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Full text of "The elements of Welsh grammar"

GMXDGN 



THE 



SAMUEL J. EVANS, MJL (Lond) 




% * V*AMM>VMI\M*\M|I\MB1 



THE 



ELEMENTS 



WELSH GRAMMAR 



SAMUEL J. EVANS, M.A. (Loncl.) 

HEADMASTER OF THE COUNTY SCHOOL, LLANGEFNI. 



Tutor in Celtic for the Univ. Corr. College, Cambridge. 

Author of Studies in Welsh Phonology, 

Studies in Welsh Grammar and Philology, 

The Latin Element in Welsh, Welsh and English Exercises, 

Welsh Parsing and Analysis, Questions and Notes on Welsh Grammar. 

Editor of " Drych y Prif Oesoedd- " (Guild of Graduates' Series). 

Joint Editor of Chaucer's Prologue and Knight's Tale. 



SIXTH EDITION. 



PUBLISHED BY 

JOHN E. SOUTHALL, 149, DOCK STREET, NEWPORT, MON. 
F910. 



NEWPOBT, MON., 
JOHN E. SOUTHALL, PUBLISHER. 

1910. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 



IX compiling this little book I have tried to give prominence, 
by rule and example, to the first elements of Welsh Grammar. 
All details have been carefully excluded, except where they 
were thought to illustrate some important point in the language. 

I hope the book will be of service to three classes of students : 
(1) Those boys and girls of our County Schools who are taking up 
Welsh for the Junior Certificate of the Central Welsh Board ; (2) 
Welsh-speaking Queen's Scholarship Candidates, of whom it is 
to be hoped an ever-increasing number will take up Welsh as their 
optional language ; and (3) Englishmen who desire to acquire some 
knowledge of Welsh without having to master at the very threshold 
a mass of detail, which is more confusing than helpful, and which 
only serves to discourage those who might otherwise soon master 
the language. 

I have sought to illustrate all rules by means of suitable examples 
drawn from the classics of Welsh literature. Rules without ex- 
amples are rarely understood even by advanced students. For 
junior pupils they are absolutely meaningless. 

The pupil who works through this little Grammar conscientiously, 
will no doubt be able to enter with profit upon a study of Prof. 
Anwyl's two scholarly volumes on the same subject in the Parallel 
Grammar Series. 



My thanks are due to W. Jenkyn Jones, Esq., B.A., Lecturer 
in Mental and Moral Science at the University College, Aberystwyth, 
for kindly reading through the proof-sheets, and giving me the 
benefit of his advice. 

SAMUEL J. EVANS. 

Llangefni County School, 

Anglesey, Oct., 1899. 



2209933 



PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. 



T 



>HE text has been thoroughly revised throughout ; besides 
a large number of additions in detail, the chapter on initial 
imitations has been re-written and made much fuller. 



The chapter on derivatives and compounds has been much en- 
larged : Welsh, unlike English, still retains to a remarkable degree 
the practice of word- building, and there is no department of Welsh 
Grammar more worthy of serious study ; it enlarges the student's 
vocabulary, and gives him greater precision in the use of words. 

It is expected that, thus enlarged, the Grammar will adequately 
meet the needs of candidates for C.W.B. certificates of all grades. 
Those reading for the Junior may safely omit the matter in small 
print. 

SAMUEL J. EVANS. 
Llangefni, 

Xmas, 1907. 



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 

The alterations in this edition are all of minor importance. The 
wording of a few paragraphs has been changed with a view to 
greater clearness, and a short sentence has been added to the 
Chapter on Parsing. 

SAMUEL J. EVANS. 
Llangefni, 

February, 1910. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

ORTHOGRAPHY 1 

THE ALPHABET 1 

ACCENT 5 

QUANTITY 

SPELLING ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

THE WELSH ALPHABET NOT PERFECT 10 

CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS 11 

SOUND CHANGES 13 

ETYMOLOGY 18 

THE ARTICLE ... 19 

NOUN GENDER 19 

NUMBER '21 

DIMINUTIVES ... ... ... ... ... -8 

RULES OF GENDER ... ... ... ... 29 

ADJECTIVES GENDER ... ... ... ... ... 32 

NUMBER 33 

COMPARISON 34 

NUMERALS ... ... ... .... ... 40 

PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES ... ... 45 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ... ... ... ... 45 

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 49 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS ... ... ... 50 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ... ... ... 51 

DEMONSTRATIVES ... ... ... ... 51 

RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS ... ... ... 53 

INTERROGATIVES... ... ... 53 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS ... ... ... ... 53 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ... 54 

THE VERB 55 

WYF CONJUGATED 5(5 

DYSGAF 59 

BARNAF 64 

FORMATION OF SRD SING. PRES. INDIC. ... 06 

THE PASSIVE 67 



viii. TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE 

ADVERBS 68 

PREPOSITIONS ... 72 

CONJUNCTIONS 75 

INTERJECTIONS 76 

DERIVATION PREFIXES 77 

SUFFIXES ... ... ... 79 

COMPOUNDS 82 

SYNTAX- 
WORD ORDER ... 84 

CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT 86 

ARTICLE ... ... ... 89 

NOUN 91 

ADJECTIVE ... ... ... ... ... ... 93 

NUMERALS ... 96 

PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES ... 99 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS ... ... ... ... 99 

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES ... ... ... 103 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ... ... ... 104 

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES ... ... ... 104 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS ... ... 104 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 107 

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS ... 108 

THE VERB 110 

THE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION ... ... 120 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD ... ... ... 121 

Yw, Oes, Mae, Sydd, DISTINGUISHED ... 122 

ADVERBS... ... ... ... ... 124 

PREPOSITIONS 128 

CONJUNCTIONS ... ... ... 131 

QUESTIONS ... ... ... ... ... ... 132 

ANSWERS 134 

WORDS NOT EASILY CLASSIFIED ... ... ... 135 

INITIAL MUTATIONS ... ... ... ... ... 136 

THE ADDITION OF INITIAL H. 148 

-<. CONTRACTED, IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS ... 150 
WORDS SIMILAR IN SOUND BUT DIFFERENT IN 

MEANING 157 

PARSING AND ANALYSIS 160 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE ALPHABET. 



1. The following 
Alphabet 



letters constitute the Welsh 







Name of 






Name of 


Capital. 


Small. 


Letter. 


Capital. 


Small. 


Letter. 


A 


a 


a 


LI 


11 


ell 


B 


b 


bi 


M 


m 


em 


C 


c 


ec 


N 


n 


en 


Ch 


ch 


ech 





o 





D 


d 


d 


P 


P 


Pi 


Dd 


dd 


edd 


Ph 


ph 


ffi 


E 


e 


e 


R 


r 


er 


F 


f 


ef 


Rh 


rh 


rhi 


Ff 


fi 


eff 


S 


s 


es 


G 


g 


eg 


T 


t 


ti 


Ng 




eng 


Th 


th 


eth 


H 


h 


hi or ha 


U 


u 


u 


I 


i 


i 


W 


w 


w 


L 


1 


el 


Y 


y 


y 



The following combinations for simple sounds are some- 
times added : 

Ngh, ngh ; Mh, mh ; Nh, nh. These are not radical : 
they occur only in construction and are the nasal forms 
of c, p, t, respectively, (v. par. 19 below). 






NOTE. i. Medially as in ang-hen-ion, cym-har-u, bren-hin-oedd, 
the h stands for a distinct sound, ii. The names of the letters 
are spelt according to Welsh Orthography. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



I 



2. VOWELS : The pronunciation of the vowels is 
approximately indicated in the following table : 
Welsh letter. Example. English. French. 

a cam ah ma 

a tad far rage 

e pren men 

e hen perc 

I dim whim 

1 hir queen 

6 lion cot robe 

6 M6n chose 

u pump ,*M- A*4 PJ0, i i. lutte 

U cur ruse 

W llwm wood route 

w ffrwd pool sou 

y hyned but neuf 

^y has a secondary sound, identical with that of 
U, thus : fat*, at Vv^L <P, it 

hynny lutte 

pryf ,^A ruse 

NOTES. i. The English tendency to convert a long vowel into 
a diphthong is foreign to Welsh. Thus o in English note is not 
a simple sound, while in Welsh, e.g., Mon, there is no trace of a 
diphthong. In this respect Welsh is very much like French. 

ii. The values given above to the letters are mere approxima- 
tions. Thus, in pronouncing French u, the lips are protruded. 
This is not the case in Welsh, with the result that the Duality or 
timbre of the sound produced is not exactly the same in both cases. 

jii. Y has the value of u in : 

(a) Monosyllables : e.g., dyn, man ; hyn, thix ; tyn, tight. 

( Exceptions : ' y ' has the primary or ' neutral j 
value (as in dynion, men) in proclitics, that is, 
words that have no accent of their own, but are 
for this purpose read with the following word, 
as ' y,' the in ' y dyn,' ' the man.' The most 
common proclitics are : f^my, dy thy, y, yr (Def. 
Art.; Rel. Pron. ; Adverb; Conjunction). .* ~ 

&L*4'i t /w^iwSf jt*tfv t *^>yv/ *4&Si Jty& *&&. 

(b) In the last syllable of words ei niofe'tnan one syllable, 
e,g., gelyn, enemy ; plentyn, child. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



j (c) In any syllable when followed by a vowel e.g., hyuwdlcdd 
eloquence ; gwelyau. beds. 

(d) In the diphthong wy^, e.g., hwyl, sail; imvynhad. 

enjoyment. 

(e) Frequently when preceded by the consonantal w, e.g., 

gwystlon, Iwstages ; wynebau, faces. 

(f) Generally in the prefix cyd-, and in the first elements 

of compounds, if monosyllabic, e.g., cydweithio, 
Rhydyi-hen, byrfyfyr, Tyhen, brysneges. 

N.B. Y has sometimes the value of Welsh i, e.g., megys, 
as, just as ; tebyg, like. 

iv. The sound of ' a ' in glad, man, so common in English, is not 
found in literary Welsh. 



3. DIPHTHONGS : When two dissimilar vowel 
sounds are uttered without a break between them, we 
get a DIPHTHONG. In Welsh we have the following 
diphthongs : a-e-ouuX>-<L ^ . 

5e as in aeth, he went iw as in lliw, colour 

ai mai, that - oe ,, coed, trees 

ail aur, gold oi ,, cloi, locking 

aw ,, hawl, a right OU ,, o'u, from their 

ei meibion, sons ow ,, ow ! alas / 

eu ,, breuddwyd, a dream uw Duw, God 

ew Hew, lion - wy llwyr, complete 

ey teyrn, a king yw, ydyw, he is 

S<u.r**pfe-ojt^A// vf V*- CK'I). 
4. CONSONANTS. 

b, d, 1, m, n, p, t, have the same values as in English. 

C is always hard as in English cat. 

ch is a spirant somewhat similar to the Scotch ch in 
loch but more guttural. It is never = ch in English 
character or charter. 

dd = Eng. th in this, never as in thin, 
f = Eng. v, or f in of, never f in for. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



ff, ph= Eng. f in for. 

g = Eng. g in get, never as in gin. 

ng = Eng. ng in sing. 

When n and g belong to* different parts of a compound they 
have separate values, and must be pronounced like ng 
in English anger. Examples : Bangor (fr. Ban + cor). 
Hengoed (fr. Hen + coed), &c. 

h = Eng. h in hand, never silent as in honour. 

11 represents a peculiar sound. It is the surd sound of 
unilateral 1. If the vocal organs be in readiness to pro- 
nounce tl in English antler, 11 can be arrived at by attend- 
ing to two particulars : 

(i) Emit the breath more freely than when pro- 
ducing tl, and 

(ii) Let the emission of the breath be continuous, 
without the sudden explosive t at the 
beginning. f ?- 

r : Always strongly trilled like r in French pere, and 
Lat. fur. The sound is produced by rapidly vibrating 
the tongue against the gums of the upper teeth. 

S=English s in sin, never= z as in paths. 
th=Eng. th in thin, never as in this. 

NOTE. The letters j, k, q, V, x, and z have not been included 
in the above. They occ\ir in borrowed words only : as Jerusalem, 
Vergil, Zel, &c. 

5. There are NO SILENT LETTERS in Welsh. Contrast 
the English monosyllable EVE with the Welsh dissyllabic 
EFE. The Englishman is so used to FINAL E MUTE that 
he must always be on his guard against treating final E in 
Welsh in the same way. 

Again in English PSALM the p and L are silent, while 
in the Welsh equivalent L is fully sounded, and the silent 
p disappears, 



CHAPTER II. 
ACCENT. 

6. Definition : ACCENT, often called the SYLLABIC 
ACCENT, is the special stress of voice laid upon a par- 
ticular syllabic hi a word, as English man'y, impossible, 
and Welsh dag'rau, tears ; gallu'og, poiverful. 

X.B. Accent must be distinguished from emphasis, sometimes 
called thought-accent, which is the special voice stress laid upon 
a word in a sentence in order to express the meaning of the latter, 
e.g., in 

Myff a' i gwnaeth. 

It was I that did it. 

The emphasis is on the whole word myff, but the accent of that 
word is on the ' fi,' thus my-fT 

7. POSITION OF THE ACCENT : In words of more 
than one syllable THE ACCENT IN WELSH is ALMOST 

INVARIABLY UPON THE PENULT OR LAST SYLLABLE BUT 
ONE. 

Exs. : dag'-rau, tears ; gallu'-og, able ; galluog'-i, enab- 
ling. 

EXCEPTIONS : The following are the most important 
exceptions : 

WORDS ACCENTED ON THE LAST SYLLABLE. 

&ju^ 

(a) Verb-nouns in -oi, -au, -hau, and derivative nouns 
in -had, for these terminations are dissyllabic in origin. 

Exs. : osgoi', avoiding ; coffau', reminding ; bywhau', 
enlivening ; glanhad'. a purifying. 

(b) The reduplicated pronouns : 

myfT, tydi', efe', nyni', chwychwi', hwynthwy. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(c) Certain dissyllables beginning in ys-, ym-, e.g., 
ysten, a can ; ystorm', a storm ; ymlyn', adhere ; ymgudd/, 
he hides ; but note : ysten'-au, cans ; ystorm'-ydd, storms ; 
ymlyn'-u, adhering ; ymgudd'-io, hiding ; ace. to rule. 

(d) A few other words as drachefn'ifcao^'. 

t-faeKefw J 

N.B. (1) Borrowed words often retain their original accent 
as ' philosophi.' 

(ii.) The accent in diphthongs falls upon the first vowel, e.g., 
gwydd a goose. 

(iii.) The following have no accent apart from the word to which 
they are attached : 

a, yr, y, ydd, ys, fy, dy. 



QUANTITY. 

8. Welsh simple vowels may be (a) LONG, (b) SH-OKT, 
(c) egos^tr; thus : 

in mor sea is long. 

in moroedd seas is short. 

in morio sailing is closed. 






(a) A short vowel is in quantity half-way between long and 
oloeed. In quality it is always open. 

(b) Some grammarians adopt the terms (i.) long, (ii.) half-long, 
(iii.) Short, respectively for the (i.) long, (ii.) short, (iii.) closed here 
given. 

(c)' Short and 'closed have not been distinguished in 2. 

Closed vowels are .those which are suddenly cut off by the suc- 
ceeding consonant.fii5. r ^ sJLvu-#- ~j/u$-fcO 

w-TM-rf-o.. oi~ tfVOUXA-tCX^Ur&w, +njL++&. 3t(r*. 0uC<JLAjjttst j^^fJLi^. 

9. IN 'UNACCENTED SYLLABLES. 

SIMPLE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS in an UN-ACCENTED 
syllable are always^SBcaw'^*^ ***) 

e.g., o in hynod, strange ; y in llonydd, quiet ; 
dirwy, a fine. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



10. IN ACCENTED SYLLABLES. 

I. A SIMPLE VOWEL in an accented syllable : 

A. MONOSYLLABLE^ :. The VOWEL of a monosyllable 
is either LONG or- CLOSED." 

e.g., in ta"n, fire, the a is long. 

in tiin, under, the a is closed. J 

(a) The vowel is < CLOSED " when followed by TWO or 

MORE CONSONANTS : 

pant, hollow ; cors, a bog. 

(b) When followed by a single consonant the length 
of the vowel is somewhat uncertain : 

f jL, 

e.g., can, song (long) ; gan, with (elesea). 



B. WORDS OP MORE THAN ONE SYLLABLE. 

(i) ACCENTED FINAL SYLLABLES follow the same rule 
as monosyllables. 

(ii) In all other cases, the vowels in words of more than 

one syllable are either SHORT or etesfiB never LONG. 

' 



(a) The vowel in every syllable is -GLjgSfiD when followed 
by two or more consonants, e.g., 

e in plenty n, child ; a in tamp, firing. *.- 0*1**** 



(b) Long vowels in monosyllables become sSaxy in 
penultimate syllables, e.g., 

mor, sea ; moroedd, seas. 



* vowels in monosyllables remain,, closed" in 
penultimate syllables, e.g., 

pen, head ; pengrwn, round-head. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



11. Ihi'HTHONGS : The second vowel of every diph- 
thong is always shwb, /the quantity of a diphthong being 
determined by that of the first vowel. 

(i) In MONOSYLLABLES and ACCENTED FINAL SYL- 
LABLES : 

(a) The first vowel in : 

ai, au, aw ; ei, ey, eu, ew ; iw, oi, ow, uw, yw, 

is generally -efe^rt, ; exs. : 

' * - IfM 

brain, crowsfA^ vi3L*i) cewch, you obtain. 

gwau, weaving. lliw, colour. 

clawdd, hedge. troi, turning. 

cei, tkou obtainest. rhowch, you give. 

dWeyd, saying. Duw, God. 

neu, or. byw, living. 

(b) The first vowel of ae, oe, wy, is long ; exs. : gwaed, 

blood ; cited, trees ; bwyd, food. 

e , 5e , ivy 
SPELLING. 

11. It is impossible to formulate rules that may be 
considered satisfactory on this subject. Writers of Welsh 
have been too ready to follow their own theories, regard- 
less of the example set them in the classics of Welsh liter- 
ature, and a great many inconsistencies can be detected. 

It may be of some service, however, to the young student 
to point out certain facts and tendencies in Welsh ortho- 
graphy. 

(1) The doubling of consonants is generally avoided 
even in closed accented syllables. Hence write : 

ateb, answer, not atteb. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(2) n and r however are doubled in close accented 
syllables : 

cerryg, not ceryg ; hynny, not hyny. 

(3) Do not double the n or r if another consonant 
follows, or if final. 

Hence cardod, a dole ; tanio, firing ; pen, head. 
Exceptions : gyrr, a drove ; ynn, plu. of onnen, ash. 

(4) Note the frequency of the sequence e . . y, as in 
tebyg, like ; llewys, sleeves ; menyg, gloves. 

(5) The terminations i and U in verbs. Use i. : 

(a) When the preceding letter is w as sylwi, 

noticing. 

(b) If the vowel of the preceding syllable is 

or oe, as poeni, worrying ; profi, testing. 

(c) When e of the penult is a mutated a, tewi, 

being silent (cf. taw, be silent). 

Otherwise use u as in claddu, burying. 

(6) Ae and ai : If the verb-noun ends in -io, as 
tcithio, travelling, the radical form of the preceding diph- 
thong will generally be ai ; thus teithio is from taith, a 
journey ; but if the verb ends in u, the diphthong will 
be ae, as in traethu, stating. 

Exception : cyfieithu, from cyfiaith. 

(7) Au and eu : Note that au and not eu is used as a 
plural termination, thus pethau, things. Also in verb 
nouns as glanhau^ cleaning, cleansing. On the other hand 
use eu in goreu, best, &c. 



10 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(8) Ai, au, and ae : the diphthongs ai and au occur 
only in final syllables. In any other position they become 
ei and eu respectively, e.g., 

taith teithio t !***<. 

ffau cJiA^ 4JU* -fieuau 

* ^yOTJM/VxX^ft 

Daioni is not an exception for the I is consonantal, and the 
syllabic structure of the word is da-ion-i. 

Afl remains unchanged in all positions, as 

maeth /vwCtuAjL, maethu ^* /y^vJu^Jl*- 
caeth aJta^r^ caethiwed ^Ji^v-tn^t 

(9) When the syllable preceding the accented one ends 
in a vowel, or in the liquids m, n, ng, r, the aspirate 
h is frequently inserted at the beginning of the accented 
syllable : exs., . t 

brenhinoedd Cfrom breninl Icing ; parhaus', continuous, 

lasting. 
N.B. There are exceptions to nearly all these rules. 



12. THE WELSH ALPHABET IS NOT PERFECT. 

In a perfect alphabet : 

(i) THERE is ONE SYMBOL AND ONLY ONE FOR EVERY 

SEPARATE SOUND. 

(ii) COMPOUND SYMBOLS OR DIGRAPHS SHOULD 

REPRESENT THE SOUNDS OF THEIR ELEMENTS, e.g., th 

should=t and h as heard in the English ant-hill. 

Now, in Welsh we have : 

{i) The symbols u and y representing more than one 
sound : 

U (a) as in pump, five. 

(b) =i as in ugain, twenty. 

(c) silent in luddewon, Jews ; but the retention 

of U in this word has been strongly objected 
to, cf. 5 above. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 11 



Y (a) the clear sound heard in pryf, vermin. - AL 

(b) the dark sound heard in hynod, strar-^ e d 

(c) = i in megys, as, iust as, &c. 

(d) the scarcely audible sound of the first y in 

tragywyddol, eternal ; dyrysu, confusing. 

(ii) W and i are used as both vowels and consonants : 
e.g. (1) as vowels in hir, long; hwy, longer. 

(-) as consonants in iawn, right ; tanio, 
firing ; gWynt, ivind. 

(iii.) ff and ph represent the same sound, e.g., ffordd, 
road ; corph, body. 

(iv) The digraph or compound symbols, eh, dd, ff, 11, 
ng, ph, th, represent perfectly simple sounds and are not 
sequences of c and h, &c. 

In diphthongs, vowel signs frequently acquire a new value, but 
as these values are somewhat uncertain, little would be gained by 
entering into the subject in an elementary grammar. English- 
men will not go far wrong if they regard a diphthong, in Welsh, as 
the sounds of its separate letters uttered in rapid succession. 

13. THE CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS. 

Consonants may be divided in a great many ways 
according to the basis of classification adopted. 

Thus we divide them : 

I. Into A. MUTES, or consonants produced by the 
sudden emission of the breath when its passage was pre- 
viously stopped : 

p, t, c; b, d, g. 

B. SPIRANTS (often called CONTINUOUS or FRICATIVE) 
consonants produced by the emission of the breath 
through a partially closed passage : 

h ; j, w, ch, dd, f, ff, ph, s, th ; 1, 11, m, mh, n, nh, 
ng, ngh ; ~r, rh. 



12 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



II. Into A. SURDS (often called HARD, SHARP or 
BREATHED), i.e., consonants requiring a SHARP TENSION 
in the organs of speech : 

h ; c, ch, ff , p, ph, s, t, th ; 11, rah, nh, ngh ; rh. 

B. SONANTS (often called SOFT, FLAT or VOICED), 
consonants requiring but LITTLE TENSION in the organs 
of speech producing them : 

b, d, dd, f, g ; 1, m, n, r, ng ; i, w. 

N.B. The liquids, 1, m, n, ng, r, 11, rah, nh, ngh, rh, are often 
given under a separate heading. There seems no sufficient reason, 
however, for interfering with the classifications given above. 

III. According to the ORGANS OF SPEECH chiefly 
used in their production : 

(a) Labials or lip consonants : p, b, W. 

(b) Dentals or tooth consonants : d, t, dd, th, s. 

(c) Labio-dentals : f, ff, ph. 

(d) Labio-nasals : m, mh. 

(e) Dento-nasals : n, nh. 

(f) Palatals: i. 

(g) Guttural or throat consonants : c, g, ch, h. 
(h) Gutturo-nasals : ng, ngh. 

(i) Linguals : 1, 11, r, rh. 

IV. There is another important classification of Welsh 
consonants which cannot be applied to English consonants. 
Many initial consonants in Welsh undergo change, as 
p into b, due to the influence of the preceding word, e.g., 
pen, head, becomes ben after ei, his : thus ' ei ben, ' 
his head. As p is the radical form of this b, the word must 
be looked for in a dictionary under p. Hence the follow- 
ing classification. 

A. RADICAL CONSONANTS: ch(w), ff, h, n, s, c, 
p,t,g, b, d; 11; m; rh. 

These letters are found as initials of words in their radical or 
dictionary form. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 13 



B. DERIVATIVE (or SECONDARY) CONSONANTS: 
b, ch, d, dd, f, g, ng, ngh, 1, m, mh, n, nh, ph, r, th. 

The letters ch, b, d, g, m, n, belong to both classes, for 
besides being radical, they are often mutated forms of c, p, t, c, 
b, d. Hence if the pupil who is not versed in the laws of mutation 
in Welsh finds a strange word beginning with any of the above 
consonants, say with b, in the course of his reading, he must 
look for it in the dictionary under p as well as b before abandon- 
ing the search. 

Further the following mutated forms in /, viz. fel, as, like ; 
felly, so, thuj ; fory, to-morrow, &c., and such borrowed words 
in I, as lamp, lamp ; larwm, alarum ; lili, lily ; and a few others 
are entered as radical forms in dictionaries. 



14. RADICAL CONSONANTS may be sub-divided 
into : 

A. The immutable consonants : eh (always followed 
by w), ff, h, n, s. 

These can never be mutated. 

B. The mutable consonants : C, p, t ; g, b, d ; 11, 
m, rh. 

NOTE. --VOWELS also may be classified as mutable and 
immutable. 

The mutable vowels are a, e, o, w, y. 
The immutable vowels are *i and u. 



SOUND CHANGES. 

15. Everywhere in language there is a strong tendency 
to do away with UNNECESSARY EFFORT in the articulation 
of WORDS and COMBINATIONS OF WORDS. Hence it is 
that in English we pronounce slabs as slabz, and in Welsh 



* i is mutable in brith, speckled, fern, braith. 



14 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



aper lias been reduced to aber. So again with vowels : 
thus in the English word many, it is evident that the 
change from a to i or y is considerable, and before we 
have left the a, we try to adjust our organs of speech 
for the pronunciation of the coming i. This reduces 
a to e a sound half-way between the original a and the 
i of the next syllable. The symbol a may continue to be 
written, as in English many, but its sound will be that 
of the Welsh e. Or again, the a may come to be written 
e, in which case the i that caused the change will, as a 
rule, in English, disappear. That is precisely what has 
taken place in 

(i) English men from man, through the intermediate 
stage mani, manni. 

(ii) Welsh ceni, thou singest, from canu, singing. 

NOTE. The vowel i here remains after partially assimilating 
the a. 

In Welsh, sound changes are due to : 

A. PHONETIC CAUSES A desire to make ever}' 
combination of sounds as easy of articulation as possible. 
This may be seen in : 

(i) The ASSIMILATION OF UNLIKE SOUNDS to one 
another, as car, he loves ; ceri, thou lovest ; or 

(ii) Change due to the SHIFTING OF THE ACCENT, 
e.g., teg, fair,, superl. tecaf, fairest, for older 
teg-haf ; llofla irom llof-hau ; so ti, thou, and 
unaccented dy, thy. 

B. ANALOGY : Changes made in accordance with 
certain rules which do not really apply to the cases in 
question, e.g., 

The change of final -b, -d, -g, into p, t, c, in the Com- 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 15 



parative Proper because this takes place in the comp. 
of equality and in the superlative, e.g. : 

Modern Welsh : teg, tecach, teced, tecaf. 
Mediaeval teg, tegach, teced, tecaf. 

The d of diwrnod, day, becomes n after wyth, eight, on 
the analogy of saith niwrnod, naw niwrnod. 

NOTE. (i.) The change into n after saith and naw is due to 
the fact that these numerals ended originally in -n. Wyth never 
had -n. 

(ii.) The following striking instances of analogy, frequently 
heard in conversation are not sanctioned by literary usage : 

ei mham, her mother (correct form ei mam) the aspiration 
of the m being on the analogy of pen, head ; ei phen, 
h$r head, &c. ; and again, gyda 'm mrawd (correct form, 
gyda 'm brawd) the change of the b in brawd into 
m being due to the fact that fy, the normal form of 
'm produces this change. Thus brawd, brother ; fy 
mrawd, my brother. 



16. MUTATION OF VOWELS. 

The mutable vowels a, e, 0, W, y, may undergo the 
following changes : 

a into (1) e>as car, he loves ; ceri. thou lovest. 

(2) ei > as taflu, throwing ; 3rd sg. pres. ind. teifl. 

(3) y,as aradr, 'plough ; plu. erydr. 

(4) ai,as dafad, plu. defaid, sheep. 
e into y, as hen, old ; hyn, older. 

into y, as in porth, a porch ; plu. pyrth. 
W into (1) (KaSfcCrwn, round; fern. cron. 

(2) y as^cwmwl, cloud ; plu. cymylau. 
y into e,as byr, short ; fern. ber. 
oe into wy, as oen, lamb ; pi. wyn. 

And the diphthongs : 

ae into (1) ai,as.draen, a thorn ; plu. drain. 

(2) eu,as^maes, field ; plu. meusydd. 
ai into ei as sain, sound ; plu. seiniau, 



16 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



17. USES OP VOWEL MUTATIONS. From the above 
examples the student will see that mutations of vowels 
are now often used in grammar to mark 

(1) Gender; (2) number; (3) the 2nd and 3rd sing, 
pres. indie, of verbs. 



18. CONSONANT CHANGES. 

The nine MUTABLE CONSONANTS are : 
p, t, e, b, d, g, 11, rh, m. 

These changes take place : 

(1) In the body of a word as aber from older aper. 
They are more readily seen in DERIVATIVES and COM- 
POUNDS, as these forms can often be analysed into their 
constituent parts, without any knowledge of the history 
of the language, e.g., anfoddlawn, unwilling, from an 
+ bodd + llawn. 



(2) Just as in compounds the initial of one element 
is changed under the influence of the termination of the 
preceding element, so in a phrase or sentence the initial 
of a word may be changed under the influence of the 
termination of the preceding word. These changes are 
termed : 



19. The INITIAL MUTATION OF CONSONANTS, 

and will be dealt with first. viaA 2. 1 7 2. ^ "*- 

The changes which the mutable consonants may under- 
go when initial, are given in the following table : 

N.B. In the examples given the mutations are produced by 
dy, thy ; ei, her ; fy, my ; thus p6n, head ; dy ben, thy head. 
dd 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



17 



Sound. 


Radical. 


Soft. 


Xasal. 


Aspirate. . 


P 
t 
C 


pen, head 
troed, foot 
cyfaill, friend 


dy ben 
,, droed 
gyfaffl 


fy nihen 
nhroed 
nghyfaill 


ei phen 
throed 
chyfaill 


b 
d 

g 


brawd, brother 
dafad, sheep 
gardd, garden 


dy frawd 
ddafad 


fy mrawd 
nafad 
ngardd 




11 

rh 
m 


llyfr, book 
rhan, portion 
mab, son 


dy lyfr 
ran 
fab 







..-- 



(a) Where b and d become f and dd respectively, g disappears. 

(b) Initial m is never mutated into mh. 

(c) After ei, her, b-, d-, g-, 11-, rh-, and m- remain unchanged : 
thus brawd, brother ; ei brawd, her brother. 

(d) After fy, my, 11-, rh-, m-, remain unchanged ; mab, son ; 
fy mab, my son. 

The conditions producing initial mutation will be dealt 
with in later chapters and the appendix. 

20. IN COMPOSITION. In COMPOUND words and 
DERIVATIVES the initial mutable consonant of every part, 
excepting of course the first, is mutated under the in- ^ 
fluence of the preceding element. Thus : 

p into b as pen, head ; erbyn, against, by. 

t ,, d ty, house; beudy, cow-house. 

c g Car, friend ; hygar, amiable. 

b ,, f ,, bodd, will ; anfodd, ununUingness. 

d ., dd deg, ten ; deuddeg, twelve. 

g ,, gwr, man ; gwerth-wr, vendor. 

11 ,, 1 ,, llawn, full ; boddlawn, willing. 

rh r rhwydd, easy ; afrwydd, difficult. 

m ,, f mawr, great ; enfawr, immense. 

There are many exceptions, more particularly in the 
case of derivatives as 

d into n, doeth, wise ; annoeth, foolish. 



CHAPTER III. 
ETYMOLOGY. 

21. ETYMOLOGY is that branch of grammar which 
deals with the CLASSIFICATION, INFLECTION and DERIVA- 
TION of words : 

Words are CLASSIFIED according to their FUNCTION, 
i.e., their use in a sentence. Thus in : 

(1) Tal iddo gyflog gwr, pay him a man's wages. 

(2) Cefais dal da ganddo, he gave me good pay. 

T&l discharges a different function in the two sentences. 

The classes thus obtained are called PARTS OF SPEECH : 
The PARTS OF SPEECH in Welsh are : ARTICLE, 

NOUN, ADJECTIVE, PRONOUN, VERB, ADVERB, PREPOS- 
ITION, CONJUNCTION, AND INTERJECTION. 

NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, PRONOUNS, VERBS, PRO-NOMINAL 

PREPOSITIONS and some ADVERBS are INFLECTED, or 
changed in form, in order to indicate a change in their 
function. 

The sum total of the inflections of nouns and pronouns 
is called DECLENSION. 

The inflections of VERBS and PRONOMINAL PREPOS- 
ITIONS make up their CONJUGATION. 

ADJECTIVES and SOME ADVERBS are INFLECTED to 
indicate degrees of COMPARISON. 

SOME ADJECTIVES are also DECLINED like nouns. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 19 



THE ARTICLE. 

22. DEFINITE ARTICLE : (1) Y before consonants 
and consonantal W, as y dyn, the man ; y wraig, the woman. 

(2) Yr before vowels and consonantal i, as yr enw, 
the name ; yr iaith, the language. 

(3) 'r, used instead of yr and y when the preceding 
word ends in a vowel, as i'r dref, to the town ; o'r iaith, 
from the language. 

It is important to note that though 'r the post-vocalic 
form of the def. art. may be used after all words ending 
in a vowel, the best writers use it as a rule only after a, 
0, mo, tua, gyda, and a few other short words. Note 
very rarely after wedi. 

23. There is no indefinite article in Welsh. Hence 
we say bwrdd, a table, &c. 

NOUNS. 

24. In Welsh, nouns are inflected for GENDER and 
NUMBER but not for CASE. 

GENDER. 

25. THERE is NO NEUTER GENDER IN WELSH. 

26. Names of MALES are MASCULINE, those of 
FEMALES are FEMININE, and names of INANIMATE objects 
are always MASCULINE or FEMININE. A few nouns are 

of COMMON GENDER. 

27. FORMATION OF THE FEMININE. 

(1) By adding -es to the masculine : 

Maac. Fern. 

Hew, lion 11 ewes, lioness 

brenin, king brenhines, queen 

dyn, man dynes, woman 



20 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



In the case of lleidr, thief, and Sais, Englishman, the 
-es is added to the stem which has been disguised in the 
masc. singular : 

lleidr lladrones 

Sais Saesnes 

(2) By changing -yn of the masc. into -en : 

asyn, he-ass asen, she-ass 

hogyn, boy hogen, girl 

crwtyn, boy croten, girl 

28. Gender is also distinguished : 

(3) By the use of different words for the masculine 
and feminine. 



Masc. 

bachgen, boy 
baedd, boar 
brawd, brother 
bustach, eidion, bullock 
carw, hydd, stag 
cefnder, cousin 
ceffyl, horse 
ceiliog, cock 
ci, dog 

chwegrwn, father-in-law 
daw, son-in-law 
ewythr, uncle 
gwas, man-servant 
gwr, husband 
gwryw, a male 
hwrdd, ram 
mab, son 
nai, nephew 
tad, father 
taid, grandfather 
tadcu, 
tad-da 
tarw, bull 



Fern. 

geneth, girl 
hwch, sow 
chwaer, sister 
anner, heifer 
ewig, hind 
cyfnither, cousin 
caseg, mare 
iar, hen 
gast, bitch 

chwegr, mother-in-law 
gwaudd, daughter-in-law 
modryb, aunt 
morwyn, maid-servant 
gwraig, wife 

benyw, a female, a woman 
dafad, ewe 
merch, daughter 
nith, niece 
mam, mother 
nain, grandmother 
mamgu ,, 
mam-dda 
buwch, cow 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 21 



29. The masculine is formed from the feminine, in 

the case of 

ceiliogwydd, gander, from gwydd, a goose. 
gwr-cath, a tom-cat, from cath, a tib-cat, a cat. 

Epicene Nouns : The names of some animals, birds and 
fish are epicene ; that is, some are masculine and some are 
feminine, quite irrespective of the sex of the obj ect. Thus 

eryr, eagle ; pysgodyn, fish ; and brithyll, trout, 
are always masculine ; 

while : colomen, dove ; and neidr, snake, are always 
feminine. 

When it is desired to distinguish the sexes it is customary 
to add gwryw and benyw in the case of some of these 
words, e.g., 

Male. Female, 

eryr gwryw eryr benyw 

colomen wryw colomen fenyw 

N.B. If eryr were feminine the b would be softened into f, 
thus, eryr fenyw. Similarly colomen is feminine even in colomen 
wryw. 

Compare also plentyn, child ; and baban, infant, which 
are always masculine even when applied to females. 

These words are excellent illustrations of the fact 
too often forgotten that Gender and Sex are not con- 
vertible terms : Gender is a distinction in the words, while 
sex is a difference in the objects named. 

NUMBER.. 

30 The PLURAL is formed from the SINGULAR. 
(1) By CHANGE of the INTERNAL VOWEL, thus : 
Sing. Meaning. Plu. 

a intoai sant saint . saint 

a ei tarw bull teirw 

a ,, y bustach bullock busty ch 

e y cyllell knife cyllyll 

,, cefnder cousin cefndyr 



22 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



e 


in1 


to y 





, 


y 


a... 


e , 


e...y 


a... 


a , 


e...y 


a... 


w . 


e...y 


a . 


a , 


e...ai 


aea 


> 


eiy 




Sing. Meaning. Plu. 

cyfyrder second cousin cyfyrdyr 

ffordd road ffyrdd 

castle cestyll 

plough erydr 

bone esgyrn 

sheep defaid 

iron heiyrn 



(a) Most derivatives in -ad and -iad, denoting the agent, 
form their plural by changing a into ai. 

ceidwad, a keeper ; plu. ceidwaid. 

offeiriad, a priest ; ,, offeiriaid. 

N.B. Verbal Nouns in -ad, -iad, add -au for the plural : 
galwad, a call ; plu. galwadau. 



dyfarniad, adjudication ; 



dyfarniadau. 



NOTE. In Mediaeval Welsh e is changed into y in : 

seren, a star ; plu. syr. 

unbenn, chieftain ; unbynn. 

(2) By adding a SUFFIX : 



-au 



-lau 
-laid 
-ed 

edd 



Sing. 


Meaning. 


Plu. 


pen 


head 


pennau 


| Uwyn 


loin 


j llwynau 


(Iwyn 




"llwynau 


cib 


shell, husk 


cibau 


cibyn 


shell, husk 


( cibynau 






{ cibau 


bryn 


hill 


bryniau 


pechadur 


sinner 


pechaduriaid 


pryf 


insect 


pryfed 


merch 


daughter 


merched 


ewin 


finger nail 


ewinedd 


dant 


tooth 


dannedd 


bys 


finger 


bysedd 


mo dry b 


aunt 


modrybedd 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



23 





Sing. 


Meaning. 


Plu. 


-edd 


as ewythr 


uncle 


ewythredd 


-oedd 


nith 


niece 


nithoedd 


n 


mor 


sea 


moroedd 


-ydd 


,, afon 


river 


afonydd 


-i 


llwyn 


bush, grove 


llwyni 


-on 


,, merthyr 


martyr 


merthyron 


-ion 


,, dyn 


man 


dynion 


-od 


camel 


camel 


camelod 


tl 


,, cwcw 


cuckoo 


cwcwod 


15 


geneth 


girl 


genethod 





cyfnither 


female cousin 


cyfnitherod 


(a) -od 


is almost entirely 


confined to names of the lower 



animals : The moat common exceptions are geneth and cyfnither. 

(b) The plural suffix -edd, is regularly added to names for 
parts of the body, as ewin, dant, bys, given above. 

(c) -au, -iau, are the most living of the plural suffixes in 
Welsh, i.e., if a new word is introduced into the language, it will 
generally form its plu. in -au, or -iau. 

(d) DERIVATIVKS ending in -der, -did, -dod, -edd, -yd, -aeth, 
-as, -es, form their plural by the addition of -au, Thus : eangder, 
amplitude, plu. eangderau. Other examples are : 

gwendid, weakness gwybodaeth, knowledge 

awdurdod, authority priodas, marriage 

gwaeledd, loidiness brenhines, queen 
bywyd, life 

(e) Deiivatives in -ai, add -on in the plural, e.g., 

gwestai guest, lodger gwesteion 

Ilatai love messenger llateion 

-edd has been replaced by -oedd in : 



(f) 

ynys, island ; ynysoedd 
tir, land ; tiroedd 
dwfr, water ; dyfroedd 
brenin, king brenhinoedd 
and a few others. 



(older ynysedd). 
( tiredd). 
( dyfredd). 
( brenhinedd). 



(g) If the sing, ends in -yn or -en, that suffix is usually dropped 
before the plural termination is added, e.g., 

cwning-en, a rabbit ; plu. cwning-od 
meddw-yn, drunkard ; meddw-on 
difer-yn, a drop ; plu. difer-ion 

but also diferyn-nau 

N.B. This rule does NOT apply to singular nouns in -yn and 
-en formed from collectives v. 35 below. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(3) By a change of the 


INTERNAL VOWEL and the 


ADDITION of a SUFFIX. 






Sing. 


Meaning. 


Plu. 


a into 


e 


nant 


brook 


nentydd 


a 


ei 


mab 


son 


meibion 






claf 


a sick person 


cleifion 






naf 


lord, creator 


neifion 


ae ,, 


ei 


saer 


carpenter 


seiri 


> 


eu 


maes 


field 


meusydd 


ai 


ei 


gair 


word 


geiriau 


au 


eu 


ffau 


den 


ffeuau 


aw 





llawr 


floor 


lloriau 


w 


y 


cwrdd 


meeting 


cyrddau 


W...W 


y---y 


cwmwl 


cloud 


cymylau 






cwcwll 


hood, cap 


cycyllau 


NOTE. i. The 


third 


method is, 


strictly speaking, 


a sub- division 



of the 2nd. 

ii. cwcyllau is the plu. form in most editions of the Bible. 



31 Some nouns form their plural by 
not to the singular, but to a RELATED 
lowing are some of the most common 
kind : 



adding the suffix 
FORM. The fol- 
examples of this 



Sing. 


Related form to 
Aleanin^' which Plu. ending 
is added. 


Plural. 


cam 


step 


camre 


camrau 


can 


song 


caniad 


caniadau 


credadyn 


believer 


credin 


credin wyr 


Cristion 


Christian 


cristionog 


Cristionogion 


chwaer 


sister 


chwior 


chwiorydd 


daeargryn 


earthquake 


daeargrynfa 


daeargrynfaau 


dychryn 


fear 


dychryniad 


dychryniadau 


gras 


grace 


grasus 


grasusau 


gwlaw 


rain 


gwlawog 


gwlawogydd 


llif 


flood 


llifog 


llifogydd 


nos 


night 


noswaith 


nosweithiau 


pared 


partition 


parwyd 


parwydydd 


rheg 


curse 


rhegfa 


rhegfeydd 


tuedd 


inclination 


tueddiad 


tueddiadau 


ysgrifen 


writing 


ysgrifeniad 


ysgrifeniadau 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 25 



32 THE PLURAL OF COMPOUND NOUNS : If the attribu- 
tive element comes first, the second element alone will be 
changed in the plural : 

tafarn-dy public-house tafarn-dai 

gweithiwr workman gweith-wyr 

gweddi-wr one who prays gweddi-wyr 

ysbi-wr spy ysbi-wyr 

NOTE. If the i before -WT is a part of the preceding 
element it is retained in the plu. Thus gweddiwr= 
gweddi, prayer, and gwr, man. Otherwise it is dropped 
as in the plural of gweithiwr. 

33 SOME NOUNS HAVE TWO OR MORE PLURAL FORMS : 
They may be divided into two classes : 

(1) THOSE WITHOUT DIFFERENCE OF MEANING : 

Sing. Meaning. Plu. 

angel angel engyl, angylion, angelion 

astell board estyll & estyllod 

castell castle cestyll & castelli 

padell pan pedyll & padelli 

cloch bell clych & clychau 

gafr goat geifr, gafrod & geifrod 

sant saint saint and seintiau 

ty house tai & teiau 

aber estuary, brook aberoedd & ebyr* 

mor sea moroedd & myr* 

maen stone meini & main* 

blwyddyn, blynedd year blynyddoedd. blynyddau 

eglwys church eglwysi & eglwysydd 

Uythyr letter, epistle llythyrau & Uythyron 



meistr 


master 


meistri, meistriaid & 
meistradoedd 


mynydd 
plwyf 
tref" 
Uith 


mountain 
parish 
town 
lesson 


mynyddau, mynyddoedd 
plwyfi & plwyfydd 
trefi & trefydd 
llithoedd & llithiau 


Gwyddel 


Irishman 


Gwyddyl & Gwyddelod 


bwyall, bwyell 


axe, hatchet 


bwyeill & bwyill 



* Ebyr, myr, main, are rare outside poetry. 



26 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(2) THOSE WITH DIFFERENCE OF MEANING : 



Sing. 


Meaning. 


Plu. 


bron 


(1) breast, pap 


bronnau 




(2) hillside 


bronnydd 


cyngor 


(1) counsel, advice 


cynghorion 




(2) council 


cynghorau 


Uwyth 


(1) tribe 


llwytb.au 




(2) load 


llwythi 


person 


(1) person 


personau 




(2) parson, clergyman 


personiaid 


ysbryd 


(1) spirit 


ysbrydoedd, ysbrydion 




(2) ghost 


ysbrydion 




(3) mood, courage 


ysbrydoedd 



34 THE FOLLOWING ARE IRREGULAR : 
Sing, 
celain 

deigr (and deigryn) 
gwraig 
lleidr 
neidr 

rhiain (and rhian) 
cawg 
crafanc 
ci 



oen 

dynes (and gwraig) 

troed 

gwr 

brawd 

.gwaew 

car 

gof 

nai 

ych. 

Sais 

Haw 

maharen 



Meaning. 


Plu. 


corpse 


celanedd 


tear 


dagrau 


woman 


gwragedd 


thief 


lladron 


snake 


nadredd, nadroedd 


lady 


rhianedd 


ewer 


cawgiau 


claw 


crafangau 


dog 


cwn 


skin 


crwyn 


lamb 


wyn 


woman 


gwragedd (from gwraig) 


foot 


traed 


man 


gwyr 


brother 


brodyr 


pang 


gwewyr 


relative 


ceraint 


smith 


go faint 


nephew 


neiaint 


ox 


ychen 


Englishman 


Saeson 


hand 


dwylaw 


ram 


mvheryn 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



27 



(a) REVERSION : In the first six words of this list, i.e., 
celain to rhiain, the mutated vowel is seen not in the plural, 
but in the sing. The plural returns to the radical form 
of the letter. So also in the now little used galon, enemies, 
sing., gelyn ; and, in North Wales, daint, tooth, plural, 
dannedd. 

This return to a more original form of the vowel is called 
reversion. 



35 N.B. IN WELSH THE SING, is SOMETIMES FORMED 
FROM THE PLURAL AND COLLECTIVES, by adding -yn for 
the masc. and -en for the feminine : 
Collective and 

Sing. 

adervn 

gronyn 

gwybedyn 

gweiryn 

plentyn 

rhosyn 

derwen 



Plural Xouns. 
adar 


Meaning. 
birds 


grawn 
gwybed 
gwair 
plant 
rhos 


grain, berries 
flies 
hay 
children 
roses 


derw 


oak-trees 


gwenyn 


bees 


mes 


acorns 


plu 

yd 


feathers 
corn 


haidd 
gwenith 
ceirch 


barley 
wheat 
oats 



gwenynen 

mes en 

pluen 

yden 

heidden 

gwenithen 

ceirchen 



Meaning. 
a bird 

a single grain 
a fly 

a blade of hay 
a child 
a rose 
an oak 
a bee 
an acorn 
a feather 
a grain of corn 
a grain of barley 
a grain of wheat 
a grain of oats 



(a) Some of the collective nouns given above take a plural 
termination to denote a change of meaning : 

gwair, plur. gweiriau, different kinds or lots of hay. 
yd, plur. ydau, different kinds or lots of corn. 
haidd, plu. heiddiau, different kinds or lots of barley. 

(b) The sing, has sometimes a different meaning from the col- 
lective noun from which it is formed : 

caws, the food-stuff called cheese ; cos-yn, a cheese. 
llythyr, a letter, epistle ; llythyren, a letter of the alphabet. 

(c) Some of the forms in -yn, -en, form a new plural by the addi- 
tion of a suffix. 

rhosyn. plu. rhosynnau ; gronyn, plu. gronynnau. 



28 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



36 NOUNS USED IN THE SING. ONLY : 

(1) Abstract nouns as long as they remain abstract : 

eofndra, boldness ; calondid, heartiness. 
ffyddlondeb, faithfulness ; tristwch, sadness. 

(2) Certain names of material : 

aur, gold ; bara, bread. 
arian, silver ; ymenyn, butter. 

37 NOUNS USED IN THE PLURAL ONLY : 

(a) gwartheg, cattle ; teleran, terms ; ymysgaroedd, bowels, 
entrails ; ysgyfaint, lunjs. 

Nefoedd is phi. in form (from nef, heaven), but it is usually sing- 
in meaning. 

e.g. Esgynnodd i'r nefoedd 
He ascended into heaven. 

(b) Certain adjs. used as nouns : 

e.g., blaenion, the first parts, from blaen, fore ; deillion, 
from dall, blind ; beilchion, tlodion, &c. 

3?A. DOUBLE PLURALS : asglodion, celaneddau, clychau, 
chwedleuon, dilladau, geneuau, lloiau, negeseuau, teiau, &c. 

38 CASE. 

Welsh nouns have no case endings. 

(a) The case of a noun is ascertained partly by its position, and 
partly by the meaning of the sentence, v. Syntax. 

39 DIMINUTIVES. 

Diminutives are formed : 

A. In the singular by means of the suffixes : 

-an (or feni.) os dyn, man ; dyn-an (m. & f.) a little person 

oen, lamb ; oenan, a lambkin. 
-cyn (masc.) bryn, hill ; bryncyn, a hillock. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 29 



-yn (masc.) darn, piece ; dernyn, a little piece. 

pryf , worm ; pryfyn, a little worm. 

rhaff, a rope ; rheffyn, a small rope. 

tant, a string, 

chord ; tennyn, a string. 

-en (fern.) pel, ball ; pelen, a little batt, a pill. 
-ig (fern.) oen, lamb ; oenig, a little ewe lamb. 

can, song ; canig, a ditty. 

awr, ^owr ; orig, a foMe while. 



B. In the plural : 

-OS plant, children ; plantos, little children. 

gwragedd, women; gwrageddos, poor women. 

wyn, lambs ; wynos, lambkins. 

-ach, -iach, dynion, men ; dynionach, poor mortals. 

plant, children ; plautach, little children. 

wyn, lambs ; wynach, lambkins. 

40 *RULES FOR THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 

As there is NO NEUTER GENDER in Welsh, the namea 
of sexless things are either masc. or fern. 

The following rules dealing with the gender of this 
class of nouns will render the student some assistance, 
but they are very incomplete. 

(1) Proper names have the gender of the common nouns 
denoting their class : 

Thus (a) The names of the SEASONS, MONTHS, and 
DAYS of the week are masc., corresponding to the gender 
of tymor (m.) season, mis. (m.) month, and dydd (m.) day. 

(b) The names of RIVERS, TOWNS, and COUNTRIES, 
and the LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET are FEMININE^ 

* For a detailed treatment v. the Author's " Studies in Welsk 
Grammar and Philology." 



30 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



corresponding to the gender of afon, river ; tref. town ; 
gwlad, country ; llythyren, letter ; exs. : 

Teifi, Tivy. Dyfrdwy, Dee. 

Caer, Chester. Llundain, London. 

Cymru, Wales. Lloegr, England. 

(2) Names of TREES and FRUIT are feminine : exs. : 

derwen, oak tree ; afallen, apple tree. 
eirinen, a plum ;, peren, a pear. 
But afal, an apple, is masc. 

(3) VERB-NOUNS are MASC. Also words that are 
usually of OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH, when used as nouns, 
exs. : yr ymladd, the fighting ; y gwir, the truth. 

(4) One part of every compound noun is substantival, 
the other is attributive ; thus in elusendy, ty is the sub- 
stantive and elusen is the attribute. The Gender of a 
compound is the same as that of its substantival element, 
., 

elusendy, alm,shouse, m. like ty (m.) house. 
croeslon, cross-road, f. like Ion (f.) road, lane. 

(5) The gender of two classes of nouns in many in- 
stances may be gathered from their form : 

^a) Most monosyllables containing the vowel ' w ' or 
' y ' are masculine ; e.g., bwlch, pwn, bryn. Most 
monosyllables containing the vowel ' o ' or ' e ' are 
feminine, e.g., ffon, gwen. The student must beware 
of thinking there are no exceptions to these rules. Still 
the influence of the vowel in determining gender is con- 
siderable : thus the North Wales word for ' table ' is 
' bwrdd,' masc., while in South Wales it is ' bord,' 
fern., as ' Arthur a'r Ford Gron.' This tendency 
to harmonize vowel and gender in monosyllables 
has led to a change of gender in several Welsh nouns : 
the Latin masculine pont(em) has become the Welsh 
feminine ' pont,' and mediaeval Welsh masculine 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 31 



' chwedl,' and ' nef,' are now feminine. So " llys ' once 
feminine has become masculine on account of its 



(6) The gender of derivatives is regularly determined by 
their suffixes : thus derivatives in ' -ni ' are masculine, 
as egni, bryntni, while those in ' eg,' are feminine, 
as Eidaleg, Llydaweg. (See chapter on Derivatives). 

GAMBOLD'S RULE : William Gambold, in his " Anglo-Welsh 
Grammar," (published 1724), formulated the following rule for 
finding the gender of nouns : 

" Any word beginning with any of the mutable consonants, 
except II and rh, if upon putting y in apposition before it, its 
initial consonant does naturally change into its light sound ; 
as mdin, y felin ; caseg, y gaseg ; such words are infallibly of the 
feminine gender ; but if the initial consonant change not there- 
upon. we may justly conclude such words to be of the masculine 
gender : as brethyn, y brethyn ; march, y march." 

Unfortunately this rule does not help us much, for the knowledge 
when to mutate presupposes a clear perception of gender. 



CHAPTER IV. 
ADJECTIVES. 

411. GENDER. 

SOME adjectives indicate gender by a change of form. 
The feminine is formed from the masculine : 

i. By a CHANGE of the INTERNAL VOWEL : ; ^u. ^ 2. ( c ) _^ 

(a) w into o : 

e.g., crwn, round ; fern. cron. 
trwm, heavy ; trom. 
swrth, drowsy ; sorth. 

(b) y into e : 

e.g., bychan, small ; fern, bechan. 
cryf, strong ; ,, cref. 

sych, dry ; sech. 

and (c) i into ai in the case of : 

brith, speckled ; fern., braith. 

ii. By the SOFT MUTATION of the INITIAL CONSONANT 
if the consonant be mutable, and when the adj."'c6mes 
immediately after the noun it qualifies : 

dyn da, a good man ; dynes dda, a good woman. $ z - 

CUf], *U 4*xt&/{ obyVUL, <*/&*'& 

42 The student should carefully note the limitations 
to the use of the fern, form in adjectives : in addition 
to those given under ii. above, note the following restric- 
tions : 

(a) The fern, form is never found with the plural : 

Thus : cyllell lem, a sharp knife ; from llym (m.), 
Hem (f.) ; but cyllyll llym (or llymion) sharp knives. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



33 



Masc. Meaning, 
brwnt foul 
crwn round 


Fem. 
bront 
cron 


dwfn 
hwn 


deep 
this 


dofn 
hon 


hwnna 


that 


honna 


hwnnw 


that 


honno 


llwm 


bare 


Horn 


trwm 


heavy 


trom 



(b) The vowel is never mutated in the comparative or 
superlative. 

Thus : taith fer, a short journey, f-^r^v 
but taith fyrach, a shorter journey. 

(c) Vowel change is confined to : 

i. MONOSYLLABLES and a FEW DISSYLLABLES ; 
mainly the following : 

Masc. Meaning. Fern, 

bychan small bechan 

byr short ber 

cryf strong cref 

gwyn white gwen 

gwyrdd green gwerdd 

llym sharp Uem 

melyn yellow melen 

brith speckled braith 

ii. Their compounds, as 

pengrwn, round-headed, fern, pengron. 

NOTE. Even in the case of these, there is a growing 
tendency to use the masc., instead of the feminine : 

Thus, though iaith, language, is fern., we can have 
iaith frwnt, obscene language. 

N.B. In the case of the demons, adjectives, hwn, 
hwnnw, and hwnna, the fern, is never supplanted by the 
masc. 

4311. NUMBER. 

Some adjectives have a plural form, but the tendency 
here again is to use the singular form with plural as well 
as singular nouns : 

The plural is formed as in nouns (q.v.) Note, how- 
ever, that the only suffixes are : 

(i.) -ion as : 
gwyn, white, plu. gwynion ; tlawd, poor, tlodiony t 



34 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(ii.) -on after- dr,-gr,-thr,-u,-w : exs. : 



Sing. 
budr 
hagr 
llathr 


Meaning. 
dirty 
ugly 
smooth 


Pin. 
budron 
hagron 
lleithron 


du 


black 


duon 


gweddw 


widoived 


gweddwon 



but tew, fat, and glew, brave, make tewion and glewion. 

(iii.) -laid in the case of 

gwan weak gweiniaid 

but also gweinion 



44 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES: 

There are FOUR DEGREES OF COMPARISON IN WELSH : 

POSITIVE, COMPARATIVE OF EQUALITY,* COMPARATIVE 
PROPER, SUPERLATIVE. 

45 These are formed in two ways : 

A. SYNTHETIC OR INFLECTIONAL METHOD : 

To form : 

(i.) The comp. of eq* add -ed 

(ii.) proper -ach 
(iii.) superl. ,, -af 

to the positive. 



Positive. Comp. of Eq* 


Comp. Proper. 


Superl. 


glan glaned 


glanach 


glanaf 


fair as fair 


fairer 


fairest 


hardd hardded 


harddach 


harddaf 


beautiful 






ffol ffoled 


ffolach 


ffolaf 


foolish 







* Sometimes called THE EQUAL or EQUATIVE DEGREE. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 35 



N.B. (a) Change final -b, -d, -g, of the positive into 
-p, -t, -C in the other degrees : 

Positive. Comp. of Eq. Comp. Prop. Superl. 

gwlyb, wet gwlyped gwlypach gwlypaf 

rhad, cheap rhated rhatach rhataf 

teg, fair teced teeach tecaf 

-b, -d, -g were not hardened in the comparative pro- 
per in mediaeval Welsh. Hence : tegach, &c. in the 
Mabinogion and even later. (See par. 15 B. above). 

Adjectives ending in the liquids 1, n, r, preceded by 
b, d, g, as hagr, abl, hydr, gwydn, budr, generally harden 
the mutes, e.g., 

" Mi ofnais y gallei gastie' butrach na rheini fod yn 
agos." Bardd Cwsg. 

" Cyn futtred a'r clai." Bishop Morgan. 

But some instances of the unhardened forms occur, e.g., 

" Odid y canfu adyn 
Chwidrach, anwadalach dyn." Gor. Owen. 

(b) If the vowel or vowels of the last syllable of the 
positive be -ai, -aw, or -w, they should be changed into 
ei, o, and y, respectively, in the other degrees, e.g. : 

main, slender, meined ; tlawd, poor, tloted ; 
trwm, heavy, trymed. 

Exceptions : llawn, full ; llawned, &c. 

hawdd, easy ; hawdded and hawsed. 

Still llawn in composition follows the rule, e.g., 
ffyddlawn, faithful, flyddloned, &c. 



36 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



46 B. ANALYTIC OR PERIPHRASTIC METHOD. 
To form 

(a) The comp. of equal, place mor as 

(b) proper mwy, more 

(c) The superlative mwyaf, most 
before the positive, e.g., 

Positive. Comp. of Eq. Comp. Proper, 

gorthrechol mor orthrechol mwy gorthrechol 
overpowering 

Superl. 

mwyaf gorthrechol. 

47 This has become the regular method with 

(a) Adjectives of three or more syllables, e.g., 
rhyfelgar, warlike ; gorthrymus, tyrannical, &c. 

(b) Adjectives formed by prefixing di (not, Eng. un-) 
and hy-j .(apt to, capable of, -able) to nouns, e.g., 

didwyll (di, not + twyll, deceit) without guile 
hylaw (hy + llaw, hand) dexterous. 

48 With the analytic method compare 

(a) The use of more and most in English. 

(b) The almost universal use of plus, mains, etc., in French. 

49 ADJECTIVES OF IRREGULAR COMPARISON. 

Positive Comp of Comp. Superl. 

Eq. Proper. 

agos near nesed* nes nesaf* 

bach 1 small lleied* llai lleiaf* 

bychan/ 

buan quick] cynted* cynt cyntaf* 

* These are formed NOT from the positive according to rule, 
but from the comparative proper form. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



37 



Positive 




Comp. of 


Comp. 


Super!. 






Eq. 


Proper. 




da 


good 


cystal, daed 


gwell 


goreu 






fdryced 


gwaeth 


gwaethaf* 


drwg 


bad 


i gwaethed* 










'-cynddrwg 






hawdd 


easy 


hawsed* 


haws 


hawsaf* 


lien 


old 


hyned* 


rhyn 


hynaf* 








\hynach 




hir 


long 


cyhyd, hired 


hwy 


hwyaf 


ieuanc 


young 


ieuenged 


iau 


ieuaf 


isel 


low 


ised* 


is 


isaf* 


llawer 


much 


cymaiiit 


mwy 


mwyaf 


llawer 


many 


fcynifer 
\cymaint 


mwy 


mwyaf 


llydan 


wide 


lleted, cyfled 


lletach 


lletaf 


mawr 


great, 


cymaint 


mwy 


mwyaf 


uchel 


high 


fuched 


uwch 


uchaf 






\cyfuwch* 






blaen 


fore 






blaenaf, 










foremost 


ol 


hind, back 






olaf, last 



diweddaf , last 
pennaf, chief 
trech trechaf 
stronger 
superior 

eithaf, furthest 
prif, chief 

Other comparatives and superlatives formed from nouns are 
(a) angeuach, more deadly ; amserach, more timely ; dewisach, 
preferable ; llesach, more, profitable ; rheitiach, more needful 
(from rhaid, need}. 

(b) dewisaf, rheitiaf ; urddasaf , most dignified. 



* These are formed NOT from the positive according to rule, 
but from the comparative proper form. 

These are formed from the NOUNS, diwedd and pen. 



38 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



Still, these may be from adjectives in -ol, as angeuol, amserol ; 
for -ol may be dropped in comparison, e.g., rhagorol, rhagored, 
rhagoraeh, rhagoraf. 

N.B. Amgen (adj. and adv.), different, otherwise, though com- 
parative in function, is positive in form. Hence the formal com- 
parative amgenach. 

50 EQUAL DEGREE OR COMP. OF EQUALITY. 

This degree requires a more detailed description. 

51 i. FUNCTION Its use is two-fold : 

(a) To indicate the possession of a quality in equal 
degree with something else. 

ex. " Ac efe a aeth ymaith o'i wydd ef, yn wahan- 
glwyfus cyn wynned a'r eira "- 

" And lie went out from his 'presence a leper, as 
white as snow" II. Kings v. 27. 

This is its more usual function. 

(b) To indicate the possession of a quality in a very 
high degree. In this connection its force is more that of 
the superl. than of the comp. 

e.g., Gorweddais ar y gwelltglas, tan synfyfyrio deced 
a hawddgared (wrth fy ngwlad fy hun) oedd y gwledydd 
pell y gwelswn gip o olwg ar eu gwastadedd tirion. 

I lay down on the green sward musing how very fair and 
lovely, as compared with my own country, were the distant 
lands of whose pleasant plains I had just obtained a glimpse. 
Bardd Cwsg. 

52 ii. FORM. The comp. of eq. is expressed in several 
ways : 

(a) By merely adding -ed to the positive, as deced 
/ and hawddgared in above example. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 39 



(b) By placing cyn before, and a (before consonants), 
ag (before vowels), after tlie form in -ed, e.g., 

cyn wynned a'r eira, as white as snow. 

(c) By prefixing cy-, cyd-, cyf-, cym-, cyn-, eys-, to 
certain nouns, a or ag following, e.g. : 

cy- cyhyd a as long as (from hyd, length ) 

cyd- cydbwys a of the same weight as( pwys, weight) 

cyf- cyfled a as wide as ( lied, width ) 

cyf- cyfwerth a of equal value with ( gwerth, value) 

eym- cymaint(= 

cymmaint) a as much as ( maint, size ) 

cyn- cynddrwg a as bad as ( drwg, evil ) 

cys- cystal a as good as ( tal, payment) 



In : cyfuwch a, as high as, 

cyf is prefixed to the comp. adj. uwch (higher). 

(d) By the positive preceded by mor and followed by 
a, ag, e.g., 

mor wyn a'r eira=as white as snow. 

N.B. i. This method is less idiomatic than (c) and 
should not be freely used except as stated in par. 47. 

ii. Beware of such constructions as mor gynted for cyn 
gynted or mor fuan=as quick. 

MUTATION : When cyn in this sense is followed by a 
mutable consonant the latter undergoes the soft mutation. 
See examples above. 

II- is an exception, hence 

cyn llawned (not cyn lawned), as full. 



40 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



53 NUMERALS. 

Cardinal. Ordinal. 

one, two, etc. first, second, etc. 

1 un cyntaf, unfed 

2 dau, dwy ail, eilfed 

3 tri, tair trydydd, trydedd 

4 pedwar, pedair f pedwerydd 

tpedwaredd 
pumed 
chweched 
seithfed 
wythfed 
nawfed 
degfed 

unfed ar ddeg 
deuddegfed 



5 pump, pum 

6 chwech, chwe 

7 saith 

8 wyth 

9 naw 

10 deg, deng 

11 un ar ddeg 

12 deuddeg 

13 tri ar ddeg trydydd ar ddeg 

14 pedwar ar ddeg pedwerydd ar ddeg 

15 pymtheg pymthegfed 

16 un ar bymtheg unfed ar bymtheg 

17 dau ar bymtheg eilfed ar bymtheg 



18 deunaw 

19 pedwar ar 

bymtheg 

20 ugain 

21 un ar hugain 
30 /deg ar hugain, 

Itri deg 

35 pymtheg ar 

hugain 

36 un ar bymtheg 

ar hugain 

40 deugain 

41 un a deugain 
50 deg a deugain 

60 triugain* 



deunawfed 
pedwerydd ar 
bymtheg 
ugeinfed 
unfed ar hugain 
/degfed ar hugain, j 
\tri degfed I 

pymthegfed ar 

hugain 
unfed ar bymtheg 

ar hugain 
deugeinfed 
unfed a deugain 
degfed a deugain 

triugeinfed 



Adverbial. 
once, twice, etc. 
unwaith 
dwywaith 
teirgwaith 
pedeirgwaith 

pumwaith 
chwegwaith 
seithwaith 
wythwaith 
nawgwaith 
dengwaith 
unwaith ar ddeg 
deuddengwaith 
teirgwaith ar ddeg 
pedairgwaith ar ddeg 
pymthengwaith 
unwaith ar bymtheg 
dwywaith ar 

bymtheg 
deunawgwaith 
pedeirgwaith ar 

bymtheg 
ugeinwaith 
unwaith ar hugain 
dengwaith ar hugain, 
tri de(n)gwaith 
pymthengwaith ar 

hugain 
unwaith ar bymtheg 

ar hugain 
deugeinwaith 
unwaith a deugain 
dengwaith a 

deugain 
triugeinwaith 



* often written trugain, and sometimes trigain. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 41 



Cardinal. Ordinal. Adverbial. 

70 deg a thriugain degf ed a thriugain dengwaith a 

thriugain 

80 pedwar ugain pedwar ugeinfed pedwar ugeinwaith 
90 deg a phedwar degfed a phedwar dengwaith a 

ugain ugain phedwar ugain 

100 cant, can canfed canwaith 

200 f dau gan(t) Ideuganfed deuganwaith 

^deugan(t) 

1000 mil. milfed milwaith 

10,000 myrdd, myrddiwn 
1,000,000 (mil miloedd 
'mil o filoedd 

54 Dau, tri, pedwar, are inflected for gender. Thus : 
dau (m), dwy (f.) ; tri (m.), tair (f.) ; pedwar (m.), pedair 
(f.). 

This inflection takes place 

(1) In the simple numerals : 

dau ddyn, two men ; dwy ddynes, two women. 

(2) When added to other numerals to denote the higher 
numbers : 

tri dyn ar ddeg, thirteen men ; 
tair dynes ar ddeg, thirteen women ; 

but not (a) when dau, tri and pedwar, are used in multi- 
plication ; hence : 

tri deg, thirty ; pedwar ugain, eighty ; 
never tair deg, pedair ugain. 

N.B. The reason is clear: dau, tri and pedwar, in these cases 
qualify the other numerals (deg, ugain), and not the noun to which 
the compound numeral refers. 

Exception : Mil being fern, requires the fern, form dwy, 
tair, pedair, e.g., dwy fil, two thousand. 



42 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(b) When forming COMPOUNDS with other numerals : 
hence 

deuddeg, triugain . 

55 Trydydd (m.) and pedwerydd (m.) (but not ail) 
have fern, forms, trydedd (f.) and pedwaredd (f.) 

These as ordinals, are subject to the same conditions 
of usage as dwy, tair and pedair. 

56 Pump and cant are written pum and can when a 
noun immediately follows the numeral : 

e.g., can wr, a hundred men. 

Similarly ehwech is usually chwe before a noun : 

e.g., chwe diwrnod y gweithi. Ecs. xx. 9; 

But occasionally the fuller form occurs, as : 
ehwech adain. Esay vi. 2. 

57 Deg is sometimes written deng before words begin- 
ning with d, g, m, n, or a vowel ; also regularly with blynedd,. 
blwydd, year, e.g. : 

deng niwrnod (fr. diwrnod) ten days ; deng wr (fr, 
gwr), ten men. 

deng mis (fr. mis.), ten months ; deng nos (fr. nos), 
ten nights. 

deng mlynedd (fr. blynedd), ten years ; deng awr 
(fr. awr), ten hours. 

So deuddeng, and pymtheng for deuddeg, pymtheg. 
58 Triugain is often written trugain, or trigain. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 43 



59 Dwyfed is often used for ail, eilfed in the fern., in 
composite numbers, e.g. : 

y ddwyfed ar bymtheg (f.) the seventeenth. 

60 Cyntaf and unfed : Use unfed when in composition 
with other numbers : 

e.g., Yr unfed dydd ar hugain. o'r mis 
The twenty- first day of the month. 

Use cyntaf when alone, as 

y dydd cyntaf, the first day. 

cf. the use of premier and unieme in French. 

61 Mil, plu. miloedd, and myrdd, plu. myrddiynnau, 
are always nouns. Deg, ugain, cant are often used as 
nouns. Then they may have plural forms : degau, ugeiniau, 
cannoedd. 

Occasionally the other numerals are similarly used, e.g., 

Y Trioedd, the Triads. 
Pedwar Pedwariaid o filwyr, 
Four Quarternions of soldiers. 

Compare Old English, where the numerals, especially the higher 
numerals, are frequently used as substantives. 

62 With pedwar ugain compare French quatre-vingts. 

63. The system of counting by tens is not uncommon 
in Welsh. Hence we often meet with 

dau ddeg (cf. Eng. twenty = two ten) side by side with 

ugain. 
tri deg (cf. Eng. thirty = three ten) side by side with 

deg ar hugain. 
&c., &c. 

The decimal system of naming numbers should be 
encouraged, at least from 30 on, because of its simplicity, 



44 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



thus : tri deg a thri is preferable to tri-ar-ddeg ar hugain, 
and naw deg a naw is better than pedwar ar bymtheg a 
phedwar ugain. 

64 DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS : These are expressed in 
Welsh by circumlocution as in English. Thus : 

bob yn un ac un, one by one ; 

bob yn ddau, two by two ; 

bob yn dri, three by three ; 
&c. &c. 



65 When a numeral is used in apposition to a personal 
pronoun, it must be preceded by : 

(1) The possessive adj. in the 1st and 2nd pers., as 

ni ein dau . . we two. 
chwi eich dau . . you two. 

(2) ill in the 3rd pers. 

hwy ill dau . . they two. 

N.B. This pers. pron. may be simply a pronominal suffix. Thus : 
aethant ill dau, they two went. 



CHAPTER V. 
PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

66 1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS : 
CLASSIFICATION 

Personal pronouns may be divided according to FORM 
into two classes 

(a) SIMPLE : 'm, mi, ef, fe, &c. 

(b) COMPOUND : minnau, myfi, &c. 

67 Each of these classes may be sub-divided thus : 

(a) SIMPLE : i. Normal : mi, I, me ; ti, thou, thee ; 

ef, he, him, it, &c. 
ii. Post-vocalic or Infixed : 'm, me; 

'th, thee, &c. 

(b) COMPOUND : i. Emphatic or Reduplicated : myfi, / 

myself, me myself ; &c. 
ii. Conjunctive : minnau, I also, me 
also, &c. 

NOTE. The terms Emphatic and Conjunctive refer to the function 
rather than the forms of the pronouns. 

68 (a) SIMPLE : 

i. Normal. 

Sing. Phi. 

1st pers., mi, fi, i. ni. 

2nd ti, di. chwi. 

3rd I (m.) ef, fe, fo. hwy, hwynt. 

I (f.) hi. hwy, hwynt. 

NOTE. Mi, ti, fe, hi, ni, chwi, hwy, in such expressions as mi 
ddeuaf, / shall come, fe ddaw, he will come, seem to have lost some- 
thing of their pronominal value. In these connections they should 
be called formal or introductory personal pronouns. 



46 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



ii. Post-vocalic, or Infixed. 

Sing. Phi. 

1st pers. 'm 'n 

2nd 'th 'ch 

3rd f (m.) 'i, 's 'u, 's 

'8 'U, 'S 



f(m.)'i, ' 
t (t) 'i, '* 

(b) COMPOUND 



i. Emphatic. 






Sing. 


Plu. 


1st pers., 




myfi 


nyni 


2nd 




tydi 


chwychwi 


3rd 


( (m.) 


efe, efo* 


1 hwynt-hwy or 




id) 


hyhi 


1 hwyntwy 



ill] 



*NoTE. Fo and efo are the regular colloquial forms in Gwynedd, 
.but they are not common in literature : 

Gwrthwyneba fo yn dy galon. Llyjr y Tri Aderyn. 
Chwi gewch eich llenwi ac efo. 

ii. Conjunctive. 

Sing. Plu. 

1st pers. minnau ninnau 

2nd tithau chwithau 

3rd ,, (m.) f yntau hwythau 

(f.) ( hithau Iwscy^l 

NOTE. Hwythau is modern, replacing older wynteu. 



69 CASE. (a) The NORMAL EMPHATIC and CON- 
JUNCTIVE pers. pronouns are used in the NOM. and ACCUSA- 
TIVE cases. 

(b) The post-vocalics are found only as DIRECT OBJECTS 
of a transitive verb. 

N.B. They are not used with the verb-noun or with any other 
noun. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 47 



70 GENDER. The SRD PERS. SING, of the NORMAL, 
EMPHATIC and CONJUNCTIVE personal pronouns have 
different forms for the MASC. and FEM. 



All the others are used indifferently in the masc. and 
fern. 

Compare English where a similar rule applies. 



71 The POST- VOCALIC PERS. PRONOUNS are used after 
y, a, pe, fe, and other short words ending in a vowel. 

e.g., ac yno y'm gadawant 
and there they will leave me. 






N.B. The 3rd pers. used after ni, not, is 's, NEVER ' i or 'u. 



72 (a) The post-vocalic pers. pron. is never placed 
after the verb that governs it. 

(b) If the pronoun is emphatic, however, the normal 
(affixed or auxiliary) of the same pers. and num. is added 
after the verb. 

e.g., fe'th welodd di, 

he saw you, even you. 

With this compare French : 

il voudrait me voir, moi 

he would like to see me (emphatic). 

(c) The repetition of the personal pronoun, however, 
is now common, even when no particular emphasis is 
intended, 

Thus, fe'th welodd di, is often a mere equivalent of fe'th 
welodd. 



48 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



73 After a PREPOSITION the pronoun it governs is : 

Either (i) separately expressed, e.g., gyda mi, with me ; 
i mi, to me. . 

or (ii) more frequently a pronominal suffix joined to 
the preposition : 

e.g., hebof, without me ; gennyf, with me. 

74 Ti, chwi : Ti is more frequently used than thou 
in English. It is regularly used : 

(1) IN ADDRESSING THE DEITY : 

Gwybydder heddyw mai Ti sydd Dduw yn Israel 
Let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel 

1 Kings, xviii. 36. 

(2) For the LOWER ANIMALS : 

Melltigedicach wyt ti na'r holl anifeiliaid 
Thou art cursed above all cattle. Gen. iii., 14. 

Moreover, it is often used : 

(3) To express contempt or familiarity : 

Tyred ym mlaen, a dangosaf i ti beth ychwaneg 
Come on, and I will show you more The angel to 

Bardd Cwsg. 

Contrast Bardd Cwsg's respectful way of addressing 
the angel : 

" Beth y gelwch i'r (=gelweh chwi'r) tair hudoles yna ?" 

.And sometimes 

(4) In addressing children : 

Plentyn bach pwy wyt ti ? 
Whose little child are you ? 

NOTE. The use of chwi at all for a noun in the singular is quite 
modern. Thus in the Mabinogion the knights regularly use ti 
when addressing even King Arthur or his queen, Gwenhwyfar. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. i'J 



7511. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. 

These are divided into two classes : 

(a) NORMAL : 

Sing. piu. 

1st, fy, my. ein, our. 

2nd dy, thy. eicli, your. 

3rd, ei, his, her, its. eu, their. 

In Mediaeval Welsh the Normal Poss. Adj. forms woro : 

Sing. Plu. 

1. vyn, vym, vy. an, yn. 

2. dy. awch, ych. 

3. y (e before him). y, eu (e before hunein). 

It was William Salesbury (born about 1510), translator of the 
New Testament into Welsh, who invented or gave currency to the 
modern forms, ei, ein, eich. 

(b) POST-VOCALIC OR INFIXED : 

Sing. Plu. 

1st, 'm 'n 

2nd, 'th 'ch 

3rd, 'i, 'w 'u, 'w 

NOTE. i. 'w is used instead of 'i and 'u after the preposition i. 

ii. 'w constitutes the only difference in form between the post- 
vocalic poss. adj. and the post-vocalic pers. pron. 

iii. Li parsing therefore tho 'student must think of the function, 
which will enable him in all cases to distinguish the two. 

76 (a-) The possessive adj. always qualifies a noun. 
Noun includes the verb-noun. 



e.g., wrth dy groes, % ///// 

i'm derbyn, to receive me, lit. to my receiving 



,")(J WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(b) The post-vocalic poss. adjs. are used after {, o, i, 
mo, na, tua, gyda, and sometimes other words ending 
in a vowel, e.g., 

euthum i'w gartref / went to his home. 



77 EMPHATIC. When the possessive adjective is em- 
phatic, the corresponding pers. pron. is added after the 
noun, e.g., 

fy mhlant, my children. 

fy mhlant i, my own children. 

cf. French mes enfants, my children. 
mes enfants a moi, my own children. 

This addition of the implied personal pronoun is now 
common even where no particular emphasis is intended. 
Thus, fy Haw i, often = fy Haw. 



78 III. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Sing. Phi. 

1st pers. (yr) eiddof, mine. (yr) eiddom, ours. 

2nd (yr) eiddot, thine. (yr) eiddoch, yours. 

3rd f m. (yr) eiddo, 7m (yr) eiddynt, theirs. 

( f. (yr) eiddi, hers. ,, ,, ,, (m. &f.) 

Here again EMPHASIS is indicated by the addition 
of the implied pers. pronoun, e.g., 

yr eiddof fi ; yr eiddot ti ; &c. 

NOTE. Eiddof, eiddot, eiddom, eiddoch, are modern back-fonu- 
ations from the 3rd person. The Mediaeval forms are : 

Sing. Phi. 

1. y meu (vi or i). yr einym. 

2. y ten (di). yr einwch. 

3. ( (m.) yr eidaw (cf). \ ., 

\ (f.) yr eidi (hi). / yr eiduut> 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 51 



79 IV. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 

There is no REFLEXIVE PRONOUN in Welsh. The 
noun, hun, hunan (sg.)self, plu. hunain, with the possessive 
adjective is used instead. 

Sing. Plu. 

1st, fy hun or hunan, myself ; ein hunain, ourselves. 

2nd, dy hun or hunan, thyself ; eich hunain, yourselves. 

3rd, ei hun or hunan, himself ; eu hunain, themselves. 

herself . 

(a) Eich hun or eich hunain is generally used for the 2nd pers., 
sing. For the use of dy compare par. 74 above. 

80 V. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS AND 
ADJECTIVES. 

Since DEMONSTRATIVES may be used both as SUB- 
STANTIVES and AS ADJECTIVES with certain necessary 
changes of form the two kinds will be tabulated side 
by side. 

(a) hwn, this (cf. Lat. hie) ; 

(b) hwnnw, (cf. Lat. ille). 

Pronouns. Corresponding Adjectives. 

Sg. hwn, hyn (m.) this. y (or yr) ... hwn (oryma) 

hon (1) y (or yr) ... hon (or yma) 

hyn (indecl.) this y (or yr) hyn (or yma) 

PL y rhai hyn, y rhain, tJiese y (or yr) ... hyn (or yma) 



81 With the aid of the ADVERBS yma, here ; yna, 
there, near you ; and acw, yonder, hwn may become a 
demonstrative of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pers. Thus : 

Pronouns. Corresponding Adjectives. 

1st pers. (cf. Lat. hie). 

Sg. hwn yma (m.), this y (or yr). . .hwn (or yma) 

hon yma (f.), y (oryr)...hon (oryma) 

hyn yma (indecl.) y (or yr)...hyn (oryma) 

PI. y rhai hyn(yma), y rhain^Aese y (or yr). . .hyn (or yma) 



52 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



Pronouns. Corresponding Adjectives. 

2nd pers. (cf. Lat. iste). 

Sg. hwnna or hwn yna (m.) that near you y (or yr) ... yna 

honna or hon yna (f.), y (or yr) ... yna 

hynna or hyn yna (indecl.) y (or yr) ... yna 

PI. y rhai yna, those near you y (or yr) ... yna 

3rd pers. (cf. Lat. ille). 

(a) Sg. hwn acw (m.), that yonder y (or yr) ... acw 

hon acw (f.), y (or yr) ... acw 

hyn acw (indecl.),, y (or yr) ... acw 

j?l. y rhai acw, those yonder y (or yr) ... acw 

(b) Sg. hwnnw (m.), thai y (or yr) hwnnv/ 

honno (f.), y (or yr) . . . honno 

hynny (indecl.) y (or yr) . . . hynny 

PL y rhai hynny, y rheiny, those y (or yr) ... hynny 

NOTE. i. Hwnnw refers to an object spoken of, but 
out of sight. 

ii. If the Poss. Adj. is used the noun is sufficiently 
defined without the Def. Art., which is consequently 
dropped, e.g., 

Fy mrawd hwn, my brother here. 



82 The ADJECTIVES are always used with a NOUN, 
which is placed between the def. art. y or yr, and the 
rest of the demonstratives. Thus : 

yr enw yma or yr enw hwn, this name. 

The use of " rhai " in this position appears in the plural 
of the pronoun. 

For the use and position of the adverbs yma, yna, acw, with the 
demonstrative compare -ci (=ici), here, and -la, there, in French : 

(i.) Dem. adj. : This wine 7tere French ce vin-ci. 

and Welsh y gwiii yma. 

(ii.) Dem. pronoun : Thin Jicrc French ceci (ce f ici), 

Welsh hwn yma. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 53 



83 Yr hwn, yr hon, yr hyn see under the RELATIVE. 



84 VI. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS. 

(i) 1st pers. ein gilydd, one another. 
2nd eich 
3rd eu 

Examples : carwn ein gilydd, we love one another. 
cerwch eich gilydd, you 
carant eu gilydd, they 

(ii.) When only two persons or parties are concerned, 
y naill y Hall is often used : 

e.g., carant y naill y Hall, they love each other. 

85 VII. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN AND 

ADJECTIVE. 

(a) PRONOUN : pwy (m. & f.) ? what man or woman ? 

who ? 
pa beth ? beth \ what ? 

exs. : pwy yw hwn ? who is this one ? 

Aiulwydd, beth a fynni di i mi ei wneuthur ? 
Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ? 

(b) ADJECTIVE : Pa, who, what, always followed by a 

noun or pronoun : 

o.^-., Pa dduw sy'n maddeu fel Tydi ? 
What god forgives like Thee ? 

Pwy is n<'(l liko [,at. quis ? Pa like qui ? 

86 RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



a, u'lo. -ti-Ji (,-m, which, that. 
y (boforo rrmsouants), yr (liefore vowels), 
which, that, 



54 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



a is always SUBJECT or DIRECT OBJECT of a verb. 

e.g., 

Pwy a all fod yn gadwedig ? 
Who (is it) that can be saved ? 

Eich brawd a feddyliwn 
(It was) your brother that I meant. 

y, yr are uged for all other case relations : 

Dyma'r fan y carwn fyw 
This is where I should like to live. 

Y dydd y daeth y newydd 
The day on which the news came. 

N.B. Demonstrative and other pronouns are often 
used to strengthen or supplement the Relative : 

Sing. Plu. 

(a) yr hwn a (m.) who, which, he that y rhai a 
yr hon a (f.) she that y rhai a 
yr hyn a, what, that, which yr hyn a 

(b) y neb a, whosoever. y sawl a. 
y sawl a 

pwy bynnag a pwy bynnag a 

beth bynnag a, whatsoever. 

(c) Pa bynnag is adjectival, and is constructed with a 
noun or pronoun, e.g. : 

pa ddyn bynnag, what man soever. 

87 IX. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND 
ADJECTIVES. 

amryw, several pawb, everyone, all (of persons) 

arall (sing.), another pob, every, att 

ereill (plu.), other, others rhai, some (number) 

chwaneg, more rhyw, some (kind) a certain 

dim, anything, nothing rhywun, someone 

holl, oil, all rhywrai, some (plu.) 

neb, anybody, nobody sawl, many 
peth, some (quantity) etc. 



CHAPTER VI. 

88 THE VERB. 

There is only ONE REGULAR CONJUGATION in Welsh. 

The verb may be : 

(a) PERSONAL as dysgaf, / learn ; 

or (b) IMPERSONAL, as dysgir fi, I am taught. 

The impersonal form is generally rendered by the passive 
in English. 



89 MIDDLE VOICE : Certain transitive verbs with 
ym- prefixed show a close resemblance to the middle voice 
in Greek. They are REFLEXIVE, i.e., the action of the 
verb is directed towards the agent or doer. Thus : 

golchaf, / wash (clothes, etc.) ; 
ymolchaf, / wash myself. 

90 MOODS. There are ONLY THREE moods IN- 
DICATIVE, IMPERATIVE, and SUBJUNCTIVE. 

N.B. There is NO INFINITIVE MOOD in Welsh. 

The VERB-NOUN, which most closely resembles it, differs 
in some important particulars from the English infinitive 
(v. Syntax). 

91 TENSES : The regular verb has only FOUR SIMPLE 

TENSES of the INDICATIVE ; PRESENT, PAST IMPERFECT, 
AORIST, PLUPERFECT, 



WKI.STI GRAMMAR. 



There are MANY COMPOUND TENSES formed by means 
of the verb wyf, 7 am. and the PARTICIPLE-EQUIVALENTS. 

The verb wyf and its compounds have six simple tenses, i.e., 
the PRESENT HABITUAL and PAST IMPERFECT HABITUAL in addition 
to the above. 



92 THE COMPOUND OR PERIPHRASTIC TENSES : 

These must always be used for the PERFECT and FUTURE 
PERFECT : 

e.g. : wyf wedi dysgu, 7 have learnt. 

byddaf wedi dysgu, 7 shall have learnt. 

Exc. Wyf and its compounds have simple forms for the perfect. 



93 FUTURE TENSE : The PRESENT is used for the 

FUTURE. 



94. PARTICIPLES. There are no simple participial 
forms in Welsh. The verb-noun preceded by a preposition 
is used instead. 

e.g. : yn dysgu, learning. 



93 BOD Icing. 

A. PERSONAL. 

i. INDICATIVE. 

Present Indefinite. 
Sing. Phi. 

1 . wyf, ydwyf , 7 am. y m, ydym, we are. 

2. wyt, ydwyt, thou art ych, ydych, you are 

3. yw, ydyw, niae, oes, ynt, ydynt, niaont, they are 

sydd, sy, he (she, it), is 



WELSH GRAMMAR. . r >7 



A Present Habitual and Future. 

Sing. Plu. 

1 . byddaf , 7 am wont to be, byddwn, we are wont to be, 

and 7 shall be and ice shall be 

2. byddi, thou art wont to be, byddwch, you are wont to be, 

and thou wilt be and you will be 

3. bydd, he is wont to be, byddant, they are wont to be, 

and he will be and they witt be 

f_Past Imperfect. 

1. oeddwn, 7 was oeddym, oeddem, we were 

2. oeddit, thou wast oeddych, oeddech, you were 

3. oedd, ydoedd, he was oeddynt, oeddent, they were 

Y- Past Impf. Habitual. 

1. byddwn, 7 was wont to be bycldem, we were wont to be 

2. byddit, thou wast wont to be byddech, you were wont to be 

3. byddai, he was wont to be byddent, they were wont to be 

Aorist or Preterite. te^fo-^f-* 

1. bum, 7 ivas or 7 have been buom, we were or have been 

2. buost, thou wast or hast buooh, you were or have been 

been 

3. l)u, he was or has been buont, buant, they were or 

have been 

Pluperfect. 
1. buaswn, 7 had been buasem, we had been 

2- ii V' \thouhadstbeen buasech, you had been 
\ bucsit, j 

3. buasai, he had been buascnt, they had been 



ii. IMPKRATIVE. 

byi'dwn, may we be, let us be 

2. bydd, be (//>//) byddwch, be (y<-'i<) 

'.'>. byddcd, ])<>( (I. I ri hi in bjd.dajit, let them be 

bocd, bid (her. it) be 



58 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



iii. SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Present. 

1. byddwyf, bwyf, 7 be byddom, bom, we be 

2. byddych, bych, thou be byddoch, boch, you be 

3. byddo, bo, he be byddont, bont, they be 

Past Imperfect. 

1. byddwn, bawn, 7 were byddem, baem, we were 

2. byddit,baet,bait,^oM wert byddech, baech, you were 

3. byddai, bae, bai, he were byddent, baent, they ivere 

Pluperfect. 

Same as Plupf. Indie. 

iv. VERB-NOUN. v. PARTICIPLE-EQUIVALENTS. 

bod, being Pres. yn bod, being. 

Perf. wedi bod, having been. 
Fut. ar fod, about to be. 

B. IMPERSONAL FORMS. 

INDICATIVE. 



Present : 

Pres. Hab. & Fut. : 

Pt. Impf. : 
Pt. Impf. Habitual 
Aor. and Perfect : 
Pluperfect : 



Present : 
Pt. Imp. : 

Plupf. : 



ys, ydys, there is, (it) is. 
byddys, byddis, byddir, there is 

wont to be ; there will be. 
oeddid, there was.^ 
byddid, there used to be. 
buwyd, there was or has been. 
buasid, buesid, there had been. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

bydder, there may be 

byddid, baid, there should or 

would be 
buasid, buesid, there should or 

would have been 



IMPERATIVE. 
bydder, let there be. 

Note the Forms petawn, petaet, petae, petaom, petaech, petaent, 
from ped, if, and bawn. etc. Also petaswn, petasit, petasai, petasem ? 
petasech, petasent, from ped and buaswn, etc.[T*Jt.<X 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 59 



96 THE REGULAR CONJUGATION. 

Dysgu, learning; 

It will not be necessary to give the meanings of the tense forms 
henceforth. 

A. PERSONAL FORMS. 

i. INDICATIVE. 

Present and Future. 

1. dysg-af dysg-wn 

2. dysg-i dysg-wch 

3. dysg, dysg-a dysg-ant 

Past Imperfect. 

1. dysg-wn dysg- em 

2. dysg-it dysg-ech 

3. dysg-ai dysg-ent 

Aorist or Preterite. 

1. dysgais dysgas-om 

2. dysgais-t dysgas-och 

3. dysg-odd* dysgas-ant 

Pluperfect. 

1. dysgas-wn dysgas-em 

2. dysgas-it, dysges-it dysgas-ech 

3. dysgas-ai dysgas-ent 

ii. IMPERATIVE. 

1. dysg-wn 

2. dysg-a, dysg dysg-wch 

3. dysg-ed dysg-ant 



"Other endings of the 3rd sing. Aorist, once common and stijl 
occasionally used are -wys, -ws, -as, and -es. 



00 WELS7I ORAMMAR. 

iii. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Present. 

1. dysg-wyf dysg-ora 

'2. dysg-ech (-yrh)* dysg-och 

3. dysg-o dysg-ont 

The subjunctive imperfect and pluperfect are identical 
in form with the same tenses of the indicative. 

iv. VERB-NOUN. v. VERB-ADJECTIVES. 

dysg-u dysg-edig, learned 

dysg-adwy, capable of being 
learnt. 

vi. PARTICIPLE-EQUIVALENTS. 
Present. Perfect. 

yn dysgu, learning wedi dysgu, having learned 

Future. 

ar ddysgu, about to learn. 

NOTE. In older literature, and still in poetry, personal 
forms in -d preceded by a vowel occur for the more usual 
modern forms in -t, e.g. : 

Wyd glwyfus nid a gleifwaith. 

Gwnaeth meinwen ,a gwen, y gwaith. Gor. Owen. 

Cloddau farmerth o'm nerthyd 

Yw Dvdd Barn a diwedd bvd. Gor. Owen. 



97 B. IMPERSONAL FORMS. 

i. INDICATIVE. 

Pres. and Put. Past Impf. Aorist. Plupf. 

dysg-ir dysg-id dysg-wyd dysgas-id 

dysg-ed dysges-id 



*Fonus like hot (for bych), raynnot (for mynnych or mynnech), arc 

b.u;k-form:if ions from tlio :5r<) sim?. (bo, mynno). They very seldom 
occur, 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 01 



ii. SUBJUNCTIVE (Pres.) ; dysger. 
iii. IMPERATIVE : dysger. 

The impf. and plupf. subj. are the same in form as those 
of the indicative. 

The following examples illustrate the use of impersonal 
forms : 

Anerchir y cyfarfod gan John Jones. 

The meeting will be addressed by John Jones. 

Y brenin a elwid Caswallon. 
The kiwj called Cassivellaunus. 

Cymysgwyd eu hiaith yn Nhwr Babel. 

Their tongue icas confounded at the Toiver of Babel. 

Dysgesid y wers lawer gwaith o'r blaen. 
The lesson had been learnt several times before. 



9811^ COMPOUND TENSE FORMS? &" ^$3^ 

# 7* '~~ 

A. PERSONAL FORMS. f^U**' 

i. INDICATIVE. 

Present continuous Wyf yii dysgu, / am learning. 

Present habitual and future Byddaf yn dysgu, / am wont 
to learn, or / shall be learning. . - 

Perfect l^Wyf wedi dysgu, / have learnt. ( 



Tjr, - 2- ,. ( Bum vn dysgu, 

Pft. continuous < A , r , " j- ', & ,' , T , , 

( Wyi wedi bod yu. dysgu, / have been 

L. learning. 

Pt. impf. continuous Oeddwn yn dysgu, 7 was learning. 
Pt. Impf. habitual Byddwn yn dysgu, / used to learn. 
Pluperfect Oeddwn wcdi dysgu, / had learnt. 
Plupf. continuous Buaswn yn dysgu, / had been learning. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



Future Perfect. Byddaf wedi dysgu. 7 shall have learnt. 

Future Pf. continuous Byddaf wedi bod yn dysgu, / shall 
have been learning. 

ii. IMPERATIVE. 
1. Bydded (or boed) i mi ddysgu, Let me learn, may I learn. 

iii. SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Present Byddwyf yn dysgu, / be learning. 
Past impf. Byddwn (or bawn) yn dysgu, 7 were learning. 
Pluperfect Byddwn (or bawn) wedi dysgu, 7 had learnt. 
Future Perfect Byddwyf wedi dysgu, 7 shall have learnt. 

iii. VERB-NOUN. 
Bod yn dysgu, learning. 



99 The otlier persons and number of the tenses in the ^< 
indicative ancTsubjunctive are expressed by conjugating .^.- 
the verb wyf. Thus the pres. continuous indie, is as 
follows : 

Sing. Plu. 

1. Wyf (or ydwyf) yn dysgu Ym (or ydym) yn dysgu 

2. Wyt (or ydwyt) yn dysgu Ych )or ydych) yn dysgu 

3. Yw (ydyw, mae, oes, sydd Ynt (ydynt or maent) yn 

or sy) yn dysgu dysgu. 



100 THE COMPOUND IMPERATIVE is conjugated 
by., changing the personal pronoun. Thus : 

Sing. 1. bydded i mi ddysgu, may I learn. 

2. i ti may thou learn. 





3] 


i 11 
icldo 


y/n*^ (//tt/c* vdwr*i 

may he learn. 






iddi 


may she learn. 


Plu. 


1. 


i ni 


may we learn. 




2. 


i chwi 


may you learn. 




3. 


iddynt 


may they learn. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. Go 



101 B. COMPOUND IMPERSONAL FORMS. 

These are similarly formed with the aid of the impersonal 
forms of the verb wyf, e.g. : 

Present continuous indicative : ys (or ydys) yn dysgu. 



102 FORMATION OF THE SIMPLE TENSES. 

The regular verb has two tense STEMS. 

(i.) THE PRESENT STEM. (li.) THE PAST STEM. 

e.g. : The two stems of dysgu are : 
(i.) dysg; (ii.) dysgas. 

(a) From the PRESENT STEM are formed : 

1. The present tense, personal and impersonal. 

2. The past impf. personal and impersonal. 

3. The aorist impers. and 3rd sing, of the per- 

sonal.* 

Also the verb-noun and verb-adjectives. 

From the PAST STEM are formed : 

1. The plural and 1st and 2nd pers. sing, of the 

aorist. 

2. The plupf. pers. and impers. 

i. The change of the -a- into -ai- in tho first and 2nd pers. sing 
of the aorist is due to a lost consonantal -i ; cf. dafad, dofaid. 

Note that the terminations of the pluperfect are the same as 
those of the past imperfect. 



*It is convenient and permissible in a descriptive Grammar like 
this, to say that the 3rd sing, of the aorist is formed from ,the present 
stem, though it may not be correct historically. 



64 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



103~MUTATIONS, etc. 

(a) As -a- in the last syllable of the stem is mutated 
into e under certain conditions, the verb barnaf, / judge, 
is here conjugated in illustration. 

A. PERSONAL FORMS. 

(i.) INDICATIVE. 

Present. Past Impf. 

Sing. Plu. Sing. Phi. 

1. barnaf barmvn barmvn barnem 

2. berni bernwch bernit barnech 

3. barn (barna) barnant barnai barnent 

Aorist or Preterite. Plupf. 

1. bernais barnasom barnaswn bariiasein 

2. bernaist barnasoch barnesit barnascch 

3. barnodd barnasant barnasai bamasent 

(ii.) IMPERATIVE. (iii.) SUBJUNCTIVE. 

1. barnwn barnwyf barnom 

2. barna, barn bernwch barnech barnoch 

3. barned barnant barno barnont 

(iv.) VERB-NOUN. 
barnu 

(v.) PARTICIPLE -EQUIVALENTS. 
Present. Perf. Future, 

yn barnu wedi barnu ar farnu 

B. IMPERSONAL FORMS. 

(i.) INDICATIVE. 

Pres. and Fut. : bernir Past Impf. : beruid 

Aorist : barnwyd, barned Plupf. : barnesid 

ii. and iii. IMPERATIVE and PRES. SUBJUNCTIVE. 
barner 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 65 



(b) If two w's come together in the conjugation of a 
verb, one is dropped, hence : 

galwn, we are calling, not galwwn. 

(c) If the present stem ends in -yw or -aw, as clyw-af 
/ hear ; gwrandaw-af, / listen, the past stem in the plupf. 
and plural of the aorist will end in -yws, -aws, e.g. : 

clywsom, we heard ; gwrandawswn, / had listened 

tal-af, / pay, and gwelaf, / sec, also make tals-om, 
gwels-om, etc. 

(d) If the present stem ends in -id, -iw, -I, -n, -yg, an 
-i is often inserted before the personal terminations, and 
likewise before the -as- of the past stem. 

newid, changing ; newid-i-af, I change, etc. 
newid-i-ais, / changed, etc. 

edliw, reproaching ; edliw-i-af, I reproach, etc. 

edliw-i-ais, / reproached, etc. 

dal, holding ; dal-i-af, / hold, etc. 

del-i-ais, / held, etc. 

derbyn, receiving ; derbyn-i-af, / receive, etc. 
derbyn-i-ais, I received, etc. 

cynnyg, offering ; cynyg-i-af, / offer, etc. 

cynyg-i-ais, / offered, etc. 

(e) Bwrw, throwing ; pres. stem bwri-, e.g. : bwri-af, / 
throw ; past stem bwrias-, as bwrias-om, we threw. 

In Mediaeval Welsh this verb changed its -w- into -y- in finite 
tenses as byryeis, 1st pors. sing, aorist: byrir, pres. indie, imper- 
sonal. 

(f) The contractions of verbs with present stems in 
-0- and -ha- are illustrated by the conjugation of troi, 
turning, and parhau, continuing, v. Appendix. 



66 WELSH GRAMMAR. 

104 FORMATION OF THE SRD PERS. SING PRES. INDIC. 
This may end in -a, e.g. : dysga, barna. 

It is more usual, however, to leave out the -a, as burn, 
dysg, can. In that case the internal vowel is generally 
mutated. Rules of mutation : 

(i.) e or in the last syllable of the stem becomes y, 

e.g.: rhodd-af, I give ; rhydd, dyry, he (she, it) gives. 
torr-af, / break ; tyr, he (she, it] breaks. 
llosg-af, I burn ; llysg, he (she, it) burns. 
ateb-af, / answer ; etyb, he answers. 
gwel-af, / see ; gwyl (oftener gwel), he sees. 

But note : 

cod-af, / rise, gives cwyd, he (she, it] rises. 
mol-af, / praise ; mawl and mol-a, he (she, it) 

praises. 
sodd-af, / sink ; sawdd and sodda, he (she, it) 

sinks. 
dywed-af, / say ; dywaid and dywed, he (she, it) 

speaks. 

(ii.) a or o in the last syllable but one of the stem, if 
followed by e or o in the next syllable, becomes e. 

e.g., danghosaf, / shew ; dengys, he (she, it) shews. 
arhosaf, I stay ; erys, he (she, it) stays. 

(iii.) a in monosyllabic stems becomes ai or ei : 

tafl-af, / throw ; teifl, he (she, it) throws. 

saf-af, / stand saif, he (she, it) stands. 

but tal-af, / pay ; tal, he (she, it) pays. 

gad-af, / leave, permit ; gad, he (she, it) leaves, 
permits. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 67 

(iv.) If a stem is of more than one syllable, a in the 
ultima becomes : 

ai or ei before consonants, y when final. 

e.g., llefar-af, / speak ; llefair, he (she, it] speaks. 

ymgadw-af, / keep, remain ; ymgeidw, he (she, it) 

keeps, remains. 

bwytaf, / eat ; bwyty, he (she, it) eats. 
-W as in ymgeidw does not count as a separate syllable. 

105 THE PASSIVE. 

As was stated above, the PASSIVE in Welsh is expressed 
by means of the IMPERSONAL. Thus : 

Pres. indicative of dysgu, learning. 
Sing. Plu. 

1. dysgir fi, / am taught dysgir ni, we are taught 

2. dysgir di, thou art taught dysgir chwi, you are taught 

3. dysgir ef (hi, y dyn, etc.) dysgir hwynt (y dynion, etc.), 
he (she, the man, etc.) is they (the men, etc.), are 
taught. taught. 

106 When, however, the post-vocalic form of the 
personal pronoun may be used, we get : 

1. Fe'm dysgir (i) fe'n dysgir (ni): 
I am taught we are taught. 

2. Fe'th ddysgir (di), fe'ch dysgir (chwi). 
thou art taught, you are taught. 

3. Fe'i dysgir (ef, hi), fe'u dysgir (hwynt). 
he (she) is taught, they are taught. 

107 N.B. After the negatives ni, oni, na, use the Post- 
vocalic 's (not 'i or 'u) in the third person sing, and plu. 
Thus: 

1. Ni'm dysgir, I am not taught. 

2. Ni'th ddysgir, thou art not taught. 

3. Ni's dysgir (ef), he is not taught, etc. 



CHAPTER VII. 



ADVERBS. 

108 ADVERBS may be classified: 
A. According to Function : 
(a) ADVERBS OF TIME : 



heddyw, to-day 
heno, to-night 
doe, yesterday 
echdoe, day before 

yesterday 

neithiwr, last night 
echnos, night before 

last 

y fory, to-morrow 
trannoeth,k\e follow- 
ing day 

trennydd, day after 
to-morrow 



y llynedd, last year 
gynt, formerly 
gwedi, wedi, after- 
wards, after 
yr awron ) now 
yr awran ) 
eisoes, already 
beunydd, daily 
beunoeth ) nightly 
beunos } every 
night 



(b) ADVERBS OF PLACE : 



acw, yonder 
adref, home, home- 
. wards 
gartref, at home 
allan, out 
yma, here 
hwnt, yonder 
ar 61, behind 
yn ol, back 
ymlaen, forward 



yna, there 
yno, there 
draw, yonder 
tanodd, under 
i fyny, upwards 
i lawr, down 
i waered, down 
trosodd, over 



erioed, ever 
byth, ever 
yn awr, now 
weithian, now 
gynneu, just now 
eto, again, yet 
drachefn, again 
tradwy, three days 

hence 
eleni, this year 



oddeutu, about 
oddi amgylch, 

about 

oddi yma, hence 
trwodd, through 
tanodd, under 
oddi tanodd, 

under 

uchod, above 
isod, below 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 69 



(c) ADVERBS OF MANNER AND DEGREE : 

yn dda, well go, rather mwyaf, most 

yn well, better lied, somewhat mor, so 

yn hawdd, easily felly, so po, by how much, 

cyn, as, so mwy, more the 

ynghyd, together amgen, otherwise, rhy, too 

better namyn, only 

(d) ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION : 

do, yes yn wir, truly, verily yn ddilys, certainly, 

le, yes yn ddiau, undoubtedly etc. 

(e) ADVERBS OF NEGATION : 

ni, nid, not ; nac, not ; nage, no. 
na, nad, not ; naddo, no. 

(f) ADVERBS OF DOUBT : 

odid, by chance, improbably. 

ond odid ) probably, hwyrach, perhaps, etc. 

odid na J 

(g) INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS : 

a (= Lat. -ne). pa bryd, pryd, when ? 
aie, indeed ? lie, pa le, where ? 

ai, is it ? paham, why, etc. 

pa fodd, how ? 
onid, is not (Lat. 
nonne). 

(h) DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERBS : 

dacw, there (is) ; dyna, there (is) ; dyma, here (is), 

etc. 
llyma, lo here ; llyna, lo there. 

(i.) NUMERAL ADVERBS : 

unwaith, once ; dwywaitli, twice, etc. 

(j) INTRODUCTORY ADVERBS : 

y, y, yd, 



70 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



B. Adverbs may be classified according to their origin : 

(i.) Adverbs formed from adjectives by placing yn before the 
latter. 

e.g. : da (adj.), good ; yn dda, well (adv.). 
diweddar, late ; yn ddiweddar, lately. 

Gwnaeth ei waith yn dda. 

He did his work well. 

Daeth fy meistr Cwsg yn lledradaidd i'm rhwymo. 

My master Sleep came stealthily to bind me. 

These adverbs must be carefully distinguished from predicative 
adjectives : the former always modify verbs, adjectives, or other 
adverbs, while the latter qualify nouns or pronouns, e.g. : in 

Ond er bod eu gallu yn wan, eto yr oedd eu hewyllys yn gryf. 
But though their power was limited tlmr will was strong. 

" Wan " and " gryf " are predicative adjectives qualifying '-gallu " 
and " hewyllys " respectively. 

NOTE. These adverbs are compared like the adjectives from 
which they are formed, e.g. : 

Positive. Comp. of Eq. Conip. Proper. Superl. 

yn dda. cystal. yn well yn oreu. 

N.B. yn is dropped in the comp. of eq. 

ii. From nouns : doe, echdoe, neithiwr, weithiau. 

iii. From nouns and adjectives (numeral or pronominal) : 

heddyw (he cog. with Lat. hie this, and dyw a doublet of 

dydd). 
heno (no=nos or noeth) ; beunydd (from pepn, the accus. 

of pob, older pop, and dydd); beunoeth (=pepn+ 

noeth) ; weithian from weithon ( = y waith hon) ; yr 

awron ( = yr awr hon) ; etc. 

iv. From nouns with prepositions : 

i fyny (mynydd, mountain) ; yma (yn man, compare Lat. 
illico, there, from in loco) ; i maes, i mewn, yn ol, 
ymlaen, y fory (=yn bore, the prep, "yn" softening 
the " b " on the analogy of the predicative " yn " ; 
or =y bore, the morning] ; trannoeth (tran, a doublet 
of_tra=Lat. trans, and noeth cognate with Lat. noc 
tern) ; ers^rueityn (Lat. matutinus), era talm, etc. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 71 



v. From nouns with prepositions and possessive adjectives : 

trachefn ( = tra+ei (her) -fcefn) ; in mediaeval Welsh 
tra(e)igefn and trae(u)cefn were used, e.g. : 

Ac ny wydynt gerdet, rac ovyn, namyn ac eu hwyneb 
drae keuyn. 

And in walking they continuously looked backwards through 
fear.-M.ab. col. 768. 

erioed (lit. in his life, er+i+oed ; eirmoet, in my life, is 
common in Mediaeval Welsh). 

vi. Prepositions used adverbially either with or without termina- 
tions. 

cynt ; gwedi ; yno ; yna ; oddiyna, oddiyno, gynneu, go 
(= Irish fo= under, cf. gogledd, lit. under the left to 
one looking eastward) ; trwodd ; tanodd ; trosodd ; 
isod ; uchod ; heibio (from heb) ; rhaco (from rhag). 

vii, From truncated sentences : 

dyma=(gwel) d(i) yma ; dyna=(gwel) d(i) yna. 
dacw=(gwel) d(i) acw ; llyma=(gwe)l or (sy)ll yma; 
llyna=(gwe)l or (sy)ll yna. 

viii. Others the origin of which is not clear, perhaps primitive 
adverbs. : 

neu, neur, neud ; byth, eto ; namyn. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

109 PREPOSITIONS may be classified as : 
I. SIMPLE : i, wrth, ger, etc. 
II. COMPOUND : o-ddi-wrth, etc. 

III. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES : ger llaw, ger bron, o 
achos. 



110 The SIMPLE and COMPOUND may again be sub- 
divided. 

A. according to inflection, into : 

(a) Those to which no PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES can be 
added : ^Zl^x ^A^jU^JuL *~O& **- ^^Jb&r*, $ * V ^ V 



|L &g> with, byf^^i&m, about , for erbyn, against, by 

heibio, by, past 'myn, by (in oaths) cyn, before 

ger, by, at is, below serch, notwithstanding' ^>, 

, tuag, towards er, since gerfydd, by 

mewn, in uwch, above erys, er's, for, during 

gwedi, wedi, after (gyda, gydag, with nes, up to, till 
parth a, towards *- 



The pronominal forms uchod, isod (\it.=over thee, under 
thee), shew that uwch and is were once conjugated. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



73 



(b) Those to which PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES may be 
added : 

The following are the most common : 



i Without Pronora. 
Suffix. 

ar, on 

jat, to, towards 
er, for 

gan, with, by 
heb, without 
hyd, as jar as, along 
i x to, into 

rhag, before, from before 
rhwng, between 
tan, dan, under 
tros, dros, over 
trwy, drwy, through 
wrth, to, dose by 
yn, in AtM^ &JI-****,*** 
(arn + dan) 
(o_ + ddi + am + dan) 
(p + ddi + ar) 
(o + ddi + wrth) 
hon) 



ii. Corresponding Pronom. 
Prepositions. 

arnaf, on me 

ataf, to me 

erof, for my sake 

gennyf, with me 

hebof, without me 

hydof, hyd-ddof, over me 

imi, im, to me 

rhagof, before me, from me 

rhyngof, between me 

tanaf, danaf, under me 

trosof, drosof, over me, for me 

trwof, drwof, through me 

wrthyf, to me 

ynof , in me 

am danaf, about me, on me 

oddi amdanaf, from on me 

oddi arnaf, from on me, from me 

oddi wrthyf, from me 

ohonof, of me, from me 



B. Again, prepositions may be classified according to 
their origin into : 

(a) From nouns : hyd ; cyfeiryd (a), opposite ; tu(a), 
towards ; parth a, towards ; gyd(a), with, from cyd, 
union, junction ; (er)byn, old dative case of pen, 
head. 

(b) From adjectives : ger, older geir (compare Irish 
gair, neighbouring) ; nes ; cyn (from cynt, cynt-af) ; 
uwch ; is ; rnyn, doublet of the possessive fy, com- 
pare French mon. 

(c) Primitive prepositions, asj>, i, am, gan, dros, trwy, 
etc. 



74 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



Ill CONJUGATION OF PRONOMINAL PREPOSITIONS. 
Pronominal prepositions are inflected for NUMBER and 
PERSON. Their conjugation consists of three types deter- 
mined by the vowel connecting the pronominal suffix 
of the 1st person and the preposition, exs.: 



1. dan-a-f 


2. heb-o-f 


3. wrth-y-f 


Sg. 1. danaf 
2. danat 


hebof 
hebot 


wrthyf 
wrthyt 


3. dano (m) 
dani (f.) 


hebddo (m.) 
hebddi (f) 


wrtho (m.) 
wrthi (f.) 


PI. 1. danom 
2. danoch 


hebom 
heboch 


wrthym 
wrthych 


3. danynt 


hebddynt 


wrthynt 



NOTES. i. Trosof makes 3rd sg. trosto (m), trosti (f.) ; plu. 3., 
trostynt. 

ii. Trwof makes 3rd sg. trwyddo (m.), trwyddi (f.) ; plu. 3., trwy- 
ddynt. 

iii. Hydof is thus conjugated : Sg. 1, hyd-ddof (or hydof) ; 2, 
hyd-ddot (or hydot) ; 3, hyd-ddo (m.), hyd-ddi (f.). Plu., 1, hyd- 
ddom (or hydom) ; 2, hyd-ddoch (or hydoch) ; 3, hyd-ddynt. 

iv. Gennyf is conjugated : Sing., 1, gennyf ; 2. Gennyt ; 3, 
ganddo (m.), ganddi (f.) ; Plu. 1, gennym ; 2, gennych ; 3, gan- 
ddynt. 

v. Imi is irregular : Sing., 1, imi or im ; 2, iti or it ; 3, iddo (m.), 
iddi (f.). Plu. 1, ini or in; 2, ichwi or iwch ; 3, iddynt. 

vi. Ohonof in mediaeval Welsh was conjxigated like danaf ; ohonaf, 
ohonat, etc. 

vii. The extended forms, arnaddynt, onaddynt (for ohonaddynt), 
danaddynt, etc., in the 3rd plu., were once common. 



112 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. 

The following are only a few of the most common : 

ar ben, upon gerllaw, near ynghylch, about 

ar hyd, along o achos, on account of ym mysg, among 

er mwyn, for the o blegid, on account of yn erbyn, against 
sake of 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 75 



NOTES. 1. All these phrases consist of a noun governed by a 
preposition. 

ii. All prepositional phrases excepting those containing the word 
Haw, hand, are construed with the possessive form of the personal 
pronouns, i.e., with the poss. adjective, e.g. : 

yn fy erbyn, against me. 
o'm plegid, on my account. 

iii. With phrases containing Haw, the pronominal form of the 
preposition must be used, e.g. : 

ger llaw iddi, near her. 



113 CONJUNCTIONS. 

The following are some of the conjunctions most com- 
monly used : 

cyn, before 

a, ac, and oni, onid, except, unless 

hefyd, also canys, because, for 

o, od, os, if fel, megys, modd, so that, in order 

that " ' *' 

pe, ped, if(^y,sie*J . y, yr, mai, taw, that 
pan, when * eto, yet, still 

nes, hyd nes, until er hyn, er hynny, yet, nevertheless 

pryd bynnag, whensoever yna, if so, in that case 
na> n ag> than ynte, then, therefore 

a, ag, as am hynny, therefore 

ond, but 9p* neu, or 

naill ai. . .ai, neu, ynte either. . .or 
na, nac. . .na, nac neither. . .nor 

and the somewhat obsolete : cyd and cyn, although ; 
hagen, still . 

NOTE. i. o, od, os, am, er, tra, gwedy, yn (in yna), 
can (in canys), are in origin prepositions. 

ii. Forms of the Substantive Verb : pe from be=bai, 
3rd sing, past impf. subj. ; mai, a doublet of mae, ys in 
canys ; taw, now obsolete as a verb, but compare Irish 
ta, is ; i in &,i=is, compare le for i-ef, it is. 



76 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



1 14 INTER JECTIONS. 

ffei ! fie ! twt ! tush ! 

ha ! ha ! wele ! behold ! 

o ! oh ! ysywaeth. ; t he more the pity ! etc. 

och ! ow ! alas ! nachaf, neur ! lo ! behold ! (now 

taw ! hush ! obsolete) 



CHAPTER IX. 

115 DERIVATIVES. 

PREFIXES. 

Prefixes generally produce initial mutation of the words 
to which they are attached. These mutations will be 
indicated here by the radical form of the simple word 
added in brackets after the derivative. The student will 
observe that the soft mutation is much the commonest 
change. 

116 (a) NEGATIVE OR PRIVATIVE : an, am, af; di ; 

exs. : annoeth (doeth, wise}, imprudent ; 
anhawdd (hawdd, easy), difficult ; 
amarch (parch, respect), disrespect ; 
aflwydd (llwydd, success), misfortune ; 
dibwys (pwys, weight), unimportant. 

(b) INTENSIVE or AUGMENTATIVE : dar, ded, di, dir, 
dis, dy, en (sometimes an-), er, e, am (ym) : 

exs. : darddilyn (dilyn) following eagerly ; 
dedfryd (bryd), verdict ; 
dioddef (goddef), suffering ; 
dial (di-j-gal> cf. galon, gelyn), to avenge; 
dirgel (eel), secret ; 
distaw (taw), silent ; 
dyfal (mal), diligent ; 
dyred, tyred, come ; 
enfawr, erfawr (mawr), very great ; 
annwn (an=en,+dwfn), the bottomless pit ; 
annog (an=en,+og, seen in hogi, awch, egni, Eng. to 

egg, Lat. acer), to urge ; 
ehud (hudo) easily led, foolish ; 
ewyn (gwyn), foam ; 
amdlawd (tlawd), very poor ; 
amgeledd and ymgeledd (celedd), protection. 



78 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(c) Prefixes denoting back again; ad, at, ail, eil, dad, 
dat. 

exs. adlais~(llais, voice), echo ; 
ateb (heb, eb), answer ; 
ail-ddechreu (dechreu), beginning again ; 
eiloes (oes), second age, again ; 
dadwneyd (gwneyd, doing), undoing; 
datod (dodi), untying, undoing. 



(d) The following cannot be readily classified : 

all, another, other (cf. L. alius), alltud (tud, country, land), exile ; 
allforio, to export. 

arch, chief, principal, archdderwydd (derwydd), archdruid. 
cam, mis-, camwaith (gwaith), transgression, wrong. 

cyd, cyf, cym, cyn, cys, together, with, equal : cydenw (enw), name 
sake ; cyflawn (llawn), complete ; cymorth (porth), support ; 
cynnal (dal), upholding ; cystal (tal), of equal value, equal. 
v. also adjectives comp. of eq. 

cyn, before, first, cynlhm (llun) ; cynweisiad, a chief or prime 
minister. 

dy bas a depreciatory force, like Greek dus-, in dybryd (from pryd, 
form) ; dychwedd (from gwedd, form, countenance), ill-favoured, 
ugly ; dycban (from can), a doublet of duchan, a satire. 

ech, (cog. witb L. ex.), before ; ecbdoe (doe, yesterday), day before 
yesterday ; ecbnos (nos, night), night before last. 

go, (L) rather, somewhat ; gofyn (myn), asking. 
(ii.) It is a formal prefix in gollwng, etc. 

gor, over, too, very ; gorlawn (llawn), too full, very full. 
gwrth, contrary to, back; gwrthgiliwr (ciliwr), a back-slider. 
hy, apt to, easy ; bylaw (llaw, hand), dexterous. 
rhag, before ; rbagweled (gweled, seeing), forseeing. 
tra, beyond, very ; trapblith (plitb), in a confused state. 

try, through, thoroughly ; tryfritb (brith, speckled), spotted through 
and through. 

y, e, a formal prefix added to words beginning with s and a conson- 
ant, as ysgar, ysbryd (from L. spiritus), esmwytb, etc., etc. ; 
cf. Frencb e- prefixed to words beginning with sp, st, sc, as 
esprit (from L. spiritus). The s in French has now disappeared 
almost everywhere, e.g., etat (from L. status). 

ym, reflexive ; ymbwyll (pwyll), discretion, consideration ; ymladd 
(lladd, to strike), to fight. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 79 



117 SUFFIXES. 

i. NOUN- SUFFIXES. 

NOTE. The (m.)Tand (f.) indicate the gender of the derivatives. 

(a) The following form ABSTRACT NOUNS of the MASC. 
GENDER : -deb, -der, -did, -dod, -dra, -edd, -i, -iant, -ant, 
-aint, -id, -yd, ineb, -ionedd, -ioni, -ni, -rwydd, -wch, 
-ydd. 

exs. ffyddlondeb, faithfulness rhyddid, freedom 

gwylder, modesty mebyd, infancy 

calondid, heartiness gwylltineb, hastiness 

Duwdod, Godhead gwirionedd, truth 

cyfleustra, opportunity daioni, goodness 

dialedd, vengeance oerni, coldness 

caledi, hardship egni, energy 

Uwyddiant, success euogrwydd,<7tt#< 

maddeuant, forgiveness diogelwch, safety 

digofaint, wrath llawenydd, joy 

NOTE. (L) Some derivatives ending in a few of these suffixes 
are feminine, e.g. : 

cardod, a dole ; trindod, trinity, 

tuedd, inclination ; trugaredd, mercy ; cynghanedd, 

metrical consonancy. 
gorfoledd, rejoicing, and tangnefedd, peace, are sometimes 

feminine. 

gweddi, prayer ; cenadwri, message, mission. 
cenfaint, herd ; braint, privilege (formerly masc.). 
addewid, promise (formerly masc.). 
celf yddyd, art ; gwerthyd (distaff). 
doethineb, wisdom (but also masc.). 
crefydd, religion. 

(ii) dra (of which der is a variant form) = 01d Welsh tra, a thing. 
rwydd=the adj. rhwydd, easy. 



(b) Suffixes denoting the AGENT or INSTRUMENT : 

-WT, -iwr (m.), -wraig (f.) : prynwr, buyer; gweithiwr, worker; 
golchwraig, washer-woman. 

-adur (m.), pechadur, sinner. 

ydd (m.), cyfieithydd, translator. 

-awdwr (m.), -odres (f.), iachawdwr, saviour; ymherodres, empress. 



80 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



-ad, -iad (m.), (i.) with the vowel of the preceding syllable affected 
or mutated if it is mutable they denote person, doer, as 
ceidwad, keeper (cadw) ; lleiddiad, one who kills (lladd). Cennad, 
messenger, permission, is usually fern. 

(ii.) with the vowel of the preceding syllable unmutated, they form 
verbal nouns ; cadwad, a keeping ; lladdiad, a killing, cutting. 
Galwad, a coiling, is sometimes feminine. 

Other examples are : 

i. Agent. ii. Verbal Noun. 

beirniad, adjudicator dyfarniad, adjudication. 

deiliad, tenant daliad, a holding 

dadgeiniad, a singer dadganiad, a rendering 

eirchiad, a suppliant archiad, a request 

geilwad, a summoner, caller galwad. a calling 

-ai : i. agent (in. or f.) : llatai, love-messenger 

ii. instrument (m.), awyrbwysai, barometer ; mynegai, index. 

NOTE. Buddai, a churn, and cymynai, an axe, are fern. 

-an (m.f.), mudan, a dumb person; llwyfan, a staye; cyflafan, 
slaughter ; hosan, stocking. 

am (m.), canwyllarjj, candlestick ; the n is parasitic or inorganic, 
"" compare n in ar-n-af ; -am is not connected with haearn. 



(c) The following cannot be readily classified : 

-aeh (m. f.), corach, dwarf ; cyfrinach, secret. 

-aeg, -eg (f.), language : Cymraeg, the Welsh language ; Cernyweg, 
Cornish language. 

-eg (f.), science, art : ieitheg, philology ; gramadeg, grammar, is 
masc. 

-aeth, -iaeth (abstract nouns from adjectives fern.) : 
etholedigaeth, election ; etifeddiaeth, heritage. 

- NOTE. Amrywiaeth, variety ; gwasanaeth, service ; hiraeth, 
longing, are masc. ; pennaeth (m.), chief, is not abstract. 

-aid (same gender as the noun to which it is suffixed), full : dyrnaid 
a handful. 

-as (f.), galanas, massacre ; priodas, wedding. 

-ed (f.), denotes the result of an action : colled, loss. 

-6S (f.), llynges, fleet ; llawes, sleeve. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 81 



-fa (f.), trigfa, dwelling place ; oedfa, meeting ; morfa, marsh, u 
masc. ) 

-fan (f.), trigfan, dwelling place. 

-od, awd (same gender as the noun to which it is suffixed) : 

dyrnod, a blow with the hand palfod, a blow with a paw ; 
tafod, tongue ; molawd, praise ; 

diod, drink ; defod, rite. 

Note that -od, added to the name of an instrument, denotes a blow. 

-og (m. f.), swyddog, officer ; ysgafarnog, hare. 

-1 is often purely formal, as in rhisgl, bark ; tymestl, tempest. 

For SUFFIXES of GENDER and NUMBER as well as DIMINUTIVE 
SUFFIXES see under nouns. 

118 ii. ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES : 

aidd, like, somewhat : hafaidd, like summer ; gwladaidd, rustic. 
-fawr (from mawr, great) : gwerthfawr, valuable. 
-gar (from car, a friend), fond of : dialgar, revengeful. 
-ig, relating to, full of : gwledig, rural. 

-llawn, lawn, lion, Ion, futt of : digllawn, digllon, wrathful ; prydlon, 
early, punctual. 

-llyd, -lyd (from lied, breadth) full of : dyfrllyd, watery ; gwaedlyd, 
bloody. 

-og, -log, full of, -ly : dihalog, undefiled ; bywiog, lively. 
-ol, iol, fuU of, -ly : nefol, heavenly ; bywiol, living. 
-us ( = Eng. -ous, Lat. -us, -osus), full of: poenus, painful. 
For -adwy, -edig, see under verb. 

-adwy and -edlg are usually passive in function, e.g. : 

gweladwy, visible ; rhoddedig, given. 
but they are active in a very few instances, e.g. : 

dyn teimladwy, a man full of feeling. 

Hew rhuadwy, a roaring lion. 

calon gystuddiedig, a contrite heart. 

y glicied wichiedig, the creaking latch. Qor. Owen. 

For -ed, -edd, -ydd, see above : also chapter on numerals. 



82 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



1 19 VERB-NOUN. 

The most common are -o, -io, -i, -u : exs., 

llithro, slipping ; breuddwydio, dreaming ; holi, 
questioning ; dysgu, learning. 

Also -an, -ian, -ain, -ed, -led, -eg, -fan, -yll, exs. : 

tuchan, grumbling ; sefyllian, loitering ; ochain, groan- 
ing ; gweled, seeing ; gwylied, watching ; ehedeg, 
flying ; gruddfan, groaning ; sefyll, standing. 

(a) -hau, -au, have a causative and inchoative force, 
e.g. : 

coffau, reminding (cof, memory). 
dyddhau, dawning (dydd, day). 

(b) -a conveys the idea of gathering or busying oneself 
with, e.g. : 

cneua, gathering nuts (cnau, nuts). 
chwedleua, gossiping (chwedlau, stories). 
ceinioca, begging (ceiniog, penny). 

COMPOUNDS. 
Substantive + substantive : 

awyr-gylch, atmosphere ; pen-dra-mwnwgl, headlong. 
beu-dy, cowhouse ; teu-lu, family. 
Caer-fyrddin, Carmarthen ; Llan-daf, Llandaff. 
haf-(f)od, summer residence. 

Verb-noun + substantive : 

hog-faen, whetstone ; esgyn-faen, horseblock. 

Substantive + adjective : 

pen-wan, weak-minded ; bron-goch, red-breasted. 

Adjective + substantive : 

dryc-in (drwg + hin), foul weather ; glas-for, the blue 

sea. 
rhudd-em, a ruby ; sych-nant, a dry valley. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 83 



Numeral + substantive : 

can-dryll, all to pieces ; seith-wyr, seven men. 
teir-blwydd, three years of age. 

Adjective + adjective : 

melyn-goch, orange-red ; pur-wyn, purely ivhite. 

Compound Pronouns and Compound Numerals : see 
Reduplicated Pronouns and the numerals in the Accidence 
above. 

For further examples of compounds see chapter on 
Derivation under arch, cam, gwrth, rhag, tra, awdwr, 
llawn, etc. 

N.B. Rome nouns, like tra, a thing, lid (=lled, width), and fa 
( = man, a place), have ceased to be used alone, and nuist now be 
regarded as prefixes or suffixes. 



SYNTAX. 

CHAPTER X. 
120 WORD ORDER. 

TYPE A The NORMAL ORDER of words in a Welsh 
sentence is as follows : 

1. VERB. 2. SUBJECT AND ITS ATTRIBUTES. 3. REST 

OF THE SENTENCE, 6,g., 

Rhoddodd fy mrawd lyfr yn anreg i'r bachgen neithiwr. 
My brother presented the boy tvith a book last night. 

121 This order, however, may be INVERTED for the 
sake of EMPHASIS. 

The emphatic word is always brought to the head of the 
sentence. The above may be inverted thus : 

(a) Fy mrawd roddodd lyfr yn anreg i'r bachgen neithiwr. 
It was my brother that presented a book to the boy last 

night. 

(b) Llyfr roddodd fy mrawd, etc. 

It was a book my brother gave, etc. 

(e) Yn anreg y rhoddodd, etc. 

It was as a present my brother gave, etc. 

(d) I'r bachgen y rhoddodd, etc. 

It was to the boy my brother gave, etc. 

(e) Neithiwr y rhoddodd fy mrawd, etc. 
It was last night that my brother, etc. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 85 



The student used to English word order must be on 
I) is guard against placing any part other than the verb 
at the beginning of the sentence unless that part be em- 
phatic. There is, however, one remarkable class of excep- 
tions which may be spoken of^as : 

122 TYPE B. This type should be confined to the 
use of the verb with the formal personal pronoun, which 
is often accompanied by the relative a. The word order 
in this type is : 

1. FORMAL PERS. PRON. 2. RELATIVE. 3. VERB. 
4. REST OF SENTENCE. 

Examples : 
Sing. 1st Mi gerddais o Lanfyllin. 

/ walked from Llanfyttin. 0. M. Edwards. 

2nd Di gei gennad i fynd ymlaen. 

Thou hast leave to proceed. Morgan Llwyd. 

3rd M : Fe a'm cipiodd i ym mhell bell. 

He carried me far away. Bardd Cwsg. 

Fern. : Hi roddodd yr un gorchymyn. 

She gave the same command. Edward James. 

Plu. 1st Ni a droisom ein hwynebau. 

We turned our faces. Bardd Cwsg. 

2nd Chwi ellwch hydeni arno. 
You can depend upon it. 

Drych y Prif Oesoedd. 

. 3rd Hwy a'i gwatwarasant ef. 

They mocked him. Mark v. 40. 



123 Many Welsh writers, and especially translators, 
use type B sometimes instead of type A normal order, 
e.g. : 

Ei ddisgyblion a ddywedasant wrtho. 
His disciples said to him. John vi. 12. 

This should read : Dywedodd ei ddisgyblion wrtho. 



86 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



124 CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT. 

It will be convenient to consider this important question 
here, as it is intimately connected with the order of words 
in the sentence. 

The verb has (a) TWO NUMBERS SINGULAR and PLURAL. 

And (b) THREE PERSONS in each number 1st, 2nd, 
and 3rd. 

(i) Of these the IST and 2ND SING., and the IST, 2ND, 
and SRD PERS. PLURAL CONTAIN THEIR OWN SUBJECT. 

e.g., caraf, / love ; ceri, ihou lovest ; etc. 

Consequently fi and di in 

caraf fi, / love ; ceri di, ihou lovest ; 

stand really IN APPOSITION to the subject contained in 
the verb. 

It will conduce to simplicity, however, to treat these 
pronouns as subjects of the verb. 

(ii) The SRD SING, is different. IT DOES NOT CONTAIN 
ITS OWN SUBJECT, which must therefore be separately 
expressed or implied from the context, e.g. ; 

Nid myfi a'th wrthododd di. 
It was not I that rejected thee. 
Y mae gan y llwynogod ffeuau. 
Foxes have holes. 

The above observations will help the student to under- 
stand the following rules of concord : 

125 TYPE A. NORMAL ORDER, i.e., subject following 
the verb. : 

(i.) THE VERB WILL BE IN THE 3RD SING. IF THE SUBJECT 
is : 

(a) A NOUN^'Q^^.or* j^Au^At. 

e.g. Geirwon yw geiriau'r gigfran. 
The words of the raven are harsh. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 87 



(b) A PRONOUN OTHER THAN PERSONAL. 

Pwy yw hwn ? Who is this one ? 
Pwy yw y rhai hyn ? Who are these ? 

(ii.) IF THE SUBJECT IS A PEE30NAL PRONOUN THE 
VERB AGREES WITH IT IN NUMBER AND PERSON. jf/uui&j ~ 

Credaf fi, / believe ; *fK 

Credwn ni, we believe ; 
Credo dd yntau, he believed. 

N.B. If the subject be compound i.e., if it consists 
of two or more nouns or pronouns, only the part next 
the verb is to be taken into consideration, e.g.,: 

Euthum i a'm cyfaill i weled y lie. 
My friend and I went to see the place. 

Here euthum is 1st sing., agreeing with i. 



126 INVERTED ORDER Subject preceding the verb : 
(iii.) THE VERB, UNLESS PRECEDED BY na, is IN THE 

3RD PERSON SING. 

Myfi a wnaeth hyn : It was I that did this. 
Y plant a dorrodd y ffenestr : It was the children that 
broke the window. 

Dywed wrthynt mai ei ewyllys oedd y cai y sawl a aber- 
thai i'r duwiau gadw ei fraint, ac aros yn y llys, ond y cai 
y sawl NAD YMOSTYNGENT i hynny ymadaw o'i wasanaeth 
ef. Drych y Prif Oesoedd. (p. 64). 



127 TYPE B ; (iv.) THE VERB AGREES WITH THE 

ANTECEDENT OF THE RELATIVE IN NUMBER AND PERSON : 

Mi a ysgrifennais, I wrote. 

A'r apostolion a fynegasant iddo y cwbl a wnaethent. 

And the Apostles told Him all they had done. 



88 WELSH GEAMMAR. 



128 In CO-ORDINATE SENTENCES having the SAME 
SUBJECT, rule (i.) (a) (b) will apply only to the first verb. 
The other verbs will be in the same number and person 
as the subject, e.g. : 

Dychwelodd y bugeiliaid a gogoneddasant Dduw am 
yr holl bethau a gly wsent ac a welsent 

And the shepherds returned and glorified God for all 
the things they had heard and seen. 



129 The other rules given above are applicable to 
co-ordinate sentences. 



CHAPTER XI. 
130 THE ARTICLE. 

131 POSITION : The article always precedes the noun 
or adjective to which it refers, e.g. : 

y dyn, the man \ y cyfiawn, the just. 

132 GOVERNMENT : The article produces the soft 
mutation if the noun immediately follows/ and is fem. 
and sing.,)e.g. : 

y ddynes (from dynes), the woman. 

N.B. 11 and rh are not mutated ; y lleuad, the moon ; 
rhwyf, the oar. 

Otherwise it takes the radical sound : 

y gwragedd (fem. plu.), the women, 
y dyn (masc. sg.), the man. 
y dynion (masc. plu.), the men. 

In the case of cardinal numerals the Article 

(a) governs the soft mutation in dau and dwy, 
e.g., y ddwy law ; y ddau ddyn. 

(b) is followed by the radical in all the others : 

e.g., y tair hudoles hyn. 
y Deng Air Deddf. 

133 USE : As in English the def. art. is used to dis- 
tinguish particular individuals or classes, e.g. : 

y dyn, the man. 

yr adar, birds, the birds. 



90 WELSH GRAMMAR. 

It is further used in Welsh : 
(a) With the demonstratives : 

(i.) To strengthen the relative : 

Yr Hollalluog yw ein Duw ni, yr hwn a'n han- 

fonodd atat. 
The Almighty is our God who sent us to thee. 

(ii.) If a noun intervenes, to form a dem. adj. : 
e.g. : y dyn hwn, this man. 

(b) With a few names of towns, countries, &c., e.g. : 

Y Mwythig, yr Amwythig, Shrewsbury ; Y Drefnewydd, 

Newtown. 
Y Bala, Bala ; Y Wyddgrug, Mold ; &c. 

But not with Llundain, London ; Rhydychen, Oxford ; Man- 
ceinion, Manchester ; Caerdydd, Cardiff, &c. 

It is used in : 

Yr Aifft, Egypt. Yr Eidal, Italy. 

Yr Alban, Scotland. Yr India, India. 

Yr Amerig, America. Yr Iwerddon, Ireland, &c 

The Article before many of these words is nothing but 
the initial vowel or syllable of the noun indistinctly arti- 
culated, misunderstood, and detached : thus 

Y Bermo is from Abermo. 

Y Mwythig is from Amwythig, &c. 

The analogy of instances like the above would probably 
extend the use of the Article to other Proper names. 

N.B. Bala (=outlet) is a common noun of the masculine gender ; 
hence the use of the Article with the place name, and the absence 
of the soft mutation : Y Bala. 

The Article is not used with Cymru, Wales ; Lloegr, 
England, &c. 

It is rarely used with names of rivers. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 91 



(c) lesu, Jesus, is often preceded by the def. art. yr ; 

e.g., Yr lesu a wylodd, Jesus wept. 

(d) With adjectives when used as nouns. 

e.g. : y prydferth, the beautiful. 

The article cannot be used in Welsh : 

When the noun is followed by another noun dependent 
upon it. 

e.g. : plant Israel, the children of Israel. 

plant y byd hwn, the children of this world. 

134 THE NOUN. 



135 GENITIVE CASE : The latter of two nouns is said 
to be in the genitive case : 

pen y mynydd, the top of the mountain. 
hwyl Hong, the sail of a ship. 
dysgu gwers, the learning of a lesson. 



136 ACCUSATIVE CASE OF THE PART AFFECTED. 

The accusative case is used with adjectives to denote the 
dress, mental quality, or part of the body referred to : 

yn uchel ei ben, with head erect, lit., high in respect of 

his head. 
yn deg ei wn, a llaes ei foes i bawb a'i cyfarfyddai, 

smiling graciously and bowing low to all that met 

him ; lit., gracious in smile and affable in manners 

to all that met him. Bardd Cwsg. 

This construction is met with in Latin, especially in 
poetry, where it is called ACCUSATIVE OF RESPECT, e.g. : 

percussa mentem, smitten in soul. Vergil. 



92 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



137 POINT AND DURATION OF TIME, DISTANCE AND 
MEASURE : When a noun has any of these meanings, 
its initial consonant : 

(i.) Will undergo the soft mutation when following 
the verb, e.g. : 

Bum yno lawer gwaith. 
I have often been there. 

Mi ddof ddydd Mawrth. 
/ shall come on Tuesday. 

Mae'r pentref acw bum milldir o'r mor. 
That village is five miles from the sea. 

N.B. If an adjective precedes the noun the former only shews 
mutation. 

(ii.) Will remain in its radical form if it stands at the 
head of the sentence. 

Llawer gwaith y bum yno. 
Many a time have I been there. 

Dydd Mawrth y dof, 
On Tuesday I shatt come. 

Pum milldir o'r mor yw'r pentref acw, 
Five miles from the sea is that village. 



138 NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES USED PREDICATIVELY : 

These are usually preceded by yn, e.g. : 

Mae Dafydd yn frenin, David is a king. 

Nid ydynt yn hyfion, fel plant tref. 
They are not bold, like town children. 

N.B. The predicative yn governs the soft mutation except in 
the case of tt- and rh-, which remain unchanged. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 93 



If, however, the predicative noun or adjective stands 
at the head of the sentence the yn is usually dropped, 
and the initial remains in the radical form, e.g. : 

Brenin yw Dafydd, 
It is a king David is. 

Hyfion nid ydynt, fel plant tref, 
Bold they are not, like town children. 

139 THE ADJECTIVE. 



140 POSITION : i. The adjective is placed after the 
noun in Welsh, e.g., 

dyn da, a good man. 

ii. The adjective is sometimes made to precede the 
noun, however, especially in poetry, e.g., 

! p'le mae efiaith dwyfol waed ? 

! where is the effect of divine Uood ? Pantycelyn. 

iii. Some adjectives must precede the noun, e.g. : 

(a) prif , chief ; and generally hen, old ; gau, false. 

(b) Possessive adjectives, e.g., 

fy mab, my son. 

(c) Most indefinite adjectives, e.g. : 

rhai pethau, some things. 

y cyfryw ddyn, such a person. 

N.B. Arall and oil never precede. Hence : 

y lie arall, the other place. 

fy mebyd oil, my whole infancy. 

(d) The numerals q.v. 



94: WELSH GRAMMAR. 

iv. In a few cases, the adjective varies in meaning 
according to its position, e.g. : 

unig : i. yr unig dy, the only house. 

ii. ty unig, a lonely house. 
cam : i. cam ddefnydd, wrong use. 

ii. ffon gam, a crooked stick. 
gwir : i. y gwir Dduw, the true (real) God. 

ii. ystori wir, a true (credible) story. 



141 GOVERNMENT : (i.) When PRECEDING the noun : 
ti)^- "*=- 

(a) The COMPARATIVES are followed by the RADICAL 
form of the consonant : 

cyn deced dydd, as warm a day. 
tecach dydd, a warmer day. 

(b) The POSITIVE and often the SUPERLATIVE produce 
the soft mutation : 

y gwir Dduw, the true God. 
yr hynaf wr, the oldest man. 

(ii.) When FOLLOWING the noun : 

The initial consonant of the adj. undergoes the soft 
mutation, after a feminine noun in the singular number. 
Otherwise it remains in its radical form. 

afon fawr (fr. mawr), a large river. 
but afonydd mawrion, large rivers. 
tir da, good land ; (" tir " is masc.). 

N.B. If the adjective applies to two or more nouns 
of different gender, its initial mutation will be determined 
by the noun which immediately precedes. 

dyn a dynes dda, a good man and a good 
dynes a dyn da, woman. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 95 



142 GENDER AND NUMBER v. Accidence. 



143 THE COMPARATIVE. The COMPARATIVE 

PROPER is followed by na, nag ; compare Eng. than, Lat. 
quam, e.g. : 

Y mae efe yn hyn na'i frawd. 
He is older than his brother. 

This na, nag, is another form of na, nac, not. French offers n 
striking parallel to this Welsh idiom in that the complementary 
clause following the comparative is always negative, e.g. : 

II en rapporta une gloire plus grande qu'il n'avait hii- 

meme pense. 
He brought back greater honour than he himself had expected. 



144 The comparative of equality is followed by a, 
ag, doublets of a, ac, and, e.g. : 

Nid yw efe gystal a'i frawd. 
He is not equal to his brother. 

The comparative of equality is often used absolutely 
in an exclamatory sense, e.g. : 

Hardded yw ! How beautiful it is ! 



145 THE SUPERLATIVE : Besides its ordinary uses 
which correspond to those of the superlative in English, 
it should be noticed that in certain connections the SUPER- 
LATIVE=ENGLISH COMPARATIVE : 

1. The English comparative followed by " of " must 
be rendered in Welsh by the SUPERLATIVE. Hence : 

Efe yw'r goreu o'r ddau. 

He is the better (lit. best) of the two. 

Similarly in sentences where that with which the com- 
parison is made, is not expressed : 

efe yw'r talaf, he is the taller. 



96 WELSH GRAMMAR. 

(2) Po with the superlative is equivalent to Eng. the 
with the comparative ; e.g. : 

goreu po gyntaf, the sooner the better. 

146 NUMERALS. 

(a) Pum, chwe, can, are adjectival, while pump, chwech, 
cant are regularly substantival. 

(b) Deng, deuddeng, pymtheng are adjectival, but 
deg, deuddeg, pymtheg, like most other numerals, may 
be either nouns or adjectives. 



147 POSITION : Simple numerals and the first element 
of compound numerals precede the noun which they 
qualify, e.g. : 

un dydd, one day. 

yr unfed dydd ar hugain, the twenty-first day. 

Exc. : Cyntaf always follows the noun. 
y dydd cyntaf, the first day. 

NOTE. If the compound numeral is written as one word, e.g., 
deuddeg, twelve ; or if one element indicates the number of times 
the other is to be taken, as pedwar ugain, four score, eighty, the 
whole numeral precedes the noun, e.g. : 

pedwar ugain mlynedd, eighty years. 



148 GOVERNMENT : (i.) Most Cardinal numerals are 
followed by the radical form of the succeeding consonant. 

(ii.) un (fern.) dau, dwy govern the soft mutation, e.g. : 

un wraig (fr. gwraig), one woman. 

dau gyfaill (fr. cyfaUl) i two friends. 

dwy gyf eilles (fr. cyfeilles) / 

N.B. 11 and rh are not mutated after un ; e.g. : 
un Haw, one hand ; un rhes, one row. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 97 



(iii.) tri and Chwe aspirate p, t, c. 

tri pliwys (fr. pwys), three pounds. 

(iv.) pum, saith, wyth, naw, deng, deuddeng, ugain, 
can, nasalise the 6 of blynedd, blwyddyn, and often the d 
of diwrnod ; e.g. : 

saith niwrnod, seven days. 

(v.) saith, wyth, require the sonant mutation of p, t, 
c. Thus : 

saith bennill, seven stanzas. 

All Ordinal numerals 

(a) Are followed by the Radical in the following noun, 
'. masculine, e.g. : 

Y trydydd person ; y seithfed dydd. 

(b) Govern the soft mutation, if the following noun is 
'"'ininine, e.g., 

ail res ; ail bennod ; y drydedd waith. 

N;B. Ail, in recent writers, has become an exception, 
iii that it is made to govern the soft mutation in the 
masculine as well as in the feminine, e.g. : 

Yr ail ddiwrnod. 

The Bible shews the transition, e.g. : 

Ail Llyfr Samuel ; but, Ail Lyfr y Brenhinoedd. 



149 NUMERALS WITH NOUNS : 

(i.) A noun qualified by a numeral should ALWAYS be 
SINGULAR, e.g. : 

tri dyn (not dynion) three men. 
H 



98 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



But though the noun is now regarded as sing.* in form 
it is plural in most of its syntactical relations, unless of 
course the numeral qualifying it is un, one. Thus : 

(a) The verb will be plural wherever a plural subject 
would require that number, v. Rules of concord, e.g. : 

Daeth dau ddyn ymlaen ac anerchasant y dorf. 
Two men came forward and addressed the crowd. 

(b) The demonstratives are put in the plural, e,g. : 

Y tri dyn hyn, these three men. 

(c) The qualifying adjective often takes the plural 
inflection, e.g. : 

dwy fuwch flithion. 1 Sam. vi. 10. 

(ii.) If, however, the numeral is used substantively, 
the noun, if governed by 0, of, will be in the plural, as : 

tri ar ddeg o ddynion, thirteen men. 

N.B. o must be used after mil, thousand ; myrdd, myrddiwn, 
ten thousand. This construction is often used with composite 
numerals. 

(iii.) The noun, if it combines with the numeral to form 
one compound, is 

(a) Generally singular, e.g. : 

wythnos, a week, from wyth, eight, and nos, night, 

pythefnos, a fortnight, from pymtheng, fifteen, 
nos, night. 



*0riginally the noun dependent on the numeral was in the Genitive 
Plural. Similarity of form between the nominative singular and the 
Genitive Plural led to the modern rule. For a detailed discussion of 
the question see the Author's " Studies in Welsh Grammar and 
Philology." 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 99 



But (b) sometimes plural, e.g. : 

Edrychwch yn eich plith am seithwyr da eu gair. 

Look ye out among you seven men of honest report. 
Acts vi. 3. 

Where seithwyr =saith, seven, and gwyr, men. 

150 PRONOUNS. 

151 NORMAL PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

152 1st pers. sing : mi, fi, i : 

(1) mi is used after a, gyda, with ; i, to,-, e.g. : 

gyda mi, with me ; i mi, to me. 

(2) fi, i : 

(i) In the nominative case 

Use i, fi (dysgaf i or fi, / learn), after a verb in 
-f , as : 

Ni welaf fi fawr yn nofio yn erbyn y ffrwd honno. 

I see but jew swimming against that stream. 
Morgan Llwyd. 

Use i after a verb in -m, -n, -S : 

bum i : dysgwn i : dysgais i. 

(ii.) In the accusative case governed by a verb : 

Use fi : 

dysgir fi (one) teaches me, I am taught. 
dysgodd fi, he taught me. 



100 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(iii.) Use i, fi after pronom. prepositions, e.g.: 
ataf i or ataf fi, to me. 

Pwy bynnag a ddel ataf fi nis bwriaf ef allan 
ddim. John vi. 37. 

Edifar yw gennyf i ddal i'th erbyn di. Drych 
y Prif Oesoedd. 

(iv.) Use i when in apposition 

(a) to a possessive adj. as : 

fy nysgu i, the teaching of me ; 
fy nhad i, my father. 

(b) to the post-vocalic pers. pron. : 

fe'm dysgodd i, he taught me. 

NOTE. The above rules apply to the use of minnau, flnnau, 
innau. 



153 2nd pers. sing. : ti, di : 

(1) Use ti : 

(i.) After pronominal prepositions : 
atat ti, to thee, to you. 

(ii.) When nom. case after a verb ending in -t 
dysgaist ti, thou didst learn. 

(2) Use di everywhere else : 

dysgi di, thou learnest ; 
dysgodd di, he taught thee. 

The same rules apply to the use of tithau, dithau. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 101 



154 3rd plu. hwy, hwynt : 

(a) Hwy is the regular form : 
dysgant hwy, they learn. 

(b) Hwynt is however often met with, as : 

dysgir hwynt, they are taught ; 
gyda hwynt, with them. 

Hwynt is seldom used in the nominative case, and is 
rarely found : 

(i.) After a pronom. prep, in the 3rd pers. plu. 
atynt, wrthynt, etc. 

(ii.) As object to a verb in the 3rd pers. plu., as : 
dysgant, carant, etc. 



155 Idiomatic use of i ti, i chwi, iddo ef, iddi hi, iddynt 

hwy : These phrases are often used to show that the 
person or persons referred to take a keen interest in what 
is stated, e.g. : 

Dyna i chwi yrfa Iwyddiannus. 

That was a successful career, mark you. 

Ewch im yr (=i'r) neges honn. 

Go, I pray you, on this mission. Mabinogion. 

Ac ar fyr iti, mae yno bob peth a bair i ddyn 

dybio'n well o hono'i hun. 
And mark you everything is there to induce a man 

to think better of himself. Bardd Cwsg. 

A similar idiom occurs in Latin, where it is called Ethic 
Dative. 



102 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



156 FORMAL PERSONAL PRONOUNS : 

These are used in affirmative statements only, e.g. : 
Mi a'th adwaen pwy ydwyt. Mark v. 24. 

Ac a'i agoriadau plwm fe gloes ffenestri fy llygaid. 
And with his leaden keys he locked the windows of 
my eyes. Bardd Cwsg. 

Fe : This is the form used for the masculine with the 
3rd pers. sing, of the verb. 

N.B. 1. These pronouns mark distinction of number, person, 
and, in the case of the 3rd pers. sing., gender also ; otherwise their 
function in a sentence closely resembles that of an introductory 
adverbial particle. 

2. They govern the soft mutation. 

Fe is regularly used with the impersonal forms of the 
verb, and then its function is purely adverbial, e.g. : 

Fe ymdrechwyd yn galed. 
Great effort was made. 



157 POST-VOCALIC PERS. PRONOUNS : 

Position : They are infixed between a word ending in a 
vowel and the transitive verbs which govern them. 

The preceding word is usually 

(a) The pers. pron, mi, ti, fe, etc. 

(b) The relative a or y. 

(c) The adverbs ni, oni. 

or (d) A conjunction, as na, y, pe. 

Case : invariably accusative in present-day Welsh, e.g. : 
Efe a'm gwelodd, he saw me. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 103 



158 CONJUNCTIVE PERS. PRONOUNS : 

These are rendered into English by / also, thou also, 
etc., e.g. : 

A fynnwch chwithau ddyfod ? 
Do you also ivish to come ? 

Sinai yntau a grynodd o flaen Duw. 

Sinai also was moved at the presence of God. 

After conjunctions, the conjunctive has frequently the 
force of the simple pers. pron., e.g. : 

Y mac efe a minnau yn hen gyfeillion, 
He and I are old friends. 



159 EMPHATIC PERS. PRONOUNS : 

As the name implies, these are used when the emphasis 
is on the pronoun, e.g. : 

Myfi sy'n magu'r baban, 
It is I who nurse the baby. 

Efe (he) however, is generally used with verbs even 
when it is not emphatic : 

Mae efe wrth ei fodd. 
He is quite happy. 

160 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES : 
Sometimes called Possessive Pronouns : 



161 GOVERNMENT : v. chap, on initial mutations. 

fy, my, governs the nasal mutation. 

ei, her, governs the spirant. 

dy, thy, your ; ei, his, require the soft mutation. 

ein, eieh, eii, are followed by the radical. 



104 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



162 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS : 

The sing, hyn, hynny, are used only in reference to a 
fact or a statement made or implied, e.g. : 

Pwy ddywedodd hynny ? 
Who said so ? 



163 DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES : 

Sometimes a possessive adjective is used with hwn, etc.. 
instead of the article. Thus : 

y dyn hwn, this man. 

fy mab hwn, this son of mine. 

y...hyn, y... hynny are used in the sing., with peth, 
thing : and sometimes with pryd, amser, time, e.g. : 

y peth hyn, this thing. 

yr amser hynny, that time. 



164 RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

165 POSITION : The relative pronouns 

a (subject and direct object of the verb). 
, (y (before consonants) I representing all other 
1 yr (before vowels) j case relations, 

are always placed before the verb, e.g. : 

Efe a anfonodd lythyr at y brenin a elwid Gas- 

wallon. 
He sent a letter to the king called Cassivellaunus. 

Drych y Prif Oesoedd. 

Gwyn fyd y bobl y mae yr Arglwydd yn Dduw 

iddynt. 
Blessed are the people to whom the Lord is God. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 105 



166 USE : The relative is used 

(i.) To introduce adjectival sentences. See examples 
above. 

(ii.) In simple sentences of an inverted order, e.g. : 

Hyn a ddywedaf. 
It is this that I say. 

Fy mrawd a ddywedodd hyn. 
It was my brother that said this. 

Yma y gorphwysaf. 
Here I shall rest. 

(iii.) In simple sentences of normal order Type B : 

Ni a'ch arbedwn hyn o dro. 
We shall spare you this time. 



167 CONSTRUCTION : 
., (i.) a is always SUBJECT or x DIRECT OBJECT of a verb. 

When SUBJECT its syntax will depend upon the type 
of sentence in which it appears (see Word Order 120, 
etc.) : 

(a) TYPE A. In sentences of this kind a will require 
the verb in the SRD PERS. SING, regardless of the person 
and number of the antecedent : 

Myfi a wnaeth hyn. 
It was I that did this. 

Y plant a dorrodd y ffenestr. 

It was the children that broke the window. 

(b) TYPE B. In sentences of this kind the pronoun 
does not seem to enter into the syntactical construction 



106 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



of the sentence, for the verb agrees not with the relative, 
but with its antecedent, e.g. : 

mi a ysgrifennais, / wrote. 

A'r holl Haws o honynt a gyfodasant. 
And the whole multitude of them arose. Luke 
xxiii. 6. 

A'r Apostolion a fynegasant iddo y cwbl a wnaeth- 

ent. 

And the Apostles told him all that they had done. 
Luke ix. 10. 

, (ii.) Y (yr) is used for all case relations other than subject 
or direct object of a transitive verb, e.g. : 

Y ty y_'m ganwyd ynddo. 
The house in which I was born. 

Yma yr erys. 

Here he will remain. 

(a) Y (yr) cannot be governed by a verb or preposition 

Its exact function is therefore indicated by the context. 
Thus, in the first example above, the pronominal preposi- 
tion ynddo, in it, is added to explain y. In the 2nd, yi 
is sufficiently explained by the adv. yma, and should itself 
be parsed as a Pronominal Adverb of Place (see the author' 
" Welsh Parsing and Analysis," pp. 33, 34). 



168 OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE : 

(i.) In negative clauses the relative is omitted, e.g.: 

A phwy bynnag ni syrthiai ac nid ymgrymai. 
And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth. 
Daniel iii. 11. 

Here the affirmative would be : 
A phwy bynnag a syrthiai. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 107 



(ii.) A is not used with the pres. indie, (wyf, etc.), or 
the pt. impf. (oeddwn, etc.) of bod. 

efe yw fy mrawd, he is my brother. 

(iii.) A is often omitted in other connections also, as : 
efe ddywedodd hyn 

=Efe a ddywedodd hyn. 
It was he that said this. 



169 INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

Pwy ? who ? refers to persons only. It is substantival 
like Lat. quis. That is, it must be used alone. 

Pwy yw y rhai hyn ? 
Who are these ? 

Pa ? what ? is adjectival like Lat. qui ? and must be 
coupled with a noun. 

Pa dduw sy'n debyg i'n Duw ni ? 
What God is like unto ours ? 

Pa beth corresponds to the English interrogative pronoun 
what, e.g. : 

Pa beth a wnaf ? 
What shall I do ? 

Pa is sometimes understood : 

Sawl pregeth a glywsoch ? 

How many sermons did you hear ? 

Beth a fynni di i mi ei wneuthur ? 
What wut thou have me do ? 

Pwy and pa govern the soft mutation. 



108 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



170 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND 
PRONOUNS. 

Aral), naill, peth, sawl, etc., are accompanied by the 
noun in the singular, e.g. : 

dyn arall, another man. 

Amryw*, ereill, rhai, etc., are accompanied by the noun 
in the plural, e.g. : 

amryw ddynion, several men. 

Dim, llawer, oil, holl, pob, ychydig, ambell, etc., are 
accompanied by the noun sometimes in the singular, and 
sometimes in the plural, e.g. : 

dim llyfr, no book ; dim llyfrau, no boohs. 

(a) Generally the number of the noun depends upon the me ning 
or position of the adjective : 

(i.) Llawer : If the noun follows, it is sing, as llawer dyn, many 
men ; but if the noun precedes, it is plu. ; dynion lawer, many 
men. 

(ii.) Oil, holl : holl precedes, oil follows the noun. 

When oil, hol\= whole, they take the noun in the sing. : e.g., 
yr holl fyd or y byd oil, the whole world ; 

but when they=att, denoting all the members of a class, the noun 
is plural, e.g., 

yr holl blant, y plant oil, all the children. 

(b) Llawer followed by o is a pronoun ; e.g., 

llawer o bobl, many people. 



* amryw is sometimes used with a singular : 

er gweled, amryw Galan 

Gofal yn lie cynnal can 

Parchaf, anrhydeddaf di, 

Tymhor nid drwg wyt imi. Gor. Owen, Cywydd y Golan. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 109 



(c) Oil preceded by the def. article yr is a pronoun ; e.g., 

Gwnaeth yr oil eu goreu, 
All did their best. 

(d) Dim strengthens the negative in the sentence : 

Kid oes gennyf ddim north. 
/ have no strength. 

Dim nothing, when used without the verb in answer to questions, 

e-g-, 

dun yn y byd, nothing at all. 

(e) Ychydlg before the verb=ftftfe, but little, but few. 

Ychydig yw y rhai sydd yn ei chael hi. 
Few there be that find it. Matthew vii. 14. 

After the verb, it=o little, some. 

Mi gefais ychydig gymorth ganddo, 
/ had a little assistance from him. 

Pob, holl, are adjectival, and should not be used alone ; 
but pob in sucli modern locutions as pob yn ddau 
(older, pob dau), is substantival. 

Sawl when used with the article is not followed by a noun ; 

e.g., Y sawl a'm carant, 

They that love me. Prov. vii. 17. 

Pawb, neb, are always pronouns, and must be used 
alone. 

Hence avoid such expressions as pawb dynion for pob dyn or 
pawb. 

Rhyw and Rhai distinguished : 

(a) Ehai is always plu., rhyw is sing, or plural.* 

(b) Rhai denotes number, rhyw quality or kind. 
e.g. : rhai pethau, some things. 

rhyw bethau, things of a certain kind. 

(c) Khai is followed by the radical, rhyw governs the 
soft mutation. 

* Hence amryw (<am +rhyw) is both singular and plural and 
amrai should never be used. 



110 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



171 THE VERB. 

172 TENSES OP THE INDICATIVE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE may be : 
(i.) Indefinite, as dysgaf, / learn, 

(ii.) Continuous or habitual, as dysgaf, / am learning ; 
or I am in the habit of learning. 

N.B. The latter meaning is more usually expressed by 
the periphrastic form of the present tense, thus : 

Pres. contn. : Yr wyf yn dysgu, / am learning. 

Pres. habitual : Byddaf yn dysgu, / am in the habit 
of learning. 

173 FUTURE : This is usually expressed by means of 
the present simple form ; e.g. : 

dysgaf, / shall learn. 

But not infrequently by : 

(i.) Gwnaf, / make, I shall make, and a verb-noun, 
e.g. : gwnaf ddysgu, / shall learn. 

Or (ii.) eaf, / have, I shall have, and the verb-noun, e.g., 

Ni gawn eich gweled yfory. 
We shall see you to-morrow. 

174 PAST IMPERFECT : This expresses a state or action 
continued but not completed in the past ; e.g., 

Dysgwn fy ngwers bob nos. 

/ used to learn my lesson every night. 

The periphrastic form with oeddwn is often used instead 
of the simple form : 

Yr oeddwn yn dysgu, 
7 was learning. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. Ill 



When the state or action is represented as habitual 
rather than continuous, the tense is generally expressed 
by byddwn, and the pres. ptc. equivalent ; e.g., 

Byddwn yn dysgu fy ngwersi. 

/ was in the habit of learning my lessons. 



THE AORIST or PRETERITE : This tense-form 
refers to a state or action indefinitely in the past ; e.g., 

dysgais, / learnt. 



176 THE PERFECT or PRESENT COMPLETE : This tense 
denotes that the action is NOW COMPLETE. It is ex- 
pressed by the verb wyf, and the pt. ptc. equivalent ; 

e.g., 

yr wyf wedi dysgu, / have learnt. 

N.B. The verb wyf is an exception, as its simple form bum may 
be aorist, / was, or perfect, / Jiave been. 



177 PLUPERFECT : This tense may be expressed either, 
(i.) By means of the simple form of the verb ; e.g. : 
dysgaswn, / had learnt. 

or (ii.) By oeddwn and the pt. ptc. equivalent as : 
yr oeddwn wedi dysgu, I had learnt. 



178 THE FUTURE PERFECT : There is no simple form 
of the future perfect in Welsh. It is regularly expressed 
by means of byddaf and the pt. ptc. equivalent ; e.g., 

byddaf wedi dysgu, / shall have leanrt. 



112 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



179 THE VERB-NOUN: 

180 ITS SUBSTANTIVAL CHARACTER : 

The student must beware of regarding the Welsh verb- 
noun as a mere equivalent of the English infinitive mood. 
It is much more of a noun than the latter : thus : 

(a) It may be qualified by the def. art. : 

Gan gydymholi beth yw yr adgyfodi o feirw. 
Questioning one with another what the rising from the 
dead i should mean. Mark ix. 10. 
f^ 

(b) Also by an adjective : 

canu da, good singing. 

(c) The noun dependent upon it, as when dependent 
upon any other noun, is in the genitive case, and under- 
goes no initial mutation : 

derbyn tal, the receipt of payment. 
Contrast : derbyniais dal, I received payment, 

)Vhere dal is accusative case, and has the customary 
soft mutation of the object when following a transitive 
verb. 

Likewise the Post- vocalic or Infixed Pronoun preceding 
it is the Possessive (=Genitive case in function), and not 
the Accusative. This is evident from the mutation, 

e.g., 

A'i chanmol a wnaeth, and he praised her. 

The Possessive 'i governs the Aspirate mutation. 

Contrast : Fe'i canmolodd hi, he praised her, where the 
'i is followed by the radical, and is thus in the accus. case 
direct object of ' canmolodd.' 

(d) It is governed by prepositions, e.g., 

Cyn derbyn tal. 

Before the receipt of payment. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 113 



(e) It may be the subject or direct object of a verb, 
e.g., 

(i.) Subject : as adgyfodi in (a) above. 

(ii.) Object : Clywaf iddo Iwyddo yn yr arholiad. 

/ hear that he has passed the examination. 

Still note that it has a verbal function, thus 

(i.) It is essential to the complete conjugation of a 
a verb. 

(ii.) In the periphrastic conjugation it is modified by 
adverbs, e.g., in : 

Yr oedd yn canu'n dda. 

' dda ' is an adv. of manner modifying ' canu.' 

181 THE VERB-NOUN WITH PREPOSITIONS : 

(a) There is no special form for the PARTICIPLE in Welsh. 
It is expressed by means of the verb-noun with suitable 
prepositions, thus : 

Pres. ptc. : yn dysgu, dan ddysgu, gan ddysgu, learn- 
ing. 

Pt. ptc. : wedi dysgu, having learnt, lit. after learning. 

Fut. ptc. : ar ddysgu, about to learn, lit. on (the point 
of) learning. 

(b) The verb-noun governed by prepositions is also 
often used 

where in English we should have : 
(i.) Temporal clauses : 

Cyn i mi gael hamdden i sylwi ar y fynwent, gwelwn 
lu o blant yr ysgol. 

Before I had an opportunity of noticing the graveyard 
I could see a crowd of the school children. Cartrefi 
Cymru. 

i 



114 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(ii.) Noun clauses : 

Gwelwn yn eglur fod eu hathraw yn medru Cymraeg. 
/ saw dearly that their teacher knew Welsh. Cartrefi 
Cymru. 

(iii.) Final clauses : 

A chyda mi ysbienddrych, i weled pell yn agos. 

And spy-glass in my hand that I might see the distant 
near. Bardd Cwsg. 

N.B. In English purpose is often expressed by the infinitive. 
Thus the above might be rendered : 

And spy-glass in hand to see the distant near. 

(iv.) Concessive clauses : 

Er iddo ddringo i ben y bryn, ni welodd y mor. 
Though he climbed to the hill-top he did not see the sea. 



182 AGENT WITH A VERB-NOUN : 

In (u) and (b) (par. 181) the doer of the action implied 
in the verb-noun is expressed : 

(i.) By means of the noun or pronoun governed by the 
prep, i, to, as : 

wedi I mi ddysgu, when I had learnt. 

wedi i'r dyn ddysgu, when the man had learnt. 

The prepositional phrase denoting the agent is placed 
betweon the preposition and its verb-noun in this case. 

(ii.) By means of the noun or pronoun governed by 0, 
of, from. 

wedi dysgu ohonof , when I had learnt. 
wedi dysgu o 'r dyn, when the man had learnt. 

Here the prepositional phrase denoting the agent is 
placed after the verb-noun. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 115 



(Hi.) By means of the POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE preceding 
the verb-noun. 

wedi fy nyfod, when I had come. 

N.B. This third method cannot be used : 

(a) When the agent is denoted by a noun as dyn. 

(b) When the verb-noun belongs to a transitive verb, thus : 

wedi fy nyaga=when I hod been taught, and not when 
I had learnt. 

183 The use of the verb-noun with prepositions to 
form compound or periphrastic tenses is exemplified in 
the Accidence. 



184 Yn, dan, and gan with the verb-noun distin- 
guished : 

yn is regularly used to form periphrastic or comp_ound 
""" tenses : 

y mae ef yn canu, he is singing. 

Dan or tan with the verb-noun implies a continued state 
or "action going on at the time indicated by the finite verb : 

Efe a aeth gyda hwynt i'r deml, dan rodio a neidio 

a moli Duw. 
He entered with them into the temple, walking and 

leaping and praising God. Acts iii. 8. 

Gan or can with the verb-noun often explains the manner 
of the action denoted by the finite verb ; e.g., 

A Chan neidio i fyny, efe a aeth gyda hwynt i'r deml. 
And he, leaping up, entered with them into the temple. 
Acts iii. 8. 

If the finite verb is repeated as a verb-noun with gan 
(can), the prepositional phrase serves to emphasise the 
action denoted by the finite verb ; e.g., 

Gan fendithio y'th feudithiaf. 

In blessing I will bless thee. Gen. xxii. 17. 



116 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



185 i with the verb-noun. 

The preposition i, to, is used with the verb-noun : 

(i.) After verbs to denote object or purpose, e.g., 

Euthum i weled y lie. 
I went to see the 'place. 

Llafuriais lawer i ennill y gamp. 
I laboured hard to succeed. 

(ii.) After nouns and adjectives when the underlying 
idea is that of object or purpose ; e.g., 

Buddiol i athrawiaethu. 
Profitable for doctrine. 

Nid wyf addas I'm galw yn apostol. 
/ am not meet to be called an apostle. 

Gan fod cymaint dy awydd i weled cwrs y byd bach, 

ces orchymyn i roi i ti olwg arno. 
As you are so anxious to see the course of this little 

world, I have been commanded to give you a view 

of it. Bardd Cwsg. 

So after : 

Nouns. Adjectives, 

cais addas 

calon agored 

cysur awyddus 

chwant digon 

tuedd parod 

ewyllys, etc. teilwng, etc. 

Note that as the function of the verb-noun approximates 
to that of a noun in the Genitive case, the preposition 
i tends to disappear. Hence dawn siarad, the gift of speech, 
is more correct than dawn i siarad ; while chwant ym- 
ddatod and chwant i'm datod, for desire to depart, alternate 
in different editions of the Bible. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 117 



(iii.) After the tenses of the verb wyf, to denote duty, 
possibility, etc. : 

Yr ym i gychwyn ar unwaith. 
We are to start at once. 

(iv.) After parhau, continuing ; dal, holding, continu- 
ing, etc. : 

Daliodd i nofio hyd y llong. 

He kept on swimming as far as the ship. 



186 THE VERB-NOUN FOR FINITE TENSES : 

When two or more adverbial sentences are dependent 
on the same conjunction, the corresponding verb-noun is 
substituted for the verb in every sentence after the first, 
the subject, if different from the first, being expressed 
by and the noun or pronoun : 

Tra'r elwyf a gweddio acw. 

While I go and pray yonder. Matt. xxvi. 36. 

Os y peth hwn a wnei, a'i orehymyn o Dduw i ti. 

// thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so. 
Exodus xviii. 23. 

Os gwyrodd fy ngherddediad allan o'r ffordd, a myned 
o'm ealon ar ol fy llygaid. 

// my step hath turned out of the way, and my heart 
walked after mine eyes. Job xxxi. 7. 

Even in independent compound sentences the verb- 
noun is sometimes substituted for the verb in the second 
and following sentences, e.g., 

Ymchwelodd y Brutaniaid, ac ail-ruthro a gwneuthur 
glanasdra. 

The Britons returned, made a fresh attack, and wrought 
carnage. Drych y Prif Oesoedd. 



118 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



187 INDIRECT OR OBLIQUE NARRATION. 

A. NEGATIVE STATEMENTS : 

These are always expressed by clauses introduced by 
na, nad : 

Gwelais nad oedd efe yn cliwenyclm aros. 
I saw that he did not desire to stay. 

Cred na ddaw llwyddiant fyth i'w ran. 
He believes he will never succeed. 

Gwn nad hwn a'i gwnaeth. 
/ know it was not he who did it. 

B. AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS. 

(i.) STATEMENTS OF INVERTED ORDER (see par. 121) : 

These are always expressed by clauses introduced by 
mai (or taw). 

Tystiodd mai efe oedd gyntaf. 
He declared that he was first. 

Chwi welwch mai goreu po gyntaf y daw. 
You see that the sooner he comes the better. 

Cred mai efe sy'n iawn. 
He believes he is right. 

(ii.) STATEMENTS OF NORMAL ORDER (see par. 120) : 

(a) An English Aorist must be expressed by the verb- 
noun, e.g. : 

Darllenaf iddo groesi'r cyfandir mewn awyren. 
I read that he crossed the continent in a balloon. 

(b) An English Pluperfect is generally expressed by the 
verb-noun, e.g., 

Darllenais iddo groesi. 
I read that he had crossed. 



WELSH GRAMMAE. 119 

Otherwise use either 

(c) bod, with the verb-noun corresponding to the finite 
verb, if any, governed by an appropriate preposition, 
e.g., 

Gwelaf ei fod yn croesi (wedi croesi, ar groesi). 
/ see that he is crossing (has crossed, is about to cross). 

Gwyr fy mod yn glaf. 
He knows that I am HI. 

or (d) a clause introduced by the conjunction y, yr : 

Tlyderaf y dychweli di yn iach. 

/ trust you will return in good health. 

X.B. This last construction may not be used if the verb : 
(i.) is in the aorist. See (a) above. 

(ii.) is the Simple Present wyf, etc., or Simple Past Impf., 
oeddwn, etc., of the substantive verb. 



188 THE VERB-NOUN NEGATIVED. 

The verb-noun is negatived by the verb-noun peidio 
followed sometimes by the preposition a, &g, icith : 

Gwell peidio myned. 
It is better not to go. 

So the imperative mood paid (2 sing.) peidiwch (2 plu.) 
is frequently used with the verb-noun in prohibitions ; 

e.g., 

Peidiwch a myned. 
Do not go. 

The preposition heb, without, also negatives the verb- 
noun, ; e.g., 

Ac yntau heb fod yn iach. 
And he not well, 



120 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



189 THE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION. 



190 This corresponds roughly to the ablative absolute 
in Latin and the nominative absolute in English ; e.g., 

Latin : Nihil respondente rege, servus ferro se per- 
cussit. 

English : The king answering nothing, the slave fell 
on his sword. 

Welsh : A'r brenin heb ateb dim, syrthiodd y caeth- 
was ar ei gleddyf. 



191 In Welsh the absolute phrase is expressed with 
the help of the verb-noun governed by the prepositions : 

yn, in wedi, after am, about 

ar, on, about heb, without 

Ac efe yn rhagweled, a lefarodd am adgyfodiad Crist. 
He, seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ. 
Acts ii. 31. 

Methasom, a ninnau wedi gwneud ein goreu. 

We failed, though we had done our best. 

NOTES. (a) Yn bod is not expressed. Hence : 

Ac efe yn brophwyd. 

And he being a prophet. Acts ii. 30. 

A chyda mi ysbienddrych. 

Having a spy-glass with me. Bardd Cwsg. 

(b) The absolute phrase is always introduced by the conjunction 
a, ac, and. 

N.B. (i.) Note that, different from Latin, this construction 
may be used in Welsh for a subordinate clause, even when the subject 
of the latter is the same as the subject or object of the principal 
verb. 

(ii.) The absolute construction, in Welsh, as in Latin, is very 
characteristic of the language, and should be freely used. It is 
not to bo encouraged in English. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 121 



192 THE ENGLISH INFINITIVE PASSIVE. 

193 What in English would be the infinitive passive 
is in Welsh expressed by : 

(a) The verb-noun cael, having, followed by the pos- 
sessive adjective and the verb-noun ; e.g., 

Cael fy nysgu, being taught, lit. having my teaching. 
Yr wyf yn cael fy nysgu, / am being taught. 

or, preferably 

(b) Simply the verb-noun qualified by a possessive 
adjective, provided the verb-noun belongs to a transitive 
verb, and the possessive adjective qualifying it denotes 
the same person or thing as the subject of the principal 
verb : 

Deuthum i'm dysgu, / came to be taught. 

Contrast with this : 

Deuthum i'th ddysgu, / came to teach you. 
Gwelais fy mod, / s-iw that I was. 

194 THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

195 FORM : The verbs corresponding to bod, being, 
and caol, having, have distinct forms for (a) the present 
and (b) the imperfect subjunctive. See Accidence and 
Appendix. Other verbs have distinct forms only in the 
present subjunctive. See dysgu. 

The past imperfect (excepting that of wyf and caf) and 
the plupf. subjunctive are the same as in the indicative. 

196 USE : The subjunctive is not much used in Welsh. 
It is mostly met with in : 

(a) Clauses expressing a wish : 

na bae'n haf o hyd. 

Would that it were always summer. 



122 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(b) Indefinite time clauses : 

Hyd oni ddelwyf. 

Until I come. 

(c) Indefinite relative clauses : 

Deued a ddelo. 
Come what may. 

Ni Iwyddai gwnaed a fynnai. 

He could not succeed, do what he would. 

(d) Final clauses : 

Llewyrched felly eich goleuni ger bron dynion 
fel y gwelont eich gweithredoedd da chwi. 

Let your light so shine before men that they may 
see your good works. Matthew v. 16. 

(e) Conditional clauses where it is implied that the 
condition has not been fulfilled, or is not likely to be ful- 
filled]: 

Awn gyda chwi pe bae'r tywydd yn ffafriol. 
I should go with you if the weather ivas favourable. 
(implied statement the weather is not favourable). 

N.B. The verb in the apodosis of these sentences is also in the 
subjunctive. 



197 Yw, oes, mae, sydd, distinguished. <&*xW 

-I. SENTENCES OF NORMAL ORDER. 

^fl 
(i.) Ill an AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENT US6 

Y mae yn sicr gennyf nad oes dim yn aflan o hono 
ei hun. 

/ am persuaded that there is nothing unclean of itself. 
Romans xiv. 14. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 123 



(ii.) Everywhere else use : 

yw with a definite subject, 
and oes with an indefinite subject. 

e.g., A y w John gartref ? Is John at home. 

Nid yw efe yma, He is not here. 

Os oes neb gartref, // there is anyone at home. 

Pan yw (efe) yn dywedyd, When he speaketh. Bible. 
Nes yw'r llyfr yn hudol. Until the book is enchanting. 



II. SENTENCES OP INVERTED ORDER. 

(i.) EMPHATIC SUBJECT requires sydd : 

Nid myfi sydd yn eich rhwystro. 
It is not I that prevent you. 

Pwy sydd yna ? Who is there? 

N.B. If the verb is negatived use yw for sydd : 
Cariad nid yw yn cenfigennu. 
Charity envieth not. 1. Corinthians xiii. 4. 

(ii.) When a noun, adjective or pronoun used as a predi- 
cate is emphatic, use yw : 

Brenin yw Dafydd. 
A king David is. 

Arglwydd, da yw i ni fod yma. 

Lord, it is good for us to be here. Matthew xviii. 4. 

Myfi yw, nac ofnwch. 

It is I, be not afraid. John iv. 20. 

(iii.) When any other part of the predicate is emphatic, 
use mae : 

Ai yn y ty y mae Arthur ? 
Is it in the house Arthur is ? 

Eich brawd mae Arthur yn ei garu. 
It is your brother that Arthur loves. 



124 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



198 Wyf, ydwyf ; wyt, ydwyt ; etc., distinguished : 

Use the fuller forms ydwyf, ydwyt, etc., in answer to 
questions : 

A wyt ti yn fy ngharu i yn fwy na'r rhai hyn ? 
Ydwyf Arglwydd. 

Lovest ihou me, more than these ? Yea, Lord. 
John xxi. 15. 

Elsewhere wyf, and ydwyf, etc., are used somewhat 
indifferently ; e.g., 

Os ydwyt (or wyt) yn fy ngharu i. 
// ihou lovest me. 



198a Oedd and byddai : 

In all but present day Welsh, oedd often occurs where 
we should now use byddai : 

Da oed gennyfi ymdirioni ar mab. 

I should like to fondle the boy. Mab. col. 736. 

A gwyched oedd gael arnynt lawn olwg. 
And how pleasing it would be to have a proper view 
of them. Bardd Cwsg. 



199 ADVERBS. 



200 The adverbial or predicative yn : 

Adverbs formed from adjectives by prefixing the ad- 
verbial yn, usually drop the yn at the beginning of a sen- 
tence ; e.g., 

Gwn yn dda. / know well. 

Da gwyr fy Nuw. My God well knoivs. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



GOVERNMENT : The predicative yn governs the soft 
mutation : 

Gwn yn dda (from da). 

If the yn is dropped the initial consonant of the gov- 
erned word : 

(i.) reverts to its radical form, if 

(a) the word begins the sentence, e.g., 

Da gwyr fy Nuw. 

(b) the word comes between the preposition yn and 

the verb-noun, e.g., 

Pan ydynt yn manwl gyfrif. 

When they carefully calculate. Ed. Samuel. 

(ii.) elsewhere, may or may not revert to its radical 
initial : 

Yr hyn a fyddo da (radical). 2. Sam. xix. 27. 
Os dy galon fydd doeth (radical). Prov. xxiii. 15. 

Nid yw fy nhystiolaeth i wir (soft, from gwir). 
St. John v. 31. 



201 ADVERBS OF NEGATION : ni, nid, na, nad, nac. 

(i.) With verbs use : 

(a) nid, nad, nac, before vowels. 

(b) ni, na, before consonants. 

(ii.) With the verb-noun or any part of speech other 
than the verb use : 

nid, nad before vowels and consonants. 



126 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



202 In addition to the above, the following rules must 
be observed in the use of the negatives : 

(a) Ni, nid, are used in NEGATIVE STATEMENTS. 

Ni fedrais i ymattal ddim hwy. 

I could not restrain myself any longer. 

" Nid rhyfedd yn wir," ebe fi. 
" It is not strange indeed," said I. 

Ni wn i pa le yw yma. 

/ know not what place this is. 

(b) Na, nac are used in answer to questions : 

Nac ydwyf, No, I am not. 

Na ddeuaf, No, I shatt not come. 

(c) In negative clauses use nad for mai or taw (that) 
+nid: 

Gwn nad myfi yw'r blaenaf. 
/ know that I am not the first. 

(d) In conditional sentences, where OS, pe, if, are separ- 
ated from the negative, use ni, nid : 

Os chwi ni wrandewch. 
// you will not listen. 

(e) With all other subordinate clauses use na, nad, and 
with the imperative, use na, nae : 

Na phechwch, sin not. 
Nac ofna, be not afraid. 

Byddwch barod am na wyddoch yr amser. 
Be ready as you know not the time. 

Note that^ni, nid, closely resemble Latin non in function, 
and na, nad ne 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 127 



203 GOVERNMENT OF THE NEGATIVE : 

(i.) nid, nad, are followed by the radical form of the 
consonant. See above examples. 

(ii.) After ni and na, c, p, t, are aspirated. 

g, b, d ; 11, rh, m, undergo the 

soft mutation. 

NOTES. (a) As initial g- will thus disappear after ni or na, these 
negatives may be followed by a vowel in apparent violation of the 
rule given above : 

na ofelwch, heed not. 

(b) The pronominal function of the Post- vocalic s (cf. pp. 46, 67), 
has been so largely lost sight of that it is frequently suffixed 
to the negative as a merely euphonic ending before verbs in g- and 
c- ;, 

Am hynny ri's gallaf i ddyfod. Luc xiv. 21. 

Nis gwn i, ebr finneu, beth a allei 'ch meddwl fod. Bardd 
Cwsg, 61. 

Pe ni's gadawsent i fusgrellni a llaithder en gorthrechu. 
D. y. P.O., 94. 

Mae cyhyd amser er pan ysgrifennais attoch, na's gwn yr awrhon 
pa sut i ddechreu. Llythyrau Gor. Owen, 50. 

(c) The b of byddaf and other parts of wyf may be mutated, but 
it usually remains radical. 

Fel y bwyttao dyn o hono ac na byddo marw. 

That a man may eat thereof and not die. John vi. 20. 

Ni fu i Iwl Caisar ddim achos mawr i orfoleddu o'i daith. 
Jvliiis Caesar had no great cause to boast of his journey. Drych 
y Prif Oesoedd. 



204 na, would that, like Latin utinarn, expresses a 
wish : 

na byddai'n haf o'Jrvd. 

Would that it were always summer. 



128 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



205 Two NEGATIVES strengthen each other in Welsh : 

Ni bydd na gwlith na gwlaw. 

There will be neither dew nor rain. 1 Kings, xvi. 1. 

N.B. In English, two negatives destroy each other, e.g. : 
I haven't got nothing., 

if it means anything, implies that I have something. 

206 DEMONSTRATIVE ADVERBS : dyma, dyna, dacw, 
etc., are in reality truncated sentences, dyma=gwel di 
yma, see you here, etc. 

Hence these modify gwel, understood. 

Yma, yna, acw, convey the two ideas of rest in a place 
and motion to a place. Thus yma=/?ere and hither. 



207 PREPOSITIONS. 

208 GOVERNMENT : (a) yn does not mutate the initial 
consonant of the verb-noun ; e.g. : 

yn parhau. continuing- yn teithio, travelling. 
'KJF Yx f*U*T $** )mU^)SVv4^ W 

(b) In all other nouns yn is followed by the nasal form 
of the radical. 

The -n of yn is assimilated into -m before m-, b-, p-, 
'. and into -ng before g- and C-. Thus we have : 

yng Nghaer, in Chester, from yn and Caer. 
ym Mangor, at Bangor, from yn and Bangor. 

Exception : yn Gymraeg, in Welsh, not yng Nghymraeg. 

(c) The following prepositions take the RADICAL form 
of the consonant after them : er, erys, erbyn, ger, gerfydd, 
gwedi, or wedi, heibio, is, mewn, serch, rhag, rhwng, uwch, 
e.g. : 

erbyn trannoeth, by the following day. 
wedi teithio ymhell, after journeying far. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 129 



(d) The following govern the soft mutation : am, ar, 
at, gan, heb, i, o, tan or dan, tros or dros, trwy or drwy, 
wrth, and hyd=as far as. 

heb gennad, without permission (fr. cennad.) 
wrth ddwyn y groes, by carrying the cross (fr. 
dwyn.) 

NOTE. ~H.yd=along, is sometimes followed by the radical, e.g. : 
hyd glannau'r afon, along the banks of the river. 

(e) The following govern the spirant mutation of c, 
p, t : a, tua, gyda, e.g. : 

mi a ddeuaf gyda thi (fr. ti), / shall come with you. 

Other consonants remain in their radical form, e.g. : 
gyda mam, with mother. 

NOTE. It will be observed that prepositions that admit of con- 
jugation with the exception of er, rhag, rhwng and yn govern 
the soft mutation. 

The other prepositions except tra and a with its compounds 
are followed by the radical. 



209 USE : g, and its compounds, gydag, tuag, are 
used before vowels only. These become a, gyda, tua, 
before consonants, e.g. : 

gyda thi, with thee, with you. 
gydag ef, with him. 

a denotes instrument : gyda company (=Lat. cum). 

N.B. Avoid using gan for a ; gan denotes the agent : 
e.g. : Croesawyd ef banllefau gan y bobl. 

He was welcomed with loud shouting by the 'people. 



130 WELSH C&IAMMAR. 

~ 




210 Yn and mewn : In order that the student may 

clearly understand the difference in the use of yn and 
mewn, the following preliminary remarks are made : 

A proper noun is limited in its application to one object, 

e.g. : 

Caerfyrddin denotes some one particular place, and no 
other. 

A common noun may, by the addition of the article or 
its equivalent, be limited to one object, e.g. : 

Ty, house, is general ; but y ty, the house, or fy nhy, my 
house, can apply to one and only one house. From being 
GENERAL, it has become PARTICULAR. 

Some nouns are in their very nature particular, e.g. : 
angeu, death. tragwyddoldeb, eternity. 

KULES : i.) Use yn with particular nouns, e.g. : 

yn Ninbych, in Denbigh. 

yn y ty, in the house. 

yn nhy fy nhad, in my father's house. 

yn angeu, in death. 

cf. French dans. 

(ii.) Use mewn with all nouns otherwise used : 

mewn ty, in a house. 

mewn ty newydd, in a new house. 

mewn munud, in a minute. 

cf. French en. 



211 Gan, with, is sometimes intensive, e.g. : 

Gan farw, ti a fyddi farw. 
Thou shalt surely die. 

Wrth : Note its idiomatic use in comparisons : 

Beth yw'r afon wrth y mor ? 

What is the river compared with the sea ? 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 131 



Gennyf : The English, / have, possess, is usually ex- 
pressed in Welsh by means of gennyf and the 3rd pers. 
sing, of the verb wyf. 

The present indie, is : 

Sing. Plu. 

1. mae gennyf, / have mae gennyni, we have. 

2. gennyt, thou hast ,, gennych, you have 

3. ,, ganddo, he has ,, ganddynt, they have 
ganddi, she has 

and so on for the other moods and tenses. 

Example : 

mae gennyf lyfr, / have a bo ':. 
Compare est mihi in Latin. 

Note further, the following idiomatic usage : 

Mae yn ddrwg iawn gennyf. 
/ am very sorry. 

Yr oedd yn dda ganddo glywed. 
He was glad to hear. 



Ill CONJUNCTIONS. 

A, na, precede words with consonant initials. They 
govern the spirant mutation of c, p, t ; e.g. : 

cart a cheffyl, cart and horse. 

All other consonants remain radical after a, na, e,g. : 
chwaer a brawd, sister and brother. 

Ac, ag, nac, nag precede words with vowel initials, e.g. : 
yn well nag enw da, better than a good name. 

Jfeu governs the soft mutation, e.g. : 
gwr neu wraig, man or woman. 



132 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



Most other conjunctions are followed by the radical 
form of the consonant : 

Naill ai gwr ynte gwraig. 
Either man or woman. 

Os, pe, if : Os introduces a conditional clause without 
implying whether the condition may or may not be ful- 
filled, or whether it has been fulfilled. The mood is usually 
indicative, e.g. : 

Os gofyn efe wy, a ddyry efe ysgorpion iddo ? 

// he shall ask an egg, ivill he offer him a scorpion. 
Luke xi. 12. 

cf. the use of Latin si with the indie. 

Pe introduces a suppositive clause, and implies that 
supposition is either unreal or very unlikely to become 
real. It requires the subjunctive mood, e.g. : 

Pe buasit ti yma, ni buasai farw fy mrawd. 
// thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. 

cf. the use of Latin si with the subjunctive. 

Pan and the verb to be : use pan yw, pan ydynt, not 
pan mae, pan maent ; e.g. : 

Pan yw fy nhad a'm mam yn fy ngwrthod, yr 
Arglwydd a'm derbyn. Psalm xxvii. 10. 

Pan ydynt yn peri enwaedu'r galon. Edw, 
Samuel. 

The preposition nes can be used only with the verb- 
noun, e.g. : 

nes myned ohonof, until I go. 



213 QUESTIONS. 

214 I. AFFIRMATIVE QUESTIONS : The interrogative 
particles are a, ai : 

They always stand at the head of a sentence. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 133 



Use: 

(i.) a when followed by a verb, e.g. : 

A ddaw eich brawd 1 ^^^-, (_<**. ^X<*- ) 

Will your brother come ? 

A welwch chwi y mynydd draw ? 0pr*t*f'C** * 
Do you see yonder mountain ? *p~ 

(ii.) ai with all other parts of speech, including the 
verb-noun : 

Ai cerdded y mae ? 
Is he walking ? 

Ai yno y gwelsoch chwi ef ? 
Is it there you saw him ? 

N.B. a and ai are sometimes omitted. 

They are never used with the interrogatives pwy and 
pa. 

II. NEGATIVE QUESTIONS : oni, onid, are the interroga- 
tive particles. 

Use: 

(i.) Oni, onid, with verbs according to the initial 
letter of the latter, v. rules for use of ni, nid, under 
syntax of the adverb, e.g. : 

Oni fu ef e yno ? 

Has he not been there ? ^* f **' ) 

Onid oedd efe yno ? 
Was he not there ? 

Oni wyr efe hyn ? 
Does he not know this ? 

(ii.) Onid with all other parts of speech, including the 
verb-noun, e.g. : 

Onid heddyw yr addawsoch ddod ? 
Was it not to-day you promised to come ? 



134 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



215 ANSWERS. 

(a) Questions introduced by ai require the answer ie, 
yes, or nage, no, e.g. : 

Ai cerdded y mae ? Ie, nage. 
Is he walking ? Yes. no. 

So also in answer to questions introduced by onid, with 
parts of speech other than the verb, e.g. : 

Onid heddyw yr addawsoch ddod ? Ie, nage. 
Was it not to-day you promised to come ? Yes, no. 

(b) If the question is introduced by a, oni, or 
onid, with a verb, the answer will vary according to the 

TENSE OP THE VERB : 

(i.) If the verb in the question be in the AORIST tense, 
the answer will be do, yes, or naddo, no. 

Q. A welsoch chwi ef ? Did you see him ? 
Ans. Do, naddo. Yes, no. 

(ii.) If the verb of the question be in any other tense, 
the verb must be repeated in the answer in the proper 
person, and if the answer is negative, it must^be preceded 
by na or nae : 

Q. A welwch chwi ef ? Do you see him ? 
Ans, Gwelaf,'na welaf.' Yes, no. 

(c) If the question is asked by means of pwy, pa, the 
answer will vary with the nature of the question : 

Q. Pwy sydd yna ? Who is there ? 

Ans. John. John. 

Q. Pa bryd y daw ? When will he come ? 

Ans. Yfory. To-morrow. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 135 



216 WORDS NOT EASILY CLASSIFIED. 

Sef, c that is, namely, ' is in origin a shortened form of 
ys,(3rd sing, of wyf, I am, and ef, 3rd sing. pers. pronoun) 

It may be parsed as a verb just like ivyf, wyt, or as an 
adverb. 

Bwy : as in o ben bwy gilydd, 

from one end to the other. 
lit., from one end to its companion (end). 

Its first part is a preposition, meaning to, and the suffix 
= 'i, the post-vocalic form of the possessive adjective 
3rd pers. sing. If it is analysed into its component parts 
by'i, the two words may be easily parsed. 

Paham, why, should be regarded as an adverb of cause. 
It is a compound of pa, the interrog. adj., and the prep. 
am, around, for. 

With this suffixing of the prepositions to the interroga- 
tive compare cum, with, and the pronouns in Latin. 



CHAPTER XII. 

217 MUTATION OF INITIAL CONSONANTS. 
NOTE. > = becomes, changes into, is the parent of. 
Only nine of the consonants are mutable. 

TABLE. 

(Compare par. 






Radical. 


Soft. 


Nasal. 


Aspirate. 


P 


b 


mh 


ph 


t 


d 


nh 


th 


c 


g 


ngh 


ch 


b 


f 


m 




d 


dd 


n 




g 





n g 




11 


1 






m 


f 






rh 


r 







PRINCIPLES OF SOUND-CHANGE : 

MUTATION is ASSIMILATION, and its object is to econo- 
mise effort in pronunciation. It takes place to some 
extent in other languages; thus in+perfect becomes 
imperfect, and dogs is pronounced dogz, in English. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 137 



Note in these two examples that the first and last con- 
sonants of the significant or root word assimilate the ad- 
joining consonants of prefix and suffix. That too is the 
case in Welsh, where it is extended to word groups : 

NASAL MUTATION : The first stage in the assimilation 
of yn+pen is ympen, a form familiar in Mediaeval litera- 
ture. But Welsh does not stop here : the -n, after becom- 
ing -m by partial assimilation to the p-, in turn partially 
eclipses the latter, that is, converts it into mh. Hence 
the stages are : 

yn pen > ympen > ym mhen or ymhen. 
yn Caer > yngCaer > yng Nghaer or y'Nghaer. 
FynDuw> fynDuw > iy Nuw. 

The same changes occur in COMPOSITION, e.g. : 

Con + bro > Cymbro > Cymro. 

con + paro > Lat. comparo > Welsh cymharu. 

an + doeth > annoeth. 

SOFT MUTATION : Note that a vowel is a voiced or son- 
ant spirant, that is, a soft sound produced by a continuous 
though very slight emission of the breath, causing a vibra- 
tion of the vocal chords. On the other hand, p, t, C, 
are voiceless or surd mutes, that is, hard sounds produced 
by a sudden explosive opening of the vocal organs after 
a complete stoppage of the breath. 

In these there is no " voice," for the vocal chords do 
not vibrate. Hence a vowel-flanked p, t, or c, will be 
partially assimilated from surd or voiceless to sonant or 
voiced (b, d, g)). Thus : 

Old Welsh : aper > Mod. Welsh : aber. 
,, map > ,, ,, mab. 

and ei + pen > ei ben, his head. 

Similarly the sonant mutes, b, d, g, are changed into 
the sonant spirants, f, dd, (g disappears) under the same 
conditions. 



138 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



ASPIRATE MUTATION. Stages 

ac + pan > appan > a phan. 

ac + tair > attair > a thair, etc. 

ac + can > accan > a chan. 

The pp, tt, and CC involve such a strong emission of 
breath that they resist " voicing " into b, d, g. The 
alternative is assimilation to the spirant character of the 
vowels flanking them. Similarly in composition 

Lat. occasio > W. achos. 
cippus > W. cyff. 
sagitta > W. saeth. 

Two FACTORS have considerably affected the range and 
use of mutations. : 

(a) ANALOGY : e.g., wyth, nasalises the b of blwyddyn '-? 
because saith and naw do so. (see par. 15B). 

(b) The growing use of mutations for purposes of SYNTAX. 
Thus, on phonetic grounds, the initial mutable consonant 
of subject, as well as of object, used to be softened after 
a verb in -ai (3rd sing. Past Impf. and Plupf.), but in 
present day Welsh, it has become the rule that the initial 
consonant of the subject is to remain radical after all 
parts of the verb (see below). 

218 RULES OF MUTATION : 

The commonest change is 

,/ 
THE SOFT MUTATION. 

(a) After the Definite Article, in any noun or adjective 
including ordinal numerals of the Fern. Sing., e.g. : 

y bobl, the people. 

a'r fwyn ferch, and the gentle maid. 

y burned salm, the fifth psalm. 

N.B. The following remain radical after the Def. 
Art.: 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 139 



(i.) Words in 11- and rh-, e.g. : 

y Haw, the hand. 
y rhaw, the shovel. 

(ii.) The initials of plurals, except " pobloedd," e.g. : 
y gwragedd, the women. 

Yr lesu a ddechreuodd ddywedyd wrth y bobl- 

oedd. 
And Jesus began to say to the multitude. Matt. 

xi. 7. 

(iii.) Initials of Cardinal numerals of either gender, 
e.g.: 

y tair hudoles hyn, these three witches. Bardd 
Cwsg. 

y Deng Air Deddf, the ten commandments. 

Dau (m.) and dwy (f.), two, on the other hand, shew 
softening : 

y ddau ddyn, the two men. 
y ddwy wraig, the two women. 

(b) In nouns, as agnomens that is, when following 
proper nouns of either gender as titles or epithets, e.g. : 

laon Fedyddiwr, John the Baptist. 

Mair Forwyn, The Virgin Mary. 

Duw Dad, God the Father. 

lesu Fab Dafydd, Jesus, Son of David. 

Serigi Wyddel, The Irishman Serigi 

Hugh Flaidd, Hugh Lupus. 

Also in adjectives qualifying proper nouns : 

Hywel Dda, Howel the Good. 

Noah Gyfiawn, The righteous Noah. 

Exception : 

Khodri Mawr, Rhodri the Great. 



140 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(c) In addresses with, or without an interjection, e.g. : 

Frodyr anwyl, dear brethren. 
Dduw ! God ! 

Da,, was da (from gwas), well, thou good servant. 
Ha,, was drwg, Othou wicked servant. 
^ fe.tn* 

(d) In an adjective .after a noun feminine singular, 
e.g. : 

gwraig (Ida, a good woman. m.-ii 

(e) Likewise, in the latter of two nouns, if used attribu- 
tively with, a feminine noun singular : 

llwy de, a tea spoon. 

11 wy fwrdd, a table spoon. 

pont bren, a wooden bridge. 

canwyll gorfE, a corpse candle. 

canwyll wer (fr. gwer) a tallow candle. 

y dduwies WeneF(fr. Qwener), the goddess Venus. 

nodwydd ddur, a needle. 

Y Forwyn Fair, The Virgin Mary. 

Gwlad Fbn, the land of Anglesey. 

Contrast : 

llawr coed, a wooden floor. 

llwybr troed, a footpath. 

y dyn Crist lesu, the man Christ Jesus. 

where the initial remains radical, because the nouns llawr, 
llwybr, and dyn, are masculine. 

" De," " fwrdd," and most of the second words in the 
above groups, are syntactically Attributive Genitives. 

(f) Similarly any noun in the Genitive dependent on 
another noun is more or less attributive in character, and 
on that account tends to show initial soft mutation if the 
noun, on which it depends, is feminine, e.g. : 

Teyrnas Dduw, the kingdom of God. 

Din Dryfol, a place name (=a triangular fort). 

Caer Wrangon, Worcester. 

Awr weddi (gweddi), the hour of prayer. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 141 



N.B. Even after a masculine in a very few instances, 
soft mutation occurs, e.g. : 

Ty Dduw, the House of God. 

Ty Ddewi, St. David's. 

Ty Ddafydd, The House of David. Luc. i. 69. 

This is rare, and is probably due to 

(1) Analogy with feminine nouns (e.g. eglwys), and 

(2) The fact that these phrases are of common occur- 
rence, and therefore more or less subject to the rule of 
mutation in compounds. 

(g) If nouns oi either gender, singular or plural, are 
preceded by an Adjective in the Positive (and sometimes- 
the Superlative), or a noun used attributively, Welsh 
tends to regard them as compounds, and the initial con- 
sonant of the second word is softened : 

hen dy, an old house. 

ufuddaf was (fr. gwas), most obedient servant. 

y gwir Dduw, the true God. 
, gau brophwyd, false prophet. 

cam ddefnydd, improper use. 

gwag ogoniant (fr. gogoniant), vain glory. 

y Duw Ddyn, the God Man. 

diod lestr, a drinking cup. 

mor gainc, an arm of the sea. 

N.B. Generally in Welsh such word groups coalesce and form. 
genuine compounds, as milgi, greyhound ; gwirfodd, good will, 
consent ; gwinllan, vineyard ; morfran, a cormorant ; byrbryd,. 
luncheon ; byrgoes, short-legged ; byrbwyll, rash, hasty. 

Still, though the native tendency of the language is to reduce 
them all into compounds, the process is gradual, and it is sometimes 
difficult to decide whether the two words have already coalesced ; 
e.g. : the forms 

Coel grefydd and coelgrefydd may be defended, gwag 
ogoniant and gwagogoniant, etc. 

As the mutation is the same in either case, the accent is the only 
test whether a particular example is to be written in two words or 
as a compound : the two words are separate if they retain their 
respective accents, as " hen dy " an old house ; but if one is dropped. 
they form a compound, e.g. : " hendy." 



142 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(h) After the INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES : ambell, amryw, 
cyfryw, holl, rhyw, unrhyw, ychydig (v. par. 87) ; 

Also after the INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE pa : 

ambell waith (fr. gwaith) sometimes. 
yr holl fyd, the ivhole world. 
unrhyw le, anywhere. 

^ ^, <(i.) In nouns after the Possessive Adjectives : 
dy, 'th, thy ; ei, 'i, 'w, his, e.g. : 

dy gleddyf, thy sword. 
i'th law, to thy hand. 
ei ben, his head. 
i'w ferch, to his daughter. 

((].) In Feminine nouns after Ordinal Numerals, e.g. : 

yr ail ferch, the second daughter. 

y bedwaredd bennod, the fourth chapter. 

N.B. In present day Welsh, even in Masculine nouns 
sifter ail (v. par. 14$$ e.g. : 

yr ail ddiwrnod, the second day. 
yr ail lyfr, the second book. 

<(k) After the cardinal numerals : 

(i.) un (fern.), e.g. : 

un wraig (fr. gwraig), one woman. 
but 11 and rh remain radical, e.g. : 

un Haw, one hand. 
un rhodfa, one walk. 

(ii.) dau, dwy : 

dau frawd, two brothers. 
dwy eneth, two girls. 

Jbut occasionally initial C-, p-, t-, remain radical, as 

dau parth, two farts. 2 Kings ii. 9. 
y dau Cymaint, double. Rev. xviii. 6. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 143 



(iii.) Saith, wyth, if the following consonant is p-, t-, 
c-: 

saith dorth, seven loaves. Matt. xvi. 10. 
saith dymor dyn, the seven ages of man. 
wyth. bennill, eight stanzas. 

and often in the case of the other mutable consonants, as 

saith fasgedaid, seven basketsful. Matt. xv. 37. 
dinas deg ar saith fryn, a fair city on seven hills. 

(iv.) Deng, if the next consonant is g- : as 

deng wr a thrugain, seventy men. Numbers 
xi. 24. 



(1) In nouns, including the verb-noun, when following 
a PERSONAL VERB that governs them in the Accusative 
case : 

Gwelais ddyn, I saw a man. 

Clywaf ganu, / hear singing. 

NOTE. (i.) The accusative following a verb in the 
impersonal form shews no mutation, e,g. : 

Gwelwyd dyn, a man was seen. 
Clywid Canu, singing loas heard. 

(ii.) A noun dependent on a verb-noun is in the Genitive 
(not accusative) case, and therefore shews no mutation as 
a verb-noun is always masculine (see (f) above), e.g. : 

Gweled dyn, seeing a man. 
Clywed Canu, hearing singing. 

(iii.) The subject of a verb usually shews no initial 
mutation in present day Welsh, e.g. : 

Daw diwrnod cyfrif ar ol hyn. 

A day of reckoning will come after this. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



In 18th century Welsh literature, and earlier, it was 
customary to soften the initial consonant of the subject 
after verb forms in -ai, that is, the 3rd sing. Past Im- 
perfect and Pluperfect ; no doubt due to the influence of 
the final vowel in the verb, e.g. : 

chai fachgen wrth eni. . . . 

// a child at birth were to have . . . Gor. Owen. 

This softening of the initial of the subject, in the case 
of the substantive verb, was extended by analogy to oedd, 
oes, and sometimes to other parts, both of the substantive 
verb and others, e.g. : 

(Synfyfyriais) wyched oedd gael arnynt lawn olwg. 
(/ mused) what a delight it would be to have a full 
view of them. Bardd Cwsg. 

Dygymydd Duw ag emyn 
a wen dda a wna ddyn. 

God is pleased with a hymn of real poetry that a 
man may compose. Gor. Owen. 

(m) In an Adjective after a noun feminine sing., e.g. : 
Gwraig dda, a good woman. 

(n) In the Personal Pronouns mi, minnau Nominative 
or Accusative if the verb precedes, e.g. : 

dysgaf fi or dysgaf i (mi > n > i), / learn. 
dysgais innau (minnau > finnau> innau), / also 

learnt. 
Gwelodd f innau, he saw me also. 

Similarly in ti and tithau, unless the verb ends in t : 

Gweli di -dithau, Thou and thou seest. 
Gwelais di -dithau, / saw thee thee also. 

(o) In the m- and t- of mi, minnau, ti, tithau in the 
Genitive Case, e,g. : 

fy llaw i, my^hand. 

dy awydd dithau, and thy desire. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 145 



(p) In a verb following its subject : 

Mi a welais (fr. gwelais), / saw. 
Pwy fydd yno ? (fr. bydd), who will be there ? 
Yr arglwydd a roddodd (rhoddodd), the Lord 
gave. 

(q) After the Adverbs ni, oni, na, if the verb begins in 
b-, d-, g-, 11-, m-, rh-, as ^t-et'n 

ni ddaw efe, he will not come. 
oni welwn ni 'r mor, do we not behold the sea ? 
na Iwfrhewch, be not downcast. 

N.B. The b- in byddaf and other parts of the sub- 
stantive verb is sometimes softened but generally remains 
radical : 

Oni bai gywiro o'u harglwydd ei addewid. 
// their Lord had not fulfilled His promise. 
Edw. Samuel. 

(r) In Adjectival and Adverbial expressions after the 
predicative yn, as 

yn dda, well ; yn deg, fairly ; 
but note (i.) 11- and rh- remain radical 

yn Ha wen, gladly ; yn rhwydd, easily. 

(ii.) Yn is usually dropped at the beginning of a sentence, 
and the consonant returns to its radical form, e.g. : 

Gwn yn dda, / know well, but da y gwn. 

(iii.) If yn is dropped in the middle of a sentence, the 
consonant may or may not be softened : 

A phump ohonynt oedd gall (fr. call). 
And five of them were wise. Matt. xxv. 2. 

Na phecha mwyach, rhag digwydd i ti beth a 

fyddo gwaeth (fr. gwaeth). 
Sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee. 

John v. 14. 



146 WELSH GRAMMAR. 

(iv.) Predicative yn is always dropped after the prepo- 
sition yn. and the consonant remains radical, e.g. : 

Pan ydynt yn manwl gyfrif. 

When they carefully calculate. Edw. Samuel. 

(s) After the prepositions 

am, ar, at, gan, heb, i, o, tan, tros, trwy, wrth ; also 
hyd when it means as far as, and often when = along. 

Heb Dduw heb ddim, without anything if without 

God. Proverb. 
Wrth law, at hand ; Gaer, from Chester. 

N.B. " i " is followed by the radical in mi, minnau, 
ti, tithau. 



(t) After pan, when, and the interrogative particle a : 

Pan ddaeth, when he came. 
A ddaeth efe I Did he come ? 



(u) In present day Welsh the soft mutation has become 
the rule in a word when separated by an intervening word 
or phrase from the word with which it is closely connected, 
e.g.: 

Ac wedi iddo ddywedyd hyn. 

And when he had said this. 

Contrast with this 

Wedi dywedyd hyn, having said this. 

N.B. This rule overrides all others, e.g. : 

Daeth llawer yno, but 
Daeth yno lawer. 

notwithstanding the rule requiring the radical initial in 
the subject of a verb. 









WELSH GRAMMAR. 147 



Hence dyma, dyna, dacw, etc., are followed by the soft 
mutation in accordance with rules (1) and (u), e.g., in 

Dyna ddyn da. 
There is a good man. 

ddyn is accusative case governed by gwel (understood), 
and therefore d- becomes dd-. The soft mutation more- 
over is required because ddyn is separated from the verb 
gwel by the parenthetic dyna.i'*>/*^^ v ' ' ' u ">f 

'JfiMtferffc; i ; J ?;;. 

' W>J^Kf Cy. .| 5-2 (c?> j ); ty <CjZM)f*Jbit&. '. } */* 

219 THE SPIRANT MUTATION ; y This takes place in 
words after : 

(i.) The adjectives tri, three ; chwe, six ; ei, 'w, 'w, 

her (possessive), e.g. : 

tri phen, three heads ; chwe cheiniog, sixpence. 

(ii.) The adverbs tra, ni, na, oni. 

Y dyn tra phenderfynol. 
The very determined man. 

Na phechwch, sin not. 

(in.) The preposition a (with), and its compounds 
fifiL > with ; tua, towards. 

Tua chyfeiriad y mor. 
In the direction of the sea. 

(iv.) The conjunctions a, and ; na, nor, than, that, not ; 
0, if : 

cherwch fi, cedwch fy ngorchymynion. 
// you love me, keep my commandments. 

eJ fetu, *&fa f>, t, ' -> 

X. 220 The NASAL MUTATION takes place after : 

(i.) The possessive adjective, fy, my~\ e.g*|J 
fy mhen, my head. 



148 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



(ii.) The preposition yn, in; e.g. : 

yn niwedd y byd, in the end of the world. 

NOTE. (i.) Yn however, does not nasalise the initial of : 

(a) A verb- noun, e.g. : 

yn gwerthu, selling. 

(b) Cymraeg, Welsh, when used alone : 

yn Gymraeg, in Welsh. 

But note : yng Nghymraeg Rhydychen, in Oxford Welsh. 
yng Nghymraeg y Beibl, in Bible Welsh. 

(ii.) The predicative yn when followed by pell, far, e.g. : ym 
mhell, far. 

This is no doubt on the analogy of the prep. yn. 

(iii.) The cardinal numerals pum, saith, wyth, naw, 
deng, deuddeng, pymtheng, ugain and its compounds, can, 
when followed by 

(1) blwydd, blynedd, year ; e.g. : 

Y mae efe yn ddeng mlwydd oed. 
He is ten years old. 

(2) diwrnod, though this not infrequently retains its 
radical initial, e.g. : 

deng niwrnod. Rev. ii. 10. 

deg diwrnod . . ugain diwrnod. Num. xi. 19. 

N.B. Deng always nasalises the d- of diwrnod. 

221 THE ADDITION OF INITIAL H. 

This occurs : 

(i.) In NOUNS after the POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES : 

'm, my ; ei, ; i, 'u, 'w (f.), her ; ein, 'n, our ; 
eu,Vu, 'w, their ; 
eu hawydd, their desire. 

1 (/ W- OlA 

3 / 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



149 



(ii.) In ugain when governed by ar, on, in composite 
numbers, e.g. : 

un ar hugain, twenty-one. 

(iii.) In VERBS after the post-vocalic PERSONAL PRO- 
NOUNS : 

'm, me ; 'i, him, her ; 'n, us ; 'u, them. 

Efe a'u hanfonodd hwynt. 
He sent them. Luke ix. 2. 



222 The following table of Initial Mutations is more 
correct, phonetically, than the one given in the text (v. p. 
). 

n 



Sound 


Radical. 


Sonant. 


Spirant. 


Nasal. 


P 


pen, head 


jly ben ei phen 


f y mhen 




t 


troed, foot 


dv droed ei throed 


fv nhroed 




c 


cyfaill, friend 


dy gyfaill ei chyfaill . 


f y nghyfaill 














b 


brawd, brother dvfrawd 


fv mrawd 





d 


dafad, sheep 


dv ddafad 


fv nafad 




g 


gardd, garden 


dy,ardd 


f y ngardd 




U 


llyfr, book 


dy lyfr 






rh 


rhan, portion 


dy ran 


m j ma"b, son 




dy fab 



N.B. It will be noticed that what may be conveniently 
termed the " Dy mutation," in this table corresponds to 
the " soft " mutation of the text. OuLajo ad&~- JLi'.'fao' P*. ** 



150 



X! 



w 

o 





ai 














2 


|||| 













s 


<S cS cS cS 


a 




*T\ 






- 






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^ ^ ^ 


ca 




a 

hH 


a a a s a 

_ - -3 -3 -- 


| 


22 


222 


2 
















00 


A 












03 
CC 


OQ 


^ o> c S o o 


0) 








W 


m 
1 




-5 


IHj 


49 
^ 


u 




fi 


a a a a a a 

eg rt S rt S 


3 


ll 


O 
E 


I 


> i 




a ^ g -g -g 










H 


*tt 




g 








O 
H 

E 


S 


CO CO CO CCJ CO EQ 

cS CB cS S S ej 


'S 

I 

1 


'o 'S 'o 


a "3 a 

CU CD 4J 

X CO CO 

gi g 


3 
* 


Q 




05 <8 cS c8 cS cfl 




w-^-* 3 


-U -U 43 




* 
< 

g . 


1 


.2 .2 'C 3 o ^ 

llllla 


mlhawyd, 
amlhaed 


CO 

-S *^ 

"3 '3 13 

222 


a"S "S 

o 'o 'o 


1 

i 

o 

B 


^ S 




t8 c8 cS cS c8 cS 


03 








< g| 








2 






a 


1 1 


g* fl 11 


JS 


g 

| J 






a 





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gfl 


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T3 


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a a a a a a 


s 


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22 










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,* 


iS 43 43 


43 4343 


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o 






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a'al'a'a'a 


i 


g's > 


O O O 


| 


O 


M 

An 


e e8 cj cj cS cS 


cS 













t 












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^H OH AH fe 


1* 

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151 



d 








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3 




43 

e 




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g 

. 

d 

HH 


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c 5 c 


II 

~ - 


o 
o 


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0) O O 

O -S J3 

3 3 s 


nrhosor 




t: 

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o 


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sr e= 

s 8 


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43* 

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93 -4-> 


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1 


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c 


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cS 








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oo r. x x 


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30 CO 


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3) X 


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O 
R 


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c5 cj 








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S.1.S 








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1st 


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-S 


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bo S . 

UJ H 43 




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x x ^: x 


53 

yi yi 


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So S 


QO t 

O C 


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O 


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O C O 


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cs a 


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: 








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2 ' > 2 


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o o oo d S 


o 





g 


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3353 


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1 





CHAPTER XIV. 



224 WORDS SIMILAR IN SOUND, BUT DIFFERENT 
IN MEANING. 

'Sf^zf- 'fj^j- v<jt*t KZ^ f iv*JL, t M 

The following ace some of the most common : 






a, rel. pron. 

a, a, vb., goes, see myned 

a, prep., with 

a, cj., and 

ac, cj., and 
ag, prep., with 
ag, cj., as 

ai, intern particle 
ai, cj., or, either 
ai, ai, vb., v., myned 
a'i, and his, and her 
a'i, with his, with her 

a'u, and their 
a'u, with their 

arch, s., chest, coffin 
arch, s., request 

aur, s., gold 

air, s., word (from gair) 



bach, adj., small 
bach, s., hook 



bran, s., crow 
bran, s., 6row, 



bri, s., rank, dignity 
bru, s., 



buchod, s., 
bychod, s., bucks 

budd, s., benefit, gain 
bydd, vb., u>i# be, see bod 



cae, s., field, enclosure 
cau, vb., shutting 
cau, adj., hollow 

cam, s., injury, wrong 
cam, s., step, sJn'de 
cam, adj., crooked, wrong 

c&n, s., sorter, poem 

can, s., whiteness, flour 

can, adj., wAtle 

can, adj., hundred, see cant 

car, s., friend, relative 
car, s., frame, car 

Ci, s., dogr 

CU, adj., amiable 

cil, s., corner, ridge 
cul, adj., narrow 



158 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



crug, s., heap, pile 
cryg, s., hoarse 

Cymru, s., Wales 
Cymry, s., Welshmen 

^yn, adv., as 
cyn, prep., before 

cynnydd, s., increase 
cynydd, s., huntsman 

cywain, vb., carrying 
cywen, s., chicken 

Ch 

chwaeth, s., taste 
chwaith, adv., neither 

chwith, adj., left, untoward 
Chwyth, s., a gust, breath 



da, s., goods, cattle 

da, adj., good 

daw, s., son-in-law 
daw, v., comes 

diliw, adj., colourless 
diluw, s., deluge 

dof, adj., tame 
-dof, vb., 1 come 

dl, pron. =ti, thou, thee 
du, adj., black 



dy, adj., thy 

dy, s., mutated form ty, house 



ewin, s., a nail, claw 
ewyn, s., foam, froth 



glan, adj., clean, fnirc, holy 
glan, s., bank, shore 

gwae, s., woe 

gwau, vb., weaving, knitting 

gwaedd, s., shout, cry 
gwaudd, s., daughter-in-laio 

gwaeth, adj., uvrse 
gwaith, s., icork 

gwain, s., scabbard, sheath 
gwaun, gwaen, s., meadow, bog 

gwir, s., and adj., truth, true 
gwyr. s., men 
gwyr, vb., knows 

gwiw, adj., meet, worthy 
gwyw, adj., withered 

H 

hael, aiij., generous 
haul, s., sun 

hi, pr., she 
hy, adj., bold 



WKLSH GRAMMAR. 



159 



hln, s., weather 
hun, s., deep 
hun, s., self 
hyn, adj., older 

hwy, pr., tliey 
hwy, adj., longer 



LI 

<lals, s., voice 

Jlaes, adj., loose, slazk 

llaeth, s., milk 
JlaHh, adj., damp 



Hi, s., 

Uu, s., crowd, host 

lliw, s., colour 

llyw, s., rudder, ruler 



M 

mae, vb., ts 
mai, cj., that 

maen. s., stone 

main, adj., fine, slender 

maeth, s., nourishment 
maith, adj., long, tedious 

melin, s., mill 
melyn, adj., yellow 



N 

nac, adv., no, not 
nac, oj., nor, neither 
nag, cj., than 

nith, s., niece 
nyth, s., nest 



peri, vb.-n., causing, compelling 
pery, vb., lasts, endures 

pridd, s., soil, earth 
prudd, adj., sad 

prif, adj., chief 
pryf, s., worm, vermi. 



rhiw, slope, hill 
rhyw, s., sort, kinc 
rhyw, adj., some 



saeth, s., arrow 
saith, adj., set-en 

sir, s., -sAtre, COM/ 
SUT, adj., 



sudd, s., juice, s< 
sydd, vb., ts 



160 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 



taer, adj., importunate 
tair, adj., three 

tal, s., front, brow 
tal, adj., high, tall 
t&l, s., payment 

taw, cj., <Ao/ 

taw, vb., is silent, be silent 

tl, pr, thou, thee 



tu, s., side, region 
ty, s., 



tri, adj., 

try, vb., turns 



yn, prep., m 

yn, predicative, e.g., yn ddyn, 
yn dda 



222 PARSING AND ANALYSIS. 

223 It is to be hoped' that the attempt made here 
to emphasise the most striking points of difference between 
Welsh and English syntax may prevent the beginner 
from adopting in its entirety for Welsh sentences, the 
system which is applicable to English. 

224 Examples : (i.) Os trowch eich cefn at y tan 
gwelwch fod y rhan o'r ty sydd agosaf at y muriau yn 
uwch na'r rhannau ereill. 



(ii.) Am Gymry y sonnir Cymry o'i oes ac o'i gydnabod 



ef. 



(iii.) hir dremio, canfum o borth y Balchder ddinas 
deg ar saith fryn. 

(iv.) Os y peth hwn a wnei, a'i orchymyn o Dduw i ti 
yna ti a elli barhau. 



(v.) Gwyn fyd y bobl y mae'r Arglwydd yn Dduw 
iddynt. 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 161 

(vi.) Dyma'r ty y'm ganwyd ynddo. 
(vii.) Yr oeddwn yng Ngliaer ddoe. 
(viii.) NTs clywais ef erioed yn adrodd. 

225 A. PARSING. 

(i.) OS: conj. joining the sentences " trowch. . .tan " and 
" gwelwch. . .ereill." 

*troweh : verb trans., irreg., act. voice, indie, mood, 
pres. tense 2nd pers. pin. (agreeing with 
" chwi " understood). 

eich : poss adj., com. gen., plu. no., 2nd pers., qual. 
" cefn." 

cefn : com. nonn, masc. gen., sing. no. ace. case, gov. 
by "trowch." 

at : prep. gov. " tan " in the accus. case, 
y : def. art., qual. " tan." 

tn : com. noun, masc. gen., sing no. ace. case. gov. 
by " at." 

gwelwch : verb, trans., reg., act. voice, indie, mood, 
pres. tense 2nd pers. plu (agreeing with 
" chwi " understood). 

fod : verb-noun, masc. gen., sing. num. ace. case, 
gov. by " gwelwch." 

y : def. art., qual. " rhan." 

rhan : com. noun, fern gen., sing, no., gen. case, 
dependent on " fod." 



*Strictly speaking, trowch, like canfum and other verbs below, 
contains its own subject, and the parsing is adequate without the 
part in brackets, but as the pronoun chwi, i, etc. is frequently 
added, many teachers will probably consider it simpler to parse 
trowch as " . . . 2nd pers., sing, agreeing with its subject 
'chwi ' understood," and it would seem pedantic to condemn that 
method (see par 124 (i.) above.) 

M 



162 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



: prep. gov. " ty " in the accus. case. 
'r : def. art., post-vocalic form, qual. " ty." 

ty : com. noun, masc. gen., sing. no. ace case, gov. 
by "o." 

sydd : verb intrans., irreg., indie, mood, pres. tense, 
3rd pers. sing. 

agosaf : adj. superl. degree, qual. rel. pron., contained in 
" sydd." 

at : prep. gov. " muriau " in the accus. case, 
y : def. art. qual. " muriau." 

muriau : com. noun, masc. gen., plu. no. ace. case, 
gov. by "at." 

yn : predicative " yn " used with " uwch." 
UWCh : adj., comp. proper, qual. " rhan." 

na : conj. joining " gwelwch. . .uwch " and " 'r rhannau 

ereill." 
'r : def. art. post-vocalic form, qual. " rhannau." 

rhannau : com, noun, fern, gen., plu. no. nom case, 
subject to "yw" understood. 

ereill : indef. adj., fern gender, plu. no., qual. 
" rhannau." 

(ii.) am: prep. gov. "G-ymry" in the accus. case. 

Gymry : proper noun, masc. gen., plu. no. ace. case, 

gov. by " am." 

y : rel. pron. masc. gen., plu. no., 3rd pers., agreeing 
with its antecedent " Gymry," -ace. case. 

sonnir : verb, trans., reg., active voice, indie, mood, 
pres. tense, impers. form. 

Cymry : prop, noun, masc. gen., plu. num. ace. case, 
in appos. to " Gymry." 

O : prep. gov. " oes " in the accus. case. 

'i : poss. adj. post- vocalic form, masc. gen., sing no., 
qual. "oes." 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 163 



oes : com. noun, fern, gen., sing. no. ace. case, gov. 

by " o. " 

ac : conj. joining " oes " and " gydnabod." 

: prep. gov. " gydnabod " in the accns. case. 

'i : poss. adj., post- vocalic form, masc. gen., sing, no.; 
qual. " gydnabod." 

gydnabod : com. noun, masc. gen.., sing. no. ace. 
case, gov. by " o." 

ef : 3rd pers. pron., masc. gen., sing, no., gen. case, 
added to emphasise " i." 

(iii.) : prep. gov. " dremio " in the accus. case. 
hir : adj., posit, degree, qual. "dremio." 

dremio : verb-noun, masc. gen., sing no. ace. case, 
gov. by " o." 

canfum : verb trans., irreg., act. voice, indie, mood, 
aor. tense 1st pers. sing, (agreeing with 
" i " understood). 

: prep. gov. " borth " in the accus. case. 

borth : com. noun, masc. gen., sing. no. ace. case, 
gov. by " o." 

y : def. art. qual. " Balchder." 

Balchder : prop, noun, masc. gen., sing no. gen. case, 
dependent on " borth." 

ddinas : com. noun, fern, gen., sing. no. ace. case, 
gov. by " canfum." 

deg: adj., posit, deg., qual. "ddinas." 
ar : prep. gov. " fryn " in the accus. case. 
saith : numeral adj., qual. "fryn." 

fryn : com. noun, masc. gen., sing .no. ace. case, gov. 
by "ar." 

(iv.) Os : conj. joining " y peth. . .i ti "and " yna. ..barhau." 
y : def. art. qual. " peth." 

M 2 



164 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



peth : com. noun, masc. gen., sing. no. accus. case, 
gov. by " wnei." 

hwn : dem. adj., masc. gen., sing, no., qual. "peth." 

a : rel. pron. masc. gen., sing, no., agreeing with its 
antec. " peth," ace. case, [v. 167 (b)]. 

wnei : verb trans., irreg., act. voice, indie, mood, fut. 
tense, 2nd pers. sing, (agreeing with " di " 
understood). 

a: conj. joining "y peth. ..wnei" and "'i...i ti." 
'i : poss. adj., masc. gen., sing no., qual. " orchymyn." 

orchymyn : verb-noun, masc. gen., sing, num., nom- 
case, subject to " digwydd " (understood). 

: prep., gov. " Dduw " in the accus. case. 

Dduw : prop, noun, masc. gen., sing. no. accus. case, 
gov by " o." 

i : prep., gov. " ti " in the accus. case. 

ti : pers pron., com. gen., sing, no., 2nd pers. accus. 
case, gov. by " i." 

yna : adv. of cause, mod. " elli." 

ti : pers. pron., com. gen., sing, no., 2nd pers. nom. 
case, subject to " elli." 

a : rel. pron. com. gen., sing, no., 2nd pers., agreeing 
with its antec. " ti," nom. case, [v. 167 (b)] 

elli : verb trans., reg., act. voice, indie, mood., pres. 
tense 2nd pers. sing., agreeing with " ti." 

barhau : verb-noun, masc. gen., sing. no. accus. case, 
gov. by "elli." 

(v.) gwyn : predicative adj., pos. deg., qual. " fyd." 

fyd : com. noun, masc. gen., sing. no. nom. case, 
subject to " yw " (understood). 

y : def. art., qual. " bobl." 

bobl : collective noun, fern, gen., sing. no. genitive 
case, dependent on " fyd." 



WELSH GRAMMAR. 165 



y : rel. pron. fern, gen., plu. no., * 3rd pers., agreeing 
with its antec. " bobl," accus. case of the 
indirect object. 

mae : verb intrans., irreg., act. voice, indie, mood, 
pres. tense, 3rd pers. sing., subject 
" Arglwydd." 

'r : def. art. post-vocalic form qual. " Arglwydd." 

Arglwydd : prop, noun, masc. gen., sing no. nom. 
case, subject to " mae." 

yn : predicative " yn " used with " Dduw." 

Dduw : prop, noun, masc. gen., sing, no., nom. case, 
complement to " mae." 

iddynt : pronominal preposition, plu. no., 3rd pers., 
explaining the relative " y." 

(vi.) dyma : demons, adv. of place, mod. " gwel " (under- 
stood). 

'r : def. art. post-vocalic form qual. v ':ty." 

ty : com. noun, masc. gen., sing no. ace. case, gov. 
by " gwel " (understood). 

y : rel. pron. masc. gen., sing, no., 3rd pers., agreeing 
with its antecedent " ty," ace. case of place 
where. 

'm : pers. pron. post-vocalic form, com. gen., sing, 
no., 1st pers. ace. case, gov. by " ganwyd." 

ganwyd : verb trans., reg., indie, mood, aor. tense, 
impersonal form. 

ynddo : pronominal prep., masc. gen., sing, no., 3rd 
person, explaining " y." 

(vii.) yr : introductory adv., mod. " oeddwn,." 

oeddwn : verb intrans., irreg., act. voice, indie, mood, 
past impf. tense, 1st pers. sing, (agreeing 
with " i " understood). 
*Xote that " pobl " is plural in its syntax. 



166 WELSH GRAMMAR. 



yng : prep., gov. " Nghaer " in the accus. case. 

Nghaer : prop, noun., fern, gen., sing. no. accus. case, 
gov. by " yng." 

ddoe : Adv. of time, mod., " oeddwn." 

(viii.) ni : adv. of negation, mod. " clywais." 

's : post-vocalic pers. pron., masc. gen., sing, no., 3rd 
pers., accus. case, gov. by " clywais." 

clywais : verb trans., reg., act. voice, indie, mood, aor. 
tense, 1st pers. sing (agreeing with, "i" 
understood). 

ef : pers. pron , masc. gen., sing, no., 3rd pers. accus. 
case in apposition to " 's." 

erioed : adverb of time, mod. " clywais." 

yn : prep., gov. " adrodd " in the accus. case. 

adrodd : verb-noun, masc. gen., sing, no., 3rd pers. 
accus. case, gov. by " yn." 



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THE 



ELEMENTS OF WELSH GRAMMAR 

By S. J. EVANS, M.A. (Lond.) 



Price 1/6. By post 1/8. 



SOME NOTICES AND REVIEWS. 

" I admire its clearness and fulness in spite of its small compass . . . and 
shall recommend it whenever I have an opportunity." Prof. Kuno Meyer, 

University of Liverpool. 

" Your valuable Grammar will render great assistance in spreading a knowledge 
of the language on sound lines." Prof. E. Anicyl, University College, Aberystwith* 

" Neat, terse, to the point, and up-to-date. There are several points in it 
wliich should make it useful to County Schools. The rules are well put and well 
illustrated. . . . Your historical "notes are very good. . . . The com- 
parative notes, where the language is compared with Latin and French, are 
valuable. It will tend to give a status to the language." D. Samuel, M.A., 
Headmaster, County School, Aberysticyth. 

" Yn wir, nis gwyddom am lyfr yu ymdrin a'r iaith a gynghorem i'r efrydydd 
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hwn gael ei fabwysiadu gan holl ysgolion Cymru." Celt Llundain. t^ufv' &** 

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taking Welsh for " Scholarship,' by pupils of the Intermediate Schools, anoTby 
* Englishmen who desire to acquire" some knowledge of Welsh.' " The Magazine 
of University College of South Wales and Mon. 

" J. E. Southall, of Newport, a gentleman who has rendered conspicuous assist- 
ance through his recent publishing enterprises to those engaged in the work of 
teaching Welsh in our Elementary and Intermediate Schools, has just published 
another work entitled The Elements of Welsh Grammar, by Mr. Samuel Evans, 
M.A., Head Master of the County School, Llangefni. This is one of those books 
which are likely to supply the proverbial ' long felt want.' The need all along 
has been for a lucid and compendious work. . . . The rules throughout the 
book are happily illustrated by means of suitable examples from the classics of 
Welsh literature, thus showing'a great advance in this respect even upon some of 
the more elaborate Welsh Grammars." South Wales Daily Xetcs. 

" \\"e can . . . recommend it as being the best hand-book for County 
Schools and Queen's Scholarship students." University College of Wales Magazine. 

" Evans' Grammar has proved to me to be the most successful text book in 
last season's work ; it is the most trustworthy and suitable Welsh Grammar for 
matriculation students in existence." M. H. Thomas, Abercynon. 

" I am glad to tell you that my Pupil Teacher, who was the only Anglesey girl 
in tin- 1st class, only used your Welsh grammar, and found it just the thing for this 
particular examination. "J. P. Rowlands, Brynsiencyn. 

" The author has wisely limited the work by omitting many comparatively 
unimportant details, and has illustrated every rule with copious examples, with 
the result that he has produced a clear and serviceable book. Schoolmaster. 

X.B. The Grammar is in use in most of the County Schools and P.T. centres 
where Welsh is taught. 



WELSH & ENGLISH EXERCISES 

(In the '2nd Edition.) 

BY 

SAMUEL J. EVANS, M.A. (London'. 
(English and Celtic.) 

Price 1/6 nett.] / *0UTi [By Post 1/8 

REVIEWS. 

" This book will be cordially welcomed by teachers and students 
of Welsh as supplying a long felt need. . . . The exercises seem 
particularly happy and numerous . . . (those) on the preposi- 
tions for instance, bear the impress of the practical teacher, and should 
i prove a very valuable discipline. . . . (The introduction) is 
/ full of valuable information and suggestion, and would amply repay 
study not only by candidates for examinations, biit by all those 
who aspire to speak or write Welsh with accuracy. . . ." Welsh 
Leader. 



" The author of these exercises, a few years ago compiled his 
' Elements of Welsh Grammar ' especially for the use of pupils in 
County Schools and pupil teacher centres. Its appearance elicited 
encomiums from such eminent authorities as Pofesscr Kuno Meyer 
and Professor Anwyl. . . . The present book of Exercises is a 
companion volume to supply that practice in translation, which alone 
can give precision and exactness to linguistic study. The gram- 
matical introduction makes suggestive reading, and will repay 
careful study. The exercises are exceptionally full, and supply 
excellent practice for those who wish to master the idiomatic differ- 
ences of the two languages. The book should prove a boon to 
teachers of Welsh throughout the Principality." Welsh Gazette. 



Mr. EVANS has admirably succeeded in supplying a need which 
has long been felt by those who have had anything to do with the 
teaching cf Welsh. In the introduction, which is both very instruc- 
tive and interesting, the author clearly points out some of the peculiar- 
ities of the language as compared with English. . . . The 
exercises are by far the best we have ever seen, being brimful of 
idioms and quotations from the best Welsh authors. There is also 
a most useful vocabulary at the end. . . ." Border Counties 
Advertiser. 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



The Latin Element in Welsh. Cloth (limp), 6d. nett. 

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~^ Welsh Parsing. Crown 8vo., Cloth, 6d. nett. 

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Studies in Welsh Phonology. A valuable and almost 
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Cywyddau Goronwy Owen. Gyda Nodiadau dan olygi- 
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'A 




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