Skip to main content
Design of an Elevator Car Enclosure.
PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE
INSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC ELEVATORS IN BUILDINGS
H. ROBERT CULLMER
With Introductory Note by
REGINALD PELHAM BOLTON
A treatise for the architect and builder covering the surveying ana preparing of detail
drawings for elevator shafts; machine rooms; elevator bulkheads; tables and
formulae for calculating the size and capacity of elevators; freight
elevators; sidewalk elevators; dumb- waiters; specification ^ , . , .
writing for elevator installation; elevator shaft \/^\' J \* ,
doors 'and appliances', building regu- , , , ,. ,
lations covering elevator
THE WILLIAM T. COMSTOCK COMPANY
23 Warren Street
H. ROBERT CULLMER
In preparing this book, it has been the object of the author to
present the subject treated in such a manner as to make the de-
tails of practical value to an architect, builder, or a building super-
intendent representing either, having a general knowledge of the
work in and about elevator shafts.
The principal aim and purpose of the work is to emphasize the
necessity of the co-operation of all parties connected with the
work of elevator shaft construction and elevator installation to
produce the best results and necessary economy. The articles on
elevator shaft doors and machine rooms contain information which
it is hoped will be highly useful to architects in preparing their
plans. It has always been, and still is, a difficult problem to
determine the height of an elevator shaft bulkhead. The article
pertaining to this subject has been made quite comprehensive, and
the plates conform to the requirements of existing municipal regu-
The data and information contained has been gathered by the
author in his own practice and systematized and generalized for
the purpose of this work. As far as he knows, such data has
never before been published and it is his hope that it will prove of
considerable value to all interested in the subject.
The author is under obligation to Albert Bauer of Brooklyn,
N. Y., for much competent assistance. Information and draw-
ings for special subjects have also been furnished by the Reliance
Ball Bearing and Hanger Co. ; Burdett-Rowntree Co. ; Peelle Co. ;
Elevator Supply and Repair Co. ; Peterson Engineering Co. ; F. T.
Ellithorpe; and Oscar A. Norman for the frontispiece; to all of
whom the author tenders his thanks for their freely given assist-
H. R. CULLMER,
Woodhaven, N. Y., May, 1912.
Elevator Shafts 9
Suggestions for detailing. Elevator shaft pits. Elevator ma-
chine rooms. Bulkheads. Sizes of elevator shafts and cars.
Elevator shaft doors. Plunger and hydraulic elevators.
Elevator car controls. Sidewalk elevators. Automobile eleva-
tors or garage installations. Special type of elevator in-
stallations. Electric dumbwaiters. Miscellaneous suggestions.
Specifications for Elevator Work 113
Short specification form for elevator work. Longer specification
form for elevator work.
Door Opening Devices and Elevator Car Gates 127
Elevator Signal Systems and Special Appliances 147
Rules and Regulations Governing Elevator Installation in New York
LIST OF PLATES
Design of an elevator car enclosure Frontispiece
Headroom underneath pit pans Plate I
Footings for columns and foundations below the bottom of
elevator shaft pits 2
Water-proof pit pan 3
Water-proof concrete or brick pit 4
Method of water-proofing or damp-proofing elevator machine
Dust proof pit pan 6
Chase in wall for counterweights 7
Plan of shaft and sections through shaft at floor level . "8
Plan of an elevator machine over shaft 9
Geared traction and direct traction drive elevator machines . 10
Arrangement of sheaves for traction drive machines over shaft n
Elevator machine underneath pit 12
Table giving sizes of elevator machine rooms and cable open-
ings ..... " 13
Arrangement of sheave beams for low bulkheads .... "14
Elevation of bulkhead when the roof is the top landing . " 15
Arrangement of cables " 16
Arrangement of sheave beams when counterweights are placed
at right angles to machine ... " 17
Height of bulkhead required for a given size shaft when count-
erweights are placed at right angles to machine ... 18
Height of bulkhead required for a given size shaft, when
machine is placed over shaft " 19
Clearances between elevator car and sides of shaft .... "20
Table giving the number of passengers that can be carried ac-
cording to the area of a car in square feet "21
Combination slide and swing doors "22
Grille combination slide and swing doors "23
Single slide door "24
Double sliding doors in the same direction and double swing
doors . . . ... ...'., . . . "25
Double sliding doors in opposite directions " 26
Sidewalk elevator machine at one end of shaft with drums un-
derneath car platform . " 27
Arrangement of lifting chains for sidewalk elevators ... "28
Sidewalk elevator machine and drums setting upon the cellar
or sub-cellar level or upon a special platform .... "29
Elevation showing sidewalk machine setting upon a special
Elevation of sidewalk elevator shaft, with machine setting upon
the cellar, sub-cellar or platform level "31
6 LIST OF PLATES
Clearances required for side-bars between side of sidewalk
shaft and inside edge of frame Plate 32
Hoop for lifting sidewalk covers "33
Stand pipes for lifting sidewalk covers "34
Plan of machine room over shaft for automobile elevators . " 35
Typical layout and plan of the under-geared type of elevator ' 36
Elevation showing arrangement of sheaves and cables for the
under-geared type of elevator "37
Plan of dumbwaiter shaft showing wall-climbing arrangement
of guides " 38
Elevation of dumbwaiter shaft, showing slide up doors . . "39
Ball-bearing door hangers "40
Interlocking door safety devices and clearances required . "41
Different types of counterbalance fireproof doors and clear-
ances required "42
Elevatioji of "lap" style counterbalance door "43
Table giving heights of door openings for different height
floors, for regular up and down doors "44
Fold and swing elevator car gate and stationary collapsible ele-
vator car gate attached to panel "45
Stationary collapsible elevator car gate in front of panel . "46
Section of a typical air cushion "47
LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY PLATES
Northwestern Building, Chicago, 111., Elevator Fronts . . . Plate i
Carnegie Safe Deposit Co., New York, Elevator Fronts .. . " 2
Hall of Records, New York, Elevator Door Designs ... " 3
Ritz-Carlton Hotel, New York, Elevator Fronts " 4
Metropolitan Tower, New York, Elevator Fronts .... " 5
Nine-Twenty-Five Park Ave., New York, Elevator Fronts . " 6
The Verona, New York, Elevator Fronts " 7
Brunswick Building, New York, Elevator Fronts .... " 8
Fire Companies Building, New York, Elevator Fronts . "9
The Everett Building, New York, Elevator Fronts ... " 10
American Bank Note Factory, New York, Freight Doors . " n
Factory of Ward Bread Co., New York, Elevator Shaft En-
The Multiple Residence, New York, Elevator Fronts ... "13
Steger Building, Chicago, Elevator Fronts 14
Gimble Store, New York, Elevator Fronts " 15
Frances Building, New York, Elevator Fronts " 16
The lack of available information upon the subject of elevators
has been, in past years, very marked, and has been productive of
very unfortunate results in many installations of elevators. There
is probably no subject connected with the mechanical arts, in which
there is greater need for well-considered and well-defined informa-
tion such as is presented in this book.
The interest of the public in the security and efficiency of elevators
is greater than its concern in almost any other form of mechanical
contrivance, and it is true that every detail that enters into both the
design and the construction of elevators is of greater importance to
the personal safety of the public than similar details connected with
other forms of machinery. No part of modern mechanical apparatus
has a greater influence upon the convenience and financial success of
the buildings in which they are installed than is the case with
elevators, the demand for which has vastly increased of recent years,
while the art of their construction has also made considerable
It has always been a matter of remark that architects lack practical
information as to this important class of machinery, and this de-
ficiency has been excusable in view of the small amount of printed
information upon the subject. Mr. Cullmer's work, while it deals
exclusively with details, is of an essentially practical character,
directly designed to fill the need for such information, and to enable
architects and engineers to appreciate the necessary features which
go to make successful elevator installations, and to provide, in ad-
vance of the construction of a building, for such requirements.
To prepare and present such a work, practical working knowledge
of these details is necessary, which appears very conspicuously in the
presentation of the plans accompanying the book. Such plans
should be of extreme value to those who are charged with the
design or construction of modern buildings.
While the book has not entered in detail into many other questions
that surround the security of the operation of elevators and of pas-
sengers therein, upon which subject alone a book might, and it is
hoped will, some day be written, it does indirectly contribute towards
the safety of such apparatus by affording necessary information as
to proper proportions and spaces surrounding the installation of the
car in its hoistway, and thus promotes the safety, as well as the con-
venience, of the general public.
REGINALD PELHAM BOLTON.
i. SUGGESTIONS FOR DETAILING.
Elevator contractors and builders will always work to a dis-
advantage unless the full particulars relating to the details and
construction of the elevator shafts are furnished to them.
The elevator contractor should be furnished special sketches,
drawn to f " scale, showing the general conditions existing in and
around the elevator shafts. From these sketches, drawings show-
ing the general arrangement of the elevator installation can be
made by this contractor.
The drawings made by the elevator contractor should be ap-
proved by the architect, who should then request that copies be
sent to all other contractors connected with construction work on
the elevator shafts.
Should this rule be adhered to in all elevator work, there would
be a smaller chance of mistakes being made and all parties con-
cerned could co-operate and work consistently from uniform
2. ELEVATOR SHAFT PITS.
In the construction of elevator shafts, proper provisions should
be made for the pits.
i. PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR PITS.
The depths of pits for these elevators should not be less than
3'-6" to the bottom, whether measured from the first floor level or
from the cellar level, according to their lowest stop. Traction
drive elevators installed by the different companies are an excep-
tion, as pits not less than 6'-o" deep may be required to allow the
necessary space for the oil bumpers. Some elevator companies re-
quire a pit at least y'-6" in depth for traction drive installations of
high speed (400 F. P. M. or over).
In the event of traction drive elevators being installed, pit pans
may be suspended from the first floor, this being the bottom land-
ing ; and if it is required to gain headroom underneath the pit pans
-ID ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
in the basement or cellar, the oil bumpers can be arranged as
shown on Plate No. i.
2. FOOTINGS FOR COLUMNS AND FOUNDATIONS.
All footings for columns and foundations adjoining elevator shafts,
should be kept below the bottom of the elevator shaft pits, so as to
render all sides of the pits true and plumb with the finished lines of
the shafts. See Plate No. 2.
3. WATER-PROOF PITS. When buildings are to be erected
in localities near the water level, or where there are underground
springs, water-proofed pits or water-proof pans are absolutely es-
4. WATER-PROOF PANS. Water-proof pans should be in-
stalled in localities where the water pressure is very great, within
the pits which should be water-proofed also, as shown on Plate
No. 3, with a 4" layer of concrete covered with a layer of three-
ply water-proofing. The face of the water-proofing should be at
least 3" outside of the line of the shaft on all sides, to allow space
for grouting about the pit pan so that the inside of the pan will
set plumb with the shaft.
5. SIZE OF WATER-PROOF PANS. The outside of a pan
should set i" back from the line of the shaft, to allow for the re-
inforcing bands and rivet heads, as shown on Plate No. 3. The
top of the pan should set 2" below the cellar level, on the door
side of the shaft, to allow for the projection of the door saddle
into the shaft, as may also be observed on Plate No. 3.
Another method of water-proofing pits is shown on Plate No. 4.
Excavate the sides and bottom of the pit about 12" larger on all
sides than the size of the shaft and the depth of the pit; the sides
and bottom thus excavated should be covered with 4" of concrete
or brick, then covered with a three-ply water-proofing over which
is placed an 8" covering of concrete or brick.
6. WATER-PROOFING ELEVATOR MACHINE
ROOMS. When the machine room adjoins the elevator shaft, the
water-proofing can be done in the manner shown on Plate No. 5.
The water-proofing in this case extends below the bottom of the
machine foundation, as will be noted at " A." It is bad practice
to place the water-proofing just below the finished cellar level, in
the area of the machine room, for in order to provide a suitable
foundation for the machine, it would be necessary to build the
foundation above the cellar level, which would cause the machine
ELEVATOR SHAFT PITS n
to set too high, or else the fastening bolts for the machine would
penetrate the water-proofing layer. The method of damp-proof-
ing under the machine room level is illustrated on Plate No. 5 at
points " B " and " C." This method can be used in localities where
there is no water pressure, and should be done after the founda-
tions and bolts for the machine have been set.
7. DUST-PROOF PIT PANS. When the elevator car starts
at the first floor and does not serve the cellar, a dust-proof pit pan
should be provided, suspended below the first floor, as shown on
Plate No. 6. Such pans should be constructed of not less than
No. 12 sheet iron and should be reinforced with angles or tees.
Should the elevator machine be placed in the basement, an open-
ing should be provided in the pan for the travel of the cables.
The size and location of these openings should always be obtained
from the elevator contractor, if another contractor is to install the
8. CHASES IN OFFSETS OF BRICK WALLS FOR
COUNTERWEIGHTS. When there are offsets in brick walls
on the inside of an elevator shaft, it is possible to gain the thick-
ness of the lowest offset, in the size of the car and shaft, by leav-
ing a pocket in the lowest offset for the counterweights. In hun-
dreds of instances this has proved an advantage, as it also permits
the gaining of more space in the hallways of a building. This
pocket must extend from the top of the lowest offset to the bottom
of the elevator pit. Special sketches should be made clearly indi-
cating the number and location of the offsets, also the location for
the counterweights. See Plate No. 7. The width and exact loca-
tion of the pocket should be obtained from the elevator contractor.
9. FRAMING OF ELEVATOR SHAFTS. If shafts are
constructed of steel framing and terra-cotta blocks, the special
sketches should show details of the amount of fireproofing and
plaster covering outside the flanges of beams or backs of channels,
also the size of the beams or channels and the relation of the,
terra-cotta block partitions to the inside of the finished shaft.
Referring to Plate No. 8, it will be observed that the dimension
lines have been left blank. Where columns adjoin elevator shafts,
all figures should be given from the column centers, as well as the
figure from the column center to the outside of the building wall.
The sections as shown have been taken through the shaft at the
floor level, and illustrate the method of showing the fireproofing
12 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
and plaster. Section A-A further illustrates the projection of the
floor saddles beyond the plaster line in the shaft.
10. DETAILING THE PLAN OF COLUMNS. In addi-
tion to the above, special details of columns should be made, show-
ing the largest column adjoining the shaft, which naturally would
be the lowest one. The amount of brick or fireproof covering on
the column should also be shown.
An effort should be made in laying out the steel framing of
shafts to keep the flanges of the beams or backs of the channels
on the different floors, in a plumb line on all sides of the shafts,
throughout the entire height.
Sometimes the beams or channels framing the shafts on the
different floors are of different sizes; this fact should be clearly
shown on the sketches, if the flanges of beams or backs of chan-
nels do not set on a plumb line.
3. ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOMS.
One of the many difficulties in elevator installation is caused by
the insufficient size of the machine room; as the machine is the
heart of the elevator it is therefore essential that the machine room
provided should be of ample size.
Should requirements demand that some of the space usually al-
lotted to the machine room be utilized for other purposes, the ele-
vator contractor should be consulted as to the special arrangement
of the machine.
Sketches should show the location of the machine room in rela-
tion to the shaft, whether located in the cellar adjoining, under-
neath the shaft, on any intermediate floor, or over the shaft.
n. LOCATION OF MACHINES. Electric drum type or
traction drive machines can be placed in the cellar, basement, di-
rectly over the shaft, or on any of the intermediate floors.
Should the floor space in the cellar, basement, or on any of the
intermediate floors be valuable for rental purposes, it is good prac-
tice to place the machine directly over the shaft, in which case
care should be taken in designing the bulkhead or pent house.
In a majority of instances, the machine room will take up more
area than the shaft, when the machine is placed directly over it.
See Plate No. 9 and Plate No. 19. It is sometimes found imprac-
ticable to use the electric drum type machine directly over the
shaft in buildings over sixteen stories in height, as the face of
ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOMS 13
the drum increases in size according to the height of building,
thus increasing the width of the machine and causing it to project
into the space required for adjoining machines. This difficulty
has been overcome with the advent of the direct and geared trac-
tion electric elevator machines, as the face of the traction sheaves
or drums are of one standard width, making them available for
buildings of any height.
12. LOCATION OF TRACTION MACHINES. The
geared traction machine is driven by the driving sheaves, being
geared to the motor shaft. See Plate No. 10.
With the direct traction machine the driving sheave is directly
connected to the motor shaft, requiring no gearing. See Plate
The most desirable position for a traction drive machine is
over the shaft, and a greater number are placed in this position
than in any other.
When a traction drive machine is to be placed directly over the
shaft, the elevator contractor should always be consulted as to the
size of the room and the height of the bulkhead required.
Should the traction drive machine be placed in the cellar or on
any intermediate floor, the elevator contractor should be consulted,
as this type of installation requires special arrangements.
The sketch as shown on Plate No. n, illustrates the general
arrangement of the driving sheaves for a traction drive machine
when placed over the shaft. Sheave A is directly attached to the
machine and sheave B is attached to the underside of the machine
beams. The cables for the traction drive elevator are one con-
tinuous length. Each cable runs from the top of the crosshead
on the car, up and over drive sheave A, down and under the de-
flecting sheave B, up and over drive sheave A, and then down to
13. SETTING OF TRACTION DRIVE SHEAVES.
Point a on drive sheave A is set directly over the center of the
lifting point on the car, and point b on deflecting sheave B is set
directly over the center of the counterweights.
14. DOORS TO MACHINE ROOMS. In all machine
rooms, doors of sufficient size to permit any part of the machinery
to be removed in case of repairs should be allowed for. All parts
of a machine should be accessible.
15. MACHINE SUB-BASE. Elevator machine sub-bases
14 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
are generally made in one piece, with the exception of the double
gear machines or machines of special design for special work.
Upon these sub-bases is mounted the motor, brakes, gear cases, and
16. MACHINES UNDER SHAFTS. The distance between
the cellar and first floor levels is the first consideration, when con-
templating setting a machine under the shaft. If this height is
insufficient to place the machine directly under the shaft and still
maintain the proper depth of the pit pan, the level of the machine
room can be lower than the level of the cellar to allow for the
height of the machine over the idler underneath the pit pan, as
shown on Plate No. 12.
17. SIZE OF MACHINE ROOMS. On Plate No. 13 is
given a table showing the sizes of machine rooms, based upon
actual installations of single and tandem geared drum type ma-
chines, when placed in cellars, basements, or on any of the inter-
mediate floors, governed according to the capacity of the machines
in foot pounds and the diameter and face of the drums.
The following is a rule for determining the face of the drums:
F Face of drum.
R Travel of elevator car in feet.
C Circumference of drum.
N Number of cables winding on drum. 1
W Number of stationary wraps of cables around the drum,
there being at least two or more lifting cables and two
counterweight cables fastening on the drum and each
cable shall have at least one full turn of cable on the
drum when they have reached their limit of travel.
G Size of groove on the drum = diameter of cable + -f^".
I Distance between idlers.
Formula: F =j (~^~ X N) + WJ X G + I
Illustration: What is the face of a drum, if the travel of an
elevator car is i59'-o" ; the diameter of the drum, 34" with two
" diameter lifting and counterweight cables winding around it?
1 When the lifting cables are unwound, the counterweight cables are
wound around the drum and vice versa, which allows the lifting and
counterweight cables to travel in the same groove.
ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOMS 15
Solution: (1) F=
(2) | (17.83 X 2)+
Note : As some elevator contractors figure the face of the drum
by the multiple of six, it is therefore safe to assume that the an-
swer to the above would be 36" for the face of the drum.
The following is a rule for determining the size of a machine
in foot pounds :
C live load.
S speed in F. P. M.
Formula : C X S = capacity in foot pounds.
Illustration: What is the size of a machine in foot pounds, if
the live load is 2,500 pounds and the speed is 200 F. P. M.?
Solution : 2500 X 200 = 500,000 foot pounds.
To determine the size of an elevator machine room, the load,
speed and the distance the elevator car is to travel, are the first
considerations. Also it must be known whether the machine is to
be of the single or tandem gear type. (Tandem gear machines
require more space in the length of the machine room.)
Illustration : What is the size of an elevator machine room, if
the machine to be installed is of a single gear type and is to lift
a live load of 2700 pounds at the speed of 200 F. P. M., the dis-
tance of the travel of the elevator car being 170 feet?
Solution : ( i ) 2700 X 200 = 540,000 foot pounds.
(2) Referring to the table on Plate No. 13, it will
be observed that 540,000 foot pounds is between 490,000 and
600,000 foot pounds ; hence the machine capable of 600,000 foot
pounds will have to be determined upon. However under the
head of " Travel of Car," (see table), it will be seen that this
machine is capable of 2o8'-o" of travel of car, with a drum face of
42", but I7o'-o" of travel of car requires only a 36" drum face,
which is a saving of 6" in the width of the machine and the ma-
chine room; therefore the size of the machine room is
A = 7'-4" and B = n'-o"
and size of the cable opening is
C = 4'-io" and D = 8'-4*.
18. DIRECT LEAD MACHINES. When direct lead ma-
chines are to be installed, distance B given in the table on Plate
16 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
No. 13, may be reduced according to the thickness of the shaft
wall. Also, distance C will have to be increased on account of
the machine setting full in the opening. This distance is deter-
mined by the size of the face of the drum and the width of the
When this type of machine installation is to be considered, it is
best to consult the elevator contractor, as the machines of differ-
ent manufacturers vary in width as well as in other dimensions.
The heights of the bulkheads over elevator shafts vary accord-
ing to the number of sets of sheave beams, the size of the sheaves,
location of the counterweights in relation to the machines (when
placed in cellars, basements, or on any intermediate floor), and
according to the size of the machines when placed over the shafts.
19. TO OBTAIN LOW BULKHEADS. The height of the
bulkhead can be considerably shortened by placing the machine op-
posite the counterweights, when the machine is placed in the cel-
lar or on any intermediate floor. This arrangement will permit
the placing of all the sheaves on a single set of beams, provided
there is a direct lead from the center of the drum on the machine
to the centers of the car and counterweights. This arrangement
of the sheave beams is permissible for light loads, whereas for
heavy loads it is not good practice. See Plate No. 14.
20. WHEN ELEVATOR CARS LAND AT ROOF
LEVEL. The tenement house department of New York City
will not permit a bulkhead to be built to a height of over i5'-o"
from the top of the roof beams to the top of the steel framing of
the elevator shafts, and not over 2i'-o" to the peak of the skylights.
Sometimes it is necessary to have the elevator cars land at the
roof level, in which case the arrangement of the counterweights
and machine, as shown on Plate No. 14, is necessary in order to
have the overhead machinery come within the required limits.
This means that the top of the supports for the sheave beams
cannot set over i5'-o" from the top of the roof beams, but the
sheave beams and sheaves can project above this point into the
skylight space, as shown on Plate No. 15.
21. PRACTICAL USE OF SHEAVES. If the span be-
tween the centers of the car, counterweights or drum is too great
for a single sheave, thus taking up bulkhead space, two smaller
sheaves can be installed in the space required for the single
When possible, the use of sheaves less than 30" in diameter for
f " cables should be avoided, as smaller ones will be detrimental to
the wear of the cables. It is not good practice to use sheaves less
than 36" in diameter for f " cables.
However, there are cases where smaller diameter sheaves must
22. ROEBLING STANDARD HOISTING ROPE. Stand-
ard hoisting rope is made of six strands, each of which is formed
by twisting nineteen wires together, the strands being twisted
around a hemp center.
Swedish iron rope is soft, tough and pliable, and will with-
stand constant bending over small sheaves without breaking the
This rope is especially adapted for passenger service and sim-
ilar use where the tendency to abrasion is comparatively slight,
and where the speed is high, the loads moderate, and the arrange-
ment of the sheaves such as to produce severe bending stresses in
A higher factor of safety is recommended for elevator service
than for general hoisting.
The table given on the following page shows the sizes, etc., of
Swedish iron rope.
23. ARRANGEMENT OF CABLES. Plate No. 16 illus-
trates the arrangement of cables in relation to the machine, car
and counterweights. The lift cables are those which run from
the machine and are fastened to the top of the crosshead of the
car; the car counterweight cables are those that run from the
top of the crosshead of the car to the top section of the counter-
weights ; the machine counterweight cables are those that run
from the machine to the bottom section of the counterweights.
24. OVERHEAD GRATING. The local regulations of dif-
ferent localities require that a grating be installed in all elevator
shafts, just below the overhead machinery. The overhead grating
should be constructed and properly supported to sustain the weight
of several men, and in all cases to conform with the requirements
of the local regulations.
25. SKYLIGHTS OVER SHAFTS. The legal regulations
of New York City require that all inclosed elevator shafts shall
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.I)
* : '
it 8 |
^ rt O
c ^ ^
rt o "rt
4 X 2
have a skylight over the shaft with an area at least equal to three-
fourths that of the shaft, and shall be made of glass, set in iron
frames. Wire-glass must not be used, owing to the difficulty of
fire forcing its way through the skylight. Even though the legal
regulations of certain localities do not require skylights, they
should be provided.
26. COUNTERWEIGHTS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLES
TO MACHINE. Plate No. 17 shows counterweights placed on
the rear of the car with the machine located to one side; thus re-
quiring three sets of sheave beams. The size of the shaft shown
in 5'-o" by 6'-o".
An elevation of this arrangement is shown on Plate No. 18,
illustrating the method of figuring the height of the bulkhead,
which is always figured from the top landing of the elevator car.
The size of the sheaves as shown has been determined by their
relation to the centers of the lifting points on the machine, car
and counterweights. To determine the height of the first set of
supports, distance " D " (which is the projection of the lift sheave
below the bottom of the sheave beams) must be added to the height
of the car, headroom and space for grating.
ELEVATOR SHAFTS AND CARS 19
The intermediate set of sheave beams is for the support of the
car counterweight sheave. These beams are supported at one side
by the lift sheave beams, being- blocked up from them by pipe
blocks in order that the car counterweight sheave may clear the
top of the lift sheave beams. The other ends of the intermediate
beams are shown on Plate No. 17 supported by the brick wall.
The machine counterweight sheave beams are the top set, being
supported at one end by a channel and at the other end by a brick
Supporting channels marked 1-2-3 ( see Plate 17) should
be furnished and set by the iron contractor and the sheave beams
A, B, C together with the pipe blocks (see Plate 18) should be
furnished and set by the elevator contractor.
27. MACHINES PLACED OVER SHAFTS. When ma-
chines are placed over elevator shafts, the heights of the bulk-
heads are invariably increased several feet more than when the
machines are placed below. Plate No. 19 shows the arrangement
of the bulkhead when the machine is placed over the shaft, as
shown on the plan on Plate No. 9, the size of the shaft being
5'-6" deep by 6'-o" in length. The idlers as shown on Plate No.
19 are not required for this layout, as the span between the lift-
ing points on the car and counterweights fit the diameter of the
drum as shown. They have been represented to illustrate the ad-
ditional height of the lower supporting channels, in case these
must be used to carry the machine counterweight cables to the
lifting point on the counterweights, in cases where the span be-
tween the lifting point on the car and counterweights is too great
for the diameter of the drum.
5. SIZES OF ELEVATOR SHAFTS AND CARS.
The sizes of elevator shafts depend largely upon the general
conditions of the design of any building, such as the exigencies of
space brought about by the shape of the building plot and the
necessary disposition of columns.
28. SIZE OF PASSENGER CARS. The size of these cars
is determinate upon the number of passengers, including the op-
erator. The average weight of a person has been established at
150 pounds per passenger, which corresponds therefore to a live
load of 75 pounds per square foot of interior car space, or plat-
form area, an allowance of 2 square feet per average passenger.
20 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
The diagram as shown on Plate No. 20 shows the clearances
required between the outside of the car and the sides of the shaft.
The average thickness of the car enclosures is figured at about i".
The clearances for counterweights vary according to their thick-
ness and the space available for them.
The table as shown on Plate No. 21 affords information as to
the number of passengers that can be carried, including operator,
figured according to the interior size of the cars.
29. SIZE OF FREIGHT ELEVATOR CARS. The size of
these cars should be established according to the kind of freight
to be carried.
30. GUIDING. When side guides are used, a clearance of at
least 5" is required, between the sides of the car and the finished
shaft. Should two or more cars run in the same shaft, a beam
should be provided between each car at the floor levels for the
support of the side guides. Side guides cannot be used when
shafts have right angle entrances, as one of the guides would set
directly in the center of one of the entrances.
The clearances required when corner guides are used are shown
on Plate No. 20.
The construction of the elevator shaft for the installation of the
plunger type of elevator is similar to that of the electric drum type,
requiring no more than the regular clearances for the guides and
The hydraulic type of elevator requires a greater amount of
space, in addition to the car than that for the electric drum type,
where the cylinders are installed in the same shaft. However,
should the cylinders be placed in a separate shaft in another sec-
tion of the building, the clearances between the car and the shaft
will be no more than those required for the electric drum type, ex-
cepting on the side of the car where the cylinders or counter-
weights would ordinarily be placed, this clearance may be 3", pro-
viding that a car guide is not placed on this side, in which case
the clearance should be no less than 5".
The amount of space required for machinery, etc., for these
types of elevator installations is far in excess of that required for
the electric drum type.
When an architect or owner contemplates installing either the
plunger or hydraulic type of elevator, the manufacturer must be
consulted, as to the space required for the machinery, boilers,
ELEVATOR SHAFT DOORS 21
tanks, cylinders, etc., in order to provide ample room, in preparing
the plans for them.
6. ELEVATOR SHAFT DOORS.
In designing an elevator shaft, careful consideration should be
given to the style of door which shall be best adapted to the par-
ticular kind of elevator to be installed.
Suitable width of door openings should be provided, so as to
render ingress and egress as free as possible.
It may, therefore, be unhesitatingly assumed that for effective
service and rapid schedules, the proper style of door will be an
element of importance and unless it be adequately proportioned,
the door will have a restrictive effect upon the service. Naturally
the same remark applies to the use of unduly heavy doors and of
inaccessible and sluggish door fastenings. The elevator contrac-
tor should be consulted concerning the location of elevator door
Proper allowances should be made for the projection of floor
saddles into the shafts, which the many different types of doors
govern; namely, combination slide and swing doors, single slide
doors, double doors sliding in the same direction, double doors
sliding in opposite directions, double swing doors, up and down
doors and automatic up and down doors.
31. COMBINATION SLIDE AND SWING DOORS.
This type of door is most commonly used in apartment houses,
loft and office buildings, being adapted for both passenger and
Where walls and partitions on the door sides of the shaft are
of ample thickness to permit the operation of the doors in the
thickness of the walls or partitions, the saddle projection can be
from y to i" beyond the finished line of the shaft, as may be ob-
served on Plate No. 22.
The advantage gained by this projection is that it allows for
the plumbing of the saddles, should there be any unevenness in
the walls or partitions, a condition which is likely to occur during
the course of erection.
When grille enclosures are set close to the shafts, the saddle
projections must be great enough to permit the proper operation
of sliding doors inside the finished line of the shaft. The swing-
ing section of a door can be operated in the thickness of the grille
22 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
shaft enclosure. Sheet iron fascias must be carried from the under-
side of the nosings of the saddles to a connecting point on the
floor construction below, as illustrated on Plate No. 23.
32. SINGLE SLIDE DOORS. Single slide doors are gen-
erally used for passenger service where it is not intended to carry
freight. This type of door can be operated in a manner sim-
ilar to the sliding door section of the combination doors ; the
swinging section being made a stationary door or panel.
The saddle projection beyond the finished line of the shaft is
similar to those for the combination doors.
Another method of operating these doors is to build partitions
in place of the stationary doors or panels, as shown on Plate No. 24.
33. DOUBLE DOORS SLIDING IN THE SAME DIREC-
TION. The use of these doors will be readily appreciated as
suitable for rapid work, as they render ingress and egress of pas-
sengers as free as possible. The arrangement of these doors may
be observed on Plate No. 25.
Careful consideration should be given to the designing of the
fronts of the elevator shaft and floor saddle for these doors, as the
double sliding doors slide behind a stationary door or panel, there-
fore occupying space of three thicknesses, in addition to the clear-
ances required between the doors and stationary section.
34. DOUBLE DOORS_ SLIDING IN OPPOSITE DIREC-
TIONS. These doors slide in opposite directions to one another,
as can be observed on Pla4e No. 26, and should be provided with
a mechanical device by which they can be made to move at equal
distances from the center line between them by the operation of
either door. The panels or partitions behind which they slide
should be as wide as, the doors or several inches wider, if the width
of the shaft will permit.
35. DOUBLE SWING DOORS. Double swing doors are
used mostly for freight service. The door that is to swing first
should be indicated on the drawings, as the gate on the car is
placed behind the door to swing last. The door which should
swing first is generally the right hand door, facing from the in-
side of the shaft. There may be other conditions existing around
the shaft, in which case this rule could not be applied. The saddle
projection into the shaft should be at least ". See Plate No. 25.
36. UP AND DOWN HAND CONTROLLED DOORS.
AUTOMATIC PUSH BUTTON ELEVATORS 23
This type of door is used for freight service. They should be
clearly indicated on the drawings and the projection between the
finished shaft and the side of the door nearest the car should be
given. | This distance is determined by the thickness of the doors
and the clearance required for them from the finished shaft. Re-
fer to the article on Automatic Doors for the clearances required.
37. HARDWARE ON DOORS. The hardware used for
locking or operating the doors should be accessible and free in
operation, as inaccessible and sluggish door fastenings will be a
hindrance to rapid service. No hardware should project beyond
the line of the saddles.
7. AUTOMATIC PUSH BUTTON ELEVATORS.
Legal restrictions are established in certain localities, especially
in the Boroughs of Greater New York, confining the installation
of automatic push button elevators to use in private residences.
38. OPERATION. Automatic elevators are operated by
means of a bank of push buttons located in the car, the markings
of which designate the respective floors in the building. The
pressing of any of these buttons will start the machine, causing
the car to move toward the floor designated by the button thus
pressed. The stopping of the car at this floor is automatic, being
regulated by the magnets on the machine. In addition to the
bank of push buttons on the car, there is placed on the outside of
the shaft on each floor, adjoining the door, a single push button
which is used to bring the elevator car to that floor.
Before the car can be operated, all the shaft doors and the
gate on the car must be closed, thus connecting all contacts elec-
trically connected to the machine, as the shaft doors and the gate
on the car are controlled by switches.
In order to insure the perfect operation of this type of elevator,
care should be taken that the shaft is designed to suit the require-
ments of a particular elevator contractor's door locks.
An alarm bell should be installed in the servants' quarters or
kitchen, operated by a separate push button in the car, to be used
in case the car should stop between floors owing to some inter-
ruption of the current.
When wood car enclosures are used in private houses, the ele-
vator shaft should be properly ventilated to insure against the
24 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
warping and shrinking of the car enclosures, due to the different
temperatures in the building.
8. ELEVATOR CAR CONTROLS.
There are five different kinds of elevator car controls. The
hand rope, lever and hand wheel are mechanical controls, and the
switch and push buttons are electric controls.
39. CLEARANCES REQUIRED IN THE SHAFT. The
mechanisms of the electric switch and push button controls occa-
sion no addition to the usual clearance between the elevator car
and the sides of the shaft, as these devices are placed within the
40. HAND ROPE CONTROL. The hand rope control
(which may be used for speeds up to 150 F. P. M.) when placed
inside of elevator cars, does not require any more than the regular
clearance. If it should be placed outside of the car, it is advisable
to have not less than 3" clearance between the sides of the car and
41. LEVER AND HAND WHEEL CONTROL. The lever
and hand wheel controls require clearances of 4" to 5^" between
the car and the sides of the shaft, if the operating sheaves are
placed outside of the car.
9. SIDEWALK ELEVATORS.
Many difficulties have been experienced with the installation of
The main difficulty has been caused by not providing proper
space for the machines.
There are numerous positions in which the machine can be set
in relation to the shaft.
42. MACHINE AT END OF SHAFT. The most common
method is to place the machine at one end of the shaft, with the
drums directly under the car platform, as shown on Plate No. 27.
With this arrangement the machine can be placed either upon
the floor level of the machine room with the drum shaft connected
to the machine by means of gears, or in a pit the same depth as
the car pit, with the drum shaft directly connected to the machine,
as can be observed on Plate No. 27.
43. CHAIN LIFTS. Sidewalk elevators are mostly raised
and lowered by means of chains fastened at the four corners of
SIDEWALK ELEVATORS 25
the car platform and guided by an angle set in each of the corners
of the shaft. The chains extend from the lifting angles on the
bottom of the car platform to the sheaves on the sidebars (which
set just below the sidewalk level). The two chains which pass
over the sheaves on each side of the shaft are joined together. At
this point a single chain extends down to the drums and is fas-
tened. This is illustrated by the diagrammatical sketch shown on
Plate No. 28.
44. SIDEWALK FRAME. The frame which supports the
doors at the sidewalk level should be made to cover the sidebars,
which set just below on either side of the shaft. It is very bad
practice to have the sidebars set out in the opening of the frame.
The space required for the sidebars, between the edge of the
frame and the side of the shaft, varies from 4" to 6".
The car should clear the frame on all sides by i" '.
The car pit should be made the same area as the shaft.
45. MACHINE AT SIDE OF SHAFT. The position of the
machine as shown on Plate No. 29, is used when both ends of the
car are the only means of access from the cellar or sub-cellar.
With this arrangement the machine is placed between the drums
which set outside the line of the shaft.
The machine and drums can be set upon the cellar or sub-cellar
floor level. Should the floor space in the cellar or sub-cellar be
valuable for coal storage or other purposes, it is possible to set
the machine and drums in the same relative position to the shaft,
upon a platform just below the sidewalk or cellar level. For illus-
tration of this arrangement see Plate No. 30.
46. MACHINE ON PLATFORM. If the machine should
be placed upon a platform, as described above, a clear headroom
of not less than 6'-o" should be allowed between the base of the
machine and the underside of the sidewalk or cellar.
As shown on Plate No. 29, distances A and B vary according to
the length of the drums. The faces of the drums for this type of
elevator are twice as long as those used for the type shown on
Plate No. 27, because there are two chains to wind on each drum.
Distance C is from the inside of the sidewalk frame to the
back of the channel support just below the sidewalk level, and is
determined by the location of the lifting point on the car as shown
on the elevation on Plate No. 31 ; the maximum distance being
" when sheaves 8" in diameter are used.
26 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
Spaces D and E are required between the back of the channel
(just below the sidewalk level) and the face of the brick wall or
partition, where it returns in the machine room, for the travel of
the chains or cable across the face of the drums, when the drums
are centered upon the sidebars as shown on Plate No. 29.
The space of 6" as noted at each end of the shaft on Plate No.
29, and also on Plate No. 32, is allowed between the inside edge of
the sidewalk frame and the face of the shaft. It is the smallest
space that can be used (with this type of installation) for the
sidebars and guides, in order to keep them clear of the frame open-
If the space for any type of sidewalk elevator is limited, it is
always the best policy to consult the elevator contractor as to the
best possible arrangement.
47. DOORS OR COVER AT SIDEWALK. Upon the plat-
forms of all sidewalk lifts there should be provided either a hoop
or telescopic stand pipes for lifting the sidewalk doors or cover.
The clear height under this hoop, or between the platform and the
sidewalk doors if stand pipes are used, should not be less than 6'-o".
It is not advisable to install telescopic stand pipes upon the
sidewalk elevator platforms for lifting the sidewalk covers, when
the platform travel is over 15' between the lowest landing and the
sidewalk level. The greatest height of the lower stand pipes, in
this instance, would be 8'-o" which means that the sidewalk cover
would be raised 8'-o" above the sidewalk when the platform has
reached its limit of travel.
Should the sidewalk cover be raised higher than 8'-o" above the
sidewalk, the unsightly, elongated contrivance would probably mar
the architectural design of the building, or interfere with cornices
or projecting ornament about the first story level.
It is suggested that when the travel of the platform is over
i5'-o", the hoop contrivance for lifting the sidewalk doors be in-
stalled in preference to the stand pipes.
The net load which the platform is to lift should be specified,
exclusive of the weight of the bows, stand pipes and sidewalk
covers. The elevator contractor should make allowance for the
extra weight of the bows, stand pipes and sidewalk covers, when
figuring the capacity of the machine.
Plate No. 33 illustrates the method of using the hoop for lift-
ing the sidewalk doors, and Plate No. 34 illustrates the method of
AUTOMOBILE ELEVATORS 27
arranging stand pipes for lifting the sidewalk cover. In this in-
stance the cover must be made in one piece, as the stand pipes are
all one height and must therefore lift the sidewalk cover from the
It will be observed from this illustration that the travel of the
platform is i2'-o" between the cellar and the sidewalk, therefore to
obtain 7'-o" of space between the platform and the sidewalk cover,
the lower sections of the pipes must be 7'-o" high.
These lower sections are fastened by means of pipe flanges to
the four corners of the platform, being braced on all four sides
at the top as shown. The upper sections are fastened to the side-
walk cover at the four corners and are merely used for guides
for the lower sections. They should extend into the lower sec-
tions not less than 6" ' .
Where the travel of the platform is S'-o" or less, the stand pipes
should be made in one section, fastened to the platform and side-
walk cover, being braced at the top on all four sides. Care should
be taken that the sidewalk covers clear the show window line when
the sidewalk shafts set in front of them.
10. AUTOMOBILE ELEVATORS, OR GARAGE IN-
Before designing shafts for automobile elevators, the styles of
automobiles which are to be carried should be decided upon, which
will determine the size of the elevator cars, shafts and capacities.
The elevator car should be large enough both in width and
length, and also high enough under its crosshead, to accommodate
the largest size of automobile likely to be carried.
Entrances should be provided for at each end of the shaft on
all floors, to allow for quick loading and unloading of automobiles.
These openings should be protected with fire doors.
If fireproof swing doors are installed to be used only in event
of fire, the entrances to the shaft should be protected with auto-
Automatic doors and gates operate between the ends of the cars
and the sides of the shafts. Proper space should be provided for
them. See Paragraph 127 for clearances required for automatic
doors and gates.
Should the shaft be placed against a wall, when the offsets in
the wall are on the inside of the elevator shaft, a pocket can be
28 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
provided in the offsets for the counterweights, thus saving from
4" to 8" in the size of the shaft. For illustration see Plate
48. LOCATION OF MACHINES. The machine for this
type of elevator is placed directly over the shaft, as the fire laws
do not permit it to be placed in the basement unless extra pre-
cautions are taken in fireproofing all openings from the machine
room to the shaft, which makes a more expensive installation.
In a majority of instances the machine will project beyond one
side of the shaft when placed overhead, which requires that the
bulkhead walls directly in the rear of the machine be built inde-
pendently from the shaft walls as shown on Plate No. 35.
An elevator contractor should always be consulted as to the size
of the machine room and height of bulkhead required, when the
installation of an automobile elevator is contemplated.
Wheel guards should be provided upon the elevator car plat-
form to keep the automobile symmetrically located and to prevent
it from running into and damaging the sides of the elevator car or
the automobile itself.
ii. SPECIAL TYPES OF ELEVATOR INSTALLA-
49. UNDER-GEARED TYPE OF ELEVATOR. The un-
der-geared type of elevator is used where it is necessary to keep
the overhead machinery below the ceiling of the floor which is
intended to be the top landing.
It is essential in this case, on account of the limited headroom,
that the overhead sheaves be set to one side of the car, as can
be observed on Plate No. 36, to allow for the clear headroom re-
quired above the top of the elevator car.
With this type of elevator, the lifting cables are fastened at the
top of the shaft. From this point they extend down under the
sheaves on the bottom of the car and up to the overhead sheaves
and then down to the machine, as shown on Plate No. 37.
In this case a machine is required having a speed twice that at
which the car travels, in order to take up the double length of
cables. The counterweights also must be geared.
The sidewalk type of elevator is occasionally used within build-
ings, especially in stores or banks, where it is essential to do away
with overhead machinery below the tops of partitions or railings,
ELECTRIC DUMBWAITERS 29
in order to preserve the architectural design, or to economize space.
50. OTHER TYPES OF ELEVATOR INSTALLA-
TIONS. There are also several methods of installing baggage
lifts in railroad stations, where it is necessary to keep the bulk-
head of the elevator shaft as low as possible so as to avoid mar-
ring the architectural design of the station canopies.
Many other methods of special elevator installation are em-
ployed to meet unusual conditions which it is unnecessary to dis-
cuss here. When a special method of installing an elevator is
to be considered, it is always best to consult an elevator contractor
and get the benefit of his experience in solving intricate mechan-
12. ELECTRIC DUMBWAITERS.
51. DUMBWAITER SHAFTS. Legal restrictions as to the
construction of dumbwaiter shafts are established in certain locali-
ties. Such is the case in the Boroughs comprising Greater New
York City. It is stated in the building code, section 97, that all
dumbwaiter shafts, except such as do not extend more than three
stories above the cellar or basement in dwelling houses, shall be
inclosed in suitable walls of brick or burnt clay blocks, set in iron
frames of proper strength, or fireproof blocks strengthened with
metal dowels, or such other fireproof material and form of con-
struction as may be approved by the Commissioner of Buildings
having jurisdiction. Said walls or construction shall extend at
least 3'-o" above the roof and be covered with a skylight at least
three-fourths the area of the shaft, made with metal frames and
glazed. All openings in the enclosure walls or construction shall
be provided with self-closing, fireproof doors. When the shaft
does not extend to the floor level of the lowest story, the bottom
of the shaft shall be constructed of fireproof material.
52. LOCATION OF DUMBWAITER MACHINES. The
machines for dumbwaiters can be placed in positions similar to
elevator machines, and their methods of installation are generally
53. METHODS OF GUIDING. The guides for dumbwaiters
can be set at the sides or corners of the cars. There is also the
wall-climbing arrangement; the guides for the cars or counter-
weights being placed on the rear or sides of the shafts as illus-
trated on Plate No. 38.
54. DOORS TO SHAFTS. The most suitable and convenient
30 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
style of door for the dumbwaiter shaft is the type which slides
up, as it is more readily operated than any other and will not in
any way interfere with rapid service. These doors should slide
up into pockets built in the thickness of the partition, as shown on
Plate No. 39. It is good practice to have a sill projection beyond
the inside face of the door to allow for the plumbing of the front
of the shaft on the inside and to insure a regular clearance be-
tween the sill and car at each opening.
55. OPERATION AND AUTOMATIC FEATURES.
The dumbwaiter can be operated in many ways, which vary ac-
cording to the kind of service for which it is intended.
A bank of push buttons marked according to the number of
floors which the dumbwaiter is to serve can be placed at each
landing. The pressing of any of these buttons on any floor will
either dispatch or call the dumbwaiter to or from any floor. This
system is often installed in manufacturing buildings where it may
be required to send small amounts of material frequently from
floor to floor in the process of manufacture.
In the apartment houses, the service of dumbwaiters is princi-
pally for the use of the trades-people or janitor. In this case all
that is required are call and dispatch buttons in each apartment
and a bank of push buttons in the basement or cellar, marked ac-
cording to the number of apartments which the dumbwaiter is to
serve. This system also can be used to good advantage in hotels
and hospitals, with a simple change of the location of the bank of
push buttons to the room from which it is intended to serve the
When the dumbwaiter is intended to serve but two floors, such
as is generally the case in private houses, where it connects the
kitchen and the dining room, and in markets and restaurants, all
that is required is a bank of buttons on each floor marked " UP "
56. AUTOMATIC LOCKS AND SWITCHES. For per-
fect operation and control of dumbwaiters, automatic locks and
switches are essential. The installation of the locks will insure
against the opening of the shaft doors, while the car is in motion.
The doors can only be opened when the car has stopped at a
floor. The locks of the doors are automatically controlled by the
car, on which a cam is placed to open the locks when the car has
reached its destination and the doors cannot be opened except by
MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 31
action of this cam. The car cannot be called to another floor until
the door has been closed, thereby closing the switch controlling
An elevator contractor should always be consulted as to the
types of push buttons and locks that are to be installed, so that
proper arrangements can be made for them in the construction
of the shafts.
13. MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS.
57. SELECTION OF ELEVATOR CAR ENCLOSURES.
The selection of elevator car enclosures has been found at times
to be quite a difficult problem.
The locality, and the class of building in which the elevator is
to be installed should be the guiding features for determining the
amount to be expended for the enclosures exclusive of the car
It is a safe rule that in ordinary loft or office buildings, hotels
or apartment houses, the amount to be expended for the passenger
car enclosure should never exceed $250 and for the service or
freight car enclosure, $200.
In better class office buildings, hotels or apartment houses, the
cost of the enclosures might be limited to $400 for the passenger
car and $250 for the service car.
For first class office buildings, hotels or apartment houses,
the cost of the enclosures should depend largely upon the design
and quality of material used throughout the building.
For this class of buildings, the allowance for the cost of the
passenger car enclosure might be estimated at a minimum of $500
each and for the service or freight car enclosures at a minimum of
$300 each. The more expensive enclosures are governed accord-
ing to the design and the quality of workmanship and material,
and are subject to special estimate.
Private house car enclosures are generally of special design.
When wood enclosures are to be installed, the allowance should
never be less than $300.
58. STYLE OF ELEVATOR CAR ENCLOSURES. Ele-
vator car enclosures may be constructed of iron, bronze or wood,
and should in all cases conform to the local regulations.
59. IRON CAR ENCLOSURES. The iron car enclosures
32 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i)
are most generally installed, both in ordinary buildings and in the
more expensive buildings, as they can be designed and finished ac-
cording to the amount to be expended, to suit all tastes.
60. BRONZE CAR ENCLOSURES. The bronze car en-
closures are only used in the most expensive buildings, where it
is required that all materials shall be of the first quality.
61. WOOD CAR ENCLOSURES. The wood car enclosures
are generally installed in hotels, apartment and private houses, and
are no doubt the best suited for this class of buildings, as they can}
be designed and finished to meet all conditions at a less cost than
bronze. In all cases the wood car enclosures should be fire-
proofed on the outside with sheet iron, irrespective of the legal
requirements of the different localities.
62. FINISH OF CAR ENCLOSURES. Iron car enclosures
can be electro-bronze-plated in all colors of bronze, or can be
painted in any color.
The bronze car enclosures can be plated in any color, but they
are best if left in their natural color.
A great many prefer the wood car enclosure finished in white
enamel, but there is one draw-back it becomes easily soiled, es-
pecially in hotels or apartment houses. The enclosure is much
richer in appearance if built of quartered oak, mahogany or Cir-
cassion walnut and left in the natural state of the wood, with just
the required number of coats of wax, shellac or varnish.
63. SPACE BETWEEN BARS AND MESH WORK.
Local regulations should govern the space between the bars or
mesh work of iron or bronze car enclosures. In the Boroughs
comprising New York City the elevator regulations do not permit
more than i" of space between the bars or mesh work, where scroll
work is not used, and not more than ij" between the bars or mesh
work where scroll work is used.
64. LOWER WAINSCOT OF IRON OR BRONZE CAR
ENCLOSURES. The lower wainscot of iron or bronze car en-
closures is most generally built 3'-Q" to 4'-o" above the platform,
when the upper wainscot is built of grille work. In office or loft
buildings, the lower wainscot of the car enclosures with grille
work above, may be built any height, but in hotels, apartment and-
private houses it should never be less than 3'-9". Should they be
made less there is a possibility of persons (especially children)
slipping their hands or fingers through the bars or mesh work,
MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 33
and being injured by the counterweights or other mechanisms in
65. TRAP DOORS IN CARS. In the Boroughs comprising
Greater New York City, as well as in other localities, the elevator
regulations require a trap door in the canopies of every passen-
ger elevator, to be of such a size as to afford easy egress for pas-
sengers, or where two cars are in the same shaft, such means of
egress may be provided in the sides of each car.
When it is possible, it is very good practice to provide for these
trap doors, even though the legal regulations of different localities
do not require them.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION *'' '"35
Plate i.~ Headroom Underneath Pit Pans.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
tOrtLr/t TO* /*/7-
Plate 2. Footings for Columns and Foundations Below the Bottom of Eleva-
tor Shaft Pits.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION v,,jj8:
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION \ , /;- U15
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION'"' "' : ~43
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SP1 AFT CONSTRUCTION'/' ;, ; 47:*; >,,"; :
Plate 7. Chase in Wall for Counterweights.
ELE VA TOR SHAFT CONST R UCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate g.' Plan of an Elevator Machine Over Shaft.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION '>'<"'< 5$ - v
Plate 10. Geared Traction and Direct Traction Elevator Machines.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate ii. Arrangement of Sheaves for Traction Drive Machines Over Shaft.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
:ryv-- ' '* '*''-''!*'*?. r s-"- ,p_-
////// //'////'///// / / ////
Plate 12. Elevator Machine Underneath Pit.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
7 : 8
/ S e/
Plate 13. Table Giving Sizes of Elevator Machine Rooms and Cable
ELEVATOR SPIAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 14. Arrangement of Sheave Beams for Low Bulkheads.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
TO/ 9 Cf
Plate 15. Elevation of Bulkhead when the Roof is the Top Landing.
ELE VA TOR SHA FT CONSTR UCTION \ t . A 65
Plate 16. Arrangement of Cables.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION . 67
Plate 17. Arrangement of Sheave Beams when Counterweights are Placed
at Right Angles to Machine.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION-'" :. : 69
Plate 18. Height of Bulkhead Required for a Given Size Shaft,
when Counterweights are Placed at Right Angles to Machine.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 19. Height of Bulkhead Required for a Given Size Shaft,
when Machine is Placed Over Shaft.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION :
Plate 20. Clearances Between Elevator Car and Sides of Shaft.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
se ^f r
2-6"x4 : 0"
4 : 0"x4'-6"
4 : o"x<5-0"
4-0" x 6-0"
5 : 6"x 6-0"
6-3 "x 6-0"
6 : 0'x6'-6"
6 : 3"x6-6"
Plate 21. Table Giving the Number of Passengers that can be
Carried According to the Area of a Car in Square Feet.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION ' 87
Plate 27. Sidewalk Elevator Machine at one End of Shaft, with Drums Un-
derneath Car Platform.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 28. Arrangement of Lifting Chains for
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION^^ /:<, \ jt t)t
Plate 29. Sidewalk Elevator Machine and Drums Setting upon the Cellar or
Sub-cellar Level or upon a Special Platform.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 30. Elevation Showing Sidewalk Machine Setting upon a
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 31. Elevation of Sidewalk Elevator Shaft, with Machine Setting upon
the Cellar, Sub-cellar or Platform Level.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 32. Clearances Required for Side-bars Between Side of Sidewalk Shaft
and Inside Edge of Frame.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION \ 99
Plate 33. Hoop for Lifting Sidewalk Covers.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
- -\^ yy \x /s' \v ~7~7 \\. 1"
Plate 34. Stand Pipes for Lifting Sidewalk Covers.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 35. Plan of Machine Room Over Shaft for Automobile Elevators.
ELEVATOR S PI AFT CONSTRUCTION.
Plate 36. Typical Layout and Plan of the Under-geared Type of Elevator.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION.' 107
Plate 37. Elevation Showing Arrangement of Sheaves and Cables
for the Under-geared Type of Elevator.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 38. Plan of Dumbwaiter Shaft Showing Wall-climbing Arrangement
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION "iii
Plate 39. Elevation of Dumbwaiter Shaft, Show-
ing Slide-up Doors.
Specifications for Elevator Work
The need of a set of elevator specifications that would be suit-
able for use in connection with an ordinary elevator installation
where economy is the prime factor, has no doubt been felt by
The specifications for complete elevator installations as here-
with presented, have been prepared as a guide, and have been di-
vided into two sets : a short specification which deals with a single
machine with simplified equipment; and a more elaborate installa-
tion which covers elevator machines of several different types with
i. SHORT SPECIFICATION FORM FOR ELE-
VATOR WORK. *
66. GENERAL CONDITIONS. The contractor is to fur-
nish and install one electric passenger elevator in accordance with
the following specifications : x
67. SHAFT. The shaft and all necessary protection from
the weather, and proper support for the overhead sheave beams
will be provided by the owner under another contract. The size
of the shaft should be specified.
68. PIT. The owner will provide the necessary pit of proper
depth below the lowest landing. Minimum depth is to be 3'-6".
69. OVERHEAD BEAMS. The contractor is to supply and
erect the necessary beams for the support of the overhead sheaves.
These are to be of steel of proper size and strength for the work
they are to perform. All beams supported by brick walls are to
have iron plates under them at bearing points.
1 Refer to longer specification for more elaborate form. Paragraph 94.
H4 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n)
70. FOUNDATIONS. The contractor is to build a founda-
tion for the elevator machine. It must be built of concrete com-
posed of one part Portland cement, three parts of sharp sand and
five parts broken stone, and is to start 2'-6" below the level of the
floor and extend up flush with the floor. The excavation is to be
done by the owner.
71. ANCHOR BOLTS. The contractor is to supply and
build into the foundation all the necessary anchor bolts. The
lower end of each bolt is to be held by a plate with a socket to
receive the bolt head and prevent it from turning-. The sub-base
of the machine is to be securely bolted to the foundation.
72. MACHINE. The elevator machine is to consist of an
electric motor directly geared to a winding drum, both being
mounted upon one and the same iron sub-base and being provided
with the proper starting device, rheostats, and safety appliances.
There must be no undue heating or wear in any of the electrical
or mechanical parts of the machine.
73. LOAD AND SPEED. The elevator is to lift a load of
2000 pounds at a minimum speed of 150 feet per minute.
74. TRAVEL. The passenger elevator is to travel from the
basement floor level to the sixth floor landing.
75. MACHINE ROOM. The room provided for the elevator
machine is shown on the basement plan. The contractor is to place
all the elevator machinery within this space.
76. MOTOR. The motor shall be of a type especially adapted
to meet the severe requirements of elevator service and to be
wound for 220 volts direct current. The connections of the motor
and the operating or regulating devices are to be such that cur-
rent will be consumed only when the elevator is in operation.
The current consumption must be economical and the starting cur-
rent not excessive.
The armature shall be perfectly balanced and securely fastened
to its shaft. The commutators are to be constructed of the very
best metal used for that purpose and the segments are to be thor-
oughly insulated from each other and from other parts of the
armature. The ends of the armature are to be thoroughly covered.
The brushes are to be carbon or graphite and are to be capable
of independent movement. There must be no sparking at any
load within the rating of the machine.
SHORT SPECIFICATIONS 115
The bearings are to be self-oiling and are to have long bearing
The windings of fields and armature are to be thoroughly in-
The motor is to be equipped with suitable and proper auto-
matic rheostats, direction switches and the necessary connections
and mechanisms for operating same.
The switch and operating rheostats and other apparatus for the
machine are to be mounted on a slab of slate supported by an
The blades and jaws of the direction switches are to be made of
77. GEARING. The worm is to be of steel and the wheels
of phosphor bronze or gun metal, all carefully and accurately
turned, grooved and toothed. They are to be completely enclosed
in an iron gear case so as to run in oil.
78. DRUMS. The winding drum is to be of cast-iron care-
fully and accurately turned and grooved to fit the cables, and is
to be of proper strength, length and diameter for the work to
be performed. The shaft is to be of steel and the bearings are
to be self -oiling.
79. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS. The contractor is to
do all the necessary wiring from the main cut-out switch, set by
the owner near the machine, to the motor, running the same in
iron conduit and in circular loom tubing around the machine.
No wood is to be used for the support of conduits or wires.
The wiring will be brought to the switch on the wall near the
machine by the owner. Bushings shall be placed on the ends
of all conduits. All conduits from switch or operating switch-
board are to run on the basement ceiling.
80. GUIDES. The contractor is to provide and erect the
necessary guides for the elevator.
The guides for the elevator and counterweights are to be made
of planed steel tees, neatly butted at the joints and scarfed and
secured by knees and bolts to wrought iron brackets bolted to the
beams or walls of the shaft or to the building, by the contractor.
Si. SHEAVES. All sheaves are to be cast-iron, free from
all imperfections, properly turned and accurately grooved to fit
ii6 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n)
the cables, and they are to be as large as space and layout of the
installation will permit.
The journals are to be self-oiling and are to be supplied with
approved grease reservoirs and covers, and are to be babbited.
All bearings are to be properly lined, trued and set perfectly level.
The shafts are to be of steel.
82. CABLES. The cables are to be of the very best quality
of iron wire and are to be of the following size:
Two lifting cables of " diameter each, and four counterweight
cables of " diameter each (two drum and two car counterweight
cables) ; each to have an ultimate strength of 10,000 pounds.
83. PLATFORMS AND CAR FRAME- WORK. The plat-
form of the elevator is to be of hard wood, strongly put together
with wrought iron angles, supports, uprights and crossheads, and
is to be substantially braced with iron rods and bands and properly
bolted. Steel guide shoes are to be attached on each side and
properly adjusted to the guides.
84. CAR ENCLOSURE. The car enclosure is to be placed
on, the platform and framework so that no lifting strain will be
brought to bear upon it. The car enclosure is to be made of
wrought iron, the design and finish to be approved by the archi-
tect, and it is to cost $250, including the light fixture. The open-
ing of the car is to be provided with a collapsible gate.
85. COUNTERWEIGHTS. The elevator is to be furnished
with car and machine counterweights. These are to be remov-
able independent weights securely fastened to the cables. Bolts
are to pass through each weight. Cables which pass through
slots or holes in the weights must be protected by means of pipes
fitted around the cables. Counterweights are to be enclosed at
the top of the elevator shaft with a sheet iron cover for a distance
of i 5 '-o".
86. OPERATING DEVICE. 2 A mechanical-control operat-
ing device is to be provided, and connected by means of a J"
cable running from the car to a lever on the machine, controlling
the switches at the rheostats.
2 Refer to longer specification form for another type of operating de-
vice. Paragraph 116.
SHORT SPECIFICATIONS 117
87. SAFETIES. 3 The elevator is to be equipped with a speed
safety and governor, which is in accordance with the local regu-
lations. It shall also have a device to stop the car at the upper and
lower landings and to keep the cables from slackening when the
car stops, and such other devices as may be peculiar to the type
of machine installed.
At the bottom of each shaft there must be installed a strong
bumper beam with springs, having corresponding cups on the bot-
tom of the car.
The bar or other device for resetting the speed safety clutches,
is to be held in place in the car by means of proper sockets and
88. DRIP PANS. Drip pans are to be provided and put in
place under the overhead work.
89. GRATING. 4 Grating will be furnished under another
90. PROVISION FOR LIGHTING. The contractor is to
provide and install in the car an electric light ceiling fixture or
bracket with the necessary switch socket and glassware. The de-
sign is to match the car. The contractor is to supply and install
an electric cable running from the outlet provided by the owner in
the center of the shaft to the car. The cable is to run from the
bottom of the car on the framework, and not across the grille or
panel work, and is to run through an iron conduit. The switch to
control the light is to be placed under the annunciator.
91. ANNUNCIATOR. The contractor is to supply, install
and connect all the necessary wires, iron conduits, batteries, an-
nunciator, bell, cable and other materials to complete a call bell
system for the elevator with annunciator in the car connected with
a push button at each landing.
The annunciator is to be of the extra heavy elevator gravity
drop type, with signals plainly lettered, provided with a hand re-
setting attachment, all enclosed in a neat case with a finish to cor-
respond with the car.
3 The most approved governor is of the centrifugal type ; it is connected
by means of cable to the speed safety and operates the speed safety clutches
when the elevator car attains a speed in excess of its limit.
4 It is optional whether the elevator contractor or an iron contractor is to
furnish and install overhead gratings.
n8 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n)
92. PAINTING. All iron work except finished or working-
surfaces, is to be painted with two good coats of metallic paint.
93. TESTS. The contractor is to provide the necessary ma-
terials and labor for testing the elevator.
2. LONGER SPECIFICATION FORM FOR ELE-
94. MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP. All materials
are to be of the very best quality. All work necessary to the com-
plete finishing of the work included in this specification and as
shown on the drawings, is to be executed in the most thorough
and workmanlike manner, to the entire satisfaction of the owner
and the architect. 5
95. DRAWINGS. The architect will furnish to the contrac-
tor one full set of drawings and one specification, which are exact
copies of the drawings and specifications upon which the estimate
was made and on which the contract is based.
The architect will furnish from time to time as the work pro-
gresses, all necessary detail drawings, setting forth the work included
in this specification more fully than the original drawings.
The detail drawings must be closely followed in the execution
of the work; no alteration will be permitted unless authorized by
the architect in writing.
Shop drawings are to be submitted to the architect for approval.
96. SCOPE OF WORK. The contractor is to furnish all
labor and materials necessary to supply, install, erect and connect
one electric passenger elevator, two electric combined passen-
ger and freight elevators, and one electric sidewalk lift, includ-
ing foundations, sub-bases, anchor bolts, direct-connected electric
hoisting machines, pit pans, cables, guide posts, guides, sheave-
beams, sheave-hangers, sheaves, platforms, cars, counterweights, and
whatever else may be necessary to complete the elevator equipment
of the building.
97. NUMBER OF ELEVATORS. There shall be three ele-
vators and one sidewalk lift as follows :
5 The decision of the various questions of equipment arising in the in-
stallation of the elevator work, may be delegated by the architect to his
LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 119
One (i) passenger elevator to travel from the first floor landing
to the twelfth floor landing, a distance of feet.
Two (2) combined passenger and freight elevators to travel from
the basement landing to the twelfth floor landing, a distance of
One (i) sidewalk ash lift to travel from the basement to the
sidewalk level, a distance of feet.
98. SHAFTS. The shafts, all necessary protection from the
weather, and proper support for the overhead sheave-beams as
shown on the drawings, will be provided by the owner under an-
other contract. The size of the shafts should be specified.
99. PITS. The owner will provide pits for the combined
passenger elevators and (sidewalk ash lift and machine). The
minimum depth of the pit for the combined passenger elevator is
to be 3'-6". The pits for the sidewalk ash lift and machine will
be built according to sizes furnished by the elevator contractor.
100. OVERHEAD BEAMS. The contractor is to supply and
<erect the necessary beams for the support of the overhead sheaves.
These are to be of steel of proper size and strength for the work
they have to perform. All beams supported by brick walls are to
"have cast iron plates under them at bearing points.
101. FOUNDATIONS. The contractor is to build a founda-
tion for each of the elevator and sidewalk-lift machines. They are
to be built of concrete composed of one part Portland cement,
three parts sharp sand and five parts broken stone, and are to
start 2'-6" below the level of the floor and extend flush with
the floor. The excavations will be made by the contractor and the
contractor is to remove all rubbish, and pump out all water, etc.,
after the excavations are made.
102. ANCHOR BOLTS. The contractor is to supply and
build into the foundations all the necessary anchor bolts. The
lower end of each bolt is to be held by a plate with a socket to
receive the bolt head and to prevent it from turning.
The sub-bases of the machines are to be securely bolted to the
103. MACHINES. The elevator machines are to consist of
an electric motor directly geared to a winding drum, both being
mounted upon one and the same iron sub-base and being pro-
120 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n)
vided with the proper starting devices, rheostats and safety appli-
ances. There must be no undue heating or wear in any of the elec-
trical or mechanical parts of the machines.
The sidewalk machine is to consist of an electric motor di-
rectly geared to a shaft having mounted upon it proper drums,
grooved for chains. This machine is to be mounted so as to
bring the lifting drums below the landing level and is to have an
iron case over the gears.
The passenger elevator is to lift a load of 2,500 pounds at a
minimum speed of 250 feet per minute.
Each combined passenger and freight elevator is to lift a load
of 3,000 pounds at a minimum speed of 150 feet per minute.
There is to be attached to one combined passenger and freight
elevator a safe-hoist attachment capable of an overload of 5,000
The sidewalk ash lift is to lift a load of 2,000 pounds at a
minimum speed of 50 feet per minute.
The room provided for the elevator machines is shown on the
basement plan. The contractor is to place all the elevator ma-
chinery within this space.
104. PIT- PAN. The contractor is to supply a pit-pan at the
bottom of the passenger elevator shaft at the first story. This
pit-pan is to include the entire bottom of the shaft. The pit-pan
is to be made of No. 12 gauge sheet iron properly riveted, framed,
and braced with steel angles, and is to have an angle frame at the
top, and is to be painted with two coats of metallic paint as di-
rected. The pan is to be of proper depth to admit the bumpers and
allow safe space for the car, and it must not be less than 3'-6"
in depth. Wherever cables pass through the pan, ample room is
to be left for the cables.
Supports for the pit-pan are to be supplied by the contractor
and must be satisfactory to the Bureau of Buildings.
The contractor is to supply the necessary support for the bum-
105. MOTORS. The motors shall be of a slow speed type
and of a make approved by the architect. The motors are to be
wound for 220 volts direct current and are to be capable of a
temporary overload of 50 per cent. The connections of the mo-
tors and the operating or regulating devices are to be made so as
LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 121
to consume current only when the elevator is in operation. The
current consumption must be economical and the starting current
not excesssive. This must be approved by the company furnish-
ing the current, or the electrical engineer in consultation with the
The armatures shall be perfectly balanced and securely fastened
to their shafts. The commutators are to be constructed of the
very best metal used for that purpose and the segments are to
be thoroughly insulated from each other and from other parts
of the armature. The ends of the armature are to be thoroughly
The brushes are to be carbon or graphite, and are to be capable
of independent movement. There must be no sparking at any
load within the rating of the machine.
The bearings are to be self -oiling and are to have long bearing
surfaces ; and are to be furnished with gauge glasses.
The windings of the fields and armatures are to be thoroughly
Each motor is to be equipped with a suitable and proper auto-
matic rheostat, a reversing switch and the necessary connections
and mechanisms for operating the same.
The switches and operating rheostats and other apparatus for
each machine are to be mounted on a slab of marbleized slate sup-
ported by an angle-iron frame.
The segments of the rheostats and the several parts of the re-
versing switch are to be mounted on slate.
The blades and jaws of the reversing switch are to be made of
copper. The reversing switch device must be approved in every
particular by the architect.
106. GEARING. The worms are to be of steel and the
wheels of phosphor bronze or gun metal all carefully and accu-
rately turned, grooved and toothed; all gears are to be completely
enclosed in an iron gear case so as to run in oil. The gear case is
to be thoroughly cleaned and painted inside as well as out.
107. DRUMS. The winding drums are to be of cast-iron
carefully and accurately turned and grooved to fit the cables, and
are to be of a proper length and diameter for the work to be per-
formed. The shafts are to be of steel and their bearings are to
be self-oiling and provided with gauge glasses. The drums of the
sidewalk lift are to be grooved to properly fit the chains.
122 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n)
108. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS. The contractor is to
do all the necessary wiring from the switch placed in the machine
room by the owner, to the motor, running the same in iron con-
duit and in circular loom tubing around the machine. No wood
is to be used for the support of conduits or wires. The wiring will
be brought to the switch on the wall near each machine under an-
other contract. Bushings shall be placed on the ends of all con-
duits. The conduits from the main switch or operating switch
boards are to run on the basement ceiling.
The contractor is also to do all wiring from the operating switch
boards of each elevator machine to the center of the shaft and
thence by means of cables to the switch in each car. The wires
from the operating switch boards to the outlet in the center of the
shaft are to be run in iron conduit in the elevator shafts. At the
center of the shafts there is to be an iron outlet box with brass,
bushed cover and with porcelain insulators to anchor cable.
109. GUIDES. The contractor is to provide and erect the
necessary guides for elevators and counterweights.
The guides for the elevators and counterweights are to be made
of planed steel tees, neatly butted at the joints and scarfed and
secured by knees and bolts to wrought iron brackets bolted to the
beams or walls of the shaft or the building by the contractor.
no. SHEAVES. All sheaves are to be of cast-iron free from
all imperfections, properly turned and accurately grooved to fit
the cables, and they are to be of such size as may be required but
in no case are they to be less than thirty (30) inches in diameter/
and if possible they are to be larger if space permits. The jour-
nals are to be self -oiling and are to be supplied with approved
grease reservoirs and covers, and are to be babbited. All the
bearings are to be properly lined, trued and set perfectly level.
The shafts are to be of steel.
in. CABLES. The cables are to be of the very best quality
of iron wire; and are to be of the following sizes: Each elevator
shall have two hoisting cables, those of the passenger car to be
" and those of the combined passenger and freight elevators to
be J". Each car counterweight shall have two cables, those of the
passenger elevator to be f " and those of the combined passenger
and freight elevators to be f ". Each machine counterweight shall
have two cables, those of the passenger elevator to be f" and
LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 123
those of the combined passenger and freight elevators to be f".
The minimum breaking strain of the f" cables is to be 10,000
pounds; of the f" cables, 17,000 pounds.
The cables are to be very securely fastened to the drums, the
car crosshead and the counterweights. They must be entirely free
from any abrasion throughout their entire length. All cables are
to have not less than a full turn on the drum when run their limit.
112. CHAINS. The sidewalk lift is to be equipped with lift-
ing chains. These are to be made up of short elliptical links of
the best grade wrought iron. Each link is to have a minimum
breaking strain of 10,000 pounds. The chains are to be securely
fastened to the drums and the platform.
113. PLATFORMS AND CAR FRAME-WORK. The plat-
form of each elevator is to be of hard wood strongly put together
with wrought iron angles, supports, uprights and crossheads, and is
to be substantially braced with iron rods and bands and properly
bolted. Steel guide shoes are to be attached on each side and
properly adjusted to the guides. The platform of the sidewalk lift
is to be covered with patented safety tread, properly screwed down.
114. CAR ENCLOSURES. The car enclosures are to be
placed on the platforms and frame work so that no lifting strain will
be brought to bear upon them. Each car enclosure is to be made
of wrought iron, the design and finish to be approved by the archi-
tect, and each is to cost $250, including the light fixture. The
opening of each car is to be provided with a Bostwick collapsible
gate. The floor of the passenger elevator car is to be of interlock-
ing rubber tile, the design to be approved by the architect.
115. COUNTERWEIGHTS. The elevators are to be fur-
nished with car and machine counterweights. These are to be re-
movable independent weights securely fastened to the cables.
Bolts are to pass through each weight. Cables which pass
through slots or holes in the weights must be protected by means
of pipes fitted around the cables.
The car cables are to be counterbalanced by chains from the
cars to the counterweights, and these chains must be as noiseless
as possible. Counterweights are to be enclosed at the top of the
elevator shaft for a distance of i5'-o" with a sheet iron screen.
(In some localities this is a legal requirement.)
116. OPERATING DEVICE. 6 The passenger and combined
6 See short specification for other type of operating device. Paragraph 86.
124 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n)
passenger and freight elevators are to be operated by an electric
The sidewalk lift is to be operated by means of chains running
from the switch through the bottom of the platform and terminat-
ing in a ring. The chain is to be run so that the car can be
stopped at intermediate points.
Each elevator and the sidewalk lift is to be capable of stopping
so that the platform will be exactly at the level of each and every
landing, and each shall stop automatically at the upper and lower
The current supply to each motor is to be regulated by a rheo-
stat operated by means of solenoids.
117. SAFETIES. 7 Each elevator is to be equipped with a
speed safety and governor, which is in accordance with the local
regulations. Each elevator shall also have a device to stop the car
at the upper and lower landings and to keep the cables from slack-
ening when the car stops and such other devices as may be peculiar
to the type of machine installed.
At the bottom of each shaft there must be installed a strong
bumper beam with springs, having corresponding cups on the bot-
tom of the car.
The bar or other device for resetting the speed safety clutches
is to be held in place in the car by means of proper sockets and
There must be installed upon the sidewalk lift platform a hoop
(made of wrought iron) to raise the covers at the sidewalk level.
The clear height under this hoop must not be less than 7'-o".
118. GRATING. The contractor is to furnish and install an
overhead grating directly under the overhead sheaves. This grat-
ing must meet the requirements of the local regulations.
119. DRIP PANS. Drip pans are to be provided and put in
place under the overhead sheaves.
120. PROVISIONS FOR LIGHTING. The contractor is to
provide and install in each car a two-light electric ceiling fixture
or bracket with all the necessary wiring, switches, sockets and
glassware. The design is to match the car and is to be approved
7 The most approved governor is of the centrifugal type ; it is connected
by means of a cable to the speed safety and operates the speed safety
clutches, when the elevator car attains a speed in excess of its limit.
LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 125
by the architect. The contractor is to supply and install an elec-
tric cable running from the outlet provided by the owner in the
center of the shaft to each car. The cable is to run from the
bottom of the car up on the frame work and not across the grille
or panel work, and is to run through iron conduit. The switch
to control the light is to be placed under the annunciator.
121. ANNUNCIATORS. The contractor is to supply, install
and connect all the necessary wires, iron conduit, batteries, annun-
ciator, bell, cables and other materials to complete a call bell sys-
tem for each of the elevators, with an annunciator in each car
connected to a push button at each landing.
Each annunciator is to be of the extra heavy elevator gravity
drop type, with signals plainly lettered, with hand resetting device,
and with a case designed to match the car.
The wires are to be of No. 18 rubber covered, of the same grade
used in lighting work, and run in the same grade of conduit in
the same manner. The cable to the car is to be connected at the
center of the shaft in an iron outlet box with a brass cover properly
bushed for the cable, and with porcelain insulators to anchor the
The batteries are to be set in a hardwood box with hinged side,
and placed on strong brackets in the elevator machine room. All
wires running to the batteries are to terminate in a slate connec-
tion strip in a hardwood box immediately next to the batteries.
122. PAINTING. All iron work, except finished or working
surfaces, is to be painted with two good coats of metallic paint and
all work exposed to view is to have, in addition to the above, two
good coats of white lead and pure linseed oil, tinted as directed.
All work on the sidewalk lift and elevator machinery, overhead
work, shaft, or car, where directed, is to be painted as above. The
lift and elevator machines are to be painted after they are in
place and all work on them is finished.
123. INSTRUCTION. The contractor is to give the owner's
operators all necessary instructions relative to the safe, economi-
cal and proper care and running of the cars.
124. TESTS. The contractor is to provide the necessary ma-
terials and labor for testing the elevators and lift.
125. ACCEPTANCE. The entire work called for in this
specification is to be installed and finished subject to the approval
of the architect in every detail. The tests are to be made in the
126 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.II)
presence of the architect, or his engineers, and are to show the
equipment to be exactly in accordance with the specifications with-
out any adjustments or alterations. The equipment will be ac-
cepted only when it is satisfactory to the architect in whole and
in every part.
126. GUARANTEES, ETC. The following guarantees in
writing, together with the permits and certificates, must be de-
livered to the architect by the contractor upon the completion of
the elevator work.
1. Certificate of approval of insurance company.
2. Certificate of the (Local) Board of Fire Underwriters.
3. Certificate of the Department of Water Supply, Gas and
4. Guarantee in writing warranting all materials and workman-
ship for a period of (one) year after completion of the building.
5. Certificate from the Bureau of Buildings.
Door Operating Devices and Elevator
Many architects as well as builders make a mistake in ignoring
or passing over with slight consideration, the question of how ele-
vator doors and door hangers shall be installed, until the construc-
tion of the elevator shaft and the installation of the elevator have
advanced to a point where they are limited by conditions which are
not always advantageous. If the elevator shaft is properly de-
signed and detailed before hand, there will be no difficulty attached
to the problem of installing elevator doors and hangers. Elevator
doors are an important consideration in any elevator equipment
and it is too often found in construction that the building has been
completed to the point of installing the doors and hangers, and
that the room for their installation is very limited and the purposed
or required hanger cannot be used, with the result that an inade-
quate or unsightly device must be employed.
127. BALLBEARING DOOR HANGERS. If proper con-
sideration is given in the original design, safe and proper clearance
for the doors and hangers can be provided and the device which
will best meet the needs of the building can be installed without
excessive expense or trouble. In Fig. I on Plate No. 40, there is
shown a single sliding door, together with its hanger. The door
is ij" thick and there is J" clearance between the door and the
stationary panel, with an allowance from the top of the door to the
top of the hanger. The grooves in the sills should be 4" wide
and f " deep. With these allowances, it is impossible for a door
to jump the grooves, even if the sill is out of level. It is advis-
able that there should be an allowance of 2" between the face of the
door and the line of the sill, although ij" will answer. The di-
mension of f " between the line of the car and the sill as shown in
the drawing, is the absolute minimum allowance, and ij" is
allowed by some elevator contractors.
Fig. 2 on Plate No. 40 shows an end section of a hanger with a
device designed to move two doors at the same time in opposite
128 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.III)
directions. Hangers of this character require a space of from 6*"
to 7" from the top of the door to the top of the hanger. The
clearance allowed for the doors should be the same as previously
mentioned, with proper allowance for the extra door.
Fig. 3 on Plate No. 40 shows an end section of a hanger with
an attachment so that two doors traveling in the same direction
may open together. This device provides for the travel of one
door at twice the speed of the other, so that both will be fully
open or fully shut together. In the case of doors i" or more
in thickness, an allowance of 7\" from the top of the door to
the top of the hanger is required. For doors less than i" in
thickness, an allowance of &|" is required. A clearance of \"
between moving doors or between a door and a stationary panel is
sufficient provided that the doors are well guided by grooves in
the sill \" in width and f " in depth, as shown in Fig. i on Plate
No. 40. For special devices and arrangements of hangers to suit
special conditions it is best to communicate with the manufacturers.
128. INTERLOCKING DOOR SAFETY DEVICES. The
safety flush elevator shaft is the successful solution of the prob-
lem of preventing passengers being hurt either through their cloth-
ing being caught on projections on the car enclosure, or by being
caught between the floor or roof of the elevator car and the floor
sill or other projections of the shaft enclosure when the car is
The interlocking door safety devices prevent the starting of the
elevator if any enclosure door is open ; or if a door is opened while
the car is in motion they stop the elevator then. These door de-
vices may be operated by electricity, or compressed air, or a com-
bination of the two.
Pneumatic door operating devices can be fitted to any type
of elevator door and they are essentially safety devices as they
prevent the opening of the enclosure doors unless the car is within
6" of the floor, and it is impossible for the car to leave the
floor without the door closing or locking.
In the installation of these devices, 3" clearance is required for
the door slide at the back edge of the door, when it is open, as
can be observed on Plate No. 41. Every door should be equipped
with rubber bumpers at the top and bottom for the door to strike
against in both the open and closed positions.
DOOR OPERATING DEVICES 129
In the ordinary shaft, the doors should be kept back \\" from
the sill line so that the swinging arm of the device will not project
into the hatch. On flush shafts, space must be allowed for the
swinging arm on the enclosure side of the doors.
When doors set back \\" from the edge of the sill, the space
required above the doors for the pneumatic device is 6" back
from the sill line by i'-3" high. When the doors are kept flush
with the sill line, this space must be 7i" back from the sill line
(which allows for i-J" doors) by i'-3" high above the doors,
which is shown on Plate No. 41.
In localities where there are legal restrictions as to the clearance
between the sill line and the edge of the car platform, such as is
the case in the Boroughs of Greater New York City, where the
maximum clearance is 'ij", the elevator car enclosure must be
kept back of the edge of the car platform ij". Where there are
no restrictions as to the clearance between the sill line and the
edge of the car platform, this clearance may be i-J" and the car
enclosures can set back of the edge of the platform i" which is
shown on Plate No. 41.
The spaces and clearances provided for the devices should not
be less than shown, as they have been figured as small as is prac-
ticable and particular attention should be paid so that the car at-
tachments can be installed properly, as the successful operation of
the doors depends on this to a great degree.
The operating pressure for pneumatic devices is generally 25
pounds to the square inch, and either electric or steam driven
compressors are used, depending on the local conditions.
129. COUNTERBALANCE FIREPROOF DOORS FOR
FREIGHT ELEVATOR SHAFTS. In specifying the coun-
terbalance type of fireproof doors for freight elevator shaft
door openings, care should be taken to see that the elevator con-
tractor allows sufficient space between the flush line of the elevator
hatchway and the face of the elevator car.
The counterbalance type of door is installed on the inside wall
of the shaft. Therefore, sills, jambs, and lintels should be
installed so as to form a flush line on the elevator shaft side.
A space of 7" should be allowed on each side of the door jambs,
the complete height of the shaft, for tracks, pulleys, etc., as can
be observed in Figs. I and 2 on Plate No. 42.
130 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. m)
The height of the door opening on any particular floor should
be made in direct proportion to the measurement from finished
floor line to finished floor line. This opening can be determined
by taking two-thirds the distance less 5".
For garages and other buildings of this nature, there is a type
of door used, known as the " lap " style, counterbalance door.
This style of door is installed on openings irrespective of the meas-
urement from finished floor to finished floor. The clearance re-
quired between the plumb line of the shaft and the edge of the
car platform must not be less than 6", as shown in Fig. 2, on
Plate No. 42. An opening lo'-o" wide by lo'-o" high can be in-
stalled where the measurement from finished floor to finished floor
is n'-6" or i2'-o". See Fig. I on Plate No. 43.
In all cases where the counterbalance type of door is used,
it is necessary for the jamb line of the openings to be built one m
directly above the other. This will insure the tracks for doors
being set on a plumb line, and allow the doors to work perfectly,
as shown in Fig. 2, on Plate No. 43. The iron contractor should
be specially notified to follow these conditions.
The counterbalance type of door has been approved by the Na-
tional Laboratories, and label service has been granted for doors
up to 8'-o" wide by 9'-o" high.
Plate No. 44 shows the arrangement of the counterbalance doors
in relation to the elevator car and the sides of the shaft, together
with a table giving the heights of the door openings for the dif-
ferent heights of floors, for regular up and down doors. Where
it is essential to have higher openings, the lap style door can be
used, in which instance it will be necessary to have more clearance
between the sides of the shaft and the elevator car.
130. COLLAPSIBLE GATES ON ELEVATOR CAR EN-
CLOSURES. The elevator car gate should be placed in such a
position on the elevator car as to render its quick manipulation by
the operator always possible and at the same time be placed so as
not in any manner to interfere with the ingress and egress of the
A combination collapsible swing gate is installed on an elevator
car where combination slide and swing doors are installed in the
elevator shaft enclosure. The advantages of this type of gate will
be readily observed on Plate No. 45, Fig. i. It can be used in two
ELEVATOR GATES 131
ways ; first, for passenger service, the operator has only to operate
the first section extending to the bolt, the other section being opened
to the bolt ; second, when it is intended to carry freight, the bolt
is raised from the slot in the lower track and then the gate is col-
lapsed all the way and may be swung into the car, allowing space
for as large a piece of freight as the full opening to the car will
permit. The operating device or switch when placed on the side
of the car behind the gate, should be kept far enough back to
allow a clear space for the gate to swing against the side of the
The stationary collapsible gate is used when a section of the
door in the elevator shaft enclosure is stationary, as can be observed
on Plates No. 45 and 46 in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. It can be fastened
directly to the side of the car enclosure or to the end of the front
panel as shown in Fig. 2 ; also on the outside of the front panel, as
can be observed in Figs. 3 and 4, when extra space is required for
the location of the operating switch on this panel.
It is not good practice to place the mechanical hand wheel oper-
ating device on the front panel of the car enclosure, as it is liable
to mar the symmetry of the car enclosure, on account of the cut
in the front of the car platform necessary for the clearance of the
device between the car and the shaft.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 40. Ball-bearing Door Hangers.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
1 i 1
Plate 41. Interlocking Door Safety Devices and Clearances Required.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 42. Different Types of Counterbalance Fireproof Doors and Clearances
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Figure I. Figure 2.
Plate 43. Elevation of "Lap" Style Counterbalance Door.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION V A -143'
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Plate 46. Stationary Collapsible Elevator Car Gate in Front of Panel.
Elevator Signal Systems And
The necessity for an adequate signal system is secondary in im-
portance only to the elevators themselves, as the prime object of
an elevator installation is to render service to the occupants of a
building, and the installation of a signal service designed to properly
meet the operating conditions increases the efficiency of the eleva-
A properly designed signal system has an additional function
of great importance to the owner in that it insures maximum effi-
ciency and minimum cost of operation by eliminating unnecessary
travel and stops, reducing the cost for power, and decreasing wear
on the working parts.
The selection of the type of signal to be installed is governed
by a number of factors, among which are the number of cars in
one group, their speed, location in relation to other cars or groups
of cars, the purpose for which they are to be used, and their
method of operation. This last item is in turn governed by the
type of building and the conditions of traffic.
It is advisable for an architect to consult the signal manufac-
turer when specifications are being drawn. Given the factors
named above, recommendations can be made citing examples of
installations in similar buildings. It is apparent that an office
building with one bank or several banks of cars, and a loft build-
ing or an apartment building which might be well equipped with
two cars, would demand different types of signal systems for sat-
As a general rule, however, an automatic signal system of some
form is recommended for all installations. By its use the opera-
tor has his hand free for the proper operation of the car and doors,
and as the resetting of the signal device is beyond the control of
the operator, it is impossible for him to remove the signal without
bringing the car to the floor from which the call is received.
The following paragraphs give short descriptions of the more
148 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv)
frequently used types of signal devices, together with the class
of building and type of elevator installation for which each re-
spective system is to be recommended. No hard and fast rule can
be laid down for the type of signal to be installed in any particu-
lar building, or for any number of elevators, as the factors which
govern these points are the purpose for which the building is to
be used and the method of operating the elevators.
131. THE COMPLETE FLASHLIGHT SIGNAL. The
system known as the complete flashlight signal consists of a single
light in the car acting as an operator's car signal and flashing
about a floor and a half away from the point of signal. In con-
junction with this car signal, an UP and DOWN signal lantern
showing white UP signals and red DOWN signals is furnished for
installation at each elevator opening at all floors except the ter-
minal floors. An UP and DOWN push button plate is also fur-
nished at each floor except the terminal floors, which sets the sig-
nal for future contact when the first car arrives at the points in the
shaft designated above.
The Armstrong complete flashlight signal as described is recom-
mended for installation in buildings in which the operation of the
elevators is maintained on a regular schedule, that is, the cars are
run from the bottom to the top of the shaft in a continuous rota-
tion, irrespective of the calls received. This is the usual method
of operation in all office buildings, and in nearly all buildings in
which three or more passenger elevators are installed! in one
group. In buildings of the loft type, such as are now being con-
structed in New York City for factory purposes, and in some cases,
in the smaller cities where office buildings have three passenger
cars in one group, the hotel flash system sometimes gives better
service because it is more economical to run the cars on call in
these cases than on a regular schedule.
132. HOTEL FLASH LIGHT ANNUNCIATORS, The
flashlight annunciator signal consists of an annunciator panel in
each car, having an UP and DOWN miniature light indication for
each floor connected to one UP and DOWN push-button at each
floor, signaling all cars in one group simultaneously. In this type
of signal the light indication corresponding to the floor on which
the button is pressed is illuminated as soon as the button is pressed
and the operator has knowledge at all times as to the floors at
ELEVATOR SIGNAL SYSTEMS 149
which he must call and also the direction of travel of the passenger.
The Armstrong- hotel flashlight annunciator system as described
is recommended for installation in all buildings having from one
to three passenger elevators in which the cars are operated on call,
that is, the cars remain at the ground floor until a call is received,
then one car answers this call and carries the passenger to his
destination. This method of operation has been found most eco-
nomical in buildings having a group of as many as three cars. It
is suitable in nearly all institutional buildings, hospitals, court-
houses, libraries, city-halls, etc., as well as in hotels, loft buildings
(which have not more than three cars), and commercial and office
buildings in the smaller cities having an elevator installation of
from one to three cars.
133. AUTOMATIC-RESET SYNCHRONIZING ANNUN-
CIATORS. The automatic-reset synchronizing annunciator sys-
tem consists of a metal case annunciator of standard plain design
in the car, having an UP and DOWN target indication for each
floor, connected to an UP and DOWN button at each floor signal-
ing all the cars in one group simultaneously.
The automatic-reset annunciator system is designed to provide
a more adequate means of signal for the smaller and cheaper
buildings than the plain annunciator ordinarily furnished. The
fixtures are as simply and inexpensively designed as possible.
While this system is fully automatic in its operation, it does not
provide as good a means of signaling as the flashlight annuncia-
tor or the complete flashlight signal described above. It is recom-
mended for installation in buildings equipped with either one or
two cars, in which the item of first cost is an essential feature, such
as is the case with loft buildings and all freight car installations
ranging from one car to any number of cars in one group.
All of the signaling systems above described including the
Armstrong full flash, the flashlight annunciator signal, and the
automatic-reset synchronizing annunciators are of the full auto-
matic type; that is, one call is restored automatically by the first
car answering the call, and no other car in the group will receive
the same call after the given call has been answered.
134. DEPARTMENT STORE SIGNAL. The Armstrong
department store signal system consists of an UP and DOWN
signal lantern at each elevator opening at all floors, connected di-
150 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv)
rectly to signal machines geared from the overhead sheaves of
the elevators and arranged to light with the travel of the cars
from two and one-half to three floors away, showing the direc-
tion of the travel of the car. This type of signal is designed
for use in elevators in department stores where a bank of several
cars is installed, to warn the passengers of the approach of the
first car traveling in the desired direction.
In department stores, with the exception of the smaller ones, it
has been found advisable to run the cars on a regular schedule,
omitting any signal, whatsoever in the car itself. This type of
signal when arranged to operate on the push-button control, is some-
times used as a waiting-passenger signal to passengers waiting
on the landing in conjunction with the hotel flashlight, for hotels
and office buildings in which the hotel flashlight is used for a car
135. MECHANICAL INDICATORS. Mechanical indica-
tors consist of an indicator of ornamental design, of either the cir-
cular, semi-circular or vertical type, mounted on the elevator en-
closure and having figures mounted on its face corresponding to
the floors, with a traveling arrow showing the position of the car
in the shaft. This arrow is connected to a traveling tape, which
in turn is geared to operate from the overhead sheaves of the ele-
vator. This type of passenger signal is recommended for instal-
lation in conjunction with the Armstrong full flash at the first floor
enclosures of the elevators, the signal lanterns providing a means
of passenger signal for the upper floors.
Mechanical indicators can also be used in conjunction with the
flashlight annunciator signal and the automatic-reset annunciator
signal system above mentioned, as a waiting-passenger signal at
all floors, as no waiting-passenger signal is provided with either
of these two types of signals in the standard equipment.
Mechanical indicators are also being installed largely in apart-
ment houses having one or more passenger and service cars, with-
out the hotel flash annunciator system above mentioned. Mechan-
ical indicators are also recommended for installation on all pas-
senger and service cars in hotel installations, also in private resi-
dences in conjunction with automatic-push-button elevators and in
conjunction with automatic-push-button dumbwaiters in mercantile
ELEVATOR SIGNAL SYSTEMS 151
136. STARTERS' CALL. Among other accessories in con-
junction with the signal equipment, it would be well to mention
the starter's call-back system, consisting of an ornamental button
plate located in the first floor corridor and connected with a buzzer
in each car. This system should be installed in all buildings in
which a group of elevators are under the control of a starter.
137. MOTOR STARTING TIMING DEVICE. The motor
starting timing device consists of a commutating device operated
by an electric motor which gives a series of audible signals at the
first and top floors at certain intervals. This device is used to
keep a number of passenger cars in one group in proper rotation
and is used in conjunction with the starter's call-back system as
an 'aid to the starter in operating his elevators.
138. LAMP POSITION INDICATORS. Lamp position in-
dicators are provided for use at the first floor of buildings having
one or more groups of passenger elevators, and consist of a panel-
board having a miniature lamp for each floor for each car. By
the successive illumination of these lights the position of the car
in the shaft is shown at all times. This system is recommended
for installation as an auxiliary starting equipment in buildings
where a bank or several banks of passenger cars are installed.
The lamp position indicator can also be installed at each floor to
act in place of the mechanical dial indicator mentioned above.
139. TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT FOR ELEVATORS.
Telephone equipments for elevator installations are recommended
for the larger office buildings where several banks of elevators are
operated from a central operating plant, as for instance : the Singer
Building, Hudson Terminals and Whitehall Building in New
York. The use of the telephone in the elevator is also recom-
mended for the automatic-push-button elevator in residences and
for dumbwaiter installations. In these installations there is no
permanent operator in the car, and as an opened door at any floor
w r here the car may be would prevent its operation, a means of com-
munication with the car or floor is quite essential.
140. ILLUMINATED THRESHOLDS. The Rickett's
threshold illuminator consists of a bronze threshold having glass
discs on the top and on the vertical face in the shaft, through
which a diffused light is thrown, illuminating the landing and
showing the relative position of the floor of the car to the sill of
152 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv)
the door. These illuminated thresholds are without doubt a great
preventative of accidents, and are recommended for installation in
all passenger cars, particularly in department stores, hotels and
141. SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN ELEVATOR SHAFTS
FOR SIGNAL EQUIPMENT. In complete signal installations
proper space should be allowed on the elevator enclosure for the
placing of the waiting-passenger signal fixtures. The transom or
elevator enclosure work above the door openings is the best loca-
tion for such signals. The position of door tracks and their ap-
purtenances should be kept in mind when deciding on the location
of signal devices, so that the electric wires and piping can be in-
stalled without interfering with the door apparatus. These con-
siderations also apply to mechanical dial indicators.
In the elevator shaft, space should be provided for the vertical
conduits which carry the wires to the various floor fixtures. This
piping as a rule can be run directly behind the elevator enclosure
work at the front of the shaft and as a rule it can be concealed be-
hind one of the door mullions.
In locating the waiting-passenger push button box, provision
should be made for piping to it from the shaft through the elevator
enclosure work to the back of the box.
On the overhead work in the shaft bulkhead, sufficient space
should be provided so that after the commutator machines are in-
stalled there will be room for a workman to get at them for clean-
ing and making small repairs. That overhead work and machin-
ery should be properly accessible is a most important point for
consideration by the architect in drawing the original plans. The
dimensions or space required for this apparatus should be secured
at the time the steel plans for the roof hatch and bulkhead are
being made so that this important point may be provided for.
Provision should be made for the supply of electric current for
the operation of the signals and this, in all cases, should be on a
separate circuit from the main feeders, so that the signal service
will not be interrupted by any electrical trouble coming from
sources other than those arising from injury to its own mechan-
Installations of dial indicators, synchronizing annunciators and
hotel flashlight signal systems have the same general type of ma-
SPECIAL APPLIANCES 153
chinery. Like consideration should be given to the location of
their apparatus as has been outlined for the complete signal or
142. SERVICE RECORDERS. A service, mileage and trip
recorder consists of an indicating device attached to the overhead
sheaves which directly records in miles traveled, the actual travel
of the car, and also indicates by a direct reading dial the number
of full trips made by each elevator. This device can be furnished
either as a mileage recorder only, or as a combination mileage and
trip recorder. It is recommended and has been used largely as an
adjunct to elevator installations for the purpose of an absolutely
accurate check on the wearing parts of the elevator and on the
amount of current consumed.
143. GUIDE LUBRICATORS. In modern buildings a large
proportion of the total power generated is consumed by the ele-
vators. It is generally admitted that they do not receive as care-
ful attention or are not operated as scientifically as the case war-
Very few realize the large amount of power that is lost by fric-
tion between the elevator guide shoes and the guides when not
It has been and now is the general custom to lubricate the ele-
vator guides by hand application of grease. It will be realized
that by this method a large amount of time and labor is lost, both
by the man applying the grease and the operator running the car
while this work is being done.
When it is considered that some of the elevators in modern
buildings travel as much as five miles per day, it will be observed
that this hand application of grease is not sufficient to insure
It is suggested that for economical and scientific operation of
the elevators, automatic guide lubricators be installed.
The following descriptions of automatic guide lubricators are
given to illustrate some of the different methods employed to
overcome the difficulties mentioned.
The Eggler guide lubricator consists of an oil cup of aluminum
fastened to the shoe of the car and to the traveling counterweight.
This oil cup has fiber discs carrying wicks which play against the
three wearing surfaces of the guides and carry oil from the base
154 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv)
of the cup to their surfaces. This lubricator using oil is so de-
signed that the oil will not spill down the shaft and by means of
its fiber shoes it constantly cleans the guides as well as oils them.
The use of this lubricator means an absolutely clean shaft and the
proper lubrication of the guides, reducing materially the wear on
The " Economy Elevator Guide Lubricator " is built in several
different styles. Its operation is simplicity itself. The main body
of the lubricator is a hollow casting, to which is attached a special
compressed air grease cup. In ordinary operation these grease
cups have to be filled only once every eight to twelve weeks, and
an occasional turn of the top nut so compresses the air entrapped
in the cup that there is always sufficient pressure there to force
the grease out through the arms of the lubricator and on to the
guide rails. In all of the different types, a thin ribbon of grease
is fed against the guide rails exactly where the guide shoes bear,
that is, grease is not smeared around on the rails where it will do
no good. Different types of distributers are employed to meet
the demand for different sizes and shapes of guide rails, and these
distributers are kept against the face of the rail by means of
springs, so that in spite of any swaying of the cars, they always
bear in exactly the right place.
144. AIR CUSHIONS FOR ELEVATOR SHAFTS. The
principle upon which the air cushion operates, is that of the com-
mon known law of atmospheric resistance. See Plate No. 47.
An ordinary air cushion properly constructed, depends on no
mechanical devices for its successful operation.
The walls of the lower portion of the elevator shaft are con-
structed of steel, concrete or brick, for a height, in most cases, of
from J to V 7 of the total travel of the elevator car, and are de-
signed strong enough to withstand the pressure of the confined
air, caused by the dropping of the car into the cushion. The doors
are made of equal strength.
The air escape at the top of the cushion is properly proportioned
and graduated to some point lower down in the cushion where the
car fits more snugly. This does away with the concussion and al-
lows the car to land at the bottom without jar or jolt.
The air cushion possesses peculiar inherent advantages that can-
not be overlooked. It is always ready to act instantly of its own
SPECIAL APPLIANCES 155
volition, without the intervention of any human agency or watch-,
fulness, and to perform its work by interposing the natural law of a
yielding, resisting force of air, equal in power to the blow caused
by the momentum of the falling car.
Whether the car drops from its highest point of travel or from
any distance down in the shaft, it would be brought to a gradual,
not sudden stop at the bottom of the elevator hatchway, without
shock or damage to the car or its passengers.
The first cost of the air cushion is not prohibitive and its main-
tenance nothing. It occupies space not otherwise valuable.
The air cushion is not only a protection against accidents from
a falling elevator, but it is a safe-guard against fire in the portion
of the elevator shaft occupied by the air cushion. An elevator
shaft is, in fact, a chimney with an opening at each floor. Up-
this chimney there is one of the most dangerous draughts imag-
inable, increasing proportionately to the height of the shaft.
In case of a fire, flames are irresistibly drawn to the open ele-
vator well and rapidly ignite all in their path from floor to floor.
A type of air cushion that has been used to some extent is the^
pneumatic shaft. This is an air cushion of the most perfect type.
The shaft is enclosed by walls of fireproof and air-resisting con-
struction for its entire height, making a total cushion.
The air pressure in this cushion is very low, as the car never
attains a high speed, caused by a free fall as it is always in the
air cushion. It really floats down the pneumatic tube, its speed
held in check by the pressure of the air on the car bottom.
This type of cushion is an absolute protection against fire in any
part of the elevator shaft.
It is virtually a fireproof tower that affords ready and safe es-
cape for the occupants of a building in case of a conflagration.
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
Graduation of air es-
cape "B" & "C" depends
on ratio of cushion to
car travel, weight and
size of car, total car
travel, maximum load,
and total air escape
around car platform,
Height of air cushion
"A" usually V* to V T
total car travel.
Plate 47. Section of a Typical Air Cushion.
Rules And Regulations Governing
Elevator Installation In
New York City
145. HEIGHT, GOVERNED BY STREET WIDTH,
MEASUREMENT. Sec. 52. 1 The height of no tenement
house hereafter erected shall by more than one-half exceed the
width of the widest street upon which it stands. Such height
shall be the perpendicular distance measured in a straight line
from the curb level to the highest point of the roof beams ; pro-
vided that where there are bulkheads exceeding ten feet in height
or exceeding in area ten per centum of the area of the roof, the
measurements shall be taken to the top of the bulkhead; but this
shall not apply to elevator enclosures not exceeding fifteen feet in
height. The measurements in all cases shall be taken through the
center of the fagade of the house.
146. BULKHEADS ON ROOFS AND SCUTTLES. Sec.
92. 2 Bulkheads used as enclosures for tanks and elevators, and
coverings for the machinery of elevators and all other bulkheads,
including the bulkheads of all dwelling houses more than four
stories in height hereafter erected or altered, may be constructed
of hollow fireproof blocks ; or of wood, covered with not less than
two inches of fireproof material, or filled in the thickness of the
studding with such material, and covered on all outside surfaces
with metal, including both surfaces and edges of doors. All such
buildings shall have scuttles or bulkheads covered with some fire-
proof materials, with ladders or stairs leading thereto, and easily
accessible to all occupants. No scuttle shall be less in size than
1 The Tenement House Act of New York City. Chapter III.
2 Building Code of New York City. Part XVII.
160 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V)
two by three feet. No staging or stand shall be constructed or
occupied upon the roof of any building without first obtaining the
approval of the commissioner of buildings having jurisdiction.
ELEVATORS, HOISTWAYS AND DUMBWAITERS. 3
147. ELEVATORS AND HOISTWAYS. Sec. 95. In any
building in which there shall be any hoistway or freight elevator
or wellhole not inclosed in walls constructed of brick or other
fireproof material and provided with fireproof doors, the openings
thereof through and upon each floor of said building, shall be
provided with and protected by a substantial guard or gate and
with such good and sufficient trap-doors as may be directed and
approved by the department of buildings; and when in the opin^
ion of the commissioner of buildings having jurisdiction, auto-
matic trap-doors are required to the floor openings of any unin-
closed freight elevator, the same shall be constructed so as to form
a substantial floor surface when closed, and so arranged as to open
and close by the action of the elevator in its passage either ascend-
ing or descending. The said commissioner of buildings shall have
exclusive power and authority to require the openings of hoist-
ways or hoistway shafts, elevators and wellholes in buildings to
be inclosed or secured by trap doors, guards or gates and railings.
Such guards or gates shall be kept closed at all times, except when
in actual use, and the trap-doors shall be closed at the close of the
business of each day by the occupant or occupants of the building
having the use or control of the same.
148. ELEVATOR INCLOSURES. Sec. 96. All elevators
hereafter placed in any building, except such fireproof buildings
as have been or may be hereafter erected, shall be inclosed in suit-
able walls of brick or with a suitable framework of iron and burnt
clay filling, or of such other fireproof material and form of con-
struction as may be approved by the department of buildings, ex-
cept that the inclosure walls in non-fireproof buildings over five
stories high, used as warehouses or factories shall be of brick. If
the inclosure walls are of brick, laid in cement mortar and not used
as bearing walls, they may be eight inches in thickness for not
more than fifty feet of their uppermost height, and increasing in
The Building Code of New York City. Part XVIII.
RULES AND REGULATIONS 161
thickness four inches for each lower fifty feet portion or part
thereof. Said walls or constructions shall extend through and at
least three feet above the roof. All openings in the said walls
shall be provided with fireproof shutters or fireproof doors, made
solid for three feet above the floor level, except that the doors
used for openings in buildings intended for the occupancy of one
family may be of wood covered on the inner surface and edges
with metal, not including the openings in the cellar, nor above the
roof in any such shaft wall. The roofs over all inclosed elevators
shall be made of fireproof materials, with a skylight at least three-
fourths the area of the shaft, made of glass, set in iron frames.
When the shaft does not extend to the ground, the lower end
shall be inclosed in fireproof material.
149. DUMBWAITER SHAFTS. Sec. 97. All dumbwaiter
shafts, except such as do not extend more than three stories above
the cellar or basement in dwelling houses, shall be inclosed in suit-
able walls of brick or with burnt clay blocks, set in iron frames
of proper strength or fireproof blocks strengthened with metal
dowels or such other fireproof material and form of construction
as may be approved by the commissioner of buildings having juris-
diction. Said walls or construction shall extend at least three
feet above the roof and be covered with a skylight at least three-
fourths the area of the shaft, made with metal frames and glazed.
All openings in the inclosure walls or construction shall be pro-
vided with self-closing fireproof doors. When the shaft does not
extend to the floor level of the lowest story, the bottom of the
shaft shall be constructed of fireproof material.
150. ELEVATORS IN STAIRCASE INCLOSURES. Sec.
98. Open grill work inclosures for passenger elevators, not ex-
tending below the level of the first floor may be erected in stair-
case inclosures in buildings where the entire space occupied by the
stairs and elevators is inclosed in brick or stone walls, and the
stairs are constructed as specified in Section 53 of this code.
151. ELEVATORS IN EXISTING HOTELS. Sec. 99.-
In every non-fireproof building, used or occupied as a hotel, in
which there is an elevator not inclosed in fireproof shafts, such
elevator shall be inclosed in suitable walls, constructed and ar-
ranged as in this code required for elevator shafts.
152. SCREEN UNDER ELEVATOR SHEAVES. Sec.
162 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V)
100. Immediately under the sheaves at the top of every elevator
shaft in any building-, there shall be provided and placed a substan-
tial grating or screen of iron or steel of such construction as shall
be approved by the Department of Buildings.
153. INSPECTION OF ELEVATORS. Sec. 101. The
commissioners of buildings shall cause an inspection of elevators
carrying passengers or employes to be made at least once every
three months and shall make regulations for the inspection of such
elevators with a view to safety; and shall also prescribe suitable
qualifications for persons who are placed in charge of the running
of such elevators. The regulations shall require any repairs found
necessary to any such elevators to be made without delay by the
owner or lessee. In case defects are found to exist which endan-
ger life or limb by the continued use of such elevator, then, upon
notice from the department of buildings, the use of such elevator
shall cease, and it shall not again be used until a certificate shall
be first obtained from said department that such elevator has been
made safe. No person shall employ or permit any person to be
in charge of running any passenger elevator who does not possess
the qualifications prescribed therefor.
Every freight elevator or lift shall have a notice posted con-
spicuously thereon as follows : " Persons riding on this elevator
do so at their own risk/*
154. ELEVATOR REGULATIONS OUTSIDE OF NEW
YORK CITY. After a careful comparison of the building laws
of a number of the important cities, throughout the United States,
relating to the construction of elevator shafts and rules for the
installation of elevators, the author has decided that it would be a
waste of time and space to define them all, owing to their general
similarity to those of New York City.
The building laws relating to the construction of elevator shafts
and rules for the installation of elevators, of New York City, as
herein given, are as complete and as fine a guide as could be pro-
duced, where public safety is the first consideration.
The building laws of Philadelphia are an exception, in regard to
the building of passenger elevator shafts ; they require that all
passenger elevator shafts must be equipped with air cushions and
all passenger elevator shaft doors must be equipped with a device
to prevent the doors of the landings being opened either from the
RULES AND REGULATIONS 163
inside or the outside, except when the car is within three inches
of such a landing.
155. ELEVATOR REGULATIONS. 4 At a conference of
the Superintendents of Buildings the following regulations were
adopted to apply uniformly to the five Boroughs of the City of
New York. These regulations shall become effective in the Bor-
ough of Manhattan on September ist, 1911.
All elevators installed or altered on or after that date shall con-
form with these regulations, except that in cases where contracts
for the installation of new elevators or the alterations of existing
elevators have been made prior to that date, the same may be made
to conform to the regulations now in force, provided, however,
that notice of such contracts made prior to September ist, 1911,
shall be sent to the Superintendent of Buildings before that date.
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CONSTRUCTION, INSPECTION AND
OPERATION OF ELEVATORS IN THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN.
1. The term " elevator " as used in these regulations shall in-
clude all elevators or lifts used for the carrying of passengers or
employes. The term " dumbwaiter " shall include such special
form of elevator, the dimensions of which do not exceed nine
square feet in horizontal section, and four feet in height, and
which is used for the conveyance of small packages and merchan-
dise. So far as practicable, these regulations shall also apply to
escalators. Where freight elevators are placed within the same
shaft enclosure as passenger elevators, such elevators must con-
form in all particulars to the regulations for the construction, in-
spection and operation of passenger elevators. All other freight
elevators must comply with sections 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15,
17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 of the Regulations for Passenger Ele-
vators. Any hand power elevator having a rise of more than
thirty-five feet shall comply with all the requirements of these reg-
ulations. No belt elevators driven from a countershaft shall be
installed for passenger service.
2. All elevators must be inspected as often as possible by an
Inspector of the Bureau of Buildings, known and designated as
Inspector of Elevators, in accordance with the rules and regula-
4 Bureau of Buildings, Borough of Manhattan. Bulletin No. 29, 1911.
1 64 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V)
tions of the Bureau prescribing the duties and governing the ac-
tions of the employes.
3. Before any elevator shall hereafter be installed or altered in
any building, the owner or his agent, architect or contractor shall
submit, on appropriate blanks furnished therefor, to the Superin-
tendent of Buildings an application in triplicate stating the con-
struction and mode of operation of such elevator to be installed or
altered and shall obtain his approval therefor. This application
shall be accompanied by such plans and drawings as may be neces-
sary. Before any such elevator shall be put into service, the same
shall have been duly tested and inspected under the supervision
of an Inspector of Elevators and a certificate of such inspection
issued and a formal approval obtained from the Superintendent of
Buildings. In making any changes or alterations to elevator
shafts, rails, overhead machinery or power, all the work changed or
altered must be made to conform to the present law and regula-
4. The owner, lessee, manager or other person having charge
or control of any elevator now in operation and the manufacturer
of any such elevator hereafter placed in any building, shall cause
to be fastened in a conspicuous place in said elevator a metal plate,
having suitable raised letters on same, which shall designate the
number of pounds weight which said elevator shall be permitted
to carry, but in no case shall a carrying capacity of less than 75
pounds per square foot of platform area inside the car be permit-
ted on any passenger elevator.
5. Every elevator, except full automatic push button elevators
in private dwellings occupied by one family, must be in charge of
a competent operator of reliable and industrious habits, not less
than eighteen years of age, with at least one month's experience
in running an elevator under the instruction of a competent per-
son. In case the Superintendent of Buildings shall become satis-
fied that the person engaged in running any elevator is incompe-
tent or disqualified from any cause to continue to run the same,
the owner or person managing or controlling the elevator shall,
upon notice from the Superintendent of Buildings, at once replace
the said operator by a competent operator.
6. Elevator shafts and doors of same in non-fireproof buildings
must be constructed fireproof and made solid for their full height.
Any lights that may be desired in these doors must be provided
RULES AND REGULATIONS 165
with wire glass. No one pane of wire glass shall exceed five
square feet in area. No more than one opening in the elevator
shaft will be allowed on each floor, and all openings in the sev-
eral stories shall be one above the other, unless the elevator is used
exclusively for freight purposes, except that where the operating
device of the elevator is so placed that the operator can readily
control all doors without leaving the car control, more than one
opening will be permitted on a floor.
7. In all cases where the law or regulations permit grille work
enclosing the shaft or car, it shall be of substantial material and
construction, properly braced and carried the full height of open-
ings, and there shall not be more than one and one-half inch space
between any two members of said grille work except where plain
straight bars are used, not filled in with scroll, when there shall
not be more than one inch space between members.
8. All doors or gates leading to any elevator shaft shall be
locked or bolted on the shaft side so as to be opened only by the
operator of the car. and said shaft doors or gates and car gates,
shall be closed before the car is put in motion.
9. All entrances to elevator cars must be provided with sub-
stantial folding or sliding gates or doors, and where floor tracks
are used the same must be countersunk. All folding gates over
three feet wide at entrance to shaft or car shall have top and bot-
tom center braces.
10. All counterweights shall have their sections strongly bolted
together. There shall not be less than three feet clearance be-
tween the top of counterweights and the underside of overhead
beams when the car is resting on the bumpers. No continuous
forged straps shall be permitted on counterweights.
11. Where counterweights run in the same shaft as the car
they must be protected with a substantial screen of iron from the
top of rail to a point fifteen feet below, except where the plunger
or traction type of elevator is used.
12. All elevators, except direct plunger elevators and freight
elevators having a rise of fifteen feet or less, shall have a governor
or speed regulator properly connected to the safety devices on the
car, in such a manner that the car will be brought to rest with an
easy and gradual stop, or in a distance not greater than eight feet
for a speed of seven hundred feet per minute, except that on ele-
vators having a speed of 100 feet per minute or less safeties of
i66 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V)
the instantaneous type may be used. Every elevator operating on
alternating current electricity shall be equipped with an electric
mechanical brake, or some such device as will insure the brake
being applied at any time should the current be interrupted from
the service. All electric car controlling devices shall be self-cen-
tering and self -locking in inoperative position. All hoisting ma-
chines of the drum type shall have an automatic slack cable device
that will stop the machine if the hoist or drum weight cables shall
become slack from any cause. All elevators shall have upper and
lower limit devices on the machine or in the shaft. No elevator
shall be used for the carrying of safes or other material of a
greater weight than the normal lifting power of such elevator, un-
less the car is equipped with a locking device which will hold it
fixed at any landing independent of the rope while such safe or
other material is being loaded or unloaded.
13. The car of all elevators must be constructed of incombusti-
ble materials, except that interior trim and flooring may be of
hardwood. There shall be not more than one and one-quarter
inches space between the floor of the car and the floor saddles, and
where the saddles project into the shaft the same shall be properly
beveled on the underside. The underside of the car must be of
incombustible materials. Cars for all elevators shall be properly
14. All guide rails for both car and counterweights shall be
of iron or steel, and shall be fastened to the sides of the shaft with
wrought or cast-iron brackets, so spaced that the guide rails will
15. There shall be not less than two cables independently con-
nected to the car and to each set of counterweights. The lifting
and weight cables shall have at least one full turn of the cable on
the drum when they have reached the limit of travel. Such cables
shall be of a diameter to insure a factor of safety of five. All
cables used in the operation of elevators shall be of steel, iron or
" Marlin " covered. Where overhead machines are installed the
use of equalizer arms will be permitted on the car and counter-
1 6. No elevator shall be permitted to have attached above, be-
low or on the inside of the car a freight compartment or similar
17. Immediately under the sheaves at the top of every elevator
RULES AND REGULATIONS 167
shaft in any building there shall be provided and placed a substan-
tial grating of iron or steel having not more than one and one-half
inch space between any two members of said grating, and of such
construction as shall be approved by the Bureau of Buildings.
1 8. A clear space of not less than three feet must be provided
between the bottom of the shaft and the lowest point of the under-
side of the car floor when the car is at its lowest landing, and be-
tween the top of the crosshead of the car and the underside of the
overhead grating when the car is at its top landing, provided that
for elevators of greater speed than 350 feet per minute, the dis-
tance between the top of the crosshead of the car and the underside
of the overhead grating, when the car is at its top landing, shall
be not less than five feet, except in the case of elevators where the
rise does not exceed thirty feet and the speed of the elevator is
not more than one hundred feet per minute, such clear space at
the top of the shaft shall be not less than two feet between the top
of the car and the underside of the overhead grating when the car
is at its top landing.
19. All parts of the elevator machinery must be properly en-
closed by suitable partitions of incombustible materials, and such
enclosures must be lighted. Free and safe access must be pro-
vided to all parts of elevator machinery. Where the miachine
is located at the bottom of the shaft the same shall be protected
with a substantial pit pan.
20. The speed of all elevators must not exceed five hundred
feet per minute, except that express elevators may run seven hun-
dred feet per minute for that portion of the shaft in which no in-
termediate stops are made. Express elevators shall mean only
such elevators as run eighty feet or more without stop. The speed
of mechanically controlled electric elevators must not exceed one
hundred and fifty feet per minute.
21. At the bottom of all elevator shafts there shall be placed
substantial buffer springs for car and counterweights. Where the
car does not travel to the bottom of the shaft the bumper beams
shall be supported independent of the car rails. All plunger or
traction type of elevators shall be provided with substantial oil
buffers at the bottom of the shaft for both car and counterweights.
22. The carrying beams for all machinery shall be of wrought
iron or steel.
23. Every passenger elevator shall have a trap door in the top
168 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V)
of the car of such a size as to afford easy egress for passengers,
or where two cars are in the same shaft such means of egress may
be provided in the side of each car.
24. Any infraction of these regulations or failure to comply
with their provisions after due notice from the Superintendent of
Buildings shall be treated the same as a violation of the Building
Code, and shall subject the owner to the same penalties as pre-
scribed in section 150 of the Building Code for such violation.
Aircushions for elevator shafts 154
Alarm bell 23
Arrangement of cables 17
Arrangement of sheave beams 16
Automatic elevator door locks 23
Automatic locks and switches 30
Automobile push button elevators 23
Automatic-reset synchronizing annunciators 149
Automobile elevators 27
Average weight of a person 19
Ball bearing door hangers 127
Bronze car enclosures 32
Cable openings in pit pans 1 1
Chain lifts 24
Chases in offsets of brick walls for counterweights II
Clearances between shafts and cars 25
Clearances for elevator car controls 24
Clearance for guides 20
Collapsible gates on elevator car enclosures 130
Combination collapsible swing gate 130
Combination slide and swing doors 21
Complete flashlight signal 148
Concrete pits 10
Cost of elevator car enclosures 31
Counterbalance fireproof doors 129
Counterweights placed at right angles to machine 18
Cover at sidewalk 26
Damp-proofing 1 1
Department store signal 149
Depth of pits o,
Depth of sidewalk elevator pit 24
Desirable positions of traction machines 13
Detailing of shafts 9
Detailing the plan of columns 12
Determining the size of cable openings 15
Direct lead machines 15
Doors at sidewalk 26
Doors to dumbwaiter shafts 29
Doors to machine rooms 13
Double doors sliding in opposite directions 22
Double doors sliding in the same direction 22
Double swing doors 22
Dumbwaiter shafts 29 and 161
Dust-proof pit pans 1 1
Electric dumbwaiters 29
Elevator cars landing at roof level 16
Elevator car controls 24
Elevator machine rooms 12
Elevator regulations (see rules and regulations) 163
Elevator regulations outside of New York City 162
Elevator shaft 9
Elevator shaft doors 21
Elevator shaft pits 9
Elevator signal systems and special appliances 147
Finish of car enclosures 32
Fireproof covering of beams I r
Fireproof covering on columns 12
Footings for columns and foundations 10
Formula for figuring capacity in foot pounds 15
Formula for figuring face of drums 14
Framing of elevator shafts 1 1
Garage installations 27
Grille shaft enclosures 21
Grooves in sills 127
Guide lubricators 153
Hand rope control 24
Hardware on doors 23
Height of bulkheads 16, 18, 19
Hoops for lifting sidewalk doors 26
Hotel flashlight annunciators 148
Hydraulic elevators 20
Illuminated thresholds 151
Impracticable use of drum type machines 12
Interlocking door safety devices 128
Iron car enclosures 31
Lamp position indicators 151
Lap style counterbalance door 130
Lever and hand wheel control 24
Location of dumbwaiter machines 29
Location of machines 12
Location of machines for automobile elevators 28
Location of traction machines 13
Low bulkheads 16
Machines placed over shafts 19
Machine sub-base 13
Machines under shafts 14
Mechanical indicators 150
Methods of guiding 29
Miscellaneous suggestions 31
Motor starting timing device 151
Operating pressure for pneumatic devices 129
Operation and automatic features of dumbwaiters 30
Operation of automatic push button elevators 23
Overhead grating 17
Overhead machinery below ceiling 28
Passenger and freight elevator pits 9
Plunger elevators 20
Practical use of sheaves 16
Roebling standard hoisting rope 17
Roebling table for cables 18
Rules and regulations governing elevator installation in New
York City 159
Bulkheads on roofs and scuttles 159
Elevator inclosures 160
Elevator in staircase inclosure 161
Elevators and hoistways 160
Elevators in existing hotels 161
Height, governed by street width measurement. . 159
Inspection of elevators 162
Screen under elevator sheaves 161
Saddle projections 21
Service recorders 153
Setting of sidewalk machines 25
Setting of traction drive sheaves 13
Sheet iron fascias 22
Sidewalk covers to clear show window 27
Sidewalk elevators 24
Sidewalk frame 25
Sidewalk machine at end of shaft 24
Sidewalk machine at side of shaft 25
Sidewalk machine on platform 25
Sidewalk type of elevator within buildings 28
Single slide doors 22
Sizes of elevator shafts and cars 19
Size of freight elevator cars 20
Size of machine rooms 14
Size of passenger cars 19
Size of water-proof pans 10
Skylights over shafts 17
Space between bars and mesh work 32
Space occupied by a passenger 19
Space required for sidebars 25
Space requirements for signal equipment 152
Special types of elevator installations 28
Specification forms for elevator work ^. 113, 1 18
Anchor bolts 114, 119
Annunciators 117, 125
Cables 1 16, 122
Car enclosures 1 16, 123
Counterweights 1 16, 123
Door-operating devices 127
Drip pans 117, 124
Drums 115, 121
Electrical connections 115, 122
Elevator car gates 127
Foundations 114, 119
Gearing 115, 121
General conditions 113
Grating 117, 124
Guides 115, 122
Load and speed 114
Machines 114, 119
Machine room 114
Materials and workmanship 1 18
Motors 1 14, 120
Number of elevators 1 18
Operating device 1 16, 124
Overhead beams 113, 119
Painting 1 18, 125
Pits 113, 119
Platforms and car framework 116, 123
Provision for lighting 117, 124
Safeties 117, 124
Scope of work 118
Shafts 113, 119
Sheaves 115, 122
Tests 1 18, 125
Supports for sheave beams 16
Standpipes for lifting sidewalk covers 26
Starters' call 151
Stationary collapsible gate 131
Style of elevator car enclosures 31
Swedish iron rope 17
Telephone equipment 151
Traction machines over shafts 13
Trap-door in canopies of cars 33
Trap-doors in sides of cars 33
Under-geared type of elevator 28
Up and down hand-controlled doors 22
Wainscot of bronze car enclosures 32
Wainscot of iron car enclosures 32
Water-proofing elevator machine rooms 10
Waterproof pit pans 10
Waterproof pits 10
Wheel guards on elevator car platforms 28
Wood car enclosures 23, 32
Illustration of an Ornamental Iron Elevator Grille. The Doors Have Wire
Glass Panels. In the Background May be Seen Enamel Faced Bricks,
Which Are Used Quite Extensively in Elevator Shafts
Northwestern Building, Chicago, 111.
Frost & Granger, Architects.
Illustration of an Elevator Front in a Vault of a Bank, Showing Double
Sliding Doors in the Same Direction, Behind a Stationary Panel of
Similar Design to that of the Doors. This Stationary Panel
Could Be Made to Swing.
Carnegie Safe Deposit Co., New York City.
Illustrations of Elevator Doors and an Ornamental Bronze Transom.
Hall of Records, New York City. Morgan & Slattery, Architects
Illustration of Elevator Fronts, Showing Double Doors Sliding in Opposite
Ritz-Carlton Hotel, New York City.
Warren & Wetmorc, Architects.
Illustration of an Elevator Front, Showing a Single Slide
Door of Neat Design. Being Solid Bronze, It Is,
Metropolitan Tower, New York City.
N. Le Brim & Sons, Architects.
Illustration of an Elevator Shaft Enclosure in an Open
Stair-Well. The Design of the Grille Work is
Quite Elaborate, and is Suitable for First
Class Apartment Houses. The Doors
May be Either the Single Slide or
the Combination Slide and
925 Park Ave., New York City.
Delano & Aldridi, Architects
Illustration of Elevator Doors in Private Foyer of an Apartment
House. The Doors Are Double Sliding Doors in the Same
Direction. They Are Also Suitable for Office Buildings.
The Verona, 64th St. and Madison Ave., New York City.
E. H. Adams. Architect.
Illustration of Elevator Doors of Elaborate Orna-
mental Iron Design. These Doors Slide in
Opposite Directions. The Dial Indicator
is Shown in the Transom.
Brunswick Bldg., 5th Ave., 26th and 27th Sts., New York City.
Francis H. Kimbnll and H. E. Donnell, Assoc. Archts.
Illustration of an Elevator Front, Showing Sliding
Doors in Opposite Directions. They Ate Made of
Ornamental Iron and Backed with Wire-glass.
The Dial Indicator and Flash-light Signal
Are Directly Above the Doors.
Fire Companies Building, 80 Maiden Lane, New York City.
D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects.
Illustration Showing a Bank of Elevator Shaft Doors of Neat Ornamental Iron Design
Backed With Wire-glass. These Doors are the Single Slide Type, Behind a Sta-
tionary Panel of Similar Design.
The Everett Building, 17th St. and 4th Ave., New York City.
Goldwin Starrett and Van Vleck, Architects.
Illustration Showing the Half Up and Down Fireproof, Freight Elevator
American Bank Note Company Factory, New York City.
Kirby, Petit & Green, Architects.
Illustration of an Elevator Shaft Enclosure in an Open Stair-well. The
Design of the Grille Work is Neat and Simple and is Suitable for
Passenger Elevator Shafts in Either Ordinary Apartment
Houses or in Factories.
The Bronx Factory of the Ward Bread Co., New York City.
C. B. Comstock, Architect.
Illustration Showing a Design of a Solid Bronze Elevator Front. The
Doors are the Double Sliding Type Behind a Fixed Panel of Simi-
lar Design to that of the Doors. They Have a Backing
The Multiple Residence, 998 5th. Ave., New York City.
McKim, Mead and White, Architects.
Illustration of a Bank of Elevator Fronts Showing Double Doors Sliding
in Opposite Directions and Giving a View of the Dial Indicators
and Flash Light Signals.
Steger Building, Chicago, 111.
Marshall & Fox, Architects.
Illustration of Elevator Fronts in Use in a Department Store. The Doors Are Double Doors
Sliding in Opposite Directions. The Flash-light Signals Are Shown in Position
Directly Above the Doors.
Gimbel Store, New York City.
D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects.
Illustration of Office Building Elevator Fronts, Showing Bronze Doors of the Single Sliding
Type, Behind a Stationary or Swinging Panel. Also Round Dial Indicators in
Frances Building, New York City.
C. P. H. Gilbert, Architect.
LOAN PERIOD 1
BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS
Books may be Renewed by calling 642-3405.
pTTT^ STAMPED BELOW
AUTODISCCIRC OCT 18*94
FORM NO. DD6,
"UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
BERKELEY, CA 94720 @$
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY