imperfect crystals, 
with the angles and edges worn away. This kind 
of grit is therefore intermediate to the smallest 
perfectly crystalline precipitates and rolled gravel. 
It is, in fact, frequently found mingled with entire 
crystals, and with masses that have undergone 
attrition, and had secondary deposits let fall upon 
them in every degree. Such grit, or granular 
deposit, besides being met with in the renal and 
subordinate system, where it occurs very frequently, 
is also occasionally seen as an abnormal product 
upon the surface of serous, more rarely upon that 
of synovial, membranes, as on the pia mater of the 
brain, on the pleura, peritoneum, omentum, and 
tunica vaginalis testis ; also in abnormal cavities, 
in cysts containing watery fluids, &c. In point of 


chemical composition, this kind of gravel differs 
essentially, according to the situation in which it 
is deposited. 

§ 28. Mulberry Gravel {fig. 179) occurs in the 
shape of agglomerated masses of grit, or small 
rolled gravelly particles, and is very generally 
found associated with simple grit, and with rolled 
gravel j this occurs in the renal pelvis of man and 
of the horse {fig. 29, B.) It is met with only in 
cavities lined with mucous membranes, and is either 
a morbid product of the multilocular or racemiform 
mucous glands, from which it then derives its 
form, or it acquires its irregular acinular shape by 
deposition in some unknown way. The best spe- 
cimens of this mulberry-like, or agglomerated 
gravel, are probably met with in the biliary ducts 
and reservoir. 

§ 29. Accidental, mechanically formed {not mi- 
croscopic^ Concretions. Besides the microscopic con- 
cretions now described, other accidental inorganic 
deposits are occasionally met with in the animal 
body, and generally in cavities lined with a mucous 
membrane, which derive their forms from the sur- 
rounding structures with which they are in contact, 
or which repeat, on a larger scale, the forms that 
are encountered in the different kinds of gravel on 
a smaller scale. To this category belong, gall- 
stones, urinary calculi, intestinal calculi, salivary cal- 
culi, lachrymal calculi, &c. When these inorganic 
matters are produced within one of the smaller 
cavities of the body, and continue to grow there 
till they fill it, they at length come out more or 
less perfect moulds of the receptacles or canals 


where they were engendered. In this way, urinary 
concretions are met with that are accurate casts of 
the pelvis of the kidney ; biliary calculi, that figure 
the shape of the gall-bladder precisely ; dacryoliths, 
that have the form of the lachrymal canal and its 
two afferent ducts ; salivary calculi, that are long 
and cylindrical, and even branched like a mass of 
coral, from having penetrated into the excretory 
ducts of the gland which prepared the fluid whence 
they were precipitated. When several concretions 
are formed in any of the situations indicated, they 
then acquire polyhedral and irregular forms, with 
rounded angles and corners, in consequence of their 
mutual contact and attrition : such forms are 
particularly common in the concretions of the gall 
and urinary bladder. When they occur singly, they 
generally present the figure of flattened ellipsoids ; 
this is by much the most frequent form of urinary 
calculi. They are also commonly enough globular in 
form — the intestinal concretions of the horse, and 
other lower animals, are almost always round. The 
cause of the extremly regular form often presented 
by calculous concretions of the mulberry and other 
kinds, when this can neither be traced to the in- 
fluence of crystallisation, nor of mechanical attrition, 
is less known. Finally, we now and then meet 
with a concretion that might, with some propriety, 
be spoken of as a single large crystal ; this is es- 
pecially the case as regards some biliary calculi. 

The whole of the concretions which are found 
in mucous cavities, consist of the chemical con- 
stituents of the fluids by which they are sur- 
rounded ; but they also occasionally contain prin- 


ciples derived from the mucous membrane. The 
normal and constant concretions of the living body, 
are the crystals of the labyrinth of the ear, the 
granules of the pineal gland and choroid plexus, 
the globular gravel of the urine of the solidungula, 
and the crystals of the liquor amnii. All the 
other inorganic precipitates are to be viewed as 
the accidental products of abnormal or morbid 



Amorphous Solid Constituents ; Organic uniting 
Media — the Hyaline or Vitreous Substance 
{Jig. 57 a, 61 a, 65 a; also fig. 243-249.) 

§ 30. The hyaline or vitreous substance, forms 
a considerable constituent element in the animal 
body. Although amorphous in itself, it must still 
be associated with the organic parts, inasmuch as 
it is formed cotemporaneously with other more 
highly organised elements, as it stands in a certain 
relationship to these, and for its maintenance re- 
quires, like them, a perpetual interchange of sub- 
stance. The vitreous element is translucent in 
every degree to perfect transparency ; it is colour- 
less, or but slightly tinged ; generally it is of firm 
consistence, and hi^hlv elastic. It serves as a 
transparent medium for optical purposes, as in 
the crystalline lens of the eye ; as a protecting and 
sheathing medium, as in the Whartonian pulp of 
the umbilical cord ; or as an elastic bond of union, 
— as an intercellular substance, for instance, in the 


cell-including vitreous matter of cellular cartilage, 
in the cartilage of the bones, and in the canalicular 
or tubular structure of the teeth. 


Morphic Organic Constituents {Jig'. 180-238). 

§ 31. Fibrine. — The fibrine which is held dis- 
solved in the serum of the blood and of the lymph, 
may be regarded as the general formative element 
or blastema — that principle which, under the in- 
fluence of the primary and secondary organic pro- 
cesses, is fitted to assume all the shapes which we 
observe in the constituent parts of animal bodies. 
Fibrine left at rest, consolidates, under all cir- 
cumstances short of those which act by decompos- 
ing it, first, into a determinate hyaline substance, 
which in the greatly debilitated and in the dead 
body, and also out of the body when left to itself, 
falls into granules, or forms an aggregated granu- 
lar mass.* Plastic fibrine has, therefore, in its 

* The softening of fibrine in the living body constitutes a 
distinct elementary disease of much interest, as well from its 
frequency as from its connexion with the prevailing doctrines 
about suppuration. M. Gendrin instanced mere softened clots 
of fibrine as cases of suppuration — transformations of fibrine 
into pus — and this view has since been generally adopted and 
promulgated in this country. Yet M. Gendrin also maintained 
that suppuration was a metamorphosis of the blood corpuscles ; 
thus confounding, as Mr. Palmer remarks, two distinct and well- 
known constituents of the blood. Dr. Young had long previ- 
ously stated his opinion, that the globules in pus are the glo- 
bules of blood somewhat altered in suppuration. — Medical 
Literature, 8vo. Lond. 1813, p. 509. 

In an inquiry, which I undertook with a view of ascertaining 


morphic changes, two forms in common with 
other coaoulatino' matters — viz. the form of a 
vitreous substance, and that of granules. In 
animal oils, we already observe the formation of 

the constitution of pus, and of some other fluids with which it 
may be confounded, it appeared, that the liquid or pulpy matter 
in the centre of fibrinous clots, was totally distinct from pus, and 
that the softening of fihrine had been improperly confounded 
with suppuration. Besides its proneness to putrefaction, softened 
fibrins differs in some other chemical properties from pus ; and 
the characteristic globules of the latter are either wanting in the 
former, or not in sufficient quantity to render the matter iden- 
tical with pus. The mass of the softened fibrine, in short, is 
made up of a very minutely granular substance, frequently with 
some very irregular flaky particles — the globules which it 
often, and indeed generally, contains forming but a small pro- 
portion to the other materials ; whereas, the globules of pus 
constitute the bulk of the particles visible by the microscope. — 
Vide " Transactions Roy. Med. Chir. Soc." vol. xxii. 

Probably, no subject in physiology is of more importance 
than the nature of fibrine ; and its structure and varieties, and 
the changes to which it is liable, are of the highest interest to 
pathological science. It appears to me, that a precise inquiry 
in this department is still wanting ; and that when completed, it 
must afford some valuable results. I am, therefore, induced to 
add, very briefly, an account of a few observations which I have 
made on fibrinous clots, with the hope of directing attention to 
this interesting field of research. 

Of the fibrinous exudations so frequently resulting from in- 
flammation, the structure agrees with the description of the 
author ; to which, however, it should be added, that besides 
the transparent matrix and the globules, a most minutely 
granular matter pervades the mass. The globules resemble 
those of pus in size ; and are, in fact, identical with those float- 
ing in the contiguous sero-purulent matter. At an early stage, 
they seem very granular on the surface and loose in texture, as 
if the globule were composed by the mere approximation of 


granules, on a loss of temperature. This, how- 
ever, cannot be regarded in any other light than 
as an imperfect process of crystallisation ; — the 
precipitated granules of stearine are imperfect 

numerous granules. At a more advanced period, the globules 
have a more dense or compact appearance. Fig. 243 repre- 
sents a portion of coagulated lymph, magnified about 380 dia- 
meters, from a case of traumatic inflammation of the peritoneum 
in the horse ; the globules are held together by a hyaline matrix, 
and very delicate granular particles pervade the mass. From 
the microscopic characters, therefore, the term concrete pus, 
by which the French pathologists designate the fibrinous clots 
found within inflamed serous sacs, would not seem less ap- 
plicable to this matter than the appellation of Hunter — coagu- 
lated lymph. But these exudations are more or less firm — com- 
pletely preserving their integrity, however agitated with water ; 
whereas, there is a very common variety, generally co-existent 
with the other, also concrete, but most readily miscible with 
water. The difi'erence seems to be, that one is a congeries of 
globules kept together merely by a little serous moistui'e, while 
the other is a coagulum of lymph pervaded by similar globules ; 
that the latter is the medium for a higher organisation, of which, 
as far as we at present know, the former is not susceptible. 
The microscopic and chemical characters of the globules are 
nearly, if not quite, identical in both varieties ; that miscible 
with water, is most frequently found in dependent parts of the 
inflamed sac, in consequence, simply, of a subsidence of the 
globules which form the mass. 

The structure, then, of the fibrinous exudations, resulting 
from inflammation, is so far complex, that we find globules con- 
nected together by a transparent clot of lymph, which is most 
frequently pervaded by exceedingly minute granules. Indeed, 
the opacity and colour of the whitish false membrane is mainly- 
due to the great number of globules and granules it includes. 

Although the appearance of an aggregated granular mass is 
common, yet that fibrine, left at rest, always consolidates, as men- 
tioned in the text, into a determinate hyaline or granular sub- 


crystals (^fg. 31 d^. Albumen, which is a more 
highly assimilated substance, is susceptible of 
taking- both forms. When albumen sets gradually 
either within or without the body, organic granules 

stance, is not in accordance with my experience. Sometimes, the 
ultimate texture of a portion of fibrine appears to be made up of 
fibrils of extreme tenuity, often parallel, but with frequent inter- 
lacings, and constituting a microscopic web, much finer than even 
that of cellular tissue. Fig. 244 exhibits a portion of a very firm 
clot from the heart of a child, about twenty-four hours after 
death. Fig. 245 represents another part of the same clot, with 
an obscure appearance of globular bodies in the interstices of the 
fibrils. Both preparations are magnified about 700 diameters, 
after being spread out with needles, which it seems right to men- 
tion, as a filamentous appearance might be referred, and per- 
haps justly, to this mode of extending a homogeneous substance. 
The fibrils, however, are often better seen, without any exten- 
sion or stretching, in a thin slice from a clot rendered hard by 
boiling, as in Fig. 247. In many instances, the fibrils are in- 
finitely shorter than here represented, and so arranged as to 
form a kind of areolar tissue, of a delicacy so exquisite, that the 
best glasses and manipulation are required to bring it into view: 
often, the areolar disposition is less perfect, and the extremely 
short and fine filaments are connected by transverse fibrils. In 
either case, the interspaces of the delicate frame- work seem to be 
filled with the fibrinous pulp, either quite homogeneous or per- 
vaded by most minute molecules. The disposition of the fibrils in 
the varieties here mentioned may often be best seen at the edges of 
the thinnest slices taken from portions of fibrine made hard by heat. 
In fibrine which has clotted simply by being left at rest, 
either in the body after death, or in blood removed from the 
vessels during life, I have found simple and compound corpuscles, 
which must probably be regarded as organic germs, very com- 
monly about -2-^-Q-Qi^ of an English inch in diameter, although 
very variable in magnitude. These corpuscles are interesting 
in many respects, whatever opinion may be formed of their 
nature. They must either have existed in the circulation, or 


are formed, which are capable of no higher organ- 
isation. When albumen sets quickly, it forms a 
coherent mass, which however shews no trace of 
organisation, and cannot therefore be likened to 

been formed during the coagulation of the blood, quite inde- 
pendently of the influence of the living tissues. Fig. 246 re- 
presents these corpuscles in some fibrine, obtained by whipping 
from the blood of a horse. The animal, which is now at work, 
w^as bled in consequence of swelling of one of the hind legs — an 
affection to which he is liable ; the attack was of fourteen 
days' duration : there had been some inflammatory fever, which 
appeared to be subsiding. Fig. 247 shews the corpuscles more 
distinctly ; and contained in an extremely delicate web of fibrils 
— the fibrine was obtained from the same blood, and rendered 
firm hy boiling, so as to allow of a thin slice being made, from 
which the drawing was taken. Fig. 248 exhibits the same corpus- 
cles after being subjected to the action of acetic acid, fx'om which 
their envelopes are swoln a little, and rendered sufficiently trans- 
parent to shew the nuclei which they inclose. If the acid be in 
excess, or very strong, or left a few minutes in contact with the 
corpuscles, the envelopes will often disappear entirely. The 
three last figures are magnified nearly 700 diameters. 

Sometimes, the corpuscles are destitute of nuclei — at least, 
none can be discovered by the aid of the ordinary re-agents — 
in which case, the corpuscles give the idea of a kind of corru- 
gated capsule, or empty cell, as shewn in Fig. 249, which was 
drawn from a portion of a fibrinous clot obtained from the heart 
of a child, aged two months, which died of disease of the me- 
senteric glands and diarrhcea. I am indebted to the kindness of 
Dr. Boyd for an opportunity of making this examination. The 
magnifying power employed was 800 diameters. 

The size of the nuclei is very variable ; but the -g o^o*^ ^^ 
an inch is a diameter very commonly seen among them, as 
is also the ^^oQth, and even the -g-QLy^th. They may probably 
precede the envelopes in formation ; for in many cases the 
nuclei are instantly brought into view when the fibrine is made 
transparent by acids, although no appearance whatever of the 


hyaline substance. The fibrine of the blood, how- 
ever, in setting, eA^en when abstracted from the 
body, forms a true hyaline substance, which en- 
closes the blood globules, precisely as that of car- 
envelopes can be seen, however carefully the action of the 
re-agents is watched. 

The action of sulphurous acid in rendering the matrix quite 
translucent, and in giving a very definite outline to the nuclei, 
is remarkable. In many instances in which the fibrine, how- 
ever carefully examined, presented only an amorphous or aggre- 
gated granular appearance, the sulphurous acid exposed the 
nuclei most clearly, as in fig. 250. In some cases the cells or 
envelopes are very faint, as if in progress of formation, as shewn 
in fig. 251, while the nuclei are apparently completely mature. 
Both figures were made after fibrine obtained from the blood 
of the horse, removed during the life of the animal. By the 
aid of the sulphurous acid, I have also found the corpuscles 
abundantly in fibrinous clots obtained from the portal, and 
splenic, and pulmonary veins. 

The nuclei, thus shewn naked, are mostly rather irregular 
in shape, generally nearly round, and not uncommonly oblong, 
as if extending by growth. Sometimes they are not numerous, 
though very distinct ; frequently they are most abundant, and 
not uncommonly larger than above indicated. In a clot of 
fibrine from the portal vein of a woman, aged eighty-two, who 
died of pneumonia, they were from q-^oqH^ to -j oVo*'^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 
in diameter ; and in a clot from the heart of a man, aged thirty- 
one, who died of sphacelus and suppuration, they were in vast 
numbers, and of about the same size. But in neither of these 
cases could the particles be clearly seen without the aid of an acid ; 
though, with it, they became remarkably definite and characteristic. 
Tartaric, oxalic, sulphurous, and acetic acids may be employed. 

In a few instances, true cells may be seen ; that is, cysts 
three or four times the size of the corpuscles, and capable of 
containing the latter as nuclei. It, however, so rarely happens 
that the corpuscles are thus inclosed, that no unequivocal 
instance of this was observed, although the cells, as mentioned 
above, were not very unfrequent, and either shrivelled or more 



tilage encloses the cartilage corpuscles : when it 
coagulates in contact with the interior of the living 
body, immediately higher organic processes are 
proclaimed in the formation of compound corpus- 

or less filled with granular matter. Sometimes, also, corpuscles 
were observed of a very different character, these being made 
up of pretty well defined spherules, between -j-^^Q-gth and -goVo*^ 
of an inch in diameter. The compound corpuscle thus formed is 
generally round or oval, and about -g^Q^^^Qth of an inch in diameter. 

The corpuscles previously described may be sometimes found 
together in great abundance in one part of a clot, when the most 
diligent search is unable to detect them in another part not many 
lines removed ; and many clots may be examined without finding 
any of the corpuscles. Mr. Siddall and I found them in some 
fibrine, obtained by whipping, from the blood of a pregnant 
woman, but we could not detect them in the same fibrine two 
days subsequently. It may be suggested, that the corpuscles 
are the blood disks, entangled in the fibrine, although none of 
the colouring matter be visible. If so, the disks must have 
undergone remarkable alterations in size and figure, as well as 
in chemical properties. But this question comprehends a variety 
of considerations, which it is unnecessary to discuss here. — See 
Dr. Barry's observations, " Phil. Trans." Part II. 1840. 

It may not be improper to remark, that the terms granules 
and granular seem to be employed in the text to denote an 
assemblage of most minute molecules, and that they are used in 
the foregoing note in the same sense. Granules are generally- 
smaller than ■Y2^o~5^^^ ^^ ^^ mc\i in diameter, and in other re- 
spects utterly diff'erent from the corpuscles which have just 
been described. These latter are analogous in size, shape, and 
structure, to the primary cells of Schwann and Henle, and to 
the nucleated nuclei of Valentin, and appear to be the same as 
the fibrinous globules of M. Mandl, which he describes as form- 
ing, by coagulation, on the object-glass of the microscope. He 
says, that the fibrine of the frog, when separated by filtration 
from the blood-disks, is full of these white fibrinous globules, 
— a statement, however, at variance with the observation of 
M iiller, that this fibrine is without corpuscles, and quite homo- 


cles, which either swim free in the fluid, as the 
glohules do in the hlood ; or they appear as isolated 
bodies disseminated through a hyaUne substance, or 
variously arranged without any common bond of 
union, and so attain their final developement ; or 
they present themselves as mere transition forms of 
more highly organised products, which, with the 
final completion of the developement, disappear en- 
tirely. These corpuscles are, in fact, the primary 
types of all higher formations in vegetable as well 
as in animal bodies ; they are, as it were, the 
universal organised condensations of the living- 
plastic fluids. The vegetable corpuscles have 
been named by Brown AREOLiE, and by Schleiden, 
CYTOBLASTs (cELL-GERMs). There Can be no ob- 
jection to the extension of these titles to the nu- 
cleolated nuclei of the animal kingdom ; and I 
shall constantly speak of these nucleolated nuclei 
under the name of cell-germs or encased nucleoli. 
§ 32. In animal bodies, two classes of solid pre- 
cipitates from vital fluids may be distinguished, 
each of which has a diflerent organic signification : 

geneous (" Physiology," by Dr. Baly, second ed. Part I. p. 124). 
Though M. Mandl saw " perfect purulent globules " in some 
delicate fibrinous shreds, separated by rods from blood diluted 
with white-of-egg, he found clots of pure fibrine, too compact to 
be examined successfully with the microscope. He considers 
the white globules of the blood, the globules of pus, of mucus, 
and those of the secretions, as identical. — " Anatomie Micro- 
scopique," Liv. i. et ii. 

I was unacquaintad with M. Mandl's ingenious observations 
till some time after the foregoing note was printed. It will be 
seen, that my results having been obtained by the examination 
of compact masses of fibrine, either with or without the assist- 
ance of chemical agents, were arrived at by a different method 


Some are Objective, i. e. they form no immediate in- 
tegral part, essential to the life of the organisation ; 
and others are Subjective, i. e. they form immediate, 
original, and indispensably necessary parts of the 
body ; in other words, we have aplastic elements 
— elements susceptible of no farther amount of 
organisation, and plastic elements — elements which 
bear within them the germs of higher forms. 
Each of these classes of elements forms two orders ; 
the objective or aplastic fall into, 1. inorganic 
crystalline, and, 2. semiorganic, noncrystalline, 
•inechanically fashioned. The inherently vital cell- 
germs again divide themselves into («) monoplastic, 
which retain their primary forms and, (6) poly- 
plastic, which lose their primary shapes, trans- 
form themselves into all the organic forms, and, 
in fact, are destined to one that is higher. The 
opposite table is intended to convey an idea of 
these various relations, and at the same time to 
afford a compendious survey of the organization 
and evolution of the elements of animal bodies out 
of the cell-germ or encased nucleolus. See Table. 

from that pursued by M. Mandl ; and while he rejects the idea 
of nuclei, I have often seen them in great numbers, without any 
envelopes, as in fig. 250 ; and, indeed, that I am led to regard 
the corpuscles as organic germs, or primary cells, almost always 
with the characteristic nuclei, although these seemed to be ab- 
sent in some instances, as in fig. 249. The conclusion of M. 
Mandl, that the fibrinous globules are simply the result of coa- 
gulation, is not supported by the fact, that white globules, pre- 
cisely similar to those in the blood of the frog, may be seen 
circulating in the veins of the animal, moving very slowly along 
the inner tunic of the vessel, and often dropping into the central 
current of blood-disks, and liquor sanguinis, and then passing 
with velocity onwards. 


Formations unsusceptib 



Partly Organised, but always incapable of 
further Developement. 

Mechanical Forms : 





§3 2-9 

i i 





Organic Forms : 

Organised, capable of peculiar Organisation. 

(Vitalised Albumen.) 

Organic Fo 

Enduring Ccll-gerras. Degen 

ing Partly Degenerating, partly Progressive 

Cell-gorms. Cell-germs. 

Lymph Blood 

Corpuscle. Corpuscle. Ichor Corpuscle, 

Exudation Corpuscle 

Retrograding : Advancing in Developei 
Pus Corpuscles. cells. 

Retrograding and Vanish- 
ing Cells, but leaving 
behind them Organised 
Cellular Substance. 

Permanent Cells. 

Filamentous Hollow Isolated. 
Intercellular Intercellular Vitreous Substances. 
Substance. Substance, i > 

Cellular Indusia 
Epidermis, Epithelii 

'"Tcsaellate Ciliate 

Epithelium. Epithelii 

Progressive Cells. 

Non-ciliary. Ciliary. 
«. o, --■ N — ■ Flat Fibn 


t-.s. <^ 


§ 33. Organic Granules ; granular Coagulum, 
The precipitate of extremely minute, soft, organic 
granules, so universally encountered in the animal 
body, appears for the most part to consist of albu- 
men. These granules would seem only to form cell- 
germs, or nucleolated nuclei, when the coagulation 
of the fibrine takes place otherwise than in vital 
association with the internal structures of the indi- 
"vddual who engenders it. There is scarcely a 
watery or mixed animal fluid without its granules : 
wherever albumen in solution is met with, there 
will granules be discovered. These granules, how- 
ever, are not always easy to be perceived : bright 
illumination and sharp definition, without which 
microscopical researches into the nature of transpa- 
rent elementary parts particularly, are of little value, 
are here indispensable. In the chyle, so long as it is 
contained in vessels beyond the mesenteric glands, 
granules only, from the j-^-oth to the 4^^o"t^ of aline 
in diameter, and oily globules,* are discovered ; but 
after the fluid has passed through these glands, and 
has reached the central vessel of the lymphatic 
system, it begins, in addition to these, to contain 
cell-germs (lymph-corpuscles). Aggregated mucus- 
globules (^/ig. 25) (not epithelial cells), occur with- 
out admixture of cell- germs, because the secretion 
is too poor in fibrine ; on the contrary, in all 
transudations of the liquor sanguinis upon internal 
surfaces, or into the tissues themselves, encased 
nucleoli (exudation-globules), are produced. Wher- 

* These are generally from four to fifteen times larger than 
the granules. 


ever the cell-germs perish, we also remark a retro- 
grade tendency to the formation of granules : from 
the exudation globule, we have the granular pus- 
globule, which, in its turn, and very speedily, may 
fall into its elementary granules. The embryonic 
cells, and the last formed epithelial cells, which 
are in immediate contact with the corium, are 
almost completely transparent, without any trace 
of granulation ; those that are cast loose, however, 
those of the lining membrane of the mouth, for 
example, are always granulated. 

§ 34. Caseine, which bears so close an affinity 
to albumen, comports itself precisely like this sub- 
stance ; and, under the circumstances specified, 
like fibrine. The granular coagulum of diseased 
milk {fig. 23), cannot be confounded with the oil- 
globules of the fresh and healthy fluid {fig. 22). 

§ S5. Granules are frequently seen collected into 
heaps or masses — aggregation corpuscles* {fig. 
190) — of difierent sizes, and either globular, 
ovoidal, or ellipsoidal in figure. The elementary 
granules are here held together by a fluid, and se- 
parate when this is attenuated in any way, as by 
the addition of water, in which the corpuscles 
dissolve without leaving nuclei behind them. They 
are produced in small cavities — the mucus-corpus- 
cles {fig. 25, B) of the mucous crypts, t for instance, 

* I entitle all compound, rounded, isolated particles — glo- 
bules, ellipsoids, discs, lamellae, &c. — which enclose a nucleus, 
and consist of aggregated granules, corpuscles ; and when 
the nuclei include others (nucleoli), I call them cells. 

t Let a little piece of mucous membrane be washed with 
distilled water, by means of a soft hair pencil, all pressure being 


or in unknown ways — the granular corpuscles, for 
example, which are often to be perceived with the 
naked eye in cysts with serous contents, and the 
granular pigmentary corpuscles {fig. 3% 1, «) of 
the pigmentum nigrum. 

§ 36. When granules unite in rows like strings 
of beads, we have granular fibres* (fig. 189) pro- 
duced : several granular fibres lying in parallel 
apposition, form a granular fibrous cord^ when this 
on a section appears cylindrical ; when it is not 
cylindrical, but flat in different degrees, it forms 
a granular fibrous bundle ox fasciculus {fig. 191). 
When the fibres run in two directions, extending 
at the same time in breadth, they form a granular 
7nembrane {fig. 192). 

§ 37. The number of granules present never 
bears any kind of ratio to the quantity of albu- 
men in solution ; so that a fluid which contains 
albumen in the proportion of fourteen, may present 
no more granules than one which contains albumen 
in no higher a proportion than one. The nucleus 
of a cell-germ, the nucleolus of a nucleated cell, 
often exhibits the precise appearance of a granule, 

avoided ; let the surface be gently dried by means of a clean 
napkin ; now fold the piece of membrane with the mucous sur- 
face outwards, and press it gently between the finger and thumb 
near and towards the folded edge, A little pure mucus will 
exude ; and this being transferred to the stage of the microscope, 
between two fine plates of glass, the mucus-corpuscles will be 
seen in their highest perfection. 

* I designate diS fibres all elongated formations, the sections 
of which, within short distances, present differences in form or 
size: other linear formations I incline to cd\\ filaments ; and 
these are divided into cylindrical, flat, prismatic, and hollow. 


but it can never be confounded with this, nor ought 
it ever to be spoken of as synonymous with a forma- 
tion of so much lower significance. 



§ 38. Cell-germ, encased Nucleus (^Cytoblast 
Schleiden). This formation had long been known as 
an essential and general constituent in the structure 
of vegetables ; but Schleiden* was the first (1838) 
who pointed out its significance in general, and espe- 
cially in reference to the process of developement in 
vegetables ; Valentin t and Schwann t subsequently 
(1839) shewed its identity, both in structure and 
office, with the cell-germ of animals. 

§ 39. The cell-germ of the animal organism 
accords so closely with that of the vegetable, that 
Schleiden's description of the latter might be applied 
in almost every particular to the former. 

§ 40. The cell-germ of animals is, in the be- 
ginning, a globular, and by and by, a lenticular, 
or cake-like corpuscle, of a yellowish white or dull 
red colour, which encloses a nucleus, and is per- 

* Beitrage zur Phytogenesis (Researches on the Formation 
of Vegetables), in Miiller's Archiv. 1838, S. 137. 

t Entvvickelungsgeschichte ; vide "Elements of Physiology" 
of R. Wagner, trans, by R. Willis, p. 214. 

X Mikroscopische Untersvichungen, &c. (Microscopical In- 
quiries into the Similarity in the Structure and Mode of Growth 
of Animals and Vegetables). Berlin, 1839. 


petually produced in the shape of an organic pre- 
cipitate in the fibrinous vital fluids — the blood 
and the lymph. The dimensions of the cell-germ 
are different in different mammals, and under dif- 
ferent circumstances in the same mammal (from 
the -^-s-^th to the -a^iu th of a line in diameter), and it 
bears a general relation to the size of the blood 
globules of the individual ;* its specific gravity is 
always greater the older it is, and this only de- 

* If so, it would be a remai-kable fact in favour of the views 
of Dr. Barry, that the blood disks are transformed into cells. 
("Phil. Trans." Part II. 1840.) Schwann regards the red par- 
ticles of the blood, the lymph globules, and the globules of pus 
and mucus, as isolated cells. (" Muller's Physiology " by Dr. 
Baly. Part I., second edition, page 399.) In a series of ob- 
servations which I made on the pus of various mammiferous 
animals, there did not appear to be any general relation between 
the size of the pus and that of the blood corpuscle of the same 
animal ; and in the Vicugna and Paco, which have oval red 
particles, the pus globules presented no peculiarity, being in 
form and size like those of many other animals. ("On the 
Blood Corpuscles and Pus Globules of certain Animals." — 
Trans. Roy. Med. Chir. Soc, vol. xxiii.) 

Having discovered that the blood disks of the Napu musk- 
deer {Mosclius Javanicus, Pallas^ were much smaller than any 
previously described in the vertebrate animals, I examined the 
lymph globules of this little ruminant, and found them of about 
the same size as in the human subject. In the blood of the 
Napu musk deer, many of the large white globules were ob- 
served scarcely differing from those found in other mammalia, 
thus forming a striking contrast to the singularly minute blood 
corpuscles. Nuclei were often seen in the white globules. In 
the blood of reptiles and birds, these globules are common ; but 
they are much of the same form and size as in mammiferous 
animals, notwithstanding the great differences between the blood 


clines when it is again dissolved.* When the 
cell-germ is observed, whilst lying flai or on its side, 
its outline appears now round, and again elliptical ; 
and when many cell-germs are produced, and they 

corpuscles. Mr. Lane's observations are to the same effect. 
(" Lancet," 1840, p. 12L) I find that the mucus-globules ob- 
tained from the mouth of a frog do not exceed in size those from 
the same part in the human subject ; and this observation applies 
to the cells of the epithelium, which were examined at the same 
time. — G. G. 

* The determination of the specific gravity of the micro- 
scopic constituents of animal bodies is important, both as re- 
gards the chemical and the organic analysis of these, inasmuch 
as it might frequently serve as a means of distinction between 
them : but it is at all times diflicult to come to conclusions ; 
and when we have to deal with very small quantities, such as a 
grain or less, which constantly happens, conclusions seem alto- 
gether impossible. On this account, and as microscopic re- 
searches upon the animal body, combined with the use of water 
and various reagents, presume an acquaintance with microscopic 
endosmose, I shall take occasion in this place to describe my 
own method of proceeding to ascertain the specific gravity of 
the minutest animal constituents, and connect this with an 
attempt to expose the laws of endosmose, as they have de- 
veloped themselves in the course of my inquiries. 

1. Every body weighed in water loses, as is well known, so 
much of its absolute weight (its weight in air) as the water 
weighs which it displaces. The specific gravity of the body is 
the quotient obtained when the absolute weight of the body is 
divided by that of the water which, in its immersion, it displaced. 

2. The absolute weight of two bodies being a, cc; the spe- 
cific gravities of the same bodies, a', d ; and the weight of the 
masses of water which they respectively displace, 6, /3 ; then we 

have for the first body, a'= j\ consequently, Z»:=- ; and for 
the second body, a' z= ^ ; consequently, /3 = -. The first body 


lie crowded together, it may appear polyhedral. 
The cell-o'erm either fulfils the ends for which 
it exists, in the state in which it has now been 
described, or there is a vesicle developed upon and 

loses in Avater, b = -,; the second body loses in water, yS = -,, 

a a. 

The weight a + «& of the two bodies, when they are mixed and 
weighed in water, loses as under, — 

- 4- - = — r-r— [= a;] 

a a, a a. 

The specific gravity of the two bodies mingled, is, therefore, x. 

a -^ a, a' a! ( a + a ) 

aa! + a a, aa! + o! a. 

3. Suppose we have to determine the specific gravity of a 
minute quantity of a mixture of common salt and water : — 

Let the weight of the water be = 37 ; its specific gravity = 1. 
Let the weight of the dissolved salt be = 3 ; its specific gravity 
= 2'12 ; from what precedes, we have the following formula 
and result: — 

(1 x2-12)x (37 + 3) _ 2-12 X 40 ^ 84-80 _ i.n..o 
(37 X 2-12) +(1x3) 7«-44 + 3 81-44 

4. Every body thrown into a fluid which remains under its 
surface, neither sinking to the bottom nor rising to the top, is 
of like specific gravity with the fluid. 

5. Is the fluid sluggishly fluent and mucilaginous, from the 
admixture of mucilage, albumen, &c., then will very minute 
bodies, though specifically heavier than it, continue for a long 
time suspended in it, and only sink through it very slowly, as 
the blood-globules do in the liquor sanguinis, the albuminous 
granules in the serous fluids, the gallate of iron (a fine black 
powder) in the mucilaginous menstruum of ink, &c. &c. 

6. In fluids which contain inorganic matters diflrised through 
them, those that are insoluble soon sink to the bottom, remain 
suspended, or rise to the top, according as their specific gravity 
is greater, the same as, or less than, that of the fluid. When 


around it which is called a cell. In the chyle and 
in the blood it floats at liberty, suspended in the 
peculiar liquors of these fluids, from which it is 
engendered ; it is, however, commonly met with 

they remain suspended, their absolute gravity is equal to the 
portion of the fluid which they displace. (4) 

7. Upon these facts reposes my mode of determining the 
specific gravity of minute organic elements, as well as of inor- 
ganic matters, when they are only to be had in very minute 
quantity or in the form of fine powder, and when their specific 
gravity lies (as it all but uniformly does) between that of dis- 
tilled water and that of a concentrated solution of common salt. 

8. It is essential to make use of a fluid in which the organic 
matters to be weighed specifically are insoluble, and by which 
they are not altered, either in their chemical composition or 
in their density. 

9. Organic animal matters in the recent state, without any 
exception, contain water as an integral constituent, and undergo 
changes in the ratio of the water they contain, by endosmose 
and exosmose (22), according to the following laws, which are 
inseparably connected with those of their specific gravities. 

10. Organic matters are, in a high degree, hygroscopic, i. e. 
they soon come into equipoise, in point of free watery contents, 
with surrounding media. 

11. This equipoise takes place when bodies and surrounding 
media have divided the free water between them, in the ratio of 
their powers of attraction for water severally. 

12. Do the watery contents of surrounding media diminish, 
the organised matter takes up a certain proportion of these. Do 
the watery contents of media increase, the organic matters lose 
water to them ; and it is in virtue of this principle, that hygro- 
meters, or measurers of the moistness of the atmosphere, are 
usually constructed. 

13. Organic and inorganic watery fluids, when they come 
into immediate contact, mix with greater or less rapidity accord- 
ing to the laws of affinity, with or without the formation of pre- 

CELLS. 45 

also as a principal ingredient of consistent exuda- 
tions, &c. 

§ 41. Cells. Cells arise from, or are developed 
upon, the living cell-germ ; upon one of the sur- 

cipitates, as the new combinations resulting from the mixture are 
insoluble or soluble. 

14. The mutual attractions of gaseous or watery, of vaporous 
or fluid substances, are restrained or hindered in a greater or 
less degree, but never destroyed by the interposition of organic 
substances between them. 

Water included in perfectly close bladders, &c., evaporates 
through their parietes nearly with the same rapidity as if it were 
exposed under similar circumstances with the like extent of sur- 
face to the open air. The bladder is constantly taking up as 
much water from within as it is losing by evaporation from 

13. The direction of the motion through an organised sub- 
stance, say, an animal membrane, is determined by the position 
and the predominance of one or other of the effective forces, 
viz. the chemical attraction or affinity, or the physical weight, 
pressure, &c. 

16. When two precisely similar fluids, or two portions of a 
precisely similar fluid, such as distilled water, serum, syrup, &c., 
are separated in a vessel, by an animal membrane, be they 
placed side by side or lying one over the other, they remain at 
rest so long as the hydrostatic states are the same in reference to 
each, when, for instance, they are at the same level, standing side 
by side, when the pressure on the surface of each is the same, &c. 

17. The hydrostatic equality being disturbed in ever so 
slight a degree, — the one being raised above the level of the 
other, the pressure on the superficies of the one being greater 
than on that of the other — then by degrees so much of the fluid 
will pass through the membrane from the higher column to the 
lower, or from that on which the pressure is more, to that on 
which the pressure is less, as is necessary to restore the hydro- 
static equipoise. 

18. If the substances be different, and a chemical affinity 



faces of this, a vesicle arises in the guise of 
transparent hemisphere, which, in the beginning, 
is connected with the cell-germ, as Schleiden has 

subsist between them, then the following effects, independently 
of the physical relations, ensue : 

19. When both matters are fluid, they will gradually come 
to equiponderate in point of their watery contents, through the 
permeable membrane — the one losing or giving water to the 
other, in the same proportion as the one has more or has less 
water than the other ; in this way, the degree of concentration 
of each portion of fluid finally becomes the same. 

20. But in consequence of this transference of fluid from the 
one to the other, the hydrostatic equipoise, it may be presumed, 
will be apt to be disturbed, and so it is ; hydrostatic equipoise 
only becomes possible when chemical similarity is effected ; this 
accomplished, the physical law comes into operation, hydrostatic 
equipose is restored, and all subsides into quiet. (16) 

21. The same thing follows when the animal membrane 
separates a menstruum from a substance which is solid but 
soluble in it ; for example, when water and common salt or 
sugar, are placed in opposition. 

Example. — A bladder filled with dry kitchen salt, and well 
secured, placed in a vessel of water, is penetrated by the fluid 
with such force that it is finally burst, if it be not all the 
stronger, or means are not taken to prevent the rupture. This 
fact led me to the following experiment, instituted with a view to 
measure the power produced in this way. 

Into the outlet of a glass funnel I 
luted, by means of sealing-wax, a glass 
tube thirty-one inches long; I then 
filled the funnel with dry, crystallised 
kitchen salt, closed the mouth of the 
funnel by stretching and tying firmly 
over it a piece of the dried small in- 
testine of the horse, softened in water 
immediately before the application. 
This apparatus I then plunged, the 
mouth downwards, the glass tube up- 

CELLS. 47 

well observed, in the same way as the glass is 
connected with the watch. The formed cell is so 
much flattened subsequently, that the smaller cell- 
wards, the edges of the funnel resting upon three pieces of 
flint, into a shallow vessel of distilled water. In the course of 
a few hours the salt became moist, and long before it was all 
dissolved (therefore with the greatest degree of concentration of 
the saline solution), in between thirty and forty hours the solu- 
tion rose in the tube, and flowed over ; I then rubbed the upper 
part of the tube with grease, in order to collect the drops as 
they escaped, of which, for some considerable time, two fell 
regularly in the course of a minute ; the height of the column 
of brine in the funnel and tube measured thirty-four Parisian 
inches. Although in this experiment the end proposed — the 
determination of the endosmotic. force — was not attained, owing 
to the want of suflScient length in the tube, still the result was 
striking; for, — The specific gravity of dry crystalline kitchen salt 
being 2'12, and the substance being soluble in 2^^, or 2-7647 
parts of water, the specific gravity of the saturated solution 
must be 1'1632. Now, if a column of mercury, of about thirty 
English inches, presses with a force equal to fifteen pounds upon 
every square inch, and the specific gravity of mercury is 13*568, 
then will a column of pure water, of about thirty-four English 
feet, hold the column of mercury of thirty inches in equipoise, 
and a column of water, of thirty-four inches in height, press with 
a weight of 1"342 lb. upon the square inch, and a column of 
saturated brine, of the same height with a weight of l*5611b. 

The diameter of the base of the conical funnel is 32 lines, 
the basal surface formed by the membrane consequently is 5-266 
square inches. 

The pressure of a column of saturated solution of salt upon 
the whole surface of the bladder will therefore amount to 
8-22 lbs. Despite this resistance, then, the water attracted by 
the salt penetrated the membrane from without, in such quan- 
tity, that, for a length of time, two drops of the concentrated 
solution flowed over in the space of every minute. 

Second Experiment. — The funnel was filled with a satu- 
rated solution of salt, closed in the same way as in the first 



germ occupies its middle as a nucleus, or there is a 
nucleolus evolved within a nucleus. The cell, like 
the simple cell-germ, either remains as such, or it 
is a mere transition form into other more highlj'^ 
organized products. 

experiment, and placed, as before, in distilled water. The 
solution stood 1 ft. 5 in. 7 lines above the surface of the water 
at first. The column in the course of the first minute after 
the immersion sank 22 lines, in consequence of the relax- 
ation of the animal membrane induced by contact with the 
water; but, in nine minutes, the column had regained its for- 
mer elevation ; and, with the lapse of seventy-eight minutes, the 
solution began flowing over. 

Third Experiment., Fig. 2. 

Over a common barometer tube filled 
with mercury, a glass funnel was passed, 
as in the accompanying figure, the space 
between the neck of the funnel and the 
tube being made air-tight with sealing- 
wax, the funnel itself filled with moist- 
ened kitchen salt, and its mouth covered 
with a layer of membrane as before, 
the apparatus was plunged in a shallow 
vessel of distilled water, and the upper 
closed end of the tube broken oif so as to allow the mercury to 
sink and fill the reservoir. 

In the course of the first ten hours the mercury rose 101 
lines; and, in the course of the second ten hours, 97 lines; 
twenty-four hours after the commencement of the experiment, 
the height of the column was 243 lines; and a column of 
mercury of this length indicates a pressure equal to 10'8 lbs. 
upon every square inch of surface. 

In the experiment just related the following corrections 
must be made : — 

a. By the rise of the mercury in the tube, it sank three 
lines in the reservoir. 

h. On testing the capillary force of the barometer tube, a 



§ 42. Chyle; h/mph. The food — meat and drink 
— that is taken into the stomach, mingled with the 
peptic juices — the saliva, the gastric, and intes- 
tinal secretions, the bile and pancreatic fluid — and 
exposed to the nervous influence, heat, and pro- 

depression of the mercury equal to four lines was indicated (by 
so much did it stand under the level of the mercury in the 
reservoir) ; 

c. The saline solution in the funnel stood twenty lines above 
the mercury : a height of column that presses with 0-076 of a 
pound, and holds 1'47 line of mercury in counterpoise ; the 
actual (effective) height of the column of mercury was thus 
243+4 + 3 — 1*47=248'53, and the pressure upon each square 
inch of membrane therefore ll'091bs. ; the pressure upon 
the whole extent of membrane being as many as 58'3991bs. 
As the mercury noAV began to sink, before the whole of the salt 
was dissolved, there is every reason to believe that the texture 
of the membrane had suffered so much from stretching, that it be- 
came damaged, and unfit to make manifest the maximum of the 
force developed ; the surface of the membrane, too, approached 
a hemisphere very nearly in figure, by bulging outwards. 

The above experiment renders it 
extremely probable that the chemical 
power of heterogeneous attraction 
(endosmose, exosmose) exceeds in 
amount the pressure of one atmos- 
phere ; but this, in consequence of 
deficiencies in the apparatus, did not 
appear. The membrane, which is 
the part liable to undergo change, 
requires to be supported in some 
way, and it ought, at the same time, 
to present the utmost possible extent 
of surface, in order to manifest the 
phenomena in their highest intensity, 
and with their most striking charac- 
ters. Probably some such apparatus 


bably some amouiit of fernientation, forms a thick 
pultaceous homQgeneouSpmass,.Mie chyme, the fluid 
constituents of whichc^are iof^me most part taken 
up by the veijis 2A 'absorb^/ vessels of the intes- 
tinal tract. \ 'cTh^ absorb^d^ilky fluid — the chyle 
— penetrates^ b|;^ i ^"^ *-^j4' of endosmose and the 

as that represented in Jig. 3 would be found the best. A 
segment of the small intestine of some large animal, secured 
by ligature at the one end might be filled with concentrated 
brine, and the barometer tube inserted and secured at the other. 
This pouch would then be surrounded with a silk net of due 
dimensions, and plunged into a vessel of distilled water, as usual. 

Fourth Experiment. — The same apparatus as that employed 
in the last experiment was filled with saturated brine and a 
quantity of solid salt, and the mouth of the funnel covered with 
two folds of bladder, and a piece of firm net. After the lapse 
of thirty-two hours, the mercury began to run over, and a short 
time afterwards the rest of it was expelled with force, a quantity 
of the solution following it. 

The barometer tube from the under curve measures 374 lines 
in length ; the depression on account of capillarity is 4 lines. 

The pressure of the column of mercury, 378 lines in length, 
was therefore equivalent to 17 lbs. upon the square inch; the 
pressure upon the whole surface of the bladder amounted to 
89-5 lbs. The endosmotic force was here plainly superior to the 
weight of one atmosphere. 

22. When the solvent or attracted fluid in general, pene- 
trates from without, through an organised animal membrane 
into a closed space (21, Example), the phenomenon is entitled 
Endosmose; when, on the contrary, the fluid presses from an 
enclosed cavity or space outwards, then is the occurrence 
spoken of as Exosmose. 

Examples of Exosmose. A bladder, or piece of intestine, 
filled quite full of pure water, and well secured, when laid in a 
saturated solution of salt, or in contact with any dry readily 
soluble salt, soon becomes lax and partly empty in consequence 
of Exosmose. 



capillary attraction into the minute absorbent 
vessels (figs. 113 and 241), and veins (fg. 136) 
of the intestinal villi, which in their final ramifica- 
tions are covered by the delicate epithelium of the 
intestine alone. In the same way are the peripheral 


b. Let the apparatus described in the " third 
experiment " be so arranged that the funnel 
shall be affixed, with its base upwards, to the 
upper end of the barometer tube. Let the in- 
terior of the tube and the funnel be now filled 
with distilled water, and the mouth of the latter 
be closed with a sheet of bladder, as before ; let 
the funnel be now placed within a second larger 
vessel, as in Jig. 4, and this be filled with a satu- 
rated solution of salt, until the surface of the 
bladder is covered ; the outer saline fluid will 
attract the water of the funnel and tube, and 
this will be followed by a column of mercury 
from the reservoir, the height of which will serve 
as an index of the power developed, within certain 
limits, viz. within, or short of, the limits of the 
atmospheric pressure of the place where, and 
the moment when, the experiment is made ; for the vapour 
evolved from the water, and the gases with which it may per- 
chance be mingled, becoming free, the column of mercury will 
not follow beyond a certain point. 

23. The endosmotic and the exosmotic effects probably 
diminish with the diminution in the chemical and physical 
differences of the fluids separated, in the inverse ratio of the 
square of the times. 

24. The effect, in reference to the quantity of fluid that 
permeates, stands, under otherwise similar circumstances, in 
direct relationship to the extent of the free membrane. 

25. The quantitative effect is always different according to 
the nature or quality of the interposed substance ; the relative 
differences connected M'ith this point, however, still require to 
be ascertained by experiment. 



lymphatic vessels of all the external and internal 
surfaces, and of the interiors of all the solid organs 
of the body supplied with lymph, which is a trans- 
parent and yellowish -coloured fluid, and contains 
effete, and therefore resolved and reabsorbed part- 

26. The medium of separation, — the membrane, bladder, 
intestine, &c. — must have no opening even of microscopic 
dimensions, otherwise immediate equalisation of the separated 
fluids ensues without endosmotic phenomena. 

27. The more readily the membrane imbibes and transmits 
water, the better is it adapted to exhibit the phenomena of en- 
dosmose ; if it be impregnated with oil, fat, resin, and the like, 
it will shew itself indiflferent if brought into contact with watery 
fluids of dissimilar quality, and no endosmose will take place. 
The membranous, or other organic septum, therefore, takes 
an active part in the phenomena of endosmose; it is, in fact, the 
cause, by its own inherent power, of the interchange of two dis- 
similar fluids which takes place until uniformity is established. 

28. The finer the membranous septum, the more rapid is 
the process of endosmose, and the sooner is uniformity in 
the divided fluids obtained. Thick membranes, however, and 
several folds of membrane, applied one to another, are better 
adapted to eff'ect and make manifest striking hydrostatic difier- 
ences, or to overcome obstacles of other kinds, in consequence 
of the efficient parts of these supporting each other mutually. 

29. Double elective affinities still assert their rights when 
compound matters having mutual attractions, are separated by 
septa of animal membranes, &c. Few experiments, however, 
have as yet been made in this direction, although it is probable 
that in instituting a series, many interesting results for chemical, 
physiological, and pathological science would be obtained. 

30. All the solid, organised animal structures take up a 
certain quantity of water, more or less, without being dissolved, 
as is the case with animal matters which possess no organic 
structure, such as gelatine, coagulated albumen, &c. — an assur- 
ance that the hygroscopic and endosmotic property inheres in the 
matter rather than in the form. On the contrary, under some 


icles, fluids taken up from without, and certain 
combined gases ; the lymph also contains upon occa- 
sion fluids that have been shed, accidentally or in 
consequence of disease, in preternatural quantity into 
the tissues and cavities of the body 5 and farther, 

circumstances they part rapidly with so much of their free 
water that their decomposition is either delayed for an indefinite 
period, or entirely prevented (fresh meat laid among dry salt 
first, and then preserved in brine, anatomical preparations kept 
in spirits, <S:c.). Does the endosmose proceed with great rapid- 
ity, by reason of the delicacy and smallness of the structures, 
which are its seats, as is the case with the blood globules, they 
can even be seen enlarging under the eye, and finally, in many 
instances, bursting when the distension goes on unequally. It 
is, upon the same principle, easy to cause a shrinking of these 
and other minute organic parts, by merely altering the amount 
of water and more solid matter in the surrounding medium. 
This circumstance deserves particular attention in microscopic 
investigations of all minute structures ; it also requires to be 
taken into account in my method of determining the specific 
gravities of the same class of bodies. 

31. In fluids which have the same specific gravity as the 
substances that are the subject of investigation, these last only 
change in so far as the contact is followed by chemical changes, 
and the affinity for water depends more on chemical than on 
physical relations, such as density, &c. 

The condensation of animal matters, by the contact of other 
matters or fluids having a great capacity for water, aff'ords us a 
ready means of rendering much more distinct the outline of 
objects containing a large proportion of water, and which, on 
this account, and by reason of their slightly different refractive 
powers, are examined under the microscope with difficulty. 
Very soft, and even somewhat diffluent structures, become dis- 
tinct when they are put for a short time into a solution of com- 
mon salt, of alum, and the like, previously to their being placed 
under pure water for examination. 

To determine the specific gravity of extremely small corpus- 


secreted fluids, such as bile, &c., elaborated for the 
purpose of being rejected from the system, when by 
any accident their excretory ducts become obstructed. 
§ 43. The lymph and chyle are in motion from 
the periphery of the absorbent system through the 
conglobate glands towards the principal trunk of the 
entire system, the thoracic duct, by which they are 
poured, mingled together, into the general torrent of 
the circulation at the angle of junction between the 
left subclavian and jugular veins. The parts that 
are fitted for so important an end now become 
constituent elements of the blood, and repair the 
perpetual expenditure of this fluid in the main- 
tenance of the body ; the unassimilable parts, on 
the contrary, are eliminated by the grand depura- 
tory organs — the lungs, the kidneys, the liver, and 
the skin. 

cles, a small light bottle of clear glass, or a delicate test tube 
must be procured, weighed accurately, and then, from a few 
drops to a dram or more of a saturated solution of sugar or 
common salt, in proportion to the size and number of the objects, 
having been poured into the bottle or tube, it is to be carefully- 
weighed again. The object whose specific gravity is to be 
ascertained having been previously weighed (when the object 
is excessively small the weighing may be omitted), is now to be 
thrown into the solution in the bottle or tube. If its specific 
gravity is less than that of the solution, it will swim on the sur- 
face ; distilled water is now to be introduced by means of a 
pipette, and mixed with the solution by means of a delicate 
glass rod, until the object of experiment shews a disposition to 
sink in the fluid, or, being carried some way under the surface, 
only rises very slowly to the top ; the specific gravity of the 
object of experiment and the fluid may now be assumed to be 
identical. To determine the amount of the specific gravity, let 
the glass vessel, with its contents, be now weighed (and when 

CHYLE. 55 


§ 44. The chemical composition, and the de- 
gree of assimilation possessed by the animal fluids 
at large, are proclaimed, to a certain extent, 
by the forms of their microscopic precipitates ; from 
these, at all events, conclusions in regard to the ex- 
tent to which the fluids in which they take place are 
susceptible of organisation, may be safely drawn. If 
we follow the chyle from the moment of its appear- 
ance, with an eye directed at once to the chemical and 
microscopic analysis, and mark the various changes 
which its chief constituents undergo until they 
appear as cytoblasts, we perceive the advance from 
binary to quaternary combinations. And again ; 
if we watch the cytoblast from the highest point of 

very minute quantities are employed, the rod that was used for 
mixing may be left in to prevent any waste), the absolute weight 
of these, the vessel (the rod, in ease it is left in), the object (in 
case it was of ponderable dimensions), and the concentrated 
solution first introduced deducted, then is the remainder the 
weight of the water introduced. Suppose this to be found equal 
to 3, and the weight of the concentrated solution to have been 
= 2, and its specific gravity = 1*1632, we shall then have the 
following equation (vide 2 and 3), and the specific gravity of 
the attenuated solution, as well as that of the object, which was 
the matter of inquiry : — 

_ 1 X 1-1632 X (3 + 2) _ 11632x5 _ 5816 _ 1.0594 
* "3x1-1632 + (1x2) ~ 3-4896 + 2 ~ 5-4896 ~ 

The same end will be attained, and the result come out more 
accurately, if the fluids are mixed in larger quantity in an ai'eo- 
metric tube, and the specific gravity at the end ascertained by 
means of a delicate areometer, or the hydrostatic balance. That 
the temperature is to be taken into the account, is understood as 
a matter of course. 

56 CHYLE. 

its vitality, through the successive stages of its 
degeneration to its chemical and organic resolution 
and resorption, we observe a corresponding chemi- 
cal retrocession from quaternary to binary combi- 
nations of elements. 

§ 45. The chyle, with reference to its quantity, 
colour, and chemical composition, and to its organ- 
isation and coagulability, differs in the different 
families and genera of animals, and also accord- 
ing to the kind of food consumed ; it also differs 
essentially in the various parts of the lymphatic 
system : to such an extent, indeed, does this diver- 
sity go, that the chyle may be said to undergo in its 
course a gradual metamorphosis from an uncoagu- 
lable fluid like milk into blood. 

§ 46. Near the intestine the chyle consists of 
water, in which a little albumen, a variety of salts, 
and other simple and more compound matters, are 
dissolved, and a multitude of oil-globules are sus- 
pended ; to the presence of the latter is owing its 
resemblance to new milk.* The salts are partly 

* Numerous observations have persuaded me that in car- 
nivorous animals the opacity and vv^hite colour of the chyle are 
due to the presence of infinitely minute particles, of which 
neither the size nor the form can be distinctly recognised by the 
best instruments. That these particles may be of an oily na- 
ture, there is some reason to believe ; but they appear to me to 
be quite distinct from the oily globu.les, for the minute particles 
in question present an uniform appearance, and constitute the 
base, or ground, of the chyle, from whatever part of its course 
the fluid may be obtained; and the oily spherules with the 
granules are contained in this ground, which may be regarded 
as quite peculiar to chyle. See the Observations on Chyle, &c., 
in the Appendix. — G. G. 

CHYLE. 57 

those which are commonly encountered in the ani- 
mal fluids, partly others accidentally introduced 
along with the food. Besides salts, indeed, all the 
substances soluble in water, which are introduced 
into the stomach, are apt to be — are in fact — 
absorbed. In the fresh and healthy chyle of the 
intestinal absorbents, the albumen is in a state of 
complete solution, — it forms no granular precipi- 
tate. Owing to the absence of fibrine, the chyle of 
the peripheral intestinal absorbents does not coagu- 
late. Examined under the microscope, it is distin- 
guished from fresh milk only by the striking diver- 
sities, in point of size, presented by its oil-globules 
{Jig. 23). 

§ 47. In the afferent or peripheral absorbents 
of the intestines, the fibrine increases continually 
in quantity as the mesenteric glands are approached. 
This increase in the quantity of fibrine appears to 
take place partly at the expense of the albumen, 
which loses water, partly of the oiLglobules, which 
become continually fewer and smaller ; in the neigh- 
bourhood of the mesenteric glands, consequently, 
we remark a commencing precipitation of albumi- 
nous granules.* After the fluid has passed the 
mesenteric glands, and through the whole of its 
subsequent course, this precipitate becomes ever 

* In the carnivora I have uniformly observed the granular 
particles, about -jeVo*^ ^^ ^^ '"^'^'^ i^ diameter and in all 
respects resembling the globules of the Thymus, to be much 
more abundant in the mesenteric glands than in chyle obtained 
from any other part of its course whatever. To observe this, 
it is only necessary to open an animal when the chyliferous 
vessels are distended, to obtain some chyle from one of the 

58 CHYLE. 

more and more abundant, and acquires new forms, 
which will be more particularly mentioned by and 
by, the oil-globules still diminishing continually 
both in number and size. 

§ 48. In the mesenteric glands, some portion of 
the dissolved albumen must be changed into fibrine ; 
for the chyle from the vessels advancing from these 
glands towards the central duct, and from this duct 
itself, now become considerably more transparent 
and of a pale reddish yellow colour, coagulates 
when abstracted from its vessels, and by and by 
separates into a limpid, serous fluid, and a clot or 
coagulum, — a consistent gelatinous-looking vitreous 
mass, which, examined microscopically, is found to 
include albuminous granules, each surrounded by a 
delicate film of oil. The granular, and now truly 
fibrinous coagulum* i^fig' 15), if kept moist, and 
sufiered to undergo the ordinary chemical decom- 
position, becomes difiluent, and resolves itself into a 
kind of serous lymph ; the mass, when dri^d, forms 
a transparent, brown, horny - looking substance, 
which is insoluble in water. The serum contains 
the albumen and the salts in solution, and a pro- 
portion of the albuminous granules in suspension. 

lacteals of the mesenteric glands, or from a cut into its sub- 
stance, and com^Dare this chyle with that procured from any of 
the vessels between the mesenteric glands and the termination of 
the thoracic duct. See the Observations on the Chyle, and on 
the Fluid of the Thymus and Lymphatic Glands, in the Ap- 
pendix. — G. G. 

* The fibrine of chyle differs considerably from the fibrine 
of blood, for the former is remarkably less prone to the putre- 
factive process than the latter G. G. 

CHYLE. 59 

§ 49. Mingled with the albuminous granules, 
the central lacteal vessels, at some short distance 
from the glands, contain a number of extremely 
delicate, scarcely - coloured lymph corpuscles, as 
the organic precipitate of the more highly- vitalised 
fibrine. These lymph corpuscles are, in fact, 
cytoblasts, — -hlood-glohules in process of formation j 
and in number, dimensions, consistency, and red 
colour, they go on increasing continually in their 
progress towards, and course through, the thoracic 
duct to its final termination {Jig. 7)«* Ii^ the same 
measure and proportion, the coagulability of the 
chyle, and the firmness of the coagulum formed, go 
on increasing. In animals that have been kept 
long fasting, the fluid in the lacteal vessels does not 
difi*er, in point of composition and appearance, from 
the lymph ordinarily contained in other portions of 
the absorbent system ; there is here an utter ab- 
sence of the conditions upon which its peculiar 
characters and appearance depend j it consists but 
of simple juices pumped up from the alimentary 
canal, and the resolved particles that have already 

* In the horse, Mr. Lane observed that the rosy tint of the 
chyle from the thoracic duct was due to the presence of the red 
particles of the blood. (Ancell's Lectures in the "Lancet," 1839- 
40, V. i. p. 150.) Mr. Siddall and I remarked the same fact. 
But the blood-corpuscles of the thoracic duct were mostly irre- 
gular in form, viz., angular, granulated, indented, or jagged at the 
edges. There were also many corpuscles of the regular shape, 
but these were uniformly a little smaller than the common 
blood discs, as represented in Mr. Gerber's figure. The au- 
thor's description seems to be entirely drawn from the chyle of 
the horse. — G. G. 

60 LYMPH. 

performed their part in the structures from which 
the vessels lead. 

§ 50. Tiedemann and Gmelin found the follow- 
ing solid constituents in chyle: — 1, albumen; 2, 
a kind of salivary matter ; 3, a species of osma- 
zome ; and 4, salts, viz. acetate, carbonate, phos- 
phate, a little sulphate, and a large quantity of 
muriate of soda ; also, a small quantity of potash ; 
and, in the ashes after incineration, carbonate and 
phosphate of lime. In a dog which had been fed 
upon starch, sugar was detected by the same phy- 
siologists in the chyle ; and, upon one occasion, I 
discovered undecomposed starch in the chyle of a 
horse, which reacted in the usual way with iodine. 


§ 51. The lymph, in different parts of the body, 
and in different circumstances and conditions of 
the economy, is of still more various constitution 
in every respect than the chyle. In general, the 
lymph is of a yellowish colour in the healthy body ; 
that of the spleen is often reddish and transparent ; 
sometimes it is as pure as water ; but, by reason of 
its dissolved elements, it is always more viscid and 
sluggish than pure water. Lymph only coagulates 
when, in addition to its other constituents, it contains 
living fibrine, which is an element not encountered 
in a general way in the peripheral parts of the 
lymphatic system, but only towards its central por- 
tions. Albuminous globules present themselves in 
variable numbers, and sometimes they are wanting 
entirely -, the same is the case in regard to oil- 
globules, — sometimes they occur, sometimes none 

BLOOD. 61 

can be discovered. The lymph is mixed in the 
thoracic duct with the chyle, and here the mingled 
fluid has a pale lake tint ; or it is poured directly 
into the venous system, in various parts, — a fact 
which can be verified in the horse in almost every 
part of the body. Foreign unassimilable sub- 
stances taken up with the lymph as with the chyle, 
and also efiote and waste particles that have already 
done their office, are seized upon by the different 
depuratory organs in the course of the circulation, 
and by them thrown out of the system.* 


§ 52. The blood is the product of the chyle and 
the lymph ; it is contained in the heart and blood- 
vessels ; of an intense red colour, J sticky to the 
touch, to the naked eye it appears as a homogeneous 
fluid ; it has a peculiar odour, which, however, dif- 
fers in different animals ; and it has a saltish and 
what is called faint taste. The specific gravity of 
the blood varies between 1*045 and 1*061 ; its 
temperature in the healthy mammal varies from 
about 96° to about 99° F., +31° to +32° R. ; it 
generally shews weak alkaline reaction ; its quan- 
tity, in proportion to the rest of the body, differs 

* [For some additional observations on the Chyle, and on 
the Fluids of the Lymphatic and Thymus Glands, see Ap- 

\ [See Appendix for Mr. Gulliver's Observations on the 
Blood Corpuscles.] 

J This, at least, is the case among the vertebrata, — hence 
called red-blooded animals ; invertebrata have generally, but not 
invariably, colourless blood. 

62 BLOOD. 

notably, according to the genus, species, age, sex,' 
size, and general condition of the animal examined, 
and is always determined with difficulty. By 
Valentin's very ingenious mode of determining the 
ratio of the blood to the other parts, it would ap- 
pear to constitute between one-third and one-fourth, 
or something like three-sevenths of the whole.* 

The blood is indispensable to all the vital mani- 
festations ; it, therefore, appears with the earliest 
traces of life in the embryo, and increases in quan- 
tity with the evolution and growth of the animal, — 
previously to birth, at the expense, first, of the 
vitellary matter of the ovum, and then of the ma- 
ternal blood ; after birth we have seen provision 
made for its formation out of the fluids, the chyle 
especially and the lymph, brought to it by par- 
ticular orders of vessels contrived to this end. 

* Valentin's plan of proceeding is as follows : — A small 
quantity of blood is taken away from the external jugular of an 
animal of known weight. Whilst the absolute weight of the 
blood abstracted is determined, a known measure of blood-warm 
distilled water is slowly injected by the orifice of the vein to- 
wards the heart. Some minutes afterwards another portion of 
blood is withdrawn and carefully weighed. The two quantities 
of blood are now evaporated in dry air till the residue ceases to 
lose weight; from the degree of attenuation of the blood effected 
by the injected water, the previously contained mass of blood 
can be ascertained by the following formula of Professor E. 

b X c 
Volmar : x = ^3^ + d. 

a Absolute weight of the remainder of the blood first removed. 
c Absolute weight of the remainder of the blood diluted with 

b , Weight of the injected water. 

d Weight of the blood originally contained in the body. 

BLOOD. 63 

§ 53. The blood which is propelled from the 
ventricles of the heart proceeds in two directions, — 
the one through the lungs, the other through the 
body at large, in either instance to revert to the 
heart again, from whence it set out. The vessel, or 
artery, which proceeds from the heart to supply the 
pulmonary or lesser circulation, and the vessels, or 
veins, which lead back the current from all parts of 
the body to the heart of the adult man and mam- 
mal, contain a dark blackish red-coloured blood ; 
the artery, again, of the greater or general circu- 
lation, the aorta and its branches, and the veins 
which return the blood from the lungs, are filled 
with a bright or crimson-coloured blood. 

§ 54. The dark -venous blood at its entrance 
into the heart, mixed as it is with the chyle and the 
lymph, contains more foreign matter, and a larger 
proportion of carbon and water than the arterial 
blood. These various substances are lessened in 
quantity, or removed under the action of the lungs, 
the liver, and the kidneys. Venous blood has a 
stronger smell, and it coagulates more slowly and 
less firmly than that which is arterial. The blood 
of the portal vein, which has the distribution of an 
artery, is often somewhat turbid, and occasionally 
of a chocolate colour ; it coagulates less completely 
than any other blood, and the clot is extremely 
diffluent. The blood in the venous spaces of the 
spleen has many of the characters of that of the 
portal system, and is moreover somewhat more 
viscid or consistent. 

§ 5.5, Albumen, fibrine, hematosine, extractive 
matter, salts, and water, are the principal com- 

64 BLOOD. 

pound chemical constituents of the blood ; in the 
ashes after incineration, especially of the hema- 
tosine or red colouring matter, a little oxide of 
iron is met with. 

§ 56. The organic elements of the blood are 
discovered by the aid of the microscope. These 
consist especially of extremely minute globules — 
the BLOOD-GLOBULES, suspcudcd in the liquor san- 
guinis as a menstruum. In such quantities do 
these globules occur, particularly in the carnivora, 
that they seem to exceed the mass of the fluid in 
which they swim. Other elements of the blood are 
separated nuclei of blood-globules and albuminous 
granules. In the blood of the frog, single very 
minute entozoa have also been discovered. ( Va- 

§ 5J. The blood-globules of the different classes 
of animals differ in size and form ; in the same spe- 
cies of animal, however, they are alike. The blood- 
globules are specifically heavier than the blood- 
liquor. Blood-globules begin to make their ap- 
pearance in the chyle, and it is probable that they 
are also formed in the blood itself. In the ma- 
jority, probably in the whole of the vertebrata, they 
are flat, in the form of a round or elliptical red disc 
C/igs. 1 to 6). Those of man and the mammalia look 
like thick coins, or microscopic muffins or cheeses 
{Jigs. 4, 5 J and 6, 4,). Like all cytoblasts, they in- 
close in their middle a nucleus of the same general 
form as the globule, or approximating more to 
the globular or lenticular shape. This nucleus is 
generally colourless ; in one case firmer than the 
investing cell, so that it appears with its true 

BLOOD. 65 

figure, in another softer than the envelope, when 
it is apt to lose fluid by exosmose, and to shrivel ; 
or otherwise, it has a less refractive power than the 
cell, and then it looks sunk in, so that the entire 
globule has some resemblance to a garland, or small 
circular puckered pado* The blood-globules and 
their nuclei are elliptical in fishes (Jig. 1), amphi- 
bia C/ig. 2), and birds (fig> 3). 

§ 58. In the dry blood-globule of birds (pigeon), 
the edge of the shrunk nucleus forms an elliptical 
raised border, in the middle of which, when a sec- 
tion is made of it, a more compact, thicker nucleus 
projects (Jig. 6, B 3.) In the frog, the nucleus, 
evenly rounded, projects on either side of the 
general disc, like a portion of a sphere of smaller 
diameter placed upon one of larger diameter (^/ig. 
6, 2.) In the spider I observed the blood-globule 
in the shape of a meniscus (^/ig. 6, 1). 

§ 59. The size t of the blood-globules varies 

* The blood-globules,. like all soft microscopic objects, un- 
dergo very rapid changes in their forms, apparently in con- 
sequence of endosmose and exosmose ; they swell up in water, 
become nearly globular in figure, and then burst. It is im- 
possible, therefore, to use plain water for the purpose of atte- 
nuating or isolating the animal fluids and elements, which are 
the subject of microscopic observation. [R. Wagner particularly 
recommends the filtered serum of the frog's blood for this pur- 
pose. Vide Physiology, &c. by Willis, p. 3. Weak solutions of 
salt or sugar, and urine, however, answer indifferently well ; but 
all addition must be especially avoided when it is intended to 
measure the corpuscles, or to observe their true forms. Even 
the serum of the blood of one mammal reacts injuriously on the 
blood-corpuscles of another. Vide " Lond. and Ed. Phil. Mag." 
for Jan. 1840, p. 25 ; and Feb. 1840, p. 103— G. G.] 

f See Mr. Gulliver's Observations, Sect. I. in the Appendix. 


6d BLOOD. 

greatly, particularly in different classes of animals, 
as a comparison of the figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, 
which are magnified about 450 diameters, will 
shew at a glance. In the human subject, the 
blood-globules are from the 300th to the 250th, 
and the nuclei about the 400th of a Paris line in 
diameter. In the horse, the blood-globules vary 
from the 400th to the 240th, and their nuclei 
are about the 450th of a Paris line in diameter. 
The lymph corpuscle of the same animal is about 
the 480th of a Paris line in diameter. 

§ 60. The HUSK, or capsule, of the blood-globule, 
is like the nucleus, transparent, but it includes the 
hematosine, or colouring principle of the blood. 
In one case, it appears as a delicate cuticular 
vesicle, which, besides the nucleus, incloses a viscid 
fluid ; in another, and more generally, it presents 
itself in the guise of a soft, elastic, and, externally, 
red-coloured husk, or capsule, which immediately 
invests the clearer nucleus. The tint of colour 
exhibited is various — bright, in the globule of 
arterial blood, dark-red, and somewhat streaky, in 
that of venous *blood. The shell, or capsule, of the 
blood-globule, is the bearer of the carbon from all 
parts of the body through the heart into the lungs, 
and of the oxygen from the lungs through the 
heart to every part of the body. Venous blood 
brought into contact with oxygen out of the body, 
becomes of a bright-red, just as it does within the 
body ; and arterial blood, introduced into a jar of 
carbonic acid gas, but particularly of carburetted 
hydrogen gas, acquires the deep tint of venous 

BLOOD. 67 

§ 61. The NUCLEUS of the blood- globule* is the 
part in the structure which, in every respect, is the 
most puzzling- ; not only is it of different sizes ab- 
solutely, but it is so relatively to the shell, or cap- 
sule, even among mammals : let the human blood, 
represented in figure 5, and the blood of the horse, 
depicted in figure 4, be but compared, and assurance 
of this fact will be obtained. The nucleus of the 
blood-globule of the adult mammal resists the action 
of acetic acid, whilst the envelope becomes perfectly 
transparent and invisible, perhaps is even completely 
dissolved under it.t The blood-globules of the 
foetus of the mammal, as somewhat larger than those 
of the adult animal, their nuclei are in the same 
proportion of greater magnitude, and are but little 
affected by acetic acid. 

§ 62. The number and characters of the blood- 
globules are found to vary in different diseases. 
In chlorotic subjects, they are of a very pale 
colour ; and, in reference to the general mass of the 
blood in anemic states, as after repeated losses of 
blood, or when there is an excessive demand upon, 
or use ofj the fluid, such as takes place along with 
extensive suppuration, and when its solid consti- 
tuents are inadequately renewed, from the want of 
sufficient supplies of wholesome food, for instance, 
their quantity is diminished. On the other hand, 
the globules in relation to the fluid constituents of 
the blood are increased in quantity after exudations 

* [See Observations on the Blood-corpuscles, Sect. IV. in 
the Appendix.] 

f Under the action of iodine, however, it often becomes 
visible again. 

68 BLOOD. 

of the liquor sanguinis (plastic exudations, the 
formation of false membranes), and of the serum 
(watery exudations and acute dropsies), when the 
blood is also relatively of a deeper colour than 
usual.* In plethoric persons, the quantity of blood 
circulating through the vessels is excessive. If 
the liquor sanguinis becomes extremely watery, the 
blood-globules seem to suffer a kind of maceration, 
and lose a portion of their cruor by solution. Be- 
sides all this, the blood undergoes great and signal 
changes in numerous diseases ; in fevers of bad 
type, in cholera indica, &c., it becomes pitchy, and 
will not coagulate ; in purpura hemorrhagica^ it sets 
like thin currant jelly, &c. ; and, in addition to 
all this, under certain circumstances, it appears 
changed to a deadly animal poison, as in anthracion, 
or malignant pustule, in rabies, hydrophobia, &c. 

§ 63. In the minuter currents, the blood- 
globules have the effect of producing an optical 
interruption to the continuity of the stream ; by 
which the circulation of the blood becomes visible 
in the more transparent parts of the bodies of 
living animals, viz., in the extremities of young 
spiders, in the fins of fishes, in the gills of the 
larvse of the newt and frog, in the tail of the water- 

* [Some of these statements are to be received with caution. 
In diarrhoea and cholera the blood does certainly become pitchy, 
both in consistence and colour ; but in acute dropsies nothing 
of the kind occurs as a general rule : if, in these cases, there be 
a certain loss of serum into the general cellular tissue of the 
body, there is accumulation of this fluid to a far greater extent 
within the blood-vessels in consequence of the suspension of the 
functions of the kidney, skin, and, indeed of every emunctory of 
water from the system.] 

BLOOD. 69 

newt (Jig. 6, A), in the web of the frog's foot, in 
the mesentery of the smaller mammalia, &c.* In 
the smallest blood-vessels of all, the blood-corpus- 
cles follow each other in single files ; and the 
diameter of the final conduit, therefore, stands in a 
determinate ratio through the entire series of the 
animal kingdom to that of the globule which has to 
be transmitted.t 

§ 64. During the unimpeded coagulation of the 
blood, the blood-corpuscles apply themselves flat 
one to another, so that they form elongated cylin- 
ders (fg. 8).1: 

§ 65. Nearly allied, and of like origin, to the 
lymph and blood-corpuscle, are the exudation-cor- 
puscle, the true pus-corpuscle, and the corpuscle of 
ulcerated surfaces, — the ichor corpuscle. Exu- 
dation-corpuscles always appear in the vital liquor 
sanguinis, when this comes into contact with the 

* This most interesting and instructive spectacle of the cir- 
culation is best enjoyed by making use of low powers, and having 
a wide field. There is nothing in nature more beautiful than the 
spectacle that then presents itself. 

-}• If this be true, as it probably is, how remarkably the 
intermediate blood-vessels must differ in size ! It would be 
interesting to examine them in the Proteus ; and still more to 
compare the size of the capillaries of the Napu musk-deer 
(^Moschus javanicus, Pallas) with those of the mammalia having 
comparatively large blood discs. The subject, too, gives addi- 
tional interest to observations on the size of the blood-corpuscles 
in difi'erent animals. See my Appendix on the Blood Cor- 
puscles. — G. G. 

\ To procure columns of blood of this kind for microscopical 
examination, let a plate of glass be wetted with blood as it is 
flowing from the vessel ; then incline the plane so as to let all 
drops fall off, and to have the surface merely moistened. 

70 BLOOD. 

living tissues of the body out of the blood-vessels. 
The globules of unhealthy suppurating surfaces are 
blood-globules which have escaped from vessels de- 
stroyed by the ulcerative process, and been altered by 
the action of the ichor or watery fluid amidst which 
they are contained.* Pus-globules arise when exu- 
dation-globules are only mediately in contact with 
the living tissues. Of these cytoblasts we shall have 
more to say by and by. 

§ 66. The lymph, or fluid (blood-lymph, liquor 
sanguinis, s. plasma), in which the blood-globules 
swim, and the perpetual expenditure of which is 
supplied by the lymph and the chyle, is a clear, 
yellowish -coloured fluid, from which, when it is 
left at rest, the fibrine separates by coagulation, 
after a variable interval, the limits of which may 
be stated at from one to twenty minutes. The 
separation is more quickly accomplished in carni- 
vorous and strong animals than in frugivorous and 
weakly subjects. With the included blood-globules 
the fibrine, after its coagulation, forms the crassa- 
MENTUM, or CLOT, which is by so much the more 
solid as the means of its previous solution — the 
SERUM — escapes completely from it, which happens 
particularly in the case of vigorous men, and animals 
of the male sex, and, under all circumstances, in re- 
gard to arterial blood. The superior surface of the 
crassamentum consists of a thin layer of pure fibrine 
with a few oil-globules disseminated through it. 

§ 67. When coagulation takes place slowly, the 
specifically heavier blood-globules sink in the liquor 

* See note at page 28, and at page 41. — G. G. 


sanguinis, so that a relatively thick layer of pure 
fibrine covers the surface of the clot, and constitutes 
the sizi/, huffy f or injimnmatory coat^ or crust* 

If freshly-let blood be beaten with a rod, or a 
mass of crassamentum be washed, the fibrine is pro- 
cured by itself in the form of white fibrous bundles, 
or of a tough fibrous mass (^Jig. 15, A), Fibrine 
that has coagulated in the form of a hyaline mass, 
as it does when it forms the bufiy coat, by and by 
becomes granular {fig. 15, B). If it sets in im- 
mediate contact with the living tissues of the body, 
it is, in due season, organised ; — exudation-cor- 
puscles (^fig. 205, 1, 2, 3) are formed, which, 
arranged one by another upon the living surfaces, 
constitute exudation membranes {fig. 206), or, more 
remotely from these, undergo transformation into 
productive pus-globules {fig. 9, &) ; and these, with 
serum and albuminous granules, form true laudable 
or healthy pus. 


§ 68. A course of microscopical researches into 
the nature of the different morbid secretions and 
exudations, particularly of the transuded products 
of inflammatory action upon the surfaces of internal 

* Upon the artificial formation of this layer, see the explana- 
tions of the figures from 11 to 14. 

Some excellent observations on the formation of the bufFy 
coat will be found in Dr. Davy's " Physiological and Anatomical 
Researches," vol. ii. p. 46. — G. G. 


cavities, led me, among- other particulars, to investi- 
gate the subject of apparently accidental secondary 
organisations. I followed the secondary organ- 
ising process in the products of suppurating 
wounds ; the primary formative processes I traced 
in the impregnated ovum. I shall find no better 
or fitter place to make known the more important 
results of these inquiries than the present ; and 
these I shall, accordingly, ingraft in the immediately 
following paragraphs, which treat of the genetic 
relations and developement of the different tissues. 
But let us, as a means of securing clearer compre- 
hension of the matters to be stated, begin with a 

Of the Motions and Changes of Place of the 

§ 69. In vessels. In the normally constituted 
healthy living body, the blood is found in constant 
motion in every part of the vascular system, so that 
each individual blood-globule may, by possibility, 
perambulate every point of the greater and lesser 
circulation many times ; the chyle and the lymph, on 
the contrary, perform but the single journey from 
the point of their absorption through the intervening 
lymphatic vessels and their appertaining glands, to 
that at which they are poured into the blood. The 
same thing obtains in regard to the motions of 
the various secreted fluids ; they are conveyed 
directly, and, once for all, from the point of their 
elaboration, through the nearest secretory canals 
and excretory ducts to that at which they are to be 


made use of specifically, or to be discharged from 
the system. 

Gravitation of the Fluids. 

§ 70. All the fluids of the body gravitate by 
their weight towards the most depending parts of 
the close cavities, and even of the tissues generally, 
where they would accumulate, were they not main- 
tained in parts that lie higher by some superior 
force, or were they not continually brought back 
to these, as the blood is by the force of the heart, 
the chyle and the lymph by the contraction of the 
vessels, adhesion to the parietes of these, and the in- 
terchange of compression and relaxation through the 
action of neighbouring muscles, particularly those 
belonging to the respiratory system.* In the healthy 
living body there is little evidence of mere mecha- 
nical gravitation of fluids, even to the most depend- 
ing parts : but in the dead body the case is differ- 
ent ; there the fluids immediately begin to gravitate 
to those parts that are on the lowest level, where 
they accumulate and are met with in greatest 

* [And unquestionably, also, and probably of more avail than 
all the vis a tergo generated by the perpetual afflux of fluids, in 
virtue of the heterogeneous affinity developed at the extremities 
of the lymphatic system.] 

t [A human dead body, in a leaden coffin closely soldered, does 
not undergo decomposition to any extent, for, it may be, twenty, 
thirty, fifty, or more years ; but the whole of the fluids fall through 
it : a dryish, mummified mass is found lying in a depth of an 
inch or more of a reddish serous fluid.] 


Hydrostatic or Passive Congestion. 

§ 71' Even during life a depending part of the 
body receives more blood than when it is placed 
horizontally, or raised above the level of the source 
whence it is supplied. The legs, as the most de- 
pending parts of the body, are, therefore, subject, 
in the greatest degree, to this passive or hydrostatic 
congestion ; and we have constant evidences of its 
occurrence in the frequently overloaded and varicose 
veins of the lower extremities, which disappear 
when the legs are laid horizontally, or raised to a 
very small angle with the rest of the body. Stoop- 
ing the head is also familiarly and universally known 
to be followed by a preternatural accumulation of 
blood in that part, which is in a great measure the 
effect of simple gravitation.* 

* [Despite this simple and familiar fact, however, some of 
our physiologists have denied that there could by possibility be 
more blood contained in, or circulating through, the brain at 
one time than another. The brain, it has been said, is incom- 
pressible., and, filling exactly the hollow sphere of the skull, can- 
not have more blood circulating through it at one time than 
another. But the brain is far from being incompressible ; it is, 
on the contrary, highly elastic, and, therefore, compressible. Were 
it as incompressible as water, however, it may still he subjected 
to pressure. If we adapt a forcing-pump to a hollow sphere full 
of water, and endeavour to throw more fluid into it, though we 
find this impossible, the contents of the sphere are obviously in 
a very different condition from what they were before we began 
to force. So it is with the cranium : the shut sphere of the 
skull is still in communication with the powerful forcing-pump, 


Active Congestion, 

§ 7*2. Transient dilatations of the capillary 
vessels (probably induced by diminished contractile 
powers, the effect of a kind of temporary and 
limited paralysis), also occasion local increment in 
the quantity of blood ; a congestion of this kind is 
apparent, and passes rapidly off, in the blush of 
modesty or shame ; we have instances of more per- 
manent morbid congestion, accompanied with a 
stasis of the blood, and the known phenomena of 
reaction, in inflammations. 


General Endosmotic Transudation. 

§ 73. Nutrition, secretion in glands, and the 
like, without free or open-mouthed terminations of 

the heart ; and if the injecting power and the quantity of 
blood sent forward exceed the capacity of transmission in the 
same time, there will certainly be pressure exercised on the 
brain. The anatomical arrangements in connexion with the 
circulation through the cranium ; the provisions made to pre- 
vent the arteries from expanding in their calibre, in other words, 
from transmitting blood in excess ; and, on the contrary, the 
beautiful contrivance by which the sinuses are defended from 
suffering any diminution in their areas, — the arteries reaching 
their destination through tortuous, unyielding, bony canals ; the 
sinuses braced out in three directions, (as few as were adequate, 
and not more than were necessary to keep them constantly per- 
vious), all give us assurance that, under certain circumstances 
more blood might circulate through the brain at one time than 


vessels, presume an exudation and transudation of 
the constituents of the blood to take place through 
the parietes of the vessels. Endosmotic transference 
of heterogeneous fluids, separated from each other 
by solid tissues, certainly occurs through every part 
of the body during life as well as after death ; and 
this in consequence of one of the universal chemi- 
cal or physical laws, which has been designated 
that of heterogeneous attraction. That such a 
process is constantly going on, is made obvious 
among other phenomena by the communication of 
colour from one part to another : all the parts in 
the neighbourhood of the gall-bladder are dyed 
yellow or green ; and other parts, lying in contact 
with such organs as the liver, the spleen, &c., which 
are extremely rich in blood, are regularly stained of 
a reddish or brownish hue ; this occurs to a greater 
extent in the dead body, indeed, than in the living, 
from the serum after death dissolving some portion 
of the colouring matter of the blood ; but, still, it 
undoubtedly takes place, to a certain amount, in 
the living body also.* . 

* " A popular objection to this view," says Mr. Mayo, in his 
Outlines, " is founded upon the fact, that on opening the body 
of an animal immediately after death the parts adjoining the 
gall-bladder are not tinged with bile. But it is easier to imagine 
that the bile is in this case washed away by the circulating blood, 
or carried off by the lymphatics as fast as it exudes, than to sup- 
pose a new principle in the living body competent to suspend 
the common laws of imbibition by porous substances," — G. G. 




§ 74. When, in consequence of a fall or a blow, 
a part of the body is bruised, or injured in its inti- 
mate texture, its vessels ruptured, &c., but without 
breach of the surface, we have extravasations formed, 
— effusions of blood, of milk, &c. into the tissue of 
the organ injured. 


§ 7'5. On all the external and internal surfaces 
of the body there is a constant escape, in conse- 
quence of transudation, of one or more of the con- 
stituents of the blood, or of some peculiar fluid, with 
which these surfaces are bathed, or by which the 
cavities they form are filled in a greater or less de- 
gree. The fluids transuded in this way are liable 
to be greatly increased in quantity under particular 
circumstances. The cutaneous perspiration, the 
watery fluids poured into the serous and mucous cavi- 
ties, the gastric and intestinal fluids, &c., are products 
of normal and necessary functions of the kind alluded 
to. These exudations may, also, become morbidly 
altered, both in quantity and quality : poured out 
in excess into the shut sacs of the body, such as the 

* The term exhalation is only applicable under circum- 
stances where the atmosphere or some gaseous fluid is present, 
as is the case, for example, with the skin and the mucous mem- 
brane of the lungs. Exhalation, therefore, can never occur in 
the serous sacs, or other close cavities of the body. 


ventricles of the brains, the pleurae, the pericardium, 
the peritoneum, and the general subcutaneous and 
inter-organic cellular tissue, they form dropsies ; 
poured out upon the surfaces of open passages, such 
as of the nose, the lungs, the bowels, &c., they form 
profluvisB of different species, — coryza, pulmonary 
catarrh, diarrhoea, cholera, &c. 

Morbid Exudation in consequence of Inflammation. 

§ 76. In the serous and synovial sacs, in the 
cellular tissue, &c., it is common to observe inflam- 
mation terminating in effusions of different kinds ; 
in one case, of the watery or serous element of the 
blood ; in another, of simple plastic matter^ when 
the liquor sanguinis exudes without the blood- 
globules ; and in a third, of sanguinolent matter^ 
when the liquor sanguinis exudes, tinged with the 
colouring matter of the blood, or actually mingled 
with a smaller or larger proportion of blood- 
globules.* This last form of exudation forms the 
transition to hemorrhage. 

Morbid Exudation of Blood (^Hemorrhage). 

§ 77. When the blood escapes from open vessels, 
externally or internally, it is spoken of as external 
or internal hemorrhage. 

* Blood-corpuscles are repeatedly found, quite unaltered in 
appearance, on the mucous surfaces, when no solution of con- 
tinuity whatever can be detected in any of the vessels. Mr. 
Siddall and I saw a remarkable instance of this in the horse. The 
lining membrane of the trachea was throughout coated with a 
deep red viscid matter, the colour of which was found to be 
owing to numbeiless blood-discs. These, however, soon became 


§ 78' In the fluid of serous exudations it is 
usual to find the albuminous granules of albumi- 
nous fluids, and when the greater part of the 
serum is again removed by absorption, should this 
occur, the crystals of different salts. When the 
quantity of exuded serum is considerable, or the 
effusion continues long, it is apt to penetrate other 
contiguous and more dependent parts, and so to 
produce a partial or more general dropsy.* 

§ 79. After plastic exudations, or mingled serous 
and plastic exudations, a yellowish, turbid fluid is 
found in the affected cavity, having fine flocculi, of 
a pale yellow colour, floating about in it, or precipi- 
tated upon, and perchance adhering to, the bound- 
ing parietes in every part. The serous membranes, 
cleared of these deposits, are found unaltered, and 

granulated, and very irregular in form, and then scarcely or not 
at all visible, from solution of tlieir colouring matter. The 
escape of the blood-corpuscles from the capillaries, under certain 
circumstances of disease, will not appear so surprising, if we con- 
sider the remarkable softness and elasticity of the corpuscles, and 
the facility with which they change their form, becoming bent, 
compressed, or elongated, so as to adapt themselves for the pas- 
sage of any unusually narrow channel. After passing the ob- 
struction, they recover their usual shape with singular rapidity. 
Some of these temporary alterations in the blood-discs may often 
be very well observed when they are mixed under the microscope 
with currents of grosser particles, as of pus-globules. See the 
Observations on the Blood-corpuscles of Mammalia, Sect. III. 
in the Appendix. — G. G. 

* [Even partial dropsy must be regarded as an extremely 
rare occurrence from such a cause : it is very doubtful whether 
general dropsy was ever seen as its consequence. The cause 
which is at work producing the local accumulation of fluid is 
then inducing a general accumulation.] 


the injected vessels that appear are not included 
within, but lie under them. If, instead of the tur- 
bid serous fluid mixed with small flocculi now men- 
tioned, larger continuous masses of coagulable lymph 
are encountered amidst the efi'used serum, the exu- 
dation, it may be concluded, has taken place very 

§ 80. When the exudation of plastic matter goes 
on for any length of time, and the quantity of 
eifused liquor sanguinis is considerable, the cavities 
into which it is shed may be filled with it ; or their 
parietes, and the organs they includcj — the heart, 
lungs, liver, intestines, &c., may become covered 
with thick layers of coagulated fibrine. This, at 
first, is of a pale yellow hue, and somewhat trans- 
lucent, and has the consistency of imperfectly coagu- 
lated albumen. If death occur at this stage, the 
hyaline substance quickly becomes granular, and, 
in consequence of chemical decomposition, is dis- 
solved in the serum. If no fatal event ensue, the 
characters of the exudation are otherwise altered. 

§ 81. In an animal* debilitated to a great de- 
gree, the exuded fibrine is discoloured, is greyish 
or greenish instead of white or pale yellow, as if it 
were going to change into pus, which, however, it 
never is ; t under the microscope the matter has 

* When no particular animal is mentioned, the horse is to be 
understood as the subject of observation. All that is stated in 
this and some of the following paragraphs, applies, however, with 
trifling modifications, to man and the other mammalia. 

f I have never seen suppuration — the formation of true pus 
— take place in the shut sacs of the serous and synovial mem- 
branes where there was no external wound ; I believe that it 


all the characters of corruptnig fibrine, a sign of 
approaching death.* 

never happens. When pus is found in any of these sacs, careful 
inquiry always shews that it has been produced in tissues which 
were covered by the serous membranes, and that it has only 
made its way into the cavities after permeating the membranes. 
Empyema, therefore, is never a product of the pleura, never 
an immediate effect of pleuritis, — a title, by the way, which is 
radically objectionable, inasmuch as the serous membrane itself 
never participates in the inflammation of the highly vascular 
cellular tissue which it covers, and is only affected or altered by 
the morbid processes there going on, in so far as it depends for its 
nutrition and continuance on the capillary rete, which lies on the 
outside of it, and which is, in fact, the tissue that is obnoxious 
to inflammation. [In 1722 Dr. Sirason, of St. Andrews, re- 
garded pus as a secretion, and Dr. Morgan, of Philadelphia, 
and Brugmann, of Leyden, promulgated this doctrine through- 
out Europe. Mr. Hewson especially noticed (" Exp. Inq." 
Part. 2, p. 117,) that pus was often found in the serous cavities, 
without any erosion or the least mark of ulceration ; and the 
Hunters insisted on the production of pus, both by the mucous 
and serous membranes, independently of any breach of surface 
whatever. Indeed, this view of the matter is now, and has long 
been, generally entertained. — G. G.~\ 

* This is a very interesting fact, and if confirmed would 
serve to explain the circumstances we observe after opening 
extensive abscesses, performing the operation of paracenthesis 
of the chest, &c. Perforation of the thorax is an operation 
simple enough in itself. So far as the division of parts is 
concerned, there is no more risk in reaching the bag of the 
pleura than in opening a vein to let blood ; the same may gene- 
rally be said in regard to discharging an extensive abscess. But 
the consequences of either operation are often disastrous ; 
and this probably from a change induced in the effused matters, 
that causes them to be felt as foreign by the living parts with 
which they are in contact. Excitement of a new kind is set up 
in the seat of the local mischief, and then comes secondary 
fever with the hectic type, and all the train of disastrous symp- 



§ 82. If the inflammation ends with the ex- 
udation, and the disease, and the loss of vital fluids 
consequent upon it, have not exhausted the strength 
of the animal, the exuded and coagulated fibrine, 
under otherwise favourable circumstances, is by so 
much the more quickly and completely organised as 
the creature is vigorous.* The exuded serum is 
gradually removed by absorption, whilst the particles 
and masses of fibrine which float loose in it are 
dissolved. The particles and masses of fibrine 
which are attached, on the other hand, become of 
a bright yellow colour, and, examined under the mi- 
croscope, are found to consist of adhering or con- 
nected exudation - globules, which are formed in 

toms that so frequently render the discharge of large abscesses, 
and especially the operation of paracenthesis of the chest 
fatal, — the untoward tendency being doubtless increased in the 
latter instance by the importance of the organ interested. 
Vide the note at p. 28. — G. G. 

* It would appear, however, from some valuable observations 
by Mr. Dalrymple, that the organisable material of the blood, 
when effused without direct rupture of the vessels, is more rapidly 
organised in those conditions of the system denominated cachec- 
tic than in the more vigorous and robust. In the latter, he is of 
opinion that inflammations more quickly pass into the suppura- 
tive or ulcerative stages, while in the former the effusions of 
fibrine become more rapidly organised, and are apt to remain as 
persistent structures. Many of his conclusions are deduced 
from cases of ophthalmic diseases, which are peculiarly favour- 
able for observation, and in which the rapid organisation of 
exuded fibrine in cachectic subjects with syphilitic iritis is 
remarkable as compared with idiopathic or traumatic iritis in 
more vigorous constitutions. Mr. Dalrymple's injections seem 
generally to support his views as to the very rapid organisation 
of fibrine under the circumstances mentioned. Vide "Med. Chir. 
Trans." vol. xxiii G. G. 


from twenty-four to thirty hours after the occurrence 
of the exudation,* when the masses are of a ruddy 
yellow,t and have acquired such consistency, that 
they can be peeled off in cohering shreds from the 
membranes to which they are attached. 

§ 83. Exudation-corpuscles (Jig. 205) are, in 
every respect, the same as the lymph-corpuscles. J 
They generally form many superimposed layers, 
being laid flat one over another, and so constituting 

* Nuclei, with or without envelopes, may be found in fibrine 
as soon as it has set, independently of inflammation. Vide note 
^.31.— G.G. 

t Like that of the chyle in the thoracic duct, this is the 
almost uniform colour of the fully evolved cytoblast. In those 
animals whose mature chyle is of a paler colour, the exudation- 
corpuscles are paler also — an assurance of their identity in all the 
parts of the body of the animal in which they are examined. 

:}: In mammiferous animals, it has always appeared to me 
that the lymph-globules differ in size, structure, and chemical 
characters from exudation-globules. The latter are larger, more 
irregular in size and shape, more spongy or loose in texture 
than the former. Besides, the exudation-corpuscles generally 
exhibit two or three nuclei when treated with acetic acid, 
whereas the lymph-globules are only rendered slightly smaller 
by this reagent ; and the acid either dissolves or makes remark- 
ably fainter the comparatively thick shell of the exudation- 
corpuscle, while the lymph-globule becomes more distinct when 
subjected to the action of the acid. It is true that an occasional 
appearance of a nucleus is presented by the lymph-globules when 
thus treated ; but this is, for the most part, a single globular 
particle nearly as large as the entire lymph-globule, as if produced 
simply by the most superficial part of the globule being very 
feebly affected by the acid. The lymph-globules, in fine, in pro- 
gress of developement, may soon become more or less coated with 
fibrine; but, if examined at an early period, they will be found to 
resemble in chemical characters the nuclei (nucleoli of Valentin) 
of primary cells, — a fact which appears to me to be of consider- 


membranes which bear the strongest possible resem- 
blance to those composed of the tessellated epithe- 
lium {fig. 103, &), when the connecting medium has 
disappeared, by which the edges of the primarily 
round corpuscles come into contact, and are thus 
forced into the shape of polygons. 

§ 84. Some hours later a greater degree of co- 
hesion, and stronger indications of a fibrous struc- 
ture, are observed in the exuded mass ; and, under 
the microscope, an ever-increasing linear arrange- 
ment of the component globules, which appear more 
intimately united at two opposite points in one line, 
by means of the connecting cytoblastema, than any 

able interest. To make this examination satisfactorily, the glo- 
bules should be examined in the fluid of the lymphatic glands, 
or in that of the thymus body. I have kept portions of the 
latter for weeks in acetic acid without producing any other 
change in the globules than a slight diminution of size, and an 
increased distinctness and smoothness of their outline, probably 
in consequence of the removal of a very delicate commencing 
fibrinous concretion from their surface. In structure, magni- 
tude, and chemical properties, the globules of the lymphatic 
glands and of the thymus are identical. I subjoin, from my 
notes, measurements, expressed in fractions of an English inch, 
of the exudation-globules and of the lymph-globules of the horse. 
The former were obtained from fibrine effused upon the inflamed 
pleura, the latter from a lymphatic gland of the thigh : — 



1-2900 \ Common sizes. 


1-2962 Average. 


1-53331 n 

r Common si 

1-64001 ^ ^ 
1-3200/ Extremes. 

1-4626 Average G. G. 


where else (^/ig\ 102, c, d) is apparent : the rest of 
their edges is comparatively free. If the cytohlasts 
were globular at first, they now acquire more of a 
spindle shape ; the flat ones continue more flattened 
after their margin has become fusiform, and in a 
linear direction they represent, in connexion, vari- 
cose fasciculi, in the enlargements of which the 
nucleus of the exudation-globule continues visible, 
and either subdivides into several granules, or has 
a new nucleolus evolved within it. Betwixt the 
cellular fibres which have now been formed, there 
still remains an interposed hyaline substance, so 
that the masses may be separated mechanically, or 
torn in any direction, almost with like facility. 
Under a low magnifying power the cellulo-fibrous 
mass appears as it is represented in^^. IJ. 

§ 85. At the parts where the villi and festoons 
connected with the free surface of the exudation 
exhibit a greater degree of cohesion, we also observe 
the commencement of the transition of the cellular 
fibrils into round filaments. This transition ap- 
pears to require either a longer time to attain com- 
pleteness than the formation of the cellular fibres 
out of the recent exudation, or the organisation here 
remains stationary under peculiar and still unknown 
circumstances, just as it seems to do with reference 
to the same structures even in the primary tissues 
of adult animals, — for example, in the sheaths of 
the soft nerves and more delicate vessels {figs. 102, 
c ; 103, d ; and l63, &, e). With the progress of 
the formation of round filaments, the intercellular 
fibrils get longer {figs. 218 and 219), whilst the 
fusiform nuclei get smaller, and at length entirely 
disappear. Occasionally one cell is observed to be 


connected laterally with another lying near it, and 
then three intercellular fibres proceed from it 
{fig. 219, c). 

§ 86. Even before the formation of round 
filaments, duly ordered blood-vessels make their 
appearance, and form a capillary net-work, as they 
do in the intestinal villi. First, transparent arbo- 
rescent streaks are seen, which push out their in- 
creasing ramuscles on all sides, to encounter one 
another, and form a series of reticulated inoscula- 
tions. But before the vascular rete appears, pale- 
coloured cytoblasts have been produced, which, after 
the completion of the rete, pass over into the near- 
est primary capillary veins, whilst they are pushed 
onwards by the blood of the nearest primary arte- 
ries ; and in this way is the circulation established 
through these secondary formations. The vascular 
rete is more intricate in the larger villi and festoons 
{fig. 20), and the distribution here resembles, in 
every thing, that of the intestinal villi {fig. 136). 
Here may be distinguished the terminal divisions of 
the arteries {fig. 21, «), the terminal divisions of 
the veins (6), and the further subdivisions of these 
vessels into capillary arteries (c), capillary veins 
(c?), and intermediate or transition vessels (e, e). 
In the smaller villi the blood-vessels comport them- 
selves like those of the gills and toes of the larva of 
the newt, and those that accompany the isolated 
single nervous fibrils of the skin ; that is to say, they 
run simply along the edges of the parts.* 

* Mr. Liston has given an extremely clear description of the 
arrangement of the intermediate vessels of granulations, as they 
appear in the cysts of abscesses and on open sores. In abscesses 
the capillaries project into the new and adventitious lining mem- 


§ 87. Long after the occuiTence of exudative 
inflammation, and when all traces of diseased action 
have subsided, the serous membranes implicated 
are found thicker and less transparent than proper ; 
the organs which they cover are also found adhering 
to one another, and to the parietes of the cavities in 
which they are contained ; longer and shorter white 
lappets hanging from the surface of the viscera and 
containing walls, and strings, broader bands and con- 
tinuous sheets of false membrane, passing in various 
directions from the one to the other, and connecting 
the viscera together, and with the sides of their con- 
taining cavities. These various accidental structures 
are all of the same essential nature : they have the 
general appearance of serous membranes, and con- 
sist of rounded filaments firmly united by a common 
vitreous substance (vide^^^. 18, which is a repre- 
sentation of a mass of connected cylindrical fibrils 
seen under a low magnifying power). Sometimes the 
round filaments are but loosely bound together, and 
entirely correspond in structure with primary cellu- 

brane, often in straight parallel lines, though the arrangement of 
the vessels in the granulations on the free surface is distinctly 
looped and tortuous, with communications between the loops, this 
vascular arrangement being much like that of healthy secreting 
surfaces. In a portion of injected ulcer the vessels of the gra- 
nulations were found to be similarly arranged, but enormously 
and irregularly dilated or varicose, — a fact which suggests an 
important therapeutical indication. Mr. Liston has also demon- 
strated the existence and arrangement of the vessels in the 
cartilage of diseased articular surfaces, so that the possibility of 
this tissue being nourished, absorbed, or repaired by its own 
vessels, can no longer be doubted. " Medico - Chirurgical 
Transactions," vol. xxiii. p. 85. — G. G. 


lar substance and tendon (vide /^g". 19, where « is a 
representation of the cellular filament, h of the fila- 
ment of tendon, the fibres being parted or teased 
out in either case). 

§ 88. The same phenomena are observed in 
inflammations with plastic exudations of the syno- 
vial as of the serous membranes ; in the capsular 
ligaments of joints, therefore, in the bursas mucosse, 
and in the sheaths of tendons, precisely the same 
products are encountered. 

§ 89. The same formative processes are also 
observed in the chorion of the impregnated ovum ; 
and, indeed, under all circumstances where the 
exuded living liquor sanguinis or cytoblastema, 
left at rest in closed cavities, is in a condition to 
become completely organised ; as, for example, when 
it is deposited on the parietes of abscesses containing 
laudable pus, &c. ; and these secondary products of 
organisation, it is to be observed, are never to be 
regarded as accidental, — they are perfectly indis- 
pensable to the repair of any injury that has been 
sufi^ered, to the maintenance of the individual who 

has been its subject.* 


* When, for instance, inflammation of the shut sacs of the 
body (the serous and synovial membranes) has exceeded the 
limits at which resolution is possible, or when it has destroyed 
all capacity in the part to perform its function, then is this ter- 
mination, by an exudation of coagulable lymph, the most favour- 
able that can occur ; nay, it is the only one that renders a 
recovery (which, however, may only be relative) possible : an 
organisable deposit has become necessary to the restoration of 
the part, and such a deposit is coagulable lymph ; without its pre- 
sence the serous effusion of the inflammation would become a 
stagnant, dropsical effusion ; but the newly-formed villi of plastic 



§ 90. Simple incised wounds, made with a clean 
sharp instrument, heal, by what is called the first 
intention, in the course of a few days — almost of a 
few hours, when the wounded surfaces can he 
brought into apposition without dragging, and the 
reparative process is suffered to go on undisturbed. 
In this case, the fibrine of the extravasated blood 
fills up all the smaller accidental hollows in the 
depth of the wound ; cytoblasts are then produced, 
these are transformed to cells which acquire a final 
organisation in consonance with that of the parts 
injured, and the superficies of the wound is repaired, 
— the adjacent edges are united by means of a 
secondarily produced firm tissue, universally known 
by the name of cicatrix. 

§ 91. Wounds with a loss of substance, gaping 
sabre-wounds, gunshot and other wounds, where a 
certain degree of bruising attends the solution of 
continuity, — wounds, too, that have been filled with 
foreign substances, dirt, &c., which must be got rid 
of before they will cicatrize, all heal by suppuration. 
The process in these cases is as follows : — 

§ 92. After having bled to a greater or less 
extent, the wound becomes stiff, and painful, and 

lymph, projecting into the affected cavity, increase the extent of 
absorbing surface, become vicarious of the functions of the now 
incompetent membrane, and remove immediately the serum 
which has become free in consequence of the coagulation of the 


dry ; an exudation of the liquor sanguinis is then 
established from the entire extent of surface, and this 
goes on incessantly till the injury is repaired. The 
fibrine, as it coagulates on the raw surface, forms 
exudation-globules, or cytoblasts, many of which 
cohere in layers, and compose the Jhlse membrane 
that finally invests the entire superficies of the sore. 
The layers of globules in most immediate contact 
with the living tissues become cells, which then 
undergo further transformation, in accordance with 
the nature of the structure to be reproduced ; those 
layers of globules, again, which are most remote 
from the living parts hecovcie pus-globules, and these, 
mingled with a small quantity of serum, compose 
true or laudable pus, which, on the one hand, indues 
and protects the focus of organisation, separating 
the granulating surface, as the surface of a wound 
in process of repair by suppuration is called, from 
external agencies ; and, on the other, forms the soft, 
mild medium in which reproduction goes on from 
the more remote parts towards the centre, and by 
which foreign substances are detached and removed 
from the sore. 


§ 93. The exudation-globules, which lie beyond 
the vivifying influence of the surface of the wound, 
and exposed to the action of external agencies, can- 
not be expected long to retain their vitality ; these 
globules, therefore, forsaken, as it were, by the 
organising principle, begin to degenerate in their 
organisation, and to sufier changes in their chemi- 
cal constitution, whilst those that continue in imme- 

PUS. 91 

diate contact with the living structures of the body- 
advance in their organisation : those globules that 
are cast loose then die — mors vitcB origo, 

§ 9^. On the exudation-globules that are free, a 
number of delicate lines, radiating from a centre, are 
first perceived, which divide their peripheries into 
from six to eight (seldom more) segments j these 
lines become more and more distinct, and the capsule 
appears as if it were torn or cleft, but without sepa- 
ration of parts ; in many globules, too, the nucleus 
now appears to incline to fall into from two to four 
pieces {Jig. 9, a ; fig. 10, ^, k') ; the originally reddish 
yellow colour of the globules fades,* the segments 
of the envelope and the divisions of the nucleus, 
which had been linear and sharp in appearance, 
become rounded off till they appear like aggregated 
granules, whilst the pus, now completely formed, 
acquires a greenish yellow hue. 

True pus-globules, formed in both these ways, 
may stiU be found, here and there, hanging together 
like the cells of the tessellated epithelium ; they are 
specifically heavier than serum, appear under the 
microscope somewhat larger than lymph, exuda- 
tion, and blood-globules (they generally measure 
from the ^^0*^ *^ ^^ yio^^ ^^ ^ Paris line in dia- 

* The colour of microscopic objects fades in the ratio of the 
magnifying power, in consequence of the apparent subdivision of 
the matter in which it inheres, and its diffusion over a larger 
extent of surface ; but on the other hand, colours appear under the 
microscope which had escaped the naked eye entirely ; thus fine 
threads and single fibres of cotton, highly magnified, appear en- 
tirely blue ; colours are usually perceived as they present them- 
selves to the naked eye. 


meter), are of a yellowish colour, and usually mingled 
with oil-globules and albuminous granules ; they are 
often seen besprinkled with albuminous granules, 
which are then by many mistaken for integral parts 
of the globules, their larger proper granular sub- 
divisions,* which together give the pus-globules 
the appearance of lenticular or muffin-shaped cush- 
ions tucked in at different distances by lines radi- 
ating from a common centre, being overlooked (vide 
fig. 10, z, the pus-globule from the flat surface, h from 
its edge : the variety here represented is that with 
quadrifid nuclei). By and by the granules separate 
to a greater extent {_Jig. 9, ^), so that the corpuscles 
resolve themselves into their elements ; for old pus 
consists, in great part, of these more or less com- 
pletely isolated granules.t 

§ 95. When pus, in its various stages of form- 
ation, is kept in a glass, at rest, for about ten hours, 
it divides into two layers ; X the upper of these is the 

* The form and elementary organic constitution of the pus- 
globule become exceedingly distinct in a solution of common 
kitchen salt. 

t I am unacquainted with the form of pus-globule described 
in this paragraph. — G. G. 

\ This is not always the case. The pus of which the parti- 
cles are shewn in fig. 258 was taken from an abscess at the end of 
February, and now (April 1) the matter is throughout homoge- 
neous, never having had any supernatant serum. When a 
quantity of this pus was dried and heated on paper no greasy 
stain was produced. 

In some observations which Mr. Siddall and I made on the 
generation of infusory animalcules in the fluids of mammals, we 
could detect no animalcules in pure blood, however long it 
might be kept, — not even when putrefaction was far advanced. 
But they were soon generated when water was added either to 

PUS. 93 

more diffluent, and is of a pale yellow or very light 
bro^\^l colour, from translucent to transparent, and 
occasionally covered with oil-globules ; this is the 
serum of the pus. The under-layer is more slug- 
gish, of a yellowish green, or greenish grey colour, 
in different cases, and now more, now less in quan- 
tity than the serum ; this layer consists of the pus- 
globules, mixed with a little serum, and occasion- 
ally a number of crystals. 

§ 96. Chemically analysed, pus gives different 
results, according to the quality and age of the 
fluid, — according as it is true pus or false pus, and 
as it is mature or immature. In giving an analysis 
of pus, chemists should never fail to state the source, 
and all the circumstances connected with the speci- 
men examined. The younger the pus, the larger 
is the quantity of fibrine it contains (transition- 
cytoblasts) ; the more mature the pus, the larger is, 
in general, the quantity of fatty matter which it 
contains. This retrograding fluid, consequently, 
from its origin to its perfect developement, forms a 
direct contrast to the chyle, in point both of organic 
and chemical constitution. The chyle is at first a 
kind of oily emulsion, and fibrine only appears in 

fresh or stale blood. The same observations apply to the animal 
fluids generally, judging from experiments with serum, pus, 
synovia, &c. The obsei"vations were not sufficiently numerous 
to be quite satisfactory, and they are merely mentioned here as 
suggesting a curious subject which appears to be deserving of 
further inquiry, especially in connexion with the theory of gene- 
ration. It seems not improbable that common water contains 
the rudiments of animalcules, which blood does not. See what 
the author says of entozoa having been discovered in the blood 
of the frog, § 56, p. 64.— G. G. 



it as it undergoes elaboration ; pus, on the con- 
trary, at first is iibrine mingled with a watery fluid ; 
it is in a great measure an oily emulsion at last. 

Relative Admixture, in point of Quantity, of the Three Compound 
Chemical Principles, and the Advance in the Progress of the 
Assimilation of the Chyle.* 

In the afferent or peri- 
pheral lacteals (from 
the intestines to the 
mesenteric glands) . . 

In the efferent or cen- 
tral lacteals (from the 
mesenteric glands to 
the thoracic duct)... 

In the thoracic duct . 

Fat, in maximum quantity (numerous 
fat or oil-globules). 

Albumen, in minimum quantity (few or 
no albuminous granules). 

Fibrine, altogether wanting. -]- 

Fat, in medium quantity (fewer oil- 

Albumen, in maximum quantity (nu- 
merous granules). 

Fibrine, in minimum quantity (in gra- 
nules, without the form of cytoblasts)* 

Fat, in minimum quantity (few or no 

Albumen, in medium quantity. 

Fibrine, in excess (cytoblasts, lymph, 
and corpuscles).;]: 

* In this view the water, salts, &c. are not taken any account 
of, these being presumed to be constant but less essential ele- 
ments here. 

+ This cannot be an universal law, for I have occasionally 
seen a delicate though very distinct clot in chyle obtained from 
the afferent lacteals. — G.G. 

\ More globules exist in the chyle of the mesenteric glands 
than in that of the thoracic duct, or, indeed, of any other portion 
of the lacteal vessels whatever; at least, I have always found this 
to be the case when the lacteals and thoracic duct were turgid 
with chyle. The globules here mentioned are not fatty, but 
similar to those contained in the fluid of the thymus. See 
pote, p. 57 ; and Appendix. — G. G. 

PUS. 95 

Decline in the Progress of the Formation of Pus. 

Fat, in minimum quantity (no oil - 

T , . . 1 globules). 

In pus begmning to .,f ... re i \ 

. „ , \ Albumen, m minimum (few granules ). 

be formed | ^., . . . ; f, 

Fibrine, in maximum (cytoblasts, exu- 
'Fat, in medium (few oil- globules). 
Albumen, in excess (granular pus- 
( globules. 
Fibrine, in minimum (no new cyto- 
Fat, in excess (numerous oil-globules). 
Albumen, in medium quantity (gra- 
nules of decompounded pus-globules). 
Fibrine, absent. 

In pus well advanced 
in its formation .... 

In pus quite mature 

§ 97* The corpuscles of pus, before they fall 
down into granules, are acted upon by acetic acid, 
in the same manner as the lymph, blood, and ex- 
udation - corpuscles ; the denser nucleus remains 
nearly unaltered, whilst the granular capsule becomes 
perfectly transparent, or is dissolved ; and when 
this happens, the component granules of the nu- 
cleus separate from one another.* The nucleus and 

* The action of acetic acid on pus-globules is not always the 
same. If these be quite recent when mixed with the acid, their 
envelopes will instantly disappear ; but if the same pus be kept 
for some days, the action of the acid will be much fainter ; and 
in pus from chronic abscesses the globules frequently exhibit 
scarcely any change when treated with the acid, as was the case 
in the matter represented in fig. 258. Indeed, the operation of 
several re-agents on fibrine becomes more feeble in proportion 
to its age as a separate matter, and to its compactness. Acetic 
acid scarcely afi^ects the old fibrine of an aneurismal sac, though 
recently clotted fibrine is quickly swollen, made transparent, or 


cover of cytoblasts, also differ in their chemical 
composition, a fact which might have been inferred 
from their optical diversities, each possessing a dif- 
ferent refractive power ; nevertheless, both of them 
appear to be mere modifications of one substance, 
viz. albumen, and entitled by Koch,* purium ; by 
Michelotti,t puruline ; by Gueterbock,t pyine ; by 
Jordan,^ fibrous matter; and by John,l| modified 
albumen. Pus-globules may be obtained pure by 

dissolved by this reagent ; and the matter of an old crude 
tubercle seems to resist the action of the acid altogether, which 
is by no means the case with recent tubercular deposit. Fibrine, 
therefore, would appear to undergo modifications in its chemical 
properties after its separation from the blood ; and the ready 
solubility in acids of the most superficial parts of cells and 
cytoblasts probably arises from the comparative newness of the 
fibrinous matter of which the outer parts are composed. It 
should be remarked, however, that the solubility of fibrine in 
acetic acid is questionable, for many fibrinous parts which dis- 
appear on being mixed with the acid may be brought into view 
again by the addition of iodine. But this consideration does 
not affect the fact of the different properties of recent and old 
fibrinous matter. Some interesting observations on the action 
of vinegar are given by Dr. Davy in his " Researches," vol. i. 
p. 376, from which it appears that the solvent power of this acid 
on tlie animal textures generally is very limited. — G. G. 

* F. Koch, dissert, de Observationibus nonnuUis Microscop- 
icis Sanguinis Cursum et Inflammationem spectantibus atque de 
Suppuratione, adjecta Analysi Purls Chemica. Berol. 1825. 

t Rossi et Michelotti, Analyse de Pus. Memoires de Turin 
pour les annees 1805 a 1808. 

:j: Gueterbock, de Pure et Granulatione Commentatio Phy- 
siol. Berol. 1837. 

§ Jordan, Disquisitio evictorum Regni Animal, ac Vegetabil. 
Elementorum. Gcettingaj 1799, p. 40, unb ». (SxelU cl)em. 3fnnalen, 
1801, @t. 9, ®. 208. 

I] 3of)n, d)em. Unterfud^ungen. SSert 1812. SSb. 2, ©. 120. 

PUS. 97 

repeated washings with distilled water ; they contain 
very little inorganic matter ; according to Pearson, 
but the xoVo^^ part, insoluble in alkalis, is soluble 
in concentrated acids ; infusory animalcules * are 
only observed in the pus that is old. 

§ 98. As it is obvious, from what precedes, 
and from the results of the analysis immediately 
to be quoted, that not every puriform fluid is 
true pus, and that true pus itself differs according 
to its age, maturity, the circumstances under which 
it has been formed, &c., it follows that those ana- 
lyses only are of any value which are accompanied 
by some account of the case, and the subject in 
which the pus was produced. Vogel,t from the 
numerous analyses of pus which he has published, 
assigns the following proximate principles as the 
essential constituents of the fluid : — 
I. Pus-corpuscles or globules. 

II. Serum, composed of 

1. Water. 

2. Animal substances, viz. — 
a. Fat. 

h. Osmazome. 

c. Albumen in solution. 

3. Inorganic acids and bases, united into 

inorganic salts, viz. as constant ingre- 
dients, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric 
acid ; each united with lime, potash, 
soda, magnesia, and ammonia ; and, as 
occasional ingredients, phosphoric acid, 

* See note, p. 92.— G. G. 

f SSogel, ^{)i)[iolo9ifd)=pati)o(o9tfd}e Untei-fud)ungen uber ©iter unb 
©iterbUbung wnb bie bamit oerwanbten SSorgcinge. (Srlangen/ 1838. 



acetic, and lactic, and other organic 
acids. As a secondary product, the 
result of incineration, carbonic acid. 
4. Scilica and oxide of iron. 

Analysis of Pus by J. Martins, Erlangen. 

Human pus, from an empyema, the consequence of pleuro- 
pneumony. The matter, of which five measures were dis- 
charged, was pretty consistent, of a yellowish green colour, and 
without smell ; examined under the microscope by Professor 
Rudolff Wagner, it was found to contain numerous granules, from 
the 200th to the 300th of a Paris line in diameter (these, in all 
probability, were true pus-globules). Tested chemically, it was 
found neutral, — it did not affect vegetable blue colours. It 
consisted of the following : 

1 . Bases : — Lime, potash, soda, magnesia, and ammonia. 

2. Acids : — Phosphoric, hydrochloric, lactic. 

3. Indifferent matters : — Fat, albumen, osmazome, gelatine, 
besides water. 

Analysis of Pus by Gueterbock : — the Pus from an Abscess in 
the Human Breast. 

1. Water 861 

2. Fat only soluble in boiling alcohol 1-6 

3. Matters (fat and osmazome) soluble in cold 

alcohol 4*3 

4. Matter soluble neither in hot nor in cold 

alcohol (albumen, pyine, pus -corpuscles 

and granules) 7-4 

Loss 0-6 


The salts in 100 parts of pus amount to 0'8 

Of which there are soluble in water 0-7 

Consisting of — 
Chloride of sodium, in large proportion 


PUS. 99 

Phosphate of soda 

Sulphate of soda 

Carbonate of soda 

Hydrochlorate of potash (chloride of potassium) 

Hydrochlorate of lime (chloride of calcium) 

Substances soluble in nitric acid 0*1 

Consisting of — 
Phosphate of lime 
Phosphate of magnesia 
Carbonate of lime 
Iron, a trace. 

Analysis of Pus by Koch, without any Indication of its Soiirce, 
or the Circumstances attending its Production. 

1. Water. 

2. A peculiar substance (purium) contained in the globules. 

3. Albumen. 

4. Mucus. 

5. Osmazome. 

In the ashes — 
Chloride of sodium, phosphate of lime, carbonate of potash, 
phosphate of potash (soda?), sulphate of lime, carbonate 
of lime, phosphate of magnesia, oxide of iron, scilica. 

Analysis of Pus from the Uterus of a Mare, according to Gcebel. 

The fluid of a yellowish white colour, opaque ; specific gravity, 
1'019; sluggishly fluent, smooth; of a faint, unpleasant smell, 
neutral ; sinking to the bottom when shaken up with water, 
coagulating when exposed to heat. 

Albumen 7-20 

Uncoagulable, gelatiniform animal matter 0*94 

Free acids, sulphate (and lactate?) of potash, 
common culinary salt, phosphate of lime, 

magnesia, protoxide of iron, and scilica 0*35 

Water 91-33 


Analysis of Pus from the Frontal Sinus of a Mule, 
according to Dumas.* 

This pus reddened litmus paper, formed an emulsion with cold 
water, from which, in the course of a few days, a white floccu- 
lent matter precipitated. Raised to the temperature of 70° 
cent, it formed a white granular coagulum, which, washed with 
water, exhibited all the properties of an albuminous substance, 
with the exception that it dissolved readily in hydrochloric acid. 
The water used in washing it, evaporated, smelt unpleasantly of 
cheese ; the dried residue was a yellow extract, which powerfully 
attracted moisture from the air, and dissolved in alcohol, with the 
exception of a few albuminous flocculi : this solution, diluted 
with water, was not rendered turbid ; it contained a free acid, a 
large quantity of hydrochlorate of soda, and a little phosphate of 
ammonia. 997 parts of this pus consisted of — 

Water 8200 

Albumen 165*0 

Animal matter, soluble in alcohol and water 
(osmazome?); phosphates and hydrochlo- 
rates, and free lactic acidf 12-5 

* Repert. Gen. d'Anat. et de Physiol, t. iii. p. 47. 1827. 

\ The specific gravity of pus is a point not adverted to in 

the text, but which it is as well to notice. According to Dr. 

Davy, there is considerable variation in the specific gravity of 

pus, as will appear from the following tabular view of his 

results : — 

Kind of Pus. Sp. Gr. 

Good quality and ordinary consistence : from "i 

a case of empyema complicated with J> 1028 
pneumathorax J 

Not quite equable: from an abscess in the "1 ,^oi 
thigh J 

Pretty equable, of moderate consistence : ^ 

from an abscess of the axilla, in con- > 1029 
valescence from erysipilas J 

From the arm, in convalescence from erysi- "1 inop 
pelas of a dangerous character J 


False Pus. 

§ 99. We are constantly meeting with secreted 
and exuded fluids, both in man and among the 
lower animals, which, without more particular ex- 
amination, and, in especial, without an appeal to 
the microscope, are mistaken for true pus.* These 
fluids are, indeed, extremely like pus when viewed 
by the naked eye, and in chemical composition are 
not very dififerent from it. Nevertheless, they are 
produced otherwise than true pus, and their nature 
is dififerent. On the other hand, we occasionally 
observe matters deposited upon, and poured over, 
surfaces which look very unlike proper pus, and 
which yet are either veritable pus, or a substance 
most nearly allied to it in constitution. 

§ 100. It is the fluid already described, the 
healthy or laudable pus of writers, which alone is pro- 
duced under the conditions necessary to reproduction 
in the animal body : I have, therefore, sometimes 
spoken of it under the title oi reproductive pus ; and 
as the corpuscles which compose it generally consist 
of seven granules, it might also be designated the 

From an abscess in the back of a young man 1040 
Rather thicker than the healthy pus of an "i 

abscess : from a large cavity of the lung K 1042 

in a fatal case of consumption J 

From a vomica in the lung, in another fatal "1 i rio 1 

case of pulmonary consumption J 

" Researches, Phys. and Anat." vol. ii. p. 466. — G, G. 
* With the exception, I believe, of Dr. Addison, patholo- 
gists in this country have generally, of late years, described 
softened fibrine as pus, especially with the view of explaining the 
theory of suppuration. See note, page 28.— G. G. 


seven-granular pus. The corpuscles of this fluid, 
previously to their resolution, always belong to the 
nucleated corpuscles ; * they are degenerating cyto- 
blasts. In this constant peculiarity of the pus- 
corpuscle lies the safest criterion for distinguishing 
pus from other fluids hearing a nearer or more dis- 
tant resemblance to it ; every fluid which is without 
the peculiar corpuscles indicated, and which never 
fail in the pus of healthy wounds, however much this 
fluid resembles pus in appearance, is not pus in 
reality, and is incapable of aiding the vital processes 
of repair and reproduction in which the true pus- 
globule, in its first state of exudation-globule, is the 
immediate assent. 

§ 101. The puriform mucus, which is secreted 
in the last stage of catarrhal afiections, varies 
according to the kind and amount of reproductive 
process which the mucous membranes implicated 
require for their restoration. Should the mucous 
glands and the mucous follicles be altered in a less 
degree than the epithelium, which after catarrhs is 
always reproduced afresh, then the discharge, be- 
sides the usual mucus-corpuscles and granules (Jig. 
25, B), contains a large addition of newly-formed 
small lenticular cells (^/ig. 216), instead of the 
usual older elements of the epithelium, which are 
large squamous granulated cells (^fig. 193, a; Jig. 
220) or cylinders (^/igs. 24, 46, 48, 223). In 
these newly-formed small lenticular cells the nuclei 

* The granules which are included in the nuclei of cells, 
and which are spoken of by Mliller, Schwann, and others, under 
the title of nuclear corpuscles (Kernkorperchen), I name, with 
Valentin and others, nucleoli (Kernchen). 


are often recognised with difficulty, and this makes 
them look extremely like large exudation-corpuscles ; 
from which, however, as they differ essentially, they 
are soon distinguished. Among these young epi- 
thelial cells, we occasionally observe true pus-cor- 
puscles ; this happens when any part of the mucous 
membrane has suffered so much as to require repro- 

§ 102. Puriform milk seldom occurs without an 
admixture of actual pus-globules, which then pro- 
ceed from abscesses of the milk-gland. 

The puriform sediment of the urine is, in differ- 
ent cases, a matter of very different composition ; it 
only contains true pus-globules when the repro- 
ductive process is going on in some part of the kid- 
neys, bladder, &c. When we meet with true pus- 
globules in the urine, therefore, we may be certain 
that the uropoetic system has suffered a breach of 
continuity * in some part.t What has now been said 

* See note, p. 81.— (?. (?. 

t The rejection of undissolved pus by the urine from other 
parts of the system than those that lie in the immediate track of 
that fluid, is as untenable a notion as that of purulent metastasis 
without solution of the corpuscles and rupture of the vessels. 
As, in fact, speaking generally, no reception of the globules of 
pus into the circulating fluid is possible without rupture of 
vessels, it is in vain looking for any thing of the kind in the 
blood in ordinary cachexies and dyscrasies. Pus-globules, as 
such, can only occur in the blood (and if they did, it would not 
follow that they were to be excreted in the same shape by glands) 
when there has been a wound or injury inflicted, — when a solu- 
tion in the continuity of the tissues has occurred, which has 
necessarily implicated veins and lymphatics, as is the case in sup- 
purating sores, in phthisis, and where there are abscesses of inter- 
nal organs, the lungs, the bowels, &c. In cases where a deteri- 


in regard to the puriform characters of mucus, of 
milk, and of urine, applies to all the other secreted 

The Fluids of BuUcb, Plilyctenm^ and Pustules. 

§ 103. In the vesications produced by scalds, blis- 
ters, the inunction of the tartar-emetic ointment, in 
superficial aphthae, in the smallpox and cowpox erup- 
tions in their first periods, &c. &c., the fluid exuded 

oration of the juices appears to depend on the absorption of pus, 
it is not pus-globules as such that deteriorate the blood, but the 
chemical qualities of the pus which has been taken up, inde- 
pendently of every thing like form, in its component elements. 
Finally, pus absorbed from any one part of the animal body can 
never be deposited in the shape of pus, and by metastasis in 
any other part, inasmuch as pus once detached from the living 
surfaces that produced it is a matter no longer possessed of 
vitality, and incapable of evolving cytoblasts ; pus-globules once 
resolved into their elements, or dissolved, cease obviously to be 
pus : and this they must be, as we have seen, before they can be 
absorbed in quantity into the system, except in those cases in 
which a substance like pus is formed in the immediate channels of 
the circulation, as it is liable to be in phlebitis in all its shapes. 

[In phlebitis it is difficult to conceive how pus can enter 
the circulation, for the veins are shut up by clots between the 
diseased and healthy parts. A vast number of cases, usually 
comprehended under the term phlebitis, would appear rather to 
be examples of stagnation, clotting, and softening of fibrine. As 
to the occurrence of pus-globules in the blood, certain large white 
globules may be detected under the microscope in the blood of 
all the vertebrate animals ; and in some febrile affections pus- 
globules, or their similitude, occur in unusual numbers in the 
blood. A small quantity of pus introduced into the blood, into 
the cellular tissue, or into a serous cavity, generally predisposes 
in a remarkable manner to the suppurative action, although 
other foreign bodies, as iron nails, or common shot, do not pro- 
duce this effect. I have made many experiments on this subject 


is a serum with albuminous granules,* so long as 
the texture of the cutis remains uninjured, because 
the reproduction of the cuticle takes place without 
suppuration. Should the cutis suffer, however, 
then suppuration and cicatrization become neces- 
sary. It is on this account that we first observe 
true pus with pus-corpuscles produced in the suppu- 
rative stage of smallpox, when, through the intensity 
of the local inflammation and the contact of the 
smallpox virus, the subjacent corium is injured in 
its texture. In the modified or serous smallpox, 
the suppurative stage does not occur, in consequence 
of the local inflammation wanting power to cause 
destruction in the true skin. 

Fluid of Ulcers {Ichor'). 

§ 104. In the discharge of sores, true pus- 
corpuscles are only discovered when there are 
parts of the ulcerated surface upon which healthy 
exudation, and the formation of cytoblasts are pro- 

with dogs and cats. In pus produced by inflammation within 
the animal, the bad effect seems to be prevented by the assiduous 
manner in which nature isolates the matter from the neighbour- 
ing tissues ; and in those cases in which the suppurative action 
becomes general, affecting many organs, as in the so-called 
metastases, there is commonly little or no deposition of coagu- 
lated lymph circumscribing the purulent deposits, whether on 
the surface of a stump after amputation, or in the substance of 
an organ. In fine, it appears to me to follow, from the experi- 
ments just mentioned, that the contact of pus with the blood or 
tissues predisposes to suppuration generally — " a little leaven 
leaveneth the whole lump." — G. G.~\ 

* [The fluid of a large blister, set aside in a clean vessel for 
a time, will often, if not generally, be found to have a delicate 
coagulum formed in it. ] 


ceeding, as means of repairing the breach of con- 
tinuity. If this be not the case, — if the entire 
ulcerous surface be in an unhealthy state, then the 
secreted serum contains ichor-corpuscles, with gra- 
nules, in variable quantity ; and when the sore is of 
the phagedenic kind, larger or smaller detached 
shreds of the structures implicated, in the shape of 
filaments and fibres, cartilage-corpuscles, and the 
like ; occasionally, also, oil-globules and crystals. 
This fluid is of very different colours in different 
cases, and is generally much thinner than good pus. 
An [ill-conditioned and unhealing] sore is a wound 
with a surface incapable of throwing out or organ- 
ising plastic lymph, bedewed with an altered serous 
fluid — icJior, in technical language — destructive of 
any exudation that may be produced. This ichor 
seems even to irritate and eat farther into the tender 
surface of the wound, and to cause the destruction 
of the most superficial vessels, which leads to the dis- 
charge of small quantities of blood, which is imme- 
diately discoloured and so much changed that the 
liquor sanguinis rarely coagulates save in granules, 
and the blood-globules appear variously puflfed up or 
crumpled together, superficially corroded or broken 
down into irregular pieces. The blood-globules 
thus altered are denominated ichor-corpuscles (^Jig. 
9, d ; Jig. 10, c, d); they are very commonly 
covered with granules loosely or more intimately 
attached to them ; they are, probably, better 
studied in the discharge of glanders than in any 
other, this consisting in great part of them. When 
the unhealthy surface of a sore is turned into 
a fresh wound, either by the removal of the surface 


with the knife or the destruction of this, together 
with the discharge by means of the actual or poten- 
tial cautery, under otherwise favourable circum- 
stances reproductive suppuration is established. 

Contents of Cysts^ or Morbid closed Cavities.* 

§ 105. It is not uncommon to meet with matters 
of very diiferent descriptions deposited in cysts or 
membranous sacs in various parts of the body. The 
including sacs are organised in diiferent degrees, and 
are to be regarded as of common origin with their 
contents ; both alike are products of a process of 
transudation, and they, therefore, bear the same 
relations to each other, and generally, as do the villous 
adventitious membranes of serous cavities and the 
naturally shut sacs, in the various stages of their 
organisation (§79-87; fig- 17-21)- The contents 
may exhibit every degree of consistency and organ- 
isation, and present all the forms of the elements of 
the animal body. 

§ 106. The contents of accidental cysts are in 
one case serum, with a variety of substances in 
solution, or diffused through it. Besides granular 
matter, crystals of different salts are frequently met 
with, particularly in the cysts of glandular struc- 
tures, rhomboidal horny laminae, often in such quan- 
tity that the fluid glistens with something of a pearly 
or metallic lustre. Very commonly, also, another 
substance, — the ci/st-co7'puscle, which is very apt to 

* The heterogeneous contents of an ovarian cyst are exhi- 
bited in Jig. 256. Some distinct cells appear containing minute 
spherules, and there are many oval nucleated corpuscles, smaller 
than the cells. — G. G. 


be mistaken for the pus-corpuscle, is encountered in 
the fluid of cysts. Cyst-corpuscles are generally 
completely round, but little transparent, of a yellow- 
ish green, a greyish or brown colour, from the 300th 
to the 15th of a line in diameter, and they consist of 
granules rolled together without a nucleus (^Jig. 9j c ; 
Jig. 10, /, G. G.'sfig. 261, c). They, therefore, belong 
to the granular or aggregation-corpuscles ; and they 
not only resemble the mucus-corpuscles (^Jig. 25, B), 
and the aggregated pigmentary corpuscles {fig. 32, 
1), but often seem to form a medium of transition 
into these last. Under certain circumstances, the 
nature of which are unknown to me, these corpus- 
cles are flattened and lenticular, and then scarcely 
larger than the fiftieth of a line in diameter {fig> 10, 
e,f). These bodies are, also, often seen covered 
on the surface with the granules of the fluid.* 

§ lOy. When cysts contain what appears to be 
blood, the fluid is generally of the consistence of 
blood that has been stirred or beaten ; which, indeed, 
it greatly resembles : the fluid is not, however, blood 
in the strict sense of the word ; it appears rather to 
be the product of a continued exudation of the liquor 
sanguinis. The exudation-corpuscles are then of a 
chocolate colour, as is the serum also, — larger than 
blood-corpuscles, and, in point of organisation, they 

* The comparison of the pus-globules of the frog with its 
blood-globules is very important in respect to the theory of the 
formation of pus. They bear a very close resemblance to the 
flat, aggregated corpuscles above described ; but they contain a 
distinct granular nucleus ; in diameter they measure about five- 
sixths of that of the blood-globules. 

[I have never succeeded in establishing suppuration in frogs. 
However injured, the parts produced no purulent matter. — G. G,'\ 


correspond with those of serous cavities.* Such 
cysts, of considerable size, are frequently found in 
the ovaries of women and the domestic animals, in 
the kidneys, &c.t 

§ 108. Encysted abscesses, or purulent deposits 
of glandular and other parts, contain in one case 
true, and in another false, pus ; in a third case, 
again, the included matter looks like mashed potato, 
and consists of exudation-corpuscles, which often 
remain long unchanged after the removal by absorp- 
tion of the serum, as in scrofulous glandular swell- 
ings, and in false or cytoblast tubercles, which, in 
the ox particularly, occur so commonly, and sooner 
or later go on to suppuration, — in the lungs, for 
instance, where they then form vomicce. 

§ 109. The induration of glandular organs 
especially, in consequence of plastic exudation into 

* In the body of a female 48 years of age, which was ex- 
amined by the author in the year 1837, two enormous cysts of 
this kind were discovered, one of them lying between the trans- 
versus and internal oblique abdominal muscles, and containing 
upwards of twenty Bernese measures of fluid ; the other and 
smaller being situated between the diaphragm and transverse 
arch of the colon. The parietes of these cysts were composed 
of an organised layer of fibrinous matter half an inch in thick- 
ness, covered internally with extensive projecting villi, and also 
with many hydatids ; the free-corpuscles in the fluid of these 
last measured the 170th of a Paris line in diameter. The iso- 
lated portions of the exudation were also organised, and shewed 
the general chemical properties of fibrine ; they were dissolved 
by acetic acid, and again precipitated by hydroferrocyanate of 
potash, alcohol, and heat. 

t The fluid from an ovarian cyst of a mare weighed in one 
case 11 pounds ; that from a cyst in the kidney of a fatted 
bullock, 14i pounds. 


their tissues (infiltrated tubercle), often consists 
for a long time of exudation -corpuscles, and re- 
main in the shape of a nearly dry substance after 
the resorption of the serum with which it was at 
first abundantly mixed ; it is much disposed to 
run into suppuration, but is susceptible, by a further 
process of organisation, of conversion into true 
fibrous tubercle, which composes a cicatriform sub- 
stance, — a substance like the cicatrices of cutaneous 
wounds, and consists of cellular and granular fibres, 
occasionally of imperfectly formed filaments.* 

As the result of an analysis of the caseiform 
tubercular matter, undertaken by M. Hecht, 6 
grammes were found to consist of 14 decigrammes 
of albumen, 12 decigrammes of gelatine, 18 deci- 
grammes of fibrine ; water and loss, 16 decigrammes. 

Organisation of the Exudation in Suppurating 
Wounds ( Granulation^ Cicatrization'). 

§ 110. As already stated (§ 31-42), the form- 
ation of cytoblasts is the general principle of genesis 
or origin, and the formation of cells the general 
principle of evolution in all the elementary parts of 
the animal organism possessed of determinate forms. 
Albumen, as the matter susceptible of vitality, 
quickened and endowed with formative power in the 
shape of liquid fibrine, is, however, the one universal 
genetic fluid, — the cytohlastema from which and 
in which animal cytoblasts are produced, the seed and 

* From the above, it is evident that the author uses the word 
tubercle in another and a much wider sense than that in which 
it is employed in this country. Vide farther on this subject, 
§ 310 et sequent. — G. G. 


the soil at once, as it were. The same suhstance, 
in all probability, exists in a modified condition 
in the vital fluids of plants, especially at those places 
where the formation of cytoblasts is going on. The 
visible manifestation of the common principle of life 
connected with organic matter is the formation of 
cells included one within the other ; that of or- 
ganic matter susceptible of vital endowment is the 
formation of granules. The presence of life in or- 
ganic fluids is proclaimed by the enduring presence 
of ternary and quaternary compounds. 

§ 111. In all essential particulars we find a 
repetition of the process which we have already fol- 
lowed in the organisation of the plastic exudation of 
serous cavities (§ 82, 88), in the formation of the 
substance of cicatrices ; there is this difference, how- 
ever, that in the organisation of the new product com- 
plexity must be expected, by so much the greater as 
the tissues to be repaired are of dissimilar nature, 
and that the particles and masses of fibrine, mingled 
with the serum, instead of being dissolved as they 
are in close cavities, are transformed or degenerate 
into pus, — an event which also happens in regard to 
the exudation of shut cavities, so often as the air finds 
access to them soon after exudation has occurred. 
When adventitious, morbid cysts, which have ex- 
isted for years, enclosing all the while fluids of a 
nature very different from pus, are opened, suppu- 
ration generally immediately sets in ; the lining 
membrane of the cavity is thrown off, and the space 
now changed to an open wound is gradually closed 
by granulation. As the access of the atmosphere, 
generally speaking, proves favourable to the occur- 


rence of reproductive purulent formation, so true 
pus is usually only found in situations in contact 
with the air,* whilst the contents of close cysts, filled 
with puriform matter, are generally no more than 
aggregation or cyst - corpuscles (§ 35^ and 106). 
Exudation from the surface of a wound goes on con- 
tinually until it is completely healed up ; and as 
organisation begins immediately in the exudation, 
the fibrine first poured out, and nearest the exuding 
surface, must be at once completely organised, whilst 
exudation is still going on in the interior of the sore 
upon the granulating surface. 

With regard to the mode in which exudation 
takes place, the plastic lymph coagulates as fast as 
it is thrown out, and in a few minutes composes a 
layer of unorganised vitreous substance, investing 
the entire surface of the wound. Half-an-hour later 
this is found transformed into an imperfect epithe- 
lium, — the wound appears covered with a delicate 
membrane, made up of exudation-corpuscles arranged 
side by side, and under the microscope appearing 
tessellated, or like a piece of pavement formed of 
polygonal pieces ; the nuclei of the several corpus- 
cles are also now perceived, and the new membrane 
acquires a passing resemblance to the appear- 
ances seen in Jig. 4<J. This most immediate layer 
now becomes transiently true epithelium, whilst the 
nucleus, at the same time and under circumstances 

* In a preceding page the author asserts this more un- 
equivocally. Dr. Davy could obtain no air from the pus of 
abscesses (" Researches, Phy. and Anat." vol. ii. p. 462) ; and I 
am not aware that it has ever been proved that air has access to 
many suppurating sacs in which true pus is produced. — G. G, 


with the precise nature of which I am not yet fully 
acquainted, undergoes three different alterations, viz. 
1, it becomes granulated ; or, % a clear vesicle is 
formed on the cytoblast ; or, 3, a nucleolus appears 
in the nucleus, roimded cells are formed about the 
exudation-corpuscles, and the exudation or cytoblast- 
coverings become cell-coverings, which, were they 
permanent, would compose a true epithelium (Jig. 
215, c). The formation arrived at this stage is 
already an integral part of the body where it is 
evolved, being included within the common bound- 
ary of the organism, and participating in its general 
states and operations. The cytoblasts which are 
remote from the surface of the wound, in the mean- 
time retrograde (§ 93) ; their enveloping membranes 
crack (§ 94, ^/ig. 206), and the masses into which 
they divide become granules (§ 94) ; the nucleus 
farther splits into from two to four granules, and 
the cytoblast membrane is transformed to a pus- 
membrane (Jig. 9j b), which is now foreign, and 
felt to be foreign, to the organism. The pus- 
globules separate and become diffused through 
the serum ; they fall, at length, into granules, and 
are gradually removed from the wound, whilst the 
general mass of pus included within it, from the 
granulating surface outwards, exhibits the various 
transition stages from the perfect exudation to the 
ripe pus-globule. 

§ 112. The cellular layer, which now covers the 
surface of the wound, as a living, organised portion 
of the body, is competent to carry on the pro- 
cess of transudation and reparation ; over and in 



contact with it a new layer of exudation-globules 
is thrown out, which, undergoing the transformations 
just described, come in their turn to form a mem- 
braniform cellular layer ; over which a layer of pus- 
corpuscles is deposited as before, and so the process 
goes on. 

§ 113. In the successive evolutions of these cel- 
lular laminae, the newly-formed unite with the older 
cells to form a continuous cellular substance, which 
is by and by converted into various kinds of cica- 
trix, — cellular substance, bone, tendon, &c. ; or, at 
all events, a matter which replaces cellular tissue, 
bone, tendon, skin, &c. 


§ 114. The cellular substance produced in this 
manner forms what are called the granulations 
of wounds ; in the course of repair and suppuration 
going on granulations are scattered over the surface 
of a healthy healing sore, in the shape of blood -red 
rounded points, very much as we see the surface 
of a close cauliflower covered with minute warty 
tubercles. The bright red colour of healthy granu- 
lations does not depend on the numerous newly- 
formed vessels, filled with blood (§ 86), alone ; the 
cells themselves, especially those most recently 
evolved, are of nearly as deep a red colour as the 
blood-globules ; and the superficial bleeding which 
follows even the slightest touch of the granulating 
surface, does not proceed from blood shed from the 
newly-formed vessels only : the red fluid, besides 
blood - globules shed in this manner, consists in 


part also of ruddy cytoblasts, newly developed red- 
coloured cells, pale granules, and reddish serum.* 

It is a common property of animal cytoblasts, 
that they present a red colour on their first forma- 
tion, and in contact with oxygen ; but this hue 
they lose again, whether they advance to perfect 
developement and become integral parts of a living 
tissue, or die and degenerate, as they do when they 
are cast loose and form pus-globules. 

§ 115. A thin perpendicular slice of the newly- 
formed substance of a suppurating wound generally 
shew^s the different stages of transition from the 
momentary vitreous substance of the superficies, and 
the layer of exudation-corpuscles immediately be- 
neath it, to the almost perfectly formed supple- 
mentary tissue of the deeper portions ; the different 
laminse, however, are never so distinct here as they 
are in other situations — for example, in the second- 
arily engendered cellular substance composing the 
adhesions and false membranes of close cavities 
hned with serous surfaces {fig. 17? 18> 190 The 
newly-formed vessels present themselves in such re- 
lative connexion with the nearest uninjured parts of 
the body, that they appear to form a normal portion 
of the peripheral vascular expansion ; the newly- 
formed vessels, and probably nerves also, compose ter- 
minal festoons or loops, and form a kind of foundation 
for the granulations in the same manner very nearly 
as the terminal loops of the vessels and nerves do 

* It is difficult to say whether this colour of the cytoblasts 
is acquired from contact with the atmosphere, or is original ; 
it is next to impossible to make observations upon the formation 
of granulations with the exclusion of the atmospheric air. 


for the papillary bodies of the cutis. Of these ter- 
minal loops, the representations in Jigs. 92, 93, 97> 
and 98, are calculated to convey a very good idea. 
The relations of the newly-formed nerves are traced 
with much more difficulty than those of the newly- 
produced blood-vessels. 


§ 116. When the cavity of the wound is at 
length more or less perfectly filled up by the granu- 
lations and the supplementary tissues they have 
formed, the last layers of exudation poured out 
undergo transformation into an imperfect kind of 
corium, and finally, to a cuticle or epidermis of 
the same description. In place of an exuding wound 
we have, in the end, a deeper and then a paler 
violet-coloured depressed cicatrix. Even after com- 
plete cicatrization, the newly-developed tissues are 
never so determinate and distinct as the primary 
tissues in their immediate vicinity. 

The various supplementary tissues are, generally 
speaking, formed in the same manner as the pri- 
mary tissues are engendered in the embryo, i. e. 
from a cellular substance. 


§ 117- It is not my intention to enter upon the 
consideration of the developement of the several or- 
gans of animals in this place ; this subject belongs to 
the Physiology. It is within my province, however, 
to describe the evolution and mode of formation of 
the various elementary parts and tissues that enter 
into the constitution of animal bodies. 

THE OVUM. 117 

The Fcetal Ovum. 

§ 118. Soon after the appearance of the ovaries 
in the embryo of the human subject and mammalia, 
we observe preparations made for the production of 
new individuals. These preparations, indeed, only 
come into play at a much later period, viz. when 
manhood or the adult age is attained ; but, at the 
earliest period, eggs are discovered included in 
that which was but just an Qgg, and these in their 
turn are endowed in perpetuity with the wonderful 
heritage of evolving their like. 

When the investing membrane of the extremely 
delicate ovaries of young embryos is torn through 
by means of a couple of pairs of fine forceps, and 
their contents, after being carefully divided into 
pieces, are mixed with a solution of sugar or a 
neutral salt and brought into the field of the 
microscope, numbers of extremely delicate trans- 
parent vesicles are perceived. These are readily 
distinguished from the spongy substance of the 
ovary, which looks loose and full of cysts, and finely 

The vesicles, on the contrary, are perceived as 
transparent bladders filled with a homogeneous 
fluid, which to chemical re-agents comports itself 
like albumen, and including a darker mass often 
visibly attached to the inner aspect of the walls 
of the vesicle, and appearing in the guise of a 
rounded spot with an indefinite outline. 

§ 119. The cells of the ovary {Jig. 28, «) in 
which these vesicles lie embedded, appear to be of 
equal sizes ; they are round, extremely pale, and 


generally include several nuclei ; they are connected 
by means of a serous fluid, or an extremely delicate 
intercellular substance, and cover the vesicles lying 
flat upon the glass plate in such a way that at first 

they seem as if they were included within these 

(t It iii\ 
a, a ^ a ). 

§ 120. When we succeed, by means of motion 

in different directions, and the application of a 

delicate hair pencil, in freeing the easily destructible 

vesicle from the surrounding cysts, its rounded spot 

comes into view upon its middle or towards one of 

its edges, and the object presents itself in the guise 

of a cell, the nucleus not homogeneous. Whether 

this cell becomes the Graafian vesicle, which, in the 

adult, includes the ovum, or is the rudiment of the 

ovum itself, I do not venture to say ; for it stands 

as a simple cell in the same rank, as it were, with 

newly formed cells at large {^fig^ 216). In all 

likelihood the primary cell is the representative of 

the ovum, which then forms the zona pellucida- 

and Graafian follicle ; or the delicate vesicle is the 

albuminous envelope which Krause has indicated as 

the covering of the ovum in the ovary of adults.* 

This latter view would be in accordance with that 

of Schwann,t who regards the vesicular part as the 

primary cell. 

The Unimpregnated Ovum in the Adult. 

§ 121. In older foetuses the several parts of the 
ovum may be demonstrated such as they present 

* Muller's "Archiv," 1837. S. 27. 

t " Mikroscopische Untersuchungen," &c. Berlin, 1839. 

S. 48. 

THE OVUM. 119 

themselves in the ovaries of adults. The substance 
of the ovary, which is now of firmer consistence, 
includes numerous cysts of various sizes, generally 
fi'om the ^th to the ^th of a line in diameter, but 
in some animals much more ; as in the cow, where 
they are IJ line in diameter. These cysts are 
generally globular in figure, and are provided with 
a proper indusium. They form the Graafian vesi- 
cles or Graafian follicles {fig. 27j (^\ ^^ which the 
Graafian ovula (c), surrounded by the cells of the 
follicular body (5), are contained. This is surrounded 
immediately by Krause's membrane of the albumen, 
which is generally obvious in the ovum of the cow, 
but was not visible in the subject of the drawing 
{fig. 27) ; it had probably burst. Within this 
albuminous membrane, and surrounded by fluid 
albumen, the vitellus or yolk is suspended at perfect 
fi'eedom. This vitellus consists of two globular- 
shaped vesicles, the outer of which, the zona pel- 
LUCIDA (c), is of considerable thickness, but without 
manifest structure ; whilst the second, the proper 
VITELLINE MEMBRANE* (t/), of extreme delicacy, 
looks like an epithelium of the former, and includes 
immediately the finely granular vitellary substance 
(e). The flat-shaped germinal vesicle (y) is 
generally found attached to the inner aspect of the 
vitelline membrane ; sometimes, however, it is met 
with free amidst the vitellary matter. The middle 
of the germinal vesicle is occupied by the germinal 
SPOT (^), a structure which bears the closest possible 
resemblance to the true pus-globule. 

* Vide Note under next paragraph, § 122. 


Origin of the Ovum. 

§ 122. The ovum is formed either in accordance 
with the law of involution, so that the albuminous 
membrane with the included nucleus forms the 
parent cell, in which the nucleus, as secondary cell, 
is transformed into the zona pellucida and vitelline 
membrane (the latter, perchance, no more than a 
layer of albumen*), the contents of this secondary 
cell being the yolk, whose nucleus is the germinal 
vesicle, and whose nucleolus is the germinal spot ; 
just as th© germinal vesicle, when the nucleolus 
of the germinal spot appears, must be regarded as 
constituting the innermost cell. Or, otherwise, the 
germinal spot is already present in the original 
albuminous cell, the nucleus of which it forms as 
cell-germ, and upon and around this the germinal 
vesicle is evolved as the secondary cell, according 
to the ordinary laws of organic developement. In 
all probability the germinal spot, as the cytoblast 
or organic germ, is the primary formation, from 
which the germinal vesicle is evolved in the usual 
way, the vitelline and albuminous membranes being 
subsequently produced around this. In either case, 
cell within cell is very obviously included in the 
Graafian vesicle ; and this, the albuminous mem- 
brane, the vitellary membrane, and the capsule of 
the germinal vesicle, are to be viewed as the mem- 
branes of so many cells ; the first of these being the 
Graafian vesicle with the ovum ; the second, the 
homogeneous albumen ovi with the vitellus ; the 

* On the formation of the ovum, vide the " Elements of Phy- 
siology " of Dr. Rud. Wagner; by R. Willis, M.D., p. 36, et seq. 

THE OVUM. 121 

third, the viteUus with the germinal vesicle ; and 
the fourth, a homogeneous, and, according to Wag- 
ner, also an albuminous fluid, including the germinal 
spot. Nor is this all : the germinal spot is • itself 
even as certainly a compound body, — a cytoblast 
or organic germ, which, supposing the germinal 
vesicle actually to disappear from the fecundated 
ovum, is evolved from the germinal membrane at 
the same spot. 

Earliest period of Developement in the Fecundated 
Ovwiiy and Origin of the Embryo in the In- 
cubated Egg. 

§ 123. In all probability, the germinal vesicle is 
formed simultaneously with the Graafian follicle; 
and the yolk-cells are only produced subsequently 
around the germinal vesicle. The yolk is at first 
very small, and its capsule embraces the germinal 
vesicle closely ; it, therefore, increases in an in- 
finitely greater ratio than the germinal vesicle. Cell- 
germs arise, which surround the germinal vesicle 
and prove the first rudiments of the germinal mem- 
brane ; at the same time other cell-germs appear, 
which are rapidly evolved into white cells — the vitel- 
line cells for the formation of the vitelline cavity. 
On the inner aspect of the growing vitellary mem- 
brane, with the exception of the spot which is 
occupied by the germinal vesicle and the rudiment 
of the germinal membrane, arise other yellow cells, 
apparently as products of the vitellary membrane, 
which constitute the proper vitellary matter. Whilst 
these cells are produced, the exudation from the 


inner aspect of the vitellary membrane continues ; 
there is a perpetual production of yellow-coloured 
cell-germs between the vitellary membrane and the 
mass of cell-germs already formed, until the growth 
of the yolk is complete. These yellow cell-germs, 
including one another in concentrically disposed 
layers, also include the first-formed white cells, 
which are in immediate contact with the rudi- 
mentary germinal membrane ; and, whilst the 
number and volume of these last increase, the 
middle point of the white central cells of the vitel- 
lary cavity recedes more and more from the ger- 
minal membrane and germinal vesicle, yet is ever in 
connexion with them : so that between the vitellary 
cavity and the proligerous disc there is at length a 
canal or passage of communication established.* 
At length the ovum quits the ovary and the ger- 
minal vesicle disappears. In its place we have then 
the disc-shaped germinal membrane produced, which 
by and by divides into two layers ; the outer being 
distinguished as the sei'ous layer, and the inner, the 
mucous layer, whilst the space between them is 
spoken of as the vascular layer. From the serous 
layer are evolved the animal and external organs ; 
from the mucous layer arise the organic and internal 
parts ; from the vascular intermediate layer, as the 
name implies, the blood and vascular system are 
produced. The germinal membrane consists of 
globular cells with nuclei and granules ; it grows 
by the growth and increase in number of these 

* See an excellent figure of the parts here described in 
Wagner's " Elements of Physiology," by Willis, p. 84. 

THE OVUM. 123 

111 the eggs of fowls that have been incu- 
bated for about sixteen hours we begin to per- 
ceive the separation into layers in the germinal 
membrane ; at the same time also we distinguish a 
difference in their constituent elementary cells : the 
cells of the outer serous lamina are highly trans- 
parent, and inclose a limpid fluid and single nuclei 
with nucleoli and a few granules, very much in the 
manner of connected epithelial cells. The inner 
lamina, in an abundant and softer intercellular sub- 
stance, includes cells wdth various globular dark 
nuclei and fine granules.* In the middle of the 
germinal membrane, betwixt its laminse, now in- 
creased in size by the apposition and growth of cells, 
arises the area pelhccida, a transparent spot or 
space consisting of smaller cells and granules ; and 
here it is that the embryo is formed by the inver- 
sion of the middle portion of the germinal mem- 
brane, which has increased in thickness, and the 
separation of the edges of the same part. The 
embryo therefore, as well as all the parts about it, 
is formed exclusively of cells. In the middle in- 
cluded layer of the germinal membrane it is that the 
blood-vessels are engendered ; these partly expand 
in the vitellary cavity, and then begins the period of 
the nourishment of the embryo from the yolk ; but 
without reference to this, every rudiment of a new 
part, as also the growth and evolution of the parts 
already commenced, take place by the further pro- 
duction of cell-germs and cells, and of structures com- 
posed by these. In the interior of the rudiments of 

* See a fine figure of these cells in the work of Wagner just 
quoted, p. 212. 


the vascular system are evolved the red-coloured per- 
manent * cytoblasts, organic germs or blood-globules, 
the liquor sanguinis, &c. : in a word, the blood. 
The further developement of the different compound 
parts will be treated of at length in the immediately 
following histological portion of this work. 


§ 124. Should my notions in regard to the 
transformation of vegetable albumen, under the 
assimilating and vitalising forces of plants, into a 
fluid gluten or general cytoblas tenia, be confirmed, 
we should have the same accordance in the assi- 
milation and chemical metamorphoses of assimilable 
matters in the animal and vegetable kingdom, which 
has already been shewn by Schwann to obtain in 
reference to their structure and mode of growth. 
The fluid gluten of plants would then correspond 
to the fluid fibrine of animals ; and it is not unin- 
teresting to observe that both of these matters are 
distinguished by their power to form granules. A 

* The word permanent here is to be taken in a restricted 
sense. It is not meant that the blood-globules themselves 
undergo no change : they are perpetually changing, being re- 
solved so as to pass into the elements probably of all the tissues ; 
and such portions of these tissues as are not unfitted for the 
uses of the economy, when they come to be changed and 
renewed, are very probably associated again, and again formed 
into blood-globules. The blood-globules are only permanent as 
regards their form : as blood-globules, they are at the acme of 
their developement ; without solution and disintegration, without 
losing shape and consistence, they cannot become or pass into 
other tissues. 


parallel has already been drawn between the sap 
of the roots of vegetables and the chyle of animals, 
betwixt the circulating fluid or blood of animals 
and the sap of the trunk or stem, branches, and 
leaves of plants, but without any very particular 
investioation of the nature of the resemblance be- 


tween them. The united researches of physiolo- 
gists and chemists ought to resolve this problem, 
the more speedily now, as the majority of the 
latter have very recently shewn nothing like the 
old indisposition to grapple with the difficulties 
of organic chemistry. The mutability of organic 
elements no longer rebuts inquirers, and the 
advances which have lately been made in the 
organic have been no less signal than those which 
have long marked the cultivation of the inorganic 
branch of chemical science. Should the idea be 
confirmed that the blood of plants, like that of 
animals, contains peculiar corpuscles * as one of its 
essential elements, then will the physiology of vege- 
tables and of animals be equally advanced by re- 
searches in the one or in the other ; every new 
discovery in the one will be the herald of a cor- 
responding discovery in the other ; and the science 
of organic life will thus acquire a double impetus in 
its onward progress. The daily increase of our 
knowledge in regard to the analogies in the morpho- 
logical life of plants and animals gives every reason 
to believe that such will truly be found to be the 
case. At all events, the inquiries of Schleiden and 

* A very important acquisition for the doctrine of the 
pneumatic relations, or respiration of vegetables, of which so little 
is yet known. 


Schwann have opened up a new and yet untrodden 
field for investigation — a kind of continent in phy- 
siology, the existence of which was long suspected, 
though never demonstrated, but which now lies 
open to the physiologist and the chemist, with 
every promise of a most ample harvest as the 
reward of any pains they may bestow in cultivating 
its soil. 

§ 125. Many particulars bearing upon organiza- 
tion and reorganization by means of evolved cells 
having now been mentioned, we may next proceed 
to examine more closely the special relations of the 
cells in the constitution of the various tissues of the 
human and animal body. 

Just as we see the same building material, after 
it is worked, put together and employed to the most 
varied ends, used to erect the most dissimilar 
fabrics, so do we observe cells in the animal body 
modelled and arranged, after a plan which is partly 
known, in the most various manners. The cell 
which is the product of the living cytoblast is, in 
fact, a material prepared beforehand, and available 
for the most varied purposes in the organic fabric. 
From the nearly passive constituent, which in many 
cases may be held as fulfilling its destiny merely by 
occupying space, to the organ by which man is fitted 
to approach his Maker, every part of the body has 
one common mode of origin, even as organisms of 
all kinds arise from single cells. In the progres- 
sively forming organism every care is taken that 
plastic matter, in adequate quantity and of proper 
quality, according to its wants, be furnished. 
Hidden life in the fluid, in the shapable, precedes 


revealed life in the solid, in the shapen. Fat, 
albumen and fibrine, or assimilable, nutritive and 
plastic matter, form the three first distinguishable 
grades towards the capacity to assume determinate 
forms and shapes in man and animals ; after these 
follows the formation of cytoblasts, the universal 
elementary type of all compound constituent parts ; 
then come the formation of cells, the co-ordination 
of cells, and the metamorphosis of cells. 

Of the different Constitutions of Cells. 

§ 126. In the same way as the germinal vesicle 
is connected with the inner aspect of the vitelline 
membrane, the cytoblast is generally seen as the 
cell-nucleus adhering to a point of the cell-capsule 
which has arisen upon it, and increased in size by 
the progressive accumulation of an included fluid. 
The cytoblast only appears in the middle of the 
cell — 1st. When it has been accidentally detached 
from its connexion with the inner aspect of the 
capsule, and this is an event that rarely happens. 
2d. When the specifically heavier cytoblast, descend- 
ing through the fluid of the cell, sinks to the lowest 
point, — examined from above, it of course appears 
to occupy the middle of the cell. 3d. When the cell 
is flattened, in which case the cytoblast always lies 
more or less truly in the middle of the hemisphere 
of the cell-capsule, depressed into the shape of a disc. 
When in the course of microscopical observations 
on cells, the cytoblast or nucleus is observed very 
generally on the edge of the vesicle, in all likeli- 
hood globular cells of recent formation are in the 


field {figs. 216 and 227) ; conviction of the truth of 
which, or otherwise, may he obtained by moving 
the object, and shading the light on one side. If 
such young cells swing free amidst or upon a limpid 
medium, then the subjacent nuclei will be seen to 
swing something in the manner of a pendulum, 
when the object bearer is slightly shaken ; and 
those within the vesicles can be seen to move hither 
and thither across their diameter ; in general, too, 
the vesicle is smaller relatively to the nucleus, the 
younger the cell is. When the primarily fluid 
contents of the cell augment, or imbibe water by 
endosmose from surrounding media, then the vesicle 
increases proportionately ; but when the cell gives 
water to a surrounding medium by exosmose, then it 
shrinks, and, in some rare instances, becomes irre- 
gular and wrinkled : generally it becomes flattened, 
the point of the vesicle opposite to that at which 
the nucleus is attached approaching this, and the 
cell passing through the changes of form which are 
shewn in figs. 227 and 228, a-fi. 

§ 127. From the fluid contents of cells, albu- 
minous granules are frequently precipitated, which, 
when they are very minute, and not in too great 
numbers, generally exhibit lively molecular move- 
ments. Should the cell lose its water after a copious 
precipitation of albumen, it appears granular, and 
may be confounded with the aggregation-corpuscle 
(§ 35) ; but in general only the older, flat and 
detached cells, are properly granular (fig. 220). 

§ 128. Occasionally the cell-capsule bursts and 
disappears, leaving the nucleus behind ; more com- 
monly, and in the horny tissues regularly, the 


nucleus disappears, and then the flattened cell be- 
comes a scale or lamella {fgs, 34 and 41) ; when 
this happens in the globular cellj then the vesicle is 
produced {Jigs. 208 and 209). Cell-nuclei are fre- 
quently granular, those of the cells of cartilage and 
of cellular fibres are so commonly. Under what cir- 
cumstances the nucleus and the nucleolus increase, 
whilst in the old nucleolus a new one arises, by 
which the nucleus becomes a cell, and also how the 
contrary of all this occurs, must be determined by 
future inquiries. The nucleolus, too, occasionally, 
perhaps more commonly than is imagined, is gra- 
nular ; this is the case regularly in the ganglionic 
cell {Jig. 89, 2, 3), and in the ovum, if the germi- 
nal spot be taken as the indication of the cell- 

§ 129. Cells vary in size according to the degree 
of their developement, according to their destina- 
tion, &c. ; they are seen of all dimensions, between 
that of the lymph-granule and the 60th of a Paris 
line ; in the ovum they are a Paris line and more 
in diameter ; next to the ovum they are largest in 
the cellular cartilages {fig. 57), and in those parts 
of the bones where the nuclei (the bone corpuscles) 
lie very much isolated {fig. 68 at a). 

§ 130. The form presented by cells is also very 
various ; those that are isolated are generally 
spherical {figs. 21 6 and 227, a), ellipsoidal, egg- 
shaped, pear-shaped {figs. 217 and 89, 2, 4, 6), 
more rarely kidney- shaped or flattened. When 
many cells are closely crowded together they become 
polyhedral ; those only that are connected into a 
membrane, and whose form is flattened or lenticu- 



lar, those of the cuticle, for example, are polygonal 
on their edges ; generally they are six-sided (^figs. 
215 and 226). Rounded cells heaped together 
always become flattened at the points of contact, just 
as we see soap-bubbles when they touch one another 
LfiS' 72> ^) ? l^ut when the cells, whether piled 
together or connected into a membrane, do not come 
into contact immediately, but are separated by an 
intercellular matter, then may they continue to pre- 
serve their original rounded figure, as is the case 
with the ganglionic cells ; or they may become poly- 
gonal or polyhedral, as we observe them in different 
epithelise {fig. 32, 2, 3 ; figs. 33, 47, and 214). 

§ 131. When the cells pass into fibres, they 
become fusiform (§ 84 and 35), and in their linear 
connexion form cellular fibres, within which the 
nuclei are frequently to be observed connected by 
internuclear fibres {fig. 219? c?) ; these nuclear 
fibres perhaps even occur naked {fig. 203). When 
the cell becomes elongated, its vesicle then forms a 
rounded or pointed, but closed, tube at either end ; 
this, according to Schwann,* is the case in the crystal- 
line lens of the eye, and, according to Gurlt,t in the 
acicular enamel of the pulp of the tooth. Should 
the cell only elongate in the form of a tube at 
one part, it acquires the shape of a club (Schwann, 
Tab. I. fig. 12). Cells undergo elongation in differ- 
ent directions, and form networks with one another, 
as is seen in the branched pigmentary cells {fig. 
32, d ; Schwann, Tab. II. fig. 9). Cells increase 

* Mikroscop. Untersuch. &c. 

t Lehrbuch der verg. Phys. Tab. ii. Fig. 11. 


and are developed independently in the vicinity of 
the capillary vessels, appaiently in consequence of 
endosmotic penetration of the surrounding cyto- 
blastema ; but how they are determined to assume 
such a variety of forms in the composition of the 
elementary tissues is unknown. 

Schwann* gives the following classification of 
the animal tissues, as the result of his inquiries in 
their present state : — 

1st Class. — Isolated independent cells. To this 
class belong especially the cells of the various 
fluids, t — lymph-corpuscles, blood-corpuscles, 
mucus-corpuscles, pus-corpuscles, &c. 

2d Class Independent cells united into con- 
tinuous tissues. To this class belong the 
whole of the horny tissues and the crystalline 

3d Class. — Cells, only the walls of which blend 
together : cartilage, bone, teeth. 

4th Class. — Fibrous cells, or cell-fibres : cellu- 
lar tissue, sinewy tissue, elastic tissue. 

5th Class. — Cells, the walls and cavities of 
which are alike blended or united : muscles, 
bones, capillary vessels. 

Pigment^ Pigmentum nigrum, 

§ 132. The substratum of the black pigment 
consists of minute granules, which, when isolated in 
a fluid, exhibit molecular motion by so much the 

* Op. cit. S. 74. 

t These we regard as cytoblasts, not as cells. 


more lively as the fluid is volatile,* and which, 
heaped together, absorb or reflect the rays of light 
in such a way that the mass, whether viewed by 
transmitted or direct light, appears of a black-brown 
colour. The several rounded granules, under a high 
magnifying power, appear pretty evenly dispersed 
through a hyaline substance ; individually, they are 
not black and opaque, but transparent {fig. 39, 
5, c, d). The pigmentary granules, as we observe 
them in the difiluent pigmentary matter of the 
choroid coat, form aggregation-corpuscles (pigment- 
ary corpuscles), which are less transparent than the 
mucus and cyst-corpuscle (^fig^ 32, 1, a), or they 
are inclosed in cells, to which they give their black 
colour. These pigmentary cells are met with either 
more isolated, or grouped together, as in the skin ; 
or they form membranes made up of polyhedral 
parts, as in the choroid coat of the eye (^fig. 32, 2 
— at a a, some cells are removed from the inter- 
cellular substance — 3, and /^. 33, upon the trans- 
lucent veins). As a general rule, the nucleus of the 
pigmentary cell appears clear and transparent, and 
it frequently includes a small darker nucleolus. 
Many pigmentary cells undergo elongation in dif- 
ferent directions into hollow fibres, which, meeting 
other pigmentary formations of the same kind, pro- 
duce a more or less perfect network of star-shaped 
cells. The nuclei of the multangular pigmentary 

* To obtain assurance that this is the ease, let a small 
quantity of any finely granular matter, pigment, dust, any inso- 
luble precipitate, be added to water, oil of turpentine, alcohol, 
ether, &c., and let the vigour of the motions be compared with 
the volatility of the fluids successively employed. 

FAT. 133 

cells disappear in liorn (^Jig. 35, b). Pigmentary 
matter is met with in every part of a brownish-black 
or black colour. 

Fat Vesicles; Fat Cells. 

§ 133. In many parts of the human and animal 
body, a larger or smaller quantity of fat is very 
constantly met with. The quantity is generally in 
proportion to the degree of nutrition. The fat itself 
exists in the shape of small globular vesicles, and is 
generally intermixed with the cellular tissue. Col- 
lections of these vesicles are encountered particularly 
between and around the muscles of the eyeball, in 
the hollow of the orbit, between the muscles of the 
external ear in mammals, — situations in which they 
serve as pads or cushions, retaining parts in their 
relative situations, and aiding them in their actions. 
A quantity of fat, more or less, is also very regu- 
larly found upon the heart, covered immediately by 
the cardiac reflection of the pericardium, and around 
the great blood-vessels at their origins and termina- 
tions ; in the folds of the omentum and mesentery ; 
about the kidneys ; within the spinal canal between 
the periosteum and the dura mater ; in the cancelli 
of the short, and shafts of the long, bones ; in the 
subcutaneous cellular tissue, &c. The fat of the 
cellular tissue is obviously inclosed in membranous 
cell- vesicles, in which the nuclei are frequently to be 
discovered (fat cells). The ordinary fat vesicles 
measure from the To-oth to the -iVth of a Paris line 
in diameter C^^. 31, b) ; those of the spinal canal 
(«) are from the T^oth to the to oth of a Paris line 

134 FAT. 

in dimensions ; when they are isolated or are im- 
bedded in a soft intercellular substance they retain 
their globular figure, but, like all other spherical 
cells, they become polyhedral when they lie in con- 
tact one with another, with no kind of interposed 
matter {fig. 72 h).* The consistency of the fat 
included in the vesicles varies with the ratio be- 
tween the stearine and elain of which all fat con- 
sists ; it is very firm in the sheep, where the stea- 

* Although the majority of the fat vesicles are circular, a 
great number of them are of an oval form. The smaller are 
generally of the former shape, while many of the larger are 
frequently more or less elliptical. The magnitude of the vesicles 
is remarkably variable. A very common size is about g-^oth of 
an inch in diameter. In the fat vesicles of the omentum of a 
foetal calf I observed numberless gradations, from ^o^ogth to 
2-Joth of an inch in diameter, although most of them were about 
■g^th of an inch. In the mesentery of a shrewmouse scarcely 
any fatty matter could be found, but some vesicles were observ- 
able, and these were so minute as to measure only from q^oVo^^ 
to ^J^^th of an inch. They were collected into small clusters. 
In the peritoneum of a young kitten the majority of the vesicles 
were about g^oth of an inch, but some were only -^^-^ih.. 
These latter occurred in clusters often not larger than the 
average sized vesicles. In the calf above mentioned the fat 
appeared to exist within the vesicles in a granular form, the 
granules being extremely minute, certainly not larger than 
¥0 0^0 0^^^ of an inch in diameter; some of the large vesicles 
seemed to be only partially filled with this granular fat. The 
granules were best seen with a strong transmitted light. In the 
kitten I could not detect them. In the peritoneum of most 
young animals, as the fat is deposited in thin layers, the vesicles 
may be clearly distinguished with a Coddington lens, by extend- 
ing a bit of the membrane on a slip of glass and making the 
examination against the light. — G. G. 


rine predominates, and is called suet, or tallow ; it 
is much softer in the hog, where the elain is most 
abundant, and where it is called lard. 

§ 134. The soft fat of the solidungula is of a 
yellowish colour, and at 3^2° F. has a specific gravity 
of 0*91 1 ; it congeals at 48°, and at 90° it becomes 
fluid ; it contains about 3|^ per cent of stearine, and 
96J per cent elain. The fat of the hog is white, 
soft, and melts at a lower temperature ; it consists 
of about 38 per cent stearine, and 62 per cent elain. 
In the carnivora, the fat is soft, yellowish, and of a 
peculiar odour. In the dog it is composed of 17 
per cent stearine and 73 per cent elain. The fat of 
the human infant is white, or of a pale citron yellow 
colour ; it is firm, and contains a large proportion 
of stearine. Fresh animal fat in general is dissolved 
and taken up by ether without any rupture of the 
containing vesicles. 

Fat defends and isolates the organs of the body, 
and, as a bad conductor of heat, it tends to preserve 
the temperature ; with abundant food it accumu- 
lates in the healthy body ; with indifferent and scanty 
supplies of food, and under the influence of disease, 
it disappears. 

Horn, and Horny Tissues. 

§ 135. Chemically considered, horn comports 
itself like albumen, but it contains less azote than 
this substance. Horn forms the principal element 
in the outermost laminse of the animal body, viz. 
the cuticle and the various means for covering and 
protection, in the shape of nails, claws, hoofs, hair. 


feathers, spines, scales, plates, &c. The horny 
substance is transparent, of a yellowish brown hue, 
hard, and elastic ; it softens without dissolving in boil- 
ing water ; it also softens when exposed to dry heat, 
and then melts and swells out. With dry distilla- 
tion it yields carbonate and cyanate of ammonia. 
Thrown upon an open fire, it burns, swelling up and 
diffusing a peculiar and well-known disagreeable 
odour. It is decomposed by concentrated acids 
and is dissolved by the caustic alkalis with evolu- 
tion of ammonia. Horn presents itself in the living 
body as a morbid product, and then frequently in 
the form of crystalline- looking rhomboidal tables 
{fig' 17^) j ^t other times it appears as a congeries 
of dried cell-scales. The younger epidermic and 
epithelial cells exhibit the same chemical properties 
as fibrine. 

External Horny Indusice, — Epidermis, Epithe- 
lium, and Structures connected with them. 

§ 136. All the surfaces of the body are 
covered with the cellulo-membranous layers which 
constitute the epidermis or epithelium. The epi- 
dermis, cuticle, or external covering, of the skin, 
consists of several layers of cells, which are pro- 
duced upon the corium, as a consequence of an un- 
interrupted process of exudation, accompanied by a 
like continuous formation of cytoblasts and cells. 
These cells incessantly produced below, are as in- 
cessantly thrown off by desquamation above. The 
most recently produced cells, which of course are 
those that are in contact with the corium, are like 
all young cells, spherical in their figure ; they be- 


come flattened in the same proportion as they 
approach the superficies : so that when examined 
on a section they are observed to undergo altera- 
tions of figure, from that of a globular cell provided 
with a nucleus, to that of a flat scale in which no ^ 
trace of a nucleus appears (Jigs. 227 and 228 «,y). 
The imiermost layers consequently form soft cel- 
lular membranes, the outermost layers constitute 
hard squamous membranes. The epidermis covers 
the entire external surface of the body, even the 
cornea of the eye (fig. 41). Rarely, perhaps never, 
do we find any intercellular matter, or matter in- 
terposed between the cells j occasionally, however, 
a matter of this sort may be suspected in the seat of 
their formation, upon the surface of the corium, in 
the mucous layer of Malpighi. The epidermis is 
pierced at every point by the excretory ducts of the I 
sebaceous and sweat-glands, and, with few exceptions, V 
by the shafts of the hairs also. It always consists of 
layers by so much the more numerous as the part 
which it covers is more strongly compressed or 
constantly rubbed ; for example, in the palm of the 
hand and sole of the foot : among the mammalia it 
is in general by so much the more delicate the finer 
and thinner the hair is ; but wherever constant and 
strong friction is endured, the hair disappears, 
though there the excretory ducts of the cutaneous 
glands are very much developed (fig. 40, e, f). 
The hoofs, claws, talons, horns, nails, &c., are not 
merely connected with the epidermis, but are in fact 
more strikingly developed portions of this tissue, 
just as the cutaneous glands and the hairs are invo- 
lutions of the same. 


§ 137. The diiferent tints of colour presented 
by the common integument depend on the pigment- 
ary matter which enters into its composition ; where 
this is wanting, the epidermis is transparent and 
colourless, or but very slightly tinged with the portion 
of pigment which is present in the sebaceous glands 
and Malpighian body. It is only in the negro that 
the cells of the cuticle sometimes present themselves 
with a pretty strong resemblance to the pigmentary 

The Sebaceous Glands, the Sweat Glands. 

§ 138. These organs are formed from involutions 
of the cuticle, and when their relation to this tissue' 
is considered, they might be named inserted horny 
structures. We shall speak of the larger glands 
which are formed in the same way as the sebaceous 
and sudoriparous glands, such as the mammary 
glands, in the section which treats particularly of 
the secreting glands. 

§ 139. Sebaceous Glands. — All the true glands 
having excretory ducts, stand in relation either with 
the epidermis or with the epithelium ; or, in other 
words, they are inversions or involutions of the 
cuticle or epithelium contained within the substance 
of the skin or mucous membranes, or penetrating 
beyond them. These glands severally secrete a 
peculiar fluid, different from the general circulating 
fluid, and which are referable to three grand classes 
— the fatty, the watery, and the mixed. 

§ 140. The glands of the external integument 
are true secreting glands, which, in the simplicity 
of their structure, nevertheless agree essentially with 


all others of a more complex organisation. The 
sebaceous glands are either proper in all their parts, 
or their ducts serve the double office of excretory- 
canals and sheaths for hairs. In the most simple 
forms they present themselves as club-shaped crypts, 
which arise on the outer aspect of the common 
integument as funnel-shaped involved processes of 
the epidermis, and lie at greater or less depths in 
the corium. They secrete an unctuous or buty- 
raceous matter, — the sebaceous matter, which con- 
tains crystals of stearine (y^^. 31, (T), oil-globules 
(e), and pigmentary granules. The origin and 
developement of the sebaceous glands in the palm 
of the human foetus is represented in Jig. 239. At 
a the epidermis is seen, in the first instance, hemi- 
spherically depressed into the substance of the sub- 
jacent corium ; at J^ the gland is nearly fully 
formed, and the racemiform glandlets are evolved ; 
the spirally twisted or corkscrew-like excretory 
duct of the gland, Jl lies in the substance of the 
thick corium (see, also. Jig. 40, g, h, i). In the 
hide of the horse, also, the sebaceous glands are 
commonly moriform or botryoidal, from one-tenth 
to one quarter of a line in diameter ; on the scro- 
tum they occur unaccompanied by hairs (^/ig. 44) ; 
it is betwixt the semicircular elevations of the cutis, 
a, that the infundibuliform orifices, b, of the delicate 
common excretory ducts, c, are encountered ; these 
common ducts generally divide into two branches, d, 
which lead to the same number of particular mori- 
form secreting glands, e. 

The sebaceous matter is of a brown colour, and 
contains many pigmentary granules. In the skin of 


the labia of the mare {Jig. 45), the glands are more 
extensively developed ; the individual glandular vesi- 
cles (e) proceed to distinct and wide pedicles (c?), 
and there end and unite in the common excernent 
duct (c), which is at the same time the sheath of 
the hair (jf). The sebaceous matter is of the kind 
just indicated. In the prepuce of the stallion 
(^Jig. 43), the several parts are still farther deve- 
loped ; the cuticle a is reflected inwards at h in 
the shape of a funnel, and forms the sheath of the 
hair and the common excretory duct c, into which 
the eficrent canals^^ of the elementary glandules 
e, pour their contents. At d the sheath of the hair 
is seen forming or rather surrounding the bulb of 
the hair ; k is the excretory duct of the sudoriparous 
gland 2, which lies imbedded among the subcutane- 
ous cellular tissue. The sebaceous matter often 
collects between the folds of the prepuce in large 
masses of a dirty grey colour, which possess varying 
degrees of consistency, from that of soft tallow to 
that of wax, and are soluble, but not so readily as 
ordinary fat, in ether and boiling alcohol, leaving a 
residue of albumen and certain saline matters. 

In the hog the sebaceous glands are sacculated, 
and either unilocular, bilocular, or multilocular 
{figs. l60, l6l). The smallest vesicles are from 
the xio^^ ^o ^^® -Q-Q^i ^^d t^6 excretory canals are 
about the -i^\h of a Paris line in diameter. On the 
snout we observe certain remarkable tactile organs 
which may be mentioned here, inasmuch as they 
also secrete sebaceous matter. The organs in 
question are tactile sacs very copiously supplied with 
nerves, and having a small bristle traversing their 


centre ; they are about ^th of a Paris line in length 
and about T^th in breadth, fusiform, and with thick 
parietes. They open upon the surface of the com- 
mon integument in a compound rosette -shaped 
nervous papilla {Jig- 101) j they contain sebaceous 
matter in their interior, and in the middle a bristle, 
as said, growing from a bulb, about TTsth of a line 
in thickness, conically pointed, inclosed in a regular 
sheath, and projecting about ^th of a line beyond 
the papilla. The sac is inclosed by the nervous 
bundle which forms the papilla. Other nervous 
bundles, which lie parallel with the skin, pass in 
multitudes across the interspaces, and there form 
abundant reticulations. 

The sebaceous glands of the meatus auditorius 
and of the inner skin of the external ear are greatly 
developed, and secrete the cerumen or wax of the 
ear, — a bitter, yellowish-brown, fatty matter. The 
sebaceous glands are absent in those situations where 
the skin secretes a mucous fluid, as the nose of the 
carnivora, the muzzle of the ox, the snout of the 
hog, &c. 

§ 141. The sebaceous matter serves to anoint 
and preserve the scarf-skin, the hair, horn, &c. 
soft and pliant ; it also serves to a certain extent as 
a defence against external chemical and mechanical 
agencies, and has some influence upon the colour 
of the skin. In the time of heat, especially among 
female animals, it is poured out in greater quantity 
and of a stronger odour than at other seasons. 

§ 14^. In some of our domestic, and in several 
other animals, we observe small sacculated cavities 
formed by reflections of the skin in certain places, 



in the walls of which the sehaceous glands are more 
largely developed and much more active than in 
the surrounding portions of integument. Such are 
the lachrymal cavities, as they are called, under the 
eye of the deer, the cavities between the hoofs of 
the hisulcate ruminants generally and the small 
sebaceous sacs near the udder of the ewe, the um- 
bilical sac of the common boar, the anal sacs of the 
carnivora, and the sacs which are found close to the 
glans clitoridis, especially in the Solidungula. 

§ 143. The largest of all the sebaceous glands 
of the skin are encountered in the eyelids, between 
the marginal crescentic cartilages and the fibres of 
the orbicular muscle. These glands, which are 
universally designated by the epithet Meibomian, 
secrete a thin sebaceous matter, which is continually 
poured out upon the edges of the eyelids and around 
the roots of the eyelashes by the little openings 
which may be observed arranged in an even row 
behind the ciliae. This thin unctuous fluid defends 
the edges of the eyelids from the moisture and 
acrimony of the tears, and also serves to prevent 
the escape of the tears at all times over the cheeks. 
The Meibomian glands are generally of a white 
colour ; but they are of very diiFerent forms and sizes 
in different animals. In all essential particulars 
their structure is that of glands in general, — they 
are divided into glomeruli, and these again consist 
of pediculated primary vesicles. In Jig, 158 may 
be found representations of two Meibomian glands 
from the foetal calf of four months : numerous secret- 
ing vesicles c form acervuli or glomeruli, in the 
midst of which run the primary excretory ducts, 


which all terminate in the common duct a, that ex- 
tends through the middle of the gland to open at b 
on the inner edge of the eyelid. In the horse the 
Meibomian glands are scarcely the length of small 
barley-corns. In man they extend over the greater 
part of the surface of the eyelid, and are readily 
seen, as among the mammalia generally, through 
the conjunctiva. As these glands open in the line 
of transition between the cuticle of the eyelid and 
the epithelium of the conjunctiva, they may be 
viewed as transition forms from the proper sebaceous 
to the proper mucous gland. 

§ 144. Sudo7'iparous Glands. — These are among 
the number of recent anatomical discoveries. They 
have been particularly examined and described by 
Gurlt* in his investigations into the structure of 
the skin and its dependencies. The sweat glands 
may be said to be contained in the substance of the 
corium ; for the most part, however, they project 
into the subcutaneous cellular tissue, or they are even 
situated in it entirely, so that the corium is only 
transpierced by their excretory ducts. It is probable, 
though not yet demonstrated, that the sweat, like 
the sebaceous, glands are developed by inflections of 
the epidermis. They are generally larger than the 
sebaceous glands, and consist either of a congeries 
of sacculi, so that they appear of an irregular mul- 
berry form (^Jig. 43, «*), which is their figure in man 
and the domestic mammalia generally, or they are 
simple sacs, which is the appearance they present 

* " Magazin fiir die gesammte Thierheilkunde," Bd. i. 
S. 194, Taf. II. III. ; und MuUer's " Archiv." 1835. 


in the ox and in the carnivora. Their contents 
being watery and uncoloured with pigmentary mat- 
ter, they are highly transparent, and much more 
difficult to discover and to examine under the micro- 
scope than the sebaceous glands. Their excretory 
ducts, generally of extreme delicacy, and more 
frequently straight than sinuous or spirally twisted 
{fig^ 43, At), either accompany the sebaceous ducts 
and open close to them on the surface, or they 
run and also terminate between these. The office 
of these glands, as their name implies, is to secrete 
the sweat. The insensible perspiration, however, 
is in all probability an exhalation of water and other 
volatile matters from the corium, — products of the 
blood which circulates in the peripheral capillaries 
covered only by the epidermis.* 

Horny Tissues connected with the Epidermis. 

§ 145. Uair.f — Hairs are epidermic threads 
implanted in the substance of the corium, or they 
are horny cylinders produced by involuted and 

* There seems no occasion to deny the insensible perspira- 
tion as a product of the sudoriparous glands, as well as the 
sensible perspiration or sweat. The impermeability of the 
cuticle opposes an insurmountable obstacle to any escape of 
vapour from the surface, save through the pore of a sebaceous 
or sudoriparous gland. Something is indeed due to simple 
evaporation, but it has been estimated at no more than one-sixth 
part of the entire loss by the skin. — G. G. 

\ Gurlt und Hertwig, " Magazin fiir die gesaramte Thier- 
heilk." 1836. Heft. ii. S. 201 ; und Muller's "Archiv." fiir 1836. 
The hair-bulbs are described and figured by Gurlt in his ex- 
cellent papers, as closed, and it is only in this particular that my 
observations differ from his. 

HAIR. 145 

revoluted processes of the epidermis. They stand 
in the same relation to the skin as the nails of man 
and the claws of animals, and, to a certain extent 
also, as the teeth to the gums that surround them. 

When a piece of the hide of an animal covered 
with hair, such as that of the ox or horse, or the scalp 
of the human subject, which has lain for about forty 
hours in a solution of carbonate of potash, is divided 
perpendicularly, and in the direction of the hairs 
with a very sharp knife, we frequently succeed in cut- 
ting through one or more of the hair-bulbs exactly in 
the middle. To obtain the best view of this object, 
a moderate or medium power should be employed, 
and it may be viewed either as an opaque body by 
direct light, or, a delicate slice being removed with 
an appropriate double knife, it may be examined 
by transmitted light. When the hair of the bulb 
divided in this manner is young, the appearance 
obtained is that which is represented in Jig. 42. 
The epidermis h, of the cutis a^ a, is reflected 
funnel-wise at c\ and forms the particular excretory 
canals o?, d, which unite in the common duct c of 
the sebaceous glands n, o, p, and also the sheath of 
the hair, penetrating for this end more deeply into 
the corium, and expanding at e in order to form the 
sheath of the hair-bulb ; it then contracts at^ and 
being reflected at g, it again swells out and forms 
the proper capsule of the hair-bulb at h, receiving 
by the infundibuliform inlet below, the vessels «, 
and the nervous bundles c {fig. 94), which pene- 
trate to the pulp k ; the reflected epidermis then 
forms the shaft of the hair /, and this advancing 
clears the skin and appears externally at m. Should 


the root of the hair not be divided precisely in the 
line of its axis, or should the hair be old, then the 
appearances presented are those exhibited mjig. 43, 
where the bulb and the secreting pulp are seen to 
be closed. In this way each hair is found to be, 
in fact, a horny tube, an immediate process of the 
epidermis, including what may be called a medullary 
central thread, produced in the substance of the 
corium or in the subcutaneous cellular tissue. The 
hair-bulb itself is nothing more than the deepest, 
latest formed, soft, and therefore expanded portion 
of the shaft, which, as it advances, hardens and 
contracts to the diameter of the shaft. AtJ\ g, 
where the sac suffers reflection outwards in order to 
constitute the bulb, circles of cells are formed which 
harden, and being pushed onwards by others of 
more recent formation, continue adhering to the 
hair to its extremity. In some animals the hair 
appears articulated, which is a consequence of the 
circle of cells ^ g, being produced alternately of 
greater and smaller sizes ; in other creatures the 
hair is secreted of diiferent colours in diflferent parts 
of its length, which is the efi'ect of the ring of cells 
containing a larger or smaller proportion of colour- 
ing matter. The entrance to the medulla or pulp 
of the Yoot,J',f, is wide in young hairs, and vessels 
and nerves of considerable size are seen entering, 
and forming terminal loops at k ; but in old hairs, 
just as in old and fully formed teeth, the canal of 
access is very small, and in grey hairs it is almost 
completely closed. 

The use of hair or fur is obvious : by entan- 
gling a large quantity of air it becomes one of the 

HAIR. 147 

worst conductors of heat, and assists animals con- 
sequently to maintain their temperature at or near 
the proper standard. The elasticity of the hairy 
coat of animals makes it a defence to a certain 
extent against mechanical injuries; and its unctu- 
ousness enables it to resist some chemical agencies. 
The whiskers or strong hairs about the muzzles 
of certain animals, particularly the cat tribe, are 
also in some sort especial organs of touch, and on 
this account deserve particular notice. 

§ 146. Tactile Hairs. — The stronger the hair the 
deeper does it penetrate the corium. The roots of 
the whiskers, or tactile and peculiarly sensitive 
hairs of mammalia, observed about the lips and 
round the eyes, lie completely under the skin, sunk 
amidst the cellular tissue, and sometimes even the 
subjacent muscles. The bulbs of these hairs are 
enclosed within a strong, highly vascular fibrous 
covering which is identical in its structure with the 
tactile sacs of the hog*s snout (§ 140), being sur- 
rounded by a hollow nervous bundle which forms 
a circle of closed terminal loops immediately under 
the epidermis about the orifice of the sheath for the 
hair. Into the central pulp of these great hairs 
we also observe an abundance of nerves surrounded 
by blood-vessels entering, the terminal loopings of 
which, in all probability, are the same as those 
observed in the roots of the large bristles of the 

* The peripheral distribution of tlie cutaneous nerves is 
best observed by achromatic glasses in the skin of the hog after 
it has been boiled and laid in oil of turpentine. An injection of 
the vessels with levigated cinnabar or white lead suspended in 


§ 147. JVool. — Wool is a kind of hair familiarly 
known, which differs from the ordinary hairs of 
such animals as the horse, ox, dog, &c. in its 
greater length, and in being crisped or curled in 
various degrees. Wool also differs from the hairs 
of the animals mentioned in being not cylindrical 
like them but irregularly flat.* The hairy coats 
which are characterised as Jit?' are also modifica- 
tions of the same structure which it is sufficient to 

§ 148. Bristles. — These, too, are but stronger 
hairs. The bristles of the hog grow together in 
threes, in more or less completely closed cavities 
filled with fat cells (^/igs. 7I, 7% and Jig. 94). The 
outer ends of hogs' bristles are generally seen split 
into two or three. The extremities of hairs are 
usually simple and solid, t 

Horny Defences. 

§ 149. The extreme parts of man and the mam- 
malia are terminated and protected more or less 
completely by nails, hoofs, &c. These defences 
are principally developed in the course of the second 

oil of turpentine, brings these into view. The primary nervous 
fibres accompany the terminal loopings of the capillary vessels. 
The double knife is of essential service here. This instrument 
consists of two lancet blades, the edges of which can be approxi- 
mated in various degrees and fastened whilst sections are made. 

* Some interesting illustrations of the structure of hair and 
wool are given in Martin's " Natural History of Quadrupeds," 
p. 156, from observations made by Mr. Youet. — G. G. 

-j- The work of Eble, " Die Lebre Von den Haaren," 2 Bde., 
Wien, 1831, is extremely full upon all matters connected with 
the hair. 

NAILS. 149 

half of the intrauterine life. They consist, in the 
first instance, of a congeries of polyhedral nucleated 
cells without intercellular matter {Jig. 226), and 
are soft and yielding. At the period of birth, 
indeed, they are still soft and fibrous ; but they soon 
harden when exposed to the air, the nuclei and 
nucleoli of the horny cells disappearing at the same 
time {fig' 34). When these horny tissues are 
coloured, pigmentary cells in variable numbers but 
disposed with a certain degree of regularity, are 
always readily discovered. During the foetal period 
these pigmentary cells are seen to be provided with 
nuclei and nucleoli ; in the horny parts of older 
animals, though the pigmentary cells are still readily 
enough demonstrated and sharply defined, they are 
without nuclei {fig. 35, h, b ; fig. 38, d, cT). The 
nails of man, the claws of carnivorous animals, and 
the hoofs of the pachydermata, ruminantia, and 
solidungula, serve as means of defence against 
mechanical injury, and in many cases as weapons 
of ofifence. They may be viewed in every case as a 
multilamellar, peculiarly hard epidermis, furnished 
with a core, — a highly vascular and sensitive por- 
tion of the corium very commonly stretched over 
some terminal bone. The only exception to this is 
in the appendages called corns in the horse, which 
include no bone or bony process. 

Implanted, Flat Horny Structures. 

§ 150. Nails of Man. — The nails lie with their 
canalicular hollowed out surfaces upon the vaulted 
dorsums of the last articulations of the toes and 


fingers, and are attached by means of mutually pene- 
trating ridges of the horny structure and the corium. 
The posterior and wedge-like ends or roots of the 
nails are inclosed between duplicatures of the corium 
about two lines in depth ; and it is in this situation 
that we observe numerous filiform papillae sunk in 
the edge of the root, precisely in the same manner 
as single papillae are seen to penetrate the roots of 
the several hairs. These papillae are the sources of 
growth of the nails, just as the papilla? are the sources 
of growth of the hair. This accordance in struc- 
ture between nails and hair is further manifest upon 
the convex aspect of a nail, with this difference 
however, that as there is no sebaceous matter poured 
out into the sheath of the nail, the sheath often 
remains adherent to the surface of the nail. As it 
is obvious that the longitudinally disposed connect- 
ing ridges of the corium remain stationary, whilst 
those upon the corresponding surface of the nail 
are in a perpetual state of progression, it would be 
difficult to conceive how the connexion between the 
nail and corium could be maintained, were it not 
that the entire living surface in contact with the 
nail was a secreting matrix and perpetually elaborat- 
ing horny cells, which are added to those prepared 
by the papillae at the root of the nail, and so 
strengthen it continually from the root onwards to 
the point where it becomes free. 

§ 151. The nail in the human foetus, whilst yet 
soft and in the first period of its evolution, consists 
of nucleated cells, the youngest of which lie at 
every point of contact upon the corium. Even in 
adults young cells are always to be discovered at 


the edge of the root, which become horny outwards 
in successive layers. 

§ 152. Claws of the Carnivora. — These only 
differ from the nails of man and the quadrumanous 
mammals in this, that they almost entirely surround 
the last digital phalanges, being completed on the 
plantar aspects by a longitudinal streak of cuticle. 
These claws are either colourless or coloured. When 
they are coloured, many fine pigmentary cells are 
observed forming streaks in the anterior vaulted 
portions, precisely as in hoofs that are streaked 
(^Jig. 35, h, h). The root of the claw in the dog is 
surrounded by a projecting edge of the nail-sup- 
porting digital phalanx. The same segments of 
the paw in the cat, tiger, lion, &;c., are drawn so 
much backwards and upwards that in ordinary pro- 
gression the points of the claws do not come into 
contact with the ground, an arrangement by which 
they are never blunted, and so made useless as in- 
struments of prehension, when at the will of the 
animal they are brought into play. In the dog, 
where there is no arrangement of this kind, the 
claws are always found blunted and worn away. 
The use of the claws as means of defence and of 
offence is obvious. 

Hoimy Capsules. 

§ 153. Hoofs of the Ruminants, — These are 
greatly strengthened but still immediate continua- 
tions of the cuticle as it passes over the last digital 
phalanges of the extremities. The particular parts 
of the hoof of an ox, sheep, or deer enumerated 


are, 1st, the crust or wall^ which, as the part corre- 
sponding to the nail or claw, surrounds the anterior 
and lateral aspects of the last phalanx ; and 2d, 
the sole, which protects the plantar aspect of the 
same bone. The soft parts that lie between the 
bony digit and the hoof are, as in the human sub- 
ject, a continuation of the corium, with the hoof for 
its cuticle. The hoof and this portion of the corium 
are in most intimate connexion, the fusion being 
effected by the same arrangement of parts as that 
which we have already seen to exist between the 
nail and the piece of integument that supports it in 
the human subject. The softer fleshy parts lying 
between the bone and the hoof are to be regarded 
as a continuation of the corium with the horny hoof 
for its cuticle. Where the hoof lies perpendicularly 
upon or over the corium the union takes place by 
the mutual reception of perpendicularly arranged 
horny plates from the hoof and of fleshy lamellae from 
the corium. But in situations where the hoof is 
the substratum and supports the soft parts, the con- 
nexion is of a different kind, and takes place by 
means of numerous fusiform papillse containing an 
abundance of vessels and nerves, and received into 
funnel-shaped pits of the interior or upper aspect of 
the hoof. This mode of connexion is observed at 
every part where the growth of the hoof is most 
active, — the growth taking place as usual by the 
evolution of new cells from the surface of the matrix ; 
it consequently obtains all around the upper edge of 
the hoof, which as corresponding in the form and 
arrangement of its parts to the root of the human 

HOOFS. 153 

nail, may be spoken of as the root of the hoof.* 
The place where the horny wall of the hoof begins 
is indicated externally by a slightly raised line, along 
which there is a sudden and marked increase of the 
production of the horny epidermic cells. The wall 
of the hoof is pierced from the crown to the bearing 
edge by many fine canals, and when coloured it is 
marked by pigmentary striae. The canals belong 
to the sebaceous follicles ; the coloured strise are 
due to intermingled pigmentary cells. 

§ 154. Hoofs of the Hog. — The true hoofs of 
the hog are formed of fine compact horn ; they are 
the same in all respects as those of the ruminant. 
The false hoofs of the hog are less completely de- 
veloped, and, in point of structure, hold a middle 
place between the true and the false hoofs of rumi- 
nants. In the walls of the true hoof especially we 
observe papillse running diagonally downwards and 
outwards from the upper edge, and continuous with 
corresponding delicate tubuli which end on the 
outer surface of the wall. 

§ 155. Hoof of the Horse. — The hoof of the 
solidungule presents us with the structure and pecu- 
liarities of the horny casings in the highest per- 
fection, t 

* The arrangement of parts is seen in the representation of the 
hoof of the horse, ^^. 36, b; and in the nail of man, /?^. 40, c, d. 

t To examine the structure of the horny tissue microscopi- 
cally, it is essential to be provided with fine laminae cut in 
different directions and from different parts of the structure to be 
investigated. The black-brown or streaked hoof of a horse, for 
instance, should be cut perpendicularly through with a fine saw, 
and then slices taken from different parts, — perpendicularly, 
transversely, slanting in various directions, &c. The surface of 


In a section cut perpendicularly from the posterior 
wall (^fig. 36), we observe on the crown edge a the 
conical and spindle-shaped papillae h, continued 
onwards as fine canals, and between these, excretory 
ducts of glands, which enlarge opposite the places 
where the papillae contract to a point, and then 
turn spirally round like the ducts of the sebaceous 
glands, becoming narrower in their course through 
the horny parietes, where the spiral turns are also 
less regular. 

In the anterior or digital wall of the hoof the 
papillae pass over into horny infundibula and canals, 
which are at the same time the ducts of the sebaceous 
glands. These filiform and twisted canals are rather 
finer than human hairs ; they run parallel to one 
another downwards through the wall (^fig. 37? «), 
and open on the inferior or bearing edge of the 
same part, as the section represented in fig. 38 
shews.* The canals contain sebaceous matter, 
which in black hoofs is of a brownish-black colour, 
and, therefore, contains numerous pigmentary gra- 
nules. Other parts of the hoof contain precisely 
similar canals. The horn of the sole and frog of 
the hoof is soft and elastic in a very high degree. 

these slices having been made smooth with a file are to be glued 
to a strong board, and, when firm, reduced by planing. The 
larger and cleaner shavings from each section are to be collected 
separately, and the planing continued till the pieces are re- 
duced sufficiently. These are then to be detached by means 
of warm water, dried, and having been dipped in oil of turpen- 
tine, are fit for examination. The shavings are to be treated in 
the same way. 

* Vide Explanation of the VXaies, Jigs, 36-39. 

HORNS. 155 

The substance of the hard masses called corns, 
which are seen on the inner aspects of the legs 
under the carpus in the fore legs, and under the 
ankle joint or tarsus of the hind legs in the horse, 
is also soft in its texture. It bears the same relation 
to the corium as the sole of the hoof does to the 
portion of integument which it protects. 

§ 156. Horns of the Ox, Sheep, 4"c. — These horny 
capsules have very much the same structure as the 
walls of the hoof in the same class of animals, as 
also in the pachydermata and solidungula. The 
conical process of the frontal bone which supports 
the horn (the core of the horn) is somewhat rough 
on the surface, and is marked by numerous more 
or less longitudinal furrows in which run the vessels 
of the superimposed layer of corium, just as we 
observe them in the coffin bones of the horse or 
ox. At the root of the horn the cuticle is greatly 
strengthened, precisely as it is along the crown edge 
of the hoof, and from this circle onwards the horn 
is continually receiving accessions of new horn-cells 
in the way we have already seen to pass, when 
speaking of the growth of nails, claws, and hoofs, 
these cells being produced at every point upon the 
surface of the soft parts covering the core, and the 
horn being gradually pushed on by their accumula- 
tion from the base towards the point. The bony 
core is not generally more than about two-thirds of 
the length of the horn ; but from the point of the 
core certain vessels proceed which run through the 
axis of the solid part of the horn, and only terminate 
at its extremity. The walls of the hollow portion 
of the horn consist of concentric and severally in- 


eluding laminae, with longitudinally disposed ridges 
and intervening furrows, so that on the surface of a 
transverse section the horny laminae present them- 
selves as concentric sinuous lines. Immediately 
upon the corium of the core newly formed horn-cells 
are found in abundance, which in dark-coloured 
horn are intermixed with the pigmentary matter of 
the Malpighian or mucous body. Delicate sec- 
tions of compact horn exhibit the elementary layers 
{fig. 34, A), which in fibrous horn are lineally 
arranged, and more firmly connected lengthwise 
than laterally (B). In the longitudinal section of 
the massive point of a horn the central vessels or 
canals are observed in the axis or middle {fig. 35y 
c, c), and in streaked horn, angular and polyhedral 
corneous pigmentary cells arranged in longitudinal 
lines, exactly as in streaked nails, claws, and hoofs 
(b, b, b). The sebaceous glands of horns are still 
less known than those of hoofs ; it is very seldom, 
indeed, that we discover a trace of their excretory 
ducts, which as well as the glands must nevertheless 
exist, as sebaceous matter is a kind of necessary 
adjunct to the epidermic tissue in all its modifi- 


§ 157. Recent investigations have shewn that 
not the skin only but all the naturally free surfaces 
of the human and animal body are covered with 
cuticles which, in the interior of the body, are called 
epithelia. The epithelia are always in contact 
with fluids, and are, therefore, of a soft and pliant 


nature ; the nuclei of their cells do not disappear 
like those of the cells of horn. Like the epidermis, 
the epithelia are engendered on the free surfaces of 
internal memhranes by a regular exudation of cells, 
which compose them in their continuity, and scale 
off in quantities proportioned to the amount of ex- 
ternal influence to which they are exposed, in a 
greater measure, consequently, from the mucous 
than from the serous membranes, from the mouth 
and intestinal canal than from the air-passages and 
the ducts of glands. 

The forms presented by the epithelial cells are 
very various. In the tessellate or pavimented epi- 
thelia, the cells are simple, lenticular, and attached 
by their flat sides. In the cylindrate epithelia, they 
are campanular, cylindrical, or in the form of short 
cell-fibres, and are either sessile or pediculated in 
their attachment. The free surface of the outer- 
most cells is in some parts covered with delicate 
movable processes (cilise), and the epithelia so 
furnished are entitled ciliate epithelia. 

§ 158. Tessellate Epithelium This form of 

epithelium covers all the more delicate membranes 
of the internal surfaces of the body, viz. the finer 
mucous membranes that are without special glands, 
and the serous and synovial membranes. It is com- 
posed of lenticular cells, which are generally em- 
bedded in an intercellular substance, contain nucleo- 
lated nuclei in their interior, and form either a 
simple cellular membrane, or a membrane of but a 
few layers of cells. This form of epithelium seems 
to exfoliate rarely. 


§ 159. Tessellate Epithelium of Serous Sur- 
faces : («). Of the Lymphatic and Sanguiferous 
Systems — The larger blood and lymphatic vessels 
consist of a number of concentric laminas of divers 
formation severally enclosing one another. The 
outermost layers consist of cellular tissue ; the 
second or middle, of fibres or fibrils which confer on 
the vessels their passive or active contractility, — 
these are elastic tissue, contractile and muscular 
fibres ; the third, or innermost layer, is a serous 
membrane which extends into the most minute 
ramifications of the vessels, and can even be de- 
monstrated in the capillaries ; it is covered with a 
delicate tessellated epithelium which, although it is 
probably never absent, is nevertheless but rarely 
visible in the capillaries. The epithelium of the 
vascular system is more especially easy of demon- 
stration on the walls of the cavities of the heart and 
of the great vascular trunks, particularly of the 
venous system ; it is not so readily shewn in the 
arteries and absorbents ; in the capillaries it is, as 
just stated, of the greatest delicacy, and seldom re- 
cognisable. If the lenticular cells of this epithe- 
lium do not obviously inclose nucleolated nuclei,* 
as those of tessellated epithelia in general do, then 
must we view it as a cytoblast membrane, and 
not assent to Vogel'st proposition, that the pus- 
globules alone are neither more nor less than altered 

* The appearance of tessellated epitheliitm is given as seen 
under a low power in Jig. 47, under a higher power in Jig. 226, 
and the individual cells ai-e represented in_^^. 193, a. 

t " Untersuchungen liber Eiter und Eiterung," &c. 


epithelial cells, but presume the same of the lymph 
and blood-corpuscles themselves ; and this the rather 
from the epithelial cells of the vascular parietes 
being- often scarcely larger than the blood-globules. 
In every case the detached cells of the vascular 
epithelium when mingled with blood-globules can 
only be distinguished from them with great difficulty 
and with particular attention, the marks of distinc- 
tion being especially their paler colour and the 
nucleoli which they contain. 

§ 160. (6.) Tessellate Epithelium of the Serous 
and Synovial Sacs. — All the serous membranes of 
the internal cavities, the inner membranes of the 
lymphatics and blood-vessels inclusive, are provided 
with a tessellated epithelium, which only differs 
from that of the lining membrane of the heart and 
great vessels in having the cells of rather larger 
size. This is the form of epithelium that covers, 
1st, the pleurae, — the pleura costalis, and the pleura 
pulmonalis ; 2d, the pericardium, both where it 
forms the bag that encloses the heart, and in its 
reflection over the surface of this organ by which it 
forms its external envelope ; 3d, the peritoneum — 
ahdominale et viscerate ; 4th, the tunica vaginalis 
testis, both as it includes and covers the testis ; 
5th, both aspects of the tunica arachnoidea of the 
brain and spinal cord ; 6th, the inner serous lamina 
of the dura mater of the brain and cord ; 7th, the 
outer surface of the pia mater with the exception of 
so much of it as lines the ventricles of the brain, 
which is furnished with a ciliary tessellated epithe- 
lium; 8th, the membranes of the ovum (Jig. 103.) 

§ 161. Tessellate Epithelium of Mucous Mem- 


hranes. — Every form of epithelium is encountered 
covering the mucous membranes. A tessellate epi- 
thelium covers the mucous membrane of the cavity 
of the tympanum and of the cells of the pars petrosa 
of the temporal bone, the mouth {Jig. 220), and 
partially the fauces, the cesophagus, the stomach save 
where the oesophagus enters, the vesiculse seminales, 
the pelvis of the kidney (on this last as well as on 
the urinary bladder passing over into the cylinder 
epithelium) ; further, the nymphss, clitoris, vagina 
and its parts as high as the middle of the neck of the 
uterus ; the inner aspect of the sclerotic and cornea, 
and the outer aspect of the choroid of the eye ; 
still further, the most delicate secreting canals and 
■vesicles, — the finest excretory ducts of the salivary 
glands, of the liver, of the larger mucous glands, and 
of the tubuli uriniferi. All the points of transition of 
the skin into mucous membrane possess a covering 
analogous to the tessellated epithelium ; for example, 
the lips, the outer aspect of the membrana tympani, 
and even the surface of the meatus auditorius ex- 
ternus, the entrance into the nostrils, the margins 
of the eyelids, the external orifice of the male ure- 
thra, and of the female pudenda generally. 

Upon the synovial membranes the tessellated 
epithelium forms several layers. The clear spines 
described by Valentin,* as occurring in the angles 
of the cells of the choroid plexus, are the cilise of 
its ciliate epithelial cells {fig. 221 and 222, c). 
The tessellate epithelium not unfrequently passes 
over into a couched fibro-cellular epithelium {fig. 

* Nov. Acad. Nat. Curios, p. 45, tab. iv. fig. 24. 


102, c), for instance on synovial membranes and 
vessels ; it also sometimes encloses capsule ~ like 
papillse, for example, in the tongue. 

§ 162. Ciliary Tessellate Epithelium The 

tessellated epithelium which covers the delicate pia 
mater that lines the cerebral cavities, not even ex- 
cepting the infundibulum, the aqueduct of Sylvius, 
and the cavity of the olfactory nerve, supports an 
abundance of very active cilise,* which are attached 
along the edges of the epithelial cells to little warty- 
looking elevations {fig. 221 and 222). Examined in 
front, the cells appear in the guise of B, fig. 48. 
The cilise are filiform, and move in the manner of 
the lash of a whip. The cylinder ciliate epithe- 
lium of the air-passages acquires the form of the 
tessellated ciliate epithelium in the finer subdivi- 
sions of the bronchi. 

In the primary tubuli of nerves an active ciliary 
motion is conspicuous prior to the coagulation of 
their contents ; the motion seems to be produced by 
short conical cilise t {fig. 88, 4, a, and 5). Should 
the interior of the nervous tubuli be really found to 
exhibit the ciliary phenomena, which have been 
suspected there, a ciliary tessellate epithelium will 
in all probability be discovered as their cause ; for 
ciliary organs have not yet been found connected 
with any other structure than an epithelium. $ 

* Discovered by Purkinje, MuUer's " Archiv." 1836. S. 289. 

t It is only with the best glasses and lamp-light that these 
cilise are visible, a fact of which I have often satisfied myself in 
company with Professor Valentin, who first described them. 

X The contents of the nervous tubuli are obviously as fluid as 
the blood during life. Vide what is further said of the structure 
of nerve, § 262 et sequent. 



The cilise are in general, as upon the cylinder 
ciliate epithelium, directed towards the natural out- 
lets of the cavities or canals they occupy, and, there- 
fore, move the fluids with which they are in contact 
in this direction.* 

§ 160. Cylinder Epithelium. — As the lenticular 
cells of the tessellate epithelium lie in the plane of 
the general epithelial surface, so do we find the 
elongated epithelial cylinders of the cylinder epi- 
thelium placed perpendicularly upon the plane they 
cover ; cylinder epithelia, indeed, are very com- 
monly attached either immediately or by the medium 
of a style, to a simple tessellate epithelium, from 
which the elongated cells seem to grow much in the 
same way as grain does from the ground (^fig. 46, b^ 
c, in section). 

The form of the individual epithelial cylinders 
is very various, and this apparently according as 
they contain one or more nuclei lying one over 
another, or according to the number of cells of 
which they consist, and the length of these severally. 
When the tessellate epithelium is passing over into 
the cylinder form, the cells first stand more raised, 
or in the guise of hemispheres, from the surface ; 
then they rise still higher, and present themselves 
as semiellipsoids ; farther on, the base of the cell 
appears constricted, and the ovoid or amygdaloid 
epithelial body begins to be pediculated ; the 
style grows thinner and longer, and the corpuscle 

* An historical account of the discovery of the ciliee, as 
well as many original observations, will be found in the admir- 
able article by Professor Sharpey, " Cyclopeedia of Anatomy 
and Physiology," vol. i. p. 606. — G. G> 


becomes campanulate, and then cup-shaped. These 
transitions may be followed almost without a break 
upon the conjunctiva of the inner aspects of the 
eyelids Q/igs. 47 and 48) ; in the intestinal canal, 
and in the stomach at the cardiac orifice ; in 
the larger ducts of the salivary glands ; in the 
ductus choledochus communis ; in the prostate, 
Cowper's glands, vesiculse seminales, vas deferens, 
and tubuli semeniferi, and in the urethra. The 
many- celled epithelial cylinders grow as the single- 
celled do from a level tessellate epithelium : after 
one cell has acquired the cup -shape, the sub- 
jacent lenticular tessellate cell begins to rise, being 
connected with the incident one by means of the 
common style, it is then pinched off from the newly 
formed tessellate cell and becomes fusiform ; the 
cell just formed undergoes the same process, and so 
on, until the compound corpuscle finally contains 
two, three, four, and it may be, five nuclei, and is 
thus produced into a kind of free cellular fibre 
(Jigs. 223 and 224). Cylinder epithelia, so far as 
I am aware, are only met with upon mucous mem- 
branes ; the multicellular present themselves par- 
ticularly in the nostrils, in the trachea, in the 
uterus, in the gall-bladder (Jig. 24), and fully de- 
veloped in particular parts only of the intestinal 

§ 164. Ciliated Cylinder Epithelium. — The 
crown of the cup-shaped and many-celled epithelial 
cylinder of several of the mucous membranes is 
covered with cilise (Jig. 48, A, Jigs. 223 and 224), 
which are broader and blunter at the point than 


those of the ciliary tessellated epithelia. Cylinder 
epithelia with cilise are found in the nasal cavities, 
frontal sinuses, maxillary antra, lachrymal ducts 
and sac, the inner angle of the conjunctiva, the 
posterior surface of the pendulous velum of the 
palate and fauces, of the Eustachian tuhe, the larynx, 
the trachea and bronchi, to the finest divisions of 
these last, on the inner portions of the vagina, the 
uterus, and the Fallopian tubes. 

In the middle of the crown or circlet of cilise, 
the globular outer nucleus of the epithelial cor- 
puscle is observed. This nucleus projects like an 
hemisphere, and, under the compressor, or betwixt 
two glass plates, but also when no force has been 
used, frequently escapes from its nidus, and is then 
found at liberty {fig. 48, C, C, A and B, e). 

In the ciliary cylinder, as in the ciliary tessel- 
lated epithelium, the motions of the ciliss are directed 
towards the natural openings of the cavities or 
canals they cover : in the uterus, for instance, to- 
wards the OS uteri ; in the larynx, towards the rima 
glottidis, &c. ; by this means the investing mucus 
is carried onwards, and finally expelled. The 
motions of the cilise seem to depend on minute, 
but very indistinctly visible muscles, which lie under 
the ciliary elevations of the crown of the corpuscle 
to which they are connected by one extremity. A 
surface covered with cilise in active operation, when 
viewed obliquely or in perspective, generally presents 
the appearance of a field of corn waving with the 
wind. The motions of the cilise severally are hook- 
like, whip-like, &c. The ciliary motion and the 


cilise were first seen and described by Purkinje and 
Valentin* in man and the mammalia. 

§ 165. Ciliary motions are far more general 
among the invertebrate than among the vertebrate 
series of animals. The invertebrata that live in 
water have even very commonly cilise on certain 
portions of their external surface ; and in the in- 
fusoria these delicate processes serve as means of 
locomotion ; in the pediculated vorticella (^/ig. 87), 
which presents so striking a resemblance to the 
bell-shaped and cup-shaped ciliary corpuscles, they 
serve as means of attracting nutriment. The crea- 
ture establishes circular currents in its vicinity by 
means of its cilisD, and so brings organic molecules 
or small infusoria within its reach, when it suddenly 
retracts the body upon the now spirally twisted 
pedicle and closes the campanular orifice (C). This 
motion of retraction, as I conceive, depends on the 
composition of the pedicle, which consists of a vessel, 
which the creature has the power of injecting with 
fluid, and so of erecting or straightening, and of 
a fine contractile bundle wound spirally about 
the vessel, by the contraction of which the vessel 

* Mailer's " Archiv." 1834, S. 391 ; also in the tract entitled, 
" De Phcenomeno generali et fundamentali," &c. Vratislaviae, 
1835 ; and in a paper, " Ueber die Unabhangigkeit der Flim- 
mer-bewegnngen der Wirbelthiere von der Integritaet des een- 
tralen Nerven-Sj'stems," in Miiller's " Archiv." 1835. The 
subject was still further pursued by Henle in his Inaug. Diss. 
" Symbolse ad Anatomiam Villorum Intestinalium, imprimis 
eorum Epithelii," &c. Berl. 1837 ; and "Ueber die Ansbreitung 
des Epitheliums in mensch. Koerper," in Miiller's " Archiv." 


is emptied and the retraction effected.* In this 
structure we have an instance of an apparatus of 
locomotion of the simplest kind, — the effect follow- 
ing the antagonism of a single erectile canal and a 
single contractile bundle. 

Inversions or Invaginations of the Epithelium — 
Epithelial Glands. 

§ 166. The mucous membranes being but pro- 
ductions of the general external integument over 
the open cavities of the body, and agreeing with the 
skin in structure in all essential respects, we might 
a priori have expected to find epithelial glands, or 
glands connected with the coverings of mucous mem- 
branes, just as we had found epidermal glands — 
sudoriparous and sebaceous glands — connected with 
the skin. And this we do in fact ; the mucous 
membranes are plentifully supplied with involutions 
of the epithelium endowed with the secreting faculty, 
and denominated mucus-glands in virtue of their 
office, which is to secrete the slimy fluid with vv^hich 
the mucous membranes are bedewed. They are 
commonly divided into mucous crypts, which are 
simple sacs, and mucous glands, which are con- 
stituted by a cluster of such crypts terminating in 
a common canal. 

The epithelium of the mucous membranes is 

* Looking at the representation of this creature in Ehren- 
berg's masterly work, " Die Infusions -Thierchen als VoU- 
kommne Organismen," fol. Leipz, 1838, I conclude that either 
I am wrong in the views above stated, or that Ehrenberg has 
overlooked the purpose of the spiral bundle. 


also to be understood as covering all the processes 
Avliich these send off in the shape of ducts to glands 
of a larger size, and secreting peculiar and divers 
fluids — the liver, pancreas, &c. &c. As these 
canalicular processes, however, are formed by the 
mucous membrane at large, and not merely by its 
epithelial indusium, they will not be spoken of here, 
but under the head of the apparatus to which they 
are subordinate — the glands. 

§ 167. Mucous Follicles. — These are vesicular, 
more or less completely pediculated, simple involu- 
tions of the epithelium into the subjacent corium. 
They are met with in all the mucous membranes 
which are habitually covered with a proper thick 
slime ; they are wanting, on the contrary, in those 
that are merely moistened with a watery or very 
thin fluid, such as the frontal and maxillary sinuses, 
the cavity of the tympanum, &c. These follicles 
secrete the mucus-corpuscles (^/ig. 25, B), which, 
mingled with serous fluid and detached epithelial 
cells or cylinders compose mucus. It is very neces- 
sary not to confound with these mucous follicles the 
larger involutions of the entire mucous membrane, 
and into which mucous follicles and mucous glands, 
or simple and multilocular inversions of the epi- 
thelium, pour their products. 

§ 168. Mucous Glands. — These in point of 
structure and general appearance are almost identi- 
cal with the sebaceous glands of the skin. They 
lie deeper in the mucous membrane than the follicles, 
and frequently extend beyond this into the sub- 
mucous cellular tissue. They consist of agglo- 
merated glandular vesicles, which form botryoidal 


masses, whereof two commonly lie near one another, 
and unite their several excretory ducts into one 
common to both, which then opens upon the sur- 
face.* Their office, like that of the follicles, is to 
secrete the mucus which, poured out upon the 
surface of the mucous membranes, lubicrates and 
defends them, aiding the transmission of the chyme 
and faeces through the alimentary tract, protect- 
ing the nose, the windpipe, and the bronchi from 
dust, &c. 

§ 169. With a view to assigning to the epithe- 
lial glands their place in a natural arrangement of 
the glandular system, the following brief sketch of 
a division of its various elements is here subjoined : — 

Those organs only are to be regarded as true 
or secreting glands, which from the general cir- 
culating fluid separate a peculiar fluid, a process 
which is accomplished by one or more pediculated 
vessels or elongated canals, the separated fluid being 
mostly received into excretory ducts which terminate 
upon the external surface of the body or on the 
surface of a mucous membrane. They are con- 
veniently divided into 1st, Cutaneous Glands — 
inversions of the corium and of the mucous mem- 
branes ; and, 2d. Cuticular Glands — inversions 
of the cuticle into or through the corium. The 
cutaneous glands again divide themselves into («) 
glands of the skin, and (5) glands of the mucous 
membranes ; and the cuticular glands into (a) 
glands of the epidermis — epidermic glands, and 
(6) glands of the epithelium — epithelial glands. 

* Gurlt, vergleichende Physiologie, Taf. \\\.fig. 11, a. 



The following tabic gives a synoptical view of the 
entire glandular system. 



X glands. ' 


Epidermal ("Sudoriparous glands. 

glands. (Sebaceous glands. 
Epithelial [Mucous follicles. 

glands. IMucous glands. 

Glands of ( 
^, ^ . <! Milk glands, 
the Corium.(_ ° 

^■Lachrymal glands. 
Glands of Harder. 
Salivary glands. 




V Vascular glands 

Doubtful glands 

Glands of 

the mucous ' Pancreas 





Cowper's glands. 
Testes and Ovaria. 



Suprarenal capsules. 


(Lymphatic glands. 
IChyle glands. 
[Pituitary body. 
< Pineal body. 
1^ Pacchionian bodies. 


§ 170. The cartilages are substances admirably 
calculated to fulfil various mechanical purposes in 
the economy, and frequently employed for these. 
They are found of different forms in different parts 


of the body. They are elastic in the highest 
degree, of a white colour with a bluish or yellowish 
tinge, very slightly transparent, and easily cut with 
a knife. Dried they are of a yellow or brown colour, 
transparent, and hard. On their free surfaces, 
when they enter into the composition of joints, they 
are covered with a delicate fibrous membrane — 
the synovial membrane. Cartilages contain but few 
blood-vessels and nerves. 

Cartilages are divided into 'permanent and 
ossijic: the former, as their name implies, persist 
as cartilages to the time of old age ; the latter at a 
shorter or longer date are converted into bone. 
Examined microscopically, they present three kinds 
of intimate structure. 1st. In one we observe cells, 
or cartilage-corpuscles as they are called, scattered 
through a hyaline or intercellular substance, — cellu- 
lar cartilage {figs. 53, B, 57, 58, and 217). 2cl. In 
another, the cells or cartilage-corpuscles instead of 
being dispersed through a vitreous matter are scat- 
tered betwixt the meshes of a reticulated fibrous 
matter, — reticular cartilage {fig- 59). 3d. In a 
third, the texture is a mixture of the reticular and 
simply fascicular, the intersection of fibres being 
here very great, the fibres then running more in 
the manner of those which make up the elastic 
tissues, — fibrous cartilage (fig. 53 A). The bone- 
cartilage is that which forms the ground-work of 
the bones, and as such may be exhibited in the 
adult by removing the bony matter by means of a 
dilute acid ; bone-cartilage presents the structure 
of bone, save that the rays of the bone-cells have 
disappeared (fig. 70, h). 


§ 171- In none of the structures of animal bodies 
do we observe a greater affinity to those of vegetables 
than in cartilage. In fact, the form and grouping, 
and even the mode of origin, of the cells, are the 
same in cartilage as in plants. 

The chorda dorsalis and the cartilage of the 
gill-rays of bony fishes, the gill-cartilages of tad- 
poles, &c. exhibit in different places and accord- 
ing to the degree of their developement, cartilage 
cells in different circumstances, precisely as we 
see them in a growing plant.* From my own 
observations, I am led to state that the carti- 
lages of the mammalia which are destined to 
become ossified, present precisely the same appear- 
ances ; according to the part of the cartilage from 
whence the specimen for examination is taken, and 
the cartilage itself, when several are examined at 
the same time, the appearances observed are very 
different, inasmuch as a particular cartilaginising 
process takes place as a preparation for the ossific 
process that is to ensue. The permanent cartilages, 
however, are evolved by a more simple process, and 
they are also maintained in their status when fully 
formed in a more uniform manner, and always with 
the appearance of cellular cartilage {Jig. 57). The 
cartilage cells, discovered by Purkinje, lie by so 
much the more closely together as the cartilage is of 
more recent formation. 

§ 172. Permanent Cellular Cartilage. — The em- 
bryo in the earliest period consists of an apparently 
uniform granular aggregation of cytoblasts, which, 

* Schwann, " MiL Unters," S. 17. Taf. i. 


sooner or later, but in all parts of the body, and as 
a preliminary to the formation of the organic parts, 
produce or become changed into nucleated cells. 
From such an embryonic cell-mass the cartilages 
are produced. At first intercellular matter is only 
to be seen where the rounded corners of the im- 
perfectly polyhedral cells leave little spaces between 
them. In the persistent cellular cartilages the in- 
tercellular substance increases simultaneously with, 
and even in a greater degree than, the cells by 
which the young cartilage augments in bulk, and 
also becomes firmer, acquiring ever more and more 
its appropriate outward form. The cells being 
pushed farther apart by the notable growth of the 
intercellular substance, they at the same time be- 
come slightly flattened, and often assume an ellipti- 
cal or notched lenticular shape, something like that 
of a broad bean. The capsule of the cell is at this 
time no longer to be distinguished from the inter- 
cellular substance, which is now spoken of as hyaline 
or vitreous cartilage ; and the fully formed cartilage 
cells, which are now called cartilage corpuscles, 
form spaces in the vitreous mass filled with a softer 
substance, amidst which the nuclei seem oftener to 
lie unconnected than to be attached to the bound- 
ing parietes. The cellular cartilage thus formed 
always exhibits upon the surface of a section different 
forms of the flattened cells which have been divided 
{fig. 217). The cells are always found more and 
more depressed and flattened in the circumference 
or bounding surface of the cartilage, as in the 
transversely divided septum narium, fig. 53, B, b. 
In the permanent cartilages of old animals, as in 


the septum narium represented in /^. 57, the nu- 
cleus, as a general rule, is granular in its structure. 

In situations where the cartilage is relatively 
more expanded in order to acquire its full form 
and growth, the following circumstances may be 
observed : — 

1st. In the cells, besides the primary cytoblast, 
another new one arises (^fig\ 217, ^), which is 
evolved into a parent cell {Jig' 217, f\ the en- 
velope of which coalesces through a great part 
of its circumference with the walls of the parent 
cell. The part of the envelope of the young cell 
which is free becomes thickened, and changes into 
the flat septum, which effects a greater isolation of 
the now dissevered cells. In this way we often 
see from three to four cells, of the most recent 
formation, separated by a bar or cross piece of 
hyaline substance,* and of these only one, perhaps 
not one, is a parent cell. 

2d. Cytoblasts (cell-nuclei) and cells arise in 
the hyaline substance, and then grow till they 
attain the size of the primary and neighbouring 

od. New cells are formed on the periphery, by 
which the cartilage comes to be augmented by 
external apposition of parts. 

Among the permanent cellular cartilages we 

* An indication that the intercellular or hyaline substance 
of cartilage is formed and increases from the absorbed cyto- 
blastema, the mode of growth being by thickening of the cell- 
walls, probably in consequence of a setting or coagulation of the 
hyaline substance upon the inner aspects of the cells during 
their developement. 


find the cartilaginous septum narium, and the car- 
tilages of the alse and point of the nose ; the semi- 
lunar cartilages of the eyelids ; the cartilage of the 
external ear and Eustachian tube ; the cartilages of 
the OS hyoides and larynx, with the exception of 
that of the epiglottis, and the cartilages of the 
trachea and its branches ; farther, the articular 
cartilages — those cartilages that cover the articular 
surfaces of the bones ; the cartilage which terminates 
the base of the scapula ; the cartilages of the ribs 
in man ; and the ensiform cartilage of the sternum. 
The permanent cellular cartilages contain less soluble 
matter than the cartilages of the bones. Those 
of the foetus are attacked with great difficulty by 
boiling water, and do not yield proper gelatine.* 

§ 173. Ossific Cellular Cartilages. — All the 
bones of the body have cartilaginous rudiments ; it 
is only during the process of ossification that the 
calcareous salts, which finally give them their cha- 
racters, are deposited. We shall have more to say 
of these cartilages when we come to speak of the 
bones, t 

* J. Miiller* was the first who called attention to the dif- 
ferent qualities of gelatine as procured from different sources, — a 
discovery which has led to the distinction of the old proximate 
principle called Gelatine into two principles designated Chondrin 
and Glutin : chondrin being the product by long boiling of all 
the permanent cartilages ; glutin of the animal basis of bone, of 
ligament, cellular tissue, &c. — G. G. 

t Ossification often begins in a soft membranous basis. In 
certain flat bones, as the parietal, nothing like cartilage is to be 
seen at any step of their growth ; and the shafts of the long 

Poggendorff 's " Annalen," B. xxxviii. S. 295. 


§ ly-i. Reticular Cartilage. — In the cellular 
mass destined to the formation of reticular cartilage, 
so soon as an isolating- intercellular substance is 
visible, we observe new cells evolved in the primary 
or parent cells, and between these new cells a new 
hyaline substance, the primary intercellular sub- 
stance being simultaneously transformed into an 
elastic intercellular rete, in the meshes of which 
lie imbedded completely formed cells and others of 
more recent formation, and mingled with these 
older and younger nuclei (^fig. 59). This variety of 
cartilage passes in some parts into a highly elastic 
and extensible reticulation : for example, at the 
root of the concha auris and of the epiglottis, in 
which scarcely any trace of cartilage corpuscles 
remains. Towards the extremity of the cartilage of 
the concha, again, the network disappears by de- 
grees, and the structure passes over into cellular 
cartilage. The reticular cartilages do not afford 
gelatine any more than the cellular cartilages. In 
old age, we almost invariably meet with partial 
ossific deposits in cellular cartilage ; these, however, 
are very rarely seen in fibrous cartilage, and pro- 
bably never in reticular cartilage. 

bones never appear cartilaginous before ossification, like the 
epiphyses. If it be said, that the membranous matter in ques- 
sion is merely a soft rudimental cartilage, it might as well be 
asserted, that granulations or clots of lymph are identical with 
any tissue which they may be destined to produce. In short, 
the soft tissue in which the osseous deposit may first be detected 
in certain flat bones and in the shafts of the long bones, cannot 
be regarded as identical with the well-known dense cartilage in 
which ossification begins in the epiphyses and in sevei'al flat 
bones. — G. G. 


§ 175. Fibrous Cartilage The true fibrous 

cartilages are very tough, fibrous, and extensible. 
They consist of highly elastic parallel filaments, and 
are, therefore, very different in their structure from 
the reticular and cellular cartilages ; in fact, as 
they belong to the fibrous structures they will be 
more properly discussed in the section that treats of 
these than in this place. Wherever the fibrous car- 
tilage assumes the properties of the cellular cartilage, 
there the microscopic elements of cell-cartilage are 
found to increase at the cost, as it appears, of the 
fibres, which become rarer and rarer. Fibro-car- 
tilage yields no gelatine by boiling. 

§ 176. Ossific Cartilage. — The transparent 
element of the bones, hitherto regarded as a 
hyaline substance in which the bone-corpuscles lie 
scattered, has been generally designated by this title ; 
but as I shall shew when speaking of the bones 
that the bone-corpuscles are the nuclei of the bone- 
cells, and as these have no intercellular matter or 
hyaline substance between them, it is obvious that 
the title ossific cartilage, for the transparent ele- 
ment of bone, is improper. Those cartilages, how- 
ever, that are destined to become bone, and those 
that can be shewn to exist as the animal element 
of bone by the agency of acids, might with pro- 
priety be spoken of under the name of ossific. The 
entire skeleton of the bony fishes comes under the 
same category.* 

* In the skate, the secondary cartilage-corpuscles of the 
skeleton are crowded together in groups precisely as in the car- 
tilages that are destined to undergo ossification. Y'lAeJig. 58, A, 
which is a section from a costal cartilage of the dos. The areas 


§ 177' JS^ormal Ossification of Cartilage. — The 
ossification of the costal cartilages which occurs 
in the domestic mammalia, especially the horse, 
although incomplete, may still be reckoned as nor- 
mal, for it takes place invariably. In the full-grown 
horse the costal cartilages are always found more or 
less bony ; the same thing is observed in the 
middle-aged dog ; and probably it occurs constantly 
among the carnivora.* 

§ 178. The process of ossification that occurs in 
the cellular cartilages is always essentially of the 
same kind ; in the formation of bone in the embryo, 
in the renovation and repair of broken bones by exu- 
dative inflammation, in the ossification of the carti- 
laginous epiphyses, as Mieschert has shewn, in the 
more tardy ossification of the costal cartilages, and 
finally, in the ossification of the permanent car- 
tilages in advanced age, or under other accidental 
circumstances — in every case the process is the 
same. 1^ All bony concretions, on the contrary, which 

around the groups which indicate the boundaries of the primary 
or parent cells (B) are still visible in some places. The costal 
cartilages, therefore, evidently stand on the confines between 
proper cartilage and true bone. 

* See Mr. Gulliver's note, p. 13. 

t " De Tnflam. Ossium," &c. 4to. Berol. 1836. 

'^ In the reparation of fractures some physiologists, as the 
late Mr. Wilson and Professor Meckel, affirm that the process 
is just the same as that by which the original growth of the 
bone took place. There may be certain facts favourable to this 
doctrine, but there are manj'- at variance with it ; for instance, 
in the course of reparation of fractures of the shafts of the long 
bones, a cartilaginiform substance is formed quite unlike any 
structure observable during the original growth of the same 
part. The cartilaginiform matter is generally abundant when 



arise without preceding formation of proper car- 
tilage, such as we constantly find in arteries, in the 
dura mater upon occasion, in ossified glandular 
cysts, &c., although the cellular structure cannot 
he denied to some of them, still they have seldom or 
never the texture of true bone. 

§ 179. Ossification of the Costal Cartilages. — If 
one of the costal cartilages of an aged person, or of 
a full-grown domestic animal, be cut across slowly 
with a knife, certain parts or points will be found 
bony, others in the state of cartilage, and these pass 
the one into the other. A section of a cartilage 
beginning to be ossified presents the appearance 
represented in /?^. 58. Whilst those parts of the 
cartilage that are remote from the point or points 
of ossification are remarkable for a regular dis- 
semination of cartilage cells through their substance, 
those that are close to it exhibit a clustering or 
agglomeration of these cells (A) separated by an 
apparently homogeneous intercellular substance. In 
these clusters it is not difficult to distinguish cells 
of older and more recent formation, simple and 

there is much displacement of the fragments. Some good ex- 
amples of it in the lower animals may be seen in the Museum of 
the Army Medical Department at Chatham, — Division, Experi- 
mental Physiology. It may be added, that in fractures of the 
patella the new bone shoots from the broken extremities into a 
dense fibrous tissue, quite unlike the cartilage of which the 
patella is formed at an early period. See my " Expei'iments and 
Observations on Fractures of the Patella," Edin. Med. and 
Surg. Journal, No. 1 30 ; and " On the Reparation of Fractured 
Bones," Ibid. No. 124. Some illustrative figures are given in 
the drawings from preparations in the Army Medical Museum 
at Chatham, fas. 3, plate 9. — G. G. 


united or blended cells, and smaller and larger 
isolated nuclei. Where tlie ossification begins, these 
clusters are more closely crowded, and are ever 
more and more distinctly surrounded and enclosed 
by a delicate line. These lines, speaking of them 
in the plural, probably indicate primary or parent 
cells, — those cells which arose in the foetus on the 
first formation of the cartilages, and within which the 
secondary cells (A), the prime means of growth in 
reference to the cartilages, have arisen. From the 
part B (^Jig. 58) the primary intercellular substance 
is opaque, having become so by deposited earthy 
salts.* Whilst the bone-corpuscles {Jig. 60, 6) 
appear in bone in progress of formation («), the 
cartilage corpuscles disappear, and bone-cells (c) 
are produced in their stead, and these fill the entire 
spaces 1. The ossification of the foetal cartilages 
proceeds precisely in the same manner, t The 
cartilage corpuscles, ever more and more crowded 
together and compressed, cede the space they 
formerly occupied to the increasing osseous sub- 
stance ; this grows constantly more and more opaque, 
bone corpuscles make their appearance, then ves- 
sels, $ &c., and the bone is achieved. 

* Vide sXsofig. 69, B. 

f Fig. 69 and reference in Explanation of the Plates. 

X Every anatomist is acquainted with the vascular beds in 
which ossification takes place. As soon as an osseous point can 
be seen, vessels by which the bony matter appears to have 
been deposited may generally be rendered apparent by the 
aid of injections. I have not, however, made any particular 
observations as to whether the bone-corpuscles or the vessels 
are first produced ; but the latter, of course, is the common 
opinion. — G. G. 


This process may be explained in the following 
manner. The secondary hyaline substance, an ele- 
ment included within the primary cells, and in car- 
tilage not to be distinguished from the parietes of 
the parent cells, is constantly dissolved, and in the 
fluid state permeates or transudes the walls of the 
primary cells now become invisible, or it coagulates 
on the inner aspects of these cells ; out of this cyto- 
blastema, cytoblasts (the bone-corpuscles) are formed 
by coagulation and organization of the new hyaline 
substance, and from them are produced the bone- 
cells, which comport themselves in the same manner 
as the embryonic cartilage-cells ; in other words, they 
form a cellular mass without any interposed matter 
or intercellular substance. Whilst the recently 
formed bone-cells are growing, new cytoblasts arise 
between them and the shrunken parent cells, in the 
mass of cytoblastema, which is incessantly prepared 
by the transudation of fluid through the walls of the 
parent cells, or, it may be, which is laid up by 
coagulation upon their inner aspects;* the cartilage 
corpuscles, as said, ever more closely pressed to- 
gether, disappear ; the nuclei of the bone - cells 
acquire all the while calcareous salts and become 
opaque ; the bone-cells themselves appropriate salts 
of the same kind, radiated points, nutrient vessels, 
&c. make their appearance, and the bone is fully 

§ 180. The blood-vessels of cartilage which 
meet the eye, or which are made conspicuous by 

* The reverse, consequently, of the mode in which the yolk 
is formed in the egg, which occurs by a penetration of the cell 
(the vitellary membrane). 


ordinary injections, are so few in number, that it 
does not seem likely that this substance should de- 
rive the juices necessary to its growth and main- 
tenance, by imbibition or endosmose from these 
alone.* Bone, a less decompoundable tissue, is far 
more freely supplied with blood-vessels than carti- 
lage ; it is, therefore, probable that the vessels of 
cartilage are more numerous than they are gene- 
rally supposed to be,t although it must be allowed 
that cartilage is rarely reproduced, and that wounds 
of this substance heal slowly, and generally cicatrize 
at length without any attempt to supply losses. 

§ 181. The cartilages, from their various pro- 
perties — their strength, their elasticity, &c. — are 
very essential elements in the mechanism of the 
human and animal body. The ossific cartilages 
probably lend themselves to the irregular and 
rapid movements of early life, even better than the 
harder and less elastic bones would do. The per- 
manent cartilages are employed in the carpentry 
of parts which, from their function and their posi- 

* The late Sir Anthony Carlisle instituted some ingenious 
inquiries into the mode of growth and reparation of the extra- 
vascular parts of animals, as the shells of snails, oysters, &c. — 
Vide his paper : " Facts and Observations relative to the con- 
nexion between vascular and extra-vascular parts in the struc- 
ture of living organised bodies," in Land. 3Ied. Repository, 
vol. iv. p. 89 (1815) ; and in Thomson's Annals, vol. vi. p. 174. 
Some interesting observations on the same subject were recently 
communicated by Mr. Toynbee in a paper read at the Royal 

■\ We are indebted to Mr. Liston for an admirable demon- 
stration of the existence and arrangement of the blood-vessels of 
diseased articular cartilage. — Vide Trans. Med.-Cliir. Soc. 
vol. xxiii G. G. 

182 BONE. 

tion, evidently require elasticity and yet firmness 
in their construction : in such parts, for instance, 
as the external ear, the larynx and trachea, the 
extremities of the bones where they form articu- 
lations, &c. 


§ 182. The bones may be said to be produced 
immediately from the mutable cartilages, and they 
are well known to be readily reduceable to the state 
of cartilages again, which retain the precise struc- 
ture of the bones from which they were obtained. 
Bones are hard in the ratio of their density, and of 
the quantity of calcareous salts they contain.* They 

* It has been commonly supposed that the difference in the 
phj'^sical properties of the bones of the blood and cart-horse are 
connected with a marked difference in the proportions of the 
earthy and animal matter ; but Dr. Davy's observations are 
opposed to this opinion, as will appear from the following extract 
from his " Researches," vol. i. p. 394: — 

Calcareous Animal 
Matter. Matter. 

Pure -bred horse, — metatarsal bone, specific"! 

gravity 1854, and after having been subjected ^65-77 34'23 
to air-pump, 2033 J 

Low-bred troop-horse, — metacarpal bone, spe-^ 

cific gravity before action of air-pump 2010,^65-78 34"22 
and 2077 after J 

Blood-horse, — compact part of shaft of humerus,"! 

before being subjected to air-pump, specific l69*44 30-56 
gravity 2045, and 2092 after J 

Dray-horse, — ^ similar part of humerus, before i 

action of air-pump, specific gravity 2000,^-70-8 29-2 
and 2126 after J 

Dr. Davy further remarks, after a table of the proportion of 
animal and calcareous matter in diseased bones, what very slight 
agreement there is between the quality of hardness and of soft- 
ness of bone, and the proportions of calcareous and. animal 


are of a yellowish, a bluish, or reddish white in 
different instances, and they possess a very consi- 
derable degree of elasticity. The specific gravity 
of bone varies considerably, being in relation to the 
density and amount of saline impregnation of the 
specimen examined; it generally lies between 1-80 
and 2*03.* The animal matter of bone is easily re- 
moved by the action of caustic alkali and of a high 
temperature If the bone be exposed to heat in 
contact with air, the remaining earthy matter co- 
heres much less firmly than it does when the ex- 
posure is in a close vessel or without the access of 
air ; the animal matter, in the latter case, is only 
charred, and the bone retains its shape in great 
part, and, in some measure, its consistency. Dilute 
acids remove the earth, and the cartilage remains 
behind. The cartilage of the foetal bones is but 
very sparingly soluble in water, and does not yield 
proper gelatine by long boiling ; the cartilage of the 
bones of adult animals, on the contrary, is in a great 
measure and readily soluble in boiling water, and 
yields an abundance of jelly. t The calcareous salts 
of the bones lessen the liability of the component 
cartilage to undergo decomposition in so notable a 
manner, that they decay with extreme slowness ; 
hidden in the earth, or sunk in water, they proclaim 

matter, confirming the conjecture that more seems to depend, in 
relation to these qualities, on the arrangement of the ingredients 
than on their respective proportions. — liesearches, Phys. and 
Anat. vol. i. p. 403. — G. G. 

* See Dr. Davy's " Observations on the Specific Gravity of 
different parts of the Human Body." — Researches, vol. ii. p. 233o 

-j- Vide note to § 172. 

184 BONE. 

the existence, at periods variously remote from that 
in which we live, not only of numerous species, but 
of entire genera of animals that are now extinct. 
These fossil organic remains, as they are called, 
sometimes differ, as regards their state, in nothing 
from hones of existing animals that have lain long 
in the ground, or been long exposed to the action 
of water. At other times, however, they are truly 
Qnineralised^ having become penetrated with cal- 
careous or siliceous matter, when they are as hard 
and unchanging as jasper or marble.* Even when 
thus penetrated, bones retain their structure, a cir- 
cumstance which is at once apparent when a thin 
slice is placed under the microscope.t 

* In the parietal bone of a skull probably 3000 years old, 
from an ancient tomb at Cerigo, Dr. Davy found 26*2 per cent, 
of animal matter ; and in a bit of the zygomatic process of an 
ancient Egyptian cranium from a tomb at Thebes, there was 
23'9 per cent, of animal matter. " In the bone-breccia of the 
Mediterranean, so widely scattered, I have been able to detect 
a just perceptible trace only of animal matter; and in the teeth 
of the squali, which occur in the tertiary formations of Malta 
and Gozo, I have not been able to detect even a trace of it. In 
an enormous tooth of one of these fishes now in my possession, 
I carefully sought for animal matter, but in vain. They and the 
fossil bones generally which have not been exposed to the air, 
owe their strength and hardness to a kind of cement of carbonate 
of lime, which they all acquire. Judging analogically from the 
partial effect of a known period of time, what an idea of vast 
antiquity is conveyed by the circumstance of the total destruc- 
tion of the animal matter of bones!" — Researches, Pliys. and 
Anat. vol. i. p. 399. — G. G. 

f This circumstance has recently been taken advantage of, 
more especially with reference to the teeth, in determining the 
species or family to which the animal belonged, of whose ske- 
leton some small fragment only is discovered. With a piece of a 


The bones, with the exception of the crowns of 
the teeth, are inclosed by the fibrous periosteum. 
The long hones of mammals contain the marrow, 
which is merely a finely cellular fat, inclosed within 
the linino- membrane of their internal cavities. The 
Jiat hones consist of two tables, separated by a can- 
cellar, or spongy substance, called diploe, which is 
either occupied with marrow, or is hollow, in which 
case it is lined with a delicate mucous membrane. 
The cubical, or rounded bones, such as those of the 
carpus and tarsus, and those of a mixed character, 
consist of a spongy tissue with included medul- 
lary cells or cavities, and are commonly bounded 
by a very delicate layer of dense or vitreous bony 

§ 183. The developement of the bones in the 
foetus takes place sooner or later in different 
species of animals, according to the time which the 
embryo itself requires for attaining the maturity 
that will fit it to begin an independent existence. 
The bone-cells begin to be formed in certain points 
— centres of ossification : these are aggregations 
of oval bone-cells, from which the ossification 
spreads over the rest of the cartilage. Small 
rounded bones have usually but a single centre 
of ossification ; irregular bones again have several 
centres ; cylindrical bones have at least three, one 
in the middle, and two others for the epiphyses or 
end portions. 

tooth we can generally say that the skeleton of which it formed 
a part was that of a mammal, a reptile, or a fish, and often 
even make more particular deductions. — G. G. 

186 BONE. 

Microscopic Analysis of Bone. 

§ 184. A delicate slice of a cylindrical bone 
under a low power exhibits (vide /^. 61) canals (b, 
c), which for the most part run parallel with one 
another (&), and are connected by cross or anasto- 
mosing branches (c). In the recent bone these 
channels contain blood, which during life is con- 
veyed by the nutrient vessels that enter and quit 
the bone in different places. The spaces between 
the vessels (a) constitute the proper substance of 
the bone ; this consists of bone-cells, the nuclei of 
which are called bone-corpuscles. These infg- 61 
appear as simple points ; under a higher power, as 
in_^^. 70, they have distinct and definite forms. 

From the elongated bone-corpuscles (a), which 
are without obvious nucleoli, extend fine radiations, 
the canaliculi chalicophori of MiiUer, on every side 
to the confines of the cell (5). A good view of the 
cells of bone is obtained by inspecting a delicate 
transverse section of one of the grinding teeth of 
the horse (the appearances are represented in 
fg. 68); the cells are seen extending from the bony 
substance «, b ; a, b', halfway into the enamel b, b' . 
These cells all contain a nucleus, some of them 
contain two. The same structure may, however, 
be demonstrated here and there in a fine section of 
any bone, by soaking it first in a solution of nitrate 
of silver, drying it, and then dipping it in a solution 
of common salt, after which it must be polished. 
These cells of bone do not appear to have any 
vitreous substance interposed between them. They 


suiToimd the vessels {fg. 65, c), in the form of 
concentric laminae (5), and lie betwixt them with 
more or less of an obvious parallel arrangement («.)* 

In the flat bones the vessels form a common net- 
work {fig. QQ>). The spongy bones in general con- 
sist of a reticulation of compact bony substance, 
which encloses cavities full of fat cells. 

§ 1S5. In the embryos of our larger domestic 
animals we discover the incipient ossific points about 
the sixth week from conception ; in the common fowl 
they are visible as early as the ninth day, and in 
some of the bones bone-corpuscles are even then 
already obvious. The ossification extends from these 
points, in rays in flat bones, in long bones in the 
direction of their length. 

Some bones are earlier formed than others : the 
lateral portions of the bodies of the vertebrae appear 
at a very early period, and between the two rows 
which they form lies the chorda dorsalis. The 
separation exists in the calf in the eighth week ; 
the lateral parts of the vertebral arches are only 
united towards the tenth week. Ossification in the 
bones of the head begins in the lower jaw, then in 
the OS frontis, and next in the circumjacent bones of 
the face. The middle portions of the ribs are 
ossified at an early date ; and nearly simultaneously, 
the middle portions of the great bones of the ex- 
tremities shew points of ossification, the thoracic 
extremities being always somewhat in advance of 
the abdominal limbs. The smaller bones of the 
extremities follow, and finally the square or rounded 

* Consult the figures from 61 to 66 and the appertaining 
explanations of the plates. 

188 BONE. 

bones of the carpus and tarsus. The blood-vessels 
are relatively larger and more numerous the younger 
the bone is. No nerves other than those that pene- 
trate along with, and apparently belong to, the blood- 
vessels, seem to exist in bone. 

Chemical Constituents of Bone. 

§ 186. Bones subjected to dry distillation in 
closed vessels yield an empyreumatic oil, an empy- 
reumatic acid, carbonate of ammonia, and a variety 
of gases ; and there remain behind carbon, phos- 
phate of lime, and a little phosphate of magnesia. 
In Papin's digester the cartilage of bone is dissolved 
out, and appears in the shape of gelatine. 

In the adult the cartilage forms about one-third 

part of the whole mass of a bone. One hundred 

parts of the dry bone [of the horse ?] were found to 

consist of 

Cartilage 32-17 

Vessels 1*13 

Basic phosphate of lime with a trace of fluate 

of lime 53-04 

Carbonate of lime 11-30 

Phosphate or carbonate of magnesia 1-16 

Carbonate of soda with a little chloride of 

sodium 1-50 


§ I87. In the foetus and young creature the 
animal matters predominate ; the earthy increase 
with age ; so that the older the individual, the harder 
and more brittle are the bones.* The carbonate of 

* The proportion of calcareous and animal matter varies 
under circumstances which do not yet appear to have been pre- 


lime which is found in the skeleton of the mammal 
is typical of a lower grade of organization than the 
phosphate of lime ; the former predominates at the 
bottom, the latter at the top of the scale of animate 

cisely explained. Thus in recent bones, from a young person 
aged about 15, Dr. Davy obtained the following results, viz. — 

Calcareous Animal 

Matter, Matier. 

Parietal bone 58-8 41-2 

Tibia.... 53-6 46-4 

Fibula 44-0 56-0 

Ilium 45-0 55-0 

Femur 47-0 53-0 

Dr. Davy's analyses shew that the proportion of earthy 
matter does not always increase with age, as in the following 
examples, in all of which the parietal bone was the subject of 
experiment ; and the specimens were previously thoroughly dried, 
by exposure to a temperature of 212°, till they ceased to lose 
weight, — a circumstance, as he justly remarks, of some import- 
ance in comparative experiments : — 

Calcareous Animal 

Matter. Matter. 

From a man 8et. 20 66-9 33-1 

Ditto ffit. 31 70-2 29-8 

Ditto ffit. 52 68-5 31-5 

Ditto eet. 45 66-6 33-4 

The bones of young children are known generally to possess 
a smaller proportion of earthy matter than those of adults ; yet 
to shew how perplexing, in the present state of our knowledge, 
the subject is, the subjoined analyses are selected: — 

Calcareous Animal 
Matter. Matter. 

Lower jaw of an old person (No. 10, p. 385) 56'6 43-4 

Ditto of a child (No. 6, p. 392) 57-2 42-8 

Ditto of a fcetus, between five and six months 

(No. 9, p. 393) 56-0 44-4 

These results, of course, are at variance with the majority, 
but they are well calculated to excite further inquiry. — Vide 
Researches, Phys. and Anat. vol. i. p. 384, et seq. — G. G. 

190 BONE. 

creation ; and in morbid discrasisB the carbonate 
sometimes appears at the cost as it were of the 
phosphate, and this, too, by so much the more as 
there is a greater amount of alteration of structure. 
In this state of things it is very common to find 
associated a partial metamorphosis of the fibrinous 
tissues (vide § 96), — a conversion of cartilage into 
fat, for instance.* 

§ 188. In the osteology the bones are particu- 
larly considered in all that regards their forms, 
processes and elevations, their pits and depressions, 
their connexions, &c. &c. 

§ 189. Projections. — When elevations form im- 
mediate continuations of bones they are called apo- 
physes ; when they are separated from the bones 
by a layer of cartilage, they are denominated epi- 
physes. These last are ossified from a distinct 
point, and only become united to the bones upon 
which they are placed by the gradual ossification 
of the connecting cartilage, when they are changed 
into apophyses or processes. The consideration of 
the various forms of bony process belongs to the 

* In Dr. Davy's work on the Interior of Ceylon is an 
account of the dissection of a leg in which a large quantity of 
oil was found in the capsule of the knee joint in the place of 
synovia: the case was one of elephas. The substance of some 
of the viscera of carnivorous animals which have died in con- 
finement is often gorged with oily matter. In the parenchyme 
of the kidneys of the leopard, for example, though these organs 
appeared otherwise healthy, and the animal was generally not 
fat, I have seen so much oil that it might be pressed out in con- 
siderable quantity. Some preparations shewing the fact were 
sent to the Museum of the Army Medical Department at 
Chatham. — G. G. 


descriptive anatomy, so that it will be enough in 
this place to enumerate the different kinds that have 
been specified ; these are : — 

1st. Capitular processes : articular terminal sur- 
faces of a more or less rounded form covered with 
cartilage. 2d. Button -like processes, connected 
with the bones by a broad base, covered with car- 
tilage, smooth, round, and serving as means of 
articulation. 3d. Eminences of impression and of 
reflection, and odontoid processes. 4th. Tro- 
chanters, tubers, tuberosities, strong, rough pro- 
cesses for the attachment of muscles, ligaments, 
&c., and serving as levers. 5th. Ridges, long, 
linear, sharp, and rough margins upon flat bones. 
6th. Lines, long, little-raised ridges. 7th. Spines, 
long pointed processes. 

§ 190. Depressions. — These either include ar- 
ticular processes, and are therefore covered with 
cartilage and smooth ; or they lodge or enclose cer- 
tain organic parts ; or they constitute cavities or 
sinuses of diflerent capacities, which are covered 
with mucous membranes. The following kinds of 
depression have been enumerated : — 

1st. The deep and shallow articular dejjressions 
— the cotyloid and glenoid cavities. — These receive 
the more or less perfectly globular heads of bones 
for the constitution of joints having the freest motions. 
2d. The trochlea, gi^oove, or channel, an elongated 
shallow depression. 3d. The canal, a complete or 
close channel. 4th. The foramen or hole, a de- 
pression that passes through a bone. 5th. The 
cleft, a fine slit passing across some portion of a 
bone. 6th. The notch or cleft that does not go 

192 BONE. 

completely through the bone, and gets narrower as 
it goes deeper. 7th. Sinuses or antra; these are 
hollow spaces lined with mucous membranes between 
the tables of flat bones. 

§ 191. Connexions Bones are connected in 

different ways with one another according to the 
properties and uses required in the articulation. 
Sometimes they are freely movable one on another — 
diartlirosis ; sometimes the motion is very limited 
— amphiarthrosis ; and sometimes it is nil — syn- 
arthrosis. 1st. In the movable articulation, the 
opposed ends of the bones are covered with articular 
cartilage, and fashioned severally for the encounter 
that takes place, enclosed within a common synovial 
capsule, and kept together without any implication 
of the required movement by means of ligaments. 
The movable articulation is divided into different 
kinds : (a), the enarthrosis or ball and socket Joint, 
such as those of the hip and shoulder ; (^), the 
hinge or ginglymus joint, like those of the knee, 
ankle, &c. ; (c), \hQ pivot joint, of which a perfect 
example is furnished in the articulation between 
the atlas and vertebra dentata ; (^), the arthrodial 
or limited joint, of which we have examples in the 
articulations of the carpus and tarsus, where the 
bones merely glide backwards and forwards for a 
little way upon one another. 

2d. In the mixed or amphiarthrose articulation, 
the bones are connected by some interposed sub- 
stance, — cellular or fibrous cartilage. The motion 
here is entirely referable to the elasticity of this 
interarticular substance : we have examples of it in 
the intervertebral and pelvic articulations. 


3d. In the si/n'arthrose or immovable articula- 
tio7is the hones ahut immediately upon one another, 
and their imion is accomplished variously : («), hy 
suture, when the edges of the bones penetrate each 
other mutually by jagged oifsets ; (6), by scyn- 
delesis, when a ridge in one bone is received into a 
furrow of another ; (c), by harmony, or false suture, 
when the edges of the bones merely meet without 
penetrating each other by large and obvious offsets ; 
(^), by gomphosis, when a part is implanted in the 
manner of a wedge or nail, as are the teeth in the 
alveoli of the jaws. 

§ 192. The skeleton is the foundation and 
frame-work of the animal body, a system of props 
and levers for the muscles of voluntary motion to 
accomplish the behests of the mind withal ; a means 
of forming various cavities in which the viscera are 
contained. Its parts, like all the rest that belong 
to voluntary motion and sensation, are symmetrical 
and in segments ; in other words, an antero-posterior 
plane divides it into two equal halves, so that on 
the right and on the left side similar bones in 
like number are encountered, and in the middle 
line or plane of section single bones, but divided 
into two similar halves. 

The skeleton is divided into head, trunk, and 
extremities. In the head we distinguish the bones 
of the cranium and those of the face. In the trunk 
we have the vertebral column, the ribs, the sternum, 
and the pelvis. The anterior, atlantal, or thoracic 
extremity consists of the scapula, clavicle (where 
present), humerus, radius and ulna, carpus or wrist, 
metacarpus, and digital phalanges. The posterior, 


19^ TEETH. 

sacral, or abdominal extremity comprises the femur, 
tibia and fibula, tarsus, metatarsus, and digital 
phalanges. The accessory bones — the os hyoides, 
sesamoid bones, marsupial bones, os penis, &c., are 
connected- variously with the proper skeleton by 
means of cartilage or ligament ; but the cardiac 
bone of the ruminants has no connexion with the 
skeleton at large, and belongs to another organic 


§ 193. The teeth were long and uniformly, by 
all the early writers on anatomy, classed among the 
bones ; but by and by, and under the influence of 
new views, they came to be reckoned among the 
horny tissues, and this not without apparent reason ; 
for, though the teeth in point of chemical composi- 
tion and texture belong obviously to the bones, still in 
their extrinsic situation, their mechanical relations 
to external things, and their connexions with the 
processes of the corium which engender and con- 
tinue to maintain them, they as evidently appertain 
to the cuticular formations, and bear a close affinity 
to the nails and hair. The most recent inquiries 
of all, however, those of Miescher, J. Miiller, Ret- 
zius, [Nasmyth, Owen], &c. have clearly sheviii the 
teeth to be modified or epithelial bones, so that they 
cannot now be detached from the osseous system. 

In the teeth of the lower animals, as many as 
three different substances are readily distinguished : 
1st. the enamel or vitreous substance ; 2d. the 
pi^oper substance or ivory ; 3d. the bone or cement. 

§ 194. Enamel, Vitreous Substance. — This is 

ENAMEL. 195 

the hardest part of the teeth, and indeed of the 
animal body ; it is, however, brittle, of a bluish 
white colour, and semi-transparent ; it generally 
forms the outermost layer of the teeth ; although 
any interchange of substance is hardly conceivable 
in the enamel, it nevertheless maintains its appearance 
and properties unchanged through the whole period 
of life ; it is, in fact, only affected by drying, an 
elevated temperature, and acids. In man, and the 
quadrumana and the carnivora, it forms the outer 
layer of the crown ;* but in the horse and the rumi- 
nants it is covered by a crust of bony substance 
{fg. 67j <^, bony substance, b, enamel). On the 
rubbing or grinding surface of the teeth of these 
animals, however, it always projects more than the 
other parts, its greater hardness preserving it from 
wearing down by attrition in the same degree as 
these. In man and the carnivora, and in the incisors 
of ruminating animals and the hog, the enamel forms 
a simple external layer, and so surrounds the other 
substances on the crown ; in the grinding teeth of 
the horse and ruminantia, again, it is inverted upon 
the rubbing surface into the bony substance of the 
tooth, so that when the edges of the inverted por- 
tion are worn off, it forms two layers, between which 
the proper substance of the tooth is conspicuous, 
one layer being external (^Jig. 67, ^), another in- 
ternal (e), including, as just said, the ivory or 
proper substance of the tooth (c) between them. 
The hollow of the involuted layer of enamel in the 
grinding teeth of the horse, is filled up by the 
external bony substance (y). 

* Vide note, p. 200. 

196 TEETH. 

Mici'oscopic Eajamination of the Enamel. 

§ 195. The enamel {fig. 68, h, m, and g, h), 
consists, according to Purkinje, of closely com- 
pressed four cornered (Retzius* says six cornered) 
slightly hent prisms, which stand in the direction of 
the lamellation or axis of the tooth nearly perpen- 
dicularly, so that the one end' is either external and 
free, or external and in contact with the outer layer 
of bony matter, as in the horse (fig. 68, 5), the 
other end being internal and directed to the proper 
substance of the tooth (fig. 68, /) ; t in the in- 
voluted portions, of course, the reverse of this ar- 
rangement obtains (fig. 68, b, 111). The prisms 
are indicated in fig. 68 by the fine lines A, and as 
they present themselves under such a power as the 
one employed ; inspected from the base and highly 
magnified, they appear as in fig. 72, h, or in fig. 
186. The enamel of a delicate section of a tooth, 
when magnified, has a yellow colour, and is sepa- 
rated by an intermediate brown streak from the 
greyish-blue coloured substance of the tooth. The 
prisms of the enamel unite with the bone cells 
which half penetrate the enamel (fig. 68, h, b) in 
the same way as the fibres of the tendons unite with 
the conical ends of the primitive muscular bundles 
(fig. 51, a at 1). 

§ 196. In the foetus the enamel is enclosed by a 

* Muller's " Archiv." 18S7, S. 486. Taf. xxi. 

t A transparent layer of basalt would convey, on the great 
scale, a good idea of the arrangement of the enamel prisms. 
The enamel also resembles, to a certain extent, a compressed 
cylinder-epithelium (/Iff. 46, b, c). 


membrane which, according to Schwann, is beset 
internally with cells, which are prolonged from the 
surface of the membrane inwards, and form the 
enamel-needles or prisms, which, as they grow, are 
e^ner more and more compressed, so that they be- 
come six sided by their mutual contact, whilst they 
are becoming ossified and their nuclei are disappear- 
ing. These cells can be shewn still to exist in the 
enamel by the agency of dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Chemical Composition of Enamel. 

§ 197* Pure enamel contains very little animal 
matter ; it consists almost entirely of inorganic sub- 
stances, viz. : 

Phosphate of lime and fluate of lime .... 88*5 

Carbonate of lime 8*0 

Phosphate of magnesia 1'5 

Animal matter, alkali, and water, ....... 2-0 


Proper substance ; Tubular substance ; Ivory. 

§ 198. The Proper Substance forms the largest 
portion of the tooth, and, at the same time, constitutes 
the kernel of the structure. It extends from the apex 
of the fang to the rubbing surface of the crown, 
which, in worn teeth of the human subject, together 
with the investing crust of enamel, it composes 
entirely. On the ginnding surface of the teeth of the 
horse, where there is an involution of the enamel, 
it is contained betwixt the outer and inner layer 
of this substance {fig. 67, c. ; Jig. 68, k, I, k). To 
the naked eye the proper substance appears slightly 

198 TEETH. 

semi-transparent, yellowish in colour, and finely 
streaked, or fibrous ; polished, it becomes nacre- 
ous and opalescent. It is harder than other bone, 
but not so hard as enamel. In the long axis of 
a tooth we observe an elongated canal, the canal 
of the tooth (^jig. 68, /.), which opens at the root, or 
fang, and extends towards the grinding surface, in- 
creasing in width as it advances. In this canal are 
contained the vessels and nerves of the tooth, and 
the younger the tooth the more ample is the canal, 
or cavity. In the foetus, and in early life, it in fact 
contains the 'pulp of the tooth, the part which, 
according to the views of physiologists of the last 
age, secreted the tooth, [which, according to present 
opinions, is converted into the tooth, having calca- 
reous salts deposited in it, in the same manner as 
ossific cartilage in other situations]. 

§ 199. Microscopic Analysis of the Proper 
Substance. — In fine slices of teeth, the proper sub- 
stance appears of a bluish-grey tint, it is an other- 
wise homogeneous hyaline substance, penetrated by 
delicate, slightly sinuous, cylindrical tubuli, lying 
close and parallel to one another (fg. 68, k, /, A:,), 
beginning with fine openings in the central canal 
(/), and running obliquely outwards and towards the 
crown. When they reach the enamel, or, as hap- 
pens in the roots of the human teeth, the bone, 
they ramify very minutely, and seem to penetrate 
the enamel, or the bone itself ; with these fine 
ramifications, true bone-corpuscles are connected, a 
fact which, after Retzius, I have ascertained dis- 
tinctly in examining the teeth of the horse. The 
tubuli in the fresh and living tooth, contain a red- 


dish fluid ; they are loo minute to admit the blood 

The proper substance is developed in the foetus 
fi'om cells which, undergoing elongation, their ex- 
tended and hollowed nuclei at length form the tubuli. 
The ramifications of the tubuli, especially towards 
the extremities at and in the enamel, present pre- 
cisely the same appearance as the radiations of the 
bone-corpuscules. The cells are produced by the 
pulp, from which fine fibres pass into the tubuli. 

§ 200. Chemical Composition of the Proper 
Substance. — The substantia propria appears to 
possess different degrees of hardness in the teeth of 
different families of animals, and to contain its 
constituent elements in different proportions. In 
the mammalia it has been found to consist of — 

Animal mattei' 28-0 

Phosphate of lime and fluale of lime 64*3 

Carbonate of lime 5"3 

Phosphate of magnesia 1-0 

Carbonate of soda and a trace of common salt 1'4 


Bone of Teeth ; Cement ; Crusta Petrosa. 

§ 201. In the simple teeth of man and the 
carnivora, the bone is met with as a simple layer 
covering the fangs ; in the teeth of the ruminantia 
and other animals, however, the horse, for example, 
where there is involution of the enamel, the bone 
is met A\ as a double layer, first surrounding the 
teeth entirely (fig- 67, a, a, a), and then inverted 
into their substance (/'), from the grinding aspect 
through the middle of the crown, to the place of its 

200 TEETH. 

transition into the root.* Here the hone presents 
itself in the guise of a piece let into the enamel (e). 
In the young tooth there exists a brown coloured 
depression in the middle (g), which, in the incisors, 
has the shape of a compressed cone ; this constitutes 
what is called the mark of the horse's tooth. 

The bone is the softest part of the tooth ; it is 
less transparent than the other elements. It is of 
a milk-white colour within, externally it is often 
yellowish. It is only produced after the enamel and 
ivory have been formed, and is rather to be viewed as 
a crust superadded to the tooth, than as an essential 
portion of its structure. 

§ 202. Microscopic Anal?/sis of the Bone of 
Teeth. — The internal and external bony substance 
present the same appearances under the microscope : 
they look like ordinary dense bone. Their bone- 
corpuscles {fg. 68, d) are of large size, and lie in 
layers concentrically disposed, and that increase in 
thickness externally (c, c) ; the radiations proceed- 
ing from these corpuscles, however, are never so 
distinct as they are from those of ordinary bone ; 
occasionally the limits of single bone-cells may be 
detected towards the line of contact between .the 

* The recent observations of Mr. Nasmyth would lead us to 
believe that the simple teeth of man and the carnivora were in- 
vested precisely like those of the ruminants, &c., by a continuous 
but very delicate film of cement. In the human subject, Mr. 
Nasmyth succeeded in tracing this film on the whole surface of 
the enamel and fang of the tooth in one continuous envelope, 
and he even removed it from the crown in the form of a distinct 
capsule. He proposes to term it " the persistent dental cap- 
sule." — Vide Med.-Chir. Trans, vol. xxii. p. 312. London, 
1839. — G^. G. 


crust and the enamel, where the cells are seen 
actually to penetrate the enamel (b, b'). The crusta 
petrosa has its blood-vessels like bone, running in 
canals, but they are few in number ; they are of 
considerable size, however, and generally course 
from within and from the root outwards and towards 
the crown. 

§ 203. In a chemical point of view, the bone 
or cement appears to be of the same essential 
nature as the compact or vitreous portion of common 
bone, \^ith this difference, that the quantity of its 
earthy salts is relatively greater. In adult and old 
ruminants the crowns of the teeth may often be 
observed shining with a metallic lustre as if they 
were bronzed ; this is owing to the deposition of 
many fine strata of concrescible matter from the 

External Form of the Teeth, and their Relations 
to the Jaws. 

§ 204. The teeth vary in number, form, posi- 
tion, relations to the jaws, &c. in different animals. 
They are essential parts in the economy of the 
mouth and serve in man and the mammalia for the 
prehension and division or trituration of the food, 
sometimes as weapons of offence, and sometimes as 
means of separating the newly-born offspring from 
the after-birth. 

According to their form and destination teeth 
are divided into incisors, laniarii or canines, and 
grinders. The crown projects beyond the gum ; the 
root is concealed by the gum and alveolus, and in 
the incisors and canines is simple, in the grinders 

202 TEETH. 

compound. Between the root and the crown a con- 
stricted portion is apparent in some teeth, and this 
is the neck of the tooth, the part which is embraced 
by the edge of the gum. 

In the intermaxillary bones of the solidungula, 
of the hog and of the carnivora we find six incisors, 
opposed by the same number in the under jaw% — 
twelve therefore in all ; the number of incisors in 
man is eight in all. The intermaxillary bones of 
the ruminantia are toothless ; the lower jaw, how- 
ever, is furnished with eight shovel-shaped incisors. 
The incisors, whether opposed or not, serve for the 
prehension of the food in the lower animals. The 
canines in our domestic mammalia are somewhat 
curved in their form, and stand isolated or apart, 
midway between the incisors and grinders. The 
stallion has four of these teeth, which are called 
tushes ; in the mare they present themselves as 
mere rudiments. The canine teeth serve as formid- 
able means of ofifence in some cases, as in the boar ; 
and in the carnivora as powerful instruments for 
securing and tearing a prey. 

The molar teeth are generally present in equal 
number in the upper and lower jaw. In man and the 
hog the crowns of these are divided into from two 
to four points ; in the carnivora they are narrow 
and sharp, and act like the blades of scissors ; in 
the frugivora again they are broad and rough, the 
inequalities on the grinding surface being main- 
tained by the different degrees of hardness possessed 
by each of the three substances entering into the 
constitution of the teeth {fig. 67). The grinders 
have from two to four roots. In man thev are 



twenty, and in the horse, ox, and sheep, twenty-four 
in numher ; the hog has as many as twenty-eight of 
these teeth ; the dog has twelve in the upper jaw 
and fourteen in the lower jaw. 

§ 205. The replacement of the deciduous or 
milk set of teeth by the permanent set, which 
occurs in youth, extends to all the incisors ; to the 
cuspidati in man, the dog, and the hog ; to the 
eight most anterior molars in man, and to tho 
twelve corresponding teeth in the horse, ox, and 
sheep ; in the dog, to the second, third, and fourth 
molars ; in the cat, to the second and third in the 
upper jaw, and to the first and second in the lower 

Formation of the Teeth in the Foetus. 

§ 206. This begins at an early period. Within 
the alveoli sacs filled with a liquid cytoblastema are 
first produced, within and from which, but connected 
with the sacs, arise, perhaps from the nuclei of the 
parent cells, simple or internally wrinkled vesicles, 
— the germs or pulps , which prefigure the crowns of 
the future teeth. Each molar tooth is evolved from 
several such vesicles. The three substances of the 
future teeth are produced by a like number of dis- 
tinct layers of cells, comparable to the three layers 
of the germinal membrane, which soon ossify and 
exhibit the hollow shell of the crown, in which the 
cytoblastema gradually fashions itself into the pulp, 
whilst externally it is used in forming the tooth ; 
the crown of the tooth is strengthened by constant 
additions from the pulp within, and augmented in 
size by additions from the enamel-membrane without; 


(the internal cavity of the tooth is consequently con- 
tinually lessening). Meantime the root is growing, 
and with its progress the tooth is rising from the 
socket, until it finally hursts through the outer 
layer of the gum, and comes into contact with the 
corresponding tooth of the opposed jaw which has 
heen developed in the same manner. 


§ 207- The organic structures, composed for the 
most part of similar elements, are commonly spoken 
of under the title of tissues, I mean to restrict 
this appellation to those that are made up of fibres 
and filaments, as the name seems to me well 
applied here, but to be used amiss with reference 
to the structures designated hyaline, and to those 
that consist essentially of cells ; for example, the 
adipose, pigmentary, horny, cartilaginous and 
osseous. The proper tissues comprehend elastic 
tissue, fibrous tissue, and filamentous tissue ; the 
last being subdivided into cellular, tendinous, 
ligamentous, fibro- cartilaginous, contractile, and 


§ 208. To the naked eye the elastic tissue 
appears as a fibrous, pale chrome or ochre yellow 
coloured, dull texture : it is generally seen in the 
shape of soft membranes either alone or connected 
with cellular tissue, tendons, cartilages, &c. ; it forms 
an integral part of all the elastic membranes ; it 
possesses such elasticity that it can be drawn out 
very nearly to twice its original length, and yet 


contract again to its old dimensions. It is divisible 
into flat strings, and is much more easily torn than 
any of the structures composed of round filaments ; 
the torn ends and edges are regular and smooth. 
The component fibres and fasciculi of elastic tissue 
interlace freely in difiPerent directions, and form 
smaller meshes and larger interspaces. This ar- 
rangement is very conspicuous in the ligamentum 
nuchse of the solidungula and ruminantia. Elastic 
tissue appears to be scarcely more sensitive than 
bone. It is very sparingly supplied with ves- 
sels ; and of special nerves it seems to have few 
or none. 

§ 209. Chemical Analysis of Elastic Tissue 

The chemical constitution of elastic tissue appears 
to be peculiar ; but the point has as yet been little 
investigated. It yields no gelatine by long boiling, 
and is, indeed, so little affected by boiling water in 
its texture, colour, and general physical properties, 
that this agent, so powerful in its effects upon the 
animal textures at large, may be said to be impotent 
as regards the elastic tissue.* It may be kept in 
alcohol for years without undergoing any change. 
Left to itself, it putrifies with difficulty ; macerated 
in water its superficies becomes changed into a 

* After ten hours' boiling in water. Dr. Davy found that 
the middle coat of the aorta and pulmonary artery was rend- 
ered more friable, but not more transparent, and not in the 
least gelatinous : it was less weakened and altered by the opera- 
tion than muscle. The effect of long continued boiling on the 
ligamentum nuchse of the ox was similar. " On the Effects of 
Boiling Water, and of Boiling, on the Textures of ths Human 
Body after Death." — Researches, vol. ii. p. 322. — G. G. 


slimy-looking matter ; internally the structure re- 
mains for a very long time unchanged. It is also 
found powerfully to resist the process of digestion. 
Dried it becomes brown, transparent, but not brittle 
as do the cellular cartilages ; bent backwards and 
forwards repeatedly or beaten, it separates into white 
fibres like whalebone. 

§ 210. Microscopic Analysis, Origin and De- 
velopement of Elastic Tissue. — In the mode of its 
developement, and the nature of its elements elastic 
tissue difibrs essentially from the other fibrous and 
filamentous formations, bearing great affinity to 
the ossific cartilages. In the embryonic mass of 
cells destined to the formation of elastic tissue, 
stratifications are observed like those of the multi- 
lamellar cuticles. The cells sufffer elongation in 
the direction of the future fibrillation, and become 
flatly fusiform, as in the fibrils of cellular tissue, 
but they do not cohere in this instance ; they re- 
main isolated with sharp pointed extremities amidst 
the consolidating intercellular substance. In the 
parent cells of elastic tissue, as in those of cellular car- 
tilage, new secondary cells are abundantly produced. 
Whilst the intercellular rete of the stratified cellular 
membranes becomes independently organised, the 
cells themselves are either dissolved and disappear, 
or they remain for long periods, or, finally, they en- 
dure for the whole term of life. In this way, in all 
likelihood, is the pure elastic tissue every where 
produced, — a tissue which, in the mode of connexion 
of its fibres, bears the strongest resemblance to the 
capillary vascular rete, as may be seen by compar- 
ing the highly magnified teased-out piece ©f elastic 


tissue from the middle coat of the aorta represented 
in^/ig\ 55, with the less strongly magnified capillary 
vascular rete of the bones of the skull depicted in 
^/ig. 66, and with other representations of capillary 
reticulations, those, for instance, of Jigs. 140, 144, 
and 145; the continuous elastic tissue of the liga- 
mentum nuchse (Jig. 54) may also be contrasted 
with the capillary vessels of a muscle (^/ig. 142). 
The transition of the intercellular rete with poly- 
gonal meshes into a continuous elastic tissue, I have 
endeavoured to represent in Jig. 225. 

§ 211. The fully formed elastic tissue consists 
of prismatic, frequently four-sided, rigid fibres, from 
the yyo th to the ^-5^-0 th of a Paris line in diameter. 
These fibres are even in their course, and sharply de- 
fined ; they divide furciform fashion, and inosculate 
at all angles from the most acute to the most obtuse. 
The intervening meshes which result from these 
interlacings and anastomoses are here of like form 
and magnitude : they are of the most dissimilar 
shapes and sizes. The fibres individually as well 
as collectively are highly elastic. 

The elastic tissue of the ligamentum nuchse be- 
longs to the regular and continuous class of such 
structures. Its fibres are straight, from four to six-- 
sided ; its meshes are so long relatively to their 
breadth, that they seem often scarcely to form a 
slit (Jig. 54, b). The structure is only rendered 
conspicuous when the band is stretched laterally (a). 

The elastic tissue of the fibrous or middle coat 
of the arteries is much more irregular and intricate 
(^/ig. 55). The fibres here are of different thick- 
nesses ; they are frequently flat, and the meshes of 


different sizes, and mostly polygonal or rounded in 

The elastic tissue is also commonly enough met 
with very free from admixture, in the yellow liga- 
ments and membranes : such, for example, as the 
anterior and posterior bands that pass between the 
first vertebra of the neck and the os occipitis, the 
bands that connect the arches of the other vertebrae, 
all the yellow bands or ligaments of the os hyoides 
and larynx : for example, the hyo-epiglottidean band, 
the hyo-thyroid bands, the thyro-epiglottidean band, 
the thyro-arytenoidei bands, &c. Farther, the yel- 
low membrane, which in the horse especially, covers 
the pectoral portion of the serratus magnus and the 
fleshy origins of the external oblique of the abdo- 
men, and then expands and is lost in fine tendinous- 
looking fasciae. The elastic tissue also occurs 
mingled with the proper element of other aponeu- 
roses ; and it even constitutes an integral part of 
the skin and mucous membranes. In the cartilages 
of the external ear and of the epiglottis, and indeed 
of reticular cartilage generally, it forms a constant 
element. In some places its meshes are seen filled 
with single or with several cartilage-cells, or with 
cells and nuclei together {fig. 59). 

Even in fibrous cartilage elastic tissue appears 
very constantly to exist mingled with the proper 

A delicate elastic tissue enters into the struc- 
ture of various parts of the eye-ball ; of the ciliary 
ligament, for example {fig. 56, 1), and of the iris 
(2), where its meshes are relatively large. The 
elastic fibres that are readily demonstrated in the 



finer ramifications of the bronchi {Jig. 49, C), and 
in the coats of the larger veins, are of the same 
undulating and delicate character as in the eye. 

The blood-vessels of elastic tissue form a scanty 
and wide-meshed reticulation. I have never been 
quite certain of having seen its proper nerves. 

Elastic tissue is found in every situation where 
a high degree of elasticity and mobility is required. 
The middle coat of the arteries reacts powerfully, 
by its elasticity or elastic contractility, upon the 
blood thrown into them at each stroke of the heart : 
the vessels then yield, and the pulse is felt ; but 
the vessels by their resilience immediately shrink 
again, and press on the column of blood in one 
continuous stream, acting in the same manner pre- 
cisely as the air-vessel in an hydraulic machine. 

Elastic tissue, if injured, is very imperfectly re- 
produced ; it is, in fact, replaced by a dense fibrous 
cicatricular substance. 

§ 212. For the sake of natural connexion, it 
becomes necessary to remark here, that the rudi- 
mentary matter out of which the capillary rete of 
the blood-vessels is formed, as well as that from 
which elastic tissue and bone are produced, is, in all 
probability, to be sought for in the primary inter- 
cellular substance. Not only do the forms of the 
hollow fibrous reticulation, in other words, the 
capillary vascular rete {fig> 213), accord with those 
of the loose elastic tissue, and the primary inter- 
cellular net of the cartilages which is afterwards 
changed into spongy bone {fig. 60) ; but in number 
and dimensions the vascular meshes seem also to 
agree with those of the cells secondarily evolved 


from parent cells, as we see them in the ossifie 
cartilages.* That the vascular capillary rete, and 
likewise the elastic tissue, arise from hollow cells 
connected in the manner of a net (jnde § 132), 
and originally produced in the intercellular sub- 
stance, is more probable on analogical grounds, 
than that the intercellular substance should, without 
further secondary cellular formation, become hollow. 
It must be allowed, however, that varicose enlarge- 
ments or spindle-shaped cells are very rarely seen 
in the course of the elastic fibres, or at the points of 
their inosculations, during the period of their de- 
velopement. An abundance of such enlargements 
and cells, nevertheless, is constantly observed in 
connexion with the yet imperfectly formed fibres of 
cellular tissue that are interspersed among those of 
the elastic tissue. 


§ 213. The mode in which cells comport them- 
selves and combine so as to form cellular fibres has 
been already alluded to (§31, 84, 85, 87, and 131), 
and in the cellular tissue of certain parts the de- 
velopement goes no farther than as it has been 
heretofore described. In others, the intercellular 
or connecting fibrils undergo elongation, the fusi- 
form cells disappear, and leave proportionately long 
fibres behind, which are either, 1st solid, and («) 

* See farther on this subject in the Section that treats of 
Vessels. For additional information on the Elastic Tissue, see 
Eulenberg's " Diss, de Tela Elastica." 4to. Berlin, 1836 ; 
Miiller's "Physiology," Schwann's " Mikroscopische Untersu- 
chungen;" and Valentin's '' Repertorium." 


flat, (h) prismatic, or (c) cylindrical ; or, 2d, tubu- 
lar or hollow and containing fluid. These fibres 
either lie parallel, near to one another, and form 
bundles or fasciculi, or they cross and interlace 
singly or in fasciculi, and so form simpler or more 
complicated textures. The cylindrical solid fibres 
are met with in the greater number of the soft 
parts of the human ^nd animal body, either as 
principal or as subordinate constituent elements. 
With some slight modification in diameter, density, 
elasticity, colour, &c., they form constituents of 
very different systems. They exist, for example, 
in the fibres of the cellular substance, in those of 
tendons, ligaments, fibro-cartilages, contractile tis- 
sues, and muscles, which all, — in form, properties, 
composition and destination, — constitute different 

Cellular Substance — Cellular Membrane. 

§ 214. By cellular substance we understand the 
matter of which the fibres of the cellular tissues con- 
sist ; by cellular tissue, the various compounds that 
result from the crossing or intertexture of these 
fibres. The structure, which is commonly called 
cellular substance, is an extremely compound body, 
and besides proper cellular fibres contains blood 
and lymphatic vessels, serous fluids, blood and 
lymph, fat, nerves, &c. Cellular substance is a 
soft, moist, glutinous, elastic, white or grey coloured 
and very transparent material ; the peculiar delicacy 
of its elements gives it a certain resemblance to 
thick mucus. It forms cavities (arese, areolae) of 
various sizes, which are more or less completely 


filled with serum or fat. It seems to possess a 
certain degree of organic contractility, i, e. an in- 
herent power, on the application of certain stimuli, 
of shrinking in bulk : it has, however, little ordinary 
sensibility. Delicate reticulations of blood-vessels 
and lymphatics extend in all directions and in great 
abundance betwixt its fibres and laminae ; it is 
therefore, upon occasion, apt to increase greatly 
in quantity, and is readily reproduced.* The 
branches of nerves which are visible in the cellular 
substance by the naked eye do not belong to it, 
but merely pass through it towards other organs. 
In consequence of the delicacy of its elements it 
possesses considerable powers of adhesive and capil- 
lary attraction, so that it is often seen to become 
rapidly and greatly distended with watery fluids 
from neighbouring parts. Its meshes and areolae 
are more or less connected through the entire body, 
so that air or watery fluid permeates it readily, 
the watery fluid by reason of its specific gravity 
falling down and infiltrating the most depending 

* After the cellular tissue has been completely destroyed it is 
generally not reproduced. Witness the adhesion, as it is termed, 
of the scars of old deep ulcers to bones, a circumstance which is 
often considered as a sufficient cause for the rejection of other- 
wise eligible recruits for the army ; and every one is acquainted 
with the depressed cicatrices, where there is a want of subjacent 
cellular tissue, which follow various sores, particularly those 
in which there has been sloughing of the cellular substance. 
Independently of ulcers, the cellular substance of some parts, 
as of the legs, appears to be liable to atrophy, so that the limbs 
become hide-bound. — See Edin. Med. and Surg. Journ. vol. xlvi. 
p. 308. — G^.G^. 


§ 215. The elements of the ceUular tissues are 
the fibres of the ceUular substance, and present 
themselves in the guise of simple cellular fibres and 
perfectly rounded bands. The former constitute 
an extremely soft mucus-like cellular tissue ; the 
latter a stronger fibrous cellular tissue. As these 
different kinds of cellular tissue serve different pur- 
poses, we distinguish, 1st, the fibrous or varicose 
from, 2d, the fascicular cellular tissue. The rela- 
tions of the cellular tissue to the other tissues, to 
the different organs and systems, affords the basis 
of another subdivision ; viz. into 1st, investing and 
connecting cellular tissue ; and 2d, intimate or 
component cellular tissue. 

Microscopic Examination of Cellular Substance. 

§ 2 1 6. The perfectly developed cellular sub- 
stance, consists of extremely fine and transparent, 
smooth, soft but tough, even, generally cylindrical 
fibres, with pale, delicate bounding lines, from -^-^-q-^ 
to yyVt of ^ Paris line in diameter, and which 
rarely run singly, but commonly in fasciculi, in 
wavy or sinuous lines (^Jig. 19). It forms every 
variety of fibrous compound and tissue, viz. 

1st. Single fibres traversing other tissues {fig. 
73, e), 

2d. Parallel fibres running either together and 
in contact, or separated by a gelatiniform inter- 
posed substance (^fig. 194). 

3d. Fibres united into fiat cords, running 
parallel and close to one another, and either 
straight or sinuous {fig> 195, and^g-. 19). 


4tli. Simple parallel, and multilamellar parallel 
Membrane — composed of fibres running parallel 
and close to one another in the same plane, in one 
or in several strata (^Jig. 49, A, and Jig. 200). 
The dense serous and synovial membranes, and the 
dense cellular sheaths of the firm nervous fasciculi, 
for instance (^fig. 88, 9), belong to this category. 

5th. Tissues of Cellular Substance — {fig- 49, 
B, and Jig. 197)» composed by the interlacement 
and irregular crossings of single fibres. This tissue 
is met with between the fine layers of other tissues, 
and also in the most delicate portions of the serous 

6th. Fibrous Net of Cellular Substance. — Iso- 
lated parallel fibres crossing and interlacing ob- 
liquely with one another (^fig. 198). It occurs, like 
the simple cellular fibrous tissue, amidst finely stra- 
tified tissues, and as an envelope, of the ganglionic 
globules, for instance (^Jig. 89, 6). 

7th. Fibrous Grating of Cellular Substance. 
— Isolated fibres crossed or interwoven at right 
angles (^fig. 199). This occurs along with the 
fibrous rete and the irregular fibrous texture. 

8th. Tissue of Cords and Fasciculi of Cellular 
Substance. — A tissue composed of bundles or cords 
{fg. 50). It occurs in lax serous membranes, in 
the omenta, &c. 

The tissues made up of bundles and cords ex- 
hibit all the varieties of tissue formed by the simple 
fibres above enumerated, but it is unnecessary to 
specify them. 

§ 217. The fibrous cellular substance frequently 
presents itself mingled with cells, nuclei, &c. 


Investing Cellular Substance. 

§ 218. The investing and uniting cellular sub- 
stance, or the isolating superperipheral cellular 
tissue, covers the superficies of the greater number of 
single organs, which it isolates and yet connects, and 
the interspaces of which it fills up, smoothing in- 
equalities, and giving roundness and symmetry of 
form. It is a material of this kind that connects 
the skin with the subjacent parts, — the subcutaneous 
cellular tissue ; that contains the serous fluid which 
belongs to it (§ 17), and the subcutaneous fat, — fat 
vesicles and fat cells, which constitute something 
like one-twentieth of the whole weight of the body 
(§ 133). It forms universally larger and smaller 
serous cavities — arese, areolae. 

Cellular Substance entering into the Composition 
of other Tissues. 

§ 219. The proper constituent matter or paren- 
chyma of organs is invariably intermingled with 
more or less of cellular substance, which, indeed, 
forms an essential element in their constitution, 
connecting the several particles together into a 
whole — the glomeruli of glandular structures into 
glands ; the primary muscular fibres and bundles 
into muscles ; * the primary nervous tubuli into 
nerves, &c. 

* There does not appear to be any cellular tissue between the 
muscular fascicles of the heart. At least, after several observa- 
tions made especially with a view to this point, it appeared to 
me that the fleshy part of the heart was entirely made up of its 


Mbres of the Cellular Substance, Varicose 
Cellular Substance. 

§ 220. The cellular fibre (§ 82—86), is the 
transition form of the cell into the filament. The 
fibre of the cellular substance is not, however, in 
every case a temporary or convertible element of this 
kind ; it often remains stationary at this stage of 
its evolution, so that some tissues or parts of tissues, 
consist, in great measure, of a structure of this 
kind. It forms, for example, a delicate envelope 
around the finer vessels (^/ig. 102, c, c), and around 
the soft nerves Q/ig. 163, c, d). With the final 
subdivisions of these organs, the fibres of the cel- 
lular substance quit them, and form a particular 
rete within their meshes (./^. 106, c, c). Fibres of 
this kind are encountered in almost all the tissues, 
either as a soft matrix, or as a delicate investing 
and connecting medium. 

Membranes of Cellular Substance. 

§ 221. Membranes composed of cellular sub- 
stance are extensively disseminated through the 
body. They consist either of fibres densely com- 
pacted, or of tissues of these, either by themselves, 
or mingled with the fibres of the cellular substance. 
To this category belong the serous and synovial 

peculiar muscular fibres, without visible intermixture of any- 
other tissue whatever. See " Observations on the Muscular 
Fibre of the CEsophagus and Heart in some of the Mammalia." — 
Proc. ZooL Soc, No. LXXXL Sept. 1839.— G^. G. 


1. Serous Membranes. 

§ 222. These form shut sacs, lining all the in- 
ternal close cavities of the body, and investing in 
uninterrupted continuity the organs included within 
them. The free surface is covered with a tessellated 
epithelium, which in the ventricles of the brain 
alone presents cilise. The following are the mem- 
branes which are accounted serous : — 

The inner lamina of the dura mater of the brain 
and spinal cord ; the tunica arachnoidea of the 
same parts ; the pia mater or vascular membrane 
of the same parts, the lining membrane of the ven- 
tricles included ; the pleurae ; the pericardium ; the 
peritoneum, and its process the tunica vaginaKs 
testis ; in the fcetus, the amnion. The allantois 
seems to stand in the middle between the serous 
and the mucous membranes ; it is, however, an offset 
from a mucous membrane, the bladder of the foetus. 

The great serous sacs now enumerated agree 
essentially in structure and function with the smaller 
cavities of the loose investing or interstitial cellular 
substance, and only differ from these in their greater 
size, and in having their free surfaces overspread 
with a tessellated epithelium. 

The free surface is always smooth and polished, 
and lubricated by a serous fluid, by which all fric- 
tion between contiguous parts, and the coalition of 
these with one another are prevented. 

2. Synovial Membranes. 

§ 223. The synovial, like the serous membranes 
form shut sacs, and perform similar offices. They 


are distinguished from these principally in their 
composition of several layers of immediately con- 
nected cellular filaments, and in their transudation of 
a serous fluid that is thicker and much richer in 
albumen than ordinary serum ; this is the synovia 
or joint oil, the necessity for the greater consistency 
of which is obvious. 

The synovial sacs either indue and close in the 
cartilage-covered ends of bones, when they are called 
articulaT synovial capsules, or they lie as simple 
bladders between tendons and projecting parts of 
bones, between muscles, and even between the skin 
and subjacent hard parts, Avhen they are entitled 
burscB mucosce. All the tendons, too, that pursue 
their course to their points of attachment through 
long grooves of bones, or that pass round pro- 
minent parts of these as a cord does over a pulley, 
are provided with elongated synovial sacs, denomi- 
nated synovial sheaths. 

§ 224 a. Articular Capsules. — Suppose a sphe- 
rical shut synovial sac to be pushed between the 
articular extremities of two bones, and to cohere 
with the entire cartilaginous surface of each to the 
very edges j suppose the bones now approximated 
till the inner aspects of the synovial investment of 
the cartilages met, and the sac to be partially filled 
with synovia, the outer free portion of the synovial 
sac would then surround the joint like a girdle. 
Let this free girdle be farther supposed to be 
covered externally with a fine tendinous or liga- 
mentous membrane of corresponding size and form, 
and this to adhere by its edges to the periosteum in 
the circle of the articular cartilages, and a complete 


idea will be obtained of an articular capsule. It is 
evident, therefore, that the articular cartilages are 
never immediately in contact, but that the inner 
smooth surface of the synovial membrane, separated 
by a thin stratum of synovia, is opposed to itself, 
an arrangement by which motion is greatly facili- 
tated, and the cartilages are protected from injury 
so long as the lubricating fluid is poured out in 
sufficient quantity and of proper quality. The 
outer fibrous or ligamentous girdle strengthens the 
free circular portion of the capsule. As the arti- 
cular capsules are completely closed, and the air of 
the atmosphere can in no way enter them, an ex- 
tremity, the muscles of which were completely re- 
laxed, would not fall away from the fixed part with 
which it was articulated, — the anterior extremity, for 
instance, from the glenoid cavity of the scapula, — so 
long as the weight of the extremity or the dissevering 
force did not exceed a certain amount, easily deter- 
minable and bearing relation to the extent of the 
articular surfaces.* 

Synovial capsules are frequently surrounded with 
a larger or smaller quantity of a yellow-coloured 
fat. The synovia is a viscid stringy fluid, per- 
fectly adapted to lubricate opposed surfaces. It 

* This of course results from the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere, which acts with a force equal to fifteen pounds upon 
every square inch of surface. Suj)pose the diameter of two 
contingent articular cartilages to be = 2 in. and the surface 
therefore to be = 2-96 square inches ; then under a mean baro- 
metric pressure of 29 inches, a power = 2*96 x 15 = 44*4 lbs. 
would be required to separate the articular head from the 


consists of serum with from six to ten per cent of 
additional albumen. It shews alkaline reaction. 

§ 225. h. Synovial Sheaths of Tendons. — When- 
ever tendons play upon bones as cords do upon 
pullies, they are found provided with a double syno- 
vial sheath, being inclosed immediately within a 
synovial tube which is then reflected upon itself, so 
as to line the groove within which the motion takes 
place, in the same manner as the pleura and peri- 
toneum are reflected around the various viscera of 
the thorax and abdomen. These synovial sheaths 
are so loose at the extremities as to oppose no im- 
pediment to the freest motions. They are bedewed 
with a synovial fluid of the same nature as that of 
the articulations. 

§ 226. c. Articular Bur see, — These are saccu- 
late or bladder-like synovial membranes, which 
commonly occur in the vicinity of joints and points 
of attachment of tendons, being placed betwixt these 
and a cartilage-covered and generally projecting 
portion of the bone. They contain the same kind 
of synovia as the articular capsules, and serve to 
facilitate motion and to spare the tendons when 
they play over elevations of bones. 

§ 227. d. Subcutaneous Bursce. — In those 
places where the skin passes immediately over pro- 
jecting points of bone, as the elbow, tuberosity of 
the tibia, &c., an interposed bursa is always found, 
which facilitates the gliding of the integument over 
the hard projection, and also serves as a pad or 
cushion to diffuse the pressure. 

§ 228. To the membranes composed of cellular 
substance appertain the cellular sheaths of the mus- 

TENDON. 221 

cles, the outer coats of the blood and lymph vessels, 
and of the ducts of glands ; the inner coat also of the 
blood-vessels and lymphatics comes under the same 
head, miless it be assigned to the peculiar class of 
serous tissues, inasmuch as it is free, forms a closed, 
however much elongated and extensively branched 
cavity, and is covered with a tessellated epithelium. 
§ 229. The cellular substance of the foetus, 
which consists, in great part, of cellular fibres, 
yields no gelatine by boiling, like the cellular sub- 
stance of older animals, and Schwann has observed 
that it is only the interjacent cytoblastema or hyaline 
substance that is dissolved in boiling water, not the 
cellular fibres themselves. This observation re- 
minds us of the insolubility of the foetal blood-disc 
by acetic acid. The division of the cellular fibre 
into a plurality of fibrils, which Schwann regards 
as constant, I have myself seen so seldom distinctly, 
that I am forced to look upon it as among the 
number of varieties. 


Tendinous Fibre. 

§ 230. The tendinous fibre is distinguished from 
the cellular fibre only by greater consistency and 
rigidity, and, in connexion with these qualities, by the 
maintenance of its natural sinuosities and crispings, 
by its greater degree of opacity and of regularity in 
its course, and the silky appearance which ensues 
from this ; farther, by a more invariable parallelism 
of the fibres to one another, upon which depends 
the pearly lustre of tendons. 


The tendons have very minute blood-vessels,* 
which course between and parallel with the fibrous 
bundles, forming a wide-meshed rete. Tendons seem 
to have but a very limited supply of nerves. 

§ 231. The tendons in the foetus are formed at 
even an earlier period than the cellular substance j 
but in the same manner as it, the cellular fibres 
destined to form tendons collecting into rounded 
bundles soon after their formation. At first they 
are more transparent and of a dull grey, not glisten- 
ing like silk or mother of pearl. Even in the foetus 
the fibres of tendon are less separated by any inter- 
vening or connecting matter than the fibres of the 
cellular substance ; they are, therefore, more imme- 
diately and intimately in contact. From the one to 
the other, however, there is frequently a gradual 
transition to be observed, so that even in the adult 
doubtful intermediate forms of every degree of 
proximity to the one or the other are encountered. 
In the long tendons and firm tendinous membranes 
or aponeuroses, the fibres are straighter than else- 
where even in the foetus, but in other places they 
are more plentifully mixed with cellular substance 
and more sinuous {^fig' 51, 5, c). 

§ 232. Chemical Examination of Tendinous 
Fibre. — Chemically considered, the tendons bear a 

* Some observations on the Blood-vessels of Tendinous 
Tissue have recently been made by Mr. Paget. — See Lond. 
Med. Gazette, vol. xxiv. p. 562. 

In the museum at St. Bartholomew's Hospital there is an 
excellent injection of these vessels made many years ago vrith 
mercury by Mr. Wormald ; and Professor Sharpey shewed me 
some injections of the vessels of tendon when he was engaged 
as a Lecturer on Anatomy at Edinburgh. — G. G. 


strong analogy to the cellular substance. Those of 
the foetus yield little gelatine, whilst those of the 
adult are entirely dissolved into gelatine by boiling. 
They contain about 60 per cent of water, and when 
dry are brown, transparent, and more brittle than 
diy elastic tissue. 

Tendinous Tissue. 

§ 233. The tendinous fibre unites in general 
into bundles and cords, and forms fascicular tissues 
more frequently than fibrous tissues. The crossings 
of fasciculi are more readily seen in tendons than 
in formations of the cellular substance, in conse- 
quence of their higher reflecting power. In the 
long tendons the fibres lie parallel ; in the ten- 
dinous sheaths or aponeuroses, the fibres in bundles 
are mostly crossed and intricated. The tendinous 
tissue forms, 1st, Tendons of muscles, and these are 
either (a) long and rounded, — proper tendons or 
sinews which belong mostly to the extremities ; or 
(5) broad and membraniform, — tendinous expan- 
sions, aponeuroses ; 2d, Tendinous sheaths or fasciae j 
and 3d, Fibrous membranes, and tendinous bands 
or ligaments. 

Long Tendons, Sinews. 

§ 234. The tendons are the fibrous tissues con- 
nected with muscles, which generally serve them as 
means of origin and insertion, though in many 
cases the tendons run through or along the entire 
course of muscles. In the recent state they are 
sericeous or silky, of a bluish, yellowish, or reddish 
white, iridescent, extremely strong, but very little 


elastic ; their fibres are generally parallel to the axis 
of the muscle ; in the penniform and semi-penniform 
muscles they run obliquely ; in form they are 
cylindrical or flat in different degrees, and conical 
on the muscles ; where they pass over bones or 
hard parts they are defended by synovial sheaths or 
bursse ; when they pass around a projecting process 
of bone, as a trochlea, they are sometimes seen con- 
verted into a substance having the texture and 
appearance of fibrous cartilage : in such situations 
they are always bound down and confined in their 
places by tendinous or ligamentous sheaths. 

Where the tendon meets the muscle, the primary 
muscular bundle is conically pointed, and the fine 
tendinous fibres arise from the entire cone {fig. 31, 
a, 1). At the point where the tendon is attached 
to the bone, it is generally somewhat expanded; 
the immediate attachment is the periosteum. 

Tendons, along with bones, cartilages, liga- 
ments, &c., belong to the passive organs of motion, 
and serve as admirable means of transmitting the 
inherent contractile powers of the muscles to a 
distance. The aponeuroses or tendinous sheaths 
again supply points of origin to the long tendons 
and muscular fibres, and, at the same time, bind 
down in their places and isolate the bellies of 
muscles and the tendons that proceed from them. 

Tendinous Expansions ; Aponeuroses ; Fascice. 

§ 235. The membraniform tendons or aponeu- 
roses often form the tendinous continuations of flat 
or membraniform muscles, and cover at once and 


enclose other organs. They are either entirely 
tendinous, and their fasciculi run in one and the 
same direction, — the tendons of the external and 
internal oblique muscles of the abdomen, for ex- 
ample ; or the component fasciculi cross in different 
senses, — the tendinous portion of the diaphragm, 
for instance ; or, otherwise, they contain or are 
mixed with elastic tissue, — the aponeurosis of the 
external oblique, to wit. These tendinous expan- 
sions are pierced in numerous places by vessels and 
nerves. They serve, like the cordiform tendons of 
the long muscles, for the transmission of motion ; 
they assist in supporting the organs they surround, — 
the abdominal viscera, in particular, and compress 
these under the contractions of the appertaining 
muscles, by which they become powerful means 
aiding in many important processes. 

Tendinous Muscular Sheaths, 

§ 236. Over the muscular sheaths of cellular 
substance, especially in the extremities, we find 
particular tendinous sheaths which surround the 
individual muscles in the shape of dense networks 
of fibrous fasciculi, and externally compose a general 
sheath including the muscles of the entire ex- 
tremity. The fasciae of the fore-arm, thigh, and leg, 
afford examples of this structure. These fibrous 
sheaths supply points of origin to the muscles, keep 
them in their places, and support them in their 
more violent exertions. With a view of rendering 
these sheaths tense we even see particular muscles 
either attached to them entirely or sending off 



tendinous processes to them : the great fascia of 
the thigh has its tensor muscle ; the sheath of 
the fore-arm has the strong oifset from the hiceps 
hrachialis to brace it up. These tendinous sheaths 
are also attached to the bones, and sometimes they 
pass over into tendons and aponeuroses ; they 
likewise surround other organs, and attach and 
isolate these from neighbouring parts, — the muscles 
from one another, the muscles from blood-vessels, 
nerves, &c. 

Tendinous Membranes strengthening the Serous 
and Synovial Membranes. 

§ 237. The free lying portions of the serous and 
synovial membranes are upon occasion supported 
and strengthened by means of fine tendinous expan- 
sions, which generally consist of a delicate reticula- 
tion of fibrous bundles, so intimately connected with 
the membranes that they are often scarcely to be 
separated from them. The outer layers of the 
pericardium, of the articular capsules and tendinous 
sheaths, of the linea alba abdominis, which is re- 
markably developed in the horse, are examples of 
the structure in question. 

Peculiar Fibrous Membranes. 

§ 238. Difi^erent organs are surrounded by tough 
membranes, generally composed of an admixture of 
tendinous fibres and elastic tissue, and having, con- 
sequently, a pale yellow tint, and little or none of 
the pearly lustre of tendon. Sometimes the invest- 
ment seems to consist of tendinous fibres entirely, 


and then it shews the nacreous lustre ; though in 
other instances, the composition being- the same, but 
the intrication of fibres greater, it is dull and 
lustreless. Of this description are the fibrous mem- 
branes that surround the erectile organs, at the 
same time that they penetrate their substance in 
all directions as a powerful network. We have 
examples of the structure in the fibrous membrane 
of the penis, clitoris, and spleen. The breast in 
the human female, and the udder and dug in the 
lower animal are also surrounded by a network, 
more or less, close, of the same tissue, connected 
with the investing fibrous membrane, and suspend- 
in o; the erectile vessels in its meshes. The exces- 
sive dilatation of many organs is guarded against 
by strong investing proper membranes. The dura 
mater, the tunica albuginea testis et ovarii, the tunica 
sclerotica oculi, the periosteum and the ligamentous 
articular sheaths, which in many places surround 
such compound articulations as those of the wrist 
and tarsus, belong to this category. These fibrous 
membranes form a medium of transition to the 
ligaments properly so called. 

Fibrous Bands ; Ligaments. 

§ 239. The fibrous bands or ligaments of the 
articulations, and of the cartilaginous and fibro- 
cartilaginous junctures of the bones are, on the 
one hand, closely allied to tendons ; on the other, 
to fibro-cartilages : they consist of fibres stronger, 
more disposed to crisp, and which, though connected 
parallel with each other, shew less of the silky or 
pearly lustre than tendons ; the ligaments are also 


of a yellower hue than the tendons. They are 
partly to he viewed, like the tendinous corroborating 
sheaths of the articular capsules, as extensions or 
productions of the periosteum over joints ; some, 
however, are actually included in the fibrous cap- 
sule, the transverse ligaments of the tarsus and 
carpus, for example, the round ligament of the hip, 
and the crucial ligaments of the knee joint ; the 
latter proceed from one bone to another athwart the 
joint, and are surrounded by a tubular production 
of the synovial capsule. Besides the round and 
cruciate ligaments just mentioned, we have lateral 
ligaments, straight or perpendicular and oblique 
ligaments, annular ligaments, trochlear ligaments, 
&c., particularised. In shape they are cylindrical, 
prismatic or flat, elongated or annular. 

The round ligament of the hip-joint is cylindri- 
cal, and runs from the middle of the lower edge of 
the acetabulum to the pit in the head of the thigh 
bone. The crucial ligaments of the knee belong to 
the prismatic order, and connect the femur with the 
tibia in the middle of their opposed articular sur- 
faces, crossing each other at an acute angle. The 
lateral ligaments are for the most part flat, and 
connect the bones externally, and in such a way 
that but a very limited degree of motion is admis- 
sible save in one direction ; general investing liga- 
ments, as those of the carpus and tarsus, only allow 
a slight amount of gliding of the articular surfaces 
one upon the other ; the annular ligaments surround 
the neck of a bone so as to form a kind of pivot- 

The ligaments are in a great measure convert- 


ible into gelatine by boiling, like the tendons ; but 
they dissolve less readily than these. They are 
among the toughest, the strongest structures in the 
body ; they are the rather adapted for the purposes 
they serve as they possess some slight elasticity ; 
they are considerably more elastic than tendons. 

Fibrous or Fihro-cartilage. 

§ 210. Fibro-cartilage, when its texture and 
general properties are considered, seems to occupy 
a place intermediate between cartilage and liga- 
ment. It consists in general of dense intercrossing 
fibres {fig- 53, A), but in some cases there is be- 
yond all doubt a considerable intermixture of elastic 
tissue, when the structure assimilates itself with 
reticular cartilage. It is highly elastic, of a yellowish 
white colour, and in general obviously fibrous. It 
forms the intermediate substance in all the articula- 
tions by synchondrosis, uniting the bones without 
the intervention of capsules by means of a succession 
of concentric laminae of fibres crossing one another 
obliquely in opposite directions. All the vertebrae, 
save the atlas, are connected in this way, as are 
also the bones of the pelvis with the sacrum and 
with one another. 


§ 241. Beneath the skin, especially in those places 
where, under the influence of cold and other peculiar 
stimuli, a notable corrugation and thickening are 
obvious, certain fibres may be distinguished, differ- 
ent from the round fibres hitherto described, in as 
much as they are of somewhat greater diameter, of 


a redder colour, and possess a peculiar kind of 
transparency. These fibres are, however, met with 
not only immediately beneath the skin, but in its 
substance, and either singly or united into cords or 
bundles. They run more or less parallel and near 
to one another (^Jig. 7^, a, b^ from the scrotum, 
where they are interwoven with transverse fibres 
and bundles of cellular substance, c) ; or they form 
plexuses which resemble the terminal plexuses of 
the nerves {fig. 71> ^> andy?^. 7^, a), with this 
difiference, that the individual fibres interlace and 
amalgamate, the several bundles not merely inter- 
changing primary fibres without any real blending 
as the nerves do {figs. 91? 95, and 106). 

The inherent contractile power of these fibres 
and their general structure place them as transition- 
forms from the passive round fibre to the active 
fibre of muscle. In the skin of the hog they 
measure from the y^^th to the -3^0 th of a Paris line 
in diameter. 

The contractile tissue, now alluded to, on the 
application of cold, and under the influence of 
mental emotions, — rage, terror, &c., produces the 
appearance called goose-flesh, and causes the hair to 
become erected. In some limited portions of the 
integument the corrugation eflected is still more 
remarkable ; the nipple, for instance, becomes hard 
and in some sort erected by its means ; the scrotum 
too becomes as hard as a ball, and greatly shrunk 
in size, by which the testes are forced up towards 
the inguinal rings, and as actively compressed as 
they are by the cremaster muscles. This con- 
tractile tissue enters as an element into the constitu- 

MUSCLE. 231 

tion of the penis and clitoris, probably also of the 
blood and lymph- vessels, and of the excretory ducts 
of glands. The motions of the iris, producing con- 
traction and dilatation of the pupil, seem likewise 
to depend on the agency of contractile tissue, light 
acting as the appropriate stimulus here ; but this 
is a point upon which information is attainable 
mth greater difficulty than as regards the common 


§ 242. The flesh or muscles of animals are of a 
pale or darker red colour, and consist of a multitude 
of fibres and fasciculi of fibres, intimately connected 
and running parallel to one another. Muscles are 
the instruments of active motion, voluntary as well 
as involuntary, through the whole series of the 
animal creation, and this they are in consequence 
of their inherent power of alternate contraction and 
relaxation. As means of voluntary motion we see 
the muscles arranged around the trunk and ex- 
tremities, which they use as levers for the execution 
of the behests of the will. As means of involuntary 
motion we see them forming the middle tunic or the 
mass of various hollow or tubular organs, the dia- 
meters of which they diminish by contracting, and 
which by relaxing they sufier again to be distended. 

The muscles are generally divided into (1) or- 
ganic, (2) animal, and (3) mixed ; in other words, 
into such as belong to the organic life, such as be- 
long to the animal life, and such as are of a mixed 
nature. The muscles of the organic life contract 
and do their office involuntarily and without the 


consciousness of the animal : the muscular substance 
of the heart, the muscular parietes of the stomach 
and bowels, are muscles of the organic life. Muscles 
of the animal life are under the control of the will 
and only act to execute its purposes : the muscles 
of the extremities all belong to the animal life. 
Muscles having a mixed character execute certain 
motions involuntarily and unconsciously to the in- 
dividual, and yet are under the influence of the 
will to perform motions for other purposes, or 
to execute the same motions more rapidly or more 
slowly ; of this kind are the muscles of respiration, 
which carry on the process of breathing during 
sleep, that produce involuntary sneezing, coughing, 
crying, &c., and that yet under the influence of the 
will elicit the voice, &c. The muscles are very 
plentifully supplied with nerves of motion, and but 
scantily with nerves of sensation ; they are therefore 
highly irritable, but by no means very sensitive. 

Organic or Involuntary Muscles. 

§ 243. The muscles of organic life are in con- 
nexion with the organic or ganglionic system of 
nerves, and are, therefore, independently of con- 
sciousness and will, excited to certain determinate 
actions, which here are strictly rhythmical and 
interchanged with cessations from action ; they are 
spasmodic in some sort or irregular in their periods 
of activity and relaxation. The muscles of this 
class are for the most part pale in colour, finely 
fibrous, soft, transparent, deeply situated in the body, 
and moderately supplied with soft, greyish- coloured 
nerves, mostly of the motory order, and with blood- 


vessels, both of these coursing in general between 
the fibres and fasciculi that compose them. The 
organic muscles are more susceptible of mechanical 
than of chemical stimuli, and are not connected 
with tendons like the muscles of the animal life. 

§ 244. Examined microscopically, the organic 
muscles are found in general to consist of delicate 
yellowish red coloured transparent fibres, with very 
faint boundaries, which, like the round fibres 
especially, though singly cylindrical, are flat or pris- 
matic when united into bundles, the pressure of the 
several fibres giving them this figure. The fibres 
seldom run stretched out, and united into round 
bundles as in^^. 'J5 A, a, a ; they are far more com- 
monly bent sinuously (B), or are even crimped (c) 
and combined into flat cords. In a higher degree 
of rigidity they are often irregular and shortly bent, 
by which they acquire the peculiar angular charac- 
ter which H. R. Ficinus* has so faithfully repre- 
sented in his figures. The fibres and bundles open 
and close under the mucous membranes in the 
manner of nervous plexuses, and form meshes in 
which mucous glands lie imbedded, or they surround 
these like loops. The muscular bundles lying in the 
same plane form muscular membranes, which are 

* " Diss, de Fibras Muscularis Forma et Structura." 4to. 
Lips. 1836. 

Dr. Baly has given some good observations on the organic 
muscular fibre, and an accurate delineation of the corpuscles 
observable in the flat fibres or filaments. See Translation of 
Muller's "Physiology," 1838, plate 2, fig. 9. The corpuscles, 
according to my observations, are often absent, though the 
riband-like filaments may be very distinct. — See Proc. Zool. 
Soc, Sejjt. 10, 1839.— G. G. 


disposed one over the other in two or throe layers, 
the component bundles of each always crossing those 
of the other obliquely or at right angles, thus form- 
ing networks or gratings (^fig. 85, and 76, A). 

In this manner appear for the most part the 
fibres of the muscular coat of the O3sophagus, near 
the stomach ; of the stomach itself, and the intestinal 
canal, with its immediately derived ducts, the hepatic 
and pancreatic ducts; of the urinary bladder and the 
ureters ; of the vesiculse seminales and vasa defer- 
entia ; of the trachea and bronchi ; and of the middle 
coat of the veins and lymphatics. Frequently, 
however, the fibres are less divided and the fasciculi 
more distinctly granular {fig- 7^, B) ; sometimes, 
indeed, they are decidedly granular, as in the uterus 
of the cow (^fig. 74) : from the ends of the torn 
granular fibrous bundle (A) project fibres of cellular 
substance, which, running betwixt the granular 
fibres, appear to be connected with the granules ; at 
least, the granules remain hanging to the apparently 
branched fibres after operating on the bundles by 
alternately squirting water on them and pressing 
them gently {fig, 74, B).* 

Although the organic muscular fibres in general 
appear so regularly granular (§ 251), this is seldom 
the case with the fibres of vessels which, as Professor 
Valentin t has already shewn, resemble the larger 
examples of the contractile round fibre so much, 
that it is still doubtful whether they ought not rather 

* This appearance of the uterine muscles I have, indeed, 
only seen very distinctly once, but then it was in sections from 
different parts of the organ. 

t " Repertorium," 1837. S. 242. 


to be assigned to the contractile than to the proper 
muscular tissue. 

§ 245. An isolated, azygous, organic muscle, 
partly covered by the skin only, is found in the 
solidunoula under the urethra. This retractor of 
the penis possesses the precise texture and colour of 
the organic muscles : it is a prolongation of the 
muscles of the rectum to the glans penis. 

Passage of the Organic into the Animal Muscles. 

§ 246. No voluntary muscle without transverse 
streaks is known ; * but some muscles that have 
transverse strise, nevertheless, from standing in a 
certain relationship to the animal as well as the 
organic system, assimilate in their mode of action 
with the involuntary muscles. To this head belong 
the muscular substance of the heart and that of the 
oesophagus near to its ventricular end.t The deep 

* Many fibres of voluntary muscle are without these streaks. 
Such fibres appear to be composed simply of irregular granular 
matter inclosed in a sheath (^sarcoltmma) without the least ap- 
pearance of primitive fibrils. In the pectoral muscle of the long- 
eared bat {Plecotus aiuntus, Geoff'.), examined immediately after 
death, almost all the fibres were of this character. They mea- 
sured from -g-l-sth to -j\^&i of an English inch in diameter. — G. G. 

t The muscular fibi^e of animal life invests the gullet much 
nearer to the stomach in many brutes than in the human subject ; 
and there is also a remarkable diff'erence in this respect in 
several of the mammalia. In some of the rodentia, and in the 
sloth bear (Ursus lahiatus, Blainv.), the muscular fibre of 
animal life extends to the cardia, and in some mammals may be 
found beyond the termination of the gullet. In the quadrumana, 
in the horse, in the lion, and many other species of felis, the 
muscular fibre of animal life does not extend nearly to the 
end of the gullet. The subject is deserving of further inquiry. 


red muscles of the heart consist of fine transversely 
streaked, and often waved, primary fasciculi, from 
the T^oth to the sVth of a line in diameter, which 
divide again and again like the prongs of a fork, 
and combine in the manner of a net (^/ig. 84). 
These muscular fasciculi contract and relax without 
intermission, rhythmically and powerfully, from the 
commencement of life in the embryo, to its end, at 
the age it may be of a hundred years, forcing the 

Professor Miiller assures us that " the third act of deglutition is 
quite involuntary, being performed by the muscular fibres of 
the oesophagus, which are not in the slightest degree capable of 
voluntary motion." However true this may be as regards man, 
it is probably different in those animals which have the entire 
muscular sheath of the gullet composed of fibres identical in all 
respects with the fibres of the known muscles of voluntary motion. 

The muscular structure of the heart appears to me to be 
altogether peculiar ; not to mention other points, the compara- 
tively small size of its primary fascicles, and the absence of in- 
tervening filaments of cellular tissue, serve to distinguish the 
muscular fibres of the heart from the fibres of the muscles of 
voluntary motion. See " Observations on the Muscular Fibres 
of the GEsophagus and Heart in some of the Mammalia." — Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society) part vii. p. 124, et seq. 

I subjoin from my notes measurements of the size of the 
primary fascicles of the heart in several mammals. Though the 
size of the fascicles differs considerably, it is uniformly smaller 
than that of the primary fascicles of the muscles of voluntary 
motion. But in very young animals this diffierence is often 
scarcely appreciable ; thus, in a kitten a few days old, the 
primary fascicles of the pectoral muscle were as small as those of 
the heart. The fascicles of the auricles were generally found to 
be much smaller than the fascicles of the ventricles; but there 
were some exceptions : in the bearded sheep ( OvisTragelaphus) 
and the fox, there was scarcely any diff'erence in the size of the 
fascicles of the auricles and ventricles. The following measure- 
ments are expressed in fractions of an English inch ; the animals, 


blood poured into the cavities of the heart in its 
determinate round, and proving the efficient cause 
of the pulse. The number of contractions of the 
heart in the adult human subject amounts, on an 

unless noted to the contrary, were adults which had been dead 
several hours before the hearts were examined : — 

Table shewing the Diameter of the Primary Fascicles in the 
Heart of some of the Mammalia. 

Name of Animal. 


Cercopithecus sabaeus, Desm 

Cercopithecus ^Ethiops, Geoff. ... 

Macacus Rhesus, Desm 

Vespertilio noctula, Schreb 

Plecotus auritus, Geoff. 

Ursus labiatus, Blainv.. 

Canis Vulpes, Linn -J 

Canis familiaris, Linn. ( 1 2 days old) 

Canis argentatus, Desm 

Felis Leo, Linn. (|^ds grown) 

Felis concolor, Linn } 

Felis Leopardus, Linn 

Felis cervaria, Temm 

Felis Caracal, Gmel 

Lutra vulgaris, Erxl 

Equus Caballus, Linn 

Antilope Bubalis, Pall .*.] 

O vis Tragelaphus, Desm < 

Sciurus vulgaris, Linn 

Cavia Cobaya, Gmel -j 

Lepus timidus, Linn 






Right ventricle 

Left ventricle 

Ventricles and 





Right ventricle 

Left auricle 

Left ventricle 


Left ventricle 





Auricles and 


Left ventricle 



Left ventricle 

Diameter of Fa 



ditto ... 
ditto ... 
ditto ... 


16 OTT 

2 00^ 




_ 1 




T3 3 3 



2T50TJ • 

• 17 7 7 


1 , 

2000 • 

• 1333 

TO 07 • 

• 2-0ST5 

'SS^S • 

• T7"0" 

"270 • 

• "807 

TB-VlT • 

• 1007 

2" OTTTT • 

• TT43" 

1 _ 

2000 • 

•• z-ks 

T70TJ • 

• T777 

"40 07 • 

• 2 777 




2 07 

2 4 07 




""8 07 

G. G. 


average, to about 108,000 per diem ; in the horse 
and ox, the number is but about 54,720, little more 
than one-half. 

The muscular compages of the oesophagus trans- 
mit the bolus of food and the drink delivered to 
them by the mouth, independently of the will, and 
in some sort of consciousness, to the stomach. The 
muscular fasciculi here are of a less intense red 
colour than those of the heart, but so far as the striae 
are of a deeper hue, they are still streaked trans- 
versely in the same manner as the muscles of volun- 
tary motion. In the immediate vicinity of the 
stomach, the transverse striae diminish in distinct- 
ness, and the colour in intensity, and then they 
disappear entirely, when the primary fasciculi, es- 
pecially in the graminivorous tribes, are less widely 
separated, and now appear to consist of granules 
from the 4ffoth to the ^^(jth of a line in diameter, 
united into difficultly separable granular fibres. 

Animal or Voluntary Muscles. 

§ 247. These are by so much the more deeply 
coloured, and their component fasciculi by so much 
the finer and firmer, the stronger, older, and better 
bred the animal is in which they are examined, and 
the more they are exercised. The muscles in gene- 
ral, therefore, commonly appear of a dark brown in 
aged animals ; those only that are rarely called into 
action, those of the skin, for instance, retain the 
brighter hue which they have in earlier life. The 
muscles of animal life are less transparent than 
those of organic life ; but they are just as soft and 
moist, and after death easily lacerable ; during life, 


however, they are even stronger than the sinews 
with which they are generally connected at their 
extremities, for under great efforts these, or their 
fibrous attachments to the periosteum, rather give 
way than the muscular flesh. The voluntary are 
more readily separable into secondary and primary 
fasciculi than the organic muscles. They are plen- 
tifully supplied with cerebral and spinal nerves, and 
they consequently come under the dominion of the 
will. Their component fasciculi seldom cross, but 
lie parallel to one another and in intimate union. 

§ 248. Microscopic Eocamination of the Animal 
Muscles. — The finest or elementary portion of the 
voluntary muscle, is a delicate granular fibre, called 
Jilum by Muys and Prochaska, flbrilla by De Heyde, 
J'asciculus carneus primitivus by Fontana, and by 
recent anatomists generally, the primary muscular 
fibre. Muys, and after him. Home and Bauer, 
represented this as an articulated cylinder, or prism 
with rounded edges, made up of shorter cylinders 
with rounded edges, in apposition by their bases, 
and under the influence of maceration becoming 
resolved into granules. The granules or members 
of the primary muscular fibre are from the y^ o^th to 
the T^oth of a line in diameter. From fifteen to 
twenty (according to Muys eighteen, and to De 
Heyde thirteen) of the primary fibres united parallel 
to one another, go to the formation of the finest or 
primary muscular fasciculus. The inquiries of 
Schwann, Ficinus, and the writer, have confirmed 
the general accuracy of these conclusions.* 

* According to my own measurements, the primary mus- 
cular fasciculi of the horse are -^■^l\h those of the hog from ^^^-th 
to "aVth, and the primary granules from ^--Joth to ^-J-^th of a line 


The granules of the primary fibres appear ellip- 
tical in the relaxed muscle, their longer diameter 
then corresponding with the long axis of the fibre 
{fig. 82, c, 1) ; but during the action of the muscle 
they become flattened pomegranate-wise on their 
contingent surfaces {fig. 82, 2). The granular 
appearance of the primary fibres seems now to de- 
pend, even in organic muscles, on very short sinuous 
bondings {fig. 82, 3). 

The primary fasciculi of flabby muscles, as they 
are found, for example, in the bodies of those who 
have died of lingering diseases, once the cadaveric 
rigidity has passed, exhibit their primary fibres super- 
ficially more distinct, and they therefore generally 
appear longitudinally streaked {fig. 81, 1, 2, 3 ; 
fig. 82, A.) Upon the torn ends of portions of such 
muscles, the fibres often stand out irregularly 
notched or toothed {fig. 81, 3). In the middle of 
the primary fasciculus again, an amorphous hyaline 
substance seems often to be contained, enclosed 
round about by the primary fibres {fig. 81, %fig. 
79j 1> c).* Longitudinally streaked primary fas- 

in diameter. In the diameter of the primary fasciculi from the 
masseter of the horse, I counted seventeen primary fibres. The 
primary fasciculi of the heart in the horse, which measured J^th 
of a line in diameter, contained no more than from 3 to 7 pri- 
mary fibres. 

[The primitive fasciculi differ in magnitude considerably in 
diff'erent classes and genera of animals, and in the same muscle 
of the same animal. See Mr. Bowman's admeasurements in his 
" Observations on the Minute Structure and Movements of 
Voluntary Muscle."— P^z7. Trans. 1840, part ii. p. 460. — G. G.'\ 

* Mr. Skey describes the fibre (primitive fasciculus) as a 
hollow tube filled with a glutinous semitransparent substance. — 
PMl. Trans. 1837, part ii. p. 377 — G. G. 


ciculi present at the same time broad transverse 
striae, by which they appear to be sinuously bent 
(yfg'. 81, 3) ; occasionally they are indeed bent 
sinuously or in short zig-zags ; or broadish transverse 
wrinkles present themselves more or less regularly ; 
this last appearance is w^ell seen in the muscle of 
the living frog in a state of action, the wrinkles 
being wavy and vermiform, or even distinctly zig- 

If the granules of the associated primary fibres 
present themselves arranged in transverse rows, and 
the common transverse connecting lines become 
forked in consequence, so that the spheroidal 
granules project in higher relief along the con- 
tracted primary fasciculi (^fig^ 82, B,) the fasciculi 
then appear more or less regularly striated trans- 
versely {Jig. 77j fig' 78> (i)' These relations appear 
not to obtain beyond the surface of the primary fas- 
ciculi J at all events, the appearances in the deeper 
bundles are so far modified, that the cross-streaking 
seems frequently to depend on the presence of a 
wrinkled fascicular sheath ; for, when the more 
superficial fibres chance to be removed, and the 
deeper ones exposed, these appear cylindrical, and 
the bundle at the part is longitudinally streaked, 
{fig. 78, h, c, where the longitudinal streaks appear 
through gaps, as it were, of an external envelope). 
At the extremity of a torn fasciculus, too, the peri- 
pheral fibres often appear so distinctly marked off 
from the internal and more pulpy substance (fig. 
91, 1, b), that the existence of a more compact 
transversely streaked sheath can scarcely be called 



in question.* For the accuracy of this view of the 
matter, the observation of fibres wound spirally 
about the primary muscular fasciculi of the dog 
LfiS' 79, 2, 3, 4) is a farther and strong assurance ; 
so also is the observation of Professor Valentin, to 
which Jig. 80 bears reference. The suspected 
sheath I believe to consist decidedly of granular 
fibres, which may, however, by possibility, be sepa- 
rable in two directions, viz. transversely and lon- 
gitudinally, according as the union of the neutral 
connecting medium of the granules in the peripheral 
layer is more intimate in the long or in the trans- 
verse axis of the fasciculi. Every trace of granules 
disappears from the animal muscles, even after boil- 
ing, under the action of oil of turpentine continued 
for a day or two {fig' 'J 5, D). 

§ 249. The import of the convoluted fibres 
which I have met with included in the fasciculi of 
some of the muscles of the horse, is unknown to me 
{fig. 83). I have seen these fibres quite as dis- 
tinctly, though perhaps not with quite so hard an 
outline as they exhibit in the figure. I am not 
aware that others have observed any thing of the 
same kind. 

§ 250. I take the opportunity of noting the fol- 
lowing observation here on account of its singularity : 

In a portion of muscle from the hind leg of a 
horse I found an immense number of crescentic or 
half-moon shaped bodies, from y^^d to y^o^'^ ^^ ^ 

* Mr. Bowman considers that the sheath is not in any way 
concerned in the production of the transverse striee. — Loc. Cit. 
p. 475— G. G. 


line in length, with rounded heads, centrally raised 
and blunt pointed tails. These bodies were only dis- 
covered thirty hours after the death of the animal : 
they exhibited no signs of life or of internal 

When the muscles pass into other structures 
their fasciculi become elliptically, parabolically, or 
conically pointed. The appearance they present 
under the mucous membrane of the tongue is repre- 
sented in Jig. 86, a, a. The tendinous bundles 
arise at different angles or parallel from the entire 
rounded or conical terminal surfaces of the fasciculi 
{fig. 51, a, 1). 

Origin and Evolution of the Animal Muscles in 
the Emhryo. 

§ 251. The muscles in the embryo consist at 
first of nucleoli and cytoblasts, and form a finely 
granular substance ; from this arise transparent 
embryonic cells which arrange themselves as fibres, 
the somewhat flattened cells coming together much 
in the same way as the blood-discs do when they 
form piles or columns (videyz^. 8). A single rank 
of cells of this kind by and by becomes a primary 
fasciculus ; the rounded, granular edges of the cells 
do not appear to range with absolute regularity ; 
the primary fasciculus, which is still granular ex- 

* Some short time ago Professor Valentin discovered the 
ova of Entozoa in the spinal canal of a fcetal calf about six 
inches long. These ova were ovate ; on the extremity they 
were furnished with a cover, and internally contained a germinal 
vesicle amidst a quantity of granular matter. In diameter they 
were to the blood-discs of the foetus as 17 is to 1. 


ternally, becomes more cylindrical and more trans- 
parent ; it appears, particularly after the action of 
acetic acid, divided into compartments like a jointed 
conferva or the pod of the tamarind. In each com- 
partment lies a granular nucleus, at first in the 
shape of a short cylinder, the axis of which accords 
with that of the fasciculus ; at a later period the 
nucleus becomes rounder, flattened, smaller, and 
separated from others by greater interspaces, whilst 
the septa disappear : at this time the nucleus is com- 
pletely flat and elliptical, and the great diameter lies 
in the direction of the length of the fasciculus, but 
rarely concentric with this. The walls of the cell 
only slightly surpass the lateral walls of the nucleus, 
which now consists entirely of granules, but with 
a still perceptible nucleolus. The muscular fasci- 
culus not unfrequently now appears flat, and, like 
the nucleus, granular throughout ; and the granules, 
it is worthy of observation, are arranged betwixt 
the nuclei in the apparently or virtually flat fasci- 
culi, more longitudinally at first, but more trans- 
versely when the fasciculi are farther advanced. 
From four to eight of these granules lie in the 
transverse diameter of the fasciculi. It is along 
with the evolution of these granules that the trans- 
verse striae make their appearance. By slow degrees 
the nuclei disappear, or their granules arrange them- 
selves along with those of the fasciculus. Betwixt 
the primary fasciculi, delicate cellular fibres arise 
in small numbers ; betwixt secondary fasciculi these 
fibres appear in greater numbers, which fibres by 
degrees present themselves as fibres of cellular 


AVith reference to the substance which is the 
bond of union between the primary fibres and which 
then connects the primary bundles, we can only say 
that such a substance must exist, — probably a soft 
hyaline substance of the greatest delicacy, but not 
demonstrable by itself. 

The blood-vessels commence as a pectiniform 
capillary rete between the primary bundles, and 
then the vessels enlarge with the farther develope- 
ment of the secondary fasciculi. The origin of the 
lymphatics, and their relations in the adult to the 
muscles, require additional research in order to be 
perfectly understood. 

The nerves of the animal muscles are by so 
much the more zig-zagged or sinuous as the muscles 
are susceptible of being more shortened. They 
mostly present themselves as flattened cords, which 
are constantly forming plexuses. The mode of 
termination of these nerves, discovered nearly simul- 
taneously by Valentin in Breslau, and Emmert in 
Bern, and all but seen by Prevost and Dumas at 
an earlier period, I have endeavoured to make 
evident by giving a drawing from a portion of one 
of the oblique muscles of the abdomen of the rabbit 
vcijig. 91. This subject will be particularly spoken 
of when we come to treat of the nerves. 

Whether at the point of junction between muscle 
and tendon there be an immediate transition of 
the primary muscular into the tendinous fibre, or 
there be a most intimate union of the two ; and 
whether the genio and hyo-glossi muscles, &c. form 
a particular combination with the elastic tissue of 
the mucous membrane of the tongue or not, — are 


questions which have not yet been completely or 
satisfactorily settled (§ 250; Jig. 51, a, 1 ; fig. 86, 
«, a) The muscles of the animal life rarely form 
any kind of tissue ; such a structure, however, does 
result from the interlacing of the fasciculi of the 
lingual muscle (^Jig. 86). 

Microscopic Examination of the Living Muscle 
of Animal Life. 

§ 252. Prevost and Dumas* observed on the 
primary fasciculi (called by \hQva. fibres inusculaires 
secondaires^ of the sterno-pubic muscle of a living 
frog, which in a state of quiescence formed nearly 
straight cylinders, two changes, when by the stimu- 
lus of galvanism the muscle was aroused to action : 
1st. The entire muscle became shorter, the primary 
fasciculus becoming very regularly zig-zagged. The 
alternating angles of the zig-zags were nearly 
everywhere equidistant, and measured from 50 to 
110 degrees, the muscle shortening by 0*23. Less 
violent contractions of the muscle occasioned blunter 
angles in the zig-zags. The greatest contraction 
observed in a voluntary muscle, produced angles 
equal to 50° at the very utmost ; the primary fasci- 
culi of the muscles of the intestines fell into smaller 
angles but at greater distances. The angles of the 
zig-zag were repeated in the same direction in a 
direct line drawn transversely to the primary fasci- 
culus, so that the parallelism of these was not inter- 
rupted ; the single primary fibres of the nerves 
were seen running over the angles ; the primary 

* Magendie's " Journal." T. iii. p. 306. 


nervous bundles were observed corrugated between 
the angles.* 

§ 253. As nothing is superfluous in the animal 
body, and it might, therefore, have been inferred, 
a priori, that the length of the muscles must stand 
in a certain relation to their necessary contraction 
at the maximum of their action ; I have, never- 
theless, thought it worth while to measure the fleshy 
bellies of some of the flexors and extensors of the 
extremities, in the passive and in the active state, 
the limb being first in a state of the most perfect 
extension, and then of the most complete flexion ; 
and I have found that this ratio is in fact deter- 
minate, but that it is modified in a greater or less 
degree by a variety of circumstances. It may suffice 
if I here state generally, that the contraction of 
the living muscle never approaches in amount that 

* Professor Valentin repeated these experiments, but without 
making use of any adventitious stimulus. The muscles in the 
throat of a frog were selected for observation, which, exposed, 
were readily observed in action during the inspiration of the 
animal. In some observations which I instituted myself about 
the same time, I believed that I could always perceive certain 
vermicular motions, besides the contractions into zig-zags, of 
the corrugations of the primary fasciculi, not of the primary 
fibres. Professor Valentin and I together found the degree of 
contraction of which different muscles were susceptible, to differ 
considerably. Pieces tM'elve lines in length from different 
muscles were tried as to their capacity of contraction, and we 
found the piece from the masseter muscle to shrink to five lines, 
the piece from the pectoralis major to six lines, that from the 
longus colli to 6"3 lines, that from the latissimus dorsi to 7'5 lines, 
and that from one of the cutaneous muscles to eight lines. The 
animal which afforded the pieces of muscle was the horse just 


which we ohserve in a portion of muscular flesh 
removed from the hody of an animal just killed. 

§ 254. A delicate cellular substance invests and 
unites the primary into secondary fasciculi, and 
these become cognisable to the naked eye. Entire 
muscles, again, are surrounded by a strong sheath 
of cellular tissue ; and in the extremities, moreover, 
by tendinous fascise connected with the general 
investing aponeuroses of the arm, leg, and thigh. 
Where the muscles in their actions have to shift 
their places extensively, they are separated by a 
layer of loose slippery cellular tissue. 

§ 9,55. Chemical Constituents of Muscle. — One 
hundred parts of muscular flesh, from which, how- 
ever, the vessels, nerves, cellular tissue, and blood 
could not be completely separated, contained — 

Fibrine, vessels and nerves 15-80 

Cellular substance 1"90 

Albumen and haematosine 2*20 

Alcoholic extract and lactic acid, lactate of 

soda, potash, lime, magnesia, and ammonia 1*80 
Osmazome ? (Zomidin germ.) and three or four 
other watery extractive matters not yet cer- 
tainly determined 1"05 

Phosphate of lime with albumen 0'08 

Water and loss 77-17 


§ 256. Sensibility, Contractility, ^c. — The 
muscles possess little sensibility ; their proper nerves, 
which are all derived from the anterior columns of 
the spinal cord, are accompanied by very few nerves 
of common sensation. But under the influence of 
the will and stimuli generally, the muscles exhibit 


the peculiar vital property called contractility in an 
eminent degree, — a property by which the parts in 
connexion with their opposite extremities are ap- 
proximated, and the whole muscle becomes thicker, 
harder, and shorter. This contractility repeated 
experiments have shewn to be intimately connected 
with the nerves and blood distributed to the muscles : 
the nerves divided, the supply of blood cut off, 
muscular contractility is soon at an end.* 

§ 257. The solid or voluntary muscles form a 
large proportion of the mass of the body. The 
destination of the muscles is obvious, — they are the 
means by which all the offices are performed essen- 
tial to the preservation of the individual and the 
continuation of the kind. The least movable ex- 
tremity of a muscle is usually spoken of as its head 
or origiriy the most movable as its end or insertion. 
Muscles which are interrupted in their continuity 
by one or more tendinous portions are named di- 
gastric and polygastric. Some muscles are con- 
nected with tendons through their entire length, by 
which they are protected from overstretching, and 
the moveable parts upon which they act from too 
great degrees of displacement. 

§ 258. The solid muscles are arranged according 
to their form into 

1. Long muscles, and these are 

(«), Simple, fusiform muscles ; and 
(^), Compound, cylindrical, or flattened 
muscles, of which there are many 
varieties : muscles having two, three, 

* Vide Dr. M. Hall's " Memoirs on the Nervous System," 
and the elementary works on Physiology of the present time. 


or many heads ; having two, three, 
or more bellies ; penniform and 
semipenniform muscles, &c. &c. ; 

2. Broad or membraniform muscles ; 

3. Short muscles ; and 

4. Annular or orbicular muscles, the habitual 

state and action of which are peculiar, in- 
asmuch as they act independently of con- 
sciousness and of the will, like the organic 
muscles, their natural state being a state of 
tonicity ; so that whilst the muscles at large 
become rigid after death, the orbicular 
muscles or sphincters become lax. The 
cause of this peculiarity, which must de- 
pend on some peculiarity inherent in their 
nerves, has not yet been explained. 
§ 259- The solid muscles, like all the elements 
of the system of animal life, are symmetrical and 
in pairs. 

§ 260. The muscles act upon the bones in the 
same manner precisely as cords do upon levers and 
rollers ; by short contractions they elicit rapid and 
extensive movements, at the cost, however, as a 
matter of course, of considerable expenditure of 
power, for their points of attachment are commonly 
very close to the centres of motion. 

Muscles sometimes move several parts, singly or 
together, according as the individual or collective 
points of attachment are fixed by other muscles or 
left free : the common muscle, the trapezius for 
example, can move the head, neck, and scapula, all 
together, or each of these parts by itself. 

In situations where the tendons would, without 


assistance, reach the bony levers they have to move, 
at angles too acute, or where their original lines of 
traction require to be changed, we find processes of 
bone or of cartilage employed to increase the angle 
or to alter the line of traction ; the contrivances 
made use of to this end are the sesamoid bones, of 
which the patella is the largest and most remark- 
able, and the trochlese, of which we have beautiful 
instances in the pulley through which the tendon 
of the superior oblique of the eye passes, and the 
delicate hook of the sphenoidal bone over which 
plays the tendon of the tensor palati. 

Muscles that are mutually opposed in their 
actions are entitled antagonists — such as the flexors 
and the extensors of the trunk and extremities, the 
one order being situated on the one aspect, the 
other on the opposite aspect, of the body or limbs. 
The mechanism of the motions in the animal body 
is, as has been said, entirely in accordance with the 
general laws of mechanics ; the agent of the motions, 
however, muscular contractility, among all the known 
motory powers, exists in the living muscular fibre 
of man and animals alone. 


§ 261. The primary fasciculi of the muscles and 
the nervous tubuli form the links of transition from 
the solid round filament to the hollow filament ; we 
have seen that the peripheral layer of the primary 
muscular fibre is to be viewed as a tubular con- 
tinuous membrane, having a certain consistency, 
being distinctly granular, and thereby streaked 


transversely, and that the inner portions of the same 
fibres, again, are to be regarded as an organised soft 
included matter. The primary tubuli of the nerves 
follow these in structure immediately ; their con- 
tents, immediately after death at least, being of a 
tenacious consistency, and incapable of any rapid 
movement within the hollow including tubes. The 
capillary vessels are the first structures that are 
not only decidedly hollow, but in which the fluids 
they include move as something quite distinct from 
the vessels, and with greater or less degrees of 
velocity. All tubular structures, with the exception 
of the ducts of glands, are probably products or 
self-organised interstitial substances of the primary 
cells ; in other words, intercellular networks of 
hollow elastic tissue. 


§ 262. The nervous system consists of the brain 
and spinal cord, and of the nerves which in con- 
nexion with these are distributed to every part of 
the body. The brain and spinal cord are generally 
spoken of as the central, the nerves as Xh^ peripheral, 
parts of the nervous system. 

In the brain and nervous system a reddish grey, 
inherently active, and a white distributing or con- 
ducting substance are distinguished. 

The grey and active matter occurs in the brain 
as a superficial or cortical and general investing 
layer — a peripheral ganglionic substance; and in 
the interior of the brain and spinal cord as the 
central grey or ganglionic substance. 

NERVES. '253 

The white conductmg, or intermediate tubular, 
or nervous substance, forms the white or medullary 
matter of the brain and spinal cord, and beyond the 
central portions constitutes the nervous bundles 
which are distributed to every part of the body 
that is susceptible of sensation and motion. 

The different characters of these two substances 
depend on the dissimilar nature of their constituent 
elements. The grey matter consists for the most 
part of peculiar nervous cells, the ganglionic glo- 
bules as they are called ; the white matter consists 
of tubules, which, collected into bundles beyond 
the central parts, and inclosed in sheaths, form the 

Diversities of Combination and of Properties 
connected with these. 

§ 263. The nerves serve as conductors or parts 
intermediate between the central and the peripheral 
portions of the nervous system ; they effect an 
intimate connexion betwixt the brain and the parts 
of the body that are susceptible of sensation and of 
voluntary motion. Nerves are either direct, that is, 
their root or central end is in connexion with the 
brain, and then they are called cerebral nerves, or 
they are mediate, in which case their roots are in 
connexion with the spinal cord, when they are 
called spinal nerves. With the brain and spinal 
cord they form the animal portion of the nervous 
system, and constitute the cerebro-spinal system, 
which, like all the systems of animal life, is sym- 
metrical or alike in either half of the body divided 
in the mesial plane. The office of the cerebro- 


spinal system is to give information of the state of 
the peripheral parts of the body, and of the relations 
of external things to it and to one another, and 
also to preside over the motions dictated by the will 
and performed with consciousness. 

The ganglionic system, different from the cere- 
bro-spinal system, has no common central point in 
relation with formation and activity. It has, on 
the contrary, many smaller central organs which 
preside over especial processes, and cut off and 
render certain organs and systems more or less 
independent of the influence of animal life, and, 
consequently, of volition and consciousness. The 
ganglia^ or nervous knots, which belong to this 
system, are constituted by the same inherently active 
matter of which the grey substance of the brain 

The cerebro-spinal nerves, with the exception of 
the soft or grey-coloured nerves of special sensation, 
such as those of smell, sight, and hearing, are white 
and almost entirely opaque, and are either purely 
sensitive, purely motory, or mixed sensitive and 
motory nerves, as they are destined for distribution to 
organs of pure sensation, of pure motion, or having 
the two-fold function of sensation and motion. 

The cerebro-spinal system is itself subdivided 

1st. The cerebral system of sense and of the 
soul. This consists of the brain and the nerves 
proceeding from it, which last are, 1st, nerves of 
special sensation — the nerves of the particular 
senses ; 2d, nerves of common sensation ; and 3d, 
nerves of motion, these being mostly connected 

NERVES. 255 

with movements of the more delicate kind, and 
intended to aid or express the activity of one or 
other of the senses. The cerebral nerves form 
twelve pairs, which all proceed from the basilar 
aspect of the brain, and in general from the more 
central parts of the organ. 

2d. The spinal system, consisting of the spinal 
cord and the nerves proceeding from it, these being 
either connected with the function of locomotion, 
with the peculiar sense of touch concentrated in the 
points of the fingers especially, or with the more 
general sense distributed over the entire surface, 
which we entitle common sensation. The spinal 
nerves, in their individual bundles, are either nerves 
of motion, of sensation, or of a mixed nature, fibres 
or fasciculi connected with each of these faculties, 
being bound up in the same sheath. 

§ 264. The nerves of the sympathetic or gan- 
glionic system are like the ganglia themselves, of a 
reddish grey colour, and transparent in a greater or 
less degree, and not symmetrical. The microscopic 
investigations of Retzius, J. Miiller, and particularly 
Remak,* have recently shewn that the nerves of 
this system generally, contain an admixture of or- 
dinary nerves or nervous fibrils, which proceed, 
according to Valentin, t from the brain and spinal 
cord, and probably preside over the functions of the 
vascular system — circulation, nutrition, secretion, 
&c. These adventitious nerves are so little nerves 

* " Obs. Anat. et Microscop. de Syst. Nervos. Structura." 
4to. Berl. 1838. 

\ Valentin : " De Functionibus Nervorum Cerebr. et 
Spinal." 4to. Bernge, 1839. 


of sensation, that they scarcely convey any but the 
most indistinct ideas of irritations impressed upon 
the vegetative organs. As the sympathetic nerves, 
besides the excitement of involuntary motions in 
the organic muscles, are intimately connected with 
the vascular functions, and always accompany the 
blood-vessels very closely, they are with great pro- 
priety named the organic or vascular nerves. 

Microscopic Analysis of Nerves. 

§ %Q5. The nerves consist, in general, of a con- 
geries of delicate tubes, which, examined in an 
animal immediately after death, are found to be 
cylindrical and of like diameter, individually trans- 
parent, and in their interior to inclose a fluid which, 
however, speedily coagulates into a grumous, uni- 
formly and very finely granular mass, although the 
separation of the coagulum into a thicker and thin- 
ner portion would seem to indicate a difference in 
the nature of its constituents. The nervous fluid 
probably separates imperfectly into a hyaline sub- 
stance, which becomes grumous and finely granular 
in coagulating, and into a thick serum. The fine 
elementary tubes or primary fibres of the nerves, 
are connected by an amorphous matter, or by a 
more highly developed cellular substance into fas- 
ciculi and cords, and these involved in denser cel- 
lular sheaths constitute the nerves in the ordinary 
acceptation of that word. 

More particularly examined, with the assistance 
of high powers and artificial light, a more delicate 
investing membrane is discovered within the outer 

NERVE. 257 

thicker and sharply defined one of each particular 
fibre. This fine membrane appears to be composed 
of, or at all events to be covered by, a ciliary epi- 
thelium, the ciliae of which lie very obliquely and 
apparently in spiral lines upon its inner aspect (^Jig. 
88, 4, a, \ and 5).* 

Soon after death the nervous tubes contract 
irregularly, probably in consequence of the unequal 
density of the contained fluid after its coagulation ; 
the tube then, from cylindrical and even, becomes 
alternately contracted and dilated in its course 
{Jig. 88, 3). Such a moniliform state of the nervous 
fibres at their origin in the brain and spinal marrow 
would even seem to be the natural condition ; the 
knots or dilatations are certainly far more remark- 
able here than in the general course of the nerves. 
Immediately after death they present themselves in a 
cerebral nerve as they are represented in^^. 89, 7 ; 
and in a spinal nerve as they are depicted ^^. 89, 8. 
Even after they have escaped from the spinal cord, 
the fibres are still somewhat varicose {fig. 89, 8, a, 
e) \ they only become regularly cylindrical when 

* If this structure be confirmed by the observations of 
others, the nerves would come to be ranked among the true 
vessels. The peculiar structure in question was first noted by 
Professor Valentin in a course of observations upon the nerves 
of living animals, which we had undertaken in common about 
a year ago. The object of the movement of the nervous fluid 
in the interiors of the tubes, supposing it to be continued back- 
wards from the ultimate loops, would be precisely that which is 
accomplished by the heart in regard to the blood — a constant, 
although perhaps, slow change of the contents of the nerves 
from the centre towards the periphery, and from the periphery 
towards the centre. 



they are surrounded by the firm sheath of the nerve 
at large. These roots, moreover, are finer and more 
transparent than the fibrils of the rest of the nerve, 
and they are severally provided with a delicate 

In all probability two fibres of the roots of the 
nerves form a loop in the brain and spinal marrow 
as they do on the periphery. Here they are sur- 
rounded by the finest albuminous granules of the 
cineritious substance {fig. 89, 1), which, indeed, in 
some parts, seem to adhere to them like berries on 
a stalk (^Jlg' 89j 7)« The radicles of the nerves, 
which in the brain and cord are separate and distinct 
at first, unite as they pass beyond the central organs 
into fine fasciculi, which in the first instance are 
surrounded by the pia mater, and by and bye, where 
the smaller bundles unite into larger, by processes 
of the dura mater ; as regards the spinal nerves, 
the fasciculi of the roots pierce the dura mater of 
the cord singly, and are then involved in common 
by a process from its outer layer. At the place 
where the process from the dura mater joins the 
nervous trunk which has now been formed, the 
fasciculi proceeding from the posterior columns of 
the spinal cord begin to cross and interlace, and 
form a ganglion, in which are included numerous 
isolated as well as clustered ganglionic globules, 
and from which also new fibres arise to swell the 
bulk of the future nerve of sensation, which is here 
finally completed in its structure {fig. 89, % 3, 4). 
The corresponding bundle, or nerve of motion con- 
stituted by the fasciculi which proceed from the 
anterior columns of the spinal cord, is intimately 

NERVE. 259 

connected in its passage with the ganglion of the 
nerve of sensation, but without mixing obviously 
with it. The sensitive and motory bundles now 
form a common cord, each of these bearing reference 
in point of size to the destination and functions of 
the nerve which then generally proceeds by the 
shortest route to the parts it supplies, dividing into 
smaller and smaller fasciculi as it advances these 
secondary bundles, consisting, of course, of sensory 
or motory primary fibres, or of a mixture of the 
two according as the parts to which they are finally 
distributed are organs of sensation or of motion, or 
contain both motory and sensitive structures in 
their composition. The most careful examination 
discovers no dificrence in the structure and appear- 
ance of the bundles and their fibres whether they 
be connected with sensation or motion. 

The continual divisions and subdivisions of the 
nerves imply a continually increasing expansion 
towards their peripheral extremities ; each trunk, 
in fact, just as in the case of the blood-vessels, 
comes to represent a cone, the basis of which lies 
in the periphery, the apex towards the centre. 
The cones thus formed blend in various ways 
with one another, as the functions of the organs 
comprehended within them require, as it were, 
different nervous mixtures, such as we may pre- 
sume could not have been conveniently formed 
at the commencement of the trunk. In the eye, 
for example, we see the peripheral expansions of 
many different nerves, in order to unite a variety of 
powers, and secure the requisite co-operation of the 
principal or more important nerves with others that 


are only accessory : in the organ mentioned we have 
the involuntary motions of the iris united with the 
voluntary motions of the eyehall ; and then we have 
the special sense of sight associated with common 
sensation, with irritability, nutrition, and secretion. 
§ '266. The nerves which proceed from different 
parts of the central system and unite in this way in 
their peripheral expansions generally combine in 
retes or networks, giving and receiving alternately 
bundles and isolated fibres from neighbouring 
branches ; these bundles and fibres, however, merely 
joining with each other and proceeding side by 
side, never anastomosing and blending into single 
trunks as vessels do when they meet ; the primary 
or ultimate fibres of nerves, in fact, only form loops 
or circles, they never end (^Jig. 104) ; the mutual 
interchange of bundles and single fibres is often 
extremely complicated, but no one is ever lost ; it 
either returns upon itself, or joins some neighbour- 
ing fibre or fasciculus, and so begins its backward 
course to the central system whence it had pro- 
ceeded. The reticular unions of the nerves are 
universally designated as plexuses, which are of 
different kinds: — 1st, Plexuses of the roots; 2d, 
Plexuses of the trunks ; 3d, Plexuses of the branches ; 
4th, Ganglionic plexuses ; and 5th, Terminal or 
peripheral plexuses. 

1. The root-plej;us is a mingling of the roots of 
different nerves before or in connexion with the 
formation of nervous trunks ; e. g. the plexus 
between the facial and acoustic nerve. 

2. The trunk-plexus is a mingling of the trunks 
of different nerves ; e. g. the axillary plexus. 


3. The hranch -plexus is a blending of the 
branches of nerves ; e. g. the facial with the tri- 

4. The ganglionic plexus is mostly observed 
among- the organic nerves, and is divided into («) 
internal or cellular plexuses^ in which the nervous 
bundles meeting in the ganglions open and make 
interchanges mutually of the primary fibres which 
inclose ganglionic cells (./g*. 107) ? Q>) external 
ganglionic or radiated plexuses, which are radiated 
combinations of organic nervous trunks and branches 
by means of ganglia ; e, g. the solar plexus, the 
mesenteric plexus, the renal plexus, &c. 

5. The terminal plexuses are foimed by the finest 
and most delicate ultimate bundles, and occur of 
various degrees of complexity in the entire periphery 
of the nervous system. Those of the organic nerves 
are as yet but little known ; those of the voluntary 
muscles, however, have been fully examined (^Jig. 91). 
The terminal plexuses of the nerves of touch and of 
common sensation are remarkably developed (^figs, 
93 and 94, upon a section, and 95 upon the surface 
of the corium). 

Peripheral Terminations or Expansions of 
the Nerves. 

§ 267. From the ultimate peripheral plexuses of 
the nerves individual primary fibres at length take 
their departure and form terminal loops ; or, other- 
wise, the finest fasciculi and cords resolve them- 
selves into primary fibres which form the terminal 
loopings, these being always constituted by two 
primary fibres from the same or from different 


fasciculi. Such final loopings present themselves 
wherever peripheral nervous influence or impressi- 
bility is manifested ; for the nervous workings in 
the various organs depend not upon the trunks, 
branches, ramuscles, or even the most delicate 
fasciculi ; but upon these final loopings of the 
nerves, which are, therefore, the necessary media 
by which the motory nerves elicit motion, the 
sensory nerves convey sensation. The pain or im- 
pression produced in the point of the trunk of a 
nerve which is irritated, and which usually accords 
in kind with that which belongs to the peripheral 
expansion, depends, as my discovery has shewn, 
upon the presence of terminal loopings in the fasci- 
culi themselves {Jig. 162, hcd, efg^ him\ — nervi 
nervorum, in short, which stand in the same rela- 
tion to the nerves as the vasa vasorum do to the 
larger blood-vessels. 

§ 268. The final loops of the organic muscular 
nerves are still but little known. Those of the 
animal muscular nerves have been more studied; 
they are generally of considerable size : from a 
terminal fasciculus, which generally runs parallel 
with the muscular fasciculi, primary fibres proceed, 
and forming wide arches across the line of the 
muscular fasciculi, associate with another nearer or 
more distant nervous bundle and begin their back- 
ward course {fig. 91). According to Prevost and 
Dumas the muscular bundles can be seen bending 
during their contractions in considerable angles 
along the line of these nervous arches (§ 252). 

§ 269. The final loops of the nerves of sensa- 
tion, those of touch in especial, are less open than 


the final loops of the voluntary muscles (Jigs. 97 
and 98). In those that surround and that pene- 
trate the bulbs of the hairs, the loops seem even to 
be completely, or all but completely, closed (Jig. 94, 
hf hy c, c) ; those of the pulps of the teeth are 
also, according to Valentin, but very slightly open 
(^/ig. 105) ; and, like the loops in other situations, 
are formed now from primary fibres proceeding 
from and returning to the same bundle (Jig. 98) ; 
now proceeding from one and returning to different 
and more distant bundles (figs. 92 and 97)* The 
final loopings in the less sensitive portions of the 
skin comport themselves like the associated capillary 
inosculations of the blood-vessels, which have long 
been familiarly known (compare j?^5. 97 ^^nd 98, with 
Jig. 137 ; and^g". 92, e, with^^. 138) ; and where 
the final loops resolve themselves into many sub- 
ordinate or smaller ones by doublings and convolu- 
tions for the purpose of forming a multiplier for the 
peripheral neuro-electric function, as they do in the 
tactile papillse (Jig. 92, e, f; Jig. 93, d, d, d\ the 
peripheral distribution of the capillaries will be 
found to be of the same description (Jigs. 138 and 
139). The highly sensitive tactile papillse seem 
often to consist of a single greatly convoluted 
primary nervous fibre (Jig. 99). Fusiform multi- 
pliers of the same kind are occasionally formed in 
the course of straight primary fibres (Jig. 100). 
Several shortly convoluted terminal loops disposed 
like the segment of a sphere sometimes form the 
rosette-like nervous or tactile papillse which are 
exhibited in Jig. 101. Between such tactile rosettes, 
or capitulate nervous papillse, we sometimes observe 


simple loops included; for example, in the finger 
of man {Jig> 93, c, c). 

Organic or Ganglionic Nerves. 

§ 270. The ganglionic nerves are called organic 
because of their obvious connexion with the organic 
or vegetative functions ; they are also sometimes 
spoken of as nerves of the vascular system, from 
their close alliance, not merely with the offices, but 
with the trunks and branches of the blood-vessels, 
very different from the cerebro-spinal nerves which 
only associate themselves with the ultimate inoscu- 
lations of the vascular system. 

It is possible that the persistent cellular fibres, 
which surround the oftentimes scantily distributed 
primary nervous fibres in relatively larger propor- 
tion (^Jig. 163) may serve as subordinate means of 
conducting the nervous influence ; at all events, 
that these peculiar cellular fibres may stand in 
closer relationship to the nervous system than the 
embryonic or transition form of cellular fibre which 
has the faculty of assuming other shapes, such as 
cellular membrane, tendon, &c. We, indeed, find 
that not only are the soft or organic nerves and the 
branches of vessels surrounded by these persistent 
cellular fibres (^fig' 163), but that the primary 
nervous fibres are very constantly accompanied by 
them {Jig. 102, c, c ; and Jig. 103, g?, d). The 
finest fasciculi of the animal nerves seem to be 
surrounded and accompanied in the same way ; the 
cellular fibres, according to Remak's observations, 
first quit the nervous bundles when they proceed to 


form terminal plexuses, and may still be seen in the 
shape of retes within the meshes of these (Jig. 106). 
The ganglionic globules are further surrounded by 
the same form of cellular fibre in the ganglia them- 
selves (§ 271), as they are when they occur in the 
course of the ganglionic nerves. The nuclei of 
the peculiar cellular fibres in question are granular 
(fg. 102, d). 

The finer fasciculi of the nerves of sensation 
frequently open up in the manner exhibited in 
Jig. 90. The peripheral terminations of the nerves 
are peculiar in some of the special organs of sense ; 
for example, in the eyeball. Here the end of the 
optic nerve expands in the guise of a hollow hemi- 
sphere, and forms the retina which consists of two 
layers, viz. a granulated fibrous reticular layer, and 
a layer of dispersed granules. The olfactory nerve 
forms in the substance of the mucous membrane of 
the nostrils a flat, extremely delicate, and fine- 
meshed terminal plexus without any apparent final 
loopings of primary fibres. 

Ganglionic Globules or Cells ; Grey Nervous 
Substance ; Ganglia. 

§ 271. In the grey matter of the brain and 
spinal marrow, intermixed with blood-vessels, albu- 
minous granules, grey organic or naked fibres, and 
nascent roots of nerves, which form the largest por- 
tion of the mass, we observe numbers of rounded, 
relatively large, granular cells, inclosing granular 
eccentric nuclei and nucleoli ; these are the gangli- 
onic cells or ganglionic globules {Jig. 89, 2, 3, 4). 
They are either rounded, more frequently ovoidal 

Q66 tubular tissues. 

and ellipsoidal, or more rarely pyriform or fusiform 
in shape. They vary considerably in point of size, 
being to the blood-discs in the ratio of two, three, 
four, or five to one. They bear a strong resem- 
blance, as Valentin has remarked, to the unim- 
pregnated ova of the ovaries : the granular contents 
remind us of the yolk, the nucleus of the germinal 
vesicle, and the nucleolus of the germinal spot (the 
two last, like the cell, consist entirely of granules). 
They are immediately surrounded and connected by 
a tissue of organic fibres (§ Q64f,Jig. 89, 5, «, a); 
and more than this, in ganglia they are included 
between the outgoing and incoming interlaced fibres 
of the white and grey nerves {Jig. 107). 

The ganglionic globules are contained, 1st. In 
the grey central and cortical substance of the brain 
and spinal cord. 2d. In the trunks of nerves, viz. 
at the place of contact or of union between the root 
of the nerve of sensation and the corresponding 
root of the nerve of motion, as in the fifth cerebral 
and all the spinal nerves j in the course of the grey 
organic nervous trunks — the sympathetics — either 
isolated and mixed with their substance, or collected 
into clusters without sensibly increasing their dia- 
meter. 3d. In the peculiar ganglia of the trunk 
and branches of the sympathetic nerve. 

§ 272. Peripheral impressions are transmitted 
to the nearest ganglion with which the part of the 
periphery impressed is connected, and are received 
with or without consciousness, according as the 
receiving grey or ganglionic substance is contained 
in the brain or spinal marrow, or in one or other of 
the disseminated ganglia. From thence follows, in 


a centrifugal direction, the nervous reaction which 
is proclaimed or manifested by motion — reflex 
motion, or by phenomena or actions of other kinds, 
either in the impressed periphery itself or in its 
neighbourhood, or in some more distant part only 
connected with that peculiarly impressed in virtue of 
the general association which makes one whole of 
the nervous system. 

Origin and Developement of the Nerves in the 

§ 273. In the embryo the nerves are found to arise 
essentially in the same manner as round filaments 
and the primary bundles of muscles. The embry- 
onic cell-substance arranges itself into cell-fibres, 
and from the very finely granular intercellular fila- 
ments, which are not yet white, but of a reddish 
grey and transparent, like Remak's organic fibres, 
arise the primary fibres of the nerves. As was 
rightly observed by Schwann, the white colour of 
the nerves first appears when within the delicate 
boundary line a sharper contour is perceived, in- 
dicating the outer surface of the proper nervous 
tubulus or hollow filament, to the inside of which 
a fainter line is by and bye seen, announcing the 
inner aspect of the tubulus, as distinguished from 
its contents. Meantime the nuclei, which had at 
length been separated by considerable spaces, dis- 
appear. The delicate outer covering of the now 
completed nervous filament, however, still remains 
in the shape of a continuous pulpy substance, and 
is therefore to be regarded as the intercellular con- 
necting hyaline matter or cytoblastema, in which, 


as between the fasciculi of the muscles, the cyto- 
blasts make their appearance, which then go on to 
be evolved into the cell -fibres and connecting 
cellular filaments of the nervous fasciculi, and 
which belong not to the nervous filaments but to 
the somewhat later formed derivatives from the 
cellular substance. 

Such is the view that has been taken by all 
observers of the mode of origin and formation of the 
nervous system betwixt its central and peripheral 
portions. But we have still to ask, in what manner 
the central and the peripheral portions of this great 
system originate and attain to their complete de- 
velopement? Here as elsewhere, doubtless, and 
particularly as regards the periphery, the terminal 
plexuses and loop -like bendings of the primary fibres 
must stand in a certain determinate relationship to 
the surrounding structures. 

§ 274. As in every other particular organ and 
system of the body, we observe diversity between 
the texture and general characters of the central, of 
the middle or transition, and of the peripheral or 
extreme portions of the nervous system. The peri- 
pheral parts of the vascular and nervous systems 
present too many points of analogy or rather iden- 
tity in their forms, to permit of any doubt being 
entertained as to the similarity of their mode of 
developement. The terminal plexuses of the nerves 
exhibit the same type in the particulars of relative 
size and arrangement of parts, as the arterial 
and venous networks ; the terminal loopings of the 
nerves have, in fact, capillary terminal nooses of 
the vascular periphery as regular attendants. We 


have already alluded to the suspicion or idea that 
the elastic tissue was an organised residuum of the 
primary or embryonic intercellular substance (§ 210). 
As regards the capillary vascular retes, this view, 
especially when the vessels of bone are considered, 
appears highly probable ; * but in the absence of 
positive observations we can only speak of it as a 
probability, that the periphery of the nerves at 
large, like the capillary retes, arises or is de- 
veloped from the primary or embryonic intercellu- 
lar substance. 

Chemical Composition of Nervous Matter. 

§ 275. According to the analysis of Berzelius 
1000 parts of cerebral substance contain — 

Water 800-0 

Albumen 70*0 

Cerebral fat | fj^™*; ^^'.^ } 52-3 

Phosphorus 1 3*0 

Extractive matter (osmazome ? ) 11 '2 

Phosphoric salts and sulphur 3 1 "5 


The chemical analysis of nervous matter, like 
that of any other system which is made up of a 
variety of constituents, will have a much higher 
value in reference to general anatomy when each of 
these constituents is regarded separately ; when as 
concerns the brain, for instance, the cortical and 
the central grey substance, the white or medullary 

* See in the section on the Vessels what is said of the origin 
and evolution of the blood-vessels of bone. 


substance, the soft organic nerve, and the harder 
animal nerve, are distinguished and severally sub- 
jected to analysis. 

In the cerebral substance oil-globules are very 
rarely seen, fat cells perhaps never ; the fatty ele- 
ment of the brain would seem, therefore, to be 
mostly in a state of combination. Even the nerves 
present no other fat to the eye than that contained 
in the cells which so constantly accompany not only 
the trunks and larger branches, but the finest fasci- 
culi and even the primary fibres themselves. The 
brain in all probability contains a variety of salts, 
particularly phosphatic salts ; whether it contains 
any free acid or not has not been determined.* 


§ 276. The vessels form a very considerable 
portion of the mass of the animal body. They are 
membranous branched tubes in which diflferent fluids 
circulate ; these fluids being either fully elaborated 
blood, or lymph and chyle which flow into the blood, 
for its maintenance in adequate quantity. Some- 
times the ducts of secreting glands are reckoned 

* Macerated in water at the temperature of the air, the 
brain rapidly becomes soft, forming a kind of emulsion, in which 
state it has a peculiar and disagreeable odour, but that is neither 
fetid nor ammoniacal. Subjected to the action of boiling 
water, the cerebrum and medulla oblongata undergo scarcely 
any change of form ; but when the operation of boiling is con- 
tinued uninterruptedly for ten hours, both the medullary and 
cineritious part of the cerebrum appear rather contracted, and 
they become harder and more friable, and feel greasy. — See 
Dr. Davy's Researches, Phys. and Anat. vol. ii. pp. 380, 313, 
and320. — G. (?. 


amonof the number of the elements of the vascular 
system ; vessels have, therefore, been classed accord- 
ing to their contents into 1st, lymph- vessels (lymph- 
atics and lacteals) ; 2d, blood-vessels; and 3d, 
secreting vessels. The lymph-vessels, with their 
associated glands, form the system of lymphatic 
vessels ; the arteries, and veins, and central 
organ of the circulation, form the system of 
blood-vessels ; the secretion- vessels form the sys- 
tem of secreting vessels or the proper glandular 

Vessels serve 1st, for the absorption of fluids 
fi'om without, or the reabsorption of those which 
already received into the body had escaped into 
the interstices of the tissues — the chyle and lymph- 
vessels ; 2d, for the distribution of the blood to 
every part of the body, as a means of enabling it 
to accomplish its destined ofiices, and to main- 
tain itself with its appropriate qualities — blood- 
vessels ; 3d, for the separation and removal of 
various matters from the blood, either to preserve 
this fluid in its integrity, or to efiect certain pur- 
poses in the periphery of the body — secreting and 
excreting vessels. 

The blood-vessels, which belong to the system 
that is universally distributed, form networks in the 
periphery ; the lymphatics in their course form con- 
volutions called lymph-glands ; the secreting and 
excreting vessels, generally speaking, present nothing 
of the kind. The blood and lymphatic vessels are 
lined in the interior with the same serous mem- 
brane, a simple, and in the embryo tessellated 
epithelium. The secreting and excreting vessels 


are either inversions of the corium or mucous mem- 
brane, or of their epidermis or epithelium. 

Lymphatic or Absorbent Vessels. 

§ 277' The structure and function of the lympha- 
tics are the same in every part of the body ; their 
contents, however, vary, and they are therefore di- 
vided into chyle or lacteal, and lymph vessels. 

§ 278. Lacteal vessels. The commencement of a 
lacteal vessel, according to Krause,* is an extremely 
delicate vesicle, or cellule, formed of the finest cellular 
substance, and produced into a narrow transparent 
canal, which consists of the inner vascular membrane 
alone ; this speedily anastomoses with the nearest 
delicate lacteal vessel ; and, in this way, a very dense 
or fine-meshed rete is formed. From the networks 
larger lacteals proceed, which, however, are, for the 
most part, no more than from the 20th to the 5th of 
a Paris line in diameter (^Jig. 113). I have myself 
observed the lacteal vessels in many parts of the 
small intestines of a dog, on the villi of which the 
chyle here and there presented the appearance of a 
white earthy precipitate ; and, under similar circum- 
stances, in several others of the domestic animals and 
in man. Most probably, however, the roots of the 
absorbents were only imperfectly filled, and their 
commencements not at all distended in these observa- 
tions. Perfectly fresh villi, from the human intes- 
tinal canal of man and the domestic mammaha, pre- 
sented, under favourable circumstances, the following 
appearances : — The nuclei of the pyriform cylinder- 

* Handb. d. Mensch. Anat. Bd. I. S. 28. 


epithelium which covei's the villi, present themselves 
ill the guise of hollow pediculated vesicles {fg. 240, d ; 
fig. 241, 5) ; the cavities of these appear to com- 
municate with larger lymph- vessels («), which not 
unfrequently hang together and inosculate in the 
manner of the meshes of a thick net. From such 
networks the finest lacteals proceed ; and these, still 
continuing to inosculate freely, form a more open net 
with elongated meshes (^fig. 241), very much in the 
manner of the blood-vessels as they are seen in the 
longitudinal section of a cylindrical hone (^^, 6l). 
It seems probable, that secreting vessels of every 
kind take their origin in nucleated vesicles, of the 
same description as those of the lacteals ; the pre- 
sence of the chyle in these vessels might, therefore, 
with apparent propriety, be viewed as the effect of 
a process of secretion. The chyle has been already 
described in § 42, 50. 

§ 279. Afferent, or Peripheral Zjacteal Vessels. — 
These are disposed between the two serous laminse of 
the mesentery, sometimes by the sides of the blood- 
vessels and nerves, but sometimes apart from these, 
and run straight from the intestine to the mesenteric 
glands. The lacteals can be demonstrated to con- 
sist of three coats ; 1st, the universally present serous 
or inner tunic ; 2d5 a layer of spirally-disposed, fine, 
reddish-coloured fibres, of the nature of the con- 
tractile or of the muscular tissue ; 3d, an outer coat 
of cellular substance, the component fibres of which 
run spirally around the vessel, as well as in the line 
of its length, the tissue being mingled with the fibres 
which Remak characterised as organic fibres. 

The peripheral lacteal vessels anastomose, or 



unite, but rarely, and always at very acute angles ; 
their diameter varies greatly, neighbouring vessels 
measuring one-tenth, one-half, and three-quarters of 
a line in diameter. They have numerous valves, 
which give them a knotted appearance externally 
{fig. 108, a, e,fy They are formed in the same 
way as the valves of the veins, generally of two semi- 
lunar folds of the inner coat of the vessel, placed 
opposite one another, and having contractile fibres 
in their interior (figs. 114, i, and 115, e). The 
valves of the lacteals have the same functions as 
those of the veins, viz. to prevent the reflux towards 
the intestines of the fluids contained in the vessels, 
whilst the accumulation of this fluid behind, and mo- 
tion and pressure of every kind, tend to force it on 
towards the mesenteric glands and the heart. 

§ 280, If we regard as chyle all the matters newly 
taken up from the intestines, and capable, by assimi- 
lation, of being turned into blood, and as lymph, 
all the fluids that are re-absorbed after having 
escaped from the current of the sanguiferous circu- 
lation, it is still obvious that the terms chyle and 
lymph, chyle-vessels and lymph-vessels, or lacteals 
and absorbents, are merely relative terms ; for the 
chyle-vessels do not transport newly-elaborated mat- 
ters only, but the lymph of the stomach and intes- 
tinal canal also ; and the lymphatics, those of the 
lungs and skin in particular, sometimes carry new 
matters, as well as such as have already and for 
some time existed as constituents of the body. 

The glands which we observe in such numbers 
at the root of the mesentery, and which are, therefore, 
called mesenteric glands, are, like the conglobate 


or lymphatic glands in general, convoluted or plexi- 
form masses of lacteals, assuming the appearance of 
solid fleshy organs. The mesenteric glands are in- 
terposed between the peripheral and central orders 
of abdominal absorbent vessels. By means of the 
glands in question, the chyle, probably with a view to 
its assimilation, is brought under the peculiar influ- 
ence of the organic nerves, at the same time that it is 
in intimate contact with a large amount of living, 
organic surface. The branches and subordinate 
divisions of the lacteals anastomose freely in these 
glands, and the finer twigs finally form a pretty uni- 
form, close, and fine-meshed rete, which again, 
gathering itself into minuter and then into larger 
branches, these unite and produce efi^erent vessels, 
which carry the fluid onwards in its course. The 
mesenteric glands are well supplied both with 
blood-vessels and nerves, which pierce them at every 
point, and surround the various subdivisions of the 
lymphatics. The various constituents of the mesen- 
teric glands, as now enumerated, are connected by 
means of cellular substance. 

The mesenteric glands, therefore, unite a portion 
of the periphery of the vascular and of the nervous 
system with their own proper substance, — with the 
reticular mass of lacteal vessels of which they prin- 
cipally consist ; and as the efiferent vessels proceed, 
after the formation of the glands, in the same onward 
direction as the afi^erent vessels, they may be held 
as standing in the same relation to the blood-glands 
generally, as the fusiform nervous papilla (./?^. 100) 
stands to the more ordinary form {fig. 99) ; and as 
the primary bundles of the nervous ganglia open up, 


and resolve themselves into their primary fibres, 
which, after surrounding the ganglionic cells, again 
unite, and form an onward trunk {Jig. 107), so the 
lymphatic glands, which have an analogous struc- 
ture, are often, and not inappropriately, spoken of 
as lymphatic ganglia ; and, by an extension of the 
same views, the spleen, thymus, thyroid, and supra- 
renal bodies, are sometimes mentioned under the 
name of blood-ganglia. 

Three forms of chyle-glands are distinguished :— 

1st. False glands. These are small and loose, 
and form flattened, circumscribed net- works of lac- 
teals {fig. 108, dy Several of the finer peripheral 
absorbents unite and compose a narrow-meshed rete, 
from which several smaller or a few larger inter- 
glandular vessels proceed, which generally then form 
a proper gland ; or they proceed at once, passing 
the proper glands, to empty their contents into larger 
vessels {fig. 108, c), or they become trunks them- 
selves, and advance towards the heart. Such false 
glands as have now been mentioned are generally 
found buried among loose cellular substance, in the 
vicinity of the periphery of the system to which they 

2d. Scattered peripheral true glands. These are 
small, flat, lenticular, scattered, of a reddish grey 
colour, and from a quarter of a line to a line and a 
half thick, by from one to four lines in diameter. 
They are situated nearer to the periphery of the 
absorbent system than the central glands, generally 
betwixt these and the reticular or false glands, near 
the intestine, and between the folds of the mesentery. 

od. Accumulated, or central true glands. These 


are the largest chyle -glands met with ; the)^ are 
generally lenticular and flattened, seldom perfectly 
circular, generally ellipsoidal or cordiform ; they lie 
at the root of the mesentery, near the receptaculum 
chyli or thoracic duct, and crowded together. They 
receive the whole of the chyliferous vessels which had 
gone to the false and to the isolated glands. The 
vessels which proceed from these glands are the cen- 
tral lacteal, or absorbent vessels, and either terminate 
in the thoracic duct or immediately in a vein ; they 
rarely form interglandular vessels, or vessels which 
as efferents, again form glands. 

On the anterior mesenteric artery of the dog, there 
is a singular long-shaped chyle-gland — the pancreas 

Interglandular Lacteals. 

§ 281. The afferent vessels often form ganglions 
or glands once and again, from which the proper 
central vessels then take their origin ; this is much 
more commonly the case with the lymphatics than 
with the lacteals. I entitle them interglandular 
vessels, from their connexion at either extremity with 
a gland, to the one of which they, of course, stand in 
the relation of peripheral, to the other of central 
vessel. They are generally larger than the periphe- 
ral lacteals, and contain fewer valves than these. 

§ 282. From the central glands, lymph or chyle- 
vessels proceed, which terminate in neighbouring 
veins ; these lymph-ducts comport themselves in their 
course in the same manner as the central and inter- 
glandular vessels. At the points of their termination 
in the veins, various forms of valvular apparatus are 


observed, which effectually hinder the reflux of the 
chyle just poured into the vein, or the entrance of 
the blood into the absorbent. I have observed three 
forms of these valves : — 

1st. Simple opercular valves, of the same nature 
as those that commonly guard the mouths of entrant 
veins (compare^^. 112, c, with y?^. 114, e'). These 
are generally observed where the lymph-ducts enter 
the veins at acute angles. 

2d. Semilunar valves, in pairs, of the nature of 
those generally observed in the trunks of veins, and 
which consist of two opposed semilunar folds of the 
inner coat of the vessel. This form of valve is 
usually found where a lymph-duct joins a vein per- 
pendicularly or at right angles to its axis (vide 
Jigs. 110 and 111 ; c, d, the valve closed; J", g, h, 
the valve open). 

3d. Compound valves, made up of a combination 
of forms 1 and 2 {fig. 112). At the end of the 
valve e, the inner membrane forms two semilunar 
valves d, d.* 

Central Chi/liferous Vessels. 

§ 283. Those vessels which bring the chyle from 
the glands directly into the thoracic duct are gene- 
rally spoken of as the central or proper eficrent ves- 
sels. They generally quit the glands few in number, 
and are of larger size and shorter than afferent 

* In the horse it is not uncommon to meet with these lymph- 
ducts, or absorbents, terminating directly in the veins. In other 
domestic animals, and in man, I have never seen any arrangement 
of the same kind that was not questionable. In all probability, 
however, they exist generally. 


vessels ; they are also, like the intergiandular ves- 
sels, beset with fewer valves than the peripheral 
lacteals and absorbents. They collect, for the major 
part, in the root of the mesentery, around the supe- 
rior mesenteric artery, and over the abdominal aorta, 
where they form several trunks, about half or three- 
quarters of a line in diameter in man and the smaller 
domestic mammalia, from a line to a line and a half 
in the horse, ox, &c. ; and these, with such acces- 
sions as they receive from the central lymphatics, 
pass over, for the most part, and end in the recepta- 
cle or reservoir of the chyle, situated to the right of 
the abdominal aorta. 

§ 284. The receptaculum chyli is the dilated, 
and often branched varicose commencement of the 
trunk or principal vessel of the absorbent system, in 
which the major part of the chyle, and of the lymph 
of the abdominal extremities, is collected and mingled. 

§ 285. The thoracic duct, generally simple, but 
still accompanied by certain central vessels, conveys 
the mingled lymph and chyle on the right of the 
aorta, by the side of which it enters the thorax ; but, 
by and by, dipping under the great artery of the 
body, it crosses between that and the body of one of 
the dorsal vertebrae to the left, and pours its contents 
into the left axillary vein in man and the mammalia. 
Mingled with the blood, the lymph immediately en- 
ters the right side of the heart, and, being sent from 
thence, it undergoes exposure in the lungs, and, in 
all probability, receives its ultimate developement as 
blood in the course of the lesser circulation. 

The matters taken up along with the chyle from 
the intestines, which are unavailable in the economy. 


and the effete substances, which proceed from the 
workings of the machine itself, are abstracted by 
various systems of depurative organs: — superfluous 
water by the lungs, the kidneys, and the skin ; salts 
by the kidneys and skin ; carbon by the lungs and 
liver ; azotized matters by the kidney ; hydrogen by 
the liver ; volatile and odorous matters by the lungs, 
the skin, &c., in the shape of watery vapour, carbonic 
acid, bile, urine, faeces, &c. 

Lymphatic Vessels, and Lymphatic Glands. 

§ 286. These, in appearance, structure, &c., are 
identical with the lacteals and mesenteric glands. 
The lymphatics arise as retes in all the soft parts of 
the body {^fig. 108), particularly under all the ex- 
ternal and internal surfaces, surrounded by much 
finer vascular capillary reticulations. They, by and 
hj, combine into particular vessels, and these take 
their course in the subcutaneous or submembranous, 
and interstitial or interorganic cellular substance, 
generally at no great distance from the subcutaneous 
veins ; they then approach the principal vascular and 
nervous trunks, forming false lymphatic glands, or 
fine-meshed, circumscribed networks in their course 
(^fig. 108, d)y and also peripheral (^, A) and central 
glands or ganglions, in the spaces filled up with loose 
cellular substance. 

The central lymphatic glands appear to form 
finer transition networks than the lacteal glands. The 
lymphatic glands generally present themselves in 
clusters, and much more regularly in certain situa- 
tions than in others, viz. where the great vascular 
and nervous trunks divide to supply internal organs 


or the extremities, and where these subdivide to fur- 
nish particular sections of the Hmbs : — about the root 
of the lungs, the bottom of the neck and angle of the 
jaw, the axilla and bend of the arm, the groin and 
ham, &c. They are always embedded among loose 
cellular substance, are of a reddish yellow or reddish 
grey colour, of different sizes, flattened and of a len- 
ticular shape, or more elongated. The lymphatic 
glands that surround the first division of the bron- 
chi are of a slate grey, or black colour, which is 
generally deeper the older the subject is. The most 
remarkable clusters of glands are — 

1st. That about the angle of the jaw and top of 
the larynx, the laryngeal cluster. 

2d. The cesophogeal cluster^ which lies deeper 
and lower down than the preceding. 

3d. The cervical cluster, at the bottom of the 

4th. The axillary cluster , lying upon the axillary 
artery, vein, and nervous plexus. 

5th. The inguinal cluster, lyi^g upon the femo- 
ral artery, vein, and crural nerves. 
In the thorax : — 

6th. The cardiac cluster, lying upon the great 
issuing and entering vascular trunks and cardiac 
plexus of nerves. 

7th. The bronchial cluster, lying upon the first 
division of the bronchi, and the arteries, veins, and 
nerves of the lungs. 

In the abdomen : — 

8th. The hepatic cluster, lying over the hepatic 
vessels and nervous plexus. 

9th. The splenic cluster, between the laminae of 


the gastro- splenic ligament, and over the splenic 
vessels and nerves. 

10th. The lumbar and pelvic cluster s^ over the 
division of the abdominal aorta, and over the pelvic 
arteries, veins, and abundant nervous plexuses. 

Lymphatic inter gland alar Vessels. 

§ 287. Between the upper and lower part of the 
neck, and between the first and second articulations 
of the extremities, we observe large lymphatic ves- 
sels, which I propose to designate by the above title, 
inasmuch as they are afferent vessels to peripheral 
and efferent vessels to central glands, and connect 
these with each other ; by such vessels are the 
glands at the bend of the arm connected with those 
in the axilla, those of the popliteal cavity with 
those of the groin, those of the superior part with 
those of the lower part of the neck. The vessels 
in the latter situation are very large in the horse, 
often of the diameter of a good-sized goose-quill, 
and lie by the side of the trachea and behind the 
carotid artery {_Jig. 109). 

Efferent Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Ducts. 

§ 288. The efferent or central lymphatic vessels 
(^fig. 108, b,') connect the central glands with the 
thoracic duct ; the lymph-ducts pour the central 
lymph immediately into the veins. The valves 
which guard the anastomoses thus formed are of 
the same description as those that protect the in- 
osculations of the chyliferous ducts with the veins 
{Jigs. 110, 111, 112). 


§ 289. As the very finest lymphatics are still 
considerably larger than the system of intermediate 
peripheral blood-vessels in the passage of arteries 
into veins, wounds, abscesses, &c. may give occasion 
to the entrance into the general circulation of pus 
and other corpuscles of larger sizes than the blood- 
discs. These flow readily enough on to the heart ; 
but forced into the lungs, they are apt to stick fast 
in the capillaries of these delicate organs, impeding 
the circulation through them, and after the lapse of 
a few hours giving rise to exudations and to the 
formation of cytoblast tubercles (§ 108 and 109).* 

§ 290. Indubitably, also, stases of the lymph 
and chyle occur in the glands connected with the 
lacteal and lymphatic vessels, either in consequence 
of the coagulation of their contents, or of inflamma- 
tion of the vessels themselves. The effects of such 
stoppages are not only frequently obvious among the 
larger glands in depositions of albuminous matter, 
the solvent of which, the serum, has been removed 
by absorption, but also in the innumerable peri- 
pheral false glands. In the scrofulous diathesis, it 
is well known to what an extent the central as well 
as the peripheral lymphatic glands will enlarge ; and 
when examined microscopically, their pathological 

* In examining the bodies of an unborn foetal horse, and of 
one that had just been born, I found the glands about the upper 
part of the throat in a state of suppuration, the interglandular 
vessels filled with pus, and iu the lungs the usual consequence 
of this, viz. rounded cytoblast tubercles with pulpy contents. 
In two other instances I had no difficulty in discovering numer- 
ous pus-corpuscles mingled with the blood. In these instances 
there was suppuration of an extreme part, and cytoblast tuber- 
cular formations in the lungs. 


contents, besides imperfect exudation -corpuscles, 
present albuminous granules and amorphous coagula 
in quantities by so much the larger, as the glands 
examined belong more completely to the periphery, 
and as the formation of fibrine seems to have been 
rendered difficult by the discrasy of the fluids or 
general cachectic condition of the individual. 

§ 291. With regard to the origin and develope- 
ment of the lymphatics little is known. In the im- 
mediately succeeding section upon the blood-vessels, 
the views most reconcilable with our knowledge of 
other analogous points will be found detailed. 


§ 292. The sanguiferous vascular system com- 
prises the heart and the entire series of branched 
membranous tubes which, taking their rise from 
the heart, are distributed to all parts of the body, 
and from these return again to the central organ 
whence they set out, receiving the lymphatic vessels 
when near the end of their backward course. 
The blood-vessels are of two kinds, which differ 
from each other both with reference to structure, 
and to the part of the circulation in which they are 
severally engaged. Vessels of one kind are remark- 
able for the strength, thickness, and high elasticity 
of their walls, and transmit the blood from the 
heart to every part of the body, — these are the 
arteries ; vessels of another kind are distinguished 
by the thinness but toughness of their parietes, and 
return the blood from the extreme parts of the 
body to the heart, — these are the veins. The cir- 
culating system itself naturally falls into two great 


divisions : the one having reference to the system 
at large — the systemic, aortal or greater circulation ; 
the other to the lungs — the pulmonic or lesser cir- 
culation. The first consists of the left auricle and 
ventricle of the heart, of the aorta and its branches, 
and of the veins which the aortal system supplies ; 
the second comprises the right auricle and ventricle 
of the heart, the pulmonary artery and its branches, 
and the pulmonary veins. Sometimes the peculiar 
circulation of the liver is spoken of apart, and under 
the title of the portal circulation, as a third form of 
circulation ; and it certainly is unlike aught that 
we observe in any other part of the body ; the whole 
venous blood of the chylopoetic system, instead of 
being poured into the great returning trunk of the 
system in its vicinity, to reach the heart immediately, 
being first collected into a single vessel, and this 
undergoing division in the substance of the liver, 
like an artery, before the round is completed.* 

§ 293. The end of the greater circulation is 
to supply all parts of the body with decarbonized 
blood, which is essential to their nutrition and to 
the manifestation of their appropriate vital endow- 
ments. The object of the lesser circulation is 
obvious : it is to expose the blood which has re- 
turned to the right side of the heart of a deep black 
colour, loaded with carbonic acid and impurities 
we may presume, and become unfit in this condition 
for the uses of the economy, to the action of the 
atmospheric air which is taken into the lungs ; by 

* The valuable observations of Mr. Kienian should be con- 
sulted concerning the blood-vessels of the liver. — See Philos. 
Trans. 1833, part 2. — G.G. 


which it is freed from much carbon and watery 
vapour, and during which it acquires a bright ver- 
milion colour, and is again fitted to minister to the 
wants of the economy. The circulation through the 
portal vein effects the purification of the blood 
mixed with chyle from carbon and hydrogen, and 
perhaps from certain foreign matters which have 
been taken up from the intestines ; it also serves for 
the secretion of the bile. There is, therefore, an 
obvious similarity between the objects of the cir- 
culation through the lungs and of that through 
the liver ; carbon and hydrogen, or water, are the 
grand elements separated by each, these substances 
passing off from the lungs in the gaseous and vapor- 
ous form, from the liver in the shape of a peculiar 
fluid, which immediately becomes, to the best of 
our knowledge, an important agent in chymifica- 
tion and chylification.* The trunks and branches 
of the arteries and veins generally lie side by side 

* Dr. Willis has lately given an ingenious and interesting 
account of the " Signification and Ends of the Portal Circula- 
tion," {Lond. and Ediiih. Monthly Journal of Medical Science, 
September 1841 ), in which he brings many facts and arguments 
to prove it a means of economising arterial blood. Had the liver 
been supplied direct from the aorta, it must have had a vessel 
of a calibre equal to the sum of the whole of the vessels whose 
refluent blood is collected into the trunk of the vena portae. 
This would have implied the necessity for larger respiratory and 
central circulating systems than under existing arrangements are 
found sufficient ; for the bright blood of the abdominal viscera, 
after having vitalised the organs to which it is distributed, though 
effete in one sense, will still afford the elements of bile if sub- 
jected to the peculiar elective affinity of the liver. There is 
nothing, he thinlis, in the blood of the portal system which fits 
it more than any other blood to afford bile. In the two lowest 


in their course, and are very constantly accompanied 

bv nerves of gr 


bv nerves of greater or less magnitude according to 

The Heart, 

§ 294^. The heart is a powerful muscle having 
four cavities or chambers in its interior, the entrances 
to, and exits from which, like those of a double- 
action pump, are guarded with valves so disposed 
that by the simple alternate contraction of the 
auricles and ventricles, the blood which is pouring 
in upon it from the vense cavse and pulmonary veins 
is necessarily forced into the great arterial trunks 
which here take their rise (§ 53 and § 246). 

The Arteries. 

§ 295. The arteries receive the blood imme- 
diately from the ventricles of the heart, and dis- 
tribute it to all parts of the body. They are divided 
into the arteries of the greater circulation, or aortal 
system, and those of the lesser, or pulmonic circu- 
lation. The walls of the aortal system of arteries 
are thicker and stronger than those of the pulmonic 
svstem, in the same proportion as the walls of the 
left ventricle are thicker and stronger than those of 
the right, and as the resistance to be overcome in 
sending blood to the extreme parts of the body is 
greater than that which is met with in supplying 

classes of vertebrate animals, where the lungs become cellular 
sacs (amphibia), or are replaced by gills (fishes), and where we 
may presume it a matter of still greater moment to economise the 
arterial blood that is formed, there is an extension of the same 
system of circulation to the kidneys, which, in the two higher 
classes of the vertebrata, is limited to the liver. — G. G. 


organs placed so near the centre as the lungs. The 
aorta and pulmonary artery mostly divide at acute 
angles into branches of progressively greater degrees 
of minuteness, and finally into terminal capillary 
networks and festoons, or vessels intermediate to the 
arteries and veins properly so called. Both aorta 
and pulmonary artery consist of three layers or 
coats : 1st, an internal serous coat (§ 126 and § 128) 
covered with a simple epithelium, which frequently 
passes over into a cellulo-fibrous variety of epithe- 
lium, which in the capillaries seems often to con- 
stitute the sole boundary of the canal ; 2d, a middle, 
and in reference to the diameter of the artery, a 
thick tunic of elastic substance (^fig> 55\ which 
surrounds the vessel in several layers, and is the 
principal element which gives to the artery its 
strength and distinguishing elasticity ; 3d, a cellular 
external tunic which surrounds the vessel and con- 
nects it with the parts in the vicinity {fig^ 50). 

The pulse is produced by the sudden increase in 
the quantity of blood contained in the arteries which 
is effected by each contraction of the left ventricle and 
the consequent expansion of the blood it contained. 
The wave of blood once pushed into the arteries, 
the stream is kept up by the elastic force of the 
vessels themselves, which suffices to carry it to the 
entire periphery of the body. The elasticity of the 
arterial parietes acts precisely in the same way as 
the air-cistern in such an hydraulic machine as the 
fire-engine, in which, though the stroke is only 
given at intervals, the stream is still sent forth 
without interruption, though it may be with jerks or 
increased impotus at the moments of renewed force; 


in the ultimate divisions of the arterial system the 
blood flows in one continuous and even current. 
The stroke of the heart itself against the walls of the 
chest depends on the push forward of the entire mass 
of the organ raised upon the great arterial trunks 
which its action has just filled to the utmost, and 
given a tendency to assume a straight line instead 
of the curved one which they present when partially 
filled or empty. The arteries generally run deeper 
in their course than the veins, and when divided 
do not collapse like these vessels ; on the contrary, 
they continue rounded as before. The arteries 
taken all together may have a capacity about half 
as great as that of the veins. 

§ 296. The pulmonary artery conveys venous 
blood ; it divides into branches along with the 
bronchi, and forms delicate capillary reticulations 
around the pulmonary vesicles (^Jig. 145, very highly 
magnified, Jigs. 213 and 159). At its origin or 
commencement in the right ventricle, the inner 
membrane of the artery forms the semilunar valves 
{fig. 121), which are fashioned very much in the 
same manner as the valves of the trunks of the 
veins {figs. 114 and ll6,^j^ and ^, g\ save that 
they are three, not two in number, and, by reason 
of the quantity of elastic tissue they inclose, con- 
siderably thicker and firmer. The root of the 
aorta is guarded precisely in the same way. The 
semilunar valves prevent the regurgitation of the 
blood, just thrown from the ventricles of the heart, 
back upon the cavities during the interval of their 
diastole, when they are in a state of relaxation and 
themselves getting filled with a fresh supply of 



blood from the fountain of the venous sinuses and 

§ 297* With any interruption of the breathing, 
the circulation of the blood in the periphery of the 
lungs suffers a pause ; and the interruption con- 
tinuing, the stasis extends to the pulmonary artery ; 
the right ventricle, the right auricle, the venae 
cavse, and the veins generally of the greater circu- 
lation, then become congested with blood, and so 
remain till life has fled. In those, therefore, who 
have died from suffocation — drowning, hanging, &c., 
the whole mass of blood is venous, and is contained 
in the arteries of the lesser, and in the veins of the 
greater, circulation. 

§ 298. Should any bodies larger than the blood- 
discs enter the veins or the lymphatics, they are 
sure to be arrested in the capillaries of the lungs, 
when they give rise to exudations of the plasma or 
liquor sanguinis through the parietes of the vessels 
into the pulmonic tissue and the formation of 

§ 299. The aorta arises from the left, as the 
pulmonary artery takes its origin from the right, 
ventricle of the heart ; its semilunar valves are 
stronger than those of the pulmonary artery, and 
the Arantian bodies in the middle of their free 
edges are larger and more distinct. The aorta 
shortly after its origin begins to form an arch 
towards the vertebral column — the arch of the 
aorta — from which in man three vessels, in the hog 
and the carnivora two vessels, and in the gramini- 

* Vide what is said in § 289 and the accompanying note. 


vorous domestic mammals a single vessel, arise to 
supply the head, neck, and thoracic extremities. 
The aorta from the arch onwards has different 
names in different parts of its course, — the thoracic 
aorta, and the abdominal aorta — and supplies the 
trunk, the thoracic and abdominal viscera, and the 
inferior or abdominal extremities with blood. Where 
branches come off from the main trunk, it is com- 
mon to observe an infundibuliform enlargement to 
facilitate the entrance of the blood. This arrange- 
ment is particularly conspicuous at the origins of 
the intercostal arteries. 

It rarely happens that anastomoses or communi- 
cations take place between arteries of considerable 
size ; we have exceptions to the general rule, how- 
ever, in the communications of the cerebral with the 
vertebral arteries, and of the cerebral arteries with 
one another in front of the pituitary body to form 
the circle of Willis. We have also the vascular 
arches of the mesentery formed by the communi- 
cations of the large branches of the mesenteric 
arteries. The arteries advance tortuously in parts 
that are subject to enlarge upon occasion, as in the 
uterus ; sometimes the tortuous course appears to 
be instituted for the purpose of retarding the blood, 
in the testes for example. 

When the arteries have reached the organs 
for which they are destined, they subdivide into 
branches and minuter twigs, which generally in- 
osculate freely. The vessels that proceed from the 
last of these inosculations form the peripheral or 
capillary networks which themselves end in the 


§ 300. The peripheral portion of the sanguifer- 
ous system presents itself under a variety of appear- 
ances, as a glance at the figures from 122 to 135, 
and from 137 to 152, will render ohvious. In 
general, it bears a close resemblance to the peri- 
pheral expansion of the nerves of the corresponding 
part of the body, inasmuch as the terminal plexuses 
of the nerves form a more or less continuous and 
closed rete, the meshes of which inclose similar 
meshes of the capillary arteries.* The terminal 
loops of the nerves are also accompanied by very 
similar terminal loops of the arteries or intermediate 
capillary vessels.! Even the particular forms of 
peripheral nervous distribution have their analogues 
in the peripheral vascular system, t 

The capillary vessels {Jig. 6, A, h, b, b ; Jig. 21, 
e, e, e) are the medium of transition from arteries 
to veins, and they form either simple nooses (^Jig. 6), 
or they run tortuously {Jig. 21), or they form various 
meshes, or convoluted rete mirabiles {figs. 151 and 
152). Such varieties of terminal distribution of 
arteries as are sketched in figs. 122-135 have 
been specified. § In the skin and mucous mem- 

* Compare the peripheral distribution of the nerves {fig- 93 
at b, b,figs. 95 and 106) with the vascular networks {Jigs. 144, 
145, 150, and 213). 

f Compare the terminal loopings of the nerves {figs. 97 
and 98) with those of the arteries {figs. 124, 125, 126, 127, 
and 137, 138) ; further, the compound nervous papillee {fig. 93, 
d, d) with similar convoluted tufts of vessels {fig. 139). 

:j: Compare the convoluted nervous papillag {figs. 99 and 
100) with the erectile vessel (fig. 119) and the Malpighiau 
body (fig. 152). 

§ Vide explanation of these figures. 


"branes these simple and compound festooned or 
looped vascular arrangements are always the more 
remarkable the more sensitive and active the parts 

The capillary nets are here and there so thick 
that when completely filled, the intermediate spaces 
almost disappear (^figs. 146 and 148). The parietes 
of the larger vessels, such vessels, namely, as are 
still visible with the naked eye, have their own 
vessels and capillary nets as well as other organs 
(vasa vasorum), and are surrounded by nervous 
loops which for the most part belong to the organic 
system. The branches, too, are surrounded by fine 
networks of absorbents which seem to belong to 
them in especial. 

In many parts of their periphery the arteries 
compose what have been called wonderful nets — 
retia mirabilia — of different forms ; these are in- 
tricate, tangled reticulations of vessels.* Of the 
ball-shaped retes just referred to, there are many 
varieties, one of which, of a more flattened form, 
from the thyroid body of a child, is represented in 
Jig. 146. J. Miiller discovered a peculiar form of 
the arterial branches in the erectile organs, which 
he has characterised under the name of helicine — 
arterise helicinse. These are spirally wound varices, 
which now appear to end in blind sacs, and again 
to advance as branches of smaller diameter, or 
to pass over into venous branches {Jig. 155) ; it is 

* YiAeJig, 151, which is from a peripheral rete of the supra- 
renal capsule of a child, after Berres ; and Jigs. 152 and 153, 
after Krause ; and Jig. 154, in which Malpighian bodies from 
the cortical substance of the kidney are represented. 


not likely that they end as blind sacs at any time. 
With the complete injection of these helicine arteries, 
the bulk of the erectile organs, as of the penis, 
increases somewhat ; but proper erection only ensues 
upon the filling of the erectile veins (§ 306). In 
textures, which consist of parallel fibres and fila- 
ments, the muscles for instance {figs. 141 and 142), 
the minuter subdivisions of the arteries also run, for 
the most part, parallel between the fasciculi. 

§ 301. The capillary arteries are not seen every 
where to pass directly into veins ; they have been 
supposed sometimes to form independent loops, par- 
ticularly in the placenta, many of these departing 
from common pedicles or stems, and expanding into 
tufts or pencils {figs. 134 and 135). This kind of 
termination, however, is more than doubtful ; the 
structure indeed exists, but the loops very certainly 
revert and anastomose with other arterial loops, or, 
after making a turn or two, they end in veins. 

§ 302. The portal vein, the trunk of which is 
formed by the vessels which return the blood from 
the various chylopoetic viscera, is obviously assimi- 
lated to the arteries in the mode of its distribution 
through the liver, its peripheral expansions ending 
in the hepatic veins. 


§ 303. The veins return the blood from the 
periphery to the heart. They arise as capillaries 
of the finest description from the capillary vascular 
retes in every part of the body ; but even in their 
origins they are larger than the arteries at their 
terminations, so that wherever the arterial and 

VEINS. 295 

venous retes form distinct strata, the one is readily 
distinguished from the other {fig. 144). The veins 
unite into finer and then into larger branches and 
trunks, which are always both of greater diameter 
and more numerous than the corresponding arteries.* 
This is evident when we see every artery of the 
extremities so constantly accompanied by two veins, 
each of larger calibre than itself, to say nothing of 
the large veins which we find running in many 
places altogether unaccompanied by arteries, — the 
subcutaneous veins of the arm for example. The 
unions between the branches of veins occur for the 
most part at larger angles than the divisions of the 
arteries. The veins are by no means so uniformly 
cylindrical as the arteries, they are often irregular 
and knotty, and this not merely because of the 
occurrence of their valves, but from their being 
actually of different diameters in different parts of 
their course. Some veins seem even to have what 

* In a given length the veins seem to contain about four 
times as much blood as the arteries ; supposing the blood to 
flow with equal rapidity in both veins and arteries, consequently, 
about four times as much would pass through the veins in a 
given interval as through the arteries : or otherwise, suppose 
equal quantities of blood to be transmitted through each order of 
vessels in the same period, the motion must be about four times 
more rapid in the arteries than in the veins. 

It is very commonly supposed that the sum of the capacity 
of the branches of an artery in a given portion of their length is 
larger than that of the trunk from which they are derived. An 
experiment which I made upon the mesenteric artery would lead 
me to say that there was no perceptible difference in this 
respect; a certain length of the branches held as nearly as 
possible the same quantity of injection as the same length of the 


may be called normal dilatations or varices, which, 
under the influence of pressure by neighbouring 
muscles, assist the circulation in the same way as 
the lymphatic hearts of reptiles ; this is remarkably 
the case in the facial vein of the horse. 

The veins, from the thinness of their coats, are 
transparent ; when empty they collapse ; during life 
and when full of blood, they are much more readily 
compressed than the arteries ; the pressure exercised 
upon them, indeed, by neighbouring muscles is a 
means of assisting and accelerating the circulation 
through them. 

In spite of their thinness, the veins nevertheless 
consist, like the arteries, of three coats ; but the 
structure of the middle one of these is diiferent. In 
the veins it is not composed of elastic tissue as in 
the arteries ; it is, on the contrary, made up of 
fibres of fine organic muscular or contractile tissue, 
which run in long spirals, and under appropriate 
stimuli, both contract the diameter of the vein and 
diminish its length. 

§ 304. The valves of the veins are observed 
either in the course of their canals or guarding the 
inlets of such branches as join them. 

1st. The valves of the stems are of the same 
essential nature as those that guard the commence- 
ments of the aorta and pulmonary arteries, and that 
occur in the interior of the lymphatics. They are 
formed of duplicatures, or loose folds of the internal 
tunic, between the component laminae of which con- 
tractile fibres are interposed. These valves are not 
observed in the great venous trunks, and do not 
exist at all in the veins of the lungs, in those of 

VEINS. 297 

the liver and glandular organs generally, and in 
those of the brain ; neither are they met with in 
the minuter subdivisions of the venous system in 
any part. In the larger veins the valves are double, 
and in opposition to one another {figs. 114 and 
116, ^y); they are rarely threefold; in smaller 
veins they are simple, so that the free edge of the 
valve flaps against the opposite wall of the vein 
when it closes. From the structure and mechanism 
of the valves it is obvious, that whilst the current 
of the blood is free and unopposed by them when 
it sets in one direction, it immediately brings them 
into play, and causes an entire obstruction of the 
vessel should it by any force or accident acquire 
a disposition to move in the opposite direction 
{figs. 114-117, and explanations). 

2d. The valves that guard the inosculations of 
veins vdth one another are very regular in their 
occurrence. They are formed variously : sometimes 
the smaller vein extends for a certain way into the 
larger {fig. 114, c?, e) ; sometimes the fold of the 
inner membrane which lies in the angle of junction 
enlarges so as to overlap the mouth of the entrant 
vessel in case of need. When the pressure in the 
stem becomes greater than that in the branch, the 
semielliptical fold {fig. 114, c? and e) is then pressed 
against the opposite outer wall of the branch {fig, 
116, c? and e), and the return of the blood is pre- 
vented. The same form of valve also occurs at the 
entrance of lymphatics into veins, and at the points 
of junction of lymphatics with one another. We 
observe the same contrivance used to defend the 
extremities of the ureters against the reflux of the 


urine from the bladder, and the terminations of the 
salivary glands in the mouth, against the regurgita- 
tion of saliva or other fluids. 


§ 305. When speaking of the contractile tissue 
(§ 241), it was stated that the erection of the erectile 
organs was, at least in part, owing to a kind of 
spasm of this tissue. This view is made the more 
probable on account of the regular occurrence of 
the peculiar contractile tissue in all erectile organs. 
The motions of the iris depend, in all likelihood, 
on the agency of the same kind of tissue. 

The erectile organs consist in great part of a 
venous rete, with relatively very small interspaces, 
which are occupied and traversed in all directions 
by arteries, nerves, contractile fibres, and by elastic, 
fibrous, and cellular tissue. 

§ 306. Erectile Vessels. — There are two peri- 
pheral forms of arteries known which seem to de- 
serve this name, — the tendril-like or helicine arteries, 
and the arterial retia mirabilia (§ 300). The vessels, 
however, the distension of which principally effects 
the turgescence and erection of erectile organs, 
belong to the peripheral venous system. These 
vessels are without valves, and are, as might be 
presumed, particularly developed in the male ex- 
ternal organ, and in the female clitoris. They 
are also very distinct in the spleen. The labia 
minora in the female are erectile organs, but in 
an inferior degree ; so are the nipples in woman 
and female animals generally. The structure of 


erectile organs, wherever they occur, is essentially 
the same. In the penis the erectile veins are dis- 
tinguished into external and internal ; the former 
compose the glans and corpus spongiosum urethrse 
in great part, and are in communication with the 
dorsal vein of the member {fig. 118). They 
are short, knotted vessels which anastomose very 
freely mth each other, and when filled leave no 
spaces between them. The veins emerge, for the 
major part, from the glans upon the dorsal aspect of 
the penis, and unite into branches that constantly 
become larger and fewer in number, until they 
finally compose a single trunk, — the great dorsal 
vein. The internal erectile veins are inclosed by 
the strong fibrous tunic of the corpora cavernosa 
penis, and form the greater portion of its body. 
They present themselves under two forms, which, 
however, are only distinguished from one another 
by this, that in the one the branches are somewhat 
tortuous and interlaced and form a connected rete, 
yet of such a kind that the larger stems run parallel 
to one another, but connected by numerous trans- 
verse canals, in the long direction of the penis ; 
whilst in the other the vessels look like coils of small 
intestines chiefly disposed transversely through the 
body of the organ j vessels of this description are very 
remarkable in the great enlargement which occurs 
towards the anterior third of the penis in the dog 
during the sexual act {fig. 119). In the clitoris the 
veins are of the same kind as in the penis. The mode 
of distribution and of peripheral termination of the 
splenic veins bears a considerable resemblance to 
what we observe in glandular organs. The veins 


at their peripheries expand into pediculated vesicles, 
something in the same way as the final divisions of 
the bronchial tubes {^Jig. 120); and these, precisely 
like the air-cells, are surrounded by a very delicate 
vascular rete. The veins of the spleen, like those of 
the penis, communicate very freely with one another. 

§ 307. The reticulations formed by the large 
veins of the erectile organs are penetrated in all 
directions by the web of mingled tendinous and 
contractile tissue which is sent off from the general 
investing sheath, and by the arteries which at in- 
numerable points end abruptly in veins from ten to 
thirty times their own diameter ; frequently, how- 
ever, forming fine retes upon the veins, and, in the 
hinder portions of the penis especially, falling into 
the tendril-like or helicine form of artery. These 
helicine arteries are rarer in the clitoris, and are not 
so well developed as in the penis. 

The spleen, like the male organ, is penetrated 
in all directions by a reticular fibrous tissue in con- 
nexion with its general outer investing tunic. The 
spleen is beyond all question an organ susceptible 
of various degrees of injection with blood, and, 
therefore, of distension ; but it is not an erectile 
organ in the same sense as the penis or clitoris ; 
this, however, happens rather from the manner of 
its attachment than from any difference of structure. 
Were the spleen implanted upon a bone, it would 
upon occasion, and with any impediment to the 
return of its blood, become erected instead of being 
simply distended. 

§ 308. Erectile Organs, — So long as the blood 
flows unimpeded out of the erectile organs, they con- 


tinue flaccid ; but with any impediment to the back- 
ward cmTent of the blood, the flow by the arteries 
continuing as before, they become distended and 
erect. The nerves, surrounded by a larger quantity 
of blood, now become more sensitive. The erection, 
indeed, seems to depend immediately upon the state 
of the nervous system, being accomplished by the 
agency of the tonic contraction or spasm of the 
muscles and contractile fibres in the tissue. This 
spasm, as regards the male organ and the clitoris, 
only yields with the completion of the sexual act, 
when these organs fall flaccid again. But in those 
who have died by hanging and by decapitation, a 
certain degree of erection has sometimes been ob- 
served to remain for hours, and even for days after 
death ; this, however, is no vital act, but follows 
from the stiffening of the entire system of voluntary 
motion, by which the blood is retained in the organs 
into which it had been forcibly injected. 

It would seem that neither the more rapid 
action of the arterise helicinse, nor the repletion of 
the venous rete of the corpora cavernosa in con- 
sequence of this, nor the action of the ischio-caver- 
nosi muscles, nor yet the compression of the dorsal 
vein against the symphysis pubis, are competent to 
produce erection of the penis, although each and 
all of these acts contribute, and are indeed essential 
to the effect ; but that it is principally and more 
immediately dependent upon the agency of those 
reddish fibres and fasciculi, which I regard as con- 
tractile tissue, which enter into the structure of 
the organ. I have already had occasion, oftener 
than once, to mention this tissue as presenting 


itself in the composition of the scrotum, where it 
is known under the name of the dartos, of the 
nipple, of the skin in general, and of the iris ; and 
which appears every where to stand in a peculiar 
and especial relationship to the nervous system. 

The elastic tissue that surrounds the erectile 
organs is the active means employed for emptying 
these, once the erethism, under which the injected 
condition was accomplished, has passed away. 

§ 309- It was my intention, in this place, to 
have given my views on the nature of inflammation, 
its causes, ends, and consequences ; but this I find 
I cannot do without exceeding the proper limits of 
my work. There is one morbid phenomenon, how- 
ever, of frequent occurrence, both in the human 
and animal body, which presents itself with and 
without inflammatory symptoms, but in intimate 
connexion with the capillary vessels which I shall 
touch upon as briefly as possible before proceeding 
to speak of the origin of the blood-vessels. The 
morbid phenomenon to which I allude is the 


§ 310. Various and very dissimilar causes may 
bring about coagulation of the concrescible fluids of 
the body, — the chyle, the lymph, the blood, and 
some of the products of glandular secretion. Among 
the number of these causes may be reckoned : loss 
of the solvent medium, particularly the water (§ 23) j 

* Concerning the Structure of Tubercle, see Mr. Gulliver's 
figures 252, 253, 254, 255, 270, and 271, and his observations 
in Appendix. 


greatly retarded motion or absolute stasis ; the 
admixture of chemical reagents absorbed along with 
the chyle, the lymph, &c., such as acids, salts, pus, 
mucus, ichor, &c., or that penetrate from neigh- 
bouring parts in virtue of the law of endosmose. 
To these must be added mechanical causes, injuries 
of all kinds, pressure, bruising, solution of con- 
tinuity ; and farther, the influence of unusual 
temperature, — exposure to excessive heat, severe 
cold, &c. 

§311. Should the diameter of the particles of 
coagulum, however produced, be greater than that 
of the capillary vessels of the lymphatic, sanguiferous, 
and secretory system, they will become impacted 
in the capillary rete (§ 289 and 290) and stop this 
up ; or, otherwise, should the capillary vessels be 
injured in any way, should they become compressed 
by extravasation around them for example, then 
may the pure blood itself suffer obstruction. In 
this way a local stasis is produced in the blood- 
vessels betwixt the part implicated and that at 
which the circulation is carried on by collateral 
branches and anastomoses, in the lymphatics and 
lacteals betwixt the glands and the periphery con- 
nected with them. It is easy to see, therefore, why 
the lymphatic glands, the lungs, and the liver, are 
so commonly the seat of tubercular depositions. 
The coagula first reach the capillary vessels of 
one or other of these organs, and there get set 
fast as a matter of course. The fluid that has 
passed unimpeded through the pulmonic circu- 
lation, in particular, will not be apt to encounter 
any impediment in the course of the greater 


circulation, unless perchance it be in some injured 

§ 312. The consequence of any accumulation of 
fluids in a particular part is an increase of pressure 
upon its vessels, in the same proportion as the 
transmission of the fluids is impeded ; and then the 
distended parietes of the vessels suflcr the more 
liquid elements of the compressed fluids to transude 
and to accumulate in the surrounding tissues, in 
which, according to their nature, they either coagu- 
late or form precipitates, the serum which is set 
at liberty being then absorbed by neighbouring 
vessels. In this way the concrescible and more or 
less organisable elements of the general circulating 
fluids accumulate locally, whilst the watery parts in- 
crease relatively within the circulating system ; the 
consequence of which is, that the general nutrition 
of the body suficrs, that the vital functions at large 
are depressed, and that the predominating serum 
overwhelms, as it were, the enfeebled organs of 
secretion, and finally, the serous cavities ; the in- 
terstitial and subcutaneous cellular substances then 
get filled, and general dropsy comes to be associated 
with the local disease. This state of things may go 
so far as finally to interfere with the performance 
of the whole of the offices most essential to life, 
if the individual is not cut off by the particular 
implication of such an important organ as the lung 
or the brain. 

§ 313. Tubercles present great variety in respect 
of numbers, constitution, extension over several 
systems or limitation to one, &c. The exudation 
takes place either into the tissue of the part impli- 


cated, or its deposition causes compression of this 
and wasting through want of due nourishment. 
Tuhercles are conveniently divided, according to 
their constitution, into albuminous tubercles, _y?6?*m- 
011 s tubercles, and tubercles of a mixed nature. 

§ 314. 1. Albuminous or Unorganised Tubercles 
can only be produced fi-om exudations abounding in 
albumen, poor in fibrine. They consist almost 
entirely of granules from the yVo~o^^ ^^ ^^^ t^^^^ 
of a Paris line in diameter ; but with the granular 
matter, nucleoli, nuclei, or cells, are mingled in 
quantity bearing relation to the amount of fibrine 
which the exuded fluid contained. In man the 
lymphatic glands are the common seat of these 
albuminous tubercles, and often attain the size of a 
walnut and even of a hen's egg. In our larger 
domestic animals they are sometimes seen as large 
as a child's head. They are of a greyish white or 
of a pure white colour, firm, but seldom fibrous ; 
they are subject to softening and solution, when 
they form a mixed compound of granules, cyst- 
corpuscles, and serum, with a few cytoblasts, the 
product of the living tissues around the tubercular 
mass, this being in itself incapable of suppuration ; 
sometimes this external layer of purulent matter is 
so abundant that the tubercle lies loose like a seed 
within its husk. What may be called y?//^^ albu- 
minous tubercles also arise occasionally within the 
substance of the secreting glands, in the granular 
degeneration of the kidneys, for example. In the 
earlier stages of this disease indeed, the albumen 
is deposited in the tortuous uriniferous canals of the 
cortical substance ; in the fully - formed disease. 


however, it is met with among and between the 
tissues also. The albuminous or granular tubercle 
is with great propriety often spoken of as the scro- 
fulous tubercle.) the disease being especially developed 
among scrofulous individuals. 

§ 315. 11. Fibrinous Tubercle. — The plastic 
exudations from the blood-vessels into the different 
softer tissues, which take place in consequence of 
impediments to the flow of the blood through 
the capillaries, produce fibrinous and organisable 
tubercles in the event of reabsorption not imme- 
diately occurring, or true purulent abscesses when 
the oxygen of the atmosphere finds immediate or 
mediate access to the deposit. Tubercles of this 
description, according to the circumstances under 
which, and the time during which, the exudation 
has taken place, the vital condition of the indivi- 
dual and the constitution of the organic part af- 
fected, present important varieties, which include 
every conceivable difference between the substance 
of any recent plastic exudation and that of a 
complete internal cicatrix. Taking degree of or- 
ganisation as the basis of a division, we may 
distinguish — 

1. The Hyaline Tubercle. — This form is found, 
with traces more or less distinct of mingled cyto- 
blast formations, in the bodies of those who have 
died during the period or very immediately after 
the occurrence of copious plastic exudations ; it is 
rarely seen, from the rapidity with which it passes 

2. The Cytoblast Tubercle, in which nucleoli 
and naked cytoblasts at first appear; with the 


completion of the process of formation of the cell- 
germs, however, the tubercular deposit appears to 
consist entirely of these last, and of an interposed 
hyaline substance. When this organisation has 
gone a stage farther, the deposit may be entitled 

3. The Cell-tubercle, the cell-germs or cytoblasts 
having now undergone transformation into cells. 

4. Cellulo-fibrous Tubercle. — When the exuda- 
tion is very abundant and proceeds with great ra- 
pidity, with condensation of the surrounding tis- 
sues, it is only organised where it is in contact with 
the living sides of the cavity w^hich has been 
formed. The periphery of the deposit in these 
circumstances forms an organised sac, inclosing a 
central mass, in which the organising process does 
not go beyond the formation of cell-germs or cyto- 
blasts. From this the serum is either absorbed, 
and the cytoblast tubercle, become a dry mass, re- 
mains for an indefinite period in this state, or if 
absorption does not take place, it runs speedily 
into suppuration. The dry cytoblast - tubercle, 
however, is never secure against suppuration ; 
sooner or later, and as a consequence of a second- 
ary efiiision of serum, it softens, and may then 
suppurate. When the exudation takes place slowly, 
so that the tissues are merely infiltrated without 
being displaced and compressed, or when the 
tubercles are small, so that their central point is 
not too far removed from the healthy tissue around, 
the cytoblasts or cell-germs proceed in their evo- 
lution and become cells, which arrange themselves 
into fibres, and so form an imperfect cicatricular 
substance, a cellulo-fibrous tissue, which increases 


the density of the organ in which it is deposited, 
but which may go on for many years unchanged, 
and causing little or no derangement of function. 

5. Filamentous Tubercle, Cicatricular or Or- 
ganised Tuhercle. — This structure is only pro- 
duced under favourable circumstances in connexion 
with very slow infiltration of tissues with plastic 
exudation, and the organisation of this into more 
or less complete filamentous formations. If an 
exudation of this nature has happened equally into 
the substance of a considerable portion of a soft 
organ, such as the lung, for example, we have then 
general condensation of the tissue, termed variously 
hepatisation or induration ; if it have been more 
local, we have circumscribed induration ; and if the 
indurations be small and have occurred in difierent 
places simultaneously or successively, we have or- 
ganised tubercles. All such parenchymatous cica- 
tricular formations interfere in a greater or less 
degree with the functions of the organ in which 
they occur ; but if the exudation does not con- 
tinue, they commonly remain for long periods of 
time without undergoing change ; they seldom 
soften, and without repeated exudations around 
them they cannot be brought to suppurate. 

The substance of tubercles is sometimes inter- 
mingled with pigmentary granules, cells and cel- 
lular fibres, like melanotic formations in general, — 
these constitute melanotic tubercles, 

§ 316. Granular, cytoblast, and cell-tubercles, 
more rarely fibro-cellular tubercles, may all soften 
and become difiluent. This change must not, how- 
ever, be confounded with suppuration ; for, instead 


of forming proper abscesses, they become changed 
into cysts filled with diffluent inorganic contents ; 
or they give rise to internal ulcers with a kind of 
gangrenous implication of the surrounding tissues 
(§ 289 and 290). They only suppurate when the 
air of the atmosphere has access to them, either 
more immediately, as when they are laid open, or 
mediately and by penetration, as when they are 
deposited in the lungs and near the surface beneath 
the skin. 

Origin of the Blood-vessels. 

§ 317. Although the ovum, both at its own 
formation and during the earliest stages of the 
process by which a new being is produced, advances 
without the assistance of vessels (§ 123), still this 
is only so long as the process of developement 
consists in the formation of cells and the arrange- 
ment of these into the rudiments of the principal 
systems. The rudiment of the sanguiferous sys- 
tem itself is produced as a necessary preliminary 
from the cellular mass of the intermediate or 
vascular lamina of the embryo (§ 123). Whenever 
the formative process has to get beyond the simple 
arrangement of cells, in which it has hitherto con- 
sisted, and these cells must undergo transformation 
into the parts of dissimilar tissues, blood-vessels 
and blood become necessary, precisely as we ob- 
serve to be the case in regard to secondary or- 
ganisations (§ 82, 88, 111). 

The heart arises first as a simple excavation in 
the cellular mass of the vascular lamina ; the blood- 
corpuscles then appear, and at the same time the 


sacculate parietes of the heart, and by degrees the 
vascular arches and the entire circulating system of 
the periphery or of the membranes. 

The sanguiferous system in the foetus consists 
at first of a single loop, as it were : in the young 
embryo of the fish, for example, a single canal 
without branches takes its departure from the heart 
along the vertebral column, turns round at its ex- 
tremity, and returns as a venous current to the 
heart. From this loop new ones proceed inwards 
and outwards, and around these the already ex- 
isting mass of cells becomes more highly organised, 
and others arise, betwixt which the formation of 
vascular loops continues to proceed with the same 
efifects ; in this way the embryo grows and attains 
its developement, its vascular system at the same 
time increasing continually, each element supporting 
the other, for without pre-existing cells no blood- 
vessels are formed, and without blood-vessels no 
parent cells.* From the first loops the principal 
trunks are formed, from the next in order the se- 
condary trunks, from those still later the branches, 
and so on, every blood-vessel advancing in its 
evolution with that of the organ to which it belongs, 
or of the organism at large of which it forms a 
part ; — the principal trunks were themselves ori- 
ginally capillary vessels. 

The primary capillary retes are variously formed 
during the general developement, but they seem to 

* Blood-vessels only arise between or among cells, never in 
parts of higher formation, for example in tissues ; if they arise 
secondarily in these, it is only after a preceding fresh formation 
of cells. 


increase in dimensions commensurately with the 
increase which takes place in the organs that in- 
clude them ; should the organ expand in all direc- 
tions pretty equally, the original vascular rete will 
be found expanded in the same manner, as for 
example in the bones of the skull (^fig. Q&) ; should 
the organ, on the contrary, increase, especially in 
one direction, the vascular rete will be found elong- 
ated in the same degree, as it is for instance in the 
middle portions of the long bones {fig. 61). 

§ 318. The vessels themselves, in all probability, 
arise out of the newly formed intercellular substance 
in the same way as the white tubular fibres of the 
nerves and the branched pigmentary cells. Of the 
mode of origin of these and of their relations to the 
capillary vascular system, Schwann * has particularly 
spoken. Certain special cells are produced, which 
are first arranged into cellular fibres, and then 
becoming fused together form hollow tubes. The 
mode of origin of the blood-vessels can be followed 
in the formation and developement of the vessels of 
bone in the course of the process of ossification. 

In examining the injected and dried cartilage 
of the ear of a new-born foal, I could not determine 
whether the capillary retes, which were visible in 
dificrent places {fig. 213), belonged to the invest- 
ing membrane, or to the substance of the cartilage 
itself; probably they belonged to the perichon- 
drium ; such close networks are not commonly seen 
in permanent cartilages. Any thing like close 
capillary retes first make their appearance with the 

* Mikroscop. Untersuchungen. S. 182. 


commencement of ossification in the ossific carti- 
lages.* Whilst the cartilage-corpuscles disappear 
in the bone-producing cartilages of the foetus, a 
blended fibrous tissue arises, and within this nuclei 
and bone-cells, isolated and connected into strings, 
which arrange themselves concentrically around the 
cavity of the nascent bone- vessel {fig^ 65, b). 

Whilst the cartilage-corpuscles are disappearing 
in the embryonic cartilage, and it is becoming a con- 
tinuous fibrous tissue, a vascular network makes its 
appearance within it, the first rudiments of the new 
formation being evolved in the primary intercellular 
substance, and consisting of connected delicate fibres. 
Upon these fibres bone-cells are deposited. The 
rudimentary vascular rete thus produced is isolated 
at first from other similar formations and uncon- 
nected with any actual blood-vessel ; but by degrees 
one gets into communication with another, and then 
with some vessel in its vicinity, blood begins to flow 
through the reticulation, and the structure is com- 
pleted. From the crown of the outermost vascular 
arches thus formed, branches or leaders are sent off, 
at first in straight lines, but which soon bend round in 

* I must here refer to my most recent observations on ossifi- 
cation (§ 179 and 184), which I imagine remove all doubts of the 
bone-corpuscles being the nuclei of my bone-cells (§ 184), at 
the same time that they shew either that the medullary canali- 
culi, as they are called, do not exist as such, or that other 
cavities to which such an appellation is inapplicable have often 
been taken for them. Kobelt of Heidelberg, at the meeting of 
German naturalists at Freiburg in 1838, shewed preparations 
that confirmed these views. I have also been able to fill the 
finest vessels of the bones by injections throM'n into the nutrient 
artery in the human subject. 


one direction like hooks, until they encounter and 
join ; each new arch produced sends off new shoots, 
which a^ain hend round and meet their neip'hbours 

o o 

as before, and so the process goes on, and with it 
the formation of the bone. These shoots, when 
they first appear, are romided, blunt, and closed at 
the extremities. Around the delicate vessels thus 
formed, flat bone-cells are deposited incessantly, by 
which the bony interspaces become thicker and 
stronger, and the vascular canals, on the contrary, 
are reduced in diameter. The vessels are readily 
distinguished in the midst of the bony reticulation 
{Jig. 213) ; the delicate fibres and filaments that 
were first formed are seen projecting from the edges 
of fresh bone when broken. When cut trans- 
versely across, the tubuli display their concentric 
layers of bone-cells (^fig. 65, &). At this point of 
the ossific process some cartilages remain stationary, 
and even in some of the softer parts of proper bones 
it goes no further, — at the ends of the medullary 
cavities of the long bones, for example. In the 
compact bones, however, it proceeds, for the meshes 
or spaces between the bony fibres get filled up with 
rounded bone-cells {fig^ 60, «). 

Secreting Vessels. 

§ 319. The secreting vessels are in one case 
branched sacculate involutions of the mucous mem- 
branes which proceed from the mucous lamina, or 
of their epithelia ; in another they are similar invo- 
lutions of the corium or its epidermis. As their 
pu.rpose, so is their mode of origin different from 
that of the general circulatory vascular system. 


They terminate, as a general rule, at their periphery 
in blind pediculated vesicles into which the peculiar 
secretion distils or percolates from the blood that is 
circulating in neighbouring vessels, and from which 
this is conveyed to the place of its destination or of 
its excretion ; the principal trunks of secreting 
vessels are spoken of as ducts of the glandular parts 
with which they are connected. They form the 
most essential and distinguishing element of se- 
creting glands. 

Evolution of the Mucous Cavities from the Mucous 
Lamina in the Embryo. 

§ 320. The mucous or inner layer of the ger- 
minal membrane separates, as is well known, first 
from the serous and then from the interposed vas- 
cular lamina. By and by, along with the embryo, 
it is gradually pinched off from the vitelliculus or 
yolk-sac, which thus becomes divided into two 
cavities connected with one another. The smaller 
of these cavities, in connexion with the abdominal 
aspect of the embryo, furnishes the rudiments of 
the future mucous system. At first it presents no 
more than a simple nutrient cavity, as in polyps ; 
but out of this, one after another, by evolution and 
involution, separation and outward opening, the 
various mucous cavities and the secreting organs 
lined with mucous membranes are evolved. The 
mucous system at large may be viewed as a chemical 
apparatus superadded to the mechanical system of 
muscles, bones, ligaments and cartilages, and to 
the dynamic one of the nervous system, by means 


of which the necessary interchange of matter and 
the material rekitions with the external world are 
accomplished. The elongated intestinal chink, which 
is at first widely open towards the yolk-sac, closes 
anteriorly and posteriorly into blind sacs, — the 
rudiments of the mouth and anus ; and with ad- 
vancing evolution, the middle portion is closed like- 
wise and forms the small intestine, which, however, 
still continues in communication with the yolk-sac 
by means of a narrow canal — the vitellicular or 
umbihco-vesicular duct. In the mammalia this is 
speedily closed and rendered useless, its place being, 
at a very early period, supplied by the umbilical 
cord or vascular bond of union betwixt the parent 
and the embryo, the medium by which nutrient 
juices are brought for its use, and by which effete 
matters are removed from its economy. The in- 
testinal communication with the mouth is first 
established, and then that with the anus. The in- 
testinal canal is at first of large capacity and only 
of the length of the vertebral column ; it becomes 
relatively narrower in diameter by degrees, and is 
constantly growing absolutely longer. The simple 
intestinal tube consists at first of connected cellular 
filaments, so that it appears evenly granular when 
viewed under a suitable magnifying power ; it is 
only by and by that the muscular can be distin- 
guished from the mucous tunic. 

In the head the intestinal tube enlarges to form 
the fauces, and under the diaphragm to become the 
stomach, which lies at first transversely from left to 
right in the shape of the letter S, and forms a right 
angle with the oesophagus above, and with the small 


intestine below. In ruminating animals it is divided 
by two constrictions into three cavities, the middle 
one of these being the largest. The small intestine 
is finally completely separated from the yolk-sac or 
umbilical vesicle. During the time that the be- 
ginning of the great intestine lies in the umbilical 
sheath and yet unincluded within the cavity of the 
abdomen, the rudiments of the caecum appear. 
Near the posterior extremity of the still closed 
intestinum rectum, the allantois or urinary pouch 
has been produced at an early period. 

Origin and Evolution of the Glands, whose Ducts 
are lined luith Mucous Membranes. 

§ 321. Besides these simple evolutions as means 
for the production of simple cavities, only one of 
w^hich accomplishes its ends with the period of 
birth, and therefore disappears, — the allantois, — 
the ramified secondary cavities grow from the in- 
testine, looking at first like blind lateral divari- 
cations from this ; but the chief canal, still branching 
off in determinate directions until the skeletons of 
the compound mucous glands, and those of the 
urinary and genital systems, of the lungs, liver, 
pancreas, &c. are evolved. The mucous canals of 
these last, getting finer and finer as the ramifica- 
tion extends, increase with the peripheral ex- 
pansion of the sanguiferous vascular nets that play 
around them, the two elements growing together 
out of the mucous and vascular systems, but always 
amidst the gelatiniform, and at present scarcely 
recognisable cellulo-fibrous substance which had 


been prepared beforehand for their reception ; in 
this way the destined limits of the gland are finally 
attained. The lymphatics and nerves of the glands 
are evolved at the same time ; and finally, from the 
still interposed but hitherto indifferent cellulo- 
fibrous tissue, the connecting cellulo- filamentous 
tissue. In the same way do the cutaneous glands, 
particularly the mammary glands, also commence 
and proceed in their developement, their ducts or 
skeletons and most essential parts being formed 
by a succession of ramified involutions of the 

§ 322. This mode of developement of the com- 
pound secreting glands from the central parts to 
the periphery, is in nothing analogous to the mode 
of origin and extension of the blood-vessels in the 
more persistent, though still transition cellular 
formations ; for example, in the bone cartilages 
during the period of their ossification (§ 318). 
Nevertheless, even as we observe the central and 
peripheral portions of the vascular system arising 
independently in the cellular primordial mass of 
the area pellucida, so do we in some instances 
observe what may be held as central and peripheral 
portions of the same mucous system, arising and 
attaining a certain degree of completeness before 
they meet and become fused, — the secreting parts of 
the kidney and testis, for example, and the excret- 
ing parts, consisting of the ureters, vas deferens, 
vesiculse seminales, &c., meet when they are severally 
well advanced in their developement. This is ob- 
viously very like what we see occurring in the embryo 
in regard to the manner in which the great venous 


trunks of the heart advance to meet the large 
peripheral veins which have been evolved contem- 
poraneously but independently. 

§ 323. The progressive evolution of the mucous 
vessels takes place by a constantly repeated process 
of branching, until the destined limits of the gland 
to which they belong are attained. The size of 
these branched vessels becomes progressively smaller 
and smaller to their blind extremities ; whilst new 
ones are forming the old increase, and towards the 
peripheries of glands the secreting vessels are more 
crowded and of smaller diameter than they are at 
the membrane or integument from whence they 
took their rise, where, indeed, we commonly find a 
single trunk the representative of the entire series 
of ramifications which are connected with it. 

The Skin and the Mucous Membranes. 

§ 324. The skin or common integument invests 
the whole external surface of the body, and serves 
individuals as the immediate means of isolation 
from the rest of creation ; it also proves a defence 
against many mechanical and chemical influences ; 
as an organ of secretion, too, it is in relation with 
the external media, surrounded by which men and 
animals exist. The secretions of the skin are the 
sebaceous matter and the sweat (§ 140 and 144), 
the constituents of which are water and watery 
vapour, carbonic acid gas, certain volatile matters 
cognisable by the sense of smell and different salts. 
In so far as effete or pernicious substances are thrown 
off by the skin, it is also a depurative organ. The 


skill farther absorbs gaseous,* vapoury, and liquid 
substances from without ; and then, in alliance 
with the lungs, it is the great means of maintaining 
the body at the proper temperature ; and associated 
with the lungs, the kidneys, and the intestines, in 
regulating the quantity of water contained in the 
system. The skin, finally, is the organ of common 
sensation through the whole of its extent ; lastly, 
its sensibility becoming exalted or modified in 
certain parts, particularly the points of the fingers, 
it is the seat of the sense of touch. 

The skin consists, 1st, of the epidermis or cu- 
ticle (§ 136), with its involuted glands and its 
evoluted hairs ; 2d, of the corium, which, besides 
numerous nerves of sensation, blood-vessels, and 
lymphatics, contains a contractile elastic and cel- 
lulo-fibrous tissue in its constitution ; it also con- 
tains the sebaceous glands wdthin its substance, and 
transmits the ducts of the sweat-glands. The 

* Dr. Dalton thinks that air penetrates the solids and liquids 
of the human body during life (" Bibliotheque Universelle de 
Geneve," t. liv. p. 130) ; and Professor Burdach is of the same 
opinion (" Traite de Physiologie," traduit par Jourdan, t. viii. 
p. 34). But Dr. Davy has given the results of experiments, 
most of which shew that air susceptible of extraction by the 
air-pump is not contained in the healthy animal fluids and solids, 
nor in the pus of abscesses, except when air may have had access 
to the pus, as in a case of empyema complicated with pneuma- 
thorax (" Researches, Physiological and Anatomical," vol. ii. VI. 
and p. 464). If, as alleged by Dr. Dalton, the drawing in and 
swelling of the hand, when applied to an exhausted receiver, be 
caused by the tendency of air contained in the part to escape, 
how could the common operation of cupping succeed, seeing 
that the air would issue through the incisions and quickly fill 
the glass ?_(?. G. 


corium is connected with subjacent parts by means 
of a quantity of lax cellular membrane, in which a 
large quantity of fat is deposited in health and with 
food in adequate quantities. As it is in part an 
organ of animal life, the skin is obviously placed in 
a kind of antagonistic relationship to the purely 
organic mucous membranes. 

§ 325. The mucous membranes comprise the 
same constituent elements as the skin ; these are 
only modified in quantity and in quality, the mu- 
cous membranes standing in a different relation to 
the organism and to external objects from the skin. 
The peripheral indusium of the mucous membranes 
or epithelium, kept constantly moist, is softer and 
less horny than the epidermis ; their glandular 
inversions — the mucous crypts and mucous glands 
(§ 166-168) — instead of unctuous matter secrete 
mucus ; there are no proper sweat-glands, although 
it must be allowed that in the submucous cellular 
tissue we do here and there observe involutions 
that differ from the ordinary mucous glands, and 
approach the sweat-glands in appearance. The 
papilliform eminences which are visible in many 
parts of the mucous membranes, particularly on the 
surface of the tongue, are covered by corresponding 
processes of the epithelium. The corium of the 
mucous membranes is thinner and looser than that 
of the skin ; it forms numerous villi in certain 
situations for the purpose of extending the surface. 
The submucous cellular substance contains no fat, 
and in general connects the membrane with muscular 

The mucous membranes are in relation with 


matters or fluids secreted from the blood and 
destined, 1. (r/) for the maintenance of the individual, 
such as mucus, saliva, gastric juice, bile, &c., or 
(b) for the continuance of the kind, such as the 
seminal fluid, the menstrual flux, the ovum in its 
passage along the Fallopian tube and during its 
sojourn in the uterus ; 2, for the elimination of 
efi'ete and noxious matters, such as the urine, bile, 
&c. The mucous membranes are further the 
organs by which substances adapted for assimi- 
lation — meat and drink — are prepared and made 
fit to be received into the proper interior of the 
bodies of animals ; and by which also that process, 
the most immediately essential to life in all the 
higher orders of beings — respiration — is carried 
on. The mucous or muco-membranous system is 
therefore one of vast importance ; i-t serves as the 
grand instrument of the bio-chemical interchange 
of elements that takes place between the body and 
the matters external to it, with which it is in 
necessary relation. 

The innumerable villi with which we see the 
mucous membrane of the intestinal canal beset, 
are but contrivances to extend the absorbing 
surface of the organ without adding materially to 
its bulk ; and the involutions of the membrane 
which we observe in the numerous secreting glands 
are no other than means to the same end, — the 
extension of surface, — but with the opposite pur- 
pose of abstracting from the organism, particularly 
from its circulating fluid, certain matters that are 
either necessary for other processes, or that were 
prejudicial if longer retained. 


Valves of Excretory Canals. 

§ S'^Q. The secreting glands are consequently 
lateral productions either of the skin or of a mucous 
membrane. They shed the fluids, which they pre- 
pare from the blood, either upon the external surface 
or into a muco-membranous reservoir, from which 
none of it can return into the gland, in consequence 
of the existence at the orifice of the excreting duct 
of variously fashioned muco-membranous folds which 
serve as valves. The forms of these valves may be 
reduced to two : — 

1. Wart-shaped Glandular Valves. — The wart- 
like or nipple-like enlargement here opposes any 
pressure back upon the gland with a power which 
is in the ratio of the surface it presents in compari- 
son with that of the orifice or slit by which the duct 
terminates. We observe this kind of valve at the 
terminations of the salivary ducts, of the ductus 
choledochus communis, of the tubuli uriniferi on 
the points of the papillary bodies, of the milk- 
ducts, &c. 

2. One-sided Movable Glandular Valves 

Valves of this kind are like those of the veins and 
lymphatics, and like that which guards the foramen 
Thebesii in the heart : we have examples of them 
at the termination of the ureters in the bladder, of 
the seminal canals in the urethra, &c. 

It is also very common to observe contractile 
fibres in larger quantity than usual, and disposed in 
the annular form around the orifices of the excret- 
ing ducts of glands, by which these openings are 
guarded to a certain extent in the same way as the 


anus is by the sphincter ani, and the neck of the 
bladder by its contractile bundle. 

Division of the Glands. 

§ 327. Something has already been said re- 
specting the division of the glandular system, under 
the head of the epidermis (§ 169), and an attempt 
made to present the glands according to their na- 
tural affinities in the form of a table (p. 169). 
What follows immediately may be regarded as an 
explanation of the table referred to. 

The cuticular glands have already been de- 
scribed (§ 139-144 and 166-169). The placenta 
has not been included among the blood -glands 
because it would seem, that those vessels only 
which are destined to nourish this deciduous organ 
form a connected rete with one another. The 
umbilical artery and veins which virtually consti- 
tute the placenta, cannot always be shewn to have 
any direct communication with one another ; they 
form terminal tufts made up apparently of blind 
capillary loops, a structure of the existence of which 
conviction may be obtained by successful injections of 
membraniform placentas, such as that of the mare. 

The thymus,* strictly speaking, does not belong 
to the blood-glands, for it scarcely receives more 
vessels than seem necessary to nourish it. The 
group of bodies characterised as " doubtful glands" 
are very different from each other, but are not yet 

* There is reason to believe that the office of the thymus is 
simply to elaborate an additional quantity of nutrient matter at 
a period when this is most required by the economy. See 
Appendix. — G. G. 


sufficiently known to have their places assigned to 
them in a natural system of organic parts. 

Proper Secreting Glands. 

§ 328. In his classical work on the intimate 
structure and formation of glands,* Professor Miil- 
ler has described and figured these essential parts 
in the organism of animals with his usual com- 
pleteness and accuracy. The secreting glands are 
soft, rounded bodies, of a colour varying from a 
reddish- white to a dusky-brown, made up of a con- 
geries of secreting, blood, and lymphatic vessels, 
and of nerves and cellular substance, which, from 
the blood circulated through them, prepare and 
pour into their variously shaped reservoirs certain 
peculiar fluids, which are finally conveyed away 
and discharged upon the external or upon one of 
the internal surfaces of the body, by means of an 
appropriate duct. 

The secreting glands are situated now in, now 
under, the compound membranes, now in the in- 
terior of the body, connected with surrounding 
parts by means of vessels, nerves, and cellular 
tissue. The degree of their complexity and their 
external forms are very various ; they are all in- 
vested with a fibrous tunic, and those that lie in 
serous cavities have a serous tunic in addition. 
Their essential and generally branched cavities 
either end as blind sacs, or as pediculated vesicles, 
or as loops, in either and every case surrounded by 

* " Glandularum secernentium Structura penitiori earumque 
prima Formatione in Homine atque Aiiimalibus," c. tab. xvii. 
foL Lips. 1830. 


a network of much more minute blood-vessels, and 
a scantier accompaniment of terminal loopings ge- 
nerally of organic nerves. The excretory ducts are 
now simple openings of simple cavities, now canals of 
great length and extreme narrowness ; these consist 
of the attenuated elements of the compound mem- 
branes upon which they terminate, of which, in- 
deed, they are involutions ; they are for the most 
part lined by a tessellated epithelium, seldom by a 
cylinder -epithelium ; they are either simple or 
ramified, and in some instances run into ample 
reservoirs, — the gall-bladder, the urinary bladder, 
the vesiculse seminales, — in which the product of 
their activity is stored up until time and circum- 
stance permit or require its discharge. 

The secreting glands in a state of health are 
nearly insensible, in the ordinary sense of that 
word ; they are, however, extremely susceptible of 
certain appropriate organic stimuli ; the seat of this 
susceptibility appears to be the vessels in general, 
but especially the contractile secreting vessels (on 
the origin and relations of these to the tegumentary 
system, &c. vide § 318-323 and 325). 

The secreted fluids are watery, or they are 
unctuous, or of a mixed nature, and contain min- 
gled with them the detached epithelial cells of the 
secreting cavities. The secreting glands are simple 
or compound. 

§ 329. Simple Secreting Glands. — These form 
small sac -like cavities, and are styled follicles ; 
they are contained in the substance of the corium 
(^Jig. 239, a and Z»), or of a mucous membrane. 
These simple cuticular glands have been included 


in our account of the epidermis. The lobulated 
(Jig. ^39,y) and multilocular sebaceous (^/ig. 160 and 
161), the botryoidal sebaceo-sudoriparous * and the 
mucous glands (Jig. 42, c, d, p, n ; Jig. 43, e^f^ z, k ; 
Jig. 44, c, rf, e ; fig. 45, c, </, e), strictly considered, 
belong to the compound glands. When several 
follicles terminate in the same peripheral cavity, 
they form with these what are called crypts. 

§ 330. The mucous follicles are flat, lenticular, 
more rarely elongated and convoluted, and their 
vascular walls in relation to the extent of the simple 
cavity they inclose are relatively thick ; their 
simple openings are wide and short ; in diameter 
they range fi*om one-third of a Paris line to three 
Paris lines, that of their openings being from one- 
tenth to one-third of the same standard. The ma- 
jority of them lie in the mucous membrane itself j 
the larger among them, and those that are con- 
voluted, however, project in part or entirely among 
the sub-mucous cellular tissue. In general they 
occur scattered ; but in many places they are thickly 
clustered together. 

The mucus secreted by different mucous mem- 
branes, and even by difi'erent parts of the same 
mucous membrane, is different, — watery and diffluent 
here, there thick and tenacious, viscid and slippery, 
of a greyish or greenish- white colour, and soluble 
in or miscible with water with great difficulty. 

Chemically considered, mucus consists of water 
in large proportion, proper mucous matter or mu- 

* If the sudoriparous glands be found to consist of a single 
convoluted canal, as Gurlt believes, they must of course be 
classed with the simple ones. 


cine, with a little soda, alcoholic extract with lac- 
tates, watery extract with phosphatic salts, and 
chloride of potash and soda. The microscopic ele- 
ments of mucus are epithelial cells and mucus- 
corpuscles, bodies made up of agglomerated granules 
(§ 35). 

§ 331. The sebaceous follicles of the skin are, 
for the most part, present in smaller numbers than 
the mucous follicles of the mucous membranes. 
They generally open laterally into the hair-sheaths ; 
they always occur isolated, and are not so universal 
as the more compound sebaceous glands (§ 139) ; 
but they are commoner than crypts. The sebaceous 
matter is a sluggishly fluent oil, of the consistence 
of butter, in parts that are not provided with hair, 
and is either colourless or coloured according to 
the colour of the part of the skin which it anoints ; 
its colour being in the ratio of the pigmentary 
granules which it contains. According to Esenbek, 
100 parts consist of: — 

Fat 24-2 

Osmazome, with traces of oil 12'6 

Watery extractive 11*6 

Albumen and caseine 24*2 

Carbonate of lime 2'1 

Phosphate of lime 20*0 

Carbonate of magnesia 1*6 

Acetate and muriate of soda, and loss 3'7 


§ 3S%, The sebaceous crypts are of diflferent 
sizes in different parts of the body, and consist of 
larger or smaller, superficial or deeper blind sacs, 
included in the skin or mucous membranes, the 


parietes of which are heset with follicles, which 
pour the mucus or sebaceous matter into the cavity 

(§ 142)- 

§ 333. Compound Glands. — When glandular 

cavities are composed of many smaller ones, simple 
or ramified, they are spoken of as compound glands. 
Glands of this order are distinguished into 1, ag- 
gregated glands ; 2, acinose or vesicular glands ; 
and 3, tubular glands. 

1. The aggregated or associated glands are 
mere groups of simple glands or pediculated fol- 
licles of various form, which end in a common 
excretory duct. To this order of glands belong the 
compound sebaceous glands (§ 139-141, Jig. 42, 
c, d, 0, p ; fig' 43, c, e, f; Jigs. 44 and 45, 160 
and l6l). The Meibomian glands {Jig. 158), 
which belong to the sebaceous glands, form links of 
transition to the compound vesicular glands of the 
second order ; to this place also are to be referred 
the larger and more complex mucous glands, — the 
prostate and Cowper's glands. 

2. The vesicular compound glands consist, at 
the limits of their subdivisions, of variously shaped 
membranous vesicles, — acini, — from the -g^th to 
the yV^^ o^ ^ Paris line in diameter, which, upon 
the periphery of the glands so constituted, and they 
are generally of considerable size, appear mutually 
to compress each other, and to become polyhedral 
in their outline ; the pedicles of these vesicles unite, 
as they do in the aggregated glands, into tufts ; or 
the pedicles are longer, and combining they form 
secreting vessels which represent the twigs ; these, 
again, unite and form the branches j and these last 


coming together constitute the trunk of the glandu- 
lar tree. This trunk is generally simple, and forms 
the excretory duct of the entire gland. The 
secreted fluid is poured out more or less remotely 
from the gland that prepares it, either gradually 
and incessantly, or in larger quantity at particular 
times. The first generally botryoidal combinations 
of the elementary vesicles form the glandular 
granules or acini which are distinguishable by the 
naked eye ; a certain number of these clustered 
together form the lobules, and these in their turn, 
connected by cellular substance, constitute the larger 
lobes, when the structure of the glands happens to 
be lobular. To glands of this description belong 
the lachrymal glands, the salivary glands {figs. 136 
and 137), and pancreas, the lungs, the liver, and 
the milk or mammary glands. 

The fluid secreted by the lachrymal glands is 
watery and colourless ; it consists of from 96 to 99 
per cent of water, and of from 1 to 4 per cent of 
solid matter, made up of a peculiar yellowish extrac- 
tiform substance, common salt, and* traces of soda, 
phosphate of lime, and phosphate of soda. Accord- 
ing to Fourcroy and Vauquelin, human tears con- 
tain but one per cent of solid matter, a compound 
of the yellow extractiform matter not entirely soluble 
in water, and of common salt. The tears of the 
domestic mammalia are in all probability little dif- 
ferent from those of man. The microscopic elements 
of tears are a few tessellated epithelial cells from the 
surfaces of the excretory ducts, and some granules ; 
if the fluid of the lachrymal sac be examined, there 
will be found mingled with it the campanulate cylin- 


der epithelial cells of the conjunctiva ; the products 
of all the glands that stand in relation to the mucous 
membranes are always mixed with the detached 
cells of the glandular epithelia as well as of those 
with which the ducts are in immediate relation at 
their orifices. 

The SALIVA, examined as it distils from the 
mouth, contains the large squamiform, granular 
epithelial cells of the mucous membrane of the 
mouth, and mucus-granules. Pure saliva is nearly 
as transparent as water, sometimes watery, some- 
times slightly viscid ; during the assumption of 
food it is said to be alkaline, at other times it shews 
acid reaction. According to the analysis of Mit- 
scherlich and Gmelin it consists of water with 
about IJ per cent of solid matters. 1000 parts 
were found to contain — 

Water 985-00 

Chloride of potash 1'80 

Lactate of potash 1*63 

Lactate of soda 0*87 

Soda with^some mucus 1"64 

Phosphate of lime 0'17 

Silica 0-15 

Sulphate of potash 
Sulpho-cyanate of potash ? 

Mucus, about 1*40 

Salivary matter, — salivin, ptyalin ... 4*50 

Watery extractive I'SO 

Alcoholic extractive 1'30 


The saliva of the horse is transparent, colour- 
less, slightly viscid or susceptible of being drawn 
into threads, without smell and without taste, which 

SALIVA. 831 

last qualities depend, doubtless, on its saline con- 
stituents according essentially with those of the 
human saliva ; it shews alkaline reaction, and, like 
that of man, deposits flocks when allowed to stand 
at rest. A drachm of this saliva requires, accord- 
ing to Schulz, a grain of vinegar to saturate it ; a 
drachm of this neutral saliva set aside in a cool 
place for twenty-four hours required two drops of 
vinegar to neutralise it again ; and the same thing 
was found to happen again and again until putre- 
faction commenced. After an interval of a week it 
was found very acid. The reappearing alkalescence 
depends, according to Schulz, upon the develope- 
ment of ammonia ; urine is found to comport itself 
in the same way. According to Lassaigne, the saliva 
of the horse contains essentially the same principles 
as that of man, as these are given in the analysis 
of Gmelin and Mitscherlich. In the saliva of the 
parotids Gurlt found but 0*787, in that of the sub- 
maxillaries, on the contrary, 3*617 per cent of solid 
matter. As the water of the watery secretions in 
general increases with the quantity of water taken 
into and contained in the body, and particularly 
during damp and cold weather, such discrepancies 
in the relative amounts of watery and solid con- 
stituents ought not to surprise us. In fact, not 
only do the inorganic salts of the saliva, but its 
animal constituents — the osmazome and ptyalin — 
difier according to circumstances, both in the same 
and in dififerent individuals. 

The saliva of the carnivora, and particularly of 
the dog, has been found more dense, more viscid, 
and to contain 2*58 per cent of solid matter. 

332 BILE. 

The fluid of the pancreas, as the researches of 
Leuret and Lassaigne, and of Watrin teach us, is 
scarcely different from that of the salivary glands of 
the mouth. 

The Bile is the well-known product of the 
secreting function of the liver, and is contained in 
man and those animals that have a gall-bladder in 
this reservoir and in the biliary ducts. The bile of 
the biliary ducts is yellowish, and more fluid than 
that of the gall-bladder, which last is more con- 
centrated, of a brownish or greenish yellow colour, 
a sweetish faint smell, and a decidedly bitter taste. 
Examined microscopically, the bile is found to con- 
tain epithelial cylinders detached from the gall- 
bladder, mucus-granules, and more rarely fat-glo- 
bules. The specific gravity of the bile is 1 -6352 ; 
it shews alkaline reaction, and contains about 10 per 
cent of solid matters to 90 per cent of water. The 
solid elements of the bile, according to Frommherz 
and Gugert, consist of: — 

Cholesterine ; 

Picromel (cholein mixed with cholesterine, according 
to Berzelius, about 8 per cent) ; 

Colouring matter ; 

Mucus ; 

Extractive matter — osmazome as well as a watery 
extractive of peculiar nature ; 


(Casein ?) ; 

Cholic, oleic, margaric, carbonic, phosphoric, and sul- 
phuric acids in combination with soda and a 
smaller quantity of potash ; also the phosphate, 
sulphate (and carbonate) of lime ; 

Chloride of sodium (Berzelius). 

Milk. — Skim-milk from the cow has, according 

URINE. 333 

to Berzelius, a specific gravity of 1 '0348 at 60° F. 
The specific gravity of the cream is 1 '0244. Skim- 
milk contains of 

Casein rendered impure by the admixture of 

butter 2-600 

Sugar of milk.. 3-500 

Alcoholic extractive — lactic acid and its salts 0-600 

Chloride of potassium 0-170 

Phosphate of potash , 0-025 

Phosphate of lime, lime in combination with 
casein ; magnesia, and traces of oxyde of 

iron 0-230 

Water 92-875 

Sour milk contains a larger quantity of lactic acid 
and coagulated casein. 

3. The tubular glands consist of a congeries of 
delicate tuhes, often of great length, now convoluted, 
now sinuous, now nearly straight, now branched 
frequently, now more rarely, which begin on the 
peripheries of the glands in blind sacs surrounded 
by a capillary network of vessels. These tubuli 
are very commonly tortuous, often they are intri- 
cately convoluted in their commencements ; by and 
by they run more directly ; through their whole 
course they are surrounded by capillary blood- 
vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. Frequently they 
combine and form lobuli or pyramidal subdivisions. 
After they have united into wider tubuli they com- 
bine into several or into a single efiferent duct. 
This structure belongs to those muco-membranous 
glands which, like the circulating system, begin to 
be formed in their central and peripheral portions 
at once, viz. : the kidneys and the testes. 

The urine is principally secreted in the tubuli of 

334 URINE. 

the cortical substance of the kidneys ; by these it is 
conveyed into the pelvis, from which it finds its 
way through the ureters into the bladder, whence 
it is discharged by a voluntary act through the 

This is essentially a watery fluid, not at all 
viscid, from the palest to the deepest amber colour, 
of a peculiar aromatic odour, and a saline taste. In 
specific gravity, it varies from 1 '005 to 1 '030 ; its 
reaction is acid at first, then alkaline after decom- 
position has commenced. Besides its ordinary or 
normal constituents, it is apt to contain many sub- 
stances accidentally taken into the stomach. The 
analysis of Berzelius makes human healthy urine 
consist of: — 

Water 933-00 

Mucus , 0-32 

Urea 30-10 

Uric acid (with urate of soda and ammonia, 

and colouring matter)..... I'OO 

Lactic acid -» 

Lactate of ammonia I 

Alcoholic extractive , | 

Watery extractive -' 

Sulphate of potash 371 

Sulphate of soda 3*16 

Phosphate of soda , 2*94 

Biphosphate of ammonia 1*65 

Phosphate of lime and magnesia 1*00 

Muriate of potash 

Muriate of soda 4*45 

Muriate of ammonia 1"50 

Fluate of lime 

Scilica , 0-03 



The urine of the horse is always turbid ; even 
in the pelvis of the kidney there is a commencing 
precipitation of minute earthy globules, which de- 
stroy its transparency. 

The spermatic fluid, whose wonderful property 
is to fecundate the female ovum, and so render it 
capable of commencing an independent existence, 
is of thick, almost gelatinous consistency, viscid, 
stringy, semi-transparent, of a yellowish, greyish or 
pure white colour, and of a peculiar and often 
penetrating odour. It has been found to have a 
specific gravity of 1 '0367 j and to consist of 

Water 90 

Spermatine, a peculiar extractive matter 6 

Phosphate of lime 3 

Soda 1 


Examined microscopically, the seminal fluid of 
all animals is found to contain, mingled with 
granular molecules and mucus-corpuscles, peculiar 
seminal corpuscles^ which at one time appear as 
aggregation-corpuscles, very similar to mucus-cor- 
puscles and the cells of the yolk (Jig. 234) ; at 
another, as flat granular cells, like pus-corpuscles ; 
farther, peculiar transparent round vesicles, which, 
besides their fluid contents, inclose granular cells 
and embryos of spermatozoa, — these may be spoken 
of as spermatophori ;* still farther, a multitude of 

* VideWagner, "Fragmente zur Physiologic derZeugung," 
and " Elements of Physiology," by Willis, Book I. ; also, Va- 
lentin, " Ueber die Spermatozoen der Baren in Acta Ac. Nat. 
Cur." Vol. xix. p. 1. In seminal fluid expressed from the 
divided substance of the human testicle. Dr. Davy invariably 


bodies moving hither and thither amidst the fluid, 
and which have been long known as the sper- 
matozoa, or seminal animalcules ; and which, in 
certain species of animals, particularly in the bear, 
have even been believed to exhibit something like 
an internal organisation. The external form and 
internal organisation of the spermatozoa of the 
guinea-pig, according to my observations, are still 
more remarkable ; the results of these observations 
are embodied in the following account : — The 
body of the spermatozoa of the guinea-pig (^fig- 
231, a, a) is spoon-shaped, rounded anteriorly and 
at the edge, more pointed towards the tail, which is 
from four to five times the length of the body, and 
is connected with it by means of a slight enlarge- 
ment (^, h, f). Examined on the abdominal 
aspect, the oval papilla d is perceived in front, 
the aperture itself being either longer, in the shape 
of a slit or circular, and, posteriorly, the anal 
papilla e, with the rounded anal orifice. The 
two most anterior thirds of the body are, for the 
most part, occupied or made up by transparent 
globular vesicles (b\ which have much similarity 
to the stomachs of the polygastric infusoria; the 
posterior third includes two rounded very finely 
granular organs (c), which I am inclined to regard 
as sexual parts. The embryo spermatozoa are 

found dense and apparently spherical particles, from ten to 
fifteen times smaller than the blood-corpuscles. I have also 
often seen these very minute particles in seminal fluid of the 
testicle. Dr. Davy conjectures that they may be the ova of 
the spermatozoa. •' Researches, Physiological and Anatomical," 
vol. i. p. 332.- G. G. 


evolved in the spermatopliori, as in the seminal 
fluid of some of the lower animals, particularly the 
cuttle-fish, and are found regularly applied to one 
another, so as to take up the least possible space 
{fig. 233) ; in the epididymis they may often be 
discovered lying together, fifteen and more in 
number, as they are represented in figure '^oS. 

The compound organisation of the seminal ani- 
malcules and their production by no equivocal ge- 
neration, but in particular sexual organs, and by 
the means of ova to all appearance, proclaims their 
affinity to the entozoa. As the seminal fluid that 
is without these animalcules is incapable of fe- 
cundating, their essential importance is abundantly 

And here a question might be raised as to 
whether or not the entozoa which, without the 
higher organisms they inhabit, could have no ex- 
istence, ought to be regarded as things necessary to 
these organisms ? But upon this I will not enter ; 
I have, however, thought it right to include figures 
of one or two of the forms of epizoa and entozoa, 
very commonly met with in many of the higher 
mammalia among my illustrations. Figures 229 
and 230 are after Bremser 5 figure 238 is after 


§ 334. Every part in an animal body which is 
destined for a more or less especial ofiice is en- 
titled an organ, such as a muscle, the eye, the 
liver, the lung, &c. ; several organs which con- 
tribute to a common end constitute an apparatus ; 



for example, the larynx, trachea, and lungs, the 
muscles of respiration, &c. ; apparatuses which act 
together to the accomplishment of a common vital 
object compose a physiological system, — for ex- 
ample, the muscular, the nervous, the circulating, 
the chylopoetic, and other systems. The ana- 
tomical or formal systems comprehend parts having 
the same structure. Viscus, viscera, is the term 
used to designate those organs which are included 
in the cavities of the body. In the present day the 
word is restricted to the organs comprised within 
the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis ; the brain is 
scarcely spoken of now as a viscus, The various 
systems appertaining to an individual susceptible of 
an independent existence constitute an individual 



Anatomy in General. 

Elementary Works that in- 
clude the General Ana- 

Physiological Elementary 
Works that include the 
General Anatomy. 

I. General Anatomy. 
In general. 

II. Periodical works. 

III. Chemical constituents. 

IV. Elementary forms. 

V. Secreted fluids. 

VI. Inorganic precipitates. 

VII. Lymph. 

VIII. Blood. 

IX. Fat. 

X. Pigment. 

XI. Cells. 

XII. Ciliary organs. 

XIII. Horny system. 

1. In general. 

2. Cuticle. 

3. Nails, hoofs, &c. 

4. Hair. 

XIV. Cellular substance. 

XV. Serous system. 

1. Serous membranes. 

2. Synovial membranes. 

XVI. Tendinous system. 

1. Tendinous fibres. 

2. Fibrous membranes, ten- 


XVII. Ligamentous system. 

XVIII. Elastic system. 

XIX. Cartilaginous system. 

XX. Osseous system. 

1. In general. 

2. Texture, developement, 


3. Connexions. 

XXI. Teeth. 

XXII. Contractile system. 

XXIII. Muscular system. 

1. Elementary constituents, 


2. Muscular power. 

3. Mechanism of motion. 

XXIV. Nervous system. 

1. The entire nervous system. 

2. Nervous substance, texture. 

3. Cerebro-spinal nerves. 

4. Ganglionic system. 

XXV. Vascular system. 

1. Circulation. 

2. Arteries. 

3. Veins. 

4. Capillaries. 

5. Lymphatics. 

XXVI. Glandular system. 

XXVII. Cutaneous system. 

1. In general. 

2. Mucous membranes, 

3. Skin. 

XXVIII. Ovum, — Organisa- 
tion, and developement of 
elementary parts. 

1. Ovum, primary organisa- 


2. Developement of the em- 


3. Secondary organisation. 

XXIX. Parasites. 

1. Entozoa. 

2. Infusoria. 




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516 F. le Gros Clark, Anatomy of the Brain and Nervous 

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34- Note, line 30, for object-glass, read object-plate. 

35 Note, line 4, for found clots of fibrine too compact, read found that clots 

of fibrine were too compact. 

36 Note, line 12, after discs, erase the comma, and add G. G. to the note. 

58 Note, line 1, for its substance, read the substance of the gbind. 
134 Note, line 9, ^ar shrewmouse, read shrew (Sorex tetragonurus). 

— — line '23, for vesicles, read larger vesicles. 

162 Note, ybr ciliee, read cilia. 

179 Note t, line 7, for is, read has been. 

190 Note, line 6, for parenchyme, read parenchyma. 

200 Note, line 2, for were, read are. 

233 Note, line 7, after absent, insert or not visible without the aid of an acid. 

270 Note, line 3, erase the words that is. 


6 Note, line ^2, for Typhus, read Typus. 
15 Line 31, ^br Plate 18, read Plate 28. 
20 Line 10, after nucleoli, insert or nuclei. 


59 Line 4, for employed, read applied, and erase designate. 


263 For 800, read 380. 

276 -For blood-smooth, read smooth blood. 

280 Line 6, after the word and, insert this appearance. 

294 The corpuscles are magnified 800 diameters. 





As the blood- corpuscles during health traverse the most 
minute capillaries in single files, fitted to the internal di- 
ameter of the tubes, it is probable that the size of the 
corpuscles is an exact indication of the capacity of this 
order of vessels, throughout the whole series of vertebrate 

The numerous measurements which I have made during 
the last five years, of the blood-corpuscles of the mammi- 
ferous animals, are here for the first time systematically ar- 
ranged, carefully revised, and extended by many new obser- 
vations ; and the mean or average sizes are now given, the 
want of which was felt in my former publications. It will 
therefore be easy to perceive, as far as the observations go, 
the size of the corpuscles in relation to the Orders, Families, 
and Genera of mammals, a most interesting subject, but one 
that has hitherto attracted very little attention. The 
measurements are all expressed in fractions of an English 
inch ; and, as shown in the first example, the common sized 
corpuscles are first set down, then those of small and large 
size, and lastly the average, deduced from a computation 


of the whole. The degree of regularity observed in the 
dimensions of the corpuscles of any one species may be 
judged of by the number of different measurements which 
it has been found necessary to note of the common sized 
discs, better than by attending merely to the extremes, as 
these may be widely separated with great uniformity of 
the intermediate sizes, and more closely approximated with 
very numerous and distinct intermediate gradations. No 
attempt has been made to record all the measurements that 
might have been obtained from the corpuscles under 
examination; but the sizes indicated as common, were 
such as presented themselves so abundantly as to render it 
necessary to take them into the account. The regularly 
formed discs only are noticed in the measurements, as the 
other corpuscles will be elsewhere mentioned. The obser- 
vations have been uniformly made by the means formerly ex- 
plained, * so that, whatever may be the absolute precision 
of the results, their relative accuracy, which is of the most 
importance where the chief interest of the subject is deriv- 
ed from comparisons, will probably be deemed worthy of 

The Tables I believe contain a more comprehensive ac- 
count of the corpuscles in the different species of the class 
Mammalia than has hitherto been published. The measure- 
ments will therefore probably be useful for reference, 
especially in connection with physiological questions now 
perpetually arising, and which may be expected to multiply 
as inquiries in minute anatomy are extended. Indeed the 
observations were originally instituted principally with the 
view of ascertaining whether any relation could be shown 
between the blood-corpuscles and other minute bodies 
which might be supposed to be derived rather from the red 
particles of the blood than from the fibrine. 

Variation in the size of the corpuscles of a single species 
of the same age. — 1 have observed this so distinctly and re- 
peatedly, that it suggested the idea of an organic contrac- 

* Loud, and Edin. Phil. Mao-, for Jan. and Feb. 1840. 


tility of the corpuscles, independently of the remarkable 
facts presently to be noticed. This variation, indeed, as I 
have elsewhere remarked, may be very great in disease, and 
is often sufficiently perplexing in health. * But in the 
latter state the change of size seems to be confined within 
certain limits. The corpuscles of the horse, for example, 
at different times are remarkably variable in magnitude, but 
never so much so as to render it difficult to distinguish 
them from those to which they are clearly intermediate in 
size, as of the rabbit and sheep. Both in the Snowy Owl 
and Passenger Pigeon, I particularly noticed in blood 
obtained at different times considerable variations in the 
long diameter of the corpuscles, although the observations 
were carefully made on blood drawn from the same bird 
and vein ; yet the variation was never sufficient to 
alter materially the characteristic figure and size of the 
corpuscles, which are very singular in the former bird. I 
have also remarked the same fact in the Quadrumana, 
particularly in the Lemurs, and in numerous other Mamma- 
lia, as well as in various birds and a few reptiles ; and Mr, 
Bowerbank's observations show that the corpuscles of man 
are liable to a similar change. 

It is not uncommon to see the majority of the discs of 
two remarkably distinct sizes, one about half or two-thirds 
the magnitude of the other. The larger appear to be the 
regular corpuscles, and readily run into the characteristic 
piles, which the smaller seldom do. The two sizes in ques- 
tion seem to be most frequent in blood obtained from dead 
animals. The smaller variety scarcely ever presents either 
the swollen edges or the cup-shaped appearance. 

The discs often shrink, or become puckered, very quickly 
after extravasation, particularly in blood which has been 
effused for a short time into the cellular tissue ; and these 
changes in the corpuscles may sometimes be seen to take 
place on the object plate of the microscope. 

* Some interesting observations on the blood-corpuscles in 
diseases are given by Dr. Herman Nasse in the " Untersuchungen 
zur Physiologic und Pathologic." Zweitei Band, Heft. 1. und 2. 


Variation in the size of the corpuscles of the same species 
at different periods of existence. — That the corpuscles are 
larger at an early period of existence than in the adult, was 
observed by Hewson* in the common fowl, and in the 
viper; and M. Prevost f remarked that the corpuscles in 
the foetal goat were at first twice the size of those of the 
mother. In young embryos of Mammalia I have constant- 
ly found the corpuscles larger than in the adult, but at a 
later period of utero-gestation they are sometimes smaller 
in the foetus than in the mother : and frequently there is 
no appreciable difference in the average size, although the 
variety in the magnitude of the foetal corpuscles is much 
greater than in the full grown animal. The former also 
differ from the corpuscles of the mother in form and in 
some chemical characters. 

Relation between the size of the corpuscles and that of the 
animal. — Hewson figures the blood-corpuscles as of the 
same size in the ox, cat, ass, mouse, and bat. Hence it has 
often been remarked that the size of the corpuscles bears 
no relation to that of the animal. If, however, we compare 
the measurements made from a great number of different 
species of the same order, it will be found that there is a 
closer connection between the size of the animal and that 
of its blood-corpuscles than has been generally supposed. J 
The measurements now given furnish general evidence of 
this position ; and although they also present several ex- 
ceptions, these will probably fall into order as our know- 
ledge of the subject extends. 

Size of the corpuscles in relation to the food of the ani- 
mal. — It has been stated that in the Carnivora the corpus- 
cles are intermediate in size to those of the omnivorous 
species and of the strictly vegetable feeders ; smaller in the 
Carnivora, for example, than in man and the Quadrumana, 
but larger than in the Ruminantia. The same assertion has> 
been extended to the Marsupiata, especially that the red 
particles of the Perameles, which derives its nourishment 

* Experimental Inquiries, part 3. p. 39. 

t Annales des Sciences Nat. t. 4. 

I See Proc. Zool. Soc. Nov. 24, 1840. 


from the greatest variety of organized substances, are larger 
than the particles either of the carnivorous Dasyure or of 
the herbiverous Kangaroo. 

A glance at some of the following measurements will 
show how little ground there is for this opinion. In one 
of the ruminants, indeed, the corpuscles are singularly 
minute, but in another graminivorous animal they are as 
singularly large: and they are larger in several of the ru- 
minants than in some of the Carnivora. And although 
among the marsupial animals the corpuscles of the Pera- 
meles slightly exceed in size those of the Viverrine Dasyure, 
yet in the Ursine Dasyure the corpuscles are larger than in 
either, and just as large, too, as those of Bennett's Kangaroo. 

Thickness of the corpuscles. — They are generally slightly 
thicker in mammals than in man, as appears from the 
measurements in the Tables. Dr. Hodgkin and Mr. Lis- 
ter observed this fact in the pig and rabbit. 


The corpuscles of the elephant are the largest yet dis- 
covered, as first observed by M. Mandl. Those of the Ca- 
pybara, as noted under the order Rodentia, are next in mag- 
nitude. The corpuscles of the goat are stated by Miiller * 
and previous observers to be the smallest known; but from 
my observations -j- it appears that the blood-discs of the 
Napu musk deer, and probably of its congeners, are only 
about half as large as the discs of the goat. 

In the Quadrumana. — The monkeys both of the old and 
new continents have corpuscles differing but little from 
those of man, although they appear to be often smaller 
in the Lemurs. In this family, too, the measurements ex- 
hibit greater diversity in the magnitude of the corpuscles of 
the different species, than among the monkeys. 

Cheiroptera. — In the common bat the diameter of the 
common-sized discs is between ^gi^thand ^oVo^^i of an inch. 

* Physiology, by Baly, 2nd ed. part 1. p. 113. 

t Med. Chir. Trans, vol. 23. and Dublin Med. Press, Nov. 1839. 


FercB. — In the mole, an insectivorous species, the average 
size of the corpuscles rather falls short of that generally 
found in the order, and is considerably smaller than in the 
plantigrade tribe. The corpuscles of this latter group are 
larger than those of the other subdivisions of the order, with 
the exceptions afforded by the genera Canis, Lycaon, Hyaena, 
Lutra, and Phoca. The corpuscles of the common species 
of the two latter, and of the dog, appear to be the largest 
yet known among the Ferae. The most minute corpuscles 
in the order were also found in the family Carnivora. In 
the Viverrine and Feline subdivisions the corpuscles 
appear to be very small as compared with those of the 
Canine and Phocine tribes ; and in the genera Paradoxurus 
and Herpestes the corpuscles are remarkably so, especially 
in the Paradoxurus Bondar, * in which they were found to 
be smaller than any hitherto described in the Ferae. So 
minute, indeed, are the corpuscles of this animal, that they 
but slightly exceed those of the goat in size.-j" Among the 
Cats, there is a great similarity of the corpuscles; they 
are only just appreciably larger in the lion, tiger, chetah, 
and leopard, than in the domestic cat, so that it would 
require a nice observation to detect any difference. In the 
Serval and Norway Lynx the corpuscles, obtained after 
death from the heart, appeared to be fully as large as in 
any other species of the genus, those of the Ocelot and 
Persian Lynx presenting the smallest size. % In the dog 
they were uniformly found to be a shade larger than in the 
fox and some other congenerous species ; and both in the 
striped and spotted hyeena the corpuscles closely resemble 

* At the menagerie of the Zooiogical Society this animal is 
called Paradoxurus Typhus, but I have lately been assured that it 
is the P. Bondar of authors ; and it is the same species as that 
designated P. Typhus in the Phil. Mag. for Jan. 1840. p. 28. 

t See Proc. Zool. Soc. Nov. 24, 1840. 

J The blood from the Persian Lynx and the Ocelot was obtain- 
ed from living animals. For some observations on the difference 
in the size of the corpuscles of dead and living animals, see Phil. 
Mag. for March 1840, page I95 and 197. 


those of the genus Canis, and are therefore distinctly larger 
than in the Viverrine and Feline tribes, with both of which 
the hyaena has been associated. 

It appears then that although there is considerable diver- 
sity in the magnitude of the red particles of the order, there 
is also a well marked relation between these and the different 
families. Thus the Feree would stand as follows, if set down 
in the order of the size of the blood-corpuscles — Seals, Dogs, 
Bears, Weasels, Cats, Viverras.* The difference in size is 
generally quite distinct between the corpuscles of the two first 
and of the two last tribes, the discs of the Weasels forming 
the connecting link, and being closely allied in magnitude 
to the corpuscles of the Cats. I am not aware that the 
affinities of the Basaris have been satisfactorily ascertained. 
Its blood-corpuscles have pretty nearly the characteristic 
size of those of the Ursidee. The corpuscles of the 
Viverras, as already remarked, are distinctly smaller. 

Pachydermata. — As before observed, the corpuscles of 
the elephant are the largest at present known among mam- 
mals. Of the pachydermatous animals, the corpuscles of 
the rhinoceros are next in size; and those of the Indian 
Tapir have an average diameter of ^oVo^^ ^^ ^^ inch. In 
the horse they are remarkably variable in size, so that it is 
common to find the majority of them in the adult animal 
from — 1- th to -^— th of an inch in diameter. Such varia- 

6300 4000 

tions, however, are frequently observed in the corpuscles of 
animals which we have repeated opportunities of examining. 
Ruminantia.' — In the ruminants the corpuscles are re- 
markably interesting. They are generally smaller than 
in the other orders, and will be found, for the most part, to 
afford an illustration of the gradation in a natural group of 
mammals of the size of the corpuscles in relation to that of 
the animal. In the small ruminants, for instance, as in the 
goat and sheep, the corpuscles are very small ; and in the 
Napu musk deer, a still smaller animal, the corpuscles are 
the most minute hitherto described; while on the contrary, in 
the larger ruminants there is seldom any approach to this 

"* See Mr. Waterhouse's Observations on the Carnivora, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. part 7, p. 13J. 


minuteness of the corpuscles, but they are comparatively 
large, exceeding in size those of many of the Carnivora. 
The want of this connection between the size of animals 
belonging to different orders and that of the blood-discs 
has already been noticed. 

There is often much diversity in the corpuscles of any 
one species of the order ; for the red particles of ruminant 
animals seem to be particularly liable to modifications both 
in form and size. It is consequently not always easy to 
get a good specimen of the regular discs ; and the granu- 
lated, angular, and jagged particles are very common. In 
some species of deer the majority of the corpuscles pre- 
sented the spear-shaped, crescentic, and sigmoid forms, 
especially when the blood had been kept an hour or two 
after being abstracted from the animal. 

It is in shape only that the oval corpuscles of the Camels 
resemble those of the lower vertebrate animals. No bird 
or reptile has yet been found with oval discs so small as 
those of the mammals in question. The mean of the long 
and short axes of the Vicugna's corpuscles is only ^g^grd 
of an inch, vv^hich is as small as the discs of mammals generally. 

Rodentia. — The corpuscles in this order are generally 
rather large, approaching to those of man and the Quadru- 
mana; and the discs of the Capybara, one of the larger 
species, appear remarkable for their magnitude. I had, 
however, only one opportunity of examining the blood of 
this animal. No instance was found among the rodents of 
an approach to that minuteness in the average sized cor- 
puscles which is observable in several of the ruminating 
and carnivorous animals. 

Edentata. — In the Weasel-headed Armadillo the corpus- 
cles are as large as those of the Quadrumana. 

Marsupiafa. — The size of the corpuscles is much the 
same in this order as in the Rodentia and Edentata. It is 
singular that there should be a greater difference between 
the magnitude of the discs of the two species of the carni- 
vorous Dasyure than was observed in any other two species 
of the order, even when belonging to different families. It 
will be recollected, however, that there is a remarkable 


variety in the size of the corpuscles of the placental Gar- 
ni vora. 


With the few exceptions presently to be noticed, the 
blood-corpuscles of the Mammalia, if examined in the 
healthy state and perfectly fresh, present themselves in the 
form of flattened circular discs, their thickness being about 
one fourth of their transverse diameter. The edges of the 
discs are rounded. In the examples given in the Tables, 
none of the corpuscles appear to be thinner than here men- 
tioned, but some are rather thicker, particularly in one of 
the Rodentia and in some of the Marsupiata. 

The discs often appear flat, without either depression or 
elevation, but in most cases a slight depression is apparent 
as they roll over in the field of vision. Hence the opinion 
formed by Dr. Young, and confirmed by Dr. Hodgkin and 
Mr. Lister, that the human blood-corpuscles have the form 
of biconcave discs, coincides with what 1 have observed in 
numerous lower Mammalia. But the corpuscles are some- 
times rather tumid on the surface — lenticular — and occa- 
sionally cup -shaped. They are often swollen at the edges, 
which, in consequence, project towards the centre, thus pro- 
ducing there triangular, oval, or irregular depressions. The 
cup-shaped variety is rather frequent in corpuscles which 
have been mixed a little while with saline solutions ; and it is 
not uncommon in man, particularly among the particles of 
purulent or other morbid fluids. The other forms are sel- 
dom seen in human blood, although they are very common 
in the lower Mammalia. Two or three central particles, 
either oval or circular, giving the idea of air-globules, are 
sometimes present in the corpuscles. A particle of this 
kind occasionally occurs singly in the centre of the disc. * 

Oval form. — la the Camelidag the discs have a well-de- 

*0n this point, see "Observations on the Blood-discs and 
their Contents" read before the Med. and Chir. See. by Mr. 
Qiieckett, March 23, 1841. Medical Gazette, vol. 28. p. 74. 



fined oval figure. This fact, discovered by M. Mandl in 
the Dromedary and Paco, led me to examine the blood of 
the Vicugna and Llama, in both of which the corpuscles 
were found to present the same oval shape. * 

Peculiar oblong forms. — In certain species of deer, as 
well as in some other mammals, the majority of the cor- 
puscles presented very singular figures, generally oblong, 
spear-shaped, sigmoid, and polygonal. f These shapes 
were most abundant an hour or two after the blood had 
been abstracted from the animals. The fact is remarkable, 
and will be further noticed in the next Section. 

Granulated or mamillated, and angular forms. — These 
obviously differ both in form and size from the common 
corpuscles, though also of a red colour and easily acted on 
by water and acetic acid. As noticed by Hewson, the blood- 
discs, when about to putrefy, often appear mulberry shaped ; 
but the granulated and angular particles may be found in 
the blood almost at all times. % I have examined them 
chiefly in young kittens and puppies. These particles are 
sometimes very numerous in perfectly recent blood ; fre- 
quently they are less common, or altogether absent, till the 
blood has been kept a few hours, when they become nume- 
rous, and occasionally they may be seen to increase in the 
drop of blood on the object-plate of the microscope. They 
are rather smaller than the common discs, irregular in 
shape, slightly flattened or nearly globular, with attached 
spherical granules or vesicles of very minute size. Some of 
these latter were estimated at from -30 p q qth to 773-^ th of 
an inch in diameter. The angular particles, which are gene- 
rally flattened, are frequently without any granules, though 
sometimes several of these project from the angles. These 
irregular blood-discs are represented in fig. 268, after a 
drawing by Mr. Siddall. 

Form in the emhryo. — In the young embryo, instead of 

* Vid. Med, Chir. Trans, v. 23. 

t Proc. Royal Society, Feb. 6, 1840, and Lend. andEdin. Phil. 
Mag Nov. 1840. 

I See Lend, and Edin. Phil. Mag., Jan. 1840. 


the form of the flat biconcave disc, the corpuscles are len- 
ticular or spherical. Hewson * figured the difference in 
size and shape between the corpuscles of the embryo and 
those of the adult, in the domestic fowl and in the viper. 


The corpuscles have been described by Schultz "|- as 
possessing an organic contractility, and even compared 
by Ebermeyer J to infusory animalcules, while Dr. 
Barry § observes, that the corpuscles in certain altered 
states undergo rapid and incessant changes of form, com- 
parable to the writhings of an animal in pain. I have fre- 
quently remarked, that the corpuscles are singularly sus- 
ceptible of alterations, as if from the effect of organic 
contractility, || especially after extravasation, when the 
change often takes place very quickly. ^ In the blood 
of certain deer the peculiar and remarkable forms men- 
tioned in Sect. 2 were much more abundant than the 
circular discs — an interesting fact, for if these singular 
figures result from alterations of the common corpuscles, 
as there is some reason to suppose, their power of perma- 
nently assuming new forms can no longer be doubted; 
and, as elsewhere remarked, the inquiry is one which may 
tend to throw some light on the nature of the blood-cor- 
puscles. "** 

They may often be seen to suffer modifications of shape 
while circulating in the capillary vessels, becoming sud- 
denly elongated, twisted, or bent, by any narrowing of the 

* Exp. Inq. part 3, plate 1, by Magnus Falconer, 1777. 
t Ancell's Lectures, Lancet, vol. 1, 1839—1840, p. 147. 

I Muller's Physiologv by Baly, 1837, p. 143. 
§ Phil. Trans, part 2,' 1840. 

II Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag. Jan. 1840. 
^Ibid. for Feb. 1840. 

** Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag. Nov., 1840, and Proceedings 
lloy..Soc. Feb. 6, 1840. 


channel, and as quickly recovering their original form, after 
passing the obstacle. Indeed, as M. Mandl remarks, the 
corpuscles are so very soft and elastic as to be most easily 
indented. * They may also be frequently seen to undergo 
similar changes when mixed w^ith some morbid fluids. 
When a stream of pus-globules, for instance, is running 
across the object plate, some of the blood-corpuscles acci- 
dentally present in the matter, may be seen w^hen they 
impinge on a grosser particle to alter and resume their form 
with singular rapidity, running vividly in a serpentine 
course between the pus-globules, or darting across the field 
of vision, now appearing deeply concave, spindle-shaped, 
bent, or indented, and instantaneously returning to their 
original figure. 

The minute molecules of the blood often exhibit very 
vivid molecular motions. 


If blood be diluted with water, it is well known that the 
corpuscles lose their flat shape and become spherical. They 
subside, if the mixture be allowed to stand for a few hours, 
and may be washed by repeated additions of water till 
completely deprived of their colouring matter. In this 
state, they may be recognised, with a good instrument and 
clear light, faintly indeed, perfectly flat and circular, and 
rather smaller than before the experiment; and the addition 
of a drop of a strong solution of corrosive sublimate will 
instantly exhibit these washed corpuscles most distinctly, 
even when not otherwise visible, and thus they may be 
preserved for an indefinite time, for demonstration. Acetic 
acid immediately renders this mixture transparent, com- 
pletely dissolving the washed corpuscles, unless the acid 
be rather weak, in which case they may still be faintly 

* Anat, Microsc. Liv. 1. p. 13. 


brought into view again by the aid of iodine, ^as in the ex- 
periments of Donne and Schultz. 

Central Spot. — As this disappears after the removal 
of the colouring matter by the means just mentioned, it 
is probable that the spot or depression is caused by the 
accumulation of this matter at the circumference of the 
disc. In like manner, the central spot is generally no 
longer visible when the hematosine begins to dissolve in 
the serum ; and when this takes place from incipient putre- 
faction, and the edges of the discs appear granulated or 
notched, the colouring matter may be removed by water ; 
and yet by the aid of corrosive sublimate, the membranous 
bases of the corpuscles may be seen, for the most part, quite 
entire, apparently indicating that the jagged appearance 
was produced merely by a division of the colouring matter. 
Nucleus. — In the lower vertebrate animals, nothing can 
be more distinct than the nucleus of the blood-corpuscles ; 
but it is far otherwise in the Mammalia, as M. Magendie 
has noticed.* The membranous bases of the discs, as 
previously described, appear quite flat, scarcely ever exhi- 
biting any aperture or rent through which a nucleus could 
have escaped ; and they may be watched in vain for the 
appearance of such a body during their solution in acetic 
acid, — at least all my experiments, which have been very 
numerous, have given nothing but negative results, although 
the observations of Professor Miiller, made by the aid of 
acetic acid, enabled him to satisfy himself of the existence 
of a nucleus in the blood-corpuscles of mammals.-j- But I 
am quite convinced that the red particles of mammiferous 
animals have no nucleus like that found in the lower Ver- 
tebrata. " The existence of a nucleus in the blood-corpus- 
cle of man which I was formerly inclined to admit," says 
that excellent observer R. Wagner, *' has lately become 
with me a matter of doubt. " J 

* Lectures in the Lancet, vol. 1, 1838 — 39, p. 141, and 858. 

But the assertion of this eminent Physiologist that the corpus= 
cles of birds are also destitute of nuclei is quite incorrect. 

t Physiology by Baly, 2nd ed. part 1. p. 114, 

I Physiology by Willis, note to Sect. 92. 


It appears to me, therefore, that the blood-corpuscles of 
the Mammalia differ from those of birds, reptiles, and 
fishes, as completely in structure as in shape. Nor do 
the oval corpuscles of the Camelidae afford an exception, for 
these discs belong both in structure and magnitude to the 
mammiferous type, exhibiting no nucleus when treated 
with acids or water, having a size common to the corpuscles 
of numerous Mammalia, but being distinctly smaller than 
any diameters hitherto observed in the corpuscles either 
of birds or reptiles. 


The irregular particles described in Sect. 2, however 
peculiar in form, agree with the common discs in colour 
and chemical properties ; but the corpuscles now to be 
considered differ also in these respects from the red 

White Globules. — Nucleated cells * or Organic germs of 
Jibrine, — If a drop of blood be carefully examined with a 
deep object glass, one or two white globules will generally 
be seen in each field of vision. The average diameter of 
these globules is about aTooth of an inch. They are sphe- 
rical, or nearly so, semitransparent, and for the most part 
slightly granular on the surface, although sometimes appa- 
rently quite smooth. By the aid of acetic acid they 
generally, like pus-globules, exhibit two or three nuclei, 
as remarked by M. Donne. 

The white globules seem to have no relation either in 
form or size to the blood discs, for while the latter differ 
remarkably in some Mammifera, the former seldom vary, 

* I use this term in the sense in which it is employed generally 
by Schwann, and Muller. Henle 1 think employs the term pri- 
mary cells. The researches, however, of that excellent observer 
Valentin tend to show how frequently the so-called nucleus is, in 
fact, a " nucleolus." See R, Wagner's Physiology, by Dr. 
Willis, part 1. p. 214. 


whatever may be the character of the red particles. In 
the Napu musk deer, for instance, the white globules are 
of the same form and„size as in man, and so they are in the 
Camelida?, differing but slightly even in the lower vertebrate 
animals. In short, although some care with a good instru- 
ment may be requisite to distinguish these globules among 
the blood discs of man and several other mammals, yet in 
those just mentioned, as well as in birds, fishes, and rep- 
tiles, the white globules are so remarkably different from the 
red particles as to be instantly apparent. Hence, Spallan- 
zani described the white globules in the salamander ; but 
it does not appear that they were noticed in the blood of 
mammals till M. Mandl * announced the fact of their ex- 
istence there three or four years ago. 

The nature of the white globules is still a subject for 
inquiry. M. Mandl considers that they are produced by 
the coagulation of fibrine, and that this coagulation is 
necessarily attended by the formation of these globules, 
which he has detected in the filtered clot of the blood of 
the frog. He regards the white globules as identical in 
all respects with those of pus and mucus, and therefore 
designates all these globules, as well as those of the 
secretions, globules fihrineux. He moreover states that 
these globules are never found in the circulation, but are 
formed, and may be seen to augment in number, on the 
port-object of the microscope ; and Mr. Phillips f adopts 
this view of the subject. Wagner and Miiller % conclude 
that the white globules are identical with those of lymph ; 
but the latter physiologist only mentions them in frogs. 

The observations on the structure of fibrine in the note 
at page 28, plate 18, were printed before I was at all ac- 
quainted with M. Mandl's ingenious researches ; and it 
was with much inconvenience that a reference to these was 
subsequently introduced. I mention this again, because it 

* Anat. Micros. Liv. 1. p. 1(>. 

t Lect. on Surgery, Medical Gazette, vol. 25, p 3:^9, 

I Physiology by Kaly, 2nded. p. 1 17. 


appears to me that the labours of this physiologist are 
well worthy of more attention than they have yet received 
in this country. The corpuscles which I have described 
as organic germs, M. Mandl would probably consider the 
same as his fibrinous globules, although the identity 
between the isolated white globules and the corpuscles 
represented in Figs. 246 — 251, seems very questionable. It 
will be observed that I have figured two kinds of corpuscles 
in fibrine, viz. cells and their nuclei, the former almost 
always containing the latter, while the nuclei often appear 
without the cells. Now M. Mandl in describing pus-glo- 
bules, which he says are identical with those which he saw 
in fibrine, rejects the idea of nuclei except as the effect of 
secondary changes in the globule. I have, however, seldom 
failed to observe the nuclei very plainly, either naked in 
the clot of fibrine, (fig. 250,) oi contained within a delicate 
and faint cell, this often so imperfectly formed as to be 
scarcely discernible, though sometimes very well marked 
(Figs. 248, 249, and 251.) The nuclei, though occasion- 
ally bearing considerable resemblance to those of the 
pus-globule, are commonly different both in form and size, 
being generally extremely irregular in shape, rounded or 
oblong, considerably smaller than the isolated white glo- 
bules of the blood or of pus, yet larger than the nuclei of 
these latter. It must, however, be allowed that the method 
of preparation may have modified the relative appearance 
of the cells and nuclei, though the question of fact as to 
the existence of these separate bodies would appear to be 
decided in the affirmative by the effects of this preparation. 
In short, independently of other differences, the nuclei and 
cells are distinct in their chemical characters, the one 
resisting the operation of some reagents which act ener- 
getically on the other. 

Hence it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the 
corpuscles which I have described as organic germs, are 
indeed primary or nucleated cells, less definitely formed 
than these as we commonly see them, but still essentially 
of the same nature, similar in structure and chemical cha- 


racters, and probably alike capable of furthei- development 
if placed in favourable circumstances. The fact of these 
cytoblasts existing in fibrine which has coagulated quite 
independently of inflammatory action, would tend to support 
the view promulgated by an eminent observer, that in- 
flammation is rather hurtful than salutary in the repara- 
tion of injuries, and indeed altogether unnecessary for the 
cure in any case, contrary to the doctrine which had been 
generally promulgated. * 

As stated in the note, page 31 — 33, the nuclei and 
their cells are very variable in magnitude. I subjoin some 
measurements of them (in fractions of an English inch) as 
observed in the clots from which the figures were taken. 

Fig. 247. Boiled fibrine ; corpuscles almost uniformly 



Fig. 249. Cells roundish, and often oval ; showing no 
nuclei when treated with acids. 


1—1777 1—3555 

1—1455 1—3200 

1—1600 1—3369 

Fig. 250. Nuclei shown by sulphurous acid. They are 
round, oblong, and irregular in shape. 


1—4000 1—12000 

1—3000 1 — 8000 

1—2666 1 — 6400 

1 — 4000 


1 — 6507 

* Dr. Macartney on Inflammation, 4to. Lend. 18.38, 



Fig. ^51. Nuclei much the same size as in fig. 250. 
Faint envelopes, mostly oval, of the following sizes. 


1—2000 1—4000 

1—1714 1—3200 

1—1864 l~3555 

The numbers beneath the lines are the estimated ave- 
rages of the fractions above. 

In all my observations a compound microscope was used 
with achromatic object glasses, either of an eighth or a 
tenth of an inch focal length, made by two excellent artists, 
Ross and Powell. These glasses were found necessary to 
examine the objects satisfactorily, for they became indis- 
tinct or invisible with much lower powers. But M. Piorry * 
has described, in the buffy coat of the blood, greyish granu- 
lations, about as big as poppy or hempseeds, which granu- 
lations were best seen by transmitted light (contre-jour ;} 
and Mr. Addison has lately given some observations " On 
colourless Globules of the buffy coat of the Blood,"f 
which it appears were detected with a common lens. " On 
dipping the point of the finger on the surface (of the buffy 
coat} before coagulation had taken place, a clear colourless 
drop adhered to it, which, when transferred to a piece of 
glass, and examined by a common lens, against the light, 
was found to contain an immense multitude of clear colour- 
less globules." Some other observations are mentioned, 
one of which was made with a Coddington lens, and another 
with a microscope. That a globular appearance may be 
seen under the circumstances recorded by Mr. Addison, is 
not improbable ; but as neither the size nor the structure 
of the globules is mentioned, it is doubtful whether the 
appearance observed was produced by the granulations of 
M. Piorry or by the fibrinous globules of M. Mandl. 

* Traite de Diagnostic et de Semeiologie, tom. 1, p. 353. 
t Medical Gazette, Dec. 1840, No. 681. 


It has already been remarked, that Professor Muller 
considers the isolated white globules of the blood of frogs 
as lymph-globules ; and, as it appears to me, with sufficient 
reason, M. Mandl, however, dissents from this opinion,* 
regarding the globules as identical with the fibrinous glo- 
bules which are formed on the port-object of the micros- 
cope, and never seen in the circulating blood. -j- The iden- 
tity in batrachian reptiles, between the lymph-globules and 
the white globules of the blood seems to me pretty certain 
for two reasons ; first, because the latter cannot be disting- 
uished from the globules contained in the subcutaneous lymph 
of the frog ; and secondly, because globules also precisely 
similar to the white globules of the blood may frequently 
be observed circulating in the veins of the living frog. 
These globules are occasionally present in great numbers, 
moving with singular slowness along the inner surface of 
the vessel, from which they may often be seen to be de- 
tached, and then carried along in the rapid current of blood- 

But though the identity in question is thus rendered pro- 
bable in reptiles, it is not so in mammals, for in this class 
the white globules of the blood have an average diameter 
of about 3 8^0 ^1^ ^^ ^^ inch, which is considerably larger than 
the lymph-globules, the medium diameter of which is about 
4 6^0 th of an inch. Besides, the white globules of the 
blood are quickly dissolved or rendered nearly transparent by 
acetic acid, so as to expose two or three nuclei, + whereas the 
globules of the juice of the lymphatic glands, treated by the 
same acid, are simply rendered somewhat smaller and more 
distinct, seldom exhibiting any nuclei similar to those just 
mentioned. In fact, I have preserved the lymphatic glo- 
bules for months in acetic acid with no other change than 
a slight diminution in their size, and a remarkable increase 
in the distinctness of their outlines, excepting a few of the 

* Anat. Micros. Liv. 1 . p. 16, Sect. 5. 
tibid. Sect, 4. 

X These are noticed by M. Donne — •Mandl. Anat. Micros. Liv. 
1. p. 9. 


globules which presented the appearance of a single central 
body quite circular and entire, though occasionally granu- 
lar, and nearly as large as the globule itself. I have, how- 
ever, seen in the fluid of the thoracic duct of the horse 
and of some of the Carnivora, globules precisely similar in 
size and chemical characters to the white globules of the 

Upon the whole it appears, that the white globules of the 
blood are analogous to the isolated cells of Schwann, * the 
free nucleoli of Valentin, f and the crude primary cells of 
Henle. X Scarcely any difference, indeed, either in size or 
structure, can be detected between the white globules and 
those of healthy and perfectly recent pus. In inflamma- 
tory diseases, especially when attended by suppuration, 
whitish globules, which I have elsewhere § described as 
those of pus, may be found in unusual numbers in the 
blood. The observations of Dr. Davy|| are to the same 
effect, especially as to the greater number of these globules 
in the blood during suppurative diseases. Mr. Ancell has 
obtained a similar result;^ and Henle remarks, that the 
globules of mucus, which cannot be distinguished from 
those of pus, are formed wherever the action of the part is 

In fine, that the presence of great quantities of these 
white globules in the blood is referable to disease, I have 
little doubt. In the horse Mr. Siddall and I have re- 
peatedly seen them in vast numbers, especially when 
the animal has been suffering from the affection usu- 
ally termed influenza, and which is prevalent in the 
spring. In this disease inflammatory fever is very common, 
with oedema of the legs and other parts, and fibrinous and 
serous effusions into the pleurge. Though these white 

* Muller's Physiology by Baly, 2nd ed. p. 399. 

t Wagner's Physiology, by Willis, part 1, p. 215. 

X MuUer, by Bal}-, p. 420. 

§ Lend, and Edin. Phil. Mag. Sept. 1838. 

II Researches, Phys. and Anat. vol. 2. p, 212. 

^ Lectures in the Lancet, 1839 — 1840, vol. 2, p. 777. 


globules are generally nucleated as before mentioned, yet 
it frequently happens that acetic acid exerts scarcely any 
action on them, merely making them rather more distinct, 
and bringing into view no appearance of nuclei whatever. 
It is the same, however, with some varieties of pus from 
abscesses, as noticed in fig. 258. The pus-like globules 
in the blood of the horse are shown in Mr. Siddall's 
dawing, fig. 269. Corpuscles formed by an aggregation of 
small spherules, and quite distinct fromthe nucleated cells, 
are occasionally met with in fibrine. This form of cor- 
puscle is mentioned in the note, page 34, and is partly 
visible near the centre of fig. 246. 

White matter. — Besides the globules just described, an 
abundance of white matter, generally presenting in the 
form of spherules, may often be observed in blood obtained 
from mammals after death. These bodies vary in diameter 
from x^o^th to yt5t^^ of an inch. They frequently seem 
to have a semifluid consistency, especially in the blood of 
the mesenteric veins, in which the white matter was found 
most abundantly. It was observed very generally in the 
blood'of the Quadrumana, perhaps in consequence of patho- 
logical changes. The animals had died of various diseases, 
chiefly tubercular phthisis, afiecting the spleen and liver 
quite as commonly as the lungs, and frequently the former 
organs, when the latter did not contain any appearance of 
tubercular matter. 

Milky serum. — This was often observed, particularly in 
young animals during digestion ; and in two instances both 
in arterial and venous blood, which was carefully abstracted 
on one side of the neck from the carotid artery, and on the 
other side from the jugular vein. The serum was some- 
times tinged of a whitish colour, but more frequently a 
milky film was formed on the surface, the subjacent serum 
being nearly or quite transparent. 

The bulk of this milky matter was composed of spherical 
particles so exceedingly minute that the highest magnify- 
ing power was required to distinguish them with tolerable 
clearness. The milky matter, indeed, both in its micros- 


copical and chemical characters, was identical with the 
molecular hase of the chyle, an account of which will be 
found further on ; a few larger spherules were also present, 
as well as a very small number of granules, about -^o^th 
of an inch in diameter. But the milky appearance was 
entirely owing to the molecular ground just mentioned ; 
and as the animals had been fed specially for the purpose 
of experiments on the chyle, the characteristic base of this 
fluid was compared repeatedlj with the milky matter of 
the blood, and no difference could be distinguished between 
them, either in the form and appearance of the particles or 
in their chemical properties. 

This milky or rather chylous matter, it will be remarked, 
was found when there was no suspicion whatever of dis- 
ease ; but as I have had no opportunity of observing a 
similar appearance of the blood in other cases, of course I 
cannot offer any opinion on the milky serum which appears 
to have occurred as a pathological condition in several 
instances noticed by Hewson, * Dr. Babington, f and 
many other writers. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Boyd, however, I have 
lately had an opportunity of examining a specimen of 
semiopaque serum, of a dirty white colour, and thickish 
consistency. It was obtained from a man aged 30, who 
was bled on account of symptoms of pleurisy. The colour 
and opacity were perhaps due to a little imperfectly dis- 
solved albumen ; the cause of the colour was not dis- 
closed by microscopical examination. When treated with 
vegetable acids, or with earthy and alkaline salts, no 
change was produced in the appearance of the serum. On 
the addition of ether, a pale yellowish matter subsided, 
which on examination with the microscope appeared to be 
composed of a congeries of oil-like globules. This matter 
may possibly be of a peculiar nature. I have seen nothing 
similar to it, except the delicate matter, which has the same 

* Exp. Inq. part 1. 1770 p. 141. 
t Cyclop Anat. vol. 1. p. 422 — 23. 


microscopical characters, resulting from the action of ether 
on chyle. But the morbid serum here noticed, is quite 
distinct from the milky serum described above. 

Minute spherules, — (Fig. 268) very variable in size, but 
most commonly from g-Q-^^^h to ^Q^i^hof an inch in diame- 
ter, were often observed in the blood. They very frequently 
appeared under the same circumstances as the granulated 
particles, both generally occurring together as shown in 
the engraving, the spherules often exhibiting rapid vi- 
bratory or molecular motions, and sometimes becoming 
either attached to, or separated from the granulated parti- 
cles. Oily globules, very minute also, were occasionally 
present in the blood, especially in some of the Feree, as 
in a leopard that had the entire parenchyma of his kidneys 
loaded in a remarkable manner with fatty matter. It 
appears very doubtful whether the minute spherules are 
the same as the albuminous globules of M. Mandl. * 

Corpuscles resembling those of the spleen and suprarenal 
gland. — In the venous blood of the renal capsule, spherical 
particles like those of this gland, (Fig. 2QQ.^ may often be 
observed ; and in the blood of the splenic vein, corpuscles may 
sometimes be detected, by the aid of acetic acid, similar to 
those of the spleen, (Fig. 2Q5.^ These facts seem especially 
deserving of notice, as they may tend to explain the use of 
the organs in question. 


Although the formation of the corpuscles of mammals 
is still a mystery, in the lower vertebrate animals, some 
observations of much interest have been made on the 
subject by Wagner,!- Valentin,;]: and others, from which it 
would appear that the blood-corpuscles are, in fact, cyto- 

* Anat. Micros. Liv. 1. p. 8. 

t Wagner's Physiology by Dr. Willis, part 1 p. 215. 

I Ibid. 


blasts, or free nucleated nuclei. The organic germs or 
nucleated cells found in clots of fibrine, have been des- 
cribed in the preceding Section and in the note at page 31. 
Dr. Baly thinks it probable that in the frog the flattened 
and oval blood-corpuscles are formed from the lymph 
globules by the flattening and extension of the cell sur- 
rounding their nucleus. * White globules, about the same 
size as those in the blood of man, and probably identical with 
the proper globules of chyle and lymph, are common in the 
blood of birds, and particularly abundant after a full meal 
in the Vultures and other rapacious families. Some of 
the red discs too, instead of the oval form, are often nearly 
or quite circular in figure. Hence the blood of these birds 
would appear especially favourable to observe any changes 
in the white globules, and it seemed highly probable that 
these might be transformed into the blood discs in the 
manner mentioned by Dr. Baly ; but although I made 
many observations with the view of determining this ques- 
tion, nothing but negative results were obtained. 

The minute spherules of the blood, as mentioned in the 
foregoing Section, are often very numerous, particularly 
in company with the granulated particles. Whether the 
latter are blood discs in progress of formation, or in the 
act of separating into young corpuscles, has not yet been 
determined ; nor is it known whether the isolated minute 
spherules ever become converted into blood discs or any 
form of cytoblast, though the spherules in question suggest 
the idea of free nucleoli. Mr. Quecket states that the 
" parent discs " give out from their interior a number of 
small globular bodies, f and Dr. Barry | has described a 
progressive division of the blood-disc into globules, espe- 
cially in blood obtained soon after coition from the Fallo- 
pian tubes of the rabbit. In the venous blood of young 
kittens I have sometimes seen one of the little spherules 
become detached from the granulated particle, and pro- 

* Translation of MuUer's Physiology, part 1. 2nd. ed. p. 156. 
t Medical Gazette, Jan. 10, 1840. No, 632. 
I Phil. Trans. 1840. part 2. 


jected into the serum ; but some of the free spherules were 
more frequently observed to attach themselves to the 
irregular and jagged blood-corpuscles, so as to produce the 
granulated particles. These phenomena w^ere almost 
always attended with singularly rapid vibratory or spinning 
motions of the spherules. 

The use of the blood-corpuscles is a subject of much 
interest, but one about which we have no satisfactory 
knowledge. Dr. Barry, * however, has recently declared 
his opinion that the young muscular fibre and the cells of 
the chorion are formed immediately from the blood discs. 




The Tables are so full and explicit on this subject, that 
only a few remarks appear to be necessary. The measure- 
ments are given in fractions of an English inch, and set 
down as noted in the first and second Observations. 
There is much less variation in the size of the blood-cor- . 
puscles of birds than in those of mammals. The differences 
in the long diameter will of course be more evident than 
those of the short diameter. It still seems to be a common 
opinion that the latter is always the same, and that the 
varieties in the dimensions of the corpuscles are confined 

* Loo. cit. 



to the former. * This, however, is so far from the truth, 
that the diversity in their breadth might be shown to have a 
very near relation to the diiFerent diameters of the corpus- 
cles of mammals, of which any one may convince himself 
by comparing the sizes of the corpuscles of the latter class 
with the measurements now given of the short diameters of 
the corpuscles of birds. And as these corpuscles move 
with their long axis parallel to the sides of the smallest 
vessels, the short diameter has the same relation to the 
most minute capillaries of birds, as already mentioned re- 
specting this order of vessels and the blood-discs of mam- 

The length of the corpuscles is for the most part a little 
less than twice the extent of their breadth, but to this there 
are some remarkable exceptions, as may be seen by refer- 
ence to the Tables. The thickness of the corpuscles is 
about a third, or rather more, of this breadth. 

The size of the corpuscles in birds has generally 
more relation to that of the species than in mammals. No 
instance in the former class has yet been found of very 
large corpuscles in the smaller species, and compara- 
tively minute corpuscles in the larger animals, as is the 
case in several of the latter class. But we still require 
observations on the blood-discs of the Humming-birds. 

Rapaces. — With the exception of the struthious birds, 
the corpuscles are, on the whole, rather larger in the birds 
of prey than in the other orders. In the Snowy Owl, the 
length of the discs is remarkable, the more so, as this is 
nearly three times as much as their breadth, so that the 
red particles of this bird are seen at a glance to be very 
singular, f An excellent observer has recently expressed 
himself to the following effect, — " En prennant dans les 
globules sanguins des chameaux, oiseaux, reptiles, et pois- 
sons, le petit diametre pour unite, le grand varie entre 
1|^ a 2 ; on en rencontre une exception dans les CrocodUiens, 

* Vid. Cyclop. Anat. vol. 1. p. 409. 
Vid. Proc. Zool. See. 1840, p. 42, 


dent le grand diametre et 2 a 3 fois plus grand que le 
petit. "* 

Omnivorce. — The corpuscles are smaller than in the pre- 
ceding order, and the diminution in size generally affects the 
breadth more in proportion than the length of the discs. 
They are particularly narrow in the Rose-coloured Pastor, 
and in the Silky Molothrus. In the Hornbill the cor- 
puscles are very regular in size, but taking the average 
of their two diameters, as large as any blood-corpuscles to 
be found among birds, with one or two exceptions. 

Insectivorce. — The corpuscles of the Nightingale are 
rather longer than the average in relation to their breadth, 
and those of the Butcher Bird especially so. In fact, the 
breadth of the latter discs but very slightly exceeds a third 
of their length. In the other insectivorous birds, the cor- 
puscles are nearly allied to those of the granivorous order. 

Granivorce. — In this order the corpuscles are generally 
smaller than in the other orders. Many of the smaller 
species, as the Nutmeg Bird and Lesser Redpole, have 
very small corpuscles. They are short in relation to their 
breadth in the common Sparrow and Crossbill, and in 
some of the other species; and on the contrary the corpus- 
cles of the Snow Bunting are unusually narrow in propor- 
tion to their length. 

Zygodactili. — The blood of a great number of birds of 
this order was examined with a view particularly of ascer- 
taining whether the size of the corpuscles varied much in 
nearly allied genera, and the result appears in the affirm- 

Anisodactyli. — The corpuscles of the Nuthatch and 
Common Creeper are of small dimensions. There were 
more circular red discs in the blood of these birds than is 

* Mandl, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, seconde serie, torn. 
12, p. 289. In the corpuscles, however, of some of the Croco- 
dilidse, I found that the long diameter was scarcely equal to 
twice the short diameter. See Proc, Zool. Soc. Nov. 10, 1840. 


usual in other species ; but I had no opportunity of repeat- 
ing the observations. 

Alcyones. — In two species of this order, the corpuscles 
were of about the medium size. 

Chelidones. — The corpuscles of the Chimney Swallow 
and of the Martin are slightly shorter than g-^th of an 

ColumhcB. — We might expect to find an exact resem- 
blance between the elementary parts of such a truly natu- 
ral family as the Columbidcs, and yet the observations show 
a striking difference between the corpuscles of the Great 
Crowned Pigeon and those of the Mountain Dove. If the 
discs of the Passenger Pigeon be compared with those of 
the birds just mentioned, or of the Russet Pigeon, a still 
more remarkable difference will be observed, not affecting 
the size merely, but the form also ; for the corpuscles of 
the Passenger Pigeon are very narrow ellipses, while in the 
other pigeons this peculiarity of shape is not present. * A 
similar difference is also to be found among the corpuscles 
of birds of another very natural group — the Strigidce — as 
will be seen at once by comparing the dimensions of the 
red particles of the common Brown Owl with those of the 
Snowy Owl. 

GalUnce. — In the smaller species of this order the cor- 
puscles are very small, which is not the case, however, in 
the larger species. The corpuscles of the former are as 
diminutive as those of the granivorous birds ; but in the 
Peacocks and Curassows, the corpuscles are larger than in 
the Granivoree. In the Great Tinamoo the discs appear to 
exceed in size those of the other gallinaceous birds. 

Alectorides, — Like the corpuscles of the rapacious 
birds, the corpuscles of the Cariama are of large size ; and 
they are rather broader than usual in proportion to their 

Cursores. — The corpuscles of the Emu are remarkably 

* Vid. Proc. Zool. See. June 9, 1840. 



large, and those of tlie American Ostricli are but very 
slightly smaller. 

Grallatores. — In this order the corpu scles are of large 
size, being very nearly allied in this respect to those of the 
llapaces. The Whimbrel has very narrow discs. 

Pinnatipedes. — In the Dab-chick the discs are of a very 
common size. 

Palmipedes. — These birds have generally large corpus- 
cles like those of the rapacious and wading tribes. 


No bird has yet been found with the majority of the 
corpuscles of any other than the oval form. We have 
seen, however, that although this ellipse has, for the most 
part, the proportions which have generally been assigned 
to it, viz. the long diameter from one and a half to twice 
the extent of the short diameter: yet, regarding the short 
diameter as unity, there are some instances in which the 
long diameter would be 1 j to 1^ ; and in others 2 to 2^ 
and 2-j to 3. In other words, the corpuscles may present 
the figure either of a very broad or of a very narrow ellipse. 
Those of some of the granivorous birds, as the Common 
Cross-bill and Java Sparrow, are examples of the former 
shape ; and of the latter, there are instances in several 
different families, as shown by the corpuscles of the Snowy 
Owl, Butcher Bird, Passenger Pigeon, and the Snow 

The discs are generally flat, without either elevation or 
depression of the surface, though sometimes a slight tu- 
midity is observable in the centre on both sides ; and a 
little indentation may occasionally be seen around this 
swelling, that is, between the outer part of the nucleus and 
the circumference of the envelope. The margins of the 
discs are rounded, and often a good deal compressed ; they 
never appear abrupt like the edge of a cheese. 

Circular corpuscles of precisely the same colour and 


structure as the common corpuscles may sometimes be 
seen, and every gradation in shape between the round and 
the regular oval forms may be present. 

In the Tables, a few measurements of the nuclei have 
been given, in order to show that these differ in shape from 
their envelopes, the former being much longer in propor- 
tion to their breadth, than the latter. Some of the nuclei, 
however, occasionally appear nearly circular, but this is a 
variation which seldom affects many of them in one field of 
vision, for the majority almost always have the elongated 
figure. In fishes the nucleus of the blood-corpuscle is 
either a very short ellipse or quite circular, thus differing 
remarkably from the nucleus of the blood-discs of birds. 


The observations of Hewson, if applied to the corpuscles 
of birds, are extremely accurate. But in the red particles 
of mammals no nucleus can be demonstrated like that 
which may be instantly shown in the corpuscles of any 
bird, nor do the oval discs of the Camelidse furnish any 
exception to this remark. Let any one add a little acetic 
acid even to the most minute blood-corpuscles of birds, 
under the microscope, and the field of vision will be instantly 
filled with the nuclei, which are remarkably distinct and 
characteristic ; but if the same experiment be made with 
the blood of a mammal, no matter how large and plain the 
corpuscles may be, a similar result will not follow. It is 
true that a very few minute spherules may be observed, but 
these bear no relation whatever in number to the corpuscles 
which were subjected to the action of the reagent. This, 
however, does not prove that these corpuscles contain no 
central matter, but it is surely a fair deduction that the 
corpuscles of birds differ essentially in this respect from 
the corpuscles of mammals. 




The mesisurements are all expressed in fractions of an English inch ; and 
the numerator being invariably 1, has been omitted throughout, the denomi- 
nators only having been printed, except by way of example under the Orang 
Utan. As shown in this example, the several measurements of the common 
sized discs are always first set down ; the small sized discs are next noticed, 
then those of large size, and lastly, the average deduced from the whole. A 
space is left between the common sizes, and those which are here denominated 
small and large, in preference to extremes, which latter we are seldom certain 
of having found. 



1. Orang Utan. (^Pithecus 
Satyrus, GeoiF.) 



I — 3368 ) Common sizes. 



1_4000 Small size. 
1 — 3000 Large size. 

1—3383 Average. 

2. Hoolock Gibbon. {Hi/lo- 
hates Hoolock, Harlan.) 




White-whiskered Gib- 
bon. {Hylohates leucoge- 
nys, Ogilby.) 




4. A Gibbon. {Hylohates 
Rafflesii, var.) 





5. Moor Monkey. (Semno- 
pithecus Maurus, Cuv. and 



6. Mona Monkey. {Cer- 
copilhecus Mona, Schreb.) 





7. Green Monkey. (^Cer- 
copithecus sabceus, Desm.) 



8. Sooty Monkey. (^Cerco- 





9. Patas or Reel Monkey. 
(^Cercopithecus ruber, Geoff.) 



10. Crown Monkey. (Cer- 
copithecus pi/eatus, Geoff.) 



11. Vervet Monkey. (^Cer- 
copithecus pygerythrus, F. 




12. White- nosed Monkey. 
( Cercopithecus Fetaurista, 







13. Grivet Monkey. (Cer- 
copithecus griseo-viridis, 





14. Collared or Mangabey 
Monkey. (^Cercopithecus 
^thiops, Geoff.) 




15 Toque Monkey. {Maca- 
cus radiatus, Desm.) 




16. Rhesus Monkey. (^Maca- 
cus Rhesus, Desm.) 





17. Black Ape. (^Macacus 
niger, Bennett.) 




18. Hare-lipped Monkey. 
(^Macacus cynomolgus, 



1 9. Wanderoo Monkey. 
(Macacus Silenus, Desm.) 





20. Pigtailed Ape. (^Maea- 
cus nemestrinus, Desm.) 



21. Magot or Barbary Ape. 
(^Macacus Inuus, Desm.) 





22. Black-backed Papio or 1 

26. Black Spider Monkey. 

Indian Ape. (Macacus 

(Jteles ater, F. Cuv.) 

melanotus, Ogilby.) 











23. Dog-faced Baboon. (C?/- 


nocephalus Anuhis, F. Cuv.) 





27. Marimonda Spider Mon- 


key. (^Ateles Behebuth, 











24. Drill, (^Cynocephalus 


leucophcsus, Desm.) 

28. Brown Capuchin Mon- 


key. ( CebusApellUf Desm.) 








3368 ^ 

4800 fl| 


2666 ^^ 



25. Chameck Spider Monkey. 

29. Weeper or Capuchin 

(^Ateles suhpentadactylus, 

Monkey. (Cehus capu- 
cinus, Geoff.) 









4572 1 


2666 i 





30. Squirrel Monkey. (Cal- 
lithrix sciureus, GeoiF.) 



31. Marmozet or Jacchus 
Monkey. (^Jacchus vul- 
garis, Geoff.) 




32. Marikina or Silky Tam- 
arin. (^Midas Rosalia, 








33. White fronted Lemur. 
{Lemur alhifrons, Geoff.) 




34. Ring tailed Lemur. 
{Lemur Catta, Linn.) 




35. Anjouan Lemur. {Lemur 
Anjuanensis, Geoff.) 



36. Black fronted Lemur. 
{Lemur nigrifrons, Geoff.) 




37. Slow Lemur. {Lemur 
tardigradus, Linn.) 






38. Slender Loris. (^Loris 
gracilis, Geoff.) 




39. Common Bat. (^Vesper- 
tilio murinusS) 




40, Common Mole. (Talpa 
Europcea, Linn.) 

I. Polar Bear. {Ursus 
maritimus, Linn.) 









43. European Brown Bear. 
( Ursus Arctos, Linn.) 



41. Common Badger. (^Meles 
Vulgaris, Desm.) 



t. Black Bear. (Ursus 
Americanus, Pallas.) 







45. Cinnamon Bear. (Ursus 
Americanus, var.) 





46. Grisly Bear. ( Ursus ferox, 
Lewis and Clark.) 




47. Sloth Bear. ( Uisus lahi- 
atus, De Blainv.) 




48. Raccoon. {ProcyonLotor, 




49. Brown Coati-Mondi. 
{Nasua fusca, Desm.) 



50. Rufous Coati-Mondi. 
(^Nasua rufa, Desm.) 






. The 







52. White Whiskered Para- 
doxure. (JParadoxurus 
leucomystax, Gray.) 




53. Common or Bondar 
Paradoxure. (Faradox- 
urus Bondar, Auct.) 






54. Two-spotted Paradox- 

58. Red American Fox. ( Ca- 

ure. (JParadoxurus bino- 

ms fulvus, Desm.) 

tatus. — Viverra hinotata, 












59. Black or Silvery Fox. 


(Canis argentatus, Desm.) 

55. Common Dog. (^Canis 


familiaris, Linn.) 








60. Arctic Fox. (^Canis la- 


gopus, Linn.) 


Same as the preceding. 

61. Jackal. (^Canis aureus, 

56. Australasian Dog. (Cam* 


Dingo, Blum.) 





3840 Thickness 


4800 14000 






62. Cape or Black-backed 


Jackal. (^ Canis mesomelas, 



57. Common Fox. (^Canis 

Vulpes, Linn.) 













63. Common Wolf. (^Canis 
Lupus, Linn.) 




64. Cape Hunting Dog. (^Ly- 
caon tricolor, Brookes.) 




Q5. Striped Hyaena. (Hy- 
cena vulgaris, Desm.) 




QQ. Spotted Hyaena. {Hy- 
cena crocuta, Linn.) 




67. Indian Ichneum on. (iSer- 
pestes griseus, Desm.) 




68. An Ichneumon from Ja- 
va. (Herpestes Javanicus?) 




Q^3. Smith's Ichneumon {Her- 
pestes Smithii, Gray.) 




70. African Civet Cat. {Vi- 
verra Civetta, Linn.) 






71. Tigrine Genet. (^Genetta 
tigrina. — Viverra tigrina, 




72. Lion. 

(^Felis Leo, Linn.) 



73. Puma or Silver Lion. 
(^Felis concolor, Linn.) 




74. Tiger. {Felis Tigris, 



75 Asiatic Leopard. (^Felis 
Leopardus, Linn.) 



76. Chetah or Hunting Leo- 


(Felis juhata, 





77. Ocelot (^Felis pardalis, 




78 Domestic Cat. (Felis 
domestica, Brisson.) 








79. Persian Lynx. {Felis 
Caracal, Gmel.) 




80. Norway Lynx. (^Felis 
cervaria, Temm.) 




81. Serval. (^Felis Serval, 




83. Zorilla or Cape Weasel, 
(J\Iusiela Zorilla, Desm.) 




84. Common Ferret. (Mus- 
telafuro, Linn.) 




85. Common Otter. {Lutra 
vulgaris, Erxl.) 





2. Grison. (Galictis vittata, 



86. Common Seal. 
vitulina, Linn.) 











87. Porpoise. (Delpliinus 
Phoccena, Briss.} 






The blood was obtained 
from a young Porpoise wbicli 
had never breathed. It meas- 
ured 30 inches long, and 14 
around the thickest part of 
the body ; it weighed 10 
pounds. The corpuscles were 
similar, both in shape and 
structure, to the blood-discs 
of other mammals, viz. cir- 
cular, and without the nuclei 
which are peculiar to the 
blood-corpuscles of the ovi- 
parous vertebrata. 

,. Pachydermata. 

88. Wild Boar. {Sus Scrofa, 



In some blood obtained 
from a common pig about 
half grown, the average size 
of the corpuscles was rather 
larger than in the Wild Boar. 
See Phil. Mag. for Jan. 1840, 
1^. .^9. 

89. Babyroussa. {Sus Bahy- 





90. Collared Peccary. (Dico- 
tyles torquatus, F. Cuv.) 




91. Indian Tapir. (Tapirus 
Indicus, Desm.) 




92. Asiatic Elephant. {Ele- 
phas Indicus, Cuv.) 







93. Rliinoceros. (Rhinoceros 
In die us, Desm.) 




94. Horse. {Equus Cahallus, 

5SSS Thickness. 






4706 13422 

95. Ass. (^Equus Asinus, 



96. Burdiell's Zebra. (^Equus 
Burchellii, Gray.) 




97. Dshikketai, or Wild Ass. 
{Equus Hemionus, Pall.) 



98. Dromedary. ( Camelus 
Dromedarius, Liun.) 

Long Diameter 




Short Diameter 




Thickness of the Discs. 


99. Vicugna. (Auchenia Vi- 
cugna, Desm.) 

Long Diameter Short Diameter 

4000 7110 

S555 6400 

3200 6000 





100. Guanaco, or Wild Llama. 
(^Auchenia Glama, Desm.) 

Long Diameter 

Short Diameter 














101. Paco. (Auchenia Paco, 

Discs not differing appreciably 
from those of the Llama. 

102. Napu Muse Deer. {Tra- 
galus Javanicus. — Mos- 
chus Javanicus, Pallas.) 







103. Wapiti Deer. (^Cervus 
Wapiti, Mitchell.) 




104. SamburDeer. (^Cervus 
Hippelaphus, Cuv. Oss.) 



105. Axis Deer. 
Axis, Erxl.) 




( Cervus 

106. Fallow Deer. 
Dama, Linn.) 





107. Moose Deer, or Elk. 
(^Cervus Alces, Linn.) 



108. Barbary Deer. (^Cervus 
Barbarus, Bennett.) 




109. A Deer. 
crourus .^) 

(^Cervus ma- 




110. Mexican Deer. (^Cervus 
Mexicanus, Licht.) 





111. Persian Deer. (^Cervus 
Mahral, Ogilby.) 


112. Hog Deer. (^Cervus 
jporcinus, Zimm.) 




113. Reeves's Mimtjac. (Cer- 
vus Revessii, Ogilby.) 




114. Roebuck. (^Cervus Ca- 
preolus, Linn.) 





115. Giraffe. {Camelopar- 
dalis Giraffa, Gmel.) 




116. Indian Antelope. {Anti- 
lope Cervicapra, Pall.) 




117. Gazelle Antelope. (An- 
tilope Dorcas, Pall.) 

4800 Thickness 
6000 16000 


118. Gnu Antelope. (Anti- 
lope Gnu, Gmel.) 




119. Sing-Sing Antelope. 
(Antilope Sing-Sing, 






120. Philantomb Antelope. 
(^Antilope Philantomba, 



121. Nylghau. {Antilope 
picta, Pall.} 






122. Cervine or Bubal Ante- 
lope. (Antilope Buhalis, 







123. Common Goat. (Capra 

Hire us, Linn.) 






124. Caehemire Goat. {Ca- 
pra Hircus, var.) 





125. Mouflon. {Ovis Mus- 
mon. Ham. Smith.) 






126. Common Sheep. 
Aries, Linn.) 





a. A four-horned Sheep from 
North Africa. 

h. A two-horned hairy Sheep 
from Africa. 

c. The hairy Sheep from De- 

There was no difference ap- 
preciable between the blood- 
corpuscles of the above va- 
rieties of the Sheep. The 



following measurements were 
obtained : — 







127. Aoudad, African Mou- 
flon, or Bearded Sheep. 
(^Ovis Tragelaphus, Desra.) 



129. Bison. 

(Bos Bison, 




130. Manilla Bufflilo. 
Buhalus, Linn.) 





128. Common Cow. 
Taurus, Linn.) 





a. Brahmin Cow. (Bos Tau- 
rus, var. Indicus.) 







Average thickness of the discs. 


131. Cape Buffalo. 
Coffer, Sparman.) 




132. Splendid Flying Squir- 
rel. {Bteromys nitidus, 






133. Lesser American Flying 
Squirrel. (Pteromys Vo- 
lucella, Cuv.} 




134. Common Squirrel. (^Sci- 
urus vulgaris, Linn.} 

' 4570 



135. Black Squirrel. Sciurus 
n iger, Linn?) 



136. Gray Squirrel. (^Sciurus 
cinereus, Gmel.) 



137. Capistrated Squirrel. 
(Sciurus capistratus, 




138. Palm Squirrel. (Sciurus 
Palmarum,, Briss.) 




139. Hoary Marmot or Whis- 
tler. {Arctomys ? pruino- 
sus, Rich.) 




140. Bandicoot Rat. (Mus 
giganteus, Hardw.) 






141 . Norway or common Rat. 

145. Water Rat or Campag 

(^Mtis decumanus, Linn.) 

nal. (Arvicola amphibia^ 











146. Bank Mouse or Cam- 
pagnal. (^Arvicola ripa- 

142. Black Rat. {Mus Rat- 

ria, Yarrell.) 

tus, Linn.) 













147. Coendu or Ring-tailed 
Porcupine. {Synetfieres 

143. Common Mouse. 


prehensilis, F. Cuv.) 

Musculus, Linn.) 












144. Alexandrian Rat. 


148. Fournier's Capromys. 

Alexandrinus, Geoff.) | 

( Capromys Fournieri, 



















149. Coypu. (Myopotamus 
Coypus, Desm.) 

3500 Thickness. 
3200 12000 
4570 9600 


150. Common Guinea Pig. 
(^Cavia Cobaya, Gmel.) 




151. Golden Agouti. (Dasy- 
procta aurata.^ 




152. Acouchi. {Dasyprocta 
AcoucM, 111.) 



3777 ■ 

153. Spotted Cavy or Paca. 
(^Ccelogenys subniger, F. 




154. Capybara. (^Hydrochce- 
rus Capybara, Erxl.) 




155. Common Rabbit. (Ze- 
pus Cuniculus, Linn.) 







156. Weasel-lieaded Arma- 
dillo. (J) as y pus sex- 
cinctus. — D. Encouhert, 








157. Virginian Opossum. 
(^Didelphis Virginiana, 



4570 Thickness. 

2900 12000 


158. Viverrine Dasyure. 
(^Dasyurus viverrinus, 




159. Ursine Dasyure. (Das- 
yurus ursinus, Geoff.) 







160. Rabbit Perameles. (Per- 
ameles Lagotis, Reid.) 




161. Bennett's Kangaroo. 
(^Macropus Bennettii, 





162. A small Kangaroo. {Hal- 
maturus Derby anus ? Gray.) 


3432 Thickness. 

3200 12000 

4000 10000 





163. Vulpine Phalanger. 
(Fhalangista vulpina, 

165. Squirrel Flying Opos- 
sum. (^Petaurista sciureus, 







164 Minute or Pigmy Pha- 
langer. (Phalangista nana, 


166. Wombat. (Phascolomys 
Wombat, Per. et Lesu.) 









167o Chimpanzee, young- 
male. (Simla Troglody- 
tes, Linn.) 






1 68. Noctule Bat. ( Vesper- 

tilio noctula, Schreb.) 






169. Pipistrelle Bat. (Fes- 
pertilio Pipistrellus, 





170. Long-eared Bat. {Pie- 
cotus auritus, Geoff.) 




171. Hedge-hog. (Erina- 
ceiis Europcsus, Linn.) 




172. Common Shrew. (Sorex 
tetragonurus, Herm.) 






173. Common Weasel. {Mm- 
tela vulgaris, Linn.) 





174. Polecat. {Mustel 
Putorius, Linn.) 




175. Field Mouse. (Mus 
sylvaticus, Linn.) 





Siren. (Siren lacertina, Linn.) 


500 888 

444 800 

400 727 






1333 2000 

1000 1777 

1600 4000 

888 1500 




In the blood of the Siren 
there were many pale globu- 
lar or spheroidal corpuscles, 
apparently growing into per- 
fect blood discs, as repre- 
sented in the Triton, fig. 294. 
Professor R. Wagner, 
some years since, observed 
the remarkably large size of 
the blood corpuscles of the 
Proteus, and conjectured 
that those of the Siren were 
of similar magnitude. (See 
Proc. Zool. See. Nov. 14^ 
1837.) G. G. 



The measurements are all expressed in fractions of an English inch ; and 
the numerator being invariably 1, has been omitted throughout, the denomi- 
nators only having been printed, except by way of example under tlie Bearded 
Vulture. As shown in this example, the several measurements of the common 
sized discs are always first set down ; the small sized discs are next noted, 
then those of large size, and lastly, the average deduced from the whole. A 
space is left between the common sizes, and those which are here denominated 
small and large, in preference to extremes, which latter we are seldom certain 
of having found. L. D. denotes the long diameter, and S. D. the short diameter. 


1. Bearded Vulture. (^Gry- 
paetes harhatus, Storr.) 


-2000 <^''°^- 



1 — loyd sizes. 

1-2286 «-" 


1—3429 mon 


1-4000 l^^^ 
1--000 l^ 

1—1913 ^^^'^- 1—3425 '^'^^'" 

age. age. 

2. Turkey Vulture. {Cath- 
artes Iota, Bonap.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2000 4000 

1777 ^555 

2286 4570 

1600 3000 



3. Condor Vulture. {Sar- 
corhamphus Gryphus^ 


L. D. 

S. D. 










4. King Vulture. (Sarcor- 
hamphus Papa, Steph.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 













5. Sociable Vulture. (Vultur 
auricularis, Daud.) 

S. D. 



L. D. 





The nuclei measured ex- 
actly the same as those of the 
White Barn Owl. 

6. Griffon, or Fulvous Vul- 
ture. ( Vultur fulvus, 

L. D. 




S. D. 


3200 Thick- 


7. Kolbe's Vulture. (Vultur 
Kolhii, Riipp.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











Chinese Vulture. ( Vultur 
leuconotus, Gray.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











9. Brazilian Caracara Eagle. 
(Polyhorus vulgaris, Vieill.) 

L. D. S. D. 

1895 3600 

1777 4000 

^'^1^ 3200 


1600 3572 


1 0. Common Buzzard. (Buteo 
vulgaris, Bechs.) 

L. D. s, D. 

2000 '3555 

!??? 4570 
1777 ^0(\fi 
1714 '^ 

2286 3691 


11. Rough-legged Buzzard. 
(Buteo Lagopus, Flem.) 

L. D. s. D. 

2000 S555 








\2. Golden Eagle. (^Aquila 
chrysaetos, Flem.) 

L. D. . S. D. 

1777 4000 

1714 4570 

2286 3200 



13. Bonelli's Eagle. (^Aquila 
Bonelli, Gould.) 

L. D. 

s. D. 











4. Wedge-tailed Eagle. {Aqm 

la fucosa, 



L. D. 

S. D. 










— ^_ 




15. South 

African Eagle 

(^Aquila choka 

5 Smith.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












16. Short-tailed Eagle. (7/e- 
lotarsus typicus, Smith.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 





17. White-tailed or Cinereous 
Sea Eagle. (Haliaetus 
alhicilla, Selby.) 

L. D. s. D. 

1895 3555 

1777 3200 

^'^^^' 4000 

2286 3000 




1 8. White-headed Sea Eagle. 
(^Haliaetus leticocephalus, 

L. D. S. D. 

2000 3555 

1777 3200 

2286 4000 

1684 3000 

1909 3390 

19. ChiHan Sea Eagle. {Ha- 
liaetus Aguia, Benn.) 

L. D. s. D. 

1895 4000 
1777 3555 
1714 3200 

2286 4570 





20. Peregrine Falcon. (^Fal- 
co Peregrinus, Linn.) 

L. D. s. D. 

2000 4000 

1895 4Y00 

l"^*^^ 3200 


1714 3862 


21 . Kestril Falcon. (Falco 
Tinnunculus, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 







22. Hobby ] 

j'alcon. (Falco 

L. D. 

S. D. 







23. Common Kite. (Milvus 
vulgaris, Flem.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












24. Secretary Vulture. (Gy 
pogeranus serpentarius, 

S. D. 





L. D. 





25. Snowy Owl. {Syrnia 
Nyctea, Dum.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




The nuclei of the corpus- 
cles, exposed by the action 
of acetic acid, were generally 
3 2 th of an inch long, and 
-r^r^Tnrth broad. 

26. Great-eared Eagle Owl. 
(Buho maxinms, Selby.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 






27. Short-eared Owl. {Otus 

L. D. 




S. D. 




30. White, or common Barn 
Owl. (Sfrixjlammea, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









28. Virginian Eagle Owl. 
(Bubo Virginianus, Cuv.) 

L. D. 

S. D, 














29. Common Brown Owl. 
{Syrnium aluco, Gould.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 

2000 4000 

1895 S555 

^^^^ 5333 

2400 3000 

1714 ^ 




The nuclei of the corpuscleSj, 
exposed by the action of acetic 
acid, measured generally ^oVo^^ 
of an inch in length, and yoVbt^^ 
in breadth. 


31. Piping Crow. (Cr adieus 
hypoleucus, Gould.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 






32. Pileated Jay. (Garrulus 
pileatus, Temm.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









33. Raven. 

L. D. 




(^Corvus corax, 

s. D. 




34. Jackdaw. (^Corvus mone- 

dula, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









35. Mino Grakle 

. {Gracula 


L. D 

S. D. 









36. Cornish Chough. (Fre- 
gilus graculus, Cuv.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2286 4570 

?i5? 6000 

2000 ^^^^ 


1777 4505 


37. Rose-coloured Pastor. 
Pastor roseus, Brehm.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2286 4800 
2133 4570 
2000 5333 






38. Chinese StarHng. (^Pastor 
cristatellus, Temm.) 

L. D, 

S. D. 








39. Paradise Grakle. (Pastor 
tristiSf Temm.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 







40. Common Starling. (Stur- 
nus vulgaris, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









41. Silky Molotln-us. {Molo- 
thrus sericeus, Wagl.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












42. Hornbill, fr 

om the Island 

of Sincapore. (Buceros 

Rhinoceros ? 


L. D. 

S. D. 












. Nightin 



L. D. 

S. D. 











43. Common "Wren. (^Trog- 
lodytes EuropcBus, Cuv.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











'. Golden-crested Wren. 


cristatus, Flem.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 






46. Black-cap Warbler. (^Cur- 
ruca atricapilla, Bechs.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 



2359 4133 

47. Common Robin. {Ery- 
ihaca ruhecula, Sw.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 









48. Hedge Sparrow. (^Accent- 
or modularis, Cuv.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2460 4000 

2400 4570 

2286 S555 


2000 4000 




49. Missel Thrush. (Turdus 
mscivo7'us, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2403 4000 
2286 4570 


1895 4000 


50. Song Thrush. (Turdus 
musicus, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D, 

2400 4570 

2286 4000 

^133 5333 

2000 3200 


1895 4133 


51. American Robin. (^Turdus 
migratorius, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2460 4570 

2400 4000 

2286 5333 

^^^^ 3200 


2000 4133 


52. Wamew Bird, or Crying 
Thrush. (^Turchis canonis, 

L. D. S. D. 

2400 4000 

2286 • 4800 

^1^3 3200 


2000 3892 


53. Common Blackbird. (^Mer- 
ula vulgaris, Ray.) 

L. D. S. D, 

2286 4000 
2133 4570 
2000 5333 

2400 3555 




54. Mocking Bird. (^Orpheus 
poly glottis, Sw.) 

L. D, S. D. 

2400 3555 

2286 5333 

2000 3000 


1895 3732 

55. Spotted fly-catcher, (^Mu- 
sicapa grisola, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2400 4570 

2286 4000 

2000 5333 

2666 3200 

1777 __ 



56. Greater Butcher bird, or 
Shrike. (Lanius excubitor, 

L. D. s. D. 

2286 6000 
2133 5142 
2000 5800 

II]] 6400 

I'l* 4000 


1600 5325 





57. Rice bird. (I)oliclionyx 
oryzivorus, Sw.) 

L. D. s. D. 

24.60 4000 

2400 5333 

3000 S555 




58. Rufous-necked Weaver 
bird, (^Ploceus textor, Sw.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2286 4570 






59. Dominican Grosbeak, or 
Red-headed Cardinal. (^Car- 

dinalis Dominicana, Linn.) 
L. D. s. D, 

2460 3555 

2286 3790 

2133 4570 

2000 3000 


2666 3643 



60. Red-crested Grosbeak, 
or Red-crested Cardinal. 
(^Cardinalis cucullata, 

L. D. S. D. 

Same as in C. Dominicana. 

61. Cut-throat Sparrow. 
(^Amadina fasciata, Sw.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2000 4570 







62. Nutmeg 


. (^Amadina 


L. D. 

S. D. 












63. Common 

Sparrow. (Pyr- 

gita domestica, 


L. D. 

S. D. 











64. African Sparrow. (^Pyr- 
gita simplex.^ 

L. D. s. D. 

2400 4000 

|?«f 5333 

2133 3200 

2666 — — 

2000 4000 




65. Chaffinch. 
Coelebs, Linn 


L. D. 

S. D. 







66. Amaduvade. {Fringilla 
amandava, Linn.^ 

L. D. s. D. 

2286 4800 

^133 6000 

2666 4000 




67. Lesser Red pole. (^Lin- 
aria minor, Ray.) 

L. D. s. D. 

2666 4800 

2400 5000 

2286 6000 

2900 4000 




68. Yellow Bunting. (Emhe- 
riza citrinella, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2460 4000 

2400 5333 

!?S^ 3555 

2900 4167 


69. Crested Bunting, or Black 
crested Cardinal. (^Emhe- 
riza cristata, Sw.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2460 4000 

2400 5333 

2286 3555 





70. Snow Bunting. {Plectro- 
phanes nivalis, Meyer.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2286 4800 

2133 4570 

2000 6000 

2666 4000 




71. Common Crossbill. (Loxia 
curvirostra, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2460 4000 
2400 4570 

2900 3555 



72. Java Sparrow. (^Loxia 
Javensis, Shaw.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2400 4000 

2286 S555 

2900 4800 

2000 3200 





73. Waxbill. (Loxia Astrild, 

L. D. 

s. D. 












74. Malacca Grosbeak. {Loxia 
Malacca, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











75. Buffon's Touraco. {Cory- 
thaix Buffonii, Jard. and 

L. D. 





S. D. 




76. Roseate Cockatoo. {Plyc- 
tolo'pJms Eos, Vig. et 





s. r». 




77. Lesser Sulpbur-crested 
Cockatoo. (Plyctolophus 
sulphureus, Vieill.) 













78. Rose-crested Cockatoo. 
{Plyctolophus rosaceus, 

L. D. 

S. D. 







Nuclei 4^th of an inch 
long and _.i-^tli broad. 



79. Great Sulphur-crested 
Cockatoo. (JPlyctolophus 
galeritus, Kuhl.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










80. Lesser 




Philippinorum, Vieill.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 













81. Red and Yellow Maccaw 
(^Macrocercus Aracanga, 












82. Illiger's Maccaw. {Mac- 
rocercus Illigeri.^ 

L. D. 




S. D. 



83. Blue and Yellow Maccaw. 
(^Macrocercus Ararauna, 

L. D. 

S. D. 













84. Red and Blue Maccaw. 
(^Macrocercus Macao, 











. Brazilian 

Green Maccaw. 




L. D. 

S. D. 












86. Pennantian Ground Par- 
rakeet. (^Platycercus Ppm- 
nantii, Vig. et Horsf.) 






7. Macquarrie Ground Par 
rakeet. {Platycercus Pad 
ficus, Vig.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









88. Nonpareil or Rose Hill 
Ground Parrakeet. (Pla- 
iycercus eximius, Vig. et 

L. D. 

S. D. 







89. Yellow-bellied Ground 
Parrakeet. (^Platycercus 
Jlaviventris, Vig.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











90. Vasa Ground Parrakeet. 
Platycercus Vasa, Vig.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 






91. King's Ground Parrakeet. 
(^Platycercus scapulatus, 
Vig. et Horsf.) 












94. Slight billed Parakeet 
Maccaw. (^Psittacara lep- 
torhyncha, Vig.) 

L, D. 

S. D. 









92. Lesser Vasa Ground Par- 
rakeet. (Platycercus niger, 

L. D. 





S. D. 




93. Crested Ground Parra- 
keet. (Nymphicus Novde 
HoUandice, Wagl.) 

95. Grey-breasted Parrakeet 

or Quaker 

bird. (Psitta- 

car a murina. 

— Psittacus 

murinus, Gme^ 


L. D. 

S. D. 











96. Patagonian Parrakeet 
Maccaw. {Psiftacara 

Patachonica, Vig.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












L. D. 

S. D. 













97. All-green Parrakeet. (Psit- 
tacara viridissima, Vig.) 

L. D. 



S. D. 




98. Solstitial Parrakeet Mac- 
caw, or Yellow Parrakeet 
Maccaw. (Psittacara sol- 
stitialis, Vig.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




99. Yellow-winged Parrakeet. 
(^Psittacara virescens, Vig.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











3. Blue-faced 


( Trichoglossus capistratus, 
Vig. et Horsf.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









101. Alexandrine Parrakeet. 
(^Palceoj^is Alexandri, Vig.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











102. Ring-necked Parrakeet. 
(Palceornis torquatus, Vig.) 

L. D. 






S. D. 






1 03. Blossom-headed, or Rose- 
headed Parrakeet. {Pales- 
ornis Bengalensis, Wagl.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




106. Great Crimson, or Am- 
boyna Lory. {Lorius Am- 
boinensis, Briss.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




104. Purple-capped Lory, 
(^Lorius domicellus, Selb.} 

L. D, 

S. D. 












105. Ceram Lory. (^Lorius 
Ceramensis, Briss.} 

L. D. 




S. D. 




107. Indian Lory. (Lorius 

L. D. 





S. D. 




108. Chinese Lory. (Lorius 
Sinensis. — Psittacus Sinen- 
sis, Gmel.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 






109. Great-billed ground Par- 
rake e t . ( Tanyg nath u s 
macrorhynchus, Wagl.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 








110. Gray, or Ash-coloured 
Parrot. (Psittacus ery- 
thacus, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 











111. White-fronted Parrot. 
(^Psittacus alhifrons, Lath.) 

L. D, 

s. D. 



112. Lnperial Parrot. (^Psit- 
tacus Augustus, Vig.) 

S. D. 




L. D. 




1 13. Lesser Green Parrot. 
(Psittacus Americamis, 

L. D. 




S. D. 




114. Golden-crowned Parrot. 
(Psittacus regulus?) 

L. D. 

S. D. 



















— 3764 




115. Dufresne's Parrot. (^Psit- 
tacus Dufresnii, Lath.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




116. Yellow-headed Amazo- 
nian Parrot. (^Psittacus 
Amazonlcus, Briss.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









117. White- 

headed Parrot. 



L. D. 

S. D. 











118. Bay-headed Parrot. 
(Psittacus hadiceps, Vig.) 

L. D. 

s. D. 












119. Blue-headed Parrot. 
(Psittacus menstruus, Linn.) 

L. D. 

s. D. 











120. Black-headed Parrot. 
(Psittacus melanocephalus, 

L. D. 

S. D. 













121. Mitred Parrot. {Psit- 
tacus mitratus, Temm.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




122. Grey-headed Parrakeet. 
(^Psittacula cana, Wagl.) 

L. D. 

s. D. 










123. Red-headed Guinea Par- 
rakeet. (Psittacula pid- 

laria, Wagl,) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




124. Lesser 

spotted Wood 
{Picus minor 

L. D. 

S. D. 









125. Nuthatch. 
ropcBa, Linn.) 

L. D. 






{Sitta Eu- 

s. D. 



Average size of the nuclei, 
when exposed by acetic acid, 
TTo-oo-th of an inch broad, and 
TsWncl long. 

126. Common Creeper. ( Cer- 
thia familiaris, Linn.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 







127. Laughing Kingfisher. 
(^Dacelo gigantea, Leach.) * 

130. Martin. (^Hirundo ur- 
hiea, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










128. Kingfisher. 
Ispida, Linn.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 






129. Chimney Swallow. ^Hi- 
rundo rustica, Linn.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




L. D. 

S. D. 








131. Ring Dove or Cushat. 
(^ColumhaPalumh)ts, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










132. Collared Barbary or 
Turtle Dove. ( Columba 
risoria, Auct.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









133. Turtle Dovo. (Colum- 
ha Turiur, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












134. Surat Turtle or Neck 

lace Dove. 

{Columha ti 

grina, Temm 


L. D. 

S. D. 








135. Russet Pigeon. 
lumha ritfina.^ 


L. D. 




S. D. 





136. Bronze-winged Pigeon. 
(^Columba chalcoptera, 


L. D. 

S. D. 















137. Nicobar ground Pigeon. 
Columba Nicoharica, Gmel.) 

s. D. 

L. D. 








138. Triangular-spotted Dove. 
(^Columba Guinea, Linn.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 





139. Coro or Gray Dove. 
(^Columba Corensis,Gme].) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










140. Mountain 


lumha aurita^ 


L. D. 

S. D. 










141. Zenaida.'Doye. (^Columba 
Zenaida, Bonap.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









142. Passenger Pigeon. (Co/- 
umba migratoria, Linn.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




43. Great crowned Pigeon 
(Columba coronata, Auct.— 
Lophyrus, Vieill.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









144. White crested Guan. 
(^Penelope leucolopJios, 


L. D. 





S. D. 




145. Crested Guan. (^Pen- 
elope cristata, Gmel.) 

L. D. s. D. 

Same as in Penelope leuco- 

146. Globose 

Curassaw. {Crax 



L. D. 

S. D. 












147. Red Curassaw. (Crax 
ruhi'a, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 















148. YarreU's Curassaw. ( Craa; 
YarrcUii, Benn.} 

L. D. 





S. D. 




149. Razor-billed Curassaw. 
(^Ourax mitu, Cuv.^ 

r. D. 

S. D. 












150. Common Peacock. {Pavo 
cristaiuS) Linn.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




151. Japan Peacock. (Pavo 
muticus, Linn.) 

L. D. s. D. 

Same as in the common 

152. Java Peacock. (Pavo 
Java7iicus, Horsf.) 

L. D. 

S, D. 












(3. Golden Pheasant. (Pha- 

sianus pictus, 


L. D. 

S. D. 










1 54. Silver or pencilled Phea- 
sant. (Phasianus nycthe- 
merus, Auct.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










155. Barred-tailed Pheasant. 
{Phasianus superhus, Lath.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










— — . 






156. Common Turkey. {Me- 
ieagris gallapavo, Limi.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 









157. Rendall's Guinea Fowl. 
(Numida Rendalliii Ogilby.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




1 58. European 





L. D. 

S. D. 












159. Long-billed Partridge. 
(^Perdix longirostris, Lath.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












160. Argoondah Quail. (Co- 
turnix Argoondah, Sykes.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




161. American Quail. {Ortyx 
Firginianus, Bonap.) 

L. D. 






S. D. 






162. Welcome Quail. {Orlyx 
neoxenus, Vig.) 

S. D. 




L. D. 




163. Capercailzie. (Tetrao 
urogallus, Linn.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 




164. Black Grouse. {Tetrao 
tetrix, Linn.) 

L. D. 

L. D. 

S. D. 


















165. Great TInamoo. (Tm- 
amifs Bra::iliensis, Lath.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 





166. Cariama. {Dicholophus 
cristatus, 111.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 





167. Emu. (Bromaius NovcB 
HoUandi(S, Vie ill.) 

s. d. 








L. D. 



S. D. 



168. Rhea or American Os- 
trich. (Jihea Americana^ 

170. Oyster Catcher, (ife- 
matopus Ostralegus, Linn.) 

S. D. 




L. D. 





S. D. 




Thickness of the discs, 


169. Stone Curlew. {(Edic- 
nemus crepitans, Temm.) 

L. D. 





171. Numidian Crane or De- 
moiselle. (^Anthropoides 
Firgo, Vieill.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 






Thickness of the discs. 



172. Stanley Crane. (^Anthro- 
poides Stanley anus, Vig.) 

L, D, 

S. D. 




L. D. 



S. D. 










173. Balearic crowned Crane. 
Balearica pavojiina, Vig.} 

L. D. 





S. D. 




Thickness of the discs. 




L. D. 

S. D. 






174. Cape crowned Crane. 
(Balerica Megulorum, 


L. D. 

S. D. 







75. Common II 
cinerea, Linn 

or on. (^Ardea 

L. D. 


S. D. 






176. Night Heron. (Ardea 
Nycticorax, Linn.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 





177. White Spoonbill. (Pla- 
talea leucorodia, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










178. White Stork. {Ciconia 
alha, Ray.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 













179. Black Stork. (^Ciconia 
nigra, Ray.) 

L. D. 



S. D. 





180. Argala Stork. (^Ciconia 

Argala, Vig.) 

L. D. S. D. 

1777 4000 

1600 3200 

2666 5333 

1333 2666 



181. African Gigantic Crane. 
(^Ciconia Marabou, Vig.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












182. Whimbrel. 




L. D. 

S. D. 












183. Black tailed Godwit. 
(^Limosa melanura, Leisler.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 





184. Land Rail from New 
Holland. (Rallus Phil- 
lipinensis, Lath.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 




35. Water Hen or Moor 
Hen. (^Gallinula cliloro- 
pus, Linn.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 













186. Little Grebe, Black cliin 
Grebe, or Dab Chick. 
(Fodiceps minor, Lath.^ 

L. D. 



S. D. 





187. Spur- winged Goose. 
(Plectropterus Gambensis, 

L. D. 

S. D. 











188. Egyptian Goose. (C/^e- 
nalopex JEgyptiaca, Eyton.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










189. Cereopsis 
opsis Novce 

Goose. (Cere 

L. D. 

S. D. 








190. Sandwich Island Goose. 
(JBernicla Sandvicensis, 


L. D. 

S. D. 

Same as in the Egyptian 

19 I.Magellanic Goose. (Ber- 
nica Magellanica. — Anas 
Magellanicus, Gmel.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 

Same as in the Egyptian 

192. Black Swan. {Cygnus 
atratus, Shaw.) 

L. D. 




S. D. 






193. White-masked Whistling 
Duck. (^Dendrocygna vi- 
duata, Eyton.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 










194. Red-billed Whistling 
Duck. (Dendrocygna au- 
tumnalis, Eyton.) 

L. D. 

S. D. 












195. Black-billed Whistling 
Duck. (Dendrocygna arho- 
rea, Ayton.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 





196. Summer Duck. (Den- 
dronessa sponsa, Sw. and 

L. D. 



S. D. 




197. Sheldrake. {Tadorna 
vulpanser^ Flem.) 

L. D. S. D. 

3000 4000 

1895 4570 

1^^''' 3200 


1684 3839 


198. Widgeon. {Mareca 
Penelope, Selb.) 

L. D. 





S. D. 






199. Common Teal. {Qiier- 
quedula crecca, Steph.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2286 5ms 
2000 4570 
1895 4266 

2666 6000 
1714 3555 



200. Pintail Duck. {Quer- 
quedula acuta, Selby.) 

L. D. s. D. 

2133 4000 

2000 4570 

1895 3200 





202. Black-headed Gull. 
(J^arus ridibundus, Linn.) 

L. D. S. 1). 

2286 4000 

2133 4W0 


1777 4000 


203. White Pelican. {Pele- 
canus Onocrotalus, Linn.) 

L. D. S. D. 

1895 3555 
1777 3200 

^'^^^ 4570 

2286 2666 




201. Garganey Teal. (^Quer- 
quedula circia, Steph.) 

L. D. S. D. 

2286 4000 

2133 4570 

2000 3200 


1714 3839 


204. Cormorant. (Phalac- 
rocorax carho, Steph.) 

L. D- S. D. 

2133 4000 

2000 S555 

1895 4570 

2400 3200 





The term Tubercle is here confined to the well-known 
morbid product which occurs in various organs, and which 
constitutes in particular the essence of that common and fatal 
disease — pulmonary consumption. This appears to be the 
sense in which the term is generally employed in this country ; 
but it will be perceived that the plastic exudations 
(§ 315) which form the greater part of Mr. Gerber's 
varieties of tubercle, are merely different states of the 
coagulated lymph or fibrinous exudations, the matter of 
morbid adhesions or false membranes, of English writers. 
For example, in what does his hyaline tubercle differ from 
that product of inflammation frequently mentioned by 
French and English authors as gelatiniform lymph? And 
how can the fibrinous exudation or the false membrane 
which I have had depicted (Figs. 243 and 272) be said to 
differ from the descriptions which Mr. Gerber has given of 
tubercle (§ 315.) But the difference between tubercle 
and plastic exudations is of the utmost importance, and has 
been insisted on in an especial manner by English patholo- 
gists. " Tuberculous matter," says Dr. Carswell, " is a pale 
yellow, or yellowish grey, unorganized substance. * * * 
The most important fact connected with tuberculous matter 
is, that, either from the nature of its constituent parts, the 
mode in which they are combined, or the circumstances in 
which they are placed, they are not susceptible of organi- 
zation, and, consequently, give rise to a morbid compound, 
capable of undergoing no change that is not induced in it 
by external agents." (Cyclop. Prac. Med. vol. 4, pp. 253 
and 256.) To this description the unorganized or granular 
tubercles only of Mr. Gerber can be referred (§ 314.) 


His fibrinous tubercles, which he says " present important 
varieties, inckiding every conceivable difference between 
the substance of any plastic exudation and that of a com- 
plete internal cicatrix," would seem to pertain, as already 
remarked, to those organizable or organized productions 
which are not regarded as tubercle in this country. The 
drawings, which will convey the leading results of my 
observations,* were executed long since; and Plate 29 was 
finished and struck off, and the explanations of the figures 
printed, before I was acquainted with Mr. Gerber's views 
concerning tubercle, or even knew that this term occurred 
in his work. 

It most frequently happens that tubercle exhibits no 
regular structure, so that the nicest examination can de- 
tect nothing more than a granular matter, minute sphe- 
rules, and shapeless flakes or fragments, as represented in 
Fig. 271 ; this is especially the case in caseous tuber- 
cle, whether occurring in the lungs or elsewhere. Some- 
times the fragments, though still shapeless, are more dis- 
tinct, yet unlike cells or their nuclei ; and many of the 
minute spherules may be attached to some of the fragments 
(Fig, 270.) In smaller tubercles corpuscles are often 
seen, having much the character of cells or their nuclei ; 
the envelopes are either absent or indistinctly blended with 
a minutely granular base (Figs. 252 — 254.) It is only in 
minute and recently formed tubercles that perfect cells 
exist ; Fig. 255 was made from a tubercle not bigger than 
a millet-seed. Cytoblasts and ceils, however, may sometimes 
be found at the periphery of crude tuberculous matter ; 
and corpuscles which are probably effete cytoblasts are often 
present in softened tubercle. In tubercles of the most recent 
formation, I have occasionally seen vesicles like those re- 
presented in Fig. 273, and an aggregation of these some- 
times forms a pretty large tubercle. These vesicles appear 
to me to be much more common in the lower animals, par- 
ticularly in the quadrumana, than in man ; and they are 

* Vid. Dublin Med. Press, April 7, 18^1. 


most easily examined in transparent parts, as the 
omentum. But it is especially necessary to avoid con- 
founding fat vesicles with the products of disease. The 
Figure just mentioned much resembles one given by Dr. 
Baron, (" Illustrations of the Inquiry respecting Tuber- 
culous Diseases." Lond. \822. Plate 1.) although it does 
not appear that this ingenious inquirer has depicted micros- 
copic vesicles in the plate now referred to ; but I have at 
present no opportunity of consulting his original work. 

It would seem, then, that the following parts most com- 
monly compose the minute texture of tubercle. They may 
either occur separately, or be mixed together in various 
proportions. The granular matter is seldom or never 

1. Granular matter. — This is composed of infinitely mi- 
nute particles, as seen in the matrix containing the cor- 
puscles and cells in Figs. 252 — 255, and of minute spherules 
(Fig. 271) remarkably variable in magnitude, generally 
from 3o^ go th to -goVoth of an inch in diameter. Granular 
matter is the most prevalent ingredient of tubercle, almost 
always mixed with the other constituents, and frequently 
forming nearly the entire mass of caseous tubercle. 

2. Corpuscles. — These are generally more or less globu- 
lar or oval, (Figs. 252 — 254) but often either very irregular 
in form or shapeless. (Fig. 270.) They usually vary from 
^o^ooth to -2 oVo^^ of ^^ i'^c^ i^^ diameter. They are probably 
imperfect, degenerating, or blighted cells and nuclei. The 
corpuscles may be seen in crude or mature tuberculous mat- 
ter ; also commonly in the smallest caseous tubercles, 
especially of the serous membranes. The granular matter 
preponderates as the tuberculous mass increases. 

3. Cells. — The most common size of these is from a-sVoth 
to riVoth of an inch in diameter. They may be frequently 
recognized in greyish miliary tubercles, either of the lungs 
or serous membranes ; but as the tubercles increase in 
magnitude, the well marked and complete cells (Fig. 255) 
disappear, probably degenerating into the corpuscles and 
granular matter above mentioned. 


From the preceding observations it appears highly pro- 
bable that tubercle, like the most highly organized tissues, 
has its origin in cells ; but generally mixed at a very early 
period with granular matter. Tubercle, however, seems to 
differ essentially from the matter of plastic exudations, 
inasmuch as the cells of the latter not only grow into a 
higher organization, but increase also in number towards 
the centre ; in other words, plastic matter has an inherent 
power of multiplying and evolving organic germs. But 
tubercle has no such power ; for it would appear that its 
primitive cells can only retrograde and degenerate, since 
they are wholly destitute from the beginning of the plastic 

G. G. 




My inquiries concerning these fluids have been prose- 
cuted at intervals for several years. Some of the results, 
of which a short and necessarily imperfect notice was given 
in the Dublin Medical Press, Jan. 1, 1840, will now be 
related more particularly, yet as briefly as possible. In the 
experiments on the chyle, dogs and cats were chiefly used ; 
and the contents of the lacteal system in other animals were 
examined as opportunities occurred. A large quantity of 
chyle was once procured from the different parts of its con- 
taining channels in the lynx, and a smaller portion from a 
man who was found dead in his bed, some hours after 
eating a supper of bread and butter with cheese and salad. 
The human thymous and lymphatic juice, as well as that of 
various lower mammals, was repeatedly made the subject 
of observation. 

I. Chyle. 

The anatomy of the Chyle is by no means so simple as 
has been generally supposed. The particles which it con- 
tains may be thus enumerated: — 1. Extremely minute 
particles, either of uniform size or varying within very 
nairow limits, and constituting the peculiar matrix which 
will here be called the molecular base of the chyle; 2. 


Globules ; 3. Blood corpuscles ; 4. Oily globules ; 5. Minute 
spherules, very unequal in size, snd similar in appearance 
to those of some other animal matters. 

Molecular Base. — (Figs. S74 — 278.) From whatever 
part of its containing channels, the rich, milky, opaque 
chyle may be procured, its bulk or principal mass is a 
peculiar white matter, having a greyish appearance by 
transmitted light, and composed of particles so minute that 
they may be said to be near the uttermost extent of vision 
as aided by the best instruments. These particles form the 
molecular base of the chyle ; and this base, as it appears to 
me, is unlike any other animal matter. In poorer chyle, 
which is semi-transparent or opaline, the molecular base is 
more diluted, so that its particles float thinly or separately 
in the transparent fluid, and often exhibit the vivid motions 
common to the most minute molecules of various substances. 
The particles of the base appear to be spherical ; and the 
majority of them, as estimated by the plan in Fig. 274, are 
probably between -j^o^th and ar^oo'th of an inch in di- 

The earthy and alkaline salts produce no change in the 
particles of the molecular base ; nor are they affected by 
the caustic alkalies, judging from trials with the common 
solutions of potass and ammonia, nor by the acetic, muriatic, 
citric, and tartaric acids; but the former acid usually clusters 
the particles into masses, as if from coagulation of the 
fluid of the chyle. When treated with aether, the mole- 
cular base instantly disappears, and that completely, not a 
particle of it remaining; the chyle becomes transparent, 
excepting a small quantity of a light brown or whitish 
matter ; this forms a nearly pellucid substratum, sink- 
ing towards the bottom of the test-tube, but never entire- 
ly reaching it. The chyle globules may be distinguished, 
scarcely changed, in this solution in sether of the molecular 
base. In some trials which were made with the milk of 
the cow and girafie, aether did not produce similar effects, 
but the milk retained its opacity, quickly sinking to the bot- 
tom, after the mixture was agitated; and the same result 



was observed when the thymous fluid was treated with aether. 
The whitish substratum above mentioned seems to be almost 
entirely composed of delicate spherules (Fig. 282) much 
resembling those of oil in figure and inequality of size, but, 
as seen by transmitted light, paler and more translucent. 
These spherules, however, are by no means confined to the 
matter just noticed, for they may be observed after mixing 
aether with a variety of animal matters, as the brain, cruor, 
mucus, &c. When the chyle has coagulated, the clot and 
the fluid part are equally white. Treated with ^ther, the 
latter becomes transparent, and the former nearly so ; yet 
the globules may be still seen entire in the substance 
of the clot. 

The bulk or matrix of the chyle, therefore, appears to be a 
peculiar white matter, composed of particles remarkable for 
their minuteness, equal size, ready solubility in aether, and 
unchangeableness when subjected to the action of numerous 
other reagents which quickly affect the chyle globules ; and 
those properties, with the singularly uniform ground which 
it presents in the microscopic field of vision, are the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of the molecular base. 

As formerly noticed (Appendix, p. 21 — 23, and Dublin 
Med. Press, April, 1841,) the molecular base of the chyle 
is sometimes found in the blood, abstracted during digestion. 
The blood of younglings most frequently exhibits this 
chylous matter ; but I have twice seen it in the blood of 
adults, taken from the animals at the instant of death, and 
allowed to stand a few hours. One was a cat nearly full 
grown, the other a dog not quite twelve months old. Both 
were well fed after having been kept thirty hours without 
food ; the former was killed four hours after eating bread 
and milk, the latter six hours after a meal of cow's paunch, 
bones and potatoes. The milky blood observed by Schlemm 
and Meyer in sucking kittens and puppies was concluded 
to be owing to the absorption of the fat of the milk by the 
lacteals (Traite de Physiologic, par C. F. Burdach, traduit 
de I'Allemand par A. J. L. Jourdan, tome ix. p. 358 — 9,) 
The molecular base of the chyle, however, has neither the 


microscopical nor chemical cliaracters of milk. As both 
the arterial and venous blood may contain the molecular 
base in a free state (Appendix, p. 21 :) it results that the 
whole of this matter is not always immediately assimilated 
even after it has passed through the lungs. 

Globules of the chyle.— (Figs. 275, 277, 278, 281, and 
283.) In the human subject, and in the cat, dog, and 
lynx, the globules are much alike in size, varying from 
7i\o th to 2-BVo"th of an inch in diameter, although the 
majority are about 4:^^th. The magnitude of the 
globules hardly differs from whatever part of the lacteal 
sj'stem they may have been obtained. 

The globules are usually minutely granulated on the 
surface, seldom exhibiting any nuclei, even when treated 
with acetic acid ; but something like two or three central 
molecules may now and then be seen, especially when 
water is added; and a dilute solution of muriatic acid 
generally renders the surface of the globules smoother, 
occasionally with intumescence, but for the most part with 
slight diminution of size, and often with the appearance of 
a single round nucleus (Fig. 283.) In the largest globules, 
from the thoracic duct particularly, the action of acetic acid 
sometimes discloses three or four central particles, similar 
to those which may be frequently seen by the aid of this acid 
in the white globules of the blood. These latter are gene- 
rally larger than the average-sized chyle and lymph glo- 
bules : but though the white globules of the blood, as well 
as the larger chyle globules, frequently exhibit the central 
molecules, yet it as often happens that these cannot be seen 
by any method of preparation (See Appendix, p. 19 — 20.) 

Strong muriatic acid destroys the chyle globules, reduc- 
ing them to particles of extreme minuteness, apparently 
from solution of the medium by which the latter are 
united. The globules are not soluble in acetic acid, but 
^ they are slightly reduced in size by it, probably from solu- 
tion of their most superficial part (See note p. 83 — 84.) 
The neutral alkaline and earthy salts act slowly on the 
globules, but certainly, for they are always soon made 
irregular at their margins, less distinct, and ultimately 


quite invisible : but this latter effect may not be observed 
in less than three or four days, though it generally takes 
place in the course of an hour or two. 

As to the relative number of the globules in different 
parts of the lacteal system the following notes were made, 
using an achromatic object-glass of one-tenth of an inch 
focal length adapted to the second eye-piece. In chyle of 
the peripheral lacteals, either of the intestine or mesentery, 
from three to twelve globules were most commonly seen 
in one field of vision, but they were occasionally absent, 
and sometimes not to be discovered till after several shift- 
ings of the stage. In the chyle of the mesenteric glands, 
whether obtained from a prick in one of their lacteals, or 
from the cut surface of the gland, the globules were always 
remarkably abundant ; nearly as numerous when the lacteal 
system was turgid, as in the rich thymous fluid. In chyle 
of the central lacteals from ten to thirty globules were ge- 
nerally found in one field of vision ; that is to say, they 
were more numerous than in the chyle of the peripheral 
lacteals, but considerably less so than in that of the mesen- 
teric glands (see note, p. 57.) In chyle of the receptacu- 
lum and thoracic duct the number of globules appeared to 
be the same as in the central lacteals ; and the globules of 
the latter, when taken from the vessels just as they emerge 
from the gland, were often more plentiful than in the chyle 
of the thoracic duct. 

The chyle from the receptaculum and thoracic duct co- 
agulates very quickly, often almost instantaneously; and 
when the clot becomes pretty firm, the globules will be 
found aggregated together and imprisoned therein, (Fig. 
281,) so that very few or none of them remain in the 
liquid. ^It is remarkable, however, that in the clot the 
globules often appear less regular in shape, and increased 
in number, so as to lead to the suspicion that these are not 
all identical with the common chyle globules. 

Blood Corpuscles. — (Fig. 276.) In carnivorous animals 
it often happens that no blood-corpuscles can be found in 
the chyle ; yet I have repeatedly seen them when the 
utmost caution was used to prevent any accidental mix- 


ture of blood with the chyle. Whether they must be 
regarded as foreign to the lymph and chyle or as belong- 
ing to one only or to both of these fluids, is a subject 
of much interest. Our distinguished countryman Hew- 
son observed completely formed blood particles in the 
efferent lymphatic vessels, particularly in the lympha- 
tics of the spleen ; (Experimental Inquiries, part 3, 
Edited by Magnus Falconar, Lond. 1777, pp. 122, 112, 
and 135,) and I have sometimes seen red discs, generally 
rather smaller than those of the blood, in the coloured 
fluid of the same vessels of the ox and horse. In chyle 
from the thoracic duct of the latter animal, Mr. Gerber has 
depicted many discs in form and colour like those of the 
blood ; and Mr. Lane attributes the rosy tint of the chyle 
of this animal to the presence of blood particles. (See note 
p. 59.) My own observations are to the same effect : in one 
instance blood corpuscles from the heart were carefully 
compared with those from the thoracic duct, when the 
former were found to have an average diameter of x^Voth 
of an inch, while the latter were only -g-Jg-g-th. In the 
blood of the heart the corpuscles had their usual form ; but 
in the chyle, although they were of a reddish colour, the 
majority were either irregularly indented at the edges or 
granulated, not more than a fourth of the entire number 
presenting the ordinary disc-like figure. At their cir- 
cumference several of them had the little spherules so 
regularly arranged, (see fig. 268,) as to render it proba- 
ble that the outer coloured part of the blood corpus- 
cle was thus being formed. To ascertain whether any of 
these peculiarities might not have been caused by the ac- 
tion of the chyle on the blood corpuscles, some of the 
latter from the heart were mixed with the same animal's 
chyle, and observed to undergo no change. The blood 
discs in the chyle of the dog (Fig. 276) were nearly a third 
smaller than those from the same animal's heart. 

Monro, after opening the bodies of living animals, and 
some time thereafter the upper end of the thoracic duct, 
found many red particles mixed with the contents of the 
duct ; but he thought the appearance might be due to the 


absorption of blood corpuscles which had been extravasated 
in consequence of inflammation. (On the Structure and 
Physiology of Fishes, fol. Edin. 1785, p. 37.) In short, 
Schmidt, Schultz, Gurlt, and Valentin, have all seen, blood 
corpuscles in the chyle; and Ernest Burdach, Krimer, 
and Arnold, state that they have observed the globules 
of the chyle assume a red colour, especially under the 
influence of oxygen. (See Professor Burdach's Physi- 
ology, before quoted, vol. ix. pp. 451 and 541.) 

Oily Globules. — In the chyle of the carnivora fatty or 
oily globules are often very numerous, and I have twice 
seen them in great numbers in that of man. Their appear- 
ance is very characteristic, of course varying remarkably 
in diameter, usually from arwoth to -gwoth of an inch. 

Minute Spherules, — probably albuminous, may frequently 
be seen in the chyle, as well as in the juice of the thymus, 
and of the lymphatic glands. These particles are very irre- 
gular in size, being generally from 3400 oth to -g-^g-oth of an 
inch in diameter. However numerous they may be, their 
varying magnitude at once distinguishes them from the 
uniform molecular base of the chyle ; and they are not, 
like the latter, soluble in sether. Indeed without the aid 
of chemical tests, observations on any of the minuter parti- 
cles of the chyle are not at all satisfactory, since many ani- 
mal matters contain an abundance of little spherules, be- 
sides particles so minute that it is perhaps impossible to as- 
certain either their form or size, of which examples may be 
seen in figs. 243, 249, 258, mQ, 268, 271, 272, and 279. 
Gruithuisen is reported by Professor Burdach (Physio- 
logic, tom. ix. p. 455) to have seen in the chyle of the 
human inferent lacteals a great number of very small corpus- 
cles, some of which became larger after passing the glands ; 
and Professor Wagner has given an engraving of " the 
smaller molecules as they swim in the liquor chyli, and 
which probably are evolved into chyle corpuscles." He 
represents them to be very unequal in size, as seen with a 
magnifying power of 500 diameters. (Icones Physiologicse, 
Tab. xiii. Fig. 2., and Physiology, part 2.) 

observations on the chyle, etc. 95 

2. Fluid of the thymus and of the lymphatic 


During- digestion, as already described, the fluid of the 
mesenteric glands is pervaded by the molecular base (Figs. 
277 and 278,) and is richer in globules than the chyle 
obtained from any other part of the lacteal system. After 
fasting, the molecular base entirely disappears, the num- 
ber of globules, though still considerable, is much dimi- 
nished, and the juice of the mesenteric glands becomes 
similar to that of the other lymphatic glands, (Figs. 279 
and 280) viz. semi-transparent, and of a light brown tint; 
for although this juice contains many globules, they are 
not sufficiently numerous to make it opaque and creamy. 

But in very young and healthy animals, the fluid of the 
thymus is well known to possess the last-mentioned qualities, 
and these are justly ascribed to the vast number of glo- 
bules which it contains, for they are even more plentiful 
in this fluid than in that of the mesenteric glands during 
digestion, and indeed as abundant as the red particles are 
in the blood. The thymous fluid, however, like that of the 
lymphatic glands, is destitute of the characteristic base of 
the chyle ; therefore, although the fluid of the thymus and 
the chyle are alike in colour and opacity, they differ essen- 
tially, because in the thymous fluid these characters are 
produced by its globules, and in the chyle by its peculiar 
molecular base. It is true that a finely granular matter 
(more or less like that depicted in the lymphatic juice. Fig. 
279) and minute spherules, similar in all respects to those 
described in the chyle, may be found in the thymous and 
lymphatic fluids ; but these particles, though frequently 
abundant, are not sufficiently copious to give opacity and 
colour ; and, as previously noticed, the granular matter and 
minute spherules differ in chemical properties from the 
molecular base of the chyle. 

The fluid of the thymus remains quite opaque and creamy 
when subjected to the action of gether. The globules seem 
to be somewhat softened after the mixture has been kept a 


few hours, and their shape may consequently be more or less 
modified ; but still the thymous matter retains its usual ap- 
pearance ; and this, by the aid of the microscope, can be 
seen to be owing to the globules. The effect of aether on the 
lymphatic juice, of course including that of the mesenteric 
glands in fasting animals, is equally inconsiderable. In the 
following account of the action of the other tests on the 
thymous fluid, it is to be observed that their operation was 
similar on the juice of the lymphatic and mesenteric 

If a little caustic alkali, or a concentrated solution of the 
earthy or alkaline salts, be well mixed with a similar quan- 
tity of the fluidof the thymus, a very viscid semitransparent 
compound is formed, hardly miscible with water — not merely 
a thickening, but a stiff ropy grume is produced, much more 
tenacious and remarkable than the inspissation resulting 
from the action of a few of the above-named reagents on 
pus. With the exception of alum, I am not aware of one 
of the easily soluble salts in question, that does not quickly 
render the thymous juice ropy : and I find a note of a single 
trial in which the same effect was produced by sulphate of 
zinc, though several other metallic salts had no such action. 
A small quantity of muriatic acid produces a white preci- 
pitate in the thymous fluid, but if the acid be added in 
excess, the precipitate disappears and a transparent ropy 
matter is formed. Dilute muriatic acid causes a plentiful 
white precipitate. Nitric acid acts on the juice nearly 
in the same manner as the muriatic. The acetic, oxalic, 
citric, and tartaric acids either cause no change or a white 
precipitate in the fluid. 

All the tests mentioned above, more or less affect the 
globules. They are dissolved by the alkalies, and either 
reduced to the minutest subdivisions or dissolved by the 
muriatic and nitric acids. The acetic and other 
vegetable acids act but feebly, merely diminishing 
the globules very slightly in size, as if from solution 
of the smallest quantity of matter from their surface, 
(see note, p. 83, 84,) In the ropy compound, formed 


by the tliymous fluid and saline solutions, the globules 
soon become irreg-ular in shape, then somewhat swollen, 
less distinct, and totally destroyed in the course of a day or 
two. It would appear, indeed, that they are dissolved 
by the saline solution ; and it is remarkable that re- 
agents which preserve the integrity of the blood cor- 
pviscles should thus combine with and destroy the lymph 

Now the action of all these reagents is the same on the 
globules of the chyle and lymphatic juice ; and these glo- 
bules, and the globules of the thymous fluid, are very nearly 
alike in structure, magnitude, and general appearance. 
Hence it may be inferred that all these globules are probably 
identical ; and if this inference should be confirmed, it must 
be regarded as extremely interesting, with the other facts 
adduced in these observations, in relation to the physiology 
of the glands in question. 

It has been shown that the globules which are always 
present in the chyle and lymphatic juice, are especially co- 
pious in the mesenteric glands during digestion, and in 
the thymus during infancy. In short, it is probable 
that these glands are organs of nutrition, in which the 
effete matter taken up by the absorbents, and the chyle by 
the inferent lacteals, may undergo a second digestion or 
elaboration, so as to be modified and prepared to aid in the 
growth and preservation of the animal ; and a leading- 
result of this elaboration is doubtless the formation of 
globules, perhaps as an immediate consequence of the in- 
crease of fibrine. To this end the lymphatic glands gene- 
rally seem to be ever in action ; they are most developed 
in childhood, least so in old age. During digestion 
the activity of the mesenteric glands is greatly augment- 
ed, so that at this time they furnish prodigious quantities 
of the globules ; and the thymus, at an early period of life, 
is singularly rich in the like globules ; being it would 
seem so far merely an additional gland for the elaboration 
of nutrient matter, specially provided to meet the wants of 
the economy at the precise time when these wants are most 



urgent. The thymous juice too becomes scanty and thinner 
when the animal is ill fed or subjected to fatigue, interfering 
with nutrition. I have repeatedly witnessed this impover- 
ishment of the juice in badly nourished children, in dis- 
eased young rabbits, and in over-driven lambs. In the lat- 
ter, the thymus will soon shrink remarkably, and be nearly 
drained of its contents by bad treatment, and become as 
quickly distended again, during rest and plentiful nourish- 
ment with the milk of the dam. The phenomena of some 
diseases accord with the views expressed above. Thus 
scrofula, which is so prone to attack the lymphatic glands, 
is always attended with great emaciation when these organs 
become genei'ally implicated ; while this wasting is by no 
means so remarkable a feature of many affections of other 
parts accompanied with much greater alterations of struc- 

The observations of Professor Miiller (Physiology by 
Baly, Part 1, p. 26S} have already shown that the globules 
may be formed quite independently of the lymphatic glands ; 
besides, these latter do not exist in the lower vertebrata. 
But the facts already detailed surely prove that the thymus 
and the lymphatic glands are organs superadded to the higher 
animals for the production of a great quantity of globules 
similar to those found in the chyle, and that the activity 
of these organs has an immediate relation to the known 
exigencies of nutrition. 

What is the precise agency, in the animal economy, of 
these globules, is a question of great interest, and well de- 
serving of special inquiry. As I have elsewhere remarked, 
they are in most respects analogous to the nuclei of pri- 
mary cells, (note, p. 83,) and the smaller globules are in 
no way distinguishable from these nuclei. If, therefore, 
this identity should be established, the lymph globules will 
prove to be so many germs for the formation of those cells 
which the excellent researches of Schwann have shown to 
be intimately concerned in the development of the animal 
tissues generally. And I may add, that there are but few 
mature tissues in which corpuscles, probably remains of these 
cells, may not be shown to exist. (See explanation of figs. 


288 — 291.) In fine, tliat the globules of lymph may be con- 
verted into the red particles of blood seems to be generally 
admitted : and Professor Valentin (Wagner's Physiology by 
Willis, Part 1, p. 215) considers the corpuscles of both 
these fluids as cell-nuclei or cytoblasts. I may mention in- 
cidentally that the description given by Valentin of the facts 
observed by him in the larva of the frog, and from w^hich 
he concludes that the blood-corpuscles are not cells but 
nuclei, would apply to the manner in which I have seen 
the minute spherules become attached to the small or ir- 
regular blood-corpuscles of mammalia, as depicted in Fig. 

Hewson states that the lymph globules, which he calls 
central particles, differ in size and shape in different 
animals, (Experimental Inquiries, part 3, p. 27, edited by 
Falconar, Lond. 1777.) Thus he has given an engraving 
to show the oval figure of the central particles in the com- 
mon fowl. This requires further examination as to the 
lymph globule : but the nucleus of the blood corpuscle 
undoubtedly differs considerably in the lower vertebrata. 
In birds it is a more elongated ellipsis than the envelope, while 
in fish, the nucleus is nearly, often completely, circular (see 
Appendix, p. 30.) I have not examined the lymph of 
birds, but in their blood the white globular particles are 
known to be abundant (see Appendix, p. 24.) In the 
dromedary, however, an animal with oval blood discs, 
I found the globules of the thymous and lymphatic juice 
(Figs. 286 and 287) of the same form and size as in other 
mammals (see Lancet, April 10, 1841.) And in the 
Napu Musk Deer, an animal with singularly minute blood 
discs, my observation on the lymph globules was to the 
same effect (see note, p. 41.) 

Hewson advanced the opinion, as the result of an admi- 
rable inquiry, that the particles of the thymous and lymph- 
atic juice are identical, and that the thymus is accordingly an 
appendage to the lymphatic glands (Exp. Inq. p, 3, p. 
119 — 131.) He incessantly enforces this conclusion: yet 
his excellent researches are not sufficiently known or appre- 
ciated, and often only quoted to inform us that he regarded 


the globules as specially designed to form the central par- 
ticles of the blood corpuscles. This is not just to Hewson ; 
for his observationSj which were generally made with sin- 
gular exactness and sagacity, are not to be confounded with 
any hypothesis in which he may be supposed to have 
indulged. As Sir Astley Cooper (Anatomy of the Thymus- 
Gland, 4to. Lond. 1832) does not appear to have made the 
lymph a subject of particular examination, his authority is 
nugatory on this subject, against the facts enunciated by 
Hewson. Indeed it seems doubtful whether Hewson's 
Physiological Researches were ever completely compre- 
hended by his contemporaries and immediate successors. 

Had he extended his inquiries to the chyle and to the 
mesenteric glands, he would undoubtedly have found ad- 
ditional reasons to confirm his conclusion as to the simi- 
larity of function between the thymus and the lymphatic 
glands. His notion of central particles, so long looked 
upon as visionary, accords with the most recent observations. 
What are some of the free nucleoli of Valentin and cell 
nuclei of Schwann (Wagner's Physiology, by Willis, part 
1, pp. 215 and 222^ but the central particles of Hewson? 
It is true that the English physiologist only applied his 
doctrine to the formation of the blood corpuscles. It is 
also certain that these in mammalia retain nothing like a 
lymph globule in their centre ; for in this class of ani- 
mals the blood discs have only a very flat central part, not 
at all resembling the nucleus usually described in them, 
(see Appendix, p. 13, 14; and Phil. Mag. for Feb. 1840, 
p. 106 — 107;) yet in the oviparous vertebrata the blood 
corpuscles always possess central particles similar in some 
respects to the lymph globules; and that acute observer, 
R. Wagner, has delineated a human chyle globule, " doubt- 
less in progress of transformation into a blood corpuscle.* 

G. G. 

* Since the foregoing pages were printed, I have read some 
valuable observations on the chyle by Mr. Lane (Cyclopaedia of 
Anatomy and Physiology, April, 1841, Art. Lymphatic System.) 


{Figs. 263 and 264.) 

These are magnified only 380 diameters in the figures, not 
800 times, as stated by mistake in the explanation of the 
plates. The corpuscles have probably been described by 
Krause, Dujardin, or Verger; but I have no opportunity of 
consulting their writings. 

The corpuscles are generally oval ; for the most part -g-^th 
of an inch in length, and TTooth in breadth. They seem 
to be composed of a matrix pervaded by granular mat- 
ter, and sometimes by spherules about y^oth of an inch 
in diameter, though very unequal in size, many of them 
being much smaller, as represented in fig. 2QS, from a 
horse which died of that peculiar disease commonly called 
bleeding liver. In the human subject (fig. 264) the sphe- 
rules are not so commonly seen attached to or forming part 
of the corpuscles. 

In the sparrow-hawk (Nisus vulgaris, Cuv.) the corpus- 
cles are round, and their average diameter, from measure- 
ments made by Mr. Siddall, is ^^Vjth of an inch. 

It appears that Dr. Rees describes the albiuninous matter of the 
chyle as of a dead white colour, which he attributes to the admixture 
of a peculiar substance easily obtainable by agitating chyle with 
sether, and also by treating saliva in the same manner. I have 
already mentioned that a like substance appears after mixing 
sether with a variety of animal matters. But my examination of 
the matter in question was chiefly confined to its physical charac- 
ters ; and it is not impossible that the abundance of spherules 
which it contains, as shown in fig. 282, may be only minute 
portions of uncombined sether. The molecules which constitute 
the base of the chyle, Mr. Lane denominates granules ; which 
term would be unobjectionable, had it not been so frequently ap- 
plied by other writers to particles of a different kind, as noticed in 
the Explanation of the Plates, p. 59. 

{Fig. 2m.^ 

These are mostly globular, often oval ; some of them 
contain a nucleus, others seem to be formed simply by an 
aggregation of granules. The corpuscles represented in 
the figure were all of a dark red colour, and are apparently 
the red brown granules noticed by Professor Miiller. (Phy- 
siology, by Baly, part 2, p. 569.) It would appear from 
the following measurements that the human splenic cor- 
puscles are more unequal in size and slightly larger than 
the blood discs. 

—3200 \ 
—24 00 J 


Common sizes. 

Small size. 
Large do. 

1—3038 Averao-e. 

The measurements, as usual, are expressed in fractions 
of an English inch. The corpuscles were obtained from 
the pulp of the spleen. They are most easily examined 
after the blood has been washed out with water. In the 
sparrow-hawk the splenic corpuscles are like those of man. 


Minute Spherules. (Figs. 266 and 267.) — The pulp of 
the supra-renal gland is almost entirely composed of minute 
oil-like spherules, very unequal in size, usually varying 
from a-j^-oo^th to -g-gVoth of an inch, their most common 
medium diameter being about y-qwo th. They are so 
numerous, that it is frequently necessary to dilute the pulp 
to get a good viev^^ of them. JFor this purpose water, acetic 
acid, or dilute muriatic acid may be used. The smaller 
spherules, like other particles of similar minuteness, almost 
always exhibit vivid motions; (see Robt. Brown " On Ac- 
tive Molecules," Edinbrn-gh New Phil. Journal, April 
— Sept. 1828, page 358,) and these may occasionally 
be seen in the undiluted juice, either taken warm from an 
animal just slaughtered, or after the gland has been long 
kept in the air. The smaller spherules often seem to repel 
each other, especially when diluted with water, rather than 
blend together, as drops of oil or mercury do. 

Many re-agents that instantly act on most other micros- 
copic particles, do not affect those of the supra-renal gland. 
They are not changed by nitric, muriatic, sulphurous, or 
acetic acids, nor by caustic alkalies, nor by earthy, al- 
kaline or metallic salts, nor by asther. But the latter test 
generally makes the fluid of the gland more opaque, so that 
it is often necessary to dilute the mixture to bring the sphe- 
rules clearly into view. They are simply rendered of a 
darker colour by sulphuric acid. Caustic potass fre- 
quently produces slight ropiness of the fluid, although 
this effect is neither caused by liquid ammonia nor by neu- 
tral salts. 

The immediate operation of the tests is described above. 
After the strong mineral acids have been some hours mixed 


with the pulp of the gland, the majority of the minute 
spherules are no longer visible, and larger particles appear, 
apparently of fatty matter in a semifluid state. Some of 
these latter are spherical, while others are very irregular in 
shape. Their size is extremely variable, commonly from 
5 0^0 th to j^g^pp th of an inch in diameter. Similar par- 
ticles result from keeping the pulp of the gland in sether ; 
but in this mixture the proper minute spherules are abund- 

Corpuscles, or cells. (Fig. 267.) — The above observations 
refer to the super-renal glands of man, of the quadrumana, 
of the horse, and of numerous rodentia and carnivora. In 
many ruminants the minute spherules are less plentiful, their 
place being supplied by corpuscles somewhat resembling 
lymph globules in size, but often of a reddish colour, and 
occasionally of an oval figure. The corpuscles are but faintly 
affected by acetic acid. They are probably cells or nuclei. 
The corpuscles frequently occur in smaller numbers in the 
human subject, and the animals first mentioned, particu- 
larly in early life. In a sucking ass the corpuscles were 
remarkably abundant, while there were but very few of the 
minute spherules ; and in a foetal porpoise I could detect 
none of the spherules, the juice of the gland being full of 
the corpuscles and blood discs. The latter animal weighed 
ten pounds, each kidney was nearly as large as a hen's egg, 
and the supra-renal glands only measured half an inch in 
length and a quarter in breadth. In some instances in which 
the pulp of the gland was chiefly composed of the corpus- 
cles, as in a foetal calf, and in a fawn (Cervus Dama, Linn.) 
five days old, the action of ammonia destroyed the cor- 
puscles, and increased the quantity of the minute spherules, 
as if the latter had been generated and hid by the cells. 

Venous hlood. — The gland has seldom a cavity, although 
a large and distinct venous sinus sometimes exists in the 
centre. In the Norway lynx, (Felis cervaria, Temm.) for 
instance, the sinus was very remarkable ; but it was not 
so in the Persian lynx, (Felis caracal, Gmel.) As noticed 
in the Dublin Medical Press, Jan. 1, 1840, I have fre- 


quently seen in the venous blood of tlie supra-renal glands 
numerous minute spherules which could not be distin- 
guished from those of the gland. . In one instance they 
were copious in the supra-renal vein of a dog, which was 
killed by a blow on the head, a ligature being immediately 
put around the vein and the circulation kept up for several 
minutes by artificial respiration. The veins are probably 
the excretory ducts of the gland. Several of my observa- 
tions, however, on the contents of the vein in dead animals 
have been very contradictory ; and many careful experiments 
would be required to ascertain satisfactorily that the minute 
spherules found in the venous blood, are identical with 
those of the gland. The minute spherules (fig. 268) 
occurring in the blood of various parts, and in some other 
fluids, have not yet been distinguished from the particles 
of the supra-renal glands. 

Juics in young and old animals. — The minute spherules 
are often as numerous in the adult as in the young animal, 
sometimes more so ; and the glands are as large, or larger, 
and frequently fuller of juice in the former than in the 
latter. In many very young mammalia the glands are 
scarcely larger in proportion to the body, than those of 
the mother. In a woman aged seventy-four I found 
them twice as large as in a boy aged nine months ; and the 
glands of the old woman were richer in the juice and its 
proper spherules than the glands of the child. I have 
not observed that their absolute size gradually diminishes 
after birth, as stated by Meckel (Manuel d' Anatomic, tra- 
duit par Jourdan et Breschet, t. 3, p. 592;) at least they are 
generally as large in the adult as in the half-grown human 
subject. Bichat observes (Anatomie Descriptive, t. 5, p. 
462} that the glands become thinner and dryer, are shri- 
velled and even disappear in old age. I have often seen 
the glands of full size and juicy in the aged, and am led to 
doubt whether they commonly waste more at this period of 
life, than several other organs. 

Situation. — In some animals the glands are more sepa- 
rated from the kidneys than usual. In the rabbit the glands 



are about three quarters of an inch distant from the kidneys ; 
in the Musk Deer (Moschus Javanicus, Pall.) the left gland 
is an inch and a quarter anterior to the fore end of the kid- 
ney. In certain carnivora the glands are also more or less re- 
moved from the kidneys. 

The minute spherules in the oviparous vertehrata. — I have 
often seen the spherules abundantly in the pulp of the 
supra-renal glands of some birds and reptiles. In the 
sparrow hawk (Nisus vulgaris, Cuv.) when the spherules 
were treated with acetic acid, they appeared transparent at 
the circumference, and opaque in the centre, as if from a 
single globular nucleus. 








Professor of Anatomy to the Faculty of Medicine, Paris. 
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These Figures illustrative of m.}^ Elements of Ge- 
neral Anatomy I have, with a few exceptions, drawn 
from Nature with my own hand. I do not pretend 
that they have won anything as works of art from 
this ; but I had no choice ; and I believe them to be 
faithful. Their great defect, in my own eyes, is a 
want of the natural delicacy which the structures 
represented possess, — a delicacy, indeed, which no 
human hand can hope to emulate. However ready 
to acknowledge their want of artistic merit, then, I 
can nevertheless say that they are the product of 
many an hour that would else have been an hour 
of relaxation. 

A few repetitions, in consequence mainly of the 
introduction of the Table of Terminology, will 
have to be pardoned. I thought it well to present 
a general and comprehensive view of the elementary 
forms of the component parts of animals, to show 
their affinities, and to trace the passage, by gradual 
evolution, into more highly organized forms, and 
finally, the essence of their complete metamorphosis 
first, and then of their degeneration till they are felt 


as no longer serviceable to the organism in its 

With regard to the means of research and obser- 
vation at my command, I have, through the kind- 
ness of the owners, had the use, for longer or shorter 
periods, of the following microscopes : — 

1. An instrument by Schick and Pistor, the pro- 
perty of Professor Valentin ; an admirable instru- 
ment, well known and celebrated among microscopic 

2. An instrument by Plossel, belonging to Dr. 

3. A microscope by Chevallier of Paris, the pro- 
perty of Dr. Baswitz. 

4. An English microscope, name of the maker 
unknown to me, the property of M. Von Werdt- 

All these instruments, except the last, are achro- 
matic ; one of them is, in addition, provided with a 
screw micrometer and cross wires ; and two with 
sets of double glass micrometers, the one having the 
line divided into 30, the other having it divided into 
60 parts. Some of my older observations, and 
among my more recent ones, those having reference 
to the structure of the nerves, were made with my 
own microscope, which is one of the better non- 
achromatic old-fashioned instruments. The com- 
pressor and the double knife I found at times of 
essential service. Among chemical reagents, so- 
lutions of common salt, of caustic potash, of carbon- 
ate of potash, and of sal ammoniac, as also acetic 


acid, oil of turpentine, sulphuric ether and alcohol, 
were frequently employed. 

' The true dimensions of the microscopic objects, 
and their apparent magnitudes as indicated in the 
Figures, were determined by the simplest and most 
certain methods, either by means of the screw micro- 
meter, or of one of the glass micrometers placed 
under the eye-piece. To use the latter conveniently 
and assuredly, I fell upon the following plan : I 
placed in the focus of the eye-glass one of the glass 
plates having the line divided into 30 parts, and in 
the focus of the instrument at large one of the glass 
plates having the line divided into 60 parts ; I then 
determined with the greatest nicety the number of 
degrees upon the under (60 to the line) plate which 
were comprised within a single degree of the upper 
(30 to the line) plate. Suppose these under the 
lowest power — eye-piece No. 1, object-piece No. 1 — 
to amount to 5°, then one degree of the upper mi- 
crometer measures, ^, or l-12th of a line ; an object, 
therefore, that measured 3" in length of the upper 
micrometer, would have an absolute length of 3-12ths 
or l-4th of a line. With higher powers, of course 
many degrees of the upper micrometer are included 
in one of the lower, for instance, 30 in 1 . The true 
length of an object which measured 1° of the upper 
micrometer would then be to X 60 = rgVoth of a 
line; did it measure 5°, it would then be ^ X 60 
= TiW = 3To of a line ; and so on. By means of a 
Table constructed upon these data, all dimensions 
are readily ascertained with celerity and precision. 


I take the present opportunity of publicly express- 
ing my thanks for the readiness with which the 
friends I have mentioned favoured me with the use 
of their costly instruments ; my more particular 
acknowledgments, however, are due to my honoured 
colleague Valentin ; ever ready to oblige, ever ac- 
tively engaged himself, and ever glad to aid research 
in all within the sphere of his influence — may he 
long continue to adorn the school upon which he 
now sheds so bright a lustre ! 


Bern, 1840. 






planation of the figures from fig. 164 to 238. 

1. Unorganized constituents, the forms of which 
depend on general physical and chemical forces. 

1 . Liquid with the globular form. 

GuTTULA, a drop, a globule. Figs. 164 — 168; the ob- 
jects seen by transmitted light. 

Fig. 1 64. A flattened round drop, adhering to the port- 
object, in this instance a plate of glass. 

— 165. An elliptical-shaped drop, under the same cir- 

— 166. A free globular drop, its lowest point in the 
focus of the microscope. 

— 167. A similar drop, its centre in the focus. 

— 168. A similar drop, its highest point in the focus. 

— 169. A drop of the same description seen by reflected 
light falling laterally. 



Example. — Oil or fat-globule : 

In milk. Fig. 22. 
In chyle. — 23 B. 

In sebaceous matter of the skin. Fig. cil e, 
(Bubbles of air in a liquid might with propriety be referred 
to this head.) 

2. Solid; a. Crystalline. These are generally objects 
having a regular figure bounded by flat surfaces, and rec- 
tilinear edges and angles. 

Crystalli, crystals. Fig. 170 — 176. 

Fig. 170. A four-sided table. 

— 171. A cubical crystal. 

— 172. A lozenge or rhomboidal horny plate, such as 
in disturbance of the cerebral functions is often seen formed 
in the choroid plexus of the horse. 

— 173. A three-sided prism. 

— 174. A six-sided prism pointed at one end. 

— 175. A three-sided pyramid, 

— 176. Acicular crystals. 

Examples. — In fluids : 

In the fluid of the allantois. Fig. 30 B. 
In the sebaceous matter of the skin (crystals of stea- 
rine, horse.) Fig. 31 d. 
In solids : 
In firm exudation. Fig. 30 A. 

h. Non-crystalline, globular or rounded. 

Glarea, gravel, grit, sediment. Hard globules and 

Fig. 177. Gravelly globules. 

— 178 Gravelly granules. 

— 179 Mulberry-like gravel. 

Examples. — The urinary sediments and grit of the 
Solidungula. Fig. 29. 

The grit of the choroid plexus of the brain. 
The grit of the pineal gland. 


II. Imperfectly organized, amorphous, transpa- 

Substantia vitrea s. hyalina, vitreous or hyaline 

a. Not including cells or nuclei : 
Pulp of the navel string. 

Fibrine at the moment of its coagulating. 
The crystalline lens. 

b. Including cells. Fig. 216. 

Examples. — Hyaline substance of the cellular cartilages. 
Fig. 53 B, fig. 57 A. 

Hyaline substance of reticulate cartilages. Fig. 59. 

c. Including nuclei or nucleoli. 

Example. — Cartilage of bone. Fig. 60 and 61a. 

d. Including canals or tubuli. 

Example. — Cartilage of the teeth — hyaline substance of 
the tubular structure. Fig. 68 k. 

III. Highly organized animal structures. Simple 

Fig. 180—^^07. 

1. Simple or elementary constituents ; not susceptible 
of subdivision into dissimilarly organized parts. 
A. Plates or flat formations. Fig. 180 — 186. 
a. Simple. 

aa. More minute, with rounded boundaries. 
Squama s. squamul^, plates or scales. Horny cells 
without nuclei. 

Fig. 180, Six-sided plate or scale. 

— 181. Eight-sided plate or scale. 

— 182. Elliptical plate or scale. 

Three, four, and five-sided squamag. 


Example. — Horny plates of the horn of the ox. Fig. 

Scales from the conjunctiva (horse.) Fig. 41 a. 

h h. Larger, with various, not predominating linear 

Laminul^. Fig. 183. 

Example. — Large cells vv^ithout nuclei. 

c c. Long, linear. 

FiLA T^NiOFORMiA s. T^NiOLyE. a. Simple band-like 
or flat fibre. Fig. 184. 

Example. The flattened fibre, of elastic tissue. Figs. 

The involving, spiral fibre of the primary voluntary 
muscular fasciculus in the dog. Fig. 29, 2 b, 3 b, 4 c. 

h. Compound flat fibrous formations, made up of several 
flat fibres. 

FiBRA SQUAMOSA, squamous fibre. Fihra tceniolaris, 
flat fibre. Allineated squamas, or squamae hanging together 
in a line. Fig. 185. 

Example. — Fibrous horn. Fig. 34 B. 

Funiculus tjeniolaris. Flat filamentous cord ; — paral- 
lel flat filaments bound together. 
Example. — Fig. 79, 3 b. 

Funiculus fibro-squamosus. Fibro-squamous cord: 
parallel squamous fibres bound together. 
Example. — Fig. 34 B. ^ 

Membrana s. cuticulasquamea SIMPLEX. Simple or 
unilamellar membrane, — squamse arranged superficially. 
Fig. 186. 

Example. — Fig. 41 b. 

Membrana squamosa composita. Compound or mul- 
tilamellar membrane, — superficially arranged squamae, one 
layer lying over another. 


Example. — Fig. 41, c, and 40 e, f. 
The flat filamentous bundle. 
The flat fibrous bundle. 
The flat filamentous membrane. 
The flat fibrous tissue, and so on, vide fig. 194 to 201. 

B. Rounded homogeneous soft solids. 

a. Simple, peripheral. 
Granula, granules ; aggregated granules. Small, soft, 
rounded, simple formations. Fig. 187 — 192. 

Examples, — Lymph granules. Fig. 7 b, fig. 23 B, b. 
Granules of the cyst-corpuscle (multigranular pus-corpus- 
cle.) Fig. 9 c. 

Attached granules. Fig. 10 upon c, d, and 1. 

Fibrinous granules. Fig. 23 A. 

Granules of coagulated milk. Fig. 23 A. 

Mucus-granules. Fig. 25 A, d and B. fig. 48 D. 

Seminal granules. Fig. 26 A. 

Pigmentary granules. Fig. 32, 1 . and fig. 39 d. 

Ganglionic granules (ganglionic cells.) Fig. 89. 
2, 3, 4. fig. 89, 1 and 7. 

Granules of the granular muscles of organic life (?) 
Fig. 74. 

Granules of the fibres of the muscles of animal life (?) 
Fig. 82, 

Globuli, globules. Smooth, spherical granules. Fig. 
Exam^ple. — Seminal globules. Fig. 26 A. 

h. Compound, consisting of many granules stuck to- 
gether. Fig. 189—192. 

granulated corpuscles. Aggregation corpuscles ; rounded 
corpuscles having no nucleus, made up of granules. Fig. 

Examples. — Cyst-corpuscle (multigranular pus-corpus- 
cle.) Fig. 9 c, fig. 10 e, f, 1. 

Mucus- corpuscle. Fig. 25 B. 


Corpuscle of the Graafian vesicle (?) Fig. 27 b, 
fig. 28 a. 

Pigmentary corpuscle. Fig. 32, 1 a. 
FiBRA GRANULOSA s. GRANULATA. Granular fibre. A 
fibre consisting of simple granules arranged in lines. Fig. 

Example. — The fibre of the granular muscles. Fig. 74 
a, and fig, 82 A. B. 

Membrana GRANULOSA. Granular membrane. Granules 
arranged in the same plane. Fig. 192. 

Example. — The inner lamina of the retina. 

c. Simple, rounded, central, productive granules (germ 

Nucleolus, nucleolus. (Kernchen, G.) Central grain. 
A simple granule included in a nucleus (cell-germ.) Fig. 

Examples. — Nucleus (properly nucleolus) of the blood 
corpuscle. Fig. 1 b, fig. 2 c, fig. 205, 1 b. 

Nucleolus of the true, healthy, reproductive or seven 
granular pus corpuscle. Fig. 9 b, fig. 10 g, fig. 205, S. 

Nucleus (properly nucleolus) of the exudation corpus- 
cle. Fig. 9 a, fig. 10 i, fig. 205, 2. 

Nucleoli of cells generally. Fig. 215 e, fig. 217 b, 
fig. 220 b, fig. 226 c. 

Nucleolus of the cartilage-cell. Fig. 217 b. 

Nucleus, nucleus or kernel. (Kern. G.) A simple cen- 
tral grain, granule, or globule, without a nucleolus, sur- 
rounded immediately by a cell. Fig. 202 a, b. 

Examples. — Nucleus of the epithelial-cell. Fig. 25 A, 
in a, a, a. The white point in the pigmentary cells of the 
choroid coat of the eye. Fig. 32, 2 and 3 b ; fig. 33. 

Nucleus of the cartilage cell. Fig. 59 b, b, b, fig. 
217 a. 

Nucleus of the bone-cell or bone-corpuscle. Fig. 61 a, 
fig. 62 a, fig. m a, fig. 68 d, fig. 70 a. 

Nuclei of cell and ciliary corpuscles. Fig. 48 g. 


Nucleus granulosus, granular nucleus. A nucleus com- 
posed of granules ; probably a granular nuclear corpuscle, 
as that of the true pus corpuscle. Fig. 217 g, fig. 218 a, 
b, c, fig. 223 b. 

Example. — Common, perhaps constant, in cartilage cells. 
Fig. 57 c. In the cell-fibres of the sheaths of nerves and 
vessels. Fig. 102 at d. 

C. Cylindrical, simple, linear formations. 

a. Fila rotunda s. cylindrica. Simple rounded 
filament. Fig. 194. 

Example. — Fibre of cellular substance. Fig. 19 b, fig. 
73 c. 

Fibre of tendon. Fig. 51-1-. 
Fibre of ligament. Fig. 52. 
Fibre of one variety of cartilage. Fig. 53 A, a. 
Fibre of contractile tissue. Fig. 73 b. 
b. Compound, round, filamentous formations — com- 
pounds of many round filaments. 

Fasciculus filorum. A bundle of filaments — a cylin- 
drical filamentous cord. Fig. 195. 

Funiculus filorum. A round filamentous cord. Round 
filaments connected parallel to the length of the cord. 
Fig. 196. 

Examples. — Cord of the filaments of cellular substance. 
Fig. 19. 

Cord of tendious filaments. Fig. 51 b, c. 
Cord of ligamentous filaments. Fig. 52. 
Cord of cartilaginous filaments. Fig. ^^ A. 
Cord of contractile filaments. Fig. 73 a, a, a. 

Membrana filorum. a filamentous membrane. A mem- 
brane composed of filaments lying parallel to each other. 
Fig. 200. 

Example. — Serous membrane. Fig. 49 A. 

CoNTEXTUs filorum. A fikmentous tissue. A structure 
composed of filaments. Fig. 197. 


Example. — Tissue of cellular substance. Fig. 49 B. 
Tissue of contractile filaments. Fig. 75, at b. and c. 

Retefilorum. a filamentous net. Fig. 198, fig. ^25(?) 

Example. — Elastic tissue (?) Fig. 54 a. 

FiLORUM iMPLiCATio REGUi.ARis. A grating of fila- 
ments. Fig. 199. 

Example. — Fig. 76 A ( ? ) 

CoNTEXTUs FAScicuLoso-FiLosus. A tissue of fikmcu- 
tous fasciculi. Fig. 201. 

2. More highly organized proximate or compound con- 
stituent parts, in which dissimilar structures are distin- 

A. Binary. Composed of two simple elements. 

a. Uniform structureless substances, forming simple 
investing covers. 

a. Rounded. 

Vesicula s. bullula SIMPLEX s. PRiMiTivA. A simple 
vesicle. An unnucleated cell. A simple hollow globule, 
or globular cuticle including structureless substances, fig. 
208 ; heaped together, fig. 209. Including serum ; 

The serous vesicle, which occurs every where in the moist 
cellular substance. 
Including fat : 

The fat vesicle ; occurs universally in the adipose cellular 

Example, — Round fat vesicles. Fig. 31 a, b, c. 
Crowded (multilocular) fat vesicle. Fig. 71 and 72 b, 
and fig 94 s. 

a. /3. Transition of the simple vesicle into the simple 
hollow fibre (simple vessel.) 

Vesicula pedunculata simplex. Pedunculated simple 
vesicle. Fig. 208. 

Example. — The vesicle of the epithelial corpuscle (?) 
for example, of the intestinal villus. Fig. 240 c, d, and fig. 


Vesicle of the sebaceous glands. Fig. 42 n, o, p, fig. 
43 e, fig, 44 e, fig. 45 e. 

Vesicle of the sudoriparous glands. Fig. 43 i, i. 

Vesicle of the Meibomian glands. Fig. 1,58 c. 

/3 Elongated, siliquose, simple, hollow envelope, with uni- 
form contents. 

Vasa siMPLiciA. Simple vessels with homogeneous con- 
tents. Fig. 213. 

Example. The most delicate peripheral or efferent 
lymphatic vessels. Fig. 108 ; a, a, in fig. 113; fig. 141. 

The excretory ducts of the cutaneous glands : viz. 

Of the sebaceous glands. Fig. oQ e, f, fig. 37 a, a, 
fig. 40 g, h, fig. 42 d, d, fig. 43 f f, fig. 44 c, fig. 45 d, c, 
fig. 160, fig. 161, fig. 239d, e, f. 

Of the sudoriparous glands. Fig. 43 k, k. 

The sheaths of the hairs. Fig. 42 c, fig. 43 and 45 c. 

The tubuli of the ivory in the teeth. Fig. 68 f, i, k, 1. 

Horny tubes, with simple solid contents : 

Pili, hairs. Fig. 42 k, 1, m, fig. 43 h. fig. 45 f, fig. 94 r. 

Soft moveable hairs : 
Cilia vibratoria. Vibratile cilia. 

Of the ciHary cells. Fig. 221 d, fig. 222 c. 
Of the ciliary corpuscles. Fig. 48 d. 
Of the ciliary cellular fibres. Fig. 223 at a, and fig. 
224 at b. 

b. Organized simple formations ; simple, including en- 
velopes : 

». Rounded. 

Nucleus NUCLEOLATUS. Nucleolated nucleus. (Schach- 
telkern, G.) A nucleus with an included nucleolus. Figs. 
Example. — Blood corpuscles. Fig. 1 — 6, fig. 10, a, b. 
Lymph-corpuscles. Fig. 7, fig. 4 a. 
Exudation corpuscles. Fig. 9 a, fig. 10 i, k. 
Ichor corpuscles. Fig. 9 d, fig. 10 c, d. 
CelluLzE NUCLEATiE. Nucleated cells. (Kernzellen, G.) 
Simple cells without nucleoli. Figs. 214, 216, 227. 



Example. — -Simple epithelial cells. Nucleated cells of 
the epidermis and epithelium. Fig. 25 A, a, a, a, fig. 47, 
fig. 103 b, b, b. 

Pigmentary cells of the choroid coat of the eye, fig. 
32, 2, 3. 

Bone cells. Fig. 86 b, b'. 

Nucleated cells in cellular cartilage. Fig. 57 b, c, 
fig. 58 ; and mingled with nucleolo-nucleated cells, and 
binucleated cells. Fig. 217 a. 

Nucleated cells in reticulate cartilage. Fig. 59 b, b. 
Compound nucleated-cellular formations. 
FiBR^ CELLULOso-NucLEAT^. Cellulo-nucleatcd fibres. 
Fig. 218, fig. 219. 
Example. — In the second stage of the secondary fibrous 
organization. Fig. 17. 

The cellulo-nucleated fibres of the nervous sheaths. 
Fig. 102 c, c, fig. 103 c, d, e. 

The cellulo-nucleated fibres of the vascular sheaths. 
Fig. 103 d, d. 


LULOSO-NUCLEATUM. Cellulo-nucleated membrane or epi- 
thelium. Fig. 214, fig. 215 a. 

Example. — Outer skin (epithelium) of the mucous mem- 
branes, ex. gr. Of the allantois. Fig. 103 b, b, b. 

Of the conjunctiva. Fig. 47 and farther. 
Of the choroidea. Fig. 32, 2, and fig. SS. 

B. Ternary, organized, constituent parts. Parts with 
three different elementary constituents. 

1. Simple coverings, including contents of two dis- 
similar kinds. 

a. Rounded, with organized contents : 

Cellule nucleo-nucleolat^. Nucleo-nucleolated 
cells. (Schachtelzellen, G.) Cells with included nucleolated 
nuclei. Fig. 215 at c, fig. 217 b, c, fig. 220, fig. 226. 

Example. — Ganglionic cells, ganglionic globules. Fig. 
89, 2, 3, 4. 

Nucleo-nucleolated cells (encased cells) of cartilage. 


Nucleo-nucleolated cells of the external indusias 
(epidermis, epithelium.) Fig. 226 a, b, c. 

b. Elongated, with contents of two kinds, partly organ- 

Vasa simplicia contento duplici USA. Simple vessels, 
with contents of a twofold nature. Corpuscles suspended 
in a fluid. 

Example. The capillary bloodvessels. Fig. 6 A, b, b, b, 
fig. 20, fig. 21 c,d,e, fig. 132—135, fig. 136 c, c, fig. 
137— 152, fig. 153, fig. 155 c. 

Canals of the bones — the most delicate bloodvessels of 
the bones. Fig. 61 b, c, fig. 62 b, fig. 68 e. 

2. Bitunicated canals with homogeneous contents. 
a. With a simple cellular external coat. 

All the finer secretory canals furnished with a mucous 
membrane (Vasa secretoria capillaria, the capillary 
secretory canals.) 

Example. — The tubuli of the kidney. 

The finest subdivisions of the biliary ducts. 

The finest subdivisions of the salivary ducts. Fig. 
156 and 157. 

The finest subdivisions of the lachrymal ducts. 

The finest subdivisions of the Meibomian ducts. Fig. 

The finest subdivisions of the prostatic ducts. 

The finest subdivisions of the Cowper's glands, and 
so on. 

h. With a ciliate epithelium or external coat. 

FiBR^ PRiMATiv^ NERVORUM. Primary fibres of the 
nerves. Fig. 88, 4 ; a. Neurelema, or immediate investing 
coat ; b, Ciliate external coat ; b, b. The coagulated con- 

C. Quaternary, compounded, organized constituents. 
Parts made up of four simple but different elements. 
1 . Bitunicated, with contents of two descriptions. 

a. Rounded. 

Ovum, ovulum. The primary egg before fecundation. 


(Eichen, Eiblaschen, G.) Fig. 27. Made up of the double 
envelope or covering, c. The vitelline membrane, and d, 
the exochorion or zona pellucida, which include e, the vi- 
tellus or yolk, and/, the germinal vesicle. 

a b. Transition from the rounded to the elongated form. 

Vesicul^ pedunculate composiTjE. Pedunculated, 
compound vesicles. 

Example. — The pulmonary vesicle or vesicles. Fig. 159 
(Cover: — the mucous membrane, and cellular epithelium ; 
Contents — a muco-aqueous fluid and air.) 

b. Elongated. 

Vasa composita. Compound vessels. Vessels having 
two tunics, and contents of two different descriptions. 

Example. — The central or efferent lymphatic vessels. 
Fig. 108 b, e, f. 

The venous lymph-ducts. Fig. 110 a, 111 b, e, 112 
b, c. 

The interglandular lymphatics. Fig. 109 a. 

(Cover : — A muscular fibrous tunic, and a serous tunic ; 
Contents — Lymph-corpuscles and lymph-fluids.) 

The bloodvessels ; 

The veins. Fig. 14—120, fig. 136 d. (Cover:— An 
organic, muscular, fibrous coat, and a serous coat ; Con- 
tents — Blood-corpuscles and blood-fluid or liquor sanguinis.) 
The arteries. (Cover: — An elastic tissue, or coat, 
and a serous coat.) Contents — Same as the veins.) 
The excretory ducts of such glands as the 
Salivary glands. 
The liver. 
The testes. 

The lachrymal glands. 

The mammary glands, &c. which are lined through- 
out with a mucous membrane, and of which the cover or 
bounding parietes consist of this membrane with a super- 
composed cellular epithelium, and the contents are mucous 
corpuscles and granules, oil-globules, or watery fluid, &c. 



Fig. 1—21. Blood. 

— 1 — 14. Blood-corpuscles, globules or discs. 

— 1 — 6. Blood corpuscles of vertebrate animals. 

— 1. Blood corpuscles of the fish, (the barbel, Cypri' 
nus barba.y 

a. The capsule (nucleus) ; b. the nucleus (nucleolus.) 

Fig. 2. Blood-corpuscles of the reptile (newt or triton) 
niagniiied 450 diameters. 

Fig. 3. Blood-corpuscle of the bird (pigeon) magnified 
450 diameters. 

Fig. 4. Blood corpuscle of the mammal (horse) magni- 
fied 450 diameters. 

a. A lymph globule ; b. two blood-corpuscles stand- 
ing on their edges. 

Fig. 5. Blood corpuscle of man, magnified 530 diameters. 

— 6. Blood corpuscles of the newt in the capillary 
vessels, magnified 35 diameters. 

a. Final subdivisions of the arteries ; bbb. Capil- 
laries with single rows of blood-corpuscles ; c. Passage into 
the first divisions of the veins. The arrows indicate the 
course of the blood in the capillaries. 


B. Sections of blood-corpuscles. 

1. Section of a meniscus-shaped blood-corpuscle of 
the spider. 

2. Section of a blood-corpuscle of the frog with elip- 
tical nucleus (nucleolus) rising above the general level of 
the corpuscle. 

3. Section of a dried blood-corpuscle of the pigeon. 
In the middle a round nucleus is perceived, in the circum- 
ference of which the nucleus has sunk in. The other two 
eminences are formed by the periphery of the nucleus, 
which rises in the guise of a ring above the capsule. 

4. Section of a blood-corpuscle of a mammal. 
Fig. 7. Lymph-globules of a mammal (horse) magnified 

450 diameters, from the pale lake-coloured lymph of the 
thoracic duct. 

a. Lymph -globule, clearer and smaller than the 
blood-globule (vide fig. 4.) 

h. Lymph-granules, produced by the coagulation of 
the lymph, c. Lymph-globule resting on its edge. 

Fig. 8. Columns of blood-corpuscles of a mammal 
(horse) in apposition by their flat surfaces, magnified 450 di- 

a. Columns, h. Single blood-corpuscles resting on 
their edges, c. Single blood-corpuscles lying flat. 

Fig. 9. and 10. Nuclear and granular corpuscles of dif- 
ferent kinds. 

Fig. 9. Corpuscles of blood (blood-corpuscles) of coag- 
ulable lymph (exudation-globules,) of pus, (pus -globules,) 
of cysts, (cyst-globules,) of ichor, (ichor-globules,) 
magnified 450 diameters. 

a. Exudation -globules, which arise when the fi- 
brine of transuded blood or lymph (plasma, liquor sangui- 
nis) coagulates in contact with the living tissues. * Out of 
the body, or after death, instead of proper exudation-glo- 
bules, granules are formed {vide fig. 15 6.) At first exuda- 

* But without forming cells, as happens with regard to the 
layer that is immediately in contact with the living tissues. 


tion globules look extremely like blood-globules, they then 
split or divide into six or seven pieces, and undergo transfor- 
mation into pus-globules. 

b. Pus-giobules, (true pus-globules, seven granu- 
lar, productive pus-globules,) of which laudable or produc- 
tive pus almost entirely consists. In the true pus-globule 
six or seven granules surround the smaller and rounded 
nucleus, which in some of the globules appears to be far- 
ther subdivided into from two to four granules. 

c. Cyst-globules; unnucleated, highly granular pus- 
globules, often much larger than the nuclei of these 
last. These cyst-globules are encountered in close cavities, 
the products of morbid action — in cysts — and are generally 
mingled with crystals, &c. 

d. Ichor-globules. These are met with in the dis- 
charge from ulcers, in the matter of glanders, &c. They 
appear to be altered blood and exudation-globules, which 
are incapable of forming either granulations (cells) or 

Fig. 10. Corpuscles of blood, pus, coagulable lymph, and 
ichor, magnified 1300 diameters. 

a. A blood-globule of a mammal (horse) seen on its 
flat surface. 

h. The same seen from the edge. 

c. Ichor-globule (glanders) with attached granules. 

d. The same seen from the edge. 

e. The flat highly granular cyst-globule. 
/. The same seen from the edge. 

g. The flat, true pus-globule, (the seven granular, 
laudable, or productive pus-globule,) the variety with 
quadrigranular nucleus. 

h. The same standing on the edge. 

i. Exudation-globule, which has become fissured, 
and is about to change into a pus-globule. 

Jc. The same standing on its edge. 

I. The rounded cyst-globule, (multigranular, round 
pus-globule,) with adhering granules. The cyst-globule is 
generally much larger than any of the other globules. Cyst- 


globules are encountered most frequently in the cysts of 
glandular structures ; for example, in those of the thyroid 
body. (See fig. 9 c.) 

Fig. 11 — 14. Peculiarities presented by blood coagulat- 
ing out of the body. 

Fig. 1 1 . Blood received into a cup, coagulating. The 
blood-globules are equally distributed through the coagu- 
lating plasma, or liquor sanguinis. 

Fig. 12. The same blood completely set or coagulated. 
a a. The serum, which has transuded, and now com- 
pletely surrounds the coagulum. 

b. The coagulum or cruor. The blood-globules 
are surrounded by coagulated fibrine. 

Fig. 13. Blood mixed with sugar, coagulating. The coag- 
ulation being delayed, as it is in this instance, the blood- 
globules, which are specifically heavier than any other 
constituent of the blood, sink towards the bottom, and a 
clear layer of fibrine, b, is formed on the upper part of the 
coagulum, c. * 

Fig. 14. The same blood completely set. 

a a. Serum, b. Layer of pure fibrine (buffy coat, 
inflammatory crust.) c. The precipitated blood-globules, 
now occupying a smaller space, and, with the smaller 
quantity of fibrine with which they are mingled, forming a 
very deep-coloured coagulum. 

Fig. 15 A. Coagulated fibrine in strings, procured by 
switching a quantity of freshly let blood with a rod. 

a. The rod. b b. Club-shaped masses, c. Filiform 
and d. Looped fibres. 

B. Granular fibrine, which has set out of the 
body. Magnified 100 diameters. 

Fig. 16 — 21. Fibrine which has set under the influence 
of the vital power ; organization of the same. 

* The formation of the huffy coat depends on something more 
than this. It often does not appear on blood that coagulates 
slowly ; and, on the contrary, it is thick on that which sets within 
the usual time. Very recently it has been maintained that the 
huffy coat is connected in eveiy instance with a diminution in the 
specific gravity of the blood. — Ed. 


Fig. 16. Plan figure ; progress of organization in the 
fibrine composing coagulable lymph, (exudation of the 
liquor sanguinis without admixture of blood-globules,) de- 
posited on serous and synovial membranes, &c. 

a. Fkiid fibrine in the form of drops, h. A piece of 
consolidated but still amorphous fibrine. 

c. Exudation corpuscles (fig. 9 «;.) not sufiiciently 
magnified to bring the nuclei into yiew—^rst stage of the 
organization. d. Associated cell-bundles, more highly 
magnified than in fig. 102 c d, 103 dd, and figs. 218 and 
219 — -first stage of the fibrillation, e. Associated cylindrical 
fasciculi — second stage of fibrillation, f. Divided or disgre- 
gated cylindrical fasciculi as they appear in the fibrils of 
cellular membrane, of sinews, &c. — complete fibrillate or- 

Fig. 17. Secondary organization in coagulable lymph. 
Loops and lancet-shaped leaflets — exudation villi formed 
of aggregated cell-fasciculi (as in fig. 102 c.) The liquor 
sanguinis (coagulable lymph) has exuded upon a portion of 
inflamed peritoneum. The organization has here passed 
the first and has reached the second stage, or the com- 
mencement of fibrillation. A specimen of secondary or- 
ganization in false membranes. From a mammal (the 

Fig. 18. Second stage of fibrillation in a mass of exuda- 
tion from the peritoneum — aggregated cylindrical fibril- 

Fig. 19. Secondary round fibrils (fibril of cellular mem- 
brane, and transformation of this into the fibril of sinew.) 

a. Bundles and strings of the fibrils of cellular 

b. Strings of the fibrils and single fibrils of sinew. 
Fig. 20. Secondary formation of bloodvessels in villi of 

coagulable lymph. 

Fig. 21. A portion of another leaf-like villus of exuda- 
tion, with the bloodvessels more highly magnified. 

a. Artery running into the middle of the mass. 

b. Vein lying near it. 



c. Capillaries of the vein. 

d. Capillaries of the artery. 

e. Capillaries or intermediate vessels forming the 
peripheral vascular rete. 

Fig. 22 — 26. Secretions from the blood with organized 
constituent elements, and unorganized precipitates. 

Fig. 22. Healthy milk, magnified 450 times (from the 

Fig. 23 A. Abnormal milk : slimy, imperfectly coagulated, 
reddish-coloured milk, (from a cow wliich had died of the 
poll-evil,) magnified 200 times. 

a. Milk-globules connected together by a thick 

h. Scattered milk-granules. 
B. Milky chyle from the mesenteric lacteals of a 
dog which had been fed upon horse-flesh. 
a. Oil-drops. 
h. Lymph-granules. 
Fig. 24. Detached epithelial corpuscles (epidermic cy- 
linders) of the bile of man and different animals. With 
these figures compare fig. 46, and also fig. 48. The objects 
are here seen under a better microscope than those of fig. 
48, but they are without ciliae. 

a. In the bile of the human subject. 
h. In the bile of the horse. 

c. In the bile of the ox. 

d. In the bile of the hog. 

e. In the bile of the dog. 
Fig. 25. Mucus. 

A. From the mucous plug of the cervix uteri, magni- 
nified 450 diameters. 

a. Epithelial cells from the epithelium of the mu- 
cous membrane of the cervix uteri. 
h. Perfectly horny scales. 
c. An epithelial body with cilise. 

B. Mucous corpuscles and granules, magnified 100 


Fig. 26. Seminal fluid of different vertebrata. 

A. Seminal animalcules or spermatozoaj and seminal 
granules of man and the mammalia. 

a. Of man. 

b. Of the bear (this observed by the best microscope 
resembles fig. 231.) The tails of the spermatozoa were not 
perceived in this instance. 

c. Of the common mouse. 

B. Spermatozoa (in packets or nests) and seminal 
granules in birds. 

a. The spermatozoa. 

b. Seminal granules including nuclei. 

c. Cysts full of young spermatozoa. 

Fig. 27 and 28. Contents of the ovary in the unimpreg- 
nated state. 

Fig. 27. Magnified view of the Graafian vesicle or fol- 
licle (of the cow.) 

a a. The membrane of the Graafian vesicle. 

b. The granular follicular corpuscles. 
c — ^. The ovum, 

c. The outer covering of the ovum — Exochorion, or 
Zona pellucida. 

d. The inner investment of the ovum — EndocJio- 
rion, or vitelline membrane. 

e. The finely granular vitellus or yolk. 
/. The germinal vesicle. 

g. The germinal spot. 
Fig. 28. Graafian vesicles from the ovary of a foetal calf 
of four months. 

a. Substance of the ovary — Stroma. 

a\ An isolated vesicle covered by the ovarian 

a", and a'". Smaller Graafian vesicles projecting 
from the surface of the ovarian stroma. 

When the ovarian stroma is removed, the ovum, with its 
germinal vesicle and spot, is brought into view. 


Fig. 29, 30. Crystalline deposits in various fluids. 
Fig, 29 A. Yellowish-gray precipitate — gravel from the 
bladder of a male ass. 

a. A globule split by pressure into three pieces. 
B. Globular precipitate — gravel from the pelvis of the 
kidney of the horse ? (Pferdewallachen, G.) The globules 
are smaller and fewer in number. 

a. An agglomerated heap of deposit. 
Fig. 30 A. Crystals of sulphate of lime in fibrine after 
exudation of coagulable lymph into the thoracic cavity of 
the horse. 

aa. K linear rank of these crystals. Magnified 120 

h. Various clusters of the same crystals. Magnified 
400 diameters. 

B. Crystals from the fluid of the allantois of the 

Fig. 31. Fat of the horse. Magnified 50 diameters. 

a. Fat vesicle from the pappy layer of fat within 
the spinal canal. 

h. Fat vesicle from the cavity of the orbit. 

c. Vesicle with transparent oily fat — elain vesicle. 

d. Crystalline fat — tallow, stearine ; and 

e. Globular drop of viscid brown elain, both from 
the prepuce of a horse ? (Pferdewallachen, G.) 

Fig. 32 and '^?>. Black pigmentary matter. 
— 32, 1. Pigmentary corpuscles and pigmentary gran- 

a. A pigmentary corpuscle entire. 
h. A pigmentary body, resolved into its constituent 

c. Pigmentary granules. 
2, 3. Pigmentary cells of the choriod coat, of the 
ox's eye. 

2, a. Meshes of the intercellular rete, after the removal 
of the pigmentary cells, under a power of 170. 

3. A single pigmentary cell — a] nucleated pigmentary 
corpuscle, magnified about 400 diameters. 


a. The lamellation of the layers, which cover one 
another like steps. 

b. The clear nucleus of the cell. 

4. Different other forms of the pigmentum nigrum. 

a. Elongated. "^ 

b. Radiated. I t^. 

. ^ . , >■ rigmentum nigrum. 

c. Asteroid. '^ *=" 

d. Reticulated. J 

Fig. 33. A portion of the tunica choroidea or vascular 
tunic of the ox's eye, magnified 56 times. 

a a a. Veins of this tunic, covered by a single layer 
of pigmentary cells. 

b. Arborizations of the veins in the neighbourhood 
of the ciliary ligament, covered with pointed and reticu- 
lated pigment. 

c. Thick pigment in the vascular meshes. 
Fig. 34 — 45. Horny tissue. 

— o4 Elementary parts of horn. Slice of the horn of 
the ox, of the greatest possible delicacy. Magnified 400 
diameters. (With this compare the horn of the foetal 
ox, iu the cells of which nuclei and nucleoli are still appa- 
rent, fig. 226.) 

A. Elementary plates or lamella of the transparent, 
colourless, hyaline horn. — Cells transformed to horn, the 
nuclei of which have disappeared. 

B. Plates arranged in rows or bundles, — fibrous 
horny tissue. 

Fig. 35. A thin layer, cut parallel with the axis from 
the tip of the horn of an ox. Magnified 100 diameters. 
a a. Clear hyaline horn. 

b b. Deep brown pigmentary spots, which occur in 
the coloured parts of streaked horn. 

c. Vascular canal, in the middle of the tip of the 

Fig. 36 — 39. Horny tissue of the horse's hoof. 
— 36. A perpendicular slice from the upper part of 
the posterior wall of the hoof. Magnified 15 diameters. 

a. A part of the crown edge (Krohnrinne, G.) of 
the hoof. 


h. Several vascular cones. 

c. Colourless, glassy horn. 

d. Ducts of sebaceous glands, running between the 
cones for the bloodvessels, 

e. The spirally twisted or corkscrew-like expan- 
sions of these ducts. The turns ail go to the right like the 
threads of a common male screw. 

/. The narrower part of the sebaceous duct in the 
firm horn, as it traverses the entire length of the horny 
crust of the hinder part of the hoof to open finally upon 
the plantar aspect of the bearing edge. 

Fig. 37. A perpendicular slice of the lower part of the 
anterior wall of a horse's hoof. Magnified 40 diameters. 

a a. Two twisted sebaceous canals, filled with brown 
sebaceous matter. 

h b h. Smaller pigmentary spots which surround the 

c c c. Larger pigmentary spots, surrounding a mid- 
dle one composed of smaller streaks. 

Fig. 38. A horizontal transverse slice of the wall of the 
same hoof, cut from near the bearing edge ; magnified 40 

a a a. The inferior ends of the spirally twisted 
sebaceous canals. 

+ + . Their external openings. The other referen- 
ces as in Fig. 37. 

Fig. 39. A thinner slice of the same hoof from the same 
situation, magnified 80 diameters. 

The spiral canals here form but a quarter of a turn. 
The pigmentary spots appear as translucent, elongated, pig- 
mentary granules. 

a. Sebaceous canals. 

h. Tubular shaped smaller pigmentary granules 
disposed around these. 

c. Larger pigmentary granules, enclosing the smaller 

d. Pigmentary granules, beyond the pigmentary 


Fig. 40. Section of the integument of the palm of the 

human hand. 

a. Corium, or cutis vera — true skin. 

h. More compact stratum of this upon which 

c d. The papillae, or papillary body — the vasculo- 

nervous cones — are seated. 

c. Nearest rank of tactile papillae. 

d. Next rank in order of the same. 

e. Horny epidermis or cuticle, composed of nume- 
rous superimposed sinuous layers of horny squama. 

/. The sinuous projections of the epidermis, formed 
by the most external of the horny layers of which the 
tissue consists. 

g h i. The spirally twisted excretory ducts of the 
sebaceous glands. 

g. In the corion. 

h. In the cuticle. 

i. Their external openings. 
Fig. 41 . Horny epithelium, from the conj unctiva covering 
the cornea of the eye, as a continuation of the general 
tegumentary cuticle, magnified 150 diameters (horse.) 

a. Single scales. 

h. Simple lamina of the epithelium. 

c. Double lamina of the same. 
Fig. 4^. A hair with its associated sebaceous glands, from 
the vicinity of the crown of the hoof, magnified about 25 
diameters (horse.) 

a a. Corium. 

b. Horny cuticle. 

h. Malpighian pigmentary layer. 
c c c. Hair follicles, hair-sheaths. 

c. Their funnel-shaped outer openings. 

d d. Excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands. 

e e. Secreting pulp of the hair and its sheath. 

//. Part of the pulp which immediately secretes 
the root of the hair. 

g. Thickening of the still clear portion of the root 
of the hair. 



h. Root of the hair. 

i. Its cavity filled with vessels, nerves, and cellular 

him. The hairs, prolongations of the roots. 

n n. The mulberry-like sebaceous glands. 

0. Union of the pediculated vesicles of the gland 
to form the excretory duct. 

p. External surface of the vesicles. 
Fig. 43. Sebaceous and sudoriparous glands (prepuce of 
the stallion) magnified about 12 diameters. 

a a. Epidermis. 

h, Infundibuliform depression of the same. 

c c. Sheaths of hairs. 

d d. Pulps of hairs in their sheaths. 

e e. Sebaceous glands. 

//. Their excretory ducts. 

g. Root of hair. 

h. Delicate hair. 

i. Sudoriparous glands. 

k. Their excretory ducts. 
Fig. 44. Section of the integument of the scrotum, 
magnified 8 diameters (horse.) 

a a. The globular cutaneous papillae, covered with 
the dark coloured cuticle. 

h h. Infundibuliform inversion of the cuticle. 

c. Excretory duct of a sebaceous gland, 

d. The particular ducts of the several glomeruli 
composing the gland. 

e. The sebaceous gland, filled with brown coloured 

Fig. 45. Section of the labium, magnified about 8 times 

a. The papillae covered with cuticle. 

h. The infundibuliform inversion of the cuticle. 

c. The excretory ducts of the sebaceous glands. 

d. The secondary divisions of these. 

e. The appendices or vesicles of the sebaceous 
glands, filled with sebaceous matter. 


/. Fine hairs. 
Fig. 46 — 48. Epithelial corpuscles and ciliary corpuscles. 
— 46. Section of the mucous membrane of the trachea, 
magnified 100 diameters (horse.) 

a h c. The ciliary epithelium. 

a. The ciliary corpuscles. 

h. Cilias attached to the crown of the same. 

c. Thick superficies of the mucous membrane, 
formed of elastic membrane, upon which the ciliary corpus- 
cles, and ciliary cellular fibrils, are implanted by means 
of their pedicles. 

d. Single detached ciliary epithelial corpuscles 
magnified 125 times. Among these are to be distinguished 
cylinder or roller-shaped ciliary corpuscles, bell-shaped 
corpuscles, cup-shaped corpuscles, and bicellular corpuscles, 
the latter with pedicles at either extremity. 

Fig. 47. Villi of the conjunctiva, from the inner aspect 
of the upper eye-lid (horse.) 
a a. Two villi. 
h b. Spaces betwixt these. 

c. The cells of the cellular epithelium, or the 
coronary edges of the epithelial corpuscles. 

d. The nuclei of the corpuscles. 

Fig 48. Ciliary corpuscles and their constituent parts. 

A. A bell-shaped ciliary corpuscle seen from the side, 
and magnified about 400 diameters. 

a. The ciliary crown. 

b. The ciliary papilla. 

c. The coronal pit. 

d. The ciliae. 

e. The coronal globule (coronal nucleus.) 
/. The body. 

g. The nucleus. 

h. The pedicle by which the corpuscle is attached 
to the mucous membrane. 

B. A ciliary corpuscle viewed from the coronal aspect. 
a a. The ciliary corona. 

b. Papillae. 



c. Coronal depression. 

d. Section of the ciliary processes (ciliae.) 

e. Globule. 

C C. Globules that have been detached, and have 
fallen out, lying in the midst of 

D. Extremely minute mucus-granules. 
Fig. 49. The most delicate cellular membrane and 
elastic fibres, magnified 150 diameters. 

A. Compact serous membrane, formed of a simple 
lamina of sinuous fibrils of cellular tissue lying parallel to 
one another. 

B. Cellular membranous tissue of the finest transpa- 
rent serous membrane. 

C. The very delicate sinuous elastic filaments, com- 
posing the elastic tissue in the fibrous tunic of the smallest 
bronchial ramifications (horse.) 

Fig. 50. A portion of the great omentum, to show the 
reticulate structure of the serous membrane in this part, 
magnified 150 diameters. The membrane consists of an 
interlacement of 

a. Cellular membranous fasciculi or ropes, and 
h. Of cellular membranous filaments. 
Fig. 51. Sinew, tendon, — sinewy tissue, magnified 150 

a. Connection of sinew with muscle. 
1. Delicate sinewy fibrils, which are united with 
the conical shaped extremities of the primary muscular 
bundles, ^. 

h. Sinuous tendinous bundle, or cord. 
+ . Lacerated and corrugated sinewy fibrils. 
c. Tendinous bundle, shortened and lying in alter- 
nate loops. 

Fig. 52. Bundle from a ligament (one of the lateral 
ligaments of the knee-joint) magnified 120 diameters 

Fig. 53. Cartilaginous tissue. 

A. Fibro-cartilage, from an inter-articular cartilage of 
the knee-joint, magnified 120 diameters (horse.) 


a. A layer of parallel fibres. 

h. A layer of other fibres crossing the former at 
right angles. 

B. Cellular-cartilage of the septum narium, magni- 
fied 200 diameters (horse.) 

a. The rounded cartilage-cells scattered through 
the hyaline matter. 

h. The compressed and elongated cartilage-cells in 
the vicinity of the mucous membrane. 
Fig. 54 — 56. Elastic tissue. 

— 54 Reticulate elastic tissue of the ligamentum nuchas 
magnified 200 diameters (horse.) 

a. Loosened elastic tissue with the meshes opened. 
h. Elastic tissue in its natural condition, the meshes 
close. — Elastic tissue, its fibres disposed in lines and layers 
parallel to one another. 

Fig. 55. Elastic tissue from the middle fibrous coat of 
the aorta, magnified 300 diameters. Elastic tissue, its 
fibres intertangled (ox.) 

Fig. 56. Elastic tissue from the eye-ball of the ox, 
magnified 200 diameters. 

1. From the ciliary ligament. 

2. From the choroid coat in the vicinity of the 
ciliary ligament and in the iris. 

Fig. 57 — 59, Cartilaginous tissue. 

— 57 Cellular cartilage from the septum narium, mag- 
nified 560 diameters (horse.) 

a. Hyaline cartilage, — vitreous cartilaginous matter. 
h d. Cartilage-cells with granular nuclei. 
h. Cell. 

c. Nucleus. 

d. Long-shaped cartilage-cell. 

Fig. 58. Transverse section of a costal cartilage in the 
first stage of ossification, magnified 160 diameters (dog-) 

A. Cells disposed in groups, uninclosed; at 

a. They are imperfectly inclosed by an indistinctly 
limited area ; at 

B. On the contrary, the cells, pressed together, are 


completely surrounded by a distinct area ; as yet, however, 
there is no deposition of earthy matter apparent. 

Fig. 59. Reticular cartilage from the arched portion of 
the concha of the ear, magnified 300 diameters (horse.) 

a. The fibres of the intercellular net-work, corres- 
ponding to elastic tissue, and also of similar origin. 
h. Cartilage cells — cartilage-corpuscles. 
Fig. 60. Costal cartilage, the ossification begun, from 
the neighbourhood of the transverse slice represented in 
fig. 58, magnified 160 diameters. 

1,1. The reticular cells formed by the bony matter 
just deposited. 

a. The osseous cartilage (hyaline substance.) 
h. Osseous corpuscles (nuclei of the bone-cells.) 
c. Fat-vesicles occupying the place of the cartilagi- 
nous substance which has been removed. 
Fig. 61 — 70. Elementary parts of bone. 
— 61 A perpendicular section from the middle of the 
femur, magnified 12 diameters (horse, 4 years old.) 

a. Ossific cartilage, with scattered bone-corpuscles. 
h. Canals — medullary, or for vessels. 
c. Anastomoses, or communications of these with 
one another. 

Fig. 62. A portion of the same section magnified 50 

a. Ossific cartilage, with included bone-corpuscles. 
h. Medullary canals. 

c. Transverse communicating branches of these. 
Fig. 6^. Transverse section from the humerus, magnified 
15 diameters (young horse.) 

a a a. Vascular canals running parallel with the 
medullary cavity. 

h h. Perpendicular medullary canaliculi, transverse- 
ly divided. 

c. Anastomotic vessels betwixt the perpendicular 
and transverse vessels of the bone in medullary canals. 

Fig. 64. A portion of the same section magnified 50 


a. Perpendicular canaliculi. 

b. Transverse canaliculi. 

c c. Brandies of communication between them. 
Fig. 65. A very small portion of the same section mag- 
nified 100 diameters. 

a. Transversely arranged rank of osseous corpuscles. 

b. to c. Osseous corpuscles arranged concentrically 
to the transversely divided medullary canaliculus c. 

d. Transverse canaliculus. 
Fig. QQ. Section of the outer table of the human skull, 
magnified 15 diameters. The medullary canaliculi form a 

Fig. 67. Transverse section of the rubbing surface of a 
grinder from the upper jaw of the full-grown horse, mag- 
nified one-third. 

a a. Bony substance of the outer aspect of the 

a. The inner portion of the bony substance- — 
cortical substance. 

b. Vitreous substance, or enamel. 

c. Ivory or substance of the tooth. 

d. Brown middle streak of pigment. 

e. Inner layer of the vitreous substance. 
/. Inner layer of the bony substance. 

g. Deep brown depression, not yet filled up by the 
inner bony substance. 

Fig. 68. The portion of the tooth inclosed by the oblong 
h. in fig. 67 magnified 36 diameters. 

a b. External bony or cortical substance. 

a. External margin of the tooth. 

b. Connection of the external bony substance, with 
the enamel. The surface of the bony substance which is 
united with the enamel is covered with hemispherical points 
(b' 6') which are sunk amidst the enamel and inclose bony 
corpuscles ; these are the bony cells with their nuclei which 
penetrate the enamel. 

b\ Connection of the internal bony substance with 
the internal enamel. 



c c c. More compact layers of bony substance, in 
which the bony cells with their nuclei, — the bone-corpus- 
cles, lie in compressed rows. 

d. Bone-corpuscles. 

e. Osseous canaliculi. 

f g h h. External layer of enamel. 

/ h. The margin of the external deposit of enamel. 

/. The suture or line of union between the substance 
of the tooth, or tubular substance, broken through, inter- 
rupted by the branched periphery of the tooth-tubulus i. 

n. Crack in the vitreous substance — an effect of the 
drying of the tooth. 

k k I. Substance — tubular substance of the tooth, 


k. The bent tubuli branch, to pass over into the 
enamel atifg and «. 

Z. Section of the central mass of the substance of 
the tooth. 

m. Inner margin and inner suture. 

6' m. Internal deposit of enamel. 

6' e n. Internal bony substance. 

e' e' e . Vascular canals. 

and n. Bone-corpuscles. 
Fig. 69. Cartilage in process of ossification, magnified 
250 diameters. 

A. Cartilage with regularly disseminated corpuscles, 
— cellular-cartilage. 

B. The corpuscles, with the commencement of ossifi- 
cation are forced into groups, between which the hyaline 
cartilage is transformed to bone-cartilage. 

C. The groups of cartilage-corpuscles are completely 
inclosed by bone-cartilage. 

D. The cartilage-corpuscles are rendered less transpa- 
rent by the process of resolution that is going on ; at the 
same time the bone-corpuscles make their appearance in the 

E. The cartilage-corpuscles are dissolved and partially 


F. The cartilage-corpuscles have disappeared ; have 
been absorbed. 

a. In spongy bones, cells filled with fat remain 
(Fig. 60, 1.) 

h. In compact bones the cells are reduced to minute 
canals by the growth of the bony matter, or they disappear 

Fig. 70. Bone-corpuscles magnified 450 diameters. 

a a. The bone-corpuscles — nuclei of the bone-cells. 
h. The vessels of the bony cells (canaliculi calico- 
phori, Mliller) which by their inosculations form a rete. 
Fig. 71 — 73. Contractile tissue. 

— 71. Contractile tissue of the corium, seen from the 
inner aspect, and magnified about 8 diameters (hog.) 

a. The filaments of contractile tissue crossing each 
other, and surrounding 

h. The roots of the bristles, which are covered with 

c. The bristles seen arising in threes together. 

d. Divided caeca or appendices of the sebaceous 

e. Divided vessels and nerves. 
/. Pigmentary deposits. 

Fig. 72. A portion of integument from another part of 
the body of the same animal, magnified about 12 diameters. 

a a. The interlacing filaments of the contractile 

h. Fat cells of the roots of the bristles. 

c. Bulbs of the bristles. 
Fig. 73. Contractile tissue of the dartos, from under the 
common integument of the scrotum of the ram. 

a. Strings of contractile tissue : strings composed of 
numerous simple filaments. 

h. Single filaments of the same. 

* Among several of the lower animals the contractile tissue 
may be seen in certain situations passing in threads from the root 
of one hair to another, by which the power is acquired of raising 
the bristles, mane, or hair on end. 


c. Filaments of cellular tissue. 
Fig. 74 — 86. Elementary parts of muscles. 
— 74. Granular muscle of the organic life, from the 
muscular tunic of the uterus, magnified 80 diameters (cow.) 

A. A primary bundle. 

B. A bundle resolved into its several elements by 
means of alternately spirting water upon it, and gentle 
pressure between two plates of glass. 

a. The filaments which serve as the basis of the 
tissue (filaments of cellular tissue and vessels.) 

b. The attached muscular granules, in uninjured 
bundles, arranged in rows like strings of beads. 

Fig. 75. Filamentous muscle of the organic life. 

A. Primary bundles and ropes of filamentous organic 
muscle, magnified 80 diameters (longitudinal fibres of the 
colon, horse.) 

a a a. Bundles. 

b, A rope or string of muscular fibres teased out. 

B. A bundle of sinuous primary fibres teased out. 

C. Puckered or crisped primary muscular fibres. 

D. A grating of rigid muscle of the animallife, (a. from 
the lingualis, b. from the myloglossus,) after the action of 
oil of turpentine. In these bundles neither transverse 
streaking nor longitudinal fibrillation is distinguishable. 

Fig. 76 A. A grating of organic primary muscular fila- 
ments. A very thin slice from the muscular tunic of a 
piece of small intestine that had lain for a short time in 
brine (sheep.) 

a. Longitudinal layer. 
■ b. Transverse layer. 

B. Two organic primary muscular bundles, interme- 
diate betwixt the granular and filamentous structure, or 
compounded of the two (from one of the longitudinal mus- 
cular bands of the colon, horse.) 

Fig. 77 — 86. Elements of the muscles of voluntary mo- 
tion, or of the animal life. 


Fig". 77. Simple layer of a primary bundle of a muscle of 
voluntary motion (long head of the triceps brachialis, 

Fig. 78. A primary muscular bundle, magnified !^00 
diameters (same animal.) 

a. Primary bundle with wrinkled boundary line and 
complete strife. 

b. Primary bundle with the sheath removed in parts, 
or in which the granules of the primary filaments in some 
places only appear transversely arranged in rows near to 
one another : in other places they appear co-ordinated 
lengthwise, rather than transversely, so that in these the 
bundles seem to be streaked longitudinally. 

c. Primary bundle with the sheath torn longitudi- 
nally, or with an interruption of the transverse striag in the 
direction of the long axis. 

Fig. 79. Primary bundle of a muscle of voluntary 
motion, magnified 200 diameters. 

1. Bundle which has been stripped off from a larger 
mass of muscle. 

a. Transverse striae, or transversely streaked sheath. 

b. Sharp torn edge of the same. 

c. Primary filaments, presenting the appearance of 
a series of adhering hemispheres. 

2, 3, 4. Primary bundles of a voluntary muscle as I 
have occasionally observed them when they were examined 
in the recent state. 

2, a. Primary fibres. 

b b b. Spiral sheath of flat filaments. 

3, a. Primary fibres. 

b. The spirally convoluted fiat filaments, united 
five or six together, form broader spiral bands. 

4, a. Primary fibres, which at 

b. Are lacerated. 

c. Spiral sheath composed of several flat filaments 
connected together. 

d. Lacerated spiral filaments. 



Fig. 80. Primary muscular bundles, the sheaths having 
been burst by the compressor (rabbit.) * 

a a. Two compressed layers of primary fasciculi, 
from which the longitudinally streaked bundles h, that 
scarcely show any trace of transverse streaking, have been 
squeezed out. 

c c. Isolated bundles. 

d. A part where the fasciculi are still connected 
and included in their sheaths. 

Fig. 81. Three portions of primary bundles of voluntary 
muscles (horse) magnified 200 diameters. 

1. A bundle, with nipple-shaped torn extremities, 
which is only partially occupied with transverse striae. 

2. A fasciculus without transverse strise, the primary 
filaments slightly sinuous, and the^torn extremities conical. 

3. A bundle with notched torn extremities, without 
particular transverse strise, but with broad darker transverse 
bands, as if depending upon some partial separation of the 
primary filaments. 

Fig. 8^. Two short pieces of primary fasciculi of volun- 
tary muscles magnified 300 diameters : also three primary 
filaments of the same pieces magnified 700 diameters 

A. A piece at one end of which the moniliform pri- 
mary filaments are seen forming a kind of tuft. The 
diameter of the component globules is greater in the direc- 
tion of the length of the filaments than of their breadth ; 
the filaments and the fasciculi therefore appear elongated. 
As in this passive state, or state of relaxation, the primary 
filaments tend to part from one another, the bundle they 
compose appears longitudinally streaked. 

B. A portion of a muscular bundle in the moment of 
active contraction. Here the transverse diameter of the 
globules increases at the expense of the long diameter : and 

* Although I do not maintain that ths transverse strise of the 
muscles of animal life depend on the presence of" a wrinkled 
sheath, still I am by no means satisfied that a sheath of this de- 
scription does not exist. 


thus and because the globules approximate more closely 
and stand in regular transversely arranged ranks, the 
fasciculus appears shortened, transversely streaked, and 
increased in diameter. 

C 1 . A primary fibre in a state of relaxation. 

2. A primary fibre in a state of contraction. 

3. A primary fibre, which, as often happens, appears 
shortly sinuous, or even twisted like a cord, rather than 
composed of globules connected with one another in rows. 

Fig. 83. Structures met with in the voluntary muscles, 
whose office, and relations to the surrounding tissues, are 
not yet known, magnified 150 diameters. 

3, 3. Two primary muscular fasciculi from the mas- 
seter muscle of the horse. 

1, 2. Two other fasciculi lying near to these and par- 
allel with them, filled apparently with convoluted filaments, 
the sheaths, which between b and b were accidentally 

a a. Gelatinous external covering. 
b b. A part where this has been accidentally re- 

c. A finer inner envelope, which having escaped 
injury still surrounds the fasciculus 1, completely. The 
corresponding fine membrane having been lacerated in 
fasciculus 2, its contents have escaped. 

d. The convoluted fibres or filaments, of which from 
eight to ten are contained in each fasciculus, protruding 
from their sheath.* 

Fig. 84. Primary muscular fasciculus, from the heart 


a a. Fasciculi which divide into two= 
b b. Parts of fasciculi transversely streaked. 
Fig. 85. Muscular fasciculi from the bladder (dog.} 
— 86. Muscular tissue from the tongue (hog.) 

* I have found enigmatical fasciculi of the same description, 
although less distinctly, in the lips and tongue of the full-grown 
horse. 1 have not met with them elsewhere. 



a a. Fasciculi of the myloglossus muscle, which 
terminate in cones under the mucous membrane of the 

h h. Fasciculi of thelingualis cut transversely across, 
as they threaded the primary fasciculi of the myloglossus 
nearly at right angles. 

Fig. 87. Pediculated vorticellse * very highly magnified. 
A. B. C. D. Four vorticellae in different conditions, 
each being assumed voluntarily. 

A. "With the pedicle fully stretched out, and the cup 
or bell open. 

a. The bell-shaped body, through which shines the 
polycystic stomach. 
bo The crown. 
c. The cilise. 

1 . A very delicate muscular fibre, wound around the 
erectile vessel, and in the relaxed state. 

2. The erectile vessel distended with fluid from the 
body, by which the pedicle is extended. 

B. A vorticella moving hither and thither, the pedicle 
slightly sinuous. 

3. 3, The granules in the water thrown into circular 
motion or whirlpools by the action of the cilias of the 

C. A vorticella closed, and the pedicle spirally re- 
tracted by the action of the muscle, which, in the opposite 
state of the pedicle, is wound about the erectile vessel. 
Here the vessel (^2.) appears everywhere external ; the mus- 
cle (1.) again is internal. The ciliee are concealed within 
the closed cavity of the body. 

* These figures are introduced here : 1 st. From the singular 
resemblance which vorticellse bear to the ciliary corpuscles (vide 
fig. 48 ;) 2nd, Because inftisory animalcules are encountered in 
the living bodies of animals, particularly in morbid deposits; 
3rd, Because their pedicle is composed according to my obser- 
vations of the simplest muscular tissue and erectile vessel. 


D. A vorticella which, after having been closed, is ex- 
panding the body and erecting the pedicle. * 

a. The body now of a globular form. 
h. The half expanded crown. 

1. The muscle. 

2. The erectile vessel. 

E. An agglomeration of granules to which the pedi- 
cles are attached. 

Fig. 88 — 90. Constituent elements of nerves. 
— 88. 1, 2. Two primary fibrils of a spinal nerve ex- 
amined in the body of an animal just dead. 

a. The investing membrane pinched in at intervals. 
In the living animal the fibrils are perfectly cylindrical. 
h. The still transparent fluid contents. 

3. A nervous fibril examined some short time after 
the death of the animal, immediately before the consolida- 
tion of the contents. The fibril is more irregularly sinuous. 

4. A primary nervous fibril more highly magnified. 
a. Nervous tunic (nervous tubulus.) 

a'. Presumed ciliary epithelium. 
h. The cone-shaped cilise. 

5. The ciliae more highly magnified. 

6. Highly magnified primary nervous fibril. 

a. Tubulus. 

b. The consolidated contents. 

7. A delicate nervous fasciculus in its sheath. 
a. The sinuously disposed fasciculus. 

h. The cylindrical sheath. 

8. A nervous fasciculus, the sheath of which exhibits 
sinuosities also. 

a. The fasciculus. 
h. The sheath. 

9. A delicate nervous cord highly magnified, consisting 
of four primary fibrils ; the particular sheaths of the several 
fibrils are conspicuous. 

* In this process the body of course makes as many revolu- 
tions upon its axis as the muscle of the pedicle is twisted times 
around the erectile vessel. 


10. A cylindrical nervous fasciculus. 

11. Sections of nerves. 

a. Section of a cylindrical nervous fasciculus. 
h. Section of a nervous cord consisting of a single 
layer of fasciculi. 

c. Section of a cord made up of three layers. 

d. Section of a pyriform fasciculus. 

Fig. 89. Minuter elements of the nervous system. 

1. Cerebral medullary granules or globules. 

2 — 6. Ganglionic cells, globules or corpuscles. 

2. An egg-shaped ganglionic globule. 
a. The nucleus. 

h. The nucleolus. 

3. A ganglionic cell, nearly globular. 
a. The nucleus. 

h. The nucleolus. 

4. A pear-shaped ganglionic globule. 

5. Tv^o ganglionic cells with their sheaths and bond of 
connexion (cellular tissue.} 

a. The bond of connexion, 
a' a'. The sheaths of the cells. 
6. The ganglionic corpuscles. 

6. A ganglionic cell, surrounded by its filamentous 

7. Root of a cerebral nerve. 

a. The nervous roots, connected w^ith v^^hich are 
numerous medullary globules, approaching each other. 

8. Root of a spinal nerve. 

a h. The portion of the root which lies within the 
spinal cord. 

a c. The root after it has passed from the spinal 

c. Point at which the root passes through the dura 
mater of the cord. 

c — 8. The root beyond the sheath of the cord. 
Fig. 90. Final expansions in the dermis, of nerves of 
sensation. Peripheral nervous plexuses (with or without 
ganglionic cells ?) (hog.) 


1. Simple plexiform expansion of a nervous cord. 
a. The nervous cord. 

h. The cord resolved by the separation of its compo- 
nent fibrils. 

c. Fibrils spreading widely from the rest. 

d. Part from which primary fibrils depart, and 
where others from neighbouring fasciculi are received. 

/. A new cord formed by the reassembled nervous 

2. Two nervous plexuses or expansions from the same 

a. The nervous fasciculus. 

h h. The two plexiform expansions proceeding from 

c. Single fibrils. 

d. Plexus formed by fibrils proceeding from and 
fibrils approaching the great plexus. 

e. A terminal loop. 

Fig. 91 — 102. Peripheral distribution of nerves of volun- 
tary motion, and of common sensation. 

Fig. 91. A portion of the transversus abdominis muscle 
with the inosculations and loopings of several muscular 
branches of nerves (rabbit.) 

a a a. Primary fasciculi of the muscle. 

h b h. Three terminal branches of muscular nerves. 

c. Division of one of these branches into ramusculi, 
each consisting of four or five primary fibrils. 

d. Most delicate twigs consisting of no more than 
two primary fibrils, and continuations of these into 

e e e e. Twigs consisting of single primary fibrils 
forming terminal loopings. 

///. Terminal loops which pass over into other 
nervous twigs betwixt the muscular fasciculi. 

g. Two associated primary fibrils, one of which, after 
joining the middle nervous cord h\ soon quits this in com- 
pany with another primary fibril, and enters deeply among 
the muscular fasciculi at h; whilst the other, after running 
for some way by the side of a terminal loop at i i, parts 


company with it, runs isolatedly at k, then joins two pri- 
mary fibrils of the right hand cord at I, is associated at m 
with one of these only, separating from which, it finally 
forms the terminal loop n, and is re-associated with the 
middle cord h\ 

Fig. 92 — 101. Peripheral relations and mode of distri- 
bution of the nerves of sensation. 

Fig. 92. A thin perpendicular slice from the integument 
of the lip, dried and steeped in oil of turpentine (hog.) 

a a a. Fine cords and fasciculi of the labial branches 
of the nervus trigeminus. 

hhb. Simple nervous fibrils, which, without forming 
proper loops, pass from one fasciculus to another. 

c c c. Terminal loops within the substance of the 

d d d. Terminal loops reaching near to the surface. 

e. Tactile convoluted terminal loops, forming the 
papillae or papillary bodies of the skin. 

/. A larger tactile papilla formed of the convoluted 
terminal loops of several cords. 

g g. The external surface of the dermis in contact 
with the epidermis. 

Fig. 93. The tactile nerves of the extremity of the 
human thumb. 

a a a. Three terminal cords of the nervus volaris 
pollicis of the median nerve. 

h h. Simple primary fibrils in the terminal plexus 
within the skin. 

c c c. Simple bows or knots of terminal loopings 
between the papillae. 

d d d. Three papillae, the nervous fibrils entering 
into their constitution convoluted and in the fashion of 

* In injected preparations the arteries present very nearly the 
same appearance, so that I have often found it requisite to look 
narrowly with a view to distinguish whether I had nerves or 
arteries before ine. 


Fig. 94. Section of a portion of the integument of the 
neck (hog.) 

a a. Outer surface of the skin, darkened by a fine 
pigmentary deposit. 

h. Depression where a bristle issues, and the ducts 
of sebaceous and sudoriparous glands terminate. 

c c c c. Cutaneous nervous cords. 

e e. Nerves of the secreting pulps of bristles. 

d d. Loops of nervous fasciculi. 

e. Terminal plexus under the cuticle. 

/. A cord resolved into fibrils (perhaps a peripheral 
ganglion, of which many are encountered in the skin*) vide 
fig. 90. 

g g g. Anastomotic fibrils — fibrils passing from one 
fasciculus to another. 

h h. Terminal loops that surround the bristles. 

i. Duct of a sebaceous gland. 

k. Expansion in the course of the same where a 
secreting crypt has been cut away. 

/. Union of the sebaceous follicle with the sheath of 
the bristle. 

m. Sebaceous follicle, — simple sebaceous crypt. 

n. Duct of a sudoriparous gland. 

o 0. Portions of the secreting follicles of two 

p. Cavities of the same. 

q q. Sections of the roots of the two bristles. 

r. Bristle. 

s. Fat in the nidus of the bristles. 
Fig. 95. Peripheral plexiform distribution of the nerves 
in a portion of the skin of the neck, seen from the outer or 
epidermic aspect (hog.) 

a a a. Nervous twigs and terminal fasciculi, which 
traverse the skin slantingly and form the terminal plexus. 

hhh. Meshes of the terminal plexuses. 

* I must say, however, that I have never seen ganglionic glo- 
bules in these plexuses. 



c c c. Triangular spaces betwixt the meshes. 

Fig. 96 — 101. Different forms of the peripheral termi- 
nations of nerves of sensation (nerves of touch.) 

Fig. 96. Simple terminal loops of cutaneous nerves seen 
from the surface of the skin. 

Fig. 97. Simple terminal loops of nerves of the skin, each 
of which is formed of the final branches of different fas- 

Fig. 98. Four simple tactile loops, three of which are 
formed by two different fasciculi, whilst the fourth, (that to 
the right hand) is formed from one fasciculus only. 

Fig. 99. A convoluted nervous or tactile papilla, formed 
of two, or more properly of only one terminal fibril return- 
ing on itself. 

Fig. 100. A fusiform tactile papilla from the lip of the 
horse. A primary nervous fibril by several turns or convo- 
lutions, forms a spindle-shaped knot, and then proceeds 
onwards in the same direction. 

Fig. 101. A rosette-like compound tactile nervous papilla 
seen from the surface. Several slightly convoluted ter- 
minal loops lying in the same plane form concentric circles, 
in the centre of which a larger hemispherical convoluted 
papilla like that represented in fig. 99, stands somewhat 
raised above the general level. 

Fig. 102. Soft nervous envelope. 

a. A portion of a nervous fasciculus. 
h. A small blood-vessel accompanying the same, 
filled with blood-corpuscles. 

c c. The delicate sheath or envelope of the nervous 
fasciculus consisting of cellular fibres. 

d. An isolated portion of one of these cellular 
fibres, more highly magnified to show the granular nucleus. 

Fig. 103. A piece of the allantois seen from the external 
surface (sheep.) 

a a. A blood-vessel containing a number of altered 
blood-globules, over and in the vicinity of which the 
cellulo-membranous sheath, freed from its epithelial endu- 


slum, is so separated, that its component fibres with their 
cells and nuclei are distinctly to be seen. 

b h b. Superficial re te of epithelial cells Under which 
the allantoic membrane composed in the manner just stated 
extends. The nuclei of the epithelial cells are only in- 
serted in a part of the figure to the left. Each cell, how- 
ever, is to be understood as having had its nucleus. 

c. Altered blood-globules. 

d d. A few of the cellulo-membranous fibres which 
formed the outer sheath of the vessel. These run parallel 
with its axis, and present the same appearance as those 
which form the outer sheath of the finer nervous fasciculi 
and cords (vide fig. 102, c c.) 

Fig. 1 04. Is a half plan figure to show the way in which 
the finer nervous fasciculi mutually interchange the most 
delicate fasciculi and primary fibrils. The cord a unites at 
c with a portion of the cord b, and gives delicate fasciculi 
and a simple fibril to the cord d d proceeding from b. 

Fig. 105. Tuft of terminal loops of the nerve of sensation 
from the pulp of a grinding tooth of the sheep. (Valen- 
tin, On the course and terminations of the Nerves, fig. 31.) 

a a. Nervous cords. 

6. Single nervous fibrils. 

c. Terminal loopings of these. 

d. Terminal loopings of the cords a a. 

Fig. 106. Plexus of a nerve of sensation in the skin, 

a. Delicate nervous cord. 
b b. Simple nervous fibrils. 

c. Transverse and longitudinal sections, generally of 
fibres of the cellular membrane which accompany the ulti- 
mate divisions of the nervous filaments, occasionally of the 
nervous filaments themselves. 

These delicate fibrils compose an independent rete 
within the meshes of the nervous plexus. 

Fig. 107. The second dorsal ganglion of the sympathetic 


nerve very highly magnified (mouse.) (Valentin, op. cit. 
fig. 44. 

a h. Anterior and posterior cord of the sympathetic 
nerve, which connect the first and the third dorsal ganglia 
with this the middle one. 

c c cc. Delicate cordlets which pass either to the 
viscera or to join the second dorsal nerve, 

d. Ganglionic globules or cells. 

e. Nervous fibrils coursing round the ganglion. 
Fig. 108 — 113. Lymphatic vessels. 

— 108. Lymphatic vessels and lymphatic glands from 
the spermatic cord of the horse, magnified 8 diameters. 

A. A. The lymphatic glands. 

a a a. Peripheral, efferent larger lymphatic vessels. 

h h. An efferent or central lymphatic vessel. 

c c. Superficial network of delicate lymphatics, 
which serves in part to connect the small flat gland d with 
the efferent vessel 6. 

d. A very small, loose, semiglandular plexus of lym- 
phatic vessels. 

e. Extensive lymphatic network, formed of the ves- 
sels of the gland and the parts immediately adjacent. 

/. Larger lymphatic vessels passing over and near 
to the gland, the numerous valves of which are obvious. 

g. Delicate efferent lymphatics. 
Fig, 109. The inferior cervical lymphatic gland of the 
horse, of the natural size. 

a. The inferior portion of the connecting vessel of 
the cervical gland — the tracheal canal of Gurlt. 

h. Larger trilobular -i cervical gland, the vessels of 

c. Smaller inferior J which are imperfectly injected. 

Fig. 110 — 112. Transit of lymphatics into veins, magni- 
fied 1 diameter. 

Fig, 110. Termination of a large lymphatic vessel in a 
vein from the iliac mesentery of the horse. 

a. The lymphatic vessel, which was proceeding back 
towards the intestine from a mesenteric gland (an anasto- 



motic vessel between the lymphatic and proper venous 

h. Two semilunar valves at the point of communica- 
tion, extremely like the ileo-coecal valve of the human 
subject in structure. 

c. A mesenteric vein. 
Fig. 111. A piece of a mesenteric vein laid open, in 
which lymphatics are ending (to save space, two of these 
are represented close together.) 

a. Mesenteric vein. 

h. Lymphatic vessel. 

c. The common cavity of the two semilunar valves 
represented as shut or in contact. 

d. The free edges of the valves. 

e. End of the lymphatic within the vein. 

f g h. Opening of a lymphatic within a vein, the 
valves open. 

/. The valvular pit or depression — the space between 
the valves and parietes of the vessel. 

g. The free edge of one of the valves. 

h. The cavity of the lymphatic vessel.* 
Fig. 112. A more complete valve between a lymphatic 
and a vein (after A. Meckel, in Meckel's Archiv. 1828.) 

a. A piece of a mesenteric vein of the horse seen 
from within. 

h. A lymphatic vessel approaching the vein a. 

c. The continuation of the lymphatic within the 
vein, by which a peculiar valve is formed, a structure, 
however, which is also encountered between vein and vein 
(vide fig. 114 and 116.) 

d d. Two opposed semilunar valves, lying in contact 
with the parietes of the vein. 

* The valve that guards the orifice of the thoracic duct where 
it enters the axillary vein is precisely of the kind here figured. 
So is the ilio-ccelic valve of the human intestine, and the valves 
of the veins in general (vide figs. 116 and 117.) 


e. The orifice of the lymphatic vessel within the 

Fig. 113. Mode of origin of a lymphatic or lacteal vessel 
at the extremity and within the substance of an intestinal 
villus, from the human subject, 16 years of age, after 
Krause in Miiller's Archiv. 1837, Fol. 1. 

The delicate incipient vessels, which in all probability 
are not completely distended, proceed here immediately, 
and then after they have formed a simple rete by anasto- 
mosing together, into the central vessel. It is probable 
that the lacteals have generally the same peripheral distri- 
bution as the veins, that they commence at every point in 
festoons and delicate reticulations. 

Fig. 114 — li^O. Structure of veins. 

— 114 — 116. One half of a vein from the neck of the 
horse slit longitudinally in two, of the natural size, but 
somewhat shortened in the drawing, so that the valves are 
brought closer together than they are in nature. 

Fig. 114. The vessel with the valves open, and the 
cavity free, as they are when the blood is flowing regularly 
towards the heart, or when the pressure in the branches is 
greater than it is in the trunk. 
a. Superior, and 
h. Inferior divided extremity of the vein. 

c. Branch entering the larger vein laterally. 

d. The valve guarding the entrant orifice of this 
branch, open. 

e. The valve guarding the entrant orifice of a branch 
entering the larger vein from behind — the valve open. 

//. Two bisected semilunar valves of the venous 
trunk, in contact with the inner parietes of the vessel. 

g. An uninjured semilunar valve, applied to the 
inner wall of the trunk which it guards. 

h. The outer coats of the vein. 

i. The inner serous tunic which forms the valves. 
Fig. 115. The upper portion of fig. 114, seen from 


a. The vaulted external aspect. 

h. The external membranous tunic of the vein. 

c. The internal serous tunic. 

d. The valvular pit between the vein and the valve. 

e. The free edge of one of the valves. 

Fig. 116. A perpendicular section of the same venous 
trunk, the valves represented as closed. 

a. The upper end of the portion of vein represented. 
h. The under end of the same. 

c. Orifice of a lateral entrant branch. 

d. Perpendicular section of the valve which guards 
it, closed. 

e. The closed valve of the branch which enters from 

//. Section of the two semilunar valves of the 
venous trunk raised from the internal walls of the vessel, or 

g. The untouched semilunar valve of the trunk, 
placed at right angles to the pair of valves / / raised, or 

The arrows by the side of figs. 114 and 115, show the 
current of the blood in reference to the action of the valves. 
Kg. 117. The valves // of fig. 116 seen from below. 

a. The outer circle of the vein. 

h. The external tunic. 

c. The internal serous tunic. 

d. The bulging or cavity of one of the semilunar 

Fig. 118 — 120. Erectile veins from organs susceptible of 

Fig. 118. Commencement of the vein of the dorsum of 
the penis, one half the natural size. The anastomotic 
branches are in contact by their sides, but they all proceed 
in the direction of the trunk, towards which they are tend- 
ing (horse.) 

Fig. 1 1 9. A convoluted venous mass of the natural size 
from the under side of the bulbus urethras (dog.) 

The several veins, without dividing into branches here. 


form transversely convoluted masses, which are not unlike 
the convolutions of the small intestines, or of the brain. 

Fig. 120. Erectile venous mass from the human spleen, 
magnified one-half. The preparation made by corrosion. 

a. A vein. 

h. Rounded vesicular venous cavities. 

c. Pyriform and apparently blind vesicles forming 
the beginning of the vein. Many branches and pedicles of 
vesicles are broken off. 

Fig. 121 — 152. Structure of arteries. 

— 121. A wax model of the three semilunar valves at 
the root of the aorta — reduced one-third in size Ccolt.) 

a. Aorta beyond the valves. 

h h h. Sides of the aorta vaulted outwards in the 
situation of the three valves. 

c. Notch where the valve is attached to the aorta. 

d. Imprint of the sacculus of the valve. 

/. Sulcus where the free edges of the two neigh- 
bouring valves come into contact when they are closed. 

e. Situation or impression of the three corpora 
Arantii, lying in the axis of the aorta, the valves being 

Fig. 122 — 135. Peripheral or terminal arborizations of 
the arteries. 

Fig. 122. Bifurcate or dichotomous terminal subdivision 
of an arterial twig, where the last divisions of the proper 
arteries pass into the capillary arches, or retia, and the 
incipient branches of the veins. 

Fig. 123. Polychotomous or pecteniform terminal sub- 
divisions of an arterial twig. 

Fig. 124. and 125. Penicillate terminal sub-divisions of 
arterial twigs. 

Fig. 126. Pomoid or globular terminal sub-division. 

— 127. Asteroid terminal sub-division. 

— 128. Capituloid terminal sub-division. 

— 129. Penniform terminal sub-division. 

— 130. Palmiform terminal sub-division. 


Fig. 131 — 134. Peripheral transition loops or festoons, — 
arterial capillary festoons. 

Fig. 131. The most simple form of this mode of ter- 

Fig. 13^. A more complex form of the same mode of 

Fig. 133. Another and yet more complex form of the 
same mode of termination. 

Fig. 134. Apparent terminal loops or nooses, each minute 
twig returning into itself. 

Fig. 135. Tassel-like terminations of an artery (from the 
foetal placenta of the horse.) 

Fig. 136. The vessels of two intestinal villi, magnified 
160 diameters (colon of the horse.) 

a. A delicate arterial twig of the intestinal tunics. 
b h h. Bifurcate subdivisions of the same at the 
bases of villi. 

c c c. Distribution of the finest arterial twigs at the 
edges of the villi. They form a delicate rete in the villi 
with the vein which courses along the centre of each villus. 
The veins of the two villi represented are seen united in 
the common branch d. 

Fig. 137 — 152. Peripheral relations of the blood-vessels 
of different tissues of the human body, after Berres's micros- 
copical observations. The same forms are shown by my 
preparations to occur among the mammalia. 

Fig. 137. The simple arterial loop or noose. This dis- 
tribution is particularly met with at the points of the 
fingers and toes, under the nails, on the Schneiderian mem- 
brane, on the surface of the tongue, and in the mucous 
membrane of the mouth. 

Fig. 138. Palm -formed arterial distribution, common in 
mucous membranes. From the tongue of a young subject. 

Fig. 139. Complex, fasciculate and anastomatic distri- 
bution. Tongue of a child. 

Fig. 140. The vascular rete of the salivary glands, which 
lies over the arborescent arterial plexus of these organs, 


and forms the intermediate vascular net-work of their two 
orders of vessels. 

Fig. 141. The rectangular linear arterial plexus from 
the muscular coat of the small intestine of a child. Lieber- 

Fig. 142. The comb-like linear arterial plexus of the 
muscles of animal life. From a child. Berres. 

Fig. 143. The linear arterial erectile plexus. Iris of a 
child. Berres. 

Fig. 144. The mesentery (of a frog?) with the arcuate 
dendritic vascular plexus. Berres. 

Fig. 145, The membrana Ruyschiana of the eye of a 
new-born child with the simple vascular rete. Berres. 

Fig. 146. The enveloping vascular retia of the nuclei of 
the thyroid body of a new-born child. Berres. 

Fig. 147. The festooned vascular rete of the mucous 
membrane of the colon of an adult. Berres. 

Fig. 148. The pulmonary cells with the vascular plexus. 

Fig. 149. The deep lying twigs of the arborescent ex- 
centric arterial retia. Berres. 

Fig. 150. The membrana Ruyschiana of the eye of a 
new-born child, with the simple vascular rete. Berres. 

Fig. 151. The clubbed pampiniform arterial plexus, with 
its intermediate vascular rete, from the supra-renal capsule 
of a child. Berres. - 

Fig. 152. The intermediate loops of the asteriform 
arterial rete of the renal granules. Berres. 

Fig. 153 and 154. Malpighian bodies of the kidneys. 
— 153. To the left. The first division and sub-division 
of excentric asteroid arterial plexus of the renal granules 
(acini.) Barth. 

To the right. The entire renal granule (acinus) together 
with the origins of the tubuli uriniferi and of the renal 
veins. Barth. 

Fig. 154. The imperfectly conical lappets formed by the 
several cortical uriniferous tubuli, with the blood-vessels 


and glomeruli injected : from the kidney of an adult, after 
Krause in Miiller's Arcliiv. 1837, Taf. I. fig. 3. 

Fig. 155. Imperfectly filled arteriae helicinae — convoluted 
or tendril -like arteries, from the penis of the human subject, 
after Miiller, in Archiv. 1838, Taf. V. 

Fig. 156 — 161. Structure of glands. 

— 156. Beginning of the excretory duct of a salivary 
gland (the parotid of a foal one year old.) 

Fig. 157. One of the tufts of the above more highly 

a a. Salivary vessel (a branch of the excretory 

b b. The pediculated secretory vesicles — the peri- 
pheral blind extremities of the excretory duct. 

c c. Twigs of blood-vessels. 
Fig. 158. Two entire, and portions of two other Meibo- 
mian glands seen from the inside of the eyelid (foetal calf 
of 5 months.) 

a. The excretory duct. 

b. The orifice of this on the inner aspect of the edge 
of the eye-lid. 

c. The secreting vesiculi. 

Fig. 159. Pulmonary vesicles (horse.) 

a. One of the most delicate bronchial twigs. 

b. The pulmonary vesicles. 

Fig. 160 and 161. Bilocular sebac.eous glands (skin of 
the sow.) 

Fig. 160. A globular, closely convoluted sebaceous 

Fig. 161. The same with its convolutions unfolded. 

— 162. Nervi nervorum, particular primary nervous 
festoons of the nervous fasciculi (addition to the structure 
of nerves.) 

a a. A delicate nervous fasciculus, highly magni- 

b b. A primary fibril which at c. forms a somewhat 
sinuous terminal loop, and at d. plunges in between two of 
the constituent primary fibrils. 


efg.A terminal loop which turns round more ab- 

h. A third terminal fibril, whose course is indicated 
by the letters k, I, nit n. 

Fig. 163. A delicate soft fasciculus of the sympathetic. 

aaaa. Four primary fibrils, separated by delicate 
fibres of the general investing sheath. 

h b. Two primary fibrils lying deeper, and scarcely 
to be distinguished. 

c c c. Delicate cellular fibrils between the nervous 

d d. Stronger investing cellular fibres. 

e e. Still stronger and more condensed external 
sheath of cellular fibrils (perhaps tubuli of cellular tissue 
surrounding one another concentrically.) 

Fig. 164 — 238. Figures having reference to the Termi- 

A. Drops in their various relations to the bodies with 
which they are in contact and the magnifying power. 

Fig. 164. Flat, spread out, round-shaped drop. 

— 165. Flat, spread out, elliptical drop. 

— 166. A spherical drop, the most remote point of 
which is in the focus of the magnifier or microscope. 

Fig. 167. The same drop removed till its centre is in the 
focus of the magnifier. 

Fig. 168. The same drop the upper point of which is 
now in the focus, — the nearest point of the surface of the 
drop is at focal distance from the magnifying power. 

Fig. 169. Drops illuminated from the side and from 
above, in a less consistent medium. 

B. Crystals. 

Fig. 170. A flat or short four-sided pyramid, with trun- 
cated apex. 

Fig. 171. A cubical cyrstal. 

— 172. Rhomboidal tables. 

— 173. Three -sided prism. 
■ — 174. Six-sided prism. 

— 175. A three-sided pyramid. 


Fig. 176. Acicular crystals. 

C. Grit, gravel, amorphous deposits. 
Fig. 177. Globular gravel. 

— 178. Granular gravel. 

— 179. Mulberry-like gravel. 

D. Flat formations. 
Fig. 180. Six-sided 1 

— 181. Eight-sided > scale. 

— 182. Elliptical J 

— 183. Lamina, or lamella. 

— 184. Flat fibre. 

— 185. Squamous fibre. 

— 186. Simple or unilamellar squamous membrane. 

E. Granules, and granular formations. 
Fig. 187. Granules. 

— 188. Globules. 

— 189. Granular band or fibre. 

— 190. Granular corpuscle. 

— 191. Granular fibrous bundle. 

— 192. Granular membrane. 

F. Nuclei, nucleoli, and round fibrous formations. 
Fig. 193. Nucleoli in cells (a.) Nucleolus in nucleus {b.) 

— 194. Cylindrical or round fibres, fibrils, filaments. 

— 195. A bundle or fasciculus of fibres. 

— 196. A fibrous cord (a smaller collection of fibres 
than a fasciculus.) 

Fig. 197. A fibrous tissue. 

— 198. A fibrous net or rete. 

— 199. A fibrous grating. 

— 200. A fibrous membrane. 

— 201. A fibrous fascicular tissue. 

G. Nuclei and nucleolated nuclei. 

Fig. 202. A nucleus in an elongated rounded cell. h. 
Nucleus in a six-sided cell. 

Fig. 203. Nuclear or nucleolar fibre. 

— 204. Nucleolated nucleus in the cell. 

— 205. 1. Blood-corpuscles or globules, a Nucleus 
(investment, envelope.) h Nucleolus (nucleus.) 


2. Exudation- corpuscle or globule, previ- 
ously to its transformation into a pus-globule. 

3. Pus-globule or corpuscle. 
Fig. 206. Exudation membrane. 

— 207. Granular nucleus within a cell. 
H. Vesicles and hollow fibres. 

Fig. 208. Round and pediculated vesicles. 

— 209. An acervulus, small cluster or heap of vesicles. 

— 210. Hollow fibre (primary fibre of nerve.) 

— 211. Hollow fibrous cord (most delicate nervous 

Fig. 212. Hollow fibrous plexus (peripheral nervous 

Fig. 213. Hollow fibrous rete or net (capillary net or 

I. Cellular formations. 

Fig. 214. Nucleated cellular membrane, with intercel- 
lular rete. 

a. A binucleated cell. 

b. Uninucleated cells. 

Fig. 215. Nucleated cellular membrane without inter- 
cellular rete. 

a. Sectional line. 

6. Row of nucleated cells. 

c. Row of cells — cells whose nuclei contain nucleoli. 

d. The cells divided in the line a, which in the 
section appear like a cellular fibre. 

Fig. 216. Newly formed globular nucleated cells. 

a. One of these isolated, with an excentric nucleus. 

b. Nucleo-nucleated or incased cells of recent for- 

Fig. 217, Cartilaginous cells. 

a. Elongated nucleated cell, with elongated nucleus. 

b. Rounded nucleo-nucleated cell. 

Fig. 218. Cells that tend to separate in lines, and for- 
mation of cellular fibres. 

Fig. 219. Metamorphosis of cellular fibres into round 


a. Cellular fibres with granular nuclei and delicate 
produced connecting filaments. 

b. Shrunk cells with connecting fibres. 

c. Cell with three connecting fibres. 

d. Cellular fibres with granular nuclei, which are 
connected by peculiar filaments that run through the inter- 
cellular fibres. 

Fig. 220. Irregularly quadrilateral granular or granu- 
lated cell with three granular incased nuclei, two of which 
lie partly over one another. (A variety as regards the 
number and position of the nuclei.) 

Fig. 221. Ciliary or ciliated cellular membrane. 

a. Crown or circle of cilias. 

b. Basis or roots of more distant cilice. 

c. Nucleus of the ciliary cells. 

d. The cilise. 

Fig. 222. An isolated ciliary cell. 

a. The cell. 

b. The ciliary basis. 

c. Ciliae. 

d. Nucleus. 

Fig. 223. A four-celled ciliary cellular fibre. 

a. Ciliary corona. 

b. (above.) One of the granular nuclei, b. (below.) 
The cell connected with the membrane. 

Fig. 224. Ciliary cellular fibres in connexion, and as 
they appear on the surface of a section of the ciliary fibrous 

a. Uppermost nucleus (ciliary nucleus.) 
b c. Rank of ciliag. 
Fig. 225. Formation of elastic tissue out of the inter- 
cellular rete. 

a. Intercellular rete with included nucleated cells. 

b. Transition into 

c. Elastic tissue. 

Fig. 226. Horn-cells in the foetus, before their conver- 
sion into horn, still furnished with nuclei and nucleoli. 


Fig. 227 and 228. Change of the young cell into a scale, 
in section. In a — e, the nucleus is still recognizable. In 
/, the formed scale, it has disappeared. 

K. Living animals in the living mammal novv^ as 
constituent elements, and again as adventitious parasites. 

Fig, 229 and 230. Cysticercus cellulosae. 

— 229. Cysticercus cellulosae of the natural size. 

a. Head. 

b. Neck. 

c. Caudal vesicle. 

Fig. 230. Head, neck, and part of the body of the cys- 
ticercus highly magnified. 

a. Point of the mouth. 

b. The double circle of booklets. 
c c. Suctory papillse. 

d. Neck. 

e. A part of the body. 

Fig. 231 — 234. Seminal animalcules and seminal cor- 
puscles from the epididymis (guinea-pig.) 

Fig. 231. A seminal animalcule very highly magnified, 
seen from the abdominal aspect. 

a a. The rounded margin of the flat spoon-shaped 

b. Internal vesiculi (probably botryoidal stomach.) 

c. Two globular organs (internal organs of genera- 
tion ? ovaries ?) 

d. Oral aperture on the oral papillae. 

e. Genital and anal orifice on the posterior papillae. 
+ Notch between the body and the tail. 

/. Caudal papillae. 
g. Tail. 

h. Imperfect loop or coil which the tail generally 
forms when not in use. 

Fig. 232. A seminal animalcule less highly magnified, 
seen from the side. Great part of the tail is left out. 

Fig. 233. Five seminal animalcules in apposition, packed 
like table spoons one within the hollow of the other. 


Fig. 234. A seminal corpuscle and three isolated seminal 

Fig. 235 and 236. Entozoon from the folds of the con- 
junctiva of the eye of the horse (Filaria papillosa.) 

Fig. 235. The entozoon of the natural size. 

— 236. The same magnified 6 diameters. 

a. Oral aperture. 

b. Top of the oesophagus. 

c. The intestine lying in coils. 

d d. Part at which the animal was accidentally in- 
jured, and through which the intestine has protruded. 
e. Anus. 

/. The conical shaped point of the tail. 
g g. The ovaries. 
h h. The genital orifices. 
Fig. 231. Ovum of an entozoon from the intestines of 
the horse, highly magnified. 

Fig. 238. Acarus scabiei — magnified. 

— 239. Development of the sebaceous glands of the 
skin from the palm of the human foetus (Valentin.) 

Supplement to the formation of the glands. 
a. Round inversion of the epidermis. 
h. The inversion advancing, a pediculated vesicle is 

c. The pediculated vesicle begins to turn round 
spirally like a corkscrew. 

d. The follicle divides into two lappets. The ex- 
cretory duct makes a complete spiral turn. 

e. The two glands are completely divided, the ele- 
mentary vesicles more numerous and more distinct. The 
excretory duct now makes three spiral turns. 

/. The gland nearly perfectly evolved, consists of 
numerous elementary vesicles, which form botryoidal clus- 
ters, each vesicle connected by its duct with another, and 
all ending in one common efferent canal, which now makes 
four spiral turns between its origin and its termination on 
the surface. 



Fig. 240. Several vesicular shaped pediculated epithelial 
cellular corpuscles from an intestinal villus (horse.) Ad- 
dition to the lymphatics. 

a. Epithelial corpuscles, which lie near the middle 
of the villus. 

h. Epithelial corpuscles from the edge of the villus. 

c. An epithelial vesicle seen from the side opposite 
to that to which the pedicle is attached. 

d. Pediculated epithelial vesicles seen from the 

Fig. 241. Peripheral vesicular reservoir (?) as the be- 
ginning of a lacteal vessel in the extremity of the villus, 
with the epithelial vesicles, the cellular investments of 
which have been omitted in the Drawing. This is an ap- 
pearance that is frequently met with, but one the signi- 
ficance of which is still doubtful. In other villi these col- 
lecting vesicles rather compose peripheral retes. 

a. Collecting vesicle, passing inferiorly into a rete ' 
of lymphatic vessels. 

h. Absorbing epithelial vesicles? 
Fig. 242. A magnified section of the epithelium and a 
portion of the mucous membrane of the root of the tongue 
of the horse prepared by boiling and maceration in oil of 
turpentine. Addition to the nerves. 

a. The terminal festoons of the nerves upon the 
outer aspect of the integument, mucous membrane. 

6. Scattered terminal loops penetrating the epithe- 

c. Several of them cut through slantingly. 

d. Filamentous papillae, upon the free surface of 
the tongue. 

the plates. 59 

Figures illustrative of Mr. Gulliver's obser- 

To avoid ambiguity it may be proper to mention, that I 
have employed the term granules to designate extremely 
minute particles, seldom above jwooth of an inch in dia- 
meter, and the majority of them gradually diminishing in 
size until they become only just perceptible by the aid of 
the deepest magnifying powers. The larger granules are 
generally more or less globular, though often irregular in 
shape ; but a great proportion of them are too minute to 
admit of their form being distinctly recognized even by the 
best instruments. It would be difficult, for instance, to 
determine the form of the particles composing the granular 
ground in Figs. 249 and 279. The phrase granular matter 
is applied to a shapeless assemblage of these granules, 
whether of the larger kind, of the larger and smaller mixed, 
or of the smallest of all. This granular matter frequently 
pervades a hyaline matrix ; but it may be contained in cells, 
when of course it presents a more regular outline ; indeed 
the very minute granules probably often coalesce, so as to 
form a great part of various corpuscles or globviles. In 
the notes at pages 5Q and 57, I find that the globules of the 
chyle and thymous fluid have been inadvertently spoken of 
as granules or granular particles, expressions which must 
not be understood in the sense as explained above, and 
in which these terms will be subsequently used. But 
as the chyle-globules and other analogous corpuscles 
have been termed granules by many anatomists, especially 
on the continent, I have, for the sake of perspicuity, named 
the peculiar base of the chyle the molecular base, as will 
be more fully explained in the Appendix. 

G. G. 

Fig. 243. Portion of opaque, white coloured, coagulated 
lymph, magnified about 380 diameters, from a case of 


traumatic inflammation of the peritoneum of the horse. 
The lymph was very friable, and had only been a few days 
effused. It is composed of globules, smaller molecules, and 
granular matter in a hyaline matrix. In the lower part of 
the figure the granules and molecules are shown as floating 
in serous fluid from the clot. (See page 29; also fig. 272.) 
Fig. 244. Portion of fibrine exhibiting an appearance of 
fibrils. Magnified nearly 700 diameters. From the heart 
of a child about 24 hours after death. 

Fig. 245. Another portion of the same clot as in Fig. 
244, similarly magnified, and showing a faint appearance 
of globules between the fibrils. 

Fig. 246. Corpuscles in fibrine, obtained by whipping, 
from the blood of a horse. About the centre a corpuscle 
is shown, though obscurely, composed of a congeries of 
minute spherules, as mentioned in the note p. 34, and 
Appendix, p. 21. Magnified 700 diameters. 

Fig. 247. Fibrine from the same blood as Fig. 246. The 
fibrine was boiled, and the corpuscles and fibrils are shown 
in a very thin slice. A cluster of the corpuscles is seen, 
though not very prominently^ in the upper part of the 
figure. Magnified 700 diameters. 

Fig. 248. The corpuscles rendered more distinct, and 
their nuclei shown, by the aid of acetic acid. The fibrine 
was obtained from the same blood as in Figs. 246 and 247. 
Magnified 700 diameters. 

Fig. 249. Corpuscles in a clot of fibrine from the heart of 
a child, aged two months. The corpuscles have a cor- 
rugated appearance, and the intervening matter is very 
minutely granular. Magnified 800 diameters. 

Fig. 250. Nuclei shown by soaking the fibrine for a while 
in sulphurous acid. The matrix has a finely granular ap- 
pearance. From the fibrine of a horse, four days before 
death from inflammatory fever following an injury. 

Fig. 251. Very distinct nuclei and faint envelopes, ex- 
posed by acetic acid, in fibrine from the venous blood of 
the horse. This and Fig. 250. were both made from 
bri ne in which it was difficult to distinguish the nuclei 


or corpuscles till tlie acids were used. Both Figures 
were drawn with the camera lucida and a magnifying 
power of 800 diameters. 

(The figures 243 to 251 are spoken of more fully in 
the note at p. 29, et seq. and in Sect. 5 of the observations 
on the blood-corpuscles of Mammiferous Animals in the 

Figs. 252 — 255 exhibit the structure of tubercle made 
up chiefly of irregular corpuscles and cells, with oblong and 
circular nuclei. A very minutely granular matter is situated 
between the corpuscles and cells, which indeed it often 
seems to pervade. Fig. 252. is from a small crude tubercle 
of the lung, about as big as a hemp seed : the envelopes 
are very faint, and the nuclei of small size. Fig. 25S. is 
from a similar tubercle which was situated immediately 
beneath the pulmonary pleura ; the envelopes are obscured 
by the granular matter, while the nuclei are of large size 
and distinctly marked. Fig. 254. is from a small tubercle 
obtained from the peritoneal coat of the small intestine ; the 
envelopes are here also very faintly seen, but the nuclei are 
perfectly distinct, and some of these inclose nucleoli. Fig. 
255. shows very distinct cells, and nuclei containing 
spherical molecules in their substance, as appears also to 
be the case in some of the nuclei of fig. 254. In the lower 
part of fig. 255 an aggregation of similar molecules forms 
an oval corpuscle almost as large as a cell. 

All the figures were made from portions magnified 800 
diameters ; and in Figs. 252 — 254. the tubercular matter 
was of the common yellowish opaque kind, and obtained from 
a man, aged 26, who died of pulmonary phthisis; he had 
also numerous tubercles in the mesentery, in the omen- 
tum, and on the surface of the intestines. Fig. 255. was 
taken from a very minute tubercle from the surface of the 
ovary. The tubercular matter was paler than that which 
formed the subjects of Figs. 252 — 254, but still quite 
opaque. It was obtained from a woman, aged 48, who 
died of general dropsy connected with valvular disease 
of the heart. There was much fluid in the belly, and the 


peritoneum was throughout studded with tubercular accre- 
tions. The lungs contained only two or three small tuber- 
cles, none of which were in the active state. 

Fig. 256. exhibits the structure of some whitish flaky 
matter from an enlarged ovarian cyst. Some distinct cells 
of large size are seen inclosing numerous minute spherules. 
Near to the top of the Figure these are aggregated into 
a corpuscle destitute of any envelope, close above 
which corpuscle is a cell nearly empty, and oval in 
shape. Many of the minute spherules seem to contain a 
still more minute nucleus. The cells are contained in 
a matrix, composed of oval nucleated corpuscles, of much 
smaller size, fainter, and quite distinct in character from the 
large circular cells. From the same woman as the tubercle 
shown in Fig. 255. Magnified 800 diameters. 

Fig 257. Very singular baton-like bodies, mostly furnish- 
ed with knobs at their extremities. There are also nume- 
rous minute spherules, and a flattened prismatic crystal ; 
besides three large globular cysts, with extremely delicate 
parietes, but destitute, as far as could be observed, of 
nuclei or granules. The curious bodies first mentioned 
are perhaps crystals : Mr. Siddall showed me some similar 
bodies in the bile of a rabbit. The minute spherules exhibited 
remarkably vivid molecular motions. The drawing was 
made from some yellowish matter, not unlike thickened 
pus, or tubercle, obtained from a small tumor in the 
choroid plexus of a man who died of pulmonary phthisis. 
Magnified 800 diameters. 

Fief, 258. Pus from a chronic abscess in a scrofulous child 
affected with hip disease and ulceration of the vertebrse. 
This pus is seen to be made up chiefly of minute sphe- 
rules with granular matter, and the globules are fewer and 
less distinct than in healthy pus. They seem to be des- 
titute of the two or three nuclei contained in healthy pus 
globules, though mostly containing minute spherules of a 
granular matter. This scrofulous pus is also peculiar, as 
being quite unaffected by several reagents which act in- 
stantly on common pus. Acetic acid neither affected the 


minute spherules nor the globules of this scrofulous matter, 
and the action of caustic alkalies on the globules was very 
faint. As neither acetic nor sulphurous acid would 
act on the globules, of course no regular nuclei could 
be seen , and the pus was instantly coagulated by 
these acids, and therefore immiscible with them. Like 
healthy pus, this scrofulous matter was creamy and homoge- 
neous, and readily miscible with water. A quantity of the 
pus dried and heated on paper produced no greasy stain ; and 
a bottle full of the matter was kept for a month, the tem- 
perature being about SS*', at the end of which time there 
was no putrefaction, and the particles had not subsided in 
the least, so that there was no supernatant serum. Magni- 
fied 800 diameters. (See Notes, p. 93 and 95.) 

Figs. 259 — 260. Globules of pus, showing the remarkable 
manner in which they swell out, on the addition of water. 
In both figures the globules are magnified 800 times in 
diameter. Fig. 259. exhibits them without water. Fig. 260. 
after the addition of water. Perfectly fresh pus shows 
the phenomenon best, for after the matter has been kept 
some time, the change either does not take place, or is 
comparatively slight. The Drawing was made from go- 
norrhoea! matter immediately after it was taken from the 
urethra. In the upper part of the fig. the nuclei of two of 
the globules are very distinctly seen. 

Fig. 261 . Pus-cells, and their contents. On the right, near 
to the margin, is a congeries of pus molecules, or nucleoli, 
without any envelopes. A pus cell, a, is seen to enclose the 
pus globules as nucleated nuclei. Another cell, b, encloses 
an aggregation of molecules, or nucleoli. The pus cells 
are about xiVs^^^ ^f an inch in diameter. Several cor- 
puscles, one of which is marked c, have much the size 
and appearance of pus globules, but, on comparison with 
the cells, give the idea of the latter, with their contents, 
in progress of growth or evolution. Magnified 800 di- 

Fig. 262. Abnormal pus. Only six or seven regular pus 
globules, one of which is marked a, are present. The rest 


of the matter is made up of spherical bodies, giving the idea 
of oil globules. Some of these are very large, as at b ; 
others, of extremely small size, are scattered about singly ; 
some are aggregated into corpuscles merely by apposition, 
e; and others are connected together by a minutely gra- 
nular matter, d. The molecules forming the corpuscle c 
had a slightly oval jBgure, though the artist has made them 
circular. Magnified 800 diameters. 

This and the preceding Figure were taken from the 
pus of a large abscess in the buttock, connected with dis- 
ease of the hip-joint from injury. The patient was a man, 
aged 31, who died of the affection. Fig. 261. shows the 
cells in the pus a month before death ; Fig. 262. the ab- 
normal pus just previous to death. In both specimens the 
pus was of good consistence, of the usual colour in the first 
mentioned, but brownish in the last. The latter pus did 
not grease paper when dried on it by heat. 

Fig. 263. Corpuscles or spongioles of the liver magnified 
800 diameters. The texture of these bodies seems to be 
very loose or spongy, and they contain a congeries of 
very minute spherules. From the horse. 

Fig. 264. The same from a child. 

Fig. 265. Corpuscles of the spleen magnified 800 diame- 
ters. As noticed in the Appendix, p. 23, I have seen these 
in the blood of the splenic vein. From a man. 

Fig. 266. The oil-like spherules of the supra-renal gland. 
These constitute the bulk of the gland, and may some- 
times be found in the blood of its vein, as mentioned in 
the Appendix, p. 23. They frequently exhibit molecular 
motions, especially when mixed with water. Magnified 
380 diameters. From a woman aged 64. 

Fig. 267. The same spherules magrdfied 800 diameters. 
There are, besides, five larger circular corpuscles, presenting 
the appearance of faint cells with nuclei. These cell-like 
bodies, it will be observed, are not larger than the human 
blood discs, and are possibly th se somewhat altered. 
From a young child. 

Fig. 268. Granulated or mamiUated and angular parti- 


cles, and the minute spherules of the blood, magnified 800 
diameters. Some of the angular particles are star-shaped. 
From a sucking kitten immediately after death. (See Ap- 
pendix, pp. 10 and 23.) 

Fig. 269. Pus-like globules in the blood of a horse. 
There are five of these globules, which differ remarkably 
from the blood discs. The blood was taken from the animal 
while he was suffering from inflammatory fever. (See 
Appendix, p. 20 — 21.) Magnified 800 diameters. 

Fig. 270. Corpuscles and minute spherules in tubercle, 
magnified 800 diameters. The corpuscles exhibited no 
change when treated with acetic acid ; they are very irregular 
in form, and in this respect differ from the cells and nuclei 
shown in figures 252 — 255. From a portion of the common 
kind of crude tubercle, obtained from the lung of a woman 
aged 33, who died of pulmonary phthisis. 

Fig. 271. Fragment of tubercular matter, magnified 800 
diameters. It was obtained from the kidney of a man aged 
80, who died of pericarditis. This tubercular matter appears 
to be void of regular structure, being composed of shapeless 
fragments, and a granular matter formed of minute spherules 
very variable in size. 

Fig. 272. A bit of false membrane, magnified 800 
diameters. Numerous corpuscles are seen, more or less 
globular, and having the character of primary cells; the 
intervening texture is formed of most delicate fibrils. As 
is generally observable in effused clots of lymph, several 
minute opaque granules are scattered throughout the tissue. 
The Drawing was made from a flake of the common whitish 
kind of false membrane, formed on the serous surface of the 
lung in a man aged 51, who died of phthisis and pleuro- 
pneumonia. In this case the structure of the effused 
matter seems to be further advanced than in the coagulated 
lymph depicted in Fig. 243. 

Fig. 273. Vesicular corpuscles in some crude tubercular 
matter obtained from the pancreas of the patas. (Cercopi- 
thecus ruber, Geoff.) The smaller tubercular deposits so 
common in the thoracic and abdominal viscera of the quad- 




rumana are frequently composed chiefly of this vesicular 
structure, audit may sometimes be seen in the minute tuber- 
cular accretions of the human subject, especially in those 
of the omentum. 

Figs. 374 to 287 illustrate the anatomy of the chyle and 
of the lymphatic and thymous juices. All the figures, ex- 
cept 275, are magnified about 800 diameters. 

Fig. 274. Plan of the molecular base of the chyle. The 
scale represents micrometer divisions of ^-JQ-gth of an inch ; 
and as from six to nine of the molecules are required to 
extend across one space, it may be inferred that their 
diameter is from -g^-^^-oth to -aji^o^th of an inch. It is 
obvious, however, that the result of any method of estimat- 
ing the size of particles so extremely minute can merely be 
considered as an approximation to the truth ; for it is per- 
haps questionable whether either the form or the magnitude 
of such objects can be satisfactorily determined. When 
examined, however, under the most favourable circumstances, 
the molecules have a spherical appearance ; and quite as 
minute particles as these may be recognized in the most 
delicate granular matter, as in the ground of Fig. 279. 

Fig. 275. Chyle from the peripheral lacteals in the 
mesentery of a kitten. There are six chyle globules, 
magnified fully 800 diameters, and the molecular base, 
which is magnified about 700 diameters, occupies the en- 
tire field. 

Fig. 276. Chyle from a peripheral lacteal of a bitch. 
The molecular base as usual pervades the whole field, and 
five blood-smooth discs are contained in it. A few of the 
blood discs were observed in many trials, made with the 
greatest care to prevent the admission of blood to the chyle ; 
but no chyle globules were present, although they were 
ascertained to be numerous in the chyle of a large central 
lacteal. The animal was fed plentifully, five hours before 
death, on boiled cow's paunch ; and the lacteals were well 
distended with chyle. 

Fig. 277. Chyle from a prick of a lacteal of a mesenteric 
gland of a puppy. The globules are very numerous, and 



the effect of the molecular base is well depicted. It was 
obtained from the animal three hours after he had been fed 
with potatoes and boiled meat. 

Fig. 278. Chyle from a prick of a turgid lacteal in a 
mesenteric gland of the same bitch as mentioned at Fig. 
276. The chyle was very rich and white, and the molecular 
base accordingly appears richer than in Fig. 277, and the 
chyle globules are extremely numerous. 

Fig. 279. Juice from the lymphatic gland of the ham of 
the same puppy as the chyle delineated in Fig. 277. The 
examination in both cases was made with the same glasses, 
and the two Figures give a faithful representation of the 
difference between the most minutely granular matter and 
the molecular base of the chyle. The globules in both 
figures appear to be identical, but in Fig. 279, the base in 
which they are contained is merely granular, and in Fig. 
277 it is the characteristic molecular ground of the chyle. 

Fig. 280. Lymphatic juice from an absorbent gland of 
the ham of a young bitch. In this instance, as is frequently 
the case, the fluid is pervaded merely by the globules, and 
a few much smaller spherical particles, which seem like 
nuclei of the former. But the action of acetic acid did not 
render the nucleated appearance clearer ; and is here rather 
more distinctly represented than it was seen in the object 
under the microscope. 

Fig. 281. Clot from the chyle of the thoracic duct of the 
same bitch as the lymphatic juice represented in the preced- 
ing Figure (280.) The clot contains numerous globules in 
a hyaline matrix, apparently pervaded by extremely delicate 
fibrils. The chyle was kept two hours in a glass tube, when 
the clot was removed with a needle and washed in water, so 
as to be in great part deprived of its opacity, before examina- 
tion. As is generally the case, the globules of the clot 
appeared more irregular in size and shape than those of the 
fiuid chyle ; but this character is not well preserved in the 

Fig. 282. Spherules of the whitish substratum resulting 


from the mixture of aether with chyle : these appear 
more delicate and pellucid than oily spherules. 

Fig. 283, Chyle glohules treated with dilute muriatic 
acid. Most of them are somewhat enlarged, and exhibit an ap- 
pearance of nuclei contained in transparent envelopes, pro- 
bably from changes produced by the acid on the surface of 
the globules. 

Fig. 284. Thymous fluid from the same puppy as the chyle 
Fig. 277, and the lymphatic juice Fig. 279. This thymous 
fluid is as usual rich in globules ; and a few oil-like sphe- 
rules are present. But it is totally destitute of the pecu- 
liar molecular base of the chyle, and a comparison with 
Fig. 277 will at once show the difference in question. 

Fig. 285. Thymous fluid from a young ass. 

Fig. 286. The same from a young dromedary. The 
globules are seen to be similar in shape to those of animals 
with circular blood discs. It will be recollected that the 
blood corpuscles of the dromedary are oval. 

Fig. 287. Thymous globules of the same dromedary treat- 
ed with acetic acid, by which they are rendered a little 
smaller, smoother on the surface, more distinct and trans- 
lucent ; the appearance of nuclei is more clearly seen than 
is usually the case after mixing acetic acid with thymous 

Figs. 288 — 291. Corpuscles in the muscular fibre of the 
heart, and in the mitral valve, magnified 800 diameters. 
The corpuscles may sometimes be seen, though rather 
indistinctly, without the aid of reagents. Acetic acid was 
used to render the corpuscles distinct for the drawings. 

Mr. Bowman (Phil. Trans, part ii, 1840) has depicted 
similar corpuscles in the fibre of voluntary muscle, and Dr. 
Baly in the flat bands of some of the muscular flbres of 
organic life, (Translation of Miiller's Physiology, part ii. 
plate 2. Fig. 9. ;) but he does not mention the heart. The 
primary fascicles or bands of this organ are often so inti- 
mately connected, that it is difficult to see them distinctly ; 
but they are sometimes tolerably well defined, often appear- 
ing flattened, occasionally nearly or quite cylindrical. I 


have given measurements of them, in some mammals, in 
the note at p. ^37. 

In mammals the corpuscles vary in diameter from -g-^^th 
to a^o^oQ-th of an inch ; in the newt they are considerably 
larger. They are very irregular in shape, being sometimes 
rounded, often either oval or spear-shaped, and frequently 
still more elongated. 

They may be found in a great variety of tissues. Mr. 
Bowman has seen the corpuscles in the coats of the capil- 
lary blood-vessels, in the sheath of nerve, and in the sub- 
stance of tendon, and I have repeatedly observed corpus- 
cles, either much resembling those depicted in Fig. 288, or 
more elongated, in parts too numerous to particularize. I 
may mention, however, the bag-like portion of the pericar- 
dium, the peritoneum, semilunar valves of the arteries, the 
coats of veins, and of the seminal tubes, and the dura 
mater. By the aid of the aqueous solution of sulphurous 
acid and the acetic acid, the corpuscles may generally be 
brought into view : they are supposed to be the remains of 
the cells, from which the tissues were originally formed. 

Fig. 288. Corpuscles in the tissue of the mitral valve: 
they are more numerous than in the muscular tissue of the 

Fig. 289. Corpuscles in the tissue of the auricle. 

Fig. 290. Corpuscles in the tissue of the ventricle. This 
and Figs. 288 and 289 are from the hedgehog. 

Fig. 291. Corpuscles, of much larger size than the 
preceding, in the fibre of the ventricle of a water newt. 
(Triton Bibronii, Bell.) 

Fig. 292, Epithelial corpuscles, magnified 800 diameters, 
from the gullet of a newt, (Triton Bibronii, Bell,) to show 
their large size in this reptile. They are generally more 
or less oval, often round : the eliptical form also occurs 
frequently in nuclei of the cells of mammiferous animals. In 
the note at p. 42, I have noticed that the epithelial corpus- 
cles of the frog do not exceed in size those of man. In 
another examination these corpuscles were found to be 
slightly larger than in man, but having no sort of relation 


to the great difference in size between the human and 
batrachian blood corpuscles. The lymph globules of the 
musk deer too are nearly or quite of the same size as those 
of man. In the water newt, however, the large size of the 
epithelial corpuscles, as well as of the colourless globules 
of the blood, is remarkable in connection with the magni- 
tude of the blood discs of this reptile. From recent 
measurements I find the average length of its blood corpus- 
cles to be g-ji-th, and the breadth rsTrth of an inch, linear. 
The diameter of the white globules of the newt's blood 
varies from -g^o^th to j-jVo ^h, and that of the epithelial 
corpuscles from -g-^Wth t;o -g-grth of an inch. 

Fig. 293. The same epithelial corpuscles after having 
been treated with acetic acid. They are only rendered 
rather smaller, and more distinct at their edges. 

Fig. 294. Blood discs of a very young water newt, (Tri- 
ton Bibronii, Bell) apparently in progress of formation from 
the colourless globules. A perfect blood corpuscle is shown 
(a) with its usual oval nucleus ; all the other corpuscles 
represented in the figure were nearly or quite colourless, and 
their round nuclei are exactly like the colourless globules 
of the blood. In some the envelopes are forming evenly 
around the nuclei (6, 6.) In others the corpuscles, though 
smaller than the regular discs, are oval in consequence of 
the envelope extending principally in opposite directions 
(c, c.) In none of these has the nucleus assumed its 
eliptical figure ; but in one (c?) this change would seem to be 
commencing. Occasionally the envelope was seen to begin 
in a crescentic form, arising from a part only of the circum- 
ference of the globule ; but of this no delineation is given. 

In the blood of the newt, oval cysts full of granular 
matter are sometimes present (6.) They are generally as 
large, frequently larger, than the blood corpuscles. 

As formerly mentioned (Appendix p. 24,) my observations 
on the formation of the corpuscles in the blood of birds 
were entirely negative. But in young reptiles of the 
genera Triton and Lissotriton, the blood corpuscles may be 
seen in the various states above described. Since the 


drawing was executed, I find that similar results have 
been obtained by Wagner (Physiology by Willis, part ii.) 
and Nasse (Unters. zur Physiol. 11, s. 138.) The latter 
describes the capsule as growing by offsets from opposite 
sides of the globule, while the former has always seen the 
envelope formed evenly around the globule. My own 
observations tend to reconcile this slight discrepancy, by 
showing that the evolution of the vesicle may take place in 
the manner described by both these eminent physiologists. 

G. G. 


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