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Full text of "Elements of music"

ELEMENTS 



U SIS I C 



F. DAVENPOBT 



r HARMONY AND COMPOSmDH A* TOT 

JKO'ffJM. ACABBMY Of MUiI 



Ml 



PUBLtSHEO UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE COMMITTEE 
OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



HfSW IMPRESSION 



MANS, G BE EN, AND CO 
;:BNOSTEE ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK AKD BOMBAY 



Smiling 




Presented to the 

LIBRARY o/tfu? 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

from the 

ARTHUR PLETTNER 

ISA McILWRATTH 

COLLECTION 



ELEMENTS 



OF 



MUSIC 



BY 



F. DAVENPOET 

PBOFBSSOR OP HARMONY AND COMPOSITION AT 
BOYAL ACADEMY OP MUSIC 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE COMMITTEE 
OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



NEW IMPRESSION 



LONGMANS, GKEEN, AND CO. 

89 PATERNOSTER BOW, LONDON 

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

1899 

All rights reserved 



PREFACE. 



THIS book on the Elements of Music is issued by authority 
of the Committee of Management of the Eoyal Academy of 
Music, who commend it to the study of all who enter this Eoyal 
and National Institution as pupils, and of all candidates in the 
Local Examinations of Musical Students who are not in the 
Academy. Knowledge of the subjects herein treated is impera- 
tive in every musician, the lowest as much as the highest ; nay, 
thorough familiarity with this knowledge is the threshold of 
musicianship, by which alone the mysteries of the art can be 
entered. Many meritorious books exist wherein the elements 
of music are explained, but they mostly go beyond the subjects, 
or treat some of them incompletely. The object here is to direct 
attention to matters that entirely precede the study of harmony, 
and, by confining the' student's thoughts for the time within this 
limit, to make such matters the clearer to understand and the 
easier to remember. The arrangement of the book, and some 
of the explanations it contains, have points of novelty which 
may tend to clearness, and need no preliminary description. 



4 PREFACE, 

It presents the result of the writer's experience in training 
elementary classes in the Academy and in examining candidates 
throughout the country, and it has been inspected and approved 
by the professional members of the Managing Body. 

G. A. MACFAEREN, 

Chairman and Principal. 



ROYAL ACADEMY OP Music : 
November 1883. 



DEFINITIONS. 

Note a sign used to represent a musical sound, 1. 

Pitch the height or depth of a sound, 9. 

Interval the difference in pitch between two sounds, 32. 

Melody single notes in succession, 74. 

Harmony two or more notes in combination 73. 

Modulation & change of key. 

Diafomc according to the signature, 29, 69, 76 (note 2). 

Chromatic contrary to the signature (indicated by accidentals) without causing 
modulation, 29, 69, 80. 

Enharmonic (on a keyed instrument) changing the name without altering the 
pitch. In the case of other instruments and the voice, enharmonic is applied 
to an interval smaller than a chromatic semitone, 30. 

Key a set of notes in relation to one principal note called the Tonic or 
Key-note, 40. 

Scale the notes of a key ascending or descending in alphabetical order, 41, 72, 73| 
74, 80. 



N.B.ThrougJiout the booh the numbers refer to the Sections in the text. Def. 
refers to the Definitions. 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

CHAPTER I. 

LENGTH OF NOTES AND RESTS. 

1. A musical sound is represented by a sign called a Note. 1 
As one sound may last a longer or a shorter time than 

another, it is necessary to have notes of various appearance to 
express the different lengths of the sounds they represent. 

2. The longest note is called a 

Semibreve, 2 and is written thus : & 

Other notes are : 

The Minim . ? . . written thus & ^ 

Crotchet . . . ,, ,, |* J 
Quaver . J* 

,, Semiquaver . ,, ^fe 

,, Demisemiquaver . ,, 
Semidemisemiquaver ,, 



1 Hence the sound itself is called a Note. 

2 To explain how it happens that the longest note is called a half -short, it is 
necessary to mention that in earliest written music the longest notes were the 

Large I | (maxima, hence minima or minim was the least or shortest note), and 
the Long i J. The Breve, or Short, was a half-Long, or the fourth part of a 
Large. Perhaps the clumsiness of the shapes may account for their disuse. 

3 The shape and arithmetical relations of the notes have suggested the French 
and German methods of naming them. The former call them round, white, black, 
hooked, double-hooked, &c. ; and the latter, taking the semibreve as a whole, call 
them b, 41 . IT-* & c -> notes respectively. In the United States the latter method 
has been adopted. 



8 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

3. The following table shows the relative length of the 
above notes, each being twice as long as the one that follows, 
and half as long as the one that goes before it : 



%\\v\ 

11 

^ <M SO CO ^ 

CO CO iH 

II II II II II 



JM CO GO 

CO rH 



GO 

^^ 



X 



a 



4. A sound longer than one of the above notes, but not so 
long as the one next before it, is written in two ways, by means 

of a Tie or a Dot. The tie (or bind) is written thus : p * 



LENGTH OF NOTES AND BESTS. 9 

and causes the sound to last as long as the minim and crotchet 
together. A dot placed after the minim & has the same effect. 
Hence a dot adds to a note half its length that is, the length of 
the next note. A second dot & adds half the length of the dot 
before it that is, the length of the next note but one, and so 
on. More than two dots are seldom used (122). 

5. In the following example, dots are placed underneath the 
notes whose length they add to the first written note : 



from which it will be seen that a dot serves the same purpose 
as a tie. The effect of the former is always the same (4), 
but a tie can unite into a continuous sound notes of any 

value. Thus: * V & g &c. 

6. Sound frequently ceases, and there is silence. This is 
shown by signs called Bests. Length of notes or sound corre- 
sponds with length of rests or silence, and each note gives its 
name to the rest of the same length. 

7. Here are the forms of the rests : 

Semibreve rest. Minim rest. Crotchet rest. Quaver rest. 



Semidemisemiquaver 
Semiquaver rest. Demisemiquaver rest. rest. 



8. Dots placed after rests add to the silence in the same 
way as they add to the length of notes. Thus : 
r equals r *i 
r r ] q 

1 " 1 ^ 

1 It is obvious that no number of dots can double the length of a note. 



10 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



CHAPTEE II. 

PITCH OF NOTES. 



9. The height or depth of a sound is called its Pitch. 

10. To make this clear to the eye in written music, notes 
are placed on five lines and the spaces between them, called a 

lO tttli 



ea 


i , 


r" 3 


i 


\ \ 
1 


i 




H C/ xd 



the height or depth of a sound being shown by placing it higher 
or lower on the staff. 1 

11. When a sound is too high or too low to be written on the 
staff, lines are added above or below for the occasion. 

These have a small, light appearance, as compared with the 
longer five lines, and are therefore called Leger 2 lines : 



&C.' 



12. Notes thus written are said to be on or above the first, 
second, third, &c., leger line over the staff, and on or below the 
first, &c., leger line under the staff. 

13. The first seven letters of the alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, 
F, G, are used for the names of the notes, 4 the wide range of 

1 Five lines are found most convenient, although as many lines and their 
spaces might be used as there are sounds of different pitch to represent. In old 
music written for the Church, a staff of four lines, or even three, sufficed for all the 
sounds that were written. 

2 A French word meaning light. 

3 The effect of these leger lines is to add for the time additional lines to the 
staff. The above leger lines could be made the same length as the five lines of 
the staff, thus making a staff of ten lines, but the result would be confusing to 
the eye. 

4 This is also the case in Germany, where, however, Bl is called B, and Bt] is 
called H (p. 14, note 1). In France the syllables Ut, Ee, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, are 
used, which are said to have been taken by Guido Aretino in the eleventh century 
from the first three lines of the following Latin hymn : 



PITCH OF NOTES. 11 

musical sounds being expressed by repeated series of these 
letters. 1 

14. To fix the alphabetical names of notes placed on a staff,. 
a sign called a Clef is used. By this the name of one is fixed, 
from which the rest may be reckoned. 2 

15. There are three clefs : 

The F clef, written thus : @ or Q: 

C R or 



16. The C fixed by the C clef is that -nearest the middle of 
the pianoforte keyboard. The F next below and the G next 
above that C are the notes fixed by the F and G clefs respectively. 

17. The F clef is placed on the fourth line of a staff ^ 

and notes written thereon are for bass (or lowest) voices or in- 
struments. Hence the F clef is called the Bass clef, and the staff 
is called the Bass staff. 

The G clef is placed on the second line of a staff 




and notes written thereon are for the highest voices or instru- 
ments. Hence the G clef is called the Treble 3 clef, and the staff 
is called the Treble staff. 

18. One staff only is required for each voice and the majority 
of instruments, but some of these contain a wider range of sounds 

4 Ut queant laxis, Kesonare fibris, 
Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum, 
Solve polluti Labii reatum, 
Sancte lohannes.' 

The Lfcalians changed Ut into Do for the sake of obtaining a more vocal sound, 
and !& (taken from the last line of the hymn) was subsequently added. 

1 At one time the letters themselves represented the sounds, capitals being 
used for one series, small letters for the next, and small letters with one, two, or 
more lines underneath for the remaining series. 

2 The clef is thus, as its derivation implies, the key to the staff. 

3 See note 1, page 12. 



12 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



than can be expressed on one staff without the aid of an incon- 
venient number of leger lines. Hence, for pianoforte music, two 
staves are used, the higher one for the higher notes, the lower one 



for the lower notes : 



i 



19. By reckoning upwards from the F or downwards from 
the G it will be found that the note midway between the two 
staves is C, which is therefore one leger line below the treble 

staff (jfo = =j or one leger line above the bass staff 




20. If this leger line between the two staves is made equal in 
length to the lines of the staves, one large staff of eleven lines 
is formed, which is called the Great Staff. By placing the C clef 
on this middle line the relative pitch of the three clefs is made 



G 



clear : 




21. A staff with the C clef on the first line is called the 
Soprano staff, on the second the Mezzo- Soprano staff, on the 
third the Alto, on the fourth the Tenor. 1 Formerly a staff with 
the F clef on the third line was used for the Baritone voice. 

1 In early music the principal melody was given tc the lowest voice but one, 
hence called tenor because it held or sustained the melody. The lowest voice bore 
the weight of those above it and was .called burden, which expression is retained 
in the organ pedal stop called bourdon, or bass, which obviously signifies the lowest 
part. The alto, or high, is next above the tenor and high in relationship to it. 
The soprano, or highest, is the top part ; the mezzo-soprano, or moderately high, 
next under it. Treble is the third part from the tenor, as the word implies. The 
alto and tenor are the only staves with the C clef in general use nowadays, the 
former serving for the viola and alto trombone, the latter for the tenor trombone 
and the upper notes of the violoncello and bassoon. The treble staff is now generally 



PITCH OF NOTES. 
Soprano. Mezzo-Soprano. Alto. Tenor. 



Baritone. 



22. To enable the student to observe the difference of pitch 
implied by these different staves, here are examples of the same 
notes written on all of them : 

Treble. Soprano. 




Mezzo-soprano. 



Alto. 







G A G E C F F 

Tenor. 



G A G E C F F 

Baritone. 






GAGE OFF 



G A G E C F F 



Bass. 



G A E OFF 

used for the highest voice, sometimes for the second or alto, and, .in printed 
music, for the tenor voice. It is also used for the violin, flute, hautboy, clarionet, 
horn, trumpet, the high notes of the viola, and occasionally for the highest notes 
of the violoncello. Music for the baritone voice is now written on the bass staff. In 
spite of disuse in England, a clear understanding of the various staves is desirable 
at least for the professional musician. This is especially the case in acquiring the 
habit of transposition i.e. playing music in another key than that in which it is 
written. A melody written in the key of G on the treble staff may thus be 
transposed into the key of E by imagining the C clef to be on the 1st line, &c. 

1 Thus it will be seen that the same sound which is low on the treble staff is 
moderately high on the alto and very high on the bass staff. The pitch namely, 
the height or depth of a musical sound is thus picturesquely shown in relation to 
other sounds on the same staff, while by means of the clef the absolute pitch of 
each sound is determined in relation to that indicated by the clef. The above 
examples further show that a note on a line in one staff will be on a line in every 
staff, and a note once in a space will always be in a space. 



14 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

23. If notes are now placed on all the lines and spaces of the 
Great Staff the sounds they represent will be those produced by 
the corresponding white keys of the pianoforte (see remark p. 12). 





F GABCDEFGABCDEFGABCDE F G 

These are called natural notes, as F natural, G natural. 

24. The black key above any white key has the same alpha- 
betical name, but is represented by a sign called a Sharp, written 

tf, placed before the note or letter : 

C 

Similarly, the black note below a white note is represented by 
a sign called a Flat, written I? 1 placed before the note or letter: 

B !?B 

25. The difference in pitch (Def.) between two such sounds is 
called a Semitone 

26. The difference in pitch between any two sounds next to 
each other in alphabetical order two semitones apart is called a 
Tone. 

27. Let us now write (as on page 15) on the Great Staff the 
same notes as in 28, using sharps for the intervening sounds 
ascending, and flats for them desr 3nding. 

28. Every sound, whether represented by a white or black 
key on the pianoforte, between the lowest and the highest in the 

1 Originally the note b was a semitone above A. When BQ was introduced into 
music, and when notes instead of letters were employed to indicate the sounds, the 
letter b was employed to signify the & and placed before any note that was to be 
lowered a chromatic semitone. Hence the sign & is a modification of the letter b, 
and in French the term bemol (softened b) defines a flat. In Germany the name 
6 stands for our B!?, the word B6 implies any flat, and the name H is given to 
ourBtl 



PITCH OF NOTES. 



15 






1.1 



1 



f 






D 

IB 



m 



mm 






16 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

above example, is there represented. There is also a semitone 
between every two following notes. 

29. There are two kinds of semitone. When the two follow- 
ing notes are described by the same letter, the semitone is called 
chromatic, or minor ; when they are described by a different 
letter it is called diatonic, or major. Thus, 
C tojtC 

is a chromatic (Def.) semitone 



is a diatonic (Def.) semitone. 



30. A Double Sharp, written x, raises a note two semi- 
tones ; a Double Flat, written \fo 9 lowers a note two semitones. 
Thus : 

Double Double Double 

C Sharp C Sharp C D Flat D Flat D B Sharp B Sharp B 
fcg 5te=t 




I H I 



c' 

By playing the above notes on the pianoforte, it will be seen 

that the same key and its sound represents C, #B, faD. 
Similarly, it will be found that every key, with the exception 
of the black key between G and A, represents three sounds. 
Thus : 



#B = trW) $F = xB ^ 

#0 = xB = bD G = xF = 

D = xC = bt>E JfG t^A 

tfD = bE = bbF A - xG = t?t>B 

E : xD = bF (A = bB - b'7C 

F = SB = bbG B - XA = be 

Each of the three sounds is called the Enharmonic (Def.) of 
the one next above or below it alphabetically. 

31. When a flat or sharp note is followed by the natural 
note of the same alphabetical name, this sign is used to show the 
natural, (}. Thus : 




INTERVALS. 17 



A note that is double sharp or double flat, followed by the 
same note sharp or flat, is written thus : 

" 

Or more rarely thus : 





CHAPTEE III. 

INTERVALS. 

32. The difference in the pitch of two sounds is called an 
Interval. 

33. Intervals are described by numbers. In counting the 
numbers the two sounds which are named are included as well 
as those that come between them. 

1st, cr Unison. 1 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 







cJI 

34. An interval within the octave is said to be inverted when 

the upper note is played an 8ve lower, or the lower note an 8ve 
higher. The interval thus made is called the Inversion of the 
original interval. 

35. The number of an inverted interval within the octave is 
found by taking the number of the original interval from nine 
Thus, the inversion of an Octave or 8th is a 1st or Unison, 
because 8 from 9 leaves 1. Similarly, 

A 7th inverted is a 2nd A 3rd inverted is a 6th 

,, 6th 3rd 2nd 7th 

5th 4th 1st 8th 

4th 5th 

1 When there is no difference in pitch there cannot be an interval. It is con- 
venient, however, to regard ths 1st or Unison as such. 

B 



13 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



36. The 8th and 5th, with their inversions, the 1st and 4th, 
are called Perfect intervals. 

37. There is one peculiarity of perfect intervals by which they 
are easily recognised when written on a staff namely, that the 
two notes which make a perfect interval are both the same kind 
of note -r both natural, both sharp, both flat, double sharp, or 
double flat : 

~ $~&- 




38. There is only one exception from this. With any perfect 
5th or 4th between a B and an F, the F is always of a kind one 
semitone higher than the B. Thus : 

Perfect 4ths. 




Perfect 5ths. 



L/ &? \ ~r&- 

(j^^-4-kg: 



-&?=r=*&: 



39. Other kinds of intervals are called Major, Minor, Aug- 
mented, and Diminished. These are best understood in con- 
fection with what are called the Major Scales. 



CHAPTEK IV. 

INTERVALS IN CONNECTION WITH THE MAJOR SCALES. 

40. The white keys of the pianoforte between any C and its 
octave form the Major Key of C. 

41. When these keys are played ascending and descending in 
alphabetical order, they form the Diatonic Major Scale of C : 

* ' !* | * , _A 

~&~ & ^ ~ ' ^^~~&P 5=}. 

1 2 3 4 5 7 H 7654321 

42. The note that gives its name to the key is called the Tonic 
or Key-note ; the 2nd note is called the Super-tonic ; the 3rd is 




INTEEVALS AND MAJOR SCALES. 19 

called the Mediant ; the 4th the Sub-dominant ; the 5th the Domi- 
nant ; the 6th the Sub-mediant, and the 7th the Leading Note. 1 

43. In the above example of the scale of C (sec. 41), there 
is a tone between each two following sounds, except the 3rd and 
4th, 7th and 8th, between which there are semitones, E to F and 
BtoC. 

44. All the major scales consist of exactly the same arrange- 
ment of tones and semitones, the difference between them being 
only one of pitch. 

45. Now, if the white keys on the pianoforte between G and 
its octave be written 




1 2 8 f 4 5 6 4 1 8 

the arrangement of the tones and semitones is different, as there 
is a semitone between the 6th and 7th, and a tone between the 
7th and 8th. To make this scale similar to the scale of C, ttF 
must be taken instead of t|F : 

i * 

46. The scale a perfect 5th above C has therefore one sharp, and 
the note that is thus made sharp is the leading note F. The 
perfect 5th above G will have its leading note in addition a jj 
i.e. JfC and the notes will be major scale of D : 





47. Similarly, each succeeding scale, having its tonic a perfect 
5th above the last, has one more sharp, and that always the 7th, 
or leading note. 

1 Tonic, because the key or prevailing tonality proceeds from it. Super-tonic, 
over the tonic. Dominant, because the harmony derived from it has a dominating 
or ruling influence over the key. Mediant, midway between tonic and dominant. 
Sill-dominant, under dominant, being the same interval, a perfect 5th, below the 
tonic, as the dominant is over it, and having a dominating influence subordinate 
to that of the dominant. Sub-mediant, because holding the same position under 
the tonic, between that and the sub-dominant, as the mediant holds over the tonic 
between that and the dominant. Leading note, because it leads the ear to expect 
the tonic to succeed it- 



20 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

48. The order of keys with sharps is therefore said to be by 
perfect 5ths upwards, starting from C, and the last sharp, in a 
major key with sharps, is the leading note. 

49. The sharps which occur in such scales are always written 
at the beginning of a musical piece, next after the clef, and form 
the Key Signature. These sharps are placed on the lines or 
Bpaces, where the notes themselves would be written : 

-_,_ 

Key of G 



3dt 



Key of D 



m 



When a # or (r occurs in a musical piece, which is not in the signa- 
ture, it is called an Accidental. 1 

50. If the white notes between F, perfect 5th below C, and 
its 8th, are written 



-- 

the semitones fall between the 4th and 5th, instead of the 3rd 
and 4th. To remedy this |?B is taken, the 4th of the scale or 
sub -dominant : 



51. The order of major keys with flats is therefore said to be 
by perfect 5ths downwards, starting from C, and the last flat in 
a major key with flats is the 4th or sub-dominant. 

1 Of old, the accidental applied to the same note, however long it might 
continue, but if it was alternated with one or more other notes, the accidental was 
repeated as often as the note occurred in the same bar (83). Some writers of ten do 
not repeat an accidental in a higher or lower octave, but the general rule is that 
the accidental applies only to the particular note against which it is placed ; and 
unless the accidental be contradicted it applies to every repetition of the same note 
throughout the bar. It is often doubtful whether the first note of an ensuing bar 
is affected by the accidental, and for safety, therefore, it is either repeated or 
contradicted. An accidental is sometimes contradicted even beyond the ensuing 
bar of its occurrence. 



INTERVALS AND MAJOR SCALES. 



21 



52. The following shows the sharp and flat notes in seven 
keys above, and seven keys below, C : 



!?F 6 FLATS. 

>G I 4 



SHARPS. 



flu 



, - j, *fJr | 

[/E A . JfC I ! 

a 7B tiP I I 

I I | I I I 

frC !?G t>D 17 A !?E t^B F C D A E B ftF 
53. Arranged on the treble and bass staves, the signatures 
are as follows i 1 

C G D A E B #F JfC 







BEfi^|li^^E^^g^^^^^ 






a* 

54. A perfect 4th being the inversion of a perfect 5th, the 
note a 4th below another has the same name as that a 5th 
higher, but is an octave below it. The sharps and flats have 
to be arranged on the staff so as not to go beyond its limits, and 
consequently, as is seen in the above signatures, the following 
sharp or flat is placed either a 5th higher or a 4th lower than 
the one that precedes it, as is found more convenient. 

55. It is obvious that when one tonic is a 5th above or a 
4th below another, the leading note of the second key is a 5th 
above, or a 4th below, the leading note of the first. The order 
in which the sharps arise is therefore also by perfect 5ths up- 
wards, #F being the first. 

Similarly, the order of flats is by perfect 5ths downwards, 
t>B being the first. 

1 It will be observed that the signatures of two keys a chromatic semitone 
apart contain seven signs, whether fiats or sharps. 



22 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

66. Applying the above rules, let us find the signature of $G 
major. The leading note is the last sharp. The diatonic semitone 
below #G is the leading note, x F (F double sharp). Now 
(lie first sharp is #F, and the order of sharps is by perfect 5ths 
upwards. All the sharps therefore between #F and x F will 
form the signature required : 

xF:- 




57. To find the signature of !?F major. The sub-dominant 
or perfect 4th is the last flat i.e. \>\>B. The first flat is t>B. 
Between [>B and \>\>B are the following flats in their order, 
being by perfect 5ths downwards : 

8 7654321 

bbB t>F bC b& bi> bA bE b B - 

The signature of bF major is therefore thus :- - 



58. Eeturn must now be made to Intervals, using, as will 
be shown, a complete knowledge of the major scales as a guide 
to determine whether a particular interval is perfect, major, 
minor, augmented or diminished. 

59. The intervals from the tonic to any of the notes of a 
major scale are perfect or major. Thus, in the scale of C 



C to D is a major 2nd 
CtoE 3rd 
CtoF perfect 4th 
CtoG 5th 
C to A major 6th 
CtoB 7th 
C to C perfect 8th. 

60. Minor is a chromatic semitone less than major. 
C to \>T) is a minor 2nd 
CtobE 3rd 
C to t>A 6th 
CtobB .. ., 7th 



INTERVALS AND MAJOR SCALES. 23 

61. Augmented is a chromatic semitone higher than major 
or perfect. 

C to #D is an augmented 2nd 
Cto#F 4th 

Cto#G 5th 
Cto#A 6th 

62. Diminished is a chromatic semitone less than minor or 
perfect. 1 

C to t>t>E is a diminished 3rd 
Ctot>F ,, ,, 4th 
CtobG ,, 5th 

Ctobt>B 7th. 2 

63. From the above, the rules for finding the interval between 
two notes may be thus stated : 

(1) Take the lower note as a tonic or key-note. 

(2) The intervals from that tonic to the notes in its 
major scale are perfect or major. 

(3) When the perfect and major intervals are known, it is 
easy, by making them higher or lower by chromatic semi- 
tones, to find the minor, diminished, and augmented intervals. 

64. Applying the above rules, let us find the interval from 
#F to D. 

Taking $F as a tonic, we find from its major scale 




that $F to JpD is a major sixth, because JfD occurs in the scale 
of JF and is the 6th note, and JD being a chromatic semitone 
lower than $D, the interval #F to D is a minor 6th (60). 

65. Again, let us find the interval t>D to B. fc>D to t?B is a 
major 6th, because |>B occurs in the major scale of |?D, and is 
the 6th note. t|B is a chromatic semitone higher than [>B, there- 
fore, (61), t>D to B is an augmented 6th. 3 

1 If the 8th or 1st were greater or less than perfect they would be called 
augmented and diminished 8th or 1st. These intervals are of too rare occurrence 
to be included in a list of intervals. 

2 Perfect intervals can thus be made both diminished and augmented. Major 
intervals can always be made minor and either diminished or augmented ; 2nda 
and 6ths being augmented, 3rds and 7ths diminished. 

3 Intervals are always reckoned from the lower note. If exceptionally an 



24 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

66. Intervals are generally reckoned as though within the 
octave, although they may be more than an octave apart. Thus, 
from C to any E above it is a 3rd : l 




67. We have seen (34, 35) what the number of an interval 
becomes when it is inverted. With regard to their quality, perfect 
intervals always remain perfect, major become minor, minor 
major, augmented diminished, and diminished augmented. 

68. A 2nd inverted is a 7th, because 7 and 2 make 9 (35). 
Major become minor ; therefore a major 2nd inverted is a 
minor 7th. 

An augmented 6th becomes a diminished 3rd. 

A perfect 5th becomes a perfect 4th. 

A diminished 4th becomes an augmented 5th. 

69. Perfect, major, and minor intervals are called diatonic. 
Augmented and diminished intervals are called chromatic. 

70. Considered, however, in relation to a particular key a 
diatonic interval may be chromatic, and a chromatic interval 
diatonic. Thus F to B is an augmented 4th a chromatic in- 
terval but in the key of C is diatonic. C to t>D is a diatonic 
interval, but in the key of C is chromatic. t>A to t}B, an aug- 
mented 2nd, is a chromatic interval, but in the key of C minor 
is diatonic. 2 

71. The following shows all the intervals, with their inver* 
sions. above E : 

Scale of E major. 

ol23456 78 

s= m 

interval is required from the upper note downwards it is expressly so stated, and 
the application of the above rule will equally prove the correctness of the lower 
note when it is found. 

1 The exceptions from this are that the 2nd, 4th, and 6th, in harmony, are 
sometimes reckoned as the 9th, llth, and 13th. When the exact distance is to 
be denned, the addition of seven to the number of any interval makes the number 
of the octave above such interval 3rd-10th, 5th-12th, 8th-15th. 

2 When the augmented 4th or diminished 5th are diatonic in a key , they are 
sometimes called tritone 4th and imperfect 5th. 



INTERVALS AND MAJOR SCALES. 



25 



MAJOR INTERVALS, which, when inverted, become minor : 

Major 2nd. Minor 7th. Major 3rd. Minor 6th. 



Major 6th. Minor 3rd. 




gg? fes?" 



-g? n 



Major 7th. Minor 2nd. 



PERFECT INTERVALS, which, when inverted, remain perfect : 

Perfect 1st. Perfect 8th. Perfect 4th. Perfect 5th. 



-C2 C2. 



Perfect 5th. Perfect 4th. 

gy 



Perfect 8th. Perfect 1st. 



H 



MINOR INTERVALS, which, when inverted, become major : 

Minor 2nd. Major 7th. Minor 3rd. Major 6th. 



Minor 6th. Major 3rd. 




Minor 7th. Major 2nd. 



AUGMENTED INTERVALS, which, when inverted, become diminished : 

Augmented 2nd. Diminished 7th. Augmented 4th. Diminished 5th. 



Augmented 5th. Diminished 4th. 






Augmented 6th. Diminished 3rd. 




DIMINISHED INTERVALS, which, when inverted, become augmented : 
Diminished 3rd. Augmented 6th. ^Diminished 4th. Augmented 5tb. 




~k 57B~~~ 

^ : 



Diminished 5th. Augmented 4th. 



Diminished 7th. Augmented 2nd. 




*& 




26 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



The usual method of reckoning intervals is by counting the 
number of semitones they contain. Thus : 



Minor. 
1 semitn. 



i= 



Major. 

2 semitns. 

Seconds. 



Augmented. 
3 semitns. 






Sevenths. 




Major. 
11 semitns. 

Major. 
4 semitns. 



Minor. 
10 semitns. 

Minor. 

3 semitns. 

Thirds. 



*?". 
Diminished. 

9 semitns. 

Diminished. 
2 semitns. 



-P69 ' 



Sixths. 



5z=r ^-T^=rfe^==z=:i-|ife: 



Minor. 
8 semitns. 



Major. 
9 semitns. 



Augmented. 
10 semitns. 



Perfect. 
5 semitns. 



Augmented. 
6 semitns. 
Fourths. 



Diminished. 
4 semitns. 



Perfect. 

12 semitns. 

Octave. 




Augmented. 
8 semitns. 



Perfect. No semitn. 



Perfect. Diminished. 

7 semitns. 6 semitns. 

The number of semitones in any interval added to the number of semitones in 
its inversion, always make the twelve which complete the octave. 



71 A. A Triad is a combination -of three notes : a bass note 
with its third and fifth. 

When the fifth is perfect, the Triad is called a common chord. 
When the third is major, the Triad is a major common chord. 
When the third is minor, the Triad is a minor common chord. 



MINOR KEYS AND SCALES. 



27 



When the fifth is diminished, the Triad is called a diminished 
Triad. When the fifth is augmented, the Triad is called an 
augmented Triad. 

In a major scale there are six common chords and one 
diminished Triad. 

Major Minor Minor Major Major Minor Diminished 

common chord, com. chord, com. chord, com. chord, com. chord, com. chord. triad. 






(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 

In a minor scale there are four common chords, two diminished 
Triads, and one augmented Triad. 

Minor Diminished Augmented Minor Major Major Diminished 

common chord. triad. triad. com, chord, com. chord, com. chord. triad. 




(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



(5) 



(6) 



(7) 



CHAPTER V. 

MINOR KEYS AND SCALES. 

72. The minor scale differs from the major in having the 
3rd and 6th minor : 



C Major, gj 



C Minor. 



1 23456-78 

73. This is called the Harmonic Minor Scale, the notes 
being those that are used for the purposes of harmony (Def.) in 
the key. 

74. The augmented 2nd between the 6th and 7th having a 




ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



hard effect in melody (Def.) an arbitrary alteration of the above 
scale is made to secure smoothness of melody. The following 
scale, in which the 6th and 7th are major in ascending and minor 
in descending, is called the Arbitrary or Melodic Minor Scale : 




345678765432T 

75. The key signature that is employed to denote a minor key 
does not imply either of the above scales. The key signature of 
a minor key is the same as that of the major key, a minor 3rd 
higher. These two keys are therefore often called relative major 
and minor. 

C minor has the same signature as |?E major i.e. three 
3E $^ minor the same as A major i.e. 
three sharps: 



flats :- 




76. The leading note in the minor key has consequently an 
accidental (49) Jf or tf before it, in order to conform to the 
harmonic minor scale ; and a musical piece is thus shown to be 
in the relative minor, not the relative major : l 
Bl? Major. G Minor. 







1 

77. Applying the above, here are the signatures of minor keys 
with sharps, starting from A minor with none, like C major : 

Distinguish- n _ Distinguish- 

ing notes. ~j_ ing notes. 



Perfect 5ths 
upwards. 



A Minor same as 



- E 



M > 5J 



=** 



JJ 



C Major. EXZI 



= G 



= A 



-E 




E 



B 



1 All the notes in both forms of the minor scale are diatonic in spite of the 



MINOR KEYS AND SCALES. 



Distinguish- 
ing notes. 



Perfect 5ths 
upwards. 



x Gr 



JC Minor same as 



-#A 



E Major. 



Distinguish- 
ing notes. 

B 



- B 



^P 1 




Here are signatures of minor keys with flats, starting as before : 



Perfect 5ths 
downwards. 



BB 











A Minor same 


as 




jj 


= ,. . 





^J'-t* J> J) 


H 


bi? 
/A-* 


n 


-t'A 


> 




78. A minor scale, starting from the same note as a major, 
is called the tonic minor, as opposed to the relative minor. 
Comparing the signatures of tonic major and minor keys, it will 
be seen that the minor has always three sharps less, or three 
flats more, than the major. As three cannot be subtracted from 
the one sharp in G, or two sharps in D, G loses its one sharp 



80 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



and gains two flats, and D loses its two sharps and gains 
one flat, thus making a difference of three signs. C minor has 
three flats ; C major none. A minor has none ; A major three 
sharps. 1 

Here is a list of the signatures of minor keys, compared with 
their tonic majors : 



C major. 




G major. 



G minor. 




1 Thus it will be observed that the last sharp in the signature of a minor key 
with sharps is the 2nd, the last flat in one with flats is the 6th, note of the scale. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

CHKOMATIC SCALES. 

79. All the white and black keys on the pianoforte, from 
one key-note to its octave, form the Chromatic Scale of that key. 

80. For purposes of harmony in the key each note has its 
true name. If the major scale and both forms of the minor be 



CHROMATIC SCALES. 



written, they will be found to contain every note but two in the 
chromatic scale. In each succeeding scale of the following 
examples the notes added by it are written large : 

Major scale of C. Harmonic minor. 




Arbitrary or Melodic minor. 

(5-787 65432 



* * f 

Chromatic scale (Harmonic form). 

3 4 5 fi 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



81. From the above, the chromatic scale may be described as 
consisting of all the notes found in the major and both forms of 
the minor, with the addition of the minor 2nd and augmented 
4th. Whence the intervals from the tonic are as follows : 

Minor and major 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th. 
Perfect and augmented 4th and perfect 5th. 

82. For convenience in reading music, the above is generally 
altered. 

(1) The notes of the major scale are used both ascending 
and descending. 

(2) The augmented 4th and minor 7th from the key- 
note are also generally used both ascending and descending. 

(3) Wherever a note is required between two notes, the 
lower one is raised a chromatic semitone ascendiog, and 
the upper one lowered a chromatic semitone descending. 

Chromatic scale of G (Melodic form). 




Chromatic scale of bB (Melodic form). 







The minims show the notes that are added to the major scale. 



82 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

CHAPTEE VII. 

TIME. 

83. In all tunes or melodies some notes are emphasised more 
than others. Immediately before each most strongly emphasised 
note a line is drawn from the top to the bottom of the staff. 
This is called a Bar Line, and the space between two bar lines is 
called a Bar. 1 






84. In the same melody each bar lasts for exactly the same 
time as another. It is therefore the practice to place at the be- 
ginning of a musical piece, immediately after the Key Signature, 
two figures to show the time of a bar. These figures are called 
the Time Signature. 

85. One figure is placed over the other, thus, |. The under 
figure represents a note, the upper shows how many such notes 
there are in a bar. As there are 2 minims, 4 crotchets, 8 quavers, 
16 semiquavers, or 32 demisemiquavers in a semibreve, these 
figures are used to indicate those notes respectively. 

2 mean 2 minims ; 8 = 3 quavers ; 4 = 4 crotchets. 

86. The time that each such note lasts is called a Division, 
Count, or Beat. In 4 there are two Divisions, each continuing 
for as long as a crotchet : 




In playing a piece of music it is customary for a performer to 
count, or a conductor to beat, so many in a bar as there are 
divisions. 2 

87. Bars are divided into two, three, or four counts, forming 

1 A bar is sometimes called a measure. 

2 Each count should, however, have the effect of a pulse upon the hearer. In 
oth?r words, time should be felt rather than counted. 



TIME. 



33 



Duple, Triple, or Quadruple time. Duple and quadruple are 
sometimes called by the one name, Common time. 

88. Each division may be subdivided into any number of 
notes or rests of shorter length. 

When more than one of any kind of notes shorter than a 
crotchet occur in a division, the stems of all which belong to the 
same division are joined together, forming one or more tails as 
thev are quavers or notes of less value :- 

12 1 2 1 




89. Sometimes a count is divided into three of the notes next 
in value. These are called a triplet, 1 and the figure 3 is written 
over to indicate it : 




90. Much music is written in groups entirely like the 
above, when, to prevent the necessity of writing the figure 3, 
a new time signature is used. In the above example, where 
there are two divisions and three quavers in each, there is no 
figure to indicate the value of the one note in each count i.e. 
a dotted crotchet because the semibreve does not contain an 
equal number of dotted crotchets. The time signature is there- 
fore expressed by figures, showing how many notes next in 
value i.e. quavers there are in the bar |. Such a time is 
called Compound ; those previously described, Simple. 3 

1 Until the first third of the present century it was thought necessary that 
three signs, either notes or rests, should represent a triplet. At present, a crotchet 
and a quaver, or a quaver and a semiquaver with the figure 3, are sufficient to show 
that two and one make three ; as a penny and a halfpenny are equal to three half* 
pennies. When the former principle prevailed, a dotted quaver and semiquaver 
were written erroneously to represent two-thirds and one-third of a crotchet and 

the semiquaver was to be played with the third note of the triplet S'+ 3' When 

now the same notation is employed it implies correctly that a '^ (,' ' 

quarter of a crotchet is shorter than a third part and is to be played after the last 

note of the triplet 



J; a minim into 3 crotchets or 6 quavers ; a quaver 




2 Similarly, a crotchet may be divided into six semiquavers, the figure 6 being 
written over :- 



into 3 semiquavers or 6 clemisemiquavers, &c. 

3 Simple, i.e. each count consisting of a simple note ; compound, each count 






i= rr 


&** 


'* 


"l 


s- rrr 


9 o 
16 ~ d 


'''' 


rr- 


s=*rrr 


. * . 12 
I 16 = 4 


*/*(* 

s s s s 



34 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

91. 6, 9, and 12, when used as the upper figures of the time 
signature, signify 2, 3, and 4 dotted notes in a bar respectively, 
the dotted notes being always one degree greater than that ex- 
pressed by the underneath figure : 

6 _ 9 & (. 

4- 

9 = g.^.f: 

4 'II 

12 _ &. 

4 - 4 | | 

92. The following is a list of time signatures, those marked 
with an asterisk being of rarest occurrence : 

2 in a bar, or duple time. 

SIMPLE. COMPOUND. 

2 2 2 2* 2* I 6* 6 6 6 6* 

2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32 

3 in a bar r or triple time. 

3 3 3 3* 3* I 9* 9 9 9 9* 
2 4 8 16 32 2 4 8 16 32 

4 in a bar, or quadruple time. 

4 4 4* 4* 4* I 12* IS* 12 12 12 
2 4 8 16 32 I 2 4 8 16 32 

93. Four crotchets in a bar is usually expressed by this 
sign C- 2 Four minims in a bar, or ^ is frequently to be 

found in old music written for the church or to religious words. 
To indicate this a line was drawn through the above sign thus, 

consisting of a dotted note (one compounded of two as, crotchet, quaver^ 
minim, crotchet ^~ey~ 

1 In a composition in compound time, instead of the triplet of any division, two 
notes of the same kind may be taken, the division being thus made simple. The 
figure 2 is then placed over the notes just as triplet in simple time is indicated by 

the figure 3 : jjfcS^ggfEp^f . The two notes may be divided into any number 




of smaller ones jM^-3?Ft~f with the fi 8 ure showing their number placed 
over. 

2 This is intended to represent a half-circle. The circle representing perfection 
in ancient use expressed triple or perfect time. In opposition to this, common or 
imperfect time is represented by a semicircle. 



TIME. 85 

(jj which nowadays implies 2 counts of a minim, and is called 
Tempo alia breve, or a capella .^ The duration of a minim in the 
latter time is the same as that of a crotchet in 4 

Q 

Common time, in many instances, might be marked 8 . A 

dot to each of the quavers induces the compound form of this 

4 
time. Hence the signature IQ- 

94. Wherever there is a division or beat, a stress is laid which 
is termed Accent. The strongest accent is always on the first of 
a bar.' 2 

95. Good effect is often produced in a composition by placing 
an accent between two divisions, on what is normally an un- 
accented part of a bar. This effect is called Syncopation : 







1 ' And with his stripes,' in Handel's Messiah, was written originally. in 
but the bars have subsequently been cut in half, though the time signature 
(t is retained. Alia Breve means ' according to a breve,' this note, instead of the 
semibreve, being taken, for the occasion, as the normal note from which the shorter 
ones are reckoned. Tempo a capella obviously means ' Church time ' i.e. that in 
which compositions for church use were written. 

2 Only experience can give the required insight into this most important feature 
in musical composition. Composers have in some cases sanctioned the use of de- 
ceptive time signatures so that the character of the music, not the time signature, 
determines the accent. Much music written in | time is really in J^ two bars 
making one. God Save the Queen and an ordinary waltz are both signed **. The 
former has three accents in a bar, the latter one. In the first movement of the 
Eroica Symphony the first subject has one accent in a bar, while later on the true 
^ time is adopted. Similarly, G or ^ should be ( or | as i n the last move- 
ment of the Symphony in C Minor. 



In old music Syncopation was frequently written thus : 




which may account for the expression ' Syncopation,' which is derived from a 
Greek word meaning cutting. The word also in grammar signifies the omission 
of a letter in a word ; thus, musically, it may mean the omission of one accent 
and the substitution of another. 

c2 



36 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



96. The divisions, or beats, further, are a guide as to the way 
in which music is written. This should always indicate the 
time apart from the time signature. 

97. A note or rest of greater value than a division should not 
as a rule be used ; each division should be completed with notes or 
rests before the next is begun, and all the notes in a division of 
less value than the crotchets should be joined by the same tail or 
tails : 2 




(3) 

The rule is inflexible with regard to rests except in the quad- 
ruple times in which a rest of the value of two divisions must 
represent the corresponding silence at the beginning or the end 
of a bar 

Good Bad Good Bad 




Considerable variation from the rule is to be observed in the 
method of writing notes. In the simple times, as long as one 
sound continues in a bar, it may, in cases like the following, be 
represented by one written note. Thus : 






(See also Sections 95 and 98.) 

In the compound times a sound lasting for two or more whole 
divisions may be represented by one written note. But if a sound 
lasts for one division and a portion only of the next, or for a por- 
tion of a division and the whole of the next, the rule is inflexible. 

Good Bad Good 




With regard to the grouping of notes ; in the compound 



TIME. 



37 



times tlie rule is generally observed, but in the simple times there 
is some variation. In ^ and | the six quavers or semiquavers 

may be joined by the same tail. In C the eight quavers must be 
grouped in fours. Further, when a division of simple or com- 
pound time is filled by many notes of small value, they may be 
subdivided into groups of four or six, or these groups may be 
joined only by the first tail. 




In music written for the voice, every fresh syllable demands 
a separation of the notes, but when two or more notes belong to 
one syllable the ordinary rules apply. 

For a whole bar's silence, a semibreve rest is always used, 
except in alia breve time, when the whole space is filled. 






Also, for several bars rest, the same sign is used with a figure 
placed above the staff, to show the number of silent bars : 

2 5 






98. Here is a series of notes grouped according to different 
time signatures, with appropriate rests to fill up the odd bar 
wherever it is necessary : 




38 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



^1 ^-<-s^- 

5&^g&3jjr*= 





_ <~* -p -& 3 4 



5 fi 

^ _ ^"^5- 









Attention must be directed to the last counts of bars 2 and 
3 in the example in ^ time. The last two notes of the triplet 
in a division of compound time may be written as one note, but 
the silence of these two is always shown by a rest for each. 




99. In rare instances, irregular times are to be met with, 
such as alternate bars of 4 an( * 4 or the two joined together, 
making 4 . 




The object of this is to ensure quaintness, or some charac- 
teristic, possibly humorous, effect. 1 

Similarly, larger notes may be divided into groups of smaller 
ones, containing uneven numbers of notes, otherwise than those 

1 It may be compared to a person walking with a club foot. Instances occur, 
however, of one such bar of | time in the midst of C t im e. The effect then is 
merely a prolongation of the time of one bar analogously to a rallenlando. 



TIME. ITALIAN WORDS USED TECHNICALLY. 39 

described in sec. 89 and footnote ; the number being shown by the 
corresponding figure placed over them : 




The same principle is occasionally extended to any larger 
number of notes. 

100. Hitherto time has been described in its musical sense 
only, without considering the actual time occupied by each bar, as 
if measured by a clock. Indeed, a clock of its own has been 
invented for music. This is the Metronome, ascribed to Malzel, 
the face of which is marked with figures from the top to the 
bottom, dividing the space into parts, indicated by numbers. 
In front is a pendulum, upon which is a movable weight which 
can be placed on a level with any of the numbers. The pen- 
dulum is then set free, and swings to and fro so many times 
in a minute as is indicated by the figure at the same level. 
Thus, if placed against the number 6,0 it will tick sixty times 
in a minute like a clock. The following is an example of its 
use as applied to a musical piece : 

Malzel's Metronome 
orM.M.p=60. 

meaning that each minim is to last during one tick of the pen- 
dulum, when it is rocking 60 in the minute i.e. for one second 
of time. 




CHAPTEE VIII. 

A SELECTION OF ITALIAN WORDS MOST COMMONLY USED IN MUSIC. 

101. Loudness and softness of tone are shown by the following 
Italian expressions : 

Piano soft. 

Forte ..... loud. 
Mezzoforte or mf. . . . half loud. 
Mezzopiano or mp. . . . half soft. 
Fortissimo or ff. . . loudest. 

Pianissimo or pp. . . . softest. 



40 ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 

Pp., forte-piano, means that a single note is to be forte 
followed by an immediate piano. 

102. Sforzando, sf. > or A, forcing, 
or, Forzato, fz. forced, 

or, Einforzando, rf. or rinf. reinforcing, 

means that a single note is to be louder than the surrounding 
passage. Hence less force will be used at sf. in a piano than at 
sf. in a forte passage. 

103. Crescendo, cresc. or -=dHI, increasing. 
Decrescendo, deer esc. or ~^^=^- , decreasing. 
Diminuendo, dim. diminishing. 

These terms refer to the degree of loudness. 

104. Morendo .... dying away, 
Perdendosi .... losing itself, 

also refer to loudness. 

105. Fed l . . . the sign used to indicate the lowering of 

the pianoforte pedal nearer the right 
foot. 
>jc . . sign used for raising the same pedal. 

106. Una corda*. . signifies the lowering of the pedal nearer 

the left foot. 
Tre corde . . . signifies that the same pedal is to be raised. 

107. To show the quickness of a composition certain Italian 
expressions are placed over the first staff at the left-hand corner. 
The following are those in general use, ranging from the slowest 
to the quickest : 

Grave .... grave. 

Adagio .... slowly. 

Lento .... slowly. 

Largo .... largely, grandly. 

Larghetto .... diminutive of largo i.e. a little large. 

Andantino 3 diminutive of andante. 

1 When the right-foot pedal is used, the dampers are raised and thus the sound 
is continued ; utmost care must therefore be taken that this pedal be raised at every 
change of harmony. The sympathetic vibration of other strings than those struck 
is induced by raising the dampers, and so the use of this pedal slightly enriches 
the tone. \ The term senza sordini (without dampers) is sometimes used to denote 
the right-foot, or damper, pedal. ^ 

2 When the left foot pedal is used, the hammers all shift to the right in a grand 
pianoforte ; one string only is affected and, consequently, softness of tone is the 
result ; hence, the expressions una corda, one string, ire corde, three strings. For 
this latter action is substituted, in some upright pianofortes, a piece of felt which 
falls on the strings and thus subdues the tone. 

* With German writers this means less slow, with others less quick. 



ITALIAN WORDS USED TECHNICALLY IN MUSIC. 



41 



Andante . . going. 

Moderato . " ' . moderate. 

Allegretto . . diminutive of allegro. 

Allegro p* v gay. 

Vivace . . lively. 

'Presto . " . quick. 

Prestissimo . augmentation of presto i.e. very quick. 

108. The time is hastened or slackened by the following : 

Accelerando 
; Stringendo . 
V, Allargando . 
V Calando 
Eallentando 
Ritenuto, riten., rit. . 
Ritardando, ritard., rit. 
A Tempo . 

t Tempo primo or Tempo 
! Come prima 
>/ A piacere . 
Ad libitum . . 
L'istesso tempo . 



. enlarging 

'. holding back the time) speed< 
. retarding the time j 
fall used to show that the first time is to 
. j be resumed after it has been quickened 
. ( or retarded. 

' | at pleasure (as regards the time). 

. the same time i.e. as the preceding 
time, though a difference of notation 
may imply a difference of speed . Often 
employed to denote a change from 
compound to simple time, or vice 
versa. 

109. The following are some of the expressions used to in- 
dicate the manner of performance : 

Affettuoso,mAffettuosamente affectionately, or with feeling. 
Agitato .... agitated. 
Amoroso .... lovingly. 

An wima Animando ' COH } animated, 

Appassionato, Con passione passionate, with passion. 

Brillante .... brilliant. 

Cantabile . . . . in a singing style. 
. Col canto 1 . . . . with the singing part. 
V Cottaparte 1 . ". . with the solo part. 
/' Colla voce l . . . . with the voice part. 

Commodo .... easy, without haste. 



with soul . 



, 






Con brio 

1 These 
performer. 



. with spirit and full tone, 
have regard to the freedom of time employed by the principal 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



Con energia 
J Conforza . 

Confuoco . . . , 
V) Con moto . 

Con spirito . 

Con tenerezza 
', Delicatamente 
i Dolce .... 

Dolente 

Espressivo, Con espressione 

Grazioso, Con grazia . 

Legato (122) 

. Leggiero 1 . . . 
V\ Lusingando 

Maestoso, Con maestd . 

Marcato . v 
\ Marziale, Allamarcia. 
\j Mesto, Con dolore 

Hezza voce . ''. 
\ Non tanto . 

Non troppo . r $ *.l 
\ Parlante . 

Pesante -' V 1 : . _ . 

Pomposo 

Recitativo . 



Risoluto 
Scherzando 
Smorzando . 
Soave . . , r 
Solo . ". ' 
Sostenuto . 
Sotto voce . 
Staccato (123) 
Tempo giusto 
Tempo ordinario 
Tenuto 
Tranquillo . 
Tutti . 

Vivo , 



with energy. 

with force. 

with fire. 

with animated movement. 

with spirit. 

with tenderness. 

delicately. . 

with softness and delicacy. 

in a plaintive style. 

expressive, with expression. 

graceful, with grace. 

bound or smooth. 

light. 

caressing. 

majestic, with majesty. 

marked, marking. 

martial, like a march. 

sadly. 

with half voice i.e. moderate power. 

not so much. 

not too much. 

in a style of recitation." 

heavy. 

pompous. 

recitative i.e. the delivery of the words 
as in a recitation, to musical phrases 
with great freedom as to time. 

resolute. 

playing (playful). 

fading away. 

delicately, gently. 

part to be performed by one person. 

sustained. 

under the voice i.e. subdued tone. 

detached. 

at a moderate pace. 

at ordinary marching pace. 

held. 

tranquil. 

what is to be performed by a full band or 
chorus. 

lively. 



1 The affix mente, like the syllable ly in English, changes a word into an 
adverb ; as Leggieramente, lightly. 



ABBREVIATIONS AND OTHER SIGNS. 






110. The following are used in conjunction with the 
above : 



A or ad 


.at. 


At _ . 


. to the. 


Assai . 


. very. 


B-en . 


. well. 


Come . 


: . . as. 


Can . 


. . with. 


Da : g 


. - . from. 


Dal . rT" 


V . from the. 


Di . 


. of. 


Ed or E . - ^ 


t , . and. 


Ma . , 


. ' . but. 


Meno . . \ 


;.. , ; . less, as meno mosso. 


Molto, Di molto 


. much. 


Mosso . 


" \ . moved (as to speed). 


Pill . . ' 
Poco a poco 


& < : --.i ' . more, as piu allegro. 
j .;.!; ; . little by little. 


Poi . . 


. then. 


Quasi . . 


; , . ; .as though. 


Sempre "; 
Senza . -\. : - 


Vs '*. . always. 
.- 1 ' . without. 


Simile -. > { 


v . - . like i.e. as before. 


Un poco . 


2 ,h4nj . a little. 



CHAPTEK IX. 

ABBREVIATIONS AND OTHER SIGNS. 

111. At the end of a composition two thick bar lines are 
drawn across the staff. These are called a Double bar. A 
double bar also occurs in the course of a movement to show the 
end of some separate division : 




112. A double bar with two or four dots placed in the spaces 
on either side is called a Eepeat, and signifies that the portion 
of the music on the side of the double bar at which the dots are 
placed is to be performed twice. 

113. For the one bar or more before a repeat new matter is 
often substituted, which is written after the double bar. Over 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



the former is placed a bracket, with the words First time, or Prima 
rolta, signifying that it is to be played the first time only ; over 
the latter is written Second time, or Seconda volta, signifying that 
it is to be played instead of the other, after the repeat : 




114. The expression Da capo signifies that the music is to 
be repeated from the beginning, and is most usually applied 
to movements like the Minuet and Trio; Minuetto da capo, 
written at the end of the Trio, showing that the Minuet is to 
be repeated, but not the Trio (119). 

115. When the repeat is not to be from the beginning, the 
words Dal segno (from the sign) are used, directing to this sign 
% at the point whence the repeat is to be made, and the words 
Al segno (to the sign) direct to the same mark at the point where 
the repetition is to end. 

116. If the music of one bar is repeated in the next, this 
sign (*) may be used in the second bar to save writing out 
the notes twice : 




Or one oblique stroke may be used as often as a group of 
quavers in any division of a bar is to be repeated, two strokes 
being used for a repetition of semiquavers, three for one of 
demisemiquavers, &c. 





The word Bis (twice) under a bracket implies that the pas- 
sage over which it is placed is to be performed twice. 

117. A longer note may be divided into iterations of the 



ABBREVIATIONS AND OTHER SIGNS. 



45 



same note by drawing through the stern one or more strokes ; one 
stroke signifying iterations of the value of a quaver ; two strokes, 
iterations of semiquavers ; three, iterations of demisemiquavers, 
and so on. In the case of notes with one or more hooks, each 
hook counts for a stroke. The figure 3 or 6, with a dot after a 
note, implies that triplets or sextolets of the shorter notes are to 
fill up the time of the longer note : 

Written. 3 3 3 _, 




118. When two minims are joined by a quaver, semiquaver, 
or demisemiquaver tail, there are to be as many alternations of 
the two notes with quavers, semiquavers, or demisemiquavers as 
will fill up the time of one of the written notes : 
Written. fi : & 




Trem., Tremolo, or Tremolando (trembling), signifies that there 
are to be as many alternations or iterations as possible in the 
time. 

119. When sound or silence is to be indefinitely prolonged, 
irrespective of time, this sign (^), called the Pause, i^ placed 
over the note or the rest. The letters Gr. P. (Grosse or General 
Pause) the words Lunga pausa, or Lunga, have a similar sig- 
nificance. Either a pause over the double bar (sometimes the 
final note), or else the word Fine (finish), is often used to show 
where the music is to finish after the repeat or Da capo (114). 

120. To avoid the use of an inconvenient number of leger 
lines, 8va-, followed by a line of dots over the staff, means that 
the passage is to be played an octave higher so far as the dots 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



continue. Ottava bassa, more rarely Ottara sotto, under the staff, 
means that the passage is to be played an octave lower. The 
word Loco (place) is sometimes used to show where the real pitch 
of the notes is to be resumed. 1 

121. Arpeggio or Arpeggiando, written over a chord, signifies 
that the notes are not to be played together, but successively, as on 

a harp. The same result is to be obtained by these signs \ ( : _ 

n L 

Written. 



Played. 



122. Instead of the general expression Legato, a sign called a 
Slur is used - -, to show that all the notes it embraces are to 
be played smoothly one after the other without any break in the 
continuity of the sound : _____ 







When but two notes are slurred, the first should be pressed 
and the second given with lightness : 




When the same note is written twice, the slur that joins the 
two is called a Tie or Bind, and then the second is to be held on 
as if the two were one continued sound./ Some call the Slur 
a Bind (4). 

123. Instead of the general expression Staccato, a dot or a 
dash under or over a note signifies that the sound is to be dis- 
connected from that which follows : 2 












__ie expression ottava is rarely seen in the bass staff, the effect being obtained 
by the insertion of the C or G clefs. Similarly, ottava bassa is never seen in the 
treble staff, the effect being obtained by the insertion of the F clef. 

* The explanation of the difference between the dot and dash, and the combi- 



ABBREVIATIONS AND OTHER SIGNS. 



124. The Appoggiatura (leaning note) was written in small %/ 
character. It is played with pressure, always has the value of ' 
the note written, and takes so much time from the following 
note. It is rarely at a greater distance than a second above 
or below the next note : ] 



Written. 




Played. 




125. The Acciaccatura (crushing note) is to be played as 
quickly as possible, without taking any appreciable time from the 
succeeding note. It is written like a quaver appoggiatura, but 
with a stroke through the stem and tail : 

~t~*e. , l J- Jxtycu.. sa. E 1 --J i-fi* ^ m~ , 

1 





126. Groups of two or more notes written small often pre- 
cede long notes, and, with rare exceptions, they are to be played 
before the division of a bar that contains the accented note : 



-- 






127. The Shake, or Trill (tr) is the alternation of a written 
note and the note above it as rapidly as possible. In modern 
music two small notes are written on the staff, as in the example 
below, to form a finish to the shake. In music of earlier date 
this is never found, and was never intended to be played. 2 



nation of the slur with either, 




belongs to the teaching 



of particular instruments. In no case is the time of notes so marked to be 
shortened in relation to that of the whole bar. 

1 The use by modern composers of a small note for the appoggiatura is now 
obsolete. It being a note foreign to the harmony, the device was originally employed 
when unprepared discords, such as the appoggiatura, were considered heterodox ; as 
if the heinousness of the offence were palliated by making the discord appear 
insignificant alongside its fellow notes. 

2 Some persons define the shake as a series of appoggiaturas.over the written 
note, the shake to commence with the upper note. Beethoven, and others who 
employ this latter interpretation, write an acciaccatura before the note bearing the 
shake when they mean that, exceptionally, such upper note is to be played first. 



48 



ELEMENTS OF MUSIC. 



A #, [?, or fa over a shake shows that the upper note is to be 
inflected accordingly : 



Written. 



Played. 




128. The Mordent (H^) indicates that the written note and the 
note above it are to be played as rapidly as possible, returning to 
the written note : 



Written. 



Played. 

129. The Inverted Mordent is written thus ^", and indicates 
that the written note and the note below it are to be played 
as rapidly as possible. 

130. The Turn or Gruppetto (**,) consists of the note above that 
over which the turn is marked, followed by the written note, the note 
below, and then the written note again. A #, t>, or fy written over 
or under the turn shows that the note over or under the written note 
is to be inflected accordingly. When the ornament is marked over 
a plain note, the four notes are of equal length, and are to be played 
more or less quickly, according to the time of the movement : 




ABBREVIATIONS AND OTHER SIGNS. 



49 



Written. 



Played. 




When placed over a dotted note, the turn consists of the first 
three notes, and, instead of the fourth, a note the length of the 
dot is played : 



n ft fc I .. 

Written. (gL_ JL, * ^\ Played. 




131. The Inverted Turn (*-o or ^ ) consists of the note below 
that on which the turn is marked, followed by the written note, 
the note above, and then the written note again : 

\^ Written. ft ^ v^ 






Played. 




The various modifications of the above ornamentations require 
explanation from teachers of particular instruments, and are too 
elaborate to come under the title Elements of Music. 



INDEX. 



A capella, 93. 

Accent, 94. 

Acciaccatura, 125. 

Accidental, 49. 

Alia breve, 93. 

Al segno, 115. 

Alto, page 12, note 1. 

Appoggiatura, 124. 

Arbitrary chromatic scale, page 30, 

note 2. 

Arpeggio, 121. 
Augmented, 61. 
Augmented triad, 7 la. 
Augmented intervals, 37* 

Bar, 83. 

Bar, double, 111. 

Baritone staff, 20. 

Bar line, 83. 

Bass staff, 17. 

Bemol, page 14, note 1. 

Bind, 122. 

Bis, 116. 

Bourdon, page 12, note 1. 

Breve, page 7, note 2. 

Burden, page 12, note 1. 

Chromatic, meaning of, Det 
Chromatic intervals, 69. 
Chromatic scale, 71. 
Chromatic semitone, 29. 
Clef, 14. 
C clef, 20. 

Common chord, 7 la. 
Common time, 87. 
Compound time, 90. 
Count, 86. 
Crotchet, 2. 

Da capo, 114. 

Dal segno, 115. 

Dash, 123. 

Diatonic, meaning of, Det 

Diatonic intervals, 69. 

Diatonic semitones, 29. 

Diminished, 62. 



Diminished intervals, 37. 
Diminished triad, 7 la. 
Division, 86. 
Dominant, 42. 
Dot, 4 and 123. 
Double bar, 111. 
Double flat, 30. 
Double sharp, 30. 
Duple time, 87. 

Enharmonic, 30, Del. 

F clef, 17. 

Flat, 24. 

Flat, origin of, page 14, note 1. 

French names of notes, page 10, note 4. 

G clef, 17. 

German names of notes, page 10, 

note 4. 

Great staff, 20. 
Grosse Pause, 110. 
Gruppetto, 129. 

Harmonic minor scale, 73. 
Harmony, Def. 

Imperfect time, page 33, note 2. 

Intervals, 32. 

Inversion, 34. 

Inverted turn, 130. 

Irregular times, 99. 

Italian expressions, 101, et seq. 

Italian names of notes, page 10, note 4. 

Key note, 42. 
Key signature, 49. 
Keys, order of, 49. 
Keys, major, 51. 

Large, page 7, note 2. 
Leading note, 42. 
Leger lines, 11. 

Length of notes in French, page 7, 
note 3. 



INDEX. 



Length of notes in German, page 7, 
note 3. 
Loco, 120. 

Long, page 7, note 1. 
Lunga pausa, 119. 

Major common chord, 7 la. 
Major interval, 39. 
Major keys, 51. 
Major, relative, 75. 
Major scale, 39. 
Measure, page 31, note 1. 
Mediant, 42. 
Melody, Del. 
Metronome, 103. 
Mezzo-soprano staff, 20. 
Minor, 2. 

Minor common chord, 7 la. 
Minor, relative, 75. 
Minor scale, 72. 
Minor tonic, 78. 
Mordent, 128. 

Natural, 31. 
Natural notes, 23. 
Note 1, Def. 
Notes, names of, 13. 

Octave, 33. 
Order of flats, 51. 
Order of keys, 49. 
Order of sharps, 48. 
Ottava (8va), 120. 
Ottava bassa, 120. 
Ottava sotto, 120. 

Pause, 119. 

Pedal, 105. 

Perfect intervals, 36. 

Perfect time, page 33, note 2. 

Pitch, 9. 

Prima volta, 113. 

Quadruple time, 87. 
Quaver, 2. 

Relative minor and major, 75. 
Repeat, 112. 
Bests, 6 and 96. 

Scale, arbitrary minor, 74, 
Scale, chromatic, 79. 



Scale, major, 41. 
Scale, minor, 72. 
Scale, harmonic minor, 73. 
Scale, relative minor, 75. 
Scale, tonic minor, 78. 
Seconda volta, 113. 
Semibreve, 2. 
Semidemisemiquaver, 2. 
Semiquaver, 2. 
Semitone, 25. 
Shake, 127. 
Sharp, 24. 
Signature, key, 49. 
Signature, time, 84. 
Simple time, 90. 
Slur, 122. 
Soprano staff, 21. 
Sordini, page 39, note 1. 
Staccato, 123. 
Staff, 10. 

Sub-dominant, 42. 
Sub-mediant, 42. 
Supertonic, 42. 
Syncopation, 95. 

Tempo a capella, 93. 

Tempo alia breve, 93. 

Tenor, 21. 

Tenor staff, 21. 

Tie, 4 and 122. 

Time, common, 87. 

Time, compound, 90. 

Time, duple, 87. 

Time, imperfect, page 33, note 2. 

Time, irregular, 99. 

Time, perfect, page 33, note 2. 

Time, quadruple, 87. 

Time signature, 84. 

Time, simple, 90. 

Time, triple, 87. 

Tone, 26. 

Tonic, 42. 

Tonic minor, 78. 

Transposition, page 12, note 1. 

Treble clef, 17, and page 12, note 1. 

Tremolando, 118. 

Triad, 7 la. 

Trill, 128. 

Triplet, 89. 

Turn ; 129. 

Turn, inverted. 130. 

Unison, 33. 



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SIX LECTURES 

ON 

MUSICAL HABMONY 

DELIVERED AT THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN 

By Sir G-. A. MAOFARRB1T. 

THE purpose of this work is to offer to the musical laity an account 
of the principles of harmonic combination which may help 
insight into the application of these in composition, and thus to a 
keener perception of beauty in music than can arise through the 
ear alone, unaided by the understanding. Though it may assist 
the more serious student, its design is, by copious illustration of 
the rules on which the art rests, to make these obvious even to 
readers who, with love for the subject, have not time or inclination 
for its elaborate pursuit. The lectures refer to a prevailing mis- 
apprehension as to the relationship between the mediaeval ecclesiastical 
system and that of the classic Greeks, and to the inaptitude of the 
former for standard use in the Church of England. They describe 
the distinctions between what may be called archaic art in music 
and the style whose morning stars were PUBCELL, HANDEL, and BACH, 
and whose broadest daylight is the expansion of their lustre and 
its manifold reflexion, rather than the revelation of a new source of 
radiance. These two styles were first separated and defined by 
ALPBED DAY, and it is his original, perspicuous, and comprehensive 
views that are set forth by the Author, who owned him as a friend 
and as a guide. The ancient, strict or contrapuntal style is shewn 
to .be arbitrary and artificial ; the modern, free or massive, to ba 
impulsive and natural. The two are confounded by many meritorious 
musicians ; to distinguish them may lead to the clearer production 
as well as comprehension of music. 



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