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(jnest f}utdiEson. 

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Copyrighted 1907 by Ernest Hutchesoo. 
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Many of the exercises contained in this little: work 
are purely preparatory in nature Others are for occasion- 
al or special ute Only about twenty are permanently 
eNBcntial. All are necessary at some stages of study or 
to some pupils, but the teacher should not hesitate to 
omit as many as can be spared in each individual case. 
Preparatory exercises, for instance, such as Exs. 1,2, 11, 
1ft, 20 - 26, etc., may be discarded (except to correct re- 
lapse*) when once they have thoroughly served their 

It has been my aim to reduce the exercises to the 
greatest possible simplicity and to give the most ex- 
act directions for practising them properly. The form 
of an exercise, however, may often be modified with ad- 
vantage to suit peculiar needs. 

'Advanced'' technique is altogether excluded, because 
I disbelieve in the necessity or expediency of spending 
time on it. To the pupil who has really mastered the 
elements of technique, the studies of Cierny and other 
composers supply all that remains lacking in mechan- 
ic*! equipment. 

The "Notes to the Teacher" perhaps require some 
apology. I have given them for the sake of the many 
teachers who, not claiming to be accomplished perform- 
ers, gladly recognise the value of occasional hints from 
a practical pianist. These notes, it is hoped, will also 
be of benefit to advanced students. 

It is not for a moment pretended that this short treat- 
ise is in any respect startlingly original. No particu- 
lar "method" is advanced or defended. I have merely un 
deavored to bring the best ideas contained in a large 
number of modern works into a small compass, discarding 
everything unessential and repetitive. Some of the books 
which have been consulted are:_ 

Zwintsehcr, Technical Exercises. 

Kullak, School of Octaves. Buok I. 

Maria von Unschuld, Die Hand des Pianisten. 

Malwine Bree, The Groundwork of the Lcschetisky 

Moszkowski, Ecolc dcti Doubles Notes. 

Schmidt, Das Pedal dex Pianoforte's. 

i, Notes on Backs "Well -Tempered Clamekord'.' 



1 Sit before the middle of the keyboard, about so high 
that the elbows are on a level with the keys, and for- 
ward in your chair. The chair must not be too near 
the keyboard. 

2. Do not stoop. The upper part of the body, indeed, 
may lean slightly forward but the shoulders should 
not be rounded. Do not make faces. 

3. Watch your fingers as you practise. 

4. Listen to every note you play, and judge whether it 
sounds well or not. 

5. Try to improve whatever you are studying, not 

merely to repeat it mechanically. 
6 Nearly all the exercises in this book are written out 
for the right hand only- The left hand is to be played 
an octave or two octaves lower, as the teacher directs. 

7. Nearly all the exercises are meant to be transposed 
into different keys, keeping the same fingering. Those 
not intended for transposition are marked C. It is a 
good plan to choose a new key every week, or every 
three days if preferred. 

8. Practise slowly, and usually with only one hand at a 
time, at least until you know the exercise thoroughly. 



Hand- position, Finger- action, and Touch Exercises. 

Exercise 1. 

Place the fingers on the notes-. 




1 Curve the fingers so that they touch the noteswith 
the tips. Hold the nail -joint of th- fingers firm, 
and in vertical position 

2. Keep the wrist low and ^lightly oifttcagd from the 

3. Keep the knuckle* rather high and firm, so That 
the hand will be slightly arched. 

4. Do not let the hand slope downward toward tn>- 
little finger. 

5. Hold wrist and arm loose, and let the weight of 
the arm rest on the finger-tips, keeping the notes 
steadily down. 

6. Separate the fingers from each other. Hold the 
thumb well away from the hand, turning only the 
tip inward. 

This may be called the Normal Hand -position. 

Exercise 2. 

Directions: - 

1. Lower the wrist at n, raise it at V : (these signs 
will be used in the same sense throughout the 
volume) Exaggerate the wrist movements at first: 
afterwards moderate them. 

2. Keep the weight of the arm on the key*, holding 
them down steadily with the fingers. 

8. Hand -position UK before 

This exercise is meant to combine looseness of wrist 
with correct hand -position. 

Exercise 3. 


I Lift and drop the fingers with the greatest pre- 
cision (see end of Note 4 . counting"! and 2 and 
3 and 4 and" Keen the fingers well curved. 
'I Hand position as before. Read again the direc- 

tions for Ex 1 

3 Avoid stiffness The wrist may occasionally be 
raised or lowered to ensure relaxation, but not 
with regularity as in Ex 2. 

A correct performance of Exs 3 and 4 is often so 
difficult to beginners, especially to children, that it 
may be necessary to use the following preparatory 

Exercise 8. A. 


J j 

Exercise 3. B 

o r K i 

These exercises should be discarded as soon as Ex. 
3. can be played without stiffness. 

Other good methods of avoiding excessive difficul- 
ty at the outset are: 

1. Omitting the thumb in Exs. 1 and 2. 

2. Practising Exs. 1-4 very lightly at first gradu- 
ally increasing the weight of the touch 


1. Hold down all the fingers except the one about 
to play. Keep them curved, and watch them. 

2. Play legato. Practise slowly. Begin softly: lat- 
er, increase the tone, always avoiding stiffness. 

3. Lift the fingers with precision. The fourth and 
fifth fingers may be lifted more than the others, 
but the thumb should be raised very little. 

Exercise 5. (Portamento.) 


1. Drop the whole arm (not merely the fore-arm) 
on each note: raise it at the rests. Be sure to 
let the elbow rise and fall. 

2. The wrist must be very loose and yielding. The 
fingers should move very little, always staying 
quite near the keys. 

3. There must be a great deal of weight in the 
touch. The tone should be strong but sweet: lis- 
ten to it carefully. 

Exercise 6. 


1. The same as for Ex. 5, but take care that all three 
(or four) notes of each ehord arc equally strong. 
Play vigorously. 

2. Hand -position as usual. 

3. Practise first with each hand separately. Observe 
the fingering, which is the same for all keys. 

Exercise 7. 

i X 23 34 4 S 


8 4 


Drop the arm on the first note of each bar ; lift it 
after the second note, but do not shorten the second 
note more than necessary. 

Exercise 7 is a combination of portamento and legato, 
and is particularly instructive (though far from dif- 
ficult), because it contains the germ of proper phrasing. 

Exercise 8. (Legato.) 

4 5 

8 4 

2 :i 

1 2 





O.F.K. 1 




; : 


1 1 

* 3 4 S 

t * a 4 


Directions: - 

1. The binding most be perfect. Observe the differ- 
ent fingerings and use them all in turn. 

2. Attend carefully to hand - position and finger - 
action. Watch the fingers to see that they lift and 
curve properly. When the curve is sufficient, the 
player cannot see his finger - nails. 

3. The tone should be pur; and singing. Gradually 
increase the strength, always avoiding stiffness. 

4. Practise slotcly. Only d) should ever be played fast. 
This is a most important exercise, and it should be 
practised daily with the greatest eare. 

Exercise 9. ( Hand - ttaccato . . 

(f \tiir\rrrrtf ti 


1. Use the whole hand, letting it fall sharply and 
rebound rapidly. Make the notes as short as pu 
sible. Practise lightly, without weight 

2. Hold the wrist and elbow a trifle higher than 
usual. They must be perfectly loose. 

3 The fingers should hardly move. 
4. Practise a) in octaves also. In b) and c) the two 
notes must be exactly together and equal in tone. 

Exercise 10. (Finger-staccato.) 


[?-*-==* P T 

Directions: - 

Keep the hand quiet. Use the same finger-action as 
in Ex. 3, but short and sharp. Lift the fingers more 
than usual. 


Exercises for the Use of the Wrist in Legato Playing 
Exercise 11. Metronome J: mo. 

V nV nV n V nV 

n V 



Lower the wrist at the sign n, raise it at V. Do not 
make the movements jerkily. Preserve the legato care- 
fully, and try to produce a full, round, singing tone. 
The fingers need not be lifted very high. 
Exercise 11 has two objects, looseness of wrist and 
production of singing tone. All legato melodies are 
played with more or less of this up-and-down wrist 
motion, which maybe exaggerated for purposes of study. 
The tone should be produced by the weight of the arm, 
the finger-tips resting firmly on the keys. 

Exercise 12. 


Continue as in Ex. 11, but with less up-and-down mo- 
tion, and add a slight outward movement of the 
wrist"at the points marked 3. The combination of the 
two motions imparts what may be called a "rolling" 
action to the wrist. Do not exaggerate this. 


etc. to 

V 4 ft a i 

etc. to\ 


* -f i I 

Exercise 13 should also be practised with different 
accents, thus: 






It may also be used in the following variations: 



In all cases, observe the different fingerings, and 
do not forget transposition into other keys. 

Exercise 14. 


Exercise 15. 


The following variations of Exercise 15 (and others, 
if desired) may be used; 

In practising Exercises 12 - 15, do not forget what 
has already been learned. Keep a good hand- position; 
use proper finger-action, attending particularly to the 
curve and lift of the fingers; hold the arm and wrist 
loose; and listen to the tone. Gradually develop strength 
and speed. 

*> That is to say, turn it a little farther out from the body than usual. 

G. F.K.I 

We cone now to a form of action which is often 
a great difficulty to beginners, vn., the Tremolo 
The following preparatory exercise is useful 

Exercise 16. 


At at, raise the thumb ax high as possible after 
each note by tnrntng the hand and vrist bod- 
ily, holding the little finger down as a pivot. At b), 
raise the little finger in a similar manner, holding 
the thumb down as a pivot. 

Exercise 17. 



In Ex. 17, when playing slowly, combine the motions 
of Ex. 16 a) and b). The whole arm will turn slight- 
ly to and fro on its own axis, it must be perfect- 
ly loose. Increase the speed and diminish the move- 

ments until the fingers hardly leave the keys and 
the exercise is performed entirely by a slight but 
rapid shaking of the arm The fingers need not be 
so much curved as aiual 

Exercise 18. 



Practise until great velocity and complete ease are 
attained. Small hands may substitute the folluwing;- 

Exercise 19. 

Thin very "stupid" exercise is included because it 
shows a form of Tremolo -action very common in Mo- 
lart's and Beethoven's works and often troublesome to 
inexperienced hands 



The peculiar difficulty of scale -playing is the put- 
ting of the thumb under the hand and of the hand 
over the thumb. This difficulty may best be attacked 
by Meant of the preparatory exercises Jios. 20 - 26. 

Exercise 20 

*) Ijterelse* marked C are not to be transposed 

OPK 1 




1. The wrist must be held well outward from the 
body, and must preserve this position in all the 
scale- exercises and in playing scales. The hand 
must not move during this exercise, but it must 
not be in the least decree stiff. 

2. Count four. In Ex. 20 a), play C at the first beat; 
place the thumb on P, touching the note, at the 
second beat, play F at the third beat; and let the thumb 
return to C, touching the note, at the fourth beat. 

Treat Ex. 20 *)., c), ana d) similarly. 

3. Do not lift the thumb from the keys; let it glide from 
note to note. The motion, must be very rapid and pre- 

4. Keep the fingers properly curved. 

5. The small crosses indicate the moment at wnich 
the thumb must move; they will always be used in 
this sense in future exercises. 

6. Play each repeat many times. 

Exercise 21. C. 



The same as for Ex. 20. The thumb must always 
prepare its next note at the sign x. 

Exercise 22. C. 

n 128132 1 1 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 _ j 



1 5 3 ! 1 ^ , |2 3 4 

3 * 1 


As above. Be sure to retain the outward position 
of the wrist throughout. Curve the fingers and hold 

them in position exactly over their proper notes. 
Preserve looseness and good, even tone. 

Exercise 23. C. 

*t : " 1 


; (- 

? rfJ 




5E J 




- *fl U JiJ 

1 " ' 

l*^ f 


-* Ml 


1. In this exercise the thumb is immovable. 

2. In Ex. 23 a), play jj at the first beat; move the 


hand to its second position (the fingers over A ) 

B G 

at the second beat; play A at the third beat,- and 

return the hand to its first position (fingers over 
g) at the fourth beat. Treat 23 b\ c), and d) 

3. The movement of the hand must not be made by 
twisting it to and fro, but the wrist must, be held 
as far outward in the second position of the hand 
as in the first. Observe this point most carefully, 
for the correct movement is not easy. The thumb 
must yield readily as the hand passes over it. 

4. The moment at which the hand should move to 
its next position is shown in this and the suc- 
ceeding exercises by a small circle (o). 

Exercise 24. C. 


3 1 2 1 






1 1 




In each section of the exercise, keep the thumb im- 
movable over its note. Avoid twisting the hand, and 
move it promptly at the sign o. Let all the fingers 
keep proper positions over the notes next to be 

w f K i 


Exercise 25. G. 

i s i 4 * t 



As above. Keep the fingers curved and the wrist 
loose, always well outward. Play with good, even 
tune. Do not raise the thumb. 

The next exercise combine* the hand and thumb 
movements No new direction* ore required. but A!) those 
given for Exercises 2(i-2f> must be remembered 

Exercise 26. C. 

I a 1 4 1 1 4 2 1 .1 < 

o o 


1 , 4 1 t 1 L ' 4 1 1 

S 4 

O E 



t < 4 1*X tdXl 4 

The complete scale may now be attempted By this 
time it should present little or no difficulty. 

Exercise 27. C. 

Below is shown, by means of small notes, the exact 
position of every finger of the right hand through- 
out the scale. 

Exercise 27 sA*' 

The student should now proceed to practise major. 
melodic minor, and harmonic minor scales in all keys, 
at first slowly, in two octaves only, and with each hand 

The fingering of the thirty- six different scales is 
usually a source of much distress to the beginner. And 
yet it should not be very difficult, provided that scale - 
formation is understood. To begin with, do not think 
about the thumbs or where they come in the scale. 
If you only remember when- the fourth finger falls 
you know the whole scale, for the fourth finger is 
used but once in each octave. 

The easiest rules for Scale - fingerings are, curi 
ously enough, little known among teachers and stud- 
ents In fart, I havo never seen them given in print 
except in Carl Faeltcns "Rhythmical Scales." They are 
as follows: 

Right Hand. 

1 In scales beginning on a white key < except the 

scales of K take the fourth finger on the seventh de 

grce of the scale. 
'i. In scales beginning on a black key (and the scales 

of F) take the fourth finger on Bt> (or A$ ).When 

tncre is no B? (or A? ) in the scale, take the fourth 

finger on the tecond deforce. 

Left Hand. 

1. In scales beginning on a white key (except the scales 
of B take the fourth, finger on the second degree 
of the scale. 

2. In scales beginning on a black key 'and the scales 
of B) take the fourth finger on Ft 'or <?!>. When 
there is no ft (or Ok) in the scale, take the fourth 
finger on the fourth degree. 

These rales are compressed by Mr. Faclten into a 
clear and simple formula, of which I give a slight 

'' Quoted (with a ltgt>l alteration) from Mis* von Un*chuld book. "Die Hand de* Puuiitcn." 

6 V K I 

E. H. 4*. h Finger. 

White notes (except P) 
Black notes (and P)_ . 

L. H. 4 f . h Finger. 

White notes (except B) 
Black notes (and B) _ . 


jBfc (A |) 

. II 


There are only two partial exceptions to the above 
rules, both occurring among the melodic minor scales. 
They are: 

R. H. Ffl minor (ascending). 
L. H. Bt> minor (ascending). 

These are fingered as follows. 

B. H. 

It will be observed that both these scales follow 
the rule in descending. 

It is quite unnecessary to have the scales written 
out and fingered for study. After a little prelimin- 
ary explanation, all that the pupil needs is a slip of 
paper with a copy of the formula. For the sake, how 
ever, of teachers who prefer to keep to old methods, 
1 give the scales in full at the end of the book. 

The irregularities of fingering in beginning and 
ending scales are so convenient to all players that 
they are never a source of trouble. 1 mention them 
for the sake of completeness. 

1. In all scales following the white key rule, the 
fifth finger is used for the final note in the 
right hand and the first note in the left hand. 
This avoids unnecessary putting under of the 

2. In all scales beginning on black notes, thr first 
note in the right hand and last note in the left 
hand are taken by the second finger. This avoids 
using more fingers than necessary. For exam- 



All the scales should at first be practised with 
each hand separately, then with both hands together; 
at first slowly, then faster,- at first with medium 
strength, then louder. When they can be played fair- 
ly easily with both hands together, they should be 
practised with varying accent and speed, say thus: 

Exercise 28. 

0. KK 1 


They should also be practised piano and forte, crescen- 
do and diminuendo (usually crescendo upward and dimin- 
uendo downward) Staeeato, both of hand and f inn rr.may 
occasionally bu used. Finally, they muM be practised in 
contrary motion. 

The diatonic scales must be practised daily. Their im- 
portance in technique cannot be over- estimated, and ev- 
ery pupil should have them literally "at his finger's ends': 


fingerings arc in common use: 

1 1 t 8 4 i 8 3 I 8 * 1 1 :\ 1 . 



H g- 

j " 

v w 



1 8 < 1 4 8 S 



8 t 1^3' X :l 4 1 

a. a i. 8 < i 4 t a i i 4 a s 


* 1 S 8 41 S3 



$ 1 81 l 


l t jl8t 818* 

1 8 *. 

t 8 



U J lj 


1 t jf 8 1 8 * 

i i i t 8 t * \ * i 




* 1 8 

2 i 

1 1 

1X81 XlXi 


Of these fintferinirs. No. I, in which the thumb is 
placed on every other white note, ir> far the best. 
No. n is useful in a moderate tampo when great strength 
is needed. 

Exercise 29. 

n n n 




n n 



V V V V etc. 



Exercise 31. 



Exercise 32. 




Exercise 33. *> 


F r Wt)&> *' # 

Exercise 34.*) 

Directions for the above Exercises: 

1. Let the fingers remain on the keys throughout. 
Use the wrist as indicated by the signs n and V 
in Exercise 29, most frequently as at a), occasion- 
ally as at b i 

2. The chords are to be held as long as possible, not 
to be played staccato. 

3. Practise the chords forte and fortissimo. In the 
fortissimo, use the arm as well as the wrist. 

4. The tone must be good, and equal for all notes 
of each chord. Sometimes, however, the chords 
may be practised with the highest note of the 
right hand stronger than the others. 

5. Avoid stiffness. 

6. Transpose into all keys. 

7. The fingers can be held perfectly curved in Exer- 
cises 29-31. In Ex. 32, they cannot be kept 
quite so curved as before, and in Exercises 33 
and 34 the pupil must grasp the chords as best 
he can. 

Exercise 35. 


1. This is a preliminary exercise for broken chords. 
It is to be studied similarly to Exercise 3 (see 
Section I), except that the fingers cannot be 
held quite so curved except by large hands. 

2. Use corresponding exercises in the inversions of 
the chord: 

3. Various positions of seventh -chords maybestud- 
ied in the same manner. 

Exercises 33 and 34 must b omitted by younff pupils with small hands. 

G KK.1 


Exercise 36. 

3 2 


The same as for ordinary legato exernses Turn 
the wrist slightly outward in approaching the notes 
marked 3. 


1. Drop the wrist slightly at the first notrof each 
group or figure. Turn the wrist outward when 
the fifth finger is used. 

2 Exercise 37 should be practised with varied ac- 
cents, thus - 

3. The following variations are alt>o useful. 


Exercises 36 and 37 may easily be adapted to chords 
of the seventh, either dominant or diminished. 

The following exercises, preparatory to extended 
arpeggios, are analogous to NOB 20 - 26 in the last 

Exercise 38. C. 

Exercise 39 C. 

o o 


J S 

t i 

1 _ 1 


o *' 


l * 







1 i * 

\m p 




U PK 1 



1. Exercise 38 may be omitted by pupils with small 
hands, but not without a trial, for it is far less 
difficult than at first appears. 

2. If the instructions for scale- preparation bt; re- 
membered (see Exs. 20-26), it is only requisite 
to consider the modifications made necessary 
by the greater stretch in Exs. 38 - 40. The 
wrist must be held very far out from the body, 
and even the elbow must be held further out than 
usual. Some little twisting of the hand will be al - 
most unavoidable. The fingers cannot be curved 
quite so much as in the normal hand -position, but 
the curve should be the best possible. 

3. Exercises exactly similar to Nos. 38-40 should 
be used for the other positions of the chord:- 


The arpeggio may now be practised with varying ac - 
cents and speed, thus: 

Exercise 41. 






4 4 


Exercise 41 is to be transposed into all keys r subject 
to the following _ 

Rule of Fingering. 

Always put the thumb on the first white note 
of the chord in the right hand and on the last 
white note of the chord in the left hand (ascend- 
ing). In the chords of G flat major and E flat min- 
or there is no white note; in these cases keep the 
fingering of Ex.41. 

In studying arpeggios, proceed as usual, from one 
hand alone to both together, from slow to fast, from 
soft to loud. Contrary motion need not be used. Cresc- 
endo upward and diminuendo downward may be freely 

The following exercise is so useful, and contains a 
technical passage so frequently found in piano music, 
that it cannot be omitted:- 

Exercise 42 a). 

The above fingering is to be used whenever the notes 
are all white or all black, that is, in C, F, G, and F 
sharp major, and in D, E, A, and E flat minor. Finger, 
ings for the other keys are as follows :- 

Bight Hand:- 

*3*5 B^ 3 25141 3 as 52314162^*!=^ 6 2 3 - 

(For D, A, E, and B major and C, F, and G minor.) 

(For Dl>, Al, Ei? major and B, F#, C#, G|t minor. 

o. F.K.I 

< SI, 

(For Bb, major and minor, only.) 
Left Hand - 


(For D, A, 8 major, and 0, C, F, E\> minor.) 


(For D>, A>, Bt>, B-> major and F|, C|, 0| minor.) 

(For B, major and minor, only 



Exercise 43 

Directions: - 

Practise as in Ex. 3, taking care to play the two 
note* exactly together. 

Exercise 44. 

s * 


Directions: - 

Take cure that the two notes are played together 
and with perfectly equal tone. 

Exercise 45. 

1*1 . 1 * 

S 4 S I i 4 

Directions: - 

I Hold the wriM slightly in toward the body in the 
first measure, particularly at the point marked c. 
This makes the very <iifficult legato easier. In 
the v-tund measure, a perfect legato is impossible 
unless the fourth finder can be put under the 
third. This is so difficult that it is probably better 
to put th<- fcurth finger over the third, holding 
the wrist outward and concealing the slight gap 
in the binding as skilfully as possible. 

'i. Some of the transpositions of this and the next 
exercise, and of Nos.49 and 50, are very far from 
easy. IJul they should at least be attempted. 

4 & 

1 i 

i ft 4 

Directions: - 

Conceal the breaks in the binding as well as po - 
Bible. Use the wrist in any way that is helpful, but 
uvoid exaggeration. 

Proceed similarly in the following exercises: - 

Exercise 47. 

WfK ! 


Exercise 48. 

j 4 3 4 5464 3454 

fiii, 2 i 2 i 11*1. 


1111 2 I 2 - - * - 

3434 5 4 5 * 34 8 4 

Exercise 49. 

1*1 * * ? 
* 5 4 5 4 B 

Exercise 50. 

* 5 ' 3 4 8 4 '3 * 4 1 '2 'l \ 2 I \ '| 1 

1 * f 1 a i * 8 1 * * 3 4 5 4 3 5 4 

Young pupils with small hands may deferthe prac- 
tice uf exercises in legato sixths until the stretches 
become practicable. 

Exercise 51. 

In connection with the above, the following "bind- 
ing" exercises may be studied. They will be found 
helpful later on in legato octave - playing: 

Exercise 52. C. 


11 11 , 1 1 

11 11 

1 1 



7Cx ^L y 


Here the thumb must slide from note to note.which 
is easy from a black note to a white, fairly easy 
between two notes both black or white, but diffi- 
cult when the first note is white and the second 

Exercise 53. 

4343 4 4 3 434 3 , 4843 

546* 5 4 , 5 4 

58 5S 


Here the long fingers must be put over the short 
fingers, and the short under the long (3 over 4, 4 
over 5, 3 over 5, 4 under 3, 5 under 4, 5 under 3). 
The wrist must be held inward, and may be moved 
slightly up and down, - always up for the longer 

It is very useful to practise Exercises 47 and 51 
in broken thirds and sixths in all keys, as below: 

Exercise 54. 

1 3 2 4 36 1 a _______ 

saa** i i i i i i i i i i i i T r-r 


Exercise 55. 

\a .2 4124 1241 *^_i 


a.Z 4 2 1 42142142 
43S32&;) 263253 

A 4 2 4 5 2 4 fi 2 4 ? 
I a. 81341 3418 *, 

tf. F K. 1 

Exercise 56. 


Exercise 57 

i i *_5_1 

4 1 4 6 > 

> , . gigliA^ili i i 

In the next group of exercises. Nos 59 and 60 must 
be omitted by young pupils with small hands. 

Exercise 58. 

m. * 


1 t 


*-*. ~ 


t i 

t 1 
t 4 



> i ^r mwm ^m m^ ami 

. mmi^^mmm itmt mmw nt n (i^ mi it i^ 

Exercise 59 


Exercise 60. 


For chromatic work in double notes the following fin 
gerings are an excellent preparation: 

Exercise 61. C. 


t~t it f , , s t i t i * 

^ j_ ^ _*_ -1__._4 . - ^% . _ * * 

r rh* |J|J ^^ |J JJ . 

^ i^w y T*CT 










J^" n 
-14 1 




r r r 

These would be combined, say in chromatic minor 
thirds, thus 

Exercise 62. C. 

Hi t . I t S. i 


L t 1 





'1 ' 

4 8 5 

_ i Z, 

-2 I Z 1 


I i its* 

8 4 8 5 

V 2 'i 
4 5 


4 5 



1 2 '1 




Octaves occur so often in piano literature that they 
demand more notice than we have given to other forms 
of double notes. They should first be practised stac- 
cato, as in Ex. 63. 

Exercise 63. 

3\ J. 




1. Bend the tip of the thumb inward when playing 
on a white key, so that it cannot strike two 
notes. The little finger must also be curved, for 
the same reason. The middle fingers should be 
held well above the keys, so as not to touch them by 
accident; they should be at least somewhat curved. 

2. The fifth finger may be used throughout No. 63. 
If preferred, the fourth finger may be used on 
black notes in c) and d). 

3. In alternations of black and white notes, play the 
white notes farther up the keys than usual, so 
that the hand will not have to shift its position 
greatly when moving to or from a black note. 

4. Take care that the elbow is loose-, it is very apt 
to stiffen in octave playing. 

Exercise 64. C. 

n V 




n V 


n V 


0. F.K.I 


Exercise 65. C. 

Exercise 66. C. 


ci V 

V ". V, n 

V, n i V, n V 


'4 i 

Exercise 67. C. 

_ V n V r 


n , V. n V, 

n i IM * 






Exercises 4-7 are to be played legato. After what 
has been said in regard to Exercises 52 and 53 they 
should require no further explanation. In No. 65, the 
slide will be helped by drawing the hand sidewise. 
Diatonic scales in octaves may be practised with the 
up-and-down wrist-movement, up for black and down 
fur white as a general principle No fixed rule of fin- 
gering can be given, but the following examples may 
serve as illustrations. 


These fingerings are for /egato. of course IB 
ttaceato use the fifth finger throughout or the fourth 
on all black notes. 

The concluding exercises. Nos. 68 to 71, are of 
general usefulness. Take the fifth finger with every 
oetave, and practise staccato. 

Exercise 68. 

Exercise 69. 



Exercise 70. 

Exercise 71. 

Large band* may sometime* use the tUird finger in legato octaves. 




For weak knuckles. 

Exercise 72. 


1. Hold the finger perfectly straight and stiff.Keep 
the knuckle as high as possible and force it still 
higher (!) by pressing upward from the finger. 
Never mind if everything is stiff; but remember 
that you allow this only temporarily, to work out 
a gymnastic, not a musical problem. 

2. Practise with the fourth finger also; with the 
others only if necessary, and in no case with 
the thumb . 

For Double-jointed Thumbs. 
Exercise 73. 


g *i;rr rrrr 


1. Practise as in Ex. 16. 

2. Hold both joints of the thumb well away from 
the hand, bending only the tip inward. But keep 
the wrist well outward from the body. These 
two points are difficult in combination. 

S. If necessary, help at first by holding the thumb 

in position with the other hand. 
Exercise 74 may be practised in octaves as well as 
in sixths. 

Exercise 74. 

many times 

" ins i 


As in Ex. 73, but practise portamento. 

It is also very helpful to watch the thumb closely 
in practising chords. 

For Stretch. 

Exercise 75. 

*Z /a I & & I 

Fingerings:- a, 3,i- 

Easy Fingerings : 2,8 
Less Easy:- !, 3, 1. 


(i. F.K.I 

Ky Fingering 

Easy Fingerings: ",* 
Lew Bay:- JJ 

Fingering:- *,* 


1. Swing the whole arm freely. 10 that the elbow is 
high and far from the body at the sign /, low and 
near the body at \ . This is for the right hand; re- 
verse the signs for the left hand. Of course the 
hand cannot remain horizontal, but will slope liberal- 
ly in the direction of the lines / and \ alternately. 

2. Choose from the various fingerings to suit the in- 
dividual hand, not avoiding difficulty, but guarding 
against too great a strain. 

The stretch at 0) may be increased by one note for 

large hands. 

Stretching power may alto be developed by holding the 
hand in difficult positions until rather tired. A series of 
positions from normal to very extended, say: 


may readily be deviaed to uit the particular hand. 

In all stretching exercise*, beware of over- strain- 
ing the hand, for some little stiff nan is inevitable at 
best, and the muscles may easily be injured by too 
much work of this kind. 

For Variety of Tone. 

Exercise 76. 



1. The number of notes played Is immaterial, but 
the more the better. Make the crescendo and 
diminuendo as gradual as possible. Take care not 
to stiffen at the Jf. 

2. Use all other fingers in turn, as in Bx. 8. 
This excellent exercise gives great power of control 

over the tone. It is not easy, and requires patience and 
a considerable exertion of will. 

Exercise 77. 

J JMJjj 




p sempre 



p aemprc 

For Velocity. 

Exercise 79. 

Each bar at feast four times. 

jj . 



Similar exercises should be used to acquire velo 
city in scales and arpeggios (see Note 23). 

For Polyphonic Playing. 

The following exercises will be found invaluable 
as a preparation for polyphonic playing in general 
and the Fugues and Three-part Inventions of Bach 
in particular. 

Exercise 80. 

21 2~i 

a_aa. 12 a 2 ^ + i 1 *?* ft fifi ft 

2 12 12 y ^ ^. V 

r irf rnfr 

Exercise 81. 

1 21 e/c 12 12*' c 


84 84 
21 21 

48 4 ~ 

j j 

fa 12 

4S 48 





f* * ' 


11 * * . 

Exercise 82. 


Q 3 4~~a 4 

os rvo O, *i 3 



'_> ^ 

TT?7?1J1 1 

G. F.K.I 



* j^^sp^rnp* 

I, f^ "(3 's_i 'J t - 1 ^O i O 1 





1. Change the fingers silently after playing, as indic- 
ated This can be done in a much quicker tempo 
than one would at first believe. 

2. Ex. 80 is to be played with other fingers also: 32, 
48, and 64 

Sliding fingerings (as shown for the thumb in Ex. 52) 
and the putting of long fingers over short and short 
under long (Ex.53) are constantly needed in polyphon- 
ic playing. Any finger may be used in sliding from 
a black key to a white. 

For Melody. 

Many beginners have great difficulty in "bringing 
out" a melody when notes of the Accompaniment are 
to be played in the same hand. I have found the follow- 
ing exercises extraordinarily useful. 

Exercise 83. 


(With * and?) 


1. Play the large notes as strong as possible, the 
small notes very soft. 

2. At first it will be a help to lift the finger about 
to play a strong note and to let the other finger 
rest on the key. Afterwards, however, try to pro- 
duce the difference of tone simply by throwing 
weight on the strong note. 









* .$ 





* .J J *ll 

c ) 

j ,j I M 

Exercise 85. 


(With different fingering*, *nd In sixths also like Kx.88.) 

Exercise 86. 



(Accent the other notes in tarn, a* in Kx.84 > 

Exercise 87, remarkable for its difficulty and inge- 
nuity, is attributed to Carl Tausig - 

Exercise 87. 



For Pedalling. 
Exercise 88. 




\a a" * 1 

1 * 

| p. 

I i 1 

<s>* i * 

3 1 . 

-J * 




3 * 

* o 


V f 

BE f 

rj ' J " 


1? 7 

P' f 







Exercise 89. 

v r F r r P 

I ^ ' i 

"~~ -- H 

^ -*- 


" - 

r r r r 


(inf time also, like No.88b.) 

JJ. ' 








P r r r r 

Pedal. 1 


1. Simple as these exercises are. they contain the 
whole principle of "syncopated" pedalling. They 
should be followed up by a systematic applica - 
tion of the principle to some simple piece or part 
of a piece. 

2. I have adopted the excellent system of notation 
proposed by Schmidt-* for marking the use of 
the pedal. It is the only really exact notation. 

* ,,Das Pedal des Pianoforte." 

For Poly rhythmic Passages. 

Exercise 90. 



Avoid playing: 

Exercise 91. 

_a a 222 

Count 1 and 3 

' 4 

* 2 

many times 


vr 1 J 

Count *. 




e * c - 





G. F.K.I 




count 1 2 4ida 


2 4id 




s a 'a - s t 


") <\ Count 


Count throughout. Do not let the ugly sound of 
No. 91 c) and /) frighten you. 

Szercise 92. 

K.H. many time* 



i. a. 

Exercise 92 can be applied to many passage! like 
the well-known one from Beethoven's Rondo in C, which 
in the original is. 

r r r r 


On the principle of Ex. 92, this would be shown 




The Least Common Multiple' method of combating 
polyrhythmic troubles is very mechanical, and should 
be used as a hist resort only But it is very certain 
Taking the example already quoted, the manner of 
practice would be: 

Count 1 2*466128466 

For Trills. 

Exercise 93. 


1. Use all fingerings in turn, f inl- 





2. Let the arm shake slightly as in the Tremolo ac- 
tion (see Exercise 17). 

Some of the best fingerings for trills are subjoined: 

3 6 

> feffsr * - |jg 


1 2 

For trills in thirds, the best fingering is usually 

3 4, but the following are often useful: 

For Repetition 

Exercise 94. 

i * i a i 

i a i 



821321 821 821 etc 

43214821 etc. 



1. Draw the hand directly outward from the key- 
board at the first note of each group. 

2. Use the finger-staccato; but in these exercises the 
fingers may be allowed to slide off the outer edge 
of the keys after playing, instead of being raised 
in the ordinary manner. They will thus curl up. 
so to speak, under the palm of the hand. 

Exercise 95. 






Vi a V, 




Begin with the wrist low, and raise it a little, 
rather sharply, at the last note. 

Exercise 96. 


n V 

V etc: 


Exercise 96 should explain itself. 

Observe that repeated chords are played in the 
same manner as repeated octaves. 




Rote 1. Hand -petition. 

Common faults of hand-position are: 
1. Straight fingers. 
2 Bad position of the thumbs, sometimes due to 

double, jointedness. 
8. Weakness of the knuckles. 

4. Want of firmness in the nail-joint of the fin- 

5. Bad position of the wrist, often due to the el- 
bow being held too near the body 

0. Hand sloping down toward the little finger. 

7. Stiffness of wrist and arm. 

The curving of the fingers is very important. It 
should be constantly insisted on in five-finger exer- 
cises, scales, and studies, even at the risk of" nagging 

Special exercises for the remedy of double -joint- 
ed thumbs and weak knuckles will be found in the 
last section. 

The nail-joint should always be held in vertical 
position. It must be quite firm, never yielding or 
"breaking" inward. This is another point requiring 
great insistence on the teacher's part. 

The outward position of the wrist throws the weight 
of the hand behind the weak fingers, thus supporting 
them. It is therefore of distinct use even In five-fin- 
ger exercises, while in scales and arpeggios it is 
absolutely indispensable. 

Note 2. Relaxation. 

Nearly all pupils are stiff at first. Many suffer 
merely from the mechanical difficulty of new and 
unfamiliar muscle-actions. Some, however, have not 
even a proper conception of relaxation, and cannot 
tell whether a joint is stiff or loose at a given mo- 
ment. The teacher should in such cases be tireleits 
in demonstration. It is easy to make stiffaem sens- 
ible to the pupil, for only if a joint is relaxed can 
it be moved easily. The wrist, for instance, is be- 
yond doubt rigid if it does not yield readily to a 
slow push upward or downward. 

Relaxation in itself is not difficult to acquire. 
The beginner's trouble lies in the necessary combin- 
ation of loose wrist and firm finger (the finger- 
tip supporting the weight of the arm). When there 
is sufficient weight in the touch and sufficient loose- 
ness of wrist and arm, the wrist and elbow may be 
moved in any direction without causing the fin - 
gen to leave the keys. This is a most useful test 

of good touch, especially as the pupil (practising 
with one hand at a time) can himself apply it in 
home work. 

There are, however, many other methods of show- 
ing a pupil the difference between supple and rigid con- 
ditions of the joints. Every teacher has his own tcr- 
orite devices. Very often the idea of relaxation 
must be presented in various garbs or forms until 
one particular method of presentation happily reaches 
the pupils apprehension. Some teachers, for instance, 
achieve success by making the student consciously 
stiffen the whole arm for some time and then, in re- 
laxing, feel by sharp contrast the blessedness of 
suppleness. The Virgil methods may also be cited as 

In short, nothing should be left untried to cure 
stiffness, for it is a deadly foe. It cramps all mo- 
tion, quickly causes fatigue, and ruins beauty of tone. 

Nor should the teacher be content with looseness 
of wrist alone. The entire arm,- wrist, elbow and 
shoulder, must be perfectly free 

Note 3. Finger- act ion. 
Common faults are: 

1. Yielding or "breaking" of the nail-joint. 

2. Straightening the fingers when lifted. 

S. Curling up the fingers under the palm of the 
hand when lifted. 

4. Dragging the unoccupied fingers on the keys. 

5. Jerking the wrist or arm at every note. 

The teacher must carefully guard against all these 
errors. Correct finger-action is a perfectly simple 
lift and drop of the knuckle-joint; all other move- 
ments of the fingers are unnecessary and disturbing. 

It should especially be seen that the vertical pod- 
ium of the nail- joint is maintained when the fin- 
ger is raised. 

Special attention should be paid to the weak 

Note 4. Two Legato Touches. 

Exercises 3 and 4, and almost all legato exer- 
may be practised with two different kinds of legato: 

A. With lifted fingers. 

B. With close touch. In this, the fingers are 
never raised enough to leave the keys, but al- 
ways remain in actual contact with them. 



Raised fingers give clear articulation in rapid play- 
ing. Most teachers will probably prefer to teach this 
touch first, "dragging" of the fingers being so common 
among beginners. 

The close touch is best suited to melodic playing, 
where the most perfect legato possible is desired. No 
other touch ever gives such sensibility to the finger, 
such a feeling of really molding a melody as one plays 
it. While the teacher, therefore, may insist on raised 
fingers in technical practise, he should see that the close 
touch is used, even in the first pieces studied, for all 
cantabile passages. 

The advocates of the close touch claim for it: 

1. That it produces the purest -singing" tone possible 
on the piano, because the sound of the finger fall- 
ing on the key is eliminated. 

2. That the placing of the finger on the key in pre- 
paration of the note about to be played is the best 
means of acquiring unfailing accuracy 

These points can scarcely be disputed. On the other 
hand, it is justly urged that "smudginess" often results 
from over-indulgence in the close touch. Why. then, 
should we not recognise two distinct forms of Legato, 
one suited to melodic playing, in which the greatest 
intimacy of binding is essential, and another preferable 
for rapid passage-work, where clearness is most needed? 

I may remark that in my experience it is easy to 
acquire the close touch at a late period of study, but 
difficult to train fingers to lift well unless one begins 

The dangers of the close touch are best avoided by 
taking care while practising scales and arpeggios to 
lift the fingers from the keys after playing. 

Cases of excessive raising of the fingers are some- 
what rare. The second finger is usually the chief of - 
fender. The teacher may always safely discourage a high 
lift of the thumb (see Note 12 A). 

The actual performance of Exs. 3 and 4 will be as 




This way of writing, however, is obviously very com- 
plicated and would puzzle pupils needlessly. Ex. 3 A 
and B must of course be performed similarly. 

Note 5. Tone-production. 

Beauty of tone, especially in legato-playing, is the 
great aesthetic difficulty of the piano. All pupils should 
therefore be made to cultivate it from the beginning. 

It may easily be shown that striking the keys pro- 
duces hard, unsympathetic tone, and that pressure of 
wrist or arm produces heavy tone. Finger-pressure 
produces good tone, but not in sufficient volume for 
all purposes, partly because the strength of the dif- 
ferent fingers varies so greatly. 

The author strongly insists on the necessity of us- 
ing the weight of the arm in the production of sing- 
ing tone. This weight must be concentrated on the 
finger-tips, but entirely without effort exactly as the 
weight of the body rests on the feet in standing or 
walking. The following points are deserving of the 
teacher's attention: 

1. The use of weight is the most economical means 
of tone-production, for no effort whatever is 

2. The weight of the arm can be used in any quan- 
tity desired to gain varied volume of tone. In 
light accompaniments and very delicate pass- 
ages it can easily be held back altogether. 

3. If one depends on wpjght for tone, the differ- 
ences of strength among the fingers need not trou- 
ble the player. 

4. Weight resting on the keys gives the nearest 
possible approach to the flow of uninterrupted 
sound produced by the violinist's bow or the sing- 
er's breath. It is, moreover, easily distributed 
in any desired degree to any part of the hand 
(see Ex. 83-87). 

With the most correct method, however, no pupil 
will ever produce a really beautiful singing tone un- 
less he listens to every note. The ear is the sole 
judge between good and bad in tone, and its critical 
power must be carefully trained. 

Note 6. Exercise 8, etc. 

A true legato is a continuity of tone, not a suc- 
cession of tones. Merely "binding" notes together oft- 
en results in a series of soft blows or impacts in- 
stead of an unbroken stream of sound. The legato 
of a good singer or violinist may be taken as a 
standard for the pianist's effort. 

G. F.K.I 

It is. indeed, thtftretitnlly impossible to obtain an 
absolute legato (except in diminuendo) on the piano. 
But piano-playing is an art. not a science: a legato 
appeals to the ear. not to the mathematical sense: 
hence good players succeed in spite of theory 

The legato is the most difficult and the most beauti- 
ful of all touches. Accordingly, it needs and deserves 
constant study. 

In playing slow melodies the tones may be allowed 
to overlap very slightly- nerer enough to cause "blur- 
ring The fingers need not be curved quite as much 
as usual. 

Note 7. 

The elements of Technique hand-position, finger- 
action, and relaxation- are so far-reaching that their 
importance can hardly be exaggerated. They should 
be revised periodically to guard against relapses, and 
it should be seen that they are put to practical applic- 
ation in studies and pieces. The first studies und 
pieces givtn should contain nothing more involved tlian 
five-finger passages and simple chords. Scale-work 
should come next, then arpeggio figures and mixed 
passages, just as in the Technique itself. Easy studies 
well played are preferable to difficult ones in which 
the pupil violates all principles of good action. 


Note 8. 

Helpful as are the movements treated of in this 
section, it is necessary to warn against exaggera- 
tion, lest they supplant instead of merely assisting 
good finger-action. Observe the metronome marking 
in Ex. 11. and note that the wrist can be moved only 
oncv for every four notes in rapid tempo. 

Note 9 

In transposing exercises into other keys. th pupil 
should be allowed and if necessary instructed always 
to strike white keys on their broad part, not on the 
narrow part between the black keys. This involves 
frequent movement of the hand nearer to or farther 
from the keyboard, but fortunately there is no dif- 
ficulty whatever in the motion. In chords and arpeg 
gio figures, of course, one must often play white 
notes on the narrow part. 

Note 10. Exercise 17 

If the explanation of Tremolo-action is not easily 
understood, make the pupil stretch out his arm with 
the palm of the hand upward, then reverse the posi- 
tion, turning the palm down. By repeating this pro- 
cess rapidly a few times he will soon gain the right 

Note 11. 

The special exercises for Variety of Tone and Vel- 
ocity may be given to pupils before they attack scales 
Others of the special exercises may be used at any 
time, those for pedalling, polyrhythmic passages, 
bringing out melodies, and polyphonic playing, will 
doubtless he suggested by difficulties arising in the 
pieces studied. 


Note 12. Scale*. 

A. The close touch may very profitably be used in 
the preparatory exercises. The thumb should never 
be raised from the keys in scales. 

B. In ascending, the right hand may slope slightly 
downward to the little finger: in descending it 
should be tilted the other way. The slopes are the 
reverse, of course, for the left hand. Do not let 
the pupil exaggerate this point: often there is no 
necessity to mention it at all. 

C. The hand may perhaps be arched a little more than 
usual, so that the thumb may pass under more freely. 

D. If the pupil has trouble in subduing the thumb 
sufficiently, the following method of practice will 
give quick results: 

P^*P^z, P P *. a a P * *r > f 

i * a 

E. A very slight up-and-down movement of the wrist 
is permissible and even advisable in scales. When- 
ever the thumb plays the wrist should be low. 

Note \3. System <>f fingering Scales. 

Without wishing to force the method given in the 
text on those who may prefer other systems, I strong- 
ly advise against teaching scale-fingerings by the 
thumb-positions, of which there must be fun in every 
octave as against one of the fourth finger. 

Note 14. Alternative Scale -fingering*. 

Many writers give the following fingerings of cer- 
tain melodic minor Scales: 

0. F K. i 


F sharp minor. 

* t 2 8. 1, 2 

a a 

i i 

J J 



C sharp minor. 

8 3 i a 3 *, i a . 8 i 


G sharp minor. 

8 1 8 ' z 1 48* 

4881821 82 8 



P . . i ! f-^^tP 

' i 2 8 128 41 

8 8 1 

Bflat minor. 

3 2 

TS * 

284 1 2 '3 * 2 

The modern fingering of these scales is less re- 
gular but easier. 

Many of the scales might depart from the accepted 
fingerings *o good advantage. As a matter of inter- 
est, and without recommending innovations, I subjoin 
a few examples of possible left-hand fingerings: 

F major. 

1 4 3 '2 1 3 

4 3 2^1^ 2 T 


8 841 2 8 'l i 34 



l 4 3 2 1 3 2 i e 3 2 

4 l 

1 r J 

3 4 

(The fourth finger might fall on Kg In the scale of D al- 
so, perhaps even in 6.) 

F minor. 


6 * : ' 

4 3 2 1 

3 2 1 


'8412 ~Y 

23 12 '8 '4 12 3 4 

(Similarly in C minor, G minor, D minor.) 
Many a beginner would be gratified by these changes! 

Note 15. Scale-practise. 

Do not let the pupil practise scales always in the 
same order. They should be played sometimes in theor- 
der of fifths (C,G, D,etc.), sometimes in chromatic suc- 
cession, and sometimes alternating major with relative 
or tonic minor 

Is it necessary to worry pupils with scales in sixths 
and tenths? I, for one, think not. The conscientious teach- 
er who differs from me most change the fingering 
of certain scales when beginning on the third degree: 
this is very little trouble. 

In fast practise the scales should be played with 
lighter, tone, in order to avoid stiffness. 


Note 16. Exercises 29-34. 
Of course the marking: 

n n n n 

really implies: 

n V n V n V n V 

Exercises 29-34 may also be practised without re- 

peating the chords, thus-. 

in order to gain facility in moving from one position 
to another. 

Note 17. Exercises 31 and 32. 

The teacher must see to it that the pupil does not 
shirk the fourth finger in ehord-positions,whetherfull 
or broken. Nevertheless, the third finger may be sub- 
stituted for the fourth in the following chords: 



II j I jiff I 

and perhaps also in these: 
Both Hands. 

Note 18. Exercise 34 

The following fingerings will help small hands: 


Hole 19. 

The teacher must bear in mind that the earring of 
the fingers to the degree required in seale- playing is 
unnecessary and often impossible in extended chord - 
positions and arpeggios. The chief advantage of curved 
fingers is clearness of articulation, and in scales this 
is vital; but in arpeggios the effect is actually improved 
if the tones run together. Hence one uses pedal in 
arpeggios and avoiil- it in scales. 

It is always well, however, to insist on the best curve 

Note 20. Arpeggm fingf rings. 

The rule given in the text holds good for arpeggios 
formed from dominant and diminished sevenths. 

As the first position of arpeggios formed from triads 
iit the most difficult iu many keys, it is wise to sub- 
stitute (in free playing) the fingering of another posi- 
tion when there is room for choice. 


Note 21. Exercise* 45 et seq. 

The effective disguise of the slight breaks in legntn 
necessary in moot double-note passages is an import- 
ant point. A light use of the wrist in any direction 
helpful at the moment (always avoiding undue exagger- 
ation ) is the great requisite. 

Scales in thirds and sixths are excluded from this 
section, not being elementary technique. Ambitious pu- 

pils may be. referred to Mosikowski's work on Double 
Notes, and. for octaves, to Kullak's well-known treatise. 
I'r.irtiral fingerings of scales in thirds and sixths are 
to be found also in Zwintscher's "Technical Exercises". 
Busoni Las made interesting suggestions as to double- 
notes and octaves in his scholarly edition of Bach's 
"Well -Tempered Clavichord". 


Note 22. Stretch. 

The idea of swinging the arm in practising stretches 
is due. I believe, to Mr. Virgil. 

The teacher should be very cautious in attempting to 
enlarge a pupil's grasp. Much harm may be done by in- 
judicious forcing. In the case of children, it is almost 
always best to wait for the natural growth of the hand. 

Note 23. Velocity Exercise* 

Miss von Unschuld, in her exposition of Leschetizky s 
principles of teaching, very reasonably advises the ex- 
clusion of the thumb for final notes in exercises for 
Scale -velocity. The series would thus be: 

Similarly, of course, in arpeggios. 

Note 24. Pedalling. 

Observe that in Ex.88 the pedalling connects tones 
between which there would otherwise be gaps. while in 
Ex. Si* it prevents "blurring" of dissonances. Only "syn- 
copated" pedalling fulfils both these conditions. 

Note 25. Poll/rhythms. 

Do not despise Ex 90 it is often a hard nut to crack 
When pupils have once learned to play three notes 
against two, other polyrhythms usually lose most of 
their terror. Never attempt to use the"Least-Common- 
Multiple ' method for three notes against four: the rem- 
edy is worse than the disease. The ear is here the on- 
ly guide, though it is useful to practise each hand sep- 
arately in the full tempo as a preparation. 




G. F.K.I 



a 4 4 


S 46* 


or. K.I 






4 12 3 


2 8 1 8 

8 454 3 






Hutcheson, Ernest 

The elements of piano