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Full text of "Elements of Luganda grammar : together with exercises and vocabulary"




ENTS OF LUGANDA 
GRAMMAR 



ERCISES AND VOCABULARY 




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1 7 1977 



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ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR 
LUGANDA 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

GRAMMAR 

TOGETHER WITH 

EXERCISES AND VOCABULARY 



BY 

W. A. CRABTREE, M.A. 

(st. Catharine's college) 
correspondent for african languages (east and soutil\ university of cambridge 



PL 



Reprinted with a new Preface, 1923 



KAMPALA: THE UGANDA BOOKSHOP 
LONDON:'' S.P.C.K. 



PREFACE 

This book is reprinted by special request of the Uganda Translation 
Committee. Whatever in it may be of 'scientific' value is from the 
pen of that able scholar and teacher, G. L. Pilkington ; the rest is 
simply rambling notes of one who has tried to think as the people 
think. That such a book should find sufficient favour to be worth 
reprinting confirms my very strong conviction that African studies 
cannot be expressed in terms of Western scholarship. 

If we would understand Africa, we must train ourselves to think as 
the African thinks. Our knowledge of Latin or Greek, our school 
training in French or German, and even a certain consciousness that 
we can write or speak effective English is not going to help us. Such 
a dictum is not, I know, very palatable to the educated mind. But 
it is in reality nothing but the amplification of the remarks given in the 
beginning of these Elements many years ago ; and no request has been 
made that they be omitted from the reprint now called for. 

further, the request of the Syndics of the Cambridge University 
Press to contribute to their Guides to Modern Languages has brought 
this point acutely to the front. A Manual of Luganda was written as 
nearly as possible on modern lines. It was favourably noticed by the 
press ; and so far as I am aware contains all the matter in the Elements, 
except the notes on transliteration and philology. Moreover it was 
condensed into the handy form of some 250 pages of very clearly 
printed matter. Yet when it reached Uganda it was found to be 
almost unsaleable. In fact now and again a man was willing to give 
nearly four times its price for a copy of the old book, if such could be 
found second-hand. 

What was the reason? The grammatical matter was precisely the 
same; the vocabulary was fuller and contained all the words known to 
Mr. Pilkington and a few more; in addition there were short extracts 
ii native texts. None the less the European felt, without doubt, 
that none of this touched anything whatsoever with which he was 
familiar. lie wanted 'exercises' in far greater number. In brief hi 
wanted that educative process which trains the mind to think as the 
African thinks. 

And that training only comes with practice. It has little or nothing 

in common with what the western mind knows, containing as it does 

two 1 tally new principles, viz. : a peculiar phonetic system and a 

primitive grammatical structure by prefix and suffix. The first of these 

-ears at first sight so simple that its true import has hitherto been 

ii 



PREFACE in 

almost entirely overlooked. There are no difficult sounds ; yet the 
European's speech is not too easily understood and ' mission ' speech 
has become a byword. 

The keen student finds it necessary to pay very close attention to the 
way in which those apparently simple sounds are spoken. These 
sounds are carefully noted in the Elements and remain in the reprint 
exactly as originally written. Only now after thirty years is the writer 
beginning to reach the underlying principle which makes the apparently 
simple system so entirely different from anything western. No change 
in the quality of the vowel is called for. On the other hand the length 
of the vowel is so varied as to give quite a rhythmic flow of speech, and 
this is done by manipulation of the consonant. How this consonant is 
at times lengthened, at times pronounced with greater or less stress, 
cannot be described here. 1 Whichever process is used, experience 
shews that the length of every vowel is profoundly affected ; and if the 
language has a tendency to intonation, the effect will often manifest 
itself in the 'pitch.' Hence, all things taken together, the European 
with his quite different western scheme of phonology does not always 
speak intelligibly. He fails to appreciate how much depends upon the 
force with which the consonant is uttered, and especially the lengthen- 
ing effect of nasal ' n '. In a word, the rough division of vowels into 
long and short followed in this book, in accordance with western 
ideas, is far from being exact. 

So too with the Prefix system. The exercises are designed to 
familiarise the mind with the Prefix system. Many of the sentences arc- 
nonsense according to African ideas, the mere literal rendering of an 
English grammatical phrase. It is, however, a necessary process ol 
mind training. 2 This mastered, the language is found to be remarkabl) 
flexible, capable of expressing many shades of meaning quite unknown 
to modern language. The student has now found out how to think 
African thoughts. Finally by patient observation and much practice, 
he will discover the African rendering of English thought. 

On all counts, then, Africa claims its own place in any educational 
programme; and the request to reprint Elements of L Uganda — a mere 
crude collection of notes with no attempt at modern methods — con- 
clusively proves it. There is no literary merit in the work ; if the 
reader wants something up-to-date, let him take up the Manual of 
Luganda published by the Cambridge Press. Of one thing, however. 
I feel more and more certain, and that is, that African subjects need 
to be studied in a way specially their own. Experience alone can decide 
what precisely that line should be. 

Several things of pressing moment depend upon this. In our Cam- 
bridge University an African language can now be taken as part of the 
Modern Language Tripos. One student has successfully passed in his 
African language. But he had acquired the thought and mind of 
Africa in the country itself. Other students who have offered for 

1 See my Primitive Speech, Part I.: A Study in African Phonetics. London: 
S.P.C.K. 

2 For the meaning of the Prefixes and Suffixes see my Primitive Speech, Part II. : 
Prefix System. London : Tritbner >X Co. 



IV PREFACE 

African languages would not have come up to the standard. Possibly 
an exception might be found for Swahili or Hausa ; but I very much 
doubt it. At the same time it is highly desirable that African studies 
should be encouraged ; and an immense amount of valuable time will 
be saved by preliminary study in England. 

Again, we cannot but express regret that so much is made of Swahili 
as being suitable for an official language. Such encouragement pro- 
ceeds from too superficial a view of what African language is. Swahili 
has comparatively few affinities with Bantu Africa and the coastmen 
who spoke Swahili in old days were not beloved of the people. 
Luganda, on the other hand, has remarkable affinities over a very wide 
area. The languages of Unyamwezi, Unyoro and Kavirondo are all 
very close ; and this affinity extends right down to Luba in its purer 
forms and Karanga. As I have said elsewhere Swahili is of little help 
towards learning a Bantu language beyond the general one of 
familiarising the mind with the Prefix system and then only imperfectly. 
So long as we have a much closer approximation in Luganda, why 
not make more use of Luganda ? 

Concerning the use of Luganda as a very old and very complete 
type of Bantu exceedingly useful for philology I must not enlarge here. 
I only wish to remark that Kikuyu, and probably Kamba, which is 
closely related, is a quite different type of Bantu. Luganda is not of 
very great help in learning Kikuyu. Nor is Luganda entirely satis- 
factory as a stepping stone to Zulu or Cwana. Within such limitations, 
however, Luganda will be found of incalculable use outside its own 
sphere. It is probably not an exaggeration to say that Luganda is in 
every way typical of Bantu speech as spoken over practically the whole 
bantu area exclusive of the parts mentioned and possibly a few regions 
in the West such as Luena, Lunda, Fang and Angola. 

In reprinting Elements of Luganda, therefore, I trust we are helping 
forward the true study of Africa. In what way this language does help. 
the author has proved both by pioneer work and by innumerable 
notes, which, for many reasons, have still to remain in manuscript. 
Our hope is that others will master this valuable language not merely 
for personal reasons, but as a preliminary to the wider studies of African 
history and African philology as a whole. 

W. A. Crartree. 

Cawhri : 
July, )<»_>; 



PREFATORY NOTE 

Much that is in this book is from our dearly beloved brother, G. L. 
Pilkington ; but only a very small part indeed is directly from his pen 
(some sentences of the Introduction, and Section I, Lessons I. — XV.). 
The rest is either a reflection of ideas gathered from his translations ; 
or verbal notes made during some very happy hours spent with him in 
the early months of 1893. Had that time been prolonged, these verbal 
notes would have been written out and worked into his grammar for his 
revision and correction with a view to a second edition. 

Besides the lessons above referred to, he left a most copious collection 
of words, but in such rough form that they could not be printed as they 
stood. These, it is hoped, are for the most part given in the Luganda- 
English Vocabulary correctly ; but brevity in most cases necessitates 
giving only the nearest English to the root-idea. Nothing but a care- 
fully prepared dictionary could do more. Mr. Pilkington had long 
intended to write a ' Root ' dictionary, but never could find the time 
for it. This Vocabulary is therefore a first attempt to classify the words 
with a view to that end ; and it is hoped that the arrangement will not 
prove too difficult. It is most important to catch the shades of thought 
of each word, and thus avoid mistakes. In only a very few cases indeed 
has a Luganda word an exact English equivalent. 

For the idea of the arrangement of this Vocabulary I am most grate- 
fully indebted to 'The Zulu- Kafir Language,' by Roberts. 

W. A. C. 



The form adopted by the author of this book, of spelling the Luganda 
for water (madzi), a carpenter (omubadzi), the perfect tense of the verb 
" to come " (-dze), etc., is not that adopted by the Uganda Translation 
Committee and of the Church Missionary Society, or used in the 
Luganda Bible, where the forms ma'zi, omuba'zi, -'ze, etc., are used. 

Similarly the nasal before -f, v-, etc., is written by them nf-, nv-, etc., 
and not mf-, mv-, etc., as in this book. 



INTRODUCTION 



In learning an unwritten language, there are many difficulties. 
Those who have a sensitive ear for sounds readily learn the language 
on the spot from the people, but have much difficulty in writing it 
down. Less gifted people often require to work by written rules ; and 
it is only after several years of patient labour that they begin to 
appreciate the various sounds, and to study the proper value of each 
vowel and consonant. 

And without this study it is well nigh impossible to 'speak like a 
native,' or even to be understood by the uneducated peasant. No 
doubt in the case of those first mentioned the study is unconscious ; 
but it is none the less real. Others again seem to occupy an inter- 
mediate position ; and these require to see the word written down 
before they feel able to remember it, or to follow the voice-sounds of 
that word as spoken by a native. 

If Europeans were settled down in the country from their early days, 
then they might have a school for the teaching of unwritten languages ; 
and the correct principle on which to begin would undoubtedly be to 
first study the sounds and their application to a few simple words. 
As, however, each European is in the country for a very limited space 
of time, he must endeavour to learn as rapidly and as accurately as 
he can ; using that method which most readily commends itself to him, 
and by which he feels he can most readily accomplish his end ; only 
let him be very careful not to sacrifice pronunciation to a voluminous 
vocabulary. A few words well pronounced will be understood ; a large 
number of words badly pronounced will never be understood — except 
by a few natives to whom he is constantly talking, and who only too 
soon learn his ways : with the result that they flatter him and make him 
think that he knows the language. At the same time each European 
in studying such an unwritten language should be constantly on the 
qui vive to see how his speech can be made more like the speech of 
the country. For he is in a country where thought, expression and 
intonation are totally different to anything which he has probably heard 
before. 

This book therefore is divided into two sections. The first section 
indicates the most accurate and best method : viz. to acquire the 
language, its sounds and its intonation direct from the people them- 
selves ; the second section is an attempt to give rules and suggestions 
by which not merely Luganda could be mastered, but also any kindred 
' Bantu ' language. 



CONTENTS 



Fundamental Principles. 
Pronunciation : 

PAGE 

Syllables 41 

Vowel Sounds 10, 39 

Nasalization . . . . . . . . . . . .12 

Consonants ........... 12, 40 

Long or Exploded Consonants 14, 41 

Orthography 38 

Phonetic Changes : 

With 'n' 109 

Tables I, 2, 3 157 

'V Stems 113 

•W* Stems 116 

Initial Vowel 146 

Initial Vowel with Adjectives and Nouns ...... 45 

Grammar. 

Honns: 

Mu — Ba (or ' man ') Class ......... 33, 72 

List of Nouns ........... 47, 72 

Subject and Object Prefix 33, 73 

With Demonstrative . . . . . . . . • 33, 74 

With Adjective .......... 44, 75 

With Numeral . . . . . . . . •• • 33, 75 

With Relative 33, 76 

With Possessive 33, 75 

Mu — Mi (or ' tree') Class 29,54 

List of Nouns ............ 54 

Subject and Object Prefix 29, 54 

With Demonstrative .......... 30, 55 

. With Adjective and Numeral . . . . . . . 29, 55 

With Relative . . . . . . . . . . • 31, 56 

With Possessive ........... 30, 56 

N (or ' house') Class 34,98 

List of Nouns 98 

Subject Prefix ............ 99 

Object Prefix ........... 34, 101 

With Demonstrative .......... 34, 100 

With Adjective ............ 109 

With Numeral ........... 34, 100 

With Relative 34, 99, 101 

With Possessive .......... 34, 101 



VI 



CONTENTS 



Nouns — continued 

Ki (or 'thing') Class 
List of Nouns 
Subject Prefix . 
Object Prefix 
With Demonstrative 
With Numeral 
With Adjective . 
With Relative . 
With Possessive . 

Li—Ma {or ' stone') Class 
List of Nouns 
Subject Prefix 
Object Prefix 
With Demonstrative 
With Adjective . 
With Numeral 
With Relative . 
With Possessive . 

LO (or 'long') Class 
List of Nouns 
Subject and Object Prefix 
With Demonstrative 
With Adjective and Numeral 
With Relative . 
With Possessive . 

Ka (or 'diminutive') Class 

Bu (or 'abstract ') Class 

Tu Class 

Gu Class 

Personified or Invariable Nouns 

Adjectives : 

List of Adjective Roots 
Reduplication of Adjectives 
Comparison of Adjectives . 
Agreement of Adjectives . . 

,, ,, Table 8 

Partitive Forms. Table 9 . 

Numerals. 

Cardinal Numbers 

Table 10 
Table 10 

Distributive Adjectives 



>> 

Ordinal Numbers. 



Pronouns : 

Personal Pronouns ...... 

Quasi Pronouns ...... 

„ ,, Vide Nouns. § Miscellaneous . 

Demonstrative andTP ossessive.) Table 5 
Possessive Second FoTm and Pronominal Adverbs. 
Relative. Table 7 ..... 

Verbs : 



PAGE 

17, 42, 47 
i8,47 
23. 49 
26, 49 

19. 49 
22, 49 

18, 44, 48 
26, 50 
19. 5° 
33,84 

84 
85, 89 
33.87 

86 

34 

86 

85,87 

88 

108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 

i°5 
106 
107 
107 

78 



43 
S9 
57 
43 
163 
164 



22, 50, 60 
165 
165 
151 



26, 4 



8 



. 28, 31, 34, 51, 90, 102 

160 

Table 6 . . 161 

162 



Lists of Verbs . 

' To be ' and ' to have 

' W ' and ' Y ' Stems . 



62, 63, 65, 66, 67 

52 

. 32, 113, 116 



CONTENTS 



Vll 



Verb 8 — con tin tied 

Infinitive . 

Infinitive used as Nouns 

Infinitive Negative 

Auxiliaries 

Participles 

' Must ' 

Table 4 . 

Indicative. 

Present Indefinite 

Present Perfect . ' . 

Near Future 

Far Future 

Near Past Table 4 . 

Far Past . 

Narrative 

' Still ' and ' Not yet ' 

Relative with Negative 

Imperative 
Subjunctive . 
Conditional . 
Passive Voice 



(26), 49 

27 
24, 49, 68 

24, 49 
• 159 

27, 49, 69 

79 



35.68 
36, 135 



Modification of Verb. 

Applied or Prepositional Form 

Doubly Prepositional Form 

ReversiVe Form .... 

Reciprocal Form 

Reflexive Form 

' Ka ' or Capable Form 

Causative Form 

Ways of forming the Causative Form 

Uses of Causative Form 

Modified Forms 

Uses of Modified Form 



Negative 
Negative 
Negative 
Negative 
Negative 
Negative 
Negative 



Negative 
Negative 
Negative Table 4 



S 



PAGB 

25. 138 

(58), 104 

82, 107 

25. 136 
139 
140 

159 

80, 89 

27, 80, 89 

80 

24, 80 

80 

80, 89 

8i, 89 

82 

1, 89, 103 

80 

'59 
"3 

125 
127 

132- 
132 
117 

131 

128 

128 

129 

27, 62 

64 



Adverbs : 

Place or Position 

Affixes of* Relation (place) 

Pronominal 

Table 1 1 . ' . 



. . . . 46 

70 
28, 31, 34, 51. (77), 90, 102 

166 



Simple: 'Nga' (as affix) 
,, 'Nga' bwe 

Relative : Lwe, bwe 

Wa, e, gye . 

Manner (' butuzi,' etc.) 
Adverbial Idioms (time) 

Interrogative : When ? di ? . 
What? ki? . 
Where? wa? (luwa?) 



91 (as prefix) 



92 
94 

95 
96 

107 
119 



144 

16, 18, 45, 143 

. 18, si 



Prepositions : 

'Ku,' 'mu' 

' Vamu,' 'gyako,' etc. 

' E ' — location .... 

Vide Prepositional Form of Verbs 



24, 46, 70 

71, I50 

97 

125 



viii CONTENTS 

Conjunctions. Vide Relative Adverbs. 

PAGE 

Interjections. Table 12 167 

Syntax and Analysis. 

Idioms 133, 149 

Emphasis ............ 145 

Special Uses of Verbs 153 

Transliteration ........... 167 

Special Words 168 

Synonymous and Slang Words . . . . • . . 169 

Word Analysis ...... .... 170 

Formation of Derived Roots ........ 172 

Accent . . 174 

Vocabulary. 

Use of Vocabulary .......... 175 

luganda- English Vocabulary 178 

Englisb-Luganda Vocabulary ........ 215 

Key to Exercises 238 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



SECTION I 

METHOD OF LEARNING 

In learning a new language there are three chief processes : — 

i. Learning to hear the sounds which the natives make in speaking. 

ii. Imitating those sounds. : 

iii. Associating objects and ideas with these sounds. 

The first of these processes is by far the most difficult and most 
important — important because indispensable to the other two. It is 
also the most difficult ; and yet nearly every beginner fancies that he 
can hear and distinguish native sounds. After a few years of half- 
wasted labour, if he is wise, he may discover his mistake, but only to 
know that it is then too late to correct the fatal habits of mispronuncia- 
tion which he has laboriously acquired. To parody a well-known saying, 
then, the first thing in learning a language is to listen, and the second 
is to listen, and the third is to listen ; but the listening must be 
intelligent, painstaking, accurate : its value to be reckoned by quality, 
not quantity. » 

Then comes occasional and most cautious imitation, wherein the 
slightest mistake is dreaded and guarded against by constant recurrence 
to the native source. A mistake once made becomes a habit, and 
then it is in most cases too late. Remember that the question is not 
whether you will learn the language slowly or quickly, but whether you 
will ever really learn it at all ; it is only a small proportion of learners 
who do so : will you be one of them ? 

Then comes association of objects (in the first instance, by pre- 
ference, concrete objects) with sounds ; not — mark the distinction — 
with English words ; nor must written symbols take the place of sounds. 
To give an instance ; wrong method — you take a vocabulary and look 
in it for the word 'tree'; you find 'Tree, Omuti,' and you impress 
these symbols on your mind ; right method — you see a tree, and by 
signs or otherwise inquire the native name from a native ; the sound 
you hear associates itself directly with the object you see, just in the 
way a child learns ; and when you see a tree in future, the object will 



IO ELEMENTS OE LUGANDA 

recall the sound, and vice versa. So with the phrase, so with abstract 
ideas. 

What good is a Grammar, then? None at all, alas, must be the 
answer, in the case of those who use it otherwise than as an adjunct 
to the above method, to check and correct and suggest and explain. 
If so used, invaluable; if otherwise, fatal. 

This then is an attempt to help those who desire to put these 
principles in practice in learning Luganda. Should the question be 
asked, 'What should I do before I arrive in the country to learn the 
language by these methods.' Our answer to this question would be 
' Study Phonetics ' ; and for this purpose a Primer of Phonetics, by 
Henry Sweet, Clarendon Press, 1890, is strongly recommended. 

Lesson I. The Vowels. 

Unfortunately the characters used for Luganda are the same as in 
English, although hardly any of them represent in Luganda the same 
sound precisely as in English : the resemblance is close enough to 
mislead the careless or untrained listener ; but the differences are 
sufficient to turn what might be Luganda into unintelligible gibberish : 
e. g. the sound of ' o ' in Luganda is a sound absolutely unknown in 
English; if the word ' Katonda ' is pronounced with any English vowel 
in its second syllable, no Muganda who has not had much intercourse 
with Europeans will recognize the word in the least ; and a sentence 
made up in a similar way will only elicit the reply, ' I don't know 
English.' 

The learner is earnestly entreated therefore not to skip these first 
six lessons, as being too dull or too elementary, even though he wish 
to learn by another method. The exercises in it are the most important 
in the whole book for a true mastering of the language ; and should be 
practised with a native at the learner's side; and when that is done, 
future exercise work should be carefully pronounced many times in the 
same way. 

In Luganda there are five, and only five, vowel sounds, represented 
by a, e, i, o, u. These sounds may be pronounced rapidly, in which 
case they are simply written as' above ; or they may be prolonged, in 
which case they are distinguished by a long mark above them, thus, 
a, e, i, 6, u : that is, any vowel may be either short or long, while the 
sound remains the same. These five symbols represent five, and only 
five, sounds ; in other words, a, e, i, o, u, always represent the same 
sounds respectively. This point is reiterated, because it is very im- 
portant; in English, of course, each of these symbols represents several 
sounds, according to the letters that are near them ; and these associa- 
tions are most misleading to English learners : for instance, the 
temptation is great to pronounce the ' a ' in such a word as ' banda ' 
like the totally different sound of 'a' in 'ban' or 'man'; or the 'o' 
in 'bonda' like the ' o ' in 'bond.' 

The following then are the vowel sounds : — 

a, long, as 'a' in 'balm,' slowly pronounced, 
a, short, as ' a ' in ' father ' said very quickly. 



VOWELS 1 1 

Where a French or German word gives the sound better than the 
English, the word is put in brackets; and the vowel-sound indicated is 
underlined. 

e, long, as ' a ' in ' care ' said slowly ; or the ' ay ' in • say. 

(Ger. 'see.') 
e, short, as 'e' in 'berry'; or the 'e' in 'penny' said quickly. 

French ■*&') 

i, long, nearly as 'ea' in 'sea,' very slowly and much prolonged 

and somewhat sharpened. (Ger. 'b/ene.') 
i, short, nearly as the first ' i ' in ' spirit ' : or the ' i ' in the word 

'pity.' (French 'fin/.') 

6, long, a medium sound between the ' ow ' in ' low,' and the 

' aw ' in ' law.' 
o, short, nearly as the first 'o' in 'goloshes.' 

u, long, as ' oo ' in ' stoop ' or ' cool ' said slowly, 
u, short, as ' oo ' in foot said very lightly. 

E"ircise. — a, long ; balm (slowly) : ba, ba, ba, ba nda, la nda. 
In the above the first syllables of ' banda ' or ' landa ' must not sound like 
the English words # • band ' or ' land.' They are therefore divided by syllables. 

a, short ; father (rapidly) : fa, fa, fa, pa, pa, pa, pa nda, pa nga, pa mba. 
ba ba : Aba ga nda ; ta za la: ba lwa la ; a ba ta ma nya ; ka ba ka ; 

ga mba. 
e, long : say : se, se, se ; care (slowly) ke, ke, ke ; te, te, te, te ra te ka, 

te sa. 
e, short : berry : be, be, be : penny : pe, pe, pe : se, se, se, se ka, se 

sa, se na, se ra. 
te ge nde ; nje re re ; te nde te re ; le ka ; le ta ; ba le se ; ba le se ; ba 

le se ; ba le se. 
i, long ; sea : (prolonged and sharpened) : si, si, si, bi, bi, bi, li, li, 

li sa, li ra, li ka, ti sa. 
i, short; pity: pi, pi, pi, ni, ni, ni, li, li, li, li nda, li mba, si nda, 

zi nda. 
ki, ki ; nyi ni, mwi ni ; i ga, imi ri ra ; a ba ka zi, ba ngi, nyi ni. 
5, long; (between 'low' and 'law'): 15, 15, 16, ko, ko, k5, bo, bo, 

b5, To ta, ko la, bo, la. 
o, short ; goloshes, go, go, go, lo, lo, lo, ko, ko. ko, lo nda, to nda, 

go nda, lo ka, ko la, so mba. 
t5 la ; e ki ko lo ; 15 pa ; ko la ; ng5 li na ; mpo la. 
u, long ; cool (slowly) : ku, kii, ku, su, su, sj, tu, tu, tit, ku ta, kit ma, 

tu ka, su ka, zu ka. 
o mu ntu o mu lu ngi ; omu ko no gu gu no ; su la ; su la ; su bi ra ; 

tu ku la ; ba gu bu gu ; wu mbu lu la. 
u, short ; foot (lightly) : fu, fit, fu, pu, pu, pu, lu, hi, lu, lu ka, du ka, 

lu nda, su nda, lu.nga. 
ma la, ba la, ba la, sa la, sa la, se ra, se ra, se sa, se sa, ma la, 
si ka, si ka, bi ka, bi ka, ko la, ko la, k5 ta, ko ta, \)\\ sa, bu sa, 
ku la, ku la, landa, bo nda, po nde, lu mo nde, 'la nga, sa nga, 
so nga, to nga, wo nga. 

Once more, beware lest you so pronounce any of these last nine words 
that the first four letters rhyme with such English words as 'sand,' 'pond, 
'rang,' or 'song.' 



12 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Lesson II. Nasalization. 



Every sound may be modified by nasalization : that is, it may be 
pronounced with the nose-passage open, as in ordinary breathing, so 
that air passes through the nose. So the statement that the five vowel 
symbols represent only five sounds needs a certain qualification ; these 
symbols may under certain circumstances represent the ordinary sounds 
pronounced with the nose-passage open. 

Nasal vowels are very common in French; e.g. -'sang,' 'vin,' ' un,' 
'son,' etc. But none of the three vowels which are common to French 
and Luganda are ever, as it happens, nasalized in French. So we 
must work from analogy. 

In the following exercise ' n ' is not an ordinary ' n,' and is therefore 
marked as in Spanish n ; it means that the preceding vowel is nasal. 
In printed books this n is not marked. 

Before t f and 'v' — which in Luganda sound like 'fw' and 'vw' 
respectively — this sound is more like ' m ' ; in fact it bears the same 
relation to ' m ' as ' n ' does to ' n.' For this reason it is much easier for 
foreigners to read if written as ' rh,' or in printed books simply as ' m.' 

Exercise — 

a a aft aA aft aft baft baft baft baflsi baflsi taflfa tarftfa bamva 

e e eft efl eft eft beft beft beft beftsi befisi teftfa temfa temva 

i i ift ifl ift ift sift sift sift siftsi siftst siftfa simfa simva 

o o oft oft oft oft bofl bofl boft kofize kofize 

u u uft un uft uft muft mail muft muftsi muftsi mumveko 

N.B. — Every vowel always has its full force in Luganda, never degener- 
ating into such a colourless vowel as the 'o' or ' er' in 'together.' 

Lesson III. Consonants. 

There are twenty-one consonantal sounds in Luganda, represented 
by nineteen symbols (regarding ng' as a separate symbol). The two 
sounds unrepresented by symbols are : — 

ny A nasal j, the French gn ; as in Boulogne. 
m The glottal stop nasalized. This is the sound into which 
' n' is modified before 'f and 'v' when no vowel precedes. 

Besides these inaccuracies in Luganda spelling, with the misuse of 
'n' mentioned in the previous lesson, there is one other : — 

n before 'g' represents ng', if the next following syllable begins 

with ' n ' or ' m.' 
Of course ng' itself is a bad symbol. 

Eleven consonant sounds may be regarded as identical with the 
corresponding English sounds ; these are : — 

K gi *> d» y. s > z > P» b, n when not nasalized, and m when 
not representing a nasalized sound before 'for 'v.' 

The letters, therefore, requiring special notice and practice 
are:— w, ng', c, j, ny, 1, r, f, v. 

ng' is a nasal 'g,' the same as ' ng ' in ' singer,' pronounced with 



CONSONANTS 13 

the nose held. It only seems to be difficult in African 
languages because it is often initial. 

c corresponds to the English 'ch.' ' Ch ' in English is forrrfed 
with the point of the tongue; but 'c' in Luganda is formed 
with the blade of the tongue ; the tongue is not turned up in 
the least but instead a little down, in very nearly the same 
position as in forming the letter 'y'; in fact 'c' may be 
described as a slightly lisped 'ch.' 

j is the voice-consonant corresponding to 'c'; that is, it is a 'j' 
formed with the blade of the tongue. 

w differs from the English ' w,' being much softer. No native 
can ever pronounce initial 'w' in English names. It is always 
followed by a vowel, so that with the vowel it is nearly like 
ua, ue, ui, uo, uu, pronounced quickly. In some cases it is 
so faint as to be scarcely audible. 

ny is the nasal consonant corresponding to 'j'; i.e. it is the 
Luganda 'j' nasalized; and corresponds to the French 'gn' 
in 'agneau' or 'Boulogne.' 

1 and r are not distinguished by natives ; but to English ears 
'r' seems to occur after 'e' and 'i.' The difference in 
English" between these two sounds is that in pronouncing 'r' 
air passes above the tongue, in pronouncing ' 1 ' only at the 
sides. This slight difference is frequently disregarded in 
Bantu languages. 

f and v are pronounced with the lips slightly pouted, so that the 
upper lip comes into play, not the lower lip and teeth only, 
as in English ; the result is a sound approximating to ' fw ' 
and ' vw ' as the case may be. 

Obs. In the case of 'c,' ' j ' and ' ny,' the sound is made in iden- 
tically the same way, as regards the tongue and the front of the mouth. 

Exercise. — Hold the nose and say — Singer, inger, ing'a, ing'a, ng'a, 
n g' a > n g' e > n g'i, ng'o, ng'u ng'a nda, ng'a mba. 

Then try to make these sounds without holding the nose ; imitating a 
native, or the hornbill whose cry is — ng'a ng'a ng'a. 

Pronounce ' chant ' with a slight lisp, or in other words, with the point of 
the tongue touching upon the teeth, the blade, that is, the part just behind 
the point, pressing against the front of the palate, and so get the Luganda 
sound 

ca ca ca ce ce ce ci ci ci co co co cu cu cu. 
Form a 'j' similarly and practise — 

ju jaja jangu je jeje jo joga ju juju. 
Form an ' ny ' similarly and practise — 

nya nye nyi nyo nyu ; nyu mba, nya nja, nyi ngo, nyo mbo, 
nyo ndo, nyi mba. 
Pronounce f and v with the lips slightly pouted so as to make a sound 
like fw and vw, and practise — 

fa fe fi fo fu; va ve vi vo vu. 
Pronounce 'mfa,' making it as nearly one syllable as possible; then 
pronounce it without letting the lips come together so as to form a distinct 
' m,' and so get the Luganda sounds — 

mfa mfe mfi mfo mfu; mva mve mvi mvo mvu; mfu mba, 
mvu de, mfi sa. 



14 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Final ' u ' after ' m ' is often pronounced as a vocalized ' m ' : say omu 
without separating the lips in the last syllable, yet making two distinct 
syllables : — 

omu wamu kamu kakamu gyamu. 

Lesson IV. Combinations of Consonants. 

Four of the Luganda consonants might be called semi-vowels, because 
they can combine with consonants to form single sounds ; they are m, 
n, w, and y; m and n are used initially; whilst w and y are used 
medially. 

(a) w and y medial. Pronounce as monosyllables : — 
kwa gwa twa dwa mwa nwa cwa jwa lwa rwa swa zwa pwa bwa 
kya gya tya dya mya nya cya (jya)lya rya sya zya pya bya 
ng'wa nywa 
ng'ya 

Practise all the above with all other vowels. 

Should ng'wa and nywa present any difficulty, first pronounce ng'uwa 
and nyuwa, and then contract. 

(6) m and n initial. Pronounce as monosyllables : — 

nka nga nta nda nca nja nsa nza mpa mba mfa mva 
Practise all the above with the remaining vowels, e, i, o, and u. 

(c) Double combinations, containing m or n initially, as well as w or 
y medial, though preceded by some other consonant. Pronounce as 
monosyllables : — 

nkwa ngwa ntwa ndwa ncwa njwa nswa mpwa mbwa nkya ngya 
nkya ngya ntya ndya ncya (njya) nsya mpya mbya 

Practise all the above with the remaining vowels, e, i, o, and u. 

N.B. — Should any one of the above sounds prove difficult, continue 
to practise it until you can produce it with perfect ease. 'Verify your 
pronunciation by repeated reference to a native. The reading-sheet in 
common use might prove helpful. 

Lesson V. Long Consonants. 

All the consonants, except 1, w, y, 1 and ng' may be either short or 
long. A long consonant is distinguished by an apostrophe before it ; 
thus : — 'f, 't, 'm, 'n, 'ny, 's, 'z, 'f, 'v, are lengthened by being pro- 
longed and at the same time being pronounced with more explosive force. 
Observe that these are fricative or continuous sounds, or nasal stops. 

k, g, t, d, c, j, p, b, being stop or momentary sounds, are 
lengthened by making an infinitesimal pause before them and also 
pronouncing them with more explosive force. 

'z as zz in ' buzzing ' pronounced slowly with a slight pause, 
thus : — buz-zing. 

1 Very rarely this consonant is lengthened : Mbu'ya (the Kago's capital), wa'ya, 
and possibly one or two others. 



'k 


as 


kc in ' took care ' 


'g 


as 


gg in 'bag game' 


't 


as 


tt in ' that time ' 


'd 


as 


dd in ' bad door ' 


'c 


as 


tch in ' at church ' 


'm 


as 


mm in ' am mad ' 



CONSONANTS: PHRASES 1 5 

pronounced very distinctly. 



and so on with the others. However, these English sounds are only 
approximate. The beginner had better defer practising these sounds 
until he has had ample opportunity of observing them on the lips of 
natives. Then he may practice the following : — 

Exercise. — ba'fe ba'sa ba'ma ba'no otya'no ba'ba e'papale 
e'ziba ba'da ba'ta so'gola ku'ka e'jiba e'jembe mu nange 
ba'nange e'zibu mutya'no mu'gulu kita'fe 

baba, ba'ba •_ taba, ta'ba ; kugula, ku'gula ; kuta, kn'ta, 'kuta ; 
kusa, ku'sa, 'kusa, kusa ; bu'sa, busa. 

N.B. — All the above are words in actual use. The accent is on the 
penultimate. 

It will be well to practise daily the last and all the preceding exercises, 
or at any rate the first three, until the sounds are perfectly learnt. 

Before passing on from these purely phonetic exercises to those which 
deal with the Grammar of the language, attention must be called to the 
importance of correct intonation and accentuation. Take careful note 
of accents and tones, especially in questions. Remember that you are 
not at libecty to raise and lower your tone at your own sweet will. If 
you attempt to make your meaning clear by such methods, you will only 
mystify and amuse, unless you frighten, your audience. Until you are 
sure of the native intonation, aim at a level tone. 

Lesson VI. Some necessary Phrases. 

In the following exercises it is rssumed that a Muganda is by your 
side, and that each word is taken from his lips, repeated by him several 
times for every single attempt that you make to pronounce it ; and further 
that the object in each case in question is, if possible, in your hands.; or 
at any rate before your eyes. Banish English from your mind as far as 
possible ; also banish symbol?, i. e. written words, as far as you can, by 
concentrating your attention on the sound and the object which it 
represents. 

A few sentences, therefore, are given to enable you to question the 
Muganda who is to teach you, and first of all must come the salutations 
in most common use. The intonation of these is difficult ; and so some 
space is devoted to making this important matter as clear as written 
directions can make it. 

A. Otya'no? How are you ? B. Aaa (or mmm). I'm all right. 

lit. No ; i.e. there's nothing wrong. 
A. M B. Otya'no? A. Aaa. B. M. 

The intonation of this series of questions and answers may be repre- 
sented musically thus : — 



i6 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



 4 i 4 4 4 



o tya no a 



a a 



m 



The relation of these notes to one another, of course, is all that 
matters ; but the keynote once struck, both questioner and answerer 
follow the lead given. After the salutation cornea series of short grunts, 
growing shorter and less loud, till they die away. These also should be 
carefully noted and practised. When there is much difference between 
the voice of the questioner and answerer, the notes used by them respect- 
ively will be separated by a whole octave. 

What is this ? Kino ki ? {The tone leaps up on the last syllable.) 

Say it again, kyogere nate. 

Repeat it several times, ki 'demu emirundi mingi. 

Speak slowly, yogera mpola. 

I don't hear, siwulide. 

I don't understand, site'ge'de. 

Come here, jangu. (The intonation is the same as the first two 
syllables of ' otya'no.') 

I have finished, 'maze. 

Let us stop now, tul^kerawo. 

Good-bye, weraba. 

Exercise. — Practise the above salutations very carefully with your teacher. 
Make use of the above expressions to ask the names of various objects, not 
trying so much to learn the names, as accustoming your ear to catcli the exact 
sounds which your teacher makes. 

As a further exercise of this nature, ask him to repeat the following proverbs 
until you can reproduce them, intonation and all, without knowing what they 
mean. 

Akwata empola atuka wala. 

Kyoto'nalya tosoka kwasama. 

Enkima esala ogwekfbira? 

Nafira ku kinene, ensanafu ku 'gere 'saja. 

Okwerinda si buti, wansanafu aita agalu'de. 

Ekita'ta Muima tekimumalako nte. 

In all that follows, it should be borne in mind that this is a method by 
which to learn from the natives themselves ; and therefore the matter is 
made as brief as possible. A few of the immediately following lessons 
explain the general rules and principles ; the remainder merely state 
facts, because it is assumed that the learner will spend several days over 
each lesson. An outline of the course of study is given : the details to 
be filled in by the learner himself, working with a native teacher. For 
example : he will find all the forms of the possessive pronoun in agree- 
ment with say the Mu — Mi class ; he gets an idea of these forms from the 
particular lesson ; and he spends several days, or perhaps a week, finding 
out from one or more native friends how they are used, and so getting 
familiar with them. 



PREFIX: ROOT: INITIAL VOWEL 1 7 

Lesson VII. The Class Prefix. 

Ekitabo kyange kino kirungi, this book of mine is good. 
Ebitabo byange bino birungi, these books of mine are good. 
Akatabo kange kano kalungi, this little book of mine is good. 
Obutabo bwange buno bulungi, these little books of mine are good 
Let us rewrite these sentences thus — 

i. e ki tabo kya nge ki no ki rungi 

2. e bi tabo bya nge bi no bi rungi 

3. a ka tabo ka. nge ka no ka lungi 

4. o bu tabo bwa nge bu no bu lungi 

It then becomes obvious that there is in these sentences a Variable 
and an Invariable part. This Invariable part is : — • 

tabo, a nge, no, rungi or lungi. (See Lesson III. for ' 1 ' and ' r.') 
The Variable part is : — 

1. eki, ki, ky (before a vowel). 

2. ebi, bi, by „ „ 

3. aka, ka, k „ „ 

4. obu, bu, bw „ 

Note the Initial Vowel in the first column, printed in small letters. 
The variable part printed in thick type is different for the singular and for 
the plural ; for ' a book ' and for ' a little book ' ; but does not vary in 
each sentence. That is, if we are talking about • books ' the variable 
part is bi throughout the whole sentence ; if we are talking about 'a 
little book ' the variable part or prefix is ka throughout the whole 
sentence. This Variable part or Prefix is therefore called the Class Prefix. 

Every substantive in Luganda (the exceptions may at present be dis- 
regarded) has such a prefix, one for the singular, and one for the plural ; 
and all substantives are divided into classes, according to their prefixes. 

The invariable part of any word is called its Root. 

The object of this and the next few lessons is to give you a complete 
practical mastery of this one class. This done, it will be a comparatively 
simple thing to add to your knowledge any other class. This one class 
thoroughly known will serve as a backbone on which to build up a sound 
knowledge of the grammar of the whole language. Everything there- 
fore depends on the command you obtain of this foundation. 

Sing. Ekitabo, book. Plur. Ebitabo, books. 

The ' e ' which precedes the ki and bi is an Initial Vowel ; it is not 
really a part of the prefix. The use of this Initial Vowel is to denote a 
pause ; therefore if we give the noun by itself it must have the Initial 
Vowel ; no native could understand the word pronounced without it. 

The pause does not occur, /'. e. the Initial Vowel is not used, with 
substantives and adjectives : — 

i. After the Negative : — 

Sirina kitabo, I have not a book. 
Si kitabo, it is not a book. 



1 8 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

ii. When the word is used as a predicate : — 

Ekitabo kirungi, the book is good. 
Kye kitabo, it is a book. 

Observe that the I.V. generally has a secondary accent, i. e. in each 
word, one, and only one, syllable bears a stronger stress than it does. 

i often becomes y before vowels, ki and bi of this class always 
become ky and by before vowels. 

Bring, leta. Go and bring, genda olete. 

Go, genda. Go and look for, genda ononye. 

Look for, nonya. Go and ask for, genda osabe. 

Ask for, saba. Show me, ndaga. 

What does- the word ' kitabo' mean ? Ekitabo kiki? Lit. What 
is ' ekitabo ' ? 

N.B. — If we say Kitabo ki ? (without the I. V.) it means Which book? 
Ekitabo kiruwa ? Where is the book ? 
Ebitabo biruwa ? Where are the books ? 

Exercise. — (a) Ekyoto, ekyunia, ekibya, ekigogo, ekitoke, ekiwago, 
ekyai, ekita, ekikajo. 

Make the plurals of these words, and find out what they mean by means of 
the above phrases. 

(b) Show me a bowl. Bring one-piece-of-plantain-fibre (sing.). Go and 
look for some-pieces-of-p'antain-fibre. /Vsk for some-bowls. Look for a 
piece-of iron (or any article of iron in one piece). Where are the pieces-of- 
iron ? Go and ask for (some) gourds. Bring a piece-of-sugar- cane. Show 
me some plantain-trees. Bring one-piece-of green-plantain-bark. Look for 
a bunchlet. 

Lesson VIII. Adjectives and this Class. 

Sing, e ki ntu e ki rungi, a good thing. 
Plur. e bi ntu e bi rungi, good things. 

Adjectives show the substantive to which they refer by taking the 
same prefix, singular or plural, as the substantive. In the above example 
' lungi ' is the root ; hence ekirungi ebirungi. 

Sing, e ki tabo e ky eru, a white book. 
Plur. e bi tabo e by eru, white books. 

The root is yeru : e ky eru is for e ki yeru : the y is dropped and 
the e is lengthened in compensation : then e ki eru becomes e ky eru. 
bi, bad nene, large warnvu, long 

mpi, short tono, small 

If you want to say such a sentence as ' The book is bad,' do not 
translate the word 'is ' : merely, ' The book bad,' missing out the I.V. of 
the adjective. 

Exercise. — Translate into Luganda, referring each sentence for approval to 
your teacher, fixing your attention on the objects named : — 

The large bowls. The bowl is large. The fireplace is small. The cala- 
bashes are tall (long). The bit-of-plantain-bark is short. Go and bring a 
good sugar-cane. Go and look for a bunchlet (of plantains). Show me the 
long pieces-of-iron. Bring the bad bowls. The sugar-canes are long. 



e ki bya 


ki no 


e ki bya 


ki no 


e ki gere 


ki ri 


e ki gere 


ki ri 


e ki ta 


e ky o 


e ki ta 


e ky o 



DEMONSTRATIVE : POSSESSIVE 1 9 



Lesson IX. Demonstratives and this Class. 

e ki kajo ki no, this sugar-cane, e bi kajo bi no, these sugar-canes, 
e ki kajo eky o, that sugar-cane, e bi kajo eby o, those sugar-canes. 
e ki kajo ki ri, that sugar-cane, e bi kajo bi ri, those sugar-canes. 

ekyo (e ki o) and ebyo (e bi o) imply that the object is fairly 

close at hand, 
kiri and biri imply that the object is at some distance. 

e ki bi, this bad bowl. 

ki bi, this bowl is bad. 

e ki nene, that large foot. 

ki nene, that foot is large, 
e ki wamvu, that (near) tall gourd, 
ki wamvu, that (near) gourd is tall. 
Observe the order of words. 

Exercise. — These large bowls. That (near) calabash is tall. Those good 
fireplaces. That piece-of-iron is long. This plantain-fibre is bad. Those 
(near) bunchlets. These pieces-of-plantain-fibre are good. That piece-of- 
green-plantain-baik is short. This book is long. Those large bunchlets. 
These bunchlets are large. These small bowls are bad. This long plantain- 
fibre is good. That (near) bowl is white. Bring those large gourds. Go 
and look for that large sugar-cane. Show me those (near) large books. Go 
and bring those small sugar-canes. 

Lesson X. Possessives and this Class. 

e ki tabo ky a kabaka, the book of the king, the king's book. 

e bi tabo by a kabaka, the king's books. 

e ki kajo kya nge, the sugar-cane of me, my sugar-cane. 

e bi kajo bya nge, my sugar-canes. 

e ki ntu kya fe, the thing of us, our thing. 

e ki ntu kya mwe, the thing of you (plural), your thing. 

e ki ntu kya bwe, the thing of them, their thing. 

Thus the Possessives of this class are : — 

e ki ntu kya nge, my thing e ki ntu kya fe, our things 

e bi ntu bya nge, my things e bi ntu bya fe, our things 

e ki ntu ky o, thy thing e ki ntu kya mwe, your thing 

e bi ntu by o, thy things e bi ntu bya mwe, your things 

e ki ntu ky e, his thing e ki ntu kya bwe, their thing 

e ki ntu by e, his things e bi ntu bya bwe, their things. 

Observe, i. The possessives of the second and third persons are 
enclitics, that is, they have no accent of their own, and so need support. 
It is therefore customary to join them to the noun with which they 
agree, and write as one word ekintukyo, ebintubye, etc. 

ii. Kyamwe, your, always refers to more than one person ; and the 
form ' kyo,' ' byo,' to one person only. They are not interchangeable. 
The unwary person might translate 'your wife' by a form in 'mwe,' 
and would mean that she was the wife of at least two people. 



20 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Ejcercise. — My bowl. His piece-of-iron. Your books. Our sugar-cane. 
Thy foot. His bunchlet. My pieces-cf-plaintain fibre. Their books. Our 
fireplace. Your gourd. Her bowls. Their piece-of-iron. Go and bring 
my book. Go and ask for his calabash. His book is good. Their books 
are bad. Show me your gourds. His fireplace is little. My bunch is large. 
His piece-of-iron is little. Look for your gourd. Ask for their pieces-of- 
iron. His things are nice. 



Lesson XI. Possessives continued. 

The I.V. is omitted in questions when the Interrogative immediately 
follows the noun. 

ki tabo ky ani ? 1 kya nge 

Whose book ? Mine 

ky ani, is for kya ani, of whom. 

bi tabo by ani ? bya fe 

Whose books ? Ours 

But when any word intervenes the I.V. is not used : — 

e ki tabo ki no ky ani ? kya nge 

Whose book is this? Mine 

e bi tabo bi no by ani ? bya fe 

Whose books are these ? Ours 

So also: — 

e ki tabo ki ki? What is the meaning of the word 
' ekitabo ' ? 

The following is a list of these possessives — 

SING. PLUR. 

Ekintu, e kya nge, mine e kya fe, ours 

e ki kyo, thine e kya mwe, yours 

e ki kye, his e kya bwe, theirs 

Ebintu, e bya nge, mine e bya fe, ours 

e bi byo, thine e bya mwe, yours 

e bi bye, his e bya bwe, theirs 

Observe that the forms for the second and third persons are redupli- 
cated. This is because they are enclitic ; vid. last lesson. 

These forms take the I.V. unless they are used as predicates or a nega- 
tive precede : — 

e. g. — Ekita ekyo si kyafe ? Is not this gourd ours ? 
And positively, This gourd is not ours, 
ekitabokye kimpi, ekyange kiwamvu, his book is short, mine 
is long. 

1 Lit. It is mine, from Ekyange, the I.V. 'e' being omitted by rule to make it 
Predicate. So all answers to questions. Ekitabo kyani ? Kya mulenzi wange. 
Whose book ? My boy's. Lit. It is of my boy. 



POSSESSIVES 21 

1 Observe. — ekitabo kyange kino, this book of mine: //'/. this my book, 
ekitabo kyabwe kin", that book of theirs. 

Exercise. — Whose sugar-cane is that ? His. Whose is that bunchlet (near) ? 
Ours. Whose pieces-of-iron are those? The king's. Whose gourds are 
these ? Thine. This book of thine. That book is not thine. That bunch 
(near) is not his. Is that sugar-cane his ? Is that iron yours ? That good 
bowl of his. Thy calabash is short ; mine is tall. His books are nice ; 
yours are bad. Our fireplaces are large ; theirs are small. My bowls are 
bad ; the king's are small ; thine are nice. That bunch of hers is large. 
That (near) thing is his. That (over there) is ours. 

-Lesson XII. Possessives continued. 

Its, their. 

kyo means 'it,' and byo means 'them,' referring to a substantive of 
the ki bi class ; thus we get — 

e kyai kya kyo, the fibre of it (e ki toke, a plantain), its fibre. 

e kyai kya byo, the fibre of them (e bi toke, plantains), their fibre. 

e byai bya kyo, its (e ki toke) pieces of fibre. 

e byai bya byo, their (e bi toke) pieces of fibre. 

When Possessive Pronouns are combined with other epithets : — 
i. The possessives take precedence of all. 

As kyo, kye, etc., must be joined to the substantive, obviously no word 
can intervene between them ; this makes it easy to remember that all the 
possessives take precedence. 

ii. Phrases made with the preposition 'of (ekya kabaka) generally 
come last of all. 

N.B. — When anything intervenes between the substantive and this posses- 
sive phrase, the I.V. appears in the preposition ; that is, the possessive 
phrase stands in pause, not intimately connected with what has gone before. 

e. g. — ekintukyo ekirungi, thy good thing. 

ebintu byange ebirungi, my good bowls, 
ebintu byange bino ebirungi, these good bowls of mine, 
ebintu byange bino birungi, these bowls of mine are good, 
ekibya kino ekirungi ekya kabaka, this good bowl of the king's, 
ekibya kino ekirungi kya kabaka. this good bowl is the king's, 
ekibya kino ekya kabaka kirungi, this bowl of the king's is good, 
ekibya kya kabaka kirungi, the king's bowl is good. 

Exercise. — That good bowl of mine. That sugar-cane of his is long. This 
long sugar-cane is his. These tall plantains are the king's. Those (near) 
plantains of the king's are tall. Those bad gourds of yours are large. That 
short sugar-cane is thine. Those white books are his. This plantain is 
mine. Its fibre is good. These plantains are the king's ; their fibre (plur. ) 
is his. These plantains of hers ; their bunches ; their green-bark ; their fibre 
(plur.). That gourd is small. Mine is large. 

1 Emphatically ekitabo kino (kiri) ekyafe either, Is this (that) book mine 
and no one's else ? or (positively), This (that) book is mine and no one's else. 
Similarly ' ekitabo kiri ekyabwe,' etc. Cf. note on previous page. 



22 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Lesson XIII. The Numerals. 

The numerals from one to five are adjectives ; all other numerals are 
grammatically substantives, though they seem to be used as adjectives 
as well. This lesson deals only with the adjectival numerals. 

-mu 1 one -na four 

-biri two -tano, five 

-satu three 

These numerals show their agreement with substantives in the same 
way as other adjectives would do, except for the I.V. 

ekintu ekimu the one thing ebintu ebina the four things 

ebintu ebibiri the two things ebintu ebitano the five things 
ebintu ebisatu the three things 

There is also a plural form of '- mu,' ebimu, meaning ' some '; cf. our 
expression ' ones.' 

The I.V. is much less often used with these numerals than with other 
adjectives. Never insert the I.V. with numeral adjectives,- unless the 
numeral is used definitely, i.e. corresponding to the English definite 
article with the numeral ; and not even so, if the numeral is used pre- 
dicatively or after a negative. 

This rule is really a particular case of the omission of the I.V. in 
predicates : e. g. Nina ebitabo bisatu, I have three books. 

bisatu is really part of the predicate — I have books, and they are 
three. 

But, Nina ebitabo ebisatu, I have the three books. 

In the first case, the word Bisatu adds a fresh fact ; in the second it 
is merely a defining epithet. To put it another way, in the one case it is 
emphatic, being the point of the sentence ; in the other it is subsidiary. 

This point is dwelt upon because throughout the language the inser- 
tion or omission of the I.V. is governed by the same principle ; the case 
of the numerals is the easiest for the English learner to begin upon. 

The position of numerals is the same as that of adjectives ; if both 
adjective and numeral are applied to the same substantive, the numeral 
generally precedes, but the opposite order may also be used. 

Ebibya byange bino ebibiri ebirungi. 
or, Ebibya byange bino ebirungi ebibiri. 
These two good bowls of mine. 

leta ebitabo bisatu, bring three books, 
leta ebitabo ebisatu, bring the three books. 

Exercise. — Three pieces of plantain-fibre. One plantain-tree. Four gourds. 
Two pieces-of-iron. These three things are his. These four bowls of his. 
Those two large calabashes of theirs. Those (near) five sugar-canes of thine. 
This large plantain is mine. The two books of the king are large. Bring 

1 Pronounced ' mo ' when used by itself. 



numerals: supplementary: verb 23 

one bunchlet. The five bowls are small. My three fireplaces are good. 
Go and bring the three sugar-canes. Go and look for two pieces of-iron. 
Show me the four short pieces-of-plantain-bark. Bring those (near) long 
sugar-canes of thine. The five tall plantains are the king's. Your two 
calabashes are short. The two long-pieces-of-iron are ours. This foot of 
mine is large. Those three bowls are bad. 

Lesson XIV. Supplementary. 

To translate ' is ' or ' are ' with numerals, kiri and biri must be used ; 

e.g. Ekitabo kiri kimu, the book is one, i. e. there is only one book. 
Ebibya biri bisatu, there are only three bowls. 

Very, or very much, Nyo. 

And, . . . Na. The ' a ' is always dropped before a vowel, 

especially the initial vowel. This word can 
only be used to connect substantives and sub- 
stantival expressions. 

Both, . . . Byombi ; (stronger) byombiriri. 

All three, . . Byonsatule. 

N.B.— 'And,' connecting adjectives and verbs, is sometimes omitted; some- 
times ' era ' is used. When the verb can be used in the narrative tense, the 
'and ' is supplied by the 'ne' of that tense. 

The adverb ' nyo ' takes its meaning trom the context : e. g. yogera, 
speak; yogera nyo, speak loud ; tambula, walk ; tambula nyo, walk fast. 

N.B. — Be careful to pronounce ny in nyo correctly. The least ' i' sound 
between the ' n ' and the ' y ' makes the word into an expression of abuse. 

Exercise. — The plantains are three. The large sugar-canes are five. This 
bowl is very large. Those sugar-canes are very short. Go and bring the 
bowls and the calabashes. Go and look for plantain-bark and fibre. Show 
me all three bowls. The plantains and the sugar-canes are both very good. 
Bring the two pieces-of-iron, both are very long. Bring all three books. 
Those (near) fireplaces are very small. These five white things are very tall. 
This large fireplace is very nice. Those five sugar-canes are long. 

Lesson XV. The Verb and this Class. 

When a substantive of this class is the subject of a verb, this relation 
is shown by prefixing ki or bi to the verb : ki for the singular, and bi 
for the plural. 

If the verb-root begin with ' y ' the ' i ' of ki or bi drops out before 
it ; with a reflexive verb ki and bi become ky and by respectively, 
-kula, grow to maturity. 

ekitoke kikula, the plantain is growing up. 
ebitoke bikula, the plantains are growing up. 

-yokya, be hot. 

ekyuma kyokya, the iron is hot. 

ebyuma byokya, the pieces of iron are hot. 

-ebaka, sleep. 

ekikere kyebase, the frog is asleep. 

ebikere byebase, the frogs are asleep. 

N.B. — ebase is the Present Perfect of '-ebaka,' and means 'has gone to 
sleep and still is asleep.' 



24 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

These prefixes are called the Subjective Prefixes. 
The tense thus formed is called the Present Indefinite. It denotes 
what is going on continuously. 

In, inside, Mu. 
On, upon, Ku. 
The I.V. is dropped after these two words. 

mu kibya, in the bowl : ku kitoke, on the plantain. 

In Lesson VIII. you were warned not to translate 'is' or 'are' when 
an adjective or substantive, or substantival expression followed ; how- 
ever, when an adverb or adverbial expression follows, these words must 
be translated by kiri or biri for this class. An adverbial expression is 
one that answers to one of the questions, How ? Why ? Where ? or 
When? 

Exercise. — Those two frogs jump far [buka nyo]. The king's plantains 
are growing. All three pieces-of-iron are in my bowl. Both books are on 
your bunchlet. • The king's animal [ekisolo] moves quickly, mine moves 
slowly. The bunchlets are among the pieces-of-plantain bark. Five very 
large sugar-canes are on your animal. Show me the bundnets, they are on 
the tall plantain. Go and bring the little books They are in the white 
bowl. Plantains and sugar-canes grow. Animals walk and also grow. 

Lesson XVI. The Verb continued. 

To translate 'is not,' 'are not,' with adjectives or substantives as the 
predicate, use the single word ' si,' ' not' e.g. : — 

ebita bino si biwamvu, these gourds are not tall. 

ekibya kino si kyeru, this bowl is not white. 
To make a verb negative, prefix ' te ' to the verb. e.g. : — 

ebitabo biri tebiri wano, those books are not here. 

ebisolo bino tebitambula nyo, these animals do not travel fast. 

There are two future forms in Luganda : — 

(a) The Near Future, formed by inserting the prefix na after the class 
prefix : — e. g. ekisolo ki na genda, the animal will move, 
ekyuma ki na yokya, the iron will be hot. 

{b) The Far Future, formed by inserting the Prefix li after the class 
prefix : — e.g. ebisolo bi ri tambula, the animals will travel. 

The Near Future refers to what will take place in the course of the 
next twelve hours or so ; the Far Future to more distant events. 

The Negative Near Future is not given at present, as its formation is 
quite different from that of the positive tense, and is besides a little 
difficult. 

N.B. — There is no such form as tebinagenda ; there is a form tebi'nagenda, 
which means 'they have not yet gone.' 

The Negative Far Future presents no difficulty : e.g. : — 
ebisolo tebiritambula, the animals will n6t travel. 

N.B. — Europeans must be very careful in their use of the future tenses ; 
the tendency is to use one or other of these tenses to the exclusion of the 
other to express future time. Nothing is more perplexing to a Muganda 



AUXILIARY VERB 25 

than this. When you are talking of what will happen to-day and use the 
Far Future tense, it sounds as utter nonsense lo a Muganda, as to say ' I 
have gone ' instead of ' I shall go ' would sound to an Englishman. 

Exercise. — These sugar-canes are not long. These calabashes are not bad. 
This plantain does not grow much [kula bulungi]. These animals will 
walk fast to-day [lero]. The bunchlets are not on the plantain. Those 
large books are not the king's. These sugar-canes will grow large [bulungi]. 
My plantains are not growing much. The bunchlets are not among the 

Eieces-of-plaintain-bark. Those books are not in the white bowl. The 
ing's animal does not walk fast. This bowl is not very large. 



Lesson XVII. The Auxiliary Verb. 
The Infinitive of a verb is formed by prefixing ' oku ' to the verb : — 
e.g. — okugenda, to go: okuleta, to bring. 

If the Root begin with y, drop out the y and lengthen the vowel 
following, at the same time changing ' oku ' to 'okw ' ; thus : — 

yagala, love : okw agala (okwagala), to love. 
If the Root is Reflexive, change ' oku ' to ' okw ' ; thus : — 

ebaka, sleep : okwebaka, to sleep. 

The ' o ' in ' oku ' (or ' okw ') is the I. V., and the Infinitive is simply a 
form of noun. The I.V. ' o ' is therefore omitted, or put in according 
to the rules for the I.V. 

After an auxiliary verb, 1 the I.V. is generally omitted, unless the 
speech be slow and deliberate. It occurs, however, after an Auxiliary 
which is Relative — ' which he intends to . . .' 

The commonest Auxiliaries are — : 

mala, finish. soka, do first, begin. 

ja, be about. yagala, intend ; (of things) be likely. 

' When ' is translated by ' bwe ' prefixed to the Verb. 

Ekitoke bwekirikula, when the plantain shall grow up. 

Ekitoke bwekirimala okukula, when the plantain shall have grown 

up. Lit. When it shall finish to grow up. 
Kija kugenda, it is about to go. 
Bija kugenda, they are about to go. 
Kyagala kugenda, it is likely to go. 
Byagala kugenda, they are likely to go. 

Ekyo kye kirisoka kugenda, this is the one which will go first. 
Bwekisoka kugenda, when it begins to go. 

The following are some useful verbs : — 

kuba, beat. gwa, fall. njagala, I want, 

kwata, take hold of. laba, see. kigenda kugwa, it is 
sula, throw. sala, cut. going to fall. 

1 Perhaps it might be more correct to make no exception here to the rules for I.V. ; 
but to regard the two vowels as so run together as to sound as one. (Cf. note at end 
of Hymn-book.) 



26 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Exercise. — The plantain is likely to fall. The bowl is about to fall. The 
plantains are likely to fall. When the animals shall have walked. I want 
to see plantain-fibre. I want to begin here [wano]. I want to finish beating 
the iron. The iron is about to fall upon the bowl. I want to begin beating 
the iron. The bunchlet is likely to fall. When the iron begins to get hot. 



Lesson XVIII. The Personal Subject and Object. 

sing. PLUR. 

Subject. Object. Subject. Object. 

n I n me tu (tw) we tu us 

o (w) thou ku thee mu (raw) you ba you 

a (y) he mu him ba they ba them 

The forms in brackets are used before a vowel. 

The object always comes immediately before the verb, and the subject 
comes first : e.g. r. ku laba, I see you : ba ki kuba, they strike it. 
And with the Future (p. 24), 

anakiraba, he will see it — Near Future. 

balimukwata, they will catch him — Far Future. 

When an auxiliary verb is used, the Object Pronominal Prefix goes 
with the Principal Verb, not with the auxiliary, e.g. — 
maze okukikwata, I have got hold of it. 

Exercise. — (a) Put each of these subject pronouns before the various verb 
roots already given — laba,. leta, gwa, genda, kuba, sala, kwata, sula, etc. 

Test these forms by your teacher : they mean — I see, thou seest, he sees, etc. 

{b) Next put the Object pronoun in, making sentences thus : I see him, we 
strike you, etc. 

(c) The Object for the ki class is ki for the singular It : and bi for the 
plural Them. 

I see it. They see them. He strikes it. We shall see him. They will 
see us. We shall throw it (away). You will take hold of it. Thou seest 
them. I will bring them. You shall see us. He will bring me. You shall 
cut it. I want to take hold of it. 

(d) The Negative is formed by putting ' te ' before the Subjective Prefix : 
the first pers. sing, is, however, always ' si ' : e . g. sigenda. 

I am not falling. You do not take hold. He does not see. lie does not 
see it. He does not see them. They do not see him. We do not take hold 
of it. They are not going to come. He is not about to go. He does not 
intend to beat it. I am not going to throw them away. You are not cutting 
it. I am not hitting you. He is not taking hold of you. 



Lesson XIX. The Relative. 

Subject. — We have already seen that 'kikula' means 'it grows up.' 
If we put the I.V^ before this we make it Relative ; i. e. 

e kikula (with I.V. 'e'), which grows up. 
Similarly, 

e bikula (with I.V. ' e '), which grow up. 
Hence, eki toke ekikula, the plantain-tree which grows up. 

ebi toke ebikula, the plantain-trees which grow up. 






RELATIVE : FAR PAST : PRESENT PERFECT 2J 

Object. — kye means 'which ' for the singular. 
bye means ' which ' for the plural, 
e ki tabo kye tulaba, the book which we see. 
e bi tabo bye tulaba, the books which we see. 
If a vowel come after the ' e ' of kye or bye, the ' e ' is dropped, 
e ki tabo ky alaba, the book which he sees, 
e bi tabo by alaba, the books which he sees. 

Exercise. — The' sugar-canes which will grow up. The iron which we 
strike. That bunchlet which they see is in the bowl. The three books 
which we will bring (socm). Bring the books which they are going to throw 
away. Take hold of the books which are likely to fall. The plantain- 
fibre which comes [ra] off [ku] the plantain. The gourd which is likely to 
fall. This is the bunchlet which is likely to rot [vunda]. Where are the 
plantain-trees which they are about to cut? Show me the pieces-of-iron 
which he wants to take [twala]. I have not the book which he asks-for. 
The book which is about to fall. The plantain which is about to fall. 
Those two books which they are going to bring are white. 

N. B. — The Negative with the Relative is treated later. 



Lesson XX. The Verb continued. 

The Far-past Tense of the verb is formed by putting the vowel ' a ' 
between the Subjective Prefix and the Root ; e.g. laba, see, makes : — 



SING. 

N a laba, I saw. 
W a laba, thou sawest. 
Y a laba, he saw. 
Ky a laba, it saw. 



PLUR. 

Tw a laba, we saw. 

Mw a laba, ye saw. 

Ba laba (for ba a laba), they saw. 

By a laba, they saw (i.e. 'things' saw). 



Exercise. — (a) Make this tense for all verbs yet given, and correct by your 
teacher. 

A Present Perfect Tense is formed by modifying the stem and adding 
the Subjective Prefix. It means ' he has seen and still is seeing,' etc. 

The following are the modified forms of all the simple verb-stems yet 
given : — 



STEM. 


MODIFIED FORM. 


STEM 


MODIFIED FORM 


Leta. 


bring ; 


lese. 


Kuba, 


beat ; kubye. 


'Ja, 


come; 


dze. 


Saba, 


ask-for ;, sabye. 


Genda, 


go; 


genze. 


Sala, 


cut ; saze. 


Gwa, 


fall; 


gude. 


Sula, 


throw ; sude. 


Kula, 


grow up ; 


kuze. 


Twala, 


take ; tute. 


Kwata, 


take hold ; 


kute. 


Va, 


go out ; vude. 


Mala, 


finish ; 


maze. 


Vunda, 


rot ; vunze. 


Nonya, 


look for ; 


nonyedza. 







Exercise.— (b) Add the Subjective Prefixes, so as to make the forms for 
' we have gone ' ; ' they have come,' etc. ; and correct by your teacher. 

These are made Negative by putting ' te ' before each form : e. g. 
tebalaba, they did not see, tetulabye, we have not seen. 



28 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Except the first person singular, which is 'si': e.g. 'salaba,' I did 

not see. 

Exercise. — (c) Make all these negative forms with your teacher. 

Exercise. — (d) The bowl has fallen. The frogs have gone. The plan- 
tains have grown up. We have asked for a book. The plantains which I 
saw. The iron which fell down. The pieces-of-plantain-fibre have rotted. 
Those two nice bunchlets which we saw. They have taken the nice book 
which he bought. Where are the pieces-of-plantain-fibre which they thr°w 
away ? Where is the book which he wanted to ask for ? The frogs have 
not gone. We did not see the book. They have not taken the bowl. I 
have not thrown away the book. The plantains have not fallen. The 
plantains did not fall. I have not taken hold of the bowl. We have not 
asked for a book. The pieces-of-plantain-fibre have not rotted. They did 
not take the bunchlets. He did not strike the iron. The iron, he has not 
struck it. The bunchlets, he has not taken them. 

Lesson XXI. Miscellaneous. 

e bi ntu bi meka ? How many things ? 

e bi ntu bi ri bi meka ? How many things are there ? 

The answer to these questions is Predicative, /'. <?. it takes no I.V. : 
e. g. :— 

ebintu bimeka ? Kumi. 
How many things ? Ten. 
(not Ekumi :) lit. they are ten. 

Or if the more definite construction with the auxiliary is used : — 

ebintu biri bimeka ? Biri bitano. 
How many things are there? There are five. 

Where ' bitano,' without I.V., is directly according to rule. 

e ki ntu ky ona, everything. e bi ntu by ona, all things. 

e ki ntu ky oka, the thing by itself, e bi ntu by oka, the things by 

only. themselves, only, 

bwe ki ti, like this. bwe biti, like this.] referring to 

bwe ki tyo, like that. bwe bi tyo, like J- many 

that, so. things. 

ki tya ? how ? bi tya ? how ? 

ki ri ki tya ? What is it like ? 
bi ri bi tya ? What are they like ? 

Exercise. — (a) Find out from your teacher how these different forms are 
used, and get familiar with them. 

Exercise. — [b) We saw all the bowls. All the plantains which fell. 
Bring the iron only. How are the plantain-fibres ? have they rotted ? 
How many bo,wls ? How is the green plantain-stem? has it fallen? The 
plantains have' gone like this. How many pieces-of-iron are there ? Show 
me all the pieces-of-iron? All the gourds are good. What are the gourds 
like? What are the things like? How many fireplaces? There is only 
one fireplace. The fireplace is one only. All the plantains have grown (to 
perfection). 



MU — MI CLASS 29 



Lesson XXII. mu— mi Class. 

We may now take another class : namely, that which expresses (a) 
trees and other objects of variable form, as also (b) those which tend 
to produce life, e. g. o mu ti, a tree : e mi ti, trees. 

Exercise. — (a) Omutwe, omuwendo, omwini, omubiri, omusota, omugo, 
omukira, omukono, omukwano, omulimu, omulyango : (b) omuga, omwezi, 
omwaka, omuliro. 

Find out from your teacher what these words mean : make the plurals of 
them, and get thoroughly familiar with the sound of this Class Prefix, mu 
— e mi. 

Lesson XXIII. Adjective and Numeral. 

The adjective takes the same Class Prefix as the noun with which 
it agrees ; therefore we have : — 

o mu ti o mu lungi, a good tree, 
e mi ti e mi rungi, good trees. 

The agreement with the adjective numeral is: —  

omuti o gu mu, the one tree. emiti e na, four trees. 

emiti e biri, two trees. emiti e tano, five trees. 

emiti e satu, three trees. emiti e meka? how many trees ? 

There is no I.V. to the above numbers after one : the ' e ' l is not 
the I. V., but stands for gi, the Objective Prefix. 

// is. 

gu li, with numerals or numeral adjectives. 

gw e, with substantives or substantival expressions. 

They are. 

gi ri, for numerals or numeral adjectives. 

gy e, for substantives or substantival expressions. 

Exercise. — Little work. A large head. The doorway is small. A small 
doorway. The substance [omubiri] is little. Go and look for the short hoe- 
handle. Show me the large swamp. The stick is long. Bring the long 
pole [tree]. The friend is bad. Three swamps. Three large swamps. Four 
years. Two months. One tail is long. Two tails are short. Two 
large doorways. The short tails are two. The hoe-handles are four. It is 
a small head. It is a friendship. The friendship is not good. 

Lesson XXIV. (a) Subjective and Objective Prefixes. 

The Subjective Prefix is gu for the singular, and gi for the plural, 
e. g. :— 

o mu ti gu gude, the tree has fallen. 
e mi ti gi gude, the trees have fallen. 

The Objective Prefixes are the same : e. g. 

ya gu sula, he threw it away, 
ya gi sula, he threw them away. 

1 The I.V. may be' given in a peculiar lengthening of this vowel in some cases : 
e. f. ena, ebiri, with e lengthened. 



30 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Exercise. — Combine these objects and subjects with the verbs already 
given, and with the various simple tenses of them, and refer them to your 
teacher. 

(6) Demonstrative. 

The Objective Prefixes being gu for the singular, and gi for the 
plural, we get at once: — 

omuti gu no : this tree. emiti gi no : these trees, 

omuti ogw o: that (near) tree, emiti egyo: those (near) trees, 
omuti gu li : that tree emiti gi ri : those trees. 

Note that the invariable parts are the same as in Lesson IX. : viz. ' no,' 
this ; ' o ' (and I.V. prefixed), that which is near (o gu o, — o gwo and e 
gi o, — e gy o) ; ' li,' that at a distance. 

Exercise. — That head. This friendship. That (near) river. These 
years. Those sticks. Those (near) trees. This value. Those materials- 
for-work. This arm. That doorway. This handle. These tails. That 
body. Those ten trees. This large head. These little doors. This nice 
tail. That long stick. This arm is short. That (near) value is large. 
This tall tree. Those two hoe-handles are small. This work is great. 
That snake goes very quickly. Those long tails. These little snakes. 
Those two large rivers. These three short trees. Those (near) five bad 
hoe-handles. These two large doorways. 

Lesson XXV. Possessives. 

omuti gwa kabaka: the tree of the king, the king's tree, 

e mi ti gy a kabaka : the trees of the king, the king's trees. 

Therefore gwa, ofj for the singular, 
gya, of, for the plural. 

Note that these are formed from the Objective Prefixes gu and gi by 
adding the syllable ' a ' 

Hence we get : — 

o mu ti gwa nge : my tree. o mu ti gwa fe : our tree, 

e mi ti gya nge : my trees. e mi ti gya fe : our trees, 

o mu ti gw o : thy tree. o mu ti gwa mwe : your tree. 

e mi ti gy o : thy trees. e mi ti gya mvye : your trees, 

o mu ti gw e : his tree. o mu ti gwa bwe : their tree. 

e mi ti gy e : his trees. e mi ti gya bwe : their trees. 

Compare this with the Notes on Lesson X., and note how each form 
means literally ' of me,' ' of him,' etc. 

Exercise.— (a) My head. His arm. Their sticks. Thy friend. Our 

doorway. H^r hoe-handle. Thy body. His months. Your stick. His 

work. The king's friend. Our hoe-handles. Thy arm. Your arms. 

Their bodies. Your work. His stick is long. Our work is good. Go 

and bring my hoe-handle. That work of thine is bad. Your head is 

small. Their work is large. My fire. His friend. 

The forms for mine, thine, etc., are o gwange, e gyange, o gugwo, 
e gigyo, o gugwe, e gigye, etc. 

Omutwe gwani ? whose head ? ogwange, mine. 

Emiyini gyani ? whose hoe-handles ? egyafe, ours. 



MU — MI CLASS 31 

Gwo means ' it ' : Gyo means ' them ' in agreement with this class : 
hence we get : — 

omwini, omuwendo gwagwo, the hoe-handle, its price, 
emiyini, omuwendo gwagyo, the hoe-handles, their price. 

Similarly we can combine gwa kyo, gwa byo, e. g. : — 
ekyuma, omubiri gwakyo, the iron, its thickness, 

ebitoke, omubiri gwabyo, the plantain-trees, their thickness. 

And so we can get all other possible forms : — byagwo, gyakyo, etc. 

Exercise. — (l>) Investigate these forms with your teacher. 

Exercise. — (ir) Whose stick? mine. Whose is this friend ? theirs. Is that 
hoe-handle thine ? it is not mine. Your stick is short, mine is long. My 
work is difficult [zibu], yours is easy [yangu]. Whose work is this? theirs. 
Whose head is that ? his. Whose arms are those ? yours. The iron, its price. 
The snake, its body is large. The animals, their heads, their tails, their 
forelegs [omukono]. The plantain, its season [omwaka]. That stick is not 
yours. This snake is not his. That [near] hoe-handle is not hers. The 
hoe-handle, its iron (piece). The gourds, their price. 

Lesson XXVI. The Relative. 

Subject. — o mu ti o gu gwa : the tree which falls, 

e mi ti e gi gwa: the trees which fall. 

Object. — o mu ti gw na laba : the tree which I saw. 

e mi ti gye na laba : the trees which I saw. 

The gu becomes gw, and the gi becomes gy before a vowel. The ' e ' 
of the Objective Relative drops before a vowel — as we saw in Lesson 
XIX. 

N.B. — omugo gweyagenda okugunonya : the stick which he went to 
look for. 

The Relative Object with ' genda ' and the Pronominal Object with 
the Active Verb 'nonya.' 

Exercise. — The work which he did [kola]. The work which he has done. 
The stick which has fallen. The year which came to an end [gwako]. 
The arm which he struck. The hoe-handles which they will bring. The 
snake which died. The rivers which we shall cross. The fire which burns 
[yaka] brightly. The head which is visible [labika]. The price which is 
great. The heads which we have seen. The price which we have given 
[wade]. The fire which he has asked for. His body which is very clean 
[tukula nyo]. My stick which he has taken. The price which he wants to 
ask for. The fire which is going to burn. The river which flows 
[kulukuta] fast. 

Lesson XXVII. Miscellaneous. 

e mi ti e meka ? How many trees ? 

e mi ti gi ri e meka ? How many trees are there ? 
o mu ti gw oka, the tree only. e mi ti gy oka, the trees only, 
o mu ti gw ona, all the tree. e mi ti gy ona, all the trees. 

bwe gu ti, like this. bwe gi ti, like this, 

bwe gu tyo, like that. bwe gi tyo, like those. 

gu tya, how gi tya, how 

gu li gu tya, what is it like ? gi ri gi tya, what are they 

like? 



32 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Exetcise. — How many swamps? How are the hoe-handles? The frog, 
what is its head like ? An arm like this. All the month. Snakes like that. 
This year only. All the fire has fallen. The snakes went like this. All the 
snakes died [fa]. All our materials-for-work have rotted. How is the 
doorway? It is very narrow. 1 All my friends. The tail only was left. 2 
All the swamps are three only. Make the doorways like this. They made 
the doorways narrow like that All the years. 

The remainder of this section is intended only as a summary. It 
gives a few leading points which deserve special attention. Make 
exercises for yourself on the same model as those already given, and go 
through them step by step with your teacher. 



Lesson XXVIII. w and y Stems. 3 
Verbs, 
(a) Those stems which begin with y. 

In the Present and Present Perfect, the Subjunctive Mood and 
Infinitive of the verb, note that the y of the root drops out, and 
the vowel immediately following it is lengthened by compensa- 
tion, after all prefixes ending in the letter ' u.' 

e.g. twagala, we want : for tu yagala. 

The first person singular is only ' n ' if the second syllable of the 

root begins with ' n ' or ' m ' : e.g. nyongede, I have increased. 
But in other cases the forms are njagala, I want ; njeze, I have swept. 
(i>) Those stems which begin with w. 
Whenever n comes before the w, we have mp, not nw. 

Substantives (including Adiectives). 

(a) y Stems. 

i. With the Class Prefix n. 

No change if the second syllable of the stem begin with n or m : 

e.g. yengevu, ripe, — empafu enyengevu, ripe slow. 
Otherwise change n to nj and omit the y. 
e.g. yeru, white, — ente enjeru, a white cow. 
ii. With other Class Prefixes. 

Omit the y and make the necessary change in the vowel of the 
prefix : at the same time lengthen slightly the first vowel of the 
stem. 
e.g. yengevu, eryengevu (eri engevu), — yeru, obweru (obu eru). 

(b) w Stems. 

i. With the Class Prefix n, change nw to mp : e.g. wamvu, 

high, — enju empamvu, a high house. 
ii. With the Class Prefix li, change li to g : e.g. wamvu, long, — 

ejinja egwamvu, a long stone, 
hi. In other cases no change ; but avoid making the w hard. 

1 Use the verb ' funda,' to be narrow. 

2 Use the verb ' sigala,' to be left. 

3 The word ' stem is used as inclusive of the three forms given in Note on Word 
Analysis, p. 170, viz. true root, derived root and modification. 



MU — BA CLASS 33 

Lesson XXIX. The mu — ba Class. 

Find out from your teacher what the following words mean : make 
their plurals and get thoroughly familiar with this class. 

omukyala, omulenzi, omuwala, omukazi, omusaja, omuntu 
omusomi, omuwesi. 

Lesson XXX. Notes on this Class. 
The Objective Prefix is mu for the singular, and ba for the plural, 
ya mu laba, he saw him. ya ba laba, he saw them. 

The plural forms are made in the usual way from this Objective 
Prefix : — 

e.g. a ba ntu ba nge, my : ba li, those : -bo, thy : -be, his, etc. 
The singular forms present some difficulty : — 

Numeral. — omuntu omu, one man. 
Demonstrative. — omuntu ono, this man. 

omuntu oyo, that man (near), 
omuntu oli, that man. 
Possessive. — Wa, of: e.g. omulenzi wa kyejo, a boy of insolence, an 
insolent boy. 
Hence, wa nge, of me, my : -wo, thy : -we, his : wafe, our 
etc., in the usual way. 
Relative Subj. — omuntu alaba, a man who sees, alabye, who has seen. 
This, it will be seen, is the same in form as ' a man sees,' 
'a man has seen.' 

omuntu eyalaba, 1 a man who saw. 
Relative Obj. — omuntu gweyalaba, a man whom he saw. 

omuntu gwalabye, a man whom he has seen. 
Miscellaneous.— omuntu yena, every man. 

omuntu yeka, a man by himself.' 
omuntu atya ? bwati, like this : bwatyo, like that : ali, he is. 
atya is frequently used in the sense ' what did he say ' 

Lesson XXXI. The li — ma Class. 

Find out what the following words mean : make the plurals of them 
and get thoroughly familiar with the sound of this Prefix. 

eriso, erinyo, erigwa, e'fumu, e'gi, eryato, e'jinja, e'kubo, e'sanyu, 
e'subi, amadzi, amata, amafuta. 

Lesson XXXII. Notes on this Class. 

The Objective Prefixes are li for the singular. 

ga for the plural. 
e. g. ya li kwata, he caught it. 

ya ga kwata, he caught them. 

1 Some people say 'ayalaba,' which is consistent with the fact that 'a' as a 
pronoun denotes 'he.' 

C 



34 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



All the various forms are made in the usual way from these prefixes : 
li (ly) for the Singular ; ga (g) for the Plural. 
Bracketed forms before a vowel. 
e.g. li no, this ; ga li, that ; lya nge, my ; lyo, thy; lye, his. 

The agreement of the Adjective in the Singular is difficult ; for the 
adjectives already given it is : — 

eryato e'bi amato amabi 
erimpi amampi 

egwamvu amawamvu 

e'dene amanene 

e'tono amatono 

Lesson XXXIII. The n Class. 

Find out what the following words mean : make the plurals of them 
and get thoroughly familiar with the sound of this prefix :— 

Entebe, embwa, enyumba, empiso, ensuwa, enyindo, embuzi, ente, 
emere, emfufu, embadzi, empagi. 



Lesson XXXIV. Notes on this Class. 

The Objective Prefix is gi (gy) for the Singular, and 

zi (z) for the Plural. 
Bracketed forms before a vowel. 
All the plural forms are made in the usual way from zi (z). 

The Singular Forms are : — 

Numeral. — enyumba emu, one house. 
Demonstrative. — enyumba eno, this house. 

enyumba eyo, that house (near), 
enyumba eri, that house. 
Possessive. — ya, of : hence ya nge, of me, mine; yo, thy ; ye, his ; 

yafe, our, etc., regularly. 
Relative Subj. — enyumba egude, the house which has fallen, 
enyumba eyagwa, the house which fell, 
enyumba erigwa, the house which will fall. 

i. e. the forms are the same as for 'the house falls,' ' has fallen,' ' will 
fall,' except in the Far-past Tense. 

Relative Object. — enyumba gyeyalaba, the house which he saw. 

enyumba gyalabye, the house which he has seen, 
enyumba yona, all the house. enyumba zona, all the houses, 
enyumba yoka, the house only. enyumba zoka, the houses only. 



enyumba etya : zitya, 

bweti, like this, 
bwetyo, like that, 
enyumba emeka ? 
eri, it is. 



bweziti, like this (plur.), 
bwezityo, like that. 
How many houses ? 
ziri, they are. 






IMPERATIVE: COMPOUND SENTENCES 35 



Lesson XXXV. Imperative, etc. 

The simplest form or 'stem' of a verb is the 2ad pers. sing. Imper. 
The Subjunctive is formed by changing the ' a ' final of the stem in the 
present tense to ' e,' e.g. tugende, we may go (tugenda, we go) ; bakwate, 
they may take hold (bakwata, they take hold). 

The Subjunctive has various meanings, viz. tugende, we may go, 
let us go, are we to go ? may we go ? bagende, let them go, are they to 
go? 

The form mugende is always used for the plural Imperative, Go ; the 
singular, ogende, is used as the Near Imperative — oje enkya, come in 
the morning; genda olete, go and bring; commands to be executed 
not immediately but in Near Time. 

Prohibition. — Use 

(a) the negative form of the simple tense : e. g. 

togenda, do not go. 
To make this a general prohibition, add nga. 
togendanga, never go. 

(b) 'leka,' leave off: e»g. leka kulinya ku bigere byange, don't tread 

on my feet ; muleke kuzanyirawo, don't play about there. 
' that ye may not ' use ' lema,' cease : e. g. muleme kugenda, that 
ye may not go. 

Lesson XXXVI. Compound Sentences. 

Always make your sentences as simple as possible, and avoid a 
number of dependent sentences. If in English we use a number of 
sentences depending on one another, the Baganda do not, and they 
must be broken up so as to consist of simple sentences entirely : e. g. 
he went . . . and eat.. . . and slept . . . etc., or of one simple sen- 
tence and one dependent sentence : e. g. he went . . } when he had 
eaten ... he laughed 1 because the speaker was funny, etc. A sen- 
tence which exceeds the above in complexity cannot be followed by the 
ordinary native. 

nga, meaning ' thus,' can be used to supply most English con- 
junctions. Practise with your teacher such sentences as : — 

genda ngomaze okulya, go as soon as you have eaten. 

Lit. Thus, you have finished to eat. 
omwami ngakomyewo, muwa ebaruwa eno, as soon as the master 

has come back give him this letter, 
amanyi ngakoze bubi, she knows that she has done wrong. 

Nga brings a comparatively distant fact into the immediate present 
time. 

1 — 1 Even here in telling a story the Narrative Tense would be used : ' he eat . . . 
and he went'; ' the speaker was funny . . .and he laughed.' The use of the con- 
junction in this case is mostly confined to short, isolated or independent sentences. 



36 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Your teacher may also suggest or prefer other expressions, according 
to his particular way of looking at the matter. Thus : — 

Bwobanga omaze okulya (as soon as you have done eating) 
expresses that the meal has not yet begun, as well as some 
uncertainty as to when it will begin. 

Bwonoba (nga) omaze okulya, expresses much the same, but at 
a slightly more future time, say from two to eight hours hence. 

Similarly — 

Bwabanga akomyewo, if he is expected almost immediately. 
Bwanaba (nga) akomyewo, if he is expected in a few hours. 
Bwaliba akomyewo, if he is not expected until to-morrow or later. 

In Narration these become — 

yamala okulya nagenda, he went when (as soon as) he had eaten, 
or, relating what happened to-day — alide, era agenze. 

Similarly — 

Relating what happened a day or more ago, 

Omwami yakomawo ne'muwa [ni'muwa] ebaruwayo. 

I gave the master your note when (as soon as) he came back. 

Relating what happened to-day — 

Omwami akomyewo : ebaruwayo 'muwade [ngirmuwade]. 
I gave the master your note on his return. 

Obanga, if: e.g. obanga agenze, komawo, if he has gone, come 
back. 
Ngagenze would be quite intelligible, but not so idiomatic. 

Singa : (this requires the use of a tense not yet given, viz. ' ndi ' or 
' ku ' placed before the stem and after the subjective prefix, 
and meaning ' would have ' done) : singa okisude, yandikuku- 
bye, if you had thrown it away, he would have beaten you. 

Note how your teacher uses ' lwe,' for ' when ' and sometimes * bwe' : 
bwe also means ' how,' — tomanyi bwali, you don't know how he (she) is ; 
how bad, good, beautiful, etc., is supplied by the context. 

nga ye bweyakola, just as he did. 

wandika nga bwenkuigiridza, write as I have taught you. 



This simple construction, mostly with 'and' instead of the more 
elaborate conjunction, is very common in the Hebrew of the Old Testa- 
ment. A few instances only out of the many that might be quoted, are 
given. In nearly every case they could be literally translated into 
Luganda with 'and ' without using our English conjunctions. 

The rendering of the R. V. is given in the bracket : the ' and ' as it 
reads literally being put into the text. 

' And {For) he shall be as a tree . . . and {but) his leaf shall be 
green . . . and {neither shall) shall not cease. . . . ' Jer. xvii. 8. 

'And {yet) we did esteem him. . . . And {but) he was wounded. . . .' 
Isaiah liii. 4. 



CONJUNCTIONS: PRONOMINAL ADVERBS 37 

That : 

' Ye shall not profane . . . and {that) ye die not.' Numb, xviii. 32. 
' There must be an inheritance . . . and {that) a tribe be not 
blotted out.' Judges xxi. 17. 
Then : 

' When ye take . . . and {then) ye shall offer. . . .' Numb, xviii. 26. 
But : 

' The young lions do lack . . . and {but) they that ... Ps. xxxiv. 10. 
Also in the above quotations from Isaiah and Jeremiah, and very 
frequently elsewhere. 
So: 

'Depart . . . And {So) they gat them up. . . .' Numb. xvi. 27. 
When : 
' And Moses heard, and fell on his face.' 

R. V. ' and when Moses heard it, he fell. . . .' Numb. xvi. 4. 
' And thou 1 hast heard, and thou l hast forgiven.' 

R. V. ' and when thou hearest, forgive.' 1 Kings viii. 30. 
Where • 
' I sink . . . and {wfiere) there is . . . I am come . . . and {where) 
the floods overflow me.' Ps. lxix. 2. 
Let: 

1 Hide . . . and no man knows where. . . . 

R. V. ' Hide . . . and let no man know where. . . .' Jer. 
xxxvii. 19. 
Neither : 

' Fight not with the small and the great.' 

R. V. 'fight neither with small or great.' 1 Kings xxii. 31. 
And above in quotation from Jeremiah. 

l — ' In this and the following, Dr. Young's Idiomatic Use of the Hebrew Tenses is 
followed ; also in note on ' Must,' p. 141. 



SECTION II 

The subject being now treated from a slightly different point of view, 
there will be some expansion of the more elementary principles ; but it 
is hoped that the repetition will not be tedious. 

Orthography. 

Since so few of the letters used in English exactly represent the same 
found in Luganda, it is a matter of some difficulty to write Luganda 
uniformly. The following suggestions will be found useful : they are 
based upon two broad principles, viz : — 

1. Arbitrary Laws : i. e. laws which are made arbitrarily to facilitate 
the process of writing and of reading that which is written. 

II. Phonetic Laws : a term which sufficiently explains itself. 

Arbitrary Laws. 

i. The pronunciation is so far followed as to combine together the 
following words when they occur in ordinary conversation : — - 

(a) The Preposition 'of with the word following, — obulamu 

bwabantu, the life of men. 
The Preposition ' mu ' to the verb preceding, when it forms an 

integral part of the verb, — nakitulamu,and sat in it. 
Also such Prepositional forms as kulwange, on my account ; 

kubwoyo, for his sake, etc. 

(b) The Possessive pronouns -o, -e : — mwanawo, your child ; ama- 

soge, his eyes. 

(c) The Conjunctions .' ne ' (or ' ni ') and ' nga ' when followed by a 

vowel : — nomusaja and a man ; ngayogera, he speaking. 

(d) The Relative Particles — Lwe, bwe, we.gye, kwe, mwe — with the 

verbs with which they are respectively connected. These might 
perhaps be included in the verb formation. 

2. The more important parts of speech are not run together, nor are 
their vowels elided, as they would be in speaking. They are written 
grammatically, not phonetically. 

Exc. Write as one word, kuberekyo, this being so. 

3. No double consonants occur. 

38- 



ORTHOGRAPHY : VOWEL SOUNDS 39 

4. Every written vowel is, or forms, part of a syllable : thus double 
vowels do not occur to denote a strong accent. For grammatical pur- 
poses the lengthened vowel may be denoted by a horizontal bar : — 
amanyi, strength ; okukuma, to keep. 

5. An apostrophe may be use'd to denote an omitted root-letter which 
has given rise to a lengthened or explosive sound in the following con- 
sonant : — oku'ta, to kill ; oku'ba, to steal ; ye'ka, by himself. 

6. r is written after the vowels e and /': and 1 in all other cases. 
Thus Z 1 is written in preference to r as an initial consonant, even 
though it may not be the exact sound. 

Exc. All foreign words, or names which are clearer if written with 
the proper consonant. 

7. The particle 'nti' used to introduce reported speech is written by 
itself, and has no comma or other stop before or after it. The word 
immediately following ' nti ' is written with a capital letter. 

8. The stem of all verbs is the imperative form singular; and all 
other parts of the verb are formed from this according to the Phonetic 
Laws, p. 107 and ff., and Tables I, II, III. 

Exc. Reflexive Verbs. 

9. w is scarcely audible when it occurs between two similar vowels — 
lowoza, amawanga ; but it is better on analytical grounds to retain 
it. 

In the prefix 'wo' the audibility of the 'w' varies; but it is best 
retained uniformly for the same reason as in the previous case. 

10. When the name of a person or place is joined to a preceding part 
of speech, by the above arbitrary methods, then the initial letter of that 
part of speech bears the capital letter : — Nomwoyo Omutukuvu, and the 
Holy Spirit. 

Exc. Foreign names : it adds greatly to the clear understanding of a 
foreign name to write it by itself, writing any prefixes which this language 
may require separately — aba Efeso, the people of Ephesus, the 
Ephesians ; but AbeFeso is used by many writers. 

And for this reason e locative is best written apart from the name 
of the place — e Mengo, at Mengo ; e Gibea', at Gibeah ; but Emengo, 
Egibea, are also used. 

11. Phonetic Laws. These are summarized in the Appendix, Tables 
I, II, and III ; and are given in the Exercises, p. 107 and ff. 

Summary of the Vowel Sounds. 

A short. A long. 

mala, finish. mala, plaster, 

kabakaba, wise. kaba, cry. 

omuzanyo, play. omuzana, slave-girl, 

wala, far. wala, have small-pox. 

1 Certain Baganda sound an initial 1 like d in such words as lwaki- -dwaki ; and 
instances of this spelling are to be found in the earliest translations published. This 
is now uniformly written as 1. 



4 o ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

E short. E long. 

akatebe, a little stool. katebe, a bog. 

sere, grass-seeds. sera, cheat, 

ke'ta, spy. keta, pall (of food) ? 

short. O long. 
loka, sprout. loka, throb? 
kola, do. kola, weed, 
enkota, bunch of plantain. kotakota, stoop. 

1 short. I long 
bi'ka, cover. bika, lay egg. 
siba, tie. siba, spend time. 

siga, sow seed. siga, bedaub with grease, etc. 

U short. U long. 

obusa, dung. busabusa, doubt, 

ku'ta, have sufficient. kuta, rub. 

ensulo, spring. sula, throw, 

wulira, hear. wula, beat heavily. 

Intermediate sounds may often be heard ; the extremes only are 
given. See note on ' Length of Vowels,' p. 173, iii. 

Summary of Consonant Sounds. 

Eleven consonants may be regarded as identical with the correspond- 
ing English sounds, viz. k, g, t, y, s, z, p, b ; n, when not nasalized, 
and m, when not representing a nasalized sound before p, b, f, v : 
also d when not modified before a • z.' 

w may be said to have two sounds : — 

i. A voiced consonant; this is not common, and occurs mostly 

in ' w stems '^ e.g. wata, wagala, etc. 
ii. Most commonly it is a soft-breathed consonant. 

n, immediately followed by another consonant other than ' w ' or 'y,' 
is nasalized ; the effect being to make ' n ' like a semi-vowel. 
e.g. enkuba, rain; ensi, land; nsoma, I read. 

When this ' n ' is nasalized before p, b, f, or v, the sound more 
resembles a nasalized ' m,' and is therefore sometimes written m. 

e.g. mba, mfa, mpa, mva. 
Note the syllables mwa, mya, nwa, nya, etc. 

ny, or nasalized 'j ' like 'gn ' in Boulogne. 

ng, or nasal ' g.' 

1 and r : many Baganda declare that they make no difference. 
Many Europeans however notice that the sound is more that 
of '1' when initial, or preceded by the vowels a, 0, and u; 
and more that of 'r' when preceded by the vowels e and i. 
Further, many Baganda are capable of making a sound in- 
clining more to ' r ' than ' 1 ' in such proper names as Rebeka, 



CONSONANT SOUNDS : SYLLABLES 41 

with ' r ' initial. And this is done not on special occasions 
but constantly in everyday intercourse in some names like this 
with *r' initial, though not in all. 

f and v are sounds approximating to ' fw ' and ' vw ' respectively. 

j should be carefully noticed : e. g. bulijo, joga, janjaba. 

gy in such words as ' gyawo ' must be carefully noted. 

Lengthened or Exploded Consonants. 

These denote an omitted root-letter. 

't and 'd : e'taka 'dungi, the soil is good ; e'diba, a skin ; oku'ta, 
to kill ; oku'da, to go back. 

'b (and 'p) : oku'ba, to steal ; e'banga, space ; e'banda, bamboo. 

'k and 'g : oka ka, to come down ; e'gi, an egg ; ye'ka, by him- 
self; e'ka, at home ; oku'gulawo, to shut the door. 

'f and 'v : are not so easy to hear as the others. Note carefully 
the pronunciation of 'fe, we ; and the first ' v ' of e'vivi, a 
knee. 

's and 'z : not very marked : a'se, he has killed ; e'sasa, a 
smith's shed; e'ziga, a tear; e'zibu, hard (in agreement with 
the li ma class). 

'j (and 'c) : not easy to hear. Note e'jembe, a charm ; e'jiba, a 
dove ; e'joba, a bird's crest. 

Lastly, before z (and probably before j) there is a ' d ' sound : 
the ' d ' has not its full sound : e.g. amadzi, slightly different 
from ama'zi ; akiridza, slightly different from akiri'za. 

Probably there is a slight ' d ' sound also before the ' j ' in okuja. 
Thus ' okuja ' gives ' okwidtha ' in Lusoga and ' kwitza ' in 
Kavirondo (Mumia's), a rather plain hint that a 'd' is want- 
ing, even if only slightly sounded. 



I. Syllables. 

Each word must be carefully pronounced by syllables. The author 
has found it most helpful to consider each vowel in a word as the end 
of a syllable ; it may have one consonant before it ; in certain cases it 
may have two or even three consonants before it. In any case the 
vowel marks the best place to divide the syllable. 

This division is correct in Swahili, but not quite correct in Luganda. 
It serves however as a simple rule by which to guard against that most 
common mistake of making English syllables correspond to Luganda 
ones, or, to be more correct, to make the vowels in them correspond. 
Thus we must say Ka-to-nda, not Ka-tond-a ; ba-nda, not ban-da ; Ngo- 
gwe, not ngog-we. This is one of the commonest mistakes made by 
Europeans. 



42 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



II. Forms of Speech. 
The Noun. 
The noun is made up of three parts : — 

i. The Root or simplest possible part, which never varies. 

2. The Class Prefix, which shows what kind of thing is meant. 

3. The Initial Vowel or ' I.V.' 
Thus — mu ntu, a man. Here — 

ntu is the Root or invariable part, and has the meaning 

'existence.' 
mu is the Class Prefix, and determines what existence we mean. 
Now ' mu ' denotes 'human,' i.e. man as opposed to animal. 
Therefore ' mu ntu ' is ' human existence,' /'. e. a man. 
is the Initial Vowel, and must always be used when the word 
stands by itself. 
Again — e ki ntu, a thing. Here — 

ntu is the same root as before, meaning ' existence.' 
ki is the Class Prefix which gives the meaning of ' inanimate,' 
/'. e. neither man nor animal ; and not having any special 
characteristics of length, hardness, smallness, or the like. 
Therefore ' ki ntu ' is ' inanimate existence ' ; i. e. a thing. 
e is the Initial Vowel, which it will be noted is a different vowel 
to that in the previous case. Every Class Prefix has its own 
I. V.; but the only three vowels used for this purpose are 'a,' 
'e,' 'o.' 
Thus from the root ntu, 'existence,' we have two words — mu ntu, 
a man, and e ki ntu, a thing. We can also form from this root a-ka-ntu, 
a little thing ; and o-bu-ntu, abstract existence ; whence comes the 
expression Omuntu obuntu, a mere man. 
The following are a few specimen nouns : — 






mu 


saja, a 


man. 





mu 


lenzi, 


a 


boy. 





mu dn, a 


man-slave. 





mu 


kazi, a 


woman 





mu 


wala, 


a 


girl. 





mu zana, a 
slave. 


woman- 





mu 


somi, a 


reader. 





mu 


baka, 
senger. 


a 


mes- 





mu bnmbi, a 


potter. 


e 


ki 


bina, a 


crowd. 


e 


ki 


diba, 


a 


pool. 


e 


ki kayi, a 


potsherd. 


e 


ki 


bira, a 


forest. 


e 


ki 


gambo, 


a 


word. 


e 


ki kolo, a 


root. 


e 


ki 


bya, a 


bowl. 


e 


ki 


gere, 


a 


foot. 


e 


ki nya, a 


hole. 




The word ' 


na' means 


'ai 


id'; wl 


jen 


a vowel 


comes after 


'na' the 



vowel 'a ' is dropped, and the ' n ' is joined to that word ; e.g. : — 
o mu kazi no mu wala, a woman and a girl, 
e ki bya ne ki kayi, a bowl and a potsherd. 

Exercise. — A boy and a girl. A word and a root. A reader and a 
messenger. A word and a bowl. A man-slave and a woman-slave. A 
pool and a hole. A forest and a root. A reader and a boy. A hole and 
a bowl. A woman and a girl. A foot and a hole. A root and a girl. A bowl 
and a woman. A boy and a foot. A messenger and a crowd. A forest 
and a pool. A potter and a potsherd. A bowl and a potter. A woman- 
slave and a girl. A man and a woman. A messenger and a potter. A 
crowd and a hole. A woman and a potter. A man and a man-slave. A 
man and a forest. A bowl and a potsherd. A reader and a girl. A root 
and a hole. 






mu 





mu 


e 


ki 


e 


ki 





PLUR. 




ba 


ntu, 


men. 


ba 


kazi, 


women 


bi 


ntu, 


things. 


bi 


bira, 


forests. 



PLURAL : ADJECTIVE 43 



The Plural of these Two Classes. 

To form the plural, change mu to a ba, and e ki to e bi respectively, 
thus : — 

SING. 

ntu, a man. a 

kazi, a woman. a 

ntu, a thing. e 

bira, a forest. e 

Exercise. — (a) Make the plurals of all the above nouns. 

{/>) Men and women. Bowls and potsherds. Crowds and words. Roots 
and holes. Readers and boys. Messengers and a crowd. A potter and 
bowls. A forest and holes. Men and things. Boys and girls. A mes- 
senger and men-slaves. Feet and holes. A man and readers. Girls and 
a bowl. Women-slaves and a root. A messenger and news [words]. Foot- 
marks [feet] and a boy. Pieces of potsherd [sherds] and a woman. Readers 
and a crowd. 



III. The Adjective with the Subjunctive. 

The adjective has exactly the same form as the noun ; in fact, the 
adjective is not considered as different from the noun. It has its own 
root, and the class prefix shows what is meant. Thus the adjective 
takes precisely the same prefix as the noun, with which it agrees ; and 
this shows in all cases where the noun is understood and not given 
what sort of thing is referred to. 

The following is a list of simple Adjective Roots : — 

Bi, bad. Kalubo, hard. Nene, large. 

Bisi, raw. Kambwe, fierce. To, young. 

Funda, narrow. Kulu, fullgrown. Tono, little. 

Gazi, wide. Lamba, whole. Wamvu, tall, long. 

Genyi, foreign. Lamu, sound. Wolu, cold. 

Gomvu, soft. Lume, male. Yangu, light. 

Gumu, hard. Lungi, good. Yerere, empty. 

Gya, new. Lusi, female. Yeru, white. 

Kade, worn out. Mpi, short. Zibu, difficult. 

Kalu, dry. Nafu, weak. Zira, brave. 

The use of these adjectives should be carefully noticed ; they have 
none of them an exact English equivalent. 

bi is the opposite of lungi ; it is used loosely for ' dirty ' as opposed 
to ' clean ' (lungi), as well as for ' bad.' 

bisi means ' in its natural state ' — amadzi amabisi, cold water ; 
omuti omubisi, a green piece of wood ; enyama embisi, uncooked 
meat. 

genyi, used only of people. Omugenyi, a visitor. 

gumu denotes what is hard and yielding. Of a fence or wall, it means 
' strong ' ; of cloth and other fabrics, it means ' stout and durable.' 

kade, used of men as well as things; e.g. a man that has passed the 
vigour of life is considered as ' worn out ' ; i. e. an old man. 



44 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

kalubo denotes what is hard and unyielding ; metaphorically, of diffi- 
cult matters, ' difficult,' ' insoluble.' As a verb, ekigambo kimukalubi 
rira, he finds that a difficult problem. 

kambwe, used of animals by preference. Its application to men seems 
to be European. 

lamba, mostly of things, 'undivided"; omwaka omulamba, a whole year. 

lamu, — Omuntu omulamu, a man in full health ; ekibya ekiramu, 
a bowl without a crack in it. 

lume and lusi are used of animals ; saja and kazi are the words for 
human beings ; hence, omusaja, a man ; omukazi, a woman. 

nafu applied to human beings is a term of contempt — 'enfeebled 
creatures.' It denotes in all cases that the strength which ought to be 
there is gone. 

to denotes 'undeveloped,' whether of persons or things, 'not full- 
grown ' ; emuli nto= ' reeds not fully grown,' and which in consequence 
shrivel up when dried; e'toke e'to= ' plantain not fully matured,' and 
therefore not fit for food ; omwana muto = ' a child who is not full- 
grown,' 'young,' and therefore has not its full strength. 

kulu is the opposite to 'to,' and means 'adult.' Applied to persons 
it may mean ' head ' or ' chief man.' 

tono, little in point of size. More rarely in point of quantity — 
Amadzi matono, a small quantity of water. 

ivanivu denotes length, either upwards — tall, or downwards — deep. 
Horizontally it can only be applied to a definite object to mean ' long ' ; 
'a long interval ' is expressed by 'nene,' large — e'banga dene. 1 

wolu is applied to food. If applied to persons it means 'gentle.' 
This latter use is perhaps peculiar rather to Lusoga and other kindred 
languages, than to Luganda. 

yangu. The primary idea seems to be that of ' quickness ' ; hence 
(i.) ' light,' because soon carried ; (ii.) ' easy,' because soon done. 

yerere, ' with no adjuncts ' — omuntu omwerere, a man with no 
adjuncts, i.e. naked ; enyumba enjerere, a house with no adjuncts, i.e. the 
mere house, or an empty house ; emuli enjerere, reeds and nothing else. 
yeru, lit. ' cleared ' ; hence, weru (for wayeru), a place cleaned of all 
dirt and undergrowth ; olusozi olweru (of distant objects), a hill with a 
smooth surface, because it is clear of all trees ; ente enjeru, a cow clear 
of all colour patches, and therefore white. 2 

For a full explanation of the different forms taken by w and y stem 
adjectives (/. e. those whose stems begin with w and y), see Phonetic 
Laws. 

Exercise. — A good girl. A young boy. New words. Bad slaves. A 
large sherd. Short readers. Little feet. An old woman. Full-grown 
boys. A short root. A useless [hi] sherd. Bad men. Good potters. A 
dirty [bi] bowl. A short foot. Difficult words. A large forest. Worn-out 
things. Brave women. Empty holes. Adult readers. A large crowd. 
Little pools. Old messengers. Ar adult messenger. Dry pools. A large 
girl. An unbaked [bisi] bowl. A tall woman. Short men. A new bowl. 
Dry things. A little forest. A sound foot. Hard roots. A wide hole A 
green root. A deep hole. A hard sherd. A sound boy. 

For this agreement, see p. 1 12, iv. 2 For agreements, see Chap. XVII. p. 112, ff. 



INITIAL VOWEL 45 



IV. The Initial Vowel with Adjectives and Nouns. 
Always use the I.V. with Adjectives and Nouns, unless — 
i. A negative precedes. 
e. g. ' si,' meaning ' no* ' : — 

si mukazi, it is not a woman. 

si kigambo, it is not a word. (Used as equivalent to ' Never 

mind.') 
si kirungi, it is not good. 

N.B. — When an adjective is joined to a noun, or when two nouns are 
joined together by the prep, 'of,' both drop their I.V. after a negative ; e.g. 
si kya kutulamu, it is not for sitting in. 
sibalina kibya kirungi, they have no good bowl. 
Si is rarely if ever followed by an adjective and noun together ; either a 
noun only, or an adjective only, follows it. 

ii. They are predicative. 
e. g. ' ye ' meaning ' he ' or ' she ' : — 

ye mulenzi, he is a boy. 

ye mulungi, she is nice, 
'kye,' meaning ' it is ' — kye kibira, it is a forest. 

So with adjectives — 

Ekibya kino kirungi, this bowl is nice. 

N.B. —The adjective is generally made predicative when in agreement 
with a noun ; e.g. : — 

' Ekibya kirungi, generally is the equivalent of the English, A good bowl ; 
whereas Ekibya ekirungi may mean, The good bowl, which you know of, 
•which we are looking at, or the like. 

iii. The preposition mu, in or ku, upon precede ; e. g. : — 

mu kibya, in the bowl ; ku kikolo, upon the root, 
iv. One of the questions Which or Whose is asked, e.g. : — 

Kitabo ki ? Which book ? 

Kitabo kyani ? Whose book ? 
Provided the words for ' which ' and ' whose ' immediately follow the 
noun. If anything whatsoever comes between, the I.V. is used, e.g. : — 

Ekitabo kino kyani ? Whose book is this ? 

with I.V. (e kitabo), because kino intervenes. 

N.B.— Ekitabo kiki? means, What is meant by 'ekitabo '? 
N.B.— Form of the I.V. The I.V. is :— 

' a ' if the vowel of the Class Prefix is ' a.' 
'o' „ „ „ 'u.* 

* e ' in all other cases. 

Possession : Pronominal Copula. 
In agreement with nouns of the omuntu class : — 

SING. PLUR. 

wa, of. ba, of. 

wani (wa ani) ? Whose ? bani (ba ani) ? Whose ? 

ye, he is. be, they are. 



4 6 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



e.g. Muntu wani? Whose man. 
Ye mukazi, she is a woman. 



Bantu bani ? Whose men ? 
Be bakazi, they are women. 



In agreement with nouns of the ' ekintu ' Class : — 

SING. 

kya, of. 

kyani (kya ani) ? Whose ? 

kye, it is. 

e.g. Kintu kyani? Whose thing? 
Kye kibya, it is a bowl. 
Kya mukazi, it is the woman's. 



PLUR. 

bya, of. 

byani (bya ani) ? Whose ? 

bye, they are. 

Bintu byani ? Whose things. 
Bye bibya, they are bowls. 
Bya mukazi, they are the 
woman's. 



Mu and Ku. 
mu means ' inside ' ; but with the plural it may also mean : — 
(a) ' In the quarter of,' e.g. : — 

mu bakazi, in the women's quarter, 
mu babumfei, in the potter's quarter. 

This use is obviously confined to persons. 

{b) 'To look for,' ' to fetch ' with things ; e.g.:— 
agenze mu muli, he has gone for reeds, 
ku means ' upon ' ; but with the plural it may also mean * some 
of,' e.g.— 

ku badu, some of the slaves, 
ku bibya, some of the bowls. 

Exercise.— The readers are good. The bad readers are boys. The bowl 
is small. Which bowl? Whose girl? Whose man? Which forest? They 
are not messengers. They are not good readers. In the hole. ^ Upon the 
root. In the slaves' quarter. Some of the roots. In the men's quarter. 
The messenger is not old. The girl is not young. In the pools. What is 
this ? It is a bowl. What are these ? They are holes. They are forests. 
What is this ? it is not pretty. In the boys' compound. Some of the words. 
In the women-slaves' compound. It is a crowd in the forest. They are boys 
in the pool. It is a hole in the foot. He is the slave of the messenger. 
They are the words of the messenger. It is the potter's sherd. 

V. Place or Position. 
Place or position is indicated thus : — 

Wa, place generally. Ku, upon (place upon). 

Wano, here (this place). 

Wali, there (that place). 

Awo, there (near at hand). 

Mu, in (place inside). 

Muno, inside this. 

Muli, inside that. 

Omwo, inside that (near place). 

ebintu biri mu kinya muli : the things are in that hole. 



Kuno, upon this (place). 
Kuli, upon that (place). 
Okwo, upon that (near place). 



PLACE : KI CLASS 47 

Wa drops its ' a ' before a vowel following : — 

genda womubumbi, go to the potter's place, 
twala womukaai, take it to the woman. 

In Lesson X. sec. I. we had the words -fe, us; -mwe, you; -bwe, them: 
joining those to wa (and adding ' e ' to denote place ' at '), we have : — 
Ewafe, at our place. 
Ewamwe, at your place. 
Ewabwe, at their place. 

Similarly we get : — 

Ewange, at my place. 
Ewuwo, at thy place. 
Ewuwe, at his place. 

For * it is * and ' they are ' before mu and ku we must use : — 
kiri, it is. biri, they are. 

luwa, meaning ' where,' we get 
ekibya kiruwa ? Where is the bowl : kiri mu kinya, it is in the 
hole : kiri muli, it is inside that : kiri okwo, it is upon that 
(near). 

Similarly biri wano, they are here : biri muli, they are in that, etc. 

Exercise. — Summary of words from Section I. : — 

Nyo, very. Ndaga, show me. 

Kwata, take hold. Leta, bring. 

Genda, go. Genda olete, go and bring. 

Nonya, look for. Genda ononye, go and look for. 

Saba, ask for. Genda osabe, go and ask for. 

Soka oleke, just wait a bit. 

Exercise. — Where is the forest? it is there. Take hold of some of the 
roots. Show me the sherds ; they are in that hole. Look for the man in 
that (near) forest. It is at your place. Where is the foot ? Go and ask for 
a bowl. It is at your place, in the men's quarter. Look just there. They 
are upon that (near). Go in the forest and look for the boy. It is upon 
that root. It is at our place. Go to the little man and ask for a potsherd ; 
it is at his place. Go and bring the very young girl. In that hole Upon 
this potsherd. Upon that (near) foot. Where is the bowl ? It is (over) 
there. Where is the pool ? It is in the forest. Whose words ? The boys'. 
Whose girl ? Of the reader who sleeps [asula] at our place. Whose feet ? 
Of the girls. Some of the bad boys. The bowl is in the young boys' 
quarter. Adult readers. A short boy. A large pool. A brave slave. A 
dry potsherd. Look for a soft root. Bring some of the small bowls. T hey 
are inside there. Show me the foreign women. They are over there. Go 
to the man's place and bring a sherd. Go into the forest and look for the 
girl. 

VI. The ki (or 'thing') Class. 

N.B. — In this and the following chapter, it is assumed that Section 
I., Lessons VII.— XXVII. will be referred to. 

Ekibajo, a chip. Ekibatu, palm of hand. 

Ekibamvu, a trough. Ekibo, a basket. 

Ekibegabega, the shoulder. Ekifananyi, a likeness. 

Ekibanja, a building site. Ekifo, a place. 



4 8 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Ekifuba. the chest. 
Ekifulukwa, a deserted place. 
Ekifumvu, a mound. 
Eki'go, a fort. 
Ekigongo, the backbone. 
Ekiguli, a cage. 
Ekika, a clan. 
Ekikajo, sugar-cane. 
Ekikande, an over-run garden. 
Ekikere, a frog. 
Ekikonde, the fist. 
Ekikonge, a stump. 
Ekikusu, a parrot. 
Ekikuta, a peeling. 
Ekikwaso, a pin. 
Ekimuli, a flower. 
Ekirabo, a present. 
Ekirato, a sheath. 
Ekiwempe, a coarse mat. 
Ekiremba, a head-cloth. 
Ekirevu, a beard. 
Ekiro, night. 
Ekisa, kindness. 
Ekisakate, a fence. 
Ekisanikizo, a cover. 
Ekisansa, a small mat-work 
cover for cups, etc. 



Ekisasiro, rubbish. 
Ekisenge, a partition, wall. 
Ekisera, a space of time. 
Ekisikirize, shade, shadow. 
Ekiswa, an ant-hill. 
Ekita, a gourd. 
Ekitabo, a book. 
Ekitanda, a bedstead. 
Ekitibwa, glory. 
Ekitogo, papyrus. 
Ekitole, a piece. 
Ekituli, an aperture. 
Ekitundu, a part. 
Ekiwawatiro, a wing. 
Ekire, a cloud. 
Ekiwero, a rag, duster. 
Ekiwomvu, a valley. 
Ekiwundu, a wound. 
Ekizikiza, darkness. 
Ekizinga, an island. 
Ekyalo, a garden. 
Ekyejo, insolence 
Ekyenyi, the forehead. 
Ekyoto, a fire-place. 
Ekyoya, a feather. 
Ekyuma, a piece of iron. 



Ekyoya — mostly Plur., ebyoya — denotes any growth, such as down, 
hair (on a goat), feathers (on a bird) which appears on the skin. 

Ekisasiro — nearly always Plur., ebisasiro. The singular would only 
mean ' a single piece of rubbish ' ; just as ekyuma means ' a single piece 
of iron.' True, ekyuma may be a complex machine of many pieces, but 
the combination forms one piece, and is therefore called ' ekyuma.' 
Ebisaniko — the leaves used to cook food in — is used if the ' rubbish ' is 
of that nature. 

Ekisa and Ekitibwa are only used in the singular. 

Nouns beginning with 'ky' are 'y Stem' nouns ; i.e. they are formed 
from a root beginning with ' y ' ; e.g. yota, warm, makes ekyoto (eki yoto), 
a place to warm at. Their plurals are ebyoto, ebyuma, etc. 

(a) Adjective. 

Exercise. — The shaving is short. The building-site is good. The fence is 
bad. Where is the sound bowl ? Show me the large wound. Where is the 
good book ? Go and ask for a nice pin. Go and look for the small pictures 
(photographs). Bring a sound bowl. Bring the short part. It is not 
whole. Go and look for the young parrot. Go and ask for a building- 
site. Where is the large hole ? Where is the new fort ? Where is the 
old fence? The wall is short. The fences are new. Is the duster dirty? 
Where are the hard coarse-mats ? The palms are hard, they are not large. 
Go and ask for a clean [lungi] cover. Bring a strong [gumu] basket. 



n, 

o 
a 


meani 


n g 


'I' 

'thou' 
'he' 


tu 


>> 




'we' 


mu 
ba 






'ye' 

' they ' 



TENSES OF VERB 49 

Where are the dry mounds-? Where is a small valley? Where is a good 
place. 

(b) Demonstrative and Adjective. 

Exercise. — This fist. That (near) shadow. These wounds. These 
mounds. Show me that old stump. Go and bring that (near) basket. 
This fort is very old (out of repair). That place is very wide, this is 
narrow. Ask for those short coarse-mats. These frogs are young. Those 
baskets are empty. These valleys are very long. Take hold of this parrot. 
Go and ask for those large dusters. Where are the dusters ? They are on 
that small bed. Where are those long pins ? They are in that cover. This 
wound is large ; those are small. Show me these hard pieces of sugar-cane. 
Those are hard, these are soft. Bring those short pieces of papyrus. This 
part is worn out. These likenesses are very good ; those are not good. 
This parrot is small. These clouds are large. Go into that deserted-place 
and bring some potsherds. Go and look on that large bedstead for the 
coarse-mats. The small pins are in that small cover. Go to [mu] the 
islands and buy [gula] those bowls. 

(c) Snbject and Object Prefix. 
Brief Summary of the Verb. Laba — see. 

ndaba, means I see 

olaba „ thou seest 

alaba „ he sees 

tulaba „ we see 

mulaba „ ye see 

balaba „ they see 

The Objective Pronoun always comes immediately before the Verb- 
stem, unless it is relative. 1 

Similarly, putting ' a ' before ' laba ' we get n a laba, I saw : w a laba, 
thou sawest, etc. 

Putting ' na. ' before ' laba ' we get tu na laba, we will see (soon): a na 
laba, he will see (soon), etc. 

Putting ' li ' before 'laba' we get n di raba, I will see : o li raba, thou 
wilt see, etc. 

The following words are useful : — 

Tambula, walk. Gula, buy. Leta, bring. 

Gwa, fall. Kola, make. Sula, throw away. 

Gyawo, take away. Leka, leave. 

Exercise. — The parrot walks very much ; I have seen it. They go very 
quickly [mangu]. It is going to fall. We will build it. They took them 
away. They have gone. They threw them away. They will bring them. 
It will fall. They will fall (soon). They will take hold of them. Tliey 
left them. Frogs jump [buka]. Sugar-cane is very nice [woma]. This 
wound is very nasty [wunya]. That wall is leaning over [esulise]. This 
fence is falling over [bunduse]. The darkness is dense [kute]. The stump 
knocks people. 

(d) Numeral and Adjective. 

The first five numerals have already been given (Section I., Lesson 
XIII.). The others do not vary in their agreement. Probably the 
numbers, six, seven, eight and nine are really adjectives in agreement 

1 For Personal Object Pronoun, see p. 26, Lesson XVIII. 

D 



50 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

with the word ' omuwendo ' — number — understood, viz. the 'six' number, 
the 'seven ' number, etc. 

Omukaga, six. Omwenda, nine. 

Omusamvu, seven. Ekumi, ten. 

Omunana, eight. 

N.B. — E'kumi is a substantive of the lima Class. 
These numerals follow the same rules for the I.V. as the five first 
numerals. 

Numeral Adjectives. — /'. e. adjectives which follow the same rules as 
numerals with regard to their I.V. 

ngi, many. meka ? how many ? 

' Great ' as a quality is ' ngi ' : e.g. ekisa ekingi, great kindness. ' Nene ' 
is great only as to size. 

Exercise. — Six bowls. Ten mounds. Eight places. Six books. Nine 
covers. Seven fences. Eight gourds. Ten feathers. Nine large books. 
Great glory. Great kindness. How many bowls? How many ant-hills? 
ten. How many fences? Six whole nights. They threw away a great- 
quantity-of [ngi] rubbish. I want six long pieces. They made four nice 
bedsteads. Nine large deserted places. These seven dusters are dirty. 
Those two white islands. Three large forests. Those six clans. 

(e) Possessive. 

Take special note how the Subjective Prefix runs through all these 
forms. Thus ki for the singular (kitambuds, it has walked) — whence 
we get kyange (kiange) my ; ky e (kie) his. For the Demonstrative we 
had kino, kiri, etc. So also for the Relative we have ekigwa, which falls ; 
kyeyakola (kieyakola), which he made; and for other forms, kitya, 
bwekityo, kyona (kiona), etc. 

bi, the Plural Objective Prefix in the same way (ya bi kola, he made 
them), makes all the forms : by afe (biafe) ; by eyakola (bieyakola), etc. 

Exercise. — My sugar-cane. His book. Their aperture. Your coarse- 
mat is long His wound is large. Their books are very nice. Show me 
his parrot. Their fire-place is small. Whose gourd is this ? Mine. Whose 
are the five small bowls ? They are on the wall. Their insolence is great. 
Go and look for that nice sheath of mine. That parrot is not thine. Whose 
gardens are those ? Ours. His parrot, I saw its foot ; its wings are 
small ; its kindness is great. They will bring their books. The books, 
their parts. They brought the parrot in its cage. Your parrot, I saw it and 
its wound. My over-run garden is small, yours is large. The fence, its 
shadow is nice. His kindness is great. We saw your parrot ; its feathers 
are young. Your bedstead is short, mine is long, his is very narrow. They 
brought a good basket and a large cover for it. The islands and their ant- 
hills. 

(/) Relative. 

Exercise. — It is a parrot which cries [kaba]. The papyrus (plur.) which 
we cut down [sala]. The cage which he made. The fence which will fall. 
It is the wall which is likely to fall. The cover which I want. Those nice 
books which they bought. The building-site which is in the forest. Bring 
the book which we bought. Take hold of the books which are going to fall. 
The frogs which cry. The insolence which drove him away [goba]. The 
fort which they are going to build. The flowers which they bring. The 
rubbish which thev took away. The aperture through which light comes 






'kitya': 'bwekiti': 'kye nyini' 51 

[which brings light — omusana]. The three good fences which fell down. 
The place which they will leave. The part which I left in that bowl. The 
present which they have brought to our house. The fireplace which they 
are going to make is small. Bring the pieces of iron which make a cage. 
Ask for the duster for wiping [simula] the things [the duster which wipes]. 
Where is the bowl which you threw away ? 

(g) Miscellaneous. 

The most common use of the words kitya, bitya, etc., is in conver- 
sation. A. makes a remark about gardens (ebyalo) ; B. catches up the 
word thus, Ebyalo bitya ? what do you mean by ' gardens ' ? 

The form -tyo means 'like that,' and states a simple fact, e.g. : — 
A. — ekisenge kino kibi : B.— .-bakikola bwekityo. 
(A. complaining), this wall is crooked : (B. replies), they made it so. 
The form-ti means ' like this,' and needs to be accompanied by some 
example, either a motion of the hands, a pushing forward of the lips, or 
some similar indication. For instance in the expression — 

kyenkana wa? How (long, tall, wide, etc., according to the 
sense) is it? Lit. It equals where? The words for length, 
etc., can be added if necessary 

The answer is — 

kyenkana bwekiti : it is as (long, etc.) as thi?. 
byenkana wa? How (long, etc.) are they? 
byenkana bwebiti : they are so (long, etc.). 

Note the words — 

kye nyini, itself. bye nyini, themselves. 

They are used like the English words 'literal,' or really' ; e.g.: — 

ekyalo kye nyini, I mean the literal plantain-garden ; or I really 
do mean a garden, not something else, whether a word less 
commonly used which sounds like 'ekyalo' ; or the word used 
in some mystical sense. 

Exercise. — Bring all the chips here. Make one fence only. . Ask for both 
covers. Look for all three baskets. What do you mean by books? (I 
mean) the books which he is going to buy. The fence goes like this. Frogs 
jump like this. Throw all the rubbish in that hole. His-beard is very long. 
How long is it ? It is as long as this. How many frogs ? We saw nine 
small frogs and two large (ones). He fell upon his forehead. What do you 
mean by ' forehead ' ? (I mean) the forehead itself. What do you mean by 
flowers ' ? I mean flowers literally. All my books fell into that hole. His 
parrot cries like this. The parrot which cried like that died. This fort 
is very small. They made it so. These fences are high ; they made them 
like that. The frogs cried like that the whole night. This hole is empty ; 
I saw it. His parrot has gone : I have seen it in the plantain-trees. Look 
for it on the building-site. It is here on the fence. Where is that nice 
sheath which I gave [wa] you ? That sheath of mine, I left it in the waH at 
your house. You will find [laba] a number of [ngi] pins in my basket. In 
the valley I saw those flowers which they brought yesterday [jo]. All that 
rubbish which is in the fireplace, throw it into the hole which we dug [sima] 
in the over-run garden. Take away all these coarse-mats of yours. Bring 
mine to-spread-in-their-place [tubyalirewo]. What do you mean by kind- 
ness ? His kindness is very great. 



52 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Supplementary. 

To Be and To Have. 
Present Time. 

SING. TLUK. 

ndi, I am nina, I have tuli, we are tulina, we have 

oli, thou art olina, thou hast muli, ye are mulina, ye have 
ali, he is alina, he has bali, they are balina, they have 

Notice. — ndi for n li, and nina for n li na. All the other forms are 
quite regular. 

The word ' na ' in many cases corresponds to the English ' with,' but 
it should be sparingly used to form any adverbial expression. It tends 
to the meaning 'and ' : e. g. nina, I am, and something else is. 

Similarly by inserting the 'a' for Past Time, we have : — 

SING. PLUR. 

nali, I was nalina, I had twali, we were twalina, we had 

wali, thou wast walina, thouhadst mwali, ye were mwalina, ye had 
yali, he was yalina, he had bali, they were balina, they had 

If an Object follow — 

Ndi nakyo, I have it 
Tuli nabyo, we have them 

So in Past Time — 

Nali nabyo, I had them 
Bali nakyo, they had it 

For the ki — bi Class we have : — 

kiri, it is kirina, it has biri, they are birina, they have 

kyali, it was kyalina, it had byali, they were byalina, they had 

These forms are only required with Numerals, Numeral Adjectives 
and the Prepositions. 

To negative these, prefix 'te' (' t ' before a vowel): except for the 
first person singular, which is 'si,' e. g. : — 

siri, I am not sirina, I have not (I have not got) 

sali, I was not salina, I had not (I had not got) 

tali na kyo, he has not got 'it : tetuli na byo, we have not got 
them. 

With the Relative we must add the word for ' it ' or ' them ' after the 
' na,' if any words follow, e. g. : — 

ebintu byenina, the things which I have. 

ebintu, byeninabyo birungi, the things which I have are good, 
because the word ' good ' — birungi — follows. 

With the Prepositions of Place, we have : — 

taliwo, he is not here tuliwo, we are here, etc. 
talimu, he is not inside balimu, they are inside, etc 



'there': emphasis 53 

There are also the forms : — 

waliwo, there is tewali, there is not 

waliwo, there was tewali, there was not 

mulimu, there is inside, inside there is 

e.g. mu kinya mulimu ekitoke, in the hole there is a plantain : 

temuli, there is not inside. 

e. g. muno temuli kintu, in this place there is nothing. 

And more rarely similar forms in ' ku ' : e. g. tekuli, it is not 

there, upon (the table, etc.) : 
(ku kisenge) kuliko ekifananyi, (upon the wall) there is a picture. 
Yes — yee. N o- - Aa . 

Exercise. — I have two pictures. He had three parrots. They have a 
nice fence. The fences which they have are good. My book was on the 
mat. The bowls were two There is a good building-site in the forest. 
In the bowl is there a pin ? In the rubbish there are (seme) flowers. 
Where is the aperture which I am -working-at [kola] ? In it there is an 
ant-hill. He has not got a wound. Have you not (got) an aperture-for- 
work ? He has not got a beard. The fort was in the valley. There 
was one fireplace in the fort. Have you got any peelings ? No, we have 
not (got any). Have you brought the bowl ? Yes, I have got it. Have 
you a parrot ? Yes, I have two. Has he a beard ? No, he has not. 
Have they brought a coarse-mat? No, they have brought nothing. Will 
he make the wall ? Yes, he will make it. The ant-hills were nine. The 
sugar-cane was in the wall. That island (of which I have been speak- 
ing) was in the king's lake \nyanja ya, lake of]. 

It is often better to say for ' I have three nice books,' I have 
three books, they are nice ; or, I have nice books, they are three, 
according to the word which you wish to emphasize most. 

i. By placing the numeral after the adjective, a slight emphasis is 
placed on the numeral, e. g. : — 
Nguze ebitabo ebirungi bisatu, I have bought three nice books. 
Nina ebitabo ebitono, biri bibiri, I have two small books. 
Ebigo bikade mukaga, the old forts are six. 

Exercise. — (Numeral i. supposed to be slightly emphatic, and therefore to 
be put last.) 

I have four nice books. We have six bad fences. They brought two 
small presents. I have two nice books. He has three young parrots. 
They have five old (pieces of) wall. The narrow cages are six. 
We saw three small forests. Nine large pools. Tht small frogs are four 
They caught eight young parrots You have two old covers. He has four 
sound bowls. They bought seven new troughs. Three large valleys. 
You have two good coarse-mats. Four wide holes. The old fences are 
three. Nine dry dusters. I have two (pieces of) rag that are-not-rotten 
[sound]. 

ii. By leaving out the I.V. of the adjective, we throw a sort of 

emphasis on the adjective, e. g. : — 

alina ebikusu bibiri, bibi, he has two parrots, they are bad : i. e. 

he has two bad parrots. 

Exercise. — (No I.V. to the adjective, which is supposed to be 
slightly emphasized. ) 



54 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

He has two good parrots. You have three short fences. Six strong 
forts. Nine small fireplaces. Four bad bedsteads. One good part. Five 
new baskets. Five large forests, Ten small ant-hills. Seven hard roots. 
Two dry pools. Eight nice flowers. Two wide holes. Nine large ant 
hills. Six little girls. We have four short cages. You have two large 
wounds. I have two small feet. He has four good likenesses. They 
brought five good gourds. They saw four young frogs. They made two 
nice bedsteads. 

VII. The ma — mi (or ' Tree ' ) Class. 

Omubala, drum-beat. Omulere, a flute. 

Or abinikiro, a funnel. Omulimu, work. 

Omubiri, the body. Omuliro, fire. 

Omubisi, syrup. Omulundi, a time. 

Omu'do, weeds. Omulyango, a .doorway. 

Omudumu, a jug (European). Omunya, a lizard. 

Omufuko, a quiver. Omunyo, salt. 

Omuga, a swamp, river Omupunga, rice. 

Omugabo, a portion. Omupera, a guavatree. 

Omugaga, a bandage. Omusekese, framework. 

Omuganda, a bundle. Omusolo, tribute. 

Omu'go, a stick. Omusiri, plot of cultivated ground. 

Omugongo, the back. Omusingo, a pledge. 

Omugugu, bundle of bedding. Omusota, a snake. 

Omukira, the tail. Omusuja, fever. 

Omu'ka, smoke. Omuti, a tree. 

Omukono, the arm. Omutwalo, a load. 

Omukeka, a mat. Omutwe, the head. 

Omukufu, a watch-chain. Omuwendo, .the price, value. 

Omulambo, a corpse. Omuwumbo, a parcel of food 

Omulamwa, the kernel. Omuzigo, fat. 

Omudumu referred originally to a gun-barrel ; it is now used 

for a European jug, and also sometimes for the spout of a 

kettle, teapot, etc. 
Omu'do, omu'ka, omuliro, omupunga, omuwendo, omuzigo, are 

not used in the plural. 
Omukufu denoted originally a ring, sometimes of metal -plate, 

sometimes of other material, worn round the neck. It cannot 

be used for heavy chain. 
Emirimu means ' materials for work.' 
Omubiri also denotes the 'thickness 1 or 'substance ' of anything. 

(a) Subject and Object Prefix. 

Exercise. — The snake is going. The bundle is about to fall. The fire, I 
have brought it. The corpses, I have seen them. The rivers are full [jude]. 
The back is broken [kutuse]. The smoke is great. The snakes, I shall see 
them in the forest. The chains fell. The tree will grow [loka]. The 
framework, we will make it. The snakes will die. The weeds, wc will 
throw them away. The materials have come. The doorways, I have 
finished measuring [gera] them. The lizards went quickly. The stick will 



MU — MI CLASS 55 

fall. The pieces-of-wood, they will bring them. The kernel, they saw it. 
The price is great. The doorways are very narrow. The pledge, they 
agreed-to [kiriza] it. The work, I have finished doing it. 

(b) Demonstrative and Adjective. 

Note specially how all the various forms are made from the Object 
Prefix. Thus gu is the Singular Object Prefix (ya gu kola, he made 
it) : this Object Prefix gu gives not only the Demonstrative singular 
gil li (that), etc., but also the Possessive gwange (for guange), etc.; the 
Relative o gu kola, which makes, gw eyakola (gue yakola), which he 
made ; gu tya, bwe gu tyo, etc. 

Similarly for the plural, gi is the Object Prefix, (ya gi kola, he made 
them) : hence we get gi no, this, gy ange (giange), my, etc. 

To express, This is the tree, reduplicate the forms thus : guguno, 
guguli, for the singular, and gigino, gigiri, for the plural. 

e. g. omuti guguno, this is the tree, 
emikira gigiri, those are the tails. 

The form of ogwogwo, reduplicated from ojwo, can be used, but will not be 
needed for these Exercises. 

Exercise. — This lizard. That rice. That (near) tree. Those arms. 
These sticks. Those (near) quivers. Those flutes are nice. This bit-of- 
fire is bad. Where is the jug ? This is the jug on the wall. Bring that 
funnel here. This is another drum-beat. These weeds are rmny. Those 
are the chains. These bundles are long. That arm is short. These heads 
are small. I have seen those large heads. These materials-for-work. This 
is the rice. That is the fire. That (near) jug. This small lizard. These 
guava-trees are short. This chain is low*. That short bundle, they tied 
it up [siba] badly [bubi]. This is the tribute. They brought it yesterday. 
Those snakes. That (near) smoke. That large portion. This stick is long. 
That is short. In that river is there papyrus? No, there is not. In that 
tribute there are hoe-handles. There are snakes in this swamp. She will 
sow [siga] rice in that plot. 

(c) The Numeral and Adjective. 

omulundi gumu, once ; emirundi ebiri, twice. 

emirundi emeka? how often? always after the verb and its object, 
if there is one: /'. e. at the end of the sentence. 

asoma emirundi emeka ? how often does he read ? 

yaleta ekyejo emirundi emeka ? how often has he been impu- 
dent to you ? 

Exercise. — Three swamps. One tail. Six lizards. Eight guava-trees. 
Many weeds. How many bundles ? ten. How many chains ? two. Bring 
those large parcels-of-food. Show me the eight guava-trees. We crossed 
four deep rivers. These are two jugs. Those three short sticks. Bring 
those nice two flutes. Those four jugs are clean. We shall cross [somoka] 
five rivers to-morrow [enkya]. Three pre wide, two are little, but they are 
very deep [-limu amadzi mangi]. Two nice plots. How often was he ill 
with [lwala] fever ? twice. How often did he strike the snake ? four times. 
These trees are five. They made two wide funnels. He brought three 
kernels. Those flutes are four. Two long sticks. Nine pieces-of-wood ; 



56 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



four are long, five are short. I saw six snakes. Those three pieces-of-wood 
are short. Bring three Ions; pieces. How often did you see him ? four 
times. 

(d) Possessive. 

Since 'gwa' means 'of for the singular; and 'gya' means 'of 
for the plural : — 

Omulere gwomulenzi, the boy's flute. 

Emirimu gyabasaja, the men's material for work. 

Gwakyo means 'of it ' = * its,' in the sentence— ekikusu omukira 

gwakyo, the parrot, its tail. 
Gwabyo means 'of them ' = ' theirs,' in the sentence— ebikcre 
omuga gwabyo, the frogs, their swamp. 
And similarly for all these varied forms. 

Exercise.— His quiver. Their rice. My head. Your back. Their 
sticks. Thy chains. His flutes. His large guava-trees. My large- 
quantity-of-rice. Thy long arms. My head is small, yours is large. His 
pieces-of-wood are long. Thine are short. Whose parcel-of-food is this ? 
mine. Whose stick is that (near) ? theirs. Whose back is that ? his. Go 
and look for my flute. My flute is good. Thine is bad. Their guava-trees 
are very tall, ours are short. Bring his pledge. My friend, [munange] your 
pledge is small. That parcel-of-food is ours. This bundle is theirs. This 
funnel of hers. The snake, its head and its back. The parrots, their wings 
and their tails [ebyensuti] and their heads. The lizard, its tail and its feet. 
The guava-trees, their roots. We saw the islands and their swamps. 
Whose syrup is thrs ? yours? No, it is theirs. My bit-of-fire is good, yours 
is not good. The trees and their roots. That watch-chain of mine is not 
good. I saw that snake, its back was broken. My bundle and the sticks 
belonging to it. His work and its apertures. Whose frame-work is that? 
mine. Look at [laba] its doorway. 

(e) Relative. 

Exercise.— The smoke which goes up. The flute which I made. The 
corpses which we saw. The snake which went quickly [mbiro]. The parcel- 
of-food which he brought. The arms (of the lake) which enter in [ingira] 
• here. The tribute which they will collect [soloza]. The fire which will 
burn soon [mangu]. The drum-beats which they want to learn [iga]. The 
weeds which they are going to hoe up [lima]. The bandage which I tied on 
my head. The work which I gave him to do. The guava-trees which have 
come-to-hand [labise]. Show me the frame-work which he is making. The 
swamps which we crossed. The fever which left him [vamu]. The pieces- 
of-wood which make my cage. The parrot, the feathers which belong-to 
[beramu] its tail. The snakes which live [bera-] in the swamp. The weeds 
which are [bera] in my plot. The portion which he gave me. The load 
which fell into the swamp. Go and ask for the chain which I left on the 
bedstead. Look for the kernels which we threw into that hole. Bring the 
load which they are going to take. 

(/) Miscellaneous. 

Exercise.— We shall cross one river only. All the rivers are deep. How 
long are the pieces-of-wood? they are so long. The syrup was in that 
jug. The rivers which we crossed were only two ; one was very wide. 
What do you mean by flutes? I mean the flutes which they brought 
yesterday. All the body. Take away all the weeds. All this work is 
good. They made it so. All his back. What do you mean by 'pledge' ? 
I mean the literal pledge. Bring the jug only. The frame-work, he made 
it like this. Bring all the chains. Show me your whole back. He asked 



COMPARISON 57 

three times for all the tribute. Go and look for all the kernels. Bring all 
the rice. A doorway like this. How many rivers are there ? there are-no- 
less-than fwera] seven. All the sticks which they brought are lost [buze]. 
The tail only is visible. What do you mean by tail? I mean the literal 
tail. They eat the whole parcel-of-food. Show me both arms. All the 
guava-trees which I planted [simba]. The frogs had heads like this. The 
men did all this work. 

VIII. Supplementary. 
(a) Comparisons: 'same,' 'some,' 'other.' 
Same. 

ekintu kino kye kimu na kiri, this thing is the same as that, 
ebintu bino bye bimu, these things are the same. . 

omngo guno gwe gumu na guli, this stick is the same as that, 
emiti gino gye gimu, these trees are the same. 

And similar expressions according to the sense. 

Again : — 

ekitabo kyange kye kimu nekikyo, my book is the same as yours, 

ebitabobyo bye bimu nebyange, his book is the same as mine, 

omugogwe gwe gumu nogwange, his stick is the same as mine, 

emigo gyange gye gimu negigyo, my sticks are the same as yours. 

Some. 

The numeral for ' one ' has also a further use, to denote ' some ' 

ku miti gino, egimu mirungi, egimu mibi, some of these trees are 

good, some are bad. 
ku bitundu bino, ebimu biwamvu, ebimu bimpi, some of these parts 

are long, some are short. 

Note the order: the thing divided first, and then the positive word. For Kye, 
Bye, Gwe and Gye in the above, some Baganda would use Kiri, Biri, Guli and Giri 
respectively. 

In Past Time these would be : — 

ekitabokye kyali kimu nekyange, his book was the same as mine, 
ku bitabo biri ebimu byali birungi, some of those books were nice, 
omubiri gwali gumu, the thickness was the same. 

Other Comparisons are given : — 
i. By the word ' yenkana.' 
ebisikate bino byenkana, these fences are the same height, 
ekisakate kyange kyenkana nekikyo, my fence is the same height as yours. 

A qualifying noun — height, obuwamvu — may be added ; but where 
the sense indicates the relation, as in the above cases, or where the 
relation is obvious, no qualifying noun is needed. 

These qualifying nouns are formed by prefixing 'obu' to the adjective 
having the required meaning; e. g. gazi, wide— obugazi, width: kulu, 
full-grown — obukulu, in point of age. Kulu also means great in the 
sense of honour, chief; and so obukulu might mean 'greatness' in that 
sense. 



58 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

ii. By the word ' singa.' l 
ekintu kino kisinga byona, this thing is the tallest (longest, etc.). 

The sense of the conversation will often supply the adjective; when 
it does not we must use a qualifying noun, as above in case (i.). 
e.g. leta omuti ogusinga obuwamvu, bring a longer stick. 

ekibanja kyange kisinga ekikyo obuwamvu, my building-site is 

longer than yours, 
naye ekikye kisinga byona obunene, but his is the largest. 

Exercise. — Of the flowers, some are pretty, some are not pretty. Some 
lizards are long, others are short. This flute is the same as that. This work 
is the same as that (near). My dusters are the same as yours. Their door- 
ways are the same width. These heads are the same size. This snake is the 
same as that. These two snakes are the same length. This swamp is the 
same depth as that which we crossed yesterday, but [naye] that of yesterday 
was much wider. Your portion is the same as mine, but his is bigger than 
both ours. His glory is greater than mine. Of all four mounds, this is the 
tallest, that is the shortest. This funnel is the same as that. That funnel is 
wider than the one we made yesterday. This bundle is the heaviest. They 
saw the forts ; some are very strong, others are not strong. Show me the 
coarse-mats ; some are old, but many are new. My bedstead is wider than 
yours, but his is the longest; these are all the same. This syrup is bad, 
bring some better [that which is better]. This cover is too small. Bring a 
larger. Those pieces are too small ; look for some larger. The price of 
this parrot is the same as that which we bought yesterday ; but this parrot is 
the nicer ; its wings are larger, its feathers are more full-grown, its tail is 
longer. Both these pieces-of-wood are of the same thickness [their thickness 
is the same]. Your stick and mine were of [ku] the same [one] wood. 

(b) Miscellaneous. 
Era and JVa. 2 

Na 3 means 'and,' and is used to join together nouns, adjectives, and 
pronouns ; but it must be used before eaclvone of the parts joined and 
not merely before the last, as in English, e. g. : — 

abasaja nabakazi rrabana, men, women, and children. 

Na is also used in the Narrative tense of the verb meaning ' and.' 
This is the only case in which 'na' is used to join verbs together, 
except the Infinitive, which is really a noun with Class Prefix ' ku.' 
e. g. :— 

yagenda nalaba nakomawo, he went and saw and came back. 

Na after the verb means ' also ' ; and in continuous conversation is 
frequently not given in English, e. g. sitting at table, 

Leta nomunyo, bring the salt. 

1 Singa in this sense is rarely heard amongst the peasants until they have come into 
contact with European thought. The most common use amongst them is an Apposi- 
tional one. Thus in the above instances they would say : — 

Omuti guno mumpi ; leta omuwamvu. 

Ye alina ekibanja ekinene nyo (nyo drawn out for emphasis) : ekibanja kyange 
kibade kiwamvuwamvu is fairly long. 

2 Certain Baganda use ' ni,' not ' na.' 

3 In certain cases ' na '—and— represents the English ' with ' ; but this use of it has 
been much 'abused by Europeans, e. g. : — 

seresa esubi, thatch with grass (not nesubi). 

yasanyuka nagenda, he went gladly, happily: (not yagenda nesanyu). 









'AND': 'SOME': REDUPLICATION 59 

Era is used : — 

i. When a conjunction is wanted and ' na ' cannot be used, 
ii. In addition to ' na ' before the last of the parts of speech 
joined together. Era na answers to the English ' as well as,' 
but is used far more freely. 

e.g. analya, ananyuwa, era anagenda, he will eat, drink, and go. 

amanyi okubaja, era nokuwesa, he knows both carpenter's and 
smith's work. 

Some . . . others. 

The root ' lala ' means ' other ' ; hence we can say for ' some — others ' 
ebimu — ebirala, e.g. : — 

ku bintu bino, ebimu birungi, ebirala bibi, of these things, some 
are good and others are bad. 

There is little difference between this and the form ebimu — ebimu ; 
but the word ' ebirala ' should be used in cases where the things are 
dissimilar in shape, size, and the like; or where the terms expressing 
them have different Class Prefixes. 

A few words, mostly Adverbs. 

lero, to-day. enkya, in the morning. 

jo, yesterday or to-morrow. olwegulo, in the evening (before 

darkness sets in), 
bulijo, every day. naye, but. 

mangu, quickly. mpola, slowly. 

katono, a little. mpodzi, perhaps, 

buli, every, precedes the Noun — buli muti, every tree ; buli kintu, 
everything ; wonawona, everywhere. Rarely buli wantu. 

Reduplication. — An adjective can be reduplicated to give the meaning 
1 moderately ' ; it is sometimes given in English by the termination ' ish ' : 
tallish, littleish : — 

omuntu omulungilungi, a fairly nice man. 

ekintu ekiwamvuwamvu, a moderately tall thing 

The Adjectives to, little ; bi, bad, are repeated three times : — 

ekikusu ekitototo, a fairly young parrot. 
The affix 'ko ' has a similar meaning : — 

ekintu ekirungiko, a fairly nice thing. 
But this is, if anything, more depreciatory than the former. 

Exercise. — Walking, falling, and getting up [golokoka]. Buying, selling, 
as well as throwing away. Making, taking away, and also bringing. They 
make, they leave, and they throw away. They eat, they drink, they rise up 
and go, quickly. His parrot is fairly young, mine is rather old, and yours is 
the-oldest ['kade dala]. Some things are short, others are fairly long. Of 
the pieces-of-wood, some are long enough [tuse obuwamvu], others are too 
short, others are very thick. These swamps are rather wide. The partitions 
are a fair size [neneko]. The books are somewhat short as well as thick. 
The heads are all rather small as well as the feet. This doorway which he 
made is rather narrow. These pieces of sugar-cane are somewhat hard. His 



60 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

wound is a trifle large. These likenesses are fairly good. That chain is a. 
little short. These gourds are rather too small. Bring some others. I sold 
[tunda] all the others yesterday. All the other pieces-of-wood are somewhat 
short. Go quickly. They will bring the parrot in the morring. They will 
come to-day. Walk slowly. Perhaps we shall see the frog in the evening. 

(c) The numerals from 10 to 50. 

The numerals from ten upwards are made by a process of addition 
they divide into tens, viz. e'kumi, one 'ten'; amakumi, 'tens.' 

This word is a substantive, and meant originally the clasping of the 
two fists together in the way which denotes ten. 
amakumi abiri, two tens, twenty. amakumi ana, four tens, forty 

amakumi asatu, three tens, thirty. amakumi atano, five tens, fifty. 

These.forms can therefore never alter ; if however there should be a 
one, two, three, four, or five, that must agree with the noun ; and the 
agreement will be exactly the same as it would be if there were no tens. 
Further, in connecting numbers below twenty together, the conjunction 
' na ' is used ; and if the ' na ' stands before a vowel, the 'a ' is dropped. 
For instance, we should say ' nebiri/ and not ' na ebiri' ; ' nesatu,' and 
nc f . na esatu. 

In connecting numbers above twenty, the word ' mu ' is used ; and 
where a vowel follows ' mu ' tends to ' mw ' ; e.g. mwesatu, rather than 
mu esatu. 
e.g. : — omuti gumu, one tree. 

Hence, emiti 'kumi na gumu, eleven trees. 

emiti amakumi abiri mu gumu, twenty-one trees, 
emiti amakumi asatu mu gumu, thirty-one trees. 
Again, emiti ebiri, two trees. 

Hence, emiti 'kumi nebiri, twelve trees. 

emiti amakumi abiri mwebiri, twenty-two trees, 
emiti amakumi ana mwebiri, forty-two trees. 
Similarly, emiti esatu, ena, etano, three, four, five trees. 

Therefore, emiti 'kumi nesatu, 'kumi hena 'kumi netano, thirteen, 
fourteen, fifteen trees, 
emiti amakumi atano mwesatu, mwena, mwetano, fifty- 
three, fifty-four, fifty-five trees. 
Again, emiti mukaga, musamvu, munana, mwenda, six, seven, eight, 
nine trees. 
Therefore, emiti 'kumi nomukaga, 'kumi nomusamvu, 'kumi no- 

munana, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen trees. 
Or, amakumi asatu mu mukaga, amakumi asatu mu musamvu, 

thirty-six, thirty-seven trees. 
If we use a noun of the Class e ki — e bi, first consider what is the 
way to say one thing, two things, etc.; six things, seven things, etc. 

Then put before that the number of tens wanted and the connecting 
' mu ' (or ' na ' if below twenty). 

Any English words like ' score,' 'dozen,' must be converted into the 
corresponding numbers. 

Exercise. — Twenty-four basket?. Thirty-three pieces-of-wood. Forty-four 
words. Fourteen sticks Twenty-one lizards. Fifteen frogs. Forty-nine 



NUMERALS : VERBS 



6l 



guava-trees. Thirteen apertures. Forty nights. Twenty-four clusters. 
Three dozen books. Four dozen covers. Thirty-nine corpses. Nineteen 
snakes. Twenty fences. Thirty-one cages. Forty-three parts. Fifty 
bundles. Twenty-two islands. Thirty places. Twenty-nine roots. Thirty- 
four clans. Forty-three chains. Twenty-two tails. Thirteen times. 
Twenty-three parrots. Thirty-two portions. Sixteen arms. Twenty-three 
trees. Forty-two things. Thirty-eight nights. Forty-one frogs. Twenty 
rags. 







id) Numerals 


beyond 50. 




enkaga 60 




ebikumi bibiri 


200 


olusamvu 700 




ensamvu 70 




ebikumi bisatu 


300 


olunana 800 




kinana 80 




ebikumi bina 


400 


olwenda 900 




kyenda 90 




ebikumi bitano 


500 


oiukumi 1000 




ekikumi 100 




olukaga 


600 






enkumi biri 


2000 


akakaga 


6000 


akakumi 


10,000 


enkumi satu 


3000 


akasamvu 


7000 


obukumi bubiri 


20,000 


enkumi nya 


4000 


akanana 


8000 


obukumi busatu 


30,000 


enkumi tano 


5000 


akenda 


9000 


obukumi buna 
obukumi butano 


40,000 
50,000 



All these are built together as the preceding numbers up to 60 ; first 
the number of thousands is stated, then the word ' mu ' ; then the 
hundreds, then 'mu ' ; then the tens, then ' mu ' ; and lastly the units 
in their proper agreement. 

It is usual to count shells by bundles : — omutwalo gumu, one bundle, 
contains 10,000 shells ; so that 30,000 shells is generally denoted by 
emitwalo esatu, three bundles. 

Exercise. — Make the following numbers' in agreement with ebintu, things : — 
234. 465. 1024, 732, 945, 4321, 1234, 10431, 25651, 984, 742, 906, 804, 
507, 1003. 1230, 1045, 5060, 8077, 976. 

Make the following numbers in agreement with emigo, sticks: — 
164, 237, 943, 872, 981, 1064, 1532, 1896, 732, 1946, 2841, 8732, 458, 892, 
470, 507, 862, 973, 4060, 8073, 5006. 

IX. The Verb. 

The Verb is one of the most important parts of speech. It not only 
expresses what in English is understood by ' a verb ' ; it has also the 
power of expressing to an almost unlimited extent the various abstract 
ideas conveyed either by a noun or adjective. A contentious fellow is 
' a fellow who argues ' ; the speech (that he made) is ' that which he 
recommended (tesa),' and so on. 

Each Verb starts from a simple Root of three letters with the vowel 
' a ' added ; or of four letters when the third is ' n ' or ' m ' before a 
consonant. The few exceptions to this rule need not be considered. 
From this simple Root can be made : — 

i. A new or ' derived ' root ; e. g. — 

' vuna ' — snap in two, gives ' vunama ' — bend down. 

ii. Modifications ; such as cause to do ; do with continual effort ; 
able to be done ; do for oneself, and many others. These 
correspond more or less to what is often called a ' Conjugation ' 
of the Verb. 



62 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

It is with the latter only that the following exercises are concerned. 
The term ' stem ' will be used for the simplest possible form of either a 
Simple root, Derived root, or Modification. This simplest form is always 
the Second Person Singular of the Imperative unless the verb be 
Reflexive. 

To each Stem there is a Modified form, which is used to form three 
tenses ; viz. Present Perfect, Near Past, and Conditional. The Present 
Perfect is that which is most difficult to understand. It means, ' has 
done, and is still doing.'" ! This is generally given in these Exercises by 
1 1 have done ' ; sometimes by ' I do,' when this is the English idiom, 
with the letters ' p.pf.' after it. 

This 'I have done' — and am still doing — must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the other ' I have done,' which means ' I have finished 
doing.' 

(a) Modified form in 'de.' 

Verbs ending in la or ra make their modified form by changing la 
or ra into 'de': e.g. sula, throw. Mod. su'de. 
zala, bear Mod. za'de. 

Exercise. — What are the Modified forms of bera, help ; kyala, visit ; sera, 
overcharge. 

Also of : — 

komola, trim. sekula, pound. tambula, walk, 

lamula, bargain. situla, lift. tukula, be white, 

gayala, be idle. songola,makeapoint to. vumula, turn upside down, 

kakanyala, be hard. sowola, draw out. yagala, want, 

kunkumula, shake out. tabula, mix. 

Also of: — 

bulira, tell. sembera, come near, 

kulembera, go in front. serera, be slippery, 

lagira, give directions to. sisira, make temporary hut. 

nyikira, do energetically. tamira, get drunk, 

sasira, pity. tegera, understand. 

Also of: — 

segulira, make room for. tunulira, look at. 

A tense which often seems like the Present Perfect in English is the 
Present Indefinite ; these are sharply distinguished in Luganda. 

The Present Indefinite denotes in Luganda : — 
i. What is always and necessarily true, 
ii. What is habitual in life and character. 

The following are instances : — 

agayala, he is habitually idle. In the Present Perfect — agayade, 
he is idling. 

1 ' Alide,' he has eaten, — meaning • he has done eating ' — may seem an exception. 
Eating, however, is an habitual process and can never be completely finished. He has 
eaten for the present ; or he has eaten, but will eat again at some no very distant time. 
A third modification in which the Present Perfect is used for an event more or less 
complete occurs in a few cases : e. g. Ankubye, mfumbye. 



MODIFIED FORM 63 

atamira, he is an habitual drunkard. In the Present Perfect — 

atamide, he is drunk, 
anyikira, he works hard every day. In the Present Perfect — 
anyikide, he has worked hard at this particular matter. 1 
Wa can be used as a Subjective Prefix, just like ki, gu, etc., and 
means ' it,' referring to place : e.g. wano watukula, this place glistens. 

Exercise. — I have lifted the bundle. They are idling. -I have told 
him to-day. We have bargained well [bulungi]. You have pounded the 
rice. He directs us (in) the work every clay. They are going to pay-a-visit. 
We have matle-a-point-to this stick. He has exerted himself to do that 
work. They have mixed. He is drunk (with) beer [ounwenge]. She 
has come near [kumpi]. That mound glistens very much. They have paid 
a visit. We have made a temporary hut here. We have pitied her. They 
get drunk on beer everyday. We have guided them. Hringthe part which 
is hard [p.pf. ]. The rice, we pound it. His sword [ekitala] lie has 
drawn it out-of [mu] its sheath. Have you understood ? They have told us 
about [ku] the parrot ; we want to see it. What are you looking at? 
They are overcharging us. The present which helps us to go. You 
help us every day. They have helped us very much. Thou hast mixed 
dust [cmfufuj with [mu] the syrup. We have mixed salt with the butter. 
Here it [wa] is very slippery. Have you made room for us? There it is 
very glistening. They have worked hard to make this fort. They have made 
points to all the sticks. We have walked quickly. They make visits in the 
evening.- He has understood my words. 

(/') Modified form in ' ze.' 
Some verbs in la (ra), however, make the Modified form by changing 
la (ra) into 'ze.' The reason why these differ from those of the same 
ending which we have just considered is this : they are simple three- 
letter roots ; whereas those which we took in the previous section were 
all derived roots. Tims : — 

SIMPLE. 

bala, count, 
bula, be lost to 
a person 

Exercise. — What are the modified forms of: — 

kala, become dry. kula, grow to maturity. mera, grow. 

kola, make. mala, finish. mira, swallow. 

sala, cut. 

So also Verbs ending in da and ga, make the Modified form by 
changing da or ga to 'ze,' e.g. : — 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. SIMPLE. MODIFIED. 

Gend.i, go. Genze. Nyiga, be vexed. Nyize. 

Tunda, sell. Tunze. Siga, sow seed. Size. 

Exercise. — What are the modified forms of: — 

bega, serve food. siga, smear on. vuga, paddle, 

langa, twist. singa, surpass, excel. vuga, sound, 

linda, wait. tunga, sew. zinga, fold, 

nyaga, take by force. 



MODIFIED. 


SIMPLE. 


MODIFIED 


baze. 
buze. 


gira, do. 
gula, buy. 


gize. 
guze. 



1 The Present Indefinite in these cases is frequently rendered by a Participle in u 
(p. 139, ii. B). Omugayavu, an idler ; omutamivu, a drunkard ; omunyikivu, a hard- 
worker. 



64 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

The pools have become dry. Are you vexed [p.pf.]? The parrot has 
destroyed [mala] all the plantain-fibre. They have taken the rice by force. 
He has smeared grease on his body. I cannot find the stick [the stick is lost 
to me] They have gone. I have bought two parrots. The dusters have 
dried. The tree has grown to maturity. They have sown rice in their plot. 
To make a bedstead, he [ye] has excelled. His bedstead is better than 
[p.pf.] mine. I have counted all the islands. We have swallowed the 
pills [obutole]. They have sold all the rice. The parrot has swallowed a 
pin. I have cut an aperture here. We have helped the food [euaere]. They 
have paddled hard. They have counted all the pieces-of-wood. Have you 
sewn the dusters. He has taken my sugar-cane by force. The river has 
dried up. He has sold my books. The papyrus [pi.] has grown again [ate], 
lie has dressed [nyiga] my wound. You have smeared mud [e'tosi] on my 
books. The snake is lost [p.pf.] again. He has made a cage. They have 
counted twelve corpses. We have bought that stick. The weeds have 
grown. Have you cut (down) the papyrus? The parrot is lost [p.pf.]. 
The bell [ekide] has rung. 

(c) Particular uses of the Present Perfect Tense. 

Besides the meaning already given to the Present Perfect Tense, 
there is a special meaning : viz. to express an exclamation, most com- 
monly in the form of a compliment, but sometimes in the form of a 
surprise. It might be translated by ' how well ' : e. g. oyambade, how 
well you are dressed : ofumbye, what a nice dinner you have cooked ! 

Lit. How well you have cooked (fumbye — mod. form of fumba). 

No object must be used after the verb in this idiom : unless the verb 
has a double object, in which case the personal object alone is used: e.g. 

otuwade : what a nice present you have given us ! 

Lit. How you have given to us : the word ekirabo for present is not 
wanted. 

The expression is generally preceded by some such exclamation as 
Munafe ! Our friend ! But as these belong to a class not yet given, 
they are omitted here, and referred to later on. 

Nga may be added — nga otuwade ; but it is not absolutely neces- 
sary unless the subject is not a Pronominal Prefix: e.g. ebitoke nga 
bikuze, how .nicely the plantains have grown up. 

The modified form 'maze' forms a Completed Perfect: e.g. in the 
sentence — 'They have pointed the sticks,' if we say, ' bamaze okuson- 
gola emiti,' it means that they have finished pointing all the pieces of 
stick that were given them, and neither expect nor intend to do any 
more. The action is completed. Translate, ' they have done pointing.' 

On the other hand, ' basongode emiti ' means, they have pointed all 
the pieces of stick that were given them, or that they could find : are 
they to do any more ? The action is still incompleted : they have 
pointed some sticks, and are still in the action of pointing them. Are 
they to go on, or are they to stop ? 

In asking questions, the interrogative word should complete the 
question ; and the best order to follow is to put the substantive (if any) 
which is the point of the question first, e.g. : — 

emiti balese emeka ? 

How many pieces of wood have they brought ? 



USES OF PRESENT TERFECT 



65 



If the idea is partitive (some of), the affix ' ko ' must be used, 
ebikusu otunzeko bimeka? 

How many parrots have you sold ? 

' Wa,' meaning ' where ' — adze wa ? Where has he gone to ? — a useful 
idiom. 

ekiremba kyange okitade wa? 

Where have you put my head-cloth ? 

What sort of? ki with the proper Class Prefix prefixed, e.g. : — 
kyamize kiki ? what has he swallowed ? 
byatunda biki ? what is he selling? 

It is used equally well with all tenses, the Present Perfect and 
Present Indefinite being the most common. 

Exercise. — How well you have made it ! How hard you have worked ! 
How well they have bought ! How hard you have paddled ! He has done 
cutting tlie aperture. We have done throwing away the rubbish. What 
has he taken by force? The books, how many hast thou sold? How 
many parrots have you brought ? Where have you cut an aperture ? He 
has really gone |he has done going]. What a nice visit thou hast paid ! 
They have done sewing the dusters. What has he sown ? How many pins 
has he left ? How nicely he has cut this ! The tree, how nicely it has 
grown ! What has he made? What a walk you have had! The duster, 
how hard it has got ! What a nice helping of food ! [use bulungi.] What 
has sounded? Have the dusters done drying? He has done trimming my 
book. How nicely he has trimmed it ! They have done making room for 
you. The fat has done melting. What things have gone? How nicely he 
has sewn it ! They have done lifting the piece of wood. Hast thou done 
making the bedstead ? We have done crossing the river. How you have 
helped us ! What a good bargain he has made ! I have done counting all 
the islands. Where is the better thing [the thing which has excelled]? 
Where are the things which have grown to maturity? 

(d) Modified form in 'ye.' 

Verbs ending in ba, ma, na, pa and ya (exc. causatives) change their 
final syllables to bye, mye, nye, and ye respectively, e. g. :— 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. SIMPLE. 

Fumba, cook. fumbye. lopa, accuse. 

Kuma, keep. kumye. linya, tread. 

kung'ana, be assembled : kung'anye. 

manya, know : makes Modified form 

gana, say no, refuse : makes Modified form 

Exercise. — What are the modified forms of: — 



MODIFIED. 

lopye. 
linye. 

manyi. 
ganyi. 



buna, spread, 
gaba, distribute, 
goba, drive away, 
kakana, be mild, 
kankana, shake, 
kima, fetch, 
kolima, curse, 
koma, cease, stop 
kyama, go wrong, 
lagana, make an agreement 
with. 



lima, cultivate. 

limba, lie. 

luma, bite. 

lwana, fight. 

nyoma, despise. 

saba, ask for. 

samba, kick with the sole of 

the foot, 
sasana, be scattered, 
siba, tie up. 
sima, dig. 



sima, be pleased with. 
simba, set upright, 
soma, read, 
tenia, cut with an axe. 
tuyana, perspire, 
vuma, insult, 
vunama, bend down, 
ziba, block up. 
zimba, build. 



66 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Sima. The passive form means ' be pleasing to.' 

Manya is generally used in the Simple Tense in Relative Sentences, and in the 
Modified Tense in plain statements of fact. 

Exercise. — We have cultivated here. She has asked for a hoe [enkumbi]. 
They have driven out the frogs. The garden which I know. What sort of 
things has he cooked? They have cut eight p'eces-of-wood. You have 
planted nice plantains in your plot. I have stopped here. 1 We have gone 
wrong in the road [e'kubo]. He has kicked me. They have cultivated the 
whole garden. What has he despised? He has b'ocked up the aperture. 
We have climbed up [linya] on-to[ku] the ant-hill. We are assembled [p. pf.]. 
What has driven you away? He has trodden upon my foot. He has dis- 
tributed many presents. How hard you have struggled with it [Iwana] ! 
What lies they have told ! That garden, I know it [p.pf.]. How well you 
have cultivated ! He has insulted us. What sort of things has he dis- 
tributed ? We have dug eight holes. We have asked many times for a 
guava-tree. He has despised my present. That (near) likeness we know 
[p.pf.] it. What do I know [p.pf. ] ? We have cut down that tree. They 
have lied to him. The peelings, have they fetched them? Have you dis- 
tributed the pieces of sugar-cane? No, but they have asked for them. Are 
you pleased? [p.pf.]. Yes, I am very pleased. 

(<?) Modified form in ' -se.' 

Verbs ending in ka and ta change these syllables to ' se ' for the Modi- 
fied form, e.g. : — 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. SIMPLE. MODIFIED. 

Buka, jump. fly, buse. fuluta, snore. fuluse. 

Exercise. — What are the Modified forms of : — 

fika, be left over. kyuka, be turned. soka, begin, 

fuka, pour. leta, bring. somoka, cro<;s a river, 

luka, be made, become. leka, leave. tereka, put away, store, 

fumita, pierce. menyeka, be broken. tuka, arrive, 

golokoka, get up. saniika, be melted. vunika, be turned upside 

kasuka, hurl. sanyuka, be glad. down, 

kika, put sideways. seka, laugh. zika, bury, 

kuluki.ia, flow (of run- serengeta, go down. zinka, faint. 

ning water). s ndika, push, 

kweka, hide. sirika, be silent. 

He- has arrived. We have left that over-run garden. Our things are up- 
side down. Hast thou poured water [amadzi] into that bowl ? How many 
things are left over? He has pierced the fence with his stick. The parrot 
has flown away. I am glad [p.pf.]- They have hidden the tribute in that 
tree. We are pleased to see you. My stick is broken [p.pf.]. He is silent 
[p.pf.] I have begun to read to-day. Thou hast laughed. What a nice 
addition [how they have brought]. How glad you are ! The snake, have 
you speared it? This river flows very quickly. What is broken [p.pf.]? 
He has left his work. The duster, where have you hidden it ? What has 
he hidden? He has put away his things. We have brought the tribute. 
What sort of things have you brought ? What have they hurled ? They have 
put all the pieces-of-wood sideways. They have gone down there [eri]. 
What has turned ? They have stored a quantity of rice. What has jumped ? 
These pins are left over [p.pf.] This piece-of-wood has turned (round). He 
has hidden my flute. Where has he put away his things? The chains have 
arrived to-day. They have buried the corpses. I have brought a parrot. 

1 Used frequently by any one accompanying a guest, and means ' I want to turn 
back here.' 



MODIFIED FORMS 67 



(/) Modified form in 'edza' or '-idza.' 

Verbs ending in sa, Causatives in ya, and verbs ending in za preceded 
by a long vowel (e. g. eza, oza) change their final ' a ' into 'edza ' or ' idza ' 
to form the Modified form. It is edza if the preceding vowel is e or o : 
otherwise idza, e. g. : — 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. SIMPLE. MODIFIED. 

Imusa, raise up. imusidza. buza, ask a question. buzidza. 

Nyenya, blame. nyenyedza. woza, plead. wozedza. 

Exercise. — What are the modified forms of: — 

busa. 1 nonya, look for. tesa, plan, take counsel, 

gasa, be profitable for. nyumya, converse. yoza, wash clothes, 

juza, make full. soloza, collect. yuza, tear. 

koleza, 2 light. subiza, promise. ziza, hinder, 

lovvoza, think. tegeza, explain to. 

naza, clean. tereza, make level. 

Exercise. — He has raised his head. They have looked for the bowl. We 
have planned to build here. I have cleaned the bowl carefully [nyo]. How 
they do converse ! The present has been very profitable to him. We have 
filled the bowl (with) rice. Hast thou lit the lamp [etabaza] ? How nicely 
you have explained it to us ! You have hindered us. He has blamed them. 
Tell us your opinion [what you have thought]. They have hesitated. You 
have torn my book. What has hindered him? They have collected the 
tribute. We have pleaded hard. They have washed the dusters. What is 
your question [the thing which thou hast asked] ? They have levelled my 
building-site. What plans have they made? Have you lifted up your arm? 
What is your complaint [that which thou hast pleaded] ? He has promised 
us. What is your promise ? What has prevented you ? 

(g) Other Modified Forms. 

Verbs ending in za, preceded by a short vowel, change the za to ' dza ' 
for the Modified form, and Verbs ending in ja change the ja to 'dza.' 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. SIMPLE. MODIFIED. 

Kiriza, believe. kiridza. ja, come. dze. 

Wereza, serve. weredza. geja, get faf. gedze. 

baja, adze. badze. 

Verbs in wa change wa to ' ye ' for the Modified form. 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. SIMPLE. MODIFIED. 

Fuwa, blow. fuye. siwa, itch. siye. 

Kyawa, hate, not to like. kyaye 

The following are Irregular : — 



SIMPLE. 


MODIFIED. 


SIMPLE. 


MODIFIED. 


Fa, die. 


fude. 


kwata, take hold. 


kute. 


Gwa, fall. 


gude. 


lya, eat. 


lide. 


Gya, remove. 


gyide. 


lwa, delay. 


lude. 


Gya, be cooked. 


ide. 


nyuwa, drink. 


nyuwede 



1 Busa means to 'cause to jump or fly: biisabuSa means to 'hesitate,' 'be in 
doubt.' The Modified form is merely a repetition of the Modified form of ' busa.' 

2 As a candle, torch, etc.— kuma omuliro, light the fire. 



SIMPLE. 


MODIFIED 


, go out. 


vude. 


i, give. 


wade. 



68 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

SIMPLE. MODIFIED. 

Teka, put, place. tade. 

Tya, fear. tide. 

Twala, take. tute. 

Exercise. — They have blown the flutes. We have come out of [mu] the 
hole. He has agreed to do the work. The parrot has died. They are 
afraid (p.pf.). I have taken hold of the piece of wood. We have delayed 
a long time [nyo]. You have drunk all the beer. I have taken all the 
pins. What is she afraid of? The tribute has come. The plantains have 
got very large [geja]. The frame-work has fallen. They have eaten a whole 
parcel of food. This place itches. The wall has fallen. He has taken all 
the rice. Thou hast taken hold. I have delayed. The rice is cooked 
(p.pf.). lie has served us well. His parrot has grown fat. The fences 
have fallen. We have taken hold of the wall. They have taken-a-dislike- 
to [kyawa] him. How nicely you have adzed it ! What a poor way thou 
art in [fa ; p.pf.] ! They have done eating. We have done coming. 

X. The Verb continued. 

(a) Near Future or ' na ' Tense. 

(Lesson XVI. p. 24.) 

Note that this ' a ' is long — na. 

It is usual to say o no fumba, not o na fumba. 

o no kola, not o na kola, 

etc. in the second person. 

Exercise. — We will go. I will eat. He will get up. They will delay. 
He will ask a question [ekigambo}. We will explain to you. She will 
come. The chains will arrive to-day. We will stop here. They will fear. 
Wilt thou serve us well ? Will you make this wall to-day? Yes, we will 
bring reeds [emuli] and plantain-fibre. What question will he ask them ? 
What ointment will you use [wilt thou smear on] ? The cage which they 
will finish. The flute which you will blow. You will lie to us. Where 
will thou go down? The piece-of-wood will roll over [turn]. It will fall. 
You will be glad to see her. The parrot will fly, but we will take hold of 
it. We shall leave our baggage [emigugu]. Fever will attack [kwata] him. 
Wilt you kill the snake? Yes, I will kill it. To-day we will walk over 
[lambula] the deserted- place. We will count its plantain-trees. They will 
hide the rice. In the morning we shall see the islands. They will make 
[luka] five coarse-mats. I will cultivate the over-run garden. 

(b) Imperative and Subjunctive. 

(Lesson XXXV. p. 35.) 
There are three ways of translating the English Imperative : — 
i. Present Imperative. 

genda, go mugende, go (plur.) 
soma, read musome, read (plur.) 
ii. Near Future Imperative. 

oja enkya, come in the morning 
iii. Far Future Imperative. 

ojanga olwebiri, come in two days' time 
The Subjunctive is formed by changing the ' a ' final of the simple 
tense to 'e' : so that we get nkole, okole, akole, tukole, mukole, bakole. 
These forms mean : — 






IMPERATIVE : SUBJUNCTIVE 69 

i. That I may do, that thou mayest do, that he may do, etc., e.g. : — 
saba enkumbi alime : ask for a hoe that she may cultivate. 
It never means ' so that.' 
ii. Let me do, do thou, let him do, let us do, do ye, let them do. 
iii. Am I to do, is he to do, are we to do, are they to do ? 

The second person singular and plural can obviously not be used. 
i. The Subjunctive also denotes the second of two Imperatives which 
follow one another, e. g, : — 

genda osabe go and ask for 

genda obuze go and ask 

mugamba asabe tell him to ask for 
ii. The Imperative joined to an Object Pronoun, e.g. : — 

muwe, give him mukube, strike him 
Except the first person singular, e.g. : — 

mpa, give me 

The word ' ka ' is generally added to the first person singular and 

plural when used in the sense, Let me do, let us do — kankole, katukole. 

In this sense it often corresponds to the English, I'll just do so and 

so (and then I'll come). 

Exercise. — Give him his book that he may go. Cut the wings of the 
parrot that it may fail [lema] to fly. Is she to cultivate here ? Let us make 
a cage. Bring your book that you may read, round the rice quickly that 
we may cook. Get up that you may eat. Bring (pi.) plantain-fibre that we 
may stop up the aperture. Tell them to bring pieces-of-wood that they may 
make a fireplace. Let us go that we may see [laba ku] the king. Are they 
to throw that (near) rubbish away? Am I to cut here ? The fence, leave 
it that it may fall. Leave (pi.) him (alone) that he may eat his sugar-cane. 
Make a large fire that I may not get fever [the fever may cease to take 
me]. Let me look for my flute. Come (pi.) that we may twist plantain- 
fibre. I'll just finish this work. We'll just finish cooking. I'll just bring 
that piece. Drive out (pi.) that frog. Are we to push? Dismiss [sibula] 
them that they may go. Tell them (pi.) that [nti] they may bring books. 

(c) Far Future, or 'li' Tense. 

(Lesson XVI. p. 24.) 

Exercise. — They will bring many pieces-of-wood. I will fetch the bowls. 
He will come. The snake will bite him. That wall will fall. We will 
plant plantains. They will ask for a mat. You will begin to build a fort 
later on [e'da]. Wilt thou dig (out) this ant-hill. He will converse the 
whole night (through). The bowls will be broken. They will laugh 
heartily [nyo]. We shall hinder them. They will take all your property by 
force. My bedstead, he will make it later on. That (near) present will be 
very profitable to him. We will take counsel (about) all the gardens. My 
stick will be a better one than thine. We will learn all the drum-beats. 
Wilt thou level the whole building-site? Yes; I shall begin to dig here. 
You will pass through [ita mu] a long valley. Those pieces-of-wood will 
fall. The iron will hit you. 

(d) Far Past, or 'a' Tense. 
(Lesson XX. p. 27.) 
Note that Nakola is ' I did ' : nakola, « I will do.' 
bakola is ' they did ' : bakola, • they do.' 



yO ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

This tense can be used in the Idiomatic sense, ' How well you did ' 
a long time ago ! — in a manner precisely similar to the use of the 
Present Perfect (Chapter IX. c). It is chiefly used in Narration. 

Exercise. — The fence fell down. We crossed the river. The snake bit 
him. We threw the rubbish away. The garden, went to ruin [zika] long 
ago [e'da]. The parrot, they cut its wings. They killed ['tal the snake. 
They buried its corpse. They fought hard. Many pieces of wood were left 
over. They were silent. The bowls were broken. They brought a nice 
present. We returned [dzayo] the basket. They began- to level the building- 
site long ago. The river flowed fast. My book was burnt (by) fire. Didst 
thou see all the islands? Yes, I saw them. Did you dig out the ant-hill? 
Yes, we dug it out. Did you make that wall? Yes, we made it. Did you 
sew that duster? Yes, I sewed it. They ate the whole parcel -of-food 
which we brought. You did paddle ! Two dusters were lost long ago. 
They were glad to see us. Where did you hide the tribute ? We hid it in 
that hole. They took hold of the wall. They made three fireplaces. We 
crossed two rivers. They brought four parrots to sell '[them]. 

(e) Affixes of Relation. 

There are four such Affixes, viz. : — 

wo, there, where you are. yo, in that place, 

ko, upon. mu, inside. 

wo and yo if not affixed to the verb have forms awo, eyo respectively, 
wo is in constant use ; yo is not often used, and eyo is often preferred 
in these cases. 

aliwo — he is here, where we are : taliwo, he is not here. 

limawo, cultivate just there where you are. 

taliyo, he is not there : ali eyo, he is there. 

lima eyo, cultivate in that place, at some distance. 
ko: — 

amukomyeko, he has stopped upon him ; i. e. he has touched 
him. 
It would not be usual to say 'akomye ku ye.' 

More often partitive 'some of it,' 'a little of it.' Vid. ' ku,' p. 46, 
which is only another form of ' ko.' 

Fumbako, cook it a little. 

Gufumbako (referring to omupunga, rice), cook a little of it. 

Ku bitogo alanzeko bimeka? of the papyrus (stems) how many 
has he twisted ? 
mu: — 

(ekidiba) akigudemu, (the pool) he has fallen into it 

Here 'agude,' he has fallen: agude mu, he has fallen into, ki, the 
proper Objective Prefix for ' ekidiba.' 

It would not be usual to say 'agude mu kyo,' he has fallen into it. 
If however we should add the words for 'man,' 'rice,' 'pool,' in the 
instances after the verb, then we should have : — 

akomye ku muntu : not akomyeko ku muntu. 
fumba ku mupunga: not fumbako ku mupunga. 
agude mu kidiba : not agudemu mu kidiba. 
In other words, the 'ko' or 'mu' belongs to some noun, and when 



' WO': ' KO': ' MU ': ' YO ' 71 

that noun is expressed immediately after the verb, the verbal affix is 
no longer needed. 

When parts of the body are referred to, the person to whom the 
part belongs is usually expressed by the Personal Pronoun Prefix and 
not by the Possessive Pronoun. The idiom is the same as the French, 
ankubye omutwe, he has struck my head. 
ekikusu kimulumye omukono, the parrot has bitten his arm. 
aninye ekigere, he has trodden upon my foot. 
Aninyeko ekigere means, he has trodden upon me with his foot ; as 
a man walking in the dark at night might tread on some one sleeping 
on the floor. 

So much is this form preferred that in a sentence such as ' wash his 
wound,' many people would say 'wash for him the wound,' or even 
' wash him the wound.' 

Some verbs have special meanings with these prepositions, e.g. : — 
gyawo : take away from the place where we are. 
gyako : take away from upon ; e.g. things on a table, bigyako. 
Take ihem away, because they are on the table. It is not correct 
to say gyawo, unless it be to remove them from one part of the table to 
another. 

gyamu : take away from inside, take out ; e. g. anything in a 
hole, kigyamu, take it out. 
The word -gya, take away, generally requires an affix of this sort ; it 
is only used without in a few idioms, such as ekintu kino wakigya wa? 
Where did you get this thing from? 

Similarly the word ' va,' go out, generally takes such an affix, e. g. : — 
vawo : get out from where we are, get out of the way. 
vako : get off from upon, e.g. anyone sitting on your chair, vako, 

get off. 
vamu : get out from inside. 
Similarly, gobamu, drive out from inside ; but goberamu, drive into : 
Fid. p. 126. 

komawo : come back ; lit. stop at the place where you are. 
malamu, finish up completely; lit. finish inside: e.g. medicine 

in a cup, soap in the water with which the washing is done, 
lyamu olukwe : betray ; lit. say suitable words, whilst in your 

heart you seek the man's ruin, 
salamu : cut in two. 
menyamu : break in two. 
yuzamu : tear in two. 

la these last three, the ' mu ' denotes the making of a space in between the fibres 
of the original structure. 

menyekamu, be broken in two : here the 'mu' refers to the same idea. 

This idea can be expanded, so that we say sala mu bisatu, cut into three pieces ; 
menya mu bina, break into four. 

The same idea occurs in the numerals, where the spaces are tens, and we insert 
units into them : e.g. (emiti) abiri mu esatu, twenty-three (trees). 



72 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



omuti guli mu madzi 
ekintu kiri ku ntebe : 
ekintu kiriko entebe : 



If the words which these Prepositional Affixes govern come immediately 
after them, they are separated from the verb, but in no other case. The 
difference in the case of ' mu ' (and ' ko ' for ku) will be marked by the 
presence or absence of the I.V. in the verb following it, e.g. : — 
omuti gulimu amadzi : the tree has water in it. 

the tree is in the water, 
the thing is on the chair, 
the thing has a chair upon it. 

Exercise. — He will dress [nyiga] their wounds. Co down there. Begin 
here where we are. lias he hid his book in the hole? The wood, cut oft* 
a piece. Out of the book which he read, he derived fgyamu) many ideas 
[ebigambo]. Bring a chair [entebe] that I may sit upon (it). I want to ask 
you a few questions [buzako]. The rivers have frogs in them. The frogs 
are in the rivers. The pool has water in it. Take these Mowers off [ku] the 
table. Into the bowl, have you poured the syrup? Into the fort, did you 
(really) go in? On to that ant-hill, have you climbed? He took his book 
from him. He trod on his foot. The iron pierced his arm. We saw all 
his presents ; he gave us some. Of the trees, how many of them has he 
bought ? He has bought seven of them. Take the mud out of this hole. 
Take your arm off my book. In the plot which she cultivated, she sowed 
[in] rice. Take off the lid. The wings, have you cut off apiece? That old 
rag, cut it up [mu]. Cultivate there in that over-run garden. Read a little. 
The snake, he has cut oft"[temako] its head. 



XI. The mu— ba Class. 

This class contains the names of human beings: — 
o mu ntu, a man. Plur. a ba 

In addition are a few words with no Class Prefix 
though they have plural Class Prefix ba. They are : — 



Kabaka, a king, barkabaka. 
Kabona, a priest, bakabona. 
Katonda, God, bakatonda. 
Gundi, so and so, bagundi. 



Sebo, sir, 
Nyabo, lady,* 
Lubare, a spirit, 



Omubaka, 

Omubadzi, 

Omu'du, 

Omudzukulu, 

Omufu, 

Omufumbiro, 

Omugaga, 

Omuganzi, 

Omukopi, 

Omukozi, 

Omukyala, 

Omulabe, 

Omulamuzi, 

Omulangira, 

Omulenzi, 

Omusaja, 

Omusibe, 



a messenger. 
a carpenter. 
a man-slave, 
a grand-child, 
a dead man. 
a cook, 
a rich man. 
a favourite, 
a peasant. 

a workman. 

a lady. 

an enemy. 

a judge. 

a prince. 

a boy. 

a man. 

a prisoner. 



Omusigere, 

Omusika, 

Omugenyi, 

Omugole, 

Omukade, 

Omujulirwa, 

Omukazi, 

Omukesi, 

Omuliranwa, 

Omulogo, 

Omulongo, 

Omumbeja, 

Omulwade, 

Omusawo, 

Omusiru, 

Omusubuzi, 

Omtttongole, 



ntu, men. 

in the singular; 

basebo. 

banyabo. 

balubare. 

a steward, 
an heir, 
a stranger, 
a bride 
an old man. 
a witness, 
a woman, 
a spy. 

a neighbour. 
a wizard, 
a twin, 
a princess, 
a sick person, 
a doctor, 
an idiot. 
a trader, 
a squire. 



MU — BA CLASS 73 



Omuvubuka, 


a youth. 


Omuzana, 


a slave-woman 


Omuwala, 


a girl. 


Omwami, 


a master. 


Omuwesi, 


a smith. 


Omwana, 


a child. 



The Prefix mu is often in itself sufficient to express 'man,' thus : — 
Omukade, an old man — from the root 'kade,' meaning • worn out.' 

So also from 'zibe,' 'shut up,' 'omuzibe,' one deaf, or one 

blind. 
Omugole really means ' mistress,' one having control over one or 

more women. 
Omusaja is male as opposed to female — omukazi. 

Exercise. — Learn the above nouns, and make the plural of those given in 
the second list. 

(a) Subject and Object Prefix. 

The Singular Subject is the same as the third person singular : — 

omuntu a tambula, the man walks, 
omuntu y atambula, the man walked. 

The Singular Object Prefix is mil. 
a mu labye, he has seen him. 
yamu laba, he saw him. 

For the Plural, the syllable ba forms both the Subject and also 
the Object Prefix. 

Subject. — ba tambula, they walk. 

ba tambula (ba a tambula), they walked. 

Object. — a ba labye, he has seen them. 

ki ba gudeko, it has fallen upon them. 

The Object Prefix is used : — 

i. Instead of the noun to which it refers as Object of the Verb, 
ii. To give the force of the English Article when not especially 
emphatic. Thus : — 

Omuntu, 'mulabye, I have seen the man. 
i. e. the man whom you asked about, sent for, etc. 

But, ndabye omuntu, I have seen a man, a chance man. 

So, Omulenzi namugamba, I will tell the boy. 

But, nagamba omulenzi, I will tell a boy. 

When very emphatic, add the Near Demonstrative. 

Ekibanja ekyo l nakikuwa, I will give you the land. 

i. e. about which we have been talking. In English often ' that ' land. 

Exercise. — He has seen the peasant. He told the boy. We have given 
the smith the iron. We have told the doctor to come. I have done 
questioning the women. We want to visit [laba] the traders. The 
girls have cultivated. The men have gone. The stranger has arrived. 
The witness, question him. The blind man has heard all our words. The 

1 Very common expressions may be given elliptically : e. g. above, Ekibanja ekyo 
nakuwa. So also Emere tulese, we have brought the food: Kwako = ' take it' 
Colloquially, 'here you are' for 'nkuwako.' 



74 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

prisoner ran away [duka]. They caught the spies. The rich man has 
given us a present. A girl has brought some flowers. The boy has made 
a cage. The idiot, they have left him in the road. The workmen have 
cut two windows. They turned the wizard out. The steward, let us look 
for him. The carpe'nter has done adzing that piece of wood. The prisoner 
has escaped [bomba]. The messengers have arrived. They have gone to 
see the princess. The doctor has come. The child is in the over-run garden. 

(6) With the Demonstrative. 

omuntu o no, this man. abantu ba no, these men. 

omuntu oyo, that (near) man. abantu a b o, those (near) man. 

omuntu o li, that man. abantu ba H, those men. 

It will be seen that in the singular the vowel 'o' and not the Object 
Prefix, makes all the forms. The plural forms are made in the usual 
way from the Object Prefix ' ba.' Note the ' a ' of this ' ba ' is weak, 
and drops out before a vowel : hence 'abo' for 'a ba o.' 

Reduplicated Forms : — 

Sing. This is the man, ye wuno. 

That is the man, ye wuyo (near), 
ye wuli (ye oli). 
Plur. These are the men, babano. 

Those are the men, be babo (near). 

babali. 

If two nouns of the same class are joined together by the words 'is,' 
'are,' the omission of the I.V. of the Predicative Word is not in itself 
sufficient. The Copula must be inserted as well as the I.V. For this 
Class : — 

ye : he is. be : they are. 

The word 'ye ' is also used for 'he ' as an independent personal pro- 
noun. 

Analytically, the ' e ' of ye 'he' should be shorter than the ' e' of ye ' he is ' ; but 
this does not seem to be the case. The form 'be' is for ba they and ye, an old form 
of the verb 'to be,' meaning 'is.' Similarly kye for ki ye, etc., so that we should 
have expected ' ye ' he is, tc be contracted for yeye. 

Exercise. — That slave. Those prisoners. These boys. This cook. 
That (near) dumb man. Those twins. This favourite. I saw that woman 
yesterday. Those boys came in the morning. This prisoner. This princess 
is a good woman. This is the smith. Tell that (near) boy. These are 
the peasants, we will question them. That dead man, where have you seen 
him ? We went to see those twins. This girl is-fond-of [yagala] sugar-cane. 
These women have cultivated here. These are the grand-children. This 
man reads. This stranger has arrived. This heir has insulted these 
peasants. These traders have brought a good many things. This boy is 
short. That woman is tall. That (near) neighbour is a bad man. Is that 
man rich? Are those strangers witnesses? Have they caught those spies? 
That is the steward. Has that messenger arrived ? These are the slaves. 
This bride. Those women-slaves. These workmen have finished the work 
which you gave them. This cook is a good fellow [omusaja]. This lady is 
very kind [has great kindness]. That squire is a very old man. This-young 
man is deaf. This carpenter is very clever [wamagezi]. That smith is a 
stianger. 



MU — BA CLASS 7 J 

(c) With Adjective and Numeral. 

omuntu omu, one man. abantu batano, five men. 

abantu babiri, two men. abantu 'kumi, ten men. 

abantu basatu, three men. abantu 'kumi nomu, eleven men, 

abantu bana, four men. etc. the numbers i to 5 (or 

compounds of them) being the 
only variable ones. 

It will be noticed that the Class Prefix with I.V. — nru — is the same 
as the word for ' one.' 

Exercise. — Four women. Three boys. Eight girls. They have caught 
many spies. One great princess. Two bad wizards. One of the prisoners 
has escaped. They left two dead men in the forest. They brought fifteen 
sick men. He has four boys. We have seen those twenty-two women. 
Fourteen men and twelve women read a gospel [enjiri]. Two messengers 
have come. Three youths. Fourteen workmen. We saw five strangers. 
They have brought six witnesses. Three are old men. One is a boy. One 
is a woman. Where are the two spies? The three traders have gone. 
One good cook is better than three boys. Of those four peasants one has 
gone, but three were afraid. He has five children. Two are grown up. 
One is in arms [omwana omuwere]. There is one good smitli here. Two 
carpenters live inside that fence. We have seen three boys and four girls. 
Of the princesses, two are very tall ; one is fairly tall ; two are stout. Two- 
women cultivate my garden. One girl helps them. They brought three 
prisoners. 

(d) With Possessive. 

Sing, owa, of. Omuntu wa kabaka, a man of the king. 

Omwana womukazi, the woman's child. 
Plur. aba, of. Abantu ba kabaka, men of the king. 

Aba'du bomwami, the master's slaves. 

SING. PLUR. 

wange, my. bange, my. 

W o, thy. b o, thy. 

w e, his. b e, his. 

wa fe, our. ba fe, our. 

wa mwe, your. ba mwe, your, 

wabwe, their. babwe, their, 

o wa nge, mine. a ba nge, mine, 

o wu wo, thine. a ba bo, thine, 

o wu we, his. a ba be, his. 

o wa fe, our. a ba fe, our, 
etc. etc. 

Abange is frequently used as an exclamation : You there I 
Wangi, also a servant's answer when called. 
The forms Ewafe, at our place, etc., have already been given (p. 47). 
To say, Men of our place, it is necessary to say, They of or at our 
place — abewafe. 

That girl living at your place (that girl of at your place), Omuwala oli 
owewamwe. 






76 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

That man living here : freq. Omuntu owa kuno — because he is liv- 
ing on (ku) this place. It is also possible to say Omuntu oweno : eno 
meaning ' at this place.' 

Exercise— The prince's boy. His prisoner. Their workmen. Our heir. 
The peasants of the steward. The rich man's representative. My carpenter. 
Our neighbours are old men. Her girls are tall, yours are young. We are 
glad [p.pf.] to see our guest. His great-grandchildren are very nice. 
Their cook went a-few-days-back [juzi]. I have seen his boys. His peasants 
and their steward. Your workmen have worked hard. Our prisoner has 
escaped. That girl of ours. His bride has arrived. Their witnesses have 
gone. Our boy is a thorough lad [omuvubuka dala]. Whose slave is this ? 
Theirs. Whose child is that ? Ours. Your child is bigger than ours. 
Their neighbours are the rich man's favourites. Her children are four, thine 
are two. Whose men are these? Of our place. The wizard at thy place. 
Those princesses at his place. That sick man of thine. This messenger of 
his.« The guest who comes from their place. The king's male [abobulenzi] 
children are princes, and his female [abobuwala] children are princesses. 
His father [kitawe] was a chief at your place. The doctor here [oweno] 
surpasses in cleverness [aun.igezi] that one of your place. 

(e) With Relative. 

The Subject Relative in the singular is the same as the ordinary 
subject, except for the Past Tense, e.g.: — 

omuntu akola ebiguli, the man who makes cages : (also, The man 

makes cages). 
omuntu akoze wano, the man who has worked here : (also, The 
man has worked here ? 

For the Future, it is usual to use an auxiliary, viz. ' ja ' for the Near, 
and ' genda ' for the Far Future. 

omuntu aja kukola wano aluwa ? Where is the man who is 

going to work here ? 
omuntu agenda okutunda ekikusu kyafe aluwa ? Where is the 
man who will sell our parrot ? 

There is comparatively little need for the use of the Future with the 
Relative, and generally only in idiomatic sentences like the above. 

For the Far Past Tense : — 

omuntu eyakola ekisakati kyafe, the man who made our fence. 

In the Plural, the Subject Relative is Aba, i. e. the ordinary Subject 
Prefix with I.V. prefixed, e.g. : — 

abantu aba genda jo, the men who went yesterday. 

abantu aba nagenda enkya, the men who will go in the morning. 

The Object Relative : — 

Sing, gwe : omuntu gwe njagala : the man whom I love. 

omuntu gw alabye : the man whom he has seen. 

Plur. be : abantu be njagala : the men whom I love. 

abantu b alabye : the men whom he has seen. 

N.B. — The ist and 2nd pers. pron. I, we ; thou, you ; take the same 
Relative forms as the 3rd pers. He, they. 






MU — BA CLASS 77 

nze gwewalaba, I whom you saw. 
rawe bebakuba, they whom they beat. 

Exercise. — The women who cultivate in our garden. The boys whom I 
saw. The girls whom I told to come. The peasants who live in the gardens. 
Where is the man who has cut this window ? The man whom he has told 
to come. The idiot whom they shut-up [siba] in the house. The strangers 
who have come from far. The twins which she bore [zala] yesterday. The 
smith who has brought this iron. The children who have brought these 
flowers. The enemy [pi.] who robbed our property have been seen. The 
carpenter who cut down that tree has come. His enemy whom he blamed 
[vunana]. The boys whom we saw. The rich man who has given us a 
parrot. The wizard whom the king drove out. The trader who was given 
[webwa] a garden by the rich man. The man whom I hit. The smith who 
comes here every day. The princess who brought this little girl. The 
cook who brought that bowl. The stranger who slept at our place. The 
old man whom we see every day. The princess who came yesterday. Our 
neighbours whom we like, and to whom we have given a present. The 
enemies whom they have overcome [wangula]. The bride whom he has 
taken to his home. The doctor who cured [wonya] our child. The smith (to) 
whom we gave this iron. The steward whom the chief appointed [sawo]. 
The boys who live at his place. The readers whom I taught. The carpen- 
ter whom I told to come. The prisoner whom they released [ta]. The infant 
which she carried [beka]. 

(/) Miscellaneous, 
-tya, can have the following forms : — 

Ntya, How am I ? Tutya, How are we ? 

Otya, How art thou ? Mutya, How are you ? 
Atya, How is he ? Batya, How are they ? 

The phrase ' atya ' is used generally for ' What does it mean ? ' 

otya, more generally ' otyano,' is the usual salutation ; Plur. 
Mutyano. 

-tyo and -ti have the same forms, but bwe is generally prefixed, 
otyo is especially used as equivalent to 'just so,, yes' in con- 
versation. 
The others in such phrases as, Am I to cut it like this ? Nsale bwenti ? 
etc. If the previous conversation has implied the verb, ' Bwenti ' would 
be sufficient. 

-na : ' all ' can be applied to all the plural pronouns, thus : — 
fena, we all ; mwena, ye all, all of you ; abantu bona, all men ; 
omuntu yena, every man. 

-ka : ' alone ' is applied to all persons, thus : — 

nze'ka, I alone, by myself. fe'ka, we alone, by ourselves, 
we'ka, thou alone, by thyself, mwe'ka, ye alone, by yourselves, 
ye'ka, he alone, by himself. bo'ka, they alone, by themselves. 
ye nyini : e. g. omwami ye nyini, the master himself. 
Plur. be nyini : e. g. abawesi be nyini, the true smiths, I mean 

the literal smiths. 
His mvn, their own, etc., can be made emphatic either — 
i. By adding at the end of the sentence the corresponding form for 
alone : e.g. bafumba omupunga gwabwe boka, they cook their own rice. 



78 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

ii. By repeating the pronoun after the possessive : — 
okutesa kwabwe bo, their own counsel, 
omugogwe ye, his very own stick. 

Exercise. — All the workmen have come. That cage, I made it myself. 
How are the ladies ? Let us all go. All of you get up. Every man who 
has a mat. They have brought the prisoners only. Let them all wait. He 
paddles by himself. What do you mean by princes ? I mean the true 
princes, the children of the king. All of you twist plantain-fibre. Will you 
build by yourself? He gave the peasants directions like that. The workman 
has cut his window like this We all pity [p.pf] you. How tall is he? Like 
this. He is taller than you, but his boy is the tallest of all. All the girls 
whom I know live by themselves in his fence. They all read. Fetch the 
parrot by yourself. We all walk like that. This child can [inza] walk alone. 
All our neighbours make their own mats. We have made our own fences. 
The stranger has brought his own mat. All the ladies have arrived. Tell 
them that the bride is here. The traders make their own fences. 

(g) Personified Words. 

These take the same agreement as the singular of the mu, ba Class, 

but have no class prefix, nor I.V. ; nor can they have any plural. 
They are : — 

Balugu, yam. Kyai, tea (or cai). 

Bwino, ink. Lumonde, sweet potato. 

Gonja, plantain. Mukoka, flood. 

Kasoli, Indian-corn. Sabuni, soap. 

Kawa, coffee, Senyiga, cold in the head. 

Kaumpuli, plague. Taba, tobacco. 

Kawali, small-pox. Wuju, marrow. 

Kibuyaga, a storm. 

And a few obviously foreign words — supu, soup ; pudingi, 
pudding. 

Of these, mukoka is the flood of water left after any heavy shower of 
rain, and made during the falling of the rain. 

kaumpuli is loosely applied to a number of severe illnesses, and 
even to a severe attack of fever. It is but rarely applied to a 
true case of bubonic plague, 
bwino ono, this ink. 
kasoli yena, all the corn, 
bwino mulungi, the ink is good, 
lumonde mulaya, English potato (fr. Bulaya, Europe). 

To say 'a single potato,' etc., use the word Omunwe : e.g. : — 
omunwe gwa lumonde gumu, a single potato. 
Or to say, Bring me three potatoes : — 

Leta lumonde eminwe esatu. 
eminwe gya gonja esatu, three plantains, 
or, gonja eminwe esatu. 

Exercise. — This tea. That soap. Our coffee. His tobacco. My potato. 
This yam is good. That marrow has rotted. Bring all the Indian-corn. 
This is the soap. Finish up all the soap. The flood has taken the Indian- 






TERSONIFIITD WORDS : NARRATIVE TENSE 79 

corn which we sowed. Here are plantains, cook them. He died of the 
plague. The plague killed him. We will cook this Indian-corn of ours 
to-morrow. He has caught a' cold [a head-cold has taken him]. The yam, 
he has brought it now [kakano]. Here is the tea ; make [fumba] some now. 
Cook three potatoes. Roast [yokya] four cobs of Indian-corn. Have you 
taken my ink? No, I took my own. Where didst thou buy that ink? It 
is very good. The traders all sell it, but the European [omuzungu] sells the 
best. The soap which we have brought, what does it cost [it buys how] ? 
The tobacco which grew in his plot ; we have bought the whole of it. The 
Indian-corn which they have given us. All our potatoes are small. Theirs 
are small also ; but his are large. The cold which she caught is better 
[vona, p.pf.]. He has caught the small-pox. The storm which raged 
[kuntr>] yesterday has broken all our plantain-trees. There is Namirembe, 
I see it. That is Nakasero ; we went there a few days ago. Rubaga, do 
you see it ? There it is ; yes, I see it. 

Note that often the order of the English is reversed. The same 
happens in such an idiom as — I dropped my book, ekitabo kyange 
kingudeko. 

XII. The Verb continued. 

(a) Narrative Tense : Positive Forms. 

The Narrative Tense is used in describing what took place when a 
number of verbs depend or hang on each other, and it can only be used 
when it has some verb to depend on. The verb on which it depends 
may be in any tense, and this preceding tense gives the precise ' time ' 
referred to by the Narrative Tense. However, the Far Past is by far 
the most common, and is the only one which need be considered here. 

SING. PI.UR. 

1. Nenkola, and I did. 1. Netukola, and we did. 

2. Nokola, and thou didst. 2. Nemukola, and ye did. 

3. Nakola, and he did. 3. Nebakola, and they did. 

/'. e. it consists in placing ' ne ' before the Present Indefinite Tense. 

For • and it did,' ' and they did,' make the forms for ' it does,' 
' they do,' and prefix ' ne,' thus : — 

kikola, gukola, etc., it does; hence nekikola, negukola, etc., and it did. 
bikola, gikola, etc., they do ; hence nebikola, negikola, etc., and they did. 

N.B.— After the word 'gamba,' say, always use the Particle 'nti.' 

(For brevity, the verb on which this tense depends is not always given.) 

Exercise. — And he came. And they went. And they brought a parrot, 
and the parrot flew away. And she cooked some rice. The storm blew and 
the fence fell. And we crossed three rivers, and they were very deep, and I 
dropped my book, and they found it and gave it to me. And the carpenter 
cut down a tree, and I measured it, and he made two cages and one trough, 
and brought them, and I bought thera. And the princess came and said, 
' Thou hast eaten all my sugar-cane, and thou hast thrown away my mat and 
broken his bedstead.' Cook rice and bring it. That old man is a wizard ; 
take hold of him, and bind him and bring him to [eri] the chief. And they 
brought him to the chief, and the chief heard [wulira] the words, and gave 
judgment [sala omusango] and said, 'This man, I know him,' and drove him 
out ofhis garden. The boy hit the snake, and it went and. was lost. The 
carpenter will come and bring his things and make the cage. And I went 



80 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

and said, 'Come and finish your piece of work, and make the partition and cut 
the windows,' and he said, ' I will come [kanjije] and finish your piece of work,' 
and he finished it. And we said, ' Tell us everything,' and they told us every- 
thing, and we understood and we said, ' Now [kale] you do like this, and bring 
us three bowls and throw them into that hole.' They left the garden, and it 
went out of cultivation, and it became jungle [ensiko]. The pieces-of-iron were 
put badly [bera bubi], and they fell and hit him on the foot, and he was laid 
up [ill (in his) foot] a whole month. And the trees grew and brought much 
shade ; and we sat under [mu] them and praised them. 

(/>) Negative tenses, not with Relative. 

(Lesson XX. p. 27). 

It has already been remarked that these are made by putting ' te ' 
before the positive forms for the following tenses, viz. Present In- 
definite, Present Perfect, Near and Far Past and Far Future, except that 
the first pers. sing, is ' si : ' /'. e. Sikola (not tenkola) : sakola (not 
tenakola) : sirikola (not tendikola). 

Many Baganda prefer a form with ' si ' throughout: e.g. situkola, sibakola, 
etc., but this has not been adopted in our translations. Forms with ' te ' through- 
out occur in Lunyoro and dialects. 

For the Near Future negative, prefix 'te'to the Subjunctive form, 
and 'si' as before for the first pers. sing. : e.g. sikole, I will not do: 
tebakole, they will not do. 

For the Negative Subjunctive, use the Subjunctive of the verb 'lema,' 
and the Infinitive of the Verb : e. g. baieme okukola, that they may not 
do : neme okugenda enkya, that I may not go in the morning. 

(Neme for n leme, which latter is an unpronounceable form.) 

In all cases of Negative Future translate by the sense, since the word 
' will ' is not always the sign of the future : e. g. : — 

The bandage will not meet : omugaga gugana okutuka. 

gana means ' say no, refuse,' and ' will ' here means ' is not able to.' 

It would also be possible to say 'tegutuka' in the present, 'It does 
not reach.' 

This work will not take long : omulimu guno tuligukola mangu. 

This fort will not last long: ekigo kino tekigenda kulwawo (better 
than tekirirwawo). 

His head will not get through : omutwegwe gugana okugyamu, 
or tegugenda kugyamu, or tegugyamu, according to the par- 
ticular meaning given to 'will.' 
gyamu = get into a certain space. 

' Thou shalt not do ' is a Negative Imperative. 

Exercise. — They do not make bowls. The iron did not fall. The snake 
has not gone. The traders are not going to come. He will not come. I 
am not going [ja] to go. His boys did not sell the parrot. They have not 
come. We will not leave you [vako]. Tell them ' Do not go.' Bring the 
pins that they may not be lost. Do not clean this part only, but clean all 
the parts. He has not understood. We did not ask them. Did we not 
rejoice very much to see you? The women do not know (how) to paddle. 
The steward did not hinder his master's messenger. The tribute is not com- 
plete [tuka, p. pf.]. I do not know (how) to make a bedstead. Take hold 






NEGATIVE TENSES 8 1 

of my book that it may not fall. They will not go [nr. fut.]. The doorway 
is not narrow [funda, p.pf.]. His arm is short, it will not reach. Shall 1 we 
not cut [nr. fut.] an aperture here? Shall he not beat [nr. fut.] the iron? 
Take that stick from him [gyako], that he may not hit the child. Get up, that 
we may not tread upon you. Cut the parrot's wings, that it may not fly away. 
That peasant does not know how to make a wall. Walk [pi.] carefully 
[mpola] that the papyrus may not delay [ziza] us. Hide [pi.] all the books, 
that the master may not know that we read. They will not work. They 
refuse to work. He will not sell his watch-chain. The fire will not burn. 
He won't [gana, p.pf.] throw away the rubbish. We won't clear [lima] the 
weeds. The lid will not fit [tuka]. These baskets will not suffice [mala]. 
This fence will not last. You will not see any frogs in that river. 

(c) Negative Tense with Relative. 

In Negative Relative Constructions, the Negative is always 'ta,' and 
follows immediately the Subject Prefix. If, therefore, there is an Object, 
it follows the 'ta,' and comes immediately before the verb, e.g. : — 

kyebatalaba, which they did not see. 

nze atamulabye, I who have not seen him. 

omugo gwatabaja, the stick which he did not make. 

omuti ogutamugwako, the tree which did not fall upon him. 

Exercise. — The parrot which did not fall. The chief who did not come. 
The carpenter who did not bring the wood. The man who did not bring a 
parrot. The tailor who does not sew nicely [bulungi]. The tribute which 
he does not bring. The dusters which he did not wash [kuba]. The rubbish 
which he did not throw away. The peelings which he did not collect. The 
tree which they did not cut down. The bowls which I have not bought. 
The salt which I left, have they brought it? The parrot whose feathers I 
did not cut has flown away. The rice which you did not cook in the morn- 
ing, we will eat [it] at mid-day [misana]. Our girl whom we did not see this 
morning has come back. The garden which they did not cultivate has 
become overgrown. The girls whom they did not tell have come to read. 
Tell them to do the work which they have not done. They have brought the 
feathers which will not sell [they refuse to buy]. He has brought the book 
which we would not buy. We who do not know her. The stranger whom 
we did not know. The boys who are not pleased with him. The spies 
whom they do not see. The blind man who does not know our girls- 
Have you brought the piece of iron which is too short [which does not reach] ? 
That book which I am not able to read. The rice which I did not put away 
has rotted. The guava-trees which you did not bring. The deep rivers 
which we were unable to cross. 

(d) Narrative Tense with Negative. 

This can never be used with Relative expressions; but it may be 
helpful to note that the ' ne ' of the Narrative Tense takes the same 
position as the Relative does in Negative expressions, and the order is 
then exactly similar. 

SING. PLUR. 

i. nesikola, and I do not do. i. netutakola, and we do not do. 

2. notokola, and thou dost not do. 2. nemutakola, and ye do not do. 

3. natakola, and he does not do. 3. nebatakola, and they do not do. 

notokola is preferred to notakola. 

1 Note the close connection between this and ' Are we not to? ' Is he not to ? This 
may explain why the Negative Near Future is the form which properly should be the 
Negative Subjunctive. 

F 



82 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

For ' it ' and ' they ' the proper class prefix must of course be used : 
e. g. nekitakola, negutakola, etc. : nebitakola, negitakola, etc. 

Single after a Negative for emphasis — not ... a single ; translate 

by the Numeral for ' one ' with the I.V. preceded by the copula ' n ' 

and; e.g.— 

natalaba muntu nomu, and he did not see a single man. 

teyayogera kigambo nekimu, he did not speak a single word. 

The European seems more partial to this usage than the Muganda. 

Exercise. — And he did not eat. And thou didst not go. And she did not 
cook. And you did not cut down that tree. And you did not bring our 
dusters. And he did not bring his milk-pot. And he did not catch that 
parrot. And I did not see him. And his flute was not found [labika]. And 
the small-pox did not attack him. And his ink was not found. And the 
fence did not fall. And they did not bring a single tree. And we did not 
meet your friend. And the river [the water in the river] did not go down 
[genda]. And they did not say a single word. And thou didst not under- 
stand. And the women did not cook the plantains. And the papyrus did not 
delay us. And we did not fall into that hole. And the chain was not lost. 
And the peasants did not twist that plantain-fibre. And he was not vexed. 
And the windows were not cut [salibwa]. And we did not see a single win- 
dow. And the light was not able to get in [ita]. And you did not see a 
single person. And the plague did not come there. And the tails did not 
appear. And the salt was not stolen [nyagibwa]. And the price was not 
sufficient [tuka]. And the snakes were not lost. And the partition did not 
reach to the top [engulu]. And the books were not sold [tundibwa]. And 
the parrot did not walk. And we did not reach that island. And the wounds 
did not pain us. And the clouds did not rain [tonya]. And he did not eat 
his neighbour's sugar-cane. 

(e) ' Still ' and « Not yet ' Tense. 
Negative Infinitive. 
'Not yet ' is generally expressed by the auxiliary ' na,' thus : — 

SING. PLUR. 

i. si'naba kugenda, I have \ ~ . tetu'naba kugenda, we have \ 53 . 

2. to'naba „ thou hast V^g temu'naba „ you have iTs 

3. ta'naba „ he has ] c u teba'naba „ ' they have] c " 

And proper forms for 'it' and 'they,' as teki'naba, tegu'naba, tebi'naba, 
etc. Lit. I am not yet to go, etc. It is also possible to say Si'nagenda, 
I have not yet gone ; tonogenda, thou hast not yet gone, etc. This 
would imply the further condition, ' I have no intention of going.' 

' Not yet ' as an answer to questions is also expressed by this tense of 
the Auxiliary ' ba' with the proper subject prefix. 

Agenze? Has he gone? ta'naba, not yet. 

Kigude ? Has it fallen ? teki'naba, not yet. 

Omupunga guide ? Is the rice cooked ? tegu'naba, not yet. 

Mugenze ? Have you gone ? tetu'naba, not yet. 

Negative Infinitive, obutagenda, not going, not to go. 

obutalya, not eating, not to eat. 

These are, strictly speaking, nouns (verb-noun or gerund), just in the same 
way that the positive infinitive is. 



' NOT YET ' : ' STILL ' : ' NO LONGER ' 83 

Still ' Tense. 



SING. PLUR. 



m i. tukyafumba, we are 



a 



2. mukyafumba, ye are 



' 3 3. bakyafumba, they are 



- o 

o 
u 



1. nkyafumba, I am 

2. okyafumba, thou art 

3. akyafumba, he is 

This form can be negatived by prefixing ' si ' to the first pers. sing, 
and ' te ' for the other forms. We thus get Sikyafumba, tokyafumba, etc. 
This means ' I am no longer cooking,' though I once was. 

il SING. PLUR. 

1. nkyali, lam 1 1. tukyali, we are } 

2. okyali, thou art J-S 2. mukyali, ye are -3 

3. akyali, he is J 3. bakyali, they are J 

With the proper class prefix (ki, gu, etc.) for 'it,' 'they,' in the third 
person. 

The forms nkyali, tukyali in the sense ' I am here, quite well,' do not seem 
to belong to Luganda ; though common in Busoga. 

' I am still here,' and interrogatively ' Are you still there ? ' are expressed 
by Gyendi and Gyoli ? respectively with corresponding forms for all 
other persons. If, however, emphasis is to be laid on the ' here,' the 
forms nkyali wano arid okyaliwo ? respectively are used ; and so for all 
persons and classes. 

The third person occurs as in English, e.g. : — 
omupunga gukyali mubisi, the rice is still raw. 

iii. A third form made from the modified form occurs in the case of 
a few verbs. Such are ' bakyatude,' ' wakyasigade,' and perhaps a few 
others ; with similar forms for other persons and classes. It seems to 
mean — They have become seated, and still are continuing so for want 
of interference. 

This form being so rare is not referred to in Table 4, The Verb. 

No longer : 

ebitogo tebikyalabika, papyrus is no longer to be found. 

All these cases of 'still' and 'not yet' denote an active state, not a 
mere condition. Thus such a sentence as, The water is no longer deep, 
should be given by some such paraphrase as, Amadzi gagenze, wasigade 
matono. 

The, two forms Si'naba, formed from 'ba' and 'nkyali,' formed 
from ' li,' illustrate the rule that ' ba ' is always used in general statements 
and ' li ' in particular ones. Hence there can be no other forms, as 
si'nali or nkyaba. 

Exercise. — I have not yet seen his foot. We are still eating. He is no 
longer making his section [ekituli]. The frogs are still croaking [kaba]. He 
is no longer ill. The boys have not yet brought the papyrus. The girl has 
not yet taken the bowl. Has the fence fallen ? not yet. Have they brought 
the parrot? not yet. Have they found my book ? not yet. I am still looking 
for it. The fat has not yet melted. The peasants no longer work hard. 
Those two boys have not yet helped us. I have not yet learnt that drum- 
beat. The smoke is still in the room [ekisenge]. The corpses are still in 



8 4 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



the swamp. They have not yet been buried [zikibwa]. The doorway is no 
longer narrow. Fever no longer attacks him. The iron is no longer hot. 
The rivers are still deep. Those two snakes have not yet gone. Do the 
books still sell [buy] (for) a large price ? no, they sell [buy] for a little. This 
wound is still large. Our girls no longer read. My boy has not yet bought 
a book. These gardens are still good. They have not yet gone to ruin. 
The women of your place have not yet cleared those weeds. Has he done 
selling ? not yet. You have not yet shaken the mats. The dusters are still 
wet. They have not yet dried. What have you cooked ? I have not yet 
cooked. The girls have not yet got up. The bowl is still whole. It is not 
yet broken. They have not yet lit the fire. She is no longer afraid of the 
parrot. The readers no longer come. I have not yet gone out of here. 
The chief has not yet given us a present. We are still waiting at his place. 
Not to cultivate. Not to understand. Not to walk. Not to paddle. Not 
to ask. Not to buy. Not to lie. Ignorance. Not working. Want of 
pity. Not saying. 

XIII. The li— ma (or 'Stone') Class. 

Belonging to this Class are mostly things hard, bare and flat, being 
either parts of the body, or fruits and other natural objects. The Plural 
form is also applied to fluid substances, there being of course no corre- 
sponding singular to such nouns. 



E'bali, side of things. 
E'banga, space. 
E'banja, debt. 
E'bega, shoulder. 
E'bere, breast. 
E'bwa, sore. 
E'bugumu, warmth. 
E'dagala, medicine. 
E'dala, piece of scaffolding. 
E'danga, lily. 
E'dobo, hook. 
E'dobozi, sound, voice. 
E'dogo, witchcraft. 
E'fumu, spear. 
E'gero, wonder. 
E'gi, egg. 
E'gigi, curtain. 
1 E'goba, profit. 
E'gumba, bone. 
E'gwanga, a nation. 
E'gwanika, store. 
E'jembe, horn. 
E'jengo, wave. 
E'jinja, stone, 
E'jiba, dove. 
E'joba, tuft, crest. 
E'jovu, foam. 



E'kovu, snail. 

E'kubo, road. 

Erinya, name. 

Erinyo, tooth. 

Eriso, eye. 

Erigwa, thorn. 

Eryato, canoe. 

E'sabo, temple. 

E'sanda, resin. 

E'sanga, ivory. 
*E'sanyu, joy. 

E'sasi, bullet, lead. 

E'siga, cooking-stone. 

E'siga, scorpion. 

E'sonko, shell. 
*E'subi, grass. 
*E'subi, hope. 

E'tabi, branch. 
*E'taka, earth. 
2 E' tale, uncultivated land 

E'toke, plantain-fruit. 
*E'tosi, mud. 
*E'tumbi, midnight. 
*E'tuntu, mid-day. 

E'vivi, knee. 
*E'vu, ashes. 

E'ziga, tear. 



1 Mostly, if not enu'rely Plural — amagoba. 

2 amatale means ' iron-stone ore,' ' haematite.' 



LI — MA CLASS 85 

It will be noticed that the class prefix is only ' li ' in a very few cases ; 
and that in all cases where it is not ' li ' the first consonant is an exploded 
one. This consonant ceases to be an exploded one in the plural, e. g. 
Amafumu, amabega. Exc. ama'bali. 

Those words which have no plural are marked thus.* Those beginning 
with 'j ' change ' j ' to 'y ': e.g. amayengo from e'jengo, amayovu from 
e'jovu. Eryato in the plural becomes amato ; eriso, amaso ; E'gwanga, 
amawanga ; e'gwanika, amawanika. 

Those beginning with 'd,' change ' d ' to ' 1 ': e.g. e'danga, amalanga. 

The following have no singular : — 

A'madzi, water. Amakaja, swollen limbs. Amanyi, strength. 

Amafuta, oil. Amalala, pride. Amasira, pus. 

Amagezi, wisdom. Amalusu, spittle. Amata, milk. 

Exercise. — Make the plurals of the above list of nouns. 

(a) The Simple and the Relative Subject. 

The Simple Subject ' it,' ' they,' is— 

Sing. li. Plur. ga. 

e'fumu li buze, the spear is lost, 

amafumu ga buze, the spears are lost. 

To form the Relative Subject, it is only necessary to add the proper 
I.V. to the Simple Subject : thus : — 

e'fumu e ribuze, the spear which is lost, 
amafumu a ga buze, the spears which are lost. 

When li comes before a vowel, li becomes ly, e. g. : — 

efumu ly abula, the spear was lost, 

efumu e ry abula, the spear which was lost. 

When ga comes before a vowel the ' a ' drops, and the vowel before 
which it is dropped is lengthened. 

amafumu g abula (ga a bula), the spears were lost, 
amafumu a g abula (a ga a bula) the spears which were lost. 

Exercise. — The spear has fallen. The spear which has fallen. The thorn 
which has pierced his foot. The doves are cooing in the tree. The doves 
which are cooing in the tree. The bullets passed here. The bullets which 
have passed. The waves struck the canoe. (My) knee hurts me. The 
knee which hurt me. The oil has run-out [genda, p.pf.]. The lilies which 
grow [labika] on the moor [etale]. We are pleased [joy has caught us]. 
The spears which glitter. The mud which has struck us. The branches 
fell in the road ; and they dried. The canoe will take us to-morrow. The 
canoes which will take us in the morning. The grass has come. The milk 
is going to-turn-sour [kwata]. His eye is going to be bad [lwala]. The 
eggs are broken [menyeka, p.pf.]. The madness which seized him. A 
canoe cannot-be-found [bula, p.pf.]. The temples which fell down. The 
swollen-limbs which pain him. The water which flows here. The sore 
which hurts you. 



86 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



(/>) Demonstrative. 

These are formed in the usual way by means of the prefix ' li ' for the 
Singular, and ' ga ' for the Plural : that is, those prefixes which form the 
Subject. 

SING. PLUR. 

e'fumu li no, this spear. amafumu ga no, these spears, 

e'fumu e ry o, that (near) spear. amafumu ago, those (near) spears. 
e'fumu li ri, that spear. amafumu ga li, those spears. 

Notice 'eryo ' for e li o, and 'ago ' for a ga o : according to the rule 
given at the end of the last section (ly and g before a vowel). 

Reduplicated forms : — 

Sing, e'fumu lirino, here is the spear, 

e'fumu liriri, there is the spear. 

Plur. amafumu gagano, here are the spears, 

amafumu gagali, there are the spears. 

Exercise. — These eggs. That hanging. This skin. Those wonders. 
This hook. This space. Those homs. This canoe. Those (near) teeth. 
These roads. These names. That dove. That (near) branch. This sore. 
That (near) shell. Those (near branches which have fallen. This (piece-of) 
ivory. That tooth has come out. Those eyes. This milk has turned. The 
mid-day was like [fanana] night. Take away those thorns which stop the 
road These are the names. This is the tooth. That debt has come to an 
end fwede]. Those (near) spaces which appear. These cooking-stones. 
This sore which I dress. Those (near) ashes. These are the pieces of ivory. 
This road is very crooked. These horns are white. This road is slippery. 
This branch will sprout. These doves coo at [mu] mid-day. These names. 
There is the earth. I saw that snail. Those are the spears. These temples 
have fallen. Those bones are scattered. Fetch those pieces-of-scaffolding. 
Stamp [samba] that (near) earth. Here is the water. 

(c) The Numeral: Adjective (Plural only). 

The Singular agreement of the Adjective presents some difficulty, and 
will be dealt with later on. The Plural agreement presents nothing 
difficult or unusual, thus : — 

amafumu amalungi, good spears. 

/. e. prefix to the adjective root the same I.V. and class prefix as has 
been prefixed to the noun root. 

Numerals. 

efumu limu, one spear. amafumu atano, five spears, 

amafumu abiri, two spears. amafumu omukaga, six spears, 

amafumu asatu, three spears. amafumu ekumi, ten spears, 
amafumu ana, four spears. amafumu ekumi ne limu, eleven 

spears, etc. 

Only the numbers one to five inclusive are variable ; and it will be 
noticed that the 'a' of the forms abiri, asatu, etc., is not an I.V. but a 
class prefix; there is no I.V. to these forms, amafumu asatu mu abiri, 






LI — MA CLASS 87 

thirty-two spears ; or briefly, asatu mwabiri. Should any confusion be 
likeiy to occur as to whether three or thirty, etc., was meant, insert the 
word ' amakumi ' before the higher number ; thus, amafumu asatu, three 
(not thirty) spears ; amafumu amakumi asatu, thirty spears, etc. 

The order of Adjective, Numeral, and Demonstrative, when prefixed 
to the same noun, has already been given, p. 22. 
amafumu ameka ? How many spears. 

Exercise. — Good eggs. Bad canoes. Large eyes. Small teeth. Hard 
[kalubo] shells. Short names. Soft bones. These beautiful teeth. Those 
long spears. This cheese [dry milk]. These new names. That cold water. 
One voice. Three snails. Those three snails. Five eggs. These five eggs. 
Three spaces. Ten spaces. Thirteen spaces. Those (near) thirteen spaces. 
Those thirteen good eggs. How many roads? four. Twenty nice stones. 
Twenty-four good canoes. These loud [nene] voices. Five bones. Hard 
shells. Five hard bones. Those five difficult names. Eighteen lilies. 
These eighteen bullets are bad. I low many names are difficult? these four 
names are difficult. These two stones are very large. Those four are very 
small. Bring five fairly large stones. Those (near) thorns have pierced me. 
Those two horns are long. Three large waves came and broke our nice 
canoes. Tins br&nch has upon it many thorns. How many debts has he ? 
he has two big debts. Four eggs are bad, five are good. These two 
canoes are new. These young plantains. 

(d) Simple and Relative Object Prefix. 

The Simple Object Prefix " it," " them," is— 
Sing. li. Plur. ga. 

efumu nalitwala, I will take the spear, 

amadzi na ga leta, I will bring the water, 

amagumba tu ga lonze, we have picked up the bones. 

To form the Relative Object, add ' e ' to each of these* forms, as has 
been done similarly, to form the Relative Object of other classes. 
Hence we get — 

Sing, lye (li e). Plur. ge (ga e). 
efumu lyetwaleta, the spear which we brought, 

amadzi ge tulese, the water which we have brought, 

amagumba ge tulonze, the bones which we have picked up. 

Exercise. —We have paid the debt. I will buy that skin. We filled the 
spaces (with) earth. I found a hook yesterday. I have brought the milk. 
We will cultivate the road. They have not yet brought the ivory. The 
stones which he threw. We will buy the grass. The earth which they have 
brought [somba]. The profits which we made [gobamu]. The tears which 
she shed [kaba]. The piece of ivory which I saw. The cooking-stones 
which I have brought. The bullets which I made [fumba]. The thorn 
which I took-out-of [gyamu] my foot. The dove which I caught. The 
ashes which thou hast thrown away. The temples which they have built. 
The names which this teacher has brought. The scaffolding which the 
peasants brought yesterday, they will tie [it] to-morrow. Cook the eggs 
which I have bought in the morning. I have done pouring the oil into the 
lamp. We bought the curtains which the master has put up [timba]. The 
canoes which the Sese people made [siba] have arrived. I saw them. That 
egg which I have bought is-bad [wunyaj. The name which they called 
[tuma] you is pretty. We put the hooks which you bought in the store. I 
took the curtain which he has hung up out of the store. 



88 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Sing, erya (e li a) of : 
Plur. aga (a ga a) of: 

Sing, lya nge, my. 
lyo, thy. 
lye, his. 
lyafe, our. 
lya m we, your, 
lyabwe, their. 

erya nge, mine, 
e ri ryo, thine, 
eri rye, his. 
e rya fe, ours, etc. 

ekitabo erinya lyakyo, 
omusota erinya lyagvvo, 



(e) Fosse8sives. 

efumu lya kabaka, the king's spear, 
amasanga ga kabaka, the king's ivory. 

Plur. gaange, my. 
go, thy. 
ge, his. 
gafe, our. 
ga mwe, your. 
ga bwe, their. 

a ga nge, mine, 
a ga nge, thine. 
a gage, his. 
a gafe, ours, etc. 

the book its name, 
the snake its name, 
amagwa ebiwundu byago, the thorns their wounds. 

Other forms: lya means 'of for the Singular; hence with other 
classes we get — 

lyagwo, lyakyo, of it, its. 
lyagyo, lyabyo, of them, their. 

lyo means ' it ' in reference to this class ; hence — 

gwalyo, kyalyo, gyalyo, byalyo, of it, its. 
ga means ' of for the Plural ; hence — 

gagwo, gakyo, of it, its. 

g a gyo, gabyo, of them, their. 
go means ' it ' in reference this class ; hence — 

gwago, kyago, gyago, byago, of them, their. 

Remember the 'of agrees with the noun immediately preceding, the 
' it ' with the thing referred to. 

a canoe its pieces of wood. 

a fence its wisdom (i. e. the way it is 

made). 
at the side of. 



eryato emiti gyalyo, 
ekisikate amagezi gakyo, 



ku ma'bali ga, 

Exercise.— His voice. Their knees. Your tears. My bullets. Thy 
canoes. My joy. Your eye. Their curtains. The young man's spears. 
My teeth. Our cooking- stones. My piece of ivory. His madness. Your 
tooth. His store. Their voice. Thy spears. Their nation. Our pieee- 
of-scaffo!ding. That man's joy. My boy's hope. The temples of the 
peasants. The women and their sores. Our debts. Your names. Their 
spears. His stone. The master's curtain has fallen down at the side of the 
bed. At the side of the road. At the side of the temple. That tree and 
its branches. The canoe and its seats [amabanga]. The snail and its shell. 
The fire and its ashes. The wall and its curtains. The fire and its warmth. 
The snake and its teeth. The parrot and its eye. The tree and its resin. 
His debt is large, mine is small. Whose piece of ivory is this? mine. 
Whose medicine is that (near)? yours. Whose name? that woman's. 



LI — MA CLASS 89 

Whose voice? his. His canoes are long, ours are short. Your plantain-fruit 
is not full-grown. His is good. I have brought the spear and its shaft 
[omuti]. Their new names. His two new canoes. Thy three canoes are 
new. That temolc of theirs. These long spears of yours. Thy curtains 
are very wide, mine are narrow. The temple and its builder [omuzimbi]. 
Whose skin is this ? Mine. 

(/) Negatives. 

These are similar to those already given ; only using as the Class 
Prefix li for the Singular, and ga for the Plural. 

Direct : — 

e'bwa terimuluma, the sore does not hurt him. 

e'bwa teryamuluma, the sore did not hurt him. 

e'bwa talinyize, the sore he has not dressed it. 

e'bwa teyalinyiga, the sore he did not dress it. 

amafumu tegagwa, the spears do not fall, 

amafumu tegagwa, the spears did not fall, 

amafumu tagalese, he has not brought the spears, 

amafumu teyagaleta, he did not bring the spears. 

Relative : — 

e'bwa eritamuluma, the sore which does not hurt her. 

e'gi eryatagwa, the egg which does not fall, 

e'banga lyatalese, the space which he has not left, 

e'banga lyebataleka, the space which they did not leave, 

amafumu agatagwa, the spears which do not fall (agatagwa, 

which did not fall). 

amayinja gatasombye, the stones which he has not brought, 

amayinja gebatasombye, the stones which they have not brought. 

And similarly for the other tenses. 
Narrative : — 

amafumu nebatagaleta, and they did not bring the spears, 
e'kubo netutaliraba, and we did not find the road, 

e'kubo neritalabika, and a road was not visible, 

amalanga negaba mangi, and the lilies were numerous. 

Exercise. — This grass is not sufficient. They do not sell the spears. He 
has not yet paid his debt. This canoe does not travel fast [manguj. Will 
not this road reach ? The thorns will not stop the road. Bones do not melt. 
Doves do not coo at night. The tooth will not sell for much [buy (for) a 
big value]. The water has not yet dried up. That spear will not cut 
pieces-of-wood. The stone which I did not break. The medicine which 
she refused to drink. The voice which we did not hear. The temple which 
they have not yet finished. The earth which did not fall. The tears which 
she did not shed. The milk which thou hast not brought, where is it ? I 
will use [twala ku] the oil which he did not sell. They have brought seven 
spears and_ have not sold one. They have brought a piece of ivory, but I 
will not buy it. I will put a stone here and it will not fall [Nar. tense]. 
The eggs were not broken. And the thorns did not pierce our feet. And 
the water did not flow. And he did not hurl the spear. And the temple 
was not burnt [gya omuliro]. That earth will not suffice. Lilies no longer 
grow here. The thorn which did not pierce my hand. The snail which did 
not crawl [genda] on my book crawled on hers. The curtains which are not 



90 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

hung [timbibwa]. The lilies which are not found on the uncultivated land. 
The ashes which are not collected [yolehwaj. 

(g) Miscellaneous. 

-tya : Sing, litya. Plur. gatya. 

e'kubo litya? what do you mean by ' road ' ? 
amanya gatya ? names, what do you mean by that ? 
e'kubo lifanana litya ? what is the road like ? 
amagi gali gatya ? what are the eggs like ? 

-/*: like this, with accompanying action. 

Sing, bweriti (seldom liti). Plur. bwegati (seldom gati). 
kwata e'kubo bweriti, keep on this same road (//'/. keep to the 

road like this, 
amadzi gali bwegati, the water is like this. 

-tyo : like that. 

Sing, bwerityo. Plur. bwegatyo. 

e'sabo balizimba bwerityo, the temple they built it like that, 
amanya gawandikibwa bwegatyo, the names were written like 
that. 

ona\ all. 

e'gi lyona, all the egg. amagi gona, all the eggs. 

o'ka : only. 

e'gi lyo'ka, the egg only, the egg by itself (and nothing else). 

amadzi go'ka,- water only : water (and nothing else). 
nyini : e'fumu lye nyini, I mean the literal spear. 

amato ge nyini, the actual canoes : the material canoes. 

same : 

e'kubo lino lye limu na liri, this road is the same as that. 

amayinja gano ge gamu, these stones are the'same. 

eryato lyange lye limu neriryo, my canoe is the same as thine. 

The other ideas of comparison by means of the verbs ' singa ' or 
' yenkana,' or by the preposition ' ku.' 

ku mato gano, abiri gali mabi, two of these canoes are bad. 

ku masasi gano agamu gali manene, some of these bullets are 

too large, 
e'fumu lyange lisinga obuwanvu, my spear is the longer, etc 
Vid. p. 57. 

Exercise. — Bring all the bones. What do you mean by 'bones'? The 
bones of the parrot which we buried. Turn your shoulders like this. Look 
for a horn which is like this (one). They gave him a name like this. They 
found a branch like that. They have brought plantain-fruit only. They 
found there [sangayo] thorns only. In the road there is nothing but- [wabula] 
mud. He did not find a single canoe. What do you mean by canoe? — the 
canoe which we asked for. How many canoes are there? What are they 
like ? How big is the largest ? The largest has twelve seats. Tell them to 
bring two larger ones of fifteen seats. This piece of scaffolding will not 
reach. Look for a longer piece. My name is nicer than thine. What are 



1 NGA AFFIXED TO THE VERB 91 

their teeth like ? like this. They make them more pointed than we do. 
This plantain-fruit of ours is much larger than yours. It is equal to two of 
yours together [awamu]. Our nation is a larger one than yours. How much 
larger? These snails are bigger than those which we saw yesterday. How 
big are they ? like this. How shall we fight with 1 such a vast number of 
canoes? What shall we do with such nasty sores? Of these thorns which 
is the longest? The one which I have put on the table [emeza] is the 
longest. His joy is greater than mine. How greater? He has made 
[visamu] larger profits than mine. His knee is more swollen than yours. 
These horns are the same length. Those (near) snails are the same size. 
Those waves were the largest I have seen. He has brought more earth than 
you. I have picked [menya] more lilies than you. All the roads are alike, 
they all have mud in them. Mid-day and midnight are not the same thing 
[kigambo]. All his spears are poor ; I want two better ones. Only three 
of those eggs are fresh [lungi]. I want grass only. I want the same grass 
as that which you brought yesterday. Well [kale], let us bring some. These 
are the widest curtains of all which I have seen. 

XIV. Manner, Time, and Place. 

(a) Nga as an Affix. 

Nga added to the end of a verb-form gives the idea of continued 
action. It can, therefore, not be added to those tense-forms which 
already denote continued action ; /'. e. to the Present Indefinite and 
Pre?ent Perfect. 

It may be interesting to note in this connection that it is not to be added to an 
Infinite, which refers to a strictly present and continuous event. ' He % is wont to read 
every day' = alina empisaye okusoma bulijo, with no 'nga,' because strictly presentt 
But, Bamugamba okusomanga bulijo, ' they told him to read every day ' — here ' nga 'is 
used because the command was given some time ago, and the matter referred to is no 
longer strictly present. This is by far the most common in books ; the former in 
conversation. Hence apparent differences in the use of ' nga* which may be noticed. 

The following are a few examples of its use : — 

fumbanga omupunga bulijo, cook rice every day. 

musomenga, read continually, read regularly. 

yakolanga, he made habitually, he used to make. (E'da is 

sometimes added to make the meaning more clear.) 
omuntu eyakolanga ebibya, the man who used to make bowls, 
anasomanga, he will read continually (at the proper time), he 

will read every day. 

The Far Future has no form with ' nga,' because it can only represent 
a single action. 

The addition of the Negative gives some particular meanings — 

takolenga, he will never do. 
N.B. — This is Near Future, not Imperative. 

abantu tebakyajanga kusoma, people no longer come to read. 

The addition of ' nga ' to the ' kya ' Tense adds an element of un- 
certainty. They may come occasionally ; or, there may be some hope 

1 ' Such a vast number,' ' such nasty,' etc., is expressed by ' yenkana awo.' It is 
usual to say ' genkana' and not ' gayenkana.' 



92 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



«, 



that they will improve in their coming. This form is only to be used 
rarely, and with a qualifying infinitive after it. 

ta'nagendanga, he has never yet gone. 
The Present Indefinite with Negative takes ' nga.' 
sikolanga bwentyo, I never do so. 

These meanings are the obvious result of making the negatived verb 
continuous in its action, and therefore need no explanation. 

' nga ' always comes immediately after the verb-root, and therefore 
before any affix such as ko, wo, or mu — 

tekigwangamu, it never falls in. tokigyangako, never take it off. 

' Never ' must only be translated by ' nga ' with negative when it de- 
notes continuous action. Where it does not denote continuous action 
the simple negative must suffice ; unless an additional phrase is made to 
strengthen the assertion ' Something expected never came ' ; either ' It 
did not come ' ; or add to that some such phrase as ' We wanted it very 
much but (it did not come).' 

Exercise. — They used to buy plantain-fruit every day. They buy plantain- 
fruit eveiy day. We will count the profits regularly. The canoe nc longer 
gets-lost [hula]. They will take away the ashes every morning. This is 
where they mix medicine. He no longer works hard. The master no 
longer takes a walk [tambulako] in the evening. Bones never melt. He 
never loses [gwamu] his hope. His voice never fails [bula] him. His eye 
no longer sees. They never point their teeth. The waves lifted the canoe 
repeatedly [many times]. The man who used to sew curtains. The girls no 
longer help us to cook the plantains. These women used to cultivate every 
morning and every evening. His eye is bad [lwala], but it never hurts him. 
This woman will help us every day. They no longer get drunk. Do you 
never pity people? Some people will never understand. These readers 
will be seen every morning. They no longer wash the dusters. Books are 
never distributed [gabibwa]. We shall never insult that old man. We 
never eat frogs. The chain never came. Take ['dira] some potatoes every 
moming and cook them. The boys who used to sew have gone. The 
water in [of in J that river never dries up. 



(6) Nga as a Prefix. 

Nga as a prefix means, lit. ' thus.' Its effect is to bring any action 
into the immediate present, and describe it as though actually going on. 
Thus when joined to a Verb form : — 

i. It corresponds to the Greek Participle, serving to express almost 
any conjunction. See remarks on p. 35. 

nga bakola, they working — if they are working, 
amadzi nga gaide, the water having boiled — when the water 
has boiled. 

ii. It represents the English Participle, especially in Narration, and 
may even take the place of the Narrative Tense : — 

twabasanga nga bafumba, nga bazina, nga balya ... we found 
them cooking, dancing, eating . . . 



'nga' prefixed to the verb 93 

It rarely represents the English Participle in other cases : — 

ntambulatambulako nemfumitiriza, I meditate walking abojt ; less commonly, 
mfumitiriza nga ntambulatambulako. 

(a) After the Verbs laba, see ; leka, leave ; sanga, find ; siba, spend the day, it is 
more idiomatic to omit ' nga': — 
laba baja, see them coming ; mulese aja, I left him coming ; 'musanze asitula, T 
found him going ; nsibye nunze, I have spent the day herding. 

(£) If the Participle is at all emphatic, translate by Indicative or Subjunctive : — 
tuimirire netuimba, let us sing standing. 

(c) Distinguish from the Gerund : — 

okukaba kwe kuguma ? is crying the way to be brave ? linya ku muti guno : 
bwonotuka, you will reach by standing on this bit of wood. 

iii. It expresses 'how,' — how nice it is, nga kirungi ; how nicely you 
are dressed, nga oyambade. Cf. p. 64, sec. (r), for a similar use 
without • nga.') 

iv. Followed by the ' not yet ' tense, it expresses ' before,' — especially 
when the simple sentence is negative, i.e. Don't do, before this 
happens, e. g. : — 

sirigenda nga ta'naba kutuka, I shall not go before he arrives. 

Lit. he not yet having arrived, 
totambula nga si'naba kukugamba, Don't walk before I tell you. 

' That ' after Verbs of knowing and the like is translated by ' nti,' e.g. : — - 
'manyi nti yagenda, I know that he went. 
simanyi nti kija kugenda, I did not know that it would go. 
bategdra nti tetukola ku Sabiti, they understand that we do no 

work on Sunday, 
sategera nti ogenda kukola enkya, I did not understand that 

you were going to work in the morning. 

' Whether ' after negatived verbs of knowing, understanding, hearing, 

etc., is translated by ' nga,' e. g. : — 

simanyi nga agenze, I do not know whether he has gone. 

sitege'ra nga bakola lero, I do not understand whether they work 

to-day. Though under certain circumstances it may be better 

to use ' obanga,' for instance, in the last sentence. 

Note how closely these two conjunctions ' that ' and ' whether ' go together in 
meaning. 

' If obanga, generally put first in the sentence ; e.g. : — 

obanga onokola sitegede, I do not understand if you will work, 
obanga agenze, komawo, If he has gone, come back. 

Exercise. — I found him singing. I have seen a snake eating. I have 
heard that the river is not deep. I understood that the princesses do no 
work. If he goes back fdayo) tell me. The sugar-cane, if it has sprouted 
it is well. Working hard, he will finish to-morrow. I found my book fallen. 
What a nice book ! The parrot which he has given us, how nice (it is) ! 
Walking all day [omusana] you will arrive in the evening. Do not measure 
the partition before I arrive. If you do not tell, how will he pity you? You 
want to sleep [okwebaka] before you have made a hut [enju]. You want to 
fold the clothes [engoye] before you have washed them. Go and see whether 
they have done plaiting the fibre. Don't help the food before we have sat 



94 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

down. The flute which you have brought, how nice (it is) ! My friend, how 
ill you are ! If you sow [sowing] Indian com now, you will eat it in three 
months' time [three months having passed]. We arrived and found the 
fence fallen down. The fat having melted, bring it here. Do not cook the 
rice before washing it. Do not put anything else [other things] in the store 
before sweeping [in] it. I will not buy a book again before I have seen it. 
Waiting here they will see the king and two prisoners passing. How that 
snake bites ! If you hide the book here, there is no one who will see it, 
even though [songa] he search diligently. When you stop-talking [being 
silent] I will teach you. How the frogs jump ! Walking there, the thorns' 
will pierce your foot. Have you seen the youths throwing their spears? 
Yes, we have seen the king's boy throwing his. They have filled the jug 
(with) milk before cleaning it. Do they not know milk is spoilt [yononeka] 
like that ? 

(c) How, just as. 

1 how,' meaning ' in what condition ' — translate by ' bwe.' 
alwade, tomanyi bwali, he is ill, you don't know how ill he is. 
ejinja lino, tomanyi bwerizitowa, this stone, you don't know 
how heavy it is. 

Often, as in the first instance, the context must give the precise shade 
of meaning. 

N.B. — This conjunction has the same root-idea as the Class Prefix bu {vid. p. io6, 
ii.), and denotes 'The state in which.' 

'Just as' is translated by nga . . . bwe, thus :— 

kola, nga bwenkoze wano, make (it) just as I have made it here. 
Lit. Make it thus, The way (state or condition) in which I have made it. 

atambula nga kabaka bwatambula, he walks just as the king 
does. 

Note that the English is 'just as he does, did,* 1 etc. : the Luganda 
repeats the preceding verb 'walk,' etc. 

'like' : (a) As a mere conjunction, is translated by 'nga'; e.g. : — 

atambula nga ekikusu kyange, he walks like my parrot, 
alya nga ensolo, he eats like a wild beast. 

(/3) If joined to the Verb to be, use ' fanana' ; e.g. : — 

omuwala ono afanana omukade, this girl is like an old 

woman, 
elaka lino lifanana liri, this earth is like that. 

(y) 'seems like,' ' looks like,' use ' -ling'anga ' ; e. g: : — 

omuwala ono aling'anga mukade, this girl looks like ah old 

woman, 
etaka lino liring'anga liri, this earth seems like that. 

N.B. — ' fanana,' when it does not denote exact identity, is followed 
by ' nga ' ; e.g. omuwala ono afanana nga mukade (if the identity is not 
exact), the noun following 'nga' being predicate and having no I.V. 

Exercisi. — Write just as I have written. Tell the peasants to cut an 
aperture just as I have cut it. You do not know how they cut it. You don't 
know what a debt he has ! You don't know how nice their canoes are ! 
You don't know how my book is split [kutuka, p. pf.] ! You don't know 



PRONOMINAL ADVERBS 95 

how those thorns pierce ! That parrot walks just as my boy walks. He 
croaks like a frog. That chief dresses like the king. Her girl wants to 
dress like a princess does. What is this ? it is like a lizard. It is like salt, 
but it is not good. This present is like the one I gave him. Those two 
books are alike. Beat the drum [engoma] just as I do. Adze a stick that 
it may be like this. They built just as we did. This stick is like a tree. 
We will work hard just as they did. Let them treat us just as they-want 
[bagala, not hayagala]. That stone, lift it like a strong man. Cultivate like 
a woman. Walk like a chief. Our girls work just as those of your place do. 
It flew like a dove. It looks like a stone. They trim their beards just as 
the Egyptians [Abamisiri] do. How nice this milk is ! 

(d) When, until, while, etc. 

When, 'lwe,' means 'when,' of strict time. It is the Objective 

Relative form in agreement with ' olunaku,' a day understood, and 

. means The day on which. 

' bwe ' is often used for ' when ' — especially when it is not strictly 

temporal. It is the Objective Relative form in agreement with ' obude ' 

(time of day) understood ; //'/. the time of day on which. 

lwalija ombulire, when he shall come, tell me. 

yera wona, bwonomala, onoja eno : (or bwomala, jangu eno), 

sweep everywhere : when you have finished, come here. 

In using ' bwe ' and ' lwe ' the tenses in the two parts of the sentence should corre- 
spond. The Present Indefinite corresponds to the Imperative. The Present Perfect 
does not seem to be used with 'bwe* or ' lwe.' 

Until, Okutusa lwe, followed by the Future Tense. The sense must 
decide whether the Near or Far Future is to be used ; lit. to cause 
the day to arrive when. Though here 'day' seems used loosely for 
'a point of time.' 

okutusa lwendija, until I shall come. 

While. When the dependent action is one which is to be finished 
before the main action is completed, use the Subjunctive of ' mala,' 
thus: — 

tulawo, 'male okukola wano, sit there while I do the work here, 
tulindirire tumale okulya, wait for us while we eat. 

While or whilst denoting two actions going on simultaneously are 
best given by apposition. It also adds to the clearness to express the 
pronouns which denote the actors, e.g. : — 

Whilst you write, let us read : 

Mwe muwandike, fe netusoma, 

Cook the milk whilst I clean the jug : 

Nawe ofumbe amata, nange nanaza omudumu, or — 

Gwe onofumba amata, nze nanaza omudumu. 

The more complicated English construction may be needed in special cases, but it 
is not the idiom of the country. Time alone will show whether the change to the use 
of a conjunction as 'nga,' or 'bwe' (bwemba mfumba ' — whilst I am cooking) will 
I take place. 

Whenever, buli lwe — buli lwetusoma, whenever we read. 

Exercise. — When we pound rice again, we will first pour in water. When 
the fat has melted pour it into that bowl. When they throw rubbish into 



96 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

that hole, tell me. Sit there until you have done counting the eggs. Tell 
those two men to go in front until we arrive at the chiefs place [embuga]. 
Whenever you walk (at) night take a stick. Whenever you read pronounce 
[yatula] all the words nicely. Wait while I count the eggs. While I buy 
e gg s i y° u buy plantain-fruit. Whilst I am building, look for grass for (of) 
thatching [okusereka]. When we have cut a window plenty of daylight will 
come in. Whenever they help food they call us. Whenever they have milk 
they send [wereza] us some. I will sit here while you eat that sugar-cane. 
When I go wrong in the road, tell me. Whenever the Bakede fight, they 
fight with spears. Whenever the traders pass here, they bring parrots. 
Wait for me until I have done cultivating. Whilst I ask for a knife [akambe] 
collect [yola] all this rubbish and throw it away. When I have brought a 
knife, we will cut this window. When the milk is boiled [gya], cook three 
eggs. Whenever you cook beans, do not put on a lid. I shall wait in the 
capital [ekibuga] until they have done collecting the tribute. 

{e) Place. 

There are two particles to denote place, viz. ' wa ' and ' e ' : both of 
these have already been mentioned. 

i. Wa. From this we have Wa ? = where ? and also the 

Demonstrative forms wano, awo, wali, Here, there, etc. 

Also reduplicated : — 

wa wano, here it is. 
wa wali, there it is. 

As a Class Prefix, e.g. : — 

wano walungi, this place is nice, 
wa kusula, a place for sleeping. 

Also : — waliwo, there is. waliwo, there was. 

(The latter especially in narration.) 

Relatively : — 

awali, in the place in which there is. 
awali ebitosi, the muddy place : lit. in which there is mud. 
awatekebwa ebyai, where the fibre is kept, 
awasimbibwa ebitoke, where the plantains are planted. 

Negatively : — 

tewasigade ejinja nerimu, not a single stone is left ; there isn't 

a single stone left, 
tewagwa kitabo nekimu, not a single book fell. 

The Adverb corresponding to these is ' we ' : it is really an Objective 
Relative Prefix, e.g. : — 

wano wentambula, here where I walk. 

awo wotade omukono, there where you have put your hand. 

Many of the common people confound this with the ' bwe,' how, or when just given, 
by neglecting to pronounce the ' b.' 

Hence also : — 

wendi, here I am : lit. the place where I am. 
wetuli, here we are. 



' WA ' AND ' E 97 

Interrogatively, as a salutation : — 

woli ? are you there ? i. e. still in good health, to which the answer 
is Wendi. 

With ' buli,' every : — 

buli wona, everywhere. 

buli wenagendanga, wheresoever I shall go. 

ii. E, locative ' at ' : e. g. e Mengo, at Mengo ; e Ngogwe, at Ngo- 
gwe, and by application with some nouns ' to ' : agenze emuga, he has 
gone to the river (to draw water) ; agenze egindi, he has gone to such 
and such a place. 

The forms ewafe, etc., have already been given. 

The Demonstrative forms are : — 

eno, here ; eyo, there (where you are) ; eri there (at a distance). 

The Adverb corresponding to 'e' is 'gye': this is really an 
Objective Relative form. 

gyendi, here I am : lit. at the place where I am. 
gyetuli, here we are, etc. 

And Interrogatively, like 'woli' — gyoli? Are you there? 
Cf. idioms Amata mwegali ? is there any milk left? 

Amadzi mwegali mangi ? is there any quantity of water left? 

Ebitabo kwebiri ? are there any books on (it) ? 

These forms with ' gye ' refer strictly to place where [mwe of course 
to place inside and kwe to place upon]. 

These forms are frequently used to express the preposition • to,' e.g. : —  
jangu gyendi, come to me. 
yagenda gyali, he went to him. 

But it is also possible to use the form 'eri ' for ' to,' especially if the 
word following ' to ' is a noun and not a pronoun ; e.g. : — 
yagenda eri omwami, he went to the master. 

Exercise. — Here where I am pounding the rice. He said to me, ' Go to 
them,' and I went to them. Is there any water there? Are they in good 
health ? Wherever a stone appears. Go over there where there is a lot of 
rubbish. Collect it, and throw it into this hole. Wherever we walk, we 
meet with readers. In every direction [everywhere] I look, I see locusts 
[enzige]. Come here to me. Go to the chief and ask him, ' Where are you 
going to build ? ' And the boy I sent came back and said, ' The chief is going 
to build in that place which glistens.' Do you not remember where we 
looked [lengera] yesterday and said, ' That is an excellent place for [of] 
building ?' There is a large forest near. Where there is that large [e'dene] 
stone, that is a good place to look for stones to build with. In the eating- 
place [e'diro] where the food [emere] is helped [begebwa], you will find my 
stick ; bring it, that we may go for a Walk. Where we are digging is where 
you buried the parrot last year. Tell the women to cultivate where I gave 
orders to them yesterday [to cultivate]. I do not agree to your building [you 
to build] there where I want to sow Indian corn. Go and build over there 
in that overgrown garden ; that is where I will agree to your building. Do 
not tread there where the seed is sown [where there is sown — sigibwa — seed 
— ensigo]. W'herever the road is blocked [zibibwa], cut down the jungle [ebi- 
sagazi]. There was a rich man living there. There did not appear space for 
sleeping. Not a single thing fell. Not a single tree was cut down [teme- 

G 



9 8 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



bwa]. Not a single thing was taken [twalibwa]. Over there where you 
see those tall trees. 

XV. ' n ' (or ' house ') Class. 

One more instance only of a Class Prefix will be given in full. It is 
hoped that by the time this is worked through, the principles of this 
form of agreement will be fully grasped by every one. So that the 
remaining forms which are occasionally used may be rapidly run through, 
and those which are scarcely ever used need not then be referred to. 

To this class belong a great many nouns very difficult to classify. 
Roughly, things which are an annoyance or give trouble to make. Wild 
beasts, birds, insect pests ; but also a few domestic animals and nouns 
of foreign origin. 

The Singular is the same as the Plural. 



Embadzi, an axe. 

Embaga, a feast. 

Embalasi, a horse. 

Embidzi, a hog. 

Embuzi, a goat. 

Embwa, a dog. 

Emere (plantain) food. 

Emese, a rat. 

Emfufu,.dust. 

Emindi, (tobacco) pipe. 

Empagi, a post. 

Empaka, a dispute 

Empera, a reward. 

Empeta, a ring. 

Empewo, wind. 

Empisa, a custom. 

Empisi, a hyena. 

Empiso, a needle. 

Empologoma, a lion. 

Empungu, an eagle. 

Enaku, trouble. 

Enarga, a harp. 

Enaswi, little ringer. 

Endabirwamu, a looking-glass. 

Endagano, an agreement. 

Endago, reed-grass. 

Endeku, a calabash. 

Endere, a flute. 

Endere, a lace. 

Endiga, a sheep. 

Endogoi, a donkey. 

Endoto, a dream. 

Endulu, an alarm. 

Endwade, sickness. 

1 Singular, Olukukunyi, 



Engabo, a shield. 

Engato, a sandal. 

Engo, a leopard. 

Engoma, a drum. 

Eng'ombe, a trumpet. 

Enjai, bhang. 

Enjala, hunger. 

Enjatifu, a crack. 

Enjota a thunderbolt. 

Enjovu, an elephant. 

Enju, a house, hut. 

Enjuki, a bee. 

Enkasi, a paddle. 

Enkata, a small ring of grass, 

etc. 
Enkofira, a hat. 
Enkoko, a fowl. 
Enkovu, a scar. 
Enkonge, a stump. 
Enkofu, a guinea-fowl. 
Enkuba, rain. 
1 Enkukunyi, fleas. 
Enkumbi, a hoe. 
Enkumu, a' heap. 
Enkusu, a parrot. 
Enkuyege, white ant. 
Enkwawa, arm-pit. 
Ensalo, a boundary. 
Ensarnu, bark-cloth mallet. 
Ensanafu, biting-ant. 
Ensasi, a spark. 
Ensawo, a bag. 
Ensega, a vulture. 
Enseko, laughter. 

not often heard. 



N CLASS 99 

Ensi, land. Enswa, a flying ant. 

Ensibo, sand-stone. Entamu, a cooking-pot. 

Ensigo, seed. Entana, a hole to bury in. 

Ensiko, jungle, waste land. Ente, a cow. 

Ensimbi, a cowry shell. Entebe, a chair. 

Ensimbu, a fit. Entiko, top of hill. 

Ensinjo, a chisel. Entumbwe, calf of leg. 

Ensiri, a mosquito. Entuyo, perspiration. 

Enso, the knee-cap. Enumba, a homet. 

Enso, upper grinding-stone. Enyana, a calf. 

Ensolo, a wild beast. Enyindo, the nose. 

Ensonda, a corner. Enyingo, a joint. 

Ensonga, a reason. Enyondo, a hammer. 

Ensonyi, shame. Enyonta, thirst. 

Ensulo, a spring. Enyumba, a house, hut. 

Ensuwa, water-pot. Enzige, a locust. 

ensonyi is generally plural, 
okukuba endulu, to raise an alarm. 

enkata, either the first ring on which the house-frame is built, or 
the pad for carrying upon. 

(a) The Simple and Relative Subject. 

Simple Subject. It or they. 

Sing, e except in the Past Tense, when it is y. 
This exception js necessary because the ' e ' comes before the ' a,' 
which marks a Past Tense. 

embuzi egenze, the goat has gone. 

enju yagwa, the hut fell, 

entebe e negwa, the chair will fall. 

There is a certain tendency in the case of the Near Future to say 
en«?gwa, en<?kola, etc., for enagwa, enakola, etc. 

Plur. zi ; the i drops before a vowel, 
enjovu zigenze, the elephants have gone, 
ensega zinaja, the vultures will come. 

ensonyi z amukwata, he was overcome with shame ; lit. shame 
took him. 

Relative Subject. — The I.V. for both singular and plural is e. By 
prefixing this to the Simple Subject just given, the Relative Subject is 
formed, e, when it comes before the ' e ' of the Simple Subject, 
coalesces and becomes e; e.g. : — 

ensolo etambulanga ekiro, the wild beast which walks about at 

night, 
ensolo eyakwata embuzi, the wild beast which caught a goat, 
embwa ezibogola, the dogs which bark, 
enswa ez abuka, the ants which flew. 

Exercise. — The agreement has come to an end [jnlukuka]. The calabash 
has broken. The white ants eat that tree. The dogs want to run away. • The 



IOO ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

leopard which has eaten a sheep. The elephant which trampled the grass. 
The huts which fell down. The mosquitoes which bit us. The waste land 
which stopped us. The hunger which we have [which pains us]. The 
white ants have eaten this duster of mine. The leopard which came at 
night has not come back again. The stump has knocked his foot. The 
post will fall. The mosquitoes have come. The sheep have gone astray. I 
have killed [kuba] the mosquito which has bitten me. The drum sounds [vuga] 
well. The thirst which he feels [pains him]. The axe has cut my foot. The 
guinea-fowl have gone. The water-pot will not get in [gya] here. The rats 
have eaten my book. The rain caught [kuba] us. The parrot which flew 
away. The looking-glass which fell. Bring the chair which is [bade] 
broken [it is broken]. Are the laces long enough [have they reached]? Will 
the bag hold [gyamu] all those things? The donkey which will take us. 
The cows which spend their time on the moor. The vultures which feed on 
corpses. The locusts which destroy [lya] our potatoes. 

(fi) Demonstrative and Numeral. 

Demonstrative. 

enyumba e no, this house enyumba zi ri, those houses 

enyumba eyo, this house (near: enyumba e z o, those houses (near: 

where you are) where you are) 

enyumba e ri, that house (at a enyumba zi ri, those houses (at a 

distance) distance) 

These it will be seen are formed quite regularly from the Subject 
Pronoun, ' e ' coming before a vowel making ' ey,' as in ' eyo ' : and ' zi ' 
before a vowel becoming ' z,' as in ' ezo.' 

Reduplicated Forms. 

Sing. No proper forms. Use ye eno (often ye ino or nearly 
yino), it is this : and ye eri (often nearly yeri), it is that, 
embuzi ye eno : this is the goat, 
enyana ye eri : that is the calf. 

Plur. zizi no ensimbi zizino these are the shells. 
zizi ri enjuki ziziri : those are the bees. 

Numeral. 

enyumba emu, one house enyumba 'kumi, ten houses 

enyumba biri, two houses enyumba 'kumi nemu, eleven 

enyumba satu, three houses houses, etc., the numbers i to 5 

enyumba nya, four houses (or compounds of them) being* 

enyumba tano, five houses the only invariable ones. 

The numerals from ' two ' onwards can have an I.V. for emphasis 
enyumba enya, the four houses. 

Exercise. — This cow. That sheep. These dogs. Those (near) goats. 
That (near) grinding-stone. This feast. That water-pot. Those bees. 
These paddles. This food. Those (near) guinea-fowl. That (near) 
hammer. Those rats. These white ants have eaten my book. Two 
buffalo. One axe. I have brought three hoes. That reason is not enough 
[mala]. I want four chisels. Tell him that there are five reasons. 453 
shells. 1752 shells. My looking-glass has fallen down and is broken. He 
bought two mallets and gave me one. He has thirteen cows and five 
calves. I will give you some of this waste land [ensiko]. He has given 



N CLASS 101 

them three sheep and one goat. This dust hurts our eyes. He has asked for 
three needles. Well, give him one. From his sugar-cane he cut off three 
joints. They have cut two posts. I will buy those two hoes. He has shot 
[kuba] these four guinea-fowl. They paddled with [vuza] these seven 
paddles. This axe does not cut. Here are the flying-ants, they have flown. 
There are two cooking-pots. Those are the vultures. This is the cooking- 
pot. This is the reason. These are the paddles. That is the leopard. 

(c) Possessive. 

Sing, e y a, of : — ensonga e y okugenda, a reason for (of) going. 

enyumba e y a kabaka, a king's house. 
Plur. eza, of: — embwa ezokuiga, dogs for (of) hunting. 

embwa eza kabaka, the king's dogs. 

Sing. Plur. 

yange, my zange, my 

y o, thy z o, thy 

ye, his ze, his 

yafe, our zafe, our 

y arawe, your z amwe, your 

y abwe, their z abwe, their 

e y ange, mine e z ange, mine 

eyiyo, thine ezizo, thine 

eyiye, his ezize, his 

e y afe, ours, etc. e z afe ours, etc. 
y o, it Z o, them 

Hence : — endiga omukira gwayo, a sheep, the tail of it, its tail, 
empungu eriso lyayo, an eagle, the eye of it, its eye. 

Similarly : — 

ekikusu emere yakyo, a parrot, the food of it, its food, 
omtiliro ensasi zagwo, a fire, the sparks of it, its sparks. 

And so on for all the other forms. 

Exercise. — His hat. Their fowls. Your paddles. Our mallet. My 
house. Their customs. Your water-pot. His shield. Their bees. My 
bag. Your harp. My needles. His food. Their goat. His pipe. Your 
sheep. The woman's hoe. The stranger's needle. The sick man's hut. 
The doctor's bag. The peasant's bhang. The boy's water-pot. He 
smokes bhang [nyuwa] and has left off eating his food. The workmen's 
pads. The prince's cow. The cows of that man. Bring my tobacco-pipe. 
Drive out the locusts from our garden. Build my house here. Put those 
needles of his in the little bowl. Sow these seeds of ours in the newly- 
cultivated patch. A horse and its master. The vulture and its head. 
The leopard and its footmarks. Lions and their tails. Cows and their 
horns. Sheep and their wool [ebyoya]. My drum is a better one than 
yours ; but the master's is better (still). Our customs are better than yours. 
His axe is superior to yours. This grinding-stone of ours is better than the 
princess's. Come and settle [malawo] our disputes. Their needles are 
better than ours. He has taken away my food. I have brought her chair. 
They have taken away her water-pot and given her ours. I have seen three 
elephants and their tusks are beautiful. Take my horse to the water every 
evening. Give him his reward, that ring of mine 



102 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

(d) Simple and Relative. Object Prefix. 

The Simple Object Prefix ' it,' ' them,' is. 

Sing. gi. Plur. zi. 

enyumba nagizimba, the house, I will build it. 

empagi tuzirese, the posts, we have brought them, 

ensega tu zi rabye, the vultures, we have seen them. 

To form the Relative Object Prefix, add ' e ' to each of these forms 
respectively. Thus : — 

Sing, gy e (gi e). Plur. z e (zi e). 
embuzi gy ebalese, the goat which they have brought, 
enkofu z ebakubye, the guinea-fowl which they have shot, 
enkumbi gyaguze, the hoe which he has bought, 
enkonge z asimbude, the stumps which he has dug up. 

Exercise. — We will cut the posts to-morrow. He has eaten the food. 
They drove the dogs away. The Baima herd the cows every day. We 
have the ring; but we will not sell it. I made [tunga] that bag. We 
followed the elephants all day yesterday [yesterday all the daylight]. The 
house which he built. The shields which they brought. The vultures 
which we drove away. The wild beast which he shot. The heaps which 
you have made. The lion which we heard in the night. The needles 
which I bought. The tobacco-pipe which you have broken. I have found 
the biting-ants. The ants which came-in in the night I burnt [them] with 
fire. The chair which I brought. The waste land which the women have 
cultivated. The feast which we have eaten. The horse which the Katikiro 
bought. The elephant which they shot yesterday died in the nij;ht ; 
they wounded him in three places [three wounds]. The water-pots 
which we have filled. We have speared the leopard. Those two 
fowls which he left. The troubles which they experience [laba]. I 
have bought that looking-glass (for) fifteen shells. You will be able to 
buy an axe (for) three fowls. The food which you left here in the morning 
the dogs have eaten [it], 

(e) Miscellaneous. 
tya : Sing, et a. Plur. zitya. 

endeku e tya, what do you mean by ' calabash ' ? 
ensasi zi tya, what do you mean by * sparks ' ? 
engo yafanana e tya, was the leopard like ? 
embadzi zi ri zi tya, what are the axes like ? 

ti: like this, with accompanying action. 
Sing, bweti (seldom eti). 
engoma evuga bweti, the drum sounds like this. 
Plur. bweziti (sometimes ziti). 

ensimbi zi ri bwe zi ti, the shells are like this. 

(the way the shells have been spent, received, etc.) 
tyo : like that. 

Sing, bwetyo. Plur. bwezityo. 

endogoi ekoze bwetyo^ the donkey has done so. 
enzige zi yononese ekyalo bwe zi tyo, the locusts have spoiled the 
garden like that. 



N CLASS IO3 

all: Sing- yona. Plur. zona, 

enyumba yona, all the house, 
enyumba zona, all the houses. 

only : Sing, yo'ka. Plur. zo'ka. 

leta embadzi yo'ka, bring the axe only, the axe by itself, and 

nothing but the axe. 
ndabye enjovu z o'ka, I have seen nothing but elephants. 

nyini: enkusu ye nyini, I mean the literal parrot. 

embadzi ze nyini, the actual axes, the material axes. 
same, etc. ensi eno ye emu na eri (neri), this country is the same as that. 

ensawo zino ze zimu, these bags are the same (in style). 

ensawo zino zenkana, these bags are the same (in size). 

Other idea of comparison, e. g. : — 

endiga yange esinga eyiyo, my sheep is larger than yours. 

ku nte zino ezimu ziri nungi, ezimu ziri mbi, of these cows 

some are good and some are bad. 
(See below for Adjective.) 

Exercise. — Put all the goats in this house. The donkey we will tie up by 
itself. Bring one chair only. Where does the boundary go [ita]? It goes 
like this. What were those cooking-pots like ? They were like this. 
What do you mean by 'nose'? I mean his actual nose. A lion begins to 
roar [wuluguma] like this, and then it does [gira] like this. They made six 
pads like this. This chair of mine is like yours. What was the wild benst 
like ? What is the nature of the reasons which you have brought ? The 
reasons which I have brought go [nyonyola] like this. Well, let me hear 
them all. How big is the drum ? So big. There has been more rain here 
[the rain has rained— tonya — more]. This shield is brighter than the one 
you brought yesterday. All the shields are like that. All the elephants 
have run away. The hoes and their handles I have brought them all. 
Well, let us begin to cultivate here. Every hut has fleas in it. All our 
cows have [vamu] milk these days. He has put away all the paddles in the 
house. I have stuck [fumita] all the needles in my bay. They have eaten 
all the food. They smoke bhang only. I have only a hoe. I have no 
handle. Let us read the agreement only. Don't let us read any other 
words. 

(/) Negative. 
The Relative with Negative is as follows : — 

endiga gyebatalese, the sheep which they have not brought, 
endiga gyatalabye, the sheep which he has not seen, 
embadzi ezitatundibwa, the axes which are not for sale, 
ensega z etutainza kulaba, the vultures which we cannot see. 
endogoi e tegenda mangu, a donkey which does not travel quickly. 

The other forms present no difficulty. 

enkovu netalabika, and the scar does not appear, 
enkoko eno teblka magi, this fowl does not lay eggs, 
ensonga zino tezigendeka, these reasons will not work. 

Exercise. — This ring is not large enough [tuka]. Do they not sell it 
this axe ? My donkey does not travel fast. The leopard has not yet taken a 
goat. The ants have not yet flown. This goat has not borne yet. The 



104 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

locusts did not come to our place. The hoe which the woman did not buy 
yesterday I will buy [it] now. The ring which did not fit her finger will fit 
mine. The sun has not yet got hot [yaka]. The mosquitoes never bother 
[luma] us at night. The wind no longer sweeps through [ita] my house. I 
have hung up a curtain through which the wind does not come. Those 
posts are crooked ; they have not put them in [simba] straight [bulungi]. 
My fowls are no longer laying eggs. Looking-glasses never fetch a high 
price [they do not buy, etc.]. Throw away those seeds which will-not 
[gana] grow. The locusts will not go until the wind rises [bawo]. This 
house will not fall [will delay to fall] for a long time [many years]. The 
paddle which you could-not-find [use bula] is in the corner. My shield is 
not there ; I put it in the place where we were working. Let us read until 
the food is cooked. The food which was not cooked this morning they will 
cook [it] again. You have broken two water-pots. Where is the pot 
which you have not broken ? There is an eagle ; we do not often see them. 

XVI. Some Classes which occur less frequently. 

(a) « ku ' Class. 

These are all infinitives : ' ku ' is the Class Prefix as well as the Subject 
Prefix from which all the forms are derived. Thus : — 
okuseka kumuluma, laughing hurts him. 
okusaba kn no kwona kubi, all this begging is wrong, 
okufa kw eyafa, the death which he died. 

There are also two nouns, which take this agreement, viz. 

okutu, an ear. okugulu, a leg. 
In the Plural they become amatu and amagulu respectively. 
The infinitive can supply a certain number of Abstract nouns, e.g. : — 

okufa, death ; okukiriza, faith ; okumanya, knowledge. 
But such nouns are to be used with discretion, e. g. : — 

The ' knowledge of good ' is okumanya ebirungi (bwebiri), because 
4 manya ' is an active verb : we could not have Okumanya 
okwebirungi. The bracketed word may or may not be required. 

Again, in certain combinations it is better to use some form of the 
verb other than the infinitive, e.g.: — 

The understanding which he has, is wonderful. 

ategera ebingi nyo kitaio, he understands very many things in a 
wonderful way. 

Though the European who said Okutegerakwe tomanyi bwekuli 
would be understood by an intelligent native. 

Exercise. — i. Make all possible forms in the way already indicated--this, 
all, that, which, etc. 

ii. The parrot has bitten his ear. (My) leg hurts me. The ear which 
has not yet become bad. It is only his leg which hurts him. Taking by 
force is not right [lungi]. His pity does not fail. The whole under- 
standing. I do not speak about [ku] many things. I speak [njogede] 
about that (near) getting drunk only. Getting drunk is not a right thing. 
Is our sewing good [hav« we sewn well]? All this knowledge is good. His 
faith is great. Their service is honourable. 



KU AND KA AS CLASSIFIERS 105 

(b) ' ka ' (or diminutive) Class. 

Very many of these are Diminutives of other nouns , they take bu 
for the Plural. 

Akabi, harm. Akamwa, the mouth. 

Akabonero, sign. Akana, a little child. 

Akadiba, a small pool. Akantu, a little thing. 

Akagubi, a quail. Akanyere, thin wire. 

Akajegere, a necklace. Akanyigo, a narrow place. 

Akakai, a ladle. Akasdle, an arrow. 

Akai, a small piece of ' kyai '. Akasera, a little space of time. 

Akakongovule, ankle. Akasolya, a roof. 

Akakunkumuka, a crumb. Akatale, a market. 

Akakwanzi, a small bead. Akati, a twig. 

Akalosa, smell. Akaliba, a small wooden bowl. 

Akalulu, lot. Akawuka, a small insect. 

Akambe, a native knife. Akazimu. 

The Plurals are obubi, obubonero, etc. 

Akai makes obwai ; akana — obwana ; akambe — obwambe. 

teri kabi, there is no danger. 

akawuka is applied 'o almost every kind of insect. 

akazimu (a little spirit) is applied to rheumatic pains in the 

joints — they being attributed to this cause ; or to any similar 

pain. 

The Subject Prefix being exactly the same as the Class Prefix both in 
the Singular and Plural, we get at once all the forms, e.g. : — 

akabonero kano, this sign ; akawuka ako, that insect. 

akati kendese, the twig which I have brought. 

akantu akagude wano, the little thing which has fallen down. 

akantu akabi, a bad thing ; obusale obulungi, good arrows. 

obunyere bubu no, this is the wire. 

obukwanzi bw endese, the beads which I have brought. 

obuwuka obubuse, the insects which have flown. 

Exercise. — i. Make all the plurals of th above nouns : write them in 
agreement with such adjectives as make sense ; and make all the derived 
forms : this, which, that, etc. 

The forms for 'all ' are kona and bwona : for ' only ' ko'ka and bwo'ka. 

ii. He lias escaped [wona] every danger. Let us wait a little bit. Bring 
the quail which he has caught. The lot which fell upon him. Iking three 
twigs Those twigs are too short : bring some longer ones. Put this vege- 
table into this wooden bowl. She has a pretty necklace which her mother 
[nyina] gave her. There is left one small pool of water. His whole mouth 
was full of sugar-cane. They hold [kuba] a market every day. What sort 
of a market? a large market where the people of the islands and the main- 
land [Buganda] meet [use tunda]. A wee chicken [child of a fowl]. Pick 
up all the crumbs and give them to the fowls. He has got rheumatism in 
his knee [he is ill with]. The insect which has jumped here. My knife has 
dropped in the road ; have you seen it ? have you seen any one who has 
picked it up ? 



106 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

(c) ' bu ' (or ' abstract ') Class. 

Some nouns however are found only in the form o bu. These do not 
require any plural form. With some apparent exceptions the meanings 
of this ' o bu class ' of noun may be given as : — 

i. Things which tend to break up into elemental particles : 
either as powders, or by fermentation, or decomposition. 

ii. A state or condition. There is a strong objection to utilize 
this, however, for the formation of new words. 

Obubane, incense. Obulo, a small kind of grain. 

Obude, time of day. Obulokozi, salvation. 

Obugaga, wealth. Obulumba, stern (of a canoe). 

Obuganga, gunpowder. Obusagwa* snake poison. 

Obugogwa, flax. Obusera, porridge. 

Obugole, Obusomyo, marrow, pith. 

Obugwagwa, filthiness. Obuta, flour. 

Obugya, envy. Obutaka, inheritance. 

Obukade, old age. Obutukirivu, completeness. 

Obukika, side. Obutwa, poison. 

Obuko, marriage dowry. Obuwemu, folly. 

Obukuku, mildew. Obuzaliranwa, state by nature. 

Obulago, neck. Obwogi, edge of a tool. 
Obulimbo, birdlime. 

obugole is used as — embaga eyobugole. a marriage feast : but 

only in this way. 
obulokozi is only used in religious teaching and works, 
obukika obwa dyo, the right side ; obukika obwa kono, the left 

side ; more especially in reference to locality. 

Examples : — 

obugya bu mukute, envy has taken possession of him. 
obulimbo bwasabye wano, the birdlime which he has spread 

here, 
embadzi teriko bwogi, the axe is blunt. Lit. has not upon it an 

edge, 
alowoza ku bugaga bw o'ka, he thinks about nothing but wealth. 

Exercise. — This porridge. That gunpowder. His neck. He has paid 
[leta] his marriage-dowry. Does not all that (near) wealth suffice you? 
The time has come to take a walk. At what time shall we read? We will 
read at night-time [time of night]. We have eaten all that porridge which 
you cooked in the morning. They took from him his inheritance. That 
(near) inheritance was a large one. The millet which we sowed has come 
up [merukaj. Snake poison was what killed him. He did not die of poison 
(from food). My neck is swollen. The bird-lime caught two sparrows 
[akatai]. Those insects were very many. Blow away that (near) sawdust 
[obuntu]. Mildew is what has spoilt my book. The marriage dowry was 
very large but he has finished paying it. 

(d) Further use of the ' bu ' Class. 

i. The forms obugazi, width ; obulungi, goodness, etc., in Comparisons 
have already been dealt with : (p. 57). 



USES OF BU 107 

ii. By repeating the Root of the noun with this prefix, the meaning 
' mere' is added : e.g. omuntu buntu, a mere man. 

evu buvu, mere ashes. 

And similarly with Verbs, the Root being slightly changed thus : — 
(a) Verbs ending in la, ra, da, or ga, change the la, ra, da, or ga to zi. 
twala butwazi, just take it. 
ingira buingizi, merely come in. 
vuga buvuzi, merely paddle. 

(/?) Verbs ending in ta or ka change the ta or ka to si. 
strika busirisi, merely keep quiet, 
leta bulesi, merely bring. 

(y) Verbs ending in ya, change the ya to i. 

okulya buli, merely to eat. 
(8) Others merely change the final a to i. 

kuba bukubi, merely strike. 

(c) Passives make no change. 

Occasionally the sense may almost, if not quite, require the meaning 
' without cause ' : e.g. yatukuba bukubi ; yatugoba bugobi. 

hi. The negative infinitive ; e. g. obutakola, the not doing. 
Sometimes this may serve the purpose of a noun, e.g. : — 

obutamanya, not knowing, i, e. ignorance. 

obutategera, want of comprehension. 

Exercise. — A mere tree. Merely fat. A mere cover. Merely a fence. 
Merely a basket. Mere words. Merely a building-site. He merely sees. 
He has merely counted. They have merely bought. We are just lost. We 
will (near) just take a walk. Merely make a point. Just mix these two 
things together. What is this? merely salt. He has merely cut it. Just 
trim this curtain a bit. Cultivate a bit here. He wants to buy a goat? 
No, he has merely asked for it. He has been lying. My bowl is merely 
cracked [yatika]. Merely fire. Mere smoke. Mere weeds. A mere 
peasant. A mere girl. We are merely looking at (it). Bring that fat and 
just smear a little on my boots fengato]. The lid will not come off; merely 
pull it [sika]. They have merely begun. They have not yet done any work. 
Just be silent [pi.], and then I will tell you. The ' kyai ' will not go through 
the partition ; never mind take a stick and just make a hole [fumita]. The 
lizard fell into the water and it just died. He has merely hidden himself 
[e'kweka]. This is the rice ; just cook a little. The thief has robbed us 
without reason [merely robbed]. He has hit me without cause [merely hit]. 

In the same way can be used nouns like Otudzi (tu Class) a drop of 
water, a little water ; otubisi, a drop of syrup. 

Or nouns like Oguntu, a • gawky ' thing ; //. agantu (gu Class). They 
are scarcely ever wanted and should present no difficulty. 



io8 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



XVII. Phonetic Changes — Roots not beginning 
with w or y. 

(a) Introductory. Lu {or long) Class. 

To this class belongs the idea of Length or of Vastness. 1 

SING. PLUR. 

Olubambo, a peg. emambo for e n bambo. 

Olubanga, a seat in a canoe. emanga e n banga. 

Olubengo, a nether grindstone. emengo e n bengo. 

Olubirizi, a rib. embirizi e n birizi. 



SING. 



PLUR. 



Olubugo, a barkcloth. 




embugo 


e n bugo. 


Olubuto, the belly. 




embuto 


e n buto. 


Olukokola, the elbow. 




enkokola 


e n kokola 


Olukoma, a palm-tree. 




enkoma 




Olukomera, a hedge. 




enkomera 




Olukonko, a ravine. 




enkonko 




Oluku'giro, a hem. 




enku'giro 




Olukwe, guile. 




enkwe 




Olulere, a lace. 




endere 


e n lere. 


Olulimi, a tongue. 




enimi 


e n limi. 


Olumuli, a reed. 




emuli 


e n muli. 


Olunaku, a day. 




enaku 


e n naku. 


Olunyago, a spear-shaft. 




enyago 


e n nyago. 


Olunyiriri, a line. 




enyiriri 


e n nyiriri. 


Olupapula, paper (a sheet 


of). 


empapula 


e n papula 


Olusekese, a long bundle. 




ensekese 




Olusozi, a hill. 




ensozi 




Olusumuluzo, a key. 




ensumuluzo 




Olutabalo, a campaign. 




entabalo 




Olutiba, a wooden bowl. 




entiba 




Olutindo, a bridge. 




entindo 




Oluviri, a hair. 




emviri 


e n viri. 


Oluzizi, a long line of bine 


ling on 


enzizi 




a wall ; the reeds on which it 






is tied. 








Learn these 


plurals, 


and note the 


changes. 



For a complete list of all the Phonetic laws, see Tables I, II, III. 

The various forms for this, thai, which, etc. In the Plural they are 
precisely the same as for the n Class. For the Singular lu is the Sub- 
ject Prefix and is the I.V. Thus : — 

olunaku lu no, this day ; o lu naku o lw o or lu li, that day. 

olubugo lw etutunze, the barkcloth which we have sewn. 

olukomera olugude, the hedge which has fallen. 

1 Strikingly exemplified in the words ' oluye ' avast host ; (fr. e' gye) oluyovu, a 
vast herd of elephants ; oluse'jera, a crowd of hoppers, i. e. young locusts. 



PHONETIC CHANGES WITH N IC»9 

Exercise. — These days. That bridge. The bridge which they built. The 
reeds which they have brought. The three bark-cloths which I bought. I 
have bought one sheet of paper. The five seats which this canoe has. Show 
me your tongue. Sit here whilst we climb that little hill. What a high 
hill ! How many verses have you read ? Four. That will do [lekerawo]. 
What do those verses tell us about [tegeza] ? Bring that wooden bowl and 
put these \egetables in it. The box [esanduku], its key is lost. This bark- 
cloth is torn [kutuka]. Bring one which is not torn. Cut down those three 
paim-trees, and to-morrow lift them and bring them to the building-site. 
That palm is too short, look for a longer one. All these hills which we see 
belong to [are of] the Sekibobo. One day only. One bark-cloth only. He 
has bought three sheets of paper. Four days have gone, but he has not yet 
come. 

(b) The Letter 'n.' 

(a) Cases of no change. 

It will be noticed in the list of nouns just given, that in certain cases 
the addition of an ' n ' makes no change. Also that in these cases the 
letter before which the ' n ' comes is k, s, t or 2. 

The same would be true of the letter g, unless the following syllable 
begin with n or m, in which case the ' ng ' becomes decidedly nasal. 
Contrast the pronunciation of engato with that of eng'oma, eng'ano 
(wheat). 

This and the remarks in (/3) and (y) following do not apply to mono- 
syllabic roots. 

Exercise. — i. Taking the following adjectives (p. 43), gazi, genyi, gomvu, 
gumu, kade, kalu, kambwe, kulu, tono, zibu, zira, make their agreements 
with the nouns of the n Class given in Chap. XV. ; also with the plurals of the 
Nouns given on the previous page. 

ii. Take all the verbs beginning with these letters, k, g, B, t, and t, and 
make the 1st pers. sing, of the Present Indefinite and Present Perfect, ' I do ' 
and * I have done. ' 

iii. Those old paddles. I have cut two full-grown palm-trees. I have 
decided that it is good to buy that parrot. It is not an old one ; and it is 
not fierce. I am very afraid [tya, p. pf. ] that he will turn me out [goba]. 
I am very glad to see you. That chair is strong. I have put away my book ; 
let me get up and put away my book. These reasons are difficult, but I 
understand them. This is where I turn back [koma]. This little sheep is 
the one which I have asked for. This land is wide. That stretch-of-water 
[enyanja] is vast. Whilst I catch that little fowl, you [nawe] buy a book for 
[gulira] me. Whenever I pity a man I expect [subira] him not to do wrong 
again. 

(/3) The second syllable of the root does not begin with n or m. 

In the word olubengo, the root is bengo, and the second syllable 
begins with n ; on the other hand, olutiba, the root is tiba, and the second 
syllable does not begin with n but with b. The latter case only (second 
syllable not beginning with n or m) is considered now. 

i. n before b, p, f, or v is nasalized (p. 40) and the sound is perhaps 
best represented by m. Thus, in the list on the preceding page, there 
occur — 

embuto, empapula, emviri. 

Again in the list on p. 98 there occur — 

embaga, empaka (see on w stems) emfufu. 



110 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Exercise. — Make the agreements of these two classes with bisi, funda, bi 
and to (which, though monosyllabic, follows the same agreement), and take 
the verbs which begin with b, p, f, and v and make the 1st pers. sing, of 
the Present Indefinite and Present Perfect, ' I count,' and ' I have counted.' 

ii. n before 1, change the 1 to d ; n before n or m, drop the n and let 
the norm remain, e. g. : — 

endere, enaku, emuli, endeku, enaku, emese. 

Exercise. — lusi, nafu, naku, being the only adj. coming under this head, 
take all the verbs beginning with 1, n and m and make the 1st pers. sing, of 
the Simple and Modified tenses ; and also the forms with obj. ' him ' ; I 
have hit him ; I see him, etc. 

iii. Scarcely any root begins with j ; so that it does not need much 
consideration here. Whenn is prefixed to such a root it undergoes no 
change ; e.g. julira, appeal to, njulide. 

iv. Monosyllabic roots beginning with n (or m) fake nyi instead of n. 
ente nyingi, many cows, 
empagi nyimpi, a short post, 
olunyo, a stretcher. Plur. enyinyo. 
olunwe, a finger. Plur. enyinwe. 

Exercise. — A short needle. Much trouble. A low chair. Many reasons. 
This chair is weak. Those long bundles are large. My goat is a female. 
I am vexed. Show me. I have tried very hard. They have robbed me by 
force (of) my bark-cloth. They have brought many goats. I have swallowed 
all the medicine. Whenever he accuses me I will come to you. My cows 
are large, yours are small. Her hoe is large, minei s small. I have made an 
agreement with him to give me a female dog. The chair which you have 
bought is low. All men know me that I am kind [wa kisa]. The boys 
insult me every day when I take a walk. This axe is not-strong-enough 
[nafu]. Bring another, a strong one. What large hills these are! I have 
cooked rice only. When I call you, bring-to [letera] me a large bowl as 
well as the vegetables. These customs are bad. The fowl which I am 
cooking is still raw. This house is narrow. 

(y) The second syllable of the root begins with n or m. 
i. n before b becomes m and the b is dropped. 

emambo for e n bambo, because the second syllable begins 

with m. 

emengo for e n bengo, because the second syllable begins with n. 

Similarly, emundu, a gun, came from the Swahili bunduki : first n was 

added — thus nbunduki ; this became munduki, by this rule. Finally, 

the syllable ' ki ' was dropped and an I. V. added, so as to make the 

word like Luganda. 

ii. n before 1, the 1 is dropped, e. g. : — 
enimi, for e n limi. 
e'bwa linuma, the sore hurts me. (linuma for li n luma.) 

iii. In other cases there is no other change than that already given. 
e.g. empungu, enkonge, etc. 
Exercise.— Take the adjectives lamba, lamu, lume, lungi, an/1 make them 
in agreement with these nouns. 

All such verbs as luma, lung'amya, banja, buna, whose first syllable begins 
with 1 or b and the second with n or m ; put before them the n for ' I or 
• me ' in the forms ' I do,' * I have done,' ' it hurts me.' 



PHONETIC CHANGES WITH N III 

This chair is nice. These men have told me a lie. The dog has bitten 
me. I have worked [lwana] hard. He has given me a he-goat. Is this 
pot sound ? He has taken a whole potful [ensuwa] of water. A whole goat 
is not sufficient for such a number of people. These paddles are poor. 
Bring some nice sound ones. Here where I have cultivated is very hard. 
All these bridges are in good condition [lungi] and strong. This is the fibre 
which I have plaited. That (near) chair is all right [lamu] ; 't will not 
break. I have bought two good water-pots. These reeds are not nice ; they 
are not full-grown. These pieces of paper which I have brought are large. 
Here where I have fallen is very slippery. These biting-ants have bitten me 
very much. These fowls are poor ; bring me two nice fat [gevu] ones. Do 
you want a whole house to yourself? 

(8) n before Stems with Initial letter Long. 

These are : — 

'ba, steal from. 'gula, open the door. 

'da, go back. 'kiriza, accept, agree to. 

'dugala, be black. 'kuta, be satisfied, have had enough. 

'duka, run. 'ma, grudge. 

'gala, shut the door. 'ta, kill. 

Whenever n precedes one of these, the ' n ' becomes nzi, e. g. : — 
nzikiriza, I agree. 

oludzi, a well (rt. dzi). Plur. enzidzi. 
olu'gi, a door (rt. 'gi). Plur. enzigi. 

'd however is changed to r, e. g. : — 
nziruse, I have run. 

'ma makes nyima, I grudge (being a monosyllabic root in m. — vid. 
p. no, (3 iv.). 

Otherwise there is no change in the prefixes. 

'ba takes two objects : banzibye ekitabo, they have stolen a book from 

me, or they have stolen my book, 
'damu, answer what is said, 
'gala and 'gula nearly always 'galawo and 'gulawo. 

ja, come, makes njija : and m.f. dze makes nzidze, I have come. 

'dayo, go back. 

dza, cause to go back, makes nzidza. 

dzayo, restore, put back. 

It will be noticed that after the addition of nzi, the consonant follow- 
ing loses all its exploded sound. All the kindred languages have an 
' i ' in the place of this exploded sound ; e. g. ika, ita, etc., for 'ka, 'ta, 
etc. 

Further, 'd always represents an original 1 (or r) sound ; and in the 
kindred languages forms like ' iruka,' 'ira' for 'duka, 'da, are in common 
use. 

gya, take away, makes «ziya. 

gya, burn, makes >«pide, I am burnt. 

Exercise. — I have killed a fowl. The leopard which eat two of my goats 
I have killed it to-day. All my cows are black. His are red [-a lukunyu]. 
Give me the hoe now and I will return it [nar. tense] in the evening [egulo]. 



112 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

He has made three large doors and one small one. Our well is dry, but 
there are yet two other wells with water in them. Don't answer ['damn] me 
like that. He asked me a great many questions [questioned me much], and 
to each question [every word] I answered like this. Let me take those 
rings off. Let me finish eating and I will come [nar. t.]. Am I to climb 
down this way ? He has given me two black cows ; you don't know how 
nice they are ! He told me to come in the morning and I agreed. And 
they said to me, ' Run,' and I ran hard [mbiro], and they opened to ['gulira] me 
the door, and they agreed to my being in that house which I reached. Well, 
my enemy can no longer kill me. I am very hungry [hunger pains me] ; and 
I asked for food and they orought me food And they said to me, ' Throw 
away the leaves' [ebisaniko], and I took away the leaves and threw them into 
the garden. Those reasons are bad. They will not accept me when I tell 
them that-tale [tell them like that]. Let me go over them again ['damu]. 

(c) The letter '1' of the Class Prefix 'li.' 

Turning back to the list of nouns on page 84, it will be at once 
remembered that the majority begin with an exploded letter. This 
exploded letter takes the place of the Class Prefix li ; in other words li 
is shortened to 1 and the 1 prefixed, thereby causing this exploded letter. 
Turning then to the plural forms, where there is no so such exploded 
sound, but a prefix ma, we obtain the root. Thus we can see what effect 
this 1 has on the root. Thus : — 

i. e'danga, Plur. amalanga. The Root is therefore langa, and llanga 
becomes 'danga. Hence 11 becomes 'd. 

Therefore any adjective beginning with 1 does the same when in 
agreement. 

e. g. lungi : etaka e'dungi, good earth. 

lamba : eryato e'damba, a whole canoe, 
lamu : e'sonko e'damu, a sound snail-shell. 

ii. With the letters h, f, g (not gw), k, n (not monosyllabic), 8, t, v, 
and z the preceding 1 is absorbed and the consonant exploded, 
e'kubo e'bi, a bad road, 
e'gi e'bisi, a raw egg. 

e'kubo e'funda {better ekubo lifunda), a narrow road. 
e'gigi e'kade, a worn-out curtain, etc. 
It will be noticed that e'ddla makes Plur. amadala, and therefore 1 
before d becomes 'd — a very rare combination ; this being the only one 
likely to be met with. 

iii. If the Noun or Adjective Root begin with an exploded letter, pre- 
fix li and not 1 :— e'taka lirugavu, black earth ; 'd to r as in the preceding 

exercise. 1 

iv. Monosyllabic stems (except to, undergrown) add li; hence the 
Nouns Erinya and Erigwa. Hence also the Adjectives Ngi, 
many, and Mpi, short, make respectively Eringi, Erimpi, and 
Erigya. 
v. ' nene ' makes e'dene : — e'banja e'dene, a large debt. 

1 This accounts for the forms eriso, and erinyo ; in kindred languages their plurals 
are Amaiso and Amaino respectively. 



Y STEMS 



113 



Exercise. — A bad spear. A raw egg. A wide canoe. Plantain-fruit 
not fully grown. A great nation. Great joy. A sound eye. A soft 
stone. A short bone. A hard bullet. Good resin. A new road. An old 
tooth. Dry earth. A large store. A little temple. A dry stone. A 
large sore. A new curtain. A whole bullet. A full-grown dove. A little 
canoe. A name as difficult as this. A short name. This piece of un- 
cultivated land is wide. That snail-shell is large. This curtain of mine is 
new. Cut off that dried-up [kalu] branch. Bring a sound canoe. This 
one is bad. 



XVIII. Phonetic Changes; y Stems. 

The following is a list of verbs beginning with the letter y, or ' y 
Stem' verbs. It will be found convenient to divide them into those 
whose second syllable begins with n (or m), and those whose second 
syllable does not do so. 



Yabika, be destroyed. 

Yabya, destroy (a house). 

Yagala, want. 

Yasa, split (firewood). 

Yasama, open the mouth. 

Yatika, be split. 

Yatula, confess, speak out what is 
not known. 

Yazika, lend (what is to be re- 
turned). 

Yera, sweep. 

Ydgana, talk loudly. 



Yaka, be hot (as the sun); bla?e 

(as a fire). 
Yalira, spread out (a mat). 
Yogera, speak. 
Yokya, roast. 
Yolesa, show. 

Yoleza, wash upon (a board, etc.). 
Yosa, cease. 
Yota, warm (the body). 
Yoza, wash clothes. 
Yuwa, empty away. 
Ytiza, rend 



In the Infinite this ' y' in all the above examples except -yogana, 
-yuwa, -yuza, -yomba, -yunga, -yonka, the ' y ' is dropped, thus : — oka/o- 
gera, not okuy^gera, and okwota, not okuy^ta, but okuyomba, okuyuza, 
etc., are found. 

yokya, of a nettle, sting. 

yabika refers to that which is pulled to pieces (as a house), or 
broken to pieces by accident, as (a gourd). 

There axe also a few beginning with yi, but as the y is so slightly, 
if at all, pronounced, they are usually written with i initial, 
iga, learn. i'ga, hunt, 

igiriza, teach. i'ganya, persecute. 

Those whose second syllable begins with n (or m). 
Yambala, wear clothes. Y6nka, suck (at the breast). 

Yambula, take off clothes. Yonona, spoil by dirt, etc. 

Yanguwa, be quick. Yononeka, be spoilt. 

Y6mba, quarrel. Yunga, join. 

Yongera, increase. 

Imirira, stand. 
Imuka, get up, 
Ingira, go in. 



Ingiza, bring in. 
Inza, be able, 
Ingira, come in. 



H 



114 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

All changes which take place when any prefix is added to a y 
stem should be considered first with regard to the rapidity of their 
utterance. Is the word pronounced slowly and in deliberate speech 
or rapidly ? Is it some noun in very common use, or is it a formation 
required only now and then ? Bearing this in mind, the subject may 
be conveniently divided into two heads : — 

I. When the first syllable of the Stem or Root is strongly accented 
naturally ; or when in slow deliberate speech the first syllable has a 
stem accent (see Chap. XXVI. Stress) marked in the above list. 

Verbs whose Stems begin with i (for yi) and yu always fall under 
this head : — 

II. When the first syllable of the Stem or Root is not strongly 
accented. 

Under this head include most nouns formed from y stems. 
e.g. omwezi (yeza), the moon ; ekyoto (yota), a fireplace. 

Following the same rules as are the Formativeso (that near you), and e (that which : 
obj. rel.). 

e.g. (ekintu) eky<? ; (omuti) ogwo, etc. 

(ekintu) ky^yalaba ; (omuti) gwebatema. 
also e reflexive; and a to denote Past Time. 

(a) After Prefixes ending in 'u.' 

In Case I. there will generally be no change. 

In Case II. the y will drop out and the u remaining before a vowel 
will tend more and more to the breathed W. Write this u as w, taking 
every opportunity to notice how the sound is pronounced by the people. 

The Prefixes with u are ku, tu, mu, bu, lu, gu, aku. 

Examples : — 

Okwagala, wanting, to want : mwagala, twagala. 
Okwokya, roasting, to roast : gwokya, twokye, mwokye. 
Okwonona, spoiling, to spoil : bwononese, lwononese. 
Ekita kyakwabise : the gourd would have been spoilt. 

(aku is an alternative form for andi.) 
Okuimba, singing, to sing : oluimba, tuimbe, muimbe. 
Okuyomba, quarrelling, to quarrel : muyombe, oluyombo. 

Nouns. omwezi (omu yezi) : omwaka (omu yaka). 

Formatives. o — okwo, omwo, obwo, olwo, ogwo, that near. 

e— kwe, mwe, bwe, lwe, gwe, that which. 

a — kwagenda, twagenda, mwagetida, bwagenda, Iwage/ida, gwa- 
genda, it (they) wait. 

Exercise. — i. Practise these vaiious combinations with a native so as to 
get quite familiar with the true sound. 

ii. Get up [pi.]. Let us sing. The stern of the canoe is split. Tell 
him to wash the clothes. We have emptied away the water. His tongue 
has swollen more [has increased to swell]. He would have taught you, but 
he has lent his book. Are we not to wear (fine) clothes? We want to 
warm (at) the fire. Well, rend [pi. J (it) like that. My bark-cloth is 
destroyed. Do not talk so loud. Are you not able to roast plantains? 
Tell them to be quick [yanguyako]. Split firewood. This paper is dirty 
fyononeka]. If [singa] it was not dirty I would have lent it to you [sing.]. 
My stick is split. Every tree wants light. The salt is spilt [yika]. The 



Y STEMS \>ITH PREFIXES H5 

porridge is very hot. Speak loud that we may hear. Bring my mat and 
spread it heie. He has split a lot of 'firewood. Well, that is good, we want 
to buy more. 

(/>) After Strong Prefixes. 

A strong Prefix is one whose vowel is strong ; i. e. whose vowel 
does not drop out before another vowel. It has strength to hold its 
own. E.g. ki is a Strong Prefix; hence it makes the form ekyo, 
that near: kye, that which. Hence also such nouns as ekyoto 
(yota, warm at the fire), a place to warm at ; eky alo (yala, spread out), 
an expanse of plantain-trees, a plantain-garden. 

The Strong Prefixes are mi, ki, bi, li, andi, gi ; na, kya. 
The same rule applies to these as to the previous case of u prefixes. 
In Case I. probably no change ; in Case II. change the i to y, and leave 
out the y of the stem. In both Cases leave an 'a ' Prefix without any 
change or omission of y. 
Examples : — 

Kyagala, byatise, lyokya, biyongede, aliyogera, yandiimbye. 
liyongede, liimiride. 

tunaimba, tunayagala ; tukyayagala ; akyaimba. 
Nouns, emiaka, erniezi (y omitted) ; ebyalo, ekyejo, eryato. 

(ckyuma is from Swan, chuma, and therefore not included.) 
Formative*, o— ekyo, ebyo, eryo, egyo, that near. 
e— kye, bye, lye, gye, that which. 
a— kya^vWa, hjzgenda, lyagenita, gyngcnda, it (they) went. 

Exercise. — i. What do the following mean? 

Ekyalo kyagala okuzika. Ekibya kino kyati-e. Bandiyogede. Bakya- 
intba. Tunayagala. Kyengede. Gyasamye. Lyokya. Lyandigenze. 
Gyononese. Byanguye. 

ii. Open your mouth. The snakes have increased very much. The trees 
which want water. The sticks [enku] which we split. The iron is very 
hot. My book is split. These two baskets are spoilt. I have done spread 
ing out the skin. The tooth has stopped aching. The voice which I heard. 
The egg which is cracked [yatifu]. The men will come in by this way. 
There is a lot of mud here [the mud is abundant— inga—p pf.] here. We 
will speak. The store is spoilt. The books are fallen over [yikaj. A 
light stone. 

(c) After Weak Prefixes. 

A weak Prefix is one whose vowel is weak and drops out before 
another vowel. The weak Prefixes are ba, ma, ka, ga, wa, ta ; zi, si ; 
te ne, e (obj. rel.). 

In Case I. there will be no change. 

In Case II. drop out the y and the 1 vowel of the Class Prefix, and 

lengthen the remaining vowel in compensation. 

zagala for zi yagala ; gambade for ga yambade. 

Nouns. akalo (aka yalo, />. ekyalo) ; akai (aka yai, fr. ekyai). 

For/natives, o — abo, ako, ago, awo, ezo, that near. 

e— be, ke, ge, we, ze, that which. 

a — MLgenda, kigenda, fgkgenda, vragenda, zigenda, it (they) went. 

Exercise. — i. What do the following mean? 

Bogede. Sagala. Gokya. Sota. Bambade. Galise. Zoza. Kononese. 

ii. Bring in those sheep. I have split the firewood. The peasants want 



n6 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



their pay. I do not want those fowls. What have the men said? These 
two skins are spoilt. I have shown the three princes all the house. The 
Bakede wear no clothes. I am not able. The goats have come in. The 
boys have quarrelled. The water is hot Tell the .a to be quick. 

(d) After 'n' Prefixes. 

i. If the second syllable of the root begins with n or m no change 
takes place. 

ii. If the second syllable of the root does not begin with n or m, 
then y becomes j. Thus, njagala, njogede. 

Exercise. — i. Make all forms such as ' I do,' ' I may do,' ' I have done,' 
etc., with the lists of verbs on p. 113. 

ii. Show me the clothes which you have washed. These are the clothes 
which 1 have washed. Has he spread a mat for me ? Am I fo tear the 
cloth here ? Am I to empty the water ? Lend me a book. My arm has 
swollen more. Teach me to read. There is more water in the river to-day. 
I want to buy a book. What am I to wear? I want to wear my new 
cloth. Am I to get up? Am I to bring in the goats ? He has lent me his 
book. How shall I speak? I have roasted two cobs of Indian corn. 
Where am I to sweep ? I have joined together two pieces of wood. I do 
not want the sun to shine upon [yakira] me. I have pulled down my house. 

XIX. Miscellaneous 



The following is a 
Stem verbs : — 



list 



(a) w Stems. 
of verbs beginning 



with the letter w — w 



Wa, give. 
Wagala, sharpen. 
Wakana, argue. 
Wala, scrape, as a skin. 
Waliriza, compel to work. 
Waluka, (dukana, see note). 
Wamanta, grope with the hands. 
Wanda amalusu, spit. 
Wandika, write. 
Wanga, put in its handle. 
Wangala, live long. 
Wangamira, be jammed. 
Wangiza, prop up a house. 
Wangula, overcome. 
Wanika, hang up. 
Wasa, marry (of the man). 
Wata, peel plantains, potato, etc. 
Wawula, rub with sand, polish. 
Webuka, be diminished. 
Weka, carry (as a child) on the 
back. 



Werekera, conduct on the way. 

Wereza, send a present to. 

Wesa, forge iron. 

Wita, call. 

Witaba, answer when called. 

Wola, lend, what is to be returned 

in value only. 
Wona, get well. 
Wotoka, wither. 
Woyawaya, appease. 
Woza, plead, slate one's case. 
Wuja, fan. 
Wulira, hear. 
Wumba, be worm-eaten. 
Wumula, i. Rest. ii. Bore a hole. 
Wungera, draw to a close (of the 

day). 
Wunguka, cross a river. 
Wunya, smell. 
Wunyiriza, smell (anything). 



Wita in the imp. is sounded ' ita.' 

Waluka, have diarrhoea (waluka omusai, have dysentery). 



polite .word 
practicable. 



is ' dukana ' ; which should be used 



The 
when 



VERBS IN W : REFLEXIVE VERBS 1 1/ 

Wanda should be used with 'amalusu,' and means to void 
spittle ; used by itself (to void urine) it is not polite ; in this 
sense use fuka or ewonya (heal oneself). 

Witaba, also yitaba. Hence two possible forms, mpitabye and 
njitabye. 

These verbs have only one peculiar change ; viz. whenever n comes 
before them, nw becomes mp : — mpata, I am peeling plantains. 

Exercise. — i. Make all such forms as I give, I have given, let me give, 
etc., for all this list of verbs. 

Adjectives: — watnvu, tall ; wolu, cold. 

With the n class prefix they of course follow the preceding rule, e. g. : — 
enyama empolu, cold meat, 
emindi empamvu, a long pipe, 
emere empolu, cold food : ensuwa empamvu, a tall water-pot. 

With the Class Prefix 1 (for 10 lw becomes gw, e. g. : — 
etaka egwamvu, deep earth, 
edagala egwolu, cold medicine (as opposed to hot). 

This same change is exemplified in the nouns ' egwanga ' and ' 'egwanika,' 
the roots being-wanga and wanika : as seen by the plur. forms, amawanga 
and amawanika. [Wanika, hang up ; hence egwanika.] 

ii. Let me state my case. Let me bore a hole here. To argue is 
difficult. Whenever I argue with them they laugh. He wrote me a long 
letter. Thank [webale] you so much for coming to see me. Let me con- 
duct you on your way. The chief has given me ten bunches-of-plantain. 
I will sew this seam and then [nendioka] I (will) rest. I have hung up four 
long laces in the store. Every time I forge iron the sparks fly up into the 
roof [kasolya]. Let me call him. I have got well. Thank you for making 
me well [wonya]. Whilst I peel the plantains, you look for some long 
leaves. I have propped up the house like this. One long pole in the 
middle [wakati] and three short ones at the side. Whilst I cross this river, 
walk in front and show me the deep places [entubiro]. We will eat cold 
meat to-night, and I (will) cook plantains in the morning. Scrape this skin 
just as I have scraped (it) here. Am I to do it like this ? I have heard that 
you have called me. No, I did not call yon ; but stay close by until I 
do call you. My friend, lend me a thousand shells. I cannot lend you so 
many shells. Never mind, lend me as many as you can. What are you 
doing? I am peeling potatoes. I cannot find it, but let me grope with my 
hands. When you hear me calling, answer. Let me put my axe in its 
handle [ekiti]. 

(b) Reflexives. 

A Verb is made Reflexive by prefixing e to the root. 
Almost every active verb may be made Reflexive in this way, e. g. : — 
e'ta, kill oneself; ekuba, strike oneself, etc. 

Many Reflexives have however special meanings. The following are 
among the principal : — 

Ebagala, ride. Ekanya, complain. 

Ebaka, sleep. Ekeka, fear. 

Ebaza, give thanks. Ekulukunya, grovel, roll (of a 

E'damu, be renewed, come to donkey). 

one's senses. Ekolobya, make a detour. 

Egomba, desire. Emulugunya, complain. 

Egulumiza, exalt oneself. Enyumiriza, boast. t 

Ekaliriza, stare. Erabira, forget. 



I IS ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Esiga, entrust oneself to. Etolola, go round. 

Esigama, lean (oneself). Ewala, avoid. 

Esitala, stumble. Ewunya, be astonished. 

Etekateka, get ready. Eyama, make a vow. 

Eti'ka, carry. Eyanza, give thanks. 

esigama ku, lean upon : — anesigamako, he is leaning on me. 

i. This ' e ' reflexive is strong and never undergoes any change ; if 
prefixed to a y stem, the y is always retained, though in Case II. (Chap. 
XVIII. p. 114) it may be only very slightly heard. 

ii. Prefixes undergo the usual changes indicated above as taking 
place before vowel formatives. 

hi. Special forms. 

Imp. Webaka, go to sleep. 

Simple Tense, nebaka, I sleep. twebaka, we sleep. 

webaka, thou sleepest. mwebaka, ye sleep. 

yebaka, he sleeps. bebaka, they sleep. 

Modified Tense. Nebase, webase, yebase, etc. 
Far Past. Has the same form as the Simple Tense. 
Near Future. 

Sing. 1. nebaka. Plur. 1. tunebaka 

2. onebaka. 2. munebaka. 

3. anebaka. 3. banebaka. 

Narrative. 

Sing. 1. ninebaka. Plur. 1. netwebaka. 

2. newebaka. 2. nemwebaka. 

3. netebaka. 3. nebebaka. 

Negative Forms. 

Present Indefinite. Sebaka, toyebaka, teyebaka, tetwebaka, etc. 
Present Perfect. Sebase, toyebase, teyebase, tetwebase, etc. 
Not yet. Si'nebaka, to'nebaka, ta'nebaka, etc. 

Narrative. 

Sing. 1. nisebaka. Plur. 1. netutebaka. 

2. notebaka. 2. nemutebaka. 

3. netebaka. 3. nebatebaka. 

The other negative tenses would supply no difficulty. 
Still Tense. Nkyayebaza, I am still giving thanks ; okyayebaza, 
akyayebaza, etc. 
akyayebase : he is still asleep. 

Exercise. — He has bitten himself. You are leaning on me. The king 
said, ' Carry this load ' ; and I wondered, and all the people stared to see the 
white-man [omuzungu] carrying a load. We have entrusted ourselves to 
him. When he came to his senses he found that he had forgotten his letter 
[ebarawa], and he said, ' If [singa] I had not made a detour [p.pf.] to avoid 
that dog, I should not have forgotten it.' If I lean upon you, I shall not 
stumble. They gave thanks and said, ' O [ Ai] sir [sebo], how [nga] we wonder 
<o see you riding on such a tall animal ' [ekisolo]. And I answered and said, 
' My friends [banange], wonder not, nor [so] be afraid ; this animal is a 



IDIOMS—' MORE,' * CAN,' ETC. 1 19 

camel [engamira], and camels carry things which are heavy.' This camel of 
mine carries [twala] me and all my things. I do not desire a better friend ; 
it does not roll in the dust like a donkey, nor does it stumble. This fence 
goes round my house on all sides. We are ready to sing. You have not 
yet made a vow. He is still asleep. They carry very heavy things, but 
they do not complain. 

(c) A few Idioms. 
More. 

i. ' Yongera ' is often used ; e. g. : — 

Give me some more, yongera or ate yongera. 
His face is more swollen to-day, etamalye liyongede okuzimba. 
N.B. There is no one word corresponding to 'face'; we must there- 
fore indicate the part, as ' etama, the cheek,' ' obulago, the neck,' etc. 
1 To-day ' in the above sentence is superfluous in Conversation, and 
would frequently be omitted. 

No more : is translated 

i. By a negative form of the ' kya ' Tense \ e. g. : — 

I will do it no more, sikyakola. 
ii. If of quantity, by the p. pf. of gwa, come to an end ; e. g : — 
There is no more milk, amata gawede ; or gawedemu, 

the mu meaning in the vessel. 

iii. By the Present Indefinite Negative. 

Will you have any more ? No more (thank you), ate nyo.ngere ? 
Aa, sagala munange. 
Ate may be added ; e. g. : — 
I want no more insolence, sagala kyejo ate. 

Can, Cannot. 

i. ' Manya,' know, e. g. : — 

amanyi okusoma? Aa, tamanyi, can he read? No, he cannot 

ii.- Negative form of Near Future; e. g. : — 

tetusome lero, we shall not be able to read to-day. 

iii. Sirina (manyi) ga, I have no strength to ; e. g. : — 

sirina ga tambula, I cannot walk, being physically unfit. 

The word ' manyi ' is frequently left out as in the above example, 
and is therefore put in brackets. 

The full form Sirina manyi ga kutambuia, is possible, but the ' ku 
of the Infinitive is generally omitted. 

Other forms as Tolina (tetulina, etc.) ga are, of course, possible. 

iv. ' Bula,' be lost to ; e. g. : — 
kimbuze, I can't find it. 

Similarly Enku zibuze, I cannot buy any firewood. The setting of the 
conversation supplies the idea of ' buying,' otherwise the full form is 
used, viz. Enku zimbuze : tezikyagulikika. For gulikika, Vid. p. 131, 
infra, 

v. ' I cannot see you just now,' and similar expressions must be given 
by the sense — Nkyakola : nakulaba e'da. 



120 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

vi. 'Can do' or 'cannot do,' use ' inza,' have capability, energy 
for j e. g\ :— 
omulimu guno onoguinza ? Aa, siguinza, can you do this work ? 
No, I cannot. 
Quick, quickly : Yanguyako, be quick. (Note— yako, not wako.) 
Yanguwa okufumba, be quick and cook. 

First : Use the verb Soka : Soka ofumbe, First cook. 
And then : Use the Narrative tense oflioka, followed by the Present ; e.g. 
soka oyere wano, nolioka oja, first sweep here and then come. 

Early : Kera, be early ; e. g. : — 

Cook it early, kera okufumba. 
We shall go early, tunakera okugenda. 
kesa obude {lit. Cause the time of the day to be early), be occupied 
until daylight : — tunakesa obude ngatukola, we shall work all 
night. 

Find Fault: Yomba is frequently used, as though ' finding fault' is not 
to be distinguished from ' quarrel ' in the moral code. 
Vunana is rather stronger. It is freely used in Omvunanye ki ? 
What have 1 done wrong? 

Exercise. — Pour out some more water. There is no more water. Well, bring 
some more. Tell him to take off those clothes which he has stolen from 
me, and bring them to me. I want no more of his theft. We cannot stand 
it [sobola empisa ezo]. There is no more ^rass in the yard. We want 53 
more bundles fenjole], but 1 cannot find one. I want to buy two more 
books, but I hive no more shells. Can you find me some? No, I never 
lend shells. My friend, won't you take pity on me ? I cannot find any 
more. Tell them that we want to buy some more meat. First sweep the 
yard and then clean my boots. This rice is not sufficiently cooked ; cook- 
it a little more. When you cook any more rice, first wash it in cold water, 
then cook it. You have not yet learnt that hymn thoroughly. First read it 
through and then learn it more (thoroughly). Have you found my needle? 
I cannot find it. These canoes will not be sufficient. Go and look for some 
more. I have found two more, but they are split. Lend me another book. 
Well, first tell me when [di] you will return [dza] it [you will return it 
when] ? We want three more posts. When they next [ate] bring rice to sell, 
we will buy some more. We shall do some more washing to-morrow. 
These clothes will be (still) more spoilt if you leave them out [i.-bweru] in the 
rain. I will give you some more medicine to morrow. First finish this 
which I have (just) given you. I cannot give you any more to-day. We 
shall write down more names [other names] tomorrow. 

(d) Time. 

When ? 'di ? always at the end of the sentence ; e. g. : — 

oligenda 'di ? when will you go ? 
On, Upon : A point of time is expressed by ku ; e. g. : — 

ku lunaku luli, upon that day. 
In : i. e. During^ in the course of: mu, /'. e. the time in the course of 
which an action takes place ; e. g. : — 
mu naku ezo, in the course of those days about which we have 

been speaking, 
mu mwaka guno, during this year. 



ADVERBS OF TIME 121 

At what time 2 'di? or more idiomatically, obude bwa ki? or obude 

bwa 'di ? 
Since : Kasoka or Kasoka nga, followed by the Simple Tense ; e.g. : — 

kasoka agenda, enaku si biri ? Is it not two days since he went ? 
Yesterday : Jo. Emph. Lwa jo. To - morrow : enkya. Lit. In the 
morning. 

Kasoka nga nkulaba, si lwa jo ? Is it not a long time since I 
<=aw you ? 
To-day : lero. Emph. Lwa lero. 

To-morrow : Use Enkya, in the morning, if that be the meaning i other- 
wise use Jo. 
Every day : bulijo. Lit. Every to-morrow. 
Day before yesterday : (or about that time— two or three days ago), 

Luli. [Lit. That (day — ' olunaku ' understood).] 
Tu'O days ago \ 

Day be/ore yesterday ( (precisely) olwebiri. Lit. (a space of time — 
Day after to-morrow C olunaku) of two days. 
( Two days hence) : ) 

Bv night: Ekiro. Emph. Bwa Kiro {sup. Obude — time). 
By day : Omusana. Emph. Bwa musana {sup. Obude). 
/;; the morning : enkya. At mid-day : mu tuntu. 
Ln the afternoon ; e'guFo. (Also olwe'gulo.) 
In the evening : akawungezi. (This is uncommon, but serves as a very 

useful division ; in common parlance Ekiro denotes any time 

after dark until the following day's light.) 
At midnight: mu tumbi. 
Noiv : kakano. Lit. at this epoch of time — akasera ka kano. At this 

very instant, kakati. If the meaning is general, use Enaku zino, 

these days. 
Every moment : buli kasera. 
Immediately : amangwago. (For Amangu ago.) 

Ekintu ekyamangu ; a thing got on the spur of the moment. 

Omuntu owamangu : a man appointed on the spur of the 
moment. 
Soon. 

When it denotes the Completion of an Action, by the verb ' tera, 
usually in the Near Future, e. g. : — 

anatera okumala, he will soon have finished. 

anatera okuiga, he will soon have done learning, if the learning 
will be finished in a few hours. But 'alitera okuiga,' he will 
soon have done learning, if the learning will take some time. 

ii. When applied to an Action extended over time, not necessarily 
Complete, ln this case use • mangu.' It might also be paraphrased 
by ' Without much trouble, without much delay.' 
oliiga mangu, you will soon learn. 

iii. Sometimes e'dako may be used : tunafumba e'dako, we shall cook 
soon. 



122 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

In this case the Action is neither Complete nor Extended : it is 
entirely in the Future — we are going to do soon. 

iv. Paraphrase : — teyalwa, yasitula mangu, he was soon off. 

A long time ago : E'da. The e is an I.V., and should only be used when 
the word before it is Relative, or has an I.V. Be careful to 
pronounce the 'd in 'da very distinctly, otherwise it will not be 
understood. 

A very long time ago : 'da-a-a . . ., repeating the ' a ' in proportion to 
the time emphasized. 

Repeatedly : olunye. Say repeatedly : yogera emirundi mingi. 

(Emirundi mingi has, however, been introduced by the European, to supply a 
deficiency. The Native Idiom is to repeat the word, Say : njogera nenjogera, or to 
express the idea by intonation and some such particle as Owa, or merely to say, I 
told you and you do not hear.) 

Incessantly : obutayosa. Speak incessantly : yogera olutata. 

At one time, at another time : olusi . . . olusi. 

At times : olusi. 

Once : omulundi gumu : twice, emirundi ebiri, etc. 

Sunday, Sabiti jl Monday : (lwa baraza,* j^ Jlvvakusoma  

J J \or lwakubm.J J \ox lwakusatu. 

Days of the week : An attempt is being made to make Sunday the first 
day ; Monday the second (lwakubiri) ; Tuesday the third (lwaku- 
satu) ; Wednesday the fourth (lwakuna) ; Thursday the fifth (lwa- 
kutano) ; Friday the sixth (lwamukaga) ; Saturday the seventh 
(lwamusamvu). 

Exercise. — I am not going to work now. I shall work in the morning. 
We will read every day in the afternoon. They could-not [lemwa] travel by 
day. They travelled by night. He arrived at mid-day on Monday and went 
on Saturday afternoon When shall we learn to write? If you come every 
afternoon at four o'clock [sawa eyekumi] I will do-my-best [nyikira] to teach 
you. We shall soon learn. I shall soon finish. They will go in two days' 
time. I heard that he died two days ago. Our master wants (the food) 
served up [has told us to serve up — julula] immediately. What a long time 
since I had a meal ! They only eat twice a day, in the morning and at night. 
I once [eda] went to Europe [Ebulaya], but I do not now remember what I 
saw there. The house caught fire [gya omuliro] at|midnight. We shall soon 
build another. This house of mine will soon have fallen down. What 
shall we do? shall we build a temporary [-a mangu] hut? I am at work 
every moment ; at times I am tired, but (that is nothing), it is a very happy 
work ; on Sunday many people come to [kungana mu] church [kanisa]. It 
is not a Christian [-a Bamasiya] custom to work on that day. During the 
week they read or [oba] they do the work of every day. In that month 
there no European arrived ; but now there are many Europeans in the country. 



1 With extended application, A week ; because reckoned from Sunday to Sunday. 

2 Or briefly Baraza — tulija ku Baraza, we will come on Monday. 

3 Until these are recognized as names there will be an ever-recurring tendency to 
return to the literal meaning ' A reading day,' ' A second day,' etc. Hence Lwokuso- 
ma, Lwokubiri, Lwokusatu, etc., will be heard. ViJ. Initial Vowel, XXVII. i., 
p. 146. 



PASSIVE 123 

XX. Verb Formation. 
(a) Ways of forming the Passive. 

There are in Luganda three ways of expressing a Passive idea. 

i. By the Reflexive form ; this is not common, e. g. : — 

esima, be delighted (sima, delight in, be pleased with). 

ii. By the Neuter ending ka. 

a. If the word end in la, change la to ka, e. g. : —  

yawula, separate : yawuka, be separated, 
sanula, melt : saniika, be melted. 

b. Change a final of the root into eka if the preceding vowel be e or 

o, and into ika if that vowel be a, i, or u, e.g. : — 

menya, break : menyeka, be broken. 

sula, throw away : sulika, be thrown upside down. 

This form will express the state or nature of that which the verb 
refers to, rather than any action taking place upon it. 

This is a very general principle throughout the language. It will 
nearly always be found that there are two possible forms for a 
Passive state, distinguished in this way. 

N.B. — This ' ka neuter ' is very closely allied to another ka, for which see 
below. [Chap. XXI. (<-).] 

iii. By the Passive ending ' -bwa' (or ' wa '), which denotes an action as 
being done by outside interference. 
Thus it is the Converse of the Active : — 

He made the shoes : the shoes were made by him. 

(b) Passive in 'bwa' (wa). 

i. If the Verb end in ira (era), change ira (era) into irwa (erwa) for 
the Passive, and into idwa (edwa) for the Modified Form, e.g. : — 

pass. mod. ' 

bulira, tell. bulirwa. bulidwa. 

kolera, do for. kolerwa. koledwa. 

ii. If the verb be monosyllabic, change ' a ' final into ibwa, and if a 
1 y ' precede, omit it, e. g. : — 

PASS. MOD. 

lya, eat? libwa. lidwa. 

tya, fear. tibwa. tidwa. 

'ta, kill. 'tibwa. 'tidwa. 

Exc. wa and ta : see below. 

iii. Verbs in nya, mya, bya (pya) change 'a' final into izibwa if the 
preceding vowel is a, i, or u ; and into ezebwa if that vowel is e 
or o, e. g. :— 

PASS. MOD. 

sasanya, scatter. sasanyizibwa. sasanyizidwa. 



124 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

iv. In other cases change 'a' final into ' ibwa ' if the preceding 
vowel is a, i, or u ; and into ' ebwa ' if that vowel is e or o. 
The Modified form will be idwa (edwa), e. g. : — 

PASS. MOD. 

kola, make, do. kolebwa. koledwa. 

bala, count. balibwa. balidwa. 

The following are apparently exceptions — though not really so. 

TASS. MOD.' 

wa, give. webwa. weredwa (wedwa not used). 

ta, let loose. tebwa. tedwa. 

sonyiwa, forgive. sonyibwa. sonyidwa. 

Many Verbs in la, ma, ba (pa) prefer a Passive form in lvva, mwa, bwa 
(pwa), respectively ; e. g. : — 

lamulwa, be valued (lamulibwa) ; tarn wa, be tired of; labwa, be 
seen. 

Exercise. 1 — Have these shells been counted ? This book has not yet been 
read. All the plantain-fruit was stolen. The plantain-fibre was plaited. 
My goats were sold yesterday. This ba"rk-cloth is still untrimmed. The 
bridge was carried away [yika] this morning. The rice will be pounded to- 
night. We were conducted on our 'way by the master and his wife. These 
reeds want to be polished. These plantains are not yet peeled. His pleas 
[ensonga] will be heard later [e'da]. When were these clothes washed ? 
The goats will be brought in soon. All our work will be greatly increased. 

(c) Uses of the Passive in ' bwa ' (wa). 

One use of the Passive is to express For doing. 

embuzi eyoku'tibwa, a goat for killing. Lit. of being killed. 
Or, omitting the I.V. 

embuzi eno ya ku'tibwa, this goat is for killing, is to be killed. 
Interrogatively this would mean, Is this goat to be killed ? 
So, Ebisasiro bino bya kusulibwa ? Is this rubbish to be thrown 

away? 
Sometimes the same idea is expressed by the Active Infinitive, e. g. 

in the previous example, it would also be possible to say, 

Ebisasiro bino bya kusula? 
So also to express the term ' a liniment,' edagala eryokukutira ku 

mubiri, /'. e. a medicine to be rubbed on the body. 
The difference must be looked for in Passive submission or in Active application. 

The Agent after a Passive is given without any preposition, if it 
has life — ya 'tibwa empologoma, he was killed by a lion. 

If it has no life, and is inanimate, use ' na ' — yakubibwa nomugo, he 
was struck with a stick. 

Exercise. — Are these shells to be counted? Is this rice to be pounded? 
All the cows were looted by the enemy. How many cows were taken? I " 



1 The Active form is much preferred to the Passive, and when possible use it. This' 
Exercise is more intended to illustrate a principle than for actual use. Always use 
the Active form when it can be used without making the sentence clumsy. 



PREPOSITIONAL FORM 1 25 

was told it by the king [the king is he who, etc.]. These clothes are not 
worn by peasants. The house was destroyed by fire. This house is to 
be pulled down. All this grass is to bi tied up. All these bones are to be 
picked up by the boys. All these clothes are to be washed by you. AH the 
directions are to be given by you [you will direct, etc.]. They will get no 
pity from [not be pitied by] the king. These reeds are not to be taken by 
the women for [mu] firewood. This syrup is not to be drunk by the dog. 
These rags are to be thrown away by you into the garden. Your clothes are 
not to be sewn on Sunday. He was killed by a falling tree [the tree fell 
and, etc.]. Boots are not sold here. They are sold by the traders. He was 
trampled upon by an elephant. This medicine is not to be drunk at once 
[kakati]. This medicine is an ointment [is for smearing]. 

(d) The Prepositional Form. 

The Prepositional or Applied Form is made — 

i. By changing ' a ' final into ' ira ' if the preceding vowel be a, i, or 
u, and into ' era ' if that vowel be e or o ; e . g. : — 

leta, bring : letera, bring to. 

kwata, grasp : kwatira, grasp for. 

kola, do : kolera, do for. 

ii. When the stem is monosyllabic, change ' a ' into • ira,' and if a 
'y ' precede, drop it out; e. g. : — 

lya, eat : lira. fa, die : fira. 

Exc. Those whose passive ends in ' ebwa ' take ' era '; e. g. : — 
wa, give : wera. ta, let go : tera. 

In the occasional cases where the verb ends in sa or za :- — 

i. Revert to the root-form of which sa or za is the causative ending, and make the 
caus. of the prep, form of that root ; e. g. \ — 

woza, plead. woleza, plead for [Chap. XXI. («)]. 

ii. Where this is not possible, change a final into eseza (isiza) ; e.g. : — 
sinza, sinzisa : tesa, teseza. 

It is not possible when the form in sa or za cither is a root-form (? tesa), or where 
the form in sa or za has acquired by usage a special meaning, quite different from 
that of the root — 

e.g. Singa, excel; sinza, (/»'/.) cause to excel : only now used in the »«nse 'worship.' 

The uses of the Prepositional Form are three — 
i. To translate ' do for,' 1 e. g. : — 

leta, bring ; letera, bring for — ondetere, bring for roe. 

yamuleta, he brought him. 

yamuletera emere, he brought food for him. 

ii. With the intensive word ' dala.' This means — 
a. Now and not later, e. g. : — 

amatoke, kangatwalire dala, let me take the plantains now and 
not later. 

1 Mostly with the idea 'for the advantage of: sometimes 'at' or 'to' — 
sanyukira ekirabo, rejoice at (for) a present, 
badalira, be rude to. 



126 ELEMENTS OF LUG AN DA 

/?. Completely, with a leaning to the previous meaning given ' now 
and not later.' 
kwatira dala, gwa'ma, come on, catch hold tight. 

meaning, of course, ' Now.' 
okufira dala, to be quite dead, at the time of speaking, 
afiride dala ? is he quite dead ? 

This form is seldom used in Past Time. 

iii. To express action done in a place, unless the verb has in itself 
any idea of place. 

Verbs having an idea of place are : — 

Fumba, cook. Sula, sleep Tesa, discuss. 

Imirira, stand. Tabala, go on a raid.. Tula, sit. 
Lima cultivate. Tambula, walk. Wanika, hang up. 

Soma, read. Tema, cut. 

The Prepositional form with these is either unnecessary or — 

a. introduces a new and uncommon idea ; e. ?. : — 
Tarnbulira ku gari, ride on a bicycle. 

b. Throws emphasis on the place ; e. g. : — 

yateseza mu lukiko, he gave his advice in the council, not 
in the house, etc. 

In few cases it may be possible to say 'do for some one. on.' Both 
the Italic words require a Prepositional form. Hence a doubly Preposi- 
tional form must be used, e.g. : — 

Isa Masiya yatuhrira ku msalaba, 

Jesus Christ died for us on the cross. 

Exercise. — i. What are the Prepositional forms of — 

Kuba, genda, bula, gula, tunda, kunkunuila, tabula, sembera, tegera, bala, 
sala, nyaga, nyiga, gaba. 

ii.. Call the boy to read [subj.] for me out-of [ku] the book which was given 
to me the other day. Go and ask for a garden for me. Am I to cut the 
meat here ? Cook this meat forme in a leaf [oluwombo]. Leave off just- 
there [awo]. They know quite well that I come every morning to read in 
the church. They have gone completely astray. I will distribute all the 
shells to you in the morning. Take some of this medicine and shake it over 
that (near) spot. Have you turned the mosquitoes completely out ? My 
book is infinitely nicer [singa] than yours. Help me to some food. Hang 
the clothes upon that rope, and let them dry there [ok wo]. The dog is com- 
pletely lost ; perhaps [mpodzi] it has hid itself in the long grass [ensiko]. He- 
pushed me into the water. 

(e) Special Uses. 

The Pronominal Adverb 'awo,' at that place, requires the Prepositional 
form. In a few phrases it may be so joined to the verb as to sound like 
.the affix 'wo.' It differs from this affix by being more emphatic. Thus 

Taliwo, he is not here ; gyawo, take away from here, etc. 
but, Temerawo (for temera awo), cut it precisely at that point which 
you have indicated. 



PREPOSITIONAL FORM 1 27 

Lekerawo, Stop, that's enough. Lit. Leave off at that very 

point where you now are. 
Salirawo, cut it just there. 

The emphasis may be increased by a forward movement of the lips, 
or by intonation. 

Some verbs have a special meaning in the Prepositional form. They 
are — 

duka, run away : duka mu nju, run out of the house, 
goba, drive away : goba mu nju, drive out of the house. 

But— * 

dukira, run into : dukira mu nju, run into the house, 
gobera, drive into : gobera mu nju, drive into the house, 
kyama rnu kubo, go out of the road, go astray, 
kyamira mu kubo, turn off from the main road into a by-path. 

Doubly Prepositional forms are made by changing ' a ' final into ' irira ' 
(erera) ; e. g. :— 

zikirira, go out (of a fire). 
They usually intensify the action and give the meaning, ' be done 
with effort or persistency.' They are generally without an object, /. e. 
intransitive. 

Where this is not the case, it will be found that there is an ordinary 
prepositional form in use as well. The ordinary prepositional form has 
the meaning most commonly wanted, and the double form the meaning 
seldom wanted, e. g. : — 

etundira mu mukonogwo, sell oneself into your hand, 
etundirira, sell for one's own advantage. 
Etundirira is not urgently needed, because there is a synonym — 
esubulira. 

Firide is used as the mod. form of fira, because a form ' fide ' would 
not be euphonic. 

Firwa, be bereaved of — mod. form, firidwa, e. g. : — 
bafirwa abana babiri, they lost two children, 
afiridwa omwana, she has lost her child. 

Intensity, if not given by the Doubly Prepositional form, may be 
expressed — 

i. By the Infinitive, thus : — 

alimbye nokulimba, he has told a downright lie. 

akoze nokukola, he has worked really hard. 

alimye nokulima, she has done a first-rate bit of cultivating. 

This form seems to be used only with the Present Perfect. In trans- 
lations, where another tense is needed, the order is reversed. 1 

ii. By an Intensive Adverb, of which there are a great variety, e.g. : — 
tukutuku, whiteness ; geregere, quite tight ; da da da, quite tight, 
full up, etc. ; du, full to the brim, etc. ; enzikiza ekute zigi- 
zigi, it is pitch dark. 

1 According to Rev. H. W. Duta, who is responsible or most of the translation. 



128 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Doubly Prepositional verbs with an intensive meaning : — 

bonerera, repent, be sorry for wrong-doing. bonabona, be afflicted 
eralikirira, be anxious, be troubled about, 
etulinkirira, do on one's own responsibility, invent 

a message, 
fukirira, pour water upon (as the hands) ; water 

a garden, 
gayirira, despise utterly, [egairira, beseech] 
golomerera, speak reluctantly, languidly, 
kabirira, mourn, lament, 
komerera, be last. 

kubirira, beat on the ground with a stick, 
lagirira, prescribe, show the way. 
lindirira, wait patiently, wait a bit. 
linyirira, trample upon. 



fuka, pour, 
gaya, despise. 



kaba, cry. 
koma, end. 
kuba, beat, 
laga, show, 
linda, wait, 
linya, go up, 

on. 
mala, finish. 



tread 



samba, kick 
sole of foot, 
seka, laugh. 



malirira, be completely finished, accomplished. 
samalirira, gape with astonishment, 
sambirira, stamp upon, 

sekerera, laugh at, mock. 

semberera, go or come near to. 

sindukirira — ememe ensindukirira, I feel sick. 

su'kirira, be over, be superfluous. 

sulirira, take a long sleep or rest. 

sulirira, leave an interval. 

tokoterera, regret in silence, keep a guilty silence. 

tomerera, prevaricate. 

tonyerera, drizzle incessantly. 

womerera, be very nice. 

yasamirira, keep the mouth open* 

zibirira, close the eyes whilst awake (of the 

day), close in. 
zikirira, go completely out (of fire). 

zimirira, go right out of sight, as a canoe in the 

horizon, 
zingirira, twist up (strands of thread), 
zitowerera, be a heavy burden. 

Exercise, — Study the uses of these words with the people, and learn to 
appreciate their force. For this purpose, where possible, the simple form of 
the verb from which they come is given in the right hand column. 



with 



su'ka, step over, 
sula, pass the night, 
sula, throw. 

toma, complain, 
tonya, drop, rain 
woma, be good, 
yasama, open, 
ziba, stop up. 

zika, go out of cul- 
tivation. 

zima, kidnap {Jit. 
spirit away). 

zinga, fold. 

zitowa, be heavy. 



XXI. Verb Formation. 

(a) The Causative. 

A verb is called causative, when by some change in its form it is 
made to mean • cause to do,' instead of ' to do.' 

The most general rule for making a Causative is : — Change the 'e' of 



THE CAUSATIVE FORM 1 29 

the Modified form into ' a,' and the result will be the Causative. If, how- 
ever, the Modified form end in 'de,' 'de' must he changed into 'za, 
e.g:- 

MOD. CAUS. 

kola, koze, koza, cause to do. 

kyuka, kyuse, kyuso, cause to be changed, change 

Special Cases. 

i. Firira, die for. firisa, cause to die for. 

Kwata, take hold. kwasa, cause to take hold. 1 

Nyuwa, drink. nyuwesa, cause, give to drink. 

ii. Monosyllabic roots : — 

Fa, die ; fisa, cause to die. Lwa, delay ; lwisa, cause to delay. 

Gwa, fall; gwisa, cause to fall. Tya, be afraid; tisa, frighten. 

Gya, take) . t , Va, go out; visa, cause to go out. 

«■ • 1 sy isa > cause to ta k e - 

Lya, eat ; lisa, cause to eat, feed. Wa, give ; wesa, cause to give. 

iii. Verbs ending in ba, pa, ma and na prefer to change ' a ' final 
into e?a (isa), though in some cases the form obtained by the general 
rule given above is used. 

fumba, cook ; fumbya and fumbisa, cause to cook. 

jema, rebel ; jemesa, cause to rebel, rarely jemya. 

iv. Verbs in ya (other than causative) always change ' a ' final into 
isa (esa)— linya, go up ; linyisa, cause to go up. 

v. Verbs in sa and za — either not already causative, or with the 
causative meaning so absorbed that they may be treated as non- 
causative. 

Change sa into seza (siza), and za into z.'sa (zisa) ; these are some- 
times identically the same as the corresponding prepositional form, e.g.: — 
lowoza, think ; lowozesa, cause to think, 

tesa, take counsel ; teseza, cause to take counsel. 

Exercise. — What are the Causative forms of : — 

Gayala, situla, kakanyala, tukula, tamira, tegera, bula, gula, kala, sala, 
linda, zinga, sima, soma, tema, saba, buka, kweka, tereka, meriyeka, seka, 
sindika, kika, yagala, yaka, yambala, yanguwa, yomba, imiriia, yasama, 
yogera, imuka, yonona, wona, wunya, wandika, wulira.wumula, esitala, etika, 
ewunya, etolola? 

(b) Uses of the Causative. 2 

i. To give the meaning 'Cause to do.' 

ii. Sometimes to express such an idea as ' A knife to cut with ' — 

1 Used in many idioms ; e.g. kwasa ensonyi, make ashamed ; kwasa ensonga, convict. 

2 The Causative form denotes Active ag»ncy, *'. e. it means ' cause to do ' and not 
'cause to be.' Hence this form of 'why' is only applicable in a limited number of 
cases. [Chap. XXIII. (a), s. v. Why.] 

e. g. Why is this food hard ? 

emere eno enkakanyavu : ensonga ki ? This food is hard, what is the reason > 

To say, Ekikanyazidza emere eno? (What cause makes this food hard ? not What 

causes this food to be hard) would imply Active treatment, as a new process of cooking. 

I 



130 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Akambe akasaza enyama; or akambe akokusaza enyama, a knife 

to eat meat with. 
Ebyokulwanyisa, things to fight with, offensive weapons. 
Ebisimya etaka biruwa ? Where are the tools to dig with ? 

iii. Sometimes to ask the question Why ? Thus :— 
Ekikukoza bwotyo kiki ? Why do you act thus ? 
Ekibalwisidza kiki ? Why have they been delayed ? 

Visamu, make a profit out of (mu) : esp. visamuamagoba. 

Cf. enegulamu ensimbi ineka ? How many shells will you make 
out of it ? (ente.) 
tunavisamu amagoba mangi, we shall make a large profit out of it. 
guza, sell to — guza omuntu oyo ekitabo, sell that man a book, 
tundira omuntu ekitabo, sell a book for a man. 

-ereza, -iriza. 

A few of the Doubly Prepositional verbs on p. 128 may be made 
Transitive by making them Causative. A form in ' ereza ' or ' iriza ' is 
thus obtained. This form is often however taken by verbs in some 
special meaning. They all denote primarily 'do with persistency and 
effort,' or more correctly an action which is the result or sum-total of a 
number of infinitesimal actions ; e.g. : — 

nyiga, press; nyigiriza, squeeze : a more continued action, the total 
result of a number of infinitesimal ' pressings.' 

The following are examples of these forms of the verb which have 
special meanings : — 

bugumiriza, oppress with heat. buguma, be warm, 

egendereza, walk carefully. genda, go. 

ekobereia, accuse another in order to clear koba, take counsel. 

oneself, 

eretereza, bring upon oneself. leta, bring, 

gumikiriza, bear patiently. guma, be courageous, 

igiriza, teach. iga, learn, 

komekerfva, make to reach the end. koma, end. 
kungiriza, exclaim in an undertone. 

lowolereza, think about, try to remember. lowoza, think, 

maliriza, finish completely mala, finish, 
nayiriza, take other persons things. 

nyigiriza, squeeze, press hard. nyiga, press, 
sikiriza, overshadow, 
wemukiriza, accuse publicly. 

wereza, serve. wa, give. 

wolereza, intercede. woza, plead, 

wunyiriza, sniff. wunya, smell, 
yeyereza, continually harp on a matter, 

yogereza, ask in marriage. (y°g a )- 

yogerereza, reconcile yogera, say. 

sibikiriza, restrain oneself from words, tears, ziba, stop up. 

etc. 



*KA' CAPABLE: 'KA* NEUTER 131 

zindukiriza, come upon suddenly. zinda, capture by sur- 

prise. 

Exercise. — i. Work through the above forms with the people. 

ii. Translate: — 

Come [jangu] and sell me two books. Why are you idle,? Explain to him 
that we want to teach writing every morning at nine o'clock [sawaeyokusatu]. 
Here are two boys who want to serve you. Why do they want to serve me ? 
Lend me something which will break these stones. Why have you cut up ail 
this meat ? Feed this sick man on milk three times every day. Bring an axe 
to cut these trees with. The chief fined [tanza] him yesterday, and will make 
him pay up [komekereza] the very last shell. Why do you think so ? 
Where are the tools to cultivate with ? Why does he talk so much ? These 
shells were collected in church last Sunday. Who is responsible for leaving 
[caused them to be left] them here? Give my boy some medicine to cure his 
sickness. 

(c) The *ka' or Capable Form. 

Many verbs are able to express the idea ' Able to be done.' 1 
To give this idea, change 'a' final into eka if the preceding vowel be 
' e ' or • o ' ; and into ika if that vowel be ' a,' ' i,' or ' u.' e.g. koleka, able 
to be done ; gulika, able to be bought ; inza, be able to do, makes inzika, 
quite uf-le to be done; interrogatively Kiinzika? Is it at all possible? 
Sometimes this ending is doubled : ikika (ekeka) ; e.g. : — 
balikika, able to be counted 
simbulikika, able to be dug up. 

lya, eat, makes. Ilka, able to be eaten, ratable. 

sonyiwa, forgives, makes, sonyika, able to be forgiven, forgivable. 

Exercise. — What are the ' ka ' forms of: — 

yambala, wumula, komoln, situla, tegeVa, sima, tema, etika, yogera, tabula, 
genda, singa, zinga, saba, kweka, fuka ? 

Verbs in ' na ' or 'ny ' prefer a form in ezeka (izika) : in exactly the 

same way as they take nyezebwa (nyizibwa) in the Passive, e.g. : —  

nonyezeka, able to be searched out. 

(d) The 'ka' Neuter Form. 

Closely allied to this Capable Form is the ' ka' Neuter Form, 
i. It means to be in a state, e.g. : — 

sanyu, joy. sanyuka, be in a state of joy. 

lalu, mad. laluka, be in a state of madness. 

ii. Hence it is used to denote the Passive state of many transitive 
verbs ending in ' la,' e.g. : — 

laba, see. labika, be in a state of being seen, appear, 

yonona, spoil, yononeka, be in a spoilt condition. 

It is occasionally reduplicated, e. g. : — 

golola, stretch out. golokoka, be in a stretched out condition. 

Contrast with this : — 

komola, trim. komolebwa, be trimmed. 

1 Also ' very difficult to do,' if the speaker is unwilling or too lazy to attempt a 
certain piece of work. 



132 ELEMENTS OE LUGANDA 

Because this is not a Passive state, but something done by active in- 
terference with a knife or otherwise 

(e) Reversive Form. 

A verb can be made to mean its exact opposite by changing 'a ' final 
into ula, or ulula. Such in ending is called Reversive, and might be 
translated in English by ' un.' 

simba, plant. simbula, unplant, dig up. 

ziba, stop up. zibula, unstop. 

Some verbs are only used in this form, e.g. : — 

sumulula, untie. There is no form ' suma ' in use for 'tie.' 

The Passive of these verbs is nearly always by changing 'la ' to 'lea,' 
because a Passive state is represented. If the ending is doubled 
(ulula), the Passive will generally be of the form ulukuka, e. g. : — 

sumulula : sumulukuka, be untied. 

simbula : simbuka, be dug up. 

Sometimes these verbs are found closely connected with the one of 
opposite meaning, 

vunula, turn upside down. vunika, turn right way up. 

'gula, shut a door. 'gala, open a door. 

Reversive verbs : — 

fundukulula, untie ; from fundika, tie. 

jemulula, submit ; „ jema, rebel, 

julula, annul; ,, juja, be full of. 

serekulula, unthatch ; ,, sereka, thatch, 

sumulula, untie ; ,, 

tekulula, unmake a law ; „ teka eteka, make a law. 

tungulula, unsew, unthread ; ,, tunga, sew, thread, 

wumbulula, unwrap ; ,, wumba, wrap up. 

wundulula, unsew beads, rip off,, 

zingulula, disentangle; ,, zinga, fold up; zingazinga, 

entangle. 

(/) Reciprocative. 

Reciprocal Forms — do to one another — are generally made by the 
addition of gana 1 to the stem, e.g. : — 

kyawagana, hate one another, wuliragana, hear one another. 

If; however, the stem is monosyllabic or ends in ga, the addition will 
be ng'ana, not gana, e. g. : — 

oku'bang'ana, to steal from one nyagang'ana, plunder each 

another. other, 

'da makes 'ding'ana, go backwards and forwards. 

1 This 'gana' is used as a noun, 'e'gaua,'a herd, flock. The connection is obvious. 
It is not clear whether the ending ana {e.g. vunana), is connected: vunana, contract, 
for vunagana or perhaps vunawana. 



AUXILIARY LI' I33 

Exercise. — What are the Reciprocal forms of: — 

sonyiwa, kwata, lagana, yagala, sanyuka, igiriza, yolesa, wakana, woza, gaba, 
limba, goba, wereza? 

What do these forms mean ? 

XXII. Auxiliary Verbs. 
The Verb '•to be' as an Auxiliary. 
The Verb ' to be ' has two forms : — 

i. The form Mi' which is only used as a Simple Tense in Present 
Time : Ndi, I am ; oli, thou art, etc. ; and as a Far Past in Past 
Time : Nali, I was ; wali, thou wast, etc. 
ii. The form ' ba,' which is used in all possible forms of the Verb. 

The form ' li ' is always used in particular statements of fact. The 
form ' ba ' in general statements. Hence its use with Adjectives a. 
Numerals : bali babi, ziri kumi, etc. 

wano we wali amadzi, Here there is water. 

If, however, there is no form of ' li ' available, the required form must 
be made from ' ba.' 

1. Uses of 'li.' 
(a) In Near Time. 
Near Time. — /'. e. T;me which deals with the immediate Present, or 
the Near Future. 

li followed by nga gives the idea ' probably,' ' I suppose ' ; the time 
of the Action is marked by the tense of the verb following nga, e. %. : — 
ali nga agenda, he is probably going, 
ali nga ta'nawona, I think he is not well yet. 
ali nga analwala, he will probably be ill. 
ali nga akyali mulwade (akyalwala), I believe he is still ill. . 

Exercise. — I believe he has taken the shells. He will probably carry that 
box. I don't think he has gone yet. They are probably selling meat (to- 
day) in the market. I think he has agreed to build a cook's house for me. 
They have probably not gone yet. Let me go and see if they will take that 
letter for you. That sick old man is very ill. He will probably die to-night. 
I believe you are selling books. What has he said ? Probably he has asked 
for a book. We have probably got out of the road. He has probably done 
counting the shells. 

(b) In Far Time. 
Far Time. — 1. e. Time which deals either with the Far Past or with 
the Far Future. 

-ali, with or without nga, to denote what took place some time ago, 
gives two tenses : — 

I was doing : nali ngenda Emengo, bwebankwata mu kubo, I was 

going to Mengo when they arrested me. 
I had done : yali nga agenze, he had gone. 
For the first the Present tense is used after nga ; so that the literal 
meaning is, 'I was thus, I am going.' 

For the second the Present Perfect is used after nga; so that the 
literal meaning is, ' He was thus, he has gone.' 



134 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

These are frequently abbreviated into : — 
nali ngenda, I was going, 
yali agenze, he had gone. 

Interrogatively : — 

wali omulabyeko ? Have you ever seen him ? 

wali ogenze Engogwe ? Have you ever been to Ngogwe ? 

For 'whilst' or 'when' in this exercise — I fell down whilst I was walking — say, 'I 
was walking and I fell down.' 

Exercise.— He had tried very hard to read, but it was too much [lema] for 
him. He had finished counting all the shells when the storm came and 
threw down the house. He came whilst I was looking for him. He had 
hung up all the curtains whilst I was out. They were pounding rice when 
they heard of the fire at the ' embuga.' They had set up all the posts of the 
house, when they were called out for-war [okutabala]. Have you ever mixed 
medicine before [eda]? Have you ever seen my garden ? Did you take pity 
upon her? Have you ever sewn a waistcoat [ekizibawo] before? We were 
cultivating when the rain came down. We were going to Busoga, and had 
nearly reached the lake [enyanja] when we heard of the revolt there [when 
they told us that, etc.]. They returned from the fight [olutalo] after they had 
[when they had finished to] buried all the dead and laid [galamiza] all the 
wounded [abafumite], who could not walk, on stretchers. They were coming 
back when we met them. 

(c) Idiomatic Use. 
i. With the Affix ' ko,' followed by the Relative. 

siriko kyenkola, I have nothing in particular to do. 

taliko gyasura, he has nowhere to sleep. 

omulimu gwebaliko, the work which is their business, in which 
they are engaged, 
ii. Preceded by the Pronominal Object. 

gundi akuli wala, so and so is far from you. 
iii. ' li ' repeated. 

nali ndi awo, I happened to be there. 

oliba oli awo, you will happen to be there, 
iv. With ' ko ' or ' mu ' followed by the Initial Vowel. 

omuti ogwo gulimu amadzi, that tree has sap in it. 

2. Uses of ' ba.' 
(a) Mbade. 
1 Ba ' means literally ' be in a state of existence,' ' exist.' 
Hence its use in such general statements as : — 

awaba amadzi, we waba e'tosi, where there is water, there is mud. 
Hence also the idioms : — 

Obade otya ? What are you doing ? 
Siriko kyembade, I am nothing in particular. 
Lit. I have not upon me (I am not engaged in) that which (kye) 
you call 'mbade.' 
Two idioms should be carefully noticed : — 
mbade mfumba, I am cooking, and 
mbade mfumbye, I have cooked. 



'BA 135 

Any other verb may be used instead of ' fumba.' 

Mbade mfumba, I am cooking : The expression is almost apolo- 
getic ; I am cooking, but it may not be what is wanted, 
mbade njagala okugenda empwanyi, I should like to go the coast 

(but I do not know if you will agree). 
mbade ng'amba, I am thinking, I suppose (but I do not know if 
my suggestion will meet with your approval). 
In each of these three instances, the Present Tense after Mbade 
marks the action as continuous and not completed. 

Mbade mfumbye, I have cooked : Again apologetic. I have 
cooked, but I do not know if I have cooked what was wanted, 
abade agenze Emengo — he was on his way to Mengo (but came 
back, fell ill or the like). 

In these cases the Present Perfect marks the action as in some sense 

completed. The Negative goes with the Verb, not the Auxiliary, e.g.: — 

Mbade sisena madzi ? Was I not drawing water ? 

Exercise. — Try the meaning of the word ' mbade ' with differen verbs, and 
note how the people use it. 

(b) For Emphasis, 
engato zino zemba nongosa ? Are these the shoes which I am 

to clean ? 
Kubo ki lyemba nkwata ? Which is the road which I am to take? 

This form is mostly if not entirely Relative. 

Exercise. — Which canoe am I to bring? Are these the shells which I am 
to count? Is this the tooth which I am to pull out fkula]? Is this the spot 
where I am to cultivate? Is this the water which we are to throw away? 
Is this the pay [empera] which he is to have [twala] ? Is this the cow which 
he is to sell? Are these the reeds which they are to polish? Is that the 
river which we are to bridge [tinda] ? 

(c) Condition. 
It is possible to use the verb ' ba ' as an auxiliary in almost any tense 
not yet given. Nga will generally be used after ' ba,' but not always. 
These combinations are very various, but are always used in Conditional 
sentences, with the particle ' bwe,' e.g. : — 

bwoba otuwa nga bwetwalagana, tunakolanga, if you give us 
what we agreed for, we will work. 

A general statement, with the idea that the gift is to be habitual; like 
the giving of a food allowance, wages, etc. 

bwonoba otuwade, tunakukolera, when you shall have given us, 
— if only you will give us it, — we will work for you. 
In Near Time : — 

bwaba anatuwa [bwanaba atuwa] ensimbi, tunakola, if he is willing 
to give us shells, we will work. 

In Far Time : — 

bwaliba agenze, komawo, if you rind he is gone, come back. 
(Giving directions to a messenger who is to go to a distance.) 



136 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Note two idioms : — 

Oba oli awo (oboli awo), if you happen to be there. 
Bwoliba oli awo, if you shall happen to be there. 

Exercise. — If they will but persevere, they will soon learn. If you will 
promise to come every day, I will teach you to write. If he agn*es-to-take 
[kiriza okutunda] 350 shells (for) that leg, buy it. If you can buy some 
soap when you are in the Capital, do so. If only he will give us the shells 
we ask for, we will finish that house. If he will promise-not-to [kiriza] shout 
in school [when we read] I will take him back [agree that he come back] 
to-morrow morning. If they have done selling books when you get to 
Mitiana, put away the shells carefully until the morning. If you will wash 
your clothes every Saturday, I will give you the soap ; or if you prefer it, I 
will give you shells to buy the soap with. 

XXIII. Other Auxiliaries. 
(a) Va, Just been; therefore. 

i. M va kukola : I have just been working. 

tuva kukola, we have just been reading. 
No other tense of ' va ' is used in this way. 

ii. ' Therefore ' : to express that one fact results from another. 

kyemva nkola, therefore I work. 
The expression is probably elliptical, and applied first to things, e.g. : — 

kyekiva kitambula ; lit. from whjch premise it comes out walking. 

Hence probably arises the fact that whilst the ' va ' may be in any tense to 
suit the context, the verb following must always be in the Present, e. g. : — 

kyebavude bagenda, therefore they have gone. 

kyaliva akola, therefore he will do. 

kyanava akola, therefore he will do, in near time 

kyetwava tugenda, therefore we went. 

The form ' Let us therefore do ' does not seem to be used. In such 
case use Kale : thus Kale tukole. 

Why? 
One special use of this form is to ask the question Why ? thus : — 
Kyebava bagenda, ensonga ki ? Why did they go ? For what 
reason did they go ? Lit. therefore they went, what reason ? 
kyemva nsoma bwenti, ensonga ki? Why do I read like that? 

Because ; in answer to above question ' Why.' 

Use Kubanga For : Kyebava bagenda ? kubanga balumwa enjala : 

Why did they go ? because they were hungry 

If emphasis is to be laid on the words, This is the reason they went ; 
repeat the words of question ; but without ' ensonga ki.' Thus : — 

kyebava bagenda, kubanga balumwa enjala, the reason of their 
going was that they were hungry. 

This is the reason that in writing prose, in an exposition, etc. 

Herode kyeyava a'ta abana, kubanga yatva, Fear was the reason 
why Herod killed the children. 



'MALA': * LIOKA ' 137 

Exercise. — I have just been eating. They have just been standing up. We 
have just been singing, therefore we are tired [p.pf.]. We have just come 
off the road [olugendo], therefore we are hungry. What is the reason that 
you yawn so much ? I am hungry. Why do they not make better roads ? 
because the peasants quarrel amongst themselves. They cannot agree about 
the work, and therefore they are content with such bad roads [the bad roads 
are sufficient — mala — etc.]. What is the reason you do not sweep the yard 
every morning ? I did [mbade] not understand that I was [you told me] to do 
so. The reason why these plates are broken is your carelessness [you not 
going carefully — egendereza]. The reason I do not come to church on 
Sunday is that I have no clothes to wear ; but why do you ask this question ? 
Because it is a Christian custom to worship God [Katonda] in church one day 
in seven. The reason why Christians rest one day in seven is because it is 
the commandment [eteka] of God. 

(b) Mala. 
i. To denote Completed action, in all tenses. 

amaze kugenda, he has gone (completed perfect), 
bwalimala kugenda, when he shall have gone. 
And so on for most other tenses. 

ii. With the Negative form of the Narrative Tense to denote non- 
completed, though intended action. 

wagenda Engogwe ? Did you go to Ngogwe ? 
'Maze nesigenda. As a matter of fact I did not go. 

And in Far Time — 

yamala natakola, as a matter of fact he did not do the work, 
iii. Followed by ' ga ' and the verb-stem. 

Mala galya, eat it ; just as it is, whether nice or nasty, too much 

or too little, 
mala gagenda, never mind go. 

It sometimes has the idea, Go just as you are ; sometimes is almost 
if not quite the English ' must ' — emphatic, compulsion. 

' mala ' may be used in all tenses ; but the other part of the 

idiom is invariable, 
tumala gogera (gayogera), we must say so — though we've no 

intention of doing it. 
yamala gagenda, he had to go — though it was against his will, 
bamaze gakiriza, they were obliged to agree. 

This idiom is only used with persons. 

Exercise. — When they shall have spent [malawo] all those shells on [oku- 
zigulamu] food, I will give them some more. Did those goats get out last 
night ? As a matter of fact they did not, because I tied up the door when I 
heard them. Never mind, jead. Tell them that they will have to finish the 
house to-day. As a matter of fact I did not learn to write. When you shall 
have done cleaning my boots, bring them here that I may see. When that 
house shall have fallen down we will build another. 

(c) Lioka. 

i. ' And then.' 

yasoma nalioka awandika, he reads and then writes. 



I3 8 ELEMENTS OK LUGANDA 

ii. ' In order that.' 

imuka olioke oyogere, get up in order that you may speak, 
iii. 'A good thing that.' 

In N£ar Time — oliose noja, it is a good thing that you have come : 
or impersonally — 

kiriose nasisira ebweru, I had better put up a hut outside. 
With the Subject other than a pronoun — 

ekibya ekyo kiryose nekyatika, it is a good thing that that bowl 
is broken. 

In Far Time — 

walioka nombulira, it was a good thing that you told me. 

Exercise. — It is a good thing that you have tied up my goat. It was a 
good thing they finished that work before the rain came. They first made 
holes and then they cut the poles to the right length [enkanankanya empagi], 
and then they put them upright [simba] in the ground. It is a good thing 
that you are there to oversee them. I will first read a verse [olunyiriii] and 
then you repeat [diriza inu] my words in order that y<iu may learn it 
thoroughly, and that you may not forget it. It is a good thing that you have 
learnt how to read and write. It was a good thing that they found for [labira] 
me a carpenter. This abscess [ekizimba] is burst [yabika] and a very good 
thing too. 

(d) On the point of, etc. : Just. 

i. Aja kugenda, he is on the point of going, 
anatera kugenda, he is going in a few minutes. 
ayagala kugenda, he intends to go. 
Of things — 

enyumba eyagala okugwa, the house is likely to fall, 
enyumba egenda okugwa, the house will fall, is going to fall. 

All these can be used in all tenses and with any noun, animate or 
inanimate — 

ng'enda kutambula, I am just off for a walk. 

ii. 'Just.' 

kyaje atuke, ~\ 

yakatuka, [he has just arrived, 
yakaja atuke, J 

amadzi kyegaje gagye, the water is just boiled. 
Or— amadzi gakagye. 

amadzi gaja kugya = the water is almost boiling. 
The Relative form — 

the cows which have just come, ente ezakaja zije. 
Otherwise — 

the cow which I have just bought, ente gyemva kugula. 

Exercise. —I have just arrived. The food is just cooked. I have just been 
reading. The parrot which I have just bought is lost. They have just 
finished building my house. The curtain has just fallen down. He has only 
just got up. They have just sold out all the copies of that book. Just put 
it down. 



INFINITIVE: PARTICIPLES 1 39 

XXIV. Miscellaneous. 
(a) Infinitive. 

i. okugenda ndigenda naye sirituka, I shall go, but I do not expect 
to arrive, 
okuwulira mpulide, naye sitegede, I have heard, but I have not 
understood. 
Lit. as to hearing I heard, it was superficial ineffective hearing. 

okulimba alimbye naye namusonyiwa, he has lied it is true, but 
I will forgive him. 
ii. alimbye nokulimba, he has told a downright lie. 

alimye nokulima, she has done a capital piece of cultivating. 1 

(b) Participles. 
Active Participle — 'doing' : use 'nga,' followed by the Present Tense — 
nga bakola, they doing, 
nga mfumba ( I cooking. 

Passive Participle. This can not be used with either Causative or 
Prepositional forms, since it means — 

' having been done and being still in that condition.' 
i. Change 'a' final into 'e,' e.g. : — 

omufumite, a wounded man. 

omusibe, a bound man, a prisoner. 

These denote active interference from outside, and cannot be used to 
denote a mere passive state. 

ii. A mere passive state — a being in a certain condition — is denoted 
by an ending ' u.' It is applied to neuter verbs only — /. e. those which 
denote ' to be something.'' If the verb end in ' ga ' change ' ga ' to 
•vu.' Otherwise change 'a' final into ' u,' unless the root end in 'la' 
or 'ra' making modified form in 'de.' These change 'la ? or 'ra' into 
' vu ' if the preceding syllable is accented. 

The following are a few examples : — 

longofu — longoka, be clean — in a clean state. 

yeru — yera, be clear — in a cleared state, i. e. having no trees, 

colour-marks, etc. 
yabifu — yabika, be torn — in a torn state, 
wolu— wola, be cold — in a cold state, 
kakanyavu — kakanyala, be hard — in a hard state. 

Participles of Causatives. Ending in 'a' the stem undergoing no 
change — 

omukoza, one causing (others) to work, an overseer. 
Ending in ' i,' ' a ' final being changed to ' i ' — 
omukozi, a man working, a workman. 

omuwesi, a smith (weta, bend ; wesa, cause to bend, forge), 
omulyazamanyi, an oppressor, cheat. 

1 Seep. 127 — 'Intensity . . . may be expressed. 



140 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

The Causative form is required on the same ground that it is needed 
for • a hoe to cultivate with.' 

In the case of causative ending in bya, pya, mya, the ' y ' is dropped 
before the ' i ' — 

omusomi, one reading, a reader, 
omuzimbi, one building, a builder. 

Participle of Prepositional form. 

These are formed by changing ' a ' final into ' o,' and denote ' a place 
to do anything in,' e.g. : — 

e'somero, a place to read in. 

egwatiro (e 1 watiro), a place to peel plantains in, or a place 

where plantains are peeled, 
efumbiro, a place to cook in. 

N.B. — Omufumbiro, a kitchen-person, a cook, formed from the 
derived noun, rather than from the verb. 
This form is always used in the li ma class. 

(c) Verbal Adverb. 

yakola bukozi, he merely did. 
yafumba bufumbi, he merely cooked. 

The omission of the I.V. form shows that this is Adverbial. It is 
made — 

i. By changing 'a' final of the stem to 'i' in the case of verbs enuing 
in ha, pa, ma, na, nya, ya. 

ii. By changing ' la ' or ' ra ' to ' zi ' — 
yatula butuzi, he merely sat there, 
kera bukezi, be sure to be early. 

iii. By prefixing ' bu ' to the stem of Passive forms in ' bwa ' or ' wa,' 
and to all stems ending in ' za ' and ' wa.' 

iv. By changing ' ka ' or ' ta " to ' si ' — 
duka budusi, run hard. 

(rf) Must. 

There is no word ' must ' in Luganda ; nor probably in any Bantu 
language, but the idea can be conveyed by certain forms of emphasis. 

There is no such word in the Hebrew of the Old Testament— a form 
of language very closely like Luganda in its primitive simplicity. Where- 
ever the word 'must' occurs in the English translation of the Old 
Testament, it represents merely some idiom conveying that meaning — 
very often a construct infinitive, going you will go, i. e. you must go. 
This form can often be used in Luganda — 

okuyera onoyeranga olugya bulijo, you must sweep the court 
yard every day. 

In the first place consider what the word ' must ' means in the sentence 
you wish to translate. 

i. It may mean 'will not fail ' — just as the English, It must come out 



' MUST 141 

(of some animal, say, in a hole) is the same as, It cannot fail to come 
out. This in Luganda is the Negative tense of ' lema ' — ensolo tereme 
kuvayo. 

ii. It may mean compulsion, this is often given by mala ga. 

mala galya, you must eat it. 

anamala gagenda, he must (will have to) go. 

iii. It may mean 'assuredly,' 'without fail'; this is frequently given 
by the Infinitive construction, as above — 
okwera onoyeranga, you must sweep. 

iv. In commands, the order may be further emphasized by such words 
as Nkugambye, I have told you ; owulide, have you heard ? otegede, 
have you understood ? 

yera olugya : owulide, you must sweep the yard (now then, 
sweep). 

v. If a mere emphasis is indicated, use one of the forms given under 
Emphasis below — 

The master must first eat, and then the boys : 
omwami ye asoka okulya, abalenzi nebalyoka balya. 

vi. In Relative constructions make two sentences as follows — 

Things which must come to pass, ebigenda okubawo : okubawo 
biribawo. 

Or less emphatically — 

ebitalema kubawo. 
Or more emphatically — 

ebigenda okubawo : okubawo tebirema kubawo. 

Avoid using gwanira' in any form : it differs but little from ' sanira,' 
and means 'be fitting for,' 'be suitable for.' 

The following are other suggestions for translating ' must ' according 
to the sense — 

Kiriose nenkiwandjka, 
Wakiri nkiwandike, 
Kale kankiwandike, 
Kirungi ekyo : kankiwandike, 



I must make a note of it. 



'MUST' AND 'OUGHT' IN THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

• 

The Reading of the Revised Version is followed, and therefore the following 
passages in which ' must ' or ' ought ' occurs in the Authorized Version are not given, 
viz. : — 

Gen. xxix. 26; xliii. 1 r. Lev. iv. 2, 27; xxiiL 6. Num. xx. 12. Deut. xii. 8. 
2 Sam. xxiii. 3. 

' Must ' and ' ought ' represent — 
i. A Positive Statement. 

And so it is not done. 

Which thing ought not, to be done. — Gen. xxxiv. 7. 

For it is not so done. 

No such thing ought to be done.— 2 Sam. xiii. 12. 



143 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Deeds which are not done. 

That ought not to be done. — Gen. xx. 9. 

So he does according to the law. 

So he must do after the law. — Num. iv. 21. 

All that the Lord speaks, that I do. 

All that the Lord speaketh, that I must do. — Num. xxiii. 26. 

What Israel does. 

What Israel ought to do. — 1 Chron. xii. 32. 

Thou art coming in. 

Thou must come in to me. — Gen. xxx. 16. 

It is put in the water. 

It must be put into water. — Lev. xi. 32. 

That I obserue for speaking (take heed to speak). 
Must I not take heed to speak? — Num. xxiii. 12. 

The way in which we go up. 

The way by which we must go up. — Deut. i. 22. 

For I (am) dying in this land . . . I (am) not going over. 
I must die ... I must not go over. — Deut. iv. 22. 
Cf. Mpawo nze okusomoka. 

Thy days for dying. 

Thy days . . . that thou must die. — Deut. xxxi. 14. 

The way in which ye go. 

The way by which ye must go. — Josh. iii. 4. 

To the Lord thou art offering it. 

Thou must offer it unto the Lord. — Judges xiii. 16. 

Behold me, I die. 

And lo, I must die. — 1 Sam. xiv. 43. 

A man . . . is armed with (Heb. filled with). 

The man . . . must be armed with. — 2 Sam. xxiii. 7. 

Do ye not walk in the fear ? 

Ought ye not to walk ? . . . Neh. v. 9. 

For this use of a positive statement, cf. (obulamu nokufe) kyetunasima kiruwa? which ought we to 
choose ? 

ii. ' It is upon us for doing.' 

There is not for carrying the ark of God, but only. 
None ought to carry the ark. . . . — 1 Chron. xv. 2. 

Is it not upon you for knowing ? 

Ought you not to know ? — 2 Chron. xiii,. 5. 

It is on us for doing. 

So must ws do. — Ezra x. 12* 

For this use, cf. tuliko kyetukola. 

iii. Infinite absolute. 
Carrying, they are carried. 
They must needs be borne. — Jer. x~. 5. 

iv. 
And they say, An inheritance of the escaping to Benjamin (those 

Benjamin that escape) and a tribe be not. . . . 
And they said, There must be an inheritance. . . . — Judges xxi. 17. 

Bring a present to the fear. 

Bring presents unto him that ought to be feared. — Pa. lxxvi. II. 



CONJUNCTIONS 1 43 

XXV. Conjunctions. 

(a) Singa : If . . not. 

To express what might have happened and did not 

i. With no chance of its happening. 

(ku and ndi are interchangeable forms) 

Singa wambulira, nandisanyuse, if you had told me I should 
have been glad. 

Sometimes the clause with ' singa ' is not given — 

nandisanyuse, naye sandiinzidza, I should have been glad to do 
it, but I should not have been able. 

ii. With just a bare possibility of its happening. 

Singa in both Protasis and Apodosis. 
Singa twakede, singa tutuse kakano, had we been early, we should 

have arrived by this time. 
Singa wambulira singa nsanyuka (or Nsanyuse), had you told me, 
1 should have been glad. 

(0) Although, so that. 

Sometimes difficult conjunctions may be given by two sentences 
joined by 'and 'or perhaps 'but.' An instance has been given — 

he was cooking whilst I was out— I was out, and he was cooking. 

The following will further illustrate this : — 

So that. 

i. Simple Narrative Tense — 

I was so hungry that I fell down, Enjala yalienuma nyo nengwa. 
Or if in Near Time, describing what has just happened — 
Enjala ebade enuma nyo nengwa. 
The Passive form Nali numwa enjala, is grammatical but strained. 

ii. The sun was so hot that I fainted, Omusana gwali gwase nyo, 
nokuzirika nenzirika. 

Although. 

i. Although you have done wrong, I will forgive you, Okoze bubi, 
naye nakusonyiwa. 

ii. Newakubade nga, a strongly adversive conjunction. 
Although (even though) you are poor, I shall fine you, Newakubade 
nga oli mwavu, nakutanza. 

iii. And yet — 

Bakola bubi : songa Bamasiya — although they are Christians, they 
act wrongly. 
(They act wrongly, and yet they are Christians.) 



144 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

XXVI. Tone and Emphasis. 
(a) Tone. 

The tone in Luganda is level, therefore it is impossible to emphasize 
as in English. 

Intonation is an integral part of every language: the writer has known 
Baganda imitate the intonation of the Basoga exactly, and yet have no 
knowledge of the language of the Basoga. The European frequently 
errs the other way ; he knows the language analytically, but his 
intonation is nowhere. 

Luganda intonation is on the whole level. 

First aim at a level intonation, and then imitate the native intonation 
in questions. 

In questions the tone leaps up on the last accented syllable, and then 
drops on the following syllable or syllables. Up to the rising-point it is 
level. It is thus represented by Diagram : — 

kino k/ ? kino kik/ f ? 

What is this? 

erinyalyo gw^ni ? oliko kyfficola ? errrere ffide ? 

What is your name? Are you doing anything? Is the food 

cooked ? 

wali ogenze Ebuj ayiP AhaWe. Ahafe. Ow/ , 

Have you ever been to Europe ? You there. Oh, dear ! 

oligenda d/\Esese ? Esese oligenda d/ ? yoger/ Qft^no. 

When will you go to Sesse ? Say ' otyano. 

at^e ? wasuze otya obulw^ de? nsuze buK mgi. 

Haj> he come ? How is your illness to-day? I im pretty well. 

nasuze bunwna. 

I am not at all well. 

In simple stress there is a lengthening of the accented vowel as well 
as the intonation. Study the following : — 

Abjpge. AJjS[e. Ow?" 

enjala m/pgi : enjoka zimuft\ma. 

Great hunger : he has a very bad pain. 

nsuze buh llffii : nasuze bunj u rna : nasuze bunuma ny/ l 

The level tone, after the rise, by which the stress is given, is denoted 
by the upper line. 



EMPHASIS T45 

(b) Emphasis. 
Having studied Intonation and Stress, next consider the most pointed 
and emphatic ways of expressing an idea. 

i. Place the word which is the point of your sentence first. 

embuzi oziingizidza ? Have you brought the goats in ? 
tuimirire netuimba, let us sing standing. 

enkya tunagenda ? Is the morning the time when we shall go ? 
tunagenda enkya ? Shall we go at all, and if so will it be on the 

morrow ? 
ii. By the nse of an I.V. where in ordinary cases it would be left 

out. This is especially the case with Numeral Adjectives and 

Numerals, 
abantu omunana, the eight people, 
bakungana abantu abangi, they were gathered together many people. 

iii. By a Relative construction, thus : — 

ebitabo byenjagala, I want books (not something else). 

ekyo kyenjagala, that's the one I want. 

Mukasa ye yambulira, Mukasa was the person who told me (not 

somebody else), 
ekigambo kyenjagala okubategeza kye kino, what I want you to 
understand is this, 
iv. By a Relative and the Verb ' ba.' Thus : — 

simanyi gyemba ngenda, I don't know where on earth to go. 
ekubo lyemba nkwata liriwa ? what road is it that I am to take ? 
v. By a Relative particle, as ' bwe.' 

bwebakola bwebati, that's what they did. 

alwade : tomanyi bwali, he is ever so ill ; ///. you do not know 
how ill he is. 

vi. By a Negative construction. 

kyenjagala, si kitabo? it's a book that I want. 
si lwa jo, ever so long ago. 

vii. By a Substantive. 

This cow is not large (implying that it is something else). Ente 

eno obunene si nene. 
He's a mere man (not a god). Ye muntu buntu. 
What are you doing? Are you writing? No, I'm reading. 

Okola ki ? owandika ? Neda, nsoma busomi. 
Don't tell him, but if you do tell him. Tomubuliranga, naye 

okubulira bwolibanga omubulide. 
I don't even know him. Nokumanya simumanyi. 
N.B. — The Infinitive is a Noun of the ku Class. 

viii. By Kiriose, with ist pers. fut., or 2nd pers. imp. 

I'll die rather than run, kiriose nafa nesiduka. 
If you won't go, /will, oba toja kugenda, kiriose nze nagenda. 
You didn't do so then, do so now, e'da tewakola bwotyo, kiriose 
kola bwotyo kakano. 

K 



I46 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

ix. In the case of the pronouns, it is always possible to repeat them 
with 'na,' e.g. : — 

nange bwenkola bwenti, nawe gira oti, as for me, I will do like 
this, while you do like that. 

And also to Inanimates, e.g\ — 

nekyo kirungi, yes, and that's good. 
N.P. — Certain words never seem to be anything else than emphatic : 
they are Yee, yes ; Aaa, no ; dala. 

XXVII. The Initial Vowel. 

One of the first things that strikes any one learning Luganda is that 
no Native can give a substantive singly, or understand a substantive 
given by itself, unless a vowel is placed before it. This vowel is 
called the Initial Vowel. 

An Initial Vowel represents a pause, and therefore is indispensable to 
a word given by itself. 

Okukola, doing ; amanyi, strength. 

Def. A Substantival expression is one which conveys a complete idea 
which is either the subject or object of a verb. It includes Adjectives, 
which are a particular variety of the noun, Numerals, and the Preposition 
-a of. 

The Initial Vowel is omitted — 
i. In ail proper names, e.g. : — 

Kasaja, Lwabudongo, Lugwana-kulya. 
The last two are instances of a substantival expression — 

Lwabudongo, of " Budongo," J Lugwana-kulya, it befits eating 
(part of the proverb, Oluyomba lugwana kulya). 

ii. When a Substantive or Substantival expression is used Pre- 
dicatively, e.g. : — 

kirungi, it is a good thing. 

kye kya kusanyusa, it is a delightsome thing (I.V. omitted in all 
elements of the substantival expression — ekyokusanyusa, a 
delightsome thing). 

The Predicate may be a Pronominal Copula as above, or it may be 
the Copula ' li ' not having any affix, such as wo, yo, etc. (aliwo), e. g. : — 
bali balungi, they are nice, 
bali bantu kumi, they are ten persons. 

The Verb 'ba,' or ' bera,' denotes existence, and is therefore not reckoned as a 
Copula. 

iii. After a Negative — the omission of the I.V- will continue through- 
out the substantival expression following the Negative, 
si kirungi, it is not good, 
siinza kugenda na bino, I cannot go with these. 

1 ' Budongo ' is now used for ' The clay used in the mud-walls of houses ' — from 
Svahili ' Udongo.' Whether this is its meaning in this name is not yet clear. 



INITIAL VOWEL 147 

talokola na kitala na fumu, he does not save with sword and 

spear (i Sam. xvii. 47). 
Genda n^ bino — a complete substantival expression. Negatived — 

-genda na bino. 
Nekitala nt'fumu-^a complete substantival expression. 

iv. After the words mu, ku, buli, oba, nanyini, nyini. 

ondabire embuzi etundibwa oba lubugo, find me a goat for sale 

or a bark-cloth. 
Nanyini kintu kino alirudawa ? Where is the owner of this thing ? 

Special Cases. 

The Noun. When a Noun is followed by the Interrogative Pronoun 
Ki, or ani, its I.V. is omitted. 

Balenzi bani abo ? Whose boys are those ? 
Kantu kano ki ? What is this little thing ? 
N.B. — This does not apply to -a ki? For what purpose ? 

Akantu kano ka ki ? What is the use of this little thing ? 
The answer is always predicate, e.g. :— 

Kano ki? kambe. What is this? A knife. 

Akantu kano ka ki ? Ka kunsaza enjala, What is this for? For 
cutting my nails. 
The substantival expression is complete in Akokunsaza : anything 
added is merely an independent word of explanation. 

The Adjective, omits its I. V. 

When in agreement with a noun whose I.V. is omitted, 
tainza mulimu munene, he can't do heavy work. 
Except that noun be preceded by mu, ku, or the Pronominal Copula. 
ye muntu omulungi, he is a nice man. 
mu nyumba eyo enene, in that large house. 
N.B. — -There are special cases where the adjective is emphasized by 
being made Predicate, and therefore the I.V. is omitted. 

(a) When two or more adjectives agree with the same noun, the 
more emphatic one may be put second and without the I.V. 

be balenzi abato balungi, they are good little boys. 
(/3) Such expressions as — 

waliwo amadzi matono, there is only a little water. 

The Adverb. The adverbs 'dala,' and ' nyini ' seem to have no I.V., 
otherwise the Adverb always omits its I.V. unless — 

i. It begins a Clause : — 

e'da nagenda, 1 went long ago. 
enkya nasoma, I will read to-morrow. 

ii. It follows a word which has the I.V., e.g. : — 

omuntu omuwamvu enyo, a very tall man. 
iii. It qualifies a Relative Verb, which is not also negative, e.g. : — 

munange gwenjagala enyo, my friend, whom I am very fond of. 



148 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

iv. It qualifies a Substantive used Adjectivally after the Pronominal 
Copula, or a substantive which is incapable of prefixing an I.V. when 
otherwise the I.V. would appear. 

ye wa kisa enyo, he is extremely kind. 

Obviously the natural place for an adverb is in dependence on some other parts of 
speech, and therefore not in Pause ; i. e. the Adverb naturally omits its I.V. Hence 
in such expression-; as gula buguzi, it is obvious that ' buguzi ' is an adverb. 

The Preposition ' a ' of. 

The full form being ekintu ekya omukazi (by contraction dty<?mukazi). 
it is obvious that two I.V.'s have to be dealt with, viz. e and o in the 
above case. 

i. The first of these is omitted when the dependent noun denotes 
possession or other very intimate relation, such as part of the body, a 
measure, e. g. : — 

enyumba yomwami, the master's house, 
akambe komulenzi, the boy's knife, 
ezade lyomukazi (Gen. iii. 15). 

Under this include those words which have no I.V.„ e. g. : — 

edobozi lya kabaka, the king's voice. 
Or those words which omit the I.V. in certain combinations, e. g. : — 

edobozi lya mukaziwo, your wife's voice. 
In this case both I.V.'s are omitted after a Negative or Predicate, 
e.g. : — si kya mukazi, it does not belong to a woman, 
si dobozi lya mukazi, it is not a woman's voice. 

ii. In*other cases insert both I.V.'s. 

Include under this head words which have no I.V., or whose I.V. has 
been omitted because of combination with the Possessive Pronoun ; 
e.g. :— 

omukono ogwa dyo, the right hand. 
In this case omit both I.V.'s after a Negative or a Predicate, e.g. : — 
ensolo eno si ya mu nsiko, this animal is not wild (ensolo eyomu 

nsiko). 
si bantu ba mirembe gino, not people of this reign (abantu abe- 
mirembe gino (Matt. xii. 42). 

Numerals are divided as : — 

i. Numeral substantives, viz. e'kumi, amakumi, olukumi, etc., and all 
substantives made by adding a Class Prefix to ' Kumi.' 

ii. Numeral Adjectives are the first five numerals from one to five 
inclusive — tono, little : ngi, many ; meka, how many? 

The numbers six to nine inclusive are adjectives in agreement with 
Omuwendo, number understood. Though called adjectives, it must be 
understood that their being already in agreement with a noun not 
expressed tends to make them into semi-nouns, and their I.V. following 
mainly the rule for numeral adjectives may occasionally deviate to 
that for numeral substantives. 



INITIAL VOWEL : IDIOMS 1 49 

Numeral Adjectives omit the I.V. unless — 

i. They are used definitely, and no Negative precede, e.g. 'The two 
chairs, entebe ebiri. 

It corresponds to the English definite article in this particular case. 

Numeral Substantives take the I.V in ordinary cases and also 
after the Predicate. They omit the I.V. after a Negative — 
si lukumi, it is not a thousand, 
ziri olukumi, they are a thousand. 

The I.V. is used in both cases after any verb to which, is joined a 
Relative Suffix (ko, mu, wo, yo), e. g. : — 
yongerako esatu, add three more. 

Infinitive after Auxiliary. In the majority of cases the connection 
is so close that there can be no pause, and therefore no I.V., e.g. : — 
leka ku'ninya ekigere, don't tread on my foot. 

In a few cases of slow enunciation a pause is made and the I.V. put 
in. The same may be observed in a person reading who does not read 
quickly or with understanding. In such a case a careful observer would 
find an occasional I.V. after a Negative or a Predicate. 

The following words do not take an I.V. when joined to a Possessive 
Pronoun : — 

oinukazi — mukazi wange. 
So also muka gundi, so-and-so's 'wife.' 

omusaja — musajawe. 

omuganda — muganda wafe. 

omwana — mwanawo. 

XXVIII. Idioms. 

Verbs with Double Object are : — 
i. Doubly Transitive Verbs, e. g. : — 

'ba banzibye ekitabc, they have stolen a book from me. 

nyaga bamunyaga amatoke, they robbed him of plantains, 
wa bamuwade olusuku, they have given him a garden. 

ii. Some Causative forms, e. g. : — 

guza, cause to buy — onguze, sell me a book. 

iii. Many Prepositional forms, e.g. : — 
ongulire ekitabo, buy me a book, 
onkwatireko, take hold of it for me. 

Idioms of Present Time — 

nsibye nunze, I have spent the day herding. 

'mulese yebaseko, I have left him having a little sleep. 

Sometimes, Leka aje, he is just coming, he will come at once. 
(A boy sent to call any one may bring back such an answer)— 
musanze alima, I found her cultivating. 



150 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

The Prefixes 'wo,' 'yo,' ' ko,' ' mu,' with— 
i. giva : come to an end. 

enaku zigwawo, the days come to an end. 
emyezi gigwako, the months come to an end. 
omwaka ogwagwako, last year. 
Perhaps because the 'moon,' omwezi, which measures the month and 
the year, is in the heaven ; the days are ' here where we are ' (wo). 
amata gawedemu, the milk is finished in (the vessel). 
ii. sigala : be left. 

Usually with an Affix — 

sigalawo, with reference to things close to one of which one is 

just speaking, 
sigalako, in a few cases — ko referring to a part of the whole, 
sigalayo, in other cases. 

iii. wa : give, as a present. 

Hence Give (at table), as a fork, salt, etc. 
wayo, give into any one's hand, 
mpayo ebinika, give me the kettle. 
wereza, make a present of — omwami akuweredza etoke li lino, the 

chief has made you a present of this bunch of plantains, 
nawerezebwa, or bampereza (in the market), I was sent shells to 
buy with. 
' Give ' in other senses — 

give me that bowl, leta (ndetera) bakuli eyo. 

give this to that man, twala wa muntu oli. 

give the dog this bone, twalira embwa egumba lino. 

iv. gya : take out. 

ensimbi zino wazigya wa ? Where did you get these shells from ? 
ekita ekyo wakigyamu ensimbi meka? How many shells did you 

get for that calabash (of beer), 
gyawo ebintu, take away the things. 

gyako ebintu ku ntebe yange, take the things off my chair, 
gyamu, take it out, as things from a box. 
bigyamu, take them out. 
Distinguish this ' gya ' from — 
a. gya, get into a space. 

tekigyamu, it does not get in ; the space is not big enough for it. 
/3. gya omuliro, be burnt ; be destroyed by fire. 
y. emere okugya, of food to be cooked, 
emere eide, the food is ready. 

v. Auxiliary 'li.' 

taliko gyasula, he has nowhere to sleep. 

siriko kyengula ekitabo, I have nothing to buy a book with. 

Contrast — ekiriko amadzi, which has water upon it ; 
with ekiri ku madzi, which is on the water. 
And ekirimu amadzi, which has water in it ; 
with ekiri mu madzi, which is in the water. 
ku muti kuliko amasanda ? Is there any resin on the tree ? 



PREFIXES 'WO,' 'YO,' 'KO,' 'MU'j DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERAL I 5 I 

vi. va : 

mu muti muvamu amasanda? Does any resin come out of the tree? 

ku muti { f \ amasanda, resin comes off the tree, 

^kuva J ' 

mu muti ° J- amasanda, resin exudes out of the tree, 

[muva J ' 

Emphatically — 

ku muti kweguva ") , it is from the surface 1 that resin 
mu muti mweguva / ' it is from the inside J comes. 

Relatively — 

fomuvaj [from which exudes resin. 

omuti - omuli > amasanda, the tree -Jin which there is resin. 

(okuli J [which has resin upon it. 

vii. Lastly note — 

omuti kwebabajira, the tree upon which they adze, 

enyumba mwebasula, the house in which they sleep. 

enyumba esulamu abantu, there are people living in that house. 

Distributive Numerals. 
One by one : 

kina followed by the Numeral in agreement with the Class referred 

to. 
ofmen,ki'nomu(kinaomu) — baitaki'nomu,bringthemonebyone 
sheep, endiga — zireta, ki'nemu, bring them one by one. 

Two by two : 

abantu baita kina babirye, call them two by two. 

ebintu, bironda kinabibirye, things, pick them up two by two. 

Three by three, etc. : 

abantu ki'nabasatwe, men three by three, 
abantu ki'nabana, men four by four, 
abantu ki'nabatanwe, men five by five. 

One of a number, etc. For persons — 

mu'nabwe, one of them, their companion. 
Hence mu'nange, my friend. mu'nafe, our friend. 

mu'no, thy friend. mu'namwe, your friend. 

mu'ne, his friend. mu'nabwe, their friend. 

For things, see Table 9. One of two : 

ku mbuzi zino ebiri, ginayo edze wa ? Where has one of these two 

goats gone ? 
ku mbuzi zino esatu, eyokusatu edze wa ? Where has the third 
of these goats gone ? etc. 
One of many : 

ba'nange, my friends. ba'nafe, your friends, 

ba'no, thy lriend. ba'namwe, your friends, 

ensimbi eno teka mu zi'nazo, put this shell with the others, 
e'gi lino liteka mu ga'nago, put this egg with the others, 
ku bali bagenzeko babiri, two of these people have gone. 



152 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

All two, all three, etc. : 

bombi, both of them (men), 
bonsatule, all three of them (men), 
bombiriri, both of them, without any part missing. 
Bwomu, being alone. 

ndi bwomu, I am alone. 
The analogous forms bwababiri, bwabasatu, bwamukaga, etc., are also 
used. Tuli bwabana, we are four. 
This use of Bwa is also found in the nouns Bwakabaka, Bwakatonda. 

Miscellaneous. 
Instead of : 

mu lugoye luno ayagalamu ensimbi, he wants shells instead of 

this cloth, 
oba ogana kino, kiryose twala kino, take this instead of that, 
obanga agana gwe, kiriose nze kangende, if he refuse you, I had 
better go instead of you. 

Think : 

I think so, bwengamba (bwentyo). 

I thought his name was James, mbade ngamba nti erinyalye 

Yakobo. 
I think I will go to-morrow, oba nasitula enkya, simanyi ; 

or nkyatesa : mpodzi nasitula enkya. 
I think it would be best for us to go, ntesedza nti kirungi tugende. 
Lowoza means ' meditate,' not think, as in English, 
wa in fables, added to class prefix to personify Wango, Mr. 

Leopard ; Wanpologoma, Mr. Lion, 
ndiko in fables, indeclinable, he said : ndiko Wante, Mr. Cow 

said, 
konze (ku nze) 'I say ' : as for me. 
gamba gamba tamanyi, suppose he does not know. 
From ... to : okuva wano okutuka Emengo, from here to Mengo. 

okuva ku Sabiti okutusa ku Sabiti, from Sunday to 
Sunday. 
Since, in Near Time : We, with Far Past of Prepositional form : 

wewagendera, mpandise ebaruwa esatu, since you went I have 
written three letters. 
Phrases. 

okutuka Emengo, arrive at Mengo. 

okutusa mu kibuga, arrive in the city. 

omusaja wange talina kyanaguza (kyaqagulamu) emere, my man 

has nothing to buy food with, 
ekikajo kyafe kivudemu amadzi mangi, a lot of juice has come 

out of our sugar-cane, 
omusaja ono ekimulese kiki ? what has this man come about ? 
omuntu yena ayogera bwatyo alina e'dalu, whoever said that is 

mad. 
bakabaka bona Abebuganda bwebakolanga bwebatyo, that is the 
way of all the kings of Buganda. 



PHRASES: IDIOMATIC VERBS I 53 

okusiruwala omwoyo, to be downright stupid. 

bufa magoba, many a slip. 

kyotonolya tosoka kwasama, don't count your chickens, etc. 

■o , famatugol ga (or bagatekako o-) kuwomya omutwe, Are 

\amasogoj your ears (eyes) merely ornamental ? 
Ayeyereza omunafu, yamulwanyisa, continual harping on a 

matter makes even a weak man fight. 
Emundu evugide ki ? Mpodzi baliko kyebakuba? Why has that 

gun gone off? Probably they are shooting something. 
Omwami ali'da 'di? Si'namanya wali'dira. When will the 
master return ? I have no idea. 

This is said not to be polite : si'namanya means rather ' I do 
not know, and I do not care.' 
Ndeseko ebiri, I have brought two of them. 
Omusango guno guna'kira wa? What will be the issue of this? 

What will they do in this matter ? 
Omwezi guno 6guliko, the present month, ' instant.' 
Wano wabi, tewabereka, this place is unbearable; it Jsn't 

possible to stay here. 
Empewo nyingi, tezinganya kwebaka, it is so cold that I cannot 

sleep. 
(And so in innumerable cases to express consequence.) 

Okugejera mu mvuba, 'grow fat in the stocks' — a figure to 

express stolid indifference. 
Ndyose nenyambula engato, it was a good thing that I took off 

my boots, 
kiri ng'anga bwekiri, I think so. 
mbade ngamba, I think (it would be well, etc.), mbade ngambye, 

I thought. 
gendera awo, go as you are. 

nga takyajulula weyaigira, when it is too late to unlearn, 
ku'kira walabira awo, the event will show, 
'omuti' gwolaba gwoleta, bring the first bit 'of wood' you find. 

Special Uses of Verbs. 
Berera : kyekiberera kizibu, for this reason it is difficult. 

bika : endeku ogibi'seko ekiwero ? have you covered the calabash 
with a cloth ? 
bi'ka ku kitabokyo, shut up your book. 

bona : mwena mubune emiti, all of you go for wood. 
It correspond to " all hands " for wood. 

emiti gubunyewo ? have the pieces of wood covered all the 
space ? Are they sufficient ? 

bnza : tombuza? don't you say How do you do? (Otyano.) 

njagala okukubuza ekigambo, I want to ask you a question. 

'da : ekubo lino lina'da wa ? where will this road go to ? 
'damu, reply ; na'damu, and he answered, 
-e'damu, come to one's senses, 
-e'damu omwoyo, take fresh courage. 



154 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

'dira, take for protection, for cooking, and the like. 

Obadiya na'dira banabi nabakweka (i Kings xviii. 4) : Obadiah 

took prophets and hid them, 
akaweke omuntu keya'dira (Matt. iii. 31) : a grain which a man 

took, 
'dirira, go before or come after, succeed, precede, 
omwami eyamu'dirira, his predecessor as chief, 
enaku ezina'diriranga, the days which will follow, 
'diriza, make to repeat or say again, 
tumu'dirizemu omuwendo, let us ask him again the price, 
'dza, put back ; 'dzayo, put back, return to its place, 
tumu'dzemu ate, let us make him answer again, let us ask him 

again. 

fa : ebifayo, the things which take place there where you have come 
from, 
ebyafayo e'da, what took place long ago, 'history.' 
Ekanisa, ebyafamu e'da, Church History, 
omulimu gwange gufude, my work has come to nothing, fallen 

through, 
emundu yange efude, my gun is broken, is useless. 
amemvu gafude, the bananas are no use for beer making. 

Esp. as Froverb — Naganafa gasalirwa esubi, bananas that will prove useless 
have grass (by which the juice is extracted) cut for them = it's worth trying. 

mfude, hard lmes : that's a hard hit, that's one for me, etc. 

ganya: kabaka tanganya kuja, the king refuses me leave to come, 
ensiri tezinganya kwebaka, I cannot sleep for •mosquitoes, 
omwami atuganya okukyala, the master has given us leave to 
visit. 

gata : compensate. 

bamugata omutwalo gwensimbi, they gave him a load of shells 
as compensation. 

gira : gira otula wano, just sit there a bit. 

ogira weraba, well, good-bye ; good-bye for the present. 

gira obukika, put sideways. 

gira ekyejo, act insolently. 

kigize, it has gone wrong, as a measuring-string getting caught. 

gula : embuzi eno egulamu muwendo ki ? what is the price of this 
goat ? (also, embuzi eno evamu muwendo ki ?) 
wagugyamu ensimbi meka? how manv shells did you sell it 
for? 

inga : empagi eno einze (obuwamvu), this post is too long, 
abantu bainze, too many men have come. 

inza: omulimu guno, tunaguinza ? shall we be able to do this ? 

janjala : Abazungu bajanjade munsi muno, the Europeans nave spread 
over this land, 
amatoke gajanjade, kubanga mangi, plantains are plentiful and 
can be had anywhere. 



IDIOMATIC VERBS 155 

engoye zijanjade, kubanga za muwendo mutono, cloth has 
come into general use, because cheap. 

J ula : a ^ a - a } okufa, there's nothing left but d ing for him. 

ajulirira okubera omukopi, he is nothing but a peasant (raw 

rustic) (?) 
ajulirira obwami, he must be given a chieftainship. (?) 

kuba ; kuba amabega, turn the back upon. 

„ ekibuga, make an ' embuga ' — the large cleared place before 

a chief's fence. 
„ endulu, raise an alarm. 
,, olube, shout for joy. 
., emizira, shout for joy. 

„ akalulu, trial by ordeal (in translation 'cast lots '). 
„ embuzi, drive goats ; drive goats out of the way. 
„ emundu, fire a gun. 
„ enanga, play a harp. 
„ akatale, make a market. 
„ amatama, talk in a loud voice (Owamatama, a man who so 

talks) 
„ ebiwobe, mourn. 
„ ekyapa, print. 
,, e'zala, gamble. 
„ ekuba — ekuba ku 'bali, go a little to one side. 

kwata : ensonyi zimukute, he is ashamed. 

obusungu bumukute, he has a fit of temper. 

amata gakute, the milk has gone thick, i. e. sour. 

amadzi gakute, the water has frozen (hail is the only instance 

known to Baganda), 
enzikiza ekute, the darkness is dense. 

kya : obude bukede, the day has dawned. 

bwebwakya enkya, as soon as it was light, 
kesa obu'de, be up with first streak of dawn. 

laba : tolabwa kisa, you are not to be equalled for kindness. 

embuzi terabwanga obunene, the goat has not its equal in size, 
labira — ondabire akambe, find me a knife. A very common way 
of asking for a present among the lower classes. 

lema : emere emulemye, he has more food than he can eat. 

omulimu gumulemye, the work has beaten him, is too difficult 

for him. 
atulemye (okumukwata), he was too much for us (to catch), 
olemede ku nsimbi emeka ? what is the lowest figure you will take ? 
esasi limulemedemu omukono, the bullet is lodged in his arm ; 

more commonly ' lilemedemu.' 
[esasi liisemu, the bullet has passed through.] 
alemede mu lusuku lwange, he has taken possession of my 

garden (and refuses to leave, cf. Eng. (of a bailiff) taking 

possession). 



I56 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

lya : lya e'banja, contract a debt. 

,, obwami, acquire a chieftainship, become chief. 

„ ensi, acquire land. 

„ obugenyi, receive a guest present. 

„ empera, he paid a wage. 

,, eng'oma, receive a royal chieftainship, of which a drum given 

by the king is the sign and pledge. 
„ lyamu olukwe, betray. 

mala : ekitabo kimu kinamala, one book will be enough. 

emiti gino ginatumala okuzimba, these pieces of wood will 

be enough for building with, 
wamaze enaku meka okulwala, how long have you been ill ? 

(Also Wakamala enaku meka okulwala.) 

menya : menya ebiti, when work is given out, the various people to be 
employed (or rather their heads) are represented by bits of 
stick (ebiti) and the work thus counted out ; or for a tax ; or 
for the posts of a house to be counted out, each man to bring 
so many. 
Hence Menya ebiti, is nearly Reckon it out. 

menya amanya, make a list of names (probably derived from 
the same custom). 

sala : sala amagezi^ be wise, consider the best way of doing a thing, 
sala omusango, decide a case, give judgment, 
salira — omwami akusalide mulimu ki ? what work has the master 

decided on your doing ? 
gunsinze nebansalira ebingi, the case has gone against me, and I 

have to pay heavily, 
nakusalira embuzi okulongosa esawayo, I shall charge a goat for 

mending your watch. 

soba : kale mwana watu, sobyamu asatu (ensimbi), please give me 
thirty more (shells, in addition to what you have given me as 
payment), 
ansobede, he is ' one too many ' for me. 

sobola : (omulimu) sigusobola, I cannot manage that work, 
ekubo lino terisoboka, this road is impracticable. 

tega : tega okutu, ' lend the ear,' pay careful attention, 
tegdra, understand ; tegdza, explain to. 
ntege'rera ku ki ? How am I to be sure of that ? 
kwentege'rera kye kino, this is how I am to be sure. 

va : visamu amagoba = gyamu amagoba, make a profit. 

zimula : ekitabo yakisiba nazimula, he bound that book splendidly, first- 
rate, 
onimbye nonzimula buzimuzi, you have told a downright lie. 
(emph. on have) 



TABLE I 



157 



IT. 

< 
►J 

u 

h 

W 

O 

X 

c 





So 
c 
o 
>> 


yeyongede 

aneyongera 

/a'neyongera 

kyayeyongera 

«ateyongera 


01 1) 4) 11 






0) 01 OJ 


U 01 U 01 






U 01 01 11 11 01 


II 


T3 T3 T3 -O 

u oi oi o> 

to to to to 






T3 T3 T3 
01 01 01 

to to to 


*0 T) TD'O 
01 01 01 11 
60 60 60 60 






TJ "O 'U T3 T3 'C 
01 01 01 11 d 01 
60 60 to to to 60 


a BBC 






a a a 


fi fi fi fi 






B a c a fi c 


'5 

CI 

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15* 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



2. n PREFIXED TO 



lungi 
makes 
nungi 


nonya 
'nonya 


wesa 
mpesa 


hi 
mbi 


fa 
in fa 


va 
mva 


yagala 
njagala 




yongera 
makes 
nyongera 


iga 
njiga 


imirira 

nyimirira 


'ja 

njija 


'jukira 
njijukira 


'ta 
nzita 




'damu 
makes 
nziramu 


'galawo 
nzi'galawo 


•dza 
nzidza 


'ma 
nyima 


ohmyo 
enyinyo 


oiudz'i 
enzidzi 



3- 1 [li— ma Class] PREFIXED TO 



to 
makes 
'to 


(dala) 
e'dala 


( papal i) 
e'papali 


bi 
! bi 


(komera) 
e'komera 


(gulu) 
e'gulu 




fa 

makes 

' {a \ 

lifu/ 


vu 
e'vu 


menyefu 

"menyefu"! 
limenyefu/ 


nafu 

'nafu 1 
linafu/ 


(somero) 
e'somero 


(ziga) 

e'ziga 




'dugavu 
makes 

li'dugavu 


lungi 
'dungi 


wamvu 
gwamvu 


(yinja) 
ejinja 


(yemva) 
eryemvu 


yengevu 
lyengevu 



TABLES II, III, IV 



159 



.<|Uo t jaX , 



■jsSuo] ou , 

'Sf/ff ytjix, ,t|ips 






■sjruriji jej 



( £\v nv* jotf) 



•3SEJ JEj 



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g 
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rt — 



aAiiESa sj *2 fi 



Pi 



a* 

to 






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p n 


c 


rt 


rt 








rt 


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O 


O 




U 


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0) 



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c 
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!<5o 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



U4 
> 

— < 

w 

W 

O 

c- 

Q 
Z 

<! 

W 
> 

H 

< 

h 

85 
O 

s 

w 
Q 



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0. 


Id 

.£ v 
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o 


u 
is 


ft * ft h ►» " & £•£> bOft M *ftftftO°ft 


M 

o 


s 


U l< "j W U U 1; ^ 5J 1/ 'V '^ O 1; ^ D J O 

eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

fc.Otj*»(>>'*l*>t»>>>t>Cfc".*ftftft«»£ 


71 tl 


w 
u. 

03 


b ; .ofct*,>>Nt»>>>>,bflte«.aftftfte>o s t 

P bc«*> ^^— — £> *> bo .* 


o 




Dl)U4)UWUUWOUl>UDl)UllD 

5,bO Jd^5— ~ ,n •- bo ^ 


If 

o 


O 


OC000000C00OO0003S 


V . 

■1 

o 


O 

z 

rt 


ft^UU4jl;4jl»^4;4jUl;U'UoyUtU 
CCCCCCSCCCCCCCCCCC 

" 2,60 M£>~ Z awSs ^ 


o 


< 


« &5v «.g.o 5 «|« rt |5 5>"| 


ii 
_> 

<S 

si 

c 
o 
la 

V 

a 


ll 

T3 


►J 


^Ili^s'iiiii-sii jftsil 1 s 




o 


cooocoocoooooooooooooc 

o«£.bow'j.**».d.5«'rt > g55)«Srt.5a ,u 

« 4, <u w ° c c 5 


H 


/?. 


cocoooooooocooooooccoo 

CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 

xi ho be n .M .0 "• bo— " m x> ♦» be bo.M p J* g 


•xi, 


^d r c 


l"S 






Omuntu 
abantu 
Omuti 

emiti 
Ente 

ente 
Ekintu 

ebintu 
Eryato 

amato 
Olumuli 

emuli 
Akantu 

obuntu 
Otulo 
Oguntu 

aganlu 
Okutu 
Wantu 
Kumpi 
Munda 



TABLES V, VI 



161 





C8 
V 


ooooooooooooooo 


o 
>» 



M 

V 

-a 






to 


,oJx ~ X x x J .g x> .£ j* ^ 




M 
> 




to 
« 
(A 

w 

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n 


o 


•° to ** ■* * 6c-* N J* .o j* ** be bo,* 


e 


< 

<, 

o 


n 

fa- 
H 


ij U V <U U V U U U I* 5-» 1> O QJ 4J 

w 9° u o u <u c oo 


XI 

o 


V 

s 

X 
1/ 


o 
Oh 

Oh 
Q 

< 


in 

3 
O 


EEEESsESSEEEssE 

6 « »i to ^ ^ .M .o *■• a ,5 u re K E 


u 
g 




E 

d 


2 

OS 

o 

|Jh 

Q 
O 

u 

w 

CO 

w" 


(A 

!■ 

3 

o 


U,i) 1> ,U ,U ,l» ,1> ,«J ,1> ,«) ,<D ,l> .1) ,1) 1> 

redddrtrewreredrtrtcilrert 

° *>« * v f "3 -§•* 


o 


o 


.id 


owuwe 

ababe 

ogugwe 

egigye 

eyiye 

ezize 

ekikye 

ebibye 

erirye 

agage 

olulwe 

ezize 

akake 

obubwe 

okukwe 




i 

3 


l-H 

to 
to 
W 
to 
to 
O 

Oh 


V 

c 
IE 
H 


ooooooooocooooo 
>.o fe >»>»2 fc» ►» F» &»> & .3 H2 £ fc 

5 s to sp-c, a fl £ S * 5 « 2 5 A 

w o ° o 




o 


o 
S: 

3 

tl 




V 1/ OJ 1) "-J V '-> V O OJ U U - U OJ 

tfiCiJtBti)ejDt/)tJ0Mtfit£6J5tD6Xt/lt/) 

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rtrtn«rtrtrtcirtnf3«Mrt« 

o hey a? «; « O %* 


1) 
to 

c 

o 


U 

fcJS 

c 
u 








< -^ < 


_i s * 






3 _ _ 3 
3 — — w .ii —  - _ •£ n 

e 5 - •- ^ = = 2«=^2§ 3 | 

^3£^:=S«E££^3'=3 

o o w w a o < oco 


agantu 
Okutu 
Wantu 


gc-5 



162 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



7. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 
a. Subject. 







H 






ta 
«- 




















_c ta 












Subject Relative. 


< 




Future. 1 


i 


.2 c 
*2. 


V 

IS 1 










1 
'does' j 'did' 


fc 


Near 


Far 


"5* 


t/5 


O 




nga 


Affixes of Place 
(if any). 


Omuntu 


a 


eya 


ta 


na 


li 


'na 


kya 


mil 


kwata 


! wo 


yd 


koj mu 


abantu 


aba 


aba 












ba 












Omuti 


ogu 


ogwa 1 












gu 












emiti 


egi 


egya | 












P 












Ente 


e 


eya 












gi 














ente 


ezi 


eza ! 












Zl 














Ekintu 


eki 


ekya 




I 








ki 














ebintu 
Eryato 


ebi 
eri 


ebya | 
erya 








bi 
li 














amato 


aga 


aga 




§ 






ga 














Olumuli 


olu 


ohva 




<; 








lu 














emuli 


ezi 


eza 




i 








zi 














Akantu 


aka 


aka 










ka 














obuntu 


obu 


obwa 




£ 








bti 














Otulo 


otu 


otwa 










tu 














Oguntu 


ogu 


ogwa 












g" 














agantu 


aga 


aga 












ga 














Okutu 


oku 


okwa 












ku 














Wano 


awa 


awa 












wa 














Kuno 


oku 


okwa 












ku 














Muno 


omu 


omwa 












mu j 





















6 


• Obj 


BCt. 




















V . 

- v 


Subject 


> 

•< 

1 u 
j * 

ta 


Future. 1 


ba 

V 

'* 

"a" 

O 


bi 

If - . 

j: ta 
- c 

"S-S 

*.- 
</5" 


kwata 


nga 


Affixes of Place 
(if any). 


'dots' 


'did' 

ya 
ba 


Near 
na 


Far 


Omuntu 
abantu 


gwe 
be 


a 
ba 


li 


'na 


kya 


wo 


yo 


ko 


mu 


Omuti 
emiti 

Ente 
ente 


gwe 

gye 
gye 

ze 


g" 

gi 
e 
zi 


gwa 

gya 

ya 
za 
























Ekintu 

ebintu 
Eryato 


kye 
bye 
lye 


ki 
bi 
li 


kya 
bya 
lya 




.g 

1 




















amato 
Olumuli 


ge 
Iwe 


ga 
lu 


ga 
lwa 


i 






















emuli 


ze 


Zl 


za 




1 




















Akantu 


ke 


ka 


ka 


1 




















obuntu 


bwe 


bu 


bwa 


1 


* 




















Otulo 


twe 


tu 


twa 






















Oguntu 


gwe 


gu 


gwa 
























agantu 
Wano 


ge 
we 


g a 
wa 


ga 
wa 
























Muno 


mwe 


mu 


mwa 
























Kuno 


kwe 


ku 


kwa 

























1 Not much used with Negative or Relative. Alternative ja, genda ; or tor negative gana. 

N.B.— For the Present Perfect and Near Past— Strike out the Columns from na to kya inclusive and 
change 'kwata' into the Modified form. .... < 1 • «v 

The Conditional is very rarely Relative. Take the Present Perfect and insert *andi or ku after 
the ' ta.'— The Near Future and Subjunctive are not used with Relative. Things which he may take . 
ebintu bibino; mpodzi anabitwala, or ebintu byebamuganya ok.-"—' 



TABLES VII, VIII 



163 





rt 

a 


rtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrtrt 

cccccECCcacccc 
uooooooooooooo 


kwona 

wona 

mwona 

kwona 


(/) 

3 

£ 


2 

») 
0) 

La 

rt 

</> 


"rt 

c 

u 



> 

'£ 

- 


01 
H 

c 

u 

* 

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t 

5 


i>ooooooooooooo 

>>.0 * >N >* N >, >, ^ U J N _* > 


^1 rt C, Cl 

-* JjC. _* „* 

0000 


c 
3 
6 
O 




s 1 
s 


bameka 
emeka 
emeka 

bimeka 
ameka 
emeka 

bumeka 




u 

C 

IS 



c 




Si 


tc cjo cfl aa em m sx 
e b a b c c a 

« * 5 § £ « 




c 
rt 

B 
4/ 

£ 
1 

£ i 

B S 

= 6 


> 

h 

u 

w 

Q 

< 



H 

Z 

w 
w 


3 
> 

J! "2 


33333333333 = 33 
>>>>>>>>>>^> >•> 

rtrtrtortc«rt««rtrtrtrtrtrt 

b/)MMtflS£tuS6dtXb7j&()tflfcj3tX-eu3 
33333333333333 

^c^^3*o.i:.t:T3"C"0"0'd. , "*cT3 
'3 "rt "3 r r g g r - r - r 2 ~ rt 3 - N "d "3 


> > 

rt 

Pi 3 

"3 "rt 
3* 


1 

B 1 


omuwamvu 

abawamvu 

omuwamvu 

emiwamvu 

empamvu 

empamvu 

ekiwamvu 

ebiwamvu 

egwamvu 

amawamvu 

oluwamvu 

empamvu 

akawamvu 

obuwamvu 


3 3 
> > 

£ £ 

3 rt 

■8* 


2S " 
~> a. 

' Cu 
.. rt 
C y 

4, in 


- 

OS 


(B 

1 


oo^^^aaa^aa^^a 


.2 .2 

3 rt 


< 
00 


,g ,g -"3 ^5 -"= -■= -■= -"3 -"5 •■= -"3 -3 


jd man ; abantu aberere, n: 
»erely idiomatic and cannot 




1- -5 

■v* 

5 

R 

s 

JS 


QJ V V V V V Zj V y V _i V O 

— I-* U U t- U.i-.k_v,U.UI~__ 

D 3J U 'JJ D O il t; U ^ 'J i; 1/ 'j 

<i * ° 


O CI 

- u 
11 Xt 

- u 
V CI 




J3 

*3 8 

** i 


33333333333333 

1 33333333333333 

I .*,*.* J* .*.*.*.*.*.*.* ^ .* .* 

3 rt 3 -^ .C C •- 'S "-, rt 3 C rt 3 

|-S | 5 « «iS-2 w e «-3-§ 


3.CT 

^ £ 
3^ 

* a 

£ 


Omuntu omwerere, a nak 
pot needed. ) This is n 






Omuntu 

abantu 
Omutl 

emlti 
Ente 

ente 
Ekintu 

eblntu 
Eryato 

amato 
Olumull 

emull 
Akantu 

obuntu 
Otulu 
Oguntu 


9 

Is 2 2 © 

0^« 



164 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



9. PARTITIVE FORMS- 





of 


it : 

them 


it it : 
they are 


one of them 


the other 


one by one 


two by two 


Omuntu 


wa 


-e 


ye 


munabwe 








abantu 


ba 


bwe 
bo 


be 




banabwe 


kinomu 


kinababirye 


Omuti 
emiti 


gwa 


gwe 

gy° 


gwe 

gye 


gunagyo 


ginagyo 


kinagumu 


kinebirye 


Ente 
ente 


ya 
za 


yo 
zo 


ye 
ze 


ginazo 


zinazo 


kinemu 


kinabirye 


Ekintu 
ebintu 

Eryato 
amato 

Olumuli 


kya 
bya 
lya 

ga 
lwa 


kyo 

byo 

lyo 

go 
lwo 


kye 

bye 

lye 

ge 
lwe 


kinabyo 

linago 

lunazo 


binabyo 
ganago 


kinakimu 
kinalimu 


kinabibirye 
kinabirye 


emuli 
Akantu 


za 
ka 


zo 
ko 


ze 
ke 


kanabwo 


zinazo 


kinemu 


kinabirye 


obuntu 


bwa 


bwo 


bwe 




bunabwo 


kinakamu 


kinabubirye 


Otulo 


twa 


two 


twe 










Oguntu 


gwa 


gwo 


gwe 










agantu 
Okutu 


ga 
kwa 


go 

kwo 


ge 
kwe 










Wantu 


wa 




we 










Kumpi 
Munda 






kwe 
mwe 











A canoe, its pieces of wood ; eryato, emiti [of — gya ; it (canoe) lyo] gyalyo. 
A dog, its tail ; embwa, omukira [of — gwa ; it (dog) yo] gwayo. 



TABLES IX, X 



I6 5 









U 















P- 


B 












tE 


rt 














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TABLES XI, XII 



167 



12. INTERJECTIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 



Interjections. 


Conjunctions. 


Wo ! wonder. 


Ne, na, ni, and. 


Wowe ! grief. 


Ate, natc, again. 


Ai ! entreaty. 


Nti, saying that. 


Kitalo! marvellous! 


Kale 'no, well just so. 


Owange^ 

Abange V call, remonstrance. 

Abafe J 


Naye, but. 


Nga, thus. 


Wabula, ) 


Mbu ! you there ! 


,,t ' V except. 


Anti ! emphasis. 

Gwama ! sympathy, appreciation of a 


Okuba, ~\ c . 

,r , ' J- for, because. 

Ktibanga, j ' 


joke, etc. 


Era, besides. 


Esi ! surprise, anger. 


Kasoka, since. 


Manti ! sympathy. 


Kasokede, 1 • 


Kale! exhortation. 


,. 1 > since. 
Kasokanga, ( 


Mama ! 1 ., 
Man.awe ! J s y m P alh y- 


Nandiki, or not. 
Newakubade, although. 


Kwako ! here you are. 


Oba, if. 




So, nor. 



TRANSLITERATION : 



FOREIGN NAMES AND WORDS. 



The object in all transliteration should be : — 

i. To preserve the identity of the name. 

ii. To give the transliterated word a resemblance to the language ; 
in other words, to naturalize it. 

It is to be noticed that the people invariably try to make a new word 
like some existing sound : thus at one time the peasants wished to make 
Andrea into Endegeya, a familiar bird. 

The following suggestions are made : — 

i. Take the oldest known form of the name, and see if it transliter- 
ates well. 

ii. If that fails, take the form either in Arabic (Swahili form) or in 
some modern language, choosing that which transliterates best, 
e. g. Thesalonica is not easy, but its modern name Saloniki 
presents no difficulty. 

iii. Where the word is in very common use in English, Che English 
form is to be preferred, e.g. Caina — China — the word Cai, tea, 
derived from it, being very familiar. 

This is preferable to the older form Sini (Sinim). 

iv. Where an English word is to be transliterated, a similar sound 
as near a? possible must be found, e. g. Guvamanti, government. 

A prefix must be added in some cases, e.g. Ba-rijenti, Regents. 



1 6£ ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

Difficult Sounds. 

1 and r are much better retained as in the original name or word ; 
this prevents endless confusion. 

Combinations as St (Stefano) j Bl (Blasto) {cf. Bulangi, nearly 
Blangi) ; Dr. (Andreya) ; Fl (Flavio) {cf fuluma, nearly fluma), are not 
absolutely impossible. All that is needed is a semi-vowel, and it might 
be supplied by those who read and cannot pronounce rather than 
denoted by a full vowel, which only exaggerates an insertion which is 
not in the original. 

h becomes w (y), and is therefore often inaudible or nearly so. Vid 
note on ' w,' p. 13, p. 39, § 10, and p. 40. 

Thus the Swahili words hema, sahani, are universally known as wema 
and sawani respectively. Whilst in names the Baganda always use 
Kawola for Kahora ; Mu-amadi for Muhamed ; Mu-ima for Muhima ; 
Mu-indi for Muhindi. 1 

This change is fully born out by the kindred languages of Lunyoro, Kavirondo and 
Kisukuma, where we find hano, hansi (ha'si), -ho, etc., for the Luganda wano, wansi, 
-wo, etc. ; and muhara(Luima) = muwala ; hona = wona ; ha = wa ; hunra = wuhra ; 
and many others. In muhini (Luima and Kavirondo) for mu-ini (rt. yini) we find a 
' y ' for the ' h.' Cf. Vocabulary, the letter I, where the ' y ' in ' yi ' is nearly always 
inaudible except as an initial letter in the Imperatives. In the last two names— 
Mu-ima, Mu-indi— given above the 'h' may very possibly be represented by this 
silent 'y.' 

th preferably written t. It is'then parallel to the Semitic alphabets, 
which have a T pronounced in certain cases as Th. 

Many Baganda prefer S ; if this is followed out, then the popular usage of Si, nega- 
tive (sibainza, siwali, etc.) should be much more extensively followed than it is. 
Secondly, by writing S for ' Th ' in names of a Semitic origin, we are introducing 
confusion, there being already two 's' sounds besides a third (ts, or tz), which is 
represented by 's' in Musalaba and Isaka. 

Lastly, it is to be noted that when the Baganda knowingly read S for Th, it has a 
different sound to that which ' S ' usually has in their language. It is lisped so as to 
be more like a Th. 

Other difficult combinations should be avoided by one of the methods 
first indicated. 

SPECIAL WORDS. 

A very large number indeed exists on special subjects which are 
not given in the Vocabulary. They are moet extensive, and do not 
help the European outside the special subject. They may be classed as 
follows : — 
Botany. 
Very many names for different kinds of bananas ; the three im- 
portant genera into which they are divided are : — 

Nkago (or Amatoke ga nkago), which are used for food. 

1 In the Mission the use of ' k for * h ' has sprung up. This is contrary to all 
analogy, as shown above. The author is not aware that the Roman Catholics use 
anything but ' w '— e. g. bayawudi, Jews ( ' yahudim ' full form of ' yudim ') ; but does 
not know about the Mahomedans. 

Yokana John is preferred in the Mission to distinguish from Yoanna, a woman (Luke 
viii. 3) ; but the Greek distinguished only by endings— \uivv i) s and Imiw o. 



TRANSLITERATION : TECHNICAL WORDS 169 

Mbide (or Amatoke ga mbide), which are used for beer. 
Gonja, a kind for roasting and boiling. 

A single tree, Etoke lya mbide, lya gonja, etc. 
Very many names for different kinds of sweet potato. 
Names for nearly all grasses, ferns and flowers, as well as trees and shrubs. 
Sometimes when a wild plant bears any resemblance to a cultivated 
one, the wild one takes the prefix Olu, e. g. : — 
olulo resembles obulo. 
olutungotungo resembles entungo, semsem. 

Natural History. 
A good many names for insects, but very deficient as compared with 
the last. Probably no names for different kinds of moths and butter- 
flies. Ants alone seem to have been carefully observed and named. 
Names for birds and beasts in great variety ; a few names for fish found 
in the lake, but no general name for ' fish.' Snakes also are distin- 
guished by several names. 

Medicine. 
A great many names for parts of the body and different ailments 
and deformities, as well as skin diseases. The different kinds of Njoka are 
perhaps the most commonly heard; the principal and most useful are: — 
enjoka enkalu, colicky pains, constipation, 
enjoka embisi, dysentery or diarrhcea. 

(or enjoka ezokudukana, or enjoka ensanusi.) 
enjoka ensaja, gonorrhoea. 

Besides which there is bronchial trouble or pneumonia, which may be 
described as Olwoka olunyola mu kifuba muno. Luva ku meme neru- 
nyola bweruti, etc. 

Synonymous and Slang Words. 

These are found in endless variety and are immensely interesting. 
Want of time has prevented any extensive classification of these. But 
the following, written down by a Muganda, may serve as examples — 

In times of hunger. — Enjala webawo. 
Omululu omulugube okuwuwugana 

okululukana omutubo okuwuwutanya 

Anger. 

Aliko busungu antunulide oluso 

aliko bukambwe antunulide ekisoso 

ankanulide eriso antunulide eriso e'bi 



Okusiiwa 


okusisiwala amasavu 


okusiika 


okusinsimula 


okusiya 


okusisiriza 


okusiiriza 





Ways of walking. — amatambulire. 
Okuva wano 
okutambula 



170 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

okwegyawo okwenyigiriza okutwala mu ngere 

okwekanyuga okwesi'ka okwetwala 

okwererembula okwesi'kula okwewawagula 

okulya mu ngere okwesimba okweyasa 

okwemalawo okwesindika okwatika 

okumega ebigere ku 'taka okwesula okwewalakata 

okwemeketa okutwala amagulu 

Go in anger, okusukira — ye muntu agenda nobusungu. 
When weak or ill, ye muntu atambula tigatalina manyi. 
okulatalata okulembalernba okusoba 

okulemba okunyegera okutalatala 

When tired — ye muntu akoye. 

atakyagya okutambulatambula 

okwesindikiriza okuwaza 

When fresh and vigorous — ye muntu atambula namanyi. 
okwefumita ku 'taka. 
okwewalabula. 

Ways of thrashing — amakubire. 

Nakukuba nakupiya nakutemerera 

nakubatula nakusawa emigo nakutijula 

nakufutiza nakusawula nakuwewula 

nakwasa emigo nakusekula nakuwutula 

nakumanyula 

WORD ANALYSIS. 

Roots. — It is convenient to divide these into — 

i. The True Boot, or simplest possible form to which any word can 
be traced. It may be either — 

a. A monosyllable, e. g. sa, whence Ekisa and sasira. 

b. A dissyllable. This is the most common. 

e.g. guma, laba. 

ii. A Derived Root, or form made from the true root by the addition 
of some affix or prefix, by which the new form thus made behaves 
exactly as the true root from which it was made, but with a new 
meaning. 

e. g. Komola, stop at a certain point, trim — from koma, stop. 
vunama, bend down — from Vuna, break in two. 

iii. A Modification, that is, some such derivation as the Causative, the 
Prepositional, the ' kiriza ' or other form which is more in the 
nature of a conjugation, being varied to suit the sense — 
e. g. koleka, able to be done : kolera, do for : kola, do. 

It differs from a Derived Root in being recognized by the people as a 
form of the verb. No Muganda connects koma with Komola; but 
every Muganda connects koleka and kolera with Kola. 

Ending in ' a ' — The true ending of a root is probably ' a.' There- 



NATURE OF A ROOT AND ITS CLOSING VOWEL 171 

fore nouns or adjectives ending in 'a' express the simple idea of the 
root, whether true or derived and of the modification, e.g. : — 

ekisa, n. pity : sagira, v. pity. 

koza, cause to do : omukoza, an overseer, who causes others to 
do the work. 

Ending in ' e.' 

a. All the known participles in ' e ' express a passive state, e. g. omusibe, 

one tied up against his will : omufumite, one wounded in battle. 

b. Therefore it would be reasonable to expect that all nouns, whose 

roots end in this way had this meaning. This is not yet clear, 
but the following meanings are suggested : — 
le ekire, that which is spread out (Vid. Vocabulary le). 

zige enzige, that which is observed as a trail or mark — ziga. 
mere emere, that which is grown— mera. 

'de obu'de, that which is brought back in regular rotation — 

'da. 
Ending in ' i '. 

a. From a Causative ( Vid. 'Participles of Causative,' p. 139) are 

formed nouns like Omukozi, one who works ; Omuvubi, one who 
catches fish. 

b. Therefore it would be reasonable to suppose that nouns or adjec- 

tives, whose roots end in ' i', had a similar idea of Active 
state, e.g. : — 

Lungi (Rt. lunga, season), a being good : bisi, a being raw : 
bi, a being bad. But emviri, omukazi, olulimi are not yet 
explainable. 
Ensi — possibly the spreading out, expanse of land ( Vid. 
Vocabulary sa). 

Amadzi— water — may perhaps be a more primitive root and nojjncluded in this. It 
occurs in this form in all Bantu languages : as Pi in the Nile Valley group ; as Mai 
(Mei), ' waters of,' in Hebrew and Arabic, ' i' being the ending in every case. 

Ending in ' '. 

a. From the prepositional form ' A place to do anything in ' (p. 140), 

e'somero, e'komagiro. 

b. From a root (probably including Derived Roots) it generally denotes 

' the ultimate effect of what is denoted by the gerund,' e.g. : — 
e'kubo, the ultimate effect of striking on the ground with the feet, 

i. e. a path or track. 
ekigainbo, the ultimate effect of speaking, a woVd. 
ohitindo, the ultimate effect of bridging,- a bridge. 

Endings in ' u.' 

a. All the known participles in ' u' denote 'state' or 'condition,' e. g. : — 

longofu, kovu, gomvu, 

b. It may therefore be reasonably supposed that nouns, whose roots 

end in • u ' also denote state. 
ntu, existence : omuntu, human existence : ekintu, inanimate 
existence, etc. 



172 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

wamvu, condition of distance. Cf. wala. 

lungu (e'dungu), (?) an uninhabited condition. Similarly e'sanyu, 
e'salu, e'bavu, obusungu. But no explanation can be yet offered 
of e'fumu. 

Derived Roots — Their Formation. 

i. By Affixes, a very common method. Such are — 

La, probably Definitive, e. g. komola, stop at a point. 

tambula, go either with an object or to a definite point (con- 
nected with Zulu Hamba, go). . 

Note that the 'a' final of the true root is replaced by a connecting vowel, 
for euphony. This is a fairlv general principle in the use of affixes. 

Ma, probably restrictive, 'gently,' 'cautiously.' Cf. ma, stint. 
e. g. Vunaina, stoop down ; vuna. break in two. 

lanama. stretch out the legs (not a violent action). 
Aga, e. g. Lanama, wandaga. 
fa, e. g. lenge'ja, senge'ja. 
ana, e.g. vunana, sabana. 

(?) Contract, for 'awana ' and connect with 'wala,' be, become ; or ' gana.' 

fa, e. g. fnmita, do action of an ' e'fumu,' pierce. 

fuluta, serengeta. 
ka, e. g. sanyuka, be or become happy (e'sanyu). 
Ka, possibly for ' Kala,' used in Toro and elsewhere as verb ' to be.' 

wala, e. g. Bunguwala, become angry (obusungu) ; perhaps akin to 

' kala.' 
ba, e. g. witaba, from wita, call ; (?) call back. 
dta, e. g. balata. 

ii. Bv Prefixes. This method is not yet understood, but appears to 

exist, e. g. ; — 

ka as a prefix appears in some ten words. 
Cf Ka-lambala, grow rigid as a corpse, with lambala, lie as if dead. 
Probably also in Ka-la'kalira, ka-languka, ka-lanamye, ka-lang'anya, 
ka-lamata, ka-luba. 

ku may be a prefix in Ku-lembera. 
se may be a prefix in Se-lengeta (serengeta). 
iii. By Reduplication. 

a. Of the whole Root. Generally the case when the root is a mono- 

syllable or onomatopoeic, 
sa, pity, sasira (sa sa ira). 
vu, buzz, vuvuma. 

b. Of the Root ivithout its final ' a.' 

kun kum ula, shake. Root, kuma, reduplicated, 
sun sum ala, be temporarily in a place : root, suma, appearing in 
Sumuka, and possibly in Sumatuka and Sumika. 

c. Of the first syllable of t lie Root 

Bu bfika, blaze ; from Buka, jump, fly, etc. 

Su suta, be very familiar with ; from Suta, praise. 



FORMATION OF DERIVED ROOT'S: ACCENT 1 73 

Some Nouns are Composite, e. g. : — 

Suti gives ' sutama,' but only occurs itself in Ekyensuti, a bird's 

tail. 
Sambwe occurs in Ekyensambwe ; Sambula (sasambula), strip 

bark off a tree, and as the noun Ekyensambwe. 

TWO OTHER GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN ROOT FORMATION should be 

noticed. They apply to all forms. The first two apply equally to true 
and derived Roots ; and the third to all forms of Roots and Modifications, 
i. Nasalization. — That is, the insertion of a nasal n, e.g. : — 

e'bavu.a blister, is readily connected with a root baba, but this is 
only found with the nasal ' n ' inserted ; viz. ba m bala, blister. 
Probably Sa n sa, scatter, is from same root sa as sasana, but has a 
nasal 'n ' inserted. 

The occurrence of this n is frequent, but not easy to explain, 
ii. Agglutination. — This seems rare. 

e. g Guiu, leg; tumbu (tumbwe, calf of leg) — tumbugulu, fore-leg. 
Perhaps Kulukumbi (olu) ; both parts, Zulu and Kumbi, are clearly 
defined roots. 

iii Length of Vowels. — Vowels are either — 

a. Short ; e. g. : — 

laba, see ; leka, leave ; mira, swallow ; kola, do ; gula, buy. 

b. Medium, lengthened. 

a. By receiving the Accent — as the Penult in most roots in which 

the Penult is not a short vowel, e. g. : — 

lala, be calm (ctr. lala, other) ; leVo, to-day (dr. olulere, a lace); 

lima, cultivate {dr. omuhmu, work) ; t61a, accept ; siila, spend 

the night. 

This is ihe universal length of the accented Penult in Swahali, if Steere's system 
of spelling be used. 

j3. By being preceded by a nasalized Consonant, e. g. : — 

gamba, say; gdnda, go; singa, excel; y6nka,suck; kiinta, blow. 

y. By being preceded by a Consonant combined with w or y, e.g. — 
twala, take ; kweka, hide ; x nyiga, press ; 1 nyola, twist ; kyu- 
ka, turn. 

c. Long, the result of contraction ; e.g. : — 

yimbala (yimbawala), grow dim ; ziza (ziiza), hinder. 2 

There are perhaps exceptions in a few words ; e.g. kwata, grasp ; tyetnula, cut 
lengthwise ; mp6bwa, I am given. 

/3 and 7 can also result from the lengthening of a short vowel, e.g. — yakola — 
yakolanga ; ekyalo for ekiyalo and all forms from ' y ' Stems with short Penult ; 
unless the view be taken that these are contract-long vowels, in which case the 
quality of the Vowel (ekyalo, okw6gera, etc.) must be the same as in the directly 
contracted forms 'sota' (si-yota) ; 'bagala' (bayagala), etc. 

1 'Ny' may be either the liquid 'n' combined with 4 y,' as probably in these 
instances.; or it may be ' y ' nasalized — as perhaps in the words nyika, dip ; enyama, 
meat ; nyiga, plunder — accounting for the short vowel. 

2 The difference between Medium-accented and Long contract Vowels is often very 
difficult to determine and will probably only be finally decided by analysis and com- 



174 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

The differences may be marked as above ; but in ordinary literature 
the short mark will never be needed, and the medium only occasionally 
where, as in the instances contrasted above (under a), some mistake 
might be made. 

ACCENT. 

Usually on the Penultimate of the Root, as in the previous paragraph, 
where the accented Vowels only have been marked, according to their 
quality. 

The effect of the accent on short vowels is to draw back something 
of the sound of the following consonant, e.g. : — 
laba, almost lab-ba ; leka, almost lek-ka. 

The following cases should be noted : — 

i. If there is any Modification of the Root which adds one or more 
syllables to it — as in many modifications of the Verb — 

a. The original accent of the Root is retained. 

b. If this is impossible, the accent is shifted forward. 

a. In the case of short vowels generally to the next syllable : — 

kwata — kwatirira ; yakola — yakolanga. 
/J. In other cases to the next syllable but one, e.g. : — 
te'nda— tendereza ; giima — gumikiriza. 
In cases of shifted accent, the original accent might perhaps be called a Secondary 
Accent. 

ii. If the root is of more than two syllables and contain a nasalized 
consonant, accent accordingly, e. g. : — 

serengeta, go down ; sansula, open out. 
Hi. The Root is monosyllabic and 

a. Enclitic ; e. g. ekisa, kindness ; eki'nya, a hole. 
The Accent though not on the root returns to the Penult. 

b. Accented. The word is oxytone, e.g. : — 

omuti, a tree. 
Words like omuntu are Paroxytone because of the nasal ' n.' 

Enclitics. 

These are Possessive Pronoun -o, thy, and -e, his and very 
many Monosyllabic roots. 

The presence of one of these may necessitate two accents follow- 
ing each other, e.g. amate'kago. 

But ekiiboly6, because the ' o ' follows the combination ' ly ' and 
so becomes a medium vowel lengthened. 

Intonation or Tone Accent. 

Often on the • a ' final of Verbs ; also on the final vowel of the 

words Era, naye ; and -ona, all. 
In some cases it would seem as though the Tone Accent 

exceeded in intensity the True Accent. 
Monosyllabic Roots if enclitic can obviously not have a tone 

accent on the last syllable. 

— — — — - -■ -■■ -■■ - — - ..  .I,,. 1 — ... — —  — -  -■ — ' ^ 

parative study. The time available for the preparation of this book has made it quite 
impossible to use these marks accurately and uniformly. 



VOCABULARY 



INTRODUCTION -EXPLANATORY REMARKS 

To find any word in this Vocabulary, proceed as follows : —  
i. For a Noun, Adjective, or Adverb — 

Take off the Class Prefix and look for the word under the first 
three or four letters of the part that is left. If that part be of 
one syllable only, the word may appear in that form, or with 
its vowel changed to ' a.' <?. g. Enai — root ' si,' — is found under 
* sa,' this being the true Root. 
When the third (or fourth) letter of the part left on removal of 
the Class Prefix is 8, the word may be found with this 8 
changed to t or k ; if this third letter be a z, the word may be 
found with this z 'changed to 1 (or r), or b or j, if d or n pre- 
cede the z, e. g. : — 

omubadzi — badzi appears under Baja. 
omukoza — koza „ „ Kola, 

naza „ „ Naba. 

omusizi — sizi „ „ Siga. 

omwetise — e'tise „ „ Ti'ka. 

Note this last, as bein;; reflexive. 

Special Cases. 

a. The Class Prefix appears as mw, lw, bw, ky, or k. These are 

found by adding y to the part that remains after taking off 
any one of the above combinations of letters, (. g. : —  
Omwoyo — yoyo ; ekyalo— yalo ; akana— yana 

Very rarely, as in Omwetise above, the part may come from a 
Reflexive Verb. 

b. The Class Prefix appears as e'd or end. These are found by 

adding 1 to the part left after taking off the e'd or end, e . g. : — 
endagala— lagala. 
e'dogo — logo— loga. 

c. The Class Prefix appears as e'g, or egw. The root is given by 

175 



176 ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 

taking off the e'g, and, if a w does not follow, add One 
e.g. :— 

e 'gugwe — wugwe. 

e'gwanga — wanga. 

d. Compound prefixes are Namu, nama, ekyen, owolu, and perhaps a 

few others, 
ii. For a Verb. 

Think what is the Infinitive, and take off the Infinitive sign 

Oku. 
If the Infinitive begin Ok-.v, then add y to what follows and 

remove the Okw, e. g. okwala — yala. 
If the Infinitive begin Okwe, and the Verb is Reflexive, take off 

the Okwe, e. g. okwebaka — baka; okwebaza — baza appearing 

under Bala. 

The endings KA and LA are sometimes interchangeable — KA being the 
passive, and LA the active ending. It has not been found possible to keep 
to one form in giving these. 

Explanation of Abbreviations. 

i. Unless a ' Modification ' has a special meaning, it will not be 
given, e. g. Kolera is a Modification of Kola, and would 
naturally mean ' do for ' It has no special meaning, and there- 
fore nothing is said about it. 
If however the Modification is in very common use, it is indicated by 
its ending, in square brackets. The meaning is a natural one accord- 
ing to law and not given, e. g. : — 

Sanyuka, v. be glad [sa, c] 
which means that the Causative is Sanyusa, cause to be glad. 

ii. A Modified form of a stem is also given in square brackets, e. g. : — 
Kwata, v. take hold [kute] 
kute being the Mod. form from which to make the Present Perfect, 
iii. Variant forms of a word, or a Variant Class Prefix with no 
special difference of meaning is given by round brackets. Thus — 
Lumonde, n. i. sweet potato (lumonge) 
lumonge being frequently heard. 

Zikiza (en), n. darkness (eki) 
The form ekizikiza is also used commonly. 

iv. The Class Prefixes are given in round brackets, as in the last 
instance. In the case of the li — ma Class, the plural is given 
thus — (e* ; ama) or (e' ;) if there is no plural, 
v. Miscellaneous Abbreviations. 

A hyphen is used to denote the omission of the first letter of the 
Root in any combination : e. g. : — 

Yangu (m-), adv. quickly 
The hyphen shows that .the y of yangu is omitted when joined to 
this m. The Adverb is therefore Mangu. 

Wugwe (e'g- ; ama), n. a lung 
The *g ' takes the place of the ' w,' so that the Sing, is E'gugwe. 



ABBREVIATIONS 177 

Yalo (ek), n. a plantain-garden • 

The singular is Ekyalo, being really for Eki yalo. 
Lubare ( — , ba), n. false god 

The Singular is Lubare, without change, the Plur. is Balubare. 
Galo (nama ; zin.), n. tongs 

The Sing, is Namagalo ; Plur. Zinamagalo. 
Wali (ka) — kawali, n. i. small-pox 

The 'ka' is not used here as a Class Prefix, but has made a per- 
sonified noun Kawali. 
Kuraa, v. keep, [mi, «.] 

There is a noun Omukumi, a keeper, — it being understood that the 
Prefix in all these cases is Omu. 
Kolobola, v. t. scratch. 

[ka, v. I.] The Verb Intransitive is Koloboka, be scratched. 
Lebera, v. i. be loose, hanging down. [vu,//.] 

There is a Participle Lebevu, which means by rule, ' The state of 
being loose.' 
Ebaza, r. t. give thanks for 

The verb is both Reflexive- and Transitive, /. e. it takes an Object. 
Kunkumula, v. shake. ? kuma III, red. 

The probable Root is Kuma, the third (III) given in the Vocabu- 
lary and Reduplicated, thus, kum kum ula. 
Loba, v. catch fish. ? Pick out. 

'Pick out' is suggested as the Root idea which binds all the 
forms together. 
Sasana, v. scatter. ? sa (sansa), red. 

The Root suggested is Sa, with the shade of meaning it takes in 
'sansa' and reduplicated, 
vi. No attempt is made to denote the Nasalizing of Roots, e. g. Sansa 

above from Sa, reduplicated and nasalized — sa n sa. 
vii. A Root is given in heavy face type, and if assumed, in italics. 
The words so marked are not all true Roots. To attain this end would have made 
the Vocabulary too long. It must then be understood as an Approximation : either 
True Root, with final Vowel, not ' a ' or Derived Root, or some form of Derived 
Root. 

viii. Sometimes the meaning of the Root is not well known, or un- 
suitable for this Vocabulary, and is omitted. 

ix. Compound Adjectives are preceded by a hyphen ; thus — * -olu- 
beryeberye,' first. The Preposition ' -a,' of, always precedes ; e.g. — 
ekintu <?/£yoluberyeberye — si kintu kya luberyeberye. 

Special Abbreviations. 

A single dagger t indicates the word to be of foreign origin. 

A double dagger I shows that the word, if not carefully pro- 
nounced, will sound like something improper. 

An asterisk * shows that various idiomatic uses of the word are 
to be found under Special Uses of Verbs, p. 153. 

Sometimes a metaphorical meaning is given after a semicolon ; 
and if the direct meaning is obvious, this is indicated by a dash; e.g. 

Kusa, c. ekusa, r. — ; go as empty as you came. 

M 



i 7 8 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



n. noun 

v. verb 

adj. adjective 

adv. adverb 

int. interjection 

conj. conjunction 

pron. pronoun 

//. participle 

n.i. noun invariable or person- 
ified noun 

p. prepositional form of Verb 

c. causative form of Verb 

v.i. verb intransitive 



v.t. verb transitive 
v.t. r takes a double object 

r. reflexive 
rec. reciprocative 
r.t. reflexive and transitive 
rv. reversive 
k. capable form in ' ka ' 
k.c. form in 'kiriza' (kereza) 
k.p. form in ' kirira ' (kerera) 
p 2 . doubly prepositional 
p.c. causative form of prepositional 
on. onomatopoetic, made from the 
sound 



LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



Aa, int. no 

Abange, int. to call attention, you fellows 

there 
Ai, int. of entreaty followed by name 
Anti, int. of emphasis ; why, to be sure 
Ate, adv. again, moreover 
Awo, conj. so 

B 

Ba, v.i. be. [bera, /.] [bade] 
berera (olu), n. 

-oluberera, everlasting 
beryeberye (olu), n. 
-oluberyeberye, first 
Ba (olu), n. the lower jaw 
'Ba, v.t 2 . steal from 
anzibye ekitabo 
'Ba, n. husband 1 

Biba, int. sir ; often please, kindly 
Babe (e'), n. 

emere ewunya e'babe, has a nasty 
taste 
babira, v. blacken earthenware ; smoke 

bark-cloth 
babula, v. smoke plantain-leaves ; singe 
Badala, v. be rude, [ira, /. be rude to] 
Baga, v. lift and put in position, only in 
baga eki (olu, se) sizi ; baga esubi 
bagaja, v. lift with effort 



bagala, 

ebagala, r. ride as a horse, mule, etc. 
bagula, v. hoist long load by lowering 
the head (ebagula) 
Baga (em), ;/. a feast 
baguka, v. 

nebabaguka mu kuimba, broke out 
into singing 
Baga, v. flay ; make incision ; operate 

bagulula, v. cut deeply 
Baja, v.t. work with an axe 
baja omuti ; baja entebe 
badzi (em), n. an axe 
badzi (omu), «. a carpenter 
bajula, v. split firewood with hands 
Bajagala, v. belch (ebajagala) 
Baka, v. catch in hand. ? vacancy of 
hand 
baka (omu), n. a representative 
ebaka, r . sleep 
Bakira, adv. lately, on that occasion 

bakira nkola, on that occasion, lately 
I was doing 
Bakuli, n. basin (European)t bakuli eno, 

etc. 
Bala. v. count 

bala (omu), n. drum-beat 
Bala, (e' ; ama), n. spot, colour 
balabala (ebi 1 ), «. 

-ebibalabala, spotted 
bala, v. produce fruit, not plantains. 



1 Baze, my husband ; balo (or bawo), thy h. ; bawe(or ba) herh.; bafe, our h. ; bamwe, 
your h. ; bababwe (or babwe), their h. Plur. [Babaze], babafe, [babalo (babawo) ], etc. 

'ba (Lusoga iba, also a verb, be husband to) ; the 'b suggests that this is not the same 
as ba in sebo, baba, abanlu. 

There is a coincidence with the first syllable of the Semitic Baal (lord, master) and 
no wide difference of meaning. 



VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



179 



bala, (em), /;. kind 

balabe (em), n. pimple 
Bala, 

cbala, v. only 

webale, int. Well done 

ebaza, c. say ' Webale' ; thank 
Balabala, v. stroll up and down 
Balagaki, v. smart 
Balala, v. burn mouth, as hot spices 
Halama, rid. Bali 
Balanga, //./. 

agude mu balanga, has gone stark jnad 

ebalankanya, r. pretend ignorance, mad- 
ness 
Balasasa (em), n. viper. ? balagala 
Halasi (em), n. horset 
Balata, v. jest 
Balebale (em), n. 

ejinja eryembalebale, very hard stone 
Bali (e* : ama), n. ('bali) 

ku mabali, at side of (ku 'bali) 

balama (olu), 11. shore, edge of lake 

halama, v. go along the edge, side 
ebalama, r. abstain from 

baliga, v. walk with toes turned out 
Balugu, ti.i. a kind of yam 
Baluka, v. be chipped 

balula, v.t. — ; flog 
Baluka, v. scream, yell 
Rama, v. be fierce, of a cow 
Bamba. Cf. Bavu 

bambula, v. blister, peel off. [ka, v.i.\ 

bambulukuka, v. be peeled off 

bambaga, v. walk painfully 
Bamba, v. peg out a skin to dry 

bambo (olu), «. a peg for that purpose 

bambulula, v. take out pegs from a skin 
BambaJa, v. be perverse, [vu, pt.\ 
Bamvu (e' : ama), n. large dug out ? ba- 
mba I 

bamvu (eki), n. a wooden trough (em) 
Banda (e' ; ama), n. bamboo 
Bandala, v. lie on one's stomach 
Bandi, pron. other people's 
Banduka, v.i. go off with a pop 

bandula v.t. — ; flog 

banduso (em-), n. the trip of a snare 
Banga, v.t. cut a space ; mortice 

bangamu amanyo, make crutch to 
post 

banga (e' ; ama), n. space ; interval 

bauga (olu), n. seat in canoe 
Banga (e' ; ama), n. precipice 
Bango (e' ; ama), n. a hump on cow ; or 

on man 
Bangula, v.t. sharpen a razor ; train dog 
to hunt 

bangulula, rv. take off the edge 
Banja, v. exact a debt, press for payment 
amanze nyo, he press*"*! me hard 

banja (e' ; ama), n. a debt 



ba nebanja erya, owe to 

banja (eki), n. a building-site 
Banula, v. have large udder, as cow 
Banyi (olu), n. scaffolding 
Basitola, n. a pistol revolver t 

basitola yange, eno, etc. 
Bata (em), n. a duck 

batabata, v. waddle with legs apart 
Batika, v. put ' mpafu ' in water to cook ; 
hold in the cheek as water, a stone, etc. 
Batiza, v. baptize. t [batizisa, c. and/.] 
Batu (eki), v. palm of hand. ? batika 

batu (olu), n. a handful 
Bavu (e' ; ama), «. a blister. Cf. Bamba 
Bawo (olu), n. a board.! 
Raya (eki), n. a papyrus boat 
Baza, Vid. Bala 
Be (eki), n. a fox, a jackal 
Beba, v. importune 
Bebera, v. bleat 
Bebera, v. walk with effort 
Bebetala, v. be flattened, squashed out 

bebetaza, c. flatten out 
Bega (ama), ». back of men or animals 
kuba amabega ku, turn the back upon 
ku mabega ga, behind 

begabega (eki), n. shoulder 
Bega, v. help food 

begulula, v. divide food into portions 
Beja (ka) — kabeja, king's second wife 

beja — mbeja (omu), a princess 
Bejagala, v. — bajagala, belch 
Bejerera, v. slander. ? beja 
Bemba, v. skin over, of a sore 

bembereza, v. neglect a sore 

bembeka, v. piu side by side 

bembula, v. separate carefully two ad- 
hering surfaces (bembulula) 
Bemula, v. throw down heavily 
Bendobendo (aka), n. roll of reeds at edge 

of roof 
Bene, pron. other peoples 
Benga, v. whel (bengula) 

bengo (olu), n. nether grindstone 

bengo (aka), n. enlarged spleen 

benguka, v.i. hate, dislike 
Bepo, adv. it may be, it may do 

Bepo ewuwo ? what may be at your 
home? 
Bera, v. help, [bede] 

bereka, k. carry two separate things one 
on the other. 

berekulula, rv. take one thing off an- 
other 

berula, rv. throw sideways, in wrestling 
Bere (e' ; ama), n. breast, udder 
Bere (obu), n. canary-seed 
Berenge (em), n. dried cob of Indian corn 
Besabesa, v. keep company. ? beka = 
weka 
jangu ombesebese 



i8o 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Betegera, v. run slowly 
Betenta, v. crush, pound 

betenteka, v. be crushed, [fu, //] 
Beyabeya, v. run about aimlessly 
Bi, adj. bad 

bi (aka), «. danger. 
Bibi (eki), n. garden-plot ; mound for 
potatoes 
bibi (em), «. border, marches 
bibira, v. make a dam of earth 
bibiro (olu), «. the dam so made 
Bide (em), n. bananas for beer-making 
Bidzi (em), n. a wild hog 
Bigita, v. bother, ' nag ' 
Bigula, v. lever up as potatoes with a stick 
Bigya, v. frown; go bad. 
Bi'ka, n. cover* 

bi'ko (olu), it, the caul 
bikirira, p 2 . cover up carefully 

ebikirira, r. wrap oneself quite up 
bi'kula, rv. uncover; find place in book, 
[ka, v.i.\ 
Bika, v. bring news of a man's death 
Bika, v. lay eggs 
Bimba, v. foam 

Bimbi (olu), n. made up bed in garden 
Bina, v. collect together ; frown 
bina (eki), «. a crowd 
binika, v. overload 

binula, v. in building, prolong the roof 
over the door 
Bindabinda, v. threaten rain 
egulu libinzebinze 
bindi (em-), n. tobacco-pipe, 
bindula, 
ebindula, r. be overcast of sky 
Binika, «. kettle f binika yange, eno, 

etc. 
Binzari, n. curry t binzari eno, etc. 
Bira (eki), n. forest. ? disappearing 
ebirira, r. slip away 
biririra, v. be sodden of food ; be soaked 

with perspiration 
biro (em), n. running 
embiro ze zamu'ta 
biro (m), adv. 

duka mbiro, run at full speed 
biriga, v. play game with sticks (biliga) 

birigo (em), n. one of the sticks 
birizi (em), n. the side 
birizi (olu), «. a rib 
Bira, v. dive ; sink out of sight 
'birira, v. creep up behind 
Biri, adj. two 

biri (ebi), n. two hundred 
Biri (omu), n. the body: thickness, sub- 
stance of anything 
biri (olu), n. the king's enclosure 
Bisi, adj. in its natural state. 

bisi (omu), n. sweet plantain-juice 
omubisi gwcnjuki, honey 



Biza, v. parboil. ? bira 

biriza, /. (biziza) 
Bo (eki), n. stem of leaf of a palm 
'Bo (eki), h. a basket 
Boba, v. throb 

omutwe gumboba, my head throbs. 
Boba, v. be thoroughly codked ; of per- 
sons, be comfortable (b5bera) 
Bogo (em), n. a buffalo 
bogo (e'), n. angry words 
bogola, v. speak roughly ; bark 
Boja, v. peck of birds; bite of snakes 
Bola, v. drive out of the ' butaka ' 
ebolereza, r. disown 
ebolereze (omw), n. one disowned 
Bola, Lusoga, rot 

bolerera, v. be overripe 
Bologa, v. groan as animal being slaugh- 
tered 
Bomba, v. escape from captivity 
bombye (omu), n. a runaway 
ebombabomba, r. look sheepish 
Bona, Lusoga, see 

bona (ka ; baka), n. a priest 
bonero (aka), «. a sign 
boneka, v. be new, of moon 
bonomu (ki), n.i. shooting-star 
ebonanya, r. choose out = eroboza 
Bonabona, v. be afflicted, suffer 
bonerera, v. repent 
bonereza, c. punish 
Bonda (e'), n. dregs in beer, lees 

bondera, v, stay perfectly still as one 

meditating escape 
bondevu, //. doing above habitually ; 
gentle 
Bonga, v. spin a top, — bonga enje 
bongola, v. chip, knock off 
bongota, v. be drowsy, nod 
Bongo (e'), «. 

amata ga 'bongo, curdled milk 
Botola, v. give way, wear through, [ka, 

v.t.] 
Bowa, v. distrain for debt 
bowo, 

omwana wa- bowo, a freeman 
Boya, v. have swimming Head from drink ; 
be distracted 
aboya, omwenge gumuboyt.dza 
boyana, v. rush about frantically 
Bozi (em), n. conversation 
leta embozi, gossip 
tula mu mbozi, sit gossiping 
Bu (olu), n. a row of posts in a house 
Bubi (na ; zina), n. a spider 

bubi (olu), n. scum on stagnant water ; 
cream 
Bubuka, v. blaze ; be very painful, of 

sore. ? buka 
Bubula, v. on. have eaten too much 
Buga, v. desire intensely, yearn 



VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



181 



Buga (eki), n. where the king lives 
buga (em), n. where a chief lives 
Bu'ga (e*), n. vegetable leaf, small, reddish 
Bugo (olu), n. a bark-cloth 
Bugubugu (em), n. wrinkle on cheek 
Bugubugu (em), n. 

tunula embugubugu, pass restless 
night 
Buga, 'splutter splutter ' 

bugubugu si muliro, prov. 
buguma, v. be warm, [mya, c. make 

warm 
bugumu (e'), n. oppressive foul air 
bugumu (olu), n. warmth 
Bugutanya, v. attack from different direc- 
tions ; distract 
Bu'jabu'ja, v. of a child learning to talk 

(bumbu'ja) 
Buka, v. fly, jump 

busabusa, v. hesitate 
Bukuli (em), n. a club 
Bukuta, v. rustle 

bukutu (ebi), n. as sign of mourning 
Bula, v. t. be lost to 

ekitabo kimbuze, I cannot find the 
book 
Bula, v. purpose 

bulira, v. tell, preach 
buliriza, v. make careful enquiry 
biiza, c.t 2 . ask about 
Bulubuta, v. wander about as if in doubt 

of road 
Bulugi, ;/. a bugle. ? buguli transposed 
Bulula, v. be first to see 

bulukuka, v. ripen as fruit 
'Bulukuka, v. come to surface of water 
Bumba, v. mould clay. Cf. wumba 
bumba (e'), ;/. clay 
bumbulula, rv. crumble 

bumbulukuka, v.i. ? be crumbled 
bumbiro (olu), n. a fire-pan 
Bumba (eki), n. the liver 
Bumbuga, v. make inarticulate sounds as 
one dumb 
bumbuja, v. of child learning to talk 

? bu'ja 
bumbudzi ( — ; ba), «. bumble-bee 
Buna, v. spread 

buno (eki), n. gums, palate 
bunira,/. be shut, of the mouth 

bunira, close your mouth 
buniza, c. close as a wound 
Bunda, v. crouch in grass to hide, 
bundala, v. crouch for a spring as cat 
bundula, v. upset, [ka, v.i.] 
bundukirira, /. topple as if about to 
upset ; limp 



Bungeta, v. have no home 
Bungo (olu), n. dung-hill 
Bungulula 

ebungulula, r. go round, =etolola 
Bunwe, n.i. thigH-bone 
Bunza, v. hawk about for sale 

bunzabunza, v. torment 
Buto (olu), n. the abdomen ; womb 

ba lubuto lwa gundi, be with child by 
Butu (em), «. 

kuba engoma embutu, beat drum wi'.h 
hands 
Butula, v. raise a rash, (bubutula) 

butuka, v. break out of rash, (bubutuka) 
Butula, v. lift a heavy thing 

ebutukira, r. get up 

butulira, v. give a heavy present to 
Buyabuya, v. talk nonsense 
Buzi (em), n. a goat 
Bwa (e' ; ama), n. a sore 

bwa (em), n. a dog 
Bwa'gu, adv. empty-handed 
Bwagula, v. eat ravenously 
Bwala, 

ebwalabwala, v. cringe 
Bwama, v. crouch down in hiding 
Bwatuka, v. thunder 

Bweta, n. a box t bweta yange eno, etc. 
Bwino, n.i. ink t 
Bya (eki), «. a native bowl 
Byala, v. plant potato-slips, — byala olu- 

monde 

C 
Caka (aka), n. locust in young stage 
Coca, v. press hard in pursuit 
Cwano (aka), n. an uproar, riot 
Cyu (obu), n. floating dregs in beer 

D 

'Da l (e' ;) n. age 

e'da ne'da lyona, for all time 
nalwa 'da ki, I met with delay, 'after 
a bit' 
da (e' ;) adv. long ago 
'Da, v. go or come back 1 
'da (ama), u. return journeys 

amagenda nama'da, both going and 
reluming 
'de (obu), n. time of day 

obude butuse ; obude butuse oku- 
fumba 
'de (eki), «. a bell 
'do (omu) «. weeds. ? returning 
'du (omu), n. a man-slave 
'du (obu) n. slavery 
'dira, /. take, for use 
'diriza v. slacken 



' Possibly not da but la, stretch out, lie still (as in Lala, in most Bantu languages); so 
Extent of time. This la may also appear as le in ekire (that which is stretched out), and 
as lo in ekiro. 



182 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



'dizo (obu), ;/. answer to a charge ; 
'return ' time, in herding 
obudizo bwembuzi butuse 

'ding'ana, v. go to and fro 
ding'anya, c. send to and fro 
Dabiriza, v. patch, mend up 
Daga, v. be homeless 
'Dala, adv. completely ; now, rather than 

later 
Dala (e' ; ama), n. piece of scaffolding 
Di, int. adv. when? ? li 
Diba, v. fall into disuse 

dibya, c. annul as a law 
Dinda (e' ; ama), n. a wooden harmonicon 
Dini (e), «. religion.! dini yange, etc. 
Dodoma, v. speak with base voice 
Du, adv. full to the brim 

amadzi mwegali mangi? Du 
Dubi (e' ;) //. deep water 
Dudu (ama), n. ordeal. Cf. Lulu 
Duduma, v. on. thunden Cf. Dodoma 
Dudumo (e' ; ama), n. a wheel t 
'Dugala, v. i. be black 

dugavij, pt. black, dark-coloured 
'Duka, v.t. run from, [ira, p. run to] 

'dukira, v. come and fetch 

'dukana, v. run fast — dukanako ; have 
diarrhoea, or dysentery 

'dukano (eki), n. diarrhoea ; eki'dukano 
ekyomusai, dysentery 
Dula, v. deride 
Duma, v. give word of command, interpret 

duma emundu, do gun-drill 
Dumbi (e* ;), n. the lesser rains. ? dubi 
Dumu (omu), n. a gun-barrel ; a European 

j ug 

Dyo (e ;), n. ? lya 

omukono ogwa 'dyo, right hand 
Dzamu (e), n. watch, sentry-go t 

edzamu yange, etc. Cf. Manzamu 
Dii (ama), it. water 

dzi (otu), «. a little drop of water 

dzi (olu ; enzi), n. a well 
Dzukulu (omu), n. grandson or grand- 
father 

E 
Era, conj. besides, and 
Era'de, salutation, are you well 1 
Eri, adv. at that place : used as prep, to, 

from 
Esi, int. of surprise, (ess) 

F 
"Fa, v. die ; come to nothing 
fa (ogu)» «. skeleton 
fu, //. dead ; out of repair 
•fu (omu), n. a dead person 

1 La'de may be modified form of Lala,— 
all well ? Thjs is only a greeting of intimate 



efisa, r.c. pretend to be dead 
fiirirwa, v. be bereaved 

mfiridwa omwana.I have lost my child 
Fafagana, v.i.ht spoilt 
Fana (em), n. tape-worm 
Fr.nana, v.t. be like, resemble 

fananyi (eki), ;;. likeness, picture, etc. 
Fataki, «. gun-cap. t fataki eno, etc. 
Fe, pron. we 

-afe, poss. pron. our 
Fefeta, v. snuff 
Feta, v. be stunted in growth 
feteka, 
efeteka, r. find a seat where you can 
Fetete (ebi), «. nicotine in pipe ; wax in 

the ear. ? feta 
Feza (e), n. silver, t efeza yange, etc. 
Fi'ka, v.t. be over and above a total 
Fo (eki) «. spot, place. ? fa 
Fu (olu), n. mist. ? fa 
Fuba, v. exert oneself; work hard 
Fuba (eki), n, chest ; (measure) two yards 

fuba (olu), n. bronchitis 
Fubeto (omu), n. side-post of door 
Fubutuka, v. dash, (fubitika). ? fuba I 

efubutuka, r. dart in, as a thief 
Fudu (em), n. tortoise 
Fufu (em), n. dust. Cf. Vu 
Fufugala, v. have point turned, as pen-nib 
Fuga,,z\r. catch slaves or animals ; tame ; 
rule 
fuza, c. search for and kill hidden fugitives 
fuzi (omu), «. an orphan. (omwana 
mufuzi) 
Faka, v.i. be made, become 

fula, v.t. make to become ; turn upside 
down 
efula, r. — ; stand on head 
fusi (em). ? changeableness. Hence 

obunamfusi, n. hypocrisy 
efusa, r. pretend to be 
Fuka, v.t. pour; micturate, polite 
fukirira, /. water a garden 
fukulula, v. decant liquids 
fukumula, v. shake things out of a bag ; 

speak one's mind 
fukama, v. micturate, vulgar 
fukamira, /. kneel 
Fuko (omu), n. a quiver 
fuko (eki), n. crowdedness 
fukula, v. throw up earth, of burrowing 
things 

efukula, r. move stomach in dancing 
Fukula, v. stir up mud 
Fukuta, v. blow the bellows. J/".Emvubu, 

? fuku, on. = vu vu 
Fulube (olu), n. crowd, lot of things 
Fulukwa (eki), n. deserted place or house 

Enyumba era'de, is the house quiet ? /. e. Is 
friends. 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



I»3 



Fuluma, v. go out 

Fulungu (e' ; ama), //. blackbird with red 

tail 
Fuliita, v. snore 
Fuma, v. tell beast stories 
fumo (em), n. idle tale 
fumu (omu), n. a diviner 
Fumba, v. cook 

fumbiro (e' ;), n. kitclien 

fumbiro (omu), 11. cook 
fumbo (omu), n. a married person 
fumbirwa, v. get married, of woman 
njagala okufumbirwa omusaja oyo 
fumbiriganwa, rec. be married 
Fumbikiriza, v. wash away by flood 
Fumfugu (e' ; ama), n. clod of earth 
Fumn (e' ; ama), ;/. a spear 

fumu (eki), «. iron spud for digging holes 
fumita, v.t. pierce 

fumite (omu), ;/. a wounded man 
Fumuka, v.t. be blown about as dust. 

[la, A] ? fuma 
Fumvu (eki), >i. prairie mound 
Funa, v. obtain 

Funda, adj. narrow. ? screwed up 
fundika, v. tie a knot 
fundukulula, v. untie a knot 
fundikiriza, v. fill the mouth ftdl of food 
Funga, v. tie up, as clothes for work 

funga omukiia, put tail between legs 
efungiza, r. tie up one's clothes for work 
fungo (eki), n. a hinge 
Funtula, v. strike with fist. ? funa 
Funya, v. clench the fist ; fold clothes. 
? funa 
funyiro (olu), n. fold, crease in cloth 
efunya, r. gather up legs or arms 
Fuso (eki), n. wad for gun 
Fata (ama), n. oil 
Futuka, v. break out, of a rash 
Fuwa, v.t. blow, [ya, c] 
Fuzi (em), n. lamp-wick 

G 

'Ga (omu), n. a marsh. ? expanse 
'ga (olu), n. a cane 
'gi (olu), ft. a door 

'gala, v. shut the door, — 'galawo 

e'gala, r. shut oneself in 

'galanda (omu), n. the youngest child 

'gavu,//. 'gavu wamatu, deaf ; 'gavu 
wamaso, blind 
'gula, rv. open door, — 'gulawo 

'gula emindi, unstop a pipe-stem 
Gaba, v.t. distribute 
gabanguzi (omu), n. a liberal man 
gabe (omu), n. leader of an expedition 
gabo (omu),.«. portion 
gabo (en),/, a shield 
gabogabo, (e'), «. 

omwezi ogwe'gabogabo, full moon 



gabula, v. make distribution 
Gabe (e' ; ama), n. small animal 

amaga ngaegabe ekasukeakambe,/;w. 
Gabe (en), n. small drum beaten with 

hands 
Gabunga ( — ; ba), n. chief who controls 

canoes 
Gaga, v. 

emere egaze, the food is spoilt 
Gaga, v. walk with proud air 
gaga (eki), «. piece of food flattened 
out ; broad hem ; anything flat and 
broad 
Ga'ga, adj. rich 

ga'ga (omu), «. a rich man 
ga'ga (obu), n. wealth 
ga'ga wala, v.t. become rich, [za, <.] 
Gaju, adj. red, of animals 
Gala, ? spread out 

galo (olu), n. finger 
galo (nama ; zin.), n. tongs 
egalika, lie on its back, of shells in 

gambling ; ' pitch and toss 
galamira, v. lie down 

galamira obugazi, lie on one's back 
galanjuka, v. fall head over heels 
galangaja (ma), adv. in confusion 
Gala (eki), n. stock of gun 
Galagala (omu), n. king's page 
Galata, v. be dull and heavy after eating 
Gali (olu), n. tray for winnowing 
Gali (e), n. cart, =sw. garif egali eno 
Galubindi, n. telescope, glasses, etc.t 

galubindi yange, etc. 
Galwa (e'), n. caulking for canoe ? 'gala 
Gamba, v.t. say to 
gambo (eki), ;/. word 
egamba, r. pretend to be 
Gamba (e' ; ama), ;/. scale offish 
Gana (e' ; ama), n. flock, herd 
Gana, v. say no 

egana, r. deny from oneself, deny a 

charge 
eganiriza, r. refuse, of oneself 
Ganda (omu), n. brother 

ganda (omu), «.' a bundle 
Gandala, v. take a siesta 
gandalo (e'), n. 

obude 'gandalo, siesta time 
Gango (eki), ft. guest-house 
Ganja, v. be in favour [zi, ».] 
Ganja (eki), n. a hoof 
Ganya, v. consent to. * ? gana 
Ganzi (en), n. thirst delirium 
Ganzika, v. put side by side. ? ganja II 
Ga'ta, v. join, compensate.* [si, «.] 
ga'sa, c. be profitable to 
ga'to (?n), n. shoe, sandal 
Gati (omu), n. bread t 
Gavu (omu), n. smoke for fumigating ; the 
wood so used 



1 84 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Gaya, v. despise 
gayirira 

egairira, r. beseech 
Gaya, v. chew 

Gayala, v. be idle = nanya [vu, //.] 
gayavu, pt. idle 
gayaza, c. 

egayazagayaza, r. trifle 
Gazi, adj. wide 

gazi (obu), n. width 
gaziwa, v.i. be wide, [ya, c] 
Ge (omu), n. head-band 
Gege (en), n. a kind of fish 
Gegenya, v. mimic 
Geja, v. grow fat 

gevu, //. fat 
Gemu, (e*; ama), n. bracelet, or anklet ; 

wristband of coat 
Gemula, v. bring food, [zi, «.] 
Gen da, v . go 
gendo (olu), «. journey 
genda (ama), n. goings 

amagenda nama'da 
egenza, c.r. go unbidden where one 

likes 
egenzagenza, c.r. pretend to be going 
egendera, /. r. be clean gone 
egendereza, r. be circumspect, careful 
Genge (omu), u. .leper 

genge (ebi), n. leprosy 
Genyi, adj. foreign 

genyi (omu), n. a visitor, guest 
genyi (obu), «. guest present 
Gera, v.t. measure, compare, tell a pro- 
verb 
geri (en), n. kind, sort 
gero (olu), it. proverb, story 
gero (e' ; ama), n. a ' wonder ' 
gerera, / 2 . 

gerera ekintu ku, compare a thing 
with 
geza, c. try by comparison 
egeza, r. esp. 

egezamu, try on clothes, try a load 
gezi, adj. clever, men only 
gezi (ama), n. wisdom, wits 

-amagezi, clever, ingenious 
geresa, v. propound a riddle, tell a 
story 
Gere (eki), n. foot 

gere (aka), «. sore between the toes 
Gere, adz: 

ekirabo gere, an out-and-out present 
nyuweza geregere, made quite fast 
Geregeza, v, have sores on corner of 
mouth 
geregeze (en), «. the sores 
Gerenge, n.i. red earth for paint 
Geya, 

egeya, r. speak evil of self ; take counsel 
together 



geye (en), it. colubus monkey 
Gezi (en), ;/. current 

amadzi gengezi, whirlpool 
Gi (e' ; ama), n. an egg. ? 'ga 
Gigi (e' ; ama), n. a curtain. ? 'ga 
Gimbi (ama). «. spicules on reed grass 
Gimu, adj. fertile 

gimuka, v. grow well 
Gindi, pron. such and such a place 
Ginga, 

eginga, r. play the clown 
Ging'irima (olu), n. mane of horse 
Gira, v. act, do, behave* 
Giri (en), n. wart-hog 
Go (en), n. leopard 
Goba, v.t. drive away, [era, /. drive 

into 
Goba, V. make a profit, — gobamu ensimbi 
goba (ama), «. profits 
goba (aka), ». a ' win ' in games 
gobo (bu), adv. 

mira bugobo, swallow whole, gulp 
goberera, p 2 . go to meet or fetch ; 
follow 
Goga, 

egoga, r. heave, feel sick 
Gogo (eki), «. fresh skin of plantain-tree 
Gogo (omu), «. collar ; pair 
Gogojana, v. get up with difficulty 
Gogola, v. dredge. ?golo I 
Gogwa (ebi), «. flax foe making rope. 

(obu) 
Gole (omu), ». bride 

gole (obu), ii. marriage-rite 
Golo (en), n. a cannibal 
Golo (obu) it. snuff 
Goloba, v. close in, of day 
Golola, v. stretch out straight 
egolola, r. be at ease 
golokoka, v. i. get up ; be straight 
golokofu, //. straight 
Goloma, v. speak reservedly, languidly 

golomerera, p 2 . = preceding 
Golomola, v. launch a canoe 

golomolo (aka), ii. narrow neck of land 
Golongonya, 

egolong'onya, r. wriggle as a snake 
Goma (en), n. drum ; chieftainship 
bestowed by drum from king, — 
olide engoma 
goma, v. show off, as braves 
gomo (ama), «. folds of fat on body 
gogoma, v. sound flat 
Goma, v. bend and break, as weak post 

or spear-shaft 
Gomba, 

egomba, r.t. long for 
Gomba, (ebi), ii. dried bananas 
Gomba, v. do plaited reed-work. ? twist 
gomba eniuli, gomba ekisakati 
gombe (en), «. horn trumpet 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISII 



I8 5 



[gwisa, r.j 



gombera, p. cross the legs 
gombeza, c. tangle 
gombolola, rv. disentangle 
Gondt, v. be soft ; obey ; of powder, be fine 
obude bugonze, the weather has im- 
proved 
gomvu, //. soft 
gonza, c. 

egonza, r. fawn 
Gongo (omu), n. cow or goat that has 

bome 
Gongo (omu), n. the back 
gongo (eki), ;/. the backbone 
gong'onyo (omu), n. mid-rib of plan- 
tain-leaf 
Gonja, n.i. plantain, kind of 

gonja (omu), n. a single ' gonja ' 
Gonjo (omu), n. fishing-net 
Gono'moka, v. have ' magomo,' be ex- 
ceeding fat ; be overfull 
gono'mola, v. t. — ; pour out with a rush 
Gonya (- ; ba), n. crocodile. Also 

egonya zino, etc 
Goya, v. stir together 

goyo (omu), n. mash of potatoes and 
beans 
Goye (olu), n. string ; cloth 
Gu (e'), Vid. Wu (e?g-) 
Gu (e' ; ama), n. half-ripe 'mpafu' 
Gu (eki), n. a trap 
Gubi (aka), «. a quail 
Gugu (omu), it. mat and bedding tied up 
for journey 
gugu, (eki), «. pillow 
Guguba, v. flatly refuse 
Gugumula, 

egugumula, r. be startled 
Guka, v. go right through to 

guka mu lugudo, arrive in the road 
Gula, v. buy* 
guza, c. sell to 

gulana, rec, effect an exchange 
gule (en), «. ornamented head-dress 
Gtilo (e';), 11. the time for about two hours 
before sunset. ? closing in time, 
'gula 
olwe'gulo, adv. in the afternoon 
Gulu (e' ; ), n. the sky 
wa'gulu, adv. above 
gulu (en), ;/. place above 

ku ngulu, up there ; on the top 
guluma ' Full root form always yi 

eguluma, r. give oneself airs I (olu), n. side. 1 ? yi (yiwa) 

gulumira,/. be high, [vu, pt. high] I ( = yi), pt. of Gya. II. Esp. (Omulwade) 
egulumiza, c.r. exalt oneself mui, extremely ill 

1 Has two. plurals, viz. Empi (as though from root wi), whence kuba emp*, strike 
the sides, *'. e. box the ears, and Enjui (as though from root yui), whence the expression 
enjui zona, on all sides. 

I is probably the root yi found in yiwa ; second form yuwa ; this may explain tie 
reduplication yuyi, whence enjui. 

For confusion of root, cf. witaba, fr. wita, sometimes itaba as anjitabye. 



Gulu (oku ; ama)), 11. the leg 

guluka, v. gallop 
Gnma (omu), «. a wooden spear-shaft, 
iron-shod and used to walk with 

guma, v. be courageous 
guma omwoyo, be brave 

gumu, pt. hard ; substantial, of cloth 

gumikiriza, k.c. bear patiently 
Gumala, v. be fooled 
Gumba, adj. barren 

gumba (e* ; ama), n. bone 
Guna (eki), n. sore on the head 

gunya, c. knead, massage the body 
Gunda, v. dash, thrown down violently 
Guvamanti, «. government t guvamanti 

eno, etc. 
Guwa (omu), n. rope 
Guya, 

eguya, r. conciliate by presents 
Gw (e). Vid. W (eg) 
Gwa, v. fall. [gude]. 

gwo (eki), n. a throw in wrestling 
kuba ekigwo, throw one's opponent 

gwa-njuba (obu), n. the west 
'Gwa, v. come to an end, be finished. 
Cf. [wede] wera 

'gwerera, p. z . grow dim, of a light 

'gwe (bu) — bu'gwe, n.i. outermost 
fence which encloses all 
Gwa (eki), «. enclosure for lubare 
Gwa (eri ; ama), n. a thorn, (jwa) 
Gwagwa, adj. filthy 

gwagwa (obu), n. filthiness 
Gwama, int. 
Gwana, v.i. be expedient 

gwanira, p. be expedient for 
Gya, v. take away, [gyide ; nziya, 
take away] 
esp. gyako, gyawo, and gyamu 

egya, r. run ; — egyawo, start 
Gya, v. be cooked ; be on fire 

[ide ; mpide, I am burnt] 
Gya (olu, emp-), n. a court-yard 
Gya (obu), n. envy. 

gya (omu), «. a fellow wife 
Gya (e'; ama), n. a native adze 
Gye (e';), ;/. a host. Vid. Ye 
Gyo (olu), n. large piece of broken pot 



I 



1 86 



ELEMENTS OE LUGANDA 



Iga, v. learn 

igiriza, v. teach 

igiriza (omu), w. teacher 
igulula, rv. leave off learning 
I'ga, v. hunt. 

idzi (omu), ». a hunter 
i'go (omu), //. what is got by hunting 
i'gana, v. throng 
i'ganya, rec. c. persecute 
i'gayigana, v. force one's way through a 
crowd 
Ima, v. take up a position 
imirira, /;. stand, fza, <.] 
ima (omu), n. one who acts as security 
eimirira, p~.r. give security for [za, c. ] 
imuka, v.i. stand up 
imusa, c. raise up 
Imba, v. sing 

imba (olu), n. a song 
Imba, v. tie up with a noose, as a goat 

imbula, rv. unloose as a goat 
Imbala, v. grow dim with age, of eyes 
Impi, full form of Mpi, short, [nyimpi] 

impawala, v. become short, [za, c] 
Inga, v. i. be much— wgl full form of Ngi* 
enkuba einze, the rain is heavier 
omulimu guinze, what a great lot of 

work, etc. 
ingirizi (ej), ;/. 

ampade kya jingirizi . . . more 
than enough 
ingira, /. enter, [za, c] 
inza, c. have the ability to do. 
Ita, v. i. pass, (wita) 
Ita, v: t. call, (wita) 
itaba, v. answer when called, (witaba) 
anjitabye 

J 
Ja, v. come [dze]. Cf. 'da, dza 

jangu, imp. come 
Jabiriza, v. talk fast 
Jaga, ? patchy 

jagi (obu), n. 

embuzi ya bujagi, with black and 
white.spots 
jagali (eki), n. skin made of pieces sewn 

together 
jagalala, v. cultivate in odd patches 
Jaga, ? excitement 

jagalala, v. be on qui vive, as sentry; be 

seditious, [za, c] 
jaganya, v. dance for joy 
jaguza, v. exult, shout for joy 
Jagana, v. scoff 

Jaja(-; ba), «. grandfather, ancestor 
Janja (aka), n. malice 
Janjaba, v.. look after, nurse, esp. the sick 
Janjala, v. be all over a place* 

janjalo (ebi), n. beans 
Je (en), n. for spinning, — bonga enje 



Jebera, v. be soaked with w-ater. (jeba) 
- Jegere (olu), //. a chain 
Jema, v. rebel 

jemula, rv. subdue 

jemulukuka, v.i, surrender, — bajemulu- 
kuse 
I Jenjeba, v. be weak [vu, //.] 

jenjeza, c. make weak 
' Jerera, 

ejerera, r. get better in ordeal (madudu), 
be acquitted 
Jigi (obu), n. 

luma bujigi, grind the teeth 
jigija, <■. be self-contained 
Jijira, v. bite violently 
Jira, v. ?gy' ra (fy a ) : on 'y m 

jira esubi, pull up grass for thatch 
Jiribwa (e'; ama), ;/. smith's vice t 
Jo, adv. yesterday, to-morrow 
Joba, v. be wetted. (jobana) 
Joga, v. bully 

Jolonga, v. be contemptuous 
j Jonajona, -■. be downcast 
I Jonjo (aka), n. secretion from eyes 
I 'Jonkera, v. sob. [njijonkede] 
I Jowo, «. woollen cloth ; flannelt 
i Jugo (omu), //. small bell ornament 
I Jugo (eki), 11. end of spear, or pen-nil) 
Jugumira, -'. shiver 
Jujubula, v. eat voraciously 
Jujumuka, v. look old for age : say you can 

do what is beyond you 
Jiika, v. scold 

ejusa, r. be sorry for 
jukirira, /j, find fault with 
'Jukira, v. remember, [njijukide]. CJ. 

'jula 
'Jukiza, c. remind 

'Jula, v. be filled with ; be dished up 
ekibya kijude amata 
'juza, c. till with, — ju^a ekibya amadzi 
'julula, iv. annul a law; make to migrate 
'julukuka, v. move house ; be annulled; 
change one's mind 
Jula, v. ajula okufa* 

julira, v. appeal to ; give evidence for 
julizi (omu), «. one who calls in a 

witness 
julirwa (omu), n. one who has seen an 
event 
Jumba (olu), n. 

enkoko ya lujumba . . . with red 
feathers 
Jumbi (aka), n. kilt of strips of bark-cloth 
Jumula, 

ejumula, r. be very angry 
Juna, v. help 
Junga, v. rebuke 

Juzi, adv. day before yesterday. ?'jula 
Juwa (omu), n. nephew 
Jwa (ama), ft. thorns, = amagwa 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



I8 7 



K 



Ea, int. in salutations. 

ka — ka ; kanyo — kanyo; kage — kage 
ka (mu), n. only as 
muka gundi, so and so's wife 
muka mwana, daughter-in-law 
ka (eki), n. a clan 
ka (e'; ), n. home 

ewafe e'ka, at our own home 
tugenda 'ka, we are going home 
Ka (omu), «. smoke 
'Ka, v. go down ['se] 

'sa, c. put down 

'sa (obu), n. cow-dung 
'kira, /. be best 
'kira-vi (e'), «. a boil on knee 
'kiriza, p 2 .t. say yes 
Kaba (obu), n. profligacy 
kaba (omu), n. a profligate 
kabakaba, adj. sharp, knowing 
Kaba, v. cry, mourn; sing, birds; howl, 

animals 
Kabaka (- ; ba), n. king. 1 

kabaka (obwa), «. kingdom 
Kabala, v. clear out roots 
Kabona, Vid. Bona 
Kabotongo, n. i. syphilis 
Kabeja, Vid. Beja 
Kabuga, v. set grass in a wall 

kabugo, (ebi), n. reeds as first cut, with 
all leaves, etc. left on 
Kade, adjr worn out ; old 

kade (omu), «. an old man ; elder 

abakade bange, my parents 
kadiwa, v. become old. [ya, c] 
Kadu (- ; ba), «. a hump-back. 

kadulubare (- ; ba), «. king's chief-wife 
Kadzi, adv. perhaps 
Kafece, n. i. blood-pudding 
Kaga, v. lower head for a charge 
Kago (omu) n. 

'ta omukago, make blood brotherhood 
Kaja (ama), n. swelling of the legs or arms 
Kajo (eki), n. sugar-cane 
kajo (e'; ),«. 
e'kajo lyenjovu, kind of palm 
Kajumbe (en), n. old thatch 
Kakabiriza, v. compel ; endure patiently 

ekakabiriza, . screw up courage 
Kakampa (eki), n. crust formed on sore 

? kampa 
Kakana. v. be mild ; ' go down,' pain, 
inflammation 
kakamu, pt. humble 

ekakamula, r. rise with effort, as 
half-slaughtered cow 
Kakano, adv. now 

Kakanyala, v. i. become hard, [za, c] 
kakanyavu, //. hard 

1 Cf. Kaba-role, capital of Toro ; Kaba-rega, 
( = Kaba-rondo) the country east of Busoga, 



Kakata, v. be settled, [sa, c. ; vu, //. ] 

ekakasa, r. play the man 
Kakati, adv. this instant 
Kakatika, v. make sham anythings 
Kako(bmu), n. head-dress for oracle-giving 
Kala, v. i. get dry 
kalo (omu), n. piece of dried meat 
kalu, pt. dry 

kalu (olu), n. dry land 
kalirira. p t . dry up as water 
Kala'kalira (en), «. 

-enkala'kalira, sure fast 
Kalakata, v. scrape. Cf. walakata 
Kalama, v. be very hot, of the sun 
Kalamata (en), n. extreme thirst 
Kalambala, z*. grow rigid as a corpse 
Kalamu (e), n. pencil, pen* 
kalamu enkalu, lead-pencil 
kalamu ya jinja, slate-pencil 
Kalamuka, v. be hoarse 
Kalanamye (e), n. meat dead of itself 
Kalang'anya, v. overwhelm with words 
Kalanguka, v. be capable, [fu, //.] 
Kale, int. 
Kali (en), n. urine 
Kalidali, ;/. i. mustard 
Kaliriza, v. affirm confidently. ? kala 
ekaliriza, r. 

ekaliriza amaso, stare at — okumwe- 
kaliriza amaso 
Kaluba, v. be hard 
kalubo, adj. hard 
kalubirira, p*. be a difficulty to 
Kalwekalwe, 

omusota ogwa kalwekalwe, a venom- 
ous snake 
Kama (omu), n. lord, master 
Kama, v. squeeze out as pus. 
milk cow 
ekamirira, r. drinkjjeer incessantly 
Kamala, v. do thoroughly = zimula ; do 

carelessly 
Kamba 'ga, v. be heavy of eyes with 

sleep 
Kainbakamba, v. be convalescent 
Kambi (eki), n. chewed sugar-cane 

kambula, v. suck juice out 
Kambula, v. plunder 
kambwe, adj. fierce 
Kampa (en), «. native putties'; socks 
Kamulali, n. i. cayenne pepper 
Kamwana, 

ekamwana, r. be very angry 
Kanaga (en), n. shrub with hard wood 
Kanda (e' ;), «. a noose for snaring wild- 
boar 
Kande (eki), n, a neglected piece of culti- 
vation 
kandula, v. clear of weeds 

late king of Bunyoro ; Kavi-rondo 



Lttima, 



1 88 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



ekandula, r. go off in a rage, without 
listening 
Kandwa, n. shrub with hard wood, but 

not thorny like ' enkanaga ' 
Kanga (bu), adv. = bukanu 
tunula bukanga, look fierce 
kanga, v. t. threaten 
kanga (omu), n. extortioner 
ekanga, r. start with alarm 
Kanga (en), tt. an open-work basket 
Kangabiriza, 

ekangabiriza, r. hide guilt by words 
Kangalala, v. stand on tip-toe 
Kangaluka, v. i. be high, of a price, or of 
the sun 
omuwendogukangaluse; enjubaekan- 
galuse, about II a.m. [la, v. /.] 
Kangavula, v. rebuke 
Kanisa (e), n. a churcht 
Kanja (en), n. grounds in beer 
Kankamuka, ?•. cease, of rain or illness. 
? kanya 
kankamula, v. t. 

ekankamula, r. shake its wing (fowl); 
shake off water (dog) ; get well 
Kankana, v. shake 
Kansa, v. bid high 
Kansi (ama), n. scissorsf 
Kantoloze, n. i. giddiness 
kantiriza, v. hypnotize, soothe, as by 
gently rubbing a furious bull be- 
hind the ear 
Kantuntunu, n. i. a mask. Aho Kantuntu- 

nu kano, etc. 
Kanu (bu), adv. 

lunula bukanu, look fierce by show- 
ing whites of eyes 
kanula. v. show whites of eyes 
Kanya, v. be heavy of rain 
Kanya, 

ekanya, r, grumble 
'Kanya, v. 

'kanya ebigambo, discuss matters 
e'kanya, r. recognize by careful 
scrutiny 
Kanyanya (olu), n. wrinkles (not on face) 
Kanyuga, v. hurl 

Kanzu (e), n. ' smock ' reaching to the feett 
Kapa, adj. lean 
Kapa (e), n. a tame cat t 
Kasi (en), n. a paddle 
Kasikolindo, n. i. fowl-droppings 
Kasoka, conj. since, (kasokede) 
Kasofi, n. i. Indian corn 
Kasuka, v. throw a stone, spear, etc. 
Kata, v. press down, as food in a pot. 
ekata, r. reach down to 
kata (en), n. pad for head ; centre 

ring in a round house 
katiriza, v. lean upon 
kato (olu), «. a native stiletto. 



Katonda, ( — ; ba), n. God. ? tonda 
Katuka, v. ferment, [fu, pt.\ 
Kaumpuli, n.i. plague ; any severe illness 
Kawa, v. be bitter, be salt 
Kawali, n.i. small-pox. Vid. Wala 
Kawawa, n.i. a biting fly 
Kaya (omu), ;/. a diver 
Kayana, v. make a noise 
mukayanira ki ? 

kayu (e'), ». ill-temper 

kayukira, v. speak angrily to 
Kayi (eki), n. piece of broken pot 

kayi (aka), «. a ladle 
Kaza, v. pronounce correctly 
Kaza-lugya (en), n. a house-sparrow 
Kazi, adj. female 

kazi (omu), «. a woman 
Kebe (ama), n. calves' ' mumps ' 
Kebera, v. scrutinize 
Kebuka, v. look back 

kebuka enyuma 
Keje (en), n. small fish, esp. dried 
Keka, 

ekeka, ;-. fear 
Keka (omu), n. a mat 
Kekema, v. on. cackle 
Ke'kera, v. speak in a falsetto ; creak of 
a falling house 

eke'keza, r. pretend not to be able to do 
Kekereza, v. use sparingly 
Kema, z\ sigh or grunt on exertion 
Kema, v. test, tempt 

kemereza, v. question closely 
Kemba (omu), «. pay for smith's work or 

for divination 
Kendeza, v. diminish 
Kenena, v. be a dandy ; get thin 

kenene (olu), ;/. wild raspberry 
Kenenula, v. strain 
Ke'nenya, v. search diligently 
Kengera, v. examine any object from a 
distance 

ekengera, v. avoid from fear 
Kenkula, v. be inferior (beer) 
Kenya, v. grumble, [kenye] 

kenyera (en), n. convalescence 
Kera, Vid. Kya 
Kere (eki), n. a frog 
Kereketa, v. melt, of fat only 
Kerenda (e' ; ama), n. lump of salt or 

similar substance 
Kerebwe (en), «. a squirrel 
Kero (en), n. nozzle of bellows 
Kesula (e'), n. poison taken internally 
Keta, v. pall of food 
Ke'ta, v. spy out 

Kewa, v. be scarce, esp. of water going 
down 

keya, c. make scarce 

keyerera, / 2 . catch the breath 
omwoyo gukeyerede 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



189 



Ki, pron. what 
Kibonomu. Vid. bona 
Kika, v. put sideways 

kika (obu), n. side as opposed to end 
kikiro (omu), n. a cross-beam 
Kika, v. attend court 

kiko (olu), «. levee, council 
kikira, v. pay respects to 
kikira kabaka, omwami, etc. 
Kikulwa, n.i. red earth 
Xima, v. fetch. 

kima (en), n. a small monkey 
Kimba, v. lower head to charge; be rude 
kimbula,z>./. be rude to (kimbulaabantu) 
Kimbala ( — ; ba), n. pelican 
Kina, v. abound, to a person 

ebintu byange binkina 
Kina, v.t. be sarcastic to 
kino (eki), n. sarcasm 
Kindo (olu), n. a seam 
Kindu (olu), n. wild-date palm 
Kingi (en), n. boundary 
Kira (omu), n. tail of animals 
'Kira, 'kiriza. Vid. 'ka 
Kira, v. 

abankira, those who are senior to me, 
who have a choice before me 
kiza, c. get advantage over 

kizo (en), n. advantage 
kira-vi (e'), n. boil on knee 
Kisa (omu), n. good luck. ? kika II 
Xisa, v.t 2 . hide from 
okumukisa ekintu 
kiso (en), n. a secret 
Kitange, n. my father 1 
Kiya, v. hate 

kiiriza, v. want to pick a quarrel with 
Kiya (en), n. shaven patch in front 
mwa enkiya, shave in that way 
Kiza. Vid. kira 
Ko (omu), n. a single piece 2 
Ko (e'), «• filth on the person 
Ko (obu), n. dowry paid for wife 

kodomi (omu), ti. brother-in-law (or 
omuko) 
Koba, v. 

ekoba, v. conspire, good or evil 
ekobereza, v. accuse another to clear 
oneself 
kobana, v. bespeak 
kobojanya, v. accuse face to face 
Kobe (omu), n. a creeper which bears 

kobe (e' ; ama), n. a chestnut-like fruit 
Kobe (en), n. an ape. (PI. amakobe) 
Kobyokobyo (en), n. small lake bird, white 



Kodo, adj. miserly 

kodowala, v. i. be miserly 
Kofira (en), n. hat, cap t 
Kofu (en), «. guinea-fowl 
Ko'ga, v. get thin 

ko'vu, //. thin 
Kojange, n. my uncle 3 
Koko (en), n. the domestic fowl 
koko (se ; base), n. cuckoo 
kokolima, v. crow as a cock 
Ko'ko (eki), «. a riddle 

ko'kola, v. propound riddle, puzzle 
Kokola (olu), n. the elbow ; a mantis 
Kokolo, n.i. cancer 

Kokowe (e* ; ama), «. large-leaved fig- 
tree. ? kowe 
Kola, v. do, make, [za, c. ; zi, «.] 

koza (omu), n. an overseer 
Kola, v. weed, — kolamu omudo 
kola (olu), n. uninhabited land 
Koleza, v. light a lamp, torch, etc. 
Koligo (eki), n. slave-stick 
Kolima, v.t. curse 

Kolo (eki), n. root ; root-end of anything 
Koloba, 

ekolobya, c.r. make a detour 
kolobola, v.t. scratch, [ka, v.i.] 

ekolobola, r. be very angry 
koloboza, v. draw a line 
koloboze (olu), «. a line 
Kolo-konda (eki), n. bit of broken knife- 
blade 
Kolokoto (en), n. 

wera enkolokoto, shew their loyalty 
Kolola, v. cough 
Kolondola, v. clear the throat 
Koma (olu), «. wild palm when cut down 
Koma, v. end, cease 

komawo, return ; komako, touch 
komekereza, i.e. make to reach to very 

end 
komerero (en), «. end as opp. to be- 
ginning 
komola, v. trim ; cut out clothes 
'Koma, v. 

'komera, /. fence in 

'komera (olu). n. a fence 
'komerera, p % . hammer in 
Komaga, v. beat a bark-cloth 
Koma-mawanga (e' ; ama), ;/. pome- 
granate 
Komba, v. lick 

Kome (eki), n. cold season after rains. 

[? koma II 
Komi (en), «. bonfire, (eki) 



1 Kitawo, thy father ; kitawe, his f. ; kitafe, our f. ; kitamwe, your f. ; kitabwe, 
their f. Plus, bakitafe, bakitamwe, bakitabwe. 

2 Thus, a single sheet of paper, omuko gumu ; a single coil of wire ; a quire of 
folded paper. 

3 Or Koja wange ; kojawo, thy uncle ; kojawe, his uncle. 



190 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



komera, v. heap up rubbish for bonfire 
owemu akomera, prov. 
Korao (eki), n. brass or copper 
ekikomo ekyamadzi, brass 
ekikomo ekya bweru, copper 
Komola. Vid. koma 
Komola, v. take a large piece 
Kompe (en), ;/. socket of eye 
Kompe (eki), it. foreign cup or mug t 
Komvuba, v. waste away from sickness 
Kona, v. refuse to answer ; be underdone, . 
of fbod 
kokonya, v. tantalize 
Kona, v. rap, knock 

konero (e ; ama), it. for beating ' ensu- 
mwa ' on 
Kona (en), ;/. something hard, smooth and 
round ; e.g. back of head ; large 
cowry-shell ; large vulture, from its 
head 
kuba omuntu enkona, turn one's back 
on a man 
Konda (omu), it. handle. ? projecting 
konde (eki), n. the fist 
kondo (eki), ;;. a prop 
kondere (e' ; ama), «. trumpet made of 
calabash 
Konga, v. sniff with nose uplifted (of 
animals). ? sticking up 
konge (en), «. a stump ; moss 
kongoba, v. 
kongoja, v. hop 

kongola, v. strip vegetable leaves off 
stalks ; Indian corn off cob, etc. 
ekongola, r. be left alone ; go as 
empty as you came 
wekongode, I shan't give it you 
kongoteza, v.t. blunt, [vu, pt.\ 

kong'ontera, v.i. be blunted 
kongovule(aka), n. theankle-bone.ankle 
Kongola, v. make faces at ; take from a 
man the spoil which he has brought 
Konja, v. caulk 

Konko (olu), n. a ravine, nullah 
Kono (omu), it. arm, hand. ? kona 
kono (e' ; ), it. 

omukono ogwa 'kono, left arm 
kono (aka), it. consumption. Cf. kom- 
vuba 
konona, v. be dwarfed, badly grown 
Kontola, v. click with tongue 
Konyi (en), n. euphorbia 
Kota, v. stoop, (kotakota) 

ekota, r. stoop, be round-shouldered 
kota (en), n. bunch of plantains 
Kota, 

kosa, c. knock a sore place 
kokota, v. scrape 
Kovu (e' ; ama), it. a snail 
Kovu (en), n. a scar 
Kowa, v. be tired, [ya, <-.] 



koyesa, .'./. weary, make tired 

kowu (obu), it. fatigue 
kulika obukowu 
Kowe (eki), n. eyelid 

temya ekikowe, wink 

kowekowe (olu), ;/. eyelash 
'Kowe (eki), it. a sigh 

'sa eki'kowe, heave a sigh 
Kowola, v.t. shout for any one, — kowola 

omuntu 
Koza, 7\ dip in relish 
Kozimba, ?'. be paralyzed 
Ku (en), n. firewood, (olu) 
Kuba, v. beat, strike * 

ekuba, >: go off, as a gun 

kuba (en), «. rain 
enkuba etukubye 

kubo (e' ; ama), n. path trodden down 

ekubaganya, r. ' raise the wind ' 

kubirira /.,• ^ eat on ground to scare 
birds or a beast 

kubiriza, v. 

kubiriza ensonga, sum up a case 
Kuba, v. rub, smooth over 

ekubira, r. be restless in fever 
Kubagiza, v. comfort a bereaved person 
Kuba-mpanga (aka), «. kind of hawk 
Kubenda, v. crawl (of children). ? kuba 

enda 
Kubwa, prep, for sake of 
Kudala, v.i. laugh to scorn, [ira, v. t.\ 
Kudumu (ebi), n. dregs of ' mubisi ' 
Kudzi (eki), ;/. long hair of goat 
Kufu (omu), 11. chain ornament, watch- 
chain 

kufu (en), «. a tumour 
Kufuli, ;;. padlock. t X kufuli eno, etc. 
Ku'gira, v. hem 

ku'giro (olu), n. a hem 
Kuku (obu), n. mildew 

kuku (eki), n. a skin disease 

kukula, v. get, go mouldy 
Kukunala, v.i. project as potatoes out of 
ground ; bones in lean person or 
animal (kukunuka) 
Kukunyi (olu), ;/. a flea 
Kola, v. grow to maturity 

kulu, adj. full grown 

kulu (omu), elder, head-man 

kulu (ama), it. meaning 
Kula (e' ; ama), it. valuables 
Kula (en), ;/. a rhinoceros 

kuza, c. 

ekuza, r. exalt oneself 
Kula, v. pull out, nails, teeth, etc. 

kuli (en), n. bunch of feathers on canoe 
Kulembera, v. go first, guide 
Kulika, v. well done, — mukulike 

kulisa, c. say ' kulika ' to 
Kulira, v. smooth earthenware 

ekulira, r. be stunted in growth, [vu,//.] 



VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



191 



Kuluba (e' ; ama), ». any swelling or un- 
evenness 
kulubana, v. have dirt on it as mat. 
[ya, c.1 
Kulukumbi (olu), n. ridge, sharp edge 

olukulukumbi lwenyindo, bridge of nose 
Kulukunya, v.t. roll in dirt 

ekulukunya, r. roll as animal 
Kulukuta, v. flow 
Kulula, v. draw, drag. Cf. Kuluma 

ekulula, r. creep, crawl 
Kuluma, Zulu, speak. ? swelling. ? move- 
ment of jaws 
ekuluma, r. 

ekulumo (obw), ;/. 

lya obwekulumo, chew the cud 
kulumuka, v.t. be gathered, clouds 
kulumulula, v.t. clouds gather in swell- 
ing masses 
egulu likulumulude ebire 
ekulumulula, r. clouds, be gathered as 

above; of a cat, bristle its tail 
kulumbala, :•. cat, arch its back 
kulumbuka, v. have indigestion with feeling 

of swelling ; = kulumuka 
Kulunga, v. = kulungirira. ? heaping-up 
ekulunga, v. be round, spherical 
kulungirira, /.,. make round ; invent 
kulungirira ebigambo, put on old- 
fashioned airs 
ekulungirira, r. be round, [vu, //.] 
kulung'utanya, v. heap up, as goods for 
removal 
Kuluze (en), n. king's store 
Kulwa, prep, for sake of 
Kul we (aka), n. tadpole 
Kuma, v. light a fire, — kuma omuliro 
Kuma, v. keep 
Kuma, v. heap up 

kiimi (e'; ama), ;/. ten. (ama, olu, eki) 
kumu (en), n. a heap, any amount of 
Kumba, v. ? heaping-up 
kumbi (en), ;/. a hoe 
kukumba, v. sweep up in hands 

ekukumba, r. be assembled 
kukumbiririza, p v c. kukumba 
Kundi (e' ; ama), n. navel ; boss of shield ' 
Kundu'ga, v. 

emere ekundu'ze, . . is badly cooked 
Kundula, v. gather up all that comes to 

hand 
Kundulu (en), ;/. string-cap made in Bu- 

soga 
Kunga, v. 

kungo (eki), it. assessment 

ekikungo kyente, tax on cows 
kungu (omu), n. a chief 
kungula, v. reap 

kungula (ama), ;/. harvest 
kung'ana, v. be assembled 
kung'&nya, c. collect together 



kung'anyiza, p. collect in a place 
kungiriza, v. make exclamations, oh! 
oh! 
Kunguvula, v. wish dead, curse 

kunguvu, n.i. whydah bird 
Kunizo (aka), ;/. a noose 
Kunkumula, v. shake. ? kuma III. red. 

kunkumuka (aka), ;/. a crumb 
Kunku (en), n. 

ente ya nkunku, hornless cow 
Kunta, v. blow, of wind 

kunta (eki), 11. a blanket 
Kununkiriza, v.' stretch to reach a thing 
Kunya, v. rub ; dress a skin by rubbing 
with a stone ; strip of possessions 
kunyu (omu), ;/. kind of fig-tree 
kunyula, v. pull cooked meat to pieces 
Kusense (olu), n. measles 
Kusu (en), n. a parrot, (eki) 
Kuta (ebi), n. peelings, (eki) 
kutama, v. bow the head 
kutu (omu), «. a strait 
kutula, v.t. snap in two. [kac/. whence 
akutuse, he has departed this life] 
kutuko (eki), ;/. 

okufa okwekikutuko, sudden death 
'Kuta, v. be satisfied with food 
Kuta, v. rub. ? kuwuta 
kuta ebigere, go fast 
kutira, /. give strict orders to 
kiisa, c. deceive 

kiisa (omu), //. a hypocrite 
kiisa (obu), 11. deceit 
ekusa, r. 

ekusa kubire, ' set Thames on fire ' 
kusi (olu), ;/. red clay. ? for rubbing 
on 
Kutankira, v. finish off to last drop 
Kuwutanya, v. do a thing without letting 
a person know ; assassinate with 
pretended friendship (kuwuwutan- 
ya). ? kuta 
Kuya, Kavirondo, beat 

kuyo (en), ;/. hockey 
Kwa (en), ;;. tick 
'Kwale (na ; bana), n. a dwarf 
Kwakula, v. snatch away, grab 

kwakwaba, -■. plunder hurriedly, 
[ira, /. 1 
Kwana, v. make friends — ayagala oku- 
kwana nawe 
kwano (omu), n. friend ; friendship 
kwanya, c. 

kwanya olubimbi, smooth the plot 
ekwanya, r. make oneself ready 
Kwanga (en), n. smell of foul water in 

beer 
Kwanzi (obu), ;;. seed-beads, (aka) 
Kwata, v.t. grasp, seize, catch, [kute] * 
ekwata, r. take for one's own 
kwaso (eki), ;/. a pin ; book-marker 



192 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



kwatirira, p. t support, uphold 

kwatana, v. fight 
Kwawa (en), «. armpit 
Kwaya, v. rustle, (kwakwaya) 
Kwe (olu), n. guile 
Kwebera, v. 

kwebera mu kituli, crawl through a hole 
Kwefca v.t v hide from 

okumukweka ekintu 
Kwekwe (omu), ft. trail made by dragging 
anything along the ground 

kwekwesa, v. drag behind one 

kwekweta, v. scout 1 
Kwenyakwenya, v. allure. ? kwekwe 
Kwero (emi), n. sticks of a house-frame 

which go in the ground 
Kya, v. dawn ; clear up, of rain, [kede] 

kya (en), «. dawn ; adv. to-morrow 
morning 

kera, /. be early 

kera okufumba, cook in good time 

kesa, c. 

kesaobude, be up with first streak of dawn 
Kyai, n.i. tea. (cai) 
Kyala, v. pay a visit, [ira, /.] 

kyala (omu), n. woman of position, lady 
Kyama, v. go astray, go wrong, [mya, c] 

kyamu,//. crooked 
Kyapa, n. typef ekyapa, eno, etc. 

kuba ekyapa, print, typewrite 
Kyawa, v. not to want, [ya, c] 
Kyefula, n.i. nuisance 

kyefula wenkuba eno 
Kytmvu, n.i. ? yemvu 

-a kyemvu, yellow 
Kyimba, v. =kimba 
Kyuka, v.i. be turned 

kyusa, c. turn 

kyufu (omu), n. a proselyte 



Laba, v. see, find * 

obalaba, give them my compliments 
eraba, r. — ; go their way — berabye 

weraba, farewell. Cf. obalaba 
labo (ekir-), n. a present 
labira, /. find for, provide 

omundabira, give him my compli- 
ments 

erabira, r. forget 
labirwamu (end-), n. looking-glass 
labirira, / 2 - oversee 

labirirwa, be late, be delayed 
labika, v.i. be found 
labe (omu), n. an enemy 

1 Because the larger expedition comes in their trail. 

 Olttlagala, one plantain-leaf ; amalagala, leaves in general, though more espe- 
cially potato-slips (ga lumonge, may or may not b<» added) ; ekiragala, a single leaf (not 
plantain), rarely heard. 

s I usoga, Lambala, lie down ; Torrend, "Comparative Grammar' (p. 12), gives Angola, 
lambarala and Lower Congo, lavalala, both = lie down. 



labula, v. warn 
Laga, v. shew 

lagana, rcc. make an agreement 

lagira, p. give orders, directions to 
otulagire ekubo, shew us the right road 

lagiro (ekir-), n. an order 

lagirira, /> 2 . shew the way to do 
jangu ondagirire oniulimu guno 

lagiririza, p^c. 

nakulagiriza e'dagala, I shall send 
medicine for you 

lagalaganya, v. procrastinate 

lagula, v. foretell 

lagajala, v. be absent-minded 
Lagala (end-), ». plantain-leaves - 

lagala, (e'd-), «. medicine 

lagala (ekir), n. a drag-net 
Lago(obu), n. throat, front of neck. ? laga 
yogera obulago bunene, speak in a 
loud voice 

lago (end-), n. water-ree"d 
Laka, 

eraka, r. love exceedingly 

lakira, p. choke, with food or drink 

lakasira, v. he parched with thirst 
Lakalaka, v. be thirsty 

lakira, v. gasp 
Lala, adj. other, of another sort or lot 
Lala, r. become calm. ? lie down 

lalo (ama), n. where any dead is buried 

lalo (ekir-), n. where Raima live with 
their cows 

lalira, /. get stuck 

lalika, v. make an appointment with 
eralikirira, r. be anxious about 
Lalama, v. throw head back, (lalambala) 
Lali (end-), n. ? lala 

owendali, man with a squint 
Lain, adj. mad 

lalu (e'd-), n. madness 

laluka, v. be mad 

eralusa, r. pretend to be mad 
Lama, v.i. be preserved 

lamu, pt. sound ; in good health 

lamuka, v. revive 

lama'ga, v. do a day's march 
Lama, v. give dying directions 
Lamba, v. make a mark. ? stretch out 3 

lamba, adj. whole, without division 

lambo (omu), 11. a corpse 

lambala, v. lie as if dead 

lambika, v. go straight ahead 

lambikiriza, i.e. stretch out the legs 

lambula, v. visit, inspect land 

lambulula, ;/. comb out, as hair 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



193 



lalambala, v. =lalama, throw head back 
Lamula, v. judge ; name a price 
lamula [e'd-), n. 

omugo 'damula, the Katikiro's sceptre 
Lamula, v. milk. Cf. kama, kamula 
Lamusa, v. salute. ? lama (lamuka) 
Lamu (omu), n. brother or sister-in-law 
Lamwa (omu), n. kernel 
Lana, 

lanya, c. pay first visit to king 
lanama, v. stretch out the legs 

lanamiro (emir-), /;. foot of bed 

lanamula, v. stretch out at full length 

eranamula, r. stretch out the legs 

Landa, v run about, as a creeper ; spread 

as fire 

landula, r< r . pluck up a creeper 

(landulula, landulukuka, landukirira) 
landiza, <•. write long straggling letters ; 

start a lot of work and not finish 
landaga, v. be long-winded; go long 
marches 
tolandaga bigambo, speak briefly 
landa'girira, p 2 . go roaming about 
Langa, v.t. lay to charge of 

onanze ki? what have I done wrong? 
Langa, v. twist 
langa (e'd-; ama), ;/. a lily 
langulula, r.v. untwist 
langaja, v. loiter about 

langaja (ekir-), ;/. a dummy 
oli kirangaja, towereza 
Langa, v. give public notice about 

langa (omu), //. cry of men, birds, and 

animals 
langira (omu), u. a prince 
langiriza, p. 2 .c. shout after 
langula, r.v. refuse to answer 
Langala, v. stand in presence of superiors. 

? langa I 
Lasa, v. blab about. Esp. lasalasa 
lalasa, v. gossip 
lasira, v. 

omutwe gundasira, my head throbs 
Lata. ? bend over 

lasa, c. commence a roof by bending the 
reeds to the frame ; shoot arrows ; 
flick with finger and thumb 
lato (ekir-), n. a sheath, bent over knife 
La'tala'ta, v. dawdle about 
Lawa, v. castrate 

lawe (omu), n. a eunuch 
lawo (omu), «. wooden spoon 
Lawa, v. sound the alarm, of drums 
laya, c. 

laya mu kamwa, cast this in his teeth 
laira, /. affirm stoutly, swear 
lairo (ekir-), «. affirmation ; oath 
lairira, p 2 - swear by 
Le (ekir-), n. cloud. ? la (lala) 
Leba (olu), n. bath made of plantain-leaf 



lebera, v. get loose, [vu, />/. ; za, c.\ 
lebeta, v. hang loosely down 
Lega, v. taste 

legama, v. lie in pools 
legeya (end-), «. weaver-bird 
legete (aka), n. a shell's worth, esp. of 
tobacco 
Lega, v. stretch out tight 
lega engoma, stretch a drum 

erega, r. be strained : be clear, sky ; 
have chordee 
Leka, v. leave alone 
lesa, ,-. 

eresa, /-. neresklza ekintu okukiwa, 
I have given it cheerfully of my 
own accord 
leku (end-), //. a small calabash 
Lekana, v. shout 

Lema, v. be too much for ; mix . fail * 
lema, adj. crippled, lame 
lemala, v. become lame 
lemaza, c. maim 
lemu (omu), //. a rubber-bearing vine 
lemu (e'd- ; ama), «. a fruit with hard 
rind 
Lemba, v. stroll 

lembe (e'd), n. freedom 

-a 'dembe, free 
lembe (emir-), «, peace ; duration of 

king's reign 
lembe (olu), n. listlessness 
Lemba (ekir-), n. a turban, head-cloth 
Lembeka, v. catch rain-water 
Lenga, v. lenga amadzi, divine by water 
lengera, v. look at a distant object 
lengeja, v. gape as a bad-fitting joint ; 
be unable to reach ground with feet 
Lenga (aka), ;;. a tree-frog 
Lenge (aka), n. 

kwata akalenge, hold up the skirts for 
walking 
lenge (ekir-), n. ' corner ' of a cloth 
Lenzi (omu), n. a boy 
lenzi (obu), ;/. 

omwana owobulenzi, a male child 
Lera, v. bring up a child 

lezi (omu), ;;. a nurse 
Leie (olu), v. a lace 
Lere (omu), n. ar flute, (end-) 
Lerembula. ? lemba, red. 

ererembula, r. break of itself 
Lero, adv. to-day 
Lerya (ekir-), n. chaff. ? le 
Leta, v. bring 

letereza, p 2 .c. start a hymn 
eretereza, r. bring upon oneself 
Levu (ekir-), «. beard. ? leba 

levu (aka), ;/. the chin 
Liba (e'd- ; ama), n. skin 
Libuka, v. be notched 
Liga (end-), n. sheep, (aka) 

N 



194 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Lima, ;*. cultivate, [isa. <".] 

liniiro (en), //. garden, cultivated plot 
limiriza, p^ c. cultivate for pay 
Limba, v. lie 

limba (obu), n. falsehood 

-a bulimba, false 
limbo (obu), >?. bird-lime 
Limi, (olu), ;/. tongue, language 
limi (ekir-), ;;. lisp 
limi (nanui ; ban.), «. ant-bear 
naniniibirye, a double-dealer 
owenimi biri, a blab, gossip 
Limu (omu), >t. work 

limu (emir-), //. material or tools for work 
Linda, v. wait 

erinda, ;-. be cautious 

okwerinda si buti, prov. 
lindirira, p.,. wait for 
Linga, Lusoga, look out 

lingi/a, v. peep 
Linimuka, v. whirr, as birds Hying ; hum, 

as a crowd passing 
Linya, v. go, climb up, ascend 

linyirira, p.,. trample upon 
Lira, 7\ --kal>a 

liro (omu), ;/. fire 
Lira (aka), ;/. umbilical cord 
Lin (ekir-), //. native bedstead 
Lita, v. ensnare 
Liwa, v. pay 
liyira, p. pay to 
liyisa, c. make to pay 
Lo (ekir-), ;;. night. ? la (lala) 
lo (ebir-), u. times 
lo (otu), n. sleep 
lo (obu), «. small kind of millet ' 
Loba, ?'. catch fish. ? pick out 
lobo (e'd- ; ama), n. a hook 
lobola, v. pick out one's share 

eroboza, r. choose for one; If. 
lobozi (e'd- ; ama), ;/. sound, voice 2 
Lobe (end-), n. worn in lieu of trowsers 

lobera, v. hinder 
Loga, 7'. bewitch 

logo (omu), n. a wizard 
logo (e'd- ;), >i. a charm 
logojana, v. be delirious 
Logoi (end-), ;/. donkey 
Loka v. shoot, sprout 

loko (end-), ;/. slip, shoot for trans- 
planting 
Lokaloka, v. throb as a frog ; gasp as a 

fowl ; of men, desire intensely 
Lokola, ?'./. save, [ka, v.i."\ 
Lokoli (e'd-), «. the trachea 
Londa, v. choose 
Londo (omu), //. vanilla 



I.ondo (namu ; /in.), ;/. throne 
Longo (omu), ;/. a twin 

longo (na ; ban.), //. mother of twins 
sabalongo, father of twins 
Longosa, v.t. put to rights, [ka, v i. ] 

longofu, //. clean 
Longoti (omu), ;/. a mast f 
Lopa, v. tell tales about 
Losa (aka), ;/. smell 
Lota, v. dream 

loto (ekir-), n. a dream, (end-) 
lotolola, 7'. interpret a dream 
Lowa, 

(lowo e'd-;) ;/. long for a thing — e'dowo 

lyamadzi, etc. Cf. yoya 
lowola, 

lowoza, c. think, meditate 
(lowozesa, cause to think ; lowo- 
lereza, /. ) 
Lu (end), >/. young plantain-shoot 
Luljare ( — ; ba), n. false god 
I.ugube (omu), n. greediness 
Luka, 7'. plait, esp. mats, and baskets 

eruka, r. sky, be white and flecky 
Lukwata < — ; ba), ;/. sea-serpent 
Luli, adT. two days hence 
Lulu, adj. greedy 

Lulu (aka), «. ordeal by fire. Cf. Dudu 
akalulu kaokya, you are guilty 
lulu (end-), n. alarm 

kuba endulu, raise the alarm 
Lulwe (aka), n. gall-bladder 
Lurna, v. bite, pain 

lumika, v. bleed by cupping 
lumiriza, p 2 .c. torture ; accuse as eye- 
witness ; bring home charge t<> 
lumata, 

erumata, r. be silent in anger 
luluma, v. haunt, only in 
emizimu giruluma 
Lumba, v. assault 

lumba (en), n. hornet 
Lumbi (e'd-), n. lesser rains 
Lume, adj. male of animals 

lume (sed- ; zis. ) //. a male, bull 
Lumonde, n.i. sweet potato, (lumonge) 
Lunda, v. herd 

lundi (omu), ;/. a company 
Lundi (omu), n. a time 

omulundi ogwokusatu, ogwokuna, etc. 
Lundulunduli (omu), n. shin 
Lunga, v. season ; fill tobacco-pipe 
lung'aniya, v. put straight, guide 
lungi, adj. good 
lungu (ekir-), n. an arrow-shaft 
Lungu (e'd-), «, treeless uninhabited grass 
land 



1 Cf. ekirerya : the ground 'bulo' looks very much like chaff. 
a Denoting any kind of sound : it 'picks out,' discriminates, what 
man's voice ; lion's roar ; gun's report. 



that sound is ; 



VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENCLISH 



195 



lunguja, v. be uncomfortable, of a bed ; 
bother, of a child 
Lungu (ekir-), n. a heap of weeds 
Lunguka, v. be black and blue 
Lungwana (omu), ;;. a coast man f 
Luse'jera, n.i. Vid. se' jera 
Lusi, adv. sometimes, — lusi na lusi 
Lusu (ama), n. saliva 
Luyi (ekir-), «. fierce anger 
Luvu (omu), n, glutton. ? lulu I 
Lwa, v: delay, [lude; Iwisa, <:] 
I.wa (ama), ;/. beer made from millet 
Lwa. Vid. 01 wa 
Lwala, v. be ill. [lwade] 

lwade (omu), ;;.. a sick person 

lwade (obu), ;/. illness, (end) 

erwaza, r. pretend to be ill 
Lwana, v. fight, [lvvanyisa, c. ] 

hvanyi (omu), n. a fighter 
Lya, v. eat: [lide ; lira, /.] * 

lyamu olukwe, betray 

liro (e'd-), where food is eaten 

lisa, v.t. feed 

lirana, v. be adjacent 

lirano (omu), n. neighbourhood 

liranwa (omu), n. neighbour 

lya (e'd), ;/. 

'ta e'dya, win the heart. 1 

lya (end-), n.' 1 

wa ndya embi, an unsociable man 
Lyango (omu), 11. doorway 
Lyazamanya. v. defraud, treat high- 
handedly 

lyazamanyi (omu), ;/. a cheat, high- 
handed fellow 
Lyoka, aux. 'and then'; 'that I may' 
Lyo'ka, v. adorn 
Lyolyoma, v. accuse in secret ; backbite 

M 

'Ma, 71. refuse 

Magamaga, v. look about cautiously 

magalaza, v. 

magalaza amatu, prick the ears 
Makwanzi ( — ; ba), ;;. osprey 
Mala, v. finish, [maze ; nializa, c.]* 

emala, r. take for oneself entirely 

maliriza, v.t. accomplish 
Mala. v. plaster, smear 

mala obusa 
Malaika ( — ; ba), ;/. an angel f 
Male (e), cat-fish 
Malekebu (e), n. a ship t 
Mambuluga (e), ;/. mumps 
Mamira, v. sit on eggs 
Mamu, int. in salutations 



Mandwa (e), 11. one possessed 
Manga, adv. over there 
Manju, adv. back of house. ? nyumanju 
Mansa, v. scatter, as seeds 

mansula, v. sprinkle 
Manya, v. know, be acquainted with 

manyo (olu), ;/. knowledge, cleverness 

manyira, /. get accustomed to 

manyirira, / 2 . 

simanyiride, I did it by mistake 
Manya, v. or 

manyula, v. pluck a fowl 

nakumanyula 'no, ' I'll warm thee 
Manzamu (e), ti. cartridge-belt 
Masamasa, v. glitter 
Masa'de, 

emviii za masa'de, straight hair 
Masuka, r. rebound 

Mawa, n.i. very strong drink. ? malwa 
Maya ( — ; ba), ;/. an ostrich 
Mbe (olu), ;/. death 
Mbeja (omu). Vid. Beja 
Mbowa (omu), //. executioner 
Mini, int. you there? 
Mega, v.t. throw in wrestling 

megana, rec. wrestle 

megula, v. break off 
Meka, adj. how many 
Meketa, v. gnaw, either literally or of pain 
Meme (e), n. sternal cartilage 
Memetula, v. make a munching or 

grinding noise 
Menya, v.t. break * 

emenya, r. give in utterly, make abject 
subjection to 

menye, pi. jointed, — ekiso kimenye, a 
pocket-knife 

menyeka, v.i. be broken, [fu,//.] 

menyomenyo (eki), n. stiffness of limbs. 
Mera, v. grow 

meruka, v. be sprouted of fresh sown 
seed 

mererezi (eki), n. self-grown seeds 

mere (e), n. mashed plantain-food 
Mese (e), «. a rat 
Meza (e), n. a table t 
Miansa, v. flash of lightning 
Mira, v. swallow 

miro (omu), n. gullet ; the hollow inside 
of any long stem 

mizi (e), «. hollow in tusk of ivory 
Mondo (e), n. serval 
Monyere (olu), n. incessant rain or talk ; 

adv. incessantly 
Mpadwa [ — , ba), ;/. big strong man 
Mpawo, adv. no, there is not 



1 Of women, not men. Yata e'dya : takyavawo. She has settled down nicely, and 
will not leave her husband. 

- Bakutute mu ndya mbi, said to a little girl, who had apparently left her work to go 
to a neighbour's = You ought not to have done so. 



196 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Mpi, adj. short, (impi) 
mpi (ku), adv. near 
mpi (ka), adv. 
kampi gano, now 
Mpukumpuku (bi), n. a small brew of 

beer 
Mpu'tu 

omuntu owempu'tu, a wilful man 
Ha prep, in, inside 
Mugoya ( — ; ba), n. a blindworm 
Mugunya, v. nibble, eat with mouth shut 
Mulekwa ( — ; ba), n. an orphan. ? leka 
Mali (olu), n. a reed 
muli (eki), n. a flower 
mulisa, v.t. light with a torch 
Mulugunya, 

emulugunya, r. murmur 
emulugunyiza, murmur at 
Mulula, 

emulula, r. slip away, esp. snakes 
Mulungula, v. crumble 
Mundu (e), n. a gun, rifle t for n-bundu^ 
Munya, 

mumunyala, v. be at a loss what to say 
emunyamunya, r. murmur 
Munyenye (e), «. a firefly, a star. ? nye 
Mwa, v. shave 

mwano (aka), «. a razor 
Mwa (aka), n. mouth 
mwa (emi), n. lips 
Mwenyumwenyu (aka), n. smile 

omuntu wa kamwenyumwenyu, one 
who is always smiling 
Myu (ebi), n. 

siba ebimyu, tie up cloth for work 

N 

'Na (mu ; ba), pre/, one of, man of 
mu'na Budu, man of Kudu 
mu'nagwanga, man of another nation, 

stranger 
mu'namwandu, one of the spoil, a 

widow 
mu'nafe, one of us ; mu'namwe, one of 

you ; mu'nabwe, one of them. 

PL ba'nabwe, etc. 
mu'nange, my friend ; mu'no, thy fi rcnd ; 

mu'ne, his friend. PL ba'nange, 

etc. 
'na (ki, etc.), one of. Vid. Table 9. 
Na, conj. and. (ni) (ne) 
nadzi klino, adv. in old time 
na guno gujwa, adv. up to the present 
nabaki, inter, of what sort, how 
Na, or Nya, adj. four 
Na, formative, mother, Mrs. Hence — 
na-bubi ; na-'kwale ; namu-limi ; namu- 

londo ; na-longo ; namu-ng'ona ; 

na-nungu ; namu-nyi ; naka-were; 

na-wolovu : naka-nyama 



If aba, v. wash the body [za, c] 

naba mu ngalo, wash the hands 
Nabi ( — ; ba), 11. prophet t 
Nabugira, n.i. mint 
Nabula, v. be bruised, take skin off 
Kafu, adj. weak ? naka (naku) 

nafuwa, v. be weak [ya, c. ] 

Naga, v. play a prelude, tune up 
Nakanyama. Vid. Nyama 
Naku (olu), n. day of 24 hours 
Naku (e), n. trouble ? naka 

nakuwala, v.i. be troubled. [za. c.~\ 
Namfusi (obu), n. hypocrisy Vid. Fuka. 
Nampwa, n.i. swelling of the eye 
Nana, v. be accustomed ; be well finished 

nanya, v. be idle 

enanya, ;-. be fastidious about 
Nanagira, v. on. stammer. 
Nanga (e), ;/. harp, hafmonium 
Nangazi (e), n. hartebeest 
Nanika, v. twist on wire bracelets. ? nana 

nanula, rv. take off the same 
Nankani (e), ». a what's its name 

enankanya, v. be particular about 
Nantiki, conj. whether 
Nanu (olu), n. .trail of slug ; fiddlestring ot 

sticky substance 
Nanula, v. despise one's master 
Naswi, n.i. little finger 
Naye, conj. but 

Nayiriza, v. encroach in cultivating 
Ne = na, conj. and 
Neda, adv. no 
Nekaneka, v. be glossy 
Nena, v. grind the teeth 

nenero (aka), «. jaw-bone, cheek-bone 

nenya, v. blame 

enenya, v. blame oneself, repent 
Newakubade, conj. neither, nor (newan- 
kubade). Lit. and there would" 
have been 
Nga, conj. See Notes 
Ng'ali (e), n. crested crane 
Ng'amira (e), n. camel t 
Ng'ang'a, n. on. hornbill 
Ng'ano (e), n. wheat t 
Ngereza, adj. English 
Ngi, adj. many (ingi) 
Ng'o (e), n. blossom of plantain 
Ng'ola, v. despise 
Ng'ona (naimu, ban.), /;. on. a crow 
Ng'ong'onga, -'. on. low as a cow 
Ng'onge (e), n. otter 
Ng'unda (e), n. long-necked calabash 
Ninga (e), n. native nail or peg 
Niya, v. — nyiiwa [niyede] 
Nkulisi (eki), n. space under bed 
Nkumu (eki), n. i.humD 
'No, int. intensive 
Noba, v. run away, of wife 
Noga, v. pick fruit 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



197 



No'ga, v. be rightly seasoned ; season 

no'ga (e), 11. lump for dipping in gravy 
Nona, v. go to fetch anything from its 
place 
nonya, v. seek, look for 
Noni (e), «. white chalk, or clay 
Nonogana, v. irritate 
Nsotoka, «.». cattle-plague 
Ntu (omu), U. a person, man 

ntu (eki), n. a thing, (aka ; ohu) 
Ntuntunu (e), n. cape-gooseberry 
ntuntunu (aka), n bandage for eyes ; 
mask. Also kantuntunu ono, etc. 
Nu (eki), 11. wooden mortar 
Nukuta (erf, n. latter of the alphabet f 
Nula, <•. break off growing corn-cobs 
Nula, v. lengthen by extension, pull out 

nulo (eki), ;/. the hoof 
Numbu (e), ;/. root like English potato 

to taste 
Nana, v. suck as through a straw 
Nungu (namu ; ban.), «. a porcupine 
Nunula, -■. redeem 
Nusu, n. half, t nusu ya, etc 
Nwe (omu), ;/. a single. ?'na 

gonja omunwe gumu, a single gonja 
nwe (olu ; enyi), n. index ringer 
nwe (obu), it. thigh 
Nya formative Na. Hence Nyazala, 
nyo-ko, etc. 
nyabo, int. lady, Miss, Mrs. 
Nya (eki), n. hole 

nya (obu), n. pit, large hole 
nya (omu), 11. a house-lizard 
Nyaga. v. rob by force. [ge, //.] 
nyago (omu), n. spoil 
nyaga (olu), n. first of spoil ; spear- 
shaft 
Nyakiila, v. plunder 
Nyale (omu), n. stain of smoke on roof 
Nyama (e), n. meat 
nyama (aka), n. 

nakanyama, n.i. stiff pains, aches 
Nyazala( — ; ba), n. mother-in-law. ?nya 

zala 
Nye (lu), adv. repeatedly 
nyenya, v. shake 

nyenya, int. scoffing to man in trouble. 
•That's all right.' 'What you 
deserve ' 
nyenyera, p. 
amanyo gamunyeny'era, his teeth are 
set on edge 
nyenyegere (lu), adv. incessantly 
nyenyuwa (olu), n. persistence 
adv. persistently 

1 'Nya or Na reduplicated. Nyoko, — the 
other Bantu languages. 

Other forms: Mange, my mother; nyafe, 
their m. Plural forms, banyinafe, banyi 
elude aunts on the mother's side. 



Nyega, v. make a sound, of living things 

nyefu, pt. fat, animals only 
Nyegera, v. go to consult the lubare at 
some distant place ; go 01 a pil- 
grimage 
Nyenyenkule (aka), ;/. house-cricket. ?r»ye 
Nyere (aka), //. thin wire bracelet 

nyere (olu), n. 
Nyi (omu), n. pupil of eye % 

nyi (namu ; l>an.), 11. kind of orchid ; of 
wagtail ; of bean 
Nyibanyiba, t. be on point of crying 
Nyiga, v. press 

nyigo (aka), n. narrow place in road 

nyigiriza, /.,. squeeze 
Nyfga, v. V)e offended, [za, c] 
'Nyika, v. appoint work to. Cf. 'nyuka 
Nyika t. dip, — 'nyika mu madzi 
'nyikira, /. get soaked 
nyinyikide amafuta 
Nyikala, v. be vexed 

Nyikira, v. persevere, work hard, [vu, pt. ] 
Nyina, n. his mother 1 

nyoko, thy mother ; term of abuse 
Nyindo (e), n. nose. ? nyi 

nyindwa (ki), adv. nasally 
Nyini ( — ; ba), n. owner, — nyini kintu 

nyini (na ; bana), «. = preceding 

nyini, adv. truly 
Nyinyala, 

enyinyala, r. screw up lips in disgust at 
Nyinyimbwa. v. frown 
Nyira (eki), n. a bat 

nyirira, v. be shiny, [vu, //.] 

nyiriri (olu), ;/. a row, line of men or 
things ; a verse 
Nyira (emi), n. ?nyi 

nyiza eminyira, blow the nose 

nyiza mu nyindo, = preceding 
Nyo, adv. exceedingly 
Nyo (omu), n. salt 
'Nyo (olu ; enyi), 11. a. stretcher 
'Nyogoga, v. be cold [vu, pt.] 
Nyoka, v. smoke 
Nyola, v. twist 

enyola, r. turn one's head round 

enyolanyola, r. clear oneself 
Nyoma, v. despise 
Nyonyogana, v. try again and again to do 

a thing 
Nyonyogera, v. tickle 
'Nyuka, v. leave off work 

e'nyula, r. leave off of one's own accord 
Cf. 'nyika, ?nyi (nyini) 
Nyukirira, v. deliquesce 
Nyula, v. be fat, of meat and beasts 

'ko' = thy, occurs in Swahili, Zulu, and 

our m. ; nyamwe, your m., and nyabwe, 
name, banyinabwe. These words also in- 



198 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



'Nyula, v. draw up out of Mater 

'nyulula, v. draw out copper-wire 
Nyulukusa, v. soak, steep, [ka, v.i.] 
Nyuma, v. be in time, as drums 

nyumya, v. converse with 

nyumiriza, 

enyumiriza, r. boast 

nyumikiriza. k.c. flatter 

enyumikiriza, r. boast = enyumiriza 

nyumu (eki), n. drinking-party 
Nyuma, adv. behind 

nyuma wa, prep, behind 
Nyumungula, v. rinse 
Nyunyunta, v. suck as a bite. Cf. Nuna 
Nyunyuntula, v. leave a pleasant taste in 

mouth 
Nyusi (eki), n. core of a boil 
Nyuwa, v. drink, [nyuwede] 

nyuwanto (e), n. teat, udder 
Nyuwa (olu), n. tendo Achillis 
Nyuwa, v. go to stool, (nyiwa) 
Nyuwegera, v. kiss 
Nyuwera, v. be firm, [za, cj\ 
Nyuzi (eki), n. pith 
Nywanyi (omu), n. friend 

O 
Oba, conj. either, or ; if 

obanga, if, though 
Olwa, /r<?/. because of ; — olwensonga eno, 
olwebyo, lwa ki, for what reason ? 
Owa, int. of surprise 



1 Pakasa, v. hire to do. [si, «.] 

pakasa amadzi, hire any one to fetch 

water 
pakasa omulimu, hire people to do the 
work 
Pamba, n. cotton, cotton-wool. f (pamba 

eno) 
Pampagala, v. 

epampagala, r. clap one's hands in vehe- 
ment denial ; or in shaking off 
bees 
Panka, v. flatter 
Papali (e' ; ama), papaw. f 
Also papali eno, etc. 
papali (omu), «. the papaw-tree 
Papira, v. travel rapidly 
2 Papula (olu), ;/. paper 
Patika, 

epatika, r. venture on 
Pekyu (eki), «. haste 
Pera (omu), n. a guava-tree t 

pera (e' ; ama), «. guava-fruit 
Pesa (e' ; ama), n. a button \ 
Pilipili, fi.i. pepper 
Pima, v. weigh f 

1 Taken from Swahili ; Mpagazi. 



Pipa (e' ; ama), n. a barrel t 
Punga (omu), n. rice t 
Puwa, n.i. steel t 

R. 

Radu, n. lightning.! (ladu) 

Randa, n. carpenter's plane, f (landa) 



Sa, v. grind, [sede] 
Sa, adj. nothing but 

sa (bu), adv. to no purpose 
Sa (omu), n. top of branch, of pole. 
? spreading out 

si (en), n. surface of the land, land 

su (obu), ;/. top of drum where beaten 

sasira, v. spread grass in a house — sasi- 
ra esubi 
sasiro (ebi), //. rubbish 
Sa (eki), n. kindness 

sasira. v. pity 
Sa, v. put down ; bear fruit, bananas and 
plantains only. ? 'ka 

'sako, count in — obuta'sako bakazi, 
without counting the women 

'sa (obu), n. cow-dung 

e'sa r. trust ; be uninterrupted 
Saba, v. ask for 

sabiriza, p. 2 .c. beg as a beggar 
Saba, v. smear 

Sabala, v. go on board canoe, [za, <r.] 
Sabana, v. stain all over 
Sabawa, n. target, t 
Sabika, v. wrap up 

esabika, r. bandage oneself 

sabukulula, rv. unwrap 
Sabiro (e'; ama), n. collar-bone 
Sabiti (e), v. Sunday ; a week t 
Sabo (e' ; ama), n. lubare hut. ?saba 
Sabuliza, v. talk fast. ? saba 
Sabulukuka, v. be watered down 
Sabuni, n.i. soap, f 
Sadaka (e), «. sacrifice t 
Saga, v. put flooring of sticks into canoe 
Saga, v . jest 

Sa'ga, v. drive away flies with fan ; col- 
lect men by force for work 

sa'gazi (ebi), n. growth of tall reed 
grass 

sa'gasa'gana, v. waver from side to 
side 
Sa'guka, v. spread, of a sore 
Sai (omu), n. blood 
Saja, adj. male 

saja (omu), «. a man 
Saka, v. lay in food, — saka emere 

saka (eki), n. small cooking-pot. (en) 
Also, ekisaka-ntamu 

sakiro (eki), n. crop of a bird 

2 ' Paper' {papuros), transliterated. 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-EXGLISH 



199 



Sala, v. cut with knife * 

sala omusango, deckle a case 
saliriza, p.,.c. pervert judgment 
salira, /. prune plantains 
sale (omu), n. trilxil mark made by cut- 
ting 
sale (en), //. cup made by half a gourd 
salo (en), «. boundary of a garden 
salu (e' ; ama), n. kind of grass which 
causes itching 
Sala, v. on. ring as metal ; frizzle as fat 
Sala, v. pray set form, esp. Mohamedan + 

sala (e), «. a set prayer; collect 
Salaba (omu), n. cross! 
Salamuka, v. become Mohamedan. fir. 

Islam 
Sale (omu), u. <guide 

sale (aka), ;/. an arrow-head 
Sakala, v. of throat in small-pox 
Samala, v. [vu, />/.] 

amanyo gasamade, the teeth protrude 

amanyo amasamavu, protruding teeth 
samalirira, p». gape with astonishment 
Samamya (aka), 11. red insect like centi- 
pede 
Samba, :'. strike with 50k of f 
esamba, r. avoid 
samba (ekil, ;/. the ' sudd' 
sambi (eki), n. thigh 
sambirira, p 2 . trample on 
samba (e' ; ama), //. irons 
sauibagala. -'. have convulsions 
sambeya, v.t. hurry up 
Sambo (en), ;/. stubble, (eki) ? samba 
sambula, v. take up stubble 
sambula (eki), ;/. the time of year when 
stubble is taken up 
Sambwe fen), n. 

ekyensambwe, bark peeled off and 
used for tieing ; the shrub from 
which it is peeled off 
sasambula, v. peel bark off a tree 
Sambya (en), ;/. tree with wood like 

sycamore 
Sami (e' ; ama), n. an eatable gnat 
Samira, v. give the oracle 
Sa'mula, v. sprinkle 

esa'mula, r. shake earth from ; refuse 
to take part in a plot 
Samvu (omu), ;;. seven • (olu . . 700), 

(en . . 70), (aka . . 7,000) 
Samwasamwa, v be full of news 
Sana, v. 

sana omukeka, make a pattern in the 
mat 
Sana, v. drown. Esp. sanauo 
Sanya, 11. i. wholesale destruction 



Sana i.omu), n. time of daylight and 
warmth 
omusana gwase, the sun is hot 
sana (e' ; ), great heat of sun 
Sana, v. be fit. [ira, /. be fit for] 
sanu (en), n. niceness, finish— 

tekibula ensanu, 
sanirira, p. L . treat well 

esanirira, r. act for oneself 
sanya, (•. 

sanya olubimbi, smooth a plot = 'tanya 
esanya, r. pretend friendship with ; 

pretend not to have had a meal 
esanyiriza, r. put on a fair appearance 
when there is war in the heart 
Sana, (aka), n. shrub, bark makes red 

<lye for leather 
S.ir.da (e' : ama), //. sticky juice, resin 
Sanga (e' ; ama), ;/. tusk of ivory 
Sanga je' ; I, ;/. 

alwade kya sanga 
Sanga, ?•. come upon person, find 

sango (omu), 1 ;/. judgment, penalty 

for wrong-doing 
omusango gumusinze, he was. in the 

wnmg 
asinze omusango, he was in the right, 

innocent 
sala omusango, decide a case 
'dza omusango, do wrong ; commit a 

crime 
sangula, v. blot out 
Sanika, v. cover, esp. for cooking 

saniko (ebi), n. leaves in which cooked 

food has been served up 
sanikira, /. — sanikirako, cover over 

with 
sanikizo (eki), n. a cover 
Sanja (e' ; ), ;/. withered plantain-leaves 
Sanja-bavu (en), n. swollen glands in groin 
Sansa, v. scatter. ? sa n 8a 

sansa (en), 11. bleached palm-leaves for 

mat making 
sansa (eki), n. cover for cups made of 

' nsansa ' 
sanso (e' ; ama), ;/. topmost branch 
sansula, v. buist pod, beans ; open out, 

mushrooms, etc. 
sansulukuka, v. become unplaited as rope 
Sansagula, "\ have convulsions 
Sanula, v.t- melt; stir up a mob. [ka, 

v.t.] 
Sanyu (e' ;), n. joy 

sanyuka, v. be glad, [sa, <\] 
Sasamala, v. be in an uproar, [za, ..] 
Sasana, v. i. be scattered. ? sa (sansa), red 
Sasi (en), n. sparks. ? sa (sasira) 



1 Omusango, — ' the effect of meeting a wrong ; ' either the crime itself, or the 
judgment it brings ; an idea of fear,— the judgment for the wrong-doing — being the 
prominent idea. 



200 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Sasi (e'; ama), ;;. lead; bullet t 
Sasi (en), n. a rattle 
Sasira, sash a. Vid. Sa 
Sasubuga, 

esasubuga, r. mourn bitterly 
Sasula, v. pay back a debt 

sasula ebanja 
Sata. v. separate as men searching 
Sata (en), «. goat, cow, etc. that has only 
borne once 
satuwala, v.i. cease to bear 
Sata, adj. three 

Sa'tuka, v.i. be frayed, cloth, [la, v.t."\ 
8ava (e' ;), n. 

ente ya 'sava, fatted cow 
savu (ama), n. fat, of animals 
savuwala, v.i. get fat. [za, r.] 
Sawa, v. clear down jungle, — savva ensiko 

sawe (eki), n. a clearing 
Sawani (e), «. a plate t 
Sawo (omu), «. a medicine-man 

sawo (en), n. a bag 
Saza (e' ; ama), n. province. ? sala 
Saza, v. weld 
Sazika, v.t. cover, as infant with baik- 

cloth 
Se, formative, father of; Mr. Hence se- 
zala, sedume (lume), segwanga 
(wanga) 
sabalongo, father of twins 
sebintu (owner of property), ' good sir ' 
sebitalo, owner of deformity, (ekitalo) 
semwandu, one whose master has died, 
sebo, Sir. ? father t>( men 
Sebenga, v. consume as log in fire ; trot 

sebengerera, p 2 . get thin 
Sebera, be always . visiting — gundi ono 

kisebezi 
Sega (en), n. a vulture 
sege (omu), ft. a wolf 
Sega, v. be bereaved 
Seguka, z>. move one's position 

segulira, /. make room for 
Segula, v. use indecent language 
Se'jera, v. go on one leg 
se'jeia(olu), n. a crowd of young locusts, 
(aka) 
Seka, v. laugh 

seko (en), n. laughter 
sekerera, fa. laugh at, mock 
Seke (eki), //. wrist 

seke (olu), n. drinking-stem 
sekese (olu), ;;. a long bundle 
sekese (omu), u. framework of house 
Sekere (en), ;;. a louse 
Seketa, v. backbite 
Sekula, v. pound 

sekuzo (omu). n. wooden pestle 
Sekula (en), tu calabash with long narrow 

neck 
Semba v. 



semba egye, make a reserve or cover- 
ing force, 
-sembe (eki), n. the diaphragm 
sembera, /. go or come near 
sembeza, c. welcome a guest 
Sembesa, v. carry in front 
Semeza, v. allay suspicion falsely in order 

to entrap 
Serrvyula, v. be lame 
Sena, v. ladle, bale a boat 

senero (omu), n. a brewer. 
Sendasenda, v. lead astray morally 
esendasenda, r. walk backwards 
Sendekera, v. abate of sickness. ? senda 
Seneka, v. leave goods in order to escape 
unsuspected — asenese ebibye nata- 
'da 
seneko (omu), n. property so left 
seneki (ki), adv. acting in above way 
Senene (en), //. grasshopper 
Senga, v. join a new master 
senguka, ;-'. leave one's master for 

another 
senge (eki), n. partition, room 
Sengawe ( — ; ba), n. his aunt on father's 
side 
sengange, my aunt ; sengawo, thy 
aunt 
Sengeja, v. filter 

esengeja, r. settle on lees 
Sengeka, v. put close side by side. ? senga 
Senke (e' ;), /;. blindness of eye, cata- 
ract 
Senkenya, v. smoulder 
Sensera, v. walk in a stooping position 
Senso (eki), ;/. kilt of grass. Cf. Sansa 

sensula, v. tear or shred in pieces 
Senya, v. brush the teeth ; break wood 

for fire, [senyedza] 
Senyasenya, v. of negro hair, lose colour 

from overgrowth 
Senyenta, v. run at a jog-trot ; smooth 
iron with hammer 
senyi (olu), n. prairie 
Senyiga, n.i. cold in head. ? se-nyiga 
Senya (omu), ;/. sand 
senyuka, v. be grey 
senyufu, pt. grey 
Sepewo, ;/. a pith hat.f French chapeau 
8«ra, v. wander about, esp. at night ; 
prowl 
sera ebitoke, prowl about the plan- 
tains 
esera, r. bubble up, in boiling 
seragana, rec. go backwards and for- 
wards 
sera (eki), n. wrinkle on neck 
sera (obu), n. gruel 

sera (omu), ;/. fulness ; full-grown 
chicken 
juia omusera, fill to the brim 



VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



201 



seso (eki), n. a matting bag 
seso (en), «. 

juza enseso, fill full 
sere'ja, v. of person who has to do all 

work himself 
sereba, v. be squandered 
Sera (eki), n. a point of time, (aka) 
Sera, v.t. charge teo much ; pay too much 
Sereka, v. thatch, [si, «.] ? sera 

serekerera, p^. fill in where thatch is 

thin 
serekulula, rv. take thatch off 
Serengeta, v. go in a certain direction, 
esp. on a slope downwards. ? sera 
Serera, v. be slippery. ? sera 
Serinyabi (eki), v. a cactus-like plant 
Seruwali (e), n. trowsers f 
Sesa, v. (Lusoga seta, draw near) 

sesa omuliro, push the fire together 
Sesema, v. vomit 
Sesetuka, v. slip down 
Setera, v. wave as grass-tufts ; be blurred 
to the eyes, 
ebiswa bisetede, . . . are covered witK 
ants 
seterera,/ 2 . be indistinct, as bad writing 
Setula, v. push along without lifting 
Setwe (omu), n. a level place 
Seyeya, v. glide as canoe on water 
Si, adv. not 
Si (en). Vid. Sa 
Siba, v. tie ; secure a prisoner 
sibe (omu), //. a prisoner 
sibo (eki), n. where goats are tied up 
sibikirira, /> 2 . tether goats, etc. to grass 
sibirira,/ 2 . tie up lot of food for journey 
Sibo (en), n. sandstone 
sibosibo (eki), «. sandstone for potter's 
clay 
8iba, v. spend the day 

siba enjala, go without food 
sibula, v. dismiss, give leave to go 
Sibula, v. cut down a tree and leave the 
root, [ka, v.t.] 
sibukira, p. sprout of tree-stump ; take 

its rise in, of a river 
sibuka (en), ;/. sucker of a tree 
Siga, ?•. sow seed, [zi, «.] 
sigo (en), ;/. seed ; kidneys 
sige (eki), n. eyebrow 

sige (en), n. wrinkles on forehead 
Siga, 
esiga, v.t. entrust oneself to 

esigwa, adj. faithful 
sigira, /. entrust a thing to 

sigire (omu), n. a steward 
sigala, v. be left 
sfgama, 

esigama, r. lean upon 
Siga, (e' ; ama), v. cooking-stone 
sigika, v. arrange the cooking-stones 



siga (hu), adv. 

tula busiga, sit for a long time. 
Si'ga (e' ; ama), n. a scorpion 
Siga, v. rub on grease, grease 
siga amafuta, omuzigo, etc. 
sige (omu), n. a boy or girl sent to serve 
the king 
Sika, v. be an heir to, inherit after death 
sika (omu), n. an heir 
siko (en), n. jungle, uncultivated land 
sikiriza, v. overshadow 

sikirize (eki), «. shade, shadow 
Si'ka, v. pull off by jerks 
esi'ka, r. stalk off — yesi'se nobusungu 
si'kasi'kanya, v. devour greedily 
si'kula, v. grab, snatch 
Sika (e'; ama), n. anchor t 
Sika, v. fry 
Sika, v. load a canoe ; ship 

sikulula, rv. unload 
Sikma, v. cry out 

Si'konda, v. have hiccough. ? si'ka 
Sikya (en), n. back of neck, neck 
Sima, v. dig 

sima enyumba, break into a house 
simu (en), n. a worn out hoe. 
Siinagira, v. nod and wake up with a 

start 
Sima, v. be pleased with 

simibwa, pass, be pleasing to 

esima, be satisfied. Esp. nesimye, I 

am pleased 
sfmo (aka), n. something to please 
Simatula. ? sumatula 

esimatula, r. disengage oneself from 
any one's grasp 
Simba, v. set upright ; plant trees 
simba (obu), n. being on end ; being 

upright 
simbo (e' ;), n. indifference 
tambula e'simbo, walk with indif. ; 
lya e'simbo, eat with indif. 
esimbigiriza, r. refuse to budge 
Simbagiriza, 

esimbagiriza, r. walk with stick as old 
man 
Simbu (en), n. epileptic, fit 
Simula, v. wipe 
Sinda, v. groan 
sindirira, p. 2 . 

sindirira, emundu, load a gun 
sindika, v. push 
Sindukirira, z>. 

ememe ensindukirira, I feel sick 
Sindula, v. pull up tree, roots and all 
Singa, v. be better than ; get the better 
of 
sinza, v. worship 
sinzfra, v. be the chief point 

kyetusinzi'rako kiruwa, what is our 
chief point? 



102 



ELEMENTS OK LUGANDA 



sinziro (eki), n. heel 
Singa, v. pledge 

singira, /. give pledge to 

singo (omu), u. a pledge 
Sing'ana, v. meet 
Singisira, v. have swell on, of sea 
Sinjo (en), ;/. a chisel 
Sira (ama), «. pus 
Sira, v. rub with water, as Indian ink ; 

smooth a floor 
Sira, 

esira, r. be stunted in size 

siri (omu), ;;. cultivated plot of ground 

siri (en), n. mosquito 
Sira, r. face danger with indifference 

sira emuli, put reeds on 
Siriba (en), n. wooden charm beads 
Sirika, v. be silent. ? sira III. 

sirise (ka), atlv. in a whisper 

sirikiriro (aka), ;/. interval of silence 
Sirimuka, v. run fast 
Siring'anyi (olu), n. a worm 
Siringita, v. roll = iringita 
Siripi le), //. cock of gun t 
Sirira, v. be consumed, scorched by fire, 
sira II. 

siriza, c. consume, scorch 

siriza (aka), ;/. cinder 
Sirwu (aka), ;/. a very large number; a 
million 

siriza. v. reach ' akasirivu ' 
Siru, adj. idiotic. ? sira III. 

siru (omu), ;/. deaf or dumb person 

sirusiru (omu), n. an idiot 
sirusiru (obu), ;;. nonsense 

siruwala, v. become foolish ; be con- 
fused by contrary orders 
Sisi, (omu), «. earthquake. ? shaking 

sisi (en), n. fear, trembling 

esisiwala, v. be startled ; wince, [za, c] 
sisiwaza, c. startle 
Sisisi, adv. pitch black, 'dugala sisisi 
Sisimuka, v. awake 

sisimuka (eki), u. watch of night 
Sisinkana, v. come upon unexpectedly 
Sisira, v. put up a temporary hut. ? rita 

sisira (en), ;/. a temporary hut. 

sisira (olu), ;/. collection of such huts ; 
camp 

sisiro (eki), ;/. where beer is brewed 
Sisiriza, v. touch up anything damaged to 

escape punishment 
Sisitera, v. hush a baby ; bring to per- 
fection 
Sisiwala, <•. have had a good feed 
Sita, v. make a fence 

sitala, T>. trip, stumble 

esitala, r. be tripped up. [za, c] 

situka, rv. stand up 
situla, v.t. lift up 
(en), ii. little hard red berries 



Situnkana, 7: be uneasy 
Siwa, 7: rub as salt into meat 

mwo (en), ;/. ferment for beer 
Siwa, 7: be itchy 
siwuka, f. be scabby 
siwukirira, 7: be whitish-grey, as part 
scratched 
Siya, r. hiss 

So, 1 on/', but, before a negative 
'So, adv. intensive— ngoy.imbade 'so, how 
7vcll you are dressi-d 
alide obugenyi 'so, such a lot of pre- 
sents 
So (en 1, /!. upper grinding-stone ; knee- 
cap 
So (eki). 11. a foreign made knife t 

ekiso ekimenye, a pocket-knife 
Soba, v. make a mistake ; be too many, 
too long, etc, on counting, 
measuring * 
Suba. 7'. pick one's steps 
Sobola, -'. manage, [ka, v.i.] * 

sobolola, v. decide a disputed point 
Soga (en), «. castor-oil berries 

sogasoga (omu), «. castor-oil plant 
So'ga, z'. spear a wounded man 
Sogola, 7: brew by crushing 
So'gola, v. go into particulars ; cleat old 

potatoes out of field 
Soka, v. begin ; be fust 
Sokasoka, :•. question with a view to get 

something against one 
Soke (en), //. 

kuba ensoke, make wivtcr gurgle in 
paddling 
soke (mul — musoke, n.i. rainbow 
Sokola, v. take out of a parcel wilhout 
undoing it 
esokola, r. trim one's nails, hair, etc. ; 
birds, plume the feathers 
Sokomola, v. pull things out of a box 
Solo (omui, 11. tribute 

solo (en), n. wild beast 
Soloba, v. get out of line. Cf. Soba 
solobija, 71. cut plantains with the ' luso- 

lobyo ' 
solobyo (olu), ;/. knife on a long stick 
Solo/a, v. collect or levy tribute. ? solo 
Solo^ozi (en), small venomous ant 
Solya (aka), //. movable framework of a 

round-house ; roof, (olu) 
Soma, :>. read 
somesa, t. teach; conduct prayers 
somera, <\ challenge 
Soma (omu 1. //. tongue of land ; peninsula 
somoka, v. cross over 
somoko (omu), ;;. a ford 
somola, ?'. remove little by little, as 
thief 
Somba, v. bring by handfuls, basket fuls, 
etc. 






VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENGLISII 



203 



somberera, v. bring up one thing after 
another in speaking 

somboja, v. go in a continuous stream 
Somya, v. pride oneself 
Somyo (obu), «. marrow. ? soma II. 
Sona, 

sonyi (en), n. shame 
Sonda, v. contribute to a fund ; meditate 
Sonda (en), n. a corner, angle 
Songa, v. prod. Cf. So'ga 

songola, v. make a point to. [vu, pt.~\ 

songezo (e' ; ama), n. a canine tooth 

songezo (aka), n. the very end of a 
branch 
Sonjola, v. finish right off 
Sonko (e' ; ama), v. a snail-shell 
Sonona, v. walk like a chameleon 
Songa, v. start a quarrel. ? poke in 

esonsa, r. pick a quarrel 

sonseka, v. slip in under 
sonseka ekitabo mu lugoye 
esonseka, r. =ebi'ka 
Sonseka, v. sting as a burn 

sonsomola, v. smart as an extensive burn 
Sonyiwa, v. forgive 
Soso (ki), adv. 

tunulira kisoso, look away from, 
squint 
Sosola, v. pick and choose 
Sosonkole (eki), ;;. eggshell 
Sosotola, v. unwrap food for eating 
Sota (omu), n. a snake 
Soto (eki), n. caked mud on sole of foot, etc. 
Sowa, 

esoweka, r. wear several garments on 
top of each other 

sowera (en) n. house-fly 

sowola, v. draw out of sheath ; cast-off 
shoes ; cast young 
Soya, v. prod. 
Soza, v. make sucking noise with lips to 

express contempt 
Sozi (olu), n. a hill ; mountain 
Su, adj. new, fresh— of beer, milk, and 

food just cooked 
Su (omu), n. an eatable rat 
Su (eki), ;/. a bird's nest 
Su (olu), n. smell, odour 
Suba, v. escape being hit 
Subi (e' ;) «. grass 
Subi (e' ;) n. hope 
siibira, v. hope for 
subiza, c. promise 
Subula, v. strip the bark off a ' mutuba ' 
Siibiila, v. sell at profit ; trade, [zi, «.] 
Suferiya (e), «. metal cooking-pot t 
Sui (eki), n. an elephant-trap 
Suja (omu), n. fever 
Suju (en), n. small vegetable marrow 
Su'ka, v. step over 

su'ko (ebi), «. soreness after shaving 



'Suka, v. 

obulwade bu'suse, I am better to-day 
Siikira, v. froth like beer 
Suku (olu), n. a plantain-garden 
Sukusa (en), ;/. young plantain slip suit- 
able for transplanting. ? suku 
Sula, v. spend the night 

sulo (eki), n. sleeping-place, camp 
ebisulo bimeka, how many days 
journey? 
Sula (eki), n. salt in lumps 
Sula, v. throw away, throw 
sulika, v. turn upside down 

esulika, r. stand on one's head ; slope, 
lean 
sulira, p. throw the cloth over the 

shoulder 
siilirira, v. leave an interval 
Sulo (omu), //. dew. ? sula 

sulo (en), ;/. spring, of water 
Sulungutana, v. be restless as prisoner 

seeking to escape 
Sulumba, v. menstruate 
Sumatuka, v. fall off 
sumatuka mu mikono, fall out of the 
hands 
Sumba (omu), ;/. shepherd 
Sumbi (en), n. small water-jar 
Sumeno (omu), >/. sawt 
Sumika, v. knot the cloth on shoulder 

sumika ekifundikwa 
Sumuka, v. go on further, grow 
Sumulula, v. untie 
sumuluzo (eki), n. a key 
sumulukuka, v. be untied 
Sumwa (eki), ;/. plantain-sponge 
sumvva (e' ;), >i. sponge for washing 
dead ; beer for a wake 
Suna, v. pinch 
Stmda, v. churn 
Sunga, v. suck through a reed ; chaff 

publicly 
Sungu (obu), n. anger 

sunguwala, v. be angry 
Sunsula, v. comb the hair 
sunsuli (eki), n. patch of hair left un- 
shaven 
Sunsumala, v. be temporarily in a place 
Susa, v. shell out of pod or husk 

susunku (ebi) 11. chaff 
Suta, 

sitama, v. sit on the haunches 
sutamuka, rv. get up from that position 
suti (en), 

ekyensuti, tail of a fowl 
Suta, v. praise 

sustita, v. be very familiar with 
susuto (olu), n. familiarity 
Suwa (en), n. a water-jar 

suwa (omu), n. a vein ; sinew 
Suyaya, v. swagger 



204 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



suyu (eki), n. sore on corner of mouth 
8wa (eki), n. ant-hill 

swa (en), ;/. white ant in flying stage 
Swaga, v. spear fish in the water 

swagu, int., congratulate on successful 
hunt 

swaguza, v. congratulate ' swagu,' 
' swagu ' 
Swala, v. be a?hamed. [za, <.] 
Swanta, 

eswanta, r. smack lips over good food 
Swaswa (en), «. large water-lizard. 
Swaswata, v. smart ; patter 
Swagiro (en), n. foot-fall 

T 

Ta, v. let go. [tadel 

Ta (eki), n. a large calabash 

Ta (olu), n. a span measure 

Ta (obu), ». flour. ? sa I 

Ta (ama), ;;. milk 

'Ta, v. kill, fse; 'sa, c] 

'ta aga naga. waver between two opinions 
Taba, v. join 

tabagana, rec. be reconciled 
Taba (ebi), n rain-water standing in pools 
Taba, n.i. tobacco 

Tabala, v. go on an expedition. ? taba- 
wala 

tabalo (olu), an expedition, campaign 
Tabangula, v. stir up the mud 

tabanguka, v. be stirred up j get angry 
ememe entabanguse, I want to be sick 
Tabani (omu), n. a son. ? taba 
Tabaza (e), n. lamp, candle t 
Tabaza, v. wash ceremonially before 

prayer 
Tabi (e' ; ama), ft. bough, branch. ? taba 
Tabika, v.i. be mixed up. ? taba 

tabikiriza, v. put out intentionally in 
singing, etc. 

tabiza, c. put out in singing 
Tabira, v. sprinkle water on forge fire 

tabiro (en), n. a sprinkler 
Tabo (e' ;), n. hole from which flying ants 

come 
Tabo (eki), «. a book t 
Tabula, v. mix, stir up. [ka, v.i.) ? taba 

etabula, r. become frothy as sea in storm 
Tabwa (en), n. round ornament, knop 
Tafu (omu), n. wrinkle on forehead 
Tafula, v. search among a lot of things 
Taga, cf. Swakili taka 

etaga, r. need 
Tagala, v. =tegana, be bothered 
Taganjula, v. search under everything 
Taga'la, v. stagger — of a drunken man 
Tago (aka), u. the spleen 

tago (en), n. 

ejinja eryentago, black stone useful 
for sharpening razors 



Tagula, v. tear in pieces, of beasts 
Tagya (en), n. hyena 
Tai (aka), n. a swallow 
Taira, taiza. Vid. Tawa 
Taka (e' ;), «. soil 

taka (obu), «. land inherited in per- 
petuity and used as family burial 
ground 
taka (omu), n, owner of such land ; 

country yokel 
takawala, v. become a ' mutaka,' be a 
rustic 
Taka, v. announce a theft 

takabana, v. search diligently to recover 
anything lost 
etakiriza, r. deny what you have not 
been accused of 
Takata, v. become warm inside 
Takera (en), //. 

gamba entakera, interrupt 
Tako (e' ;), ;/. the buttock 

ekyentako, wasp's sting 
Takula, v. scratch as a hen. ? taka I 
Ta'kuluza, v. force to relax grasp 
Tala (omu), n. uncultivated land ; the 
other side 
omutala weno, this side ; omutala 
weri, that side 
tale (e' ;), n moor-land 
tale (ama), //. iron ore 
tale (aka), n a market 
Tala, v. form battle-array,— egye litaze 
eUJa, r. get ready for battle 
tala ejoba, shave all round the head, 

leaving the crown 
tala enju (emikwero), set up skeleton of 

house 
tala e'zala, stake in gambling 
tala (olu), something to sell for profit 
talb (olu), n. a battle 

goba mu lutalo, defeat 
talo (eki), n. a freak of nature, wonder 
talo (ki), adv. wonderful, extraordinary 
Talaga (ama), ». 

empagi ezamatalaga, uneven spaces 
Talaga, v. besiege 
Talage (obu), n. rust 
Talama, v. sit with legs out to side 
Talanga, v. stagger like a sick man 
Talatala, v. stroll 
Talika, v. dry meat over fire 
Talisi (omu), n. postman t 
Taliza, v. finish right off 
Taluka, v, loose restraint of self 
Tama (e' ; ama), n. cheek 
Ta'ma, v. disgust 

omulimu guno guntamye, I am tired 

of this job 
ntamidwa, I am tired, dissatisfied 
with my place 
Tamaga (en), «. light-coloured negro 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



205 



Tambira, v. sacrifice 

tambiro (e' ;), n. place of sacrifice 
Tambo (omu), tt. spring, gun-Jock, etc. 
Tambula, v. walk 

tambulira ku gari, ride a bicycle 
tambula (en), tt. gait 
tambulire (ama), n. ways of walking 
Tami'ra, v. get drunk, [vu, //.] 

tamirukuka, v. get thoroughly drunk ' 
Tamu (en), tt. native cooking-pot 
Tamvua (e' ;), n. thread of fringe 

tamvua (ama), tt. a fringe 
Tana, v. spread 

tana (en), tt. hole to bury in, grave 
Tanaka, v. be sick 
Tanda, v. stride 

tanda(omu), tt. ' width ' of barkcloth.etc. 
tanda (eki), «. a bedstead 
tanda (en), n. food for road. ? lasting 
for journey 
Tanda (e'), «. place of the departed 

genda e'tanda 
Tanda (e'), tt. ? tanda I 

sula e'tanda, throw a thing carelessly 
to one side, and forget about it 
tandagirn, v. throw violently down 
tandika, v. lay out, start work 
tandika emeza, lay the table 
tandika endogoi, saddle the ass 
Tanga, v. be fined, pay fine 
tanza, c. fine 
tango (omu), it. a fine 
Tanga (ebi), 

embuzi yebitangatanga, with many 
small black and white spots 
langala, v. show, reflect light 
tangalija, v. show light through 
Tanta, v. be scattered 

tanta (obu), tt. shuttle 
Tanula, v. begin. ? tana 
Tanyi (eki), n. human placenta. ? tana 
Tan\ya, v. hurt by mistake, [tanidwa] 
Tasa, v. separate combatants ; abort 
Tatagana, v. be scattered. Cf. Tanta, 

Sasana 
Tavujana, v. speak indistinctly 
Tawa, v. steer a canoe, — tawa eryato ; 
circumcise ; be importunate 
tawana, v. be busy 
tawana'(emi), tt. 

nina emitawana, I am very busy 
taya, c. 

etaya, r. be under no restrictions 
taira, p. be bothered, [za, c.~\ 
taiza, c. surround a cover of game. 
Tawuliro.(eki), tt. short small torch, fire- 
brand 
Tawuzi (en), tt. a paroquet 
Te (en), n. cow, ox 



Teba, v. aim 

tebi (omu), tt. a marksman 
tebereza, v. guess. 
Tebe (en), n. a stool, chair 

tebe (omu), «. chair-carrier 
Tebe (eki), «. bog 
Tebunkanya, v. dodge 
Tega, v. bend spring of trap; trap ; lay 
in wait for * 
tega okutu, listen attentively 
tego (omu), n. trap ; bow 
tega omutego, set a trap 
tegula, rv. take out of trap 
tega (en), tt. 

tema entega, hough 
Tegana, v. bother. ? tega 
Tegeka, v. make ready 

etegeka, r. prepare oneself, be ready 
tegula, v. put back what has been put ready 
Teg^ra, v. understand. ? tega 
tegeza, c. explain 
tegevu, pt. sensible 
tegereza, v. listen to 
etegereza, r. see and fully understand 
Teka, v. clear, of sky ; grow calm, of sea 

tefu, pt. calm ; gentle 
Teka, v. place ; make a law 
teka (e' ; .ama), tt. a law 

teka e'teka, make a law 
tekulula, tv. unship 

tekulula e'teka, annul a law 
teko (omu), tt. heap put together for 

counting 
tekateka, v. make ready 

etekateka, r. make oneself ready 
Teketeke, adv. 

nungi teketeke, first-class 
Tekemuka, v. fear 
Tekera, v. set fire to 
Tema, v. cut with blows 

tematema omutwe, gash the head 
temya, c. 

temya ekikowe, wink 
temu (e'), n. violence, highway-robbery 
temu (omu), ;/. highwayman 
temula, v. assassinate 
temera, p. put earth to roots of tree 
temereza, 

temereza ekikowe, blink 
Tembe (e' ; ama), «. wild plantain-fruit 

tembe (eki), tt. wild plantain-tree 
Tembeta, v. cany in front of one. Cf. 

Sembesa 
Tenda. v. describe, speak of as good, 
tendo (e'), tt. praise 
tendereza, v. praise, commend 
tendeka, v. initiate 

tendekereza, v. give lessons in, to 
children 



1 According to some, 'get sober. 



206 



ELEMENTS OF LUC.ANDA 



Tenga, n. wag the tail 

tengera, t>. shake with fear. [za, c] 

tengereia, /„. be afraid of falling, 
nervous 

tengereze (en), «, nervousness, ' funk ' 

tengesa, v.t. shake 

tengetera, v. roll of a boat ; wobble as 
compass-dial 

tenge'ja, v. float without motion 
Tengetenge, adv. half full 
Tengu, adj. disol>edient 
Tentegere (eki), it. first bar'k from 'mutuba' 
Tera, v. attx. be on point of 
Tere (omu), n. rations 
Terebuka, v.t. slip. [la, v.t.'] 
Tere'ga, v. speak like a prince 
Teceka, v. put by. ? tere 

teresa, c. entrust to some one's care 
Terera, v. surmise 
Terera, v. balance itself; be level 

terevu, //. level 

tereza, c. make level 
Tesa, v. take counsel, discuss. ? teka 

tesa ebigambo, discuss the matter 

teso (ekye), n. freedom from work, 
leisure 
Tetera, v. breathe heavily in illness 
Tetenkereza, v. beguile 
Teza, v. hurry up 
Ti (n), conj. that. ? saying 1 
Ti (omu), n. a tree, piece of wood 

ti (eki), «. small piece of wood ; es/>. 
haft of knife 

ti (ebi), «. circlet worn by young girls 
Tiba, v. spoil 
Tiba (olu), it. wooden cup 
Tibwa (eki). Vid. Tya 
Tiguka, v. play 
Ti'ka. v. put load on head 

eti'Ka, r. cany a load 

eti'ka emikono, 'hands on head,' a 

sign of grief 
eti'se (omw), n. a porter 

ti'ko (en), n. top of hill 

ti'ko (aka), n. a mushroom 

ti'kiro (eki), ;/. pointed top of native 
house 

ti'kula, rv. take off a load 
Tikirira, v. be afraid to give one's mind 
Tikula, v. turn everything upside down in 

searching 
Tima, v. mince. Cf. Tema 
Tima (e'), n. malice 
Tima (omu), ;/. heart 
Timba, v. hang curtains 

timba (eki), n. a curtain 
Timba (— ; ba), it. python 
Tinipa (e ;), n. leaves of the arum lily 



Tinda, v. bridge. Cf. Tanda 

tindo (olu), n. bridge, stairs, ladder, etc. 

tindiro (eki), it. shelves 

tindikira, -\ pile up, firewood 
Tininya (aka), n. a very wee scrap 
Tinkiza, v. like, love ; rejoice, exult 
Tintima, «'. shake. ? tima 

tintimirira, /•>. shake in ague 
Tira, v. be well spread with leaves, of a 

garden 
Tirika, v. be squired 

tirisa, i. squirt 
Tirimbula, 7'. murder, [ka, v.i.] 
Titi (obu), ;/. small beads 
Titi (obu), it. on. chilliness 
ba nobutiti, feel chilly 

ti'tiia, 7'. shake with cold or fear 

titiwala, :■. lie famished with cold 
Titiri (ma), adv. 

tula matitiri, sit on the haunches 
Titiri (en), n. kind of quail 
To, adj. not full grown 
Toba. v. get wet 

Tobeka, v. make patchwork, variegate 
omukeka omutobeke, mat with col- 
oured pattern 

tobekera, v. be going grey of hair 
Tobera, v. move the lips 
Tobo (en), n. base of anything 
Tofali (e' ; ama), n. a brick. t (sofali) 
Togatoga, v. fiddle with 
Togero (e' ; ama), n. large vessel for 

brewing in 
Togo (ebi), ;/. papyrus 
To'go, n.i. heavy rains of March, April 

and May 
Togolola. v. take up filth with hands 
Togonyola, ?j. squash, squeeze hard 
Tojera, ?'. bud, of trees 
Toke (e' ; ama), it. bunch of plantain 

toke (eki), it. plantain-tree 
Tokomoka, v. be engulphed,. destroyed 

wholesale 
Tokota, v. bubble in boiling 
Tokoterera, v. mourn for silently ; keep 

quietly silent 
Tola, v. accept 

tole (eki), ;/. lump. ? what is accepted 
Toli (en), ;/. 

kuba entoli, snap the fingers 
Toloba, 7\ run without turning ; go in 
pairs 

tolobo'ja, 

etolobo'ja, /•. quarrel 

tolong'anya, r;. be clever at work, 
repartee, etc. 
Tolola, 

etolola, r. go round, [za, <.] 



1 In Zulu ' ti ' means 'say,' possibly it was originally adv. 'in the saying manner. 
Possibly also the meaning of ' nti ' may go to connect -ti, -tyo, and -tya with this same root. 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



207 



Tolontoka, v. penetrate right through 
Toma, v. complain of unfair treatment ; 
aim 

tomo (en), 11. 

wa ntomo, a good shot 

tounera, /. charge, as a cow 

tomeragana, rec. charge as in football 
Tomi (ebi), n. mud on hoots 
Tona, v. depict by marks ; make a 

present 
Tonda, v. create ; be conceived 
Tondo (e' ; ama), ;/. drop of water ; rash 

of small-pox 
Tondobereza, v. turn about in mind 
Tondoka, v. be cut in two ; die. [la, v.L] 
Tongeza, v. keep up 
Tongole (omu), n. a squire 

tongole (eki), n. land of a 'mutongole' 
Tongo (e' ;), a deserted spot, once in- 
habited 
'Tongolola, v. explain 
Tongonya, v. finger. Cf. Toga 
Tongotera, :■. look hopelessly at a 

difficulty 
Tono, adj. little 

tono (aka), adv. a little 
Tontogola, v. 

tontogolo (en), 11. fruit of wild fig 
Tontoma, v. say off pat 
Tonya, v. leak ; fall of rain. ? tona 

tonyeza, v. dot 

tonyezi (olu), n. a shower 

tonyezi (aka), ;;. a drop 

tonyerera, /. 2 . drizzle incessantly 
Tosi (e' ; ), ;/. mud. (ebi) 
Totatota, v. cross words with 

sija kutotatota nawe 
Totola, v. drench, of rain 
Totola, v. take a lot of plunder 
Totoma, v. grumble loudly 
Towaza, v. humble, esp. 

etowaza, r. humble oneself, be humble 

towolokoka, v. go down, of a swelling ; 
rest — nkyatowolokoka 
Tu (oku ; ama), n. an ear 

tu (e' ; ), n. a wee packet of anything 
Tuba (omu), n. a bark-cloth tree 

tubatuba (en), n. strips of ' mutuba ' 
bark 
olutubatuba, one strip 
Tubatuba, v. be on the point of crying 
Tubira, v. ' go in ' whilst crossing a ford 

tutubika, 

etutubika, ;-. sink 

tububa, v. wade in water up to mouth 
Tuga, v. strangle 

tuga akatale, raise a disturbance in the 
market 
Tu'ga, v. knot 
Tu'ga (en), n. a giraffe 
Tugunda, adj. fruit-bearing 



Tuja, v. throb 

Tu'jo (en), n. drums at birth of twins 
Tuju (omu), it. elephant-hunter 
Tuka, v. reach a mark ; arrive ; be enough ; 
be complete 

etuka, r. become mature, mer only 

tuko (en), ;/. due, proper time 

tukiiira, p. 2 . be complete ; come right 
through on a march, [za, r.] 
Tukuma, v. be very hungry 
Tukutuku, int. adv. denotiiig whiteness 

tukula, v. be white, [vu, //. ; za, r. ] 
Tula, 7'. be or become sharp, ftuze] 

tula (obu), ;/. wild acid kind of tomato 
Tula, v. sit. [tude] 
'Tula, v. t. cause a relapse 

'tuka, :\ i. have a relapse, — nzituse 

'tulula, v- decant 

'tulukuka, ;•. be decanted ; l>e quire 
straight 
Tuli (eki), n. aperture. ? tula II. 

tulika, v. be burst 

tulu (e' ;), ;/. a blind eye 

tulu (omu), ;/. a blind man 
Tulituli (eki), //. an inHamed spot ; 
flea-bite 

tulutulu (aka), n. — preceding 

tulutulu (ama), //. reddening of sky at 
dawn 
enkya mu matulutulu 
Tulinkirira, 

etulinkirira, r. do on one's own responsi- 
bility 
Tulula, v. begin to show grey hairs 
Tuma, v. heap up 

tumo (en), n. a heap 
Tuma, v. send 
Tuma, v. 

tuma erinya, give name to 

mutume erinya, give him a name 
Tumba (en), ;;. very round shoulders 
Tumbi (e' ;), ;/. midnight 
Tumbikana, v. be quarrelsome 
Tumbira, v. rise to great height, [za, c] 
Tumbu 

tumbwe (en), «. calf of leg 

tumbugulu (en), «. fore-leg 
Tunda, v. sell. 

tundu (eki), n. a part 

tundula, v. lance an abscess ; esp. tundu- 
la emvunza, extract jiggers [ka, v. *'.] 

tundu'ga, v . throb 
Tunga, v. sew 

tungulula, j~v. unsew 
Tungo (en), n. semsem 
Tungulu (e' ; ama), n. a red acid fruit 
Tungulu (eki), n. an onion t 
'Tungulula, v. keep in line in marching ; 

put a matter in the right light. 
Tung'ununa, v. be sweet 
Tuntu (e' ;), 11. mid-day 



208 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Tuntugulu (eki), n. large straw for suck- 
ing through 
Tunuka (en), n. abscess, esp. on hand 
Tunula, v. look 

tunulira, /. look at 
Tunumba (en), n. back of hill 
Tutira, v. be distended 
Tutuli (eki), ». a short thick bundle 

tutuli (omu), 11. a hunchback 
Tutumo (e' ;), n. fame 

tutumuka, v. be renowned 
Tutunuka, n. sprout of seeds. ? tunuka 
Tutwa (ebi), n. tassel 
Tuyo (en), n. perspiration 

tuyana, v. perspire 
Twa (obu), n. poison 
Twakala, v. be very red, crimson. 
Twala, v. take from one place to another 

twalo (omu), n. a native load, esp. of 
shells 
Twala, v. govern 

twale (ama), ;/. sphere of government 
Twe (omu), «. head 

twetwe (omu), n. head of bed 
Twere (en), ». beer during fermentation 
Tya, v. fear 

tibwa (eki), «. glory 

tisa, v. frighten 
tisa (en), n. fear 
Tyaba, v. gather dry sticks for firewood 
Tyanka, v. bully 
Tyemula, v. cut lengthwise 

kintyemula ememe, it terrifies me 
Tyetyemuka, v. laugh loudly ; be cut 
lengthwise 



Va, v. go out. [vude ; vibwa, pass.] 
•isa, c. 

visamu amagoba, make a profit * 
vo (omu), n. strait between two islands 
vanyuma (olu), adz<. afterwards. ? va- 

nyuma 
vanjuba (obu), n. the east. ? va-njuba 
Va (em), «. vegetables 
Vi (em), n. grey hairs. Cf. Vu 
Viri (em), n. hair of head 

viri (olu), n. a single hair 
Vivi (e' ; ama), «. a knee 
Vola, v. depreciate what you know to be 

good 
Vu (e' ;), n. ashes. ? grey state. Cf. Vi 
Vu (eki), n. a gadfly 
Vaba, v. catch fish 

vuhi (omu), n. a fisherman 
vuvuba, v. treat with a high hand 
Vuba (em), n. native stocks 
Viibika, 

evubika, r. eat meat gluttonously 
Vubo (em), ;/. hole for catching flying ants 
in 



Vubo (em), n. blacksmith's bellows 
vubikiriza, v. sprinkle forge fire with 
water, = tabira ; interrupt 
Vubu (era). «. on. a hippopotamus 
Vubuka, v. reach puberty 

vubuka (omu), n. a youth 
Vuga, v. sound, go off, as a gun 
Vuga, v. paddle 
Vuja, v. bring beer 
Vule (omu), n. a teak-tree 
Vuluga, v. mix 

vulungutana, v. speak indistinctly 
Vulumula, v. stare with wide-open eyes, 
— vulumula amaso 
vulumulira, /. stare at 
Vuma, v. revile, speak rudely to 

vumirira, p 2 . curse 
Viima, v. hiss, whizz. ? vu, on. 
vumira, /. low as cow for calf 
vi'iviima, v. hum, buzz 
viivumira (e' ;), n. a kind of bumble-bee 
Vumula, v. sling. ? vuma 
vumulo (em), n. a sling 
Vumula, v. be an antidote to 
Vumba, v. arrest, seize 

avumba e'toke, he eats ravenously 

vumbo (em), «. resin 

vumbo (omu), n. lock of hair ; bunch 01 

flowers ; bunch of tassel 
vumbagira, v. grip with both arms ; 
encircle ; enfold 
Vumbera, v. refuse to burn. ? vumba 

omuliro guvumbera 
Vumbe (z ;), ;/. a savoury smell 
Vumbika, v. put under tlie ashes 

vumbula, . rv. take out of the ashes ; 
discover 
vumbula obulago, speak up 
Vumvubika, v. swallow anything dis- 
agreeable 
evumvubika, r. go against great odds 
Vuna, v. break 

vunama, 7>. bend down 
vunana, v. lay to charge of; avenge 
omvunanira ki ? What have I done 
wrong ? 
Vunda, v. rot, go bad 
Vnnika, v. turn upside down ? vuna 
evunika, r. hide face on ground, or in 

arms 
vunula, rv. put right side up ; explain 

to 
evunulira, r. in wrestling, turn tables 
on 
'Vunuka, v. 
'vunuka olusozi, get to other side of hill 
'vunuko (enzi), n. other side of hill 

mu nzivunuko, on the opposite side 
Vunya, v. eat ravenously 

vunyo (em), n. a maggot 
Vunza (em), «. jigger t 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



209 



W 

Wa, v. t 2 . give, [wade ; webwa, pass.] 
wa (bu), adv. gratis 
wera, /. give to, as bribe, pay, etc. 
wera (emp-), n. gift for service ; pay 
wereza, c. make a present to ; send to ; 
serve 
Wa (olu), n. whistle, — fuwa oluwa 
Waba, v. go astray 
Wabula, v. tell name of guest 
Wabula, conj. except. Lit. there is mis- 
sing 
Wade, conj. nor 
Wafu (omu), n. wild plum-tree 
wafu (emp-), n. fruit of above 
Waga, v. support 

wagi (emp-), «. post of house 
Wa'gala, v. sharpen 

wa'gali (ama), ». hard edge ; obstinacy 
mawa'gali nga 'kambe e 'ziba, prov. 
Wagama, v. get stuck 
Waganya, v. squeeze through 
Wago, (olu), n. dried bladder 

wago (emp-), n. hollow between two 

hills 
wagula, v. break through jungle 
Wa'guka, v. grow tall 

ewa'gula, r. separate oneself; become a 
solitary 
Waguka, v. have a surfeit, food or drink 
Waka, v. be with young 
wasa, c. marry, of man 
wako (eg ; ama), ;/. 

bamu egwako, be with young, sheep, 
goats 
wakula, rv. take honey from bees — 
wakula enjuki 
Wakana, v. argue. ? waka 
Wakiri, conj. better (do) 
Wala, adv. long way off 

ewala, r. keep at a distance, avoid 
Wala, v. scrape as skin, or bark, [waze] 
walana, v. only as walana egwanga ku, 

take vengeance on 
walakata, v. scrape potatoes 
walakate (eki), «. parched verdureless 
place 
Wala, ?'. have the small-pox. [wade] 

wali (ka) — kawali, n.i. small-pox 
Walata (eki), //. baldness. ? walakata 

walata (einp-), n. a baldheaded person 
Walaza, v. be exuberant ; promise not to 

do 
Wali, (eg), ;/. stubbornness 
waliriza, v. compel to work 
walula, v. drag, [kulula] 

ewalula, r. crawl, as a man 
waluka, v. have diarrhoea, ['dukana] 
waluko (eki), n. diarrhoea, [eki'du- 
kano] 



ekiwaluko ekyomusai, dysentery 
Walucoco (— ; ba), n. tall weak man 
Walugungu ( — ; ba), n. full-grown man 

not filled out 
Wa'ma, int. 

Wa'ma, v. try to raise the wind 
Wamanta, v. grope after 

wamatuka, v. rush. Cf. inhutuka — fuba 
Wamba, v. appropriate ; take men as 
prisoners in war 
wambatira, v. embrace in arms 
wambula, v. run off with 

ensolo ewambude efumu lyange 
Wampa, int. answer of servant to call 
wampanya, v. invent lying excuses 
Wamvu, adj. tall, long, etc. 

wamvuwa, v. become tall, long, etc. 
Wana, v. set, urge on 
Wanda, v. 

wanda amalusu, spit 
wandula, v. spit out 
wandagala, v. pelt of rain, bullets, etc. 
wandagirira, v. drizzle of rain 
Wandika, v. write f 
Wanga, v. fix in handle, mortice, etc. 
ewanga, r. be able for, venture on. 
wangwa (obu), n. inherent nature 
wangula, rn. take out of handle, etc. 
wanga (eki), n. a skull 
wanga (eg ; ama), «. a nation 
wang'anguka, v. emigrate 
Wanga, v. injure 
wanga (eg), «. 

walana egwanga ku, take vengeance 
on 
Wanga (emp), n. a cock-fowl 

wanga (segjbas), n. a cock-bird 
Wangala, v. live, last a long time, [za, c] 
Wangi, int. answer of a servant 
Wangiza, v. prop up. ? waga 
Wangula, v. triumph over 
Wanika, v. hang up ; raise the price of 
wanika (eg ; ama), ;/. a store 
wanula, v. unhang, take down 
wanirira, p. z . keep from falling ; sell at 
an exorbitant price 
Wanjaga, v. throw blame on another ; 
beseech 
wanjagira, v. t. throw blame on another 
Wankawanka, v. pant ; long for 

wankawankira, /. long for a thing 
Wankaki, n. i. main front-door in fence. 

? wa- nkaki (kako) 
Wansa, v. buy at an exorbitant price 
Wansanso, n. i. main back-gate to fence, 

? wa- nsanso 
Wanuza, v. show what is right : correct 

wanuliza, p. 
Wanyi (olu), n. strychnia plant 
Wanyisa, v. exchange 
Wata, v. change one's place of living 

O 



210 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



wato (eki), n. flank, loin 
Wata, <'. peel plantains 

watula, v. drop its leaves 
Watu, int. 

mwana watu, my good friend 
Wawagula, v. prune ; treat roughly. 

? wagula 
Wawala, v. sing, of ears 

amatu gampawade 
Wawatiro (eki), n. wing. ? wata 
Wawo, i.e. wa awo 

Muganda wawo, a true born Muganda 
Wau (olu), ;/. sand-paper leaf; scraper 
used by potters 
wawula, v. polish, rub smooth 
emuli empawule, polished reeds 
Waya, v. 
wayira, /. put in a patch ; splice 
ewayirira, ;\ attribute words falsely ; 

give invented message 
wayiriza, p^.c. slander 
Waya, v. 

wa'yira, /. marry, of a woman 
Waza, v. rouse oneself ; compel 
Weba, r. 

mpebye, I have forgotten it 
webula, v. treat with disrespect 
W6ba, v. oscillate 

webuka, v.i. be diminished, [la, v.t.] 
We jawe'ja, v. pant, be out of breath 
we'jera, v. speak incessantly ; breathe 
hard in illness 
Weka, v. carry on back, as a child 
Wema, v. eat rice, beans, etc., without 

using the hands 
Wema, n. a tent t wema eno, etc. 
Wemba, v. take a present as propitia- 
tion 
Wementa, v. finish off every scrap 
Wemuka, v.i. act shamelessly 

wemula, v.t. speak obscenely 
Wenda, (eki), n. stern of canoe. ? cleaving 
wenda (olu), ;/. a track made by beating 

down the jungle 
wendo (eki), «. human sacrifice 
wendula, rv. call in help 
Wendo (omu), n. a number, value. ? wera 
Wenja, v. search for a lost thing 
Wenjula, v. 

emundu empenjule, a brcachloader 
Wenyera, v. be lame 

Wera, v. reach a number ; brandish a 
weapon in token of loyalty, [za, c. ] 
? gwa 
ensinibi ziweze : enaku ziwera meka? 
Wera, v. forbid 

werera, /. tell a man what to say ; set 

dogs, etc., on 
werekera, v. escort on way 
Wesa, v. work in metal, forge. ? weta 
wesi i^omu), n. a smith 



Weta, ■'. bend 
eweta, r. warp 

Wevuma, v. pant 

Wewa, v. winnow 

wewa olubuto, draw in the stomach 
wewa (eki), «. winnowing-tray 

Wewera, v. be smooth 

Wiringisa, v.t. roll [ta, T.i.] 

Wita, V. pass (' W only sounded after ' n 'i 

wisa, c. cause to pass ; practise habits 
isa wuzi mu mpiso, thread a needle 
wisa (emp-), n. habits, custom 

witirira, /,■ be advanced in age, time, 
etc. 

7fitiriza, c. make progress 

Wita, ('. Call ('W only sounded after ' n ') 

witaba, v. answer when called (yitaba) 
ewitabya, r. answer without being 
called ; echo. 
Wo (eki), n. abscess 
Woba. v. cry dolefully. ? wowe, on. 
wobe (eki), n. lamentation 
kuba ekiwobe, lament 
Wodzi, adv. perhaps 
Wogoka, v. be sprained 
wogola, v. t. break off 
wogole (emp-), n. plantains cooked in 
their skins 
fumba empogole 
Wojolo (eki), n. a butterfly 
Wola, v. borrow what is to be returned in 
value 
ewola, r. borrow for oneself 
Wola, v. grow cold 
woliij pt. cold, of food 
wolera, v. abate, of pain. ? wolerera 
Wola, 

woloma, v. low as a cow 
woza, c. plead 

wolereza,/ 2 . intercede for 
wolerera, p 2 . be attentive 
wologoma (emp-), n. a lion 
Wolera, v. avenge, [za, c] 
Woma, v. prop, up ; plaster 
ewoma, r. dodge a spear 
Woma, v. be good [eza, c.\ 

womerera, />,. be sweet 
Womba, v. ? wrap up (wumba) 

wombo (olu), n. leaf for cooking in 
womvu (eki), n. a valley 
wombeka, 

wombefu, //. humble 
ewombeka, r. be humble 
Wona, v.i. be cured 

wonya, c. cure 
Wonga, v. make an offering to 
wongera, /. make offering to 
Wonzi, (— ; ba), n. kind of kite 
Wotera, v. look sad 
Wotoka, v. t. be withered, [fu, pt.} 
wotokerera, /,. begin to wither 



VOCABULARY— LUGANDA-ENGLISH 



211 



Wowogana, v. cry, 'wowe'; lament 
Wowoja, v. squeeze into as small a compass 

as possible. ? wojolc 
Wowongola, v. hollow out 

wowongole (eki), n. anything hollowed 
out, or emptied ; an empty-headed 
man 
Wowota, v. hush a baby [era, v. /.] 
Woyawoya, v. soothe 
Wdza, v. levy a due 

woza (emp-), the due levied 
Wuba, v. slip from memory 

nawubirwa buwubirwa, I did it by 
mistake 
wubyawubya, c. make a feint 
Wuba, v. swing 
Wubala, v. look sad 
Wuge (olu), «. verdigris 

wugwe (eg- ; ama), n. a lung 
Wugulu (eki), n. an owl 
Wugusa. 

ewugusa, r. pretend not to know 
Wuja (ma), adv. 

laba mawuja, glance sideways 
Wu'ja, v. fan 
Wuju, n.i. native marrow 
Wukira, v. swell 

Wula(ama), n. creeper used for tying (eg-) 
Wula, v. thresh ; make distant raid on 
wulula, pull grains off cob, beads off 
thread, etc. 
Wula, Pwolalll. 

wufu, //. guka mu luwufu, of two 
people arriving unexpectedly at the 
same point on a road 
wulira, v. hear ; perceive by smell 
wuliru (emp-), n. orifice of ear ; nostril ; 

note (hole) on a flute 
wuliriza, p,.c. listen to 
wulikika, /•. be audible 
wuluguma, v. roar 
wulunguta, v. rumble 
Wulu'tuka, v. slip-of a noose. 
Wumba, v . wrap up for cooking. ? womba 
Wumba, v. be worm-eaten 
wumbu (emp-), n. dust from worm-eaten 
wood 
Wumula, v. bore a hole. 
Wumula, v. rest 
Wuna, v. 011. hoot 
wunya, 

ewunya, r. be astonished; say wo o o . 
wunikirira, p 3 . be astonished in silence, 
[za, c] 
Wanda, v. sew beads in pattern. 

wundulula, rv. unsew. [wundulukuka, 
v. ».] 
Wundu (eki). n. a wound * 
Wungera, v. close in, of the day 
obude buwungede 

1 Strikingly like 



Wungula, v. t. cross over a ferry, [ka, v. i. ] 
Wungutuka, v. have a deceptive appear- 
ance. 
Wunjula, v. turn sideways 
wunzika, v. incline to one side 
ewunzika, r. be on slant 
Wunya, v. i. smell, have a smell 

wunyiriza, v.t. smell 
Wu'ta, v. leave potato or yam too long 
in the ground ; be in second child- 
hood 
wu'ta (eki), n. a potato or yam so left 
Wuta, v. drink with a sucking sound 
Wu'tula, v. thrash 
Wuwo (aka), n. tad of snake 
Wuwutanya, v. eat as when a thing is very 

hot to mouth 
Wuzi, «. z'. thread, cotton 
Wuzuma, v. hunt for what is visible 



Yaba, v. 

yabya, c. pull down ; remove old work 

yabya olumbe, finish mourning 
eyabya, r. be free, ' on his own hook '; 
find room, — seyabya, I have no. 
room: = eyabiza 
yabika, v.t. be destroyed, [fu, pt. ] 
yabiza, c. 

eyabiza, r.t. have full confidence in 
yabirira, p 2 . be thin, transparent, as 

bark-cloth, [vu. //.] 
yabula, v.t. go to other side 

yabula olusozi, 
yabulukuka, v.i. be dispersed — of 
meeting 
Yaga (omu), «. storm 
Yaga, 

eyaga, r. scratch itself with foot as 

animal 
yagula, v. scratch itchy place 
Yaga, 
yagiriza, p.c. sooth 
yagala, v. want, love 
yagagala, v. be spread out 
Ya'ga, v. cry for grief 
Yagi (omu), n. tomato-plant 
yagi (enj-), n. tomato-fruit 
yagi (ek), n. grain-store 
Yai (ek), w. dry plantain-bark 

yai (enj-), n. bhang 
Yaka, v. burn brightly ; be hot 

omusana gwase ; omuliro gwaka 
yakayakana, v. shine, glitter 
Yaka, 

eyaka, r. walk fast, [sa, c] 
Yako (olw-). n. a trench 
Yala, v. spread 

yala (omw-), n. mid-stream 

yala (olw-), n. nail, of hand or foot 

a transliteration. 



212 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



yala (ek), n. thumb 
yalo (ek), n. a plantain-garden 
yalo (omw-), n. a landing-place 
yazi (olw-), n. rock as spread out 
yaliri (e'j- ;), «. 

okuwebwa e'jaliri oku-, be wholly 

given to 
bamuwade e'jaliri 
yalula, v. be unspread 
Yalula, v. hatch eggs 
Tama (ek), n. a secret 

adv. secretly ; -akyama, secret 
eyama v. make a vow 
eyamo (obw), n. a vow 
Yamba, v. help. ? stick to 

yambi (e'j- ;), n. a kind of fish 
yambala, v. put on clothes 
yambula, rv. put off clothes 
Yambuka, v. go up 
Yana, v. be homeless 
Yana, v. make a loud piercing noise. 
? make evident 
enjovu eyana ; emundu eyanye 
yanya, c. flower, as Indian corn, etc. 
yana (omw-), n. child, chicken, kid, 

etc. 
yana (en), n. a calf 
yana (ek), v. a calf-elephant 
yana (ak-), n. a very wee mite 
yanika, n. put out in sun ; expose a 

wrong-doer 
yanula, rv. take out of sun 
yanukula, v. respond when spoken to 
Yanda (er ;), n. a hot cinder 
yanda (am-), n. charcoal 
yanda (ek), n. drought 
yanda (bw-), adv. 

simba obwanda, keep up one's posi- 
tion permanently 
yandayanda, v. be spent, in running 
Yanga (e'j ;), n. watery eyes 
Yanga, 
yangu, pt. light ; not difficult 
yangu (m-), adv. quickly. 

amangwago (amangu ago), this in- 
stant 
yangu wa, v.i. be quick, [ya, c.~\ 
yanguyako, hurry up 
yangwe (ek), n. a loofah 
yanguririza, p 2 .c. do hastily 
yanga'nga, v. dare, make light to do. 

For yangayanga 
yanza, c. 

yanza emikono, feel about with 
hands 
eyanza, r. give thanks 
yanzi (e'j- ; ), n, cicala, cricket 
Yanja (en), a stretch of water 
yanjo (ek), «. an untanned hide 
yanjala, v. cover a large area 

amadzi gayanjala. ? yanjawala 



yanjala, v. spread out 

eyanjala, r. stand astride 
yanjula, v. announce a visitor 
yanjulula, v. unfold as leaves ; unearth 

what is hidden 
yanjuluza, c. unfold 
yanjulukuka, v.i. be unfolded ; melt 
Yanzi (ek), n. a wooden milk-pot. 
Yasi (ek), n. a cartridge 
Yata, v. deflower 

yato (er), n. a canoe, (obw-) 
yasa, c. split firewood 
yasama, v. open, as mouth 
yatika, v.i. be split, [fu, //.] 
yatika (olw-), n. a crack 
yatu (lw-), adv. openly 

mu Iwatu, openly 
yatikirira, p?. be famous, (yatukirira) 
yatula, v. make known 
Yawa, v. pluck leaves for vegetables 
yawula, v.t. separate, [ka, v.i.] 

yawukana, rec. be separated from each 
other 
yawulula, v. diminish a too heavy load 
Yayn (omu), n. on. a wild cat 
yayuwa, v. yawn 
yayuyo (ek), n. a yawn 
Ye (olu), w. a vast host 

ye (eg ;), n. a host, army 
Yegulula, v. shake and threaten to fall 
eyegulula, r. shift ; to allow another 

space to pass 
yegulukuka v.i. be shaken 
Yejo (ek), n. insolence 

gira ekyejo, act insolently 
Yekanya, v. urge on dogs, hunters 
Yembe (e'j- ; ama), n. a horn ; a clay 

charm. ? hooklike 
Yenda, v.i. commit adultery, [zi, «.] 

yenda ku (or ne), c. ad. with 
Yendo (olw), n. a ladle 
Yenga, v. make a decoction of medicine, 
by kneading with hands 
yenge (omw-), «. native beer from ba- 
nanas 
yemvn (er ; am-), «. a ripe banana 
yengera, v. get ripe 

yengera (ek) n. time of plenty 
yengerera, / 2 . be at forging heat, iron ; 

be ripe, as a boil 
yengetuka, v. droop with the sun 
Yengo (e'j-; ama), n. a wave. ? yenga 

(yengetuka) 
Yenja, v. totter as a drunkard 
yenje (en), n. a moth, cockroach 
yenje (e'j- ; ama), n. kind of cricket 
yenje (ma), 

enkoko ya mayenje, speckled fowl 
yenjebuka, v. be weak from illness 
yenjera, v. float on water 
Yenkana, v. be equal 



VOCABULARY — LUGANDA-ENGLI3H 



213 



ayenkana wa ? how tall is he ? 
yenkanenkana, v. be alike as to size ; 

be abreast 
yenkanyiyenkanyi (ek), adv. alike, 
abreast 
Yenyi (ek), n. forehead 
Vera, v. be luxuriant ; grow well, flowers 
Yera, v. sweep. ? ya 
yeyo (olw-), «. a broom 
yere, pt. 

enyama enjere, raw meat 
enyanja enjere, islandless sea 
yerere, adj. with nothing in it 
yerere (bw-), adv. in vain 

yakola obwerere, he worked naked 
yerero (ek), n. clear place under a tree ; 

shallow in a river 
yeru, //. clear of trees, colour, etc. 
olusozi olweru, a treeless hilt 
ente enjeru, white cow 
yeru (bw-), adv. outside ; esp. ebweru 

(e locative) 
yerula, v. clean up rubbish — mweru- 
lawo ; bring to light ; clear, sky 
eyerula, v. come out of hiding, re- 
tirement, etc. 
Yerende (ak-), n. lump of salt 
Yeya (ek), n. dry season. ? ya (yera) 
Yeyendere (ek), n. voluntary act 

yeyendere (ek) adv. voluntarily 
Yeyereza, v. continually harp on a matter 
Yi (eki), n. a handful 

yiwa, v. pour away, [yiyej (yuwa) 
yira (Ki-), pr. n. the Nile 
yiriro (eki-), n. rapids 
Yiba (e'j- • ama), n. a dove 
Yima (aka), «. a hare 
Yini (omu-), n. a hoe-handle 
Yinja (e'j- ; aina), n. a stone 
Yinula, v. 

eyinula, r. be rash ; attempt what is 
beyond one 
Yiya, v. extemporize, invent 

yiya amagezi, suggest a way 
Yoba (e'j- ; ama), n. a crest 
Yobera, v. be spiritless 
yobera (ek), n. ennui 
Yogayoga, int. well done 
yozayoza, c. congratulate 
yogo (olu), n. din of applause 
yogana, v. make a din 
yogera, v. say 

yogera(enj-), n. pronunciation, accent 
yogerera wagulu, shout 
yogereza, v. ask in marriage 
yogerereza, v. reconcile 
Yrgi (obw-), n. edge of a knife 
Yoka (olw- ; enj), n. that which causes 

most internal complaints 
Yokya, v. be hot ; roast 

yokyo (olw-), n. tattoo-mark made by fire 



yokereza, v. set fire to 
Yola (olu), n. pattern on a native pot 

yola, v. make that pattern ; carve 
Yola, v. collect and remove with hands 
yole (enj), n. 

enjole zesubi, 'handfuls' of grass 
yoleka, v. i. be reviewed, army. ? be 

mustered 
yolesa, c. show 
Yomba, v. find fault with, quarrel 

yombo (olu), n. dissension 
Yombo (ek), «. a foreign boatt 
Yonda, v. round, finish off, only in 

yonda emifubeio, tie reeds of side* 
posts 
yondo (ek), n. large bay, gulf 
Yondo (en), n. a hammer 
Yongera, v. increase 

eyongera, v. i. be increased 
Yongo (obw-), n. brains 
Yongobera, v. be weak, illness ; droop. 

trees 
Yonona, v. dirty, as a bird ; spoil 
yononeka, v. i. be spoiled 
yonyi (en), n. a bird 
kanyonyi, a little bird 
Yonja. v. adorn, embellish 

yonjo (ek), n. a coop 
Yonka, v. suck, [sa, c] 

akyayonka (ayonka), of child, he is. 
quite well 
Yonzira (ek), n. offering 
Yoaa, v. rest 

yosawo enkya, wait over to-morrow 
yosana, v. bargain 
Yota, v. warm oneself 
yota (enj), «. thunderbolt 
yotc (ek), n. place to warm at ; a fire 
yoteia, v. fumigate 
yotereza, «.. fumigate 

yoterezo (ek), n. framework for hold- 
ing barkcloth to be fumigated 
Yovu (enj-), n. elephant ; weevil 
Yoya, v. long for 
Yoyo (omw-), n. heart, spirit. ? flutter 

yoyo (ek), n. the darter bird 
Yoza, v. wash clothes, [zi, «.] ? yola 
yoleza ku sanduku, wash on a box 
Yuba (enj-), ;/. sun. ? coming out 
yubwe (eki), n. cast off snake-skin 
yubula, v. strip off 

yubuluza, v. peel midriff off plantain 
leaf 
Yuga, v. swim 
yugana, v. shake 
yuguma, v. shake 
Yuki (enj-), n. a bee 
Yula, 
yuza, c. rend 
yulika, v. i. be rent 
Yulubuza = yubuluza 



214 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Yuma (ek), n. iron ; metal, glass ; machine 
Yunga, v. join ; catch 

yungu (eki), n. kitchen 

yungula, v. choose out the l>est ; draw 
off best of ' mubisi ' 

yunguhtkuka, v. i. be boiled to shreds; 
be watered to nothing 
Yunja, v. 

yunja amatoke, gather plantains 
Yunja (ki), adv. 

tunulira kiyunja, look askance 
Yuwa, = yiwa, pour 

yuwako esubi, spread grass for tying 
Yuya, v. shake 



Za (eki), «. hair of pubes 

Zabu, n. gold.t zabu eno, etc. 

Zaburi, tt. psalm ; book of Psalms, t Za- 

buri eno, etc. 
Zala, v. bear, generate ; produce, [zade | 
zade (omu), n. parent ; near elder rela- 
tive 
zade (e' ;), n. descendants 
za]wa (en), «. homeborn, native 
zala, tt. i. gambling, game 

zala ono mulungi : ebitono bizala 
ebingi 
zalibwa (ama), n. birthday 
zaliro (e' ,-), ;/. birthplace 
zalisa (omu), //. midwife 
zalana, rec. 

nzalanwa naye, he and I are of same 
parentage 
zaliranwa (obu), >i. nature got at birth 
Zama, -<•. l>e quenched, =zikira 
Zanya, v. play 

zanyo (omu), tt. a game 
zanyikiriza, I;, c. force into play ; tan- 
talize 
Zana (omu), .v. a female slave 
Zawa, v. be lost, disappear 
zaya, c. lose 

zawula, rv. find, discover, [ka, v.i.] 
Ze (omu), ;/. a bad habit 
Zi (omu), ;/. a small root 

gundi alina emizi, so and so is cool, 
intrepid 
zi (emi), tt. dung, (ama) 
zizi (eki), tt. on a ceiling 
zizi (olu), ;/. on a partition, fence, etc. 
zizi (se), ;/. top roll of reeds on a fence 
zizi (omu), tt. a weal 
zizika, v. put a log to prevent earth 

falling, etc. 
ziziko (omu), n. the log so put 
Ziba, v. be stopped up 

obude buzibye, the day is over 
ziba (obu), tt. mid-lake 
zibe (omu), tt. blind or deaf person 
omuzibe wamatu, wamaso 



zibo (omu), u. border of a country 
zibya, c. 

zibya obude, go on till quite dark 
zibira, p. come to the rescue, defend 
zibirira, / 2 . close eyes while awake 

obude butuzibiride, we are belated 
zibikira, ■:■. cork up 
zibikiriza, /•. c. restrain from tears, etc. ; 

forbear towards 
zibu, //. hard, difficult 

ekigambo ekizihu ; omulimu muzibu 
zibula, ;-'. unstop, [ka, T.i.] 
zibikula, n<. uncork, [ka, v. i. ] 
Zibawo (eki), ;/. a waistcoat t 
Ziga, v. paint on 

ziga (e' ; ama), «. a tear 

zigo (omu), n. fat, butter 

zigo (mu), — muzigo, n. i. cloudiness 

without rain 
zigizigi, ad7'. intensive of blackness 

ekute zigizigi, it is pitch dark 
zigula, rv, brighten, polish, metals 
Ziga, v. observe the trail of animals 
zige (en), n. locust 
zigo (eki), n. circle within which a 

hunted ben.st is known to be 
ziga (namu) ;), ;/. a wooden ring, hoop 
Zigaga, v. l>e dirty ; be inhospitable 
zigamira, /. treat with inhospitality — 
yanzigamide 
Zigaja, 

amabere ga zigaja, full grown but do 
not hang down 
Zigeye, 

emviri za zigeye, long straight hair 
Zika, <•. go out of cultivation — ekyalo 
kizise 
ziku (en), n. stricture, gonorrhoea 

ziku (omu), n. one who has ' enziku ' 
zikira, v. go out. [za, c.~\ 
zikiza (en), «. darkness, (eki) 
zikirira, /. be ruined, poverty-stricken 
zikiriza, <\ destroy 
Zika, 7>. bury, cover with earth. ? ziya 

zikula, n 1 . dig up, unbury 
Zima , v. kidnap a person 

zimirira, /. 2 . be lost to sight, as things 
laid aside ; or as canoe on horizon 
zimu (omu), tt. evil spirit 
zimu (aka), tt. little spirit, applied to 

rheumatic pains 
zimulula, rv. exorcise 
Zima (ma), adv. exactly so, truly 

zima (ama), n. (in trans.) truth = obuta- 

limba 
zimula, v. treat or do magnificently * 
Zimba, v. swell ; a limb to feel tense, hot 
and uncomfortable^, — okugulu ku- 
nzimbye 
zimba (eki), tt. an abscess 
zimbulukuka, v. ferment as yeast 



VOCABULARY — ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



215 



ozimbulukuse ? is the aching pain 
better? 
Zimba, v. build. ? grow in size 
zimba (en), n. style of building 
zimbulula, rv. take clown work badly done 
zimbululawo = temawo 
Zimu (eki), 11. a buckle 
Zimiila, v. elevate the eyebrows in con- 
tempt ; take offence at — anzimude 
Zina, v. dance 

zinyisa, c. keep on the alert 

basuze batuzinyisa 
zina (e' ; ama), n. a dance 
Zinda, v. take by surprise 

zinda ebyalo, when a debt is unpaid, 
etc. 
zindo (eki), ;/. a royal raid 
zindukiriza, v. surprise with intent, as 
in hunting 
Zindala, v. become deaf. ? zinda 
amatu gazindade 
zindalo (onm), ;/. a funnel 
Zinga, v. fold. ? encircle 

zinga engoye, enkata, etc. 
zingazinga, v. fold badly ; tangle 
zinga (eki), n. an island ; honeycomb 
zinge (mu ; bamu), n. king of birds 
zingira, /. grip in wrestling 
zingiza, c. surround 
zingirira, / 2 : wind, twist 

zingirira wuzi, twist up thread 
zingoje (omu), «. middle leaf of plantain 
zinzikirira, v.i. =baga, start 'bizizi' 
zingulula, rv. untwist 
zizingirira, v. do work roughly 

ozizingiride buzizingirizi ; si kukola 
okwo 
zing'ama, v. be stunted in growth 
zing'amu (omu), ;/. stunted clump 

oli muzing'amu, a term of great abuse 
Zinzibala, v. be a silent spectator 
Zira, v. look down upon ; refuse as in- 
significant 



zirira, p. x . tum up nose at 
zirula, v. reconcile, compensate 
zizizizi (omu), ;/. one who habitually 
despises what is given to him 
Zira, ? not, not to be, do 

zira (wa), conj. except, wabula 
zira (omu), //. sacred animal which 
members of that clan must not eat 
ziza, c. forbid as unlawful 
zizo (omu), n. the thing so forbidden 
Zira, adj. brave 
Zira (omu), ;/. hail 

kubaomuzira, raise a sound of 'ye, ye 
ye ' (joy) 
Zira (en), ;/. a span 
Ziro (en), n. soot 
Ziru (omu). //. a tree 

ziru (en), ;/. the fruit of same 
Zito, adj. heavy 

zitowa, v.i. be heavy, [ya, r. ] 
zitowerera, / 2 . be burdened heavily 
zitowereza, v.t. burden heavily 
Ziya, 

ziira, p. be overcrowded, of plants 
ziivu, //. blocked up, crowded 
ziza, c. hinder, (ziiza) 
Zuka, ? zula, reappearance 

zukira, /. awake out of unconsciousness 
zukuka, v. be awake 
zukusa, c. awake 
Zula, v. find a lost thing. ? zawa 

zuka, v.i. be found 
Zunjja, v.i. stagger ; switch through air, 
as a stick 
omutwe gunzunze, my head swims 
zunza, c. 

zunza omugo, swish a rod through the 
air to and fro 
zung'ana./Yc go backwards and forwards 

ozung'ana na ki ? 
zung'anya, c. =tawana, be busied 
zungulula, v. go round 

ekisakate kizungulude enju 



ENGLISH-LUGANDA • 



The pages quoted refer mostly to those on which an Exercise occurs containing a sentence illustra- 
tive of the use of the word. 



Ability (to have a. for), v. inza 
Able (to be), v. Seep. 119, 'can' 
About, prep, ku, p. 104 

,, adv. nga 
Above, adv. engulu 
Abscess, «. ekizimba 
Abundant, adj. ngi 



Abuse, v. vuma 

Accept, v. tola 

Accompany, v. werekera ; besabesa 

Accomplished (to be), v. malirira 

Account of (on), prep, olwa, kubwa 

Accuse, v. lopa 

,, (publicly), wemukiriza 
,, (another), ekobereza 
I Ache, v. luma 



2l6 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Ache, n. (stiff paios), nakanyama 
Acquire, v. fiina 

,, (chieftainship), lya obwami 
,, (royal chieftainship), lya cngoma 
,, (land), lya ensi 
Adjoin, v. lirana 

Admiration (to cause), v. sanyusa, simya 
Admire = to cause admiration 
Adultery (to commit), v. yenda 
Advice, n. use verb advise 
Advise, v. wa amagezi 
Adze, v. baja 
Affair, n. ekigambo 
Afraid (to be), v. tya 
After, adv. (of place), enyuma 

,, (of time), oluvanyuma, e'da 
Afternoon (in the), olwegulo, egulo 
Again, adv. ate, nate 

(to say), v. 'damu 
Agree to, v. kiriza 
Agreement, n. endagano 

,, (to make an), r. lagana enda- 
gano 
Ague, it. omusuja 
Alarm, n. endulu 

,, (to raise an), v. kuba endulu 
All, adj. ona 
Allow, v. ganya 
Alone, adv. bwomu, p. 152 
,, (to go), v. tambula omu, genda 
omu 
Ancle, ;/. akakongovule 
And, conj. ne (ni); na; after neg., era 
Angry (to be), v. sunguwala 
Animal (wild), ;/. ensolo 
Annoy, v. teganya 
Annoyed (to be), v. nyiga 
Annul, v. julula 
Another, adj. lala 
Answer, v. 'damu 

,, (when called), witaba 
Ant (white), n. enkuyege 
,, (biting), ;/. ensanafu 
,, (flying), n. enswa 
Ant-hill, n. ekiswa 
Anxious (to be), v. eralikirira 
Aperture, n. ekituli 
Appear, ?'. labika 

,, (as an eruption), butuka 
Appease, v. woyawoya 
Appoint, v. sawo, tekawo 
Appointment (to make), V. lalika 
Approach, v. sembera 
Appropriate, v. twala ebitali bibyo 
Argue, v. wakana 
Arise, v. imuka 
Arm, n. omukono 
Arm-pit, ;/. enkwawa 
Army, n. egye 
Arrange, v. longosa 
ts. 'rive, v. tuka 



Arrow, n. akasale 
As, conj. nga, nga . . . bwe 
Ascend, v. linya, yambuka 
Ashamed (to be), v. kwatibwa ensonyi 
Ashes, n. e'vu 
Ask, v. (request), saba 
,, (in marriage), yogereza 
,, (question), buza 
Asleep (to be), v. ebaka 
Assemble, v. kungana 
At, prep, (place), e 
At noon, adv. mu tuntu 
At once, adv. amangwago, kakati 
At the side, prep, ku 'ball lya, ku ma- 

'bali ga [wa] 
Attack, v. lumba 
Aunt, n. sengawo (thy a.), sengange (my 

a.)> etc. 
Avoid, v. ewala 
Awake (to be), v. golokoka 
Awaken, v. golokosa 
Away, v. (get), 'duka 

,, (go), va 

,, (take), gyawo, gyako, gyamu 

,, (throw), sula 

,, (empty), yuwa 
Away, adv. (far) wala 
Axe, ;/. embadzi 

B 

Bachelor, n. omuwulu 
Back, n. omugongo 
Backbone, n. ekigongo 
Bad, adj. bi 
Badly, adv. bubi 
Bag, «. ensawo 
Baggage, ;/. emigugu 
Bale (of cloth), n. omutwalo 
Ball, «, omupira 
Bandage, v. sabika 

,, «. olugoye olusiba, enkampa 
Bare, adj. yeru 
Bargain, v. lamula 
Bark, v. (like a dog), bogola 
Bark-cloth, n. olubugo 
Bark -cloth mallet, n. ensamu 
Basin, n. bakuli 

Bask, v. (in the sun), yota omusana 
Basket, ;/. ekibo 
Bat, n. (animal), eking'iro 
Be, aux. v. ba 
Beads, n. (small), obukwanzi, obutiti 

,, n. (large), obuvuma 
Bear, v. zala 

,, (patiently), gumikiriza 
Beard, n. ekirevu 

Beast, n. (wild), ensolo [ing' 

Beat, v. kuba. See p. 1 70 ' Ways of thrash- 

,, (earth for floor), samba 

,, (on the ground)/ kubirira 
Because, conj. kubanga 



VOCABULARY — ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



217 



Become, v. fuka 
Bedstead, n. ekitanda 
Bee, n. enjuki 
Beer, n. omwenge 
Begin, v. soka, tandika 
Behind, adv. enyuma 

, , prep, nyuma wa 
Belch, v. bejagala, kuba mpiyi 
Believe, v. = think, suppose, p. 133 
Bell, n. ekide 
Belong to, beramu, p. 56 
Belly, n. olubuto 
Bend down, v. vunama 
Bereaved (to be), v. firwa 
Betray, v. lyamu olukwe 
Better (be), v. (of illness), su'ka. [bususeko] 

11 (get), wona 
Between, prep, wakati mu 
Bhang, n. enjai 
Bind, v. siba 

Binding, n. (on a reed wall), oluzizi 
Bird, ft. enyonyi 
Birdlime, «. obulimbo 
Birth (to give birth to), v. zala 
Bite, v. luma 
Black (to be), v. 'dugala 
Black, adj. 'dugavu 
Blame, v. nyenya, vunana 
Blanket, v. ekikunta 
Blaze, v. (gently, as a fire), yaka 

,, (furiously), bubuka 
Bless, v. saba omukisa 
Blessing, n. omukisa 

Blind-man, v. omuzibe wamaso; omutulu 
Block, v. ziba, p. 97 
Blood, >?. omusai 
Blot out, v. sangula 
Blow, v. (gently), fuwa 

,, (as a storm), kunta 

,, (bellows), fukuta 

,, ffire), kuma omuliro 

,, (out a light), zikiza 

„ (nose), nyiza mu nyindo, nyiza emi- 
nyira 
Boar, ft. (wild), embidzi 
Boast, v. enyumiriza 
Boat, 11. ekyombo 
Body, n. omubiri 
Boil, v. (cook), fumba 

,, (bubble gently), tokota 

,, (bubble furiously), esera 
Bone, n. e'gumba 
Book, n. ekitabo 
Boot, n. engato 
Boot-lace, n. olulere, olukoba 
Bore, v. (a hole), wumula 
Bother, v. teganya, luma, p. 104 
Bottle, n. ecupa 
Bottom, it. (of a vessel), entobo 
Bough, ;/. e'tabi 
Boundary, ;/. ensalo 



Bowels, n. ebyenda 

Bowl, n. (small wooden), akatiba 

,, (larger wooden), olutiba 

,, (earthenware), ekibya 

,, (European), bakuli 
Box, n. esanduku 
Boy, n. omulenzi 
Brains, n. obwongo 
Branch, n. e tabi 
Brass, n. ekikomo 
Brave, adj. zira 
Bray, v. (of donkey), kaba 
Bread, n. omugate 
Break, v. menya; yasa 

,, (anything brittle), yasa 

,, (an egg), kona 

,, (violently), vuna 

,, (in two), menyamu 
Breast, n. e'bere 
Breath, «. omuka 
Breathe, v. sa omuka 
Bride, n. omugole 

Bridegroom, w, [awasa omugole], omusaja 
Bridge, n. olutindo 
Bridle, tt. olukoba 
Bring, v. leta 

„ 'material), somba 

„ (3n), ingiza 
Broad, adj. gazi 

Broken (to be), v. menyeka ; kutuka 
,, (anything brittle), yatika 
„ (in two), menyekamu 
Brother, n. (one of the clan), owoluganda 
,, (of a brother), omuganda 
,, (of a sister), mwanyina 
Build, v. zimba 

,, (a boat), siba eryato 
Bull, n. ente ya sedume, sedume 
Bullet, 11. e'sasi 
Bundle, n. omuganda 
,, (long), olusekese 
,, (of bedding), omugugu 
,, (of shells, etc. ), omutwalo 
Burn, v. (brightly as a fire), yaka 

,, (as food), sirira 

Burn, (to be), v. gya 
Burst, v. yulika 
Bury, v. zika 
But, con;', naye, wabula 
Butter, n. omuzigo 
Butter-milk, n. amasunda 
Butterfly, ;/. ekiwojolo 
Button, 11. e'pesa 
Buy, v. gula 
„ (back), nunula 



Cage, n. ekiguli 
Calabash, n. (large), ekita 

,, (smaller), endeku 

Calf, ;/. enyana 



218 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Calf (of leg), entumbwe 
Call, v. tuma, wita 
Calm (to be), teka 
Camel, «. engamira 
Camp, «. ekisulo 

,, (encampment), ensisira 
Campaign, n. olutabalo 

,, (to make), tabala 

Can, v. See p. 119 
Candle, n. etabaza 
Cane, n. (stick), oluga 

,, (sugar-), ekikajo 
Cannon, ;/. omuzinga 
Canoe, n. eryato 
Cap, //. enkofira 
,, (gun), fataki 
Capital, «. (town), ekibuga 
Captive, 11. omusibe 
Capture, v. kwata 

,, (by surprise), zinda 
Care (take care of), v. kuma 
Careful (to be), v. egendereza 
Carefully (handle), v. kwata mpola 
Carpenter, n. omubadzi 
Carry, v. etika 

(off), nyaga 

,, (on back), as a child) weka 
Cait, n. egari 

Cartridge-belt, n. emanzamu 
Case, n. (matter), ebigambo, ensonga 

,, (criminal), omusango 

,, (box), esanduku 

,, (small tin), ekibweta, bweta 
Cat, «. (wild), omuyayu 

,, (tame), ekapa 
Catch, v, kwata 

,, (slaves, animals, etc.), fuga 

,, (of rain), kuba, p. loo 

,, (rain in a vessel), lembeka 

,, (fire), gya mu muliro 
Cave, n. empuku 
Cease, v. koma, ycsa 
Certain (to make), v. etegereza 
Certainly, adv. mazima 
Chair, «. entebe 
Change, v. kyusa 

,, (appearance), efula 
Charge, v. kutira 

,, (accuse), lumiriza 
,, (as a bull), tomera 
Charred (to be), v. sirira 
Cheat, v. lyazamanya 
Check, v. ziiza 
Cheek, n. e'tama 
Chest, 11. ekifuba 
Chew, v. gaya 

,, (the cud), lya obwekulumo 
Chief, n. omwami, omukungu 
Chiefs residence, n. embuga 
Child, n. omwana 

,, (in arms), omwana omuwere 



Child (little), akana 

,, (male), omwana owobulenzi 

,, (female), omwana owobuwala 
Chisel, //. ensinjo 
Choose, v. sima 

,, (pick out), londamu, eroboza 
Church, ;/. ekanisa 
Churn, v. sunda 
Circumcise, v. komola 
City, ;/. use name of place 
Clan, n. ekika 
Clean, adj. lungi, longofu 

,, v. naza 

,, (to be), v. tukula 
Clever, adj. -amagezi 
Cleverness, ;/. amagezi 
Climb, v. linya 
Cling, v. kwata ku 
Clock, n. esawa 
Close, v. (stop up), ziba 

,, (as a door), 'galawo 

,, (eyes whilst awake), zibirira 
Clothes, n. engoye 
Cloud, //. ekire 
Coast, 11. empwanyi 
Coat, ;/. ekizibawo 
Cob, //. (of corn), omunuwa 
Cockroach, n. enyenje 
Coffee, //. (bean), emwanyi 

,, (roasted), kawa 
Cold, adj. wolu 

,, //. (in the head), senyiga 
Collect, v. (as tribute), soloza 

,, (as earth, ashes, etc.), yola 
Comb, v. sansula (emviri) 
Come, v. ja 

,, (in), ingira 

,, (back), komawo 

,, (near), sembera 

,, (off), va ku 

,, (off as an event), bawo 

,, (out), fuluma, va mu 

,, (to an end), konia, gwa (gwa-wo,- 
ko, -mu) 

,, (upon), sanga 

,, (to hand), labika 

,, (to one's senses), e'damu 

,, (upon suddenly), zindukiriza 
Command, v. lagira 
Commandment, n. eteka 
Company, n. ekibina 
Compel, v. waliriza 
Complain, v. ekanya 
Complete (to be), v. tukirira 

,, 7'. mala, kamala, maliriza 
Completely fast (to be), v. nyuwerera 
Conceal, v. kweka, kisa 
Condemn, v. sala omusango 
Conduct (on the way), v. werekera 
Confess, v. yatula 
Conquer, v. goba ; wangula 



VOCABULARY— ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



219 



Consent, v. kiriza ; ganya 
Consult with, v. tesa na 
Contract a debt, v. lya e'banja 
Converse, v. nyumya 
Convulsions (to have), v. sansagala 
Coo, v. kaba 
Cook, v. fumba 

,, «. omufumbiro 
Cooked (to be), «. gya 
Cooking-place, ». ekiyungu 
Cooking-pot, «., (earthen, large), entamu 
,, ,, (smaller), kasaka entamu, 
kasaka 
Cooking-stone, n. e'siga 
Cool (to be), v. (of things), nyogoga 

,, (of men), ba nemizi 
Cord, n. omuguwa 
Corner, n. ensonda 
Corpse, n. omulambo 
Cost, n. omuwendo 
Cotton, n. (thread), wuzi 
,, (wool), pamba 

Cough, v. kolola 
Council, n. olukiko 
Count, v. bala 
Courageous (to be), v. guma 
Cousin, n. owoluganda 
Cover, n. ekisanikizo 

,, (small mat work), ekisansa 

,, v. bika 

,, (food in pot), sanika 

,, (as bandage), sabika 
Cow, n. ente 
Cowdung, n. obusa 
Cowrie, n. ensimbi 
Crack, n. olwatika 
Cracked (to be), v. yatika 
Cramp (to have), v. sanyalala 
Crane, n. (golden-crested), eng'ali 
Crawl, v. (as a child), yavula 

,, (as a man), ewalula, ekulula 

,, (as a snail), kulula 
Cream, n. olububi livamata 
Create, v. tonda 
Crest, «. e'joba 
Croak, v. kaba 
Crooked (to be), v. kyarna 
Cross, v. (a river), somoka 

,, (in a boat, etc.), wungula 
Crow, n. namung'ona 
Crowd, n. ekibina 
Crumb, n. akakunkumuka 
Crush, v. betenta 
Cry, v. kaba 
Cultivate, v. lima 
Cup, 11. ekikompe 
Cure, v. wonya 
Curse, v. kolima, vumirira 
Curtain, n. e'gigi 
Cut, v. sala 

,, (with axe), tema 



Cut (hair), mwa 



D 



Daily, adv. bulijo 
Dance, v. zina 
Danger, n. akabi 
Dare, v. yang'anga 
Darkness, n. enzikiza 
Date-palm, n. olukindu 

,, (fruit), empirivuma 
Daughter, «. omwana 
Dawn, v. kya 
Day, n. olunaku 

,, before yesterday, lwa biri 

,, after to-morrow, lwa biri 
Day (by), adv. omusana 
Day and night, emisana nekiro 
Days (a few days ago), adv. juzi 
Daylight, n. omusana 
Dead man, n. omufu 
Deaf man, n. omuzibe wamatu 
Deal in, v. tunda 
Debt, «. e'banja 
Decay, v. vunda 

Deceitful, adv. -enkwe ; (-a nkwe) 
Deceive, v. limbalimba 
Decide, v. tesa 
Defeat, v. goba 
Defraud, v. lyazamanya 
Delay, v. lwa 
Delight, v. sanyusa 
Delighted (to be), v. sima nyo 
Dense (to be), v. (as darkness), kwata 
Depart, v. genda 
Deride, v. dula 
Derive, v. gyamu 
Descend, v. 'ka 
Deserted place, n. ekifulukwa 
Deserve, v. sana 
Desire, v. egomba 
Despise, v. nyoma, gaya 
Destroy, v. lya, p. too ; mala, p. 64 ; ziki- 

riza 
Destroy (a house), yabya 
Destroyed (to be, of house), v. yabika 
Detour (to make a), n. ekolobya 
Dew, n. omusulo 
Diarrhoea (to have), v. 'dukana 
Die, v. fa 
Different, adj. lala 
Difficult, adj. zibu 
Dig, v. (as a hole), sima 
„ (up), simbula 
Diminished (to be), v. webuka 
Dip, v. nyi'ka 
Direct, v. lagira 
Dirty, adj. bi 

Dirty (to become), v. yononeka 
Disapprove, v. neg. form of ' kiriza ' 
Discuss, v. tesa 
Disentangle, v. zingulula 



220 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Disgusted with (to be), v. tamwa 
Dismiss, v. sibula 
Disposition, n. omwoyo 
Dispute, n. empaka 
Distribute, v. gaba 
Divide, v. yawulamu 
Do, v. gira, kola 
,, (energetically), nyikira 
,, (oyer again), 'diramu 
Doctor, n. omusawo 
Dog, «. embwa 
Donkey, n. endogoi 
Door, n. olu'gi 
Doorway, n. omulyango 
Doubt, v. busabusa 
Dove, n. e'jiba 
Dowry, n. (marriage), obuko 
Doze, v. bongota 
Drain off, v. (as water), gcnda 
Draw, v. (water), sena 

,, (out), sowola 

,, (along ground), kulula 

„ (to a close) wungera 
Dream, v. lota 
Dream, n, endoto 
Dress, v. yambala 

„ (finely), yonja 

,, (wounds), nyiga 
Drink, v. nyuwa 
Drive, v. (out), goba mu 

„ (into), gobera mu 

„ (away), goba 

,, (cows, etc), goba 
Drizzle incessantly, v. tonyerera 
Drop, v. gwa 

,, (off), sumatuka 
Drown, v. sana mu madzi 
Drum, n. eng*oma 
Drum-beat, n. omubala 
Drunk (to be), v . tamfra 
Dry, adj. kalu 
Dry {to become), v. kala 
,, (up), kalirira 
Duck, n, embata 
Dumb person, n. omusiru 
Dung (cow), n. obusa 
During, prep, mu 
Dust, n. emfufu 
Dusier, n. ekiwero, ekitambala 
Dwarf, n. munakwale 
Dwarfs (tribe), n. Bambati 
Dye, v. nyi'ka mu 'dagu/a 
Dysentery, n. eki'dukano ekyomusai • 
,, (to have), v. 'dukana 

E 

Each, adj. buli 
Eagle, n. erapungu 
Ear, n. okutu 
Early (to be), v. kera 



Early start (to make), v. kera mu makya 

Earnest, adj. nyikivu 

Earth, n. e taka 

Earthquake, ft. omusisi 

East, n. Ebuvanjuba 

Easy, adj. yangu 

Eat, v. lya 

Eating (place for), «. e'diro 

Echo, v. ewitabya 

Edge, n. (of a tool), obwogi 

,, (side), e'bali 

,, (sharp), olukulukumbi 
Educate, v. igiriza 
Egg. «• e'gi 

Eggshell, n. ekisosonkole 
Egypt, n. Misiri 
Eight, adj. munana 
Elbow, n. o'.ukokola 
Elephant, ft. enjovu 
Elsewhere, adv. awalala 
Embrace, v. gwa mu kifuba 
Empty, adj. yerere 
Empty (away), v. yuwa 
Encamp, v. sisira 
Enclose, v. etoloza, zingiza 
Enclosure, ft. ekisakate 
Encounter, v. sanga 
Encroach, v. (in cultivating), nayiriza 
End, v. komererawo, tukiriza 
End (to come to an), v. gwawo; julukuka, 

P- 99 
Endeavour, v. nyikira 
Endure, v. gumikiriza 
Enemy, n. omulabe 
Engaged (to be), v. ba nemirimu ; tawana 

„ (in marriage), yogerezebwa 
English, adj. ngereza 
Enlarge, v. gaziya 
Enough (to be), v. mala, p. ioo 

,, (to be long, etc.), tuka, p. 103 

„ (strong), adj. gumu 

,, (not strong e. ), adj. nafu, p. no 
Enquire, v. buza 
Enrage, v. sunguwaza 
Enslave, v. fuga ; fula omudu 
Entangle, v. zingazinga 
Enter, v. ingira 
Entice, v. sendasenda 
Entire, adj. lamba 
Entirely, adv. dala 
Entrance, «. (in a fence) empitiro 

,, (in a house), ebifugi 
Entrap, v. tega 
Entreat, v. egairira 
Entrust, v. (oneself), esiga 
Envy, n. obugya 
Equal (to be), v. enkanenkana 
Erect, v. (a house), zimba enju 
,, (a post), simba empagi 
Escape, v. (from prison), bomba 
,, (from danger), wona 



VOCABULARY— ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



221 



Europe, «. Bulaya 

European, «. Omuzungu 

Even (to make), v. sanyiza 

Evening, «. ekiro 

Evening (in the), adv, olwegulb, akawu- 

ngezi 
Every, adj. buli 
Every-day, adv. bulijo 
Every moment, adv. buli kasera 
Evil (to do), v . soba ; dza omusango 
Evil, adj. bi 
Exact, adj. tukirivu 
Exalt, v. (oneself), egulumiza 
Examine, v. kebera 
Example, ». ekyokulabirako 
Excavate, v. simba mu 'taka 
Exceed, v. su'kirira ; singa 
Exceedingly, adv. nyo nyini 
Excel, v. kira 

Except, adv. wabula, wazira 
Exchange, v. wanyisa, gulana 
Exclaim, v. (in an undertone), kungiriza 
Excuse, «. ensong^ 
Exert, v. (oneself), fuba 
Exist, v. bererawo 
Expect, v. subira 
Expel, v. goba 

Expensive (to be), v. twala wala 
Experience, n. olumanyo 

,, (have e. in), manya, manyi- 

sibwa 
Explain, v. tegeza 
Eye, n. eriso 
,, (of a needle), empami 
Eyebrow, ;/. ekisige 
Eyelash, n. olukowekowe 



Face, n. use mu maso 

Fade, v. yongobera 

Fail, v. 'gwa 
,, (be too much for), lema 

Faint, v. zirika 

Fall, v. gwa 
,, (backwards), gwa obugazi 
,, (forwards), evunika 
,, (sideways), gwa ku 'bali 
,, (of rain), tonya 
,, (slope, as roof), esulika 

Famine, n. enjala 

Famous (to be), v. yatikirira 

Fan, v. wuja 

Far, adv., wala 

Fast, adv. mangu, mbiro 
,, v. siba enjala 

Fat, n. amafuta, omuzigo 
„ adj. gevii 
,, (of animals), -amasavu 

Fat (to be), v. geja ; gonomoka 



Father, n. kitange (my father); kitawo 

(thy father) ; kitawe (his father) 
Fatigue, «. obukowu 

,, v. koyesa 
Fatigued (to be), v. kowa 
Fault (to find), v. yomba 
Fear, v. tya, ekeka 

,, n. entisa 
Feast, n. embaga 

,, (marriage), embaga eyobugole 
,, v. lya embaga 
Feather, n. ekyoya 
Feed, v. lisa 
Feel, v. komako, kwatako 

,, (sick), [ememe ewsindukirira] 
Fellow, n. omusaja, omuntu 
Female, adj. kazi 

,, (of animals), lusi 
Fence, n. ekisakate, olukomera 
Fertile, adj. gimu 
Fetch, v. kima ; 'dukira 
Fever, n. omusuja 
Few days back, adv. juzi 
Fibre (plantain), n. ebyai 
,, (single piece), ekyai 
Fierce, adj. kambwe 
Fight, v. lwana ; kwatana 
Fill, v. juza 
Filter, v. sengeja 
Filthiness, v. obugwagwa 

,, (on person), e'ko 
Find, v. laba ; vumbula 

,, (fault), yomba, vunana 
Fine, n. omutango 

,, v. tanza 
Finger, n. olugalo 
,, (little), enaswi 
,, (first), olunwe 
Finish, v. mala 

,, (completely), maliriza 
,, (up), malamu 
Finished (to be), v. 'gwa 
Fire, v. omuliro 
Fire, v. (a gun), kuba emundu 
„ (a house), yokereza 
,, (to make a), v. kuma omuliro 
Firefly, n. emunyenye 
Fireplace, n. ekyoto 
Firewood, n. enku 
Firm, adj. nyuwevu 

,, (to be), v. nyuwera 
Fish, v. vuba 
Fist, «. ekikonde 
Fit, v. tuka 
,, n. (epileptic), ensimbu 
Fits (to have), sansagula 

,, (to have epileptic), gwa mu nsimbu 
Five, adj. tano 

Flame, «. olulimi olwomuliro 
Flash, v. (as lightning), miansa 
Flat, adi. yagagavu ; -ekigaga (-a kigaga) 



222 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Flatter, v. panka 
Flax, n. obugogwa 
Flea, «. olukukunyi 
Flee, v. (run away), 'duka 
Flesh, n. (hving), omubiri 

,, (dead), enyama 
Fling, v. (down), tandagira 
Float, v. yenjera 
Flood, ;;. omujuzo 

,, (water running into house, etc.), 
omukoka 

,, (water standing in pools), ebitaba 
Flour, n. obuta 
Flow, v. (of water), kulukuta 
Flower, n. ekimuli 
Flute, n. endere 
Fly, r. buka 
Fly, n. ensowera 
Foam, v. e'jovu 
Fog, v. olufu 
Fold, v. zinga 
Follow, v. goberera 
Folly, n. obuwemu 
Fond of (to be), v. yagalo nyo 
Food, ;/. emere 
Foot, it. ekigere 
Footmarks, n. ebigere 
Forbid, v. gana 
Force, n. amanyi 
Ford, v. somoka 
Forearm, n. omukono 
Forehead, n. ekyenyi 
Foreign, adj. genyi 
Foreleg, n. omukono 
Forest, n. ekibira 
Forge, v. (iron), wesa 
Forget, v. erabira 
Forgive, v. sonyiwa 
Forsake, v. leka 
Fort, n. eki'go 
Found (to be), n. labika 
Fountain, n. ensulo 
Four, adj. nya (na) 
Fowl, n. enkoko 
Framework, n. ornusekese 
Free, adj. -e'dembe (-a 'dembe) 
Frequently, adv. emirundi mingi 
Fresh, adj. (of eggs), lungi 

,, (of milk), ga kakano 
Friday, n. Lwa-mukaga 
Friend, n. orrrukwano 

,, (my), munange 
Fright, n. entisa 
Frighten, v. tisa 
Frog, n. ekikere 
Fruit, n. ekibala 
Fry, v. sika 
Full (to be), v. jula 
Full-grown, adj. kulu 
Funnel, n. omubinikiro 



Gain, v. (a case), singa omusango 
Gains, n. amagoba 
Gamble, v. kubae'zala 
Gape, v. lengeja 

,, (wi'.h astonishment), samalirira 
Garden, n. ekyalo 

,, (over-ran), ekikande 
Gate, ;/. (front), wankaki 

,, (back), wansanso 
Gather, v. (of people), kung'ann 
,, (of clouds), bindabinda 
,, (up), londa 

,, (up skirts), kwata akalenge 
,, (vegetables), noga emva 
,, (plantain-fruit), yunja amatoke 
Gaze, v. ekaliriza amaso 
Gentle (to be), v. kwata mpola 

,, adj. kakamu 
Gently, adv. mpola 
Germinate, v. (of seeds), meruka 
Get, v. webwa, funa 
(in), gya, p. ioo 
(up), golokoka ; imuka 
(away), vawo 
(off"), vako 
(out), vamu 
(drunk), tamira 
(fat), geja 
(hot), buguma 
(ready), etekateka 
(well), wona 
Giddiness, n. kantoloze 
Gift, n. ekirabo 
Giraffe, n. entuga 
Girl, n. omuwala 
Give, v. wa 

,, (as present), wereza 
,, (judgment), sala omusango 
,, (thanks), eyanza 
Gizzard, n. ekisakiro 
Glad (to be), v. sanyuka 
Glare at, v. tunula bukanu 
Glass, ;/. use ekyuma 

,, (tumbler), ekikompe (' be hurt,'' 

not known) 
,, (looking), endabirwamu 
Glisten, v. tukula ; masamasa 
Gnaw, v. meketa 

Go, v. genda, ita, p. 103 ; nyonyola, p. 103 
,, (in front), kulembera 
, , (round), etolola 
,, (back), 'dayo 
,, (down), serengeta, 'ka 
,, (out), va 
„ (in), ingira 
,, (up), linya, yam buka 
,, (backwards and forwards), 'ding'ana 
,, (right out of sight), zimirira 
,, (wrong), kyama 



VOCABULARY— ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



223 



Go (out, as fire), zikirira 

,, (to ruin, as garden), zika 
Goat, ;/. embuzi 
God, «. Katonda 
Gold, 11. ezabu 
Good, adj. lungi 
Goods, ;/. ebintu 
Goodness, 11. obulungi 
Gooseberries, ;/. (Cape), entuntunu 
Gospel, 71. enjiri 
Govern, v. twala 
Government, ;/. guvamanti 
Grandchild, n. omudzukulu 
Grandfather, 11. omudzukulu 

(great), jaja 
Grant, v. wa 
Grass, n. e'subi 
Grave, n. entana 
Grease, ;/. amafuta 
Great, adj. (size), nene 

„ (quality), ngi 

,. (age), kulu 

,, (quantity of), ngi 
Greatness, it. obukulu 
Greedy, adj. lulu 
Greet, v. lamusa 
Grey, adj. senyefu 
Grief, it. enaku 

,, (great), obwinike 
Grind, v. (corn), sa 
Grindstone for corn, 11. (upper), enso 

,, (lower), olubengo 
Groin, ;/. embalakaso 
Grope, v. (with the hands), wamanta 
Grovel, v. ekulukunya 
Grow, v. (of plants) mera 

,, (mature), kula 

,, (fat), geja 

„ (lean), ko'ga 

„ (old), kadiwa 

,, (sprout, trees), loka 
Grudge, v. 'ma 

Grumble, v. emulugunya ; ekanya 
Guard, v. kuma 
Guava, it. (tree), omupera 

,, (fruit), e'pera 
Guide, v. kulembera 

,, ;/. omusale 
Guile, 11. olukwe 
Guinea-fowl, n. enkofu 
Gum, it. (of tree) amasanda 

,, (of the mouth), akabuno 
Gun, 11. emundu 
Gunpowder, n. obuganga 

H 

Habit, 11. empisa 

,, (bad), omuze 
Haft, ;/. (of spear), olunyago 

,, (of knife), ekiti 
Hail, n. omuzira 



Hair, n, emviri 

,, (a single), oluviri 
,, (of animal), ebyoya 
Hairs (grey), it. emvi 
Hammer, n. enyondo 
Hand, ;/. omukono 
Handle, n. (of axe), ekiti 
,, (of hoe), omuini 
,, (of saucepan), omukonda 
Hang, v. (up), wanika 
,, (over), bunduka 
,, (down), lebeta 
,, (in the sun), yanika 
,, (oneself), etuga 
Happy (to be), v. sanyuka 
Harbour, n. omwalo 
Hard (to be), v. kakanyala 

,, (to be h. and unyielding), kaluba 
Hard, adj. (and yielding), gumu 
,, (and unyielding), kalubo 
,, (of men), kakanyavu 
Harm, «. akabi 
Harmonium, n. enanga 
Harp, n. enanga 

,, v. (continually on a matter), 
yeyereza 
Hasten, v. yanguiza 
Hat, n. enkofira 
Hatch, v. (as chickens), yalula 
Hate, v. kyawa 
Have enough food, v. 'kuta 
Hawk, n. kakuba-mpanga 
He, pron. ye 
Head, n. omutwe 
,, (of bed), omutwetwe 
,, (of corn), akavumbo 
Heal, v.t. wonya 

,, v.i. wona 
Health, n. obulamu 
Healthy, adj. lamu 
Heap, v. kuma 

,, (rubbish for bonfire), 'komera 
,, n. enkumu 
,, (of weeds), ekirungu 
Hear, v. wulira 
Heart, n. omutima 

„ (seat of affections), omwoyo 
Heartily, adv. nyo 
Heat, n. e'bugumu 
Heavy (to be), v. zitowa, zitowerera 
Hedge, n. olukomera 
Heel, «. ekisinziro 
Height, ». obuwamvu, obugulumivru 
Heir, n. omusika 
Help, v. bera 

„ (food), bega 
Hem, n. oluku'giro 
Hemp, n. obugogwa 
Hen, n. enkoko 
Herd, it. lunda 
Here, adv. wano ; -wo 



224 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Hesitate, e-.busabusa 
Hide, v. kweka 
Hide, n. e'diba 
High, adj. wamvu 
Hill, ft. olusozi 
Hinder, v. zlza 
Hippopotamus, n. emvubu 
Hit, v. kuba 
Hoax, v. saga 
Hoe, ft. enkumbi 
Hoe, v. lima 
Hog, n. embidzi 
Hold, v. kwata 

„ (a market), kuba akatale 
,, (as a bag), gyamu, p. ioo 
Hole, ft. ekinya 

,, (to bury in), entana 
Hollow out, v. baiamu 
Home (at), adv. e ka 
Honest (to be), v. ba mwesigwa 
Honey, n. omubisi gwenjuki 
Honour, tt. ekitibwa 
Hoof, n. ekinulo 
Hook, n. e'dobo 
Hook, v. kwasa e'dobo 
Hop, v. (frog), buka 

,, (person), kongo'ja 
Hope, v. subira 
Hope, n. e'subi 
Horn, «. e'jembe 
Hornet, n. enumba 
Horse, n. embalasi 
Hot (to make), v. bugumya 

,, (to be), v. yokya 

,, (as sun), yaka 
House, ft. enyumba ; enju 
How many ? adv. meka 
Hubbub (to raise), v. kayana 
Hug, v. vumbagira 
Humble, adj. wombefu 
Humbug, v. balata 
Hump, ft. e'bango 
Humpback, n. omututuli ; kadu 
Hundred, adj. ekikumi 
Hunger (to be), v. lumwa enjala 
Hungry, ft. enjala 
Hunt, v. i'ga 
Hurl, v. kasuka 
Hurry, v. yanguwa 
Hurt, v. luma 
Husband, «. 'ba (her h.), 'baze {my h. ), 

'balo(M^h.) 
Hut, n. enju 

,, (temporary), ensisira 
Hyaena, «. empisi 



Idiot, «. omusirusiru 

Idle (to be), v. nanya ; gayala 

Idleness, «. obugayavu 

If, conj. obanga 



Ignorance, n. obutamanya 

111 (to be), v. lwala 

Illness, n. obulwade 

Immediately, adv. amangwago 

Impudence, «. ekyejo 

Impudent (to be), v. gira ekyejo 

In, adv. mu 

Incessantly, adv. obutayosa 

Increase, v. yongera 

Indian corn, n. kasoli 

Industrious, adj. nyikivu 

Infant, «. omwana omuwere 

Infirm, adj. nafu 

Inform, v. bulira 

Inheritance, n. obutaka 

Ink, n. bwino 

Inquire, v. buza 

Insect, n. (small), akawuka 

Inside, adv. munda 

Insignificant, adj. tono 

Insolence, n. ekyejo 

Insult, v. vuma 

Intellect, n. amagezi 

Intercede, v. wolereza 

Interpret, v. kyusa ebigambo 

Interrupt, v. gamba ntakera 

Interval, n. e'banga 

Interval (to leave an), v. sulirira 

Invalid, «. omulwade 

Invent, v. yiya amagezi 

,, (a message), etulinkirira 
Invite, v. ita 
Iron, «. ekyuma 
Island, n. ekizinga 
Itch, v. siwa 
Itch, ft. obuwere 
Ivory, n. amasanga 

,, (a single tusk), e'sanga 



Jackal, n. ekibe 

Jammed (to be), v. wagama 

Jaw, ft. olnba 

Jealousy, n. obugya 

Jerk, v. si'ka 

Join, v. yunga 

Joint, n. enyingo 

Journey, «. olugendo 

Joy, n. e'sanyu 

Judge, v. sala omusango ; lamula 

Judge, ft. omulamuzi 

Jug, «. omudumu 

Jump, v. buka 

Jungle, n. ensiko ; ebisagazi 

K 
Keep, v. kuma 

,, (put away), tereka 

,, (back), 'ma 

,, (hinder), lobera ; zlza 



VOCABU LAR Y— ENGLISW-LUGAN DA 



225 



Keep (the mouth open), yasamirira 

,, (a guilty silence), tokoterera 
Kernel, n. omulanwa 
Kettle, n. ebinika 
Key, n. ekisumuluzo 
Kick, v. samba 
Kidney, n. ensigo 
Kill, v. 'ta 

Kind, adj. -ekisa (-a kisa) 
Kind, n. engeri 
Kindle, v. (a fire), kuma (kumamu) 

omuliro 
Kindness, «. ekisa 
King, n. kabaka 
Kingdom, n. obwakabaka 
Kiss, v. nyu'wegera 
Kitchen, n. ekiyungu 
Kite, n. (bird), akamunyi 
Knee, n. e'vivi 
Knee-cap, n. enso 
Kneel, v. fukamira 
Knife, «. akambe 

,, (European), ekiso 

„ (pocket), ekiso ekinienye 
Knock, v. kona 

,, (strike), kuba 
Knot, n. (in thread), ekifundiko 

,, (in wood), eki'ko 
Know, v. (by experience), manya 

,, (by intuition), tegera 



Labour, n. omulimu 

Labour-pains, n. ebisa 

Lace, n. olulere 

Lad, «. omuvubuka ; omulenzi 

Ladder, n. olutindo 

Ladle, v. sena 

,, n. (small), akakai 

,, (large), olwendo 
Lady, n. omukyala 
Lake, n. enyanja 

Lamb, n. omwana gwendiga (wendiga) 
Lame (to be), v. wenyera 

,, (to become) lemala 
Lame, adj. lema 
Lament, v. kabirjra 
Lamp, n. etabaza 
Lamp-wick, n. emfuzi 
Land, n. ensi 
Landing-place, n. omwalo 
Language, n. olulimi 
Languid (to be), v. yongobera ; yobera 
Lantern, n. etabaza 
Lap, v. (as cat), komba 
Large, adj. nene 
Largeness, n. obunene 
Last, v. lwawo 

,, (live long), wangala 
Last (to be), v. komererawo 
Late (to be), v. labirirwa 



Later on, adv. e'da 
Laugh, v. seka 
Laughter, ». enseko 
Launch, v. golomola 
Law, n. e'teka 
Lay, v. (eggs), bika amagi 

,, (table), tandika emeza 

,, (mat), yala 
Lazy (to be), gayala ; nanya 
Lazy fellow, n. omugayavu 
Lead, «. (bullet), e'sasi 
Lead, v. (astray), kyamya 

,, (guide), lung'amya 

,, (j recede), kulembera 
Leaf, n. ekiragala 

,, (plaintain), olulagala 

,, (for cooking in), luwumbo 

,, (of a book), olupapula 
Leaves, n. amalagala 

,, (plantain), endagala 
Leak, v. tonya 
Lean, v. (over), bunduka 

,, (upon), esigama 
Lean (to be), v. ko'ga 
Lean, adj. (meat), kapa 

,, (thin), kovu 
Leap, v. buka 
Learn, v. iga 
Leather, n. e'diba 

,, (untanned), ekyanjo 
Leave, v. leka ; va ku 

,, (off), lekerawo 

,, (off work), nyuka 

,, (go out of)» vamu 

„ (an interval), sulirira 
Leave (to give), v. ganya 
Left (to be), v. sigalaTiw 

,, (over), fi'ka, fi'kawo 
Left-hand, «. omukono ogwa 'kono 
Leg, «. okugulu 
Lend, v. (what is to be returned), yazika 

,, (what is to be repaid), wola 
Length, ti. obuwamvu 
Leopard, n. engo 
Lessen, v. webula ; kendeza 
Letter, «. ebaruwa 

„ (of alphabet), enukuta 
I>evel, v. tereza 
Lice, n. ensekere 
Lick, v. kombako 
Lid, n. ekisanikizo 
Lie, v. limba 

,, (down), galamira 

„ (in wait for), tega 
Life, ». use obulamu 
Lift, v. situla 

Light, n. (of sun), omusana 
Light, adj. yangu 
Light, v. (a candle), koleza 

„ (a fire), kuma 
Lightning, n. radu 



226 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Like, v. sima 

Like (to he), v. fanana 

Likeness, n. ekifananyi 

Lily, ;/. e'danga 

Limb, ;/. ekitundu 

Limp, z>. wenyera 

Line, it. olunyiriri 

Lion, it. empologoma 

Lips, it. emimwa 

Lisp, v. yogera ekirimi 

Listen, v. wulira ; tega amatu 

Little, adj. tono 

Little, adv. katono 

Live, v. bera, p. 56 

,, (long), wangala 
Liver, n. ekibumba 
Lizard, n. omunya 
Load, ;;. omutwalo 
Lock up, v. siba 
Locust, it. enzige 
Log, ;/. (of wood), e'ti 
Loins, //. ebiwato 
Loiter, v. lemba ; latalata 
Long, adj. wamvu 

Long enough (to be), v. tuka obuwamvu 
Long ago, adv. e'da 
Look, v. (see), laha 

,, (at), tunulira 

,, (for), nonya 

,, (at distant object), lengcra 
Looking-glass, it. endabirwamu 
Loosen, -•, 'diriza 

,, (hold), ta 

,, (a knot), fundukulula 
Lose, v. say — it is lost to me, kimhwze 

, , — it is fallen from me, 

kingudeko 

,, (hope), gwamu omwoyo 
Lost (to be), v. bula 
Lot, //. akalulu 
Louse, ;/. lusekere 
Love, v. yagala 
Low, adj. mpi 
Lower, r-. 'sa 

Lump, ;/. (clod), ekifumfugu 
Lung, ;/. e'gugwe 
Lust, v. taluka 

M 

Mad, adj. lain 
Maggot, u. emvunyu 
Maiden, //. omuwala 
Maize, n. (Indian corn), kasoli 
Make. tj. kola 

,, (full), juza 

,, (level), tere/a 

,, (niat), luka 

,. (profits), visarou amagoba 

,, (a point to), songola 

,, (a temporary hut), sisira 

,, (room for), segulira 



Make (bullets), fumba 

,, (canoes), siba 

,, (an arrangement with), lagana 

,, (appointment with), lalika 

,, (a vow), eyama 

,, (reach end), komekereza 

,, (a law), teka e'teka 

,, (a present of), wereza 

,, (an ' embuga '), kuba embuga 

,, (a market), kuba akatale 

,, (a fire), kuma omuliro 

,, (haste), yanguwa, yanguyako 

,, (war),tabala 
Male, adj. (men), saja 

,, (animals), lume 
Man, n. omusaja ; omuntu 

,, (slave), omu'du 

,, (old), omukade 

,, (brave), omuzira 
Mane, n. oluging'irima 
Manner, it. engeri 

,, (habit) empisa 
Many, adj. ngi 
Market, it. akatale 
Married people, n. abafumbo 
Marrow, ;/. obusomyo 

,, (vegetable), wuju ; ensuju 
Marry, v. (of man), wasa 

,, (of woman), fumbirwa 
Marvel, v. ewunya 
Master, n. omwami 
Masticate, v. mugunya 
Mat, ;/. omukeka 

,, (coarse) ekiwempe 
Match, n. ekiberiti 
Materials (for work), n. emirimu 
Matter, ;/. (affair), ekigambo ; ensonga 

,, (pus), amasira 
Mature, adj. kulu 
Mean, adj. kodo 
Measles, ;/. Iuk\isense 
Measure, v. gera 
Meat, ;/. enyama 

,, (dead of itself), kalanamye 

,, pieces of raw), ebifi 
Medic ne, ;/. e'dagala 
Meditate, v. fumitiriza, lowoza 
Meek, adj. tefu 
Meet, v. sanga ; sisinkana 
Melt, v. sanfila 
Melted (to be), sanuka 
Mercy (to have m. on), v. kwatirwa ekisa 
Messenger, n. omubaka 
Metal, ;;. ekyuma 
Mid-day, >/. e'tuntu 
Middle, adv. wakati 
Midnight, it. e'tumbi 
Miilnight (at), adv. mu tumbi 
Midwife, it. omuzalisa 
Might, ;/. amanyi 
Mild (to be), v. kakana 



VOCABULARY — ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



227 



Mildew, u. obukuku 
Milk, v. lamula 
Milk, ;/. amata 

,, (butter), amasunde 

,, (new), amasununu 
Millipede, n. e'gongolo 
Mimic, v. gegenya 
Mince, v. tematemamu 
Mingle, v. tabula 
Minister, :i. omuwereza 
Minister, v. wereza 
Minute, «. dakika 
Miracle, ;/. ekyamagero 
Mirror, //. endabirwamu 
Miscarr, , v. tasa 
Mischief, u. e'tima 
Mislead, v. kyamya 
Mist, 11. olufu 

Mistake, v. (I did it by m.), simanyiride ; 
nawubirwa buwubirwa 

,, I mistook it, mbade sikiraba 
bulungi 
Mistress, n. omugole 
Mix, 7'. tabula 
Moan, v. sinda 

,, (animal), bologa 
Mock, v. sekerera 

Modest (to be), v. kwatibwa ensonyi 
Moment, ;/. akasera 
Monday, «. Baraza ; Lwa-kubiri 
Monkey, n. enkima 

,, (large), enkobe 
Month, ;/. omwezi 
Moon, 11. omwezi 
Moor, n. e'tale 
Morning (in the), adv. enkya 
Mosque, ft. omuzigiti 
Mosquito, 11. ensiri 
Moth, n. enyenje 

Mother, ft. nyina (his m.), nyabwe 
(their m.)> mange (my m. ), nyoko 
thy m.), nyafe (our m.) 
Mouldy (to be), v. kwatibwa obukuku 
Mound, 11. ekifumvu 
Mountain, n. olusozi 
Mourn, v. kuba ebiwobe ; kabirira 
Mouth, ;/. akamwa 
Move, v. genda 
Much, adj. ngi 
Mud, n. e'tosi ; ebitosi 

,, (caked), ebitomi 
Mule, v. enyumbu 

Multiply, v. (increase), zala, eyongera 
Multitude, n. ekibina 
Mumps, n. mambuluga 
Munch, v. gaya 
Murmur, v. emulugunya 
Mushrooms, n. obutiko 
Mute (to be), v. sirikiri; awo 
Mutter, v. vulungutana 
Muzzle, v. siba akamwa 



Mystery, ;/. ekyama 

N 
Nail, n. (finger), olwala 

,, (wooden pin), eninga 

,, (foreign iron), omusomari 
Name, n. erinya 
Name, v. tuma erinya 
Narrow, adj. funda 
Narrow (to be), v. funda 
Narrow-place, n. akanyigo 
Nasty (to be), v. wunya 
Nation, n. e'gwanga 
Near, adv. kumpi 
Neck, «. ensikya ; ensingo 
Necklace, n. akajegere 
Need, v. e'taga 
Needle, «. empiso 
Neglect, v. (work), leka ; va ku 
Neighbour, n. omuliranwa 
Nest, n. ekisu 
Net, n. ekitimba 
New, adj. gya 
News, n. ebigambo 

,, (What's the news?) amagambo 
byemuwulide 
Nice (to be), v. woma 
Nice, adj. lungi 
Nicely, adv. bulungi 
Night, ft. ekiro 
Nine, adj. mwenda 
Nipple, v. enyuwanto 

,, (of gun), eriso 
No, adv. aa ; neda 
Nod, v. simagira ; bongota 
Noise (to make\ n. (talking), yogana 

,, (buzzing, etc. ), vuvuma 
Noon (at), adv. mu 'tuntu 
Nose, «. enyindo 
Notch, v. balula ; banga 
Notice (to give public), v. langa 
Nourish, v. lisa 
Now, adv. kakano, kakati 
Number, v. bala 
Number, n. omuwendo 
Nurse, v. janjaba 

,, (as a child), lera 
Nut, n. (hard), enje 
„ (ground), empande 

O 

Oar, n. enkasi 
Oatb, n. ekirairo 
Obedient, adj. mugomvu 
Object, v. gana 
Obstinate, adj. -mawa'gaH 
Odour, n. (pleasant), akawowo 
Offend, v. nyiza 
Offended (to be), v. nyiga 
Offer, v. wonga 

,, (human sacrifice), tambira 



228 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Offering, n. ekyonzira 

Oil, n. amafuta 

Old, adj. kade 

Old age, n., use itirira (obukade) 

Old man, n. omukade 

On, prep, ku 

Once, adv. omulundi gumu 

One, adj. mo ; mu 

Onion, n. ekitungulu 

Open, v. (door), gula 

,, (box), sumulula 

,, (book), bikula 

,, (mouth), yasama 
Openly, adv. mu lwatu 
Opposite, adv. , use yoleka 

,, (to be), lirana ; yoleka 
,, (to put), liranya 
Oppress, v. joga 

,, (with heat), bugumiriza 

Oppressor, n. omulyazamanyi 
Order, «. ekiragiro; e'teka 

,, (to put in), v. longosa 
Order, v. lagira ; gamba 
Orphan, n. omulekwa 
Ostrich, n. emaya 
Other, adj. lala 
Otherwise, adv. bulala 
Otter, n. eng'onge 
Outcry, n. endulu 
Outside, adv. ebweru 
Overcome, v. wangula 
Overflow, v. yanjala 
Overseer, «. omukoza 
Overshadow, v. sikiriza 
Overthrow, v. (throw down), sula ; (de- 
stroy), zikiriza 
Overturn, v. galanjula ; fula 
Owl, n. ekiwugulu 
Owner, n. nanyini 
Ox, n. ente ya sedume, sedume 



Pad, n. (for head), enkata 
Paddle, n. enkasi 

„ v. vuga 
Pain, v. luma 

,, (gnawing), meketa 
Palm, n. (of hand), ekibatu 
,, (tree), olukindu 
,, (tree, for cutting), olukoma 
Papaw, n. (tree), omupapale 

,, (fruit), e'papale 
Paper, «. olupapula 
Papyrus, «. ebitogo 

,, (a single stalk), ekitogo 
Parcel, n. (of coofced food), omuwumbo 
,, (of goods'), omutwalo 
,, (of goods, small), e'tu 
Pardon, v. sonyiwa 
Pare, n. (nails), sokola 
,, (potatoes, etc.), wata 



Parrot, ;/. enkusu 
Part, n. ekitundu 
Part, v. yawula 
Partition, n. ekisenge 
Pass, v. i. ita 
Pass, v. t. isa 

,, (through), ita mu, isa mu 
Path, ;/. e'kubo 
Patient (to be), v. gumikiriza 
Pawn, v. singa 
Pay, v. liwa ; wayo 
,, (debt), sasula 

,, (for goods, marriage dowry, etc.), lcta 
ensitpbi 
Pay, n. empera 
,, (for smith's work and divination), 
omukemba 
Peace, n. emirembe 

,, (to make), v. tabaganya 
Peasant, n. omukopi 
Peel, v. wdta 

Peelings, n. ebikuta ; ebiwata 
Peep, v. Iingiza. 
Peg, n. olubambo 

,, (for clothes), omuti 
Perfume, n. kalifuwa 
Perhaps, adv. mpodzi 
Perish, v. fa 

Perplexed (to be), v. siruwala ; lemwa 
Persecute, v. i'ganya 
Perspire, v. tuyana 
Perspiration, n. entuyo 
Pick, v. (up), londa 

,, (flowers), menya ebimuli 

,, (vegetables), noga emva, 
Picture, n. ekifananyi 
Piece, «. ekitole 

,, (single), use sing, of warty nouns, 
ekyuma, ekyai, etc. 
Pierce, v. fumita 
Pillow, n. ekigugu 
Pills, n. obutole 
Pin, n. ekikwaso 
Pinch, v. suna 
Pipe, n. (tobacco), emindi 
Pistol, n. basitola 
Pit, n. obunya 
Pitch dark, adv. zigizigi 
Pith, n. ekinyuzi 
Pity, v. sasira 
Place, «., use prefix via.; ekifo 

,, (for eating), e'dfro 

,, (for reading in, etc.) use the forms 
e'somero, etc. 
Plague, n. kawumpuli 
Plait, v. (as stcing), langa 

,, (as mat, basket), luka 
Plan, v. tesa 
Plane, n. eranda 
Plant, v. simba 
Plantain, n. (tree), ekitoke 






VOCABULARY — ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



229 



Plantain (fruit), e'toke 

,, (roasting kind), gonja 
Plaster, v. mala 
Plate, n. esawani 
Play, v. zanya 

,, (a harp), kuba enanga 
Plead, v. woza 
Please, v. sanyusa 
Pleased (to be), v. sima 
Pledge, m. omusingo 
Plot, v. (of cultivated ground), oniusiri 
Plot, v. ekoba 
Pluck, v. (fruit), noga 

,, (fowl), manya 

,, (snatch), kwakula 
Plunder, v. nyaga 
Point (to make a p. to), v. songola 
Poison, h. obutwa 
Pole, «. omuti 
Polish, v. wawula 
Pomegranate, n. e'koma-mawanga 
Pool, n. ekidiba 
Poor, adj. yavu. 
Porcupine, n. namunungu 
Porridge, n. obusera 
Portion, «. omugabo 
Possible (to be), v. inzika 
Post, ;/. empagi 
Pot, n. (cooking), entamu 
,, (water), ensuwa 
Potato, n. (sweet), lumonde 

,, (English), lumonde mulaya 
Potsherd, n. ekikayi 

(large), olugyo 
Potter, n. omubumbi 

,, (clan in Mengo), abajona 
Pound, v. sekula 
Pour, v. fuka 

,, (decant), fukulula 

,, (away), yuwa 
Praise, 1: tendereza 
Pray, v. saba 
Preach, v. bulira 
Pregnant, v. (to be), ba olubuto 

,, (goats, etc.), bamu e'gwako 
Prepare, v. tekateka ; tegeka 
Prescribe, v. Iagirira 
Present, n. ekirabo 
Present (to be), v. bawo 
Presently, adv. e'dako 
Press, v. nyiga 

,, (squeeze hard), nyigiriza 
Pretend, v. egamba 

, , (to be ill, etc. ), use reflective form, 
erwaza, etc. 
Prevaricate, v. tomerera 
Price, n. omuwendo 
Pride, n. amalala 
Priest, 11. kabona 
Prince, n. omulangira 
Princess, n. omumbeja 



Print, v. kuba ekyapa 
Prisoner, n. omusibe 
Privately, adv. mu kyama 
Profit, n. amagoba 
Profit (to trade for), v. .subula 
Profitable for (to be), v. gasa 
Promise, v. subiza 
Promontory, n. ekikono 
Pronounce, v. yatula 
Prop, n. enkondo. 
Prop up, v. (a house), wangiza 
Pull, v. walula, kulula 

,, (with jerks), si'ka 

,, (out, as tooth), kula 

,, (up by roots), simbulula 
Pus, n, amasira 
Push, v. sindika 

,, (a person), sindikiriza 
Put, v. teka 

,, (back), dzayo 

,, (sideways), kika 

,, (away), tereka 

„ (out, a light), zikiza 

,, (down), sa wansi 

,, (up, curtains), timba 

,, (to flight), goba 

,, (to rights), longosa 

,, (in its handle), wanga 

,, (in, as post), simba 
Puzzle, v. buza 
Puzzle (to propound a), v. ko'kola. 



Quail, n. akagubi 
Quantity of, adj. ngi 
Quarrel, v. yomba 
Question, v. buza 

,, (closely), bulirlza 
,, (to ask), v. buza ekigambo 
Quick (to be), v. yanguwa 
Quickly, adv. mangu 
,, (at a run), mbiro 
,, (to do), v. yanguyako; yanguwa 
okukola 
Quiet (to become), v. sirika 
Quietly, adv. mpola 
Quiver, «. omufuko 

R 

Rag, ft- ekiwero 
Rage, v. (storm), kunla 

„ (anger), jumula; kwatibwa obusungu 
obungi 
Raid, v. tabala 
Rain, n. enkuba 
Rain, v. tonya 
Rainbow, n. musoke 
Raise, v. imusa 

,, (an alarm), kuba endulu 
Rat, n. emese 
Raw, adj. bisi 



230 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Razor, n. akamwano 
Reach, v. tuka 
Read, v. soma 
Really, adv. -e nyini 
Reason, n. ensonga 
Rebel, v. jema 
Rebound, v. masuka 
Receive, v. webwa 

,, (guest present), lya obugenyi 
„ (royal chieftain-ship), lya engoma 
Reckon, v. bala 
Reconcile, v. yogerereza 
Recover, v. wona 
Red, adj. myufu 

,, (of cows), -alukunyu 
Red clay, //. lukusi 
Reed, //. olurauli 
Reed grass, ;/. endago 
Refuse, r r . gana 
Rejoice, v. sanyuka ; jaguza 
Relate, v. bulira 
Release, v. ta 
Remain, v. sigalawo 
Remember, v. jukira 
Remind, v. jukiza 
Remove, v. gynwo 

,, (to a new master), senguka 

,, (migrate), wang'anguka 
Rend, v. yuza 
Renewed (to be), v. (persons), e'damu 

,, (things), 'diramu 
Repair, v. dabiiiza 
Repeal, v. (a law), tekulula 
Repeat, v. 'damu 
Reprove, v. bulirira ; nenya 
Request, v. egairira 
Rescue, v. wonya 
Resemble, v. fanana nga 
Resent, v. (take offence), nyiga 
Resin, ;/. anvisanda 
Resist, v. (hinder), ma 
,, (fight), hvana na 
,, (gainsay), gana, (gana ebigambo) 
,, (manage), sobola, (okumusobola) 
Rest, v. wumula 
Restore, v. dzayo 
Restrain, v. (from), zibikiriza 
Restraint (to lose), v. taluka 
Retain, -'. ba na 
Return, v. (home), komawo 

,, (go back), 'dayo 
Revenge, v. walana egwanga 
Reward, n. empera 
Rheumatism, v., use akaziniu 
Rhinoceros, n. enkula 
Rib, n. olubirizi 
Rice, n. omupunga 
Rich, ;/. gaga 
Riches, n. obugaga 
Riddle, ;/. ekiko'ko 
Ride, v. ebagala 



Ridge, «. olukulukumbi 
Ridicule, v. sekerera 
Right, adj. lungi, p. 104 
Rind, n. ebikuta 
Ring, v. (as metal), sala 

„ (a bell), vuga 
Ring, tt. empeta 

,, (pad for head), enkata 
Ripe, adj. yengevu 
Ripe (to get), v. yengera 
Rise, v. imuka ; golokoka 

,, (wind), bawc, p. 104 

,, (as sun), vayo 

,, (in rebellion), jema 

,, (as river), sibuka 

,, (as yeast), zimbulukuka 
River, ft. omu'ga 
Road, n. (large), olugudo 

,, (small path), e'kubo 
Roam, v. (persons), egenza 
Roar, v. wuluguma 
Roast, i'. yokya 
Rob, v. nyaga 

Robber, n. omutemu ; omunyazi 
Rock, n. olwazi 

,, (movable), ejinja 
Rod, n. omu'go 
Roll, v. yiringisa (wiringisa) 

,, (up), zinga 
Roof, ;/. akasolya 
RooiHi, ;/. ekisenge 

,, (space), e'banga 

,, (to be r. for), gya mu 
Root, ;/. (large), ekikolo 

,, (thin, straggling), omuzi 
Rope, n. omuguwa 
Rot, v. vunda 
Round, adj. ekulungirivu 
Round (to be), v. ekulungirira 
Round (to go), v. (encircle), etolola 

,, (make detour), ekolobya 
Rub, v. kuta 

,, (wipe, a^ plates), simula 

,, (clean, as knives), zigula 

,, (with sand, etc.), wavvula 
Rubbish, ;/. (of old cooking-leaves), ebi- 
saniko 
,, (of bits of grass), ebisubi 
,, (as old spread grass), ebisasiro 
Run, :•. (away), 'duka 

,, (fast), 'dukanako, 'duka mbiro 

,, (out, leak), genda 

,, (out fast, as water), kultikuta 

,, (out, come to end), gwawo 
Rush, -•'. fubutuka 
Rust, ;/. obutalage 
Rustle, r. kwakwaya 



Sabbath, ;/. Sabiti 
! Sack, it. ensawo 



VOCABULARY— ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



231 



Sad (to look), wiibala 

Saddle, it. e'tandiko 

,, (and cloth), amatandiko 

Saddle, v. tandika ; 'sako amatandiko 

Sail, n. e'tanga 

Sake of (for), prep, kubwa ; kulwa 

Salt, 11. omunyo 

Salute, v. lamusa 

Salvation, it. obulokozi 

Sand, n. omusenyu 

Sandal, n. engato 

Sandstone, it. ensibo 

Sap, n. amadzi (agomu muti) 

Satisfied (to be), v. 'kuta 

Saucepan, n. esuferiya 

Save, v. wonya ; lokola 

Saviour, n. Omulokozi 

Saw, n. omusumeno 

Sawdust, 11. obuntu 

Say, v. yogera 
,, (farewell), sibula 

Scab, n. ekikakampa 

Scabbard, 11. ekirato 

Scaffolding, 11. olubanyi 

,, (wood for), amadala 

,, (single piece of), e'dala 

Scar, it. enkovu 
Scatter, v. sasanya 
Scattered (to he), v. sasana 

Scent, it. kalifuwa 

Scissors, ;/. makansi. 
Scold, v. juka 

,, (find fault), yomba 
Scorch, v. siriza 
Scorn, v. nyoma bunyomi 
Scorpion, n. e'siga 
Scrape, v. (as hoe), kalakata 

,, (as wood, to reduce thickness), wala 
Scratch, v. (the body), yagula 
,, (as dog), eyaga 
,, (as hen), takula 
Scream, v. baluka 
Scum, 11. olububi 
Sea, 11. eny .nja 

Seam, 11. , use awayungibwa, awatungibwa 
Search, v. nonya 
Season, 11. omwaka 
Seat, 11. en*ebe 

,, (of c.uioe), olubanga 
Secret, n. ekyama 
Secretly, adv. mu kyama 
Section, ;/. ekitundu 

,, (of wall for making), ekituli 
Sediment, 11. (in beer), e'bonda 
See, v. laba 
Seed, n. ensigo 

,, (offspring), e'zade 
Seek, v. nonya 
Seem, v. fanana 
Seem -to-be, v. -li nga 
Seen (to be), v. labika 



Seize, v. kwata 

Select, v. (pick out), londamu 

,, (choose), sima 
Self, pron. mwene ; -eka ; -e nyini 
Sell, v. tunda ; guza 
Semsem, «. entungo 
Send, v. (a present), wereza 
,, (messenger), tuma; sindika 
,, (away), goba 
,, (back), dzayo 
Separate, v. yawula 
Serpent, n. omusota 
Servant, «. (male), omusaja ; omu'du 
,, (boy), omulenzi 
,, (female), omukazi ; omuzana 
,, (girl), omuwala 
Serve, v. wereza 
,, (food), bega 

,, (up from kitchen), jula; julula 
Set, v. teka 
,, (upright), simba 
,, (aside), tereka 
,, (a limb), yunga 
,, (a table), tandika 
„ (as sun), gwa 
,, (out on journey), situla 
Settle, v. (as dispute), malawo 

,, (as beer), sengedza e'bonda 
Seven, adj. musamvu 
Sew, v. tunga 
Shade, 11. ekisikirize 
Shadow, 11. ekisikirize 
Shaft, 11. (of spear) olunyago ; omuti 
Shake, v. nenya 

,, v. i. yugana, yuguma 
,, (out), kunkumula 
,, (back as dog), kunkumula 
,, (shiver), kanakana ; tekemuka 
Shame, 11. ensonyi 
Shame, v. kwasa ensonyi ; swaza 
Share, v. sa ekimu 
Sharpen, v. wagala 
Shave, v. mwa 
Shaving, n. (chip), ekibajo 
Sheath, n. ekirato 
Shed, n. (smith's), e'sasa 
Sheep, «. endiga 
Shell, 11. (cowry), ensimbi 
,, (snail), e'sonko 
)> ( e gg)> ekisosonkole 
Shepherd, n. omusumba 
Shew, v. yolesa ; laga 
Shield, 11. engabo 
Shine, v. (as sun), yaka 

,, (as mirror), masamasa 
Ship, 11. malikebu 
Shiver, v. jugumira ; kankana 
Shoe, it. engato 
Shoot, z: kuba emundu 

,, (aim), teba emundu 
Shooling-star, it. kibonomu 



232 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Short, adj. mpi 

Shorten, v. salako ; impawaza 

Shoulder, ;/. e'bega 

Shoulder (the), ;/. ekibegabega 

Shout, v. lekana 

,, (for joy), kuba olube ; kuba emizira 
Show, v. laga 
Shriek, v. baliika 
Shut, v. (box), siba 

,, (mouth), buniza akamwa ; bunira 

„ (door), 'gala 
Sick (to be), v. lwala 

,, (vomit), sesema 
Sickness, it. endwade ; obuhvade 
Side, n. pbukika ; olui 

,, (of things), e'bali 

i, (ofman), embirizi 

,, (on this), ku 'bali eno 

,, (on this s. , of land), ku mutala weno 

,, (on that s., of land), ku mutala weri 
Sides (on both), n. erui nerui 

,, (on all), enjui zona 
Sift, v. wewa 
Sigh, n. ekikowe 
Sigh, v. sa ekikowe 
Sign, «. akabonero 
Sign (to make a), v. wenya 
Silent (to become), v. sirika 
Sin, ;/., use ebibi 
Sin, v. soba amateka ; use kola ebibi ; yo- 

nona 
Since, conj. kasoka 
Sing, v. imba 

,, (birds), kaba 
Singe, v. sirira 
Sink, v. (persons), 'bira ; etutubika 

,, (things), 'ka mu madzi 
Sir, n. sebo 
Sister, n. (of a sister), omuganda 

,, (of a brother), mwanyina 
Sit, v. tula 

„ (on haunches), sutama 
Site, n. (for building), ekibanja 
Six, adj. mukaga 
Size, n. obunene 

,, (fair, etc.), use form- neneko, etc. 
Skeleton, tt. ogufa 
Skim, v. (milk), gyako olububi 

,, (as canoe on water) seyeya 
Skin, n. e'diba 

,, (on the body), omubiri 
Skin, v. baga 
Skull, n. ekiwanga 
Sky, tt. e'gulu 
Slack, adj. lebevu 
Slacken, v. 'diriza 

,, (speed), ta ku bigere 
Slander, v. vuma 
Slave, n. (man), omu'du 

,, (woman), omuzana 
Sleep, v. ebaka 



Sleep, (spend the night), sul.i 

,, n. otulo 
Sling, v. vumula 
Sling, n. emvumulo 
Slip, v. (down), sesetuka 
Slippery (to be), v. serera 
Slope, v. esulika 
Slow (to be), v. Iwa 
Slowly, adv. mpola 
Small, adj. tono 
Small-pox, //. kawali 

,, (to have), v. wala 

Smear, v. (the body), siga 

,, (a floor, etc.), mala 
Smell, v.i. wunya 

,, v.t. wunyiriza 
Smell, u. akalosa, olusu 
Smile, v. mwenyamwenya 
Smith, n. omuwesi 
Smoke, n. omu'ka 
Smoke, v. (plantain-leaves), babula 

,, (tobacco), nyuwa taba 
Smooth (to be), v. nyirira; wewera 
Snail, n. e'kovu 
Snake, n. omusota 
Snake-poiscn, n. obusagwa 
Snap, v. menyeka; kutuka 

,, (the fingers), kuba ntoli 
Snare, «. omutego 
Snare, v. tega 
Snatch, v. kwakula 
Sneeze, v. yasimula 
Sniff, v. wunyiriza 
Snore, v. fuluta 
So-and-so, n. gundi 
Soap, n. sabuni 
Soak, if. nyuluknsa 
Soaked (to be), v. 'nyikira 
Sob, v. 'jonkera 
Sodden (to be), v. bisiwala 
Soft, adj. gomvu 
Soft (to be), v. gonda 
Son, n. omutabani; omwana 
Soon, adv. mangu 
Soot, n. enziro 
Soothe, v. yagiriza 
Sore, n. e'bwa 
Sort, tt. engeri 
Sound, fi. e'dobozi 
Sound, adj. lamu 
Sound, v. vuga 

Sour milk, n. amabongo; amakwafu 
Sow, v. siga 
Space, n. e'banga 

,, (of time), akasera 
Spark, n. ensasi 
Sparrow, tt. enkazalugya 
Speak, v. yogera 

,, (out, clearly), yalula 

,, (reluctantly), golomerera 
Spear, ;/. e'fumu 



VOCABULARY— ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



233 



Spear-shaft, it. olunyago 

Speckled, adj. (as hen), -amayenje (-a ma- 

yenje) 
Spider, n. nabubi 
Spill, v. yuwa 
Spilt (to be), v. yika 
Spine, «. ekigongo 
Spirit, it. omuzimu; ormvoyo 
Spit, v. wanda amalusu 
Spittle, n. amalusu 
Split (to be), v. yatika 

,, v. (firewood), yasa enku 
Spoil, v. yonona 
Spoilt (to be), v. yononeka 
Sprained (to be), v. wogoka 
Spread, v. buna 

,, (as a creeper), landa 

,, (as a mat), yala, yalira 

,, (out) yanjuluza 
Spring, n. (of water), ensulo; oludzi 

,, (of trap), emanduso 

,, (steel), omutambo 
Sprinkle, v. mansula 
Sprout, v. (trees), loka 

,, (seeds), meruka 
Spy, v. ke'ta 
,, n. omuke'si 
Squander, v. serebya 
Squeeze, v. nyigiriza 
Squint, v. tunulira kisoso 
Squire, n. omutongole 
Stab, v. fumita 
Stagger, v. zungazunga 
Stain, it. e'bala 
Stain, v. (spoil), yonona 
Stake, v. (gamble), tala e'zala 
Stake, n. (post), omuti 
Stalk, n. omuti 
Stamp upon, v. sambirira 
Stand, v. imirira 
Star, it. emunyenye 
Stare, v. ekaliriza amaso 
,, (gape), esamalirira 
Start, v. (with fear), ekanga 

,, (on journey), situla 
Startle, v. kanga 
State, ;/. (by birth), obuzaliranwa 

,, (by nature), obuwangwa 
Steal, v. 'ba 
Steer, v. goba; tawa 
Stem, ;/. (long hollow), oluseke 
Stem, ;/. (of canoe), obulumba 
Steward, it, omusigere 
Stick, v. (together), gata mu kimu 

,, (as spear), fumita 
Stick, ;/. omuti; omugo 

,, (long iron, shod for walking), omu- 
wunda 
Still (to be), v. tula butuzi 

,, (as meditating escape), bondera 
Sting, v. (insects), luma 



Sting (nettle), yokya 
Sting, ;;. (of wasp), ekyentako 
Stink, v. wunya bubi 
Stir, v. tabula 
,, (up, as a mob), sasamaza 
Stocks, n. emvuba 
Stomach, ;;. olubuto 
Stone, n. e'jinja 

,, (upper-grinding), enso 

,, (lower-grinding), olubengo 
Stoop, t. kotakota 

,, (down), vunama 
Stop, v. koma 

,, (up), ziba 
Store, v. tereka; wanika 

,, ;/. egwanika 
Storm, ;/. omuyaga, ekibuyaga. 
Story, it. olugero 

,, (idle), emfumo 

,, (lie), use limba 
Straight, adj. golokofu 

,, (to be), -'. golokoka 
Strain, v. lega 

,, (liquids), senge'ja 
Stranger, ;/. omugenyi 

,, (passer-by), omuise 

Strangle, v. tuga 
Stray, v. kyama 
Stream, «. omu'ga 
Strength, n. amanyi 
Stretch out, v. golola 
Strife, ;;. empaka 
Strike, r\ kuba 
String, ;;. wuzi; olugoye 
Striped, adj. -engudo (-a ngudo) 
Strong, adj. -amanyi 

,, (durable), gumu 
Struggle, v. lwana 
Stumble, v. esitala 
Stump, ;/. ekikonge ; enkonge 
Submit, v. jemulukuka 
Substance, ;/. omubiri 
Suck, v. (at breast), yonka 

,, (through reed, etc.), nuna 
Suffice, v. mala 
Sugar-cane, n. ekikajo 
Summit, n. entiko 
Sun, ;/. enjuba 

,, (light), omusana 
Sunday, ;/. Sabiti 
Superfluous (to be), v. su'kirira 
Surpass, :■. singa 

Surprise, v. (in hunting, etc.), zindukiriza 
Surround, v. etolola 

,, (game), zingiza 

Survey, :'. (look at from a distance), len- 
gera 

,, (inspect new property), lambula 
Suspend, r. (hang up), wanika 

,, (from office, etc ),gyako. obwami 
Swallow, v. mira 



234 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Swallow, n. akatai 
Swamp, n. omu'ga 
Swear, v. lairira 
Sweat, v. tuyana 
Sweat, u. entuyo 
Sweep, v. yera 

,, (through, as wind), itamu 
Sweet, adj. womerevu 
Sweet, (to be), v. nyunyuntula; womerera 
Sweet potato, n. lumonde 
Swell, v. zimba 
Swim, v. wtiga 
Swindle, v. lyazamanya 
Swing, v. wuba 
Swollen glands, n. ensanjabavu 
Swollen limbs, «. amakaja 
Sword, ft. ekitala 
Syringe, n. ebumba 
Syrup, n. omubisi 



Table, ;;. emeza 

Tail, n. (animal), omukira 

,, (bird), ekyensuti 

,, (snake), akawuwo 
Take, v. (from one place to another), twala 

,, (by force), nyaga 

,, (a dislike to), kyawa 

,. (off), gyako 

,, (off, clothes), yambula 

.. {oat), gyamu 

,, (out, as tooth), kiila 

,, (care), egendereza 

,, (a walk), tambulako 

,, (as a present), tola 

,, (medicine), rnira 

,, (food), lya 

,, (by surprise), zinda 

,, (things home), dzayo e'ka 

,, (men home), tusa e'ka 

,, (away), gyawo 

,, (care of), kuma 

„ (hold), kwata 

,, (pains), nyikira 
Talk, v. yogera 

,, (converse), nyumya 

,, (loudly, of a single person), kuba 
amatama 

,, (loudly, of several people), yogana 
Tall, adj. wamvu 
Tangle, v. zingazinga 
Taste, v. legako, lyako 
Tax, n. (tribute), omusolo 

,, (due), ekikungo 
Tax, v. soloza 
Tea, n. kyai (cai) 
Teach, v. igiriza 
Tear, v. yuza 

,, (in two), yuzamu 
Tear, n. e'ziga 
Tease, v. teganya 



Telescope, n. galubiudi 
Tell, v. bulira, gamba 
Temple, n. e'sabo 

,, (Jewish), yekalu 
Tempt, v. sendasenda 

„ (try), kema 
Ten, n. e'kumi 
Tent, «. ewema 
Terrify, v. tlsa 
Testament, n. endagano 
Thank, v. ebaza 

Thank you, int. webale, mwebale 
Thanks (to give), v. eyanza 
That, conj. titi 
Thatch, n. e'subi 
Thatch, v. sereka 
There, adv. eri 
Thick, adj. -omubiri omunene ; -a mubiri 

munene 
Thicken, v. (as porridge), kwata 
Thickness, n. (substance), omubiri 
Thief, n. omu'bi 
Thigh, n. ekisambi 
Thin, adj. kovu 
Thing, ;/. ekhitu 
Think, v. (meditate), lowoza 

(I think so, etc.), p. 152 
Thirst, n. enyonta • 
Thorn, n. erigwa 

Though, conj, songa, p. 143 = although 
Thousand, «. olukumi 
Thread, v. (shells), tunga 
Threads, n. wuzi 
Threaten, v. kanga 

,, (of rain), bindabinda 

Throat, n. omumiro 
Throb, v. boba 
Throw, v. (away), sula 

,, (water away), yuwa 

,, (spear), kasuka 

,, (wrestling), mega 

,, (down violently), tandagira 
Thumb, n. ekinkumu 
Thunder, v. duduma 
Thunderbolt, n. enjota 
Tie, v. (a knot), fundika 

,, (up) siba 
Tighten, v. lega 
Time, n. omulundi 

,, (of day), obude 
Time (a long t. ago), adr<. e'da 
Tin, n. (small), ekikopo 

,, (small box), ekibweta 
Tire, v. koyesa 
Tired (to be), v. kowa 
To, prep, eri 
Tobacco, «. taba 
To-day, adv. lero 
Toe, n. ekigere, akagere 
„ (big), 'gere 'saja 
,, Hittle), naswi 



VOCABULARY — ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



235 



Together, adv. awamu 

To-morrow, adv. jo 

To-morrow morning, adv. enkya 

Tongs, n. namagalo 

Tongue, n. olulimi 

Tooth, n. erinyo 

Top (of hill), «. entiko 

Top (on the), adv. kungulu 

Torch, ;/. omumuli 

Torn, adj. yabifu 

Tortoise, adj. emfudu 

Toss, v. sula 

Touch, v. kwatako ; komako 

Town, 11., use ekibuga 

Track, n. (trail), ebigere 

,, (path), ebisindi 

,, (not become a path), olwenda 
Trade, v. subula 
Trader, n. omusubuzi 
Trample upon, v. linyirira 
Translate, v. kyusa ebigambo 
Trap, v. tega 
Trap, n. omutego 
Travel, v. tambula 
Tread, v. linya 
Treaty, ;/. endagano 
Treaty (to make), v. lagana endagano 
Tree, «. omuti 
Tremble, v. kankana 
Trench, ;/. olusalosalo : olwako 
Tribe, n. ekika 
Tribute, 11. omusolo 
Trim, v. komola 
Trouble, ;/. enaku ; obwinike 
Trouble (to have), v. laba enaku 
Trouble, v. (bother), teganya 
Trough, n. ekibamvu 
Trousers, n. eseruwali 
Trumpet, n. eng'onibe 
Trunk, 11. (headless corpse), ekiwududu 

,, (box), esanduku ; ebweta 
Truth, 11. amazima ; use neg. o/~limba 
Try, v. (by comparison), geza 
,, (on clothes, a load, etc.), gezamu 
,, (to do), nyikira okukola 
,, (test), kema 
,, (to remember), lowolereza 
,, (by ordeal), kuba akalulu 
Tuesday, ;/. Lwa kusoma ; Lwa-ku- 

satu 
Tuft, n. e'joba 
Tumble, v. gwa 
Turban, ;/. ekiremba 
Turn, v. kyusa 

,, (upside down), fula 

,, (sour, as milk), kwata 

,, (out), goba, fulumya 

,, (right side up), vunula 

., (a screw), nyola 

., (back), koma ; 'da 

,, (head over heels), galanjuka 



Turn (on its side), wunzika 
Turn, n. oluwalo 
Turned (to be), v. kyuka 

., (upside down), vunika 
Turns (by), adv. mpalo 
Tusk, ;/. e'sanga 
Twice, adv. emirundi ebiri 
Twig, n. akati 
Twin, 11. omulongo 
Twist, v. nyola 

,, (as ' byai'), langa 

,, (thread), zingirira 
Two, adj. biri 

U 

Udder, ;/. e'bere 
Ulcer, n. e'bwa 
Umbrella, «. mwavuli 
L'nbaked, adj. bisi 
Uncleanness, n. obugwagwa 
Uncork, v. zibikula 
Uncover, v. bikula 
Uncultivated land, n. e'tale 
Under, prep, wansi wa 

,, (a tree, etc.), mu mutt 
Understand, v. tegera 
Unfasten, v. sumulula 
Unfold, v. (as cloth), yanjuluza 
Unloose, v. (as goat), yimbula 
Unpick, f. tungulula 
Unripe, adj. bisi 
Unthatch, v. serekulula 
Unthread, v. (as shells), tungulula 
Untie, r'. sumulula 

,, (a knot), fundukulula 
Unwrap, v. wumbulula 

,, (food for eating), sosotola 
Upon, prep, ku 
Upset, v. yisa ; galanjula 
Use, v. twalako 
Useless, adj. bi 



Vain (in), adv. busa 
Valley, ;/. ekiwomvu ; eki'ko 
Value, «. omuwendo 
V r alue, v. (appraise) lamula 

,, ' (prize) yagala nyo 
Vanish, v. zimirira 
Vast, adj. nene nyo ; ' lu' prejix 
Vengeance (to take v. on), v. walana 

egwanga ku 
Very, adv. nyo 

Very nice (to be), v. womerera 
Vex, r. nyiza 
Vexed (to be), v. nyiga 
Vice, ;/. empisa embi 

,, (smith's), jiribwa 
Violence, //. amanyi 



236 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Visible (to be), v. labika 
Visit, v. (a friend), kyala 
Visit (a garden), lambula 
Voice, w. e'dobozi 
Void (to make), v. dibya 
Void (to become), v. julukuka 
Vomit, v. sesema 
Vow, v. eyama 
Vow, n. obweyamo 
Vulture, n. ensega 

W 

Waddle (as duck), v. batabata 
Wages, n. empera 

,, (to smith), omukemba 
Wail, v. kuba ekiwobe 
Waistcoat, n. ekizibawo 
Wait, v. linda ; lindirira 

,, (upon), wereza 

,, (a bit), berawo; gira otulawo 

,, (for), linda ; lindirira 
Walk, v. tambula 

,, (go for a walk), tambulatambulako 

,, (over), lambula 

,, (carefully), egendereza 
Wall, n. ekisenge 
Wander, v. kyama 
Want, v. yagala ; etaga 
War, ;/. entalo 

,, (single engagement), olutalo 
War (to go to), v. tabala 
Warm, i'. bugumya 

,, (the body), yota omuliro 
Warmth, n. e'bugumu 
Warn, v. labula 
Wash, v. (clothes), yoza ; kuba 

,, (person), naba 

,, (things or another person), naza 

,, (the hands), naba mu ngalo 
Watch, ;/. esawa 
Watch, v. kuma 
Watch-chain, n. omukufti 
Water, it. amadzi 

,, (stretch of), enyanja 
Water-pot, ;/. ensuwa 
Water, v. (a garden), fukirira 
Waterfall, n. ekiiriro 
Wave, it. e'jengo 
Wax, 11. (in ear), ebifetete 
Way, /;. (path), e'kubo 

,, (custom), empisa 
We, pron. tu 
Weak, adj. nafu 
Wealth, n. obugaga 
Weaned (to be), v. va ku mabere 
Wear, v. (clothes), yambala 
Wedding-feast, ;/. obugole ; embaga eyo- 

bugole 
Weed, v. kola omu'do 
Weeds, ;/. omu'do 



Weep, v. kaba amaziga 

Weigh, v. pima 

Well, n. oludzi 

Well, adv. bulungi 

Well, int. kale 

Wet (to be), v. toba 

Wet season, n. e'togo 

Wheat, n. eng'ano 

Wheel, n. (a bicycle), sindika egari 

Wheel, n. namuziga 

When, adv. di? 

Where, adv. wa? 

White, adj. yeru 

White (to be), v. tukula 

White, adv. (dazzling), tukutuku 

Whole, adj. lamba 

Wide, adj. gazi 

Widen, v. gaziya 

Widow, ;/. 'namwandu ; mu'namwandu 

Width, ;/. obugazi 

Wife, n. muka guitdi ; omukazi ; omu- 

kyala 
Wind, ;/. empewo 
Wind, v. (a watch), nyola 

,, (thread, etc.), zinga 
Window, n. ekituli ; dirisa 
Wing, ;/. ekiwawatiro 
Wink, v. temya ekikowe 
Wipe, v. simula 
Wire, ;/. (thin), obunyere 
Wisdom, 11. amagezi 
Witchcraft, «. e'dogo 
Wither, v. wotoka 
Witness, «. omujulirwa 
Witness (to call in), juliza 
Witness,. v. julira 
Wizard, 11. omvilogo 
Woman, 11. omukazi 

,, (slave), omuzana 
Wonder, ;/. e'gero 
Wool, ;/. ebyoya, p. roi 
Word, //. ekigambo 
Work, v. kola (omulimu) 
Work, ;/. omulimu 
Workman, 11. omukozi 
Worm, ;/. olusiring'anyi 
Worm-eaten (to be), v. wumba 
Worn out, adj. kade 
Worship, v, sinza 
Wound, ;/. ekiwundu 
Wounded, adj. fumite 
Wrap up, v. wumba 

,, (as parcel), siba 
Wrist, n. akakongovule 
Write, v. wandika 
Wrong, adj. bi 



Yam, ;/. balugu 
Yawn, v. yayuya 



VOCABULARY — ENGLISH-LUGANDA 



237 



Ye,/wi. mu 

Year, n. omwaka 

Yeast, n. ekizimbulukusa 

Yell, v. yana 

Yes, adv. yee ; wewawo 

Yes (to say), v. kiriza 

Yesterday, adv. jo 

Yolk (of egg), n. enjuba lye'gi 



Yonder, adv. wali ; emanga 
You, pron. mwe 
Young, adj. to 
Youth, iii omuvubuka 



Zebra, «. entulege 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



The Class Prefix, p. 18. 

A fireplace, iron, a bowl, green plantain- 
bark, a plantain - tree, a bunchlet, dry 
plantain-fibre (one piece of), a calabash 
(gourd), sugar-cane (one piece of). 

a. Ebyoto, ebyuma, ebibya, ebigogo, 
ebitoke, ebiwago, ebyai, ebita, ebikajfi. 

/'. Ndaga ekibya. Leta ekyai. Genda 
ononye ebyai. Saba ebibya. Nonya 
ekyuma. Ebyuma biruwa ? Genda osabe 
ebita. Leta ekikajo. Ndaga ebitoke. 
Leta ekigogo. Nonya ekiwago. 

ki Class, with Adjectives, p. 18. 

Ebibya ebinene. Ekibya kinene. Ekyo- 
to kitono. Ebita biwamvu. Ekyai kimpi. 
Genda ononye ekikajo ekirungi. Genda 
ononye ekiwago. Ndaga ebyuma ebi- 
wamvu. Leta ebibya ebibi. Ebikajo 
biwamvu. 

ki Class, with Demonstratives, p. 19. 

Ebibya bino ebiwamvu. Ekita ekyo 
kiwamvu. Ebyoto biri ebirungi. Ekyuma 
kiri kiwamvu. Ekyai kino kibi. Ebiwago 
ebyo. Ebyai bino birungi. Ekigogo kiri 
kimpi. Ekitabo kino kiwamvu. Ebiwago 
biri ebinene. Ebiwago bino binene. Ebi- 
bya bino ebitono bibi. Ekyai kino eki- 
wamvu kirungi. Ekibya ekyo kyeru (kitu- 
kuvu). I^eta ebita biri ebinene. Genda 
ononye ekikajo kiri ekinene. Ndaga ebi- 
tabo ebyo ebinene. Genda olete ebikajo 
biri ebitono. 

ki Class, with Possessives, p. 20. 
Ekibya kyange. Ekyumakye. Ekikajo 
kyafe. Ebitabo byafe. Ekikajo kyafe. 
Ekigerekyo. Ekiwagokye. Ebibyabye. 
Ebyuma byabwe. Genda olete ekitabo 
kyange. Genda osabe ekitakye. Ekita- 
bokye kirungi. Ebitabo byabwe bibi. 
Ndaga ebita byamwe. EkyotOKye kitono. 



Ekiwago kyange kinene. Ekyumakye 
kitono. Nonya ekitakyo. Saba ebyuma 
byabwe. Ebintubye birungi. 

ki Class, with Possessives [coitt.), 

p. 21. 

Ekikajo kiri kyani ? Kikye. Ekiwago 
ekyo kyani? Kyafe. Ebyuma biri 
byani? Bya kabaka. Ebita bino byani ? 
Bibyo. Ekitabo kyange kino. Ekitabo 
kiri si kikyo. Ekiwago ekyo si kikye. 
Ekikajo kino kikye ? Ekyuma kiri kikyo 
(kyamwe) ? Ekibyakye kiri ekirungi. 
Ekitakyo kimpi ; ekyange kiwamvu. Ebi- 
tabobye birungi ; ebibyo (ebyamwe) bibi. 
Ebyoto byafe binene ; ebyabwe bitono. 
Ebibya byange bibi ; ebya kabaka bitono ; 
ebibyo birungi. Ekiwagokye kiri kinene. 
Ekintu ekyo kikye ; kiri kyafe. 

\i Class, with Possessives {cont.), 
p. 21. 

Ekibya kyange kiri ekirungi. Ekika- 
jokye kiri kiwamvu. Ekikajo kino ki- 
wamvu kikye. Ebitoke biri ebiwamvu bya 
kabaka. Ebitoke ebyo ebya kabaka bi- 
wamvu. Ebita byamwe (byo) biri ebibi 
binene. Ekikajo kiri ekimpi kikyo. Ebi- 
tabo biri ebyeru (ebitukuvu) bibye. Ebyai 
bino byange. Ekitoke kino kyange ; ebyai 
byakyo birungi. Ebitoke bino bya ka- 
baka ; ebyai byabyo bibye. Ebitokebye 
bino ; ebiwago byabyo ; ekigogo kyabyo 
(ebigogo byabyo) ; ebyai byabyo. Ekita 
kiri kitono ; ekyange kinene. 

ki Class, with Numerals, p. 22. 

Ebyai bisatu. Ekitoke kimu. Ebita 
bina. Ebyuma bibiri. Ebintu biri bisatu 
bibye. Ebibyabye bino ebina. Ebita 
byabwe biri ebibiri ; Ebikajobyo ebyo 
ebitano. Ekitoke kino ekinene kyange. 
Ebitabo ebibiri bya kabaka binene. Leta 
ekiwago kimu. Ebibya ebitano bitono. 



238 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



239 



EI>yoto byange bisatu birungi. Genda 
olete ebikajo ebisatu. Genda ononye 
ebyuma bibiri. Ndaga ebigogo ebina 
ebimpi. Leta ebikajobyo ebyo ebiwamvu. 
Ebitoke ebitano ebiwamvu bya kabaka. 
Ebit'a byamwe bibiri bimpi. Ebyuma 
ebibiri byafe. Ekigere kyange kino ki- 
nene. Ebibya biri bisatu bibi. 

Supplementary, p. 23. 
Ebitoke biri bisatu. Ebikajo biwamvu 
biri bitano. Ekibya kino kiwamvu nyo. 
Ebikajo biri bimpi nyo. Genda olete 
ebibya nebita. Genda ononye ebigogo 
nebyai. Ndaga ebibya byonsatule. Ebi- 
toke nebikajo byombi birungi nyo. Leta 
ebyuma ebibiri, byombi biwamvu nyo. 
Leta ebitabo byonsatule. Ebyoto ebyo 
bitono nyo. Ebintu bino ebitano biwamvu 
nyo. Ekyoto kino ekiwamvu kirungi nyo. 
Ebikajo biri bitano biwamvu. 

The Verb, p. 24. 

Ebikerebiri bibiri bibiika nyo. Ebitoke 
bya kabaka bikula nyo. Ebyuma byonsa- 
tule biri ran kibya kyange. Ebitabo 
byombi biri ku kiwagokyo. Ekisolo kya 
kabaka kigenda mangu, ekyange kigenda 
mpola. Ebiwago biri mu bigogo. Ebi- 
kajo bitano biwamvu nyo biri ku kisolo- 
kyo. Ndaga ebiwago. Biri ku kitoke 
(ekyo) 1 ekiwamvu. Genda olete ebitabo 
ebitono ; biri mu kibya ekyeru. Ebitoke 
nebikajo bikula. Ebisolo bitambula, era 
bikula. 

Verb (cont.), p. 25. 

Ebikajo bino si biwamvu. Ebita bino 
si bibi. Ekitoke kino tekikula bulungi. 
Ebisolo bino binatambula mangu lero. 
Ebiwago tebiri ku kitoke ekyo. Ebitabo 
biri ebiwamvu si bya kabaka. Ebikajo 
bino birikula bulungi. Ebitoke byange 
tebikula bulungi. Ebiwago tebiri mu bi- 
gogo. Ebitabo ebyo tebiri mu kibya 
ekyeru (ekitukuvu). Ekisolo kya kabaka 
teKigenda (tekitambula) nyo. Ekibya kino 
si kinene nyo. 

Veri; (coiit.), p. 26. 
Ekitoke kyagala okugwa. Ekibya kija 
kugwa. Ebitoke byagala okugwa. Ebi- 
solo bwebirimala (bwebinamala) okuta- 
nibula. Njagala okulaba ebyai. Njagala 
okusoka wano. Njagala okumala okukuba I 
ekyuma. Ekyuma kija kugwa ku kibya. 
Njagala okusoka okukuba ekyuma. Eki- | 

1 This Demonstrative takes the place of the 
that article is emphatic. 

2 Better Ekitabo kyasaba, siri nakyo. 

3 For the way to express the article ' the, 
sentence: e.g. Ekitabo siri nakyo. Ekitabo s 



wago kyagala okugwa. Ekyuma bweki- 
soka okwokya. 

Personal Subject and Object, p. 26. 

a. Ndaba, Ndeta, ngwa, ngenda, okuba, 
osala okwata, asula, etc. 
/'. Nkulaba, tukukuba, etc. 

c. Nkiraba. Babiraba. Akikuba. Tu- 
namulaba. Banatulaba. Tunakisula. Oli- 
kikwata. Obalaba. Nabireta. Onotulaba. 
{not Onatulaba) (olitulaba). Alindeta 
lanandeta). Munakisala. Njagala oku- 
kikwata. 

d. Sigwa. Tokwata (temukwata). Ta- 
laba. Takiraba. Tabalaba. Tebamu- 
laba. Tetukikwata. Tebagenda kuja. 
Taja kugenda. Tayagala kukikuba. Sija 
kubisula. Tokisala. Sikukuba. Taku- 
wata. 

ki Class, with Relative, p. 27. 

Ebikajo ebirikula. Ekyuma kyetukuba. 
Ekiwago kiri kyebalaba kiri mu kibya. 
Ebitabo ebisatu byetunaleta. Leta ebitabo 
byebagenda okusula. Kwata ebitabo ebya- 
gala okugwa. Ebyai ebiva ku kitoke. 
Ekita ekyagala okugwa. Ekiwago kikino 
ekyagala okuvunda. Ebitoke biruwa bye- 
bagenda kusala ? Ndaga ebyuma byayagala 
okutwala. Sirina kitabo kyasaba. 2 Eki- 
tabo ekigenda okugwa. Ekitoke ekigenda 
okugwa. Ebitabo biri bibiri byebagenda 
okuleta byeru. 

Yerh, I'res. Perf. and Far Past, 
p. 27. 

a. Nakwata, twasula, basala, etc. 

b. Tugenze, agude, badze, etc. 

c. Tebagenze, tadze, etc. 

d. Ekibya kigude. Ebikere bigenze. 
Ebitoke bikuze. Tusabye ekitabo. Ebi- 
toke byenalaba. Ekyuma ekyagwa. Ebyai 
bivunae. Ebiwago biii bibiri byetwalaba. 
Batute ekitabo ekirungi kyeyagula. Ebyai 
biruwa byebasula? Ekitabo" kiruwa kye- 
yayagala okusaba. Ebikere tebigenze. 
Tetwalaba kitabo. Tebatwala ekibya. 
Sisude ekitabo. Ebitoke tebigude. Ebi- 
toke tebyagwa. Sikute kibya. Tetusabye 
kitabo. Ebyai tebivunze. Tebatwala 
biwago. Teyakuba kyuma. Ekyuma 
takikubye. Ebiwago tabitute. 

Miscellaneous, p. 28. 

b. Twalaba ebibya byona. Ebitoke 
byona e'oyagwa. Leta ekyuma kyoka. 

English definite article in some cases where 

see p. 73 : viz. put the object first in the 
ikirabve, etc. 



240 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Ebyai bitya (biri bitya) ? bivunze ? Ebi- 
byabimeka? Ekigogokiri kitya? kigude? 
Ebitoke bigenze bwebiti. Ebyuma bin 
bimeka? Ndaga ebyuma byona. Ebtta 
byona birungi. Ebita biri bitya? Ebintu 
biri bitya? Ebyoto bimeka? Ekyoto 
kiri kimu kyoka. Ebitoke byona bikuze. 

mu- mi Class, p. 29. 

a. A head, value (price), hoe-handle, 
body (thickness of anything), snake, stick, 
tail, arm, friend (friendship), work, a 
doorway. 

b. A river, month (moon), year, fire. 
Plurals. Emitwe, emiwendo (very rare), 

emiini, emibiri, emisota, emigo, emikira, 

emikono, emikwano, emirimu, 1 emiryango. 

Emiga, emiezi, emiaka, (none). 

mu— mi Class, Adjective and 
Numeral, p. 29. 
Omulimu omutono. Omutwe omunene. 
Omulyango mutono. Omulyango omu- 
tono. Omubiri mutono. Genda ononye 
omwini omumpi. Ndaga omuga (ogwo) 
munene. Omugo muwamvu. Leta omuti 
omuwamvu. Omukwano mubi. Emiga 
esatu. Emiga esatu eminene. Emiaka 
ena. Emiezi ebiri. Oroukira gumu mu- 
wamva. Emikira ebiri mimpi. Emiryango 
ebiri eminene (emigazi). Emikira emimpi 
giri ebiri. Emiini giri ena. Gwe mutwe 
mutono. Gwe mukwano. Omukwano 
ogwo si mulungi. 



mu— mi Class, Demonstrative, p. 30. 

a. Agukute, bagisala, etc. 

b. Omutwe guli. Emikwano gino. 
Omuga ogwo. Emiaka gino. Emigo 
giri. Emiti egyo. Omuwendo guno. 
Emirimu giri. Omukono guno. Omu- 
lyango guli. Omwini guno. Emikira 
gino. Omubiri guli. Emiti giri 'kumi. 
Omutwe guno omunene. Emiryango gino 
emitono. Omukiragunoomulungi. Omu- 
go guli omuwamvu. Omukono guno mu- 
mpi. Omuwendo ogwo munene. Omuti 
guno muwamvu. Emiini giri ebiri. 
Omulimu guno munene. Omusota guli 
gugenda mangu nyo. Emikira giri emi- 
wamvu. Emisota gino emitono Emiga 
giri eminene. Emiti gino esatu emimpi. 
Emiini egyo etano. Emiryango gino ebiri 
eminene (emigazi). 

mu— mi Class, Possessives, p. 30. 

a. Omutwe gwange. Omukonogwe. 
Omukwanogwo. Omulyango gwafe. 
Omwinigwe. Omubirigwo. Emiezigye. 
1 Means " Materials for work," more 



Omugogwo. Omulimugwe. Omukwano 
gwa kabaka. Emiini gyafe. Omukono- 
gwo. Emikono gyamwe (gyo). Emibiri 
gyabwe. Omulimugwo (gwamwe). Omu- 
gogwe muwamvu. Omulimu gwafe mu- 
lungi. Genda olete omwini gwange. 
Omulimugwo guli mubi. Omutwegwo 
mutono. Omulimu gwabwe munene. 
Omuliro gwange. Omukwanogwe. 

c. Omugo gwani ? Gwange. Omu- 
kwano guno gwani ? Gwabwe. Omwini 
guligugwo? Aa, si gwange. Omugogwo 
mumpi, ogwange muwamvu. Omulimu 
gwange muzibu, ogugwo gwangu. Omu- 
limu guno gwani? Gwabwe. Omutwe 
guno gwani? Gugwe. Emikono giri 
gyani? Gigyo (gyamwe). Ekyuma, omu- 
wendo gwakyo. Omusota, omubiri gwa- 
gwo munene. Ebisolo emitwe gyabyo, 
emikira gyabyo, emikono gyabyo. Eki- 
toke, omwaka gwakyo. Omugo guli si 
gugwo. Omusota guno si gugwe. Omwini 
ogwo si gugwe. Omwini, ekyuma kyagwo. 
Ebita, omuwendo gwabyo. 

mu— mi Class, Relative, p. 31. 
Omulimu gweyakola. Omulimu gwa- 
koze. Omugo ogugude. Omwaka ogwa- 
gwako. Omukono gweyakuba. Emiini 
gyebalireta (gyebanaleta). Omusota ogwa- 
fa. Emiga gyetulisomoka (gyetunaso- 
moka). Omuliro ogwaka nyo. Omutwe 
ogulabika. Omuwendo oguli munene. 
Emitwe gyetulabye. Omuwendo gwetu- 
wade. Omuliro gwasabye. Omubirigwe 
ogutukula nyo. Omugo gwange gwalute. 
Omuwendo gwayagala okusaba. Omuliro 
ogugenda okwaka. Omuga ogukulukuta 
nyo. 



mu— mi Class, Miscellaneous, p. 32. 
Emiga emeka? Emiini giri gitya? 
Ekikere, omutwe gwakyo guli gutya? 
Omukono bweguti. Omwezi gwona. 
Emisota bwegiti. Omwaka guno gwoka. 
Omuliro gugude gwona. Emisota gya- 
genda bwegiti. Emisota gyona gyafa. 
Emirimu gyafe gyona givunze. Omulya- 
ngo gutya? Gufunda nyo. Emikwano 
gyange. Omukira gwoka gwasigala (gwe 
gwasigala). Emiga gyona giri esatu gyoka. 
Kola emiryango bwegiti. Emiryango ba- 
gikola mifunda (bagifunza) bwebatyo. 
Emiaka gyona. 

Nouns, p. 42. 
Omulenzi nomuwala. Ekigambo ne- 
kikolo. Omusomi nomubaka. Ekigambo 
nekibya. Omudu nomuzana. Ekidiba 
nekinya. Ekibira nekikolo. Omusomi 
often than " Several pieces of work." 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



24I 



nomulenzi. Ekinya nekibya. Omukazi 
nomuwala. Ekigere nekinya. Ekikolo 
nomuwala. Ekibya nomukazi. Oinulenzi 
nekigere. Omubaka nekibina. Ekibira 
nekidiba. Omubumbi nekikayi. Ekibya 
nomubumbi. Omuzana nomuwala. Omu- 
saja nomukazi. Omubaka nomubumbi. 
Ekibina nekinya. Omukazi nomubumbi. 
Omusaja nomudu. Omusaja nekibira. 
Ekibya nekikayi. Omusomi nomuwala. 
Ekikolo nekinya. 

Nouns, Plural, p. 43. 

a. Ahasaja, abakazi, abasomi 1 , abalenzi, 
abawala, ababaka, abadu, abazana, aba- 
bunibi. 

Ehibina, ebibira, ebibya, ebidiba, ebi- 
gambo, ebigere, ebikayi, ebikolo, ebinya. 

b. Abasaja nabakazi. Ebibya nebikayi. 
Ebibina nebigambo. Ebikolo nebinya. 
Abasomi nabalenzi. Ababaka nekibina. 
Omubumbi nebibya. Ekibira nebinja. 
Abasaja nebintu. Abalenzi nabawala. 
Omubaka nabadu. Ebigere nebinya. 
Omusaja nabasomi. Abawala nekibya. 
Abazana nekikolo. Omubaka nebigambo. 
Ebigere nomulenzi. Ebikayi nomukazi. 
Abasomi nekibina. 

Adjectives, p. 44. 

Omuwala omulungi. Omulenzi omuto. 
Ebigambo ebigya. Abadu ababi. Eki- 
kayi ekinene. Abasomi abampi. Ebigere 
ebitono (ebimpi). Omukazi omukade. 
Abalenzi abakulu. Ekikolo ekimpi. Eki- 
kayi ekibi. Abantu (abasaja) ababi. Aba- 
bumbi abalungi. Ekibya ekibi. Ekigere 
ekitono (ekimpi). Ebigamboebizibu. Eki- 
bira ekinene. Ebintu ebikade. Omukazi 
omuzira. Ebinya ebyerere. Abasomi aba- 
kulu. Ekibina ekinene. Ebidiba ebitono. 
Ababaka abakade. Omubaka omukulu. 
Ebidiba ebikalu. Omuwala omunene. 
Ekibya ekibisi. Omukazi omuwamvu. 
Abantu abampi. Ekibya ekigya. Ebintu 
ebikalu. Ekibira ekitono. Ekigere eki- 
ramu. Ebikolo ebigumu. Ekinya ekigazi. 
Ekikolo ekibisi. Ekinya ekiwamvu. 
Ekikayi ekigumu. Omulenzi omulamu. 

Initial Vowel, p. 46. 

Abasomi balungi. Abasomi ababi be 
balenzi. Ekibya kitono. Kibya ki? 
Omuwala wani ? Omusaja wani ? Kibira 
ki ? Si babaka. Si basomi balungi. Mu 
kinya. Ku 'kikolo. Mu badu. Ku bi- 
kolo. Mu basaja. Omubaka si mukade. 
Mu bidiba. Kino 
Mu balenzi. Ku 



Omuwala si muto. 
kiki? Si kirungi. 



bigambo. Mu bazana. Kye kibina mu 
kibira. Be balenzi mu kidiba. Kye kinya 
mu kikolo. Ye mudu wa mubaka. Bye 
bigambo bya mubaka. Kye kikayi kya 
mubumbi. 

Place, p. 47. 

Ekibira kiniwa. Wali (wa wali). Kwa- 
ta bu bikolo. Ndaga ebikayi; biri mu 
kinya muli. Nonya omuntu mu kibira 
omwo. Ekikayi kiri ewamwe. Ekigere 
kiruwa? Genda osabe ekibya ; kiri ewa- 
mwe, mu basaja. Nonya awo : kiri okwo. 
Genda mu kibira, ononye omulenzi. Kiri 
ku kikolo kuli. Kiri ewafe. Genda wo- 
musaja omumpi, osabe ekikayi ; kiri ewu- 
we. Genda olete omuwala omuto nyo. 
Mu kinya muli. Ku kikayi kuno. Ku 
kigere okwo. Ekibya kiruwa? kiri wali. 
Ekidiba kiruwa? kiri mu kibira. Ebi- 
gambo byani? Bya balenzi. Omuwala 
wani ? \Va musomi asula ewafe. Ebigere 
byani ? Bya bawala. Ku balenzi ababi. 
Ekibya kiri mu balenzi bato. Abasomi 
abakulu. Omulenzi omumpi. Ekidiba 
ekinene. Omudu omuzira. Ekikayi eki- 
kalu. Nonya ekikolo ekigomvu. Leta 
ku hibya ebitono. Biri muli. Ndaga 
omukazi omugenyi. Abakazi abagenyi ; 
bali wali. Genda womusaja, olete ekikayi. 
Genda mu kibira, ononye omuwala. 

ki Class, Adjectives, p. 48. 

Ekibajo kimpi. Ekibanja kirungi. 
Ekisakatekibi. Ekibya ekiramu kiruwa? 
Ndaga ekiwundu ekinene. 1 Ekitabo eki- 
rungi kiruwa? Genda osabe ekikwaso 
ekirungi. Genda ononye ebifananyi ebi- 
tono. 1 Leta ekibya ekiramu. Leta eki- 
tundu ekimpi. Si kiramu. Genda ononye 
ekikusu ekito. Genda osabe ekibanja. 
Ekinya ekiwamvu kiruwa? Ekigo 
ekigya kiruwa? Ekisakate ekikade ki- 
ruwa? Ekisenge kimpi. Ebisakate bigya. 
Ekiwero kibi? Ebiwempe ebigumu bi 
ruwa? Ebibatubigumu, si binene. Genda 
osabe ekisaniko ekirungi. I^ca ekibo 
ekigumu. Ebifumvu ebikalu biruwa ? 
Ekiwomvu ekitono kiruwa? Awalungi 
wa? 

ki Class, Demonstrative, p. 49. 

Ekikondekino. Ekisikirize ekyo. Ebi- 
wundu bino. Ebifumvu biri. Ndaga eki- 
konge kiri ekikade. Genda olete ekibo 
ekyo. Ekigo kino kikade nyo. Wali 
wagazi, wano wafunda.' Saba ebiwempe 
biri ebimpi. Ebikere bino bito. Ebibo 
biri byerere. Ebiwomvu bino biwamvu 
nyo. Kwata ekikusu kino. Genda osabe 



For the way to denote English definite Article ' the ' when emphatic, see p. 



73- 
Q 



242 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



ebiwero biri ebinene. Ebiwero biruwa? 
Biri ku kitanda kiri ekitono. Ebikwaso 
biri ebiwamvu biruwa? Biri mu kisani- 
kizo kiri (muli). Ekiwundu kino ki- 
nene ; biri bitono. Ndaga ebikajo biri 
ebikalubo. Biri bikalubo, bino bigomvu. 
Leta ebitogo biri ebimpi. Ekitundu kino 
kikade. Ebifananyi bino birungi nyo : biri 
si birungi. Ekikusu kino kitono. Ebire 
l>ino binene. Genda mu kifulukwa muli 
olete ebikayi. Genda ononye ebiwempe 
ku kitanda kiri ekinene. Ebikwaso ebi- 
inpi biri mu kisansa muli ekitono. Genda 
mu bizinga, ogule ebibya biri. 

ki Class, Subject and Object, p. 49. 

Ekikusu kitambula nyo : nkirabye. 
Bigenda marigu nyo. Kigenda kugwa. 
Tunakizimba. Babigyawo. Bagenze. 
Babisude. Banabireta (balibireta). Ki- 
nagwa (kija kugwa). Binagwa. Balibi- 
kwata (banabikwata). Babireka. Ebikere 
bibuka. Ekikajo kiwoma. Ekiwundu 
kino kiwunya. Ekisenge kiri kyesulise. 
Ekisakate kino kibunduse. Ekizikiza 
kikute. Ekikonge kikuba abantu. 

ki Class, Numerals and Adjectives, 
p. 50. 

Ebibya mukaga. Ebifumvu 'kumi. 
Ebifo munana. Ebitabo mukaga. Ebi- 
sanikizo mwenda. Ebisakate musamvu. 
Ebita munana. Ebyoya 'kumi. Ebitabo 
binene mwenda. Ekitibwa kingi. Ekisa 
kingi. Ebibya bimeka ? ebiswa bimeka ? 
'Kumi. Ebisakate bimeka ? Ebiro mukaga 
ebiramba. Basula ebisasiro bingi. Nja- 
gala ebitundu ebiwamvu mukaga. Bakola 
ebitanda ebirungi bina. F.bifulukwa ebi- 
nene mwenda. Ebiwero bino musamvu 
bibi. Ebizinga biri ebyeru. Ebibira 
bisatu ebinene. Ebika biri mukaga. 

ki Class, Possessive, p. 50. 

Ekikajo kyange. Ekitabokye. Eki- 
tuli kyabwe. hkiwempekyo kiwamvu. 
Ekiwundukye kinene. Ebitabo byabwe 
birungi ny>. Ndaga ekikusukye. Ekyoto 
kyabwe kitono. Ekita kino kyani? 
Kyange. Ebibya ebitano ebitono byani ? 
Biri ku kisenge. Ekyejo kyabwe kingi. 
Genda ononye ekirato kyange kiri eki- 
rungi. Ekikusu kiri si kikyo. Ebyalo 
bino byani ? Byafe. Ekikusukye, na- 
laba ekigere kyakyo ; ebiwawatiro byakyo 
bitono ; ekisa kyakyo kinene. Balireta 
(banaleta) ebitabo byabwe. Ebitabo, 
ebitundu byabyo. Baleta ekikusu mu 
kiguli kyakyo. F.kikusukyo, nakiraba 
nekiwundu kyakyo. Ekikandc kyange 



kitono, ekikyo kinene. Ekisakate 

ekisikirize kyakyo kirungi. Ekisakye 
kingi. Twalaba ekikusukyo ; ebyoya 
l>yakyo bito. Ekitandakyo kirnpi, ekya- 
nge kiwamvu, ekikye kifunda nyo. Ba- 
leta ekibo ekirungi nekisanikizo kyakyo 
ekinene. Ebizinga nebiswa byabyo. 

ki Class, Relative, p. 50. 

Kye kikusu ekikaba. Ebitogo bye- 
twasala. Ekiguli kyeyakola. Ekisakate 
ekirigwa. Kye kisenge ekyagala okugwa. 
Ekisansa kyenjagala. Ebitabo biri ebi- 
rungi byebajula. Ekibanja ekiri mu 
kibira. Leta ekital>o kyetwagula. Kwata 
ebitabo ebigenda okugwa. Ebikere 
ebikaba. Ekyejo ekyamugoba. Ekigo 
kyebagenda okugula. Ebimuli byebaleta. 
Ebisaniko byebagyawo. Ekituli ekileta 
omusana. Ebisakate ebirungi bisatu 
ebyagwa. Ekifo kyebalivamu (kyebali- 
reka). Ekitundu kyenaleka mu kibya 
muli. Ekirabo kyebalese ewafe. Ekyoto 
kyebagenda okukola kitono. Letaebyuma 
ebikola ekiguli. Saba ekiwero ekisimula 
ebintu. Ekibya kiruwa kyewasula ? 

ki Class, Miscellaneous, p. 51. 

Leta wano ebibajo byona. Kola eki- 
sakate kimu kyoka. Saba ebisansa byo- 
mbi. Nonya ebibo byonsatule. Ebi- 
tabo bitya ? Ebitabo byagenda okugula. 
Ekisakate kigenda bwekiti. Ebikere 
bibuka bwebiti. Sula ebisasiro (ebisaniko) 
byona mu kinya muli. Ekirevukye 
kiwamvu. Kyenkana wa? Kyenkana 
bwekiti. Ebikere bimeka? Twalaba 
ebikere mwenda ebitono nebibiri ebine- 
ne. Yagwa ku kyenyikye (Better ya- 
gwa nekuba — struck himself— ek\eT\\\). 
Ekyenyi kitya ? Ekyenyi kye nyini. 
Ebimuli bitya? Ebimuli bje nyini. 
Ebitabo byange byona byagwa mu 
kinya muli. Ekikusukye kikaba bwe- 
kiti. Ekikusu ekyakaba bwekityo kya- 
fa. Ekigo kino kitono nyo ; bakikola 
bwekityo. Ebisakate bino biwamvu ; 
babikola bwel>ityo. Ebikere byakaba 
bwebityo ekiro kyona. Ekinya kino 
kyerere ; nakiraba. Ekikusukye kigen/e : 
nkirabye mu bitoke. Kinonya kukibanja. 
Kiri wano ku kisakate. Ekirato kiri 
ekirungi kiruwa kyenakuwa. Ekirato 
kyange kiri, nakireka ewamwe mu kisenge. 
Onolaba ebikwaso bingi mu kibo kyange. 
Mu kiwomvu nalaba ebimuli biri byeba- 
leta jo. Ebisaniko biri byona ebiri mu 
kyoto, liisula mu kinya kyetwasima mu 
kikande. Gyawo ebiwempebyo (byamwe) 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



243 



bino byona. 
Ekisa kitya ? 



Leta ebyange tubyalirewo. 1 
Ekisakye kingi. 



Supplementary', p. 53. 

Nina ebifananyi bibiii. Yalina ebi- 
kusu bisatu. Balina ekisakate ekirungi. 
Ebisakate byebaii nabyo birungi. Eki- 
talx) kyange kyali ku mukeka. Ebibya 
byali bibiri. Waliwo ekibanja ekirungi 
rau kibira. Mu kibya mulimu ekikwaso ? 
Mu bisaniko mulimu ebimuli. Ekituli 
kiruwa kyenkola? Mulimu ekiswa. 
Talina kiwundu. Tolina kituli? Talina 
kirevu. Ekigo kyali mu kiwomvu. 
Waliwo ekyoto kimu mu kigo. Mulina 
ebikuta? Au, tetulina. Olese ekibya ? 
Yee, ndi nakyo. Olina ekikusu ? Yee, 
nina ebibiri. Alina ekirevu? Aa, talina. 
Balese ekiwempe ? Aa, tebalese kintu. 
Agenda kukola ekisenge ? Yee, alikikola. 
Ebiswa byali mwenda. Ekikajo kyali mu 
kisenge. Ekizinga ekyo kyali mu nyanja 
ya kabaka. 

Supplementary, i., p. 53. 

Nina ebitabo birungi, biri bina. Tulina 
ebisakate bibi : biri mukaga, B.ileta 
ebirabo bitono, byali bibiii. Alina ebikusu 
ebito, biri bisatu. Balina ebisenge bikade ; 
biri bitano. Ebiguli ebifunda mukaga. 
Twalaba ebibira ebi.'ono, byali bisatu. 
Ebidiba ebinene mwenda. Ebikere ebi- 
tono bina. Bakwata ebikusu ebito ; byali 
munana. Olina ebisansa ebikade, biri 
bibiri. Alina ebibya ebiramu biri bina. 
Bagula ebibamvu ebigya musamvu. Ebi- 
womvu ebinene bisatu. Olina ebiwempe 
ebivungi, biii bibiri. Ebinya ebigazi bina. 
Ebisakate ebikade bisatu. Ebiwero ebi- 
kalu mwenda. Nina ebiwero ebiramu 
bibiri. 

Supplementary, ii. , p. 54. 
Yalina ebikusu bibiri birungi. Olina 
(mulina) ebisakate bisatu bimpi. Ebigo 
mukaga bigumu. Ebyoto mwenda bitono. 
Ebitanda bina bibi. Ekitundu kimu 
kirungi. Ebibo bitano bigya. Ebibira 
bitano binene. Ebiswa 'kumi bitono. 
Ebikolo musamvu bigumu. Ebidiba 
bibiri bikalu. Ebimuli munana birungi. 
Ebinya bibiri bigazi. Ebiswa mwenda 
binene. Abawala mukaga bato. Tulina 
ebiguli bina bimpi. Olina ebiwundu 
bibiri binene. Nina ebigere ebitono 
bibiri. Alina ebifananyi ebirungi bina. 
Baleta ebita bitano birungi. Balaba 
ebikere bina bito. Bakola ebitanda 
bibiri birungi. 



mu — mi Class, Subject and Object, 
P- 54- 
Omusota gugenda. Omugauda gu- 
genda okugwa. Omuliro, ngulese. Emi- 
rambo, ngirabye. Emiga gijude (amadzi). 
Omugongo gukutuse. Omuka mungi. 
Emisota, nagiraba mu kibira. Emikufu 
gyagwa. Omuti guja kuloka. Omuse- 
kese tuligukola. Emisota girifa. Omudo 
tunagusula. Emirimu gidze. Emiryango, 
'maze okugigera. Eminya gyagenda 
mangu. Omugo gunagwa. Emiti bali- 
gireta. Omulamwa bagulaba. Omu- 
wendo mungi. Emiryango gifunda, 
Omusingo bagukiriza. Omulimu 'maze 
okugukola. 

mu — mi Class, Demonstrative anm> 
Adjective, p. 55. 

Oinunya guno. Omupunga guli. 
Omuti ogwo. Emikono giri. Emiti 
gino. Emifuko giri. Emirere giri mi- 
rungi. Omuliro guno mubi. Omudumu 
guli guluwa? Omudumu guguno ku 
kisenge. Leta wano omubinikiro guli. 
Omubala omulala guguno. Omudo guno 
mungi. Emikufu gigino. Emiganda 
gino miwamvu. Omukono guli mumpi. 
Emitwe giri mitono. Ndabye emitwe 
giri eminene. Emirimu gino. Omupunga 
guguno. Omuliro guguli. Omudumu 
ogwo. Omunya guno omutono. Emi- 
pera gino mimpi. Omukufu guno mu- 
wamvu. Omuganda guli omumpi bagu- 
siba bubi. Omusolo guguno. Baguletr 
jo. Emisota giri. Omuka ogwo. Eki- 
tundu kiri ekinene. Omugo guno rau- 
wamvu ; guli mumpi. Mu muga muli 
mulimu ebitogo? Aa, temuli. Mu mu- 
solo guli mulimu (bagutademu) emiini. 
Waliwo emisota (Emisota gyegiri) mu 
muga guno. Aja kusiga omupunga mu 
musiri muli. 

mu — mi Class, Numeral and Adjec- 
tive, p. 55. 

Emiga esatu. Omukira gumu. Eminya 
mukaga. Emipera munana. Omudo 
mungi. Emiganda emeka? 'Kumi. 
Emikufu emeka ? Ebiri. Leta emiwu- 
mbo giri eminene. Ndaga emipera omu- 
nana. Twasomoka emiga ena Emi- 
dumu gino ebiri. Emigo giri emimpi 
esatu. Leta emirere giri emirungi ebiri. 
Enkya tunasomoka emiga etano ; esatu 
migazi, ebiri mifunda, naye girimu amadzi 
mangi. Emisiri ebiri mirungi. Yalwala. 
omusuja emirundi emeka ? Emirundi 



1 Lit.—' That we may spread them in this place.' 



244 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Omugabo gweyampa (gweyangabira). 
Omutwalo ogwagwa mu muga. Genda osa- 
be omukufu gwenaleka ku kitanda. Nonya 
emiramwa gyetwasula mu kinya muli. 
Leta omutwalo gwebagenda okutwala. 

mu — mi Class, Miscellaneous, p. 56. 

Tunasomoka (tulisomoka) omuga gumu 
gwoka. Emiga gyona girimu (giberamu) 
am'adzi mangi. Emiti gyenkana wa obu- 
wamvu? Omubisi gwali mu mudumu 
muli. Emiga gyetwasomoka gyali ebiri 
gyoka ; gumu gwali mugazi nyo. Emi- 
reregitya? Emirere gyebaleta jo. Omu- 
biri gwona. Gyawo omudo gwona. 
Omulimu guno gwona mulungi ; bagu- 
kola bwegutyo. Omugongogwe gwona. 
Omusingo gutya? Omusingo gwe nyini. 
Leta omudumu gwoka. Omusekese ya- 
gukola bwegutyo. Leta emikufu gyona. 
Ndaga omugongo gwona. Yasaba omu- 
solo gwona emirundi esatu. Genda ononye 
emiramwa gyona. Leta omupunga gwona. 
Akola emiryango gyoka. Omulyango bwe- 
guti. Emiga emeka? Emiti gyona gye- 
baleta gibuze. Omukira gwoka gulabika. 
Omukira gutya ? Omukira gwe nyini. 
Balya omuwumbo gwona. Ndaga emikono 
gyombi. Emipera gyona gyenasimba. 
Ebikeie byabako 1 (byaliko) emit we bwe- 
giti. Abasaja bakola omulimu guno 
gwona. 

Supplementary, Comparisons, p. 58. 

Ku bimuli, ebimu birungi, ebimu si 
birungi. Eminya egimu miwamvu, 
egimu mimpi. Omulere guno gwe gumu 
na guli. Omulimu guno gwe gumu 
nog wo. 2 Ebiwero byange bye bimu 
nebibyo. Emiryango gyabwe gyenkana 
obugazi. Emitwe gino gyenkana obu- 
nene. Omusota guno gwe gumu na guli. 
Emisota gino gyombi (ebiri) gyenkana 
obuwamvu. Omuga guno gwenkana na 
guli gwetwasomoka jo (okuberamu 
amadzi mangi), naye ogwa jo gwasinga 
obugazi. Omugabogwo gwe gumu no- 
gwange ; naye ogugwe gusinga egyafe 
gyombi. Ekitibwakye kisinga ekyange. 
Ku bifumvu byona bina, kino kisinga 
obuwamvu (obugulumivu) ; kiri kisinga 
okuba kimpi. a Omubinikiro guno gwe gu- 
mu na guli. Omubinikiro guli gusinga obu- 
gazi guli gwetwakola jo. Omutwalo guno. 
gusinga okuzitowa. 3 Balaba ebigo : ebimu 
bigumu nyo, ebirala si bigumu. Ndaga 
ebiwempe ; ebimu bikade, naye bingi 
bigya. Ekitanda kyange kisinga ekikyo 

1 Lit. — Had upon them, — the head being not a mere possession but an integral part. 
J Also, Omulimu guno nogwogumu : Ebiwero byange nebibyo bimu, and so throughout. 
3 Notice Inf. preferred to ' obu ' in some cases. 



ebiri. Omusota yagukuba emirundi 
emeka. Emirundi ena. Emiti gino giri 
etano. Bakola emibinikiro ebiri migazi. 
Yaleta emiranwa esatu. Emirere girf 
giri ena. Emigo abiri miwamvu. Emiti 
mwenda ; ena miwamvu, etano mimpi. 
Leta ebitundu bisatu biwamvu. Wamu- 
laba emirundi emeka ? Emirundi ena. 

mu— mi Class, Possessive, p. 56. 

Omufukogwe. Omupunga gwabwe. 
Omugongogwo. Emigo gyabwe. Emi- 
kufugyo Emireregye. Emiperagye emi- 
nene. Omupunga gwange mungi. Emi- 
konogyo emiwamvu. Omutwe gwange 
mutono, ogugwo inunene. Emitigye 
miwamvu : egyange mimpi. Omuwumbo 
gunogwani? "Gwange. Omugo ogwo gwa- 
ni ? Gwabwe. Omugongo guli gwani ? 
Gugwe. Genda ononye omulere gwange. 
Omulere gwange mulungi ; ogugwo mubi. 
Emipera gyabwe miwamvu nyo, egyafe 
mimpi. Leta omusingogwe. Munange, 
omusingogwo mutono. Omuwumbo guli 
gwafe. Omuganda guno gwabwe. Omu- 
binikirogwe guno. Omusota, omutwe gwa- 
gwo nomugongo gwagwo. Ebikusu, ebi- 
wawatiro byabyo nebyensuti byabyo nemi- 
twe gyabyo. Omunya, omukira gwagwo 
nebigere byagwo. Emipera, ebikolo bya- 
gyo. Twalaba ebizinga nemiga gyabyo. 
Omubisi guno gwani ? Gwamwe (gugwo) ? 
Aa, gwabwe. Omul'ro gwange mulungi, 
ogugwo si mulungi. Emiti nebikolo bya- 
gyo (emizi gyagyo). Omukufu gwange 
guli si mulungi. Nalaba omusota guli ; 
omugongo gwagwo gwakutuse. Or u- 
ganda gwange nemiti gyagwo. Omuli- 
mugwe nebituli byagwo. Omusekese 
guli gwani ? Gwange. Laba omulyango 
gwagwo. 

mu — mi Class, Relative, p. 56. 

Omukaogulinya. Omulere gwenakola. 
Emirambo gyetwalaba. Omusota ogwa- 
genda mbiro. Omuwumbo gweyaleta. 
Emikono egiingira wane. Omusolo 
gwebalisoloza. Omuliro oguja kwaka 
mangu. Emibala gyebagala okuiga. 
Omudo gwebagenda okulima. Omu- 
gaga gyensibye ku mutwe. Omulimu 
gwenamuwa (gwenamugabira) okukola. 
Emipera egirabise. Ndaga omusekese 
gwakola. Emiga gyetwasomoka. Omu- 
suja ogwamuvamu. Emiti egikola ekiguli 
kyange. Ekikusu, ebyoya ebibera mu kye- 
nsuti kyakyo. Emisota egibera mu muga. 
Omudo ogubera mu musiri gwange. 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



245 



obugazi, naye ekikye kisinga obuwamvu ; 
hino byona hyenkana. Omubisi guno 
niubi, leta ogusinga obuhingi. Ekisansa 
kino kitonu ; leta ekisinga obugazi. 
Ebitundu biri bitono : nonya ebisinga 
obuwamvu (obunene). Omuwendo gwe- 
kikusu kino kye kinm na kiri kyetwagula 
jo ; naye ekikusu kino kisinga obulungi : 
ebiwawatiro byakyo bisinga obunene, 
ebyoya byakyo bisinga okukula ; ekyensuti 
kyakyo kisinga obuwamvu. Emiti gino 
gyombi, omubiri gwagyo gumu. Omu- 
gogwo nogwange gwali ku muti gumu. 

Supplementary, Miscellaneous, 
P- 59- 

Okutambula nokugwa nokugolokoka. 
Okugula nokutunda era nokusula. Oku- 
kola nokugyawo era nokuleta. Bakola, 
baleka, era basula. Balya, banyuwa, 
bagolokoka era bagenda, mangu. Ekiku- 
sukye kitototo, ekyange kikadekade, 
ekikyo kikade dala. Ebintu ebimu 
bimpi, ebirala biwamvuwamvu. Ku 
miti ebimu bituse obuwamvu, ebirala 
bimpi, ebirala bya mubiri munene. 
Emiga % gino migazigazi. Ebisenge bi- 
neneko. Ebitabo bimpimpi, era binene. 
Emitwe gyona bitonotono, era nebigere. 
Omulyango guno gweyasala mufunda- 
funda. Ekiwundukye kineneko. Ebi- 
fananyi bino birungirungi. Omukufu 
guli mumpimpi. Ebita bino bitonotono : 
leta ebirala. Natunda ebirala byona jo. 
Emiti emiraJa gyona miinpimpi. Genda 
mangu. Banfdeta ekikusu enkya. Banaja 
lero. Tambnla mpola. Mpodzi tuliraba 
(tunilaba) ekikere olwegulo. 

St'PPI.EMENTARY, NUMERALS, p. 60. 

Ebibo abiri mu bina. Emiti asatu 
mwesatu. Ebigambo ana mu bina. 
Einigo 'kumi nena. Eminya abiri mu 
gumu. Ebikere 'kumi nebitano. Emi- 
pera ana mu mwenda. Ebituli 'kumi 
nebi«;atu. Ebiro ana. Ebiwero abiri mu 
bina. Ebitabo asatu mu mukaga. Ebi- 
sansa ana mu nuinana. Emirainbo asatu 
mu mwenda. Emisota 'kumi nomwenda. 
Ebisakate abiri. Ebiguli asatu mu kimu. 
Ebitundu ana mu bisatu. Emiganda 
atano. Ebizinga abiri mu bibiri. Ebifo 
asatu. Ebikolo abiri mu mwenda. Ebika 
asatu mu bina. Emikufu ana mwesatu. 
Emikira abiri mwebiri : emirundi 'kumi 
nesatu. Ebikusu abiri mu bisatu. Emi- 
gabo asatu mwebiri. Emikono 'kumi 
nomukaga. Emiti abiri mwesatu. Ebintu 
ana mu bibiri. Ebiro asatu mu munana. 
Ebikere ana mu kimu. Ebiwero abiri. 



Numerals after 50, p. 61. 

Bibiri mwasatu mu bina. Bina mu 
nkaga mu bitano. Lukumi mwabiri mu 
bina. Lusamvu mwasatu mu bibiri. 
Lwenda mwana mu bitano. Enkumi nya 
mu bisatu mwabiri mu kimu. Lukumi mu 
bibiri mwasatu mu bina. Kakumi mu 
bina mwasatu mu kimu. Blikumi bubiri 
mu nkumi tano mu lukaga mwatano 
mu kimu. Lwenda mu kinana mu bina. 
Lusamvu mwana mu bibiri. Lwenda mu 
mukaga. Lunana mu bina. Bitano mu 
musamvu. Lukumi mu bisatu. Lukumi 
mu bibiri mwasatu. Lukumi mwana mu 
bitano. Enkumi tano mu nkaga. Kanana 
mu nsamvu mu musamvu. Lwenda mu 
nsamvu mu mukaga. 

Kikumi mu nkaga mwena. Bibiri 
mwasatu mu musamvu. Lwenda mwana 
mwesatu. Lunana mu nsamvu mwebiri. 
Lwenda mu kinana mu gumu. Lukumi 
mu nkaga mwena. Lukumi mu bitano 
mwasatu mwebiri. Lukumi mu lunana 
mu kyenda mu rnukaga. Lusamvu 
mwasatu mwebiri. Lukumi mu lwenda 
mwana mu mukaga. Enkumi bin mu 
lunana mwana mu gumu. Kanana mu 
lusamvu mwasatu mwebiri. Bina mwa- 
tano mu munana. Lunana mu kyenda 
mwebiri. Bina mu nsamvu. Bitano mu 
musamvu. Lunana mu nkaga mwebiri. 
Lwenda mu nsamvu mwesatu. Enkumi 
nya mu nkaga. Kanana mu nsamvu 
mwesatu. Enkumi tano mu mukaga. 

Modified Form in 'DE,'p. 62. 

Bede, kyade, sede. 

Komode, lamude, gayade, kakanyade, 
kunkumude, sekude, situde, songode, 
sowodc, tabude, tambude, tukude, vutvude, 
yagade. 

Bulide, kulembede, lagide, nyikidc, 
saside, sembede, serede, siside, tamide, 
tegede. 

Segulide, tunulide. 

Nsitude omuganda. Bagayade. 'Mu- 
gambye lero. Tulamude bulungi. Ose- 
kude omupunga. Atulagira omulimu 
bulijo. Bagenda okukyala. Tusongode- 
omuti guno. Anyikide okukola omulimu 
guli. Batabude. Atamide omwenge. 
Asembede kumpi. Ekifumvu kiri kitu- 
knla nyo. Bakyade. Tusiside wano. 
Tumusaside. Batamira omwenge bulijo. 
Tubakulembede. Leta ekitundu ckikaka- 
nyade. Omupunga, tugusekula. Ekita- 
lakye akisowode mu kirato kyakyo. Ote- 
gede? Batugambye ku kikusu ; twagala 
okukiraba. Otunulide (mutunulide) ki ? 



246 



ELEMENTS OE LUG AN DA 



Batusera. Ekirabo ekitubede okugenda. 
Mutubera bulijo. Batubede nyo. Ota- 
bude emfufu mu mubi>i. Tutabude oinu- 
nyo mu muzigo. Wano wasererera nyo. 
Mutusegulide? Wali watukula nyo. Ba- 
nyikide okukola ekigo kino. Basongode 
emiti gyona. Tutambude mangu. Ba- 
kyala olwegulo. Ategede ebigambo 
byange. 

Modified Form in ' ze,' p. 63. 

Kaze, koze, kuze, maze, meze, mize, 
saze. 

Beze, lanze, linze, nyaze, size, sinze, 
tunze, vuze, vuze, zinze. 

Ebidiba bik'aze. Onyize? Ekikusu 
kimaze ebyai byona. Banyaze omupunga. 
Asize omuzigo ku mubirigwe. Omugo 
gumbuze. Bagenze. Nguze ebikusu bi- 
biri. Ebiwero bikaze. Omuti gukuze. 
Basize omupunga mu musiri gwabwe. 
Okukola ekitanda ye asinze. Ekitanda- 
kye kisinze ekyange. Mbaze ebizinga 
byona. Tumize obutole. Batunze (Ba- 
maze okutunda) omupunga gwona. Eki- 
kusu kimize ekikwaso. Nsaze ekituli 
wano. Tubeze emere. Bavuze nyo. Ba- 
baze emiti gyona. Otunze ebiwero? a- 
'nyaze ekikajo. Omu'ga gukaze. Atunze 
ebitabo bingi. Ebitogo b.kuze ate. A- 
'nyize ekiwundu. Osize e'losi ku bitabo 
byange. Omusota gubuze ate. Akoze 
ekiguli. Babaze emirambo kumi nebiri. 
Tuguze omu'go guli. Omu'do gukuze. 
Otemye ebitogo ? Ekikusu kibuze. Ekide 
kivuze 

Uses of Pres. Pfrf., p. 65. 

Mukoze ! Munyikide ! Baguze ! Mu- 
vuze ! Amaze okusala ekituli. Tumaze 
okusula ebisaniko. Kyanyaze kiki? Ebi- 
tabo otunzeko bimeka ? Ebikusu olese 
(mulese) bimeka? Ekituli okisaze wa? 
Amaze okugenda. Okyade ! (otulabye !) 
Bamaze okutunga ebiwero. Kyasize kiki ? 
Ebikwaso aleseko bimeka ? (Nga) asaze ! 
Omuti nga gukuze! Kyakoze kiki? 
(Nga) otambude (Mutambude) ! Ekiwero 
nga kikakanyade. Nga obeze bulungi ! 
Ekivuze kiki? Ebiwero bimaze okukala? 
Amaze okukomola ekitabo kyange. Aki- 
komode ! Bamaze okubasegulira. Omu- 
zigo gumaze okusanuka. Ebigenze biki ? 
Atunze ('so) 1 ! Bamaze okusitula omuti. 
Omaze okukola ekitanda. Tumaze oku- 
somoka omu'ga. Otubede ! Nga ala- 
mude ! 'Maze okubala ebizinga byona. 
Ekisinga kiruwa? Ebintu ebikuze biru- 
wa? 



Modified Form in 'ye,' p. 65. 

Bunye, gabye, gobye, kakanye, ka- 
nkanye, kimye, kolimye, komye, kya- 
mye, laganye, limye, limbye, lumye, 
lwanye, nyomye, sabye, sambye, sasanye, 
simye, simye, sibye, simbye, somye, temye, 
tuyanye, vumye, vunamye, zibye, zimbye. 

Tulimyewano. Asabye enkumbi. Ba- 
gobye ebikere. Ekyalo kye'manyi (nze). 
Byafumbye biki? Batemye emiti munana. 
Osimbye ebitoke ebirungi mu musirigwo. 
N komye wano. Tukyamye mu Tcubo. 
Ansambye. Balimye ekyalo kyona. Kya- 
nyomye kiki? Azibye ekituli. Tulinye 
ku kiswa. Tukung'anye. Ekikugobye 
kiki? aninyeko ekigere. Agabye ebirabo 
bingi. Nga mulwanyi ! Nga balimbye ! 
Ekyalo kiri nkimanyi. Mulimye! Atu- 
vumye ! Byagabye biki ? Tusimye ebi- 
Tiya munana. Tusabye omupera emi- 
rundi mingi. Anyomye (Azize) ekirabo 
kyange. Ekifananyi ekyo tukimanyi. 
Kye'manyi kiki? Tutemye omuti guli. 
Bamulimbye. Ebikuta babisombye ? Oga- 
bye ebikajo? Aa, naye babisabye. Osi- 
mye ? Yee, nsimye nyo. 

Modified Form in ' se,' p. 66. 

Fise, fuse, fuse, fumisc, golokose, ka- 
suse, kise, kulukuse, kwese, kyuse, lese, 
lese, menyese, sanuse, sanyuse, sese, sere- 
ngese, sindise, sirise, sose, somuse, terese, 
tuse, vunise, zise, zirise. 

Atuse. Tulese ekikande kiri. Ebintu 
byafe bivunise. Ofuse amadzi mu kibya 
kiri? Ebintu bisigadewo bimeka? Afu- 
mise ekisakate nomugogwe. Ekikusu 
kibuse. Nsanyuse. Bakwese omusolo 
mu muti muli. Tusanyuse okubalaba. 
Omugo gwange gumenyese. Asirise. 
Nsose lero okusoma. Osese. Nga ba- 
lese ! Nga osanyuse ! Omusota ogufu- 
mi.se? Omuga guno gukukkuta nyo. 
Ekimenyese kiki? Alese (avude ku) mu- 
limugwe. Ekiwero ok ikwese wa? Kya- 
kwese kiki ? Atcrese ebibye. Tulese 
omusolo. Byolese(byemulese)biki? Kyo- 
kasuse kiki ? Bakise emiti gyona. Base- 
rengese eri. Ekikyuse kiki? Baterese 
omupunga mungi. Ekibuse kiki? Ebi- 
kwaso bino bisigadewo. Omuti guno 
gukyuse (guvunise). Akwese omulere 
gwange. Ebibye abiterese wa ? Emikufu 
gituse lero. Bazise (Bamaze okuzika) 
emirambo. Ndese ekikusu. 

Modified Form in 'edza,'p. 67. 
Busidza, gasidza, juzidza, kolezedza, 



1 ' so ' is sometimes used as above. 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



247 



lowozedza, nazidza, nonyedza, nyumyidza, 
solozedza, subizidza, tegezedza, terezedza, 
tesedza, yozedza, yuzidza, zizidza. 

Aimusidza omutwe. Banonyedza eki- 
]>ya. Tutesedza okuzimba wano. 'Nazi- 
dza nyoekihya. Nga banyumyidza ! Eki- 
rabo kimugasidza nyo. Tujuzidza ekibya 
omupunga. Okolezedza etabaza ? Nga 
otutegezedza ! Otuzlzidza. Abanyenyedza. 
Tugambe byolowozedza. Babusidzabusi- 
dza. Oyuzidza ekitabo kyange. Ekimu- 
zizidzakiki? Basolozedza omusolo. Tu- 
wozedza nyo. Bayozedza ebiwero Kyo- 
buzidza kiki ? Baterezedza (baniaze oku- 
tereza) ekibanja. Batesedza batya? Oi- 
musidza omukono. Kyowozedza kiki? 
Atusubizidza. Kyosubizidza kiki? Eki- 
kuzlzidza kiki ? 

Other Modified Forms, p. 68. 

Bafuye emirere. Tuvude mu kinya. 
Akiridza okukola omulimu. Ekikusu ki- 
fude. Batide. Nkute omuti. Tulude 
nyo. Munyuwede mwena ku mwenge. 
Ntute ebikwaso byoija. Kyatide kiki? 
(Atide ki ?). Omusolo gudze. Ebitoke 
bigedze nyo. Omusckese gugude. Balide 
oniuwuml)o gwona. Wano wasivva. Eki- 
senge kigude. Atute omupunga gwona. 
Okute. Ndude. Omupunga guide. Atu- 
weiezedza bulungi. Ekikusukye kigedze. 
Ebisakate bigude. Tukute ekisenge. 
Bamukyaye. Nga mubadze bulungi ! Nga 
ofude ! Bamaze okulya. Tumaze okubala. 

Near Future, p. 68. 

Tunagenda. Tunalya. Tunagoloko- 
ka. Banalwa. Anabuza ekigambo. Tu- 
nabategeza. Anaja. Emikufu ginaja lero. 
Tunakoma wnno. Banatya. Onotr.we- 
reza bulungi? Onokola lero ekisenge 
kino ? Yee, tunaleta emuli nebyai. Ana- 
babuzii ki? Kyonosiga kiki? Ekiguli 
kyehunaniata lero. Omulere gwonofuwa. 
Onotulimba. (Jnoserengeta wa ? Omuti 
gunakyulta., gunagwa. Onosanyuka oku- 
mulaba. Ekikusu kinabuka, naye tuna- 
kikwata. Tunalekaemigugugyafe. Omu- 
suja gunamukwata. Ono'ta oinusota? 
Yee, 'nagu'ta. Lero tunalambula ekifu- 
lukwa ; tunabala ebitoke byakyo. Bana- 
kweka omupunga. Enkya tunalaba ebi- 
zinga. Banaluka ebiwempe bitano. Na- 
lima ekikande. 

Imj'Erative and Subjunctive, p. 69. 
Muwa ekitabokye agende. Sala ebyoya 
bya kiku'su kiremeokubuka. Alime wano? 
Katukole ekiguli. Leta ekitabokyo osome. 
Sekula omupunga mangu, tufumbe. Go- 
lokoka olye. Mulete ebyai, tuzibe ekituli. 



Bagamba okuleta emiti tukole ekyoto. 
Tugende tulabe ku kabaka. Basule ebi- 
saniko ebyo? Nsale wano? Ekisakate 
kireka kigwe. Mumulekealyeekikajokye. 
Kuma omuliro mungi omusuja guleme 
okunkwata. Ka'nonye omulere gwange. 
Muje tulange ebyai. Kamale omulimu 
guno. Katumale okufumba. Kamale 
okuleta ekitundu kiri. Mugobe ekikere 
kiri. Tusindike? Basibula bagende. 
Bagamba nti balete ebitabo. 

Far Future, p. 69. 

Balireta emiti mingi. Ndireta ebibya. 
Alija. Omusola gulimuluma. Ekisenge 
kiri kirigwa. Tulisimba "ebitoke. Bali- 
saba omukeka. Mulisoka okuzimbaeki'go 
e'da. Olisima ekiswa kino ? Alinyumya 
ekiro kyona. Ebibya l^irimenyeka. Bali- 
seka nyo. Tulibaziza. Balinyaga ebintu- 
bvo bvona. Ekitanda kvanire, alikikola 
e da. Ekiraboekyo kiiimugasa. Tulitesa 
ebyalo l;yona. Omugo gwange gulisinga 
ogugwo. Tuliiga emibala gyona. Olite- 
reza ekibanja kyona. Yee. • Ndisoka 
okusima wano. Oliita mu kiwomvu eki- 
wamvu. Emiti gin tegirigwa. Ekyuma 
kiiikukuba. 

Far Past, p. 70. 
Ekisakate kyagwa. Twasomoka omn- 
'ga. Omusota gwamuluma. Twasula 
ebisasiro. Ekyalo kyazika 'da. Ekikusu 
bakisala ebyoya. Ba'ta omusota ; bazika 
omulambogwagwo. Balwananyo. Emiti 
mingi gyasigalawo. Basirika. Ebibya 
l^yamenyeka. Baliseka nyo. Baleta eki- 
rabo ekirungi. Twadzayoekibo. Basoka 
'da okutereza ekibanja. Omu'ga gwakulu- 
kutanyo. Ekitabo kyange kyagya omliro. 
Walaba ebizinga byona? Yee, nabiraba. 
Wasima ekiswa ? Yee, twakisima. Wako- 
la ekisenge ? Yee, twakikola. \Vatunga 
ekiwero kiri? Yee nakitunga. Balya 
omuwumbo gwona gwetwagula. Mwavu- 
ga ! Ebiwero bibiri byabula 'da. Basa- 
nyuka okutulaba. Omusolo wagukweka 
wa? Twagukweka mu kinya muli. Ba- 
kwata ekisenge. Bakola ebyoto bisatu. 
Twasomoka emi'ga ebiri. Baleta ebikusu 
bina okubitunda. 

Affixes of Relation, p. 72. 

Alinyiga ebiwundu byabwe (alibanyiga 
elJiwundu). Serengeta (muserengete) awo. 
Musokewanogyetuli. Mu kinya akwesemu 
ekitabokye? Omuti, gutemako. Mukitabo 
kyeyasoma, yagyamu ebigambo bingi. 
Leta entebe tugituleko. Njagala okuku- 
buzako. Emi'ga girimu ebikere. Ebikere 
biri mu mi'ga. Ekidiba kirimu amadzi. 



243 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Gyako ebimuli bino ku meza. Mu kibya 
ofusemu omubisi ? Mu ki'go wagendamu ? 
Ku kiswaolinyeko? Vamugyako ekitabo. 
Yamulinyako ekigere. Ekyuma kyamu- 
fumita omukono. Twalaba ebirabobye 
byona : yatuwako. Ku miti agileseko 
emeka? aguzeko emeka? Aguzeko mu- 
samvu. Gyamu e'tosi mu kinya muno. 
Gyako cmukonogwo ku kitabo kyange. 
Mu musiri mweyalima, yasigamu omupu- 
nga. Gyako ekisanikizo. ' Ebiwawatiro 
osazekoekitundu? Ekiwero kiri ekikade, 
kisalamu. Lima wali mu kikande kiri 
(nuili). Somako (musomeko). Omusota 
agutemyeko omutwe. 

mu— ba Class, Surjkct and Object, 
P- 73- 

Omukopi amulabye. Omulenzi amu- 
gambye. Omuwesi tumuwade ekyuma. 
Omusawo tumugambye okuja. Abakazi 
'maze okubabuza. Abasubuzi twagala 
okubalaba. Abawala balimye. Abasaja 
bagenze. Omugenyi atuse. Omujulirwa 
mubuza (mubuliriza). Omuzibe awulide 
ebigambo byafe byona. Omusibe ya'duka. 
Abakesi babakwata. Omugaga atuwade 
ekirabo. Omuwala alese ebimuli. Omu- 
lenzi akoze ekiguli. Omusiru bamulese 
mu 'kubo. Abakozi basaze ebituli bibiri. 
Bamugoba. Omusigire tumunonye. Omu 
badzi amaze okubajaomuti guli. Omusibe 
abombye. Ababaka babiri badze (batuse). 
Omumbeja, bagenze okumulaba. Omu- 
sawo adze. Omwana ali mu kikande. 

ma— ba Class, Demonstrative, p. 74. 

Omudu oli. Abasil>e bali. Abalenzi 
bano. Omufumbiro ono. Omusiru oyo. 
Abalongo bali. Omuganzi ono. Nalaba 
omukazi oli jo. Abalenzi bali batuse 
enkya. Omusibe ono Omumbeja ono 
ye mukazi mulungi. Omuwesi ye wuno. 
Gamba omulenzi oyo. Abakopi babano ; 
tunababuza. Omufu oli, wamulaba wa ? 
twagenda okulaba abalongo bali. Omu- 
wala ono ayagala ebikajo. Abakazi bano 
balimye wano. Abadzukulu babano. 
Omunttv ono asoma. Omugenyi ono 
atuse. Omusika ono avumye abakopi 
bano. Abasubuzi bano balese ebintu 
bingiko. Omulenzi ono mumpi. Omu- 
kazi oli muwamvu. Omuliranwa oyo ye 
muntu mubi. Omuntu oli mupaga? Aba- 
genyi bali bajulirwa ? Bakute abakesi 
bali ? Omusigire ye wuli. Omubaka 
atuse? Abadu babano. Omugole ono. 
Abazana bali. Abakozi bano bamaze 



omulimu gwewabawa. Omufumbno ono 
ye musaja mulungi. Omukyala ono alina 
ekisa king'. Omutongole oli ye mukade 
nyo. Omuvubuka ono muzibe (wamatu). 
Omubadzi ono ye wamagezi. Omuwesi oli 
mugenyi. 

ma— ba Class, Adjective aso 
Numeral, p. 75. 
Abakazi bana. Abalenzi basatu. Aba- 
wala munana. Bakute abakesi bangi. 
Omuml>eja omu omukulu. Abalogo l>a- 
biri babi. Ku basibe omu abombye. Ba- 
leka abafu babiri mu kibira. Baleta aba- 
lwade 'kumi nabatano. Alina abalenzi 
bana. Tulabye abakazi bali abiri mu 
babiri. Abasaja 'kumi na bana nabakazi 
'kumi na babiri basoma enjiri. Ababaka 
babiri badze. Abalenzi basatu. Abakozi 
'kumi na bana. Twalaba abagenyi batano. 
Balese abajulirwa mukaga. Basatu ba- 
kade ; omu mulenzi ; omu mukazi. Aba- 
ke'si (abo) babiri baluwa? Abasubuzi abo 
basatu bagenze. Omufumbiro omu mu- 
lungi asinga abalenzi basatu. Ku bakopi 
bali bana omu agenze, naye basatu batya 
(okugenda). Alina (Yazala) abana batano. 
Babiri I>akuze : omu mwana muwere. 
Waliwo omuwesi omu wano mulungi. 
Ababadri babiri babera mu kisakate muli. 
Tulabye abalenzi basatu nabawala bana. 
Ku bambeja, babiri bawamvu ; omu mu- 
wamvuvramvu ; babiri banene. Abakazi 
babiri balima ekyalo kyange. Omuwala 
omu ababera. Baleta abasibe basatu. 

mu— ba Class, Possessive, p. 76. 

Omulenzi wa mulangira. Omusibewe. 
Aliakozi babwe. Omusika wafe. Aba- 
kopi bomusigere. Omubaka womugaga. 
Omubadzi wange. Abaliranwa bafe ba- 
kade. Abawalabe bawamvu, abewamwe 
bato. Tusanyuse okulaba omugenyi wafe. 
Abadzukulube balungi nyo. Omufumbiro 
wabwe yagendajuzi. Ndabye abalenzibe. 
Abakopibe nomusigere wabwe. Abako- 
zibo banyikide nyo (balwanyi). Omusibe 
wafe abombye. Omuwala wafe oli. O- 
mugolewe atuse. Abajulirwa babwe ba- 
genze. Omulenzi wafe ye muvubuka dala. 
Omudu wani ono ? Wabwe. Omwana 
oli wani ? Wafe. Omwanawo asinga 
owange obukulu. Abaliranwa babwe be 
baganzi bomugaga. Abanabe bana, ababo 
babiri. Abantu bano bani ? Bewafe. 
Omulogo owewamwe. Abambejaabe- 
wuwe. Omulwadewo oli. Omubakawe 
ono. Omugenyi ava ewabwe. Abana 



1 If referring to the feathers in the wing of a bird— say, Ebyoya obisaze ? Ekiwawatiro is 
e w ing itself, not the feathers on it. Ebiwawatiro obisazeko = Have you cut off the wings? 



the wing 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



249 



abobulenzi ba kabaka be balangira, naba- 
nabe abobuwala be bambeja. Kitawe yali 
mwami owewamwe. Omusawo oweno 
asinga amagezi oli owewamwe. 

mu— ba Class, Relative, p. 77. 

Abakazi abalima mu kyalo kyafe. Al>a- 
lenzi benalaba. Abawala benagamba oku- 
ja. Abakopi ababera mu byalo. Omu- 
ntu aluwa asaze ekituli kino? Omuntu 
gwagambye okuja. Omusiru gwebasil>a 
mu nyumba. Abagenyi abavude ewala. 
Abalongo beyazala jo. Omuwesi alese 
ekyuma kino. Abana abalese ebimuli 
bino. Abalabe abanyaga ebyafe balabise. 
Omubadzi eyatema omuti guli adze. O- 
mulabewe gweyavunana. Alnlenzi be- 
twalaba. Omugaga atuwade ekikusu. 
Omulogo kabaka gweyagoba. Omusubuzi 
eyawebwa omugaga ekyalo. .Omuntu 
gwenakuba. Omuwesi aja wano bulijo. 
Omumbeja eyaleta omuwala ono omuto. 
Omufumbiro eyaleta ekibya kiri. Omu- 
genyi eyasula ewafe. Omukade gwetulaba 
bulijo. Omumbeja eyaja jo. Abaliranwa 
bafe betwagala, era betuwade ekirabo. 
Abalabe bebawangula. Omugole gwatute 
ewuwe (e'ka). Omusawo eyawonya om- 
wana wafe. Omuwesi gwetwawa ekyuma 
kino. Omusigere giveyasawo omwami. 
Abalenzi ababera ewuwc. Abasomi be- 
naigiriza. Omubadzi gwenagamba okuja. 
Omusibe gwebata. Omwana gweyabeka. 

mu — ba Class, Miscellaneous, p. 78. 

Abakozi bona badze. Ekiguli kiri, na- 
kikola nzeka. Abakyala batya ? Tugende 
fena. Mugolokoke mwena. Buli uiuntu 
alina omukeka (buli na nyini mukeka). 
Balese abasibe boka. Balinde (balindirire) 
bona. Avuga yeka. Abalangira batya ? 
Abalangira be nyini, abana ba kabaka. 
Mwena mulange ebyai. Olizimba weka ? 
Abakopi yabalagira bwatyo. Omukozi 
asaze ekitulikye bwatyo. Fena tukusaside. 
Ayenkana wa ? Bwati. Akusinga obu- 
wamvu, naye omulenziwe asinze bona. 
Abawala bona be'manyi babera boka mu 
kisakate. Basoma bona. Kima ekikusu 
weka. Fena tutambula bwetutyo. Om- 
wana ono ainza okutambula yeka. Aba- 
liranwa bafe bona balukaemikeka gyabwe 
bo. Tukoze ebisakate byafe fe. Omu- 
genyi alese omukekagwe ye. Abakyala 
bona batuse. Bagamba nti Omugole 
adze. Abasubuzi bakola ebisakate byabwe 
bo. 

Personified Nouns, p. 78. 
Kyai ono. Sabuni oli-. Kawa wafe. 
Tabawe. Lumonde wange. Balugu ono 



awoma. Wuju oli avunze. Leta kasoli 
yena. Sabuni ye wuno. Malamu sabuni 
yena. Omukoka atute kasoli gwetwasiga. 
Gonja ye wuno ; mufumbe. Kaumpuli 
yamu'ta. Tulifumba kasoli wafe ono jo. 
Senyiga amukute. Balugu amulese kaka- 
no. Kyai ye wuno ; mufumba kakano. 
Fumba lumonde eminwe esatu. Vokya 
kasoli eminwe ena. Otute bwino wange ? 
Aa, ntute owange. Bwino oyo wamugula 
(wamugya) wa? Ali mulungi nyo. Aba- 
subuzi bamutunda. naye gwatunda Omu- 
zungu asinga. Sabuni gwetulese agula 
atya ? Taba eyali mu musirigwe, tumu- 
guze yena. Kasoli gwebaiuwade. Lu- 
monde wafe yena mutono. Owewabwe era 
ye mutono : naye owuwe munene. Se- 
nyiga yamukwata naye awouye. Kawali 
amukute. Omuyagaeyakunta jo yamenya 
ebitoke byafe byona. Namirembeye wuli, 
mulabye (mulaba) : Nakasero ye wuli : 
twagendayo juzi. Rubaga omulabye ? ye 
wuli. Yee, 'mulabye ('mulaba.) 

Narrative Tensk, Positive, p. 79. 

Naja. Nebagenda. Nebaleta ekikusu, 
ekikusu nekibuka. Nafumba omupunga. 
Omuyaga nakunta, ekisakate nekigwa. 
Netusomoka emi'ga esatu negaberamu 
amadzi mangi ekitabo nekingwako neba- 
kirabanel>akimpa. Omubadzi nabaja na- 
tema omuti nengugera rlakola ebiguli 
bibiri nekibamvu kimu nembireta nembi- 
gula. Omumbeja naja nagamba nti Olide 
ekikajo kyange kyona nosula nomukeka 
gwange nomenya nekitandakye. Fumba 
omupunga noguleta. Omukade oli ye 
mulogo ; mumukwate, mumusibe mumu- 
lete eri omwami ; nebamuleta eri omwami 
omwami nawulira ebigambo nasala omu- 
sango nagamba nti Omuntu ono, 'muma- 
nyi ne'mugoba mu kyalokye. Omulenzi 
yakuba omusota negugenda negubula. 
Omubadzi anaja naleta ebibye nakola 
ekiguli. Neng'enda neng'amba nti Jangu, 
omale omulimugwo nokolaekisenge nosala 
ebituli ; nagamba nti Kanjije ne'mala 
omulimugwo nagumala. Netugamba nti 
Otubuiire buli kigambo nebatubulira buli 
kigambo netutegera netugamba nti Kale 
mukole bwemuti mulete ebibya bisatu, 
mubisule mu kinya muli. Bava mu kyalo 
ekyo nekizika nekifuka ensiko. Ebyu- 
ma byabera bubi nebigwa nebimukuba 
ekigere nalwala ekigere omwezi omu- 
lamba. Emiti negikula negileta ekisiki- 
rize kingi ; netugitulamu netugitenda. 

Negative Tenses, not Relative, p. 80. 

Tebakola bibya. Ekyuma tekyagwa. 

Omusota tegugenze. Abasubuzi teba- 



2^0 



ELEMENTS OF LUCANDA 



genda kuja. Taje. Sija kugenda. Aba- 
lenzibe tebatuiula kikusu. Tebadze. 
Tetugenda kukuvako (tetunakuvangako) 
Bagamba nti Temugenda. Leta ebikwaso 
bireme okubula. Tonaza kitundu kino 
kyoka, naye onaze ebitundu byona. Ta- 
legede. Tetwabasaba. Tetwasanyuka 
nyo okubalaba ? Abakazi tebamanya ku- 
vuga. Omusigere teyamanya mubaka wa 
mwamiwe. Omusolo tegutuse. Simanyi 
kukola ekitanda. Kwata ekitabo kyange 
kireme okugwa. Tebasembere (tebalise- 
inbera) kunipi. Omulyango tegufunze ; 
omukonogwe mumpi, tegutuka. Tetusale 
kituli wano? Ekyuma takikube ? Mu- 
gyako omu'go gull, aleme okukuba om wa- 
il a. Iniuka tuleme okukulinyako. Sala 
ebyoya byekikusu kireme okubfika. Omu- 
kopi oli tamanyi kukola ekisenge. Muta- 
nibule mpola, ebitogo bireme okutuzlza. 
Mukweke ebitabo byona omwami aleme 
okutegera nti tusoma. Baganyi okukola. 
Tebalikola. Taja kutunda omukufugwe. 
< fnmliro guganyi okwaka. Aganyi oku- 
sula ebisaniko. Tetuja kulima o.mudo. 
Ekisanikizo kiganyi okutuka. Ebibo bino 
tebiniale. Ekisakate kino tekigenda ku- 
lwawo. Togenda kulaba ebikere mu 
mu'ga guli. 

Negative Tense with Relative, p. 81. 

Ekikusu ekitagwa. Omwami ataja. 
Oniubadzi ataleta omuti. Omuntu ataleta 
ekikusu. Omutunzi atatunga lmlungi. 
Omusolo gwataleta. Ebiwero byatakuba. 
Ebisasiro byatasula. Ebikuta byatasomba. 
Omuti gwebatatema. Ebibya byesinaba 
kugula. Omunyo gwenalcka, bagulese ? 
Ekikusu kyesasala ebyoya kibuse. Omu- 
punga gwotofumbye enkya, tunagulya 
musana. Omuwala wafe gwetutalabye 
enkya akomyewo. Ekyalo kycliatalima 
kizise. Abawala bebatagamba badze 
okusoma. Bagamba okukola omulimu 
gwebatanakola. Balese ebyoya byebagana 
okugula. Alese ekitabo kyetwagana oku- 
gula. Fe abatamumanya. Omugenyi 
gwctutamanya. Abale'nzi abatamusima. 
Abakesi bebatalaba. Omuzibe atamanya 
abawala bafe. 01e>e ekyuma ekitatuka. 
Ekitabo kiri kyesimanyi kusoma. Omu- 
punga gwesatereka guvunze. Empera 
gyotoleta. Emiga emiwamvu gyetutainza 
kusomoka. 

Narrative Tense with Negative, 
p. 82. 

Natalya. Notogenda. Natafumba. 
Nemutatema muti guli. Notoleta ebiwero 
byafc. Nataleta ekyanzikye. Natakwata 



kikusu kiri. Nesimulaba, Omuleregwe 
negulalabika. Kawali natamukwata. 

Bwinowe natalabika. Ekisakate nekita- 
gwa. Nehataleta muti nogumu. Netu- 
tasanga mukwanogwo. Anridzi agomu 
muga negutagenda. Nebatayogera kiga- 
mbo nekimu. Nototegera. Abakazi 11a- 
batafumba gonja. Ebitogo nebitatuziza. 
Netutagwa mu kinya muli. Omukyufu 
negutabula. Abakopi nebatalanga ebyai 
biri. Natanyiga. Ebituli nebitasalibwa. 
Netutalaba kituli nekimu. Omusana ne- 
gugana kuita. Notolalm muntu nomu. 
Kaumpuli natatuka eri. Emikira ne- 
gitalabika. Omunyo negutanyagibwa. 
Omuwendo negutatuka. Emisota negita- 
bula. Ekisenge nekitatukaengulu. Ebi- 
tabo nebitatundibwa. Ekikusu nekita- 
tambula. Netutatuka ku kizinga kiri. 
Ebiwundu neljitatuluma. Ebire nebita- 
tonya. Natalya kikajo kya mune (muli- 
ranwawe). 

■■Still' ani> 'Not Yet' Tense, p. 83. 

Si'nalaba kigerekye. Tukyalya. Tu- 
kyakola kitulikye. Ebikere bikyakaba. 
Takyalwala. Abalenzi teba'naba kuleta 
ebitogo. Omuwala ta'naba kutwala eki- 
bya. Ekisakate kigude ? Teki'naba. 
Balese ekikusu? Teba'naba. Olabye 
ekitabo kyange ? Si'nakiraba, nkyanonya. 
Omuzigo tegu'naba kusaniika. Abakopi 
tebakyanyikiranga. Abalenzi bali babiri 
teba'naba kutubera. Si'naiga mubala 
ogwo (guli). Omukagukyali mu kisenge. 
Emirambo gikyali mu muga. Tegi'naba 
kuzikibwa. Omulyango tegukyafunda. 
Omusuja tegukyamukwata. Ekyuma 

tekikyaokya. Emiga gikyali miwamvu. 
Emisota giri ebiri tegi'nagenda. Ebitabo 
bikyagula omuwendo munene? Aa, bi- 
gula niutono. Ekiwundu kino kikyali 
kigazi (kinene). Abawala bafe tebakya- 
somanga. Omulenzi wange ta'naba kuleta 
ekitabo. Ebyalo bino bikyali birungi. 
Tebi'nn/.ika. Abakazi abewamwe teba'na- 
ba kulima omu'do guli. Amaze kutunda? 
Ta'naba. To'naba kukunkumula. Emi- 
keka to'naba kugikunkumula. Ebiwero 
bikyah bibisi. Tebi'nakala. Ofumbyeki? 
Si'naba kufumba. Abawala teba'nagolo- 
koka. Ekibya kikyali kiramu. Te- 
ki'naba kumenyeka. Teba'naba kukuma 
omuliro. Takyatya kikusu. Abasomi 
tebakyaja. Si'naba kuvamu. Omwami 
ta'naba kutuwa ekirabo. Tukyalindirira 
ewuwe. Obutalima. Obutategera. Obu- 
tatambula. Obulavuga. Obutasaba. 
Obutagula. Obutalimba. Obutamanya. 
Obutakola. Obutasasira. Ulmtayogera. 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



2U 



li— ma Class, Subject, p. 85. 

Efumu ligude. Efumu erigude. Eri- 
gwa erimufumise ekigere. Amayiba gaka- 
ba mu muti. Amayiba agakaba mu muti. 
Amasasi gaita wano. Amasasi agaise. 
Amayengo gakuba eryato. Evivi linuma. 
Evivi eryanuma. Amafutagagenze. Ama- 
langaagalabikaku'tale. Esanyu litukute. 
Amafumu agamasamasa. E'tosi erituku- 
bye. Amatabi gagwa mu'kubo negakala, 
Eryato linatutwala enkya. Amato aga- 
genda okututwala enkya. Esubi lidze. 
Amata gaja kukwata. Erisolye ligenda 
okulwala. Amagi gamenyese. E'dalu 
eryamukwata. Eryato libuze. ; Amasabo 
agagwa. Amakaja agamuluma. Amadzi 
agakulukuta wano. Ebwa erikuluma. 

li — ma Class, Demonstrative, p. 86. 
Amagi gano. Egigi liri. E'diba lino. 
Amagero gali. E'dobo lino. E'banga 
lino. Amayembe gali. Eryato lino. 
Amanyo ago. Amakubo gano. Amanya 
gano. E'jiba liri. E'tabi eryo. Ebwa- 
lino. E'sonko eryo. Amatabi ago agagude. 
E'sanga lino. Erinyo liri livudemu. 
Amaso gali. Amato gano gakute. E'tu- 
ntu lyafanana ekiro. Gyawo amagwa 
gali agaziba e'kubo. Amanya gagano. 
Erinyo lirino. Ebanja liri liwede. Ama- 
banga ago agalabika. Amasiga gano. 
E'bwa lye'nyiga. E'vu eryo. Amasanga 
gagano. Ekubo lino likyama nyo. Ama- 
yembe gano gatukula. E'kubo lino lise- 
rera. E'tabi lino liiiroka. Amayiba gano 
gakaba mu tuntu. Amanya gano. E'taka 
lirino. Nalaba e'kovu eryo. Amafumu 
gagano. Amasabo gano gagude. Ama- 
gumba gali gasasanyizibwa. Leta amadala 
gali. Samba e'taka eryo. Amadzi ga- 
gano. 

li— ma Class, Adjective (Plur.) and 
Numeral, p. 87. 
Amagi malungi. Amato mabi. Amaso 
manene. Amanyo matono. Amasonko 
makalubo. Amanya mampi. Amagumba 
magomvu. Amanyo gano amalungi. 
Amafumu gali amawamvu. Amata gano 
amakalu. Amanya gano amagya. Amadzi 
gano amabisi. E'dobozi limu. Amakovu 
asatu. Amakovu gali asatu. Amagi 
atano. Amagi gano atano. Amabanga 
asatu. Amabanga 'kumi. Amabanga 
'kumi nasatu. Amabanga ago e'kumi 
nasatu. Amagi gali amalungi, gali 'kumi 
nasatu. Amakubo ameka ? ana. Ama- 
yinja amakumi abiri amalungi. Amato 
abiri mu ana amalungi. Amalobozi gano 
amanene. Amagumba atano. Amasonko 



makalubo. Amagumba atano amakalubo. 
Amanya gali atano amazibu. Amalanga 
'kumi nomunana. Amasasi gano e'kumi 
nomunana mabi. Amanya mazibu gali 
ameka ? Amayinja gano abiri manene 
nyo. Ago ana matono nyo. Leta ama- 
yinja atano maneneko. Amagwa ago 
gamfumise. Amayembe gali abiri mawa- 
mvu. Amayengo asatu manene gaja ne- 
gamenya amato gafe amalungi. E'tabi 
lino liriko amagwa mangi. Alina amaba- 
nja ameka ? Alina amabanja abiri manene. 
Amagi ana mabi. Atano malungi. Ama- 
to gano abiri magya. Amatoke gano 
amato. 

li— ma Class, Object, p. 87. 
E'banja tulisasude. E'diba liri naligula. 
Amabanga tugajuzidza e'taka. E'dobo 
nalivaba jo. Amata ngalese. E'kubo 
tuliririma. Amasanga teba'nagaleta. A- 
mayinjageyakasuka (-sula). E'subi tunali- 
j gula. E'taka lyebasombye. Amagoba 
I getwagobamu. Amaziga geyakaba. E'sa- 
nga lyenalaba. Amasiga gendese. Ama- 
sasi genafumba. Erigwa lyenagya mu 
kigerc kyange. E'jiba lyenakwata. E'vu 
lyosude. Amasabo gebazimbye. Amanya 
galese omusomesa ono. Amadala abako- 
pi gebaleta jo, banagasiba enkya. Amagi 
genguze ogafumbe enkya. Amafuta, 'maze 
okugafuka mu tabaza. Amagigi omwami 
gatimbye, twagagula. Amato, gebasiba 
Abasese, gadze. Nagalaba. E'gi liri 
lyenguze 'bi. Erinya lyebakutuma lyali 
'dungi. Amalobo gewagula twagatereka 
mu gwanika. Egigi lyatimbye naligya 
mu gwanika. 

li— ma Class, Possessives, p. 88. 

Edobozirye. Amavivi gabwe. Amazi- 
gago. Amasasi gange. Amatogo. Esa- 
nyu lyange. Erisolyo. Amagigi gabwe. 
Amafumu gomuvubuka. Amanyo gange. 
Amasiga gafe. E'sanga lyange. E'dalu- 
lye. Erinyolyo. Egwanikalye. E'dobozi 
lyabwe. Amafumugo. Egwanga Iyabwe. 
E'dala lyafe. Esanyu lyomuntu oli. 
Esubi lyomulenzi wange. Amasabo ga- 
bakopi. Abakazi namabwa gabwe. Ama- 
banja gafe. Amanya gamwe. Amafumu 
gabwe. Ejinjalye. Egigi lyomwami 
ligude ku 'bali lyekitanda. Ku 'bali 
lye'kubo. Ku 'bah lye'sabo. Omutiguli 
namatabi gagwo. Eryato namabanga 
galyo. E'kovu ne'sonko lyalyo. Omuliro 
ne'vu lyagwo. Ekisenge namagigi gakyo. 
Omuliro ne'bugumu lyagwo. Omusota 
namanyo gagwo. Ekikusu neriso lyakyo. 
Omuti namasanda gagwo. E'banjalye 
'dene, eryange 'tono. E'sanga line lyani ? 



252 



ELEMENTS OF LUG AN DA 



Lyange. E'dagala eryo lyani? Liryo? Eri- 
nya lyani ? Lya mukazi oli. E'dobozi lyani ? 
Lirye. Eryatolye. Amatoge mawamvu, 
agafe mampi. Amatoke gamwe si makulu. 
Agage malungi. E'fumu ndirese, era 
nomuti gwalyo. Amanya gabwe amagya. 
Amatoge abiri amagya. Amatogo asatu 
gali magya. E'sabo lyabwe liri. Anu- 
fumu gano amawamvu. Amagigigo gali 
inagazi nyo, agange mafunda. E'sabo 
nomuzimbi gwalyo. E'diba lino lyani ? 
Eryange. 

li— ma Class Negatives, p. 89. 

Esubi lino terimala. Amafumn teba- 
gntunda. E'banjalye ta'naba kulisasula. 
Eryato lino terigenda niangu. Ekubo 
lino terituke ? Aniagwa tegagenda kuziba 
ekubo. Amagumba tegasanuka. Ama- 
yiba tegakaba ekiro. Erinyo terija kugula 
omuwendo munene. Amadzi tega'nakala. 
Efumu liri teritema niiti. Ejinja lyesa- 
menya. E'dagala lyebata'naba kumala. 
E'taka eritagwa. Amaziga gatakaba. 
Amata gotolese galirudawa ? Natwala ku 
mafuta gatatunda. Baguze amafumn mu- 
samvu. Balese amafumu uiusamvu, naye 
tcba'naba kugatundako. Balese e'sanga 
limu, naye sija kuligula. Nateka ejinja 
wano ; terigwe. Artiagi negatamenyeka. 
Amagwa negatatufumita ebigere. Amadzi 
negatakulukuta. Efumu natalikasuka. 
E'sabn neritagya muliro. E'taka eryo 
terimale. Amalanga tegakyalabika wano. 
Erigwa eryatamfumita omukono. E'kovu 
teryagenda ku kitabo kyange ; lyagenda 
ku kitabokye. Amagigi agatatimbibwa. 
Amalanga agatalabika ku 'tale E'vu 
erita'naba. kuyolebwa. 

li— ma Class, Miscellaneous, p. 90. 

Leta amagumba gona. Amagumba 
gatya? Amagumba gekikusu kyetwazika, 
Kyusa amabegago bwegati. Nonya e'je- 
nil.e erifanana lino. Banjul u ma erinya 
bweiityo. Balaba e'labi bwerityo. Ba- 
lese amatoke goka. Basangayo amagw 
goka. Mu 'kubo temulinui kintu wabula 
e'tosi lyoka. Teyalaba eryato nerinnT. 
Eryato litya? Eryato lye nyini lyetwa- 
saba. Amato gali ameka? gafanana gatya ? 
Liri erisinga olmnene lyenkana wa ? F.ri- 
singa obunene lirimu amabanga 'kumi 
nabiri. Bagamba okuleta amato abiri 
amanene agalimu amabanga 'kumi natano. 
K'clala lino terituke. Nonya e'dala erisi- 
nga obuwamvu. Erinya lyange lisinga 
eriryo. Amanyo gabwe gafanana gatya? 
bwegati ? Bagasongola nyo ; agafe tetu- 
gasongola nyo. E'toke lyafe lino lisinga 



nyo ei yamwe, Lyenkana namatoke gamwe 
abiri awamu. Egwanga lyafe lisinga 
eriryo okubamu abantu abangi ? Bawera 
bat) a? Amakovu gano gasinga obunene 
^ali getwalaba jo. Genkana wa? bwe- 
gati ? Tunalwana tutya namato agenka- 
nidawo ? tunakola tutya amabwa agenka- 
nidawo. Ku magwa gano erisinga obu- 
wamvu liruwa ? Eryo lyentade ku meza 
lye lisinga obuwamvu. Ksanyulye lisinga 
eryange. Lisinga litya ? Ansinze oku- 
visamu amagoba manene. C)kuzimba 
evivilye lye lisinga eriryo. Amayembe 
gano genkana obuwamvu. Amakovu ago 
genkana. Aniayengo gali gasinga gona 
gendabye. Akusinzc (gwe) okusomba 
e'taka. Okumenya amalanga nkusinze 
(gwe). Amakubo gona genkana, gona 
gabamu etosi. E'tuntu ne'tumbi si kiga- 
mbo kimu. Amafumuge gona manafu. 
Njagala nange amagumu abiri. Ku magi 
gali asatii goka malungi. Njagala e'subi 
lyoka. Njagala e'subi limu na liri lye 
mwaleta jo. Kale, katulete. Ku magigi 
gona sirabye malala agasinga obugazi. 

Conjunctions, nga, p. 92. 
E'da bagulanga amatoke bulijo. Ba- 
gula amatoke bulijo. Tunabaianga ama- 
goba (buli lunaku obutayosawo). Eryato 
terikyabula. E'vu banaliyolanga buli 
nkya. Wano webatabula e'dagala. Ta- 
kyanyikiranga. Omwami takyatambula- 
ngako olwegulo. Amagumba tegasanu- 
kanga. Tagwangamu e'subi (omwoyo). 
E'dobozirye terimubulanga. Erisolye te- 
rikyalabanga. Tebasongolanga amanyo. 
Amayengo gasitula eryato emirundi 
emingi. Omuntu eyatunganga amagigi. 
Abawala abatakyatuberanga kufumba 
amatoke. Abawala lano balimanga e'da 
buli nkya era ne buli Iwa gnlo. Erisolye 
linvade nave terimulumanga. Omukazi 
ono anatuberanga bulijo. Tebakyatami- 
ranga. Tosasiranga bantu ? Abantu aba - 
mu tebaja kutegera. Abasomi bano ba- 
nalabikanga buli nkya. Ebiwero teba- 
kyabiyozanga. Ebitabo tebigabibwanga- 
Tetuja kuviunaouuikadeoli. Tetulyanga 
l.ikere. Omukufu tegwaja, Buli nkya 
Mira olumonde nomufumba. Abalenzi 
abatunganga e'da bagenze. Amadzi ago- 
mu muga guli tegakalanga. 

Participles, p. 93. 
Namusanga (nga) aimba. Ndabye 
omusota nga gulya. Mpulide nti omuga 
tegulimu amadzi mangi. Nategera nti 
abambeja tebakolanga mulimu. ( >banga 
a'dayo, ombulire. Ekikajo, obanga kirose, 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



253 



kirungi. Nganyikira, alimala jo. Nsanze 
ekitabo kyange nga kigude. Ekitabo nga 
kirungi. Ekikusu kyatuwade nga kirungi. 
Ngotambula omusana gwona, olituka 
olwegulo. Togera kisenge, nze ngasi'naba 
kutuka. Obanga tomubulira, anakusasira 
atya ? oyagala okwebaka nga to'naba ku- 
kola enju. Oyagala okuzinga engoye 
ngoto'naba kuziyoza. Genda olabe nga 
bamaze okulanga ebyai. Tobega mere 
nga tetu'naba kutula. Omulere gwolese, 
nga mulungi. Munange, ngohvade. 
Ngosiga kasoli kakano, olimulya emiezi 
nga giise satu. Twatuka netusanga ekisa- 
kate nga kigude. Omuzigo nga gusanuse 
gulete eno. Tofumba mupunga nga to'na- 
ba kugunaza. Toteka ebintu ebirala mu 
gwanika nga to'naba kuliyeramu. Sija 
kugula ekitabo ngasi'nabakukiraba. Nga 
tulinda wano, tunalaba kabaka nabasibe 
babiri nga baita. Omusota guli nga gu- 
luma. Obanga okwekaekitabokyo wano, 
tewabewo muntu (yena) anakiraba, songa 
anyikira nyo okukinonya. Nga musirise, 
nabaigiriza. Ebikere nga bibiika. Ngo- 
tambula awo, amagwa ganakufumita ebi- 
gere. , Olabye abavubuka nga bakasuka 
amafumu gabwe ? Yee, tulabye omulenzi 
wa Kabaka ngakasuka erirye. Bajuzidza 
omudumu amata nga teba'naba kugulo- 
mgosa. Teba'namanya, amala bwegayo- 
neneka bwegatyo? 

How, just as, p. 94. 

Wandika nga bwempandise. Abakopi 
obagambe okusala ekituli nga bwenkisaze. 
Tomanyi kukisala. Ebanjalye tomanyi 
bweriri. Amato gabwe, tomanyi bwegali 
malungi. Ekitabo kyange tomanyi bwe- 
kikutuse. Amagwa ago tomanyi bwega- 
fumita. Ekikusu kiri kitambula nga 
omulenzi wange bwatambula. Akaba 
nga ekikere (bwekikaba). Omwami oli 
ayambala nga kabaka (bwayambala). 
Omuwalawe ayagala okwambala nga 
omumbeja bwayambala. Kino kiki ? ki- 
fanana nga omunya, Kifanana nga omu- 
nyo, naye tekiwoma. Ekirabo kino kifa- 
nana (kiring'anga — kye kimu na) kiri 
kyenamuwa. Ebitabo biri byombi bifa- 
nana. Kuba engoma, nga taze bwenkuba. 
Baja omuti okufanana guno. Bazimba 
nga fe bwetwazimba. Batukole nga bwe- 
bagala. Ejinja liri, lisitula nga omuntu 
owamanyi (bwalisitula). Lima nga omu- 
kazi (bwalima). Tambula nga kabaka 
(bwatambula). Abawala bafe bakola nga 
bali abewamwe bwebakola. Kyabuka nga 
e'jiba bweribuka. Kiri ng'anga 'jinja. 
Bakomola ebirevu byabwe nga Abamisiri 



bwebabikomola. Amata gano nga ma- 
lungi. 

When, until, etc., p. 95. 

Bwetulisekula omupunga ate, tulisoka 
okufukamu amadzi. Omuzigo bwegusa- 
nuka, gufuke mu kibya kiri. Lwebasula 
ebisaniko mu kinya kiri, ombulire. Tula- 
wo, omale (okutusa lwonomala) okubala 
amagi. Gamba abasaja bali babiri okutu- 
kulembera, tutuke (batutuse) ku mbuga. 
Buli lwotambula ekiro, twala omugo. 
Buli lwosoma, yatula ebigambo byona 
bulungi. Linda, mbale ('male okubala) 
amagi. Is awe ogule amagi, nange nagula 
amatoke. Nange nazimba ; gwe nonya 
e'subi eryokusereka (erinasereka). Bwe- 
tunamala okusala ekituli, omusana mungi 
gunaingira. Buli lwebabega emere, otuite. 
Buli Iwebalina amata, otuwerezeko. Na- 
tula wano, omale (okutusa lwonomala), ku- 
lya ekikajo ekyo. Bwenkyama mu 'kubo, 
ombulira (ontegeza). Abakede buli lwe- 
balwana, balwanyisa amafumu. Abasu- 
buzi buli lwebaita wano, baleta ebikusu. 
'Nindirira, 'male okulima kwange (obulimi 
bwange — oku'nyuka). Yola ebisaniko (ebi- 
sasiro) bino byona nobisula ; nange nasaba 
akambe. Bwenamala okuleta akambe, 
tunasala ekituli (edirisa) kino. Amata 
bwegagya, fumba amagi asatu. Buli lwo- 
fumba ebijanjalo, tosako kisanikizo. Ndi- 
rinda mu kibuga okutusa lwolimala oku- 
kung'anya omusolo. 

Place, p. 97. 

Wano wensekula omupunga. Yang'a- 
mba nti Genda gyebali nagenda gyebali. 
Amadzi wegali (mwegali ?) Bali balamu ? 
Buli awalabika ejinja (buli werirabika). 
Genda wali, ebisasiro webiri bingi. Biyo- 
la nobisula mu kinya muno. Buli wetu- 
tambula, tusanga abasomi. Buli wentu- 
nula ndaba enzige. Jangu wano gyendi. 
Genda womwami, omubuze nti Ogenda 
kuzimba wa. Omulenzi na'da nagamba 
nti Omwami agenda kuzimba wali awatu- 
kula. To'jukira wetwalengera jo netu- 
gamba nti Wali we walungi wa kuzimba. 
Waliwo ekibira kumpi. Awali ejinja liri 
e'dene we wasinga okunonya amayinja 
agokuzimba. Mu 'diro muli omubegebwa 
(awabegebwa) emere, onolaba omugo 
gwange ; gulete tugende tutambule. Wano 
wetusima we wewazika ekikusu mu mwaka, 
guli oguise. Abakazi obagambe okulima 
wenabalagira jo okulima. Sikiriza gwe 
okuzimba. Tolinya awasigibwa ensigo. 
Buli awazibibwa e'kubo, tema ebisagazi. 
Waliwo omugaga ngabera wali (ngasula 
muli). Tewalabika 'banga lya kusula. 



254 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



Tewagwa kintu nekimu. Tewatemebwa 
omuti nogumu. Wali wolaba emiti giri 
emiwamvu. 

N Class, Subject, p. 99. 
Endagano ejulukuse. Endeku emenye- 
se. Enkuyege zalya omuti guli. Embwa 
zagala oku'duka. Engo eride endiga. 
Enjovu eyalinya ku 'subi. Enyumba eza- 
gwa. Ensiri ezatuluma. Ensiko etatuz- 
Iza. Enjala etuluma. Enkuyege ziride 
ekiwero kyange kino. Engo eyaja ekiro 
tekomyewo. Enkonge emukubye ekigere. 
Empagi enegwa. Ensiri zituse. Endiga 
zikyamye. Nkubye ensiri (ebade) enumye. 
Engoma evuga bulungi. Enyonta emu- 
lunia. Embadzi entemye ekigere. E- 
nkovu zigenze. Ensuwa tegyemu. Emese 
ziride ekitabo kyange. Enkuba etukubye. 
Enkusu eyabuka. Endabirwamu eyagwa. 
Leta entebe ebade emenyese. Endere 
zituse ? Ensawo enegyamu ebintu biri 
byona ? Endogoi enetutwala. Ente ezi- 
siba ku 'tale. Ensege ezirya emirambo. 
Enzige ezirya lumonde wafe. 

N Class, Demonstrative and 
Numeral, p. 100. 

Ente eno. Endiga eri. Embwa zino. 
Embuzi ezo. Enso eyo. Embaga eno. 
Ensuwa eri. Enjuki ziri. Enkasi zino. 
Emere eno. Enkofu ezo. Enyondo eyo. 
Emese ziri. Enkuyege zino ziride ekitabo 
kyange. Embogo biri. Embadzi emu. 
Ndeseenkumbi satu. Ensonga eri temala. 
Njagala ensinjo nya. Mugamba nti En- 
songa ziri (weziri) tano. Ensimbi bina 
mwatano mu satu. Ensimbi bitano mwa- 
na mu mukaga. Ensimbi lukumi mu 
lusamvu mwatano mu biri. Endabirwamu 
yange yamala kugwa nemenyeka. Yagula 
ensamu bin nampako emu. Alina ente 
kumi nesatu, era ne nyana tano. Nakuwa 
ku nsiko eno. Abawade endiga satu ne- 
mbuzi emu. Emfufu eno etuluma amaso. 
Asabye empiso satu. Kale muwa (muwa- 
ko) emu. Ku kikajokye yasalako enyingo 
satu. Batemye empagi biri. Nagula 
enkumbi ziri zombi. Akubye enkofu zino 
nya. Bavuza enkasi zino musamvu. E- 
mbadzieno tetema. Enswa zizino, zibuse. 
Entamu ziziri biri. Ensega ziziri. Entamu 
ye ino. Ensoga ye ino. Enkasi zizino. 
Engo ye eri. 

N Class, Possessives, p. 101. 

Enkofiraye, Enkoko zabwe. Enkasi 
zamwe. Ensamu yange. Enyumba yange. 
Empisa zabwe. Ensuwayo. Engaboye. 
Emindiye. Endigayo. Enkumbi yomu- 
kazi. Empiso yomugenyi. Enyumba yo- 



mulwade. Ensawo yomusawo. Enjai 
yomukopi. Ensuwa yomulenzi. Anyuwa 
enjai ; so talya ku mere (era alese emere 
okugiryako). Enkata zabakozi. Ente ya- 
mulangira. Ente za musaja oli. Leta 
emindi yange. Goba enzige. mu kyalo. 
Zimba enyumba wano. Teka empisoze 
ziri mu kibya (ekyo) ekitono. Siga ensigo 
zafe zino mu nimiro. Embalasi ne nyi- 
niyo. Ensega nomutwe gwayo. Engo 
nebigere byayo. Empologoma nemikira 
gyazo. Ente namayembe gazo. Endiga 
nebyoya byazo. Engoma yange esinga 
eyiyo : naye eyomwami esinga ezo zombi. 
Empisa zafe zisinga ezizo (ezamwe). Em- 
badziye esinga eyiyo. Enso yafe eno 
esinga eri ya mumbeja. Jangu, omalewo 
empaka zafe. Empiso zabwe zisinga ezafe. 
Atute emere yange. Ndese entebeye. 
Batute (bamugyeko) ensuwaye nebamuwa 
eyafe (eyange), Ndabye enjovu satu ; 
amasanga gazo nga malungi. Muwaempe- 
laye. Twala embalasi yange emuga buli 
lwa gulo (noginyuwesa). Muwa emperaye, 
ye mpeta yange eri. 

N Class, Object and Relative 
Object, p. 102. 

Empagi tunazitema enkya. Emere agi- 
ride. Embwa bazigoba. Ente Abaima 
bazirunda bulijo. Empeta tulinayo ; naye 
tetuja kugitunda. Ensawo eyo nagitunga. 
Enjovu twazigoberera jo cmusana gwona. 
Enyumba gyeyazimba. Engabo zebaleta. 
Ensega zetwagoba. Ensolo gyeyakuba 
emundu. Enkumu zokumye. Empolo- 
goma gyetwawulide ekiro. Empiso zengu- 
ze. Emindi gyomenye (gyoyasidza). Ensa- 
nafu nzirabye. Ensanafu ezaingira (ezaingi- 
de) ekiro naziokya (naziokyedza) omuliro. 
Entebe gyenaleta. Ensiko abakazi gyebali- 
mye. Embagagyetulide. Embalasi Katikiro 
gyeyagula. Enjovu gyebakuba (gyebaku- 
bye) jo yafa (yafude) ekiro ; bagikuba ebi- 
wundu bisatu. Ensuwa zetujuzidza. Engo 
tugifumise. Enkoko ziri biri zeyaleka. 
Enaku zebalaba. Endabirwamu eri, ngi- 
guze ensimbi kumi netano. Embadzi ene- 
gula enkoko esatu. Emere gyotolide 
(gyolese) enkya, embwa zigiride. 

N Class, Miscellaneous, p. 103. 

Ingiza (gobera) embuzi zona mu nju eno. 
Endogoi tunagisiba yoka. Leta entebe 
emu yoka. Ensalo eita wa? Eita bweti. 
Entamu ziri zafanana zitya ? Zafanana 
bweziti. Enyindo etya? Enyindo ye 
nyini. Empologoma esoka okuwuluguma 
bweti nerioka egira bweti. Basiba enkata 
mukaga nga eno (bwebati). Entebe yange 
eno efanananga (ering'anga) eyiyo. Enso- 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



255 



lo yafanana etya? Ensonga zolese 
ziri zitya ? Ensonga zendese zinyonyola 
bweziti. Kale, kanziwulire zona. Engo- 
nia eyenkana wa ? eyenkana bweti. 
Enkuba etonye nyo wano (einze wano 
okutonya). Engabo eno esinga eri gye- 
wagula jo (obulungi bwayo). Engabo 
zona zifanana bwezityo. Enjovu zona zi- 
'duse. Enkumbi nemiini gyazo, mbirese 
byona. Kale, tusoke (tutandike) okulima 
wano. Bull nyumba eberamu (esulamu) 
enkukunyi. Elite zafe zona zivamu amata 
enaku zino. Aterese enkasi zona mu nyu- 
mba. Empiso zona nzifumise mu nsawo 
yange. Bamaze okulya emere yona (erne- 
re yona bagimaze — bamaze okugirya). 
Banyuwa enjai yoka. Nina enkumbi yoka. 
Sirina muini. Katusome endagano yoka. 
Tuleme okusoma (tetusome) ebigambo 
ebirala (ebitali bya mu ndagano). 

N Class, Negative, p. 103. 

Empeta eno tetuka. Embadzi eno teba- 
gitunda? endogoi yange tetambula mangu. 
Engo te'netwala mbuzi. Enswa tezinaba 
kubiika. Embuzi eno te'naba kuzala. 
Enzige tezatuka ewafe. Enkumbi omu- 
kazi gyatagula jo, nagigula kakano. 
Empeta elatuka (etagya) ku ngaloye ene- 
tuka ku yange. Enjuba te'naba kwaka. 
Ensiri tezitulumanga ekiro. Empewo te- 
kyaita mu nyumba yange. Ntimbye e'gigi 
empewo neteriitamu. Empagi zinu zikya- 
mye ; tebazisimbye bulungi. Enkoko 
zange tezikyabika ma'gi. Endabirwamu 
tezigulanga muwendo munene. Sula en- 
sigo ziri ezigana okumeruka. Enzige tezija 
kugenda, empewo nga te'naba kubawo. 
Enyumba eno erirwawo emiaka mingi 
okugwa (obutagwa). Enkasi eyakubula 
eri awo mu nsonda. Engabo yange teri- 
wo. Nagiteka wali wetukola (wetwali 
tukola). Katusome emere nemala kugya. 
Emere gyebaleka kufumba (eyali mbisi) 
enkya, baja kugifumba ate. Omenye 
(Oyasidza) ensuwa biri. Ensuwa eruwa 
gyoto'naba kumenya (kwasamu)? Km- 
pungu ye eri ; tetuziraba bulijo (tezirabika 
nyo). 

ku Class, p. 104. 

Enkusu emulumye okutu. Okugulu ku- 
numa. Okutu okuta'naba kulwala. Oku- 
gulu omusawo kwayagala okutema. Oku- 
tukwe kwona kulwade. Kwe kugulu 
kwoka okumuluma. Okunyaga si kirungi. 
Okusasirakwe tekugwawo (Tagwamu oku- 
sasira). Okutegera kwona. Sogede ku 
bigambo bingi. Njogede ku ekyo ekyo- 
kutamira kyoka. Okutamira si kirungi. 
Tutunze bulungi ? Okumanya kuno kwona 



kulungi (Byona bye/«manyi birungi). Oku- 
kirizakwe kunene. Okuwereza kwabwe 
kwa kitibwa (Omulimu gwabwe ogwoku- 
wereza gwa kitibwa). 

ka, or Diminutive Class, p. 105. 

Obubi, obubonero, obudiba, etc. 

Awonye buli kabi. Katulinde akasera. 
Leta akagubi kakute. Akalulu akairtu- 
gwako. Leta obuti busatu. Obuti buno 
bumpi ; leta obulala obuwamvu. Teka 
emva eno mu katiba kali. Alina akaje- 
gere akalungi nyina keyamuwa. Wasigade 
akadiba kamu ka madzi. Akamwake kona 
kajula ekikajo. Bakuba akatale bulijo. 
Akatale katya ? Akatale akanene weba- 
tunda abantu aboku bizinga era nabe Bu- 
ganda. Akana kenkoko. Londa obuku- 
nkumuka bwona nobuwa enkoko. Evivilye 
lirwade akazimu. Akawuka akabuse wa- 
no. Akambe kange kagude mu 'kubo ; 
okalabye ? osanze omuntu akalonze ? 

bu, or Abstract Class, p. 106. 

Obusera buno. Obuganga buli. Obu- 
lagobwe. Amaze kuleta obukobwe. Obu- 
gaga obwo bwona tebukumala ? Obude 
butuse okutambula (okutambulatambula- 
ko). Tunasoma obude di? {impatient 
form : better), tunasoma di) Tunasoma 
obude obwekiro. Tulide obusera obwo 
bwona bwewafumbye enkya. Bamugyako 
(Bamugoba mu-) obutakabwe. Obutaka 
obwo bwali bunene. Obulo bwetwasiga 
bumeruse. Obusagwa bwe bwamu'ta. 
Teyafa obutwa (obutwa tebwamu'ta). 
Obulago bunzimbye. Obulimbo bwa- 
kwata (bukute) obutai bubiri. Obuwuka 
buli bwali bungi nyo. Fuwa obuntu 
obwo. Obukuku bwebwayononyedza eki- 
tabo kyange. Obuko bwali bunene nyo, 
naye amaze okubuleta. 

bu Class, Further Uses, p. 107. 

Omuti buti .- amafuta bufuta (omuzigo 
buzigo). Ekisanikizo busanikizo. Ekisa- 
kate busakate. Ekibo bubo. P^bigamba 
bugambo. F.kibanja bubanja. Alaba bula- 
bi. Abaze bubazi. Baguze buguzi. Tubula 
bubuzi. Tunatambula butambuzi. Songola 
busongozi. Ebintu bino byombi bitabula 
butabuzi. Kinokiki! Omunyobunyo. A- 
kisaze busazi. E'gigi lino likomola buko- 
mozi. Lima bulimi wano. Ayagala oku- 
gula embuzi ? Aa, asabye busabi. Ali- 
mbye bulimbi. Ekibya kyange kyatise 
bwatisi. Ekyai bwai. Omuliro buliro. 
Omuka buka. Omudo budo. Omukopi 
bukopi. Omuwalabuwala. Tutunulira bu- 
tunulizi. Leta omuzigo guli, osiga busizi 
engato zange. Ekisaniko kiganyi (okuva- 



256 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



ko). Kale, si'ka busi'si. Batanude buta- 
nuzi. Teba'naha kukola omulimu. Mu- 
sirike busirisi nendioka nibagamba. Ekyai 
kiganyi kuita mu kisenge ; kale (si- ki- 
gambo), kwata omugo nofumita bufumisi. 
Omunya gwagwa mu madzi nafa bufi. 
Yekwese bukwesi. Omupunga guguno ; 
gufumbako bufumbi. Omu'bi atu'bye 
bu'bi. Ankubye bukubi. 

In Class, p. 109. 
Enaku zino. Olutindo luli. Olutindo 
lwebakola. Emuli zebalese. Embugo esa- 
tu zenagula. Nguze olupapula (omuko 
gumu). Amabanga atano agomu lyato 
lino. Leta (Ondage) olulimilwo. Tula 
wano ; tuja kulinya ku kasozi kali. Olu- 
sozi nga luwamvu. Osomye enyiriri meka? 
Nya. Kale lekerawo. Enyiriri ezo zitu- 
tegeza ki ? Leta olutiba luli, olusemu 
emva zino. Esanduku, ekisumuluzo kyayo 
kibuze. Oluhugo luno lukutuse. Leta 
olulala oluta'naba kukutuka (olutali luku- 
tufu). Tema enkoma ziri satu : enkya 
ozisitule, ozirete ku kibanja. Olukoma 
olwo lumpi ; nonya olusinga obuwamvu. 
Ensozi zino zona zetulaba za Sekibobo. 
Olunaku lumu lwoka. Olubugo lumu 
lwoka. Aguze empapula satu (emiko 
esatu). Enaku ziise nya, naye ta'naja. 

The Letter N, p. 109. 

(i) Engazi, engenyi, engomvu, engumu, 
enkade, enkalu, enkambwe, enkulu, ento- 
no, enzibu, enzira. 

(n) Nkola, ngamba, etc. 

(iii) Enkasi ziri enkade. Ntemye e- 
nkoma biri enkulu. Ntesedza nti kirungi 
okugula enkusu eri. Si nkade so si nka- 
mbwe. 'Mutide nyo okungoba. ('Mutide 
nti aja kungoba) Nsanyuse nyo okukula- 
bako. Entebe eri engumu. Nterese 
ekitabo kyange. Leka ngolokoke, nte- 
reke ekitabo kyange. Ensonga zino 
nzibu, naye nzitegede. Wano wenkoma. 
Akaliga kano (Endiga eno entono) ke 
kensabye. Ensi eno engazi. Enyanja 
eri 'nene. Nakwata enkoko eri entono ; 
nawe ongnlire ekitabo. Buli lwensasira 
ornuntu nsubira nti Taja kusoba (kukola 
bttbi) nate. 

The Letter H, second syllable not 

BEGINNING N OR M, p. I IO. 

(i) Embifii, emfunda. embi, ento. 

Mbala, mvude, etc. 

(ii) Ndabye, 'nyola, 'meze, etc. 

Empiso nyimpi. Enaku nyingi. Entebe 
nyimpi. Ensonga nyingi. Entebe eno 
'nafu. Ensekese ziri 'nene. Embuzi yange 
ndusi. 'Nyize. Ndaga (ondage). 'Nyi- 



kide nyo. Ba'nyaze olubugo. Balese em- 
buzi nyingi. 'Mize e'dagala lyona. Buli 
Iwandopa, najanga gyoli. Ente zange 
'nene, ezizo entono (si 'nene). Nkumbiye 
'nene, eyange entono. Maze okulagana 
naye okunipa embwa endusi. Entebe gyo- 
lese (nga) nyimpi. Abantu bona ba'manyi 
nze nga wakisa. Abalenzi bamvuma buli- 
jo bwentambula. Embadzi eno 'nafu. Leta 
endala engumu. Ensozi zino nga 'nene 
(empamvu). Mfumbye omupunga gwoka. 
Bwenkuita, ndetera e'.ibya ekinene (eba- 
kuli enene), eranemva. Empisa zino mbi. 
Enkoko gyemfumba ekyali mbisi. En- 
yumba eno nifunda (efunda). 

The Letter N, second syllable 

BEGINNING N OR M, p. I IO. 

Enamba, enamu, enume, enungi. 

Numye, nung'amye, nianja, muna 
(more often mbuna). 

Entebe eno nungi. Abantu bano bani- 
mbye. Embwa enumye. Nwanye nyo, 
Ampade embuzi enume. Entamu eno 
namu? Atute ensuwa enamba eyamadzi. 
Embuzi enamba temala abantu abenkana- 
wo. Enkasi zino 'nafu. Letako endala 
enungi enamu. Wano wenimye wakalubo 
nyo. Entindo ziri zona nungi era engu- 
mu. Ebyai bibino byenanze. Entebe 
eyo namu. Teja kumenyeka. Nguze 
ensuwa biri enungi. Emuli zino si nungi ; 
si nkulu. Empapula zino nene zendese. 
Wano wengude waserera nyo. Ensanafu 
zino zinumye nyo. Enkoko zino entono ; 
ndetera ebiri enungi engevu. Oyagala 
weka enyumba enamba. 

The Letter H and Exploded Con- 
sonants, p. in. 

Nzise enkoko. Engo eya'ta embuzi 
zange biri, ngi'se lero. Ente zange zona 
nzirugavu ; ezize za lukunyu. Enkumbi 
gimpa kakati ; nagidzayo olwegula 
Asibye enzigi satu enene, era nolumu 
lutono. Oludzi lumu lukaze naye wa- 
kyasigade enzidzi biri ate ezirirru amadzi. 
Tonziramu bwotyo. Yambftza nyo nenzi- 
ramu buli kigambo bwenti. Kanziyeko 
empeta ezo. Kamale okulya nenjija. 
Nzi'ke wano ? Ampade ente biri enziru- 
gavu ; tomanyi bweziri nungi. Yanga- 
mba oku'da enkya nenzikiriza. Nebanga- 
mba nti'Duka nenziruka mbironebanzi'gu- 
lirawo olu'gi nebanzikiriza okubera mu nju 
eyo gyenatuka (gyenatuse). Kale omu- 
labe takyainza kunzi'ta. Enjala enuma ; 
nensaba emere nebaleta emere ; neba- 
ngamba nti Sula ebisaniko nenziyawo ebt- 
Eaniko nenzisula mu lusuku. Ensonga 



KEY TO EXERCISES 



257 



zino mbi. Tebaja kunzikiriza hwembaga- 
mba bwentyo. Ka'male okuzi'damu. 

The Letter L for Prefix li, p. 113. 

Efumu e'bi. E'gi e'bisi. Eryato e'gazi. 
E'toke e'to. Egwanga e'dene. Esanyu 
lingi. Eriso e'damu. Ejinja e'gomvu. 
Egumba limpi. E'sasi e'kalubo. E- 
'sanda e'dungi. E'kubo erigya. Erinyo 
e'kade. E'taka e'kalu. Egwanika e- 
'dene. E'sabo e'tono. Ejinja e'kalu. 
E'bwa e'dene. Egigi erigya. E'sasi e- 
'damba. Ejiba e'kulu. Eryato e'tono. 
Erinya e'zibu eryenkanawo. Erinya eri- 
rripi. E'tale lino 'gazi. E'sonko liri 
'dene. E'gigi lyange lino ligya. Tema 
c tabi liri e'kalu. Leta eryato e'damu. 
Lino 'bi. 

T stems, Prefixes in u, p. 114. 

Muimuke. Tuimbe. Obulumba bwe- 
ryato bwatise. Mugambe okwoza engoye. 
Tuyiye amadzi. Olulimirwe luyongede 
okuzimba. Yandikuigirizidza, naye aya- 
zise ekitabokye. Tetwambala ? Twa- 
gala okwota omuliro. Kale, muyuze 
bwemutyo. Olubugo lwange lwabise. 
Teinuyogana. Tomanyi kwokya gonja ? 
Bagambe okwanguyako okwasa enku. 
Olupapula luno lvvononese ; singa telwa- 
yononeka, nandikuhvazise. Omugo gwa- 
nge gwatise. Buli muti gwagala (gwe- 
taga) omusana. Omunyo guyise. Obu- 
sera bwokya nyo. Yogera nyo, tuwulire. 
Leta omukeka gwange, ogwalire wano. 
Ayasidza enku nyingi. Kale kirungi ; 
twagala okwongera okuzigula. 

Y stems, SiRONe. Prefixes, p. 115. 

(i) The garden is likely to go out of culti- 
vation. This bowl is split. They would 
have said. They are still singing. We 
shall want. It (ki class) has got ripe. 
They (gi, tree class) have opened. It 
(li class) is hot. It (li class) would 
have gone. They (gi, tree class) are 
spoilt. They (bi — ki class) have been 
quick. 

(ii) Yasama akamwako. Emisota gyo- 
ngede nyo. Emiti egyagala amadzi. E- 
nku zetwasa. Ekyuma kyokya nyo ; eki- 
tabo kyangc kyatise. Ebibo bino byombi 
byonone>e. E'diba 'maze okulyala (oku- 
lyaliru wansi). Eiinyo (lisuse) ; terikya- 
luma. E'dobozi lyenawulira. E'gi eri- 
bade lyatifu. Abantu balikwata ekubo 
lino okuingira wano. E'tosi liinze wano. 
Tunayogera. Egwanika lyononese. Ebi- 
tabo biyise. Ejinja eryangu. 



Y Stems, Weak Prefixes, p. 115. 
(i) They have spoken. I do not want. 

They (ga, li — ma class) are hot. I am 
not warming (myself)- They have put on 
(clothes, — how nicely they are dressed). 
They (ga, li — ma class) are split. Wash 
them (zi, clothes, engoye). It (ka class) 
is spoilt. 

(ii) Endiga ziri ziingiza. Enku ngya- 
sidza. Abakopi bagala empera yabwe. 
Enkoko ziri sizagala. Abantu bogede ki? 
(bagambye ki.) Amaliba gano gombi 
gononese. Abalangira bonsatule mbo- 
lesedza enyumba yona. Abakede teba- 
mbala. Siinza. Embuzi ziingide. Aba- 
lenzi bayombye. Amadzi gokya. Ba- 
gambe okwanguwa (okwanguyako). 

Y Stems and N Prefixes, p. u6. 

(1) Njabika, njabya, etc. 

Nyambala, nyanguwa, etc. 

(ii) Ndaga engoye zokubye (zoyozedza). 
Engoye zizino zenjozedza. Anjalide omu- 
keka? Njuze olugoye wano? (Wano 
wemba njuza olugoye.) Amadzi ngayu- 
we ? Onjazike ekitabo. Omukono gu- 
yongede okunzimba. Onjigiriza okusoma. 
Amadzi gayongede lero mu mu'ga. Nja- 
gala okugula ekitabo. Nyambale ki ? 
Njagala olugoye lwange olugya. Ngolo- 
koke ? Nyingize embuzi. Anjazise eki- 
tabokye. Nayogera ntya? Njokedza 
kasoli eminwa ebiri. Njere wa ? Maze 
okuyunga emiti gino gyombi awamu (mu 
gumu). Sagala njuba (omusana) okunja- 
kira. Njabidza enyumba yange. 

W Stems, p. 117. 

(i) Mpa, mpagala, etc. 

(ii) Kampoze. Kampumule wano. Oku- 
wakana kuzibu. Buli Iwempakana nabo 
(lwebampakanyisa) lwembawakanyisa ba- 
seka. Yampandika ebaruwa empamvu. 
Webale nyo (webale ge), okuja okundaba- 
ko. Kankuwerekerako. Omwami ampade 
amatoke 'kumi (enkota 'kumi). Natunga 
olukugiro luno nendioka mpumula. Mpa- 
nise cndere nya empamvu mu gwanika. 
Buli lwempesa, ensasi zibuka mu kasolya. 
Kamuite, aingire. Mponye. Webale oku- 
mponya. Gwe onononya endagala e- 
mpamvu nze nempata amatoke. Mpangi- 
zidza enyumba bwenti. Empagi emu 
empamvu wakati nendala satu enyimpi 
ku ma'bali. Bwensomoka omu'ga guno, 
onkulembere, ondage entubiro. Tunalya 
enyama empolu ekiro kino nemfumba 
amatoke enkya. Wala e'diba lino nga 
nze bwempaze wano. Nkole bwenti. 
Mpulide nga ompita. Aa sikuise, naye 



2 5 8 



ELEMENTS OF EUGANDA 



bererawo kumpi okutusa Iwcnkuita (owu- 

lirebwenkuita). Munange, onjazike ensi 
mbi lukumi. Siinza kukwazika (Sisobola 
or Sikwazike) en>imbi ezenkanawo. 
Kale onjazike nga bwoinza (bwoyagala). 
Okola ki ? (obadeki.) Mpata lumonde. 
Kimbuze (Sikhaba) naye kampamante 
huwamansi. Bwompulira nga mpita, wi- 
taba. Xampange embadzi yange mu kiti. 

Reflexives, p. 118. 

Yerumye. Onesigamyeko. Kabaka 
yagamba nti Weti'ka omutwalo guno ; 
nenewunya abantu bona nebekaliriza 
amaso okulaba Omuzungu nga yetise 
omutwalo. Tumwesize. Bweye'damu, 
yategera nti ebaruwa agilese enyuma (ye- 
rabide okugitwala) ; nagamba nti Singa 
sekolobye okwewala ebwa eri, sandigi- 
 rese. Obanga nkwesiganiako, sija kwesi- 
tala. Beyanza nebaganiba nti Ai sebo, 
nga twewunya okukulaba nga webagade 
ekisolo ekiwamvu ; nenziramu nengamba 
nti Banange, temwewunya, so temutya ; 
ekisolo kino ye ngamira, engamira neze- 
tika ebintuebizitowa. Engamira yange en o 
entwala nze nebintu byange byona. Saga- 
la mukwano irmlala ; enoesinze, teyekulu- 
kunya, so teyesitala. Ekisakate kino 
kyenetolola enyumba yange enjui zona. 
Twetesetese okuimba. To'naba kweyama. 
Akyebase. Betika ebintu ebizitowa nyo, 
naye tebekanya. 

Idioms, p. 120. 

Yongera okufuka amadzi (Ate ofuke). 
Amadzi gawede. Kale leta ate (yongera 
okugaleta). Mugamba okwambula engo- 
ye ziri zanzibye nokuzireta eno gyendi. 
Sagala ye oku'ba ate; empisa ezo tetuziso- 
bola. Esubi terikyali (liwede) mu lugya 
(mu lugya temukyali'subi). Twagalaenjo- 
le endala ale atano mu satu, naye sizi- 
raba nemu. Njagala okugula (Nagula) 
ebitabo ate bibiri naye sirina nsimbi (ensi- 
mbi zimpvvedeko). Nkwegairide, onja- 
zike. Aa, ensimbi sizazikanga. Muna- 
nge, tonsasira ? Tezija kulabika mangu. 
Bagamba nti Twagala kugula enyama ate. 
Soka oyere olugya, nolioka olongosa 
engato zange. Omupunga guno teguide ; 
yongera okugufumba. Bwofumba omu- 
punga ate, soka ogunaza mu madzi amabisi 
nolioka ogufumba. To'naba kuiga bu- 
lungi oluimba olwo ; soka olusome (ebi- 
gambo byona) nolioka oyongera okuluiga. 



1 These translations may seem free : but 
difference between the English way of saying a thing and the Luganda. 
frequently err in translating literally such sentences as those given above. 



Olabye empiso yange ? Sigirabye (embu- 
ze ; si'nagiraba. Amato gano tegaja 
kumala (tegalimala) ; genda ononye ama- 
lala ate. Ndabye amalala abiri, naye 
gatise (matifu). Onjazike ekitabo ekirala. 
Kale, soka ongambe nti Olikidzayo di. 
Empagi esatu zikyabuze. Bwebaleta 
omupunga ate ogwokutunda (ogutundi- 
bwa),tuliyongeia ckugula. Tunayongera jo 
okwoza engoye. Engoye zino zija okwo- 
noneka nyo bwoziteka ebweru mu nku- 
ba. Nayongera e'dagalayo : jo. Soka 
omalemu lino lyenkuwade ; sija kuyo- 
ngera lero. Tunawandika amanya ama- 
lala ate jo. 1 

Time, p. 122. 

Sija kukola kakano ; nakola enkya. 
Tunasomanga bulijo olwegulo. Balemwa 
okutambula omusana. Yatuka ku Lwa- 
baraza nasitula ku Lwa-musamvu olwe- 
gulo. Tuliiga di okuwandika ? Nga 
muja bulijo olwegulo ku sawa eyekumi, 
nanyikiranga okubaigiriza. Tuja kwa- 
nguwa okuiga. Natera kumala. Bali- 
genda olwebiri. Nawulira (Bambulira) 
nti yafa juzi (enaku ziise biri). Omwami 
wafe atugambye (atulagide) okujulula ka- 
kati. Kasokanga ndya si lwa jo ? Ba- 
lya emirundi ebiri gyoka buli lunaku e- 
nkya era nekiro. E'da nagenda e Bulaya, 
naye byenalabayo bimbuze (sikyabijukira). 
Enyumba yagya omuliro ekiro. Tetuja 
kulwa okuzimba ate. Enyumba yange 
eno enetera kugwa bugwi. Tunakola 
tutya? Tunazimba enyumba eyamangu ? 
Nkola buli kasera ; olusi nenkowa naye 
(si kigambo), '■'■that is nothing,"" expressed 
by the tone 0/"Nnye) omulimu guno ngwa- 
gala nyo. Ku Sabiti bakung'ana abantu 
bangi mu kanisa. Si mpisa ya Bamasiya 
okukola omulimu ku lunaku olwo ; ku 
naku ezitali za Sabiti (mu Sabiti) basoma 
oba bakola omulimu ogwa bulijo. Mu 
mwezi guli temwatuka Omuzungu nomu ; 
naye kakano Abazungu bali awo bangi 
(bajanjade) mu nsi. 

The Passive, p. 124. 

Ensimbi zino zimaze okubalibwa ? eki- 
tabo kino teki 'naba kusomebwa. Ama- 
toke gona ganyagibwa (ga'bibwa). E- 
byai byalangibwa. Embuzi zange zatu- 
ndibwa jo. Olubugo luno lukyabula oku- 
komelebwa. Olutindo lwayise enkya. 

will it is hoped direct attention to the vast 

Europeans 
It is unfor- 



tunately very difficult to tabulate these differences ; the 
grasped, and then it will not be so hard to fall in with 
Luganda 



broad principles must be 
the conversational style of 



KKY TO EXERCISES 



259 



Omupunga gunasekulibwa (-sekulwa) lero 
ekiro. Twawerekerwa Omwami era no- 
mukyalawe. Emuli zino tezi'naba kuwa- 
wulibwa. Amatoke gano tega'naba ku- 
watibwa. Ensongaze ziriwulirwa e'da. 
Engoye zino zayozebwa di ? Embuzi 
zinatera okuingizibwa. Omulimu gwafe 
gwona guja kuyongerwa nyo. 

Nearly all Passive forms arc disliked. 

Uses of the Passive, p. 124. 
Ensimbi zino za kubalibwa (kubala)? 
Omupunga guno gwa kusekulibwa (kuse- 
kula) ? Ente zona zanyagibwa abalabe. 
Watwalibwa ente meka ? Kabaka ye 
yambulira. Engoye zino tezambalibwa 
(tezambalwa) abakopi. Enyumba yagya 
omuliro. Enyumba eno ya kwabya. Esu- 
bi lino lyona lya kusibibwa (-siba). 
Amagumba gano gona ga kulondebwa 
abalenzi. Engoye zino zona za kwozebwa 
gwe. Gwe onobalagira byona byona. 
Tebalisasirwa kabaka. Emuli zino si za 
kutwalibwa abakazi mu nku. Omubisi 
guno si gwa kunyuwebwa emhwa. Ebi- 
wero bino bya kusulibwa gwe mu lusuku. 
Engoye zamwe si za kutungibwa ku 
Sabiti. Omuti gwagwa negumu'ta. Enga- 
to tezitundibwa wano ; zitundibwa abasu- 
buzi. Yalinyirirwa enjovu. Edagala 
lino si lya kunyuwa kakati. E'dagala 
lino si za kusiga (kusaba). 

Prepositional Form, p. 126. 

(i) Kubira, gendera, bulira, gulira, lu- 
ndira, kunkumulira, tabulira, semberera, 
tegerera, balira, salira, nyagira, nyigira, 
gabira. 

(ii) Omulenzi muite ansomere ku kitabo 
ekyampebwa 'juzi. Genda onsabire olu- 
suku. Enyama ngisalire wano? Omfu- 
mbire enyama eno mu luwombo. Le- 
kerawo. Bamanyira dala nti Njija buli 
nkya okusoma mu kanisa. Bakyamide 
dala. Nabagabira ensimbi zona enkya. 
Twala ku 'dagala lino, olikunkumulire 
okwo. Ensiri, ozigobyemu ; tezikyahmu? 
Ekitabo kyange kisingira dala ekikyo. 
Ombegere emere. Engoye oziwanike ku 
muguwa guli, zikalire okwo. Embwa 
ebuze ; tekyalabika ; mpodzi yekwese mu 
nsiko. Yansindikira mu madzi 

Causatives, p. 129. 

Gayaza, situza, kakanyaza, tukuza, 
tamiza, tegeza, buza, guza, kaza, saza, 
lindisa, zinza (zingisa), simya, somesa, 
temya, sabya (sabisa), busa, kwesa, teresa, 
menyesa, sesa, sindisa, kisa, yagaza, yasa, 
yambaza, yanguya, yombesa (yombya), 
imiriza, yasamya, yogeza, imusa, yononya, 



wonya, wunyisa, wandisa, wuliza, wumu- 
za, esitaza, etisa, ewunyisa, etoloza. 

Causvtives and Doubly 
Prepositional, p. 131. 

Jangu, onguze ebitabo bibiri. Ekiku- 
gayazidza kiki ? Mutegeza nti tugenda 
okuigiriza (tunaigirizanga) abantu oku- 
wandika buli nkya ku sawa eyokusatu. 
Abalenzi l)abano babiri abagala (abaki- 
riza) okukuwereza. Ekikulese okampe- 
reza (ekikuwerezesedza) kiki ? Onjazike 
ekyokumenyesa amayinja gano. Ekikusa- 
zidza enyama eno yona kiki ? Lisa omu- 
Iwade ono amata bulijo emirundi esatii. 
Leta embadzi eyokutemya emiti gmc. 
Omwami yamutanza jo era aja okumuko- 
mekerezesa, buli nsimbi yena. Kyova 
ogamba bwotyo ensonga ki ? Emirimu 
girawa egyokulimya? Ekimwogeza (ebi- 
gambo) ebingi kiki ? Ensimbi zino za- 
kung'anyizibwa itiu kanisa ku Sabiti eri 
eyaise. Ani aziresedza wano ? Omulenzi 
wange alwade muwa e'dagala awone 
(eryokumu wonya). 

ka forms, p. 13:. 

Yambalika, wumulikika, komoleka 
(komolekeka), situlika, tegerekeka, simika, 
temeka, etikika, yogerekeka, tabulikika, 
gendeka, singika, zingika, sabika, kweke- 
ka, fukika. 

Auxiliary 'li,' in Near Time, p. 133. 

•Ensimbi ali nga azitute. Alinga ana 
twala sanduku eri. Alinga ta'nagenda. 
Balinga batunda enyama mu katale. 
Alinga akiridza okunzimbira enyumba 
eye'fumbiro. Balinga teba'nagenda. Ka- 
ngende ndabe nga bakiriza okukutwa- 
lira ebaruwa eyo. Omuntu oyo alwade 
nyo (omuntu oyo obulwade buinze) ; ali- 
nga anafa ekiro. Olinga otunda ebitabo. 
Agambye ki (atya?). Alinga asabye eki- 
tabo. Tulinga tukyamye mu kubo. 
Alinga amaze okubala ensimbi. 

Auxiliary 'li,' in Far Time, p. 134. 

Yali anyikide okuiga okusoma naye 
kwamulema. Yali nga amaze okubala 
ensimbi zona omuyaga neguja negusula 
enyumba. Nali 'munonya naja yeka. 
Nali ngenze okutambula ono namala oku- 
timba amagigi gona. Balinga basekula, 
omupunga nebawulira nti Embuga egya. 
Balinga bamaze okusimba empagi zona 
ezomu nyumba nebabaita okutabala? 
Wali otabude e'dagala e'da? Wali ola- 
bye olusuku lwange ? Wamusasira ? Wali 
olabye ekizibawo ? twali tulima enkuba 
netukuba. Twali tugenda e Busoga nga 



260 



ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA 



tutiise kumpi nenyanja — nebatubulira 
nti Abayo bajemye. Bamala okuzlka 
emirambo era nokusitulira abafumite bona 
ku nyinyo abatalina ga tambula nebako- 
mawo. Balinga bakomawo netubasanga. 

Auxiliary ' ba ' for Emphasis, p. 135. 

Lyato ki lyemba ndeta? Ensiml)i zino 
zemba mbala ? Erinyo lino, lyemba 
nkula ? Waoo wemba nima ? Amadzi 
gano getubfl tuyuwa ? Empera eno gya- 
ba atwala ? Ente eno gyaba atunda ? 
Emuli zino zetuba tuwawula ? Omu'ga 
guli gwetuba tutinda ? 

Also, Eryato liruwa lyemba ndeta? 
Zino ze nsimbi zemba . . ? Lino lye rinyo 
lyemba . . ? etc. 

Auxiliary 'ba,' Condition, p. 136. 
Bwebanabanga banyikira, banaiganga 
mangu. Bwobanga okiriza okuja bulijo, 
nakuigirizanga okuwandika. Bwabanga 
akiriza okutunda okugulu okwo ensimbi 
bisatu mwatano, kale kugule. Bwoba 
mu kibuga sabuni nga alabika mtigule. 
Bwanabanga akirirza okutuwa ensimbi 
zetwamugamba, tulimala enyumba eyo. 
Bwaliba akiriza obutalekana bwetuba hi- 
soma, nange 'niukiriza oku'da enkya. 
Bwotuka e Mitiana nobasanga nga ba- 
maze okutunda ebi'abo otereka ensimbi 
bulungi okutusa enkya. Obanga okiriza 
okwoza engoyezo buli Lwa musamvu, 
nange nakuwanga sabuni ; naye bwoliba 
oyagala, nakuwanga ensimbi ezokumu- 
gula. 

Auxiliary, 'va, ! p. 137. 
Mva kulya. Bava kuimirira. Tuva 
kuim1>a, kyetuva tukowa. Tuva ku lu- 
gendo, kyetuva tulumwa enjala. Kyova 
oyayuwa bvvotyo ensonga ki ? Mbadc 
enjala enuma. Kyebava bagana kulima 
amakubo malungi.en>onga ki ? Tebakiriza 
kutesa omulimu, amakubo mabi k)egava 
gabamala. Kyova ogana okwera olugya 



buli nkya, ensonga ki ? Mbade sitegede 
nti Ongambye okwera. Esawani zino 
kyeziva zatika kubanga tewegendereza. 
Kyemva neuia okuja mu kanisa buli Sa- 
biti, kubanga sirina ngoye. Kjovude 
ombuza ekyo, ensonga ki ? Kubanga ye- 
mpisa ya Bamasiya okusinza Katonda mu 
kanisa, olunaku lumu buli 'banga lyenaku 
musamvu. Abamasiya kyebava bawu- 
mula olunaku lumu buli 'banga lyenaku 
musamvu, kubanga lye 'teka lya Katonda. 

Auxiliary ' mala,' p. 137. 

Bwebalimalawo ensimbi ziri zona oku- 
zigulamu emere, ndiyongera okubawa. 
Embuzi ziri zafulumye ekiro ? Aa, zi- 
maze nezitafuluma ; mbade nsibye olugi 
nenziwulira. Mala ga soma. Bagambe nti, 
Enyumba eno enemala ga 'gwa Tero. Ma- 
ze nesiiga kuwandika. Bwonomala okulo- 
ngosa engato zange, zirete wano ndabe. 
Enyumba eri bwerimala kugwa, tulizimba 
nate. 

Auxiliary ' lioka,' p. 138. 

Oliose nosiba . embuzi yange. Baliose 
nebamala omulimu guli, enkuba nga te- 
'naja. Basoka okusima ebinya nebalioka 
batema empagi okuzenkanankan>a nebali- 
oka bazisimba mu 'laka. Oliose nobera 
awo okubalabirira. Nasoka okusoma 
olunyiriri, nawe nolioka o'da mu bigambo 
byange olioke obiige nyo era oleme oku- 
bycrabira. Olio'se noiga okusoma noku- 
wandika. Balioka nebandabira omubadzi. 
Ekizimba kino kiriose nekyabika. 

Auxiliary, 'ja,' p. 138. 

Kyenje ntuke. Emere kyeje egye. 
Mva kusoma. Ekikusu kyenje nkigula 
(nakaja okukigula) kibuze. Kyebaje ba- 
male okuzimba enyumba yange. E'gigi 
kyevije ligwe. Kyaje agolokoke. Kye- 
baje batunde ebitabo byona engeri eyo. 
Mala ga teka wansi. 



ERRATA FOR 'ELEMENTS OF LUGANDA GRAMMAR,' 

S.P.C.K. 1902 



Prefatory Note, last line but 4, omit ' and ' after Committee 
Contents, Grammar, Nouns. Mu — Ba Class : 
List of Nouns, for page 47 read 42 
With Adjective, for page 44 read 43 
N Class, Object Prefix for page 101 read 102 
With Relative,/**?- page 101 read 102 
p. vii. Adverbs, Interrogative. What? ki ? for page 143 read 144 
p. 19. Lesson X., para. 2 line \,for (ekintu kyafe, our) things read thing 

,, ,, ,, 6, for ekintu bye read ebintu bye. 

p. 21, 1st Exercise, line 3, for thine read mine (book of mine) 
,, ,, lines 3 and 7, for bunoh read bunchlet 

,, 2nd Exercise, line 6, for bunch read bunchlet 
p. 26. Lesson XVIII., Exercise {b), for him read you (I see you) 
p. 31. ,, XXVI., Object, line i,for gw na laba read gwe na laba 
p. 32. ,, XXVIII., Substantives (a) i.', line 2, for slow read wild plum 
p. 37. hct, for Jcr. xxxvii. 19 read J e/. xxxvi. 19. 
p. 41. Lengthened Consonants, 'k and 'g, for oku' gulawo read oku' galawo (shut 

door) 
p. 43. III., for Subjunctive read Substantive 

p. 44. last line, before For add 1 , in note, also for p. 112, iv, read 112, v. 
p. 45. IV. i. N. B. line 4, for sibalina read tebalina (kibya) 
p. 46. Exercise, last line but one, for foot read root 

p. 57. VIII., Again, line 2, for his book is read your books 'are (the same) 
,, Other Comparisons are given, i., line 2, for ebisikate read ebisakate 
p. 68. 1st Exercise, last word, for coming read counting 

2nd Exercise, line 8, for will read wilt (thou go down) 
,, ,, ,, n,/0r you read thou (kill the snake) 

p. 72. List of Nouns^/or omusigere read omusigire 

p. 76. (<f) With Relative, For the Far Past Tense, for ekisakati read ekisakate 
p. 83. Exercise, line $>f or tne y read yon (found my book) 

p. 84. List of Nouns, for E'siga, scorpion read E' si' ga.; for E'subi, hope read E'subi 
p. 88. (<r) Possessives, line 10, for a ga nge, thine read a. ga go, thine 
,, line 26, go means, &c, for reference read reference to (this class) 
>, >t i^ifor ekisikate read ekisakate 
p. 89. (/) Negatives, Relative, line 2, for eryatagwa read eritagwa 
p. 100. (b) Demonstrative, line I, for ziri, those read zino, these (houses) 

261 



262 ERRATA 

p. 102. last line but one, for zi yononese read zi yononye (ekyalo) 
p. 108. omit the second sing, and PLUR., line 10 
p. 1 10. 3rd Exercise, line 6. for mines read mine is (small) 

p. 114. Last line but three, read ' (yanguyako) and split firewood ' instead of mak- 
ing two sentences, 
p. us. 1st Exercise, ii. , line 6, omit here after" bracket. 

p. 127. line 14, kyamira mu kubo, read turn into the road when out of it instead of 
turn off from majn road into a by-path 
,, last line but four, for tight read right (quite right) 
,, last hne.Jor or in note read for 
p. 134. 2, (a) Mbade, line 6, insert doing after am (I am doing nothing) 
p. 151. One of many, lioe \,for your read our (banafe, our friends) 
,, ,, line 2, for friend read friends (bano, thy friends) 

,, ,, last line, for these read those (those people) 

p. 152. Instead nf, line 3, for kino read kiri (ogana kiri) 

,, Phrases, line 2, for okutusa read okutuka (ku kibuga) 

p. 155. kya, line 3, for up with read occupied until (first streak of) 
p. 156. lya, line 5, for he read be (paid a wage) 
p. 157. Strong Accent, yuza, line 12, for -eyuna read -eyuza 

, , Reflexive, eyongera, line 4, for akyayeyongera read akyeyongera 
p. 159. Narrative Tense, Things, column, 2, for ey read e (y) 
p. 162. b. Object, for Relative Subject read Relative Object 
p. 164. 9. Partitive Forms, for the other read some of them 

,, column 3, it : them, line 4, for gwe read gv/o 
p. 180. Bomba, for omubombye read omubombi 
p. 190. kongoja, add carry on the shoulder 
p. 192. Kya, kesa obude, for up with read occupied until 

,, Kyawa, add not to like 
p. 198. saka (eki), n. a small cooking-pot. After this add saka (eki), n. a thicket 
p. 200. semba, v., add bring up the rear 
p. 201. sera, v., for much read little (pay too little) 

,, si'ga, scorpion, add centipede. 
p. 202. Soga (en), n. castor-oil berries, for Soga read Sogasoga 
p. 203. sumbi (en), n. , add meaning, milk-pot 

, , Suta, for sitama > ead sutama 
p. 206. Tere (mu), n., add meaning, banana flour 
p. 208. Vu (eki), «., gadfly, add meaning, tsetse 

p. 212. foj yanguririza rea*i yanguirlza. After yayuyo add Ya2ika, v. lend what is 
to be returned 



ERRATA TO KEY TO LUGANDA EXERCISES 

p. 238. ki Class, with Adjectives, line 3, for ononye read olete 

,, ,, Demonstratives, line 1, for ebiwamvu read ebinene 
,, ,, Possessives. After Ekyumakye read thus : Ebitabo byamwe. 

Ekikajo kyafe. Ekigerekyo. Ekiwagokye Ebyai bya- 
nge. Ebitabo byabwe. Ekyoto kyafe. Ekitakyo. Ebi- 
byabye. Ebyuma byabwe. Genda, etc. etc. 



ERRATA 



263 



p. 238. ki Class, with Possessives, p. 21, line 6, for Ekikajo kino read Ekikajo kiri. 
,, ,, „ ,, (contd.), line 2, for kiwamvu read ekiwamvu 

(kikye) 

,, ft „ ,, line 3, for ebitoke bin read ebitoke bino 

,. 7, omit Ebyai bino byange. 

,, ,, „ Numerals, p. 22, line 2, for biri read bino (bisatu) 

,, ,, ,, ,, „ „ 4, after biri insert ebinene (ebibiri) 

p. 239. line 7, after ebibiri insert ebiwamvu (byafe) 

,, Supplementary, p. 23, line I, /or biwamvu read binene (biri) 

,, ,, line 2, for kiwamvu read kinene (nyo) 

„ ,, ,, 9, after ebitano insert byeru (biwamvu) 

,, The Verb, p. 24, line 2, omit nyo {after bikula) 

,, ,, line 7, for biwamvu read binene 

,, Verb (cont.), p. 25, line 5, for ebiwamvu read ebinene 

1, ,, Pres. Perf. and Far Past, d., line 4, after bibiri insert ebirungi (bye- 

twalaba); line 8, for tebatwala read tebatute 
p. 240. mu— mi Class, Adjective and Numeral, line 5, for munene read omunene 

11 ,1 ,, Demonstrative, b., line II, after ebiri insert mitono 

• • •• 11 i, 1, 1, '5i ,, giri ,, ebiri (eminene) 
11 11 11 ,, ,, ,, 16, ,, etano ,, einibi 

11 i, 1, Possessive, a., line I, after Omukonogwe insert Emigo gya- 

bwe. 
11 >• 11 ,, c, ,, 7, for guno read guli (gwani ?) 

;i 1, 1, Miscellaneous, ,, 4, for bwegiti read bwegityo 

11 1, ,, ,, ,, 9, after gyange insert gyona 

11 •) ,, ,, ,, 12, for bwebatyo read bwegityo 

p. 241. Adjectives, p. 44, lines 9 and 10, for Omukazi omuzira r<rdrf Abakazi abazira 
,, Initial Vowel, p. 46, line 8, after Kino kiki? insert Kye kibya. Bino biki ? 

Bye binya. Bye bibira. Kino kiki ? 
,, Place, p. 47, line 2, for bu readku (kikolo) 

,, 4, omit Ekikayi, and for kiri read Kiri (ewamwe) 
,, 6, for kiri (ok wo) read Biri (okwo) 

,, 22, omit omukazi omugenyi, and for Abakazi read abakazi 
,, ki Class, Demonstrative, p. 49, line 2, for biri read bino (Ebifumvu) 
p. 242. ,, ,, line $,for biri readb'mo (ebikalubo) 

11 1. Numerals and Adjectives, line 5, for kingi read ek'mgi 

>> 1. 1, ,, ,, 6, ,, kingi ., ekingi (ekisa) 

• 1 ,, ,, ., ,, 12, after biri insert bibiri (ebyerv) 
i- .. Possessive, line IO, for bino read biri (byani) 

>i .. Relative, line 9 for okugula read okuzimba 

P- 2 43- .1 i, ,, 2, after kingi add nyo 

11 ,, Supplementary, i.. line 3, after byali bibiri add Nina ebitabo biru- 

ngi, biri bibiri. 
,, inu — mi Class, Subject and Object, line 12, y^rgifunda r<Wmifunda nyo 
>■ 11 ,, Demonstrative, line 2, for Emiti read Emigo 

n 11 ,1 ., ,, 3, for giri read egyo (Emifuko) 

.. 5, ,, guli ,, ogwo (gu'.uwa) 
•t ■, ,, ., ,, 8, ,, gigino read g\g\r\. (Emikufu) 

>» '• ,1 ,, ,, 10, ,, giri read gino (mitono) 

" .1 ,1 Numeral and Adjective, line 6, after emiga insert emiwamvu 

*• 'i 11 ,, ,, ; , 7, for gino read gigino (ebiri 



264 ERRATA 

p. 343. mu — mi Class, Numeral and Adjective", line 8, after Leta emirere giri emi- 

rungi ebiri insert Emidumu 
giri ena mirungi. 
p. 244. ,. ,, ,, ,, ,, 7, after etano mimpi insert Na- 

labaemisotamukaga. Emiti 
giri esatu mimpi. 
,, ,, ,, Possessive, line 2, after Omupunga gwabwe insert Omutwe 

gwange. 
,, 7, /<?r egyange nWegigyo (mimpi) 
,, ,, ,, Miscellaneous, line 4, after obuwamvu insert Giri bwegiti 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 17, omit Akola emiryango gyoka. 

,, „ ,, ,, 18, after emiga insert giri ; after emeka? 

insert Giwera omusamvu (Emiga giri emeka ? Giwera omusamvu) 
,, Supplementary; Comparisons, line 12, after gwasinga insert nyo 
p. 245. ,, Miscellaneous ,, 15, ,, mufundafunda insert Ebikajo 

bino bikalubokalubo. 
p. 246. Modified Form in ze, line 19, for bingi read (Atunze ebitabo) byange 
,, ,, ,, ye, line 5, should read sibye, simye, simye, siinbye 

,, ,, ,, se, line 4, for somuse read somose 

,, ,, ,, para. 2, line 14, for Kyokasuse read Kyebakasuse 

p. 247. line 15, after ekibanja insert kyange 

,, Other Modified Forms, line 4, read thus : Munyuwede omwenge gwona. 
,, Near Future, p. 68, line 1, for Tunalya, Tunagolokoka read Nalya, Anago- 

lokoka 
,, ,, ,, ,, line 8, omit lero. (Kyebanamala) 

,, Far Future, p. 69, line 9, after kirimugasa add nyo 
,, Far Past, p. 70, line 7, omit Baliseka nyo. 
„ ,, ,, ,, ,, 10, for omliro mz</omuliro 
,, Affixes of Relation, line 6, for tugituleko read ngituleko 
p. 248. mu — ba Class, Subject and Object, line 13, for Bamugoba read Omulogo 

bamugoba. 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, line 15, omit babiri (badze) 

,, ,, ,, Possessive, line 9, for omusigere ?vWomusigire 

p. 249, ,, ,, Relative, line 21, for bebavvangula read bebawangude 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 24, for omusigere m?</omusigirc 

,, ,, „ Miscellaneous, line 14, for kisakate mzo' kisakatekye 

,, Personified Nouns, 2nd column, line 4, after nmfumbe insert Yafa kaumpuli. 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 12, aftei abasubuii insert bona (bamu- 

tunda) 
,, Narrative Tense, Positive, line 6, omit nabaja 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 8, for nembileta ;r^ nabileta 

p. 250. Negative Tenses, not Relative, line 9, read thus : Omusigire leyaziza mu- 

baka wa mwamiwe 
,, ,, ( , „ ,, line 12, for Tebasembere (tebalisembera) 

kumpi read Tebagende 
,, ,, ,, () ,, line 22, read thus : okutegera i>(i tusoma. 

Tebalikola. Baganyi oktikola. Taja 
kutunda omukufugwe. 
,, Negative Tense with Relative, line 6, for Ebibya byesinaba kugula read 

Ebibya byesiguze. 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, line i4./^gwebatanakola/v(Z,/gwebatakoz<; 



ERRATA 



265 



>. 250. Negative Tense with Relative, last line but two, for empera read emipera 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 2nd column, line J, for na read ne (bata- 

fumba) 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 2nd column, line 9, for omukyufu read 

omukufu 
' Still ' and ' Not Yet ' Tense, line i,for Tu read Ta(kyakola) 
,, ,, „ ,, ,, ,, 7, for nkyanonya read nkyak'inonya. 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 24, omit Tohaba kukunkumula. 

p. 251. li — ma Class, Demonstrative, line 8, for Amaio reoui Amata (gano gakute) 
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 13, after E'bwa insert lino (lyenyiga) 

,, 19,/orgagano rWgagali 
,, ,, ,, Adjective, line 7, for gano read gali (amabisi) 

,, ,, ,, „ 2nd column, line 5, after ameka? insert Amanya 

gona ana mazibu. 
p. 252. ,, ,, Possessive, line 3, omit Eryatolye 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 9, for Amafumu gano read Amafumugo gano 

(amawamvu) 
n ,, ,, Negatives ,, 9, for lyebatanaba kumala read lyeyagana 

kunyuwa, and insert after this Edobozi 
lyetutawulira. Esabo lyebatanaba kumala. 
,1 ,, ,, ,, ,, 12, <?M»VBaguze amafumu musamvu. 

>. ,, ,, ,, ,, 16, for negatamenyeka read tegamenyeka 

.. ,, ,, , (< ,, last line but three, for teryagenda read 

eritagenda 
, Conjunctions, nga, line 13, for abatakyatuberanga read tebakyatuberanga 
p. 253. How, Just as, line 19, after Bazimba nga fe bwetwazimba insert Omugo 

guno guli ng'anga omuti. Tunanyikiranga nga bo (bwe- 
banyikira) 
,, ,, line 22, for kabaka read omwami 

When, Until, etc., line 11,/oramagi r^a^/amatoke 
1, ,, ,, ,, 1 2, for amatoke read amagi 

,, ,, ,, ,, 15, for otuite raz</batuita 

,, ,, ,, ,, 16, for otuwerezeko read batuwerezako 

Place, line 10, after omulenzi insert gwenatuma (na'da nagamba) 
,, last line but four, read thus : Sikiriza gwe okuzimba eyo wenja- 
gala okusimba kasoli. Genda ozimbe eri mu kikande kiri : eyo 
wenakukiriza okuzimba. (Tolinya awasigibwa ensigo, etc.) 
p. 254. ,, line 2, after nogumu insert Tewatwalibwa kintu na kimu. 
,, N Class, Subject, line 5, for etatuziza read eyatuziza 
,, ,, ,, ,, 13, for Enkovu read Enkofu 

,, ,, ,, last line but one, for Ensege read Ensega 

,, ,, Demonstrative and Numeral, line 10, omit Ensimbi bitano mwana 

mu mukaga. 
, , , , Possessives, line 2, for Ensamu yange read Ensamu yafe 

,, ,, ,, ,, 4, after Engaboye insert Enjuki zabwe. Ensawo 

yange. Enangayo. Empiso zange. Emereye. 
Embuzi yabwe. (Emindiye) 
,, ,, ,, column 2, line 6, after kyalo insert kyafe 

., ,, ,, ,, ,, 7, after enyumba insert yange (wano) 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 22, omit Muwa emperaye. 

P- 255. ,, Negative, line 11, for zino read z\x'\ (zikyamye) 



266 ERRATA 

p. 255. ku CJass, line 2, omit Okugulu omusawo kwayagala okutema. Okutukwe 
kwona kulwade. 
,, ka, or Diminutive Class, line 6, for kali read kano (katiba) 
,, bu Class, Further Uses, line 13, omit Ekyai bwai. 

p. 256. The Letter N., p. 109, (iii), line 6, for engumu read ngximu (entebe) 
»» ., ., ,. .» ii u./orengazi read ngazi (ensi) 

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 2nd column, line 4, for entono read ntono (si 

nene) 
,, ,, ,, second syllable beginning with N or M, line 11, for ziri read 

zino (Entindo zino zona) 
,, ,\ ,, last line but two, for entono read .Uono (Enkoko) 

,, The letter N and Exploded Consonants, line 6, for lumu read lwafe 

p. 257. W stems, (ii), line 3, for Iwembawakanyisa read (lwembawakanyisa) 
,, ,, ,, ,, 4, for Yampandika read Yampandikira 

,, u, <v»t'/ aingire 

p. 258. ,, ,, ,, 2, for onjazike read ompole 

,, ,, ,, ,, 3, for kukwazika read kukwola 

,, ,, ,, ,, 4, for (Sikwazike) read (Sikwole) 

,, ,, ,, ,, 5, for onjazike rsaaf ompole 

,, Reflexives, line 18, after teyekulukunya insert nga endogoi 
,, ,, ,, 19, for kyenetolola read kyetolola 

,, Idioms, line il, for onjazike rairf ompole 
,, ,, ,, 12, for sizazikanga read siziwolanga 

,, ,, 2nd column, line 2, read Sigirabye (embuze : si'nagiraba) 

,, ,, last line but two, for kuyongera read kwongera 

,, Time, line 3, after omusana insert Batambulanga kiro. 
after Yatuka insert etuntu (ku Lwabaraza) 

j). 259. Uses of the Passive, last line, for si za kusiga read lye lyokusiga 

,, Causatives and Doubly Prepositional, line 6, for ekikulese read ekibalese 
.', ,. ,, ,, ,, ,, 7, fnr (ekikuwerezesedza) read 

(ekibawerezesedza) 
,, Auxiliary ' li ' in Far Time, line 6, omit comma after basekula 
,, ,, ,, „ last line but one, for olabye read otunze 

p. 260. Auxiliary 'ha,' Condition, line 7, for akirirza read akiriza 

,, Auxiliary 'va,' line 6, after ensonga ki ? insert Kubanga abakopi bayo- 
mbagana 

No notice has been taken as a rule of errors in stops or small letters put instead of 
capitals and vice versd. These have been left in order to reduce the number of 
corrections. The student can make these corrections for himself. In many cases 
the stops in the Exercises are not the same as those in the Key. 



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PL Crabtree, William Arthur 

8201 Elements of Luganda 

. 1 grammar 

C73 
1923 



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