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Full text of "Elevator shaft construction; or, Practical suggestions for the installation of electric elevators in buildings"











Design of an Elevator Car Enclosure. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT 
CONSTRUCTION 



OR 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE 
INSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC ELEVATORS IN BUILDINGS 



BY 

H. ROBERT CULLMER 

\\ 

ASSISTED BY 
ALBERT BAUER 

With Introductory Note by 
REGINALD PELHAM BOLTON 



A treatise for the architect and builder covering the surveying ana preparing of detail 

drawings for elevator shafts; machine rooms; elevator bulkheads; tables and 

formulae for calculating the size and capacity of elevators; freight 

elevators; sidewalk elevators; dumb- waiters; specification ^ , . , . 
writing for elevator installation; elevator shaft \/^\' J \* , 
doors 'and appliances', building regu- , , , ,. , 

lations covering elevator 
installation. 



New York: 
THE WILLIAM T. COMSTOCK COMPANY 

23 Warren Street 



Copyright, by 

H. ROBERT CULLMER 

1912 



Cw 



Preface 



In preparing this book, it has been the object of the author to 
present the subject treated in such a manner as to make the de- 
tails of practical value to an architect, builder, or a building super- 
intendent representing either, having a general knowledge of the 
work in and about elevator shafts. 

The principal aim and purpose of the work is to emphasize the 
necessity of the co-operation of all parties connected with the 
work of elevator shaft construction and elevator installation to 
produce the best results and necessary economy. The articles on 
elevator shaft doors and machine rooms contain information which 
it is hoped will be highly useful to architects in preparing their 
plans. It has always been, and still is, a difficult problem to 
determine the height of an elevator shaft bulkhead. The article 
pertaining to this subject has been made quite comprehensive, and 
the plates conform to the requirements of existing municipal regu- 
lations. 

The data and information contained has been gathered by the 
author in his own practice and systematized and generalized for 
the purpose of this work. As far as he knows, such data has 
never before been published and it is his hope that it will prove of 
considerable value to all interested in the subject. 

The author is under obligation to Albert Bauer of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., for much competent assistance. Information and draw- 
ings for special subjects have also been furnished by the Reliance 
Ball Bearing and Hanger Co. ; Burdett-Rowntree Co. ; Peelle Co. ; 
Elevator Supply and Repair Co. ; Peterson Engineering Co. ; F. T. 
Ellithorpe; and Oscar A. Norman for the frontispiece; to all of 
whom the author tenders his thanks for their freely given assist- 
ance. 

H. R. CULLMER, 
Woodhaven, N. Y., May, 1912. 

1 



263599 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

Page 

Elevator Shafts 9 

Suggestions for detailing. Elevator shaft pits. Elevator ma- 
chine rooms. Bulkheads. Sizes of elevator shafts and cars. 
Elevator shaft doors. Plunger and hydraulic elevators. 
Elevator car controls. Sidewalk elevators. Automobile eleva- 
tors or garage installations. Special type of elevator in- 
stallations. Electric dumbwaiters. Miscellaneous suggestions. 

CHAPTER II 
Specifications for Elevator Work 113 

Short specification form for elevator work. Longer specification 
form for elevator work. 

CHAPTER III 
Door Opening Devices and Elevator Car Gates 127 

CHAPTER IV 
Elevator Signal Systems and Special Appliances 147 

CHAPTER V 

Rules and Regulations Governing Elevator Installation in New York 

City 159 



LIST OF PLATES 

Design of an elevator car enclosure Frontispiece 

Headroom underneath pit pans Plate I 

Footings for columns and foundations below the bottom of 

elevator shaft pits 2 

Water-proof pit pan 3 

Water-proof concrete or brick pit 4 

Method of water-proofing or damp-proofing elevator machine 

rooms 5 

Dust proof pit pan 6 

Chase in wall for counterweights 7 

Plan of shaft and sections through shaft at floor level . "8 

Plan of an elevator machine over shaft 9 

Geared traction and direct traction drive elevator machines . 10 

Arrangement of sheaves for traction drive machines over shaft n 

Elevator machine underneath pit 12 

Table giving sizes of elevator machine rooms and cable open- 
ings ..... " 13 

Arrangement of sheave beams for low bulkheads .... "14 

Elevation of bulkhead when the roof is the top landing . " 15 

Arrangement of cables " 16 

Arrangement of sheave beams when counterweights are placed 

at right angles to machine ... " 17 

Height of bulkhead required for a given size shaft when count- 
erweights are placed at right angles to machine ... 18 
Height of bulkhead required for a given size shaft, when 

machine is placed over shaft " 19 

Clearances between elevator car and sides of shaft .... "20 
Table giving the number of passengers that can be carried ac- 
cording to the area of a car in square feet "21 

Combination slide and swing doors "22 

Grille combination slide and swing doors "23 

Single slide door "24 

Double sliding doors in the same direction and double swing 

doors . . . ... ...'., . . . "25 

Double sliding doors in opposite directions " 26 

Sidewalk elevator machine at one end of shaft with drums un- 
derneath car platform . " 27 

Arrangement of lifting chains for sidewalk elevators ... "28 
Sidewalk elevator machine and drums setting upon the cellar 

or sub-cellar level or upon a special platform .... "29 
Elevation showing sidewalk machine setting upon a special 

platform "30 

Elevation of sidewalk elevator shaft, with machine setting upon 

the cellar, sub-cellar or platform level "31 

5 



6 LIST OF PLATES 

Clearances required for side-bars between side of sidewalk 

shaft and inside edge of frame Plate 32 

Hoop for lifting sidewalk covers "33 

Stand pipes for lifting sidewalk covers "34 

Plan of machine room over shaft for automobile elevators . " 35 

Typical layout and plan of the under-geared type of elevator ' 36 
Elevation showing arrangement of sheaves and cables for the 

under-geared type of elevator "37 

Plan of dumbwaiter shaft showing wall-climbing arrangement 

of guides " 38 

Elevation of dumbwaiter shaft, showing slide up doors . . "39 

Ball-bearing door hangers "40 

Interlocking door safety devices and clearances required . "41 
Different types of counterbalance fireproof doors and clear- 
ances required "42 

Elevatioji of "lap" style counterbalance door "43 

Table giving heights of door openings for different height 

floors, for regular up and down doors "44 

Fold and swing elevator car gate and stationary collapsible ele- 
vator car gate attached to panel "45 

Stationary collapsible elevator car gate in front of panel . "46 

Section of a typical air cushion "47 

LIST OF SUPPLEMENTARY PLATES 

Northwestern Building, Chicago, 111., Elevator Fronts . . . Plate i 

Carnegie Safe Deposit Co., New York, Elevator Fronts .. . " 2 

Hall of Records, New York, Elevator Door Designs ... " 3 

Ritz-Carlton Hotel, New York, Elevator Fronts " 4 

Metropolitan Tower, New York, Elevator Fronts .... " 5 

Nine-Twenty-Five Park Ave., New York, Elevator Fronts . " 6 

The Verona, New York, Elevator Fronts " 7 

Brunswick Building, New York, Elevator Fronts .... " 8 
Fire Companies Building, New York, Elevator Fronts . "9 
The Everett Building, New York, Elevator Fronts ... " 10 
American Bank Note Factory, New York, Freight Doors . " n 
Factory of Ward Bread Co., New York, Elevator Shaft En- 
closure 12 

The Multiple Residence, New York, Elevator Fronts ... "13 

Steger Building, Chicago, Elevator Fronts 14 

Gimble Store, New York, Elevator Fronts " 15 

Frances Building, New York, Elevator Fronts " 16 



Introduction 

The lack of available information upon the subject of elevators 
has been, in past years, very marked, and has been productive of 
very unfortunate results in many installations of elevators. There 
is probably no subject connected with the mechanical arts, in which 
there is greater need for well-considered and well-defined informa- 
tion such as is presented in this book. 

The interest of the public in the security and efficiency of elevators 
is greater than its concern in almost any other form of mechanical 
contrivance, and it is true that every detail that enters into both the 
design and the construction of elevators is of greater importance to 
the personal safety of the public than similar details connected with 
other forms of machinery. No part of modern mechanical apparatus 
has a greater influence upon the convenience and financial success of 
the buildings in which they are installed than is the case with 
elevators, the demand for which has vastly increased of recent years, 
while the art of their construction has also made considerable 
advances. 

It has always been a matter of remark that architects lack practical 
information as to this important class of machinery, and this de- 
ficiency has been excusable in view of the small amount of printed 
information upon the subject. Mr. Cullmer's work, while it deals 
exclusively with details, is of an essentially practical character, 
directly designed to fill the need for such information, and to enable 
architects and engineers to appreciate the necessary features which 
go to make successful elevator installations, and to provide, in ad- 
vance of the construction of a building, for such requirements. 

To prepare and present such a work, practical working knowledge 
of these details is necessary, which appears very conspicuously in the 
presentation of the plans accompanying the book. Such plans 
should be of extreme value to those who are charged with the 
design or construction of modern buildings. 

While the book has not entered in detail into many other questions 
that surround the security of the operation of elevators and of pas- 

7 



8 INTRODUCTION 

sengers therein, upon which subject alone a book might, and it is 
hoped will, some day be written, it does indirectly contribute towards 
the safety of such apparatus by affording necessary information as 
to proper proportions and spaces surrounding the installation of the 
car in its hoistway, and thus promotes the safety, as well as the con- 
venience, of the general public. 

REGINALD PELHAM BOLTON. 
1912. 



CHAPTER I 

Elevator Shafts 

i. SUGGESTIONS FOR DETAILING. 

Elevator contractors and builders will always work to a dis- 
advantage unless the full particulars relating to the details and 
construction of the elevator shafts are furnished to them. 

The elevator contractor should be furnished special sketches, 
drawn to f " scale, showing the general conditions existing in and 
around the elevator shafts. From these sketches, drawings show- 
ing the general arrangement of the elevator installation can be 
made by this contractor. 

The drawings made by the elevator contractor should be ap- 
proved by the architect, who should then request that copies be 
sent to all other contractors connected with construction work on 
the elevator shafts. 

Should this rule be adhered to in all elevator work, there would 
be a smaller chance of mistakes being made and all parties con- 
cerned could co-operate and work consistently from uniform 
plans. 

2. ELEVATOR SHAFT PITS. 

In the construction of elevator shafts, proper provisions should 
be made for the pits. 

i. PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR PITS. 
The depths of pits for these elevators should not be less than 
3'-6" to the bottom, whether measured from the first floor level or 
from the cellar level, according to their lowest stop. Traction 
drive elevators installed by the different companies are an excep- 
tion, as pits not less than 6'-o" deep may be required to allow the 
necessary space for the oil bumpers. Some elevator companies re- 
quire a pit at least y'-6" in depth for traction drive installations of 
high speed (400 F. P. M. or over). 

In the event of traction drive elevators being installed, pit pans 
may be suspended from the first floor, this being the bottom land- 
ing ; and if it is required to gain headroom underneath the pit pans 

9 



-ID ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

in the basement or cellar, the oil bumpers can be arranged as 
shown on Plate No. i. 

2. FOOTINGS FOR COLUMNS AND FOUNDATIONS. 
All footings for columns and foundations adjoining elevator shafts, 
should be kept below the bottom of the elevator shaft pits, so as to 
render all sides of the pits true and plumb with the finished lines of 
the shafts. See Plate No. 2. 

3. WATER-PROOF PITS. When buildings are to be erected 
in localities near the water level, or where there are underground 
springs, water-proofed pits or water-proof pans are absolutely es- 
sential. 

4. WATER-PROOF PANS. Water-proof pans should be in- 
stalled in localities where the water pressure is very great, within 
the pits which should be water-proofed also, as shown on Plate 
No. 3, with a 4" layer of concrete covered with a layer of three- 
ply water-proofing. The face of the water-proofing should be at 
least 3" outside of the line of the shaft on all sides, to allow space 
for grouting about the pit pan so that the inside of the pan will 
set plumb with the shaft. 

5. SIZE OF WATER-PROOF PANS. The outside of a pan 
should set i" back from the line of the shaft, to allow for the re- 
inforcing bands and rivet heads, as shown on Plate No. 3. The 
top of the pan should set 2" below the cellar level, on the door 
side of the shaft, to allow for the projection of the door saddle 
into the shaft, as may also be observed on Plate No. 3. 

Another method of water-proofing pits is shown on Plate No. 4. 
Excavate the sides and bottom of the pit about 12" larger on all 
sides than the size of the shaft and the depth of the pit; the sides 
and bottom thus excavated should be covered with 4" of concrete 
or brick, then covered with a three-ply water-proofing over which 
is placed an 8" covering of concrete or brick. 

6. WATER-PROOFING ELEVATOR MACHINE 
ROOMS. When the machine room adjoins the elevator shaft, the 
water-proofing can be done in the manner shown on Plate No. 5. 
The water-proofing in this case extends below the bottom of the 
machine foundation, as will be noted at " A." It is bad practice 
to place the water-proofing just below the finished cellar level, in 
the area of the machine room, for in order to provide a suitable 
foundation for the machine, it would be necessary to build the 
foundation above the cellar level, which would cause the machine 



ELEVATOR SHAFT PITS n 

to set too high, or else the fastening bolts for the machine would 
penetrate the water-proofing layer. The method of damp-proof- 
ing under the machine room level is illustrated on Plate No. 5 at 
points " B " and " C." This method can be used in localities where 
there is no water pressure, and should be done after the founda- 
tions and bolts for the machine have been set. 

7. DUST-PROOF PIT PANS. When the elevator car starts 
at the first floor and does not serve the cellar, a dust-proof pit pan 
should be provided, suspended below the first floor, as shown on 
Plate No. 6. Such pans should be constructed of not less than 
No. 12 sheet iron and should be reinforced with angles or tees. 

Should the elevator machine be placed in the basement, an open- 
ing should be provided in the pan for the travel of the cables. 
The size and location of these openings should always be obtained 
from the elevator contractor, if another contractor is to install the 
pan. 

8. CHASES IN OFFSETS OF BRICK WALLS FOR 
COUNTERWEIGHTS. When there are offsets in brick walls 
on the inside of an elevator shaft, it is possible to gain the thick- 
ness of the lowest offset, in the size of the car and shaft, by leav- 
ing a pocket in the lowest offset for the counterweights. In hun- 
dreds of instances this has proved an advantage, as it also permits 
the gaining of more space in the hallways of a building. This 
pocket must extend from the top of the lowest offset to the bottom 
of the elevator pit. Special sketches should be made clearly indi- 
cating the number and location of the offsets, also the location for 
the counterweights. See Plate No. 7. The width and exact loca- 
tion of the pocket should be obtained from the elevator contractor. 

9. FRAMING OF ELEVATOR SHAFTS. If shafts are 
constructed of steel framing and terra-cotta blocks, the special 
sketches should show details of the amount of fireproofing and 
plaster covering outside the flanges of beams or backs of channels, 
also the size of the beams or channels and the relation of the, 
terra-cotta block partitions to the inside of the finished shaft. 
Referring to Plate No. 8, it will be observed that the dimension 
lines have been left blank. Where columns adjoin elevator shafts, 
all figures should be given from the column centers, as well as the 
figure from the column center to the outside of the building wall. 
The sections as shown have been taken through the shaft at the 
floor level, and illustrate the method of showing the fireproofing 



12 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

and plaster. Section A-A further illustrates the projection of the 
floor saddles beyond the plaster line in the shaft. 

10. DETAILING THE PLAN OF COLUMNS. In addi- 
tion to the above, special details of columns should be made, show- 
ing the largest column adjoining the shaft, which naturally would 
be the lowest one. The amount of brick or fireproof covering on 
the column should also be shown. 

An effort should be made in laying out the steel framing of 
shafts to keep the flanges of the beams or backs of the channels 
on the different floors, in a plumb line on all sides of the shafts, 
throughout the entire height. 

Sometimes the beams or channels framing the shafts on the 
different floors are of different sizes; this fact should be clearly 
shown on the sketches, if the flanges of beams or backs of chan- 
nels do not set on a plumb line. 

3. ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOMS. 

One of the many difficulties in elevator installation is caused by 
the insufficient size of the machine room; as the machine is the 
heart of the elevator it is therefore essential that the machine room 
provided should be of ample size. 

Should requirements demand that some of the space usually al- 
lotted to the machine room be utilized for other purposes, the ele- 
vator contractor should be consulted as to the special arrangement 
of the machine. 

Sketches should show the location of the machine room in rela- 
tion to the shaft, whether located in the cellar adjoining, under- 
neath the shaft, on any intermediate floor, or over the shaft. 

n. LOCATION OF MACHINES. Electric drum type or 
traction drive machines can be placed in the cellar, basement, di- 
rectly over the shaft, or on any of the intermediate floors. 

Should the floor space in the cellar, basement, or on any of the 
intermediate floors be valuable for rental purposes, it is good prac- 
tice to place the machine directly over the shaft, in which case 
care should be taken in designing the bulkhead or pent house. 

In a majority of instances, the machine room will take up more 
area than the shaft, when the machine is placed directly over it. 
See Plate No. 9 and Plate No. 19. It is sometimes found imprac- 
ticable to use the electric drum type machine directly over the 
shaft in buildings over sixteen stories in height, as the face of 



ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOMS 13 

the drum increases in size according to the height of building, 
thus increasing the width of the machine and causing it to project 
into the space required for adjoining machines. This difficulty 
has been overcome with the advent of the direct and geared trac- 
tion electric elevator machines, as the face of the traction sheaves 
or drums are of one standard width, making them available for 
buildings of any height. 

12. LOCATION OF TRACTION MACHINES. The 
geared traction machine is driven by the driving sheaves, being 
geared to the motor shaft. See Plate No. 10. 

With the direct traction machine the driving sheave is directly 
connected to the motor shaft, requiring no gearing. See Plate 
No. 10. 

The most desirable position for a traction drive machine is 
over the shaft, and a greater number are placed in this position 
than in any other. 

When a traction drive machine is to be placed directly over the 
shaft, the elevator contractor should always be consulted as to the 
size of the room and the height of the bulkhead required. 

Should the traction drive machine be placed in the cellar or on 
any intermediate floor, the elevator contractor should be consulted, 
as this type of installation requires special arrangements. 

The sketch as shown on Plate No. n, illustrates the general 
arrangement of the driving sheaves for a traction drive machine 
when placed over the shaft. Sheave A is directly attached to the 
machine and sheave B is attached to the underside of the machine 
beams. The cables for the traction drive elevator are one con- 
tinuous length. Each cable runs from the top of the crosshead 
on the car, up and over drive sheave A, down and under the de- 
flecting sheave B, up and over drive sheave A, and then down to 
the counterweight. 

13. SETTING OF TRACTION DRIVE SHEAVES. 
Point a on drive sheave A is set directly over the center of the 
lifting point on the car, and point b on deflecting sheave B is set 
directly over the center of the counterweights. 

14. DOORS TO MACHINE ROOMS. In all machine 
rooms, doors of sufficient size to permit any part of the machinery 
to be removed in case of repairs should be allowed for. All parts 
of a machine should be accessible. 

15. MACHINE SUB-BASE. Elevator machine sub-bases 



14 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

are generally made in one piece, with the exception of the double 
gear machines or machines of special design for special work. 
Upon these sub-bases is mounted the motor, brakes, gear cases, and 
drum bearings. 

16. MACHINES UNDER SHAFTS. The distance between 
the cellar and first floor levels is the first consideration, when con- 
templating setting a machine under the shaft. If this height is 
insufficient to place the machine directly under the shaft and still 
maintain the proper depth of the pit pan, the level of the machine 
room can be lower than the level of the cellar to allow for the 
height of the machine over the idler underneath the pit pan, as 
shown on Plate No. 12. 

17. SIZE OF MACHINE ROOMS. On Plate No. 13 is 
given a table showing the sizes of machine rooms, based upon 
actual installations of single and tandem geared drum type ma- 
chines, when placed in cellars, basements, or on any of the inter- 
mediate floors, governed according to the capacity of the machines 
in foot pounds and the diameter and face of the drums. 

The following is a rule for determining the face of the drums: 

F Face of drum. 

R Travel of elevator car in feet. 

C Circumference of drum. 

N Number of cables winding on drum. 1 

W Number of stationary wraps of cables around the drum, 

there being at least two or more lifting cables and two 
counterweight cables fastening on the drum and each 
cable shall have at least one full turn of cable on the 
drum when they have reached their limit of travel. 

G Size of groove on the drum = diameter of cable + -f^". 

I Distance between idlers. 

Formula: F =j (~^~ X N) + WJ X G + I 

Illustration: What is the face of a drum, if the travel of an 
elevator car is i59'-o" ; the diameter of the drum, 34" with two 
" diameter lifting and counterweight cables winding around it? 



1 When the lifting cables are unwound, the counterweight cables are 
wound around the drum and vice versa, which allows the lifting and 
counterweight cables to travel in the same groove. 



ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOMS 15 

Solution: (1) F= 



(2) | (17.83 X 2)+ 



Note : As some elevator contractors figure the face of the drum 
by the multiple of six, it is therefore safe to assume that the an- 
swer to the above would be 36" for the face of the drum. 

The following is a rule for determining the size of a machine 
in foot pounds : 

C live load. 

S speed in F. P. M. 

Formula : C X S = capacity in foot pounds. 

Illustration: What is the size of a machine in foot pounds, if 
the live load is 2,500 pounds and the speed is 200 F. P. M.? 

Solution : 2500 X 200 = 500,000 foot pounds. 

To determine the size of an elevator machine room, the load, 
speed and the distance the elevator car is to travel, are the first 
considerations. Also it must be known whether the machine is to 
be of the single or tandem gear type. (Tandem gear machines 
require more space in the length of the machine room.) 

Illustration : What is the size of an elevator machine room, if 
the machine to be installed is of a single gear type and is to lift 
a live load of 2700 pounds at the speed of 200 F. P. M., the dis- 
tance of the travel of the elevator car being 170 feet? 

Solution : ( i ) 2700 X 200 = 540,000 foot pounds. 

(2) Referring to the table on Plate No. 13, it will 
be observed that 540,000 foot pounds is between 490,000 and 
600,000 foot pounds ; hence the machine capable of 600,000 foot 
pounds will have to be determined upon. However under the 
head of " Travel of Car," (see table), it will be seen that this 
machine is capable of 2o8'-o" of travel of car, with a drum face of 
42", but I7o'-o" of travel of car requires only a 36" drum face, 
which is a saving of 6" in the width of the machine and the ma- 
chine room; therefore the size of the machine room is 

A = 7'-4" and B = n'-o" 
and size of the cable opening is 

C = 4'-io" and D = 8'-4*. 

18. DIRECT LEAD MACHINES. When direct lead ma- 
chines are to be installed, distance B given in the table on Plate 



16 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

No. 13, may be reduced according to the thickness of the shaft 
wall. Also, distance C will have to be increased on account of 
the machine setting full in the opening. This distance is deter- 
mined by the size of the face of the drum and the width of the 
elevator machine. 

When this type of machine installation is to be considered, it is 
best to consult the elevator contractor, as the machines of differ- 
ent manufacturers vary in width as well as in other dimensions. 

4. BULKHEADS. 

The heights of the bulkheads over elevator shafts vary accord- 
ing to the number of sets of sheave beams, the size of the sheaves, 
location of the counterweights in relation to the machines (when 
placed in cellars, basements, or on any intermediate floor), and 
according to the size of the machines when placed over the shafts. 

19. TO OBTAIN LOW BULKHEADS. The height of the 
bulkhead can be considerably shortened by placing the machine op- 
posite the counterweights, when the machine is placed in the cel- 
lar or on any intermediate floor. This arrangement will permit 
the placing of all the sheaves on a single set of beams, provided 
there is a direct lead from the center of the drum on the machine 
to the centers of the car and counterweights. This arrangement 
of the sheave beams is permissible for light loads, whereas for 
heavy loads it is not good practice. See Plate No. 14. 

20. WHEN ELEVATOR CARS LAND AT ROOF 
LEVEL. The tenement house department of New York City 
will not permit a bulkhead to be built to a height of over i5'-o" 
from the top of the roof beams to the top of the steel framing of 
the elevator shafts, and not over 2i'-o" to the peak of the skylights. 
Sometimes it is necessary to have the elevator cars land at the 
roof level, in which case the arrangement of the counterweights 
and machine, as shown on Plate No. 14, is necessary in order to 
have the overhead machinery come within the required limits. 
This means that the top of the supports for the sheave beams 
cannot set over i5'-o" from the top of the roof beams, but the 
sheave beams and sheaves can project above this point into the 
skylight space, as shown on Plate No. 15. 

21. PRACTICAL USE OF SHEAVES. If the span be- 
tween the centers of the car, counterweights or drum is too great 
for a single sheave, thus taking up bulkhead space, two smaller 



BULKHEADS 17 

sheaves can be installed in the space required for the single 
sheave. 

When possible, the use of sheaves less than 30" in diameter for 
f " cables should be avoided, as smaller ones will be detrimental to 
the wear of the cables. It is not good practice to use sheaves less 
than 36" in diameter for f " cables. 

However, there are cases where smaller diameter sheaves must 
be installed. 

22. ROEBLING STANDARD HOISTING ROPE. Stand- 
ard hoisting rope is made of six strands, each of which is formed 
by twisting nineteen wires together, the strands being twisted 
around a hemp center. 

Swedish iron rope is soft, tough and pliable, and will with- 
stand constant bending over small sheaves without breaking the 
wires. 

This rope is especially adapted for passenger service and sim- 
ilar use where the tendency to abrasion is comparatively slight, 
and where the speed is high, the loads moderate, and the arrange- 
ment of the sheaves such as to produce severe bending stresses in 
the rope. 

A higher factor of safety is recommended for elevator service 
than for general hoisting. 

The table given on the following page shows the sizes, etc., of 
Swedish iron rope. 

23. ARRANGEMENT OF CABLES. Plate No. 16 illus- 
trates the arrangement of cables in relation to the machine, car 
and counterweights. The lift cables are those which run from 
the machine and are fastened to the top of the crosshead of the 
car; the car counterweight cables are those that run from the 
top of the crosshead of the car to the top section of the counter- 
weights ; the machine counterweight cables are those that run 
from the machine to the bottom section of the counterweights. 

24. OVERHEAD GRATING. The local regulations of dif- 
ferent localities require that a grating be installed in all elevator 
shafts, just below the overhead machinery. The overhead grating 
should be constructed and properly supported to sustain the weight 
of several men, and in all cases to conform with the requirements 
of the local regulations. 

25. SKYLIGHTS OVER SHAFTS. The legal regulations 
of New York City require that all inclosed elevator shafts shall 



i8 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.I) 



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have a skylight over the shaft with an area at least equal to three- 
fourths that of the shaft, and shall be made of glass, set in iron 
frames. Wire-glass must not be used, owing to the difficulty of 
fire forcing its way through the skylight. Even though the legal 
regulations of certain localities do not require skylights, they 
should be provided. 

26. COUNTERWEIGHTS PLACED AT RIGHT ANGLES 
TO MACHINE. Plate No. 17 shows counterweights placed on 
the rear of the car with the machine located to one side; thus re- 
quiring three sets of sheave beams. The size of the shaft shown 
in 5'-o" by 6'-o". 

An elevation of this arrangement is shown on Plate No. 18, 
illustrating the method of figuring the height of the bulkhead, 
which is always figured from the top landing of the elevator car. 

The size of the sheaves as shown has been determined by their 
relation to the centers of the lifting points on the machine, car 
and counterweights. To determine the height of the first set of 
supports, distance " D " (which is the projection of the lift sheave 
below the bottom of the sheave beams) must be added to the height 
of the car, headroom and space for grating. 



ELEVATOR SHAFTS AND CARS 19 

The intermediate set of sheave beams is for the support of the 
car counterweight sheave. These beams are supported at one side 
by the lift sheave beams, being- blocked up from them by pipe 
blocks in order that the car counterweight sheave may clear the 
top of the lift sheave beams. The other ends of the intermediate 
beams are shown on Plate No. 17 supported by the brick wall. 

The machine counterweight sheave beams are the top set, being 
supported at one end by a channel and at the other end by a brick 
wall. 

Supporting channels marked 1-2-3 ( see Plate 17) should 
be furnished and set by the iron contractor and the sheave beams 
A, B, C together with the pipe blocks (see Plate 18) should be 
furnished and set by the elevator contractor. 

27. MACHINES PLACED OVER SHAFTS. When ma- 
chines are placed over elevator shafts, the heights of the bulk- 
heads are invariably increased several feet more than when the 
machines are placed below. Plate No. 19 shows the arrangement 
of the bulkhead when the machine is placed over the shaft, as 
shown on the plan on Plate No. 9, the size of the shaft being 
5'-6" deep by 6'-o" in length. The idlers as shown on Plate No. 
19 are not required for this layout, as the span between the lift- 
ing points on the car and counterweights fit the diameter of the 
drum as shown. They have been represented to illustrate the ad- 
ditional height of the lower supporting channels, in case these 
must be used to carry the machine counterweight cables to the 
lifting point on the counterweights, in cases where the span be- 
tween the lifting point on the car and counterweights is too great 
for the diameter of the drum. 

5. SIZES OF ELEVATOR SHAFTS AND CARS. 

The sizes of elevator shafts depend largely upon the general 
conditions of the design of any building, such as the exigencies of 
space brought about by the shape of the building plot and the 
necessary disposition of columns. 

28. SIZE OF PASSENGER CARS. The size of these cars 
is determinate upon the number of passengers, including the op- 
erator. The average weight of a person has been established at 
150 pounds per passenger, which corresponds therefore to a live 
load of 75 pounds per square foot of interior car space, or plat- 
form area, an allowance of 2 square feet per average passenger. 



20 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

The diagram as shown on Plate No. 20 shows the clearances 
required between the outside of the car and the sides of the shaft. 
The average thickness of the car enclosures is figured at about i". 

The clearances for counterweights vary according to their thick- 
ness and the space available for them. 

The table as shown on Plate No. 21 affords information as to 
the number of passengers that can be carried, including operator, 
figured according to the interior size of the cars. 

29. SIZE OF FREIGHT ELEVATOR CARS. The size of 
these cars should be established according to the kind of freight 
to be carried. 

30. GUIDING. When side guides are used, a clearance of at 
least 5" is required, between the sides of the car and the finished 
shaft. Should two or more cars run in the same shaft, a beam 
should be provided between each car at the floor levels for the 
support of the side guides. Side guides cannot be used when 
shafts have right angle entrances, as one of the guides would set 
directly in the center of one of the entrances. 

The clearances required when corner guides are used are shown 
on Plate No. 20. 

The construction of the elevator shaft for the installation of the 
plunger type of elevator is similar to that of the electric drum type, 
requiring no more than the regular clearances for the guides and 
counterweights, etc. 

The hydraulic type of elevator requires a greater amount of 
space, in addition to the car than that for the electric drum type, 
where the cylinders are installed in the same shaft. However, 
should the cylinders be placed in a separate shaft in another sec- 
tion of the building, the clearances between the car and the shaft 
will be no more than those required for the electric drum type, ex- 
cepting on the side of the car where the cylinders or counter- 
weights would ordinarily be placed, this clearance may be 3", pro- 
viding that a car guide is not placed on this side, in which case 
the clearance should be no less than 5". 

The amount of space required for machinery, etc., for these 
types of elevator installations is far in excess of that required for 
the electric drum type. 

When an architect or owner contemplates installing either the 
plunger or hydraulic type of elevator, the manufacturer must be 
consulted, as to the space required for the machinery, boilers, 



ELEVATOR SHAFT DOORS 21 

tanks, cylinders, etc., in order to provide ample room, in preparing 
the plans for them. 

6. ELEVATOR SHAFT DOORS. 

In designing an elevator shaft, careful consideration should be 
given to the style of door which shall be best adapted to the par- 
ticular kind of elevator to be installed. 

Suitable width of door openings should be provided, so as to 
render ingress and egress as free as possible. 

It may, therefore, be unhesitatingly assumed that for effective 
service and rapid schedules, the proper style of door will be an 
element of importance and unless it be adequately proportioned, 
the door will have a restrictive effect upon the service. Naturally 
the same remark applies to the use of unduly heavy doors and of 
inaccessible and sluggish door fastenings. The elevator contrac- 
tor should be consulted concerning the location of elevator door 
openings. 

Proper allowances should be made for the projection of floor 
saddles into the shafts, which the many different types of doors 
govern; namely, combination slide and swing doors, single slide 
doors, double doors sliding in the same direction, double doors 
sliding in opposite directions, double swing doors, up and down 
doors and automatic up and down doors. 

31. COMBINATION SLIDE AND SWING DOORS. 
This type of door is most commonly used in apartment houses, 
loft and office buildings, being adapted for both passenger and 
freight service. 

Where walls and partitions on the door sides of the shaft are 
of ample thickness to permit the operation of the doors in the 
thickness of the walls or partitions, the saddle projection can be 
from y to i" beyond the finished line of the shaft, as may be ob- 
served on Plate No. 22. 

The advantage gained by this projection is that it allows for 
the plumbing of the saddles, should there be any unevenness in 
the walls or partitions, a condition which is likely to occur during 
the course of erection. 

When grille enclosures are set close to the shafts, the saddle 
projections must be great enough to permit the proper operation 
of sliding doors inside the finished line of the shaft. The swing- 
ing section of a door can be operated in the thickness of the grille 



22 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

shaft enclosure. Sheet iron fascias must be carried from the under- 
side of the nosings of the saddles to a connecting point on the 
floor construction below, as illustrated on Plate No. 23. 

32. SINGLE SLIDE DOORS. Single slide doors are gen- 
erally used for passenger service where it is not intended to carry 
freight. This type of door can be operated in a manner sim- 
ilar to the sliding door section of the combination doors ; the 
swinging section being made a stationary door or panel. 

The saddle projection beyond the finished line of the shaft is 
similar to those for the combination doors. 

Another method of operating these doors is to build partitions 
in place of the stationary doors or panels, as shown on Plate No. 24. 

33. DOUBLE DOORS SLIDING IN THE SAME DIREC- 
TION. The use of these doors will be readily appreciated as 
suitable for rapid work, as they render ingress and egress of pas- 
sengers as free as possible. The arrangement of these doors may 
be observed on Plate No. 25. 

Careful consideration should be given to the designing of the 
fronts of the elevator shaft and floor saddle for these doors, as the 
double sliding doors slide behind a stationary door or panel, there- 
fore occupying space of three thicknesses, in addition to the clear- 
ances required between the doors and stationary section. 

34. DOUBLE DOORS_ SLIDING IN OPPOSITE DIREC- 
TIONS. These doors slide in opposite directions to one another, 
as can be observed on Pla4e No. 26, and should be provided with 
a mechanical device by which they can be made to move at equal 
distances from the center line between them by the operation of 
either door. The panels or partitions behind which they slide 
should be as wide as, the doors or several inches wider, if the width 
of the shaft will permit. 

35. DOUBLE SWING DOORS. Double swing doors are 
used mostly for freight service. The door that is to swing first 
should be indicated on the drawings, as the gate on the car is 
placed behind the door to swing last. The door which should 
swing first is generally the right hand door, facing from the in- 
side of the shaft. There may be other conditions existing around 
the shaft, in which case this rule could not be applied. The saddle 
projection into the shaft should be at least ". See Plate No. 25. 

36. UP AND DOWN HAND CONTROLLED DOORS. 



AUTOMATIC PUSH BUTTON ELEVATORS 23 

This type of door is used for freight service. They should be 
clearly indicated on the drawings and the projection between the 
finished shaft and the side of the door nearest the car should be 
given. | This distance is determined by the thickness of the doors 
and the clearance required for them from the finished shaft. Re- 
fer to the article on Automatic Doors for the clearances required. 
Paragraph 129. 

37. HARDWARE ON DOORS. The hardware used for 
locking or operating the doors should be accessible and free in 
operation, as inaccessible and sluggish door fastenings will be a 
hindrance to rapid service. No hardware should project beyond 
the line of the saddles. 

7. AUTOMATIC PUSH BUTTON ELEVATORS. 

Legal restrictions are established in certain localities, especially 
in the Boroughs of Greater New York, confining the installation 
of automatic push button elevators to use in private residences. 

38. OPERATION. Automatic elevators are operated by 
means of a bank of push buttons located in the car, the markings 
of which designate the respective floors in the building. The 
pressing of any of these buttons will start the machine, causing 
the car to move toward the floor designated by the button thus 
pressed. The stopping of the car at this floor is automatic, being 
regulated by the magnets on the machine. In addition to the 
bank of push buttons on the car, there is placed on the outside of 
the shaft on each floor, adjoining the door, a single push button 
which is used to bring the elevator car to that floor. 

Before the car can be operated, all the shaft doors and the 
gate on the car must be closed, thus connecting all contacts elec- 
trically connected to the machine, as the shaft doors and the gate 
on the car are controlled by switches. 

In order to insure the perfect operation of this type of elevator, 
care should be taken that the shaft is designed to suit the require- 
ments of a particular elevator contractor's door locks. 

An alarm bell should be installed in the servants' quarters or 
kitchen, operated by a separate push button in the car, to be used 
in case the car should stop between floors owing to some inter- 
ruption of the current. 

When wood car enclosures are used in private houses, the ele- 
vator shaft should be properly ventilated to insure against the 



24 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

warping and shrinking of the car enclosures, due to the different 
temperatures in the building. 

8. ELEVATOR CAR CONTROLS. 

There are five different kinds of elevator car controls. The 
hand rope, lever and hand wheel are mechanical controls, and the 
switch and push buttons are electric controls. 

39. CLEARANCES REQUIRED IN THE SHAFT. The 
mechanisms of the electric switch and push button controls occa- 
sion no addition to the usual clearance between the elevator car 
and the sides of the shaft, as these devices are placed within the 
car. 

40. HAND ROPE CONTROL. The hand rope control 
(which may be used for speeds up to 150 F. P. M.) when placed 
inside of elevator cars, does not require any more than the regular 
clearance. If it should be placed outside of the car, it is advisable 
to have not less than 3" clearance between the sides of the car and 
the shaft. 

41. LEVER AND HAND WHEEL CONTROL. The lever 
and hand wheel controls require clearances of 4" to 5^" between 
the car and the sides of the shaft, if the operating sheaves are 
placed outside of the car. 

9. SIDEWALK ELEVATORS. 

Many difficulties have been experienced with the installation of 
sidewalk elevators. 

The main difficulty has been caused by not providing proper 
space for the machines. 

There are numerous positions in which the machine can be set 
in relation to the shaft. 

42. MACHINE AT END OF SHAFT. The most common 
method is to place the machine at one end of the shaft, with the 
drums directly under the car platform, as shown on Plate No. 27. 

With this arrangement the machine can be placed either upon 
the floor level of the machine room with the drum shaft connected 
to the machine by means of gears, or in a pit the same depth as 
the car pit, with the drum shaft directly connected to the machine, 
as can be observed on Plate No. 27. 

43. CHAIN LIFTS. Sidewalk elevators are mostly raised 
and lowered by means of chains fastened at the four corners of 



SIDEWALK ELEVATORS 25 

the car platform and guided by an angle set in each of the corners 
of the shaft. The chains extend from the lifting angles on the 
bottom of the car platform to the sheaves on the sidebars (which 
set just below the sidewalk level). The two chains which pass 
over the sheaves on each side of the shaft are joined together. At 
this point a single chain extends down to the drums and is fas- 
tened. This is illustrated by the diagrammatical sketch shown on 
Plate No. 28. 

44. SIDEWALK FRAME. The frame which supports the 
doors at the sidewalk level should be made to cover the sidebars, 
which set just below on either side of the shaft. It is very bad 
practice to have the sidebars set out in the opening of the frame. 

The space required for the sidebars, between the edge of the 
frame and the side of the shaft, varies from 4" to 6". 
The car should clear the frame on all sides by i" '. 
The car pit should be made the same area as the shaft. 

45. MACHINE AT SIDE OF SHAFT. The position of the 
machine as shown on Plate No. 29, is used when both ends of the 
car are the only means of access from the cellar or sub-cellar. 

With this arrangement the machine is placed between the drums 
which set outside the line of the shaft. 

The machine and drums can be set upon the cellar or sub-cellar 
floor level. Should the floor space in the cellar or sub-cellar be 
valuable for coal storage or other purposes, it is possible to set 
the machine and drums in the same relative position to the shaft, 
upon a platform just below the sidewalk or cellar level. For illus- 
tration of this arrangement see Plate No. 30. 

46. MACHINE ON PLATFORM. If the machine should 
be placed upon a platform, as described above, a clear headroom 
of not less than 6'-o" should be allowed between the base of the 
machine and the underside of the sidewalk or cellar. 

As shown on Plate No. 29, distances A and B vary according to 
the length of the drums. The faces of the drums for this type of 
elevator are twice as long as those used for the type shown on 
Plate No. 27, because there are two chains to wind on each drum. 

Distance C is from the inside of the sidewalk frame to the 
back of the channel support just below the sidewalk level, and is 
determined by the location of the lifting point on the car as shown 
on the elevation on Plate No. 31 ; the maximum distance being 

" when sheaves 8" in diameter are used. 



26 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

Spaces D and E are required between the back of the channel 
(just below the sidewalk level) and the face of the brick wall or 
partition, where it returns in the machine room, for the travel of 
the chains or cable across the face of the drums, when the drums 
are centered upon the sidebars as shown on Plate No. 29. 

The space of 6" as noted at each end of the shaft on Plate No. 
29, and also on Plate No. 32, is allowed between the inside edge of 
the sidewalk frame and the face of the shaft. It is the smallest 
space that can be used (with this type of installation) for the 
sidebars and guides, in order to keep them clear of the frame open- 
ing. 

If the space for any type of sidewalk elevator is limited, it is 
always the best policy to consult the elevator contractor as to the 
best possible arrangement. 

47. DOORS OR COVER AT SIDEWALK. Upon the plat- 
forms of all sidewalk lifts there should be provided either a hoop 
or telescopic stand pipes for lifting the sidewalk doors or cover. 
The clear height under this hoop, or between the platform and the 
sidewalk doors if stand pipes are used, should not be less than 6'-o". 

It is not advisable to install telescopic stand pipes upon the 
sidewalk elevator platforms for lifting the sidewalk covers, when 
the platform travel is over 15' between the lowest landing and the 
sidewalk level. The greatest height of the lower stand pipes, in 
this instance, would be 8'-o" which means that the sidewalk cover 
would be raised 8'-o" above the sidewalk when the platform has 
reached its limit of travel. 

Should the sidewalk cover be raised higher than 8'-o" above the 
sidewalk, the unsightly, elongated contrivance would probably mar 
the architectural design of the building, or interfere with cornices 
or projecting ornament about the first story level. 

It is suggested that when the travel of the platform is over 
i5'-o", the hoop contrivance for lifting the sidewalk doors be in- 
stalled in preference to the stand pipes. 

The net load which the platform is to lift should be specified, 
exclusive of the weight of the bows, stand pipes and sidewalk 
covers. The elevator contractor should make allowance for the 
extra weight of the bows, stand pipes and sidewalk covers, when 
figuring the capacity of the machine. 

Plate No. 33 illustrates the method of using the hoop for lift- 
ing the sidewalk doors, and Plate No. 34 illustrates the method of 



AUTOMOBILE ELEVATORS 27 

arranging stand pipes for lifting the sidewalk cover. In this in- 
stance the cover must be made in one piece, as the stand pipes are 
all one height and must therefore lift the sidewalk cover from the 
four corners. 

It will be observed from this illustration that the travel of the 
platform is i2'-o" between the cellar and the sidewalk, therefore to 
obtain 7'-o" of space between the platform and the sidewalk cover, 
the lower sections of the pipes must be 7'-o" high. 

These lower sections are fastened by means of pipe flanges to 
the four corners of the platform, being braced on all four sides 
at the top as shown. The upper sections are fastened to the side- 
walk cover at the four corners and are merely used for guides 
for the lower sections. They should extend into the lower sec- 
tions not less than 6" ' . 

Where the travel of the platform is S'-o" or less, the stand pipes 
should be made in one section, fastened to the platform and side- 
walk cover, being braced at the top on all four sides. Care should 
be taken that the sidewalk covers clear the show window line when 
the sidewalk shafts set in front of them. 

10. AUTOMOBILE ELEVATORS, OR GARAGE IN- 
STALLATIONS. 

Before designing shafts for automobile elevators, the styles of 
automobiles which are to be carried should be decided upon, which 
will determine the size of the elevator cars, shafts and capacities. 

The elevator car should be large enough both in width and 
length, and also high enough under its crosshead, to accommodate 
the largest size of automobile likely to be carried. 

Entrances should be provided for at each end of the shaft on 
all floors, to allow for quick loading and unloading of automobiles. 
These openings should be protected with fire doors. 

If fireproof swing doors are installed to be used only in event 
of fire, the entrances to the shaft should be protected with auto- 
matic gates. 

Automatic doors and gates operate between the ends of the cars 
and the sides of the shafts. Proper space should be provided for 
them. See Paragraph 127 for clearances required for automatic 
doors and gates. 

Should the shaft be placed against a wall, when the offsets in 
the wall are on the inside of the elevator shaft, a pocket can be 



28 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

provided in the offsets for the counterweights, thus saving from 
4" to 8" in the size of the shaft. For illustration see Plate 
No. 35. 

48. LOCATION OF MACHINES. The machine for this 
type of elevator is placed directly over the shaft, as the fire laws 
do not permit it to be placed in the basement unless extra pre- 
cautions are taken in fireproofing all openings from the machine 
room to the shaft, which makes a more expensive installation. 

In a majority of instances the machine will project beyond one 
side of the shaft when placed overhead, which requires that the 
bulkhead walls directly in the rear of the machine be built inde- 
pendently from the shaft walls as shown on Plate No. 35. 

An elevator contractor should always be consulted as to the size 
of the machine room and height of bulkhead required, when the 
installation of an automobile elevator is contemplated. 

Wheel guards should be provided upon the elevator car plat- 
form to keep the automobile symmetrically located and to prevent 
it from running into and damaging the sides of the elevator car or 
the automobile itself. 

ii. SPECIAL TYPES OF ELEVATOR INSTALLA- 
TIONS. 

49. UNDER-GEARED TYPE OF ELEVATOR. The un- 
der-geared type of elevator is used where it is necessary to keep 
the overhead machinery below the ceiling of the floor which is 
intended to be the top landing. 

It is essential in this case, on account of the limited headroom, 
that the overhead sheaves be set to one side of the car, as can 
be observed on Plate No. 36, to allow for the clear headroom re- 
quired above the top of the elevator car. 

With this type of elevator, the lifting cables are fastened at the 
top of the shaft. From this point they extend down under the 
sheaves on the bottom of the car and up to the overhead sheaves 
and then down to the machine, as shown on Plate No. 37. 

In this case a machine is required having a speed twice that at 
which the car travels, in order to take up the double length of 
cables. The counterweights also must be geared. 

The sidewalk type of elevator is occasionally used within build- 
ings, especially in stores or banks, where it is essential to do away 
with overhead machinery below the tops of partitions or railings, 



ELECTRIC DUMBWAITERS 29 

in order to preserve the architectural design, or to economize space. 

50. OTHER TYPES OF ELEVATOR INSTALLA- 
TIONS. There are also several methods of installing baggage 
lifts in railroad stations, where it is necessary to keep the bulk- 
head of the elevator shaft as low as possible so as to avoid mar- 
ring the architectural design of the station canopies. 

Many other methods of special elevator installation are em- 
ployed to meet unusual conditions which it is unnecessary to dis- 
cuss here. When a special method of installing an elevator is 
to be considered, it is always best to consult an elevator contractor 
and get the benefit of his experience in solving intricate mechan- 
ical problems. 

12. ELECTRIC DUMBWAITERS. 

51. DUMBWAITER SHAFTS. Legal restrictions as to the 
construction of dumbwaiter shafts are established in certain locali- 
ties. Such is the case in the Boroughs comprising Greater New 
York City. It is stated in the building code, section 97, that all 
dumbwaiter shafts, except such as do not extend more than three 
stories above the cellar or basement in dwelling houses, shall be 
inclosed in suitable walls of brick or burnt clay blocks, set in iron 
frames of proper strength, or fireproof blocks strengthened with 
metal dowels, or such other fireproof material and form of con- 
struction as may be approved by the Commissioner of Buildings 
having jurisdiction. Said walls or construction shall extend at 
least 3'-o" above the roof and be covered with a skylight at least 
three-fourths the area of the shaft, made with metal frames and 
glazed. All openings in the enclosure walls or construction shall 
be provided with self-closing, fireproof doors. When the shaft 
does not extend to the floor level of the lowest story, the bottom 
of the shaft shall be constructed of fireproof material. 

52. LOCATION OF DUMBWAITER MACHINES. The 
machines for dumbwaiters can be placed in positions similar to 
elevator machines, and their methods of installation are generally 
similar. 

53. METHODS OF GUIDING. The guides for dumbwaiters 
can be set at the sides or corners of the cars. There is also the 
wall-climbing arrangement; the guides for the cars or counter- 
weights being placed on the rear or sides of the shafts as illus- 
trated on Plate No. 38. 

54. DOORS TO SHAFTS. The most suitable and convenient 



30 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

style of door for the dumbwaiter shaft is the type which slides 
up, as it is more readily operated than any other and will not in 
any way interfere with rapid service. These doors should slide 
up into pockets built in the thickness of the partition, as shown on 
Plate No. 39. It is good practice to have a sill projection beyond 
the inside face of the door to allow for the plumbing of the front 
of the shaft on the inside and to insure a regular clearance be- 
tween the sill and car at each opening. 

55. OPERATION AND AUTOMATIC FEATURES. 
The dumbwaiter can be operated in many ways, which vary ac- 
cording to the kind of service for which it is intended. 

A bank of push buttons marked according to the number of 
floors which the dumbwaiter is to serve can be placed at each 
landing. The pressing of any of these buttons on any floor will 
either dispatch or call the dumbwaiter to or from any floor. This 
system is often installed in manufacturing buildings where it may 
be required to send small amounts of material frequently from 
floor to floor in the process of manufacture. 

In the apartment houses, the service of dumbwaiters is princi- 
pally for the use of the trades-people or janitor. In this case all 
that is required are call and dispatch buttons in each apartment 
and a bank of push buttons in the basement or cellar, marked ac- 
cording to the number of apartments which the dumbwaiter is to 
serve. This system also can be used to good advantage in hotels 
and hospitals, with a simple change of the location of the bank of 
push buttons to the room from which it is intended to serve the 
different floors. 

When the dumbwaiter is intended to serve but two floors, such 
as is generally the case in private houses, where it connects the 
kitchen and the dining room, and in markets and restaurants, all 
that is required is a bank of buttons on each floor marked " UP " 
and "DOWN." 

56. AUTOMATIC LOCKS AND SWITCHES. For per- 
fect operation and control of dumbwaiters, automatic locks and 
switches are essential. The installation of the locks will insure 
against the opening of the shaft doors, while the car is in motion. 

The doors can only be opened when the car has stopped at a 
floor. The locks of the doors are automatically controlled by the 
car, on which a cam is placed to open the locks when the car has 
reached its destination and the doors cannot be opened except by 



MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 31 

action of this cam. The car cannot be called to another floor until 
the door has been closed, thereby closing the switch controlling 
the operation. 

An elevator contractor should always be consulted as to the 
types of push buttons and locks that are to be installed, so that 
proper arrangements can be made for them in the construction 
of the shafts. 

13. MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS. 

57. SELECTION OF ELEVATOR CAR ENCLOSURES. 
The selection of elevator car enclosures has been found at times 
to be quite a difficult problem. 

The locality, and the class of building in which the elevator is 
to be installed should be the guiding features for determining the 
amount to be expended for the enclosures exclusive of the car 
platforms. 

It is a safe rule that in ordinary loft or office buildings, hotels 
or apartment houses, the amount to be expended for the passenger 
car enclosure should never exceed $250 and for the service or 
freight car enclosure, $200. 

In better class office buildings, hotels or apartment houses, the 
cost of the enclosures might be limited to $400 for the passenger 
car and $250 for the service car. 

For first class office buildings, hotels or apartment houses, 
the cost of the enclosures should depend largely upon the design 
and quality of material used throughout the building. 

For this class of buildings, the allowance for the cost of the 
passenger car enclosure might be estimated at a minimum of $500 
each and for the service or freight car enclosures at a minimum of 
$300 each. The more expensive enclosures are governed accord- 
ing to the design and the quality of workmanship and material, 
and are subject to special estimate. 

Private house car enclosures are generally of special design. 
When wood enclosures are to be installed, the allowance should 
never be less than $300. 

58. STYLE OF ELEVATOR CAR ENCLOSURES. Ele- 
vator car enclosures may be constructed of iron, bronze or wood, 
and should in all cases conform to the local regulations. 

59. IRON CAR ENCLOSURES. The iron car enclosures 



32 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. i) 

are most generally installed, both in ordinary buildings and in the 
more expensive buildings, as they can be designed and finished ac- 
cording to the amount to be expended, to suit all tastes. 

60. BRONZE CAR ENCLOSURES. The bronze car en- 
closures are only used in the most expensive buildings, where it 
is required that all materials shall be of the first quality. 

61. WOOD CAR ENCLOSURES. The wood car enclosures 
are generally installed in hotels, apartment and private houses, and 
are no doubt the best suited for this class of buildings, as they can} 
be designed and finished to meet all conditions at a less cost than 
bronze. In all cases the wood car enclosures should be fire- 
proofed on the outside with sheet iron, irrespective of the legal 
requirements of the different localities. 

62. FINISH OF CAR ENCLOSURES. Iron car enclosures 
can be electro-bronze-plated in all colors of bronze, or can be 
painted in any color. 

The bronze car enclosures can be plated in any color, but they 
are best if left in their natural color. 

A great many prefer the wood car enclosure finished in white 
enamel, but there is one draw-back it becomes easily soiled, es- 
pecially in hotels or apartment houses. The enclosure is much 
richer in appearance if built of quartered oak, mahogany or Cir- 
cassion walnut and left in the natural state of the wood, with just 
the required number of coats of wax, shellac or varnish. 

63. SPACE BETWEEN BARS AND MESH WORK. 
Local regulations should govern the space between the bars or 
mesh work of iron or bronze car enclosures. In the Boroughs 
comprising New York City the elevator regulations do not permit 
more than i" of space between the bars or mesh work, where scroll 
work is not used, and not more than ij" between the bars or mesh 
work where scroll work is used. 

64. LOWER WAINSCOT OF IRON OR BRONZE CAR 
ENCLOSURES. The lower wainscot of iron or bronze car en- 
closures is most generally built 3'-Q" to 4'-o" above the platform, 
when the upper wainscot is built of grille work. In office or loft 
buildings, the lower wainscot of the car enclosures with grille 
work above, may be built any height, but in hotels, apartment and- 
private houses it should never be less than 3'-9". Should they be 
made less there is a possibility of persons (especially children) 
slipping their hands or fingers through the bars or mesh work, 



MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 33 

and being injured by the counterweights or other mechanisms in 
the shaft. 

65. TRAP DOORS IN CARS. In the Boroughs comprising 
Greater New York City, as well as in other localities, the elevator 
regulations require a trap door in the canopies of every passen- 
ger elevator, to be of such a size as to afford easy egress for pas- 
sengers, or where two cars are in the same shaft, such means of 
egress may be provided in the sides of each car. 

When it is possible, it is very good practice to provide for these 
trap doors, even though the legal regulations of different localities 
do not require them. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION *'' '"35 



CELLAR 





a 
1 



P/T 




^?^^^ 

Plate i.~ Headroom Underneath Pit Pans. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 






tOrtLr/t TO* /*/7- 




Plate 2. Footings for Columns and Foundations Below the Bottom of Eleva- 
tor Shaft Pits. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION v,,jj8: 



i 

xi 

3 
8 



m 





m 



a 



fe 
tt$ 
ft?&i. 
"tofy* 



&y 



3&&3iBSlk 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION \ , /;- U15 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION'"' "' : ~43 






te?^ 



:.& 

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to 
c 
y=: 



ft 



i:*S 



J. 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 





02 

*& H 



ELEVATOR SP1 AFT CONSTRUCTION'/' ;, ; 47:*; >,,"; : 




y 



Plate 7. Chase in Wall for Counterweights. 



ELE VA TOR SHAFT CONST R UCTION 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




Plate g.' Plan of an Elevator Machine Over Shaft. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION '>'<"'< 5$ - v 




GEAR 



CASE 







ii 



9 



Plate 10. Geared Traction and Direct Traction Elevator Machines. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



55 




Plate ii. Arrangement of Sheaves for Traction Drive Machines Over Shaft. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



57 




:ryv-- ' '* '*''-''!*'*?. r s-"- ,p_- 
////// //'////'///// / / //// 

Plate 12. Elevator Machine Underneath Pit. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




FOOT FOMOS. 



4-5. OOO 



66. 000 



. ooo 



, ooo 



490, ooo 



00, ooo 



Boo, ooo 



24 



26 



3o" 



38 



4T 



24 



3o" 



30 



36" 



42" 



4-Z 



TAAftL 



'05V 



W- 



DtA. 
CA8l 



3 /4 



4-0" 



6'6" 



8-0 



Go 



7 : 8 



8^0" 



8-/o 



/y 



1 





*r^ 

-'1 






2- 



4'o 



7'f 



8'-* 



WOTH 



r/t/s 

/ S e/ 
W/LL 



Plate 13. Table Giving Sizes of Elevator Machine Rooms and Cable 
Openings. 



ELEVATOR SPIAFT CONSTRUCTION 




Plate 14. Arrangement of Sheave Beams for Low Bulkheads. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 

TO/ 9 Cf 



63 




Plate 15. Elevation of Bulkhead when the Roof is the Top Landing. 



ELE VA TOR SHA FT CONSTR UCTION \ t . A 65 




Plate 16. Arrangement of Cables. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION . 67 




MACHINE THIS 



Plate 17. Arrangement of Sheave Beams when Counterweights are Placed 
at Right Angles to Machine. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION-'" :. : 69 




Plate 18. Height of Bulkhead Required for a Given Size Shaft, 
when Counterweights are Placed at Right Angles to Machine. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




Plate 19. Height of Bulkhead Required for a Given Size Shaft, 
when Machine is Placed Over Shaft. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION : 




Plate 20. Clearances Between Elevator Car and Sides of Shaft. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



/MTEKJOK 
S/ZF of 
CMS 


se ^f r 

ftoo/t 
SPACf 


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Of 

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ki 
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\3*5 

II 

. \l 

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ll 

II 


2-O"x4'-O 


8 


4 


600 


2-6"x4 : 0" 


/O 


S 


7SO 


3-0"x 4-0" 


/Z 


6 


9OO 


3-6"x 4-0" 


/4 


7 


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4'0~X 4-'O" 


/6 


8 


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4 : 0"x4'-6" 


/8 


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4 : o"x<5-0" 


20 


/O 


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4'0"^-6" 


22 


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/6SO 


4-0" x 6-0" 


24 


/Z 


/800 


4-'0"x 6-6" 


26 


/3 


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4-0"x7-'o" 


28 


/4 


21 OO 


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30 


/~ 


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5 : 6"x 6-0" 


JJ 


/6 


24 OO 


6-3 "x 6-0" 


34.S 


/7 


2S60 


6-0"x6-0" 


36- 


/8 


2700 


6 : 0'x6'-6" 


39 


/9 


2850 


6 : 3"x6-6" 


40.6 


20 


300O 



Plate 21. Table Giving the Number of Passengers that can be 
Carried According to the Area of a Car in Square Feet. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



77 





%T w" 

%$*!* 

#*?.'. 

%!*&^~ 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



79 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



81 




c/ 






ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 





ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



TXxXXXXXXXXXX 




t r 




ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION ' 87 







P 




Plate 27. Sidewalk Elevator Machine at one End of Shaft, with Drums Un- 
derneath Car Platform. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




Plate 28. Arrangement of Lifting Chains for 
Sidewalk Elevators. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION^^ /:<, \ jt t)t 




Plate 29. Sidewalk Elevator Machine and Drums Setting upon the Cellar or 
Sub-cellar Level or upon a Special Platform. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



93 




LJOOfK 




(J//// //'// 

Plate 30. Elevation Showing Sidewalk Machine Setting upon a 
Special Platform. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



95 




Plate 31. Elevation of Sidewalk Elevator Shaft, with Machine Setting upon 
the Cellar, Sub-cellar or Platform Level. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




I 




Plate 32. Clearances Required for Side-bars Between Side of Sidewalk Shaft 
and Inside Edge of Frame. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION \ 99 



07/77 





s 



Plate 33. Hoop for Lifting Sidewalk Covers. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



n i 


T - 




i ( 




i 

: ^ 


- -\^ yy \x /s' \v ~7~7 \\. 1" 


t> 


1 1 




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Plate 34. Stand Pipes for Lifting Sidewalk Covers. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




Plate 35. Plan of Machine Room Over Shaft for Automobile Elevators. 



ELEVATOR S PI AFT CONSTRUCTION. 



105 




Plate 36. Typical Layout and Plan of the Under-geared Type of Elevator. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION.' 107 



&3&l/83B&8&mK!BU 




Plate 37. Elevation Showing Arrangement of Sheaves and Cables 
for the Under-geared Type of Elevator. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



toe, 



*garas^^ 




Plate 38. Plan of Dumbwaiter Shaft Showing Wall-climbing Arrangement 
of Guides. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION "iii 

r 





Plate 39. Elevation of Dumbwaiter Shaft, Show- 
ing Slide-up Doors. 



CHAPTER II 

Specifications for Elevator Work 

The need of a set of elevator specifications that would be suit- 
able for use in connection with an ordinary elevator installation 
where economy is the prime factor, has no doubt been felt by 
many architects. 

The specifications for complete elevator installations as here- 
with presented, have been prepared as a guide, and have been di- 
vided into two sets : a short specification which deals with a single 
machine with simplified equipment; and a more elaborate installa- 
tion which covers elevator machines of several different types with 
elaborate equipment. 

i. SHORT SPECIFICATION FORM FOR ELE- 
VATOR WORK. * 

66. GENERAL CONDITIONS. The contractor is to fur- 
nish and install one electric passenger elevator in accordance with 
the following specifications : x 

67. SHAFT. The shaft and all necessary protection from 
the weather, and proper support for the overhead sheave beams 
will be provided by the owner under another contract. The size 
of the shaft should be specified. 

68. PIT. The owner will provide the necessary pit of proper 
depth below the lowest landing. Minimum depth is to be 3'-6". 

69. OVERHEAD BEAMS. The contractor is to supply and 
erect the necessary beams for the support of the overhead sheaves. 
These are to be of steel of proper size and strength for the work 
they are to perform. All beams supported by brick walls are to 
have iron plates under them at bearing points. 



1 Refer to longer specification for more elaborate form. Paragraph 94. 



H4 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n) 

70. FOUNDATIONS. The contractor is to build a founda- 
tion for the elevator machine. It must be built of concrete com- 
posed of one part Portland cement, three parts of sharp sand and 
five parts broken stone, and is to start 2'-6" below the level of the 
floor and extend up flush with the floor. The excavation is to be 
done by the owner. 

71. ANCHOR BOLTS. The contractor is to supply and 
build into the foundation all the necessary anchor bolts. The 
lower end of each bolt is to be held by a plate with a socket to 
receive the bolt head and prevent it from turning-. The sub-base 
of the machine is to be securely bolted to the foundation. 

72. MACHINE. The elevator machine is to consist of an 
electric motor directly geared to a winding drum, both being 
mounted upon one and the same iron sub-base and being provided 
with the proper starting device, rheostats, and safety appliances. 
There must be no undue heating or wear in any of the electrical 
or mechanical parts of the machine. 

73. LOAD AND SPEED. The elevator is to lift a load of 
2000 pounds at a minimum speed of 150 feet per minute. 

74. TRAVEL. The passenger elevator is to travel from the 
basement floor level to the sixth floor landing. 

75. MACHINE ROOM. The room provided for the elevator 
machine is shown on the basement plan. The contractor is to place 
all the elevator machinery within this space. 

76. MOTOR. The motor shall be of a type especially adapted 
to meet the severe requirements of elevator service and to be 
wound for 220 volts direct current. The connections of the motor 
and the operating or regulating devices are to be such that cur- 
rent will be consumed only when the elevator is in operation. 
The current consumption must be economical and the starting cur- 
rent not excessive. 

The armature shall be perfectly balanced and securely fastened 
to its shaft. The commutators are to be constructed of the very 
best metal used for that purpose and the segments are to be thor- 
oughly insulated from each other and from other parts of the 
armature. The ends of the armature are to be thoroughly covered. 

The brushes are to be carbon or graphite and are to be capable 
of independent movement. There must be no sparking at any 
load within the rating of the machine. 



SHORT SPECIFICATIONS 115 

The bearings are to be self-oiling and are to have long bearing 
surfaces. 

The windings of fields and armature are to be thoroughly in- 
sulated. 

The motor is to be equipped with suitable and proper auto- 
matic rheostats, direction switches and the necessary connections 
and mechanisms for operating same. 

The switch and operating rheostats and other apparatus for the 
machine are to be mounted on a slab of slate supported by an 
angle-iron frame. 

The blades and jaws of the direction switches are to be made of 
solid copper. 

77. GEARING. The worm is to be of steel and the wheels 
of phosphor bronze or gun metal, all carefully and accurately 
turned, grooved and toothed. They are to be completely enclosed 
in an iron gear case so as to run in oil. 

78. DRUMS. The winding drum is to be of cast-iron care- 
fully and accurately turned and grooved to fit the cables, and is 
to be of proper strength, length and diameter for the work to 
be performed. The shaft is to be of steel and the bearings are 
to be self -oiling. 

79. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS. The contractor is to 
do all the necessary wiring from the main cut-out switch, set by 
the owner near the machine, to the motor, running the same in 
iron conduit and in circular loom tubing around the machine. 

No wood is to be used for the support of conduits or wires. 
The wiring will be brought to the switch on the wall near the 
machine by the owner. Bushings shall be placed on the ends 
of all conduits. All conduits from switch or operating switch- 
board are to run on the basement ceiling. 

80. GUIDES. The contractor is to provide and erect the 
necessary guides for the elevator. 

The guides for the elevator and counterweights are to be made 
of planed steel tees, neatly butted at the joints and scarfed and 
secured by knees and bolts to wrought iron brackets bolted to the 
beams or walls of the shaft or to the building, by the contractor. 

Si. SHEAVES. All sheaves are to be cast-iron, free from 
all imperfections, properly turned and accurately grooved to fit 



ii6 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n) 

the cables, and they are to be as large as space and layout of the 
installation will permit. 

The journals are to be self-oiling and are to be supplied with 
approved grease reservoirs and covers, and are to be babbited. 
All bearings are to be properly lined, trued and set perfectly level. 
The shafts are to be of steel. 

82. CABLES. The cables are to be of the very best quality 
of iron wire and are to be of the following size: 

Two lifting cables of " diameter each, and four counterweight 
cables of " diameter each (two drum and two car counterweight 
cables) ; each to have an ultimate strength of 10,000 pounds. 

83. PLATFORMS AND CAR FRAME- WORK. The plat- 
form of the elevator is to be of hard wood, strongly put together 
with wrought iron angles, supports, uprights and crossheads, and 
is to be substantially braced with iron rods and bands and properly 
bolted. Steel guide shoes are to be attached on each side and 
properly adjusted to the guides. 

84. CAR ENCLOSURE. The car enclosure is to be placed 
on, the platform and framework so that no lifting strain will be 
brought to bear upon it. The car enclosure is to be made of 
wrought iron, the design and finish to be approved by the archi- 
tect, and it is to cost $250, including the light fixture. The open- 
ing of the car is to be provided with a collapsible gate. 

85. COUNTERWEIGHTS. The elevator is to be furnished 
with car and machine counterweights. These are to be remov- 
able independent weights securely fastened to the cables. Bolts 
are to pass through each weight. Cables which pass through 
slots or holes in the weights must be protected by means of pipes 
fitted around the cables. Counterweights are to be enclosed at 
the top of the elevator shaft with a sheet iron cover for a distance 
of i 5 '-o". 

86. OPERATING DEVICE. 2 A mechanical-control operat- 
ing device is to be provided, and connected by means of a J" 
cable running from the car to a lever on the machine, controlling 
the switches at the rheostats. 



2 Refer to longer specification form for another type of operating de- 
vice. Paragraph 116. 



SHORT SPECIFICATIONS 117 

87. SAFETIES. 3 The elevator is to be equipped with a speed 
safety and governor, which is in accordance with the local regu- 
lations. It shall also have a device to stop the car at the upper and 
lower landings and to keep the cables from slackening when the 
car stops, and such other devices as may be peculiar to the type 
of machine installed. 

At the bottom of each shaft there must be installed a strong 
bumper beam with springs, having corresponding cups on the bot- 
tom of the car. 

The bar or other device for resetting the speed safety clutches, 
is to be held in place in the car by means of proper sockets and 
straps. 

88. DRIP PANS. Drip pans are to be provided and put in 
place under the overhead work. 

89. GRATING. 4 Grating will be furnished under another 
contract. 

90. PROVISION FOR LIGHTING. The contractor is to 
provide and install in the car an electric light ceiling fixture or 
bracket with the necessary switch socket and glassware. The de- 
sign is to match the car. The contractor is to supply and install 
an electric cable running from the outlet provided by the owner in 
the center of the shaft to the car. The cable is to run from the 
bottom of the car on the framework, and not across the grille or 
panel work, and is to run through an iron conduit. The switch to 
control the light is to be placed under the annunciator. 

91. ANNUNCIATOR. The contractor is to supply, install 
and connect all the necessary wires, iron conduits, batteries, an- 
nunciator, bell, cable and other materials to complete a call bell 
system for the elevator with annunciator in the car connected with 
a push button at each landing. 

The annunciator is to be of the extra heavy elevator gravity 
drop type, with signals plainly lettered, provided with a hand re- 
setting attachment, all enclosed in a neat case with a finish to cor- 
respond with the car. 



3 The most approved governor is of the centrifugal type ; it is connected 
by means of cable to the speed safety and operates the speed safety clutches 
when the elevator car attains a speed in excess of its limit. 

4 It is optional whether the elevator contractor or an iron contractor is to 
furnish and install overhead gratings. 



n8 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n) 

92. PAINTING. All iron work except finished or working- 
surfaces, is to be painted with two good coats of metallic paint. 

93. TESTS. The contractor is to provide the necessary ma- 
terials and labor for testing the elevator. 

2. LONGER SPECIFICATION FORM FOR ELE- 
VATOR WORK. 

94. MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP. All materials 
are to be of the very best quality. All work necessary to the com- 
plete finishing of the work included in this specification and as 
shown on the drawings, is to be executed in the most thorough 
and workmanlike manner, to the entire satisfaction of the owner 
and the architect. 5 

95. DRAWINGS. The architect will furnish to the contrac- 
tor one full set of drawings and one specification, which are exact 
copies of the drawings and specifications upon which the estimate 
was made and on which the contract is based. 

The architect will furnish from time to time as the work pro- 
gresses, all necessary detail drawings, setting forth the work included 
in this specification more fully than the original drawings. 

The detail drawings must be closely followed in the execution 
of the work; no alteration will be permitted unless authorized by 
the architect in writing. 

Shop drawings are to be submitted to the architect for approval. 

96. SCOPE OF WORK. The contractor is to furnish all 
labor and materials necessary to supply, install, erect and connect 
one electric passenger elevator, two electric combined passen- 
ger and freight elevators, and one electric sidewalk lift, includ- 
ing foundations, sub-bases, anchor bolts, direct-connected electric 
hoisting machines, pit pans, cables, guide posts, guides, sheave- 
beams, sheave-hangers, sheaves, platforms, cars, counterweights, and 
whatever else may be necessary to complete the elevator equipment 
of the building. 

97. NUMBER OF ELEVATORS. There shall be three ele- 
vators and one sidewalk lift as follows : 



5 The decision of the various questions of equipment arising in the in- 
stallation of the elevator work, may be delegated by the architect to his 
consulting engineer. 



LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 119 

One (i) passenger elevator to travel from the first floor landing 
to the twelfth floor landing, a distance of feet. 

Two (2) combined passenger and freight elevators to travel from 
the basement landing to the twelfth floor landing, a distance of 
feet. 

One (i) sidewalk ash lift to travel from the basement to the 
sidewalk level, a distance of feet. 

98. SHAFTS. The shafts, all necessary protection from the 
weather, and proper support for the overhead sheave-beams as 
shown on the drawings, will be provided by the owner under an- 
other contract. The size of the shafts should be specified. 

99. PITS. The owner will provide pits for the combined 
passenger elevators and (sidewalk ash lift and machine). The 
minimum depth of the pit for the combined passenger elevator is 
to be 3'-6". The pits for the sidewalk ash lift and machine will 
be built according to sizes furnished by the elevator contractor. 

100. OVERHEAD BEAMS. The contractor is to supply and 
<erect the necessary beams for the support of the overhead sheaves. 
These are to be of steel of proper size and strength for the work 
they have to perform. All beams supported by brick walls are to 
"have cast iron plates under them at bearing points. 

101. FOUNDATIONS. The contractor is to build a founda- 
tion for each of the elevator and sidewalk-lift machines. They are 
to be built of concrete composed of one part Portland cement, 
three parts sharp sand and five parts broken stone, and are to 
start 2'-6" below the level of the floor and extend flush with 
the floor. The excavations will be made by the contractor and the 
contractor is to remove all rubbish, and pump out all water, etc., 
after the excavations are made. 

102. ANCHOR BOLTS. The contractor is to supply and 
build into the foundations all the necessary anchor bolts. The 
lower end of each bolt is to be held by a plate with a socket to 
receive the bolt head and to prevent it from turning. 

The sub-bases of the machines are to be securely bolted to the 
foundations. 

103. MACHINES. The elevator machines are to consist of 
an electric motor directly geared to a winding drum, both being 
mounted upon one and the same iron sub-base and being pro- 



120 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n) 

vided with the proper starting devices, rheostats and safety appli- 
ances. There must be no undue heating or wear in any of the elec- 
trical or mechanical parts of the machines. 

The sidewalk machine is to consist of an electric motor di- 
rectly geared to a shaft having mounted upon it proper drums, 
grooved for chains. This machine is to be mounted so as to 
bring the lifting drums below the landing level and is to have an 
iron case over the gears. 

The passenger elevator is to lift a load of 2,500 pounds at a 
minimum speed of 250 feet per minute. 

Each combined passenger and freight elevator is to lift a load 
of 3,000 pounds at a minimum speed of 150 feet per minute. 

There is to be attached to one combined passenger and freight 
elevator a safe-hoist attachment capable of an overload of 5,000 
pounds. 

The sidewalk ash lift is to lift a load of 2,000 pounds at a 
minimum speed of 50 feet per minute. 

The room provided for the elevator machines is shown on the 
basement plan. The contractor is to place all the elevator ma- 
chinery within this space. 

104. PIT- PAN. The contractor is to supply a pit-pan at the 
bottom of the passenger elevator shaft at the first story. This 
pit-pan is to include the entire bottom of the shaft. The pit-pan 
is to be made of No. 12 gauge sheet iron properly riveted, framed, 
and braced with steel angles, and is to have an angle frame at the 
top, and is to be painted with two coats of metallic paint as di- 
rected. The pan is to be of proper depth to admit the bumpers and 
allow safe space for the car, and it must not be less than 3'-6" 
in depth. Wherever cables pass through the pan, ample room is 
to be left for the cables. 

Supports for the pit-pan are to be supplied by the contractor 
and must be satisfactory to the Bureau of Buildings. 

The contractor is to supply the necessary support for the bum- 
pers. 

105. MOTORS. The motors shall be of a slow speed type 
and of a make approved by the architect. The motors are to be 
wound for 220 volts direct current and are to be capable of a 
temporary overload of 50 per cent. The connections of the mo- 
tors and the operating or regulating devices are to be made so as 



LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 121 

to consume current only when the elevator is in operation. The 
current consumption must be economical and the starting current 
not excesssive. This must be approved by the company furnish- 
ing the current, or the electrical engineer in consultation with the 
architect. 

The armatures shall be perfectly balanced and securely fastened 
to their shafts. The commutators are to be constructed of the 
very best metal used for that purpose and the segments are to 
be thoroughly insulated from each other and from other parts 
of the armature. The ends of the armature are to be thoroughly 
covered. 

The brushes are to be carbon or graphite, and are to be capable 
of independent movement. There must be no sparking at any 
load within the rating of the machine. 

The bearings are to be self -oiling and are to have long bearing 
surfaces ; and are to be furnished with gauge glasses. 

The windings of the fields and armatures are to be thoroughly 
insulated. 

Each motor is to be equipped with a suitable and proper auto- 
matic rheostat, a reversing switch and the necessary connections 
and mechanisms for operating the same. 

The switches and operating rheostats and other apparatus for 
each machine are to be mounted on a slab of marbleized slate sup- 
ported by an angle-iron frame. 

The segments of the rheostats and the several parts of the re- 
versing switch are to be mounted on slate. 

The blades and jaws of the reversing switch are to be made of 
copper. The reversing switch device must be approved in every 
particular by the architect. 

106. GEARING. The worms are to be of steel and the 
wheels of phosphor bronze or gun metal all carefully and accu- 
rately turned, grooved and toothed; all gears are to be completely 
enclosed in an iron gear case so as to run in oil. The gear case is 
to be thoroughly cleaned and painted inside as well as out. 

107. DRUMS. The winding drums are to be of cast-iron 
carefully and accurately turned and grooved to fit the cables, and 
are to be of a proper length and diameter for the work to be per- 
formed. The shafts are to be of steel and their bearings are to 
be self-oiling and provided with gauge glasses. The drums of the 
sidewalk lift are to be grooved to properly fit the chains. 



122 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n) 

108. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS. The contractor is to 
do all the necessary wiring from the switch placed in the machine 
room by the owner, to the motor, running the same in iron con- 
duit and in circular loom tubing around the machine. No wood 
is to be used for the support of conduits or wires. The wiring will 
be brought to the switch on the wall near each machine under an- 
other contract. Bushings shall be placed on the ends of all con- 
duits. The conduits from the main switch or operating switch 
boards are to run on the basement ceiling. 

The contractor is also to do all wiring from the operating switch 
boards of each elevator machine to the center of the shaft and 
thence by means of cables to the switch in each car. The wires 
from the operating switch boards to the outlet in the center of the 
shaft are to be run in iron conduit in the elevator shafts. At the 
center of the shafts there is to be an iron outlet box with brass, 
bushed cover and with porcelain insulators to anchor cable. 

109. GUIDES. The contractor is to provide and erect the 
necessary guides for elevators and counterweights. 

The guides for the elevators and counterweights are to be made 
of planed steel tees, neatly butted at the joints and scarfed and 
secured by knees and bolts to wrought iron brackets bolted to the 
beams or walls of the shaft or the building by the contractor. 

no. SHEAVES. All sheaves are to be of cast-iron free from 
all imperfections, properly turned and accurately grooved to fit 
the cables, and they are to be of such size as may be required but 
in no case are they to be less than thirty (30) inches in diameter/ 
and if possible they are to be larger if space permits. The jour- 
nals are to be self -oiling and are to be supplied with approved 
grease reservoirs and covers, and are to be babbited. All the 
bearings are to be properly lined, trued and set perfectly level. 
The shafts are to be of steel. 

in. CABLES. The cables are to be of the very best quality 
of iron wire; and are to be of the following sizes: Each elevator 
shall have two hoisting cables, those of the passenger car to be 
" and those of the combined passenger and freight elevators to 
be J". Each car counterweight shall have two cables, those of the 
passenger elevator to be f " and those of the combined passenger 
and freight elevators to be f ". Each machine counterweight shall 
have two cables, those of the passenger elevator to be f" and 



LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 123 

those of the combined passenger and freight elevators to be f". 
The minimum breaking strain of the f" cables is to be 10,000 
pounds; of the f" cables, 17,000 pounds. 

The cables are to be very securely fastened to the drums, the 
car crosshead and the counterweights. They must be entirely free 
from any abrasion throughout their entire length. All cables are 
to have not less than a full turn on the drum when run their limit. 

112. CHAINS. The sidewalk lift is to be equipped with lift- 
ing chains. These are to be made up of short elliptical links of 
the best grade wrought iron. Each link is to have a minimum 
breaking strain of 10,000 pounds. The chains are to be securely 
fastened to the drums and the platform. 

113. PLATFORMS AND CAR FRAME-WORK. The plat- 
form of each elevator is to be of hard wood strongly put together 
with wrought iron angles, supports, uprights and crossheads, and is 
to be substantially braced with iron rods and bands and properly 
bolted. Steel guide shoes are to be attached on each side and 
properly adjusted to the guides. The platform of the sidewalk lift 
is to be covered with patented safety tread, properly screwed down. 

114. CAR ENCLOSURES. The car enclosures are to be 
placed on the platforms and frame work so that no lifting strain will 
be brought to bear upon them. Each car enclosure is to be made 
of wrought iron, the design and finish to be approved by the archi- 
tect, and each is to cost $250, including the light fixture. The 
opening of each car is to be provided with a Bostwick collapsible 
gate. The floor of the passenger elevator car is to be of interlock- 
ing rubber tile, the design to be approved by the architect. 

115. COUNTERWEIGHTS. The elevators are to be fur- 
nished with car and machine counterweights. These are to be re- 
movable independent weights securely fastened to the cables. 
Bolts are to pass through each weight. Cables which pass 
through slots or holes in the weights must be protected by means 
of pipes fitted around the cables. 

The car cables are to be counterbalanced by chains from the 
cars to the counterweights, and these chains must be as noiseless 
as possible. Counterweights are to be enclosed at the top of the 
elevator shaft for a distance of i5'-o" with a sheet iron screen. 
(In some localities this is a legal requirement.) 

116. OPERATING DEVICE. 6 The passenger and combined 

6 See short specification for other type of operating device. Paragraph 86. 



124 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. n) 

passenger and freight elevators are to be operated by an electric 
switch. 

The sidewalk lift is to be operated by means of chains running 
from the switch through the bottom of the platform and terminat- 
ing in a ring. The chain is to be run so that the car can be 
stopped at intermediate points. 

Each elevator and the sidewalk lift is to be capable of stopping 
so that the platform will be exactly at the level of each and every 
landing, and each shall stop automatically at the upper and lower 
landings. 

The current supply to each motor is to be regulated by a rheo- 
stat operated by means of solenoids. 

117. SAFETIES. 7 Each elevator is to be equipped with a 
speed safety and governor, which is in accordance with the local 
regulations. Each elevator shall also have a device to stop the car 
at the upper and lower landings and to keep the cables from slack- 
ening when the car stops and such other devices as may be peculiar 
to the type of machine installed. 

At the bottom of each shaft there must be installed a strong 
bumper beam with springs, having corresponding cups on the bot- 
tom of the car. 

The bar or other device for resetting the speed safety clutches 
is to be held in place in the car by means of proper sockets and 
straps. 

There must be installed upon the sidewalk lift platform a hoop 
(made of wrought iron) to raise the covers at the sidewalk level. 
The clear height under this hoop must not be less than 7'-o". 

118. GRATING. The contractor is to furnish and install an 
overhead grating directly under the overhead sheaves. This grat- 
ing must meet the requirements of the local regulations. 

119. DRIP PANS. Drip pans are to be provided and put in 
place under the overhead sheaves. 

120. PROVISIONS FOR LIGHTING. The contractor is to 
provide and install in each car a two-light electric ceiling fixture 
or bracket with all the necessary wiring, switches, sockets and 
glassware. The design is to match the car and is to be approved 



7 The most approved governor is of the centrifugal type ; it is connected 
by means of a cable to the speed safety and operates the speed safety 
clutches, when the elevator car attains a speed in excess of its limit. 



LONGER SPECIFICATIONS 125 

by the architect. The contractor is to supply and install an elec- 
tric cable running from the outlet provided by the owner in the 
center of the shaft to each car. The cable is to run from the 
bottom of the car up on the frame work and not across the grille 
or panel work, and is to run through iron conduit. The switch 
to control the light is to be placed under the annunciator. 

121. ANNUNCIATORS. The contractor is to supply, install 
and connect all the necessary wires, iron conduit, batteries, annun- 
ciator, bell, cables and other materials to complete a call bell sys- 
tem for each of the elevators, with an annunciator in each car 
connected to a push button at each landing. 

Each annunciator is to be of the extra heavy elevator gravity 
drop type, with signals plainly lettered, with hand resetting device, 
and with a case designed to match the car. 

The wires are to be of No. 18 rubber covered, of the same grade 
used in lighting work, and run in the same grade of conduit in 
the same manner. The cable to the car is to be connected at the 
center of the shaft in an iron outlet box with a brass cover properly 
bushed for the cable, and with porcelain insulators to anchor the 
cable. 

The batteries are to be set in a hardwood box with hinged side, 
and placed on strong brackets in the elevator machine room. All 
wires running to the batteries are to terminate in a slate connec- 
tion strip in a hardwood box immediately next to the batteries. 

122. PAINTING. All iron work, except finished or working 
surfaces, is to be painted with two good coats of metallic paint and 
all work exposed to view is to have, in addition to the above, two 
good coats of white lead and pure linseed oil, tinted as directed. 

All work on the sidewalk lift and elevator machinery, overhead 
work, shaft, or car, where directed, is to be painted as above. The 
lift and elevator machines are to be painted after they are in 
place and all work on them is finished. 

123. INSTRUCTION. The contractor is to give the owner's 
operators all necessary instructions relative to the safe, economi- 
cal and proper care and running of the cars. 

124. TESTS. The contractor is to provide the necessary ma- 
terials and labor for testing the elevators and lift. 

125. ACCEPTANCE. The entire work called for in this 
specification is to be installed and finished subject to the approval 
of the architect in every detail. The tests are to be made in the 



126 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.II) 

presence of the architect, or his engineers, and are to show the 
equipment to be exactly in accordance with the specifications with- 
out any adjustments or alterations. The equipment will be ac- 
cepted only when it is satisfactory to the architect in whole and 
in every part. 

126. GUARANTEES, ETC. The following guarantees in 
writing, together with the permits and certificates, must be de- 
livered to the architect by the contractor upon the completion of 
the elevator work. 

1. Certificate of approval of insurance company. 

2. Certificate of the (Local) Board of Fire Underwriters. 

3. Certificate of the Department of Water Supply, Gas and 
Electricity. 

4. Guarantee in writing warranting all materials and workman- 
ship for a period of (one) year after completion of the building. 

5. Certificate from the Bureau of Buildings. 



CHAPTER III 

Door Operating Devices and Elevator 

Car Gates 

Many architects as well as builders make a mistake in ignoring 
or passing over with slight consideration, the question of how ele- 
vator doors and door hangers shall be installed, until the construc- 
tion of the elevator shaft and the installation of the elevator have 
advanced to a point where they are limited by conditions which are 
not always advantageous. If the elevator shaft is properly de- 
signed and detailed before hand, there will be no difficulty attached 
to the problem of installing elevator doors and hangers. Elevator 
doors are an important consideration in any elevator equipment 
and it is too often found in construction that the building has been 
completed to the point of installing the doors and hangers, and 
that the room for their installation is very limited and the purposed 
or required hanger cannot be used, with the result that an inade- 
quate or unsightly device must be employed. 

127. BALLBEARING DOOR HANGERS. If proper con- 
sideration is given in the original design, safe and proper clearance 
for the doors and hangers can be provided and the device which 
will best meet the needs of the building can be installed without 
excessive expense or trouble. In Fig. I on Plate No. 40, there is 
shown a single sliding door, together with its hanger. The door 
is ij" thick and there is J" clearance between the door and the 
stationary panel, with an allowance from the top of the door to the 
top of the hanger. The grooves in the sills should be 4" wide 
and f " deep. With these allowances, it is impossible for a door 
to jump the grooves, even if the sill is out of level. It is advis- 
able that there should be an allowance of 2" between the face of the 
door and the line of the sill, although ij" will answer. The di- 
mension of f " between the line of the car and the sill as shown in 
the drawing, is the absolute minimum allowance, and ij" is 
allowed by some elevator contractors. 

Fig. 2 on Plate No. 40 shows an end section of a hanger with a 
device designed to move two doors at the same time in opposite 

127 



128 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.III) 

directions. Hangers of this character require a space of from 6*" 
to 7" from the top of the door to the top of the hanger. The 
clearance allowed for the doors should be the same as previously 
mentioned, with proper allowance for the extra door. 

Fig. 3 on Plate No. 40 shows an end section of a hanger with 
an attachment so that two doors traveling in the same direction 
may open together. This device provides for the travel of one 
door at twice the speed of the other, so that both will be fully 
open or fully shut together. In the case of doors i" or more 
in thickness, an allowance of 7\" from the top of the door to 
the top of the hanger is required. For doors less than i" in 
thickness, an allowance of &|" is required. A clearance of \" 
between moving doors or between a door and a stationary panel is 
sufficient provided that the doors are well guided by grooves in 
the sill \" in width and f " in depth, as shown in Fig. i on Plate 
No. 40. For special devices and arrangements of hangers to suit 
special conditions it is best to communicate with the manufacturers. 

128. INTERLOCKING DOOR SAFETY DEVICES. The 
safety flush elevator shaft is the successful solution of the prob- 
lem of preventing passengers being hurt either through their cloth- 
ing being caught on projections on the car enclosure, or by being 
caught between the floor or roof of the elevator car and the floor 
sill or other projections of the shaft enclosure when the car is 
in motion. 

The interlocking door safety devices prevent the starting of the 
elevator if any enclosure door is open ; or if a door is opened while 
the car is in motion they stop the elevator then. These door de- 
vices may be operated by electricity, or compressed air, or a com- 
bination of the two. 

Pneumatic door operating devices can be fitted to any type 
of elevator door and they are essentially safety devices as they 
prevent the opening of the enclosure doors unless the car is within 
6" of the floor, and it is impossible for the car to leave the 
floor without the door closing or locking. 

In the installation of these devices, 3" clearance is required for 
the door slide at the back edge of the door, when it is open, as 
can be observed on Plate No. 41. Every door should be equipped 
with rubber bumpers at the top and bottom for the door to strike 
against in both the open and closed positions. 



DOOR OPERATING DEVICES 129 

In the ordinary shaft, the doors should be kept back \\" from 
the sill line so that the swinging arm of the device will not project 
into the hatch. On flush shafts, space must be allowed for the 
swinging arm on the enclosure side of the doors. 

When doors set back \\" from the edge of the sill, the space 
required above the doors for the pneumatic device is 6" back 
from the sill line by i'-3" high. When the doors are kept flush 
with the sill line, this space must be 7i" back from the sill line 
(which allows for i-J" doors) by i'-3" high above the doors, 
which is shown on Plate No. 41. 

In localities where there are legal restrictions as to the clearance 
between the sill line and the edge of the car platform, such as is 
the case in the Boroughs of Greater New York City, where the 
maximum clearance is 'ij", the elevator car enclosure must be 
kept back of the edge of the car platform ij". Where there are 
no restrictions as to the clearance between the sill line and the 
edge of the car platform, this clearance may be i-J" and the car 
enclosures can set back of the edge of the platform i" which is 
shown on Plate No. 41. 

The spaces and clearances provided for the devices should not 
be less than shown, as they have been figured as small as is prac- 
ticable and particular attention should be paid so that the car at- 
tachments can be installed properly, as the successful operation of 
the doors depends on this to a great degree. 

The operating pressure for pneumatic devices is generally 25 
pounds to the square inch, and either electric or steam driven 
compressors are used, depending on the local conditions. 

129. COUNTERBALANCE FIREPROOF DOORS FOR 
FREIGHT ELEVATOR SHAFTS. In specifying the coun- 
terbalance type of fireproof doors for freight elevator shaft 
door openings, care should be taken to see that the elevator con- 
tractor allows sufficient space between the flush line of the elevator 
hatchway and the face of the elevator car. 

The counterbalance type of door is installed on the inside wall 
of the shaft. Therefore, sills, jambs, and lintels should be 
installed so as to form a flush line on the elevator shaft side. 
A space of 7" should be allowed on each side of the door jambs, 
the complete height of the shaft, for tracks, pulleys, etc., as can 
be observed in Figs. I and 2 on Plate No. 42. 



130 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. m) 

The height of the door opening on any particular floor should 
be made in direct proportion to the measurement from finished 
floor line to finished floor line. This opening can be determined 
by taking two-thirds the distance less 5". 

For garages and other buildings of this nature, there is a type 
of door used, known as the " lap " style, counterbalance door. 
This style of door is installed on openings irrespective of the meas- 
urement from finished floor to finished floor. The clearance re- 
quired between the plumb line of the shaft and the edge of the 
car platform must not be less than 6", as shown in Fig. 2, on 
Plate No. 42. An opening lo'-o" wide by lo'-o" high can be in- 
stalled where the measurement from finished floor to finished floor 
is n'-6" or i2'-o". See Fig. I on Plate No. 43. 

In all cases where the counterbalance type of door is used, 
it is necessary for the jamb line of the openings to be built one m 
directly above the other. This will insure the tracks for doors 
being set on a plumb line, and allow the doors to work perfectly, 
as shown in Fig. 2, on Plate No. 43. The iron contractor should 
be specially notified to follow these conditions. 

The counterbalance type of door has been approved by the Na- 
tional Laboratories, and label service has been granted for doors 
up to 8'-o" wide by 9'-o" high. 

Plate No. 44 shows the arrangement of the counterbalance doors 
in relation to the elevator car and the sides of the shaft, together 
with a table giving the heights of the door openings for the dif- 
ferent heights of floors, for regular up and down doors. Where 
it is essential to have higher openings, the lap style door can be 
used, in which instance it will be necessary to have more clearance 
between the sides of the shaft and the elevator car. 

130. COLLAPSIBLE GATES ON ELEVATOR CAR EN- 
CLOSURES. The elevator car gate should be placed in such a 
position on the elevator car as to render its quick manipulation by 
the operator always possible and at the same time be placed so as 
not in any manner to interfere with the ingress and egress of the 
passengers. 

A combination collapsible swing gate is installed on an elevator 
car where combination slide and swing doors are installed in the 
elevator shaft enclosure. The advantages of this type of gate will 
be readily observed on Plate No. 45, Fig. i. It can be used in two 



ELEVATOR GATES 131 

ways ; first, for passenger service, the operator has only to operate 
the first section extending to the bolt, the other section being opened 
to the bolt ; second, when it is intended to carry freight, the bolt 
is raised from the slot in the lower track and then the gate is col- 
lapsed all the way and may be swung into the car, allowing space 
for as large a piece of freight as the full opening to the car will 
permit. The operating device or switch when placed on the side 
of the car behind the gate, should be kept far enough back to 
allow a clear space for the gate to swing against the side of the 
car enclosure. 

The stationary collapsible gate is used when a section of the 
door in the elevator shaft enclosure is stationary, as can be observed 
on Plates No. 45 and 46 in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. It can be fastened 
directly to the side of the car enclosure or to the end of the front 
panel as shown in Fig. 2 ; also on the outside of the front panel, as 
can be observed in Figs. 3 and 4, when extra space is required for 
the location of the operating switch on this panel. 

It is not good practice to place the mechanical hand wheel oper- 
ating device on the front panel of the car enclosure, as it is liable 
to mar the symmetry of the car enclosure, on account of the cut 
in the front of the car platform necessary for the clearance of the 
device between the car and the shaft. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



133 





Figure 2. 



I 




Figure 3. 




Figure I. 
Plate 40. Ball-bearing Door Hangers. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



135 




1 i 1 
i 



i 



Plate 41. Interlocking Door Safety Devices and Clearances Required. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




r 





Plate 42. Different Types of Counterbalance Fireproof Doors and Clearances 
Required. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 






is 




Figure I. Figure 2. 

Plate 43. Elevation of "Lap" Style Counterbalance Door. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 




Oi 



NQO^O 



o 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION V A -143' 




rt 
O 



6 



0$ 

> 
Q 

s 



Pi I" 



O 
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s 

bO 

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ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



145 




Plate 46. Stationary Collapsible Elevator Car Gate in Front of Panel. 



CHAPTER IV 

Elevator Signal Systems And 
Special Appliances 

The necessity for an adequate signal system is secondary in im- 
portance only to the elevators themselves, as the prime object of 
an elevator installation is to render service to the occupants of a 
building, and the installation of a signal service designed to properly 
meet the operating conditions increases the efficiency of the eleva- 
tor installation. 

A properly designed signal system has an additional function 
of great importance to the owner in that it insures maximum effi- 
ciency and minimum cost of operation by eliminating unnecessary 
travel and stops, reducing the cost for power, and decreasing wear 
on the working parts. 

The selection of the type of signal to be installed is governed 
by a number of factors, among which are the number of cars in 
one group, their speed, location in relation to other cars or groups 
of cars, the purpose for which they are to be used, and their 
method of operation. This last item is in turn governed by the 
type of building and the conditions of traffic. 

It is advisable for an architect to consult the signal manufac- 
turer when specifications are being drawn. Given the factors 
named above, recommendations can be made citing examples of 
installations in similar buildings. It is apparent that an office 
building with one bank or several banks of cars, and a loft build- 
ing or an apartment building which might be well equipped with 
two cars, would demand different types of signal systems for sat- 
isfactory service. 

As a general rule, however, an automatic signal system of some 
form is recommended for all installations. By its use the opera- 
tor has his hand free for the proper operation of the car and doors, 
and as the resetting of the signal device is beyond the control of 
the operator, it is impossible for him to remove the signal without 
bringing the car to the floor from which the call is received. 

The following paragraphs give short descriptions of the more 



148 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv) 

frequently used types of signal devices, together with the class 
of building and type of elevator installation for which each re- 
spective system is to be recommended. No hard and fast rule can 
be laid down for the type of signal to be installed in any particu- 
lar building, or for any number of elevators, as the factors which 
govern these points are the purpose for which the building is to 
be used and the method of operating the elevators. 

131. THE COMPLETE FLASHLIGHT SIGNAL. The 
system known as the complete flashlight signal consists of a single 
light in the car acting as an operator's car signal and flashing 
about a floor and a half away from the point of signal. In con- 
junction with this car signal, an UP and DOWN signal lantern 
showing white UP signals and red DOWN signals is furnished for 
installation at each elevator opening at all floors except the ter- 
minal floors. An UP and DOWN push button plate is also fur- 
nished at each floor except the terminal floors, which sets the sig- 
nal for future contact when the first car arrives at the points in the 
shaft designated above. 

The Armstrong complete flashlight signal as described is recom- 
mended for installation in buildings in which the operation of the 
elevators is maintained on a regular schedule, that is, the cars are 
run from the bottom to the top of the shaft in a continuous rota- 
tion, irrespective of the calls received. This is the usual method 
of operation in all office buildings, and in nearly all buildings in 
which three or more passenger elevators are installed! in one 
group. In buildings of the loft type, such as are now being con- 
structed in New York City for factory purposes, and in some cases, 
in the smaller cities where office buildings have three passenger 
cars in one group, the hotel flash system sometimes gives better 
service because it is more economical to run the cars on call in 
these cases than on a regular schedule. 

132. HOTEL FLASH LIGHT ANNUNCIATORS, The 
flashlight annunciator signal consists of an annunciator panel in 
each car, having an UP and DOWN miniature light indication for 
each floor connected to one UP and DOWN push-button at each 
floor, signaling all cars in one group simultaneously. In this type 
of signal the light indication corresponding to the floor on which 
the button is pressed is illuminated as soon as the button is pressed 
and the operator has knowledge at all times as to the floors at 



ELEVATOR SIGNAL SYSTEMS 149 

which he must call and also the direction of travel of the passenger. 
The Armstrong- hotel flashlight annunciator system as described 
is recommended for installation in all buildings having from one 
to three passenger elevators in which the cars are operated on call, 
that is, the cars remain at the ground floor until a call is received, 
then one car answers this call and carries the passenger to his 
destination. This method of operation has been found most eco- 
nomical in buildings having a group of as many as three cars. It 
is suitable in nearly all institutional buildings, hospitals, court- 
houses, libraries, city-halls, etc., as well as in hotels, loft buildings 
(which have not more than three cars), and commercial and office 
buildings in the smaller cities having an elevator installation of 
from one to three cars. 

133. AUTOMATIC-RESET SYNCHRONIZING ANNUN- 
CIATORS. The automatic-reset synchronizing annunciator sys- 
tem consists of a metal case annunciator of standard plain design 
in the car, having an UP and DOWN target indication for each 
floor, connected to an UP and DOWN button at each floor signal- 
ing all the cars in one group simultaneously. 

The automatic-reset annunciator system is designed to provide 
a more adequate means of signal for the smaller and cheaper 
buildings than the plain annunciator ordinarily furnished. The 
fixtures are as simply and inexpensively designed as possible. 
While this system is fully automatic in its operation, it does not 
provide as good a means of signaling as the flashlight annuncia- 
tor or the complete flashlight signal described above. It is recom- 
mended for installation in buildings equipped with either one or 
two cars, in which the item of first cost is an essential feature, such 
as is the case with loft buildings and all freight car installations 
ranging from one car to any number of cars in one group. 

All of the signaling systems above described including the 
Armstrong full flash, the flashlight annunciator signal, and the 
automatic-reset synchronizing annunciators are of the full auto- 
matic type; that is, one call is restored automatically by the first 
car answering the call, and no other car in the group will receive 
the same call after the given call has been answered. 

134. DEPARTMENT STORE SIGNAL. The Armstrong 
department store signal system consists of an UP and DOWN 
signal lantern at each elevator opening at all floors, connected di- 



150 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv) 

rectly to signal machines geared from the overhead sheaves of 
the elevators and arranged to light with the travel of the cars 
from two and one-half to three floors away, showing the direc- 
tion of the travel of the car. This type of signal is designed 
for use in elevators in department stores where a bank of several 
cars is installed, to warn the passengers of the approach of the 
first car traveling in the desired direction. 

In department stores, with the exception of the smaller ones, it 
has been found advisable to run the cars on a regular schedule, 
omitting any signal, whatsoever in the car itself. This type of 
signal when arranged to operate on the push-button control, is some- 
times used as a waiting-passenger signal to passengers waiting 
on the landing in conjunction with the hotel flashlight, for hotels 
and office buildings in which the hotel flashlight is used for a car 
signal. 

135. MECHANICAL INDICATORS. Mechanical indica- 
tors consist of an indicator of ornamental design, of either the cir- 
cular, semi-circular or vertical type, mounted on the elevator en- 
closure and having figures mounted on its face corresponding to 
the floors, with a traveling arrow showing the position of the car 
in the shaft. This arrow is connected to a traveling tape, which 
in turn is geared to operate from the overhead sheaves of the ele- 
vator. This type of passenger signal is recommended for instal- 
lation in conjunction with the Armstrong full flash at the first floor 
enclosures of the elevators, the signal lanterns providing a means 
of passenger signal for the upper floors. 

Mechanical indicators can also be used in conjunction with the 
flashlight annunciator signal and the automatic-reset annunciator 
signal system above mentioned, as a waiting-passenger signal at 
all floors, as no waiting-passenger signal is provided with either 
of these two types of signals in the standard equipment. 

Mechanical indicators are also being installed largely in apart- 
ment houses having one or more passenger and service cars, with- 
out the hotel flash annunciator system above mentioned. Mechan- 
ical indicators are also recommended for installation on all pas- 
senger and service cars in hotel installations, also in private resi- 
dences in conjunction with automatic-push-button elevators and in 
conjunction with automatic-push-button dumbwaiters in mercantile 
buildings. 



ELEVATOR SIGNAL SYSTEMS 151 

136. STARTERS' CALL. Among other accessories in con- 
junction with the signal equipment, it would be well to mention 
the starter's call-back system, consisting of an ornamental button 
plate located in the first floor corridor and connected with a buzzer 
in each car. This system should be installed in all buildings in 
which a group of elevators are under the control of a starter. 

137. MOTOR STARTING TIMING DEVICE. The motor 
starting timing device consists of a commutating device operated 
by an electric motor which gives a series of audible signals at the 
first and top floors at certain intervals. This device is used to 
keep a number of passenger cars in one group in proper rotation 
and is used in conjunction with the starter's call-back system as 
an 'aid to the starter in operating his elevators. 

138. LAMP POSITION INDICATORS. Lamp position in- 
dicators are provided for use at the first floor of buildings having 
one or more groups of passenger elevators, and consist of a panel- 
board having a miniature lamp for each floor for each car. By 
the successive illumination of these lights the position of the car 
in the shaft is shown at all times. This system is recommended 
for installation as an auxiliary starting equipment in buildings 
where a bank or several banks of passenger cars are installed. 
The lamp position indicator can also be installed at each floor to 
act in place of the mechanical dial indicator mentioned above. 

139. TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT FOR ELEVATORS. 
Telephone equipments for elevator installations are recommended 
for the larger office buildings where several banks of elevators are 
operated from a central operating plant, as for instance : the Singer 
Building, Hudson Terminals and Whitehall Building in New 
York. The use of the telephone in the elevator is also recom- 
mended for the automatic-push-button elevator in residences and 
for dumbwaiter installations. In these installations there is no 
permanent operator in the car, and as an opened door at any floor 
w r here the car may be would prevent its operation, a means of com- 
munication with the car or floor is quite essential. 

140. ILLUMINATED THRESHOLDS. The Rickett's 
threshold illuminator consists of a bronze threshold having glass 
discs on the top and on the vertical face in the shaft, through 
which a diffused light is thrown, illuminating the landing and 
showing the relative position of the floor of the car to the sill of 



152 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv) 

the door. These illuminated thresholds are without doubt a great 
preventative of accidents, and are recommended for installation in 
all passenger cars, particularly in department stores, hotels and 
apartment houses. 

141. SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN ELEVATOR SHAFTS 
FOR SIGNAL EQUIPMENT. In complete signal installations 
proper space should be allowed on the elevator enclosure for the 
placing of the waiting-passenger signal fixtures. The transom or 
elevator enclosure work above the door openings is the best loca- 
tion for such signals. The position of door tracks and their ap- 
purtenances should be kept in mind when deciding on the location 
of signal devices, so that the electric wires and piping can be in- 
stalled without interfering with the door apparatus. These con- 
siderations also apply to mechanical dial indicators. 

In the elevator shaft, space should be provided for the vertical 
conduits which carry the wires to the various floor fixtures. This 
piping as a rule can be run directly behind the elevator enclosure 
work at the front of the shaft and as a rule it can be concealed be- 
hind one of the door mullions. 

In locating the waiting-passenger push button box, provision 
should be made for piping to it from the shaft through the elevator 
enclosure work to the back of the box. 

On the overhead work in the shaft bulkhead, sufficient space 
should be provided so that after the commutator machines are in- 
stalled there will be room for a workman to get at them for clean- 
ing and making small repairs. That overhead work and machin- 
ery should be properly accessible is a most important point for 
consideration by the architect in drawing the original plans. The 
dimensions or space required for this apparatus should be secured 
at the time the steel plans for the roof hatch and bulkhead are 
being made so that this important point may be provided for. 

Provision should be made for the supply of electric current for 
the operation of the signals and this, in all cases, should be on a 
separate circuit from the main feeders, so that the signal service 
will not be interrupted by any electrical trouble coming from 
sources other than those arising from injury to its own mechan- 
ism. 

Installations of dial indicators, synchronizing annunciators and 
hotel flashlight signal systems have the same general type of ma- 



SPECIAL APPLIANCES 153 

chinery. Like consideration should be given to the location of 
their apparatus as has been outlined for the complete signal or 
flashlight installation. 

142. SERVICE RECORDERS. A service, mileage and trip 
recorder consists of an indicating device attached to the overhead 
sheaves which directly records in miles traveled, the actual travel 
of the car, and also indicates by a direct reading dial the number 
of full trips made by each elevator. This device can be furnished 
either as a mileage recorder only, or as a combination mileage and 
trip recorder. It is recommended and has been used largely as an 
adjunct to elevator installations for the purpose of an absolutely 
accurate check on the wearing parts of the elevator and on the 
amount of current consumed. 

143. GUIDE LUBRICATORS. In modern buildings a large 
proportion of the total power generated is consumed by the ele- 
vators. It is generally admitted that they do not receive as care- 
ful attention or are not operated as scientifically as the case war- 
rants. 

Very few realize the large amount of power that is lost by fric- 
tion between the elevator guide shoes and the guides when not 
properly lubricated. 

It has been and now is the general custom to lubricate the ele- 
vator guides by hand application of grease. It will be realized 
that by this method a large amount of time and labor is lost, both 
by the man applying the grease and the operator running the car 
while this work is being done. 

When it is considered that some of the elevators in modern 
buildings travel as much as five miles per day, it will be observed 
that this hand application of grease is not sufficient to insure 
economical operation. 

It is suggested that for economical and scientific operation of 
the elevators, automatic guide lubricators be installed. 

The following descriptions of automatic guide lubricators are 
given to illustrate some of the different methods employed to 
overcome the difficulties mentioned. 

The Eggler guide lubricator consists of an oil cup of aluminum 
fastened to the shoe of the car and to the traveling counterweight. 
This oil cup has fiber discs carrying wicks which play against the 
three wearing surfaces of the guides and carry oil from the base 



154 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH. iv) 

of the cup to their surfaces. This lubricator using oil is so de- 
signed that the oil will not spill down the shaft and by means of 
its fiber shoes it constantly cleans the guides as well as oils them. 
The use of this lubricator means an absolutely clean shaft and the 
proper lubrication of the guides, reducing materially the wear on 
them. 

The " Economy Elevator Guide Lubricator " is built in several 
different styles. Its operation is simplicity itself. The main body 
of the lubricator is a hollow casting, to which is attached a special 
compressed air grease cup. In ordinary operation these grease 
cups have to be filled only once every eight to twelve weeks, and 
an occasional turn of the top nut so compresses the air entrapped 
in the cup that there is always sufficient pressure there to force 
the grease out through the arms of the lubricator and on to the 
guide rails. In all of the different types, a thin ribbon of grease 
is fed against the guide rails exactly where the guide shoes bear, 
that is, grease is not smeared around on the rails where it will do 
no good. Different types of distributers are employed to meet 
the demand for different sizes and shapes of guide rails, and these 
distributers are kept against the face of the rail by means of 
springs, so that in spite of any swaying of the cars, they always 
bear in exactly the right place. 

144. AIR CUSHIONS FOR ELEVATOR SHAFTS. The 
principle upon which the air cushion operates, is that of the com- 
mon known law of atmospheric resistance. See Plate No. 47. 

An ordinary air cushion properly constructed, depends on no 
mechanical devices for its successful operation. 

The walls of the lower portion of the elevator shaft are con- 
structed of steel, concrete or brick, for a height, in most cases, of 
from J to V 7 of the total travel of the elevator car, and are de- 
signed strong enough to withstand the pressure of the confined 
air, caused by the dropping of the car into the cushion. The doors 
are made of equal strength. 

The air escape at the top of the cushion is properly proportioned 
and graduated to some point lower down in the cushion where the 
car fits more snugly. This does away with the concussion and al- 
lows the car to land at the bottom without jar or jolt. 

The air cushion possesses peculiar inherent advantages that can- 
not be overlooked. It is always ready to act instantly of its own 



SPECIAL APPLIANCES 155 

volition, without the intervention of any human agency or watch-, 
fulness, and to perform its work by interposing the natural law of a 
yielding, resisting force of air, equal in power to the blow caused 
by the momentum of the falling car. 

Whether the car drops from its highest point of travel or from 
any distance down in the shaft, it would be brought to a gradual, 
not sudden stop at the bottom of the elevator hatchway, without 
shock or damage to the car or its passengers. 

The first cost of the air cushion is not prohibitive and its main- 
tenance nothing. It occupies space not otherwise valuable. 

The air cushion is not only a protection against accidents from 
a falling elevator, but it is a safe-guard against fire in the portion 
of the elevator shaft occupied by the air cushion. An elevator 
shaft is, in fact, a chimney with an opening at each floor. Up- 
this chimney there is one of the most dangerous draughts imag- 
inable, increasing proportionately to the height of the shaft. 

In case of a fire, flames are irresistibly drawn to the open ele- 
vator well and rapidly ignite all in their path from floor to floor. 

A type of air cushion that has been used to some extent is the^ 
pneumatic shaft. This is an air cushion of the most perfect type. 
The shaft is enclosed by walls of fireproof and air-resisting con- 
struction for its entire height, making a total cushion. 

The air pressure in this cushion is very low, as the car never 
attains a high speed, caused by a free fall as it is always in the 
air cushion. It really floats down the pneumatic tube, its speed 
held in check by the pressure of the air on the car bottom. 

This type of cushion is an absolute protection against fire in any 
part of the elevator shaft. 

It is virtually a fireproof tower that affords ready and safe es- 
cape for the occupants of a building in case of a conflagration. 



ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION 



157 




Graduation of air es- 
cape "B" & "C" depends 
on ratio of cushion to 
car travel, weight and 
size of car, total car 
travel, maximum load, 
and total air escape 
around car platform, 
doors, etc. 

Height of air cushion 
"A" usually V* to V T 
total car travel. 



Plate 47. Section of a Typical Air Cushion. 



CHAPTER V 

Rules And Regulations Governing 

Elevator Installation In 

New York City 

145. HEIGHT, GOVERNED BY STREET WIDTH, 
MEASUREMENT. Sec. 52. 1 The height of no tenement 
house hereafter erected shall by more than one-half exceed the 
width of the widest street upon which it stands. Such height 
shall be the perpendicular distance measured in a straight line 
from the curb level to the highest point of the roof beams ; pro- 
vided that where there are bulkheads exceeding ten feet in height 
or exceeding in area ten per centum of the area of the roof, the 
measurements shall be taken to the top of the bulkhead; but this 
shall not apply to elevator enclosures not exceeding fifteen feet in 
height. The measurements in all cases shall be taken through the 
center of the fagade of the house. 

146. BULKHEADS ON ROOFS AND SCUTTLES. Sec. 
92. 2 Bulkheads used as enclosures for tanks and elevators, and 
coverings for the machinery of elevators and all other bulkheads, 
including the bulkheads of all dwelling houses more than four 
stories in height hereafter erected or altered, may be constructed 
of hollow fireproof blocks ; or of wood, covered with not less than 
two inches of fireproof material, or filled in the thickness of the 
studding with such material, and covered on all outside surfaces 
with metal, including both surfaces and edges of doors. All such 
buildings shall have scuttles or bulkheads covered with some fire- 
proof materials, with ladders or stairs leading thereto, and easily 
accessible to all occupants. No scuttle shall be less in size than 



1 The Tenement House Act of New York City. Chapter III. 

2 Building Code of New York City. Part XVII. 

159 



160 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V) 

two by three feet. No staging or stand shall be constructed or 
occupied upon the roof of any building without first obtaining the 
approval of the commissioner of buildings having jurisdiction. 

ELEVATORS, HOISTWAYS AND DUMBWAITERS. 3 

147. ELEVATORS AND HOISTWAYS. Sec. 95. In any 
building in which there shall be any hoistway or freight elevator 
or wellhole not inclosed in walls constructed of brick or other 
fireproof material and provided with fireproof doors, the openings 
thereof through and upon each floor of said building, shall be 
provided with and protected by a substantial guard or gate and 
with such good and sufficient trap-doors as may be directed and 
approved by the department of buildings; and when in the opin^ 
ion of the commissioner of buildings having jurisdiction, auto- 
matic trap-doors are required to the floor openings of any unin- 
closed freight elevator, the same shall be constructed so as to form 
a substantial floor surface when closed, and so arranged as to open 
and close by the action of the elevator in its passage either ascend- 
ing or descending. The said commissioner of buildings shall have 
exclusive power and authority to require the openings of hoist- 
ways or hoistway shafts, elevators and wellholes in buildings to 
be inclosed or secured by trap doors, guards or gates and railings. 
Such guards or gates shall be kept closed at all times, except when 
in actual use, and the trap-doors shall be closed at the close of the 
business of each day by the occupant or occupants of the building 
having the use or control of the same. 

148. ELEVATOR INCLOSURES. Sec. 96. All elevators 
hereafter placed in any building, except such fireproof buildings 
as have been or may be hereafter erected, shall be inclosed in suit- 
able walls of brick or with a suitable framework of iron and burnt 
clay filling, or of such other fireproof material and form of con- 
struction as may be approved by the department of buildings, ex- 
cept that the inclosure walls in non-fireproof buildings over five 
stories high, used as warehouses or factories shall be of brick. If 
the inclosure walls are of brick, laid in cement mortar and not used 
as bearing walls, they may be eight inches in thickness for not 
more than fifty feet of their uppermost height, and increasing in 



The Building Code of New York City. Part XVIII. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 161 

thickness four inches for each lower fifty feet portion or part 
thereof. Said walls or constructions shall extend through and at 
least three feet above the roof. All openings in the said walls 
shall be provided with fireproof shutters or fireproof doors, made 
solid for three feet above the floor level, except that the doors 
used for openings in buildings intended for the occupancy of one 
family may be of wood covered on the inner surface and edges 
with metal, not including the openings in the cellar, nor above the 
roof in any such shaft wall. The roofs over all inclosed elevators 
shall be made of fireproof materials, with a skylight at least three- 
fourths the area of the shaft, made of glass, set in iron frames. 
When the shaft does not extend to the ground, the lower end 
shall be inclosed in fireproof material. 

149. DUMBWAITER SHAFTS. Sec. 97. All dumbwaiter 
shafts, except such as do not extend more than three stories above 
the cellar or basement in dwelling houses, shall be inclosed in suit- 
able walls of brick or with burnt clay blocks, set in iron frames 
of proper strength or fireproof blocks strengthened with metal 
dowels or such other fireproof material and form of construction 
as may be approved by the commissioner of buildings having juris- 
diction. Said walls or construction shall extend at least three 
feet above the roof and be covered with a skylight at least three- 
fourths the area of the shaft, made with metal frames and glazed. 
All openings in the inclosure walls or construction shall be pro- 
vided with self-closing fireproof doors. When the shaft does not 
extend to the floor level of the lowest story, the bottom of the 
shaft shall be constructed of fireproof material. 

150. ELEVATORS IN STAIRCASE INCLOSURES. Sec. 
98. Open grill work inclosures for passenger elevators, not ex- 
tending below the level of the first floor may be erected in stair- 
case inclosures in buildings where the entire space occupied by the 
stairs and elevators is inclosed in brick or stone walls, and the 
stairs are constructed as specified in Section 53 of this code. 

151. ELEVATORS IN EXISTING HOTELS. Sec. 99.- 
In every non-fireproof building, used or occupied as a hotel, in 
which there is an elevator not inclosed in fireproof shafts, such 
elevator shall be inclosed in suitable walls, constructed and ar- 
ranged as in this code required for elevator shafts. 

152. SCREEN UNDER ELEVATOR SHEAVES. Sec. 



162 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V) 

100. Immediately under the sheaves at the top of every elevator 
shaft in any building-, there shall be provided and placed a substan- 
tial grating or screen of iron or steel of such construction as shall 
be approved by the Department of Buildings. 

153. INSPECTION OF ELEVATORS. Sec. 101. The 
commissioners of buildings shall cause an inspection of elevators 
carrying passengers or employes to be made at least once every 
three months and shall make regulations for the inspection of such 
elevators with a view to safety; and shall also prescribe suitable 
qualifications for persons who are placed in charge of the running 
of such elevators. The regulations shall require any repairs found 
necessary to any such elevators to be made without delay by the 
owner or lessee. In case defects are found to exist which endan- 
ger life or limb by the continued use of such elevator, then, upon 
notice from the department of buildings, the use of such elevator 
shall cease, and it shall not again be used until a certificate shall 
be first obtained from said department that such elevator has been 
made safe. No person shall employ or permit any person to be 
in charge of running any passenger elevator who does not possess 
the qualifications prescribed therefor. 

Every freight elevator or lift shall have a notice posted con- 
spicuously thereon as follows : " Persons riding on this elevator 
do so at their own risk/* 

154. ELEVATOR REGULATIONS OUTSIDE OF NEW 
YORK CITY. After a careful comparison of the building laws 
of a number of the important cities, throughout the United States, 
relating to the construction of elevator shafts and rules for the 
installation of elevators, the author has decided that it would be a 
waste of time and space to define them all, owing to their general 
similarity to those of New York City. 

The building laws relating to the construction of elevator shafts 
and rules for the installation of elevators, of New York City, as 
herein given, are as complete and as fine a guide as could be pro- 
duced, where public safety is the first consideration. 

The building laws of Philadelphia are an exception, in regard to 
the building of passenger elevator shafts ; they require that all 
passenger elevator shafts must be equipped with air cushions and 
all passenger elevator shaft doors must be equipped with a device 
to prevent the doors of the landings being opened either from the 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 163 

inside or the outside, except when the car is within three inches 
of such a landing. 

155. ELEVATOR REGULATIONS. 4 At a conference of 
the Superintendents of Buildings the following regulations were 
adopted to apply uniformly to the five Boroughs of the City of 
New York. These regulations shall become effective in the Bor- 
ough of Manhattan on September ist, 1911. 

All elevators installed or altered on or after that date shall con- 
form with these regulations, except that in cases where contracts 
for the installation of new elevators or the alterations of existing 
elevators have been made prior to that date, the same may be made 
to conform to the regulations now in force, provided, however, 
that notice of such contracts made prior to September ist, 1911, 
shall be sent to the Superintendent of Buildings before that date. 

REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CONSTRUCTION, INSPECTION AND 
OPERATION OF ELEVATORS IN THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN. 

1. The term " elevator " as used in these regulations shall in- 
clude all elevators or lifts used for the carrying of passengers or 
employes. The term " dumbwaiter " shall include such special 
form of elevator, the dimensions of which do not exceed nine 
square feet in horizontal section, and four feet in height, and 
which is used for the conveyance of small packages and merchan- 
dise. So far as practicable, these regulations shall also apply to 
escalators. Where freight elevators are placed within the same 
shaft enclosure as passenger elevators, such elevators must con- 
form in all particulars to the regulations for the construction, in- 
spection and operation of passenger elevators. All other freight 
elevators must comply with sections 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 
17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 of the Regulations for Passenger Ele- 
vators. Any hand power elevator having a rise of more than 
thirty-five feet shall comply with all the requirements of these reg- 
ulations. No belt elevators driven from a countershaft shall be 
installed for passenger service. 

2. All elevators must be inspected as often as possible by an 
Inspector of the Bureau of Buildings, known and designated as 
Inspector of Elevators, in accordance with the rules and regula- 

4 Bureau of Buildings, Borough of Manhattan. Bulletin No. 29, 1911. 



1 64 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V) 

tions of the Bureau prescribing the duties and governing the ac- 
tions of the employes. 

3. Before any elevator shall hereafter be installed or altered in 
any building, the owner or his agent, architect or contractor shall 
submit, on appropriate blanks furnished therefor, to the Superin- 
tendent of Buildings an application in triplicate stating the con- 
struction and mode of operation of such elevator to be installed or 
altered and shall obtain his approval therefor. This application 
shall be accompanied by such plans and drawings as may be neces- 
sary. Before any such elevator shall be put into service, the same 
shall have been duly tested and inspected under the supervision 
of an Inspector of Elevators and a certificate of such inspection 
issued and a formal approval obtained from the Superintendent of 
Buildings. In making any changes or alterations to elevator 
shafts, rails, overhead machinery or power, all the work changed or 
altered must be made to conform to the present law and regula- 
tions. 

4. The owner, lessee, manager or other person having charge 
or control of any elevator now in operation and the manufacturer 
of any such elevator hereafter placed in any building, shall cause 
to be fastened in a conspicuous place in said elevator a metal plate, 
having suitable raised letters on same, which shall designate the 
number of pounds weight which said elevator shall be permitted 
to carry, but in no case shall a carrying capacity of less than 75 
pounds per square foot of platform area inside the car be permit- 
ted on any passenger elevator. 

5. Every elevator, except full automatic push button elevators 
in private dwellings occupied by one family, must be in charge of 
a competent operator of reliable and industrious habits, not less 
than eighteen years of age, with at least one month's experience 
in running an elevator under the instruction of a competent per- 
son. In case the Superintendent of Buildings shall become satis- 
fied that the person engaged in running any elevator is incompe- 
tent or disqualified from any cause to continue to run the same, 
the owner or person managing or controlling the elevator shall, 
upon notice from the Superintendent of Buildings, at once replace 
the said operator by a competent operator. 

6. Elevator shafts and doors of same in non-fireproof buildings 
must be constructed fireproof and made solid for their full height. 
Any lights that may be desired in these doors must be provided 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 165 

with wire glass. No one pane of wire glass shall exceed five 
square feet in area. No more than one opening in the elevator 
shaft will be allowed on each floor, and all openings in the sev- 
eral stories shall be one above the other, unless the elevator is used 
exclusively for freight purposes, except that where the operating 
device of the elevator is so placed that the operator can readily 
control all doors without leaving the car control, more than one 
opening will be permitted on a floor. 

7. In all cases where the law or regulations permit grille work 
enclosing the shaft or car, it shall be of substantial material and 
construction, properly braced and carried the full height of open- 
ings, and there shall not be more than one and one-half inch space 
between any two members of said grille work except where plain 
straight bars are used, not filled in with scroll, when there shall 
not be more than one inch space between members. 

8. All doors or gates leading to any elevator shaft shall be 
locked or bolted on the shaft side so as to be opened only by the 
operator of the car. and said shaft doors or gates and car gates, 
shall be closed before the car is put in motion. 

9. All entrances to elevator cars must be provided with sub- 
stantial folding or sliding gates or doors, and where floor tracks 
are used the same must be countersunk. All folding gates over 
three feet wide at entrance to shaft or car shall have top and bot- 
tom center braces. 

10. All counterweights shall have their sections strongly bolted 
together. There shall not be less than three feet clearance be- 
tween the top of counterweights and the underside of overhead 
beams when the car is resting on the bumpers. No continuous 
forged straps shall be permitted on counterweights. 

11. Where counterweights run in the same shaft as the car 
they must be protected with a substantial screen of iron from the 
top of rail to a point fifteen feet below, except where the plunger 
or traction type of elevator is used. 

12. All elevators, except direct plunger elevators and freight 
elevators having a rise of fifteen feet or less, shall have a governor 
or speed regulator properly connected to the safety devices on the 
car, in such a manner that the car will be brought to rest with an 
easy and gradual stop, or in a distance not greater than eight feet 
for a speed of seven hundred feet per minute, except that on ele- 
vators having a speed of 100 feet per minute or less safeties of 



i66 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V) 

the instantaneous type may be used. Every elevator operating on 
alternating current electricity shall be equipped with an electric 
mechanical brake, or some such device as will insure the brake 
being applied at any time should the current be interrupted from 
the service. All electric car controlling devices shall be self-cen- 
tering and self -locking in inoperative position. All hoisting ma- 
chines of the drum type shall have an automatic slack cable device 
that will stop the machine if the hoist or drum weight cables shall 
become slack from any cause. All elevators shall have upper and 
lower limit devices on the machine or in the shaft. No elevator 
shall be used for the carrying of safes or other material of a 
greater weight than the normal lifting power of such elevator, un- 
less the car is equipped with a locking device which will hold it 
fixed at any landing independent of the rope while such safe or 
other material is being loaded or unloaded. 

13. The car of all elevators must be constructed of incombusti- 
ble materials, except that interior trim and flooring may be of 
hardwood. There shall be not more than one and one-quarter 
inches space between the floor of the car and the floor saddles, and 
where the saddles project into the shaft the same shall be properly 
beveled on the underside. The underside of the car must be of 
incombustible materials. Cars for all elevators shall be properly 
lighted. 

14. All guide rails for both car and counterweights shall be 
of iron or steel, and shall be fastened to the sides of the shaft with 
wrought or cast-iron brackets, so spaced that the guide rails will 
be rigid. 

15. There shall be not less than two cables independently con- 
nected to the car and to each set of counterweights. The lifting 
and weight cables shall have at least one full turn of the cable on 
the drum when they have reached the limit of travel. Such cables 
shall be of a diameter to insure a factor of safety of five. All 
cables used in the operation of elevators shall be of steel, iron or 
" Marlin " covered. Where overhead machines are installed the 
use of equalizer arms will be permitted on the car and counter- 
weights. 

1 6. No elevator shall be permitted to have attached above, be- 
low or on the inside of the car a freight compartment or similar 
device. 

17. Immediately under the sheaves at the top of every elevator 



RULES AND REGULATIONS 167 

shaft in any building there shall be provided and placed a substan- 
tial grating of iron or steel having not more than one and one-half 
inch space between any two members of said grating, and of such 
construction as shall be approved by the Bureau of Buildings. 

1 8. A clear space of not less than three feet must be provided 
between the bottom of the shaft and the lowest point of the under- 
side of the car floor when the car is at its lowest landing, and be- 
tween the top of the crosshead of the car and the underside of the 
overhead grating when the car is at its top landing, provided that 
for elevators of greater speed than 350 feet per minute, the dis- 
tance between the top of the crosshead of the car and the underside 
of the overhead grating, when the car is at its top landing, shall 
be not less than five feet, except in the case of elevators where the 
rise does not exceed thirty feet and the speed of the elevator is 
not more than one hundred feet per minute, such clear space at 
the top of the shaft shall be not less than two feet between the top 
of the car and the underside of the overhead grating when the car 
is at its top landing. 

19. All parts of the elevator machinery must be properly en- 
closed by suitable partitions of incombustible materials, and such 
enclosures must be lighted. Free and safe access must be pro- 
vided to all parts of elevator machinery. Where the miachine 
is located at the bottom of the shaft the same shall be protected 
with a substantial pit pan. 

20. The speed of all elevators must not exceed five hundred 
feet per minute, except that express elevators may run seven hun- 
dred feet per minute for that portion of the shaft in which no in- 
termediate stops are made. Express elevators shall mean only 
such elevators as run eighty feet or more without stop. The speed 
of mechanically controlled electric elevators must not exceed one 
hundred and fifty feet per minute. 

21. At the bottom of all elevator shafts there shall be placed 
substantial buffer springs for car and counterweights. Where the 
car does not travel to the bottom of the shaft the bumper beams 
shall be supported independent of the car rails. All plunger or 
traction type of elevators shall be provided with substantial oil 
buffers at the bottom of the shaft for both car and counterweights. 

22. The carrying beams for all machinery shall be of wrought 
iron or steel. 

23. Every passenger elevator shall have a trap door in the top 



168 ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION (CH.V) 

of the car of such a size as to afford easy egress for passengers, 
or where two cars are in the same shaft such means of egress may 
be provided in the side of each car. 

24. Any infraction of these regulations or failure to comply 
with their provisions after due notice from the Superintendent of 
Buildings shall be treated the same as a violation of the Building 
Code, and shall subject the owner to the same penalties as pre- 
scribed in section 150 of the Building Code for such violation. 



Index 



PAGE 

Aircushions for elevator shafts 154 

Alarm bell 23 

Arrangement of cables 17 

Arrangement of sheave beams 16 

Automatic elevator door locks 23 

Automatic locks and switches 30 

Automobile push button elevators 23 

Automatic-reset synchronizing annunciators 149 

Automobile elevators 27 

Average weight of a person 19 

Ball bearing door hangers 127 

Bronze car enclosures 32 

Bulkheads 16 

Cable openings in pit pans 1 1 

Chain lifts 24 

Chases in offsets of brick walls for counterweights II 

Clearances between shafts and cars 25 

Clearances for elevator car controls 24 

Clearance for guides 20 

Collapsible gates on elevator car enclosures 130 

Combination collapsible swing gate 130 

Combination slide and swing doors 21 

Complete flashlight signal 148 

Concrete pits 10 

Cost of elevator car enclosures 31 

Counterbalance fireproof doors 129 

Counterweights placed at right angles to machine 18 

Cover at sidewalk 26 

Damp-proofing 1 1 

Department store signal 149 

Depth of pits o, 

Depth of sidewalk elevator pit 24 

Desirable positions of traction machines 13 

169 



i;o INDEX 

PAGE 

Detailing of shafts 9 

Detailing the plan of columns 12 

Determining the size of cable openings 15 

Direct lead machines 15 

Doors at sidewalk 26 

Doors to dumbwaiter shafts 29 

Doors to machine rooms 13 

Double doors sliding in opposite directions 22 

Double doors sliding in the same direction 22 

Double swing doors 22 

Dumbwaiter shafts 29 and 161 

Dust-proof pit pans 1 1 

Electric dumbwaiters 29 

Elevator cars landing at roof level 16 

Elevator car controls 24 

Elevator machine rooms 12 

Elevator regulations (see rules and regulations) 163 

Elevator regulations outside of New York City 162 

Elevator shaft 9 

Elevator shaft doors 21 

Elevator shaft pits 9 

Elevator signal systems and special appliances 147 

Finish of car enclosures 32 

Fireproof covering of beams I r 

Fireproof covering on columns 12 

Footings for columns and foundations 10 

Formula for figuring capacity in foot pounds 15 

Formula for figuring face of drums 14 

Framing of elevator shafts 1 1 

Garage installations 27 

Grille shaft enclosures 21 

Grooves in sills 127 

Guide lubricators 153 

Guiding 20 

Hand rope control 24 

Hardware on doors 23 

Height of bulkheads 16, 18, 19 

Hoops for lifting sidewalk doors 26 

Hotel flashlight annunciators 148 



INDEX 171 

PAGE 

Hydraulic elevators 20 

Illuminated thresholds 151 

Impracticable use of drum type machines 12 

Interlocking door safety devices 128 

Iron car enclosures 31 

Lamp position indicators 151 

Lap style counterbalance door 130 

Lever and hand wheel control 24 

Location of dumbwaiter machines 29 

Location of machines 12 

Location of machines for automobile elevators 28 

Location of traction machines 13 

Low bulkheads 16 

Machines placed over shafts 19 

Machine sub-base 13 

Machines under shafts 14 

Mechanical indicators 150 

Methods of guiding 29 

Miscellaneous suggestions 31 

Motor starting timing device 151 

Operating pressure for pneumatic devices 129 

Operation and automatic features of dumbwaiters 30 

Operation of automatic push button elevators 23 

Overhead grating 17 

Overhead machinery below ceiling 28 

Passenger and freight elevator pits 9 

Plunger elevators 20 

Practical use of sheaves 16 

Roebling standard hoisting rope 17 

Roebling table for cables 18 

Rules and regulations governing elevator installation in New 

York City 159 

Bulkheads on roofs and scuttles 159 

Elevator inclosures 160 

Elevator in staircase inclosure 161 

Elevators and hoistways 160 

Elevators in existing hotels 161 

Height, governed by street width measurement. . 159 

Inspection of elevators 162 



172 INDEX 

PAGE 

Screen under elevator sheaves 161 

Saddle projections 21 

Service recorders 153 

Setting of sidewalk machines 25 

Setting of traction drive sheaves 13 

Sheet iron fascias 22 

Sidewalk covers to clear show window 27 

Sidewalk elevators 24 

Sidewalk frame 25 

Sidewalk machine at end of shaft 24 

Sidewalk machine at side of shaft 25 

Sidewalk machine on platform 25 

Sidewalk type of elevator within buildings 28 

Single slide doors 22 

Sizes of elevator shafts and cars 19 

Size of freight elevator cars 20 

Size of machine rooms 14 

Size of passenger cars 19 

Size of water-proof pans 10 

Skylights over shafts 17 

Space between bars and mesh work 32 

Space occupied by a passenger 19 

Space required for sidebars 25 

Space requirements for signal equipment 152 

Special types of elevator installations 28 

Specification forms for elevator work ^. 113, 1 18 

Acceptance 125 

Anchor bolts 114, 119 

Annunciators 117, 125 

Cables 1 16, 122 

Car enclosures 1 16, 123 

Chains 123 

Counterweights 1 16, 123 

Door-operating devices 127 

Drawings 118 

Drip pans 117, 124 

Drums 115, 121 

Electrical connections 115, 122 

Elevator car gates 127 



INDEX 173 

PAGE 

Foundations 114, 119 

Gearing 115, 121 

General conditions 113 

Grating 117, 124 

Guarantees 126 

Guides 115, 122 

Instruction 125 

Load and speed 114 

Machines 114, 119 

Machine room 114 

Materials and workmanship 1 18 

Motors 1 14, 120 

Number of elevators 1 18 

Operating device 1 16, 124 

Overhead beams 113, 119 

Painting 1 18, 125 

Pit-pan 120 

Pits 113, 119 

Platforms and car framework 116, 123 

Provision for lighting 117, 124 

Safeties 117, 124 

Scope of work 118 

Shafts 113, 119 

Sheaves 115, 122 

Tests 1 18, 125 

Travel 114 

Supports for sheave beams 16 

Standpipes for lifting sidewalk covers 26 

Starters' call 151 

Stationary collapsible gate 131 

Style of elevator car enclosures 31 

Swedish iron rope 17 

Telephone equipment 151 

Traction machines over shafts 13 

Trap-door in canopies of cars 33 

Trap-doors in sides of cars 33 

Under-geared type of elevator 28 

Up and down hand-controlled doors 22 

Wainscot of bronze car enclosures 32 



174 INDEX 

PAGE 

Wainscot of iron car enclosures 32 

Water-proofing elevator machine rooms 10 

Waterproof pit pans 10 

Waterproof pits 10 

Wheel guards on elevator car platforms 28 

Wood car enclosures 23, 32 




Illustration of an Ornamental Iron Elevator Grille. The Doors Have Wire 

Glass Panels. In the Background May be Seen Enamel Faced Bricks, 

Which Are Used Quite Extensively in Elevator Shafts 



Northwestern Building, Chicago, 111. 



Frost & Granger, Architects. 




Illustration of an Elevator Front in a Vault of a Bank, Showing Double 

Sliding Doors in the Same Direction, Behind a Stationary Panel of 

Similar Design to that of the Doors. This Stationary Panel 

Could Be Made to Swing. 

Carnegie Safe Deposit Co., New York City. 






Illustrations of Elevator Doors and an Ornamental Bronze Transom. 
Hall of Records, New York City. Morgan & Slattery, Architects 




Illustration of Elevator Fronts, Showing Double Doors Sliding in Opposite 

Directions. 



Ritz-Carlton Hotel, New York City. 



Warren & Wetmorc, Architects. 




Illustration of an Elevator Front, Showing a Single Slide 

Door of Neat Design. Being Solid Bronze, It Is, 

Therefore, Fireproof. 



Metropolitan Tower, New York City. 



N. Le Brim & Sons, Architects. 




Illustration of an Elevator Shaft Enclosure in an Open 

Stair-Well. The Design of the Grille Work is 

Quite Elaborate, and is Suitable for First 

Class Apartment Houses. The Doors 

May be Either the Single Slide or 

the Combination Slide and 

Swing Type. 



925 Park Ave., New York City. 



Delano & Aldridi, Architects 




Illustration of Elevator Doors in Private Foyer of an Apartment 

House. The Doors Are Double Sliding Doors in the Same 

Direction. They Are Also Suitable for Office Buildings. 

The Verona, 64th St. and Madison Ave., New York City. 

E. H. Adams. Architect. 




Illustration of Elevator Doors of Elaborate Orna- 
mental Iron Design. These Doors Slide in 
Opposite Directions. The Dial Indicator 
is Shown in the Transom. 

Brunswick Bldg., 5th Ave., 26th and 27th Sts., New York City. 

Francis H. Kimbnll and H. E. Donnell, Assoc. Archts. 




Illustration of an Elevator Front, Showing Sliding 

Doors in Opposite Directions. They Ate Made of 

Ornamental Iron and Backed with Wire-glass. 

The Dial Indicator and Flash-light Signal 

Are Directly Above the Doors. 
Fire Companies Building, 80 Maiden Lane, New York City. 

D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 




Illustration Showing a Bank of Elevator Shaft Doors of Neat Ornamental Iron Design 
Backed With Wire-glass. These Doors are the Single Slide Type, Behind a Sta- 
tionary Panel of Similar Design. 

The Everett Building, 17th St. and 4th Ave., New York City. 

Goldwin Starrett and Van Vleck, Architects. 




Illustration Showing the Half Up and Down Fireproof, Freight Elevator 

Doors. 

American Bank Note Company Factory, New York City. 

Kirby, Petit & Green, Architects. 




Illustration of an Elevator Shaft Enclosure in an Open Stair-well. The 

Design of the Grille Work is Neat and Simple and is Suitable for 

Passenger Elevator Shafts in Either Ordinary Apartment 

Houses or in Factories. 



The Bronx Factory of the Ward Bread Co., New York City. 



C. B. Comstock, Architect. 




Illustration Showing a Design of a Solid Bronze Elevator Front. The 
Doors are the Double Sliding Type Behind a Fixed Panel of Simi- 
lar Design to that of the Doors. They Have a Backing 
of Wire-Glass. 

The Multiple Residence, 998 5th. Ave., New York City. 

McKim, Mead and White, Architects. 





Illustration of a Bank of Elevator Fronts Showing Double Doors Sliding 

in Opposite Directions and Giving a View of the Dial Indicators 

and Flash Light Signals. 



Steger Building, Chicago, 111. 



Marshall & Fox, Architects. 




Illustration of Elevator Fronts in Use in a Department Store. The Doors Are Double Doors 
Sliding in Opposite Directions. The Flash-light Signals Are Shown in Position 

Directly Above the Doors. 



Gimbel Store, New York City. 



D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 




Illustration of Office Building Elevator Fronts, Showing Bronze Doors of the Single Sliding 
Type, Behind a Stationary or Swinging Panel. Also Round Dial Indicators in 

Transoms. 



Frances Building, New York City. 



C. P. H. Gilbert, Architect. 



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